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STAKFoiK) mmnstn 
ntDicAi. cana 


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JUtov tfikt lUffl OM€g9 •f PJisieiMms, Fnftsttr •/ 



nor. or obh. patholoot ahi* mat. meh. xx okxkta mxd. ooix. 

(fVMi tk$ Tkirteema Emgluh EdiUgm.) 

<b«VB inawBuads am hid i» ftrliag cnteBi; mAM Mtl 











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9i)e HtdUb StoUs p^ormatoiuria; 





MUw tftkt E0f^ OMeg$ •f rf|rifJOTt . Frtftsmr tf . 

axTH AMniCAS nmom htch sinjimosvAX* 





<b«VB iB««rBuadB am hid i» 

S£^^ftSL--* — 





• • • 

• • • • 

• « 

• • • ^ •• 

• •• • •* • • 

• ? • • • • • 

••• • ♦ • • 


aiaall oompMi the mtm qmAiI put of th* iaibnutloii whMk 
If oMilnnd from laigtr worln; and, bj tflbrdliic • fieilitj of rt- 
tzamiBotkiiii to keep In view remedlee not conetantly nor feiio- 
nUy emplofed. To the young praetitkmer, end to him paitieo- 
1 vl7, who hu not had every advantage of education, It la more 
oonAdently oflhred; and the author hopea that to aach it will not 
he mmceeptable* 

R ia brtettded to ailbrd a compendioia^lew of tee taproved 
editiona of the three Britiah PharmacopODiaa, pointing out the 
circamitancea in which they agree together, and thoae which are 
peeollar to each of them. The work of the London College haa 
bean taken aa the text-book, and the formal« of the compound 
artlelea, cooaequently, are quoted from it only ; fm if thoae of each 
of the Pharmacopsiaa had been aeparately given, the character 
€i the vdume would have been altered ; and, Inetead of being • 
pocket manual, It would have awollen to the aize and form of a 

Under each article of the vegetable kingdom, the place it holda 
In the systemi of Linnmu and Jusaien li atated, iti original place 
(^growth pointed out, and the term of its exiatence marked in tiie 
characters used by botanical writers. The chemical comp<menta 
of the different substances' are taken from the Systems of Che 
mistry. of the author's friends. Dr. J. Murray and Dr. Tkmmaa 
Thomson^ the papers of Sir Humphrey Davy, the .Annales dt 
Chimie and the valuable analyses of Berzdius ; and the proper- 
ties of most of the vegetable productions from the Materia Medic* 
a Regno FegUalrili qf Bergius; and from personal observation. 

With regard to their medical propertiea and doses, the beat 
writers have been consulted, and every assistance derived from 
the Practical Synopsis of Dr. Pearson ; while any peculiar effects 
observed in the course of the auihor's own practice have been 
cautiously adopted. In marking the incompatible articles, those 
only are given which are likely to enter into exteniporaneona 
prescriptions with the substance under which they stund ; and It 
is to be wished that more attention were bestowed upon these by 
the majority of practitioners; for, undoubtedly, many of the 
confused and contradictory accounts which have been given of 
the effects of different remedies, have arisen from the injudicious 


combinationi into which they have bsen nsde to wtcr, u well 
•■ the improper eircnmitancea ot the caees In which they ha;ve 

To make nj^or the shortnesB of the descrtpdoiM in the body of 
the work, a more general and full account (tf each of the danee 
of sttbstancea employed is given in the Introduetion ; and to faci- 
litate the art of prescription to the student, a few of the more 
common formula are introduced by way of example ; betides a 
Table, graduating the doses of medicines to the ages of the 

As the work is an acknowledged compilati<m, very little ot 
Bovdty can be expected in it, and the sole merit it can claim la 
thsft of correctness. As it is, he presents it to the public, whose 
decision must eventually stamp the value of every prodnctioo, 
cither of labor or of intellect ; and, therefore, while he sets tha 
rodder of his little bark, and commits it to the popular tide, hi 
trusts that, if It be worthy of attention, and can prove useful, it 
will be wafted to a safe port ; but if not, it will quickly foander» 
•Bd be for ever forgotten. 



Ik the British PhatmaeopODiaf, the articles of the Materia He^ica 
which are simples, or are not prepared by the apothecary, are 
arranged in alphabetical cnrder ; but the chemical and pharma' 
ceutical preparations are arranged in different classes, so that all 
the substances compounded in a similar mode, or possessing simi- 
lar diemical properties, are Invaght together under the same title. 
We propose to give a general view of the peculiarities of each 
of these classes, by way of introduction to the particular notices 
of the individual articles contained in the Pharmacopoeias ; and 
•s we have adopted the work of the London College as our text- 
book, we shall follow its method of arrangement. 


All the acids employed in pharmacy, with the exception of the 
hydrochloric and the hydrocyanic acids, are supposed to be com- 
pounds of oxygen with one or more combustible substances : the 
hydrochloric acid is a compound of chlorine and hydrogen : the 
hydrocyanic, of hydrogen and &uanogen. Acids are characterized 
by the following properties : They are sour to the taste ; change 
to red the blue and purple vegetable colors ; form neutral com- 
pounds with alkalies and earths, in which the properties of boUi 
the compcments are lost; and unite with the metallic oxides, 
constituting a peculiar class of salts. They imite also with water 
in any proportion. 

The names of acids formed fh>m the samabase, generally vary 
in their terminations, according to the quantity of oxygen they 
are presumed to contain. Thus, when sulphur is united with its 
fall portion of oxygen, the acid is named snlphuric ; when wiUi 
a smaller portion, sulphurous ; the terminations ic and ous mark- 
ing the degree of acidification. As chlorine is now acknowledged 
to be a simple substance, the London Pharmacopoeia names its 
ennpounds chlorides. The term chlorate implies that the chloric 
acid is in combination with oxygen, and an oxide. Thus the 
ehlorate of potassa is a compound of chloric acid and potassa. 

The stringer acids should be kept4n well-stopped glass bottles^ 

and the name of the acid each bottle contains engraved on the 

flaas. They should also be dispensed in glass-stopped phials ; 

} for cork blackens the sulphuric acid, and it is dissolved by the 

nitric and the hydrochloric acids. 

Sulphuric acid is sometimes adulterated with sulphate of po- 
tassa; which may be detected by saturating the acid with am- 
■Mmia, ind exposing it in a crucible to a red heat, so as to expel 
tfie sulphate <^ ammonia ;— the sulphate of potassa when present* 
will remain in tiie crucible. 

JVKlria aeid, alwH if a o w eti wqi adoltentod with fn/j^vrfoaod 


lmc I ir^Q 


4tNM>, TkmidBlntMlonindHeonral br<np> 

.. ... ....« - -nluttoBof DLtratflof bmrpa, 

ilmTlG iidd M iHCHnli ud 
le piHlplUllon oTb cblorids 

ucied In att^ic aclil, by dMpping Inu 
ar; u : cnpiwr bj lli< seld bccoiDlDI 

Xi li>M tka nluM tcbd dllu 
trhlrh h l««1p"»"* "WK 
Wllh n wrtuihin "f nlin"l« "'• 
el illvft ihoiH thi pKWi" I 

II ■ MliiiiDn « ■mini* or bai 

Wnlih nrhHl MlwnntiirBIBl > —r".A~.l^\«u.^' .n^ l«iL 

lH*'*™l"'"«*A'^.'Ei'-.>.„™ir,= ».TTa 

or Iba (crmcrmnaU 


■ Hi In phuriDKr 

M propertld Ih 

jilit fill wiiet, md by Uielt fn»ln''ol''blllir la 
id A™ tha eirthi [ lh«y unlw wlih ollj "d fu, 
niHXiHini .ndnnniniulnilultawlUiihcacldi, Ttunan 
nI' aita la vMaUle. ud oamiM ba oMiiocd ftrfeaj 
?.?'. -™' <w-« . >h. iuh« iwD ue And. Thay ahould b* 

TM poilly of jiatoau, la 

H II la BWd m eiMTBil 
. In DKdklna. 
he baibii and Uu leara, 
Kmnda of eaitoo, oiyfeo, 
m many of Ibe chemiul 

ral, haie nellher alkalina 

«"«*;*? U^<£lXw'?ta 
if pDlaaaa. Thpy i«iDltg 

md euilyfall to jnwder, 

, wbta eipsHd lo a Ugb 
iMd are urhmu folati^ 
If Ehia beuHPe uirbld aitor 
VDdDwii In ih( neuualliei 


frtmtton by chloride of barium or acetate of lead, sMfykurie stdt$ 

are indicated ; and kydroehUrU salts by a white precipitate beinx 
formed with nitrate of silver. If a white precipitate be produced 
By a solution of oxalate of potassn, ^tme, or its ctirbonates^ are 
praient. The same tests show the presence of similar substances 
in carbonate of soda^ if added to a saturated solution of it in nitrie 
•cid. The uddiiion of tartaric acid diasolvea potassot by forming 
a precipitate of bitartrate of potassa. 

The deliquescent and efflorescent salts should be kept and die* 
pensed in stopped bottles; whilst those that are pendstent will 
not suffer from being put up in paper. 


The earihs, like the alkalies, are mostly coropoomls of oxygen 
with metallic bases. They are of very difficult fusibility ; very 
■Daringly soluble ; and unite with the acids, forming neutral salts. 
Those which are soluble in water possess properties very similar 
to those of the alkalies : they are caustic ; change to green vege- 
table blues and reds ; imd combined with oils, form soap. 

Two earths only in their pure state are used la medicine, 
namely, lime and magnena. The former, which is chiefly cm- 
pl(^ed in pharmaceutical operations, should be need as woon 
after It is burnt as possible ; and each should be preserved in very 
closely'Stopped bottles, as both attract, powerfully, the carbonic 
acid contained in atmospheric air. The solution of lime or lime- 
water should be kept in small bottles perfectly fuli and well 
eorked ; for, by the contact of air, the lime attracts earbonic acid, 
loses its solubility, and forms a pellicle of carbonate of lime on 
the surface of the water, till the whole of the lime is abstracted. 

The Nbutral Earthy Salts do not require any particular 
eare or management, except that they ought not to enter into 
extemporaneous prescriptions ^th substances which are likely 
to decompose them ; or with those acids with which they form 
insoluble compounds ; as, for example, chalk with sulphuric acid. 


McTALs, which are supposed to be simple substances, have, 
with a few exceptions, a greater specific gravity than any other 
class of bodies; they are dense, opaque, susceptible of a fine 
polish, tenacious; and are the best conductors of heat. They 
are more or less fumble, and may be volatilized by heat. In their 
metallic state they have affinities for o&ch other, and also for 
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, iodine, 
and bromine ; und when imited with oxygen, form acids, alkalies, 
and the earths. 

None of the metals, except tin, are employed in the metallle 
form as remedies In the practice of medicine ; but for pharma- 
ceutical purposes it is of importance to obtain them in as pure a 
state as poasible. Metals, united with simple substances, form 
compounds, which are named from the base ; for example, ciUs- 
riiest sulpkuretSt pkosphurets, iodides^ bromides^ tides. 

Mktallic Salts are either simple combinations of the metals 
With oxygen, or combinatioas of their oxides with acids. 

Metals combine with various portions of oxygen, which are 
denoted and expressed by the color of the oxides, as gre^ osida 
tf sMrenry* red oxide of meremry, ire. Oxides have net th« 
Vmxtt opacity, tenad^Tt nor gravity of the neiali; tkqr an «D 


laAuMMbK i»o«rtll3r iiwipM. mmOf iMotabte In waltr, aai 
kare an Mnhy ■ppMrance. They require to be kept in tio pp ei 
kotUea, ua eouie ol lUem lire reduced by hydrogen, wlUch is bm|0 
•r IcM cooatanUy flimtiBK in the ttmoephere. 

The meUUic atUtt^ which, properly epeelctDg, are exidee oooi- 
Hoed with the acid«, are of a valine nature, generally aoliible In 
water, and cryatailizable. They are named from the acid, an4 
the mcul with the oxide of which it is combined, aa »u^tkmU •f 
iir9%y nitfU of «i7o«r, 4'e., meaning tuipkate of tke oxide of iron, 
ir€. The active propertiee of metallic lalu vary much, accordhif 
to the degree of previous ozidizement of the metale they contain ; J 

Ihut, the aame acid, united with an imperfect oxide, will form aa '^ 

Insipid, Insoluble compound, while, with a more perfect o^Me, 
the compound will be acrid, and soluble in water. 

Many of the metallic salts effloresce, and attract azygen from 
Ibe aluiosphere ; others are altered in their properties by moisture, 
and some t>f them are decomposed by the action of light ; hence, 
perhaps, It ought to be a general rule to lieep all of them in well 
■topped buttles made of grM*^ gltuw, or otherwise rendered opaque. 
In lormlng tltose which are soluble into lotions, disUlUd water 
•hould bo usrd ; and in mixtures, attention should be paid not to 
lialto them with Incompatible substances. 


The combinations of sulphur with the alkalies and the earths 

SS namvd autphur$t*, and require to be carefully preserved frons 
e otmoMphero. as they attract moisture from it, deliquesce,, and 
are d(»€un)|HMtea. When they are prepared with water, the oxy 
gen of the water ocldifles part of the sulphur, and forms sulphates ; 
while one uart of the hydrogen, uniting with a portion of the 
•ttlphur, Vi»iatllixes It in the form of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, 
aaJ niiothttr assists in producing hydroguretted sulphurets of the 
i)llHlln« base. One test of the goodness of concrete sulphurets is { 

lnt*ir want of odor ; for whenever the fetid gas is evident, de- 
•MiipoirtUott has already commenced. 


All thMO substaneei combine with metals, forming iodiieB, « 

^irmt^p*) nnd cMorid$t. When the compound consists of one 
e^uiVMlMtt of each of the components, the addition of prot or 
f^M$ in UM>dt A« pr0Uodid$t protoeUoride, ire. ; when it contahis 
yms «»qulVHl«nt« of the base, the syllable Wa or M is added ; thusi 



At Di9 Mlltetkm of vegetable substances cannot be attended to 
ky MtP mtMiORl practitioner, the directions usually given relative 
to lnt> W»dt* Mtd lime of gathering plants are of less importance 
m^ tt knuwiwdgt of their botanical characters, and their proper 
^^fH»»«» whfA well and recently dried ; for many inert planta 
.^ «itWH iHlvoduoed by the eolleotors among those which peescss 
\^ mm\ aeUve and useAil propertlea. Th^ are generally tie< 
.\ ^m^\m, aad hung up hi the air, without any regard to the 
mMm %:>)( UiHtt which oMea verv matarially aflbcts both thecctot 
|IW»*«4SwM>yof lh«Yi|ttaya; batltwottld ba better to plok 


iBd eat roots hilo mall pieees after they are well dried; aii4 
preserve them in closely-covered tin canisters or oil jars, lined wi^ 
paper. Some things, as, for instance, the squill bulb, and th« 
colchicum cormus, should always be dried by the apothecary. 
Both should be cut transversely, the laminae of the bulb separated 
wad dried by a heat under 213^ Fahr., after which the pieces 
ought to be friable, and have as bitter and as acrid a taste as th« 
Moist bulb. The cormus should be dried in transverse slices. 


Tke vegetable alkaline bodies, which have as yet been disco- 
vered, are about fifty in number ; and nearly all plants remarkable 
for medicinal or poisonous properties, when subjected to a chemi- 
cal examination, have been found to contain an alkaline principle. 
Ivenrly all the vegetable alkalies are precipitated by tannin, or 
infusion of nutgalls, but not by gallic acid ; and these precipitates, 
which are usually white powders, are bitannates of the alkali, 
insoluble in cold water, and easily decomposed by an alkaline or 
earthy base. The following process of Mr. Henry, is one of thd 
best for obtaining these alkalies in a separate state : — '* Digest the 
plant to be examined. In warm water, acidulated with sulphuric 
acid. Draw off the clear liquid, neutralize it by potash, and add 
a concentrated Infusion of nutgalls as long as a precipitate falls. 
Separate the precipitate, wash it in cold water, and mix it inti- 
mately with a slight excess of slackened lime. Dry the mixture 
over the vapor bath, till it is reduced to powder. Digest thie 
powder in alcohol or ether. Filter, distil on the alcohol or aether. 
Set the residue aside for some days. The alkali will be deposited 
in crystals."--Jiwr. de Pkarmaeie, 21, 213. 

About thirty of the vegetable alkalies have been analyzed, and 
■re found to be compounds of earbim^ hydrogen^ azote, and ovffgen. 
flubstenees ^ding in tn, as nuconin, are not alkalies, but neutrtf 


These are natural combinations of gum and resin : the former 
predominating in some, the 1 atter in others. They have generally 
a strong odor, owing to volatile oil, mid a pungent, bitter taste ; 
they are solid, brittle, opaque, almost all entirely soluble in di- 
luted alcohol, and form emulsions when triturated with water; 
bat by standing, the resin is deposited, and, therefore, fluid pre- 

; orations of gum resins should always be extemporaneous, 
'hey soften by a gentle heat; but in a high temperature art 

The gum resins, parttcularly s^tiMii, should be well freed fton 
extraneous matters; and when it is wished to retain them in a 
soft state for making pills, they must be kept in the mass, wrapped 
in a bladd^, in a well-covered opaque jar; but when they are 
to be powdered, they should be cut into small pieces, and laid in 
ao open drawer, or exposed to the air. 

These dls are compounds of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon 
They are prepared by nature in the seeds and fruit of some vegeta* 
tries, from which they are expressed, and hence their appellation; 
but the title Jixed oils is preferable, as it implies their charactea, 
and aa soom of the volatile oUs also are obtained by exprearion* 

ThoM which are expretied withnnt heat are to be preferred, M 
by heat thry arc apt to acqutre acrimony and an ennpyrramatie 
odor. The greater nuDkber of them, when pure, are liquid in • 
moderate tempcrotnre, unctuouf, perfectly tranapareut, colorteaai 
or having a pule-yeilow or greenish tinge; Inodorous; lighter 
than water, and not iniscible with it * they unite with alkaliei 
and form soap; and with oxide of lead and form plasters. Al- 
mond and olive oil should be insipid ; linseed and castor (rfis have 
aome taste, but they should not feel hot nor aciid in the throftt. 
Pacini oil is a soft wild, or butter. 

The rancidity of oUa probably depends on the absorption et 
oxygen, on which account they should be kept In bulk as mudi 
as possible, and in narrow-necked bottles; so that a very small 
surface only will be exposed to the air. 

For similar reasons ut those stated above, regarding ex pres s e d 
oils, we prefer the title of volatile oilt for these preparations. 
They are mostly compounds of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon, 
and in some instances also of nitrogen ; and are produced by na- 
ture in various parts of the vegetable system ; either in the flow- 
ers, the fruit, the leaves, the bark, the wood, and sometimes in 
all of these parts. The majority of them ore obtained by distillar 
tlon, but some of them by expression. They possess the unctoositv, 
Inflammability, and visridity of the fixed oils; but they are in 
general cdlored, odoriferous, pungent, and acrid. The majority 
•re lighter than water, but some of them are heavier, and some 
congeal at a moderate temperature. They are dissolved in small 

auantity, in distilled water, by simple agitation. Almost all of 
lem are soluble in alcohol, and miscible with fixed oils, and with 
each other; hence they are often adulterated with alcohol, or 
with oil of cloves or of almonds, or with oil of turpentine, which 
Is the cheapest of the volatile oils. The first is discovered by an 
Increase of temperature and a milky appearance, when the oil la 
mixed with water ; the second, by a greasy stain being left on 
paper on which the oil is dropped and exposed to a considerable 
neat, and by not being soluble io alcohol ; and the third, by its 
odor, when the suspected oil is dropped on paper and heated, or 
sometimes even when rubbed between the fingers. 

The odor and taste are the usual tests of their goodness ; and 
to preserve them, they should be kept in a cool place, in small 
bottles, quite full, and well corked. 


In the distillation of volatile oils, the water, which comet orer 
during the process, contains dissolved in it a portion of the crti, 
and forms this class of preparations. They should, thereforet 
have the odor and taste, in a slight degree, of Uie oil ; be free 
ftom emmrreuma ; and if again rectified, which enabtes them to 
be kept for two or three years, they should appear nearly as 
transparent as pure water. They are seldom prepared by tho 
apothecary, but gunerally in the large way, and often very care- 
lemly. When they appear ropy and thick, or have a fetid odor, 
they are unfit for medicinal use. To prevent their spoiling, • 
■mall portion of spirit is ofVen added ; but the second rectUcatioa 
li a preferable method of preserving them. 

Common dittilled water ia seldom used by tho apoUioeaiy, 



^pHac to ths trcmUe of preparing it. Bat tUi may be ranadlai 
Igr procoring the Bimple apparatus invented by Dr. Lamb, or by 
^etUng a pewter tube fiued to the ipout of a common tea-lcettle, 
which may be Icept cool, when in use, by being wrapped round 
with wet rags. Neither boiled nor filtered water will answer th« 
fwpdses for which distilled water should be used. 

Water at %19P extracts the gum, sugar, eztraetiTe, tannic aeM 
M^iae mattors, and a portion of the volatile oil and of the rerinoM 
Matter of vegetables; thence inf^on, perhaps, is equivalent faa 
ttM naJorHy of cases to decoction. Cold water also extract! 
many of the active principles of plants The inAision made witk 
belling water, although, perhaps, less grateful, yet coouins more 
active matter. In either case, infb^ons should be extemporaneuoe 
preparations, and therefore the London College properly directs 
half a pint only to be made at once. The sobstiincea infused 
iftiould be coarsely powdered only, for when the powder is fine^ 
the Infusion never can be rendered perfectly clear. •> 

These, which are simple solutions of gum in water, are of • 
thick consistence and adhesive. They should be strained through 
a coarse cloth, in order to separate the extraneous mutters which, 
have adhered to the gum. when thick, they may be kept for a 
oonBiderat>ie time without undergoing any change. In a chemical 
point of view, the aolutions of starch and of tragaettntk are im^ 
properly styled matilages. 


These are aqueous solutions of the active principles of vegeta- 
bles obtained by boiling. The directions of the Pharmacopoeias 
particularly as to the time of boiling, should be strictly attended 
to ; for, although the solvent power of the water is increased by 
boiling, yt't the notion thut long cciction renders the preparation 
more active is erroneous. Vegetables containing volutlle princi ' 
pies and extractive matter cannot, with strict propriety, be suIh 
Jected to decoction, as the first are dissipated by the boiling, and 
the second attract oxygen with so miich avidity at a temperature 
of 212<^, that it is converted into an insipid inert matter^ which is 
no longer soluble, and is precipitated in the decoction. This is 
the case with cinchona^ senna, and some other vegetable matterii 
Which are still, nevertheless, ordered to be prepared by decoction. 
When ihey are so prepared, the vessels should be very closely 
closed. Vegetables also, which contain tannic acid and starch, 
should not be made into decoctions, because a tannate of fecula 
is formed which is insoluble in cold water, and is inert. 

Decoctions should not be kept longer than twenty-four hoan^ 
in warm weather, as they very soon ferment, become ropy, and 


These are prepared 1^ evaporating vegetable solutions till a 
tenacious mass is obtaiaed. An extract prepared from on infuai<m 
or decoction is termed a waterp extract ; from a tincture, a spirit^ 
•SMS extraU, Both kinds of extracts should contain all the prin* 
elples of the vegetable soluble iu the menstrua with which they 
are prepared * but the volatile matters are dissipated, and somo 
*tBd parts are dsconpesed, the proper extractive is o^y* 


fenlzed, and the virtaes of the vegetable rohstance conseqnently 
are otien altered or destroyed. This class of preparations, ai 
usually formed, might t>e altogether rejected ; but when they are 
made from the expressed juice of the recent vegetable, inspissated 
at a very low hent, they form a most valuable class of remedies. 
Extracts are ordered to be kept in a hard and in a soft state * the 
consistence of the soft being such as to rebiin the round form of a 

Sill without the addition of any powder. Both varieties should 
e preserved in a dry place, to prevent them from becoming 
mouldy ; and the soft should be wrupped in oil bladders and kept 
in closely covered pots.* The softer extracts should be sprinkled 
with a small quantity of alcohol. 


These are chiefly simple suspensions of insoluble substances In 
fluids, by means of mucilagei. They should always be extempo- 
raneous preparations ; and tne only attention required in ordering 
them is not to bring together incompatible substances. These are 
pointed out in their places in the Itody of this work. 

This title comprehends spirituous solutions, prepared by simple 
mixture, by maceration, and by distillation. They are uniform, 
transparent, unchanging solutions. In those which are distilled, 
proot or diluted spirit is employed, as pure alcohol is more volatile 
than the essential oils, which are the parts of the plants held 
dissolved in these apirits. They should be perfectly free from 
Impurities and empyreuma, and have the odor and taste of the 
Tof atile oils of the substances from which they are distilled. • 


Tinctures are spirituous solutions of vegetable, animal, and 
■ome saline substances. They are made either with pure alcohol 
or with proof spirit The first kind are precipitated by tbe addition 
of water, and therefore are more seldom employed ; but the latter 
are very common additions to infusions and decoctions. They 
ought not to be united with any vehicle that can deccmpose the 
tincture, '*or separate anything from it in a palpable form." 

Tinctures should always be prepared by the apothecary, as the 
adulterations of them, which are daily practised by the druggist, 
are not easily detected. The ingredients should be reduced to a 
coarse iiowder, and the maceration made in close vessels, exposed 
to a heat of 8(P, and frequently shaken. When completely made, 
they should not be put away upon the ingredients, but filtered 
through bibulous paper, and kept fur use in close bottles; for 
although thejr are not liable to spoil, yet, by the evaporation of 
the menstruum, their strength Is altered, which, if they contain 
opium, or other active matters, may be productive of bad effects. 
Parmentiert proposes that one-half of the spirituous menstntom 

*For a great improvement in making Eztracti, see Ltmd§» 
MeHeat Repository, vol. iv., p. 184. A patent, also, has beeft 
laken out by Mr. Barry, for preparing them by evaporatioo «■ 
•aoie.—Bee Quarterly Journal of Scietue, vol. viii., pL 300. 8ea 
also several papers In the Pkar m a eeu t i ea l Tram., IMl* by Iff* 
Pqaires, Mr. Morson, and others. 

t Annalei de Chimia, vol. UUn p. 40. 


kt added to the vegetable ingredieBts at fiiet, and after difeaUng 
■iz day«, this part be poured off, and the remainder added In f 
•U days more the whole is to be strongly expressed, and the two ' 
futures mixed together. By this method he imagines more of 
the active principles of the vegetables are extracted, and the 
tinctures obtained of a more uniform strength. The best method, 
however, of making tinctures, is to mix the vcsetable substance 
la powder witn clean siliceous sand, and, having nui the mixture • 
la an oblong funnel or percolator, to pour the spirit over it. By • 
this method a strong tincture is procured in as many hours as 
days are required by the present method of preparation. The 
Edinburgh College has adopted the percolator. 

Is a species o( filtration, lately introduced into pharmacy, and 
enployed in the preparation of some of the vinegars, extracts, 
lnfu4ions, and tinctures. It affords many advantages, both in an 
economical point of view and iu the character of the resulting 
reparations. This process is recommended by the New U. 8. 
Pharmacopoeia, and is usually conducted as follows :— A hollow 

Slindrical instrument is to be used, somewhat conical toward! 
e inferior extremity, having a funnel-shaped termination, so as 
to admit of its being inserted into the mouth of a bottle, and pro- 
vided internally, near the lower end, with a transverse partiUon, 
or diaphragm, pierced with numerous minute holes ; or, in the 
absence of such a partition, obstructed with some insoluble and 
inert substance, in such a manner that a liquid poured into the 
cylinder may percolate slowly. The substance to be acted upon, 
having been reduced to a coarse powder, and mixed with enough 
of the menstruum to moisten it thoroughly, is, after a maceratioa 
of some hours, to be introduced into the instrument, and slightly 
•ompressed upon the diaphragm. Any portion of the macerating 
liquid which may not have been absorbed by the powder, la 
afterwards to be poured upon the mass in the instnunent, and 
allowed to percolate. Sufficient of the menstruum is then to be 
gradually added to drive before it, or displace the liquid contained 
in the mass: the portion introduced is in like manner to be dis- 
placed by another portion ; and so on till the required quantity 
of filtered liquor is obtained. If the liquor which first passea 
should be turbid, it is to be again introduced into the instrument. 
Oare most be taken that the powder be not, on the one hand, too 
coarse, or looeely pressed, lest it should allow the liquid to pasi 
too quickly ; nor, on the other, too fine or compact, lest it should 
ofler an unnecessary resistance. Should the liquor flow too 
rapidly, it is to be returned to the instrument, which is then to bo 
eloaed beneath for a time, in order that the finer parts of the 

Kwder may subside, and thus cause a slower percolation. — U. S, 


These we small, dry, solid masses, generally of a flattened oval 
Aape, eonristing of powders incorporated with sugar and mod- 
lago. They are designed for holding in the mouth while being 
MMlved, and, of course, should not eontaln those medielnea 
which require to be given in large quantity, or which are dia- 
agreealMe to the taste. Gum tragacanth being ^wferaUe to any 
m the other guna^ a macUaga ia fint to ha rsvpaced wUh thii 

wNk eoM water, n4 then ■trained. With thli, the powdem 
iBCiodiag lugar, are thoroughly mixed, by rubbing upon a marUi 
•lab, and are thus formed into a paste, which i» i^read oitt 1^ 
weane of a roller, upon the surface of the marble, previouslv 
pow^tered over by a mixture of sugnr and starch. The thicknesi 
of the extended mass is rendered uniform by a frame upon whidi 
the Olds of the roller are placed. The upper surface is now 
tovered with a thin layer of sugar and starch, and the mass if 
divided into small cakes of a particular shape, bv means of « 
fiindi. These cakes are placed upon paper, and having been 
exposed to the air for twelve l^ours, are carried into a drying 
room moderately heated. When perfectly dry, they are thrown 
upon a sieve to separate the sugar and starch, and are then en- 
•fosed in bottles. . The following formula may serve as a guide. 
(1ft CUrie Aeid in powder 3 J., R^ned Sugar § vHj., Oil of Lemons 
iq,xy.. Mile. O Tragacantk q. s. I^orm into losenges of twelve 
grtina each.) 

iEthers are compounds produced fW>m a new arrangement of 
He elements of alcohol, by the agency of the acids, at a heat of 
160P. They are extremely light and volatile; have a peculiar 
itrong odor and taste ; and, when pure, boil at a temperature un- 
der lOQO. They require to be kept in very closely-stopped bottlesi 
and in a cool iilaee. In composition, aethers should not be added 
to mixtures until they are put into the phials, and ready to be 
corked ; and directions should be given that any ethereal mixture 
be taken immecHately after it is poured flrom the phial 

Wine is a tolerably good menstruum for many vegetable prin- 
eiples; but it is liable to the objection of inequality uf strength; 
and medicated wines are mort liable to suffer decomposition from 
keeping than tiiictures. Parmentier* proposes thut,- instead of 
preparing medicated wines as they have been usually prepared, 
the alcoholic tinctures should be added to wine in given quanti* 
ties; by which means, he contends, the preparations are lest 
nauseous, and always of the same determinate strength. They 
should be kept in well-corked bottles, in a cool place. 


Vinegar, or diluted acetic acid, is found to be the best solvent 
for squill, colchicum, and some afomatic vegetable bodies ; but 
its use cannot be extended, for it alters the powers of some vege- 
table principles, and does not accord with others in virtue. 

Vinegars should be preserved in closely-stopped gluss Irattles, 
and mode in small quantities only at a time, as they are apt to 
spoil, notwithstanding an addition of spirit which is ordered. 

Honey was formerly considered as a medicine of some efficacy, 
particularly in pectoral affections; but more correct views of these 
diseases have deservedly thrown it into neglect. It acts on the 
bowels, but in other respects possesses no advantages over syrup ; 
thetefore its preparations have be<*n rejected from the Edinburgh 
Pharmacopcria, although they are still continued in those of the 
London and Dublin Colleges, and the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 

* Annates de Chimlt, vol. lii., p. 46. ' 

Th^ are not apt to fpoil, and thenee nqnire la« atlentloB t» 
ueserve them tnan syrups. 


These are saturated solutions of sugar in water, either simple 
or united with some vegetable priocipfe, with the view to color, 
flavor, or medical virtue ; but for the last intention tiiis is perhaps 
the worst of airforms for obt lining the medicinal powers of sob- 
stances; and syrups are used chiefly to render the mure active 
preparations palatable. Upon the whole, however, they do not 
even anjwer wis intention well, few persons thinking that sweet- 
ness renders a nauseous drug more palatable ; and they might, 
therefore, be easily dispensed with. 

As they quickly ferment, and spoil, if kept in a temperature 
above 6tP, a small quantity only should be retained in the shop 
Ibr immediate use ; and the stock kept in a good cellar, in a tem- 
perature not exceeding 550. They should never be used after 
bey have begun to ferment ; they should have a spec. grav. 1.261 
wtuea boiling, and 1.319 at ordinary temperatures. 

Under tUs title the London College comprehends the eonservit 
and eUetuaries of the Eidioburgh and Dublin Pharmacoposias. 
Ifhey eonrist of vegetable matters, beaten, when recent, into a 
uniform pulpy moss, with sugar; and of vtxetable and light 
earthy powders mixed with syrup and honey. They form a cl ase 
of preparations of oo great activity, when compared with the 
other forms in which the same remedies mny be given ; but some 
Y^etable matters can be thus preserved better than by drying; 
and they are useful as vehicles, and for giving form to more ac- 
tive medicines. They should be kept in closely-covered Jars, to 
preserve their proper consistence and moisture. 

This class is 'the simply and perhaps may be thought the 
least objectionable fmn of exhibiting medicines; but, neverthe- 
less, this mode of preparation is hurtful to many remedies. Some 
substances cannot be reduced to powder, unless very much dried, 
aod the heat necessary to effect this alters their properties ; evem 
the impalpable form ^ven to powders is hurtful to some resinoue 
substances; and if we reflect^that many of these, when kept in 
the mass, have their surface altered by the action of the atmo- 
sphere, we shall not wonder that a great alteration should be 
effected in a short time, by so great an extension of surface as 
takes place in the formation of a fine powder: thid is particularly 
the case with etacAaao, rhubarb^ and guaiacum. It would, per- 
haps, be a good general rule to keep all powders in opaque or 
green-glass bottles ; for, besides those which are generally knowa. 
to be hurt by the action of the light, almost every powder is In 
some degree affected by it : thence the labelled sides of clear 
bottles, containing powders, which are always turned to the light, 
become, as it were, incrusted with the powder changed in Its 
ecrior, while the other aide remains clean. 

These are masses of a proper consistence for forming into pillsi 
•ad are preserved in this state, by being kept in covered pots, 
wrapped In bladders, and occasionally moistened. A pill sho«la 
•ot exceed gr. v. in wel^t. 


The fulMtaiicei of this claM are seldom prepared by the apo> 
theeaiy, and require little of hta attention for their prewrvaUooT 

A v._^ . , PLASTEES. 

A eheottcal onion takes place between the semi-yitreoos oxide 
M-feM and oil : and a solid, hard compound is funned, tenaciooi 
tea moderate degree of heat This forms the base of the ma- 
jority of the plasters: but some of them owe their consistence tf 
wtx and resin.* They should not adhere to the hand when 
oold, should be easily spread when heated, and remain tenacious 
and pliant after they are spread. Those that contain metallic 
oxides ought to be melted by the heat of boiling water, for in a 
neater degree of heat the fatty matter it apt to reduce the oxide. 
All plasters become too consistent by age} when this is the casch 
they may be re-melted by a gentle heat, and some oil added to 
them. They are spread either on linen, silk, or leather. 

These are preparations nearly resembling each other, but of a 
different degree of consistence. The first owe their greater firm 
ness to wax, ft-om which they are named, and exceed in consist 
ence the ointments, which should have that of butter, while the 
liniments are scarcely thicker than common oil. The most im- 
portant circumstance in these preparations is, the freshness of the 
rat and oils employed, and their preservation in this state. The 
mercurial ointment, however, forms an exception to this rule, as 
a slight degree of rancidity of the lard facilitates the oxidizement 
of the mercury, and the formation of the ointment; and old mer- 
curial ointment it always more to be depended upon than that 
which has been recently prepared. 

These are extemporaneous preparations, and have a place la 
the PharmacopoBias merely to fix the proporticms of the ingre- 

N. B.— When the spec. grar. of a substance is mentioned, ita 
temperature is supposed to be at 600. By gentle heat is meant a 
temperature between 9fP and 100°. 

— — — iJ ■-. . . .m __ 

* Deyeux, Annales de Chimie, vol. xxxiii., page 52, proposes to 
confine the name plasters to the combinations of the oxides, and 
oils or fat; and to give to thoie not containing oxides the tens 
S0lid oinimenU. 




Cfrwf L 


Ozyien, O 
Balpnur, 8 










Onup IT, 




Chlorine, CI. 


Bromine, Br. 





Iodine, L 198.57 
Cyanogen,* Cy.— C* N 








Cfrwp III, 



Nltrogeo, K. 





Pboeplionif, P. 





Anenic, As. 





Antimony, Sb. 






Chrm^ VL 

AkuninHm, AI. 








Carbon, C. 6.13 

Boron, B. 10.91 

Mercury, Ug. 101.43 



Diatilied Water, 
Sulphuric Acid, 




Aq. Dest 


Cor Cart'. 


Cor Ox'. 

A' or Acef . 





P. or Pot 

Soda, So. 

Chloride of Ba- 
rium, CI. Ba. 

Nitrate of Silver, Nitr. Arg. 

Sulphuretted Hy- 
drogen, SnIph.Hy<lr. 

Ammonia, Am. 

Cyanogen, Cyan. 

Hydrocyanic Acid, Hydioey'. 

Ferrocyanide oi 
Potissinm, FenoeyToC 

♦ImHodioadi liniiniH| to combtafttioii, thtypUy (heptrt«C 

Tba abora fyrobolt not only indicate ttaatr reipeetlre ela- 
mtntary lubctances, but when alone always stand for 1 eq. of 
that element. To Indicate more than 1 eq., numerals are luldad 
to the symbols, as SC, 3C, or OS, OS, 04, Ice. As theae ele- 
menu combine tofetber and form compounds, always conaiaat 
In nature, the comtioslilon of these is indicated by the juxta-po* 
sition of symbols, or by placing the + sign between them, m* 
HO, or H-f-0, indicating 1 eq. of hydrogen, combined with 1 eq. 
of orygen, as in water. Numerals are added if more than 1 eq. 
be iMresent, as CX), or COS, indicating that 1 eq. of carbon, is 
combined with 3 of oxygen, as in carbonic acid. Each cooh 
pound has its own eq. number, which is made up tof the 
sum of those of its components. Thus HOsl-f8s=9, or the 
ium of the eq. numbers of hydrogen and oxygen. 8o C0Sx=9Si, 
because I eq. of carbon, 6, Is added to S eq. of ox>'gen, 8XS:=1& 
Here it may be seen that the eq. number of oxygen is the same 
in both cases, as it is Indeed in all others, showing that theae 
elements always combine together in the same relative propor- 
tions. This is the case' also with the compounds, of which the 
eq. nimiber is always the same, and they are subject to the sanoe 
law of definite proportions as the elements. Their composition 
is expressed in the same way. Thus, HO+SO^, or HO, SOS, 
means, in either case, 1 eq. of water combined with 1 eq. of sul- 
phuric aeid (a compound formed of 3 eq. of oxygen with 1 of 
ralphur) having as its eq. bo. H-<8X3+1<})«=M* when a large 
figure is printM before a symbol. It muitlfdies every symbol to 
the next comma, or to the next-f- sign, or all placed within 
parentheses. When the equivalent properties of a compound 
are unknown, or when it is wished to state the percentage <^ 
the components of a known, body, the following method is 
adopted, thus: — 

Wax is stated to be composed of— magnesia (carb.). 
Carbon, 81.874 Hagnesia, 

Hydrogen, 12.673 Carbonic Acid, 

Oxygen 5.454 Water, 

100 100 

Besides combining In equivalent weights, substances have, 
when in a gaseous state, a certain relation to each other, and 
combine in certain proportions, that is, one measure, or volume, 
with one or more volumes of another gas. The uniting measure 
of the compound gas is either equal to the sums of the volumes 
of its components, or, in consequence of chemical union, it is 
condensed into a smaller compass, which, however, bears to the 
former a certain ratio. By taking advantage of the tendency of 
bodies to combine, and of the power of others to decompose 
them, are obtained the diflforent chemical preparations of 

■ ■ ■ 


Mix the substance to be analyzed with black oxide of copper, 
•Bd heat in a tube ; absorb the water which is formed, by dry ctUo* 
ride of calcium, and the carbonic acid by means of a solu^ 
of potassa, and eoUect nitrogen gas, if any, over Dercnry. W« 

am then, by rabtmcdiif iho mi^t of the aaboa, hyJiu g pa 
and iritmgeii, from the weight of the sobsiaaee, deienniae Um 
UDoaat of oxygen. The amount of aiirogen can ochenrise 1m 
determined^ byr adding a strong base, as potasM« to the substance 
to be analyzed, and cullecttng the ammonia enHved. The ex- 
planation of these modes of analysis, is this : organic bodies, ia 
ptesence of oxide of copper (a compound readily parting with 
Its oxygen at a red heat, are resolved into carbonic mcid. water, 
and nitrogen ; any oxygen required to convert the carbon into 
carbonic acid, and the bvdrogen into water, being derived froei 
the oxide of copper. Again, (Hganic substances coniainiaf 
nitrogen, when heated with a caosiic aliodi, evolve the aino- 

Cn they contain in the f<«m of ammonia, which can be col- 
cted by means of chloride of platinnm. which fbras an imr 
■oinble doable salt with it>-(PL Cl.+N B4 O.) Two or mora 
organic bodies may possess in 100 parts the same amount of 
their component elements, and yet be distinct compounds. They 
are thus termed tsoaime, as Uie oil of turpentine and oil of 
lemons, each containing ia 100 parts, 84.46 of carbon, aofi 
ILM of hydrogen. 


1. Gbmpoands which contain ^ 
oxygen and hydrogen in the I Starch, dextrine, ease 
■aroe proportion as in water; >gar, grape sugar, gam, eeils- 
iOBietimes called neutral com- | lose, 
pounds, or hydrates of carbon, j 

Fibrine insoluble, and ta^ 

U, Neutral azotized substan* 
ces generally diffused through 

3. Inflammable compounds, 
or hydrurets, or those in which 
hydrogen is ia excess. 

seine soluble in cold water, al> 
^bnmen coagulated by heat, glu- 
ten, a glutinous and elastie 
compound of filnine and aa 
azotized principle. 

Ligneous tissue, fixed oils, 

stearine, margarine, elaine, vol- 

>-atile oils, camphor, balsams, 

oleo-iesins, resins, wax, gum* 


4. Vegetable alkalies, com-) Morphia, narcotina, codeia, 
posed (^ carbon, oxygen, hy*>quina, cinchonia, strychnia, 
drogen, nitrogen. j aconitina, veratria, Ace. 

1 Citric, tartaric, pectic, malic, 
acetic, tannic, gHllic. oxalic, 
raeconic, 4tc. ( Hydrocyanic acia 
U a compound of hydrogen and 
the radical cyanogen.) 

Vegetable principles may be divided into two classes, 

1. Those eommiMi to all veg- 
etable bodies. 

8. Those peculiar to certain 
wdtn or genem of plaats. 

Fribrin, albnmea, caMlSt 

1. Vegetable alkaloids. 

9. Vegetable aeatral priad- 

3l VegetaUe aclda. 

Of tboM wlneiples wlMch we ooramon to tU t ey tabto boilM, 
■oma contain m'trvif m. These are flbrin, albamen. and legaiitfi^ 
or casein, which are identical with the tabstaneeB bearing tho 
■ame names, and derived (torn animal bodies. Others contabi 
no nitrogen. Some of these hare the pecaliarity of havinff 
their oxygen and hydrogen in the proportions to fbrm water, 
and are called amylaceous ; in others the hydrogen is hi mnch 
greater proportion to the oxygen than in water, as in the fatty 
bodies. This class (containing no nitrogen) embraces lignln, 
starch, sngaes (cane, and grape, mannite), gum, (mucilage, baa- 
sorlne,) pectin, or pectic acid, extractive matters, fatty bodies, 
(oleine, glycerine, stearine, margarine, wax, spermaceti, Ate.) 

The priucipies pecnliar to certain orders or genera of pUmts, 
may be ranged under three classes— viz., 1st Tko9» which ^m- 
M»« alkaline ot basic properties^ called alkaloids. Sod. TIms 
naUralin their properties. 3rd. J%ose which possess the proper- 
ties of acids. The moitt Important vegetable allcal(rids are mor* 
phia, quiaia, cinchonia, strychnia, brucla, solania, hyoscyamla, 
atropia, conla, nicotina, diUurla, aconltina, delphlnla, veratria« 
colchlcia, &c. 

The allcaloids are the moat active class of vegetable princl> 
pies. They all contain nitn^en, and hence, when heated, give 
cS ammonia, (N. H*,) from their nitrogen uniting with a portion 
of the hydrogen. When in solution, they restore the color of 
reddened litmus, and possess an intensely bitter taste. Like 
ammonia, also, they fcnrm Insoluble double salts with the chlo> 
ride of platinum. Most of the alkaloids are solid and fixed : 
some, however, as those from hemlock and tobacco, are liquid 
and volatile. Most, when pure, are crystallizable. They are usu- 
ally soluble in alcohol and ether, but very sparingly so in water. 
Their salts, however, are more soluble in that medium, except 
those with tannic acid; and hence solutions of the alkalolcu 
are participated by infusions of nntgalls, or other substance! 
containing tannic acid^ In the plant, they exist in the form of 
•alts, united to the order which contains them. All the alka- 
loids possess, in a greater or less degree, medicinal or poisonous 
qualities, which have a close connectkm with the botanical 
•iructure of the plants firom which they are derived. Thui 
atroviay (torn the deadly nightshade, and hyoseyamia, from tiio 
henbane, both belonging to the order Solanacea, act very simi- 
larly on the animal economy, the diflbrence being rather in de- 
gree than in character. The s&me relation exists between 
quina and dnchonia, from the difforent species of cinchona baric ; 
while between quina and atroida, from diflferent orders, there 
is a marked difference. The following li the chemical cwnpo- 
■Uion of some of the alkaloids : 

Morphia oas HSo OS N Bolania CM H68 on N 

Codela CU HM OS N Atropia CM RS* OS N 

Cinchonia cso Hi> O N Nicothm Cio H8 — N 

auina CSO HIS Ot N Conia Ci> HH O N 

fitryehni* 044 hu 04 N* DelphUila C>7 Hi» O* N 

Brucla C44 hm 07 N* Veratria C68 H^ Ot Ms 

The mode of extmctUig the varioni alkaloids depends In 
great measure upon their properties. Those that are vffaiitit 
•10 oMaiiMd byniwrtif «>• plant with a solntioa of potaM^ 

■ f t 


«ad haatiag : by whldi mmau the alkaloid is IflMnted Drom tM 
add with wnicn it was combined^ and distils over. When nH 
voUtiU^ the alkaloid is to be extracted by digesting either with 
water, a diluted acid, or alcohol, according as the salt of the 
alkaloid contained in the plant, is more soluble in one or tht 
other of these media. From these solutions, the alkaloid, if ia- 
solubie in water, can be precipitated nearly pure, by ammonia, 
or mixed with an Insoluble salt, by adding lime, magnesia, oxide 
of lead, 4tc., and can be taken up again with alcohol ; or the 
alkaloid may be obtained in combination with any given acid, 
by adding a salt of lime, magnesia, or lead, which cont^ns the 
acid, when an insoluble precipitate is again formed, and the salt 
of the alkaloid left in solution. (See page 271.) 


Some of diese contain nitrogen in their composition ; in others 
fhis element is absent Those which contain nitrogen approach 
in their properties very closely to the alkaloids ; and it is some- 
times difficult to separate them from that class of bodies. They 
unite with some bodies, and form crystalllzable compounds : 
they also form insoluble double salts, with chloride of platinum, 
•Almost of them are precipitated by stdutions of tannic acid. 
Tlieir solutions, however, do not exhibit alkaline reactions, and 
the salts which they form are acid. The most important of 
those containing nitrogen are the following : 
Narcotine C40 H30 N Oi9 Naroeine C3S H84 N Oi8 
Chelidonhie C«> Hso N' 06 Piperine €34 Hie N 06 
Tbeiae 08 W N9 O* Theobrondne C9 H& N3 oa 
Caffeine 0> H5 NS OS Aspaiagine C^ H7 N^ OH-^HO 
AnygdaUoe CHO US9 n O 

The class of neuMU vegetaiU jrimt^tM embraces alao^ 
aoKHig man^ others, the following : 

■alachie C4S H» 0» Oil of lemon* Cio H8 

PDpuline OU of bergamot 6C5 H44-2HO 

CoiumbinO Oil of lavender 3Cfi H44-3HO 

C^uassine Oil of peppermint 5Ca H44- 
SmilacUie 2HO 

Elaterine Oil of rosemary 9C5 H4 -4-2HO 

Oil of mint 70 H44-0 Oilofcajepnt SC6 H4 4.2Up 

Oil of origanum lOO^ H4+0 Camphor 4C5 H4 4-^ 

OU of turpentine C80 HIS 

Those essential oils wliich contain nitrogen and sulphur ean* 
not be referred to this type ; as the oils of mustard, C8 U^ N,S>, 
horseradish, garlic, onions, assafostida, fce. 

The eotettCe oOs are usually limpid at ordinary temperatures, 
and have a strong odor, more or less agreeable. They are gener- 
ally lighter than water, and consist of two portions— « solid called 
stMragptsae, or a liquid called elaoptene. They are distinguished 
tkom the fixed oils by the stain they leave on paper, disappear- 

*The iA\s (rf Juniper, lavine, eubebt, pepper, cc^iba, ^^ 
have a liinilar composition, their atoms betaig some mnitiplo of 

•olaUe Is WBisr. kat an toluMg ia •kohol im •Umt. Br e>- 
pOMU«. the ToUtite oils alMorb oxyfM* aad •«• ooavertad Into 
•ulas, aad beac* pteais rootaiaiag TolatUe oil gi— r ally yieUI 
•Mia alM. Thaj art obtaiaed by 4hl»lartna or exprenioo.— 



AaKWf the prladplM pacnUar to cortala otdan or foaeim of the vegeUbU tciis. Tboae pOMoaa tho nsoal fnpat' 
ties of acids, baviaf a soar laste, reddealng TSfstable Maes, and 
tbraiiog salts with bases ; bat we aieet among them, veiy com- 
Boaiy, acids possesslBf the power of anitiaf with mace than 
ooe atom of base, aod beoce called sWytene, a property very 
lare In tiie laorftanic kiagdooi. In tms respect, thev eloeely re- 
semble pbosfdiorie add, wbicb seems a conneetiag Unk between 
the inuifaalc and orysoic acids. By heat they are freqoently 
decompiised iato more simple adds. Some of them are met 
with in many ulants, as the tasaie, citric^ and wuUie acids; 
•tbers aie confined to particolar plants, as the smcmm, Anue, 
and Me0mitic. 

The wt0detftkeir fr^mrmtUm, as in the ease of alkaloids and 
neutral principles, depends partly on their properties. Thns, If 
volatile, they aie obtained merely by the apiAication of heat ; 
as in the case of htnitic meid firom, gum benzoin, cnraasiM Meid, 
fiom balsam of Tola and Peru. Slc^ and Talertanic acid,(lrom the 
Valeriana officinalis. If these acids form Insoioble salts with 
any base, they are procnred by causing a precipiiate, by the ad* 
dition of such base, washing it, and setting the Mcids ftee by 
the addition of a stronger ooe. The bases most frequently em- 
ptoyed in this process are lime, letui, and baryta, and insoluble 
precipitates with the vegetHble acids are often formed In the 
preparation of the alkaloids and other principles. This mode 
of preparation is employed for citric, mecouic, kinic acids, fce. 

The vegeutble acids for the most part contain no nitrogen in 
thdr composition, and produce little or no effect on the ner- 
vous system. Jf/ydroefanic meid Is a product of the decompo- 
sition m an azotiMd principle, and does not exist as soch in the 
vegetable kingdom. 

TM* af Organic VegttaJd* Acidt, ahowing the eeiNtpestfion tf 
aneh a$ are medieinal ; arranged according to their power of 
oombining with one, twoy or three atome of base. 

Tri-baeic Add*. 

Citric Acid (lemons, curranu. &c.) 3HO, Ci> HS OU 
Meconic Acid (Papaverace») 3HO, C>4 HO)i+6HO 

Tannic Acid 3HO, Ci8 Hi 00 

Bi'baeie Acids. 

Tartaric Acid (Grapes, fcc) 2H0, C8 H4 Oio 

Gallic Acid (Nut galls, Slc.) 8HO, C7 HS OM-HO 

Kinic Acid (Ciochooacea) 2HO, C7 H4 (H 

Malic Add (PomaecM, Ice.) 8H0, C< H^ Ot 


Aeonttie Add (AoalHt) 
Bensole Add (Gam BenaoiiO 
Ciniiaiiilc Acid (Bali. Tolii, Feni, Jfce.) 
Copalvic Actd (Copftlte) 
Fninaric Acid (loelaiid Mow) 
Osalic Acid (PolyfOBaeee) 
PMtie Add (imuiy vegetsue Joiees) 

fyliSc Add I (*••*"> 
valerianic Add (Valeriaoaees) 
Tliatric Add (Cevadilla Seeds) 

HO, C4 Ht OS 
HO, CM H» 0» 
HO, Ci« H7 0» 
'HO. 04 HO» 
HO, CIS H17 on 


HO, CIS H9 07 


1. Menlipermaeea^ 
S. Nelaroblacea, 

3. Baracenlaces, 

4. Capparidacea, 

5. CUtaces, 

8. Droaefaoes, 
7. Elatrnacea, 
& niecibraeea, 

9. Portnlaecacea^ 
10. Tiliaces, 

• 11. Limnaatliaeea^ 
tSL Aceraoes, 
13. Ifelastomacec, 
U. Cactace*. 
15. GrosiQlacea, 
M. Cucorbitacea, 

17. Crastulacea, 

18. Dipsacea, 

19. CampaBQiaees, 

90. Primalacea, 

91. Leatibulacee, 
99. Acanthacec, 

93. Pednliacee, 

94. Hydmpliyllaeea, 

95. Poiemonlacea, 

96. Diapenslaces, 

97. CoavotTolacec 


















H ydroehardacec^ 












Ho. or 











jynrtiitW Orden eenUUninf MeHeinal Plants in tho Mrtkom 

and Middle States, 

1. Ranoncnlacea, 
9L Mafooliacea^ 

3. ABOoada, 

4. Berberidaca, 
i. Nympbaaoeo^ 



6. PapaTaracea, 

7. Pumaiiacea, 

8. Cradfera, 

9. Vlotacea, 
10. Hypericaoei^ 



No. of 




11. Caryophvllacec, 


45. Scrophulariaces, 


13. Malvacee, 


46. VerbenaceaB, 


13. LInaces, 


47. LnbiHta, 


14. GorHiilaces, 


48. BorMginacesB, 


15. OxHiidaces, 


49. Sojanaceffi, 


16. Balsaniinacee, 

• 1 

50. GentianaceaB, 


17. Anacardiacee, 


5J. Apocynacese, 


18. Xanthoxylacee. 


52. Asclepiadacese, 


19. HippncasUnacev, 


53. Oleaceae. 


SO. Celantracec, 


54. ArittnlochiaceflB, 


81. Rbamnacee, 


55. Clienopodiace», 


S3. VttaceaB. 


56. FolygnnacesB. 


S3. PulygalHces, 


57. Phytolaccaces, 


S4. LeguniinoMB, 


58. Lauracese, 


SS. RoMcese. 


59. TbymelaceaB, 


86. Lytbraceie, 


60. ITlmaceie. 


87. OnMgraceaB. 


61. Euphorbiaces, 


88. SaxifragaceflB, . 

1 ? 

63. JuglandiaceaB, 


89. HaniaiiMlidacee, 

63. Giipulit'enB, 


30. Umbellifene, 


64. MyricaceaB, 


31. AniliaceaB, 


65. Betulaceffi, 


33. CnboiiibnceaB, 


66. SalicacegB, 


33. CaprifnIlaceaB, 


67. Urticaceas, 


34. CompositSB, 


68. ConifersB, 


35. RubiaceiB, 


69. Aracese, 


36. Valerianaces, 


70. Aiitmacen, 


37. LiobeliaceaB, 


71. Iridaceffi. 


38. ErIcaceaB, 


73. SmiiacesB, 


39. AqnifollaceaB, 


73. LiiiaceaB, 


40. EbenaceaB, 


74. Melantbace9» 


41. Plantaginacete, 


75. Filices, 


43. PlambaxinaceiB, 


43. OrobanchacesB, 




44. BignonlaceiB, 


H the Jforthe 

Principal Genera of Medicinal PlanU i 

rn and 

Middle State*. 



































































Corn OS, 











































































Ly thrum. 




















Origan am, 




























Trios teuni, 




















•f Stameui 

< 6. 
1. I 7. 



1. Monandria; one stamon to eaeb flower, 
S. Diandria; two stamens. 

3. Triandria; three stamens. 

4. Tetrandria; four stamens. 

5. fentandria ; five stamens. 
Mezandria; six stamens. 
Heptandria; seven stamena 
Octandria ; eight stamens. 
Enneundrta; nine stamens. 
Decandria ; ten stamens. 
Dodeeandria; twelve to nineteen ttamena. 
leosandria; more than ten stamens inserted 

on the ealyx (usually twenty). 

PolyandrU ; more than ten stamens ; uraally 
more than twenty ; variable. 

Didynamia ; four stamens, two longest ; flow - 
. era labiate. 

Tetradyriamia ; six stamens, four long and 
two short; flowers cruciform. 

Monodelphia ; filaments united into a single 
set, tube, or column. 

JDiadelphia; filaments united in two 8etl^ 
flowers papilionaceous. 

Poiyadelpkia ; filaments united in more than 
three sets. 

Synrenesia; anthers united into a ring or 
tube ; flowers compound. 

OynaTuiria; stamens on the pistil or style. 

Monacia', stamens and pistils in separate 
flowers, but on the same plant 

JDiiBcia; stamens and pistils in separate flow- 
ers, but on the same plant. 

Polygamia ; stamens and pistils in the same 
or separate flowers, on the same or on dif- 
ferent plants. 

Oryptqgamia; stamens invisible, or wantint. 

Nomber . 
•ad Position.' 

Nomber and 

of Stamens > 
by Filaments' 
or Anthers. 

of Stamens 
•8 respects 
the Pistils. 














; siilitnyin. 

lu ; tiena or tml«s (t]i«(. 
ia ; hiving naked iMdi. 

Tba align ot A 

ml, uw otten pn^L 
IB Pttjf£9mia Kteetwaria ; idviIhI ' 

F^Jfgamu SegregiU; •aeh flow 
■Miiunina; flovsn Mlltuj, 
p aidon of the SSrd clui u« Jbomlod do th« ehunclvn of 
Mnmei*; SDluiai] And porfecl flomnoa 

Wiui, or fanii^ 

F»iigh mashroonu, kc. 

To Useovmr the name ofaplmU bjf the ahove (tionaui) optUtm, 
First exainiiie to see to what class it belongs ; next, discover 
the order ; if the order is subdivided into sections, compare thet 

{ilaot with the characters of these subdivisions, to find to which 
t corresponds ; then examine it in reference to the characters 
of the genera composing this subdivision, to find the genu*; 
finally, by comparing it with a descriotion of the species of that 
genus it wlU be identified. 

The Jfatnrdl Syttem of (MaseificaUoii, 

It is the aim of the natural system to group together those 
plants which have the greatest general resemblance to each 
other, not only in aspect and structure, but also in properties. 
An acquaintance with the characters of the families of the 
natural system enables us to determine to which of them any 
new plant belongs, what are its afiinUies with others, and, to a 
very great extent, what are its poisonous or useful properties. 
We are thus enabled, not only to ascertain the name of any 
particular plant, but also to obtain a tolerably correct idea of the 
structure, habits, and often the sensible properties of the group 
to which it belongs : hence its value to medical men. 

The Vegetable Kingdom is embraced under two great natoial 
divisions, viz. : 


8. CRTrrooAMXA, or FLOwiaLsss Plamti. 

The Phano/famiatae called vasculuiks, because they aboind 
With ligneous and vasciilar tissue. 

The Ojfvfc^amta are called cbllttlarbi, because thejabomd 
With oellular tissue. 

The Phenogamia are alto called cotvlbdonovs, because they 
are dbtingulshed for inrodnclng seeds competed of determinate 
parts, as eotjfledoiUf and embryo ; the cryptogamia are called 
ACOTTLBDONons, becauso they produce certain minute bodies, 
called more*, having no such distinction of parts. We also 
find in the Phedogamia, a system of eompoind organs, such as 
root, stem, leaf, and fiower, successively developed on a deter- 
minate plan ; while in the* Cryptogauua, ft gradual departure 
firom thi8 plan commences, and they become simple expansions 
of cellular tissue, without symmetry or proportion. The Pheno- 
gamia are very naturally resolved into two subdivisions, Exoobnb 
and ENDooBifs i the Exogons growing by external accretions, 
having leaves which have reticulated veins, and which fall oflT 
by an articulation ; and seeds, with two ot more cotyledone or 
aeotyledons. The Endt^eits growing by internal accretions ; 
leaves parallel-veined, and decaying without fiilling ofl*; the 
seeds with one cotyledon, or monocotyledonoua. The Crypto- 
gamin,, or flowerless plants, are divided into two classes :— 

1. AcRooBNs ; having a stem, and usually Aimlshed with 
leaves ; their stems increase firom the apex only, and scarcely 
at all in diameter. 

S. Thalloobns ; which have no such division of partL being 
ftendess, leafless, and fiowerlesa. 

fBJIllOaAMIA, ' 

PA«ufi«M an tiioA AvkM bit* ftor dMMf, ite. : 

"L EX0OBN8, or DicoTTLKDom ; ftraetiira of 
stem •zogenoas, seeds in a pericarp, em* 
bryo with two cotyledmu, leaves retica- 

Gtmnoobhs, or GTiDiosraaMs ; seeds nakei, 
embryo with two ot more cotyledons. 

EmtoeBNS, or Mohocottlkdom s ; stractara 
of stem endogenoos, seeds in a pericarp^ 
embryo with one eotyJedoo, leaves pw» 
4, Bp(MuoBH8,orRHizA]iTBs; stmctnre mainly 
cellular, pericarp containing spoies i£stmd 
o( seeds, embryo n<me.* 

($, AcRooBMS : having a regular stem growing 
fT-u- ■_■■,,, ] fh>m tlie apex and clothed with leaves. 
vBTiToaAHA,< ^ thalloobks ; stemless, rootless, and leaf- 

I less. 

The natoraltelatlons of tBiB six classes with the hi^ier divis- 
ions, may be lepresentad thus : 


V^^^mMM 5 3- AotUMACBOUS. 

EilDOOBiis, } 4. glumacbous. 





Cetptooamu, } I Thalloobhs. 

8I7B-CI.AS8BS. In forming sob-classes, most writers have 
employed artificial methods, for the want of any clear, compre- 
hensive natural <me. Thus Jussieu arranges the Ext^au 
(Jhkgiotptrma) in three divisions, founded on the' presence^ 
vniM, or absence, of the petals, as follows : 

PoLTVBTALc ; calyz and corolla both present, both having 
distinct petals. 
Moxopbtala; petals united. 
Apbtalc; petals wanting. 

OmoBRs or faxiubs are the most important of all the natural 
associations. They are formed by associating together those 

gnera which are Vm most nearly allied to each other^ or to some 
e genus, previously assumed as the type. Therefore, as the 
specMs form genera, so genera form orders. In systematie 

* The 3rd and 4th classes in Wood's Botany, are fonnedftom 
Ae subdivision EndogtMa^ and founded on the presence or al^ 
■once of gtmmet or Aiwis, vis. : 

C. UL AoujHAOBA ; endogenous, with flowers, periantti 
veitlcillate. of one or mora whorls of petatold orgus, or want- 
lag. Ex., lily, orchis. 

C IV. Gluxacbc ; endogenous, flowen Inserted in an iai* 
Weated periaathof i^anMt, Instead of a calyz, as, tha 



work! the orders are alio associated into altlances, groups, IcCn 
which are intermediate i>etween these ; and the sub-classes are 
designated numerically, thus, group 1st 2nd, 3rd, &c., or by 
names derived from a leading order. The orders differ widely 
as to their extent, some consisting of a single geous, or Sarra- 
eeniaeea, while others comprehend hundreds of genera, as the 
ctmpoaitm. For convenience, the larger orders are broken up 
into sub-orders or tribes. 

The Natural Ststkm. with its classes and subordinate di* 
▼Iflions, may thus be exliibited in one view : 

The Vkqbtablb Kinqdok, is separated 

1st, Into grand divisions and stibdivisiont. 

Snd, ** classes. 

3rd, *' sub-classea, alliances, and groapt. 

4th, " orders and sub-orders. 

5th, " genera and sub-genera. 

6th, *' species and varieties. 

7th, " individuals. 

(Bea Wood's Class Book of Botany, Beck, Griffith's Medical 
Botaay, Toney and Gray, Lindley, and other syitamatie worki 



L Conspectos, Ibc^ 1 

n. Appendix No. I., On Poisons, . 390 

HI. AppendixNo. II., Analysis of Urine, . . . 373 

IV. Appendix No. IIL, Art of Prescribing Medicines, . 273 

Y. Examples of Extemporaneous PrescripUoos, . . 276 

YL Select Formulae for Infants, 904 

VII. Dietetic Preparations, ..... 309 
Vin. Appendix No. IV., Comparative View of the Che- 
mical Affinity between the principal Acids and six 

ofthe Alkaline and Earthy Bases, . . 307 
IX. Tables ofthe Alcoholic Strength of Wines, . 306—10 
X. Table showing the difference between Minims, 

Drops, and Grains of Different Preparations, . 311 

XI. Appendix No. V., Weights and Measures, . . 319 
XIL Table showing the Composition of different Minex al 

Waters, . 314 


L. London ^ '^ 

U. S. United States ) 

N. Ov Natural Orders. 

^ . Signifies that the plant is a shrub, or tree. 

it. That it is a perennial. 

0. lliat it is annual. 

i. That it is biennial. , ^ , , _.. ^ 

Qmp. Implies components, showing the chemical constituent! 
of the substance under consideration. 

Prop. Its chemical and natural properties. 

Oper. Its operation or medicinal effects. 

Ute, Its medical uses. i.v ui u «. 

Incomp. The incompatlblef, or those substances with which U 
cannot be combined in prescription, without altenng cither Ita 
chemical or its medicinal properties. , . ^ , . . . 

Off. Prep. Officinal preparations into which the substance under 
consideration enters as a part. 

The parentheses after the title of any article generally enclose 
the name of the substance from which it is obtamed ; if a plant, 
Its class and order in the Linniean system, the natural order, 
the place of its growth, and the kind of plant If a comppunj 
they enclose the formula of the London College and the United 
States PharmacopoBia. ,,...« jw »i„«_ 

The old name of many articlei Is placed in italici, alter tbeir 
botanical arrangement. 


A BTfiTIS RgSlNA. L. Reaiiut, U. S. Resin of the Spraet 
-^^Fir. (FinuMjibie*. The Spruce Fir. Monmeia Monadelpkim 

N. O. Coniferm, Europe, America. > .)~~7%tw. 
Comp. Resin and volatile oil. 
Prop. Solid, dry, brittle ; externally brownish yellow : Intcmally 

Oper, Rubefacient, diuretic. 

Use, Externally, as plasters, in catarrh, pertussis, and dyspnoea. 
Off. Pr^. Emplatt. JlrovuU.^ D. Ei^. Oalbanit L. D. JEmsp. 

Opii,L. Entp.Picis^h. Emp. ThuriStD. Emp. Hydrarg., 

U. S. Emp, RcsiiuBt U. S. 
ABSINTHIUM. U. S.— L. £. Artemisia) AbshithU folia, sum- 

roitates. D. Wormwood. (Artemisia j96«>n(Atitm. CommiA 

Wormwood, Syngen. SuperJL. N. O. AsteraceiB^ Indigenous. 

lit) Msinthium vtUgare. 
C$mp. An essential oiU a bitter principle, absitUhin and abtintkia 

Prop. Odor strong and unpleasant; taste bitter, nauseous: ex- 
tracted by water and alcobol. 

Opor. Tonic, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, dlscutient, antiseptic 

V»e. In intermiiteuts, dyspepsia, gout, hypochondriasis, dropsy, 
and epilepqr not dependinf on organic dumges. Clysters of tht 
decociicm are useful in ascarldes. 

Do§». In substance, 3j. to 3j. Infusion (3yj. to water (I).), 
f 3 iv. to f 3 xij., three or fiMu: times a day. 

Imeomp. Sulphates of iron and of zinc ; acetate and diacetate of 
lead, nitrate of diver. 

ACAClA. U. S.— L. Gununi Acacia, E. Acacia Arabica 
Gummi, D. Acacia. Gum Arabic (Acacia verot Polygnm. 
Monacia. N O. LeguminooeB. Africa. >.) JiraHeum 

Comp. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogeo, and lime. 

Prop. Inodorous, insipid ; in irregular pieces, colorless, or of a 
pule yellow color, hard, brittle, fracture shining, transparent, 
soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol : spec. grav. 1.355. 

Oper. Demulcent, nutritious. 

Use. In catarrh, pertussis, ardor urine, Itc. Mucilage of Gua 
Arabic is oAen employed as a vehicle for other substances. 
To reader them miscible, oiU require three-fourths of their own 
weight, balsams and spervuucti equal parts, resins two parts, 
and musk five times its weight. In cases of poisoning by acrid 
substances, mucilages are very useful to sheathe the ipucous 
membrane, and should be given freely. 

Dose. In substance, 3 ss. to 3 y. In decoctions, ad libitum. 

Ineomp. Goulard's extract, alcohcd, sulphuric cthe*, tincture of 
muriate of iron. 

Of. Prep. Mttcilago Acacisi^ U. S.— E. D. Emulsifi Jlcacis 
Jtrabiea^E. EmiUsio Arobica^l}. Misturm AoaeuB,!*. Mistwra 



Jimfgdula, U. S. Misiura Oretm, U, 8.--L. D. 

Motcki,L. Mistura Ouaiaei,h. Cmf eUio jSwMgdalm, L,D 
Pulvis CrcUB Comp., L. D. Puiv. Tragaeantha Comp^ L. D. 
Trochisei Carbonatis CaUis, E. TrocUsei Cretts, U. S. Tro. 
OlycyrrhtuB, E. Tro, Qlycyr. cum Opio^ U. S.— £. Tr», 
Oummosi, E. 

ACKTOSELLA. L. Wood Sorrel. {OxvMs AeeUseUa, Com- 
mon Wood Borrel. Decand. PnUagynia, N. O. Ozalidem 
Europe, United States. 4.) Lujula. folium. 

Prop, Inodorous, taste a sweetish acid ; juice coagulates milk : 
owes its acid properties to Binoxalate of PoUusa, which is in 
^j^xomboidal crystals, of a sour, pungent, bitterish taste ; solu- 
ble in ttȣ limes their weight of boiling water; and contains 
seventy-two pfti^ ^za/ic naif forQr-BeTen puts votMto, and 
eighteen water, 

Oper. Refrigerant, antiseptic. 

V»e, In bilious and putrid fevers, and inflammatory and scor- 
butic complaints ; on the continent of Europe, the BinoxtUaU 
of Potassa is used as a substitute for lemonade. It is also veiy 
useful in removing iron mould and ink stahis from linen, and 
as a test for lime. 

Dose. An infusion of a handnil in OiJ. of water, or boiled m 
milk in the same proportions, to form a whey, ad libitum. 

ACETAS FERRI. D. Acetate of Iron. (Ferri Carbonatis 
partem j., Jlcidi Acetiei fort, partes yl. Digest for three days, 
and filter.) 

Comp, Protoxide of iron, acetic acid. 

Prop, Taste styptic, warm. 

Oper, Tonic, emmenagogue. 

Use. In dyspepsia, hysteria, chlcnroeis, dropsy, and most caaet 
of general debility. 

Vose. fllx- to fllxzx. 

ACETAS HYDRAR67RL D. Acetate of Mercury. (Bf 
drargyri pur, |iy. Aeidi Jfitriei diluti |iv8S. Aeetatis 
Potassa f iij. jf^ua bullientis Ibviij. Mix the mercury widi 
the acid, and digest until it be dissolved ; then mix the solution 
still hot with the acetate of potassa dissolved in the water, and 

Comp, Protoxide of mercury, acetic acid. 

Prop, Crystals small shining flakes, soluble in hot watw, but 
scarcely in cold ; taste acid ; insoluble in alcohol. 

Oper, Antisyphilitic, alterative. 

Use, In syphilis, but not to be depended on ; in cutaneous erup- 
tions externally applied, gr. Ij. dissolved in f J y. of rose water. 

Dose. Gr. J to gr. vj. ni^t and morning. 

Ineomp, The alkalies. 

Should be kept in an opofus hettls, as light blackens it, Itisths 
aettve ingredient of Keuser's Pills, 

ACETUM. U.S.— L. AcetumBritannicum,Acetam6aIlieam, 
E. Acetum Vini, D. Vinegar. 

The density of the French vinegar of the Edhiburgh Collete if 
1014 to 1022. . * ^ 

Comp. Acetic acid, water, alcohol, mucilage, tartaric add, tar- 
trate of potassa, sugar; extractive. 

Prop, Odor pungent, taste a pleasant acid, color orang» or pato 
yellow, transparent; spec. grav. 1.14. 



ACB > 

Cper, KefrigeraBt, diaphoretic, antbeptle, aitriiigent ; eztenumy, 
■dmnlant and diacatient. 

Vae. In febrile complaints and soorlmtiis ; it has been soroosed 
to counteract the effects of opium and other narcotics, after the 
stomach has been completely cleared ; but this is a mietake, 
and it should never be employed in such cases ; steam of it 
inhaled in putrid sore throats and in scurry; as a lotion in 
bruises, sprains, bums, and chronic o]dithaimia. Antilithic, 
) where the triple phoaphatet abound in the urine ; diluted witk 
water, it forms the best means of cleansing the eye ci nnall 
particles of lime. 

X>y*e, f3j. to f3iv. In clysters, f^J. to fjy. Lotion. Bi 
Aceti n J., Splritus Ten. f 3 ir., Aquc f § viij. 

TesU. "nie color of common vinegar should not be affected by 
sulphuretted hydrogen. One fluid ounce should saturate 3 J. 
of crystallized carbonate of soda ; thirty Vi of nitrate of baryta 
should completely' precipitate f ^ iv. 

C^^. Prnt. Jtcetum distiUatum^ U. S. — L. ^cid. aeet. eampkora' 
Csni, •£. D. Acidum aeeticum, L. £. D. Cataplasma Stnapis^ 
L. D. Ceratum SaponiSf L. D. Linimentum JEruginitt L. 

Svrupus aeeti, E. 

ACETUM DISTILL ATUM. U.S.— L.E.D. Distilled Vinega>. 
(Distil one gallon of vinegar cm a sand bath, in a glass retort 
and receiver. Reserve the first seven pints for use.) 

Omp. Acetic acid, water. 

Prep. Odor less than that of vinegar ; taste less pungect i trai 
parent, colorless. Density 1005. 

Oper. Refrigerant, slightly astringent. 

U*e. The same as that of vinegar; chiefly fbr pharmaceutiea 
purposes. A piece of blotting paper or rag, wet with distilled 
vinegar and applied to the sicin, excites heat and redness, and 
Is a useful counter-irritant, where a moderate irritation is de- 
sired, as in sore throat, the forming stage of croup, rheumatism. 
It is used in the fbrm of vapor for purposes of fnmigation, but 
it has no efficacy in destroying contagious or infectious matter. 
It is also a good addition in refrigerating lotions containing 
acetatf^of lead. 

D0S0. f3j. tof3iv. 

TVsU. Unaltered in color by sulphuretted hydrogen or ammo- 
nia; not precipitated by nitrate of silver, acetate of lead, 
chloride of barium, or iodide of potassium ; 100 minims saturate 
gr. viiJ. of crystallized carbonate of coda ; or 100 grs. of the 
acid, 13 of the sub f Sj. is saturated by 35 grs. crystallised 
biearb. ofpotasaa. _ 

Of. Prep. Liq. Ammonim atet.y L.E.D. Potn$<» aeetaa^ L.E.D. 
Aettaa Ferris D. Liquor Plumbi diaeeiatis^ L. E. D. Plmmb* 
aeetaSi L. E. D. Ozynul, L. D. Emplaatrum Jlminomaei, 
U. 8.— L. Aeetum Colekici, L.— U. S. Acetum Scilla, U. S.— L 
Oxymel ScilUBy L. Extnutum Colckiei Aeetiewm^ L. Oxymd 
C^chiei, D. Jleetum Opii, U. 8.— E. 

ACETUM CANTHARIDIS, (epispastieum) L. E. Vinegar of 
Cantharidid, {Epispaatie). (Cantharidis in pulv. |ij. AcidI 
acetic! Oj.) 

Camp, Acetate of cantharidin, some animal mattor. 

Prop. Rubefacient, epispastlc, diuretic. 

U^ Am a counter-irritant in dropsy ; to form immediate blistem 

4 ACH 

D—e. lUy). to nixjj. as a diuretic. 

AOETUM COLCIIICI. L. E. D. Vinegar of Meadow BaflhNi. 
(.Colckici eormi ment. eoncin ^j. ^eeti dwt.f|xy). 'Spir, 
t«n. f5j.) 

Comp. Tlie acrid principle of the bulb (Chlckieia) diaaolved In 
diluted acetic acid, (f I j. of proof spirit ordered la to make the 
acetum Iceep.) 

Prop. Diuretic, but very uncertain ; purgative. 

U$e. In ascites, hydrothoraic, and gout 

Jneomp. Alkalies, earths, alkaline and earthy carbonateii aol- 
phuric acid. 

JDose. f 3 ss. to f 3 j. in any bland fluid. 

ACETUM OPII. U. S.-E. Vinegar of Opium. Vt Opium in. 
eoarse powder ^ viij., Jfutnug Ijss., Saffron ^m., Sugar |zij., 
J)i9t. Vinegar q. s. Digest the opium, nutmeg, and saffron, on 
a sand bath, with (^w. DiH. Vinegar for 48 hours, and strain*. 
Digest the residue with an equal quantity of dist vinegar In 
same way, 24 hours. Put the whole into an apparatus tot 
displacement and return the filtered liquor, as it paMe8,.until it 
comes away quite clear. When the filtration has ceased, poor 
distilled vinegar gradually upon the remaining materials till 
the whole quanUiy of filtered liquor equaif Oi^. Then add the 
sugar, and by means of a water-bath evaporate to Oil|j. and f § i¥ 
— U. S. Ph. 

Comp. An acetate of morphia, containing the resin and coloring 
matter of the opium in vinegar. 

Prop. Narcotic. 

Use. A substitute for tincture of opium ; it is leas likely to affect 
the brain than the tinctoreiv 

Dose. nixx. tof3ss. 

ACfiTUM BCILLiE. U. S.— L. E. D. Vinegar of SquUl. 
(SeilltB recentis exsiceata | xv., .Aceti distil. OvJ., Spiritus ton. 
Oas. Macerate the squill in the vinegar with a gentle heat in a 
revered vessel for twenty-four hours ; then express the liquor, 
and set it aside that the feculencies may subside; lastly, add 
the spirit to the liquor. The U. 8. Pharmacopeia directs that 
the squill should be macerated 7 days; or that it may be pre- 
pared by macerating % iv. bruised squill in a pint of di9tUled 
vinegar 3 days, then putting the mixture into on apparatus for 
displacement, gradually pouring in distilled vinegar till the 

Juantity of filtered liquor equals Oij. ; lastly, adding the alcohol, 
diluted acetic acid may be substituted for the vinegar. 
€kmp. The acrid principle of the bulb (Seillitina) dissolved In 

diluted acetic add, with a small portion of spirit 
Prop. Taste bittff^ acidulous. 

gaor. Diuretic, expectorant, emetic, in large doees porgatlve. 
§e. In dropsies, asthma, and chronic catarrh. 
Dose, f 3 ss. to f 3 U* in cinnamon water or mint water. 
Off. Prep. Oxymel SeilUo^ L. Sffrupus SciUOf U. 8.— B. 

^steraeea.) ^ 

€)omp. Volatile oil, bitter extractive. 
Prop. Taste subastringent, bitterish. 
<2iMr. Astringent, antispasmodic, antiperiodie. 
U»s, In hysteria, hsmorrhages, and periodical i fib ctio mi 

ACI i 

D09e. f Ijai. of inftiskm aimde with SU- of flowvfs^ ia 0ml of 


AClDUM ACETICUM. U.S.— L.E.D. Acetic Add. {S^dm 
jScetotw Iby., Jlcidi Sulpk, I'lX., ^aum distiUatm f^ix. Tha 
U. 8. Pharmacopoeia directs to pour ibas. SulphMric Add into a 
glass retort, and gradually add tt^j. Acetate of Soda, then dkftil 
on a sand bath, with moderate heat, into a glass xeceiver, till 
the residuum becomes dry. Mi£ the resulting liquid with 3 L 
Red Oxide of Lead, and again distil to dryness. Density 1Q6B.& 

Qmp. Carbon 4 eq.=34.4^, hydrogen 3 eq.=3-|-» ozj^en 3 eq. 
=^, fo/ming acetic a:id, eq. 53.48, and water. 

Prop, btlor very pungent and grateful; taste acid' and acrid i 
spec grav. 1.0^ very volatile, 87 grs. of crystallized carbonate 
of soda should saturate 100 grains of this acid ; contains 30i8 
per cent, of real anhydrous acid. It should not be coined by 
iiydrosulphuric acid, nor jweci^tatad by nitrate of baiytn or 
niirate of silver. 

Oper. Stimulant, rubefacient, escharotic 

Uoe, Applied to the nostrils in syncope, asphyxia, and headache ; 
destroys corns and warts. 

Jnconp. Alkalies, earths, alkaline and earthy carbonates. 

Off. Prep. Acidum Aeeticum QtauhoratuMf E. D. Aeetmm 
Cantkaridis. L. PoUuam Acetas, U. S.— L. PluwM Aeetmo^ 
U. S.— L. Oxvmel, L. Aeidum Acetieum dUutumf V. & 

Acid. (^ Acetic Acid Oss., DiatUled Water Ov. Mix.) 

Prop. ill. ^ saturated by 36 grains of crystallized Bkar§. of 
Potaaaa. _^__ 

gar. {Roriewiarini sic. foliar. Origani^ ring. | i. LavanSmlm 
sic 3iv. CaryophyUorum cont. 3sb. Aeidi Aeetiei ODss* 
Macerate seven days, and filter the exuvessed Uqoor thioi^ 
paper.) Acetum AromaUewm. 

Comp. Vinegar holding in solution the enmitial (rils c€ r ooe mei y , 
sage, lavender, and cloves. 

Prop. Odor pungent and aromatic. 

Use. As a grateful perfume in sick rooms. 

ated Acetic Acid. {Acidi Acetici f^vjss. Campkarm |i 
Bub the camphor to powder by means of a little alcohol ; 
dissolve it in the acid.) 

Prop. Odor extremely pungent; volatile. 

gp«r. Stimulant. 
»e. The vapor is snuffed up the nostrils in syncope. 

AClDUM A&3ENI0SUM. U. S.— L. Arsenious Acid. 

XJomp. Arsenic 2 eq.:=:75.4-f-t oxygen 3 eq.=34, eq. 99.4. 

Prop. White, opaque, or semi-transparent; spec. grav. Xtl 
volatile ; emits an odor like garlie, when tiirown on boining 
charcoal ; tasteless ; 100 parts of water, at 60^, dissolve 94S or 
the transparent, 152.5 of the opaque ; 1,000 of boiling, 97 of the 
transparent, and retain 18; 115 of (^;>aqae, and ret^n SO on 

Iho, To prepare the arsenical solution. 

Acn>UM BEJNZOlCUM. U.S->L.E.D. Benzoic Acid. (Take 
of Bomtoin IJ.; put the benzoin, previonsly mixed with am 
eqaal weight oS mie sand, Into a suitable veael. Bablime o« 

• ACI 

a nnd btOi till Tapgn emm to riae. DepriTe the rabllmal 

matter of oil by preasara in bibaloui papw, and apUn mblime.) 

— U. S. Ph^ Floret Benioet. 
y^Omp. Carbon 14 eq.=85.68+, hydrogen 5=5+i oxygen 2=94^ 

eq. 114.68. 
Frop. Odor aromatic and fVagrant ; taste hot, slightly acidulous, 

and agreeable ; soluble in boiling wcter and alcohol ; crystal* 

whife, brilliant, ductile, slender Needles ; should sublimo en- 
tirely by heat. 
Ow0r. Stimulant; as an expectorant, donbtAil ; errfaine. 
Use In chronic catarrh, but of very little efficacy. 
Dose. 6r. X. to 3 ss. • 

Of. Prep. T\netura Camphorm composittL, U. S. — L. D. TincU 

Opii Ammoniata^ E. Tinct. Opii eatHpkaratOy V. 8.— E. TineU 

Benzoini eompoeita^ U. 8. 
AClDUM ClTRlCUM. U.S.—L.E.D. Citric Acid. CrvstaUi. 
Comp. Carbon 4 eq.=:34.48+« hydnwoi 2=^, oxygen 4=33, 

eq. 58.48. (Obtained from lemon juice.) 
Prop. Sharp acidity of lemon juice ; crystals, right rhoroboidal 

prisms, persistent, white, semi-transparent ; soluble in less than 

twice their weight of cold water, and in half their weight of 

boiling water. Incinerated with red oxide of mercury, no ash, 

or a mere trace ia left 
Oper. RefVigerant, antiaeptic. 
Uee. In febrile and inflammatory complaints, and acorbntoa; 

and diasolved in water, instead of recent lemon juice, for Uia 

effervescing draught, (Proportion 3 xjss. to water 0!j.) 
Vest. 6r. x. to 3 ss., dissolved in water or any bland fluid. 
bteomp. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, acetates of lead, nitrate and 

aoetate of mercury, alkalies, alkaline sulphurets. 
Teaie. Acetate of lead for detecting sulphuric acid ; potassa for 

tartaric acid ; when incinerated with red oxide of mercury, no 

ash is left 
AOlDUM HTDROCHLORICUM. L. Acidum Mnriaticum, 

U. S. Acidum Muriaticum pumm, E. D. Hydrochloric Acid. 

Aqueous solution of chlnro-hvdric acid gas. — U. S. 
Ckmp. Chlorine 1 eq.=35.43-fl hydrogen=l, eq. 36.43; real 

acid 1 Atom ; water 8 atoms. {.From common salt.) 
Prop. Odor suffocating, taste intensely acid and caustic ; nearly 

colorless when pure, but commonly of a pale yellow color; 

volatile; the fumes visible; spec. grav. 1.160 to 1.100; spec 

grav. of acid of commerce 1.180 ; 1(M grains should saturate 133 

grains of carbonate of soda. 
Oper. Tonic, antiseptic, diuretic. 
Uee. In typhus ; cutaneous eruptions ; in gargles in inflamma 

tory and putrid sore throats ; in injections in gonorrhOBa. 
Dote. V[x. to nixx. properly diluted ; in gargles, f 3 ss. to f 3 U 

in f 5 vi. of fluid ; injection, fllviij. to water f 5 iv. 
Ineomp. Alkalies, earths, and their carbonates ; metallic oxides, 

aulphuret of potassium, tartrate of potassa, tartar emetic, and 

most metallic salts. 
Tests. Chloride of barium in the diluted acid for sulph. acid ; 

L. ammonia for salts of irm. 
Cff. Prep. Acidum Hydrockloriewn dilutum^ L. Acidum Muri' 

eitiouM dilutum, V. S.— £. I>. Tinctura Ftrri Sesjuichloridi, 



It. E. D. Bfiroeklonu BarfUh E- f^Mimmm PotaaH^ 

tariraMi V. 8. — ^L. E. D. Iihrri Amnuimo-ekloridumt Ii» 


Muriaticam dilutum, U. S.— £. D. Diluted Hydrochloric Acid. 

(Jicidi HydrocUorici f;iT., A^um distiUatm f^xij.) f3j. 

•hould saturate gr. 33 of crystallized carbonate of soda. 5 gr. 



PRUSSIGUM. D. Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid. OyanoH^rie 

Acid^ Prussie Acid, U. S. {Potasaii Fnroejfonidi | ij., Aeidi 

I Sulph. 1 JBS., Aq. DUt. Oiss.) {Prussic Acid may be prepared 

for immediate use in the following manner. Take of Oyanvret 

of Silver grs. Lss., Muriatic Acid grs. 41, Distilled Water f J. 

Mix the muriatic acid with the distilled water, add tiie 

^anuret of silver, and shake the whole in a well-stopped vial. 

When the insoluble matter has subsided, pour off the clear 

liquor and keep it for use.) — U. S. Phar. 100 grains of the 

acid, treated with solution of nitrate of silver, should form gr- 

z. of cyanide of silver.' 

Cmp, 1 eq. cyanogen=963H-« hydrogen 1 eq. SS7.39. Anhy* 

diotts hydrocyanic acid diluted with about thir^ parts of water. 

Fr0p. Colorless, transparent, with a peculiar odor ; taste sweetish 

and bland at first, afterwards pungent and acrimonious ; very 

volatile; decomposed by a high temperature and light; 100 

grains contain two grains of pure hydrocyanic acid. 

O)p0r. Sedative, antispasmodic. 

Use. In spasmodic coughs; asthma, hooping-cough, nervooi 

affections, hiccough, palpitation of the heart, and in allaying 

the irritability of the stomach in dyspepsia. Prussic acid may 

be employed with great benefit in cases of chronic neuralgic 

affections of the stomach. In these, it is highly useful in pre- 

paring this organ to bear other remedies, such as the vegetable 

and mineral tonics. It should be given in increased doses, till 

some physiological effects are produced ; then continuea in 

rather a diminished quantity. As a local application, properly 

diluted, it is useful in abating the itching in Impetigo and pm- 

riginous ai^tions. 

u Dote, flliv. gradually increased to niviij., in a glassful of water, 

p almcmd emul^n, or infusion of cinchona. When an overdose 

' has been taken, the effects ore best counteracted by ammonia, 

chlorine, brandy, and the cold affusion. 

ineomp Metallic oxides, chlorine. 

Teeta. *100 grains treated with nitrate of silver should precipitate 

^ gr.x, of cyanide of silver ; if iodo-cyanlde of potassium and 

mercury redden the acid, it contains some other acid. Nitrate 

of barjrta causes no precipitate in the pure acid. 

AClDUM NITRTGUM. U. S.— L. D. E. Acidum Nitricom 

purom, E. Nitric Acid. 
Gmp, Nitrogen leq.=14.15+, oxygen 5c=40,eq.=54.15. (From 

Nitre, Jfitrae Potassm.) 
frop. Odor sufibcating, taste very acid and caustic, corrosive, 
i^ Itquid, colorless, traniqiarent ; absorbs water from the air; 

tingea the skin yellow. Spec. grav. 1.504 ; spec, grav, of acid 
of commerce 1 .380 * 100 grains uiould saturate 217 of carbonate 
of ioda. It should not precipitate solution of nitrate of diver 
of nitrate of baryta, when iiluted with distiUed wata. 

• ACI 

Oper. Tonic, aaUfeptic, antfuyphUitie eeeharotfe. 

Use, The ttreng acid is seldom used fbr sny other than pbir 
maceuUcal purposes ; in the A inn of vapor, it is extracted fhMQ 
nitre 3 iv. and sulphoric acid 3 !▼. in a saucer, placed on • 
pipkin of hot sand, for the purposes of fumigation. 

Ineomp. Spirit of lavmider and the strong tinctures, in any larg^ 
quantity ; and the essential oils ; metallic oxides. 

Off. Prep. Aeidum Jfitricum Dilututn^ U. 8.— L. E. ArgenU 
cruras, V. S.— L. Ung. Hydrarg. JVit. L.— U. S. Hydrttr- 
'nri Xitrtco-oxidufHy L. Spiritua JSitkeris AVtrtct, L. B — 

Nitric Acid. 

Qmp. Nitric acid f|j. ; water f^ix. L. ae f^iv+aq. fivj. 
E. aq. f ; iij.+aq. f | iv. D. (f 3 J. contains fllyj. of the strong 
acid, L.) 

Frop. Spec. grav. 1.060. L. The same as nitric acid in a 
weaker degree. 100 grs. should saturate 31 grs. of crystallized 
carb. of soda. 

Oper. The same as that of nitric acid. 

U»e. As a drink, diluted largely, in fevers of the typhoid kind : 
In chronic affections of the liver, attended with a redundant 
and hasty formation of bile ; and in dyspepsia. As a remedy 
in venereal complaintt; yet in this clitnate it is not to be de* 
pended on, but it is a very useAil adjunct to mercury, and alli^ 
the violent irritation induced by it. It is also very tukefnl in 
the cure of old ulcerated legs. 

Dose. V\x. to fllxi. in f S iij. of water, twice or thrice a day. 

AClDUM NITRO MURIATICUM. U. 8.— D. Nitro muriatic 
Acid. (Aeidi ^itriei, mensurot partem i.; Aeidi MuHatiei^ 
meneura^ partee ij. Mix them in a vessel kept cool, and pre- 
serve the mixture in a well-stopped bottle, in a cool, obscure 

Prop. Odor suflbcating, color pale yellow 

Oper, Stimulant, antiseptic 

Vee, Largely diluted, it has been strongly recmnmended in 
malignant scarlatina, in chronic'affections of the liver, and in 
syphilis ; and still more diluted, as a bath, in chronic derange- 
ment of the hepatic secretion, which it improves, and acts 
gently on the bowels. 

Dose, fllviij. to Hlxx. in f $ ly. of water, twice or thrice a day. 
When used as a bath, the mixed acid should be added to the 
water until it tastes as sour as weak vinegar. 

huomp. Oxides, earths, alkalies, the sulphurets, and the acetates 
of potassa and of lead. 

phoric Acid. {Pkoepheri ; j., Acidi J^itriei f 5 iv., Aqua £>%»• 
tiUaUB fix.) 

Cemp, Phosphorus 3 eq.=:31.4 ; oxygen 5 eq.=40 ; eqitiv. 71.4. 
Spec. grav. 1.064. 

Prop. Coloriess, inodorous, strongly acid, fluid. 

Oper. Tonic. 

t/ee. In disposition to urinary deposition of the phosphattf <tf 
lime; in general debility. 

Vote, fllxx. to f 3J. 

IWts. 100 grains saturate 43 of carbonate of soda; a praclpb 

A C I « 

lij eUoiicle of barium inaoloU* in aitric acid iadicatea waUk^ 
•m* ^^ 

A^BUM PYROLIGNUM. E. Fyrolignotti Acid, (from do- 
structiTe distiUations of wo3d.) 

GrMir. and Prop. The same aa uioae of acetic acHl ; spec. gray. 
1 4)34. lUO minims ■hoold neutralize S3 grains of earlxniate ot 

U»e. Tlie same as diluted acetic acid. 

AClDUM SUCClNICUM. D.E. Succinic Acid. Sal Stieeim. 

Comp. Carbon 4 eq.=:24.48+ ; hydrogen 2 eq.=3r4- ; oxygen 3 
eq.^24, eq. 50.48 ; (obtained from amber.) 

Prop. Taste sour ; crystals four-sided rhomboidal plates, white, 
transparent; soluble in hot waler, and iiot alcohol ; volatile. 

Incomp. Mucilage, oils. 

This acid i» never^ or very rarely^ used in medicine. 

AClDUM SULPHURlCUM. U.S.— L. Acidum Sulphurlcum 
purum, £. Acidum Sulphuricum venale, D. Sulphuric Acid. 
Jleidum ffitriolieum. 

Comp. Of sulphur 1 eq.=16.1+ ; oxygoi 3 eq.=:24, eq. 40.1 ; and 
water; or acid 81.6; water 18.4. 

Prop. Inodorous; strong acid taste; corrosive; fluidity dense, 
apparently oily; transparent, colorless. Spec. grav. 1.845. 
(1.850 ad 1000, d.) It has a powerful attraction for water 
Congeals at — 15. 

Oper. Escharotic, stimulant, rubefacient, tonic, astringent, 

Use. In local pains, in the form of an ointment made of lard 
f Sj., sulphuric acid 3 j. ; and in scabies, with 3 as. of the acid 
to lard 5j. 

7'Mto. Distilled water should cause no muddiness ; solution of 
sulphate of iron no redness at the point of contact. 

Off- Prep. Used in preparing Acidum Citrieum^ HydroeUorieumt 
Jfitricum^ Tariarienm, Acidum Sulphuricum Puntta, D. Acid. 
Sulphur. DUuLf U. S. — L. E. D. Acid. Sulphur. Aromaticunii 
U. S.— E. Ferri Sulphas^ U. S.— L. E. D. Hydrarg. BichU- 
ridiim, U. S.— L. E. D. Zinei Sulphas, U. S.— L. Sulpha* 
Potasste, L. Potassm Bisviphas, L. E. Subsulphas Hydrar 
gyri FlimuSy E. D. 

{Acidi Sulphurici venalis libram. Pour it into a colorless glass 
retort, and having luted to it a receiver of the same kind, upirfy 
heat to the retort until the twelfth part of the fluid has distilled 
over, which is to tie rejected as watery. The receiver tieing 
again joined, distil to dryness. Put some thin slips of platina 
in the retort with the acid to prevent it from boiling over.) 
The sp. gr. is 1.845. The acid should be preserved in a stopped 

iVov. and Med. Use. The same as the common acid. 

luted Sulphuric Acid. (Aeidi Sulphuridtljin. Aqum distil- 

latm i I zivsB. Mix gradually. The Edin. Coll. order ae. fj J. 
+aq f^xifj.: the Dub. ae. li.+aq. ^v^. pondere.) llie 
present acid is stronger than the diluted acid of the tonan 

London Pharmacopmia nearly in the proportion of to 6. 
Prop, Inodorous, strong acid taste, transparent, colorlc 
a^. Tonic, astringent, refrigerant. 


10 AC I 

I7k«. In dyipepiia, diabetei^ m enorrhagia, hsmoptyria, eutaa^ 
oofl eraptkms, hectic ; in gaif lea, in cynanche, and to chaek 
■aliration. Sulphuric acid it an excellent tonic, and alao poa- 
aessea refiigerant and aitringent propeitiea, rendering it » 
valuable remedy in caaea where we wish to avoid diarriuM 
In caaes of low and hectic fever, attended with copious perspl' 
ration, it is very beneficial, as well as in hematemesis. It ia 
alao useAil conjoined with saline aperients, when the urine haa 
• tendency to phosphatic depositiona, attended with loss of ap* 
petite, impaired digestion, foul tongue, 4tc. It is usually given 
with some bitter mfusion, aa cascarilla, columbo, cinchona, 
quassia, 4tc. 

Dote. Hlz. to Hlxi. largely dilnAed : in gaiglea f 3 J. to f 3 iij. in 
f^viy. of fluid. 

Off. Prat. Aeidum Bentoieum^ E. Infutum Rosa, L. E. D. 

matic Sulphuric Acid. (Spiritut rect. Ojss. .Ae-idi Sulpkuriei 
(commercial) Siijss. dnjuimomi cort.eotU. ^j^s. Zingiberio 
rod. eoiU. $]. Add the acid gradually to the spirit, and digeal 
the mixture with a very gentle heat in a clofied vessel for three 
days ; moisten the mixed powder with a little of the acid ; let 
the mass rest for 13 hours, then put it into a percolator, and 
transmit the rest of the acid spirit.) Aeidum vitriolieum aro- 

Comp. An imperfect ether, with sulphuric acid predominating, 
and holding dissolved the essential oil of cinnamon and of 

Prop. Odor aromatic, taste acid and ali^tly ethereal, color 

Uoe. In dyspepsia; the debili^ following intermittents, and 
other fevers, combined with vegetable bitters ; and in chronic 

Dote. nix. to Hlxxx. in fluids, twice or thrice a day. 

AClDUM TANNlCUM. U. 8. Tannic Acid. (Tannin.) Ik 
Oallm. pvlo. JEther Sulphuric, a. a. q. ». put into a glass 
adapter, loosely closed at its lower end with carded cotton, 
Bufficient powdered galls to fill half of it ; fit the adapter accu- 
rately to the mouth of a receiving vessel, fill it with the sulph. 
ether, and close the upper orifice tightly. The liquid which 
passes separates into two unequal portions, of which the lower 
is much smaller in quantity, and much denser, than the upper. 
When the ether ceases to pass, pour fresh portions upon the 
galls, till the lower stratum of liquid Ln the receiver no longer 
increases. Then separate this nrom the upper, put it into a 
capsule, and evaporate with a moderate heat to drjmeas. 
Lastly, rub what remains into powder. The upper portion 
will yield a quantity of ether by distillation, which, when 

I washed, may be employed in a subsequent operation.— CT*. S. 
f Pkar. 

Oomp. Cartxm, oxygen, hydrogoi. 

Prop. Yellowish-white color, taste strongly astringent ; without 
bitterness, inodorous ; very soluble in water, less so in alcohol 
and ether ; insoluble in the fixed and volatile oils. Its solution 
reddens liuuus, produces with a solution of gelatine a white 
flocculent precipitate, with the aalts of the seaqui-oxide of iron 
» bloiah black precipitate, and with aolattoaa of the vegetaU* 


allnllei, white predi^tates ; veiy solable in acetic add.— fTl 8» 

V»e, Tannic acid may be adyantageously employed in all the 
pasaiTe hemorrhagex, especially menorrhagia ; also in diarrhosa, 
where we with simply an astringent effect. It possesses a 
great advantage over most other astringents, from the smallness 
of dose in which it may be given, and from its being less liable 
to irritate the stomach and bowels. 

Do»e. From 2 to 4 gra. every three hours. ' 

ACIDUM TARTARICUM. U. 8.— L. E. D. Tartaric Acid. 
B( Potasiw bitartratis Ibiv., ^qucB distillaUB ferventis Ckmg. 
iiss^ Oeta prmparatm 1 xxv.- 3 vi., Acidi Sulphuriei diluti Ov^. 
f^xvij., Acidt kydroehlorici f|xxvJ8S. vel q.t.9. Boil the 
bitartrate of potassa with two gallons of the water, and add 
gradoally lialf tlie prepared chalic ; then add the rest of the 
challc dissolved in hydrochloric acid, diluted with Oiv. of dis- 
tilled water ; let the tartrate of lime subside, then pour off the 
fluid and wash the tartrate of lime with distilled water until 
it is tasteless. Then pour upon it the diluted sulphuric acid ; 
boll for a quarter of an hour. Filter the supernatant fluid, and 
evaporate with a gentle heat until it crystsdiize. Dissolve the 
crystals again, and a third time in water, strain as often, and 
boil down, and leave at rest. 

Omp. Carbon 4 eq.=:34.4^ hydrogen 2=^— oxygen 5=40— 

Prop. Crystals white, imperfectly transparent, in irregular 
groups. Spec. grav. 1.5963. They do not effloresce nor deli- 
quesce when exposed to the air ; they melt into a transparent 
mass when heated above 212°,* and after this process ttiey 
deliquesce. They dissolve readily in water, combine with 
earths, alkalies, and metallic oxides i and consist of 1 part of 
real acid, and 1 of water. 

Oper. RefHgerant, antiseptic. 

Ute. In inflammatory affections, fevers and scorbntns. 

Do»e. 6r. x. to 3 ss. dissolved in water. 

Incomp. Alkalies and their carbonates, all the salts of potassa. 

T»*t». The precipitate by acetate of lead not dissolving in dilute 
nitric acid indicates a sulphate. When incinerated with red 
oxide of mercury, it should leave no residue. 

ACONITINA. L. Aconitura, U. S. ./9coii»£«, Aconitina. {Aco- 
niti rod. ezsiccati et eontuai Ibij., Spir. reel. eong. iij. AciiU 
sulph. dilutit Ammonia liq.i Carbonis animalit purif.i sing, 
q. $, a.) 

Comp. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen. 

Prop. Whitish powder, inodorous, taste bitter, acrid, soluble In 
150 times its weight of water at 60^, and 50 at 2130; alcohol 
and ether dissolve it readily; permanent in the adr; with 
acids forms dry, gummy, bitter masses, which the alkalies de- 

Vf' JSxtemally counter-irritant: too poisonous to be used 
internally. If the ointment, or alcoholic solution of aoonitina, 
be rubbed into the skin, it causes intense heat, thigling, and 
numbness, which continue for 12 or 18 hours. Dr. Tnmbul! 
direets the ointment to be made by rubbing up 16 grs. aeomitinoy 
with 3 SB. Wtvs oil^ and ^ J. of lardy to be rubbed in with the 
ioger for several minutea. The oolwtion for embrocation is 



made bj diMolylnf gra. viii. of aeoniUiu, 1& m of rtetM 
Mvirits, to be appliM with a iponge, bat not where the skui )■ 

ACONrri FOLIA ET RADIX. L. Aconitum panicalatum ; 
Folia, D. Aconitum, £. Aconite, or Monkshood Leavea. 
(Aconitum panictUatum. Monli's-hood ; Polyand. Trigw, 
N. O. RanuneuUeeoi Mountains of Germany and Siberia, 17. 
States. II.) 

Prmp. Dried leaves inodorous, taste sabacrid ; bitterish ; fresh 
▼ery acrid. 

Opa-. Narcotic, sudorific, deobstnient 

Um9. In chronic rheumatism, scrofula, scirrhus, palsy, amauro- 
sis, and venereal nodes. Aconite is a very poweiful topical 
remedy, in the form of tincture, in cases of rheumatism and 
neuralgia. It produces a sense otnuminusa and tingling^ and 
is ranited among the eerebro-svinanu. When swallowed in 
sufficient doses, it produces numbness and tinsling of the mouth, 
fauces, and extremities, vomiting, contracted pupil, and failure 
of the circulation. It seems to possess a decidedly sedative 
action upon the heart, and is regarded by many as a specific in 
subduing inflammatory action, especially that of gout and 
rheumatism. It is useful also in nervous headache, spinal 
irritation, and all Icinds of neuralgia. 

Do9e, Gr. j. gradually increased to gr. v. twice or thrice a dav 
of the extract, from gr. ss. to gr. J., of the tincture from 10 to 40 
drops, gradually increased. ^ 

Off. Prep. Aconitina^ L. Rttraetum Aeonittt I'* 

ACORUS. L. See Calami Radix. 

ADEPS. U. S.— L. Axungia, E. Adeps Suillus, D. Hog*a 
Lard. (Sua scrofa, the Hog. CI. MammaliOt Ord. Paehyderma, 

Cknnp. Elaine 02. Stearine 38. 

Prop. Inodorous, insipid, soft, unctuous, white. 

Oper. Emollient 

tf»e. In the formation of ointments, cerates, plasters, and Itaii 

Off. Prep. EmplasL CatUharidi»t L. Ceraium Sabinot L. Un 
tnunta Varia. Ceratum Simplex^ U. S. 4cc. 

AERUGO. L.E. SubacetasCupri,U.S.--D. Verdigris, imporo 
diacetate of copper. 

Comp. Acetate of copper 43, black oxide of copper S7, water 30 
pts. in 100. 

Prop. Mass difficult to break, dry, not deliquescent, foliaeeous, 
of a fine bluish-green color ; taste salt; completely soluble in 
sulphuric acid, and in hydrochloric acid ; partially in water. 

goer. Tonic, emetic, escharotic, detergent 
»e. Scarcely ever used internally ; applied to the callous edges 
of sores, and to consume fungus, but now seldom used. It is 
sometimes used as a lotion (gr. J. in rose or elder-flower water 
f S j.) iu scorbutic ulcerations of the mouth, but it cannot b« 
much recommended. 
Poet. As a tonic under gr. f ; as an emetic (torn gr. J. to f^, II. 
Off. Prep. JBrugo Prmparata^ D. UnguentMM SubacHatts (M' 

jSbESL NITROSUS. D. Nitrous iEther. 

Omp, Nitrogen 1041, carbon 30J97, oxygen 34.73) hjdrofeBSJMk 



In KM pts^ or 1 eq. of edier, 37.«-(-I, nitrogeii =rl4.1H-3 
oxygen =94 eqiiiv.=75.63, (from alcohol and nitrous ackl.) 

Pray. Nearly the tame as those of sulpharic mtha, but more 
volatile, and its odor is less ft-agrant; spec. grav. 900; little 
soluble in water ; soluble in alcohol. 

Oper, and Use. The same as those of sulphorie ether. 

iBTHER 8ULPHURICUS. U.S.— L.E.D. Sulphuric iEther 
fiptr. Fini. ReeU biij. Sulph. Acidi bij. Ckarb. Potasswy sice, 
f J. Add the acid to IbiJ, of the spirit in a retort; place on a 
■and bath and raise the heat quickly, so that the fluid may 
quickly boil, and the ether may pass into a cooled receiver 
Distil until a heavier portion bqrins to pass over. After the 
heat has subsided, add the rest of the spirit to the liquor in the 
letort, and redistil. To the distilled fluids add the carbonate of 

Fotassa; agitate for an hour; lastly, redistil. (The U. States 
harmacopoBia directs to take of Alcohol (Mv., Sulpknrie Add 
OJ., Potas$a 3 yj., DtstUled Water f S iij.) JEtker vitriolieus. 

CSmp. Oxygen 1 eq.=8+> carbon 4 eq.=34.48+ hydrogen 5e=5 ; 
— equiv. 37.48. Spec. grav. .7M. (735, E.) 

Prop. A llmpi^, colorless, very inflammable, volatile liquor; 
odor paietnoiDg and fragrant ; taste hot and pungent ; inflam- 
mable; readily mixes with alcohol; soluble in ten paits of 
water ; produces cold during its evaporation. Its volume is nut 
lessened when agitated with half its weight of concentrated 
solution of chloride of calcium. 

Op0r, Diffusibly stimulant, narcotic, antispasmodic ; ezteraally 

Uso. Hysteria, asthma, tetanus, epilepsy, and other spasmfldic 
complaints; externally in head-ache, and dropped into the 
meatus in ear-ache ; it has also been used in bums. 

Ihae, Hlxx. to f 3 ij. in f 3 xij water, or other fluid. 

TuL If it redden litmus stnmgly it has been improperly pro- 

Or. Prtp. Spiriit ,Xtheri Sulphuriei eontp.^ L. 

8PIRITUS iETHERIS SULPHURlCI. E. Spirit of Bulphurfo 
iEther. (Sulphuric iEther, a pint ; Rectified Spirit, two pints.) 

Comp. Alcohol holding in solution sulphuric ether. . 

Prop. Odor fragrant, taste warm. 

g^. Stimulant, stomachic. 
86. In weakness of the stomach, flatulencies, and languor. 

Dose. f3 88. to f3ij. in bitter infusions. 

Compound Spirit of Sulphuric iEther. (Sulph. iEther f § viij., 
Rect. Spir. f | xvj., iEthereal Oil f 3 iij.) 

Prop. Stimulant, antispasmodic anodyne. 

Dose. From f 3 ss. to f 3 ij. in f | jss. of water. 

ALCdHOL. U.S.— L.E.D. Alcohol. {Rectified Spirit distUlei 
from Chloride of Calcium, or Carb. Potassa.) 

Comp. Oxygen 34.79, carbon 52.17, hydrogen 13.04=100, or 3 eq. 
hydrogen=3-f-2, carbon=12.34-f 1, oxygen=8, equiv.=23.24. 

Prep. Odor fragrant, penetrating ; taste pungent, burning ; color- 
less ; transparent ; boils at 174° ; it dissolves all the vegetable 
secretions, either wholly or partially, except gum ; dissolve! 
also ammonia, polassa, iodine, soda. Spec. grav. 0.815. 

Qp«r. Stimulant {powerful and diffusible)^ sedative. 

Um, Boaroely ever uaed internally in its pore state, but 


tiinea advantiteouily la a highly dilated form ; In cawt of 
debility and low feveri ; exteraaliy as a fomentation in mosco- 
lar pains ; to burna ; and to restrain hemorrhages. The use of 
alcohol as a medicine has been much diminished within the 
last ten years. It is found unsuited to a great migority of casee 
of disease, and when employed, too often inducing an artificial 
appetite, not easily overcome. From lis strong attraction for 
water, it causes thickening or scirrhus of the stomaeh, and an 
indurated state of the liver ; and (torn its powerful effects upon 
the nervous system, it induces epflepfiy, tranors, coma, maniat 
and death. For these reasons, and that we have useful soh* 
stitutes, it should seldom be prescribed. 

Off. Prep. Omnes SpiritiUf U. S. Spir. Ammemim Fmtidutt D. 
JSEtker Sulph.., L. £. D. JEtktr M'itrMutf D. 8piritu$ Am- 
ntontVs, L. E. 

ALCOHOL DILUTUM. U. S. {Jileokol, DitUUed Water, « « 
OJ. Mix. Spec. grav. 0.935.) 

ALLIUM. U.S.— L.E. AUii sativi Bulbus, D. Garlic Bulbe. 
(Allium Sativum, Garlic, Bexand. Monogyn. N. O. IMiaesm. 
Sicily, Britain, U. States. 4.) 

Cktrnp. Sugar, gum, albumen, extractive ; a heavy, yellow, fetid, 
acrid, volatile oil, which is the active principle, and cont^ne 

Prop. Odor strong, offensive, and penetrating; taste sweetishi 
biting, and caustic ; these are dissipated by coction. 

Oper. Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, emmenagogue, diapho- 
retic, and anthelmintic ; extremely rubefacioit, maturant, and 

Us§. In cold leuqophlegmatic habits, dropqr, rheumatalgia, 
humoral asthma, and hysteria. Intermittents have been cured 
by it. Tne Juice dropped into the ear, in atonic deafness, is • 
very effectual remedy; and it is also beneficial in herpetic 
eruptions, formed with oil into an ointment A poultice of it 
over the pubis has been found useful in atony of Uie bladder. 

Dose. One to six cloves, swallowed without chewing, twice <« 
thrice a day. Of the juice f 3 ss. to f 3 ij. mixed with sugar or 
syrup. . In pills with soap or calomel^ gr. xx. to 3ij. 

The virtues of the gcvus Allium depend on an acrtd principUt 
soluble in water, aleokoU acids, ana alkalies. 

ALLII C£PiE BULBUS. D. The Bulb of the Onion. (Alli- 
um Cepa. The Onion. Hexand. Monogyn. N. O. Liliacem, 
Europe. 2|.*) 

Prop. Odor strong, offensive, and penetrating ; taste sweetish, 
pungent These are dissipated by coction. 

?^er. Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant 
ae. On account of the free phosphoric acid it contains. It ii 

supposed to be useful in calculous cases ; but it is chiefly 

used as a cataplasm in slowly suppurating tumors, and for 

ALOES. L. Aloe. U.S.— E. Aloes Socotrina Barbadensls-* 

Indica— Socotrina. D. (Aloe Spicata. The Socotrine Aloe 

Uoxand. Monogyn. N. O. JMiacem. Cape of Good Hope. 

4.) Aloo. 
Ctmp. Peculiar bitter princiide {,Aloesin) 73 per cent , colMlnf 

principle 96 per cent 
Frip Odor not onpleaiantt rather fragrant; taste yeiy Uttov 

ALU 16 

Mt QBllkc that of animal bUe, and illghtljr aronatle ; color 
leddiah brown with a riiade of parple ; man hard, friable, 
Ihictore conchtMal and glony ; Mriuble in dilated alcohol ; 
powder of a bright cinnamon -yellow colw. 

Oper. Cathartic, warm and Btimalating, emmenagogoe, anthel- 
mintic, stomachic ; hvrtfhl in hemorrhoids. Aloes acts chiefly 
on the large intestines, and produces catharsis by increasing 
peristaltic or muscular action, and not by increasing the eeere> 
ti<Mis. It usually rits well on the stomach, promotes apptrtite 
and digesti<m, and is one of the most Taluable articles of the 
Materia Medica. 

Dose, Toactasacathartic,gr. H.togr. z. ; asanenunenagogue, 
gr. J. to gr. ij. twice or thrice a day. The form of a pill is the 
most convenient mode^ of exhibition, tiiough the eompownd 
deeoeUon is our favorite preparation. 

Off. Prep. Deeoetutn Aloe* ComposituMy L. D. Extraetum Alooa 
purif., L. D. ExL CotoeyrUhidis Comp.^ U. S.—L. D. T^net. 
Aloes, L. E. D.— U. 8. THnct. Aloes Comp., L. E. D. Tinet, 
Aloes JBtkereOf E. Tinet. Benzoini Comp., U. 8. — L. E. D. 
Tinct. Rhei et Aloes, U. 8.— E. Finum Aloes, L. E. D. Pnl- 
9is Aloes Contp., L. Pit. Aloes Comp., L. D. Pulv. Aloes cum 
CaneUa, D. PH. Aloetiea, E. Pil. Aloes cum Myrrka, U. S.— 
L. E. D. PU.'Camhogi<B Ormp., L. PU. Aloes et Assafatidm, 
B.— citm Coloeyntkide, E. Pil. Rhei Comp., L. E. Pil. Scawt- 
monii Comp. eum Aloe, D. Pil. Sagapent Comp., L. 

ALOE HEPATICA •, EXTRACTUH. D. Barbadoes Aloea. 
{Aloes perfoliata. Class and order as aborc Barbadoes^ 
Greece. /(..) Aloe Barhadensis. 

Comp. As above, but with a larger portion of bitt^ principle. 

Prop. Odor very disagreeable, intensely bitter, and nauseooa; 
powder of a dull olive yellow. 

Oper. As above, but not so frequently employed. 

Mallow Leaves and Root ( Althca Officinalis, Marsh Mallow, 
Monadelph. Polyand. N. O. Malvacea. Indigenous 40 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste sweetish, mucilaginous when chewed ; 
yields its mucus to water by coction. 

Oper, EmoUient, lubricating, demulcent. 

Use. In pulmonary and intestinal affections; ardor urine; cal- 
culus; externally in fomentations, clysters, and gargles. 

Off. Prep. Deeoctum Althosm Officinalis, E. Syrupus Altkmii^ 

ALiJMEN U. S.—L. E. D. Alum, (frvn Schistose Clays.) 

Comp. Sulphate of alumina, with excess of acid, 36.85; sulphate 
of potassa 18.15; water 45.00 parts (Benelivs), or 1 eq. of alu- 
mloa7=51.4-f 1. of potassa 47.15-M, of sulphuric acid=]60.4+ 
S4, of water=316: equiv.=474.95 in the crystallized state. 

Prop. Crystals regular octahedrons ; but generally in large white 
semi-transparent masses; taste sweetish, styptic; effloresces hi 
the air; 16 pts. water at 60° dissolve 1 part of alum. 

Over. Tonic, astringent; and in large doses laxative. 

Use. In heraorrhoges, lencorrhoea, diabetes, coliea pictonum; 
externally in relaxation of the uvula, ophthalmia, gleet, and 
fluor albtts. 

Dose. Ors. z. to 31. united with an aromatic; <» in whey, 
made with 3 U. of the powder and fli}. of hot milk, a teaeupfol 

10 AMM 

oecasionally ; in garalM 3 as. in f; {y. of fluid ; in eollyria and 
injections gr. xy. in f $ vj. of rose water. A saturated s(riuti<»i 
is a useful styptic. Mum Curd is a good cooling external ap* 
plication in ophthalmia and other diseases ; made by beating 
up the white of an egg with a piece of alum till it forms a 

Ineomp. Potassa and potassse carbonas, sode carbonas, ammonia, 
lime, magnesia, acetate of lead, infusion of g^ls. ' 

Off' Prep. Alumen Extiuatum^ L. E. D. Liquor Mumiuis 
Comp.^ L. Pulv. Aluminia Cotnp.f £. 

ALUMEN EXSICClTUM. U. S.— L. E. Alumen Siccatnm, 
D. Dried Alum. (Melt the alum in an earthen vessel over 
the fire, until the ebullition cease.) 

Comp, As above, without the water of crystallizatiCNi. 

Prop. Dry, friable, white, opaque. 

Oper. Escharotic. 

Use. To destroy fungus in ulcers ; internally in colic. 

Dose. Gr. iv. to xij. 

AMMdNliE ACETATIS AQUA. E. Bee Liquor Jlmmonim 

AMMdNliE SESaUICARBdNAS. L. Ammonia) Carbonaa, 
U. 8. — E. D. Sesquicarbonate of Ammonia. (Talce of Jlfiirt' 
ate of .Ammonia tt>j., CAo/Jk, dried^ ibjss., pulverize them sepa* 
rately ; then mix them thoroughly, and sublime with a gradually 
increasing heat.) — U. S. Phar. 

Comp Ammonia 21.53, carbonic acid 55.70, water 32.78=100 
parts, or 3 eq. carb. acid 66.36+3, anunonia=51.45+3, water 
=37 ; equiv. 144.81 : but the quantity of acid varies according 
to the heat employed in the preparation. 

Prop. A white, striated, crystallized mass: odor and taste pun 
gent and ammoniacal ; soluble in 4 pts. water at W> ; insolubia 
in alcohol ; effloresces in the air ; sublimed by heat 

3 per. Stimulant, antacid, diaphoretic, antispasmodic. 
se. In hysteria, dyspepsia, chronic rheumatism ; applied to the 
nostrils in syncope. 

Ineomp. Acids, potassa Aisa, liquor potassae, magnesia, carbon 
ates, alum, chloride of calcium, bitartras and bisulphas potasse, 
salts of iron with the exception of the potassio tartrate, bichlo- 
ride of mercury, salts of lead, sulphate of zinc. 

Doae. Gr. v. to 3i. in pills, or in any bland fluid. Gr. zxx. ana 
an emetic. 

Off. Prep. Liquor Jimmonia Sesquiearbonatis, L. E. D. Liquor 
Ammonia .Aeetatis, U. S. — L. E. D. Cupri Ammonio-Sulpkat, 
L. E. D Liquor Ammonim, U. 8. 

monis Carbonatis Aqua, E. Solution of Sesquicarbonate of 
Ammonia. {Ammonm Sesquiearbonatis 5 iv., Aqum di M ti lla t m 
Oj. Dissolve the carbonate of ammonia and strait.) 

Prop, and Use. The same as that of the sesquicarbonate. 

Dose, nixxx. to f 3 j. in any bland fluid. 

AMMONITE BICARBONAS. D. Bicarbonate of Ammonia, 
iAm$nonia Carbonatis Aqum, quantum velis. Expose the S(ri« 
tlon in a |m>per apparatus to a stream of carbonic acid gas^ 
procured from white marble dissolving in sulphuric acid, untH 
Hie allcali bo saturated ; then let it remain at rest until crystato 
fbim ; to be dried without heat and preserved in a close vessel.) 


AMM 17 

K and Viie. The same as the seeqaicarixmate. 

tidNl£ H7DROCHLORAS. L. ]kIuriaaAmiiionie,D 8. 

^E. D. Hydrochlorate of Ammonia. Sal Ammoniac, U 8. 

'CkhrohydrtUe of Ammonia. Sal Ammoniaau. 
Cbrnp, Hydrochloric acid 9.55, ammonia 31.95, water 1850 

I»arts ; ocJ eq. ammonia=17.15+l of hydrochloric acid 36.43 : 

I Trop. Ino^proua ; taste acrid, pungent, bitterish, urinous : 3 pt& 

• of cold water dissolve 1 pt. ; usually in the form of a hard, 

translucent, striated cake; soluble also in 4.5 pts. of alcohol. 
Op«r. Aperient, diuretic ; externally to produce cold during ita 

solution; stimulant 
U»*. Seldom used internally; externally whHe dissolving, to 

abate the heat and pain of inflamrtnation ; to allay head-ache ; 

in lotion, Composed of the salt |j., alcohol f 5J« water f^\x^ 

to indolent tumors, gangrene, scabies, and chilblains. 
!>•»«. 6r. X. to 3 ss. 
Jueomp. Sulphuric and nitric acids, acetate of lead, potaasai 

carbonates of soda and potossa, lime. 
Off. Prn. Ammonia Sesquiearbonas^ L. E. D. Uquor Ammo- 

»us, Li. E. D. Liquor Sesquicarbonatis Amm4niiit, L. £. D. 

Alcohol Ammoniatum^ E. D. Ferri Ammonio-Chloridum^ L. E. 

AquaCupriAmmoniatiyD. SulphuretumAmmonimt'D. Muriao 

Ammonite et Ferri, D. 
AMMONIiE LiaUOR FORTIOR. L. Aqua Ammonis fortior, 

E. Stronger solution of ammonia 
Prop. Colorless, strongly pungent. Spec. gray. .883; containa 

29 per cent, of ammonia. 
Oper. Escharotic, vesicant. 

Use. As a rubefacient when combined with oil ; as an instanta- 
neous vesicant in gout in the stomach. It is used for preparing 

Liq. Ammonia, by adding f giij. of distilled water to f |j. of 

this solution. 
Teots. Should not become turbid with lime-water, nor should 

it precipitate nitrate of silver. 
AMMONIiE SPIRITUS. U.S.— L.E. (Ammonia Hpdrocklorati* 

I X., Potaasa earh. | xvj., Spir. Rect., Aquas, a a Oiij., and distil 

Cemp. Solution of carbonate of ammonia in rectified spirit. 
Prop. Transparent, colorless, pungent, acrid to the taste. Haa 

an alkaline reaction. 
Opor. and Use. The same as carbonate of ammonia. 
Doee. flss. tof 31. in water. 
AMMONliCUM. U. S.— L. E. Ammonincum Gumml. D. 

