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Full text of "A critical and exegetical commentary on the Revelation of St. John"

THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL COMMENTARY 



A CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL 
COMMENTARY 



ON 



THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 

BY 

R. H. CHARLES, D.Litt., D,D. 

VOLUME II 



A CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL 
COMMENTARY 



ON 



THE REVELATION OF 
ST. JOHN 

WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND INDICES 

ALSO 

THE GREEK TEXT AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION 



BY 



R. H. CHARLES, D.Litt., D.D. 

ARCHDEACON OF WESTMINSTER 
FELLOW OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



(IN TWO VOLUMES) 
VOL. II 




EDINBURGH 

T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE STREET 
1920 



PRINTED BY 
MORRISON AND GIBB LIMITED, 

FOR 

T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH. 

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND co. LIMITED. 
NEW. YOKK: CHARLES SCRIBNER S SONS. 



The Rights of Translation and of Reproduction are Reserved. 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME II. 

Addenda et Corrigenda 
Commentary on Chapters xiv. i-u, 14-20 
>, xv. 

,, xvi. 1-4, 8-21 . 

xvii. . 

Additional Note on xvii. 
> ,, xviii. . 

xix. 1-4, xvi. 5 -7, xix. 5-20 . 

" xx. 1-3 . 

" ii xx. 4-xxii. General Introduction and 

Reconstruction 

xxi. 9-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17 

" xx. 4-15 .... 

Xxi. 5 a , 4 d , 5*, I- 4 a.b. Cj xxi { 3 _ 5 

Epilogue xxi. 5, 6 l< -8 ; xxii. 6-7, 18% 16, 13, 12, 

10, [n, i8 -i9], 8-9, 20-21 

The Greek Uncials and Cursives ..... 
MSS collated for this edition : Versions : Abbreviations . 
Greek Text with Apparatus Criticus .... 
English Translation with Critical Notes .... 
Four Papyrus and Vellum Fragments .... 
Additional Note on xiii. i i b ..... 

> ,, the Latin Versions .... 

> ,, the Millennial Kingdom . . 

Index I. to the Greek words used in the Apocalypse 
,, II. to Hebraisms used in the Apocalypse 



III. Passages in our Author based on the O.T., 

epigrapha and the N.T. 

IV. to the Introduction, Commentary and Notes 



Pseud- 



PAGES 

xi-xii 

1-26 

26-40 

40-53 

54-75 

76-87 

87-113 

113-140 

140-143 

144-154 
154-180 
180-200 

200-211 

211-226 

227-232 

233-235 
236-3S5 
386-446 

447-451 
452 

453-455 
45M57 

459-473 
473 

474 
474-497 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

VOLUME II. 

Page 10, line i. See Abbott, Notes on N.T. Criticism, p. 104, 
for passages in Origen and Clement of Alex, in which Trap&tvoi 
are applied to men, and in Ignatius (Smyrn. 13) to widows. But 
nothing that he says can explain the application of o* /xcra 
yvva.iK.wv OVK p,o\vv6r)(rav to women. 

Page 27, line 9. For " Only the faithful . . . fifth seal " read 
"The faithful suffer physical martyrdom, but their prayers be 
come an instrument of wrath in the hands of God." See vol. ii. 
403, note 2. 

Page 49, line 7 ab imo. Transpose the subject-matter of the 
fifth and sixth beatitudes. See vol. ii. 445, note i. 

Page 72, line 3 ab imo. Delete "Again we should expect 
Ka0iei . . . iii. 21." Our author only uses the participle of 
KaOrjcrOai, but his sources (xvii. 9, 15, xviii. 7) use the pres. ind. 
In the LXX the pres. and imperf. forms of Ka<9iw have dis 
appeared, their place being taken by /ca^at, cKaOrj^v. See 
Thackeray, Gram. 271 sq. 

Page 75, line 8. After " first "add "either in Dan. iv. 34 
(LXX), $os T. 0eun/ Ko.1 Kvpios T. Kvpiwv Kal j3acriXtv<s T. (3aa<.\t(t)v, 
or (rather in the pre-Maccabean section of i Enoch see my 
second edition, p. Hi sq.)." 

Page 90, lines 25-27. Delete " Ka.0vjp.ai . . . iii. 21; and." 
See note above on p. 72, 1. 3. 

Page 1 68. On the twelve precious stones see British 
Museum Guide to . . . Minerals mentioned in the Bible > 1911. 

Page 203, line 4 ab imo. The line "[Kal Xlyci . . . cia-ip] 
should not be bracketed, but read immediately before xxi. 6 b -8, 
See vol. ii. 379, 444, where it is restored to its right place, 



vill ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA 

Page 219, line 3 ab imo. After " world " add " of the living." 
Christ judges the living : God Himself judges the dead according 
to our author s view. 

Page 234, line 18. Add " Where no reading of Tyc is quoted, 
Tyc agrees with vg." 

Page 234, line 20. Add "From 20 1 to 2i 5 (nova facio 
omnia) Pr in his comm. has copied verbatim the work of 
Augustine (de Civ. Dei, xx. 7-17), retaining Augustine s Italian 
text. In the App. Crit. these verses are quoted without any 
mark of distinction. 

Page 240, ver. n, line 2. After 2020: add rjxowrjo- 181 : 

n, ii. For post va.TLp. pon read tr after 
uarap. Similarly elsewhere. 

Page 256, ver. 7, line 30. Delete ( + KCU, ovSeicr avoiei Or 8 ), and 
Or 8 in next line. Or 8 conflates A 025 and 046 here. See vol. i. 
p. clxxvi. 

Page 279, ver. 2, lines 5, 8, 9. Delete et N c . Similarly else 
where. 

Page 288, ver. 12, line n. Delete Or 8 . Or 8 conflates 046 al 
and Atf 025 : and reads /cat TO rptrov avrrja- ^ ^avrj ^/xepa (so 
046 al) Kat rj rjfjiepa ^,17 (jjavrj TO rpirov (reraprov A) avrrja- (so 
A 025). 



THE REVELATION 

OF ST. JOHN. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

INTRODUCTION. 
i. Character and Object of this Chapter. 

The entire chapter is proleptic in character. That is, the 
orderly development of future events as set forth in the succes 
sive visions is here, as in two sections heretofore, abandoned, 
and^all the coming judgments from xvi. 17 to xx. 7-10, are sum 
marized in xiv. 6-1 1, 14, 18-20. To this summary is prefixed a 
short description of the blessed (who are identical with the 
144,000 in vii. 4-8) in the Millennial Kingdom established on 
the earth with Mount Zion as its centre, xiv. 1-5. Thus we have 
in this chapter a general introduction to xvi. jy-xx. i-io. It is 
therefore of the nature of an intermezzo. 

The object of xiv. is to encourage the faithful to endurance 
in the face of impending universal martyrdom. Hence in xiv. 1-5 
the veil is lifted for a moment from the future and to the Seer 
is disclosed a vision of the martyrs enjoying the blessedness of 
the Millennial Kingdom on Mount Zion in attendance on their 
Lord. We have here a later stage of their blessedness than that 
depicted in vii. 9-17, where the martyrs are represented as 
having arrived or arriving in heaven straight from the scene of 
martyrdom. See Chapter vii., Introduction, 10. 

But the faithful are further encouraged to endurance and 
loyalty by the proclamation of the doom of the proud anti- 
christian power, xiv. 8-n, and of all the heathen powers whether 
confederate with it or not, xiv. 14, 18-20. 

This chapter x thus contains three visions, which are all pro- 
leptic. 

1 xiv. 12-13 belong to xiii., and are read immediately after xiii. 18 in this 
edition. They are from the hand of our author. 
VOL. II. I 



2 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 1-2. 

1. xiv. 1-5. Vision of the glorified martyrs with the Lamb 
on Mount Zion during the Millennial reign. Cf. xx. 4. The 
greater part of xiv. 4-5 is interpolated. 

2. xiv. 6-1 1. Vision of the judgment on the antichristian 
Roman Empire and its adherents and their everlasting torment. 
Cf. xvi. i7-xviii. 

3. xiv. 14, 18-20. Vision of the judgment executed by the 
Son of Man on the heathen nations. Cf. xix. 1 1-2 1 and xx. 7~io(?). 
The paragraph xiv. 15-17 is an interpolation. See pp. 19-21. 

2. This chapter, with the exception of certain interpolations 
(cf. xiv. 4-5, 15-17), is from the hand of our author ; for (i) the 
order of the words is Hebraic : (2) the diction and style are 
decidedly his. 

The first question needs no discussion : the fact is so obvious. 
Hence we shall limit our consideration to (2). 

(2) The diction is that of our author except in xiv. 15-17, 
which in the first place is a doublet of xiv. 14, 18-20 and in the 
next exhibits three constructions, which are against the usage of 
our author (see notes on TO> /ca^jaeVo) iirl TT}S ve^eX-^s in xiv. 15, 
6 Ka$?///.ej/os CTTI rrj<s ve^eX^s and e/3aXev . . . 7riTr)v yi}vin xiv. 1 6). 
Of xiv. "3 S only ot rjyopa.<T^ivoi CLTTO TU>V avOpoiTrotv aTrap^Tfj T<3 
0ea>* a/x,a)/H et(riv seems to be original. The interpolations in 
those verses are, however, in the style of our author, except, 
perhaps, OTTOV uv vTrayet in xiv. 4, but the thought conveyed is 
wholly against the context. 

I will now enumerate some of the phrases characteristic of our 
author, though not, except in a few cases, peculiar to him. 

1. Kttl ei&oi/ teat ISou. See iv. I, note. yeypa|A|u.eVoi 4m r>v 
perwTrwv aura^. See vii. 3, note. 2. 4>wi/T]i> IK TOU oupai/ou, x. 4, 8, 
xi. 12, xiv. 13. a>s <bwT]v uSaTwc TroXXwy; cf. i. 15, xix. 6. cjxofTp 
Ki0apwowj>. Cf. xviii. 22. 2-3. In Ka9api6rrwj . . . K<U aSouaii 
we have the familiar Hebrew idiom reproduced already in i. 5-6, 
ii. 2, 9, etc. (see note in loc.). aSouo-ii/ 69 w8V Kam^; cf. v. 9. 
IVUTUOV TOU Qpovou ; cf. iv. 5, 6, etc. 4. The use of a-rapx*] = 
11 sacrifice," though not found elsewhere in our author, is in keep 
ing with his frequent use of Greek words in the same sense^as in 
the LXX. 5. The asyndetic addition of the clause a^w/W cto-tv 
(cf. xvi. 6). 6. irTojJiKo iv jjiecroupai>T)|JiaTi. Already in viii. 13. 
With euayyeXiorai eirl TOUS KaroiKourras (A., ica0T]jieVous, tfCPQ) ; 
cf. x. 7. The enumeration TCOLV ZQvos KCH ^aXr^ icrX. (see note 
on v. 9) and the grammatical irregularity Xe y(oi> in 7 instead of 
Xeyovra are both characteristic of his style. 7. Xe ywi/ iv <|>ui>p 
ueydXT]. Cf. xiv. 9. ev is used also before <$>wfi /xey. after Krjpv- 
o-eu> (v. 2), but after Kpaeiv only in passages from another hand 
(xiv. 15, xviii. 2). On the other hand it is absent after Xcyeiv in 
this phrase (v. 12, viii. 13), after Kpaeiv (vi. 10, vii. 2, 10, x. 3), 



XIV. 2.] ITS DICTION 



after jxavtlv (xiv. 18). Hence our author varies in his use of 
this phrase in connection with Ae yeu/. See note on x. 2. 

$o|3rj9T]Te TOK 06V. So XV. 4, Xix. 5 (cf. XI. l8, </>0/?OV/XeVovS TO 

ovopd o-ov). 86V6 auTw 86ai>. Cf. xvi. 9, xix. 7 also in the 
incorporated source, xi. 13. ^\Qev ^ Spa TTJS Kpiaeus. Cf. similar 
phrases : vl ij^XOev rj rj^pa. . . . -njs opy^/s avrwv; xi. 18, yXOw 
. . . 6 Katpos TOJV ve/cpwi/ KpiQfjvcu , xviii. 10, ^0V ^ /cpto-t? o-ov: 
also in interpolated section, xiv. 15. Trpooxunio-aTe, c. dat. of God : 
cf. iv. 10,^ vii. 11, note, xi. 16, xix. 10, xxii. 9, whereas it takes the 
ace. of TO Orjptov in 9 in both respects exhibiting our author s 
usage, -jnjyas uSou-an/ : cf. viii. 10, xvi. 4. 

8. oii/ou jou 0ujxou TT]S iropyeias. So xviii. 3. See note in loc. 
9. irpooxuyet TO 0T)pioK. See note on 7. Xajx(3dVei x^pay/xa. Cf. 
xiv. ii, xix. 20, xx. 4. But we should probably read TO xapay/xa. 
See note in loc. iirl TOU jxeTwirou. We should most probably 
read eVt TO /ueVcoTrov, since the context clearly comes from our 
author s hand. See note on vii. 3. x reads the dative. m -rnv 
Xtpa. Cf. xx. i, 4. See note on xiii. 16. 10. Kal auTos meTai. 
For the use of /cat see note on xiv. 10. j3ao-at/io-0^aeTat Iv irupl Kal 
0euj>. fiacravL^a) is found four times elsewhere in our author, 
while /?ao-akio7/,o s (see next verse), which occurs four times, is not 
attested elsewhere in the N.T. With Trvpt /cat tfetw cf. xx. 10, 
xxi. 8, xix. 20. 11. 6 Kam^s . . . aVaJSau ei. Cf. viii. 4, ix. 2, 
xix. 3. oux exouo-n ai dirauo-tK KTX. Already in iv. 8. ot irpoo-Ku- 
pouires TO 0T)pto^. Characteristic of our author both as to grammar 
and diction. 12. o>8e T) UTTO/JLOI/TJ KTX. Cf. xiii. 10. TWI/ dyiwi . . . 
ot TTjpourres Tag eWoXas. For the phrase cf. xii. 17. The irregu 
larity is characteristic of our author. 13. Xe yei TO weupa.. Cf. 
ii. 7, etc., xxii. 17. 14. Kal etW Kal I8ou. See iv. i, note. eVi rr]y 
ve^>\K]v K.aQr\^vov. Characteristic of our author : see note on 
iv. 2, and contrast the non-Johannine constructions of this phrase 
in 15, 1 6. opoioi/ ut6c dyOpojirou. This unique construction is 
found only in our author. It has already occurred in i. 13, and, 
as we have seen in the Additional Note on i. 13, vol. i. p. 36, 
might be regarded as a further development of other linguistic 
constructions, to which attention is called in that note. 

Interpolation 15-17. In this short section there are four 
constructions which are foreign to our author s use. These are 
given in the note on 15-17, p. 21. Other grounds for regard 
ing 15-17 as interpolated are given in the note on 14-20, 
p. 1 8 sq. 

18-20. These verses are in keeping with the diction and 
style of our author. They contain, it is true, several words not 
found elsewhere in our author c/xoveti/, TpvyoV, /JoVpvs, a/x7reAog, 
a/c/>iaeiv, o-Tac/>vArj, xaAtvos, but these help to delineate his 
subject. 



4 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 2-3. 

18. tydtvr\<r<iv <j>a>i/f) [AY<iXTj. Though <u>veu/ is not found else 
where in our author the construction is always that which he uses 
with /cpdciv, and in two cases out of four with Ae yeiv. irepl/oy crou 
TO Spe iro^o!/. The vernacular use of the pronoun here is elsewhere 
in our author not infrequent. 19. efSaXey ... els TT\V Y*F- See 
note in loc. \t\vbv TOU Ou/xou TOU 0eou. Cf. xix. 15. eiraTT]0if] 6 
XTJI/OS. Cf. xix. 15. axpt TWO xaXiy&m axpt occurs six times in our 
author as a preposition and five times as a conjunction, but not 
once in the other Johannine writings in tfie N.T. 

3. Interpolated passages, 3-4 c (d -njs y?}s . . .. ^yo/mo-^- 
o-av), 4 C , Kat TW dpvi a), and probably 5, KOL eV rw oro/mri avrwi/ 
otx ev/oe #r? i/^evSo?. See the grounds for this conclusion in loc. 
15-17. That these verses are an intrusion is manifest on many 
grounds. See the general grounds in the note on 14-20, p. 18 sq., 
and th grammatical grounds in the note on 15-17, p. 21. 

XIV. 1-5. A proleptic vision of the 144,000 with the Lamb 
on Mount Zion i.e. of the risen martyrs with Christ during the 
Millennial reign. That these are the same as the 144,000 in 
vii. 4-8, i.e. the spiritual Israel, the entire Christian community, 
alike Jewish and Gentile, which were sealed to protect them 
from the demonic woes, that are to follow speedily, we hope to 
prove in the course of our criticism of verses 1-5 (see also vol. i. 
p. 199 sqq.). In vii. 9-17 this same body of the faithful is 
represented as arriving in heaven during the great final tribula 
tion, or as already assembled there at its close. Here they are 
represented as having at a later stage come down to earth for 
the Millennial reign (cf. xx. 4). The vision is therefore proleptic. 
There is a progressive note in each vision. 
1. tea! eTSoy KCU ISou. See note in iv. i. 

TO apvlov. The Lamb is here set over against the Beast in 
xiii., and the followers of the Lamb with His name and that of 
His Father over against the followers of the Beast with his mark 
on their forehead. 

From O.T. times Mount Zion was associated in the minds of 
the faithful with divine deliverance. Thus Joel ii. 32 (iii. 5) 
writes : " And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on 
the name of the Lord shall be delivered ; for in Mount Zion and 
Jerusalem shall be those that escape, as the Lord hath said." In 
the 8th cent. B.C. there existed for a time the^ belief that Jeru 
salem could not be destroyed. In later times it was held that a 
special blessing attached to residence in Palestine. It alone 
was to escape the woes that would befall the rest of the earth : 
cf. 2 Bar. xxix. 2 (where see my note), xl. 2, Ixxi. i ; 4 Ezra 
xiii. 48, 49, vi. 25. This idea was revived in Talmudic litera 
ture. 

This appearance of the Messiah with a mighty multitude on 



XIV. 1.] 144,000 HERE SAME AS 144,000 IN VII. 4-8 5 

Mount Zion was a Jewish expectation, as we see in 4 Ezra xiii 
35, 39, 40, But he shall stand upon the summit of Mount 
Zion. . And whereas thou didst see that he summoned and 
gathered to himself another multitude which was peaceable these 

t Vr - tr K ibeS " - n 4 Em " 4 * ( Chri *^ or Christian 
recast of Jewish material) we have a close parallel to our text 
. fcsdras saw upon Mount Zion a great multitude which I could 
not (dst. c, no man could ) number, and they all praised the 
Lord with songs. 43. And in the midst of them there was a youn? 
man of high stature, taller than all the rest, and upon every one 

-\ \^u eadS he S6t Cr wns 44- So I asked the angel and 
said: Who are these, my Lord? 45. He answered and said 
unto me : These be they that have put off the mortal clothing and 
put on the immortal, and have confessed the name of God." 

This last work was probably written about 200-250 A.D and 
therefore forms an early testimony to the right interpretation of 
the 144,000 on Mount Zion in our text; for it appears to identify 
the multitude described in vii. 9-17 and that in our text In 
accordance with vii. 9-17 the writer of 4 Ezra ii. 42-47 repre 
sents them as having confessed and stood out stoutly for the 
name of God, and so as now clad in the garments of immortality 
and in accordance with xiv. 1-5 of our text they stand on Mount 
Zion with the Messiah. 

eKo,/ Teao-epdKorra KT\. The answer to the question as to 
the identity of the 144,000 that accompany the Lamb has in part 
been given in the Introduction to Chap. vii. where we have 
found them to be the same as the 144,000 in vii. 4-8 and the 
great multitude in vii. 9-17. But, though the constituents of 
the multitude are the same, the circumstances are different. In 
the vision before us the scene is upon earth (cf. ver. 2). The 
blessed faithful follow the Lamb on Mount Zion. And yet they 
have already passed through the gates of death, and have been 
presented as an offering (a7rap X r)) to God (xiv. 4). Hence we 
have here a momentary vision of the saints, who have returned 
to earth to share in the Millennial reign. (Cf. xx. 4-6.) 

But the above identification of the 144,000 in vii. 4-8 and 
xiv. 1-5 is apparently rejected by every modern scholar, save 
Alford, who has clung fast to it, although unable to surmount 
the chief difficulty that stands in its way. A minor difficulty, 
i.e. the absence of the defining article to identify these 
144,000 with those spoken of in vii. 4, he treats as negligible on 
the ground that the reader was meant to identify the two hosts, 
seeing that they consist of the same number and are both 
marked on the forehead as God s own possession. 

Alford may be right in ignoring the absence of the article 
(cf. xv. 2, where the expected article is missing, d>s OaXaa-a-av 



6 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 1. 

instead of T*JV 6aXaa-<rav, and xiv. 9, where TO is wanting before 
vapay/xa), but the present writer is of opinion that the real 
explanation is that it was excised by the interpolator of the 
introductory sentences in xiv. 4-5, who sought by his manipula 
tion of the text to destroy the identity of the 144,000 in vn. 4-8 
and the 144,000 in the present passage, and to transform them 
into a body of monkish celibates. Having thus explained the 
absence of the article, there is another and greater difficulty, 
which stands in the way of this identification, and this is that the 
144,000 are described as "first-fruits" to God and to the Lamb. 
If these 144,000, as the present writer holds, are identical with the 
entire body of Christians living in the last days, who have been 
sealed with a view to their protection against the demonic woes, 
how is it that they are designated as^ " first fruits " ? It is the 
interpretation set on this word d-n-apx^ by all scholars in the past 
that has misled them into differentiating the 144,000 in vii. 4-8 
and in xiv. 1-5. This word has hitherto been taken universally 
to mean "first fruits" in this passage. That in the Pauline 
Epistles and in St. James it bears this meaning is indubitable. 
But this is by no means the case in the LXX, although Grimm s 
Lexicon and Thayer s enlarged edition of Grimm state that 
tLTrapxn is generally the equivalent of JW6O. So far is this from 
being the case that it is generally not the equivalent of this word. 
Thus whereas <x7rapx>7 occurs about 66 times in the LXX, 
it is a rendering of rptfKi only 19 times. In the remaining 
47 times, it is once a rendering for the Hebrew word for 
"tithe," 4 times of n^n ( = "fat,"in which case it means "the 
best of"), and 40 times a rendering of nonn ( = " offering" 
or " oblation "), and once of HDUn ( = " offering "). Thus we see 
that in the LXX oftener than twice out of three times it means 
"an offering." In Sirach it occurs four times, but only once 
with the meaning of "first fruits," while in the other three 
passages it signifies either an " offering" or ; gift." Hesychius 
also notes that one of its Greek meanings is Trpoo-<j>opd. It is 
clear, then, that in the Greek Bible of Judaism aTrapxt meant 
"offering," " sacrifice," or " gift " nearly 3 times out of 4. 1 Now 
1 The above note was written before the publication of Moulton and Milli- 
gan s Vocabulary of the Greek Testament. Though these editors have not 
corrected the misstatements in Grimm s and Thayer s lexicons, to which 
they give their imprimatur in their preface, they have shown from the 
Magnesian inscriptions (ed. Kern. 1900), that d-jrapxt is very commonly used 
as=a " gift" to a deity, and that this use occurred as early as the 6th cent. 
B C in Athens (Syll. Inscr. Graec?, Dittenberger, 1888-1901). They con 
clude that in the N.T. "we are perhaps at liberty to render sacrifice or 
gift where it improves the sense," though they do not specify any individual 
passage save Rom. viii. 23. The Magnesia above referred to was in the 
neighbourhood of Ephesus. Hence the local and KOIV/J use of dirapx fl con 
firms the conclusions arrived at above. 



XIV. 1-3.] VISION OF 144,000 ON MT. ZION 7 

it is just this meaning that our text requires. The faithful, 
whether as martyrs or confessors, are sacrifices to God. As such 
they are offered on the heavenly altar, vi. 9. A further sacrificial 
reference is discoverable in the epithet in xiv. 5, where they are 
said to be a/xw/xot, that is, "unblemished," sacrificially perfect. 

exouaai TO oi/ofxa auTou K<U TO oVojjia TOO iraTpos auToG KT\. 
With this clause we might compare iii. 12, where a threefold 
inscription on the foreheads of the faithful is mentioned. But, 
if we compare xxii. 4, where the name is simply said to be that 
of God, and 4 of the present chapter, where KO.L TO) apvitp appears 
to be an interpolation, it is possible that avrov KOL TO oVo//a is 
also an interpolation. The seal consists in the name of God 
inscribed on the brow. This inscription declares that the person 
so inscribed is God s own possession : it is at the same time 
evidence that his character is such as befits a servant of God. 

2. $<i)\>r]v IK TOU ouporoG KT\. The singers are the angel 
choirs in heaven and not the 144,000 in Mt. Zion, but the new 
song is intelligible to the 144,000 and to them alone owing to 
their fellowship with Christ. 

Most of the phrases of this verse occur elsewhere in our 
author, see p. 2. 

KiOapcoSuf Ki0api6rra)v ... 3. KCH aSouo-ii . These words 
should be rendered: "harpers harping . . . and singing." It 
is another instance of the literal reproduction in Greek of a 
familiar Hebrew idiom, which we have found already in i. 5-6, 
ii. 2, 9, 20, vii. 14, xv. 3. Thus the style is very characteristic 
of our author. Here the new song is at first sung not by the 
redeemed (as in xv. 3 ; 4 Ezra ii. 42), but by angelic choirs before 
the throne. 

3. Kal <x8ouo-i> = KOL aSovTwv. See preceding note. 
<&s (pStji/ K.a.ivf]v. See note on v. 9. 

IVUTTIOV TOU 0p6Vou. See Introd. to Chap. xiv. 2. 

ouSels e&uVciTo KT\. Only those who are redeemed from the 
earth can learn the song ; for the soul apprehends only that for 
which it has an affinity. Their spiritual experience won through 
travail and tears is the mother of understanding. The song is 
the expression of the inner life, and so in the measure of their 
spiritual growth is likewise the measure of their spiritual appre 
hension. 

OL TjyopacrfjieVoi diro TTJS y?\<s. The diction and thought here 
have already occurred in v. 9, 10. That passage is of supreme 
importance in dealing with the text immediately before us. 
Now the leading thought in v. 9, 10 is that the faithful are 
bought by Christ for God, and consecrated to His service as 
kings and priests. Here also, whether we retain or omit the 
disturbing clauses 0,71-0 r>}s yrjs OVTOL cto-tv ot . . . fjyopd&Qrjcrar, the 



8 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 3. 

idea is of a like nature. The 144,000 have been bought to 
be an offering or sacrifice (airapxy, xiv. 4 : see note on i) unto 
God : cf. vi. 9. 

This verse, with the exception of the words 0,71-0 TO>V avOpMTrw 
airap-ffl TO> 0eu> or r)-yopd<r6r](rav oVo T&V avOpvirw airap^ TO) 0<5, 
seems to be a later addition due to the incorporation of a 
marginal explanatory gloss. In support of the aorist we might 
adduce our author s usage elsewhere : see v. 9, ^yopao-as TW 0<3 
. . . /c Traces (pvXvjs KT\. If, on the other hand, we adopt the 
former view, then in ot ^yopaoyteVot . . . KO.I . . . o^x fvpe@7) we 
have, if the latter clause is original, another instance of our 
author s reproduction in Greek of a Hebrew idiom : see ii. 2, 9, 
20, vii. 14, xiv. 2-3. This combination of the perfect and 
aorist is found often in our author: cf. ii. 3, 5, iii. 2, 3, 17, 
xvi. 6. That Kat TO> dpvta> is an addition appears to be clear from 
the fact that the 144,000 have been bought by the Son for the 
Father; and not by the Son for the Father and for Himself: 
cf. v. 9. The Church is the bride of the Lamb : cf. xix. 7, 8 ; 
Eph. v. 27, not an offering presented to Him. If the above 
clauses are interpolated, the original of 3 c -4 may have run as 
follows : ot rjyopacrfjievot, cbro TOJV avQpMTrwv a.Tra.p^r] TW $e<3. We 
shall now deal with the clauses, which for the time being we 
have assumed to be interpolations. 

But let us waive for the moment the question of the 
authenticity of these clauses and study them in themselves and 
with regard to their immediate context. Now, first of all, it is 
admitted, so far as I am aware, on all hands that the 144,000, 
whether identical with the 144,000 in vii. 4-8, or representing 
the e*lite of the saints composed of Christian ascetics (Bousset, 
Moffatt), must embrace both men and women. That TrapOtvoi can 
be used of men is of course acknowledged. So far all is clear. 
But when we start from these premises and try to explain ovrot 
flcrw ot jjLTa ywaiKwv OVK c/xoXw^crav we are plunged into hope 
less difficulties. For, if we take these words literally, it is 
obvious that they cannot be used of women. Nor indeed can they be 
applied to women in any intelligible sense, whatever the metaphorical 
meaning may be that we attach to the words. Had the writer 
wished, he could easily have found a phrase applicable literally 
and metaphorically alike to men and women, such as ot kv ry 
Tropveia OVK e/xoXw^o-av. Tropveta is used metaphorically in xiv. 
8, xvii. 2, 4, xviii. 3, xix. 2, and iropvevu in xvii. 2, xviii. 3, 9 in 
the sense of idolatrous worship. Such a clause could be used 
both of men and women, in a literal or metaphorical sense, and 
the same idea could have been expressed in other ways. Hence 
we conclude either that men alone are referred to in the text, or 
that this passage is interpolated. Since we cannot accept the 



XIV. 3.] I44POO NOT ASCETICS 9 

former alternative, we are forced to adopt the latter, and the 
task devolves upon us to settle, so far as we may, the ground of 
the interpolation, its extent and meaning. 

Now the chief ground for this interpolation is most naturally 
to be discovered in the misunderstanding of the word a.ira.pxn as 
"first fruits." The monkish interpolator, convinced that the 
highest type of the Christian life was the celibate, naturally 
identified the 144,000, who form the "first fruits" (or best 
portion of the Christian Church), with the celibates. The 
superiority of the celibate life, though un-Jewish and un-Christian, 
was early adopted from the Gnostics and other Christian heretics. 
Thus Saturninus and Basilides declared that " marriage and 
generation are from Satan " (Iren. Adv. Haer. i. 24), while Tatian 
(Eus. H.E. iv. xxix. 3) pronounced marriage to be "corruption 
and fornication." Marcion (Hipp. Phil. vii. 17-19) established 
churches of celibates, while the Encratites claimed a self-restraint 
in advance of that of the Christians. Similarly the religions 
of Isis and Mithra had their celibates throughout the Roman 
Empire, as Buddhism in the far East, certain orders of the 
Aztec priesthood in Mexico, the Vestal Virgins in Rome, and 
the " Virgins of the Sun " in Peru. The pressure of such ideas 
from without early made itself felt, not in the N.T. but in early 
Christianity, as we see from Polycarp, Ad Phil. ii. iv. v. ; 
Hernias, Vis. ii. 2, 3, Sim. ix. 1 1 (see Hastings, Encyc. of Ethics 
and Religion, iii. 271-273, from which the above facts are 
drawn). The interpolation was probably made by John s 
editor. 

It is, of course, possible that the interpolated passage appeared 
first as a marginal gloss on the passage, and that it was subse 
quently incorporated into the text with a necessary change or two. 

As regards the extent, it appears to begin with 0.71-0 rfjs yfjs 
and end with rjyopdo-Orja-av. The repetition of the dyopa<o with 
two different adverbial phrases is remarkable. That O.TTO TW 
avOpuTTw is to be preferred to cnro rfjs yf)<s seems clear from v. 9, 
where we have ^yo /)a<ras . . . IK Traces <J>vX.fj<s. 

The meaning of the interpolation we have already gathered 
from the foregoing criticism of the passage. The glosser or 
interpolator, as the case may be, took the passage to refer to 
celibates, and, as the peculiar clause (ot ftera ywai/caiv OVK c/ioXvv- 
Orja-av) proves, made it refer to male celibates. They were the 
" first fruits " of the entire Christian Church (for such, of course, 
he conceived the meaning of a-rrapx^)- 

This word as used by the interpolator carries with it the 
degradation of marriage an idea inadmissible in the N.T. The 
use of the aorist here shows that their life on earth regarded as 
a discipline belongs to the past. 



IO THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 4-5. 

4. irapOlyoi. The word TrapOevo? was applied to men also : cf. 
Life of Asenath, 3. etrriv Se OVTOS 6 "Icoor^ avrjp $ocre/Ji)s .... Kal 
7rap$j/os. 6. Siort Kai auTos irapOtvos. In Suidas it is applied to 
Abel : A/?eA. OVTOS TrapOevos KOL Suouos vTrfjpxe. Cf. also Epiph. i. 
385 C. 7rapOevva> is used of males in Just. Frag. 1577 A. 

OUTOI ot dicoXou0oGi>Tes KT\. These words can hardly fail to 
be an echo of our Lord s: cf. Mk. ii. 14, x. 21; Luke ix. 59; 
John i. 43, xxi. 19. For another echo cf. i Pet ii. 21, Iva. lira- 
Ko\ov6r)o-r)T rots LX^O-LV O.VTOV. In vii. 17 it is said that the Lamb 
will be the shepherd of the blessed described in vii. 14-15. 
This means according to oriental conceptions that the blessed 
follow Him. Thus to follow Christ is characteristic of the 
faithful, whether on earth, on which they were called to follow 
Him even unto death (Matt. x. 38, xvi. 24, 25), or in the 
Millennial kingdom, or in heaven. But it would be possible to 
take d/coA.ov#owTs as referring to the past, and the subsequent 
words as implying that in such following of the Lamb they 
underwent martyrdom. Cf. vii. 14, xii. n. But the context 
does not favour this interpretation, oiroo af uirdyct. OTTOV else- 
where in the Apocalypse means "where," but with verbs of 
motion it was used as the equivalent of OTTOI. Cf. John viii. 21, 
22, xiii. 33, 36. The av in this connection is impossible in 
classical Greek. In viii. i we have orav rjvoiev, and in Mk. vi. 
56 av occurs after OTTOV with the past imperfect indicative. The 
construction seems to imply an action of indefinite frequency : 
cf. Robertson, Gram. 958. 

dird T&V dvOpwirwi . This phrase summarizes the full enumera 1 
tion given in v. 9. dirapx^ = " sacrifice " or " offering." See 
note on i. [K<H TW dpyuo.] An addition. See note on 4. 

5. K<U iv TW (rnSfxcm auToik oux eup^Orj v|/eu8os. This clause recalls 
most nearly Zeph. iii. 13, /cat ov /u,-^ tvpeOfj Iv TO> o-ro/tari avrwv 
yXwo-cra SoAca, and Isa. liii. 9. In i Pet. ii. 22 we have the latter 
reproduced : ovSc evpeOr) SoAos ei/ r<3 crro/xart avrov. Cf. John i. 47. 
It must, however, be confessed that this clause follows weakly 
after ot ^yopaoyzevot . . . aTrap^r) TW 0ew. 

ajKopn claiK. This sentence introduced asyndetically is in 
the style of our author : cf. xvi. 6. a/Aw/Aos [ = D^Dn] describes 
best the character of the airapxri j in the LXX it has three times 
out of four a sacrificial reference, and affirms the flawlessness of 
the victim. It is that which is unblemished, sacrificially perfect. 
In i Pet. i. 19 Christ Himself is described as d/xvov dfiw^ov, and 
in Heb. ix. 14 as offering Himself as an unblemished sacrifice 
unto God (eauTov Trpoa-rjveyKw a/xwjuov TW $ew). In the present 
context the 144,000 who had been offered in sacrifice to God 
(a-Trapx*! TW $e<3) are likewise described as a/^w/xot. In the five 
other passages, where it occurs in the Pauline Epistles and Jude ? 



XIV. 6.] VARIOUS CRITICISMS OF I -5 II 

the clause has an ethical meaning and connotes "blameless- 
ness." 

Note on xiv. 1-5. This section has been an occasion of 
great difficulty to scholars. I have sought to show that much 
of this difficulty arose from misconception of the word a.Trapxn- 
But, as we have seen, there are other difficulties, which cannot be 
got rid of save by the excision of certain clauses. Volter (iv. 
38 sq., 139 sq.) excises xiv. 4-5 and a phrase in xiv. i, and then 
identifies the 144,000 here with the 144,000 in vii. 4-8. 
Weyland excises xiv. i, 4-5, Erbes xiv. 4 ab , and a phrase in 4 . 
Spitta is the most drastic of all. He changes TO 6Vo/xa . . 
Trarpos avrov into TO ovo/xa rov Oeov wvros : excises 2^-3 and 
reduces 4-5 to the following form : OVTOL ^yopdV^o-av a-n-o T<avav$p&- 
TTCOV faapxn TO) 0e<3. (See pp. 144 sq., 14? *<!> S3 6 -) Wellhausen 
recognizes the fact that the text shows undoubted signs of inter 
polation. Bousset admits the possibility of a source underlying 
xiv. 1-5, but he thinks it impossible to recover it. He therefore 
takes the text as it stands and interprets the 144,000 to be a 
body of Christian ascetics and, therefore, different from the 
144,000 in vii. 4-8. He thinks, however, that there are $ 
in the Apocalypse that these two bodies were originally identical. 
In the above study of xiv. 1-5 I have attempted to show that 
xiv. 1-3 comes from the hand of our author (see also Introd. 
p 2) save probably one phrase (TO oVo/xa avrov K<H) in xiv. i. 
As regards xiv. 4-5 the case is different. Here the diction is 
not much of a guide to us, but the ideas and the irregularity of 
the order of the sentences are. Thus of the various descriptions 
of the 144,000 in 4-5 it is clear from the earlier chapters i 
the essential one is, without doubt, that which descnb 
as a sacrifice to God. , , 

At the close of 5 this idea recurs in the words, a/xco/xot euriv, 
but a purely ethical description intervenes xal iv rf oro/ion . . - 
drevSo* This appears irregular, but greater difficulties have 
already emerged in connection with 4% where the un-Jewish ai 
un-Christian idea is presented, that the very elite of the bless 
consists of ascetics, and that, too, male ascetics. On these and 
other grounds we have excised certain clauses and conclude 
that, before the monkish glosser went to work, our author s to 
read as follows in xiv. 3 c -5, ol $yopo<r^oi &ro TUIV av^pw 
dirapxi? T(5 0e<S- d/xw/xot eZeriv. But Kal ev TW (rro/xaTt . . . ^evoos m 
be original. To rtie interpolator of the above Causes we may owe 
also the removal of the article before the 144,000, which identi 
this 144,000 with the 144,000 in vn. 4-8. 

6-11. Vision of the judgment to be executed on the Ron 
Empire and its worshippers, in which three angels make pro- .ama- 
tion The first proclaimed to all men an eternal < ospel, t 



12 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 6. 

burden of which was that all men should worship the one God 
who had created heaven and earth, for that the hour of judgment 
had come (6-7). The second announced, as though already ac 
complished, the fall of Rome, which had made all the nations to 
drink -of the wine of her fornication (8). The third proclaimed 
that those who submitted to the mandates of Rome would share 
in the everlasting torment that awaited her (9-11). 

6. a\\ov ayyeXoy. The presence of the aAAov occasions some 
difficulty. It is supported by the best textual authorities. If it 
is original, we might, perhaps, with Diisterdieck explain the 
word as used in contradistinction to the angels that had appeared 
in earlier scenes. He compares x. i where aAAov ayyeJW has 
already been mentioned, who, as in the present instance, pro 
claims the impending end of the world. Erbes and J. Weiss 
suppose we have here a reference to viii. 13, where the phrase 
ology is certainly similar : evos derov TreTopevov ev /xecrov/aavTy/xari 
Aeyovros <VT7 /xeyaAr;. Bousset suggests that in aAAov ayyeAov 
we have a dittography, and J. Weiss that it is a corruption of 
a\\ov aurov. Cf. viii. 13. It seems best to explain aAA. ayy. 
as = "another, an angel." See note on 15 below. The difficulty 
recurs in 8, 9. 

ir6TOjuii/oi/ eV jieo-oupcu TJfiaTi. Cf. viii. 13, xix. 17. In the O.T. 
the angels are not represented with wings save in its latest books : 
cf. Dan. ix. 21. 

euayyeXio^ altiviov. This phrase is found here only in the 
Johannine writings, whereas the cognate verb occurs here and in 
x. 7. cvayyeAtov here is not to be translated as if it were TO evay- 
ye Aioi/. Its character is defined by its present context and x. 7. 
It is a proclamation of the impending end of the world and of 
the final judgment, which, while it is a message of good tidings to 
the faithful, constitutes for all nations a last summons to repent 
ance. 

In x. 7 it was made known to His servants the prophets, here 
it is proclaimed to all the world. This gospel is termed alwiov 
because possibly our author wishes to emphasize its unchangeable 
validity for all eternity. 

TOUS KaToiKoGrras em TTJS yfjs (A and some cursives). NCPQ 
read T. KaOrj^evovs lirl T. yfjs. The textual evidence is here in 
decisive. Difficulties beset both readings. The second reading 
is against the normal usage of our author. We should expect CTTI 
r. y^i/ = after the Kc^fy/xeVous. But lirl r. -yrjs is the universal con 
struction in our author after /caroi/cav. Hence if we could discover 
any good ground for the change of fcarot/cowra? into Ka^eVovs, 
we shall have little hesitation in recognizing A as right. Now, 
though the scribes of xCPQ were occasionally doubtful as to 
our author s constructions after 6 Ka0?j/xei/os, TOV 



XIV. 6-7.] THE ETERNAL GOSPEL 13 

KaOijiteva, they could have had no doubt as to the meaning of 
the phrase ot /carotKowTts CTT! TT)S yrjs (always so except in xiii. 12, 
xvii. i, 2, where these constructions are found in sources) else 
where in our author, i.e. iii. 10, vi. 10, viii. 13, etc. And since 
this meaning was always bad in all other passages, and since it 
could not bear such a meaning here, some early scribe may 
have been led to substitute Ka^/xeVovs for KaroiKouvras and thus 
give the phrase the neutral colour it required here. But, if this 
hypothesis of the origin of /ca^/xcVovs is right, its presence here 
can only call for condemnation. It is against our author s 
usage wholly in this construction : indeed, according to his usage 
it could only mean " those who sat on the earth." l 

If, then, we accept the reading of A, we must in this one 
passage attach a purely neutral or geographical sense to the 
phrase, such as it bears not infrequently in i Enoch (see 
xxxviii. 5, note). See note on xi. 10. 



TfOLV 16^09 K<XL <J>U\V * TX See n te n V< 9 

Xfyw- The grammatical irregularity is characteristic of our 
author. See iv. i, xi. i. 

7. \tyuv iv <j>w^5 peydXT). See Introduction to this Chapter, 
8 2 : also note on x. 2. 

4>of^0Y]Te TO.; 6e6 KT\. This gospel is based on a purely 
theistic foundation. But, when the last hour has come, a man s 
chief concern is not dogmatic fullness or correctness of creed, 
but only self-humiliation before and self-surrender to the Lord of 
all. With this announcement we might compare the gospel as 
preached by our Lord in Mark i. 15, /xCTavocire KCU Trta-re^rc iv 
euayyeXi u). 

But a really excellent parallel is to be found in St.^ Pauls 
speech at Lystra, Acts xiv. 15: cvayyeXi&vjew fy.a &ro 
roiW T&V /xaratW brurrpefaw lirl Btov &OI/TO, os l-rroi^ev rov ovpavov 
K al TT)V yyv Kal r^v OaXavvav KT\. On the creation idea, cf. x. 6 
of our text. , , 

The clause <t>oj3. r. Oiov is found in Eccles. xn. 13, and bo 
a^r<3 Sd^av in Josh. vii. 19; i Sam. vi. 5 ; Isa. xlii. 12 ; Jer. xm. 16, 
but they both belong to our author s phraseology : 



} ^X6eK * alJTrli K P taea,s aOrou. The diction and form of this 
sentence are characteristic of our author, but are of still more 
frequent occurrence in the Fourth Gospel. Cf. n. 4, i v - 2I > 2 3 



i ol KaroiKovvres M r. yrjs is a rendering of pm by Djafir and this is the 
normal rendering of it in the LXX.^ In a few cases - .^ LXX of Jeren.ah 
only do we find ol w^^ot M r. yv or r. yp, : cf . xxxu. )V jjj 
definite localities it occurs more frequently : cf Dan. ix. 7, where ^e ^have 
Kadwtws iv lepowraXiiM (LXX KO.TOIKOVW fr lepo., Theod. (A)). . 
on this phrase in xiii., Introd. 4- 



14 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 7-8. 

v. 25, 28, vii. 30, viii. 20, xii. 23, xiii. i, xvi. 2, 4, 21, 25, 32, 
xvii. i. 

irpocTKun^d aTe TO> iroi^o-aKTi. This is the usage of our 
author : contrast 9 where this verb takes the ace. of TO Orjptov 
also the usage of our author. See note on vii. n. 

Trpocncunrj<raTe TW iroiTJ<rai>Ti TOV oupavbv KT\. Since God has 
created the world, man s allegiance is due to God. The fact of 
God as creator has already been brought forward in iv. n, x. 6, 
but in both these passages KTL&IV and not Troieu/ has been used. 
References to the creative activity of God are rare in the N.T. 
but frequent in the O.T. See note on iv. n. 

TTTjyas uSdrwi/. The absence of the article is noteworthy, 
contrast xvi. 4, viii. 10. The phrase is a familiar O.T. one: cf. 
i Kings xviii. 5 ; 2 Kings iii. 19 (D^D ^TO), 25 ; Ex. xv. 27 ; 
Num. xxxiii. 9. 

8. The second angel proclaims the fall of Rome. 

aXXos Seurepos ayyeXos. So the best MSS. But we should 
rather expect simply ayyeXos Sevrepos or aXXos ayy. Sevr. for 
when our author uses another adjective in addition to aXXos it is 
added after the noun: cf. vi. 4, x. i, xiv. 9, xv. i : i.e. "another 
angel, a second one." 

eireo-ey, e-rrecrej BapuXcui/. These words are already found in 
Isa. xxi. 9. P33 PlpSj n?DD, LXX, 7re7rro>Kei/ TreTrrw/cei/ Ba/JvXom 
Cf. Jer. li. 8. But the two clauses eVeo-ei/ . . . TO. Wvq seem to 
be derived by our author immediately from xviii. 2-3 (a source). 
To Ba/3vXwv our author always attaches the epithet 77 ^eyctA?/, an 
epithet which goes back to Dan. iv. 27 (tfrm i>33) ; cf. xvi. 19, 
xvii. 5, xviii. 2, 10, 21. That Babylon was already a synonym 
for Rome in the first century A.D. is clear from 2 Bar. xi. i ; 
Sibyl. Or. v. 143, 159; i Pet. v. 13 (?). Cf. also xvi. 19, xvii. 5, 
xviii. 2, 10, 21. 

] K TOU otyou [TOU Oujjiou] TTJS iropyetag aurrjs ireiroTiKei/ ira^Ta 
TO, eSj T]. This very extraordinary form of speech, which recurs 
in xviii. 3, can hardly be original. The text as it stands com 
bines two wholly disparate ideas. The first is c/c roO olvov T^S 
TropvLa<s avT7j<s a phrase which occurs in xvii. 2 i.e. "the wine 
of her fornication," which Babylon has made all the nations to 
drink. This wine symbolizes the intoxicating power, the corrupt 
ing influence of Rome. The second is e* TOU OLVOV rov Ov^ov (ro 
6cov) a phrase which occurs in xiv. 10 i.e. "the wine of the 
wrath- of God," which He will give Babylon to drink. This latter 
phrase recurs in a fuller form in xvi. 19, xix. 15, rov olvov TOV 
Ovfjiov rrjs opyfjs avrov. But in the O.T. it is God Himself that 
presents through His prophet this wine of wrath to the nations : 
cf. Jer. xxv. 15, which seems to have been in the mind of our 
author, \dj3e TO Trorijpiov TOV olvov TOV aKpdrov TOVTOV IK vetoes #,ov 



XIV. 8-9.] DOOM OF WORSHIPPERS OF BEAST 1 5 

Kal TroTiets iravra. TO. ZOvrj. In xxviii. (li.) 7 Babylon is said to be 
a cup in the hand of the Lord whereof the nations have drunk and 
become mad : Tror^ptov xpva-ow Ba/5uXa>i/ ev x t P^ icvpiav fjL(6vcn<ov 
Tracrav TVJV y*)v. ATTO rov owov avrrjs e7noo~av <i6v7]. 8ia rovro <ra- 



As we study the above facts two ways of dealing with the text 
appear to be open to us. i. Excise rov Ovpov as an interpola 
tion due to the occurrence of the phrase rov OLVOV rov 6vfj.ov in 
10. The extraordinary divergence of the MSS in xviii. 3, where 
the phrase recurs, points either to an interpolated or a very 
difficult text. 2. Since our author / appears to have had 
Jer. xxv. 15 sq. in his mind, and since the text there has prr 
nronn ( = "the wine which is wrath," i.e. wine of wrath), it is 

possible that he took iiDn in the sense of " poison," which it 
sometimes bears (cf. Deut xxxii. 24, 33; Ps. Iviii. 5, cxl. 4). 
The fact that it maddens the nations (Jer. xxv. 16, li. 7 ; 
Hab. ii. 15) might be taken to favour this meaning. If this be 
right, then our text would mean " the wine of the poison of her 
fornication." But it seems best to regard TOV Ovpov as an inter 
polation. The nations, having drunk of the wine of the fornica 
tion of Babylon, have really therein drunk the wine of the wrath 
of God. 

9. The third angel proclaims a doom of everlasting torment 
for adherents of the Imperial cult. This forms a counter pro 
clamation to that in xiii. 15, 17. 

iv ^coyf) fieyaXT). See note on x. 2. 
irpoo-Kui/et TO Qr\piov. See note on 7. 

f Xajjif3di>et x^YF 101 1- Cf. xii. n, xix. 20, xx. 4. On 
Xapay//,a, see xiii. 1 6, note. The absence of the article before \a.pa.- 
yfjia is suspicious. The context leads us to expect it. First it 
immediately follows the definite mention of the Beast (TO Brjpiov}, 
whose mark it is. Next this mark has already been twice 
mentioned in xiii. in the first instance in xiii. 16, without the 
article because mentioned for the first time, and again in xiii. 1 7 
with the article, Finally the angel would not speak in this in 
definite way of this brand of hell. Contrast xx. 4. All mankind 
knew "the mark." We must suppose the angel knew so also. 
Hence we should read TO xapay^a or excise /ecu Aa/x/2cu>ei . . . 
Xetpa cdjTov as an interpolation. 

f eir! TOU JJLCTWTTOU f. This construction of eVi with fifTuirov 
is against our author s usage. We should expect eVt TO ^eVtoTrov. 
See notes on vii. 3, xiii. 16. When we combine these two irregu 
larities just dealt with, we are forced, it seems, to infer either that 
the text is corrupt or that we have in KCU Aa//,/?aw . . . x ^P a a ^ T0 ^ 
a marginal gloss. The closing words of 1 1 support the former con- 






16 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 9-1O. 

elusion. Hence we should probably read KOL Aa/z/?dV TO xapay/xa 

7Tt TO jU,TO)7TOV CLVTOV Y] 7Tt T7]V ^LpCL CLVTOV. 

10. Kal auros mcTcu, " he too (the man who has received the 
mark) shall drink." To Rome herself finally this cup is given in 
xvi. 17. The /cat introduces the apodosis as in x. 17 (iii. 20 NQ). 

IK TOU olvou TOU OujJiou TOU 0ou TOU KeKepaafieVou aKpdrou iv TW 
iroTr]piw TTJS opytjs. Parallel expressions to Trorrjpiov r^s 0/37775 
avrov are found in Isa. li. 17, 22 ; Jer. xxv. 15, and in xviii. 6 in 
our text. The subject has in part been discussed under ver. 8 
above. The only real difficulty lies in the words TOV OLVOV TOV 
&VJJLOV . . . TOV KKepa.o~fjivov aKparov. The source of the expres 
sion appears to be Ps. Ixxv. 9, Sri iroTrfpiov ev X l /^ KVQLOV, OLVOV 
aKpaTov TrAiJpes Kepao-jaaros. Here the Mass, has *]DD N7E "0011 p 
for the last four words. We should also compare Jer. xxxii. i 

(XXV. 15) TO TTOT^ptOV TOV OLVOV TOV aKp&TOV = HNTH nDPin ^Tl DID. 

We have still another parallel in Pss. Sol. viii. 15, Sta TOVTO 
Kpao-i/ auTOts 6 0eos TTVCV/JLO. TrAavr/Q-ews* CTTOTIO-CV avrovs TrorrfpLov 
OLVOV aKpaTov cts fJieOyv. From the last passage it follows that 
there can be no inconsistency between tVpcurev and d/cpaTov. The 
verb refers to the mingling of this wine with elements (as the 
literal wine with spices) that will not weaken it but render it 
noxious or poisonous, whereas the adjective (d/cpaTou) states that 
it is unmixed with water. For this use of a/cpaTo? cf. 3 Mace, 
v. 2 ; Galen (in Wetstein) : OLVOV aKpaTov eu/cu Aeyo/xev, o> ^ 
/xe /u/crai TO voup r) . . . oAiyov //X/UKTCU,. In Ps. Ixxv. 9 the same 
explanation of the LXX would hold good, though in that case 
we have to read "iDH p". In Jer. xxxii. i (xxv. 15) aKparov 
therefore implies lEnn p, and not the Massoretic reading given 
above. On the other hand, it must be stated that modern scholars, 
though they accept "ionn as the reading in Jer. xxv. 15, do not 
attribute to it the same meaning either here or in Ps. Ixxv. 9 as 
the LXX. 

From the above authorities we conclude that the passage is 
to be explained " the wine of the wrath of God which is mingled 
sheer in the cup," etc. But for the close parallels given above 
we might accept the proposal of Ewald, Alford and others that 
from the almost universal custom of mixing wine with water the 
common term for preparing wine came to be /cepctj/j/v/xi. Thus 
Eustathius says on Od. v. 93 that in K^pao-o-e 8e veKrap IpvQpov 
the verb /ce pao-cre = eve^ct. A further suggestion may be offered. 
Our author, we know, was better acquainted with Hebrew than 
with Greek. It is possible, therefore, that judging from the 
LXX he took a/cpaTos to be a right rendering of "ion just as the 
author of Pss. Sol. xvi. n took 6Aiyoi/a>xia (which really means 
" faintheartedness ") to be a right rendering of nn ixp ( = " im 
patience "), a misrendering that is also found in the LXX. If 



XIV. 10.] DOOM OF WORSHIPPERS OF BEAST 17 

this be so, then we might assign to ^paro, the meaning of 
inn, and render the wine of the wrath of God which is minted 
foaming m the cup." The "foaming" or "fermentation" is 
for the natkTns ^ ^ mingled this CU P of Judgment 

poaa^aeToi Iv Trupl Kal fc&p. The imagery goes back to 
the torments to be inflicted on Edom : Isa. xxxiv. 8-10 The 
punishment of brimstone and fire appears first in connection 
with Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen. xix. 24). As Anderson Scott 
writes inloc., "it is instructive to trace the development of the 
symbolism springing from the circumstances of an event in 
history, providing the traditional features, first of any great 
judgment, then of the day of the Lord, and, finally, of the judg 
ment of Christ." Our author uses this symbolism again in 
xix. 20, xx. 10, xxi. 8. 

Ivtitnov rw dyy&w. The idea has occurred already in 
i Enoch xlviii. 9 in another form : 

" And I will give them over into the hands of Mine elect : 
As straw in fire, so shall they burn before the face of the 

holy: 
As lead in water, so shall they sink before the face of the 

righteous, 
And no trace of them shall any more be found." 

In i Enoch xxvii. 2, 3, xc. 26, 27, 4 Ezra vii. 36, as in the 
passage before us, the sufferings of the wicked form an ever- 
present spectacle to the righteous ; but not so in the Parables of 
i Enoch. There Gehenna and its victims form only a tempo 
rary spectacle. Then they vanish from the presence of the 
righteous for ever, as in the later sections of the Apocalypse. 
See i Enoch xlviii. 9, note, Ixii. 12, 13. This is not due to any 
moralisation of the idea but to the conception of a new heaven 
and a new earth, which exclude the possibility of the Gehenna 
conception. In Luke xii. 9 the wicked are to be disowned by 
Christ in the presence of His angels. This idea of Gehenna 
as an ever-present spectacle over against Paradise arose 
through a mistaken etymology of the phrase D^iy pNTi in 
Isa. Ixvi. 24 and Dan. xii. 2. In the ist cent. B.C. or as early as 
the close of the 2nd cent. B.C. Jewish scholars regarded pjm as 
derived from n&O. Thus the LXX of Isa. Ixvi. 24 renders this 
word ecrovrat ets opatriv. 

Kal Ivtiiriov TOU dpyiou. Many critics remove this phrase as a 
gloss owing to the position after run/ dyye Awv. If it is original 
it is best to render the phrase: "even before the Lamb." 
Bousset suggests that the phrase " before the angels " is a late 
Jewish periphrasis for "before God." Cf. Luke xv. 10, xii. 8, 9 ; 



VOL. II. 2 



1 8 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 10-20. 

and Bousset s ReL des Judentums, 308, but in the present context 
this is unlikely. 

11. KCU 6 Kcrnvos TOU j3a<Tayicr|xou auTwi . . . oVaj3aii/et. Cf. 
xviii. 9, xix. 3, XX. 10 ; Isa. xxxiv. 10, rrat ^ yrj air^s a>? TriWa 
/cato/xei/r; VVKTOS /cat ^/xepas, /cat ov cr/Jeo^o-erat ets TOV attoi/a ^povov, 
/cat di/a/J tycreTai 6 /caTrvos avr?}? avw. The word /3acraviay>ios is used 
here as denoting the condition of those in torment, and similarly 
in xviii. 7, 10, 15, whereas in the gloss (?) in ix. 5 it has an active 
meaning. In Luke xvi. 23, 28 (Wisd. iii. i ; 4 Mace. xiii. 15) 
pacravos is used to denote passive suffering. 

oux x ouortl tofaravrnv KT\. Cf. iv. 8, where the same Greek 
clause occurs, but there it means the deliberate and willing 
surrender on the part of the Cherubim of their entire time to the 
praise of God, whereas here it denotes the involuntary endurance 
of ceaseless torment on the part of those who worship the Beast : 
cf. i Enoch Ixiii. 6. 

" And now we long for a little rest but find it not : 
We follow hard upon and obtain it not." 



i TIS Xajj,|3dVi = ot 

XIV. 12-13. These verses do not belong here but have in 
this edition been restored to their original position after xiii. 15. 
Just as at the close of xiii. 10 our author enforced the need of 
patience and faithfulness under the persecutions described in 
xiii. io abc , so after he has foretold universal persecution and 
martyrdom for the saints in xiii. 15, and in xiv. 12 has enforced 
the need of patience on the part of the saints, a voice from 
heaven is heard declaring the blessedness of those who die in 
the Lord. For a full treatment of these verses see the section 
that follows immediately after xiii. 15, vol. i. pp. 3 68 ~373- 

14, 18-20. A proleptic vision of the preliminary Messi 
anic judgment executed by the Son of Man on the heathen 
nations, which is described in detail in xix. 11-16, and further 
apparently in xx. 7-10, and under another form in xvii. 14. 
Although nearly all scholars have taken 14-20 to be the work of 
one hand, it is clear, as Wellhausen has already recognized, that 
in 14-20 there are doublets. Wellhausen takes these to be 
14-16 and 17-20, but a study of the text and context shows that 
this analysis of the passage cannot be sustained. No more can 
that of Bousset, who regards xiv. 14-20 as originally from a 
foreign source, like xi. 1-13, and considers xiv. 17-18 as the 
addition of a reviser. For (i) since in xiv. 15-17 there are 
constructions (see notes on 15-17, p. 21) which are against 
our author s use, we conclude that these verses are an intrusion 
here, and that xiv. 14, 18-20 represent the original text. 
(2) Again the phrase aXXos ayyeAos (15) is noteworthy. It shows 



XIV. 14.] VISION OF MESSIANIC JUDGMENT 19 

that the interpolator failed to recognize the " One like a Son of 
Man" in 14 as Christ, and took Him to be simply an angel, and 
hence assigned a mightier role to this second and unnamed 
angel. But to place beside the Son of Man a second figure, and 
that merely an angelic one as the judge of the earth, is hardly 
intelligible from any point of view. 

(3) When 15-17 are removed, the text describes the 
Son of Man reaping the vintage of the earth just as in xix. 
11-16, where He treads the winepress of the wrath of God. 
This fact is also against Wellhausen s analysis which would 
connect the Son of Man with the harvesting of the earth and 
an angel with the gathering in of the vintage of the earth. 
(4) Again, neither 0e/3io> (Matt. xxv. 24, etc.) nor any of its 
derivatives (Matt. ix. 37 sq., xiii. 30, xxv. 24; Mark iv. 29; 
John iv. 35 sqq.) is used elsewhere in the Apocalypse in regard 
to divine judgment, whereas in xix. vintage terms are applied 
metaphorically as in xiv. 18-20 to this judgment. (5) Again^, 
instead of TO SpeTravoV o-ov in 15 we should expect <rov TO 
SpeVaroi/ TO 6u, as rightly in 18, seeing that the SpeVavov is 
already described as 6u in 14. (6) Finally, when the intrusive 
doublet (15-17) is removed, we understand why it is that the 
angel from the altar conveys the command to the Son of Man to 
gather in the vintage of the earth. The angel of the altar has 
had to do with the souls of those who had been martyred, and 
whose souls had cried in vi. 9 from beneath the altar to God for 
judgment on the inhabitants of the earth. This act of Messianic 
judgment is thus connected with the prayers of the martyrs : cf. 
Luke xviii. 7, 8. 

14. There can be no question as to the identity of the divine 
figure seated on the cloud. He is described as " One like a 
Son of Man." The phrase o/xotov viov avOpuTrov is a solecism so 
far as regards form, and is found only in our author here and in 
i. 13. The O.T. source of this expression is undoubtedly Dan. 
vii. 13, "I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with 
the clouds of heaven one like unto a son of man (LXX, u>s vtos 
di/tfwTroi;)." But the expression, though identical in both works, 
so far as language goes, is dissimilar in meaning. According to 
the interpretation of the angel in Dan. vii. 18, 22, 27, the phrase 
denotes the saints of the Most High. But this is not all. In 
apocalyptic visions, where men or bodies of men are symbolized 
by beasts (as in Daniel, i Enoch, Testaments of the XII Patri 
archs, etc.), angels and supernatural beings are symbolized by 
men. If, therefore, the expression " Son of Man " is to be taken 
strictly in Daniel, it undoubtedly suggests a supernatural being 
or body of such beings supernatural beings but not angels; 
for the form of the phrase excludes this possibility. In the 



20 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 14. 

apocalyptic vision an angel is simply designated " a man." Hence 
the words "like a man " = "like an angel," i.e. a being who is of 
a supernatural character but not an angel. Thus in Daniel we 
are to infer that the faithful remnant in Israel are to be trans 
formed into supernatural beings as in i Enoch xc. 38 (161 B.C.). 
That this is the meaning of the text is proved by the adjoining 
clause, "there came with the clouds of heaven." This clause 
implies beyond question supernatural authority. 

Thus in Daniel the phrase is a collective designation of the 
righteous Israelites after they have undergone a heavenly trans 
formation. 

But a further development was necessary before we arrive at 
the conception conveyed by this phrase in our author, and this 
development was reached first, so far as existing literature goes, 
in i Enoch xxxvii.-lxxi., the author of which interpreted " one 
like a son of man " of an individual, i.e. the Messiah, and by so 
doing rose to the conception of a supernatural Messiah. Thus 
the way was prepared for the N.T. designation "the Son of 
Man " (6 vlos TOV avOpuirov) which in the Gospels has thrown off 
its distinctive apocalyptic form " like unto a Son of Man " (u>s 
vios avOpwirov), a form, however, which has been retained in the 
Apocalypse. On this use of <os in apocalyptic see additional 
note on i. TO, vol. i. p. 35 sq. For a like transition inside our 
author, cf. xv. 2, where we have first o>9 #oAacro-av va\wrjv and then 
rr)v OdXavcrav TYJV vaXivrjv. 

In 4 Ezra xiii. 3 (before 70 A.D. ?) we find the very same 
expression. The Latin here is wanting, but the Syriac = o>s 
o/Wuyxa mov avOpuTrov, where, however, the Syriac is only a 
paraphrastic rendering of o/xotov as in the Peshitto of Ezek. 
i. 5, 22, 26, x. i ; and of Rev. i. 13, xiv. 14. See Gwynn, 
Apocalypse of St. John, i. 13, note. Thus the Syriac of the 
Peshitto in Rev. i. 13, xiv. 14, and 4 Ezra xiii. 3 is exactly the 
same, and both presuppose o/xotov vlov (i.e. wo>) avOputrov. Hence 
4 Ezra xiii. 3 should be rendered as follows : 

" And I beheld and lo ! the wind caused to come up out of 
the heart of the seas one like a son of man. And I beheld and 
lo ! this son of man flew with the clouds of heaven." The 
Ethiopic version supports this rendering. 

ojxoioy ul6i>. See the last note but one. 

em TTJV Ke4>e \T]i> KaO^j&eiw. Cf. Dan. vii. 13. See note on 
i. 7. 

<rre$a,vov xp 00 " ""- We have here the golden wreath but not 
the SiaSrj/xaTa, which he wears in xix. 12. Even in the Apoca 
lypse the crre</)avos has many associations. Probably it carries 
with it here the idea of victory as in ii. 10, iii. n, vi. 2. 

[15-17. We have seen already in note on p. 18 that these 



XIV. 14-15.] 15-17 AN INTERPOLATION 2 I 

verses are a doublet of 14, iS- 2 o. We have found that 14, 
18-20 come from the hand of our author and form a uniform 
picture, the unity of which is broken up by the interpolated 
verses 15-17. This doublet was probably suggested by the 
poetic parallelism in Joel iii. 13. 

" Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe : 
Come, tread ye, for the winepress is full." 

In 15-17 the judgment is represented as a harvesting of the 
earth. This figure is used both in the O.T. and in the Gospels in 
relation to the last judgment : cf. Matt. xiii. 30, 39, but not in 
the Apocalypse, save in the present interpolated passage, where 
the figure is worked out fully and vividly. The interpolator of 
15-17 has, of course, imitated the phrasing and diction of the 
Apocalypse, but he betrays his ignorance in four constructions, 
*.& in 15, Kpdfav v cfxDvf) fj,eyd\rj, whereas our author would have 
written icpawv <f>wf) ^eyaX^ (see Introd. to this Chap. 2) ; roi 
/ca%/,eVo> 7rt -nys j/e^e A^s (whereas our author would have written 
eVt ry v^Xrf : see vol. i. p. 112 sq.) : in 16, 6 KaOfatvos eVi -nfc 
i/e^e A^s (whereas our author would have used CTTI -njv v^^Xrjv) ; 
and e/?aAev . . . ?rt TTJV yr\v (whereas our author would have 
Written l/foXev . . . ts TT)V yrjv). 

15. dXXog ayyeXos. The attempt to explain the aXXos here as 
looking back to 6 or 9 can hardly be justified, since 6-u and 
14-20 are quite distinct visions. Even the use of KOL clSov /ecu ISov 
in xiv. 14 (see^note on iv. i) is sufficient to prove that this is so. 
It is most important to distinguish the different meanings of 
oAXos in xiv. 8, 9, 15, 17, 18. In xiv. 8, 9 there is no difficulty. 
aAXos is used idiomatically as in classical Greek, and the phrase 
= " another, the second angel," etc. But in xiv. 15, 17, 18 
there is this use and another. In 15, 17 we have the ordinary 
use, where the phrase = "another angel." For the interpolator 
of xiv. 15-17 regarded the Son of Man in xiv. 14 merely as an 
angel, since in xiv. 17 he makes an angel hold joint authority 
with Him in the Messianic Judgment and discharge in xiv. 19-20 
the duty assigned to the Messiah in xix. 11-16. Hence in 
xiv. 15 oAXos ayyeXos=" another angel." But in xiv. 18 the 
phrase is to be rendered differently. There, on the excision of 
xiv. 15-17 as an interpolation, the aAXos in aAA. ayy. refers back 
indeed to the Son of Man in xiv. 14, but at the same time it 
distinguishes this angel from the Son of Man, as a different kind 
of being; for nowhere throughout our author is the Son of Man 
conceived of as an angel. Hence aXX. ayy. = " another, an 
angel." Cf. the use of Irepos in Luke xxiii. 32. 

eK TOU vaou. I.e. the heavenly temple. See note in vol. i 
p. in sq. 



22 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 15 18. 



Kpdfav v <f>wrrj fAeydXfl. Our author does not insert the ev : 
cf. vi. 10, vii. 2, 10, x. 3, xix. 17, where we have Kpd&w <f>(Dvrj 
prydXr). It is true that in xviii. 2 we have Kpaeiv Iv to^pa 
(fxDvrj. But this latter passage is from another source. 

TW Ka0T)fAeV<o em TTJS ye<f>\T]s. Here and in the next verse the 
construction is against the usage of our author, though it is the 
more usual in classical Greek. See note on iv. 2. 

In the three lines beginning with W/AI/AOV TO SpeVai/oi/ o-ov we 
have apparently a paraphrase of Joel iv. 13, fen T3 te *nfe 
VVp, the first line being an expanded translation of the first two 
words in Joel, and the second and third lines being probably 
duplicate paraphrastic renderings of the last three words, though, 
like the LXX and the Targum, they presuppose a text differing 
from the Massoretic. Thus line two, ort r)\6ev rj wpa Ocpi<rai t 
presupposes by yXOtv some Hebrew verb = " has come " as also 
does the LXX by TrapeVn/Kei/ (cf. Mark iv. 29, aTroo-re AAei TO 
SpeVavov, on Trap^(TT7]Kv 6 fleptoyxos) and the Targum by NDE>. 
In line three, 6Vi f cfypdvOr) f 6 #6/3107x0? rfjs yfjs, egypdvO-rj pre 
supposes Ba\ Is this a corruption of ^BO? ^patVco is un 
exampled in the sense of "to ripen," so far as I am aware, but 
might be explained as a rendering of a corrupt text. i/p(uVa> 
means " to dry up," as in xvi. 1 2, or " to wither " when used of 
plants (cf. Matt. xiii. 6, etc.) or of crops (cf. Joel i. 1 7, tgrjpdvOr) 
O-ITOS), but not " to ripen." It will be observed that the writer of 
15-17 uses some form of the Hebrew text and not the LXX. 

TO Spe irai/oV o-ou. We should observe two things here. First, 
we should expect the addition of TO 6v here, since the epithet 
is already attached to SpeVavov in 14. In 18, which we hold to 
be the original sequel to 14, we find, as we should expect, ir^ov 
(rov TO SpeTravov TO 6v. Next, in 1 5 we note the position of the 
o-ov after its noun, in which case the emphasis is laid on the pro 
noun, whereas in 18 the o-ov stands before its noun, in which case 
the emphasis is laid on TO SpeVavoi/To 6v a fact which points to 
the thoroughness with which the vintage is carried out in 19-20. 

<Spa Oepurai. For the construction cf. v. 5, ix. 10, xi. 6, 
xvi. 9. 

16. This verse is modelled on 19, the judgment being referred 
to under the figure of a harvest instead of a vintage. But, as I 
have already pointed out on 15, the construction 6 Ka^/xevo? eTri 
rfjs v<f>\r}<s is against the usage of our author. !/2aAei/ . . . eVi 
rrjv yrfv is unexampled in our author. In such a construction 
ets not eVt is always used by him. See note on 19. 

17. TOU yaou iv TW oupayw. See note in vol. i. p. 1 1 1 sq.] 

18. We here resume the original vision into which 15-17 
were interpolated. In this verse aXXos ayyeXos is to be rendered 



XIV. 18.] MESSIANIC JUDGMENT 23 

"another, an angel." See note on 15 above. The phrase 
6 !x<ov ^ova-Lav CTTI rov ?rvpos appears to be interpolated. At all 
events it makes no contribution to the context. If it had any 
right to a place in our text it might have been in viii. 3, but 
even there it would have been meaningless. Lists of angels who 
were set over the natural elements will be found in i Enoch 
Ix. 1 1-2 1 ; Jub. ii. 2. See Bousset, Religion des Judentums\ 
317 ; Encyc. Bib. ii. 1258 sqq. ; Jewish Encyc. i. 589 sqq. 

ttYYeXos &* T0 " 6uona<rrT)ptou. When the disturbing inter 
polation, 15-17, is removed, the role of the angel, who came forth 
from the altar, is at once intelligible. The number of the 
martyrs is at last complete, and now their prayer (vi. 10) from 
beneath the altar can be fulfilled, and so the angel, who has to 
do with the souls of the martyrs beneath the altar, is entrusted 
by God with the task of carrying to the Son of Man the command 
to undertake the judgment of the earth to thrust in the sickle 
and reap the vintage and tread the winepress of the wrath of 
God (cf. xix. 15). This judgment is the Messianic judgment 
that precedes the Millennial reign of the Messiah. In xvi. 7 the 
altar itself proclaims the truth and righteousness of God s judg 
ments. In ix. 13 a voice from the altar commands the letting 
loose of the first demonic woe against those who had not the seal 
of God in their foreheads. On this the one heavenly altar- 
see note in vol. i. p. 224 sq. Only one angel is mentioned here in 
connection with the righteous martyrs beneath the altar. But in 
contemporary and earlier apocalyptic many angels were said 
to keep guard over the souls of the departed righteous : cf. 
i Enoch c. 5 ; 4 Ezra vii. 85, 95. 

6 IX<OK Itowiav KT\. See note at the beginning of this verse. 

ecjxoi Yjaev (jxoj/fj jAcyAi]. <wi/etv is found only here in our 
author. For the entire phrase cf. Mark i. 26 ; Acts xvi. 28. 

TO bpeiravov TO 6u, i.e. the sharp sickle mentioned in 14. 

ire>v|/oi/ <rou TO Spetravov. Here (cf. 15) we have a tristich, of 
which the first and third lines are largely a reproduction of 
Joel iv. 13. The first line consists simply of the words in Joel, 
with the addition of the epithet "sharp," which the context 
requires (cf. 14 ad fin.}, while the third line is in part a transla 
tion and in part a transformation of the clause in Joel, ?l?3 "3 
TOp ; for JfKfjuurav is a good rendering of ^3, whereas at o-ra^vXai 
avTfjs is simply substituted instead of 06pr//,os = TOp. And yet 
this tristich gives the impression of the master hand, and drives 
home in each line with ever-increasing force the thought of 
Seer, who does not quote but simply transforms an O.T. couple 
to serve his present purpose. What a contrast it presents tc 
feebleness of the tristich in 15 ! It should perhaps be mentioned 
here that some scholars have taken 15-16 to refer to the mgather- 



24 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIV. 18-20. 

ing of the saints, and 17-20 to the judgment that befalls the 
wicked, and thought that there is a delicate propriety in the fact 
that the former is assigned to the Son of Man, and the latter to 
a nameless angel. But there is no support for this view in our 
author ; for in xix. 11-16 it is this very treading of the winepress 
of the wrath of God that is especially the role of the Son of God. 
Moreover, in the rest of the N.T. the words Qepi&iv and 0epio-/Ao s 
are used of reaping harvests good or bad, alike as regards man 
(cf. Matt. xxv. 24, 26; Gal. vi. 7, 8 ; i Cor. ix. n) and the 
angels, who are termed the flepto-ras (see Matt. xiii. 30, 39 : cf. 
Mark iv. 29). As a man sows good or evil, he reaps accordingly. 
Similarly in the judgment, the angels gather alike the tares and 
the wheat in the last great harvesting (Matt. xiii. 30, 39). The 
word OTTOS, " wheat," as a symbol of the righteous is not found in 
our author. Finally to resume once more in xiv. 6-20 we 
have a proleptic summary from the divine standpoint of the 
Messianic judgments which are represented on a larger canvas in 
xvi. i8-xviii. and xix. 11-21, xx. 7-10. Thus there is no ground 
for the attempt to differentiate and justify the occurrence side by 
side of what are really doublets. 15-17 are, from whatever 
standpoint we regard them, a disturbing element in the text. 

19. e|3aXei/ . . . ets TTJO yrji/. Our author uses either CTTI 1-179 
yfjs, v. 3, 10, 13, vii. I, x. 2, 5, 8, xvi. 18, xviii. 24, or ets rrjv yr^v, 
v. 6, vi. 13, viii.^5, 7, ix. i, 3, xii. 4, 9, 13, xiii. 13, xvi. i, 2. 
cpa\fv . . . lirl rrjv yfjv is found only in the interpolated passage, 
xiv. 15-17. ZfiaXev is here another rendering of rbw in 
Joel iv. 13. 

[6 ayyeXos]. An interpolation due to the hand that inserted 
iS- 1 ^. The Son of Man is never described as an angel. See 
note on 15. 

ir[v \t\vQv . . . TOV jjLe yai/. This irregularity is probably to be 
explained by the fact that A-^vos in classical Greek is sometimes 
masculine (Winer, lix. 4, p. 66 1 ; cf. Kautzsch s Gesenius Heb. 
Gram, for similar anomalies in Heb. : no /, 135 o, 144(1, 
i45/, /, u). Analogous solecisms are characteristic of our author: 

cf. xxi. 14, TO Tet^os . . . ^(ov. 

\K\VOV TOU OUJULOU Tou 6eou. Here and in xix. 15 only in the 
N.T. The phrase TOV Ov/jiov rov 6tov is rather frequent : cf. 
xv. i, 7, xvi. i, 19, xix. 15. 

20. Though the Messianic judgment as executed by the 
Son of Man is here described in awful terms, it is not the final 
judgment, which is regarded by our author as the prerogative of 
the Father : cf. xx. 1 1 sqq. The diction appears to be influenced 
by Isa. Ixiii. 3, where Yahweh declares, " I have trodden the 
winepress alone," and in i Enoch c. 3, " And the horses shall 
walk up to the breast in the blood of sinners, And the chariot 



XIV. 20.] MESSIANIC JUDGMENT 25 

shall be submerged to its height." This phraseology reappears 
in Talmudic writings in connection with the carnage at Bether in 
the time of Hadrian : see my note in i Enoch c. 3 : also 
4 Ezra xv. 35, erit sanguis a gladio usque ad ventrem equi ; 36, 
et femur hominis et poplites cameli. 

efrQev TTJS inSXcws. There can be no question as to the identity 
of " the city." It is not Rome (for its destruction has already been 
announced in the hearing of the Seer in 9), but Jerusalem. It is, 
moreover, most probably not the earthly Jerusalem but the 
heavenly Jerusalem which is to descend from heaven to be the 
centre of the Kingdom of Christ for the 1000 years. For in the 
notes on xx. 1-6 we shall see that the heavenly Jerusalem de 
scribed in xxi. 9-xxii. 2 is in reality the city that is to come down 
from heaven to take the place of the old Jerusalem and become 
the capital of Christ s kingdom for the 1000 years. Ifxiv. 14, 
18-20 is a proleptic summary of xix. 11-21 only, then the city 
referred to might be the historic Jerusalem, or rather its ruined 
site: but if this is a summary of xix. 11-21 and also xx. 7-10, 
then the city can be none other than the city that came down 
from heaven the seat of the Messianic Kingdom. 

Jewish tradition had long associated the neighbourhood of 
Jerusalem with the scene of the judgment of the Gentiles. 
According to Joel iii. 2, 12, God was to assemble and judge 
the Gentiles in "the valley of Jehoshaphat," a phrase which 
Theodotion renders by ryv x^pav -n/s /c/oto-ews. According to the 
Midrash Mishle, 68 d , God was to judge the whole world in this 
valley. ^ It is referred to in i Enoch liii. i (where see my note). 
Zechariah speaks also of the judgment of the Gentiles, who laid 
Jerusalem desolate, being executed on the Mount of Olives 
(xiv. 2 sqq., 12 sq.). In our author it is all the heathen nations 
that are to be similarly judged. 

li]\Qev cujxa KT\. See preceding notes. 

diro oraSiW KT\. = "to a distance of 1600 furlongs." This 
peculiar use^of O.TTO is found also in John xi. 18, xxi. 8 (d 
TT^WI/ SiaKoo-iW). Abbott (Gram. p. 227) describes it as " a natural 
transposition arising from the desire to give prominence to the 
notion distant, as in our * distant two hundred cubits, and then 
illogically allowing the preposition that signifies distance to 
govern cubits. " Similar transpositions occur in the case of irpo, 
as in John xii. i, irpb e ly/xepcuv TOV tracrxa; LXX of Amos i. i, 
iv. 7, Hippocrates, -n-pb rpi&v ^/xepwv r?}? TeXcvTTJs (this last is quoted 
from Moulton, Gram. 101, note) : and also in the case of /*< : cf. 
Test. Reub. i. 2 ; Test. Zeb. i. i ; Plut. Coriol. 1 1. These idioms 
are not Latinisms but of Greek origin. 