Ammoniocum. (Dorema Ammoniacum. Don. m Act. Soc 

Linn. Borbory, Abyssinia 1} 
Comp. Gum, resin, essential oil ; proportions unknown. 
Prop. Irregular, dry masses and tears, yellow externally, whitish 

within ; odor peculiar, not ungrateful ; taste nauseous, swaet 

and bitter; forms a white emulsion with water; soluble la 

vinegar ; partially so in alcohol, ether, and solutions of th« 

Opor. Expectorant, deobstruent, antiqtasmodic, diacutlwt, ra- 

OSm. In aiUiiDa and chronk catarrh ; visceral obatnictlons, andl 


obitfiiate colle ftom rteeid matten lodged 1& the hitefdiiM^ 

VUamallj to idiThoas tamon and white twellinc of die Jointik 
Dote, Or. z. to 3 sb. in pills, with fqaiil, myrrn, lee^ or ta 

moliion ; ate Mist. Ammoniaci. 
Off- Prep. Miitura Ammoniaci^ L. D. PUvlm Scillm CompoaUm^ 

la. B. PUulm IpeeaeuanfuB Comp.^ L. Emplaat. AmmoniMeif 

U. S. — ^L. EmpUuL Oummosum, £. EmplasL Ammonitui 

CUM Hydrargwro^ L. 

and Sweet Almonds. (Amygdaliis communb var. 3. y. ■'c 

sand. Monogyn. N. O. Amygdalem. Africa. \ .) 
Prop. Taste of fi woit and sweet, of y bitter; kernels of both 

flat, long, with a brownish powdery cuticle; both yield bV 

exi^essioa a sweet biand oil. The bitter b now used fw emul- 

sions, and contains hydrocyanic acid ; the marc yields oil of 

bitter almonds. 
Opor. Demulcent ; the bitter is sedative. 
V»o. In inflammatory complaints; and as a vehicle fox mora 

active remedies. 
Off. Prep. Oleum Jimpgdala^ L. E. D. Mietura Jimifgdalm, 

L. E. D. EnmUio Arahica^ E. D. Emuleio Ckmpkorata% B. 

Confutio Amwdala, L. 
AMYGDALiE OLEUM. See Oleum Amygdale. 
AMYGDALifi PERSlCiE FOLIA. D. Peach Leaves. (Amyg- 

dalus Persica. leosand. Monogyn. N. O. Amygdalom. Persia. 

> .) They contain hydrocyanic acid. 
Prop. Taste bitter and aromatic ; odor agreeable. 
Over. Sedative. 

Uee. In inflammatory and spasmodic afiections. 
AMfLUM. U.S.— L.E. Tridci Farina, D. Starch. (Triticom 

Hybemum, Wheat. Triand. Digynia^ N. O. Oraminaeem^ 

Sicily 1 0.) 
Graip. Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon. 
Prop. Inodorous, insipid ; in white, friable, hexagonal columnar 

pieces, emitting a peculiar sound when pressed ; insoluble \n 

cold water and alcohol ; forming, with boiling water, a strong, 

opaline, semi-transparent jelly. 
Oper. Demulcent, nutritious. 

Uee. In dysentery, tenesmus, and ulceration of the rectum, in 
. the form of a clyster ; it is the common vehicle for exhibiting 

opium per anum. The Decoction of Starch is made by boilingi 

for a short time, 3 iv. Starch, in Oj. FFiUer, previously mixing 

them gradually while the water is cold. 
Teet. UMline, when the solution in water is cold. 
Off. Prep. MucUago Amyliy E. D. PtUv. Tragacantha Comp., 

X. PUnUe Hydrargyri, £. Trochisci Oummosi, E. 

ofGilead. {Amy U9 QUeadcveie. Octandria Monogyn. H.O. 

Burceraeem. Arabia near Mecca. >.) Baieamam Qilea' 

Prop. Odor somewhat fragrant ; taste warm and bitter , color 

golden yellow ; of the consistence of i^'rap. 
Oper. Stimulant, expectorant. 
Uee. Scarcely over used. 
Deee. 9J> to 3 j. twice or thrice a day. 

ANT 19 

AXCHVSM RADIX. D. Alkanet Root (ABchuMTIiictori^ 
PmUamd. Monogyn. N. O. Boragimaum. Europe. i|^ 
JhuhM»m radix. 

Frop. Inodorous and insipid when dried. The mall roots am 
toe best, and impart the finest and deepest red to oils, ointments^ 
and plasters, for which purpose only they are us^. 

ANETHUM. L. £. Dill Seed. (Anethum OraveoUns. Pm- 
UmLDigyn. N.O. DmbeUiferm, Booth of Europe. 0.) 

Frsp. Odor arcMnatic, but not agreeable; taste aromatic and 

9fer, Stimulant carminative. 
««. In flatulent colic, and hiccough, particularly of infantt. 
J[>M«. 6r. X. to 3j. 

Off. Prep. Aqua Anetki, L. 

Angelica Root and Seeds. (Pmtand. I>igyn. N. O. UmM- 
Uferm. Northern Alps, i .) 

Prvp. Odor fragrant; taste aromatic, Utterish, very wans, 
equally in the root leaves, and seeds. 

Op»r. Tonic, carminative, sudorific. 

Use. In dyspepria and nausea, but rardy used* 

Do»9.> 3iiJ. 

ANISUM. U S.— L. E. Anisi Semina, D. Aniseed. (Pim 
[toella. AnitMm. Pentand. Digyn. N.O. VmitUiftrm. 
Egypt 0.) ^ • 

Fr«p. Odor aromatic; taste sweetiah, warm, gratefuL Fignn 

Opmr, Carminative. 

U$e, In dyspepsia, and the tormina of Infants. 

Do»e. Gr. x. to 3 j. bruised. 

Off. prep. Otoim .^am, U. S.— L. E. D. Spirihu JMn.'L, 

JU^fTHEMTS. J5. S.— L. E. Anthemidis Nolniis florea. D. 
Chamomile Flowers. (Anthemis KobUiSy Cc«mm<m Chamo* 
mile. Sfngen. Superfi KO. Composite. Indigaums. i^) 
Chamamelum^fios simplex. 

Tirpp Odar powerful, fragrant grateful; taste bitter, warm; 
these properties reside in the disc of the flower, and depend oa 
volatile oil, bitter extractive, and piperina. 

Oper. Tonic stomachic ; the warm iof U8i<m is emetic ; extanaDy 
discutient emollient antiperiodic lime of maceration, 8 to 
10 hours. 

Ue: In interraittents, dyspepsia, hysteria, flatulent eidic govt; 
to promote the operaticHi of emetics ; externally as fomentationa 
in gripings, and to ripen suppurating tumors. 

Dte. In powder 3 ss. to 3 ij. twice or Ihrice a day. 

Off. Prep. Extraetmrn Anthemidis^ E. D. Deeoetum AutiewdHs 
JfsbUis, V. S.— E. D. Decoct. Malva Qmp.^ L. htfmstm 
Anthemidis, !<.— U. S. OleHm Anthemidis, L. The aetiwe 
eonstitneiUs are hitt^ extractive, an essential cU^ and pip t rin tu 

ANTIMdNn OXmUM. E. Antimonii OHdnm Nitromuriati- 
cnm, D. Nltromuiiatic Oxide of Antimony. (wfatrsMim 
Sulphnreti m piUv. sub. ^ iv., Aeidi Mwiatiei Qj., uid Aqmm 
Ov. Dissolvethesniphuretin theacidwiththeiddcrfag^tie 
heat; boil for half an hour; pour the fluid into the water < 
eolleat the precipitate on a calico filter ; wash it well with cold 
water, then with a weak aolatioa of carfoooate of aoda, and 

to ANT 

■gilB With cold water till the water eeaiee to ai&et reddenei 
litmus paper. Dry the powder over a vapor bath. 
Prop, and Use. A^eesquioxide, used merely for preparing tartar- 

Sulphureturo, U. S.— D. Sesquisulphuret of Antimony. jSm- 

Comp. Antimony 75.8, sulphur 26.2^ in 100 pts. ; or 2 eq. anti 
raony4-3 sulphuit=:177.3. 

Prop. Powder of a black or bluish grey color ; insoluble. 

Oper, Slightly diaphoretic, alterative. 

Use. In chronic rheumatism, scrofula, cutaneous diseases. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3 ss. after evacuating the stomach and bowels^ 

Off. Prep. Sulphuretum Antimonii, E. D. Oxydum JintimonU, 
E. Jintimonii Oxysidphuretum, L. Pulvis Antimonii Com- 
positus, L. Oxydum Antimonii, D. Antimonii Sulphuretum 
aureum^ E. D. 

return Precipitatum, U. 8. Sulphur Antimoniatum Fuscum, 
D. Antimonii Sulphuretum aureum, E. Oxysulphur^ <rf 
Antimony. Sulphur Antimonii Pracipitatum. 

Comp. Sesquioxide of antimony 12.00, sesquisulphuret of anti- 
mony 76.5, and 11.5 of water. 

Prop. Powder of an orange color, taste scarcely metalline, and 
styptic; insoluble. 

Oper. Emetic, diaph(»etic, cathartic, according to the extent of 
the dose ; alterative ; used now, only for forming Plunmier'a 

Use. In chronic rhenmntism and obstinate eruptiom. Seldom 

X>ose. 6r. j. tc iv. twice or thrice a day, in a pill. 
Off. Prm. Pilula Hydrareyri Chloridi conm., L. 
Test. Totally soluble in hydrochloric ncid, emitting Aunea of 

hydrochloric acid. 

pared Sniphuret of Antimony. (Antimonii Sulphureti quantum 

velis. Let it be reduced into powder, and treated in the 

manner ordered for the preparation of chalk.) 
Prop, and Use. The same ns those of the sulphuret 

tarizatum, E. Antimonii et Potass® Tartras, U. S.— D. Po- 

tafisio-Tartrate of Aniimony, or Emetic Tartar. 
Comp. 1 eq. tartrate of poias8a=ll 3.63+1 sesquitartrate of anti- 

mony=2l9.68=2 water=18: cquiv. 351.31. 
Prop. Regular form of the crystal, an octahedron ; but as it 

efllnresccs, generally a white powder ; taste styptic and metallic ; 

f 5 j. of water, at COO, dissolve gr. 25, at 212° 3 iv. It st luld 

always be dissolved in distilled water to prove -emetic. It is 

^soluble in alcohol. 
Oper. Emetic sometimes cathartic, diaphoretic, expectoraot, 

alterative, rubefacient. A sedative to the circulation, while it 

increases most of the secretions. 
Use. In the beRinning of fever, to clear the stomach and bowels ; 

but it is an improper emetic in advanced stages of typhus ; fn 

large doses in pneumatic inflammations ; and in small as an 

alterative In eutaneous diseases, acute rheumatism, chorea; 

A Q U 91 

extttnally in white swellings, hooping-coogli, phtUsI^ and all 
deep-seated inflammations. 

Dot* As the means of subduing inflammation, gr. is. to gr. y. ; 
as an onetic, gr. j. to gr. iv. in solution ; diaphoretic and expec- 
torant, gr. I to i. It is made into an ointment for external use, 
by rubbing up i ij. with lard 5 J* 

huon^. Alkalies and eartlis with their carbonates ; strong acids ; 
hydro-sulphurets ; lime-water, chloride of calcium, aaita of 
lead ; decoctions of bitter and astringent plants. 

Olf. Prqt. Finum Jintimonii Potatsio-tartnUUf L. Fraaai 
jimtinuniiaU, E. Vinum Jintimonii^ V. S. 

Tt9L Solubility complete in a moderate quantity of watw. 
Hydro-sulphuric acid, ioto which one or two of the cryanala 
may be dropped, should form an orange color on them. Nei- 
ther chloride of barium nor nitrate of silver should cause a 

APll PETROSfiLINI RADIX. E. The Root of Parsley. 
(Apium Petroselinum. Common Parsley. Psmtend. Digyn 
N. O. Umbdlifera. South of Europe, i.) 

Prop. Odor, when recent, slightly aromatic ; taste sweetish and 

Oper. Diuretic, aperient 

Dose. A cupful of the decoction, made with | ij. of the sliced 
root in water OJ. boiled to Oss. 

(The Root. Pentand. Digyn. N. O. Apocynea, U. States- 
Nuttall. Bigclow. 4.) 

Prop. Taste unpleasant and very bitter ; contains bitter extrac* 
tive, caoutehouc, volatile oil, and coloring muiter. 

Oper. Emetic, diaphoretic, alterative. 

Dose. Grs. xxx. of the powdered root as an emetic ; grs. ▼. dia- 
phoretic. Employed by the Indians in lues venerea. 

APOCYNUM CANNABINUM. U. 8. Indian Hemp. (The 
Root. Pent. Digyn. N. O. Apocynea. Big. Nuttell. 21.) 

G»iiip. A bitter principlu, extractive, tannin, gallic acid, resin, 
wax, caoutehouc, fecula, liguin, and a peculiar principle, 

Prop. Strong odor, nauseous, acrid, bitter taste. Fresh root 
yields a milky Juice resembhng caoutehouc. Root yields ite 
virtues to water and alcohol. 

Oper. Emetic, hydragogue, cathartic, diuretic, diaphoretic, ex- 
pecteront, slightly narcotic, and sedative. 

V»e. A very powerful remedy in ascites and general dropsy. 

Do»e. From grs. xv. to gr. xxx. of the powdered root produce 
free voroiUns and purging. Of the decoction, which is prefera- 
ble, and made by boiling fse. of the dried root in 0^. of water 
to cy., from f ^ j. to f I U* ms^y be given three or four times a day 
if necessary. Of the extract, grs. iij. to grs. iv. two or three 
times a day will usually act on the Irawels. 

AQUA. E. Spring Wat«;r. Contains about 6000th of solid 

AaUA ACIDI CARBONICI. U. S. Carbonic Acid Water. 
{By means of a forcing pump, throw into a suitable receiver, 
aeariy filled with water, a quantity of carbonic acid (obtained 
ftom water by means of sulphuric acid), equal to five times th« 
lolk of the water.)— U. S. Pkar. 

99 AQU 

AaUA AMMONIA FOBTIOR. E. f^UiaarAmmniim, 
—~-^ ABlMONIiE. £. EkK Liquor JimmonuB. 

AMMONLE ACETATiS. B. See Liquor Amaumim 


ANETHI. L. Dill Water ; prQperties, Ilc^ the same a« 

BARYTA MURIATIS. D. Solution of Muriate ct 

Barjrtes. Vide Solutio Muriatis BaryUe. 

CALCIS. E. D. Lime Water. Vide Liquor CaUis, 

CALCIS COMPOSITA. D. Compound Lime Water. 

{Ramentorum Ligni Ouaiaci^ fbtm. OlyeyrrhiuB radicis ineism 
et contusee, f j. Cortieis sassafras^ contusiy fsa. SeminuM 
Coriandri^ 3 yj. Aqua Calcis^ mensura &vj. Macerate with- 
out heat for two days, occasionally shaking the closed vessd* 
and strain.) 

For the use and virtues of this very unchemical preparation, see 
DeeoctuM Ouaiaei Composttum. 

AaUA CALCIS MURIATIS. D. Solution ofJIfuruiteo/ £,«««. 
See Liquor Caleii Chloridi. 


Solution of Carbonated Soda. ( Carhonatio Soda quantum velis.) 
Dissolve it in the water, so that each pint may contain a drachm 
of carbonate of soda ; then in a proper vessel expose the solu- 
tion to a stream of carbonic acid gas, extricated from white 
marble by muriatic acid diluted with six parts of water, until 
the carbonic acid be in excess in the solution.) 

Prop, and Uso. The same as those of soda water. 

AOUA CAMPHORA. Camphor Water. (Take of Camphor 

3^., Alcohol gutt. xl., CarhofiaU Magnesia 3j., Distilled 

Water Oy. Ruh the camphor first with the alcohol, afterwards 

with the carb. mag., and lastly with the water gradually added 

— ^then filter through paper.)— CT". S. Phar. 

AdUA CARUI. U. S.— L. D. Caraway Water. 

CASSLE. £. Cassia Water. {Cassia Bark bruised 

I xviij.. Water Cong, ij., Reet. Spirit f I iij. Distil ofif a gallon.) 

Use. The same as that of cinnamon water. 

AaUA CHLORINEI. E. D. Chlorine Water. 

Comp. Chlorine and water. 

Prop. Odor sufibcating; taste harsh, astringent; color pale 
greenish yellow; spec. grav. 1003; decomposed by light, de- 
stroys vegetable colors. 

Oper. Stimulant. 

Use. In scarlatina maligna. 

Dose, f 3 j. to f 3 ij. in a small cupful of fluid 

AaUA CINNAMOML U. S.— L. E. D. Cinnamon Water 
(Take of oil of cinnamon f 3 ss., carbonate magnesia 3 ss., dis- 
tilled water ojj.; rub the oil of cinnamon first with the carb 
mag., then with Uie water gradually added, and filter through 
paper. In same way prepare the other medicati>d waters of 
medicinal plants.) — U. S. Phar. 

AUUA CUPRI AMMONIATI. D. Vide Liquor Oupn Am- 

DISTILL ATA. U. S.— L. E. D. Distilled Water. Al- 
though this is very generally ordered in extemporaneous pre- 
scriptions, yet it is scarcely ever used ; but it is nevertheless 
■biolately necessary when the following and many other artf 


traSj Ar^enU Jfitraa., Cmfn jSmmtmim-Sm^kaSi Fori PttrngHt 
Tartrate Hydrargj/ri BiekUridrnm, Ufumr Ammomimy lAfmttr 
Plumbi di ac e t ati st Ldqutr PttuMm^ CkUriimm BmrUf PlmmM 
AcetaSy Finum Ferri, Zmd Suip km St et prmm m rm t i mmeB v^rim, 

AaUA FLORUM AURANTIL L. Orange Flower Water. 

AaUA FGBNICIJLL U. 8.— L. E. D. Fennel Waler. 

< LAURO CERASL E.D. Laurel Water. {FreahCkerrw 

LoMrel Leaves Ibj.« Water OijHL, Qmp. Spir. »f Lavender f j 
Distil a pint ; agitate and filter if mill^, uid add the qiirit.)' 

Prop. Taste and odor resembling tlioae of fritter almoiidi, so 
hydrocyanic acid. 

Oper. Sedative. 

Use^ In spasmodic aflecti<ms.and dyi^qnia. 

Dose. From lllx. to f 3 i. or more. 

AaUA PIMENT^E. L. £. D. Pimenta Water. 

MENTHJB FIP£RfI.£. U. 8.— L. £. D. PepperariBt 


MENTHiE FULEGIL L. E. D. Pennyroyal Water. 

MENTHiE VIRlDIS. U.8.— L.E.D. Mint Water. 
PlClS LiaUID^E. D. Tar Water. {PicU OUt Aqum 


Comp. Empyre-matic oil, vinegar, watn. 
Prop, Taste sharp and empyreumatic ; color of Maddra wine. 
Oper. Stimulant, diuretic. 
1790. In scorbatus and cataneont diseases. 
Doee. Oi). to Oij. in the course of a day. 
AaUA POTASSiE. £. See Li^utr Potasam. 

ROSiE. U. S.— L. E. D. Rose Water. 

SAMBUCL L. E. Elder Water. 

These waters, which c<nitain a small portion of the essential oD 

of the plants in solution, are vsed chiefly as vehicles for more 

active medicines; in doses of f IJ. to f 1 ly. 
AaUA SULPHURETI POTASS.£. D. Water of Sa]phorei> 

ted Potassa. (A Sulphuretted Hfdro-avlpkuret of Petassa.) 
Prop. Odor fetid; taste nauseous and acrid; color yellowish; 

feels soapy, stains the cuticle black ; abeoiiM oxygoi from the 

air, and is decomposed, reqoirinf, therefwe, to be kept closely 

Oper. The same as potasril sniphuretnm. 
Use. In herpes; externally in scalHes and p(»rigo. 
Dose. I ss. to f 3 ij. twice a day. 
Ineomp. All the acids. 

Intion of Potassa. (Agum Cra^.J., Petassm CarbojuUis lit in 

JiTootX's Apparatus.) 
Cou^. Bicarbonate oi potassa, uncomUned carbonic add, and 

Prep. Taste pungent, acidulous ; transparent, sparkling. 
Oper. Diuretic antacid. 
17m. In dyspepsia and red gravel. 
Dose. f% viij. three times a day. 
AaUA SOD^ EFFERVESCENS. £. Carbonatis Soda 

Aqua Acidnla. D. Effervescing Solution of Soda. Soda 

Water. {Aqum Cong. Sedm Carbonatis S^., ««t«r«f«d t» 

booth's Apparatus.) 

lAHE imm. ST^UF0R0 \m 


<kmp AfabeTe,wfditlieUetiboD«teoriodftinfteadofpoCMM. 

Pr^, Ab above, bat more pletnnt and milder. 

Cf0r. Tonic, lithontriptic diorctie, antacid. 

Ua». In red gravel, dytpepeia, and as a cooliog bererage; with 
lenum-juice, a good efierveacing draught 

/>««& Oh. to 0!j. twice or thrice a day. 

Mr. Branie** exper i ment* have raised doukt* whether the nlkaliet, 
m any form, act as enlvents of ready-formed ealeulous wuUter. 

ARAUA NUDICAULIS. U. S. Suondarf. Falae Saraapa 
rilla. (Pent. Pentagyn. N. O. Jfraliacem. U. 8. 4.) 

Prop. Root horizontal, creeping, twisted, yellowi«h-brown c(dor» 
fragrant odor, warm, Hromatic, sweetish taste. 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic, alterative. 

Use. Employed in rheumatism, s}rpbilis, cutaneous oiketiooB, 
in the same manner and dose as Uie genuine sarsaparilla. 

ARALIA 8P1NOSA. U.S. Angelica Tree, (Toothache Tree, 
Prickly Ash. CI. and Or. same as former, li..) 

Prop. Bark thin, greyish externally, white within, aromatie 
odor; bitterish, pungent, acrid taste; soluble in boiling water. 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic emetic, cathartic. 

use. Employed in chronic rheumatism and cutaneous er\iption8. 
Also, in Virginia, in colic, in toothache, usually given in decoc- 

ARCTll LAPPifi SEMINA ET RADIX. D. Burdock Root 
(Arctium Lappa, U. S. Burdock, Syn/fen. Polygam. JEqwdis^ 
N. O. Composita. Indigenous. 4.) 

Prop. Inodorous, tuste sweetish, slightly bitter, mucilaginous. 

Oper. ' Aperient sudorific, diuretic. 

. Use. In rheumatism, gout aphthe ; also in venereal, scorbutic, 
scrofulous, nnd nephritic nifections; in decoction made with 
% ij. of the root in Ojss. of water. The leaves externally in 
cutaneous eruptions and ulcerations. 

Dose. A teacupful several times a day ; of little value onlcai 
persevered in for a long time. 

iRGENTUM. U 8.— Ij. E. D. Silver: used only to prepare 
the Nitrate. 

of Silver. (Argenti in laminas eztensi atque concisi partes 
triffinta septem, acidi nitrici diluti partes sexaginta. Let the 
silver be put into a glass vessel, and the acid previously diluted 
with water poured over it Dissolve the metal, with heat 
l^radually increased ; then crystallize by evaporation and cool- 
mg, and preserve the crystals, dried without heat, in a glass 
vessel in an obscure place.) 

Comp. Oxide of silver 68.24, nitric acid 31.76, in 100 parts ; or 1 
eq. acid=54.15+l oxide of silveit=116 eq.=170.15. 

Prop. Taste intensely bitter and metallic ; crystals transparect, 
brilliant irregular thin plates, not deliquescent but becoming 
brown, the silver being partly reduced, when exposed to vege- 
table or animal matter. Soluble in an equal weight of water 
at 6OO, and in alcohol. 

2p0r. Tonic, antispasmodic, escharotic. 

Use, In chorea and epilepsy; externally to cicatrise ulcers; tm 
an amplication to erysipelas; and as a gargle in ulcerations of 
the fauces. 

Dose, Or. l-6th to gr. i. or more, hi a pill with cmmb of bttad 

AR6 , » 

JiMtmp. Alkalies, mlkalbie eaitlu; Milphorle, hydro-ffnlphvie, 
mlphurouB, hydrochloric, phosphoric acida, and their aalta; 
aprioR water. 

ARGENTI NITRAS. (/iMa?) U.S.— LJl.D. Nitrate of Silver. 

Camp. 1 eq. of oxide of Bilver=116+1 of nitric acid — 54.15, eq. 
=170.15; or 68.34 parts of oxide-f31.76 of acid=100.00. 

Prop. Taste styptic, austere, bitter ; decooipoees animal matter. 
In little cylindrical pieces of a duIl-whiie color ; fracture radi- 
ated ; reduced by light; soluble in an equal weight of water 
at 6(K>, also in alcohcri. 

Spar. Tonic, antispasmodic, escharotic. 
§e. In chorea, epilepsy, dyspepsia, and irritable conditions of 
the mucous membrane of the stomach and bowels ; locally to 
relieve strictures; to fungous ulcers, warts, and venereal 
chancres; gr. ij. in distilled water f $j. is a good injection in 
flstulouffsores ; and as an application to spongy gums, enlarged 
tonsils, and ulcerated sore throats. A solution of 3 ss. in f ^ J. 
of distilled water, highly useful when pencilled over the sur- 
face in erysipelas. 

Dote. Or. | increased to gr. iv. in a pill, with crumb of bread, 
three times a day ; or in solution, increased to gr. iy. The 
dark color communicated to the skin of some individuals is an 
objection to its external employment, but this is prevented by 
the administration of diluted mtric acid or chlorine. 

Of. iVip. Lifuar Jifitratio Argentic L. Arfonti Ctfonidum^ L. 

Jnam^. Sulphmic, hydrochloric, and arsenious acids and their 
■alts ; alkalies, except ammonia ; lime ; chlorides ; sulphurets ; 
astringent vegetable infusions and decoctions ; aqueous solutions 
of salts of mercunr. or of copper. 

ARGENTI CYANIDUM. L. Argenti Cyanuretum, U. 8. 
Oifanmret of Silver. Cyanide of silver. JlrgetUi JVYt. 3 xvU. 
jSeidi Hydroeptatiei dUutit Aq. diH., aaOJ. (The U. S. Fh. 
directs to take JifiiraU of Silver 3xv., Hydrocyanic Acid, 
DisU Water^ & aOj. Having dissolved the nitrate of silver in 
the water, add the hydrocyanic acid and mix them. Wash 
the precipitate with dietilled water and dry it.) 

Comp. 18.4 cyanogen=80.e 8ilver=100 ; or cyanogen 1 eq.=96.30 
•fsilver 1 eq.=1.06%q.=:134.39. 

Fr^, White powder, insoluble in water,*solnUe fai ammonia, 
and hot nitric and sulphuric acids. 

TtMt*. Nitric acid dissolves the whole of the residue, alter the 
cyanogen has been driven off by heat. 

U»e. To prepare hydrocyanic acid. 

ARGILLA PURA Pure Argil or Alumina. Armenian Bole, 
rrake the Sulphate of Alumina and Ammonia, and expose It 
for ao or 25 minutes to a red heat, in a crucible ; the sulphuric 
acid and ammonia are driven off, and the argH remains behind 
111 ft wliitfi nowdcr ) 

Prop. A white powder, devoid of smell or taste, astrtagent; a 
peculiar earthy smell when breathed upon. Insoluble in water, 
attracts moisture greedily from the air, becoming a gelathione 

Oper. Absorbent, astringent. 

Ute. In diarrhosa, cholera infantum, and dysentery, attended 
with acidity of stomach. 


86 A R S 


D—. For a young child 3 m. to 3 J., to adultt 3^. to 3iT. to 
an mnulsicm. 

ARMORAClA. U. S.— L. CochieariaArmoraeiaeRadlXf E.D 
Hone Radish Root (Cochlearia ^rmoraeia, Horse Radfadi 
Tetradjfnamia Silieulosa. N. O. Cruetfera. Europe. IL.) 

Prop. Odor pungent ; taste sweetish, biting, acrid ; lost in drying 

Oper. Stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic. 

U»*. tn scorbutus, rheumatiBni, dropsy, and dyspeptic affections ; * 
and locally in hoarseness. 

Dote. 3i. to 3 J. Vide Infhsion : of the following syrup a tea- 
spoonful often, slowly swallowed, in hoarseness. (]^ Of the 

- scraped root 3 j., boiling water 5 Um sugar g. s. to the strained 

Of. Prep. Infuoum jSrtnoraeis Comp.t L. Spir. Armoradm 
Comp.^ L. D. 

The Flowers, Leaves, and Root of Leopard's Bane. (Arnica 
Montana^ Secondary, Syngen. Polygam. Superfi. N. O. Cowr 
posiUB. North of Europe. 1\..) 

Prop. Odor slightly fetid; when rubbed aromatic, «zclting 
sneezing ; taste bitterish, acrid. 

Oper. Narcotic, stimulant, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, diuretic. 

Voe. In amaurosis, paralysis, rheumatism, gout, drupsy, nephri- 
tis, and chlorosis. The root has been usedin intermittents, but 
is most useful in diseases attended with a typhoid state of the 

Dose. 6r. v. to gr. z. in powder, or f 1 jss. of the following infu- 
<don (1^ Of the root 3 jss., water f $ viij.), twice or thrice a day. 
In large doses it produces poisoning. 

Tests. The infusion is colored green by sulphate of copper. 

ARSENIAS AMMONL£. Jimmonium .Arsenicum. Arseniate 
of Ammonia. (Take of arsenious acid one part, dissolve in 
water, and add pure or carbonated ammonia sumcient to saturate 
the acid ; or,ttalie of white arsenic one part, nitric acid four 
parts, muriatic acid half a part, saturate the solution with 
carbonate of ammonia, and let the arsenical salt crystallize.) 
— Dunglison's " AVw Remedies." 

Oper. Alterative, and sitni'.ar to Fowler's Solution of arsenic. 

Use. In chronic cutaneous affections ; must be given for severa 
weeRs. • 

Dose. Of a solution, made by dissolving gr. i. of the salt in |J 
of water ; give from xx. to xxv. drops daily, increasing the dose 
gradually till it reaches 3 i. 

bum. E. Acidum Arseniosum. L. Sublimed with white 
Arsenic. Arsenious acid. 

Oomp. Arsenic the metai, 75.3,<ozygen 24.8 parts ; or 2 eq. arsenie 
=75.4+3 oxyBen=34 — equiv.=99.4. 

Prop. In while, semivitreous, brittle lumps ; some transparent^ 
others opaque ; odor, when heated with charcoal, that of garlic ; 
taste sweetish. When heated with charcoal in a close glasi 
tube, it sublimes in brilliant metallic hcales, by which it may 
be detected when suspected as the cause of death. Its solutioa 
reddens litmus ; spec. grav. 3.7 ; 1000 parts of water at 81S0 
dissolve 37 parts, and retain 18, when cold, of the transparent 


add; 115 oftfieopaqae, and retain 29. TbeBoliitkmc<miblnM 
with alkaliea. 

Optr. Tonic, escharotic. The moat virulent of the mineral 
poisoniB, for which the hydrated peroxide of iron is the l)eat 

Uee. In intermittenta, periodic headachea, and chronic rheam»- 
tiama. An application to cancerous sores, in lotion. (^ Acidi 
araeniosi, cartionatis potasase, a ft gr. viij., aquoe ffiv. ; or, in 
ointment, Q( Acidi araeniosi 3 j., ung. cetacei 3 xij.) 

Jhfee. In aolntion, vide Liquor putassee arsenitis; or gr. 1-lOth 
to gr. i in a |rill. (Qr Arseniosi acidi gr. J^ sacchari albi gr. x., 
mice pania gr. z. Tere saccharum cum acido, dein cum pane 
Optimo contunde, et in pilul. aequal. decern divide.) 

Qf, Prm. Liquor Pottufm Areenitis^ U. S.— L. 

ARSENICUM lODATUM. Iodide of Araenic. (Heatinaglaaa 
alembic a mixture of 16 parts of arsenic and 100 parts of iodine ; 
or, iMil 30 parts powdered arsenic and 100 of iodine, in 1000 
puta of water. Aa aoon as the liquor becomes colorless, filter 
and evaporate to dryness.^ — Majendie. 

Vrep. Orange-colored needles. 

Sper. Sedative, alterative. * 

'§e. In cutaneous affections, both internally and externally. 

Dose, One-tenth of agrain three times a day, increased to one- 
fourth of a grain, l^e ointment may be made, according to 
Cazenave, by miJdng 1 part of the iodide with 18 of lard ; but 
Biett uses only gf iii. of the iodide to ; j. lard. 

The Leaves of the Chinese and Indian Wormwood. Moxa. 
(Sfugmi, Superjlu. N. O. Compositm. China and Indiu. 24-.) 
Tie JHoxa is prepared hy heating the tops of these plants in a 
mortar %ntU thejf become like tow. The A. VMigaris viU 
answer. ^ 

Prop. /.eaoM— odor flagrant, taste bitter. .Xfozaaoftlilce cotton 

Oper. Leaves — Stomachic, tonic, antispasmodic. 

Use. The leaves in dyspepsia, hysteria, and obstructed menstrua* 
tion. The Jlfoxo, burnt upon a part, relieves rheumatic pains, 
and other local lUSections requiring counter-irritation. 

Dose. A cupful of an infusion, made with 3 iv. of the leaves in 
f ^viii. of Iwiling water. 

Southern- Wood Tops. 

€Jomp. A volatile oil, resinous extractive matter, and a peculiar 
principle, santonin, crystal lizable, colorless, tasteless, inodorouSi 
soluble in sther and alcohol, and nearly insoluble in water. 

Prop. Smell strong and disagreeable ; taste bitter. 

2 per. Stimulant, anthelmintic. 
se. In the lumbrici of cliildren ; but much is to be ascribed to 
the calomel, Jalap, d&c., administered ut the same time. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3 J. in powder, or made into an electuary with 
honey, twice a day. Superseded in this country by the seeds 
of the ChenopodiuM Anthelmintieum. 
ARUM. U. S. Secondary. (TriphyllumJ Dragon Root, Indian 
Turnip. (Monacia. Polyandria. N. O. Aroidea. United 
Btataa. TheRoof. ©.) 

30 . AUR 

qpir. AltentiTt, tonle. 

C/f «. In venereal afibetiain, cntaneoufl diMan% Ace. 

Dose. M5th to 1-lOth of a grain. 

AURUM MURIATICUM. Auri Terehlorldum. Aonim Chlo* 
ratiun. MuriaiAari. MoiiateofGold. Terchlorideof Gold. 
(IMgeet <me part of gold leaf in three parti of the nitro-hydro* 
chloric acid in a und bath, and evaponUe gently to diyneM.)— 
liVciieJk Oodat, 

Prop, Taiite stsrptic, diaagreeable ; aolable in alcohol, aether, and 
water, forming a Kriution of a beautiful yellow ; occurs in small 
crystalline needles of an orange-red eolcnr. Exposed to a mo- 
derate heat, it passes to a state of protochloride ; heated to a 
creater degree, chlorine is disengaged, and metallic gold left 

Qmp. 1 eq goId=a00+3 eqs. chlorine 106. 

Oper. A corrosive poison ; resembles corrodve sublimate in its 
operatitm ; an alterative. 

V»e. Externally and internally, in dropsy secondary syphilis, 
and glandular afifections; as a caustic in cancerous growths. 

Dote. From l-90th to l-15th^of a grain, twice a day. Must be 
used with great caution. 

chloridum. Chloride of Gold and Sodium. Muriate of Gtold 
and Soda. (Take of goU six parts, dissolve in a sufficient 
quantity of muriatic oeuf, adding as much nUrie acid as is re- 
quired to dissolve the gold ; then mix ten parts of dry muriaU 
of oodot and after evaporating the solution ovex a slow fire, 
reduce it to a yellow powder.) — Prut*. Pharm. 

Prop. Crystals, four-i^ed prisms ; beautiAil yellow color ; attracts 
moisture from the air ; soluble in water. 

Comp. 1 eq. terchioride of gold=308 ; 1 eq. chloride of sodimner 
60, and 4 eqs. of wateR=36. 

Oper. An alterative. 

Ute. Scrofula, syphilis, and cutaneous affectioiis ; most employed 
of any of the auric preparations. 

Vote. 1-aOth to l-95th of a grain, twice a day, rubbed up ia 
sugar ; of the ointment, gr. i. to gr. xxxvi. lard. 

tro-Muriate of Gold. (Dissolve gr. vi. of pure muriate of gold 
in J j. nitro-muriatic acid.)— i2«eafni«r. 

Over. Caustic, resolvent. 

Ute. In cancerous tumors and ulcers. 

Dose. Should be applied cautiously to the diseased parts, and 
to them exclusively. The pain from its application may bto 
relieved by pledgets dipped in laudanum. 

AURUM OX YD ATUM. Auri Teroxydum. Teroxide of Gold. 
Oxide of Gold. Auric Acid. (The French Codex directs to 
prepare it by boiling four parts of calcined magnesia with one 
part of tochloride of gold, and forty parts of water. Then 
wash first with water to remove the chloride of magnertum, 
and afterwards with dilute nitric acid to dissolve the excess of 

Oper. The same as the other preparndons of gold ; its uses also 
the same ; made into pills with extract of mezereon, and given 
in doses of a tenth nt a grain to a grain. 

AURI TERCYANIDUM. Tercyamdeof Gold. (AddcareftiUy 

B AL 31 


a solution of pore cyanide of potaeBlum to a solution of chloride 
of gold until a precipitate (cyanide of goid) ceased to be foimed.) 
— French Codex. 

Con^, 3 eqs. cyaAogen:=78 ; 1 eq. gold=300. 

Prop. A yellow powder, insoluble in water. 

O;^. Alterative. 

V§e. In venereal, scrofuloas, and cutaneous affections. 

Dose. l-15th to 1-lOth of a grain, in pills, with some inert 

AVENA. L.E. Avcnae farina ex seminibus. D. Oats. (Avena 
Sativa. TVtond. Digyn. N. O. OraminMea. l»)z of Juan 
Fernandez. 0.) 

Comp. In 100 parts, 59 starch, 4.30 gluten, 8.35 sugar and bitter 
principle, 3.50 gum. 3 fixed oil, 33.95 fibrous or woody matter ; 
has no smell ; slightly bitter to the taste, and yields most of its 
nutritive matter with faciliQr to boiling water. 

Oper. Nutritive, emollient. 

Use. The decoction of oats is excellent as a beverage in all acute 
diseases; and as a clyster in dysentery. The dry meal is 
ipriaicled over parts affected with erysipelatous inflammation : 
boiled in water, it forms a good common poultice ; and, with 
yeast, the fermenting poultice, for gangrenous sores. 

To make oat-meal gruel, boil an ounce of the meal with three 
pints of water to a quart; strain the decoction; allow it to 
■tand till it cools; then pour off the clear liquor; add sugar 
and lemon juice to improve its flavor: raisins may also be 
boiled in it for the same purpose. 

AXUN6IA. E. Lard, ^^se Adept. 

BAL^lMUM CANAD£MS£. E. D. See Terebinthina Cana- 

BALSlMUM PERUYIANUM. L. E. D. Myroxili Peruvianl 
fialsamum, E. D. Peruvian Balsam. (Myrospermum Perui- 
ferum, Deeand, Monogyn, N. O. JLeguminoem. South 
America. > .) 

Comp. Benzoic acid, resin, volatile oil. 

Prop. Odor fragrant and aromatic, taste hot and bitter, consist' 
ence that of honey, color reddish-brown, soluble in alcohol, 
miscible hi water by means of mucilage. 

Oper.' ' Stimulant, tonic, expectorant 

Uoe. In palsy; chronic asthma, bronchitis, and rheumatism; 
gleet; leucorrhooa; and externally for cleansfaig and stimulating 
foul, indolent ulcers ; 3 j. with fellis Bovini \ iij., forms a mix- 
ture which is dropped into the ear in cases of a fetid discharge 
from that organ, every day after syringing with a. solution of 
mild soap. 

Doee. fllx. to f 3 ss. twice or thrice a day, made into an emttlsiim 
with mucilage of gum. 

Off Prep. Ptlula Ouaiaei eum Aloe^ D. 

BAL8AMUM TOLUllNUM. L. E. Toluifera Balsamum 
Aesina, D. Tolu Balsam. (The concrete baleam of MyfO> 
■permum Pemiferwu,.) 

Cemp. The same aathat of Balsam of Peru. 

fVsp. Odor very ftagrant ; taste warm, sweetish, communicailed 
to boiling water ; color leddish-yeUow. 

Op§t, Btimulant, expectorant 1 



Vas* Li chrcmlc coughs, but prlndpolly ued on aeeooat of Hi 

Dote. 6r. z. to 3 m. triturated with macilage. 

Off. Prep. Tina. Bentoini Comp.i L. E. D. TmeL Tbfatea^ 
£. D. Svnanu TohUani, L. £. 

BARIUM lODATUM. Baryi lodidom. Iodide of Barimn. 

BARYTA HYDRIOOICA. Hydriodate of Baryta. (For the 
methods of preparing these, aee Dungliaoira ** New Remedleai" 
pp. 82, 83.) 

Oper. Alterative. 

U»e. Scrofula, morbid growtha, hypertrophy, chronic inflamma- 
tions, secondary syphilis, cataneous diseases, &c. 

Doee. 1^ to 1-6 ctf a gnin three times a day, gradually incree^ng 
the dose to 2 or 3 grains. . 

BARYTiE CARBONAS. U. 8. See Carfoonas Baryts. 

' SULPHAS. D. For making the carbonate, and the 

chloride of Bariimi. 

BARU CHLORIDUM. U. 8.— L. See Marias Baryta;. 

BECCABUNOiE HERBA. D. Brooklime. (Veronica Beeea- 
bunga, Diand. Monogyn. N. O. Veronietm. Indigenous. JL\..) 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste bitterish, slightly septic 

Oper. Antiscorbutic 1 

Dee. In scurvy, but has very little efficacy. 

Dote. ffjj. to ;iv. of the Juice daily. 

BELLADONNA. U.S.— L.E. Folia et Radix, D. The Leaves 
and Root of Deadly Nightshade. (Atropa Belladonna. Pet^ 
land. Monogyn. K. O. Solanaeem. Indigenous. i|..) 

Cpmp. Albumen, salts of potash, and a narcotic principle, which 
is an alkali that has been named AtropiOt discovered by Messrs. 
JIfeieener and Brandet^ in Germany : its crystals are adcular, 
white, shining, tasteless^ and scarcely soluble in water. 

Prop. Odor slightly narcotic, taste subacrid, bitter, nauseous ; 
does not lose its activity by drying. 

Oper. Powerfully nareotic, diaphoretic, diuretic, repellent 

Vee. In obstinate intermittents, tic douloureux, palsy, epilepsy, 
chorea, mania, gout, rheumatism, dropsy, Jaundice, pertussis, 
and the cachexic ; amaurosis : sprinkling the powdered leaves 
over cancerous sores has been found to allay the pain ; and the 
leaves form a good poultice. Applied to the eye, in the form 
of infusion or solution of the extract, to dilate the pupil previous 
to operations. The root is used for the same purpose as the 

Doee. 6r. ss. gradually increased to gr. x. daily ; or f | ij. of this 
infusion,^ Bi Of the leaves 3 J., hot water f S Zt strained cold 

Off. Prep. Ext. DMadonnte, L. E. 


BENNIE. (See Sessamum.) 

BENZOlNUM. U. 8.— L. E. Benzoe, D. Benzoin. (Stvmx 
Benzoin, Decand. Monogyn. N.O. Styracem. Sumatra. ^.) 

Comp. Benzoic acid, resin. 

Prop. Odor fragrant, taste slightly aromatic; in masses com- 
posed of white and brown pieces; vfdatile; soluble in alcohol 
and aether. 

Vee. Principally for obtaining the acid it c<mtains. 

Doee. Gr. x. to 3 ss. 

Meomp. Alkalies, acids :— and so with all the balsams. 

BRO 39 


Of. Prep, JteUuM Benxoietmi L. £. D. Timet. BtmaiaiiU Qmj^ 

BEEGAMn OLEUM. L. Bergamote oleam. E. OilofBer- 
gamotte. A volatile oil, distilled from, the rind q€ the fruit of 
the Citrus LimeUa Btrgamium. 

Use. For scenting (^tments. 

BISM€THUM. U. S.— L. E.D. Bismuth. 

Yrep. In spicular plates of a reddish-white color, considerable 
lustre, pulverizable, moderately hard ; spec. grav. 8.211: fiisible 
at40QPFah. ; volatile in a high temperature. It has a senaible 
odor and taste. 

Dee. J'or preparing the trisrJf rate. 

BISMUTH! TklSNITRAS. L. Bismuthi Subnitras. U. B.— D. 
Bismuthum album. E. Trisnitrate of Bismuth. {^iBiemuiki 
S j., .addi J\ritriei f ^ jss., .^qtus Dietillatm Oiij. Dissolve the 
Usmuih in the nitric acid, mixed with f 3 vj. of the water; and 
strain. Add the remainder of the water to the filtered fluid, 
and set aside the mixture till the ^wder subsides. Finally, 
having poured off the supernatant fluid, and washed the l3l»> 
nitrate with distilled water, dry it, rolled in blotting paper, with 
m gentle heat) 

Cemp. 16J)6 pts. of nitric acid-|-81'64 of oxide of bismuth=100.00 ; 
or, 3 eq. ozide=24(H-l eq. acid=54.15 equiv. 294.15. 

Prop. A white, inodorous, tasteless powder : insoluble in water. 

Oper. Tonic, antispasmodic. 

Vee. In dyspepsia attended with cardialgia. 

Doee. From gr. j. to gr. xv. 

BORAX. L. E. Sods Boras, (A. S.— D. (Impure from Thibet 
and Persia.) Borax. A Biborate. Exists native, and may be 
obtained by artificial means. 

Cemp. 2 eq. of boracic acid=69.8+l of soda 31.3+10 water=90 

Prop, Inodorous, taste cooling, slightly efflorescent *, soluble in 
water. A concentrated solutiCHi trea^ with sulphuric acid 
deposits scaly crystals in cooling. 

€>per. Diuretic, detergent, refrigerant. 

Vee. In aphthous affections it is administered internally ; and 
also in gastric irritation. As a gargle in aphthc, and in sali- 
vati<m. In nephritic and calculous complaints depending on 
an excess of uric acid. Externally as awash in scaly cutaneoua 

Deee, Gr. x. to 3 j. ; lotion 3 j to 5 viy. water. 

Off. Prep. Mel Boiwsy L. E. 

BBAYEBA ANTHELMINTICA. Brayera. {Teoeamd. JHgftu 
N. O. Roeacem. The Flowers. 4.) Abyssinia.. 

€}omp. Extractive matter, tannin, &c 

Oper. Powerful anthelmintic. 

Vee. For tape worm. 

Deee. S J or the flowers boiled In xvi. of water to | viy. ; add 
sugar or honey to make it palatable, and swallow at om 
draught. Not yet employed in the United States. 

B&OMlNIUM. U.S.— L. (Secondary.) Brome. 

Prep, A dark orange-red volatile liquid ; odor duugreeable, n 
sembling that of chlorine ; taste strongly acrid ; spec grav. S 
very volatile ; soluble in water, alc<^K»l, and etluNr ; KHind It 
•M water, mineral waters, and marine animnli* 


34 CAJ 

Oftr, A povrerfal polsoo, escharotie. 

U§e. To prepare bromide of PotaMium. In some cases at Iodine^ 

but possemes more activity. Some ca^es ns Iodine — broncho- 

eele, scrofula, amenorrhoea, chronic cutaneous affecti(Mu^ and 

hypertrophy of the ventricles. 
Do*e. Five or six drops of a solution, made by dissolving 1 part 

of bromine in 40 of water, by weight. 

Off. Prep. PoUutii Bromidum, 

BEUCINA. Bruclne. An alkaloid obtained from the bark of 
the false Angnstura {Brueea Antidyaenteriea)^ also found in 
Nox Vomica and St. Ignatius's Bean. 

Prop. Crystals of a white color, oblique prisms, pearly lustre, 
bitter taste, soluble in 500 parts boiling water, and 850 parts 
cold ; soluble in alcohol ; nielts at a temperature a little above 
that of boiling water, forms neutral salts with the acids. 

OptT. Similar to that of strychnine ; weaker, however, in the 
ratio of 1 to 15 ; 4 grs. brucine will kill a rabbit, while ^ gr. of 
strychnine is sufficient. % stimulant to the muacular and ner- 
vous system. 

VBt. In paralysis, and atrophy of the limbs ; loss of sensation. 

Dose. From gr. ss. gradually increased to ^t. v. in 24 hours, in 
the form of pill. Of the tincture, made by dissolving 18 grains 
brucine hi f j. alcohol, from 6 to 20 drops. Of the mixture, 
made by adding gr. vj. brucine to 5 i^* water and 3 y. sugar, 
\ m. night and morning. 

BUCKU. E. See Diosma Crenata. 

CAUiCjE RADIX. Cainca Root. (Pentandria, Monogynia, 
N. O. RtMaeem, ^ . Brazil.) Ckiococa Anguifuga, The 
bark of the root. 

Comp. 1. A bitter principle, crystallizable In small, white, silky, 
shining needles, inodorous, and soluble in hot alcohol. 2. A 
fatty, green substance. 3. Yellow coloring matter. 4. A viscid 
coloring matter. 

Prop. The root Is of the size of the finger, round and knotty, 
surface smooth, or irrogularly wrinkled, wood tough, and of a 
whitish color ; smell of the fresh root disagreeable ; taste at first 
like that of coffee, afterwards nauseous and pungent Bark 
alone efficacious. 

Optr. Diuretic, hydragogue, cathartic, emmenagogue, resolvent 

Use. In dropsy, worms, obstructed menstruation, rheumatism, 
catarrh of the bladder. 

Dose. Of the powder, from 3 j. to 3 ss. in 24 hours. Of the 
decoction, 3 j. to 3 iij. a dny. Of the extract 20. to 30 grs. in 
the same time. Of the tincture, 3 j. to 3 ij. The decoction la 
made by boiling 3 ij. of the root in Qjas. of water to one haU; 
and strain, of which a tableepoonful is given three times a day. 
The alcoholic extract is considered one of the best forms of 
adminitttering it 

OAJUPUTI. L. Ci^uputi Oleum. U. S.— E. Ci^put Oil. 
(Melaleuca Minor ^ Polyadel. Icoeand. N. O. Myrtacom, 
Amboyna. > .) 

Prop. Odor strong, fragrant' somewhat like camphor; taaie 
pungent aromatic ; limpid ; ccUor green ; when rectified, coIor> 

Oper. Stimulant, antispasmodic, diaphoretic. 

Use. In hysteria, tympanltia,pal^ of the tongue' and ezlffnally 


M an embrocBtfon in rheomsiiflm, goat, and to weak J<4et> i 
Iaxati(Mi8. Like other strong volatile oils, it relieves tooihaclM 
when applied to the decayed tooth. 

D0se. nij. to niv on a hioip of sugar, as an oleo-aaccharom. 

CALAMUS AROMATICUS. U. S.— E. Acorus. L. Sweet 
Flag-root. (Acorus CalamtUj Hexmnd, Monogyn. N. O 
AcoracetB. Europe. U. S. > .) 

Prop. Odor strong, rather fragrant; taste aronatiCf wann, btt- 
torish ; aflfords some essential oil. 

Oper. Stomachic, carminative. 

Use. In anorexia ; but seldom used. 

Dose. 3j. to 3 j. in powder. 

CALAMlNA. L. £. Carbonas Zinci Impoms, D. Calamine 
An Ore of Zinc. 

Comp. Oxide of zinc 65.2, carbonic acid 34.8. {Derbpskire Cola 
mine.) Iticontuins alsosesquioxideof iron. 

Prop. Friable, fracture uneven; color pale reddish-yellow, 
opaque, dull. ^ 

Use. Principally for pharmaceutical purposes. 

Off. Prep. Catamina Pr(Pparata, L. £. D. 

CALAMlNA PRiEPARATA. L.E. Carbonas Zinci Impums 
Pnep:iratus, D. Prepared Calamine. 

The Calamine burnt and reduced to an impalpable powder. In 
this state it i^ sprinkled on excorialions and ichoro s ulcers. 

Off. Prep. Ceratum Calamine, L. £. Unguent. CaUminaris^ D. 

CALCIl CHLORIDUM. U. 8.— L. Calcls Murias, E. D. 
Chloride of Culciimi. {Cretm | Vm Acidi HpdrockUriei, Jiqum 
distiUata, sing. Oss. Mix the acid gradually with the water, 
and saturate with the chalk. When the effervescence is over, 
evaporate to dryness; then liquefy in a crucible, and pour the 
liquid on a smooth, clean stone. When cold, break the mass 
hito pieces, and keep it in a stopped bottle.) 

Comp. 1 eq. chlonne 35.434*1 calcium=:20.5. eq. 55.93. 

Prop. Inodorous; taste bitter, acrid ; soluble in half its weight 
of cold water, and to any extent in boiling water. Deliquesces. 

Oper. and Use. See Liquor Cakii Chloridi. 

Carbonate of L'nie. This is a very puro carbonate of lime, 
precipitated from solution of Chloride of Calcium by CarbcMias 
Sofhe ; and is filter for internal use than the common prepared 

Off. Prep. Hydrargyrum cum CretOj D. Elect. Aromaticumt D, 
Jiistura Crettr.^ D. 

CALCIS II VDRAS. L. Hydrate of Lime, or slaked lime. 

Use. For miking lime-water and ammonia. 

CALCIS MURIAS. E. See Calcil Chloridum. 

Phosphate of Lime. (Ossium crematorum et in pulverem 
tritorum partem Kitam, Acidi MuriaticI diluti, Aqus, utriusque 
partes duos. Digest for twelve hours, and filter the solutioni 
add to it as much of the water of Caustic Ammonia as will be 
required to throw down the Phos|^ate of Lime. Wash thii 
with a sufficiency of water, and finally dry it.) 

Fhis is merely the earth of bones separated from the anhwil 
matter. As it is an insoluble substance, little advantfiSO C^ 
Im «zpec.ed from itt administration. 

96 CAM 

CALQMELAS. E. Shs !Iydrai|yri CUoridum. 

CALUMBA.. J*. E. Coloinbie Radix, D. Oolombo, U. 8. 
Calumba Root. (Coculua Palmatus. N.O. Jdenispemuetm, 
Africa. V .) 

Prop. Odor slightly ammntic, taste an anpleasant bitter; bailL 
of the sections thick, dnrk olive ; central part yellowish. Wa- 
ter at 212^ takes up one-f liird ol the weight of the root. Alco- 
hol also extracts iu virtues. 

Over. Tonic, nntisepiic 

Use. In bilious vom'tings, and those attendant on pregnancy, 
dyspepsia, and chnleru : in the mesenteric fever of infants, we 
have found the following powder, aided by daily long-continued 
Mictions of the abdomen with soap liniment, of great efficacy. 
Vt Potasss Sulphatis gr. x., Pulv. Caiumbte gr. vj., Pulv. Rhei 
Bad. gr. iij. Misce : bis terve quotldie sumend. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3j. twice or thrice a day. 

Jneomp. Acetate and diacetate of lead ; inAision of galls. 

Off. Prep. Jnfusum Calumba, U. S.— L. £. Tinct, Calumbmt 
U. S.— li. £. D. 

CALX. U. S. — L. E. D. Lime, or duick Lime. ( From marble, 
or TMtive Carbonate of Lime.') 

Comp. 1 eq. of cnlcium=20.5-t-l oxygenrsS, eq. 28.5. 

Prop. White, pulverulent: taste burning, urinous; sonorous; 
decomposes animal matter: 8pec.grQV.2^ ; infusible; dissolves 
in hydrochloric acid without effervescence : solution does not 
precipitate Ammonia. 

Oper. Escharotic ; but not now used. 

Off. Prep. Liquor Calcis, L. £. D. Potassa cum Calee, L. 

CALX CHLORINATA. U. S.— L. E. Chlorinated Lime. 
Chloride of Lime. {Calcis Nydratis tt>j. Chlorini quantum 
satis sit. Pass the chlorine through the lime spread in a pro- 
per vessel until it is saturated.) 

Comp. 1 eq. of lime=28.5+l chlorine:=35.42, eq. 60.93. 

Prop. White, with the odor of chlorine. Its solution qoicklj 
destroys, vegetable colors. 

Use. Asa disinfecting agent. 

CAMBOgIA. L. E. D. Gambogia, (J. S. (Stalagmitis Cambo- 
fioidesy Pohjfam. Monmc. N. O. Outtifera. Probably a 
Hebradendron. Edin. Ph. mention two kinds, Siam and Ceylon 
Camboge. \ .) 

Comp. Gum, resembling cherry-tree gum, and nearly hisipid, 
resin, and an unknown principle. 

Prop. Inodorous; color of fragments orange yellow; opaque, 
brittle, fracture glassy. 

3 per. Cathartic (drastic), emetic, hydragogue, anthelmintic. 
se. In visceral obstructions and dropsy; in tape-worm, con- 
Joined with carbonate of potassa. 
Dose. Gr. ij. to gr. x. in powder, Joined with calomel, squill, |cc 
Off. Prep, PUuim Cambogia Comp., L. E. Pil. Cathart. Otwp^ 

u. s. 
CAMPHOR A. U. S.— L. E. D. Camphor. (Laums Camphora^f 
Canipliora ojgicinarum, Enneandria Monogyn. N. O. Lauror 
cem. East Indies. > .) 
C^mp, Carbon 70.28+hydrogen 10.36+oxygen 10.36. (Dumas.) 
Prop. Odor strong, peculiar, fragrant ; taste bitterlsh-aromatle, 
accooipanied witti the eensation of cold; volatile, whiter eeini* 

CAN 17 

pdlacid, brittle, yet not easily pulverized; texture crystalline: 
soluble i^ alcohol, sther, oils, vinegar, and, in a very small 
degree, in water ; lighter than water. 

Oper. Narcotic, diaphoretic, sedative ; externally anodjme. 

Use. In typhus, cynanche maligna, confluent small-pox, and 
other exanthemata of the typhoid type ; in atonic gout, and as 
an adjunct to bnrtc and opium in checlcing gangrene. It pro- 
duces its narcotic and sedative effects with very little increase 
of pulse, and therefore mny be used in mania, pneumonia, and 
other inflammatory complaints, unitei with nitre and antimo- 
nials. In doaes of from I to 3 grains it acts as a diaphoretic. 
It is a useful adjunct to baric in typhoid diseases, to valerian, 
the fetid gums, volatile al leal i and others, in hysteric and ner- 
vous complaints, and to antimionials in rheumatism and other 
Inttammations. Externally it allays the pains of rheumatism, 
and other deep-seated iuflammatiuns, when dissolved in oil. 

Dose. Gr. iij. to 3j. in powder, with sugar, &c. ; in pills; or in 
mixture with mucilage, or almond confection. The eflfects of 

. an overdose are counteracted by opium. For external applica- 
tion it is dissolved in oil or in alcohol. 

Off. Prep. Mistura Camphoree^ L. D. E. Mietura Camphorm 
cum Magnesia^ E. Spir. Camphora, L. E. D. TincCCampho' 
ra Comp., L. E. D. .^cidum Acetosum Camphoraium^ E. D. 
JLinimentum Camphora, L. E. D. Lin. Camphora Ccmp., L« 
Linimentum .Ammonia Comp.^ E. Lin. Hydrargyria L. Lin, 
Saponis^ L. E. Lin. Opii, £. D. Lin. TerebifUkinatam, E. 

CANCRI CHELiE, Lapilli Cancrorum, D. Crab's Stones, or 
Eyes. (Cancer .astacus, the Crayfish. Insecta Aptera, L. 
Canceres^ Cuv.) 

Comp. Carbonate of lime, phosphate of lime, atumen. 

Ttop. Size of lane peas, hemispherical, laminated, white, nr 
reddish ; digested in vinegar, they become soft and transparent, 
but retain their form. 

Off. Prep. Cancrorum Lapilli PrteparaU, E. 

CHSLiE CANCRORUM. D. Crab Claws. (Cancer Pogums, 
the blacic -clawed Crab.) As above. 

CANELLA. U. S.— L. E. Canelle Alba: Cortex, D. Canella 
Bark. {paxyeWm Alba. JJodecand. Monogyn. N.O. CaneUem. 
West Indies. > .) 

Comp. An acrid essential oil, mannite, bitter extractive, resin, 
gum, starch, albumen, and saline substances. 

Prop. Pieces flattish, yellowish grey ; odor aromatic ; taste pun- 
gent ; fracture- starchy. Virtues partially extracted by water, 
entirely by aicoliol. 

Opcr. Stimulant, tonic. 

Use. As an aromatic addition to bitter tonics and cathartics. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3ss. in powder: in infusion f ^jss. 

Off. Prep. Tinet. Gentiana Comp., E. f^inum AloeSy L. Putwtf 
Aloes et Canella. U. S. rinum RAei, U. S. 

CANNABIS SATIVA INDICA. (Indian Hemp. Gui^Jab.) 
Asia, Africa, America. 

Comp. Green resin 20 per c<*nt. ; green coloring matter. 

Frup. The resin, eavv-^' in. .'u>luble in alcohol and sther, insola 
bie in acid soluiio .o When pure, of a blackish-grey color ; 
hard at 9(P, softi^ns ut higher temperatures, and fuses readily ; 
•oluble in tiie fixed, and some of the volatile oils ; odor frar 

88 CAP 

grant, iiKjABtIc; taite slightly wann, bitt«rteh, aerid Dried 
plant, called runjab, used for smoking. The larger leaves and 
capaulei, without the stalks, constitute aidhee, subhee, or ^on^, 
«8ed to form with water an intoxicating drink. 

(](p«r. Anodyne, aphrodisiac, increases appetite and cheerfnlnesa: 
in large doses, causes delirium and catalepsy ; ba| in taodenM 
doses, anti-convulsire. 

Use. In tetanus, hydrophobia, rheumatism, and wherever an 
anmlyne is required. 

Poae. 6r. ij. to gr. vj. every three, four, six, or eight hours, ac« 
cording to circumstances. In hydrophobia, gr. xx. pro re nata. 
Of the tincture, made by dissolving 24 grs. of the alcoholic ex- 
tract in 5J' alcohol, give 3 J. in tetanus every half hour ; in 
cholera, ten drops every half hour, till the required effect It 

CANTHARia. U. S.— L. E. Cantharis Vesicatnria, D. The 
Blistering Fly. (Lytta FeaieaturiOf Jnaeeta^ Coleopiera. South 
of Europe.) Cantharia. 

Comp. Cantharidin, green oil, black insoluble matter, yellow 
viscid matter, fat, phosphates of lime and magnesia, uric acid. 

Prop. Odor fetid ; taste slightly acrid ; body oblong, green gold, 
and shining ; antennee filiform, black. They retain their acri- 
mony for many years, if kept dry. 

Optr. Stimulant, diuretic, rubefacient, vesicant; both their 
internal use and their external application are apt to produce 
strangury ; active properties depend on the cantharidin. 

Uae. Internally in dropsies, obstinate gleet, and leucorrhoea: 
retention of urine owing to want of action in the bladder, ana 
to incontinence of urine from debility of the bladder; lepra; 
but their internal use requires caution. For their external use, 
see Empl., TY'nctitra, and Aeetum Cantharidia, 

Doaa, Gr. ss. to gr. j. in a pil I , with opium, or the extract of hen- 
bane and camphor, twice a day. 

Off' PTep. Acetum Cantharidia (apiapaatieum), L. E. THnet. 
Qintharidiaf V. S. — L. E. D. Emplaat. Cantjiaridiat L. E. D. 
Emptaat. Cantharidia Veaicat. Comp., E. Emplaat. Pieia eum 
Cantkaride, U. S. Ceratum Cantharidia^ L. — U. S. Un£» 
Ointharidis, U. S.— L. E. D. Ung. Infuai Canth. ye8ieat.y E. 


Prop. Smaller than former; length about six lines; head of a 
light-red color, with dark spots on the top; feelers black; 
wing-cases black, with a yellow longitudinal stripe in the cen- 
tre, and yellow margin ; thorax black, with three yellow lines; 
abdomen and le« bluck and covered with down. Appean 
about the end of July on the potatoe vine. 

Oper. Same as the former. There are several other species, all 
of which have the same properties. 

CAPSICUM. U. S.— L. E. Capsici Annui Capsnlo! cum Semi- 
nibus, D. The Capsicum berries. (Capsicum annuum. Penr 
tand. Monogyn.' N.' O. Solanaeea. South America. 0.) 

Prop. Odor aromatic, pungent ; taste very biting, hot, aromatie ; 
its active matter Is yielded to ether, alcohol, and water. 

Over. Simulant, rubefacient. 

Uae. In atonic vout, the flatulence of dyspepsia, lethargy. Ita 
■olution (Cavatei pulv. 3 J., Sodii Chlor. 3J., Aceti 3 iv., Afum 
fervenUa f fy). Cola) forms the beat gargle in cynanche ma- 

CAR at 

Hpia and ffcariatina. Cataplasms cf it are med in coma aai 
the delirium of typhus. 

Dote, Gr. iij. to gr. z. in pills. 

InanHf. -Nitrate of silver, bichloride of mercury, acetates of 
lea^ sulphates of iron, zinc, and copper, and the carbonates <^ 

Off. Prep. THnetura Capsich U. S.— L. E. • 

CARBO ANIMALIS. U. 8.— L. £. Animal Charcoal. (Pre- 
pared fh>m flesh and bones.) 

Use. For decolorizing vegetable salts; clarifying salts, and ex- 
tracting the volatile oil from whiskey and other liquors. 

Anironl Charcoal. 

Test. When incinerated with Its own weight of red oxide of 
mercury, it leaves only a scanty nsh. 

Uee. Chiefly for pharmaceutical purposes. 

CARBO LIGNI. U.S.— L.E.D. Charcoal of Wood. (Am:«im.) 

Qnnp. Carbon 68.4, hydrogen 1.5, a minute portion of oxygen, 
salts, earths, &c. 

Prop. Inodorous, tasteless black, brittle. 

Opor. Antiseptic absorbent. 

Uee. In the putrid eructations of dyspepsia, obstinate constipa- 
tion ; to relieve the nausea of pregnancy, and as a cataplasm 
with linseed meal to fetid ulcers: the best tooth-powder. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3j. united with rhubarb. 

CARBdNA8 BARlTTiE. U. 8.— L. E. Carbonate of Baryta. 

Qm^. Carbonic acid 31.6, baryta 78.4. Berulius. Or, 1 eq. 
baryta=46.7-f-l acid=33.13, eq.— 98.82. 

Uee. For preparing the chloride of barium. 

T)sst, 109 grains dissolved in an excess of nitric acid are not 
wholly precipit.nted by 61 grains of tmlphate of magnesia. 

Carbonate of Potash. Salt of Tartar. ' 

This ealt ie the carbonate prqtared from Bitartrate of Potasea, 
by fire. 

CARBON ATIS 80DiE AaUA. D. Solution of Carbonate of 
Soda. (Sodas Carbonatis quantum veils. Let it be dissolved 
in the water, and let the specific gravity of the solution be to 
that of distilled water as 10-34 to 1000.) This requires ; j. of 
the carbonate of soda for Oj. of water. 

Prop, and Usi: The same as that of the solid salt 

CARDAMTNE. L. Cardamlne flores. D. Cardamine flowers. 
(Cardamine Pratensis^ Tetradynam. Siliq. N. O. Orueiferm, 
Europe. li.) 

Prop. Almost inodorous; taste bitterish, slightly acrid. 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic, antispasmodic. 

Use. In spasms. 

Dose. 3 i. in powder, twice or thrice a day. 

CARDAMOMUM. U. 8.— L. E. Cardamomum Amomnm; 
8em. D. Cardamom Seeds. (Alpinia Cardamomum^ N. O. 
Sitaminaeea. East Indies.) 

Prop. Odor agreeably aromatic taste pongent, grateful. 

Oper. Carminative, stomachic. 

Use. In the flatulent colic of children, united with rhubarb and 
nagnesia ; but principally to give warmth to other remedies 

D—e. Gr. v. to 3 J. hi powder. 

40 CAR 

Off. Prep. Ext. Colocyntkiiia Comp.^ V. 8.- LED. TftuL 

Cardatnomi, U. S. — L. E. D. THnct. Cardam. Comp.* U. S.— 

L. E. D. Tinct. Gnnam. Ckmp., U. S.—L. E. Tinet. Oemti- 

ana Comp., U. S.—L. Tinet. Rhet, V. S.—L. E. D. Tinet, 

Rhei eum Moe, V. 8. — E. Tinet. Senna, U. S. — L. E. Spir. 

JEtheris AromaticuB, L. Finum Aloes, U. S.— E. Confeet. 

Jlromatica, L. Elect. Aromaticum^ D. Pulv. Cinnamomi 

domp.^ L. E. D. Pvlvia Aromaticus, V. 8. Pilula Scillat E. 

Infueum Senna, D. ■ cum Tamarindis, D. 

CARlCiE PRUCTUS. D. PIci, L. E. The Fig. (PIcM 

Ckiricot the F}g Tree. Polygam. Diacia, N. O. Urtieaeem. 

Persia. ^ .) 
Prop. Taste sweet and mucilaghioos. 
Oper. Demulcent, suppurative. 

Use. In pulmonary and other inflammatory diseases, in decoc- 
tion ; in cynanche tonsillaris, during suppuration, as a gargle 

(Qs Cariearum ^ij., Aqua fl yj., coque et cola ;) in gumbollfl,*^ 

roasted, then split and applied to the part. 
Off. Prep. Deeoctum Hordei Comp., L. D. Confeetio Senna, 

L. D. 
CARTHAMUS. U.S. (Secondary.) Dyer's Saffron. Syngen, 

JEgr. N. O. Comp. Egypt and the Levant. 
Prop. An exotic, annual plant; florets part employed; often 

called Safflower, or American Saffron ; reddish yellow ; peculiar, 

slightly aromatic odor; florets distinguished from saffron by 

their tubular form, and by the yellowish style and filaments 

which they enclose. 
G^er. Laxative, and somewhat diaphoretic. 
Uee. As a substitute for saffron in measles, scarlatina, andothef 

exanthematous diseases, to promote the eruption. 
Dose. Of an infusion of 3 ij. to a pint of boiling water, give 

without restriction as to quantity. 
CARUM. U. S.—L. B. Cnrum Carui Semina, D. Caraway 

Seeds. (Carum Carui, U. S. Pentand. Digyn. N. O. Um- 

helhfera. North of Europe, i.) 
Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste warm, grateful ; figure ovate-oblong, 

Oper. Carminative. 

Use. In flatulent colic, and to give warmth to purgatives. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3 j. swaJtowed whole or in powder. 
Off. Prep. 01. Carui, U. S.—L. E. D. Aq. Carui, U. S.—L. 

Spir. Carui, L. E. D. Spir. Juniperi Comp., U. S.—L. E. 

TiTut. Cardam. Comp., L. E. D. THnct. Senna, L. E. D. 

Tinct. Senna et Jalap., U. S. Confeetio Opii, L. Confeetio 

Rutot L. 
CARtOFHYLLUS. U. S.—L. E. D. The Clove. (Eugenia 

Caryophyllata. Icosandria Monogyn. N. O. Myrtaeem* 

Moluccas. ^ .) , 

Prop. Odor strong, aromatic, and peculiar ; taste acrid, pungent ; 

figure nice a small nail with a toothed head ; color deep brown. 

( The unexpanded bud.) 
Oper. Stimulant, aromatic. 

u»e. As a corrigent to other reme^es, and a cmidimeiit 
Doae. Gr. x. to. 3 sfl. in powder. 
Off. Prep Jnfueum Caryophylli, U. S.—L. B. fnfusvm AwF^m- 

Ui Compn L. E. . Finum Opii, L. Ontfcetio AromuUeOt L. 

CAS. 41 

CgH/eeL Seammoniit L. D. Elect. JSrowutieumt I>* PihiU 

Colocwthidis, £. D. 
CARtOPHYLLI OLEUM. L.E. Caryophyllorum Oleum, D. 

Oil of Cloveb. 
Gtmp. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a small proporticm; 

Prop. Odor and taste of the clove ; color yellow ; heavier than 

Oper. and Use. The same as the clove , externally, diluted with 

olive oil, as^m embrocation in hooping-cough i as an applicati<Mi 

in toothache. 
Dose, fllu* to fllv. on sugar. 

Off. Prep. Spir. .Ammonia ArovMt.^ L. Spir. Lavand. Comp.t B. 
CASCAKILLA. U. S.— L. E. Cascarille Ck>rtex, D. Casca- 

rilla Bark. (Croton Casearilk^ or Eleuteria. Monac. Jldel- 

phieh N. O. Euphorhiacete. Bahamas. > .) 

• Prop. Odor slightly aromatic ; taste bitterish, aromatic ; whea 

burning, and the flame extinguished, the smoke' has the odor 
of mu^; active parts, an essential oil, and bitter extractive; 
completely extracted by proof spirit. 

Oper. Tonic, stomachic. 

Use. As an adjunct to cinchona in ague ; in obstinate diarrhma, 
and after dysentery; a good vehicle for powdered Peruvian 
bark, and small doses sulphate magnesia, and sulphuric acid 
in debility of stomach attended with ccmstipation ; in dyspepsia 
and flatulent colic. 

Dose. 6r. x. to 3 i. in powder. The infhri<m is the be^ form. 

Off. Prep. Infusum CaseariUa, U. S.— L. £. Tinct. CascariUm, 

• li. E. D. Ext. CasearilU, D. 

CASSIA. U. S.^L. Cassiae Pulpa, E. Cassia Fistula ; Pulpa 
Leguminis, D. Cassia Pulp. (Cassia Fistula. Deeand. Mo- 
nogyn. N. O. Leguminoses, India. Egypt. ^ .) 

Prop. Pulp black, bright, shining ; sweet, slif^tly acid ; inodor* 

Oper. Laxa^e. 

Use. Where a gentle medicine is required in costive habiti^ 
combined with aromatics. 

Diose. 3 iv. to ^ i. 

Off. Prep. Confectio Caasi^ L. E. D. Cmfeetio SenruBt U. S. 

CASSi£ CORTEX. E. See Cinnamomum. 

CASSIA MARYLANDICA. U. S. (American Senna. InH- 

genoue. ©.) 
Comp. Cathartinj albumen, mucilage, starch, clorophyl le, yellow 

coloring matter, volatile oil, fatty matter, resin, lignin, salts of 

potassa, and lime. 
Prop. The same as the former, but less active. In most casei 

it may be substituted for it 
CASSIiG OLEUM. E. See Cinnamomi Oleum. 
CASTANEA. U. S. (Secondary.) Chinquapin. The bark. 

MotuBcia^ Polyandria. N. O. CuptUiferm, Southern and 

Middle States. ^ .) 
Prop. An indigenous shrub, from 6 to 10 feet high. 
Qpsr. Tonic and astringent. 
MM. In intennittenta. 

48 C AT 

OASTORfiUM. L.E.D. Castor. (CtaUm Fiber. The Beaver. 

Mammalia Olirea, L. Mammalia Rodentia^ Cuv. Russia.) 
Jl peculiar matter found in bags, near the rectum qf the animal. 
<Jomp. Carbonates of iiotassa, of lime, of ammonia, and of iron ; 

resin ; extractive, mucilaginous matter, volatile oil. 
Prop. Odor strong, unpleasant, peculiar; taste bitter, subacrid; 

color orange brown. 
Oper. Antispasmodic, emmenagogue 1 
Uee. In typlius, hysteria, epilepsy, amenprrhoea. 
J}0»e. Gr. X. to 3 j. in a bolus ; 3 j. or more in clysters ; of littlt 

value as a remedy. 
Off. Prep. Tinctura Castorei, U.'S.— L .E. D. 
CATiPLASMA ALUMINIS. D. Cataplasmof Alum. (Ovo- 

rum duorum albumen, Aiuminis 3 J. Agitate them together 

until tbey form a coagulum ) 
Use. In ecchymosis of the eye. 

coal. (Carbonas ligni ab igne candentis, arena sicca superfusa 

recens extincti, et in pulverem subtilissimum triti, quan. auf. 

It may be added to the simple cataplasm in a tepid state. 
Use. In gangrene and fetid ulcers. 
CATiPLASMA CONII. L. D. Hemlock Cataplasm. (Ez- 

tractum Conii |i., Aque Oj. Mix, and add linseed meal 

enough to make a cataplasm. 
Use. In cancer, painful sores, and glandular swellings. 
CATlPLASMA DAUCI. D. Carrot Cataplasm. (Dauci Ca- 

rotffi hortensfs Radicis, q. s. Boil the root in the water until it 

be soft enough to make a poultice. 
Use. In gangrene and foul ulcers. 
CATiPLABMA FERMENTl. L. Cataplasma Fermenti 

Cerevisiffi, D. Yeast Cataplasm. {.Farina fl>J., Cereviaia 

Fermenti Oss. M. Caiori leni ezpone.) 
Oper. Antiseptic. 

Use. Applied to gangrenous and sloughing sores. 
CATlPLASMA LINI. L. Cataplasm of Linseed Meal, (.^^tuv 

ferventis Oj., JLini seminum contritorum, q. s. ut idonea fiat 

Use. A suppurative poultice. 
CATlPLASMA SIMPLEX. D. Simple Poultice. (Pulverto 

pro Cataplasmate q. v., Aqua; ferveniis q. s. to make a poultice 

to be anointed whilst hot with olive oil.) 
Use. In inflammatory tumors and irritable sores. 
CATlPLASMA SINAPIS. L.D. Mustard Cataplasm. (Pm/©. 

Sinapis Sem.^ Lini UsitaU Sem. Pulv., a a Ibss., Jiceti calidif 

q. s. M.) 
Oper. Rubefacient, stimulant 
Use. Applied to the soles of the feet, in the delirium, coma, and 

sinking of typhus, Slc; to the pained part in rheumatism. 
CATfiCHU. U. S.— L. E. Acaclffi Catechu Extractura, D. 

Catechu. (Acacia Catechu, Poly gam. Monac. N. O. Legur 

minosa. East Indies. Zj..) Jln extract of the wood of tht 

Catechu ; kernels of Areen, leaves of Uncaria Oambeer 
Comp. Bombay Catechu — tannin 54.5, extractive 34, mucilage 6.5, 

impurities 5 parts. Bengal QUechu — ^tannin 48A extractive 

mucilage 8, impurities 7 parts. 
Prop. Inodorous ; taste astringent, macilaginons, sweetish ; color 

CER 41 

led^Ksh-toown ; solable In water and in aleohol. The best Mni 

yteida to Salphoric ^ther 53, the lowest 28 per eent. of Tannic 

Acid, when passed through the percolator. 
^er. Astringent, tonic. 
Use. In diarrbcBa, from a relaxed state of the bowels- and in 

intestinal and uterine hsmorrhages ; locally in aphthee, oleera- 

tion of the gums, and in coughs and hoarseness from the relax- 
ation of the uvula and epistaxis. 
Dote. 6r. x. to 3iiJ. in powder; in the latter case, a piece if 

allowed to di»olve slowly in the mouth ; but is best i^ven with 

sugar, gum arable, and wateK 
Cff. Prep. Infusum CaUchu Ckmp., L. E. Tinet. CaUchu, V. 8. 

— L. E. Elect. Mimosa Catechu^ E. D. 
CENTAURlUM. L.E. Erythnea Centaurii folia, D. Common 

Centaury Tops. (Chironia Ccntaurium. Pentand. Monogfn, 

N. O. Oentianacea. Europe. ©.) 
Prop. Taste bitter. Active principle extracted both by water 
. and alcohol. 
Oper. Tonic. 

Use. In dyspepsia and atonic gout. 
Doee. Gr. xv. to 3 j. 

Wax and White. {A suhetoMe prepared hy the Bee; and k§ 

tome plants, as the Ceroxylon and Myriea Cerifera.) 
Comp. Carbon 03.13, hydrogen 16.91, oxygen 19.97 parts. 
Prop. Odor aromatic, resembling that of honey ; tasteless ; dry ; 

brittle ; color yellow, when recent ; but the o(tor and color are 

lost by bleaching. 
Oper. Demulcent, emollient. 
Use. In diarrhoea and dysentery; but prindpally used in the 

formation of cerates and ointments. 
Dose. 3 j. to 3 ss. twice or thrice a day, in form of emulsion ; 

melt the wax with a little oil, then triturate it with yolk of egg, 

and groat gruel f | ij. 
Off. Prep. Cera Ftava Purijicata, D. Unrnent. CeratOj Emp. 

Varia, and nearly all the Cerates of the If. 8. Phar. 
CERXTUM. L. Ungucntum Simplex. Ceratum Simplex, 

U. 8.— E. Cerate. iOlci Oliva fliv., Cer/s l\y. Melt the 

wax, then add the oil, and mix.) Emollient, to excoriationa, 


M[. Prep. Ung. ZinH. E. 

iRATUM CALXMINiE. L. E. Ungnentnm Calamhie, D. 
Calamine Cerate. Ckdamina Praip.^ Cera Flax>a, K a ftss., 01, 
Oitv<sflxvj. The oil and wax being melted, mix; then re- 
move Uiem from the fire : as soon as they begin to thicken add 
the calamine, and stir until the wh(rie be co\d.)—Tumet*» 

Oper. Dec4ccative, epulotic. 

Use. To ulcers, with a thin, acrid discharge; to boms after th« 
inflammation is abated ; to the eyelids in ophthalmia tarsi. 

OBRATUM CANTHARIDIS. L.D. Unguentimi Cantharidia, 
E. Cerate of the Spanish Fly. (Cerati Cetacti I yj., Canthar 
ridum in Pulv. snb. ^J. The cerate being softened bf heal, 
•tir in the flies.) 

C!l»er. IrritaUve. 

44 CER 

Vtt* For keeping up a difcharge from a blistered fuifaea ; bat 
few conttituttons can bear the irritation it induces. 

CERATUM CETlCEI. U.S.— L. Ceratum Simplex^ E. Un- 
guentum Cetacei, D. Spermaceti Cerate. (Cetacei m., Cera 
Alb. ;ij., Oliva OCfliv. The wax and oil being melted to- 
gether, add the spermaceti, and stir until the whole is cold.) 

Oper. Emo.lient, cooling. 

Off. Prep. Ceratum Cantharidis^ L. 

Mercurial Cerate. ( Unguenti Hydrargyri fortioris, Cerati 
Baponis 8. ^\v.., Campkorm §J. Mix.) 

Uge. Stimulant and rubefacient. 

CERATUM PLUMBl ACETATIS L. Ung. Acetatis Plumbi. 
E. D. Cerate of Acetate of Lead. (Plumbi Acetas cont. 3 ij., 
Cera Mb. I iJ., Oliva 01. f i viij. Melt the wax in seven fluid 
ounces of the oil, then add the acetate rubbed down with the 
remainder; and stir with a wooden spatula until the whole ba 

Over. Cooling, astringent, resolvent. 

U9». In inflamed sores, excoriations, and bums. 

Subacctatis, U. S. Cerate of Subaeetate of Lead, ( Ooulard't 
Cerate.) Compound Lead Cerate. {Liq. Plumbi diacetatit 
f^iij., Cera ^iv., Oliva 01. Oss., Camphora 3ss. Melt the 
wax in f ^ vij. of the oil. then remove the mixture from the fire, 
and when it begins lo thicken, add gradually the solution of di 
acetate of lead, and assiduously stir the whole with a wooden 
spatula until it is cold ; lastly, add the camphor dissolved in 
what remained of the oil, and mix.) 

Over, and Uee. The same as the former. 

CERATUM RESlNiG. U.S.— L. Resin Cerate. (/2Mtn« Oer<a 
A a Ibj., Oliva 01. f | xvj. Melt the resin and wax over a slow 
fire, then add the oil, and strain while hot.) — Yellow Basilieon 

Oper. Digestive, cleansing, incarnating. 

Use. To foul indolent ulcers. 

Off. Prep. Linimmtum Terebinthino!, L. 

Resin Cerate. (Take of resin, suet, yellow wax, Jl & Ibj., tur 
pentine ftss., flaxseed oil Oss. Melt together, strain through 
linen, and stir till cool.) 

CERATUM SABINiE. U. S.— L. E. Unguentum Sabinas, D. 
Savine Cerate. (Sabina Ibj., Cera ftss., Adtpis prop. fb\j. 
Having melted the wax and lard, boil therein the savine leavcsi 
and strain through a linen cloth. The U. S. Phar. directs I y 
powdered savine lo be mixed with Ibj. melted resin cerate.) 

Oper. Irritative, drawing. 

Uee. To keep a discharge from a blistered surface. It is mueh 
preferable to the Ceratum Cantharidis, occasioning less pain, 
and pre8«'rving a sufficient discharge. 

CERATUM SAPONIS. U.S.— L. Soap Cerate. (Savon. %x., 
Cera % xijss., Plumbi Oxidi ConU I xv., Oliva 01. t^., Aeeti 
Cong. Boil together the vinegar and oxide of lead, over a slow 
fire, stirring constantly until they combine; then add the soap^ 
and boil again until the water be evaporated ; lastly, mix in the 
oil and wax melted together. The U. S. Phar. directs lo take 
€1). ■olttlion of subaeetate of lead, I vj. soap, | x. white wax, cy. 


OptT, DeBtccuUn, raolTenL 
(/ic Applted, aptud on JiieD, rooi 
InamiiDiirliHi ia Binied, uhI the bs 

4^ CIN 

of milk, with the addidon of orange oeel or ■ome other tro- 
matic, a wineglaasful, or a tablespoonful of the expreised Jaice 
of the leaves. 

CICHORIUM. Intyhus. Wild Saecory. (Syngvnetia. N. O. 
Comipoait». Exonc. Cultivated as a ealad. 2|..) Commcui 
garden Endive is the C Endioia. 

Trap, A perennial herbaceous plant, from one to two feet high. 
Whole plant has a bitter taste, without acrimony or any very 
peculiar flavor. Taste strongest in the root, weakest in the 

OpfT. A gentle, nnirritating tonic, aperient, deobstruent, alterative. 

Use. In hepatic congestion, jaundice, and other visceral obstruc- 
tions ; pulmonary afiections. 

Dose. Boil | ij. of the root, or a handful of the herb, in a pint 
of water, twenty minutes ; add milk and sugar, and drink warm 
— as a substitute for cofiee. 

CTMICIFU6A. U. 8. (Secondary.) {Black Snake Root, 
Polyand. Pentagyn. N. O. Ranuneutaeca. 0.) 

Comp. 6ura, starch, sugar, resin, wax, fatty matter, tannin, gallic 
acid, coloring matter, lipiin, salts of potassa, lime, magnesia, 
and iron. 

Pr(^. Color of the roots dark^rown, internally whitish, taste bit* 
ter and somewhat astringent, yields its virtues to boiling water. 

Oper. Tonic, diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant, emmenagogue. 

Uee. Employed extensively in the United States, as a domestic 
remedy, in rheiunatism, dropsy, chorea, hysteria, and especially 
in pulmonary aflTections, for which it has been regarded by 
some as a specific. 

Dose. Of the powder gr. x. to 3 j. ; of the decoction, made by 
boiling I j. of the bruised root in Oj. of water ; from f i j. to f 5 iJ. 
may be given several times a day. 

flava. U. S.— E. Yellow Bark. (Pent. Monogynia. N. O. 
Cinchonacea. South America. !(..) Cdlasaya of ^e Spaniards : 
the real plan^ is unknown. 

Qmp. The active principle of the yellow bark is the alkaloid 
guina, combined with a peculiar acid, the kinie, or cinchoniCf 
in the state of an acid salt : besides these, it contains an oily 
and a yelloto coloring matter^ tannin^ kincUe of lime, and woody 

Prop. Odor aromatic; taste bitter, slightly astringent; in pieces 
a span long, not always rolled, often without the epidermis, 
which is very thick and inert ; light, friable, fracture fibrous ; 
internally of a yellowish cinnamon color. Its active principle 
is an alkali named Quina. 

Coronae Cinerea, E. Cinchona Pallida, U. S. Pale Bark. 
Tke bark of many spuies of Cinchona. 

Comp. Active principle, alkaloid cinchonia^ obtained by boiling 
the bark in water acidulated with sulphuric acid, precipitating 
by lime, drying the precipitate, and digesting in alcohol. Not 
much used, in consequence of the greater cheapness and effica- 
cy of oiu'na and its salts. One pound pale bark contains 3 jss. 
to 3 iJ. StUph. dnchonia. 

Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste pleasant, less bitter and astringent 
than yellow bark ; pieces rolled in double or dngle quil^ a 

GIN 17 

long, thin; epidermis brown, cracked; fracture rerinotn; 

Internally of a cinnamon or fawn color. Ita active principle it 

an alkali, which nas been named Cinehonia. 

rubra. U. S.— E. Red Bark. 
Cbmji. I* contains both Quina and Cinehonia^ combined with 

cinchonic acid ; one pound yields 3 ij. suiph. quins and 3 J. 

■olph. cinchoniee ; 100 parts by weieht yield acid einehonats of 

cijichonia 1 JS4, |T««n fatty matter 0.79, resin 3.18, red extraetin§ 

9.09, tannin 5.60, gum 4.40, lime 1.40, woody ^e 75.69. 
Prop. Odor and taste the same as the pale, but more intense; 

in quills and flat pieces, solid, heavy, dry ; fracture short and 

smooth ; internally woody, flbrous, of a deep brownish red color. 

Its active principle two idkalies, Qutna and Cinehonia. 
Oper. These three species, nearly alike, are strongly and per* 

manently tonic and antiperiodic slightly astringent, stomachic, 

and febrif^ige ; (the yellow is preferred in Peru ;) the red is apt 

to nauseate. 
Use. In intermittents, after evacuating the stomach and bowels j 

In continued fevers, keeping tlie bowels clear ; confluent small 

Kx; erysipelas; acute rheumatism ; cynancbe maligna , scar* 
Ina; passive hemorrhages; and in every disease attended 
with dc»(icient action. Externally in glysters, gargles, and 

. lotions, in gangrenous ulcerations, tLC. To check the nausea 
excited by it, wine, aromatics, and carbonic acid are added ; to 
prevent purging, opium ; costiveness, rhubarb. The red is the 
most useful in gangrene. 

2>M«. Given in infusion, decoction, and extract The latter is a 
cood form, if well prepared : of this, sr. iij. to gr. x. in pill, or 
aissol ved in infusion of roses, or syrup of orange peel, three times 
a day. Of the powder, 3j. to 3 iiJ. in infusion of liquorice, ot 
water. Vide Deeoet. Tinet. Infusum. 

C|f. Prep. Deeoctum CinekoTUB, U. S.— L. E. D. Inhawm On- 
ekona, V. S.— L. E. D. Ext. Gnehona, U. S.— L. E. D. EzL 
dnekonm Resinosum, L. D. THnct. Cinchona, U. 8. — L. E. D 
Tinet. Cinchona Comp., U. S.— L. E. D. Finum Oenttanm 
Comp't D. 

CINCHONIA. Cinehonia* or Cinchonine. F. (Take any 
quantity of powder of pale Cinchona, boil it in alcohol until it 
lose all bitterness, and distil the tincture to dryness. Dissolve 
the residue in boiling water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, 
then add an excess of magnesia, and boil for some minutes. 
Filter when cold ; wash themagnesian residue with cold water, 
and dry it in a stove ; then digest repeatedly in boiling alcohol, 
and mix the alcoholic liquors, which, cooling, will yield crys- 
tals of Cinehonia.) 

prop. Inodorous ; bitter; in white, translucent needleform crys- 
tals, scarcely soluble in cold water; soluble in 2500 parts ot 
water at 213^; very soluble in alcohol, but in small quantity 
only in ether and volatile oils. 

•In translating the French names for the alkaloids, and their 
Mits, I have employed the terminatton in ia or a, to make them 
eonibrm with the names of the other alkalies, and with tha 
Loodon Phatmacopsia. ^ 

48 CNI 

Otmf. Carbon 76.97, nitrogen 9.03, hydrogen 6.S9; ozygw 7J7, 
in 100 parts ; or 20 eq. of carbon=123.4+13 of liydrogen=13-|- 
1 of nitrogen=14.15+l of oxygen=8, equiv.=:156.55. 

Oper. Tonic. 

Use. In all cases in which bark is useful. Not much used, u 
quinine has talcen its place, being of superior efficacy. 

Z>o««. From gr. ij. to gr. x. 

Pr<tp. Syrupu9 (Xnchonim, Tinetura CinehonitBi U. 8. Finum 

CINNABARIS. E. Cinnabar. Bee Hydrargyri Bisulphuretnm. 

ClNNlMOMUM. U. S.— L. E. D. Cassis Cortex. E. Cin- 
namon Bark. Cassia. (Laurus Cinnamomunit Enneandria. 
Monogyn. ' N. O. JLawracetB. Ceylon, i^.) 

Comp. Kolatile oil., tanntn, mueilagt^ coloring matter^ ligniUt 
and an acid. — (Vauquelin.) 112 lbs. recent cinnamon yield 
% iij. oil : often adulterated. 

Prop. Odor aromatic; taste pleasantly pungent, aweetish, de- 
pending on essential oil ; color light yellow, brown ; pieces 
Jiuilled within each other, not thicker than paper; pliable; 
racture fibrous and woody. 

Oper, Stimulant, astringent, carminative, tonie. 

Use. As a grateful aromatic in dyspepsia and diarrhcaa ; to cover 
the taste of nauseous remedies, and with cathartics to prevent 
griping. The infusion checks vomiting. Chewed in palsy of 
the tongue. 

Doee. Gr. v. to 3J. in powder. 

Off. Prep. Jig. Cinnamomi, V. S.— L. E. D. Infueum OoLteeku^ 
U. S. — L. E. Jnfus. Digitalis^ U. B. Spir. Cinnamomi^ L. E. D. 
Spir. Lavandula Comp.., U. S.— L. E. D. THnct. Cardamomi 
Comp.., L. E. D. Tinct. Catechu, U. S.— L. E. THnct. Cinnw 
momi, U. 8.— L. E. D. T. Cinnam. Comp., U. 8.— L. E. Spir. 
^therie Aromat.., L. Vinum Opii, !•• £• »Acid. Sulpkurieum 
Jiromat., U. 8.— E. Confect. .Bromat.:, U. 8.— L. D. EleeU 
Catechu, D. E. Pulv. Cinnam. Comp., L. E. Pulv. Creta Qmp.^ 
L. £. Pulv. Kino Comp.^ L. Pviv. Aromat.t U. 8. EmplasL 
Aromat., D. . 

CINNAMOMI OLEUM. L. E. D. Cassis X)lei, E. QU ot 
Cinnamon. Oil of Cassia. 

Prop. Odor of the bark ; taste pungent, hot ; cherry-red color ; 
sinks in water ; soluble in alcohol. Nitric acid converts it into 
a uniform crystalline mass. 

Oper. Powerfully stimulant; stomachic 

Use. In cramps of the stomach, liiccough, and flatulent coUe; 
inserted into a decayed tooth to allay toothache. 

Doee. mj. toTIliiJ. onalumpofsugar. 

CNICI BENEDICTI FOLIA. D. Blessed Thistis. (^ii^sii. 
Polygam. Fruetr. N. O. Compositm Capitaim^ L. Cinaraeem. 
Gredc Islands. 0.) 

Prop. Odor unpleasant ; taste bitter. 

Oper. Btrong decoction emetic; strong infuirion diaphoretle; 

light infusion tonic, stomacliic, antiperiodic. 
Uee. For the two former purposes it is rarely used ; bat the light 
Infusion, made with 3 vj. of the plant in Oj. of cold water, is an 
excellent bitter in loss of appetite, and in the dyspepsia of the 

COL 40 

Do$», Gr. zv. to 3 J. in powder; of the iofoslon fjy. eveiy 
three hoars. 

COCCULUS. E. Cocculus suberosus. Fructos Vulg. Coc- 
calus Indicus, D. Cocculus Indicus. (Anarsierta cocculua. 
Diacia^ Dodecandria. N.O. Meniapermaeita. Malabar. iX.) 
Contains Picrotoxiiu. 

Prow. Blackish purple, not unlike a small dry cherry. 

Oper. Stimulant, narcotic, poisonous; used extensively for 
adulterating malt liquors. 

About 3000 bags are annually employed in England ; and, Mr. 
Pereira remarks, chiefly for adulterating beer and ale, though 
the practice is prohibited by the legislature, under a penalty of 
JS300 upon the brewer, and jCSOO upon the seller of the drug. 
We have no laws on the subject. 

COCCI. U.S.— L.E. Coccus Cacti, D (Coccus Cacti Inaecta 
Memiptera. Mexico.) The Cochineal Insects. The Dried 

Comp. A peculiar coloring matter, carminia ; an animal princi- 
ple, coectMo, stearine, elaine, an odoriferous acid, and saline 

Prop. Faint, heavy odor ; taste acrid, bitterish, astringent ; color 
blackish red externally, purple red within ; small, irregular, 

Use. Chiefly for giving a red color to tinctures, &c. 

^ grass. (Cochlearia Officinalis. Tetradynamia Siliculosa 
N.O. Oucifera. 0.) 

Use. Of little value, and scarcely ever used. 

CODEIA. A new alkaloid, obtained from opium. 

Comp. Consists of 31 carbon, 40 hydrogen, 5 oxygen, 2 azote.— 

Prop. In crystals, soluble in water, alcohol, and ether : effecti 
not well understodCl ; supposed ta be stimulant and narcotic ; 
flot used in medicine. 

Semen, U. S. Colchici Autumnalis, bulbus, Semina.D. Col- 
cbici Autumnalis Radix, E. The Bulb and Seeds of the Mea- 
dow Safiron. (Colchicum AtUumnaU. Hexand. Trigyn. N. O. 
Metanthacea. Europe. 11.) -Dug in July and August. 

Comp. Colchicia, a peculiar alkaloid resembling Veratna, fecula. 

Prop. Taste acrid, excoriating tlie mouth; acrimony lost ta 

Oper. Narcotic, diuretic, cathartic. 

Use. In dropsies, gout, rheumatism, neuralgia, bronchitis, and 
scarlet fever. {It is supposed that it forms the active ingredient 
of the Eau Medicinale.) Colchicum is rather palliative than 
curative in gout and rheumatism. It is a useful addition to 
■aline medicines in fevers and all inflammations. It should be 
given in small doses combined with magnesia, and if necessary, 
often repeated; as, Magnes. gr. xv., Mag. Sulphat. 3j., Aceti 
Colehici 3 j. to 3 ij., sweetened with Ext. Qlycyrrh. ; or a tea- 
spoonful of the following every three or four hoars : (5k Fini 
Coleh. Sem. f 3 ij.. Aqua Camph. f 3 vj., Sulphat. Morphia gr. ss., 
Sacck. .9lb. 3 j. Mix.) ; or till relief is obtained. In chronic 

•bbronchitis and asthma it should be given in still nnaller doses. 
Should be given with great caution ; nixxx. of Finum Colekiei 

' * J * J > J J ■' -> J ' ^ t ^ 

*•»» til ****** JJ VJ „ J 

60 CON 

li a medinin doM. A very good farm In rheonatiMn It tfll 
following: (9t Fini Coleh. Son. f 3 ij., Aqua Camphor, f 3 v). 
Bulpkat. MvrpkuB gr. m., ad gr. j., Saeeh. Jilb. 3 j M.) Dose^ 
a teospoonful every 3 or 4 hours, or three timet a day. Also 
in chronic bronchitis and asthma. 

Do»e. Gr. j. to gr. v. of the recent bulb in pills. 

Off. Prep. Acetum Colekici, U. 8.— L. E. Oxjfmel Cotehieit D. 
Tinet. Colchici, V. S.— L. E. Ftnum Colehici, U. 8.*— L. E. 

COL0CYNTHI8. U.S.— L. E. Fructus Pulpa, D. Bitter Cu- 
cumber Pulp. (Cncumli Colotynthia. Monac. Syngen. N. O. 
Cucurbitaeea, L. J. Cape of Good Hope. 0.) 

Comp. 100 ports of the dry pulp of colocynth contain 14.4 parta 
ot coloeynthiny 10 of extractive, 4.3 of fixed oil, 13ii of a resinoua 
substance insoluble in sther, 9.5 of gum, 3.0 of pectic acid 
(pectin), 17.6 of gummy extract, 2.7 of phosphate of lime, 3.0 
of phosphate of magnesia, and 19.0 of li|piin, be^des water. 

Prop. Taste bitter, nauseous, acrimonious ; light, white or pale 
yellow; spongy. 

Oper. Strongly cathartic, drastic, hydragogue. 

Uj$. Too violent to be used alone. When combined with calo- 
mel, extract of jalap, and gamboge, colocynth forms a highly 
efficient and safe cathartic, especially adapted to congestion of 
the liver and portal circle, and torpidity of this organ. In 
dropsy, and affections of the head, also, highly useful. 

Dose. Gr. j. to gr. v. 

Off. Prep. Extract. Coloeyntkidu, L. E. Ext. Colocynth. Comp.^ 
U.S.— L.D. Pitul. Colocynthidisi E.D. PUultB Colocynthidu 
et Hyoacyami, E. 

CONFECTiO AMYGDALA. L.D. Conserva Amygdalarum, 
E. Confection of Almonds. {Amyg. Did. ^viij., Acacim 
Oum Ij., Sacch. Alb. ^iv. Having bleached the almonds^ 
beat the whole into a uniform paste.) This preparation ia 
merely a good mode of keeping almonds in a state nt to make 
the almond mixture. 

CONFECTtO AROMATTCA. U. S.— L. D. Elect Aromati- 

cum, E. Aromatic Confection. {Oinnamomi, Jfyristica, ting. 

1^., Caryoph. ^J., Cardam. ^ss., Oroci flj., Oreta Prmp, 

f xvl., Sacch. Pur. &>ij. Rub the dry rabstances to a fine 

powder, and keep it in a stoppered vessel. When it is to be 

used, add water gradually till the whole be incorporated.) 

Oper. Stimulnnt, cordial. 

Use. In the low stage of typhoid fevers ; atonic gout ; hysterlmi 
nervous languors. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3 j. in bolus or mixtures. 

Incomp. Acids of any kind ; metallic salts. 

CONFECTiO AURANTU. U. S.— L. Conserve Aurantii, E 
Confection of Orange. {Aur. Cort. exter. recent, raduk^oepar, 
Ibj., Sacch. pur. IbiiJ. Beat the rind in a stone mortar wiUi a 
wooden pestle, gradually adding the sugar.) 

Oper. Stomnchic. 

U9§. In dyspepsia of children; and as a vehicle for otlMt 

*The U. 8. Pharmaoop(Bla direct! wine of the leed and 
or the root 

OONFECTiO CASBiS. L. EI«L Cuaie, D. CbbIii <>» 
leaioa. (Guiia pi'p' >>ra.. Mimna llj^ TlmuWmdt ntM 
!Jm ^. Jiii»r;vMJ, BntlaeUiemimna; Dice dlmlis il^ 
taeU. ind bBVIng mlisd in the pulp, erapoiBK to ■ proper 

Vtt. For halillual coHlTeiieH; and u ■ pui^ ftti chlldreo. 

CONFECTiO OFlI. U. B.— L.D. Elccnur. OpH, E. Oi^um 
ConfecILoo. lOriiduri J vj.. Piper. Lang. JJ., Zixrii. ml. 

Cl^ivj. Rub Uii! opium wlih the ayrup mode hot; Ihcn iia 
the other atllclH In Uie MAtg oT powder, asd mil.) Or. j. tf 

Cm. Atonic «DUI, flauilenl colic, colliiiuaUve diBrrbsn, In the 

BoK. Gr. 1. lo' 1 «. In a Mos. or 

CONPECTiO FlPERia NiGRC. L. ElFCtanriain PIpetl*, B 

CONFECITO ROS«CANlN«. L. Conmiv. Ro™ FncHU, 
E. Cocfecllon of Uog Roue. ^Aose Cm. Pulps IbJ,, Sued. 
fiir. ;ii. Rub IheiDingelhetuntll IbcjtKwelllDcorporaled.) 

CmiFECTJo ROSM GALVSCJE. U.B.—L. ConeervaRom, 
£. D. ConfKlloD of Ihe BhI Rom. IRet* Gul. PiliU.iniiubim 
tzplic. nbjicl, wf . Iij.. Saai. par. Iblij. Beal the peliili In ■ 

Dmi. ZliaXi. 

t-ONFECTlO BUT^. L.D. Conrccllon of Rue. (ft>i(a «- 

0«r" AnilKpiBdMllt. canntnallve. 

[/». In Ihe convulilve affecUona of chUdien, given b clyatera ; 31- InOp. ofiruel, 
CONFECTiO SCAM MONn. L. Elect. BcammoDlUD. Con- 

■M CO P 

Qfriand. fiv^ Olyeyrrkitm ^iij., Sacck.9wr. ftljtg^ JiftimflS^ *^ 

Rub the Senna leaves and Coriander seeds to powder, and sift; 

boil the residue with the figs, liquorice root, and the water to 

one half, then press and strain. Evaporate the strained liqaw 

to ffxxiv., then add the sugar. Finally, rub the syrup with 

the pulp, and adding the sifted powder, mix the whole.) 

Oper. Laxative. 

Use. In habitual costtveness, and that attending pregnancy. 

Doae. 3j. ta l\v. 

CONII FOLTA, semen, U. S. PRUCTUS.* L. Conlum, 
E. Conii Maculati FoUa, D. Hemlock Leaves and Seeds. ^ 

(Conium MaeulaUim* Pentand. Digyn, N. O. UmbeUiferm. *! 

Indigenous. 0.) 

Comp. Coiifa, resin, albumen, odorous oil, extractive. 

Prop. Odor heavy and disagreeable ; taste bitter, nauseous, her- 
baceous; color a dull green; light destroys its virtues, Uiere- 
fore the powder should be kept in opaque bottles, well corked. 
The powder, triturated with Liquor Potasse, exhales the odot 
of Conia. 

Oper. Narcotic, poisonous in an over-dose, resolvent 

Use. As a palliative in cancer and scirrhous, scrofulous and 
syphilitic ulcerations and swellings; pertussis; chronic en- ^ 
largement of the liver and other abdominal organs ; cutancooa 
affections ; asthma ; chronic pulmonary diseases, and neuralgic 
affections. Externally | iij. of the dried herb boiled in Qj. of 
water, as a fomentation to open scrofulous and cancerous ttlcers ; 
or as a cataplasm, by adding linseed meal and oatmeal. 

Dose. Gr. ij. to 3J. of the powder, or from Tllxij. of the expressed 
juice, very gradually increased to nilx. Of the extract, gr. J. , 

to gr. iv., to be reduced if it cause vertigo. The extract is the 
best form of administering it : it may be useftilly combined with 
ipcipacuanha in pulmonary affections, where we wish to quiet 
cough and relieve bronchial irritation. 

Off. Prep. Extractum Omti, U. S.— L. E D. TmeU Omit, U. 8. 
— L. E. D. 

CONTRAYfiRVA. U.S. (Secovdary.)—Ij. Contr^terva Root 
(Dorstenia Contrajerva. Tetrand. Monogyn. N. O. UrUcm- 
eea. South America. 2|.) 

Prop. Odor aromatic, heavy ; taste bitter, itjrptic, sweetish. -^ 

Oper. Tonic, stimulant sudorific. , 

tjse. In typhus ; nervous fever ; the fever of dentition in weak 
infants ; and dysentery. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3 se. 

COPAlBA. U. S.— L. E. Copaifem Officinalis Resina, D. 
Copaiba. (Copnifera Langsdorfii, Deeand. Digyn, N. O. 
LeguminoscB. Brazils. ^ .) 

Comp. Volatile oil 41.00 percent, hard resin 51.38, softrenn 
8.18, water 5.44. i 

Prop. Odor peculiar, not unpleasant ; taste pungent Mtter ; con- 
sistence of syrup ; yellott^ish, transparent ; soluble in two putt 
of alcohol, in ether, and the expreMed oils ; miscible In diatUUA j 


* Often mistaken for deut^ vtroaoy or C. maatUtOy Cowbane, 
Water Hemlock. Cieitta, though formerly applied to thli pl«nt| ^ 

helongi to « different genus 

COR '6S- 

water, bj means of imicnage ; spec. gray. 0.950. It dissolves 1 

its weight of Carbonate of Magnesia, aided by gentle heat, and 

remains translucent 
Oftr, Stimulant, diuretic, purgative in arge doses ; acts on the 

Vat. In gonorrhoea, gleet, leucorrhoea, dysentery, and all affee> 

tlona of mucous monbranes; hemorrhoidal affections. 
DoBt. fllxx. to f 3j. in emulsion with gum or yolk of e^; in 

pills, by mixing the copaiba with magnesia and exposing the 

mixture to the air. 
Incvmp. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid. 
TtsU, Agitate f 3 j. of liq. ammonis with ^ ijss. of copaiba ; if 

it remains milky when at rest, it contains castor oil. 
COPAIBiE OI»EUM. £. OU of Copaiba. (Distillation of the 

Copaiba with water.) 
Trap. Pale straw color ; odor of the Copaiba. 
Vae* The same as Copaiba. 

Daan. Hlz. to TIlxxx., triturated with mucilage and water. 
COPTI8. U.S. {Secondary.) Trifoliata. Goldthread. (Polf 

and. Polygynia^ N. O. Ranunculacem. 0.) North America. 
Prop. Long, thread-like, orange-colored roots; without smell, 

bitter taste ; owes its virtues to a bitter extractive matter, solu- 
ble in water and alcohol. 
Oper. Tonic. 
Uaa. In all cases where a sample tonic^s required. In aphthous 

affections of the mouth and throat. 
Dose. Of the powder, from gr. x. to gr. xxx. Of the tinct 3 j., 

( SJ. roott (H. alcohol.) 
COaiANDRUM. U. S.— L. E. Coriandrl Sativi Semina, D. 

Coriander Seed. (Coriandrum Sativum. Pentand. Digyn- 

N. O. UmbeUifera. Italy. 0.) 
Prop. Odor aromatic ; tasie grateful, pungent ; seed hemitfpho- 

rieal, ribbed. 
Oper. Carminative. 
Uao. In flatulencies; but chiefly to cover the taste of other 

Dose. 3j. to 3 j. entire, or in powder. 
Off. Prep. Aqua Calcia Comp.^ D. Infusum Sennit L. E. Tinet 

Sennm Gmp., £. Confutio Senna^ L. E. 
CORNU. L. E. Comua Cervina. ^amenta, D. Hartshorn. 

(Cervus Elaphus. Mammalia Pecora. Europe.) 
Prop. Hard comp^t, bony ; yields 27 parts gelatine for every 

100 of the horn. 
(^m: Emollient, nutritive. 
Um To infants deprived of the breast ; ^ vj. of the shavings, 

boiled in Oiv. of water to Oij., then strained, and the liquor again 

boiled with f |j. of orange juice, § vj. of sugar, and f ^ v. of 

sherry wjne, form a light nutritious jelly for the sick. 
Off. Prep. Comu Uetum, L. D. Pulv. Antimonialis, L. E. D. 
CORNU USTUM. L. Burnt Hartshorn. 
Omp, Phosphate of lime, carbonate of lime, phosphate of mag- 
Prop. White, friable. 
UȤ. The knowledge of the components of this preparatkm 

proves that it possesses no antacid qualitiesi and therefore It 

ntcht be altogether rejected. 

^ CRO 

(Dogwood. 8w«Dp DojwooiVT^ '^ ^ B««%U.B. 

^r^. Taste bitser, utnagcBt. riehdr 

cooUios eztnctiTe matter, gam. 7^%. t. 

•na a pecoliar bitter aJJcaitoe pncxi».e. 
0»tr. Toole, astiiogem. "^ 

l/M. In all caaes to which Pcnmaa Bart w aiapttrf. whk^ it 

Cloaely reaemblei, especially intennmrats 

!!*• J^I ** 1?^** "* powder, deoocooa. er extract: of dM 
powder, Crom 3j. to 3 j. Infuskm most enplovvd. 
SCvfrS^U, ^««»«*- C»r»«# ^/sH^ U. a 
CaBAflOTON. L^ Creasotnim E. Oe«oleu (A oolorie« 

limpid liquid, pre|nred from the oil of wood-iar.) 
Prop. Colorless when recent; spec grav. 1.06* ; solaUe In its 
weight of acetic acid ; leaves no slain on while paper when 
heated. A powerful stimulanL 

U»; Externally applied in rheumatism and neoralgia. Given 
In some stomachic affections, as dyspepsia, and anorexia, and 
to allay nausea and vomiting ; used externally in porrigo scutu- 
Mto, and to relieve toothache ; also to foul ulcers and cancerous 

Do§», From miy. to fllxv. 

CaBTA. U. 8.— L. £. Crcta Alba, D. Carbonis Calcis, a. 
muUior, E. Chalk. 

Comp. Lime 53, carbonic acid 45, in 100 parts; some aigil. 
Bpoo. grav. from 2.3 to 2.6. 

Prop, White, friable, effervescing with acids. 

l/#«. To prepare the Creta Prseparatn. 

OR ETA PR^PARATA. U. «.— L. E. D. Prepared Chalk. 
Toke of chalk a convenient quantity ; add a little water to it, 
I nd rub it into a fine powder ; throw this into a large vessel 
nearly Aitl of water, stir briskly, and after a short interval pour 
the supernatant liquor, while yet turbid, into another vessel. 
Rt>penl the process with the chalk remaining in the first vessel, 
una set the turbid liquor by, that the powder may subside. 
Lastly, pour off the water, and dry the powder.— <7. 5 Pkar. 

Comp, The same as those cf creta. 

Oper. Internally antacid ; externally absorbent. 

C/««. In diarrhoea from acidity ; externally when sprinkled over 
bums, aAcr the infiamuiation has subsided, and a poultice ap- 
plied, the skinning over of the sore is much hastened. 

2>os0. Gr. X. to 3 J. or more. 

Off. Prep. Mistura Creta, U. S.— L. E. Hydrargyrum cum 
Creta, U. 8. — ^L. Putvii Oetat Comp., L. E. Pulv. Opiatus, 
E. Trochiaci Carbonatig Calcis, E. Ammonim Sesquicarbonasy 
L. CaXz, L. Calcii Ckloridam, L. Confectio ./iromatica, L. 

CROCUS. U. 8.— L. E. Croci 8Htivi Sligniutn, D. Saffron. 
(Crocus Sativus. Triand. Monogyn. N. O. Iridaceta. The 
East. 4.) Thf English is the bsst. 

Prop. Odor diffusive, aromatic, narcotic ; taste aromatic, pun- 
gent, bit*er ; color deep orange-red ; residing in un extractive 
essential oil und resin ; yields its virtues tu alcohol, wine, vine- 
gar, and water. 

Oper. Siimulaut, exhilarating, diaphoretic, emmenngogue; 

Use. In hysteria and other nervous affections ; chiefly to imnart 
color to officinal tinctures. 

CUP 55 

Dmt. Gr. ' Sqs. 

Off. Prep. Syrupus Croei, L. E. THuet. Croei, E. Qmfeetio 
JiroTnatieOf U. 8.— L. D. Electuarium Aromat., E. PUvlm 
Aloes cum Myrrka^ L. E. THnet. Aloes Comp.y U. S. — L. E. D. 
7Vnef.Ciriu:AoiueG>mp^U.8.— L.E.D. Tinct. Rhei^l*. TinU. 
Rkei Comp., U. 8.— L. 

CROTONI8 OLEI. E. See Tlglii Oleain. 

CUBEBiE U. 8.— L. E. D. Cubebs. (Pip«r Cubeba, Diand, 
Trigfii. N. O. PiperacetB. Java and Guinea. ^ .) Baecm, 

Comp. Wax, volatile oil, oudefttn, resin, chloride of sodiom, ex- 
tractive, lignin. (The eubebin ia probably identical with 
piperin.') * 

Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste cooling at first, afterwards pungent ; 
active principle an essential oil 

Oper. Stimulant, purgative, diuretic. 

Use. Tn KonorrhoBa, gleet, lencorrhoaa. Also, as a grateful 
stomachic and carminative in disArdera of the digestive organs. 
C»bebs have been recommended in every stage of gonorrhoBa, 
but they are roost safe and effectual in chronic cases, and where 
the inflammation ia confined to the mucous membrane of the 
arethrn. If not speedily useful, they should be discontinued. 

J>0se. From gr. x. to 3 ss. of the powder, every six hours. The 
volatile oil is sometimes substituted in the dose of ten or twelve 
drop?, suspended in mucilage or sugar and water. 

CUMIN (JM. L. E. Cummin Seed. (Cuminum OrmrmcM, 
PerUand. Monogyn. N. O. Umbellifera. Egypt 0.) . 

Prop. Odor peculiar, heavy ; taste warm, bitterish, disagreeable. 
Water extracts their odor; spirit takes up both odor and taste. 

. Seeds ovate, striated. 

Oper. Antispasmodic; externally stimulating. 

Use. Scarcely ever employed internally : vide Emplastrum. 

CUPRUM. U. S.— D. Copper. 

Prop. Odor peculiar, but sensible only when rubbed; taste 
disagreeable and metallic; color red yellow; spec. grav. 7.87, 
ductile ; very malleable ; hardness less than tiiat of iron ; easily 

Use. For preparing the salts of the metal.* 

CUPRI ACETAS. D. Acetate of Copper. 

Comp. Oxide of copper 39, acid and water 61, in 100 parts ; or, 1 
protoxide=30.6-|-l acid=51.48+9 water=8l : eq.=181.08. 

Prop. Crystals four-sided truncated pyramids, of a bluish green 
color, efflorescent: spec. gray. 1.779: taste disagreeably metal- 
lic Sparingly soluble in water ; moderately soluble in alcohol. 

Optr, Tonic r^imulant, escharotic. 

Use. In epilepsy, chorea, and other spasmodic affections. 

Doss. 6r. ^ gradually increased to gr. ij. 

* Copper, when clean, produces no deleterious effects in the 
etomach ; nor does it appear that the ncids it meets with there 
and In the bowels render it very active when in a mass. We 
have seen two instances where half^nce were swallowed, and 
retained, in the one case six months, and in the other two, with* 
out altering the state of health. Both thn patients were boyg 
under ten years of age ; and the half)pence were much corroded 
when passed. 

56 CUR 

Ineomp. Alkaliei, chalk mixtare, lulphailc acid. 

CUPKI SUBACETA8. U. S.— D. See iErago. 

CUPRI AMMONIO SULPHAS. L. Cuprum Ammonlatonv 
U. S.— E. D. Ammoniated Copper. (Cupri Sulphatis li^ 
Ammonia Sesguicarbonatis $ jas. Or, take of Sulphate of O^ 
per I ss., Ckirbonate of Jimmonia 3 vj. ; rub Ihem together in a 
gla«8 mortar till effervescence ceases ; then wrap the ammont- 
ated copper in bibulous paper, and dry it with a gentle heat. 
Let it be kept in a well-stopped glass bottle.)— CT. 5. Phar, 

Comp. Carbonate of copper, sulphate of ammonia. 

Prop. A crystalline powder of a rich violet color ; taste hot, 
styptic, metalline. Its color is lost by keeping, if exposed to the 
air, and it becomes green ; being partly converted into carbonate 
of copper. 

Oper. Tonic, antispasmodic. 

Use. In epilepsy and chorea, after a course of purging. 

Do$e. 6r. \ gradually increased to gr. v. in a pill twice a day. 

Ineomp. Acids, alkalies, lime water. 

moniati Solutio, E. D. Solution of Ammoniated Copper. 
{Cupri Antmonio-SiUvh. 3 j., Aqu(B diatillata Oj. Dissolve the 
ammonio-sulphate of copper in the water, and filter through 

Prop, and Use. The same as those of the salt. 

CUPRI SULPHAS. U. S.— L. E. D. Sulphate of Copper. 

Comp. Hydrate of oxide of copper 42.6, sulphuric acid 33, water 
25.4, in 100 pts. ; or, 1 eq. protoxide o/ copper=39.6+l sulphuric 
acid=40.r. eq.=79.7. 

Prop. Crystals rhomboidal, rich blue, sehii-transparent, efflores- 
cing, inodorous; taste harsh, styptic, corrosive ; soluble in four 
parts of water, at 60^; two of water, at 212P. 

Oper. Tonic, emetic, astringent, escharotic, alterative, s^tie^ 

Use. In epilepsy, hysteria, and intermittent fever ; and to produce 
vomiting in incipient phthisis, in croup, and in poisoning ; ex- 
ternally as a stimulant to ulcers and to take down fun^s. A 
weak solution is sometimes used as a collyrium in ophthalmia, 
and as an injection in gleets. It formed the basis of a very un- 
chemical preparnlion, Bates's Aqua Camphorata, which Ware 
rectimmi'nds. diluted with 16 parts of water, in the purulent 
ophthulitiia of infants. Ths following will answer instead of 
it: ?; Capri sulph. cr. iij., mist, camphora; f 5 v., cola. 

Dose. As a tonic, gr. ^ to gr. ij. in a pill : gr. ij. to gr. x. in f ^ y. 
of water vomit. 

Jjuomp. Alkalies, earths, and their carbonates ; sods biboras; 
salts of lead; acetate of iron ; acetate and diacctate of lead; 
astringent vecftable infusions, decoctions, and tinctures. 

Off. Prep. Solutio Cupri Sulphatis Comp., E. Cuprum Ammo- 
ntatuniy U. S. 

CURCUMyE LONGiE RADIX. D. Curcuma, U.S. -E. The 
Root of Turmoric. (Curcuma Longa. Monand.' Monogfn. 
N. O. Scitaminea India. !(..) A tuberose root. 

Prop. Color pale ypllow ; taste bitter and aromatic ; odor slightly 
aromatic. It tinges the urine reddish, after being token for a 
short time. 

Oper. Stimalimt, tonic 

DEC 57 

DIM. la debilitated states of the stomach ; intennittent fever ; 

Do8«. From 3 ss. of '^e powder to 3 ij. ; three tablespoonfals, 
three times a day, of an infusion uade with 3 i^j' of the root 
in Oj. of water. 

CUSPARlA. L. E. Augustura :— Bonplandie Trifoliatie Cor- 
tex, D. Cusparia Baric. (Galipea Cusparia vel officinalis. 
PentandTna Monogynies. N. O. Rutacea. South America. 

Prop. Odor peculiar ; taste intensely bitter, and slightly aromatic ; 
pieces thin, externally grey, wrinkled; internally yellowish 
fawn ; fracture short, resinous. Yields its virtues to water and 
proof spirit. (Conttuns an alkali Cusparin.) It is distinguished 
from false Cusparia by its outer surface not turning green ; nor 
its transverse fracture red by nitric acid. 

Oper. Tonic, stimulant, aromatic. 

Use. In dyspepsia, removing flatulence and acidity; chronic 
diarrhoea, dysentery. 

Jneomp. Sulphate of iron and of copper, nitrate of silver, tartar- 
ized antimony, acetate and diacetate of lead, bichloride of mer- 
cury, pure potassa, and infusions of galls and yellow, cinchona 
bark, &c. 

Dose. Gr. v. to gr. xx. in powder. 

Off. Prep. Infasum Cusparia^ L. Tinctura JingusturcB^ TX, 

Cyanogen. (Bicarburet of Nitrogen.) Obtained by Gay- 
Lussac, in 1815, by heating Cganuret of Mercury. 

€Jemp. Carbon 46.1, nitro{;en 53.9, equiv. carb. 12, uit. 14. Spec, 
grav. 1.81, compared with atmospheric air ; 2G to 1, with nitro 
gen. Combined with hydrogen, forms hydrocyanic acid ; burns 
with a beautiful purple flame ; has u pungent odor, somewhat 
resembling bitter almonds ; unrespirablc and poisonous. 

CYOdNfA. L. Quince Seed. (Cydoniavu^g^aritf. Icosandria 
Pentagynia, N. O. Rosacece. Germany. ? .) 

Prop. Shape of the seeds ovate, angled ; the coriaceous external 
coat abounds with mucilage^ to obtain which only they are 

Off. Prep. Decoctum CydonitR, L. 

CYMINUM. L. SeeCuminum. 

DATURA. See Extract. Stramoniif and Stram. Semina. 

Dauci Sylvestris Semina, D. Carrot Root and Seed. (Daacus 
Carota. Pentandria. Digynia. N. O. UmbeUifera. Exotic. 
i .) 

Prop. The root is sweet and mucilaginous ; the seeds have an 
aromatic odor, and a moderately warm pungent taste 

Oper. Of the root, emollient ; of the seeds, stomachic, carmina- 
tive, diuretic. The root is externally antiseptic. 

nUse. The root is chiefly employed as a poultice to fetid and 

'I ill-conditioned sores. The seeds have very little efl)cacy ia 
gravel and other renal afiections, {or wliich they have been 

Dose. Of the bruised seed 3ij. to 3 i. 

Aloes, E. Compound Decoction of Aloes. (Ext. Olfwrrk, 
Svtj'i Potassm Carb. 3 J., Aloes contritay Myrrhm contri., Orodt 




m DEC 

ting. Sin., Titut, Card. Co. f 5 v^., ^^lUiQiM. Boil to (^. 
fltrain, tiiea add the THnct. Card. Camp.) 

Qtmp. The soluble matter of the Aloes nnd Myrrh dissolved la 
water, which is enabled, by the alkali, to take up a little more 
than the water alone could do. . The tincture keeps it on* 

Over. A warm cathartic ; emmenagogue, tonic, imd cordial. 

!/««. In habitual costiveness from torpor of the bowels; in 
Jaundice, hypochondriasis, chlorosis, and dyspepsia. This is a 
very miid and useful laxative where tonics are co-indicated. 
It may be used with the greatest advantage in some forms of 
dyspepsia, and in those complicated cases in which suppressed 
menstruation is connected with enfeebled digestion ondti lan- 
guid state of the bowels, as in chlorosis. 

Dose, f § ss. to f ^ ij. taken in the morning. 

Jneomp. Acids and acidulous salts, metallic salts. 

Marsh Mallows. (Rod. Mthaee sic. fiv., Uvarum Pass, 
demptis aein. | ij., .aqua Ovij. Boil to five pints and decant) 

Comp. The clear liquor, which is poured off after the fccei 
subside, is a solution of mucilage in water. 

Prop. Odor peculiar, not unlike that of boiled turnips; taste 
sweetish ; color pale yellow ; slightly viscid. 

Over. Demulcent, emollient 

Use. In nepluitis and inflammation of Che bladder; and aa a 
fomentation in abrasions, ice. 

DECOCTUM AMYLI. L. Decoction of Starch. (Jimyli Ziv., 
Aqute Oj.; rub the starch, gradually adding the water, then 
boil a little.) 

Use. For (^lyeters. 

Decoction of Calumba. {Calumhce contusts^ Quassits in scobea 
rasa, aa 3 ij., Auraniii corticis 3 j., Rhei inptUv. 3j., Potassm 
earbonatis 3ss., Aqua flxx. Boil to a pint, and add T. La 
vand. fjss-) 

Sner. Tonic. 
se. In convalescence from fever. 

Dose, f 5 ij. thrice a day. 

DECOCTUM CETRARIiE. U. S.— L. Decoctum Lichenii 
Islandici, D. Decoction of Liverwort {Lichenis 3 v. L. 
Aqum Qjsa. L. Boil to Oj. and strain.) 

Comp. Bitter extractive, and fecula, dissolved in water. 

Prop. Inodorous; taste bitter, mucilaginous; color yellow. 

Over. Tonic, demulcent 

Use. In protracted coughs, phthisis, emaciation from the great 
discharge of ulcers, pertussis. 

Dose. f3iv. to fjij. three or four times a day. The bitter if 
completely extracted by steeping the lichen in several waters 
before it is boiled, adding to each water about half a scniple of 
carbonate of potassa. Its nutritive qualities are considerable. 

momile. {Flor. Anthem. ICoh. 1\.yl^. ^ss., D. Sem. Cand 
3 iv., £. Sem. Fcenieuli 3 ij., D. Aqius lb v., £. Oj., D. Boil 
for fifteen minutes and strain.) 

Gray. Biner extractive, dissolved in water. 



Rw. Afl a clytter and fomentation ; bat for fhe latter purpoM 
wann water is equally efficacious. 

OECOCTUM CHIMAPHILiE. U.S.— L. Decoction of Winter 
' Green. {Qiimaphilm |j., Aqua dist. Ojss. Boil to a pint, and 

Oper. Diuretic. 

Use. Id dropsy, calcaloos and nephritic complaints. 

Dose. From f 5 j. to f § jas. 

CINCfiONiE LANCIFOLIiE. L. Decoctum Cinchone, 
U.S. — E. D. Decoction of Cinchona. (dnehonitB Cdrt. eontusi 
3 z., Jlgua Oj., L. D. f j. Corticis^ f ^ xxiv. Aqua^ E. Boil for 
ten minutes in a slightly covered vessel, and strain while hot, 
L. D. Filter when cool, and evaporate to f ^ xvj., E.) 

Comp. Cinchonia, Q,uina, as Bilunates, and resinous extractive 
dissolved in water. 

Prop. Odor and taste that ofthe species of bark employed. 

Oper, The same as that of the bark. 

Use. When the powder does not sit easy on the stomach ; and 
when large dosea are necessary, or ingredients of a nature 
which cannot be combined with the powder are required to be 
given with the bark. 

Dose, f ^ j. to IW. three or four times a day. ' 

Ineomp. Tartarized antimony, infusions of astringent barks. 

of Red Bark. 

Use. In gangrene and general debility. 

wood. {Corn. Florid, eont. y}.^Aqu«tfi^.) Boil for ten minutes 
In a covered vessel, and strain the liquor while hot 

Oper. Tonic. 

Use. As a tonic in dyspepsia, and intermittenfis, especially when 
Peruvian bark cannot be had. 

DECOCTUM CYDONI^. L. Decoction of Quince Seed. 
(Oydonim Sem. 3iJM Jlqtua Oj. Boil over a gentie fire tea 
minutes, and strain.) 

Grmp. A solution of mucilage in water. 

Prop. Inodorous; taste slightiy grateful; nearly colorless; 
transparent; viscid. 

OfMsr. Demulcent. 

Use. In aphthe, united with borax and honey, or syrup of mul- 
berries; injected beneath the eyelids in violent ophthalmia. 
Perha[^ altogether superfluous, as It does not keep. 

ineomp. Acids, which coagulate it. 

DECOCTUM DULCAMARiE. U. S.— L. E. D. Decoction of 
Woody Nightshade. (Dulcamara Caulis concisi f |x., Agum 
0t)ss. Boil to one pint, and strain, L. Dulcamara contusa |j., 
Jtqua f $ xxiv. Boil, and evaporate to f | xvj. E.) 

Cdmp. Contains a peculiar alkaline principle, solaniOf which 
does not form crystallizable salts. 

Prop. Odor strong, and unpleasant; taste bitter and nanseouSi 
followed by a degree of sweetness. (Contains Solania.) 

Oper. Diuretic diaphoretic, alterative, narcotic. 

{£«. In dropsy, rheumatism, humoral asthma, lepra, and 
other disease* ofthe skin. 




60 DEC 

D—9. f3iT. toflj. with any aromatie tbietare, twice or thrice 
a day. 

Cabbage-Tree Bark. (On-t. Oeoff. Inerm. in Pulv. ^ j., Jlq. Wj, 
Boil over a slow fire to one pint, and strain.) 

Prop. Odor disagreeable ; taste bitter and macilaginouf ; color 
that of Madeira wine. 

Oper. Antheloiintic, purgative, anrcotic. 

Use. In worms, in which it has been found very efficacious. 

Dose. TocliildrenfZij., toadultsf^ss. tof^ij. An overdose, 
or the drinlcing cold water during its operation, produces vio- 
lent vomiting, fever, and delirium. These effects are to be 
remedied by castor oil, warm water, and acids. 

DECOCTUM GLYCYRRHIZiE. D. Decoction of Liquorice. 
{Radicis OlycyrrhiuB contusa i jss., Jiqtuo mensura fi>j. Bcrfl 
for ten minutes, and strain.) 

Use. An agreeable demulcent, and vehicle for the administration 
of other remedies. 

DECOCTUM GRANATI. L. Decoction of Pomegranate. 
( Oranati f ij., .dgua disttllata Ojss. Boil to a pint, and strain.) 

Prop. Contains tannic acid, extractive, gum. 

Oper. Astringent, anthelmintic. 

Use. In tape-worm, dysentery. 

Dose. f^BS. tof5J. 

DECOCTUM GU A I ACL E. D. Decoction of Guaiacum, or of 
the Woods. {Scab. Ligni Ouaiaci lilj., Fruet. Sic. Vitis 
Vinijeree 5 Ij., Rad. Lauri Sassafras con.^ Rad. Glycyrr. con.^ 
sing. § j., Aquts Oviij. Boil the Guaiacum and Raisins with 
the water over a slow fire, to five pints, adding the roots to- 
wards the end, then strain.) 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic. 

Use. In venereal complaints, scrofula, cutaneous diseases, and 
rheumatism, after bleeding. The guaiacum, however, can 
have little effect, as the resin is insoluble in water. 

Dose, f ; iij. to f f vi. every three hours, so that QJ. or Oij. may 
be daily taken. 

DECOCTUM HiEMATOXYLL U. S.— E. D. Decoction of 
Logwood. (Ramentorum Ligni Hamatozyli 5j., Cortieis 

. Cinnamomi eontusi 3 j., JJquaJ^. Boil the wood in the water 
till it evaporates to f | x. ; towards the end of the coction add 
the cinnamon, then strain.) 

Prop. Taste sweetish, subastringent; nearly inodorous; color 
deep red. 

Over. Tonic, astringent 

Use. In diarrhoea, and some cases of dyspepsia, where the 
secretions of the intestines are acrid. 

Dose, f 5 j. to f 5 iij. frequently. 

Incomp. The mineral acids, solution of alum, sulphates of iros 
and of copper, acetate of lead, tartarized antimony. 

Off. Prep. Ext. H<tmatoxyli, U. S. — L. D. 

DECOCTUM HORDfil. U. S.— L. D. Hordei Mistura, E. 
Decoction of Barley. {Hordei Sem. % ijss., jSqua Oivss. First 
wash the barley well, then boil it for a few minutes in Oss. of 
the water; which being strained off, and thrown away, add 
the remainder boiling ; boil to two pints, and strain.) 

Oper, Nutritive, demulcent. 

DEC • U 

Use, Ai a dilamt In febrile affections, recent gonorrhcra, and 
Btrangury ; and to form the bulk in clysters. 

Dose. Ad libitam. 

Dtcoction of Barley. {Decoct. Hard. Oij., Caricia Fruct. conr 
ciii 5 U^'i Olycprrh. Rad. concisa et contttsa 3 v., Uvarum 
Pass. I ij:»., ^qiuB ()j. Boil to two pints, and strain.) 

Oper.f Use^ and Dose. The same as the former ; its laxative 
eD'ect, wtiich may be sometimes hurtful, is obviated by a few 
drops of tincture of opium. 

coction of Mallovir. {Malvm exsic. ^ j., Anthemidis Flor. exsic, 
1 sa., AqvuB Oj. Boil for fit\een minutes, and strain.) 

Onnp. Bitter extractive and mucilage in water. 

Vse, For the purpose of clysters and fomentations. 

DECOCTUM MEZERl^E. E. D. Decoction of Mezereon. 
{Cort. Rad. Daphnes Meier. 3 ij., Rad. Olycyrrh. contits. §88., 
AqvuB Oij. Boil over a gentle fire to Oiss., and strain.) 

Comp, The acrid principle of the mezereon {Daphnina)^ and the 
saccharine mucilage of the liquorice root, dissolved in water. 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic, alterative. 

Use. In secondary syphilis, over which, however, it possessei 
little or no power; glandular swellings, chronic rheumatism. 

Dose, fj iij. to 1 vj. three or four times a day. 

IIECOCTUM PAPAVERIS. L. E. D. Decoction of Poppy. 
(Papav. Somniferi Capsul. concis. Siv., Aqu48 Oiv. Boil for 
fiAeen minutes, and strain.) 

Comp, Bimeconate of morphia, and the other soluble salts of 
opium, with mucilage, extractive, &c., in water. 

Prop. Anodyne, emo.lienL 

Use. As a fomentation in painful swellings, excoriations arising 
from the thin, acrid discharge of ulcers, and those common to 

DECOCTUM PYROLiE. D. Decoction of Winter Green. 
{Pyrdla UmbeilaUs $j., AqiuB mensura Ibij. Macerate fur six 
hours, then bruise and return the Pyrola to the liquor, and re- 
duce the mixture by evaporation, when strained and expressed, 
to Ibj. by measure.) 

Prop. Taste b'tter. 

Over. Diuretic, tonic. 

use. In ascites and other dropeiet; acute rheumatism and 

Dose, f ; j. to f ; ij. three times a day. 

DECOCTUM aUERCDS. (Albie.) U. S.— L. E. Decoction 
of Odk Bark. (Q,uereu» Cart. 3 x., Aqu4B Oij. Boil to a pin^ 
and strain.) 

Oper. Astringent. 

Use. As an mjectioo in leucorrhoea, and the gleety discharge 
which frequently remains after miscarriages ; a fomentation in 
local vitiated ulcer ; an application to warts. 

huomp. Decoction of cinchona ; gelatine; metallic salts ; alkar 
lies destroy its astringeocy. 

DECOCTUM SARSiE. L. E. D. Decoction of Barsaparilla. 

. {SarsapariUm Rad. ecneia. 1 v., Aqiueferv. Oiv. Macerate toK 

ioax boore near the fire in a aUghtly covered veael ; then broiee 


the root, and mieerate igaiB for twohoan; then boQ to 9$^ 
•nd 110110.) # 

Cntp. Paiiiline 1 bitter extracUre, and mucilage in water. 

Prop, Inodorous ; taate bitter, glatinoui. 

(^tr. Bliflhtly diaphoreti9 and tonic ; demolcent 

Use, In the sequels of fyphilii aAer a mercurial coutm. 

Dose, f 5 Iv. to Oii. twice or thrice a day alcme, or united with 

Tneomp, Lime water, acetates of lead. 

pound Decoction of Sarsaparilla. {Deeocti Sarsaparillm ferv, 
Oiv., Sassafras Rod. eoneisa^ Ouaiaei Li/fni rasi^ GlycfrHL 
Rad. coat., sing. 3 x., Mezerei 3 lij. B<ril fifteen minutes, and 
arrain.) Or, take of Sarsaparilla ^ yj.. Water Oiv. ; add the 
other ingredients, and proceed in the same manner. — U, 8 

Oper. Diaphoretic, alteratlTe. 

Use. The same as the former ; In secoiUary syphilis ; chroaSe 
rheumatism, and lepra. 

Dose, f 5 i V. to f 5 vj. twice or thrice a day. 

%* This preparation is similar to the celebrated Lisbon Diet 

DECOCTUM SCILLiE. U. B. Decoction of Squill. {SeOlm 

■ 3 iij., Juniperi I iv., Senega I iij., .a^ua (Hv. Boil to one hajf^ 
then strain, and add Spiritus JEtMerts Kitrici f 3 iv.) 

Oper. Diuretic 

Use. Dropsy. 

Dose. From f 5 j. to f 5 Ij. frequently repeated. 

Scoparii, £. Compound Decoction of Broom. {Scopani, Jw 
niperi fructus, Taraxicit a & 3 iv., JSqua distOlaUs OtiSB. BcXL 
to a pint, and strain.) 

Over. Diuretic. 

use. In dropsy. 

Dose, f 3 88. three times a day. 

DECOCTUM SENfiGiE. U.S.— L.E.D. Decoction of Senega. 
(Senegoi Rad. I x., .Aquis Oij. Boil to Oj., and strain.) 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste hot and pungent; color brown olive. 

Oper. Diuretic, purgative, stimulant, expectorant. 

Use. In dropsy, rheiunatism, and affections of the Iimgs, at- 
tended with debility. . Also, in bronchitis where expectoratiOB 
is scanty, and in croup, amenorrhoea, asthma, and scroAUa. 

Dose, f I jss. to f 3 iij. three or f«ur times a day. 

DECOCl^UM TARAXICI. U. 8.— E. D. Decoction of Dande- 
lion. {Taraxici reeentis kerbm et radicis Sviij«i •^yatf l>ij* 
Boil to IbJ., and then strain.) 

Prop. Taste bitter. 

Oper. Purgative, tonic. 

Use. In deficient and irregular action of the hepatic oigaaa 

Dose, fj J- to 5 U- twice or thrice a day. 

DECOCTUM TORMENTILLiE. L. Decoction of Torme&til. 
{TormentilUi cent. Jij., .aqiue diet. Ojss. Boil to OJ., and 

Csn^ Tannic acid, extractive in solution. 

Ute. In diarrhosa, and as an injection in leucorrhoa. 


1^M9* f fj. to f I iH. three or four timet a dnj. 

Imeomp. Chflik mixture, alkalies, ipecacuanha, all metaUte 
■alts, opium. 

DECOCTUM ULMI. L. D. Decoctum Ulmi Campestrie, E. 
Decoction of Etm Bark. (Ulmi cort. recent, eentuti 5Ux^ 
.Aqum Oij. Boil to (^. and strain. 

Prop. Odor faint ; taste slightly bitter ; color brown. 

O^er. Diuretic, alterative, demulcent, nutritious. 

Use. In lepra and herpetic eruptions. Willan thinks it has 
little efficacy. I have ascertained that it is equal to Decoction 
of Sarza. 

jDms. I vj. twice or thrice a day. 

Heemp. Alcohol and tinctures in any considerable quantity. 

DECOCTUM VERATRI. L.D. Decoction of White Hellebore. 
(Veratri Rod. eont. 3x., Jlqua diet. Oij., Spir. Rect. f|iU' 
Boil the watery decoction to Qj]., and when it is cold add the 
spirit.) Decoctum Hellehori Jitbi. 

Opier. SUmttlant, acrid, cathartic. 

Uee. The violent operation of Veratrum confines it to external 
use. This decoction is employed, with benefit, in scabies, tinea 
capitis, and other foulnesses of the skin. It requires to be di- 
luted when the skin is very irritable. 

DECOCTUM UViE URSI. U. 8.— L. Decoction of Whortie- 
berry. (CTipa Ureicont. fj.. Aqua di8t. Q)i8B. Boil to a pint, 
and strain.) 

(hmp. Chiefly tannic and gallic acid. 

Oper, Astringent, diuretic, antilithic. 

U»e. In hemorrhages of the prostate gland and the intestinal 
canal, gravel, chroniq nephritis, diabetes, and all diseases of the 
urinaiy organs. 

Dose, f ; j. to f 3 ij. three times a day. 

Incomp. Ipecacuanha, opium, infusion of cinchona bark, alka 

DELPHININA. Delphlne. An alkaloid principle, discovered 
in 1810 by Laseaigne, in the seeds of the Delphinium Stapkisa- 
gria, in which it is united with acetic acid. Europe, Lt^vant. 
(Submit the uncleaned seeds, well bruised, to the action of weak 
sulphuric acid; precipitate the liquor by ammonia, and re 
dissolvein alcohol the delphinine, which is still slightly colored. 
To purify it, draw off the alcohol by distillation, dissolve the 
residuum in muriatic acid, and boil with magnesia.) 

Prop. White, pulverulent, devoid of smell ; applied to the nose, 
occasions sneezing ; taste acrid and bitter; slii;htiy soluble in 
water, readily in alciihol and ether; combines with acids, 
forming neutral salts, which possess much bitterness and 

Oper. Acro-narcotic poison; alterative; senso-paralysant ; em- 
ployed externally. 

Use. Tic doloureux, paraljrsls, rheumatism, neuralgia, amau- 

Dose. From gr. x. to gr. xxx. to f j. of lard, or the same quan- 
tity to fj. of alcohol, applied by friction to the part aflected 
antil there is a distinct sensation of heat and pricking. 

Clove Gillyflower. {Deeand. Digyn. Italy. 4.) Ciurf9- 
fk§Um rubra. 

64 DIO 

Frtip, Odor grateAiI, limUar to that of cloves; taste bitterly 

Oper. Aromatic. 

Ug$. Discarded by judiciotui practitioners. 

Jneomp. Sulphate of iron, ailcaties, acids. 

Digitulifl Purpurea; Folia, D. Purple Foxglove Leaves. (Di- 
gitulis Purpurea. Didynam. An^osperm. N. O. Scropkid^ 
rinacea. Exotic, i .) Digitalt$ herba. 

Qmp. Clorophylle, resin, fatty matter, starch, vegetable fibres 
gum, tannin, volatile oil, salts of lime, and potassa. The pro- 
perties of the plant are chiefly due to the resin. 

Prop. Inodorous; taste acrimonious, bitter, nauseous; injured 
by light, both in color and virtues. The leaves should be col- 
lected in July, and dried without heat. 

Oper. Stimulant, but afterwards sedative, diminishing the 
velocity and force of the pulse, and lessening the irritability ; 
diuretic, narcotic. In overdoses it occasions vomiting, purging* 
dimness of sight, vertigo, delirium, hiccough, convulsions, aiui 
death. These symptoms of poisoning are obviated by cordials, 
opium, and blisters, especially brandy and ammonia. 

Vse. In inflammatory diseases ; phthisis; active haemorrhages; 
and dropsies, unattended by palsy and unsound viscera; from 
Its influence in lowering the pulse, digitalis has been much 
employed in palpitation and other affections of the heart, in 
mania, epilepsy, &c. ; also, as an antispasmodic in pertussis and 
spasmodic asthma ; but particularly when combined with nitric 
acid, in dropsies which occur ader long and harassing courses 
of mercury ; most ust.ful where there is a laxness of fibre, pale 
countenance, intermittent, weak pulse, cold skin, and when the 
swelling pits. This state may be produced by bleeding, saline 
purges, &;c. When nausea occurs, its use must be intermitted 
for a little time ; but we are not of opinion that purging coun^ 
teracts its desired eflTects; for, although the kidneys may not 
act so powerfully, yet the body is unloaded of tha, morbid 
fluid by the intestines. Its use must be followed by a generous 
diet, and tonics; and, during its employment, diluents are 

Dose. Gr. j. to gr. iij. in a pill, united with ammoniacum, soap, 
ctflomel, or opium, every six or eight hours, till the remedy acts 
by the kidneys, when it must be discontinued, or the intervals 
extended ; but it may again be given, after an interval. (See 
Infusion of Digitalis.) 

Off. Prep. Decoctum Digitalis^ D. Tnfusum Digitalis^ L. E. 
Tinct. Digitalis, L. E. D. 

DIOSMA. U. S.— L. Bucku, E. Diosms Crenatie {Buchu)^ 
Folia, D. The leaves of DiOiimaCrenuluta. Pentandria Mo- 
nogyn. m.O. Diosmea. Cape of Good Hope. IX-) 

Prop. Taste cool and aromatic, resembling peppermint; odor 
aromatic. The dried leaves are stifl!*, of a yellow olive hue on 
the upper disc, pale and rugose on the lower ; Mudded with 

Sper. Sudorific, diuretic. 
^0. In rheumatism, gout, and catarrhal affecticms, adfoctiOBt of 
the mucous membrane of the bladder. 
eg. Prep. Infuaum Buchu^ E. TineL Bncku^ E. 


ELA m 

mOSPYEOa U. S. (Sm0mUrf.l .FuriMBiw Ditmffrm 
Yirfiniaiift. {DimcU, OUandrm, N. O. Fimanm, Mkk. 
HdigenoMS. The Bark. > .) 

Frop. A commoa tree in the Midd e and Soathoa Stitea, b«t 
does not flourish beyond the foror-secmid degree of north latl- 
tude. Flowers in May and June : fruit ripens about the middte 
of autumn. Fruit globular, of a dark yellow color ; when xipe^ 
eontaining numerous seeds in a soft, yellow pulp. 

^er. Astringtfit, tonic 

I/se. The decoction ctf the bark, in intenniitents, and in the fim 
of a gargle in ulcerated sore throat. The fhut, when green, is 
excessively aMringent, and the juice may be advauageously 
employed where an astringent &Eecl a de^red. 

DRACONTIUM. U. 8. {See^nUrf.) Dracontiam Fcetidom, 
Wild. Ictodes Foetidas, BigeUw. Sympto-carpus Fotidaa. 
Bartam. Skunk Cabbarc. (TetramdrU Mtmgg^/kim. M. 0« 
Jiroiiem. Indirtn»u8. The Root. 0.) 

JVfp. Disagreeable, fetid odor, like tiiat <^ the pcdeeat; taMe 
acrid, producing a prickling, smsrling sensation in the mootk 
and throat ; properties, owing to a volatile oil, dissipated bj 
heat, decoction, time, and exposure. 

Optr. Stimulant, antispasmodic, expectorant, narcotic 

Um. In asthma, chronic catarrh, rheumatism, hystoia, epflepq^, 
hooping-cough, and dropsy. In large doses it occasions nausea 
and VOTiiting, with headache, vertigo, and dimness of vision. 
' 2>M«. 6r. X. to gr. xx. of the powdt* red root three or four tinMi 
a day. It may also be given in iofusion or syrup, in dosea of 
from f 3 L to f 3 iv. 

DULCAMARA. 17. S.— L. £. Dulcamara ; Stipites Autmao 
Collecti,D. Woody Nightshade Twigs. (Solannm Dulcamaia. 
PaUand. Monogyn. N. O. SoUnacem. Indigenous. > .} 

Frsp. Dried, inodorous ; taste bitter, followed by sweetness. 

Optr, Diuretic, sudorific, narcotic, alterative. 

Vm. In chronic rheumatism, humoral asthma, dropsy, kpm; 
scrofula and jaundice. 

D—e, 3j. to 3 j. in powder: in the form of extract, gr. v. togr. 
X. An overdose produces vomiting and delirium.* 

Off. Prep. Vecoetum Dulcamarx^ U. S.— L. Ext, DnUmmmrm^ 

ELATERlUM. U. 8.— L. JEL D. Fecnla of the WUd Cucum- 
ber. (.Monmcia Monadelpk. N. O. CucurbUactsD. South sT 
iUirope. 0.) 

Comp, Elateria, bitter principle, fecula, woody fibre, aaline 

Fr«p. Inodorous ; taste scarcely bitter, acrid, of a pale greyirii- 
green color. A concentrated alcoholic solution poured into hoc 
diluted Liq. Potasss, depot^ites minute, silky-while crystals^ 
l-7lh the weight of the Elotorium. 

Oper. Violently cathartic ; hydrugogue ; diuretic 

Us0. In dropsies. 

HsM. 6r. 110th to gr.i hi a pill, or igr. every hoar till it ( 

, • The toflnenoe of Dulcamara is r 
JBBperatureof the eUmate where thr 

66 EMP 

' rates ; or gr. j. diawlved in f j, alcohol, with four drops of nitrie 
acid, of which from thirty to forty drops may be given in 

Off. Prat. Extractum Elaterih L. E. D. 

"ELECvU ARIJE. See Confectiones and Conserva. 

ELECTUARTUM catechu. E. D. Electuary of Catechu. 
(Catechu |iv., JEtna ^iv., Cort. Cinnam., M'ueis Myrist, 
Jtfosck.^ sing, ^j., Opii in Vint Albi Hispani ^.ss. diffun 3ja9 
Syr. Roses QtUl. ad JUellis spis. Boil to fi>ij. 3 i^. contain 
gr. j. of opium.) 

O^er Astringent, cordial. 

Use, In diarrtioeas from weak bowels ; and where an astringent 
stimulant can be applied. 

Dose. 3 j. to 3 j. as a bolus; or dissolved in any fluid. 

£L£MI. .L.E. Amyris Elemifera ; Resina.D. Elemi. (Amy- 
ris Elemifera Oetand. Monogyn. N. O. Jimyridea. Carolina. 

Camp. Resin, volatile oil. 

Prop. Odor fragrant, strong ; taste bitter. In large solid masses 
of a yellow and greenish color, semi-transparent; fusible, scdor 
bic in alcohol, partly also in essential oil. 

Oper. Stimulant. 

Use. Scarcely ever used internally ; but chiefly for forming a 
pleasant digestive ointment, for promoting the discharge from 
blisters, issues, and setons. 

Off. Prep. Unguentum, Elemi, L. D. 

EMETINA. Emeta. F. (Take of powdered root of ipecacu- 
anha, any quantity; digest it several times in ether, at W> 
Fahr. ; and then in alcohol. Evaporate the alcoholic tincture 
in a water bath, and dissolve the residue in cold water; then 
add magnesia, and macerate ; and, after drying the magnesian 
precipitate, digest it in pure alcohol, and evaporate the solution 
to dryness.) 

Prop. Nearly inodorous ; taste slightly bitter ; white; pulvera- 
lent when pure; permanent in the air; scarcely soluble hi 
water; soluble in ether and alcohol. 

Comp. Carbon 64.37, nitrogen 4.86, hydrogen 7.77, oxygen 23, in 
100 parts. 

Oper. Emetic, narcotic, purgative. 

Use. In all cases in which ipecacuanha may be used. 

Dose. From gr. ^ to gr. iij. in any bland fluid. 

Incomp. Preparatidns of nut-galls, and all vegetable astringent 
infusions or decoctions. 

Prep. Sympus Emetimf. 

cum Plaster, {.^mmoniaci pur. }v., <Aeeti distiUati fS^^iJ. 
Alter dissolving the Ammoniacum, the Plaster is furm«l by 
evaporating the mixture, constantly stirring to a proper con- 

Prop. Adhesive. 

Oper. Stimulont, resolvent. 

Use. To scrofulous tumors, bronchocele, white swelling, rhen 

Emplastrum Amraoniaci et Hydrargyri, £. D. Ammonlaeom 
Plaster with Mercury. (Ammoniad tb^.^ Hydrarg. Si^. OM 

£MP ifi 

OKwrn f 3j^ Sulpkuru gr. viij. Add the flolphur to the (rfl 
heated, stirring constantly until they combine, then rub the 
mercury with them until the ^globules disappear; lastly, add 
the ammoniacom melted, and mix.) 

Oper. Resolvent, discutient. 

U»B. To indurated glands, hydrarthos, nodes, tophi, bronoho- 
cele, and indolent tumors. 

Tke mercury ia in the state of a protoxide. 

EMPLASTRUM AROMlTlCUM. D. Aromatic Platter. 
Cnvrie ^iij., Certt Flava ^ss., Pulv. Cort. dmnamomi 3vi., 
Ot. Ess. Pimewttey Ol. Ess. Limonuntj sing. 3 ij. Melt Uie 
frankincense and wax together, and strain; then add, as it 
cools, the cinnamon, previcusly rubbed with the oUs, and form 
a plaster.) 

Opor. Stimulating. 

Oss. Applied over the stomach for the pains of that viscos, to 
allay vomiting, and expel flatus. It requires to be frequently 
renewed, being not very adbetdve. 

Plaster. (£mp. (kcidi Plumbi SemivitreL, Jissaftttida^ sing, 
|ij., Oalbani, Cera Flav.., sing. fj. The U. S. Pkar. directs 
to take Assafat., LMid Plaster, a a tt>j., Oaibanum, Yellov fFsx* 
t a Ibss., Diluted .alcohol Oiij. Dissolve the Assafatida and 
Oalban. in the alcohol, in a warm bath ; strain while hot, and 
evaporate to the consistence of honey ; Uien add the lead plan- 
ter and wax, previously melted together; stir well, and evapo 
rate to the proper consistence.) 

Oper. AntispasnHMlic, anodyne. 

Use. In flatulence and hysteria, applied over the umbiUcal 

of Belladonna. {Empl€stri Resinm ^ ly., Eztraeti Belladonnm 


Oper. Sedative, anodyne. 

Use, In chronic rheumatism, and local pains. ' 

Cantharide, U. S. Warming Plaster. Calefacient Plaster. 
{Emplast. Cantharidis partem unam, Picis Burgund. partet 
septem. Melt together, and form into a plaster.) 

Oper. Calefacient, rubefacient, stimulant. 

Use. In catarrh, pertussis, inflammatory afiections of the eheit, 
and sciatica. 

ridis, U. S.— D. Cerate of Spanish Flies. Plaster of the 
Spanish or Blistering Fly. (Cantharidis in pulv. sub. ftj., Emp, 
Certs ftjss., Adipis ftss. Melt the plaster and lard together, 
and as the mixture becomes thick in cooling, sprinkle in the 
fliesi, and mix.) Or, take of finely powdered Spanish Flies ftj., 
Yellow Wax^ Resin, Lard, each }, viij. ; mix and stir till cool. 
— CA S. Phar. 

Opsr. Epispastic 

Use, In every case where blisters are required. Heat destrofi 
the acrimony of the flies, and therefore this plaster fails when 
taieautioasly prepared. It should be spread on leather, for a 
plaster, with the thumb, and never with a hot spatula ; pbrhap« 
tlw BOit certain mode of raising blisten woold be to sprinkle 

66 EMP 

th« finely powdered fllei on eome farinaceooi paste, ai miicited 
by Pannentier. In using this plaster, the part which ft Is to 
cover should be bathed with vinegar ; and a piece of thin gauze 

Rressed down on the surface of the plaster interposed between 
and the skin, by which means it is easily and cleanly removed 
It requires to remain applied twelve hours in order to produce 
a perfect blister. 

pound Plaster of Spanish Flies. {ReaincB Lig. Pint iMricia 
fivss., Picit Burguvdictt^ Cantharidis, sing', ^iij., Certe F. 
SJ., Subaeetatis Cupri 5U'» Sinapis Mbee, fVuct. Piper. JVi^., 
»inff. 1 8S. Melt the pitch and wax, then add the turpentine ; 
and as these cool, sprinkle in the other substances in the form 
of powder, so as to make a plaster.) Emplastrum resicatorium, 

Oper. Powerfully stimulant, vesicant. 

Use. The same as the former ; but supposed to be more certain 
and quicker in producing its effects ; hence useful in gout and 
cramps in the 8U>mach. 

EMPLASTRUM CER^. L. Emplastrum Simplex, E. Wax 
Plaster. {Cerm Flavt^ Scvh sing. tt>ig., Resina ftj. Melt 
them tosether, and strain.) 

Optr. Irritative, drawing. 

Use. Intended for supporting the discharge from a blistered 
surface; but, owing to the irritation it induces, now seldom 

Off. Prep. Emplastrum Cantharidis, L. 

EMPLASTRUM FERRI. U. S.— E. Plaster of Red Oxide of 
Iron : Strengthening Plaster. (Emplast. Oxidi Plumhi Semivit. 
|iij., Resina Pini 3vj., Cera Ft. 3iij., Olei Oliva Europ. 
3 iijss., Oxidi Ferri Rvhri ^ j. Rub the red oxide of iron with 
the oil, and add the other ingredients melted. Or, ^ Sub. 
Curb. Ferri ^ iij., Emp. Plumbi ftij., Picis Bur^uvd. ftss. M. 
— U. S. Phar.) Emplastrum Roborans. Iron Plaster. U.S. 

Oper. Strengthening, stimulant 

Use. In muscular relaxations ; and in weaknesses of the joints 
after sprains. It acts chiefly in giving a mechanical support, 
by its Btiffnera and adhesive quality. 

EMPLASTRUM GALBANI. (Compositum, U. S.)— L. D. 
Gal banuro Plaster. (Oalbani lv\\}., Emplastri P/umitftiij., 
Terebinthinm Vulgaris 3x., .Sbietis Resina contrita %i^. 
Melt the galbanum and turpentine tc>gether, then first add the 
pine resin, and ailer wards the plaster, melted with u gentle 
heat, and mix all together.) « 

Oper. Stimulant, suppurative. 

Use. To scrofulous tumors; old arthritic Joints; and to the 
lumbar regions in rickets. For the purposes of a digestive in 
diwhargpo abscesses, when induration remains. 

EMPLASTRUM GUMMOSUM. £. Gum Plaster. {Emplast. 
Oxidi Plumbi Semivit. Ammoniaci 5 iv., Oalbani, Cera Flavte, 
sing, ^ss.) 

Oper. and Use. The same as the two former. 

Off. Prep. Emplastrum Saponis, E. 

EMPLASTRUM HYDRARGtRI, {Protozidi). U. S.— L. B. 
Mercurial Piaster. {Hydrarg. I iij., Oliva Olei 3 i., Emplastri 
Plumbi &J., Sulphuris gr. viij. Rub the sulphur with the heated 
oil, stirring constantly until they unite, then rub the mercury 

EMP eo 

wfdi them antn the globules disappear; lastly add fradoally 
die lead plaster melted with a slow fire, and mix the whole 
together. The U. S. Phnr. directs to take, Hydrarg. I vjn OU 
Otiv., Resins & ft 1 ijt Emp. PlumH Ibj.) Emflastrwm, Litkar- 
gyri eum Hydrargyro. 

Oper. Stimulant, resolvoit, discuUenL 

Us€. To buboes and venereal tumors ; nodes, when not painfd 
to the touch and indurations; and to joints affected with 
syphilitic pains. 

EMPLASTRUM OPTL U.S.— L.E.D. Opium Plaster. {OpH 
dur. eovt. ^ss.,* Abietis Resima wnt. % iij., EmpUat. PlumH 
Ibj., Aqtkm 71 viij. To the plaster melted add the re^in, the 
opium, and the water, and boil the mixture with a slow fibne to 
a proper consistence.) 

Oper. Anodyne, stimulant. * 

V»e. Against internal pains. Although it is undoubtedly certabi 
that opium, in that state of minute divisiim in which it exista 
in the tincture, produces its specific effect cm the system in a 
small degree, when extemnlly applied ; yet we doubt whether 
the effects of this plaster will sanction thie adoption of it by the 
London Ck>lleKe. 

EMPLASTRUM PTCIS. L.E. Pitoh Plaster. {Pids AHetinm 
fl>ij., Abietis ResiiuB ftj., ResiMo, Cer^., sing. %iv^ Mpristicm 
Olei expressi f j., OlivtB OUi, Aqua, sing, f $ ij. To the piteh, 
resin, and wax, melted together, add the other matters, and 
boil to n proper consistence.) 

Oper. Stimulant, rubefacienL 

Use. In catarrh, and other pulmonary aflfections, applied to the 
chest ; and to the temples in pains of the head and chronic 
ophthalmia. When any serous exudation takes place, the 
plaster should be frequently renewed. 

EMPLASTRUM PLUMBI (Oiiit?) U.S.— L. Emp.Lithar- 
cyri, E. D. Plaster of Lead, or Oxide of Lead. Lead Plaster. 
{Plumbi Oxidi in pulv. sub. triL ftvj., Oliva Olei, Congiumt 
Aqua Oy. Boil together over a slow fire, stirring cmistanUy 
until the oil and the oxide of lead form a plaster.) 

Comp. Oxide of lead, and the oil changed so as to approximate 
to the nature of volatile oil. The water is evaporated. 

Oper. Defensive, slightly adhesive. 

use. In excoriations; as a defence to slight wounds, and to 
retain their edges together ; as a covering to corns ; and to form 
the basis of some other plaster. 

Prep. Emplast. Hydrargyria U. S. — ^E. Ewplast. Opii, 
J. S.— L. Emplast. Assaft^ida, U. S.— E. Emplast. Ounf 
mosum, E. Emplast. Oaibani, U. S. — ^L. D. Emp. Ferri, 
U. S.— E. Emp. Resina, U. S.— L. E. D. En^. Saponis, 
U. S.— L. E D. Emp. Tkuris, D. 

EMPLASTRUM RESINiE. U.S.— L. Emplast Resinnenm, B. 
Emplast. Litharg]rri cum Resina, D. Resin Plaster. Adhesive 
Plaster. (Resinm Flava Ibss., Emplastri Plumbi Ibiij. MeK 
the plaster with a gentle heat, then add the resin, and mix.) 

Oper, Defensive, tidheslve, slightly stimulant 

Uta. In retaining the lips of recent wounds together, that they 

♦Opil 5ij.— Ul&PJIer. 


* ^Sm^^ "UioK rat. The plHUr 

m ivi^T mil, eiojH ^ tu; IMuub 

' jUf*"?- ."■ *~^- E. D. Sup PlaMttr. 

*»gd. Cm. 5J., Amm 

ilDti, putkujul; ItaoH 

Mill, HplriB, Hi 

■B H ptovea alnayg Ins 

ERl 71 

Ij., Dee»eti Ckanuemeli Comp. f^x., 01. Olivts |j., Sulph. 
Magnesia ' I ss., D.) 

Use. This is a good, gently stimulating, and emollient clyster; 
but it does not pijssess any iirciiliar advantage over those which 
are every dav ordered in f xtomporaneous prescriptions. 

ENgMA COLOCYNTHlDIS. L. Clyster of Colocy nth. (Ext. 
Colocynthidis Comp. 3ij., Saponis mollis ^j., .^gucBO}.) 

Use. A Btiuiiibtnt purgative in constipation and colic. 

£N£MA FCETTDUM. E.D. Foetid Clyster. The former \eUL 
the addition of 3 ij. of the Tincture of Assafatida. 

Cpar, Antispasmodic, anodyne. 

Use. lA hysteria; spasmodic colic ; the convulsions of infants; 
and for allaying the irritation produced by ascarides in the 

ENEMA OPiI. L. E. D. Clyster pf Opium. {Tincturm Opii 
nixxx., Decocti w^my/i f 5 iv.) 

Use. In irritabie bladder, diseases of the prostate glahcL, diar^ 
rhi^a, dvsentprv, and stranpnry from blisters. 

ENEMA TAB ACL L. E Enema of Tobacco. (Tabaci Z}., 
AqtuB ferventis Uj. Macerate for an hour, and strain.) 

Opsr. SedaiiVH. 

U-"'- In strantmlated hernia, and spasmodic affections. 

EXfiMA TEREBINTHINiE. L. E. D. Turpentine Clyster. 
(TerebintUiiue Olei f 3J., Ovi unius vitellum. Riib together, 
and add gradually f ^xix. of barley-water.) 

Use. In adections of the urinary organs. 

ERGOT A. U.S. Ergot L.E. Spurred Rye. (Acinulac/a»K*, 
L. ? Spermaedia divas ? Sccale Cornutum, U. 8.) Europe. 

Prop. A curved, striated, deep violet colored body, whitjsh 
within; inodorous, mawkish; bums with a whitish flame. 
8 ippoi^ by some to be a parasitic fungus ; by others, as the 
diseased grain of rye. Yields a deep-brown tincture with al- 
cohol ; also yields a bitter and sourish extractive, and crystals 
which have been supposed to contain morphia— a fixed oil, 
fungin, albumen, osmazonie, wax, and a pfculior extractive 
substance in which its properties are supposed to reside. 

Opcr. Siimuhmt, acting chiofly on the muscular system of the 
ni-riis. Niirr.ntic; a narcolico-acrid poison. 

Use. In parturition when the pains Ijinguish, and the uterine 
aciion becomes torpid, provided the os uteri be fully dilated, 
and The mumbranes ruptured. In leucorrhoea and uterine 

Dose. 3 j. to 3 ss. in cases of parturition ; gr. v. to gr. x. in leu- 
ci>rrh(B I, three or four tunes a day. The most common way 
of »;iving Ergot is in decoction, 3j. of it bruised to § vj. boiling 
water — boil ten minutes ; strain and sweeten, and give one- 
tiiird every half hour— in parturient cases. Or, of the TVnc- 
ttire made by digesting 5 ss. in ^ vj. Rectified Spirit four days, 
3 j.— of the oil, from twenty to fifty drops. 

ERIGERON. U. S. (Secondary.) (Erig. Canadense, Hetero- 
phyllun, Philadelphicum. Flea Bane. Indigenous. Syngenes* 
Superjlua. N. O. CorymbifercB. © .) 

Frop. Canad. sp. has an agreeable odor, bitterish, acrid, some' 
what astringent taste. Contahis bitter extractive, tannin, gallic 
acid, and volatile cril. 

Oftr. DiuretlCi tonic, astringent jq 


70 ENE 

mny heal by th« firMintentlon ; and to give lapport to aleeratod 
parts, to aasiit their granolation^ without rest. The plaiter 
originally prepared by Mr. Baynton contained lese resin ; 3 vj. 
only to tt>j. of the litharge plaster. This preparation, however, 
answers the purpose equally well, except in very irritable 

BMPLASTRUM SAPdNIS. U. S.~L. E. D. Soap Plaster. 
(Saponu coneiti &88., EmplasL Plumbi &iij. Mix the soap 
with the melted plaster; and boil to a proper consistence.) 

OpM*. Mildly discutient. , 

U»$. Applied to lymphatic tumors; and used with the same 
views as the mercurial plaster, but with much lees effect 

D. Compound tioap Piaster. (EmpUutri Saponis |ij., £»- 
pliutri tdtkargyri cwn ResiiuL, | iij.) 

U»». To support the parts in the cure of ulcera. 

EMPLASTRUM THURIS. D. Frankincense Plaster. {Em- 
platt. LithargyH bij., Thwria Ibss., Ox^di Ferri Rubri I'ti^.) 

Cnter. and U»b. The same as the plaster of red oxide of iron. 

*EMULSlO ACACIiE ARABICiE. E. Emulsio Arabica, D. 
Gum Arabic Emulsion. (J^Tucleor. Amygd. Com, ^J., Aqnm 
Ibjss., MucUaginU Mint. miot. ^ij., Saceh. 3iv. While 
beating the decorticated almonds with the sugar and water," 
add the mucilage.) 

Pr^p, Inodorous ; tasto sweet, soft, mucilaginous ; like milk. 

Oper. Diluent, demulcent. 

U»«. In febrile and inflammatory coraidaints, particularly those 
of the kidneys and urethra; as calculus, gonorrhoBa, and 
strangury from the absorption of the acrid matter of Spanish 
flies, or any other causes. A vehicle for other medicines. 

Do8e. Oss. or more, ad libitum. 

Ineomp. Acids, oxymel, and syrup of squills, spirits, tinctures, 
tartrate and bitartrato of potassa, bichloride of mercury, and 

Siirit of nitric ether. 
ULSIO CAMPHORiG. E. Camphor Emulsion. {Cam- 
phora 3 j., JVttc. Amygd. Com. DecorU^ Sacck. pur^f sing, 3 iv., 
AquiB ^ vj.) EmuUio Camphorata. 

Comp. Camphor mechanically suspended in emulsion; it sepa- 
rates in the course of a few days, and swims upon the surface 
of themixtore. 

Oper. Tbe same as camphor; and, consequently, this is only a 
convenient form of giving the remedy, as it proves always less 
nauseous when i^iven in the liquid form. 

Dose, f ^ ss. to f ^ J., several Umes a day. 

EN&MA ALOES. L. Clyster of Aloes. (Aloea 3iU Potasom 
Carbonatis gr. xv., Decocti Hordei Oss. Mix and rub together.) 

Use. As a stimulant, by contiguity to the uterus, in amenor- 
rhoea ; and for dislodging ascaridcs. 

ENfiMA CATHARTlCUM. E. D. Purging Clyster. (0/tv« 
Oil |j., Sulpk. of Magnesia Iss., Sugar ;j., Sennm Jss., 
Boiling Water f § zyj. Infuse the senna for an hour, dissolve 
the sugar and salts, and mix the oil by agitation, £. Mannm 

* Emulsions and Enemata, being extemporaneous preparation^ 
•re not noticed In the U. 8. Phar. 

ERl 71 

IJm Deeocti CharMmuli Comp. f^x., 01. Olivm |j., Sulph. 
Magnesia' I ss., D.) 

Use. This is a good, gently stimulatinp, and emollient clyster; 
but it does not possess uny jjoculiar advantage over those which 
are every dnv ord^rod in f xtomporaneoiis prescriptions. 

ENEMA COLOCYNTHlDIS. L. Clyster of Colocynth. (Ext. 
Colocvnthidis Comp. 3ij., Saponis mollis 5Jm ^yuicOj.) 

Use. A Btiniiil'int purgative in constipation and colic. 

ENfiMA FCEi'lDUM. E.D. Foetid Clyster. The former relX 
the addition of 3 ij. of the Tincture of Assaftstida. 

Cpar, Antispasmodic, anodyne. 

Use. Iii hysteria; spasmodic colic ; the convulsions of infants; 
and for allaying the irritation produced by ascarides in the 

E.NfiMA OPiI. L. E. D. Clyster pf Opium. (.Tincturm Opii 
mxxx., Decocti Jlmyli f$iv,) 

Use. In irritable bladder, diseases of the prostate gland, diar- 
rh'va, dvseriterv, and stranpnry from blisters. 

ENEMA TAB ACL L.. E Enema of Tobacco. (ToAcc* 3J., 
AqtLiB feroentis Uj. Macerate for an hour, and strain.) 

t>p2r. SedaiivH. 

Vsr. In Htrau'iufated hernia, and spasmodic affections. 

K.Nf.MA TERilBINTHINiK. L. E. D. Turpentine Clyster. 
(Terehinthiiue Olei f iJ-, Ovi unius vitellum. Rub together, 
and add gradually f 5nx. of barley-wajer.) 

V.te. In adVctions of the urinary organs. 

ERGOTA. U.S. Ergot L.E. Spurred Rye. (Acinulac/at?it*, 
L. 1 Spermaedia clnvus ? Sccale Cornutum, U. 8.) Europe. 

Prop. A curved, striated, deep violet colored body, whitish 
nithin; inodorous, mawkish; bums with n whitish flame. 
8 ippoued l>y some to be a parasitic fungus ; by others, as the 
diseiised grain of rye. Yields a deep-brown tincture with al- 
cohol ; also yields a bitter and sourish extractive, and crystals 
whicli have been supposed to contain morphia — a fixed oil, 
fun^in, albumi>n. osmazoni", wax, and a pvculior extractive 
8ub»t:;nce in which its properties are supposed to rfside. 

Oprr. SiimuLint, acting chiotly on the muscular system of the 
nt'TiH. Niirruiiic; a narcotico-ac rid poison. 

Use, la parturition when the pains Ijinguish, and the uterine 
aciioa becomes torpid, provided the os uteri be fully dilated, 
and the mt^Mnbranes ruptured. In leucorrhoDa and uterine 

IJosf. 3 j. to 3 s4. in casos of parturition ; gr. v. to gr. x. in leu- 
ciirrhos i, three or four times a day. The most common way 
of jfiviug Ergot is in decoction, 3j. of it bruised to § vj. boiling 
water — boil ton minutes; strain and sweeten, and give one- 
third every half hour— in pariurient cases. Or, of the TVnc- 
tiire made by dicesting 5 ss. in 5 yj« Rectified Spirit four days, 
3 j.— of the oil. from twenty to fifty drops. 

ERIGERON. U. S. (Secondary.) (Erig. Canadense, Hetero- 
phijUum, Philadflphicum. Flea Bane. Indigenous. Syngenes* 
Superjlua. N. O. Corymbiferce. 0.) 

Prop. Cannd. sp. has an agreeable odor, bitterish, acrid, some- 
what astringent taste. Contains bitter extractive, tannin, gallic 
acid, and volatile <A\. 

Oper, Diuretic, tonic, astringent |q 

mi \Mm. sT^uFORO um\ 

79 EUP 

Use. In dmpty and diarrhooa. The two latter species are : 
mended in cravel nnd nephritic diaeascs, as well -as dropsy. 

DMt. Of tlic powder, from 3 m. to 3j. Of the infuiiion, pre- 
pared in the pro{»ortion of $J. of the leaves to Oj. boiling water, 
from f J Ij. to f 5 1 V. Aqucoiu extract, from gr. v. to gr. x. every 
few houni. 

ERYNGIUM. U. S. (8M«ondary.) E. {.^quaticvm. Button 
Pnnlte Root. PenL Digyn. N. O. UmhtUtfene. Ijidifenoiw. 
The Root. 0.) ./ -6 

Prep. Boot has u bitter, pungent, aromatic taste. 

Oper. Diaphoretic, expectorant, emetic. 

Vse. As an expectorant in pulmonary nnd catarrhal affections ; 

its efflfts resemble those of Seneica Snake Root. 
ERVTIIRONIUM. U. S. (Secondary.) {Ery. Jimerieannm 

Big. The Plant Dog's Tooth Violet Indigenous. Hex- 

anaria. Monogynia. N. O. Siliacea. ©.) 
Prop. An indigenous, well known, perennial, bulbous plant, 

with two smooth, lanceolate leaves, diversified by numerous 

Irregular spots. 
Oper. Emetic. 
Dose. From gr. xx. to gr. xxx. of the powdered recent bulti, 

proves emetic ; a smaller dose, expectorant 
EuPATOREUM. U. S. Eup. Perfoliatum. Thorough wort. 

{Syngenesia JEqualis. N. O. Comp. CorymbifenB. Indiffs- 

nous. 0.) 
Prm. The herb. Several species are used medicinally in the 

U. S. Odor faint; intensely bitter taste, with slight astrincen 

cy ; virtues reside chiefly in an extractive matter, soluble both 

in water and in alcohol. 
Oper. Tonic, diaphoretic, emetic, aperient according to dose. 
Use. As a diaphoretic in catarrh and rheumatism ; in intermit- 

tents and remittents, and inflammatory diseases ; as a tonic in 

dyspepsia and general debility ; given cold. Tlie purpureutn 

is employed as a diuretic. 
Dose. As a tonic, from 3 J. to 3 j. of the powdered leaves, or 

f 5 J. to f 5 iv. infusion ; as a diaphoretic, every two hours, the 

infusion should be given warm, while the patient is covered in 

bed ; ns emetic and cathartic, a strong decoction, in dotses bf 

Oss. or more. 
EUPHORBIA. U. S. (Secondary.) E. Cerollata, Ipecacuanha. 

(Dodecandria. Tn'gynia. N. O. Euphorbiacea. Indigenous. 

Sparge. The Root. 0.) 
Prop, The root when full grown, is sometimes an inch thick, 

and two feet long: without unpleasant taste ; virtues reside in 

the cortical part which constitutes two-thirds of the whole : 

extracted by water and alcohol. 
Oper. The root of the E. CoroUata is a certain and speedy emetic 

and cathartic. In small doses, diaphoretic and expectorant 

In large doses it is apt to produce hypercathars's, and inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and bowels. 

Inferior to Ipecacuanha as to safety, and to antimony as to 

certainty. Externally vesicant 
Dose. Of the powder, from gr. x. to gr. zx. ; as a cathartic, fnnn 

gr. iU* to gr. X. Recent root bruised, and applied to the skin, 

produces vesication. 
BuFHOBBIUM. L. E. D. Euphorblum. (Euphorbia Q^Ect* 

EXT. 73 

marium 7 iCcmaruntu 7) DodeeantL Trigynia. N. O. JS»* 

pJkorbiaee^jB. Africa. li.) 
Ofotp. 37.U resin, 19.0 wax, 20.5 malate of lime, 2.0 malate of 

popistfa, 50 water, and 13.5 woody matter and loss. 
Prop. Inodorous ; txiste, when chewed, nauseous, burning; tean 

irregular, oboui the size of a large pea, dry, friable, externally 

yellow, but puler within. Spec. grav. 1.129, partially soluble 

in aloohol ; less so in water. 
Oper. Errhine. 
Use. D.lutcd with starch, or mild powder, it is snuffed up th« 

nostriU in.amauroiiis, lethargy, chronic ophthalmia, and all 

cases where a copious discharge is required from the pituitary 

nn-iiiitr n«. ^ 


W( rmwood. (A decoction defecated and evaporated.) 
Pnp. iiiuuorous ; the flavor being dissipated with the essential 

Oil ; taste biuer. 
Oper. TuDic. 

Use. In the same cases for which bitters are generally employed. 
J,os^. Gr. X to 3j. in pills twice or thrice a day. 
EXTKACTUM ACONITI. U. S.— L. B Extract of Aconite. 

(^ctmiti fol. recent. tt>j. Bruise in a stone mortar, sprinkling 

with wa er, press the jiuce out and evaporate to a proper con- 


..Aconite in coarse powder Ibj., Diluted Alcohol Q\v. Moisten 

the aconite with Oss. of the diluted alcohol, and having allowed 

it lu ^ttnd for twenty-four hours, transfer it to an apparatus for 

displacement, and gradually odd the remainder of the alcohol. 

When the last portion of this shall have penetrated the aconite, 

pour in sufficient water, from time to time, to keep the powder 

covered. Cease to filter when the liquid which passes begini 

to produce a precipitate, as it falls, in that which has already 

passed. Distil on the alcohol from the filtered liquor, and 

evaporate the residue to the proper consistence.) — U. 8. Pkar, 
N. B.—The alcoholic extracts of Belladonna, Gmtum, Hellebore, 

Nyoscyamug, nnd Sarsaparilla, are directed by the U. S. Phar. 

to be prfpured in the same manner. 
Prop. Odor di.Hogreeablc ; taste acrid, slightly 6typU<^ color ob- 

ijicure grot-n, or browniah red. It loses its virtues when long 

Optr. Narcotic, diuretic 
Vss. In obstinate chronic rheumatisms and headaches; agues, 

glanUulur swellings; convulsions; chronic uterine hemor* 

rltages ; neuralgia, and spinal irritations. 
Doa: G» ^ night and morning, gradually increased to gr. ▼, in 

the form of pills. 

(The gummy port extracted by boiling water, defecated, and 

Pr9p. Almost inodorous; taste bitter, but less unpleasant than 

tlie aifies. 
Oper. Cathartic, cmmenngogue. 
V§e. In the same cases fur which the aloes are used. 
Dose. G/. V. to gr. xv. in pills. 
Og. Prtp, Pulv, Jlloes CompositM*^ L. PUulm Alou Comf^ L. 


74 .EXT 

rUmlm ^hf9 ctm Jtfyrrka, V. B.-^L. PihOm Alces, U. & 

PtUU .1/or.f et Jl»taf<rtid<e. U. 8. 

EXTRACrrM ANTHEMIDIS. E. Extractam Chanmnelt 
D. Exirnrt of ChamoiuUe. (The volatile oU it diaaipated. itt 
thtff pn'pnrntion.) 

Br»f. Aluiost iuodoroiu ; taite a pore grateful bitter ; color dark 

Op€r. Tonic, romachlc. 

Vsc. In dy^pepaia, ctiloroait and general debility.' 

J)o*t. <Jr. 1. to gr. XX. in pilla, twke or thrice a day. 

EXTKACTUM BELLADONNiE. U. 8.— L. B. Extract of 
Dellndonnn. (An expressed Juice inapiaaated.) L. 

Pr<tp. Inuilorout; taste bitterish. 

Optr. Narcotic ; it ia used in the aame coses as the plant. 

Jfose. Gr. ^ pradunily increased to gr ij. in pills.' 

tract ot' Yellow Cinchona Bark. (A decoction evaporated.) 

Comp. Ktnate of quino, a small portion of kinate of cinchonia, 
and of lime, extractive, mucilage, and tannic acid. (2.3 per 
Cent, quina+0.08 cinchonia.— TAiW.) 

Prop. Odor sweetish ; tnste bitter, but leas austere than the bark ; 
fmctnre rough, dull ; color deep brown. 

Oprr. The same as the bark in substance ; and consequently it 
is used in the same cases ; but with much less certainty of effect, 
owing to some chemical change produced on the drug during 
the boiling. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3 ss. dissolved in any distilled water. Formerly 
the dose of gr. x. was supposed to be equivalent to 3 ss. of the 
bark |X)U-dcr ; but Sir John Pringle's experiments first showed 
that this opinion was unfounded ; and the chemical analysis of 
the bork proves that the reverse is nearer the truth. 

h is kept both in a hard and a toft state. 

pale Cinchona Bark. 

Comp. Chiefly kinate of cinchonia, a small portion of kinate of 
qnina and of lime, tannic acid, extractive, and mucilage. 
(Cinchonia 0.48 per cent.-f-0.06 quina. — Oeiger.) 

Oper. and Use. The same as the extract of cinchona cordifolia. 

tract of red Cinchona Bark. 

Comp. More kinate of quina and less of cinchonia than the 
extract of pale cinchona bark. (Uuina 1.7 per cent-|-0>08 

Oper. and Use. The same as the other extracts of cinchona. ■ 

EXTRACl'UM CINCHONiE. U. 8.— E. Resinous Extract of 
Bark. (An aqua-spirituous Extract, contaflning both' the ex- 
tractive and resin of the barks. Take of Peruvian Bark^ in 
C0ars» powder^ tt>j., .Alcohol (Hv., Water, a sufficient quantitf; 
macerate the Peruvian Bark with the alcohol for four days: 
then filter by means of an. apparatus for displacement, and 
when the liquid ceases to pass, pour gradually upon the bark 
sufficient water to keep its surface covered. When the filtered 
tincture measures Oiv., set It aside, and proceed with the filtrar 
tkui until Ovj. of infusion are obtained. Distil off the alcohol 
tkooi the tincture, and evaporate the infusion till the iiquida 

EXT , 75 


nipectively are brought to the consktence of thin hooejr ; di«i 
mix them, and evaporate so as to form an extraet) 

If . B.~In the sanrie manner the U. 8. Phar. directs to prepare 
Extract of JtUap and Extract of Podophyllum, 

Prop. Taste bitter, with the austereness of the baric ; (ractare 

Oper. The same as the bark In snbstance. ^ 

V»e. In ague, and eveTj complaint for which bark is used. 
This is aluigether a preferable preparation to Uie watery extract ; 
the rectified spirit contains water enough to enable it to take 
up all the active principles of the dnig; less heat is required to 
evaporate the menstruum. The expense of the spirit is th« 
greatest objection to it. It is more grateful to the stomach than 
the watery extracts. 

Dwc Gr. 1. to gr. XX. in pills, or dissolved in some distilled 

EXTR ACTUM COLCHICI CORMI. L. Extract of the Bulb 
of Colchicum. 

Camp. Gnllate of colchicia, fecula, mucilage. 

Oper. Purgative, narcotic. 

V»e. In gout and ncutit rheumatism. 

Dxtoe. Or. j. to pr. Ij. repeated every four or six hours. 

tract of Colchicum. ( Colckici Cormi reeentis ftj., Acidi Aeetid 
fliy. Bruise the bill bn, gradually sprinkling them with the 
acid, th€n express the juice, and evaporate in a vessel not glazed 
with lead to a proper consistence.) 

Comp. Acetate of colchicia, fecula, mucilage. 

€]per. Diuretic, narcotic. 

Use. In gout, acute rheumatism, and diseases of excitement 

Do3e. Gr. j. to f^r. ij. twice or thrice a day. 

Jneomp. Alkalies and their carbonates, magnesia, lime water. 

locynth. {Colocynthtdis coneita Ibj., Aqtue dittUlaUa cong. iJ. 
Boil for 9\x houn<, maintaining the measure with distilled wa- 
ter. Strain the liquor while hot, and evaporate to a proper 

Comp. Colocynthin 14.4-f-extractive 10.0-ffixed oil 4.3-|-resin 12.3 
-f>gummy matter 37.1Hhpectic acid 7.9-(-5.7. Phosphjitcs of lime 
and magnesia. 

Oper. Cathartic, mild in its operation, and not apt to occasion 

Voe. For evacuating the bowels; and as an adjunct to other 

Dose. Gr. v. to 3 ss. in pills at bed-time. 

L. D. Compound Extract of Colocynth. {Colocyntk. Pulpm 
eon. 5 vj., Aloes Ezt. contriti 5 xij., Scammon. cont. 5 iv., Car- 
damomi eontrit. Ij., Saponis |iij., Spiritus tenuioris, cong. ^, 
Macerate the pulp in the spirit at a gentle heat for four days, 
strain, add the aloes and scammony and soap ; then evaporate 
to a proper consistence, and towards the end add the carda- 

Cper. Cathartic, stimulant. 

Use. In obstinate visceral obstructions ; habitual costivcneas in 
leoeophlegmatic habits ; dropsies; worms. 

n EXT 

JWa Gr. tI. to 3 M. in pills. 

£\ rRACTUU COxNil. U. S.^L. E. Suecus Spissatui Conil^ 
O. Kxtrnrt of Hemlock. (An exiM-essed- juice, kiqriiiated 
« .ihout tlifecation.) 

C^mp. CoDiu, extractive, mucilage, volatile oil, clorophylle. 

iW^. Otlur fetid; taste bitterish and saline; color dark olive ; 
it Uises itj< virtues when kept, and a saline efflorescence appean 
on iu surface. 

Optr. Narcotic, alterative, resolvent. 

t«r. In scrofula, scirrhus, and cancer, particularly for allayinf 
the pain of uterine cancer, without producing costiveness, as 
opium does ; a useful addition to mercurial salts in cutaneous 

Dost. Gr. iij. gradually increased to 3ij. twice or thrice a day.* 

Test. Triturate with liquor potas«c ; if good, a strong odor of 
conia is evolved. 

BXTKACTUM DIGITALIS. L. E. Extract of Foxglove. 
(Insplbsnted juice of the leaves.) 

C»mp. Digitalia 1 resin, fatty matter, clorophylle, salts of potassa, 
and lime. 

Oper. Stimulant, narcotic, diuretic. 

Use. In dropsies, after the tension is diminished by blood-lettinf 
and other means ; it is inferior to the tinctures. 

Dm«. Or. ss. to gr. j. 

Ine^mp. Diacetatc of lead, infusions and decoctions of astringent 
vegetable products ; carbonates of alkalies. 

EXTRACl'UM ELATERll. L. E. D. Extract of Elaterium. 
(The fecula of the expressed juice.) 

Ckmp. Elateria 44-|-green resin IT-f-fecula 6+8aline inert rnatt^ 
6-f lignin 27=100 parts. 

Oper. Violently cathartic, hydrag(^e, sometimes emetic. 

Use. In ascites, when other remedies have failed ; and in very 
obstinate costivcness. 

Dose. Gr. l-6th made into a pill, with extract of gentian, or 
with calomel gr. j., every hour or two, till it operate; and this 
is repeated every sixth or eighth hour till a cure be efiected.f 

EXTRACTU.M GENTIANiE. U. S.— L. E. Ext. Gentians 
Lutee, D. Extract of Gentian. (The evaporated decoction.) 
(Take of Oentian, in coarse povder, tt>j., Water^ a suMeinU 
quantity ; mix the gentian with a pint of the water, and after 
allowlDg the mixture to stand for twenty-four hours, introduce 
it into an apparatus for displacement, and pour water upon it 
gradually until the liquid passes but slighUy impregnated with 
the properties of the gentian. Heat the filtered liquid to the 
boiling point, strain, and evaporate to the proper consistence.— 
U. $. Pkar.) In the same manner the U. S. Phar. directs ns 
to prepare the Watery Extracts of DuUamarot Buttemutf 
JRhatany, and Quassia. 

Grag». Gentianial mucilage, sugar. 

* Impotentiam virilem (says Bergius), sub usu Conii cmratam 
observavi, in viro quodam plusquam quadrag^nario, qui omnem 
erectionem penis perdiderat, poetinde tamen plures ifberot pro- 
•raaviL— .Mae. Med., vol. i^ P- IW. 

tThii sabstance is improperly termeAin extract 

EXT n 

frop. Inodorous, intensely bitter, black, shining, tenadoui. 

Oper. Tonic, stomachic ; in large doses aperient. 

Uae. In dyspepsia, jaundice, &c.; but it is chiefly used as a 
medium for giving the metallic oxides in the form of pills: an 
excellent adjunct to ipecacuanha in the latter stage of dysen- 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3 ss. twice or thrice a day. 

Off. Prep. Pilula Aloes Comp., L. 

of Liquorice. (The evaporated 4ecoction.) 

Prop. Almost inodorous; taste sweet, mucilaginous; brittle. 

Oper. Demulcent. 

Use. In the tickling cough of catarrh it is perhaps the most 
useful of the demulcents, as it hangs about and ^eathes the 

I>ose. 3j. to 3 ij. ad libitum. 

Off. Prep. . PUula Opiata, £. Pilules SciUitictSy E. Trochisei 
OlycyrrhizcB QlabroDy E. Trochisei Olycyrrhizcs cum Op^, £. 

toxy li Compechiani, D. Extract of Logwood. (The evaporated 
decoction.) (Take of Logvoodj rasped, ftj., JVatery one gallon ; 
boil down to Oiv. and strain the liquor wMIe hot; then evapo- 
rate to the proper consistence.) 

N. B.— [n the same way the U. S. Phar. directs to prepare the 
Extract of Dandelion. 

Prop. Almost inodorous ; taste sweet, austere ; color a deep 
reddish purple ; soon hardens and becomes brittle. 

Oper. Astringent. 

Use. In diarrhoeas, the protracted stage of dysaitery, and internal 
hemorrhages. ' It may be given clysterwise in solution. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3 j. in pills, or dissolved in cinnamon water. 

Jneomp. Alkalies and their carbonates; magnesia, carbonate of 
lime. ^ 

EXTRACTUM HYOSCYlML U. 8.— L. E. Succ. Spiss. 
Hyoscyomi, D. Extract of Henbane. (The expressed juice 
inspissated without defecation.) 

Comp. Hyoscyamia ? albumen, gum, fecula, salts. 

Prop. Odor slightly fetid ; taste nauseous, bitterish, sub-saline. 

Oper. Narcotic. 

U»e. In nervous affections, rheumatism, go 'it, chordees, obstinate 
ulcerations; and whenever it is required to allay pain, and 
avoid the costiveness which opium is apt to induce. 

Dose, Gr. ij. to 3bs. It has been increased to the extent of 3 J. 
twice a day. 

Jneomp. Astringent infusions and decoctions. 

EXTRACTUM J ALAPiE. U.S.*— L. Ext. Resinie Jalapie, E. 
Ext. «lalapae, D. ' Extract of Jalap. (A spirituous tincture dis- 
tilled, and an aqueous decoction evaporated, and the remains 
mixed together, kept both soft and hard.) 

Oper. CaUiartic, hydragogue. 

Us: In costiveness, worms, drop^, generally combined with 
soap or calomel. 

* Bee Ext GlnduMUB. 

78 EXT 

JDm*. 6r. z. to 9J. la ptllt. To children the haid extract to 
nlven, triturmted with sugar or testaceous powders. 

Qw, Prep. Puiv. ScAmnumii Comp,^ L. 

liXTUACTUM JU6LANDIS. U. B. Extract of Buttemat. 
This is prepared in the same manner as the Extractor Gentian, 
from the sliced inner bark of the root of the Juglans Cinerea, 
gathered in May or June. 

Pnp. Of a black color; sweetish odor; and bitter, ostringect 

Oper. Purgative, or laxative, according to dose. 

Jj0§$, From gr. xx. to gr. xxx. it acts as a mild cathartic. 

EXTRACTUM KEAMERIiE. U.S.— E. Extract of Krameria. 
Extract of Rhatony. (Prepared in the same way with tliat of 
Gentian ) 

(jomp. Tannic acid, extractive. 

Prop. A powerful astringent. 

U$e. In cliroiiic diarrhoBa and internal hicmorrhages. 

Dose. From gr. iv. to 3j. 

EXTRACTUM LACTUCiE. L. Eitract of Lettuce, (ft The 
leaves of fresh lettuce IbJ. ; beat them in a stone mortar, sprink- 
ling them with water ; then express the juice, and evaporate 
It witliout allowing it to subside, until it acquire a proper degree 
of consistence.) 

Prop. Odor narcotic, like opium ; taste bitter. 

Oper. Narcotic, diaphoretic. 

Use. In the same cases as opium ; irritable gastric dyspepsia. 

Vose. From gr. iij. to gr. x. in form of pills. 

EXTRACTUM LUPULI. L. E. Extracium Humuli, D. Ex- 
tract of Hops. (The evaporated decoction.) 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste bitter, with the peculiar flavor of the 

Oper. Tonic, anodyne 1 diuretic. 

Uee. In gout; dyspepsia; and mania, to procure rest; but its 
virtues are very doubtful. 

JDojte. Gr. v. to 3j. in pills. 

Nux Vomica. (JV*uci* VomietB rasa 5 viij., Spiritus tenuioris 
mensura tt>ij. Digest in a covered vessel fi>r three days, strain 
the liquor, and express what remains in a press ; to this residue 
add tt>jss. of proof spirit, digest for three duys, and express the 
residue. Consume the mixed liquors by distillation, and reduce 
to a proper consistence.) 

Oper. Stimulant. 

Use. In parapl^ia, and other cases of partial paralysis. 

Dose. From gr. i to gr. jss. 

E. Ext. Opii Aquosum, D. Extract of Opium. (Opiiccxcisi 
§ XX., JlqtuB disttUaUs cong. J.) 

Cotnp. Bimeconate of morphia, codeio, narcotina, narceia sul- 
phate of lime, gum, resin. 

Prop. Inodorous ; laste bitter ; color black ; dissolved in water ; 
it is not precipitated by alcohol. ^ 

Oper. Narcotic, anodyne, sedative, antispasmodic, with less 
■ttbsequent derangement of the nervous system than crud* 
opium occasions. 

EXT n 

Um. "bi dl cases in which opium isusefol ; and btfter fitted tok 
children and very irritable habits. 

Dose. 6r. ss. to gr. v. in pills. 

Incmnp. Solutions of astringent vegetables, caibonate of potassa, 
bichloride of mercury, sulphate of copper, sulphate of zinc! 
acetates of lead, nitrate of 'silver, all of which precipitate this 
extract from its solution altered in its nature. 

Off. Prep. Syruptu Opih D. 

BXTR ACTUM P AP AVfiRIS. L. E. Extract of White Poppy. 
(The decoction evaporated.) Extraetum Papaveris jJlbi. 

Comp. Nearly the same as the extract of opium, with a smaller 
proportion of the alkaloids. 

Optr. Narcotic, anodyne ; without producing so generally deli- 
rium, headache, or nausea, as opium and its extract produce. 

Use. As this extract possesses nearly the same virtues as opium 
only in a weaker degree, so it is employed in the same instances 
It is to be preferred when the head is much affected. 

Doee. Gr. ij. to Sss. in form of pills. 

Ineovut. As under Extraetum Opii. 

BXTEACTUM PAREIRiE. L. E. Extract of Pareira. 

Use. In affections of the urinary organs. 

Dose. From gr. x. to 3 ss. 

EXTR ACTUM PODOPHYLLI. U.S. Extract of May Apple 
(This is prepared from the powdered root of the Podophyllum 
Peltatum^ in the manner described for Ext. Cinckonte.) 

Prvp. Possesses the purgative properties of the root, and same 
sepsible qualities. 

Oper. Purgative. 

Dose. From gr. v. to gr. xv. 

EXTRACTUM aUASSLE. U. S.— E. Extract of auania. 

(Prepared in the same way with Extract of Gentian.) 
^Qmp. Uuassina, mucilage. 
'Prop Tonic. 

Use. In atonic dyspepsia, and general debility. 

Dose. From gr. v. to gr. x. 

Bark. (The decoction evaporated.) 

Oper. Astringent, tonic. 

Use. In alvine hemorrhages and immoderate fluxes. 

EXTRACTUM RHEI. L. E. D. Extract of Rhubarb. (Ajkm 
contriti ^xv., Spiritus teiiuioris Oj., Jlqtue distillates Ov^. 
Macerate for four days with a gentle heat, and allow the dregii 
to subside ; evaporate the liquor to a proper consistence.) 

Oper. Purgative and stomachic; but as the extractive matter 
attracts oxygen in the humid state, and particularly when 
heated, much of the virtue of the medicine is destroy^ in this 

Use. In the same cases for which the powdered root is en- 
ployed ; but chiefly ** as a basis for pills to which more active 
matters are to be added." 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3 ss. in pills, or dissolved in peppermint water. 

EXTRACTUM RUTiE. D. Extract of Rue. (A decoctioa 
evaporated.) Ettractum RuUb. 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste bitter, acrid. 

Cber« Tonic, stomachic, emmenagngne t 

C/M. The active principle on which the stimulant and aati- 

80' EXT 

■pamodte operatton of me depends, is Its csaential oil, which 
la dlfltlpated in this preparation. As a bitter it id inferior to thr 
extract of chamomile flowers. 

Df. Or. z. to 3 80. in pills. 

EXTRACTUM SARZiE. U. S.— V- Extract of SarsaporiUa. 
(A strained decoction evaporated.) 

Oper. The same as the powder of the root^ to the decoction of 
which this extract is added, *^\fi render it stronger and more 

Dote, Gr. x. to 3 j. in pills, or dissolved in the decoction. 

Extract of Sarsaparilla. {Radicis Saraaparilla Ineisa tbj.. 
.Aq-ua few. Ovj. Digest the root for two hours in four pints of 
the water ; take it out, bruise it, and replace it in the water, 
and boil for two hours ; filter, and squeeze out the liquid ; boil 
the residue in the remaining water, and filter and squeeze out 
this liquor also ; evaporate the united liquors to the consistence 
of thin syrup, and add when cool as much rectified spirit as will 
malce in all f 5 xvj. Filter.) Wood and Bache doubt the efficacy 
of this preparation, and recommend in place of it the following 
formula of W. Hodgson, jr., of Philadel. : (" Take of Sarsap. 
I xvj., Liquorice Root bruised, Ouaiac. Wood rasped, Bark of 
Sassafraa Root, each I ij., Mezereon 3 vj., Diluted Alcohol OviiJ. 
Digest for fourteen days at a common temperature, then strain, 
express, and filter. Evaporate the tincture in a water bath to 
f^xii.; then add $ viij. of white sugar, and remove from the 
fire as soon as the sugar is dissolved.") The advantages of this 
process are, that by means of the alcohol all the virtues of the 
root are extracted, while the low temperature required in ita 
preparation is not sufficient to impair these virtu&H. 

Vee. In the same cases as the powder of the root, especially in 
secondary syphilis. 

Dose. From f i ij. to f ^ iv. twice or thrice a day ; of Hodgson's 
Extract, 3 j. three or four times a day. 

Bcammony. (Boil powder of scammony in successive portions 
of proof spirit ; distil off the spirit ; then pour away the wateiy 
solution from the resin ; agitate this with boiling water until 
it is well washed ; lastly, dry at a temperature not exceeding 

Use, The same as scammony. It gripes violently. 

Tops. {The Spartium Scoparium.) 

Oper. Diuretic, stomachic. 

Use. In dropsies, but seldom employed. 

Do»e. 3 S8. to 3 j. in pills. 

EXTRACTUM STRAMONll. U. S.— L. E. D. Extract of 
Stramonium. (5k Seminorum Stramonii 5xv., .Aqute ferventi» 
Cong. j. Macerate the seeds for four hours in a vessel slightly 
covered near the fire ; then take them out, and bruise them in 
a stone mortar, and return them again to the -fiuid when they 
ore bruised. Then boil the liquor down to four pints, and strain 
it while it is hot. Finally, evaporate it to a proper thickness. 
The U. S. Phar. directs to take of Stramonium Seed ground Into 
powder Ibj., Diluted Alcohol a sufficient quantity. Having 
robbed the powder with Oss. of diluted alcohol, introduce the 


F E R 81 

Bixtare into an apparatus for displacement, and poor upon it 
gradually diluted alcohol till the liquid passes colorless. Distil 
off the alcohol from the filtered liquor, and evaporate the resi- 
dae to the proper consistence.) Of this extract the dose is gr. 
m. twice a day, to be gradually increased. 

Prop, Odor narcotic ; taste bitter. 

Optr. A powerful narcotic. When taken in quadtiQr sufficient 
to affect the system modeAtely, it produces more or less cen- 
bral disturbance, such as vertigo, headache, dimness of vision, 
tec, with a disposition to sleep ; has a laxative efiiect upon the 
bowels, and increases the secretion from the skin and kidneys; 
does not affect the pulse, but sometimes produces deranged 
sensations about the fauces, cesophagus, and trachea. 

Use, In asthma, pertussis, neuralgia, syphilis, cancer, rheums^ 
tism, and other spasmodic affections. 

Doae. From gr. iv. to gr. x. in the form of pill, twice or thrice a 

EXTRACTUM STYRACIS. E. Extractbf Styrax. (Exhaust 
styrax by boiling it witli successive quantities of rectified spirit; 
filter the spirituous solutions; distil off the greater part of the 
spirit ; and evaporate the remainder to a thin extract.) 

Use. See Styrax. 

EXTRACTUM TARAXACI. U.S.— L.E. Ext Taraxaci, D. 
Extract of Dandelion.* (A strained decoction evaporated.) 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste bitter, mucilaginous. 

Oper. Deobstruent, laxative, diuretic. 

Use. In jaundice, chronic inflammation, and incipient scirrhos 
of the liver, chronic derangements of tlio stomach, hypochon> 
driasis, and dropsy. 

Dose. Gr. iv. to 3 j. united with sulphate of potassa. 

EXTRACTUM U VJS URSI. L. Extract of WhorUeberry. 

Oper. and Uss. See Decoction. 

FARINA. L. E. Triticum Hybemum; Farina, D. Flour. 
(Vide Amylum.) 

Comp. Gluten, starch, albumen, gum, phosphate of lime, carbon, 
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. 

Use. The introduction of Flour into the Pharmacopoeias seems 
to be unnpce&iary, as it is scarcely ever used in the state of 
flour, except to parts affected with erysipelatous inflammations ; 
bread is used in making cataplasms ; and sometimes in forming 

FERRUM. U. S.— L. D. Fern filum, E. Ferri limatura, E. 

Prop. Color bluish grey ; texture fibrous ; firacture brilliant and 
fine grained ; spec. grav. 7.6 to 7.8 ; hard, ductile, maHeable^ 
magnetic, equivalent 28. 

Optr. Tonic, deobstruent ; anthelmintic ; producing fetid erne* 
tations, owing to its meeting with acid in the stomaCh, which 
oxidizes it, and evolves sulphuretted hydrogen gas. 

Use. In general debility, dyspepsia, hysteria, chlorosis, worauk 
ahd in passive hemorrhages. It can prove useful only whea 
it is oxidized, wliich is known by the eructations and black 

• See Ext Hematoxyli 

89 FER 


Pms, Of the filinn, gr. t. to 3 J. with some aromatic powder; 
or in the form of electuary with honey ; or pills with extract 
of gentian. 

Clff. Prep. Ferri Ammonio-Moridwn^ L. Ferri Limatvra Pw 
rifietUOy E. Ferri Ferroeifanuretum, U. S. Ferri Acetate D. 
Ferri Carbonas, £. D. Ferri Carb. saceharatum, E. Flerri 
lodidum, U. S.— L. E. Ferri Sulphas^ L. E. D. Ferri Potas- 
sio-tartraSj U. S. — L. THnct. Jicetatis Ferri, D. Vinum Ferriy 
L. D. Fvrri lodidi aolnUo^ U. S. — ^E. Ferri Sesquioxidvmi 
L. £. D. 

FERRI ACETAS. D. Acetate of Iron. {Ferri CarbonwtU 
partem unam, Acidi Aeetiei partes aex. Digest for three days, 
and strain.) To be kept in stoppered bottles. 

Prop. Small green prismatic crystals ; taste st3rptic ; spec. grar. 
1.368. Converted into peracetate by exposure to the air, or to 
a high temperature. 

Oper. Tonic, astringent 

Use. In dyspepsia, chlorosis, hysteria, and rachitis. 

Dose. 6r. iv. to gr. xij. 

FERRI AMMONiO-CHLORIDUM. L. Ferrnrn Ammoniatom, 
U. S. Murias Ammoniss et Feni, £. D. Ammoniated Iron. 
{Ferri Sesquioxidit ^iij., Acidi Hydrocklorici Oss., Ammonim 
Hydrochloratis ftijss., Aq. dist. Oilj., F^rrwn Amvumiatum.) 

Comp. Hydrochloratc of ammonia, sesquichloridc of iron. 

Prop. Odor resembling saffron ; taste styptic ; deliquescent, so- 
luble in alcohol and water. 

Oper. Tonic, emmenagogue, aperient, attenuant. 

Use. In epilepsy, hysteria, chlorous, scrofula, riclcet9i and me- 
senteric obstructions ; sometimes in cancer. 

Dose. 6r. iij. to gr. xv. twice or thrice a day, in pills, with ex- 
tract of gentian. 

Off. Prep. THnetura Ferri Ammonio-ehloridh L. 

bonate of Iron. {Sulph. of Iron 5 iv., Carb. of Soda 5 v., Pure 
Sugar I ij., Water Oiv. Triturate the washed precipitate with 
the sugar ; and dry the mixture at ISSfP.) An excellent chaly- 
beate. Possesses the advantages of having nearly all the iron 
in it in the state of protoxide, and of l>eing readily soluble in 
acids. More active than the subcarbonate of iron. 

Use. The same as the sesquioxide of iron. 

Dose. Gr. v. to gr. xxx. in the form of pill. 

FERRI CITR AS. ( Citrate of Iron.) The citrate of the sesqui- 
oxide is prepared by boiling in a matrass, till the whole of the 
oxide is dissolved, Citric Acid | lij., HydraUd Oxide of Iron 
(dry) 5 ij. Distilled Water 5 xlj. Filter and wash with dis- 
tilled water sufficient to obtain ; xiJ. of liquid. This is the 
lAquid Citrate of Iron of the French Pharmacopoeia. 

Uses and Dose. Same as the tartrate and lactate of iron. 

FERRI FERROCYANURETUM. U. S. Ferri Percyanidum. 
L. {Ferrocyanuret of Iron. Pure Prussian Blue.) (R; ^- 
pkate of Iron 5 iv., Sulph. Acid 3 iijss., JWtrtc Acid 3 vj., Ferro- 
cyanuret of Potassium I ivss.. Water (H^. Dissolve the sulphate 
of iron in a pint of water, and having added the sulphuric acid, 
boil the solution. Pour into it the nitric acid in small portions, 
boiling the liquid for a minute or two after each addition, until 
it no longer produces a dark color; then allow the liquid to 

FER 83 

eool. Dissolve the ferroeyanuret of potassium in the remiinder 
Hi the water, and add this solution gradually to the first liquid, 
agitaticg the mixture after each addition ; then pour it upon a 
filter. Wash the precipitate with boiling water until the wash- 
ings pass tasteless. Lastly, dry it, and rub it into powder.) — 
U. S. Phar. 

Use. For the preparation of the bicyanlde of mercury and hydro- 
cyanic acid ; in intermittent and remittent fevers, epilepsy, and 
neuralgia. * 

Dose. Gr. iv. to gr. yj. three times a day. 

FERRI FILUM. U. S. Iron Wire. 

F£RRI lODlDUM. U. 8.— L. E. Iodide of Iron. {lodinii I ij., 
Ferri Ramentorttm ^j., .^qute distillatee 0^88. Mix the iodine 
with Oj. of the water in a glass vessel, and add the iron filings 
gradually, stirring constantly. Heat in a sand bath, and pour 
off the fluid when jt has acquired a greenish color ; wash what 
remains with the Oss. of boiling water. Evaporate the mixed 
fluids, filtered at 212°, in an iron vessel, till the salt is dry. 
Preserve the preparation in a well-closed vessel, excluded from 
the light.) 

Prop. In aggregates of needle-fonned crjrstals, of an iron-grey 
color, very deliquescent; taste acrid, metallic; soluble in wa- 
ter ; decomposed by heat. When exposed to the air it is de- . 
composed, and sesquioxide of irun is deposited. 

Comp. 1 equ. iodine=126.3+l iron=2b-|-5 water=45, equiv. 

Oper. Tonic emmenagogne, deobstruent 

Use. In all cases of debility, in scrofula, incipient cancer, ame- 
norrhosa, secondary syphilis, mesenteric obstructions. A bad 
form of the preparation, which should only be kept in solution. 

Dose. 6r. iij. to gr. viij. in solution. 

FERRI lODIDI SOL UTIO. (Liquor.) U.S.— E. Solution of 
Iodide of Iron. {Iodine gr. i90-\-aean Iron Wire gr. 100, I>t> 
tilled Water f 5 YJ. Preserve the solution with iron wire in the 
bottle. The U. S. Phar. directs to take of Iodine 5 ij., Iron 
Filing's 5 j.. Prepared Honey f 5 v., Distilled Water a sufficient 
quantity. Mix the iodine with f ^ x. of the distilled water, in 
a. glass vessel, and gradually add the iron filings. Heat the 
mixture gently until the liquor acquires a light-greenish color; 
then having added the honey, continue the heat a short time 
and filter. Lastly, pour distilled water upon the filter, and 
allow it to pass until the whole of the filtered liquor measures 
f I XX. Keep in closely stopped bottles.) 

Use. The same as the iodide. 

Dose. TUxl. to f 3 j. 

PERRI LACTAS. fjMctate of Iron. Lactate of Protoxide of 
Iron.) Prepared by digesting at a low temperature lactic acid, 
diluted with water, upon iron filings. At the end of six or seven 
hours, the liquor is boiled, filtered, and concentrated, when, on 
cooling, it deposits crystals. I'hc^e crystals, drained in a flan 
nel, and washed with alcohol by displacement, should be dried 
rap4dly, and be preserved from any contact with the air. 

Vrop. White, prystallme plates; sparingly soluble in water; 
reddens litmu8i)aper ; and possesses a ferruginous taste. 

Dm. Ac a tonic in chlorosie and an«mta, in lozenges, to the ex- 
tent of 3 J* in twenty-four hours ; or in syrup, made by mixing 


•4 FER 

Ferri Laetat. 3 J., Aqua DistiUat. buUient. IyJUm Saeeh, «fll. 
I xiij. Or in pills : Chalybeate bread has been used in the Fj- 
risian hospitalts with much succetss, in chlorosis. From four to 
five grains of Lac. Iron are mixed with every I i^ss. of bread. 

FERRI MURIATIS TINCl'URA. E. See Tinctura Ferri 


FERRI OXiDUM NIGRUM. E. Black Oxide of Iron. {Sulpk, 
of Iron I vj., Sulph. Acid 3 ij. and f 3 ij., AiYric Acid f 5 ivai., 
Aqua Ammonia f § ivss., Boiling Water Oilj.) 

Use. The same as the sesquioxide of iron. 

FERRI OXiDUM NIGRUM. D. Black Oxide of Iron. (Let 
scales of the oxide of iron, collected round the anvils of smiths, 
be washed, dried, and purified from dross by the application of 
a magnet. Then reduce them to powder, the finer parts of which 
are to be separated in the manner prescribed for the preparation 
of chalk.) 

Use. In the same case as the rust 

Dose. Gr. v. to 3 j. 

FERRI OXiDUM RUBRUM. D. See Oxidum Ferri Rubmm. 

FERRI PHOSPH AS. U.S. (PhosphaU of Iron.) (^t Of Sul- 
phate of Iron 5 v., Phosphate of Soda 5 vj., Water one gall(m. 
Dissolve the sulphate of iron and phosphate of soda severally 
in four pints of the water ; then mix the solutions, and set the 
mixture by, that the powder may subside ; lastly, having poured 
oS'the supernatant liquor, wash the phosphate of iron with hot 
water, and dry it with a gentle heat) — U. S. Phar. 

Prop. Phosphate of iron is insoluble in water, but dissolved by 
dilute hydrochloric acid, forming a ^lution which yields with. 
ammonia a precipitate soluble in an excess of the alkaJi. 

Use. A valuable tonic in amenorrhcea, and rome forma of dy»- 
pepsia ; also in intermittenta. 

Dose. Gr. v. to gr. x. 

S ATUM, E. Ferri et Potassaj Tartras, U. S. Tartarum Ferri, 
D. Potassio Tartrate of Iron. Tartrate of Iron and Fotassa. 
{Ferri Sesquioxidi S iijM Aeidi HydrochloriciOas.^ Liq. Potassa 
Oivss., vel q. «., Potassa Bitart. | xjss., Liq. Ammonia Sesqui- 
tarbonaiis Qi., Aqua Dist. Cong. iij. Mix Uie sesquioxide with 
the acid, and digest on a sand bath for two hours. Add two 
gallons of the water, and set aside for an hour ; then pour off 
the fluid, and add the Liq. Potasse. Wash the precipitate 
well, and boil with the bitartrate mixed in a gallon of water. 
Neutralize the solution with the solution of sesquicarbonate of 
ammonia ; strain, and evaporate to dryness.) 

Omp. 1 equiv. of sesquitortrate of iron=135.79-|-l tartrate of 
potas8a=113.G3, equiv.=349.35. 

Prop. Inodorous; taste styptic ; wholly soluble in water; aoln- 
tion not altered by liquor potaasae, nor by ferrocyanide of po- 

Qp«r. Tonic, deobstru^t 

f/»«. This is one of the mfldeit of the salts of iron ; and ao pa- 
latable, that childreA may be easily peranaded to take It la 
■crofttlous tumors, weakened bowels, Itc. 

I>#M. 6r. z. to 3 as. in powder, or bolua, mixed with aoj •!•• 
mtiei or with colomba. 

FER 86 

JM0mp, Potassas ealphuretain, infusioiui of oak bark, galli, mr 
other astringent vegetables. 

FERRI RAMENTA. (Iron Filings.) U. S. 

FERRI RUBIGO. D. Ferri Oxidam Rubram, £. Rust, « 
Carbonate of Iron. (A sesquioxide.) 

Camp, Brown oxide of iron ; carbonic acid t 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste styptic ; reddibh brown ; puWenilent 

Oper. Tonic, aperient. 

Use. In debility, &c. Cullen was of opinion that the simple 
ryn was equal to the other preparations of iron ; and that the 
stomach bore it better. 

Dose. 6r. v. to 3 ss. united with pulvis cinnamomi compoeitufi 

FERRI SESaUIOXIDUM. L. Ferri Subcarbonas, U. S.— D. 
(Carbonas Ferri Prsci pi tatus, £. Sesquioxide of Iron. Preci 
pitaled Carbonate of Iron, from Sulphate of Iron by Carbonate 
of Soda.) Ferri Subcarbotias, U. S. (Take 6f Sulphate of Iron 
Iviij., CarboTuUe of Soda I'lX.j Boiling Water one gallon 
Dissolve the iron and soda severally in Oiv. of the water ; then 
mix the solutions, and having stirred the mixture, set it by that 
the powder may subside. Lastly, having poured off the super- 
natant liquor, wash the subcarbonate of iron with hot water, 
wrap it in bibulous paper, and dry it with a gentle heat)— 
U. S. Pkar. 

Omp. Sesquioxide of iron ; carbonic acid ? 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste styptic ; color reddish brown, insoluble 
in water. 

Oper. Tonic, emmenagogue, alterative. 

Use. It is advantageously employed in tic douloureux and other 
forms of neuralgia, dyspepsia, chlorosis, chorea, and lately ha« 
been much recommended in cancer. One of our best chaly- 

Dose. 6r. v. to 3 ts. united with myrrh, bitter extracts, or sonu) 

Ineomp. Acids and acidulous salts. 

Off. Prep. Ferri Ammonio-ckioridum^'lt. Ferri Potassio-tartraSt 
U. S% — L. Tartarum Ferris D. THnct. Ferri Sesquichloridit 
L. THnct. Ferri Muriatis^ U. S. — ^D. Ferrum Jlmmoniacuvu 
U. S.-L. 

FERRI SULPHAS. U.S.— L.E. Sulphas Ferri, D. Sulphate 
of Iron. (A protoxide, or at the minimum of oxidation, and 
sulphuric acid.) Ferrum Vitriolatam. 

Comp. 1 eq. oxide of iron=36-|-l , sul phuric acid=40.1-f-6« water 
of crystal I ization=54, equivalent of the crystallized salt=130.1> 

Prop. Inodorous; taste strong, styptic; crystals light greent 
transparent rhomboidal prisms; soluble in two parti water: 
effloresce in the air, and turn yellow. 

Oper. Tonic, emmenagogue, astringent, anthelmintic ; in large 
doses emetic. 

Use. In diseases of general debility, amenorrhoea, with a weak, 
languid pulse ; diabetes; in clysters agains#ascarides. 

Dose. Gr. J. to gr. v., combined with myrrh, ammoniacimi, and 
bitter extracts. 

Ineomp. The earths, chloride of calcium, chloride of barium, 
alkalies, and their carbonates, biboraa sods, nitras argenti, 
acetas plumbi, soaps, tannin. 

Of. Pr^. Sulphas Fsrri ExsieeatuSf E. Pilula Ferrt Con^f^ 

•i FE R 

jA«. L. Farri 8 §»fu i o xi dum^ L. MiH. FInri Ctmp.^ L. 
P>rrt Ferrwcpmmuretum, U. tf . Ferri Ozidum Hydratum^ U. 8. 
hirrt FkMpkms, U. 8. Ferri Subearbonas, U. B. 

FEMJti St'LPUAS EXBICCATUM. £. Dried Sulphate of 

Cm. The Mine m the fulphate ; intended for being administered 
m the funn of pills. 

!>»«#. Gr. i. to (r. Hi. 

VKBRl 8ULPUURETUM. D. E. Bulphoret of Iron. (Let 
aa iron rod be heated in a wind fomace to a white Beat,fand 
tmm«diately on taking it fh>m the fire, let it be rubbed upon a 
nAl of eulphar. Let the milphuretof iron drop into water, and 
be separated ftota the sulphur, and dried. Keep it in a stop* 
pered bottle.) 

V**. The same as the hydro-sulphnret of ammonia. 

F£&RUGO. Ed: (Hydrated Oxide of Iron. Hydrated SeamU 
•xuU mf Iron.) (Sulph. of Iron l iv., Sulph. Jidd 3 iijss., Jfit, 
JcM< 3 iXn ^f . JtmwumiiB 1 3 zxviij. After treating the salt with 
the acids, filter, and add to the cold solution the ammonia in a 
Aill stream. The precipitate must be washed and dried at a 
le«)teraiure under \SfP. The U. 8. Phar. directs to take of 
SuljtknU of Iron ^iv.. Sulphuric Add fSitJss., JVtfrtc Acid 
f 3 vj., or sufficient quantity, Solution of Ammonia a sufficient 
quantity, fVnter Oij. Dissolve the iron in the water, and hav- 
ing added the sulphuric acid, boil the solution ; then add the 
nitric Hcid in small portions, boiling the liquid for a minute or 
\^o after each addition, until the acid ceaf«e8 to produce a dark 
color. Filter the liquid, allow it to cool, and add solution of 
ammonia in excess, stirring the mixture briskly. Wash the 
|ireci(Ntate with water until the washings cease to yield a pre- 
cipitate with chloride of barium, and keep it in close boUlea 
with water sufficient to cover it.) 

Vo0. An antidote for poisoning with arsenic and its salts ; acta 
by combining with arsenious acid, and rendering it insoluble. 

iW^. 3 J. fteiquently repeated. This preparation of iron wHl 
remove arsenic from its solution in water, by adding 13 grains 
of It for every grain of the arsenic ; of course it must be given 
la large quantities, and proportioned to the quantity of arsenic 

rSKUrM ARSENIATUM. Arseniate of Iron. 

i>)*€>r. EscharoUc, discuticnt 

l^o. Recommended by Mr. Carmichael in cases of cancerous 
ulcers; on which it acts more powerfully than any other 
i^^mt. Of course the greatest caution is necessary in Its use. 
Mr. Carmichael recoiumends 3 ss. of the arseniate of iron with 
3 U< of the jphosphate of iron, and apply the mixture very thin 
iQr Hseans or a camePii-hair pencil, over a portion of the uictf 
wht^a extensive ; or it may be applied in the form of ointment, 
«MMk bv mixing 3 ss. arseniate of iron, with 3 ij. phosphate ci 
ii«a aa^ 3 vJ. ^ard. To be spread on lint and applied to the 

i>o*«^ liVhen given bitemally, gr. iii. of the arseniate may be 
IMtxf4 with Sj. extract gentian, and 3 iJ. powder of liquorice^ 
and divided lalo 48 pills, of which one may be given three 
lNM<a a day. 

fUtlt'll nOMATUM. Bromide of Iron. (Heat equal parti 

FUL 87 

9i broflnine and inm filings under water. As toon aa the fluid 

becomes of a greoiish color, it is filtered, and evaporated to 

dryness ; the reddish residue again dissolved in water, and 

evaporated, i»>the bromide of iron.) 
Frop. A briclc-red color ; dissolves readily in water, is delique^ 

cent in the air, and has a very styptic taste. 
Opmr. Alterative. 

Use. In all cases where bromine is Indicated. 
Doa: From gr. ss. to gr. J. twice a day, made into pilla, with 

crumb of bread or extract of liquorice. 
FICI. U. S.— L. E. See Carice Fructus. 

Filicis Maris Radix, D. Male Fern Root. (Aspidnm FUix 

Mas. Oryptogamia PUicea. N. O. Filicaies. Indigenous. !(■.) 
Prap. Odor weak; taste sweet, mucilaginous; slightly bitter 

and austere. 
Oper. Anthelmintic. ^ 

Uae. In tinea lata, and cncurbitina ; but perhaps more is to be 

attributed to the active purgatives with vi^hich it is generally 

Dose. 3 ij. to 3 iij. of the solid part of the powdered root, taken 

in the morning, and soon after it a strong cathartic of gamboge 

or jalap, worked oflf with green tea. This was Madame Nouffler*a 

celebrated remedy. 
FCENICULUM. U.S.-^.E.D. Fennel. iFoBnieulummUrarg, 

N. O. LabiaUs. 4.) 
Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste warm, sweetish ; fruit ovate. 
Oper. Carminative, diuretic. 
Use. In flatulencies. 
Dose. 3j. to 3 j. bruised. 
FOSNICULI SEMIN A. U. S.— D. The Seeds of Sweet Fennei 

(Fceniculum^aoeo/eiM ; elate, order, and place, as above. 1\.) 

Faniculum dulce. 
Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste sweetish and grateful. 
Oper. Root diuretic ; seed carminative. 
Use. In the tormina of infants. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3j8s. in powder. 
Off. Prep, .aqua Fatnieuli, U. S. — L. D. Oleum Volatile Semi- 

num FitnietUi, D. Oleum Florum Fxniculi, D. Oleum Femi- 

euli Decoctum ChamcBmelij D. Spir. Juniperi Comp.., U. S.— 

D. L. 
FRASERA. U.S. (Secondary.) American Col umbo. Jndir, 

(Tetrandria Monogynia. N. O. Oentianea. The Root. J4.) 
Prop. Root long, spindle-shaped, horizontal, fleshy, yellow 

color; taste bitter and sweetish; virtues extracted by water 

and alcohol. 
Oper. A mild and valuable tonic. 
Use. In all cases where a pure tonic is needed, 
f Dose. Of the powder from 3ss. to 3j. ; of the infusion made* 

with 5i' of the bruised root to Oj. boiling water, ^j* to l^i- 

BGVGrAl times & dnv 
FULIGO. Wood Soo*. (That of hard wood, as hickory, is the 

best; and it should be collected from flues and stove-pipes at 

some distance from the fire.) 
Cov^. Its active principle is creosote^ combined with potassa. 

86 GAL 

Prep. Taste saline, more or leea bitter and acrid ; naofieoiitfy 

Oper. Resolvent, alterative, antispasmodic, detergent, anUaeptie, 

, IMe. Internally in cachexia, chronic rheumatism, cataneous 
affections, glandular indurations, ricltets, colic and diarrhoea of 
children, hysteria; externally, in tinea, porrigo, itch, herpeSi 
cancer, ulcers and sores of every kind, ophthalmia, diptheritiiy 
pruritus, chilblains, sore nipples, &c. 

Dose. Of the tincture^ made by infusing ^as. of soot with 3J98> 
of carbonate of potassa, 3 ij. carb. ammonia with § ix. of water, 
and filtered ; from thirty to sixty drops may be given several 
times a day. The lotio7% of soot is prepared by boiling "% ij. of 
clean soot in Oj. of soft water for a few minutes, and filtering 
through paper. The otntffient is made by rubbing two parts <» 
fresh butter, or hog's lard, with one part of soot. In painful . 
tumors and cancers, the Extract of Belladonna forms a good 
addition. Pledgets wet with the lotion constitute one of our 
best applications in such cases. 

GALBANUM. U.S.— L.E. Galbani Gummi Resina, D. Gal- 
banum Gum-Resin. (Galbanum Officinale. Pentandria Di- 
gynia. N. O. Umbelliferte. Cape of Good Hope. >.) 

Comp. Resin, gummy extractive, volatile oil. ■ 

Prop. Odor fetid ; taste bitter, acrid ; the agglutinated tears of a 
white color, in a ground of reddish brown ; forms an emul^n 
when triturated with water ; soluble in proof spirit, wine, and 
vinegar. Spec. grav. 1.212. 

Oper. Internally antispasmodic, deobstruent, expectorant; ez- • 

temally resolvent, discutient. I 

Use. In hysteria, particularly that which attends irregular and 
deficient menstruation ; chlorosis ; externally to indolent tu- 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3 j. in piUs, or emulsion. 

Off. Prep. Pilula Oalbani Comp., U. S.— L. Pilula Myrrkm 
Comp., D. PiltUa JissafcBtida, £. Tinct. Oalbani, D. Em- 
plast. Oalbani, L. D. Empl. .^ssafatida, U. S. — E. Empl, 
Oummosum^ E. Emp. Oalbani Comp., U. S. 

GALLiE. U.S.— L.E.D. Galls. (Quercus Infectoria. Dyer*« 
Oak. For class and order, vide Quercus Cortex. Asia Minor. 
> .) The production of the wound of the ovipositor of the 
Diplolepis Gallae Tinctoris. 

Comp. Tannic acid 130, mucilage 12, gallic acid and extractive 
31, calcareous earth and saline matter 12, insoluble matter 315 
grains in 500 galls. {Dav^) : but the goodness of the galls variei 
these results. The tannic acid consists of 18 eq. carbon=110.16 
+9 hydrogen=9+12 oxygen=96, equiv. 215.16. 

Prop. Inodorous; taste very austere and astringent; hard, 
ligneous, 4 to 12 lines in diameter, covered with tubercles ; the 
color of the best is blackish-grey or blue; the nnpierced aie 
the best 

Oper. Powerfully astringent, tonic. 

Utt. They have been used in diarrhosa, intestinal hcmorrhagei^ 
•nd intermittents ; but they are principally employed In gaiflee 
and i^Jcetiona ; and the powder to form an oiotmeat for pUm, 
In the propm-tton of 3 y. to lard S Un and powdered opioai 3|. 

6 ER m 


JD«M. When exhibited internally, gr. z. to 3 j^ twice or thztee 
a day. 

hkomp. Lime water, potasse carbona<i, plurobi acetas, et diaee- 
tatia cupri sulphas, argeoti nitraa, ferri iodidum, ferri suiphas, 
antimonii potossio-tartras, hydrargyri nitras, hydrargyri bi- 
clUorldum, infusura cinchons, solution of isinglass, solution of 
opium ; all of which precipitate the infusion of galls. 

6AULTHERIA. U. 8. Partridge Berry. G. Proeumben*. 
Indigenous. The Leaves. 'DuandriOf Monogynia, N. O. 
Ericea. Evergreen.) ' 

Prop. Odor peculiar, aromatic, and pleasant ; leaves astringent ; 
contains tannin ; aromatic properties reside in a volatile oil. 

Oper. Stimulant, cordial, astringent, emmenagogue. 

V*e. In diarrhoea, amenorrhea; but chiefly to flavor other 
^Dos: Of the infusion f 5 ij. to f 5 iv. : oil tllij. to Illx. 

OW. Prep. 01. Oaultheria, U. S. 

gen: — 

GENTIANA. U. 8.— L. £. Gentians Lutes Radix, D. Gen- 
tian Root (Pentand. Digyn, N. O. Oentiana e ea. Moun- 
tains of Europe. 40 

Prop. Almost inodorous, extremely bitter; externally brown, 
wrinkled ; internally yellow, spongy ; flexible ; virtues yielded 
to sther, alcohol, and water. 

Comp. Gentiania, extractive, gum. 

Oper. Tonic, stomachic, in large doses aperient; antiseptic. 

Use. In dyspepsia, hysteria, jaundice ; gout, united wiih aroma- 
tics ; chlorosis with chalybeates ; and dropsies, with squill and 
neutral salts. Externally in putrid ulcers. 

Doae. Gr. x. to 3 ij. Vide Infusion, &c. 

Off. Prep. Extractum Gentiana, U. S. — L. E. D. Jnfua. OenU 
Comp., U. S.— L. E. D. Tinct. Gent. Comp.y U. S.— L. E. D. 
Vinum Gent., E. 

GENTIANA. U. S.— G. Catesbei. (Secondary.) (Blue Gen- 
tian. The Root. Indigenous. i\..) 

Prop. Dried root has a mucilaginous and sweetish taste, which 
is soon succeeded by an intense bitterness. Virtues extracted 
by water and alcohol. 

Oper. Tonic. • 

Use. Intermittents, dyspepsia, general debility. 

Dose. In powder, from gr. xv. to gr. xxx. In infusion, f 3 j. to 

GEOFRiEiE INERMIS CORTEX. D. Cabbage-Tree Bark. 
(Diadelph. Decand. N. O. Leg amino s<e. Jamaica. > .) 

Prop. Odor very unpleasant ; tgste sweetish, niiicilaginous; 

Oper. Anthelmintic, cathartic; deleterious in large doses. 

Use. Against lumbrici and oscarides. Culd water mubt not be 
drunk during its operation. 

Dose. Of the powder 3j. to 3ij., but decoction is a preferable 

GERANIUM. U. S. (G. Maculatum. Crane's Bill. Mona- 
delphiot Deeandria. N. O. Geraniaeea. Indigenous, The 
Root. 4.) 

Graip. Tannin, gallic acid. 

Prop. RootB from one to three inches long, somewhat flattened, 
oootorted, wrinUedi tuberculated, of an umber brown color; 

90 GLY 

inodorooi; udrliigent, without UttemeMor oopIeaMnt tarte; 

abounds in tannin. 
^«r. A powerful astringent. 
Vt* DianiuBa, and in the second stage of dysentery after eTo- 

cuents ; cholera infantum ; passive hcmorrliages. An elegant 

remedy in cases of infants, or of persons with very delicate 

stomachs. Locally, to indolent ulcers, an injection in gleet 

and leucorrhoDat a gargle in relaxation of the uvula and 

aphthous ulcerations of the throat 
Dms. Of the powder, from gr. zx. to gr. xxx. ; of the decoction, 

fhun I J. to ; ii. It may be given to children boiled in millc. 
GfilTM URBANUM; RADIX. D. Common Avens Root 

Ico*and. JUonogyn. N. O. Rosacea. Exotic. IX.) 
Prop. Odor not unlike that of cloves; taste bitterish, austere; 

externally darlE red ; internally white ; virtues yielded to water 

and to alcohol. 
Qper. Febrifuge, tonic 
Use, In intermittents, djrsentery, chronic diarrhoa, flatulent 

colic, and general debility. 
Dost. Of the powder, 3 ss. to 3 j. four times a day ; of a decco* 

tion, J J. eveiy hour; of a tincture, formed with the root, f j. 

alcohol Q|. — 1 iiij. three or four times a day. 
GEUM. U. S.—G. Rivale. (Secondary.) Water Avena. 

Indigenous. ©. 
Prop. Dried root is hard, of a reddish or purple color, without 

smell, and of an astringent, bitterish taste. 
Oper. Tonic, astringent. 
Use. In diarrhcea, ieucorrhcea, passive hemorrhages, general 

Dose. Of the powdered root, from 3j. to 3 J. three times a day; 

of the decoction, made with § j. of ihe root to Oj. of water, from 

f I J. to f ^ ij. ; a weak decoction is sometimes made by invalids 

as a substitute for coffee. 
GILLENIA. U. S.— G. Trifoliata. Bigelow. Indian Physic 

American Ipecac. Jeosand. Peniagynia. N. O. Rosaeem 

Indigenous. The Root. Z|..) 
Prop. Dried root of the thickness of a small quill ; light brown 

color, bitter taste; virtues extracted by boiling water. 

3 per, Eqietic, cathartic ; in small doses tonic. 
se. As a mild emetic where such medicines are indicated ; as 
a substitute for ipecacuanha. 

Dose. Of the powdered root as emetic, from gr. xx. to gr. xxx., 
repeated every twenty minutes till it operates; as alterative 
and tonic from gr. v. to^r. xv. 

GLYCYRRHIZA. U. S.— L. Glycyrrhiz^e Rndix, D. E. Li- 
quorice Root (Glycyrrhlza glabra. JJiadriphia, iJeeand. 
N. O. Lcguminosa. South ot Europe. > .) i^liould be tliree 
years old. 

€)omp. Woody fibre, starch, and a i>eculiar modification of sugar 
called glyeion. The fresh r«>*)t yields one-fcurih ifs weight of 
extract (Olyeion, or glyeyrrhizine, and manuite, are furnis of 
■ugar, though Uiey do not torni alcohol by fcrmontniion. Mnn> 
nite is found in the Juice of many trees, in most urK-^brooms, 
and in cane sugar, by decomposition. 

Prsp. Inodorous; taste sweet, mucilaginous, leavaig, when 


H^M 91 

oqiceledt a degree oi bitteroen in the inoath ; flexible ; eutiele 

brown. * 

Oper. Demulcent 

Vs*. In catarrli ; but it is generally combined with other muci- 
lages, ond is a pleasant and useful demulcent 
Dose. Of the powder, 3s8. to 3j. 
Off. Prep. Decoct. SareaparUlm Cemp.., U. S.— L. E. D. Infwa, 

Idni, V. S.— L. Ezt. GlyeyrrhivB, U. S.— L. E. D. ConfeetU 

Senna, U. S. — L. E. Decoeium Mexerei Gm^., £ D. 
60SSYPIUM. E. Raw Cotton. 
Use. In bums and scalds. 
GRANATUM. U. S.— L. Granatnm Radix, E. Races tunica 

exterior, Flores, Radicis Cortex, D. Pom^ranate Bark and 

Flowers, (Balaustines,) and bark of the roots. {Icoeandriat 

Monogyn. N. O. Pontacea. South of Europe. ^ .) Balauf 

Comp. Wax, resin, clorophylle, gallic acid, tannin, tuny matter, 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste bitter, styptic ; strikes a permanent blue 

with sulphate of iron ; virtues yielded to water. 
Oper. Astringent, anthelmintic. 
Vee. In chronic and colliquative diarrhoBas, and the protracted 

stage of dysentery ; for tapewor^n ; externally, as an injection 

in leucorrhcea, and gargles in angina. ' 
Dooe. In substance 3 ss. to 3 j., of a decoction f 5 ss. every three 

Jncomp. Sulphate of iron, iodide of iron, nitrate of silver, acetatei 

of lend. 
6UAI1CI RESlNA ET LIGNUM. U. S.— L. E. D. 6uai»- 

cnm Resin and Wood. Oimiaeum. 
Prop. Odor slightly fragrant ; taste warm and bitter, the resin 

more so than the wood. The resin is concrete, brittle ; colw 

externally greenish, internally greyish, ; fresh fracture reddisdi; 

water dissolves about one^tcnth, alcohol 93 parts in 100 ; soluble 

also in liquor potasss 15 parts ; in liquor ammonis 38 parts. 

The powder is whitish, but changes to green in the air. 
Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic ; in large doses purgative. 
Use. In chronic rheumatism, gout, cutaneous diseases, and the 

sequela of lues venerea. ^1 

Doae. To produce its first effects, gr. v. to 3j. in pills, or in 

emulsion made with mucilage or yolk of egg ; to purge, gr. xv. 

10 3 j. in the same form. 
heomp. The mineral acids. 
Off. Prep. Decoc.Ouaiaei, E.D. Deeo*. Sarsap. Comp.^ U.S.— 

L.ED. Mist. Ouaiacu L.E. Tinct. OuaiacuV. 8.— L.E.D, 

Tinct. Ouaiaci Qmp., U. S.— L. £. D. Pulvi^ Aloes Qmj»., 

*«* It is often adulterated with tnanehineei gum ; to discover 

wkieht add to the alcoholic solution a few drops of sweet spirit 

of nitre, and dilute with water ; the guaiac is pruipitated blue, 

while the adulteration ^ats. 
BiEMATOXYLUM. U. 8.— L. E. Hcroatoxyli Lignum, D. 

Logwood. (Decandriot Monogynia. N. O. Leguminosm. 

America. >.) 
Frtf Almost inodwons; taste sweetish, iub-ostrisgent; roloff 


dtflp red ; flrv, hetvy. Ita virtoM extractad both by waterui 

aicohol , (eoloring principle kematine.) 

d*«. Id the protracted ■tas e of dIarrhoBa and dsrsentery, unda 
the form of decoction. {Qt, Of the shavings 5j>i water Oy 
Boil to Ctj. and strain.) 

Z>M«. f Sj. to f I y. every three or four hours. 

I»c0mp. The mineral ac^ds, acetic acid, solution of alum, sal 
phate of iron and of copper, acetate of lead, antimonii potassio- 
tartras. Opium, Decoction of Cinchona Flava. 

Of. Prep. Ext. Hamaioxylit U. S. — L. Decoctum H«nuU«xjflit 

HEDEOMA. U.8. Hedeoma Pulepoide*. Penny Royal. The 
Herb. ItuUgenaus. (I^umdrta, Monogytua. N. O. Zjobiatm, 

Prop. An annual plant, from nine to fifteen inches high ; pleasant, 

aromatic smell ; warm, pungent taste. Owes ita properties to 

a volatile oil ; extracted by warm water. 
Oper. An aromatic stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmena- 

Dose. Of infusion ad libitum. Oil, from ITli. to lllz. 
Off. Prep. 01. Hcdcoma, U. 8. 
BELLEBORUS. U. S.— L. E. Hellebori Nigri Radix,* IX 

Black Hellebore Root. (Helleborus Officinalis. Polyandria, 

Polygjmia. N. O. Ranunculacees. Austria, l^.) 
Prop. Odor disagreeable ; taste bitter, acrid, benumbing the 

mouth ; impaired by drying and keeping. 
Oper. Cathartic hydragogue. emmenagqg;ue. 
Use. In mania and melancholia, dropsy, and In suppression ot 

the menses in plethoric habits; but it may be questioned 

whether it is equal to jalap, frc. It is seldom got genuine. 
Dose. Gr. z. to 3j. purge strongly ; to produce its other eflects^ 

gr. ij. to gr. iij. three times a day. Seldom used in substance. 
Off. Prep. TincL Helleb.y L. D. Ext. Helleb. J^ig., D. 
HEPATICA. U. 8. {Seeomlary.) HepaUca Tnloba, U. 8. 

Liverwort. Polyandria, Polygynia.N.O. RanunculacciB. 2^. 
Prop. Without smell ; has a mucilaginous, somewhat astringent, 

and slightly bitterish taste. Water extracts all its active pro* 

Optr. Demulcent, slightly tonic, astringent, diuretic, and deob- 

slruent: hn»» no very nclivn virtues. 
Use In chronic coughs, hseuioptysis, and hepatic affections. 

The empirical preparations of this plant owe their efficacy to 

opium, which they coi^in in considerable quantities. 
UERACLEITM. U. S. Heracleum Lanatum. Mnstetwort. 

Radix. The Boot Pentandria, Digynia. N. O. Umbellifera. 

Indigenous. 4 ) 
Prop- The root resembles that of common parsley ; strong, dis- 

agrccubleodor; very ocrid U(btc; both leaves and root excite 

r^ness when applied to the skin. 
Oper. Stiuiulant, carminative. 

Use. In epilepsy, attended with flatulence and gastric disorder. 
Dose. ' 3 ij. to 3 iij. of the powdered root daily, long continued, 

with a stiong infusion of the leaves at bed-time. 
HEUCHEUA. U. 8. Heuchera .Americana. Alum Root 

{.PenU ani Digyn. N. O. Haxifragea Indigenous 4.) 


HOR 93 

Prtp, Root horizontal, knotty, uTefoIar, yeHowiah ; hai a alranf 
styptic taste. 

Qp«r. Very astringent. 

Use, Where astringents are indicated ; as a local applicatloa to 
ulcers and cancer ; also as a styptic. 

HIRUDO MEDICINALIS. L. D. Sanguisoga CMRcinalis. The 
Leech. (C. Annelides, O. Abranchiate^ F. Asetigora.) 

Prop. Body oblong, flattish ; color on the baciE olive green, with 
four longitudinal stripes ; the two central yellow, broken with 
black ; two lateral yellow, entire ; two intermediate black, and 
yellow chain ; on the belly turkey blue, maculated with yellow; 
mouth and bite triangular ; anal extremity a circular sucker. 
Hirudo decora. The American Leech : back of a deep pistachio 
green color, with three longitudinal rows of square spots, placed 
on every fifih ring, and twenty-four in number; lateral rows of 
spots black, middle range of a light brownish orange color; 
belly of the same color, variously and irregularly spotted with 
black, sometimes four or five inches in length, but generally 
from two to three^ Makes a smoAler and more supecficial inci- 
sion than the European leech, and does not draw as much 
blood. Much employed in Philadelphia ; obtained from Bucks 
and Berks counties, Pennsylvania. 

V*e. In every species of local inflammation, except the erysipe- 
latous; pariiciilarly in ophthalmia, placed as near the eye as 
possible. The best mode of making thrm bite is to clean the 
part well with soap and water, then to dry it, and before ap- 
plying the leech, to oilow it tu dry itself by crawling on a clean 
cloth ; or the part may be scratched with the point of the 
lancet. Leeches will not bite when caMing their skins, which 
they often change ; nor in rooms in which there is any strong 
or offensive odor. The bleeding from leech bites, especially 
in infants, is often troublesome. Compression will generally 
arrest it. Lunar caustic, lint, cotton impregnated with alum 
solution, and cobweb, are often employed for the same purpose. 
If all other means fail, a suture with a fine thread will always 
succeed. When applied to young children, the physician 
should always be at hand to watch the bleeding, and arrest it 
when necessary. Much care is required in preserving leeches, 
as they are very liable to diseases. The water in which they 
are kept should be changed every day, and they should have 
access to mud or m ss, by crawling through which the body 
is cleared of the slimy coat which forms on its skin, and is a 
principal cause of its disease and death. 

HORDEUM. U. S.— L. E. Hordei DIatichi Semina, D. Pcai! 
Barley. {Triand. Dievn. N. O. Oraminace<B. The banks 
of the river Tsimara. <b.) Semina tunieis nudata. 

Comp. According to ProuHt, 100 parts of barley contain 32 of 
starch, 3 gluten, 5 sugar, 4 gum, 1 yellow resin, and 55 of 
koriein, a principle analogous to lignin. Other chemists find 
in ft, in addiiinn, salts of lime, vegetable fibre, albumen, and 
diastase, which has the remarkable property of converting 
ftarch into dextrine and the sugar of grapes, when mixed in the 
proportion of only 1 part of the former to 200 of the latter. 

Fnp. Taste sweetish, viscid ; prepared granules rotmdish, of a 
pearly whiteness ; consists almost ratlrely of starch 

94 HYD 

Use, Vide Decoctum As it is- apt to get miu^, barley sheidd 
always be washed before it is made into decoction. 

Off. Prep. Decoctum Hordei, U. S. — ^L. D. Decoct. Hard. Comp^ 
L. D. 

HYDRARGYRUM. U. S.— L. E. Hydrargyram, D. Quick- 
silver. Mercury. (In its metallic state, uncombined.) Hjf 

Prop. Fluid above 39^ below zero, and under 656^ of Falu. : 
bright, shining, of a silvery whiteness ; spec. grav. when liquid 
13.568. — {Cavendish.) Easily oxidized ; equivalcnt=202. 

Oper. Metallic quicksilver does not act on the body, even when 
taken into the stomach : oxidized, and combined with acids, it 
acts powerfully. 

Use. It has been exhibited in constriction of the bowels, and 
intus-susception, from a notion that it would pass through the 
bowels by its gravity ; but it rarely succeeds in such cases. 

BYDRARGtRUM PURIFiCATUM. D. The purification is 
performed by distilling the crude metal in an iron retort 

Use. For pharmaceutical purposes. 

gyri Oxydum Rubrum, U. S. Oxydum Hydrarg^ri Rubmro, E. 
Oxydum Hydrargyri Nitricum, D. - Nitric Oxide of Mercury. 
Red Oxide of Mercury. Red Precipitate. (A peroxide, pro- 
bably containing some undecomposed acid.) Uydrargyrua 
J^itratus Ruber, Take of Mercury I xxxvi., JVtt. .^cid f s xiv., 
Water Oij. Dissolve the mercury, with a gentle heat, in the 
acid and water previously mixed together, and evaporate to 
dryness. Rub the dry mass into powder, and heat it in a very 
shallow vessel till red vapors cease to rise. — U. S. Phar. 

Comp. Quicksilver 82, oxygen 18 pans in 100; or 1 eq. mercury 
=202+2 oxygen=I6, equiv.=218 ; when well prepared. 

Prop. Small bright-red shining plates ; insoluble in water, en- 
tirely soluble in chlorohydric acid. It emits no reddish fumes 
when heated, but yields oxygen, while the mercury either runs 
into globules, or is wholly dissipated. — U. S. Phar. 

Oper. Stimulant, escharotic. 

Use. In the proportion of gr. ss. to sugar gr. iv. it is blown into 
the eye to remove specks on the cornea ; applied to chancres 
and foul ulcers, to cleanse and stimulate them, either sprinkled 
on the part in fine powder, or united with lard into an oint- 

Off. Prep. Unguentum Hydrargyri J^itrico-Oxydi^ L. E. D. 
Ung. Hydrargyri Oxydi Rubric U. S. 

HYDRARGtRI OXtDUM. L. Pulvis Hydrargyri Cinereua, 
D. Oxide of Mercury. (These pnparations differ, but th« 
London is to be preferred, being a real oxide; the other is 
sub-nitrate of mercury and ammonia, mixed with an imperfi«t 

(^mp. Quicksilver 90.16, oxygen 3.84, in 1(J0 parts; or 1 eq. 
mercury=202+l oxygen=8, equlvj=:s!10. 

Prop. Color grey, insoiuble. 

Oper. Stimulant, antisyphilitic. 

Use. This preparation is not apt to disorder the stomach and 
bowels, and is therefore often preferred in C4iring venereal 

Dote. Gr.J.togr. Uj.inapUltwiceaday. 

HYD 05 

ide of Mercury. {Calomelanoa tublimati partem onam, Po- 
tassa Caitstica, Aqua CkilefacttBy partes quatuor. Rub them 
together until the oxide assumes a black color, and wash It 
often in water ; finally, dry the oxide upon blotting paper, in a 
moderate heat.) A protoxide. 

Camp. Mercury 96.61, oxygen 3.39=100. 

Prop. Taste coppery ; insoluble in water ; wholly dissolved by 
acetic acid; becomes olive-colored by the action of light; 
wholly dissipated by a strong heat, and metallic globules an 

Use. In scrofula, cutaneous affections, and as an alterative in 
venereal diseases. 

Dose. Gr. viij. to 3j. 

HYDRARGTRI BINOXtDUM. L. Hydrargyri Oxydum Ru- 
brum, D. Bin or Red Oxide of Mercury. {Hydrarg. Bichloridt 
§ iv., Liq. PotasatB t1 xxviij., Aq. diet. Ovj. ; after the decom- 
position, wash well the powder, and dry it) 

Comp. Q,uicksilver 92.6, oxygen 7.4 in 100 parts; or 1 eq. mep* 
cury=202-f-2 oxygen=16, equiv. 218. 

Prop. Oxide of a red color, brilliant ; soluble in some of th« 
acids without decomposing them. Entirely soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid, and transformed into the bichloride. 

Oper. Stimulant, escharotic, antisyphilitic ; in large doses vio- 
lently emetic. 