As regards the number itself various explanations have been 
offered, but none is absolutely convincing. Some have found 



26 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 1. 

in 1600 the idea of completeness, and therefore inferred that the 
deluge of blood swept over the whole earth (as Victorinus per 
omnes mundi quattuor partes), the holy city alone being exempt. 
Others have conceived that Palestine only was designed by the 
number, since according to Jerome (Ep. 129, Ad Dard.) the 
length of Palestine from Dan to Beersheba was 160 miles. But 
160 miles = only 1280 stades. A nearer approach to the number 
in our text is to be found in the Itinerarium of Antoninus, accord 
ing to which Palestine was said to be 1664 stades from Tyre to 
El-Arish. 

Of the two above interpretations I am inclined to adopt the 
former. The more we study xiv. 14, 18-20 the more clear it 
becomes that it deals with the same subject as xix. 11-21, for 
xiv. 18-19 clearly state that the judgment is of the whole earth. 
Hence it is not merely the heathen nations that had submitted 
to the antichristian empire of Rome that are destroyed in 
xix. 1 1-2 1, but likewise all the remaining heathen nations that 
rebel against the kingdom of Christ (xx. 7-10) after the lapse of 
the 1000 years. Hence the slaughter is commensurate with the 
inhabited world. 

axpi TWI/ x a ^ l * / w | Twy unri>. These words apparently refer to 
the heavenly horsemen who are mentioned definitely (xix. I4 a ) 
in another vision dealing with the same events, i.e. xix. 11-21. 



CHAPTER XV. 

i. Character and object of this Chapter. 

The chronological order of events in the Seer s visions of the 
future is here resumed. In other words, this chapter, so far as 
chronological order goes, follows immediately on xiii. ; for, as we 
have seen (see p. i : cf. 32), xiv. broke away from this order and 
was wholly proleptic, passing over as it did the first six Bowls 
and summarizing the divine judgments from the seventh Bowl 
(xvi. 17) to xx. 7-10. In order, therefore, to recognize the con 
nection between xiii. and the present chapter, we have only to 
remember that in xiii. 15 the second Beast caused all that refused 
to worship the first Beast to be put to death. Thus all the faith 
ful were put to death and the roll of the martyrs was complete 
with the close of xiii. ; and when we come to xv. we find that 
xv. 2-4 looks upon the destruction of the entire body of the 
faithful as already an event of the past (see note on xv. 2-4), and 
represents the entire martyr host as standing on the sea of glass 
before God and singing a song of praise to the Lord God of 
Hosts, xv. i is an interpolation (see 7). In xv. 5~xvi. i the 
Seer has a vision of the appointment of seven angels with seven 



XV. 1-2.] CHARACTER AND OBJECT OF CHAPTER 2? 

Bowls to execute the last series of cosmic woes upon the earth. 
It is to be observed that in these three series the Seals, the 
Trumpets, and the Bowls there is a distinct development and 
not a mere recapitulation as has hitherto either wholly or in 
part been assumed by students of the Apocalypse. This will 
be clear as we advance. 

For to the first four Seals and the sixth all men saints and 
sinners, Christians and heathen alike are subject. Only the 
faithful are the victims of the fifth Seal. The sixth Seal de 
scribes in hyperbolic language the signs which precede the end, 
which, however, is not so near as the unbelievers apprehend. 
But there are worse things to come, the fifth, sixth and seventh, 
or rather the first, second, and third, Trumpets, 1 that is, the three 
demonic Woes, viii.-ix., xi. i/j. b , 15, xii.-xiii. In vii. the faithful 
are sealed in order to secure them from these Woes. Hence these 
Woes did not affect the faithful, but only those that were without the 
seal of God. When we come to the Bowls we have arrived at a 
fresh stage of development. Since the martyrdom of the faithful 
is complete in xiii. and all the martyrs are represented as already 
in heaven in xv. 2-4, it is clear that only the heathen nations, that 
form the Roman Empire or hold aloof from it, survive. 

On this heathen world, limited in the fifth Bowl to the empire 
of the Beast, are poured down the plagues of the seven Bowls. 
Whilst the Seals and the Trumpets or Woes could be regarded 
as having a disciplining effect on the faithful, however they might 
affect the unbelievers, the Bowls cannot be regarded in any other 
light than that of punishments, though such expressions as those in 
xvi. 9, n, which refer to the refusal of men to repent notwith 
standing these plagues, point to the fact that repentance was 
still possible for them. That the plagues, which are universal 
and not local (except the fifth), do not annihilate the heathen 
nations is clear from the fact that the eternal gospel (xiv. 6) is to 
be preached to the surviving nations after the close of the seven 
Bowls and the Messianic judgment (xix. 11-21). 

2. Relation of xv. to xiv. and xvi.-xx. In xiv. our 
author has given three proleptic visions the first portraying the 
blessedness awaiting the martyrs in the Millennial kingdom, 
while the second and third describe the judgments about to be 
fall Rome and the heathen nations. Thus xiv. summarized the 
outstanding events from the close of the universal martyrdom of 
the faithful to the final judgment. From this prelude the Seer 
now returns to describe in detail the events thus briefly fore 
shadowed, and first of all the blessedness into which the martyred 
faithful enter immediately on death, xv. 2-4, and the subsequent 

1 We have seen that the first four Trumpets are an interpolation in the 
text (seep. 219 sqq.). 



28 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 2-4. 

Millennial reign on earth, xx. 4-6 (cf. xiv. 1-5). Next we have 
the vision of the seven last Plagues, which are to descend on the 
heathen world, from which all the faithful had already been 
removed, xv. 5-xviii. (cf. xiv. 6-n). The doom of antichristian 
Rome, which does not come to pass till the seventh Plague, is 
portrayed with great fullness in xvii.-xviii. On the destruction 
of Rome there follow thanksgivings in heaven, xix. 1-8. The 
next act of judgment is that executed by the Son of Man on the 
heathen nations, xix. 11-21 (cf. xiv. 14, 18-20). 

3. This chapter consists of two visions. The first, xv. 2-4, 
deals with the triumphal song sung by the martyrs as they stand 
round the sea of glass in heaven. It is a song of unmixed praise 
and thanksgiving ; for the last martyrdom on earth is over and the 
ranks of the martyrs in heaven are now complete. The second 
vision relates to the Seven Angels who come forth from the 
heavenly Temple and are thereupon furnished with the seven 
Bowls which are full of the wrath of God. 

4. I^he diction of xv. 2-8 is, except in the case of one 
yhra.se in 6, that of our author. This will be apparent as we 
proceed. 

1. This verse could be assigned to him in point of diction but 
not the phrase dyye Xous eirrd Ixorras Tr\T]yas e-nrd, because of the 
context. As I shall show in 7 ad fin., our author could not use 
this expression here or in 6. Otherwise the language recalls that 
of our author, but yet in certain respects with a difference. KCU 
eiSoK is, of course, attested throughout the book. arjjuieioK. This 
word has already been used in a like (and yet not altogether 
like) connection in xii. T, 3. A perfect parallel to its present 
usage would have led us to expect it in viii. 13. ptya K<U 
OaujmaoToV : cf, xv. 3. dyye Xous eirrd. This is the right order 
for the numeral in our author, rots eaxdras seems borrowed 
from xxi. 9. on eV aurais ereXe crOr] KT\. : cf. 8. But the subject- 
matter is open to objection (see note in loc.). 

2. >iK<oi/Tas eK. A pregnant construction. Though VLKOV is a 
favourite verb with our author the construction here is unique in 
Greek. TOO Orjptou KCU . . . -njs eiicoVos cturou KCU . . . TOU dpidjjiou 
T. oi/ojiaros. Cf- xiii. 17, xiv. II. eoraiTas em T. 6dXa<ro-ac. Our 
author in x. 5, 8 writes liri with the gen. in this phrase. But 
his usage is not fixed. See note on xv. 2. KiOdpas TOU 6eou 
a Hebraism. 

3. KCU aSoucrti . Here, as in xiv. 3, K<U aSovcriv is to be taken 
as /cat aSoj/ras. In fact this is the reading of X Prim. Vg. and 
S 1 . See note on xiv. 3. icupie 6 6e6s 6 Tran-oKpeiTwp. A familiar 
title of God in our author: cf. i. 8, iv. 8, xi. 17, xvi. 7, xix. 6, 
xxi. 22. SIKCUCU KCU &\K]Qwa.i recurs in converse order in xvi. 7, 
xix. 2. 



XV. 4-6.] ITS HEBRAIC CHARACTER 29 

4. 00-105. Used only in xvi. 5, as here of God, but not in 
the rest of the N.T. irdvra, TO. eQv-t] . . . TrpoorKui YJaouaii/. Cf. 
xiv. 7, where all the nations are bidden Trpocr/cw^o-are TOJ 
Trou/cravTi. ecfmyepwOrjaai . Cf. iii. 1 8. 5. KCU JACTO, raura etfcok. 
A clause used in our author introducing a new vision : cf. iv. i n. 
Hence i cannot be right, since it has already introduced the 
vision. T)koiyT] 6 va.6<$ . . . eV TO> oupam Cf. xi. 19. 

6. exorres rds eirra TrXtjyds. This phrase descriptive of the 
seven angels, as also in xv. i, is against the usage of our author 
as well as against the context. See below, 7. e^eSu^eVoi 
\iQov . . . KCU, irepie^wa/ieVoi . . . wi/as XP U<T <*S- Cf. i. 13, 
xix. 14. 7. yejiouo-as. Cf. iv. 6, 8, etc. TOU a>rros eis TOUS 
alaVas rail alwywi . Cf. iv. 9 ., X. 6. 8. a^pi TeXeaOwai. 
Cf. xvii. 17, xx. 3, for the same clause. 

5. Strongly Hebraic character of xv. 

This chapter is Hebraic in character, i. The writer trans 
lates in xv. 4 the Hebrew of Jer. x. 7, where the LXX is lacking ; 
6 J3cun\eus . . . TIS ou JULY] <f>oj3Y]0fj / Here Theodotion and 
Aquila render TIS ov ^ (j>o/3r)6r)<rtTa.L o-e ySao-iXei) run/ lOvuv ; It is 
true that the words Trcirra TCI e 0i/T] . . . ei>wmoV aou in 4 agree 
verbatim with the LXX of Ps. Ixxxvi. 9, save that it omits oo-a 
7rou?o-as after Wv-*]. But there is nothing distinctive in the LXX 
rendering. 

2. As regards the order this is also Hebraic. The verb 
nearly always begins the clause or follows immediately on the 
subject as in 4, 7, 8. In 4 the position of e^avepcotfr/crai/ serves 
to gives emphasis. 

3. There are some Hebraisms. Thus in 2-3 we have TOUS 
yiKwrras = T. vevtK^Koras . . . after the model of the Hebrew par 
ticiple : eoTomis KCU aSouo ii = ecrraVras . . . /cat aSovTas (see in loc^) : 
and Ki0dpas TOU 0eoG = D"r6tf n ni~03. Possibly i/tKwvTas eV may be 
due to a Hebraism. 

4. In 5, 6 there are two phrases which apparently cannot be 
satisfactorily explained except on the hypothesis that 6 mos TT/S 
O-K^S TO> jaapTvptov in 5 is a translation from a Hebrew text, 
and that a corrupt one, and that the second phrase in 6 is due 
to the translator taking vw to mean Xi6ov, whereas in this con 
text it could only = pvarawov. See text in locis. 

6. xv. 28 appears to be a translation by our author from a 
Hebrew source. 

Since xv. 2-8 is from the hand of our author ( 4), and since, 
according to 5, xv. 2-8 is not only strongly Hebraistic but ap 
pears to imply a Hebrew source ; and, finally, since in xv. 5, 6 
the text can be best explained on the hypothesis of a corrupt 



30 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 6-7. 

Hebrew source, this section appears to be a translation by our 
author from a Hebrew source. 

7. xv. I appears to be an interpolation, the chapter having 
originally begun with xv. 2 : further, for ot errm ayyeAot ot^ exovres 
ras CTTTO, TrArjyas in 6 we should read simply ayyeXot eTrra. (Cf. 
xv. 7, xvi. i.) The question has naturally been asked, how can 
the Seer have seen the angels in xv. i, before they came forth 
from the Temple, which was not opened till xv. 5 ? This fact has 
caused much difficulty, and, as we should expect, a variety of 
explanations has been offered. Volter in his last works assigns 
xv. 5-6 to the Apocalypse of Cerinthus and xv. 1-4, 7 to an 
editor in Trajan s time. Weyland ascribes xv. i, 6-8 to an 
editor and the remaining verses to two different sources. 
Spitta traces xv. i and fragments of 2, 3, 5 and 7 to an editor : 
Erbes, xv. i, 5-8 to an editor of the year 80 A.D., and 
J. Weiss, xv. 1-4, 6-7 to an editor of the year 95 A.D. 

None of these solutions of the difficulty has gained accept 
ance, and so Bousset thinks there is no need to excise any part 
of the text, and that xv. i is simply to be regarded as a super 
scription. But this explanation is, if anything, less satisfactory 
than the preceding. For (i) a superscription should not be intro 
duced by the words KOL etSov, but rather be something of the 
nature of fj opao-ts TWV eTrra dyye Xwv KT\. (2) If it were a super 
scription it ought to have been inserted immediately after 4 
and not before 2, seeing that 2-4 constitute an independent and 
absolutely different vision. (3) That a new and important 
vision is introduced by xv. 5 is shown by the use of the clause 
/xera ravra eTSov. See iv. i . (4) Again, as I have shown below, 
the Seven Angels are wrongly described in this verse as "seven 
angels having seven plagues the last." Their right description 
would be "seven angels having seven bowls." (5) The clause 
ort ev avrats ereXea-Orj 6 0v/xos rov Oeov is unjustifiable. The 
wrath of God cannot be conceived as coming to an end till sin 
is at an end or adequately punished. And this does not take 
place till the final judgment. (6) The scene of the Seer s vision 
is wrongly represented as having been experienced on the 
earth etSov aAAo o-^etov ev TO) oupava) (cf. xii. i, 3) whereas it 
was undoubtedly in heaven : cf. xv. 5 sqq. Accordingly there 
appears to be no other way of solving the difficulty than to 
suppose either that xv. i is due to a marginal gloss subsequently 
incorporated in the text, or that it was an early interpolation by 
a scribe. Hence the chapter really begins with the vision of the 
triumphant martyrs in heaven, xv. 2-4, while xv. 5 introduces 
the vision of seven angels coming forth from the Temple in 
heaven. In XV. 6 instead of ot OTTO, ayyeAoi ot IXOVTCS ras 7TTa 
irAr/yas we should simply read ayyeXot 7rra. The change was 



XV. 1.] VERSE I AN INTERPOLATION 31 

made when xv. i was incorporated in the text. The interpo 
lator, moreover, made a very inept addition. He did not know 
his text. For, as is clear from xv. 7, the Seven Angels did not 
receive " the bowls full of the wrath of God " till after they had 
left the Temple, whereas in 6 they are represented as having the 
plagues before doing so. Again, these Seven Angels, when they 
are mentioned subsequently, as they are four times, are never 
described as "the seven angels having the seven plagues," 
but simply as "the seven angels," xv. 7, xvi. i, or "the seven 
angels which had the seven bowls," in xvii. i, xxi. 9. Each 
bowl contains a plague, and so the seven plagues, xv. 8, result 
respectively from the pouring forth in succession of the seven 
Bowls. 

1. This verse cannot be original, as we have already seen in 
the Introd. to this Chapter, 7. It is true that the style 
resembles that of our author, but there are strong grounds 
against its being from his hand. The first is that the Seer can 
not have seen the angels in i, seeing that the ^Temple is 
closed till 5, and the angels do not emerge from it till then. 
But there are other and more radical grounds for the rejection 
of this verse, (i) First, as we are aware (see note on iv. i) the 
clause Kat /xera ravra eTSoi/ (xv. 5) always introduces a new and 
important section in the Apocalypse ; but, if it had already been 
introduced in xv. i, then this clause would be out of place. 
Moreover, in xv. i the clause Kat eTSov is used by our Seer to 
introduce the less important sections. The interpolator of xv. i 
does not seem to have been aware of this usage. If we excise 
xv. i and remember that xiv. is wholly proleptic in character, 
referring as it does to events subsequent to xvi. 17 (see p. 2), then 
the blessedness of the martyred faithful is set forth in contrast to 
their terrible plight in xiii. (2) The expression dyyeXovs eVra 
exovras TrArjyas CTTTOL is not that used by our author elsewhere, save 
in 6 where it appears also to be an interpolation, though it may 
have been suggested by the last clause in xv. 8. ^ For the last 
three words we should have Ixovras <iaAas 7rra: cf. xv. 7, 
xvii. i, xxi. 9. See also 8. The phraseology throughout xvi. 
also supports this objection. (3) The words ras cobras 
(probably derived from xxi. 9) are generally explained as the 
last plagues in contrast to the plagues mentioned in ix. 20 ; but 
that this is not the meaning of the writer of this verse is clear 
from the clause which follows, with which we shall now deal. 
(4) The clause just referred to on ev avrais ereAe cr^ 6 Vvpos 
TOV 6cov cannot be given any satisfactory explanation, 
manifestly states that the wrath of God will be consummated in 
these seven Bowls, whereas the last and most terrible of the 
divine judgments do not take place till after their close. 



32 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 1-2. 



right expression is found in XV. 8, axpt reXeo-Owcriv at ITTTO. 
which is probably the source of the interpolator s phrase. These 
seven Plagues can be described as wholly consummated in 
xvi.-xviii., but not so the wrath of God. 

On the above grounds we cannot but regard xv. i as an 
interpolation. When this interpolation was once effected, ayyeAot 
ITTTCI in 6 was changed into ot eTrra ayyeAoi ot e^ovres ras 7rra 
7rAr?yas in order to adapt the context to the text thus interpo 
lated. The incongruity of the addition ot e^oj/res T. ITI-TO, TrX^yas 
is very glaring, seeing that the seven angels do not receive 
the plague-bearing Bowls till the next verse. 

cat et8oi>. See notes on iv. i. 

Kal etSoi/ . . . iv TW oupayw. This clause seems to have been 
suggested by xii. i. 

aXXo <Ti]^iov iv TW oupai/w. Cf. xii. i, 3, where this phrase 
implies that the Seer is on earth. But clearly in the vision 
of the Seven Angels he is in heaven : see xv. 5, xvi. i. This fact 
the interpolator failed to recognize. 

jieya <al 0aufxaoToi>. Suggested (?) by the phrase /xeyoXa /cat 
$au//,acrTa in 3. dyy^Xous ITTTOL . . . TOU Oeou. This passage has 
already been dealt with above. See also note on 7. 

2-4. With this vision the march in the development of 
future events is resumed. The line of advance was abandoned 
for the time being in xiv., which, as we have seen, is wholly pro- 
leptic, and summarized all the coming judgments from the 
seventh Bowl to the immediate advent of the final judgment. 
Hence xv. 2-4 is to be taken in close connection with xiii. In 
xiii. 15 the second Beast is represented as exterminating the 
entire body of the faithful, and xv. 2-4 looks upon that exter 
mination as already an event of the past. The roll of the 
martyrs is at last complete, and no longer are any of the faithful 
to be found on the earth, but only the heathen nations, which 
are either devoted followers of the Antichrist or occupy a 
neutral position, xv. 2-4 thus forms a companion picture to 
vii. 9-16. In both these the roll of the martyrs has just been 
completed or is on the eve of completion in heaven. The final 
judgment is still in the distance ; for the conversion of the 
nations (cf. the announcement of the glad tidings in xiv. 6) is 
foretold (xv. 4) as an event of the future. In xiv. 1-5 and xx. 4, 
which depict a later stage, the martyrs have descended with 
Christ to the earth to share with Him the Millennial reign. 

2. <&s (see Additional Note, i. p. 35 sq.) QaXaww ua\inr]i> ( = D^3 
rV3 ! OT). This sea has already been referred to in iv. 6. The 
absence of the article is what we expect in this Hebraistic ex 
pression, which = " the likeness of a sea of glass." 



XV. 2.] THE VICTORIOUS MARTYRS 33 



irupt. This description is not attached to the 
heavenly sea when it is mentioned in iv. 6. But the difference 
of context is a sufficient explanation. In iv. 6 the vision is one 
of peace, whereas here it is one of judgment. This phrase, 
therefore, may refer either to the sea as glowing with the wrath 
of God, or as reflecting the lightnings that proceeded from the 
throne of God, though there is here, it is true, no mention of 
these lightnings. In 2 Enoch xxix. 1-2 there is a passage that 
may be quoted, though it does not throw any real light on the 
text. "From the gleam of My eye the lightning received its 
wonderful nature, which is both fire in water, and water in fire." 

TOUS I iKwrras eic TOU 6r)piou. This is a very difficult phrase. 
There is no difficulty with the participle. Here viKunaas = 
veviK^Koras. The great tribulation is over, and the martyrs have 
triumphed over the Beast by proving faithful unto death. As 
our author thinks in Hebrew, his use of the Greek participle 
reflects that of the Hebrew participle, which, as we are aware, 
can = viKwvras, veviKT/Koras or VIK^CTO/ACVOVS according to the con 
text. Here vi*oWas is to be taken as a perfect participle. The 
roll of the martyrs is at last complete, but it has only just been 
completed. The Antichristian powers have not yet been judged, 
nor has the Millennial Kingdom been as yet established. When 
this kingdom is established the martyrs shall descend and reign 
(v. 10) with Christ for 1000 years (xiv. 1-5, xx. 4), and 
all the nations of the earth, which had not been leagued with 
Rome, shall come and worship before God (xv. 4, xxi. 24-26). 

Kucwmis IK. The use of e* after viKwi/rag is very difficult. 
Winer (p. 460) quotes this passage in connection with a number 
of other passages where l< is found, but not one of them has 
the same source as eV here. He compares the Latin expression 
" victoriam ferre ex aliquo," Livy, viii. 8, etc. But it would be diffi 
cult to justify the occurrence of a Latinism in our text. There 
is just the possibility that our author was here reproducing the 
Hebrew idiom rrnrrp D -Qan (cf. 2 Sam. i. 23; Ps. Ixv. 3) = 
"those who had been stronger than the beast." But no adequate 
explanation has as yet been offered. 

As Swete (in loc.) has pointed out, the martyrs show them 
selves as conquerors up to the moment of deaths cf. Ep. Smyrn. 
1 9, Sia T-^9 VTTOfAOvfjs /caraycovto-a/xevos TW O.$LKOV apxovra Kal OUTWS 
TOV r^s a</>#apo-ias OT</>avov diroXajSwy. PassiO S. Perpetuae, 1 8, 
"illuxit dies victoriae illorum, et processerunt de carcere in 
amphitheatrum quasi in caelum, hilares et vultu decori." But 
our Seer follows them into the life beyond and sees the exultant 
host celebrating not their own victory but the praises of God. 

CK TOU 0T]plOU Kttl 6K TTJS cUo^OS KT\. Cf. Xlii. I, 14, I /, 

xiv. 9, ii, xix. 20, xx. 4. 
VOL. ii. 3 



34 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 2-3. 



em rf^ 6a\acraaj . This phrase could mean "stand 
ing on" (cf. x. 5, 8, xii. 18, xiv. i) or " standing by" (cf. iii. 20). 
This scene of the victors standing on the heavenly sea with 
harps in their hands and praising God recalls Israel s song of 
triumph over Egypt on the shore of the Red Sea. The phrase 
ology is unusual. In x. 5, 8 fo-r^i is used with eVt 7775 6a.Xa.o-- 
0-77?. Further, our author prefers generally the phrase CTT! rrjs 
OaX.aa-a-r}<s to CTTI rrjv 6a\.a(T(Tav : cf. vii. i b , x. 2, 5, 8. But the fact 
that la-TrjfjiL 7T6 is in the case of all other nouns followed by the 
accusative (iii. 20, vii. i a , viii. 3, xi. u, xii. 18, xiv. i) may 
have led to the use of the accusative (instead of the gen.) of 
6d\ao-cra in the present instance after coTomxs eVt. 

KiOdpas TOU 0eoG = " harps belonging to the service of God." 
The omission of the article before /a#dpas is a Hebraism. On this 
idea cf. v. 8, xiv. 2. With this phrase we might compare i Thess. 
iv. 1 6, eV o-dA.7riyyi Oeov, and i Chron. xvi. 42 ; 2 Chron. vii. 6, 
D^sn Vt? ^3 = " instruments to accompany the songs of God." 

3. KOLI a&ouo-ii/. These words are to be taken as = /cat aSovras 
and the passage to be rendered : " I saw . . . standing on the 
sea ... and singing." This Hebraism has occurred several 
times already : see note on xiv. 2-3. 

[TYJV (o8T)y Mwucrewg TOU SouXou TOU 0eou KCU] rr]v <uSr]K TOU 
dpyiou. Now that the martyr host is completed, and are already 
standing before God, they sing a song of praise to God, but not 
one of triumph over their enemies a fact which differentiates 
this song from that in Ex. xv. The first words, " the song of 
Moses the servant of God," recall Ex. xiv. 31, xv. i, where 
Moses and the children of Israel sang a song of thanksgiving to 
God, but still more a paean of triumph over the Egyptians and of 
joy at their destruction (Ex. xv. 2-19). 

As that song was sung on earth, on the shore of the Red Sea 
by Israel after the flesh, so this song is sung in heaven by the 
Sea of Glass before God by the spiritual Israel. 

The expression rrjv GJO^J/ Mwvo-ecos . . . /cat T. a5Si)v TOV dpvtov 
creates insuperable difficulties. To excise (as most editors 
have done) /cat T. wS^/v TOV dpvtov as an interpolation would only 
aggravate the difficulty in the present context. For, since it was 
through the Lamb that the Christian martyrs triumphed, if the 
song that followed was associated with any name, that name 
must have been that of the Lamb. Hence the difficulty does 
not originate in connection with this phrase, but rather with 
T. w87)v Mcovo-ews. How then are we to explain the collocation of 
the two phrases? Bousset is of opinion that the repetition of 
the phrase suggests that the victors sang first the old Song of 
Moses (Ex. xv. 2-19) and then a new song that of the Lamb, 
which is then given. This apparently is the view of Swete. 



xv - ] SONG OF THE LAMB 



"St. John does not write r. ffiv MeoWws ical rov <Wou for the 
notes are distinct though they form a harmony." This view can 
hardly be regarded as satisfactory. That the old dispensation is 
superseded is the essential belief of our author, and it can no less 
have been his conviction that in heaven the faithful members of 
the old dispensation would accept the teaching of the new 
Moreover, if our author deliberately omits all reference to the 
Law throughout the Apocalypse, it would be surprising if he 
referred here to its author Moses, and placed him before the 
Lamb. This being so, we can hardly suppose that our author 
implies that the song of Moses, given in Ex. xv. 2-19 was 
actually sung by a body of Christian martyrs before the throne 
We, therefore, expect that, if the text is original, the song given 
in our text, which makes no definite mention of either Moses or 
of the Lamb, was sung alike by the martyred faithful of Judaism 
and Christianity, and that too led by the Lamb, as the song in 
Ex. xv. was led by Moses. But the form of the text is against 
this conclusion, and implies that the song or songs are led by 
Moses and the Lamb. 

Thus there seems to be no way out of the difficulty save by 
assuming that the words T. w&)i/ MoWoos rov 8ov\ov rov Oeov 
originated in a marginal gloss, which was subsequently incor 
porated in the text. Moreover, the nature of the song supports 
this assumption, since it is not a song of triumph, but simply a 
paean of thanksgiving, which the martyrs sing, when in the first 
perfect unclouded vision of God they wholly forget themselves 
and burst forth into praise of the Lord God of Hosts, who alone 
is holy, whose works are great and marvellous, whose ways are 
righteousness and truth, and to whom all the nations shall do 
homage, because of the coming manifestation of God s righteous 
judgments. 

Not until this stage does the Seer behold the complete 
spiritual transformation of the faithful in heaven. At the same 
time by its mention of divine judgments to come, it prepares the 
way for the advent of the Seven Angels with their plagues. This 
song, therefore, though sung by the victorious Christian host of 
martyrs, could not be more fittingly conceived. Its sole theme is 
God ; for, in the perfect vision of God, self is wholly forgotten, 
and so far as there is a reference to the earth from which they 
have been delivered, it is one of hopefulness : " the nations shall 
come and worship before Thee." 

The gloss r. wSrjv McovCT-eoos KT\. in this context is probably due 
to the fact that the triumph of the actual Israel over the Egyptians 
at the Red Sea was certainly regarded by the Christians of the 
first century as prefiguring the triumphs of the spiritual Israel, 
as we see from the Pauline Epistles. 



36 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 3-4. 

This song of Moses in Ex. xv. had already been incor 
porated in the Temple Services. Thus it was sung at the evening 
sacrifice on the Sabbath (Edersheim, The Temple^ p. 188), and 
in the benediction that followed the Shema there is a reference 
to it : "A new song did they that were delivered sing to Thy 
name by the seashore " (Encyc. Bib. iv. 4954). According 
to Philo (Dc Vita Contempt, xi.) this song was sung by the 
Therapeutae, the men forming one chorus and the women the 
other, while in the De Agriculture xvii., he writes : "the chorus 
of men will have Moses for their leader and that of the women 
will be under the guidance of Miriam. . . . Accordingly all the 
men sing the song on the seashore. . . . Moses being the leader 
of their song ; and the women sing Miriam being their leader." 

The Martyrs Song is formed almost wholly of O.T. expres 
sions. 

jjieydXa K<H Oaujutaara T& epya <rou. The first epithet as de 
scribing the works of God is found in Ps. xcii. 5. cxi. 2, and the 
second in Ps. xcviii. i, cxxxix. 14; i Chron. xvi. 9. 

Kupic, 6 0eos 6 iran-oKpciTup. See Amos iv. 13, but the phrase 
occurs several times elsewhere in our text (see note on i. 8). 

SIKOLUU K<U d\T]0ij a! ai 6801 aou. Cf. xvi. 7, xix. 2 ; Ps. cxlv. 
1 7, Sucaios KvpLos Iv Tracrais rats oSots avroi; : Deut. XXxii. 4, 
aXyOiva TO, epya avTov. 

6 {3aai\eus -r&v iQv&v. 4. TIS ou JAY) <f>o|3T|0fj. These clauses 
are a rendering of Jer. x. 7, which, though present in Aquila 
and Theodotion, are wanting in the LXX. The title " king of 
the nations " is here peculiarly appropriate, since it is God s deal 
ings with the nations alike in the way of condemnation and of 
mercy that is the theme of this song and of the chapters that 
follow. 

Kttl 8od<7i TO ovopA aou. Cf. Ps. Ixxxvi. 9, Soao-ovo-iv TO 
ovo/Aa o-ov ; see also 12; Mai. i. II, TO 6Vo/ta a-ov SeSoao-Tai Iv 
TOIS Wve&iv. fxoVos oaios. Cf. I Sam. ii. 2, OTI OVK eo~Tiv aytos 
d)s /cupios. With the expression /xoVos oo-tos cf. Rom. xvi. 27, 
//-ova) cro<(3. 

OTI irdi Ta Ta eOnfj TJgouaii . . . eywmoV aou. From Ps. Ixxxvi. 9. 

Ta SiKcuwjAa/ra KT\. Cf. Ps. xcviii. 2. SiKaLw^ara here means 
the judicial sentences of God in relation to the nations either 
in the way of mercy or condemnation. On Rome and all the 
adherents of the Empire will be manifested the judgments of 
God; whereas during the Millennial period the rest of the 
nations will experience His mercy. Cf. xiv. 6-7, which refer to 
the Millennial period. On the other hand, some scholars take 
8i/ccuco/xaTa in the sense of "righteous deeds" a meaning 
which it undoubtedly possesses in the gloss in xix. 9 But 
xvi. I, <f>id\a<s TOV 6vfj,ov TO 0eov, xvi. 7, Su<aiai at /cptVets o~ov, and 



XV. 4-5.] THE SEVEN BOWLS 37 



iven g US expressions are in favour of the interpretation 



rd 26nf) fjouau> KT\. These words point forward to the 
conversion of the nations during the Millennial reign cf xxi 
24 sq., xxn. 2. In xiv. 7 the nations are exhorted to repent and 
worship God. Of course it is only the nations that survive the 
judgments in xvi.-xix. that are so converted. 

on . . . e^cuxrpuSerjaai . This clause gives the ground for the 
clause that immediately precedes : for Thy righteous judgments 
shall have been made manifest." 

XV. 5- XVI. 1. The commission of the Seven Angels with 
the Bowls. 

5. K al fieid raura elSoi/. As has been shown on iv. i, this 
phrase is never used except at the beginning of an important 
section. Thus the insertion of xv. i, which already deals with 
this subject, is wholly against the usage of our author. See also 
above on i. 



6 mos . . . iv r<5 oupcmo. So in xi. 19. 

6 l/ttOS f TTJS (TKTJl/TJS TOU JAttpTUplOU f. 

This designation of the heavenly Temple is certainly strange 
" the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony." It appears 
either to be an interpolation or the rendering of a corrupt Hebrew 
source. , If we translate the phrase into Hebrew it is clear that 
vao s must be rendered by fa Pi, o-io/nj generally by bnK (occa 
sionally by f3tpp), and ^aprvpiov by lyin (or possibly by 
nny). But it must certainly be confessed that njno i?n b n is 
an absolutely unexampled designation, and difficult to justify. 

The phrase in the text cannot be a rendering of >ts* pB>D 
(cf. Ex. xl. 2, 6, 29, since vaos is never used to translate 



Ziillig thinks that this expression is used in order to recall 
the fact that, when the Tabernacle with all its holy vessels was 
brought up to Jerusalem by the order of Solomon, the Ark 
was removed from it and set up in the most holy place in the 
Temple (2 Chron. v. 5 ; i Kings viii. 4), and that from that time 
forward the temple could also bear the name of the Tabernacle, 
and that in fact it is called mishhkan (pfctfo) in Ps. Ixxxiv. 2, 
cxxxii. 5, and ohel (SiiN) in Ezek. xli. i. Hence he would, as 
Bousset, render the entire phrase as " the temple, that is, the 
tabernacle of the testimony." The genitive would in this case 
be one of apposition. But against the identification of the vaos and 
a-Kfjvrj in our text there is the very great objection, that in Apoca 
lyptic, from the vision in Isa. vi. to the latest times, it is the 
Temple, whether in heaven or on earth, and not the Tabernacle, 
that is referred to as the scene of apocalyptic vision. See note 



38 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XV. 5-6. 

on viii. 3. Hence, since throughout the rest of the Apoca 
lypse this usage is followed, the natural inference is that it is 
followed here. If this be so, then it is to be concluded that Trjs 
o-KTjvfjs TOV fj.apTvpLov is an addition. If we might here assume a 
Hebrew original, we could dispose of the difficulty. Thus 6 vaos 
rrj<s GTKrjvfjsTov ^apTvpiov CVTW ovpa,vw = D^ESSQ "lyiJD 7HK ^DTl, which 
might easily be a corruption of DW3P D^nptf b^n = 6 vaos TOV 
Oeov 6 cv TO) ovpavu the very phrase that is found in xi. 19, with 
the same verb in both cases, i.e. fjvoLyy. 

6. ol eirrot ayy. ol ex- T. einrd TrX^YaS- As we have already 
seen on i, we should excise ot l\. r. CTTTO. TrA/^ya? as an addition 
from the hand that added i and read simply dyyeAot eT 

eySeSujxeVoi f \i9ov f . . . Trepie^wcrjxeVoi . . . 
See note on the diction in i. 13. 

e^SeSufAeyoi f \iQov f Ka.Qa.pov XafAirpdy. AC, a few Cursives, 
and the MSS of the Vulg. read XiOov for AtVov, which is found in 
the lesser authorities. That XLOov would more readily be changed 
into XLVOV and not vice versa is evident in itself. Besides, though 
the best Codd. of the Vulg. have lapide the official text has linteo. 
WH adduce Ezek. xxviii. 13, Trdvra XLOov XPW TOV evSe Seo-cu 
in support of Xt^ov. Further, XiVov ( = flax) is not used as 
the equivalent of XLVOVV ( = a garment made of flax) except in 
a few passages throughout Greek literature : cf. Homer, //. ix. 
661, Od. xiii. 73, 118; Aesch. SuppL 120, 132, Etym. Magn. 
The evidence, therefore, is strongly in favour of XiOov. But, 
notwithstanding the advocacy of WH, XtOov cannot be right. 
We must, therefore, assume either that, despite the very great 
improbability, Ai 6W is a primitive corruption of the all but 
unexampled word Xivov ( = "linen garment" a most unusual 
meaning), or that we have here a mistranslation from the 
Hebrew. eVSeSv/xeW XiOov = W D^U^. But ww t as we know, 
means either fiva-cnvos, Gen. xli. 42 ; Ex. xxviii. 35 (39), 
or Xt^os (cf. Esth. i. 6) or /xa/a/xapo? (Cant. v. 15). In fact, 
in later Hebrew it generally means " alabaster " or " marble." 
In the Epistle of Jeremy 71 the same mistranslation, as Ball 
has shown, occurs: "Ye shall know them to be no gods by 
the purple and the marble (r^s /xap/xapov) which rotteth 
upon them." Here /^ap/xapos = WV, which should have been 
rendered by TOV /3vcro-ivov= " fine linen." " Marble doesn t rot," 
as Ball remarks. Now returning to our text, if we may assume 
a Hebrew original, then instead of ei/SeS^eVot XiOov Ka.6a.pov 
Xa/JLtrpov we should read efSeSup-Voi fiuavwov KaQapov XajjnrpoK. 
To confirm this conclusion we have only to turn to-xix. 8, where 
we find 7repi/5aX^rat jSvo-crivov XapTrpov Ka.0a.p6v, Or to xix. 14, 
where we have the clause that should be in our text, 



XV. 6-8.] THE SEVEN ANGELS 39 






XtvKov KaOapov. Hence we render "clothed in fine 
linen pure bright." On the significance of this expression see 
note on iii. 5. 

irepie^wo-jjieVoi KT\. Cf. i. 13. 

7. ev IK rwy reacrdpwy WWK, i.e. one of the Cherubim. See 
note on iv. 6. The Cherubim in the Apocalyptic of the ist cent. 
A.D. have come to be the chief order of angels. It is fitting 
therefore that one of them should act as an intermediary 
between God and the Seven Angels of the Bowls. Even in 
Ezek. x. 7 it is one of the Cherubim that hands over to one of 
the seven angels of judgment coals of fire to be sprinkled on 
the earth. 

eiTTa <fu<\as xp uo " a s- O n tne position of em-a before its noun 
see note on viii. 2. 

(juaXas . . . yejjiouaas ToG 0up>G TOU OeoG. It is highly probable 
that the Greek word <iaAr? was adopted into both Hebrew and 
Aramaic as early as the beginning of the Christian era : see 
Levi s two Lexicons in loc. It is noteworthy that it is used in 
connection with the same idea as in our text in the Targum on 
Isa. li. 17, where the Hebrew inert D13 ( = "the cup of His 
wrath") is explained by KtDlbn NDD ^>B and in 22 "iron 013 by 
TOm NDD ^B. Again in the Targum of Jon. on Gen. xl. 12 
we have KTm ^ 3 = "the bowl of wrath" (i.e. of the divine 
wrath). The word thus appears to have had the same idea 
associated with it as in our text. With the present passage cf. 
xiv. 8, 10. 

TOU ^wyros els TOUS alums. See note on iv. 9. 
8. Y|u a0T) 6 vaos Ka-nrou CK 1% 86T]S TOU 0eoG. ye/xi a> belongs 
to the vocabulary of our author but is not used in this connection 
in the LXX. The first four words recall the statement in Isa. 
vi. 4, where in connection with the great vision of Isaiah it is 
said that "the house (i.e. the Temple) was filled with smoke" 
(6 oTKos eVrX^<r^ Kairrov LXX). The combined ideas of the 
Temple being filled with smoke and with the glory of the Lord 
are found in Ezek. x. 4, "The house (i.e. the Temple) was filled 
with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of I 
Lord s glory": Ex. xl. 35, "Moses was not able to enter into 
the tent of meeting because the cloud abode thereon, and 
glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle." See also i Kings 
viii TO. The glory of God is spoken of as filling the temple 
Ezek. xliv. 4 ; 2 Chron. vii. 2-3. During such manifestations o! 
God s presence no one could enter the earthly temple. 
the O.T. passages above cited the presence of God is a rnai 
His gracious purposes. Hence the inability of humanity to 
approach God in these passages was due to the infinite transcen 
dence of God and His unapproachableness by merely i 



40 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 1. 

creatures. But that cannot be the meaning of the clause in our 
text. 

eK TT)S SumjAews. This attribute of God is here set parallel 
with His glory. It is to be manifested in the plagues that 
follow. 

ouSels eSumro clcreXOeiV KT\. As we have seen in the first note 
on this verse, none could enter the earthly Temple in the O.T. 
during special manifestations of God s presence therein. But, 
since this cannot hold of the heavenly Temple, inasmuch as in 
heaven the heavenly hosts are constantly represented as standing 
in God s immediate presence, it seems necessary to attach a 
figurative meaning to the clause ovSels eSwaro da-fXOtiv KT\., and 
to interpret these words as meaning that, until the plagues were 
accomplished, none could avert by prayer the doom about to 
befall the earth through these plagues. At the close of these 
judgments God s gracious purposes with regard to the nations 
would take effect : see xiv. 6, xxi. 24, 26. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

i. The object of this Chapter. 

The object of this chapter is to set forth the last series of 
plagues that are to befall the earth. These plagues are symbol 
ized under the seven Bowls which are poured forth by Seven 
Angels. 

In these seven Bowls we have no mere repetition of the divine 
visitations in the Seals and Woes. Not only are they different 
in themselves from the Seals and Woes, but they differ further 
in respect of time and the people affected by. them. Although 
these facts have been brought forward in the Introduction to 
xv., it is necessary here to emphasize them anew, since the 
prevailing view is that in the Bowls we have not advanced 
chronologically, but that in the Seals, Trumpets (Woes), and 
Bowls the same great principles of God s government are dis 
played under different aspects. Even scholars, like Bousset, 
who are opposed to the Recapitulation Theory, are disposed to 
acknowledge in some degree its validity in regard to the Seals, 
Trumpets, and Bowls. Though the reader should consult the 
Introduction to xv., I will here repeat the two chief differentiae 
between the Bowls and the Seals and Woes. These are that the 
people affected in each series is different and that their order is 
alike logical and chronological. Under the Seals (save the fifth 
to which only the Christians were subject) Christian and heathen 
alike suffer. Then after the sealing of the faithful takes place, 
all those who had not been so sealed are exposed to the three 



XVI. 1-3.] DICTION AND IDIOM 4 ! 

demonic Woes. In the course of the third Woe the last of the 
faithful are martyred, and at its close the world is inhabited only 
by the heathen nations. Then follows the last series of cosmic 
and other plagues, which are all embracing in their incidence 
with the exception of the fifth Bowl, which is confined to the 
kingdom of the Beast, just as the fifth Seal affected only the 
faithful. 

2. State of the Text. 

The text of this chapter has suffered much through faulty 
transcription and deliberate alteration, xvi. i has ^yaX.^ < WI ^s 
an abnormal order of words in our author. Both the context 
and the diction of xvi. 2 C , and certain clauses in 13-14 are 
against their authenticity, as is shown in the notes on these 
passages. The apparently meaningless interchange of ek and 
rt after CK^C CD is strange, xvi. 10 has sustained the loss of 
several clauses. . xvi. 5 b -y, which belongs to xix., has been 
restored in this edition to its original position after xix. 4 ; 
xvi. 15, which belongs to Hi., has been restored after iii. 3*. 

3. Diction and Idiom. 

When the interpolated clauses in xvi. 2, 13-14 are removed, 
the entire phraseology and constructions are those of our author^ 
with the exception of xvi. i. There are, as was to be expected^ 
phrases not found elsewhere in our author, but these are not 
against any established usage on his part. 

(a) Diction. 

1. ^Kouo-a . . . (jxorrjs CK: cf. iii. 20, xiv. 13, xxi. 3. Else 
where in our author $w*l v after rjKOveiv. rots CTTTCI dyyeXois : 
cf. XV. 6, 8, xvii. I, xxi. 9. UTrdycTe K. KXT : cf. X. 8, VTrayc 
Aa/2e. 6KxTe . . . eis: cf. 2, 3, 4, but e*x. . . . ri in 8, 10, 
12, 17. TOU OujjLou TOU Oeou : cf. xiv. 10, 19, xv. 7. 

2. dirfjXOey . . . Kal ^e xeei : cf. V. 7, rjXOcv KOL i\r)<f>v : xvii. i, 
xxi. 9 (a Hebraism). Cf. John v. 15, ix. 7, n, xii. 36. eycVero 
e\Kos . . . erri. Here only in our author. On the interpolation 

s e^oi/ras . . . avrov, see note in loc. 

5 b -7. See Introd. to xvi. 5 b ~7 on p. 120 sqq. 

9. Kaujma : cf. vii. 16. epXaa^p-Tjaay TO oVojia : cf. xiii. 6. 
aurw 8oac : cf. iv. 9, xi. 13, xiv. 7, xix. 7. 

10. roy Qp6vov TOU 6r]piou : cf. xiii. 2. lo-KOTw/ieVTj : cf. ix. 2, 
where the word refers to the same phenomenon. IK TOU iroVou : 
cf. n, xxi. 4. Only once elsewhere in N.T., i.e. Col. iv. 13. 

11. Toy Qeov TOU oupayou : cf. xi. 13 (a source), ou peT 
K T. epycuy ctuTon : cf. ii. 21, 22, ix. 20, 21. 

12. 6Toifxaa0fj. A frequent word in our author, diro d 
rjXiou : cf. vii. 2. 

13. TOU SpciKovros . . . TOU 0T]piou : cf. xiii. 4. TOU *j/u8o7rpo- 



42 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 3. 

<|>YJTou : cf. xix. 20, xx. 10. -nreujxaTa rpia : such is our author s 
order : see note on viii. 2. 

14. TYJS oiKouu.eVr]g oXrjs : cf. iii. 10, xii. 9. owayayeii auToug 
els T. TroXejjioy : cf. xx. 8, where the same words recur : see also 
xix. 19. TTJS irjfAe pas T. u.eydXTr]s : cf. vi. 17. TOU 0eou TOU irarro- 
KpaTopos : cf. i. 8, iv. 8 n., xi. 17, xv. 3, etc. 

15. This verse should be read after iii. 3 a . Every phrase of 
it has its parallel in iii. See notes in loc. 

16. rov KctXouu.eyoi> : cf. i. 9, xi. 8, xii. 9, xix. n. c E|3paurri : 
cf. ix. TI. 

17. <j>uyT) . . . IK. TOU faou curd TOU dpoVou : cf. xx. 2, 10 for 
this combination of prepositions. Elsewhere we have <}>wvr) a-rro T. 
Opovov in xix. 5 and </>. ex r. Op. in xxi. 3 and e/c T. Op. with other 
nouns iv. 5, xxii. i. ylyovcv : cf. xxi. 6. 

18. ctoTpcnra! ical <|>a)yai Kal j3pocTai : cf. viii. 5, xi. 19. aeio-jxos 
. . . jmeyas. Cf. vi. 12, viii. 5, xi. 19, xvi. 18. 

19. TO TTOTrjplOy TOU OlkOU TOU 0UJJLOU TT]S OpyYJS ! Cf. XIV. 8, IO, 

xix. 15. 

20. e4>uyei>, Kal . . . ou^ eupt0r]o-aK : cf. xx. II. 

21. x a ^ a fAeyd\Yj : cf. xi. 19. epX.acnl^u.Tjaai : see above on 9. 

(<^) Idiom. 

1. u.yd\T]s <J>O}I/T)S: the order of the words in this phrase is 
unique in our author. It is certainly abnormal and is corrected 
in KP into (jfxm^s //-eyaA^s. But there are a few instances where 
the adjective precedes its noun in our author: cf. i. 10, iii. 12 
(in both passages, however, between art. and noun), and oXtyos 
in three cases. 

2. eyeVeTo . . . em : unique in our author. 

3. atjuia ws veicpou, i.e. at//,a a>s at/xa vtKpov : see Additional 
Note in vol. i. p. 35. 

8. e&60r] auTw cum inf. : cf. vi. 4, vii. 2, etc. 

9. e xorros ~cv\v eouaiai/ em : cf. note on ii. 26 on this idiomatic 
use of art. with e^ovcriav. ou jjieTei/oTjcraK . . . SoGfcu : cf. xi. 18, 
r)X6tv ... 6 /catpos . . . Sowat, xvi. 19, [jivr)(rOr) . . . Sovvat. 

1. juLeydXr]s <})(OI/T]S. In every other instance of this phrase, in 
the Apocalypse, i. 10, v. 2, 12, vi. 10, vii. 2, 10, viii. 13, x. 3, xi. 
12, 15, xii. 10, xiv. 7, 9, 15, 18, xvi. 17, xix. i, 17, xxi. 3, the noun 
</>on/?j precedes the adjective. This " great voice," as that in 17, 
seems to be that of God Himself and not of an angel. Ac 
cording to xv. 8 none could enter the Temple till the plagues 
were accomplished. But it is possible that it is the voice of 
the angel of the altar, as in xiv. 18. 

eKxeVre TOIS cirra (JuctXas icrX. Cf. Dan. ix. II, Jer. X. 25, xlii. 
1 8, xliv. 6, on this Semitic use of the verb in: or *]BB*. eVc^e co 
occurs repeatedly in this chapter and not elsewhere in the Apoca 
lypse. 



XVI. 1-3.] FIRST AND SECOND BOWLS 43 



(see Winer, 13, 23. Blass, p. 41, would^read 
els T. yr\v. So also in 2. Cf. e^e xecv & r. OdXacraav in 3, 
and the same verb with eis TOVS Trora/xovs in 4. On the other 
hand, we have the same verb with inl r. Trora/xdv in 12, and with 

7Tt T. ^AlOl/ (8), 7Tt T. OpOVOV (lo), and Tl T. Cteptt (17). 

Tas lirra <|>idXas TOU 6up>G. On the first four Trumpets, which 
can hardly on any hypothesis be regarded as the work of our 
author, see Introd. to viii., vol. i. p. 219 sq. 

2. This plague recalls the sixth Egyptian plague: Ex. ix. 
IO-IT; Deut. xxviii. 35. 

lylvero e\Kos . . . irorrjpoV. The first two words we have in 
Ex. ix. 10, pITC W, and the two latter in Deut. xxviii. 35 and 
Job ii. 7, in rn^ 3- In the last two P assa g es the LXX renders 



eyeVero . . . em TOUS dyGpuirous. In Ex. ix. 10 we have 
eyevero . . . eV rots dj/flpaWois (i.e. D1X3). Thus our author is 
independent of the LXX. For the construction, Luke i. 65, 
iii. 2 are generally quoted. CTTI TOUS avOpwirovs, " upon men, i.e. 
on all mankind : cf. xvi. 8, 21. 

[T. e xorras TO x ( *P (X YH a T0 " ^^pLou KCX! TOUS TrpocrKUkoui Tas TT) 
ctKo^i auToG.] Cf. xiii. 17, xiv. 9, n, xix. 20. 

This clause has been assigned by Spitta (p. 163) to the final 
editor of the Book, though he does not specify the grounds. 
There are, however, good reasons for regarding them as a gloss. 
i. The fourth Plague is universal in its incidence as regards 
the sun, and also the second so far as those on the sea arc 
concerned. That the third is so likewise as regards all fresh 
waters is clear. Such also is the sixth and the seventh as 
regards the Euphrates and the air. Hence it is natural to 
expect that the first Plague is of the same character as in the 
second, third, and fourth, i.e. universal in its incidence. 2. The 
construction TOWS Trpoo-KwowTas rfj ei/coVi avrov IS against our 
author s usage. See note on vii. n. 

If the above conclusion is not valid, then we must assume 
that only the adherents of the Roman Empire, and not the rest 
of the heathen, are affected by the first Plague. In this respect 
the first and fifth Plagues would have the same incidence. But 
not only are the followers of the Beast subject to certain physical 
evils, but they alone are susceptible to the deceitful signs wrought 
by the false prophet (xix. 20). With this susceptibility_to evil 
influence we should contrast the security against demonic influ 
ences enjoyed by those who were sealed by God in vii. 4-8, ix. 4. 
But all the faithful have already been removed from the earth 
(see Introd. to xv. p. 26). 

3. This Plague recalls the first Egyptian plague, Ex. vii. 17- 
21, thougrTm the latter the Nile alone is smitten. 



44 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 3-9. 

lylvero atjio. Cf. Ex. vii. 19, DT HM. 

, i|>u x f] Sanjs. (Cf. rwin efcj-ba, Gen. i. 21, or n"n t^u, i. 3 o.) 
ra e^ Tfj eaXdaar). In viii. 9 only a third of the things in the sea 
perished. Here the destruction is complete. 

4. els T. irora/xous KOI T. m^cts TU>I/ uSdrwi/. See note on viii. 10. 

eyeVeTo^alfAa, i.e. the fresh waters became blood. 

5*. [KOI rJKouaa TOU dyyeXou TO^ uSdrwi/ Xe yo^os.] An inter 
polation to introduce xvi. 5 b - 7 , which originally followed after 
xix. 4, and to which context it is restored in this edition. Cf 
i Enoch Ixvi. 2. "Those angels were over the powers of the 
waters. In vn. i of our text the angels who had control of the 
winds are referred to, and in xiv. 18 the angel over fire, though 
the latter appears to be a gloss. On the various classes of angels 
see the Index to Charles The Apocr. and Pseudep. vol. ii 
Bousset Rd. des Judenthu ms, 317, also Jewish Encyc., art. 
" Angelology." 

5 b -7. This passage has been restored after xix. 4, where the 
grounds are fully stated for this restoration. 

8. The fourth Bowl takes effect on the sun, and causes a 
plague of excessive heat. 

^X e " em TW tjXioy. On the use of CTU here instead of 
?/^ S m > *!?? P recedin g verses, see note on i. The construction 
eootfy aurw is a frequent one in our author : see Introd. to Chap 
vn., vol. i. p. 191. 



9. ^Kau^cm o-erjo-a./ . . . K aujxa. (See Blass, Gr. p. 91 sq.) 
Contrast vn. 16, o8e ^ Wcr?/ en (emended) avrovs 6 17X109 ovSe 

7TO.V KCLVfJ.a. 

IpXavrtwcrav ri S^ Of xa TOU Oeou. Cf. xiii. 6 ; Isa. Hi. c : Rom. 
11. 24 ; i Tim. vi. i ; J as . ii. 7. 

CXO./TOS TV ^ouo-ta^. See note on ii. 26 on the significance 
of the article with !ovtruiy. Bousset brackets here with the 
inferior MSS the article. This is strange, since he is aware that 
when e^omrta is accompanied by the art. it connotes full 
authority or power, and this is certainly the meaning in the 
present passage. 



ou fxeTei/oVa. . Cf. ix. 20, 21, xvi. n. In xi. 13 the Tews 
repent owing to the earthquake. 

Soumi auTw 86a>. Cf. xi. 13, xiv. 7, xix. 7. 

10-11. The fifth Bowl. If we compare this Bowl with the 
first Woe it is clear that they are developments of the same 
tradition, though they refer to different periods, the Christians 
being still upon the earth during the Woes, but not during the 
Bowls. Thus both affect only the adherents of the beast (xvi. 10 : 
cf. ix. 4). In xvi. 10 the kingdom of the beast is darkened; in 
ix. 2 the sun is darkened by the smoke issuing from the pit, and 
from this smoke issued the demonic locusts. In xvi. 10-11 



XVI. 10.] THE FIFTH BOWL 45 

men gnawed their tongues through pain and blasphemed the God 
of heaven ; in ix. 5-6 men were tormented by the locusts and 
sought death but could not find it. 

Similarly we shall find that the sixth Bowl agrees closely with 
the second Woe (see note on xvi. 12-16), and the seventh Bowl 
with the third Woe (see note on xvi. 17-21). These facts will 
help us in the elucidation of the difficulties affecting the fifth 
Bowl. 

But there is another point worthy of consideration. If we 
compare the seven Bowls with the Seven Seals, we find that, 
whereas only the faithful were the victims of the fifth Seal, only 
the followers of the beast are affected by the fifth Bowl. 

10. The visitation on the kingdom of the Antichrist. 

rov 9poi/oy TOU 0Y]piou, i.e. Rome. Cf. xiii. 2, !S<oKv avrw (i.e. 
TW $?7pia>) 6 Spa/cwv . . . TOV Opovov avrov. The first four Bowls 
had affected the world at large; the fifth assails only the 
kingdom of the Beast. 

rj |3a<nXeia aurou IffKOTop&i). Owing to this clause the fifth 
Plague has been taken to be one of darkness recalling the Egyp 
tian one, Ex. x. 21 sqq. But this interpretation cannot be up 
held. A plague of darkness would be wholly insufficient to explain 
the agony experienced by the adherents of the Beast after the 
pouring out of the fifth Bowl. Hence something else than the 
darkness that ensued on the pouring out of the fifth Bowl must 
be presupposed as the cause of this agony. Now, if we turn to 
the first Woe of which the fifth Bowl is in some sense an abbrevia 
tion, we can explain both these statements. There we find that 
the sun was darkened by the smoke that issued from the pit (ix. 2). 
There is every reason for supposing that we have here the true 
explanation of the darkening of the kingdom of the Beast. 
Further, the cause of the torments endured by the adherents of 
the Beast (xvi. IO, eynaoxovTO ras yXwcro-a? O.VTWV CK TOV TTOVOV) is to 
be traced to the demonic locusts which issued from the smoke 
that ascended from the pit. Men were so tortured by the scorpion- 
like stings of these locusts (ix. 10) that they longed for death to 
end their agony (ix. 5-6). Hence we infer that after CO-KOTO/AC I/I? 
several clauses have been lost, in which the causes of the darkness 
and the sufferings of mankind were given. The hypothesis that 
certain clauses of the nature suggested originally stood after 
eo-KOTw/xeVry is established by a clause in n, i.e. /cat e/c TWV eX/cwv 
avTw. These sores could not have been caused by the darkness. 
Spitta and, so far as I am aware, Spitta alone (p. 171) has 
recognized this fact that the fifth Bowl originally treated of 
demonic locusts as the first Woe" does. But he rejects (1-71, 576) 
TOV Opovov TOV Orjpiov KOL eyei/ero -fj flacriXfia avrov tcrKOrco/xeVr/ as an 
addition from the hand of the final editor on the ground that 



46 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 10-11. 

the throne of the beast is not to be identified with Rome but 
with the abyss as in ix. n, and that accordingly the place on 
which the fifth Bowl is to be poured should be named, where the 
plague in question is to be developed, analogously with the rest 
of the plagues (xvi. 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 17). He also excises the 
clause KOL CK TWV eA/Kaii/ aurwv to the weakening of his own hypo 
thesis. But I have already shown above that 17 /3ao-iA.eia avrov 
ea-Korw/xeV^ can be fully justified. Nor can any valid objection 
be taken to rov Qoovov rov Oypiov, seeing that already in xiii. 2 the 
Dragon had given his throne to the Beast. Thus it is only neces 
sary here to suppose a lacuna in the text. 

IjJiao-airro KT\. In the LXX only in Job xxx. 5. 

11. Their sufferings drove the followers of the beast to fresh 
blasphemy instead of to repentance. 

rov Qeov TOU oupa^ou. See xi. 13. 

Kal e* TO>J> \K.UV auTui/. This phrase proves that the sufferings 
of the subjects of the Beast are not intelligible from the text as 
it stands after the loss of the clauses referred to in the note on 10. 
Some scholars explain it as referring to the phrase ?X/cos KO.KOV 
in 2. 

ou (jterei/oTjacu CK TWV e pycoi . So already in ii. 21, ix. 20. 

12-16. The sixth Bowl at all events xvi. 12 is related to 
the second Woe, ix. 13-21. In the latter passage we have an 
account of the demonic horsemen from the Euphrates, whose 
objective is the heathen unbelieving world. In the present con 
text the river Euphrates is dried up in order that the way may be 
prepared for the kings coming from the East under Nero redivivus, 
and their objective is Rome, the throne of the Beast. This fore 
cast reappears in xvii. 12-13, r 7> I ^- The powers of the Beast 
are therefore at variance. On the other hand, the gathering 
together of the kings of the earth to Armageddon is a distant 
echo of the onslaught of the forces of Gog in Ezekiel on Jerusalem. 
This expectation has undergone many developments in the 
interval, and reappears in a duplicated form under the actual 
designation of Gog and Magog in xx. 7-10, where it represents 
the last uprising of the powers of evil before their final destruc 
tion by fire from heaven. But the present context (xvi. 13-16) 
reproduces an earlier form of this expectation, and this form of it 
is referred to twice elsewhere in the book in xiv. 14, 18-20, and 
xix. 1 1-2 1. In these three passages, which refer to a universal 
insurrection of the heathen nations at the instigation of the demons 
and the Beast and the False Prophet, before the Messianic Kingdom, 
the forces of evil are destroyed by the Messiah, and the Beast and 
the False Prophet cast into the lake of fire, whereas in the final 
insurrection of the heathen nations due to the direct instigation 
of Satan at the close of the Messianic Kingdom they are annihilated 



XVI. 



12-14.] PARTHIANS AND KINGS OF THE EARTH 47 



by fire from heaven, and Satan himself cast into the lake of fire 
where already were the Beast and the False Prophet. 

Further, it is to be observed that the uprising of the kings 
of the East against Rome is only the preparatory step to their 
conflict with the Lamb, as we see in xvii. 12-17. Hence their 
combination here (xvi. 12) with the kings of the whole earth 
(xvii. 14) to resist the Lamb. 

12. The march of the kings of the East against Rome, which 
is described more fully in xvii. 12-13, J 7> X 6. 

TOV TTOTdJAOJ . . . Eu$pa.Tr]V. Cf. IX. 14. 

e^pc^Or] TO u Swp aurou. For the idea cf. Ex. xiv. 21 ; 
Josh. iii. 13-17 ; Isa. xi. 15 sq., xliv. 27, li. 10 ; Jer. xxviii. (li.) 36 
Zech. x. ii ; 4 Ezra xiii. 43-47. 

TOijmao-6fj. Cf. Isa. xl. 3, erot^cxo-are rrjv 6Sov. For the use 
of this verb in the second Woe, cf. ix. 15. It is a favourite with 
our author : cf. viii. 6, ix. 7, xii. 6, xix. 7, xxi. 2. 

13, 14 bc , 16. The gathering together of all the kings of the 
earth to war against God and Christ. Cf. Ps. ii. 2. See note 
above on 12-16. 

13. Three unclean spirits from the Dragon (i.e. Satan : cf. 
xii. 3, 9), the Beast, and the False Prophet (i.e. the second Beast) 

.go^forth to call together the 1 kings of the earth. Cf. i Kings 
xxii. 22. Contrast the three angels in xiv. 6 sqq. 

TOO v|/eu8oirpo4>rJTou. Here for the first time the second Beast 
(xiii. 1 1 sqq ) is so designated. 

nveupaTa . . . dicdGapTa. Cf. Matt. x. I ; Mark i. 23, etc. 

[s Pdrpaxou] First we observe that the construction is 
unique in the Apocalypse. According to the universal usage 
outside the present passage we should here have ws ftuTpd X ov^ 
as indeed N* and many cursives actually do read. But the best 
authorities support the abnormal text. However, as we shall see 
on the next verse, the context requires the excision of <Ls 
fidrpaxoi . . . o-rj^a as a marginal gloss subsequently incorpor 
ated in the text. As regards the use of the phrase, it may be 
observed that frogs were regarded in the Zend religion (see 
S.B.E. iv. 171, note) as the source of plagues and death. In 
Hernias, Vis. iv. i. 6, locusts of a fiery colour are seen by the 
Seer coming forth from the mouth of a great monster: ioov 

/3A.67TCO ByplOV peyiO-TOV . . . KCU CK TOV (TTO/XaTOS O.VTOV OLKpcSf^ 

TTvpwai tgeiroptvovTo. This conception combines the ideas under 
lying ix. 3 and xvi. 13. Frogs were regarded as the agents of 
Ahriman: cf. Plut. de hide, 46 (Moffatt). 

14. [eio-lc yap weupara Satjxoj/iwj iroiourra a^/jiela.] There are 
difficulties attaching to this clause, i. It has been taken paren 
thetically by Bousset and Holtzmann as an explanatory remark of 
our author : " there are, to wit, demonic spirits, sign workers " (as 



48 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 14. 

their masters, xiii. 13, 14). The phrase Trvev^ara Sai/xovtW should 
be rendered " spirits, that is, demons," i.e. " demonic spirits," as in 
Luke iv. 33, Tn/ev/xa Sai/xoi/tov ai<a.6dpTov = " a spirit, that is, an 
unclean demon." The genitive is one of apposition or defini 
tion : cf. ii. 10, 6 o-re^avos Tr}s w>}s. Demons have no spirits, but 
are themselves spirits. According to I Enoch xv. 8, 9, n, 
xvi. i, xix., xcix. 7, the demons were the spirits which went forth 
from the antediluvian giants on their destruction, these giants 
being the children of the fallen angels and the daughters of men 
(cf. Gen. vi. i). These demons were not to incur punishment 
till the final judgment : cf. Matt. viii. 29 ; i Enoch xvi. i ; 
Jubilees x. 5-11. They were subject to Satan as in our text: 
cf. Matt. xii. 24-28. 2. Or it may be rendered: "they are, to 
wit, demonic spirits, sign workers." But however we take this 
clause it is of the nature of a gloss. 

f 61 eKiropeuerai t- This the best attested text is wholly 
unsatisfactory. N* and several cursives read eKTropeu eo-flat. 
Though this is less unsatisfactory it is against our author s usage 
as well as against Greek idiom. The context undoubtedly 
requires tWopeuo/Acva, since without this participle the construc 
tion and meaning are both defective. For the preceding words 
ctSov K TOV (rro/xaros rov Spa/coi/ros . . . Trvev^ara rpia are 
incomplete in both respects without the participle e/cTropevo/zera. 
The phrase c T. oro/toro? . . . e/cTropevco-flcu is of frequent 
occurrence in our text: cf. i. 16, ix. 17, 18, xi. 5, xix. 15, 21. 
Thus we should read etSov CK T. o-To/zaros T. SpaKovros . . . Trvcv/zara 
rpia . . . cKTropevd/zei/a (cf. i. 1 6 for the same separation of CK T. 
o-To^taros and the verb), and translate : " and I saw from the 
mouth of the dragon . . . three unclean spirits going forth." 
The present text eTSov e/c T. OTO/ZOTOS . . . Trj/ev^tara rpia. without 
a participle, which at once explains the c/c and completes the 
sentence, is, so far as I am aware, unexampled, and yet it has 
been thoughtlessly accepted by every grammarian and student of 
the Apocalypse, perhaps in many cases from the idea that any 
construction is possible in this Book. 

Hence, since for a eKTropeverat we must read K7ropevo/>ti/a 
and connect it with eTSov e* KrA.., we conclude that eio-iv yap . . . 
o-77/zeia is a marginal gloss, and likewise o>s /JcM-pa^oi if this is the 
earliest form of this phrase. Thus o>s ^arpa^ot . . . o-T^eta was 
originally a marginal gloss which on its incorporation into the text 
brought about the change of c/cTropevo/xei/a into a e/CTropcverai. 

TT)S OIKOUJX^TIS oXrjs. Cf. iii. io, xii. 9, for the same phrase 
and the same thought connection. 

orukayayetK aurous KT\. Cf. xx. 8. 

TTJS rjfj.e p as TTJS jjieydX^s TOU 6eoG. This is the great day of 
Vahweh s reckoning with the ungodly nations. Cf. 2 Pet. iii. 12. 



XVI. 14-16.] XVI. 15 TO BE RESTORED BEFORE III. 3 b 49 



Ofov fj/jiepa. See Charles Eschatology* (see Index), also the 
authorities quoted in the note of vi. 17 of our text. 

ToG 0eoG TOU irarroKpaTopos. A divine title frequently found in 
our author: cf. i. 8, iv. 8 (note), xi. 17, xv. 3, xvi. 7, xix. 6, 15, 
xxi. 22. 

15. With Konnecke (Emendationen zu Stellen NT. 35-37, 
whose work I have not seen; the reference I owe to 
Moffatt) this verse is to be taken as an intrusion here. 
Originally either it stood between iii. 3* and 3 b , where it would 
complete the i8ou series of ii. 22, iii. 9, 20, or it should with 
Beza be transposed before iii. 18. I therefore bracket it with 
most modern critics in its present context. 

What Konnecke s arguments are I do not know, but the 
cogency of his suggestion manifests itself on a comparison of 
15 with iii. 2-4. To see how fitly it comes in after iii. 3* we 
have only to compare ISov epxo^ai with the series of verbs so 
introduced in ii. 22, iii. 9, 20 : o>s /cAeTm/s* /xa/capios 6 yprjyop^v 
Kat rrjpuiv ra ^/Aana avrov (xvi. I5 ab ) with yivov yp^yoptov in iii. 2 and 
fav ovv /XT) ypyyoprja-ys, i}<i> o>s /cAeVn?? in iii. 3 b (observe also the 
use of TT/petv though without an expressed object in iii. 3* and 
OVK e/xdAwav ra t/xarta avrwv in iii. 4) : u/a /XT) yv/xvos TrepLTrarrj 
(xvi. 15) with TrepiTraTTyfToucriv /xer caov ei/ ACVKOIS in iii. 4, and 
the remaining words /ecu /SAeTroocru/ TT)V aaxyuocrvvrjv avrov with Lva 
. . . /XT) cfxivepwOfj rj atcr^vv^ TT^S yf/xvor^rd? crou, iii. 18. KAeTrrrys 
and ypTiyopeti/ occur only in xvi. 15 and iii. 2-3 in our author. 

This verse implies that the sixth Bowl will take the world by 
surprise. But it is hard to see how the elaborate preparations 
of the kings of the East followed by those of all the kings of the 
world could do so. Finally, the utter inappropriateness of 15 
in its present context is further evident from the fact that all the 
faithful have already been removed from the earth. 

This verse forms one of the seven beatitudes in the Apoca- 
lyj)sej i. 3 (iii. 3) (xiv. 13), xix. 9, xx. 6, xxii. 14, 7. When xvi. 15 
isTrestored to its original context, we find a special appositeness in 
their order : first beatitude (i. 3) deals with those who read the 
prophecy; the second (iii. 3, i.e. xvi. 15) with those who watch 
and keep their garments clean : the third, xiv. 12-13 (to be read 
after xiii. 15), with those who die in the Lord in the last persecu 
tion : the fourth, xix. 9, with those who are invited to the marriage 
supper of the Lamb : the fifth, xx. 6, with those who share in the 
first resurrection : the sixth, xxii. 14, with those who had washed 
their garments and had permission to eat of the tree of life 
during the Millennial Kingdom : the seventh, xxii. 7, with those 
who keep the words of this Book. 

16. This verse should follow immediately on 14, and 15 be 
transferred to its original context between iii. 3* and iii. 3 b . 

VOL. ii. 4 



50 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [xvi. 16. 



crui/ifyaYei . Neuter nouns in the plural are followed either by 
the singular (viii. 3, xiii. 14, xiv. 13, xvi. 14, etc.) or plural verb 
in the Apocalypse, but mostly by the latter. 
koi/. Cf. i. 9, xi. 8, xii. 9. 
See ix. n. 



*Ap MayeSw. No convincing interpretation has as yet 
been given of this phrase, which should probably be trans 
lated "the mountains of Megiddo." The city Megiddo was 
notable as the scene where Barak and Deborah overthrew the 
forces of Sisera by "the waters of Megiddo " (Judg. v. 19-21), 
and Pharaoh Necho defeated and slew Josiah, i.e., in "the plain 
of Megiddo "(2 Kings xxiii. 29, 30; 2 Chron. xxxv. 22; Herod. 
11. 159). But the phrase " mountains of Megiddo " is not found 
elsewhere. Owing to this fact it has been proposed by Hilgen- 
feld to take "Ap MayeSw as = jn:iD "iy, where, -)y=T>y= "city of 
Megiddo." Volter regards "Ap as = jn, " land." But both these 
conjectures have failed to meet with acceptance. It is best at 
present to regard the first element in the phrase as = 
"mountains"; for the final conflict in Ezek. xxxviii. 8, 21, 
xxxix. 2, 4, 17 a passage which influenced our author in 
xx, 8-1 1 was to take place on "the mountains of Israel." In 
Dan. xi. 45 the writer expected that Antiochus would meet his 
end " between the sea and the glorious holy mountain." Since 
Megiddo is not associated with any eschatological expectation, it 
is possible some corruption underlies this word. Hence 
the phrase in Daniel, "glorious holy mountain" ( = Mt. 
Zion), ^ as well as the expression in Ezekiel, " mountains of 
Israel," may give some support to the conjecture cited by Cheyne 
(Encyc. Bib. i. 311) that *A P MayeSon/ = top in, his "fruitful 
mountain." This would associate the battle scene with Jeru 
salem as in Joel iii. 2; Zech. xiv. 2 sqq. ; i Enoch Ivi. 7, 
xc. 13-19. As Rome was to be laid desolate by the kings of the 
East, xvi. 12, xvii. 16-17, so (after the destruction of the kings of 
the East see xix. 13 n.) the kings of the whole earth were to be 
destroyed in the neighbourhood of Zion. Now, since xvi. 14, i6and 
xx. 8-io are both ultimately derived from Ezek. xxxviii. -xxxxix., 
and since in xx. 8-10 the scene of the last great struggle at the 
close of the Millennial Kingdom is placed in the neighbourhood 
of the_ Heavenly Jerusalem (which has taken the place of the 
Old), it is possible that tV A/o MayeSwi/ may be a corruption either 
for HJIE in = " his fruitful mountain," as above suggested, or for 
n 1?P"" 1 ^ " the desirable city " (i.e. Jerusalem : cf. m&n pK, " the 
desirable land,"/.*. Palestine, Jer. iii. 19 ; Zech. vii. 14). The 
latter suggestion derives some countenance from xx. 9, rrjv troXiv 
n?j/ rjyaTrrj^vov, which is there surrounded by the hostile armies 



XVI. 16-18.] tHE SEVENTH BOWL $t 

of Gog and Magog. But everything connected with the text and 
meaning of the phrase is uncertain. Hence Gunkel, followed by 
Cheyne and Bousset, conjectures in his Schopfung und Chaos^ 263- 
266, that we have in this mysterious phrase a survival of some 
ancient myth no longer intelligible to our author which associ 
ated the final conflict of the gods with some ancient mountain. 
Hommers suggestion that the phrase goes back to nyiD in 
(Isa. xiv. 13) = " the mountain in the north where the gods meet," 
springs from the same view of the passage. Hence Bousset con 
cludes that the context here goes back to an ancient myth which 
described the assault on the holy mountain of the gods by an 
army of demons mustered by certain evil spirits. To this myth 
our author in Bousset s opinion gave an historical character by 
connecting it with the Parthians. See Nestle s art. in Hastings 
D.B. ii. 304 sq. 

17-21. The seventh Bowl. Just as the fifth and sixth Bowls 
showed undeniable affinities with the first and second Woes, so the 
seventh Bowl appears to be slightly related to the third Woe, xi. 
14-19. In xvi. 17 a voice from heaven declares that the punish 
ment of the heathen and of the great city of Rome is now com 
pleted in the pouring out of the seventh Bowl with the results about 
to be recounted. In xi. i8 h it is said that the time has come for 
"destroying those who destroy the earth " : cf. xix. 2. This con 
nection is indeed slight in itself, but there are others, for the 
"earthquake and great hail" in xi. 19 are described at some 
length in xvi. 18-21. 

^le xeei/ . . . em TOC d^pa. On this visitation on the air cf. 
ix. 2. The construction with ri here is extraordinary : see 
note on i. 

IK TOU moG diro TOU 0p6Vou. A divine voice was heard coming 
from the Temple in xvi. i. Here the place whence it comes is 
more nearly defined. Throughout the Apocalypse the throne is 
connected with the Temple, though at times it is impossible to 
visualize the vision. But, as we have seen in the note on iv. 2, 
the combination of the Temple and throne scenery goes far back 
into Judaism. 

^wio] . . . diro TOU Opoi/ou. So also in xix. 5. It is note 
worthy that in exactly a similar connection our author uses 
K TOT) Opovov in xxi. 3. 

ytyovev. Cf. xxi. 6. The great voice from the throne, which 
had commanded these plagues, xvi. i, now proclaims that they 
are at an end. 

18. daTparral KCU <j>WKal K<U j3pokrat. See notes on iv. 5, 
viii. 5. 

aeiojxos . . . |J.e Y a S- Cf. viii. 5, xi. 19. 

otos OUK lytvero < M > ou> ayOpuTnn lyevovTO Im TTJS Y H 5 The 



$2 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 18-20. 



phraseology is borrowed from Dan. xii. i. Cf. Theod. , 

ofa ov ye yoj/ei/ d< 775 yeyei/^rat e(9i/os eV rf) y^ (evrt T^S y^?, AQ), 
and the LXX ota OVK eye^r; d</> oS tytvtjOrjo-av. Here the eVt 
T^s yfjs is found both in our text and Theod. a fact which may 
point to the presence of pK3 in the text of Daniel in the 
ist cent. A.D. Our text is clearly an independent rendering of 
Dan. xii. i. Cf. Ass. Mos. viii. i, " ira quae talis non fuit in illis." 
19. [KO.I eyeVero ... els rpia fAepr)] KCU ol iroXeis rwk Ibv&v 
eireo-ai . I have bracketed the first clause ; for ts rpia ^prj is 
against the usage of our author, who would have written efc 
p-eprj rpta: cf. xvi. 13, xxi. 13 (four times). Moreover, there 
is no hint in xvii.-xviii. that Rome had suffered from a violent 
earthquake. Rome is dealt with in the words which follow _ /cat 
Ba/?vAwi/ KT\. These words prepare the reader for xvii.-xviii. 

eyeVero . . . eis. Cf. Acts v. 36. In viii. n of our author 
the text is corrupt. 

TJ -n-oXis TJ fj,eyd\Y]. Here as in xiv. 8 (see note) it is Rome, 
not Jerusalem, that is designated as "Babylon the Great." 
Jerusalem had already been in part overthrown by an earth 
quake in xi. 13 : 7000 of its inhabitants had been thereby 
destroyed and the rest had repented. Here, according to the 
interpolator, it is Rome that is visited by an earthquake, and that 
an earthquake such as had never yet been experienced on earth, 
and yet in xvii. 3-4 Rome appears not to have suffered in this 
earthquake in the least degree. Its final overthrow and destruc 
tion are yet to come in xvii.-xviii. This judgment and that of 
the great hail do not lead men to repent: rather they blas 
pheme the more: cf. ver. 21. To identify Babylon here with 
Jerusalem, as is done by J. Weiss, Moffatt, and some other 
scholars, is against the whole context and the right conception of 
xvii.-xviii. 

ejui^a0Y] &oui>cu. The passive use of //.v^o-^i/ai is found in 
Ezek. iii. 20 (ov p,r] ^v^a-O^cnv at SiKaiooaWi airroT;), xviii. 22, 24. 
It is found also in Acts x. 31 and elsewhere. As regards the 
construction we should compare xi. 18, yXOev o Katpos . 
Sowai, xvi. 9, ov /xerei/OTycrai/ Sovvai. In Ps. C1X. 1 6 and ciii. 1 8 we 
find the infinitive in Hebrew after int. 

TO TTOT^plOJ TOU OlVoU TOU 0UIJLoG TT]S OpyTJS OUToG. See DOtCS 

on xiv. 8, 10. The expression rov OV/JLOV -7-779 opyfjs recurs in xix. 
15. In Isa. vii. 4; Jer. iv. 26, xxv. 16 (xlix. 37), xxxii. 23 
(xxv. 37) ; Lam. i. 12, ii. 3, iv. n Ezek. xxiii. 25 ; Hos. xi. 9 ; 
Nah. i. 6, we find the combination opy^ Ovpov ( = P]X }nn). 
The order 0v/x6s opy^s is infrequent in the LXX but it is found : 
cf. Isa. ix. 1 8. 