Use. Owing to the violence of its operation, it is now seldom 
given internally, except when other mercurials fail. It is 
principally used as an escharotic, in the same manner as the 
nitric oxide, but should be reduced to the finest state of powder. 

Do*e. Gr. ss. to gr. J. in a pill with opium gr. ss., every night 
and morning : gr. iv. act as a violefR emetic. 

HYDRARGTRI BROMIDUM. Bromide of Mercury. (Bromine 
unites with mercury in at least two proportions, which have 
been called the prota-hromidey and Uie deuUf-bromide, corre- 
sponding in their effects to calomel and corrosive sublimate.) 

Prip. White, sol ble in water, alcohol, and aether, and colored 
red or yellow by alkalies. 

Oper. Alterative, diuretic, cathartic. 

Use. Syphilis, cutaneous affections, scrofula. Ice. ; rarely em- 

Dose. Gr. i. to gr. iv. of the proto-bromide ; gr. l-20th of the 
deuto-bromidc ; or gr. j. of the last maybe dissolved in 3j. 
sulphuric ajther, of which from fllx. to ITlxx. may be given in 

, barley-wntpr. 

drargyri Bichloridum, L. Sublimatus Corrosivus, E. Murias 
Hydrargyri Corrosivum, D. Bichloride of Mercury. Corrosive 
Sublimate. Hydrarpyrus Muriatus. (Bk Mercury Ibij., Sul- 
phuric Acid fciij.. Chloride of Sodium Ibjss. Boil the mercury 
with the sulphuric acid until the sulphate of mercury is left 
dry. Rub this, when cold, with the Chloride of Sodium in an 
earthenware mortar ; then sublime with a gradually increasing 
heat.)— 17. S. Phar. 

C$mp. Chlorine 26.48, mercury 73.52 in 100 parts ; or, 1 eq. mei^ 
eury=202-|-2 eq of chlorine=70.84, equiv.=373.84. Spee' 
avr 5.200. 


96 HYD 

Prop. Taste acrid, styptic, metallic, duraDle ; a white, compact^ 
semi-transparent mass of right rhombic prismatic crystals; 
soluble in 11 parts of water at 6(P, in 3.8 of alcohol ; partially 
decomposed in solution by light It is soluble in aether, hydro- 
chloric acid, and solution of hydrochlorate of ammonia. Yery 
soluble in aether, which extracts it from ail other solutions; 
fusible by heat, sublimes without residue ; potassa and limer 
water cause with its solution a reddish or yellow, and ammonia 
a white precipitate. 

Oper. Stimulant, antisyphilitic, alterative. 

V»e. In venereal complaints, with the greatest advantage, when 
a quick and general action is required; but its effects are often 
not permanent. In lepra, combined with antimonials ; and in 
chronic rheumatism. Dissolved in the proportion of gr. iij. to 
water Oj., as a gargle in venereal sore throats ; and a little 
stronger we have found it useful as a gargle in fafedking the 
abscess in cynanche tonsillaris. It is applied externally to tet- 
ters, and for destroying fungus ; gr. iv. in water Oj., is a good 
wash in scabies. It may be given clysterways, when the 
stomach will not bear it Great caution is necessary in using 
it externally. 

Dose. Gr. l-6th to gr ss. made into a pill, with extract of pop- 
pies, once in twenty-four hours. When swallowed as a poison, 
the best antidote is white of egg. — (OrJUa.) 

Jncomp, Vide Liquor Hyd. Bickloridi. 

Off. Prep. Liquor Uydrargyri Bickloridi, L. Hydrargyri Bin- 
ozydum, L. Hydrargyn .^mmonio-chtoridum, L. Hydrargyri 
Biniodidum, L. E. Hyd. lodidum Rubrum, U. S. Hydrargy- 
rttvt Ammonintum, U. S. 

HyDRARGtRI PERSULPHAS. D. Persulphate of Mercury. 
{Hydrargyri Purificati, Acidi Sulphurici utriusque partes sex, 
Jlcidi J^Titrici partem untftn. Expose to heat in a glass vessel, 
and augment the heat until the substance be completely dried 
and become white.) 

Camp. Sulphuric acid ^.23, peroxide of mercury 70.82, water 

Prop. Color white ; spec. grav. 6.444. 

Oper. Emetic, alterative. 

Use. Seldom used, except for preparing the following : — 

Oxide of Mercury. {Hydrargyri Persulphatis partem unam, 
Aqua Calida partes viginti. Rub them together in an earthen- 
ware mortar, and pour off the supernatant liquor; wash the 
yellow powder with hot distilled water, as long as the effused 
fluid yields a precipitate with the solution of caustic potassa; 
finally, dry the sulphuric oxide of mercury.) Turpeth mineral. 

Comp. Sulphuric acid 15.62, peroxide of mercury 84.38 in 100 

U»9. Emetic, stimulant ; but seldom used, except occasionally, 
at a sternutatory, in very small quantities, combined wiUi 

melas, E. Caloroelas Sublimatum, D. Chloride of Mercniv, 
or Calomel. (A chloride by sublimation.) Calomelas. (Ik 
Mercury Ibiv., Suiphurie Add Ibiy., OUoriae of Sodium, IbiiJ., 
JHttiUei ffater q. a. Boil ]bU. of the mercoiy with tha aul- 

HYD m 

phnric aeid, until the sulphate of mercury is left dry. Bub 
this, when cold, with the remainder of the mercury, in an 
eartlienware mortar, till they are thoroughly mixed. Add the 
chloride of sodium, and rub it witlitiie ottier ingredients till all 
the globules disappear : afterwards sublime. Reduce the sub- 
limed matter to very fine powder, and wash it fVequently with 
boiling distilled water, till the washings afford no precipitate 
upon the addition of solution of ammonia; then dry it.) — U. S, 

Qtmp. Chlorine 15.525, mercury 84.75, in 100 parts; or, 1 eq. 
mercury=202+l chlorine=35.43, equiv.=337.42. 

Prop. Inodorous, nearly insipid ; requiring 1152 parts of water 
at 312° for its solution; formed in a compact, hard, shiping, 
striated cake, which by pulverization and levigation is reduc^ 
to an impalpable, ivonr-colored powder; spec. grav. 7.175. 
Sublimes without a residuum ; not soluble in ether or alcohol ; 
blackened by potassa, and the oxide of mercury which results 
is reduced by heat to the metallic state. Distilled water, after 
having been boiled with it, yields no precipitate on the addition 
of ammonia or nitrate of silver. — U. S. Phar. 

Oper. Antisyphilitic, alterative ; in lai^e doses purgative. 

Use. In venereal diseases and chronic hepatiti>', combined with 
opium ; in scrofula with cicuta ; in convulsive affections with 
opium, camphor, aseafoetida, dtc. ; in dropsies with squill, fox- 
glove, and elaterium ; and in rheumatism and lepra with anti- 
monials, guaiacum, and other sudorifics. As a purgative in 
any case not attended with intestinal inflammation ; generally 
united with purgatives, as gamboge, scammony, jalap, or 

J)oae. Gr. j. to gr. ij., night and morning, in a pill ; if it do not 
puige, it gradually excites ptyalism : gr. iij. to gr. x. purge. 
Children bear larger doses than adults. 

Incomp. Nitric and hydrochloric acids, alkalies, and their car- 
bonates, lime-water, soaps, sulphurets, iron, lead, copper. The 
bicarbonntes of the alkalies do not decompose it 

CALOMELAS PRiBClPlTATUM. D.* Precipitated Calomel. 
{Hydrarfyri Purificati partes septemdecem> Jicidi Jfitrici 
diluti partes quindecem. The mercury being put into a glass 
vessel, pour the acid upon it, and as soon as Uie mixture ceases 
to effervesce, digest with a gentle heat, agitating occasionally, 
for six hours ; then augment the heat and let the liquor boil a 
little : pour it off from the undissolved mercury, and let it be 
quickly mixed with forty parts of boiling water, containing 
seven parts of chloride of sodium in solution ; wa^ the preci- 
pitated powder with hot distilled water, as long as the effused 
liquid affords a precipitate with the solution of caustic potassa: 
let it then be dried.) 

Prop., Qmp., and Use, The same as those of the sublimed pre- 

8ULPHURE. L. D. Sulphuret of Mercury with Sulphur. 

'^Thls preparation ie placed here, although not hi alphabetica) 
OTder, that it may be among thn other mercurial preparatioot. 

98 HYD 

Efhiops Biineral. {Hyirarg. Purif. Ibj., Sulpkwris Sub. IJ. 

Rub them together until the globules disappear.; 
Qmp. 58 parts bisulphuret of inercury-|-4!2 of sulphur in 100 

Prop, Wholly dissipated by heat ; does not communicate a white 

stain to gold when rubbed upon it, and exliibits no mercurial 

globules under the microscope. Chlorohydric acid which has 

been boiled with it, produces no precipitate when poured Into 

water. — U. S. Phar. 
Oper. Alterative. 

Use. In scrofula and cutaneous diseases. 
Dose. 6r. y. to 3 ss. 

Shuretum Rubrum. U. S. — £. Red Sulphuret of Mercury, 
lisulphuret of Mercury. Cinnabar. (Ctuiclcsiiver combined 
with sulphur.) Hydrargyrua Suipkuratus Ruber. 

Comp. duicksilver 86.2, sulphur 13.8 parts in 100 ; or 2 eq. of 
8ulphur=32.2+l mercury=202, equiv.=234.2. 

Prop. Inodorous, insii^d ; color a rich deep-red ; insoluble in 
water and in alcohol. 

Oper. Antisyphilitic. 

Use. As a fumigation against venereal ulcers of the nose, mouth* 
and throat ; 3 ss. being thrown on a red-hot iron. It has also 
been used in cutaneous complaints and gouty affections ; 1>ut it 
is nt best an uncertain remedy. 

HYDRARGtRI BICYANIDUM. L. Hydrargyri Cyanuretum. 
Bicyanide of Mercury. Cyanuret of Mercury. (Ferri Percf- 
anidi }, viij., Hydrargyri Binoxydi % z., .^q. dist. Oiv. Boil for 
half an hour, strain and evaporate to form crystals.) 

Comp. 1 eq. of mercury=:2024-2 eq. of cyanogen=52.73, eqoiv. 

Prop. Crystals right square prisms, inodorous, taste metallic, 
more soluble in water than in alcohol, soluble in nitric acid 
without decomposition. 

Oper. Excitant and alterative. 

Use. Rarely employed as a medicine ; chiefly used for making 
Hydrocyanic acid. 

Off. Prep. .Senium Hydrocyanicum, L. 

HYDRARGYKI iODIDUM. U. S.— L. Iodide of Mercury. 
Protiodide of Mercury. {Hydrargyri 5 J-. lodinii 3 v., wfl/c^ 
holis q. s. Rub together until the globules disappear, and dry 
with a gentle heat, and keep in a close-stopped bottle.) 

Cdmp. 1 eq. mercury:=202+l, iodine=126.3, cq.=328.3. 

Prop. A greenish yellow powder readily decomposed by heat; 
inodorous, taste strongly metallic, insoluble in water, alcohol, 
or solution of chloride of sodium; soluble in lether: heated 
quickly it sublimes in red crystals, which afterwards become 

Oper. Excitant, alterative. 

Use. In strumous affections and lepra : as an external applica- 
tion. The iodides of mercury are among our most powerful 
alteratives, uniting in their effects the properties of both their 
constituents. They affect the mouth more speedily than Mber 
mercurials, and are particularly indicated in scrofula and se- 
condary syphilis, in scrofulous habits, fbctemally, they ara 
oaed sueceasAUly in ulcers, ill-conditioned sores, swelled Joint! 


irhen we widi to promote the action of the absorbenti ; and 
nearaI|iG affections. 

Dose. 6r. i to gr. ij. in pill or dissolved in alcohol. 

Biniodidum. L. E. Red Iodide of Mercury, U. S. (Binlodide 
of Mercury.) (Hyirargyri 5j-, lodinii Zx., Aleoholia q. 8.; 
or, take of Corrosive Sublimate |j., Iodide of Potassium 3z., 
Distilled Water Qi^. Dissolve the mercury in Oljss., and the 
iodide of potassium in Oss. of tlie distilled water, and mix the 
Bolutions. Collect the precipitate upon a filter, and havinf 
washed it with distilled water, dry it with a moderate heat, 
and keep it in a well-stopped tmttle.) — U. S. Phar. 

Cbmp. 1 eq. mercury=202+2 iodine=252.6, equiv. 444.6. 

Firop. A scarlet-red powder, rabliming in rhombic scales ; in« 
soluble in water; soluble in boiling alcohol. Sublimed en- 
tirely — soluble in 40 parts of a hot concentrated solution of 
ehloride of sodium ; deposited in crystals on cooling. 

Dose. Or. 1-lOth to gr. i a day. 

phate of Mercury. ( T^rpetk Mineral.) ft Of Mercury 5 5 v.. 
Sulphuric Acid "% vj. Mix in a glass vessel, and boil by means 
of a sand bath till a dry white mass remains ; rub tliis into 

' powder, and throw it into boiling water ; pour off the 8ii|>er- 
natant liquor, and wash the yellow precipitated powder re- 
peatedly with hot water ; then dry it. 

•Prop. A lemon-yellow powder, almost insoluble in water ; en- 
tirely dissipated by heat, sulphuric acid being evolved, and 
metallic globules sublimed. 

with Chalk. (A protoxide, formed by trituration with carb(»n- 
ate of lime. Take of Mercury I iij.. Prepared Chalk 5 v. Rub 
together till all the globules disappear.) 

Comp. Very uncertain, depending on the degree of trituration. 

■ Fourcroy states it to contain 4.100 of ox}rgen. 

Prop. Inodorous, insipid j color grey. 

Oper. Alterative, antlsyphilitic 7 

Use. In porrigo, and other cutaneous affections; in venereal 
complaints its operation is so slow and weak as to merit no 
attention. An alterative in visceral diseases of children, espe- 
cially in chronic diarrhoea and cholera infantum. 

Dose. Gr. v. to 3 ss. twice a day, in any viscid substance. 

Inedmp. Acids and acidulous salts. 

* Magnesia. (A protoxide, formed by trituration with carbonate 
of magnesia.) 

In every respect this preparation resembles the former ; the em- 
ployment of the carbonate of magnesia instead of chalk doei 
not alter the properties nor the virtues of the remedy. 

monio-Chloridum. L. Hydrargyri Precipitatum Albimi, £. 
Submurias Hydrargyri Ammoniatum, D. Ammonio-chloride, 
or White Precipitated Mercury. White Precipitate. (A bin- 
oxide, combined with bichloride of mercury and ammonia, 
forming a triple salt.) 

Cbmp. 1 eq. binoxide of meTcary=2]84-l bichloride of mercury 
=^73.84-1-3 ammoaia=34.30, equiv.=535 14. 



100 ICH 

Prop. InodorooB, tasteless, snowy white, ponderous, insoluble 

in water or alcohol, soluble in chlorohydric acid, entirely 

dissipated by u strong heat ; it does not become black wh^i 
^ trituratrd with lime-water ; but with potassa it becomes yellow. 

'ai ^ Op0r. Detergent. 

Use. As an external application, united with lard, in scabies, 

and some other cutaneous affecUons. 
Off. Prep. Ung. Uydrargyri .Bmmonio-chloridU !*• U^g' Bf- 

drargyn Prec^. Albi, D. Unguentum Uydrargyri Ammonia' 

ti, U. S. 

of Ammonia. 
Prop. Odor very fetid; taste nauseous, styptic; color daiJL 

yellowish green. 

gper. Sedative, nauseating, emetic ; disoxygenizing ? 
se. In diabetes, and diseases of increased excitement. 

Dose. lllv. gradually to Hlxv. three or four times a day ; larger 
doses produce vomiting. 

Ineomp. All the acids and metallic solutions. 

amiu, E. Henbane Leaves and Seeds. (Uyoscyamus Niger. 
Pentand. Monogyn. N. O. Solanacea. Europe, i .) 

Comp. The seeds yield (Brande) 24.3 per cent of fixed oil, 1.4 
fatty matter, 1.2 of gum, 2.4 of bossorin, 1.50 of starch, 4.5 of 
albumen, 26.0 of vegetable fibre, 24.1 water, 9.7 saline matter, 
including an alkaline principle, called hyoscyanine, whiclj^ 
crystallizes in long prisms, and has a very strong taste. 

Prop. Odor narcotic, peculiar ; not unlike tobacco when bruised ; 
taste insipid, mucilaginous, lost by drying ; virtues yielded to 
proof spirit. 

Oner. Narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, slightly stimulant. 

use. In epilepsy, hysteria, palpitation, pulsy, mania^ and scir- 
rhus, as a substitute for opium to procure sleep in nervous 
habits, pertussis, asthma, catarrh,, gout, rheumatism, exter- 
nally as a cataplasm in cancer and* glandular swellings; and 
to dilate the pupil, or in fine powder sprinkled on cancerooa 
sores, to allay pain. 

Dose. Gr. iij. to gr. x. of the powder; but generally the extract 
is preferred. 

Off. Prep. Extractum Hyoscyami, U. S. — L. E. D. Tinetura 
Hyoscyamiy U. S. — L. E. D. 

HY8SOPUS OFFICINALIS. Herba. Ed. Common Hyssop. 
Hyssop Leaves. (Didynamia Gymnosperm. N. O. LabiaiiB, 

Prop. Odor aromatie, taste warm, pungent, depending on an 
essential oil. 

3 per. Stimulant, expectorant attennant 
'se. In humoral asthma and chronic catarrh ; seldom used. 
Dose. 3j. to 3 j. twice or thrice a day ; or the infusion may be 

freely drank. 
ICHTHYOCOLLA. U. S. Isinglass. (Accipenser Huso et 
Ruthenns.) Sounds of the swimming bladders of fishes, as Uie 
Weak Fish and Cod, but especially the difi*erent species of 
sturgeon. (Pisces^ Chondropterygii. Cm. Russia.) 
GMRp. Soluble gelatine 96, insoluble fibre & paru in 100. 


INF .101 

^fwp. Inodorous, tasteless, dry, whitithtiemitmnflpBient; when 
dissolved in boiling water it forms an opaque Jelly. 

Oper. Nutritive, demulcent, externally adhesive. 

Use, As a 'diet for the sick and convalescent, and infants 
troubled with acidity of the prime vie. As an article of diet 
in cholera infantum, tar preferable to vegetable farinaceous 
substances, as arrowroot, tic. The English court-plaster is 
made with it. 

Jneomp. Astringent vegetable infusions, carb. potash, alcohol. 

INFUSUM ANTUEMlDIS. U.S.— L.E. Infusion of Chamo- 
mile. (Antkemidia 3 v., ^q. FervaU. Q}. Macerate for tea 
minutes in a covered vessel, and strain.) 

Prep, The odor and taste of the flowers. 

gper. Tonic ; emetic when taken warm. 
»e. The cold infusion in dyspepsia, hysteria, and other coin- 

plainta attended with debility of the stomadi ; the warm is 

employed either alaae to excite gentle vomiting, or to assist 

the operation of other emetics. 
Dose. fjj. tofiy. 
Iiuomp. Isinglass; infusions of yellow cinchona; solutions of 

sulphatft of iron, nitrate of silver, bichloride of mercury, ace 

tat^ of lead. 

Compound Infusion of Horse Radish. (Armor, ameiete, Sinor 

pie eontueij sing. ^J., Spiritns JimuraeiiB Comp. f ^ j., .Aaum 

Fitrv. OJ. Macerate for two hours in a covered vessel, tnen 

strain, and add the Spir. Armoracie Comp.) 
Prop. Little odor ; a mawldsh, acrid taste. 
Oper, Stimulant^ diuretic. 
use. In paralysis, scorbutus, chronic rheumatism, and dropawf 

occurring after intermittents. 
Dose, f §1 to f ; iij. three or four times a day. 
bumnp. Carbonate of alkalies, bichloride of mercury, nitrate of 

silver, infusions of gnlls^and of cinchona. 

rantii, E. Compound Infusion of Orange Peel. {Aurant. Cor* 

sic. 31 v., Limon, Cort. recent. 3iJ., Caryopkyll. eontus. 3J., 

,^q. Ferv. OJ. Macerate for fifteen minutes in a covered vessel, 

and strain.) 
Oper. Tonic, stomachic, stimulant^ carminative 
Use. In dyspepsia, particularly that of drunkards; flatulent 

colic; in gout, united ^ith absorbents; and in the debility 

which follows acute diseases. 
Dose, f S Jss. to f ^ ij. every four hours 
huomp. Sulphas ferri, acetas plumbl, infusion of yellow da 

chona bark, lime-water. 
INFUSUM CALUMBiE. L. E. D. Inf. Colombe, U. 8. In- 

^sion of Calumba. {CoLmmIms eonctsm 3 v., .^fum Ferv, (]j|. 

Macerate for two hours in a slightly covered vessel, and strain.) 
Prop. Odor and taste of the root ; mucilaginous. 
Oper. Tonic without stimulatinc ; antiseptic. 
Use. In dyspepsia and cholera, the vomiting of which it checks ; 

in bilious remittent fever; to check the nausea and vooiting 

of pregnancy; and the severe diarrhflsa and vomiting often 

attending dentitioa; in the hcetic of {Ouhitia, to cornet acil- 

109^ INF 

motty, and etmtgttieii the digesdon ; and iB the kvw itate oT 

puerperal fever. 
Dose, f $ jas. to f ^ ij. three or four times a day. 
buomp AtttiDUHlii petassio-tartras, hydraigyri bichloridum, 

nitros argenti, acetas plumbi ; infosion of cinchona. 
INFUSaM CARtOPHYLLL U. S.— L. E. D. Infusion of 

Cloves. {Caryophyl. contua. Z\\].yJia. Fervent, f^. Macerate 

in a covered vessel for two hours, ana strain.) 
Prop. Odor fragrant ; taste warm, aromatic ; color red. 
Oper. ' Stimulant, tonic, stomachic. 
Use. In atonic gout, when the stomach is affected; and flatu- 

lent colic. 
Dose, f I j88. to f $ ij. three or four times a day. 
Incomp. Sulphas ferri ; sulphas zinci ; antimonii potassio-tartras , 

nitr.-is argenti ; acetas plumbi ; infusion of cinchona. 
INFCSUM CASClRILLiE. U.S.— L.E.D. Infusion of Cos- 

cnrilla. (Casearilla Cort. tont. \ ise., Aq. Fero. (Q. Macerate 

for two hours in a covered vessel, and strain.) 
Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste bitter and aromatic. 
Oper, Tonic, stomachic. 
Use. In alvine fluxes, particularly after measles ; in the aphtha 

gangrenosa of children. 
Ditse. f 5 jss. to f 5 ij. for adults twice or thrice a day. 
Jncomp. Infusions of galls, and yellow cinchona; lime-water; 

fiolutions of sulphate of iron, nitrate of silver, acetates of lead. 

811 in Catechu, E. Inftision of Catechu. ( Catechu Extractt Z j., 

Cinnam. Cort. contusi Z j., .dgua Fervent. Qj. Macerate for aa 

hour, and etrain.) Infusum Catechu. 
Oper. Astringent, stomachic. 
Use. In diarrhcBas from a laxity of the bowels. 
Dose, f I i. to f I ij. every three hours, or after eyery loose stool. 
Incomp. Tartar emetic, sulphate of iron, sulphate of zinc, solur 

lion of ife'inglass, infusion of cinchona, the strong acids, bi- 
chloride of mercury. 
INFUSUM CHIRETTiE. £. Infusion of Chiretta. {Chirtita 
Z iv., Boiling Water Ct). InAise for two hours, and shalo 

through linen or calico.) 
Prop. An agreeable bitter. 
Op(T. Tonic. 

Use. In atonic dyspepsia, and in general debility. 
Dose. From f 5 j. to f ? ij. twice or thrice a day. 
INFUSUM CINCHONiE. U. S.— L. E. D. Infusion of Cin- 
chona. {Cinch. LancifolitB Cort. contusi ^j., Jiqute Ferv.Qi. 

Macerate for six hours, and strain. L. The Comp. Inf. of Per. 

Bark of the U. S. Phnr. is prepared in the same manner, adding 

3 j. aromatic sulphuric acid.) 
Prop. The peculiar aromatic flaw and bitterness of the bark 

Over. Tonic, stomachic. 
Use. In dyspepsia and convalescences. 
Dose, f Ij. to f ;ij. united with some aromatic tincture, or a 

mineral acid, three or four times a day. 
fncomp. Tartar emetic, sulphates of ircm and of zinc, nitrate of 

silver and bichloride of mercury, acetates of lead. DecoctkNi 

INF 103 


of galls, lime-water, carbonates of alkalies, and InAurions of 
almoBt all the vea^etable bittere. 


Infusion of Cinchona with Lemon Juice. {CineAontBin pulvero 

^j., Sueei Limonum fS^M Tinet. Camph. Ckfmp. fSi^., ^qtuB 

Frigida Oj. Macerate for twelve hours in a covered vessel, 


Use. In cases requiring bark, attended with great irritability of 

Dcse^ f5J.tof5iy. 

INFUSUM CUSPARTiE. L.E. Infusnm Angostnre, U. S.— D. 
Infusion of Cusparia. (Cusparim Cort. eonttui 3 v., jiqum 
fervent. Qj. Macerate for two hours, and strain.) 

Prop. Almost inodorous ; taste bittdt, and slightly aromatic. 

i)per. Tonic, antiseptic. 

Use. In febrile diseases, obstinate bilious diarrhoBa, and dysen- 
tery, after proper evacuations. 

Dose, f $ j. to f ^ ij. three or four times a day. 

Incomp. Infusion of galls, and of catechu ; tartar emetic ; sul- 
phates of iron and of zinc ; nitrate of silver, bichloride of mer> 
cury, acetates of lead. 

INFUSUM DIGITAJilS. U. 8.— L. E. D. InAision of Fox- 
glove. {DigUalis Fol. exsieeat. 3 J., Spir. Cinnamomi $j., Jlq, 
Ferv. C))., L. Diritalis 3 ij., Spirit of Cinnamon f 3 ij.. Boiling 
Water $xviij., E. Macerate for four hours, strain, and add 
Spir. dnnam. f 3 iv. 

Prop. Inodorous, taste bitter and nauseous. 

Oper. Diuretic, sedative. 

V^e. In dropsies, humoral asthma, phthisis puIuKmalis ; and in 
diseases of increased action. 

Doxe. f ^ss. to f Ij. every eight or ten hours, till it affects the 
kidneys, the pulse, stomach, or bowels; and then stopped. 

Incomp. Sulphas ferri, acetas {dumbi ; infusion of yellow cin- 

INFUSUM DIOSMiE. U. S.~L. Infusum Bucku, E. D. In- 
fusion of Buchu. {Foliorum Dio»mm erenatm $ j., .^qum Fer- 
ventis Qi. Digest for four hours, and strain through cloth.) 

Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste slightly bitter, aromatic, and cooing, 
resembling peppermint. 

Oper. Stimulant, diuretic. 

Use. In chronic inflammation of the mucoui membrane of the 

Doae. f 1 1 to f f ii. twice or thrice a day. 

INFUSUM EUPATORIL U. S. Infusion of Thonraghwort. 
(^ Of Thorovgkwort, the dried herb, ^J., Boiling WaUr (Q. 
Macerate two hours in a covered vessel, and strain.) 

Prop. Odor fVagrant ; taste bitter. 

Opor. Cold, tonic ; when warm, diaphoretic, emetic 

{/««. As a diaphoretic, in catarrh and colds, drank freely, warm. 
The cold infmAon is an excellent mild ttmic, in dyspepsia and 

Dose, f f j. to f f ]j. three or four times a uay. 

Aisum Oentianae, E. Compound Infusion of Gentian. (Oeii> 
Uanm Bad. coneis^ jSurantii Cort exsie., stiij^. 3 U., Limomi§ 
Cbrt. recent. Z iv., Ac. Arv. (Q.) 

104 INF 

€)per, T(mk, ■tomachie. 

Use. In dyspepsia and chlorosis, united with chalybeates, or with 
alkalies; diarrhcea and gout, with absorbents and aroiaatte 
tinGtares; and in dropsy, with squill and neutral salts. 

Dose, f ; jss. to f $ ij. three times a day. 

Ineomp. Acetates of lead. 

*^* The Edinburgh and Dublin Colleges order the ingredients 
to be previously macerated in f % i v. of proof spirit. 

INFU8UM KRAMERIiE. U. S.— L. Infusion of Rhatany 
(KrameruB |j., Aqua dist. /erv. Oj. Macerate for four hours 
in a covered vessel, and strain.) 

Prop. Earthy odor ; taste powerfully astringent. 

Oper. Tonic, astringent 

Use. In chronic diarrhcea ; as a gargle in relaxation of the 

Dose, fflss. tof^ij. 

INFUSUM LfNI COMPOSlTUM. L.D. Inf usum Lini, U. S. 
— E. Infusion of Linseed. {Lini Usitatis. Sem. contus. 3 vj., 
Olycyrrh. Rod. eon. 3 ij., Aqua Ferv. QSJ. Macerate for foujr 
hours, near the fire, and strain.) 

Prop. Inodorous, sweetish, mucilaginous. 

Oper. Demulcent. 

Use. In catarrh, pneumonic affections, strangury, gonorrhoea; 
and after operations on the urethra or the bladder 

Dose. A teacupful ad libitum. 

Ineomp. Alcohol, acetates of lead. 

INFtSUM LUPULI. U.S.— L. Jnfusum Humuli^V.S. In- 
fusion of Hop. (Lvpuli 3 vj.. Aqua dist. ferv. Oj. Macerate 
for four hours, and strain.) 

Prop. Taste aromatic, bitter, odor agreeable. 

Oper. Tonic, slightly narcotic. 

Dose. f5j. toffii. 

INFUSUM MENTHiE SIMPLEX. D. Simple Infusion of 
Mint (FoZtorum Mentha Viridis siccatorum 3 ij., Aqua Fer- 
ventis q. s. ut colentwr mensura | vj.) 

Use. A flood diluent in febrile diseases. 

sion of Mint {^Fol. Menth. Sat. siccat. 3 ij., Aq. Ferv. q. s. ut 
eolcntur f | vj. Macerate for half an hour in a covered vessel, 
and when cold, strain ; then add Sacch. Albi 3 vJ., Olei Menth. 
Sat. gtt ly. dissolved in T. Card. Com. I ss.) 

Oper. Gently stimulating, dinphoretic. 

Use. In anorexia, and as a vehicle for disagreeable remedies. 

Dose, f 5 j. to f I ij. occasional ly. 

INFUSUM PAREIRiE. L. E Infusion of Fareira. (Pareira 
3 vj., A^. Ferv. Oj. Macerate for two hours, and strain.) 

Oper. Slightly toniCv diuretic. 

Dose, f^jss. to f^ij. The extract is usually added to the 

INFUSUM PRUNI VIRGINIANiE. U. 8. Infusion of Wild 
Cherry Bark. (Take of Wild Cherry Bark bruised 5 ss.. Cold 
Water Oj. Macerate for twenty-four hours, and strain.) 

Prop. Beautifully transparent, color of Madeira wine, slightly 
bitter, and astringent 

Oper. Tonic and antispasmodic, narcotic. 

Use. As a tonic, where there is much nervous excitability ^i^iitli 

INF 106 

O debilitated condition of the stomach and bowels, together 
with general or local irritation. Improves the appetite, inducef 
■leep, calms nervous irritability, and allays the action of the 
heart and arteries. Highly useful in the hectic fever of scrofula 
and consumption, dyspepsia, intermittents, &c. 

Dose, f 5 ij. 10 f 5 iij. three or four times a day. 

INFCSUM aUASSliE. U.S.— L. E.D. Infusion of Quassia 
(Qu-i.««i(S coneism 3ij., ( 3J. £.), Aqum Fero. (^. Macerate for 
two hours, and strain.) 

Prop. Inodorous; taste a very pure bitter; limpid; possessing 
no astrintrency. 

OjMT. Tonic, antiseptic. 

Vsf. In bilious fevers, united with alkaline salts ; hysteria, with 
camphor and tincture of valerian * gout, with aromatics and 
giager ; and in dyspepsia, with sulphate of zinc, or with mineral 
aciJd. m 

Dose, f 5 j. to f 5 ij. twice or thrice a day. 

Incomp. Acetas plurabi, nitras argenti. 

INFUSUM RHEI. U. S.-L. E. D. Infusion of Rhubarb. 
^Hhei concisi 3 iij , .^q. Ferv.O}., L. Powdered Rhubarb $j., 
Spirit of Cinnamon fjij., Boiling fTater f 5 xviij., E. Mace* 
rate for tjvo hours in a cuvercd vessel, and strain.) 

Prop. Odor fragrant, like that of the root; taste bitter and aro- 
matic ; limpid ; red-yellow ; not so astringent as the root. 

Oper. Purgative, stomachic. 

Use. In costivoness; and, united with ginger and aromatics, in 
diarrh(cns from weakness of the bowels. 

Dose. t'lj. to f! iij. united with neutral salts ; f ^ss. with tinct 
of cinnamon, where its stomachic etfect only is required. 

Incomp. Solution of isinglass, infusion of yellow cinchona, all 
the strong acids, nitrate of silver, bichloride of mercury, ace- 
tates of lend, sulphate of iron, tartar emetic, magnesia. , 

ss, £. Infusum Rostc Acidum, D. Infusion of the Rose. 
(Rosa Oallica Petal, exsice. 2 iij., JiqiuB Ferventia (l!j., Jicidi 
Sulph. dilut. f3 jss., Sacch. Purif. 3 vj. After pouring the water 
on the petals, in a glass vessel, add the acid, and macerate for 
half an hour ; then strain, and add the sugar.) 

Prop. Odor of the rose ; taste slightly austere, acid, and sweet. 

Over. Sub-astringent, refrigerant. 

Use. In the col I iquati ve sweats of phthisis ; and, with additional 
acid and some nitre, in uterine and pulmonary hsmorrhages; 
topically as a gargle in cynanche tonsillaris. The infusion if 
an elegant vehicle for many active remedies, particularly sul- 
phate of magnesia, the nauseous taste of which it covers. 

Dose, f ^ iss. to Oss. every three or four hours. 

Incomp. Sulphates of iron and of zinc, alkalies, earths. 

Compound Infusion of Sarsaparilla. (Radieis Sarsaparitts, 
prius aqua frigida mundatm et dein incisa, |J., .^qum Calidm 
rocnsura ttj. Macerate for twelve hours in a closed veaiel) 
occasionally agitating, then strain.) 

Prop, and Use. The same as the decoction. 

Dose, f I i V. to f 5 viij. twice a day. 

INFUSUM SCOPARII. L. Infusion of Broom. (SeoptrUl^ 
Jiq. disL f§rv, Cj). Macerate for four hoon, and itraln.) 


106 INF 

Optr. Aperient, diuretic. 

Do8e^ Ijss. to 511. ^_ 

Benne, £. Infusion of Senna. {Senna Fol. Zxv.^ ZingiberU 
eon. 3iv., Jiqum Ferv. Qlj. Macerate for an hour in a covered 
vessel, and strain.) Infusum Senna Simplex. 

Oper. Purgative. 

Uie. In costivenefli^ and to move the bowels in acute diseases ; 
the ginger counteracts the giiping quality of the senna. It 40 
generally united with neutral purgative salts and manna. 

Dese. fVi. tof^iv. 

Ineomp. The same as of infuiton of senna, and also all salti 
hayiiig potassa for a base. 

INFUSUM SERPENTARLE. U. 8.— L. E. InAision of Vir- 

enia Snake Root (Serpentaria 3 iv., .^qua diet, fervent, Q^ 
acerate in a covered vessel for four hours, and strain.) 

Oper. Excitant, diiqihoretic. 

Veee. fJJ.tofjy. 

Ineomp. Strong acids, lime-water, the alkaline carbonates, solo- 
tions of nitrate of silver, bicliloride of mercury, acetates of lead, 
tar|arized antimony, and infusion of yellow cinchona. 

cum Tamarindis, D. Infusion of Tamarind and Senna. 
{Fruet. Tamarindi f j., Senna 3J., Sem. Coriand. eontiu. 3J., 
Saeeh. non pwrif. % ss., .aq. buU. l viij. Macerate in a vessel 
not glazed with lead, agitating occasi<mally, for four houra 
and strain.) 

r. Mildly purgative and cooling. 
In delicate habits, and inflammatory diseases. 

Dose, fJH. tofjiv. 

INFUSUM SIMAROUBiE. L. E. D. Infusion of Simarouba. 
(Simarouba eonttui 3 iij., ^gua Ferv. C)). Macerate for two 
hours in a covered vessel, and strain.) 

Prop, inodorous ; bitter, but not astringent 

Oper. Tonic, antiseptic ; emetic in large doses. 

Use. In diarrhoBa, and the advanced stage of dysentery; dys- 
pepsia; leucorrhoBa; and intermittent fevers. 

Doee. f I ij. united with opium, or with an aromatic, every three 
or four hours. 

Ineomp. Decoction of galls, infusion of catechu and yellow 
cinchona, solutions of nitrate of silver, bichloride of mercury, 
acetate of lend, alkaline carbonates, lime-water. 

INFUSUM SPIGELIiE. U. S. Infusion of Pink Root. {^ 
Root 5 8S., Boiling Water Oj. Macerate two hours.) 

INFUSUM TAB ACL U.S.— D. Infusion of Tobacco. ( Ta»a<f< 
Fol. 3 J., jJqua Ferv. OJ. Macerate for an hour in a covered 
vessel, and strain.) 

Oper. Sedative, antispasmodic. 

Use. As a clyster in ileus, colica pictonum, strangulated hernia, 
and retention of urine from spasm of the urethra. It is, how- 
ever, a very dangerous remedy, and not over one-third of Q). 
should be administered at once. 

INFUSUM ULMI. Infusion of Slippery-Elm Bark. U.S. (Qt 
Bark of Slippery Elm S J*» Boiling Water Cj}. Macerate two 

lOD 107 

INFUSUM VALERIANAE. U.S.— L.D. Infaslon of Valeria. 
{ValeriaiuB 3 iv., ^qua Feroa. Oj. Macerate for half an hour, 

and when cold, strnin.) 
Optr, Tonic. anUspa8in«»dic. 

Use. In hysteria, when the stomach will not boar the powder. 
Dose, f 5 jss. to f 5 ij- twice or thrice a day. 
hcomp. Nitrate ut' silver, sulphate of iron, infusion of yellow 

INULA. U. S (Scamdary.) L. Elecampane. (Inula Hel&- 

nium. Synffenesia Superjlaa. N. (). Cumposita.) Radix. 
Prop, 0:iur sli^htiy fetid, uste at first soapy and rancid, then 

aromatic, bitter, hot. 
Oper. Tonic, diuretic, expectorant. 
Use. In dyspep^tia, paralysis, dropsies, asthma. 
Dose. 3 j. to 3 j- in powder. 
Off. Prat. Confectio Piperis J^igri, L. D. 
lODlNUM. U.S. lodiaum,L. D. lodineom, E. Iodine. 
Prop. Crystals small, feebly tenacious ; in color and general 

aspect resemble black lead (plumbago) : fuses at 338° Fahr. ; 

vulatilizen at 347*^ Fahr., producing a violet-colored vapor. 

Soluble in ether and alcohol. Water dissolves 1-7000 onlv 

of its weight. Gr. xxxix. withgr.ix. of quick-lime, and f $iij. 

uf water, when heated short of 212^, form yellowish oc 

brownish solution ; when the solution is colorless, the iodkie 

is impure. 

goer. Stimulant, absorbent, emmenagogue,* alterative. 
M. In bronchocele and other glandular swellings, not of scir* 
rhons nature, scrofula, dropsy, cutaneous diseases, secondary 
syphilis, rheumatism, gout, hepatitis ; to bring on roenstruatlna 
in young females in whom it has not occurred ; to assist the 
cicatrizHtion of venereal uicers. 

Dose. From gr. 1-6 to gr. iv.> made into pills, with crumbs of 

Off. Prep. Tinct. ledxmt, U. 8.— L. E. D. Ung. lodinii, U. S.— 
L. E. 1). 

lODURE TUM A.MYLI. Iodide of Starch, (ft Iodine gr. xxlv., 
Starch in fine p«nvder ^ j. Triturate the iiMlide with a little 
wiuer. Hnd prndually add the stnrch. continuing the trituration 
till the couiiMiiiiiil assumes a uniform blue culor. Then dry 
the iodide with h beat so gentle as not to drive off the iodine, 
and keep in a wollstop|Kjd bottle.) 

Oper. mid Use. The same as the other preparations of iodine. 

Dosf. From ar. x. to gr. xx. three times n day. 

lOULRl-nrM SI LPHUKIS. loduret of Sulphur. (Mix 125 
pitrts of iodine with IG of sulphur, and then gently heat the 
mixture over a slow fire, or spirit-lamp, until they fuse inte 
one mass ) 

Opcr. Alterative. 

Use. In tinea capitis, and other cutaneous diseases, in the form 
of an ointment, in the proportion of from gr. x. to 3J. of the 
iodide to SJ. of lard. 

* I have ascertained that it passes through the kidneys wv 
altered.— T. 


lOe JAL 

lODIDUM QUININiE. lodoret of auinlne. (Precipitate Mil. 
|>luite of quinine by means of hydriodate of potasia.) 

Frmp. A yellow precipitate, soluble in alcohol, and crystaJlizei 
in quadrangular prisuid. 

Vae. For scrofulous tiimora, and where iodine and tobies are 

IPECACUANHiE RADIX. U. 8.— L. E. D. Ipecacuan Root. 
(CephclLs Ipecacuanha. Pentand. Monogynia. JN. O. Cincko 
nacoeB.) Brazils. ^ 

Prop. Odor faint and peculiar; taste bitter, subncrki, mucilagi- 
nous; in sujall annulated pieces; externally brown, internally 
whitish; both water and alcohol extract ibj virtues, which 
have be&a found to depend on a peculiar principle, named 

^er. Emetic in large doses ; sudorific, expectorant, in smaller. 

Us$. To produce vomiting in the commencement of fevers, 

Ehthisis, inflammatory diseases, buboes, swelled testicles, and 
efore the paroxysms of ague ; to excite nausea in dysentery, 
asthma, pertussis, hemorrhages, pneumonia, and, combined 
with opium, to produce diaphoresis in rheumatism, gout, and 
febrile disorders. 

Dote. For the first intention, gr. xx. to gr. xxx. alone, or united 
with tartar emetic gr. J. ; for the second, gr. J. to gr. iij. ; and 
the third, gr. ij. to gr. vj., with opium gr. j. 

Incomp. Vegetable acids, astringent vegetable infusions. 

Off. Prep. PtUvis fyecacuanha Compositus, U. S.— L. E. D._ 
Pilulm Ipecacuanha Comp., L. Vinum IpecacuanhcB, U. S.— 
L. E. D. 

IRIS PLORENTINA. U. S. The Root. Florentine Orris. 
( TriandriOf Monogynia. N. O. Iridia. Bouih of Europe.) 

Comp. Gum, brown extractive, fecula, an acrid, fixed oil, vola- 
tile oil, vegetable fibre. 

Prop. Peculiar fragrant odor, bitterish, acrid taste. 

Over. Cathartic, emetic, diuretic. 

Uee. In dropsy ; but chiefly used for its fragrance in tooth pow- 
der, to correct an ofiensive breath ; to Iceep up a discharge from 
issues in the form of small round bolls. 

IRIS VERSICOLOR. U. S. (Secondary.) Blue Flag. The 

Prop. Recent root, without odor; nauseous, acrid taste — im- 
paired by age. 

Oper. Cathartic, emetic, diufetie. 

Use. But seldom employed, owing to the distressing nausea and 
prostration it occasions. 

Dose. Dried root, gr. x. to gr. xx. 

JALAP A. U. S.— L. E. Convolvuli Jalaps Radix, B. (Ipo- 
ma3a Jalapa. Pentandria^ Monogyn. N. O. ConvolwXacem 
^ .) Jalapium. Radix. 

Prop. Odor slightly nauseous ; taste sweetish, slightly pungent * 
solid, hard, heavy, brittle; fracture resinous; internally light 
grey, externally covered with a deep-brown, wriniiled bark 
Proof spirit is its proper menstruum. 

Over. Cathartic; the resinous part gripes violently. 

Use. In costiveness, mania, worms, and as hydragugue in dropsy. 
It is also a good adjunct to quicken the operation of the chloride 

KIN 109 

of mercury, and other purgatives of alow q^eration. A drop 

of essentiul oil prevents its gripinpr. 
Dose. Gr. X. to 3 ss. in pills or a buhis. 
Off. Prep. Pulvis Jalapa Comp., U. S.— L. E. D. Eztraetum 

Jalapa^ U. S.— L. E. D. Tinet, Jatapa, U. S.— L. E. D. TineL 

Sennat C<nap.y U. S. — E. 
JUGLANS. U. S. Butternut. The inner ba^k of the root 

(J. Civerea. Monacia, Polyandria. N. O. Juglandrxa, Jnr 

Prop. Inner bark has a fibrous texture ; feeble odor, peculiaTf 

bitter, somewhat acrid taste ; virtues all extracted by boiling 

Oper. Cathartic ; opeiating without pain or irritation, resem- 
' bling rhubarb. 
Use. In habitual costiveness ; fevers, combined with calomel ; 

hepatic diseases, with dandelion. 
Dose. (ir. xx. to gr. xxx. as a purge, gr. v. laxative. 
JUNIPF.RI OLEUM. E. See Oleum Junipcri, 
JUNIPERUS. U. S. Juniperi Fnictus et Cacumina, L. E. D. 

Juniperi Cacumina, £. Juniper Fruit and Tops. {Diaeia, 

Munadclphia. N. O. Coniferm. North of Europe. ^ .) 
Prop. Odur strong, but not unpleasant ; taste warm, pungent, 

sweetish, followed by a bitter ; depending on an essentisd oil 

and sweet mucilage. They yield their active properties to both 

water and alcohol. 
Opcr. Di uretic, carminative, diaphoretic ? 
Vae. In dropsies ; but they cannot be depended on alone, al- 
though they are an admirable adjunct to digitalis and squilU 
D«ae. 3) to 3 88. triturated with sugar, three or four timea a 

day. The best form of exhibiting the fruit is an infusion made 

with ^iij. bruised, and boiling water Q). 
Off. Prep. Oleum Juniperi, U. 8.— L. E. D. Spiritus Jtmiperi 

CompogituSy U. S. — L. E. D. 
JUNIPERUS VIRGINIAN A. U.S. (.Secondary.) Red Cedar. 

U. Suites. Comferce. > . 
Prop. Tops and leaves officinal. Odor peculiar; strong, bitter, 

pungent taste ; properties reside in an essential oil, and readily 

iiitpurlcd to alcohol. 
Comp. Volatile nil, gum, tannic acid, albumen, bitter extractive^ 

resin, clorophylle, nxt'd oil, lime, lignin. 
Oper. Siimulunt, enimenn|;ogue, diuretic, diaphoretic. 
Vue. In amenorih(£a, chronic rheumatism, dropsy; externally, 

as an irritant ointment, made by boiling the fresh leaves in 

twice ihcir wiicht of lard, and addins; a little wax ; or the dried 

leaves may be mixed with tix times their weight of resin cerate. 

Applied to blistered surfaces to keep up a purulent discharge: 

interior to the savine. 
KINO. U. S.— L. E. D. Plerc carpus Erinacea. (The Edin- 
burgh CulleKe considers it Eucalyptus Resinifera; the Dublin, 

Butca Frondusa. Africa.) Kino Recina. 
Comp. Tannic and gallic ncid, oxide of iron, coloring matter. 
Prvp. Inodorous; taste sweetish, bitter; Bometimes gritty be 

tween the teeth ; In fragments of a dark ruby-red color; easily 

pulverized, powder reddish brown; more aoluble in warm 

than in cold water. 
Oper. Astringent. 

no LAV 

, Um. In obstinate chronic dlarrhoBas; uterine, intcsUnal, and 

pulmonary hEemorrhages ; fluor albus. 
Dose. Gr. x. to gr. xx. in powder ; or in solution of the powdef 

3 j., mucilage of gum f 5 j., cinnamon water f 5 v. ; two tabl«- 

spoonfuls occasionally. Vide Tinct. 
fncomp. The mineral acids, alkalies, and their carbonates; ace* 

tates of lead, nitrate of silver, tartar emetic, sulphate of iron, 

bichloride of mercury. 
Off. Prep. IHnctura Kino, U. S.— L. E. D. Electuarium CaU 

chu, E. D. 
KRAMERIA. U. S.— L. E. D. Rhatany Root (Krameria 

Triandra. Tetrand. Monojtynia. N. O. Krameracem. Java. 
. ^.) 
Prop. Taste bitter ; communicates a deep-red color both to wata 

and to spirit. 
Oper. Astriugent, diuretic, detergent. 
Use. In dysentery, attended with bloody stools ; in ulceration 

of the gums, and as a stomachic in dyspepsia. 
Dose. S 88. to 3 j. in powder. 
LACMUS. L. E. See Rocdla Tinctoria. 
LACTUCARIUM. U. S.— L. E. Lactucae Sativaj Herba; 

Lactucarium, D. Garden Lettuce and its inspissated juice. 

(Lactuca Sativa. Syngenesia JEgualis. N. O. CicAoracca. 

Europe, i .) 
Prop. The herb has no odor ; its taste is slightly bitter, when 

not blanched. Odor and color of the lactucarium the same as 

that of opium; soluble in water; contains resin, extractivci 

mucilage, bitter principle ; no morphia. 
Oper. Narcotic, diaphoretic. 

Use. In coughs, phthisis pulmonalis, and all painful affections. 
Dose. Of the lactucarium, from gr. ij. to gr. vj. 
LACTUCA SATIVA. U.S.—L.E. Garden Lettuce. (Syng, 

JEq. N. O. Ciehoraeea. S .) 
Prop. The inspissated juice, called Lactucarium, is chiefly em- 
ployed. This is in small, irregular lumps, of a reddish-brown 

color, and of a narcotic odor and bitter taste ; resembles opium 

in color, taste, and smell. Sometimes called lettuce opium. 
Comp. A bitter, crystallizablc principle, lactucin ; manuite, as- 

paranride, a free acid, a brown coloring substance, resin, cerin, 

mync-in, albumen, gum, nitrate of potassa, chloride of potassium, 

phosphates of lime and magnesia. 
Oper. Anodyne, sedative, narcotic ; similar to opium. 
Dose. Gr. v. to gr. xx. An uncertain medicine. 
LACTUCA VIROSA FOLIA. D. The Leaves of Strong- 
scented Lettuce. {Sjfngenesia JEqualis. N. O. Cickorac90* 

Indigenous, i .} 
Prop. Odor strong, narcotic, like opium ; taste bitter 
Opvr. Narcotic, diuretic, diaphoretic, gently laxative. 
I/««. In dropsies, from visceral obstructions: the leaves aie 

seldom used, but an extract is made from them. 
Dose. See Suceus Spissatus. (The Lactuca Klongata has been 

introduced into the U. S. Phar. as a substitute for tat L. Firot*. 

It is narcotic, and acts upon the skin and kidneys. From gr. ▼ 

to gr. XV. of the extract is a dose.) 
LAVANDULA. U. S.— L. E. Lavandule Spies Flores, D 

L I M 111 

LaTender Flowen. (DidfiumM OymMotpermU. N. O. Xa- 

hiatm. South of Europe. >.) 
Frop. Odor fragrant, agreeable ; taste warm, bitterish ; dependinf 

on an essential oil, which is taken up by alcohol. 
Oper. Stimulant, slightly errhine. 
Vte. When the oil is extracted and united with proof spirit, It 

is very useful in faintings, paralysis, and as an adjunct to 

stomachic bitters. The dried leaves were used, formerly, to 

produce a discharge from the mucous membrane of tho noM| 

but are now neglected 
Off. Prep. Oleum Laoandulm^ U. S.— L. E. D. Spir. Ixnwninr 

Im, U. S.— L. E. D. TincU Lavaadula Comp^ L. E. D. Pit/v. 

Jisairi Cinnp.y D. 
LAURI BACCiE £T FOLTA. L. D. Bay Berries, Leavea» 

and Oil. (For Class and Order, see (Xniui'momi Cort. Italy. 

IV«p. Odor slightly fragrant ; taste pungent, aromatic ; depending 

on an essential oil. 
Oper. Stimulant, narcotic, carminative. 
Use. I^eldom us^, except as an external application, and gene> 

rally compounded with other stimulants. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3 ss. in powder. 
Off. Prep. Comfeetio Ruta, L. 
LAURI CASSLE CORTEX; Flos nandum explieituM, D. 

The Bark and imopened Flower Buds, but not of the Laurua 

Cassia. Cochin China. (For Class and Order, see OfnuantMU 

Prop. The bark is more mucilaginous than cinnamon ; quills 

thicker and shorter, with a short, smooth fracture ; the buda 

have a brown color, and shape something like a small nail. 
Oper. and Use. The same as cinnamon. 
Off. Prep. Ji^. Cassia^ E. 
LAURO-CERAUUS. E. Cherry Laurel. (N. O. Laurinee. 

South of Europe. ^ .) 
Prop. Contains a volatile oil ; the active principle of which ia 

hydrocyanic acid. 
Oner. Sedative. 

Vide Taraxacum. 
LICHEN CETRARIA. (Cetraria, U. S.— L.) Lichen Islandicus, 

E. Cetraria Islandica, D. Liver Wort, (fietntiii lelandiea, 

N. O. Lickenacee. Iceland. 2|.) 
Prop. Inodorous ; taste bitter, mucilaginous. 
Opar. Tonic, demulcent, nutrient. 
Use. Vide Decoct. Ceiraria. 
Dose. 3j. to 3iv. first steeped in water, holding in solution 

some carbonate of potassa to extract the bitter ; and then boiled 

in milk, chocolate, or cocoa. 
OJBt. Prep. Decoetum Cetraria^ U. S. — L. D. 

— L. E. Citri Fructus, Succus, tunica exterior, ejusque Oleum 

Volatile, D. Lemons : the bark, the juice, and the oil. (Citruf 

* They are tho producUoo of Launi» dnn^momum, of Looreiii 

118 LIN 

Limaium. For Class and Order, see Aurantii Baua. AtAtt 

Prop. Odor of the fVuit fragrant, depending on the essentia) (ril 

which gives the rind its warm bitter taste ; the juice is sharp» 

but gratefully acid ; spec. grav. 1.0384 : it contains citric acid, 

extract, saccharine mucilage, and water: soon spoils. 

Over. Juice refrigerant, antiseptic : bark and oil excitant. 

Use. The juice as a beverage, diluted with water, and sweet- 
ened, is useful in febrile and inflammatory complaints, cooling 
and quenching thirst; alone, or combined with wine, in scor- 
butus; with camphor mixture, decoction of cinchona, or wine. 
In putrid sore throats, remittent fevers, diabetes, and lienteria; 
and with common salt, in dysentery and colics. 

Dose, f 3 ij. or more, two or three times a day ; diluted ad libi 

Off. Prep. Aciduwi dtricum^ X. D. Syrupus Limonis^ V. S. • 
L. E. 

LiNlMENTUM iERUGlNIS. L. Oxymel Cupri Subacetntls, 
D. Lioimeut of Verdigris. {JEruginis cant. 5 j., Aceti f 5 vij., 
Mellis despumath pond. I xiv. Liquefied, strained ; hisfiissated 
by boiling.) Oxymel ^rvginis. 

Oper. Detergent, escharotic. 

Use. Diluted with water, it is useful as a gargle In venereal 
ulcerations of the mouth and fauces; but much cauticm is 
required that none of it be swallowed, and the mouth should 
always be well cleansed afler using it: to foul ulcers. 

LlNlMENTUM AMMONliE. U. S.— L. E. D. Liniment of 
Ammonia. {Liguoris Ammonia f § j., Olives Oleifl ij. Shake 
them together imtil they mix.) A soap. 

Sper. Stimulant, rubefacient, diaphoretic. 
se. In cynanche tonsillaris, spread on a piece of flannel, and 

applied round the throat : when the skin is very irritable, a 

larger proportion of oil is requisite. 

Liniment of Subcarbonate of Ammnnia. (Liguoris Ammonia 

Sesguicarbonatis f § j., Olivte Olei f i iij. Shake them together 

until they mix.) Linimentum Ammonia. 
Oper. Rubefacient 
Use. The same as the strong liniment ; but the oil and water 

are less perfectly united by the sesquicarbonate, and after m 

little time they separate. This preparation is superfluous. 
LlNlMENTUM ANODYNUM. D. y\de Linimentum Saponit 

LTnImENTUM CALCIS. U. S.— E. D. Liniment of Lime- 
Water. ( Old Lini Usitat.^ Aqttm Caleis, utriusque parUt 
aguales. Mix.) A soap. 

2p«r. Cooling, emollient. 
St. To bums and scalds, q>read thick np<m lint, and applied 
over the affected parts 

Fhoratum, D. Camphor Liniment. (Cttnpkara f J., Olivm OL 
I \v. Dissolve.) i j. contains gr. xr. of camphm'. 
Oper. Stimulant, anodjme. 

US9. To glandular swellings, sprains, bruises, and Joints allbcled 
wltii ehrooic rheumatic twtas, applied bv fttetton. Mr. Ware 
feccumnends this liniment, with the additioii of Liq. Pc 

£ I N 113 

Sfl^inicarbonat s 3 iv., to be applied to the edges of the eyelid% 
night and morning, in incipient ninaurosis. 

incntiur Ammonis Com pot-i turn, E. Compound Camphor 
Liniment. {Camphora ^ijas., \T. Camphora 5ij., E.] JLiq. 
Ammonite f^ vijss., [f ^v., £.] Spir. Lavandula Oj. Spiritu$ 
RoMmarini f ^ j., E.) 

Oper. Stimulant, anodyne. 

U§e To sprains, bruises, and chronic rheumatic paina. 

Incomp. All acids, water. 

LlNIMENTUM CAN THARIDIS. U.S. Liniment of Spanish 
Flies. (Qd Spanish Flies in powder ^j., Oil of Turpentine daB. 
DigfBt for three hours by means of a water bath, and strain.) 

curial Liniment. ( Unr. Hydrarg. fort., Adipis PrceparaUBf 
sing, iiv., Camphora f j., SpirsRect. f 3j., Liqturris Ammonia 
f§iv. First rub the camphor with the spirit, then ^dd the* 
ointment and lard, and lastly, gradually, the solution.) 

Oper. Stimulant, discutient. 

lis: To parts affected with chronic venereal pains, nodes, and 
tophi ; to indolent swellings, and to discuss collections of fluids ; 

3 j. rubbed on the affected parts night and morning. 
LIMMENTUM OPil. L. E. Liniment of Opium. (I.tiitm. 

Saponis f 5 vj., Opii Tinct. f 5 ij. Mix.) 
Use. To allay pains ; and to procure sleep, when opium caimot 

be taken into the stomach. 
LTnIMENTUM SAPONIS. L. E. D. Linhnentum Saponia 

Camphoratum, U. S. Opodeldoc. Compound Soap Liniment 

{Saponis Duri ^iij., Camphora |j., Spir. Rosmarini f ^xvj.) 
Opsr. Stimulant, anodyne. 
Use. Against local pains, nibbed on the part ; with the addition 

of Tincture of Spanish Flies, and of opium, we have found this 

liniment of great use in allaying the violent pains of colic, and 

procuring slwp. 
LlNIMENTUM SIMPLEX. E. Simple Liniment {OlivOa 

4 parts, IVhite Wax 1 part.) 
Oper. Emollient 

Use. In risid joints. 

LlNIMENTUM TABACL U.S. Liniment of Tobacco. (7b- 
baci coneisi f |J., Adipis tt>J. Simmer the tobacco in the lard 
over a genUe fire until it becomes crisp, and strain.) 

Oper. Stimulant, narcotic. 

Use. In tinea capitis, scabies, hrmorrhoids. 

LiNlMENTUM TEREBlNTHlNiE. U. S.— L. D. Linimcn- 
tnm Terebinthinatum, E. Turpentine Liniment (Saponit 
I ij., Camphora Ij., 01. Tertbinthina f SxvJ. Melt the cerate 
and stir in the oil.) 

Om€r. Stim lant 

Use. To bums : first used for this porpose by Dr. Kentish, thei 
a surgeon in Newcastle. 

LINI OLEUM, SEMlNA. L. E. Semina, Oleum ex 

•erainibiM expressum, D. Linseed. Linseed Oil. (LinoH 
Usitatissimum. Pentand. Pentagynia, N. O. Unaeea.) 

Prop. Seed tnodoroas, almost tasteless ; small, flat oval, smoodi, 
^ning, brown ; yielding mucilage to warm water, and oil bv 
expression. Mucilage clear, Golocle«,kiodQfoa8,nenrly insipid. 

Hi L I Q 

Oper. Demulcen;, emollient 

t/te. The infusion has been already noticed. In sabstancet tb» 
linseed is ground into powder, and used %b poultices very ad- 
vantageously. U is preferable on account of the facility with 
which it is made, the powder being simply stirred into boiling 
water. To phlegmons, and parts affected with pain and in 
flammation ; and to gout, the pain of which it has been fouri 
to relieve. 

Off. Prep. Oleum lAni, E. D. 

LINI FARINA. £. Linum. U.S. Flaxseed. Linseed Meal 

Use. For making poultices. 

LINUM CATHARTICUM. E. Purging Flax. {PeKLPeiUag, 
N. O. LinaMa. Europe.) 

Uee. As a purgative, but rarely employed. 

tion of Alum. {Aluminia^ Zinci SulphiUis^ 'tn^* 3 j., Aq.ferv 
Oiij. ^issolve, and strain the solution through paper.) Apuk 
Jiluminu Compoaita. 

Oper. Detergent, stimulant 

Use. As a collyriuin, properly diluted, in ophthalmia ; an injee- 
tioQ in gleet and in fluor albus ; and as a lotion for cleansing 
wounds, and removing cutaneous eruptions. 

LiaUOR AMMONliE FORTIOR. U. S.— L. See Ammonia 
Liquor Fortior. 

LmUOR AMMdNTiE. U.S.— L. Aqua Ammonia^ — fortior, 
£. Aqua Amnionic Causticae, D. Solution of Ammonia. 
{Ammonia HydrodUoratie 1 x., Calcia ^ viij., Aqute Oij.) 

Gmp. Ammoniacal gas (a compound of 82.36 nitrogen, and 
17.64 hydrogen, or 3 eq. hydrogen=34-l nitrogen=14.1S, equiv. 
=zl7.50), 10 parts, and water 90 parts, when of a spec. grav. 
0.960. The solution of a spec. grav. 0.936, fixed by the Dublin 
College, contains more ammoniacal gas. 

Prop. Odor pungent strong, peculiar; taste hot pungent; ia 
colorless, transparent ; absorbs rapidly carbonic acid from the 
atmosphere, so as to require to be kept well corked up. 

Oper. Stimulant antacid, rubefacient 

Use. Largely diluted in asphyxia, acidities of the prime viae, and 
in hysteria ; externally it is applied to the nostrils in faintings ; 
a rag moistened with it and laid over the scrubiculus cordis, 
sometimes raises an instantaneous blister, and always proves 
useful in spasms, and gout of the stomach ; a liniment composed 
of camphor3j. dissolved in olive oil f §j. andliq. ammon.f ^ij., 
is an excellent application to parts utfecied with deep-seated 
inflammation. (6raaviile*s Lotion.) 

Dose. niv. to Hixxx. diluted with water oc milk. 

Incomp. All the metallic salts ; the acids ; sulphas aluminis. 

Off. Prep. Hydro-sulphuretum Ammonia^ D. Spir. AmmonuBf 
L. D. IJnimentum Camphora Comp. U. S. — L. E. Unimemt 
tum Ammonia, U. S.— L. £. D. Spintua Ammonia Succinatutf 
L. Spiritua Ammonia Aromaticua, U. S. — £. I^ritua Am 
monia FatidustE. Linimentum Hydrargyria L. 

tatis Ammoniie,^ £. D. Solution of Acetate of Ammonia 
Spirit of MindereruB. {Ammonia Seaguieartonatta ^ivsa., 
Aceti Diatillati Oiv., L. ; or add the salt till the acid be aaUi- 
lated.) JLiq. Ammonia Acetata. 

LIQ 115 

0»mp. Acetate of ammonia, water: proportions variable. 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste neutral, nauseous ; colorless. 

Oper, Sudorific ; externally qooling, astringent 

ust. Diluted, in febrile and inflammatory complaints ; as a lotion 
to inflamed surfaces, sprains, and fractures ; diluted with rose- 
water, a good coUyrium ; and still more diluted, an injection in 
the commencement of gonorrhoea. 

Dose, f 3 ij. to f 3 xij. every three or four hours. 

Incomp. Acids, alkalies, nitras ai|;enti. 

Testa. Should not precipitate nitrate of silver nor chloride of 
barium ; nor be colored by hydrosulphuric ncid. 

Oarbonatis Ammonie, D. Solution of Sesquicarbonate of Am- 
monia. {Ammonia Sesquicarbonatis |iv., AqtuB DistilUUa^ 
Dissolve, and filter through paper. Spec. grav. 1150.) 

UsOf Sre. The same as the Sesquicarbonate of Ammonia. 

LiaUOR ARGENTI NITRATIS. L. SoluUon of Nitrate of 
Silver. {Argemti Jfit. 3 j., A^. Dist. f 5 j. 

Use. To apply to excoriations m fevers, and cases of long con* 
finement to bed in low conditions of the habit ; to the diseased 
surface in erysipelas. 

LiaUOR BARU CHLORIDI. U. S.— L. See Solutio Murift- 
tis Barytffi. 

senicalis, E. D. Arsenical Solution. {Araeniosi Acidi m 
frustula triti, Potassm Carbonatis^ sing. gr. Ixxx., Ag. Distil. 
QJ. Boil them together in a glass vessel until the arsenious acid 
is dissolved. \Vhen the solution is cold, add Spir. Lavand. 
Comp. f 3 v., and as much distilled water as will make up the 
whole to one pint.) 

Omp. Arseniate of potassa dissolved in water : the spirit of 
lavender gives only color and taste. 

Oper. Tonic, antiperiodic. 

Use. The same as the arsenious acid ; in protracted rheumatism, 
where there is much debility, and the joints much afiected. 
We have given it with decided advantage in threatened apo* 
plexy, after cupping and purging, when Uie strength is dimin- 
ished, and the complexion pale. 

Dose. Hiiv. gradually increased to Tllx. twice a day. 

Jncomp. Mineral acids, hydrosulphuric acid, acidulous salts, 
hydrosulphates and sulphurets, salts of calcium, lime-water, 
alum, salts of magnesia; salts of iron, silver, and copper; de- 
coction and tincture of cinchona. 

LiaUOR CALCIS. U. S.— L. Aqua Calcis, E. D. Solution 
of Lime. {Calcis tt>ss., Aqua DistUlatm Qxij. Add a little of 
the water to the lime, and when slaked add the remainder, 
and shake them togeUier; then cover the vessel, and let it 
stand three hours ; then bottle it, lime and water, in stopped 
bottles ; and when it is to be used, take the clear solution.) 
AquA Calcis. 

Comp. The clear fluid consists of about gr. 11.6 of lime in every 
0!|. of water at OOP Fahr. 

Frip. Inodorous; taste austere, acrid, sweetish; colorlen^ 
transparent. Changes vegetable blue colors green. Absorbs 
carbonic acid, whilst the whole of the lime is rendered in- 

116 LIQ 

Antacid, anthelmintic ; externally detergent 
CVt. DianiioDa, diabetes, fluor albus; dyspepsia, when mueh. 
acid is in the stomach ; in slimy bowels una worms ; externally 
as a lotion to foul and cancerous ulcers ; also in tinea cafritte 
and scabies, bat with little advantage. 

1)0*9. f IJ. to f I vj. With millc. When long U8«(d in dyspepda; 
it should be discontinued at intervals. 

Hcemp. Acids, ailcaline carbonates, tartar emetic, barytea, 
tartrates and citrates. Infusions of orange-peel, caiumba, cio- 
ehona, rhubarb, and senna. g 

Of. Pr^. Oleum Lini cum CkUee^ E. D. Jtqua CaUia Cmnp^- 
stts, D. 

LiaUOa CALCII CHLORIDI. U. S.— L. Calcis Muriatia 
Bolutio, E. Aqua Calcis Muriatis, D. Solution of Chloride of 
Calcium. (Chloridi Calcia ^iv., fxij., E.] Jlqum Dist. (Ixij, 
Or, talce of Marble in fragments I ix., Muriatic Acid Oj., Dii- 
tilled fVater a sufficient quantity. Mix the acid with Uss. dis- 
tilled water, and gradually add the marble. Towards the close 
of the effi rvescence, apply a gentle heat ; and when the action 
has ceased, pour off the clear liquor and evaporate to dryness. 
Dissolve the residuum in its weight and a half of distilled water, 
and filter the solution.) — U. S. Phar. 

Use. The same as the chloride. 

Dote, fllxl. tof3ij. 

Animoniati, D. Solution of Ammoniated Copper. {Cupri 
Ammonia- Sulphatia 3 J., Aqua Distil. (^. Dissolve, and filter 
the solution through paper.) Liquor Cupri Ammoniati. 

Over. Corrosive, deteigent 

use. Externally to foul ulcers ; and dilated with an equal part 
of distilled water, it is applied by means of a hair pencil to 
specks and films on the eye. 

chloride of Mercury. {Hydrarg. Bichloridi, Ammonia Hydro- 
ehloratis, eing. gr. x., Aq. Distil. Ctj. Dissolve in the water.) 

This preparation is superfluous, except that "it facilitates the 
administration of minute divisions of a grain of this active me- 
dicine ;*' f ^J. contains gr. i of the salt. 

Dose. Ilixx. to f 3 ij. in any mucilage; or In syrup and water. 

Ineomp. Allcalies and their carbonates, lime-water, iodide of 
pottusium, tartar emetic, nitrate of silver, acetates of lead, sul- 
phurets, soaps, infusions and decoctions of astringent vegetables, 
albumen ovi. 

ro-Sodaic Solution of Labarraque. (Dissolve gr. 3187.5 of piir# 
crystallized carbonate of soda in f | xx. of distilled water, and 
saturate the solution with chlwine gas.) 

Prop. Color pale yellow, transparent ; odor that of chlorine gas -, 
taste pungent; spec. grav. 1.064. 

Comp. Chloride of soda 73.53 ; chlorate of soda 36.46, with an 
excess of chlorine* 

Sper. Antiseptic ; astringent, tonic. 
«e. For disinfecting foul air, destroying animal putrefaction ; 
an excellent lotion for chilblains, fetid ulcers, and gangrenous 
■ores; and the best lotion in ptyalism yet discovered. Inter- 
nally in dysentery 

L I Q 117 

DmB. From lllxz. to f 3 j. in a capfttl of water ; fbr a lotloo or 

a gargle, f 3 xij. in f f vj. of distilled water. 

UaUOR MORPHLE ACETATIS. Solution of Acetate at 
Morphia, F. (Take of acetate of morphlagr. xi^., distilled wator 
f 3 vj., dilute acetic acid f 3 ij. Mix.) 

Use. Tlie same as that of the solid acetate. 

lioMe. From fllvj. to TIlxxxvj. in any bland vehicle. 

*«* The addition of the aetd prevents the dtcomposition of tlU 
acetate^ which always occurs when the solid acetate is dissolved 
in water. 

LiaUOR FLUMBI DIACETlTIS. L. D. Liquor Plumbi 
Bubacetas, U. 8. Plumbi Diacetatis Solutio, E. Solution <^ 
Diacetate of Ijead. {Plumbi Acetatis ftn. et | iij., Plumbi Oxydi 
in pulv. triti B>j. et | iv , Aqua OvJ. BoM fur half an hour, 
occasionally stirring, and when the solution cools make up th« 
quantity to Ovj. ; strain.) Liquor Acetatis Plumbi. 

Comp. 2 eq. oxide of lead=222.]2, acetic acid 1=51 48 eqoiv. 

Prop. Colorless ; odor acetous ; taste austere, astringent, sweetish. 

Oper. Externally cooling, astringent, discutient. 

Use. Diluted with forty times its quantity of distilled water, it 
is a useful application to phlegmmious inflammations and bums ; 
and still more diluted, it forms a good collyrium, and a wash 
for the mouth in salivation. 

Ineomp. Mucilaginous solutions or decoctions ; common pimip 

Off. Prep. Liq. Plumbi Diacetatis Dilutus^ L. D- 

Diacetatis Plumbi Compositus, D. Diluted Solution of Diace- 
tate of Lead. (Liq. Plumbi Diactt. f § jss., Aqua Distil. Oj., 
Spiritus Tenuioris f3g.) Liq. Plumbi Svbacetatis Dilutus^ 

The intention of the London and Dublin Colleges, in giving a 
formula for this mixture, is not f ery obvious. The proportion 
of spirit is too small. 

LiaUOR POTASSiB. U. S.— L. Aqua Potassae, E. Aqua 
Potasse Caustics, D. Solution of Potash. iPotassa Carbona- 
tis % XV., Calcis i viij.. Aqua Dist. Ferv. congium. Dissolve 
the alkali in cong. ss. of the water, sprinkle a little water on 
the lime to slake it, and add the rest of the water. Mix the 
whole : set the mixture aside in a close vessel, and when it is 
cold, decant, and keep the decanted fluid in well-stopped phials 
of green glass. 

Comp. Oxide of potassium and water. 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste caustic, alkalescent ; colorless ; appear 
ance oily when shaken^ more dense than water; feels soapy 
between the fingers, owing to the solution of the cuticle ; will 
not effervesce with acids ; spec. grav. according to the Dublin 
formula 1.100; U. S. 1 056. 

Oper. Lilhontriptic in some cases ; antacid ; diuretic ; externally 
escharoUc, stimulant. 

Use, The reputation of alkalies in calculus is not so high fii 
formerly ; potnssa acts on uric calculi, and therefore may be 
useful in nephritic calculus; but its chief use is in preventing 
the formation of uric acid. It neutralizes acids in the stcmiach, 
•Ad allays hritability of that organ ; it is ofefiil in lepra vulgarii^ 

118 L I Q 

pforiasis, and some other cataceoufl complaints. Eztemal]y« 
diluted, as & lotion in rachitis and gouty swellings. 

Dose. Hlz. to f 3 j. in chicken-broth or beer, three or four times 
m day. When used to counteract acidity, a bitter should be 
united to it. 

Incomp. Acids, metallic salts, sesquicarbonate, acetate, and hy- 
drochlorate of ammonia, chloride and bichloride of mercury. 

taasffi Carbonatis, D. Solution of Carbonate of Potassa. (P«- 
tassa Ckirbonatis, ^xx., Aqv.9 Distillata Oj. Dissolve and 

Opar. Antacid, diuretic. 

Use. In acidity of the stomach ; most advantageous when united 
with myrrh. (^ Pulv. Myrrha f j., Liq. Pptassm Carhcffuaia 
f $ iv. Infuse for four days, filter through paper, and give it in 
the some doses as the liquor.) 

Dose. Hlx. to f 3 j. in any bitter infusion. 

LiaUOR POTASSiE CITRATIS. U. S. JV«tlra/ Jtftxtvre. 
(Q( Fresh Lemon Juice Oss., Carbonate Potassa q. s. ; saturaU.) 

Solution of Potassa. (Potassm Bicarbonatis 3 j., ^qua DisUL 
Q). Pass through the solution a stream of carbonic acid undtf 
pressure. Preserve in well-stopped bottles.) 

Use. As an agreeable antacid. 

lodini Compoeitus, U. S. Compound Solution of Iodide of 
potassium. (Iodide of potassium ten grains, iodine five grains, 
distilled water one pint. Mix and dissolve. Or, ^ Iodine | vj.. 
Iodide of Potassium 5jss., Distilled Water Oj. Dissolve.)-- 
tJ. S. Phar. 

Prop. Brown color ; smell, taste, and reaction upon starch, the 
same as iodine. 

Use. In scrofulous affections, bronchocele, and secondary sy- 
philis. « 

Dose. From f 3 ij. to f 3 yj. 

HaUOR SODiE CHLORINATiE. U. S.— L. Solution of 
Chlorinated Soda. * iSod<B Ckirbonatis Ibj., .Sq. Dist. f ^xlviij., 
Sodii Chloridi |iv., Manganesii Binoxydi ^iij., .Bcidi Sulph, 
^ iv. Dissolve the carbonate of soda in Oj. of water, then put 
the chloride of sodium and the binoxide of manganese in ix>w- 
der into a retort, and add the sulphuric acid diluted with f ^ iij. 
of water when cold. Apply heat, and transmit the chlorine 
through the solution of carbonate of sodn.) 

Prop. A pale yellow color ; taste sharp, brackish ; evolves chio 
rine when exposed to the air. 

Oper. Astringent, antiseptic. 

Use. In typhus, in other low fevers, largely diluted ; to destroy 
foBtor, and tendency to putrefaction in the bowels. A dism- 
feeling agent. 

LiauOR SODiE EFFERVESCENS. L. Effervescing Solu- 
tion of Soda. {SodtB Sesquiearbonatis 3j., ^quw DisU Cy. 
Pass a stream of carbonic acid through it under a high pressure. 
Preserve the solution in well-corked bottles.) 

Use. A useAil saline draught when taken with a spoonful <^ 
lemon Juice ; and as soda-water. 

LiaUOE TilRAXAOI (Take of dandelioa rooC% clean, dried, 

L U P 119 

and sliced, | zriy. ; inAise for twenty-f oiir hours in cold distilled 
water to cover them ; press and set aside, that the fecula may 
subside ; decant, and heat the clear liquor to IfXP Fahr., so as 
to coagulate the albumen ; filter while hot, and evaporate in m 
dry room, or by means of a current of warm air, until the pro- 
duct shall weigh 5 xiv. ; to this add I iv. of rectified spirit.) — 

y Annals of Chemistry. 

Dose. f3j. tof3IU. 

LiaUOR TARTARI EMETICI. D. Solution of Emetic Tartar. 
{Jlntitnonii Potassa Tartratis 3j., .^qua DistiUaUB fervenU* 
mensura I viij., Spir. Vint Rectificatt mensura 1 ij. Dissolve 
the tartrate of antimony and potassa in water, filter the solution, 
and add the spirit) 

Oper. Emetic, sudorific. 

Uee. In the febrile affections of inhmcy and jrouth ; in hooping- 
cough, and whenever it is necessary to clear the stomach, or 
determine to the skin. 

Dose. As an emetic, from f3ss. to f3iij., every five or ten 
minutes until it operates; as a diaphoretic, from TIlvj. to f 3J. 
every three or four hours. 

Jncomp. Alkalies, astringent vegetable solutions, cinchona. 

LIRIODENDRON. U. ». Tulip-Tree Bark. L. Tulipifera. 
{Polyan. Polygynia. N. O. Magnoliaeea. Indigenous.) 

Comp. Contains resin, gum, fecula, and mucus. 

Prop. Odor of the fresh bark, heavy and rather disagreeable < 
taste bitter, pungent, and aromatic ; peculiar properties owing 
to a volatile principle called by Prof. Emmet, its discoverer, 
liriodendriny which is solid, white, cr>'stallizable, insoluble in 
water, holds a place between resins and essential oils. 

Over. Tonic, diaphoretic, stimulant. 

Uee, In intermittents, chronic rheumatism, dyspepsia. 

Dose. Of the powder, from 3 ss. to 3 ij. Infusion, f f j. to f m. 

LTTHARGYRUM. E. Litharge. &e» Plumbi Oxydum. 

LITMUS. D. Litmus or Archil. (Lichen Roccella. CrypU 
gamia. N.O. Lichenacea. Azores. IX.) 

Prop. Inbdorous ; taste saltish ; and, when chewed, sobacrid. 

Use. Color blue or violet. As a test of great delicacy for acids. 
To prepare it, the plant is reduced to powder ; some of the soda 
of commerce is then added to it ; and it is repeatedly moistened 
with urine tiU it ferments, and gradually acquires a violet color ; 
it is then dried. The watery infusion of it, or paper stained 
with it, shows the presence of an otherwise imperceptible por- 
tion of acid in any fiuid. 

LOBELIA. U. S.— L. E. Indian Tobacco. (Lobelia inHata, 
PentandriCt Monogyn. N. O. Lobeliacea. Unit^ States of 
AmeiicH. II.) 

Prop. Odor slight ; taste acrid : yields its properties to water, 
alcohol, and aither. 

Oper. Emetic, purgative, expectorant, antispasmodic. 

Use. In the paroxysm of asthma; in croup, hooping-cough. 

Dose. In powder, gr. iv. to gr. xx. ; infusic n, f ^ j. ; tincture fUxT 
to 1i[xxx. 

LITPULUS. L.E. Hops. (Humulus Lupulos, U. S. DimeU 
Psutandria. N. O. Urticaeem. Europe 40 

Prsy». Odor fragrant, sub-narcotic; taste bitter, aromatic; da- 
panding on a peculiar principle named lufuUns, extractive^ aa4 


OHiiiiil (lit ; eimcM tqaMy bf mwr ud ipirtt, Aon tk« 

Oftr, Nircolli. nnodynfl. dliiictlc. 

Uu pniHinloD or im, luO). of bollint Knter; bulUui citnel 
(Ireuir nciHcsd la prcr«nble. The ixin'il«, foneti Inu an 
MnUisnl wlih loid. Ii mid id cue ids puin of open ciuai. 
A ptlloH, nuOiiil with bopa. Ii Bn old mode of ptocuiUf >lwp 
tDthewsIchriilDeHordellrioui (ever, lu ponen hivclieai 

. Gt.lU.taSJ.iinludKiili ;n. 

Tbe Hcrli. IDItud. .Hmiffii. r 

ProTi, Inndnrnm; lane hcrbauoust BabiBtrlngoDt 

Optr. AEliln^ent, Ionic. 

t/n. In dlniThiia and chroittc dyienKry. 

Coll. fllij.or adHDciiun. niKdc by bililni !J.of Iheherb lu 

HAGNE3. UngneL 

Optr. The aRldctnl mainel hu been emplo)^ ft* Ihe Ian ceo- 

ImpteHlble lulilect*. Ihiuueh the Imnelaatlnn. Tbe natural 

paJplutlEini. convulBiDni. ABthmm, epiLepay. anRlna pecutrlai 
iremorft c.nnipa. reurcilgla, rHemnmisin, guul, looUincbe, ud 
all localdticRaHntlcTidedwilhpiTlnandiDcrriowdiicUini. Tha 


MAG 191 

Mi lolatioii. Fifty graini should wholly dissolve without 
effervescence in Ij. of hydrochloric acid; and the solution 
should not afford a precipitate either to ammonia or oxalate of 

Oper. Antacid; laxative, when it meets with acids in the 

Use. In heartburn, aphthae, and other acidities ; preferable to 
chalk when the bowels are costive. Sometimes it is given in 
dysentery, combined wit^ ipecacuanha and opium, and followed 
by successive draughts of lemonade. 

Dose. 6r. x. to 3 j. occasionally in water or milk. 

Incomp. Acids, metallic salts, hydrochlorate of ammonia. 

MAGNESliE GARBONAS. U. S.— L. E. D. (Prepared from 
Sulphate of Mftgnesla by Carbonate of Soda.) Magnesia .Alba. 

Camp. Carbonic acid 40, magnesia 43, water 17 parts in 100.— 
(Dalton.) Or, 1 eq. magne?ia=20.7-}-l carbonic acid=23.13| 

Prop. Inodorous, insipid; light, white, spongy, opaque; effer- 
vescing with acids; nearly insoluble in water; spec. grav. 

Sper. Antacid ; laxative, when it meets with acid. 
se. The same as that of magnesia ; hut owing to the carbonic 
acid, it sometimes occasions unpleasant distension. 
Dose, f 3 ss. to 3 ij.'in water. 
Off. Prep. Magnesia^ L. £. D. Hydrargyrum cum JUagnesiOt 

MAGNESIA SULPHAS. U. S.— L. E. D. Sulphate of Mag- 
nesia. (Obtained from se& water: magnesian lime-stone.) 
Magnesia Vitriolata. 

Comp. Sulphuric acid 29.35, magnesia 17, water of crystallizatioa 
53.65 parts in 100.— (Bergman.) Or, 1 eq. magnesia;=20.7-f 1 
sulphuric acid=40.1, equiv.=:60.8. 

Prop. Taste bitter, disagreeable ; in four-sided, acicnlar crystals, 
which occasionally, owing to an admixture of hydrochlorate 
of niagnesiai deliquesce ; the pure sulphate effloresces ; spec 
grav. 1.66 ; soluble iii an equal part of water at 60^, increasing 
the volume of the water four- tenths. Ten grains in f ^J. of 
water, and treatcnl with carbonate of ammonia, should not be 
wholly precipitated by ni200of a soluUon of phosphate of soda. 

Oper. Purgative, diuretic. 

Use. In all cases which require imrgatives. It operates without 
griping, and, when unfted wiih infusion of roses acidulated, 
will sit on the stomach when all other things are rejected. 
The less it is diluted, if a draught of warm water be taken an 
hour afierwards, the better and more easily it operates. An 
adjunct to clysters. 

Doss. |S8. to Ij. In clysters Ijss. to fiij. 

Incomp. The fixed alkalies and their carbonates, lime-water, 

' chloride of barium, nitrate of silver, acetates of lead. 

MAGNOLIA. U. S.— M. Olauca. {Secondary.) Magnolia. 
The Bark. {Polyandriot Polygpiia. N. O. Magnoliacea. 

Prop. There are several species of Magnolia, all of which po§- 
sess nearly the some medicinal properties. Odor aromatic; 
taste bitter, spicy, aromatic. 

Oper. A gently stimulating aromatic tonic, and diaphoretic. 



Um, In IntermiRenta, chronic rheumatism, and gastrtc debfnif. 

J}o9». Of the powdered bark, 3 is. to 3 J. often repealed. The 
Infusion is let* efficient. 

Off. Prep. Enema Catkarticwm, D. E. Enema FMidnm, D. E. 

ITaLVA. L. £. Common Mnllow. {.Monadetpkioy Poli/and, 
N. O. Malvaeea. Indigenous. 2|.^ 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste weak, herbaiBeous, mucilaginoni. 

Over. Demulcent, lubricant 

tjte. Dysenteries, ischuria, nephritis, ftrangory ; bat much Sn- 
ferior to decoction of Althea. In clysters, in nephritic colic, 
and teneiiraus. Externally in cataplasms and fomentations. 

Dose. The decoction ad libitum. 

MANNA. U. S.— L. E. Manna. Fraxini Omi Succus Con- 
cretus, D. Manna. (Omus Europiea. Polygam. Dittda, 
N. O. Oleacim. South of Europe. V .) Obtained by spontft- 
neous exudation and tncisions. 

Opfitp. Saccharine matter, mannite, nauseous extractive, muci- 
lage. ^ 

Prop. Inodorous ; sweetish, with a very slight d^ree of bitter- 
ness; in friable flakes of a whitish or pale yellow color, 
opaque ; soluble in water and alcohol. 

Oper. Laxative ; apt to gripe. 

Use. As a purgative for children, who readily take it on account 
of its sweetness ; but more generally it isTused as an a<iyunct to 
other purgativ*^. 

Dose. 1 88. to i ij. alone, or dissolved in fluid purgatives. 

Off. Prep. Confectio Cassia^ L. E. D. Enema Cathartieum^ 

D. E. Enema Fatidum, D. E. ' Syrupua Sennm, D. 
MANNITUM. Mannite. A peculiar saccharine principle, not 

susceptible of fermentation, obtained from manna ; also found 
in cucumbers, melons, celery, beets, fcc, after fermentation. 
(Treat manna (m tears) with boiling alcohol, filter, and suffer 
to crystallize; the mannite is precipitated in small, beautiful, 
while needles.) This form of manna consists chiefly of mannite, 
while common manna contains but little of it. 

Comp. Mannite, according to Liebig, consists of 40.0228 of carbon, 
7.6234 hydrogen, 02.3537 oxygen. 

Prop. Of a white color, soluble in five parts of cold water, and 
iu every proportion almost, in boiling water; entirely insoluble 
in cold, absolute alcohol, somewhat soluble in boiling alcohol. 
At 22!Oto230O, it melts into a colpriess, adhesive fluid, atfd 
crystallizes on cooling ; when more strongly heated, it bums, 
and is decomposed like sugar; taste sweet, but feitbly so; ior 

Over. Cathartic, without the nauseous flavor of manna. 

l/se. Where laxatives are indicated. 

Dose. 3 ij. to 3 iv. for children , I ii. may be dissolved in |iv. 
of some warm aromatic water, and a teaspoonful given every 
hour till it operates. 

MANGANESU BINOXYDUM. L. D. Manganesii Oxydum 

E. Native or Black Oxide of Manganese. (A peroxide.) 
Comp. Mangan^sium (a peculiar metal) 60+oxygen 40, in 100 

parts ; or, 1 eq. mai^anesium=27.7-|-3 oxygen=16, equiv.=s 
Prop. In friable dull black masses ; becomes grey when ezpowd 
to gTMt heat, and affords abundance of oxygen gaa. 

MEL 193 

Ute^ In phannaceuUcal operations; for proenring oxygen gas; 
and for fumigation in cases of infection. (^ Sodii CUoridi 
J iv., Manganesii Binoxydi ^j., Acidi Sulphuriei f fij., Jiqum 
fl ij. Mix the acid and water, and pour the mixture over the 
other ingredients, in a china basin, placed in a pipkin of hot 
sand.) The doors and windows of the room under fumigation 
must be closely shut for an hour or two ; then thrown open, 
and a current of air allowed to pass through the room. 

MARMOR. U. S.— L. E. D. Marble. Carbonas Calci* dura. 

Prop. Color various shades of white ; internal lustre vitreous < 
fracture foliated ; brittle ; spec. grnv. from 2.7 to 2.84. It has 
scarcely any taste, and is composed of 43.14 of carbonic acid 
and .'16.86 of lime. 

MARANTA. U.S.— L.E. Arrowroot (Maranta aruiwItiMCM 
Monandriot Monoggnia. N. O. Marantacea.) West Indies 

The feculn of the rhizomes: when boiled with water or milk, il 
forms a mild, nutritious article of food, well adapted for iiUantf 
and convalescents : a tablcspoonful to 0!j. of water. 

BlARR-fJBIU^. U. S.— L. (Secondarf.) Marrubium Vulgare, 
D White Horehound. (Didynam, Ctymnoapenn. N. O 
Labiata. Europe. 2|..) 

Prop. Odor strong, not unpleasant; taste bitter. 

Oper. Tonic, diuretic, laxative ; emmenagogue ? 

Use. In hysteria, chronic catarrh, and pituitous asthma; ob- 
struction of the catamenia ; seldom used. 

Dose. In powder, 3 ss. to 3 J. ; of the expressed Juice, f ^ ss. Ui 
f ^jss. ; or of this infusion (Marrub. Fbl. $ss., Agua Ferv. ()!).) 
a Inrge glassful twice or thrice a day. 

MASTICHE. L. £. D. Mastic. {Diaeia, Pentandria. N. O. 
TerebinthaceeB. Spain, Chios. ^ .) 

Comp. Resin, essential oil, and a matter resembling caoutchouc 

Pr»p. Odor agreeable when heated ; almost insipid ; in globular^ 
irregular, yellowish, semi transparent masses; soluble in aether, 
partially in alcohol. 

Oper. Stimulant, sialogoguel 

Use. In old obstinate coughs ; gleet; and chewed in paralyslr 
of the tongue. 

/7««r>. Or. X. to 3 SR. twice a day. 


Comp. VolalJle oil, bitter extractive. 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic, antispasmodic. 

•JJosg, In powder, 3j. to 3 iJ. 

MEL. U. S.— L. E. D. Honey. (Collected from flowers bj 
the Jfpia Meltifva.) 

Comp. Saccharine matter, mucilage; some acid, occasionally 
essential oil ; varying according to the kinds of plants used bj 
the bee- 
Prop. Odor peculiar ; taste sweet, and slightly acrid ; the besi 
if limpid, containing small concretions; nearly colorless ; and 

Opor. Aperient, externally detergent; stimulant 
Use. Seldom used internally as a medicine : but when freely 
eaten it is apt to produce colic; externally as an adjunct to 
ganles in cynanehe tonsillaris; in aphtha; sometimes applied 
to tool ulcers. 

124 MEN 

Off. Prep. Mel Despumatutn^ U. S. — ^D. Mel BoraeU, L. E. 
Mel Ho8(t. U. S.— L. E. 

MEL DESPUMATUM. U. S.— D. Clarified Honey. (Mali 
the honey in a watnr bath; then take off the scuro.) 

Pro^. Limpid ; so consistent that, when divided with the edge 
of the spoon, it docs not again instantly unite ; specific gravity 

Use. The same as that of honey ; for pharmaceutical purposes. 

Off. Prep. Mel Boracis, L. Mel Roste^ U. 8. — L. D. Oxymelj 
L. D. Oxymel JEruginiey D. Oxymel Colchiei, D. Oxytnel 
ScillcB, V. S.— L. D. 

MEL BORACIS. L.E.D. Honey of Borax. {Boracia contriH 
3j., MeUia Despumati Ij. Mix.) 

Oper. Detergent. 

Use. Applied to the tongue, and insides of the cheeks, tn aph- ' 
thous affections, and in ptyalism. 

MEL DESPUMATUM. U. S. Prepared Honey. (Take of 
Clarified Honey Oss., Diluted Meohol Oj., Prepared Chalk J sa. 
Having mixed the honey and diluted alcohol, add the prepared 
chalk, and allow the mixture to stand for two hours, occasion- 
ally stirring it. Then heat it to ebullition, filter, and by means 
of a water bath evaporate the clear liquor, so that when cold 
it may have the specific gravity 1.32.) — U. S. Phar. 

MEL ROSi£. U. S.— L. £. D. Rose Honey. (Rosm Oallicm 
Exsiccat. 1 ij., JiqvuB Ferv. Oss., Mellis Despum. Oij. Infuse 
the roses six hours ; add the strained liquor to the honey, and 
evaporate to a proper consistence in a water bath.) 

Prop. Odor that of the rose ; taste sweet, astrin'gent ; color red ; 
limpid, tenacious. 

Oper. Astringent, detergent 

Use. Chiefly in gargles, in ulceration, and inflammation of the 
mouth and fauces (Qi Mellis Rosa ^j., Acidi Hydrochloriei 
lllxxx., ^gu<B f5vj.) ; forms a good detergent in aphtha gan- 
grenosa ; as a vehicle for other remedies in infantine diseases. 

MELISSA. U. S.— E. D. (Secondary.) Balm. Didynam. 
Chymnospermia. N. O. Labiata. Alps, i^..) Melissa folia. 

Prop. Odor pleasant, something like that oi a lemon; taste 
austere, aromatic. 

Oper. Stomachic, diuretic. 

Use. Made into tea, it is used as a diluent in febrile diseases; 
seldom used in substance. 

Dose. Of the powder, gr. x. to 3ij. 

MENTHA PIPERITA. U. S.— L. E. D. Peppermint. (Ditfy- 
namia, Oymnospermia. N. O. Labiata. Indigenous. 2X.) 
Mentha Piperitis. 

Prop. Odor strong, agreeable; taste pungent, aromatic, and 
producing a sensation of coldness in the mouth ; depending on 
a volatile oil and camphor. 

Oper. Stomachic, carminative. 

Use. Vide under Aqua et Ol. Menths Fiperitc. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3 j. ; scarcely ever in substance. 

Off. Prep. Aqua Mentha Piperita, U. S.— L. E. D. OUmm 
Mentha Piperita^ U. S.— L. B. D. 8pir. Mentha Piperitmt 
U. S.— L. E. , ^ 

MenUuD PiperitoB. 

MIS 135 

MENTHA YIRTDIS. U. 8. -L. E. D. SpearmiDt {aa»$ mA 

Order as above.) Mentha Sativa. 
Prop, Odor strong, aromatic ; taste warm, austere, bitterish. 
Oper. Stomachic, carminative. 
Uas, Vide under Aqua et 01. Menths Viridis. An infusion of It 

is a good diluent in febrile diseases. 
Dost. Gr. X. to 3 j. ; scarcely ever used in substance. 
Cff. Prep. Aqua Mentha Viridis, U. S.— L. E. D. Ol. Menthm 

Viridis, U. S.— L. E. D. Sptr. Mentha Vir., L. E. InfusuiH 

Mentha Compositum, D. 
MENTHA PULEGIUM. L. E. Hedeoma Pulegeoides, U. 8. 

Pulegii Herba, D. Pennyroyal. {Fin' Class and Order, se$ 

Mentha Piperita.) Indigenous. U..) 
Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste warm, pungent ; not unlike' that of 

Oper. Expectorant, diaphoretic. 

Use. In asthma and pertussis, but of little value ; seldom used. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3 j. 
Off. Prep, .aqua Pulegii, L. E. D. Oleum Pulegii, V. 8.— L. D. 

Oleum Hedeoma, U. B. Spiritus Pulegii, L. 
MENTANTHES. U. S.— L. E. D. Buck Bean. (Pentandria, 

Monogynia. N. O. Oentianacea, Europe. United States. 

IX ) Trifolium Paludosum. 
Prop. Inodorous; taste intensely bitter; water extracts its pn>> 

Oper. Tonic, diuretic, purgative ; in large doses emetic. 
Use. In intermittents, arthritic and chronic rheumatic affections, 

and in cachectic and herpetic diseases. 
Dose. 3j. to 3 j. of the dried leaves powdered ; f 5 j. to f § jss. of 

this infusion. (Menyanth. fol. sie. Jss., .^qua (tes.) 
MEZER£:UM. U. 8.— L. Mezereon, E. Daphnes Mezerei 

Cortex, D. Mezereon Bark. (Octandria, Monogynia. N. O. 

Thymalacea. North of Europe. ^ .) • 

Qmp. Daphnina, oleo-resin, wax, extractive, gum, sugar, mar 

Prop. Inodorous; taste, when chewed for some time, acrid, 

burning ; yields its virtues to water and vinegar. 
Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic ; in large doses emetic. 
Use. In venereal diseases, but its efficacy is doubtful. It is 

sometimes useful in the sequelse of syphilis; in chronic rheuma- 
tism, lepra and scrofulout^welliD^; nnd chewing frequently 

thin slices of the recent root has bef^n found useful in pulny of 

the tongue; externally, the fresh bark soaked in vinegar is 

useful for keeping open issues. 
D0SS. Of the powder, gr. J. gradually increased to gr. x. Vids 

Off. Prep. Deeoetum Meterei, E. Decoct. Sarsaparillm Comp.^ 

IIISTORA ACACLG. L. E. Mixture of Acacia. {Jlcacim 
cont. 5 X., .^qua Ferventis OJ. L. Sweet Almonds 3 x.. Pure 
Sugar 3 x.. Mucilage f 3 iiij.. Water Oij. E.) 

Cmp. Simple solution of gum in water or in almond mixture. 

Oper. and Use. Demulcent : as a medium for combining oili^ 
resins, and balsams with water. 

IUSTO&A ALTHiEiE. £. MUture of Marsh Bfallow. {AWuf 


M»0tt driedt Jiv., RaUiiUt seeded, l\}^ BeOing ffkUr Or. 
BotI to Oiij., strain, and pour ott'the cleat lolution.) 

Prop. Demulcent. 

U»e. iln calculous a/fections. 

IIISTORA AMMONIACL. U. S.— L. Lac Ammoniaci, D. 
Mixture of Ammoniac. {Ammoniaci 3 v., AqvtB O;}. Rub the 
anmioniaciun, adding the water gradually, until they are per- 
fectly mixed.) IjOC Ammoniaei. 

Cemp. The resin and oil suspended by means of gun) in water; 
when kept, the resin separates. 

OptT and Uee. The same as of the ommoniacum. 

JUoee. f 1 88. to f S J. imited with ipecacuanha, tincture of squills, 

huemp. Bichloride of mercur}', acetate of potassa, oxymel, 
ether, spirit of nitric ether. 

MISTDRA AMYGDALiG. U. S.— L. D. Mistura Amygdala- 
rum. E. Almond Mixture. (Gm/cctumu Amygdala lijss., 
A^. DietiUaUB Oj. Rub together, adding the water by degrees, 
and strain.) Or, take of Sweet Almond* | ss., powdered Gum 
Arabic 3 ss.. Sugar 3 ij., Distilled Water | viij. Macerate the 
almonds in water, and having removed their external coat, 
beat them with the gum arabic and sugar, in a marble mortar, 
till they are thoroughly mixed; then rub the mixture with the 
distilled water gradually added, and strain. — U. S. Phar. Lae 

Comp. The oil of the almond suspended in water by means of 
its mucilage ; and fecula. 

Oper. Demulcent, cooling ; if the bitter almond be used, sedative. 

Use. In catarrh, gonorrhcea, strangury, hectic fever. 

Dose, f $ ss. to Oss., or nd libitum. 

Incomp. Acids, and all acidulous salts, spirits, tinctures, spirit 
of nitric ether, and common pump- water. 

MISTURA ASSAFCETlDiE. U. S.— L. D. Mixture of Assa- 
foBtida. (Assafatida 3 v.. Aqua Oj. Rub together, adding the 
water by degrees.) /.ae Asaafatida. 

Comp. The resin and volatile oil, sunpcnded by gummy extrac- 
tive in water. 

Over. The same as of the gum reein. 

Use. In hysteria: and in bpusmodic and convulsive nfTcctions, 
when pills cannot be swallowed As a clyster in the irriintious 
of the bowels which occur during ^t^niitiun, and those produced 
by oscarides, and in ischuria. 

Dose, f 3 j. to f|8s. frequently repeated during a paroxysm ot 
hysterl.i, or the continuance of spaeni. 

MISTURA CAMHlORiE. L.E.D. Camphor Mixture. (Qim- 
phora 3 SB., Spirit. Rectif. V\\., AguaOi. Hub the camphor 
with the spirit, then gradually add the water, and strain.) 

Comp. Camphor gr. j. l-6ih, in water t 5 j. 1 * 

O^er. The same as that of the cani]>hor, only in a weakci' 

Use. In faintinps, typhus and nervous fevers ; but seldom given 
alone, the quantity of camphor being loo small. 

Dose, f 5 ss. to f § iJ. united with cordial tinctures. 

* PowelVa Transactions of Lon. Phar. 

of Camiibor with MBaneata. iCampkora «, kl)., Maff^ioim 
Cbrteiufir §H.,.4gutf rivj. Rub ihe campQor with thfl DUfl 
Boil, [be wiler Mot added, aod uili ) 

Crmr. CunphoT pw-UjF diawlisd, fwUf miud; —ftTTTl^ 

1S8 If OR 

€*mf. f 5 rj^ TiucL CkHsm. cmmp, f | «. lixx.) 
Uss, Am a mild took poifathre in dyspe|xjc iffrnifmt 

paoied with costrveoeai. 
Dote, f IJMI. to fj ij- 
IIIBTCRA GUAUCL L. E. Mixture of Goaiac. (Gaciaci 

HetinM 3 iij^ «accA. ^r. 3 iv^ Mist, Actcim f 3 iv^ wi^. O*. 

warn, f § xix. Kub the faaiacmn with the sofar, then with tha 

Mixture of Acacia ; and add gradually the rinnan yMi water.) 

Jjoe Ouaiaci. 

Sptr. The Mme ai the guaiacum in substance. 
te. In rheumatism, retrocedent gout, and dropsy. 

DoMe. flm. to f^ij. night and morning; diluting freely with 
t^id buriey-wntcr or gruel. 

MlBTtUA flOKDEI. £. Sec Decoctum Hordei. 

MlriTtllA MOHCHI. L. Musk Mixture. {MoadU, Jicadm 
cant., Sacch. puVif., $ing. 3 iij., Jlq. Rosa Qj. fiub the musk 
wlllt tliti sugur, then adil the gum, and by degrees the rose- 
WHtur.) Miatura Moschata. 

Over, Antl«piiMmodic, dinphoretic. 

l/#fl. TlUn Irt II convenient form of exhibiting musk. The late 
Mr. Wlillts of MancheBter, found the musk mixture, combined 
with nmmonia 3 88., spirit of Iti vender f 3j.. and spirit of juniper 
WU uf great utility in sloughing phagedenic ulcers, of a syphi 
liMu and utiumoua nature. 

iiita^s f 5 Hv. to f 5 IJ. every four or five hours. 

Ui^umjt, Bulphaa lerrl, mineral acids, infusion of yellow cin- 

WlHTl KA BCAMMONIL Mixture of Scommony. {Resin of 
Spummttnp gr. vlj., Milk f 5 iij., form an emulsion.) 

Qtrnp, 'J'hu gummy portion of the scammony, with a small 
purtion of tbu oleo-reslu, held suspended in the milk. 

Vse, As a purgative. 

MISTORA 8P1RITUS VINI GALLICl. Mixture of Brandy. 

iSftir, Vini (iallici, Aqttm Cinnawomi^ sing. f5iv., Ovorum 
uorum yitoilusy Cinnam Oiei fllij., Saccharipur.laa. Mix.) 
Use. Kxcitant. A dnnKemus mixture, calculated to encourago 

a dt)xlr«* tbr spirituous liquors*. 
MONAllUA. IJ. S. M. Functnla. Herbn. Horsemint. (Z?»- 

qnUria, Monnfrj^nia. N. O. Labiata. Indigenous. 4.) 
Prop. Ar«»ni!>iic ^u»elI ; warm, pungent, biiierish taste ; abounds 

la a volatile oil. 
Oner. Stimulant, carminative. 
Use. In fiatulent colic, and Hck stomach. 
Off. Prep Oleum Monarda, U. S. 
MORI. Baccs. L. Mori Nigra'Baccas, D. Mulberries. (Monu 

Nigra, Monmcia Tetrandria. N. O. Urticacete. Iialy > .) 
Prjv. Inodorous ; taste sweet, subacid ; contains tartaric acid. 

jelly, and mucus. 
Oper. Cooling, laxative. 
Use. Soldom used medicinally; as an article of food mulberries 

are whol«««rae, unless eaten loo freely, in which case thev 

occasion diarrhoea. ^ 

Off. Prep. SyrHpus Mart, L. 
IIORPHIA. U. S.— L. Morphia. Morphhia. Morphine. 

MOR 199 

iBjfdr0eU0raU of Morphia lU Sol. of Jlmmonia fS v^ Dit. 
Water Qj. Add the hyUrochlurate of morphia dimcAred in the 
water to the solution of ammoDia with f ^j. of water, and 
agitate. Wash the precipitate with distilled water, and dry it 
with a gentle heat Or, take of Opium, sliced, Ibj., DiotiUed 
Water, Alcohol, each a sufficient quantity. Solution of Ammomia 
f I V). Macerate the opium with Oiv. distilled water twenty 
four hours, and having worked it with the hand, digest tat 
twtnty-four hours, and strain. In like manner macerate the 
residue twiC3 successively with disUlled water, and strain. 
Mix the intutions. evaporate to Ovj., and filter; then add, first, 
Ov. of alcohol, and afterwards f | iij. of the solution of ammO' 
nia, previously mixed with Oss. of alcohol. After twenty-four 
hours, pour in the remainder of \h% solution of ammonia, mixed 
as before, with Oss. of alcohol, and set the liquor aeide for 
twenty-four hours that crystals may form. To purify these, 
boil them with Uij. of alcohol till dissolved, fUiUst the soluticm, 
while hot, through animal charcoal, and s^ it aside to crya- 
talli^O— C^- S- Phar. 

Comp. Carbon 72.3, nitrogen 5.53, hydrogen 7.60, oxygen 14.8, hi 
100 parts.* Or 34 eq. of carbon=^U8.UB+18 hydrogen=18-f6 
oxygen=48+l nitrogen=14.15 cqniv. 283.23. 

Prop. Inodorous ; colorless, or pure white ; taste intensely Utter 
Crystals small, rectangular, four-sided prisms; inflammable; 
sparingly soluble in cold water and spirits of wine : water at 
212^ dissolves 1- 100th of its weight. 

Oper. Narcotic excitant. 

use. Chiefly to prepare Uie more sol uble ral ts. Dissol ved In oil, 
and nibbed upon the skin, it produces narcotic eflects. 

Q^. Prep. MorphuB Aceias ; Morphia Uydrocklorae ; Morphia 
Sulphas, L. E. 

HORPUliE ACETAS. U. S.— L. E. Acetate of Morphia. 
(Take of Morphia six drachms^ Acetic Acid three Jluid drachms 
l)it>tilled Water four fluid ounces. MU the acid with the water 
and pour it upon the morphia to saturation. Evaporate with a 
gentle heat thflt cr3'stal8 may form.f Or, talte of Morphia^ in 
powder, freed from narcotina by boiling with sulphuric ether, 
Ij., Distilled Water Qm.^ Acetic Acid a sufficient quantity. 
Mix the morphia witii the water; then carefully drop in the 
acid, constantly stirring, until the morphia is saturated and 
dissolved. Evaporate the solution by means of a water bath 
to the consistt^nce of s}'nip. Lastiy, dry the acetate with a 
gentle heat, and rub it into powder.) — U. S. Phar. 

Comp. Morphia 1 eq.=:23d.23+acetic acid 1 eq.=51.48, eqniv.= 

Prop. Crystals emalj, acicular, of a greyish- white color, deli- 
quescent, and eauily decomposed by ^Icalies, and by water. 

Oper. Narcotic. 

Dose. From one-sixth of a grain to gr. i ; endermically, gr. M. 
to gr. iij. to the skin, where the cuticle has been removed by a 

* Dmmos and PdUUer. 

t Aa this acetate is decomposed by water, it shoald be kept In 
aoitttfon in distilled vinegar. 


lao Mos 

MORPHIiB MURIA8. U. Sw— E. Morphte Hydrodilota& L 
Hydrochlorste of Morphia. Muriate of Morphia, U. 8. Pre- 
pared from opium. (Or, take of Morphia in powder 5 Jm Di*- 
tilled Water Om., Muriaiic Acid a ramcient quantity. Blix the 
morphia with the water; then carefully drop in the acid 
cooitanlly ftlrring, till the morphia it saturated and dissolved. 
Evaporate the solution by means of a water bath, so that it 
may crystallize upon cooling. Dry the crystals upon bibulous 
paper. — V. 8. Phur. 

Ctmp. Morphia 1 eq. 388.33+bydrochloric acid 1 eq. 36.43 eqoiv. 

Prop. Crystals acicular, anhydrous, nearly colorless, inodorous 
and bitter; s«Iuble in 16 parts of water; soluble in alcohol. 

V$e. As a narcotic it is preferable to the acetate. 

Dote. Or. ^ to gr. h. 

MORPHliE MURIATIS SOLUTIO. E. Solution of Muriate 
of Morphia. (Muriatit Morphia 3j., Spirit. FinirecLf^ v. ^ 
Aq. l)iat. f % xv. Distolve 6y the aid of a gentle heat.) 

Va: A ready mode of administering the hydrochlorate. 

1)0$: Fram lUx. to f 3 ss. 

MOKPHli£ BULPHAS. Sulphate of Morphia, F. Take of 
Morphia 6 parts, Distilled Water 12 parts. Sulphuric Acid 
diluted with twice its bulk of water, a quantity sufficient to 
saturate the morphia. Evaporate slowly, and crystallize.* 
To be kept in a stoppered phiul. (Or, take of Morphia in pow- 
der ^ j.. Distilled Water Oas., Diluted Sulphuric Acid a sufficient 
quantity ; mix the morphia with the water, then carefully drop 
In the acid, constantly stirring till the^norpnia is saturated and 
dissolved. Evaporate the solution by means of a water bath, 
•o that it may crystallize upon cooling. Dry the crystals upon 
bibulous paper.)— C/. S. Phar. 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste bitter ; crystals silky tufts, soluble in two 
parts of water at OOP, 

Sf>«r. Powerfully narcotic and sedative. 
««. In all cases requiring the use of opium. 

po9». From gr. i to gr. ^. 

*«* /( is distinffutshed f^rim sulphate ^f quimoy which it resewMett 

* bp becoming rtd tehen treated uiith concentrated nitric acid, 

MOSCHIJS. U. S.—L. E. D. Musk. (Moschus Moschiferoa. 
the Musk Deer. Mammaiia Pccora^ L. Ru min an ti a ^ Cuo. 

Prop, Odor peculiar, aromatic stmni;, durable ; taste bitterish ; 
color dark reddish brown; feol slijrhiiy unctuous; iwrtialiy 
soluble in water, yielding to it taste and smell ; soluble in a co- 
hol and sulphuric acid, wiih the loss of its odor. 

Opor, Stimulant, Bniisivuinimlic dinphoretic. 

Vse, In spasmodic artecu«uis, as hj'steria, singultus, pertussis, 
tricmuA, and epilepsy. In cpilri»sy we have seen it, when given 
to the e\tont of 3 ssl three Umes a day, stop the fits in en old 
ind conlirmcd case tor thrco months. In typhus attended with 
Mbsultus tendinum ; in cholera it checks the vomiting ; and H 
tcre«l8 the progress of gangrene. It raises the pulse, and ex> 
Cites Iha nervous system without heating. 

Ll|hi. ve^eiaDle Qiniiei, readily comtiiisllble, OS collon. igaric, 
beiqp, or dii, >l«iKii In a hIuUdu of nitre; the jdlh of Ibi 

Jong, mrapped nnind by a pi«e of fine Itnen. fualened al the 
Me by alow lUlchet; ork pleteof linen oi pnper, culof lln 
proper Bize, ami Bleeped in HJcohol, is iaid oa the lurface and 

UUCILiGO. U.B,— k Muc Gommi AisUcl. D. Hucilago 
^f.FrigiiaOi. Bub tbe Slim wiiii the watai graduaiiy ailileii, 

Dtii. rlj.lariJ.Diiiteil wiibiyiuporpopp 

or. Prep. Polai'iia-C^itaUi Caieil. E. 
HUCILAGO AHfLI. E. D. Uuclluie of 

HUcKLiGO TRAGACANTH-E. ' U. B.— B. Miw. Domoil 
TmucnoUia, D. Mneilage of Tnipicnnlh. (OunaJWtlrs- 
tali TngatMlm Triti 3U.. .4;. AaJl.fJvlU. Macerate far 

pr«aa Ibroil^b llaen rielli.) Miuittgo Omibdu 7Vd/ai:ai£<l«. 
I7«tf Par DiiarmncfuTjcul uuruoBta. 

<H. Pmrions, Audfygitia, />> 
--■ pmwKj. Tha 

133 M Y R 

nitric acid, are not wholly precipitated by 49 graina of nilphato 

of magnesia. 
Use. For making tlie solution. 
Off. Prep. Solutio JUuriatis Baryta^ E. Liquor Barii CUoridit 

HuklAS SODiE SICCATUM. E. Dried Muriate of Soda. 
(Common salt fused.) JJried Chloride of Sodium. 

Use. For the distillation of hydrochloric acid, which it affords 

ristica: arillus, E. Nux Moechata dietu* ; Maeie, et ejus Oleum 
VolaiiU, D. Nutmegs, Mace, and the f^nUal Oil. {DimeiA 
Monadelpk. N. O. Myristacew. The Moluccas. > .} 

Prop. Nutmegs have a fragrant, aromatic odor, and an agreeable, 
pungent taste ; ore roundish, greyish brown, strealted, unctuous, 
and easily cut. Alcohol extracts their active matter. The 
mace is membraneous, of a red-yellow color, unctuous, with 
the odor and taste of the nutmeg. The oil is yellow, possessing 
the odor and taste of the nutmeg in an eminent degree. 

Oper. Stim lant, stomachic, narcotic in large doses. 

Use. To relieve nausea and vomiting, and to check diarrhoBa ; 
but chiefly to give flavor to other remedies. Being narcotic, 
they are hurtful in apoplectic and paralytic habits. 

Dose. Of the nutmeg and mace, gr. v. to 3 j. ; of the oil, TlliJ. to 


Off. Prep. Of the nutmeg, Spiritus Myristiea, U. S.— L. E. D 
THnet. Lavandula Comp., L. £. D. Spir. Armoracea Comp.^ 
L. Spir. Raphani Comp.-, D. Confectio Aromaticot U. S.— L. 
E. D. Electuarium Catechu^ E. D. Pulvis Carbonatis Colds 
Comp., D. Troch. Carbonatis Colds, £. D. Of the oil, Spir. 
Ammonics Aromaticum^ D. Pilulee ScUUBj D. Emplastrum 
Pids, L. 

MYROXYLON. U. S. M. Peruiferum. Balsam of Peru. 
The Juice. (DeeandriOf Monogynia. N. O. Leguminosm. 
South America. V.) 

Prop. Viscid like syrup, of a dark reddish-brown color, flagrant 
odor; warm, bitterish taste: spec. grav. 1.14; inflanmiable; 
soluble in alcohol. 

Comp. Resin, essential oil, benzoic acid; extractive matter, 

Oper. Warm stimulating tonic, and expectorant 

Use. In chronic catarrhs, asthma, phthisis, gonorrhoea, lencor- 
rhoBa, amenorrhoea, chronic rheumatism, and palsy : externally, 
In chronic indolent ulcers. 

Dose, f 3 ss. in mucilage of sugar, gum arable, and water. 

MYRRH A. U.S.— L.E.D. Myrrh. (Balsamodendron .Vvrrfta. 
OetatU. Monogyn. N. O. Bursaracem. Abyiainia, Arabia 
Felix. » .) 

Cbsip. Resin, mnco-extractive, volatile oil. 

Prop. Odor fragrant, peculiar ; taste bitter, aromatic ; in reddish- 
yellow, light, brittle. Irregular tears, or in masses; partially 
soluble in distilled water, when aided by friction; alcohol 
dissolves only the resin ; soluble in alkalies ; spec. grav. 1.360 ; 
easily pulverized. 

Omer, Stimulant, expectorant. 

0^ In cachectic complaints, hamoral asduna, chroaic catank 

OLE 133 

pnlmouilli imiUaidcd by hactlc or much icUre 

Dm. Qr. >. to 3]. Id powdsr, aMud iriih rlire. ciDi[Aor, ml- 

phmeofpnliiBa. lulphile of ilnc. orof Itnn. 
or- JVqi. Tilt. Jlfyrrlut, U. S.— L. E. D. Tinit. Jlliu it 

JfrT*«.L'.B.— E. /^iJajJ/.Mftnv^U.S.— L.E.D. Pfl. 

Arri Crny.. U. B.— L, Pifsla OuJtaii Cinii,. L, D. Piltia 

^n^xtiia amm..E. PtluJc Atn C^nu., U.S.— L.E. 
MVS'njS-FlHENTA. VtdePimentu. 
MAFTHA. A IniupuHit, y«llowlsli while, vary light gDd lo- 

HunmiMt, liamid liquid, foimd abuiuliiiilly In Penlo ; alio, 

rBndrjiea pure fiy recllficalloo. {Biinnoh, Iluly, BartmdoM, 
Cmp. Hydrc^eo find carbofi' 

htlhlyjnlheciireafrnniuinpIloD, Alio,lncul[uie3uadlKa9a 
Ihoverouod II n lood lubsiituie for ihe votgar tar olntioait. 
MliSiM, nBp1hBHilb3iii. Urd.Biiil apply loiinsKipwiriaili, 

. antllyorbuniDl 
..»»»... .u ] ,r. ilinple ayrup, and glie a tesspowful every 
BAeeD mlPDIea till eipKUiralloD li rally eatnbllibed. Orai an 
tttctuarf, by ihlila^ gt. L Dapilie v/'nh gr- iii. hooey or pio 
Insaea, or In Lhai iiTopanlon, and giving a ubteApoonml, ai be- 
fore. Ja>.lo 3J.Q(peHoleuBi.lBaiiydonvenienlvelilcle,fat 
dov. Aad eilemally u ■ nlmulalini cmbrocalion In chll- 
blatoa, chronic [beumaUsm, affectioaa itf Uui Jolala, aad pan 

134 OLE 

PrM. Odor and taste of ether; leea volatile ; oily, thick, «r a 

yej'low color: insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol. 
Pse. As an ingredient in the compound spirit of ether. 
Of Prep. SpiritHS JEtheris Sulpkuriei Compo»itu$, L. D. 

OutViA AUYGDlLJE. U.S.— L. Ol. Amygdale Ck>minoni8, 
£. Ol. Auiygdalaruin, D. Oil of Almonds. (Expressed from 
both sweet and bitter almonds.) S^YJ* of almonds yield |v. 
of oil. Oleum Amygdala. 

Ctmp. 3weet almonds contain hydrocyanic acid, volatile oil, 
fixed oil 38, emulsion 30, sugar 6, gum 3, seed coats 8, woody 
fihre5.—{yo£rel.) The oil contains elcine76, morgarin 34— 
(Braeonnot), carbon 77, hydrogen 11, oxygen 10, nitrogen OJSS. 
— <5att«tttre.) The bitter almonds contain amygdalin and 
benztUe (See Pareira, vol. ii., p. 1107-8.) 

Prop. Inodorous, Insipid ; of a pale straw color; unctuous, lim- 
pid, lighter than water; insoluble in water and alcohol, but 
miHciblc in distilled water by means of mucilage or yolk of ej^; 
attracts oxygen from the atmosphere, and becomes dense, viscid, 
and rancid 

Oper. Demulcent, emollient 

Ifse. In cutarrh and coughs, united with water by means of 
mucilage and sugar, or a few drops of liquor ammonie. An 
ii^jeclion composed of oil of almonds f ^ iv., and solution of sub- 
acetate of lead ni viij., is said to be useful at the commencement 
of gonorrhoea. 

Dose. fjss. tof5j. 

OLfiUM ANflTHI. £. Oil of Dill. (From the seeds of the 
jinethum Oraveolens.) 

Prop. Light yellow ; taste sweetish and hot ; soluble hi 1440 
times iis weight of water; spec. grav. 0.881. 

Oper. Stimulant. 

Vee. In flatulent colic. 

Dose. lUij. to mvj. 

OLliiUM ANISl. U.S.— L.E.D. Oil of Anise. (Obtained by 
di^iliilation from the seeds of Fimpinella JSnisHm.* 

• All the volatile oils are volatile at a low temperature ; soluble 
In alcohol, and separated from it by water; highly inflammable; 
and decomposed in a high temperature, hydrogen being evolved, 
and charcoal obtained. Their components are carbon, hydrogen, 
and oxygen ; and they differ from the flxed oils, in containing 
tees carbon in proportion to the hydrogen. They are divisible, 
according to Thomson, into three kinds :— 1. Those which contain 
only carbon and hydrogen: these are lighter than water, and 
combine in definite proportions with acids ; hence are probably 
hAses—2. Those that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: 
these are probably heavier than water, and combine witii bases, 
and are hence considered analogous to acids.— 3. Vesicating oils ; 
<x»lain'"8 sulphury and probably azote. They unite with difll- 
^ly with the alkalies, more easily with their carbonates; uid 
caa be suspended In water by means of sugar and mucilage. 
«S>jgit adulteration with fixed and cheaper essential oils is detected 
In evaporating a drop on pai>er, and examining the odor ; and 
!Srt-r\it« whether a greasy stain be left on the paper, which is 
JJgj^ when they ore mixed with fixed oil ; mixed with alcohol, 

1S6 OLE 

Prop. Color light-yellow, becoming brownish by age. 8pee 
grav, 0.908. 

Oper. Antheimintic. 

Dose. Four to ei^jlit drops for a child, repeated morning and 
evening for three or four days, and then foilowed by a briak 

OLfiUM COPAIBiE. E. Oil of Copaiba. 

Use. The same a8 the copaiba. 

OLfiUM FCENICOLI. U.S. :DULCIS. D.E. Oil of Fennel 
Seeds, ifiy distillation from the seeds.) 

Comp. Carbon 81, hydrogen 8, oxygen 10. 

Prop. Odor that of fennel ; taste pungent, sweetish, hot ; color 
aqueous ; congeals under 32°. 

Oper. and Use. The same as of the seeds 

iJoae. THij. to fllxx. 

OLfiUM GAULTHERIiE. U. S. Oil of Partridge Berry. 
(From the leaves of the Oaulthetia Procumbens. It is found 
also in the bark of the Betula lenta^ the root of the Polygala 
Pauctfolia, roots and stems of the Spirea Ulmaria, Spirea Lo- 
htAay and i3aultheria Hispidula.y 

Prop. Of a brownish yellow color; sweetish, peculiar taste ; an 
agreeable, characteristic odor ; heaviest of the known essential 
oil9; spec. grav. 1.17. 

Use. To cover the taste of other medicines. 

Off. Prep. Syrupua Sarsaparillaiy U. S. 

0L£UM HEDEOMiE. U. S. Oil of Pennyroyal. (From the 
Hedeoma Pulegioides.) 

Prop. Color light yellow , odor and taste of the herb ; spec. grav. 

Use. As a stimulant in flatulent colic and sick stomach, and to 
impart flavor to mixtures. 

Dose. Two to ten drops. 

OLfiUM JECINORIS ASELLI. Cod-Liver Oil. (A fish oil 
obtained from several fishes belonging to the genus Oadus, by 
exposing to the sun the livers cut in slices, and collecting the 
oil that runs out. That which runs out first resembles olive 
oil, and is called yellow cod-liver oil. If the livers are in a 
state of pu^efaction, the oil becomes of a chestnut brown 

Prop. Color varies from light yellow to a reddish brown ; clear 
or turbid; smell fuint, or like that of old salt herrings ; taste 
of the brown like that of train oil, enipyreuniatic, bitter, some- 
what acrid, remaining a long time on the tongue; soluble in 
alcohol and ether ; reddens litmus paper ; owes its virtues to 
bromine and iodine. 

Oper. Diuretic, alterative, slightly diaphoretic. 

Use. Used extensively in Germany in scrofula, rickets, rheuma- 
tiam, chronic cutaneous diseases, chorea, tubercles, atrophy. 