20. irdora vfjaos e^uyck. Cf. vi. 14, TTOLV opos /cat vrj<ro<s 






XVI. 20-21.] THE SEVENTH BOWL 53 

oux cupe Oirjaai . Cf. v. 4, xii. 8, xiv. 5, xviii. 21, xx. n (tyvytv 
fj-yfj ... KCU TOTTOS ovx evptOrj) a familiar Hebrew expression 
(1NX03 K?) : cf. Ps. xxxvi. (xxxvii.) 36. 

opyj oux up^0Y]<rai>. This disappearance of the mountains is 
one of the signs of the end of the world : cf. vi. 14; also Ass. 
Mos. x. 4, " And the high mountains shall be made low, and 
the hills shall be shaken and fall," also i Enoch i. 6. In 
later Christian Apocalyptic this idea is found not unfrequently : 
cf. Sibyl. Or. viii. 234, 236, {n^wo-ei Se <apayyo,9, oXet 8 vi^oj/xara 

/?OWO)V, Vlf/OS 8* OVKTL X.OL7TOV (SO HaSe) CV OvOpWirOKTl <f>O.ViTai. 

ura 8 0/017 TreSi ois co-rat KCU Tracra Od\a(T(ra OVKZTL TT^OVV eei. 

A Latin translation of viii. 217-250 is given in Augustine, De 
Civitate Dei, xviii. 23 : 

" Dejiciet colles, valles extollet ab imo. 
Non erit in rebus hominum sublime vel altum. 
Tarn aequantur campis montes et coerula ponti 
Omnia cessabunt." 

Lactantius, Div. Instit. vii. 16, n, "Montes quoque altissimi 
decident et planis aequabuntur, mare innavigabile constitue- 
tur." 

The idea underlying these passages is to be carefully dis 
tinguished from that which appears in the Zend religion to the 
effect that the mountains, being the work of the evil spirit 
Ahriman, would disappear with him, and the new earth would be 
" an iceless, slopeless plain ; even the mountain whose summit is 
the support of the Kinvat bridge they keep down, and it will 
not exist," Bund. xxx. 33 (S.B.E. v. 129 sq.). The object of the 
earth being made a smooth plain was, as Boklen states (Eschat- 
ologie, p. 133), to make intercourse easy for the renewed humanity. 
In this connection, cf. Sib. Or. iii. 776 sqq. 

Yet another idea underlies the use of analogous phrases in 
Isa. xl. 4 ; i Bar. v. 5-9 ; Pss. Sol. xi. 5. 

21. x^ a ^ a fJteydXi]. So also in xi. 19. Probably the 113 
133 of Ex. ix. 24 the seventh of the Egyptian plagues. 

ws raXa.vna.icL. A talent (raXavrov = 133) weighed something 
between 108 and 130 Ibs. The word raAavrtatos is found in 
Polybius and Josephus, as Swete points out. 

ejSXaoxj^jjnrjo-ay . . . rov 0eoV. As in xvi. 9, ii so here the 
effect of the judgment is only to harden the hearts of the heathen 
nations. This attitude of theirs stands in contrast with that of 
the Jews in xi. 13. 

a4>68pa. Here only in our author. It stands last like 1NE 
in Hebrew, not only here but elsewhere in the N.T. Cf. Matt. 
ii. 10, xxvi. 22; Mark xvi. 4, etc. But in all such cases o-^o Spa 



54 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 1. 

follows immediately after the adjective it qualifies, whereas here, 
as occasionally in the case of the Hebrew IKE), the adjective and 
adverb are sundered. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
i. Contents and Authorship. 

This chapter begins with a promise on the part of an angel to 
the Seer to show him " the judgment of the Great Harlot," but 
throughout the chapter this subject is not referred to save once 
(in xvii. 16), and alike the vision in xvii. 3 b -6 and its interpreta 
tion by the angel are concerned with the Beast, which according 
to the present form of the text symbolizes the demonic Nero, or 
Nero returning from the abyss to lead the Parthian powers 
against Rome. The judgment of the Great Harlot is given at 
length in xviii. 

But if we are to give the subject the fuller treatment it 
demands, we soon recognize that xvii. cannot be treated apart 
from xviii. Thus in xvii. i an angel summoned the Seer to 
show him " the judgment of the Great Harlot," and transported 
him in the spirit (xvii. 3) to the wilderness, where he had a vision 
of the woman and of the scarlet Beast, whereon she sat, with its 
seven heads and ten horns. Now the woman was magnificently 
arrayed in purple and scarlet and adorned with gold and precious 
stones, and on her forehead she bore the name of Babylon, the 
mother of fornication and abomination, and she was drunken 
with the blood of Christian martyrs (xvii. 4-6). And when the 
Seer was filled with amazement at what he saw, the angel turned 
aside from his original purpose of showing him the judgment of 
the Great Harlot, and proceeded to explain the hidden meaning 
of the woman and the Beast with the seven heads and ten horns. 
The Beast, said the angel, " was and is not and is about to come 
up out of the abyss and goeth to destruction," and all the faith 
less upon earth shall marvel at his return after his death (xvii. 
7-8), but they that are wise will not do so ; for they will see that 
the seven heads are seven kings, of whom the sixth is at present 
reigning. This sixth would in due course be succeeded by the 
seventh, who would reign but a short time. And on the death 
of the seventh king would follow an eighth, who was in reality 
the Beast and yet he would not be the eighth king, since he 
was actually one of the seven (xvii. 9-11). (The Beast is clearly 
here the demonic Nero returning to earth from the abyss.) 

So much for the seven heads. As for the ten horns, these 
are ten subordinate kings who will shortly come into their royal 
authority, and with one accord will, through the ordinance of 



XVII. 1.] CONTENTS AND AUTHORSHIP 55 

God, place all their power at the disposal of the Beast, and the 
Beast and these kings will hate the Harlot, and destroy her by 
fire (xvii. 12-13, X 7> l6 )- Ariel having destroyed the Harlot 
they will go to war with the Lamb, but they will be overcome by 
the Lamb and His followers (xvii. 14, a conquest implied by 
xix. 13). Now the Harlot is none other than the city Rome 
(xvii. 1 8), whose doom is described in the vision that follows. 

So much for the thought of the chapter as it stands. But the 
order of events is strange and unexpected. Though the Seer 
has promised in xvii. i a vision of the judgment of the Great 
Harlot, in all the verses that follow there is not a reference to 
this subject save in xvii. 16. The promise, in fact, is not 
redeemed till xviii., for the single mention of this judgment in 
xvii. 1 6 cannot be regarded as a fulfilment of it. xviii. is 
necessarily introduced by the technical phrase /xcra ravra eTSov, 
since other weighty subjects have intervened between xvii. i and 
its fulfilment in xviii. 

The irregular character of this chapter prepares us for the 
conclusion which a detailed study of it makes manifest, i.e. that 
our author is here using sources which for convenience sake are 
here designated as A and B. A= i c -2, 3 b -6 a , 7, 18, and some 
clauses in 8-10. B is fragmentary: 11-13, J 7> l6 ( see 5)- 
The order of the words in A is Semitic, but not in B, and 
whereas the diction and idiom in both show indubitable traces 
of our author s hand, they just as indubitably contain idioms 
which are against his usage ( 3). Again, though the thought 
underlying the present form of the chapter is that of our author, 
even the most superficial criticism makes it clear that this 
thought is superinduced, and that the meaning of the symbol 
"the Beast" has been transformed by additions to the text. 
Thus in A the Beast symbolized the Roman Empire, a meaning 
which still survives in xvii. 3, whereas in B it symbolized the 
living Nero returning from the East at the head of the Parthian 
kings in order to destroy Rome ( 4). By certain additions in 
xvii. 8, ii the Beast has come to symbolize Nero redivivus ox 
the demonic Nero coming up from the abyss an expectation 
prevalent from 90 A.D. onwards in many Christian communities. 

There are certain dislocations of the text. Thus jxvii. ^ 1 7 
should be transposed before xvii. 16, and xvii. 14 an addition 
of our author should be placed after xvii. 1 6, since it deals 
with the destruction of the Beast and his Parthian allies, who in 
xvii. 17, 1 6 have already destroyed Rome. There are two 
glosses, one in xvii. 9, which gives an alternative and wrong 
interpretation of the seven heads in xvii. 9, and another in xvii. 
15, which was originally a marginal gloss on ri 8ara>v in xvii. i 
and has got wrongly thrust into its present position ( 4). 



56 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 2-3. 

In the Introd. to xviii. we shall find grounds for regarding A 
and xviii. as derived from one and the same source. 

2. The order of the Words. 

So far as the order of the words goes, this chapter falls into 
two parts, xvii. i-io is Hebraic as to order. Thus the verb 
precedes the object three times in xvii. 7, twice in xvii. 3, and 
once in xvii. i, 6. In xvii. 8 the verb precedes the subject 
twice, and once in xvii. i and 2. In xvii. 4-5 there are only 
substantive sentences. 

In xvii. 11-17 the order is decidedly non-Semitic. Only once, 
i.e. in xvii. 17, does the verb precede the subject, whereas the 
object, and also the subject where expressed, precede the verb 
twice in each of the verses xvii. 12, 13, 16 (i.e. six times 
in three verses). Again, in each of xvii. 14, 16, 17 the order 
subj. vb. obj. occurs once, and in each of xvii. 14, 15 the 
order subj. and vb. It is true that in some of these cases the 
order is quite good Semitic, inasmuch as its unusualness serves 
to mark emphasis, opposition, or the like : but in respect of order 
xvii. 11-17 is, as a whole, non-Semitic and differs in this respect 
from xvii. i-io. Such a fact can hardly be accidental, and must 
be accounted for. The linguistic character of xvii. 11-17 is 
almost without parallel in the rest of the book save in xi. 1-13, 
which on these and other grounds we were obliged to attribute 
to a Greek or Aramaic source (see i. p. 270 sqq.). Any theory 
as to the authorship of xvii. should account for these facts. So far 
as these facts go we are predisposed to assign xvii. i-io and 
xvii. 11-17 (or the original forms of these; for they exhibit 
undoubted marks of revision, as we shall see presently) to different 
sources, the latter apparently to a Greek source. 

3. The diction and idiom of this Chapter show manifest traces of 
the hand of our author (in the way of revision, as we shall 
see later), but they are frequently against his usage. 

(a) Traces of the hand of our author, especially in xvii. i-o, 14 
(which verse is wholly from his hand).w\ ^\0 6 i/ . . . 8ei|w in 
xvii. i, recurs in xxi. 9 : indeed every word and phrase of xvii. i 
are from our author. Thus et s CK is his universal usage. On 
eXdXrjcrei/ . . . Xe ycoi/ and 8ei w CTOI see iv. I n. In xvii. 3, dir^- 
keyKek . . . Iv eu>cm recurs in xxi. 10. The constructions 
Ka0T]|xeVir]S em uSdrcoi/, xvii. i * and KaQ^vi]v em OTjpiV in xvii. 3 



1 If, as we shall seek to prove, part of xvii. i has come from a source, then 
the form of the phrase /ccttf^eV^s <?7ri vddruv TTO\\WV seems to come from our 
author; for the phrase is clearly derived from Jer. li. (xxviii.) 13, and since 
is never used as a translation of pi? which is in the original here, 



XVII. 3.] DICTION AND IDIOM 57 

are also his idiom (see iv. 2, note). irepi|3e|3XT]jieVT] c. ace. xvii. 4 
(see iii. 5, note) ; also em TO perwirov aurrjs, xvii. 5 (see vii. 3 n.) ; 
also ot tcaToiKourres eirl TTJS yfjs, xvii. 8 l (see i. p. 336, and con 
trast ol KdTOiKoGrres TTJ^ yrji/, xvii. 2) ; also r\v KCU OUK eariy KCU 
jxeXXei a.va.pa.ivei.v . . . uirdyet and on r\v . . . Trdpeo-Tai in xvii. 8 ; 
<L8e . . . o-o<f>iai/ (cf. xiii. 18) in xvii. 9 ; o r\v . . . ecrnr and Kal 
eis diruXacu uirdyei in xvii. u, and omves ( = ot) in xvii. 12. 
xvii. 14 is wholly from his hand : with OUTOI . . . ciK^o-ei aurou s 
cf. xiii. 7, which is his; with Ku pios . . . |3acnXeW cf. xix. 16 
while TTKTTOS is often used by him. In xvii. 16 we have an instance 
of an idiom used by our author ; i.e. TjpTjfxujjieVTji TTOIYJO-OUO-IV auTrjy : 
cf. xii. 15, xxi. 5. In xvii. 17 with TeXeaOrjaorrai cf. x. 7, xv. 8, 
xx. 3, 5, 7. 

(b) Idiom and diction against his usage. In xvii. 2, ot K(XTOI- 
KoGrres TY]k yfjv conflicts with the universal usage of our author : 
see vol. i. p. 336, and note on xi. 10. yejxorra oj/ojmaTa, xvii. 3 (3 b ) 
elsewhere c. gen. See n. on xvii. 3. In xvii. 8 yeypa-n-Tai eiri 
TO (3if3Xioy is against his usage ; for in this phrase we have always 
ypa<eo-$ai ev rw ^L/3\i(a elsewhere : cf. (i. 3) xiii. 8, xx. 12, xxi. 27 
[xxii. 1 8, 19]. In different phrases ypa^eti/ 7rt cum ace. is found : 
cf. ii. 17, evri TT/V \l/r)<})ov . . . yeypa/x/xeyoi/ : iii. 12, ypai^co CTT avrw 
TO oro/xa: cf. also xix. 16. The order in CIUTOI/ Set is against his 
usage, xvii. 10 elsewhere Set precedes: cf. x. u, xx. 3, xi. 5 : 
lie Twk eirrd 1 , xvii. n elsewhere in Apoc. always els e /< : cf. v. 5, 
vi. i (bis), vii. 13, ix. 13, xiii. 3, xv. 7, xvii. i, xxi. 9. 

In xvii. 8, which like xiii. 8 is a rendering of the same Hebrew 
source, the split relative is not reproduced in the Greek, though 
it is in xiii. 8. In xvii. 15 ou is used, though our author uses oVov 
always elsewhere (but this verse is a gloss on xvii. i). yj/wpj in 
xvii. 13, 17 is not found elsewhere in the Apoc., and the form of the 
enumeration in xvii. 15 is not that of our author. Here o^Xot is 
substituted for Xaot: see note in loc. Finally, in xvii. 17 axpi is 
followed by the indicative (by the subjunctive in inferior MSS) 
but elsewhere in our author by the subjunctive : see ii. 25, note. 

From (b) we see that this chapter exhibits many constructions, 
which are against our author s usage elsewhere in the Apocalypse. 

On the other hand, (a) just as decidedly exhibits his handi 
work. Since the thought underlying the present form of the 
text is that of ouj author, the obvious hypothesis is that he is 
making use of sources, which he revises and recasts to suit his 



(as in the LXX) would be the natural rendering. But our 
author could not use this latter participle, since it is reserved by him for 
dwellers in heaven ; see note on xvii. i. Hence we have Kadrj^v^s tiri v5a.Twv 
instead possibly of KaTacrKTjvovaijs jri vSdruv. 

1 Since this verse has been recast by our author, this form of this phrase 
instead of that in xvii. 2 may be due to him. 



58 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 3-4. 

own purpose. In other words, the evidence of this section tends to 
prove that not only is xvii. 11-17 based on a source, as we inferred 
in 2, but also xvii. i-io, 18. 

Further research will define more closely the extent and 
character of these sources. But first of all we must show that 
the conclusions provisionally arrived at from the form of the text 
are confirmed by the subject-matter. Hence we shall now 
proceed to prove that the chapter as it stands is of a composite 
nature. 

4. The text is deranged and composite being based on two 
Sources. 

The text is deranged, however we may account for it. For 
whereas in xvii. 7 the angel promises to disclose the mystery of 
the woman and the Beast (which the Seer had already seen in 
xvii. 3) and in this order, he at once proceeds to tell the mystery 
of the Beast, and there is no mention of the woman till xvii. 18. 
Hence the natural position of xvii. 18 is immediately after 
xvii. 7. Again, xvii. 17, which gives the explanation of xvii. 13, 
can hardly have been read unless in immediate connection with 
xvii. 13: i.e. 13, "These have one mind, and they give their 
power and authority unto the beast. 17. For God did put into 
their hearts to do His mind [and to come to one mind], and to 
give their kingdom unto the beast," etc. 

The chapter is also composite. We have already seen in 
3 that whereas certain parts of the chapter show clear traces 
of the hand of John, the phraseology of certain other parts is 
decidedly against his usage. We have also seen in 2 that the 
order of the words in xvii. i-io is Semitic, whereas that in 
xvii. 11-17 is not so. Now, if with these facts we combine the 
further one that, whereas xvii. i-io culminates in a prediction 
of the death of Titus (xvii. 10), the other (xvii. 1 1-17) culminates 
in a prediction of the destruction of the Harlot City (xvii. 16) 
we can hardly evade the conclusion that behind these two 
sections there were two independent sources. 1 But there is 
another indication of the independence of these two sections. 
In xvii. 3, 7 the Beast can only be the Roman Empire, whereas 
originally in xvii. 11-13, 17, 16 the Beast was not the Roman 
Empire (as originally in xvii. 3-10), but the living Nero 
returning from the East at the head of the Parthian kings. 

That our author, therefore, has laid two sources under 
contribution is to be concluded from the above phenomena, 
in the first of which the Beast represented the Roman Empire] 

1 1 have thus on largely independent grounds arrived at the same con 
clusions as Wellhausen (Analyse, 26-29) n the original sources of this 
chapter. 



XVII. 4-5.] THE TWO SOURCES A AND B 59 

whereas in the second it represented the living Nero returning 
from the East at the head of the Parthian hosts (cf. xvi. 12). 

To the above evidence of the compositeness of this chapter 
we might add the twofold explanation of the seven heads in 
xvii. 9-10 as symbolizing seven hills and seven kings : the 
glaring contradiction between xvii. 16, where the ten horns are 
represented as God s agents in destroying Rome, although they 
had themselves been already destroyed by the Lamb and His 
followers in xvii. I4, 1 and the belated gloss in xvii. 15, which 
has no raison d etre in its present position but was obviously 
added by a stupid scribe originally in the margin opposite xvii. i 
as an explanation of rr?s Trdpv^s . . . TT/S KaO^^ev^ CTTI v 






5. The two Sources A and B, and their dates. 

In the determination of these two sources I agree on the 
whole with Wellhausen. 2 A consists, according to this scholar, 
of 3 (with the exception of the phrase " and ten horns ")-4, 6 b -y 
(with the exception of "and the ten horns"), 9 (excluding all 
but the words "the seven heads"), 10 (omitting the initial 
"and"). He thinks that 18 may have originally stood after 7 
but was omitted by the redactor, who, however, out of a feeling 
of conscientiousness added it at the close of B ! B consists, he 
holds, of 11-13, 1 6 (omitting "and the ten horns which thou 
sawest and the beast "), 17. A and B were bound together by a 
redactor and revised. In A, 6 is a Christian addition, and in 
B 14. xvii. 1-3 may, with the exception of xvii. i*, have 
belonged either to A or B. 

I am unable to accept Wellhausen s hypothesis in all its 
details, but, as we have already seen ( 2, 3), the evidence of 
the order of the words and to some extent the idioms point to 
two sources, and these, like Wellhausen, I designate as A and B. 

(a) A consisted originally of i c (beginning with TO Kptpa T^S 
TropvTjs . . .)-2, 3^ (KCU eTSov . . .) 6 (om. KOU CK. . . . irjarov), 
7, 1 8, 8 (om. rjv KOL OVK . . . v-n-dycL which addition has dis 
placed a clause : om. also on rjv . . . Trapeo-rat), 9 (om. a> . . . 
o-o<iai/ and CTTTO. . . . avTwj/), 10 (om. the first KCU). 

In this oracle the beast is the Roman Empire, its seven 
heads are the Roman emperors, five of whom belong to the 
past, one is, t .e. t Vespasian, whereas the seventh, Titus, as the 

1 This, however, is no doubt due to an accidental displacement. When 
it is read after 11-13, 17, 16 this contradiction disappears. In the text as it 
stands the demonic Nero returning from the abyss is the Antichrist, and there 
fore must be destroyed by the Christ. 

2 Bousset regards xvii. 1-7, 9-11, 15-18 as an original Jewish source of 
Vespasian s time, while he assigns xvii. 8, 12-14 and certain clauses in 6, 9, 
1 1 to the last editor of the Apocalypse. 



60 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 5-6. 

e fJerUleI W Uld Sf>eedily Perish The date is 



fixed nH h e ae s US 

fixed and the authorship may rve been Jewish-Christian. 

- II (om. or,v K al {, K lv nv Ka ; and Kal fk fa A(Ml , A 

from th V ,- V S f nd rade the Beast 1S Nero ^turning 
from the East, and not the Roman Empire as in A. The ordJ 

of he words, as we have shown ( 2 ), differs in B from that in A. 
Ihis source is fragmentary. Preceding ver. n there must have 
been some account of the seven heads, but not that in A, since 

Nert" sf ?h ^L f h the R man Em P ire and n ** 
Nero i Since the e,ghth is spoken of, i.e. Nero returning from 

the East, we may conclude with great probability that it was 
written during the reign of Titus. The oracle may be regarded 
as written by a Jew; for whereas the hatred of the Jelswas 
fierce agamst Rome in the time of Vespasian and Titus, H wa 

co, M n , ? 6 T/ th Christians - e Christians, moreover 
could not have had any sympathy with Nero. Their expectation 
is best expressed in the addition of John, i.e. ver. 14 where 
Nero and his allies attack the Lamb. 

rfo s fnn haVe a ready bSerVed that 5 Was wipnally a marginal 
gloss on ver. i, rr,s mpvr ,s . . . fal iSfrw. Ver 14 is clearlv 
from the hand of John, 16 manifestly stood originkllyVfer 17. 

6. Our authors editing of A and B and the new meaning 
given thereby to the whole. 

Now that we have determined the extent of A and B we 
have next to show the use our author made of them Firs t of 
all the introductory words in xvii. i, Ka l ?A<?, r s & . . . AriJpo 

frnt A ar6 Mrly fr m his hand Then follow he words 
xvm C Th " 1 I ^ p " as air ^ which form the title of 
though P ,, S ,s preceded by the article-another 
lactpointmg to a source-the Harlot has not been mentioned as 

fn whirh th 0n | m 7 IS1 n u f the Harlot Consisted of th ="ce A, 
n which the Beast was the Roman Empire on which the woman 
(Rome) was seated. This source our author introduces by 3 

KO.I aTT^vfyKfv ^ ts (pr,,j.o,, iv JlWocm. In t b -7 he 
change save by the insertion (?) of L ^ paTO l K I in 

t ~ 



nn 

n 



f$3 5 Shifts SJStSSi 

m its present form the demonic Nero returning from the abyss 
The Beast is the supporter of the woman, i.e. Rome (xvii 3) i, A 
whereas m B the Beast is the destroyer of Rome) xvii. i 2 , ,6 3) " A> 



XVII. 6-8.] CHANGED MEANING OF A AND B 6l 

In 9, <SSe 6 vovs . . . <To<f>iav is from his hand, while OTTO, op-rj . . . 
ITT avrSiv /cat is clearly the gloss of an ignorant scribe. Ver. 18, 
which originally stood in A after 7, was transposed to its present 
position in order to introduce the great chapter xviii. on the 
doom of Rome. 

Having utilized A our author now proceeds to incorporate B 
of which only 11-13, J 7> *6 survives in our author s work. The 
introduction, as we have already pointed out ( 5 (^)), has been 
omitted and its place is now taken by 10, which belongs to A. 
Two clauses have been introduced by our author into n, i.e. 
o rjv Kal OVK COTIV and KCU ei? aTrwAeiav vTrdyeL. By their intro 
duction the expectation of a living Nero returning from the East 
at the head of the Parthians is transformed into an expectation 
of a demonic Nero, as in xvii. 8. 12-13 are apparently as they 
stood in the original oracle, but 14-15 had no place there. 15 
is, as we have elsewhere observed, a gloss, which stood originally 
in the margin opposite ver. i (1-775 Tropi/^s . . . CTTI vSarwv), while 
14 comes from our author s hand; but, since it could only 
properly follow 16, as it deals with the destruction of the Beast 
and his Parthian allies, who in 16 destroy Rome, it has most 
probably got displaced. Thus 11-17 should be read in the 
following order : 11-13, T 7 J 6> *4- 

Thus by his editorial changes and additions our author has 
transformed the original meaning of his sources except in ver. 3, 
where the Beast is still the Roman Empire. Throughout the 
rest of the chapter, however, the Beast has become none other 
than the demonic Nero. 



7. A ( = xvii. i c -2, 3 b -6 a , 7, 18, and certain clauses in 8-10) 
was probably derived from the same source as xviii. 

See Introd. to xviii. 7. 

8. A, though found by our author in a Greek form, was most 
probably translated from a Hebrew source. 

I n 6, 3 I have shown that, although there are indubitable 
signs of our author s revision of A, yet some idioms and con 
structions survive, which are contrary to his usage such as ot 
KarotKOwres T*\V yrfv (xvii. 2), ye/xovra ovo/xara (xvii. 3), yeypaTrrat 
7rt TO /?i/3Aiov (xvii. 8). It thus appears that the Greek form of 
A is not due to our author. 

But, further, there are signs that A was originally written in 
Hebrew. Thus, if Tro/wooi/ is the original text in xvii. 5, the 
context (/3SeXvy/AaT(ov) suggests that we should here have not 
"harlots" but "harlotry." This, as I have shown in the note 



62 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 1. 

in loc. t could have arisen from a misreading of JTOt ( = harlotry) 
as nut = " harlots." 

But the strongest evidence is that found in ver. 8, which is a 
doublet of xiii. 3, 8. These two passages cannot, so far as I 
can discover, be explained except as independent Greek render 
ings of one and the same Hebrew original, the Greek rendering 
of xiii. 3, 8 being that of our author and the Greek of xviii. 8 
being that of some unknown scholar. This question is fully 
dealt with in the Introd. to xiii. 4, vol. i. p. 337. 

1. Kal rjX0i/ els 6* Toil euTa dyyeXwi r&v e^oWo)! T&S ITTTO, 
<JudXas, KCU eXaXTjo-ey JJLCT efxou Xeyojy Aeupo, Seia> aoi TO 

TT]S TTOpyTJS TTJS JAeydXirjS TTJS KaOTJjJ^inrjS 6TTI uSaTWK 

2. fxe0 T^S eiropi/eucrai ol fJaaiXeis TTJS YTJS, *at 
K(XTOIKOUI>TS TTJI/ yr\v CK TOU otyou TTJS iropyeias aurfjs. 

1. els . . . dyyeXw^. One of the angels of the Bowls acts as 
the angel of interpretation. The words /ecu ?j\6cv el? ... oVw 
crot recur in xxi. g. On eXdX-^cre /ACT* e/xov Xeywv see iv. I n: 
Set^o) crot has already occurred in iv. i ; Sevpo, as we have seen, 
recurs in xxi. 9. 

TO KpLjULO, TY)S TTOp/TJS . . . TTOpVeiCiS ttUTT]S. ThcSC WOldS form 

the title that should be prefixed to chap, xviii. They prepare us 
for a vision of the judgment of the Great Harlot, but there is none 
such in xvii. 3-18 : only a prediction of it in xvii. 16. But in 
xviii. we have an elaborate vision of this judgment, and it 
is therefore to this chapter that these words form a title. And 
lest there should be any doubt on this head we find that the 
greater part of the title xvii. 2 is repeated in xviii. 3, though the 
order of the clauses is reversed and the diction slightly changed, 
and that the words TO Kpi^a reappear as ^ K/H O-IS in reference to 
her in xviii. 10. Cf. also xviii. 8, 20. But since the Great Harlot 
has not hitherto been mentioned, another vision is necessary to 
her identification. In this vision (xvii. 3-6) she appears riding 
the Beast with seven heads and ten horns elements which are 
duly interpreted in xvii. g, 12. 

TO Kptjjia TTJS Tropes. The Harlot is the city of Rome. This 
word is applied to Nineveh by Nahum (iii. 4), and to Tyre by 
Isaiah (xxiii. 16, 17). In 5 it is named Babylon. The doom of 
Babylon has already been pronounced twice, xiv. 8, xvi. 19. 
Rome is already known by this name in i Pet. v. 13; 2 Bar. 
Ixvii. 7, " The King of Babylon will arise who has now destroyed 
Zion"; and the Sibylline Oracles, v. 143, 159. 

TTJS Ka0Tjjj^nr)s TTI uSdTwi/ 7ToXX<oi>. This is an independent trans 
lation of Jer. li. (LXX xxviii.) 13, D m D B ^ 1| n:D^. The 
LXX has here KaTacrK-rjvovvTas (KaTOL(TKr)vov<ra ) Q) e< uSacri TroXXots. 
KaTaa-Krjvovv or CTK^VOVV is the natural rendering of pE? here, but our 
author reserves this word for dwellers in heaven : cf. vii. 15, xii. 12, 



XVII. 1-3.] VISION OF THE GREAT HARLOT 63 

xiii. 6. Rome cannot be rightly described as " sitting on many 
waters," but the description of Babylon, which stood for the 
personification of wickedness in the O.T., is here simply taken 
over. The idea of security may underlie the phrase : Babylon 
felt safe owing to the many waters on which it was situated the 
Euphrates which flowed through it and the morasses and canals 
by which it was surrounded (see Cornill on Jer. li. 13). Yet 
this fact that Rome did not sit on many waters was a difficulty 
to a later writer and led to the gloss in xvii. 15, that the many 
waters are many peoples. Bousset thinks that a still older tradi 
tion lies behind this figure of a woman seated on many waters, 
and compares Sibyll. Or. iii. 75-77, v. 18, viii. 200. Gunkel 
(Schopfung, 361) finds in the "many waters" a reference to the 
abyss which was the dwelling of Tiamat. But, however this may 
be, there was no consciousness of the Babylonian myth in the 
mind of the writer. 

2. eiropyeuaay ot |3aonXeis TYJS yTjs- Cf. xviii. 3, 9 for the 
recurrence of this diction. The Tropi/eta of which the kings of the 
earth are guilty is set down to the account of all the nations in 
xiv. 8. They have all shared in the vices and idolatries of 
Rome. With e|ae0u(r0T]cra> cf. Jer. xxviii. (li.) 7, TTOTT^HOV ^pwovv 
Ba/3vAu>v v x L P^ KV pt v ) fJieOvcTKOv Tracrav TVJV yvjv. It points to 
the result of TT^TTOTLKCV in xiv. 8 : cf. also xviii. 3. ol Kcn-oiKoGrres 
TTJK yr\v. On this construction, found here only, see note on 
xi. 10, and 4 of the Introd. to xiii., vol. i. p. 336. On ou/ou 
Tropyeias cf. xiv. 8, xviii. 3. We should observe that the relative 
construction is broken off in the sentence, /ecu e^Ova-Orjo-av . . . 
avrrjs. This is good Hebrew. It is also good Greek : see W.-M. 
sect. xxii. p. 186. 

It is noteworthy that in the two clauses /xe# ^s eVopvewav . . . 
yfjs and KOL efjLeBvcrOrjcrav . . . avn/s of this verse and in xviii. 3, 
the same thought and largely the same language recur, but in the 
reverse order. 

3. Kal &Trr\veyK.v JJLC els epTjjxoi/ iv irfeufiari. ical etSof yukaiKO, 
K<x0r][AeVT]i ITU Byplay KOKKii ot , yejAomx oi/ojxara |3Xa<r<J>T]}juas, lx<*>y 
K<j>a\as cirra KCU Kepara Seica. 

This clause introduces a new vision. See note on iv. 2. 
The Seer has the vision of Babylon in the wilderness : of the 
Heavenly Jerusalem from a lofty mountain top, xxi. 10, where see 
note. The contrast is significant. Many scholars think that the 
wilderness as the scene of the vision was suggested by Isa. xxi. i, 
where to the vision of the fall of Babylon is affixed the heading, 
" The oracle of the wilderness of the sea " (Dprro Nfrp). Here 
the LXX has simply TO opa//,a -nys Iprjfjiov. 

yumiKa . . . em 0t]pioi> K.6nt(.ivov. The omission of the article 
before Orjpiov points to an independent vision here. The Beast 



64 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 3-4. 

is undoubtedly the Roman Empire. On its power the Harlot 
reposes. The scarlet colour indicates the luxury and ostentatious 
magnificence of the empire, and refers probably not to the Beast 
itself but to its covering. Swete quotes Juv. iii. 283 sq., "Cavet 
hunc, quern coccina laena Vitari iubet et comitum longissimus 
ordo." The word is a rendering in the LXX of J^in, nj^ifi, "0$, 
or nyhn *yy 



In this vision of the Harlot we may have an indirect contrast 
to the woman clothed with the sun in xii. 1-6. There is no real 
contradiction between the description of the woman in i as 
sitting on many waters and here sitting on the beast. The 
former is a traditional epithet of Babylon used descriptively by 
the angel, the latter represents the actual appearance in the 
vision. 

ye fxorra o^ofxara jSXaoxJnjjutig. The construction is Kara 
crvWu/. ^ In xiii. i names of blasphemy are only on the seven 
heads, i.e. the seven deified emperors. Here they cover the 
entire body, and may refer to the innumerable deities of her own 
and subject countries which Rome recognized, ye/xe/ c. ace. 
once in xvii. 4 d , but always elsewhere in Apoc. c. gen. iv. 6, 8, 
v. 8, xv. 7, xvii. 4 d , xxi. 9. 

Ke<f>a\&s lirrd. Probably the original text. On the 
see note on xiii. i. 



. 

4. 7repi|3eJ3XT)p-VT) . . . fxapyapirais. Almost the same phrase 
recurs in xviii. 16. 



KCU KOKWOV. " Purple and scarlet." These 
colours symbolize the luxury and splendour of imperial Rome. 
The two colours are nearly allied, for the x^P^Sa KOKKivyv of 
Matt, xxvii. 28 is called 7rop<f>vpa in Mark xv. 17, 20, and i/xdrioi/ 
7rop<f>vpovv in John xix. 2, 5. But the colours are distinct. See 
Ex. xxv. 4, xx vi. i. 

KcxpuawfxeVy) xP uo- i> "at XiOw TIJU W. Aii9a> TI/UO> is generally 
said to depend on Kexpvorw^vrj by a zeugma, " from which the 
reader must mentally supply some such participle as Ke/cocr/x^^" 
(Swete). But xpvo-ow appears to be used in a loose way in the 
LXX as = "to cover or adorn"; for xp^ovi/ xP vcrt V (2 Chron. 
iii. 10), Karaxpva-ovv xpwiy (Ex. xxv. n, 13; 2 Chron. iii. 4, 
ix. 17), irepLXpvo-ovv xpvo-iw (i Kings x. 18) are renderings of nay 
( = to overlay) when followed by anj. Similarly ^pwow x/ovoio 
of nan followed by 3nj in 2 Chron. iii. 7, 8. When followed 
by nKTO it is actually rendered Ko.raxa.\K<a^va x^ K $ in 2 Chron. 
iv. 9, and when followed immediately by mp* ptf in 2 Chron. iii. 
6, by Kooymi/. Hence we should render K^xpva^^vr) here by 
"covered." 

Xpuo-tw . . . Kal fxapyapirais. Cf. T. Jud. xiii. 5, /cat e/coV 



XVII. 4-6.] VISION OF THE GREAT HARLOT 65 

jjLr)(j-v O.VTTJV eV \pv<ri(a KOL //.apyapiVaig. These words are said of 
the father of Bathshua who so adorned her in order to seduce 
Judah. 

exouo-a iroTTjpioK xp 00 " "" " rf X ei p Xt a " T *)S- These words are 
modelled on Jer. xxviii. (li.) 7^ Trorr^toi/ x/crow BafivXwv ev 
Kupiov, fjLfOva-KOv Tracrav ryv y?)V OLTTO TOV oti/ov auT^s eViWav 

yfyoi poeXuyjAdTwy Kal ra <XKa9apTa. Here KCU TO. 
is either to be taken with R. V. as " even the unclean things of 
her fornication," or as governed by ^ova-a, just as the words 
that follow Kal CTTI TO iicTwirov are dependent on this participle. 
Cf. Cebes, Tab. V., opas ow Trapa r^v Trv\.rjv Opovov TLVO. Keififvov 
Kara TOV TOTTOV . . . e<^) ov KaJfhjTOJL yvvrj, 7T7rXacr/xev^ rw ^et Kat 
TriOavrj (^atvo/xev^, 77 ci/ rf} x t p Vt ^X et KOT-qpLOV n ; opoi, dXXa TIS ecrriv 
avTT// l^iyV *A7raT>7 KaAetrai, (fryaLv, f) Travra? rovs aj/#p<o7rous 
TrXavootra. cTra rt TrparTCt curr?; ; TO^S cio-Tropevo/xcvov? et? TOV /3i ov 
TTOTt^ci T-^V eavT^q Swa/uv. TOT)TO 8e Tt ea-Tt TO TTOTOV ; TrAavo?, I^T/, 
Kai ayvota (from Jerram s text). 

6. Kal cm TO ptruirov auTTJs o^ofxa yeypappeirov. Roman 
harlots wore a label with their names on their brows : cf. Seneca, 
Controv. i. 2 (quoted by Wetstein), "Stetisti puella in lupanari 
. . stetisti cum merelricibus . . . nomen tuum pependit a 
fronte"; Juv. vi. 122 sq., "Tune nuda papillis Constitit auratis 
titulum mentita Lyciscae." 

pixrrtipiov. This word indicates that the following name is 
not to be taken literally, but to be interpreted 7n/ev/x<mKws (xi. 8). 
This can be done only by the initiated. Babylon is the mystical 
name for Rome. Many scholars take it as part of the 
inscription. 

TJ pi-nip -r&v f -wopv&v f. As we see from the critical note, the 
Vg. and Prim, read Tropviwv, i.e. Tropvaoiv. This is not improb 
ably the original reading. At all events it forms an excellent 
parallel to ^SeAvy/xaTwv. If the text is derived from a Hebrew 
source, then iropvwv = nfof, which is a wrong punctuation for nT 
= TTopva as. 1 Thus Rome is the mother of harlotry and the 
world s idolatries. With this statement we might compare 
Tacitus, Ann. xv. 44, where he speaks of Rome as the city " quo 
cuncta undique atrocia aut pudenda confluunt celebranturque." 

6. Kal etSoj/ rt\v yuvalna, jieOu ouaay IK TOU atfiaTos r&v dyiwy 
Kal K TOU aijjiaTOS TWV fiapTupui ITJCTOU. 

The text refers to the Neronic persecution described so vividly 
by Tac. Ann. xv. 44, " Igitur primum correpti qui fatebantur, 
deinde indicio eorum multitude ingens haud perinde in crimine 
incendii quam odio humani generis convicti sunt. Et pereun- 
tibus addita ludibria, ut ferarum tergis contecti laniatu canum 
a ltis noteworthy that Wellhausen mistranslates iropvuv as "harlotries." 
It was a right instinct, however, that led him to this mistranslation. 

VOL. n. 5 



66 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 6-7. 

interirent aut crucibus affixi, aut flammandi, atque ubi defecisset 
dies, in usum nocturni luminis urerentur." This verse, either in 
part or as a whole, is from the hand of our author, who thus 
gives a Christian character to an originally Jewish source and 
transforms an oracle of Vespasian s, date into a prophecy of the 
destruction of Rome in the last days (see Introd. 5). 

fjLeOuoucrar CK TOU atjaaros- This conception of a nation drunk, 
not with wine but with blood, was familiar to the literature of 
the ancient world. Thus Josephus (Bell. v. 8. 2) writes of his 
infatuated countrymen besieged by the Romans : In yap Traprjv 
r$i eiv CK rail/ Sr^ocritov Ka/aov KCU TO TV)S TrdXews al/xa TrtVetv. The 
metaphor is also found in a fragment of Euripides preserved in 
Philo, Leg. Alleg. iii. 71, e/ATrXrJo-^rt /JLOV \ TTLvovo-a KcXawov at/xa : 
in Cic. Phil. ii. 29, "gustaras civilem sanguinem vel potius exsor- 
bueras"; Suet. Tib. 59, "Fastidit vinum quia jam sitit iste cruorem : 
Tarn bibit nunc avide quam bibit ante merum," and in a form 
more closely related to our text in Plin. H.N. xiv. 22, 28, 
"(Antonius) ebrius jam sanguine civium." But in the LXX we 
find the best analogies : cf. Isa. xxxiv. 5, l^Ova-Or) ... 17 /xa^atpa 
fjiov, xxxiv. 7, /xe$uo-$?7creT(u rj yrj a.7ro TOV at/xaros : also li. 21 ; Jer. 
xxvi. (xlvi.) 10. 

Kal IK TOU al /jLttTos ruv jjiapTupui/ ITJO-OU. This clause is regarded 
by the majority of critics as an addition to the original Jewish 
source. If it is from the hand of our author, his intention seems 
to have been to give his source a Christian character, though 
this was hardly necessary when once the source was incorpo 
rated in his work. If the ayioi are Christian saints, the two 
clauses are tautologous. The ayios who is martyred is of 
necessity a /xaprus. On this word see note on ii. 13. It is 
possible, but improbable, that the ayioi represent the Jewish 
martyrs who fell in the war of 66-70. This was the meaning of 
the clause in the original source. 

7. Kal eOaujjiacra ISwi/ auTT)K 0aujj,a juieya. Kal cnrey jioi 6 
ayyeXos Aid Tt eOaujmacras ; eyw epw aoi TO jj,uori]pioy TT] yucaiKos 
Kal TOU drjpiou TOU |3aoTaorros auTrjc, TOU e xoyTOS Tas cirra K6(f>aXas 
Kal Ta 8eKa KepaTa. The Seer is naturally astonished at the 
fearful vision he has just seen, just as the inhabitants of the 
earth will be astonished when they see the reality, xvii. 8. In 
xvii. 1-2 he was promised a vision of the judgment of the Great 
Harlot. This vision is given in xviii., but since the Great Harlot 
had not heretofore been mentioned, the mystery of the Great 
Harlot is beheld by the Seer in a vision, xvii. 3-6, and inter 
preted in xvii. 18, which originally followed on xvii. 7. See Introd 
to this Chap. 6. 

For a linguistic parallel to TO /tuxmj/otoi/ rJ/s ywaiKos cf. i. 20 ; 
and for a like dialogue between the angel and the Seer, cf. vii. 



XVII. 7-8.] INTERPRETATION OF THIS VISION 67 

13-14. We should observe here that the angel promises an 
interpretation of the woman and the Beast with seven heads and 
ten horns, and in this order. But the mystery of the woman is 
not explained till xvii. 18, and the angel at once proceeds to 
set forth the meaning of the Beast. Our author is here using 
sources, and has freely recast them to suit his own purpose. In 
our text the Beast is Nero redivivus, but in the sources used by 
our author we have seen that this was not so (see Introd. 4). 
In the source behind xvii. 3-10 the Beast was originally the 
Roman Empire, as it still is in xvii. 3 (see note in loc.\ In the 
second source, xvii. 11-17, the Beast was obviously Nero return 
ing from the East at the head of the Parthian kings in order to 
destroy Rome. But our text as it stands represents the expecta 
tion of Nero returning as a demonic king from the abyss. This 
interpretation is indubitably set forth in xvii. 8, which is a recast 
of the older tradition identifying the Beast with the Empire, and 
in xvii. 14 which comes directly from our author. 

8-18. An interpretation of the vision, in the course of which 
the older materials of the source are recast with additions in 
order to depict the expectation of the Neronic Antichrist who 
was to come up from the abyss. 

8. TO 0T)piok o etSes TJI> Kal OUK eony Kal jjieXXet <xi/a|3aiyeii> eK TTJS 
ajSuaaou, Kal els dirwXeiai uirdyei Kal 0au|uiaa6rjo-orrai ol K<XTOI- 
Kourres em TTJS y^Sj & v " Y^YP a7IT(U T0 o^ ^ - tirl TO fiifi\iov TTJS 
f)s euro KaTapoX-rjs Koo-pou, jSXeirorrwK TO Qi]piov on r\v Kal OUK 



Thus the verse ran originally : TO OypLov o elSes . . . (original 
lost) KOL OavfjiacrOricrovTaL ol KaroiKovv-rts, CTTI T^S 7175, wi/ ou ye y- 
paTTTat TO oi/o/xa eV! TO fiifiXiov TT;S 10775 airo Karaf3oX.rj<s KOQ-/XOV, 
y8X7roj/Tcoi/ TO Orjpiov. In the original form of this verse the Beast 
symbolized the Empire, as it still does in xvii. 3, and in xiii. 3-10 
originally. But here our author has omitted the description of 
the Beast which came after etSes, and substituted rjv KOL OVK Icrnv 
. . . V7rayet, and again after pXe-n-ovTaiv TO Oyptov added OTI ^v . . 
7rdpo~Ta.L in the place of quite a different clause that stood in the 
source, as we shall see presently. 

But not only has some description of the Beast at the begin 
ning of this verse been displaced by the additions of our author, 
but something has also been lost or displaced at the close of 
the verse by another of his additions. For, as it stands, 8 
simply states that the faithless inhabitants of the earth shall 
marvel when they behold the Beast. But there is nothing 
surprising in this fact ; for the Seer marvels in the preceding 
verse. Hence, since the context implies that they will do some 
thing which would be the natural outcome of their ungodliness, 
we conclude that a clause to the effect that they would worship 



68 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 8-9. 

him has been dislodged by the addition " which was and is not 
and shall come." Now, if we turn to xiii. 3, 8 we find the very 
clause we are in search of, KCU -n-poo-Kwrjo-ovo-iv avrov 7raj/res. 
When this clause is restored, the mystery of the beast in the 
source is sufficiently disclosed. The Beast is clearly the Roman 
Empire. It is on the Beast, i.e. the Empire, that the woman, i.e. 
Rome, is seated. But the changes introduced -by our author 
have transformed the significance of the Beast. The Beast now 
means the demonic Nero returning from the abyss, and it is 
clearly the intention of our author that 1 1 should be taken in 
this sense. 

The Beast is now the Neronic Antichrist coming up from the 
abyss, as in xiii. 3, 12, 14. In these passages he is represented 
as the hellish antitype of Christ. In on fy KO! OVK eo-rtv KOL 
Tra/aeo-Tcu there is a parody of the divine name 6 o>i/ KCU 6 ty KCU 6 
cpxopwos in i. 4, 8, iv. 8, while the OVK eomv and the parallel 
descriptions, o>s ecr^ay/LteV^v cis Odvarov, xiii. 3, and 6s e^et rrjv 
TrXyyty TTJS ^a^ai/oas, xiii. 14, are intended to allude to the death 
of Christ. 

In the Introd. to xiii., vol. i. p. 337, I have, I think, proved 
that this verse is a doublet of xiii. 3, 8 and that both are Greek 
versions of the same Hebrew original. Since xvii. 8 in some 
form belonged to xvii. 3-10, it is from this Hebrew source that 
xiii. 3, 8 is derived. When our author incorporated his Greek 
version of this source in xiii. 3, 8 he added TOV apviov TOV 
eV<ay/zeVov. Bousset is of opinion that a redactor in close 
dependence on xiii. 8, or the same writer who wrote xiii. (in the 
opinion of Bousset our author), composed xvii. 8; but all the 
evidence when closely examined points in a different direction. 

pXeiroi TUj/ where we expect ySAeVoi/rcs may be due to <5i/, or 
to a not unnatural rendering of Dn&p3. 

9-10. <o8e 6 yous 6 IXWK cnxfuav 1 at cirra Ke<f>aXal eirra [oprj 
et<riV, OTTOU rj yuj/rj KaOrjTai eV auTwy. 10. KCU] /SacnXeis [l-irrd] 
eicriy ot itlvre lireo-a^, 6 eig eoriy, 6 aXXos ouirw TjXOey, KCU ora^ 
e X0T] 6Xiyoi> auroK Set jjieiwu. 

9. wSe 6 i/oGs KTX. = "here is needed the intelligence which 
is wisdom." It relates to what follows, as in xiii. 18, and comes 
from the hand of our author. 

opTj . . . aurwK Kat. This is an obvious addition to the 
text, but it appears to be a very ancient one and may have gone 
back to the Johannine school, as its Hebraic character shows : 
i.e. OTTOV . . . avrwi/. Bousset (p. 416) suggests that our author 
himself made this addition, when he found that he could discover 
no historical interpretation of xvii. 10-11. This addition, how 
ever, is wholly unsuitable ; for the seven heads do not belong to 
the woman (i.e. Rome) but to the Beast. But the gloss interprets 



XVII. 9-10.] THE SEVEN EMPERORS OF ROME 69 

the heads as if they were an adjunct of the woman, whereas they 
belong to the Beast. This absolute misconception of the text is 
fatal to the genuineness of these words. Again our author in 
the genuine sections uses KaOfjarOai only in the participle (see note 
on iii. 21) and Ka0ie/ in the finite tenses and infinitive. But 
there is another objection ; for it is clear that, of the two con 
flicting explanations given in immediate connection, only one 
can stand in this case the latter. The idea conveyed of the 
gloss was a familiar one. "The city of seven hills" was a 
familiar expression in classical writers : cf. Horace, Carm. Sec. 7, 
"Di, quibus septem placuere colles"; Virg. Aen. vi. 782, 
" Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces," Georg. ii. 534 ; 
Martial, iv. 64, "septem dorninos montes"; Cicero, Ad Att. vi. 5, 
e ao-reos 7rraAo <ov : Propertius, iii. 10. See Wetstein in loc. 

10. J3aai\eis [eTrni *] KT\. For ^atriXets as applied to Roman 
emperors see i Pet. ii. 13, 17; i Tim. ii. 2. We have here 
a very clear intimation of the date of this source. Five 
emperors have already fallen, one is, and another is yet to come. 
This source was probably written, therefore, under the sixth 
emperor. Before we can ascertain who this emperor was, we 
must decide whether we shall include or exclude in our 
reckoning Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, and with what emperor we 
shall begin. First of all we may safely exclude the above three 
emperors from our consideration. Suetonius ( Vesp. i.) describes 
their reigns as "rebellio trium principum." Next, though Sue 
tonius, Josephus, and 4 Ezra xi. 12, 13, xii. 14, 15 (see Box, p. 
262 sq.), begin with Csesar, it seems clear here that our text begins 
with Augustus, as does Tacitus. The first five emperors are 
Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero. The emperor 
who "is" is Vespasian, *6g- 7 9 A.D., and the one who "is not yet 






come," Titus, 79-81. Titus thus fulfilled the prediction, 

t\6r) oAi yov KT\. 

orai/ \0Y] o\iyov KT\. The ground for this expectation is 
most probably that assigned by Wellhausen (Analyse, 28). 
" Titus is assumed to be the coming seventh and last : he as 
the destroyer of Jerusalem will be overtaken by vengeance after 
a short reign." 2 

But what are we to make of this reckoning in its present 

1 On the order of the numerals see note on viii. 2. When the gloss 6ptj 
. . . 4ir atrwv /ecu was incorporated in the text, t^rd was of necessity added 
after /SctcaXets. 

2 Another explanation of this prophecy is that the writer of this source 
knew of the hopeless condition of Titus health : cf. Suetonius, Titus, 7 ; 
Dio Casiius, Ixvi. 26. 2 ; Plutarch, De tuenda sanitate praecepta, c. 3, 
p. 123 D (quoted from Bousset). Another is that there was a traditional 
view that the empire must have seven emperors before its destruction. As 
the sixth was now living, the Seer necessarily predicts a seventh. 



70 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 10-11. 

context ? Our author has taken over this source and that which 
follows, but he is writing in the reign of Domitian. If he took 
xvii. 10 seriously, Domitian must have been for him the sixth 
emperor, and he could only have justified this view, as Bousset 
points out (p. 416), by a very artificial method of reckoning, i.e. 
by beginning with Galba, the successor of Nero : Galba, Otho, 
Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian. But we may safely reject 
this reckoning as impossible, and assume that here, as frequently 
elsewhere, our author has taken over material that in some one 
or more respects served his purpose, though in others it was 
unsuitable. Owing to its unintelligibleness from the historic 
point of view, some scribe added a geographical explanation in 
xvii. 9. 

L-17.^ On the^source behind these verses see Introd. 5. 

11. KCU TO 0T]pioi>, o r\v Kctl OUK eoriy, KCU auros oySoos earik KGU 
CK TWC eirra e<mi>, Kal ets aTrwXeiak uirdyeu 

This verse presents some difficulty. We have already sought 
to show (Introd. 4-5) that xvii. 11-17 is a new source used by 
our author, referring to the return of Nero from the East at the 
head of the Parthian kings. Only the latter part of this source 
is preserved in our text, and this is edited and brought up to 
date by the addition of o ty Kal oi/c eVrtv and K al ek fauXciav 
vTrayet in xvii. ii (see similar addition in xvii. 8), and other 
changes subsequently. In the original source the Beast was the 
living Nero returning from the East : in our text the Beast has 
become Nero redivivus, as in xvii. 8. This is the view accepted 
by such scholars as Ewald, De Wette, Hilgenfeld, Vischer, 
Volter, Spitta, Holtzmann, Weizsacker, Bousset. On the 
other hand, it has been maintained recently by J. Weiss and 
Swete and Moffatt that the Beast is to be identified with 
Domitian. Moffatt regards this verse as "a parenthesis added 
by John to bring the source up to date . . . since the death of 
Titus had not been followed by the appearance of the Nero- 
antichrist^ ..." Domitian, the eighth emperor, under whom he 
writes, is identified with the true Neronic genius of the empire." 
(Cf. Eus. H.E. iii. 20; Tert. Apol. 5: "portio Neronis de 
crudelitate." De Pallia, 4, Subneronem. To these we might add 
Juv. iv. 37 sq., "Calvo serviret Roma Neroni"; Mart. xi. 33, etc. 
Moffatt seeks to explain the words e/c r S>v ITTTO. by showing that 
Domitian was closely associated with the imperial power already 
(Tac. Hist. iii. 84, iv. 2, 3 ; cf. Jos. Bell. iv. n. 4, etc.), and points 
out that whereas it was said of the Neronic Antichrist in xvii. 8, 
di/a/?aiWo> CK r^s a/?uVo-ou, no such expression is used here! 
Thus Moffatt recognizes the true Nero redivivus in xvii. 8, 14, 
and a second Nero in the person of Domitian in xvii. 11, and 
maintains that they are not to be identified. That the juxta- 



XVII. 11-12.] TEN HORNS = THE PARTHIAN KINGS 7 1 

position of Domitian as a second Nero and Nero redivivus is 
awkward, Moffatt admits, but says it is inevitable under the 
circumstances." But his arguments are unconvincing. The 
6 ty KOL OVK la-Tiv taken together with IK ran/ l-md admits of only 
one interpretation. The person so described " was and is not " 
(rjv Koi OVK Zo-Tiv). But Domitian corn/. Of him our author 
cannot say OVK eo-rti/. Moreover, the pre-existence ascribed to 
Domitian in o r/i/ is also inexplicable. Nor can he in any 
intelligible sense be described as IK TWV eVra. Finally, if we 
interpret xvii. 12-17 of the Parthian invasion, there is no ground 
in comparative religion or history for representing Dominan as 
in any sense its leader. The addition of KOI /xe XXet avafiaiveiv e/c 
rfjs ajSvo-o-ov is here wholly unnecessary. 6 ty KOI OVK ecmv has 
the same force as the like expressions in xiii. 3, 12, 14. 

eis dTroJXeiai/ 67n Y et. The issue of the impending conflict is 
certain. The Antichrist, though he thinks he is accomplishing 
his own purposes, is accomplishing the purposes of God, and is 
all the time marching to his own destruction, which is also the 
purpose of God. 

12-13, 17-16, 14. The destruction of Rome by Nero 
redivivus and his Parthian allies (12-13, 17, 16), and the 
destruction of the latter by the Lamb (14). 

12. Kal TO, Se ica Kepara a eTSes 8eKa |3acnXeZs eunV, olWes 
paaiXeicu OUTTO) eXajSoi , dXXci eou<n ai/ us |3acriXeis fuay uipai 
Xajx|3cii/ou<ni> fAcra TOU Orjpiou. 

The kings are symbolized by the horns, and are thus differ 
entiated from the emperors who are symbolized by the heads of 
the Beast. Who are these kings ? Various answers have been 
given, i. They are said to be unknown powers belonging to 
the future which as confederates of the returning emperor 
will arise and overthrow Rome (Weizsacker and Holtzmann). 
Swete s interpretation belongs partly to this class. "The ten 
kings . . . represent forces which arising out of the empire itself 
. . . would turn their arms against Rome and bring about her 
downfall." 2. The governors of the senatorial provinces who held 
office for a year (yuiav wpav). So Ewald, Volkmar, Hilgenfeld, 
Hausrath, Mommsen, B. Weiss, Briggs, Selwyn. Bousset^ states 
that the expressions TT)V Swa/xiv /cat rrjv ^ovo-Lav avrcov TO) Orjptip 
oiooao-Lv, xvii. 13, and the parallels in xvii. 17 are against this 
view ; but this is not necessarily so. These governors possessed 
a certain delegated authority (o>s /?a<riAet<;), and only for a year 
(/xiW wpav). But again this interpretation has not the support 
of xvi. 12 or of the universal expectation that was then current 
in the East and in the Roman Empire. The phrase Somu rty 
(3ao-L\Lav avT&v TW fliypw.) shows that these have actual kingdoms, 
and so the text could" not apply to Roman officials. 3. The 



72 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 12-13, 15. 

Parthian satraps (Eichhorn, De Wette, Bleek, Bousset, J. Weiss, 
Wellhausen, Scott, Moffatt). According to xvi. 12, the Parthians 
had several kings or satraps. It is stated that there were as 
many as fourteen, but the number ten here is not to be pressed. 
According to the current belief of the generation that followed 
the death of Nero, it was held that Nero had escaped to the 
East, and that he would return against Rome at the head of the 
Parthian hosts. That this belief was taken seriously is proved 
by the fact that three pretenders appeared between 69-88 A.D. 
under Nero s name as claimants of the imperial throne. For 
the evidence see App. to this chapter (p. 80). Since this 
belief had firmly established itself both in the Gentile and 
Hellenistic Jewish worlds within the first decade after Nero s 
death, since, further, it is attested actually in our text in xvi. 12, 
there can be little doubt that the source in xvii. 12-17 is to De 
explained thereby. But in the present context, in which Nero 
is a demon from the abyss, it is possible that these kings 
are, as Bousset suggests, regarded by our Seer as demonic 
powers. 

Select j3aaiXeig. Cf. Dan. vii. 24, KOL ra Se/ca Ke/oara avrov Se/ca 
/3ounA.ets dvacrr^orovTat (Theod.). 

j3a<nXeiai> OUTTW eXafiov. These words referring to the Par 
thian satraps are intelligible from the standpoint of the world 
empire of Rome. They hold a quasi-kingly power (ws /focriAets) 
for a brief span (/xiW wpav), since the Antichrist s power will 
speedily be brought to an end. 

13. OUTOI \L(O.V -yv&fJii\v exouaii , KCH TYJV 8umjuui> KCU e^ouariaf 
auTwy TW 0Y]pu> 8i86acrii>. The Greek structure of this verse is 
still more manifest than that which precedes. 

(Aiay Y / wp.T]i> efx outni/ a good Greek idiom. Cf. Thuc. ii. 86, 
yvufjirjv e^oi/res . . . ^ e /cXtTreu/, Herod, i. 207 ; ii. 56, etc. 

The unanimity of the Parthian kings is explained in xvii. 17. 

15. [ica! eiTrev fxoi To, uSara a etSes, ou r\ iropvi] K<10ir]Tai, Xaol KCU 
o)(Xot cicrlc Kal !0nr] Kal yXwcrcrai.] 

This is a gloss explanatory of xvii. i, where the Harlot City is 
said to sit ITTI vSdrtov Tz-oAAcov. But since it was not Rome but 
the literal Babylon that was so situated, the glosser, after the 
analogy of Isa. viii. 7, Jer. xlvii. 2, interprets the many waters 
here as referring to the peoples over which Rome ruled. In 
xvii. i the phrase eirl vSarwv TroXAwv is simply taken over from 
Jer. See note in loc. The style is not that of our author. He 
never uses ov but OTTOV: cf. ii. 13 (bis), xi. 8, xii. 6, 14, xx. 10. 
Nor is the enumeration Aaot KT\. that of our author. See note on 
v. 9. He uses </>iA<u instead of o^A.ot. Again we should expect 
jca0i ei in our author and not KO&TJTCU. See note on 9 and on 
iii. 21. 



XVII. 17, 16.] ROME TO BE DESTROYED BY FIRE 



17. 6 yap 0e6s ISwKci/ eis ras KapSias auTwy iroifjaai TTJV 
auroG, [Kal Troi^aai pia,v yKWjiTji ] Ka > Soukai TT]y jSaaiXetai 
TW 07]pioj, aj(pi T Xea0i]croyTai ot Xoyoi TOU deou. 

This verse explains the remarkable unanimity of these kings. 
It was due to God, not to any mere earthly policy, and it would 
last till the oracles of the prophets regarding Rome were accom 
plished, and the Antichrist and the kings met in the last great 
battle with the Lamb, xvii. 14. Even the wrath of men is made 
to praise Him. There is no real dualism in the universe. The 
very powers of evil ultimately subserve the purposes of God and 
are then destroyed. (Cf. xvii. 14.) Since the Beast, which in 
the source meant the living Nero returning from the East at 
the head of the Parthians, has become in our author the demonic 
Nero, it is probable that his attendant hosts are also to be re 
garded as of demonic origin. 

cSuicei els TCI? KapSi as auTUK. For this Hebraism ( = }J"I3 
33M>&$) cf. Neh. vii. 5. There is a closely related idiom in 
Jer. xxxi. (xxxviii.) 33 ; i Thess. iv. 8 ; Heb. viii. 10. 

[KCU iroifjo-ai pai/ yi/w|JCT]i/.] I have, with Alford, bracketed this 
clause as an early gloss from xvii. 13. It is superfluous after 
T??V yvw^rjv avrov, which is really explained by /cat 



ot Xoyoi TOU 0eoG. In their present context these 
prophecies must relate not only to the destruction of Rome by 
Nero and the Parthians as in the source, but to the overthrow 
of the power of the Beast and his Parthian allies. 

16. Kal TO, ScKa Kepara a elSes Kal TO 0T]pioy, OUTOI fiia^aouaii 
Ttjy TTOpyr)!/, Kal r\pK]^d^).evt]v Troii]aoucrii> auTtjK Kal yufxnrji , Kal Tas 
aapKas auTrjs <j>ayojTai, Kal auTTji KaTaKaucrouory Iv irupi. 

I have restored this verse to the place which it had originally 
in the source and in our author, i.e. after xvii. 17, which in its turn 
followed immediately on xvii. 13. The Harlot City was to be 
destroyed by the forces of evil themselves. As the Beast is 
demonic and the horns are conceived as part of him, these kings 
appear also to have a demonic character in their present con 
text. 

The author of this source must have had Ezek. xxiii. 25-29 
before him, but not the LXX. He reproduces the thought but 
not the form of the Hebrew. Thus fjna-^crovo-iv r^v wopvyv is a 
free rendering of xxiii. 29, HNi^n IrVlN TO!, which the J-XX 
translates literally. Next with ^p^/xw/xo/r/i/ Trot^crouo-tv avr^v Kal 
cf. xxiii. 26, IHJirnK "jID^Sni (&c8v(rovcttv (re rov 
, and xxiii. 29, D*IJJ TOTl Ijwba inp^t). With avrrjv 
tv irvpi cf. xxiii. 25, &K2 ipDKD. All these state 
ments are made by Ezekiel with regard to Jerusalem, which at 
one moment is spoken of as a woman stripped of her garments 



74 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 16, 14. 

and left naked, and at another as a city burnt with fire. The 
writer here uses the same figures of Rome. 

Tjpt]jjuojxeVr)i> Troirjaoucrty. For construction, see Introd. 3, p. 
67. 

TOIS crdpicas auTTjs (fmyonrai : cf. xix. 18, Ps. xxvii. 2, TOV ^ayetv 
ras o-apKas /xov. Mic. iii. 3, /care^ayov ras crdpKas TOV Xaoti /xov : 
2 Kings ix. 36, Kara^ayovrat 01 /ewes ra? o-ap/ca<; Iea/?eA o-ap/ces 
denotes the fleshy parts of the body. 

KaTaKauoroucrii/ ei/ irupt : cf. xviii. 8; Jer. vii. 31 ; Nah. iii. 15. 
These words can only refer to the city whom the woman repre 
sents. Death by fire was not the punishment of the harlot, 
unless she were a priest s daughter : cf. Lev. xxi. 9. 

14. OUTOI fxera TOU dpviou iroXe/jL^o-ouaic, 
cat TO apviov i/iKTJaei aurous, 
OTI Kupios Kupitoi ecrrlj> KCU j3aai\eus pacriXeW, 

Kttl Ol |JLT aUTOU K\T]TOL Kttl K\eKTOL Kttl 1Tt(7TOl. 

This verse is manifestly added by our author to the source 
he is using. But this verse could not have been inserted in its 
present position by our author; for it treats of the destruction of 
the forces appointed by God for Rome s destruction, which they 
effect in 16. In xvii. 17, 16, according to the MSS text, the ten 
horns and the Beast are represented as executing a divine judg 
ment on the Harlot City and as destroying Rome after they had 
already themselves been destroyed (xvii. 14). Hence this verse 
belongs rightly after 16. I have restored it accordingly. With 
/Aero. TOV apviov iroXf/jLTJcrova-Lv . . . viKrjcrei avrovs compare xiii. 7, 
which is from his hand. For /cu pios . . . ^acrtAeW cf. xix. 16. 
The subject of this vision, i.e. the Parthian kings and their destruc 
tion (12-13, J 7> l6 , 14), has been in part referred to in xvi. 12, 
and is regarded as already accomplished in xix. 13, where the 
words 7rept(3/3\r)fjievo<s i/xanov /Se/^a/zjueVoi cu^an speak of the 
vesture of the Divine Warrior as already dipped in blood (i.e. 
in that of the Parthian kings) before the Messianic campaign 
against the kings of the earth in xix. 11-21. 

The concluding line describes the armies who followed 
the Lamb, i.e. "the called, elect, and faithful." That these 
should crush hostile nations we learn from ii. 26, 27, and their 
descent from heaven to do so is seen in a vision in xix. 14. 
Hence they are a martyr host of warriors. It was a well-known 
Jewish expectation that the righteous would take part in the 
destruction of the wicked : cf. i Enoch xxxviii. 5, xc. 19, xci. 12 
for the period of the sword, when the wicked are given into the 
hands of the righteous, op. dt. xcv. 7, xcvi. i, xcviii. 12, xcix. 
4, 6 ; Wisd. iii. 8. The martyrs are not here engaged on a 
mission of revenge, but in the fulfilment of a righteous retribution. 






XVII. 14, 18.] THE LAMB CONQUERS THE PARTHIANS 75 

In xv. 4 the vision which is in reality a prophecy shows that 
the thought of revenge has wholly passed from the minds of the 
glorified martyrs. But the nations there referred to are those 
that are contemporary with the Millennial Reign. See the third 
note further on. 

Kupios KupiW . . . pcunXeW. This title recurs in xix. 16. 
In both instances it is used of the Son. The combination of 
these titles as applied to God is found first in i Enoch ix. 4, 6 

TCOV $WV KCU (6) KVptOS TO)!/ KVptlOV KCU 6 /3a(TlA.tS TtOF (3aaL\.v6v 

(So the two Greek versions in Syncellus, whereas the Ethiopic 
implies /focnAeW for /foo-tAeuoi/rcov.) It is worth observing that 
i Tim. vi. 15 has /foo-iAevs TWV /Sao-iAewi/Tcov. These titles occur 
often separately as applied to God, KU /OIOS TWV Kv/otW, Deut. x. 17 ; 
6 fiaa-iXtvs TCUV /?ao-tAeW : i Enoch Ixiii. 4, Ixxxiv. 2 ; 2 Mace. xiii. 4. 
See Bousset s Rel. d. Judenthums, 306. 

The use of such titles in reference to Marduk in Babylonian 
literature is noted by Zimmern, K.A.T? 373 sq., 390. Marduk 
is actually named "Lord of Lords, King of Kings." "King of 
Kings" was a designation of the Babylonian and Persian kings : 
cf. Ezek. xxvi. 7 ; Ezra vii. 12 ; Dan. ii. 37 : of the Egyptian kings, 
Diod. Sic. i. 55. 7, /3aouAeus ySacrtAewi/ KCU Seo-TroT^s SecrTrorah 
5rococris. But this title is far outbid by those given to Dom- 
itian : "Dominus et deus noster." Suet. Domit. 13: cf. Mart. 
v. 8. 

ol fjier auToG K\T]TO! KT\. /cAr/rot and K\CKTOL occur only 
here in the Apocalypse. We are to understand7roAe//.^am cru>and 
viKya-ovo-Lv from what precedes. The followers of the Lamb who 
have been called and chosen will manifest their loyalty and share 
in the Lamb s victory (cf. xii. u). According to this context 
those who answer the call are elected and prove their loyalty : 
cf. 2 Pet. i. IO, o"7rot;Sao-a.T /3(/3aiav VJJL&V TTJV /cA^crtv /cat e/cAoyryj 
Trotcio-flai. But these loyal followers of the Lamb belong already 
to the heavenly hosts ; for they accompany Him from heaven : 
cf. xix. 14. They are called Trio-rot as their Leader is called 
(i. 5). 

18. Kttl T) y u ^ $\ v etSes corty r\ iroXis r\ fxeyaXr] f\ ex ou(ra 
i em r&v jSaaiXewi/ rqs yr\S- 

Our author knows at last the interpretation of the chief figure 
in the vision. The woman is the city Rome, the empress of the 
entire world. 

This verse belonged to the source A : see Introd. to Chap., 
5, and had its place immediately after xvii. 7, but was trans 
ferred to its present position in order to introduce the great 
chapter of the downfall of Rome. 

On the phrase ^ Tro Ais fj /xeyaA^, see note on xi. 8. 



76 HE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 



ADDITIONAL NOTE ON xvn. 

The Antichrist, Beliar?- and Neronic Myths, and their 
ultimate Fusion in early Christian Literature. 

This question bristles with problems. Many of these, it is 
true, have been solved and others are on the way to solution. 
Nevertheless, many lie still in the background and have not as 
yet yielded up their secret to research. The chief workers in this 
field have been Gunkel and Bousset. While the services of the 
former have been at times brilliant, they have at the same time 
showed a lack of sound judgment. In the latter respect Bousset 
in his Antichrist Legend (translated from the German, 1896) and 
in the Offenbarungfohannis 6 , 1906, has made an admirable con 
tribution, and proved that outside Daniel and Revelation there 
was an independent tradition of the Antichrist myth coming 
down from ancient times and diffused through many lands. A 
study of such articles as Creation, Dragon, Leviathan, Serpent in 
the Encyc. Biblica will show that the Creation Story passed 
through a long development within the domain of Hebrew and 
Jewish thought, and further study proves that such an expression 
as "the great dragon, the ancient serpent, who is called the 
Devil and Satan " (Rev. xii. 9), finds one of its sources ultimately 
in the myth that underlies the Creation story. But the present 
study cannot take account of the manifold traces of this develop 
ment discoverable in the O.T. (see Gunkel, Schbpfung und 
Chaos a book full of suggestion, but in many of its conclusions, 
especially as regards Revelation, demonstrably wrong). It must 
be strictly limited to the ideas of the Antichrist and kindred 
conceptions that prevailed within Judaism and Christianity from 
200 B.C. to 100 A.D. or thereabouts. 

In a study of the present subject in 1900 (see Ascension 
of Isaiah, pp. li-lxxiii) I pointed out that, whilst Bousset s and 
Gunkel s works (above cited) were most helpful and stimulating in 
many directions, they did not deal satisfactorily with the relations 
of Beliar and the Antichrist, and that their account of the fusion 
of the latter with the Neronic legend was wanting in lucidity and 
consistency. This defect Bousset has from his own standpoint 
partially remedied in Rel. d. Judentums im Neutest. Zeitalter^, 
1906, and his article on "Antichrist" in Hastings Encyc. of 
Religion and Ethics, \. 578 sqq. Here he has vastly improved on 
his earlier studies, and removed many of the defects to which 
I took objection in 1 900. But, notwithstanding these advances on 
Bousset s part, I feel constrained to republish here the main part 

1 This is the form that Belial takes in Jubilees, Testaments XII Patriarchs, 
the Sibylline Oracles, Martyrdom of Isaiah. 






XVII.] ADDITIONAL NOTE ON XVII. 77 

of my study of 1900 with such additions and improvements as 
the work of the intervening years has naturally brought with 
them. 

If we can succeed in establishing with approximate accuracy 
the dates when the Antichrist, Beliar, and Neronic myths origin 
ated and became fused together, we acquire means for determin 
ing the dates of the fragments of such myths as have secured an 
entrance into the work of our author. 

The aim, therefore, of the present note is to touch briefly 
on the history of the Antichrist, Beliar, and Neronic myths, 
before the fusion of any one of them with another, or of 
each with all: and next to give the passages from Jewish 
and Christian literature where such fusion is attested and their 
approximate dates. Thus I shall deal with 

I. The independent development of the Antichrist, Beliar, 

and Neronic myths. 

II. The fusion of the Antichrist myth with that of Beliar, 
and subsequently and independently with the 
Neronic myth. 
III. The fusion of all these myths together. 

I. The independent development of the Antichrist, Beliar, and 
Neronic myths. 

i. The Antichrist myth. The term " Antichrist " is compara 
tively late though the idea signified by it is early. Thus it is not 
attested till far on in the first century of our era; for it is found 
in the N.T. only in the Johannine Epistles i John ii. 18, 22, 
iv. 3 ; 2 John 7. The idea, however, can be traced back to the 
second century B.C., and appears first in the Book of Daniel. 
This conception takes two forms : (a) the individual Antichrist, 
and (b) the collective Antichrist. 

(a) A God-opposing individual. In Daniel we find the indi 
vidual Antichrist (the king of the North, xi. 40) appearing at the 
head of mighty armies, with which he crushes certain nations and 
preserves others, persecutes the saints (vii. 25), putting numbers 
of them to death (viii. 10), sets up in the Temple "the abomina 
tion that maketh desolate " (i.e. the heathen altar over the altar of 
burnt-offering, viii. 13, ix. 27, xi. 31, xii. n), "magnifies himself 
above every god" (xi. 36 : cf. 2 Thess. ii. 4), and after a reign of 
three and a half years (vii. 25 sq.) meets his end (xi. 45). The 
historical figure here referred to was Antiochus iv. Epiphanes 
(i.e. (God) made manifest). The idea, which may in part have 
existed already and which became impersonated in Antiochus 
disassociated itself from the historical figure of Antiochus, and 
through its enlargement and enrichment in the Book of Daniel 
established itself as g, permanent expectation in Judaism. In the 



78 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 

earliest literature, therefore, where the idea appears, it implies a 
being of human origin (though claiming divine prerogatives), 
whereas Beliar, who came subsequently to be identified with the 
Antichrist, was originally a superhuman or Satanic being. 

The next historical character to whom epithets belonging to 
the Antichrist are applied, is Pompey the Great, who committed 
the unpardonable act of profaning the Temple by entering the 
Holy of Holies after his conquest of Jerusalem. Thus in the 
Pss. of Solomon (70-40 B.C.), Pompey is called " the Dragon " 
(6 Spd/cwi/, ii. 29). There may be here an unconscious allusion 
to the Dragon myth (see Cheyne s art. " Dragon " in the Encyc. 
Bib. i.). He is described as " the sinner," ii. i (6 d/mprwAos), the 
personification of sin (cf. 2 Thess. ii. 3, 6 di/0pw7ros T^S d^aprtas 
so the inferior Uncials) : " the lawless one," xvii. 13 (6 aro//,os), 



an attribute of Beliar (cf. 2 Thess. ii. 3, 6 ai/0pu>7ros T^ 
KB). But since his soldiers are designated " the lawless ones " 
(xvii. 20, 01 di/o/xot), the epithet may mean no more than heathen, 
as in i Cor. ix. 21 ; 2 Cor. vi. 14; Acts ii. 23. The epithet 
" lawless," if technically used, is proper to the Beliar myth. 

This expectation may have been influenced by the action of 
the emperor Caligula (37-41 A.D.), when he ordered the governor 
Petronius to erect his statue in the Temple. If he had persisted 
in this act of profanation, the Jews would undoubtedly have 
regarded it as a fulfilment of the prediction of the setting up 
of " the abomination of desolation " in the Temple. This phrase 
was, as we are aware, first applied to the heathen altar set up 
by Antiochus in the Temple (i Mace. i. 54), and probably also 
to the image of Olympian Zeus beside it (cf. Taanith iv. 6). 
Bousset suggests that "the ever recurring expectation of later 
times, that Antichrist would take his place in the Temple of 
Jerusalem, dates . . . from this period." 

The next reference to the Antichrist is to be found in 
2 Bar. xxxvi. 5, xxxix. 3, xl. i, 2, according to which the head 
of the Roman Empire was to be brought before the Messiah and 
destroyed, and still another in 4 Ezra v. 6, where the reign of the 
Antichrist is foretold : " Et regnabit quem non sperant, qui 
inhabitant super terram." 

(b) A God-opposing power, or the collective. Antichrist. So far 
we have cited our authorities as testifying to a single individual 
Antichrist. But with the expectation of an individual Antichrist 
that of a collective Antichrist, (a) secular, or (/?) religious, is often 
involved. 

(a) Thus in Dan. vii. 7 sqq., 19 sqq. the Fourth Empire 
(i.e. the Greek or Macedonian) is the collective Anti 
christ. The identity of the Seleucidae or Greek rulers of Syria 
with the Fourth Kingdom appears in the Sibylline Oracles, 



XVII.] ADDITIONAL NOTE ON XVII. 



79 



iii. 388-400 (before 140 B.C.). But at the close of the first 
cent. B.C. or the beginning of the first cent. A.D. the prophecy 
of Daniel was reinterpreted, and, since Syria had now ceased 
to be a world power, the Fourth Empire was identified with 
the new world power Rome. This is first seen in the Assump 
tion of Moses (7-30 A.D.), where the overthrow of Rome by 
Israel is predicted : 

x. 8. " Then thou, O Israel, shalt be happy, 

And thou shalt go up against the eagle, 
And its neck and wings shall be destroyed." 1 

Lest his contemporaries should misunderstand Dan. vii. 17-19, 
23 sqq. as referring to the Greek Empire, the Seer in 4 Ezra 
xii. 11-12 expressly states that this passage refers to the Roman 
Empire. This is the universal view of the first century A.D. Cf. 
2 Bar. xxxvi.-xl. ; 4 Ezra v. 3-4, xi. 40 sqq. It is attested in 
the N.T. : see the Little Jewish Apocalypse incorporated in 
Mark xiii. (especially 14 = Matt. xxiv. 15 = Luke xxi. 20), and in 
the sources behind xiii. i-io (see 8 in the Introd. to xiii.), 
xvii. 3-10, where it is symbolized by the Beast in our Apocalypse. 
But in our text the meaning of the symbol has been 
changed : it stands only in part for the Roman Empire, but mainly 
for Nero redwwus, the demonic Antichrist coming up from the 
abyss, in xiii. 3 and similarly in xvii. i-io; but the original 
meaning of the symbol still survives in xiii. 1-2, xvii. 3. In the 
Ep. Barn. iv. 4-5 (100-120 A.D.) the Fourth Kingdom is Rome : 
so also in Hippolytus (220 A.D.), and in the Talmud Aboda 
Zara, i b . 

(P) The collective Antichrist of a religious origin. In 
the Johannine Epistles of the N.T. (i John ii. 18, 22, iv. 3; 
2 John 7) the Antichrist is the collective name for the false 
teachers who have gone forth from the bosom of the Church as 
deceivers (7rXai/ot). This conception is not to be confounded 
with that of pseudo-Christ (i/ evSoxptoros) of Matt. xxiv. 24 ; 
Mark xiii. 22. The individual Antichrist of the religious type is 
probably referred to in John v. 43, " If another shall come in his 
own name, him ye will receive." 

Again the original source lying behind xiii. 11-14, 16-17 

1 Here the words " its neck and wings " have been transposed from line 2. 
The transmitted text runs : 

" And thou shalt go up against (i.e. ty n^jn) the necks and wings of the 

eagle, 
And they shall be destroyed " 

(where " implebuntur " of the MS = (rwTe\e(r0ri<roi>Ta.i, which should have been 
rendered "delebuntur" here). We have here an early form of the Eagle 
Vision such as we find in 4 Ezra xi. 



8O THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 

was a Jewish Apocalypse directed against the individual Anti 
christ in the form of the False Prophet (see Introd. to Chap. xiii. 
8, vol. i. pp. 342-344). In our text it has been transformed into 
a collective Antichrist, i.e. the heathen imperial priesthood, and 
designated the second Beast in subordination to the first in 
xiii. i-io. Originally this Antichrist was conceived as inde 
pendent and without any Antichrist beside him. 

ii. In the O.T. Beliar does not appear as a proper name 
(see " Beliar " in the Bible Dictionaries). Beliar first attains to 
personality in the second century B.C. Thus, according to the 
Test. XII Patriarchs, Beliar rules over souls that are constantly 
disturbed (T. Dan iv. 7), or which yield to the evil inclina 
tions (T. Ash. i. 8), but flees from those that keep the law 
(T. Dan v. i). The Messiah will make war on Beliar and 
take from him the souls he had led captive (T. Dan v. 10), and 
Beliar will be bound (T. Levi xviii. 12), and cast into the fire 
(T. Jud. xxv. 3), and the spirits subject to him will be punished 
(T. Levi iii. 3). This conception is very like that of Satan a 
fact which becomes clearer still in Jubilees i. 20, where Beliar 
(like Satan: cf. i Chron. xxi. i ; i Enoch xl. 7 ; Rev. xii. 10) is 
said to be the accuser of the faithful before God. This identifi 
cation of Beliar and Satan appears in the Christian pseudepi- 
graph, The Questions of Bartholomew (ed. Bonwetsch, 1897), 
iv. 25. In 2 Cor. vi. 15, Beliar seems a synonym for Satan. 
Hence we may conclude that towards the close of the second 
century B.C. Beliar was regarded as a Satanic spirit, and as 
naught else, until the Beliar myth coalesced with that of the 
Antichrist. 

iii. The Neronic myth in its earliest form. Here our task is 
simply to show that soon after the death of Nero the myth 
became current that (a) Nero had not really died, but was still 
living ; and (b] that he would soon return from this far East to 
take vengeance on Rome. 

(a) When Nero with the help of a freedman committed 
suicide and was cremated (Suet. Nero, 49), so great was the 
public joy that the people thronged the streets in holiday attire 
(op. cit. 57). All, however, did not share in the belief of Nero s 
death. Thus Tacitus (Hist. ii. 8) writes that there were many 
who pretended and believed that he was still alive ; and 
Suetonius (Nero, 57) declares that edicts were issued in his name 
as though he were still alive and would return speedily to 
destroy his enemies. As early as 69 A.D. an impostor appeared 
under his name and headed a rebellion against Rome (Tac. Hist. 

(b) That Nero had taken refuge in the East probably formed 
a constituent of the myth from the outset a point on which 



xvn. j ADDITIONAL NOTE ON xvii. g r 

evidence will be furnished later. Predictions had been made 
during Nero s lifetime that the East would be the scene of his 
future greatness : some of these represented Jerusalem as the 
seat of his empire ; others promised him the sovereignty of the 
world (Suet. Nero, 40). Probably such vaticinations as these 
combined with the fact that Nero had already established friendly 
relations with the Parthian king Vologeses i. (Suet. Nero, 57), led 
Nero, as the end drew nigh, to think of fleeing to the Parthians 
(op. cit. 47). 

In conformity with this expectation we find that a second 
pseudo-Nero appeared under Titus on the Euphrates, about 
80 A.D., and was recognized by the Parthian king Artabanus 
(Zonaras, xi. 18). Finally, about 88 A.D. a third pretender came 
forward among the Parthians and all but succeeded in hurlincr 
Parthia against Rome (Tac. Hist. i. 2; Suet. Nero, 57). This 
Nero myth, thus firmly rooted in the Gentile world, passed over 
to the Jewish. The Jewish source, lying behind Rev. xvii. 12-17 
(i.e. xvii. n a , 12-13, J 7> * 6 ) and written probably in the reign of 
Titus, embodies this expectation and predicts the destruction of 
Rome by the Parthians under the leadership of Nero, who is 
there called "the beast." This expectation of a Parthian 
invasion of the West is explicitly stated in xvi. 12. With these 
passages Rev. ix. 13-21 should be compared, though here we 
have a demonic form of the myth. The Sibylline Oracles, 
v. i43-!48 (71-74 A.D. so Zahn and Bousset), prove that this 
myth had established itself in the eschatology of Hellenistic 
Judaism. According to the passage just referred to, the flight of 
Nero from Rome to the Parthians is mentioned, and in v. 361-364 
his return to destroy Rome. Early in the next decade we find 
other testimonies to the prevalence of this myth : see Sibyll. Or. 
iv. 119-122, where Nero is described as a fugitive to Parthia, and 
iv. 137-139, where he is described as returning to assail the 
West at the head of a vast host. 

It is possible that the statement in the Talmud (Yoma, io a ), 
to the effect that Rome would be destroyed by the Persians, is 
an echo of this early expectation. 

II. The fusion of the Antichrist myth (i.) with that of Beliar 
before 50 A.D. ; and (ii.) independently with that of Nero redivivus, 



i. As a result of this fusion the Antichrist is regarded as (a) 
a God-opposing man armed with miraculous powers this appears 
to have been effected on Christian soil before 50 A.D. ; (b) a 
purely Satanic power before 70 A.D. 

(a) 2 Thess. ii. 1-12, according to the usual interpretation, 
presents an indubitable instance of this fusion. Thus, on 
the one hand, we have Beliar. "The man of lawlessness" 
VOL. ii. 6 



82 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 

(6 av0pa)7ros TTJS cU/o/uas) is all but certainly a translation of Beliar ; 
for dvo/xr//xa is the LXX rendering of it in Deut. xv. 9, and 
di/o/Aia in 2 Kings xxii. 5, and Trapdvo/xos is frequently found as 
its equivalent, when it is used as an epithet: Deut. xiii. 13; 
Judg. xix. 22, xx. 13; 2 Kings xvi. 7, etc. 

In the next place it is Beliar appearing as the Antichrist ; for 
the words " he that opposeth himself . . . against all that is 
called God " (6 dvrtKet/xevo? . . . CTTI Trdvra Aeyo/xei/ov Otov) form 
an excellent definition of the Antichrist. Since 2 Thess. is now 
generally (and certainly by the present writer) regarded as an 
authentic writing of St. Paul, we have here the earliest evidence 
for the fusion of these ideas (circ. 50 A.D.), and also for the 
humanization of the Beliar myth through its fusion with that of 
the Antichrist \ for hitherto Beliar had been conceived as a 
Satanic or superhuman being. The Antichrist thus comes to 
be conceived as a God-opposing man armed with Satanic powers. 

We should next observe that in 2 Thess. ii. 1-12 the myth 
appears to have a purely religious significance and not apolitical 
one, as in Rev. xiii. i-io, xvii. Thus in 2 Thess. ii. 6, 7 the 
Roman Empire is referred to as the power which checks the 
manifestation of the Antichrist, whereas in Rev. xiii. i-io it is 
the Roman Empire that stood originally in the source of this 
passage and that still stands in the background as the Antichrist, 
while the demonic Nero stands in the foreground as this being. 
In no case could 2 Thess. ii. 1-12 have been written after 70 A.D. 
This section is a Christian transformation of a current Judaistic 
myth. 

Another phase of this expectation appears in Rev. xiii. 11-17. 
In the source of this passage the Antichrist was conceived 
similarly to that in 2 Thess. ii. But by our author this concep 
tion was recast and interpreted of the priesthood, which was 
attached to the cultus of the Caesars, and had the chief seat of 
its activities in the province of Asia. This Antichrist in our 
author symbolized by the second Beast is a false teacher and 
prophet. Hence this conception is akin to that which prevails 
in the Johannine Epistles: i John ii. 18, 22, iv. 3; 2 John 7. 
Though both in the Epistles and Rev. xiii. 11-17 tne Antichrist 
is human, in the latter passage he is armed with Satanic powers 
and " deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by reason of the 
signs which it was given him to do in the sight of the beast" 
(xiii. 14). His task is to make the inhabitants of the earth 
worship the first Beast (i.e. the Beliar Nero), whose death -stroke 
had been healed (xiii. 12). This subordinate Antichrist is 
designated as "the false prophet" in xvi. 13, xix. 20, xx. 10. 
Thus a conception which had originally grown up in Jewish and 
Christian circles, and, referring to a Jewish Antichrist, had a 



XVIL] ADDITIONAL NOTE ON xvii. 83 

purely religious significance, was recast by our author and 
reinterpreted of a heathen corporation, the Imperial priesthood, 
which was in part religious and in part political in its aims. 

Sibylline Or. ii. 167 sq. (circ. 200 A.D.) should probably be 
cited under this head, where it is said that Beliar will come and 
work many portents before men. 

(b) The Beliar Antichrist = a purely Satanic power before 70 
A.D. (or 30 A.D.}. 

This stage of the myth is attested in Rev. xi. 7, where as the 
Beast from the abyss he makes war with and kills the witnesses. 
The Antichrist in this passage makes his advent in Jerusalem 
(xi. 8), and therefore before 70 A.D. This phase of the myth 
was originally independent of that which appears in Rev. xiii. 
and xvii., where it has been fused together with the Neronic 
myth. But in its present context in xi. it is treated as identical 
with the conception in xiii. and xvii. and is used proleptically in 
reference to it. 

We should probably not be wrong in recognizing in the 
Assumption of Moses x. i, 2 an instance of this compound 
conception. 

1. "And then His kingdom shall appear throughout all His 

creation, 

And then Satan shall be no more, 
And sorrow shall depart with him. 

2. Then the hands of the angel shall be filled 
Who has been appointed chief, 

And he shall forthwith avenge them of their adversaries." 

If this passage comes rightly under this head, then the fusion 
of the ideas of Beliar and Antichrist must be anterior to 30 A.D. 

ii. fusion of the Antichrist myth with that of the Nero 
redwivus.This fusion could not have taken place before the 
first half of Domitian s reign, when the last Neronic pretender 
appeared. As soon, however, as the hope of the return of the 
living Nero could no longer be entertained, the way was pre 
pared for this transformation of the myth. The living Nero was 
no longer expected, but Nero restored to life from the abyss. 
This expectation appears in Rev. xiii., xvii. But it is question 
able if this classification is right, and the very much conflated 
conceptions of the Antichrist in these chapters had best been 
reckoned under III. The simple Neronic myth needs some 
infusion of the Beliar myth in order to develop the expectation 
of Nero redivivus, or Nero as a demonic power. 

III. Fusion of the Antichrist^ Beliar , and Neronic myths in 
various degrees and forms. 

From this fusion the myth emerges in three forms, which 



$4 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 

owe their diversity in the main to the three variations of the 
Neronic myth which enter into and affect the combination. 
These are : (i.) Incarnation of Beliar as the Antichrist in Nero 
still conceived as alive. The Antichrist has here a political 
significance, and is human, (ii.) Incarnation of Bdiar in the 
form of the dead Nero. The Antichrist is here a Satanic being. 
(iii.) Incarnation of Beliar as the Antichrist in Nero redivivus. 

(i.) Incarnation of Beliar as the Antichrist in Nero still con 
ceived as living before 90 A.D. We have seen above from 
documentary evidence that before 80 A.D. the myth had gained 
wide circulation both among Gentiles and Jews, that Nero was 
still living in the East, and would speedily return to avenge 
himself on Rome. We have further seen that long before 80 
A.D. the minds of both Jews and Christians were familiar with 
the expectation of the Antichrist pure and simple, and of the 
Antichrist possessing the attributes of Beliar or Satan, and so 
denoting a God-opposing man armed with miraculous powers, or 
a truly Satanic being. So strong was the tendency of such 
mythical currents to merge in a common stream that it is not 
surprising to find this coalescence achieved in Sibyll. Or. iii. 63- 
74. This passage is unhappily of uncertain date, though no 
doubt before 90 A.D., since Nero is still regarded as alive. Its 
significance, however, cannot be mistaken. Beliar comes as 
Antichrist and is descended from Augustus (t/e Se/Sao-TTjvon/). 
That this descendant of Augustus is Nero there seems no room 
for doubt. The lines are : 



CK Se 

/cat f (rr^tret f opecov ityos, cmycrei Se $aXacr(rav . . . 
KCU ve/cuas CTTvyo-ei KCU crrjfjiaTa TroAAa Trot^crei . . . 
aAA OTTorav /xeyaXoto Ozov TreXacrwcrtv ctTretXat , 
/ecu Swa/xts <Xoyovo-a Si otS^aaros eis ycuav ^ei, 
KCU BeXt ap <jf>Xeei /ecu VTrep^taXovs dv0pa>7rovs 
Travra?, ocrot TOVTO> TUOTIV eveTrot^a-ai/TO. 

It is possible, however, that the Se/focrT^voi are the inhabit 
ants of Se/Sarm}, i.e. Samaria. In that case the text would come 
under II. i. (b). 

ii. Incarnation of Beliar as Antichrist in the form of the dead 
Nero. _ In due time the belief that Nero was still alive in the 
East began to die. The time of its extinction must naturally 
have varied according to temperament and locality. It is 
accordingly difficult to assign definite dates. Since, however, 
the latest pretender to the Neronic role came forward in 88 A.D., 
we may not unreasonably infer that from that year the belief 
began to lose its grip on the common folk, and to decline 
steadily till it finally disappeared. No doubt during the next 



XVII.] ADDITIONAL NOTE ON XVII. 85 

twenty years or more it crops up sporadically, but even during 
that period its place has been taken by two rival and stronger 
forms of the same myth. 

These new forms may have already been evolved in the later 
years of Vespasian. At all events they are not later than 90- 
100 A.D. Now that the belief that Nero was still alive had 
already been abandoned, there were two courses of development 
open for this myth, in case the Neronic element was still to be 
retained. Either Beliar must come in the form of the dead 
Nero, or Nero must be recalled to life by a Satanic miracle as in 
(iii.). The first course is adopted by the writer of the Ascension 
of Isaiah, the second by our author in xiii., xvii. The passage 
in the Ascension, iv. 2-4, is as follows : 

" And after (the age) is fulfilled, Beliar, the great ruler, the 
king of this world, will descend, who hath ruled it since it came 
into being ; yea he will descend from his firmament in the like 
ness of a man, a lawless king, the slayer of his mother, who 
himself (even) this king 3. Will persecute the plant which the 
Twelve Apostles of the Beloved have planted. Of the Twelve, 
one will be delivered into his hand. 4. This ruler in the form 
of that king will come, and there will come with him all the 
powers of this world," etc. 

(iii.) Incarnation of Beliar as the Antichrist in Nero redivivus. 
The chief authority attesting this expectation is Rev. xiii., xvii. 
in their present form as they left our author s hand. But we 
shall first deal shortly with others in the Sibylline Oracles. In 
Sibyll. Or. v. 28-34 (written in the reign of Hadrian) the descrip 
tion of the Antichrist involves all the above elements. Thus it 
is Nero redivivus that is described ; for the author of the lines 
is writing two generations after Nero s death. In the next place 
he is called in semi-mythological language "the serpent" (herein 
we have the Beliar element), and finally he makes himself equal 
to God. The lines bearing on our subject are v. 28-29, 33~34- 

8 OTIS KCpafyv Att^C, KOlpCLVOS TTCU, 



dAA, e oTcti /cat at crros oAouos etra 
/ j, /) j / 
tcra^cov e/eo) OLVTOV. 

v. 214-227 belongs more clearly to this division. According to 
this passage, Nero is to return aloft, upborne by the Fates. His 
achievements are portrayed in 219-225. In Book viii., of which 
lines 4-429 belong to the close of the second century, the 
various myths have so thoroughly coalesced that Nero is no 
longer regarded as a man but as a Satanic monster. He has 
become the Dragon (viii. 88, TTO/X^V/DCO S T e Spd K <w), and assumed 
the monster s form (157, 



86 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVII. 

It is needless here to pursue the ramifications of this myth 
further in this and later literature than to state, that so 
thoroughly did the Neronic element in the composite Antichrist 
conception gain the upper hand in the East, that in Armenian 
the word Nero became and remains the equivalent for Anti 
christ. 

We shall now return to the most important testimonies of 
this subject, i.e. in Rev. xiii., xvii. We need not here deal with 
them in detail, since they are fully discussed already. Here 
we have the most vigorous and illuminating conception of 
the Antichrist in all literature, although, as we have seen in 
our study of these chapters, our author was to a considerable 
extent indebted to existing sources in their composition. But 
though the elements of the Antichrist were drawn for the most 
part from disparate sources, the result is no mere mosaic, no 
laboured syncretism of conflicting traits, but a marvellous 
portrait of the great God-opposing power that should hereafter 
arise, who was to exalt might above right, and attempt, success 
fully or unsuccessfully for the time, to seize the sovereignty of the 
world, backed by hosts of intellectual workers, 1 who would 
uphold his pretensions, justify all his actions, and enforce his 
political aims by an economic warfare, 2 which menaced with 
destruction all that did not bow down to his arrogant and 
godless claims. And though the justness of this forecast is 
clear to the student who approaches the subject with some 
insight, and to all students who approach it with the experience 
of the present world war, we find that as late as 1908, Bousset 
in his article on the "Antichrist" in Hastings Encyclopedia 
of Religion and Ethics, writes as follows : " The interest in 
the (Antichrist) legend ... is now to be found only among 
the lower classes of the Christian community, among sects, 
eccentric individuals, and fanatics." 

No great prophecy receives its full and final fulfilment in 
any single event or series of events. In fact, it may not be 
fulfilled at all in regard to the object against which it was 
primarily delivered by the prophet or Seer. But, ^ if it is the 
expression of a great moral and spiritual truth, it will of a 
surety be fulfilled at sundry times and in divers manners and in 
varying degrees of completeness. The present attitude of the 
Central Powers of Europe on this question of might against right, 
of Csesarism against religion, of the state against God, is the 
greatest fulfilment that the Johannine prophecy in xiii. has as 
yet received. Even the very indefiniteness regarding the chief 
Antichrist in xiii. is reproduced in the present upheaval of 

1 This is the second Beast in xiii. the false prophet. 

2 The measures described in xiii. i6-I7, 



XVIII. 1.] CONTENTS, ETC., OF CHAPTER 87 

evil powers. In xiii. the Antichrist is conceived as a single 
individual, i.e. the demonic Nero; but, even so, behind him 
stands the Roman Empire, which is one with him in character 
and purpose, and is itself the Fourth Kingdom or the Kingdom 
of the Antichrist in fact, the Antichrist itself. So in regard to 
the present war, it is difficult to determine whether the Kaiser 
or his people can advance the best claims to the title of a 
modern Antichrist. If he is a present-day representative of the 
Antichrist, so just as surely is the empire behind him, for it is 
one in spirit and purpose with its leader whether regarded 
from its military side, its intellectual, or its industrial. They are 
in a degree far transcending that of ancient Rome " those who 
are destroying the earth" (Rev. xi. 18). 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
i. The Contents and Character of this Chapter. 

This chapter, which deals with the doom of Rome, opens 
with a prophetic prelude, in which the Seer looks far forward 
and sees the destruction of Rome as already accomplished, and 
the earth s proud capital as the haunt of every unclean thing 
both demonic and belonging to this world. 1 This prelude, 
described as an angelic utterance from heaven (1-3), is proleptic, 
since in the rest of the chapter various stages in the actual 
destruction are described. 

In 4-8 there follows another voice addressed to the faithful 2 
(4-5), and to the ministers of God s wrath, 8 who were assembled 
for the destruction of Rome. 

We now come to the three threnodies pronounced respec 
tively over burning Rome by the kings (9-10), by the merchant 
princes of the earth (11-13, 15-16), and by the shipowners and 
sailors of all the world (17-19). Each in turn bewail the doom 
of the great city in whose wantonness and luxury and wealth 
they had all shared. 

The chapter closes with a song of doom preluded by a 
symbolic action on the part of a strong angel. This dirge is 
uttered by the Seer who wrote the Oracle, which John has 
utilized here for his own purposes. At its close he has added 
20, 23^24, in which he appeals to heaven and to the martyrs, 

1 As John had not the opportunity of revising his great Apocalyse, several 
traces of the expectations belonging to the Vespanianic period survive in this 
Jewish source. According to John s own view, the smoke of Rome was to go 
up till the world s end (xix. 3), but not so in this source (xviii. 2). 

2 Another element testifying to the origin of the source in Vespanian s 
time. The faithful had all been removed from the earth at the close of xiii. 

? In the original source Nero and the Parthians. 



88 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [xvin. 1-2. 

apostles and prophets already there, to rejoice over the destruc 
tion of Rome. This appeal is answered in xix. This last part 
of the chapter was evidently found by our author in a very 
confused condition. It should be read as follows (as we have 
shown in 6): 21, 14, 22 abcd , 2$ cd , 22 efgh , 23 ab , 20, 23*, 24. 

As we have already stated, John has here used a source 
belonging to the Vespasianic period, and written soon after the 
destruction of Jerusalem. It was apparently written originally 
in Hebrew, and found by John in a Greek translation. The 
grounds for these statements are given in the sections that 
follow. To the same Vespasianic source xvii. i b ~7, 18, 8-10 
(in part) originally belonged. 

2. The Diction^ Idiom , and Style of xviii. 2-23 is not 
that of our author. 

The style of this chapter has none of our author s character 
istic abnormal constructions (see 2). It has, on the other hand, 
constructions which are wholly against his usage (see 3). This 
chapter contains a great many a7ra Aeyojueva so far as the rest of 
the N.T. is concerned (see footnote on i), and also peculiar 
usages of certain words (see 5) not only unknown in the rest of 
the N.T. and the LXX, but almost unknown elsewhere. The 
style is most carefully elaborated, and in this respect different 
from that of our author. Our author is, of course, a stylist, but 
with him style is a wholly secondary consideration. His theme 
had wholly gained possession of him, and being the greatest of 
all themes it naturally expresses itself in great and noble words. 
But the writer of xviii. 2-23 is no less conscious of the claims 
of form than he is of the subject-matter of his vision. He is 
a conscious stylist. Moreover, the order of his words is less 
Semitic than that of any other chapter in the Apocalypse from 
our author s hand. Thus the verb frequently follows after the 
subject or the object, or both combined: cf. 3, 7, 8, n, 14, 
15, 17. In xvii. i c -2, 3 b -7, 8-10, the earlier part of this source, 
the order is Semitic, but this seems owing to the revision it has 
undergone at the hands of our author before he incorporated it 
in his text. 

Finally, this source has influenced our author (see 7). 

i. Diction. The source begins with 2. It is introduced by 
i, every phrase of which is from our author. Thus //-era ravra 
eTSoj/ is a characteristic phrase : etSov aAAov ayycXov Kara/?atj/ovra 
K TOV ovpavov is found in x. i and again in xx. i. On ex ovra 
eoixriav cf. ix. 3, xvi. 9, xx. 6 ; and on e<amo-#>7 IK T^S So^s 
avTOi), cf. xxi. 23, YJ yap Soa TOV 0eov e<<oTrev avr^i/. The Style 

of 2-23 is not that of our author, nor the diction nor the idiom. 



XVIII. 2.] DICTION AND IDIOM 89 

The diction is in the main different. I have added a list of phrases 
and clauses common to xviii. and the rest of the book. Now 
from this list must be withdrawn those given under 20, 23, 24, 
since either originally or in their present form they are from our 
author s hand. Next, those given under 3 b , 10, 16 are repeated 
from the earlier part of the same source, xvii. i-io, but not found 
elsewhere in the Book. Again, this old Vespasianic source has 
not unnaturally influenced our author s diction : hence the 
clauses given in 2 a , 3 a are the source of xiv. 8, and the rare use 
of ySvcrcrivoi/ in 12 appears to be the source of our author s use 
of it in xix. 8, 14. Thus the clauses with a diction akin to that 
in our author are those given under 4 (8), 9, 21 (below). But 
the clauses which in these verses are common to this source and 
our author are not distinctive. On the other hand, xviii. has a 
large number of a-jrag Aeyo/xevo, so far as the rest of our author 
and the N.T. are concerned. 1 

2. eireo-ey, Iireaek Bcx/SiAwy f\ fxeydXt] : cf. xiv. 8, which, how 
ever, appears to be borrowed from this source. 

3. IK. TOU oivou [TOU OUJJLOU] TYJS iropkeias aur^s ire-iron KCI> irdv-ra. 
TCI e Oyy) the source of xiv. 8 C . ot |3a<nXeis rrjs yfjs P 61 " a| JTfjs 

i : cf. 9, xvii. 2, where the clause has already occurred. 

4. YjKouaa aXXrji <f>wi/T)j eic TOU oupai/ou Xeyoucraj : cf. X. 4, 8, 
xi. 12, xiv. 2, etc. 

8. SIOLTOUTO: cf.vii. i5,xii. 12. eVTrupiKaTaKau0Y]aeTai: cf.xvii. 16. 

9. KovJ/orrcu eir CIUTT] : cf. i. 7- 

10. yj iroXis r\ (jLeydXi] : cf. 1 6, 19, xvii. 18 all belonging to 
the same source. 

12. |3uo-o-iK>u : cf. 1 6, xix. 8, 14, where this use of PVO-O-LVOV 
as a noun appears derived from the use in this source. 

16. tj irepi|3{3XT]jjieVT] . . . jjiapyapiTTj : repeated with slight 
variations from xvii. 4 both belonging to the same source. 

17. eo-njo-ai . Our author would have used eo-raQ^vav or 
eto-TT)Keio-ai>. See vol. i. p. 272. 

20. eu<|>paii>ou : cf. xii. 12. oupaye . Our author uses this 
word in the sing, ot aytoi K. ot d-jTooroXoi KCU ot irpo<|>TJTai. The 
order is unusual: contrast xi. 18, xviii. 24. e lcpiyey: cf. xvi. 6. 

21. ets (cf. Vlii. 13, xix. 17) ayyeXos iax u P ? : c ^- Vt 2 > x< If 
e|3aXei> ets: very frequent, ou p] eupe Or] ert : cf. 22, 24, xii. 8, 
xiv. 5. 

23. TrXavTj0T]aai irarra ra e 0nr) : cf. XX. 3, 8, xii. 9, xiii. 14. 

1 Thus we have 0v\a/oJ in xviii. 2 : <rrpr]vov<s in xviii. 3 (cf. ffrprjvidw in 
7, 9, also HIT. Xe7.)> StTrXwcrare, and 8iir\a and diirXovv as nouns in 6, ffipiKov, 
Quiver, e\e(f>di>Tivov, /j.appdpou in 12, and in the same verse KOKKIVOV as a noun 
(cf. 16, xvii. 4), Kcvi d/j.w/j.ov, dfj-wfjiov, ffeplSaKiv [peduv, o-w/idrwv in this sense] 
in 13, oirupa, \nrapd in 14, iroptyvpovv as a noun in 16 (xvii. 4), 
(in this sense) in 17, Tijtu6r??TOS in 19, fj,v\ivov, op/xry/iari in 21, 
in 22. 



90 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 2. 

24. TrpocjnrjTwi/ Kal dytW: cf. xi. 18. eor^avfxeVui/ : cf. v. 6 o 
12, vi. 9, xiii. 8. 

2. The style of xviii. 2-23 exhibits none of the abnormal 
constructions 1 so frequent in our author, is far more normal 
than that of our author, and is comparatively good Greek. In 
fact the writer of this source was a conscious stylist. 

3. Whilst this source has none of our author s characteristic 
abnprmal^constructions, it contains constructions which are wholly 
against his usage. Thus OVO.L cum nom. in 10, 16, 19, whereas it 
appears in our author only cum ace. eV la- X vpa <j>wy in 2 is both 
as regards the epithet and the order in this phrase unexampled 
m our author (see note in loc.\ avrfc at d/mprt at in 5 is an 
example of the unemphatic position of avro s not elsewhere in our 
author save in one Uncial (A) in xxi. 3 (see vol. ii. p. 208, foot 
note). Kpd&iv eV . . . <<oi/r] in 2 is against our author s usage, 
who never inserts the kv here: cf. vi. 10, vii. 2, 10, x. 3, xix. 17. 
In xviii. 4 the order e* rw TrXrjy^v avr^s Iva py Aa^re (KACQJ 
is unparalleled in our author. Hence some later authorities 
transpose IK r. vX-qyw atrfc after Arf/fyre. Again, 77 /^ycO^ Tro Ais 
in 21 is unparalleled in our author in this phrase (see note in loc.}. 
The attraction of the relative in xviii. 6, irorqpiu <S eWpao-ei/, is 
against his usage: cf. i. 20. Even the title of" Babylon in 
xviii. 10, 77 TTO AIS rj la-xvpd, is against our author s use, who calls it 
7} ^yd\7j in xiv. 8, xvi. 19, a title which appears also in this source 
in xvii. 5, xviii. 2, 10, 21. Finally, in xviii. 7 we find /ca^/zat 
where our author would have used /ca(9tw : see note on iii. 21 ; 
and ov M, xviii. 14, with ev^o-ovcrti/, where he would use cvpuo-Lv. 

4. The accumulation of participles is a frequent character 
istic of this source without any real parallel in the rest of the 
Book. Thus in xviii. 9-10 we have ot 



/ecu 
orav Aewcriv . . . aTro 



^ dependent on the subject of the principal verb . 
In 15, ot TrXouTTjcrai/res . . . /cXatoj/res /cat TrevOovvres, Ae yovres, 
similarly dependent on the subject of the principal verb: in 
1 8, (BXiirovTGs . . . Ae yoi/res: in 19, /cAaiVres xat irevOovvres, 
Xeyoi/re?. The same accumulation of participles is to be found 
in the earlier fragment of this source, i.e. xvii. i c -2, 3 b -7, 18, 
8-10. Thus in xvii. 3 we have ywat/ca /ca^eV^v tirl Oypiov . 

ra . . . e^wv : in 4, TrepifajSXrj/jievrj . . . xat /ce^pvo-w/xeV^ 
exova-a : in 7, TOV ^ao-Ta^oi/ros, rov exovros : in 8, ot /carot- 



5. The use of neuter adjectives in the sing, as nouns is 

1 Thus the syntax is carefully observed as regards gender and number. 
Even \tywv (Xtyovres, etc.) always agrees with the noun on which it depends 
:ontrast our authors use: i. ii, iv. i, v. 12, 13, ix. 14, x. 8 (bis), xi. i, 15, 



XVIII. 2-3.] A HEBREW SOURCE 91 

characteristic of this source : i.e. j3varo-Lvov = " fine linen " in xviii. 
12, 16. This usage occurs only once in the LXX in Dan. x. 5. 
Occasionally TO, /2u<rcriva is used in this sense in the LXX. 
Similarly 7rop<f>vpovv in xvii. 4, xviii. 16, KOKKLVOV in xvii. 4, 
xviii. 12, 1 6, (TLpLKov, xviii. 12, and SiTrAovv in xviii. 6, are used 
as nouns, although, save in the case of cnpiKov and SiTrAovv, such 
a use of these words in the sing, seems unattested elsewhere. 
o-LpiKov is found in Arrian and Strabo as a noun, and onrXovv 
appears to be used similarly in the LXX in Ex. xxii. 7, 9. 
For certain adjectives employed in this way in the rest of the 
N.T. see Robertson, Gram. 653 sq., who, however, as the rest 
of the N.T. grammarians, fails to notice most of the above 
words. 

6. The order of this source is less Semitic than that of our 
author : see above. 

7. This source appears to have influenced our author. As 
regards xviii. 2-23, it has become clear that it is not our author s 
production, as we have found also with regard to xvii. i c -2, 
3 b -7, 1 8, 8-10. Now this source, dating from the time of 
Vespasian, had been in our author s hands and was apparently 
laid under contribution by him. Thus xiv. 8 is composed simply 
of xviii. 2 b , 3* put together. Again our author s peculiar use of 
fivo-o-Lvov in xix. 8, 14 as a noun appears due to this same use in 
xviii. 12, 1 6 (see 5. above). The fact that this use of PVO-O-LVOV 
is characteristic of this source and borrowed by our author gains 
support by its use of iropfyvpovv (xvii. 4, xviii. 16), KOKKLVOV (xvii. 4, 
xviii. 12, 16), cripiKov (xviii. 12), and ot-n-Xovv (xviii. 6) as nouns, 
although, save in the case of the cripiKov and SnrXovv, such a use 
seems unattested elsewhere. SnrA.a and TO. KOKKLVO. are found 
elsewhere. Since, therefore, our author appears to have been 
influenced by this source in the above respects, it is possible that 
he may have been also influenced by it in his use of tcrxvpo?, 
which occurs 4 times in xviii. and 5 times in the rest of our 
author. Three of these five times it occurs in the phrase ayyeAos 
ta-^vpos found also in xviii. 21. But OVK . . . ert, which is 6 
times in xviii., occurs 9 times in the rest of our author and belongs 
to his vocabulary. His use of Sta TOVTO, vii. 15, xii. 12, is not to 
be traced to xviii. 8, seeing that it is a very common phrase, being 
found 15 times in the Johannine Gospel and 3 times in the 
Epistles. 

3. The Greek appears to be a translation from a Hebrew 
source. 

The evidence for the hypothesis is not conclusive. It will be 
found in the notes on 8, 19, 22 in connection with the words 
and phrases 7rev#os, IK rrjs TI/XIOTT/TOS, and //.OVO-IKWV. The use of 
s in 3 may suggest ^n = "wealth," 



9 2 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 4. 

4. The text has suffered great dislocations in some degree 
comparable to those in xxii. Translation of xviii. 2 1-24 in its 
reconstructed order. 

One of these dislocations that of 14 was observed by early 
scholars like Beza and Vitringa, which they restore after 23 d . 
But the present writer thinks that 14 should be read immediately 
after 21 : 20 he finds is also out of place. It should be replaced 
after 23 ab . The various elements of 22-23 nave been disarranged, 
as is shown in the notes. 

21-24 should be read in the following order: 21,14 22 a d 2* cd 

22"* 23*>, 20, 2 3 , 2 4 . 

21. And a strong angel took up a stone as it were a great 
millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying : 



" Thus with violence shall be cast down, 
Babylon the great city, 
And shall no more be found. 

(The Seer s dirge over Babylon.) 

14. And the fruits which thy soul lusted after 

Are gone from thee : 
And all the dainties and the splendours 

Are perished from thee. 
[And men shall find them no more at all]. 

22 a - (1 . And the voice of the harpers and singers 

< Shall be heard no more in thee>, 
And < the voice > of the fluteplayers and trumpeters 
Shall be heard no more in thee. 

23 cd . And the voice of the bridegroom and the bride 

Shall be heard no more in thee : 
22 ef . And no craftsman of whatsoever craft 

Shall be found any more in thee : 

22S h . And the voice of the millstone 

Shall be heard no more in thee: 
2 3 ab . And the light of the lamp 

Shall shine no more in thee. 

(The Seer s appeal to heaven and its inhabitants to rejoice 
over the doom of Rome.) 

20. Rejoice over her, thou heaven, 

And ye saints and ye apostles and ye prophets ; 
For God hath judged your judgment upon her; 



XVIII. 4-6.] OF THE TIME OF VESPASIAN 93 

23 f . For with her sorcery had all the nations been deceived : 
24. And in her was found the blood of the prophets and 

saints 
And of all that had been slain upon the earth." 

5. xviii. was written in the time of Vespasian} 
This statement can be proved by means of 2, 4, 6-8. 

(a) For first of all 2 presupposes the fires of Rome to have 
been long extinct, and its ruins to have become the abode of 
every unclean spirit, bird, and beast. Now such a supposition 
even in a vision was not possible for the Seer writing in 95 A.D. 
He was then looking forward to the destruction of Rome as one 
of the last great acts in the judgment of the world. Moreover, the 
fires which should consume Rome, xviii. 9, 15, 18, were never, so 
long as the earth lasted, to be extinguished, xix. 3. Hence, however 
we explain xviii. 2, it was written at an earlier date than the 
Apocalypse as a whole. But, whereas the prophecy in 2 is 
merely proleptic and therefore not at variance with xviii. 8, 15, 
1 8, it is really irreconcilable with xix. 3, which declares that the 
smoke of Rome s ruins will go up till the world s end. The 
former gives the expectation of a Jewish Seer in Vespasian s 
time, the latter that of our author John in 95 A.D. 

(b) In the note on 4 I have shown that the presupposition 
underlying it runs counter to the expectation of our Seer, that 
after chap. xiii. all the faithful had been put to death. But in 
this verse a considerable body of the faithful is presumed to be 
actually present in Rome. Such a presumption would be justifi 
able in Vespasian s time after the fall of Jerusalem, to which period 
xviii. can most reasonably be assigned. 

(c) In 6-8 the same Vespasianic standpoint is transparent. 
We have such an expectation here as would be naturally enter 
tained by a zealous Jew after the destruction of Jerusalem. 

6. xviii. preserved in a corrupt condition and adapted by our 
author to his own purpose. 

The dislocation of 14 and 20 and of several clauses in 21-24 
from their original contexts shows how profoundly the original 
source has suffered (see 4). There is no reason to suppose 
that these dislocations were due to our author. Either they 
were already present in his source, or they are due to accidental 
disarrangement subsequently. It should be borne in mind that, 
if the present writer s hypothesis is sound as to the death of John 
when he had completed xx. 3, we are to regard i.-xx. 3 as never 
having undergone a final revision at his hands. In fact we have 
in i.-xx. 3, the first sketch of a great work, portions of which 

1 On a variety of grounds Sabatier, Rauch, Spitta, Weyland, Bousset, 
J. Weiss, Wellhausen, and Moffatt accept the Vespasianic date of xviii. 



94 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIlI. 67. 

have been most carefully worked out from the visions of many 
years, while others show not a few inequalities and inconsistencies 
that a final revision would have removed. 

As regards the corruptions in the text we have already ( 3) 
sought to explain those in 8, 19, 22 by means of a Hebrew back 
ground. The ungrammatical clause (/cat ITTTTCOV KT\.) in 13 is 
merely a gloss. 23% if it belonged to the original source, is at 
all events in its wrong context where it stands. 24 is from the 
hand of John as well as the phrase /cat ot aTroo-roAot in 20. 

7. xviii. and xvii. i c -2, /-/, /<?, 8-10 are a Greek 
translation of one and the same Hebrew source. 

We have already come to the conclusion that xvii. i c -2, 3 b ~7, 18, 
8-10, and xviii. 2-24 are of a Vespasianic date, and that the Greek 
of these sections is apparently a translation (not made but revised 
by John) from a Hebrew original. Since xvii. i c -2, 3 b -7, 18, 
8-10, and xviii. 2-23, which are closely connected by their peculiar 
and in some respects unique diction, deal with the same subject 
and belong to the same date, we conclude that they are from the 
same hand. The former served as an introduction to the latter, 
xvii. I gives the title of xviii. TO /cpt/xa 1-179 iropvrfs -ri/s /xcyaA^s rrjs 
Ka0i7/*eVi7S eiri vSarwv iroAAaJi/. Next, xvii. 2 (^ff fa tVo pi/evo-av 
ot /Sao-iAets rfjs yrjs, /cat f/m^Ova-O^a-av ot /caroi/cowres ryv yfjv e/c TOT) 
oivov Tr}s Tropveias avrrjs) is repeated in substance and in part 
verbally in xviii. 3, e/c TOV OLVOV rov OVJJLOV rfjs iropveias 
TrtTTOTiKev 7raj/Ta TO, WvY], and 23, V rfj <ap/*a/ 
irdvra TO. Wvr). Next, clauses from xvii. 4 ( 

<f>opovv l /cat KOKKivoVj Kol Kf^pvcrta/JiGvr) xpv<ri(p /cat A.i$a) TI/AICD Kat 
^apyapiVats) are repeated almost word for word in xviii. 16, ^Trept- 
/3e/3X?7/xev>7 . . . iropfyvpovv /cat KOKKLVOV /cat /crtyovo-w/xeV?; . . . \{0<p 
rt/xtw /cat /xapyaptTT;. Again, TroTTJptoj/ . . . eV ry ^pt auT^s ye //,oi/ 
^SSeAvy/xaTcov in xvii. 4 is recalled by lv T<3 iroT-rjpiw w e/cepao-ei/ 
in xviii. 6 ; RapvXwv fj yaeyaA^ in xvii. 5 by a kindred clause in 
xviii. 10 ; and 17 vroAts fj /xeyaA^ in xvii. 18 by the same phrase in 
xviii. 10, 16, 19. 

Hence xvii. i c -2, 3 b -7, 18, 8-10, and xviii. appear to be 
derived from one and the same Hebrew source. 2 With this he 
has combined another source, xvii. 11-13, J 7> l6 > which foretold 
the destruction of Rome by Nero and the Parthians. xvii. 2 gives 
the title of the Vision in xviii., i.e. the Doom of Rome ; this judg 
ment is preceded by a vision of Rome before its overthrow in 

1 It is important to observe that iroptyvpovv used as a noun seems to occur 
only in xvii. 4 and xviii. 16, that nbuKivov is used as a noun in the sing, in 
xvii. 4 b , xviii. 12, 16 a most rare use, though it is found in theJL-XX and 
elsewhere as a noun in the plural. See 2. 5 above. 

2 The order of the words in xviii. while in the main Semitic, is not as 
decidedly so as in xvii. i c -2, 3 b -7, 18, 8-10. The latter has been thoroughly 
revised by our author. 



XVIII. l-] DOOM OF BABYLON 95 

xvii. 3-7, 18, 8-10, and by a prophecy of the coming destruction 
of Rome by fire at the hands of Nero and the Parthians, i.e. 
xvii. 12-13, 17, 1 6. It is not till we come to xviii. that the 
promise of the Angel of the Bowls in xvii. i, Seto> o-oi TO /cpt/xa 
TT)S Trdpi/r??,, is fulfilled, xviii. is a vision of Rome s doom, which 
\^ foretold m xvii. 16. 

1-3. The proclamation of the doom of Babylon by the first 
angel. This proclamation is proleptic. The angel s words 
regard Rome s doom as already accomplished far in the past. 

From 2 cde it appears that the fires that consumed it have 
long since been quenched, and that it has become the abode of 
unclean birds and demons. See the note on these clauses below. 

1. O.\\QV ayyeXok. This angel is distinguished from the angel 
mentioned in xvii. i, 7, who is the angelus interpres. 

T) yrj e s <J>amo-0Y) eic TT]S SO^TJS aurou. This is a direct rendering 
of Ezek. xliii. 2, H33 rn NH pNil, where the LXX has fj yf/ 
efAa//,7rei/ us <e yyo? a,7ro TT?S Soi??. Here the Targum has XjpK 
rrnp s VTO mnj. Thus the brightness of God s glory is here 
attributed to an angel. See further on this "brightness" in 
note on xxi. 23. On this use of eic = "by reason of," cf. viii. 13, 
xvi. ii. 

2. Iicpagci ey lax u p 4> w ^fi The diction in this phrase is 
unexampled in our author: the order is most exceptional. See 
note on x. 3. 

e-n-eo-ev iireaei Ba|3uXwi> T) peyrfXi). This clause has alread) 
occurred in xiv. 8 (see note). The Greek here, with the exception 
of the epithet, is an independent rendering of Isa. xxi. 9. 

2 cde . These three clauses are to be taken proleptically in 
reference to 9, 15, 18 : otherwise they occasion difficulty; for in 
9, 15, 1 8, Rome is seen in the Seer s vision to be consumed by 
fire : whereas these clauses presuppose the fires of Rome to have 
been long extinct, and the ruins to have become the hold of 
unclean birds and demons, xiv. 1 1 refers not to the city Rome, 
but to the eternal torment of the worshippers of the Beast in the 
next world. On the other hand it is impossible to reconcile 2 cde 
with xix. 3, which represents the smoke of her burning as going 
up for ever and ever, i.e. to the end of the world. This last is 
our author s own expectation. Here that of his source conflicts 
with it : see Introd. to this Chap., 5. 

eyei/ero KCtToiKirjTYJpioi Saijj.oyiwi . . . jJiejua^jjieVou : cf. Isa. xiii. 
21-22 (Sai/Aoj ia eKct opxTjOyvovTCLL) ; Jer. li. 31, "Babylon shall 
become . . . a dwelling for jackals"; i Bar. iv. 35, KaToiK^T}- 
o-erat VTTO Sai/xoviW. In Isa. xxxiv. ii, i3 b , 14-1^ Jer. 1. 39, there 
is a list of unclean birds and beasts that are to inhabit Edom 01 
Babylon given : cf. Zeph. ii. 14. The Sat/movm are the D", or 
more probably the D s Tyb> (Isa. xiii. 21, xxxiv. 14). 



96 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 2-4. 

opveou dKctOcipTou : cf. Deut. xiv. 12-19. 

3. The nations as a whole, the rulers of the earth and its 
merchants, were involved in the sin of Rome. 

IK TOU oi^ou [TOU 0ujjiou] TT]S iropyeias aurfjs. I have here with 
much hesitation bracketed rov Ovpov, although it has the support 
of the best MSS. But the extraordinary diversity among the 
authorities points to some corruption in the above text. See 
notes on xiv. 8, xvii. 2. In the latter passage we have an exact 
parallel to xviii. 3 ab ; for 3 a (cf. 23 d on cV rfj <ap/xaKta <rov fTrXavrj- 
Orja-av Trai/ra ra Wvq) corresponds to e/xe^ixr^crav ot KarotKowres 
T. yrjv IK rov olvov TT)<S Tropvctas avrrjs. 3 b corresponds almost 
verbatim with xvii. 2 a , /u,e# f]s e7ro/ovev(rav ot /Sao-iXets TTJ<S y}s. 

ot pacnXeis TTJS v*)S- Their lamentation over Rome is given 
in 9-20, as that of the merchants in 11-13, I 5~ I 6. 

TreiroTiKec. This reading, supported by a few cursives, appears 
to be the true one, though in the cursives only a happy conjecture. 
It explains the impossible readings of NACQ. It is also required 
by the context : otherwise Rome is represented only as passively 
evil. TreVrcoKav though originating in a scribal error seemed to 
derive support from eTrecrej/. As Babylon fell, so did the nations. 

ol efXTTopoi TTJS Y^S. This phrase, which is peculiar to this 
chapter in the N.T. (cf. u, 15, 23), is significant. All the 
merchants of the world are involved in the overthrow of Rome. 
The long list of merchants who traded with Tyre, according to 
Ezek. xxvii. 9-25, was in the mind of our author. 

CK . . . aimjs eirXouTYjo-ai/ : cf. 15. 

TTJS Sumpfws = " wealth" a meaning which is found also in 
the LXX of Deut. viii. 17, Ruth iv. n, where Swa/us is a render 
ing of ^Tl. In Isa. Ixi. 6 it is rendered by to-^s= "wealth." 
This meaning is to be found in Xen. Cyr. vii. 4. 34, etc., 2 Cor. 
viii. 3, and the Papyri. 

TOU orpr}i/ous auTTjs = " of her wantonness." Here and in 
2 Kings xix. 28. Cf. a-rprjviav in 9, and KaTao-rprjviav rov Xpto-rov, 
" to wax wanton against the restrictions prescribed by Christ," in 
i Tim. v. ii. 

4-8. The second voice, which comes from heaven itself. 
4-5 are addressed to the faithful, and 6-8 to the ministers of God s 
wrath who were seen by the Seer to be assembling for the work 
of destruction. 

4. No justifiable meaning can be attached to this verse as it 
stands. As we have repeatedly seen heretofore (cf. also ver. 20), 
the presupposition of the Seer is that after xiii. all the faithful had 
been put to death. In xv. 2-4 the army of martyrs is seen in its 
completeness in a vision before the throne of God, while the 
Seven Bowls are poured down on a wholly heathen world. In 
the present verse, therefore, indeed in the present chapter, we 



XVIII. 4-5.] EXHORTATION TO THE FAITHFUL 97 

have a document that belongs, as a large body of modern scholars 
have recognized, to the time of Vespasian. This oracle dealt 
with the destruction of Rome. Volter (Offenbarung Johannis, 
1904), J. Weiss and Erbes ascribe this oracle to a Christian 
source written respectively about 60, 70 and 80 A.D. On the 
other hand, Vischer, Schoen, Weyland, Spitta trace it, and 
rightly in the opinion of the present writer, to a Jewish source. 
Whether Jewish or Christian originally, it is partially adapted to 
its present context by the mention of the "apostles" in 20, and 
by the addition of 24. 

oXXirji <J>wnrji/. The words that follow 6 Aaos ^ov seem to 
suggest that it is God that speaks. But 5 is against this con 
clusion. Cf. xvi. i for a like difficulty. It may, however, be 
Christ that speaks. 

ee X0dT e CIUTTJS 6 Xaos JAOU. These words appear to be a 
reproduction of Jer. li. (xxviii.) 45, *y aainp 1NV. Since they 
are not found in NABQ* of the LXX and in Q m e are 
rendered by ee A#er IK /xeVov avrrj<s Aaos JJLOV, this clause seems 
to have been translated directly from the Hebrew, and inde 
pendently of the LXX. 

There are, it is true, many parallels in the O.T. to the above 
clause in our text. Cf. Jer. xxvii. (1.) 8, aTraXAorptw^Te 
Ba/?vAaji/os . . . /cat ee A0ar : xxviii. (li.) 6, ^ev yere e/c /x-eVov B 
Aa>j/os, /cat dj/acrweT !/<aa-TOS r^v if/v^v avrov KCU pr) aTropK^re lv ry 
aSi/aaavrvJs : Isa. xlviii. 20, eeA#e e/c Ba/3vAujj/os : Hi. 1 1, aTroa-TT/re, 
a-n-oa-TrjTt, e^eA^are tKeWtv . . . e^eA^arc IK fjLtvov avTfjs : cf. also 
2 Ban ii. i, "Retire from this city " ; Matt. xxiv. 16, TOT ot / rfj 
Iov8aia ^evyerwo-av CTTI ra 0^77. The last quotation belongs to 
the Little Apocalypse, and refers, of course, to Jerusalem. 

aukKou wn ! j(n]T rats Tjp,apTi as : cf. Eph. v. li, py O-VVKOIV- 
wvctTe T. epyots . . . T. <TKOTOVS: i Tim. V. 22, /rtySe /coti/toi/et 
d/xaprtats dAAorpt ats. These words deal with the guilt of sharing 
in the sin of Rome, as the words that follow deal with the 
punishment that such guilt must entail. 

IK TWI> ir\T]Ywi CIUTTJS, "some of her plagues." 

5. eKo\\TJ0T]arai . . . axpi T. oupaj/ou. These words are, 
apparently, a reminiscence of Jer. li. 9, nBBB>D D DBTi ^ ])tt. 
If so, then fKoXXyjO-qa-av is simply to be rendered (as in the 
A.V. and R.V. and the Vulg., pervenerunt) "have reached." 
This rendering of yj^ is very rare, see Lam. ii. 2 and 
Zech. xiv. 5, ei/KoAA^TJo-erai $*&) <papay opecov ews Ia(ros, 
but the meaning belonging to this Hebrew verb is clearly 
the one required by our context. We might also compare with 
Our text I Esdr. Vlii. 72, ai Se ayvotat ^ucov VTreprjvtyKav cw? TOV 
ovpavov : cf. Ezra ix. 6 ; also 4 Ezra xi. 43, " Et ascendit con- 
tumelia tua ad altissimum et superbia tua ad fortem." If this 
VOL. n. 7 



98 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 5-6. 

rendering is right, then we are not to attempt to render 
KoXXrj6r)o-av KT\. as "have grown together into such a mass as to 
reach the heaven." It would be extraordinary if God was not 
mindful of the sins of Rome (5 b ) till they pressed in a mass 
against the roof of heaven. To such an extravagant conception 
the parallelism /ecu ejavTy/xoVevcrev 6 $eos TO, dSt/cT^uo/To. avrijs would 
form a singular anticlimax a piece of sheer bathos. Hence we 
infer that KoXXr)6r)o-av is here = iyjn, and that the rendering is 
independent of the LXX in Jer. li. (xxviii.) 9, r/yyt/cev ets ovpavov 
TO KpifjLa avrrjs. The rendering of the two Syriac Versions here 
is very infelicitous, i.e. "have cleaved to." This rendering of 
KoXXao-Oai is found once more in the Syriac Versions, namely, in 
Luke x. n, but there it is very felicitous. 

On the other hand, it must be conceded that KoXXao-Oai is the 
general rendering of pm in the LXX. If it presupposes this 
Hebrew word here, then our text is not a reminiscence of Jer. 
li. 9. But even so, the context is against the meaning belonging 
to p:n. Such a passage as i Bar. i. 20, tKoXXrjOr) ets ^/xas TO. 
Ka/ca Kal fj apa, does not support our text in the sense of " cleave 
unto." Even in this passage of Baruch tKoXXrjOr) probably pre 
supposes a corrupt Hebrew text. See Whitehouse in Charles, 
The Apoc. and Pseud, i. 578, and Kneucker in loc. The Syriac 
Version of Baruch = Karn ( = et pervenerunt), while the Greek = 
paini. Dan. ix. n, with which i Bar. i. i5~ii. 17 is closely 
related, supports the former. 

afi-rijs at dpapriai. On this vernacular use of the genitive of 
avros see notes on ii. 2, 19, and in vol. ii. 208, footnote. 
6 0os KT\. Cf. xvi. 19, BafivXw ^ 



6. In its present context this verse is to be taken as addressed 
to Nero redivivus and the hosts that followed him : cf. 
xvii. 11-17. But it is not to be forgotten that already Rome has 
for the most part been destroyed in xvi. 19 by a great earthquake, 
and its entire destruction by fire foretold in xvii. 16. The 
present chapter, taken by itself, shows no consciousness of the 
first of these judgments. But the destruction of Rome by fire is 
proclaimed in xviii. 8, 9, 15. Hence the description of the final 
overthrow of Rome in xviii. 21 must be taken as purely figurative. 

d-rroSore aurfj <&s ical aurt) dir&uicci KT\., i.e. deal out to her the 
same measure that she dealt to others. Cf. Jer. xxvii. (1.) 29, avra- 
TTOOOTC avrrj Kara ra tpya avrfjs Kara Travra ocra eTrot^crev Tror^o-are 
avrf) : 15. KOtKLTe ITT avrrjv Ka0u>s eTrotrycrev, Trot^crare avrr; : Ps. 
CXXXvi. 8, /xaKaptos 05 ayraTroSojo-et croi TO di/Ta7roSo/xa o-ov o avra- 
TreSw/cas rjfMv. On this principle of lex talionis see the notes in 
my edition of Jubilees on iv. 31, xlviii. 14. 

SiirXa : cf. Isa. xl. 2, toegaro CK ^etpos 



XVIII. 6-8.] COMMAND TO MINISTERS OF DOOM 99 

(WAS ra d/xapT^ara avr^s : Jer. xvi. 18, dvraTroSwo-w . 
oiTrAas ras /ca/ctas avrui/. oWAovv oWAa is an extraordinary ex 
pression. Cf. Aesch. Agamem. 537, oWAa 8 Wav Hpiaiu &u 
0a/xaprta. 

But in Aeschylus the oWAovs is used purely as an adjective 
whereas in our text it is a noun. For this use cf. Ex. xxii. 
3, 6, 8. In the first passage we have oWAa in the LXX 
(p*J0X in the second TO (?) SwrAow, and in the third o 
i.e. dtrorurci oWAovv TO> wA^o-i ov. Cf. also Zech. ix. 12, 



cV T irornpiu KT\. : cf. xiv. 8, xvii. 4. This cup is the cup 
of the wrath of God. Cf. 2 Bar. xiii. 8, in which the Romans 
also are addressed. 

" Ye who have drunken the strained wine 
Drink ye also of its dregs, 
The judgment of the Lofty One 
Who has no respect of persons." 

7. In this verse it is a question whether the speaker is a 
heavenly being or the Seer who wrote this vision. 

oaa . . . TOO-OUTOK The torment and grief (or " misfortune ") 
of Rome are to be proportionate to her self-glorification and 
wantonness. Cf. Isa. Hi. 16, 17,^ Ai/0 & v {,^0 W av al foyarepes 
^eiaji/ . . . KCU TaTreu/too-ei 6 0eos ap^ouVas dvyarcpas 2,cui>v : 
Prov. xxix. 23, vfipL<s avBpa raireivoi : Luke xiv. n etc. 
On the probability that ireV0os, which occurs twice in this verse, is 
to^be rendered "misfortune " or "calamity," or that it is a trans 
lation of a corrupt form in the Hebrew original, see note on ver. 8. 

on lv TTJ KapSia aOrTJs Xe yei . . . tSw. These lines repro 
duce freely Isa. xlvii. 7, 8, ... ni3J rrns 



But the 

LXX is not followed, which here gives eiTra^ EtsVov atwva lo-oyaat 
apxpvora . . . rj Acyovcro ei/ T^ KapSta avr^s . . . ov /ca0tw X >/pa o^Se 
yvwroiuu 6p<f>avciav. We should observe that for KaB^at we 
should expect Ka#tw (see note on Hi. 21) if this chapter were from 
the hand of our author. As a parallel to our text, the boast of 
Tyre in Ezek. xxviii. 2 should be compared and also the self- 
glorification attributed to Rome in 2 Bar. xii. 3. 

8. Because of (on . . . Sta TOVTO) Rome s pride and self- 
confidence she shall be overthrown suddenly. 

iv fua Tjfxe pa YJ|ou<ni>. Isa. xlvii. still influences our writer ; for 
these words are derived from the Massoretic ver. 9, where 
the LXX (B) renders ^ . . . rl o-e eV -H? <f>apfj.a.KLa o-ov. But XA 
etc. agree with Mass. It is noteworthy that et? is postpositive in 
ix. i2, 13, but prepositive in viii. 13, xvii. 12, 13, 17, xviii. 8, 10, 
1 6, 19, xix. 17. 



100 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 8-9. 

t Odvaros "a! ir^9os KCU XIJAOS t- We might compare vi. 8. 
It must be confessed that irV0os (" mourning ") cannot with any 
justice be reckoned under the category of plagues. But first of all 
the presence of Xt/xos suggests that Odvaros here as in vi. 8 and 
frequently in the O.T. = "ill, " pestilence." In that case the natural 
order would be Xi/xos K. Odvaros K. ircvOos. Now returning to 
irevOos, it is possible that it should be rendered here according to 
a rare meaning by " calamity," " misfortune " (cf. Pindar, Isth. 
vi. (vii.) 51, erXav Se TTCV^OS ov <j>ar6v : Herod, iii. 14). If so, we 
should translate "famine and pestilence and misfortune." But 
the error may be due to a corruption in the Semitic original. 
Thus 7reV0os = ^3K, corrupt for ion. If this is right, we obtain an 
excellent sense "famine and pestilence and destruction." 
The approach of the Parthians from the East under Nero would 
cut off food supplies from Rome and lead to famine, in the 
train of which pestilence would soon follow. The third plague 
would then prepare for the destruction of Rome by fire. Or, 
since the writer has, as has been shown on 7, borrowed 
freely from Isa. xlvii. 7, 8, it is possible that P3K ( = irwOos) 
may be a corruption of ^DK> in Isa. xlvii. 8 "famine and 
pestilence and loss of children." But the former restoration is 
to be preferred. 

iv irupl Ka,Taicau0T)(reTai. The judgment of Rome by fire, 
which according to xvii. 16 is to be executed by Nero and the 
Parthian kings, is here declared to come from God in the first 
instance. On the judgment by fire cf. Jer. 1. 32, li. 25, 30, 32, 

58. 

lax u pos s KpiVas auTYJi/. The translator of this 
chapter is fond of the word io-xv/oos = cf. 2, 10, 21. Outside 
this chapter it occurs only five times in the Apocalypse : cf. Jer. 
xxvii. (1.) 34, 6 /Wpov/^evos avrovs tempos . . . /cpio-tv /cpu/ei 
TT/DOS TOVS di/nSucovs avTov. This /c/oiVas points to the fact that the 
decree of judgment has already been passed on Rome. 

9-19. The dirge chanted over the conflagration of Rome by 
the kings, 9-10, by the merchant princes of the earth, 11-16, and 
the shipowners and sailors of the world, 17-19. The author is 
influenced by the doom song pronounced by Ezekiel over Tyre, 
Ezek. xxvi.-xxviii. 

9-10. Cf. Ezek. xxvi. 16-17, where the princes of the sea 
mourn over Tyre. 

/cXauaomu KCU K<5vJ/oKTat em aurfj : cf. 2 Sam. i. 12, e/coi/^ai/To 
. . feat KXavo-av . . . iiri Hence our text = " shall weep and 
mourn over" ( = ?y nBDM 13^1). See also n, 15, 19. 

ot fSao-iXels TTJS Y^l s: c ^ v ^ T 5 ( see note ) xvn - 2 > l8 > 
xviii. 3. These kings are the heads of the heathen nations. 
Foremost amongst them are princes subject to or in alliance with 



XVIII. 9-11.] DIRGE OF KINGS AND MERCHANTS IOI 

Rome ; for, as the next clause shows, they have been deeply 
affected by her influence. They are distinct from the Parthian 
kings who destroy Rome, xvii. 16. 

ol fxeT s auTT]S uop^ucrarres : cf. xvii. 2, xviii. 3. aTpirpidcrai/Tes. 
They too had lived wantonly like Rome : cf. 3. 

orav pX<hra>cni . . . CIUTTJS. This clause recurs in 18. 

TTJS irupwaews. The prophecy of Rome s destruction by fire is 
dwelt on again and again : cf. xvii. 16, xviii. 8, 18. 

10. diro (jiaKpoeey : cf. 15 (see note), 17 ; Matt. xxvi. 58; Mark 
v. 6, viii. 3, etc. 

Sta-rcV <|>6|3oM . . . auTT]?. This phrase recurs in 15. 

oual oual r\ iroXis KT\. This construction is not found in the 
N.T. except in Luke vi. 25** ; but it occurs frequently in the LXX : 
cf. Isa. v. 8, u, 20, 21, 22; Hab. ii. 6, 12, 19; Zeph. ii. 5; 
Amos v. 1 8, where the R.V. rightly renders : " woe unto." Hence 
the rendering here, as in these passages, should be, " Woe, woe 
to the great city." The construction suggests the writer s 
acquaintance with the LXX. Our author s construction is ovai 
with the dat. : cf. viii. 13. 

fua <3pa : cf. 8, 1 6, 19. 

11-16. The merchants of the earth take up their dirge over 
Rome. 

11. ol ejxiropot TTJS yr\s. 1 Ezek. xxvii. 12-24 the various 
nations that had commercial relations with Tyre are enumerated. 

KXaiouaiy KCU irei/Ooucni eir aurfj : cf. 9, 15, 19 ; Mark xvi. 10 ; 
Luke vi. 25; Jas. iv. 9. This combination is found in Neh. 
i. 4. 

yofju>v = ship s freight or cargo : cf. Acts xxi. 3. The vastness 
of the commerce of Rome may be inferred from the following 
passages, which are all taken from Wetstein ; Galen, De Antidot^ 

i. 4, ttV tV Pw/X-?/ KCITOIKW/J16V, tS ^V e| (XTraVTCOV TCOV IQvW KO.6* 

tKaa-Tov evtavrov eiKVOWTO.L 7ra/x7roAAa . . . ts ty TO. Travra^o^ev 
r;/< KaA.a Sta Trai/ros ITOVS : Pliny, H.N. vi. 26, " Minima computa- 
tione millies centena millia sestertium annis omnibus India et 
Seres peninsulaque ilia imperio nostro adimunt " : Aristides, In 
Rom., p. 200, ayerat Se e/c Traces y^9 KOLL 6a\a.TT7)<;, ocra topat (f>vov(ri, 
Kdl ^(oopat KaorTCU (frepovcri, KOL TrorayMot, Kal Xt/xvat, KOI r\vai 
EXX^vtov /cat /3ap/8aptov OJOTC et rts ravra, Travra eTrtSetr ySovXoiro, 
8et avrov 17 Tracrav etcreX^di/ra ryv oiKOv/xeVryv OVTOD Bedo-acrOai, r) V 
rfySe rrj TroXet yevo/xevov . . . rocravraL 8e d^)tKVo{5j/Tat 8ei)po KO/XI- 
irapa Travrwv oXKciSc?, ava. Trafrav /xcv wpav, Tracrav Se <j>6ivo- 
irc.iToTrr)V, wa"f cotxeVat rr)v TroXtv KOIVO) Ttvt r^5 y^5 
<j!>dprot)S /tev obr *Ii/8wv, ct jSov Xct 8e /cat TWV evSat/xdvwi/ 
TocrouTOV? opav etrrtV, OJO-TC etKa^etK yvttva TO XOITTOV rot? 
e/ct XeXctc/)^at ra SeVSpa. . . . Ecr^Tas 8 av Ba/?uXwvta9, /cat TOUS e*c 
/?ap/?apov 



IO2 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 11-13. 



vavTaA.au, yecopyiai, /xeraXXtov Ka#ap<ris, re^yai OTrocrai ewri 
T /cat ycya/ryi/rai, TrdVra o<ra yevvarai /cat <verat. o TI 8 av u/n 
tSoi TIS, ov/c CCTTC TOJ^ yevo/xei/wi/ 17 yiyi/o/xevwv. In the 



. 

Talmud, (?/</. 49 b , it is stated that " Ten measures of wealth 
came down into the world: Rome received nine, and all the 
world one." 

Since 23 cannot stand in its present context, it may 
originally have stood after i i a , and so this verse may have run 
as follows : 

n a "And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, 
23 e For thy merchants were the princes of the earth, 
i i b For no man buyeth their merchandise any more." 

12-13. These two verses give a list of the articles imported 
by Rome from all quarters of the world. Holtzmann has 
recognized that the first four articles mentioned (i.e. precious 
stones) harmonize rhythmically with the next four, consisting of 
costly garments. But further examination of the passage shows 
that it consists, according to the present text, of nine lines. That 
the first four of these consist of two couplets there can be no 
doubt, but great difficulty attaches to the method of dealing 
with the remaining five lines. If they are to be retained as 
they stand, it might be best to regard them as consisting of a 
tristich and a distich : 

" And cinnamon and spice and incense, 
And ointment and frankincense and wine, 
And oil and fine flour and wheat : 
And beasts and sheep [and horses 
And chariots and slaves] and souls of men." 

But it is probable that the words I have bracketed are an inter 
polation for (i) their syntax genitives where there ought to be 
accusatives is wholly anomalous. It is without a real parallel 
in the abnormal style of our author, and is still more at variance 
with the much more grammatical style of this chapter, which, as 
we have elsewhere seen, comes from an independent source. 
(2) The same ideas are repeated in immediate proximity under 
different forms; for "slaves" and "souls of men" are here 
synonymous. 

KTrjnr], as is shown in the notes on 13 = draught cattle, i.e. 
horses, asses, etc., and thus the mention of horses separately, as 
in the present text, is wholly gratuitous. Now, if we excise as a 
gloss, which has crept in from the margin, the words "and 
horses and chariots and slaves," we get rid of the anomalous 
syntax, and of the meaningless repetitions in the last line, and 



XVIII. 12-13.] DIRGE OF THE MERCHANTS 1 03 

recover the original text of 12-13, consisting of four stanzas of 
two lines each. The last stanza then would be : 

" And oil and fine flour and wheat, 
And beasts and sheep and souls of men." 

The dramatic forcibleness of what seems at first a purely prosaic 
list of imports is in the highest degree impressive, closing as it 
does in the climax 

" And beasts and sheep and souls of men." 

12. On the various articles mentioned in 12-13 the Bible 
Dictionaries should be consulted. Most of them are to be found 
in the imports of Tyre: Ezek. xxvii. 12-24, i.e. gold, silver, 
precious stones, fine linen, purple, brass, iron, all spices, oil, 
wheat, cattle, sheep, horses, and the souls of men. 

Puomi ou : cf. xix. 8. 

0-ipiKoG (so the uncials. The usual form is o-ypiKov). This 
word ( = "silk") is a O.TT. Aey. in Biblical Greek, but it was used 
frequently by Greek writers after Alexander s time. How 
commonly it was used in Rome about 70 A.D. may be inferred 
from the words of Josephus (BJ. vii. 5. 4), who describes the 
triumphant army of Vespasian and Titus as being clothed eV 



l TTO.V u\oc Qvivov. The construction here changes and 
v\ov is governed directly by dyopaet. This change may be due 
not to a slip on the part of the translator, but to a right rendering 
of his text. The ouSeis ayopd&t is to be taken closely with TTO.V 
v\ov ( = f*y~i?D . . . B^K n^P* 1 N^) = "no one buyeth any thyine 
wood." Hence KOL irav v\ov Owvov should be rendered "or 
any thyine wood " and not as in the A.V. and R. V. " and all 
thyine wood." Of course it is possible that the translator ought 
to have rendered Trai/ros vA.ov, but, so far as the Hebrew before 
him went, the ace. was not only a possible but probably the right 
rendering. 

Quivov. This wood most probably came from Thuia arti- 
culata, a tree which grew in N. Africa. It was known to the 
Greeks as Ova, 6vov, or 0w a, to the Romans as citrus. It was 
much used in the making of costly tables: cf. Martial, xiv. 87, 
" Mensa citrea." Seneca (quoted by Swete from Mayor on Juv. 
i. 137) had (according to Dio, Ixi. 10. 3) 300 such tables with 
ivory feet. 

l\$&vrivov. Ivory was largely used, as Swete states, by 
wealthy Romans in the decoration of furniture, quoting Juv. 
xi. 120 sqq. 

13. KiiWfjuojxoi . In the O.T. cinnamon appears thrice 
among aromatic spices. It is the Cassia lignea and was 



IO4 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIH. 13. 

imported, as it still is, from China. It was much used in Rome, 
as we can infer from Plautus, Propertius, Lucan, Martial. 

ajUKUjjioi . This perfumed unguent was derived from a shrub 
of Eastern origin (Virg. Eel. iv. 25, "Assyrium vulgo nascetur 
amomum"). It was well known at Rome: Mart. viii. 77: "Si 
sapis, Assyrio semper tibi crinis amomo splendeat " : Statius Silv. 
i. 1 13 : " Nee pingui crinem deducere amomo cessavit " (quoted by 
Wetstein). Theophrastus, ix. 7, is uncertain whether it was 
derived from Media or India. Pliny, H.N. xii. 28, mentions this 
costly unguent for the hair. 

See v. 8, XijSacos : cf. viii. 3. 
= r6b). This word, meaning fine flour, is not 
found elsewhere in the N.T. though frequent in the LXX. 
Pliny, H.N. xiii. 21, refers to it: "Similago ex tritico fit lauda- 
tissimo." 

alrov. Egypt was the granary of Rome. 

KT^TJ. This word generally means flocks and herds, but it 
can also mean draught cattle or beasts for riding : hence horses 
or asses: cf. Luke x. 34; Acts xxiii. 24. That JCTJ/POS could 
mean "a horse" is to be inferred also from Gen. viii. 19, where 
the Hebrew is 2>En, which clearly the Greek translators read 
as EOT ( = "horse"), and from Num. xvi. 32, where the trans 
lators again read Bbn instead of B*O"i ( = " substance "). From 
these facts we conclude that KTrjvrj means all kinds of cattle for 
draught or riding. Hence there is no real need for the word 
tTTTTwv which follows, as it is already included in KTIJV^. Horses 
are mentioned among the imports of Tyre in Ezek. xxvii. 13 sq. 

[ica! nnruK . . . O-WJJLCITUI .] I have already given in the 
introductory note on 12-13 the grounds on which these words 
are to be excised as an interpolation. The absolutely anomalous 
genitive here is, so far as I am aware, universally explained by 
inserting yo/xov before it. Thus Holtzmann and Bousset remark 
here that as in 12 the gen. passes over into the ace., so here the 
ace. returns again into the gen. But, as I have shown on 12, 
the ace. can not only be accounted for, but probably justified : 
whereas nothing can justify the present genitives between a series 
of accusatives preceding and an ace. following. They are there 
fore to be regarded as an interpolation. 

pe8oii>. The peS?/ came, according to Quintilian (i. 5. 5), from 
Gaul and was a vehicle with four wheels (Isid. Etym. xx. 12). 
Cicero used it, and apparently it became fashionable at Rome. 

o-cufxara. This word is used to translate nte EO ("souls") in 
the LXX of Gen. xxxvi. 6. It is also used elsewhere in the LXX 
in the sense of " slaves " : cf. Gen. xxxiv. 29 ; Tob. x. 1 1 (crto/zara 
/cat KTrjvrj) ; Bel 32 (Theod.), Svo (rto/tara KOU Svo 7rpof3ara : 2 Mace. 



XVIII. 13-17.] DIRGE OF THE SEAFOLK 105 

viii. ii. This non-Attic usage of the word arose apparently in 
Egypt, as the Papyri show, and later established itself in Greek 
generally. Hence a slave dealer is called a o-w/xare/xTropos and 
a slave house o-oottaTOTpo^eioi . 

tj/uxas di/0pw-ir<oi>. This phrase is borrowed from Ezek. 

XXVli. 13, OVTOt eVCTTOpeuOVTO (TOt > l^V^tttS dv^pWTTtoV (DTK E>D33). 

The phrase occurs also in i Chron. v. 21, but there it does not 
mean slaves as here. 

14. This verse, as Vitringa, and in modern times Ewald (2nd 
ed.), Volkmar, B. Weiss, and Moffatt have recognized, is here 
out of place. These scholars have restored it after 23 d , but the 
present writer is of opinion that it originally stood after 21, 
where he has restored it in this edition. 

15. This verse resumes the dirge of the merchants over 
Rome, from which the writer had turned aside to describe the 
nature and extent of their commerce with Rome. 

ol ejjLTTopoi roimoy i.e. the merchants who dealt in the 
merchandise mentioned in 12-13 : cf. 23. This phrase in itself, 
as B. Weiss observes, unconditionally excludes the presence of 
14 where it stands in the text. 

ol TrXouTYJaarres air aurfjs : cf. 3, 19. 

drro fxaxpoOeK oT^o-orrai : cf. 10, O.TTO /xaKpo$ev lo-ny/coVes : 17, 
aTTo /xaKpd$ev ecmfcrav. 

oia TO^ $6$ov TOU Paaai io-p.ou <XUTT)S. This phrase has already 
occurred in 10. 

cXaioi/Tes K. Trey0oui/Tes : cf. 9, 11, 19. 

16. On this construction of ouai see note on 10. TJ iroXis rj 
|xeya\T] : cf. 10, 19, xvii. 18. r\ irpi|3e|3XT](jLeV q irop^upoGy ical 
KOKKH/OJ/. Repeated from xvii. 4. Kexpuo-wfAeVt] XP 00 " 1 1 ? 
jxapyapiTT], Repeated from xvii. 4. jxia wpa Y)pT]fjL(u0Tj. Repeated 
in 19. A corresponding clause in the dirge of the kings is found 
in 10. 

17-19. Dirge of the seafolk. Cf. Ezek. xxvii. 28-29 on Tyre. 

17. KupepvrJTr]s. This word means "shipmaster" or captain 
as distinct from vawA^pos = "shipowner." In Acts xxvii. n we 
have rep K-vfitpv-firy Ka.1 TO> r/av/cA?jpa> = " the captain and the ship 
owner." Cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 807 B, vavras p,ev e/cXeyerat 
Kv/3epv^TT/5 /cat KV/BcpvrJTrjv vavK\r)po<s : Artemidorus, i. 37* PX t ^ 
. . . Trptopeoos 6 KvfifpvrjTrjs, KV/SfpvtJTOV 8c 6 vavK\r)po<s. The word 
Kv/ScpvrJTrjs is a rendering of Sah in Ezek. xxvii. 8, 27, 28, where 
it means "pilots." In Jon. i. 6 it means "a sailor," for the 
captain is called fahn in, or "chief of the sailors." 

6 em TOTTOI/ -rrXewi/ =" Every one that saileth any^ whither" 
(R.V.). Cf. Acts xxvii. 2, TrXelv et? TOVS Kara ryv Atrtav TOTTOVS. 
But the expression is a strange one, and there is much t,o be 
said for Nestle s (Textual Criticism of the N.T., p. 168) correction 



106 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 17-19. 



of TOTTOV into TTOTOV, i.e. TTovTov. At all events Primasius supports 
this emendation : " omnis super mare navigans." 

oaoi -rr]v OdXaao-aK Ipyd^ovTai, "gain their living by the sea" 
(R.V.), lit. " work the sea." This is good classical Greek. Thus 
Hesiod (Theog* 440) has ot yXavKyv Svo-Tre/A^eXof epyaovTcu : 
Dion. Hal. A. iii. 46, TYJV avrrjv eipya^ero . . . ^aAacrcrav : 
Appian, Pun., p. 2, ryv OdXaa-a-av . . . epyao/xevoi. For 
abundant illustrations of this idiom, see Wetstein in loc. What 
the Hebrew equivalent of the clause is is uncertain : possibly 
D a rrnK Dnnbn = " who trade on the sea " : cf. Gen. xxxiv. 10, 21, 
xlii. 34. The corresponding phrase epyaeo-#<u rrjv yfjv is also 
good Greek and likewise good Hebrew: cf. Gen. ii. 5, 15, iii. 23, 
iv. 2 ; but the verb used in this connection *Dy would not serve 
for the clause in our text. 

diro jjiaKpoOey eorrjo-ay. Cf. IO, 15. 

18. pXeiroi/TCS rbv Kcnrroi TTJS irupwaews auTi]g. This is the 
exact equivalent of the orav . . . avrr?9 clause in 9. 

18-19. The last clause of 18 and the first clause of 19 are 
dependent on Ezek. xxvii. 30-32. Thus TI S 6/Wa rfj TroXet rfj 
/xeyaX>7 recalls Ezekiel s words with regard to Tyre, xxvii. 32, 
"who is like unto Tyre?" Here "itea * is rendered in the 
LXX by TI S wo-Trep Tvpos; Next, Z/3a\oi> ^ow eTrt ras Ke^aAa? 
avraii/ is from xxvii. 30, "They shall cast up dust upon their 
heads " (Dn^KT^JJ "iay ty). Here the LXX presupposes quite 
a different and corrupt text (e7ri$^crowrij/ eirt rryv xe^aX^v aurau/ 
y^ Kat o-TToSoi/ o-rpajo-oi/rat). The same Hebrew clause is found 
in Josh. vii. 6 and Lam. ii. 10. In the former passage the LXX 
renders it almost as in our text. Even e/cpaav /cXatWrcs *at 
7rei/0owTes seems to be suggested by Ezek. xxvii. 30, 31, "they 
shall cry" (LXX KP<WT<H) . . . "they shall weep" (LXX 
A only /cXavo-ovrat). But the combination KXouovres /cai 
TTci/flowres has already occurred in the text in ii, 15. 

oua! TJ TroXis. See note on 10. 

ir\ouTT]o-af. Cf. 3, 15. 

f K TT]S TljUllOTTJTOS ttUTTJS OTt fUa Wptt ^pT]JJLW0T] f. The tCXt is 

here corrupt. This becomes apparent, if we compare the corre 
sponding clauses in the woes pronounced by the kings in 10, 
ort fjna Mpa r)\0v f) KptVts aov, and by the merchants in 16, on 
fjiia wpa rjprj/jiutOr) o TOO-OVTOS TrXovro?. These parallel clauses lead 
us to expect a definite subject to be added after r^p-rj^Or] in 19 
as there is after the verbs in 10, 16. Now we discover in the 
corrupt phrase CK T^? TI/XIOT^TOS avrvjs, the subject needed for 
rjprj/jiuOr), i.e. f) Tt/Atorr/s avTrjs. Thus the final clause of the text 
should run : ort /xta wpa ypy/jiwOr) -YJ ri/xtor^s avr?}?. Thus this 
clause is brought into line with the corresponding clauses in 10, 



XVIII. 19-21.] SEER S SONG OF DOOM IO7 

1 6, and the woe pronounced by the seafolk falls naturally into 
three lines as the woe of the kings in 10. 

" Woe, woe unto the great city, 

Wherein were made rich all that had their ships at sea ; 
For in one hour are her precious things laid waste." 

The corruption can be explained best through the Hebrew. 
The original = njin DP3 nnN njJBa "D. The corruption could 
have arisen through an accidental doubling of the D (hence 
Mino) and the subsequent transposition of mino before "D in 
order to give some intelligible sense to the passage. Hence 
DK>: nriK ny&JQ 13 nnnD the source of our corrupt text. 

21-24. This section, embracing as it does 14 and 20, 
consists of a song of doom preluded by a symbolic action, the 
original idea of which is derived from Jer. li. 63, 64. This 
dirge is not put in the mouth of some particular class. The 
speaker is the Seer who wrote the original oracle, which has 
been utilized here by our author. Some attempts here have 
been made to adapt it to its new context. Thus the insertion 
of the phrase /cat ot airovToXoi in 20 is due to our author, and 
most probably the last clause of 23 and the whole of 24. The 
penultimate clause of 23 is either a gloss or should probably be 
restored after the first clause in n. A line has probably been 
lost in 22. 

21. Kal rjpei> els ayyeXos iaxup<5 KT\. Here as in V. 2, x. I 
we have the phrase ayy. to-xvpos. The writer had Jer. li. 63, 64 
in his mind : "And it shall be, when thou hast made an end of 
reading this book, that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it 
into the midst of the Euphrates : and thou shalt say, Thus shall 
Babylon sink and shall not rise again." There may also be a 
reminiscence of Ezekiel s words with regard to Tyre, xxvi. 21. 
Cf. also Or. Sib. v. 158 sqq., on the destruction of Babylon by a 
great star. 