Dose. 3ij. to 3iv. two or three times a day; to children ij., 
with lemon syrup, coflee, or sugar and water. Externally in 
cases of ulcers, fistulte, &c. Its therapeutical effects slowly 

OLfiUM JUNIPERI. U. 8.— L. E. D. Oil of Juniper. <Bf 
distillation from the fhiit.) Ot. Juniperi Baccts. 

Prop. Odor simi'— •" ***-* -''-•rpentine ; taste acrid, hot, ■Imllw 
to that of th'^ ish yellow ; deposit i a feculent 

OLE 137 

matter when kept; often adulterated with oil of tarpratine, 

which may be detected by obtaining the specific gravity, which 

is thus rendered lighter than usual. 
Oper. Stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic. 
U»e. In dropsies ; advantageously added to digitalis when it It 

given In the form of pills. 
Dose. niij. to nix. or more, rubbed up with sugar or mucilage 

and water. 
0L£UM LAVAND0LiE. U. S.— L. E. D. OU of Lavender. 

(By distillation from the Lavandula Spica.) 
Prop. Odor very fragrant, that of the liower ; taste warm ; of a 

lemon color. 
Oper. Stimulant. 

Use. In hysteria and nervous headaches. 
Do9e. nij. to niv. on a lump of sugar. 

Off. Prep. Unguentum Sutphuria, E. 
OLEUM '^"~' " ~" 

fras, U. S.— D. OU of Sassafras. (By distillation from the 

Prop. Odor fragrant, that of the wood ; taste acrid, very hot, 
burning the lips when tasted: limpid, yellow, heavier than 
water ; often adulterated with oil of lavender and oil of tur- 

Oper. Stimulant, sudorific, diuretic. 

Use. In scorbutus, chronic rheumatism, cutaneous diseases. 

Dose. V\,\}. to mx. rubbed with sugar. 

OLfiUM LiNI. U. S.— L. D. O.. Lini Usitatissimi, E. Lin- 
seed Oil. (Expressed from the b^ised seeds.) 

Comp. Nearly the same as those of olive oil, with some mucilage. 

Prop. Odor strong ; taste unpleasant, nauseous ; does not congeal 
by cold ; becomes easily rancid. 

Oper. Demulcent, emollient, laxative. 

Use. It has been given w ith advantage in ileus, when purgatives 
have failed ; but it is chiefly used in the form of clyster, in 
flatulent colic, attended with costivencss ; and in abrasions oC 
the rectum ; externally in bums and wounds. 

Dose, f 5 88. to f 5 j. ; in clysters, f 5 ilj. w f 3 vj. 

Off. Prep. Linimentum Jiqtue Calcis, E. 

OLfiUM MENTHiE PIPERlTif:. U. S.— L. E. Ol. Mentha 
Piperitidis, D. Oil of Peppermint. (By distillation from the 
dried plant.) 01. JSIentha Piperitidis. 

Comp. C.'urbon 80, hydrogen 11, oxygen 8. 

Prop. Odor strong, that of the plant ; taste acrid, very hot and 
biting, with a peculiar sensation of coldness; lighter than war 
ter; color brown-yellow. 

Oper. Stimulant, autispo^^modic, cnrniinative. 

Use. In crump of the stomach and tlutuient colic. 

Dose. Hlj- to (lliy. rubbed up wi:h sugar or mucilage. 

Off. Prep. PUula Rkei G/mp., E. Pilula Jiloes cum Zingibers, 

OL^UM MBNTHiE PULE6U. E. Oil of Pennyroyal. (By 

Pfp, Odor and taste of the plant; warm, poogent 

gver. Excitant. / 

ss. In flatulence, hysteria, amenorrhasa. 

/>M«. miu. to ifiviy. 

138 OLE 

OLfiUM MENTHiE VlRlDIS. U.S.-L.E.D. OilofBpev^ 

mint (Bf distillation from the dried plant) 
Fvp. Odor thut of the plant ; taste worm, pungent 
Omt. SUmulant carmioHtive. 
iJW. In flatulence and anorexia. 
J}o*e, niU* to niv. on u lump of aufar. 
. Of. Prep. InftLaum Mentha Ccmp.^ D. 
OLfiUM MONARDiE. U. 8. Oil of Horaemint (From the 

irtMh herb of Monarda Punctata.) 
Prop. A reddish-amber color; fragrant odor; warm and very 

pungent taste. 
Use. A powerful rubefacient ; also stimulant and carminative. 
OLfiUM MYRlSTlCiE U. S. Oil of Nutmeg. (Obtained 

from the fruit of the MyrUtica Moechata.) 
Prop. Two oils nre obtained from the nutmeg: a fixed oil, and 

a volatile oil ; the first by expression, the lost by distillation 

with Water; is yellowish; spec. grav. 0.920; deposits a solid . 

cryfetjllized matter, soluble in alcohol and ether. 
OLEUM ORIGANL U. S.— L. E. D. Oil of Origanum. (By 

distill ation from the dried plant) 
Prop. Odor that of the plant ; taste hot, very acrid ; of a yellow 

Oper. Stimulant, narcotic. 
Lee. Scarcely ever given internally; a drop of it put into a 

carious tooth relieves the pain of toothache. 
OLfiUM PIMENTiE. U. 8.— L. E. D. Oil of Pimento. (By 

disiillution from the covering of the fruit of the Mjfrtue 

Pimenta.) t* 

Prop. Odor very fragrant ; taste that of the pimento In an in- 
creased degree ; color a red brown ; heavier than water; com 

bines with bases like the oil of cloves. 
Oper. Stimulant 

(Jee. In debilities of the stomach, colic, and tympanitis. 
Deee. Tlliij. to IT,, v. rubbed with sugar. 

Off. Prep. Emplaet. Jiromatieum^ D. 

OLfiUM PIPEEIS CUBEBiE. E. 01. Cubebe, U. S. OU of 

Oper. Stimulant, diuretic. 

Use. Th^ same as the cubebs ; but less efficacious in gononluBft. 
OLfiUM RICINI. U. S.— L. E. D. Castor Oil. (Bruise thft 
castor seeds, previously decorticAted ; then express the oil 
without the nppUcation of heat) ^^iv. of the seeds yield 
about f 1 iij. of oil. 01. e Seminibits Ricini. 
Prop. Recently drawn, inodorous, nearly insipid ; colorless, or 
of a very pale straw color; thicic, but perfectly transparent; 
lighter than water. It becomes soon rancid by icceping, thick- 
ens, deepens in color to a reddish brown, and has a hot i ause- 
ous taste; soluble in all proportions wiUi alcohol and ethefi 
and when so mixed lets fall all foreign bodies mixed with it 
Oper. Purgative. 

Um. In all cases where stimulant purgatives would be hurtAil ; 
particalarly in dysentery, colica pictonum ; calculous couiplainta 
and ilettB ; and, as it operates very quickly, in spasmodic aflfeo- 
■a. It ia an excellent purge at all times for children, women 
leluid bed, and after surgical operations in which the viscera 
KM^aU coBcemed. It is also a gor-* -••»• — • — -ivsters 

OLE 139 

Dte, f I ss. to f S jss. either floated on a 1 ittle water, and covered 
with a snuill quantity of brand>\ or in the following draught: 
SL Olei ricini f ^ss., mucilaginis q. a. tare optime, et paullatim 
adde, aqus disUllats f §j., spir. luvanduio; comp. (flxx., ayr. 
tol utani f 1 88. Misce. 

OL^UM ROSiE. Otto or Ottar of Roses. (By distilling the 
petals of the Rosa Ontifolia with water; chiefly from Kgypt 
and India, as the roses of this country yield so litiie oil ai 
hardly to pay the expense of the process.) 

Prop. Nearl y colorless ; del ightful odor ; spec grav. 0.873 ; below 
d\fi Fah. into a substance like butter ; at 72° 1000 parts alcohol 
dissolve 33 parts oil of roses. Composed of two oils, one liquid, 
the other solid, and destitute of smeil ; separated by freezing, 
and pressing between folds of blotting paper. 

Comp. Curbon 85.72, hydrogen 14.28. 

OLEUM ROSMARINI. U. S.— L. E. D. Oil of Rosemaiy. 
(By distillation from the tops of the dried plant) Oleum. Rorit 

Comp. The same as other essential oils, with some camphor. 

Prop. Odor very fragraut, and taste like that of the plant ; limpid 
Hke water ; deposits crystals of camphor when long kept 

Oper. Stimulant. 

Use. In nervous complaints. 

Dose. mij. to nivj. rubbed up with sugar. 

Off. Prep. Tinctura SaponistE. .aUoh0l..^wtmomatumJiroMar 
ticum, E. 

0L£UM RCTiE. D. E. OilofRu^ (Distilled from the dried 
• plant. 

Prop. Odor that of the plant, but weaker; taste strong of the 
plant, sharp, hot ; color yellow ; when kept it becomes brown, 
and deposits a brownish resinous sediment; easily congeals. 

Oper. Antispasmodic : externally rubefacient. 

Use. In hysteria, and the convulsive atfections of infancy at- 
tending on dentition; externally in palsy. 

Dose. nlij. to niv. rubbed with sugar or mucilage. 

OLfiUM SABlNiE. U.S.— D.E. Oil of Savine. (By distilla- 
tion from the dried plant) Juniperus Sabina. 

Cov^. Carbon 88, hydrogen 11. 

Prop. Odor and taste of the plant; limpid like water; color 
pale yellow. 

Oper. Stimulant emmenagrtgue; externally vesicant 

Use. In the same cases for which the plant is employed. 

Dose, tllij. to lUvj. 

OL^UM SAMBUCI. L. Oil of Elder Flowers. (By disUllation.) 

Prop. Odor that of the flowers. 

Oper. Moderately excitant 

0L£UM SASSAFRAS. U.S. Oil of Sassafras. (By distilling 
the chips or the root of the Laurus Sassafras^ the last of which 
yields about two per cent) 

Prop. Color yellow ; odor fragrant ; taste aromatic and pungent ; 
spec. grav. 1.094; separates by agitation with water, into two 
oils; very oAen adulterated with oil of lavender and oil of tur- 
pentine, which may be separated by cautious distillation. 

Oper. Stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic 

Dose. Two to ten drops. 

0L£UM SINAPIS. OU of Mustard Seed. Shtapls Nigra eC 


Blaek and White MusUrd. (T^stradfnmmU, SUip^tu 
N . O. Omeiftrm. £urope. © ) Macerate the bruised aeed 
la eoM water aeveral houra, then ^8til.—IIambur£rh Pkar. 

frt^ Of a yellowish-white color ; ameils strongly of mostard ; 
excilM a violent pungent sensation ; acrid, burning taste ; causes 
• smae of burning, and intense redneae and vesication aa. the 
parts to which it is applied. 

ijftr. A povterful stimulant and diuretic ; externally reveilent, 
coonter-irritant, vesicant 

V—. In all cases of torpor of the eystein, where stimulants are 
Indicated, as palsy, atonic dropsy, low forms of fever, Kunie of 
the nenroaes; externally in neuralgia, paralysis, subacute 
rheumatism, odontalgia, gastrodynia, hx,. 

Z>M«. Two drops may be mixed in | vj. of an emulsion, and a 
tablespoonful given every two houn. Externally it is either 
rubbed on the skin, or applied by means of stripe of linen dipped 
In the oil, which shoulcl remain on about ten minutes. This 
may be repeated twice a day in chronic diseases, ec pecially to 
the trunk and extremities. This oil being very volatile, idiould 
be kept in vessels closelv stopped. 

OL^UM SUCClNI. U. &.— L. E. D. Ol. Succinl Rectificatum. 
U. 8.— D. Oil of Amber. (Distilled from ambar with a very 
gentle heat, and rectified.) 

fr»p. Odor strong, fetid, bituminous ; taste pungent, acrid ; so- 
luble in water ; imperfectly in alcohol ; nearly colorless at first, 
but it gradually becomes brown. 

€>p0r. Stimulant, antispasmodic, diuretic, rubefacient. 

Use. In hysteria, epilepsy, and deficient menstruation ; exter- 
nally in paralysis, and chronic rheumatism of the joints. The 
following is recommended as a friction in tic douloureux: ]Qk 
Ol. succini f ^j , tinct opii f §8S. Misce. 

Doae. t\v. to fllxij. rubbpd up with mucilage. 

OLfiUM SUCCINI OXIDATUM. U.S. Oxidated Oil of Am- 
ber. (0/n Suceini f 3 j., ^cidi Jfitrici f 3 iijss. Put the oil of 
amber in a glass vessel, and gradually drop the acid into it, at 
the same time stirring the mixture with a glass rod. Let it 
Btand for thirty-six hours, then separate the supernatant resin- 
ous matter from the acid fluid beneath, and wash it repeatedly, 
first with cold, and, lastly, with hot water, till the acid taMe 
he removed.) 

Use. Recommended as a substitute for musk, to which it is 
an.nlneous in its prnpertirs. 

OLfiUM SULPHURATUM. E. Sulphuretted Oil. (SulpkurU 
l9ti 1 ij-i Oliv<» Olei Oj. Heat the oil in a large iron pot, and 
throw In the sulphur by degrees, stirring the mixture after eacli 
addition till they unite.) 

Prop. Odor extremely fetid ; taste acrid ; color reddish-brown, 

Oper. Stimulating, irritating ; externally detergent 

Vse. Now seldom given internally ; but formerly it was much' 
used in cou?hs, aslhma, and other pulmonary complaints, and 
often proved hurtful. Externally it is applied to foul running 

I>M«. mv. to lllxx. in a glassful of water. 

Cf.Prep. EmplasLJimmoniacieumJIydrargfroil.. En^Uit, 
Hfirvgyri^ L. 

O L I lU 


Terebinthinae, U. S. Rectified Oil of Turpentine. (Old Tero' 
binthina Oj., ^qua Oiv. Cautiously distil over the oil.) 

Pr0p. Odor penetrating; taste hot, pungent; colorless, limpid, 
lighter than water, volatile; sparingly roluble in alcohol. 
Cuniains two oils, the most volatile of which is called Citm- 
pkiMt by Dumas. 

Oper. Stimulant, diuretic, sudorific, anthelmintic, rubefacient 

Use. In chronic rheumatism, lumhogo, and sciatica; and in 
passive uterine hemorrhages ; dropped into the ear in deufnesg 
from defect of wax ; applied to indolent tumors ; and in em« 
brocation, in rheumatism and bruises. It is given in very larg« 
doses, alone, or united with honey, agoinst the Uenla 'solium, 
which it brings away entire, dead, afler two or three doses. 

Doae. nix. to f3J. in the first cases; but for the expulsion of 
tcniaf§ss. tof|ij. 

Off. Prep. Linimentum TerebinthintB^ U. S.— L. X.intiii«Mti(iii 
CantharidiSt U. S. 

•^* It forms the greater part of a routed quack mediciTU, White- 
head's Essence of Mustard. 

OLEUM TIGLII. Croton Qil- {Croton Tiglii. JfomBcta^ 
Monadelphia, N. O. EuphorbiaeeiB. East Indies. ^ .) 

Comp. Croton oil is obtained by exprestrion from the seeds, 
wtiich consist of 64 parts of kernel, 36 envelope, in the 100-* 
and the cotyledons yield 60 per cent, of oil. 

Prop. A thickiah fluid, of a honey-yellow color, a faint bat 
disagreeable smell, taste hot and acrid, leaving an impression 
which remains fur muny hoars. Wholly soluble in sulphuric 
uthcr and oil of turpentine, and partially in alcohol. Consists 
of two portions— one acid and purgative, amounting to 45 per 
cent, (a resin and Crotonic acid)^ soluble in cold alcohol ; the 
other, a mild oleaginous substance, like olive oil, soluble in 
ether and oil of turpentine. A fixed oil of\en adulterated. 

Oper. A powerful hydragogue purgative, acting generally in 
moderate doses without pain, but in large doses excites vomit- 
ing and severe griping pain. A drop placed on the tongue, in a 
comatose state, will usually operate. 

Vs: In constipation and torpor of the inte8tine9— in dropsy, 
apoplexy, munia, coma, inflammation of the brain, hydroce> 
phalus, and whenever powerful revulsion from the head is 
Indicated. Externally as a revellent, or counter-irritant, pro- 
ducing a pustular eruption in twelve hours after the first friction 
— in rheumatism and gout, phthisical aflfections, incipient 
^thlsis, and in the neuroses, as palsy, hooping cough, spas- 
modic asthma. 

Dose, i to i and i a drop every two or three hours, in emulsfon 
or pill. Externally, four to six drops may be rubbed in twice 
a day. If the skin is very sensitive, mix it with an equal por* 
tion of some fixed or volatile oil. 

OLIBANUM. L. Boswellia Serrata. Giimrai Resina, IX 
Olibanum. (Boswellia Scrn^ta. Decandria^ Monogyn. N. O. 
Burseraeea. India. ^ .) OtibanuMf Onmmi JUsuta. 

Comp. Gum resin, volatile oil. 

Prop. Odor peculitir, aromatic ; taste bitterish, slightly pungent; 
in grains of different siaes, semi-transptKnt, brittle; colot 

/4d O P I 

reddisk-yellow ; partly foluble in alcohol; forma a Bil^ 
emulsion when triturated with water. 

Oper. Stimulant 

Use. Beldom used except as a perfume in sick rooms, 

OLlViE OLEUM. L. E. D. Olive Oil. (Olea Europea. Z>t- 
and. Monogyjna. N. O. Oleaceee. South of Europe. >.) 
Expressed from the ripe fruit. 

Cl$mp. Carbon 79, hydrogen 21 parts; perhaps some oxygen : or 
according to Braconnotj of oil of a greenish-yellow color 73, 
vei / white suet 28 parts. 

Prop. Inodorous, insipid ; transparent, of the palest straw-color ; 
lighter than water ; cannot combine with it, nor with alcohol, 
bin may be diffused through water by means of mucilage ; 
boils at 6(HP of Fohr., therefore not volatile ; congeals at 3^ ; 
attracts oxygi'U, and becomes rancid, when exposed to the air; 
forms soaps with the allculies and lime ; plasters, with oxides 
of lead. Its purity is ascertained by mixing with it l-12th of 
Its volume of a concentrated solution of pernitrate of mercury : 
if pure, it becomes like a firm fat in a few hours. 

Oper, Demulcent, emollient, gently laxative. 

Use. In catarrhs and pulmonary complaints ; in emulsion with 
mucilage ; in a simple state, when acrid matters are taken into 
the stomach ; externally it has been advantageously used as a 
friction in plague ; as an injection in gonorrhoea ; an adjunct 
to clysters in dysentery and abrasions ; and in the formation of 
ointments and plasters. 

Doee. f3j. to f|j. triturated with mucilage, or mixed with 
water by means of a few drops of liquor potassse, or liquor 

OPIUM. U. S.— L. E. D. Opium. (Papaver Somniferum. 
PolyandriOt Monogynia. N. O. Papaveracete. South of Eu- 
rope. 0.) 

Qnnp. Gummy matter, resin, caoutchouc, glutenf a volatile oil, 
narcotina, codeia, meconina, narceia, morphia, meconic acid, 
alum, sulphate of lime, of potassa, of iron; besides which, 
opium generally contuios ^ its weight of impurities. 

Prop. TURKEY OPIUM.— Odor heavy, narcotic ; taste nau- 
seous, bitter, acrid, warm ; in flattish cakes, solid, tenacious; 
of a reddish-brown color, yellowish when powdered ; marks on 
paper a light-brown interrupted streak. EAST INDIAN. — 
Odor the same, and empyreumatic ; taste less bitter, but more 
nauseous; color darker. Opium is partially soluble in water 
and in alcohol ; very soluble in vinegar and in oil. 

Oper. Stimulant in small doses, but in larger, narcotic apt! 
spasmodic, diaphoretic, sedative, anodyne ; operating tlirough 
the nerves on the living solid ; externally, its stimulant effects 
are considerable, but soon followed by its narcotic. 

Use. In all painful affections, where the inflammatory diathesis 
\a not very considerable ; in diarrhoea and dysentery ; intermit- 
tents ; in typhus, in smaller doses as a cordjal, in larger to allay ' 
irritation and produce sleep; cholera and pyrosis ; in rheuma- 
tism when inflammatory fever is not present ;' retrocedent gout; 
and in convulsive and spasmodic diseases. When combined 
with calomel, in mflammation atler blood-letting, and in syphi- 
lis, as well as to arrest the progress of gangrene. It is employed 
in a watery solutioDt containing gr. i\. in f |[|. of water, ai an 

OS 143 

a^/eedon In gonorrboa and spasmodic stricture, as an adjonet 
to clysters in diarrhoea; and by friction, united with oil, ia 
tetanus and other spasms. 

i>M«. Gr. i to gr. ss. to produce its stimulant ^fleets ; gr. i. to 
gr !j., its narcotic ; but in spasmodic complaints, it has been 
given to a very great extent. 

Jncomp. Lime wuter, alkaline carbonates, bichloride of mercury, 
nitrate of silver, s^ulphates of zinc, cof per, and iron, infusion of 
yellow bark, astringent infusions and decoctions ; solution of 
catechu and of kino ; acetates of lead. 

%* When opium has been taken as a poison, the stomach should 
be first evacuated by the siomach-pump, worked with infusion 
of yellow bark, or by emetics containing very little water, and 
ofter the whole of the opium has been evacuated, aromatiQ 
stimulants given, and mustard cataplasms applied externally. 

Off. Prep, (^ium Pnrificatum, D. Cenfectio Opii, U. 9.— L. D. 
Eiectuarium Opii, E. Electuar. Catechu, E. Extractum Opii 
L. E. D. Pilulx Opii, U. S. — E. Pil. Saponis eomp., U. S. — L. 
Pil. Styracis comp., L. E. Pil. Calomclane et Opii, £. Pil. 
Ipecac, et Opii, E. L. Ptdo. f)piatus, E. Pulv. Cretm Comp, 
earn Opio, L. E. Pulv. Ipecacuanha Comp., V. 8. — L. E. D. 
Pulv. Kino Comp., L. Elect. Opii, E. Tinct. Opii, U. 8.— 
L. E. D. Tiiwt. Camphora Comp., U. 8.— L. E. D. Tinet 
Opii .^mmoniata, E. Troch. Opii, E. THnct. Opii Acetata, 
U. S. Jicetum Opii, U. S.— E. Vdnum Opii, V. 8.— L. B. 
Enema Opii, D. E. Ltnimentum Opii, E. Lin. Saponis cum 
Opio, I). Emplastrum Opii, U. 8. — D. E. 

OPOPONAX. L. D. Opoponax. (Opoponax Chironium, Pen- 
tandna. Digyn. N. O. Umbellifera. Italy. 40 Exudet 
from the roots when wounded. Opoponax, Oummi Resina. 

Comp. G'lm resin, a trace of caoutchouc, a volatile oil. 

Prop. Odor strong, peculiar; taste bitter, acrid; in lumps of a 
reddish-yellow color, white within; forms a milky solnticm 
when triturated with water. 

Oper. Antispasmodic, emmcnagogue. 

Uae. In hysteria and chlorosis ; but it is seldom used. 

Doge. Gr. x. to 3p8. 

ORIgXNUM. it. S.— L E. Common Maijoram. (Origannm 
Vulgare. Didynam. Oymnosperm, ,N. O. jLabiata. Indige- 
nous. H.) 

Prop. Oilor fragrant , taste aromatic, pungent, not unlike that 

, ot thynjo. 

Oper. I'onic. stomachic, emmenagogue ? 

Use. In debilities of the stomach : scarcely ever used. 

Doae. Gr. x. to 9j. in powder. 

Of. Prep. Oleum Origani, U. 8.— L. D. 

OllIGANI MARJORANiE HERBA. D. Sweet Maijonon. 
(Class and Order aa above. Portugal. O.) Matjorana. 

Prop. Odor strong, fragrant; taste aromatic, bitterish. 

Oper. Stomachic, errhine. 

Use. Chiefly for culinary piirpoees ; and as a muffin headaches 

Off. Prep. Pulv. Asari Comp., D. 

OS. U.S. Ed. D. Bone. 

Prop, and Comp. Too well known to need denrlplioo. 

Off. Prep. SodmPkoepUetV.B. 



144 OX F 

OVUM. L. E. Efg. (Phadaniu Callus, the ComnM Fomrl, 

CI. Jivu. Ord. Oallinacem.) 
Oper, Nutritive. 
Use. The yolk and white swallowed raw are said to be useflil 

ia jaundice ; in convalescences the yolk is given, beat up with 

sugar and wine ; triturated with oils, it renders them miscibtd 

with water. 
Off. Prep, Mist. Spir. Fini OcUlicu L. 
OXiDUM FERRI RUBRUM. E.D. Red Oxide of Iron. (The 

sulphate of iron exposed to a strong heat, till It becomes red. 

The Dublin College orders it to be washed, and dried on blotting 

^per.) A peroxide." FBrrum Fitriolatum Ustum. 
Ctfip. Iron 52, oxygen 48 parts, in 100 of the oxide ; 2 eq. irooss 

5H-3 oxygen==24, eq. 80: if it be not washed, it contains also 

a small portion of red sulphate of iron. 
Prop. Taste styptic ; the Edinburgh preparation deliquesces. 
Opsr. Tonic, stimulant. 

Uss, In the same cases as the other salts of iron, rarely used 
Dose. Gr. v. to gr. x. 

Off. Prat. Murims .^mmonim et Fhrri^ E. D. 
OXIdUM ZINCI IMPORUM. E. D. Impure Oxide of Ztaic 

{Sublimed in roasting ores of zinc with galena.) 
Gmp. Zinc 85, oxygen 15 parts; but these proporticms are 

doubtful, and tutty contains some metallic zinc and argil. 
Prop. Inodorous, insipid, hard, ponderous, rough, and brownish 

OD the outside ; smooth and yellow within. 
Use. For pharmaceutical purposes. 
Off. Prep Ozidum Zinei Impurum Praparatum^ E. Ungnem 

turn Ozidi Zinci Impure E. D. 

Impure Oxide of Zinc. (Prepared in the same manner as im- 

pure carbonate of zinc 
V^or. Astringent 
Use. Externally in ophthalmia; as an adjunct to ohitments; 

and dusted on the parts in superficial inflammation. 
OXtMEL. L.D. Simple Oxymel. {Mellis ^x., Acidi Aeetioi 

Ojiss. Mix the acid with the honey made hot) Mel Jieetatmm, 
Oper, Cooling, diaphoretic ; externally detergent 
Use. In fevers and peripneumonia ; as an adjunct to gargles iA 

cjmanche tonsillaris. 
Dose, f 3 J. to f ^ J. dissolved in barley-water. 
OXYMEL COLCHICI. D. Oxymel of Meadow Saffron. (Aad. 

CoUhiei ree. in laminae tenues sutm | J., .^eeti DistUlati IbJ^ 

MMi* iesputn. pond. Ibij. Macerate in a gentle heat for 48 

hoora. Strain by pressure, and boil the liquor with the honey, 

to the thickness of a qrrup, stirring with a wooden spoon.) 

Much of the acrimony is destroyed by the boiling. 
Opor. Expectorant, diuretic 

Use. In humoral asthma^ dropsy, and gout ; inferior to squill. 
Dose, tl\. gradually hicreaaed to f ^ss. twice a day, dissolved 

OXTMEL SCILLiE. U.S.— L.D. Oxymel of Squill. (Jlfell»s 

I^U)., Aeeti SeiUm OiJ Evaporate in a glass vessel, over a 

■aiM bath, to a proper conmence.) The boiling is hurtAil, 

destroying the acrhnony on which the virtue erf" squill depoids. 
Qptr, Bxpectorant, diuretic, aperient ; hi large doses emetie. 

P H 145 

IKie. In immoral asthma, chronic con^is, dn^Mjr; to eiietta 

vomiting in pt;rtU88i8. 
Dose, f 3 SB. to f 3 Ij. in cinnamon water, or any other aromatic 

PArlV£R. U. S.— L. E. Papaver Albam; Capsule, D. 

Wtiite Poppy Capsules. 'Papaver Sonmiferum. Class and 

Order, see Opium.) The ripe, dr.'ed seed-vessels. Papav$r 

^iibuin^ CapstUa. 0. 
Opcr. Rc'.nJi^t, anodyne. 
U$e ExttTiinliy as a t'omentation ( ^iv. of the dried heads being 

bruised and boiled in Oiv. of water to OiJ.), to inflamed or ulce- 

fttteil piiruL The addition of a little distilled vinegar aidf the 

narcotic power of the decoction. 
Off. Prep. Syrupus Papaveris, L. E. D. Extraetiau Pofootrit^ 

PAPAVER RHCBADOS, Petala. See Rhaat. 
PAREiUA. U. S.— L. E. Pareira. (Cissampelos Pareira.) 
Uitceia Dodteajidria.H.O. Jiieniepermacect, South America. 

Use. See Jvfusum Pareira. 

Off. Prep. Infusum Pareira^ L. E. 
PEl'i ' - - 

PEl'llOLgUAl. L. E. D. Barbadocs Tar. 

Frop. Odor fetid; taste bitter, acrid; semi-liquid, tenacious^ 
Svmi-tranf^parent ; of a reddiah-brown color ; insoluble in water 
and alcohol ; combines with fixed and essential oils, and sol- 
pbur; and is partially soluble in ether. 

Oper. Aniiiipasmodic, sudorific ; diuretic, expectorant ; externally 
stimulant and diiscatieut 

Use. In asthma, and coughs unattended with inflammatioo; 
skin diseases ; externally in diseases of the hip-joint, rhenmatio 
pains, chilblains and paralytic limbs, applied by friction. 

Dose, fllxx. to f 3 J. has been taken in a day Without iiiooiiv<^ 

PHLORIDZINA. Phloridzine. (A peculiar bitter principle, 
which exists in the baric of the trunk and the roots of Uie nj^e, 
pear, cherry, and plum trees. Take the fresh root, digest in 
weak alcohol, at a temperature of 120^, for eight or ten hours ; 
di.<iil off the greater part of the alcohol, and crjrstallize the 
remainder.)— w2tR«r. Joum. PAanaoey, Vol. ii., p. S40. >' 

Prop. Silky spicula of a dead-white color, or long slender 
prisms, or tables— 1000 parts of water at a temperature from 
3*iO to 71^, dissolve one part; from 710 to 3139 dissolves it in 
all proportions. Soluble in pure alcohol at ordinary tempaft* 
tureB. Has no action on test papers. 

Oper, Tonic, antiperiodic. 

Use. In intermittents, and wherever tonics are indicated. 

JJose. Gr iv. to gr. xvl. before the paroxjrsm. 

PHOSPHAS SODiE. U. S.— L. E. D. Phosphate of Soda. 
(Prepared from bones and Sods Carbonas^ 

Ctmp. Soda 1 9, acid 15, water 66 parts.— ( Tkenard.) 3 eq. ioda 
=tJ3.W-l eq acId=71.4+24 eq. water=:316, equiv.=350. 

Prep. Inodoious; taste nearly that of common salt; crystal! 

rhomboidal prisms; efflorescent; soluble in three parts of water 

gpsr. Purgative. 
te. In all cases where the bowels require to be opened. Whm 


146 - P I L 

dissolved in hroth made without salt, the taste of the phoq>hal* 

is not perceived. 
Dose. 5j. to 3ij. 

Incomp. Alum, chalk, and all salts with an earthy base 
PHOSPHORUS. L. Phosphorus. 
Use. For making phosphoric acid. 

Phy. Decandria. Poke Berries^ Poke Root. {Deeandria, 

Decagynia, N. O. Phytolacece. Indigenous. I^.) 
Prop. Vtie berries have a sweetish, nauseous, and slightly acrid 

taste, with little odor. The dried root has no smell ; sweetiih 

taste. The coloring principle is very volatile. Juice contains 

saccharine matter. 
Oper. Emeiic, purgative, alterative, and narcotic. A narcotico- 

acrid poisim. 
Use. The juice, evaporated to an extract, if* employed as an 

escharotic by cancer doctors. As an alterative in small doses 

in chronic rheumatism. As an ointment in psora, tinea capitis, 

and other cutaneous diseases. 
Dose. As an emetic, from gr. x. to gr. xxx. As an alterative, 

from gr. i. to gr. v. 
PILOLiE ALOES. U.S.— E. AloeticPill. (Jiloes Soeotnnm^ 

Saponis, sing, partes eeguales, g. s. s.) 
PILULiE ALOES COMPOSlTiE. L. D. Compound Aloetie 

Pills, {.aloes contriUe Ibj., Ext.Oentiana 5 ss., Olei Carui Hlxl., 

Syr. q. s. s.) 
PILULiE ALOES CUM ZIN6Ib£RE. D. Pills of Aloes and 

Ginger. {Moes Hepat. 3j., Rad. pidv. tritm 3 J., 

S&ponis Hispanici ^ ss., OL Essent. Mentha Pip. 3 sp.) 
Oper, In their operation these three are alike, warm stomachic 
. purgati^s. 
Use. In habitual costiveness. 
Dose. Gr. X. to 3j. made into pills. 

Pills with Myrrh. {Moes 5)j>i Otoci Stigviatumj MyrrkOf 

sing. 5 j-i Syr. q. s. s.) 
Oper. Cathartic, emmenagogue. 
Use.^ In chlorotic, hypochondriacal, and cachectic habits, to 

stimulate and open the bowels. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3 j. made into pi lls. 

and AssafoBtida Pills. (Aloes Socotor.., Conf. Rosa^ Assafatidm 

Saponis, sinf. partes aoualest q. s.) 
Oper. Purgative, stomachic, anodyne. 
Use. In dyspepsia attended with flatulence and costiveness; 

hysteria; aHienorrhoea. 
Dose. Gr. x. in pills twice a day ; or at bed-time. 
PILt^LiE ALOES ET FERRI. E. PUls of Aloes and Iron 

(Sulph. Ferri gr. xxxvj.. Aloes Barb. gr. xxiv., Pulv. AromA 

gr. Ixx., Conf. Rosts q. «., ft pilule xlviij.) 
Use. An excellent combination of a tonic and purcativ^ 
PILULiE ASSAFCETIDiE. U.S.— E. Pilule Myrrhc Compi, 

D. Compound Pills of Assafcetida. (Assafatidm, — — Oif' 

tent, Myrrha, sing. 5 iij-t On^. Rosm q. ».) 

Use. In hysteria and other nervous afftctioos. 
pots. Or. V. to gr. x. 

P I L 147 

and Opium. (Calowul gr. xxiv., Opium gr. viy., GniMrM tf 
R—9»t B qaantity sufficient to make a man to be divided into 
twelve piilt.) 

Vs9, For rapidly bringing the habit under mercurial influenee. 

Gamboge Pilis. {Skanbogim Coniritm 3 j.| JUof 3 jm., Zingi- 
kerit 3 sa.* Sap0ni$ 3 i).) 

Ojper. Cathartic 

Uf. In obtUnate coBtiveneaa. 

Dtq, Gr. x. to 3 J. in pilis ocea^nnlly. 

Cathartic Pills. (Take of Comp. Extract of Colocyntk las., 
ExL JaUp. Calowult && 3iiJ., QambogB 3iJ., m. ft pil. JHo, 


Use, In constipation, and hepatic congestion. 

D^tt. Gr. ii. to gr. iv. twice a day. 

PILOLiE COLOCYNTHIDIS. £. D. Compound Pills of Co- 
locynth. {,Jilot» Hepaticat^ Scammonih utriusque i j., MeduUm 
CotoetfnMdis J ss., Saponi* Hispanici 3 ij., Pota$sm Sulpkaii*, 
Olei yplaiiti*, Eugmi^ CaryopkylUUtB^ utriusque 3 J., Sfn^ 
Empfrtumaticat q. s. s. Reduce the aloes, the scammony, and 
the sulphate of pobibsa to powder; then mix the pulp of the 
eolocynth with the oil ; and, lastly, rub the whole with th« 
•oap and the syrup into a mass.) 

r. Cathartic, emroenagogue. 
In habitual coetiveness ; in chlorosia and hysteria. 
D0*e» From gr. viij. to 3 j. 

of Colocyuth ond Henbane. (CQiocfpttk piU 3y., ExtnU #/ 

Henbane 3J. Make into xxxvj. pills.) 
U»t The same as the Colocynth Pill. 
PILCLiE CON II COMPOSITiE. L. Compound Pills of 

Hemlock. (Oati EU, 3 v., Jpeeaeuankm puiv. 3j., Jiut. 

Jieacim q. *.) 
Optr. Narcotic, antispasmodic. 
Uae, In phthisis, pertussis, and bronchitis. 
Dose. Gr. v. to pr. viy. 
PILOLiE COPAIBiE. U. S. Pills of Copaiba. (9; Copaib^i 

|ij.. Magnesia 3 j. Mix, and set aside till it concretes into a 

mass, which is to be divided into dOO pills.) 
Use. In gonorrhcea and affections of the mucous membrane. 
PILOLiE CUPRI AMMONIATI. E. Pillft of Ammoniaret of 

Copper. {.^mmon-Cupri in pulv. ten. triti gr. xvj.. Mica Panis 

3iv., .Aqua Carbonatis Jimmenia q. s. Beat into a mass, and 

divide It into xxxij. equal pills.) Pilvi« Cupri. 
Oper. Antispasmodic, tonic. 

Use. In epilepsy and other spasmodic complaints. , 

Dose. One pill twice a day, gradually increasing the number till 

fivA are talcen for a dose. 

and Squill. {Digitalis, Squill, of each 3J., jSromatie EleOuMrf 

3 U. Make into xx. pills.) 
Oper, Diyretic. 
ffse. In dropsy. 

148 PIL 

Bate of Iron. (Saeeharine Carbtnate of Iron J Ui Comi. tf 

Roaes, enough to make xij. pills.) 
PlLGLiE FERRI COMPOSlTiE. U. S.— L. D. Compound 

Pills of Iron. {J\iyrrh<B cont. Z ij., SocUe Carbon., Ferri Sviphu- 

tie, Sacch.fac, sing. 3 j.) 
Oner. Tonic, emraenagogiie. 
ifse. In dyspepsia and chlorosis. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3j. in pills, twice or thrice a day. 
PlLtJLiE FERRI SULPHATIS. E. Fillaof Sulphate of Iron. 

(Snlph. of Iron gr. xxiv., Ezt. of Taraxacum | j., Cons.of Roset 

gr. xxiv. Make into xxiv. pills.) 
Use. As a tonic, in dyspepsiia connected with a torpid state of 

the liver. , 


Gulbuntim Pills. {Galbani ^ j., JUyrrluDf Sagapenii, sing. Sjss., 

^ssafatidtB 3 iv., Stfrupi q. s.) 
Oper. Both these forms of pills operate as antispasmodics and 

Use. In chlorosis, hysteria, and hypochondriasis. 
I>ose. Gr. x. to 3j. inu<le into pills, every night at bed-time. 
PILttLiE HYDRARGtRI. U. S.— L. E. D. Mercurial Pills. 

( Hydrarg. Pur. 3 ij., Confect. Rosat Oallicee ^ iij., Olycyrrhita 

Rod. cont. 3j. Rub the quicksilver with the confection until 

the globules disappear; then udd the liquorice-root powder, 

and beat the whole into a uniform mass.) ^ 
Comp. Protoxide of mercury, and the other ingredients, the 

mercury being converted into the black oxide by the rubbing : 

hence the name should have been Pilula Protoxidi Hydrargyri, 
Oper, Antisyphilitic, alterative; in large doses purgative. 
Use. In syphilis, perhaps the best form of the remeidy ; in some 

cutaneous diseases and intermittents, attended with visceral and 

lymphatic obstructions ; to purge in jaundice, dropsies, and 

Dose. For the former objects, gr. v. to gr. x. twice a day.jinited 

with opium, if the bowels are easily affected ; for the^iatter, 

gr. xij. to 3j. every three or four hours. 

FiluliB Calomelanos Composite, E. Compound Pills of Chlo* 

ride of Mercury. {Hydrarg. Chlor., Antimonii Ozysulphureti, 

sing. 3 ij., Guaiaci contrita 3 iv., Saechari facis 3 ij. Afker 

beating together these ingredients, form them into a mass.) 
Oper. Alterative, diaphoretic. 
Use. In lepra ; secondary syphilis, affecting the skin ; and old 

venereal ulcers. The decoction of elm bark, or of sarsaparilla, 

is generally ordered to be taken at the same time. 
Dose. Gr. v. to gr. x. in pills, night and morning. 
VlWhJE HYDRARGYRI lODIDI. L. Pills of Iodide ot 
• Mercury {Hydrargyri lodidi 3 j., Conf. Cynosb. 3 i^., Zingib, 

putv. 3 j.) 
Oper. and Use. The same as those of the Iodide of Mercury. 
cacuanhas «t Opii, £. Compotmd Pills of Ipecacuanha. 

(Pulv. Ipecacuan. Cvmp. 3 iij., Scilla sic.., Ammoniaei, && 3J. 

Acacia Mixturejr. s.) 
Oper. and Use. The same as those of the compound powder of 


P I M 14t 

Do»g, Or. V. to gr. x. 

PILULiE PLUMBI GPIATiE. E. Pills of Lead and Opiuia 

(Acetate of Lead gr. Ixxij., Opium gr. xij., Cons. Roses gr. xly 

Make into xxiv. pills.) 
Use. In active hicmorrhai^es. 
PlLt5LiE aULNINiE SULPHATIS. U. S. (Pills of SulphaU 

of (Quinine. ^ Sulph. Quin. 5 Jm Cfum Arabic 3 ij-. Syrup q. ■ 

M. tt. 480 pills.) M» » i'H 

PILtJLiE RHEI. U. S.— E. Rhubarb Pills. {Rhubarb in 

powder 3 ij.. Acetate of Potassa 3 j., Cons, of Roses 3 ss. Make 

into xliv. pills.) 
Use. A moderate purgative. 
PlLULiE RHEI COMPOSITiE. U. S.— L. E. Compound 

Rhubarb Pills. {Rheiin pulv. trita 5j., Jiloes 3vj., Myrrhm 
3 iv., Saponis 3 j., 01. Carui 3 ss., Syrupi q. s. Beat them into 

a mass.) 
Oper. Laxative, stomachic. 
Use. In dyspepsia attended with costiveness. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3j. twice a day. 
PILttLiE RHEI ET FERRI. E. Pills of Rhubarb and Iron. 

{Sulph. of Iron gr. xxiv., ExU of Rhubarb 3 j., Cons, of Ross* 
3 ss. Make into xxiv. pills.) 
Use. As a tonic and purgative in atonic dyspepsia. 

of Sagapen. {Sagapeni $ J., Aloes 3 ss., Syr. Zing. q. s.) 
Oper. Pui^ative. 
Dose. Gr. x. 

Pills of Soap. {Opiiduri Contriti 3iv., Saponis l^.) Gr. v. 

contain gr. j. of opium Pilula Opii. 
PIL0LiE OPII sioe THEBAICiE. E. Opiate Pills. {Opii 

partem unam, Ezt. Glyeyrrhizee ^lob. partes vij., FrucU MyrH. 

Pimenta partes ij.) Gr. v. contam gr. ss. of opium. 

£. D. Styrax Pills. {Styracis Pur. 3 iij., Opii duri, Crocif 

sing.Z^. Gr. v. contain gr. j. of opium) 
Oper. These three forms are intended to operate as sedatives 

and anodynes. 
Use. To procure sleep. The name of the last is well adapted 

for cases where the patient or his friends may have an objection 

to opium, as it can thus be given without appearing as an opiate 

in the prescription. 

Scills, E. Compound Squill Pills. {Scilla Recent, exsiccatm 

et cone. 3 j., Zingiberis eontrita 3ij., Saponis 3 iij., Ammoniaei 

eontriti 3 ij., Syr. q. s. Form a mass.) Pilula Seilta. 
Oper. Expectorant, diuretic. 
Use, In asthma and chronic catarrh ; as an adjunct to digitalis 

in hydrothorax, and other dropsies. 
Doss. Gr. X. to 3j. twice or thrice a day. 
PIMENTA. U. S.— L. E. D. Pimenta Berries. (Myrtus Pi- 

mentA, leosandria. Monogynia, N. O. Myrtacsm. West 

Indies. ^ .) PimentOy Bacca. 
Prop. Odor aromatic, resembling a mixture of cinnamon, not- 

mefL and cloves ; taste pungent, but mixed like tbe odor ; cokff 

leddish-brown. (The unripe fhiit dried.) 

160 PIP 

Qmt. StfniQtaiit, carminative. 

Vm, Chiefly as a coodimeat ; and aa an a^Jonct to other i 

Dm. 6r. v. to 9iJ. 
Qg. Prtf. Jlqna Pimentm^ L. E. D. ■ Oleum PimenUh !<• E* !>• 

Spir. Pimenta, L. £. D. Syrupus Hkamni, L. 
PIPER CUBEBiE. L. See Oubeba. 
PIPER LONGUM. L. E. D. Long Pepper. (JDtVmi. TVyvn. 

N. O. Piperaum, Amboyna. 21.) The unripe fruit dried 

in ihe fUD. 
Ctmp, Acrid, fat^ matter, volatile <ril« piperin, nitrogenous ex- 
tractive, gum, baiMoiin, starch, malatcs and other salts. 
JVf>p. Odor aromatic ; tuste warm, pungent ; small round graina 

disposed spirally on a cylindrical axis. 
Omt. Stimulant, carminative, tonic. 
use. In atcmic dyspepsia, attended with flatulence : retrocedcnt 

gout; and para^sis. As a domestic condiment. 
Dose. 6r. v. to 3J. 
Clf. Prep. ConfeciU Opii^ L. Pa/v. dnnamomi Comp.^ L. D. 

PmIv. Oretm Comp.^ L. Tinetura dnnamomi Camp.^ L. E. D. 
PIPER NIGRUM. U.S.— L. E. D. Piper Nigrum. Semen, D. 

Blaeic Pepper. {CtoMe and Order as above.) Ceylon. >.) 

The unripe fhiit dried in the sun. 
Om^. Acrid, soft resin, volatile oil, pipr^n, extractive, mni, 

basrorin, starch, malic and tartaric acid, woody fibre, saits ct 

lime and potash. 
Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste pungent, fiery ; color black, corru- 
gated on the surface. Its pungency dependit on an oleo-resin. 
^9*Bf> Tonic, antipeiiodic, stimulant, carminative. 
Jse. To checic nausea in gouty habits ; remove hiccough f and 

increa»3 excitement in palsy. Steeped in rum it cures apie. 

A watery infusion of pepper has been tound a useful gargle in 

relaxation of the uvula. 
IHss. 6r. X. to 3 j. variously combined. 
Cfjf. Prep. EmpUist Meloes Vesicatorii Comp.., E. {7nf-. Piporia 

Ifigriy D. Eieetuarium Piperia^ E. Piperij M'igri Ckmfutio^ 

%* White Pepper is the same fruit, freed from its euiicU by « 

preparation of lime and oil of mustard, called CAunam, salted 

be^re it is dried. It is less pungent. 
PIPERINA. Piperine. Obtained by (Erstadt, in 1819, from the 

Piper Nigrum. 
f*rop. Crystals of four-sided prisms; white, translucent; in- 

odorous ; has a feeble taste of pepper ; fuses reudily by heat. 

Scarcely soluble in cold water; somewhat isore so in hot. 

Not an alkaloid, aa its soiutiuns do not react on vegetable 

Oner. Stimulant, antiperiodic, febrifuge. 
Vse. In intermittents, general debility, or weakness of the diges- 
tive apparatus ; gonorrbflea. 
}ose. Gr. iij. to gr. viij., made into pills with some bitter extract, 

every three or four hours, during the apyrexiu ; or gr. J. every 

hour. From 40 lo 50 grains are generally required to effect a 

rIPERIS NIGEI CONFECTIO. L. Confection of Black 

PLu m 

Pepper. (PiperU J^igri, Ihul^ ft & bjn FlmiieuK biUn MMif 

Saeckari^ sing. &ij.) 
Oper, Stimulant, canninative. 
Us9. In hiccough, paralysis of the kitestinea, and gout affecting 

the •tomach. In piles af^ting ieucophlegmatic habits. 
Dose. From 388. to 31. 
PIX ABIETIS. U. S. Fix Abiedna, L. Fix BoiguAdica, E. 

Pinus Abies (vide MietU Resina.) Fix Burgundica, D. Dried. 

Pitch, or Bui^undy Fitch. 
Cvmp. Resin : an essential oil. 

Frop. Concrete, semi-transparent, unctuous, tenacious, fragrant. 
Opsr. Rubefacient, generally exciting an exudation of serooM 

Use. Externally, spread on leather as plasters ; in catarrh, per- 
tussis, dyspnoBa. 
Off. Prep. Emplast. Picis^ V. S. — L. E. Emplast. Meloes Vesie, 

Comp.^ E. Emplast. Calefaciens, D. Emp. Opii^ U. S. Emp. 

Oalbani Comp., U. S. Emp. Furri, U. S. 
PIX CANADENSIS. U. S. Hemlock Pitch. Canada and 

New England. 
Pri^. When prepared, it is of a hard, brittle, opaque fonn : 

dark greenish-brown color; of a weak, peculiar odor, and 

scarcely any taste. 
Use. As a gentle rubefacient, analogous to Buipindy pitch, and 

employed in the same cases. 
PIX LiaUIDA. U. S.— L. E. D. Tar. (Obtained by heat 

from the wood of the Scotch Fir. Pinus sylvestris.) 
Comp. Resin, empyreumatic oil, charcoal, acetic acid. 
Prop. Of a deep-brown color, semi-fluid, tenacious ; odor em* 

Oper. Stimulant, diuretic, sudoriflc; externally detergent 
Use. Internally in ichthyosis; externally it is applied to foul 

ulcers, and tinea capitis. 
Off, Prep. Unguentum Picis LiqutcUs, U. S.— L. E. D. .^gtuL 

Pieis Liquids, D. 
PIX NIGRA. L. Fix Arida, E. Black Pitch. (Pinus sylves- 

tris. For Class and Order, vide .^bietis Resina.) The solid 

prepared resin. 
Prop. Solid, dry, brittle. 
Oper. Stimulant. 
Use. For preparing the ointment 
Off. Prep. Unguentum Picis Ifigrmy L. 
PLUMBI CARBONAS. U. S.— L. E. D. Carbonate of Lead. 

Omp. Yellow oxide of lead, 83.5, carbonic acid 16.5 parts. 

(The yellow oxide contains lead 90.5, oxygen 9.5 parts in 100), 

or 1 eq. of protoxide of lead=111.6-f'l eq. of carbonic acidf=s 

88.12, equiv.=132.72. 
Prop. Inodorous; taste sweet; brittle, friable, snow-white, of a 

nUnute scaly texture. Or. 68 are wholly soluble in 111150 of 

acetic acid diluted with f §j. of distilled water: this solution is 

not entirely precipitated by a solution of gr. 60 of phosphate of 

Oper, Astringent, sedative. 
Use. Sprinkled on parts affected with local inflammatkMi ; in 

the formation of ointments and plasters. 

153 ' P L U 

Of. Prep, Plmmhi AceU$, U. 8.— L. E. D. Ungwntum Cer%9' 

stB^ E. I fng. Plumbi Carbonatis, U. 8. 
PLUMBI lODIDUM. L. £. Iodide of Le^d. (A decompoih 

tioa of the iodide of potassium by nitrate or acetate of lead. 

May be made by adding a aoltrtion of 100 parts hydriodata 

potassa to a solution of 75 parts of acetate of lead. 
Camp. Lead 1 oq.=:103.6+iodine 1 eq.=iac.3 equ)v.r=329.9. 
Prop. Golden-yellow colored powder, scarcely soluble in cold 

water, readily in hot water; solution crystallizes on cooling ia 

hexagonal plates ; sublimed by heat 
Oper. Deobetruent. 
Ute. In glandular afl^tions, scrofUIo, and externally to discoM 

indolent tumors. 
DoM. From gr. i to gr. iv. 
PLUMBI OXYDUM HYDRATUM. L. Hydrate of the Oxide 

of Lead. 
Qmp, Lead 1 eq.=:103.6+ozygen 1 eq.=8 equiTalent=111.6. 

The quantity of water hns not yet been determined. 
Prop. White, insipid, inodorous powder. 
Use. For preparing disuiphate of quina. 
PLUMBI OXYDUM RUBRUM. U. 8.— E. Red Oxide of 

Lea4- (For preparing acetic ncid.) 
PLUMBI CULORIDUM. L. Chloride of Lead. (Plumbi Jlco- 

tatis 1 xix., .dqua dutillata ferventis Oiij., Sodii CMoridi I yj. 

Dissolve the suits separately end mix the fluids, and set them 

apart till the mixture cools. Wash them with distilled water, 

and dry.) 
0»€. For preparing the hydrochlorate of morphia. 

Lithargymm, E. 8emivitrified Oxide of Lead, or Litharge 

(A yellow protoxide of lead, prepared by heat, and combined 

with carbonic acid; (rften adulterated with other oxides.) 

Ctmp. Yellow oxide of lead 96, c&rbonie acid 4 parts in 100, or 

1 eq. of lead 103.6-|-1 oxygen==8, equiv.=111.6. 
Prop. In scales of a whitish-red color ; semlvitrified. 
Use. For pharmaceutical purposes. 
Off. Prep. Plumbi .^cetas^ U. 8.— L. E. Liquor Plumbi Di- 

aeetaHs, U. 8.— L. E. D. Emplaet. Plumbic U. 8.— L. E. D 

Ceratum Saponie, U. 8.— L. Emp. Reaintt^ U. 8. £mj|. Opiit 

U. 8. Emp. Hydrargyria U. S. 
PLUMBI NrrRA8. £. Nitrate of Lead. 
XJ»e. As a test for sulphates ; and to form the Iodide of Lead. 
PLUMBI ACETA8. U. 8.— L. E. Acetas Piumbi, D. Acetate 

of Lead. {PlumH Oxydi fti v., .addi Acetid | ij., .Aquie distih 

laUBy einff, Oiv.) 
Comp. Oxide of lead 56, acetic acid 36, water of crystallization 

16 parts; 1 eq. protoxide of lead=ll 1.6+1 eq. of acetic acid 

51.48+3 eq. of water=27, equiv. 190.08. 
Prop. Inodorous ; taste sweet, styptic ; color very white, with 

a silky lustre; crystals spicular; soluble in S24 parts of water; 

the solution Incomes turbid in common water: soluble also in 

alcohol ; spec. grav. 2.345. Gr. 48 dissolved in distilled water, 

acidulated with acetic acid, should not be entirely precipitated 

by gr. 30 of phosphate of soda. 

FOR 16S 

Cp0r. AstriBgent, in weak solutions, eooIiDg and lodative; ia 
strong ( 3 j. to watur f ^ vj.), Rtimalant 

Use. Internal in vi^-«ral basniorrhages washed down with 
writer acidulated with distil led vinegar, which seems to prevent 
ito deleterious effects. External, in solati(m in phleginoaooi 
inflammations, bums, bruises, gonorrhtea, &c. 

VosP: Gr. S8. to gr. jss. made into a pill with gr. so. of opkua 
and crumb of bread. Distilled water must be used for the 
solution, iind a little acetic acid added. 

Jncomp. Alkalies, earths, acids, alum; borax, soaps, Uirtari9sed 
iron, and antimony; lime-water, hard water, sulphuretted 

Off. rrc-^v. Ceratum Plumln ^cetati* (Sub.), U. 8.— L. E. D. 
^cidwTr. Acttosum Forte^ E. Solutio Aeetati* Zineu E. 

Diacetati9. y 

PLUMBI T ANN AS. Tonnate of Lead. (Prepared by precipi- 
tating an infusion of oak bark by acetate of lead*.) 

V*: As on unguent to excoriations and sloughing sotcs, |»o- 
duci'd by lying. It should be spread upon lint, or fine linen, 
ana implied three times a day. Or, 3 ij. of it may be mixed 
with \ .). of Unsruentum RoscTum, and applied as above. 

PODOPIIYLLI^ PELT ATI. iW. U.S. May Apple. Radix, 
(Po/yatvin's, Monogynia. N. O. Podophylt^.) Indigenous. 

Prop. Fruit subacid, sweetish taate; leaves poisonous; root 
inodorous — in powder has a sweetish smell; taste at first 
sweetish, then bitter, nauseous, and slightly acrid ; cdntaina a 
peculiar bitter principle, called poiopJ^y/Ztn. 

Opcr. An active and certain cathartic, producing copious liquid 
discharges, resembling Jul ap. 

Use. In most inflammatory aflTections, where brisk purging is 
indicated ; also in bilious fevers and hepatic congestious; also 
in dropsical, rheumatic, and scrofulous complaints in combina- 
tion with supertartrate of potassa. 

Dose. Of the powdered root gr. xx. It ia also used in the f(»m 
of an extract. 

Off. Prep. Extraetum PodophyUh U. 8. 

POLYGALA RUBELLA. U. S. (Secondary.) Bitter Polf 
gala. The Plant. Big. Am. Med. BoU Indigenous. 

Pr0p. Has a strong and permanent bitter taste, wliich it yields 
to water and alcohol. * 

2fsr. Tonic, laxative, and diaphoretic, according to the dose. 
S0. To impart tone to the digestive organs, in the form of in* 

iWon ^ 

POmfGALA SENEGA. See Senega. 
POLYGONUM. D. Great Bistort. (Polygonum Bistorta. 

Oetand. Trigfn. N. O. Polygonace^. Austria, Britain, l^.) 
Prep. Dried root inodorous ; taste austere, styptic Its virtMt 

are extracted by water. 
Ojper. Powerfully astringc**t, tonic. 
Use. In internal hsmorrhaifes, diarrhosa from debiUQr ; in ifiMk 

Joined with calamus aromaUcus. 
Dose. Or. xv. to 3 j. twice or thrice a day. 
PORRUM. L. The Leek. (Jibr Gass and Orier, see wMM 

Prtf* Odor peculiar, fragrant ; taste sweetish, slightly aorid. 



te<r. Expeetonmt, diurede. 

Use. llio Juice of the recent bulb expresneii has boen advaata' 

geoiisly (LSfd in dropsies and humoral asthma. 
Dnse. f 3 j. lo f t M. nib(>ed up with sugar, and mixed in wator. 
POTABri^. CARB0NA8 IMrCEA. L. Impurus, U. 8. Po- 

tiioutc Curbouas, U. S. — K. Potodsne carbonas^ a Hxivio cinere% 

p. Imprjc Poteasa. (The Pearlash of commerce.) Cinert§ 

Comp. Curbc-ncte of potanai sulphate of potaasa, chloride ol 

potc'j^.;urc, si*ex, oxide of iron, aifil. 
Vs.'.. For preparing the carbonate for medical purposes. 
POTASSi£ CULORAS. L. Chlorate of Potassa. (Prepared 

by passing a stream of chlorine through a concentrated sofutiOD 

of pure potassa until the alkali is neutralized.) 
Prop. Inodorous, white ; taste cool and austere. 
Qmp. Chloric acid 1 eq.=75.42-)-pota88a 1 eq.=47.15, equiv.33 

Oper. Stimulant, tonic. 
Use. In typhus, and other depressing afl^tions. 
Dose. From gr. v. to 9j. 
POTASSiE £T SOD/^ TARTBAS. £. Bee Soda Pouusw- 

POTASSA. U. 8.— E. Potassn Cauatica, D. Fused Potaam 

(Prepared by evaporating tbo solution of potasea to dryneaa in 

an iron vessel.) Kali Purum. 
Qmp. Potassi um 83.3, oxygen 17.6, in 100 parts of pure potaasa ; 

or 1 eq. potassium=39.15-|-l eq. oxygen==8, equiv.=:^.15: bat 

fused potassa contains also a little carbonate of potassa, silez, 

lime, and oxide of iron, which do not affect its medicinal pro* 

Prop. Solid;' of a grey color; deliquescent in the air; feela 

soapy between the fingers, owing to its dissolving the skin. (It 

is generally run into little cylindrical moulds, which require to 

be kept in well-corked phials. 
Over. Powerfully ekcharoiic. 
Use. For forming issues. It has also been used to remove 

POTASSA CUM CALCE. L.E. Potassa Caustica cum Calce, 

D. {Potassa hydras, Calcis, sing. § j.) Calx eum Kali Puro, 
Comp. Potassa and lime mechanically mixed. 
Oper. and Use. The same as the former, but more manageable, 

as it is less deliquescent. 
POTASSiE ACETAS. U. S.— L. E. D. Acetate of Potassa. 

l^tassa Carbon. Ibj., Jlcidi Jlcetici f ^xxvj., .aqua DistiUatm 

ffxij. Mix, and add by degrees enough of acetic acid to satu- 
rate the alkali. Then strain, and evaporate in a sand bath 

with n moderate heat to dryness.) Kali Acetatum. 
Comp. Pt.taAftt 51, acid 49; or 1 eq. pota8sa=47.154-l acetic 

acid=5 1.48+2 eq. water=18, equiv.=116.63. 
Prop. Inodorous ; taste ehorp, pungent ; white, shining ; texture 

foliated, deliquescent; soluble in an equal weight of water; 

also in four times .'«s weight of alcohol. The watery soiotloo 

decomposes spontaneously. 
Oper. Mildly cathartic, diuretic, deobstruent 
V»e. In febrile diaeaaes, dropsict, icterus, and visceral oMrsO" 


ittf. Sl.lo Ij.uadhutUc; :u Mlfli-op 
hutmr. Hinrral kMs, iIhugiIoii or laniarln 
mercury, Ditiale of cilvcfi pal jihates of iiodu j 
tiydrucDiome orii]iiiiianin> lormte of potuuD 
Of.Prrp. JlcrUt Hyi!rargsTi.E.TI. Titict. J 


rOTASSf CAUBOMAH. V. S.— L. S FotonE CsTlianu 
ForuB, U. B.-E. Cermnate of Poum. Sail of TarOi. 

Ctvf. PouBM 43.58. taf bnnic bi;1i1*'<T,SS, waier of^jryslaLHiaaoii 
841 pans; or Icq. puUBBa=lT.19-t-1 eq.BcliI=23.1E, eqiiiv.= 

Pnr. [nodaraua. lute alkaleaenl. uuallc; crjitala mlDOIC, 

t/te. In dioin)', acidiilea of llie ^rlnoE vie. aoa gludnlai ob- 

i>gn. Gr. 3n. propcrlr dlliiird; 3J.dlaolTed In flvJU 

TeKlBj draufiht, 
Hamp. Mineral acida. bom, hjdrochloiale and acelale nt 

a Stlpkurilum, U, B 

ilreain, anilccy8lall|M.) I'hf carbonic acii 
Cyir'nod f ft. Theaameailhalortbecubi 

tjnr flaiihed, the bydraie 


t, dciiigueacent, eitrcDnly 


156 POT 

D9»t. From gr. lij. to gr. x. twice or thrice a dav. The ointBMBt 
U made by mixing gr. xxxvj. Br. Pot. with fj. lard. 

rOTASSII CYANUKETUM. U. S. Cyanuret of PotaMiuio. 
(See U. S. Phar.) 

POTASSn CYANIDUM. Cyanuret of Potassium. (Expose to 
long-continued hcot tlie ferro-hydrocyanutf of iiotassa ; calcine, 
and then separate the cyanide from the quodricorburet of iron 
by pure alcohol ; on ditfUUing thiu, the cyanide is obtained very 

Prop. When pure, white and transparent ; may be Aised in tha 
fire without decompotdiion, and keeps unchanged, if perfectly 

Over. Sedative, narcotic. 

Uto. Haiendie has shown that this is one of the moat active 
poisons known. It has been succcssAilly employed in neural- 
gia, and in the neuroses generally, cephalalgia, itc. Dissolve 
the CtfOMuret of PoUusium in eight tiroes its weight of distilled 
water ; add a few drops of some vegetoble acid. This is called 
by Majendie the Mediciual Hydrocyanate of Potassa, and is to 
be given in the same dose, and under the same circumstancea, 
as his Medicinal Hydrocyanic Acidy which is, one part of the 
hydrocyu:hc acid mixed with eight and a half times its weight 
of distilled water. The dose of the cyanide undiluted is ^ of a 
grain, gradually increased to one grain. In neuralgia and 
rheumatism the watery tQlution (gr. ij. to gr. iv. to S J* water), 
is used by friction ; or tue ointment (gr. ij. to gr. iv. to J j. lard), 
in the same manner, to the port affected, in cephalalgia, it 
has been employed with success in the proportion of gr. vi. to 
gr. viij. to I j. water, wetting compresses wkh this lotion and 
applying to the temples and forehead.— {Majendie' g Formulary.) 

POTASSU lODIDUM. U. S.— L. E. Hydriodos Potassa;, O. 
Iodide of Potassium. (Formed by decomposing the iodide of 
irtm by carbonate of potossa.) 

Ckmp. 1 eq. of iodine 126.3+1 pota86ium=39.15, equiv. 165.4S. 

Prop. Crystals opaque cubeis, inodorous, taste penetrating; very 
soluble in water aiid in alcohol. 

Use. The same as that of iodine ; but chiefly as an alterative in 
secondary syphilis, rheumatism, lepra. 

Dote. Of the saturated solution ftom (Tlvj. to lllxx., of the drf 
■alt from gr. IJ. to gr. xx. The author frequently orders it ia 
doses of 3 J. to 3 ss. Of the Compound Tincture, made by die* 
■olving hdine SJ., Potass. lodid. fij., .alcohol Oij. ; give ten 
drops three times a day. Of the Compound Mixture, made by 
mixing Jodin. gr. ss.. Potass. lodid. Zss., Syrup Papav. f Sbb., 
Aq. Distillat. Oss. ; two tablespoonsful three times a day, in 
cases of complication of scrofula with syphilis. Or, Qi lodin. 
gr. jsB., Potass. lodid. gr. ly. ; solve in .^gua Menth. Pip. l iv. , 
a teaspoonful to children in cancmm oris, also in dropsy, glut, 
and leueorrhaa. 

Jneomp. Acids, metallic salts not iodines. 

POTASSiE NITRAS. U. 8.— L. E. D. Nitrate of Potaaaa, or 
Nitre. (Formed in an impure state by nature in warm cli- 
mates, as India, and by meanaof artificial compostti in France.^ 
JVitmm. ' 

Csmp. Potassa 51.8, nitric acid 44, water 4.3, hi 100 of nitcalet 
or 1 eq. potaMt=s47 JH-1 eq* acids=54.15| eqaiv.=aOL3. 

POT 157 


ftvp, Inodonms; taste cool, bitterish, penetrating; ciyrtalf riz- 
■ided prisms ; permanent in tiie air ; brittle, soluble in 7 parti 
of water at 600. 

Qp^r. Diuretic, refrigerant ; in large doses pmfgative ; externally 
cooling, detergent. 

I7«e. In fevers, dropsies, herpetic eroptions, active hemorrhages, 
mania. A small piece allowed to dissolve slowly in the mouth 
of.en removes incipient cynanche tonsillaris ; himce its uUlity 
in gargles. 

Do*; Gr. x. to 3 ss. In doses of 3 j. it occasions hypercatharsia^ 
bloody stools, and sometimes death. 

Jmcomp, Sulphuric acid, sulphates of soda and magneria, alnmi 
the metallic sulphates. 

QW. Prep. Trochud XitratiM Potasim^ E. Aeidum Jfitriemm, 
L. E. D. 

of Potaasa. 

The above dissolved in boiling water and crystallized by cooling. 

POTASSiE SULPU AS. U. S.— L. E. D. Sulphate of Potassa. 
(The salt which remains after the distillation of nitric acid 
igaited until the excess of acid is driven off; then dissolved in 
the water, and crystallized.) Kaii Vitriolatum. 

Comp. Potassa 54.55, acid 45.45, in 100 ports of sulphate ; or 1 
eq. potassa 47.15+1 acid=40.1, equiv.=87.25. 

Prop. Inodorous; taste bitter; crystals small, six-sided prisms^ 
ended by six-sided pyramids, grouped ; hard, transparent, per- 
manent in the air; soluble in 16 parti of water at 6lK>; insola- 
ble in alcohol. 

0|p«r. Purgative, deobstment. 

Use. In the visceral obstructions to which children are liaUe; 
and as an adjunct to other purgatives. 

Do»$. 6r. X. to 3 j. acts as a deobstruent ; 3 ss. to 3 v1. purge. 

He«w^» Nitric and hydrochloric acids, tartaric acid, chloride of 
calcium, salts of mercury, nitrate of silver, salts of lead. 


cum Suiphure, E. Suiphuret of Potassium. (Sulvhuria § J., 
Potaoam Carbonati* fiv. Rub them together, and place the 
mixture in a covered crucible upon the fire until they unite, to 
be kept in a weil*ittopped bottle.) It is necessary first to dry 
the carbonate in a crucible expoiied to a red heat. 

Ofmp. Tersul phuret of potassium, sul phate of potash, carbonate 
of potash. — {Bertelius.) 

Prop. Inodorous while dry, but when moistened fetid ; taste 
acrid, bitter; color liver- brown ; solid, brittle, deliquescent; 
decomposed by water and exposure to the air. 

Oprr. Expectorant, diaphoretic ; externally detergent. 

Vst. It has been given in chronic asthma, but without much 
benefit; chronic catarrh and rheumatism; arthritic cases; 
herpetic and other cutaneous diseases ; and cancer. Its solutimi 
it useful as a wash in scabies and lines (apiiis. It was formeriy 
improperly used as an antidote against arsenical and saturnine 
poiiM>ns. As a bath, in the proportion of I iv. to thirty galioni 
of water ; as a lotion in local cutaneoua afSactioos in the straigth 
of S j* to two quarts of water. 

168 POT 

IXmb. Gr. v. to gr. xv. nombined with soap, or extract of cooivp 
in pills or mixture twice or ihrice a day ; at au ointment, 3 n. 
of tlie sulphuret to ^ i. of lard. 

huomp. Acids, acidulous salts, metallic and earthy salts. 

etted Potassa. (Sulpkureti loti partem unam, Potastm Ottutitm 
Aqua partes uodecim. Boil for ten minuti'^ and strain through 
paper : preserve the solution in a close-stopped vessel. The 
spec. grav. should be I.I 17.) 

U$e. The same as that of the solid sulphuret; chiefly itted ai 
an extcrnol application. 

Dose. From (llxx. to f 3 jss. twice a day. 

POTASSiG BISLTLPUAS. L. E. Potasse Bisnlphas, D. Bl- 
sulphate of Potassa. ( The salt remaining after the distillation 
of nitric acid &ij., Sulpkuric Acid Ibj., Boiling Water six pints. 
Dissolve the salt in the water, add the acid, and mix. Thea 
boil ; leave at rest to crystallize.) 

Gmp. Potassa ^.87, ucid 54.80, water 12.33=100, or 1 equir. 
potassffi 47.15+2 sulphuric acid=83.3+2 water=18, equiv.=s 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste a strong acid ; soluble in two parts of 
water at 60'^; insoluble in alcohol. 

Oper. Refrigerant and purgative. 

Use. In cases where it is wished to exhibit sulphuric acid, aad 
at the same time open the bowels. 

Dose.. Gr. X. to 3 ij. 

POTASSiE BIT ARTE AS. U. S.— L. E. D. Bitartrate of Po- 
tassa. Ocam of Tartar. (The tartar of wine purified.) 
Tartari Crystalli. ^ 

Comp. PotassK 33, acid 57, water 10 parts in 100 of the bitartrate. 
— ( Tkenard ) 

Prop. Inodorous; taste acid, harsh; crystals small, irregular; 
require 120 parts of water at 60^ to dissolve them ; brittle, pul- 
verulent ; decomposed when kept in solution. 

Oper. Mildly purgative, refrigerant, diuretic. 

Use. In ascites, proceeding from visceral obstnictions ; and to 
open the bowels in inflammatory habits. Dissolved in water, 
with a small quantity of white wine, some sugar, and lemou 
peel, it forms an excellent beverage in febrile diseases, under 
the name of Imperial. 

Dose. 3j. to 3 j. combined with 3j. sodse biboras, to excite the 
kidneys; and to open the bowels 3 iv. to |j. are required. 

Jncomp. Alkalies, alkaline earths, mineral acids. 

Off. Prep. Ferri Potassio-Tartras,V.8.—h. Ferrum Tartari- 
tatum, D. PtUv. Jalapa Comp., U. S. — L. E. Pulv. Scammo' 
nii Comp., E. PiUv. SenncB Comp., E. Potassa Tartrasy U.S. 
—L. E. D. 

POTASSiE TARTRAS. U. S.— L. E. D. Tartrate of PoUssa. 
(Formed by saturating the excess of acid of the bitartrate witb 
carbonate of potassa.) K(Ui Tartariiatum. 

Comp. Potash 42.1 per c^nt , tartaric acid 57.9 per cent 

Prop. Inodorous; taste bitter, disagreeable; generally hi the 
form of a white granular powder ; soluble in 4 parts of water 
at 60°; soluble in alcohol. Like the other vegetable salts of 
the alkalies, this is decomposed in the system, and convened 
Into the carbonate, in which state it is found in the urine. 

PRU 159 

Omer, Purgative. 

Use. To open the bowels in febrile diaeaeet, mania, and hjrpO' 

ehondriasis ; and ai an adjunct to sennat and the resinooa piir> 

gatives in solntion, the griping effect« of which it conectB. 
Do»$. 3 J. to I j. in solution. 
Incomp. Acids; infusion of tamarinds and other acid fhilts: 

ehioride of calcium; lime, magnesia, solphates of soda, ta 

potassa, and of magnesia ; nitrate of silver, acetate of lead, and 

hydrochlurate of ammonin. 

Potassio- Tartras. 

nuretum, U. S. Ferrocyanide of Potassium. 
Onnp. 2 cq. cyanide of potassium=l31.0S-|-l eq. cyanide of inm 

=54.39-1-3 eq. watei=27, equivalent 212.47. 
Open As a sedative, an astringent, and a diuretic Seldom used 

in this country. 
Do»e, From V{xx. to TIlxI. of a solution of 3 ij. of the salt in f J J. 

of water. 
Off. Prop Aeidum Hydrocyanieum Dilutum^ U. 8. — L. 
PUINOS. U. S. iSeeondary.) Black Alder. Prinos VerUcO- 

lotus. The Baric. {Hezandria, Monogynia. N.O. Ilieiium. 

Big. Med. Bot. Indigenous.) 
Prop. No smell ; taste bitter, slightiy astringent ; virtues extracted 

by boiling water. 
Oper. Tonic, astringent, alterative. 
Use. Intermittents, diarrhflsa, gangrene, chnmic cutaneoof 

eruptions ; locally in ill-conditioned ulcers. 
Dose. Of the powder, from 3 ss. to 3 j. ; of the decoction, made 

by boiling I ij. of the bnrk with Oiij. of water to OiJ., from I y. 

to I iij. ; or it may be given in tincture. 
PRUNA. U. S.— L. E. Pruni Domestics Fructos, D. Prunes. 

(Prunus Domestiea. Octand. Trigyn. N. O. AmygdaUm. 

South of Europe, b .) 
Prop, Odor weak ; taste sweet, acidulous. 
Oper. Cooling, laxative, nutrient. 
Use. Id costiveness attended with heat and irritation ; an article 

of diet in fever. 
Off. Prep. Confeetio Senna^ U. S.— L. E. D. 

Leaves. (Cerasus Lauro-Cerasus. Icosandriot Monogynia, 

N. O. Amygdatem. 4.) 
Com^. Amygdalin, resin, myricin,cIomphytIe, extractive, tannic 

acid, ligneous fibre, and water. By distil lation, the leaves yield 

a volatile oil and a distilled water; the oil contains hydro- 
cyanic acid, and hydruret of benzule. Tliis oil is pale yellow, 

and heavier than water, attracts oxygen, and deposits bensoia 

frop. Taste bitter ; odor, when bruised, that of bitter almonds : 

contains hydrocyanic acid and an essential oil— hydruret of 

Oper. Sedative, diuretic. 
Vse. In spasmodic coughs, and all affections in which hydro*, 

cyanic acid is useful. 
PRUNUS VIR6INIANA. U.S. Wild Ckerry Bark, VHUId. 


1«0 P CJ L 


Comp. Volatile oi], hydrocyanic acid, starch, resin, tannin, calUt 
acid, fatty matter, liguin, red coloring matter, salts of limci 
poroa^o, and iron. 

Prop. In the fresh state, or when boiled in water, it emits an 
odor resembling peach leaves. Its tiiste is agreeably bitter and 
oromatic, with the flavor of tlie bitter almond. Imparts its 
virtues to water, cold or hot. Its iieculiar tlavor owing to a 
volacile oil which is dissifpated by heat. 

Oper, Tonic and sedative. 

Use. In debilitated states of the stomach or general system, at* 
tended with irritation and nervous excitability. It allays the 
action of the heart, and is highly useful in the hectic fever vi 
scrofula and consumption. In dyspepsia and intcvmittents. 

Dose. In powder, from 3 ss. to 3 j. See Infusum Pruni Virg. 

Off. Prep. Infusum Pruni Virginians. 

PT£ROCARPLrS. L. £. D. Santulum, U. S. Red Sanden 
Wood. (Pterocarpus Santalinus. Diadelph. Decand. N. O. 
LeguminoitB. East Indies. \ .) 

Prop. Aromatic odor, nearly insipid ; color bright deep red. 

Use. As a coloring material. 

PULEGIUM. E. Sec Mentha Pulegium. 

ders. {Tartaric Jlcid §j.. Bicarbonate of Soda ij. gr. 54; to 
be kept separately in powder ; l-16th of each to be dissolved 
and mixed.) 

Use. In febrile affections. 

Aloes with Canella. {Aloes Uepaticee tt>j., Canella Albm ^Mj* 
Rub them separately into a powder, and mix.) 

Qper. Warm, cathartic. 

Use. In costi vencss, but not well adapted to be used as a powder. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 9j. 

of Aloes. {Aloes 3 jss., Quaiaci Res. | j., Pulv. Cinnam. Comp. 
I ss. Rub the aloes and guaiacum separately, then mix the 

Oper. Warm, cathartic, stomachic, sudorific. 

Use. In dyspepsia attended with a sluggish state of the bowel« ; 
spasmodic affections of the intestinal canal; jaimdice; and 
obstinate coMtiveness. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3j. 

of Alum. {Alum I iv., Kino I J. Mix and powder.) 

Prop. Astringent. 

Use. The same as alum ; and in chronic diarrhoea. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3j. 

nislis, E. D. Oxydum Antimonii cum Phosphate Calcis, E. 
{Antintonii Sesguisulphureti eont. Ibj., Comuum Rasorum S>ij.) 

domp. / Antimonious acid 56, phosphate of lime 44, in 100 parts. 

Prop. Inodorous, insipid ; in the form of a white powder ; in- 
soluble in water. 

Oper. Intended to be diaphoretic and alterative ; in large doses 
eme*ic, purgative ; a ven^ uncertain and useless^preparation. 

V$9 Intend^ to be used in febrile diseases, and every ease Ift 

P U L 161 

Whieh diaphoresis can be useful ; and in small doses in eotar 

neouB diseases. 
Dose. Gr. iij. to gr. viij. in pills, combined with opium or cam* 

jphor, every six or eipUt hours', diluting freely in the intervals.* 
PULVIS ASARI COMPOSrrUS. E. D. Compound Powder 

of Asarabacca. {Foliorum Asari Ewropcn partes tres^ Fol. 

Origani Marjoramtr, Florum iMvand. Spicat sing, partem 

unam.) Rub into a powder. 
Oper. Errliine. 
Use. In chronic headaches, serous apoplexy, and obstinate 

ophthalmia, avoiding exposure to cold. 
Dose. Gr. v. to gr. viij. sniifted up the nostrils at bed-time. 
PUL VIS PRO CATAPLASM ATE. D. Powder for a Poultice. 

iSeminum Lini, qute restant post oletim expressum^ partem 

unam. Farinct avente partes duas. Mix.) 
Use. In nil cases requiring poultices; which are prepared with 

this powder by merely mixing it with boiling water. 

cus, E. D. Compound Powder of Cinnamon. (Cinnam. lij^ 

Cardamomi Sjss., Zingiberis Rod. 5Jm Piperis JLongi Isa. 

Rub thr^ai together to a very fine powder.) 
Opsr. Siimulant, carminative. 
Use. In cold, decayed, phlegmatic habits, to assist digestion, 

and expel flatus; but chiefly used to give warmth to other 

D9S9. Gr. v. to er. x. or more. 

Hartshorn. (The hartshorn burnt and rubbed to powder.) 
PULVIS OPIATUS. E. Powder of Burnt Hartshorn with 

Opium. ( Opii duri cont. 3 j., Comuum ustor. et praparatorum 

lit Coecorum eont. 3 J. Mix.) Gr. x. contain gr. j. of opium. 
Oper. Anodyne. 
I£te. To procure steep and allay pain. It is chiefly adapted for 

xhildrtfn, as the opium can thus be exhibited in small quantities. 
Dose. Gr. j. to gr. x. or more. 

Powder of Chnllc. {Crcta Prtep. Ibss., Cinnamomi ^iv.. Tor- 

mentilla, .Acacia Gum., sing. § iij., Pipcritis L.ongi 3 iv. Reduce 

them sepanitely into n tine powder, and mix.) 
Oper. Antacid, stomachic, absorbent. 
'Use. In acidiiy of the stomach, and in the diarrhoea attendant 

on low fevers. 
Dose, Gr. v. to 3Jss. rubbed up with mucilage and cinnamon 


Crete Opiatns, E. Compound Powder of Clialk with Opium. 

(Pulv. CretiB Comp. ^vjsH., Opii duri cont. 3iv. Mix.) Con- 
tains gr. J. of opium in gr. xl. 
Oner. Anodyne, absorboit. 
Use, In the same cases as the former. As an anodyne to chil' 

dren aflected with irritative diarrhesa during dentition. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3ij. for adults. 

* 100 grains have been given without producing any effect 

168 PUL 

fOQDd Powder of Ipecacuuiba. ( Tptc M uankm e«nt^ Opti ittri 
CMln «^* 3 J., P»Ut*m SutpUtit e&nt, I J. Mix.) 

Oper. Diuphoretic 

Use In rlMumatboi, dropey, gout, feverii dywntery, and diar 

J)0te, Gr. ▼. to 3J. in pitif or bolus, diluting freely whh tepid 
fluids, but not immcdiatitiy. as they are apt to produce vomitiiig. 

pound Powder of Jalap. (Jaiapm |iij., BitaHratis Potassm 
S vj^ ZiHgiberU 3 ij. Rub them separately to a fine powder, 
and then mix.) 

Oper. Purgative. 

UM, In costivenesB, particniarly of ehildren with a tumid belly ; 
In worm cases, and in dropsy. 

D99B. 9J. 10 3 U' for adulut; gr. y). to gr. zii. for children. 

PULVI8 KINO COMPOSn^ds. L. D. Compound Powder 
of Kino. {Kino 3 xv., Ciunam. 3 iv., Opii dun 3 j. Rub each 
separately to a fine powder, and then mix.) 6r. zx. contain 
gr. J. of opium. 

Oitr, Astringent. 

Vse. In chronic dianhoa, leucorrhma, and uterine and intestinal 

Do8t. Gr. V. to 3J. in aqueous fluids. 

PUL VIS RHEI COMPOSITUS. £. Compound Powder of 
Rliubarb. {Ma/fnesia B>j., Qinger in fine powder I ij., Rhubarb 
in fine powder I ly. Mix.) 

Oper. Purgative and antacid. 

Vee, In a dyspeptic state of the stomach, attended with acid 

Doee. 3 8S. to dij. 

Powder. {Sodm Muriatie purioris, Jiagneeim Sulpkatie, utri- 
usque partes iv., Potassa Sutphotis partes iij. First rub the 
dried salts separately into fine powder, then rub them together, 
and pnwerve the mixture in a closely-stopped bottle.) 

Oner. Purgative, resolvent. 

Use. In all cases in which sea water is ordered ; externally op 
plied in scrofulous tuuiortf. 

Voee. From 3 iij. .to 3 vj. dissolved In a large quantity of water ; 
for external uae, a soturated ^oluthin. 

Powder ot Scnmniony. {Hcammonii, Ext. Jalapa durt, sing, 
^ y., Zingiberis Had. | ss. Rub each separately to a fine pow- 
der, und then mix.) 

Over. Catliariic. 

Use, In hydropic and worm cases ; and to remove mucous ob- 
structions in children. 

Dose. Gr. vj. to gr xx. 

PULVIS SClLLiE. Powder of Squills. (The bulb of Seilla 
Maritima sliced, dried, nnd reduced to a powder.) It should 
be kept in well-stopped phials'. 

^er. Diuretic, emetic, expcciornnt. 

Vee. In the same coses for which the squill pill is einplnycd. 

Deee. Gr. iij. to gr. vj. combined with soup, and other Eubstancei^ 
in pillri or bolus. 

PULVIS SPONGl^ USTiE. D. Powder of Burnt Sponge. 


7ae. In broochocele and other scrofuloas fwellingi. 
Doae. 3j. to 3 j. mixed in honey or treacle. 
PULVIS sJTANNI. U. S.— D. Powder of Tin. {Stanni |W 
riatimi quantum velis. Melt the tin, and ftir it brislcly, until 
it changes into a powder, which, when cold, may be paned 
through a sieve.) 

aer. Mechanically anthelmintic. 
. . e. In worm cases, in which the tenia and lumbricut teres are 
to be dislodged. 

Doae. From 3j. to 31j. in treacle, on an empty stomach, for 
several successive mornings, increasing the dose to 3 iij. or 3 iv. 
It should be followed by a purgative. 

pound Powder of Tragacanth. {Trafoe^mtha eont,., Aeaeim 
eont., AmylU aing. i jss., Sacch. Pur. 1 iij. Rub the starch and 
sugar together, then add the tragacanth and acacin gum, and 
mix. The starch might be omitted, as it is not soluble in cold 

Oper, Demulcent. 

Uae. In hectic fever; catarrh attended with tickling cough i 
combined with nitre, in gonorrhoea and strangury ; and with 
ipecacuanha powder, in dysentery. 

Doae. 3 ss. to 3 iij. in distilled water or any bland fluid. Qr. z. 
render f ^ ij. of fluid muciiaginous. 

PYR&THKUM. U. S.— L. E. Anthemus Pyrethrum, radix, D. 
Pellitory of Spain. (Anthemis Pyrethrum. Ciuaa and Ordar 
of Jinthemis J^obilis. Arabia, i .) 

Cmnp. An acrid matter {pyrethrin, on which its virtues de- 
pend), 3, inulin 25, gum 11, tannin 0.55, coloring matter 13. 
lignin 45, chloride of potassium 0.79, silica 0.85, a fixed oil, and 
iron a trace. 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste hot and acrid, its acrimony residing in a 
fixed nil ; the dried root is more acrid than the recent. 

Oper. S'iimulant, ^ialogpgue. 

Uae. Chewed, it excites a copious flow of saliva — hence it hae 
been found useful in some affections of the head ; in strumoua 
swellings of the tonsils ; toothache, and palsy of the muscles 
of the throat. It is also used in infusion as a gargle. 

PYROLiE UMBELLATiE HERBiE. D. Pyrola, E. Chlma- 
phila Umbellata, U. S.— L. The Herbaceous part of Winter 
Green. Pipsissewa. (Chimaphila Umbellata. DeeandriOf 
Mtntoeyn. N. O. Pyrolacea. North America. 2|.) 

Comp. Bitter extractive 18, resin 3, tannin 1, woody fibre, gum, 
and salts of lime. 

Prop. Bitter, slightly aromatic. 

Oper. Astringent, tonic, diuretic. 

Uae, In aflcctions of the kidney, and in dropsy. 

Doae. Of a decoction, made with ^ J. of the dried herb and two 
pinti of cold water, boiled down to one pint and strained, from 
f 3 j. to f 5 iH. three times a day. 

aUASSIA. U.S.— L.E.D. auassia Wood. (Picrana sxe«^«. 
Deeandria, Monogpi, N. O. Simarubiacem, Jaoudca. 1^,) 
The Wood. 

0«y. VoIatHe oil, a bitter principle, gummy extractive, pectin* 
woody fibre, and various ialtfl.~(P/^.) 

164 QUI 

Pnf, Inodoroofl; taite a very Intenae, danble Utter, eolot 
whitish yellow; has no astringency; bitter prlLciple (or 
Quassina) extracted by water and alcohol. 

Oper. Tonic, siomachic. 

Use. In intermittents ; •bilious fever, combined with neutral 
salts; lienteria und cachexia; in hysteria, '.nited with tinctura 
of valerian ; and with cretaceous powder ahd ginger in gout 

D0»e. Of the raspiags, gr. v. to 3 ss., but infusion and extract 
are preferable forms of exhibiting it 

Incomp. Mitrnte of silver, acetate of lead. 

Off. Prep. Infueum QtuM«i<e, U. 8. — L. 

Ul^ERCUS CORTEX. L.£. auercus Alba: Tinctoria, U.S. 
Q,uercu8 Bobori ; Cortex, D. Oak Bark. (Quercns Peduneu- 
lata a. Robor. MonttciOj Polyandria. N. O. Cupuliferm. 
Europe. > .) 

Comp. Tannic acid ; tnnnates of lime, magnesia, potassa, ^tc. ; 
gallic acid, pectin, lignin, uncrystalliznble sugar.— (iBroconiiot.) 
48i) pounds of oak bark yield from 20 to 72 pounds of tannin, 
(impure tannic acid.) — Davy. 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste austere, styptic ; differs fh>m galls in n(^ 
precipitating solutions of tartar emetic. 

gper. Tonic, astringent. 
$e. In intermittents, combined with galls, bitters, and aroma- 
tics; useful also in tiuor albus, and alvine fluxes. See 

Dose. Of the powder, gr. x. to 3 ss. twice or thrice a day. From 
the difficulty of pulverization, the infusion or decoction is the 
best form. 

Off. Prep. Decoctum Ouercus, L. 

QUINIA. U.S.: aUINA. L. auina. Bee anehona. 

QUlNiE ACETAS. Acetate of auiniue. (Saturate quinine 
with concentrated* acetic acid diluted with water, and evaporate 
the neutral solution by gentle heat to crystallization.} 

Prop. Delicate, needle-shaped, snow-white crystals ; taste very 
bitter ; scarcely soluble in cold water, readily in hot. 

Oper. The same as the other salts of quinine. 

QUlNiE CITRAS. Citrate of Uuinine. (Formed like the ace- 
tate, from an aqueous solution of citric acid and pure quinine, 
or by decomposing a hot solution of sulphate of quinine by an 
acid citnito of soda.) 

Prop. Needle-shsiped prisms, of a white color, scarcely soluble 
in water. 

Oper. This preparation and the acetate are supposed to be better 
adapted to thosu excitable persons with whom the sulphate 
does not agree. 

Dose. The same as the sulphate. 

aUINiG SULPHAS. U. S. auinie I>isulpha8, L. E. Disol- 
phate of Quina. (Prepared from yellow cinchona.) 

Cktmp. 2 eq. of quina=329.1(H-l sulphuric acid=40.1-{-8 water 
=72, equiv.=44l.20. 

Prop. Cry^talH colorless, acicular, bitter, inodorous, f.ffloresce In 
the air: 1 part requires 740 parts of cold water, 30 of boiling; 
00 of cold juicohul for its solution ; spec. grav. 850°. Apt to be 
adulterated with mannite and gypsum, which may be detected 
by adding pure alcohol, which dissolves the quinine, but leave! 
the other substances untouched. 

RAN 16ft 

QpMT. Tonic 

Cwe. In intermittenU, and all periodic diseaaea, aa a tonic ; olao 
aa a febrifuge in bilious remittents, and whenever tonica are 
indicated ; may be used witli great advantage endermieally 
wliere the stomach is irritable. 

Dote, Gr. ij. to gr. x. in any simple bitter infusion. 

Ineomp. AlKalies and their carbonates, lime-water, salts pf ba- 
f ryta, lime, nitrate of silver, and salts of lead. -^^ 
laUlNiE F£RROCVANAS. Ferrocyanate of OmN. (De- 
compose sulphate of quinine by means of a solution of fefro- 
cyanate of potassa ; then treat the Impure salt with worm spirit 
of wine, and evaporate the clear solution.) 

Prop. Needle-shaped, confused crystals, of a greenish-yellow 
color, and very bitter taste ; soluble readily in alcohol, aimoat 
insoluble in water ; decomposed by hot water. 

Oper, A powerful tonic and antispasmodic 

l/s«. In intenuittents, and where tonics are indicated. 

Dose. Gr. ij. to gr. viij. in twenty-four hours, between the pa- 
roxysms in intermittents. 

QUlNifi MUUIAS. Muriate of aainine. (Dissolve pure qui 
nine in dilute muriatic acid, and evaporate.) 

Frop. Fine, needle-shaped, white, silky crystals, of a pearly 
lustre, not very soluble in water. 

Oper. A tonic, better adapted in coses of weak digestive powers 
than the sulphate ; preferred by some to the sulphate in inters 
mitten ts. 

Dote. 'l*he same as the sulphate. 

aUINiE NITRAS. Nitrate of auinine. (Add dilute nitric acid 
to a solution of quinine ; or decompose nitrate of baryta by 
sulphate of quinine.) 

Prop. At first a fluid, oily mass, gradually {becoming solid, and 
forming crystals by union with water; scarcely soluble in wa- 
ter, but readily in alcohol. 

aUlNiE PHOSPUAS. Phosphate of aumine. (Prepared by 
adding dilute phosphoric acid to quinine, and evaporating ; or 
phosphate of baryta to the sulphate of quinine. — Phil. Jour. 

Prop. Resembles the other salts of quinine ; readily soluble in 
water and alcohol. 

Oper. Ranked by some next to the sulphate in medicinal efficacy. 

Dose. Same as sulphate. 

QUIN^ ET CLNCHONINiE TANNA8. Tannnte of auinine 
and Cinchonine. (Very active preparations of the cinctionafl, 
not yet introduced into practice in this country. — See Dubiin 
Jour. Med. Sricnce, Sept. 1836. 

RANUNCULUS ACU13. U.S. (Seeondary.) FOLIA. D 
Loaves of Upright Meadow Crowfoot. Potyandria, PolygynU, 
. N. O. Rananculacem. Exotic 1 > .) 
* Prop. Acrid, bitter. 

Oper. Rubefacient, cpisnostie. 

Recent Herbaceous part of Lesser Spearwort {Clatt §mA 
Ordtr at above.) 

Prop, and Oper. The same as those of Rantmcnlns Aeris. 

Vf. Both these species of ranunculus are occasiooally emptoyei 
M coante^irritanti, and to cause vesication. 

166 RHE 

BESlNA. U. S.— L. E. Yellow Resin (The residoe, aiWr 

the distillation of oil of turpentine.) 
Comp. Pinic acid, colophonic acid, sylvie acid, resin. 
Oper. Stimulant. 

Use. In the composition of plasters and ointments. 
Off. Prep, Emptast. Cera, L. Emplast. Hydrargyria U. S. — ^E. 

Emplast. > Cantharidis, E. Emplast. BelladoninB, U. S. — E. 

Emp. Ferris U. S. — E. Emp. Picis Compositum, U. S. — ^L. E. 

Emp. Resin<By U. S. — L. E. D. Emp. Simplex, E. Ceratum 

Resinte, L. E. X/ng. Picis Arida, L. Ung. Infusi Jdelois 

Vesicatoriiy E. 
RESfNA ALBl. D. E. White Resin. (Pinus Sylvestrii. 

The Scotch Fir. ^.) Exudes from wounds of the bark. 
Prop. Little odor or taste ; semi-transparent ; insoluble in water ; 

soluble in alcohol, in oils both fixed and volatile, and alkalies ; 

Oper. Stimulant, diuretic, rubefacient. 
U9e. Almost never employed internally ; but chiefly to rendtf 

more adhesive and stimulating various plasters. 
RHAMNUS. L. D. Rhamni Races, E. Buckthorn Berries. 

(Rhamnus Catharticus. Purging Buckthorn. Pentajidria, 

Monogynia. N O. Rhamnacem. Indigenous. > .) 
Comp. Coloring matter, acetic and malic acid, mucilage, sugaTi 

bitter substance, (cathartine ?) — Vogel and Hubert. 
Prop. Odor faint and disagreeable ; taste bitterish and nauseous ; 

the size of a pea; have four seeds; the juice stains paper 

Over. Cathartic. 
Use. In the same cases as jalap and senna, which are superior 

medicines. Their operation must be assisted with copious 

dilution, as they excite much thirst and griping. 
Dose. Of the recent berries, gr. xx. ; of the dri^, 3 j. to 3 ij. 
Off. Prep. Syrupus Rhamni, L. E. 
RHEUM. U.S.— L.E.D. Rhubarb Root. (Rheum Palmatum 

et Undulatum. Palmnted and Undulated Rhubarb. Enneand. 
Monogyn. N.O. Polygonacea. China. V.) The best comes 
through Rusisia in flat perforated pieces. 

Comp. Extractive, volatile odorous matter, on which its virtues 
depend, oxalate of lime, tannic acid. 

Prop. Odor aromatic, peculiar, rather nauseous ; taste somewhat 
. aromatic, subacrid, bitterish, astringent ; feels gritty between 
the teeth ; colors the saliva and urine saffron- yellow ; not very 
mucilaginous. Pieces firm, but not flinty ; external color a clear 
yellow ; fracture rugged, veined yellow, red, and white ; easily 
pulverized, forming a powder of a fine bright buff-yellow color, 
uoth water and spirit extract its virtues. 

Oper. Purgative, stomachic, astringent. 

Use. In costiveness, from laxity of bowels, particularly of chil- 
dren ; and diarrhoea. It is a useful adjunct to neutral salts and 
calomel, rendering their operation more easy. Externally the 

EDwder is sprinkled over ulcers, to assist their granulation and 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3 ss. of the powder to open the bowels ; gr. yj. 

to gr. X. to act as a stomachic. 
Off. Prep. Jnfusum Rhei, U. S.— L. E. Finum Rhei, V. S.— E. 
Tina.Rheif U. S.— L. £. D. Tinet. Rhei ComfositOy U. S.— 


ROS 167 

L. Timet. Rhei et Aloea^ U. S.~E. Thut. Rhei et Otntiaum^ 

U. S.— £. THnet. Rhei et Sennay U. S. PHula Rhei Cornpo* 

siUe^ V. S. — L. E. 
BHCEAS. L.D. Rhoeadoa Petala, E. Petals of the Red Poppy. 

(Pupaver Rlutas. Cla$$ and Order as Papaver Somnifervm. 

Exotic. 0.) 
Use, Chiefly to impart their fine red color to syrup. 

Off. Prep. Syrupus Rkadados, L. D. 

Eiir" — 

RHUS GLABRUM. U. S. (Secondary.) Sumach. Pentand. 

TVigynia. N.O. .^nacardiaeea. Indigenous.) The Berries. 
Prop. Bark and leaves astringent; berries have a sour, astrin- 
gent, not unpleasant taste, owing to malic acid contained in the 

pubescence which covers them. 
Oper. Astringent, refrigerant. 
Ute. Useful as a gargle in ulceration of the throat, and cooling 

drink in febrile complaints. An infusion of the inner bark of 

the root is highly useful in sore mouth attending salivation. 
RIClNI OLEUM. U. 8.— L. E. Ricinis communis ; Oleum e 

Seminibus Expressum, D. Castor Seeds and Oil. (Ricinua 

Communis, the Castor, or Palma Christi. Monacia, MoTiadelph. 

N. O. Euphorbiacea. Indies. 0.) 
Comp. Carbon 74, hydrogen 10, oxygen 15. — ( Ure.) Fatty acids 

04 (ricinic, elaiodic, murgaritic acids), glycerine 8, palmin. 
Prop. Seetl inodorous; taste acrid, slightly sweetish; kernel 

white ; oily, with a thin, dry cuticle ; contained in a pricldy, 

tricoccus capsule. Soluble in its own weight of alcohol. 
Oper. Cathartic ; sometimes emetic. 
l/se. For obtaining the oil. One or two of the seeds swallowed 

entire operate briskly ; but are not used in this country. See 

Off. Prep. Olsum Ricini^ U. S. — L. 
ROCELLA TINCTORIA. Litmus, D. Dyer's Lichen. (C^- 

togamia Algte. N. O. Mga. Portland Island. IL.) 
Use. For preparing litmus, which is chiefly employed as a dye 

stuf^ and a test of acids. It has been exhibited internally in 

phthisis pulmonalis. 
ROSA CANTNA. L. Rose CaninaB ; Fnictus, D. Dog Rose. 

or Hip Pulp. {Jcosandridy Polygynia. N. O. Rosacem, 

Indigenous. > .) 
Prop. Inodorous; taste sweet, acidulous, depending on the 

presence of uncombincd citric acid and sugar. 
Oper. Cooling. 
Use. Vide the Confection. 
Off. Prep. Confeetio Rosa CamntB, U. 8. — L. 
ROSA CENTIFOLIA. U. S.— L. E. D. Damask Rose Petals. 

{Class and Order as above. Place unknown. > .) 
Prop. Odor extremely fragrant ; taste subacidulous. 
Oper. Lixatlve. 
Vse. Scarcely used fojr any purpose, except for the distillatioo 

of rose-water, and the formation of a syrup. 
Off. Prep. Jiaua Rosier U. 8.— L. E. D. Syrupus Rosmt L. B 

Ol. Rosa. U. S. 
E5SA GALLIC^. U. 8.— L. E. D. Petals of the Red Row 

{Class and Order as above. Europe. > .) 
Pnw. Odor less fragnnt than that of the damask row; tailt 

Wtterhh, astringent 


188 RUT 

Qp«r. Astringenft, tonic 

U$*, See the preparotioni of it. 

Og. Prep. Ckmfeetio Rosa^ L. £. D. It^uMMM lUsm, L. E. D. 

Mel Rotm, L. D, Sjfrupue lUsm^ £. 
EOSiE OLEUM. U. S.— E. Attar of RoMf. (VoIatUe oil oC 

Roeee eemtifolue.) 
Use. A Bceut. 

BOSMA£lNUS. U. S.— L. E. Roamarina; Herba,D. Rose- 
mary. {DiandriOf Manogynia, N. O. Labiatm. South of 

Europe. IX.) 
Prop. Odor fragrant, grateful ; taste aromatic, warm, bitterish ; 

depending on an essential oil, combined with camphor. 
Oper. Tonic, stimulant, emmenagogue, resolvent. 
Use. In nervous headaches, and in chlorosis, under the form of 

infusion ; but it is now scarcely ever used, unless as an a4junct, 

to give odor to sternutatory powders. 
Dose. Of the powders, gr. x. to 3 is. 
Off. Prep. Oleum Rotmarinii L. £. D. Spirittu Rosmarini, 

L. E. D. 
RUBIA. U. S. : RUBTiE RADIX. D. Root of Madder. 

( Tetrand. Monogyn. N. O. Rubiacea. Montpelier. IL.) 
Prop. Almost inodorous; taste bitterish, austere; color red; 

imparted to water, alcohol, and essential oils. 
Oper. Emmenagogue, astringent 
Use. In chlorositf, and difficult or scanty menstruation ; in the 

atrophia infantum ; but its efficacy is very doubtful. 
Dose. Gr. xv. to 3J. united with sulphate of potassa, three or 

four times a day. 

Dewberry Root, Blackberry Root, i^leosandrioy Polygynia. 

N. O. Rosacea. Indigenous.) 
Prop, The roots only officinal. Inodorous; bitter, astringent 

taste ; contains much tannin ; virtues reside chiefly in the bark, 

and extracted by boiling water and diluted alcohol. 
Oper, Astringent and tonic. 
Use In diarrhoea from debility, cholera inftotnm, dmmic 

dysentery. In all cases where astringents are indicated. 
Dose. Of the decoction ( I J., Otias. water ; boiled to (]»j.), from f S J. 

to f ; ij. three or four times a day. Of the powdered root, gr. 

XX. to gr. XXX. 
RUMEX. See Aeetosa Folia. 
RUMEX AQUATICUS. Radix. D. R. Britannicus, obtoal' 

folius. U.S. (Secondary.) Root of the Water Docic iHea- 

mndria, Trigynia, N. O. Polygonaeem. Indigenous. i|.) 
Prop. Bitterish, slightly acidulous. 

3 per Purgative. 
te. In some cutaneous affecticms. 
Doss. Of a decoction of |j. of the dried root, In Cg. of water, 

f5 U. twice or thrice a day^ 

RUTA. U. 8.— L. E. D. The Leaves of Rue. (Deeoniria, 
Monogyn. N. O. Rutacem. South of Europe. i|.) 

Prop. Odor strong, ungrateful , taste bitter, pungent ; acrid, so 
as to blister the skin ; contains a volatile oil. 

Oper. Tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic, emmmagogue t 

Use, In hysteria and flatulent colic ; bat chiefly in the taaa of 
eirong bmnton in clysters^ in the convalsioiii of clilldren. 


Ikfff. 6r. XT. to 9tJ. 

eg. Prep. Oleum Hutm, E. D. Ex^aetum Rule Orave$kniif, 

aUTiE OLEUM. Be% Oleum Rntm. 

8ABADILLA. U.S.— L. E. Sabadilla Seeds. (Helonias C{^ 

einalie, Aeagrea OffieimUie. Polfgamith Morutda. N O. 

Jielantkaeea. Mexico.) 
Prop. Seeds elongated, pointed, inodorous; taste bitter, acrid; 

(in small capsules, three together.) 
Cemp. Gal late of veratria, cevadic acid, elaine, stearine, wax. 
Oper. Cathartic, excitant, anthelmintic. 
UHe. Seldom internal iy ; used in the form of powder to destroy 

pediculi. (Recommended by Tumbull in painful rheumatto 

and neuralgic affections.) 
Dose. Or. l-6lh of the Extraetj gr. ij. to gr. vi. of the powder. 

Tincture used externally. 
Off. Prep. Veratria^ L. B. 
8ABBATIA. U.S. {Secondary.) S. Angalarie. Herim. 

{Pent. Monogynia. N. O. Oentianeee. Indig.) 
Prop. Bitter, without astiingency ; virtues extracted by water 

and alcohol. 
Oper, Tonic. 
Vee. In intermittent and remittent fevefs, also as a prophylactic. 

Dyspepsia and general debility. 
Doee. Of the infusion ( 1 J., water 05.), fj U • ft^qucntly. Of the 

powder, 3 ss. to 3 J. The Extract and Tincture are also nsef\il. 
SABlNA. U.S.— L.E.D. Savine Leaves. (Juniperus SoMno. 
X Ctaea and Order the tame a$ Juniperue Ommunie. Siberia. 

C»mp. Volatile oil, resin, gallic acid, dorophylle, extractive, 

lignin, salts of lime. 

Prop. Odor strong, disagreeable; taste hot, acrid, bitter; de- 
pending on an essential oil. 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, anthelmintic, et* 

Vee. In amenorrhcBa, with a languid pulse, but they require to 
be caut'.ously administered ; in worms, rtieumatism, and gout 
Externally, the powder is applied to old ulcers, carious bones, 
4tc. ; and the inAision, as a lotion, to gangrene, scabies, and 
tinea capifls. 

Doee. Gr. v. to gr. x. of the powder. 

r. Prep. 01. Volatile Junjperi Sabine E. D. Ol. Sakinm^ 
U. S. Extractum Sabinm^ D. CeratuiA SabiwBt U. S.— L. 

8ACCHARI F^X. L. E. Treacle. 

8ACCHARUM. U. S.— L. D. Saccharum Commune— S. Pu- 
rum, E. Sugar (Saccharum Officinarum. The Sugar Cansb 
{T^riand. Monogyn. N. O. Oraminacett. Et^ypt 40 

Cemp. Oxygen 50.8, carbon 42.85, hydrogen 6.35, part8=100.0. 

Prop. In its pure state it is inodorous ; taste perfectly sweet, of A 
brilliant white color, hard ; when impure it has a pieculiar taste 
and flavor, arising fh>m extract, mucilage, and oil ; in shining 
grains of a yellow color. Sugar is soluble in its own weight of 
water at 6QP; also in alcohol : it is di-compofwd by the strong 
adds, but unites with lime and alkalies; boiled with water tt 



170 SAL 

Oper. Natritive ; Uie impure is laxative; externally, the refined 
is escharotic. 

Vst. Seldom given internally with a medical intention, unleaa 
to conceal the unpleasant taste of some medicines. It is said 
to l>c a preventive of worms. Exteri^aUy it is applied to fungoui 
ulcers. Hurt(\il to bilious and hypochondriacal habits and 

Off. Prep. Syrupi Omnes, U. S.— L. E. D. 

8AGAP£NUM. L. E. D. Bagapenum. (Plant unknowni 
supposed to be the Ferula Pergica^ ( WiUd,) Brought to Alex 

Omp. Gum, resin, volatile oil. 

Prop. Odor fetid, alliaceous ; taste pungent, bitterish, nauseous ; 
in small, agglutinated masses of a yellow color; tenacious, 
breaking with a horny fracture. 

Opcr. Antispasmodic, emmenagogue. 

Use. In hysteria, chlorosi:?, und the same cases for which aflsar 
foetida is given, but to which it is inferior. 

Dose. Gr. x. to 3ss. in pills. 

Off. Prep. Pitula Oalbani ComposiUe, U. S.— L. Pilvla Sagor 
pent CompositcBt L. 

SAGO. U. S.^L. E. Sago. (Sag^ Rumpkii.) A modifica- 
tion of starch, containing traces of chloride of sodium. 

SALlCIS CORTEX. E. Sal ix ; U. 8. Cortex. SalixFragilis; 
Cortex, D. Willow Bark. (Saiix Caprea, Great Round-leaved 
Willow ; Salix Mba, U. S. The While Willow ; Sniix Fra- 
silis, the Crack Willow. Diacia^ Diandria. N. O. Salieaeem, 
Europe. > .) 

Comp. Bitter, yellow coloring matter, green fatty matter, tannin, 
resinous extract, gum, wax, woody fibre, and a magnesian salt. 

Prop. Odor slightly aromatic; taste bitter 'and nsiringent. The 
active principle is an alkaloid named salicina, a compound of 
2eq. carbon=12.24-f 2hydrogen=S-|-l oxygen=:8,equiv.=22.S4. 
(All the species ate nearly ttie same.) 

Opcr. Tonic, astringent. 

Use. In inturmittents and remittents; debilities of the intestinal 
canal ; convalescence; and in hectic and phthi!<is. 

Dose. 3j. to 3 J. of the powder; or f^jss. of the decoction, made 
with I ij. of the barlW in Oij. water, boiled down to Oj. 

Incomp. Solution of isinglass, alkaline carbonate^ lime-water 
sulphate of iron. 

BALICINA. Salicine. (Boil willow bark with caustic lime in 
water; filter the deioction ; add sulphate of zinc, as long as it 
produces a precipitate; filter again, and evaporate to the con- 
sistence of un extract, and heat the residue with alcohol Then 
carefully evaporate, and crystals of salicine will be deposital, 
which may be purified by washing with a saturated solution 
of the same principle in cold water. — Jour. Phil. Collegt Phar. 
vol. 3, p. 214.^ 

Prop. Fine silky white crystals, like sulph. quinine, permanent 
in the air, inodorous; strong, bitter taste; six parts are soluble 
in one hundred parts cold water. More soluble in warm water 
and alcohol ; becomes red by mixing witli sulphuric acid. 

Oper. Tonic. 

Vse. in intenuittents, and in all cases whern tonici are Indl* 

SAP m 

«Med. Hi cAeti are analopvus to Ihow of qoiniae. bat mC 

HMe. Gr. iT. to fi. Ti. titery three hoon in imtermittenti. Li 
other eatet, gr. j. to gr. iy. three at four timet a day. 

0AI1BUCU8. U. 8. iSeeamiary.) L. E. Samlraci Nigne 
FUrett Baee^ Cortez, D. Ccnmnon Elder Flowers, Bemei^ 
and Bark. (Pestaiid. Trigjfn. N. O. (kfrifoliacem, Ger- 
many. 4«) 

Pn»p. Odor of the flowen aickly ; of the finit the aame, bat 
weaker; bark inodorous; taste of the flowers bitterish; the 
Ihiit sweetisht dightiy aciduloos, arising from malic acid ; the 
bark at first sweetish, then bitter, acrid, naoseoos. 

Oper. Flowers diaidiorelic, discntient ; berries aperient, sodorifle , 
bark purgatiTe, h^dragogoe, deobstment in small doeea. 

17m. The flowers m fomentations, tn yield their flavor to water 
in distillation, and to form a cooling ointment ; the berrio, or 
their expressed Jnice, in febrile disuses, iheomatism, arthritie 
cases, and the exanthemata ; the bark in dropqr and hcmor- 

D—, Of the jnice c^ the berries fS J. to f^ij.; of the bark, gr. 

▼. to 3 ss. three times a day. 
Qg, Prep, Sueeut Spi$t. Stmkuei J^igrm^ D. Umgneuimm 

Sawtkmei, L. D. 
8AN6UINARIA. U. 8. 8. CatuuUnaU. Blood Root. The 

Root iPolfOMdria, Momogyniot N. O. Papavaraeem. Jndi- 

Prop. Powder of the root brownish orange red ; has a faint, 
narcotic odor ; bitterish, acrid taste ; yields its virtues to water 
and alctdiol. Contains a peculiar alkaline principle, called 
^oa^aarnM, to which it owes its red color and acrid properties 

Oper, An acrid emetic ; stimulant, narcotic, diaphoretic, altera- 

Use, U is principally used in chnmic catarrh, br<nichial aflbo- 
tions, and potnagis. Ckunbined with antimony <x ipecacuanha, 
it is a oaaul expectorant. 

Deee, As emetic, from ^. z. to gr. xz. ; aa an alterative, gr. J. to 
gr. iv. Of the tincture, X. to XXX. drops. This is the best foni 
of administrati<m. 

QjT.Prep. Tmet. SaMguHurim^V.S, 

8APO. U. 8.— L. Sapo Durus. E. D. Hard Soap. 

Ontp. Recent oil 60.94, soda 8.58, water 30.50. in 100 parti. 

Prep. Inodorous; taste alkalescent, nauseous; hard, whktt, 
solnble in water and in alcohol. 

€)ptr. Purgative, diuretic ; externally detergent, stimulant. 

Use. In habitual coetiveneas and Jaundice, in pills, combfaiei 
with rhul»art», ot some bitter extract ; l>ut it is more useful ex- 
ternally to bruises and sivains. We have found much advan- 
tage from rubbing the bowels of children, in mesoiteric fevar 
attended with tumid belliea, with a strong lather of aoap evary 

Deee. Gr. v. to 3 as. {rflli. 

hu^mp. Adds, earths, metallic aalta, and alum ; astrtagent ▼•- 
getablea and hard water decompose snlutioos of soap. 

Og. Prep. PUmlm Smemie easi OpUf U. 8.— L. EmpUetrmm 
4apMii,n.8.— L.E. Oer^^h, LMmmi 
St^MiSils. Um, 8ap e ni§ Oway., U. fi^-JL 

173 SCA 

8AP0 MOLLIS. L. E. D. Soft Soap. ^Prepared hf bciliog 

oil with caustic potassa.) 
Prop. Consistence of hug's lard ; other pftpertiei the Bame ai 
the hard. 

Oper. and Use. As the hard ; but ecorccly ever given as an 
internal remedy. Employed in Germany in the treatment of 
itch, smearing the body with it nigiit and morning, for six days; 
then using a tepid buth of soap and water, and repeating the 
application afterwards to the parts aflected, if necessary. 
During the time of treatment, the patient must remain in bed, 
avoid exposure to draughts of air, and keep the temperature of 
the room at from 73^ to 77^ Fah. This mode of treatment Is 
■aid to be as successful as that by sulphur. 

8ARZA. L. E. SarsaparilliB Radix, D. Sarsaparilla, U. S. 
(Smilax Officinalis. Viacioi Hczand. N. O. Smilacacem. 
Virginia. ?.) 

Comp. Starch, woody fibre, resin extractive, albumen, a volatile 
oil, a crystalline matter {paraUinie acid)^ gum, bassorin, smi- 
lacin; albumen, gluten, lactic and acetic acids, salts; 10011m. 
sarsaparilla yield I), volatile oil. The active properties of 
sarsaparilla are probably chiefly owing to the smilacio, resin, 
starch, and extractive. 

Prop. Inodorous; taste bitterish, feculacious; fibrous; of a 
brownish color external ly, white within. 

Over. Diuretic, demulcent. 

use. In the sequelae of syphilis, when, oAer a mercurial course, 
nocturnal pains, enlargements of the joints, and cutaneous 
ulceintions remain; in scrofula; elephantiasis, or cutaneous 
afiectionu resembling it; chronic rheuuiatism; and whenever 
an alterative is indicated. 

Dose. From 3 j. to 3 j. of the powder, or made into an electuary, 
three times a day. See Decoction^ Syrup, and Ext. 

Off. Prep. Decoctum Sana, U. S.— L. E. D. Decoctum Sarus 
Comp., U. S.— L. E. D. ExtraUum Sana, U. S. — L. 

SASSAFRAS^ U. S.— L. E. D. Lauri Sassafras. Lignum 
Radix, E. Sassafras, Medulla et Cortex Radicis, U. S. Sas- 
safras Wood and Root. (C2a«« and Order, vide Lauri Baec<B> 
Virginia. Z|.) 

Prop. Odor not unlike that of fennel ; taste aromatic, subacrid, 
sweetish ; depending on a volatile oil. 

Oper. Stimulant, sudorific, dmrttic. • 

Use. In cutaneous diseases ; chronic rheumatism ; and as an 
adjunct to the decoctions of guaiac, &c. 

Dose. See Decoction. 

Off. Prep. 01. Sassafras, U. S.— E. D. 

8CAMM0NIUM. U. S.— L. £. Gummi Reshia Scammonii, D. 
Scammony. (Class and Order as Jalapa. Mexico. X) The 
best comes from Aleppo. 

Comv. Chiefly resin, gum extractive, starch, and woody fibre, 
' salts of lime and magnesia ; resin 11 parts, gummy extract 3i. 

Prop. Odor trifling, but unpleasant ; taste bitter, acrid , in black- 
ish grey fragments, becoming whitish yellow when touched 
with wet fingers ; fracture shining. The decoction, filtered and 
eooled, should not be rendered blue by iodine. 

Op0r, Drastic, purgative, hydiagogue. 

SEN m 

I7«f. In obstinate costivenesa, wonns, dropeyt in combinatioa , 

with some other cathartic, as aloes, rhubarb, calomel, 9tc. 
Dote. Gr. iii. to gr. xv. triturated with sugar or withfolmonds. 
Off. Prep. Extractum ColocyntA. Comp., U. S. Confectio Scam- 

moniij L. D. Pulvis Scam. Comp., L. E. 
BCf LLA. U S.— L. £. Scillae Maritimae, Bulbus, D. The 

Bulb of the Squill. (Scilla Maritima. Hcxand. Monogynia. 

N. O. LiliacecB. Austria. !(..) 
Citrnp. SciUitin^ tannin, gum, woody fibre, bitter extractive, fatty 

matter, phosphate of lime. 
Prop. Inodorous ; taste bitter, nauseous, extremely acrid : 

inflames the skin when rubbed on it ; the bulb is large and 

laraellated. The acrimony, on which its virtue depends, is 

destroyed by heat, drying, and Iceeping ; extracted by vinegar, 

spirit, and water. 
Oper. Emetic in large doses : purgative ; in small doses expec- 
torant and diuretic. It owes its properties to a peculiar princi- 
ple, which has been named scillitina. 
Use. In pulmonary complaints, after the inflammatory action 

is reduced ; humoral a^^thma ; pertussis ; in dropsy ; and more 

useful if combined with a mercurial. 
Dose. 6r. j. to gr. v. of the dried root, powdered, and united 

with the nitre of ippc^icuauha ; or in pills, to produce diuresis, 

united with the blue pill. 
Incomp. Gelatin, lime-water, alkaline carbonates, acetates of 

lead, nitrate of silver. 
Off. Prep, .tectum Scilla, U. S.— L. E. D. Oxymel Seilla, L. D. 

Pilula Scilla Comp., U. S.— L. E. D. Pulv. Scilla, E. D. 

Syrupus Scilla, U. 8.— E. Tinct. Scilla, U. S.— L. E. D. 
%* To dry the squill it should be cut transversely, and the dried 

sections kept in an opaque stopped bottle. 
SCOPARIUS. U. S.— L. E. D. Broom Tops. (CyUssus Seo- 

parius. Diadelph. Decand. N. O. Leguminosa. South of 

Europe. > .) Genista Cacumina. 
Prop. Almost inodorous ; taste bitter. 
Over. Diuretic. 
USB. In dropsies. 
Doae. 3 j. to 3 j. of the powder. 
Off. Prep. Decoctum Scoparii Comp., L. Extract. GicttiRt«its» 

Genista, D. 

Figwort. (Scrophularia Jfodosa. Didyn<un. Jingiospermia, 

N. O. Scrophulariacra. Indigenous. /|.) 
Prop. Odor disagreeable ; taste acrid ; becomes almost inert by 

Oper. Externally anodyne, repel lant. 
Use. As a fomentation in hsmorrhoids. 
SEC ALE. See Ergota. 
8EN&6A. U. S.— L. E. D. Senega Root (Polygala Senega, 

U. S. Diadelph. Octand. N. O. Poly^alaeea. Viifinia. Zt.) 

The bark is ttie active part of the root. 
Cntp. Extractive, polygnlic and poetic acid, Virginic acid, 

woody fibre, volatile oil, resin, gum ; albumen, and various 

Udlta. Ow£s Its virtues to polygalic acid. 
Prop. Inodoroiu; taste sweetish at fii^t, then acrid, hot, and 

poDfent : depending on a resin ; extracted by alcohol and sthcf 

174 S E R 

Apir. 8tf malant, ezpeetormnt, dlaphoretie, dhiretk. 

Uts, In peripo«umoni«« tfter the inflamiuiUory action 'm r t d awd 
haiiHM-iiJ iMthma, chronic rheomattm : drupiy ; croup 1 TIm 
extract of it, witti carbonate of ammoola, haa been found uteAi. 
la lethargy. 

D»$t, Or. XIX. to 3tJ. of the powder, Madeira wine, If it can 
be ordered, coven the tante of the powder. 

Off. Prep. Dteoetum Senegm^ L. £L 

AENNiB FOLIA. U.S.— L. Senna Alexnndrina, E. D. Beiina 
Le.tvet. (Ca«ia lanfoUu et •kowaU. Ar Cla*» mud Order, 
aM Gm«ui Pulpm. Egypt. 0.) 

Cfmp. Caihanin, yellow coloring matter, Tolatile ollf, fixed dH^ 
albumen, mucui, malic add, nltti of lime, potana, and inaolit- 
ble matter. 

Prop, Otlur AUnt ; taate bitterish ; active part extracted by alco- 
hol, and by water ; iti activiqr dettroyed by boiling water. 

€)per. Cathartic, hydraangue. (It la apt to gripe.) 

V»e, In cottiveneas and dropiy ; should always be given wfth 
nromuUr and saline substances. 

Doae. Of the powder, 3 J. to 3 J rubbed with crystals of bitar- 
trate of potiiMo, and united with ginger to prevent grii^ng ; but 
the best form is that of infusion. 

The Fluid Extract is the best preparation of senna. (Q( &><▼. 
pure senaa ; exhaust with four times its weight of water by 
dif |ilac«'nicnt ; concentrate in eooMto Ibx. ; diasnlve in the pro- 
duct Ibvj. treaclf>, previously concenuated over the vapor bath, 
till n little of it becomes nearly dry on cooling; add f Jxxiv. 
rectified spirit (d<ms. .835), and, if necessary, water to make 
XV. pints ( I xvi.) Dose 3 ij. for an adult. It rarely gripes, and 
has no unpleasui^t taste.) — Pkar. Joum. 

Adulterations. Leaves of Cynnnchum OleafoHnm^ or Argel. 
The leaves of Box, Colutea Arborescent, and Conforia Myrti- 

Off. Prep. Confectio Senna, U. S.— L. E. D. Jnfnsum Senns, 
(J. S.— L. £. Jnfueum Sennm Comp., L. O. Infuoun Toma- 
rindi cum Senna, E. D. Tinet. Rkei et Senna, U. 8. TVaetvr* 
Senna et Jalapa, U. S. TVnct. Senna, L. E. D. Syruput 
Senna, D. E. 

SENNA INDICA. E. East India Senna. (Cassia e/oa^ota. 

Prop, and 17««. The same as Alexandrian senna. 

SEUPENTlRIiE RADIX. (J. 8.— L. E. Aristolochias Ser- 
peniarlie Radix, D. Snake Root. (Oynand. Hexand. N. O. 
Ariatolochiacea. Virginia. ^4..) Serpentaria Virginiana. 

Comp. Volatile oil, lignin, extractive, resin, starch, albumen, 
salts of lime. 

Prop. Odor aromatic, similar to that of valerian ; taste pungent, 
bitter ; fibrous ; its active part extracted partially only by water; 
altogether by proof spirit. 

Oper Stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic. 

Vee. In typhoid fevers, and diseases of debility ; to assist cift> 
chona in the cure of intermittents ; in the exanthemata, and 
dyspepeAa; and external iyas a gargle, in cynnnche maligna. 

Dose. Of the powder, gr. x. to 3 ss. ; or of the following infuei<m 
t\m, every four hours;— Qi Ead. contusi Serpentaite 3iv.» 

SIN 179 

Aquas fenr. f^^. MtMrat^ in a coveKd veoBel, for two 

Og. Frep. Titxtura SerpentariOi U. 8 — L. E. D. Tinetura 
Cinehonm C U. S.— L. £. D. 