\i0oy (us puXifoi jAeyav. The particle d>s shows that it is not a 
millstone that is referred to here, but that what the Seer saw in 
the vision recalled the idea of such a stone. The stone was 
probably the juv Aos oi t/cos, seeing it is defined as //.eyas. To turn 
such a stone an ass was needed. 

OUTWS opfirjfxaTi f3\T]0rjaTai. It is not quite clear what 
opH.rma.Ti means here. It is rendered by Weizsacker and Svvete 
"with a rush": cf. Deut. (LXX) xxviii. 49; i Mace. vi. 33. 
This rendering is in keeping with the symbol of the boulder 
hurled down into the sea, but it is not in keeping with the thing 
symbolized the destruction of Rome by fire by Nero and the 
Parthians. The rendering of the A.V. and Holtzmann, " with 
violence," suits the figure, but how it can be justified is not clear. 



108 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 21-23 

Perhaps op^^a has here the meaning which belongs to it in the 
LXX in Hos. v. 10 (also in Symm.), Amos i. n, Hab. iii. 8, 
i.e. " indignation " = may. This would suit the attitude alike of 
heaven and the Parthian hosts towards Rome. But the matter 
is uncertain. 

^ fxeydXr] iroXis. The order of the words as regards this 
particular adjective is not that of our author (see note on xvi. i) 
nor of the rest of the source here used by him. 

ou pj eupeOfl en. Cf. Ezek. xxvi. 2 1 in reference to Tyre. 

14. This verse forms the opening stanza of the Seer s dirge 
over Rome. It consists of four stanzas of four lines each. These 
four stanzas are followed by two stanzas of three lines each. 
The text has suffered owing to one or perhaps two disturbing 
glosses and the loss of a line in the second stanza. 

6-n-upa ripe fruit. This word, like the Hebrew pp, means 
first late summer or autumn, and next the fruits that then ripen. 
Cf. Jer. xl. 10, 12. The phrase aou TTJS eTuOufiias TTJS tyu\f\s is a 
literal rendering of ?J^BJ INK (cf. Deut. xii. 15, 20, 21, xiv. 26, 
Hebrew and LXX). The unemphatic or vernacular use of crov 
here should be observed. That <rov is unemphatic is shown 
independently by its absence from the parallel verse. <rou 
follows i/or^s in the LXX. 

TO, Xiirapd. This phrase denotes the things that belong to a 
rich and sumptuous mode of life. Possibly food is specially 
referred to here. At all events Anrapos is, in the few cases 
where it occurs in the LXX, a rendering of JOB*, which primarily 
and generally means oil or fat. It is used in Ezek. xvi. 13, 
Prov. xxi. 17, as a sign of luxury, and refers undoubtedly to rich 
food. Cf. also Isa. xxx. 23. 

TCI XajAirpd. It is difficult to assign a definite meaning to 
this phrase. Probably it indicates the well-ordered magnificence 
in which the " pride of life " exhibits itself. Perhaps we might 
render " the splendours." 

KCU OUKCTI . . . euprjo-ouaiK. There can hardly be a doubt as 
to this clause being a gloss. Without it the stanza consists of 
four lines, as do the three succeeding stanzas. See Introd. to 
this Chap., 4. We should observe that our author uses ou ^ 
with the aorist subjunctive. 

22-23. These verses have suffered severely in the course 
of transmission. We have already seen that 20 (see p. 92) 
should be restored after 23 b . After a dirge of four stanzas of 
four lines each (=14, 22, 23 a d ) the Seer in the original source 
calls upon heaven and the saints on earth to rejoice over the 
doom of Rome. But this is not all. In 22 there has been 
a loss of some words, while in 23 there is an addition to the 



XVIII. 22.] SEER S SONG OF DOOM 109 

text which is not only meaningless but is also against the 
structure of the stanza. 

22. This verse consists of two stanzas of four lines each. 
But the second line of the first stanza and one of the words of 
the third line have been lost. These losses can, however, easily 
be restored. It is obvious, from a comparison of the remaining 
Stanzas, that <j>(Dvr] KiOapuSuv KOL /UOWIKWV Kat avXrjrwv Kal 
o-aA.7ricrra>v is too long: in fact these words are but the relics 
of three lines, and the whole stanza is to be read as follows : 



Ktt |AOU(7lK(i>l/ 

<ou /JIT] aKouaOfj iv aol en*> 
Ka!<4>a>i f) >au\T]Tu> Kal o-aXirioTwi 
ou \LT\ <XKOUcr0T) lv crol In. 

The omission may have been due to a lazy scribe, who failed 
to see that he was transcribing verse, and thought that the sense 
was not affected by his compression of the text. The student of 
MSS is not unacquainted with such arbitrary proceedings. 

4>wi>T] Kt0apw8u>K Kal f p>uaiKwi> f = " the voice of the harpers 
and singers." " The writer had Ezekiel s words against Tyre 
(xxvi. 13) in his mind: 

" I will cause the noise of the songs to cease 
And the sound of thy harps shall be no more heard." 

He adopted the words "shall be no more heard," and instead 
of speaking of "harps" changes this word into "harpers "and 
"songs" into "singers," though as we shall see presently the 
text used by the Greek translator may have been corrupt here. 
Thus the first two lines would be somewhat as follows : 



Tiy -p 

while the next two lines would speak similarly of the fluteplayers 
and trumpeters. 

But to return to /AOVO-IKWV, it will be seen that . have 
rendered it " singers " on the strength of the context (i.e. that we 
must here have a specific and not a generic term) and of Ezek. 
xxvi. 13 (quoted above). Now in classical Greek ^OUO-IKOS 
never appears to mean "a singer," nor in later Greek, unless 
it is a translation from the Hebrew It has been thought 
by some scholars that in i Mace. ix. 39, 41, 6 vv^io^ 
e}X0ev Kat ol </>i Xoi avrov . . . /xera Tv/xirai/wv Kal /XOVOTIK^ Kat 

07rA.O)V TTOXAWV . . . Kttt ^T(TTpa</)7/ . . . ^0)V^/ /XOUO-IKWV O.VTUV 

efe Opnvov, the word /XOVO-IKWV may mean " singers " ; but the fact 
that it stands between rv/xTravwv and oTrXtuv does not favour this 



110 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 22-23. 



view. Cf. Gen. xxxi. 27, /xera fiovo-t/caii/ ( = D t ") <1 ^) /cat 
In i Esdr. iv. 63 the meaning is uncertain : e/ca>0am ofTo 
fjLova-LKuv ( = "songs" or "musical instruments") /cat 
But cf. v. 2, 59, Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15, where it = "musical 
instruments," or " music." However, if it be conceded that 
the word in some of these passages means "singers," then 
this otherwise unattested meaning, appearing as it does in 
translations from the Hebrew, is in some way due to the 
Hebrew text. Only in one case does //,ov<rt/cos appear as 
= "a singer," in a passage which none of the commentators 
has noticed, i.e. T. Jud. xxiii. 2, TOLS ^vyarcpas tyxW p,ovcrt/cas 
/cat Sry/xoo-tas Trot^crere. Here the Greek is a translation 
from the Hebrew, and even here the rendering "minstrels" 
would accord better alike with the context and the etymology 
than "singers." 1 In other passages in the LXX /xoucrt/ca = 
"songs." Cf. Gen. xxxi. 27; Ezek. xxvi. 13; Sir. xxii. 6, xxxv. 
3, 5, 6, xliv. 5, xlix. i. From this examination of the word it 
follows that /AoucriKon/ means either "song" or "music," but never 
save in T. Jud. xxiii. 2 does it mean " singer " or rather " minstrel." 
And yet our text makes the meaning of "singers" indispensable. 
Hence we conclude either that /JLOVO-LK^V here = " singers," 
a meaning difficult to justify, or that it is an error due to a 
corruption in the source. That is, /xovcrt/ctui/ = D^TE*, corrupt for 
DV-|J = singers." The rendering "minstrels" (R.V.) is here 
inadmissible; for we cannot have a generic term such as 
" minstrel " occurring in the midst of a list of specific terms. 

au\T)Twk. The fluteplayer (tibicen) was in much request on 
the Roman stage, and at Roman festivities as well as at funerals. 

o-aXmcrrwy. The trumpeter (tubicen) had his part in the 
Roman games, in the theatre and at funerals. 

22 e h -23. The order of these verses seems to be wrong. We 
should expect that the dirge, having begun with the luxuries of 
life and dwelt on their being brought to an end, would proceed 
in due gradation to the destruction of the barest necessities of 
life. And this expectation is confirmed by Jer. xxv. 10, which 
the Seer had in his mind : " I will take from them the voice of 
mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom 
and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones and the 
light of the candle." If this view is right, as the present writer 
believes, we should rearrange as follows : 

23 cd . And the voice of the bridegroom and the bride 
Shall be heard no more in thee : 



1 Observe that in Eccles. ii. 8 nnBh ant? is rendered by the LXX 
/cat adovffas, and not by /AOVGIKOUS /cat /uowt/cas, which would mean "male 
and female minstrels." 



XVIII. 22-23, 20.] SEER S SONG OF DOOM 1 1 1 

22 e h . And no craftsman of whatsoever craft 
Shall be found any more in thee. 

And the voice of the millstone 

Shall be heard no more in thee : 
23 ab . And the light of the lamp 

Shall shine no more in thee. 

Thus the rejoicings attendant on marriage would no more be 
known ; the arts of civilized life would come to an end ; the 
familiar sounds of the household mill to be heard in every 
hamlet would be no more heard, and the light of every lamp 
would be extinguished. It will be observed that by this 
rearrangement our text reproduces the order in Jer. xxv. 10. 

23 cd . (Jxoi T] >u|jL<f>u>u K<X! fujj,<J>T]s. See the quotation from 
Jer. xxv. 10 given above. Cf. also vii. 34, xvi. 9, xxxiii. n. 

22 e h . Tex^TTjs KT\. This line would embrace skilled workers 
in every kind of material. 

(fxoi/T) jxu Xou ( = DTn ^>ip, Jer. xxv. 10). It will be observed 
that for <ow7 /xvXov the LXX reads ooyx^i/ pvpov, presupposing 

m in P. 

23 ab . $ws Xu x^ou ( = "0 liS, Jer. xxv. 10). At this stage the 
Seer is not thinking of the brilliant lights and torches borne by 
slaves as they escorted the wealthy Romans to their homes, but 
simply anticipating the hour when all lights even the meanest 
will be extinguished for ever. 

20. Restored to its rightful place at the close of the writer s 
dirge over Rome, this appeal to heaven and the saints to rejoice 
Over its destruction is most appropriate, and forms a fitting 
introduction to xix., which contains the heavenly response, 
whereas this apostrophe, standing as it does in the MSS, comes 
in most awkwardly between two descriptive passages as Moffatt 
has already recognized. The whole verse is to be ascribed to 
John : Moffatt assigns it to the hand of a Christian editor. 

There are, it is true, some difficulties in the style. Thus from 
xi. 1 8, xviii. 24, we should expect ol Trpo<f>f)Tai . . . KCU ot aytot. 
But the fuller phrase here, ot aytoi K. ot aurocrroXoi K. ol Trpo^rjrai, 
may account for the difference of order. Again, Kpi^a. seems here 
to have the sense of lawsuit or case a meaning not found else 
where incur author: cf. xvii. i, xix. 2, where it = sentence, judg 
ment. But even here it can bear the latter meaning : " God hath 
judged your judgment (i.e. the judgment due to you) upon her." 
On the other hand, ev^patVeo-^at belongs to the diction of our 
author: cf. xii. 12, and the use of the singular ovpavos is char 
acteristically that of John. Hence 20 is from the hand of 
John : likewise 23^24. 



112 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVIII. 20, 24. 

This call of the Seer to heaven and its inhabitants to rejoice 
over the accomplished doom of Rome is formed of two tristichs : 
20, 23^24. 

eu<f>pcuVou. Modelled apparently on Jer. li. 48 (bna ^y 133-11 

BO, which is not found in the LXX. 

ol ayioi KCH ol dirooroXoi Kdl ot Trpo<J>f]Tai : cf. xvi. 6. These 
must be the blessed in heaven martyrs, apostles, and prophets : 
cf. xii. 12, where those addressed are the angelic hosts. 

eKpivev TO K P i>a upwv l auTf) s = "hath judged your case 
against her" (lit. "at her cost"). This phrase is found in 
Lam. in. 59, "DQipp nen "judge Thou my cause." With the 
idiom e avrfc cf. Ps. cxix. 84 (LXX), but here the present 
Hebrew text has a and not |p. Or, as is suggested above, 
Kpi/Aa e avr^s may here be taken in the sense of judgment. 
e avTrjs is probably to be taken as the equivalent of PTPp : 
cf. xix. 2 ; 2 Kings ix. 7. 

23 e . [on ot ejxiropoi 0*00 TJCT<H> ot fxeyicrrdi es rrjs Y^S-] This 
line, which is based on Isa. xxiii. 8, pjr^nro . . . Dnb mnb 
where the LXX has 01 e/A7ropoi avr^s . . . ap^oj/res T^S yng. But 
in its present context there is no place for this line, being against 
the parallelism. It is also meaningless. There is no ground for 
saying that God destroyed Rome because its merchants were the 
great ones of the earth. The real reason is given by the next 
OTL clause. It is possible that this line may be a fragmentary 
survival of the original ending of the source used by our author. 
Perhaps it should be read immediately after the first clause in 1 1 j 
" and the merchants of the earth for thy merchants were the 
princes of the earth weep," etc. This would be analogous to 
the descriptive clause added in 9 after the phrase "the kings of 
the earth." 

23 f -24. This stanza, consisting of three lines, gives the grounds 
for the destruction of Rome : her leading astray of the nations 
by her sorcery, and her bloodguiltiness in respect of the prophets 
and saints and of all the righteous, who had been slain by her 
throughout the world. 

23 f . on eV TT) <f>appiiaa f crou f eirXa^Q^oiv Trarra TCI 10^ : 
cf. 3 a . The a-ov is here corrupt for avr^?. The corruption can 
be explained by the dislocation of the text and the influence of 
the preceding occurrences of the second personal pronoun. i v TTJ 
<f>app.aia a KT\. Cf. Nah. iii. 4, where Nineveh is called "the 
mistress of witchcrafts (fjyovfievrj ^ap/xa/cwi/), that selleth nations 
through her whoredoms and families through her witchcrafts." 
Cf. also Isa. xlvii. 12, where analogous charges are brought 
against Babylon. 

24. While there is some doubt as to the provenance of 23*" 



XIX. 1.] ITS IMPORT 1 1 3 

(i.e. the first line of the closing stanza), there can be none as to 
that of the last two lines. The Trpo^rai K al ayioi are the Chris 
tian prophets and saints, and the subject of the last line is the 
universal martyrdom of the Christians apprehended by our author 
and regarded as accomplished at the close of xiii. 

l dyiW. See note on xvi. 6, xviii. 20. 



atjict irpcxfnrjTwi KT\. : cf. Ezek. xxiv. 6, w TroAt? at/xarwv : Jer. li. 
(LXX, xxviii.) 35, TO at/xa JJLOV CTTI rous Karoi/cowras XaA.5at ous, cpet 
Icpovo-aXrjp. In Matt. xxii. 35 a like charge is brought against 
Jerusalem : OTTWS <t\0r) e< v^ta-j irav cufJLa SLKCUOV CKxyvvofJitvov CTTI 
T^S y^s. The Seer here is not thinking only of the martyrs 
under the Neronian persecution, nor yet of such as had already 
fallen under Domitian (see list of passages referring to this 
persecution in Lightfoot, Ep. Clem. i. 104-115) at the time of 
writing; he is rather from the standpoint of the Seer looking 
back on the universal martyrdom of the Christian Church as a 
fact already accomplished. The diction used TTOVTUV rw 
eo-<ay^eVu)i/ eVt rrjs yr)<> shows that it is of the martyrs that our 
author is thinking ; for cr<aw has this connotation in our author s 
language: cf. y. 6, 9, 12, vi. 9, xiii. 8. xiii. 3 is no exception, 
for the Beast is therein caricaturing the Lamb. On the other 
hand, in vi. 4 o-<a<o is used in a more special sense. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

i. Its Import. 

No real difficulty emerges in this chapter either as regards its 
authorship or its relation to the chapters that precede and follow 
it. There can be no question as to the Johannine authorship of 
xix. i-8 a , 9% 1 1-2 1 from the standpoint of its style and diction 
( 2), and there can be no doubt as to the relevancy and indis- 
pensableness of its subject-matter ( 4). Alike from its form 
and substance it receives unequivocal attestation. 

The chapter opens with the response (1-3) that the heavenly 
hosts make to the appeal of the Seerm xviii. 20, who thunder forth 
as with the mighty voice of a great multitude their exultation 
over the destruction of the Harlot City and God s avenging of 
the saints which she had slain. The theme is taken up afresh 
by the Elders and the Living Creatures and by the angel of the 
altar of incense, 4, xvi. 5 b ~7. The echoes of the closing words 
of this anthem have hardly ceased to reverberate, when at the 
summons of a voice from the throne (5) the glorified host of 
martyrs burst forth with, as it were, the voice of many waters and 
the voice of mighty thunderings into glad thanksgivings (6-7), 

VOL. II. 8 



114 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 1-2. 

for that now at length the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth upon 
the earth and the advent of the kingdom of Christ is at hand. 
Thus, whereas the angels rejoice over the vindication of divine 
justice, the martyred host rejoice in that the kingdom of Christ is 
at hand with fresh stores of mercy and salvation for the sons of 
men (cf. xv. 4). 

At this stage we should have expected a vision bearing on the 
destruction of the Parthian kings, mention of which was made 
proleptically in xvii. 14 (see 4 ad fin.} ; but this vision may have 
been displaced by the interpolation 9 b -io (see 2). 1 

Now that the Harlot City (and the Parthian kings) have 
been destroyed, there remains only the execution of judgment on 
the kings of the earth who had shared in the spiritual fornication 
and abominations of Rome (11-21). These are slain with the 
sword that proceeded out of the mouth of the Word of God, and 
the Beast and the False Prophet that deceived them were cast 
into the lake of fire. 

2. The Diction and Idiom. 

There can be no doubt whatever that xix. i-S a , 11-21 comes 
from the hand of our author. Alike (a) the diction and (b) the 
idioms are his, as is shown fully in the notes on the various verses, 
but it will not be unhelpful to show in the case of a few verses 
how intimately every verse is bound up with what precedes. 

(a) Diction. 1. fAera raura TJKOUO-CI. Frequent in our author. 

ws <t>wvY]i/ fAeyciXtji : cf. i. 15, vi. i, 6, ix. 9, etc. /xe yas is the 
adjective generally connected with <f>wij : see xvi. i, note. 

oxXou iroXXou . . . XeYorrcoy : cf. vii. 9. o;(A.os 7roA/us . . . 
eo-rwres. Observe the same construction KO.TO. <rvvt<riv. tj oxurrjpia 
KCU TJ 86a Kal TJ 8uVa|Ai9 TOU 0eou Tju.uy : cf. iv. IT, v. 12, vii. 10, 
xii. TO. 

2. dXT)0ipat Kal SiKaiai at Kpurcis aurou : cf. xv. 3. 

on eKpivei/ TYJI> tr6pvr]v TT}\> peyaX-qv : cf. xvii. i; also 5, 16. 
TJTIS e<}>0eipei/ TTJV yrjif : cf. xi. 18. iv rfj -rrop^eia aurrjs : cf. xiv. 8, 
xvii. 2, xviii. 3. e^cSi iajaei TO atjxa . . . eK : cf. vi. 10. 

3. Kal 6 Kairc6s aurrjs dmJ3aiVei icrX. : cf. xiv. n (xviii. 9, 18). 

4. eirecray ot irpeajSuTepoi ol CIK. Tecraapes : cf. iv. 10, v. 8, xi. 16. 
cireo-ai ot irpeapurepoi . . . Kal irpooreKunrjaai : cf. xi. 1 6. T. Ka0T)p,Vw 
eirt T. 0p6i/w : see note on iv. 2. 

XVI. 5 b -7. See notes on p. 120 sqq. 

XIX. 5. 4>a>i/T) diro TOU 0po^ou efjX0ei> : cf. xvi. 17 for the 
more usual order, ot SoGXot auTou . . . /xeyaXot: almost a verbal 
reproduction of xi. 18, though with a limitation of meaning. 

1 8 b is a gloss and 9 b -io an interpolation (see notes in loc.), which may 
have displaced a vision of the destruction of the Parthian kings and their hosts 
by the Lamb and the glorified martyrs. See 4, ad fa 



mem. 



xix. 2.] DICTION AND IDIOM 

6. d>s <f>o)i T]y oxXou iroXXoG i see note on i. w 

cf. i. 15, xiv. 2. us $<avty pporrwi : cf. vi. i. e|3ao-i- 
xupiog 6 0eos, o iravTOKpaTwp : cf. xi. 17, ev^apio-rovfjiev (rot, 
6 #cos, 6 TravTOKpaTwp . . . on . . . e/3ao-A.euaas. 

7. 8u<ro/xef TYjy 86av : see note on xi. 13. r\\Qev 6 ydfxos : cf. 
xi. 1 8 for same use of verb. ^Toijj,a<rei> ia.uTf\v : cf. xxi. 2, ^TOI- 

wq vu/x^iyv, also ix. 7, 15, xvi. 12. 

8. TTepij3dXr)T(u piWiFop : cf. for construction vii. 9, 13, x. i. 
9 b -10. See notes / /<?r. 

11. TUOTOS K. dXTjOt^os : cf. xxii. 6. iroXefxel : only used out 
side our author once in the N.T., whereas he uses it six times. 

12. ot 8e 6<f>6aXjj.ol aurou a>s <{>X6 irupos : repeated from i. 14 : 
cX^f . . . auros a gloss, though the diction is Johannine. 

14. TO, arpaTeufxaTa : cf. ix. 16. eVSeSujAeyoi jSuacrii/OK : J cf. i. 13, 
xv. 6. 

15. 6* TOU orofACtTos eKiTopeueTat pojjL<j)aia o^eia : cf. 21, i. 16, 
ii. 12. Troijjiai>i aurou9 CK pd(38u> aiSrjpa : cf. ii. 27, xii. 5. irarei 
T. Xrji oi TOU olVou T. Oufxou KrX. : cf. xiv. 19-20, r. Xyvov r. Ovpov 
r. 6eov . . . KOI eTrarrjOr] 17 XT/VOS. 

16. paatXeus jSaaiXewv icrX. : cf. xvii. 14. 

17. eVpa^cy cj)W^T] jJieydXTf] : see note on xiv. 15. TrerofxeVois 
Iv jULeoroupa^jULaTi : cf. viii. 13, xiv. 6. 

18. x t ^ lt *PX a)l/ : c ^- v *- T 5- eXeuBepwi . . . fxeyaXwi/ : cf. xiii. 16. 

19. T. JSacriXeig T. y^js : cf. vi. 15 (xvi. 14), xxi. 24. owT)YJJ.eVa 
iroiTJaat T. iroXejjtoi jxerci : cf. xvi. 14, 16, xx. 8. 

20. 6 \|/euSoTrpo<J>YJTT]s : cf. xvi. 13, xx. 10. 6 iroitiaas ra 
o-Tjfxeia : cf. xiii. 13, 14. eirXd^aej icrX. : cf. xiii. 14, xx. 3, etc. 
XajSorras T. \dpay pa. r. 0T]pi ou : cf. xiv. ii, xx. 4 (xvi. 2, note). 
irpoo-Kuyourras T. eiKoi/a : cf. xiii. 14, xiv. 9; see note on vii. 11. 
e|3Xrj0T]o-a/ . . . ets T. Xifxnrjj T. irupos . . . Oeiw : cf. XX. IO, xxi. 8. 

21. TT) pop4)aia . . . e^eXfloucn] IK T. o-rojaaros aurou : see on 

15- 

(<) Idiom. There are no idoms against our author s usage, 
while those that follow are characteristic of him. 

1. o>s $wf\v : cf. passim. oxXou . . . Xeyorraw : cf. vii. 9. 

2. TJTIS = ^ in 2 : cf. i. 12, xii. 13, xvii. 12. e^eStiojo-ey TO atjjia 
. . . EK : cf. vi. 10. 

1 fivffffivov is used as a noun only once in the LXX in the sing. , Dan. x. 5 ; 
in the plural in the LXX in Dan. x. 5 b , xii. 6, 7 ; Isa. iii. 23 : but in our 
author only in sing. ; cf. xix. 8 ab , 14, xviii. 12, 16. This use of adjectives 
as nouns in the sing, is characteristic of the writer of xviii. Thus he uses 
fitiffcrLvov as a noun in 12, 16, irop<pvpovv as a noun in 1 6, and in xvii. 4 
which is from the same source, whereas the Fourth Gospel uses it as an 
adj. (cf. xix. 2, 5), K&KKIVOV as a noun (rare except in plural) in 12, 16 and 
in xvii. 4, but as an adj. in xvii. 3. I do not know of any other instances of 
irop<pvpovi> as a noun. <ripiKov in 12 ; here only in Biblical Greek, though used 
by Plutarch, Strabo, etc. 



Il6 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 2-4. 

4. Trpoo-eKuVYjo-ai TW 0ew : see note on vii. n. 

TW Ka0Y)fJLei/w eirl TW 0p6fw : See note On iv. 2. ot fUKpol Kal 
ot [AeydXoi : cf. xi. 18. 

5. aii/eiT TW 0ew : a Hebraism ; see note in loc. 

6. ws $uvr\v ox\ou . . . \ey6vrav : see note on i. 
8. I860T] auTTJ iW : cf. ix. 5. 

11. 6 Ka0^jjLvo9 eir auToV : see note on iv. 2. 

12. eirl T. Ke4>a\T]i/ aurou : cf. x. i, xiv. 14 (see Introd. to 
xiv. 3). 

13. TTepi{3e{3Xt]fAeVos a participle used as a finite verb : see 
note on iv. 7, vol. i. p. 104. 

14. CIUTW e<|> ITTTTOIS. The dat. after rt here seems due to 
aura) : cf. our author s usage where KaOy/jievov is followed by gen. 
in 18, 19, 21, and where /ca^/xeVw is followed by dat: iv. 9, 
v. 13, vii. 10, etc. 

15. irotjjiai ei : here used as equivalent to " will break " : see 
note on ii. 27. 

16. cirl Toy jj,T]poi> . . . yeypajjLfjLev Oj : cf. iii. 12, ypai^cu ITT 
O.VTOV TO ovo/xa. 

18. KaOrjjxeVwi/ eir auTwy : cf. 19, 2i : see note on iv. 2. 
20. irpoffKuj/ourras T. eiicofa : see note on vii. 11. 

3. xix. Q b -io an Interpolation. 
See note in loc. 

4. The Structure of the Book requires xix. 1-4, xvt. 5*-/, 
xix. 5-8, p a , 1 1 -2 1. 

xix. 1-4, xvi. 5 b -7, xix. 5-8 is the heavenly response to the 
Seer s appeal in xviii. 20. 9* contains the fourth of the seven 
beatitudes. The contents of xix. 11-21, which have already 
been proleptically described in xiv. 14, 18-20, xvi. 14, 16, are 
here seen in their due chronological connection, as the necessary 
prelude to xx.-xxii. The kings of the earth, who had shared in 
the idolatries and abominations of Rome, here meet with just 
doom, while the Beast and the False Prophet are cast down into 
the lake of fire. Only one more event must intervene before the 
advent of the heavenly Jerusalem, and this the chaining of 
Satan is witnessed in xx. 1-3. 

There appears, however, to be a lacuna in this chapter. 
Where the interpolation (9 b -io) stands we should expect a 
vision relating to the destruction of the Parthian kings. In xviii. 
we have the vision of the destruction of the Harlot City which 
had in an earlier chapter been spoken of proleptically as though 
already accomplished: cf. xiv. 8. In xix. 11-21 we have a 
vision of the destruction of the kings of the earth and the final 



XIX. 4-5.] OUR AUTHOR S METHOD 

doom of the Beast and the False Prophet in their due chrono 
logical sequence, save in one respect, and this is, that after the 
destruction of Rome and before the destruction of the kings of 
the earth there ought to be a vision of the destruction of the 
Parthian kings a destruction that has already been referred to 
proleptically in xvii. 14 (see 12-13, 17, 16, 14). A short vision 
to this effect may have been displaced by the interpolation xix. 
9 b -io. 

5. The Method of our author elsewhere in this Book is 
observed here. 

In xix. 1-8 our author pursues the method already familiar 
to us in preceding chapters, in accordance with which over 
against a vision of the tribulation of the faithful is set one of 
their deliverance and triumph, or over against a vision of coming 
judgment on the enemies of Christ is set one of the ultimate 
blessedness of the redeemed. 

Thus xix. 1-4, xvi. 5 b -7, xix. 5-8, which sets forth the joy 
of the angels on the dooms just executed on Rome and the joy 
of the glorified martyrs on the impending advent of the kingdom, 
is not only a heavenly response to the appeal of the Seer in 
xviii. 20, but the counterpart we expect of the dread judgments 
culminating in xvii. -xviii. With this notable contrast we might 
compare earlier analogous contrasts on this Book. Thus xv. 
2-3, which comes in reality immediately after xiii. (since xiv. is 
entirely proleptic), brings out the glaring contrast between the 
universal martyrdom of the faithful in xiii. and the blessed 
inheritance on which they entered forthwith in heaven itself. 
Also in xiv. 1-5 we have a parallel to xv. 2-3 in contrast to xiii., 
where the visions were of such a nature as to daunt the faith- 
fullest heart, as they foretold the destruction of all God s 
servants. In like manner xi. 14-18 comes in as a contrast to 
the tribulations depicted in xi. 1-13 and the still darker visions 
that follow in xii.-xiii., claiming as it does that already, however 
great may appear the triumph of the Antichrist, it is but a pass 
ing one, and that the issues of the strife are already made known 
to the hosts of heaven. Once more, after the account of the 
Seals is placed the vision of the great multitude in heaven, vii. 
9-17. 

On every ground, therefore, whether we regard the diction, 
the idioms, the due development of events in the Book, or the 
method pursued in this chapter, we conclude that it is the 
undoubted product of his pen. 

1-8. Thanksgivings in heaven. The closing appeal in xviii. 
20 to heaven to rejoice in that God had judged the great Harlot 



Il8 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 1. 

City is answered by an exultant anthem voiced by a great 
multitude of angels (1-3) which is closed by the four and twenty 
Elders and the Cherubim with the response, " Amen, alleluia " 
(4-5). They had already voiced their thanksgivings in two 
anthems on the same subjects in xi. 15-18. Hence here they 
simply give utterance to their approval of the theme of the 
angels song. And whereas a voice from earth summoned the 
heavenly hosts to the duty of thanksgiving in that the doom of 
the Harlot City is already accomplished in 1-5, now in 6-8 a 
voice from the throne summons the glorified martyrs in heaven 
to the glad service of thanksgiving, whereupon there arose as it 
were the voice of a great multitude and of many waters and of 
mighty thunderings proclaiming that the Lord God Omnipotent 
had become King, and that the advent of the heavenly Jerusalem 
was at hand. It is fitting that the last song in the Apocalypse 
should come from the lips of the martyrs. 

1. The thanksgiving in this verse has been explained by some 
interpreters as coming from the glorified martyrs, as in xii. 10-12 ; 
but the context and our author s usage is against this interpreta 
tion. The context is against it ; for the faithful, who appear to 
embrace only the glorified martyrs, do not offer their thanks 
giving till 6-8. Further, our author s usage is against it. In 
such a series of thanksgivings those of the angels could not be 
omitted, and, if the alleluia in i is ascribed to the glorified 
martyrs, then we have such an omission, while in 6-8 there 
would then be a duplication of the praises of the martyrs. 
Furthermore (see notes on iv. 4, v. n), if any reference to the 
angels thanksgiving is made in our text, it must come in i ; for 
the mention of the Elders and the Living Creatures (and in this 
order) in 4 shows that the Seer is beginning his description with 
the outer ranks of the heavenly beings and proceeding inwards 
towards the throne. Thus, as in vii. n, we have first angels, 
then the Elders, then the Living Creatures. 

If the same order were observed as in vii. 9-11, we should 
have 6-8 before 1-5 : in other words, the thanksgivings of men, 
then of angels, then of the Elders, and finally of the Living 
Creatures. But the order is otherwise here, and the change is 
instructive. Whereas in an earlier chapter, vi. 10, the cry of the 
faithful was for vengeance on their persecutors, here (cf. xv. 4) 
their sole theme of thanksgiving is that now at last " the Lord 
God Omnipotent reigneth," and that " the marriage of the Lamb 
is come." This prepares the reader for what is to follow in the 
speedy removal (in xix. 11-21) of all that prevents the advent of 
the heavenly Jerusalem. Hence 6-8 comes rightly at the close 
of 1-5. On the other hand, it is noteworthy that in 1-5 the 
theme of the angels song is one of profound thanksgiving for 



XIX. 1-2.] THANKSGIVING IN HEAVEN 119 

God s righteous judgment of Rome and His avenging of the 
blood of the martyrs. This thanksgiving follows naturally and 
immediately in response to the appeal in xviii. 20. 

cos (fxokYji/ jAeydX-r] v. With cos (f>a>vyv cf. i. 15 (v. Il), vi. I, 6, 
ix. 9, xiv. 2, xix. 6. ^ydXrj is the usual adjective our author 
connects with (fxarrf (see xvi. i, note). With oxAov TroAAov, cf. 
vii. 9. Xeyorrwf. A construction Kara avvcanv with oxAov 
exactly as we find it in vii. 9 oxAos . . . co-To/res. AXXrjXouid. 
As this word is a transliteration of HTOn, the rj, where we 
should have e, is strange. The same irregularity is to be found 
in TeO<rr)fjLavci, which according to Dalman (Gram. p. 152, note 3), 
Delitzsch, and others is derived from *3D2> D3. This translitera 
tion came into use before the Christian era amongst Hellenistic 
Jews, as Svvete remarks, since it is found in 3 Mace. vii. 13 ; Tob. 
xiii. 18. In the LXX it is found frequently at the beginning 
and end of certain Pss. : see Svvete, Intr. to O.T. in Greek, 
p. 250. 

T) o-wTTjpia Kal rj 86a Kal T) SUHXJAIS TOU Oeou r^am In xii. 10 
we find f) o-oiTrjpia and rj Swapis conjoined, and in iv. n, vii. 12, 
rj Soa and rj Suva/us (also in v. 12, but in the reverse order) : in 
vii. 10, 17 o-uT-fjpLa alone. This construction rj cram/pta . . . TOV 
Otov rifiStv has already occurred in xii. 10, the more usual being 
that which is found in i. 6 (auT<3 17 8oa), vii. 10. 

2. dXyjOiyal Kal SiKaiai at Kpicreis auToG. This clause has, il 
we have concluded rightly, been reproduced in xvi. 7, which 
belongs to a dislocated passage, i.e. xvi. 5-7. A distant parallel 
occurs in xv. 3, Si/caiai Kal dA^u/al at 68ot o~ov. These words 
define the reason for this hymn of praise the righteousness of 
God s judgments as exemplified in the destruction of the Harlot 
City. 

OTI tKpivev TTJI/ iropyrji/ T?]v ^ya\i}v. This clause is a justifica 
tion of the preceding OTI clause. It recalls xvii. i, TO Kpt/xa T^S 
TT?S fjLt-ydXrjs. On IK/HVCV cf. xviii. 8, 20, and on TTJS 
T. fJLeydXrjs cf. xvii. I, 5 5 T 5 l ^ 

TJTIS e <J>6eipek TTJI yrji : cf. xi. 1 8, Sia<$etpai rov<s Sta^^etpovras 
rrjv yfjv, and the note thereon. The pronoun TJTLS appears here 
to be simply the equivalent of rj. It definitely determines who 
the Harlot is. For this usage of OO-TIS see note on xi. 8. iv TT) 
iropi eta auTTJs- This is the first charge brought against Rome. 
It has corrupted the whole earth, cf. xiv. 8, xvii. 2, xviii. 3. The 
second charge is that stated in the words eleouojo-ei TO atjxa -r&v 
SouXcuf KTX. These words recall the complaint of the martyrs in 
vi. 10, ov . . . CKStKets TO at/xa ^/uov CK TWV KOLTOLKOVVTUV lirl T?;S 
7975, and now recognize the consummation of divine justice : cf. 
xi. 18. The idiom itself is found in 2 Kings ix. 7, 
TO, ai/xaTa TCUV SowAwv [iov . . . e/c 



I2O THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 2-4. 

Cf. also Deut. xxxii. 43. TW^ Sou Xwy aujoG recalls xviii. 24 the 
prophets and saints. 

3. KCU Seu repoy el pYjKaj . "And a second time they say." 
The second utterance or antistrophe from the lips of the same 
multitude consists not only of the word dXA-iyXovta, but also of 
the words that follow KOL 6 /ca?rvos . . . atcoi/wv. These words 
correspond to the tetrastich that follows the first aXXrjXovid in 

1-2. 

KCU 6 icawos aurfjs KT\. This clause recalls xviii. 8 (ev irvpl 
KaraKavOrjo-eTai) and xviii. 9, 18 (rov KO.TTVOV TT}S TTV/OOJCTCWS 
avnjg). Cf. also xiv. II, KOL 6 KttTrvos TOV )3a<rai>ioyxou avraiv et9 
atwi/as atujvcov ava/3aivfi. The /cat is not to be taken here as a 
mere conjunction. We can only secure the right meaning of 
the clause that follows if *cat is taken as a Hebraism : i.e. 
" Hallelujah ; for the smoke thereof goeth up for ever and ever." 
This clause therefore is a circumstantial clause introduced by 
Kat ( = 1) and gives a statement of the concomitant conditions, 
which justify the action denoted by the principal verb (iT ttn). 
See Oxford Hebrew Diet. p. 253. 

els TOUS alums Twy aiajyuy. This expression is equivalent here 
to 1000 years. For, since the advent of the Millennial Kingdom 
is already at hand, and since the earth is to be destroyed at its 
close, it follows that even the smoking ruins of Rome will cease 
to exist at that date. Contrast this meaning with that which it 
bears in xxii. 5, where it denotes eternity. 

4. Now that the angelic hosts have sung their two paeans of 
triumph, the Elders and the Living Creatures too take their 
share in the praises of heaven with the words, A/xvJv, AAAiyXovia, 
followed by xvi. 5 b ~7, which belongs here. 

In iv. 8, n, xi. 15-18 the Cherubim and the Elders offer 
their praises independently; in v. 9 together, as in the verse 
before us; in v. 14 the Cherubim pronounce the "amen" at 
the close of the doxology of all creation. In the present text 
both orders unite together (as in v. 9) in singing the antistrophe 
(consisting like the strophe i b -2 of two stanzas of three lines 
each), 3, xvi. 5 b ~7. 

7rpoo-icui T]<Taj TW 0ew. Our author uses the dative when 
speaking of the highest form of worship : see note on vii. n. TW 
Ka0. eirl TO 0p6kw also a characteristic usage of our author : see 
note on iv. 2. 

Ap]i>, <xX\Y)\ouict. These words form the close of Ps. cvi. 48, 
fip^bn IE>S, where they are rendered in the LXX by yeVotro, 
yeVoiro. Cf. also Neh. v. 13. 

XVI. 5 b -7. These verses, which in the MSS follow after 
xvi. 5% do not belong to xvi., but have in this edition been 
restored to their original context after xix. 4. Either what 



XVI. 5-7.] XVI. 5 b -7 RESTORED HERE 121 

originally followed was lost (cf. loss in xvi. 10), or else it was 
deliberately removed by the Johannine editor and these verses 
substituted in their stead. 

(1) The first ground for regarding these verses as an inter 
polation in their present context is that they limit the incidence 
of the Third Plague and probably that of the Second to the 
adherents of the Roman Empire. But, if the Second and Third 
Plagues are studied apart from these verses, the fact that their 
incidence is universal for sea and land cannot be questioned 
any more than that of the Fourth Plague, the Sixth, and the 
Seventh. We have already seen that the First also affects all the 
earth. Hence all the Bowls are universal in their incidence save 
the Fifth, just as all the Seals are likewise universal save the 
Fifth. 

(2) The main point of these verses was not understood by 
the Johannine editor. Rightly understood they mean : God is 
righteous, inasmuch as He has made those who shed the blood of 
the prophets and saints to shed each other s blood (at/xa cdrrot? 
Se Sw/cas TTctv, xvi. 6 b ) and stirred up the kings of the East against 
the great Harlot City Rome to destroy it, and eat her flesh 
(TOLS o-apKas avTrjs ^ayovrai, xvii. 1 6). Now this judgment of 
Rome is not referred to till we come to the vision in xvii. 
12-13, 17, 16: hence xvi. 5 b -y cannot rightly occur till after 
xvii., nor in fact till after xviii., which describes the destruction 
of Rome. 

(3) Since xvi. 5 b -y does not belong to xvi. and cannot justly 
be used till after xviii., we have two further points to determine : 
i.e. (a) Are these verses from our author ; and, if so, (b) what was 
their original context? 

(a) The passage is genuine. In xvi. 5 on o <m/ KOL 6 rjv cf. 
xi. 17 (n.) : on ocrios as applied to God cf. xv. 4, cm /xoVos oo-ios: 
on ravra e/cptvas cf. vi. IO, xix. 2. 6. On at/xa aycW K. Trpoc/^rtov 
cf. xi. 1 8, xviii. 24, xix. 2 : on aioi eiViv cf. iii. 4 and xiv. 5 for 
exactly the same asyndetic construction. 7. On Kvpit 6 0eo?, 
6 TravTOKpaTwp cf. i. 8, iv. 8, xi. 17, xv. 3, xix. 6, xxi. 22. Here 
we should observe that the divine title in 5 and this title in 7 
are already conjoined in xi. 17 : on aXiqOival K. Si/ccucu at K/ato-as 
orov cf. xix. 2 where the words recur exactly as here ; also in xv. 3 
(in reverse order). 

Thus the passage is undoubtedly Johannine. 

(b) All the evidence is in favour of restoring it immediately 
after aXXyXovid in xix. 4. Thus we have : first two stanzas of 
three lines each, xix. i b -2, followed by one of two in xix. 3, and 
parallel with these two other stanzas of three lines each in 
xix. 4, xvi. 5 b -6 followed by another of two in xvi. 7 bc . The 
structure is thus perfectly symmetrical. 



122 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XVI. 5-7. 

The Song of the Angels. 

XIX. l b . AXXTjXouid- 

H (rwTTjpia Kal r\ 86a Kal q Sumfjus TOU 0eou 



2. "On d\Yj6ikal Kal SiKaiai at Kpureis auroG* 

On tKpivev rr^v Tropvqv TT\V jmeydXif] y, 
"HTIS etyOeipey TTJJ/ yfjc ey rfj iropi/eia aurrjs, 
Kal ee6iKT)aev TO aifxa TW^ SouXwv auroG CK 
aurfjs. 

3. Kal Seurepo* eipTjKay 

c A\\T]Xouid 
Kal 6 Kaircos aurr]s a^ajSai^ei 15 TOU? aiwi as TW 



The Song of the Elders and the Cherubim. 

4 C . Ajj.rji , dXXY]Xouid* 
XVI. 5 1 . AiKaios et, 6 wi Kal 6 T^, 
"Oaios OTL raura 



6. "On atfxa dytwi Kal irpo<J>T]Toi>i 
Kal aljj.a aurois 8e 8a>Kas 



7. Kal T]KOuaa roG 0uoriao-TT]piou 
Nai, Kupie, 6 0eos 6 

l Kal BiKaiai at Kpiaeis crou. 



At first sight it might appear an objection that this doxology 
is addressed directly to God, whereas the doxology in xix. i b -2 
is not so directed, but God is spoken of in the third person. 
But this objection is groundless ; for in iv. 8 the doxology speaks 
of God in the third person, whereas that which follows in iv. 1 1 
is addressed directly to God. The same change of persons is 
found in the two thanksgivings in connection with the Lamb in 
v. 9-10 and v. 12. Here also the Elders and the Cherubim 
join together, as in v. 9, in this great anthem of praise. Again 
it is noteworthy that the doxologies of the twenty-four Elders are 
always elsewhere in our author (cf. iv. n, v. 9, xi. 17) addressed 
directly to God, just as they are above in xix. 4, xvi. 5 b -6. 
Thus what at first sight appears to be an objection turns out to 
be evidence in favour of the above restoration. 

(4) The reader will recognize at a glance the similarity of 
construction between the doxology in xix. 1-2 and that of the 
Elders and Living Creatures in xix. 4, xvi. 5 b -6, both of which 
consist of two stanzas of three lines each, and that in each case 



XVI. 6-7.] SONG OF ELDERS AND CHERUBIM 123 

these stanzas are followed by one of two lines. They both also 
deal with the same subject thanksgiving over the fall of Rome. 

XVI. 5 b . 6 uv Kai 6 YJV. See note on i. 4. 

oaios. Cf. xv. 5. So the best authorities: "holy" in 
apposition to SIKCUOS. If with NP we read 6 o<nos the phrase is 
to be taken as a vocative, "Thou Holy One." It represents 
God as faithful in His relation to men. See Trench (Synon* 
p. 316) on the relation of SI KCUOS and oo-tos in Classical Greek. 
On this attribute of God cf. i Enoch i. 2, 3, x. i, xiv. i, xxv. 3, 
xxxvii. 2, cxxxiv. i, xcii. 2, xciii. n, xcviii. 6, civ. 9. 

6. cujm . . . t^- xeav . Cf. Ps. Ixxix. 3. 

dyiW Kai irpo<j>Y]Tw . We should expect the reverse order : 
cf. xviii. 24, xxii. 9. 

atfxa auTois SeSuKas irel^. This expression has a technical sense 
in the O.T. and later books. Thus in Isa. xlix. 26 we have = " I 
will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh, and they 
shall be drunken with their own blood." In that time " no man 
spareth his own brother " (Isa. ix. 19). This is the so-called Period 
of the Sword : cf. Ezek. xxxviii. 21, " I will call for a sword against 
him . . . every man s sword shall be against his brother " ; Hag. 
ii. 22, "I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms . . . every 
one by the sword of his brother"; Zech. xiv, 13; i Enoch 
xxxviii. 5, xcviii. i2,xcix. 4, 6; Jub. xxiii. 19; 2 Bar. xlviii. 32, 
Ixx. 6-7 ; Mark xiii. 8. Thus the meaning of the clause in our text 
is that God would cause internecine war to arise amongst the 
Antichristian nations, i.e. between Rome and the nations of the 
East ; for the latter, as the Seer has already testified in xvii. 12- 
13, 17, 1 6, would invade the West and destroy Rome. But the 
Johannine editor was wholly ignorant of the force of these words 
and took them in a literal and material sense : As Rome had shed 
the blood of the saints, so it should drink actual blood ! whereas 
they mean that the doom pronounced by God on those who had 
martyred the prophets and the saints would be that they should 
fall by each other s hands, and thus they should eat each other s 
flesh (xvii. 16) and drink each other s blood (xvi. 6). We should 
observe that the two ideas in Isa. xlix. 26 are thus adopted by our 
author. TTZLV = Trieu/ : cf. Blass, Gram. 23. 

atoi eio-iv. Contrast the use of this phrase in iii. 4, and for 
the absence of the copula xiv. 5. 

7. T]icouo-a TOU Ouaiacmjpiou Xe yonros. This clause must be 
taken in connection with the statements made in reference to this 
altar, i.e. the altar of incense in the preceding chapters. In 
vi. 10 the souls of the martyrs are represented as beneath this 
altar, and from thence their prayers go forth to God. In 
viii. 3-4 the prayers of all the saints that are still upon earth are 
offered up upon it. In ix. 13 this altar first appears in con- 



124 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 5. 

nection with judgment, where it is conceived as initiating the 
second Woe by ordering the four angels of punishment to be 
let loose. In xiv. 18, which represents a period chronologically 
later, i.e. when the roll of the martyrs is complete, an angel goes 
forth from this altar and delivers to the Son of Man the divine 
command to undertake the judgment of the earth. In the 
present passage the altar confirms the doxologies just uttered 
(vai), and declares that in the destruction of Rome the truth and 
righteousness of God are vindicated. Thus at last the prayers of 
the martyrs and of the saints are fulfilled. 

XIX. 5. <f>o>yY) d-rro TOU Qpovov. This voice directed to God s 
servants in heaven (i.e. the martyrs) seems to be that of one of 
the Cherubim or of the Elders, and not of an angel, since the two 
first orders were the nearest to the throne. In no case should 
the voice be ascribed to Christ, as in that case we should have 
not T(3 0e<3 vjpwv in the words that follow, but rc3 0ec3 uov, as in 
iii. 12. 



aimre TW 0ew -f^w (-WlW ^n). alvelv takes the ace. 
elsewhere in the N.T. and all but universally in the LXX. In the 
half-dozen or more of cases where alvelv takes the dative in the 
LXX, we can explain it in i Chron. xvi. 36, xxiii. 5, 2 Chron. xx. 
19 as a reproduction of the Hebrew idiom mn^ ^n or mrr!> rmn. 
Still more remarkable is the careful following of the text in Ezra 
iii. lo, where alvclv takes the ace. as M>n does in the Hebrew, and 



, 

in iii n, where alvelv TW jcvptip is a rendering of nirT^ fen. In 
2 Chron. v. 13, alvelv TW K. is a translation of "^ rmn ; also in 
yii. 3. Hence it is not improbable that this Hebrew idiom was 
in the mind of our author when he wrote, alvdre r<3 flew 
The dative is also found in Pss. Sol. v. i, alvc<n> r 



o-i"Te . . . irarres 01 SouXoi aurou, KCU ot ^ojSou fiej ot aMv, ot 
picpol Kal ol^eydXot. Cf xi. 18, rots SouAois vov KCLI rov? 
^o^ou/xeVov? TO WO/AOL a-ov, TOVS fUKpovs Kal Tors /xeyaAous. First 
of all, our text is influenced by Ps. cxxxv. i, m,T nay . . . m&n 
(LXX, aiVetre . . . BOV\OL Kvptoi/), and 20, miT ^T 1 (LXX, oi 
tfrofiovptvoi TOV Kvpiov). In the usage of our author the phrase 
SovAot (rov 6cov) represents the most notable servants of God 
the Christian prophets (cf. i. i, x. 7, xi. 18, xxii. 6) and martyrs 
(cf. vii. 3, xix. 2), and the servants of God generally in ii. 20, 
xxii. 3. The context therefore must decide its special signifi 
cance in each case. 

We have next to discover who these servants of God are. 
They can hardly be said to compose the Church universal ; for 
(i) the presupposition of xviii. 20, tv<f>paivov . . . ovpave, is that 
only those who are in heaven should take part in the thanks 
givings over the fall of Rome. (2) The words, further, 



XIX. 5-6.] RESPONSE OF THE MARTYRS 125 

TOV Opovov, have the same implication. They are addressed to 
those in heaven. If the voice were addressed to those on earth 
we shall expect </>(o^ IK TOV ovpavov: cf. x. 4, 8, xi. 12, xiv. 2, 13, 
xviii. 4. In xxi. 3 God tabernacles with men = hence this phrase 
has not the same significance there that it has in the earlier 
chapters. (3) We have found that all the faithful had been 
removed from the earth after chap. xiii. 

Thus since the divine command is issued only to the servants 
(SovAoi) of God in heaven, these can only be the glorified martyrs, 
who have already been described as "a mighty multitude which 
no man could number" in vii. 9. The martyrs have already 
been so designated in vii. 3, xix. 2. It is used elsewhere also of 
the Christian prophets, and also of God s servants generally (see 
above). 

So much then appears clear. The anthems of thanksgiving 
in xix. 1-8 are sung only by those actually in heaven angels 
and glorified martyrs. We have now to deal with the further 
description of the latter, which is given in the next line. 

KCU oi 4>oj3oujm6yoi auToc, ot jjuKpot KCU ot [xeyaXoi. If we 
accept the /cat (with AQ min omn vg. syr. 1 2 Prim.) we must render 
it as " even " ; for there is no question here of two distinct 
classes of the faithful in heaven : there are only the martyrs. 
The martyrs are described here as ot SovAoi avrov, as in the angels 
song in 2. This being so, the phrase /ecu ot ^opov^voL avrov is 
not a strong one as descriptive of the martyrs. KOL ot <(>o(3. avroV 
. . . /teyaAot appears to be derived from Ps. cxiv. 13 (cxiii. 21) 
originally. The phrase ot <o/3ov//,evot TO 6Vo/m o-ov bears another 
meaning in xi. 18. There the whole body of the faithful are 
referred to; xi. i8 d g refers to the events subsequent to the final 
judgment, and to all the orders of the faithful who then enter 
into the everlasting Kingdom of God. Hence KCU ot <j>o(3ov- 
fjicvoi TO oi/0/u.a o-ov denotes a class of the faithful quite distinct 
from the other classes there enumerated. But in the present 
context only one class is mentioned, i.e. that of the martyrs. 

6. Response of the martyr host to the divine command. 

o>s (jx^V OX^ QU ToXXoG. See note on ver. i. <J>s 4>w^^ 
u8cvrwi> iroXXwc: cf. i. 15, xiv. 2. 6s fywty ppovr&v urxupwy : 
cf. vi. i (x. 3). Xeyorro)^. This is the best attested reading 
(AP and many cursives). Presumably our author took it in 
immediate connection with ftpovrwv. Cf. like irregularities in 
iv. I, cfrwvr) . . . Aeycoi/ : in ix. 13, (fxavrjv . . . Ae yovTa. AeyovTts 
(Q and many cursives) is, though parallels in our author s use 
(cf. v. n, xiv. 6-7) could be adduced, probably a correction. 

on J3acriXeu<7ei . . . \aipu^.ev K<U aYaXXtajjuick. For the same 
connection of ideas cf. Ps. xcvii. i pn !>jn ^0 nyr (xcvi. i, 

6 KV/XOS e/Jao-t Acvo-ev, ayaAAiao-CTai 17 yrj). With cySao-tAevo-cv : cf. 



126 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 6-7. 

xi. 15, 17. With the destruction of Rome the reign of God is 
established on earth. Cf. Pss. Sol. ii. 34, 36, v. 21, 22, xvii. 
J ) 4j 38, 51, where the like thought of the kingship of God 
prevails. This is the second great stage in the destruction of 
evil in the universe. The first was achieved when Satan was 
cast down from heaven (chap. xii.). 

icupios 6 0eos 6 TrarroKparup. A favourite designation of God 
in our author. Cf. i. 8, iv. 8, xi. 17, xv. 3, xvi. 7, xxi. 22. 
Against (A i, 49, 95 al. me. arm.) other authorities add rj^v 
after 6e6s owing to the influence of i, 5. But this is against the 
usage of our author in this phrase, and the context itself is 
against its insertion. When 6 ira.vroKp6.rwp does not immediately 
follow, as in iv. n, we have 6 KI /KOS KOL 6 0eos rj^v, where Dr. 
D Arcy suggests there may be a reference to the blasphemous 
title assumed by Domitian, " Dominus et Deus nosier." 

7. xaipw^v KCU dYaXXiojjjLev. For the same combination cf. 
Matt. v. 12, xaipere Kat dyaAAiao-0e. dyaAAiav is found in the 
N.T. only here and in Luke i. 47. Elsewhere in the N.T. and 
in the LXX the middle form is used. The classical form is 

dyoAAo/xai. 

ri]v 86ai/. See note on xi. 13. 

6 yiljjios TOU dpyiou. rjXOev is used proleptically in xi. 
1 8, but not to the same extent here; for Rome is already 
overthrown : the impenitent nations, the Beast and the False 
Prophet are on the eve of being cast into the lake of fire, the 
Millennial Kingdom on the eve of being set up, and the heavenly 
Jerusalem the bride of coming down from heaven. In fact, 
rjXOcv refers here to the time just preceding the advent of the 
Millennial Kingdom, whereas in xi. 18 to the period that follows 
on its close. Cf. xiv. 7, 15, where it also occurs. 

6 yctfAos T ou dp/iou. As God in the O.T. is the Bridegroom 
of Israel (cf. Hos. ii. 16 ; Isa. liv. 6 ; Ezek. xvi. 7 sq.), in the N.T. 
this symbolism is transferred to Christ and the Church, which 
in our author is symbolized by the heavenly and the New 
Jerusalem: cf. xxi. 9-10, xxii. 17, xxi. 2. This figure of 
marriage denotes the intimate and indissoluble communion of 
Christ with the community, which He has purchased with His 
own blood (v. 6, 9, vii. 17, xiv. i). This communion is reached 
first in its fulness by the martyrs, who reign with Christ for 
1000 years in the Holy City, which comes down from heaven, 
and are yet in a mysterious way identified with the Holy City 
xxi. 9, xxii. 17, i.e. the Church, the Bride of Christ. The 
Gentiles converted during these 1000 years belong also to the 
Church. When the New (KCIIVTJ) Jerusalem descends in xxi. 2 
after the final judgment and the creation of a new heaven and a 
new earth, // has become a symbol for the Church Universal. 



XIX. 7-8. J MARRIAGE FEAST OF THE LAMB 12; 

It is worth observing that the heavenly (or New?) Jerusalem 
is symbolized by a woman in 4 Ezra ix. 38 sqq., x. 25-50. 

But to return to the term yd/zos, we meet with the above 
symbolism in other parts of the N.T. Thus the marriage feast 
(yd/xoi) is made by the king for His Son in Matt. xxii. 2 sqq. ; 
the bride chamber is mentioned Matt. xxii. 10 (w^w), and the 
wedding garment (ei/%/,0. yd/xov), xxii. n ; the sons of the bride- 
chamber, Mark ii. 19; the bridegroom (n^<ios), Mark ii. 19, 
Matt. xxv. i ; and his friends (John iii. 29) and the bride (vv^rj) 
in Matt. xxv. i (D). In 2 Cor. xi. 2 the same symbolism occurs, 
fjp/jiocrdfjirjv yap t^xas wl di/8pi TrapOevov dyi/rji/ Trapacrn/o-ai ra3 
Xpicrrw : Eph. V. 25, 32, otavSpes, dyaTrare ras yvi/at/ca?, /ca$ajs KOI 
-Tos qyaTnyo-ei TTJV lKK\r](riav ... TO yu,ucrT7Jpioi/ TOVTO /xe ya 
eyw Se Aeyto ets Xptorrov KCU ets T?/I/ CKK\T]<Tia.v. 
yui/f) a" 5 - Here 17 yvnj is used as equivalent to rj ^^vrj- 
= nfenfcp), as in Deut. xxii. 23 ; Matt. i. 20. In xxi. 9 
of our text the rr/v ywauca appears to be a gloss. 

TjToifj.ao-ei lauTrji - A favourite word in our author (ix. 7, 15, 
xii. 6, xvi. 12, xxi. 2 (viii. 6)). Only the destruction of the Anti- 
christian kings and nations, the casting of the Beast and the 
False Prophet into the lake of fire (xix. 11-21), and the chaining 
of Satan in the abyss (xx. 1-3), must intervene before the actual 
bridal, before the full spiritual communion of Christ and His 
Church is accomplished in the descent of the Holy City in 
xxi. 9 sqq. 

8. Kal I860T] aurfj IVa Trept(3dXir]Tai j3uo-orii/oj = " And it had been 
given unto her that she should array herself in fine linen." 
This privilege was already accorded to the martyr Church in 
vi. II. Trept^dXXecr^at /2v<r(ni/oi/, i//,dna, <rroA.as are favourite 
expressions in our author: cf. iii. 18, vii. 9, 13,^ x. i, xviii. 16, 
etc. Our author uses also the phrase evSveo-^at pvo-crwov : cf. 14, 
XV. 6 (?). In the words So0T7 avrfj tva 7repi(3d\rjTaL KT\., and in 
the preceding clause rjroLfjiaa-ev eavTrjv, we have presented God s 
part and man s part in the work of redemption: cf.^Phil. ii. 
12-13, T V * av v (J-wrrjptav KaTepydeo-$e, #cos yap eartv 6 evepyoiv 
w V/MV Kal TO O\CLV Kal TO evcpyetv. The words /cat c$66r) . . . 
Ka.6a.pov could be taken as part of the martyrs song. But both 
the context and the parallelism are in favour of regarding them 
as a remark of the Seer. 

fiuaaivov : cf. 14, xviii. 12. Here used as a noun, as m 
Dan. (LXX) x. 5. On the meaning of this "fine linen" see 
note on iii. 5, vi. ii, vol. i. p. 184 sq. 

Xafjur P 6i> Ka0a P 6^: cf. xv. 6. The vesture of the saints 
stands out in strong contrast with that of the Harlot in XVH. 4, 
xviii. 1 6. ,,.,.. 

[TO yap $UVVIVQV Ta SiKaiwfJiaTa r&v ayluv eaTiy.J This IS 



128 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 8-10. 

regarded by some scholars as the close of the anthem : if so, it 
is a prosaic one. Of course it might be urged that it does not 
come from the heavenly choir, but is an explanation of the Seer 
himself, as the preceding clause itself appears to be. But this 
can hardly be maintained. As we have seen in the note on 
xiv. 13, the righteous acts (so St/catco/mra : cf. xv. 4 ; Rom. v. 18 ; 
i Bar. ii. 19) of the saints are regarded by our author as the 
manifestation of the inner life and as practically identical with 
character the character a man takes with him when he leaves 
this life. Neither his righteous acts nor his character are to be 
regarded as the garment of the soul of the martyrs ; for, though 
they had already this character they are described as without 
such garments for a time, even in heaven: see vi. n. As a 
fitting clothing of the souls of the martyrs, God assigns them 
spiritual bodies, vi. 1 1 (see note), which in iii. 5 (see note) and 
here are described as white garments or shining pure garments. 
The individuals also who compose the Church or Bride at this 
period are the martyrs. If this view is right, then 8 b is a gloss. 
In a limited sense it is a correct gloss, since the spiritual bodies 
will be in keeping with the character or righteous acts of the 
saints. 

Alford regards the entire verse as an explanation of the Seer. 
But the objections to 8 b hold nevertheless. 

9 b -10. This passage, which is in part a doublet of xxii. 8-9 
but rewritten and given quite a different meaning, is bracketed 
as an interpolation. 

1. The clause OVTOI ol Xoyot ol oX^Oivol rov Oeov flaw (9) is 
rather inept here, seeing that the words referred to are the 
triumphant songs of the angels and martyrs in heaven. In xxii. 6, 
on the other hand, they are full of significance, coming in as 
they do at the close of the Book and giving it a solemn attesta 
tion. In xxi. 5 the authenticity of the phrase can hardly be 
maintained. 

2. xix. 10 is in part a doublet of xxii. 8-9. This fact in 
itself is only of importance when combined with others. 

3. xix. 10 is rewritten from xxii. 8-9 by the editor and given 
a less general meaning. In xxii. 8-9 the angel is a fellow- 
servant of the prophets and of all Christians. In xix. 10 he is a 
fellow-servant only of the prophets and those endowed with the 
prophetic spirit. 

4. If xix. 10 were original, the action of the Seer in xxii. 8-9, 
in again prostrating himself before the angel, would be incom 
prehensible. But if xix. 10 is an interpolation, then xxii. 8-9 is 
intelligible and in its right context at the close of the Book. 

5. Trpoa-Kwrjo-aL aural (10) is not used elsewhere in our author 
of simple homage or even of a Oprjo-KeCa, TWV dyyeAwv (Col. ii. 18), 



XIX. 9.] THE SUPPER OF THE LAMB 129 

but only of divine worship (see note on vii. n). We should, if 
this phrase were from our author s hand, have Trpoa-Kvvfjaai avrov. 
In xxii. 8 no such breach of our author s usage is committed. 

The above difficulties are against the direct authorship of the 
Seer. The most natural hypothesis as to their insertion here is 
that they were inserted by the disciple who edited the whole 
work, who, though he repeats some clauses from John s own 
hand, supplements them with others from his own. This hypo 
thesis would explain the misuse of the phrase -rrpoo-Kwvjo-ai avrw 
in this context, and the addition of the final clause fj yap paprvpia. 
Ir)<rov earn? TO Tn/cv/xa rfjs Trpo^retas. For this clause gives the 
preceding one, r&v i^ovr^v rty /xaprvptW I?7croC, a new meaning. 
In itself the latter means the whole body of believers generally, 
but when the last clause of 10 is added it means the limited 
body of Christian prophets. By this gloss the exact parallelism 
of xix. 9-10 with xxii. 8-9 is destroyed, for there the angel 
represents himself as the servant of the prophets and the whole 
Christian community. 

9 a . KCU Xeyei jxoi rpdvj/oi/ MctKapioi ol eis TO Seiirvoi TOU vciuou 

TOU Ctpl lOU K6K\T]JJ,eyOl. 

This beatitude is the fourth of our author s seven beatitudes. 
But there is a difficulty in Ke/cX^/xeVoi ; for throughout the 
Millennial Reign all men alike are "called" to share in the 
kingdom: cf. xiv. 7, xv. 4, xxii. 17. There is no blessedness 
in being called (cf. Luke xiv. 24, ovSeis . . . r. Ke/cXry/xo/wv 
yevo-cTai /xou rov SeiWov), unless a man accepts the call and is 
found faithful is " chosen " CKXCKTOS and found faithful WIO-TOS 
(cf. xvii. 14). The words of our Lord can hardly have been 
unknown to our Seer ; TroXXot yap cunv jcXiyroi, oXtyot 8e e/cXeKTot 
(Matt. xx. 1 6, xxii. 14). But jccjeAq/AcVoc has not this technical 
meaning here, but simply that of " invited." Here, as in Matt. 
xxii. 2 sq., the guests and the Bride are one and the same. But, 
though the guests or the faithful might (as Israel in the O.T. in 
relation to Yahweh) be rightly designated the Bride, as, for 
example, in xxi. 9 (cf. Eph. v. 27), at the beginning of the 
Millennial Kingdom, since the words Bridegroom and Bride 
symbolize the close relation between Christ and the Church at 
all times, yet the realization of the things so symbolized is 
always partial and imperfect till the number of the saints is 
complete. Hence not till then has the time come for the 
Wedding Feast and for the Bride to become the Wife of the 
Lamb. It is to this feast, therefore, that the faithful are "in 
vited"; and all such as are then invited naturally accept, for 
they are all saints. So the writer of 4 Ezra ii. 38-41 rightly 
connects the Marriage Supper and the completion of the roll 
of the saints : " Videte numerum signatorum in convivio Domini. 
VOL. ii. 9 



130 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 9-10. 

Qui se de umbra saeculi transtulerunt, splendidas tunicas a 
Domino acceperunt. Recipe, Sion, numerum tuum . . . Filiorum 
tuorum . . . plenus est numerus . . . populus tuus, qui vocatus 
est ab initio." As Dalman ( Words of Jesus > 118 sq.) points out, 
icefcX^eVot = D s 3?l)Tp : cf. Babba Bathra, 75 b : "those who are 
invited go up to the Jerusalem of the age to come"; Midr. 
Tehill. i4 7 , where Jacob is "invited to the heavenly banquet" 
With the beatitude in our text cf. /^aKaptos Sorts 



(^ayerai aprov iv rfj ySacrtXei a TOV Otov (Luke XIV. 15). 

KK\TjfjLeVoi. KctXetv always means " to name " in our author 
except here and in xvii. 14, where the meaning our author 
attaches to K\IJTOI is seen from its context : AcXryrot /cat e/cXc/cToi 
/cat TTIO-TOI. Here these three epithets refer to the same persons. 

OUTOI ot Xoyoi ot dXt]0ii ol TOU 0eoG eio-iy. See i in the note on 



9 b -io. 

10. eirecra e|ATrpoa0i> i&v iroSuiy aurou : cf. xxii. 8. TrtTrreti/ 
followed immediately by such phrases as Trpos r. Tro Sas, i. 17, 
evwTTiov, iv. 10, v. 8, vii. u, eVt TO. TrpocrwTra, xi. 1 6, is used of the 
divine worship of God or the Lamb. Hence in eTrecra ^-n-poa-Ocv 
T. Ti-oSwv avrov the same worship seems implied. It is strange 
that the phrase Trpoor/cwetv e/A7rpoa0ev is used simply of homage. 
See note on xxii. 8. 

n-poo-Kui/fjacu aurw. On this usage (contrary to that of our 
author) see 5 in the note on 9 b -io and vii. n note. 

opa JJLT) . . . dSeXcJjoii o-ou. See xxii. 9; where these words 
occur in their right context. 

TWK exovTwy rr\v fxaprupiay lT]aou. This phrase is found 
already in xii. 17. It is certainly in the phraseology of our 
author. Cf. vi. 9, ryv /xap-ru/Hav rjv etx " an( ^ L 2 > 9 xx - 4i 
we have the phrase 17 p^aprvpia Ir^croO. In rrjv /xaprvptav 
the question arises whether we have in I^o-oG the subjective or 
objective genitive, i.e. the testimony borne by Jesus, or the 
testimony which men bear to Jesus. The former, according to 
i. 2, xii. 17, means the sum of the revelation made by him, and 
should naturally be the meaning of the phrase here. But the 
words that follow, rj yap /zapru/oia I^aov /crX., require us to make 
them mean "the witness to Jesus." Hence it follows that the 
yap is here to be taken in an explanatory sense : " now the 
witness to Jesus is the spirit of prophecy." Thus the angel 
declares that he is the fellow-servant of John, and of those who 
share with him the prophetic spirit. This is not the meaning of 
the parallel passage in xxii. 10. 

There is, however, the possibility that 17 yap 

may have been a marginal gloss on rrjv 
v, which was subsequently incorporated in the text. It 
certainly comes in very awkwardly after T<O 



XIX. 10-11.] MESSIANIC JUDGMENT 13! 

It should have preceded it. If this clause was a gloss, then the 
words crwSovA.os crov ei/u /cat TO>I/ aSeA.<ai> . . . I^o-ov and xxii. n ab 
would be practically equivalent in meaning. Even so, many of 
the objections to the originality of xix. 9 b -io still remain. 

11-21. Cf. xiv. 14, 18-20, and xvi. 13-16 for proleptic 
accounts of this destruction of the kings and the nations by 
Christ and His angels. See note on 14. 11-21 deals with the 
victory of Christ and His angels over the Beast, the False 
Prophet, and the kings of the earth. With this victory of the 
Messiah cf. i Enoch Ixii. 2 ; 2 Bar. xxxix.-xl., Ixxii. ; 4 Ezra 
xii. 32, xiii. 38. This destruction of the remaining active foes of 
the Messianic Kingdom comes in here of necessity after that 
judgment has been executed on Rome and before the inaugura 
tion of the Millennial reign. This corresponds to the judgment 
of the Sword at the beginning of the Messianic Kingdom in 
i Enoch 1. 2, xc. 19, xci. 12, xcv. 7, xcvi. i, xcviii. 12. Though 
the destruction of the Parthian kings is foretold proleptically in 
xvii. 14, it is nowhere subsequently described. 

11. etSov rov oupavov TJi/ewyjuieVoj : cf. Ezek. i. I, KCU ave(a^0rja-av 
olovpavoi: 2 Bar. xxii. i ; 3 Mace. vi. 18 ; Matt. iii. 16; John 
i. 51, oi/ eo-^e rov ovpavov dvewyora. 

As we learn from what follows, it is only the nations that are 
hostile to Christ that are to be destroyed. For the attitude of 
Judaism to the Gentiles in the O.T. and Apocryphal and 
Apocalyptic literature, see my Eschatology 2 , 165, 246, 296, 297, 
332, 361, also Sibyll. Or. iii. 740; Tob. xiii. n, xiv. 6 sq. ; Test. 
XII. Patr. (see Index, p. 242, in my edition), and Volz, Judische 
Eschatologie, 322-325. 

ITTTTOS XeuKos KCU 6 K<x0T) ju,eyos cir O.UTOV i repeated from vi. 2, 
but the two riders are quite distinct. Here there is no question 
as to the personality of the present Rider. He is the Messiah 
" the Word of God." The very epithets that are applied to Him 
have occurred before in the same connection : cf. iii. 14, o/xaprvs 
6 TTICTTOS /ax! aA?7#u/os. See also i. 5, iii. 7. This same combina 
tion of epithets is used by Christ (the Logos) in xxii. 6, OVTOI ol 
Aoyot TTtcrrot KOI aXrjOwoL, For this combination of epithets cf. 
also 3 Mace. ii. n. The Messiah as a man of war appears in 
Pss. Sol. xvii. 23-27 ; Philo, De Praem. et Poena, 16, a-rparapx^y 
KCLL TroAejuwv Wvr\ . . . ^etptocrerat. 

iv SiKcuoowT] Kpivei tea! TroXejiei. This description of the 
righteousness of the Messiah is brought forward very distinctively 
in Isa. xi. 3 sq. : " He shall not judge after the sight of his eyes . . . 
4. but with righteousness shall he judge (p1^3 L2S&M) the poor, and 
reprove with equity the meek of the earth. 5. And righteousness 
shall be the girdle of his loins and faithfulness the girdle of his 
reins." In i Enoch he is designated as " the Righteous One " 



1 32 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 12. 

(xxxviii. 2), "the Righteous and Elect One" (liii. 6), "the Elect 
One of righteousness and faith " (xxxix. 6). Cf^also Pss. Sol. xvn. 
31, Kptvet . . . e0i/r? ev crania StKatoo-uVi;? avrov : also in 35 he IS 
described as a fiao-iXcvs Swccuos *ai StSaKTOS VTTO Otov : cf. also 36, 
41 : Ps. xcvi. 13 ; Acts xvii. 31. 

12. ot 8e 6<t>0aXfjiol afirou &s <frt P?- Repeated from i. 14 : 
cf. ii. 1 8. 

em T. Ke4>a\V a" T G 8io8ifjiaTa iroXXd. Here as always, 
except in xii. i, our author uses eVi r. Ke^aXrjv and not ri r. 
KcAaX^s. See note on Introd. to xii., vol. i. p. 300 sq. As King 
of kings (16) the Messiah wears many diadems. The Dragon 
(xii. 3) and the Beast (xiii. i) wear respectively seven and ten. 
According to i Mace. xi. 13, Ptolemy wore tvyo diadems on 
entering Antioch one for Egypt and one for Asia. ^ 

Igc [e^wi/ oyofxa Y YP a | JL l JLe l/01 ooSeis ciSey el fir) auTOS.J 
Though the diction is Johannine (on cx wl/ yeyP ( W e 1/ov cf. 16, 
and with o oiSels oTSej/ cf. ii. 17) this clause appears to be inter 
polated. The objections are three. First, there is a break in 
the thought. We should not expect a reference to the name 
here in the midst of a description of the person and dress. 
Moreover, the statement that no one knows His name save Him 
self is flatly contradicted in the next verse (i3 b ), where the words 
/cat KiK\rjra.i TO ovo/xa avrov O Aoyos rov Otov cannot be explained 
away (see note in he.). Finally, by the omission of this clause 
the parallelism is restored. 

12. ol 8e 6<J)0aX(JLol aurou us <}>X6 irupos, 

KCU em ir\v Ke^aXV aurou oiaS^fxara iroXXd, 

13. Kal irepipepX^fxeVos tp-aTio^ |3eJ3afijAeW atjiaTt^ 
Kal Ke KXt]Tat TO oVojxa auToG e O Aoyos ToG 6eoG. 

The interpolated line may have originated in a marginal 
gloss. We have now to inquire what meaning can be attached 
to this gloss. Some interpreters have thought the unknown 
designation to be 6 *v>os, Phil. ii. 1 1 ; others (as Ewald and 
Volkmar) have taken it to be the tetragrammaton ; others a 
really mysterious name known only to Christ Himself, comparing 
ii. 17, OVO/JLO. KCUVOV yeypa/x/xevov o ouSets oTSev d /XT) 6 Xapfidvav, and 
iii. 12. As regards this last interpretation scholars are again 
divided. Swete is of opinion that all created beings are excluded 
from the knowledge of this name. Alford thinks that the know 
ledge of this name is withheld till the final and complete union 
of Christ and His Church. In favour of this view we might 
compare Asc. Isa. ix. 5 : "This is ... the Lord Christ, who will 
be called Jesus in the world, but His name thou canst not hear 
till thou hast ascended out of thy body." Others, as Bousset, that 
this knowledge is withheld because of the power that attaches to 
such knowledge. The Messiah alone has a name which carries 



XIX. 12-13.] VESTURE DIPT IN BLOOD OF SLAIN 133 

with it power over heaven and earth, and as no one knows this 
name but Him, so He is the sole possessor of the power bound 
up with the name. This last interpretation belongs undoubtedly 
to the reign of magic, and is found among the Gnostics. This 
idea underlies Gen. xxxii. 29 and Judg. xiii. 17 sq. It was a 
very widespread idea among many ancient nations that the man 
who knew the name of a god or a demon possessed certain 
powers over him. Hence the name was concealed : cf. Heit- 
miiller, Im Namen Jesu, 162 sqq. ; Giesebrecht, Gottesname, 23, 
45, 100 (the last reference is from Gunkel s Genesis* t p. 362; 
Jevons, Introd. Hist. Religion, p. 361). 

o ouSels KT\. : cf. ii. 17, iii. 12. 

13. KCU 7Tpi|3e|3\ir)fAeVos IjAarioi J3e/3ajji|meVov aifiaTi. This clause 
has created no little difficulty. But, if we hold fast to the follow 
ing facts, the difficulty can be surmounted. The first is that in 
the leader of the heavenly hosts we have to do not with the 
Slain One, but the Slayer. The Word of God has come to 
execute divine judgment. Hence the idea that the blood on 
His Vesture is His own (cf. i. 5, v. 9, vii. 14, xii. n) cannot be 
entertained. When our author wishes to express a thought of 
this nature, he speaks of the apviov . . . ws eo-^ay/xevov (v. 6). 
Now this being so, how are we to explain the t/xartov /3e/3a/A//,eVov 
cu/xan ? In whose blood is the vesture of the Divine Warrior 
dipped ? If it is not His Own, no more is it that of the kings of 
the earth and their armies (15, 18); for the judgment of the 
sword as regards these has not yet begun, and the garments of 
the heavenly armies are still white and pure (14). A comparison 
with Isa. Ixiii. 1-3 which passage is in the mind of our author 
confirms this conclusion : " Who is this that cometh from Edom, 
with red garments from Bozrah ? . . . 2. Wherefore art thou 
red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in 
the winefat ? 3. I have trodden the winepress alone . . . yea, 
I trod them in my anger . . . and their lifeblood is sprinkled 
upon my garments." Here the redness of the garments is due 
to the blood of those who have already been slain, exactly as in 
our text. Since, therefore, the redness of the vesture in 13 is 
not due to the warfare in 11-21, there remains only one other 
possible explanation, and this is that the blood on His vesture is 
that of the Parthian kings and their armies, whom He had 
already destroyed, and whose destruction had already been pro- 
leptically prophesied in xvii. 14. In this strife He was supported 
by the glorified martyrs (ot /ACT avrov /cA^rot KOL e/cXeKTOt /crA.). 

IfuiTioy |3e|3ajji|jt,eVoj> aifxari. These words are freely based on 
Isa. Ixiii. 3, nn~by BrTC3 n ( = " and their blood is sprinkled on 
my garments "). Here /Se/Sa/z/xevoj (AQ, etc.) is to be accepted 
and not pepavrioy-ievoi , cppa/x/xefov, or the other variants from 



134 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 13-14. 

pati/w and pavTiw ; for, whereas both these latter verbs are used 
in the LXX to render nn (the Hebrew verb in Isa. Ixiii. 3), and 
whereas Aquila and Symmachus do render it by pavTt<o in Isa. 
Ixiii. 3, but no translator ever renders it by /3a7rra>, it follows 
that, though there were possible grounds for changing ^a^ivov 
into eppa/xyx-e i/oi , there were none for changing eppa/x/x,eVov into 
/?e/3a/>i/xeW from the standpoint of Isa. Ixiii. 3, whence the idea 
was derived. Our author thus deals freely with Isa. Ixiii. 3. 
That such a free reproduction was not unknown in Judaism we 
might infer from the late Palestinian Targum on Gen. xlix. u, 
which recounts the victory of the Messiah over His enemies : 
" How beauteous is the king Messiah, who is about to arise from 
the house of Judah. He hath bound his loins and gone forth to 
war against those that hate him : kings and princes shall be 
slain : he will make red the rivers with the blood of their slain . . . 
his garments will be dipped in blood (noiND POT <!W)." 

KCU KeK\if]TCu TO oVojia aurou *O Aoyos TOU 9eou. This line has 
been taken by Volter, Spitta, Hilgenfeld, Bousset, and others to 
be the addition of a scribe or reviser. Now it is manifest that 
either 12 (^x (1)V ovofjia . . . o ouSeis olScf KT\.) or the present clause 
must be of this nature. But, whereas we found that 12 was 
open to serious objections on various contextual grounds, no 
objection of such a nature can be brought against the present 
clause, which accordingly comes from the hand of our author. 
We have here another of the numerous instances of community 
of diction between the Apocalypse and the Fourth Gospel, in 
many of which there is no community of meaning. For the 
Logos here is a Warrior, and our text reminds us of Wisd. 
xviti. 4-25, especially of xviii. 15, 6 TravroSwa/zos o-ov Aoyos air 
ovpav&v IK Opovwv ^acriAetcov a.7roro/x,os TroXe/ato-r^s ets /xeo-oj/ rrj<s 
oXtOpias ^Xaro y^s t(f)0<s ov rr/v avvTroKpiTOv ^mra.yrjv crov <epa>v. 
We might compare also the later Jewish conception, ^E>NE> and 
6 Xoyos TOV Ocov in Heb. iv. 12. Although the ideas underlying 
the words are different, in the latter passage this word is said to 
be " sharper than any two-edged sword." 

14. Kttl TOL orpctTeujaaTa KT\. To i4 a conjoined with i6 b we 
have remarkable parallels in xvii. 14, but there the enemies of the 
Lamb are the Parthian kings, who are also referred to in xvi. 1 2. 
Here we have a conflict on a larger scale, as in xiv. 14, 18-20, 
xvi. 13-16. See notes on xiv. 14, 18-20, xvi. 12-16, xvii. 14. 

A study of the chief passages (ii. 26-27, xiv. 14, 18-20, 
xvi. 1 2-1 6, xvii. 14, xviii., xix. 11-21) dealing with the destruc 
tion of the world powers helps us to understand the expectations 
of the Seer as to (a) the order in which the world powers were to 
be destroyed before the Millennium, and (b) the nature of the 
heavenly armies which destroyed these powers. 



XIX. 14.] ARMIES OF HEAVEN 135 

(a) The destruction of Rome was to come first, next that of 
the Parthians^ and finally that of the remaining hostile powers. 
In xiv. 8-n the destruction of Rome is foretold, followed 
immediately (for xiv. 12-13 belongs after xiii. 15 or 1 8) by that 
of the hostile nations, xiv. 14, 18-20. The same sequence of 
events is found in xviii. (the destruction of Rome) and xix. 11-21 
(that of the hostile nations). But the sequence of events can be 
determined more definitely. Thus in xvi. 1 2 the forces led by 
the Parthian kings are clearly distinguished from those of the 
remaining hostile nations in xvi. 13-16; and that these two 
divisions of the hostile heathen world, which survived the 
destruction of Rome, were to be separately destroyed, we infer 
from xvii. 14, according to which, immediately after the destruc 
tion of Rome, Christ and His armies would destroy its destroyers, 
i.e. the Parthians. 

(b) The heavenly armies were to be composed of angels and (in 
certain cases if not in all) of the glorified martyrs. The armies of 
the Word of God are described in xix. 14 (ra (TTpar^v^ara ra ei> 
Tu>oupai/w . . . c<f> tTnrots A.VKots). In xiv. 1 4, 1 8~2o the presence 
of these heavenly horsemen is presupposed in xiv. 20 (axpt TWV 
XaAivon T. LTTITUV). So far as these passages go, we should con 
clude that the heavenly armies were composed of angels only. 
But this is not so. Quite clearly in xvii. 14 it is stated that the 
armies of the Lamb will be "the called and elect and faithful," a 
description which cannot be applied to angels. Now since this 
war of the Lamb on the Parthians is subsequent to the destruction 
of Rome, and therefore to the universal martyrdom of the faith 
ful, it follows that this army is composed of the glorified martyrs, 
who had come down from heaven with Christ for that purpose. 
That they should share in this task we have already learnt from 
ii. 27, where of the individual martyr (6 VIKOJV) it is stated 
TTot/xavet auTovs cv pa/3Sa> o-iSrjpa, the very words, which in xix. 15 
are used of Christ Himself. That the martyrs take part in the 
judgment of all the hostile nations cannot be affirmed in so 
many words, though the comparison of Troi/xcu/et *rA. in both 
ii. 27 and xix. 15 points probably to this conclusion. Moreover, 
the comparison of xvii. 14 (where Christ is called /cvptos KV/MW 
Kat /foo-tAevs /feo-iAeW, and His army is composed of glorified 
martyrs) and of xix. 14% where His followers are the armies of 
heaven and His name is /Sao-iAevs /ScuriAeW K. Kvpios jcvpwov (i6 b ), 
may point in the same direction. 

Some of the chief expectations of our Seer relative to the 
judgment of the hostile nations may be briefly summarized as 
follows. 

The Parthian kings are referred to in xvi. 12, xvii. 12-13, 17, 
1 6, and their destruction by the Lamb and the glorified martyrs 



136 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 14-15. 

in xvii. 14*-. The other hostile kings of the world are men 
tioned: their gathering to Armageddon in xvi. 13-16, and their 
destruction by One like a son of man, xiv. 14, 18-20, by the 
Word of God with the armies of heaven in xix. 1 1-2 1. In these last 
two passages the Divine Leader is said to tread the winepress 
of the wrath of God (xiv. 19, xix. 15). Finally, at the close of 
the Millennial Kingdom there is the destruction of the unre 
pentant nations by fire sent down from heaven, xx. 7-10. 

For the idea of armies in heaven cf. Test. Levi iii. 3 ; 2 Enoch 
xvii. f 2 Esdr. xix. 6, o-ol Trpoo-KVVovo-w ai errpareuH TWV ovpavwv 
(where the armies are the stars) ; Matt. xxvi. 53. 

The heavenly armies, which are hot definitely mentioned in 
the parallel account (xiv. 14, 18-20) but are implied in the words 
axpi TWV xaAwtov v Mnreov, have descended with Christ from 
heaven. In ii. 27 (see note), xvii. 14 (see notes) they appear to 
be the faithful: in ii. 27 the foes they destroy are the hostile 
nations generally : in xvii. 14 the Parthian kings. 

eVSeSu/jieVoL fiuvaivov XCUKOC. For the phrase cf. i. 13, xv. 6. 

15. In i5 abc are combined thoughts and words which are 
drawn from Isa. xi. 4 and Ps. ii. 9. But this combination is 
already found in Pss. Sol. 

xvii. 26. Krpi\l/a.L VTrfpy^avcav afj.aprwX.wv us (TKevrj /cepa/xeW, 
ev pa/?Sa) criSrjpa crwrptyai Tracrav VTrocrracrtv avrwv 

27. oAo$pev<rai Wvrj 7rapavo/xa iv Aoyu) o-ro/xaros avrov. 

39. Trara^et yap yrjv rw Aoya> TOV aro/xaTOS avrov. 

Kal IK TOU aTojjiaTos aurou eKTropeuerai potato, 6eia : cf. i. 16, 
ii. 12. 

Iva. iv auTT] iraTdfT] ra IG^T). From Isa. xi. 4, /cat 7raraa yrfv 
T(3 Xdya) TOV (rro/xaro? aurov, /cat ev Trvev/xart 8ta ^etXeoov di/eXet 
acre/If), cf. Pss. Sol. xvii. 26-27, 39 (quoted above). Wisd. xviii. 
22, IvLKycre TOV o^Aov OVK la-^yi TOV o-w/xaros ov^ otrXwv ei/epyetia 
aAAa A.oyw TOV KoA.aoi/ra VTreVa^ei/ : I Enoch Ixii. 2, <f The word 
of his mouth slays all the sinners." All these passages imply that 
the sword that proceeds out of the mouth of the Messiah is 
simply a figure for forensic or judicial condemnation. 

KCU auros irotfACU ci auTous iv pd|38a> atSTjpa : cf. ii. 27 (see 
note), xii. 5. From Ps. ii. 9. The drros in this and the next 
clause is emphatic. Neither here nor in ii. 27, xii. 5 has TTOI- 
paiveLv a favourable meaning. 

In these three passages it connotes punishment and destruc 
tion. Contrast, on the other hand, its meaning in vii. 17. See 
note on ii. 27. Hence render "break them with an iron rod." 

Kal auros Trarei TTJJ XTJI^OK ICT\. Here, though accompanied by 
hosts of angelic warriors, the action of the Messiah alone is dwelt 
upon, just as in xiv. 19 sq. and in similar words. Only here and 
in xiv. 19-20 is the A^vos of divine judgment spoken of in our 



XIX. 16.] MESSIANIC TITLE INSCRIBED 137 

author. The two ideas of the winepress (xiv. 19) and the cup of 
wrath (xiv. 10) are here combined, and mean that from the wine 
press trodden by Christ flows the wine of the wrath of God, of 
which his enemies are to be made to drink. It is a case of 
mixed metaphors. 

16. [ITTI TO ipAnov KCU] em rov pipo^ aurou KT\. Of this text 
there is no satisfactory explanation. Diisterdieck, B. Weiss, and 
Holtzmann think that the title is inscribed on the girdle ; Swete, 
that " it is displayed on His habit where it falls over the thigh " ; 
Grotius imagines a sword on the hilt of which the name was 
inscribed. Wellhausen, recognizing the unintelligibleness of the 
text, proposes ITTTTOV instead of i/xanov and makes the avrov refer 
to the ITTTTOV. Horses were branded on the thigh amongst the 
Greeks : see Wetstein in loc. But the idea of such an inscription 
on a horse cannot be entertained. If, therefore, we are to gain 
any satisfactory meaning here, we can only do so by following 
our chief Uncial A, Cassiodorus, and some Ethiop. MSS, which 
omit the words I have bracketed above. If A is right, the chief 
Syriac Version (s 1 ) would probably be the first stage in the 
interpolation of the text ; for s 1 here places the two phrases CTT! 
TO ifjia.Twv avTov and 7rt T. fjLrjpov avTov side by side without the 
connecting /cat . Thus the first phrase would appear to have 
originated in a marginal gloss owing to 13* (Tre/at^e^X^/xeVos 
Ifjudnov KT\.). The final stage in the corruption of the text is that 
which all the remaining authorities attest. At this stage the first 
avrov is omitted and the KO.L inserted. 

Our text now runs eVi T. pypov avrov. For the occasional 
appearance of names and inscriptions on the thighs of statues we 
have evidence in Greek and Roman authors (see Wetstein from 
whom these quotations are derived). Thus in Cicero, Verr. 
iv. 43, we find : " Signum Apollinis pulcherrimum, cujus in femore 
literulis minutis argenteis nomen Myronis erat inscriptum." 
Also in Pausanias, Eliac. extr., TO ardOr^a. . . . Mpos CIKWV 
. . . e/Xeyeioi/ Se eV avro ycypa/A/AeVov 7rt rov prjpov : " Justinus 
(4 cent. A.D. ?), xv. 4, 5 : Figura anchorae, quae in femore Seleuci 
nata cum ipso parvulo fuit. 9. Originis ejus argumentum etiam 
in posteris mansit, siquidem filii nepotesque ejus anchoram in 
femore veluti notam generis naturalem habuere." 

The Seer sees in the vision the Divine Warrior and His 
heavenly horsemen not halting but sweeping downward from 
heaven and onward against the serried armies of the Beast, False 
Prophet, and the kings of the earth, and, as they thunder along, their 
garments stream behind them, and so on the thigh of the Leader 
is disclosed the name : " King of kings and Lord of lords." 

pao-iXeus pcunXeW KT\. See note on xvii. 14. 

17-21. An angelic summons to all the birds of prey to 



138 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XIX. 17-19. 

hasten to the scene of slaughter of all the mighty of the earth. 
The overthrow and final doom of the Beast and the False 
Prophet. 

17. eVa (cf. viii. 13) ayyeXoy eorwra lv TW TjXup. What was 
the original idea underlying this phrase is unknown. It is 
generally explained that the angel took this central position in 
mid heaven in order to deliver from thence his message of 
victory and his summons to the birds of prey. 

KCI! eKpa^ey 4>a>rr) jxeydXif]. See note on xiv. 15. 

Xeywy iracri rots opyeois TOIS irgTO|i,eVoig Iv jULeo-oupar/jfiaTi (cf. 
viii. 13, xiv. 6) Aeure au^ax^ 1 " 6 els TO Sei-nroi . . . TOU Oeou. 18. 
IVa <f)dyY)T adpicag jSacriXeuf . . . Kat crdpjcas laxupwi/. This 
passage is clearly based on Ezek. xxxix. 17, where the LXX reads 
eiTroi/ iravrl opi/eo> Trereivw . . . ^vvd^Orfre Kat fp^ecrOe . . . CTTI 
Tyv OVCTLCLV //,ov . . . Kat (fjd-yecrOe. 18. Kpea ytydvTW . . . /cat 
atyu.a ap^ovrwv. 2O. /cat . . . ITTTTOV /cat dj/a/?arr;v. It is obvious, 
however, that our author is giving an independent rendering of 
the Hebrew : observe Serrc trwax^re (^BDNn 1K3) with 
Kat ep^eo-^c, and l(r\vp<av in Our text with ytyavrtov, and 
K. rcov KaOrj/jievwv ITT avrwv with tWov Kat ava(3drr]v in Ezek. 
xxxix. 20. 

Our author here borrows his imagery from the slaughter 
wrought by God in Ezek. xxxix., and yet the final overthrow of 
Gog and Magog in our author is adjourned to the close of the 
Millennial reign in our author. 

TO Bei-m/oi/ TO jjte ya TOU 0eoG. See Gressmann, Ursprung der 
Israelit. Jild. Eschatologie, 136-141. 

18. TGJI> Ka0Y)p,vwi> ITT auTWK. Here the reading avroiv (PQ 
mm fere omnj j s to fr Q followed. A with two cursives and N read 
respectively avrovs and avrots which are both corrupt. Cf. 19, 
21. eXeu0e pwv T Kat Sou Xui/. See note On xiii. 16. jJiiKpaij xal 
jxeyaXwi/. See note on xiii. 16. 

19-21. The Beast, the False Prophet, and the kings of the 
earth overthrown and cast into the lake of fire. 

19. TO Oijpioy i.e. Nero-antichrist. See xi. 7 (note), xiii. 3 
(note on various stages of the Neronic myth). 

TOUS jSao-iXets TT]S yrjg : cf. xiv. 14, 18-20 (though not here 
specifically mentioned), xvi. 14 (note), xvii. 2, 18, xviii. 3. These 
are to be carefully distinguished from the Parthian kings, xvi. 12, 
xvii. 12-13, T 7> l6 > who are destroyed by the Lamb (and the 
glorified martyrs). See also note on 14 above. 

TO, crrpaTeujjiaTa auTaij . For avru>v A and a few cursives read 
avrov. This is perhaps right. Though they are the subjects of 
the kings, they are the armies of the Beast. 

owTjyjjieVa iroirjaai Tok iroXejj.oi . For the diction cf. xvi. 14, 16, 
xx. 8. 



XIX. 2O.] DOOM OF BEAST AND FALSE PROPHET 139 

ToG (TTparcufxaTos auToG. Though the heavenly army is 
described in the plural as o-Tparev/xaTa, it is here very significantly 
described as a single host. While the opposing hosts of evil are 
moved by a variety of conflicting aims, the heavenly host is 
actuated by one only. 

20. With the Beast and the False Prophet we might compare 
Ahriman and Azi-Dahaka in the Zend religion, which influenced 
Judaism from the East. Cf. De la Saussaye, Lehrb. d. Religions- 
geschichte\ ii. 206 (ii. 226 in 3rd ed.): "Zuletzt bleibt noch der 
Kampf zwischen himmlischen und hollischen Geistern iibrig. 
Alle Ameshas Spentas ringen da mit ihren teuflischen Gegen- 
geschopfen und vernichten sie ganzlich : Ahriman selbst und die 
Schlange Azhi zu bandigen, wird die Sache Mazda s und Sraosha s 
sein. Als Priester erheben sich die beiden Cotter, mit Gebet 
und Gebetschnur iiberwaltigen sie die Bosen und stiirzen sie 
und ihr Versteck in den gliihenden Strom. Darm ist die Welt 
vollkommen rein, das Universum nur von Mazda s Wesen erfiillt, 
und alles, was lebt, geht in die Unsterblichkeit und himmlische 
Vollkommenheit ein (Bahman Yasht, 43 ; Bundehesh, 30)." See 
also Boklen, Die Verwandschaft d. jud.-christichen mit der 
parsischen Eschatologie^ 127 sqq. 

emd<r0Y]. The Attic form of this verb is 7rie a>, but in late 
Attic 7rido> is also found. The classical meaning was to press, 
weigh down, stifle, etc. But its later meaning, as here, is to seize, 
lay hold of. 7riaco, which occurs only here in our author, is a 
favourite word in the Fourth Gospel, being found there eight 
times and only four times throughout the rest of the N.T. (one 
of these being in Luke vi. 38, where it retains the ancient 
classical form and meaning). 

6 \|/u8oTrpo<fniTY]s. See xiii. n sqq. notes, xvi. 13, xx. 10. 
The False Prophet represented the priesthood of the Imperial 
cult, which practised all kinds of magic and imposture to beguile 
men to worship the Beast. 

eirXdnrjaei TOU? XafJoVTas TO xdpaypa KT\. Only those who 
had received this mark were an easy prey to the False Prophet. 
On the TO xa/oay/i,a see note on xiii. 16 : cf. xiv. 9 sqq., xvi. 2 
(note), xx. 4. 

irpoaKuj/ourras Ttjy eiKoVa auToG. Though weakly attested 
X* 28, 39), this seems to be the right reading : see note on 
vii. ii. Possibly the dative is right. In that case the text 
would mean that divine worship was actually offered to the image. 

TYji> \ipvv\v ToC irupos : cf. xx. 10, xxi. 8. On this final abode 
of punishment for Satan, the Beast, the False Prophet, and 
wicked men, see note on ix. i. 

TTJS KaiojieVrjs iv 6eiw. The genitive here can only be explained 
as a slip on the part of the writer. Contrast xxi. 8 rfj 



I4O THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 1-2. 

On cv 6ciw in this conjunction cf. xiv. 10, xx. 10, 



xxi. 8. 

21. ot Xoiirol direKTai/OTjo-ai KT\., i.e. the kings of the earth 
and their armies. These kings and their armies had been affected 
by the Caesar-worship : cf. xiv. 9 sq. They were not, like the 
Beast and the False Prophet, cast forthwith into Gehenna. Their 
physical life was destroyed by the sword, i.e. by the sword of the 
Word of God (cf. ver. 15), and their spirits no doubt consigned to 
Hades. In the judgment all the dead are raised (xx. 12), and 
then death and Hades and all the wicked are cast into the lake 
of fire (xx. 14-15)- In the Test, of Hezekiah a work incor 
porated in the Ascension of Isaiah, i.e. iii. i3 b -iv. 18, and written 
before 100 A.D. a different sequence is anticipated : Asc. Isa. 
iv. 14, "The Lord will come with His angels and with the armies 
of the holy ones from the seventh heaven . . . and He will 
drag Beliar (i.e. the Antichrist) into Gehenna and also his armies." 

irdvTa, TO. opvea exoprdaOifjo-ai KT\. Cf. 17 sq. ; also I Enoch 
xlvi. 4-6. 

CHAPTER XX. 1-3. 
INTRODUCTION. 

i. Contents. Now that Rome has fallen (xviii.), the hostile 
nations been destroyed, and the two Beasts cast into the lake of 
fire (xix. 19-20), there remains no obstacle to the manifestation 
of the kingdom save the presence of Satan still on earth. Hence to 
his activities an end is put by his being cast down into the abyss 
and chained there for 1000 years (xx. 1-3). The destinies of 
Satan are determined by the chief events in the life of Christ. 
In xii. Satan s expulsion from heaven is connected with the birth 
and ascension of Christ. On the earth, as he had only a short 
time, he raged furiously against Christ s followers, but on Christ s 
Second Advent and His overthrow of Satan s agents, Satan too 
is cast down from the earth into the abyss and the Millennial 
Kingdom established. At the close of this kingdom Satan is 
loosed from the abyss and finally conquered and cast into the 
lake of fire, and the new heaven and the new earth appear, 
wherein is the joint throne of God and the Lamb. 

That xx. 1-3 comes from our author s hand there can be no 
doubt, as the diction and idiom prove. 

2. Diction and idiom. 

1. e!8oK ctyyeXoi KarapaiVoKTa K TOU oupai/ou. The whole 
clause has already occurred in x. i, xviii. i, and the last four 
words also in iii. 12, xvi. 21, xxi. 2, 10. 

Tf\V K\.lv TT]S (XJBuCTCrOU I Cf. ix. I. 






XX. 1-2.] DRAGON BOUND FOR IOOO YEARS 141 

2. Toy SpdKorra 6 O<|HS 6 dpxcuos. The same words in the 
same characteristic and anomalous construction have already 
occurred in xii. 9. os e<m> AidjSoXos Kal 6 larayas. Cf. xii. 9, 
6 KaAov/zevos AtaySoXo? KOI 6 2arava9. 

eS^o-ey auToV. Cf. ix. 14, SeSeyaeVovs. 

3. ej3a\K auToy els TY]y aj3ua<roy. For this use of fiaXXew 
cf. ii. 10, viii. 5, 7, 8, xii. 9, xix. 20, etc. 

eicXeurey: cf. iii. 7, 8, xi. 6, xxi. 25. eV^pdyiaey seven 
times elsewhere in our author, eirdyw: cf. vi. 8. tya pj 
TrXayrjorTj en TO, e 0yT) : cf. xiii. 14, xii. 9. axpi cum subj. a rare 
use: cf. 5, vii. 3, xv. 8. TeXeaOfj : cf. 5, 7, x. 7, xv. i, 8. 

3. Order of words. Wholly Semitic. 

1-3. The binding of the Dragon in the abyss for 1000 years. 

1. KCU etSoy. See note on iv. i. 

TTjy icXely rfjs d{3uo-aou. See notes on i. 18, ix. i. The abyss 
is regarded only as a temporary abode of punishment. Satan is 
finally cast into the lake of fire, xx. 10. 

aXu<ni> jxeydXT)! . aXvcris seems to be used here to denote a 
chain or bond by which the body is bound. In Mark v. 4 and 
frequently elsewhere it signifies hand fetters as opposed to Tre Sai. 
See note of Lightfoot on Phil., p. 8. 

em TV X e ^P a - ^ i s nar d to explain the use of eVt here. The 
best parallel is to be found in v. i, r! TT)V Seiou/ . . . /3i/?Ai ov. 
But in this latter case the idea implied is that the book is lying 
on the palm of the hand. It is perhaps best to regard the 
present instance as a loose use of eVi, which does not admit of 
any exact explanation. It is practically here equivalent to eV (cf. 
i. 1 6 with i. 20), and indeed eV is read here by K 38 syr. lf 2 . 
Another difficult use of era, but with the dative, occurs in xxii. 16, 
where, however, the best authorities have eV. 

2. Toy SpaKonra, 6 3<j)is 6 dpxaios. For a like anacolouthon 
cf. i. 5. See note on xii. 9 on the identification of the old 
serpent and the devil. Gunkel on Gen. 8 iii. i maintains that the 
text there implies that originally the serpent was an evil demon 
hostile to God and man and possessing a snakelike form. He 
further points out in support of this view that in 2 Kings xviii. 4 
divine worship is offered to a snakelike form by the faithless 
Israelites, and that heathen gods and demons were frequently so 
conceived in the ancient world. 

e&Tjaev auToy x^Xia ITT]. This idea of binding the powers of 
evil in prison for an undefined period is already found in 
Isa. xxiv. 2 2, and of their final judgment in xxiv. 23. These powers 
consist of the host of heaven and the kings of the earth. This 
idea of the angels and the kings of the earth being judged 
together reappears in i Enoch liii. 4-liv. 5, and the idea of the 
binding of the fallen angels in a place of temporary punishment 



142 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 2. 

till the day of the final judgment is found in i Enoch xviii. 12-16, 
xix. 1-2, xxi. 1-6, from which the final place of their punishment 
an abyss of fire is carefully distinguished, x. 13-15, xviii. n, 
xxi. 7-10, liv. 6, xc. 24-25. Their leader Azazel is bound in a 
place by himself (x. 4-5) as a preliminary punishment, but at the 
final judgment is to be cast into a place of everlasting punish 
ment (x. 6). In nearly all cases the evil spirits are spoken of in 
i Enoch as being " bound " in a preliminary place of punish 
ment, just as in Isa. xxiv. 22 and in our text. 

In the Zend religion the same idea is found. According to 
the Bundehesh iii. 26 (cf. xiii. 77) the evil serpent Azi-Dahaka 
was smitten by Thraetaona and fettered in the mountain Dama- 
vand for 9000 years, S.B.E. iv. 9 (note), 226, 245 sq., v. 234, 397, 
xviii. no, 201, etc. He was released by Ahriman, S.J3.E. 
v. 233-235, and reigned for 1000 years, v. 150, xxiv. 103, but was 
slain by Sam or Keresasp, v. 235. After the renovation of the 
world there would be no Azi-Dahaka, xviii. 1 18. But, since these 
Iranic myths belong to various periods before and after the 
Christian era, there is no ground for tracing any direct connec 
tion. 

XiXia ITT). Before the year 100 B.C. it was generally believed 
in Judaism that the Messianic Kingdom would last for ever on the 
present earth. Sometimes the conception was universalistic in 
character, especially in the greater prophets of the O.T., as 
Jeremiah, the Second Isaiah, Jonah, Malachi; but in others, as in 
Ezekiel, Haggai, Zechariah, Joel, it was particularistic. The idea 
of the everlastingness of this kingdom on earth persisted, as we 
have above said, till about TOO B.C. For such it appears to be 
in i Enoch lxxxiii.-xc., vi.-xxxvi., but by the date just mentioned 
the earth had come to be regarded in Judaism as wholly unfit 
for the manifestation of this kingdom except in a temporary 
character. The dualism which had begun to affect the religious 
forecasts of religious thinkers in the 2nd cent. B.C. succeeded in 
leavening wholly their expectations in the ist. As a consequence 
of this breach between the things of earth and the things of 
heaven, the writers of this century were forced to entertain new 
conceptions of the kingdom. Hence in i Enoch xci.-civ., Pss. 
Sol. i.-xvi., the Messianic Kingdom is declared to be of 
temporary duration on the present earth, and the goal of the 
risen righteous to be not this transitory kingdom, but heaven 
itself after the final judgment, which from this period forwards 
was conceived of as taking place not at the beginning, but at the 
close of the Messianic Kingdom. Thus it is that the Millen 
nium in our text, as in 2 Baruch and 4 Ezra, is really a late and 
attenuated form of the old Jewish expectation of an eternal 
Messianic Kingdom on the present earth. For a fuller treat- 



XX. 2-3.] IN THE ABYSS 143 

ment of this question the reader can consult my Eschat- 
ology*, pp. 103, 106-108, no sq., 113-116, 219 sq., 223, 248, 
250 sq. 

We have next to consider the duration of this kingdom. 
Apparently nowhere in earlier or contemporary literature is the 
duration of 1000 years assigned to the Messianic Kingdom save 
here. Its duration is not defined in i Enoch xci.-civ. ; Pss. Sol. 
xi. i sqq. ; Sibyll. Or. iii. 1-62; Jubilees xxiii. 27-29; 
Assumption of Moses x. 7 ; 2 Bar. xxix. 4~xxx. i, xxxix. 7, xl. 3, 
Ixxii. 2-4; 4 Ezra xiii. 32, 36. In 4 Ezra vii. 28 it is 
definitely said to last 400 years. 

3. ej3aXej> aurok eis T. afJuao-OK K<H eKXeurey. On the a/3ucrcros 
see ix. i, note. 

K\et<Tei> KCU eor^pdyurec eirdfu) aurou, i.e. closed the abyss and 
sealed it over him. Our text recalls the Prayer of Manasseh, 2-4, 
and the two passages are distantly connected, though our Seer 
has no thought of this passage nor of the myth that it pre 
supposes. 

For, whereas it is a literal Satan overcome by an angel that 
is presupposed in our text, it is a mythological monster that 
is overcome by God in the Prayer of Manasseh. What was 
originally a mythological idea concerning the uprising of the 
Chaos monster (i.e. the sea) against God at the world s begin 
ning, had long ere our Seer s time been transformed into an 
eschatological expectation, i.e. the rebellion of Satan against God 
at the world s close, and his being cast into the abyss. The 
mythological idea is quite clearly set forth in the above-mentioned 
Prayer of Manasseh : 6 Trotrytras TOV ovpavov /cat ryv yrfv (rvv Traj/rt 
ra> Koa-jaa) avrov, 6 TreS^a-as TYJV $a\aaxraj/ TOJ Aoyw TOV Trpocrray/xaro? 
(TOD, 6 /cAeiicras ryv a/Svoraov /cat cr<payicra/xvos avrrjv ra> <f>ofiepw 
/cat i/8o<o ovo/marc <rou. 

jrXakTJar] en TO, t 0i>T). As he had done before : cf. xiii. 14, 
xvi. 13. See also xii. 9. As these words point to the future, 
they imply that there would still be heathen nations after the 
Messianic judgment executed in xix. 19-21. Now that Satan s 
chief agents, the Beast and the False Prophet, were cast into the 
lake of fire and Satan himself bound in the abyss, the time for 
the Millennial reign has arrived and for the evangelization of 
the surviving heathen nations : see xiv. 7, xv. 4, xxii. 17. The 
astonishing part in our Seer s forecast is that the preaching of the 
Gospel during the Millennium will only in part be successful, 
though the active impersonations of evil have been wholly 
removed from the earth for this period. The implication is that 
each man carries in his own bosom the possibilities of his own 
heaven and his own hell. 

Set : cf. i. i, iv. i. 



144 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-XXII. 



XX. 4-XXII. THE TEXT INCOHERENT AND 
SELF-CONTRADICTORY AS IT STANDS. 

XX. 4-XXII. These chapters have hitherto been a constant 
source of insurmountable difficulty to the exegete. They are 
full of confusion and contradiction if the text is honestly dealt 
with. And yet the Apocalypse exhibits, except in a few 
passages, and especially in chap, xviii., a structural unity and a 
steady development of thought from the first chapter to the 
close of xx. 3. Now this is just what we should expect in an 
Apocalypse which is designed to be a philosophy of history and 
religion from the standpoint of the author. It was a combina 
tion of vision and reflection. Though the book of a prophet did 
not necessarily show any structural unity or steady development 
of thought, it was far otherwise with the apocalyptist, in whose 
writings such characteristics were indispensable. While the 
ordinary man saw only the outside of things in all their in 
coherence and isolation, the apocalyptist sought to get behind 
the surface and penetrate to the essence of events, the spiritual 
motives and purposes that underlay and gave them their real 
significance in fact, to lay bare their origin, course, and con 
summation. It was thus, in short, a Semitic philosophy of 
religion, and as such it was ever asking Whence ? Wherefore ? 
Whither ? Apocalyptic, and not prophecy, was the first to grasp 
the great idea that all history, alike human, cosmological, and 
spiritual, is a unity a unity following naturally as a corollary of 
the unity of God preached by the prophets. 

I have emphasized these two points structural unity and 
orderly development of thought to the final consummation of all 
things as pre-eminently the characteristics of apocalyptic and 
not of prophecy or of any other form of writing in the Bible. 
This being so, we are all the more astonished that the three 
closing chapters of the Apocalypse are all but wholly wanting in 
these characteristics, and so far from advancing steadily to the 
consummation that all the preceding chapters postulate exhibit 
many incoherencies and self-contradictory elements. 

To some of these I drew attention in my first edition of the 
Book of Enoch in 1893, where on p. 45 I wrote as follows: 
"We have here (i.e. Rev. xxi. i, 2) a new heaven and a new 
earth, and a New Jerusalem coming down from heaven : yet in 
xxii. 15 all classes of sinners are said to be without the gates of 
the city. But if there were a new earth this would be im 
possible." This is only one of the many difficulties that 
confront the serious student of these chapters. Now to make 
the problem before us clear it will be best to deal shortly with a 



XX. 4-XXII.] THE TEXT AS IT STANDS 145 

few of the passages which make it impossible for us to accept 
the text as it stands. 

1. In xx. 7-10, after the close of the Millennial Kingdom 
Satan is loosed, and the heathen nations (Gog and Magog) 
which have refused to accept the Christian faith, march against 
Jerusalem and the camp of the saints, but are destroyed by fire 
from heaven. Satan also is cast finally into the lake of fire and 
brimstone, to be tormented there for ever and ever. Thus the 
prime source of evil and his deluded followers (Gog and Magog) 
are removed finally from the world, and their power to influence 
the world for evil made impossible for ever. 

2. In xx. 11-15 the old earth and the old heaven are given 
over to annihilation. Then the final judgment takes place, and 
all the dead are judged according to their works, and death and 
Hades are cast into the lake of fire, together with all those 
whose names are not found written in the book of life. At this 
stage we have arrived at the final condemnation and destruction of 
all evil, together with the destruction of death itself. 

3. Now that all evil and death itself are cast into the lake of 
fire, the new heaven and the new earth come into being, and 
the New Jerusalem comes down from heaven, and God Himself 
dwells with men (xxi. 1-4). 

It is clear from this passage that we have arrived at the closing 
scene of the great world struggle between good and evil, and that 
henceforth there can be neither sin, nor crying, nor pain, nor death 
any more. In fact, there can be no place at all for these in the 
universe of God the new heaven and the new earth, and the New 
Jerusalem that cometh down from God to the new earth. 

The conclusion just arrived at is inevitable, if there is a 
steady development in the visions of the Seer. Now since 
such a development is manifest in chaps, i.-xx. 3, when certain 
verses and glosses are excised and a few disarrangements of the 
text set right expecially in xviii. we naturally conclude that 
our author will not lightly fall into contradictions, even of a 
minor sort, in the last three chapters. But unhappily this is not 
our experience as we study them ; and at last we stand aghast 
at the hopeless mental confusion which dominates the present 
structure of these chapters, and are compelled to ask if they can 
possibly come from his hand, and, in case they do, to ask 
further, if they have been preserved as they left his hand. But 
we must first justify the above statement, though we shall 
adduce here only the main contradictions in these chapters. 

i. Inasmuch as according to our text the New Jerusalem does 

not come down from heaven till Satan is bound for ever in the 

lake of fire, and all sin and death itself are at an end, and the 

place of the old world has been taken by a new and glorious 

VOL. IT. 10 



146 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-XXII. 

world, wherein there is neither spot nor blemish nor any such 
thing, how is it that we are told that, outside the gates of the 
Holy City which has come down from God to the new earth, 
there are " the dogs and the sorcerers, and the fornicators, and 
the murderers, and the idolaters, and every one that loveth and 
maketh a lie" (xxii. 15)? A greater contradiction in thought 
and statement is hardly conceivable. But, if this statement were 
made in connection with the Millennial Kingdom which was to 
be established before the Final Judgment, everything would be 
intelligible. 

2. Again, since the new earth is inhabited only by the blessed, 
on whom the second death could have no effect, and since these 
are all righteous, and God Himself tabernacles among them, 
how is it that in xxii. 2 the leaves of the tree of life are said to 
be for the healing of the nations ? This statement can have no 
meaning unless it applies to the period of the Millennial 
Kingdom. During Christ s reign of 1000 years the surviving 
nations have still a further period of grace accorded to them. 
This evangelizing of the nations during this period has already 
been proclaimed in xiv. 6-7, xv. 4- It is thrice elsewhere 
referred to in the last two chapters, i.e. xxi. 24, xxii. 14, 17. 

3. Only on the supposition that the Millennial Kingdom is 
still in existence can we explain xxi. 24-27 : 

"And the nations shall walk by the light thereof: 
And the kings of the earth do bring their glory into it. 
And the gates thereof shall not be shut day or night}- 
And they shall bring the glory and the honour of the nations 

into it : 
And there shall not enter into it anything unclean, or he 

that maketh an abomination or a lie ; 
But only they which are written in the book of life of the Lamb." 

Now from the above contradictions the solution of which is in 
part already suggested it follows either that (a) a considerable 
part of xx.-xxii. is not from the hand of our author, or that, (b) 
if it is from his hand, it is disarranged. 

Now the first solution (a) is that adopted by most of the 
leading German scholars of the past thirty years. Thus while 
Volter (Die Ofenbarung Johannis, 1904), Weyland (Omverkings- 
en Compilatie-Hypothesen toegepast op de Apocalypse van Johannes, 
1008), and J. Weiss (Die Offenb. des Johannes, 1908) assume 
that xx. -xxii. is derived from three different sources, and Spitta 
(Die Offenb. des Johannes, 1889) finds traces of four authors, 

i A necessary emendation. The corruption in the text arose from the 
present disorder, and the influence of xxii. 5, " and there shall be no more 
night," where this clause is wholly justifiable. 



XX. 4 XXII.] FROM JOHN S HAND BUT IN DISORDER 147 

Erbes (Die Offenb. Johannis, 1891) and, on the whole, Bousset 
(1906), are content with two. Bousset, in fact, regards xx.-xxii. 
as the work of our author, with the exception of the fragment 
xxi. 9-xxii. 5. 

But, even though for the time being we accepted as a 
working hypothesis any one of the theories of these scholars 
based on a plurality of authorship, we have still two insuperable 
difficulties to face, (a) The first of these is that the more closely 
we study i.-xx. 3, the more convinced we become of the structural 
unity of these chapters a fact which does not exclude the 
occasional use and adaptation of sources and the clear and 
masterly development in thought, working up steadily to a climax. 
This being so, how is it that xx.-xxii. shows no such orderly 
development, but rather a chaos of conflicting conceptions ? (/?) 
But the second difficulty is still greater. The hypotheses of the 
above scholars, with the partial exception of Bousset, break 
down hopelessly in the face of the general linguistic unity of 
xx.-xxii. In fact, these scholars had failed to make a thorough 
study of the style, vocabulary, and grammar of the Apocalypse. 
Bousset, it is true, has done much to compensate for the 
deficiencies of his predecessors in this field, but a deeper study 
of his materials would have precluded his assuming the existence 
of xxi. 9-xxii. 5 as an independent source, seeing that it is 
internally self-contradictory and that yet linguistically it is from 
the hand of our author. To the conclusion, in fact, that, with 
the exception of a few verses, chaps, xx.-xxii. are from the 
same hand to which we owe the bulk of the preceding chapters, 
a close and prolonged study has slowly but irresistibly brought 
me. If, then, this is so, we must conclude that the text in xx.- 
xxii. is disarranged in an astonishing degree and does not at present 
stand in the orderly sequence originally designed by our author. 

To what cause, we must now ask, is this almost incredible 
disorder due ? It cannot be accounted for by accidental trans 
positions of the text in the MSS a phenomenon with which 
the students of MSS in every ancient language are familiar. 
For no accident could explain the intolerable confusion of the 
text in xx. 4-xxii., and apparently the only hypothesis that can 
account for it is that which a comprehensive study of the facts 
forced upon me in the beginning of 1914, and this is thatfv/in 
died either as a martyr or by a natural death, when he had 
completed i.-xx. 3 of his work, and that the materials for its 
completion, which were for the most part ready in a series of 
independent documents, were put together by a faithful but un 
intelligent disciple in the order which he thought right. 

This hypothesis we shall now proceed to establish by 
adequate proofs. 



148 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-XXII. 

1. First of all it is a matter beyond dispute that xxii. 15, 
xxi. 27, which state that outside the gates of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem evil in every form exists, but that it can in no wise 
pass within the gates of the Holy City, prove that the Heavenly 
Jerusalem here referred to was to descend before the disappearance 
of the first earth and the first heaven and the final judgment 
described in xx. 11-15. A kindred expectation is found in 
4 Ezra vii. 26-28, where the Heavenly Jerusalem, 1 the Messiah, 
and those who had been translated to heaven without seeing 
death, are to be manifested together on the earth for 400 years. 
The same view appears in the same work in xiii. 32-36. In this 
latter passage evil in every form exists outside the Heavenly 
City. 

From later Jewish sources we are familiar with the connection 
of the rebuilt Jerusalem and the temporary reign of the Messiah. 
The advent of the Messiah determines the hour when the 
Temple and therefore Jerusalem should be rebuilt (Shemoth 
rab. c. 31). According to the Targum on Isa. liii. 5 (cf. 
Bammidbar rab. c. 13) the Messiah Himself was to build it. 

From the above facts we conclude that in our author the 
account of the Heavenly Jerusalem (xxi. Q-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17) 
should have followed immediately on xx. 3 as the seat of the 
Messiah s Kingdom. 

2. Verses xxi. 24-26, xxii. 2, 14-15, 17 assume that the 
nations are still upon earth, that the gospel is preached to them 
afresh from the Heavenly Jerusalem, that they are healed 
thereby of their spiritual evils, their sins washed away, that they 
can enter the Heavenly City and eat of the tree of life which 
was therein. And to this salvation they are bidden of the Spirit 
and the Heavenly Jerusalem (i.e. the bride, xxii. 17). 

Now this expectation is derived from the Old Testament. 
In Zech. xiv. 16 sqq., when the blessed era sets in, the nations 
are to go up yearly to keep the Feast of Tabernacles at 
Jerusalem. In Tob. xiv. 6 the conversion of the Gentiles is to 
synchronize with the rebuilding of Jerusalem in a fashion far 
transcending all that Seer or prophet had hitherto dreamt of 
when its gates should be " builded with sapphire and emerald," 
and all its walls "with precious stones," and its streets "paved 
with carbuncle and stones of Ophir" (xiii. 16-17). Similarly in 
i Enoch (161 B.C.) we find it prophesied that the conversion of 
the surviving Gentiles would follow on the setting up of the 
Holy City, which was to be done by none other than God 
Himself. Next, in the Test. XII Patriarchs the conversion of 

1 Box, it is true, regards vii. 26, which tells of the manifestation of the 
Heavenly Jerusalem, as an interpolation ; but the evidence of our text and 
later Judaism supports the connection of the Messiah and the Holy City. 



XX. 4-XXIL] GROUNDS FOR THIS CONCLUSION 149 

the Gentiles is associated with the advent of the Messiah, 
T. Levi xviii. 9, T. Jud. xxiv. 5, and that of the New Jerusalem 
in T. Dan v. 12. Like expectations are expressed in the Sibyll. 
Or. iii. 751-59, 767-95 ; i Enoch xlviii. 4 (where the Messiah is 
described as the light of the Gentiles); Pss. Sol. xvii. 27, 32. 

Thus in many books in Judaism the hope is entertained, as 
in our text, that the Gentiles would turn to the worship of the 
true God, when either the earthly Jerusalem was rebuilt or a 
Heavenly Jerusalem set up on earth, or when the Messiah 
established His Kingdom upon the earth. It is true that 
Judaism associated this expectation with the First Advent of 
the Messiah ; for it looked for no second. But in Christianity 
it was different. What had not been realized on the First 
Advent of Christ is, according to many a Christian prophet and 
Seer, as also to our author, to be realized in a far higher degree 
when Christ came the second time in glory. 

That the conversion of the heathen nations in our text, 
therefore, was to be accomplished in connection with the 
Heavenly City, which as the seat of the Millennial Kingdom 
was to descend on the earth before the Final Judgment, needs 
no further demonstration. 

3. The facts just stated in the preceding paragraph, that the 
Gentiles shall still be upon the earth on the advent of the 
Heavenly City, and have a right to enter therein, are already 
postulated in the earlier chapters of the Apocalypse. Thus in 
xv. 4 we read in the song sung by the triumphant martyrs before 
the throne of God 

" Who shall not fear, O Lord, 
And glorify Thy name ? 
For Thou alone art holy ; 
For all the nations shall come 
And worship before Thee ; 
For Thy righteous acts shall have been made manifest." 

Again, in xiv. 6-7 the Seer recounts a vision in which he 
hears an angel proclaiming the coming evangelization of the 
nations of the world : l " And I saw another angel flying in mid 
heaven, having an eternal gospel to proclaim unto them that 
dwell on the earth, and unto every nation and tribe and tongue 
and people, saying with a great voice, 

1 A somewhat analogous expectation is found in I Cor. xv. 23-28, where 
we have an account of the Messianic Kingdom. This kingdom is heralded 
by the resurrection of Christ : it is apparently established on Christ s (second) 
Advent with the risen righteous (23). Then follows the reign of Christ, in 
the course of which every evil power is overthrown (24 b -28). Then comes 
the end (the general resurrection, final judgment, the destruction of the old 
world and the creation of the new). 



150 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [ XX - 4-XXII. 

Fear God and give Him glory ; 

For the hour of His judgment is come : 

And worship Him that made the heaven and the earth 

And the sea and fountains of waters." 

Now, according to the present form of the text of the last three 
chapters of our book, these prophecies, which definitely foretell the 
evangelization of the nations of the world and their acceptance 
of the Gospel preached, remain wholly unfulfilled. In fact, 
according to the present text, the nations are simply annihilated 
before the advent of the Heavenly City. On the other hand, if 
the account of the Heavenly Jerusalem as given in xxi. 9 to xxii. 
2, 14-15, 17 is restored immediately after xx. 3, then these 
prophecies are fulfilled; for the nations, according to this 
account, walk by the light thereof, and the kings of the earth 
do bring their glory into it, and yet outside its gates there is 
still evil of every kind. 

4. Again, in xi. 15 we read 

" The Kingdom of the world is become the Kingdom of our 

Lord and of His Christ, 
And He shall reign for ever and ever." 

These words quite clearly assume that the rule of God and 
Christ will be extended over the whole world of the nations. 
But, as the text at present stands, not a single nation is men 
tioned as being brought beneath its sway, while in the verses 
(xx. 9-10) that precede the description of the Final Judgment 
(xx. 11-15) we are led to infer that they are wholly destroyed 
by fire from heaven. That is one way of establishing authority 
over the neutral or hostile nations, but it is not God s way. We 
have only to read chaps, xxi.-xxii., which deal ostensibly with 
events occurring only after the absolute destruction of all the 
nations and of the first heaven and the first earth, when we 
discover the nations, that had presumably passed out of exist 
ence, going up in pilgrimage to the Heavenly Jerusalem, each 
under its own king, passing within its blessed portals, bringing 
their glory and honour into it, receiving spiritual healing in the 
Holy City, and assimilating the divine truths that make them 
heirs to immortality, that is, eating of the tree of life. That all 
the nations do not avail themselves of these privileges is plainly 
asserted in the text ; for outside the gates are sorcerers and whore 
mongers and idolaters and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie. 

On this ground again we must transpose the description of 
the Holy City before the Final Judgment, and regard it as the 
seat of the Millennial Kingdom. 

5. The city that is spiritually designated Sodom and Egypt 
(xi. 8) cannot be called " the beloved city " as in xx. 9, nor can 



XX. 4-XXII.j GROUNDS FOR THIS CONCLUSION 151 

it become the seat of the Millennial Kingdom. Much less can 
the ruins of such a polluted city become the abode of Christ and 
of the risen martyrs come down from heaven to reign with Him 
for a thousand years. 

6. Again, as we study xxi.-xxii. we discover that there are in 
reality two descriptions of the Heavenly City, and not one, as has 
hitherto been universally assumed. The Seer has two distinct 
visions, and they deal not with one and the same city, but with 
two quite distinct cities. The first (xxi. 9 to xxii. 2, 14-15, 17) 
presupposes the existence of the present earth. Thus the Seer 
tells how the angel, that had showed him the destruction of the 
great world-capital Rome in xvii., came again to him and carried 
him off to a great high mountain to show him the Heavenly City 
that was to take the place of Rome as the metropolis of the 
world. The very first words of the vision presuppose the co 
existence of the Heavenly Jerusalem and the present earth. 
This city the Seer beheld coming down from heaven to earth 
(i.e. the first heaven and the first earth). It becomes the great 
spiritual centre of the world. The nations flock up to it from 
every side to share in its spiritual blessings, its gates are open 
day and night, and yet none of the evil individuals or nations 
that are without may enter into it (xxi. 24-27). 

It is manifest that since sin, and therefore death, prevail out 
side the gates of the Heavenly City, the present order of things 
still prevails, the first heaven and the first earth are still in being. 

But there is another Heavenly City (xxi. 1-4, xxii. 3-5) 
described by our author, quite distinct from that just dealt with. 
The angel in xxi. 9 has apparently had no direct part in 
mediating this new vision. The vision, just as those in xx. 1-3, 
11-15, xx i- T > seems to be independent of any angelic agency. 
With regard to this Heavenly City there can be no question as 
to the hour of its manifestation. The very first words of the 
text imply that the vision of the Seer has outleapt the bounds of 
time, when the former heaven and earth have vanished for ever. 
This second Heavenly City does not appear till the first heaven 
and the first earth have vanished and their place been taken by the 
new heaven and the new earth. Hence as distinguished from the 
first Heavenly City, it is designated " new," i.e. /cam}, that is, of 
a new sort or quality as distinct from the first, just as the second 
heaven and the second earth are themselves described as " new " 
(foui/os and Kaivrj). This epithet is never applied to the Heavenly 
City described at such length in xxi. g-xxii. 2, i4- I 5> T 7- Sin, 
of course, no longer exists in this new world. Hence there is 
no more crying, nor mourning, nor pain, nor curse, nor death 
(xxi. 4 abc , xxii. 3*), though round about the first Heavenly City 
close even to its very gates sin in every form and death did 



152 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-XXII. 

exist, and even within its stately walls sorrow for sin and repent 
ance were never absent, for the nations of the earth flocked to it 
from every side to be healed of their spiritual ills and infirmities 
(xxi. 24-26, xxii. 2). 

7. It is finally to be observed that, since the earthly 
Jerusalem was in ruins, and never in the opinion of the Seer to 
be rebuilt, a new city was of necessity to take its place as the 
seat of Christ s Kingdom and the abode of the blessed martyrs, 
who were to come down from heaven to reign for a thousand 
years with Him. Since this new city was to be the abode of 
Christ on His Second Advent from heaven, and of the martyrs 
coming down from heaven with Him in their glorified bodies, it 
follows that the new city must be from heaven also, if it was to 
be a fit abode for its inhabitants from heaven. Even as early as 
1 6 1 B.C. (as we have already mentioned above), we have a like 
expectation in i Enoch xc. 28-38, where it is said in the vision 
that God Himself set up the New Jerusalem, to be the abode of 
the Messiah and the transformed and glorified Israel. A like 
expectation is attested in a work almost contemporary with our 
author, i.e. 4 Ezra, as we have already shown. 

8. To the revision of John s literary executor we may prob 
ably ascribe the non-Johannine combinations r. Ka.6rnj.wov r 
avrov in xx. n, where, though only A and some cursives attest 
this reading, they are to be followed ; 6 Ka0^evo<s eVt T. Opovov in 
xxi. 5, where, since every MS is wrong, the error must go back 
to the editor ; TW> TreTreAe/aoy-teKW . . . /cat omves ov 7rpoo-Kvmr)(rav 
in xx. 4, where the omi/es is thrust in against John s usage (see 
i. 5, note). Possibly the normal construction T. \Lp.vrj rfj Kaio^vrj 
Trvpl Kal $io> in xxi. 8 may be due to him : contrast that in xix. 
20. Again in xxi. 6 instead of TO> Sn/^covrt Suxreo the Johannine 
idiom is TO) Su^aWt Swo-w avrw (see note in loc.\ 

From the above facts the conclusion is inevitable that after 
xx. 3 our author had intended to add a description of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem that was to come down from heaven to earth and be the 
habitation of Christ and the martyrs that accompanied Him from 
heaven in their glorified bodies : and also that this very description 
has been preserved in certain sections of xxi.-xxii. 

We have next to determine the extent of this description. 
Now even the cursory reader will observe that there are two 
accounts of the Heavenly Jerusalem in these chapters, which have 
been rudely thrust together by the Seer s literary executor. 1 A 

1 We might compare 2 Corinthians, which is now recognized by the 
learned world as consisting of two mutilated Epistles of St. Paul edited 
together as one, the last four chapters belonging to the earlier Epistle. In 
Cicero s letters Professor Purser shows that in several cases exactly the same 
phenomenon may be found. 



XX. 4-XXII.] RECONSTRUCTED TEXT 153 

close study of these chapters will show that the section xxi. 9- 
xxii. 2 constitutes a unity, though incomplete in itself, as we 
shall see presently, and gives a description of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem that was to be the centre of the Millennial Kingdom. 
Two further fragments of this description are to be found in 
xxii. 14-15 and 17. This description fits in perfectly with the 
conditions of the Millennial reign of Christ and the martyrs for 
a thousand years. It is conceived of as a period of beneficent 
rule and evangelizing effort in regard to the surviving nations 
who visit the Heavenly Jerusalem and bring all their glory and 
honour into it. Wickedness, of course, still exists without it, 
but nothing that is unclean, nor any liar or abominable person, 
is permitted to enter into it (xxii. 15, xxi. 27). 

So far the first description. But what are we to make of 
the second, which begins with xxi. i ? Only the disjecta membra 
of this description remain. Two fragments of it are recoverable 
in xxi. 1-4 and xxii. 3-5. These should be read together, as 
the first clause of xxii. 3 forms the fourth line of the stanza, the 
first three lines of which are preserved in xxi. 4 abc . In this 
second description the former heaven and earth have passed 
away for ever, with all the sin and sorrow and pain that prevailed 
on the former earth. Death itself shall be no more throughout 
the new heaven and the new earth and the New Jerusalem 
(xxi. 4). And whereas in the Heavenly Jerusalem that came 
down from God for the Millennial Kingdom the saints who had 
been martyred reigned only a thousand years, in the later New 
Jerusalem they are to reign for ever and ever (xxii. 5). It is 
noteworthy that even the very diction of xxi. i-4 abc and of 
xxii. 3-5 testifies to the fact that they form part of one and the 
same poem. Thus OVK co-rat ert, which occurs three times in 
xxi. i c 4 bc , recurs twice in xxii. 3* 5 a (contrast xxi. 26) and not 
elsewhere throughout our author. OVK ... ert occurs nine 
times in connection with other verbs. Thus while OVK co-rat I 
is confined to xxi. i-4 abc , xxii. 3-5, it is to be observed that 
OVK . . . In is characteristic of our author in the N.T., since 
outside our author it occurs in the N.T. only six times and 
twice of these in quotations. 

We have now dealt with the chief difficulties in xx.-xxii. 
There are, of course, many of a subordinate nature affecting the 
original order of the text in xxii., but they are treated shortly in 
the introductions to the various sections of the rearranged trans 
lation that follows. Chaps, xx.-xxii. should provisionally be 
read in the following order : 

xx. 1-3. Vision of the chaining of Satan for a thousand 
years. 

xxi. 9-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17. Vision of the Heavenly Jerusalem 



154 TH E REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 9-XXII. 2. 

which comes down to be the abode of Christ and the glorified 
martyrs, and the centre of a new evangelization of the nations 
for a thousand years. 

xx. 4-6. Vision of the glorified martyrs who reign with 
Christ for a thousand years. 

xx. 7-10. Vision of the loosing of Satan, and the attack of 
Gog and Magog on the Beloved City ; of the destruction of Gog 
and Magog, and the casting of Satan into the lake of fire. 

xx. 1 1-15. Vision of the great white throne ; of the vanishing 
of the former heaven and earth ; of the judgment of the dead, 
and of the casting of death and Hades into the lake of fire. 

xxi. 5% 4 d , 5 b > i-4 abc , xxii. 3-5. The outworn world has 
vanished : God creates a new world. Vision of the new heaven 
and the new earth : of the New Jerusalem descending from 
God to the new earth, in which the saints are to reign for 
ever. 

xxi. 5 6 b -8. Admonition of God conveyed through the Seer 
to his contemporaries. 

xxii. 6-7, i8 a , 1 6, 13, 12, 10. Declaration of Christ as to 
the truth of the words of the Seer; His assurance of His 
almighty power and His speedy advent ; and His command to 
the Seer to publish the prophecy : for the time is at hand. 

xxii. 8-9, 20. John s testimony and closing words regarding 
Christ. 1 

xxii. 21. The closing benediction. 

VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM. 

XXI. 9-XXII. 2, 14-15, 17 : Vision of the Heavenly Jerusalem 
coming down from heaven to be the abode of Christ and of the 
glorified martyrs, who are to reign with Him for 1000 years, and 
to be the centre of a new evangelization of the nations. 

This vision forms (I.) an integral part of the Book, and (II.) is 
from the hand of the Seer. Since the question has already been 
discussed (see pp. 144-154) we shall sum up shortly the evidence 
for the above statements. 

I. The vision forms an integral part of the Book. 

1. There must be a fitting seat on earth for the kingdom of 
Christ during the Millennial reign with the glorified martyrs in 
their heavenly bodies. This city while obviously supramundane, 
as befitting Christ and the glorified saints, must yet be accessible 
to the actual dwellers on the earth, as in fact it is : cf. xxi. 24-27, 
xxii. 14-15, 17. 

2. Such a kingdom or centre of the evangelization of the 
heathen nations is clearly foretold in xv. 3-4, and implied in v. 10, 

1 xxii. ii, i8 (i ~!9 are most probably later additions. 



XXI. 9-XXII. 2.] VISION OF HEAVENLY JERUSALEM I 55 

xiv. 7. Without such a kingdom there would be a lacuna in the 
Book. 

3. As one of the angels of the Seven Bowls showed the 
doomed city of the Antichrist to the Seer (xvii.-xviii.), so the same 
angel, or one of the same Seven, shows him the blessed city of 
the Christ (xxi. 9). 

Thus so far as the subject-matter goes, the presence of this 
vision is indispensable. 

II. It is from the hand of the Seer. Full evidence of this 
statement is given in the notes, but sufficient evidence will here 
be adduced to establish this point. 

i. First, as to diction. 

XXI. 9. KCU TJX0ev . . . 8io> oroi agrees exactly with xvii. i. 
With 4>idXas TW yepovrw wv e-irrA -n\r}yuv cf. XV. 7. T. wp^y 
T. yuraiiea TOU dpiuou is prepared for in xix. 7-8. 

10. d-n-TJi/eYKev . . . irrcupm. So also in xvii. 3. rV tf6\i.v 
T. dyiai> kpuaaX^jx : cf. xxi. 2. KarajSaii ouaai IK T. oupai/ou diro 
T. 0eou: cf. iii. 12, x. i, xxi. 2, etc. Ixouaay T. 86ai> TOU 6eou 
(also in 23) : cf. xv. 8. 

11. ws Xi0o> irfomSi : cf. iv. 3, o/xotos . . . Xi 0o> icurTrtSi. 
Now we kiiow (see vol. i. p. 36) that our author several times uses 

as the equivalent of o>s. KpuoraXX^oi/Ti : cf. iv. 6, 6/Wa 



13. d-n-6 dmToXTjs : cf. vii. 2, xvi. 1 2. 
15. 6 XaXwv U.T ejaou : cf. xvii. I. 

18. u<X(o (vaXos, 21) : cf. vaXivo?, iv. 6, xv. 2. 

22. Observe the divine title so frequent in our Book. 

23. ou xpetay exet: cf. iii. 1 7, xxii. 5. <f>aiYw<ni : cf. i. 16, viii. 1 2. 

24. TrepiTraTTJ<roucrii> : cf. ii. i, iii. 4> xy i- r 5- 

26. rr]v So^ai Kal T. TIJATJI/ : cf. iv. 9, IT, V. 12, 13. 

27. yeypafAfJieVoi Iv T. |3i|3Xi w TTJS WT]S : cf. XX. 12, 15. TTOIWI 
Xuyfjia (cf. xxi. 8) Kal xj/eu&os: cf. xxii. 15. 

XXII. 1. Xajxirpoy : cf. xv. 6, xix. 8. iroTa/xor . . . <2s Kpua- 
raXXoi : cf. iv. 6, 6d\aarcra . . . 6/Wa KpvcrraXXw, and see above 
on xxi. 10. eKTropeuojaei oi K T. 0povou : cf. IV. 5. 

14. irXuVovTes T. aroXds auTwi>. So vii. 14. e^ouata a favourite 
Johannine word though here used with a slightly different meaning. 

15. (fxxpfxaKot . . . etScoXoXaTpai. For the same list of four 
see xxi. 8, though in a different order. 

17. fu>cf>T] : cf. xxi. 2, 9. Ipxou : cf. vi. i. 8u|/uirri : cf. xxi. 
6. u&up iwfjs Swpedi : cf. xxi. 6. 

2. Technical use of idioms. 

(a) Anomalous constructions : cf. xxi. 9, <f>idXas -r&v ye^ovruv. 
14. TO TCIXOS . . . ZAW. (b) Participle = finite verb, l^v = 
X et, xxi. 12, 14: cf. iv. i, etc. (c) Delicate distinction of our 
author preserved between u8wp MS and &\ov ^WTJS in xxii. 14, 



156 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 9-10. 

17. This distinction is not made, so far as I am aware, in any 
other book before 100 A.D. : cf. vii. 17, xxi. 6 on So>p w fo 
and 11. 7 (note) on &\ov froijs. (</) Observe how the difficult 
phrase 6 <j>uoTr)p aurrjs OJAOIOS . . . Xi 6a> IdamSi (xxi. u) is 
explained by the clause in iv. 3, 6 icoftj/*evos o/xoios . . . A.i0o> 
IdcnriSi (see note on xxi. n). (e) The use of oi>s and o>oio s as 
equivalents : cf. xxi. n, 18, where O/AOIOS is used in this sense, and 
xxi. n, 21, xxii. i, where o>? is so used. Observe also that 
whereas we have u&up wr]s Swpedk in xxii. 17, we find TOU uSaros 
TT]S SWTJS &wped>/ in xxi. 6 a fact which points to xxi. 6 having 
been written subsequently to xxii. 17. (/) The order observed 
by our author as to numerals but nowhere else rigidly observed, 
is attested in every instance in this vision. Thus our author 
also places SwSe/<a after its noun when the noun is otherwise un 
qualified : J50 also in xxi. 12 (bis), 7rvXwi/as 8ooSe/<a, dyye Aovs ScooW, 
and KapTrovs SwSeKa, xxii. 2 ; but before it when the noun -has a 
dependent genitive : so also in xxi. 12, SwSc/ca ovopaTa T&V ScoSe/ca 
aTToo-roXSi/. Finally, when the subject of a clause consists of 
Sw8e/<a preceded by the article and followed by a noun, and the 
same numeral recurs in the predicate with a noun, the 
precedes the noun. So also in xxi. 21, ot ScoSe/co, irvAfives 
See note on viii. 2. 



XXL 9-21. An angel of the Seven Bowls shows to the Seer 
the Heavenly Jerusalem which is to be the seat of the Millennial 
Kingdom. 

9. KCU TJX0ei> . . . f>idXas. Repeated from xvii. i. <|>idXas 
rail/ yejxomoi/. This is certainly an extraordinary construction 
even in our author. It is best, perhaps, to explain it as an over 
sight. ical XdXT](rK. . . 8ei|o> CTOU Repeated from xvii. i. 

TTJI> ><J>r]i/ [rrp v^atKa] TOU dpi/iou. The phrase in brackets 
is with Bousset to be excised. It can be explained as a marginal 
gloss on T. vvpfav based on xix. 7. The great variation in the 
MSS points to this phrase being an intrusion. 

10. KCU dir^eyKeV jxe eV nvetfjian. This clause has already 
occurred in xvii. 3, and the phrase that follows here, ITTI opos 
/xeya, suggests the present earth just as explicitly as does cts 
Zpypov in xvii. 3. The implication is that the present earth and 
the Heavenly Jerusalem would coexist. But there is no such 
implication in regard to the New Jerusalem. The former heaven 
and earth have already vanished (xxi. i). Ezek. xl. appears to 
have been in the mind of our author when he committed this 
vision to writing. io a is practically an echo of Ezek. xl. 2, "In 
the visions of God brought he me ... and set me down upon 
a very high mountain." Here, as the LXX renders ^yayeV /* iv 
opao-et Otov . . . KOL WrjKev //,e eV 0/305 vi/r^Aoj/ o-<o Spa, our author 
has thought of the Hebrew only. On this very high mountain 



XXI. 10.J VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 157 

(cf. Ezek. xvii. 22 ; Isa. ii. 2) stood what appeared to be the 
structure of a city. 

There he met a man with a measuring line (Ezek. xl. 3) where 
with he measured the Temple. 

em opos jJ^ya KCU uv|/T)X6V. Paradise and a lofty mountain are 
associated together in i Enoch xxiv. sq., and again in Ixxxvii. 3, 
and probably in Jub. iv. 26. But this association may go back 
to primitive times, when the mountain of God (Ezek. xxviii. 14, 
Ps. xlviii. 2) was associated with the glorified Jerusalem (Isa. ii. 2) ; 
see Oesterley, Evolution of Mess. Idea, p. 129 sqq. 

TTJI/ TToXii T<\V dyiai> kpouaaX^jui. If we compare this phrase 
with that in xxi. 2, which refers to the New Jerusalem which 
descends after the Judgment and the creation of the new heaven 
and the new earth, we observe that it is word for word the same 
save that the latter adds the significant word KCUI/^J/. This seems 
to imply that the Heavenly City is itself renewed or replaced 
by another. 

But there are other questions which call for discussion in 
connection with this conception. We have four titles of this 
future abode of the blessed in our author: i. rj TroAts TOV Ocov 
fjiov (iii. 12). 2. f) TroAts -fj dyta lepovcraA?^ Katvrj (xxi. 2.), or rj 
KCHI T) lepovo-aArj/x (iii. 12). 3. fj Tro Ats^ dyta lepovcraX^ (xxi. 10). 
4. 6 TrapaSeto-os TOV Oeov pov (ii. 7). This list we can at once 
reduce to three by referring to iii. 12, where i and 2 are identified. 
Next, by comparing xxi. 10 and ii. 7, we are enabled to identify 
3 and 4 ; for both these are the seat of the v\ov w?/s (cf. xxii. 2). 
We have now to consider in what relation does (a) fj TroAts fj dym 
lep. ( = 6 Trap aS euros TOV Oeov /xov) stand to (/5) rj TroAts 17 dyt a 
lep. Kaivri ( = 17 TroAis TOV 0ov fj.ov). Are they really different 
or are they identical ? They are closely related in the mind of 
our author, but they are not identical. 

(a) The first, i.e. fj TroAts fj dyta lepovo-aATJja, is the seat of the 
Millennial Kingdom. It contains the tree of life (ii. 7, xxii. 2). 
At the close of the Millennial Kingdom and before the Final 
Judgment, when both the heaven and the earth vanish, its removal 
from the earth is presupposed together with Christ and the 
glorified martyrs. This removal from the earth is not expressly 
stated, but it is undoubtedly presupposed. There are analogous 
expectations in contemporary Judaism. Thus in 2 Bar. vi. 
6-10 it is said that even the sacred vessels of the Holy of Holies 
were removed by angels before the destruction of Jerusalem in 
70 A.D. For an analogous account see 2 Mace. ii. 4-8. In 4 
Ezra vi. 2-3, iii. 6, moreover, where the main source ( = S : see Box) 
identifies the heavenly and earthly Paradises, Paradise, which 
had been prepared by God before the creation of the world, was 
placed afterwards on the earth as Adam s abode, iii. 6, but with- 



158 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 10. 

drawn after Adam s fall (see Box on 4 Ezra, p. 197). Hence we 
might reasonably conclude that it is the same city the Holy 
City, Jerusalem that is spoken of in xxi. 10 sqq. and in xxi. 2, 
but that it has been transformed (Kaiv-rj) in order to adapt 
it to the new heaven and the new earth. Further, in this 
connection we might remark that just as the Heavenly Jerusalem 
is associated with the manifestation of Christ on earth in our 
text, so also we find the same association in 4 Ezra vii. 26, 
xiii. 36. It is true that Box rejects both these passages as inter 
polations. But if it was believed that the heavenly Paradise had 
come down to earth to be Adam s abode, there could be no 
objection to the hope that the Heavenly City should come down 
to be the abode of the Messiah. 

(ft) But, though the Holy City, Jerusalem, has been removed 
from the earth before the Final Judgment, when the former heaven 
and earth vanish into nothingness, this city is not to be absolutely 
identified with " the Holy City, New Jerusalem," which comes 
down from the new heaven to the new earth to be the everlasting 
abode of the blessed. This new city is either wholly new in 
every respect, or it is the former city transformed. It belongs to 
the new creation, xxi. 5 b . As opposed to the former Holy City, 
this Holy City is " new " (/cowr/) ; that is, it is here contemplated 
not under aspects of time but of quality : it is new as set over 
against that which is in some respects materialistic, or outworn, 
or marred, or unfit. 

In ft, as we have already remarked, there is an identification 
of 17 Kenny lepova-aXyfji (iii. 12) and fj TroAis TOV Oeov. It seems as 
if ft is distinguished also in another respect from a. There is no 
mention of the presence of the tree of life in ft, though this is a 
characteristic feature of a. But the tree of life is unnecessary in ft, 
since death itself is wholly at an end, xxi. 4 b , and the blessed live 
in the light of God s presence and reign for ever and ever, xxii. 5. 

In the conception of the New Jerusalem our author has fused 
together i and 2 and discarded 4 (see above). But these ideas 
were originally very different, as the following notes will show. 

i. The city of God. The idea of the heavenly city or the city 
of the gods, found in many nations of the ancient world, was taken 
over by Judaism. 

The city of the gods was originally suggested by the heaven 
with the sun and moon and the twelve signs of the Zodiac and 
the twelve gates through which they were conceived to pass, on 
the north three gates, on the east three gates, on the south three 
gates, and on the west three gates. There was also the great 
Milky Way, which was conceived as the great street of the 
heavenly city. 

It has been said that our author had before him the descrip- 



XXI. 10. j VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 159 

tion of Ezekiel s city (Ezek. xlviii. 31 sqq.) with its twelve gates, 
three in each of the four walls, and that this description with the 
enumeration of the twelve precious stones in the high priest s 
breastplate (Ex. xxviii. 17 sqq., xxxix. 10 sqq.) was all that our 
author drew upon in the ideas and facts of the past for his own 
description of the Heavenly City. But our text itself refutes 
such a view. For the fact that in this city are twelve gates, 1 
which are respectively composed of the twelve precious stones, 
shows that some of the ideas in our text go back ultimately to 
the heavenly city itself. There is some hint of this connection in 
i Enoch Ixxii. 2 sqq., Ixxv. 6, Ixxxii. 4 sqq., where there are said 
to be twelve portals in the heaven through which the sun, moon, 
and stars go forth at different seasons. The connection is here 
very slight, but the connection between these gates and the 
precious stones mentioned in our text recalls the fact that Philo 
(De Monarchia, ii. 5 : cf. Vita Mos. iii. 14) and Josephus (Ant. 
iii. 7. 7) interpret the twelve precious stones on the breastplate of 
the high priest of the signs of the Zodiac; and Kircher (Oedipus 
Aegyptiacus, 1653, 11. ii. 177 sq.) has shown that according to 
Egyptian and Arabian monuments these stones correspond to 
these signs. 

The peculiar shape of the city, that it is equally long, broad, 
and high, may possibly be explained from this standpoint ; for to 
the human vision the heaven appears to be of this character. 
We might here compare the Holy of Holies in Solomon s Temple, 
which was a cube, being 20 cubits each way : cf. i Kings vi. 20. 

But our author disassociates (see p. 167 sq.) the Heavenly 
Jerusalem from this ethnic conception of the city of the gods, which 
had impressed itself slowly, and perhaps for the most part imper 
ceptibly, on the Judaism of the past. As the stars were naturally 
compared with precious stones, and as we have just seen that a 
clear association between the signs of the Zodiac and certain 
precious stones was established before the Christian era, it is not 
improbable that in Isa. liv. 11-12, where the earthly Zion is 
referred to, we have traces of the heavenly city : 

" Behold I will set thy bases in rubies, 
And thy foundations in sapphires. 
And I will make of jasper thy pinnacles, 
And thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of jewels " 

(Box s translation); and also in Tob. xiii. 16-18, 

" And the gates of Jerusalem shall be builded with sapphire 

and emerald, 

1 The Babylonians were already familiar with the idea of heavenly gates ; 
see Zimmern, KAT*> p. 619. 



I6O THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 10. 

And all thy walls with precious stones. 
The towers of Jerusalem shall be builded with gold, 

And their battlements with pure gold. 
The streets of Jerusalem shall be paved 

With carbuncle and stones of Ophir, 
And the gates of Jerusalem shall utter hymns of gladness, 

And all her houses shall say, Hallelujah." 

In a much later work, Sibyll. Or. v. 420 sq., we find 

KCU 7roA.iv rfv eTroOrja e $O5, TavTrjv 
(^cuSporepav acrrpcov T6 /ecu rj\iov rySe 

Now from the contents of these passages it appears clear that we 
have to do not with the heavenly city of God, but with the 
earthly Jerusalem, and yet the descriptions reflect the character 
istics of the heavenly city. 1 

2. Paradise. Paradise 2 is very variously conceived at 
different times and in different writings. First of all the term 
is used of the Garden of Eden in Gen. ii.-iii. In the 2nd cent. 
B.C. it has become the abode of the righteous and elect after this 
life, and is called the Garden of Righteousness, or of the Righteous, 
or the Garden of Life, i Enoch Ix. 8, 23, Ixi. 12, and is situated at 
the ends of the earth, Ixv. 2, cvi. 8 (Ixxxix. 52), or on the N.W., 
Ixx. 3, Ixxvii. 3, or to the east of the seven great mountains, 
xxxii. 1-2, xxiv. 1-4 sqq. In Test. Levi xviii. 10, 2 Bar. li. 10- 
n, 2 Enoch ix. i sqq., xlii. 2-4, Paradise does not become the 
abode of the righteous till the Advent of the Messiah or the last 
judgment, i Enoch xxii. In nearly all these passages it is the 
heavenly and not the earthly Paradise that is meant, or rather 
the earthly Paradise has assumed a heavenly character. In 
2 Enoch viii. 1-6 the heavenly and earthly Paradises are 
mentioned in succession. The earthly Paradise was created on 
the third day, Jub. ii. 7, 2 Enoch xxx. i, whereas according to 
later Judaism the heavenly Paradise is described as existing 
before the world either actually or in the thought of God, Pesach. 
54 a ; Ned. 39 b . 

In 4 Ezra (source S) the heavenly and the earthly Paradises 
are identified. This Paradise was prepared by God before the 
Creation as Adam s first abode, iii. 6 (cf. 2 Bar. iv. 3), but after 
wards withdrawn from the earth and reserved for the righteous 
after the final Judgment. In this author Paradise has become 
identical with heaven and is set over against Gehenna, 4 Ezra 

1 See Zimmern, KAT 6 , p. 619; Gunkel, Zum Vtrstandniss des NT., p. 
48 sqq. ; Bousset in loc. ; Jeremias, Babylonisches im NT., p. 68. 

2 The Talmudists are almost unanimous in maintaining that there was 
both a heavenly and an earthly Paradise, The Rabbis distinguish between 
Gan and Eden. Thus Samuel bar Nahman declares that Adam dwelt only 
in the Gan, whereas no mortal eye had ever seen Eden (Ber. 34 b ). 



XXI. 10-11. J VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM l6l 

vii. 36-38, 123. See Box, 4 Ezra, 195 sqq. But in 2 Bar. iv. 3 
the two Paradises are distinguished apparently; for Adam did 
Paradise but ^ &d the vis" n of 



3- The New Jerusalem.- -In the O.T. such passages as Isa 

iv. ii sq., lx. 10-14, Hag. iL ? _ 9 , Zech . iL ^ J^ lsa Q 

he earthly Jerusalem, though in Isa. liv. this conception has 

been influenced by the conception of the city of God In Tob 

xin 16-18 this influence is still clearer, while in 2 Bar iv 2 -j 

the heavenly Jerusalem is definitely affirmed and distinguished 

from the earthly and likewise from Paradise. But it is an error 

to suppose, as some do, that it was only after the destruction of 

the earthly Jerusalem that the idea of the heavenly was evolved 

for we find it clearly stated early in the second century B c in 

r HH^ w 9 W u 6re ^ d HimSGlf builds what is symbolically 
called "the New House" on the site of the earthly Jerusalem! 
which He had removed. In 2 Bar. iv. 3 the manifestation of 
this city is connected with the manifestation of God just as in 
4 Ezra vii .26, xin. 36 the heavenly Zion is to appear along with 
the Messiah and m our own text the Holy City, Jerusalem; with 
Christ and the glorified martyrs. If the heavenly Paradise could 
appear on earth for Adam, it was only natural that the heavenly 
Jerusalem should appear on earth for Christ the Second and 
greater Adam Finally, we should observe that the transference 
of the tree of life from Paradise to Jerusalem, i Enoch xxv 4 -r 
implies the identification even at this early date of Paradise and 
Jerusalem : also in Test. Dan v. 12, 

" And the saints shall rest in Eden (i.e. Paradise), 
And in the New Jerusalem shall the righteous rejoice." 



KaTapaiVoucm l > . . . TOU oO. For parallel phrases in our 
author see above, p. 155. 

-ri]v 8oak TOU 0oG. See note on 23, xviii. i. 

11. o (J^p auTrj s = "the light thereof." This phrase is 
practically equivalent to that which immediately precedes ie 
cxommv TVJV Sot** Otov The city is lighted up by the glory of 
God Himself, and this light was "like a most precious stone as it 
were a jasper (fyoios A$o> Tt/xiom^o,, <fc A t % Id^Si) 6 ^a-r^p 
atrfc does not mean "the luminary thereof" and is not equiva 
lent to o Avxvos a^ s in 23, but is to be rendered as given above 
1 his ^is clear when the words that follow fyoios A#o> . . . d,s 
A^o, ^o-Ti-tSt are compared with iv. 3, where "He that sat on* the 
thro - is described as being " to look upon like a jasper stone " 
(o/xotos Ai0o> uto-Tr^t). Thus the light that pervades the Holy 
City is in colour like to that which flashes through the nimbus 
that surrounded the throne of God (iv. 3). Moreover, we are 

VOL. II. II 



1 62 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 11-14. 

told that it is the glory of God that gives light to the city (xxi. 
21 f) yap 8o a rov 0eov e</>aWev avrrjv). This use of <coo-T7 ? p = 
Tight, is very rare. Cf. i Esdr. viii. 79- Thayer quotes Anthol 
ii ICQ as another instance of this use. 

12. x<""n* = *X- See P- J 55 <^>- The second l X owra 1S 
an ordinary participle. 

T etxs- Cf - 2 Enoch Ixv. 10, "And there shall be to them a 
great wall that cannot be broken down." 

TTuXcSms SoS&eKa. Twelve gates, as in the city of Ezekiel : cf. 
Ezek. xlviii. 30 sqq., Corresponding to the Twelve Tribes. In 
i Enoch xxxiii.-xxxv. there is a similar distribution of the gates 
of heaven whence the stars issue. In Classical Greek TryAun/ 
meant a gatehouse, gatetower, or porch, and was, therefore, 
distinct from mJAq. It has this meaning in Acts xu. 13, rrjv 
Ovpav rov TnAwvos : cf. ibid. xii. 14 ; Matt. xxvi. 71. But it came 
in late Greek (see the LXX) to mean simply a large gate : cf. 
Luke xvi. 20 ; Acts x. 17, xiv. 13- It is in this sense that it 
appears to be used by our author in all eleven times.^ This is 
clear from xxi. 21, ot StoSe/ca uvXwves ScoSexa futpyapiTtu. 
does not use mJXiy. In the LXX \w is often used as a 
rendering of nns and sometimes of "W, while irvAij very often 
renders W and sometimes nna. Hence it is no guide here. 
It is noteworthy that whereas the Fourth Gospel does not use 
TTV\W or TTV H it employs Ovpa many times in the same sense (x. 
1270, xviii. 1 6, xx. 19), as does our author (111. 8, 20, iv. i). 
dyyeXous BdBcica. Cf. Isa. Ixii. 6, "I have set watchmen 
upon thy walls, O Jerusalem." 

^(Wra ImYevpa^eVa KT\. The twelve gates are entrusted 
respectively to the Twelve Tribes, and the names of the latter 
inscribed respectively on these gates, as in Ezek. xlviii. 31, "The 
gates of the city (LXX, inJAm -n?s iro Aecos) shall be after the names 
of the tribes of Israel." If the gates bear the names of the 
Twelve Tribes, the names of the Twelve Apostles (14) are 
engraven on the foundations. Thereby the Seer maintains the 
continuity of the O.T. and the Christian Church. 

13. The order of the points of the compass in this verse are 
E.N.S.W., whereas in Num. ii. 3 sqq. it is E.S.W.N. and m 
Ezek. xlviii. N.E.S.W. How the gates were respectively 
inscribed we have no means of determining. 

14. ret x os X W "- See above P- T 55 ad fin. 
OeaeXious 8c6Seca. Since there are twelve gates, the wall 

surrounding the City is divided into twelve sections, each section 
of which rests upon a single foundation stone. These twelve 
foundation stones consist of twelve precious stones, which are 
enumerated in 19 sq., and form apparently an unbroken and 
continuous basement. 