SESAMUM. U.S. (Secondary.) Benne. Sesamum Or>e»ta/«. 
Folio. The Leave*. Oleum Sesawu, U. S. (See.) Benne Oil. 
{Didynamia^ .Bngiospermia. N90. Pedalinea. Exntic) 

Prop. The leaves abound in a gummy matter, which ia readily 
imparted to water, forming a bland mucilage. The oil it 
inodorous, of a bland, sweetish taste, bearing considerable 
re&cmblunce to nlive oil, and used for similar purposes; used 
as food in the East, and as an external aifplication. 

Oper. Laxative, demulcent, nutritious. 

Use As a drink in cholera infantum, diarrhoea, dysontery, ca- 
tarrh, and affections of the urinary passages. 

Dose. One or two green leaves in a tumbler of cool water will 
render it sufficiently viscid. 

SEVUBl. U.S.— L. AdepsOvilli, E.D. MuttooSuet (Ovif 
jlries, the Sheep. CI. MamiwUia; Ord. RuminaiUia.) 

8EVUM PRiEPARATUM. L. E. Adeps O villus Pneparalus 
D. Prepared Suet. (Cut the suet in pieces, melt it over a slow 
fire, and strain it through linen.) OviUi Sevum Prmparatum. 

Cfmp. Stearin, elaine, margarin, hircin ; carbon 78.9, hydrogen 
11.7, oxygen 0.304. 

Oper. Emollient, demulcent, nutritious. 

Use. It IS sometimes boiled in milk, in the proportion of § ij. to 
(y. of milk ; and a cupful given occasionally in chronic diar- 
rhoea ; but its principal use is to give consistence to ointments 
and plasters. 

Off. Prep. Emplastrum Cera, U. S. — L. E. Emplast. Melves 
Fesicatorii, E. Unguent. Hydrargyri Fori.^ U. S. — L. E. O. 
Ung. Pieis Liquida, U. S.— L. D. Ung. Sambuch D. 

SIM A RUB A. U. S.— L. E. D. The Bark and Wood of Sima- 
rouba. (Siranruba Officinalis. Class and Order of Quassim, 
Jamaica. > .) 

Comp. Quassin, resin, volatile oil, woody fibre, ulmin, an am- 
moniacal salt, mucilage, malic acid, suits of lime, silica, iron, 
&c. -^ 

Prop. The bark is inodorous ; taste bitter, not unpleasant ; tex- 
ture fibrous; yellowish on the inside, darker on the outside, 
scaly and warty. Both water and alcohol extract its virtues. 
It possesses no astringency. 

Oper. Tonic. 

ifse. In dysentery, chronic diarrhoea, lienteria, and dyspepsia. 

Dose. 3 S3, to 3 j. of the powder ; l>ut the infusion is a better 
form of exhibiting this remedy. 

Off. Prep, fnfusum Simaroubis, L. 

8INAP1S. U. S.— L. E. Sinapis Semina, D. Mustard Seed. 
Siuapis Nigra et Albn, Common and White Mustard. (7V<ra- 
dynam. Siliquosa. N. O. Cruciferte. Europe. 0.) 

Cnnp. Acrid volatile oil, yellow fatty oil, resin, extractive, gain, 
woody fibre, albumen, free phosphoric acid, salts.— JoAn. 

Prop, Inodorous when entire, but when bruised, and the oil 
pressed out, the odor developed by water is very pungent ; taata 
Mtterish, acrid ; properties yielded to water; the seeds give out 
a bland oil by expression. 

176 SOD 

Op«r. BdmulBDt, dlaretle, emetic, rabefticlent, laxatlTe. 

!/««. In dvspepeit ; a torpid state of the bowelc ; and chlororfa. 
The leecl is swallowt-d entire, or only slightly crushed ; a strong 
Infusion of the flour is used to (H-oduce vomiting in apoplexy 
and paralysis ; externally, the flour is applied as a cataplasm 
to the legs and the soles of the feet in typhus, and comatose 
aflTections. ^ 

Dose, 3J.to3ss.; orflii.ofthefollowlnginfasioQ. ^Sinapfs 

{mlveris, Armoracic rad., sing. § ij., Aq. ferventis Oil. Infuse 
n a covered vessel for twelve huurs ; then strain and add spir. 

roenths piper, f | ij. 
Off. Prep. Cataplatma Sinapis, L. D. 
BODiE ACETAS. U. S.— L.D. Acetate of Soda. (Thecrya- 

tols are to be preserved in stopped bottles.) Striated prismatic 

Comp. Acetic add 36.95, soda 23.94, water 40.11, hi 100 parts; 

or 1 eg. acid=:51.48+l soda 31.3-f-6 water=54, equiv.=136.78. 
Prop, Taste sharp, bitterish, soluble in 2 86 parts of water at 

6U0, spec. grav. 2.1, effloresces in heat, but not in the air; 

melts in a high temperature; little soluble in alcohol. 
Oper. Purgative, refrigerant 
Use. In cases requiring a mild purgative. Chiefly used tat 

makiniE acetic acid. 
Dose. From 3 j. to 3 iv. in any bland fluid. 
Ineomp. Carbonate of lime, sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric 

eODiE BORAS. U.S.— D. Borate of Soda. Sods Sub-Boraa, 

L. Sub-Boras Soda>. Borax. 
Prop. A white salt ; in crystals of flattened hexahedral prisma ; 

sweetish allcallne taste ; dissolves in twelve times its weight 

of cold, and twice its weight of boiling water. Effervesces on 

exposure to the air ; has the property of rendering Cream of 

Tartar very soluble. 
Comp. 2 equiv. of boracic acid 69.8, and 1 of soda, 31.3=:l01.1-> 

10 or 5 equiv. of water, according to the form of its crystals. 
Oper. Diuretic enimenagogue. 
Use. In nephritic and calculous complaints, depending on an 

excess of uric acid. As a detergent in aphthous afiections of 

the mouih in children, rubbed up in sugar in the proportion <A 

1 to 7, or nibbed with honey. 
Dose. From gr: gr. xl. ; or combined with cream of 

BOD^ CARBON AS IMPURA. L.E. Sodie Carbonas, vcnale, 

Barilla, D. Impure Carbonate of Sf)da. (Prepared by nature 

in Egypt: artificially from the incineration of marine plants; 

and the decomposition of chloride of sodium.) 
Omip. Carbonate of soda, potassa, and chloride of sodium ; clay, 

and other earthy substances. 
Use. For preparing the pure carbonate. 
Off. Prep. Cfifbonas SodtB, L. E. D. 
BODiE CARBONAS. U. S.— L. E. D. Carbonate of Soda. 

(The impure corbonate dissolved in water : the solution strained 

and crystallized.) 
€)omp. Soda 20.02, carbonic acid 14.38, water of crystallizatioa 

64.7 parts ; or 1 eq. of soda=31.3-4-l acid=2S.124-10 water=ML 


SOD m 

Prop. Inodoroiu; taste alkaline, but not acrid \ eiyitala oUlqiii^ 
octahedrous, efflorescent, requiring for their solution two part* 
of water at 60^ ; thejr uodeigo the watery fusion when expoaed 
to heat. 

Oner. Antacid, deobetruent. 

Use. In dyspepsia, and acidities of the stomach, united with 
bitters ; in uric acid gravel, in hooping-cough, bronchocele, and 
in scrofulous afiections. 

Vote. 6r. x. to 3 ss. twice or thrice a day. 

Meomp. Lime ; acids, unless as an effervescing draught : hydro> 
chlorate of ammonia, earthy and metallic salts. 

C>g. Frep. Soda SeefuiearbenaUst L. D. Sodm Carbonae £»• 
aiecata^ U. 8.~L. E. D. Sodm Potaesw- Tartrate U. 8.— L. 
Sedm Sutphae, U. 8.— L. Ferri Sesouioxjfdwn^ L. Pilulm 
Ferri ComposiUBi U. 8.— L. JUagneatm Carbonatf U. 8. — ^L. 
LioHor Sodm CUorinatm, U. 8. Sodm Phoepkaa^ U. 8. 

BODM CARBON AS EXSICCATA. U. 8.— L. 8ode Carbo- 
nas 8iccatum, £. D. Dried Carbonate of Soda. (The carbo- 
nate made to undergo the watery fusion; and, when dry, 
reduced to powder.) 

Cmqi. Soda 59.8tt, carbonic acid 40.14 parts ; or 1 eq. 8oda=:31.3 
H-i acid=33.12, equiv.=53.4:S. 

r. Antacid, lithonlriptic. 
In acidity of the stomach ; but chiefly in calculus in the 

kidneys, and other affections of the urinary organs. 
Dose. Gu V. to gr. xv. made into pills, with some aromatie 

powder and soap. 
BODJE PH0SPHA8. U. 8.— L. E. Phosphate c^ Soda. See 

Pkospkas Soda. 
SODiE SESaUICARBONAS. L. Sodas Bicarbonas, U. 8.-^ 

£. D. Sesquicarbonate of Soda. (Sodm Carbonatis Ibvii., w9f . 

Distil, cong. j.) Dissolve the carbonate of soda, and pass 

carbonic acid through the solution ; then set the solution aside 

to crystallize. Dry the crystals in bibulous paper, and then by 

moderate heat. 
Cewip. Soda 38.5S, carbonic acid 39.76, water of crystallization 

81.60 parts; or 1 eq. soda=31.3+l acld=23.13+l watei^=0^ 

Prop. In minute crystals; less alkaline to the taste than the 

carbonate. A solution in 40 parts of water does not precipitate 

corrosive sublimate of an orange color. «, 

Oper. and Use. The same as that of the carbonate. 
Dose. Gr. x. to 3 ss. 
BODiE CARBONATIS AaU A. D. SodflB Aqua Effervescent 

E. Water of Carbonate of Soda. (Sodm Carbonatis qnaMtwsi 

velis. Dissolve it in distilled water, and evaporate the solution 

to the spec grav. 1034. A solution of the same specific gravity 

may be made by dissolving an ounce of carbonate of soda in ft 

pint of distilled water.) 
Prop, and Use. The same as those of the solid salt 
BODiE MURIAS. E.D. Muriate of Soda. See Ssdti' CJUM- 

Use. For preparing the exficcated salt. 
SODII CHLORIDUM. U. 8.— L. Sode Murias Pnrum, B 

Chloride of Sodium. Muriate of Soda, or Sea Silt (In u 


in SOD 

Impure itate this to one of the mo«t abandant prodnetkmc d 

Cbmp. Soda 54.36, hydrochloric acid 45.74.— (BerzeKus.) Or 1 

eq. of ■odiuin=23.H-l chiorine=.3o.4:2, fquiv.=58.72. 
Prop. InoUorous; taste agrceuble, tuilt ; crystals cubes ; solablo 

in three parts of water; permanent in the air; decrepitates 

when exposed to heat. 
Oper. Tonic, purgative, anthelmintic ; externally stimulant 
Vse. In some cases of dyspepsia and worms; in sea scurry, 

and purpura ; in large doses to checft vomiting of blood ; as an 

ingredient in clysters ; a fomentation to bruises ; and, added to 

water, to form a stimulant bath. 
JDose. 6r. x. to 3 ss. In clysters, 3 iv. to ^ J. 
Off. Prep. Murias SotUs Siccatunh E. D. .^eidum HydrockU- 

ricunty L. E. D. Hydrargyri Chloridum Corrotivumj U. 8. 

Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite, U. S. 
%* Sea water owes its laxative qtuilities to this salt. IQO parts 

of wafer taken from the ocean contain at an average 1-34<A of 

salt, or common salt 3.25, hydrochlorate of magnesia 0.64, «iu* 

phatA of lime 0. 1 1 . « 

SODifi SULPHAS. U. S.— L. E. D. Sulphate of Soda, or 

Glauber's Salts. (From the salt which remains after the 

distillation of hydrochloric acid, the superabundant acid being 

saturated with carbmiate of soda.) 
Cbmp. Soda 19.75, sulphuric acid 524.69, water of crystallizathm 

55.56 ports; or 1 eq. soda=3l.3-f-l acid=40.1, equiv.=:71.4. 
Prop. Inodorous; taste strongly saline and bitter, nauseous; 

crystals hexagonal channelled prisms, with dihedral summits; 

efflorescent; soluble in threotparts of water at60O; undeigoes 

the watery fusion. 
Over. Purgative ; in small doses diuretic. 
Use. In costiveness, the most generally employed putative ; in 

bilious colics, largely diluted. x 

Dose. Of the effloresced spit in powder, 3 iij. to 3 yj. ; of the 

crystallized salt in solution, 3vj. to 3xij.; its nauseous taste 

may be corrected by lemon juice or cream of tartar. 
fncomp. Carbonas potassae, chlorides of calcium and barium, 

salts of lead, of silver. 
SODiE POTASSIO-TARTRAS. L. Potassa et Soda Tartraa, 

E. Tartras Sods et Potassse, D. Potaseio-Tartrate of Soda. 

(Soda Carboltatis "ixS}., Potassee Bitartratis |xvi., Aq. Ferv. 

Oiv. Dissolve the carbonate in the water, and add gradually 

the bitartrate. Filter the solution; then apply a gentle heat 

until a pellicle forms, and crystallize.} Soda Tartarizatum. 
Comp. Tartrate of potassa 54, tartrate of soda 46, in 100 parts: 

or 1 eq. of tartrate of potassa=:l 13.63+1 of tartrate of sodass 

97.78+8 watei^72, equiv.=283.41. 
Prop. Inodorous; taste bitter; crystals eight sided prisms, the 

ends truncated at right angles; efflorescent; soluble in five 

parts of water. 
Oper. Cathartic. 
Use. In costiveness ; well suited to cases of Jaundice, calculiifl^ 

and puerperal fevers 
Dose. 3j to 5j. 
Ineomp. Minersn acids ; acidulous salts, except bittitrtfle of po 

tassa ; otUoride of calciuw { salts of (ead» 

SOL 17t 

80LIDAGO. U. S. (Seeondary.) Golden Rod. SoUdaco 
Odora. Folia. The Leaves. i^Syngencsia Superfiua. N. 5. 
Cemporita, Corymbiferm.) Indigenous. 

Prop. Leaves have a fragrant odor, and a warm, aromatk, 
agreeable taste, depending on a volatile oil, of a pale greenish 
yellow color, and lighter than water. 

Oper, Aromatic, tstimulaiit, carminative, diaphoretic. 

Use. To relieve pnin arising from flatulence ; to allay nausea. 

dOLUTIO ACETATIS ZINCI. E. Solution of Acetate of 
Zinc. {Sfilpkatis Zinci 3j , Jlq. Distil, f ^x., Solve: Acetati* 
Plumbi ^^v., Jiq. Distil, ilx. Solve. Mix the solutions, and 
afier they have remained at rest for a little time, filter the 
mixture.) A limpid tluid. 

Oper, Astringent. 

Use. Externally, as a collyrium in ophthalmia, after the vessels 
are unloaded ; and as an injection in gonofrhosa. 

*^* {In this preparation a double decomposition takes place; tk» 
sulphate of lead which is formed is insoluble^ and the acetate of 
xine Soluble, on which account they are thus easily separated; 
hut when the autate is intended to be used as an iiyectum *» 
gonorrhaa, the mixture should not be filtrated.) 

ridi, L. Boluiioa of Chloride of Barium. (Jlfitr. BaryUs 3 J., 
JSg. Distil, fli., E.: Barii Chloridi 3)., J3q. DUtU. t'lUL 
Dissolve) A limpid, colorlet« fluid. . 

Oper. Stiniulnnt, deobstnient, diuretic; io large doses em^ic, 
purgative, and extremely deleterious ; externally escharotic. 

Use. In scrofulous affeciions; glandular obstructions ; worms, 
and cutaneous diseases ; but its efficacy is doubtful. Externally 
to fungous ulcers, and specks on the cornea. 

Dcse. fllv. to TIlx. twice or thrice a day, and gradually Increased 
till the nausea is produced. 

Jncomp. Sodte sulphas, alumen, potassa nitras, and argenU 

80LL)TI0 MURTATIS CALCIS. E. Liquor Cnlcil Chloridi, 
U. S.— L. Aqiin Murintis Calci?, D. Solution of Chloride of 
Calcium. (Calcii Chloridi liv., Aqua Dist.f I x\y Dissolve 
the chloride of calcium in the water ; then filter through paper. 
Lond. Or, take of marble, in fragmentii, § ix.. Muriatic Jtcid 
%, Distilled IVater q. s. Mix the acid with Oss. of the dis- 
tilled waior, and gradually add the marble. T5wards the close 
of the efiVrvegcencc apply a gentle heat, and when the action 
hus ce:«si>d, pour off ilie clear liquor and tvaporatc to dryness. 
Dissolve the residuum in its weight and a half of distilled wa- 
ter, and filler the solution.— CT. s. Phar.) A colorless fluid. 

Oper. Tonic, otinmlant, deobstnient. 

Use. In scrofulous tumors, glandular obstructions, general 
debility, and laxity of habit. 

Dose, fllxv. to f 3 jss. in a cupful of water, twice or thrice a 

iiteamp. Sulphuric and nitric acids; potassa, soda, and their 
carbonates ; sulphas sodc, sulphas potassc, nitras potasse, and 
biborns sode. 

Styptica, £. Compoaiid Solution of Sulphate of Ccqiper. 

8ufyhtM$ Ct^ri, Aluminm, ting, Ji^., Jtptmim^ Jtdii 


180 SPI 

Muhkmrici SJm. Boil the suIphttM in water to dissolve 

ana to the fil tered liquor Mild the sdd.) ^qua Cupri VitrioUla. 
Optr, Astriugent. 
Um, Eztemul, to titop bleedings ot the nose, by the appUeadcm 

of dosbils steeptnl in it to the uostrils. 
BOLUTIO SULPHATIS ZU4CI. E. Solution of Sulphate of 

Zinc. ( SulpAatig Zinei gr. x vj., j9f i(« f | v iij., Jlcidi Sulpkurid 

DUtUi gr. xvj. Dissolve the sulpliate, then add the water, and 

filter through paper.) 
Oper. Astringent 
V$e. As a lotion in the latter stage of ophthalmia ; and an itt- 

Jection in gonorrhoea. 
8FIG£Lf A. U. S.— L. E. D. Indian Pink Root. Ptntandria^ 

Monogvn, N. O. Oentianacem. Indigenous. 2|..) 
Comp. Oil, resin, bitter principle, gallic acid, mucilage, eagar, 

albumen, woody fibre, salts of potaasa and lime. 
Op0r. Anthelmintic. 

Ute. For the expulsion of lumbrici ; in the remitting (ever of in- 
fancy. Its wne should be preceded by an emetic, and foltpwed 

by a warm purgative. 
JDose. Gr. x. to 3 ss. of the powdered root, every night and 

morning, till the worms are expelled ; or an infusion combined 

with senna. 

Of., Prep. Infututn Spigelia, U. 8. 


fiPlREA. U. 8. iSeeondary.) Hardback. Sp. Tomentota^ 

Radix. The Root {Icosandria^ Pentagyn. N. O. Roiocea.) 
Comp. Taimin, gallic acid, bitter extractive. 
Prop. Taste bitter, and powerfully astringent: water extracts 

its medicinal virtues. 
O^er. Tonip, astringent 
Use. In cholera infantum, diarrhoea, and all cases whow a 

tonic combined with an astringent effect is needed. 
Dote. Of the extract, from gr. v. to gr. xv. ; from f !j. to f f^. 

of the decoction. 

CUS. E. Aromatic Spirit of iEther. (Ornnam. Goit eont. 

3iij., Cardam. Semin. cont. 3J8S., Piperis Longi Fruct. eont^ 

Zingiberis Rod. eoneiea^ sing. 3 j., Spiritua ^ther. Sulpk. €{}. 

Macerate for fourteen days in a stopped glass vessel, and strain.) 

Elixir Vitrioli DiUee. , 

Oper, Stimulant 

Ut$. In faintings and nervous affections. 
Dote.^ f3 88. tof3J. ^ 

— L. Spiritns iBtheris Sulphurici, £. Compound Spirit of 

JEther. Hoffman* t .Anodyne JAquor. {Mtheria Sulph.t' % viy., 

Spiritus Rectificati f I xvj., Olei JEtherei f 3 iij. Mix.) Spiritug 

JEtkeris Vitriolici. 
Oper. Stimulant antispasmodic. 
I7««. In typhus fever, hysteria, and to allay irritation in painM 

diseases; in headache externally, when the part to which it is 

applied is kept covered with the hand, in which case it acts n 

a rubefacient. 
Dote, f S ss. to f 3 Ij. in any convenient vehicle. 

^thereus Nitronis, D. Sphit of Nitric iEther Sweet Spirit 

S P I 181 

of Nitre. (Spir. RteL OOi., jfctAJWCrtct fiv. Add theaeid 
fnulauUy oa the ipirit, and mU; then dbtil, by a gvatle heat, 
r S xxxU. Or, ft AVtrM Potass^ tnj^ Jidd. Su^urie, ftJas^ 
Alcohol Olxss., ^Uohoi DUut Qj., OtrAoiiM P«ta«M |J. Mix 
the nitrate of potaasa and the alcohol in a large flan retort, 
and bavioK gradually poured in the acid, digest with a gentle 
heat for tvro hours, then raise the heat and distU a gallon. 
To the (listillud liquor add the diluted alcohol and carbonate 
of potassa, and again distil a gallon.) — V. S. Phar. 

Comp, 1 eq. of •:ther=b7.48+l of hyponitroos acid— 38.15, 

Prop. Odor fragrant; tafte pungent; acidulous, coloriess; to- 
lutilc, indammable ; siiluble in alcohol and water; spec grav. 
0.834—0.874, L. E. When agitated with twice its Tolome of 
concentrated solution of chloride OK calcium, 13 per oent. of 
sitber separates. 

Oper. Refrigerant, diuretic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic 

V*e. In febrile diseases; spasmodic asthma; and dropsies^ m 
an astiiitunt to more active remedies. 

Do$9. ni XX. to f 3 j. in any convenient vehicle. 

SPIRT rUS iCniERlS SULPUURICI. £. Liquor iBthereoa 
8ul phuncus, D. Spirit of Sulphuric .£ther. {JB^ktrtM Sulpk, 
Oj., Spir. Recti/. Oij. Mix.) 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic, antispasmodic 

Use. The same as sulphuric sther ; f3j. in f^TJ* (^bariey- 
water and syrup of marshmallows f 3 iv., form a useAil gargto 
in slight inflammation of the fauces. 

Done f 3s8. to f3iij. 

SPIRf TUB AMMONITE. U. S.— L. E. D. Spirit of Ammonia. 
{.Ammonia Hydrochloratis |z., Potatsm Gtrfr Jxvj., ^trihu 
Rect., AajM^ a a Oiy. Mix, and distil Oiij. Or, ft Mmriat. Jiwf 
moiM, CaleiSf a a ftj.. Alcohol | xz., Afum | iz. Slake tha 
lime with the water, mix it with the mur. ammonia, and distil 
upon a sand bath. When all the ammonia has come ovei^ 
ri'move the liquor, and keep It in small bottles well stopped.— 
U. S. Phar.) 

Prop. Odor pungent, ammoniacal ; taste pungent, acrid ; eolor- 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic, antispasmodic 

V»e. In i)ar:ily8is, fuintings, and nervous debilities. 

JJose. fidd tof3j. in water. 

Off. Prep. Spir. Awmonia Aromaticuo, U. S.— L. E. D. 8pir. 

Ammonia Fatid.. L. £. D. 

Aromntic Spirit of Ammonia. {Ananonim Hpdrocklor. ^r, 

PotMScg Carb. Svi^., Gnnamomh CaryopkfUorum eont., !& 

3 ij., CorL Limonum 3 iv., Spir. RecLt Aqum^ a a Civ. Mix, tad 

diAiil six pints.) 
Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic. 
Use. In thn same cases as the spirit of ammoniji ; ft is Bon 

grateful, and less ncrimoniuus. 
Dose, f 3 ss. to f 3 J. in any convenient vehicle. 
Off. Prep. TincU Ouaiaei AmmoKieUth U. S.— L. E. D. Tmei, 

FeUeriante Ammoniata, V. S. — L. D. 
'neomp. Acids, acidulous salts, metallic salts, lim^water. 
tiPittlTUS AMMONLE FCETIDUS. L. E. O. Fetid Bfiil. 

183 8 P 1 

of Ammonia. (JSmmon. HyirocU. \ x., Potastm CbrA. fxy)^ 
^r. Rut., Jiqug, ting. UiiJ., jlssafaUda I v. Mix, and with ft 
MOW fire dititii three pints.) 
Ftm. Odor fcaid nnd amrooniacal ; tnste alkalescent, acrid, and 
■lightly ulliuceous; pale when recent; colored brown by, age. 

3 per. Bihiiulant, antispnsmodic. 
94. In hyiiteria, atonic gout, and tpannodlc asthma. 
Dote, f 3 8S. to f 31. in water. 
SPlKfTUS ANISI. L. Bpiritufl Anisi Campodtns, D. Spirit 

of Aniseed. {Jlnisi Sem. eont. 5 Zi Spir. Ten. eong. J., JSqua 

OiJ. Mix, and distil a gallon by a gentle heat.) A spirituona 

solution of the oil of aniseed. 
Oper. Carminative. 
Vse. In tlatulent states of the stomach ; but it is often abused. 

and produces dram-drinking. 
Date. f3i.tof3iv. 

Spirit of Horse Radish. {Armoracim Radieis recent, condtmj 

JSurant. Cort. exsie., ting. % xx., Mfriatiem Jfuc eontmt. 3 V., 

Spirit. Ten. ctng. j., .^qum OiJ. Mix, and distil a gallon.) 
Oner. Stimulant, nutiscorbutic. 
Vte Scarcely now used in scorbutus ; but it Is a useAiI adjunct 

to infusion of foxglove In dropsies attended with much debillQr. 
Dote. f3j. tof3iv. 
SPiRlTUS CAMPHORATUS. D. Tinctara Camphors, E. 

Spirit of Camphor. (Campkorm I iv., Spirit. Reet. Oij.) 
Oper. Stimulant, anodynp, discutient. 
Use. External, against rhctunntic pains, paralytic ntmibneM, 

chilblains, gangrene, and for discussing tumors. 
Ineomp. Water, which precipitates the camphor. 
BPIRri'CJS CARDI. L. E.D. Spirit of Caraway. (CbnttS^m. 

eontut. I xxij., Svir. Ten. cong. J., Jjgua OIJ. Mix, and distil a 

gallon.) A spirituous solution of the oil. 
Oper. Carminative. 

Use. In flatulence ; and as an a4Janct to griping porgativea. 
Dose. f3j. tofjss. 
SPIRTTUS CASSIiE. E. Spirit of Cassia. (Cassia in tear— 

powder IbJ., Proof Spirit OviJ. Macerate for two days, add of 

water Ojss., and distil seven pints.) 
Use. The same as Spiritus Cinnamoml. 
BPIRTTUS CINNAMOMI. L. D. Spiritus Lauri CInnamomi, 

£. Spirit of Cinnamon (Cinnamomi Olei 3 Ut Spir. Ten. 

eong. j., .Aqua Oj}. Mix, and with a slow fire distil a gallon.) 

A spirituous solution of the oil. 
Oper. Stimulant. 

Use. In diseases attended with much languor and debili^. 
Dose. f3J. tof31v. 
Off. Prep. Jnfusum Digitalis, U. S.— L. 

sprnmrs juNipfiRi coMPosIfus. u. s^l. e. d. 

Compound Spirit of Juniper. (Juniperi Fhtet cent. %xw^ 
Carui Sent, eont., F>tnieuli Sem. eont., sing. I ij , l^rir. Ten* 
teng. J., .aqna OiJ. Mix, and distil a gallon.) 

Oper. Stimulant, diuretic. 

use. As an adjunct to diuretic InAiskms In dropsies. 

Dmse, f3J. tofJJ. 

8PIRITU8 LAVANDOLiB. U. 8.— L. £. D. BpliiC of Lft 

SPI 183 

wider. (Ittntindula recent. IbUas., Spir. Reel, eomg, J., A^nm 
Oy. Mix, and distil a gali(m.) A Bpirituoos solutiOD of the oil. 

I7f«. As a perfume, and to malce the following articles : — 

Qg, Prep. T^netura Lavandulm C»mp,t L. £. O. JJiuwieniMm 
Oamtkorm Comp.^ L. 

THnctiO'a Lavandula Cdmpotita. 

SPIRlTUS MENTHiE PIPERfTiG. L. D. Spiritus MenthB, 
£. Spirit of Peppermint (Olei Mentha Pip, 3iij.f SpiritM* 
Rectifi£at. cong. j., Aqua Oj. Mix, and distil a gallon.) 

Oper. Carminative, stimulant 

U$e» In nausea, flatulence, and fointings. 

Dose, f 3 as. to f 3 iij. 

SPIKlTUS MBNTUiE VIRTdIS. L. D. Spirit of Spearmbit 

Oper. Carminative, stimulant 

Use. In n:tusea, flatulence, and faintings. 

Doee. f 3 ss. to f 3 ij. in any proper vehicle. 

SPIRTTUS MYRlSTICiE. U. S.— L. E. Spir. Nucis Moschft* 
te, D. Spirit of Nutmeg. {Mvristica Jfucleor, cent. Sijss., 
Spir. Ten. cong. J., Aqtia Oj. Mix, and distil a gallon.) 

Oper. Cordial, carminative. 

line. In faintings, and as an adjunct to grijdng purgatives. 

Dose. f3 8fl. tof3iv. 

SPIRlTUS PIMENTiG. U. S.— L. E. D. Spirit of Pimento. 

Oper. Qordiut, carminative. 

Use. In flatulent colic, atonic gout, bcA, 

Dose. f3j. tof3iv. 

SPIRFTUS MENTHiE PULEGn. L.D. Spirit of Pennyroyal 

Oper and Use. The same as that of Spearmint 

Do$e. f3j. tof3iv. 

BPIRTTUS RECTIFICATUS. L.E.D. Rectified Spirit Spec 
grav. 8)8. 

Oper. and Use. The same as of alcohol. 

SPIRlTUd RdSMARINI. U.S.— L.E.D. Spirit of Roeemarv 
(0/rt RoMjnarini 3 ij., Spir. Rectif. cong. j., Aqua Oj. Mix, and 
with a s^low fire distil a gallon.) 

Oper. Siimulnnt 

Use. In languors; externally to pains and britises. A fragrant 

Dose. f3j. tof3iv. 

Off. Prep. Linimentum SaponiSt V. S. — L. E. D. THnct. La- 
vandula Cump.j U. S. — L. £. D. Tinct. Saponit CampkoraUu 

BPIRlTUS TENUIOR. L. E. D. Proof Spirit Spec, gran 
920, L. D. ; 935, E. 

Comp. Alcohol 44, water 56 parts, in 100, according to the Lon^ 
don and Dublin ; and alcohol 42, water 58, according to the 
Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. 

Oper, Stimulant 

Use. In the same cases, internally, as those hi which alcohol 
is us'>d; externally, much diluted in ophthalmia, superficial 
inflammation, and burns; chiefly employed as a solvent of 
vegetable matters in the formation of tinctures, tec. 

Off. Prep. Tinctura Varia, L. E. D. Spiritue, L. £. D. 



184 STY 

BPONOTA. U. B.— D. E. S|xm«» (CIbm Zoopkfta, VW« 

Spongta. Meditorrtinean and Red Sen.) 
Camp. Oelntine, osmnzome, aniinaJ muciie, fat, oil, traees of 

chloride of •odium, iocline, sulphur, phosphate of lime, silica. 

alumina, and mnKitesia. 
Frov. Of n pale brownish-yellow color, light, soft, very porous ; 

absorbing Huids by capillary attraction. 
Ute, External. For absorbing the acrid discharge from ulcen; 

suppressing ha?morrhage«, when the bleeding mouth of the 

vessel is compressed with it ; to form tents for dilating woundi. 

In which case the sponge is immersed in melted wax, and 

cooled before being used : for making burnt sponee. 
BPONGliE USTiE PULVIS. D. Burnt Sponge! (The spong* 

is cut into pieces, burnt to a friable coal in a covered vessel 

and rubbed to a powder.) 
Comp. Cariionote and phosphate of lime; carbonate of soda 

charcoal ; iodide of sodium. 
Oftr, Tonic, deottstruent, antacid. 
U$e. In bronchocele, scrofulous complaints, and herpetic enip- 


Do»9. 3 J. to 3iiJ., made Into an electuary, with honey and 

powdered cinnamon. 
8TANNUM. U. S.— L. E. Btannnm, Limatora. Pulvia. D. 

Tin Filings and Powder. , 

frop. Odor peculiar when nibbed ; inripid ; color white, softiah 

•pec. grav. 7.391. 

Sp«r. Mechanical 1 
$e. See PutvU Stanni, 
BTAPHlSlGRlA. L. E. D. Staves Acre Seed. (DelphinUim 

Staphisagria. PolyandriOy Trigffnia. N.O. Ranuneulacem, 

Istria, Apulia, Crete, i .) 
Camp. Delphinia, volatile and fatty oils, albumen, woody fibre, 

gum, starch, phytocol, sugar, and various salts. 
Prop. Odor disagreeable ; taste nauseous, bitterish, hot; figure 

of the seed an irregular triangle; extremely black; white 

Oper. Cathartic emetic, vermifuge. 
Use. Owing to the violence of its operaticm, it is very seldom 

given internally ; and is only usecl as a powder mixed with 
air- powder to destroy pediculi. 
8TATICE. U.S. Mnrsh Rosemary. (Stntice Qtrolhuana. 

Pentand. Pentagyn. United States. 4.) The Root. 
Comp. Tannic and gallic acid. 
Prop. Taste austere, bitter, intensely astringent. 

gp«r. Astringent, antiseptic. 
se. Tn gargles, in aphthous and malignant sore throat ; and 

int ernally in chronic dysentery. 
8TRAM0NII SEMINA, FOLIA. U. S.— L. D. Stramonion, 

E. The Leaves and Seeds of Thorn Apple. 
€3amp. I^avea contain gum extractive, starch, albumen, resin, 

Mtllne matters, ligoin, watpr; the aeeda contain, in addition, ft 

peculiar alcoholic principle, daturia, wax, fat^ matter, fixed 

oil, bassorin, dec 
Uae. The same as the extract 
8TYRAX. U.S.— L.E. StyracisResUia,D. Storax. (Styrax 

Q^cmala. (Z>mmA JfeMfym. N. O. Sivrtutm, Syria. >^ 

SUB left 

CtafP. (Neo-iresin, benzoic tdd. 

Pr9p. Odor frngraut, afreeable; taste aromatic; in miBiei 

couposed of dbiinct tean ot' a yellowish red or brownish color. 

Otibn adulterated vi'tlh sawdust. 
Opt. Stimulant, expectorant. 
V*s. Seldom used ttlone, but as an adjunct, chiefly oa tccooBt 

of its fragrance and aromatic properties. 
D9»e. Gr. z. lo 3 »>. 
Off. Prep. Stvtaz Purificata, V. S.— D. PUula Stfraeis Gra^., 

L. E. PiiuU e Stfrace^ D. Tinet, Benzoin Qnnp.^ U. S 
STRYCHNIA. U. S.— L. E. Strychnia. An aUali prepared 

from the Strychnos Nux Vomica. 
Comp. 30 eq. carbon=183.G+16 eq. hydrosai=l<S-|-3 eq. ozyfoi 

=iM4-l eq. nitrog .n=:14.15 equi?.=3J7.7d. 
Use. As a tonic In pyrosis, passive diarrfaoBa, and lettconhoa; 

in cases of partial partilysis not depend'mg on organic d i«» M M W^ 

especiiilly when caused by carbonate of l^uL 
D0*e. From gr. 1-lOth to gr. ith. 

Acetate of Strychnia. (Strychnia gr. j., .Aeeti disU f 3 j.) 
Oper. The same, as strychnia, but a more certain mode of in- 
suring its influence. 
V*»* In paralysis and ^nic diarrhoBa. 
D—e,' X\x. to TUjcxz. 
STRYCHNIA NITRAS. F. Nitrate of Stiychnia. {Strgekidm 

quantum vis, Aeidi Jfitrici dilwti quantum opus sit.) 
Prop. Crystals white, acicular, very soluble in water. 
U$e. The same as the acetate. 
D9»6. l-16th to MOth of a grain. 
*^* There are various salts prepared from strychnine, as the 

McetaU^ the iodate^ the nitrate^ and the tulphate, which, how- 
ever, possess no advantages over the pure strychnine. Their 

introduction, therefore, into medicine is not desirable. (For 

their mode of preparation, doses, fcc, see Dunglison's " A*«« 

Remedies.** ) 
8TRYCHNOS NUX VOMICA. U.S.— D. Nux Vomica, L.B. 

Ratsbane. (Strychnos Jfux Vomica. Pentand. Monogynieu 

N. O. Jipoeynacem. India. l\..) 
Prop. Inodorous ; taste intensely bitter, poisonous. Its efficacy 

as a remedy depends on a peculiar alkali, named strychnia* 

combined with igusnric acid. 
Opcr. Tonic, stimulant; when token in large doses it produces 

tetanic spatms. 
Vse. In dy^epeia ; gout ; rheumatism ; and especially hi pwa 

lysis of the lower extremities. 
Dose. From gr. iij. to gr. xij. 

*** For its poisonous properties^ see .Appendix A*o. /. 
6UBL1MATUS CORROSIVUS. E. Corrosive SublUnate. 

See Hydrargyri Bichloridum. 

melas Pnecipitatum, D. Precipitated Submuriate of Mercury. 
Ca» 1 eq. of mercary=ii03+l of chlorUie=:35.48, 

Prsf. Inodorous ; insipid ; in a fine white powdo'. 

Cfor. Antisyphilitic, alterative. 

l)^ aa^ v^--' 'TK. ..gif ^ of criomeli ftom wUch it difltat 

186 S U L 

•nlf In belDg In a finer powder than the other can be redooed 
to ; on which account it can be more advontogeonaly combined 
with lard, for external use. 

aulphate of Mercury, formerly Turpeih Mineral. (A protoxide^ 
combined with arid.) Ufdrargyri Fitriolatu* Flavut, 

Camp, Mercury 76. oxygen II, sulphuiic acid 10, water 3, in 100 
parts.— (/VKrcroy.) Or 4 eq. of pei oxide of merci>ry==673-f3 
of lulPhuric acid=190.3, equiv=903.3. 

Prop. iDudorout ;. taste acrid ; of a bright yellow color ; soluble 
in 1000 parts of water at 60°, and 600 at 2120. 

Optr Emetic, discutient, errtiine, alterative. 

Vse. ^Idum employed internally, owing to its violent effects 
It is, huwiver, a ustrful emetic in swelM testicles ; and, when 
mixed with liquorice-root powder, and snuffed up the nostrils 
at bed-time, it forms an excel ienterrhine In chronic ophthalmia. 

Dose. Gr. J. to ar. iij. 

SUCCTNUM. U.S.-L.E.D. Amber. (Found on the shores 
of the Baliic.) 

Comp. A resinous matter, essential oil, and an acid sui generio. 

Prop. Inodorous, except when heated or rubbed ; insipid ; In 
fragments of a pale golden yellow color, transparent ; has a 
^lining luf>tre; fracture conchoidal; brittle; cpec. grav. 1.08; 
hisoluble in water; slightly acted on by alcohol. 

Use. To afford Its essential oil and acid. 

Off. Prep. Actdwrn SueeinieutiL, £. D. Oleum Suceinit U. 8.— 

Juice of Elder Berries, vulgarly called Elder Rob. (Suedi 
Baecarum Sambud JSTig. matur. partes v., Sacck. pur. partem J. 
Boil with a gentle heat to the consiiitence of honey.) 

Prep. Odor that of the berries ; taste acidulous, sweet. 

S^er. Cooling, laxative, diuretic. 
se. Diluted with water as a beverage in cases of biflammatoix 
fevers ; and catarrh. 

Do$e. f |ss. to f ij^. diluted with water. 

BULPHAB BARYTiE. E.D. Bulphateof Baryta. (A natural 

Comp. Baryta 66, sulphuric acid 34, In 100 partv.— (Berze/iW.) 
Or 1 eq. b.iryta=76.7H-l of acid=40.1, equiv.= 116.8. 

Prop. Foliated; spec. grav. 4.4; dccrepiiates when heated; 
insoluble in water; soluble in boiling concentrated sulphuric 

Pota^su with Sulphur. {J^itratia Potaasm in pulv. triti, Sut- 
phuria Sublimati, pondera aigualia. Gradually deflagrate m a 
red-hat crucible and, when cold, preserve it in a wril-siopped 
glass vessel.) The nitrate is decomposed. Lixivia Fitrioiata 

Oper. and Uae. The same as the sulphate of potassa, into which 
it is converted by attracting oxygen, when exposed to the at- 

Dote. Gr. xv. to 3 J. 

SULPHUR. U.S.— L.E. Roll Sulphur. (A volcanic produc- 
tion. Sicily.) Impure sulphur, melted and run into moulds^ 
-p. Odorous when heated or rubbed ; tosipid, solid, brittle { 

SIJL 187* 

■pec. grav. 1.99 ; taeXble at 23GO, crystallizing as it cooli ; YcHm- 
tilixed by heat, coDdensing unchanged. 

SULPHUR PRiECIPITATUM. U. S. PreeipitaUd Sulphur, 
Lac Sulphuria. (Qi Sulphur tt>j., Lime ft^Jss., JVater two gal' 
Ions, Muriatic Acid q. s. Slake the lime with a small portion 
of the water, and having mixed it with the sulphur, add the 
remainder of the water, tK)il for two or three hours, occasionsdly 
adding water so as to preserve the measure, and filter. Dilute 
the filtered liquor with an equal bulk of water ; then drop into 
it sufficient muriatic acid to precipitate the sulphur. Lastly, 
wash the precipitate repeatedly with water till the washing! 
are tasteless, and dry it)— U. S. Phar. 

Optr. Laxative and alterative ; emmenagogue. 

Use. In cutaneous afifections, and as a laxative in constipation 
and hemorrhoids. 

Dose, 3 J. in the form of an electuary, two or three times a day ; 
or combined with magnesia or cream of tartar. 

SULPHUR SUBLIMATUM. E. D. Sublimed Sulphur, com- 
monly called Flowers of Sulphur. (The sulphur of commerce, 
wliich is obtained from pyrites, sublimed in close vessels.) 

Prop. Inodorous, unless rubbed between the fingers, or heated , 
ilightly acidulous; a fine powder, of a bright yellow color; 
very infiammable ; contains a small portion of sulphuric acid 
produced iu the sublimation, from which it is freed by washing ; 
soluble in linseed oil. 

Oper, Stimulant, laxative, diaphoretic, transpiring through the 
cutaneous exhalants. 

Use, As a laxative in chronic rheumatism, atonic gout, rachitie, 
asthma, and some pulmonary afiections; in hemorrhoidal 
affections it is the only laxative that should be employed, united 
with magnesia or b!^artrate of potossa. A specific in itch, and 
■everat cutaneous oiseases, when either internally or externally 

Dose. 3 8S. to 3 ij. taken night and morning.^ 

D. Black Suiphuret of Mercury. {Hydrareyri Purif.^ Sul- 
pkuris Sublimati^ sing. K>j. Rub them togemer, tmtil the glo- 
bules disappear.) Ethiopia Mineralis. 

Comp. Suiphuret of mercury 58, sulphur 43, in 100 parts. 

Prop. Inodorous ; nearly insipid ; a very black powder, impal- 
pable to the touch ; completely volatilized by heat ; should not 
give a white colpr to gold when rubbed on it ; soluble in loio- 
tion of pure potassa. 

^9r. Anti-venereal, alterative, anthelmintic. 

Use In syphilis ; but it is the most inactive of the mercurial 
preparations ; in glandular swellings : it is sometimes oieflii 
against ascarides. 

Dost. Gr. v. to 3 ss. 

8ULPHURIS lODlDUM. U.S. Todide of Sulphur. (9Hodin§ 
Jiv.. Sulphur ^ J. Rub together in a glass mortar till thoroughly 
mixed. Put the mixture into a matrass, close the orifice loosely, 
and apply a gentle heal, so as to darken the mass without 
meltinir it. When the cnlnr has become uniformly dark' 
tbfooghout, increase the heat so as to melt the iodide ; then , 
incline the matrass in difierent directions ; and lastly, allow ft 

188 SYR 

to eool, break It, aod pat the lodtde Into botitet, which are t0 
be well ttiti^ped.)— <7. S. Phar, 

Prop. Iodide of sulphur It entirely dinipated by heat When 
boiled in water, iodine escapes with the vapor, and sulphur Is 
deposited nearly pure. 

CJfMT. A powerful alterative, especially In lupti*^ aene^ and pao- 

Use. In cutaneous affections, secondsuy syphihs, rheumatism, 
Jcc. The ointment of iodide of sul phur should be mnde at first 
by mixing gr. z. of the iodide with Ij. lard ; the Etrength may 
be gradually increased, as the skin can bear it, until it contains 
3 SB. to the IJ. lard or spermaceti ointment. (The vapor 
may be inhaled with advantage in some cases of humoral 
asthma : combine four parts iodine with one of sulphur, and 


gertartrate of Potassa. (Deposited on the inside of wine casks.) 
ee Tartar. 
DI8ULPHAS aUINiE. L. Sulphas auiu(e,E.D. DIsuIphate 

of duina. 
Cown. Quina 74.31, acid 16.17, water 1952, in 100 parts; 1 eq. 
or sulphuric acid=40.1H-2 eq. of quina=339.1+8 eq. of water 
=72, »'quiv.=447.2. 
Prop. Inodorous; taste powerfully bitter; minute white ciyi- 
tals— not very soluble in cold water, unless acidulated. 

3 per. Tonic, antiperiodic. 
§e. In intermittent fever, debility, and every case in which 

cinchona has been employed. 
Dote. Fr* m gr. J. to gr. x., frequently repeated in the course of 

a day. 
Ineomp. All the alkalies and alkaline earths. 
BYRUPUS. U.S.— L. E.D. Simple Syrup. (Saeekari Purif. 

Ibx., ^qua biy. Dissolve the sugar in the water with a gentle 

Prop. Inodorous, sweet, thickish, transparent 
Use. To cover nauseous tastes ; but it seldom renders medicine 

more pleasant and might well be altogether dispensed with. 

It is the base of most of the other syrups. 
N. B. The Syrups should never be kept In a temperature that 

exceeds 55^. All syrups that contain vegetable mucilage are 

apt to become ropy and acescent, or deposit crystals of sugar. 

They are, therefore, more suitable for the winter season. 

They should never be prepared in quantities, so as to be kept 

long on hand. 
8YRUPUS ACACIiE. Syrupof Gum Arabic. {^Oum .Arabic 

8 parts, Sugar 64 parts. Boiling fVater 32 parts, Orange-Jlower 

Water 1 port. Dissolve the gum in the boiling water, fr«rquently 

stirring, then add the sugar ; boil so os to form a syrup, and 

strain ; when cold, add the ornnge-flower water.) 
BYRCPUS ACETI. E. Syrup of Vinegar. {JJeeti Galliei 

§ xj., Saech. Pur. 5 xiv. Boil them so as to form a syrup.) 

Syrupus .Aceti. 
Prop. Odor acetous ; taste sweet acidulous. 

gper. Refrigerant, antiseptic. 
se. In fevers, diluted with water, as a beverage; and In seor- 

SYR 189 

D—^ f3J.tof3!j. 

8YBUPUS ACIDI HYDROCYANICI. By rap of Hydiocyanto 

Acid. (^ Syrapi purificat. IbJ., Acidi hydrocyanlcl mMUemaUf 
3 J. li\x.)—MajendU. 

Us: Add to commoa pectoral mixturef; uied af other tyropf 

BYRUPUS ALLU. U.S. Syrup of Oarlic, (JkOt Frt$k 
Oarlic sUced ^vj., Distilled Finegar Oi^ Sugar toi^. Mace- 
rate the garlic in the vinegar, in a gloM veieel, four dayf : th«n 
express the liqnur, and set It by, that the dregs may subsld«; 
lastly, add the sugar tp the clear liquor, and remove any scuB 
that may form, and strain the solution while hot)— C/. 8. Phar, 

BYHUPUS ALTHiGiG. L. £. Byrup of Mnnhmallowg. 
(AltJuBm Rod. contus. | viij., Sacck. Pur{fieati Ibijss., Jiqum Olv. 
Boil the root in the water to one-half, and press out the liquor , 
defecate, and having added the sugar, boil down to a proper 
consistence.^ Very susceptible of decomposition when Kept 

Over. Emollient, demulcent. . ' 

xfse. In catarrh, nephritic cases, and for sweetening demulceat 
drinks in acute fevers. 

Dose. f3j. tofSiU. 

BYRUPUS AM YGDALiE. U. B. Syrup of Mmonds, Svrup 
of Orgeat. (Take of Sweet Almonds IbJ., Bitter Almonds | iv., 
Water Oiij., Sugar IbvJ. Having blanched the almonds, rub 
them in a mort>ir to a very fine paste, adding, during the tritu- 
ration, f I iij. of the water and tt>j. of the sugar. Mix the psste 
thoroughly with the remainder of the water ; strain, with a 
strong expression ; add the remainder of the sugar to the 
•trained liquor, and dissolve with tlie aid of a gentle heat 
Btrain through fine linen, and having allowed it to cool, bottle, 
cork tight, and kdep in a cool place.) — U. S, Pkar. 

BYRUPUS AURANTU. U. Q.—L. E. D. Byrup of Orange 
Peel. {Aurant. Cort. recent. % ijss.. Aqua Ferv. OJ., Sacek. Pur, 
B>iU. Macerate the peel in the water for twelve hours Ui a 
covered vessel ; then to the decanted fluid add the sugar.) 

Oper. Slightly tonic ; stomachic. 

Use. An elegant adjunct to stomachic draughts and mixturee. 

Dose. f3i.tof3ij. 

BYRUPUS BRUCIN^. Syrup ofBrucine. (^ BrucUie gr. y)., 
Aquffi distillnt. I iv., Sacchar. alb. 3 ij. Mix.) 

Use. In same diseases as strychnine, but weaaer hi the propor- 
tion of 1 to 19. 

Dose. A tablespoonful. night and morning. 

BYRUPUS CALCIS CULORIDI. By rup of Chloride of LioM. 
(Q( Calcis chlorid. 3J, Emula. amygd. §vj., Byrup. gummoe. 
3J. Mix.) 

Use, In gonorrhoea. 

Dose. A tablespoon All every three hours. 

July-fiower. ( Petalorum Diantki Caryopkylli reeont., vnguAu§ 
resectist Ibj., Aquts Bull. Ibiv., Sauk. Pur. ftv|j.) 

Prop, Aromatic. 

Use. Chiefly to impart its color to eztemparaneoof miztaraib 

Dose, f3J.tof3iU. 

incm»p. Alkaline solutkma. 

190 SYR 

BTRUPUS CINCHONtfi. F. Syrap of Cinchoola. (Take 

of Milphiite of cinchonia gr. xxiii., rimple lyrap f I xt).) 
Dote. Froni f 3 J. to f 5 j. 
BTRUPUS CROCI. L. E. Syrup of Saffron. {Ooei Stigma 

turn 3 X., .^qum Fervent. OJ., Saech. Purtf. IbiiJ.) 
Oper. Cordial. 
Use. As on adjunct to Btomachic and cordial draughts; bot 

chiefly on account of its color. 
Do»e. f3J tof3IJ. 
BYRUPUS EM£TLE. F. Syrup of Emeta. (Take of pun 

emeta gr. iv., simple syrup bj. Mix.) 
Use. In catarrh, hooping-cough, and all eases in which ipecft* 

cnanha is useful. 
Doee. f3J. lof3iiJ. 

CUBEBARUM. Syrup of the iEthereal Hydro Alcoholic 

Extract of CubdM. (Vt Ext hydro-alcohol, ether, cubebar. 

f iij. Suspend with mucilage in Aq. menthe piper, bj. ; add 

sacchar. alb. ftijl Mix.) 
Use, In chronic gonorrhoea, lencorrhcBa, ice. 
Dote. A teaspoooful three times a day. Focur ounces of this 

syrup contain 3 ij. of extract, equal to xj. of powdered cubebs. 
«YR€PUS GENTIlNINiE. Syrup of Gentianine. (^ Symp. 

simplic. IbJM gentlanin. gr. xy}. Mix.)— Jlfa;«iM<»s. 
Ute. In scrofulous affections. 
Dote. A tablespoonful four or five times a day. 
BYRUPUS lODINII. Syrup of Iodine. (^ Tinctor. iodin. gr. 

▼j., syrup, simpl. | ij. Mix.) 
Dote. To be taken in twenty-four hours. 
BYRUPUS IPECACUANHiE. U. S,— E Syrup of Ipeeaei- 

anha. {Ipecacuanha in coarte powder I iv., Rectified Spirit Oy., 

Proof Spirit^ Water^ of each ffxlv., Synip (hrlj. Digest the 

ipecacuanha in the rectified spirit for twenty-four houn^ 

squeeze, and filter. Repeat this process with the proof spirit ; 

and aguin with the water. Unite the fluids, and distil to S x^. 

Add I V. of rectified spirit, and then the syrup. 
Frop. Expectorant and emetic. 
Ute. In bronchitis, asthma, croup, and catarrH. 
Dote. f3j. tof3ij. 
BYRUPUS KRAMERIiG. U. S. Syrup of RhaUny. (Take 

of Extract of Rhatany 5 ij., Water Oj., Supar Ibijss. Dissolve 

the extract in the water and filter, then add the sugar, remove 

the scum, and strain while hot.) — U. S. Phar, 
Oper. Astringent and tonic. 
Ute. In nil ciises where aetringents are indicated. . 
SYRUPU8 LIMONUM. U. S.— L. E. D. Syrup of Lemons 

(Limonis Sued colati Oj., Saeckari Purif. Ibijss.) Syrmpus 

Sued Limonum. 
Oper. Cooling, antiseptic. 
Ute. To sweeten and acidulate barley-water, and other diluting 

fluids, in inflnnimatory and bilious fever. A useful addition to 

detergent gargles. 
Dote, f 3 j. to f 3 ij. or more. 
BTRCPUSMORI. L. Syrup of Mnlbeny. {Mori Smeeiw^UH 

(y., Saech Purif, B>^) 
Ofir, Coo ing. 

SYR 191 

Um§, For aeMolating and iweetening dilotiiig fluids ia Abrito 

disoases, and as an adjunct to gargles. 
J>0»e. f 3 J. to 5 lij. or more. 
BYRLPas MOUFUIiE ACETATIS. F. Syrup of Acetate 

of Moruiiia. (Take u*' cluritied syrup IbJ., sulphate of morfriiia 

gr. iv. Muki^ into a syrup.) 
Use, The same as that of Syrup of Poppies. 
Dose. From f 3 j. to f 3 i v. 

of Morphia. (Talie of ciai itied syrup ftj., sulphate of morphia 

gr. iv. Make into a syrup.) 
Use. For varying the narcotic, when patients have become ae 

customed to the action of the acetate. 
Dots. Prom f 3 j. to f 3 iv. 

Oil. (Qi Ol. jecinor. aaelli s ^iU-* Gum arab. pulv. | v., Aqua 
I xy., Syrup, cemmun. § iv., Sacchnr. alb. I xxiv. Make as 

emulsion of the four first ingredients ; dissolve the sugar at a 

moderate heat; clarify, and add aqua flor. aorant. fU*)** 

D0»e, Two tablespoonsful. 
8VRUPUS PAPAVERIS. L. E. D. Syrup of Poppies. <Ai* 

5i«0rt9 CapnU. ftiij., Sacckar. Pur. Ibv., .Aqua Firv. eong. ▼. 
oil the capsules in the water to two gallons, and express 
strongly. Bi>il the liquor to Oiv., and strain while hot. Defe- 
cste by rest for twelve hours, and boil the clear liquor to <Nj., 
adding the sugar so as to form a syrup.) f S j. contains about 
gr. J. of opium. 

^«r. Anodyne. 

Use, In catarrh, to abate coughing ; and in the diseases of chil- 
dren to allay pain and procure sleep. The degree of strength 
of the preparation is very uncertain. (Qi Olei olivo, Ozymeliie 
Bciile, ft a, Papav. alb., sing, f ^j., in doses of a tea^poonful, ia 
obslioate coughs and pertussis. 

Dmo. f 3 j. to f I j., according to the age of the patient 

*«* It very readily ferments, and therefore should he kept in a 
eool place. 

BYRUPUS aUINiC F. Syrup of Quina. (Take of sulphate 
of quina gr. Ixi v., simple syrup Ibij. Mix.) 

C7Sr0. In all cases in which the sulphate of quina is useful. 

Dssi. From f 3 ij. to f 3 iv. 

BYRUPUS aUININiE ClTRATIS. Syrup of Citrate of Qui- 
nine. (1^ Syrup, sacch. clurif. Ibj., Q,uinin. Acetat. acid. gr. 
xxxvj. M.) 

Dsse. Two tnblespoonsful in twenty-four houra. 

BYRUPUS aUINifi SULPHATIS. Syrup of Sulphate of 
Quinine. (19^ Quinin. sulphat. gr. xvj.. Syrup, simpl. 3 vi^.) 

Dsse. A tenspoonful. 

BYRUPUS RHCEADOS. L. E. D. Syrup of Red Poppjr. 
(Rhaados Petalorum &J., .Aqua Ferv. bij., Saech. Purif. fcnss. 
To the water, heated in a warm bath, add the petals gradually, 
stirring occasionally ; next remove the vessel, and macerate for 
twelve hours; then express the liquor, defecate, and odd Mm 
sugar so as to form a syrup.) 

17m. As coloring matter. 

BYROPUB RHAMNL L.E.D. Syrup of Buckthorn. (AAmm^ 


192 STR 

Bmeei rtetnL OIy^ Zimgihtrit e&neUm, PimmUm etntrit^ H$tf 
3 vj., Saeek. Purif. biv. Defecate the Juice by reM, for throe 
dajns and ttrain. To a pint of the defecated juice add the ginger 
tool and pimenta; then macerate* in a gHiUe heat, for four 
hours, and strain ; boil what remains to one pint and a half^ 
mix the liquors, and add sugar so as to form a syrap.) Sfm- 
fu» Spina Cervinm. 

(^er. Cathartic, but attended with griping, and dryness of the 
mouth and fauces. 

Use. To open the bowels; but owing to its very unpleasant 
taste, it is seldom employed except in clysters. 

J)o»e, f3iv. tof ;j., drinking freely of gruel, and othw tepid 
fluids, during the operation. 

4TRUPU8 RUEI. U.S. Syrup of Rhubarb. (Takeof lUitterft 
bruised Sij., Boiling Water Oj., Sugar bU. Macerate the 
rhubarb in the water twenty-four hours, and strain ; then add 
the sugar, and proceed m the manner directed for Sjfrup. AUii.) 
— U. S. Phar. 

of Rhubarb. (Take of Rhubarb bruised ; Ijss., Cloves^ Cimta- 
mon, bruised, each | as., Nutmeg bruised 3 ij.. Diluted Alcohol 
Oy., Syrup Ovj. Macerate the rhubarb and aromatics in the 
diluted alcohol for fourteen days, and strain ; then, by means 
of a water bath evaporate the liquor to Oj., and while not, mix 
it with the syrup previously heated.) — U. S. Phar. 

BYRliPUS ROSi£. L.D. SyrupusRoseCentifoiioNE. Syrup 
of the Rose. (^Ro8<b Centifolia Petal, exoiceat. % vij., Saeck. 
Purif. IbyJ., Aqua Ferv. Oiij. Macerate the petals in the water 
for twelve houro ; evaporate the strained liquor to OiiJ., and add 
the sugar so as to form a syrup.) 

Oper. Gently laxative. 

Vee, In cost! veneas of weak habits, and of children. 

Dote, f 3 j. to f $ J. or more. 

8TRUPUS ROSiE GALLTCifi. E. Syrup of Red Roaei. 
(Petal, eieeat. Rosa Oallica I ij.. Aqua Bull. IbJ., Sacch. Fur. 
1 XX. Prepared in the same manner as the former.) 

Oper. Mildly astringent. 

Use. As an adjunct to stomachic infusions, and to gargles ; bin 
it is on account of its color that it is valued. 

Dooe. f 3 iJ . to f I i v« or more. 


K>und Syrup of Sarsaparilla. (Take of Saroaparilla bruised 
iJ., Ouaiaeum Wood rasped |iij.. Hundred Leaved Roteo^ 
Senna^ Liquorice Root, bruised, each | IJ., Oil Sasoafrao, Oil 
Anise, each five minims, Oil of Partridge Berry three minima, 
Diluted Alcohol Ox., Sugar ftviij. Macerate the sarsaparilla, 

![uaiacuro, roses, senna and liquorice root in the diluted alcohol, 
ourteen days ; then express and filter. Evaporate the tincture 
by means of a water bath to four pints, filter, add the sugar, 
remove any scum which may form, and strain the solution 
wh jle hot )— tr. S. Phar. 
8YRUPUS SARZiE. L.E.D. Syrup of Sarsaparilla. (Sliced 
Root of Sarsaparilla I xv., Boiling Water a gallon, Purified 
Sugar |XY. Macerate the root In water for twenty-foor 
iMura; then boil down to four phits, and itrtin the liquor whUe 

SYR in 

It to yet hot; than add the sugar, and boil down to a ptop&t 

U90. In the same cases as the root 
Do^e. From f 3 J. to f 3 i v. 
8YKUPUS BfiNNiE. U. S.~L. E. Syrup of Senna. {SeHum 

f^lior. I ijss., Funiculi eontua. 3 x., Manna I iij., Sacehar. Pur. 

5 zv., ^qua Few. (ij. Macerate the senna leaves and fennel 

aeeds for twelve hours ; strain, adding the manna and sugar to 

the juice, to form a syrup.) 

r. Purgative. 
For the costiveness of children, and persons of a delicate 
habit of body. 

Dote, f 3 ij. to f 1 89. or more. 

SYRCFUS SCILLiE. U. S.— E. Syrup of Squill. (AeeH 
Sciila Oiij., Sauk. Pur. eont. fbvlj.) 

Oper. Diuretic, expectorant, emetic. 

Use. In the same cases as those for which the oxymel Is em- 
ployed ; as an emetic it is given only to children. 

Doee. f3J. tof3ij. 

of Squill. Hive Syrup. (Take of Squill bruised, Seneka^ each 
I iv., Tartrate of Jintimony and Potasaa gr. xlviij., tVaterOHy.^ 
Sugar tbiijss. Pour the water uj!un the squill and seneka, and 
having boiled to one half, strain and add the sugar ; then eva- 
porate to OiiJ., and while the syrup is still hot, dissolve it in tha 
tartrate of antimony and potassa.) — U. S. Phar. 

U*e* In croup, and as an expectorant in pulmonary and catar- 
rhal affections. 

SYRUPUS SENCGiE. U. S. Syrup of Seneka. (Take of 
Seneka bruised I iv.. Water Q]., Sugar ftj. Bull the water with 
the seoeica to one half, and strain ; then add the sugar, remove 
the scum, and strain.)— 27. 5. Phar. 

Oper. A very useful expectorant 

U»e. In bronchial and pulmonary afiectiona. 

Doee. f3s8. tof3ii. 

SYRUPUS SIMPLEX. E. Simple Syrup. (Pure Sugar br, 
Boiling Water Oiij.) 

Use. To sweeten nauseous mixtures. 

BYRC'PUS TOLUTANUS. U. S.— L. E. D. Syrup of Tolu. 
(Balsami Tolutani 3 x., ^q. Ferv. Oj., Sacck. Pur. Ibijss. B(^ 
the balsam for half an hour in a covered vessel, occasionally 
stirring ; strain when cold, and add sugar to the liquor so as ta 
form a syrup.) 

Vee. Simply to give its agreeable flavor to draughts, mixtures^ 
and emulHions. 

Doae. f3j. lof3iv. 

BYROpUS VI0L<«. E. SyrupusViokB,D. Syrup of Violeta. 
(FloruM recent. FioUe Odor. Ibj., .^q. Bull. Oijss., Saeeh. Pur, 
ftvijae. Macerate in a covered vessel for twenty-four hours ; 
strain, without expression, through linen ; add the sugar so ae 
to form a syrup.) Syrupue Violarum, 

Oper. Very gently laxative. 

Vae. To children, and to impart its bine color to flitid miztOKib 


D—i r3J.tof3U. 



AetdMl«led ud aUcaliaed AiUd% iftt be wtahei to VM- 

serve the color. 

BYRUrUS ZINGIBERIS. U. S.— L. E. D. Bymp of Giimw 
iZingibtris eontisit I ijn., ^qua Fern. Ctj., Saceh. Purif. th^Hb 
To the Mrained liquor add the lugur, ao aa to form a aynip.) 

0»er. CordiaU vtomiichic, canniuaUve. 

CfM. Ai an adjunct to bittar and toaic infoikNUL 

Doae. 3 J. lo 3iiJ. 

TABiCUM. U. 8.— L. E. Nrcotiai*s Tabad Folia, D. The 
Loavet of Tobacco. (P§iUaud. Jionogy*. N.O. Solammtm* 
Anerice. ©.) 

Frn. Odor of the dried leavea, itrong, feUdt nareotic ; tarte 
biiter, extremely acrid ; bums with a sparkling Hght, owiug to 
the nitrate of potassa which it contains. Active principles, m 
volatile oil, which is soluble both in water and alcohol, and 
nieotina, a peculiar substance, on which its virtues are supposed 
to depend. • 

Oper. Narcotic, sedative, diuretic, emetic, cathartic, errhine, a 
violent poison, whether externally affiled, or taken into the 

the. In ileus, and incarcerated hernia, in the form of clyster of 
the infusion, or the smoke ; in dmpey and dysuria ; chewing it 
relieves the pain of toothoche ; and, as an errhine, it forms the 
basii of all the snufis in common use. The infusion has been 
used OS a lotion in scabies, tinea capitis, and other eruptions; 
but it is apt to induce sickness. 

l>»«e. See Infu$tm Tabuci. ForcIyster8,3J. i8iDfaaedin(lii.ef 
boiling water. 

Of. Prep. Finum TabMci, U. S.— E. 

TAMARINDUS. U.S.— L.E. Tamarindns , Legnminis Pulpa, 
D. The Pulp of the Tamarind. (Tamarindus Indiea, th« 
Tamarind Tree. Jfonadelph. TViand. N. O. Leguminotm, 
East and West Indies. > .) 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste acid, sweet ; Juicy when fresh and good ; 
the seeds are hard ; and the blade of a knife thrust into the 
pulp, should not become coated with copper. The pulp 
contains citric acid 9.40, tartaric acid J. 55, malic acid 0.45^ 
bi tartrate of potassa 3.35^ gelatine, mucilager pectin, fecula, 
and sugar. 

Optr. Laxative, refrigerant. 

Use. In dysentery and fevers, particularly those attended with 
an increased secretion of bile, and putrid symptoms. Tnniarind 
whey, made by boiling \ ij. of the fruit with Ojss. of milk, and 
straining, is an excellent diluent in fevers. 

Dese. 3 M. to 3 U. often added to senna and to manna. 

Jneomp. Carbonates, and acetates of potassa and soda; the 
resinous cathnriics ; infusum sennae. 

TANACfin FOLIA. U.S.— D. Leaves of Tansy. *,Spt£m, 
Polygram. SuperJL N. O. CornposiUe. Europe. 21.) 

Prop. Odor peculiar, strong; taste warm, bitter. 

3oer. Tonic, deobstrueot, anthelmintic. 
M. In gout; hsrsteria, connected with sup p r ewi on <^ the 
■lenses ; In worms seldom used. 
Doe: 3 ss. to 3J. It Is drunk as tea by gouty people. 
TAPIOCA. U. 8.- E. Tapioca. (Fecula of the ihisoflMt «f 
Jatropha MoMikoU) A modificatioa of starch 

TER 196 

Frtf, Oceania the form of irregular, hard, white, rough gndniL 
poueesing little taste, partially Boiuble in cold water, and 
affording a fine blae color when iodine is added to its filtered 
solution. The tapioca inenl, fconietiines called Brazilian arrow- 
root, is the fecula, dried without heat; nutritioos, easyof diges* 
tion, and free fironi all irritating properties, tapioca forms an 
excellent diet for the sick and convalescent. Prepared by boil- 
ing in water, adding sugar, lemon juice, wine, nutmeg, or dn* 
naraon, to suit the taste. 

TARAXACUM. U. S.— L. E. Tarazaci Herba et Radix, D. 
Taraxacum. (D«ns Leonis.) The Root of Dandeli<m. {Sfnr 
fen. Polygam, JEqual. N. O. Composite. Indig^MNis. 4.) 

Pt0p, Inodorous ; taste at first slightly sweetish and acidtdoiia, 
then bitter. 

9per, Aperient, diuretic, resolvent 

Vne. In chronic inflanunation, and incipient scinhus of tb& 
liver ; chronic derangem^its of the stomach ; dropsy ; palmonarj 
tubercles; and Jaundice. 

/>«««. f 5 ij. of the foUowing decoction three or four times a day : 
Q( The ftill-growa roou sliced I iv., water Oil. Boil geotly to a 
pint, strain, and add bitartrate of potnssa 3 iij. 

huomp. Infusion of galls, nitrate ot silver, bichloride of mercory, 
acetates of lead, sulphate of iron. 

TARTARUM. L. Tartari Crystalli, D. Tartar. (PotasiB 
Bitariras Iropura.) Encrusted on wine casks. 

Comp. Potassa, tartaric acid, and generally lime. 

Prop. Tacte acid, rather unpleasant; color dirty white, red, or 
brown, according to the nature of the wine depositing it. It U 
brittle, soluble in cold water, but much more so in boiling wa* 
ter ; decomposed by heat 

Use. For the preparation of bitartrate of potassa. 

Cunadense, E. Reoina Liquida Pini Balsamea, D. Canada 
Brilsam. (Pinus BaUamea^ Norway Spruce Fir. Monaeim, 
Manadrtpkia. N. O. Coniferm. Canada. > .) 

TEREBINTHTNA CHIA. L. E. Resina Liquida PisUcic 
Tf.rebinthini, D. Cyprus Turpentine. (Pistacia TerrMaaits. 
JjitBcioy Pentand. N. O. TereHntkaeem. South of Europe 

TRliEBINTHTN^ 0L£UM. U.S.— L.E. Oil of Turpentine. 
The volnllle '>il. 

TRUEBINTHTNA VENETA. E. Resina Liquida Pbii Laricis, 
D. Venice Turpentine. (Pinus I^rix. The Larch. Class 
and O diT of P. Balsnmea. South of Europe. > .) 

TEREBliNTHlNA. U.S.: VULGARIS. E.L. Terebinthina 
Vulffiri-*; Refsioa.D. Common Turpentine. (Pinvu sylvtttris, 
Scotch Fir. North of Europe. > .) 

jiU thesis turptntine* kavt properties in eofltnum, with sometking 
peculiar to each ; the three former are used intemaitfi tke latter 
onlf extfmally. 

Clomp. Resin, volatile oil ; the Canadian contains the largest 
proportion of oil: The rectified oil is the Campkene of chemists. 

Prop. Odor penetrating; taste warm, pungent, bitterish; color 
pale yellow. The Canadian and Cliian are thin, Hmpid, trans- 
parent; the other two thicker, viscid, and less transparent; 

ite TIN 

•olaMe in ether fwd alcohol ; combiae with fixed oil ; 
in wnter, but impart to It thHr flavor. 

r. Sliiiiutnnt, diutHic, calhnrtk. 
In chronic rlieiiiiintii'm, Rieet, leacorrhosa, .lephriUe Mttto- 

tioni, and mucous obstructions of the urinary organa. United 

with wator by means of yolk of egg, they are given ciysterwaya 

In colic, obstinate coativeneaa, and to d<!«troy aacaridea. The 

latter liind enter into the composition of plasters. 
Vote. 3 j. tu 3 J. in pills or bolus, uniied with powder of liqaorice 

root; or emulsion, with mucilagt* or yolk ot egg. 
Of. Frqt. Oleum TerebintAinat, U. 8.— L. E. D. Oleum. TVra- 

binthinapurifictUum,L. Enema Terebintkinm^D. Emplattr^ 

et Unguenta Varia^ U. 8. 
TESTiE. U.8— L. Oyster Shells. (Oslrea «i«/M, the Oyster. 

CI. Vcrmea. Ord. Tealacea, L. Mellmeta, AcepkalOy Cuv.) 
Ctmp, Carbonate of lime and animal matter, the latter of whidi 

is destroyed when the shell is burnt, and pure lime remains. 
On«r. Antacid, absorbent 

Uee. Chiefly In the acidities of infancy ; and during dentition. 
Deae, Gr. z. to 3 ij. 
T£8TiE PRiEPAAATiB. L. Prepared Shells. (Wash the 

shelij flreed from sordee with boiling water, then prepare them 

In the same manner as chalk.) 
TIOLII OLEUM. U. S.— L. Crotoois Olei, E. Croton TlgliL 

Gleam ex Seminiboa Expressum, D. Oil of Croton. (Crocoa 

Monmcia^ MotuuUlfkia. N. O. EupkaHnoMm, Moluccas. 

> .) An expressed oil. 
Fref. Color pale brownish-yellow ; odor noee ; taste acrid, and 

extremely permanent. 
Oper. Drastic, purgative. 
Vee. lu apoplexy, obstinate costlveness, and whenever a quick 

and powerful action on the bowels is required. 
Dote. From lUJ- to III v. made into pills with crumb of bread; 

or nibbed up with mucilage and symp. 
TINCTORA ACETATIS FERRI. D. Tincture of Acetate of 

Iron. {Jicetatie Kali 1 ij., Sulphati* Ferri 3 j., Spir. Rectif. OH. 

Rub the acetate and sulphatq into a soft mass, then dry it with 

a moderate heat, and afterwards triturate with the spirit. Di- 

fesl in a well-corked phial for seven days, shaking occasionally, 
'our off the dear liquor, after the fsces have subsided.) A 
spirituous solution of a mixed acetate. 

Prop. Taste extremely styptic. 

Oper. Tonic, astringent. 

Use. In dyspepsia, chlorosis, hysteria, and rachitis. 

Deee. fllxx. to f 3 j. in a glassful of water. 

Tincture of Acetate of Iron with Alcohol. (Sulpkatis Ferri, 
Jicetatie jKo/i, «tii^. SJf AUokolie Oij. Prepared in the aaBM 
manner as the former.) 

Oomp. Red oxide of iron, acetate of potassa, alcohol. 

JProv., Vte^Sre, The same as the former preparation. 

TINCTURA ACETATIS ZINCI. D. Tincture of Acetate of 
Zinc (ZiKci Sulpkatis^ Potanm AceitOie, otrinsqae partoaj^ 
apir. Ree^ficaU partes xyj. Rub together the solphate and 
•eetate, and add ttie spirit. Macerate for e week, ectMinerily 
egltethig, and filter throufh paper.) 

TIN 1»7 

TUfCTURA ACONin. Tincture of Aconite. {AeoniHllr 

Diluted Alcohol OiJ. Macerate fourteen days, express, and filtet 

through paper. Or by displucement.) — U. S. Pkar. 
OftT. KcvellHOt, excitant. 
Vb: Externally in palsy, amaurosis, &c. 
TINCTURA ALOES. U. S.— L. E. D. Tincture of Aloea. 

(Jlloea cont. | j., Est. Olycyrrhiza ^ iij., Aqua Ojss., Sjpir. RteL 

Obs. Macerate for fourteen days, and strain.) 
Oper. and Use. The same as of the extract of aloes. 
Vote. . f 5 ss. to t § jss. • 

TINCTURA ALOES iETHERfiA. E. ^Ethereal Tincture of 

Aloes. (Oummi Res. Aloes Socot, Oummi Res. Myrrha, sing, 

I jis., Croci Angliei con. 5 j., »3Ctheris Sulphurici cum AleoheU 

Ibj. Digest the myrrh in the ethereal spirit for four days, then 

add the aloes and saffron, and digest for four days more.) T. 

Aloes Vitriolata. 
Oper. Stimulant, cathartic. 
XIss. In the same cases for which the other aloetic tinctures are 

used ; and spat^ms of the stomach. 
Dose. f3j. tof3ij. 

et Myrrhs. U.S.— £. Compound Tincture of Aloes. Elixir 

Proprietatis. {Aloes cont. l iv., Croci 1 ij., Tinet. Myrrkm 0|). 

Digest fourteen days, and strain.) 
Over. PurgaUve, stomachic, emmenngogue. 
use. To open the bowels in languid cold habits ; in chlorosii. 
Dose. f3j. tofSij. 

Tincture of Amuionia. (Mastiche 3 ij., Spir. Reetificat. f 3 iz., 

Ijavand.OUi V{x\v., Suecini Olei lliiv., Liquoris Ammonia fort, 

Olj. Macerate the masiich in the spirit, and decant the tinciture ; 

then add the other articles, and shake all togctbiir.) 
Oper. Stimulant, antispasmodic. 
Use. in pertiuwits hysteria, and nervous affectioiis. 
Dose. Illv. to nixx. 

Jneomp. Acids, acidulous and metallic salts. 
TINCTURA ANGUSTL RiE. D. Tinctura Angnslura. (CorL 

AngusturcBy in pulv. crass, redacii 5 ij., Hpir. Vinosi Tenuioris 

Oij. Digest for seven days.) 
Oper. and Use. The same as of the Baric. See Cusparia Cortex, 
Dose. 31. to3ij. 
TINCTURA ASSAFa3TJD^. U. S.— L. E. D. Tincture of 

AssafoBtida. {Assafatida I v., Spir. Rectif. Oij. Macerate for 

fourteen days, and filter.) 
Oper. and Use. The same as of Assnfoetida. 
Dose. Hlx. to f 3 j. (It becomes turbid when mixed with water.) 
TINCTURA AURANTII. L. E. Tincture of Orange Peel. 

(Aurantii Cort. ezaiecati I iijse., Spir. Tenuioris Otj. Macerate 

for fourteen days, and fitter.) 
Over. Stomachic. 

Uss. As an adjunct to bitter stomachic draughts. 
Dose, f 3 ss. to 3 ij. or more.. 

tura Toluiferm Bals^^mi. 

BenzoM Compoaita, D. Compound Tinotore of BenMio. 

198 TIN 

(Bmutini I lUfin StftMeU eW«Ci f S [jm^ BaltMmi JVuUmiZl^ 

JiUu I ▼.. ^iriUu Htct. OiJ. Mncerate for fourteen days.) 
Opmr. Siimuiant, expectorant, anUepuBioodic. 
C/M. lu old Mthmittic ciieet ; chronic catttrrh ; phthiffi* with % 

languid circulaiion. It U applied to woundu and languid 

slcen, which it aiimolatea gently, and covers fVom the aetftoa 

of the air. 
Z)«M. fZm to f 3 U. rubbed up with yolk of egg, and any fluid. 
TIMCTORA BITCUU. E. D. Tincture of Buchu. {ButkB 

\ii»*.t Swiritiu TtnuivriM meaaunt IbJ. Macerate for sevea 

oayiL and atrain.) 
V»0. The same as that of the leaves. 
Do*$. ^rom 3 J. to f S iv. 
TIMCTURA CALUMBiE. L. E. Tinct Colombo, U. 8.— D. 

Tincture of Calumba. (Calumkm eoneism \ iij., Spir. Tenuitr. 

(HJ. MacerMe fur fourteen dHve, and strain.) 
Oper. and Use. The same as of the root ; but more easily bonie 

on the stomach than either the powder or the infusion. 
D0S4. f3iv. 
TINCTURA CAMPHORiE. U. 8.— L. E. D. Tincture of 

Camphor. (Campkora I v., [ ^ j. E.]. Spir. HectMl [f S xvj. K.] 

Mix, thttt the camphor may be dissulvtd.) 
Oper, Anodyne. 

Use. A useful topical application in rheumatic and other paina. 

Campborato, U. 8. — E. D. C^oiuiHMind Tincture of Cumphor. 

iCampkorm 3ijas., Opii Duri cent.^ .AciiU Benivini, aing. gr. 

Ixxij., AniH Old f 3J., Spir. Tm (Hj.) T. Opii CampJioraU 

f I J. contains nearly gr. ij. of opium 
Oper, Anodyne. 
V»€. In catarrh, after the irflarorootory symptoms are abated, 

to allay the tickling cough ; chruuic nttthuin ; pertussis ; and ia 

cases where quit^t, rather than sleep, is required. 
Dose. f3j. to f3iij. at bed-time, u^tig alter it the inhaler; to 

children Til v. to nixx. in silmund mixture. 
TINCTCRA CAWTHARIDIS. U. 8.— L. E. D. Tincture of 

the Spunish Fly. (CkintAaridis r.ontiu. 3 iv., Spir. Ten. 0|J.) 
Oper. Diuretic, stimulunt, nurcutic. 
Use. In gleet, hydrops uvurii, and leucorrhcca ; but it is chiefly 

used as un external applicaiiun, united with Soap or Camphor 

Ltiniment, aguinst iheumutic and uthur puint<. VVe huvc tuund 

it a usetui application in tliut |K>culiar species of iiiortitication 

of the extremities which eometiuies takes place without any 

apparent cause ; and to fmsl-bitten parts. 
Dqse. fllx. tof3j. 
TINCTUKA CAPSTCl. U.S.— L.E.D. Tincture of Capsicum. 

(Capnict 3 x., Spir. Ten. Olj.) 
Oper. Siitnulant. 
Use. fn the low of, cynunche maligna, ami other 

diseases of debility. In gargles iu ni.'Jiguant t-yuniiche. 
Dose, f 3 88. to f 3 J. or more. I'3 ij. in a gaigle of 15 vi. 
ture of Ciyenne Pepper and Blit^tering Flies. {CavtAaridum 

eontusarum 3 x., Capaici 3 j., Mcohoiis tiiiuti Uj. Digest lor ten 

days, and filter.) 
Oper, BUmulant, rubefacient. 


Pb*. Aa a eoamier-irrit&nt in deep-seated pafaiiVil i^Etetiona. 

TINCTURA CARDAMOMI. U.S.— L.E. Tincture of Carda- 
moms. ( Ckirdam. eonttu. I iijss^ f S i vas. E.], Spir, Ten. OiJ.) 

Oper. and Use. The B&nie aa of the Beeds. 

V0*e. f 3 j. to f 3 ij. or more. 

poond Tincture of Curdumoras. ( Cardam.^ Carui eoiUriLt ting, 
i ijM., Cocci eonCrttt 3 j., Cinnam. amt, 3 v., Uvarwm | v., Artr. 
Ten. OiJ ) 

Ovmr, Stomachic, carminative. , 

Ute. An elegant adjunct to stomachic inAiskma, and to Jalaps; 
a good corrective to griping, or cold purgatives. 

Dt; f;j.tof3iJ. 

TINCTUKA CASCARlLLiG. L.E.D. Tincture of CascarUIa. 
{Cucarillm cuitriU I v., Spir. Ten. OiJ.) 

Oper. and Use. The same as of the bark. 

JJo9e. f 3 J. to f 3 i|. in any convenient vehicle. 

TINCTCRA CASSLE. E. Tincture of Cassia. (jCastia im 
fine powder 3 xvij., Proof Spirit OiJ ) 

Pt0p. and Use. The same as those of Tincture of Cinnamon. 

TIMCTORA CASTOREI. U. S.— L. E. T. Cnstorei Rossici, 
D. Tincture of Castor. ( Ckutorei cont. 1 yss., Spir. RuUficoU 
Oy. Macerate for fourteen days.) *" 

Omt. Tonic, antispasmodic. ^ 

Use. In the neuroses, hysteria, and spasmodic affections. 

Dos: lllxx. to f 3 iJ. or more. 

Tincture of Castor. (Csstor. triti SJ-» AssaftetOm ^m.^ Ale^ 
kotis Ammoniati IbJ.) 

Oper. Antispasmodic. 

Vss. In hysteria, cramp of the stomach, and flatulent colic. 

Dose. C3J.tof3H. 

riNCTURA CATECHU. U.S.— L.E.'D. Tincture of Catechu 
(QUeeku | i^ss., Ctanam. contusi | ijss., ^ir. Ten, OiJ. Mace- 
rate fur fourteen days.) 

Oper* Astringent. 

Use. In chronic dysentery and diarrhoBa ; leocorrhoBai and de* 

Dose. (3 J. to f 3 IJ. In wine or some bitter infhdon. 

TINCTURA CINCHONiE. U. S.— L. E. D. Tincture of Cin- 
chona. ICincAome Cordtfolim cont. I viij., [ S iv. £.], &nr. Ten* 
OiJ.. [fltj. E.]) 

Oper. and Use. The same as of the bark ; but owing to the 
quantity required to be exhibited to produce the eikct of cin- 
chona, the infusion or decoction is preferred. 

Dose, f 3 J. to f 3 iij. or more. 

TINCTURA CINCHONIiE. F. Tincture of Cinchonia. (Tate 
of sulphate of cinchonia gr. vliJ., alcohol f JJ.) 

Dose. From f 3 J. tn 3 i v. 

Tincture of Bark. {CXnekonm Lanetfotim Cort. cont. Jiv., 
Spiritus .^mmonim Arom. OiJ. Macerate for ten days.) 

Voo, In dyspepsia combined with acidity and languor. 

hmsHp. Acids ; acidulous, earthy, and metallic salts. 

Dose X\xxx, to f 3 Jss. 


900 TIN 

Oomponnd Tincture of Cinchooft. ( Cinekonm LaiuifoHm emit. 
fiv., ^urant, Cort exaiecati fiU., Strptniarim eont. 3^ 
Cr0ci eont. 3 ij., Cocei eont. 3 j., Spirit. Tm. (MJ. Mucerate lor 
fourteen days, and tilter.) 

Sper. Tonic, antiperiodic, d:aphoretic. 
««. The same as the fonuer; but it is more grateful, aad 
therefore more frequently used in dyspepsia : and as an a4JUBCt 
to disulphate of quina in agues. 

Dose. f3j. iof3iij. 

tJ'li^CTCRA CINNAMOMI. U. 8.— L. E. D. Tincture of > 
Cinnamon. (Ck'»iiainofNi coututi I iijss., Spirit. Tenuioris Oy ) 

Oper. Astringent, stomachic. 

L/*e. As an adjunct to astringent infusions ; in chronic diarrhiMt 
and dysentery ; in dyspepsia, added to bitter infusions. 

Dose. f3j. tof3iJ. 

Compound Tincture of Cinnamon. ( Cinnam. eont. § j., Cardawu 
eont. % ss. Fiperis Longi cont.t Zingiberii cont.^ sing. 3 ^oa., 
Spir. Ten. Oij.) 

dper. and Use. The same as the simple tincture ; but it is more 
cordiul. and therefore more useful in languors and weakness. 

Dose. t3j. tof3ij. 

TlNCTCttA COLCHICI. U.S.— LE.D. Tincture of Colchi- 
cum. (Seminum CofcAtct .^uCvnma/itf § v., Spiritus Tenuifria 
JEbij. Macerute for fourteen days, and Jien struin.) 

Oper. and Use. The same as those of the dried bulb. 

Dose. From (11 z. to 3 j. 

ture of Colchicuni. ( Colchici Seminum eont. % v., Spiritus Am- 
monicB JSromatici Oij. Macerate for fourteen days, and strain.) 

TINCTURA CON II. U.S.— L.E. Tinct. Conil, D. Tincture 
of Heniloclt. (Conii Fot.sieeat. ^v., Cardamom* eontus. 5j.» 
Spir. Ten. Oij.) 

Use. The same as that of the leaves and extract 

IUNCTCRI CROCI. E. D. Tincture of Safiron. (OrociJht- 
glici con. ; j., Mcoholis Diluti f S xv. Digest seven days, end 
tilter through paper.) 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic. 

Use. As un adjunct to mixtures in typhoid fevers, and to cam- 
phor mixture in nervous languors. 

Dose. f3j. tof3KJ. 

TIxNCTLUI CUBEBiE. U. S.— L. Tincture of Cubebs. (CW- 
beboi eont. I v., Spiritus Rect. Oij. Macerate for fourteen day% 
and filter.) 

TINCrCRA CUSPARIiE. E. Tincture of Cusparia. (Cut- 
paria in powder 3 xx*ij., Proof Spirit Oj.) 

Oper. Stimulant and tonic. 

Use. The same as that of the bark. 

Dose. f3j. tofSij. 

TINCTURA DIGITALIS. U. 8.— L. E. D. Tincture of Fox- 
glove. (Digitalis Fol. exsiceat. | iv., Spir. Ten. Oij.) 

Oper. iind Utte. The same hr of the leaves. It is, perhape, the 
best funn under which this powerful remedy can bo used, and 
its virtues longest preserved ; but it should be made with re- 
cently dried leaves. 

Dose. IRx. gradually increased to lllzl. 

TIN 201 

of Ammonio-chloride of Iron. {Ferri Ammonio-ekloridi $ iVn 
Sfir. Ten. Oj. Disiiolve the aminunio-chloride of iron in the 
spirit, and filter.) f ^ j. contains gr. 5.8 of sesquioxide of iron. 

XJtC' The same as the solid preparation. 

Do»e. C3j. tof3iij. 

CMoridi, U. 8. Tiuctura Muriatis Ferri, £. Muriatis Ferri 
Liquor, D. Tincture of Muriate of Iron. {Ferri Sesquioxidi 
I vj., ^eu2> Hydrochlorici (Q., Spir. HectiJUati Oiij. Add the 
neid to the sesquioxide in a glass vessel, and shaice it during 
three days. Add the spirit, and strain.) 

Comp. Sesqaichloride of iron, alcohol, water derived from the 
hydrochloric acid. 

Prop, Taste very austere, styptic ; color brownish-yellow. 

Oper. Tonic, antispasmodic. 

Use. Besides the cases for which salts of iron are usually 

• employed, this tincture has been found serviceable in dypury, 
depending on spasmodic stricture of the urethra, in small doses 
repeated every fifteen minutes, till nausea be produced. It is 
also applied as a styptic to bleeding vessels in cancerous and 
loose fungous sores. 

Doae. fllx. gradually increased to f 3 j. 

hu0mp. Alkalies, lime-water, magnesia, and their carl>onates ; 
astringent vegetable infusions and decoctions; mucilage of 


TINCTURA 6ALBANI. D. Tincture of Galbanum. (Oal- 

bani min. eoneisi § ij., Spir. Vin. Ten. Uij.) 
Optr. Stimulant, antispasmodic. 
Use. In hysteria, flatulent colic, and chronic asthma. 
Dose. f3J tof3iij. 
TINCTURA GALLiE. U. S.— L. D. Tincture Gallarum, E. 

Tincture of the GaJ 1. ( OaUa contrit. 5 v., Spir. Fini Ten. Oij.) 
Oper. Astringent. 
U$e. In intestinal hemorrhages, and those of the prostate gland, 

obstinate protracted diarrhoea, and dysentery. 
Dose. f3j. tof3ij. 

Compound Tincture of Gentian. {OentiantB conciem iijss., 

Anrant. Cort. exaiccat. 3 x., CarioMomi eontun 3 v., Spir. Ten, 


goer. Tonic, stomachic. 
ae. An elegant adjunct to stomachic infusions. 
Dote. f3j. tof3ij. 
TINCTURA GUAIACI. U. S.— L. E. D. Tincture of Gualft- 

cum. {Onaiaei Ret. eont. Jvij., [$iij. £.], Spir. RecU (Hj., 

Oper. Stimulant, sudorific, laxative. 
Ute. In rheumatic and arthritic cases. 
Doat, f 3j. to f3iij., triturated with mucilage, or some vifcid 

substance, as water alone precipitates the guaiacum. 

aci Ammonia, U. S.— E Compoimd Tincture orf* Guaiacum* 

{OmmiaH Rtainm eemt. I vU., Spir. Ammonim AromaL OtI-) 
Omt. Stimulant, sudorific, antispasmodic. 



Um. To chronic rheamaUsm, for which it ia more parUenliilj 

adapted than the former preparation. 
Dose, f 3 aa. to f 3 j. in milli or any viscid fluid. 
/R«am». Nitrous ucid, »weet spirit of nitre, solution of ehtorine 
TINCTCKA H£LL£BdRL U. S.— L. D. Tincture of Black 

Hellebore. {Heltebori conciate I v., Spir. Ten. Oij.) 
Oper. Alterative, emmenugogue, purgative. 
Use, In uterine nbatructiona in full plethoric babita, whos 

chalybeatea would be hurtful ; in cutaneous eruptions. 
Dose, f 3 s«. to f 3 j. in water, twice a day. 
TlNCTUttA HYOSCYlMI. U. 8.— L. E. D. Tincture of 

Henbane. (Hyoscyami Fol. exsiceat. I v., Spir. Ten. Oy.) 
Opar. Narcotic, anodyne. 

Uss. To produce sleep and quiet in those caaes fw which lau- 
danum is oaeU. It doea not affect the head, nor occaaicm co»- 

Doss. fIlxxx.tof3iJ. 
TINQTURA lODINJL U. 8^E. Tinetore of Iodine. (iMiM 

5j , RecUfied Spirit f Jxvj.) 
Csmp. A simple alcoholic solution of the iodine. 
Use. The same as that of iodine. 

Thicture of Iodine. {lodinii 3 j., PoUssii lodidi I ij., Spiritua 

Rectificati O^j. Dissolve the iodine, and filter. Preserve the 

mixture in a cloaely-atoppered vessel. 
Usf. In scrofula, bronchoceJe, and chlorosis. 
Dose. From V\,x. to IIlxxjc., in a little ayrup and water, IhfM 

times a day. 
TINCTURA JALlPifi. U. S.— L. E. D. Tinetore of Jal^p. 

(JtUapcB eont. I z., Spir. Ten. Oij.) 

gj^er. Cathartic. 
se. Aa an adjunct to puigative draughta. 
Dose. f3j. tot3iv. 
TINCTURA KINO. L. E. D. Tincture of Kino. (Kinotrnt- 

trUi I iijaa., Spir. Reet. 0^.) 
Oper. AstringenL 

Use. In chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, fluor albus, and lienteiy. 
Dose. f3j. tof3ij. 
TINCTURA LACTUCARir. E. Tincture of Lactncarinm. 

(Lactucarium in powder 5 ij^ Proof Spirit Oj*) 
Use. A convenient mode of administering the lactucariom hi 

Dose. f3ss. tor3j. 

Lavandulae Compositus, E. Compound Tincture of Lavender. 

■{Spir. JMoand. Oj»8., Spir. Rosmarini Oss., dnnamomi eont.^ 

JUyristica cont., sing. 3 ijss., Pttrocarpi cont. 3 v ) 
Use. In fainting and chronic debility. 
Dose. mxxx. tof3j. 

TINCTURA LOBELIiE. U. 8.— E. Tincture of Lobelm 
j (Lobelia in powder 5 iv.. Proof Spirit Ojss.) 
Oper. Emetic, diuretic, expectorant. 
Use. For the administration of the lobelia in mUiate doaea tat 

spasmodic asthma. 
Dose. Klxx. tof3J. 
TINCTURA LOB£LL£ iETBEREA. E. JEthereal Tinctvra 

TIN S03 

Use. The same aa the alcoholic tincture; in asthma, croupi 

116 rt uflsi s 
TINCTORA LUPULI. U. S.— L. E. Tincmra Hamuli, D. 

Tincture uf Hops. {Lupuli I vj., Spir. Ten, Og.) 

Sper. Tonic, sedative. 
8e» In gout and rheumatism 1 

Dms. ffj. tofSiiJ. 

TINCTUUA MOSCHI. D. Tincture of Musk. (Moteki i» 
pulv. redacti 3 U-, Spir. Fnti Rut. Oj.) 

Oper. and Use. Tlie tame as of musk. 

DoM. f3j. tof3J8s. 

TINCTUUA MYRRHiE. U. 8.— L. E. D. Tinctoie of Myrrh. 
(Mprkm eontutm I ii)., Spir. Reet. Oij.) 

Oper, Tonic, deobetruent, antiseptiCt deteigcnt. 

Use. In the same cases as the powder ; but it is chiefly used 
externally, united to infusion of roses and acids, in gargles; 
applied to foul ulcers, and exfoliating hemes ; and as a wash 
for the mouth when the gums are spongy. 

J>0ee. f3stf. tof3J. 

TINCTURA NUCO VOMICiE. D. TinctureofNux Vomica. 
{FruetM Strfckno* Jfucie Fomiemraei JiJ., Spiritus Reet^fk- 
eati 5 viij. Macerate for seven days ; then strain.) 

Vese. From HI v. to fllxx. 

TINCTURA OPII. U. 8.— L. E. D. Tincture Of Opium. ( 0^ 
duri eontriti I iij., ^>. Ten. 0^.) Nineteen minims contain 
one grain of opium. 

Oper, Anodyne. 

Uee. To allay paina, relax spasms, and proeoii sleep. Exter 
nally this tincture has a considerable effect when it is rubbed 
upon the skm, as we have seen in a case of repeated temporary 
lock Jaw, which always yielded to it. In fever it should be 
given when moisture begins to appear on the akin. 

Deee. V\x. to Hlxxx. or more. 

tHcprnp. Liquor ammoniae ; potasse, carbonas potasse ; sode ; 
metallic salts ; astringent vegetable inftisions and decoctions. 

*«* In tetanus, and other violent affuctions, the quantity of 
laudnnuro that can be borne by the constitution is almost in- 
credible. Currie gave f § vss. in twenty-six hours ; see Reports 
on Odd Heater, £rc. 

TINCl'UR A OPII AMMONIATA. E. Ammoolfited Tincture 
of Opium. {Acidi Bentoici, Croci eonciai^ eing. 3 iiJ., Opii 3 ij.) 
Olei Jiniei 3 ss., Jllcokoli* Ammowiaii Oj.) f ?j. contains gr. J 
of opium. 

Oper. Anodyne, antispasmodic. 

Use. In pertuaeia, and to allay the ticklhig cough in catarrh. 

Diten. f3«s. to3ij. 

TINCTURA PIPBRIS CUBEBiC D. Tincture of Oubeba. 
{Pruetna Piperio Cii6c6« |iv., Spir. Tonniorio by. Macerate 
for foijrteen days, and strain ) 

Ute. The same as that of the entire pepper. 

Dose. From Hlx. to f 3 J. 

TINCTURA aUASSIJB. U. 8.— E. D. Tincture of 
(«e#». lArni qfUMoim iU 9pir, Fim, To*. C(|. f Sxr|.) 

Omt, Tome. 


904 TIN 

V90» Ai M a^hnet to tlnmaehle lofMdM; ortilMB, dfliHii 
with water, in dyipeiMria and ochar eaaea of debUiiy. 

Dm*. rSJ-tofSH. 

turaofQaaifla. {Cardamom Stti* kniittdy Coekitual krwia^i, 
•f each I ij^ Oinnamcm in powUr^ Qumsrim in dUmg. of mek 
Z iij., Raisint I Iv., Proof SpirU OQ. fj U.) 

(Her. Toole and ttimuranL 

Um. In atonic dyspepaia. 

Vote. rSJ.tofSiJ. 

TINCTURA QUINJB. F. Tlnctiire of Quina. (Takeofral- 
ptiaie of qaina gr. tJ., alcoliol (.847) f Sj.) 

Dose. f3J. tof3lij. 

TINCTURA RHEI. U. 8.— E. Tinctort of Rhubarb. (Rkm- 
barbpowderod I UJ.t CardoMtom Seodo kntited 3 iv., Protf SpMt 

Oj. f ! xvj.) 
Joe. Tl 

Voe. The tame aa the C<Mnpo«nd Tincture of Rhubarb. 

of Riiubarb. (Rkei eoneism I UHn Olfcprrkitm eontuom 3 y)^ 
Zingiberie eoneiam^ Oroci, atng. 3 iij. Spir. Ten. Oij.) 

TiNCl'URA RHEI ET ALOEd. U.S.— E. Tincture of Rhu- 
barb and Aloea. {Rmd. Rkei Palntati eon. 3 x., 4ioee Soc. conL 
triia 3vj., Sem. Cardaimomi cont. Jm., AUokoiio DUmU Cy. 


fRA RHEI ET GENTIANiE. U. 8.— E. Tincture 
of Rhubarb and Gentian. {Rod. Rhd Palmati com. SU>*— 
Gentimnm Lutem con. | sa., Alcoholio Diluti OJ. f i xvj.) 

Oper. All these tinctures of rhubarb are stomachic or purgatiT» 
according to the dose of them employed. 

Uee. In dysfiiJMia, debility of the inteatlnea, flatulent colic, diar- 
rhoea ; and the coativenesa of old people, or of cold, phl^matia 

Doae. f3J. tof3ii. asa stomachic ; f 3 iv. to f |J. as a purgative 

TmCTURA 8ANGUINARLE. U.8. Tincture of Blood Root 
{.Sangyinarim eontuom I ij., Aleokolio diluti (0. Digest for ten 
days, and filter.) 

Voe. In the same cases as the powder. 

Dooe. From lllx. to f 3j8s. 

TINCTURA 8CILLiE. U. 8.— L. E. D. Thicture of SquUL 
(Seilta reeen. exoieeatm 3 v^ Spir. Ten. (HJ.) 

Oper. and Uee. The same as of the bulb in substance. 

Dooe. X\x. to f 3 J. in almond mixture or mucilage. 

Off. Prep. Mel ScUU, D. 

Tincture of Senna. (Sennm I iijss., Carvi con. 3 iijsa., Cardmm 
eontZy^ Vvm "i ▼., Spir. Ten. 0^.) 

Oper. Stomachic, carminative, cathartic 

V$e. In flatulent colic ; and to opra the bowds in those who 
labor under atonic gout, and whooe bowels have b< en weak- 
ened by hard drinkhig It la a useful adjunct to the infuaioa 
of senna. 

Doae. f 3 iJ. to f 5 j. 

TINCTURA SERPENT ARTJB. U. 8.— L. E. D. Tincture or 
BnaJce Root. {Serpentarim eonL 5 4JaB., ,8^. TTwi. Oy.) 

Opor. Tonic, stimulant, audorific. 

TOR S05 

H^M, United with inftiri<m of cinchona in ^hoid and imtrld 
feveiB ; in gout ; and periodic headache. 

Doae. f388. tof3ij. 

riNCTURA STRYCHNLE. P. Tincture of Strychnia. (Tak« 
of Mtryctiaia gr. iij., alcohol (ut .837) f ^j. ; disaolve.) 

Use. in the same cases as those for which stryclinia is used. 

Dog0. From TIlvJ. to Hlxxiv. 

TIKCTORA TOLUTANI. U. S.— E. Tinctura Balsami To 
lutoni, D. Tinctuuof Balsam of Tolu. (Balaam* Toluiferm 
Bal. 5j88., AUokoliS fl xvj.; 

Oper. Supposed to tie expectorant ; corroborant. 

Vae. Scurcely ever «ued except on account of its pleasant flavor. 
The following is an elegant form of giving the medicine in 
obstinate cougns devoid of ioflammatory symptoms : Qillne* 
turse balsumi tolutani f 3 ij., mucilag. gummi acacie f J j., aqun 
didiillats tl ivss., tinct camph. comp. f 3 iij., syr. tolutani f 3 iij. 
Taice two tablespoonihls occasionally) when the cough is 

Dos: f 3 ss. to f 3 j. or more. 

Off. Prep, Syrup. Tbluifera Balaamiy E. Troehiaei Olyeyrrhiua 
cum OpiOf K. 

TINCTURA VALERUNiE. U. S.— L. E. D. Tincture of 
Valerian. {Valeriana cont. S v., Spir. Ten. Oij.) 

Oper. Stimulant, antispasmodic. 

Vae. In nervous and spasmodic affections ; but it has less efficacy 
than the powder. 

Doae. f3s8.tof3ij. 

Valerians Ammoniati, U. S.~£. Compound Tincture of Va- 
lerian. (Falerianm Iv.^ Sptr. .ammonim ^ronuit.O^.) 

Oper. and Uae. The same as of the former ; but, on accoiut d 
the ammonia, this is more useful in hysteria. 

Doae. f 3 ss. to f 3 ij. in milli or some bland fluid. 

TINCTURA VERATRI. E. Tincture of White Hellebore. 
(Rod. Feratri AlH cmU. I iv., Mcokolia DUuti Oj.) 

Oper, Emetic, cathartic ; in small doses alterative, deobstroent. 

Vae, To excite vomiting in maniacal and apoplectic cases : it haa 
been used in cutaneous eruptions ; but it is a very unmanageable 
remedy, producing sometimes the most violent effects. 

Doae. niv. to fllx., the dose being very gradual y increased. 

TINCTUKA ZINGIBERIS. U.S.— L.E.D. Tincture of Gin- 
ger. {ZingUteria eoneiai I ijss., Spir. Ten. (^j.) 

Oper. Siinmlant, carminative. 

Uae. In atonic gout, when it attacks the stomach ; flatulencies ; 
and as a corrigent to griping purgatives. 

Doae. f3j.tof3lij. 

TORMENTlLLA. U.S. {Secondary.) L. E. D. Common 
Tormentil Root. ~ (Potentilla TomentUla. leoaand. Polygyn, 
N. O. Hoaacem. Euiope. \ .) Tormentilla OJUinalia, 

Camp. Volatile oil, tannin 17, coloring matter 30, resin 0.42, cerin 
0.51, myricin 0.20, gummy extractive 4.32, gum (pectin ?) 28.90^ 
extractive 7.70, woody fibre 15, water 6.45. — Meiaaner. 

Prop* Odor slightly aromatic; taste austere, styptic; rodi 
iuiotty ; externally Uackiah, internally reddish. 

Camp, Its active principle is tannic acid. 

Optr, Astringent. 


Oin* In the ■uMMMfatolbMraitriBgcBtt; bvCMitdoetBfll 
increase the heat of the body, lonnentU ie preferred in phthJeJcal 

D4*e. Gr. x. to 3 J. of the powder; or f JiJ. of the followtaf 
decocuon : Qs FulT. craH. rad. lonnentills Sin *4> PVi ^t 
decoque ad f § xy. et cola. 

TOXICODENDRON. U. S. (Stetrndmry.) L. D. Sonweh 
Leaves. (Rhus Tnitodendr^u, Poison Oak. PmUmdri^ 
Trigfn. N. O. AnaMriatam. fnrfT£^fT^■r t .) 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste sabacrid. 

Comp. Gallic acid, tannic acid, and an acrid Tolatile matter. 

3 per. Btimulaot and narcotic ; an aerid narcotic poismi. 
««. In paralytic affections and herpetic eruptions ; but in the 

former its efficacy is doubtAU ; also in dropsy and phthisis. 
Dtfse. Gr. ps. to gr. iv. twice or thrice a day. 
TRA6ACANTHA. U.S.— L.£. Astragalus Creticns Gnmmt, 

D. Tragaeanth. (Astragalus VeruM, IHadeipkiOt Dteuid. 

N.O. Legwninosm. Penda. ^ .) 
Frtp, Inoidorous ; nearly insipid, impressing only a very slif^t 

bitter taste as it dissolves; color whitish; semi tranqiarent ; 

striated; in thin vermiform pieces; completely pultVnrulent in 

frosty weather only ; does not form a smooth, imiform mucilage 

with water. 
Oper. Demulcent 
Vt: Small quantities held in the mouth, and swallowed Tety 

slowly, sheathe the fauces and allay ticliling cough ; but it to 

chiefly used for pharmaceutical purposes, to suspend heavyt 

insoluble powders, and to impart consistency to troches. 
Dos*. Gr. X. to 3 J. 
Jncomp. Cupri sulphas, plnmbi aoetas, and solphaa ferri, preei- 

pitate its mucilage. 
Off. Prep. MacUago AttragaU TrmgaeantJUs, E. D. PnlwU 

Tragac(\mtk« Cemp.^ L. 
i;pi08T£UM PEE^OLIATUM. U. S. {Secondary.) Fever 

Root {Petdand. Monogyn, N. O. Caprifoliaeea.) Jndig*- 

Oner. Cathartic, emetic, diuretic. * 

Vee. In tbe commencement of fevers. 

Doe*. 3 j. to 3 88. of the powder acts as a cathartic ; of the ex- 
tract gr. X. to 3J. It may be given with advantage combined 

witii cniomel. 
TROCHISCI ACACIiE. E. Gum Trochee. (AcMtm IIt., 

AmyU I j., Sacek. Pur. bj. Make up the troches with roM- 

Oper. Demulcent 
Use. For allaying tickling cough. 
JDoae. Two or more, od libHura. 
TR/k?HfSCI ACIDI TARTARICr: B. Lozenges of Tartute 

Acid. ( Tartarut Acid 3 ij., Pwre Sugor I viij., OU^fr 

Oper. RefVigerant 1 

Vee. In febrile affections. 

TROCHfSCI CRETifi. U.S.— E. Lozenges of Chalk. (< 
Prtepar. | iv., Aemcia ;j., AVexs MyriH. 3 J., S^eek. Pmt. f ^ 
Rub them tosether, and form them into troches with watar ) 

Cipar. Antacid, absOTbent 

TRO 907 

^fiM. AjniiistMidlQroftlieiloiiiaeh; eardlalgla. 

JDmo* Two, three, or moreoccailonaHy. 

TKOCHfSCI FERRI lODIDI. Lozenget of Iodide of iRm. ^ 
Ferri lodidi 3 j. ( 3 «.). Croci Pol v. ! as. ( 3 UO, Sacchar. Alk 
! viU- ( ! iy) m Fiant Trochisci No. 340— (lao.) 

Doae. Six to ten daily. 

TB^HfSCI GLYCYRRHl^iE. E. Liquorice Lozengeib 
<JSx.O<yesrrrA., Jieaeim^ of each 3 yj., Saeek. Fur. ibj. DiwiriTe 
in warm water, strain ; evaporate by a gentle heat, and form 
into trochee.) 

Oper. Demulcent. 

Dte. To allay tickling congh. 

Dm«. Two-er more, occaaioaally. 

TROCHlSCi GLYOYRRIlfZiE £T CPU. U.S. Trochee of 
Liquorice and Opium. (Taice of Opium in powder % m., /,»- 
futriee in powder. Sugar in powder, Oum Jlrabie in powder, 
each lx.t OU of JiiM» 3 y. Mix the powders intimately ; 
then add the oil of aniee, and with water form them into a 
man, to be divided into lozengei, each weighing aix grains.) — 
O. S. Pkar. 

TROCHldCI IPECACUANHiE. U. S. Troches of Ipecacor 
anha. (Qs Of Ipeeae, in powder 3 ss., Sugar in powder J xiv , 
Arrowroot 1 iv., MueU. of TragaeoMth. q. s. Mix intimately, 
and malie into troches often grains each.) 

TROCHlSCI LACTUCARII. E. Lactuc&rium Lozengea. 
(iV«gpcr«(f t» the 9tme wuamtr as Opium Lotengeo.) 

Opor, Anodyne. 

Uso. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. 

TRdCHlSCl MAGNESIiE. U. S.— E. Magnesia Lozengea. 
(Cork, of Magnosia I vj., Pur$ Sugar | i^^ J^utmeg 3 J.) 

Oper, Antacid. 

Vee. In cardialgia, and atonic dyspepria. 

permint (Take of OUof Peppermint f 3 j., Sugar in powder 
ibj., Mucil. Tragacanth. q. s. Rub the oil of peppermint with 
the sugar till they are thoroughly mixed ; then with the muci- 
lage form them into a mass, to be divided into troches, each 
weighing ten grains.)— t^. S. Pkar. 

TROCHIbCI MORPHIA E. Morphia Lozenges. (Mur. of 
Morphia 3Jm Tiuet. of Telu f 3 iv^ Pure Sugar I xxv.) Each 
lozenge should weigh gr. xv. 

Oper. Anodyne, soporinc. 

and Ipecacuanha LozMiges. (Mur. of Morphia 3J., Ipeeaeu- 
amha in powder Z^.^ Tnut. of TWm f 3 ss., Pure Sugar f J xxr. 
Make into lozenges weighing fifteen grains each.) 

Uae. A substitute for Dover's powder. 

T^tHyHfSCI OPLI. E. Opium Lozenges. (Opit 3U>, TVneC. 
Toluiferm f 3 iv., Spr. Sim. I viij., £xt.O/ycyrrAii«, Ag. Calida 
MoUiti^ .^cacim pulv. 1 v. First rub the opium with the tinc- 
ture ; then add, by degrees, the syrup and extract; afterwardt 
mix in the powdered gum arable ; lastly, dry them into amaai^ 
and divide into troches, each weighing ten grains.) 

Qpsr. Demulcent, anodyne. 

Vaa, For allaying the irritatton of the (hocea prodoeiac eoQgi^ 
in protracted cAtarrhi. 


Dote, One, allowed to dlaolve tinmiy in tho ■loall^ now md 

thrn. Six intchei contain oae irroin of opium. 
TRuCllISCI iSODiE BICAUfiONATJS. E. Lozengos of Bl- 

cartiooate of Soda. {Bie^rbon, of SotUk S J-> P*iro Sugar I iy., 

Oum Arabic 3 iv.) 
V*4. Am an antacid in cardialgia. 
TU8SILAGO. U. S.— L. Tuaeilago Furfov. FoUum FI09, 

D. Colia-foot. (Spngeneoia Huperjlua. N. O. Compooitm 

Indigenous. !(■.) 
Prop, Inodorous ; taste sweetish, glutinous, subacrid. 

Sper. Demulcent, expectorant 
te. In coughs, phthwis, other polmcmary complaints, and oi* 
taneous diseases. 

Dooe. 3 Si. to 3 j in milk. It is more g^ierally given in decoe- 
tions, made with a handful of the Ifaves boiled in two pints of 
water to one pint ; strained, and sweetened with syrup ; th« 
dose, a teacupful occasionally. 

ULMUS. U. 8.— L. The inner Bark of Elm. (PextamdrM, 
Digfnia. N. O. Ulmaeea. Europe. > .) 

Prop. Inodorous ; taste bitter, austere, mucilaginous. 

Opor. Tonic, alterative, diuretic, demulcent, nutritioas. 

Use. In lepra, and other cutaneous affecti<ms ; diarrtuBa, dysen- 
tery, diseases of the urinary organs ; it is generally combined 
with mercurials, as pilule hydraiigyri chloridi comp. Exter- 
nally as an emollient. 

Dote. See Decoction, 

Off. Prep. Decoctum Vlmi, L. D. Infutum Ulmi^ U. S. 

l/NGUENTUM AClDl NITROSL E.D. Ointmentoflfitiow 
Acid, (jadipia Suia Scrofa fi>j., Jicidi Mitrosi 3 vj. Melt the 
fat, and rub it into the acid gradually, until the mixture ii 

Prop. Color yellow, consistence firm. It contains a small par 
tion of ndipocire, fixed oil, and nitric and acetic acids. 

^or. Stimulant 

Use. Applied to foul ulrers and herpetic eruptions. 

phuric Acid. {Aeidi Sutphurici Z j.^ Adipia Suilli I}. Idix.) 

Oper. Stimulant 

Use. \pplied to the skin in scabies. 

UNGUENTUM iERUGINIS. E. D. Ointment of Subacetate 
of Copper. ( Unguenii Reainoai partea xv., Subacetatia Cupri 
partem unam.) 

Oper.' Detergent escharotic. 

l/ae. To foul, fungous, and flabby ulcers ; and diluted with lard, 
to scrofulous ulcerations of the polpebrae. 

TIS. L. Unguentum Antimoniale, £• Unguentum Tartaii 
Eraetici, D. Ointment of Potash Tartrate of Antimony. 
iJIntitMnii Potasaio-Tartratia in ptUv. trita Ij., A4ipi$ Jiv. 

Opor. As a topical stimulant, to cause a pustular eruption on 
the akin, and produce counter-irritaUon. 

Uae. In internal inflanunations and rheumatism of the jointu 

UNGUENTUM AQUiE ROSJB. U. S. Ointment of Roit 
Water. (Take of Roao fVmter, OU of Jllmonda, each f Slk 
SpermacoU Sm., WkUa Wax Ij. Melt together by mewM of 


a water both* the oil, ipermaceti, and wai; then add the roea 
water, aad stir the mixture till cold.)— C^. 8. PAar. 

UNGUfiNTUM UANTUARIDIS. U. S.— L. D. Ointment of 

Cantharidid. {Cantharidis pulverts aubtU. ^Jm Cerati Resim 

% iv., ^qua DiatiUata i"l\\. Boil the canthuride« in the wa* 

ter to one-half, then mix the cerate to the strained fluid, and 


Oner. Irritant 

U$e To Iceep open issues and blisters. 

UNGUENTUM CERiE ALBiE. D. pintment of White Wax. 
{Certa Mbta Ibj., Adipia Suillas Prtapar. tbiv.} , 

S^er. Emollivnt. 
ae. As a mild covering to excoriations and benign ulcera. 

Ttiis is the basis of the majority of the compoimd ointments of 

the Dublin PUarmacopceia. 
UNGUENTUM CERiE FLAViE. D. Ointment of Yellow 

Wax. This is prepared with the same proportions as the 

former, and is applicable to the same uses. 
UNGUEN 1 UM CETlCEI. L. D. Ointment of SpermaceU. 

(CetacH Z vj., Cera Mbm 3 ij^ OHom Olei f i iij.) 
U»4. The ordinary dressing lor blistered parts and excoriationa. 
UNGCTENTUM COCCULl. £. Ointment of Cocculuslndicua. 
Um. a stimulant. 
UNGUENTUM CONH. D. Ointment of Hemlock. (Foli^rum 

Cbnii recentium^ Adifia SuiUi prttparati^ utriuaque IbiJ. Boil 

the leaves of the coaium in the fat until they are crisp; then 

express through cloth.) 
Ua4. Am an application to cancerooi and irritable or painfull 

UNGUENTUM CREASOTI. U.S.— L.E. Ointment of Crea 

Bote. (CreaaoUrZi. f3j. E.J, AdipiaH. [Sifj- £. OreatifU 
Z ss. Lard ^J. U. S,] Rub and mix.) 
Oper. Stimulant 
Uae, As a counter-irritant, and aa an application in porrigo 


of Sub- Acetate of Copper. {^ SubAceta* Cupri 3 j., Cera» 

Simpl.Zxv. Mix.) 
UNGUENTUM ELfiML L. Unguentura Eleml, D. Com. 

pound Ointment of Elemi. (Eletni IbJ., Terebinthinm Vulgaris 
1 X., nevi Ibij., 0/io<s Otei f \ ij. Melt the elemi with the suet ; 

remove it from the fire, and mix it in the turpentine and thf 

oil ; then tttruin the mixture through a linen cloth.) 
Oper. Siimulant, digestive. 
Vte. To keep open issues and setonii ; and as a dressing to ulcert 

which do not udmit of tbe application of the ndhe.<<lve straps. 

Unguentum Galle et Opii, E. Compound Ointment of Galla. 

{paUarum in puiverem aubtiliaaimHm tritaruu 3^., Adapts 
I ij., Opii duri eontriti 3 ss. MixJ 
Uae. As an application in piles. (The Simple Ointment of Galla 

la made by mixing Ij. of powdered galls with | v^. of lard.)— 

U 8. PkMr, 
UNGUENTUM HTDRARGtRI. U. 8.— E. D. Ointment of 

Mereuiy. (UfdrMrnri »U-. -^^^m Ovia ArUUa Sin •^''M 

SzzQ).) 3U.oonflAi3J.ofmeicary. fi. 

910 UNO 

cuiiaJ OinuneoL {Hydrarg. Pur, ft^^ jidifis I zxUJ^ Sevi l^y 
^U. coDtttin 3 J. of mercury. 

Mervuriul Ointment. (( Ung. Uydrarg, FaH. Ibj., Adifit by.) 
3 vj. contain 3 J. of mercury. 

Cbaip. Thene three ointmenta diflSer in the quantity (miy of their 
eoosutuents, which are protoxide of mercury, metallic mercury, 
and fat; and perhaps in old ointmenta, aumewbate of mercury. 
Mr. Donovan has pro?ed that the efficacy of these ointments 
depends on the oxide which they contain, yet the preparatioa 
of them with the oxide instead of metallic mercury is not ap* 
proved. By this mode of preparation, each 5 J. of ointmeat 
contains cUout gr. 21 of oxide. 

Oper. Antisypbilitic, alterative, discutient 

|/««* In venereal affections, when it is wished to get a laige 
portion of mercury s^ieedily into the system without aflfecting 
the bowels; and where there are local affections, as bulnx. 
The weolcer ointments are chiefly used as topical dreaungs to 
Venereal ulcers. 

t>o$e. 3 J. of the strong ointment is introduced by fricticm upon 
th« inside of the thigh, or the fore arm, every night, till the 
eytiteiii U tiffected ; living upon a milk and gruel diet. 

Unguentuni Preelpitati Albi, R Ointment of Ammooio-Chlo- 
ride ol Mercury. {Hydrargyri Ammonia- Chloridi 3 J., Adipia 
I jris. Meli the lard, and mix in the ammonio-chloride.) 

Vae. Detertfeut 

Ungucittuui Citrinum, E. Ointment of Nitrate of Mercury. 
Ciltun Ointment. {^Hydrargyri ^j., Aeidi^itricitZ xj., Adipis 
jvj., OlivtB Olei f^iv. Dissolve the mercury in the acid; 
and to the liquor, while it is hot, add the fat and oil melted 

Mildt^r Ointment of Nitrate of Mercury. (The same as the 
former, wiih triple the quantity of oil and lard.) 

Frop. These two ointments are the same, except in point c^ 
strt^ngth ; they are of a greenish-golden color; and when old, 
become hard and short. 

Oper. Stimulant, detergent 

V»e. The stronger ointment is used as an application to herpes, 
porrigo lurvalis, and other cutaneous eruptions. The weaker 
is applied, by means of n hair pencil, to the edges of the eyelids, 
in p^>r<«t)hthulmia. and ulcerations of the tarsi 

Ungiienium Oxidi Hydrargyri, E. Ointment of Nitric Oxide 
of Mercury. (, Hydrargyri J^itrico- Oxidi 5j., Cera Alba 5U«», 
Adipis Praparata I vj. Add the oxide, reduced to a fine pow-" 
der, to the melted fat and oil, and mix.) 

Opsr. Stimulant, escharotic. 

Use. To indolent foul ulcers; to inflammations of the timicft 
conjunctive, with a thickening of the inner membrane of the 
pulpebra; : and to specks of the cornea. 


U N G 3tl 

Iodide of Mercury. (It ia mado in tha Mme Duumer u the 

ointtnent of Nitric-Oiide of Mercury.) 

of Biniodide of Mercury. 
Opt, Sthiittlant. 

XJae. As dressings to scrofoloas and flabby aores. 
UNGUENTUM lODINII. U.S. Ointment of Iodine. {loUtu 

gr. xXm Alcohol nixx.. Lard f J. Rub the iodine lint with die 

alcohol, then with the lard.)— C7. S. Phar. 

guentum lodiniit £. Compound Ointment of Iodine. (UdinU 

3 88. f 3 j. J. Potassii lodidi 3 j. [ 3 ij. E.\, 8pir. Reet. f 3 J., JSd^ 

; ij. r I iv. £.] Rub the iodide and iodine with the spirit, then 

add the lard. Rub together into an ointment) 
Use. As an application to scrofalona tomors and br^choc^e. 
UNGUENTUM MEZEREI. U. S. OUilment of Mezereoo. 

(Maereom sliced transversely ^iv.. Lard ixiv., ffhite fVax- 

J; Ij. Moisten the mezereon with alcohol, beat wd i in a mortar, 
igest with the lard in a salt-water bath 12 hours, strain, and 
let it cool slowly. Separate the medicated lard, and melt with 
the wax at a moderate heat;) — U. S. Phar. 

Cerussc, sivo Subacetntis Plumbi, D. Ointmoit of White Ox- 
ide of Lead. (Ung. Simplieis partes v., Oxidi PlumH AtH 
partem '}.) 

Oper, Cooling, desiccative. 

Use. Applied to excoriated surfaces and bams. 

ment of Grey Oxide of Mercury. (Oxidi H^drargyri Cinsrs$ 
partem mim««, Adipia Suis Serofa partes iij.) 

Oper. and Use. The same as of the mercurial ointment, bat ItB 
efficacy is not sufficii^ntly established. 

Tutise, D. Ointment of Impure Oxide of Zinc (LininunU 
Simplieis parUs v., Oxidi Zinei Impuri Prop, partem J.) 

^sr. Slightly astringent, absorbent. 

Use. In ophthalmia tarsi, and inflammation of the eye arising 
from wenkness of the vesnels. 

Ointment (Pieis Liquidm, Sevh nng. bj. Melt, Mud strait: 
through linen. 

Opsr. Stimulant, detergent. 

Use, Against lepra, and other cataneoos, scabby, and fool 

UNGUENTUM PICIS NIGRJE. L. Ointment of Black Pitch. 
(Hi Pieis M'irra^ Cera Resina^ sing. I ix., Olei Olivm I xvj. 
Melt the wiMe, and express it through cloth.) 

Qp«r. Stimulant, detergent. 

Usa. In porrlgo favosa, and other foal eruptions. 

UNGUENTUM PIPERIS NI6RI. D. Ointment of Blaek 
Pepper. (Adipis SuiUa Prmp. ftj., Pipsris Jfigri in pulm* 

Oper. Stimntant, irritating. 

tate of Lead. (ActtaU ^f LmA ra jbM powdsr 5J., 
!▼. Mix.) 

91S UNO 

V»e. In Irritable, inflamed lorea. 

Oinuoeut of Carbonate of Lead. (Piumbi Carbonati*^ ra fui- 
verem subtUissirnHM redacti |v., Vnguenti Simplicit \y^ 
jac€t. Pltunb. I U., Ung. Simp. Ibj. Mix. U. S. Make into w 

V»e. In buros and irritable eorea. 

Oiatnmnt of Lead. ( Cretm Prop. I viij., jJeett DutiUaJU f 5 vj., 
Emplastri Piumbi tbiij., OUva Olei Oj. Melt the piaster with 
the oil with a gentle heat, then mix the challc and the acid 
separately, and the effervescence being finished, add gradually, 
mixintf constantly onui the ointment is cold.) 

V*«. Useful in indolent sores. 

UNGUENTUM PLUMBI lOOIDL L. Ointment of Iodide of 
Lead. {Plumbilodidi lit -^dipia I vii}. Rub and mix.) 

€)per. Stimulant. 

Use. In glandular swellings, and enlai^ement of the Jointik 
rubbed on the parts. 

of Hydriodnte of Potass. (Potasaa UydriodatU 3J., Adipit 
SiiUli Prteparati ^ J. Mix into an ointment.) 

UNGUENTUM REdlNOSUM. E. Unguentam Resinas Albe, 
]>. Resinous Ointment. {AdipU $ui$ Scrofmpartea viij^ As- 
st'xi Pint partes v., Cera Flavte partes iJ.) 

Oper. Digestive, detergent. 

Use. Fur cleansing and incarnating old, foul, and indident 

Off. Prep. Unguentum Subaeetatis Cupri, E. D. 

l/NGUENTUM SAMBUCL L.D. Eider Ointment (Sam^icej 
Florum &ij., .Bdipis Prop. Ibij.) 

Oper. Emollient. 

Use. As a covering to benign ulcers. 

phiilaria. {Felutrum reeentium Scrophularits nodosm, JldipiM 
Suilli Praparati, utriusgue &ij., Adipis Ovilli Prteparati mj. 
Boil the leaves in the fat until they are crisp, then strain witli 

VN6UENTUM SIMPLEX. U. S.->£. D. Simple Ohitment. 
{OUi Oliva Europam partes v., Certe Alba partes ij.) 

Oper. Emollient. 

Vsc, For softening the slcin and l^^aling chaps. 

Off. Prep. Ungiientum Oxidi Piumbi Albi^ £. Ung. Acetatis 
Plumbic E. 

fJNGUEN'I'UM STRAMONIL U. S. Ointment of Stramo- 
nium. (Q( Sal. Stramonii [recent.] tt>j., Adipis Ibiij., Certefiava 
ibss. Boil the stramonium leaves in the lard till they become 
frifihle; then strain through linen. Lastly, add the wax, pre- 
viously melted, and stir them until they are cold.) — U. S. Pkar. 

NIATU M. D. Ointment of Ammoniated Submuriate of Mer* 
cury. ( Ung. Cera Alba fl>j. Submurtatis Hydrargyri Amm^- 
niati 5js8.) 

Oper. Stimulant, detei^ent. 

Use. A?-siinst obstinate cutaneous eruptions. 

UNGUENTUM BVLPafiKUi. U. 8.— L. E. P. Bolphar 

YAL 21| 

ointment (Sulphwru I iU-, Adifi* Prmp, IbH., Btrgamu Old 

lliz. Mix.) 
{htr. Stimulant 
C/M. In itch ; the fourth part of the body ahould be well nibbed 

with the ointment every nif ht, till the symptoms disappear. 

Sulphur should be taken internally at the same time. When 

the smell ia objected to, the following may be used : Potas80 

Subcarb. 3iv., Aqus Ruse $J., Hydrarg. Sulph. Rubri3J., OU 

Lavand. f 3 ss., Sulph. Sublimati | xi., Adiuis Ibjss. Misce. 

Compound Sulphur Ointment {StUphuris Ibss.; Fermtri evnt, 

% ij., FoUuatr J^Titratis 3 j., Saponis JdoUia Ibss., Adipis Ibjss., 

Bergamii Olti Hlxxx. Mix.) 
Oper. and Uae. Tne same as the former. It is more stimulant 
UN6UENTUM VERATRI. U. S.— L. Unguentum Helleborl 

AIbi, D. CNnunent of White Hellebore. {VtratHcontritiiys^ 

AdipislMWl., Limonu Old fllu.) 
Oper. Stimulant ^ 

C/««. In scabies and other cutaneous affections. 
UNGUENTUM ZINCI. U. S.— L. £. D. Ointment of Oxid^ 

of Zinc (Zinci Ozfdi I j., Adipis I vj.) 
Over. Astringent, stimulant 
V8$. In ophthalmia, acrid scabby eruptions, and excoriated 

UVA. L. Uva Passe, U. S.— E. Vitis Vinifere Fmctus Sio- 

catus. D. Raisins. (Vitis Vinifera. The Vine. Pentandria^ 

Mononnia. N. O. ViUM. Temperate climates. > .) 
Prop, Inodorous ; taste subacidulous, sweet, mucilaginous 
Oper, Demulcent, nutritive. 
Vge. As the Ibod of the phthisical, and as an acidulous adjunct 

to the beverages of the sick. 
UVA URSI. , U. S.— L. E. Arbutiis Uva UrsI, Folia. D. 

Leaves of Beat's Whortleberry. (Arctostaphylos Vva Urtif 
• Red Berried Trailing Whortieberry. Deeandria^ Mvnogynit^ 

N. O. Erieacem. North of Europe. > .) 
Pn»p. Nearly inodorous; taste styptic, bitterish; color of the 

powder brownish, yellowish-green ; yields iu virtues to alcohol. 
Omp. Tannic, gallic acid 1 mucilage, resin extractive, traces of 

Oper. Tonic,- astringent 
Vee, la chronic diarrhtea and dysentery ; leucorrhosa, and dift* 

betes. It has been celebrated in calculous and nephntie 

complaints ; but it appears to act in the same manner as other 

astringrats, by merely allaying the pain and irritability of the 

bladder. In phthisis 1 
Doae. Of the powder, gr. xv. to f 3 ss. 
hu0mp. Salts of iron, tartar emetic, nitrate of silver, salts of 

lead, infusion of yellow cinchona bark. 
VALERIANA. U. S.— L. E. Valeriane Oflkinalls Radix, Tk 

Wild Valerian Root ( Triand. Monogfn. N. O. FaUrianm' 

eem, Europe. 40 
Cew^. A volatile oil, extractive, resin, starch, mncui. 
Prep. Odor strong, fetid ; taste bitterish, snbacrid, warm ; em^ 

•Ists of slender, brownish fibres, matted together, and attached 

to one head ; virtues extracted by water, alcohol, pure alkalieti 
Of§r, AntispMDMdiCi tonic, emmenagogae. 

•14 YER 

CTm. HviCerIa, epDeiMy, hemlcnnte, ehkmait. 

Dm$. OI' the powder, SJ. to 3 j. three or four timet a day, Id- 
crearing it at I'ar vi» the Moiuach can l>ear it. 

Tneomp. Salts ofiron. 

Off, Prep. Extractum Valerianm, D. Infuum FtUerianm^ U 8. 
— O. TinctHra Valtrianm, U.B.— L. D. Tijutwra yaUri^nm 
Jimmoniata^ U. S. — L. D. 

VERATRIA. U. 8.— L. E. Veratria. (An allcali prepared 
from Subadilla. Uelonias oJUinalis.) 

Prices*. Pelletier and Caventou direct the aeeda of the veratnm 
•abadilla t6 be repeatedly digested in boiling alcohol. These 
dnctures, filtrated whilst almost boiling, deposited, on cooling, 
whitish flakea of wax. They re'digested the matter which 
remained dissotTed, after evaporating it to the consittence of 
an extract, in cold water ; a small quantity of fatty matter now 
remained on the filter. The solution was slowly evaporated, 
and it formed an orange^ellow precipitate, which pnasessed 
the characterislica of the coloring matter found in almost all 
the woody vegetables. On adding a solution of acetate of lead 
to the liquor, which was still deeply colored, a new and very 
abundant yellow precipitate was immediately formed, which 
was separated by means of the filter. The liquor, now nearly 
colorless, still contained, amongst other subst&jices, the acetate 
of lead, which had been added ii^excess : a current of hydro* 
sulphuric acid was used to separaus the lead. The liquor waa 
then filtrated and concentrated by evaporatlcm, treated by 
magnesia, and again filtrated. The magnesian precijritate was 
digested in boiling alcohol. The alcoholic liquors yielded. <ni 
evaporation, a pulverulent substance, which was extremely 
acrid, and possoMed all the properties of the alkalies. This 
substance was at first yellowish ; but, by solutions in alcohol, 
and subsequent precipitations, caused by ppuring water into 
the alcoholic solutions, it was obtained in the form of a vpry 
white and perfectly inodorous powder. 

M. Meissner, who discovered the veratrine nearly at the same 
time as MIf . Pelletier and Caventou, recommends the seeds of 
the sabadilla to be treated with absolute alcohol, the alcoholic 
infusion evaporated, the residuum treated with water, the 
liquor filtered, and the veratrine to be precipitated by the car- 
bonate of potass : it then only remains to wash the precipitate 
with water. 

Comp. 34 eq. carhon=306.08+32 eq. hydrogen=:224*l €4* nltro- 
gec=14.54-6 eq. oxygen=48, equiv.=293.23. 

Prop. An acrid, whitish, inodorous powder, having an alkaline 

Oper. A powerAil topical excitant 

Use. Externally applied as an ointment in neuralgia and in 
gouty and rheumatic paralysis. 

Dose. Not more than one- twelfth of a grain. 

VERATRUH ALBUM. U. S.— L. £. D. White Hellebore 
Root. {Polfgam. Mowuia. N. O. Jlfe/an(Aac«a. North ef 
Europe. > .) 

Comp. Veratria; fecuin; wax. 

Prop. Inodorous; taste bitterish, acrid, natueOui: the powder 
is of a greyish-brown eolor. 

V I N 215 


Oper. Violently emetic ; purgative, even when aj»plied exter* 
nally to an issue ; errhine ; externally stimulunt. 

Use. It is never given internally, unless in maniacal cases, in 
which it is not more useful than other strong purges ; and even 
its use to promote a discharge from the nose in apoplexy and 
lethargy requires great caution. For its external use, se« 
Decoction and Ointment. 

Doae. As an errhine, gr. iij. or gr. iv. snuffed at bed-time. 

Off. Prep. Decoctum Veratri, L. Tinctura Veratri^ E. 17»- 
guentum Veratri, L. 

VERATRUM VIRIOE. U. S. American Hellebore. Th 
Root. Indigenous. 

Cwmp. Contains Veratria. 

Prop. Has a bitter, acrid taste, and bears a strong resemblance 
In appearance and properties to the foregoing. 

Oper. The same as Veratrum Album. 

V£RBASCUM THAPSUS. Fulia, D. Leaves of Great Mul- 
lein. (Pentandria^ Monogynia.) 

Prop. Taste bitterish and sweet, odor sweetish. 

Oper. Discutient, emollient, subnarcotic. 

Use. Chiefly as a fomentation. 

VINUM XERICUM. L. Vinum Album, E. Vinum Album 
Uispanum, D. Spanish White Wine, or Sherry. 

Cemp. All wines contain qearly the same components ; and one 
wine differs from another only in the relative quantities of them 
which it contains. These are alcohol ; water ; extractive mat- 
ter, which precipitates with the tartar in old wines ; bitartrate 
of potassa ; malic and tartaric acids ; a volatile oil, on which 
the flavor depends, and coloring matter, derived from the husk. 
Most of the wines in our market are fictitious. 

Prop. The odor of sherry is plsasant and aromatic; taste 
■lightly acidulous and warm, with the agreeable bitter of the 
peach kernel. The taste of port is austere and strong; claret 
is less austere, thinner, and higher flavored. Of the white 
wines, Madeira is the strongest, Malaga the sweetest, and Hock 
the most acid, but the less fermentable; while Champagne 
contains a large quantity of loosely combined carbonic acid gas. 

Oper. When good, and of a proper age, wine, in small quantities, 
is tonic, anti^'pasmodic, and nutritive; when new, flatulent 
and purgative, sooner intoxicating, and instead of strengthening, 
produces debility. 

Use. In the low and sinking stage of typhus fever the judicious 
exhibition of it fills tlie pulse, and restores its firmness, without 
increasing delirium ; but it is hurtful if given when the skin is 
very hot and dry. It is useful also in tetanus, chorea, and 
some other convulsive affections ; and in mo^t cases in which 
tonics are indicated. In the convalescences from all severe 
diseases it is a remedy on which much dependence used to be 
placed ; much less used at present. Hock is the best Wine for 

Dose, f 5 Ij- to Ollj. in twenty four hours, according to the nature 
of the disease, and the previous habits of the paUent. 

Off. Prep. Vini Medicati, L. E D. 

VINUM ALOES. U. S.— L. E. D. Wine of Aloes. (Jiloes in, 
pulv. tritm I ij., Canella eont. 5 iv., Vini Xerici CHJ. Macerate 
fourteen days, shake often, and strahi.) 


816 YIN 

Qp«r. Puifative, ttmnachlc, acoordinf to the dofe. 

V—* In cold, phlegmatic habit*, in paralysis, and gout, to i 
the bowels ; in dyepepeia, and chlorosis. 

D0»e. fiy to t'^ij. to produce purging; f3j. to f3U. m a 
stomnchic. "» 

of Potnssio-Tnrtrate of Antimony. {.Antimonii Potas*io-Tar 
tratig 3y., Vint Xeriei (M.) 

VINUM ANTIMOnFALEL E. Vinum Jlntiifumii, U. B. 
Liquor Tiirtari Emetici, D. Solution of Tartarized Antimony. 
(Antimcnii Tart. 3ij., Fini Xeriei Oj. DisBolve the tartarized 
antimony in the wine.) f J j. contains gr. y. of tartarized anti- 

gper. Emetic in large doees ; diaphoretic. 
««. To produce vomiting in children ; in febrile and inflamma- 
tory diseases after purging, to produce sweat without heating; 
«ontra-indicated in iow fevers. 

Dose, f 3 j. to f 5 Jm or a teaspoonful every five minutes, produce 
full vomiting; IIlxv. to f 3 ij. every two or three hours, in any 
proper vehicle, excite diaphoresis. 

Jncomp. Preparations of cinchona, and bitter astringent vegeta- 
bles, &c« Vide Antimonii Potansio-Tartra*. 

ViNUM CINCBONIiE. F. Wine of Cinchonia. (Take of 
Cinchnnia gr. xiv., Madeira Wine f § xxxj.) 

Use. In intermittents. 

Dose. From f 3 ii. to f 5 ij. 

VINUM COLCHICI. U. 8.— L. E Wine of Colchicnra. (* 

* Colchici eormi % vi^., Fini Xeriei Oij. Mucerute for fourteen 
days, and strain ) 

Comp. Gallate of colchicia and wine. 

C^«r. Diuretic; sedative; purgative. 

Use. In gout, rheumatism, and all inflammatory aflbctiona. 

Dose. From nixxx. to f 3J. in any mild fluid. 

VfNUM GENTIlNiE. E. Compound Wine of Gentian. 
(Rad. Gentiana Lutea ^ss., Cort. dnehonte |J., Cort. Sieeatm 

JlavtB JJurantii 3ij., Canellts pidv. 3j., Aleokolis DtltM 

5ivss., FiniJllbims^aniOj. fjxvj.) 

Oper. Tonic, stomachic. 

Use. In dyspepsia, and debilities of the stomach. 

Dose, f 3 ij. to f 3 xvj. twice or thrice a day. 

ViNUM IPECACUANHiE. U. S.— L. E. D. Wine of Ipeca- 
cuanha. ( Ipecacuanha eonctsts ^ ijss., Fini Xeriei Oy.) 

Over. Emetic, diaphoretic. 

Use, A good emetic for infants, as it operates more mildly than 
^ the antimnnial wine : in coughs, diarrhosa, and dysentery ; ai^d 

Dose. For the former intention f 3 iv. to f 3 x. in divided doses ; 
for the latter, lllx. to fllxxx. in some proper vehicle, every two 
or three hours. 

ViNUM NICOTlANiE TABJCI. U. S.— E. Wine of To- 
bacco. {Foliorum J^icotianm Tabaei SJ'i ^tiu JilH Hispani 

Qp«r. Narcotic diuretic, antispasmodic. 

Use. In dropsical cases, colica pictonum, and ileuf. 

Pose. lllx. to mxxxvj. twiceaday. 

VlNUH OPII. U S.— L.E.D. Whie of Opium. {ExtruU 

WIN 817 

Opt* ; iJMn Cinnam, Cnt eont.t CaryopkMi mjU., Hng.ZlSm^ 

9^ni Xerici Oij.) 
Oper. Narcotic, anodjme. 
cZn. In the same cases in which tincture of opiom is used ; b«t 

it occasions less disturbance of the brain and nervous system ; 

and is themfore better suited for very young patients, nervooi 

habits, and where the head is much affected. 
Dosfi. nix. to f 3 j. 
VINUM aulNiE. F. Wineofauina. (Take of Sulphate of 

Quina gr. ix., Madeira Wine fi^ij.) 
Vote. From f 3 i v. to f 5 i v. 
\INUM RHE[. U.S.— E. Rhubarb Wine. (iRad,RhHuif 

CMC |ij., CaneUm pulv. 3 j., Alcoholis DUvli |ijss., Vini AlH 

Hispani 1 xvjss.) 
Op€r. Laxative, stimulant. 
U»9. In wealcness of the stomach and Irawtis; and in dianrhflM 

from viscid mucus. 
Doae. f3iv. tof^sa. 

ViN CM T ABACI. U.S.— E. Wine of Tobacco. (7V*ace# 
5j., SA«rryf5xij.) 

VINUM VERATRI ALBI. U. S.— L. Wine of Hellebore. 
{Veratri con. ivi^j., Vini Xerici Oij. Macerate for fourteMi 
days, and str^n.) 

V»e. In cutaneous affections ; and in gout, combined with opium. 

Diae. f3ss.tof3ij. 

VIOLA. U.P.— E. (ykA^odoraU.) The flowers of the violet, 
used as a coloring matter for a syrup : a test of acids. 

Gmp. The viola odorata, and probably other species, contains a 
peculiar alkaline principle (Fm/w), bearing some resemblance 
to JBiMtfCto, but possessing distinct properties. It is very active 
and poisonous (Orfila) ; white ; soluble in alcohol, scarcely 
soluble in water, and rorms salts with acids. Combined in the 
plant with malic acid, obtained by treating with distilled water 
the alcoholic extract of the dried root, decomposing by means 
of magnesia the malate of violia contained in the solution, an4 
extracting the alkali from the precipitated matters by alcohol, 
which yields it by evaporation. 

VlOLiG ODOR ATiE FLORES. E. D. Flowers of the Sweet 
Violet. {PeiUand. Monogyn. N. O. ViolacM. Europe. II.) 

Prop, Odor pleasant, peculiar ; have scarcely any taste ; impart 
tlieir color tu water. 

Oper, Slijthtly laxative; emetic, expectorant, mucilaginous 

Vte. In syrup, united with castor oil or olive oil, to clear the 
bowels of infants when ttie meconium is retained. The viola 
pedatA in often prescribed for nephritic affections, particularly 
gravel. Dr. J.imes considers it us a highly useful remed^r Id 
such cases ; also in pectoral and cutaneuos diseases. The ia 
fusion is n delicate test of uncombined acids and alkalies. 

Do8e. f 3 j. to t' 3 ij. for infants. 

Of. Prep. Syrupus Viola, E. D. 

WINTERA AUOMATiCA. U. S. {Secondary.) Cortex, R 
Prymys Aroraatica, Cortex^ D. Winter's Park. {PolyoMdritu 
Tttrann. N. O. fVinteraeea. Magellan. ^ .) 

Pnf. Odor aromatic ; taste warm, acrfd, aromatic 


aid ziN 

Qpir. Cannlaative, tonic. 

!/•«. Ai an aifjiinct to atomachic infusions, in dyspepsia, asd 


XANTHORHIZA. U. S. (Secondary.) Yellow Boot. Xan. 

JSfiifolia, {PentandriOj Polygynia. N. O. Ranuncwlacem. 

Indigenoiu.) The Root. 
Qfrnp. Resin, gum. 
Prop. Root from tliree inches to a foot in length, half an inch 

tiiieli, of a yellow color, and very bitter taste. Imparts its taste 

and color to water. 

Sper. Tonic. 
90. In all cases where a pure tonic is indicated. Its propertiea 
are analogous to those of Columbo and Uuassia. 

XANTHOXYLUM. U.S. (Secondary.) Prickly Ash. Xan. 
Praxineum. The Bark. Indigenous. ^ . (Dutcioj Pentand. 
N. O. Torebinthacea.') 

Comp. Woody fibre, volatile oil, fixed oil, resin, gum, coloring 
matter, and a peculiar principle, Xanthoxylin. 

Prop. Taste bitterisli, and afterwards extremely acrid. Inodo- 

Oper. Stimulant, diaphoretic, resembling mezereon and guaiac 

Use. In clironic rheumatism, and as a topical remedy for tooth- 

J>ose. Of the powder, from gr. x. to 3 ss. ; of the infusion, fhnn 
f§j. to fJiiJM three or four times in twenty-four hours; or of 
the decoction, made by boiling ^ j. of the bark in Oij. of water 
for fifteen minutea: fx iv. to I viij. eve^ three or four hours. 

ZINCUM. U. S.— L. £. D. Zinc. (A metal obtained from 
calamine and blende ; its ores are found in England and other 

Prop. Color bluish white ; lustre of a fresh surface considerable, 
but It is soon dulled by the facility of its oxidation ; hard ; 
texture striated ; spec. grav. 7.190 ; melts at IWP of Fahr. ; 
burns wiih a bright fiame in a higher temperature, and is vola- 
tilized in the form of a white flocculent oxide. 

Use. In pharmacy, to form the following preparations: 

ZINCI OXYDUM. U. S.— L. E. D. Oxide of Zinc. (Zinei 
Sulpkatis Ibj., .Ammonite Sesquicarbonatis ^ vjss., Jlqu(B DistUr 
lata cong. iij. Dii»M>lve separately the sulphate and the sesqui- 
carbonate in Oxij. of distilled water, and strain ; afterwards mix. 
Wash the precipitate frequently with water, and la^Uy, calcine 
it with a strong heat for two hours. 

Comp. Zinc 80, oxygen 20 parts, in 100 of oxide.— ProKt. Or 1 
cq. of zinc=32.3-j-l of oxygen=:8, equiv.=40.3. 

Prop. Inodorous; insipid; of a snow-white color; insoluble in 
alcohol or water ; entirely soluble in acids ; in the pure alkalies. 

Oper. Tonic, antispasmodic, externally detersent, exsiccative. 

Use. In epilepsy, chorea, and other spasmodic aflTections. F<^ 
its extemijl use, see Ung. Zinci. 

Dose. Gr. j. to gr. vj. twice a day. 

Off. Prep. Unguentum Zinci, L. E. D. 

ZINCr SULPHAS. U.S.— L.E.D. Sulphate of Zinc. (Zind 
in frustula I v., Jlcidi Sulphurici Diluti Oij.) A plate of zinc 
put into the solution purifies it from any iron, copper, or lead it 
may contain. Zincum Vitrinlatum. 

Gmi^. Oxide of zinc 20, acid 40, water of sryatallizatioii 40 parti 

Z I N Sit 

ki lOOoTdiefalphals: or 1 eq. of prafozide of rtBcs^O^l 
•«. of acid=s4ai+7 watef=63. cqiiiv^l43.4. 

fnm. Inodoroas; taMe 8t]rpcic; in white, aemi-craiMiMfCBl^ 
«aorMeent cryauli, whidi are right rhombic prinif; lolaMo 
fei three parts of water uiOfP; io lew than ita own weight of 
toiling water; inaolttble in alcohoL 

Omr, Emetic, tonic, antispasmodic, eztemallf astringent. 

Cm. As it operates very qoiclily, it is used, combined with is- 
Aision of ipecacuanha, toempQrthe stomach in thecoromeoce' 
■lent of the cold stage of the intermittent paroxysm ; and In 
other cases where immediate vomiting is required. As a lanie 
it is osefal in i^thi^ dyspepsia, and nervoos alliections. Ex- 
ternally in coUyria, to ophthalmia, after the inflammatory ac- 
tion has subsided ; in injections, in gouwrhcBa ; and as a loChA 
In external inflammatioos, and to stop inordinate discharges. 

Z>s«e. Gr. z. to 3 as. to prodoce vomitiiDig; as a tonic, gr. J. to gr. 
ij. twice or thrice a day. 

Jiaeesip. Alkalies, earths, sesqoicarb. amnionic, hydn>-«BlpiHi> 
rets, lime-water, astrt agent vegetable infosicms, mil It. 

C(f . Prtp. Solutio Suipkati* Zinch E. 8oluti0 Jteetatis Zimei, 
IB. l49M&r Alnmi*i» Comp., L. Zind Oxplmm, L. E. D. 

ZINGIBER. U. 8.— L. £. Amomuro Zingiber, Radix, D. 
Ginger Root (Zingiber OficinaU, Rotcoe. Trans. lAnm. Ass. 
Monand, Monogyn. N.O. Zingibtraeem. East Indies, l^) 

Prop. Odor aromatic ; taste warm, aromatie, acrid ; in wrinkled, 
greyish-white pieces, giving a pale yellowish feculent powder 
when pulverized ; yields ita virtues to aloriiul, and in a great 
degree to water. 

Omer. CarminaUve. stimulant sialagogue. 

Ut4. In gout flatulent colic dyspepsia, and tympanitis; ■■ n 
adjunct to griping purgatives; less heating than pepper. 

D0»«. Gr. z. 10 3 j. ; an overdns% is apt to Induce spasmo^ 

Cf. Prep. Syruptu ZHgibtrU, L. E. D. THet. ZingOtrig, 

eiNGTBER; RADIX CONDfTA. D. Radiz CondUa «s 

India Aliata, E. Preserved Ginger Root 
A condiment possessing nil the virtues of ginger ; and therefore • 

useful addition to cold summer fruits and vegetsblsa, 

«aten by those of goaty and dyspeptic habits. 



NO. I. 




Poisons may be divided into three classes, according to their 
mode of action on the svstem ; namely, Irritants, J^arcotic*, and 
JSTarcotioo- Irritants. This classilication is a modification of that 
originally proposed by Orfila ; and is almost universally adopted 
by toxicologists. 

The Irritants ai£ possessed of these common charactera. 
When taken in ordinary doses, they occasion speedily violent 
vomiting and purging. These symptoms are either accompanied 
or followed by intense pain in the abdomen. The peculiar effecta 
of the poison are manifested chiefly on the stomach and hitestines, 
which, as their name implies, they irritate and inflame. Many 
substances belonging to this ^lass of poisons, possess corrosive 
properties, such as the strong mineral acids, caustic alkalies, cor- 
rosive sublimate, and others. These, in the act of swallowing, 
are commonly accompanied by an acrid or burning taste, extend- 
ing from the mouth down the oesophagus to the stomach. Some 
irritants do not possess any corrosive action, — of which we have 
examples in arsenic, the poisonous salts of barytes, carbonate of 
lead, cantharides, &c., and these are often called pure irritants. 
They exert no chemical action on the tissues with which they 
come in contact ; they simply irritate and inflame them. 

There is this diflerence between Corrosive and Irritant poisons. 
Under the action of corrosive poisons, the symptoms are com- 
monly manifested immediately, because mere contact produces 
disorganization of u part, usually indicated by some well-marked 
symptoms. In the action of tHe purely icritant poisons, the 
■jnnptoms are generally more slowly manifested, seldom showing 
themselves until at least half an hour has elapsed from the time 
of swallowing the substance. Of course, there are exceptions to 
this remark ; for sometimes irritants act speedily, though seldom 
with the rapidity of corrosive poisons. It is important, in a prac- 
tical view, to distinguish whether, in an unknown case, the poison 
which a person requiring immediate treatment may have swal- 
lowed be irritant or corrosive. This may be commonly de£er- 
mined by the answer to the question, as to the time at which the 

Appendix L] POISONS. S91 

qrmptonifl appeared aAer the suspected poison was taken. In this 
way we may oAen easily distinguish between a case of poisoning 
from arsenic and one from corrosive sublimate. There is also 
another point which may be noticed. As the corrosion is due to 
a decided chemical action, so an examination of the mouth and 
fauces may enable us to determine the nature of the poisim 

It has been already stated that there are many irritant poisons 
which have no corrosive properties ; and therefore never act as 
corrosives : but it must be remembered that every corrosive may 
act as on irritant. Thus the action of corrosive sublimate is that 
of an irritant poison, as, while it destroys some parts of the coats 
of the stumacti and intestines, it irritates and inflames others. So 
again most corrosive poisons may lose their corrosive properties 
by dilution with water, and tlien they act simply as irritants. 
This is the case with the mineral acids. 

In some instances, it is not easy to say whether an irritant 
poison possesses or not corrosive properties. Thus oxalic acid 
acts immediately, and blanches the mucous membrane of the 
mouth and fauces, but we hav e never met with any decided marks 
of corrosion produced by it in the stomach or viscira. 

Irritant poisons, for the most part, belong to the mineral king- 
dom ; and they may be divided into the non-metallic and metallic 
irritants. There ore a few derived from the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms; but these are not very often employed criminally. 
Some of the gases likewise belong to the class of irritant poisons. 

Narcotic poisons have their operation confined to the brain 
and spinal marrow. Either immediately or some time after the 
poison has been swallowed, the patient suffers from cephalalgia, 
vertigo, paralysis, coma, and in some instances tetanus. They 
have no acrid burning taste like the irritants; and they very 
rarely give rise to vomiting or diarrhoea. When these symptoms 
follow the ingestion of the poison into the stomach, the effect may 
be ascribed either to the quantity in which the poison has been 
taken, and the mechanical distension of the stomach thereby 
produced, or to the poison being combined with some irritating 
substance, such as alcohol. The pure narcotics are not found to 
initate or intlame the viscera. 

Notwithstanding the well-defined boundary thus apparently 
existing between uese two classes of poisons, it must not be sup- 
posed that each class of bodies will always act in the manner 
Indicated. Some irritants have been observed to affect the brain 
or the spinal marrow remotely. This is the case with oxalic acid 
and arsenic. Both of these common poisons have in some in- 
stances given rise to symptoms closely resembling those of nar- 
cotic poisoning ; namely, coma, paralysis, and tetanic convulsions. 
Thqs, then, we must not allow ourselves to be deceived with the 
idea that the symptoqis are always clearly indicative of the kind 
of poison taken. 

The narcotic poisons are few in number, and belong to the 
vegetable kingdom. Some of the poisonous gases possess a nar* 
eotic action. 

J^arcotico' Irritants. —Foiaona belonging to this class have, ai 
the name implies, a comiwund action. They are all derived from 
the vegetable kingdom. At variable periods after being swal- 
lowed, they give rise to vomiting and diarrhoMi, like irritants 

POISONS. [Appendix I. 

ud MMUiar or later prod;2^ ftupor, coma, paralyda, and eonviil- 
iloM, owing to their eit'ect on the brahi and apinol marrow. 
They p o mem the property, like irritants, of irritating and intlam* 
kif the alimentary eanal. Aa familiar examples, we may point 
Id buz vomica, monlwliood, and poisonous mushrooms. This 
elaas of poisons is very numerous, embracing a large variety of 
well-luiown vegetable substances; but they rarely form a subject 
oT difficulty to a medical practitioner. The fact of the symptoms 
occurring after a meal ct which some suspicious vegetables ma/ 
have been eaten, coupled with the nature of the symptoms them- 
■etvea, will commonly indicate the class to which the poisoa 
belongs. Some narcotico-irtitants have a hot acrid taste, such ai 
the aconite or monkshood. 

We here subjoin tables of the more important poiscma, with the 
properties of which it is neccivary for a medical jurist to be ac- 

Suainted. Poisons are divided into three classes 1. Irritants. 
. Narcotics. 3. Narcotico-Irritants. The class of Irritants may 
he thus subdivided :— 


CLA.88 I. 

1. JfonrMetallic Irritant Poisons, 

Bfdphoric acid. Sulphate of Indigo. Nitric acid. Muriatte 
acid. Nitromuriatic acid. Nitrosulphuric acid. Oxalic acid.* 
Binoxalate of potasn. Potash and its carbonates. Soda and its 
carbonates. Ammonia and its carbonate. Iodide of potassium. 
Bulphurets of potassium and sodium. Nitrate of potash. Bi- 
tartrate of potash. Sulphate of potash. Alum. Barytes and ita 

3. Metallic Irritant Poisons. 

Arsenic. Arsenite of potash. Arsenic acid. Orpiroent. Cor- 
rosive sublimate. Calomel. White precipitate. Bed oxide of 
mercury. Turbith mineral. Vermilion. Cyanide of mercury. 
Nitrates of mercury. Lead and its suits. Cupper and its salts. 
Tartarized antimony. Butter of antimony. Chlorides of tin. 
Baits of zinc. Nitrate of silver. Sulphate of iron. Muriate of 
iron. Subnitrate of bismuth. Bichromate of potash. 

3. Vegetable Irritant Poisons. 

Aloes. Colocynth. Gamboge. Jalnp. Scommony. Bavin. 
Croton oil. Castor-oil seeds. Berries of the yew. Cayenns 
pepper. Oil of tar. 

4. .Animal Irritant Poisons. 
Cantharides. Poisonous articles of food. 

♦ Oxalic acid and the binoxalate of potash, which really belong 
to the vegetable kingdom, are placed among the non-metal lis 
mineral irritants from the anal(«y which they bear to these ira4- 
soos in their effects. "^ 

Appendix!,] POISONS. 

CLA8B n. 

JfarcotU Pox8on$. 

Hyoscyamus. Lactuca. Solanum. Opium, and Its prawrir 
tions. Morphia, and its salts. Hydrocyanic acid. Oil of bitttr 
almonds. Laurel water. Cyanide of potassium. 


JCareotxco- Irritant Poisons. 

Nox vomica. Strychnia. Colchicam. Veratria. White 
hellebore. Digitalis. Conium. Cicata. JEthusa cynapium. 
CEnanthe crocata. Datura stramonium. Aconitum napelluB. 
Atropa belladonna. Nicotiana tabacum. Cocculus indicus. 
Fungi. Camphor. Alcohol. 

The selection here made has been chiefly confined to those 
bodies which have either caused death or given rise to idarming 




When a practitioner is called to a case of poisoning, it is above 
all things necessary that he should know to what points he ought 
to give his attention. It is very proper that every effort should 
be made by him to save life where the individual is still living ; 
but while engaged in one duty, it is also in his power to perform 
another, supposing the case to be one of suspected criminal poi- 
soning, namely, to note down many circumstances which may 
tend to detect the perpetrator of the crime. There is no person 
so well fitted to observe these points as a medical man ; but it 
unfortunately happens, that many facts important as evidence, 
are often overlooked. The necessity for observing and recording 
them, is not perhaps generally known. 

The following are the principal points which demand the 
attention of a medical juiist in all cases of suspected poisoning :— 
1. With respect to 

. Synptotns* 

1. The time of their occurrence,— their nature. 

2. The exact period at which they were observed to take place 
after a meal, or after food or medicine had been taken. 

3. The order of their occurrence. 

4. Whether there was any remission or intermission in their 
progress, or, whether they continued becoming more and mora 
aggravated until death. 

5. Whether the patient had labored under any previoua ill- 

6. Whether the symptoms were observed to recur more vio- 
lently after a particular meal, or after taking any particular kind 
of food or medicine. 

7. Whether the patient has vomited :— the vomited matters, 
if any (especially those first ejected), to be procured ; their color 
noted, as well as their quantity. 

8. If none be t».*"...r«Kio t^d the vomiting has taken place on 
tfie dress, fur \e room,— ihen a portion of the 

9M POISONS. [Appendix L 

dodiiiWi dieet, or carpet, may be eat out and reterred for analy- 
■is : — if the vomiting have occurred on a deal floor, a portion of 
ike wood may be scraped or cut out : — or if on a stone pavement, 
thai a clean piece of rag or iponge loaiced in distilled water may 
be used to remove any traces of the poison. 

9. Endeavor to ascertain the probable nature of the food or 
medicine last taken. 

10. Ascertain the nature of all the different articles of food 
used at a mea*. 

11. Any BUdpected articles of food, as well as the vomited 
matters, to be sealed up in a proper vessel, and reserved for 

13. Note down in their own words, all explanations volunta- 
rily made by parties present, or who are supposed to be concerned 
in the suspected poisoning. 

13. Whether more than one person partook of the food or 
medicine : if so, whether all these persons were affected, and 

14. Whether the same kind of food or medicine had been 
taken before by the patient or other persons, without ill effecta 

In the event of the death of the patient, it will be necessary for 
a practitioner to note down — 

15. The exact time of death, and thus determine how long a 
period the person has survived after having been first attacked 
with the symptoms. 

16. Observe the attitude and position of the body. 

17. Observe the state of the dress. 

18. Observe all surrounding objects. Any bottles, paper 

Kckets, weapons, or spilled liquids lying about, should be col- 
;ted and preserved. 

19. Collect any vomited matters near the deceased. Observe 
whether vomiting has taken place in the recumbent position or 
not If the person have vomited in the erect or sitting posture, 
the front of the dress will commonly be found covered with the 
vomited matters. 

In the event of a post mortem examination being ordered by a 

50. Note the external appearance of the body, whether the 
mrface be livid or pallid. 

51. Note the state of countenance. 

S3. Note all marks of violence on the person or discomposure 
of the dress, — marks of blood, tec. 

S3. Observe the presence or absence of warmth or coldness n 
the legs, arms, abdomen, mouth, or axille. 

84. The presence of rigidity or cadaverous spasm in the body. 

To give any value to ue two last-mentioned characters, it ia 
necessary for the practitioner to observe the nature of the floor 
on which the body is lying, whether it be clothed or naked, 
young or old, fat or emaciated. All these conditions create a 
difference, in respect to the cooling of the body and the access of 

25. If found dead, when was the deceased last seen living or 
known to have been alive 1 

96. Note all circumstances leading to a suspicion of suicide or 

Appendix L] POISONS. 

Jnspeetion of the Bodf, 

S7. Observe the state of the abdominal Tiscenu 
88. If the stomach and intestines be found inflai»ed, the Beat 
of inflammation should be exactly specified ; also all marks of 
ulceration, effusion of blood, corrosion, or perforation. 

S9. The contents of the stomach should be collected in a clean 
Tessel ; their color, odor, and nature specified. 

30. The contents of the duodenum should be separately col- 

31. Observe the state of the large intones, especially the 

32. The state of the lar]mx, fauces, and cesophagus, whether 
there be in these parts any marks of inflammation or corrosion. 

33. The state of the thoracic viscera ;— all morbid changM 

34. The state of the brain. 

Such are the points to which, in the greater number of cases 
of suspected poisoning, a medical jurist should attend. By mean* 
of these data, noted according to the particular case to which 
they are adapted, he will in general be enabled, without difliculty, 
to determine the probable time of death, the probable cause of 
death, and the actual means by which death was brought about. 
He may thereby have it in his power also to point out the dish 
that may have contained the poison, if the case be one of poison 
ing ; and to throw some light upon any disputed question of sui- 
cide or murder in relation to the deceased. Many cases of poi- 
soning are obscure, owing to these points not having been attended 
to in the first instance. 




.^ct(2«.— Sulphuric, Nitric, Muriatic, Oxalic, Tartaric, Acetic. 

AlkiUiea.—^otasYiy Soda, Ammonia, and their Carbonates. 
Calcined Carbonate of Soda. Jjime. 

.Sa/t«.— Nitrate of Barytes. Chloride of Barium. These may 
be made by digesting the pure carbonate in the respective acid% 
and evaporating to crystallization. 

Chloride of Lime. Suluhate of Lime. Nitrate of Silver. 
Sulphate of Iron. Ferrocyanato of Potash. Phosphate of Soda. 
Sulphate of Copper. Iodide of Potassium. Acetate of Lead. 
Bichloride of Mercury. Peroxide of Manganese. Carbonate oi 

Oxalate of Ammonia. — Prepared by neutralizing a strong sola- 1 
lion of Oxalic acid, with Scsquicarbonate of Ammonia, and eva- 
porating at a low temperature to crystallization. Should the salt 
become acid by evaporation, add a little ammonia. 

Ufdrosulpkuret of Ammonia. — Pass sulphuretted hydrogen gat 
by means of a bent tube, into equal parts of a solution of para 
ammonia and water, until the liquid is saturated with the gaa. 
The solution must be preserved in a green-glass bottle. This la 
an important test for the detection of metallic poisons. When 
Weil made, it ought to give no precipitate with sul; hate of mag- 


ftB6 POISONS. [Append 1. 

8tiipkwrett§d Hfdrogen.—ThH rtioald always be employed to 
the state of gas, and not dissolved in water. It may be prepared 
1^ gently heating in a retort or a flask with a bent tulie, sulphuret 
ot' iron with five or six parts of diluted sulphuric acid. Care must 
be taken not to distil over the contents of the retort. This gaa 
precipitates most metallic poisons ; some completely, others par* 
tially. The suspected solution into which it is passed, should 
neither be too acid nor too alkaline. 

Sulphuret of /r<m.— Heat a bar of iron to whiteness, and rob 
on ilB surface, a stick of sulphur. Collect the sulphuret which 
foils in a state of fusion, in a vessel of culd water, placed beneath. 
Dry it and keep it closely bottled. This preparation serves for 
the purpose of making sulphuretted hydrogen gas. 

Sutphate of Stroatta.— This salt in solution, is sometimes used . 
, as a test for the salts of Barytes. It may be made by digesting 
pare carbonate of strontia in dilute sulphuric acid. It is not very 
soluble in water, in consequence of which, when employed as a 
.test, it must be used in comparatively large quantity. 

Protochloride of Tin. — Obtained by digesting pure tin in strong 
muriatic acid at argentic heat, until no more is dissolved. A piece 
of metallic tin should bo always kept in the solution. A useful 
test for Gold and Mercury. 

Chloride i^Ter) of Go/d.^Dissolve gold foil at a gentle heat, in 
a mixture of one part nitric and two parts muriatic acid. The 
solution may afterwards be diluted with its bulk of distilled water. 
Used to distinguish meconic fVom sulphocyanic acid. 

Bichloride of Platina. — Dissolve slips of fine platina foil at 
platina filings, in a mixture of one part nitric and two parts mu- 
riatic acid, brought to a boiling temperature. Platina must be 
added, until no mrther action ensues. This is a useful test for 

Iodic ./^Gti.— Digest Iodine in the steongeft Nitric Acid (sp. gr. 
1.52), in a retort over a sand bath, and repeatedly wash down 
with the acid, the iodine that may sublime. This process requires 
many hours for its completion. When there is no further action 
pour off the liquid, and evaporate to dryness. Iodic acid is leA 
as a colorless solid. This test serves to distinguish morphia from 
the other alkaloids, and also to detect sulphuric acid in articles 
of clothing. 

Permuriate (Seeguiehloride) of Iron. — Dissolve red (per) oxide 
of iron in muriatic acid. It may be neutralized for the purpose 
of a test by the addition of a small quantity of potash. Used as 
a test for morphia and its salts. 

Black F/ttx.— Prepared by mixing thoroughly two parts of bi- 
tartrate of potash with one pait of nitrate of potash, and projecting 
the mixture by small portions into a red-hot crucible, until com- 
plete deflagration has taken place. The grey mass obtained, 
should be pulverized, and kept from air in a well-closed bottle. 
} This substance is used for>the reduction of the compoimda of 
arsenic. The bitartrate itself calcined, or well dried oxalate of 
lime, will answer the same purpose. 

Soda Flux. — Calcine in an earthen retort crystallized acetate 
of soda reduced to a fine powder. The charred mass may be 
afterwards pulverized. It does not deliquesce like the black flux, 
and Is a good reducing agent. 

Teet Papers*— 'LitmuM paper ibr acids.— This may be mode by 

Appendix /.] ACE S97 

ntaratiog an^zed paper (ft«e fiom lime; in a strong inAirion of 
litmus (about one ounce to half a pint of Iwiling water), and dry* 
ing it in a place entirely free from acid vapors. It should be kept 
from air and light. Rose paper for ailcalies. This is made by 
saturating unsized paper in a strong infusion of red roses (about 
two ounces of petals to a pint of water), and drying the paper 
quicicly. It should be kept from air and light. 

Miscellaneous Articles. — Copper filings.— Thin copper-foil.— 
Copper-wire.— Tin filings.— Tin-foil.— Zinc-foil, very thin.— Gold- 
leaf. Gold-foil, such as is used by dentists: in this state it serves 
for the detection of mercurial poisons. Reduced silver. Platina- 
foil— Platina wire. Platina crucible and cover. — Platina cup: 
these two vessels may have a capacity of about two fluid-drachms. 
Small glass tube (about two pounds), varying from one-fourth to 
one-eighth of an inch in the bore. This tn^ which serves for 
the making up of small reduction tubes, and numerous other 
purposes, should be very thin. Watch glasses. Test-tubes (thin) 
— Glass plate. Florence flasks. — Large and small retort and 
receiver. Filtering paper. Spirit lamp. 

Charcoal powder. Animal charcoal. Alcohol. Litmus cake. 
Sulphate of indigo. 

In pursuing an analysis, the following precautions ought to hn 
observed : 1. All the apparatus should be perfectly clean ; when 
metals are to be reduced, the glass tubes and fluxes showild be 
warm and dry. 8. The solutions of the tests should be cmicen- 
trated. This will give a known and definite strength, which will 
regulate the quantity to be employed. 3. Before employing the 
tests, they should be tried for the ordinary impurities which they 
ire liable to cont^n. 

Poisons are substances of an animal, a vegetable, or a mineral 
nature, which produce effects deleterious to the animal economy 
wlien they are taken into the stomach in certain doses i and, in' 
some instances, even when they are applied to the surface of the 
body. Many poisonous substances, however, are daily employed 
as medicines ; and with the best results, when they are adminis- 
tered in proper doses, and with due precaution. 

Writers who professedly treat of poisons, have arranged the 
snbstances which they regard as such, according to their effects 
on the animal economy ; but as the following memoranda are 
intended merely n^ references from which the practitioner may 
refresh his memory when his assistance is suddenly required in 
cases of poisoning, the author conceives the alphabetical arrange* 
■ent will be the most useful, and has consequently adopted it. 
A similar reason has also induced him to jHace the English name 
ts the title of each article.* 

HCBTIC ACID. (Str<m/.) 

Bymptoms. Great heat, and a sensation of burning pain In the 
stomach; convulsions; death. 

* Many poisonous substances are purposely not noticed, becaoaa 
fhey ore not likely to be employed as such ; and, cooseqtuntly, 
they do not demand general attention. 


moult liine ami much fojected^ 
MUoCit. llijDHli ; Hxip Id wiui ; liter vhlch Uu ni 

ACETATE '<^LB.\D ; He ludu ^^^^utf 1^ 
ACONITUH ; M JfnUkwi. 

. zJu! £^ecU,~lhaH of > poirerfiil Irrltu 

^Ijig pATti wjihwUch JLcDDieiiii cohueEiIiihI vben 
i]buintn«uorfibrinags,^l Increvwa tbulr demllf ud 
IrrlullaD oDd kDfldinuatloD nra tbuj act up by th« 
' iliQ TluJ povren. luDiifhl iboul bf Ib« dumlul 

Hie IteiuraJ SyMptnu hfe thoAe ptoduci 

■vralJow. give Bcelils of ammonia or ^nrluof urmoiill. 

uilOcliil rapinUon mun be hepi up ror urns Uine. Uonud 
ta Ibe epifailrliun ii i good remedy, 
AUMONlA : (Liquor jlmmmin.) A comalve mliierBl foluc^ 
^mybnli. Eicorlulou oT Ihe moulb and fiucei ; eemattoD 0/ 
bnrD)niLiiU>elbroat,che«.uidalniuacb; follawed bvfamU 
Idi luid puijliit, tlie ejected maitet being mited nilh blood. 
When tbeldoH la liige. the Immediate feeling la that of itnn- 
fDlaiioo^ atieaded ivlth conruleloin and high dellrlnni' If tta« 
mult be tbtid. It mr quickly rollom the admlnlatralliHi of tha 
poison. The InhalsUon of die ammoala b/ applying tha boIb- 
Uon ID Uio nouMla in equally hi " 

fariid jfppearanuf. Mnrlie of OUODD InHatr 

pipei, which. In Ihe caie of inunonla, la eaaU; dlMipaled br 
fasal. Ammoala la Immadlalely known from pouah ud aoda, 
by Un odor and tolalllllj. If tha (oluUon In water be niy 
dllnle, the odor may bo acnrcdy perceptible. The nlkali IMf 
then be dlKovered, provided we have Anl aiaontl ounelTea; 
breraiioratlDiapartloiioflliellqaid, itaaipolatli and »dian 
■baaUi—b J adding lo Uie •olntlon ■ mlitan of uioihia aM 

Appe$iiiafL} AMM 

wad Bitrete of silver. The well-koown yellow precipHate of 
miBenite of nUver will bt> instantly produced. In addition to 
theee characten, ammonia re^issoives the brown oxide of eil- 
▼er, which it precipitates from the nitrate, while potash and 
•oda do not. The sesquicarbunate of ammonia may be known 
from other salts by its allialine reaction, its odor, and its entire 
volatiiiQras a solid, from pure ammonia : — 1, by its effervescing 
on being added to an acid: % by its yielding an abundant 
i^hite precipitate with a solt^uon of muriate of lime ;— from tha 
carbonates of potash and soda, among other properties, 1, by its 
giving no precipitate with a solution of the sulphate of magne- 
sia ; ^ fnmi the rich violet blue solution, which it fonns when 
added in excess to the sulphate of copper ; 3, by its odor and 
OtHttie Potaih and Soda are best known from their respectlva 
carbonates by giving a brown precipitate with a solution of ni- 
trate of silver. The carbonates, on the other hand, yield a 
whitish-yellow precipitate. Caustic potash is known fVom 
caustic soda by the Ibllowing characters: — 1. Its solution ia 

recipitated of a canary-yellow color, by bichloride of platina. 
It is precipitated in granular white crysuls, by the addition 
of an excess of a strong solution of tartaric acid. Caustic soda 
is not precipitated by either of these tests, which will serve 
equally to distinguish the salts of potash from those of soda. 
3. If we neutralize the two alkalies by dilute nitric acid, and 
crystallize the liquid on a slip of jKlass, should the alkali be 
potash, the crystals will be in the form of long slender fluted 
prisms ; if soda, of rhombic plates. 4. A fine platina wire mav 
be dippied into Uie alkaline liquid, and then dried by holding it 
above the flame of a spirit-lamp. In this way, a thin film of 
aolid alkali is obtained on the wire. On introducing this into 
the colorless part of the flame \ if it be potash, the flame will 
acquire a lilac color ; if soda, a rich yellow color. This teat 
applies to the salts of the alkalies, but care mus^be taken thai 
the platina wire is perfectly clean. < 

The carbonates of poiash are known from those of soda by the 
above tests. The carbonate is known from the bicarbonate of 
either alkali, by the fact that the fi)rmer yields immediately a 
white precipitate, ^v ith u solution of sulphate of magnesia, while 
t)M latter is unaffected by that test. 

H liquid* eontaiHiitg organic matter.— Such liquids will possesa 
an alkaline reaction. If the alkali be anmionia, this will be 
anuounced by the odor, and it may then be obtained by distil- 
lation with or without the addition of a small quantity of sul- 
phuric acid. If the alkali be in small proportion, this can afibrd 
no evidence of poisonioK ; since many animal fluids contain the 
alkali, and in those which do not contain it, it is cosily gepe> 
rated either by spontaneous decomposition, or sometimes even 
by the heat required for distillroion. Should the alkali be in 
laife quantity, this is no evidence of poisoning by it, unless we 
at the same time discover obvious marks of Its local action on 
the mouth, fauces, omc phagtis, and stomach. If the organie 
liquid be highly aikaline, but give out no odor of ammonia, 
diuier by itself or on distilling a portion with sulphuric acldi 
the alkali may be either potash or soda, or their carbonates. 
The latter would be known by the liquid elicrveaciog on adding 


t30 A M M lAppendHf J. 

a portion to an add. The organic Uqaid msf b« evaporatei to 
dryo6M, then heated to cbur the anhnal and vegetable matter, 
and the alkali will be recovered from f in the etate of carbon- 
ate by dige«Ung the residuary ash in distilled water. It haa 
been also recommended to neotralize by muriatic acid, to eva- 
porate, incinerate, and procure the alkali for analysis in tha 
state of chloride. Traces of these alkalies furnish no evidenceu 
since all the animal liquids* and membranes yield soda, and 
many of them potash. In no case will the discovery of Ihe 
alkalies be any proof of poisoning, unless the marks of their 
action be apparent in the fauces and stomach. 

Tnmtment. The immediate exhibition of vinegar, lemon Juice, 
or solution of citric acid : and afterwards of milk, mucilages, 
and demulcent fluids ; bleeding, If symptoms of intestinal in- 
flanunation supervene. When ammoniacal gas has been in- 
haled, the pjitient should inunediately inspire the vapor of actfOc 
acid or hydrochloric acid. If bronchial inflammation super* 
vene, it is to be treated in the usual Way. 


&fmpt0nu. Similar to those produced by ammonia. 

TreatmeiU. Warm water, and mucilaginous and donnlcent 
liquids should be given, to promote vomiting. No chemical 
antidote is known. The gastro-enterida which it excites, is to 
\te combated by the usual means. 

%* These instructions apply equally to cases of poisoning by 
SesouiearbonaU of Ammonia and by Hartskorn. 

AHMONIATED COPPER. {Cuprum Ammoniatmm,) A cor- 
rosive metallic poison. 

Symptoms and Morbid Appearancta nearly the same as those 
produced by the other salts <^ copper. (See Verdigris.) 

Toot. This poison is readily known by its beautiful blue color, 
and ammoniacal odor. When mixed in fluids which partially 
decompose it, as, for instance, coflee, port wine, or malt liquors, 
it may be detected by adding to the suspected fluid a few drops 
of a spirituous solution of guaiac. If the vehicle be coflfee, and 
a salt of copper be present, it will instantly produce a beautiful 
deep greenish-blue precii^tatc. If the vehicle be port wine, it 
gives a greenish color to the wine, and the color evolved by the 
tincture of guaiac will t>e nearly an indigo blue, with a slight 
shade of green ; and if beer, that of verditer. It changes solu- 
tion of arsenious acid to green. 

Treatment. The use of the stomach-pump, and oily clysters. 
Albumen in solution (in coffeo, if it can be obtained*), should 
then be freely exhibited ; and vomiting again excited by drinking 
large quantities of mucilaginous fluids, if the poison has been 
very recently taken ; but if it have already passed into the 
bowels, give castor oil in cofibe, combined with opiates and 
other narcotics ; bleed both generally and locally ; and employ 
warm baths and fomentations with emollient clysters. 

AMHONIiE HYDftOSULPHAS. I HydroeulphaU of Jimmwim^ 
or Hepatiied Ammonia.) This is evolved lh>m decomposing 
animal matters, as in privies. 

Syt^ftom*. Nausea, vomiting, diminished fluency of pulse, 

* Coifee histantly decomposer the salts of copper. 

Afpei^9 /.] A R S Sn 

giddhieai. extreme languor, drowsinesB, tnd sleep ; • poirerftU 
asphyxiating agent when faihaled, causing sadden weakness^ 
insensibility, convulsions, delirium, and death. 

Treatment. Place the patient on his back in the open air, with 
his head elevated ; apply cold affusion to the face and breast; 
produce artificial respiration of air, through which chlorine If 
diffused, by pressing down the ribs and forcing up the diaphragm, 
and then suddenly removing the pressure { strong frictions to 
the spine, chest, and extremities ; injecting stimulants into the 
stomach, as a weak solution of chlorine, or brandy. When 
■wallowed, dilute solutions of chlorine, or chloride of soda or 
lime, should be given, and the contents of the stomach removed 
by the stomach-pump. 


AR6ENTI NmiAS ; see KitraU of Silver. 

ARSENIC— ARS&NIOUB ACID. A corrosive mtaeral poiMm. 

Symptoms. Metallic austere taste; constant spitting of saliva 
devoid of the mercurial foBtor; constriction of the pharynx and 
OBsophagus ; nausea and vomiting, sometimes of a brown ma 
oous matter, which is occasionally mixed with blood ; fainting, 
with excessive thirst ; a sensation of great heat at the throat 
and the pnecordia ; heat and severe pain in the stomach, which 
Is generally so irritable as to reject the mildest fluids ; severe 

gripings, purging, and tenesmus, the stools being deep green or 
lack, and horribly offensive ; the urine scanty, red, and often 
3>loody ; the pulse small, frequent, and often intermitting ac- 
companied with palpitation of the heart and syncope, difficult 
respiration and cold sweats ; swelling and itching of the whole 
body, which occasionally becomes covered with livid blotches: 
great prostration of strength, and paralysis of the feet ana 
hands ; delirium ; convulsions ; urine high colored, often bloody ; 
strenuous priapism ; and death. 
Morbid .appearances. The mouth and (esophagus are seldom 
Inflamed ; but \he stomach most commonlv, although not al- 
ways, presents appearances of intense inflammation, but not 
amounting to erosion or abrasion of the villous coat ; and it is 
on the surface of such inflamed spots that grains of the acid 
are generally found, when the poison has been swallowed in 
powder. The inflammation is evident also in the duodenum, 
jejunum, and ileum ; but it almost disappears in the colon, al- 
though tiie mucous membrane of the rectum is often found not 
only higlily inflamed, but ulcerated. The lungs are sometimes 
black, and turgid with blood ; the mitral and tricuspid valves 
of the heart are covered with red patches, and these extend to 
the fleshy columns; but the chief morbid appearances are to 
be looked for in the stomach and intestines. The contents of 
I the former of these, and of portions nf the latter, ought in every 
' case to be carefuUy preserved, and washed in tepid distUlul 
water. Coses have proved fatal in which no morbid ctaSJugei 
have been detected. 
Tests. If any solid particles be found in the stomach, throw a 
few of them upon red-hot coals, they will be decomposed, and 
exhale alliaceous vapor; or mix one part of Utera with three 
parts of a mixture consisting of one pan of IbWly-powdered 
charcoal, and two porta of osry^earbonaia of potaasa; pat 

932 ARS [AppendiMi. 

tlili Into a finall cImi tube, the appe^lnnei Borface <Mr enptv 
part o( which Is kept clean, whiltft the powder b -introdaeed, 
by being pri'viuusly lined with paper. 'Ilaving withdrawn the 
paper, stop the open end loosely with a little tow, or a pitea 
of i»oA puper ; then place the closed end for a few minutes in 
the flume of a spirit-lamp until it becomes incandescent ; when, 
if arsenious acid be present, a brilliant metallic crust will be 
found lining the upper part of the tube. This crust, placed on 
hot coals, will exhale dense white fumes and a strong smell 
of garlic. 

If no solid particles be found, boil the contents of the stomach 
with liquor potassc, and strain through a piece of linen rag ; 
divide the fluid into different portions, and test each portion 

, Mparutely by the following re-agents : — 

1. Put one portion into Marsh's apparatus for the formation of 
orseniuretied hydrogen gas, with some diluted sulphuric acid 
and a piece of pure zinc, and inflame the gas evolved at the jet 
If arsenious acid be present, a piece of glass held over the flame 
will display a spot of metallic arsenic, surrounded by a circle 
of blacli oxide of arsenic, which will be surrounded by a second 
circle of arsenious acid ; or pass the arseniuretted hydrogen gat 
through a bent tube, and heat it, at a point a few inches from 
the Jet, m the flame of a spirit lamp ; a crust of metallic arsenic 
will line the tube on the farthest side of the heated point. 

The grains piclced out of the stomach may be tested in Uie same 
manner. This test is decisive, but it requires to be used in the 
following manner, if the contents of th6 stomach contain much 
fattv matter. Take a bell glass, open nt the top and furnished 
with a stop-cock and glass jet ; fill it with hydrogen gas; place 
it in a jar containing the contents of the stomach strained, and 
the washing of the stomach, and some diluted sulphuric acid 
and pure zinc« Open the stop-cock until the fluid rises consi- 
derably into the bell glara ; then close the stop-cock ; but after 
the gas has been extricated, and the fluid has descended, open 
it again, inflame the gas at the jet, and use ic in the same man- 
ner OS Mr. Marsh's instrument. A better mode is the modifi- 
cation of Marsh's apparatus proposed by the author. (See 
Pharmaceutieal 7Van«., by T. Bell, p. 92.) 

8. Drop into the second portion a solution of nitrate of silver to 
excess, in order to precipitate all the hydrochlorates it may 
contain ; then, after the fluid has become clear, touch the sur- 
face wi^ a glass rod dipped in liquid ammonia. If arsenious 
acid be present, a yellow arseuite of silver will fall from the 
point of the rod. 

3. Drop into the third portion some nmmoniated sulphate of cop- 
per ; if arsenious add be present, Scheele's green will be formed. 
The accordance of these tests aiSbrds suflicient evidence. The 
tubes, and the glass, coated with the metallic arsenic, should 
be taken into court ; as well as com para^ve tubes and glassee 
coated by treating the simple acid and its solution. All of theee 
tubes should be prevlou-sly rolled up in paper, and sealed Inthe 
presence of the persons who assist in the testing. 

Treatment. If vomiting does not already exist as a direct eflbbt 
^the poison, sulphate of zinc may be exhibited^and the emetie 
ofects promoted by mucilaginous drinks, such as linseed tea. 
When sulphate of xinc cannot be procured, • good enbatitat* 



AffenUx L] BIG 

flir an onecic la powdered mctBtard, in the proportion of fnm 
one to two teaspoonfu^s in a glass of water, administered at 
intervals; or, evacuate the stomaeh by the stomacli-puiDp, 
unng lime-water instead of distilled water ; administer large 
draughts of oil, and of tepid, mucilaginous fluids, or sugar and 
water, or chalk and lime water ; avoid the use of alkalies ; but 
administer charcoal and hydrated seequioxide o{ iron. This 
preparation is believed by some to be an efPectual chemical 
antidote to arsenic ; although Dr. A. Taylor (of London) has 
come to the conclusion, from a series of carefully conducted 
experiments, that the oxide of iron does not possess the power 
of combining vi\h powdered arseniou* octd, the only form in 
which we commonly have to deal with the poison, in a wi^ to 
act as a chemical antidote ; and that if recoveries have really 
taken place from its use, it must have some other operation. 
It should be immediately administered in large and frequently 
repeated doses, in cMi^unction with warm mucilaginous drinks, 
and also given by enema. About ten parts ot the hydrated 
Iron, it isaaid, will convert one part of arsenious acid into the 
basic salt of iron. lwa.of the iron ^uu been successful iy given 
in doses repeated every fifteen minutes, till | viij. were taken 
in twenty-four hours. If the hydrated oxide is not at hand, the 
carbonaU may be substituted. It is recommended to add fifteen 
to twenty drops of liquor ammonie to each dose, in order to 
transform the arsoaic into a soluble arsehite. Castor oil, and 
oUier laxatives, are to be afterwards employed. {Ferruwo^ £.) 
Afterwards combat the inflammatory symptoms by bleeding 
flreely, both generally and locally; by te|rid baths, emollient 
enemas, and narcotics. If the immediate fatal symptoms be 
averted, let the patient for a long time subdst wholly on fari- 
naceous food, milk, and demulcents. 

%* All arsenical poisons operate nearly in the same manner as 
the arsenious acid; and consequently rimilar means are re- 
quired for detecting their presence and counteracting their 

ATROPA BELLADONNA ; see Deadly J^igkUkade.-] 

BELLADONNA ; see Deadly Jfigktshade. 

BICYANIDE OF MERCURY, {HydrargyH Bieyanidunt.) An 
acrid mineral poison. 

Symptonu. They closely resemble those of poisoning by corro- 
sive sublimate, accompanied with severe vomiting, mercurial 
ulceration of the moui^ salivation, powerful action of the 
heart, diarrhoea, suppresnon of urine, demi-erection, and an 
ecchymosed appearance <tf the penis and scrotum, convulsions, 
and death. 

TesU. When any of the poison remains, it is recognized by its 
quadrangular prismatic crystals, with oblique summits, and ita 
■typtic taste. AYhen heated in a small tube closed at one end, 
ana drawn oat to a point at the other, it is decomposed, mer> 
eary suMimes, and cyanogen gas is given ofl^ and bums with a 
violet flame. Its solution is decomposed by a stream of sul- 
phuretted hydrocen gas, and sulphuret of mercury and hydro- 

• cyanic acid are formed. 

Drmtmtnt. The aame ai in casea of polaooinf by bichloride oC 

Sa4 B H U [Appendu I. 

BUTTEURa FUEB, (OaiUarii FwiciUrte.) An acM 

JlmrUmi. Hum; Tonliliig mid poiflKI. Ihs inillcr^lKIa 
Id ililHr cue bciof iVnuiiilT tHoodr ud ixLruleia; uiu 
«%Mnl|ta; wn^neolkigral hWnd {niuilDD of ih 

MtMBUkd uriiujoffu^iittoilipan! "-" -■- 

' pnln ti qukk and taua 

It then M ivcndoujiUv _ ..„..„. „ 

. . . .'andikilh. Ttmttighout 
w piUcnl tau ■ tof pcculLu, (lint, 

. iBflimiiiilloitBnderotfoaof tb^nomHCh; 

■ pvcDlkir prtDc^plfl * 

■libilrif pjiitlclv, whicb aTT¥ltjblH In ibe flncA powder, and 

TVuiiuil. CoplDiu dlluUon with mlllc nod demutceni fluldi, 
bIcedliM!. the warm biih, oplnte TilcrluDa, and clyilcra of niulinn 
broUi md dl. ud opium. The bnismidatebciDiphiir. both 
Istemallj admlolHaivl and eitetnally applied. 

BKOMIDE OF POTABBIUH, (/■olsiliimi^miifL) Ad ICIld 

Sr'tfiama NaiiKV, Tomlllagt qoiekened re9[^ntSon and pulae, 
Morbid .^vpimmuet^ Congpitod BUHeoflhajnucouaiDenibraQej 


The aem 


Appendix L\ CAR ' 23k 

Trtatment. The same as for potaoning by itiyclmta. 

BK YON Y ROOT, {Bryonia IHoiea Radix.) An acrid Tegetablo 

Symptoms, Violent vomitings, with severe, colic pains and 
purging, great thirst; difficulty of breathing; and sometiiBea 

Morbid .appearances. Evidences of inflan&mation of the mucoua 
membrane of Uie stomach and rectum, and congestion of blood 
in the lungs. 

TesL The poison can only be recognized when the root itself 
or a portion of it, can be obtained. It is large, fleshy, fusiform, 
marked externally with circles of a yellowish-white color, ana 
has a sweetish, yet acrid and bitter, disagreeable taste. 

TVeatwtent. Excite vomiting by copious draughts of tepid demul 
cent fluids, and by irritation of the fauces ; then administer milk 
and mucilaginous diluents, with opiates and emollient enemaSi 
The lancet may sometimes be requisite. 

CAMPHOR, (Ckimphora.) A narcotic, vegetable poison. 

I^mptoms. Violent excitement of the brain and nervous eyttem ; 
vomiting ; vertigo, preceded by pallid countenance ; great 
tnxiety ; small pulse ; difficult respiration, syncope, cold 
sweats, and convulsions. In s(Hne instances it hasoccartoned 

Morbid .appearances. Too few opportunities have occurred for 
•sceituining these with any degree of accuracy. 

Test. The camphor would probably be found in the state of 
lumps, or dissolved in spirit No difficulty would occur in 
identUying this substance, except perhaps in a case where it 
had proved fotal and existed in the contents of the stomach. 
Its prea^ce would be immediately known by its powerftil and 
peculiar odor. If it were diflfused in the form of lumps oi 
powder, these might be easily separated from the contents^ 
owing to the great insolubili^ of this substance. In general, it 
might be expected that some portions would float to the surface 
of the water. In a doubtful case the contents of the stomach 
should be treated with a large quanti^ of alcohol :— the alco- 
holic liquor filtered, and the camphor separated by addinc wa- 
ter. It is a white solid,— possessing a well-known odor,—* 
easily dissolved by alcohol, and acain separated by water,— 
entirely volatile without residue, and bumhig with a rich yellow 
smoky flame. 

Treatment. Wine and opium, exhibited at short intervals until 
the symptoms abate. 

CANTHARtDES; see Blistming Flies. 

CARBONATE OF B ARYTA« (QirftMuu Barytm.) 

CARBONATE OF LEAD, (PlumH Carbonas.) An astringent 
metallic poison. (All the salts of lead are resolvable into the 
carbonate, which is the only direct poistm of lead.) 

Sywftoms. Obitinate costiveness ; violent colic, with retractioa 
of the abdomen ; vomiting ; the pulse small and hard ; labor!- 
001 breathinc and tremors, terminating in paralysis of the 
extremities, tmd occasionally in death. The goma aasuoie a 
bloe tinge. 

JbrM jSppearanees. An ex-sanguine appearance of the intee- 
tines; bat occasionally there if inflammatJon of the mueooe 
■wnbiane of the inteatinei, sometimei attended with Uoldiee 

CAR [Appendix i. 

9f extravafl»ted blaod. When the desfli of the patleiit Is not 
■adden, the mesenteric and lyniphatie glands are inflamed and 
obstructed ; and all the viecera bear more or less evidence of 
having sufferet^from ^creased vasenlar action. 

Tut. When the poison has been swallowed in the solid form, 
and any of it can be obtained, it may be known in some degree 
by its color and weight, or by rubbhig it in a mortar with a 
little spirituous solutiim of guaiac, and a few drops of li<|ttid 
ammonia, which produce a beautiful grass-green, passing to 
glaucous when lead is present ; it is tinged brown when it it 
exposed to sulphuretted hydrogen gas ; but is still more certainly 
detected by reducing it to a metallic state upon charcoal, by 
means of the blowpipe. 

When it has been taken in syrup, or In wine, or in hollands, la 
improve which it is often ignorantly and improperly used, first 
render the colored fluids colorless by chlorine, and then add to 
different portions the following re-agents :— Sulphate of potassa, 
which will produce a white; sulphuretted hydrogen, which 
will throw down a black ; and chromate of potassa. which 
will exhibit a canary-yellow precipitate, if any salt of lead be 
present ; or dissolve in acetic acid, and add to the solution a 
solution of iodide of potassium ; if the poison be carbonate of 
lead, a yellow iodide of lead will be precipitated. 

^Veatment. Bleed, if the pulse t>e hard ; then freely exhibit 
cathartics, particularly castor oil, and sulphate of magnesia 
combined with opium or extract of hyoscyamus ; use the warm 
bath, and throw up repeatedly injections of muttob broth and 
demulcents. The patient should dilute very fVeely with muci- 
laginous liquids. Some alkaline sulphate, mixed with vinegar, 
or some weak v^etable acid, such as lemon Juice, will prove 
highly useful. Emetics and the stomach-pump should also be 
employed. When convalescent, he should live al moat entirely 
on a milk diet. If paralysis of the limbs continue, it should 
be treated with strychnia. 

As the symptoms produced by poisoning by lead put on one ot 
the three forms, irritant poitoningy lead colic, and paralysitf 
our treatment must be governed accordingly. In cases of irri- 
tant poisoning, we should immediately administer diluents 
holding in sofution some sulphate, as of soda, magnesia, or 
potnssa, so that a sulphate of lead may be formed. Vomiting 
should be excited by sulphate of zinc, tickling the throat, or 
the contents of the stomach may be evacuated by the stomach- 
pump. In lead colic, the best remedy is alum, tliough it w ge* 
nePtiUy treated successfully by means of purgatives end opiates, 
with venesection, leeching, tto. In lead palsy, strychnine is 
one of the best remedies. 

*»* The action of acetate of lend, and of red oxide of lead or 
litharge, on the animal economy, is nearly tlie same as that of 
the carbonate of lead ; consequently, the above oi>8ervation# 
apply to ail the salts of lead, which, as I have already said, 
are converted into the carbonate, after being taken 'Into the 

CARBONIC ACID GAS. This gas is often extricated very 
largely in various processes of art, and in burning charcoal ta 
close roomp, so as to produce suspended animation and death. 
Ab it is also very heavy, it remains m fermenting viHa and 


igfeudi^L] CAR 

cellars long after the Ikioor hae ^»'^,^^^jfj'^^ 

Btmpums. Great drowsiness, difficulty ofj^^^ wSIKi 
cation. The featurw appear ewelled, and Uw ac« ihw». ■■ 
in caaea of strangulation. ^ *w. «i.«* hM been 

T«t?Invert immediately, before the air of «Sf .rJ*«i;;J5S; 
mJSed, a botUe filled with «r'.'^'^\*.^*ij iSHSSTSt 
Xchhi occasioned the f^^'V^^^^^f^Z^J^mS^l 
Sr^son i...mersed in it. antil o^^J.'^lJ}^, *JiJ S^iSi 
amlTt the same Ume intfodace a ^^^^^V^' KJlwutofron 

Smining whether carbonic "f i«" '•jJf^ed^ItS^^^^^ 

vessel, by the following characters. *^«in Wcent., and from 
Ke proVnion be abp^Vwelveor fift^^^^^ 

the extreme density of the K^*' *5® 'fin | J^iorface. a. Mn»o 
toper may be commonly seen to float «nJ^j^2J^t,y precipl 
wS^r, or a solution of «»^»SJ?^J*L*Te wsT cS^he preclS 
toted white when poured >»»? » {^ bv tiltrS^ and proved to 
totes thus formed, may be <^'f »f JJi^bMato of llmeor lead, 
^ss the well-known P'overU^ofcHT^^otu ^ 

STconiaiaing only ««« P^J^^^i^^uo^^fchloride of lime, 
aflfects lime-water. 3. When a •"»""^" ^^ agitating the 
colored by litmus, is added, the »>•»« "»*°;' ,„ SsUngSshea 
Squid in the gas, is discharged. This cleariy aisuu» 
carbonic acid from nitrogen. mliture, may 

rS^ proportion in which carbonic acid f »J*;° JL.y j" ^ aradu 
^ determined by introducing ^to a given qiwnti^^^^^ 
^ tube over mercury, a rtrong s^Uition oi cau» i^ 

XSorption will take P'?;^« f *^^'^%*S>X^ 

of absorption will mdicate '^e proport on oi ^^ j 

nresent. When this destructive agent ex>s» »" " ^" . nlucina 

£Ta weU or cellar, it «"«^y i)^ «Jf '.fu'yS?^^^^^^^^^^^ 

within the stratum » PJ^^^fJ?*"'"^'^^^^^^ at the 

mixed into a paste wi h water, or by If;^^^^^;^" i^st on these 

5^hin the level of the stratum, all power is lost, and Che person 

^y*mea"s of a string attached to the n^^k, gjdding the lM>ttle^y 
Slother siring atlacW to its base. W^f" tbeJXJttle is wi^ 
Se ttraium Tl should be turned with «W„X 't^^^SSJ?^ 
Sen rapidly raised with its mouth upwards, by pui"ng "w 

,;2SLSf."Rlov?5^^^^^^^^ into the otn. jjr, -d pl^^^^ 
»»;^, With his head ^^Sfy ^o?Ky"vSSiS^^ 

C H L [Appendix /. 

eappiac ; apphr tn etlon, ptiticiilarly over the thorax and on flie 
■ol«t of the feet ; then endeavor to stimulate the organs of 
resi^ration to a renewed action by ioflatiog the lungs with 
common air, or, if it can be procured, oxygen gas, by means of 
the double beltows, and a flexible tube introduced into th« 
trachea through the nostrils. Artificial respiration may be 
produced, to a certain extent, by pressing down the ribs, a|id 
forcing up the diaphragm, and then suddenly removing the 
pressure. As soon as the patient can swallow, stimulanta 
should b« administered. Btimnlate, cautiously, the nostrils 
with aounonia, and dash cold water on the face and chest. 

CHLORIDE OF ANTIMONY. (BuUer ef Antimony.) This 
is a highly corrosive liquid, varying from a light yellow to a 
dark red color;— in the latter state containlnc generally a largo 
quantiQr of iron. It is a powerful poison, but it is not often 
taken as such. Orfila mentions only one, and that a doubtfOl 
Instance, which occurred nearly two hundred years ago. 

Moriid ^pptaranees. On inspection, the interior of the alimen- 
tary canal, fh>m the mouth downwards to the jc;Junum, presents 
a black appearance, as if the parts had been charred. In ge- 
neral, there is no mucous membrane remaining, either on the 
stomach or dsewhere ;— only a fiocculent substance, which can 
be easily scraped off with the back of the scalpel, leaving the 
■ubmucoos tissaes and the peritoneal coat. All these parts art 
■o soft that they may be easily torn with the fingers. 

TuU, If any peution of the chloride be left in the vessel, it may 
be tested by adding a few drops to a large quantity of water, 
when the whitish-yellow oxychloride of antimony will be pre- 
ei|rttated : the sapematant liquid containing muriatic acid, 
which may t>e detected by nitrate of silver. The only objection 
to this mode erf' testing is, that the salts of bismuth are also de- 
composed by water ; but the precipitate in this case is insoluble 
in tslrtaric acid, and is blackened by hydrosulphuret of ammo- 
nia; while in ihe case of antimony, it is soluble in that acid, 
and is changed to an ornnge-rcd by the hy drosul phuret. If the 
chloride contain much iron, it will be proper to separate the 
white precipitate, and wash it thoroughly with water, before 
adding the hydrosulphuret, or the presence of iron will conceal 
the orange-red color. A piece of copper, when heated in a 
solution of chloride of antimony, is immediately coated with a 
layer of that metal of a grey color, like arsenic. 

Solutions of tartar emetic and chloride of antimony are very dille- 
rently affected by tests. Nitric acid precipitates the former, but 
not the latter. Ferrocyanate of potash has no effect on soluUon 
of tartar emetic, but it precipitates the chloride of aniimony of 
a yellow-white ; or if much iron be present, Prussian blue is 
abundantly thrown down. 

The chloride, as a corrosive, combines with the animal tisroet. 
It may be separated in such cases by boiling them in uuriatic 
or inlromuriatic acid. In this way, the organic matter will be 

CHLO&IDE OP BARIUM; see Muriate of Barium. , 


Sfftnpums. Pain and heat in the stomach, vomiting, paiKinf ; 
also acts upon the nervous syston. 

TVeatmrnt, Administer albnminoua liquida, ■■ eggs, beat up widi: 


C O C 9S9 

water, or floor and water, or oil, or macilagfaoas drinka, asd 
excite Toasting. Combat the gastro-enteritia b) the usual 
meatis ; carefully avoid the use of ali acids, which would cause 
the evolution of chlorine gas in the stomach. 

CHLORIDE OF SODIUM. The chloride of sodium may be 
identified by the following chemical characters: — 1. It is easily 
dissolved by water, and a portion of the solution slowly evapo- 
rated on a slip of glass, yields well-defined eubie crystals.— 2. It 
ts insoluble in alcohol.— 3. It yields abundant acid vapors with 
• Icind of effervescence, when strong sulphuric acid is poured 
on it These vapors form a dense white solid cloud, when a 
rod dipped in strong ammonia is thought near them.— 4. It 
yields chlorine gas when heated with equal parts of sulphuric 
acid, water, and peroxide of manganese ;— ^e chlorine being 
recognized by its usual characters. About one-twentieth of a 
grain of the chloride may be in this way analysed, if Uie expe- 
riment be performed in a proportionately small tube. — 5. liie 
solution of the salt gives an abundant white clotted precipitate 
with nitrate of silver— possessing all the chemical properties of 
chloride oi silver. Thene properties of the precipitate must bta 
positively determined, since there are numerous other salts 
which are precipitated white by nitrate of silver. These ex- 
periments, it will be perceived, merely indicate the presence of 
chlorine or muriatic acid. The characters of soda will be given 
hereafter. A chloride is also known by boiling it in a solution 
of arsenious acid and sulphuric acid, and immersing a slip of 
bright copper ; —if the salt be a chlcN'kle, the copper is covered 
with a grey coat of arsenic. 

Quantitativ§ jSnaljfsu. This may be performed bv estimating 
the quantity of muriaUc acid from the quantity of chloride m 
silver obtained from the whole, or a fVactional part of the liqukl 
subjected to analysis. For every 100 grains of the thorouglily 
dried chloride of silver, we may allow 60 grains of liquid mu- 
riatic acid of the ordinary pharmacopceial strength. 

CULORINB OAS. An acrid poison. 

Symptoms. Severe constriction of the glottis, cough, sensation of 
suffucaUon alternating with' asphyxia ; afterwards, if death do 
not ensue, inflammation of the larynx, and pneumonic inflam- 

Treatment. Inhalation of the vapor «if hot water containing 
carbonate of ammonia. Bleeding, the antiphlogistic treatment^ 
especially by mercurials. 

COCCULUS INDtCUS. {Menispermi Coeculi fructua.) An 
aero narcotic vegetable poison, deriving its poisonous powers 
from picrotoxia. 

Symptoms. These closely resemble those of intoxication from 
ardent spirits. 

Morbid Jtppeoramess. There is no instance of the examinatioa 
of a human body destroyed by this poison on record. 

Tut. That this poison has been the cause of death, or of power- 
fVilly deleterious eflbcts on the human body, cannot be ascer- 
tained by any test The fruit is externally blackish, about the 
siie of a pea, whitish within, and has a bitter taste, not easily 
rmoved from the palate. 

Trmtmamt. Bneoorage vomiting, and unige freely; bleed if tte 
pBlat indictte it, or if qrmpcomi leaembliiig apopltxy rapervoM 


940 COP [AfptiA9 1, 

OQLCHIOCTM; wee Me&itw StMrmi. 

OOLOaUINTIDA. (FrmetuM Outauns CtUefniUdig,) Ai 
•erU vegetable poieon. 

9pKfUm», Violent ptina in the epifMtriiUD, widi TomitiBg ani 
pQifiaf, thei atoola being mixed with Mood. The aight aooa 
becoDiea obacored, and thia atate ia Micceeded bf vertigo and 

Utrbid ^ppearmmeet. When death haaoceaned from thia poiaoo, 
■ the Btomach and bowela have been found inflamed, paitkulariy 

Tfut. A atrong infoaion of ctdoqatetida gelatinizea aa it oooli^ 
leiiembling in appearance mucilage of quince aeed ; bat it haa 
• very biuer, nauaeooa taate. Nation ol potaaaa rendeia It 
greeoinh, and throwadowu a |m>ci|ritate; ammonia diaaolvea 
the mucilage. But no tmt can be relied on ; the only certainQr 
that thia poiacm haa been taken ia the aeeioK the aubacance 

Treatment. Eroetica to evacuate the whole of the deletoiooa 
aubstance; local blood-letting on the abdomen; afterwarda 
opiates, and copious diiutiona with milk and oily demolcenta. 


Symptoms. Thia fish, although it ia frequently eaten with im- 
punity, yet has, in some Instances, produced all the symptoms 
of cholera morbus, succeeded by paralysis of the lower extre- 

TrentmeiU.. Evacuate the contoita of the atomach and bowela, 
after having allayed their irritability by opium. Dilute freely 
wi^li saccharine and acidulous liquids; and bleed, if symplODis 
of inflammatioo of the lower bowels supervene. 

COPPER. AND ITS COMPOUNDS. Copper itaelf ia said to 
be destitute of poisonous properties ; but it would appear that 
when alloyed with other metals, and reduced to u finely pul- 
verulent state, it may act aa a poison. 

Sulphate op Copper. — All the salts of copper are poisonous. 
The two most commonly known are the svlpluUe (Blue Fttriel) 
and the subaeetate (Ferdirrie.) These substances have been 
frequently taken and administered in large doses for the pur- 
poses of suicide and in attempts at murder. In the latter cose, 
ihf attempt has been immediately discovered, owing to the 
strong metallic taste possessed by tiie salt. This would in ge- 
neral render it impossible that the poison should be taken un- 
knowingly. With the exception of these salts, poisoning by 
copper is generally the accidental result of the common use <Mf 
this metal for culinary purposes. 

Sfmptoms. Sul phate of copper has been frequently given for the 
purpose of procuring abortion. In doses of half an ounce and 
upwards it acts as a powerful irritant, and in very young chil- 
dren a much less quantity would suffice to kill. The salt 
speedily induces vomiting of the most violent kind; and thia 
aometimes effectually expels the poison from Uie stomach, and 
the person recovers. The vomited matters are remarkable for 
being of a blue or green color, ^nd brokra crystals of blue vitriol 
have been discovered in them, where the poison was taken in 
a loosely pulverulent state. There is pain in the abdomen, 
with diarrhoBa, and in aggravated caaes spasms of the extremi- 
ties. Til, Perceval met with a case where the iMMt violeak 

Appemlis /.] COP 941 

flonvoMoiui were vrodaccd in ii yomif female by two dradum 
(tf the sulphate of copper ;— she eventually recovered. Para* 
lysiit, inaenctibility, and even tetanus, have preceded death, 
when the poison was administered to animals. 

BeaACBTATi ' or Copper {Verdigris)^ — produces somewhat 
similar symptoms. Vomiting of a green-colored liquid and 
diarrhoea are the most prominent sym ptoms. In a case reported 
by Pyl, a woman who took two ounces of verdigris, died ih 
three days : — in addition to the symptoms above described, there 
were convulsions und paralysis before death. Niemann relates 
that a female, aged 24, swallowed half an ounce of verdigris, 
and died under symptoms of violent gastric irritation in sixty 

Phure is but little doubt that all the other salts of copper would 
act in a simila^ way. Experiments on animals show that they 
are irritant poisons. 

Morbid Appearances. The mucous membrane of the stomach 
and iiiteetines has been found m<»re or less inflamed in the few 
fatal eattes which have been examined, — the membrane has 
been found also eroded and softened in poisoning by verdigris. 
The cBsophagus has presented an inflammatory appearance. 
The llniog membrane of the alimentary canal is often through* 
out of a deep-green color, owing to the small particles o^ verdi- 
gris adhering to it. It has been said that this is an uncertain 
character of poisoning by copper; since a morbid state of the 
bile often gives a similar color to the mucous membrane of the 
•tomach and duodenum. This objection cannot apply, where 
the green color is also found in the oesophagus, and throughout 
the intestines ; and, under any circumstances, the evidence from 
the presence of a green c(rior would amount to nothing in the 
judgment of a prudent witness, unless copper were freely de- 
tected in the pans so colored. 

Treatwunt. In general there is viol^it v<Mniting,— the salts of 
copper acting powerfully as emetics. The efforts of the stomach 
should be prcmiotCMd by the free exhibition of warm water, milk, 
or any mucilairinous drink, and the use of the stomach-pump. 
This latter instrument would be of little use, where the poison 
has been taken in coarse powder, as is generally the case. 
Varions antidoies have been proposed. Sugar was formerly 
strongly recommended, on the principle that it had the property 
of reducing the salts of copper to the state of insoluble suboxide ; 
but Vogel found that this chemical effect was chiefly confined 
to the subacetate, and in order that it should take place it was 
necessary that the substances should be heated to 2I20. k. 
Pastel has since asserted, that the same decomposition goes on 
between these substances at the temperature of the stomach, 
and even at the ordinary temperature ( Anualcs d*Hyg., 1833) ; 
he is therefore inclined to regard it still as an antidote, although 
It seems that animals to which he administered it died ; hut not 
•o rapidly as when the poison was allowed to act by itself. 
>Albumen is well known to form an insoluble compound with 
oxide of copper, provided the albumen be in very large excess : 
for the albuminate of copper is easily disbolved by an excess of 
the solution of sulphate. How far this would act on the com- 
paratively insoluble acetate, it is difllcult to say ; as also whe- 
ther it be not itself a poison ; still it may reduce the activity U 




■MBtfcjr of eopper if ■msll, there to merdy • teoivii euln. 
Thie teet is not so delicate aa the iron teet. 

SvLPHATB OP CoPFXR. {Blue Vitriol. Roman Vitriol, Blm§ 
SUmo.\—Th\§ talt it met with in rhombic maeeee, transparent, 
and or a rich blue color. When reduced to powder it is nearly 
white, but becomes again blue on melting or dlieolving it. It 
is soluble in four pans of cold and two of boiling water, and is 
easily obtained in well-defined rhombic crystals by evaporating 
a small quantity of the solution on a slip of glass. The powder 
undergoes no change on addina sulphuric acid. Nitrste of ba- 
lytes added to the solution, indicates the presence of sulphuric 

Ammomio-Sulfbatb.— Tliis forms a rich violet-blue solution, 
and is Itnown from the sulphate by producing a green preci|rf- 
tme with a solution of arseatous acid. The sulphate is un- 
affiscted by a solution of arsenious actd. 

NrrRATB. — It is crystallized in prisms of a deep blue color, and 
Tery deliquescent,— extremely soluble in water, and the s- >lutioB 
is not precipitated by nitrate of barytes or nitrate of silver. 
When the powdered crystals are mixed with tin filings and 
■i^tened with water, nitrous acid Aimes are evolved. By 
adding carbonate of potash to the solution, and filterlna, nitrate 
of potash is obtained in the filtered liquid, and the acid may be 
thereby identified. 

Chlokiob.— This is seen in deliquescent crjrstnis of an emerald 
green color. It is very soluble in water, forming a deep-green 
solution, if concentrated; but becoming blue when diluted. 
Tills diluted solution has the remarkable property of becoming 
green when heated to 31SP, and again blue on cooling. It 
yields an abundant white precipitate with nitrate of silver in- 
soluble in nitric acid, by which it is easily known. 

The insoluble salts ot copper, which may give rise to questions 
of poisonins, are the subacetate, subchloride, carbonate, und 
arsenite. They possess these common characters,— thnt when 
nibbed on a steel spatula with a few drops of diluted sulphuric 
acid, metallic copper is abundantly precipitated on the iron ; — 
and when dropped in a strong solution of ammonia, they acquira 
a rich violet-blue color. 

8UB4CBTATB. {ArtificiiU Verdigris,)— 'TYiGtt are several varie- 
ties of this salt, some of which are blue, and others green 
Verdigris is partially soluble in water ; but if this be acidulated 
wiUi acetic or muriatic acid, a solution is immediately obtaUied, 
10 which the tfvts for copper may be readiJy applied. If a 
portion of the powder be heated in a reduction tube, a film ot 
metallic copper is produced, — and acetic acid vapor escapes. 
Acetic acid is, however, readily discovered by boiling the poW' 
der in dilute sulphuric acid. 8ul phate of copper is at the same 
time produced, which admits of a ready analysis. 

BuBCHLORinc. iOxyckloride. Brunswiek Or««m.)— This is a 
rich green compound, which is formed where common salt has 
been used in a copper vessel, and has thus given rise to accl- 
dental poisming. It is insoluble in water ; but is easily dissolved 
by nitric or muriatic acid, and the acid solution will give all the 
reactions for copper. The simplest way of analyzing this com- 
pound, is 10 boil it n caustic potash '.—when black oxide of 
•opper is Mparated. This may be washed, dissolved in aa acid, 

M4 COP [Appenii^-I. 


and tait«d« whU« the chlorine may be detected hi fbe filtered 
alkaline liquid on acidulating with nitric acid and ad<finf nltrata 
of ailver. This teat will alio detect the chlorine in the nitric 
acid eolution of the subchloiide. 

Oarbonatb.— This is a bluisn (rreen compound, which i» pro- 
duced in Arm crusts, when copper, brass, or bronze is exposed 
at the same time to the action of water and air. It in often 
ealled verdisris to distinguish it from the subacetate or artificial 
verdigris. When heated on platina foil, carbonic acid is evolved, 
and black oxide of copper is left. It is insoluble in water ; but 
is dissolved by acids with eflfervescence, a character which 
distinguishes it ttom the other insoluble salts. The acid solu- 
tion gives the usual reactions with the tests for copper. 

Arsbnitb or Coppbr. (SckteU^s Orsm.)— This is a powerftil 
poismi of a green color, the depth of which is greater in propor- 
tion to the quantity of oxide of copper present. Its poisonoua 
properties are chiefly due to the arsenic contained in it. It la 
Insoluble in water, but soluble In ammonia and the acids. 
When very gently heated in a reduction tube, arsenious acid Is 
sublimed in minute octohedral crystals. These may be dissolved 
in water and tested in the usual way— the residuary oxide of 
copper may be dissolved in nitric acid and tested. With char 
eoal powder, the arsenite gives, although with some difficult, 
a ring of metallic arsenic ; but its nature Is easily determined 
by boiling it with diluted muriatic acid and a slip of bright 
copper. Metallic arsenic is immediately deposited on the cop- 
per. This compound is extensively used as a pigment in the 
arts : — it is also Jmproperiy employed to |^ve a green color to 
wafers and to articles of confectionery. Dr. Ge^hegan informed 
tts that an accident occurred in Dublin, in 184C by which four* 
teen children sufiered from symptoms of poisoning in conse- 
quence of their having eaten some confectionery ornaments 
colored with Scheele's green. In two or three of these casea 
Jaundice followed. 

SoBWBiMruRTH Grbbn.— Thls is a mixture of arsenite and ace- 
tate of copper. The presence of arsenic in this compound la 
earily detected by muriatic acid and copper. The arsenite of 
copper has been placed among cupreous poimns; because it so 
closely resembles them in physical and chemical properties ;^ 
and the existence of arsenic in it might be eaeily overlooked. 
On the whole, these salts of copper are seldom used as poisons ; 
although so easy of access, that they are to be purchased with- 
out difficulty in any color shop. During the years 1837-6, there 
was not a single fatal case recorded of poisoning by copper 
throughout England and Wales. 

Ck)pp9r in Organic Mixtures.— -The oxide of copper Is liable to 
be precipitated by certain organic principles, as albumen, fibrin, 
and mucous membrane : but some of these organic compounds 
•re easily dissolved by acids or even an excess of the cupreoue 
aalt. A portion at least of the salt of copper Is, therefore, com- 
nonly held dissolved. In such cases, there Is one pecnllar 
feature possessed by these liquids, I. e., they have a decidedly 
freen color, when the copper salt is in a far less than polsonou 
proportion. We first filter the liquid, and save the Insolobie 
portions for a separate oper at ion. We may use'as a trial leal, 
» neadle— sine and platlna, or add to a portion, ozalie aeid 3 

Ajip^ndw L] COR 9tf 

thelait giyeflabliifibiHUtepneMtat8<MlywbaitfM< 
it in moderately large qaanti^. If the needle be not eoeted 
with copper in the cooneof afew honra, it ie certain that then 
is no detectable quantity of the poison preaent in the liqakL 
The needle experiment amwoa in spite of the ptc een ce of » 
large qoantitjr oi organM matter ; and a vbtj mall qsaatity of 
• salt of copper may be thus easily dtocoTered in tea, coffi9e» 
pMtO', or gniei, provided we take eare to acidolate the liqnM 
slightly with diluted sulphuric acid, b^me introducing the 
needle. The following is the result of an actual experisMnt : 
One-third of a grain of sulphate of copper was dissolved ia 
water, and mixed with four ounces <tf thick gruel. Ammonia 
produced no effect on this liquid; and ferrocyanate of poCask 

Sive only a faint reddish brown discoloration. Two dii^ «t 
luted sulphuric acid were added to it, and a bri^ needle 
suspended in it by a thread. In twen^-four hours the needle 
was covered with a distinct film of metalUe copper. The 
quantity of copper salt here present, was leas than the flOOOlli 
part of the solution. If the needle be rusty, this expertanent 
will fail. The smaller the quantity of coj^eTf the longer the 
time required for the result to follow. 

If the copper salt be present in large quantiQr, the trial tests will 
indicate it immediately. We now destroy the viscidity of the 
liquid by diluting it if necessary ; and pass into it a current of 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas in order to precipitate all the eofptt 
in the state of sulphuret The black sulphuret may be col- 
lected, washed, dried, and then boiled in equal parts d nitric 
acid and water for a quarter of an hour. Nitrate and sulphate 
of copper are produced and dissolved ; a fact indicated by the 
liquid acquiring a rich blue color, and some sulphur is at the 
same time separated. This liquid, when filtered, will give the 
usual reactions with the tests for copper. 

Q!nanUtaliv§ Analysis. This is best determined by converting 
the salt of copper to the state of black oxide, every 100 parts 
of which, are equal to 32 of crystallised sulphate, and 393 of 
crystallized nitrate. If the cupreous salt be precipitated aa 
sulphuret, this may be transfoimed to black oxide by digestl<» 
in nitric acid, and subsequent precipitation by potash. 

CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE. iHgdrargyri Biekloridum.) A 
corrosive metallic poison. 

SifnufUmu. An acrid, styptic, metallic taste, with the sensatiim 
of fullness and burning in the throat; copious salivation, but 
not always ; great anxiety ; tearing pains of the stomach and 
intestines ; nausea ; frequent vomiiing of a fluid occarionally 
nixed with blood; diarrhcea; tenesmus; the Imlse small, 

Suick, and hard; frequent faintings; univerral debili^; 
ifficult respiration ; cold sweats ; cramps of all the memben; 
convulsions ; and death. 
JUrbid jSpptMroMee*. G eneral inflammation of the first passages ; 
fwelling and a Hvid color of the palate and fauces; epiglottii^ 
tracheal and bronchial tubes injected ; CBsopfaagus of a white 
color. In some cases red and black ^ots have been foopd li 
the cavities of the heart; constriction of the intesi\nal canal, 
with marks of gangrene, sometimes with perfontioa of the 
viacua; andba gtaeral the loueous meftbraneof theHomaeh 
if daisciicd 

m» CKE [AppmMt^I. 

1. If tfM MiMB to #Dwid In dw stild tcatt, tti iMftira 
nay be Miqieeted by Ua Mnitble qoallllM ; but to awertain the 
trath, mix the MMpected Bub«tance with an eqoal weight of 
Tery dry enrbonale of potaaia ; then pat the mixture into a 
•iOMll ^Ma tobe» and heat it gradaally to redness; if it be 
ccmoaive aobiimatet mercury will be obtained In metallic 

'ft. li the suspected pfrison be a fluid and a colorieaa liquid^ place 
In it a wire of clean polished oopper twisted round a sovereign, 
and allow It to remain fbr a short time, when the gold will be 
covered with a white coating that will acquire a metallic lustre 
when rubbed, If corrosive sublimate be the poison : or pour 
Into It lime-water, or liquor potasse, which will produce an 
orange*vellow precipitate, if &e salt be present The sulutitNi 
^ iodide of potassium will , precipitate scarlet biniodide of 

1. Drop a little of the solution ob the back of a gold watch, and 
whilst holding the watch in one hand, touch it with a luiife at 
a key held In the other; an amalgam will be instantly formed 
on Uie gold if the poison be corro^ve sublimate. 

4. if the solvent be wine, cofiee, or any colored liquid, agitate it 
slowly for ten minutes in a phial, with two or three drachms 
of sulphuric ether ; then alter the fluids have separated by 
rest, pour ofl" the sther, and evaporate It in a small porcelain 
capsule. If corrosive sublimate be present, it will remain in a 
crystallised form In the capsule ; and that it Is that salt may 
be |»oved by dissolving the residue in watei, and precipiteting, 
as already described, with lime-water, or solution of potasea, 
or iodide of potassium. 

5. If we have only the contents of the stomach to act upon, coil 
a copper wire round a sovereign or a piece of gold, and having 
acidulated with nitric acid, drop this pile into the fluid. If 
corrosive sublimate be the poison, a precipitate of metalUe 
mercury witi be formed on the gold. % 

<. To the suspected scrfution, add a solution of protochloride of 
tin ; then, after a short time, add more, and leave the precipi- 
tate to subside. Pour off the fluid, anfl wash repeatedly the 
precipitate; a globule of mercury will remain. 

Tt ea^tent. Give large quantities of white of egg diluted in wa- 
er, inr repeated doses. The albumen decomposes the corro^ve 
sublimate, and reduces it to a state of calomel, and the |m>- 
toxide, which, acting ou the bowels, carries Itself ofl'by purging. 
Tlie poison is also reduced to calomel by a mixture of soap and 
the gluten of wheat flour. Bleeding is requisite if the pulse be 
quick and hard. The warm bath may also be employed; 
and during convalescence the patient should subsist altogether 
on broths, milk, and demulcent fluids. 

CREASOTB. An acrid poison. 

SfmpUmu. It ofwrates as a powerful topical excitant, causinc 
Inflammation of the tissue with which it comes in contact, and 
destroying life by the nervous sympathy it induces. 

Testa. Distinguished by its odor, that of smoked meat and tar. 
It instantly coagulates albumen. 

fVeatnunt. Administer freely white of eggs, then give direct 
emetics. The prostraticm is to be coimteracted by ammonia 
and other stimulanti, oleaginous and mucilaginoae drinka, i^a* 

ppendix L] E L A tf7 

aewctioii, mrtifietal tBtfkntim wh«n 
InflBminatory tymptoiiM to bt Goaiteted in the vmui way, m 
CUSPARIA, FALSE. Sappowd to be the bvk of Btryeham 
Nux Vomica. The ■ympUNOt It camee are eimilar to thoit 
from nux vomica. 
Test. Pieces rough, covered with a wliitiih ^uMt, they have no 
odor, are intensely bitter, heavy, resinoos in the fracture, inner 
surface reddened to blood color by nitric acid; the iofnsioa 
reddens iitmns ; sesqniehloride of iron chanfea it to green ; 
ferrocyanate of potasti to grass green. 
Treataunt ; see Jfu* VamiUtu 

a^fivm; The same as produced by hy^oeyai^ add ; excilcn 
nausea and vomiting, and Icsves traces of IniaaaMtfaB of tkn 
Treatment. No chemical antldole is Idmwb. Thn caniaMs nf 
the stomach shoold be evacoslcd, and ikea admMsler sMns' 
lants, snch as ammonia, cUmt, wine, tmi cxienMi frlitsn, 
mustard. Ice. When mmtiaUe mtU ru^ m kfirmkUi k mU 
gta^ as it is now called, has been Jnhaled, tha pnOsM sfeMMM 

inhale the vapor of aoMSonia* 
CYCLAMEN ; see Urn Brtad. 
DEADLY NIGHTSHADE, (jfirsy* BtOsSmmM.} Am 

narcotic vegetable potson. 
a^wtptowu. Aaemeottitan^rfmmmdemmhttkmtffmtiftm' 

rynx and OMopbacas; s k li n em > i irt ln v JWalsi p«pH» m»4 
dimness of sight; uuigbtcr, deHrtMir fedwesn mid tsw wifceiiu a 
of the fiwe; convnlsioas. The m » m m tk tmd ftwwel* b ee< »i» » 

soQietimea so paralyzed, fknt v im im i g em mme^ b» p/^ 
doced by the most powerinl i i iUrs ; tmd4mmi6mm>B. 

Morbid JIfpemwutt, Th« fccdy sw^Ms «r«a«ir aAsr dMH. 

HMlhe mm; MM4WM4 ^ 

whilM blood iows tmm flm mm, mmik, m4mm. m4 MpW 

s^sa^v^fr^in4^P(tf^M A^^d^^^^^R ^^^^^^P d^^A^^B^^tf^k ^fe^R^l mf^t^^^^RAiril^h^^Hg^^^k^Rgf ^^^aJm^m 

of high ioflamawierf nc«iMSr and tkt nm i H ^ Urn ^tmrn tm 
generally fSooad Mvgid WHk rtMdL ^,___ 

of this poison in fwkd; b»t i^ t U aii r ' ^ < » i »» i i .w» ^yH 1^141^ 
iRsvei and the fimt i fcisal l« ib«M*«w *v ^^M^ y> iw<iww«># 
The bmtea. which aw nw> liiM>y <» v»«<0» «y ^» M^ m im 
large. foniJish, wMh a Umi^nn^wi twasw<w> m^^^uit^ V* 
very deep pu r pl e ei4w« «M«kb. it iiamg, aaid s tu a urf wimm # 
permaoeat gncn iawer «sf* w «s»f jl. 'VlMir 1«i» # «*«# 
TVeeCMMi, ttMweaMtfes4^««tfpkM*r4f4tec4r<</4«p^«r im» 
«vac«ai« the ba wrt i by Aafa* p 9 *tf0» m «s4 ^•ytfiM*^ •»# 

vcgdafcle acida. The f m¥v mm mt; '^0¥ HMm» ^ 

foiUm these by ^ifc 4M«f «< ¥0^pm «*# 

h IS amd dhr xmmm *e* "^iw. iwM*^ 4«*bM#»f «^ 

ftsaae; sftar ifca wwm<is^ a < w i g wMw pi ^m > **f <iii i wf^tm 
niGlT AU0 ; «e Ib^im. 

948 FUN [Appendix I. 

Jftrifrf J tppmran eta, When thf) dote has bera very laige, th« 
whole mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines ap- 
pears m some degree inflamed ; but vfhea the fruit has bean 
•aten, or the dnse of the elaterium which has been taken Is 
small, the rectum only presents marks of inflammatory actioo. 

Test. No tests ore known for detecting this poison ; the elMerinm 
can be recognized by its physical qualities ; the fruit Is a hairy 
small pepo. 

TrMtment. Jjittls is to be done except suppOTting the habit by 
cordials and opium, and the exhibition of enemas of starchi 
opium, and camphor. 

SUPHORBIUM ; see Spurge. 

FOXGLOVE, {Digitalis Purpursm folim.) An acro-narcolle 
vegetable poison. 

Sfmptonu. Intermitting pulse, vertigo, indistinct vision, nausea, 
hiccough, cold sweats, delirium, syncope, convulsions, and 

Morbid .Appearances. The stomach and intestinal canal display 
scarcely any morbid alteration; but the lungs are crepitant, 
and the blood contained in the ventricles is generally in a fluid 

Test. Unless the plant or the entire leaves be found in the recent 
or properly dried state, or the powder be procured. It is impos- 
sible to determine that this poison has been employed, except 
from the symptoms. 

Tireatment. Exhibit cordials, as, for example, brandy, aromatie 
confection, and opium ; and apply a blister to the pit of the 

FOOL'S PARSLEY, {JEthusa C^nayium.) An acro-narootio 
vegetable poison. 

Symptoms. Heat of throat, thirst, vomitine, and occasionally 
diarrhoea; difiicult respiration; a small, frequent pulse; ce- 
phalalgia, vertigo, and delirium. 

Morbid .appearances. Marks of inflammation in the OBSophagiie 
and stomach, the spleen livid, and the ventricles of the heart 
filled with black fluid blood. 

Test. This plant is distinguished from parsley by the involucels, 
which consist at three long linear leaflets, pendent on one side 
of each umbel ; by its nauseous odor, when the leaves are 
rubbed between the fingers, and the very dark>^reen color of 
the upper dlM of its leaves. 

Treatment. Give emetics and demulcent fluids in suffici^U 
qunntity to excite vomiting ; bleeding and aperients. 

MUSHROOMS, (Fungi.) Acro-narcolic vegetable poisons. 

The poisonous fungi belong chiefly to the genus AMANITA ; 
nnniely, ^. Bulbosa Jllba, A. Citrina, A. Viridis ; to AGARl- 
CUS — Ag. AcriSt Ag. Piperatus, Ag. Pyrogalus, Ag. StppticuSt 
Ag. Urens, and Ag. Annularius. The eatable are Boletus 
Edulin^ Amanita Aurentiaca, Morckella Eseulenta, Mtruliu* 
Cantharillus, Clavaria Ecralloides, Agaricus EseulentuSj and 
A. Tortilis. 

Symptoms. Different funguses produce different effects on the 
animni system. The more general symptoms, which usually 
occur from six to twenty hours after eating them, are (mina Ot 
the stomach, nausea, vomiting, and purging ; eollc , cramp of 

Afpendix /.] H E L 2^ 

the lower extremities; oonvulsicnie. both general aod Mrtial} 
an unquenchable thirst, vertigo, deliriuiu, coma, ana deatilL 
The Intellect remains entire to the last moment of life. 

Morbid appearances. Numerous black blotches on the skin over 
the sunace of the whole body ; the abdomen much blown apt 
the pupiU contracted; the stomach and intestines inflamed, 
gangreuous, and strongly contracted In many places ; the lungs 
iallaiiied, and gorged with black blood; the liver and spleen, 
in the same state ; the membranes of the brain, also, present 
marks of inflammation ; and sphacelated spots are seen ott 
almost every viscus. The blood is aKvays found coagulated ; 
and, in every instance, there is a remarkable flexibility ol* the 

Tut' There are no means of ascertaining that a person has been 
poisoned by these vegetables, unless some of the plants be 
Ibuod ; in which ease their deleterious properties are known by 
their botanicui characters. As a general rule, those which 
have an acrid juice, a ieattiery dull-colored fletth, which grow 
in obscure, shndy places, or on the trunks of decayed trees, or 
on rocks, which have a glary or very shining surface, or an 
oflensive odor, or become brown when cut, are to be rejected. 

They may be tested by cutting them and applying a piece of 
silver to the cut surface ; if it be blackened, the mushroom ie 
bad. Cooking fungi with vinegar or lemon Juice aids greatly 
In destroying their poitonous properties. 

TreatMent. First evacuate the poisonous substances by emetics 
and purgatives, or by combinations of these; for example, three 
or four grains of tartar emetic or twenty four of ipecacuanha 
powder ia Holution with two ounces of sulphate of soda. Ca»> 
tor oil is a valuable purgative in these cases. The lancet it. 
somettmes nect8«iury. AHer the stomach and bowels have 
been emptied, give small but repeated doses of ether in muci- 
lage, and dilute with vinegar or other acidulated liquids. The 
debility subsequent to the effects of these poisons, when the 
ftitol issue is averted, must be treated with cinchona and other 

GAMBOGE, iCawtiofia.) An acrid vegetable poison. 

Symptoms. Violent vomitings, colic, and hypercatharsis, followed 
by ^rcat prostration of strength, and drath. 

Morliid Appearances. Slight inflammation of the mueous mem- 
brane of the stomach and intestines, and marks of strong 
vascular action in the rectum. 

J)est. This poison is easily detected by its beautiful yellow 
eolor, and the tinge it communicates to the whole mucoos 
membrane of the intestines. 

TSreatment. Carbonate ot potassa in demulcent and mucilaginous 
liquids, and milk, should be freely administered ; and, afutr the 
poisMin is Apposed to be wholly evacuated, small doses of opium 
at short intervals. 

BELLEBORB ROOT— BLACK, (/7e//e6an.Yt/riAiAx.) Aa 
acrid vegetable poismi. 

(fmnptoms. Severe pain of the stomach and inteftines, viol«i| 
Yomiiing, vertigo, excessive debility, salivation, convulsion%. 
§oinetim«« opisthotonos, sometimes emprosthotonos, and death. 
It produces the same effects when it is applied te a wound. 

jtprtid jSppuTMcss. Evident signs of inffsmmslkw in the •!!• 


[Apperulta I. 

TnaUmt. TheiW 
bv iba vmalilni II 
V, k* coploiu 41 
Mhxrcd lir b\t* 

g and hypercBlhanii, vrlth bloody no 

ptnrau iiibacalued ipou. Tba liufi are feoerally foigad 

Til. MoDt' 

TVumoU. BracMii* ili« Romacti byeoirioiu draafbu of oily 
■nd BD^atfuoa II—'-' •" —>■"■'■ " ■- 


AKd Httttttn, Brwat, Saialltlll, Hatmculm, ^ran, d-c. 
HEMLOCK, (Cmii Jriculali /il« it riA'i.) A Ducoiii: vefa 

table polaoB. derliliig IMdeleleilousproiienlu from dd alkallm 

irliHlpla called Coala. 
BimrlKiu, flkkneiB. dimuitt)' ormpinllnn, great aBileij. vfi- 

tlon'of Iba pu|dl>, alupor, Iiiimui. convulstoaa. and dealh. 


THl. Halt. The plow haa d 
Hoc, dlaaoKcdV an ounu of a 

Mknr«l by nWWi), uul f«^ dUa 

lial organ, alio preMnl Ihem- 

Wennlal root, ittlh dicnlai 
emu, atrtaled, and maculaUd 

er, oi by soqie niftr powerful 
rr aaihe hfod; and having 
t hy bleadlEg and purging. 
Bier, or any oDicr BCldulooa 

infu.l A narcotic Tc«etBUa 

neaa of right, ana deilitam. 

Appendix!,] I OD 251 

is at first hard, but becomes gradually weaker and tremulotts; 
petechis often make their appearance as the forerunners of 

Morbid Appearances. Inflammation of the stomach, the intestines, 
and the membranes of the brain. 

Test. None. The plant is recognized by its pale green, angular, 
viscid, or clammy teaves; its disagreeable odor; its flowers and 
seed vessels being on one side of the ilowering spike with leaves 
on the other ; its ca[)sular fruit, furnished with a persistent calyx, 
bilocular, and opening with a lid. 

Treatment. If the poison have been recently taken, evacuate 
the stomach by a powerful emetic, and afterwards administer 
vinegar and acidulous drinks; but if the poison have already 
entered the system, bleed and purge freely to reduce the in- 
flammatory symptoms, exhibiting at the same time aciduloot 

HYDROCYANIC ACID; see Prus sic Acid. 

INSECTS, POISONOUS. The most common of these are the 
Tarantula^ Scorpion, Hornet, fFasp, Bee, Onat, Oad Fly, Sand 
Fly, ($-c in general, the sting or bite of these insects occaskmi 
only a slight degree of pain and swelling; but occasionally the 
symptoms are more violent, and sickness, fever, and occasioa 
ally death, result in consequence. 

Treatment. Ammonia and oil may be rubbed on the affected 
part, and a piece of rng, moistened in the same, or in salt and 
water, may be applied till the pain is removed. Small dotes 
of Spts. of Ammonia may also be given internally, with warm 
diluents, or wine and water. The sting may often be removed 
by making pressure over it with the barrel of a small watch 

IODINE. An acrid mineral poison. 

Synqftoms. In dos^ of gr. x. to gr. xxx., iodine causes heat and 
constriction of the fauces, nausea, ofiensive eructations, e|^ 
gnstralpia, vain efforts st vomiting, colic, quicKening of the 
pulse, diarrhcBu, tremblings, great thirst, satyiiasis, slight con- 
vulsions, death. When poisoning occurs from small doses long 
continued, emaciation and debility are extreme. 

Morbid Appearances. Distension and intlammation of the sto- 
mach and intesiincs; sphacelation in some parts; pale, vola- 
minouB liver. 

Tests. Iodine in the solid form is in bluish-grey scales, having 
the odor of chlorine ; heated in a tube it aflfords violet vapor ; 
added to cold mucilage of starch, it gives it a deep-blue color. 
If the poison be contained in animal fluids, pass through them 
a stream of sulpburetied hydrogen, then boil, saturate with 
potassa, and having added cold macihige f>f starch, pour on 
the filtered solution some chlorine gas, the blue color will 
indicate the poiuon. The same process will detect it in the 

Treatment. AdmUii^ter mucilage of starch freely, then empty 
the stomach by direct emetics, and treat the inflammatory 
symptoms as a case of simple gastritis. 

IODIDE OF POTASSIUM. (Potassii hdidum.) 

Symptoms. Uneasiness of stomach, followed by nausea and a 
burning pain hi that organ; vomiting cephalalgia, vertigo^ 



852 LAD [Appendis I, 

Morbid Appearaneet. The stomnch contracted ; ecchymowd 
gpots on its lining mcmbnine; slight ulcerations; sometrucM 
of inflammation in tlic intesUnul tube. 

7V«t«. The crystrils uf the saitH are cubes, of an acrid, sharp 
taste, slightly dt-lique^ccut; its solution, mixed with starch 
and treated with ciilorine or with nitrous acid, Ibrius the blue 
Iodine of Amidine ; the liichlotide of uiercury forms u beauiifiift 
scarlet precipitate of the biniodide of mercury. Test the urine, 
after mixing it with starch, with gaseous ciilorine. This gas 
will detect 1 pnrt iu 1,500,000 of urine, which should be cold 
before it is tested. 

iW Organic Liquids.— If mnch colored, boil with animal charcoal 
until the color is in great part or entirely removed ; then add to 
the liquid a solution of starch iu large quantity, and afterwards 
nitric acid. As a trial test, we may employ a slip of filterinK 
paper soaked in starch, then dipped into the suspected liquid 
and exposed to the fumes of nitric acid. In this case the color 
of the liquid does not interfere with the experiment. By this 
process, the iodide may be detected in the urine, when the 
analyst may not succeed in tinding it in the contents of the 
stomach. If present in organic solids, wc must dry them, in- 
cinerate them and lixiviate the incinerated residue, when traces 
of the iodide may be detected by starch and nitric acid. The 
following is the result of an experiment. Ten grains of iodide 
of potassium were dissolved in bix ounces of porter, mixed with 
an ounce of thick starch. The mixture was evaporated to 
drsmess, the residue incinerated and lixiviated with one ounce 
of water. The solution was neutral. One drop containing 
ooe-flfiieth of a grain of iodide, gave a deep pink red color with 
•tarch and nitric ucid. 

Tyeatment. The same ns in cases of poisoning by iodine. 

IODIDES OP MERCURY, {Hydrargyri Protiodidum et Bin- 

Symptoms. Nearly the same as those produced by bichloride of 

Tests. When the protiodide is heated in a glass tube, it evolves 
vapor of iodine; if previously mixed with potassa, the heating 
sublimes metallic merciir)'. and leaves iodide of potassium. 
The biniodide sublimes yellow when heated, and changes to 
red as it cools : in other respects it may be tested in the same 
manner as the protiodide. 

TVeatment. The same as in cases of poisoning by corrosive sub- 
limate. * 

LAUDANUM ; sec Opium. 

LAUREl. WATER, {.^qua Distiilata Cerassi Lauro-^erasi.) 
A narcotic vegetable poison, deriving its poisonous powers kom 
hydrocyanic acid. 

Symptoms. Sudden death, without vomiting, convulsions, or 
any of the other symptoms which usually precede it in cases of 
poisoning. Insensibility when the death is not very sudden. 
in some instances violent pain of the stomach has been com- 
plained of immediately before the fatal event 

Morbid Appearances. Very slight appearances of redness in thi 
stomach ; but all the other organs are in a natural state. 

T^si. Strong smell of bitter almonds. The hydrocyanic «cid 
vhieh It contains b'readlly rendered obvious, which, added t» 

Appendix /.] LEA 9M 

its odor, enables the poison to be satisfactorily detected. Bee 

Prussic Acid. 

TreatiMent. The fatal effect of this poiaon is so quickly prodaced 
thai little opportunity is afforded for the trial of antidotes. 
Brandy, ammonia, and other cordials, may prove usefUI. 
Chlorine has been proposed. 

LEAD. The only compounds of lead which have been found to 
produce poisonous effects upon the system, are the acetate, 
Mubacetate, chloride, carbonate, and the oxide of the metal 
combined either witti vegetable acids or fatty substances. 

SuoAK OP Lead. {Acetate of Lead.) — ^This ia more frequently 
taken as a poison than any other salt, although cases ot acut9 
poisoning by lead in aixy form are very uncommon. This sob- 
sunce is commonly seen in solid crystalline masses, white or 
of a brovvnish-wkite color ; it much resembles loaf sugar in 
appearance, and has often been mistaken for iL It has also a 
sweet taste, which is succeeded by an astringent ur metallic 
Uisie. It is very soluble in w»ter. Four parts of water at 6(P 
will dissolve one piirt ; and it is much more soluble at a boiling 

Sj/mptoms. Acetate of lead is by no means an active poison. In 
medical practice, it has often been given in considerable doseg 
without any serious effects resultmg. When, however, the 
quantity taken has been from one to two ounces, then the fol- 
lowing symptoms have been observed. A burning, pricking 
sensation in the throat, with dryness and thirst. Vomiting su- 
pervenes ; there is uneasiness in Ihe epigastrium, which la 
sometimes followed by violent colic. The abdomen is tense, 
and the parietes have been occasionally drawn in. The pain 
is relieved by pressure, and has intermissions. There is con- 
fltipation of the bowels. The skin is cold, and there Is great 
prostration of strength. When the case is protracted, the par 
tient has been observed to suffer from cramps in the calves of 
the legs, pain in the insidef> of the thighs, numbness and some- 
times paralysis of the extremities. The affection of the nervous 
sysU'm is otherwue indicated by giddiness, torpor, and even 

Minbid Appearances. We have not been able to find more than 
one cise ou record in which acetate of lead has proved fatal 
to ni ni, and ihore is no account of the morbid appearances. 
In iiniiiial.-'. ticcurding to Dr. Mi'.scherlich, when the dose is 
large, the nmc<ms cuatof the stnoiich is attacked and corroded ; 
this cnaiiK'-' app'.irs tit bo purely cheuiicnl, and takes place in 
all tli»{ organs uf the l>ody with which the salt of lead comet 
in cuutaci. If 4;iven in a small dose, it is decomposed by the 
gHSiric i^ecrciio'iH, and exerts no corrosive power on the mucous 
membrane. When the acetate of lead is given in a state of 
albuminate dissolved by acetic acid, death takes place with 
creal rapidity ; hut on inspection, the stomach is not found to 
be corroded. This property bel»)ng» to the neutral salt, and ie 
mit mnnii'eKted whon the dose is small, or when the poison is 
combined with nn acid. 

Treatnu-nt. Thif consi.sts in the fVee exhibition of solutions of the 
alkaiitiesulphnt^. either of soda or magnesia. The cxu'bonatee 
should be avoided, as the carbonate of lead is poisonous; while 
Ike sulphate is either inert or possesses but very little activity. 

SM LEA [Appeitdis J. 

As oiMtlearHltuiiaorilnt ibnald b« (Itcd, If vmniOiitiaai 

umptafva wHh MdcIIi. Ii It well EnDwn thai albumcii fmi- 

Knlaa Ihe Dilde ol lead when ul(l«l tn Joijc qumtily ; Vli 
twherlkli liu found thulunKin, CCe libumlDuua priDcliria 
or milk, !■ B very elfcctunl precipluni uf the oilde of leid 
Thuefore li would be sdii>;iaic M adoitntner, In ciuea of pol- 

quinUlf. Tlw coiopouodi ibiu formed, u Id Uie cue of cdI' 

CunaniTi or LuD. {IVliuLttil, Cmii.) Bae QirtsHW 

OiiDES or LtiD. The reltoir oiide (mutduH). out the brown 
oilile (petoiidi^), are liul little known eiccpl m chemialB. LI 

hive aametiian gicen iiw to occidental pinHia[ii|. LIqnidi 

^iB^•nd Imm Um (tiis of the veael In which they ore kept, 

Duynnult. LlUtoige ilnie lialso easily dinolved byalkallu 
o( fatty lubfliincM. 'I'he eillng of dripping or fat of meal. 

Mte ID illchlaltiickaar colic; while the lymiiuinii were icfeired 

■rtlclea uf this kind sre impregnated with ailde of lead, Ihs 

of a Urown tnlor by hydroBuljihiJiet of ammonia. Lllhnrg* 
vu foinieiJy much lued to reowire the acidity of iour wine, 

aadiiwaa Iramedintelr BuppreBaad, Such wine li known bj 
ill being MnekeRediiy hydioaulpbaretof BtnnioiiiB. SnolThM 

Ibis iniituie la lUppuKd lo have caused dealli, and in another, 

ullc In IttoM ubo partake of II- l>r. Jackaoi 

Appendix I.] M E A 955 

The eolation gires the usual reactions with the tests for Iea4. 
Both of these oxides are easily reduced on charcoal, by the aid 
of a blow-pipe, or by mixing them with paste, — painting with 
this mixture a piece of card, drying it and burning it, metallic 
lead is imroediati ly produced. Minium is known from ver- 
milion among other properties, by its being blaclcened by hydro- 
sulphuret of ammonia ; from red oxide of mercury, by the ac- 
tion of nitric acid, as well as by the effect of heat. Red oxide 
of mercury is entirely di&iipuied into oxygen and mercury, — 
minium gives off oxygen, but remains fixed as an orangc-yelloir 
oxide of lead. It is a common cdloring matter in red wafers. 

LIME, (Cs/zO A corrosive mineral poison. 

Symptoms. Great heat of the throat, nausea, vomiting, cpiga*- 
tralgia, and insupportable colic, with a* I the symptoms which 
characterize inflammation of the stomach and intestines. 

J^trbid Appearancts. Intense inflammation of all the membraocf 
with which the poison has come in contact 

TtMt. If any of the poi:Mm be found, pour over it distilled water : 
then stop the vesKci closely from the atmospherical air, and 
aher some time filter the supernatant fluid. If this have a 
strong, acrid, styptic taste,— if it chnnse to green the vegetable 
blues, and bn precipitated by oxalic acid, — and if, on exposure to 
the air, a pellicle be formed which is soluble with effervescence 
In vinegar or any acid, we may pronounce the poison to be lime. 
If none of the py>is3n be found, and nevertheless it is suspected 
tb be lime, cnlcuie the contents of the stomach and bowels, and 

ttreat the residue as above directed. 

Treatment. Vinegar, lomon juice, or any vegetable acid, should 
be freely admir.ii<tered, and tlien demulcents ; employing bleed- 
ing, and' every moans that can reduce the inflammatory actioo 
excited in the nbdoniinal viscera. 

MEADOW SAFFRON, ( Qtlchici Autumndli$, semina et buUuM.) 
An ncronorcotic vegetable poison, deriving its powers from 

Sjfmptoms. Nausea and vomiting, violent griping and hyperca- 
th-irtiis, rai^d sinking of the pulse, and cold sweats. 

Morbid Appearances. Slight intianimation of the stomach and 
intestines; but the effect is cliietly produced by the action of 
tlie poison on the nervous system. 

Ttst. None. 

Tnatmmt. Evacuate the stomach by bland demulcent fluids 
taken in large doses ; then exhibit opium hi small doses, with 

MEAT, ( Poisoned.) Cases of poisoning, fVom putrid or diseased 
mehU are of not unfrequeut occurrence. 

tfmptoms. Pain and uneasiness at the prscordial region, ex- 
tending to the back and loins; nausea and vomiting, thirst, and 
a burning sensation at the stomach, followed by great irritabilitjr 
of this organ : great prostration and debility, with death, or 
■low convalescence. 

Morbid Appearances. A fluid state of the blood, which is dork- 
colorod ; inflamed condition of the mucous membrane of tho 
stomach and bowels. 