XXI. 14-16.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 163 

eV au-ruii SuSSexa oVojxara T. 8w8e/ca diroaToW. Elsewhere in 
the N.T. we have a similar combination of the Christian and 
Jewish Churches. In Matt. xix. 28, Ka#ryo-eo-0e K al /ms Vi 

SwSeKa Opovovs /cptWres ras SwSe/ca </>vXas TOV Icrpa^ X, which may 
contain a reminiscence of T. Jud. xxv. i. A remote parallel is 
to be found in Eph. ii. 20, ivoutoBoinflcms eirl TO) tfe/^Xtw T v 
dTToo-ro Xwi/ KCU 7rpo(f>r)Tuv, oVros d/cpoyawaiou avrov Xpurrov Irjo-ov. 
In Eph. the whole spiritual Church is the theme of St. Paul 
here it is only the foundations of the wall that encircles the 
Holy City.^ We have really a nearer parallel in Heb. xi. 10, ^eSe - 
XCTO yap rrjv TOVS #e/x<?Xiovs exovcrav Tro Xii/, ^5 Texyirrjs ... 6 0eo s. 
raiy 8w8eKa d-iroo-ToXwi . The Twelve are here referred to as a 
corporate body, and there is no hint as to its exact composition. 
"The absence of Paul s name," as Moffatt remarks, "is no more 
significant than the failure to emphasize that of Peter." 

15. This and some of the verses that follow have been 
suggested by Ezek. xl. 3 sqq. The measuring in each case has 
to do with the respective ideal cities of the O.T. prophet and 
the N.T. Seer, and not as in xi. 2, where the actual Jerusalem is 
referred to. The act of measuring here has none of the meanings 
given in the note on xi. i. The measures are given to the Seer 
in order to elucidate the vision. 

16. TI 170X19 rerpdycokos. Babylon, according to Herodotus 
(i. 178), was a square (rerpdywvos), each side of the square being 
120 stades. The Greeks regarded the square as a symbol for 
perfection : cf. Simonides^in Plato s Prot. 344 A, &v8p dyatfoV, 
Xepo-i je Kat ^ Trocrt /cat vow rerpdycovov, ai/ev {f/6yov reruy/xeVoi/, 
XaXcTroi/ dXa^eojs : Aristotle, Rhet. iii. n. 2, rov a.ya.6ov dVSpa <dVat 
rerpdywi/ov: cf. Eth. Ntc. i. IO, II, dya^os a\r)0w Kal rerpdycovo? 
avev^oyov. Ketrai = " Stood." Cf. IV. 2; Jer. xxiv. I, Si o 
KaXdOovs . . . Kcipwovs (DHV1O) : John ii. 6, xix. 29. 

em o-raStous SwSeKa x^iaSwk. This reading, which is that of 
AQ and most of the cursives, is very difficult, frl oraStW is in 
itself the usual classical construction, but the genitive (so P) 
also is found : see Thuc. ii. 90 ; Xen. Cyr. ii. 4. 2 , cyeVo^ro TO 

/AeTO)7TOV CTTt rpldKO(Ti(aV . . . TO & fid6o<S l<f) KO.TOV. But how, 

if we adopt the oraSiW, are we to explain SwSeKa x^tdSco^ ? 
Winer (p. 244 n.) describes it as a genitive of quality and com 
pares vrixw (see Blass, p. 99, n. i) in the next line. But the cases 
are not analogous. If it is original, it is perhaps to be rendered 
"to the length of furlongs of the amount of 12,000." Possibly, 
however, o-raSiW is a primitive error and NP have rightly 
emended the text : ITTI o-raoYon/ 8. x- = "at 12,000 furlongs." Cf. 
xiv. 2O aTro 



12,000 stades = nearly 1500 miles. This is 
either the length of one side of the square or of the four sides 



1 64 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 16-18. 

combined, but the words that follow are in favour of the formei 
view. These huge figures are not, of course, to be taken literally. 
Our Seer is using the language of symbolism. When dealing 
with the subject of Paradise later Jewish writers make statements 
of a kindred nature. Amongst the more moderate computations 
is that found in Sibyll. Or. v. 251 (88-130 A.D.) : 

a^pi Sc Kat loTn/s reT^os /x,e ya 
v\l/6cf aetpovrat 



Here the circumference of the city would be about 280 miles. 

A larger estimate (quoted from Wetstein) appears in the 
Shir R. vii. 5, where it is said that Jerusalem would be enlarged 
till it reached the gates of Damascus, and exalted till it reached 
the throne of God (ix. i). In the Baba Bathra, 75 b , its height is 
denned as twelve miles. But the imagination is wholly baffled 
by the amazing figures in Taanith, io a , where the whole world is 
declared to be the sixtieth part of the Garden, and the Garden 
the sixtieth part of Eden. 

17. eicaTOi> Teo-aepdicorra T<rcrdpa>i> ir^x&v- This wall of 144 
cubits is wholly out of proportion in view of the gigantic magni 
tude of the City. It cannot rightly be described as /xe ya KOI 
tyrjXov in connection with the City, and so it may be either a 
fragmentary and now unintelligible survival of some archaic 
element, or else merely a poetical detail, and without symbolic 
significance. But if we might take the wall as an outer line of 
defence distinct from the City, then it could well serve as a 
defence against the entrance of the wicked and unclean (xxi. 27, 
xxii. 15). 

fieTpoy dvOpwirou o eoriy dyyeXou. The measures used by the 
angel are those in common use amongst mankind. This is not 
unreasonable, since both angels and men are fellow-servants of 
God (xix. 10, xxii. 9). 

18-XXII. 2. This section is in verse, and deals with the 
appearance and character of the City. 

18-21. The materials of which the city is constructed. 

18. tj ek8wp)<ris . . . iWrns. eVSaj/x^crts found only here and 
in Joseph. Ant. XV. 9. 6 (17 Se ei So/Ai^rts ocrov r)v e/?aAAero Kara TT}? 
OaXdo-a-rjs Sia/<oo-iovs 7ro8as), and in a pre-Christian inscription, TTJV 
ei/Sw/ATjo-tv TOV Te/xeVovs (Dittenberger s Sylloge Inscript. Grace* 
583, 31, quoted from Moffatt), appears to mean materials or 
fabric. Thus not only was the radiance that came forth from 
Him that sat on the throne (iv. 3) of a jasper hue, and like 
wise that of the whole atmosphere of the Holy City (xxi. n), but 
the wall itself was constructed of jasper. This structure of 
jasper was based on twelve precious stones, each of which 
formed one-twelfth of the entire foundation (cf. 12, 19). 



XXI. 18-19.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 165 

TJ iroXis xpu<V KaOapoi/ KT\. The city itself was composed of 
transparent gold. 

19. The twelve precious stones which compose the twelve 
foundations of the wall correspond on the whole to those that were 
set in gold on the high priest s breastplate in Ex. xxviii. i 7 - 20 
xxxix. 10-13 (cf. also Ezek. xxviii. 13 on the dress of the King 
of Tyre, where, however, in the Hebrew only nine stones are 
mentioned though twelve are given in the LXX). 

Whereas, according to Ex. xxviii. 17 sqq., the names of the 
Iwelve Tribes were written on the twelve stones on the high 
priest s breastplate, in our text the names of the Twelve Tribes 
are written, as in Ezek. xlviii. 31, on the twelve gates; but it is 
the names of the Twelve Apostles that are written on the twelve 
precious stones which form the foundations of the wall of the 
City. By means of xxi. 13, where the order in which the angel 
measured the four sides of the city (i.e. E.N.S.W.), and xxi. 19-20 
where the twelve stones are enumerated, we are able to discover 
the probable order in which these foundations were laid. This 
order has nothing whatever to do with the order given in Ex 
xxvm. 1 7 sqq., as Myers, Encyc. Bib. iv. 48 1 1, and Bousset, follow 
ing the same principle in his commentary, assume ; nor is it to be 
explained from any accidental inversion or misreading of the twelve 
stones arranged in four lines, each line containing three stones 
Bousset s explanation is as follows. Our author read the second 
three stones m Ex. xxviii. 17 sq. before the first three, and the 
fourth three before the third three, and thus arrived at the 
following order : 



II. o-apbiov TOTTU &OI/ o>tapa 7 So9 

HI. x^o-oAitfos fapvXXiov 6vv X iov 

IV. Xiytpiov d X <T7;s d/x^vo-ros. 

Next, he or his source had read the stones in I. and II. from 
right to left, and in III. and IV. from left to right. Now, only 
in the last resort could such a complicated hypothesis in itself 
a confession of failure be accepted. 

While rejecting such an hypothesis, it is advisable to state 
the actual relations between our text and Ex. xxviii. 17-20 
i. Our author has not followed the LXX of Ex. xxviii. 17 sqq., 
seeing that his list differs in the renderings of four of the 
Hebrew words. 2. Our author s list presupposes a transposition 
of the sixth and twelfth stones, i.e. the oiw ( = TOTTCI&OV) and 
n ?F! ( = lao-TTis). This was probably the original Hebrew order 
(see Encyc. Bib. iv. 4810). 3. It is not credible that, using as 
he did the Hebrew text first hand, he should accidentally invert 
the order of the first and second rows and of the third and fourth, 



1 66 



THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [ XXI - 19 



and in addition read the first pair of rows from right to left and 
the second pair from left to right. In short, the order of the 
stones in our text cannot be explained from the order in Ex. 
xxviii. 17-20. We have now to discover the grounds which gave 
rise to the difference in order between our text and Ex. 
xxviii. 17-20. First of all let us arrange the list of stones in 
19-20 in conjunction with the sides of the city as they were 
measured by the angel. 

Now whereas in Num. ii. the tribes are arranged in a square, 
the sides of which look E.S.W.N., and the gates of the Holy City 
in Ezek. xlviii. which bear the names of the Tribes are enumer 
ated in the order N.E.S.W., we are tempted to ask why does the 
angel adopt an apparently capricious order and measure the 
sides of the Holy City E.N.S.W. ? I know of no certain ex 
planation, but it is possible that we may discover some ground 
for it, if we take the reconstructed list of the Tribes in vii. 5-8 
and combine it with xxi. 13. As a result of this combination we 
have the following result : 



Zebulun. 
I 



Issachar. 

I 



Levi. 

I 



Manasseh. 



Naphtali. 



Assher. 



Simeon. 



Reuben. 



Judah. 



Gad. Benjamin. Joseph. 

In this diagram we see that the six sons of Leah, i.e. Judah, 
Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Issachar, Zebulun (see vol. i. p. 208), 
are arranged along the E. and N. Immediately adjoining the 
children of Leah come the children of Rachel in our author s 
list, Joseph and Benjamin (see i. 208), and since the S. was 
preferred to the W. among the Jews, and the angel measures the 
city in the order E.N.S.W. (xxi. 13), these two must be arranged 
along the S. Next (see i. 208) come the sons of Leah s hand 
maid, i.e. Gad and Assher. These take the next position of 
honour, i.e. S.W.S. and W.S.W, 



XXI. 19.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 167 

This solution of the difficulties of vii. 5-8, xxi. 13, 19-20 has 
this recommendation, that it explains all three passages as part of 
one coherent conception. If it is rejected, some other explana 
tion must be discovered, else the direction pursued by the angel 
in measuring the walls E.N.S.W. is highly capricious. 

The angel measures the walls in the order E.N.S.W. Now, 
let us take the twelve stones enumerated in 19-20 and beginning 
with the S.E. corner place the first three on E., which the angel 
measured first, the second three on N., which the angel measured 
next, the third three on S., which the angel measured next, and the 
fourth three on W., as is done below. But it is not till we com 
bine these data with the following fact that we arrive at the 
solution of the problem. This fact is that, according to Kircher s 
Oedipus Aegyptiacusy n. ii. 177 sq. (1653), each of the twelve 
precious stones l in our text is connected respectively with one 
of the twelve signs of the Zodiac on Egyptian and Arabian monu 
ments. That this connection was already recognized by the Jews 
we learn from the express statements of Philo and Josephus (see 
references in note, p. 159). The following table (from Kircher) 
gives the connections between the signs and the precious stones 

1. The Ram the amethyst. 

2. The Bull the hyacinth. 

3. The Twins the chrysoprase. 

4. The Crab the topaz. 

5. The Lion the beryl. 

6. The Virgin the chrysolite. 

7. The Balance the sardius. 

8. The Scorpion the sardonyx. 

9. The Archer the smaragdus. 
10. The Goat the chalcedon. 

n. The Water-carrier the sapphire. 
12. The Fishes the jasper. 

In the diagram that follows I have placed the precious stones 
in the order suggested by our text in 13, 19-20 and added the 
signs of the Zodiac with which they were respectively connected, 
Now, if we read the signs of the Zodiac as there given in the 
order prescribed in 19-20 we arrive at the following result. 
The signs or constellations are given in a certain order, and thai 
exactly the reverse order of the actual path of the sun through the 
signs. Thus we have the Fishes, Water-carrier, Goat, Archer. 
Scorpion, Balance, Virgin, Lion, Crab, Twins, Bull, Ram ; for the 
order to be followed is that given in xxi. 13, i.e. E.N.S.W, 
But in the apparent movement of the sun, the sun is said when 

1 In Pliny s H.N. xxxiii. the definite number twelve is connected with 
precious stones. 



168 



THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 19. 



crossing the equator towards the north to be at the first point of 
the Ram, thirty days later it enters the Bull, and so on through the 
Twins, Crab, Lion, etc., till it reaches the Fishes. Now this 
cannot be an accident. The conclusion that our author is ac 
quainted with these current beliefs as to the connection of the 
twelve precious stones with the signs of the Zodiac, and the 
sun s progress through the signs of the Zodiac cannot in the face 
of the above facts be questioned, while the further fact that he 
gives the stones in exactly the reverse order to that required by 
astronomical science, shows that he regards the Holy City which 
he describes as having nothing to do with the ethnic speculations 
of his own and past ages regarding the city of the gods. Thus he 
deliberately disconnects the Holy City with the city of the gods, 
in which the twelve gates were connected with the twelve precious 
stones and the signs of the Zodiac, (i) by connecting the gates 
of the Holy City with the names of the Twelve Tribes, and by 
representing each gate as composed of a single pearl, and (2) by 
using the twelve precious stones in an ornamental sense and de 
scribing them as engraved with the names of the Twelve Apostles. 



Table giving the stones of the foundations in their probable order and their 
probable equivalents in Ex. xxviii. 1720. 

crdpSiov <rap56t>vj- (TOTT&^IOV <T/jApay8os 
( = D), inLXX = n?99), ( = np^), 
Balance. Scorpion. Archer. 



"\ 

Ram. f 



in LXX = up), V- 
Bull. 



(Xi T 
tipiov in LXX 
D 5^)> Twins. 



(&v6pat 
in LXX = 7]p:), 
[ Goat. 



V Water-carrier. 



\ Fishes. 



roirdfrov ( = 
in LXX = 
Crab. 



( = antf), ( = srchn), 

Lion. Virgin. 



XXI. 19 20.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 169 

In the above diagram it will be observed that our author has 
rendered the Hebrew words *JB3, mBB, DB^, and UB> respectively 
by xaA/oySwi/, crapSovvt;, x/^o-oVpao-os, and vaKtvOos, whereas the 
LXX in Ex. xxviii. 17-20 renders them respectively by avOpa, 
Toird&ov, Xtyvpiov, o-xttTT/?. Of the twelve stones enumerated 
in our text 1 three have already been mentioned, the icwm-is, 
o-/xapay8o?, and <rdp8tov in iv. 3, while vaKwOos is implied in ix. 17. 

lao-ius. This was probably of a green or emerald colour. 
See iv. 3. 

a<xTr<J>eipos. This stone "is identified (Theophr. 37; cf. 55, 
Kvavos O-KU^?, and Pliny, H.N. xxxvii. 120) with the opaque blue 
4 lapis lazuli of Turkestan " (Encyc. Bib. iv. 4805). 

xa\KT)8wK. This word occurs only here in Biblical Greek. 
This gem is taken to be of a green colour ( = a copper silicate), 
and as we have seen already is substituted for dv0pa (a red 
garnet) in the LXX. 

aixdpaySos. See note on iv. 3. 

20. aapSoyug ( = the iYit3B). If we may identify this stone 
with the topaz, it was, according to Strabo (770), translucent and 
golden coloured (x/wcroeiSes a.7roo-TL\j3ov <eyyos) or yellow green ; 
according to Pliny (H.N. xxxvii. 8), yellow green (e virenti genere). 
The LXX renders rntDB by ro-n-d&ov in Ex. xxviii. 17-20. But 
the arapSowg was properly a variety of the ow in which the white 
background was variegated by layers of red or brown (Pliny, H.N. 
xxxvii. 23). But what is the Hebrew? 

o-dpBioy. See iv. 3 (.). 

Xpua6Xi0os ( = tWin). This gold stone is hard to identify : it 
may be golden yellow and opaque i.e. yellow jasper or yellow 
serpentine : or it may be golden yellow and translucent (see 
Encyc. Bib. iv. 4807). These stones are described by Pliny, H.N. 
xxxvii. 42, as "aureo fulgore translucentes." 

prjpuXXos ( = DnB*). This is thought to be the malachite by 
Myres in the Encyc. Bib. iv. 4808, " with its wavy . . . bands 
and cloudy patches of light vivid and dark green." In Ex. 
xxvii. 20, xxxix. 13, DF1B> is rendered by 



1 The identification of the Greek with the Hebrew names for these precious 
stones is in several cases purely hypothetical. This is in part due to the 
confusion of the order in the Massoretic. Although the same order in the 
four rows on the high priest s breastplate is given in Ex. xxviii. 17-20 and 
xxxix. 10-13 both in the Massoretic and the LXX respectively, yet the LXX 
implies a transposition of nw and oS.T. But the confusion is further aggra 
vated by the two accounts in Josephus, Ant. iii. 7. 5 and Bell. v. 5, 7, which 
differ from each other as to the order of the stones in the third and fourth 
rows, and while the first account gives for the first stone in the first row 
a-apSow^, the second gives crapdiov. Since Josephus states (Ant. iii. 7. 5) 
that the names of the Twelve Tribes were engraven on the stones, each stone 
having the honour of a name in the order in which they were born, this con 
fusion is all the more disturbing. 



I/O THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN L XXI - 20-22. 

Toird^ioy. See under o-ap%6w above. 

Xpuo-oirpao-os. This word, which does not occur in the LXX, 
which has Xiyvpiov, is the Greek equivalent of D&6. It was prob 
ably of a greenish yellow colour. According to Pliny, H.N. 
xxxvii. 20, it was like the beryl but paler : " vicinum genus huic 
(beryllo) est pallidius, et a quibusdam proprii generis existimatur 
vocaturque chrysoprasus." 

udiai/0os (i.e. 13^, where LXX has d^arry?). According to 
Pliny, H.N. xxxvii. 41, it was of a violet colour, resembling the 
amethyst but less bright : " ille emicans in amethysto fulgor 
violaceus dilutus est in hyacintho." 

dfxe Ouoros (i.e. nc^ntf) a transparent purple quartz. 

21. ol SuSeica iruXaJves . . . p-apyaptTai. Cf. Sanh. IOO H : 
" Rabbi Jochanan sat one day and preached : One day will the 
Holy One blessed be He bring precious stones and pearls 
thirty cubits long by thirty cubits broad and excavate (openings) 
in them of ten cubits (in breadth and) twenty cubits in height, 
and they shall stand in the gates of Jerusalem " : cf. also Baba 
Bathra 75 b . dm els eicaoTos. This is a " barbaric " construction : 
cf. Matt, xx vi. 22, etc. For this distributive use of dvd cf. iv. 8, 
John ii. 6 ; but the avd is hefe an adverb, not a preposition. In 
Ka@* ets in Mark xiv. 19, Rom. xii. 5 the Kara is an adverb also 
(Robertson, pp. 460, 555). A somewhat parallel construction 
is found in Eph. v. 33, KO.& tva c^acr-ros (Blass, p. 179). 
T) irXareia. Probably to be taken generically " the streets," as 
v\ov 0^75 in xxii. 2. \puviov KaQapov. The whole city is 
described as "pure gold" in ver. 18. ws uaXog Siauyifc. This 
may be rendered either " transparent as glass " or " as it were 
transparent glass." The latter is decidedly weak, but either is 
admissible: cf. i. 14, iv. 6, ix. 9, xv. 2, xxii. i. Stauyrjs is found 
only here in the N.T. and not at all in the LXX. It occurs in 
Philo, Lucian, Plutarch, Apollonius Rhodius. 

22. In the Holy City there would be no temple (see note on 
vii. 15), nor ark of the covenant the restoration of which was 
so eagerly looked for by the Jews ; for that the Lord God would 
be the Temple thereof and the Lamb the Ark of the Covenant 
thereof. The absolute destruction of the earthly temple was 
foretold by our Lord, Mark xiii. 2; John iv. 21 ; but even the 
heavenly temple so often referred to in the earlier chapters 
would have no place as the Heavenly Jerusalem. This verse 
like those which precede and follow it was originally a tristich, 
but some words have been lost after KOU TO apviov. Not improb 
ably the missing words are to be recovered from xi. 19, and thus 
the last two lines may have run 

6 yap Kvpios, 6 $eos 6 TravroAcparcop, i/ao? avrrjs eariv, 
/cat TO apviov fj Kt/?wros r^s Sta^K^s avrrjs. 



XXI. 22-23.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM i;i 

The temple that was in the first heaven will disappear (cf. 
vii. 15, xi. 19). God Himself is henceforth the only Temple, and 
Christ the Ark of the Covenant. By this restoration the complete 
parallelism between 22 and 23 is restored. In vii. 9-16 the 
vision is concerned with the martyr host before the throne of 
God in heaven, still incomplete and still growing with fresh 
accessions from the great tribulation on the earth. This host 
serve God day and night in the temple in heaven, but this temple 
has no part in the Heavenly Jerusalem : still less in the New ; 
for it belongs to the former things that have passed away (xxi. 4 d ). 
See note on xxi. 3. In the Ep. Barn. xvi. the idea of anything 
but a spiritual temple is looked upon with disfavour. Man, 
when redeemed, forms the habitation of God "a spiritual 
temple built up to the Lord " (7rycu//,ariKos i/aos oiKoSo//or/zvos ra5 



Our restoration of the missing words 17 KI/^WTOS rf/s 

is confirmed by Jer. iii. 16, where it is prophesied that on 
the advent of the kingdom of God "the ark of the covenant of 
the Lord " (mrf rp"O jn) should no longer be thought of nor 
needed nor restored. That the Jews of the century before the 
Christian era expected the restoration of the ark on the advent 
of the kingdom is clear from 2 Mace. ii. 4 sqq., where it is told 
that the ark had not been destroyed but had been hidden by 
Jeremiah on Mount Nebo with a view to its safe keeping. That 
this belief was current in the first century A.D. is to be inferred 
from 2 Bar. vi. 7-9, where the ark and certain other holy things 
belonging to the first temple are said to have been hidden by 
angels in the earth till the Messianic kingdom was established. 
That this expectation persisted long afterwards in Judaism we 
learn from Bammidbar rabba 15. For another kindred legend see 
Yoma, 54*. Against such materialistic expectations our author 
declares boldly that there will be no restoration of the ark of the 
covenant, for that its place was taken by the Lamb. 1 

23. With the whole verse cf. Isa. Ix. 19 sqq., /cat OVK carat o-oi 
trt 6 17X105 cis <ajs ^/xepas, ovoe aVaroX?) o-eX^i/^s <a>Ttt crot rrjv 
VVKTO. dXX corral croc Kvpios <a>s atooyioj/ . . . ov yap oYcrcrai 6 17X105 
<roi, Kat fj aeXyvr) O~OL OVK CKXeti/ et, carat yap Kvpios o*ot <a>s CIKDVLOV. 
As in Isaiah the sun and moon do not cease to exist : their 
splendour is simply put to shame by the glory of God Himself: 
cf. Isa. xxiv. 23. Our author does not seem to have used the 
LXX here. 

ou xpeiay ?xci TOU iqXiou ou8e TTJS cre\i(]i>T]S auTT] : cf. xxii. 5 ; 
Isa. Ix. 19 sq. Here the glory of God see n, lx V(Tav r ^ v & av 

1 The ark was at all events a symbol of the divine presence. To the 
popular mind, however, it was more ; it was conceived as the actual abode of 
Jahveh : cf. Num. x. 35, 36 ; 2 Sam. xv. 25. 



1/2 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 23-24. 

TOV Ocov (note) lights up the Heavenly City, and not the sun 
and moon as we see from the next clause, though these still give 
light to the world outside the City. Cf. Midrash Tillin, xxxvi. 2, 
" Neque in mundo futuro necesse habebunt lumen solis interdiu, 
aut lunae noctu " (Wetstein). 

Y) ooa TOU 0eou e^ojTio-e^ auTrjy : cf. 1 1, xviii. I. The " glory n of 
God manifests itself in light. This Sda is probably the Vf or bright 
ness which went forth from the Shekinah or the glory (top*) of 
God : cf. Targ. Jer. i on Ex. xxxiii. 1 1, pBK VI, and Jarg. Jon. on 
Ezek. xliii. 2, where we have "the brightness of His glory" (vt 
N"ip s ). The brightness of Moses face ( IQDfcO plp tf vt), according 
to Jarg. Jer. i on Ex. xxxiv. 29, was derived from the brightness 
of the glory of the Shekinah of Yahveh (^T Krw^atP "ip^N VT p). 
This last expression will explain xviii. i, where it is said of an 
angel, f) yrj <f><aTurOr) e/c r^s 86r)<s avrov : cf. xxi. 3, note. 

cat 6 Xu x^os auTT]s TO apviw. Here 6 Xv^i/os avr^? is the 
predicate and corresponds to ^omo-ei/ avT-rjv in the preceding 
line, just as TO apvtov is the parallel to 17 So a TOV 0eov. There 
is no comparison here with the sun and moon as Bousset 
suggests. 

24-27. The necessity of interpreting these verses with regard 
to the present earth and the nations surviving the advent of 
the Millennium has already been pointed out (see p. 146 sqq.). 
The evangelizing of the nations is already foretold in xiv. 7 by 
an angel flying in the midst of heaven, and the going up of the 
nations to worship God is proclaimed as an event of the future 
by the glorified martyrs in heaven (xv. 4). The Seer at last 
beholds in vision the fulfilment of these prophecies. Unless 
we explain xxi. 9~xxii. 2, 14-15, 17 as the Heavenly City 
which was to come down from heaven to be the seat of the 
Millennial reign, then the prophecies in xiv. 7, xv. 3 remain 
unfulfilled. 

The conversion of the Gentiles to Judaism was looked for by 
Zechariah, ii. 1 1, viii. 23, and the writer of Isa. Ixv.-lxvi. ; Dan. vii. 
14; Tob. xiii. n, xiv. 6 ; i Enoch x. 21, xc. 32 sqq.; Test. Levi 
xviii. 9 ; Test. Jud. xxv. 5 ; Test. Asher vii. 3 ; Test. Naph. viii. 4 ; 
Pss. Sol. xvii. 32 ; 4 Ezra xi. 46, amongst other Jewish writers. 
This expectation became a central truth of Christianity, but the 
conversion of the heathen nations is to be due, not to Judaism, 
but to Christianity. 

24. This verse consists of a stanza of three lines, the second 
line of which is corrupt. The whole stanza is based on Isa. Ix. 3, 
ii not on the LXX of these verses, which runs as follows : 

3. /cat iropeuaorrai jSaaiXels TW <|>WTI aou, 
rfj Xa/MTrpOTrjTL o~ov. 



XXI. 24-27.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 173 
II. /cat o.voL^6rj(Tovro.L at iruXat crov Sta 

T)JJ.6paS Kttl yUKTOS OU IcXeiCrO 

eivayayelv irpos ae Swa/xiv 
/cat j3aai\eis airruij/ dyo^ieVous. 

The words in heavy type have their equivalents in our text, 
in 24-25, but our author has here rendered the Hebrew inde 
pendently of the LXX. We might compare Pss. Sol. xvii. 34-35. 

Sid TOU <J><OTOS. Here Sta may be rendered "amidst" or 
"by." 

25. Tjfxe pag f vu yap OUK earai e Kei f. The obelized clause 
was probably a marginal gloss originally, based on xxii. 5, which 
subsequently displaced the true text, /cat VVKTOS. In xxii. 5 the 
definite statement is made that there shall be no longer any 
night at all. That is what we should expect in the New Jerusalem 
and the new heaven and the new earth. But there are the 
following objections to this clause in its present context, i. We 
should expect ^/ue pas /cat i/v/cTos as in Isa. Ix. n, on which the text 
is confessedly based. 2. The parallelism is against it. 24-25 
form a tristich occurring in the midst of a succession of tristichs, 
and the last line of this tristich is formed of 25. Hence instead 
of 

/cat ot TTvXwves avr^? ov yu,r; /cAeio-$a>crij/ ^aepas, vv yap OVK 
ecrrat e/cet 

we should read 

/cat ot TruAaivfS avrrj^ ov /try /cA.eicr$a><Ttv rjfjLepas /cat VVKTOS. 

3. We should then have the familiar phraseology of our 
author: cf. iv. 8, vii. 15, xx. 10. 

It might, of course, be urged that the adverb e/cet justifies the 
clause in the present context by limiting the statement to the 
city itself. But this emphatic use of e/cet implies clearly that day 
and night alternate as usual outside the City. What meaning is 
then to be attached to ^/xepas? Does this word denote the un 
broken day that prevails within the City, or the usual period of 
light without it ? The obelized clause introduces hopeless 
confusion into the context. 

26. Based on Isa. Ix. n. See on 24: cf. also Ix. 5, "the 
wealth of the nations shall come unto thee." Here the LXX 
differs : ort jLtera/?aA.et ets ere TrXoGros OaXdcra rjs /cat eOvwv /cat Xawv. 
/cat rj^ovcrLV <TOL ctyeXat. 

27. The unclean and the abominable and the liars are still 
on the earth, but, though the gates are open day and night, they 
cannot enter. 

ou |j,T] elcre \0T] . . . iray K.OWOV : cf. LXX of Isa. lii. I, ouKe rt 
8ieA0etv Sta o-ov aTreptr/jir/Tos /cat d/ca^apros ; XXXV. 8, 



174 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [ XXI1 - * 

ov firj irapiXOrf e/cet d/ca0apros : also Ezek. xliv. 9. That our 
author is using the Hebrew text and not the LXX is evident 
here ; for though aKaOapTos has already occurred four times, he 
does not use it here but /coti/os. But there seems to be some 
primitive error in the text. Alike the passages in the O.T., of 
which our text is a reminiscence, and the following phrase Trotwi/ 
fiocXvypa lead US to expect Tras /cotvos instead of irav KOLVOV. 
Moreover, the final clause el /j.r] ol yeypa/^ei/ot presupposes only 
persons to be mentioned here. If this is right, then we should 
render : " and there shall in no wise enter into it any that is un 
clean or that maketh an abomination or a lie." KOlp fc) could 
represent Tras KOU/OS or TTO.V KOLVOV. 

TTOIWI/ pSe Xuyfjia. Contrast Babylon (xvii. 4) which was full 
of /SSeAuy/xara : cf. xxi. 8. TTOIWI/ . . . \|/euSog : and XXli. 15, Tras 
</>tA.a>i/ /cat TTOttuv i/^evSos. 

el p) ot yeypafAfieVoi ( = D"3in3iVDy *3). This construction, as 
I have pointed out above, implies that only persons should be 
mentioned in the two preceding lines : i.e., ov ^ cio-eXd^ cis 
Tras KOIJ/OS /cat TTOIUH/ /38eA.vyyu,a. 

TU> {3ipXiu> TY]S wTJ<; TOU dpi/iou. See notes on iii. 5, xiii. 8. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

1-2. The description of the Heavenly City that descends 
from heaven for the Millennial reign is continued in these verses. 
The /cat tSet^eV /xot points back to xxi. 9, 10, where the same 
phrase occurs. In this vision the spirit of the Seer is actually 
translated (cf. xvii. 3) to the Heavenly City, which is shown to 
him by an angel (cf. xvii. i). There is no such translation of 
the Seer s spirit in the vision of the New Jerusalem that is to 
descend from heaven after the Judgment and the creation of the 
new heaven and the new earth (xxi. 5*, 4 d , 5 b , 6 a , i-4 abc , xxii. 3-5). 
This latter vision is part and parcel of the vision of the Judg 
ment : cf. /cat tloov in xxi. i, 2 with the same phrase in xx. n, 
12. In this vision there is no angelic intermediary. The Seer 
sees the great white throne and Him that sat thereon (xx. n, 12) : 
he hears God proclaiming the end of the old world and the 
creation of the new (xxi. 5% 4 d , 5b) : he sees the new heaven and 
the new earth and the descent of the New Jerusalem, and hears 
a great voice from the throne declaring that God Himself will 
henceforth abide with men (xxi. 1-3). 

1. KCU e8eieV JJLOI : cf. i. i, iv. i, and the preceding note. 

iroTafxof u &a-ros wT|s. Has " the river of the water of life " 
the same spiritual significance as " the fountains (or fountain ) 



XXII. 1-2.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 175 

of the waters (or water ) of life" in vii. 17, xxi. 6 and "the 
water of life" in xxii. 17 ? It is probable, since the river goes 
forth from the throne of God, and " the fountains of the waters 
of life " may be conceived as forming the source of this river in 
the throne of God. But it is noteworthy that no spiritual signi 
ficance is attached to this river here, whereas the tree of life 
(xxii. 2) is full of significance in this respect. 

Whatever the relation of " the river of life " and " the 
fountains of the waters of life " may be in our author, their origin 
and meaning were originally different. The idea of the river in 
the Heavenly City springs ultimately from the river in the Garden 
of Eden (Gen. ii. 10). The object of the river in Eden was 
simply to supply the garden richly with water. When, however, 
we come down to Ezekiel, we find that the river which flowed 
forth from beneath the Temple in the coming Kingdom of God was 
possessed of healing powers as regards the natural products of 
the earth (Ezek. xlvii. 8-n). Zechariah (xiv. 8) speaks of these 
waters as issuing forth from Jerusalem eastward and westward, 
.but attributes no transforming influence to them. Perhaps 
Ps. xlvi. 5 might be cited here, but both the text and its meaning 
are uncertain. Lastly, in 2 Enoch viii. 5 it is stated that the 
river in Paradise in the third heaven flows from beneath the tree 
of life and divides into four streams of honey and milk and oil and 
wine. Thus so far as the O.T. and Judaistic literature down to 
100 A.D. are concerned, this river in Paradise was not associated 
with any powers of spiritual transformation such as we find 
frequently with the phrase " fountain of life " or "water of life." 

So far for "the river of the water of life." Turning now to 
the phrase "fountain of life," we find that this and analogous 
phrases had in Jewish literature a spiritual significance cf. Jer. 
ii. 13; Prov. x. n, xiii. 14, xiv. 27, xvi. 22; Ps. xxxvi. 10; 
i Enoch xcvi. 6 just as they have in our author. 

Xap.Trpoi a>s KpucrraXXo^. For Aa/ATrpo s cf. xv. 6, xix. 8, xxii. 
1 6, and with ws Kpv(rra.\Xov cf. iv. 6, 6/xot o, . . . K/Dvo-raAAo) the 
two phrases being exact equivalents (see -vol. i. p. 36). 

2. KTTOpeu6fAl Ol> . cf. Ezek. X"lvii. I, KOI 1&OV vSwp e e7TO/Dt TO 

V7ro/caT(jo$v roil alOpLOv K.O.T dvaroA-as : also 8 ; Zech. xiv. 8. 

TOU OpoVou TOU 0eoG Kcu TOO api/iou. There is no difficulty in 
this conception nor is there any ground for regarding KCU TOV 
apvtov with the most recent German critics as an addition. This 
idea with regard to the Messiah is pre-Christian : cf. i Enoch 
Ii. 3, "And the Elect One shall in those days sit on My throne." 
Likewise the Elect One is described as sitting on " the throne of 
glory, xiv. 3, Iv. 4, and as sitting on the throne of His (i.e. God s) 
glory," Ixii. 3, 5 (cf. Ii. 3). Similarly the Lord of Spirits places 
the Elect One " on the throne of glory " (Ixi. 8), " on the throne 



176 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 2. 

of His glory," Ixii. 2. This throne is called the Son of Man s 
throne, Ixix. 27, 29. Finally, it is to be observed that though 
the Lord of Spirits places the Elect One on the throne of glory in 
Ixi. 8, and he judges all men, yet in Ixi. 9, the praises of all are 
directed to the Lord of Spirits. On the other hand, in xxii. 3 of 
our text the phrase ical TOV apvCov may be an addition, though 
there is no conclusive evidence for so regarding it. 

ev jxe o-w TTJS irXareias auTtjs. This phrase can be taken either 
with what precedes or with what follows, i. In the former case 
we are to translate as in the R. V. " he shewed me a river 
in the midst of the street thereof." The next sentence then pro 
ceeds : "And on this side of the river and on that." Here 
evrcvOev /ecu fKeWev have a prepositional force as in Dan. xii. 5 
(Theod.), els cvrtvOcv TOV ^etAou? TOV Trora/xov (ife n DSE^ nan) : 

cf. IvQw Ka l ivOw rfs Ki/jcorov, jhtA njKn njo, iii JosVviii/33. 
According to this view the river runs down the midst of the great 
heavenly way, and is flanked on either side by the trees of life 
2 But it is possible to take the passage differently and connect 
the words *, /xeo-u, rfc TrAoWas avrfs with what follows, and 
treat cvTcvBev KO.L hcWey as genuine adverbs (cf. Ezek. xlvii 7 
bevbpa TroAAa cr^oSpa IvOcv Kal IvQtv (fiTBl HTO), and John xix. ig! 
evrcvVcv KM V Tev0w). The resulting construction is quite 
grammatical but the sense is unsatisfactory : Between the street 

rr ^u 7 an the nver n either side of [t was ther e the tree of 
These words presuppose that there was a space between 
the street and the river, and suggest that they ran side by side 
There are two possible ways of conceiving the arrangement of the 
trees of life. Either these trees are arranged in two rows, one on 
either bank of the river (one row thus coming between the street 
and the nver), or they are placed on either side of the space that 
lies between the street and the river. The unsymmetrical char 
acter of 2. is certainly against it. 

dW Ms. See note on xxii. 14. This expression is used 
here collectively. In Gen. i. n S q. H? is used collectively. 
Hence our author departs here from the conception of a single 
tree of life asm Gen. ii. 9 , Hi. 22; i Enoch xxiv. 4, xxv 4-6 
perhaps under the influence of Ezek. xlvii. 7, Ka l I8ov M TOV 
XeiAovs TOV Trorapov SeVSpa TroAA^ (31 )>y) o^o Spa IvQiv K<L\ IvQiv 
and 12, eTn rov vXovs avTov IvBtv Ka l |^ 
KO.I eo-rat 6 KapTro? O.VTW ci s Pp5xr w 



TToiou, Kapirods SciSeKa. This is suggested by Ezek. xlvii. 12 
which speaks of fresh fruit being produced every month 
Kara pji/a JKOOTOK dTroSiSou^ TOV Ka^^ a^roG. Th 



. This is a free 
rendering of Ezek. xlvii. 12, 13T Vfin>, where the LXX (AQ 



XXII. 2, 14-15.] VISION OF HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 177 

other uncials omitting) has T*}? KCUVOT^TOS avrov Trpu>To(3o\r]<ri a 
fact which proves our author s independent use of the Hebrew 
text. The greater part of this verse is based on Ezek. xlvii. 12. 

TOL <f>u XXa TOU fuXou els Oepcureiai T&V IQvGtv. Here again our 
author draws directly from Ezek. xlvii. 12, nsnr6 }r6y, which the 
LXX has rendered ai/a/3a<ns auraiv ( = $}>(?): cf. Ezek. xl. 6) 
els vyc eiav. The nations here are those that have survived the 
visitations in chap. xix. and are evangelized by the inhabitants of 
the Heavenly City. 

14-15. This is the next fragment of the description of the 
Heavenly City which is to be the seat of the Millennial Kingdom. 
The persons referred to here are the nations who are contempo 
raries of this kingdom. 

14. ot irXui oi Tes ras oroXas aurwy. See additional note on 
vi. u, vol. i. p. 187 sq. 

The phrase is the equivalent spiritually of oi vtKoWes. Each 
class alike has endured and overcome, and as access to the tree 
of life is here promised to those who have cleansed their robes, 
so in ii. 7 the right to eat of the tree of life is given to those who 
have overcome. 

tW corai . . . KCU . . . iaeX0a>o-ii>. On this combination of 
the future and subjunctive cf. iii. 9. fi/a is frequently followed 
by the future in our author: cf. vi. 4, n, viii. 3, ix. 5, xii. 6, 
xhi. 12, xiv. 13. 

The Kat here = " and so " ; for the faithful must first enter the 
City before they can eat of the tree of life : " that they may have 
the right to the tree of life and so may enter, etc." To Iva 
lorat, 77 (.^ovcria. avriov CTT! TO v\ov TT}S a>?}s we have a remarkable 
parallel in I Enoch XXV. 4, ouSe/u a (rap eovcnav e^ei auj/ao-Qcu 



TO uXoK TTJS wTJs. See note on ii. 7. 

15. ew. There can be no question as to the meaning of this 
term here. Our author clearly states that outside the City or 
the gates of the City are all classes of sinners. We might 
compare Ps. ci. 7, "He that worketh deceit shall not dwell 
within my house." In the Pss. of Solomon xvii. 29 the writer 
declares of the Messiah : 

" And he shall not suffer unrighteousness to lodge in their 

midst, 

Nor shall there dwell with them any that knoweth wicked 
ness." 



Nay, more, like Joel iii. 17 (aXXoycvtts ou SicXevo-ovTai BC 
OVKCTI) the writer of this Psalm maintains the exclusion of the 
Gentiles in 31, " And thesojourner and the alien shall dwell with 
them no more." But in our author race distinctions are taken no 



VOL. n. 12 



i;8 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 15, 17. 

account of. Character alone is decisive of a man s fitness or 
unfitness. 

ot icuVes. If we compare this verse with xxi. 8 we observe 
that they are practically doublets. Thus the ot <ap/za/<ot /ecu ot 
Tropvoi /cat ot </>oi/eis KCU ot etScoAoAarpat as well as Tras TTOIWI/ 
i/^evSos are repeated almost verbally in xxi. 8. To rots SetAots KOL 
ctTrto-Tots in xxi. 8 there is no equivalent, but we may reasonably 
infer with Swete that the KvVes of the verse before us denote the 
same persons as the e/3SeA.vy/xeWs in xxi. 8. In other words, the 
persons referred to were either heathens or Jews stained with the 
abominable vice which excluded them from the Heavenly 
Jerusalem, the Spiritual Israel. Anciently the word was used to 
denounce the moral impurities of heathen worship: cf. Deut. 
xxiii. 18, "Thou shalt not bring the hire of a whore or the wages 
of a dog unto the house of the Lord thy God." Here "dog" is 
the technical term for a BHljJ, or male prostitute, according to the 
inscription in the temple of Astarte at Larnaka. It was likewise 
employed by the Jews of the ist century A.D. to designate the 
heathen : cf. Matt. xv. 22 sq. In Phil. iii. 2 St. Paul applies the 
term to the Judaizing faction in the Christian Church (/SAeWc 
TOUS Kwas). See Lightfoot, who well paraphrases iii. 2-3 : " We 
are the children, for we banquet on the spiritual feast which 
God has spread before us: they are the dogs, for they greedily 
devour the garbage of carnal ordinances, the very refuse of God s 

table." 

On oi (fxxpjjiaicol . . . KCU ot e!8wXo\aTO(u see xxi. 8 (notes). 

iras <t>iXu>i/ KCU iroiwv iJ/eGoos. Cf. xxi. 8, irauri rots j/rcvSeW. 
Unless we attach to TTOIWV here the sense of doing with regard to 
a certain object or end, we should have an anticlimax in the 
phrase before us. The meaning then would be : " every one that 
loveth and maketh falsehood his systematic object." In this 
case 6 TTOIWV \l>. would differ from 6 vrpao-crcov \l/. The latter 
would mean simply "one who tells lies," "one who practises 
lying," whereas the former would mean rather "one who lies 
deliberately with an object" (see Plato, Charmides, 162^, on this 
meaning of Trotetv as distinguished from irpdo-o-eiv). The <f>i\w 
iJ/cvSos denotes one who loves lying for its^own sake. Here we 
might compare Rom. i. 32, ov povov aura TTOLOVO-LV dAAa /cat 
(rvvcvftoKOvariV rots Trpdoro-ovcTLV. 

17. This is the last verse belonging to the description of the 
Heavenly Jerusalem, xxi. Q-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17- It cannot 
belong to any other section of the work. It deals with the 
evangelization of the heathen nations as foretold in xiv. 7, xv. 4, 
and implied in xi. 15. 

This expectation is in harmony with most O.T. prophecies 
as in the Second Isaiah, Haggai, Zechariah, Daniel, and also in 



XXII. 17.] VISION OF THE HEAVENLY JERUSALEM 179 

the Apocryphal literature in Sirach, i Enoch, Testaments XII 
Patriarchs. See my Eschatology, and Wicks, The Doctrine of God 
(in the indexes of both). 



TO weujxa. Trvtv^a has many different meanings in our 
author, i. Either alone, as in xiii. 15, or with o>ifc appended 
xn. u, it simply means "life." 2. It means personalized living 
beings either (a) as angels, ra TjW/xara rov 0eov, iii. i, i v . 5, v . 6 
(b) as men, though in the passages that follow it is the spiritual 
element that is alone emphasized, eV -nW^aTi, i. 10, iv. 2, xvii. 3 
xxi. 10, o 0eos TaV Trvf.vp.aTuv rw TT/JOC^TCOI/, xxii. 6 : (c) as un 
clean spirits or demons, Trj/eu/xaTa d/ca^a/cmx, xvi. 13, xviii. 2, TTV 
Sai^oi/tW, xvi. 14. 3. It means the Spirit of Christ. Thus in TO 
Tn/ev/x^Ae yei, ii. 7, ii, 17, 29, iii. 6, 13, 22, xiv. 13 (where vat, 
Aeyet TO Tn/ev/xa the utterance of the Seer answers like an echo 
the voice from heaven in xiv. i 3 ab ) it is the Spirit of Christ 
speaking through the Seer. For in all the Seven Letters the 
Speaker is Christ : cf. ii. i, 8, 12, etc. Similarly in the present 
passage, xxn. 17, it is the Spirit of Christ that is speaking through 
John. Thus the entire phrase TO Trvev^a KCU fj vv^-q means con 
cretely " Christ and the Church in the Heavenly Jerusalem " _ 
that is the Church after the Second Advent, not before it : see 
next note. In such expressions of the prophet the human inter 
mediary is wholly overlooked, and his utterance assigned directly 
to the Spirit, just as in the O.T. the prophet introduced his 
message with the words: "Thus saith the Lord." We might 
compare i Tim. iv. i, where TO Trvev/xa /^TCOS Aeyei means in con 
crete language: "a certain prophet says expressly": cf 
Acts xxi. ii. 

rj fA<J>Tj. In xxi. 9 at the beginning of the description of 
the Heavenly Jerusalem this City is called fj vv^rj : cf. xxi. 2. 
Thus the term has a double meaning : it can denote either the 
Heavenly Jerusalem or its inhabitants, i.e. the Spiritual Israel, 
which is to be the Bride of Christ, just as Israel in the O.T. was 
conceived of as the Bride of Yahweh. It is as the Spiritual 
Israel, as the Church triumphant in the Heavenly Jerusalem, that 
the Bride evangelizes the earth afresh an evangelization which 
was promised in xiv. 7, xv. 4, and which, when it is accomplished, 
will make true in fact what was already declared as accomplished 
inj:he counsels of ^heaven in xi. 15, eyeWo rj /foo-tAeta TOU KoV/xov 
TOV Kvptov "fj^v Kat TOT) XpicrTov O.VTOV, England can mean either 
a certain geographical expanse of country or the people who live 
in it. See xix. 9% p. 129. 



Cf. vi. i. This word seems to be taken universally 
as the reply of the Church to the voice of Jesus in ver. 12. But, 
as we have seen above, the Bride is the Heavenly Jerusalem or 
its blessed inhabitants in the Millennial Kingdom and not the 



l8O THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 1. 

Church before the Advent. Thus Christ has already come in 
this vision. Further, in line 17, there can be no question that 
epxe o-0co refers to the coming of him that is athirst to Christ. It 
is, therefore, only natural, apart wholly from the force of the 
term y vu/w^, to take lp\ov in i7 ab in the same sense: i.e. 
as the invitation of the Spirit of Christ, of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem, and of those who accepted the message, to the world 
of men that were still thirsting for life and truth or were willing 
to accept them. Cf. John vi. 35,^6 ep^/x^os Trpos e/xe ov ^ 
7TLvdo-r), Kal 6 mo-Tevuv eis e/xe ov ^ Secret TnoTrpre : vii. 37, eav 
rts 8u//a, epxeV0u> Trpo s /u-e KOL TTIVCTW. Cf. the Didache, x. 6, in 
the pos t-Communion prayer of the Church. 



" Let grace come 
And let this world go. 
Hosanna to the Son of David, 
If any one is holy, let him come 
If any one is not, let him repent. 
Come, Lord (i.e. papavaOa)" 

We have here a spiritual adaptation of certain parts of our text. 
Here, since the Second Advent of Christ is still in the distance, 
the prayer " Come, Lord " can be taken eschatologically as well 
as spiritually. 

Kal 6 dKou wi/ KT\. The call was to be taken up by such as 
heard it and repented. The hearer is to be regarded as one who 
heard and accepted. 6 Sujiui/ ep X eV0u. ^ Cf. Isa. Iv. i ^(*W>9 
D 5 13^); John vii. 37, edV TIS ouj/a, epxe cr0a> Trpds /AC Kal TriveVw. 
Cf. also xxi. 6 of our text. 

u8wp WTJS Supecm The phrase recurs in ^xxi. 6 where il 
rightly has the article rov vSaros rfjs ^5 8a>pedV a fact which 
points to xxi. 6 as really coming later in the text. 



CHAPTER XX. 4-15- 
i. Contents. 

This section follows naturally on the elaborate descrip 
tion of the Heavenly Jerusalem, which had come down 
from heaven to be the abode of Christ and the glorified martyrs. 
After this vision we have another vision of the glorified martyrs 
who alone had part in the first resurrection (xx. 4-6). Then, at 
the close of the Millennial Kingdom, Satan is loosed and leads 
Gog and Magog to the assault of the Beloved City, whereupon 
follows their destruction by fire from heaven, and Satan is cast 
into the lake of fire (7-10). This section closes with a vision of 



XX. 1-3.] DICTION AND IDIOMS l8l 

the great white throne, before whose presence the former heaven 
and earth had vanished, of the raising of the righteous and 
wicked from the " treasuries " and from Sheol to be judged, and 
the casting of death and Hades into the lake of fire (11-15). 

This section has suffered from a transposition of the text 
in 4. Most probaby 13 stood originally before 12. Glosses have 
been added at the close of 12 and 14, and the text tampered 
with in 13 on dogmatical grounds. 13* is meaningless as it 
stands. 4-15 with the above exceptions comes from the hand of 
John as we shall now show alike by its diction and idiom. That 
it forms an organic and indispensable element of the Book is 
obvious. 

2. Diction. 

4. Sect T. fxapTUpiay Irjaou KCU 8icl T. Xoyoy T. 0eou : cf. i. 2, 9, 
vi. 9, xii. ii. ou . . . TO 0T]pioi/ ouoe T. eiKoVa auTou : cf. xiv. 9. 



TO xapayjxa em T. juieWiroi KCU em T. 
Xeuacu KT\. : cf. v. i o. 

5. el"f]arav= " came to life" : cf. ii. 8 (xiii. 14). a^pt TeXea0fj : 
cf. xv. 8, xvii. 17, xx. 3. 

6. 6 Seurepos Qdvaro<s : cf. ii. II, xxi. 8. tepei? . . . pao-iX- 
euo-oucrii : cf. i. 6, v. 10. 

7. eK TTJ9 4>uXaKT]9 : cf. ii. 10 for phrase. 

8. irXai/TJaai TO, e 0nr) : cf. xii. 9, xiii. 14 (xviii. 23), xix. 20, 
XX. 3, 10. eV TCUS TeVaapat yamats TTJS yr\S : cf. vii. I for the 
phrase, o-u^ayayeii auTous els T. irAXcpov : cf. xvi. 14 for the 
phrase. 

10. 6 8id|3oXos 6 irXaKUK : cf. xii. 9, 6 ^aravas 6 TrXavtui/. 
e|3XYJ6ir) is T. \ip.vTT]v rouirupos: cf. xix. 2O, XX. 14, 15. OTTOU icai : 
cf. xi. 8. pao-ajaaOrjoroi Tai : cf. ix. 5, xiv. 10. Tjfxe pas Kal 
^UKTOS: cf. iv. 8, vii. 15, etc. ets T. alwi/as T. aluvuv: cf. i. 6, 18, 
iv. 9, etc. 

11. <f>uyci> . . . Kal . . . oux ope0T] : cf. xvi. 2O, l^vyev KOL 
. . . ovx evptOrja-av. TOTTOS oux upe 0T] auTOis : cf. xii. 8. 

12. 0-TWTaS CVtoTTlOy T. 0p6^OU . Cf. vii. 9, <TTOJTS CVMTTIOV T. 

Op6vov t viii. 2, etc. yeypa^fJieVa)! iv TOIS |3t^Xiois : cf. i. 3. ev 
avrfj -yeypa/mfjieva : xiii. 8, XX. 15, xxi. 27. 

13. Kpi0Tjo > a> cKaaTO? KCITO, TO, cpya afaGtv. For Kacrro<s with 
plural verb cf. v. 8 (cf. John xvi. 32), and for Kara TO. tpya, 
ii. 23. 

14. ej3Xi]0i(]crai els T. XifJUT]i> TOU irupos : cf. 10, 15, xix. 20. 

15. eupe 0T] . . . yeypajAjxeVos : cf. iii. 2 for construction. Iv 
T. pi pXwTTJs COTJS: cf. iii. 5, xxi. 27. 



3. Idioms. 
4. Trpoo-eKunr]o-ai> TO 0T]pioi : see note on vii. ii. 



1 82 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4. 



eVi TO jjieTcoTTov Kai Im T. x ip a : see note on xiii. 16, vii. 3. 

5. axpt with subj. : cf. ii. 25, note, vii. 4, xv. 8, etc. 

6. llTl TOUTWI/ . . . OUK )(t C^OUCTtCU I cf. ii. 26. 

8. (fr . . . aurwi/ : cf. iii. 8, vii. 2, 9, ix. ii, etc. 

13. ISwiceK = " gave up" a Hebraism in this sense = |ni 

In two cases the text abandons our author s idiom owing to 
the ignorance of the editor. 

4. Abandonment of the author s idiom by insertion of omi/e? 
by editor in TOOV TreTreXe/cto /xei/oJi/ . . . /cat oirii/es ov 7rpo(TKvvr)(rav. 
See note on i. 5. 

11. TOV Ka6rjfjLvov eVt avrov : see note on iv. 2. Our author 
wrote 7rt avrov, but of our author s unique treatment of this 
phrase the editor of xxi. 4-xxii. was ignorant. 

4-6. Vision of the glorified martyrs who reign with Christ 
for a thousand years. 

4. The construction of this verse is difficult. Thus we have 
two clauses, /ecu lKa6to~av 7T* airrovs, /cat /cpt/xa l$66rj O.VTOLS, inter 
vening between eTSov and its accusative ras ^v^as. But not 
only is the construction irregular, but the sense is hopelessly 
uncertain from the standpoint of our author. For if we ask 
who are those who seat themselves on the thrones, no satis 
factory answer can be given. It is not the glorified martyrs; 
for they are first referred to in the words TO.S ^ru^a? T <*> v 7r ^ ~ 
XcKtcr/xeVwv. And yet from iii. 21, where it is said that the 
martyrs are to share the throne of Christ, we should expect 
them to be referred to here and to sit on the thrones as Christ s 
assessors. Somewhat in favour of this view is Christ s promise 
to His Apostles in Matt. xix. 28, KaOrjo-eo-Oe /cat v//,ets eVi SwSe/ca 
Opovovs. Likewise in Dan. vii. 9 (LXX Theod.), eOewpow ecos ore 
(orov, Theod.) Opovoi treOyo-av, and vii. 26 (Theod.), TO Kpmjptoi/ 
eKaOiorev (LXX, r/ Kpicrt? Ka$urTai), and vii. 22 (Theod.), KOU TO 
Kpf/jia (LXX, rrjv /cpio-iv) eoWev ( + TOIS, LXX) ctyiots ( +TOV, LXX), 
v\j/iarrov, we have passages which not only speak of the function 
of judgment as assigned by the Most High to the saints, but 
appear to have suggested the clauses in our text. Cf. i Cor. 
vi. 2 sq., OVK oi oWe OTI ot aytot TOV KOQ-/AOV /cpn/ovo-iv . . . OTI 



Thus owing both to the ungrammatical structure of the text 
and its unintelligibleness it is not improbable that 0poVovs, /ecu 
e/cd$iorav CTT* avTovs /ecu Kpt/za eSo#r/ avrot? /cat was originally a 
marginal gloss based on Daniel, or rather that this passage has 
got displaced and should be restored after /cat CTTI rrjv x e ^P a 
avTon/. By adopting the latter alternative, as the present editor 
has done, we restore sanity to the text by making it at once 
grammatical and intelligible, and recovering the lost parallelism 
of the passage : i.e. 



XX. 4.] VISION OF THE GLORIFIED MARTYRS 183 

Kal etSoy T. i|/u)(as T. TreireXeKiojJieVoji 8ia T. fxapTupiac irjcrou 

Kal 8ia T. XtSyoi TOU Oeou, 
Kal [oiTiyes] ou TrpoaeKuVr]aai TO Qr}piov 

ou8e T. eiKoVa aurou, 
Kal OUK eXajBoi/ TO x^P a YM- a * T [AeTW7roi> 

Kal em T. X ^P a tt J" 1 "^ 
<Kal i8oy> OpoVous Kal eKadicrac eir auTOus 

Kttl KplJAtt 8o0T] 



This signifies that authority is now vested in the hands of the 
righteous, and not in those of the oppressors of the Church as 
aforetime. 

T&V TreTreXeKto-jAeVwi , i.e. beheaded by the TreA-e/cus the instru 
ment of capital punishment in republican Rome. Cf. Diod. Sic. 
xix. IOI, pa/^SiVas eTreAeVtcre /cara TO TrdrpLov e$os. Joseph. Ant. 
XIV. 7. 4, 2i7Tift)V Be, e7rio-TtAavTo airu) ILo/Ji.7rr)LOv 
AAe^avSpov TOV A.pKTTo(3ov\ov, atTiao-a/x,vo9 TOV veavtV/cov CTTI 
TO TrpajTOV is Pw^iatovs e^-^jtiapTTy/jtei/ots TO> TrcXe/cet Sie^prycraTO. In 
vi. 9, xviii. 24 we find eV^ay/xevwv, the word used in connection 
with the Lamb that was sacrificed, v. 6, 9, 12, xiii. 8. 

8ia T. jjiapTupiac |T}O*OU Kal 8ia T. Xoyoy T. Ocou. These phrases 
are found in the opposite order in i. 2, 9, vi. 9. Cf. xii. n. 

[omyes] ou TrpoaeKunfjaak KTX. These had all suffered martyr 
dom according to xiii. 15. The clause gives a further definition 
of those who had been faithful unto death. To regard these as 
forming a second class of the faithful, i.e. the surviving faithful, is 
against the actual statement in xiii. 15, and the presuppositions that 
underlie xiv.-xix. (see pp. 4, 26, 40, 96 ad fin.} and also against 
the immediate context ; for in that case we should have to attach 
two conflicting meanings to l^crai/ which immediately follows : 
i.e. " lived again " and " continued to live " according as we 
connect it with the first class, the actual martyrs, or the second 
class, the confessors. Moreover, the opening words of 5, ot 
AOITTOI TWV vK/>wi/, clearly imply that the persons referred to in 
4 were among the ve/<pot according to the usual phraseology. 

[omkes]. This is probably an addition made by the disciple 
who edited these last chapters. See note on i. 5 b -6. By its 
omission we should recover our author s normal resolution of 
the participle into a finite verb, i.e. T. 7re7reA.eKio-/xeva)v . . . KOI 
ov Trpoa-fKvvfjcrav = " who had been beheaded and had not wor 
shipped." 

irpoaKuVr|o-av TO Qiqpiov KTX. See vii. n n. 

TO xapayM-a em T. jAeWnw Kal em T. \elpa. See xiii. 16 (.), 
vii. 3 (n.). 

e^aav, i.e. "came to life" (cf. ii. 8, xiii. 14; Rom. xiv. 9) in 
human parlance, though in their life in heaven they had been 



1 84 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 4-5. 

more truly alive than when they had been on earth. With this 
first resurrection or manifestation of the glorified martyrs in the 
Millennial Kingdom we should compare that of all the departed 
saints with Christ in i Thess. iv. 14-17, and that of certain 
saints who had been taken up alive into heaven in 4 Ezra vii. 28 
(cf. vi. 26). This line resumes briefly the preceding eight lines. 

e|3ao-t\ucrcu fierd, TOU Xpiorou x^ ia * TT 1- Cf. V. 10. The 
earliest authorities for the belief in a temporary kingdom of the 
Messiah are i Enoch xci.-civ. (xciii. 1-14, xci. 12-19), P SS - Sol. 
xi., xvii. ; Sibyll. Or. Hi. 1-62; Jub. xxiii. 27-29, 31, n; 2 Bar. 
xxx., xl. 3, Ixxiv. 2, xii. 34; i Cor. xv. 23-28. The limits 
assigned to its duration are various. In 4 Ezra vii. 28 sq. this 
kingdom is to endure for four hundred years, and to come to 
a close with the death of the Messiah and all His companions, 
and the world is to return to primeval silence a statement 
apparently without parallel for its explicitness in Jewish litera 
ture. In 2 Bar. xxx., on the other hand, Christ returns in glory 
to heaven at the close of the Messianic reign. In 2 Enoch 
xxxii. 2-xxxiii. 2 there is a reference to a period of Sabbatic rest 
of a thousand years after the close of six thousand years of the 
world s history. Barnabas, Ep. xv. 2-8, accepts this view, and 
adds that the Son of God will appear at the close of the six 
thousand years to put an end to the reign of the Lawless one, 
to judge the wicked and to change the sun, moon, and stars. 
At the close of the Millennial period there will be the beginning 
of another world (aXXov KOO-^OV ap^v). See my Eschatology^^ 
pp. 248, 250 sq., 270 sq., 301 sq., 330, etc. Weber 2 , 373. The 
reckoning of a thousand years was based on a combination of 
Gen. i. 2 and Ps. xc. 4 = 2 Pet. iii. 8. From this it was concluded 
that as each day of creation stood for a world-day of a thousand 
years, so the history of the world would embrace a world-week of 
seven thousand years, six thousand years till the final judgment 
and a thousand years of blessedness and rest. 

5. ol Xonrot Twy vKp>v ouK c^TjaaK. Therefore not even the 
righteous, who had died a peaceful death, have part in this first 
resurrection. We should observe that John, who must fcave 
been well acquainted with the traditional and current belief, 
that the righteous survivors would be blessed on the advent of 
the kingdom, deliberately ignores it. This can only mean, as 
has been frequently shown in the preceding pages (see p. 183), 
that John held that there would be no righteous survivors on 
the advent of the kingdom. The traditional belief is attested in 
Dan. xii. 12; Pss. Sol. xvii. 50; Sibyll. Or. iii. 371; i Thess. 
,iv. 17 ; i Cor. xv. 51-52 ; Asc. Isa. iv. 15. 

auTT) T) dfdoraais T) irpcoTt]. This must not be construed in a 
purely spiritual sense and taken to mean a death to sin and a 



XX. 5-6.] THE FIRST RESURRECTION 185 

new birth unto righteousness, i. The earliest expounders of the 
Apocalypse, such as Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Irenseus, Hippo- 
lytus, and Victorinus, quite rightly take the words in a literal 
sense of an actual reign of Christ with the glorified martyrs on 
earth. The spiritualizing method which emanated from Alex 
andria put an end to all trustworthy exegesis of the Apocalypse, 
when adopted in its entirety with reference to the Apocalypse. 
The meaning assigned by the votaries of this method became 
wholly arbitrary, and every student found in the Apocalypse what 
he wished to find (see my Studies in the Apocalypse, 8, 9, 10, 
12, 13, 14, 28, 30, 36, 38, 48, etc.). The earliest expounders 
were right, as they were in close touch with the apostolic time. 

2. Moreover, the Talmud, and other Jewish writings, and 
specially the Jewish Apocalypses, attest a literal reign and no 
other of the Messiah, so far as they deal with the question. 

3. The context itself is wholly against taking the words in a 
spiritual sense ; for (a) this resurrection is obviously the guerdon 
of martyrdom, and begins not with the beginning of the Christian 
life but after its earthly close, (b) As Alford rightly urges : " no 
legitimate treatment of it (i.e. the text itself) will extort what is 
known as the spiritual interpretation now in fashion. If, in a 
passage where two resurrections are mentioned, where certain 
i/or^at e^o-av at the first, and the rest of the ve/cpoi l^aav only 
at the end of a specified period after the first, if in such a 
passage the first resurrection may be understood to mean 
spiritual rising with Christ, while the second means literal rising 
from the grave; then there is an end of all significance in 
language, and Scripture is wiped out as a definite testimony to 
anything." Hence attempts to revive the spiritualizing inter 
pretation of the Millennial Kingdom are to be deplored from 
every standpoint. 

But since the first resurrection embraces only the glorified 
martyrs, who return to earth to share the Millennial Kingdom 
with Christ in the Jerusalem which comes down from heaven, it 
is different in character from the second. For only the faithful 
who had undergone martyrdom have part in it, whereas at the 
second resurrection the rest of the faithful and all the unfaithful 
rise to judgment. As we shall see on xx. 1 2, these two classes 
appear before the great white throne, the former, as we must 
conclude, in their glorified spiritual bodies, and the latter simply 
as disembodied souls i.e. naked. 

6. By meeting martyrdom on behalf of their faith the 
martyrs are admitted to share in the Millennial Kingdom, are 
not subject to the second death, and accordingly are exempt 
from the Judgment that is to follow on the close of the kingdom. 
Moreover, their priestly character in bringing the knowledge of 



1 86 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 6. 

God and Christ to the nations during the Millennial Kingdom 
appears to be referred to in the expression tepcts TOV Ocov /cat TOV 
Xpio-rov (see below). 

fxaKdipios Kal Syios. Ma/capios is used seven times in each 
case in connection with a beatitude cf. i. 3, xiv. 13, xvi. 15, 
xix. 9, xx. 6, xxii. 7, 14. aytos though of frequent occurrence is 
not used in this connection elsewhere in our author. Hence it 
is possible, as Wetstein suggests, that aytos refers to the blessed 
in their priestly capacity (tepeis TOV Otov) and /na/captos in their 
kingly (/Sao-tAevo-oro-tv). The combination "blessed and holy" 
is found in Jub. ii. 23. 

6 exwy jxe pos iv. Cf. John xiii. 8, OVK e^eis //.epos /ACT e/xov : 
also in xxi. 8 in a different form, TO /uxpos avrwv, and xxii. 19. 

eVi TOUTO^. For eVt in this sense with the genitive cf. ii. 26 
[xi. 6], [xiv. 1 8]. 

6 Seu repos 0dVaros. This death is defined in xxi. 8 (cf. Matt. 
x. 28). It is mentioned already in ii. n as a punishment, from 
which those, who are faithful to the end, are exempt. In xx. 14 
it is clearly an interpolation. 

OUK exet efouaiai>. Cf. ii. 26, VI. 8, ix. 3, etc. 

Upets TOU 9eou ica! TOU Xpurrou. Cf. i. 6, tepets TW 0<3. Now 
it is to be observed that in i. 6 (see note in loc.\ v. 10, and here 
the priesthood and the kingship of those whom John addressed 
are conjoined (in i Pet. ii. 9 they are combined in one expres 
sion, fiao-iXeiov tepdVei;//,a). But it is further noteworthy that 
V. 10 (e7rot7yo-as avTOvs . . . /3ao-tAetav /cat tepets /cat /Jao-iA-evouo-tv 
eTTt TT}S y>}s) and the present passage connect the priesthood with a 
special period of kingship, i.e. that which they are to exercise in 
the Millennial Kingdom, and share with Christ (xx. 6) on the 
earth (v. 10). These facts suggest that the priestly offices of the 
blessed in the Millennial Kingdom have to do with the nations, who 
are to be evangelized during this period (xiv. 6-7, xv. 4), and 
this suggestion receives some support from xxii. 5 where, when 
the eternal reign of all the saints after the Judgment is men 
tioned ((3a.(TL\ev(Tov(riv ets T. atwvas T. atcovwv), there is not the 
remotest reference to any special or other priesthood of the 
faithful. 

pacriXeu o-ouaii p-r 1 aurou. The scene of this reign is given in 
the proleptic vision, v. 10, as eVt riys 7179. 

7-10. Close of the Millennial Kingdom and of its evange 
lizing activities. Thereupon follow the loosing of Satan, the march 
of Gog and Magog all the faithless upon the earth against 
the Beloved City, their destruction by supernatural means, and 
the casting of Satan into the lake of fire. The Seer does not 
say what became of the Heavenly Jerusalem, but its withdrawal 
from the earth with Christ and the glorified martyrs before the 



XX. 7.] LOOSING OF SATAN 187 

Judgment is presupposed, while its return to the new earth in a 
renewed form is definitely stated in xxi. 2. Since "the Beloved 
City " in xx. 9 is the Heavenly Jerusalem, the saints referred to 
in the same verse include the risen martyrs and the converts 
from among the nations. 

The same order of events appears in Sibyll. Or. iii. 662-701, 
i.e. the advent of the Messiah, the establishment of His kingdom, 
the attack of the nations on Jerusalem, and the destruction of 
the invading hosts by God. In certain sections (A 1 , A 2 , A 8 ) of 
2 Baruch (ist century A.D. ; see my edition, pp. liii. sqq.) the writers 
look forward to a temporary Messianic kingdom preceded by the 
Messianic woes, a beneficent domination of the world by the 
Messiah preceded by the destruction of the antichristian 
powers, and of such heathen powers as had been in any way 
associated with them. In the Son of Man Vision in 4 Ezra xiii. 
the Messianic woes come first (xiii. 30-31), then the manifesta 
tion of the Messiah (xiii. 32), the assault of the heathen nations 
on the Messiah, and their destruction by Him, xiii. 33-34, and 
the manifestation of the Heavenly Jerusalem, xiii. 36. For yet 
another scheme of the last things see 4 Ezra iv. 56-v. 13% 
vi. 11-28, vii. 26-44 (Box s edition, p. in). According to a 
contemporary of our author, R. Eliezer ben Hyrkanos or R. 
Eliezer the Great, the woes of the Messiah were to come first, 
then the day of Gog and Magog, and then the Judgment. If we 
pass on to the Coptic Apocalypse of Eiias (a Jewish work edited 
by a Christian, 2nd century A.D.) we find the order of events as 
follows : the destruction of Antichrist and his adherents, the 
advent of Christ with His saints, the creation of the new heaven 
and the new earth and the Millennial Kingdom ! In the 
Hebrew Apocalypse of Elijah (3rd century A.D.) Gog and Magog 
appear after a Messianic reign of forty years. On their annihila 
tion follow the Judgment and the descent of Jerusalem from 
heaven. 

It will be observed that, though each of the works above 
cited differs in some respect from our text, in some respects they 
all agree with it. 

It is obvious at a glance that our author here forsakes tl 
apocalyptic style and adopts the prophetic. But he has already 
done so in 6 cd , and in 9-10 he reverts to his apocalyptic style. 
Further, there are no grounds in this section itself for assuming 
a source, since there is not a single construction at variance with 
our author s style, though there are new phrases as might be 
expected in describing new events. 

7. XueVjaeTai. Cf. XvOyvai in 3 and the same verb m ix. 
14 used in the same sense. CK T. <f>uXaKTJs au-rou. Cf. ii. 10 
[xviii. 2] for the word 



1 88 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 8. 



8. e e\u (TTai (cf. iii. 12, vi. 2, 4, ix. 3, etc.) -rrXa^o-at TO. 
In 3 Satan was cast into the abyss, Iva. py irXavrjay In TO, 

iv TCUS reWapai ycmais TTJS yijs. Cf. vii. i where this phrase 
has already occurred. 

roy f~<uy Kal Maywy. Three matters call for consideration here: 
i. The names. 2. The duplication of the invasion by and the 
judgment of the heathen nations, i.e. before and after the setting 
up of the Messianic Kingdom. 3. The comprehension of these 
terms in our text. i. Magog first appears in Gen. x. 2 as a son 
of Japheth, but in the Mass, of Ezek. xxxviii. 2 Magog is repre 
sented as the land from which Gog came : i.e. " Gog of the land 
of Magog." The LXX (CTTI Toby KCU rrjv yfjv TOV Maywy) and 
Peshitto, however, have "toward Gog and ( + toward, Pesh.) 
the land of Magog," a reading which prepares the way for the 
later view current in Judaism, which conceived Gog and Magog 
to be two different leaders. In Ezek. xxxix. 6 Magog seems to 
be the name of a people. Gog is the foe whose invasion from 
the north had been prophesied by Jeremiah (iii.-vi.) and by 
Zephaniah (i. 7), but whose coming had hitherto been looked 
for in vain. The name Gog is undoubtedly ancient ; for it is 
found in the Tel Amarna letters (1400 B.C.) in the form Gagaja 
as a designation of the northern nations. In Jubilees viii. 25 
the land of Gog is mentioned. Gog is identified with the 
Scythians by Josephus (Ant. i. 6. i) and by the Chronicles of 
Jerachmeel (xxxi. 4). In Jub. vii. 19, ix. 8, Magog appears as 
a son of Japheth, as in Gen. x. 2. The same idea that underlies 
the LXX of Ezek. xxxviii. 2 is definitely set forth in Sibyll. Or. 
iii. 512, 519: 

a tar croi, Tojy KCU Tracrtv 6<^^<? a^ia May coy . . . 



and 319 sq. : 

aicu <rot, X^P a F^y ^Sc Maywy [LfOVV ovcra 
AlOiOTTwv 7rora//,tov, TTOCTOI/ atyaaro? eK^y/m 

By the second century B.C. this invasion of Palestine by the two 
peoples Gog and Magog was clearly expected. 

2. The duplication of the attack on Jerusalem (see p. 46), i.e. 
before and after the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom and 
of the judgment on the heathen nations. The first attestation 
of this conception is, of course, in Ezek. xxxvii. 2i-xxxix. In 
xxxvii. 21-28 the kingdom with the Messiah, the son of David, 
is established after the Captivity. Thereupon follows the final 
attack of the heathen nations upon it in xxxviii.-ix. In the 
fragment, i Enoch Ivi. 5-8, we have a description of such an 
attack. In 4 Ezra xiii. 5, 8-9, 28-35 tnere is another account 



XX. 8-9.] GOG AND MAGOG 189 

of this final assault of the heathen nations on the Messiah and 
on Mount Zion, or the Heavenly City, xiii. 35-36 (cf. 6), just as 
in our text. 

In many of the authorities it is only the hostile heathen hosts 
that are destroyed: cf. Pss. Sol. xvii. 32; 2 Bar. Ixxii. 4; Tobit 
xiii. u, xiv. 6 sq. ; Sanh. io5a; but in mos-t Jewish writings 
after 100 A.D. a harsher view prevails as to the future destiny 
of all the Gentiles. 

Gog and Magog are frequently mentioned in Rabbinic works. 
These nations march against God and the Messiah, Aboda-zara, 
3 b . This war and the last judgment were to last twelve months 
according to the Rabbi Aqiba, Edujoth, ii. 10. Other references 
to Gog and Magog will be found in Ber. 7 b and also in the Targ. 
Jer. on Num. xi. 26, where it is recorded that Medad prophesied : 
" In fine extremitatis dierum Gog et Magog et exercitus ejus 
ascendent contra Jerusalem, et per manus regis Messiae cadent, 
etseptem annis integris ignem accendent filii Israel ex eorum 
instrumentis bellicis" (cf. also Targ. Jon. in he.). In the Targ. 
Jon. on Ex. xl. n, Num. xxiv. 17, Gog s armies are mentioned, 
and in the Targ. Jer. on Deut. xxxii. 39 and on Isa. xxxin. 22. 
See Weber, Bousset, and Volz in he. 

3. The terms " Gog and Magog " comprehend all the faith 
less upon the earth. These are all destroyed by fire from heaven 
in 9. Hence the earth is left without inhabitant at the close of the 
Millennial Kingdom. Since the faithful at the close of the 
thousand years withdraw from the earth along with the Heavenly 
Jerusalem there is no longer upon the earth any in whom is the 
breath of human life. At this point our Apocalypse agrees with 
4 Ezra vii. 29-30, which declares that the world will revert "into 
the primeval silence . . . like as in the first beginnings, so that 
no man is left": cf. 2 Bar. iii. 7, "Shall the world return to its 
nature (of aforetime) and the age revert to primeval silence ? 

els tt6\^ov. This phrase has already 



occurred in xv. 14. . 

S>v 6 Spiels afiro)^ is KT\. On the Hebraism m. 8, xm. 8, 
12 etc On the metaphor u>< ^ a//,/xos rfc tfaAao-o-^s, cf. Gen. 
xxii. 17; Jos. xi. 4 ; Judg. vii. 12, etc. The phrase J fi^/tos r^ 
0oX<Wiis has already occurred in a literal sense in xn. 18. 

9. a^ IV""- Cf - * Enoch lvi * 6 Sq Where the Partmans and 
Medes are mentioned : 

" And they shall go up and tread under foot the land of His 
elect ones ... . 

But the city of My righteous shall be a hindrance to then 

horses." 
Also Zech. xii. 3. avapabu is the word always used in connec- 



I9O THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 9. 

tion with the pilgrims going up to Jerusalem. We might 
compare the " Songs of the Ascents " the title of certain of the 
later Psalms sung by the pilgrims as they approached the Holy 
City. Cf. Ezek. xxxviii. 9, n, 16 of the going up of Gog to 
Jerusalem. Bousset and Gunkel explain the di/e /fycrai/ of the 
march of Gog and Magog from the outlying periphery of the 
earth to the mountain of God lying in the centre of the earth. 

em TO irXdros Ttjs yr\<s. There are two ways of rendering these 
words, i. "Through the breadth of the earth." This phrase is 
found in the LXX of Hab. i. 6 (in connection with the march of 
the Chaldean army against Jerusalem) where it is a translation 
of pK SCn*?? 2 - It i s suggested that this phrase describes the 
goal, towards which Gog and Magog were marching, i.e. 
Jerusalem, which in Ezek. xxxviii. 12 is called the centre or 
navel of the earth. Wellhausen suggests that the Greek phrase 
before us = nipB pK (Ezek. xxxviii. n) and is actually identical 
with pKH 1UD = o/ji(f>aXo<s TTJS y^s (xxxviii. 12). 

eicuicXeuo-ai . Here and in John x. 24 only in the N.T. 

TV)K Trapejj,{3o\T]i/ TWI/ dyiwy. i.e. the same as the Heavenly 
City. If the heathen nations had the daring to attack the 
supernatural Messiah and His elect (xvii. 14) it is not surprising 
that they should assault His city. 

TYP TroXiK T(\V YJYcurT]fAeVT]i>. The " Holy City" is rightly here 
designated "the beloved." For a thousand years it has been the 
seat of Christ s Kingdom and the centre of the evangelizing efforts 
of the Church. Thus its record stands out in strong contrast with 
that of the earthly Jerusalem, which according to our author " is 
called spiritually Sodom and Egypt " (xi. 8). As such it rightly 
perished at the hands of the antichristian power of Rome. But 
far other is the destiny of " the beloved city." When Gog and 
Magog have been destroyed by fire and Satan cast down into 
the lake of fire, the Holy City, which had come down from 
heaven, is presupposed to be withdrawn from the sphere of the 
former heaven and the former earth, and after that it has itself 
been renewed (observe xxi. 2, rty 7roA.iv rrjv ayiav lepouo-aA^u, 
K.aivr\v) to return from heaven from God to the new earth. 