JVMtnunt. Evacuate the contents of the stomach by emetic^ 
cathartics, and enemata; blisters to the epigastrium; stlmn- 
laflDg fttcttooi to the spbie ; cold applications to the head, local 

A^fendixL] MUR Wi 

potash if necessary), gives an inlcj-blae colmr in a solution of 
morphia. It' the quantity of the morphia be small the color is 
greenish : — the blue color is entirely destroyed by acids, — it it 
also destroyed by hcut, but returns on cooling : thus this teat 
should never be employed with a very acid or a hot solution 
of a salt of morphia. 3. Iodic acid. Morphia in the solidstate 
or in solution decomposes this acid, taking port of its oxygen, 
and setting free iodine. In order to make this evident, the iodic 
acid should be first mixed with starch ; and a part of this mix- 
ture only added to the Euspccted solution,— part being reserved 
to allow of a comparison. It is said that this test will detect 
the 1000th part of a grain of morphia : — if the quantity be very 
■mall, there ia only a reddish or purple tinge, slowly produced, 
'sometimes not for many hours;— if large, the dark-blue iodide 
of furina is formed in a few seconds. This color being de- 
stroyed by heat, the test must not be added to a hot solution. 
We have found also, that the presence of a large quantity of 
acid, prevents or interferes with the result. It succeeds equally 
well with morphia or its salts when unmixed with o^lBanio 

TWctment. The same as in poisoning by opium. 

rievsi.) A corrosive mineral poison. 

Symptoms. Sensation of burning in the throat, the ossophaguSi 
and the stomach ; styptic taste in the mouth ; great thirst; the 
eyes red and sparkling; the pulse very frequent and tense; 
the skin hot and dry ; the tongue red and glazed ; the lipe 
black ; vomiting of blood and yelloyy matter, having the pun- 
gent odor o£ Uie acid; cold sweats, delirium, and death. 
These are areo the symptoms attending poisoning by any of the 
mineral acids ; but it is said by Or^o, that when hydrochloric 
acid is the poison, a thick white lume of a sharp penetrating 
odor, similar to that exhaled t^ the acid, issues from the 

Morbid Appearance*. The mouth, oesophagus, and stomach, are 
of a deep red color, and partially covered with extravasated 
blood ; they are also often perforated in many places. 

Test. When any of the acid which has been used as the poison 
remains, it is readily detected by its sensible qualities, and by 
the white dense fumes of hydrochlorate of ammonia, which 
are formed when a glass rod dipped in ammonia is approached 
to it. If mixed with wine, or other colored fluids, it may be 
detected by distilling the suspected fluid from a small retort 
over a candle, into a phial containing a solution of nitrate of 
silver; the chloride of silver will be thus formed, which ia 
known by its solubility in ammonia, and its insolubility In nitric 
acid. If the contents of the stomach or the vomited matter 
only can be procured, boil these for three-quarters of an hour 
In combination with a dilute solution of pure potassa, and pre- 
eipitate the filtered fluid with nitrate of silver, which will form 
the chloride of silver, if the poison be hydrochloric acid. 

TroaimeiU. Admmister immediately soap and calcined magnesia, 
or whiting, mixed in bland demulcent fluids. Give, freely, 
emollient diloents, and employ antiphlogistic means to over- 
come the inflammatory symptoms that rapenrenei when tbt 
polaoo doea not prove very soon fatal. 

•68 M U R . [Appendix I. 

CHLORIDE OP BARiUBf, {Barn CkUriitm.) Acornnive 
minenU poiton. 

Bffmpumt. Violent ▼ondtlng, accompanied with excmciatiBg, 
borning pain* of Uie etoDiacli and bowele; vertivo, stapor, 
paralysM of the lower extremities, convulsions, and deatiu In- 
dependent oi its corrosive property, it acts on the l>rain and 
nervous ssrstem ; the action of the tieart is rapid and intetmit- 
ting , restoration is momentarily suspended ; the papiis diiate, 
and insensibility supervenes. 

Morbid ^pptartMcf. Evidences of inflammation of the mucova 
membrane of the stomach throughout its whole extent. 

T^ut9. If any of the poinun be found, chktride of barium may be 
delected in it by dropping into it a little sulphuric acid, when a 
white preci^tate will t)e formed, which is insoluble in nitric 
acid, or by the suspected fluid yielding with nitrate of silver a^ 
white curdled or clotted precipitate, insoluble in water and ia 
nitric acid, but soluble in pure liquid ammonia. If the men- 
struum be red wine or coflfee, the mixture U turbid ; it should 
be filtered, and its color destroyed by chlorine l>efore testing iL 
The excess of chlorine, however, must be previously dissipated 
by lieat, when the nitrate of silver is employed as a test. 

Treatment. As soon as possible, dilute largely with bland fluids 
holding in solution sulphate of soda or of magnesia; for these 
■alts decompose the chloride of barium, and form an inert, 
insoluble sulphate in the stomach; then excite vomiting by 
irritating the fauces ; afterwards treat the case as one of gastcie 
inflammation. • 

*^* The other bnrytic salts produce nearly the same eflTects oa 
the animal economy as the chloride ; and therefore these in- 
structions refer equally to Ciises of poisoning by the nitrate and 
the carbonate of b^iytu, or by pure baryta. 

corrosive metallic poison. 

Symptoms. An austere metallic taste ; constriction of the oeso- 
phagus ; impeded respiration ; violent voiuiting, with cramp of 
the stomach and excruciating colic pains, purging, the pulse 
■mall, but sharp and quick ; convulsions, somelimus paralysis, 
asphyxia, and death. 

Morbid .appearances. Inflammation and erosion of the stomach 
and intestines. 

Test, This salt, in the solid state, is in small acicuhir crystals, 
of a yellowish-white color; deliquescent in the air, and red- 
dening the vegetable blues. Mix the solid salt in a crucible, 
with charcoal and'causcic potassa {potassa fasa), and, covering 
the crucible with charcoal, expose ii to a strong heat for twenty 
minutes. The result should be metallic tin iwd chloride oif 
potassium. If the poison be in solution, precipitate separate 
portions of it by the following re-agents: solution of potassa, 
or of ferrocyanide of potasf^ium, which throw down wiiite 
precipitates; and the hydrosulphurets, which form yellow 
precipitates; bichloride of mercury, which Ibrnis a grey pieci- 
pitate composed of grains of metallic mercury ; and niirato of 
silver, which precipitates clots of hydrochlorate of bilver. If 
the solvents be wine or cofiee, the solution must be freed from 
color by chlorine before being tested. 

Appendix L] NIT 950 

Tyeatment. Dilate copioiulj with milk, which appears to de- 
compose the chloride ; then excite voinitlng by loige draughts 
of tepid water and irritating the fauces. Bleed, and employ 
the warm bath, fomentations, and emollient enemas, to combat 
the inflammatory symptoms ; administering, at the same time, 
oiriates and antispasmodics to soothe the nervous irritation. 

MUSSEL, THE (Mytilis EdtUis.) A septic animal poison. 

Bfmpt4niu. Sensation of weight at the stomach, nausea, cmi- 
etriction of the throat, immmierate thirst, vomiting, stertoroufl 
breathing, vertigo, itching, and sometimes an eruption all over 
the skin; low tremulous pulse, subsultus, and coldness of the 
extremities, occasionally terminating in death. 

Morbid Appearances. Slight evidences of inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the stomach. A darlc, fetid fluid is 
present in the stomach ; and the whole body rapidly undergoes 

Teat. None. 

Treatment. Evacuate the stomach by a powerful emetic, and 
by irritating the fauces with the finger or a feather, until Aill 
vomiting be excited ; purge with castor oil ; and, at the same 
time, dilute freely with acidulous liquids, giving, at short inter- 
vals, from twenty to sixty drops of ether in half an ounce of 
siinple syrup. 

%* These remarks, apply generally to all cases ot poisoning by 
fish— of which the following are the most common : Old Wife, 
Sea Loheter^ Land Crab^ Yellov-BilUd Sprats Orejf Snapper, 
D§lpkint Conger Eel^ Bottle Fieh^ Barraeuda^ Chrooper, Roek 
9UL, King liHsh, Bonetta, PorgUy Tanny^ Blower. It is pro- 
boble that the poisonous properties of fish depend chiefiy on aa 
unhealthy state of the fish itself. 

NITRATE OF COPPER; see under Copper, 

WITRE— NITRATE OP POTASSA, (JVitro* Potasete.) An 
acrid mineral poison. 

Spmptome. When taken in doses of half an ounce to an ounce, 
which has too frequently happened from the salt being sold by 
mistake for sulphate of soda, it excites nausea, vomiting, and 
hypercatharsis ; bloody stools, excruciating tormina of the 
lower bowels, the sensation of fire in the stomach, laborious 
respiration, cold extremities, syncope, convulsions, and some- 
times death. If the patient live, he may remain paralytic. 

Jfyrhid .Appearances. Inflammation and sphacelation of the mu- 
cous membrane of the stomach, which has been occasionally 
found perforated. The evidences of inflammation extend 
throughout the intestinal canal. 

T^yf . The form of its crystals, if any of the salt remahi, instantly 

distinguishes nitre from sulphate of soda; but, if it be ia 

powder, it may be known by deflagrating when it is thrown 

upon hot coals, and by giving out nitrous acid fumes when hot 

sulphuric acid is poured on it If the acid be in solution, throw 

upon the surface some crystals of morphia, and pour into tlM 

Hiiid a littie sulphuric acid ; if nitre be present, the mori^a 

^^1 be reddened by the nitrous acid disengaged. Or, add to 

the solution protosulphate of iron and sulphuric acid ; the nitrie 

^Sd extricated acting on the salt of iron will darken the color 

of the solution. 

' Empty the stomach, and dilate freely with milk 

MO NIT [Appendix L 

•ad bland demalcenti ; eidiibit emollient «iemat; and, after 
Weeding, when the pulie U hard and qaick, administer opium 
and aromatics. 

Jfitraa.) A corrosive metallic poison. 

S^fw^tonu. Nearly the same as those produced by corrosire 
rabiimate; In general, the pain of the stomach Is more severe; 
greatly embarrassed respiration. 

Jforbid .Appearances. The organs of degl utition and the stomach 
present evident marks of Intlammation and erotikm. The mu * 
cous membrane of the stomach presents a biacic color; the 
llpe, the Interior of the mouth, the oesophagus, are also black. 
The fingers are sometiaies tinged with the some color. 

Tests. If the poison have been taken In solution in water, it if 
detected by the arsenious acid mixed with ammonia precipi- 
tating a yellow arsenite of silver. Ammonia does not render 
the solution turbid, but It is precipitated olive color by all the 
other alkalies. A stick of phosphorus placed in it precipitates 
the silver in a metallic state. All the hydrochlorates decom- 
pose it, and throw down a white precipitate, which is changed 
to black by the light ; put these precipitates into a tube open at 
both ends and heated, pass through It a stream of hydrogen 
gas, the chloride first becomes yellow, then fuses and changes 
to red, which gradually weakens in depth, and leaves a coating 
of metallic silver on the tube. 

Treatment. Administer, instantly, a strong solution of common 
salt, to form an insoluble chloride of silver In the stomach. 
Then evacuate the stomach by an emetic ; and, if symptoms 
of inflammation nevertheless supervene, employ lo«.al end 
general bleeding, tepid baths, and emollient fomentations and 

TRISNrrRATB OP BISMUTH, (THsnitras Bismuthi.) A 
corrosive metallic poison. 

Symptoms. Nearly the same as those of corrosive sublimate, 
with a sensation of great heat In the chest and difficulty of 

Morbid .Appearances. Inflammation and erosion of the mucous 
membrane of the stomach, which Is almost reduced to a state 

. of pulp, and separated by the slightest friction. The influm 
mation extends throughout the intestines, and the lungs also 
display traces of it. 

T^ts. The best test is chromate of potassa, which precipitates 
it from its aqueous solution of a beautiful orange-yellow color. 
It may be detected in the solid contents of the stomach by cal- 
cinaticm; in the fluid contents, by passing through them a 

* stream of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, dissolving the pn^ipiutte 
in hydrochloric acid, filtering the solution, and testing with 
ferrocyanate of potassa, which forms a yellowish-white pre- 
cipitate. * 

Treatment. Exhibit large draughts of milk, which is firmly co- 
agulated into clots by the trinitrate of bismuth, and luvolving 
the poison, affords time and opportunity to expel It from the 
stomach. If symptoms of inflammation show themselves, 
combat them by bleeding and other antiphlogistic measures. 

Jfitrieumf Jfitrosumj P. E.) Corrosive mineral poison. 

J^fpendix L] N U X 9fl 

atm^towu, BenMUion of burning in the throat, «M|iAia|iit, aai 
■looiach ; excessive vomiting, and almont iminediate death, if 
the acid be strong, and the dose iai^e ; lluSt if it be vreak, the 
patient may linger for a considerable time, in which case ha 
vomits at intervals shreds of membrane, which have an in- 
supportable fcBtor ; the constipation of the bowels is the moeC 
obstinate ; and when dejections are obtained, they are attended 
with excruciating torture. 

Morbid Appearances. When death has quickly taken place, the 
U1031 characteristic feature displayed on dissection is a layer (^ 
yellow matter, which covers the mucous membrane of the 
OBoophagus, the stomach, and every part over which the poison 
has passed. This membrane is also converted into a fatty 
substance, and the stomach is often found perforated. The 
lips, the chin, and the hands of the patient, are also stained 
with orange-colored spots. 

Tests. Boil the fluid, if any remain nnswallowed, over copper 
filings, when orange-colored fumes will be extricated if nitric 
acid be present. Add morphia, which will be reddened, or 
add carbonate of pouissa, which will form a deflagrating salt, 
if the ucid is the nitric. In a diluted state this acid blackens 
the solution of protoeulpbate of iron. When none of the poison 
remains, and death has taken place, saturate the contents of 
the stomach with bicarbonate of potassa ; evaporate the filtered 
solution to dryness, add to the residue copper filings and sul- 
phuric acid, and receive the fumes on morphia, or a solution 
of protosulphate of iron ; redness in the former and dark olive 
in the latter prove the presence of nitric acid. 

Treatment. Give lai^e doses of a solution of soap, or a mixture 
of calcined magnesia, chalk, or whiting, in water or any bland 
fluid. Then evacuate the stomach by large draughts of demul- 
cent fluids; and bleed, purge, and employ other antiphlogistic 
measures, if the symptoms indicate inflammation. 

NUX VOMICA, (.Strycknos JV«« Vomica^ fruUus.) An acio- 
narcotic vegetable poietm. 

Symptoms. Sensations of inebriety ; vertigo ; tetanic twitchings, 
and rigidity of the limbs and arms, alternating with subsultue 
tendinum ; extreme difficulty of respiration, with excruciathig 
pain under the xiphoid cartilage ; asphyxia ; and death. 

Morbid Appearances. Scarcely any evidences ()f membranooe 
inflammutiun in the stomach or intestines; the lungs appear 
natural ; but the lelt ventricle of the heart is generally gorged 
with bliHKl, and the whole of the arteries contracteid. It is 
8upp«>sed that this poison acts chiefly on the medulla spinalis. 

Tests. Various processes have been suggested for the detection 
of strychnia in nux vomica ; but owing to the very small quan- 
tity of the poisonous alkaloid containol in it, it is obvious that, 
unless we have a large quantity of the powder to examine, none 
of these arc likdy to succeed. Fifty grains of the powder will 
not yield more than one-quarter of a grain of strychnia. The 
following i.s perhaps, the most simple process: Boil the powder 
in alcohol of about seventy per cent, until nothing further If 
dissolved. Evaporate to an extract, and boil this in water with 
a small quantity of calcined magnesia. Strychnia, mixed witll 
brucia, is thereby precipitated ; and may be separated ftom the 
nagnesia in the inioluble residue, by further dlgeitioa in boiliog 

MS OPI [Appendix!. 

\ ■]eoh<rf. This Bleoholie Ilqnid yfeldf ftiTchnla, which n^p 
be parified in the usual way. There are no chemical charac 
teiB by which the aci4. united to the strychnia, can be readily 
Identiflcd ; and thus this process is more defective than that foi 
morphia, since we acquire so much more certainty, whersi 
besides the pofMnons base, we can show by tests the presence 
of the peculiar acid with which the base is known to be united. 
Another method of separating stryclinia, is by mailing an 
aqueous infusion with very dilute sulphuric acid, and after- 
wards precipitating the strychnia by boiling the filtered liquid 
with lime. The aqueous infusion of nux vomica gives the same 
bright-red tint with nitric acid, as the infusion of opium ; but it 
Is known from the latter by its giving a green instead of a deep 
red color with the permuriate of iron. 

Ty§atMent. Evacuate the stomach and bowels, and then dUste 
freely with vinegar and water, and other acidulous drinka, and 
give sedatives. 

OPIUM, {Opium.) A narcotic vegetable poiscm. 

Bifmptonu, Drowsiness and stupor, wbich are followed by ddiri* 
urn, pallid countenance, sighing, deep and stertorous breathiB|t 
cold sweats, coma, and death. 

Morbid JlppearoMcet. Slight redness of the stomach and intes- 
tines ; turg»«cence of the vessels of the brain, and effusion of 
water upon its surface and into the ventriclea. Generally, the 
lungs are engorged, and the blood is fluid. 

TVste. The tests for opium are, in fact, the tests of morphia and 
meeonie add. When morphia is present in such quaniiQr that 
It can be obtained in crystals from its alcoholic solution, and 
accurately examined, there is no difficulty in identifying it; but 
this is rarely the pase in poisoning by this drug Chrtstiaon 
gives a process for the detection of opium in mixed fluids and 
aolids, which in the hands of a skilful chemist might be sao- 
ceasfully employed; but ordinary practitioners could hardly 
avail themselves of it so as to give any decisive medico-legal 
evidence in a court of justice. Wash the contents of the stomach 
and intestines in distilled vinegar, ond strain ; then test a portion 
with acidulated persulphate of iron to detect roeccmic acid, 
which jgives it a cherry-red color. To another portion add 
solution of acetate of lead, nnd separate the precipitate by fil- 
tration ; wash it well, then extend it in water, and pass through 
it a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen, heat it to drive off any 
excess of the gas, and test the fluid with acidulated persulphate 
of iron. Eva porate the fluid separated by the filter to an extract, 
act upon this by alcohol, leave the tincture to spontaneous 
evaporation, and test the residue for morphia. 

Treatment. The stomach-pump should be instantly used, or an 
emetic consisting of 3 ss. of sulphate of zinc, or from gr. v. to 
gr. X. of sulphate of copper dissolved in an ounce of water, 
,' should be exhibited as soon as possible, and the vomiting kept 
up by irritating the fauces. It is advisable to use on astringoit 
infusion instead of water with the stomach-pump. After th« 
stomach is emptied, if the whole of the narcotic be removed, 
give large draughts of coffee, brandy, and cordials; keqiing 
awake and constantly rousing the attention of the sufferer, until 
the effects of the poison sufaeide. Dash ctAA water upon th« 
ftead hi a constant stream ; apply strong mustard rifipiifMi 

Appeniix L] P H O i6S 

to the epigastrium and spine ; and, if necessary, resort to arttft- 
cial respiration. Sometimes cupping the temples is usefhi. 
(mmeNion in the tepid bath is a useful means or subduing the 
drowsiness. Dashing cold water on the head and chest is also 
useful in rousing the sensibility. 

OXALIC ACID, {Acidam Oxalieum.) A corrosive poison. 

Sjfmptonu. Burning pain of the stomach ; nausea, and severe 
but ineffectual efforts to vomit; great dilatation of pupils; 
vertiffo, convulsions, and death. 

JHerbid Appearances. The tongue and fauces are covered with 
a viscid, white mucus ; the stomach is partially inflamed, and 
exhibits in some places— those to which the acid hiw been 
more immediately applied— a pulpy character. Evidences of 
inflammaUon in the lungs. 

7V«t«- Its small, needle- form, lamellar crjrstals have occasioned 
it to be mistaken for Epsom salts ; but it is easily distinguished 
fh>m these by its strong acid taste, by its volatilizing when 
heated in a phial, and subliming in small crystals, and by lime- 
water throwing down, in its solution, a copious jbrecipitate of 
oxalate of Hme, which is insoluble in an excess of the acid, bat 
soluble in nitric acid. Precipitate by nitrate of sliver; the 
precipitate, when well washed and dried, slightly detonates. 

JyeatmtnL It is recommended that water should be sparingly 
given, as it is apt to lead to the more extensive diffusion and 
absorption of the poison. But in some instances water haa 
been found to be productive of great benefit ; and has aided the 
eflbns of the stomach to expel the poison by vomiting. The 
proper antidotes are chalk, or magnesia or its carbonate, made 
Into a cream with water, and freely exhibited. These remedies 
■Pl>ear, from the cases reported, to have been very efflcaciooi 
when timely administered. A mixture of lime-water and oil 
might be advantageously employed. If much fluid has been 
■wallowed, then the stomach-pump may be' resorted to. The 
poison in many instances acts with such rapidity, as to render 
ttie application of these remedies, a hopeless measure. The 
exhibition of the alkalies,— potash, soda, or their carbonatesi 
must in all casee be avoided ; since the salts which they fonn 
with oxalic acid are as poisonous as the acid itself. 

OXIDES OF COPPER ; see under Capper. 

OXIDES OF LEAD ; see under Lead. 

PHOSPHORUS, iPhosphortu.) A corrosive poison. 

S^ptonu. Phosphorus, taken even in moderate quantities 
produces immediate denih ; and as it has been exhibited as a 
remedy, in this manner it may prove poisonous. The symptoms 
are violent pain of the stomach, with a hot alliaceous taste in 
the mouth : great excitement of the arterial system, and horrible 
convulsions, which are the forerunners of death. 

JKerbid Appearances. A general inflammatory aspect of the 
stomach and intestines, with sphacelated spots in varioot 

Tist. Phosphorus is readily known by its alliaceoas smell tmi 
combustible properties. 

TVeaimenL Dllnte largely so as to fill the stomach with Ilqolld, 
by which the combustion of the phosphorus in it is hnpeded, 
•M vomitiDg induced, without increoahig the Iniution of Ik* 


S64 PRU [AppemiufJ, 

▼iaciu. MagnaAitiidxed with the fliddexliiUted,li«wfU,bf 
neatraliziag phoephoric acid, which is formed in these cases. 

quor Pota*»m.) Corrosive mineral poisons. 

Sfmptoms. Acrid urinotis taste in the month ; freat heat of the 
throat ; nausea, and vomiting of bloody alkaline matter , acute 
epigostnilgia and insupportable colic ; hypercathamis, coovoh 
sioas, and death. 

JUrbid .9ppearanees. Evidences of inflammation the most ex> 
tensive ot the whole alimentary canal, and perforations of tiie 

Te»ts. If any of the poison remain, ft is known by feding soapj 
to the touch, chancing to green the vegetable reds, restoring 
reddened blues, and precipitating nitrate of silver in the form 
of a dark-colored oxide, which is soluble in nitric acid. Water 
Impregnated with carbonic acid produces no preci|Ntate, not 
causes opacity, which distinguishes it from the caustic earths. 
Potassa 18 distinguished from soda by evaporating the solutioa 
in a silver spoon, and when it is concentrated, testing with hy- 
drochlorate of platinum, or with tartaric acid: the former 
causes a yellow precipitate, the latter a precipitation of bitar- 
trate of potassa. If none of the poison remain, the vomited 
matter must be tested in the above manner. 

Treatment. Vinegar and the vegetable acids should be instantiy 
freely administered. Dilute with demulcents, and employ 
bleeding and other antiphlogistic means to reduce the inflau* 
matory symptoms. 

%* Cases of poisoning by soda and the alkaline carbonate! 
require the same treatment. 

POTASSII SULPHURETUM, {Sulphvaret of PoUuk.) 

Symptoms. Acrid taste, slight vomiting, faintness, convnlriont, 
burning pain, constriction in the throat, gullet, and stomachy 
purging, convulsions, stupor. 

TVeatment. Administer a sol ution of chloride of soda or chloride 
of lime : other measures to be adopted according to circom- 

PRUSSIC ACID, {.addum Hydrocyanicum.) A sedative poison. 

Symptoms. When the dose is large, death is the immediate 
result ; but if the dose do not exceed ten to twenty m'inims, it 
is succeeded by stupor and weight in the head ; nausea, faint- 
ness, and vertigo, with loss of sight; followed by difficulty of 
respiration, dilated pupils, a small vibrating pulse, and sjmcope, 
which terminate insensibly in death, if no curative means be 

Morbid .appearances. No change of structure nor any tcace of 
inflammatory action is evident ; but a eVmng odor of the tdd 
exhales from the stomach. 

Tests. The odor; but the only certain test is to add to tlie 
liquid a few drops of liquor potasss, and afterwards a solutioa 
of protosul phate of iron. If prussic acid be present, a precipitate 
of a burnt-brown color will foil, which, on adding a little Bal- 
phuric acid, instantly changes to a bluish-greoi, and gradually 
deepens to a beautiful full blue. If only the contents of the 
stomach be obtained, add some sulphuric acid, distil from a 
vapor, and test the product as above. 

Treatment Administer oa quickly as possible chlorine water, in 

Appmiia /.] SAX S65 

doMS of f 3 ij. in f | j. of water; chlorine also, laigelx dilated 
with air, may be inhaled. Administer hot brandy and water, 
or camphor mixture, combined with liquid ammonia, or tht 
aromatic spirit of ammonia. Oil of turpentine also, and the 
whole range of diffusible stimuli, will prove useful. CTUorine, 
however, is the most powerful antidote, b should be applied 
both internally and externally. If chlorine water be at hand, 
thip should be given in doses of one or two teaspoonfuls, pro 
perly diluted with water ; or weak solutions of chloride of lime 
or chloride of soda may be administered. The patient may also 
inhjile cautiously air impregnated with chlorine gas. CkUd 
affuaion and artificial respiration should never be omitted ; this 
can easily be effected by making powerful pressure with boUi 
hands on the anterior surface of the chest, the diaphragm being 
at the same time pushed upward by an assistant. Bleeding 
may sometimes be necessary. 

^CATTLESNAKE POISON, (Crotalus korridtu.) 

Symptoms. Quick pulse, impeded respiration, sudden depression 
of strength in the wounded limb, extending over the whole 
body; convulsions; death. The wound becomes quickly 

Treatment. A ligature above the bitten part ; suction of the 
wound; the application of cupping-glasses; cauterization by 
hot irons or caustics. Administer internally eau de luce, am- 
monia, olive oil. 

RUE, and OIL OF RUE, (Ruta Chraveolentis folia et Oleum 
Volatile.) Acro-narcotic vegetable poisons. 

9^ptoms, Great dryness of the mouth and throat, accompanied 

• with a sensation of heat and pain of the stomach and bowel% 
headache, and delirium. 

JHhrhid Jtppearanees. We know of no recorded instance of death 
in the human species from the administration of rue or its oil ; 
but in dogs, who have been killed by it, the stomach affordt 
evidences of considerable inflammation. 

Test. None ; but the odor of the oil, which resembles that of the 
plant, leads to its detection. 

TVeatiKMt. Emetics, and aAerwards dilution with acidolooe 
drinks and demulcents. 

BABINB or SAVINE. and OIL OF SAVINB, (Sabinm folim 
et oleum.) An acro-narcotic veg«.'table poison. 

Symptoms. All those of high excitement, with very acute pais 
of the stomach and bowels, nausea, vomiting, hypercathard% 
and convulsions. Abortion in pregnant women. 

Morbid .Appearances. Inflammation of the mucous membrane 
of the stomach and rectum ; but the symptoms depend chiefly 
on the action which the poison exerts on the nervous system. 

Test None. 

JVeatment. Eracoate the stomach by copious dilution with 
mucilaffinoos fluids, and keep down thH inflammatory symptoma 
by the use of the Inncet and other antiphlogistic measuree. 

SAINT IGNATIUB*S BEAN, iStryeknos Saneti IgnatiL) An 
acro-narcotic poison. 

9ywtptoms ; see Strychnia. 

Tuts. This seed is about the size of a small olive, convex on 
one side and angular ou the other, and covered with a grqr 


sow [A/fmimJ. 

f tw i e r ; ilM ■•btiuiec bomy, hui, Woini, lindnmii, «pi 
very bitter to the taste. 

fWftCawNl ; we Strwehnim. 


MjfmjtUwu. These occar at a very ancertain inteival afler the 
bite, feoerally between the twentieth dav and three or fyu 
montha, rmetimes not till after aeveral yean The fiiat 
•ymptons are osaally a aenae of pain and uneaaineas in the sent 
of the wound, which aaaomfes a red and inflamed appearance- 
anxiety, languor, restlenneaa, apaams, horror, disturbed aleep^ 
difficult respiration, and ahudderiog at the aJighteat breath of 
air, succeed, and are aoon increased. Violent convulsions 
ailect, at times, the whole body, distorting the muscles of the 
face The eyea are red and protruded, the tongue swells, and 
aometimes hangs out of the mouth, while there is a copioua 
secretion of viacid aaliva; there ia pain in the stomach, vomit- 
ing often, of bilious fluids ; diflkuliy, or often inability of swal- 
lowing, and a aense of horror whenever liquids are aeen ; giaasf 
appearance of the eyea ; death. 

fVeUmeiU. The bitten part should be immediatelv cut out, and 
a running sore made by caustic repeatedly applied. Even after 

. the wound has healed, the porta ahould be removed by th« 
knife, and caustic applied, making an ulcer, which should li^ 
allowed to heal by granulation. Suction by the mouth should 
never be neglected, and bleeding should be promoted by ths 
application of warm water. The wound should be covered 
for some davs with a warm poultice. If convenient, exhausted 
cups should be applied. Alter hydrophobia haa supervene^ 
no treatment will probably succeed. . 

SERPENTS, POISONOUS. Of thes^ the most common are 
the Fij»«r, Black Viper^ RattUsiuike^ and the ^dder. 

^fmptonu. A sharp pain in the wounded purt, which soon 
extends over the body ; great swelling, at flrst hard and pale^ 
then reddish-livid, and gangrenous in appearance ; faintinga ; 
vomitings, and convulsions, sometimes Jaundice ; pulse small, 
frequent, and irregular, breathing difficult, cold sweats, sight 
fails, faculties of the mind deranged, extensive suppuration, 
gangrene, and death. 

TYeatment. A moderately tight ligature to be applied above tht 
bites, draw out the poison by suction immediately, and after- 
wards promote the bleeding of the wound by the application of 
warm water ; next apply lunar caustic, or the actual cautery, 
and cover the wound with pledgets of lint dipped in equal 
parts of olive oil and aqua ammonis. Administer ammonia 
internally, with warm, diluting drinks, wine, Ate., covering the 
patient warmly in l»ed. If gangrene l>e threatened, l>arl[, 
arsenic, 4cc., are recommend«l. It is highly probable thitf 
chlorine would be a good remedy, both taken by the moutli 
and inhaled. 
BOW BREAD, (C^ekmem EMrvpmm,) An acrid vegetahle 

B^mptomt. Violent tormina and purging ; bloody stools, accom- 
panied with cold sweau and convuIMons, frequently terminating 

fVst. Wooe. 

AppendvtL] SUL M7 

Jh Hi d AppearanceM, btflammatioii of fhe maeom membrant 
of the stumach and bowels. 

Trtatment, Iiidace vomiting by large draughts of dfknulcent 
fluids ; and combat the secondary symptoms by antiphlogistic 
or other means, as may be required. 

SPURGE— EUPHORBIUM, {Euphorbiarum auecus proprius, $1 
fruettu.) Acrid vegetable poisons. 

Sgraptoms. A burning sensation in the mouth, throat, and 
■tumach; vomiting, hypercatharsis, producing bloody stools, 
convulsions, and death. 

Tut. The euphorbium of the shops is readily recognized by the 
irregular triangular form of its tears, and their enclosed seeds. 
When boiled in alcohol, the greater part is taken up, but ao 
Insipid wax separates as the solution cools, whilst a hot acrid 
oil remains in solution. 

Morbid Appearances. Evidences of violent inflammation of the 
stomach and the bowels ; but more particularly of the rectum, 
which is always ulcerated, the surface of the abraded spots 
being covered with a brown ur blackish fluid, which is probably 
extravasated blood. 

Treatment. Excite vomiting by large draughts of tepid water, 
and then exhibit, alternately and repeatedly, a few tablespoon- 
fuls of olive oil, and a cupful of milk. Soothe the rectum 
with mutton broth and starch clysters, and bleed, if the excite- 
ment run high, after the stomach and bowels are evacuated. 

8TRAM0NIUM, or THORN APPLE, {Daturte Stranwnh 
kerba^ fructiu et semina.) A narcotic v^etable poison, de- 

' riving its power from an alkaloid, named Daturia. 

SympUmt. Vomiting, l|rtigo, delirium, sometimes furious mad- 
ness, stupor, convulslOTis, paralysis, cold sweats, and death. 

Te»t. None. 

Morbid .Appearances. Evidences of inflammation in the mucom 
membrane of the stomach and the meninges of the brain. The 
lungs are generally gorged with a very dark-colored blood, and 
blotches of extravasated blood are seen in various parts of the 
alimentary canal. 

Treatment. The same as in cases of poisoning by opium. 

BTRONG-SCENTED LETTUCE, (.L^tucm Vtrosts kerha,) 
A narcotic vegetable poison. 

B^pUms. Inebriety, followed by the other symptoms that 
characterize poisoning by opium. 

Test. None. 

Morbid .Appearances and Treatment. The same as in caaet of 
poisoning by opium. 

SUGAR OF LEAD; see under Z^d."^ 

SULPHATE OP COPPER; see under Copper. 

SULPHATE OP ZINC; see fTkite Fitriot. 

SULPHURIC ACID, {.Aeidum Sutphurieum.) A corrosive 
mineral poison. 

Sifmptoms. Austere styptic taste in the month ; a smsation of 
burning pain in the throat, gullet, and stomncb ; nausea, vomit- 
ing, and a horrible fetor of the breath. The matter vomited Is 
tinged both by arterial and by venous blood, and air- bubbles 
fbrm upon the spot if it fall either upon chalk or upon marble. 
Symptoms of general inflammation of the abdominal viscera 
eooB supervane, with difltcolt respiration, and a cough resem 

910 TAR [AppenduB I 

Wlaf croup; afrequeot, small, concentnted, ImfiiUr poUij 
coottaut horripUaiio; extreme anxiety and restlesaaeaa ; con- 
vuttikNW of the face and lips , and sometimet a papulous erup- 
tion precedes death. The intellect remains entire until the laat. 

Morbid Appearances. The stomach contains a large liuantity of 
dark gruwous matter, and is much distended with fetid gasi 
its coats are ulcerated, black, and covered with deep corroded 
MMta, an appearance that extends almost through the whole of 
the alimentary canal, which, in many places, also, is as it were 
dissolved, and in many instances perforations take place, and 
the contents of the stomach are found in the abdominal sac 
The mouth and oesophagus present evidences of the highly 
corrosive properties of the poison. 

TuL If any of the poison remain, it can be readily recognized 
by its saponaceous feeling when rubbed between the fingen; 
Its great specific weight, its property of evolving heat when 
mixed with water, and by its decomposition and the evolutioa 
of sulphurous acid gas on boiling it over mercury. If it be 
combined with wine or with vinegar, add a solution of nitrate 
of baryta ; if the acid be present, a sulphate of baryta, insoluble 
to nitric acid, will be formed ; the existence of which, howevei^ 
must be demonstrated by adding to it an equal weight of char* 
coal exposing the mixture, wrapped up in platinum foil, to the 
heat of a spirit lamp for ten minutes, then introducing it into 
a glass tube, and adding a few drops of pure hydrochloric acid. 
Sulphuretted hydrogen gas is evolved, and easily recognised 
both by the odor of the vapor, and by introducing into the tube 
a slip of paper rubbed over with carbonate of lead. The con- 
tents of the stomach may be tested te boiling them with m^ 
tallic mercury, which will produov sulphurous acid ga% If 
■ulphuric acid have been the poison. 

TrMUment. Having ascertained the nature of the poison, dilate 
instantly and largely with milk mixed with calcined magnesia, 
chulk, or whiting, or with soap, or the fixed alkalies , and tB 
the alieence of these, soap-suds, infusions of wood-ashes, weak 
solutions of the alkaline carbonates, white of eggs, milk, c^l, 
or any mild diluent; and treat the secondary symptoms by the 
means usually employed in inflammation of the intestines. 

TARTARIC ACID, (Acidum Tartarieum.) A corrosive poison. 

Sifmptomt. Nearly the same as those from poisoning by ozalie 
acid, but less severe. 

Morbid Appearance*. Very similar to those produced by oxaUe 

. 7V«e«. When heated in a phial, instead of sublimhig like oxalie 
acid, it is decompose, blackens, swells, smokes, and exhalee 
an acrid vapor. It bums with a blue flame, and leaves a 
•pongy charcoal. When its solution is treated with lime- 
water, the while precipitate is soluble in an excess of the acid I 
with potash, the precipitated crystals are bitartrate of potaaia. 

Traatment, Solutions of the alkalies, or chalk and water, should 
be instantly administered, and the sec<mdary symptoms ireetad 
by bleeding and other antiphlogistic measures. 

Vajltab emetic,— potasbio-tabtrate of ANn- 

HONY, (Antimonium Tartariiatumt AnUmouii PelMsJe-TWw 
tns.) A corrosive metallic poison. 
%w y CsBii. Nausea end severe vomiOng^ iiU^>«q|t| eerdielil^ • 

^ ■ f 

t < 

Appendix /.] T B 

fleoMttonofbiiniinfhcetattheepigaftriaBi; twialfaifeQiieaiid 
hypercatharsii ; small, frequent, hard pulse; syncope, dtfleult 
respiration, vertigo, insensibility to external Btimulantii, most 
painful cramps in the lower limbs, great prostration of strragth, 
and death. 

Morbid Appearances. The sttHuach and intestines much inflated 
with gas; and the mucous membrane of tiie stomach and 
intestines red, tumefied, and covered with a viscid layer easily 
separated ; the peritoneum is generally of a dark brick<red 
hue ; and the membranes of the brain display marks of having 
been the seat of great inflammatory excitement; the longs aio 
not altered. 

Tests. If the poison be found in its solid form, add charcoal, 
and reduce it by heating it in a coated tube. The odor of 
burnt vegetable matter will be exhaled ; the powder will first 
blacken, and then resume its white color, and finally display 
metallic antimony. If the poison be found in a state of solu- 
tion : — 1. Pour into the fluid a few drops of alcoholic infusion 
of galls, which will produce an instantaneous, copious, clotted, 
whitish-yeilow precipitate. 2. Pass through tiie solution a 
■tream of sulphuretted hydrogen gas ; collect and wash the 
mrange-colored precipitate, put it in a glass tube op«i at both 
ends, and fitted to a proper apparatus for passing over the sul- 
phuret of antimony a stream of hydrogen gas, whilst the tube 
is heated by a qririt lamp. The sulphur^ is thus reduced, the 
■ulphur carried oflT, and metallic antimony procured. If Iho 
Doison be a vinous solution of tartar emetiic, the pradpitate 
tbrmed by the tincture of galls is a bright violet 

TVeatment. Dilute freely with tepid infusion of galla to decom- 

Kse the poison and form an insoluble tannate, and evacuate 
. the stomach-pump ; but if the whole of the poison be not 
evacuated, large doses of the decoction of yeHow cinchooa 
bark should be administered. It would perhaps be well to 
give this decoction. In the first instance, in doses sufficient to 
excite vomiting by their bulk. Opium is highly useful la 
checking the excessive evacuations. Venesection and the warm 
bath are very necessary in tho treatment of the supervenhtg 

rOBACCO, (Jfieotianm Tabaei folia.) A narcotic vegetable 
poison, deriving its power from an alkali named Jfieotiwa^ and 
a volatile oil. 

Bgmptoms. Severe nausea, vomiting, headaehe, and other sensOh 
tioDS of inebriety ; sudden sinking of the UrengUi, cold sweats, 
tremors, convulsions, and death. It operates most powerfully 
when introduced into the anus ; the external application of a 
■trong inAision is attended with similar symptoms, and proves 
nearly as virulent 

Jforkid Appearances. The mucous membrane of the stomach 

e resents very slight traces of inflammation ; but no alteratlM 
I perceptlbleja the inteetinee. The lungs are generally foaad 
gorged with blood ; bat the morbid appearances are altogethtf 
obecure ; the poison producing its deleterious eflTeet evidently 
ky its action both on toe heart, which it paralyaes, and oa tM 
BenroM qrstem. 
tpf^^ggunt. If the practitkmer be called immedhitely after dia 
•olioa iMM btM iwallowvd, evacaaie the Homach by tiro or 

SOa WOL [AppenHmL 

tiitm ffMiaAoC tmm <w wtf c ; Mriil Iti aetloB by Irritaltaif lh» 
iaucc», tuul <iaco4tf«fo Ui« vonlUng by very copiotu draafhli 
oC OdUUi^i iuioaiMMk Md Aill doiw of Uncuire uT ydlmr 
clitciMualKtfX Qt 9i Uoeturo of gallt. If, however, ■ome tiae 
bdvi; iiii4Mti4i» ^dwOttlMor ammonia, then castor oil and puif*- 
Uvv^ oua iiMMMi4Ulely aAerwarda lemon iulce, or vinegar ani 
WuUir ; bvA H ihe aedaUve elfects be already produced, nothhM 
Cttu W <1(M# IMIU the habit be routed by brandy, camphor, aad 

VKIL-VTRUM ; aM JMUi9r€ Ro»t" WkiU. 

XKli^ATllUA. A« acio-narooUc poiaon. 

4^ i V >w ^ In «ven aroall dotes It exdtea nanaea, voBltinp^ 
V|MW««Ui«nria, embarraaeed reaplrattoa and tetanic tpawiiy 
whWh lenerally terminate In death. 

M^ri ii w^— rawc M. Indications of severe inflammatloa of the 
SMMuus membrane, ulcerations of the stomach and daodenoai. 

IMs, A white, inodorous, uncrystallizable powder, which ei- 
•ilea violent aneezing when applied to the nostrils ; it is scarcdy 
•oluble in water, very soluble in alcohol and ether; sulphuric 
•eld first colors it yellow, then red, and lastly violet. 

f W a N i sat . Copious dilution with demulcents, bleeding, and 
other antiphlogistic means. 

VBRDIGRIB, (.Snufw, 5«teceCas Gtort.) See under Copftr, 


<|pgitsaw. Same aa those given under Serpent Peuening^ vis., 
lancinating pain in the bitiini part, increased on pressure, and 
Miending to the whole limb : the pan swells, is at first pole, 
Ihso red, Uvid, gangrenous, and excessively hard. Vomiiinfe 
ceAVttlsions, jauodioe, pulse small frequent, concentrated; 
krsfular, embarrassed breathing, cold sweats, delirium. 

fWafsisat. Apply a Ugatare above the wounded part; cantffrixa 
th« wound with a hot ircm or any active caustic: administer 
aau de luce, amnsoaia, olive oil. 

WIIITB LEAD ; see under CeHtmeU ef Lead. 

WHITH VITRIOL, {Smifktu Zxmd.) A corrosive meCalHe 

9^m^Hm9. An aceib taste in the month, with a sensation of 
choking ; nausea and severe vomiting, frequent 8tO(ris, pains ot 
the e)UgHStrium and lower bdly, difficult respiration, qaick«d>ed 
pulse, paleness and shrinking of the features, and coldness ot 
(he exiremUies. Death but randy follows, owing to the nxait- 
tng excited in the first instance by the poison. 

Jlku'Md Jtppearance*. Evkl«»ces of intense inflammaticm of th« 
mucous membrane of the stomach and bowela, and occasionaUy 
naiches of black extravasaied blood on the muscular coats of 
ihwie viscera. 

9Wl. Chromate of potaasa* which throwa down in the soIutiQa 
an orango-yellow chromate <^ xinc 

9V«<U«»««il. Let the iMiient drink frec^ly of milk, which, besiden 
aoUug as an emollient, panial!y decomposes the4iubon, render* 
tng U more inerL Exhibit emollient ctysteffH» tf the piMsoo be 
not «^ted from the Aomach, and have posecd the pylorus ; 
and irtmt the secondary sympcums by antiphlogBtic 

WULFRAMB ; see MnUUkeod. 

Appendix /.] ALKALOIDS. S71 

JMrtJM •/ dUUnguitking the following vegtMUe AlkaMd^^ 
BrmeU, Delpkiot Emetia, Morphiat Stlanw Stryeknia, Ftftr 
trior'-wken ikep are in powder. 

Treat the powder flnt with nitric acid« which If colored red bf 
Brueia, Delpkia, Morphia, and the SlrveAnte of commerce, bot 
not by pure etrvchnla. If the reddened acid become of a violet 
hue on the addition of protochloride of tla« after the nitric eola- 
tion has cooled, the alkaline powder is Bnuia : if the reddened 
acid gradually become black and earbonaceooa, It is Detphia. 
If the powder be eohtble without decompoeltloo, and decompoee 
iodic add, evolving free iodine, it4t McrpMa : if it is not ftiat- 
Me, and doee not decompoae iodic acid, it la Strychnia, If th« 
powder trreeni. initead of reddentog, nitric add, It la Bolania I 
it It Is Insoluble in ether, and does not redden nitric add, it If 
Emeti^t ; if it be soluble In ather, and does not redden nitrld 
•eid, but melte when heated and volatlllxea, It If Airopf : if It 
is thus affected by other and nitric acid, bat la not volatilised. 






Thb nibstancefl to be looked for are, uric acid, albamen, color> 
Ing matter of the bile, urea, phosphate of lime, phosphates of 
the alkalies, lime, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, fibrin, caseooa 
matter, hydrochloric acid, mucus, free acid and alkali, and 

The following are the re-agents to be used, with their applica- 

1. JfUrie ^eid,—ThiB is employed to detect uric acid, urea, 
albumen, and the coloring matter of the bile. It is known whe- 
ther urie acid is present, by adding a few drops of nitric acid to 
half a pint of urine, and allowing it to stand for twelve houra, 
when uric acid wilt be deposited on the sides of the vessel. 

3. Jimmonia precipitates the pkoapkaU ofUmeh^d in soludoQ 
by the free acid of the urine. 

3. JLiiM- water shows the presence of alkaline phosphaiee by 
the precipitate of phosphate of lime which it produces. 

4. Oxalate of Ammonia is employed to precipitate the lim« 
contained in urine. If ammonia is afterwards added, the amm^- 
niacal phosphate of magnesia may be precipitated. Should no 
precipitation take place, add a solution of phosphate of soda, to 
ascertain whether this is owing to the absence of magnesia or 
that of phosphoric acid. 

5. Acetate of Barytes is used to indicate siUphuric acU. The 
urine must be slightly acidified by acetic acid. 

6. Ifeutral Acetate of Lead may precipitate the chloride and 
the phosphate of lead ; distinguish these by the blowpipe. 

7. Solution of Alum causes a troubling in urine that contains 
albumen or fibrin in solution. 

8. Chloride of Mercury (corrosive sublimate), gives no pre- 
cipitate in acidified urine, imless albumen or caseous matter If 

9. Infusion of J^utgalls or Tannin^ precipitates at least two 
constituent principles, namely mucus and the extractive matter^ 
which last is also precipitated by acetate of lend. 

10. Red and Litmus Paper are used to detect elkaiiet and 

Afp. //.] URINARY CALCULI. 278 

11. Ytast is employed to discover the presence of ntfor fai 
viaet by exciting the vinous fermentation. 


1. BoM-'Ea.Ttk Calculus. — Insoluble in potash, and in acetic 
acid, soluble in' dilute nitric and hydrochloric acid. Before th« 
blowpipe it first becomes black, and afterwards white ; it is 
fUsed with difficulty. 

2. ^mmonio-Magiusian Phosphate.— It does not dissolve in 
potash, but evolves ammonia ; soluble in cold acetic and dilate 
nitric acid, and re^precipitated by ammonia. It gives off ammonia 
at 2JL2P and melts into a wtiite pearl before the blowpipe. 

3. Fusible Calculus. — A portion is dissolved by acetic acid, and 
the remainder by hydrochloric acid. It readily fuses into a 
pearly lead before the blowpipe. 

4. Uric Jicid Calculus. — Readily soluble in potash, and is re- 
precipitated by acids. In strong nitric acid it di8s61ve8 wiUi 
effervescence, the solution leaving when evaporated to dryness a 
residue, which on heating with an excess of anunonia becomes 
of a purple-red color. Uric acid is nearly insoluble in hydro- 
chlor^ acid. Before the blowpipe it evolves an ammoniacal odor 
and blackens, leaving a minute portion of a white ash, which 
possesses an alkaline reaction. 

5. Urate of AmvMnia Calculus.— It is soluble in potash with 
evolution of ammonia; is readily soluble in alkaline carbonates, 
while uric acid is not. With nitric acid it behaves as uric acid 
does. It usually decrepitates before the blowpipe. 

6. Cystic Oxide CtUetUus.—li is soluble in alkalies and in the 
carbonates of the fixed alkalies, giving a solution which is de- 
lomposed by heat, ammonia being first evolved, and after some 
Jme a combustible gas, smelling like bisulphuret of carbon. It 
is soluble in phosphoric, hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric, and oxalic 
acids; and insoluble in water, alcohol, bicarbonate of ammonia, 
and tartaric, citric, and acetic acids. Before the blowpipe it 
exhales a peculiar fetid odor. 

7. Xanthie Oxide Calculus.— It is completely dissolved by pot- 
ash, and it ia re-precipitated by carbonic acid white, becoming on 
drying a pale-yellow agglutinated mass, which possesses a waxy 
appearance, it is soluble in nitric acid with effervescence. When 
that solution is evaporated to dryness, and the residue treated with 
ammonia, no red color is developed, as with uric acid. This 
calculus is very slightly soluble in hot water, and in hydrochloric 
and oxalic acids. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves it, 
forming a yellow solution. 

8. OxiUate of Lime Calculus. — Insoluble in potash : it is de- 
composed by digestion in carbonate of potash, with formation of 
carbonate of lime and oxalate of potash. Insoluble in acetic, but 
■olable in hydrochloric and nitric acids. When heated to dull 
fedness, it is converted into carbonate of lime, and then dissolve* 
in acid with effisrvescencei Before the blowpipe, pure lime 
remains, which, when moiitcned, produces an alkaline le-actioii 
00 test paper. 



f. ChrhoMaU§f£JmeCdlenlMS.—1tdiimoir9Bwf(b.dEetreKeam 
to dilate acids, aflfording a lolutioa which it predpitatad by oi»> 

10. CaleuU eantainiug Silica leave, after caldnadoo, befora 
the blowpipe, an in/to«ble aah (principally silica), which dla* 
■olTes in a melted lead of carbonate of soda with elferyeioaBc«k 
pndiidng a vitredos pearl, more or lev limpid. 

■ jta 



Under 1 year, will require only 


3 yean, *• 




3 *• ** 




A ** ** 




7 M M 




14 44 U 




80 »« «• 



Abo. 31 •• the ftUl doee 

t • 

. one, 

65 ** the inverse m 


nof theal 



Is pfea c r lbi ng a medicine, the fbl lowing circomstancea ahmild 
always lie kept in view:— Aoa, Skx, TKHPKRAMKirr, Habit 
Clxmatb, the Comditioii op the Stomach, and IniosTMCRAaT 


9c€ an adolt, enppoee the doae to be onv, or 1 drachai. 

5 graina. 

10 graina. 
15 graina. 

1 acruple. 

0| drachm. 

8 acroplea.. 

1 drachm, 

O^tea affect children more powerfall v than adolta ; bat childm 
bear larger doaee of calomel than adults. 

8». Women require smaller doaesthan men; they are more 
rapidly affected by purgatives than men ; and the condition of 
the uterine tyatem must never be overlooked. 

Tbmpkraickiit. Sdmnlants end purgatives more readily aflbet 
the sanguine than the phlegmatic, and consequently the former 
require smaller doses. 

Habits. The knowledge of habits is essential ; for peraons in the 
habitual use of stimulants and narcotics require larger doaea to 
affect them when laboring under diseoiM;, while those who have 
habituated themselves to the use of saline purgatives are more 
easily affected by these remedies. Persons, however, who have 
habituated themselves to the use of opium do not require larger 
doses than usual of other narcotics. 

CUK ATB. Medicines act differently on the same individual In 
summer and in winter, and in different climates. Narcotics act 
more powerfully in hot than in cold climates; thence smaller 
doaes are required in the former: but the reverse ia the caae 
with respect to calomel. ^ 

ConniTioN OP TBB Stomach and Idiostncrast. The least ae* 
tlve remedies operate very violently on some individuals, owing 
to a pecullaritv of stomach, or rather diqiosition of body, on- 
CQonected with temperamaat. Thia itaie can be diaooverod 




ott.7 by accident or t*me ; bat when it ii known, it dkoaM ah 
ways be nttended to by the pracUUoner. 
In imtcribinf, the practitioner should alwayi so regalate the 
intervals between the doses, that the next dose may be takes 
bdbre the effect produced by the first is altof ether efihced ; for, 
by not attending to this circumstance, the cure is always com- 
mencinf but never procendins. It should, however, also be 
kept in mind, that scMne medicines, such as the mercurial salti^ 
arsenic, Atc^ are apt to accumulate in the system ; and danger 
may thence arise if the doses too rapidly succeed one another. 
The action also of some remedies, elaterium and digitalis fbr 
example, continues long after the remedy is left off; and there- 
fore much caution is requisite in avoiding too powerful an eJbet. 
by a repetition of them even in diminished doses. Aloes and 
castor oil acquire greater activity by coatiaaed use, lo that th« 
doae reqoirea to be diminished. 



PEBscaimoMs. (tbb nosas arm poe advltb.) 


^ Palvecis conii gr. v^ 

■ glycyiihixB gr. vi. 

Sit palri^ ter qoolidie somoidas. 
In adrrhoos aiiecttotts, actofola, painfol old olcen, fcc 

QL Pttlreris belladonnv gr. in 

polassss nitratis gr. zxin 

sacchari gr. ix. 

sacchari gr. ix. 

Fiat pnlvis, hora somni qnolidie sunendns. 

Hi chronic rheumatism, extensive olceratioos, mania, and epOepSf • 

^ Palveris rad. belladonna gr. vj^ 

ipecacuanhffi gr. ^., 

- red. glycyrrh., 

saccli. aibi, a a, 3 ii., 

Salphuris preclplt. 3ij., 
Olei anisi, 

Oleisoccini, aa,T1liU. 
M. ft. pulv. V. ad XX. 

^ Polveris fol. belladonnc gr. J. to gr. i^., 

t/ampbone, ft 0, gr. v^ 
Sacchari aIbi 3 ss. 
Teie bene, et div. ia.«kact. viit 


^ Polveiis Valerianae 3 j., 

cinnamomi comp. gr. x. 

Fiat pulvis, ter quaterve quotidie Bomendui. 
In hysteria, hemicrania, chlorosis. 

9( Pulveris ipecacuanhae gr. i., 

aode carbonatii gr. xii., 

opii gr. i. 

Fiat pal vis, octava quaque hora sumendui. 
Spaimodic asthma, hoopiag-cough. 

"^ Zinci ozydi gr. iij., 
Sacchari albi gr. v. 

Sit pulvis, quarta qnaqae hora ■amendm. 
In gastric or spasmodic cough. 

9i Palveris cinchonae 3 ss., 

cinnamomi comp. gr. x. 

Sit palvis in cyatho lactis, tertia quaque hora sumenduiL 
In convalescence from fevers. 

"St Ferri potassio-tartratis gr. viii., 
Pulveris calumbae 31., 
Fiat pulvis, quarta quaque hora snmendua. 
After diarrhoea, in scrofulous tumors and dyspepsia 

^ Pulveris calombae, 

■ Bubcarbonatis ferri, 
— — — rhei, 

■ singiberis, a 0, 3 j. 

M. ft pnlv. No. xi., unus quaque quarta hora ramendiML 

^ Tartratis ferri 3ij., 
Pulveris calombae 3 j. 
Ft. pulv. No. iv., unus quarta quaque hianu 

Qe Qniom disulphatis gr. iij., 

Sacchari albi gr. v. 

Sit pulvis secunda quaque hon, absente paroxyimo, 10111 
In the intermissions in ague. 

Q( Prossintia ferri, 

Pulveris guaiaci, & a, 3 j. 

M. ft. pulv. No. xij., unus ter quotidie nunendui. 

Q( Pulveris catechu gr. xv., 

■ galls gr. ij. 

Sit pulvis, poet dejectiones singula! liquidaa sumendua. 
In diarrnoea, from a weakened state of the bowels. 

Q( Palveris kino compositi gr. xv. 

Pulvis ex cyatho aquie menthae viridit sexta quaque hon 
In chronic diarrhoea and intestinal hemorrhages. 

|k SttlphaUs aluminae et potassae 3 as., 
Pulveris opii gr. i^. 
Ft polv. No. vj., una quaque quarta hora. 


» Bnlphitli il 
FsLvtils kin 

» Salphuli cnpit pj]. Tel i., 
k Solplutta linel tr. i. y^fm. 


fhilpluida pMuH ir. til. 
Flu pulvli, tun »Di>l. 

ft Ci)oinl«a«fr.Ht^ 
BuxliHrU MDf- ir^ x. 

ta UMoiu feven, and illmy ud obflnuKd InwelK 


9k Pnlyerifl ipecacuanhee comp. gr. ▼., 

-■ tragacanthe comp. gr. z. 

Bit palvifl, quarta vel sezta qiiaque hora samendui. 
Jb the commeocement of febrile diseases, after emptying the 
mach and bowels. 

Qe Antimonii potassio tartratis 3J., 
Sacchari albi gr. xxz. 

Intime misceantor, et divide in doses equates decern, qoamm 
sumator una tenia quaque hora. 
In fever, after bleeding and the exhibition of a clyster. 

9k Pal verts nitratis potassn 3 J., 
Tartratis antimonii gr. j., 
Calomelanoe gr. vj. 
M. ft. pnlv. vj., one every two hoars. 
Ib febrile affections. 

Q( Pulveris opii gr. iij., 

ipiecacaanhe gr. yj., 

Calomelanoe gr. Jss., 
Nitratis potasssB 3 ss. 
M. ft pulv. yj. Unas, qaaqoe qaarta hora. 

Qe Palveris guaiaci, 

■ nitratis potassas, a a, 3 j., 

ipecacuanbs gr. iy., 

gammi opii gr. y. 

M. ft paly, vj., qunque tertia hora. 
A stimolating diaphoretic. 


Qe Palveris ipecacaanhe gr. v)., 

■ potasse nitratis 3iss., 
myrrhn gr. xii. 

Misce, et distribue in doses nquales qaataor, qaaram rama> 
tar una quartis horis. 
Ib isthma, and the earlier stage of phthisis pulmooalis. 

9i Nitratis potassa f j., 
Calomelanoe gr. vj., 
Pulveris opii gr. iij., 

■ ipecacuanhie gr. yj. 
H Div. in chart No. yJ., onus quaqoe tertU hora. 

9k OpII gr. I. 

Fiat pilula. hora somni sumaida 
To procure sleep in ordinary cases. 

Q( Pulveris digitalis gr. iv., 
Camphors gr. xii., 
Exiracti hvoscyami gr. zvilf. 
.Plant pilule sex. Bumantur y. hon ■omni qootidic 
liWaniwnil and spasmodic affections. 

• 1 





& Morphlc.acetatd gr. J » 
Pttlveris digitalis gr. vj^ 
Camphone roacB gr. x., 
Palveria acacls gr. viij.* 

51 mU!"DVln pil. ^.. quarumcaplat «>«ii t«tU. horil. 


ft Plambi acetatis gr. xzz., 
Pulveris colchici gr. xx., 
opii gr. iii.i 

b.cttv.rrr?,m Hof^umj-j^. 

tar in f | j. ofwater. They may alao be giTeain phthMS. 
one pill twice a day, after bleeding. 

I 1^ Extr. opii gr. J., 

; Nitratis potasss gr. vj., 

I Caniphore rais gr. v., 

I Byrupi papaverli q. ■• 


* ft Camphor© lubacttt 3J., 

\ Potasss nltratis 3 as., 

Ext. hyoscyaml, 

Ext. anthemidis, a », 3U'» 

KprNT^V' Oneeveryfoororlxhou* 


! 1^ Opii gr. 88.» 

t Castorei gr. vise., 

Pulveris digitalis gr. I., 

ISpnufis duB, bis vel ter die somend®. 
In spasmodic asthma, and dyspnoea. 
JJt Capri ammonio-sulphatis gr. ii., 

KtpJluf^Vatuor. Sumaturunabisqaotidle. 
In epilepsy, gradually increasing the doee. 
1^ Argenti nitratis gr. ij., 

^IS'Srils.^uale.qaatnor. Sumatur una eexta qua^pi. 

In choreaTwd other spasmodic affections. ^ ^^^^ 

• ♦ These Dills should be washed down with TH^IJ- of diniM 

WiS/inffji of water, in order to prevent the blue -— - 

of the skin which the nitrate is apt to cause. 

Jfi Gnm. ammoniaci 3 J.* 

Pulv. myrrhs, a a, vy^ 
AMafoBUdsB 3Hn 


CamphonB 9j., 

Tinct. opii gt. zii. 

M. Div. in pU. ix. Dao vel tree, qoaque tertte 

9» CamphonB, 
PotoBse nitratis, 

Polv. aigitallt parpor., a I, 3 m., 
Puiv. cinchon. flav. 3 m^ 
Exu gentian. 3 ij., 
Svrap. simpl. q. a. 
M. ft. pil. ixz. 


9( AnafiBtidc 3 ira., 
Pnlverifl singiberis 3 m. 
Syrapi q. a. 

Ut fiant pil Ola triglnta,quanim ■nmattrei tertia qnaqmhorb 
Ib palsy. 

|k Pnlveria capeici 3J.» 
Mice pania, 

Aqas diatillats, a ft, q. a. 
Ft. pil. X. Unua quaqne quaita honu 

. 9k Pnlveria gaaiaci 3 J., 
TerebinthinB Tenets q. a. 
Ft. pil. No. zv. Ter die aumendMi. 
In gleet and leucorrhcBa. 

9k Carbonatii ammonie, 
Macia, a a, ^U 
Olei caroi gt v., 
Ext. gentiana gr. xit., 
Syrapi aimplicia q. a. 
Ft. pil. zz. 
One every two honra, in gout of the atnmafih. 

Q( Strychnia gr. j., 
Acidi acetici nU-* 
Mica pania 3j. 

Fiant pilula eqaalea decern. Sumatur ana aexta qaaqpt 
In paralysla from poiaoning by carbonate of lead. 

9k Polveria rhei, 

' singiberia, a a, 3 la.. 

Extract! anthemidia 3 i. 

Fiat maaaa, in pilulas aqualea tricinta di^ldenda, qaarm 
capiat tree ante prondium qoutiaie. 
tn dyapepeia and chlonxda. 

9k Ferri seaqaioxydi, 
Extract! conil, B a, 3 1. 
INaCribiie in pilolaa aqualea vighitf-^aatMr. 
■Ibw aad acroMa. 


& AcMi tnenkMl gr. U^ 

OpU In pulverem triti gr. Tty^ 

Bapmito 3j. . ,.^. . 

Fiat maiM, in pilolai zxir. cqoalet dividenaa, q:aanui 

nunat unam ler qooUdie. . j. 

ta bitennittents, periodical headache,neiiralgia,and lepra Tmlgaw 

i^ Extract! cinchons, 

gentianc, ft 1, 3 i^ 

Balphatis ferri 3 Mn 

Pulveris DiyrrhB 3J^ 

Olei carui gt. z^ 

Byrupi ringibcris q. ■. 

M. ft pU. Mo. Ix. Tret, ter die ram. 

T^ Sulphatif qainins gr. z., 
CkHuwrvn rosanun q. ■. 
M. ft. pil. No. X. Until qoaqne hort. 
In the apyrezia of intermittentfl. 


1^ Extract! cinchone 3 ^^ 
Aluminis 3 J., 

l/t'fiani%ll*uliB triginta-iez. Samantur qutttnor quarta vil 
oexta quaque hora. 
In paflrive hsniorrhages. 

^ PulvfiTis kino gr. xx., 

. opU, 

Mucilaginis acacia q. 1. 
M. ft. pil. iv. Unus quaqae qaarta nora. 
In diarrliOBa, Sec. 

1^ Super- acetatif plumbi gr. zii.t 
Pulveria opii vj., 
Conservffi rosanun q. s. 
M. ft. pil. No. vJ. 
In liemoptyBis, and other haeniorrnagei. 

19^ Sniphatis aluminie et potaaee, 
Bztracti cinchone, 
Nucia myristicffi, ft ft, 3m.» 
Syrup, timpl. q. ■• 
Ft. pU. XX. 


Ijt Scammonii pulv. gr. iv., 
3 Extracti taraxaci gr. xiv. vt- -„«ti;it. 

1 Fiant pllulie sex, qaarum sumat tres bis quotidle. 

i| In hypochondriasis and chronic hepatitis. 

"J ^ Hydrargyri chloridi gr. iij., 

! Pul veris jolaps gr. ix., 

J Mucilaginis acacie q. s. 

S Fianl pilule trea hom somni suinende. 

1 To empty the bowels in bilious affections. 


9( Calomel anos gr. vj^ 
Elaterii gr. J., 
Mies pan is q. s. 

Fiant pilule sex. Bamatnr ana 8»ta quaqne honu 
In ascites aud simple hypertrophy of the heart. 

Qs Ipecacaanhn gr. z., 
Conii eztracti Sj., 
Aloes extracti 3 ss., 
Maciiaginis acaciie q. s. 

Ut fiat massa in pilulas decern divideiida. Somatiir wn% 
hora somni qaotidie. 
Ii habitual costivenen. 

Q( Palveris Jalaps, 


Saponis albi, a &, 3 m.,' 
Calomelanos gr. zxv., 
Tartratis autimonii et potasss gr. Jsi., 
Aqua dist. q. s. 

If. ft. pit. No. zzT. Two to be taken at <mk«| and rtfeated 
pro re nato. 

Qe Masss ex hydrargyro, * 

Puiveris Jalaps, 

aloes, & fl, gr. xv., 

Svmp. simpl. q. a. 
M. ft pil. xJij. 

Qe Aconiti extracti gr. J., 
Anthemidis extracti gr. z^ 

Fiant piluls quatuor squales. Somator una aezta qiuaqiM 
In enlargement of the Joints in chronic rhc 


9t Ferri sulphatis 3 J., 
Potasss carbonatis gr. y)., 
Myrrhs 3 J., 

Palveris aloes compositi 3si. 

Contunde simal, et dividatur ma«a fai jtflalai aqoalM 
triginta. Sumat tree bis quotldie. 
In amoiorrhoBa with a languid pulse. 

^ Fttals hydratgjrri 3 1. 

Divide in pilalas squales qaindecim. Bomatir >na mam 
et nocte, oaotidie. 
fgi soppreaslon of ue menitraal discharge. 

P Sulphatis ferri 9J., 
Puiveris senns, 


■ super-tartratls potasss, a a, Sss. 

^ zingiberls gr. zii., 

Arrap. simpl. q. s. 

^ nil. No. zzv. Hooper's glls. (Take three twief a day, 
mlowed bv twenty drops tlnct mor. fan^ In a diani 
of bitter In/uiioa hi amenorrhoa.) 

FlUt pllulfc Mt»»» <iu»1"a MM Bunn™ 
n Anilnuinll poMido-URnlli gr. U., 
CmpUore (T. invl., 
Bplrtiui iMllilMil. ipln. iilT 

Flint Irilule »!""'" 'J'™'"''"' '"'"™"^ 
In fsTtn. 

M.ft. pM^N'n'ill. 'T'wo,lliteeUinM»a« 


M. ft. pil. ix. (Plummer's Pilli.) 
b Mcondary syphUis, old ulcers, gleetts dee. 

1^ Pnlverit scilliB gr. xxz., 
Ammoniaci Siss., 
Extract, conil gr. xxx. 

CoDtonde Bimul, et divide maasain lo pilnlaa leqaalet triflii* 
ta, quariuQ samat duaa sexta qaaque hora. 
Ib asthma and chroaic catarrh. 

Q( PUnlee hydrargyri 3 i., 

Divide in pilulos equalea duodecim. Samatur una maaa 
nocteque quotidie. 
In syphilis, leprous eruptions, and chronic hepatitis. 

^ Hydrargyri chloridi 31., 
Opii gr. v., 

Confectionis rosae q. s. 

Fiant piluln viginti. Bumatur una mane et nocte qnotidle. 
In ^philitic cases. 

j^ Sodn carl>onatis exsiccats 3 iss., 
Pulveris cinnamomi comp. 3 ss., 
Saponis 388., 
Balsam i peril viani q. s. 

Fiant pil uln aequales triginta. Somantor tree ter qnotidtei . 
In calculous affections. 


Q( Ferri s^uichloridi 3 i.. 
Extract! aloes, 
■ gentians, ft &, 3 ss. 

Contunduntur simul, et dividatur moles in pilolas triginta» 
quarum sumantur dus ter quotidie. 
b dyspepsia, hysteria, scrofula, and mesenteric obstnictloii& 

Ijt Quine sulphatis 3 ss.— 3 i., 
Potaastesulphaiis 3JSB., 
Gum. galboni 3iv., 
Ext. gentianee 3 i., 

Mas£e pilule aloes' cum myrrha 3iiJ., 
Thebiacc purlf*. q. s. 
M. ft pU. czx. Uose, Q. or i^., two or three tlmea a day. 

1^ Quins sulphatis 3U 
Aloes extr. purif. 3 ss., 
Ext. gentians 3 J. 
M. ft. pil. xxiv. 

1^ Cupri sulphatis gr. x., 
Pulv. rhei 3 J., 
Extr. anthemidis 3 IJ., 
Byrup. simplic. q. s. 
M. ft.pil.xl. Dose,l.toiU. 
Ill laoGorrhflta, gleet, and chorea. 


1^ Bjrdrtrgyri biniodidi fr. Iv., 
Berpentarie in pulv. 3 i^ 
Sirrapi aurantii q. s. 

liiKe, et divide in pUnlaa vigfntl-qaatiior, oiitraai 
doc ter qnotidie. 
In herpetic and other obstinate catane<MH aflbctioos. 
B( BydrargyTl lodidi gr. UJ^ 
Mice panla gr. iij. 

Fiaat piiula lez equalof. Bamtiir L ter oootMte. 
In Mcoodary qri^lia. 

9i Antimtmii oxyaulphartti 3J^ 
Florum aulpharii 3 y., 
Camphorc rane 3J., 

Extract, tarazici (vel eztrtct mnm)t 3 IHm. 
M. ft pU. zcv. Doaa vel treo, ter qaoddie. 

9( AntimoDU potaMlo-tartratlfl gr. Iv^ 
Pilul« hydrargyri 31., 
SapoBia caatU., 
Gam. ammoniaci, 
il Extract, aloes, B n, 3m. 

M. ft. pU. UxT. Does ter die. 

I > 9k Kermii mineral, gr. J.» 

1 Hydrargyri chloridl gr. ij., 

Ext. fumaris gr. x. 

Ft. pU. iU. per doit. 

9e Saponii hi^. 3 i^. 
Gum. ammoniaci 3 i» 
)' Aloee 3J., 

Orocit a &, 3 M. 
Bymp. q. a. 

c. Dote 11. to It. two orlfaree timet a tftf . 



Qs Misturs camphors f Siss., 
Tincture opii fllzzxv., 
iEtherit snlphurici f ^ 1., 
Syrupi croci fZaa. 

Fiat naustus in prompta hibendofl^ et uigeote fcbiii 
ysmo sumendae. 
In intermittent headache. 

Jk Ammonie carbonatis gr. xt.» 
Sacci limonis recentis f 3 iv., 
Aque distillate f 3 J.« 
Bpiritos myristice f 5 i.^ 
Byrupl aurantii f 3 ss.^ 


Fiat hanstai ter die sumendus, oddendo de die In ditti 
tincturae conii Til v. ; donee dosis ad flllzxx. penraaeiit In 
singulis liQUstibus. 
In diaeaaea of increased irritability. 

Qe Mlsture mosclii f 3 xiv., 
Liquoris ammonie min. xvi^ 
Tincturee castnrei f 3 i., 
Byrupi papaveris f 3 sst 
Fiat naustus, quarta quaque hora sumendna. 
In hysteria and convulsive affectioos, after the bowela have been 
effectually cleared. 

Ijt Olei anisi lllx., 
Magnesin 3J., 
Tinotorc senne f 3 11., 
Aqua mentluB piperita f 3 s. 
Fiat hnustus, urgente flatu sumendus. 
In ■pasm of the stomach arising from flatulence. 

Qk Infos! cinchona cordifollc f | las., 
Tincturs cinchonc composite f 3 j., 
Pulveris cinchona cordifolia ^^ 
Byrupi aurantii f 3 ss. 

Fiat haustus, secunda qnaqne hora aumendoa. 
In intermittents and acute rhenmstlsm, after purging. 

Qe Infos! cascarilla f S iss., 
Uuina disolphatis gr. ij., 
Tlnctora cascarilla, 

zingiberis, B ft, f 3 1., 

Acidl solphorici diloU laviij.. 
Fiat haostos bis quntidie sumendoB. 
In dyspepsia ari^g from intemperance. 

1^ Ferri iodidi gr. iij.. 
Fint haustos ter quotidie sumendus. 
la chlorosis, scrofula, atooic amcnorrhmn. 

*^* It is almost impossible to preserve the Iodide of iron in the 
solid form ; it should therefore be kept in a solution with a colS 
of soft wire In tiie bottle, and of a strength of gr. iU* to the f 3 J ; 
or it should be kept in the form of syrup of Hm same strength 

{b Extract! hsematoxyli gr. xii., 
Aqua cinnamnmi f 3 xv., 
Tinctura catechu f 3 i. 

Fiat haustus, quarta quaque hora vel post d^eetionea afn 
gulas liquidns sumendus. 
In dlarrhOBaa and protracted dyaenlHX. 

9( Pulveris ipecacuanha 9!., 
Vini ipecacuanha f 3 11., 
Aqua communis f 3 vi. 

Fiat haustus emeUeoa, qaanprraram Td Tcapara i 
for nnloodtof the stomach in oidinaijri 




Hk InfusiroMBfSvii., 
Tinctune catochu f 3 vi., 
Acidi salphurici diluti f 3 i. 
Sit gaigarisma Mepe utendan. 
Jn rdazaUoufl of the uvula. 

9k Captici tincture f 3 iM^ 
Hydroclilorici acidi diluti f 3 n^ 
Sjrrapi croci f 3 ij. 
Fiat gargaritma subinde utendum. 
In cyoancEe maiigna. 


1^ Ammonis hydrochloratia 3 in 
Aqae fbntann f | v.« 
Spirituirectiflcatif ji. 
Mifce, ut flat lotio tumori applicanda. 
Ib awelled testicle, and other inflammatory tomora. 

Dk Opii 3iiM 


Tere ut fiat lotio, parti dolenti applicanda. 
To painAil affections of the joints, and in colic. 


|k Linimenti ammonia f 3 vi., 
Otiva) olei f 3 ii. 

Fiat enibrocatio, cum panno laneo faoclbna eztemls appU- 
In ^nnche tonsillaris. 

Q( Linimenti camphors compositi f 3 ix^ 

Tincture cantharidis f 3 i., 


.ParU dolenti applicnndum. 
To be rubbed over the bowels in colic, crampi and In painfol 
iffections of the Joints. 


9( Pulveris gummi acacic %m^ 
Atuminia gr. v. 

Misce diligenter ut flat pulvis, cqjui Inspergitar paoadUai 
supor mamillas pro re nata. 
Ih lore nipples, to be applied aAer suckling. 

1^ Acetatis plumbi 31., 
Pulveris cinchona 3vii« 

Tere. ut fiat pulvis, ci^ panzillnm super olcera 
mnne spe^atur. 
Woi KroiUIous ulcers. 


9 Hrdranrri iUtrie<H»zydi S^ 
Adipis II. 

Ten dilif enter In mortario dooee bene mtoeeBtor. 
u QlceraikMM of the ^elidi. 

Q( Zind ozTdi 3]^ 
Adipis Si. 

Tere opiime ia mortario^ mt tat «t»ptfmtmr» 
In porrigo ecatulata. 

Q( CreaiotI fSJ^ 

Unguenti cetacel %}, 
Tere ut fiat rnigiywtgBi. 
In porrigo ■cotalata. 

Dk lodinii 3 J., 
Adipit l], 

Tere optime at flat mifQentam eaiaa painiUam tnmod 
maneqae nocte applicandmn. 
Ia glandular awelUnga and incipient bronchocele. 

S> Antlmonif potaisio-tartratia 3J^ 
Baechari alU pulveria 3 J., 

Adipia ; J. 

Tere at flat angoentam. ICagnltado glandte, parti dolenll 

mnni mane et nocte, ope flicatkmia donee lucera idfit» 

rint. applicanda. 
Aa a coonterlrritant in the inflanmatioB of Internal oigana 



9( Svdenhani'8 laadanom, 
Tincture of saflron, a a, 3 J. 
DecocUon of flaxseed % y. 
^ Paris 


S( Sulph. zinci 3 1 part, 
Ague roear. 3 350 partly 
Alcohol 3 8 parts. 
M. Paris 

H Sulph. zinel gr. zy., 
Aqua xosar.; Sir. 
1^^ Pmris AqHtab. 

H Aqusrosar., 

Aquc distill., a a, m., 
fiNuph. ahuB. et potaass d|. 

_^ si. 

n chranlt inflammatian. 

fitrii Biyftarfc 


{k Infusion of elder flowen 8>J., 

Subacetate of lead 3 J. Parit HospitaXa, 


Jik Sacchari albi 3 y., 

Oxydi hydraigyri rabri gr. x., 

Oiydi zinci impuri prsparati 3J 

Fiat pulvis. M. Dnpuftren. 


Q( Pulveria opil gr. iv., 

Calomelanoe, i 

Baccharl parificati, & &, 3 J. 
Tere bene. 
These dry coilyria are to be blown into the «yea, for tfie removal 
of ipccks on the cornea, Jtc, 4tc. 


Qi Bulphatis zinci, 

Superacetatie plnrobii aa, gr.yj^ 
Aq<is rosarum I iv. 
M. To be filtered. 


Q( Liquoris plumbl aeetatia gtt zQ., 
Vlni opii gtt xU 
Aqoc rosar. $iv. 
Ft. collyriam. 


^ Aceti diatillati SJ., 
Spiritufl Tint diluii fsi., 
Aqa« foaarom I Tijj* 
Ft. midtura. 
After depletion, and to weak eyee. 


9i Liquoris ammonis acetatis J y., 
Misturc camphore I yj. 
M. A mild astringent. 


9( Liquoris ammonis acetatii 3 ij.. 
Aquae ferventia I vj., 
Extract, opii mollis gr. x. 

Disaolve the opium in the hot water, rtrain, and add th« 
liquor of acetate of ammonia. 
la acute and painful ophthalmia, after depleticm. 


T9t Extract! opii mollis gr. x., 
CamphorsB gr. vi., 
Aqa« ferrentis % xy. 

Rub the camphor and opium well together hi a OKHtari aM 
add the watej. Strain or filter. 
^ pAfaiftil ophthalmia. 


^ 8ulphatls cupri gr. r^ 
Caanphons iU 
Aqoa fcrreaita Jviy. 
9«k tbt caB|hor with dM wal«, fhfi fCndD, ni ail Ihi 



9» HydnugyrI muriatii gr. ^ 
AqiuB ilMiUata StH). 
FlMt wluUo. 
Ill gooorrhcDml and ■erofulooa ophUialmUu 


^ Svcchtri aibi, * 

Ozydi tiacU & Oi putet aqutlei. 
Ter« In pulverem. M 


Ijt Fomenti paptverU capmilanim $!▼. 
Aqac rosar^ 

Mitiine CMBphom, 1 1, SQ. 
III acute oidithalmia. 


ISi Nitratit argentl gr. ^^ 
AqucdfMUlatc SU* 
Fittt solatio. 
At the dote of acute o p h t h a lm ifc 


1^ Rttdicis althca officinalis l\^ 

Inl'use for three hours near the fire, and strafai. 
In inflammation accompanied with much irritation. 


T^ Colchici autunmalis 3 J. 
Aqua; lini bullientis Jiv^ 
Tincture opii 3 J. 
Fiat mistura. 
In severe ophthalmia, where there is great sensibility; 


(from 8TBWART*S billaro.) 


1^ Aque distillate ^ j., 
Mucil. gutn. Bcac. § ss. 
Syrupi Minplicis $S8. 
Tincture opii, guttam. 

Pose— A teaspoonful, repeated every half hour, till rest be pro- 
cured ; but after the first month, double that quantity will bt 
required. After the third month, half a drop of laudanam 
may be given for a dose, one drop at six months, and two after 
the first year. Evaiuon and Jliuutuelt* 

Q( Crete §S8., 

Antim. oxysulph. gr. iv. 
Ext. hyoecyami gr. ziy., 
Sacchur. alb. S^. 
Equal S viU- every two hours in infantile asthma. I7rta» 


9( Ext hyowyan. gr.z^ 
Sight dropa four tiiMf a day to an InfkBt a year old, te UbopiBf 
cough. JiuftUmi, 

tk Aq. fanienll 3 ir. 
Vini antimonU 3 J. 
Ext. hyoMynm. gr. UJ^ 
Syrup, althsas SJti. 
A t aai p oa n ftii every two houra to an Infloit ftom riz to twdv* 
monthi, as a cough uiixture. Vogi, 

Tit Ext belladoniui gr. J. 
Aq. distill. S J. 
To infanii, flva drops four timoi a day, In hooftfag^eoagh. 

tk PulT. rad. belladon. gr. ir 

— doTcrl gr. x., 

Lac. Bulphurifl 3 It., 

Bacchar. alb. 3 y. 

M. DiTid. in chart xx. 
In hooplna-cough, ooa of these powden every threo boon for a 
child of two yean ; one-fourth for a child of eight or nlao 
months. Between each dose a teaspoonful of the following 
mixture to a child two yean old ; to be diminidifid fltfifrding 
to the age of the child : 
9t Aq. chamomil. §J^ 

Syrup, simp. 31)., 

Acid. Prussic vauqul. gt xSJ. JKoUsiff. 

ft Magnesi« alb. ust 9J 

Tinct fedd. gt Ix., 

o|rii gt XX., 

Aqu«font3J. ^ 

If. Twenty drops to a child fVom two weeks to one m<mth, hi 
colic ; if not relieved in half an hour, two drops more ;--4n- 
ereasing the dose as the child advances in age. Dem«$§. 

ft Ext ccmii maeulat 3 J., 
Tinct camp, oplat I ss.. 
Syrup, tola. |8b, 
Aqun roear. \ Iv. 
If Dose-Half a teaspoonftil to a chUd one year oMjUipettasrii. 

ft H agn. carb. 3 ss., 
Tinct. rhd 3 J., 
Aq. menth. S ^., 

If Sf «t;?iif- ^^- 

M Bit mistura. 

0. A leaspoonfhl every hour foraninihntofsiziiiODths^trouMai 
with acidity of the stomach. Ftgt, 

ft Hagn. carb. 9^. ; 

Pttlv. rhel 3U 
Aq. Asniculi Jiss. 
Syrup, rhel Jss. 
IL Bitaaistnra. 


9i Magneila gr. tUJ^ 
Bern, maiai cont, 
Bern. foBoic. coaL, a &, gr. ^^ 
Croc! gr. J., 
Sflrcchar. alb. gr. vij. 
Contimde bene simol at sit pnlvis. 
Id tormina of infants, one half to be taken at once, and the v 
mainder in half an hour. (Jitplamd^ 

Q( Sods lesquicarb. gr. iie., 
Pulv. rhei gr. iij. 
Paly, valerian, gr. J. 
0. A powder thrice a day for infants subject to flatalent colie 

Q( Magn. carb. 3J., 
Pulv. rhei Sss., 
tSaponis 3j. 
Ft. pal vis. 
8. Ten grains thrice a day for ccmstipation with acidity. 
I Bereuda 

^ Ht Aqac foenicoli 3 vQ., 
Potassffi bicarb. 9U^ 
Syrupl Sj. 
H. A dessert-spoonful occarionally. 
Q( Potasss bicarb. 3 ss., 
Aq. distill. Siss. 
8. Ten to forty drops daily. In infantile cdnvuldons. 

Q( Potasse bicarb. 3 U** 

Sacc. limon. q. s. ad saturationem, 
Infus. rhei "s iss., 
Manne Jss. 
One or two teaspoonfhls to infants in gastric disorders. 

|1( Byd. c. creta I |j., 

Bodae carb. exsiccat. 3 iv. 
H. From six to twelve grains for an infant Ctp l m i . 

ISt Oretn gr. i\J., 
Mosch. gr. ss., 
Croci gr. i. 

Ft. palv. dent. tal. dos. No. iv. 
8. One every hoar for on infant. FnmkiL 

Qi Moschi 3Jm 

Pulveris acaciae 3iJ.i 
Tere cum aq. cinnam. IJ., 
Syrup, althaee I ly. 
M. Sit mistura. 
8. A spoonful every hour. 

Q( Moschi gr. vj., 

Ammon. sesquicarb. gr. iv., 
Saccharialbi Si^.i 

Misce terendo et adde, j 

Aq. flor. sambuci I Uss. i 

M. Sit mistura. 
8. A teaspoonAil every hoar In InAnttla Hisl IFmA. 


1^ AmfoeUdv gr. tJ.—tU)., 
Infos, anthemid $ J., 
Acacia) q. s. 
M. f. enema. 
T^ Lactia tepefact f J., 
Aq. menth. pip. 3 ai., 
ii Tinct. aasafoBtid. 3 J. 

f» K. Ii^iciendaproenemata. b ccmvalaions. 

Sk PalT. ipecacuanhe, 
Calomelaaoa, ft ft, gr. z., 
I Sacchar. albl gr. xz. 

6. One or two grains every second or third hour, as an expeeto* 
rant in bronchial irritation. Evansan and JitatmsM. 

Ht Decoct, polyg. seneg. I ilJsB., 
Ozymel. sciiTe 3 y., 
Vini ipecac. 3 ij., 
I Antini. tart gr.J. 

8. Ten minims to a scrapie, as an expectorant 

Evanson and MaumM, 

ISt Mist, acacie | in., 

< Aqon pure I iijsa., 

Syrupi {ss. M. 

8. A teaspoonful every two or three hoars, fat an infant fiom 

four to six months old. 

JBk Aad. seneg. 3 ss., 

Infos, in s. q. aq. fervid, per | hor. colator I iv. 

Ammonie hydrochl. 3 as., 
^ Syrup. althMD 3 J* 

A teaspoonfU every two hoars to an Infhnt VFtndL 

ISt Polygale senega^ 
Scilia, a a, 3 J., 
Aqu« ftj., 
Mellis. despum. Ibss. 
F. Syropus, qocqoe oncls ci^ addatar 

Antimonii tart granom. Cbxe*« Hive Syrapt. 

^ Potass, tart 3 j., 

Vin. antim. 3 ss., 

Aqoe anethi J J., 

Oxymel. scille fss., 

Ftglycyrrh.3J. M. 
One or two tenspoonfuls fbr an Infknt of twelve or eighteen 
months, in catarrhal fever. FranM* 

]^ Polv. ipecac gr. i^., 

Polv. acacie, 

Magnes. carb., ft a, 3 as., 

Sacchari albi 3 J. M. 

Ft polvis divid. in xij. eqooles part 
A powder every two hoars in hooping-cough. FW/sr. 

9i Polv. acacie 3 ss., 

Sacchari porif. 3J., 

Amyli gr. X. M. 
One to be taken frequenti ZSrIf . 



i T^ TInet opH J^ 

VIn. Ipecae. gt Hr^ 
Oartt. tod. gr. U* 
To be flv0a in • litUe Mreetentd wum. For ft ehUd biilmi 
Me ead two yean. Pmarmm, 

|k Tlnctore opif cam|di. 5 j** 
Via. antlmilai., 
Bttc. gljrcyrm. 3 tU. 
Polv. c aeache 3 \^ 
AqiUB fervent. \ fj. 
A t ea epoonfal every two or three hoara doling the ft^U, to a 
child six montha old, In troobleioaie eoogh. 

Ik EnwU rio nmf^ S Jr., 
fSfv^ ■impl. sJ.t 
Gam. tragacanth. gr.Ti.lf. 
To be given by the teaipoooftd. H. im 

9( Bordel 3yJ.t 

Gam. acad* 3Jn 

Aqua l>U* 
BoQ and etrain theoi. Add 

Baechar. alb. q. §. 
Thie iff the gammed barley-water m en t io n ed in thia work 

1ft Hydr. e. creta 3 j , 
Polv. ipecac, comp. 3Un 
Magn. carb. 3 m., 
Tere bene simQl. 
Foot to six gralna, at a eedathre for InAnti. Optmi 

1^ Polv. acacis 3 J., 
Solve in 

Aq. fenlcoli SJ. Adda 
Creta 3 m., 
Byrop. althMB 3 J. 
A teaspoonf 111 every two hoor^ in laftntila dianfaoM. 

9i Crota ppt I M^ 

Bapooii amymn 

Ptttv. rhei, 81,3]^ 

Hydr. c. creta 3Jn 

of. fiBnlcoli niviU., 

Baechar. aibi 3 y. 

Tere benenimul. 
From six grains to half a drachm twice or thrice a day, in i»> 
Antile diarrhoea. Coptamd. 

& Hyd. c. creta 3OTm 

Pulv. creta co. 3j., 

Pulv. tragacanth. co. 3 iS. 

Divld. in partes x. eqoales. Bomat qnarta qoaqae hon. 
In diarrhoea, for an infant of four or six months. 

9i Crota ppt. 3 ly., 

TInct thebaic, gt xx., vel. xxx., 
Baechar. nib. 3 u.f 
Aq. Ibnt. $ y. m. 
A t w puouf al eveiy two, threes or Ibar hona. 


»^'"^"' «f "CATIONS. 

Aq. lerv. 5 j., 

Tinct. caniharid. 5J 
An embrocation, in hooping-cough. 
Jjt Ol.oliv.Jij., 

Ol. succiD., 

OI.caryoph.,aa, fgs. 
An embrocation, in hooping-cough 

Q( Liniment, saponis iss., 
Ol. Buccin. fas. 
In hooping-cough. 

*** Thewj embrocations should be applied bu^ to th« ..i..^ 
and along the course of the spine. ■"•"*" ***"" «> the chert 

Tit Sulph. cupri i ij., 
Pulv. cinchon.;8S., 
Aqua; 5 iv. 
To be applied twice a day to gangrene of the cheek. 

^ Dr, Cbotet. 

lb Sulph. BubIim.liT., 
Cerat. simpl. ftj. 
Uied in tinea. ^ ^ jg,^ 

'9t Potaase sulphur. §9., 

TWs bath differs ttom the artificial Barege water, in contataiinc 
ha^f the quantity of sulnhuret of potaafc w^wmjpf 

U«d In psora. *~" M^^uEitf^ns. 

9t Sulph. Bublim., 

AceUtis plumbi, & 1, 3 J.. 
Zinci sulph. 3 sa. 
Uaedhipsora. H,dsUMumL 

4» Symp. papav. 3 y. 
Decoct, amyli 5viU. 
In diarrfama of infants. ff^Oela Matem. 

Vt Cap. papav. No. J., 

Decoc. lini Ibjij. S.delaMatem, 

Vt Cap. papav. 3 y., 

9i Amyll Sj., 

tk Flor. anthemidls 3 y., 
Ft enema. For infantile colic 

lb PulT. rad. jalap, gr. xxiv., 

Calomelanos gr. iv., 

8accharialb.3lJ. M. 

Ft. pulvis divld. In ly. partes mpulei. 
€?SrS?ir'^ » <tay ibr 1 rix momhi* tofiut, ia otaraeliai 

300 PREscmpnoNs. [App. m 

Ik OalondaiMM gr. H)., 

PalT. rhel, 

Olco-Mceh. foBnlc^ & a, 9J. 

Ft pulvii.' 
Oaa-thlra of the abore quantity it adow for anlfiftat, •■ ■ liia» 
tlve. FVm*T_ 

^ Ol.rieini 3iU.--iVn 
PuIt. ac«ci« q. ■., 
Aq. foBiiic. 3 y^ 
Mannc S«. 
Fiat emniiio. 
A dewertrtpoonAiI, repeated erery hoar till it operttea. 

1^ Ol.rieini fai., 
Syrup, rone Isa^ 
Vitel. ovi an., 
Tinet lenna 3 iM. 
One or two teaspoonfnls for an infont 

Qi Mannn fas., 
Emulsioarab. fM., 
Syrup, viole 3 ij.. 
Bene adniiiice, et addr 
Aqaenientli.|J. M. 
8. From 3 J. to 3 y. every third hour, until an tttbtt is prodneed. 

BvanMon and JIUaauM 

Qi Infosi senns tU 
Aquementhe Im^ 
Magnesie 3J. 
Manne 3ii., 
Tinet. rhei 3 J., 
Syrup, rows 3IJ. H. 
0. From 3 J. to 3 ij. every third hour. 

Evanson and JUtauM. 

"Bt Snlph. Bub. gr. x.— xx«r 
Mist, acacie 3 ij., 
Sacchari alb. 5 «., 
Aquaroas 3 J. 
A teaspoonfal hourly, ahaUng the phlal well each time ; for n 
infant in the first year. ^i>PP ■ 

Qi Fol. aenns faa., 
Aqus ferv. ftj., 
Sode aulph. I aa. 
To be uaed aa an enema B. 4u Entf^nt. 

Sb Mag. calcin. 3 aa., 
Pulv. rhei gr. iji., 
Sacchar. albi 3 J^ 
Ol. menth. gt tJ., 
Aqu» liaa. 
A deaaert-apoonfol every two honn. B, fdmm 

Vt Manne fiij. 

Ol. amjrgd., 

Syrup, gum., ft &, S J« 
Wmn one to foar drachma to be given to yomif infoiiti^ m « 
lumtfvi. SUi^MUm. 



^ Daeocti hordei J t^ 
Mnrifttis lode 3 iij., 
Ol; •Uvarum 3 v. M. 
To be used m ma enema. 

Ik Villi antim.; 88. 
Syrup, tlthee %}. 
A teMpnonAil every quarter of an hour, to a child three or four 
moBthe old. WtHdL 

Q( Pulv. ipecac, gr. lij., 
Syrup, irimpl.l J. 
A teaspooof ol every quarter oS an hour, to an inflmt five or riz 
mmitha old. 

1^ Vin. antim-^ae. 
Oxymel. acille 3^. 
A teaapoonful for an infant at the Ineaat. FmUUL 

1^ Aqu« Ij., 
Vinl Ipecac. I as., 
One or two drachma frequently, till vomiting ensue 

Evanson and Mauntttk 

T^ Pulv. chel. cancror. 3 as., 
Antim. tart. gr. y. M. 
Kb hooping-cough, one half to two gndaa, according to the age of 
the child. FttUrgilL 

9( Ferri tart 3J., 
Syrup. Bimpl. q. 8. 
M. Ft. bol., No. iU. 
Aa a tonic for debilitated infanta. S, det Ei^mu. 

Q( CinchoneSaa., 
Aqua» IbJ. H. 
To be uaed aa an enema whoi the stomach rc^ts cinchona. 

JET. det Eitfkiu, 

Qi Aqu« distillat lias., 
duins dlsulph. gr. ij.. 
Add. sttlph. aromat. gtts. xy)., 
Syrupi caryoph. S »• M. 
Fr<»n one to two drachms thrice a day. 

Emm$w»amd Mmm$$U, 

Q( Sal. martis gr. Ij^ 
Acid. Bulph. gt X., 
Sacchari albi 3 J., 
Aquae font M. 
Dose, 3 J. in chronic stage of cholera infantum. 

1^ Lactis vacc Osa., 
Viu. alb. S J. vel |ij. 
Boll the milk, then add the wine. 

J^ Unguent cetacei 3 J.« 


PnlT. IjrcopodU, 11, 9 m. 
UmAU Iu oicentioa of the eyelidf. HvftitmiL 

ft CrorlMtiv.3Jn 
Aquc fervent. S iv., 
yin.opil 3 J. 
Anodyne collyrium. To be need when tliera to giMt pnin. 

9( Infos, ■ambaci ftj., 
Ziaci MiJ|ili. 3J. 
^itrinfent collyrium. lliicli ttied tai ■croftUoui ophthalmlai 
wUch to UMially eccompanied with padfonn eyndeiinn, 


ft Bydr. dento-ehlorid. gr. It 
Aq. pom ^TiiJ. 
Used in fyphilitic ophthalmin. D^Hm. 

ft Rad.n]thc« 3iJ., 
Aqoc Ibi. 
BmolUent coUyriniii. Uied in inflamed conjunctive. D^Mt», 

ft Cerat. simiri. I U., 

Autim. tan. 3 y., 

Cainphone 3j. 
To be used by fiictioDi to excite the akin ; it to a powerftil irritait 
in hooping-cough D^Mne. 

ft Florea anthemfdia, 
Acet commun., fti, S iv. 
A xomnaon revniiive. IT. im E^ftmt, 

ft Cataplaam. emoi. I>U., 
Uog. resinos. J J. M. 
Uaefiil to hasten the suppuration of ■ plUegmonoos tumor 

ft Pnlv. lini. q. s., 

Decoc. rad. altli. q. a. H. 
An emollient cataplasm. 

ft Cataplasm, emol. | Iv., 
Farine sinap. 3 iv. If. 
Used as a revulsive. S det EnfoM 

ft 8p. amroon. arom. 3 ss., 
Syrup, altluee, 
Aque foBniculi 3 J. M. 
A teaspoonfhl for an infant every hour tHmhO, 

ft Calomelanoa gr. i^., 
Amyll 3s9m 
Sacch. albi 3 Iss. M. 
Ft. pulvis divld. in zii. partes cqnalef. 
One thrice a day in infantile syphilis. 



White biscuit |iT., water Oiv.; boil down one half, Btrain, 
eraporate to 0^^ add white aavu Ibj., red wine I iv., cinnamon 
water 3 J. In debility of the digestive organs. 

Hartshorn shavings § j., water Oiv., boil to OiJ., strain ; warn 
again with orange Juice | j., white sugar I vj., sherry I v. 

Bartshora shavinp %v\n., water four irints, boil, strain, add 
white wine and sugar, each, | iv., or if a very dear Jelly ia 
required, syrup of vin^r I vi. ; clarify with the white of two 
eggs, and strain, flavoring with cinnamon or lemon peel. 

Soak ssgo in water for an hour, pour it off; adding more, boil 
tUl the sago to transparent, then odd wine and sugar. 

Soak It in water for nine hours, then boil it gently till quite 
clear, and add lemon Juice and peel, wine, sugar, and cinnamon. 

Rice, sago, pearl barley, hartshorn shavings, Rad. Eiingii, each 
§ j., boil in Ibi^. of water to tt>J., and strain : nutritive, dissolved 
in broth, wine or milk. 

Sweet almonds, blanched, |i., white sugar 3vJ., water fir. 
Rob Into an emulsion, strain, and add melted hartshorn Jel)y 
I vlii., orange-flower water 3 J., essence of lemon gt. iij. 

Ground Jalap | li^ water twelve pints, calcined magnesia, I iU., 
boil to a Jelly ; not subject to grow mouldy. 

Alee, three spoonfuls ; boil In two pints of water to one, strain ; 
jadd sweet almonds No. x., bitter almonds No. v., make an emul- 
sion with sugar, a lltUe cinnamon or orange flower water, and 
drink it warm in the morning. 

Isinglass | II., water two pints, boil to one, strain, and add milk 
one pint, white sugar candy I i. Nutritive. 


Cut a chicken into small pieces, bruise the bones, and pat the 
whole fnto a stone jar with a cover that will make it water- 
tight Set the Jar in a large kettle of boiling water, and keep it 
bolHng for three hours. Then strain ofl* the liquid, and season it 
alightiy with salt, pepper, and mace, or with loaf sugar and 
lemon Juice, according to the condition of the patient for whom it 


Ifix a quarter of a pound of rice, picked and washed, with Ibsi. 
of loaf sugar, and Just sufll^lcnt water to cover it. Boil till ft 
becomes a glutinous mass ; then strain and season with whatever 
May be thought proper. 



Bon ■ flBl tf ndtk, aod when boiling, tdd a laife wf ne-glMi 
•f Ehffny or Hadetni wine. L«t It Ml agHtn, and then reaiova 
It fifoai ftia flre and let It itand a few mlnatea. Then remove tbf 
Mid, pow tbt whey Into a bowl, and tweettti H. 


Wadi a mall Ut of rennet, atom two Uichea iqoare, in coU 
water, to remove the ealt. Put It Into a teacup, and poor on 
lakewarra water enough to cover It. Let It etand all night, and 
in the momlnff ftlr rennet-water into a quart of warm milk. 
Cover it, and mn. It near the fire, till a firm cord !■ filmed. Poar 
off the whey, and it will be found a very cooling and palatable 


Take two calves* feet, and add to them one gallon of water, 
Which reduce by boiling to one quart. Strain, and wheu cokl 
■kim carefully. Add the whiles of six or eight e^s well beaten, 
ft |rtat c€ wine, half a pound of loaf sugar, and the juice of four 
tonoBs, and let them be well mixed, lloil the whole for a few 
minotes, stirring constantly, and pass It through a fiaanel strainer. 
(Wine should be omitted in some cases.) 

Take of ground rice S j., cinnamon 3 j., waterOiJ. Boil for forty 
minutes, addini the cinnamon near the conclusion. Strain and 
tweeten, and add wine, if necessary. 

Take of flresh wheat bran OJ., water three quarts. BtHI down 
one-third ; Strain, and add sugar, honey, or molasses, according 
to the t^te of the patient. 

Take of fresh lemon Juice | iv., fresh lemra peel | ss., white 
•ugar |iv., boiling water three pints. Let them stand dll cold, 
and then strain on for use. In fevers, a little spirits of nitre may 
be added. 

Put tamarinds into a pitcher or tumbler till it Is one-third fhll; 
then fill it up with cold water, cover it, and let it Infuse for a 
quarter of an hour or more. 

Put into a sauce-pan a pint of best molasses, a teaspoonful of 
powdered white ginger, and a qunrter of a pound of fresh butter. 
Simmer on hot coals for half an hour, stirring frequtntly. Tiien 
stir in the Juice of two lemons, or two tablegponnfuls of vinegar ; 
cover the pan, and let it stand by the fire five miuutes longer. 

Boil two otmces of good cocoa in a qnnrt of water, and as soon 
as it boils, set it on coals to eiuimer gently for an hour or more. 
To be used hot. 

Toast some pieces of bread brown (not burnt), then put th^m 
iDto a pitcher, and fill it up with boiling water. Let it stood Ull 
cold, then suain it, and put it into a decanter. 


NO. IV. 

Cmpmrmtnt Vtewof tkeChmieal Jiffinitf hetwen the Printfyai 
Actd$ and nx of the Mhaline and Earthy Baeee ; that between 
Sutpharie ^eid and Baryta being tahen at 1000 aa a standard. 
Compiiedfram Ure*8 Chemical DictioAary. 

▲CU>8 . 


















Salphurie, . . 







Nitiie,. . . . 






731 ' 

Hydrochloric, . 







Photphoric, . . 







Oxalic, . . . 







Tartaric . . . 







Arwniousy . • 







Citric,. . . . 







SulphurouB, . 







Acetic, . . . 







Boracic, . . . 







Nitroufi, . . . 







Carbonic, . . 







Hydrocyanic, . 







Q^antitiee of Opium contained in different Preporatione, 

Linimentam Opil gr. iij in r3iv. 

Pilule Saponia eomp. . . . gr. 1 in gr. t. 

Siyracla comp. . . . gr. j in gr. t. 

PalT. Creta comp. c. opio • . gr. 1 in 9ij. 

— — Ipecacoanhc comp. . . gr. j in gr. z. 

— Kino compositus . . . gr. J in 9j. 

Tinetam camphora comp. • • gr. U in f |j 

— — :l2p*» f- J In mxiV. 

Vinnm OpU. gr. J in mxix. 

llnetiira lodinii comp. contain! gr. ij. oflodUie . in flj. 

Uflfnentum lodinii comp. ** gr. v. ** . . . in SIm. 

Uoffiientam Rydrarg. Fortius contalna 3 J. of mereniy In 3 li. 

0afiWDtiiBi Hydnrg. Mitiui contain! 3 J. •« In 3i^ 




Port, weakeit 

ineui of leven wines, 


m — MrongeM, 

White Port, 

Sherry, weakest, ...... 

mean of 13 wines, includ- ) 

ing those very long kept \ 

in cask, ......) 


mean of 9 wines very long 

kept in cask in the East . 

Indies, ) 

Madre da Xeres, 

Madeira.strungest \ kem long in ck. 

weakest ) in East Indies, 

Teneriflle, long in cask at Calcutta, 


Dry Lisbon, 



CI arel, a firft growth of 1 811, 
Chaum Latour, first growth of 1835, 
Rosan, second growth of 1825, . 
Ordinary Claret, a superior ** vin ) 

ordinaire,** } 

Rives Altes, ........ 


Rudesheimer, superior quality, . 

inferior " . . 

Hanibacher, superior qnafi^, 
Giles's Edinburgh ale, before bottl*g 
The Mime ale two years in bctUe, 
Superinr London Porter, four 
months bottled, 

Pr ctofabs. 






















spirit by vol. 








The results of the above table were obtained by distillation, 
which was npplied with such contrivances for accuracy, that 
nearly the whole spirit and water were distilled over without » 
trace of empyreuma, and without the lose of more than between 
two and six grains in 3000. From the quantity imd density of the 
spirit, the tofijfht of absolute alcohol of the density 793.9, us well 
as the volume of proof spirit of the density 930, was calculates 
from the tables of Richter, founded on those of GHpin. Dr. 
Christison romnrks that the alcoholic strength of various sample* 
of the snme kind of wme bears no relation whatever to UxeUr 
commercial value, and is oHen very different fVom yi^hgkWmM. 
be indicated by the taste even of an experienced in lllli nftjl ^'' 

lUnjCi, (ISM) . 

ChempAciie, wlill^ 



tSp. fnv. D.KI 11 
* Mr. BnDds hu ■h.r-u .u^. ■.u«iu wv 
win*. Il ti coueqiuDIlT AwKn the fnim 
nit tinti oT dmlllaUun. In tlfecu upon ih 
■r* (ihUv DndlOnl b]r Ibe add^ cnncUn, 

CSBUlBid In WlBM 1 Ibcr MBI roDnil. fu ID 

tha moat qauWr of pun kleohol dlluuil wli 
«UBpla, (llhoilth wlBe-diinUng li oAm thi 





im tVinea. Bf J^eumann* 

1 ^^ 

a _ 8 





by OK 



S 3 

S 3 


i 3 gn. 


5 3 gn. 

Aland, . . . 

1 6 

3 3 

1 5 


5 3 

Allcant, . . 

3 6 



1 40 


3 6 

Burgundy, . 

3 3 

' 4 

1 40 


9 90 

Carcasaona, . 

8 6 



1 80 


8 4 30 

Champagne, . 
French, . . 

8 5 





8 3 






8 80 

Fnmtignac, . 


3 4 

5 80 


4 6 80 

Vln de Grave, 






Hermitage, . 

3 7 

1 8 

« 1 ^ 


7 8 90 

Madeira, . . 

8 3 

3 3 



4 3 

Malmaey, . . 


4 3 

3 3 


1 9 

Vino de Monte, 

3 6 


8 40 


8 90 

Moselle, . . 

3 8 



1 30 


9 10 

Muacadine, . 


8 4 



5 4 

Meufchatel, . 

3 S 


1 7 


8 7 

Palroiee, . . 

3 3 

3 4 

4 4 


3 5 

Pontac, . . 






9 40 

Old Rheniah, 



8 SO 


8 5 40 

Bhenish, . . 

8 8 



1 34 


9 1 00 

Salamanca, . 


3 4 



3 4 

Slierry, . . 



3 3 



Ppaniah, . . 
VInoTlnto, . 

1 8 

3 4 



10 6 


6 4 

1 6 



Toicay, . . . 

3 8 

4 3 




Tyral (red), . 

1 4 

1 3 




Red wine, . 

1 6 



8 80 


9.3 90 

White,. . . 






* According to Gmelin, wines contain alcohol, an odorous 
principle (vol. oil ?), tannin, bitter extractive, sugar, gum, yeaat, 
acetic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, bitartrate of potash, bitar- 
trate of lime, sulphates and chlorides, phosphate of lime, carbonie 
acid, water, and blue coloring matter. 

The acidity of wines is owing chiefly to nta/te, in part to o'Cria 
and tartaric acids. The qnnntiiy of sugar varies greatly in diflb- 
rent wines. ExtractivB exists in all wines, but diminishes, by 
deposition, with their age. All wines contain more or less eoUriuf 
matter, Tartar is the moat important salhie constitaent of * 

Ajtp. /F.] 




Showing the Difference bettoeen Minims, Drope, and Oraina i/ 
various Medicinal Liquid Preparations of the Pharmacopeia 
of the United States, *c. (From Edwards's ^nd Vavoseeur** 
*' Manual of Materia Medica," ed. by Drs. Togno and Durand.) 


Sulphuric acid, .... 
Sulphuric ether, .... 
Rectified alcohol, . . . 

Nitric acid, 

Acetic acid (crystallizable), 

Muriatic acid, 

OU of wormneed (Ckenop. ^nthel.) 

peppermint, of aniseed, . ) 

aweet almond, olive, pal-> 

machriiCi, . . . .^ 

— cinnamon, 


Diluted alcohol, 

Tincture of hydriodate of potas-^ 

■a, cantharides, kino, digitalis, 
■ssafolida, sulphuric acid, 
colchicum, opium, valerian, 

Tincture (volatile) of valerian, 

Tincture of muriate of iron, . . 

Wine (Teneriffe), 


of opium, (Sydenh*. laudan ) 

of colchicum root, . . . ) 

- of colchicum seeds, . . ) 
Vinegar (distilled;, , , . . 

of opium (black drop), 

of colchicum, . . 

of fK^Uill, . , . 

Water (distilled) 

solution of hydrocy. acid,* 

solution of sulphuric ( 

acid (I to 7) { 

solution of nitric acid, do. 

solution of ammonia (8tro» 

solution of *• (weak) 

solution of hydriod. of pot , 

solution of a rsenlte of pot. 





































































•Prnutd MCOtdlBf to the procees of the Loodon Apoth< 



NO. V. 



r Twelve ouncet. 
Eight drachma. 
Three ecroplet. 
Twenty grains. 

Thepoond, ] 
■cmple, 3 
grain, gr._ 

Theae, and the signa by which they are denoted, are the%aB« 
In all the Britiah Pharmacopceiaa. 


Pound. Onncea. Drachma. Scmplea. Oraina 

1 s= 12 =:96 = Sf« = 5700 

1 = 8 = 84 = 480 

1 = 3 := 60 

1 = ao 


The gallon, Cong. 
pint, iOctariUB) 
fluid ounce, 
fluid drachm, 

o I 

Eight pinta. 

Twenty duid onncea. 
i Eight fluid drachma. 
I Sixty minim's. 


Callona. Pinta. Fluid Ouncea. 
1 = 8 = 160 = 
1 = 20 = 
1 = 

Fluid Drachma. 

1S80 = 

160 t= 

8 = 

1 = 






* The abore ia the fluid meaaure, and the idgna by which thoy 
■re denoted in the London and the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeiaa. 
The Dublin College retains the old signs, which are, for the gallon 
tmig.^ the pint Ib.j the ounce § , the drachm 3 , and the drop £t^ 
which should be equal to the minim. 

The MEAstRS or Tekpkraturk used by all the Colleges to 
Fahrenheit's thermometer 212P on the scale of which marka the 
boiling point of water, and 2SP the freezing point : between 90^ 
and 100*' denote the gentle heat {jcalor Unit) of the Pharmaco- 


The hot bath (balneum fervidum) from 98^ to 106^ 

The warm bath {beUiuum ealidum) from 96P to 980 

The tepid bath {balneum tepidum) from 62° to 960 

The vapor bath {balneum vaporis) from 100° to 130O 

For aacertaibing the densities of fluids, the Edinburgh Collegv 
recommends the hydrometer of Twaddell, or Levi's denaiiif 
beads. The temperature of the fluids teated aUbuld be 60O Fah 




loo CI— O O W-M O W U U O g «M O w 















•mraufiH I ^ 





• ^o • 



• • • • « 







«i -POB 






O ' 






6 • • 

• • • 

• • • • • 

>ooo * 


o •• 

8 .S« . .^S2g8 

^ "* "• 1 

• • 


•^ wf ^: 

: 3 

3 J3 

•a ^ 

•4 ^ 



JO i)iiu«n^ 




• •••••••••• 

►^v : : 


8 ^ -. 

cij -g 



8 ^ 







:j: : : 




3: : 

^ l™< 




Sti -i- ■■ ■■ 




ij: : S 

"t -M 


.-4-. .2 


33 : : 

1. -^ 



= '"■•" 

t 5:::!.i 


= ■«.,, 




S -ra 


:j55 : : 

- ~: 

s — 




1: : : 





1 .».,7 


:.,= . 


•3 : : 

3 ..„j 




In ■ 

« *';.". 


:j ; : : ; : 



|:=, : 

ii : 



:: ■.:■.■. : 

5:: : : 

,Si. 4 




i itiW55 ill 



RKirOIfDIKO OLD MAMB8. (U. 1. P.) 

raw IIAMKI. 

iEther Salphoricus, 

Amygdala Dolcis, 

Baril Chloridom, 


Conii Folia, 


Grata Pneparsta, 

Cupri SuMcetas, 

Decoctum CetrarlsBy 



Extractum HeUebori, 

ExtractumStramonii Foliomm, 

Ferri FerrocyaQuretum, 

Ferri SubcarbonaSf 

Granati Fructi Cortex, 

Guaiaci Resina, 


Bydnuqsymm cum Oreta, 

Hyoscyaml Foliu, 

IfuUsiim Eupatorii, 

Liquor Ammonise, 

Liquor BarU Chloridi, 

Liquor Caloii Chloridi, 


Misfcura CretsB, 


PoUasse Bltartras, 

Potasss Carbonaa Puma, 

Potaaeii Sulphuretum, 


Bpiritua AmmoniflB, 

Bpiritua AmmoniaB Aromaticua, 

Sulphur Lotum, 

6yrupua SaraaparillsB Compos- 

ftprupua Sdllse Compoaitus, 
TlDCtura Ferri Chloridi, 
Tlnetura GeatiansB Compoaita, 
TInetura HeUebori, 
lyoehiaci CretaB, 
Ungoentam Cupri SobaoetaUa, 


AcacisB Gummi. 

iEther Sulphuricua RecUflcatof. 


Barytse Muriaa. 



Calcia Carbonaa. 

Calda Carbonaa Pr»paralus. 

Cupri Acetaa. 

Decoctum Lichenia. 

Secaie Comutum. 

£upatoriu|n Perfoliatum. 

Extractum Hellebori Nigri. 

Extractum Stramonli. 

Ferri Ferrocyanas. 

Ferri Carbonaa Pr»cipitatus. 



Helleboms Niger. 

Hydrargyrum cum Calcia Gar* 


Infusum Eupatorii PerfoliatL 
Aqua Ammoniffi. 
Liquor Baiytae Muriatia. 
Liquor Calcia-Muriatis. 
Calcis Carbonaa {^rua. 
Mistura Calcia Carbonatia. 

Potaaaae Supertartraa. 
Potosaffi Carbonaa Puriaaimoa. 
Potasate Sulphuretum. 

Alcohol Ammoniatum. 
Alcohol Ammoniatiun Aro* 

Syrupua Saraaparillse. 

Mel ScllltB Compositum. 
Tinctura Ferri Muriatia. 
Tinctura Gentianie. 
Tinctura Hellebori Nigri. 
Trochiaci Calcia Carbonatiaw 
Unguentum Cupri Aoetatla. 




.niABrncAL list op old namki, with thi ooeexipoto* 

Ufa HEW HAM Bl. (u. 8. P.) 


aci» Gummit 

iher Sulphuiicus Rectiflcatos, 

M>bol Ammoniatumf 

uihcH Ammoniatam Aromatr 



tua AmmoniSt 

rytse Muriast 

Ids Carbonas, 

Icis Carbonaa DomSf 

kU Carbonaa PnBpantas» 


ipri Acetas, 

tcoctum LiGheniS) 


ipatorium Perfoliatmn, 

ctractum Hellebori Nigri, 

itractum Stramonil, 

trri Carbonas Praocipitatos, 



tlleboruB Nlgeri 

cdrargyrum cum Calda Car- 



rusam Eupatorii Perfoliati, 


quor BarytaB Muriatis, 

quor Caleb Muriatis, 

il Scills Composttum, 

istura Caleb CarbonatiSf 

•toasffi Carbonaa Purisainraa, 

itaasae Sulphureiimif 

ttaasiB Supertartras, 

cale Comutum, 


Tupua SanaparillflB, 

Qctora Ferri MariatiSi 
QCtura Gentiaiue, 
DCtora HeUeburi Nigri, 
ochiici Calda Oorboni^ 
iffueolum Copri AoetatiS) 



iGther Sulphuricna. 
Spiritus AiuDionln. 
Spiritua Ammonia 

Amygdala Dulds. 

Liquor Ammonia. 

Baril Chloridum. 



Crota PraBpamta. 

Conil Folia. 

Cupri Subaoetaa. 

Deooctnm CelrarUa. 



Extractum Hellebori. 

Extractum Stramonil Folkinni. 

Ferri Subcarbonas. 

Graoati Fructus Cortex. 

Guaiad Resina. 


Hydrargyrum com Crete. 

Hyoscyami Folia. 

Ii^Tusum EupatorU. 


Liquor Baril Cbloridi. 

Liquor Caldi Cbloridi. 

SvTupus Scills Compoaitos. 

Mistura Cretae. 

Potaaste Carbonas Puma. 

PotasBii Sulphuretum. 

Potass» Bitartraa. 


Sulphur Lotum. 

Syrupus SarsaparilbD Compost- 

Tinctura Ferri Cbloridi. 
Tinctura Gentians Compoalift. 
Tinctura HelleborL 
Trochiad Cret». 
Unguentom Cupri j 

TABLES. 117 



INO OLD NAHKS. (U. 8. P.), 


AromaUc Spirit of Ainmoiiia> Aromatic Ammonioted ^kfthqy. 

Balsam of Tola, Tolu. 

Belladonna, * I>eadl7 Nightshade. 

Bitartrate of Potaasat Supertartrate of Potaaea. 

Canada Pitch, Hemlock Pitch. 

Canada TurpenUney Canada Balsam. 

Chalk, Carbonate of lAme. 

Chalk Mixture, Mixture of Carbonate of LiaM. 

Colchlcum Root, Meadow-saffron Root. 

Colchicum Seed, Meadow-safliron Seed. 

Compound Syrup of Sarsapar Syrup of SarsapariUa. 

Compound Syrup of Souill, Compound Honev of Squill. 
" >mpou]id Tincture of Gentian, Tincture of Geimaa. 

rot. Spurred Rye. 

tract of Belladonna, Extract of Deadly Niffhtshade. 

Extract of Stramonium Leares, Extract of Thorn-apple. 
Ferro-cyanuret of IroD| Ferrocyanate of Iron. 

Hemlock Leaves, Hemlock. 

Henbane Leaves, Henbane. 

Lobelia, Indian Tobacco. 

Marble, Hard Carbonate of Lime. 

Mercury with Chalk, Mercury with Carbonate at 

Ointment of Stramonium, Ointment of Thorn-apple. 

Ointment of Subacetate of Cop- Ointment of Acetate of Coppec 

Pomegranate Rind, Pomegranate. 

Prepared Chalk, Prepared Carbonate of Lime. 

Pure Carbonate of Potasaa, Purest Carbonate of Potassa. 
Solution of Ammonia, Water of Ammonia. 

Solution of Chloride of Barium, Solution of Muriate of Baryta. 
Solution of Chloride of Calcium, Solution of Muriate of Lime. 
Spirit of Ammonia, Ammoniated Alcohol. 

S&amunlum Leaves, Thorn-apple Leaves. 

Stramonium Seed, Thorn-apple Seed. 

Subacetate of Copper, Acetate of Copper. 

Subcarbonate of Iron, Precipitated Carbonate of Iron* 

Bolphuret of Potassium, Sulphuret of Potassa. 

Mphorio Ether, Rectified Sulphuric Ethar. 

Sweet Almonds, Almonds. 

%rnp of Lemonst I^mon Bjrtap, 

nenue of GtUoride of Iron, Tincture of Muriate of Iron, 
ftawtore of Lobelia, Tincture of Indian Tobeeoo. 

Qtmnmamnm^ Tinetnra of Ikotn-applni 




(UMmpoand B0M7 at BmO^ 

PKMflj Ktdrhtahade, 

Extract of DeuOyiflgUAait, 

KxtfMct of Tborah«pple, 

F«rrocT«iMl« of Iron, 

Itafd CtfboMte of Ltea, 


Hemlock PHck, 


lodlma TolMoeo, 

Ji(*iiioa fljTopf 

MtMMkrWMflhiD 8Mrf, 

Utvcury with Ovbomto of 

Mlxtora of Ovboacto of Uom, 
Murtfttaof Baryta, 
Ointaxmi of Aootate oTGopper, 

OlnifiKint of Tbor»«ppla» 

rrr*clpltJil«d OarlMiwto of Irao, 
Trpparod Carbonate of Ume, 
Furmt Carbooale of Polana, 
lU^iflnl flutphoHc Ether, 
^lulion of Mnriale of Baryta, 
ttolulion of Muriala of Uoie, 

AptuTod Rj^ 


Mulphurd of Potaaaa, 

fnperiartnue of PbtaMS, 

Byrup of aamparlUa, 

BynmoC I< 
OoichicoBa Root. 

Mcrany with 

• I 

Chloride of Bariam. 

O&aient of SCramoDiaa. 
PDmegraoate Kind. 
Sobcarbooate of Iraa. 
Prepared ChaDu 
Pore Carbonate of 
Sulpboric Ether. 
Solution of Chloride 6f Bari 
Solution of Chloride at 


Washed Snlphnr. 
Solphuret of Potar-* 
Bitartrate of Pot- 
OcMnpouDd. ^ 


norn-vppLe Beed^ 
Tincture or GeoUu, 

Tllictim oT rndlu Totmeea, 
nDctnre at Murltie of [jtm, 
^JKtttTB of Thont^^ile, 

IVouHof Corbou . 

Vloegar of Kuadow-tattam, Vinegar of CoIcblcDm. 
Wfeter of AmiooiLLa, B<^utloa of AmiwHUA. 

WlBB of Hsadua-ttOnni Seed, Win of Colchkun Bald. 

t> Jut •£!>» ^ Hit U.S. riUmJwfri*. 

(All CUortsaU, 

GranatI Rsdieli OstMz, 
HroKTimi S«wm, 
UibodU Conn, 




POoUb Saponis CompfisitiB) 
PilalsB SclllsB Ck>mpo8itaB) 
Potassil Cyanuretum) 
Prani Pulpa, 

Palvls Jalaps Compositaa, 
Sulphuris lodidanif 
Syrupus AmygdalsB, 
Syrupas IpecacuanhsB) 
Syrupaa KruneriaB) 
Byrupus SenndB, 
^upna ToluUtni, 
Iwnarindi Pulpa, 
Tinctura Aconiti, 
Tinctura Belladonns, 
Tmctara Ck)lchici Seminis, 
Tinctura Coniif 
Tinctura CubobsB) 
Tinctura Gallee, 
Tinctura lodini Composita, 
Tinctura Krameriae, 
Tinctura Olei Nfentbas Piperita, 
Tinctura Olei Menthao Viridis, 
Trochisci IpecacnanhsB, 
Trochioci Menthaa Piperitse, 
Unguentum Antimonli, 
Unguentum Creosotif 
Unguentum lodini, 
Unguentum lodini Compoai- 

Unguentum Mezerel,'' 
Vlnum ErgotsB, 
Zind Chloridum) 

Compound Pills of Soap. 
CSompound Pills of Sqmlls. 
Gyanuret of Potaaslam. 
Pulp of Prunes. 
Compound Powder of Jalap 
lodude of Sulphur. 
Symp of Almonds. 
Syrup of Ipecacuanha. 
Syrup of Rhatany. 
Syrup of Senna. 
Syrup of Tolu. 
Pulp of Tamarinds. 
Tincture of Aconite. 
Tincture of Belladonna. 
Tincture of Colchicum Seed. 
Tincture of Hemloolc 
Tincture of Cubebs. 
Tincture of Galls. 
Compound Tincture of Iodine. 
Tincture of Rhatany. 
Tincture of Oil of Peppermint. 
Tincture of Oil of Spearmint. 
Troches of Ipecacuanha. 
Troches of Peppermint. 
Antimonial Ointment. 
Ointment of Creosote. 
Ointment of Iodine. 
Compound Ointment of Iodiii«« 

Ointment of Mezereon. 
Wine of Ergot. 
Chloride of Zinc 



Addum AceticumEmpyremnar Pyroligneous Acid. 

Enpatorium Purpurenm, 
Eupatorium Teucrlfoliamt 
HeUeborus FostiduS) 

Gravel Root 
Wild Horehound. 
Elder Berries. 


Antimcmii Salphnretum Pra- Prepared Solphnret of Antfr 

paratom, mony. 

Aqua Aoraniii Cortiols» Water of Orai^ PeeL 

Centum Anenidi Oarate of Ananto.