That an assault on Christ and the Holy City should be 
deemed an inconceivable event by a few scholars can only be 
due to their want of acquaintance not only with Jewish and 
Christian Apocalyptic but even with the text of our author. For 
in our author we find the Parthian kings making war upon the 
Lamb and the elect (xvii. 14), while in xix. 19 the kings of the 
earth and their armies levy war on Christ and His hosts from 
heaven (xix. 14). These passages refer to events at the initiation 
of the Millennial Kingdom. In 4 Ezra xiii., as in our text, the 
heathen nations (xiii. 5, 33, 34) assail the Messiah, who came 



XX. 9-11.] THE GREAT WHITE THRONE 191 

flying with the clouds of heaven (xiii. 3) and brought with Him 
the Heavenly Jerusalem (xiii. 6, 35, 36), but with a flaming 
breath from His lips He burnt them all up so that there was 
nothing more to be seen of them " save only dust of ashes and 
smell of smoke" (xiii. 10-11, 38). We have here almost a 
perfect parallel to the account in our text from what was 
practically a contemporary Jewish source. For we have a 
supernatural Messiah, a Heavenly Jerusalem established on 
Mount Zion, an assault of the heathen nations, and their 
destruction by fire. There is, of course, one outstanding differ 
ence between the two accounts, i.e. that whereas these events are 
connected with the first advent of the Messiah in the Jewish 
document, they are incidents belonging to the second advent of 
Christ in the Christian Apocalypse. 

Likewise in 4 Ezra xii. 32-34 we have a description of the 
Messiah destroying the heathen nations especially Rome. 
Similarly in 2 Bar. xl. i sq., Ixxii. 2 sqq. That He is a super 
natural Messiah whom the nations have attacked is to be inferred 
from the description in 4 Ezra xiii. 3 b , 26, xiv. 9, and 2 Bar. 
xxx. i. We have already become familiar with this conception 
of the Messiah in i Enoch xxxvii.-lxxi. 

KCCTe pir] TTUp K TOU OUpttJ/OU. Cf. Ezek. XXXViii. 22, TTVp KOL BtlOV 

/3peoo CTT OLVTOV (rov Twy) /cat eVi Travras TOVS /ACT avrov : xxxix. 6, 
aTrocrreAo) Trvp eVt T<oy, and the references given in the preceding 
note from 4 Ezra in exactly analogous circumstances : 2 Thess. 
i. 8, ii. 8; Asc. Is. iv. 18. So far as words go, a perfect parallel 
to Karefir) . . . avrov<s is found in 2 Kings i. 10. 

KaTe^ayei aurou s. All the hosts of Gog and Magog are 
burnt up that is all the faithless upon the earth (see note 3 on 
& above). At the close of 10 we are left to infer that the Holy 
City has withdrawn with all the faithful from the earth. There 
upon follows the Judgment of the risen dead by God Himself, 
from whose presence the former outworn heaven and earth 
vanish into nothingness. 

10. 6 8id|3oXos 6 irXai wi . Cf. xii. 9, 6 ^araj/as 6 irXavuv : 
[xiii. 14] xix. 20. eJ3Xrj0T) ets iV XI JU^YJI/ icrX. Cf. xix. 20. oirou 
Kau Cf. xi. 8 : also (for OTTOV without /cat) ii. 13, OTTOV . . . cW, 
xii. 6, 14. Cf. xvii. 9. jSaacuaaGiiaorrcu (cf. ix. 5, xiv. 10). 
TjfAepas Kal yuKT(Ss (cf. iv. 8, vii. 15, xii. 10, xiv. Ii). ets TOUS aiwms 
T&V atwj wi/ (i. 6, 1 8, iv. 9, 10, v. 13, vii. 12, x. 6, xi. 15, etc.). 

11-15. Vision of the great white throne and of Him who 
sat thereon. Disappearance of the former heaven and earth. 
Judgment of the dead. Death and hell cast into the lake of fire. 
This vision consists of four stanzas of three lines each. This 
vision has suffered at the hands of interpolators. 

11. elSof Opoyoy fAe yav. As distinct from those mentioned in 



192 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 11. 

iv. 4, xx. 4, this throne is designated /xeyav. Moreover, whereas 
God has assessors seated on adjoining thrones in Dan. vii. 9, 
here He judges alone. With this line and the text which refers 
to God we might compare Isa. vi. i, " I saw the Lord sitting 
upon a throne . . . and His train filled the temple." In our 
text there is not the same explicitness. God is referred to 
indeed under the unmistakable designation 6 /ca&j/xevos rl rov 
Opovov, but the place of the judgment is not specified. The latter 
is only natural; for before the judgment has taken place (12-15) 
the former heaven and earth have vanished into nothingness (i i bc ). 
Hence the great white throne is conceived as the only thing 
(save the Heavenly Jerusalem which was to be renewed) that 
survives the annihilation of all that belongs to the first heaven 
and the first earth, and as situated somewhere in illimitable 
space. It is before this great white throne that the risen souls 
clothed in spiritual bodies and unclothed, i.e. those of the 
righteous and of the wicked, appear. Since this throne was 
created before the world (Berisheth rab. i.), as the eternal place 
of God, it could well be conceived as surviving the world s 
annihilation. According to 4 Ezra vii. 33 also, " the Most High 
shall be revealed upon the throne of judgment " after the first 
world has disappeared (vii. 31; see p. 198). It was different, 
however, in earlier Apocalypses, where the Messianic King 
dom was everlasting on the present earth and was of necessity 
preceded by the Final Judgment. In such cases the Final Judg 
ment took place upon the earth, and the throne of judgment was 
set up in Palestine, i Enoch xc. 20. In Joel iii. 2, 12, 14-16 
and i Enoch liii. i the valley of Jehoshaphat is the scene of this 
judgment and the agents are the angels (Joel iii. 13). 

The Final Judgment is reserved in our text for God Himself; 
but this Judgment has to do only with the dead, or rather those 
risen from the dead, both good and bad, whereas the judgment of the 
livings xiv. 14, 18-20, xvii. 14, xix. 11-21, xx. 7-10 is committed 
wholly to Christ. In assigning the Final Judgment exclusively 
to the Father even in this limited form (see, however, xxii. 13, 12) 
our author stands apart from the doctrine presented in John 
V. 22, ouSe yap 6 Traryp /cptvei ovSeva, dAAa rrjv KptViv Tratrai/ 
SeScD/cei/ TW ma), and Matt. vii. 22, 23, xvi. 27, xxv. 31-46; Acts 
xvii. 31^2 Cor. v. 10. Cf. i Enoch xlv. 3, Ixix. 27; 2 Bar. 
Ixxii. 2-6. On the other hand, God alone is mentioned in this 
relation in Matt. vi. 4, 6, 14, 15, 18, xviii. 35, while St. Paul 
sometimes ascribes the Final Judgment to God, Rom. xiv. 10, 
and sometimes to Christ, 2 Cor. v. 10. 

Xeuic6i>. This epithet may point to the absolute equity of the 
Judgment. Or since according to our text and 4 Ezra vii. 3 1 
the first world and all that belongs to it have vanished, and 



XX. 11-12.] RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD 

according to 4 Ezra vii. 41-42, "there is neither sun nor moon 

,T r "If 5 ; ? 6 , lther Shining n r bri g h ^ess nor light, but only 
the splendour of the glory of the Most High ( = ^y ^ vr ) t C 
throne of God is lighted up with the splendour of the Shekinah 
and hence it is the centre of light in the illimitable vastness of 
space. Whether this is so or not, it is the glory of God alone 
that lights up the universe. See note on T. S6a V TO C Otov 
xxi. 10 ; also xxi. 23, note. 

off diriToG irpovriirou I^uyev V) yr) K al 6 ofiparfs. Cf. xvi. 20. 
When we take this line in connection with that which follows it 
is clear that there is here taught the literal vanishing of the 
former heaven and earth into nothingness. As I have shown in 
my Eschatology\ 127-128, the older doctrine in the O.T. was the 
eternity of the present order of things. This was the received 
view down to the 2nd century B.C. From the ist century B c 
onward in Judaism and Christianity, the transitoriness of the 
present heaven^ and earth was universally accepted. Cf. Mark 
Xlll. 31, 6 ovpavos Kal fj yfj Tra/aeAevVoi/Tcu. 

From the words before us we must conclude that before the 
Judgment began both heaven and earth had vanished into 
nothingness. This conclusion is of great importance when we 
come to deal with 13. That this was a contemporary Jewish 
doctrine we find from 2 Enoch Ixv. 6, "when all creation visible 
and invisible . . . shall end, then every man goes to the great 
judgment. See also 4 Ezra vii. 31-36 (in the note on 13 below) 
where the same view is taught. 

Kal TOTTOS oux eupe 0T] aurois. See xii. 8 n. 
12. Since the verses that precede and follow 12 consist each 
of three lines, we naturally expect that 12 originally consisted 
of three lines also. When we examine the text we discover one 
or two disturbing glosses. When these are excised this verse is 
parallel in structure to that which precedes and that which 
follows it. But this verse should be transposed after 17, since 
it presupposes it. 

rods ceicpou s, i.e. the rest of the dead who had no share in the 
first resurrection. Only the dead appear before the great white 
throne. As Christ had judged the quick in a series of judgments 
(see note on n), so God Himself judges all the dead save those 
who had part in the first resurrection. From n taken in con 
junction with 13 it is to be concluded that our author has no 
thought here of a bodily resurrection save in the case of the 
righteous dead, who would naturally as in i Cor. xv. appear in 
their spiritual bodies. As regards the wicked, however, the 
case is different. These would appear simply as disembodied 
souls "naked" in a spiritual environment without a body- 
without the capacity for communication with or means of expres- 
VOL. n. 13 



194 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 12-13. 

sion in that environment. Every wicked soul, therefore, would 
be thus shut up within itself and form its own hell even before 
it was cast into the lake of fire. 

[TOUS fxey^ 005 Ka 1 T0 " s P"? 00 *-] Elsewhere pur author 
writes TOVS /xi/cpous Kal TOVS /xeyaAovs : cf. xi. 18, xiii. 16, xix. 5, 
1 8 (the usual order in the O.T.). But he may have here deliber 
ately changed the order to emphasize. the judgment which awaits 
the great ones of the earth, and which they so often escaped on 
earth. In the O.T. the order T. /uey. KCU r. /xiKpovs is found in 
Jonah iii. 5, but in i Sam. v. 9; Jer. vi.j^xxxi. 34; Ps. cxv. 
13 we have the usual order TOVS /xiKpous /cat TOVS //.eydAous. 

Kal pipXia Tji/oixthcrai . These books contain a record of all 
that men have done: cf. Dan. vii. 10, /3i/?Aoi rjvoi^0rj<ray : 
[ Enoch 2 xc. 20, " The other took the sealed books and opened 
;hose books before the Lord of the Sheep " ; 4 Ezra vi. 20, "The 
books shall be opened before the face of the firmament " ; 2 Bar. 
xxiv. i, "Behold the days come and the books shall be opened 
in which are written the sins of all who have sinned"; Asc. 
Isa. ix. 22. On these books see my note on i Enoch 2 xlvii. 3, 
which deals with three distinct classes of heavenly books, two of 
which are mentioned in our text. 

Kal aXXo pipXioy VtX 0T l ^ TLV ""1 s M? This book is the 
register of the righteous. Cf. i Enoch xlvii. 3, " The books of 
the living were opened before Him " (see note in loc. ; also on 
iii. 5 of the present text). The explanatory clause looks like a 
gloss. Seeing that this book has already been mentioned with 
the article in iii. 5, xiii. 8, xvii. 8, such a clause is needless at all 
events. The relation of the book of life and the books is well 
stated by Alford. These " books and the book of life bore 
independent witness to the fact of men being or not being among 
the saved : the one by inference from the works recorded : the 
other by inscription or non-inscription of the name in the list. 
So the books could be as the vouchers for the book of life." 

[KUTCI ra epya avr&v]. This phrase is a mere tautology here. 
It is interpolated from 13, where it rightly occurs. If the dead 
are judged, e/< rwv yeypa/x/xeVwv eV rots /3i/3A.i ois, that is the same 
thing as saying e/cpt^crav eKao-ros Kara ra Ipya avr6n> (13). 

13. This verse should be transferred before 12. 



Kal e8o>Ki f T) OdXaero-a f TOUS yeKpous TOUS . . 

Kal 6 OciWTOS Kal 6 a&yjs eSwKai/ TOUS yeKpous TOUS iv aurots, 

Kal Kpi0Y)o-ai Kaoros Kard rd epya aurou. 

This stanza betrays in its present form a hopeless confusion of 
thought, which can only be due to deliberate change of the text. 
The context cannot admit of a resurrection of the physical body 
from the sea seeing that the sea and everything pertaining to it 



XX. 13.] THE RIGHTEOUS WITH SPIRITUAL BODIES 19$ 

had vanished. ^ And yet this is the only natural meaning of 1 3*. 
Hence, if 13* is original and we hold fast to the natural sense, u b 
cannot be original. But the originality of u b cannot be ques 
tioned, for xxi. 4 d , 5 presuppose it. Accordingly we must either 
interpret 13* in a wholly non-natural sense as defining not the 
place of departed souls but the means by which certain men 
perished, i.e. the sea, and i3 b as giving the intermediate abode 
of all souls, which had died on sea or land, save only those of 
the martyrs. The general sense then would be : all souls together 
with their bodies even those lost at sea (i3 a ) are given up by- 
Hades for judgment before the great white throne. 

But it is only by a quite illegitimate tour de force that such a 
meaning can be wrested from the words. 13" clearly presup 
poses the sea at once as existing and delivering up the bodies 
that had been engulfed in it, at the same time that Hades 
is represented as delivering up the souls that were in it. Body 
and soul would thus be reunited. The only natural meaning, then, 
of i3 ab is in conflict with the unmistakable statement in n b that 
sea is now non-existent, and with the presupposition that underlies 
the entire book, i.e. that the wicked rise as disembodied souls 
(see additional note on vi. 1 1). 1 Only the righteous are to possess 

1 The doctrine of a bodily resurrection is consistently taught in I Enoch 
xxxvii.-lxxi. There the general resurrection takes place before the Judgment, 
while the former heaven and the former earth still subsist. In Ixi. 5 we find 
an account of the resurrection of 

" Those who had been destroyed by the desert, 
And those who had been devoured by the beasts, 
And those who had been devoured by the fish of the sea." 

Here quite distinctly a physical resurrection is described. Further in the 
same work in li. I the body and soul are raised separately and reunited at the 
Final Judgment. In the case of the righteous a transformation of the physical 
body into a spiritual is presupposed in the rest of this section (Ixii. 15, 16). 

"And in those days shall the earth also give back that which was 

entrusted to it, 

And Sheol also shall give back that which it has received, 
And hell ( = Abaddon) shall give back that which it owes." 

Cf. also Ps.-Philo, de Biblic. Antiquitatibus, iii. 10 : 

"Reddet infernus ( = Hades) debitum suum, 
Et perditio ( = Abaddon) restituet paratecen suam, 
Ut reddam unicuique secundum opera sua." 

There is a remarkable parallelism here with our text (13). The doctrine 
of a physical resurrection is enforced dogmatically in 2 Bar. xlix.-li. and 
Sanh. 91*. This was the orthodox Rabbinic belief, and it is expressed in the 
ancient Benediction (Ber. 6o b ) still recited by the pious Jew every morning: 
"O my God, the soul which Thou gavest me is pure: Thou didst create it 
. . . and Thou wilt take it from me, but wilt restore it unto me hereafter . . . 
Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who restorcst souls to dead bodies " (see Singer, 
Authorised Daily Prayer Book Hebrew and English , p. 5). 

But this crass materialistic doctrine does not belong to the N.T. Such a 



196 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 13. 

bodies, i.e. spiritual bodies. Finally, Sheol in our author is the 
abode, not of righteous but of wicked or indifferent souls. 
As we shall see presently, righteous souls (save those of the 
martyrs) were preserved in " the treasuries." 

Hence we conclude that in fj OdXao-a-a rov<s i/e/cpovs TOVS ei/ 
avrfj there is a deliberate change of TO, ra/xeta into 17 OdXaa-o-a in 
order to introduce the idea of a physical resurrection. These 
rayaeta (or " treasuries ") contained the souls of the righteous 
(with the exception of the martyrs who were already in heaven), 
whereas afys was the abode of the wicked souls. Thus we 
should have : 

" And the treasuries gave up the dead that were in them, 
And death and Hades gave up the dead that were in 

them, 
And they were judged every man according to their works." 

Our text thus, like the Pauline Epistles, teaches a resurrec 
tion of persons (" the dead " so called), not a resurrection of 
dead bodies even though in company with souls. The person 
ality of the righteous is complete the soul clothed with a spiritual 
body : the personality of the unrighteous is incomplete the soul 
is without a body without the power of expressing itself or 
receiving impressions from without. Sin is ultimately self- 
destructive. 

That such deliberate perversions of the text took place early 
probably in the 2nd century A.D. I shall show presently. 
In the meantime it is our task to prove that in apocalyptic circles, 
to which our author belonged, it was the accepted belief that the 
souls of the righteous were preserved in certain " treasuries." 
The word " treasuries "- (in the Latin of 4 Ezra promptuaria, and 

in the Syriac of 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch 1^1) clearly goes back 

to the Hebrew DnviK, which is used also in the Talmud occasion 
ally in this sense, and which in the Midr. rabba on Ecclesiastes 
iii. 21 (Weber 2 , 338) is said to be placed in the heavenly height. 
These treasuries are first referred to in i Enoch c. 5, though not 
by name : 

"And over all the righteous and holy He will appoint 

guardians from among the holy angels, 
To guard them as the apple of an eye, 

doctrine has no part in the Pauline Epistles, Hebrews, or in the Fourth 
Evangelist, nor does it find any countenance in our author, though it was 
enforcedly many of the Fathers in the Christian Church from the 3rd century 
onward in opposition to Gnosticism, and other more legitimate doctrines 
within the Church on this question. 



XX. 13. J THE WICKED DISEMBODIED SOULS 197 

Until He makes an end of all wickedness and all sin, 
And though the righteous sleep a long sleep, they have 
nought to fear." 

To these treasuries only the souls of the righteous were 
admitted. From this passage in i Enoch (early in the ist 
century B.C.) we come down to two Jewish works practically 
contemporary with our author, i.e. 2 Bar. and 4 Ezra. In 
2 Bar. xxi. 23, we have a remarkable confirmation of the 
above emendation of i 3 a ; for in xxi. 23 the angel of death is 
mentioned, then Sheol as the intermediate abode of wicked souls, 
and then the treasuries of the souls of the righteous. These 
treasuries are to be opened after the close of the Messianic 
Kingdom, 2 Bar. xxx. 2, and the souls of the righteous to come 
forth at the Final Judgment. In 4 Ezra iv. 41-42 we find a 
second confirmation of the above restoration of 13*. 

" And he said unto me : Sheol and the treasuries of souls are 
like the womb : 42. For just as she who is in travail makes haste 
to escape the anguish of the travail; even so do these places 
hasten to deliver what has been entrusted to them from the 
beginning." Here as Sheol (cf. viii. 53) is the abode of unright 
eous souls, so the treasuries are the abode of righteous souls (cf. 
iy- 35> vii. 80). These treasuries were to restore the souls of the 
righteous at the Final Judgment, vii. 32, 95. These treasuries are 
likewise designated "habitations" (habitacula : cf. "mansions" 
or "abiding places," povai, John xiv. 2) in vii. 85, 101, 121. 

We have thus proved that towards the close of the ist century 
A.D. as well as earlier and later the souls of the righteous were 
conceived of as being guarded and at rest (cf. i Enoch c. 5 ; 
4 Ezra vii. 95) in certain places called "treasuries," and that 
from these the souls of the righteous came forth at the Final 
Judgment. 

Such a conception as the above would suit our text perfectly ; 
for the Final Judgment has come, and since it is a judgment both 
of the righteous and the wicked, we expect some reference to the former 
in our text. By the proposed restoration we recover this reference. 

But the evidence in favour of this restoration is not yet 
complete. For an examination of our author s use of the word 
aSr/s shows that he uses it in a bad sense as the temporary abode 
of wicked wuls. This is evident from the next verse (xx. 14), 
where it is said that death and Hades are cast down into the 
lake of fire. Hence aS^s bears no neutral complexion in our 
author. Had it done so, it would simply have vanished into 
nothingness like the earth (n b ), but it is hurled into the abyss 
where Satan and his servants are tormented for ever and ever. 

Thus, unless the text is restored as above suggested, there 



198 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XX. 13. 

would only be a judgment of wicked souls, but by the above 
restoration we have a General Judgment of the righteous and the 
wicked. 

It is significant that in 4 Ezra vii. 31-36 we find an analogous 
depravation of the text with a like object, that is, to introduce 
the idea of a physical resurrection. As might be expected, the 
thought of the text is thereby hopelessly confused. In vii. 31-36 
we have a description in couplets of the new heaven and the 
new earth taking the place of the old which as corruptible had 
passed away. 

31. "And it shall be that after seven days the Age, 

which is not yet awake, shall be aroused, 
And that which is corruptible shall perish." l 

32 : : : :::: : 

32. And the treasuries shall restore those that were committed 
unto them. 

33. And the Most High shall be revealed upon the throne 

of judgment. 2 

And compassion shall pass away 
And longsuffering shall disappear. 3 

34. But judgment alone shall remain, 

Truth shall stand and faithfulness flourish. 

35. And recompense shall follow, 
And the reward be made manifest." 

Box, following Kabisch, has through a strange misconception 
obelized 32 as an interpolation. But manifestly 32** is the 
intruder. 

Here SiSoVai is used absolutely like }H3 = 



1 Here a couplet has been displaced and another interpolated to introduce 
the idea of a physical resurrection. 

32*. " And the earth shall restore those that sleep in her, 

b . And the dust those that are at rest therein." 

Seeing that the new world has already displaced the old in 31 this couplet 
is wholly at variance with the context. Its aim is to assert the resurrection of 
the body, to rejoin the souls which come forth from the treasuries, 32.^ But 
since the treasuries are prepared for righteous souls only (cf. iv. 35, vii. 80, 
95 ; 2 Bar. xxi. 23, xxx. 2 ; I Enoch c. 5) the text would then teach only a 
resurrection of the righteous. But every couplet that follows proves that we 
have here a general resurrection. The lost couplet clearly spoke of Sheol 
giving up the souls of the wicked for judgment, as the treasuries in 32 yield 
up the souls of the righteous. 

2 The Syriac here interpolates "And then cometh the end" against all the 
other versions. 

8 The Syriac adds " And pity shall be afar off" against the Latin and the 
first Arabic versions. The Syr. is supported by the Eth. and Arab 2 . The 
line appears to be a doublet. 



XX. 13-15.] THE SECOND DEATH 199 

" to give up." It is not a classical use, nor so far as I am aware 
a Hellenistic one. 

6 Odyaros Kal 6 aStjs. As pointed out in the preceding note, 
can be here only the abode of unrighteous souls (as in 
i Enoch Ixiii. 10 xcix. ir, ciii. 7 ; Pss. Sol. xiv. 6, xv. n), seeing 
that in the next verse it is cast into the lake of fire. Death and 
Hades have already been found together in i. 18 (n.), vi. 8 : also 
in Ps.-Philo, De Bibl Antiquitatibus. In the latter work the 
destruction of death and Hades are followed as in our text by 
the creation of a new heaven and a new earth. 

" Et extinguetur mors, 

Et infernus ( = Hades) claudet os suum . . . 
Et erit terra alia et caelum aliud." 



The alia and aliud here obviously go back to crepos which as- 
distinguished from aAAos involves a distinction in kind. While 
aAAos simply asserts the negation of identity, credos asserts the 
negation of likeness in kind. In 2 Bar. xxi. 23, when Sheoi 
and the treasuries have yielded up the souls in them, the new 
world promised by God was to be manifested, xxi. 25. This- 
accords with the order of events in our text, xx. 13, xxi. i 
In 2 Enoch Ixv. 10 it is said that "all corruptible things shal! 
pass away, and there shall be eternal life." 

6Kpi0T]cra eKaoros Kara rd epya aura)! . Cf. ii. 23 ; Ps. xxviii. 4 
Ixii. 13; Jer. xvii. 10; Matt. x. 32, 33. 

14-15. These two verses originally formed the concluding 
stanza of this section. The text as it stands is impossible. 
The Statement OVTOS 6 fldvaros Sevrepos ecmv, rj XL^v-rj rov Trupos 
can only be made in reference to human beings, who have 
undergone the first death, i.e. the physical one. Hence, if it 
belongs to the text, it does not do so in its present position. 
Here, though a number of cursives, the Sahidic Version and 
Primasius omit this line, the grounds for its rejection in its 
present position are not to be sought in textual evidence, since 
its intrusion is anterior to all such evidence. The real grounds 
for its rejection are that the statement is absolutely devoid of 
meaning. Even if death and Hades be regarded as persons, we 
cannot conceive (cf. Haussleiter, Die Latei?iische Apocalypse, 213) 
how the words 6 6dvaro<s 6 Stirrepos can be applied to them. 
Moffatt suggests that this line was displaced from its original posi 
tion after 1 5 . There are, in fact, only these two alternatives. Either 
(i) the line is to be rejected as a gloss, and we must read as follows : 

K<H 6 OdVaros ital 6 <X&T]S 
e(3\TJ0r)aai ets TT]V Xifx^k TOU irupos, 

KOt 1 TIS OU X Upe0T] iv TYJ f3l|3X<U TTJS 

is T(\v \ipvt\v TOU irupos. 



200 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 1. 

Or (2) what appears here as the first and second lines must be 
read as the first, and what appears here as the third and fourth 
lines must be read as the second, and OVTOS 6 0ai/aros 6 Sevrepos 
e<rriv, ^ At/xv77 TOV Trvpos be read as the third. This latter arrange 
ment is not free from serious objections. These are two. 
First, there does not appear any reasonable ground for the 
misplacement of the clause. In the next place, the clause in 
itself is an unmeaning mis-statement. The lake of fire is not 
the second death, but the second death is the lot of those who 
are cast into the lake of fire. The right definition of the second 
death is given in xxi. 8. The present writer, therefore, regards 
the clause as originally a marginal gloss drawn from xxi. 8 and 
subsequently incorporated into the text. 

14. IpXYJOirjaraj eis TT]I> Xt jjinrji/ TOU irupos. Cf. 10, xix. 20; Petr. 
Apoc. 8, \ifJbvrj TIS rjv yaeyaA.17 TreirXrjpwfjievr] /3opj36pov </>A,eyoyu,eVou 
eV w rjcrav avOpwiroL rives aTrocrTpe^ovTes rrjv SiKaioa-vVi/v. 

[OUTOS 6 Odraros KT\.] See note above and cf. xxi. 8. 

15. ei/ rfj {3if3Xu> Tt]s GJTJS KT\. Cf. xxi. 27, iii. 5, note. TTJ^ 
Xipnr)! TOU irupos. See note on ix. i on the significance of this 
phrase. 

CHAPTER XXI. 5 a , 4 d , 5*, 6 a , i- 4 abc , XXII. 3-5. 
INTRODUCTION. 

The New Heaven, the New Earth, and the New Jerusalem, 
with its blest inhabitants. 

i. Now that all evil has been destroyed for ever, and all 
evil agents have been cast into the lake of fire, that the former 
heaven and earth have vanished, the final judgment brought 
to a close, and death and Hades destroyed, God creates a new 
heaven and a new earth, and summons into being the New 
Jerusalem. In this city, which would never know tears, nor 
grief, nor crying, nor any pain nor curse, God will dwell with 
men, and His throne, which is also that of the Lamb, will be 
in it, and His servants, whose character, as God s own possession, 
shall henceforth be blazoned on their brows, shall serve Him and 
they shall see His Face. And God will cause the light of 
His Face to shine upon them in perpetual benediction, and 
they shall reign for ever and ever. 

That this section was written by our author is undeniable. 
It forms the natural climax and the fitting close to all that has 
gone before, and the nature of the blessedness of the new 
heaven and the new earth and the new city is in keeping with 
all that is foreshadowed in the earlier visions of the Seer. The 
diction and the idiom are our author s. 



XXI. 2.] DECLARATION OF GOD 2OI 

2. Diction. 

XXI. 4 d . TCI Trpwra din]\0cn> : for this US6 of aTTfXOf.lv cf. 
ix. 12, xi. 14, xxi. i. TrapeAfou/ is used in this connection 
in Synoptics and St. Paul: cf. Mark xiii. 31 = Matt. xxiv. 35 = 
Luke xxi. 33 ; 2 Cor. V. 17, TO. apyaia irapfjXOov. 

6 b . K.O.IVO. iroiw irdrra. These words summarize the action of 
God on the world. The faithful receive a new name, ii. 17, 
iii. 12; they sing a new song, v. 9, xiv. 3; and a new heaven, 
earth, and a new city are created to be their habitation, 
xxi. i, 2. 

6 a . yfyovav. Cf. xvi. 17, </>a>v>7 . . . \eyovcra Feyovev. 

1. 6 irpojTos oupayos. For this position of Trpwros cf. ii. 5. 
dTrfjX0a . See note on xxi. 4 d above. 

2. TTjk TT<$\U> T. ayiav: cf. xxi. 10. lepouoraXT]/!. K.aivr\v : cf. 
iii. 12. KarajSaikOuo-ai CK T. oupayou diro TOU 6eou : cf. iii. 12, 
xxi. 10. r\roi^aa^lvr\v u>s vu^t]v : cf. xix. 7. 

3. 4>w^s fxeydXT]? e* TOU OpoVou : cf. xvi. 17, xix. 5. aKTji waei : 
cf. vii. 15, xii. 12, xiii. 6. auTol Xaol auTou laorrai ical auros 
eorai 0eos auTwv : cf. xxi. 7 bc . 

4 ab . e^aXeiij/et KTX. : cf. vii. 17. OUK eorat ITI : cf. xxii. 3, 5. 
nwos: cf. xvi. 10, ii. 

XXH. 3. OUK eWai ITI : cf. xxi. 4*. 6 0poi/os TOU 0eou KCU TOU 
dpkiou : cf. xxii. i. ol SouXoi auTou Xcn-peuaouau : cf. vii. 15. 

5. OUK ex 000 11 Xpt wv 4>WTos Xux^ou KTX. : cf. xxi. 23. /ScunXeu- 
aouaii ets T. auums T. aiuvuv : cf. xx. 4. 

Idiom. 

Johannine : XXII. 4. TO 6Vou.a auTou lirl "r&v u.eTwircji : see 
notes on vii. 3, xiii. 16. 

5. oux ex ou(ril/ XP 6 ^ 1 ^s T^Xtou : cf. iii. 17 for this 
extraordinary construction. <j>umo-ei eir aurous : a pure 
Hebraism : see note in loc. Contrast construction in xviii. i, 
xxi. 23. 

Non-Johannine : XXI. 5. 6 Ka0rju.e os cut TW Opoi/w : see note 
on iv. 2. 

God will Create the World afresh Heaven, Earth, and the 
Holy City. This New Jerusalem which is not created till after 
the Millennial Kingdom is always spoken of as belonging to 
the future (i.e. every verb is in the future) : whereas the Jerusalem 
described in xxi. g-xxii. 2, 14-15, 17 is described as already 
existing, though as yet in heaven. 

XXI. 5 a , 4 d , 5 b . God s Declaration at the close of the Final 
Judgment. 

" The former things have passed away: 
Behold I make all things new" 

We have already (see pp. 151-153) shown that xxi * l ~^ and 



202 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 

xxii. 3-5 belong together and form a description by the Seer of 
the New Jerusalem which is to be the eternal abode of the 
blessed. This poem consists of six stanzas, the first two of 
three lines each and the remaining four of four lines each. 
Next, since it is obvious that xxi. 4 d , 5 ab do not really belong to 
what follows nor yet to what precedes in the present text, these 
dislocated lines, as representing the words of Him, from whose 
presence the former heaven and earth had vanished into nothing 
ness, who has just judged the world (xx. 11-15), and who has 
cast all wickedness into the lake of fire, at once claim their 
rightful position as forming the close of the first creation and 
the beginning of the new. 

5 a . Kttl eiTri> 6 KaOrjjaeyos CTU f TW 0poya> f, 
4 d . TO, irpwra dTnjXOay, 
5 b . l8ou Kcuya iroiu> Trdrra. 

This restoration of the order of the text is supported by the 
remarkable parallel in 2 Cor. v. 17, t TIS tv Xpto-rw, KCHVT) KTIO-IS* 
TO, apxcua 7ra.prjX.Oev, iSou yeyovev Kcuva. St. Paul here, it is true, 
refers to the new or spiritual creation of the individual. But in 
this respect man is a microcosm an epitome of the universe or 
the macrocosm. 

5 a . KCU el-irey. The Speaker here as in i. 8, xvi. i, 17, is 
God Himself, and He speaks, not to the Seer hence no fiot is 
added as generally elsewhere in our author: cf. vii. 14, xvii. 7, 
xxi. 6, xxii. 6 but to the entire world of the blessed. The words 
are most probably conceived as pronounced from the great white 
throne at the close of the Final Judgment. 

f em TW 0p6kw f. We have an error here traceable probably 
to the disciple of the Seer who edited xx. 4-xxii. When he 
makes an addition, he generally makes a mistake. Cf. xix. 10, 
Trpoo-Kwrja-ai avrw, which should be avrov. We should, of course, 
have CTTI rov Opovov : see iv. 2, note. 

The words 6 Ka&^ui/os Inl T. Opovov go back to xx. n, where 
God is so described at the beginning of the Final Judgment. 
Now that character has attained finality and all men have 
entered on the issues of their conduct, and death and Hades 
have come to an end, He that sitteth on the throne makes the 
solemn pronouncement with regard to all that the past: TO. 
Trpwra aTnjXOav. The first world and all that essentially belongs 
to it as distinct from the second and spiritual world have 
vanished for ever. 

4 d . T& irpwra dirfjXOay. With TO. irpwra. cf. xxi. I, 6 yap Trpwros 
ovpavos Kal fj irpwrr) yrj a.7nj\0av. With aar^\6av cf. ix. 12, 
xi. 14, xxi. i. That TO. Trpwra aTnjXOav is to be taken im 
mediately in connection with iSou icatva TTOICO iravra is obvious 



XXI. 5.] THE NEW CREATION 2C3 

in itself. But there is some external evidence that confirms the 
combination of 4 d and 5 b ; for, while it is recognized on all 
hands that Isa. xliii. 18, 19 was in the mind of our author here, 
we find on turning to this passage that the two main ideas in 
4 d and 5 b are already brought together (though in a more 
primitive and limited form), and set forth as a divine utterance 
as here : 

1 8. IJLTJ /Av^/xovevere TO. Trpcora 

/cat TO, ap^ata /AT) <rvAAoyi(r$* 

19. loou eyw Troia) Kau : d. 

The two ideas are also brought together in 2 Cor. v. 17, TO, 
ap^ala TrapfjXOcv, I8ov ysyovtv /catva. 

5 b . l&ou icaim iroiw iran-a. On the idea of a new heaven and 
a new earth cf. Isa. Ixv. 17, Ixvi. 22 ; Ps. cii. 25-26 : see note on 
xxii. i of our text. But in the current Apocalypses this idea 
was a familiar one. Thus in i Enoch xci. 16 (before 170 B.C.?) 
we find : 

" The first heaven shall depart and pass away, 
And a new heaven shall appear " ; 

in Ixxii. i (before no B.C.): "Till the new creation is accom 
plished which dureth till eternity"; in xlv. 4 (94-64 B.C.) : 

" And I will transform the heaven and make it an eternal 

blessing and light, 
And I will transform the earth and make it a blessing " ; 

Jub. i. 29 (before 107 A.D.) : "From the day of the creation till 
the heavens and the earth are renewed " ; also in 2 Bar. Ivii. 2 
(before 70 A.D.) : 

" And belief in the coming judgment was then generated, 
And hope of the world that was to be renewed was then 

built up, 
And the promise of the life that should come hereafter was 

implanted " ; 

xliv. 12 (after 70 A.D.) : "And the new world which does not 
turn to corruption those who depart to its blessedness " j xxxii. 6 : 
" When the Mighty One will renew His creation " ; 4 Ezra vii. 
75 : "Until those times come in which Thou shalt renew Thy 
creation." In the N.T. cf. Matt. xix. 28 ; Acts iii. 21 ; 2 Pet. iii. 
1 3. The passage in Barnabas vi. 1 3 (A.ey 8e icvpios I8ou TTOIW TO. 

u>? TO. Trpwra) has nothing in common with our text. 
5 C . [ical Xe yef rpdtyov on OUTOI ot Xoyoi TTIOTO! ical dXTjOt^oi 
IK]. As these words cannot be assigned to God, they are 
assigned to an angel. But if we accept this explanation we 
should here have an instance of bathos an error in style of 



204 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 5-6, 1. 

which our author is never guilty. When God Himself declares 
in the hearing of the Seer that He recreates the world, His 
words do not require to be confirmed either directly or indirectly 
by any^ angel or archangel. The clause OVTOL ol Ao yoi . . 
aX-rjOivoi is repeated from xxii. 6, where it is full of significance 
in the mouth of Christ, on may (i) introduce a statement or 
(2) give a reason. But it is not used in the first sense elsewhere 
in our author after ypfyov, cf. ii. i, 8, 12, 18, iii. i, 7, 14, 
xiv. 13. Even if we take it in the second sense ("because") 
the bathos of the statement still remains unrelieved. Hence 5 
appears to be an interpolation. That Christ should solemnly 
authenticate the truth of these visions in xxii. 6. is wholly fitting. 

[6 a . KCU etireV fxot r^yowxi .] Cf. xvi. 17. See note on xxi. 5 b 
(English translation : see vol. ii. 443, note 3). An interpolation ? 
If original, the words come from God or from the angelus interpret. 
The Seer hears God s first declaration : " Behold I make all things 
new," and following immediately thereupon the words: "They 
have become (new)." After this the Seer sees the new heaven 
and the new earth and the New Jerusalem (xxi. i-4 abc , xxii. 3-5). 
On the form yeyovav see Blass, Gram. p. 46. 

XXI. l-4 bc , XXII. 3-5. The vision of the new heaven and 
the new earth and the descent of the New Jerusalem adorned as a 
bride for her husband. God is to tabernacle with men, and never 
more is there to be grief or pain or tears or death, and all the 
faithful are to reign for ever and ever. 

1. eiScy oupayoi/ Kaivok icai yfji> K.O.IVY\V. On the meaning of 
Kau/o s as distinguished from Wos see iii. 12, note. On the new 
heaven and the new earth see the note on xxi. 4* above, p. 203. 
In Isa. Ixv. 17 the actual phrase used by our author is found: 
" For behold I create a new heaven and a new earth " 
(ncrjn pKi D Bhn DNOP NIU ^ama) where the LXX has eVrcu 
yap 6 ovpavos KCUVOS KOL f] yfj Katj/i}. Wetstein quotes the 
Debarim rab. S. xi. : " Cum Moses ante obitum oraret, coelum 
et terra et omnis ordo creaturarum commotus est. Tune 
dixerunt : Fortasse adest tempus a Deo praestitutum, quo 
renovandus est orbis universus (iB^y riK Bnn!>). Exivit autem 
vox dicens illud tempus nondum advenisse." See Volz, 296 sqq. ; 
Bousset, Rel. d. Judenth. 268 sq. 

6 yap TTpwrog cupels Kal KT\. This disappearance of the 
first heaven and the first earth has already been referred to: 
cf. xx. n b . 

KCU T) OciXcxo-o-a OUK earir 2. The earliest parallel to this 
statement is found in Test. Levi (109-106 B.C.), iv. i: "Now 
know that the Lord shall execute judgment upon the sons of 
men. Because when the rocks are being rent . . . and the 
waters dried up." Next in the Assumption of Moses, x. 6 : 



XXI. 1-3.] VISION OF THE NEW JERUSALEM 205 

" And the sea shall retire into its abyss, 
And the fountains of waters shall fail, 
And the rivers shall dry up." 

Also in Sibyll. Or. V. 159, 160, 447, ecrrai 8 voraTta) Kaipu> r;pos 
7TOT6 TroVros : viil. 236, TTttcra OaXa(f(Ta OVKZTL TrXovv eet. All these 
passages point not wholly to any Semitic horror of the sea in 
itself, but in some degree perhaps unconsciously to its mytho 
logical connection with the Babylonian myth of the Creation, 
in which the sea is the water monster Tiamat, the special 
opponent of the gods. The omission of the sea by John may 
thus be owing to its evil associations, many traces of which 
survive in the O.T. See articles Dragon, Leviathan, Rahab, 
Serpent, in the Encyc. Biblica. A remarkable parallel in 
Plutarch s De hide et Osiride 7 should be observed. There the 
sea is regarded as an alien element in nature, fraught with 
destruction and disease : oAws 8e KOI rj)v BaXarrav IK Trvpos 
TjyovvTat KOL Trapcopiaytev^v, ou<e /aepos ouSe (rrot^etoi/ dAA. aAAoibv 
TrepiTTw/xa ie<$opos KOU, voorwSes. 

2. TTjy TroXiT TTJK dyiay lepouaaXrjfA Kaiprji . This city is either 
wholly distinct from that described in xxi. 9~xxii. 2 the seat of 
the Millennial Kingdom or it is that city wholly transformed 
and hence described KCUI/TJI> : see xxi. 10, note. Since God 
re-creates all things, xxi. 5 b , the Holy City is either transformed 
or created afresh as are the heaven and the earth. This city is 
clearly distinguished from that in xxi. Q-xxii. 2. In the latter 
the saints reign for a thousand years, and the tree of life stands in 
the street thereof in order that all who were worthy might eat 
thereof, that is, attain to immortality. But in this city there is 
no mention of the tree of life: it is not needed; for all its 
inhabitants are immortal (xxi. 4 b ) and reign with God for ever 
and ever (xxii. 5). With this New Jerusalem we might compare 
Heb. xii. 22, lepovtraX^/x eTrovpaviw : Gal. iv. 26, 17 Se ava> lepov- 
and Phil. iii. 20, rjpuv yap TO TroXtVev/xa iv ovpavot? 



etc TOU oupayou diro TOU Ocou. Cf. iii. 12, xxi. 10. 
ws vu^T)^. Cf. xxi. 9; Isa. xlix. 18, Ixi. 10. 
W dj>Sp! auTTJs. Cf. 2 Cor. xi. 2 ; Eph. v. 23. 
3. 4>ui>T]s fxyd\T]s CK TOU OpoVou. The throne is that in xix. n. 
The speaker is probably one of the Cherubim. 



l8ou r\ (TKTjj T] TOU Ocou 

Kttl OXTjywaei fJLT 



The word <TK^VI{ here has nothing to do with the Tabernacle 
For in Jewish writings there is no expectation of the 
restoration of the Tabernacle in the Heavenly Jerusalem. Its 



206 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 3. 

place is always taken by the Temple (cf. Weber 2 , 375-77). But, 
since our author expressly states (xxi. 22) that there will be no 
Temple in the Holy City, that is to be the seat of the Millennial 
Kingdom, it follows that he could not have looked for a restored 
Tabernacle in the New Jerusalem which was to be the everlast 
ing abode of the blessed. The word ovoyioj has already occurred 
twice. In xiii. 6 it means God s dwelling, i.e. heaven, or 
rather (?) " His Shekinah " (see note in loc.). In xv. 5, where it is 
found a second time, we have seen that the text is either corrupt 
or interpolated ; for 6 vaos T7}s O-K^V^S rov /xaprvptov kv TU> ov/oavw 
is an intolerable, because an unintelligible, expression. 

What, then, is the meaning of o-KrjvTJ here? The context 
appears certainly to favour the interpretation suggested by Dr. 
Taylor (Pirke Aboth\ p. 44). "The two ( Shekinah and 
1 Memra ) are brought together by St. John ... 6 Aoyos <rap 
eyeVero, icai eo-fciJvaKrev ev v^uv (John i. 14). The word (TKyvy and 
its derivatives are chosen on account of their assonance with the 
Hebrew to express the Shekinah and its dwelling with men 
compare especially Rev. xxi. 3 : lSoi> 17 o-Krjvr) rov Oeov /XCTO, TWV 
di/$pw7ran> /cat crfoyvwcrei fj.T avrwv." Even in xiii. 6, where our 
author is adapting to a new situation an earlier source, the 
probability is that he gives a new meaning to the phrase rrjv 
- airrov, i.e. " His Shekinah." 



Moreover, in Lev. xxvi. n we have a confirmation of the 
above view. Here the Targum regards the Tabernacle simply 
as the manifestation of the divine presence. The Hebrew (Virm 
D33ro ^D^D) " I will set my tabernacle among them " LXX 
/cat Orja-u) rrjv SLaOrJKyv (F, cr/c^vryv) /xov iv vfMv is paraphrased by 
the Targ. Jon. pa^aa np" 1 nra^ jn^NI, " I will set the Shekinah 
of My glory among you." In the next verse we have "the 
glory of My Shekinah." The word Shekinah which is used as 
a periphrasis for the divine name is closely associated with the 
conception of the divine glory (x"ip s , ~ip 8, Heb. "ip" 1 ) as we see 
from the last two passages and throughout the Targums. Cf. 
also Targ. Jon. on Gen. xlix. i, "the glory of the Shekinah of 
Yahweh " : or simply " the glory of God " as in Onk. on Gen. 
xviii. 33. It is employed also as a rendering of " face " when 
used of God: cf. Deut. xxxi. 18, where OS TTIDK ("I will hide 
my face ") is rendered S H33^ pi>DK, " I will remove my Shekinah " : 
and of " name " in the same connection : cf. Targums of Onk. 
and Jon. on Ex. xx. 24. 

In the Mishnah and Talmud the Shekinah is the mediator 
of God s presence and activity in the world. Wherever ten 
persons pray together, the Shekinah is in the midst of them 
(Pirke Aboth iii. 9 (150-200 A.D.); Berach. 6 a ) : also where 
three are gathered together to administer justice or where two 






XXI. 3.] GOD DWELLETH WITH MEN 207 

meet to study the Law (Pirke Aboth iii. 9). Where a man and 
his wife lead a pious life the Shekinah is present. Before Israel 
sinned the Shekinah dwelt in each individual (Sota, 3 b ) : and this 
relation was possible afterwards : cf. Pirke Aboth iii. 9. 

From the Shekinah proceeded a brilliancy or splendour (i.e. 
VT). In this the blessed were to share in the next word : cf. 
Berach. iy a , "They delighted themselves in the brightness of 
the Shekinah (ru-rj^n VTD D^ro). On this " brightness," which is 
apparently rendered by our author by Soa, see note on xxi. 23. 

As our author thought in Hebrew, this line and the next 
would probably have run in his mind as 

33 oy D nta r\nv nan 



fjter CLUT&V KT\. On o-Krjvovv used of the inhabitants 
of heaven, cf. xii. 12, xiii. 6 : see also vii. 15. With the thought 
compare Lev. xxvi. n, /cat Orjo-a) TT)V 8ia6r)Kr)v (F, trKqrqvi so 
Mass. I| J3 D) fj.ov kv VJMV ... 12 ... Kat <ro//,at vplv $eos KCU 
v/aets carccrtfc /xou Aaos. Ezek. xxxvii. 27, /cat co-rat fj /carao-/c^- 
vcoo-ts />tov iv airrots /cat Itro/xat avrots ^cos Kat aurot /xou eaovrat 
Aaos: xliii. 7; Zech. ii. 14 (10), viii. 3, Karacr/ofi/waxD ev 



Xaol aurou. If this reading is original the idea appears to be 
the same as that underlying John x. 16, where though there is 
but one flock (TTOI /AVI?) and one Shepherd, there are many folds 
(avAat). Each Aads forms a fold in the flock, of which God is the 
Shepherd. Possibly, however, Aaot may simply mean as in the 
vernacular " people." But John does not so use Aaot, and Aaos 
seems to be the original reading. See crit. note on Greek text 
in loc. 

Kal auros f ^ 5 F 61 " cwTwy carat avruv 0eos f. 

The above text appears in three forms in the MSS, and none 
of them is satisfactory, i. That which is preserved in NQ and 
many cursives and omits aimov 0eos can hardly be original, 
independently of its weak attestation ; for not only is the 
parallelism against it (cf. also xxi. 7), but without avrwv 0e6s the 
line becomes an otiose repetition of the idea in the first two 
lines. The preceding line, Kat avrot Aaot arov lo-ovrat, requires 
some such parallelism as 0e6s avrvv. 

2. Since, then, the shortened form of the text in N Q cannot 
be accepted, we have next to consider that attested by A, vg, s 1 - 2 
Kat avros 6 0os ftcr* avTcov rrai avrcuv $eos. Although the line 
is rather full, the sense is not unsatisfactory = " And He God 
with them shall be their God," or " God Himself shall be with 
them their God." But this unemphatic position of avro>v before 
0cos (f>. the vernacular use of the possessive pronoun see 



208 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 3-4. 

Abbott, Gram. p. 419 sqq.) is against our author s usage and is 
not what^we expect here. 1 Since in the preceding line the avrov 
in Aaot avrov has^its normal possessive force in this position, we 
should expect 0eos awwv in the present line. As " they shall be 
His peoples," so He shall be " their God." 

3. Instead of awwv #eos, which is against our author s usage 
and also against the context, which here requires a real possessive, 
P and some cursives read 0eos avroiv. This is the reading the 
context leads us to expect, but its attestation is of the poorest 
character. It can only, therefore, be regarded in the light of a 
scribal emendation. 

From the above examination of the MSS it follows that the 
original text has not been preserved in any MS. The corrupt 
readings appear to be due to the incorporation of what was really 
a marginal gloss on xxi. 3 bc , i.e. 6 0eos /* afciov. The original 
may have been (a) KCU avrbs avrGtv 0eos co-rat, where the avrwv 
would be emphatic owing to its proximity to awe s (see Abbott, 
Gram. p. 421, note l), or (It) *at auros co-rat 0e6? avrcov. In any 
case the sense would be : " And He will be their God." The 
usage of our author would certainly be in favour of (<$) : cf 
xxi. 7. 

4. KCU e|a\etv|/i KT\. See note on vii. 17. K al 6 OaVaros OUK 
earai en. The idea of this line but not the diction is suggested 
by Isa. xxv. 8 a , " He hath annihilated death for ever " (nin J&3 
TO?), which section of Isaiah possibly belongs to the 2nd century 
B.C. Cf. I Cor. XV. 54, KareiroQ-rj 6 0dVaros eis vticos. It will be 
observed that, whereas Aquila and Theodotion incorrectly render 
w as an Aramaic phrase by ets vt/cos and the LXX by 
loxvo-as, our author gives the right sense in a paraphrastic form. 
For first century A.D. testimonies to the belief in the coming 
destruction of death, cf. 2 Enoch Ixv. 10, "All corruptible things 
shall vanish and there shall be eternal life," and 4 Ezra viii. 53 ; 
2 Bar. xxi. 23. See also Moed Qaton, iii. 9, where it cites Isa. 
xxv. 8. 

Since death is destroyed (cf. xx. 14), there is no longer any 
need of the tree of life. All the faithful have won everlasting 
life. There can be no more death, there can be only " more 
life and fuller." 

cure ireVOos cure Kpauyrj cure ir6j>os ofa eVrai en. Cf. Isa. 
xxxv. 10, li. n, "and sorrow and sighing (nmNI pr) shall flee 



1 a&rwv Chough occurring very frequently in our author is never elsewhere 
found m this unemphatic position in our text ; nor is avrov. avrrjs is found 
once in xviii. 5, but there in a source used by our author, o-ou is found 
several times in this position : see ii. 2, 19, notes. This unemphatic use of the 
genitive of aM?, though very frequent in the Fourth Gospel, does not belona 
to our author. 5 



XXII. 3-4.] BLESSED IMMORTALITY 209 

away." In our text the subject consists of three elements, and 
so also does the LXX of Isa. xxxv. 10 and li. n, but the words 
of the LXX differ from those in our text, aTr&pa 68vvr) Kal \\>irrj 
Kal o-revay/zo s. See also Isa. Ixv. i9 b ; i Enoch x. 22, xxv. 6; 
2 Enoch Ixv. 8-9 (A), "They will live eternally, and then] 
too, there will be amongst them neither labour nor sickness nor 
humiliation nor anxiety nor need." 

XXII. 3 a . Kal irai> K<xTcx6e|j,a OUK eorai In. This verse forms 

the fourth line of the stanza, the first three lines of which xxi. 

4 abc we have just dealt with. That this verse belongs to that 
stanza, not only the subject matter, but the very diction is 
evidence. Thus OVK eorai en, which is not found in our author 
outside the description of the New Jerusalem (xxi. i-4 abc , xxii. 
3-5), has already occurred twice in this stanza, i.e. xxi. 4 bc . The 
words themselves are based on Zech. xiv. u (*ny rpiT aA D"ini) 
but not on the LXX. The word KardOepa (syncopated from 
KaTavdOcpa) means here, as the context shows, a curse, i.e. an 
accursed thing, and not an accursed person. In itself KardOe^a 
could mean the latter, as avdOepa ( = Dnn) can : cf. Gal. i. 8 ; 
i Cor. xvi. 22 ; Rom. ix. 3. 

Kal 6 Spores TOU 0eoG KCU TOU dpki ou KT\. On this conception 
of " the throne of God and of the Lamb," see note on xxii. i. 
Owing to the fact that in the next line only God the Father is 
spoken of, critics have inferred that Kal TOV apviov is here an 
intrusion. But, as I have shown in the note on xxii. i, we find 
in i Enoch Ixi. 8, 9 an excellent parallel ; for, though the Elect 
One (i.e. the Messiah) is seated on God s throne as Judge in 
Ixi. 8, in Ixi. 9 the praises of all present are addressed to God 
and not to the Elect One. Moreover, in our text, xx. 6 e , the 
CLVTOV refers to only one of the two Divine Beings in 6 d . Cf. 
iii. 21, which speaks of Christ as seated on God s throne, while 
in iii. 19 the O.T. words of Yahweh are used by Christ as His 
own. ot SoGXoi auTou XaTpeuaouaiy KT\. Cf. vii. 15, note. 

4. o\J/oKTai TO TrpocrwTrok aurou. Cf. Matt. V. 8 ; Heb. xii. 14. 
This vision of God, which was withheld from Moses (Ex. 
xxxiii. 20, 23), is promised to the faithful in Messianic times in 
Jerusalem in T. Zeb. ix. 8, oif/ecrOe avrbv ev Icpovo-aX^/u, a 
promise which appears also in Ps. Ixxxiv. 7 (LXX and Vulg.) 
o^^o-crat 6 #os ran/ Oew iv Stan/. But this is not the vision 
face to face that is designed in our text and also in 4 Ezra 
vii. 98. In the latter passage the vision of God constitutes the 
seventh and supreme bliss of the righteous. 

"They shall rejoice with boldness, 
Be confident without confusion, 
Be glad without fear ; 
VOL. n. 14 



2IO THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 4-5. 

For they are hastening to behold the face of Him whom in 

life they served, 
And from whom they are destined to receive their reward in 

glory." 

The capacity for such vision involves likeness of character : cf. 
i John iii. 2. Moffatt aptly compares Plutarch (De Iside, 79), 
who writes that the souls of men after death "migrate to the 
unseen " and " hang as it were upon Him (God), and gaze with 
out ever wearying, and yearn for that unspeakable, indescribable 
beauty." 

KCtl TO oVofAtt ttUToG CTTt TW^ JJLTWTT(i>J ClUToG. See nOtfiS Ott VU. 3, 

xiii. 1 6, xiv. i. Cf. also iii. 12. 

5. KCU vu OUK ecn-at In. Darkness is at an end for ever. 
This clause appears to be the source of the corruption in xxi. 25. 
The expectation here expressed is not found in the O.T. but as 
regards heaven at all events is definitely taught in Philo, Dt 
Josepho, 24 : et yow ^ovX^^etv; SiaKUTrreiv et<ra> TIS rail Trpay/xarwi/, 
evprycrei rov ovpavbv ^//.epai/ aiwnov, VVKTO<S /cat Tratn/s ovaas 
d/xero^ov, are TreptAayUTro/xevov dcr/Jearots /cat aK^paYois dSiacrTaYws 
c/>e yyeo-ti/. Cf. also 2 Bar. xlviii. 50. But the conception in our 
text is infinitely finer. The light of the New Jerusalem is not 
due as in Philo to a multitude of unextinguishable and unadulter 
ated lights, but to the light of God s own presence always and 
everywhere present. The conception could be deduced from 
Isa. Ix. 19, "The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither 
for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee ; but the Lord 
shall be unto thee an everlasting light." 

KCU oux eoucni> \peiav (Jxuros Xux^ou icat (f*^ 5 ^Xiou. Cf. 
xxi. 23*. The future eovcrtv (A vg. s lf 2 , Tic.) is to be preferred 
to fyovo-Lv. All the verbs in this description of the New Jerusalem 
(xxi. i-4 abc , xxii. 3 5 ) are futures. As contra-distinguished from the 
heavenly Jerusalem, that was already in being and was to come 
down from heaven for the Millennial Kingdom, the New Jeru 
salem, which is not created till after its close, is not yet in being. 
As regards the former, observe the occasional present and past 
verbs in xxi. 9-xxii. 2. The phrase c/>Gs ^Xtov (AP : c/>wros K 
me s 1 - 2 ) had best be regarded as dependent on xpoav. Such an 
irregularity is not unfamiliar in our author. In fact we have 
XpetW ex U/ w ^ tn an acc - ^ n i n< J 7 an ^ w ^ tn a genitive in xxi. 23. 

Kuptog 6 0e6s <f>amcrei eir aurous. The construction here 
(c/>coTiWt r , &*A, etc.) differs from that in xxi. 23, 17 Soa TOV Oeov 
ec/>omo-ev avrrjv, and in xviii. i, and the sense differs likewise. In 
xxi. 23 the meaning is clear : not the physical luminaries, the sun 
and moon, but "the glory of God did lighten" the Heavenly 
Jerusalem (cf. also xviii. i). But here the Greek cpamW cif 



XXII. 5.] EPILOGUE OF THE APOCALYPSE 211 



differs from that in xviii. i, xxi. 23 alike in construction 
and meaning. First, as regards the construction, it must at once 
be conceded that it is peculiar. If our author had wished to 
express the thought "shall shine upon them," "give them 
light," he would have said <t>avei avrols: cf. xxi. 23. Hence 
later MSS omitted the eVt, and herein they are followed by 
WH, Bousset and others. Other editors, such as Alford, Swete, 
and Moffatt, rightly follow A here, but do not explain the 
anomaly. We can get a good sense, if we explain it as a 
Hebraism. When regarded from this standpoint we next re 
cognize that Kvptos 6 0eos <&m crei eV O.VTOVS is a rendering 
of Ps. cxviii. 27, WjJ -INJ1 >K, where for i&n our author found 
TK or TKn, which latter he changed into v\ Here the 
Aramaic Targum and the Syriac, Ethiopia, and Arabic Ver 
sions similarly transform the two clauses into one and pre 
suppose the text to have been Yn and not i 8 5. Here, there 
fore, the eVi reproduces i. 1 Having discovered the source of 
our author s words the discovery of their meaning ceases to 
be difficult. In Ps. cxviii. 27 the words are a shortened form of 
the priest s blessing in Num. vi. 25 by the omission of V3B (see 
Oxford Hebrew Lexicon, p. 2i b ), which in its fuller form recurs 
several times as the footnote shows. Hence we should here 
render " The Lord God shall cause His face to shine upon them." 
Here there is ^.personal relation indicated between God and the 
blessed individually. In xxi. 23, on the other hand, no such 
personal relation is indicated. The Holy City is lighted up as a 
whole by the glory of God instead of by the sun and moon. 
Thus the Face which the saints will see in xxii. 4 will shine 
upon them in eternal benediction (xxii. 5). 

jSctortXeuorouo-ip els TOUS cuaii/as r&v aiuvwv. This everlasting 
reign of the saints in the New Jerusalem stands out in strong 
contrast with the Millennial reign in the City which came down 
from heaven before the Final Judgment, xx. 4. 

The Epilogue. 

xxi. 6 b -8, xxii. 6-7, 18% 16, 13, 12, 10, 8-9, 20-21. 
INTRODUCTION. 

i. On this epilogue, which contains the declarations of God, 
of Jesus, and of John, see p. 154. That they come from our 
author cannot be contested, though they have been transmitted 

1 In Num. vi. 25 we have *?N (LXX <?TT/), in Ps. xxxi. 17 ; Dan. ix. 17 
*H, and ? in Ps. cxix. 135, and TIN in Ps. Ixvii. 2. In all cases the LXX 
renders by iirl. But the LXX does not use (fxartfeiv in these passages but 



212 REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 6 b -8, XXII. 6-7, &c. 

in the utmost disorder, and no doubt defectively. The recon 
struction here given is, of course, tentative. First of all, xxi. 6 b -8, 
as containing a declaration of God, singles itself out for con 
sideration. It cannot possibly belong to the period after the 
Final Judgment ; for hope is still held out to the repentant, and 
the doom of the second death has not yet been pronounced 
against the finally impenitent. It must, therefore, belong either 
to the period of the Millennial Kingdom or to that of our 
author. The thought and language are in favour of the latter 
hypothesis. Thus 6 VLKUV in xxii. 7 brings vividly before us the 
experiences actual and apprehended of the faithful in the 
years 90-96 A.D. : he is the warrior faithful unto death, to whom 
promise after promise is held out, as in ii. 7, n, 17, 26, iii. 5, 
12, 21, xii. II, XV. 2. Again, xxi. 6 d , eyo> rw Sti/^oivrt Scotrco CK rJJs 
Tr-qyris TOV vSaros rr/s O>T}S Swpeav, clearly presupposes xxii. 1 7 as 
having preceded it ; for there we have the divine gift described 
without the article : 6 0eA<ov Aa/?eVco vSwp 00?}$ Soopeav. But for the 
recurrence of the Swpcav here we might have explained the 
articles in xxi. 6 d from vii. 17. As regards the sorcerers, fornica- 
tors, murderers, and idolaters we are told (xxii. 15) that in the 
Millennial Kingdom they will be excluded from the Heavenly 
Jerusalem : here they are adjudged to be cast into the lake of 
fire (xxi. 8). 

Hence xxi. 6 b -8 is to be taken as the divine authentication of 
the Apocalypse as a whole, which God had given to Jesus Christ 
to make known to His servants (as stated in i. i). This declara 
tion of God is then followed by the declaration of Jesus that He 
had sent His angels to testify these things to the Churches in 
xxii. 6-7, i8 a , 1 6, 13, 12, 10, and the Book closes with the testi 
mony of John, xxii. 8-9, 20-21 (see note on i. 1-3). In 
xxii. 6-21 more than anywhere else in chapters xx.-xxii. we have 
the disjecta membra of the Poet-Seer. We have already assigned 
xxii. 14-15, 17 to the section dealing with the Heavenly Jeru 
salem which comes down to earth during the Millennial 
Kingdom. The re-arrangement of xxii. 6-22 just given is sug 
gested by the text itself and confirmed by i. 1-2 (see note in vol. 
i. p. 5 sq.), and is therefore not improbably the order intended 
by the Seer. It is, of course, fragmentary. With a view to its 
arrangement, we observe first of all that Jesus is the speaker in 
12-13, J 6> an d likewise in 6-7 ; for in these last two verses the 
speaker is distinguished from the angel who showed the Seer the 
things which must shortly come to pass, and the words " behold I 
come quickly " in 7 are naturally spoken by Christ. Moreover, 
as Konnecke and Moffatt have recognized, 12-13, 16 can be 
restored to their original order by reading them as follows: 
1 6, 13, 12. Thus this section is to be read as follows: 



XXI. 6 b -8, XXII. 6-7, &c.] DICTION 2 1 3 

6-7, 1 6, 13, 12. Verse 10 still the words of Christ comes 
next, " And He saith unto me, Seal not up the words of the 
prophecy of this book ; for the time is at hand." 

I have bracketed n as conflicting with xxi. 6 b -8, which appar 
ently refer to evangelistic appeals during the Seer s lifetime. 
xxii. 18% as coming from Christ, gives His imprimatur to the 
book, xxii, 8-9 as describing the action of the Seer in relation 
to the angel at its close, and xxii. 20-21 as giving the Seer s final 
testimony form the natural close of the Apocalypse. 

Traces of the hand of the editor are to be found in two pas 
sages : see 3 ad fin. Cf. 3 in Introduction to xx. 4-15 (p. 182). 

2. Diction. 

XXI. 6. TO "A\4>ct Kal TO *fl. Cf. i. 8, xxii. 13. ^ dp x i) K<U TO 
Te Xos: cf. xxii. 13. TW 8u|/ojm (cf. vii. 16) 8(6<ra> IK TTJS Tr^y^s TOU 
uSaTos TTJS wiis 8wpedV: cf. xxii. 17, vii 17. 

7. 6 VLK.&V : see under i. eao/xai auT<o 6eos : cf. xxi. 3. 

8. TOIS . . . (jJOyeGai Kttl TTOpyOlS Kttl (jXXpfJKXKOlS Kttl l8a>Xo- 

XaTpais : cf. xxii. 15. TTJ XIJACTJ TTJ Kaiojierr) : cf. xix. 20, xx. 10, 
etc. 

q OdVaTos 6 SeuTcpo? : cf. ii. n. 

XXII. 6. d-ireoreiXey T. ayyeXov auToG : cf. i. I, aTnwrreiAas Sia 
r. dyy. avrov. 

8eicu T. SouXois auTou . . . iv r<i\*i : a verbal repetition from 
i. i. 

7. i8ou epxojxai Taxu : cf. ii. 16, iii. IT, xvi. 15, xxii. 12. 
jxctKctpios 6 Tf]pS)v T. Xoyoug T. irpo(j)Y)T6tas T. |3t|3Xiou TOUTOU : a 
summary of i. 3 (and the last of the seven beatitudes in this 
Book), xxii. 10, 18. 

18 a . fjiapTupw : cf. i. 2. T. Xoyous T. -rrpo<f>T]Teias icrX. : see on 
7 above. 

16. eyci) . . . 6TTfAv|/a KTX. : cf. i. I. ey<u i^,t ^ pi^a . . . AaueiS : 
repeated from v. 5. 6 do-Trjp ... 6 irpwii/os : already in ii. 28. 

13. eyo> TO "AX4>a Kat TO *ii : cf. i. 8, xxi. 6. 6 irpwTog Kal 
6 laxaTos : cf. i. 17, ii. 8. T) dpj(T) Kal TO TeXos cf. xxi. 6. 

12. iSou epxojxat Taxu. See on 7 above. diroSoGvai ^K 
a>S TO epyoj early auTou: cf. ii. 23, Scocra) . . . eKacrTw KttTa ra 
^wv, xx. 13. 

10. Xeyei JULOI : cf. v. 5, vii. 13, x. 9. JITJ a<f>payt<n]s : cf. X. 4. 
T. Xoyous T. Trpo<j>T]Teias T. pi(3\. TOUTOU : see on 7 above. 

6 Kaipos yap eyyus : cf. i. 3. 

8. Kayw iwaynrig : cf. i. 1,4, 9. eireora TrpocrKurfjaat ejATrpoaOev 
TWI/ iroSwi : cf. xix. 10, which, however, is a doublet of this 
passage. Elsewhere John uses 7rpo<r/cwetV CVWTTIOV : cf. iii. 9, 
xv. 4 where this phrase expresses simply homage. TOU 

cf. i. i, iv. i, xvii. i, xxi. 9, 10, xxii. i, 6. 



214 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 6 b -8, &c. 

9. T&V TY)pouir&)i> T. Xoyous T. |3i|3X. TouTou : cf. i. 3, iii. 8, 10, 
xii. 17, xiv. 12. TW 6ew n-poo-Ku nrjaoi : see note on vii. n. 

20. fAapTupuc: see 1 8* above, mi: see i. 7 (note). Ipxojiai 
T<XXU : see on 7 above. 

AjA^y : see i. 7 (note). 

3. Idioms. The constructions are almost wholly normal. 
Here as elsewhere in xx. 4-xxii. the text has apparently been 
normalized by the editor of this section. 

Johannine xxi. 6. 8waw IK : for this partitive use of e/c after 
SiSoW cf. iii. 9. Not elsewhere in N.T. save in i John iv. 13. 

8. rots 8e SeiXois ... TO fxepos auruv : a pure Hebraism : see 
note in loc.. 

XXII. 8. 6 dKouW: used here as an aorist or perfect as 
elsewhere the participle is used in our author : cf. (WnWros, 
similarly used at the close of this verse. 

Non-Johannine xxi. 6. TW 8i\|/w/Tt &w<ro>. According to our 
author s universal usage elsewhere we should expect a^rw after 
Swo-o) in this connection: cf. ii. 7, 17, 26, iii. 21. Here appar 
ently the editor has omitted it and so normalized the text. 

XXI. 8. TYJ Xi/xnr) Tfj KcuojAeVfl may be another such instance : 
cf. xix. 20. 

The Epilogue of the Apocalypse consisting of (i) the declara 
tion of God, xxi. 6 b -8 : (2) the testimony of Jesus, xxii. 6-?, 1 8", 16, 
13, 12, 10 [//], \1&-I9\; (3) and that of John, xxii. 8-0, 20-21. 

Here more than anywhere else in chapters xx.-xxii. have we 
the disjecta membra of the Poet-Seer. These fragments clearly 
form the Epilogue of the Book, and a study of these fragments 
leads us to recognize them as coming from three distinct 
speakers God, Jesus, and John. In xxi. 6 b -8 God is clearly the 
speaker. In xxii. 12-13, l6 > and likewise 6-7, 10, 18% Jesus 
is the speaker, for in 6-7 the speaker is distinguished from 
the angel who showed the Seer the things that must shortly 
come to pass, and the words "behold I come quickly" 
in 7 are most naturally spoken by Christ, and likewise 
10, i8 a . Moreover, as Konnecke (followed by Moffatt) has 
recognized, 12-13, J 6 should be read as follows: 16, 13, 12. 
Thus the original order of the testimony and declaration of 
Christ was most probably: 6-7, 16, 13, 12, 10 [n], i8 a [i8 b -i9]. 
The book then closes with the testimony of John xxii. 8-9, 
20-21. xxii. n, i8 b -i9 appear to be interpolations. 

This order, which is suggested by a study of xxii. 6-22, in 
itself harmonizes with that given in the first two verses of the 
Apocalypse, where we are told that (i) God has given to Christ 
this revelation to show unto His servants : (2) that Christ has 
sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John : (3) that 



XXI. 6 b -8.] DECLARATION OF GOD 21$ 

John has borne witness of the word of God and of the testimony 
of Christ. 

XXI. 6 b -8. The declaration of God as to His own Being, His 
willingness to be gracious to the repentant , His promise of being a 
Father to him that overcometh, and His denunciation of the craven- 
hearted, the unbelieving and impure as destined to be cast into the 
lake that burneth with fire and brimstone the second death. 

6 b . eyw eljAi To"A\<j>a KCU TO *fl. Here as in i. 8 (where see note) 
these epithets belong to the Eternal Father, whereas in xxii. 13 
they are used by Christ of Himself. 

TJ dpx^j Kal TO Te Xos. Cf. xxii. 13, see note on i. 8. 

eyu) TW Suj/wrn, Sworco eic TTJS ir^yfis KT\. Based On Isa. Iv. I. 
See note on vii. 17. 

TOU uoaTos TTJs UT)S SwpedV. Observe the articles. We have 
uSwp 0)779 SwpedV in xxii. 17 which is explicable if xxii. 17 pre 
cedes, but not so if the MSS order of the text were correct. 
On the distinction between vSwp WT}S and uAov w?5s see ii. 7, 
note. 

7. 6 i/iK&V K\T]poyop]o-i Tttura. The victor is here contrasted 
with the cravenhearted in 8. The ravra here refers to the 
Millennial blessedness, the new heaven, the new earth, and the 
New Jerusalem (xxi. i-4 abc , xx. 3-5). Of these "he who 
conquers" is "the heir" (KA^/DOVO/AOS). The collocation of 
/cA^oi/o/xTJo-et in this line and avros co-rat /xot vto s in the next but 
one shows, as Swete remarks, the close affinity in this respect 
between our author and St. Paul : cf. Rom. viii. 1 7, d Se reWa, 
/cat /cAr/povo/AOt ; Gal. iv. 7, et Se wos, Kat K\rj poi 0/xos Sta $eov. 

Kal eo-ofxat auTw 6eos. This promise was made frequently in 
the O.T. : first to the founder of the nation, Gen. xvii. 7, 8, 
while that in the next line, Kat a^Tos rrat JJLOL vtos, is first made in 
reference to Solomon as a representative of the nation, 2 Sam. 
vii. 14, and in Ps. Ixxxix. 26, 27 in reference to David. Nowhere 
in the O.T. can the individual as such claim God as Father. 
This claim is first found in Sir. xxiii. i : later in Wisdom ii. 16 
(see note on Jub. i. 24 of my edition). But in the N.T. the 
normal attitude of the faithful individual to God is that of a 
son to his heavenly Father. Here only in our author is this 
conception brought forward. This sonship is realized in some 
true degree in the present life just as surely as the thirst for 
righteousness (r<L St^wvrt) is in some true measure satisfied 
here. 

8. We have here the list of those who have disfranchised 
themselves from the Kingdom of God and gone over into the 
Kingdom of outer darkness. Of these there are mentioned eight 
classes, which fall into three divisions, the first division com 
prising three classes, the second three, and the third two. 



216 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXI. 8 



First division rots 8 SeiXots 1 /cat owno-Tots /cat e. 
The SetAoi are not "the fearful" as in the A.V. and R.V. but 
" the cowardly " or " the cravenhearted," who in the struggle with 
the Beast have played the coward, denied the faith, and rendered 
worship to Caesar. SeiAt a has always a bad meaning, and St. Paul 
declares, 2 Tim. i. 7 : ov yap eoWei/ ^l v 6 0eos 7n/eC/x,a SeiAias. 
A man may fear and yet not be SetXos. In fact the most 
courageous man is he who, notwithstanding his fear of the real 
dangers that beset his advance, goes sturdily onwards. But this 
fear in the N.T. is either c/>o /?os a middle term capable of a 
good or of a bad interpretation according to the context or 
euA.a/?eto. Cf. Phil. ii. 12, /ACTO, </>o/3ov KOL T/OO//.OV rrjv eavraiv 



rots . . . dmorois. In our author aVicrTos means primarily 
"faithless," ^"untrustworthy." This is to be inferred from the 
use Of TRO-TOS: cf. i. 5, d Irjo-ov X/HO-TOV 6 /*d>rvs 6 irwrros; 
ii. 10, ytVov TTIOTOS ox/ot Ba.va.rov; ii. 13, iii. 14, xvii. 14.2 Thus 
the aWros is closely allied to the SetAds that precedes. As such 
the aTTio-rot are not coextensive with the SctAoi, for there are 
other grounds than cowardice for such disloyalty. But the 
a7rrr(H owing to the /3SeA,uy/x,eVot that follows immediately may 
suggest the idea of immorality : cf. Tit. i. 15, rots Se /zc/ua/x/xo ois 
/cat aTrio-TOi? ... 16. ... ySSeXv/cTOt oVres /cat a7ret0et?. Further 
more, the aTTiarot appear to embrace not only the Christian who 
denies his faith, but also the pagan who rejects it. 

TOIS . . . e/SSeKuYfA^ois. These are those who are defiled 
with the abominations referred to in xvii. 4, 5, connected with 
the worship of the Beast and generally with the impurities of the 
pagan cults, including unnatural vice. Cf. Hos. ix. 10; 2 Enoch 
x - 4_5> "This place is prepared for ... those who on earth 
practise sin against nature, which is child corruption after the 
Sodomitic fashion, magic-making, enchantments, and devilish 
witchcraft . . ^. lies . . . fornication, murder": Apoc. Pet. 17, 
ourot O rjcrav ol /zioVai/Tes TO, crco/xara eavrwv d>s ywat/ces ai/a<rrpe<o- 
/xevot* at Se /xer av raii/ ywat/ces ... at <ruy/coi/>i7?#eto-at aAA^Aais a>s 

1 In rots 5 SetXots . . . rd ptpos OLVT&V we have a Hebraism where h is 
used in introducing a new subject : see Oxford Hebrew Lexicon, p. 5i4 b = 
Djjpn ... 37 ?np. Cf. i Chron. xxiv. i, onip^no pnN jn l ?i = " And as for the 
sons of Aaron their courses were " : also vii. i, xxvi. i, 31 (where the LXX 
reproduces by the dat); 2 Chron. vii. 21 ; Eccles. ix. 4. In Ezra x. 14 
the LXX has this construction, though it is not found in the Hebrew, where 
possibly the 7 has been lost : iraa-tv rots ev Tr6\e<nv TI^UV . . . A^rox?, 
Na . . . irijn ns?x 73<7>. The more usual construction in Hebrew would 
be a nominativus pendens resumed by Dp7n. 

a This meaning of irioris, i.e. "faithful," "loyal," is also found in 2 Bar. 
liv. 21 (where see my note), though elsewhere (except possibly in liv. 16) in 
that book it means "believing": cf. xlii. 2, liv. 5, Ivii. 2, lix. 2, Ixxxiii. 8. 
On 4 Ezra in this respect see Box, pp. 67, 143. 



XXI. 8, XXII. 6.] TESTIMONY OF JESUS 

av dvrjp Trpos ywat/ca This class must obviously comprise all 
the pagan world that is so defiled. We thus observe that, 
whereas the first three classes are closely associated in point of 
character, their comprehensiveness steadily widens from faithless 
Christians to. the whole body of the impure whether Christian or 
pagan. 

Kal <f>oyeuai Kal Tr<5pi/ois Kal <f>apfAciKois. In xxii. 15 these 
words are found in the reverse order. These sins have already 
been referred to in ix. 21, oc TWV <f>6viov avrwv OVTC IK TWV ^>ap/x,a/cajv 
avrwv ovre e/c riys iropvctas avrtav (see note). See also Gal. V. 
19-21, where Tropveia, fappaKLa and <<W (in some MSS) appear 
amongst many other vices. In i Tim. i. 9 we have avSpo $01/019, 
, and in Jas. ii. n </>oVos and /xot^cta are combined. The 
are " sorcerers," as their association with the ttSwAa- 
in the next line shows: cf. ix. 20, 21, where they are 
similarly associated. 

eiSwXoXctTpais Kai iraai TOIS fyeubevw. Cf. ix. 20, xxii. 15. 
Idolatry is the cardinal sin against which our author warns his 
readers. Hence the primary reference is here to Christians. 
As the idols are lies so all the idolaters are liars. The insincerities 
of heathenism, the frauds of its priests as well as all the falsities 
of Christians are here referred to (cf. xiv. 5). Lying and 
duplicity are denounced in the O.T. but in far stronger terms in 
the N.T. 

TO jxepos auTWK. The avrwv resumes the eight classes 
mentioned in the preceding datives. On these datives see foot 
note, p. 216. TTJ Xijju/r] -nj KaiofxeVrj KT\. : cf. xix. 20, xx. 10, 14, 15 
and note on ix. i : 2 Enoch x. 2, "And there were all manner of 
tortures in this place ... 4. This place, O Enoch, is prepared 
for those who dishonour God, etc." 6 Gam-ros 6 Seu repos. See 
note on ii. n. 

The Testimony of Jesus, xxii. 6-7, 16, 13, 12, 10 [n], i8 a 
[i8 b -i 9 ]. 

XXII. 6-7. That these are the words of Christ is to be con 
cluded from the declaration in 7, KOL Z8ov ^p-^opxu ra^v. Moreover, 
there is a special fitness that He, who is designated TTICTTOS KCU 
aXriOLvos in iii. 14, xix. n, should authenticate the words of the 
prophecy of this book as TTICTTOI /cat aXyOivoi (6). 

6. OUTOI ol \6yot mcrro! ical d\T]0ti>ot. Christ here authen 
ticates the words of the prophecy of this book and as 6 TTIO-TOS 
Kat aA^^ti/09 there is a special appropriateness in His so doing. 
Besides He is therein fulfilling the very task given to Him by 
God in i. i, where we are told that God gave Him this revelation 
in order that He might make it known vjv (i.e. r^v aTro/cuAvi/av) 
eSco/cei/ avraJ (i.e. lyaov Xpiarw) 6 $os etai rots SovAois atrov. 
Cf. 4 Ezra xv. i, 2, "Ecce loquere inaures plebis meae sermones 



21 8 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 6-7, 18 a , 

prophetiae, quos immisero in os tuum, dicit Dominus. 2. Et 
fac ut in charta scribantur, quoniam fideles et veri sunt." 

6 Kupios 6 6e6s T&V WCUJACITWI r&v irpo<|>Y)T<!m This is certainly 
a strange expression. Some scholars (Bousset, Moffatt) regard 
the plural as an archaistic detail (cf. i. 4), according to which 
there are a variety of angelic spirits that inspire the prophets. If 
we take this in the sense that various angels were sent at various 
times to instruct the prophets, it is quite unobjectionable, irvev- 
fjiara is used of the archangels in our author : cf. iii. i, iv. 5, etc. 
But though the sense is unobjectionable, the words themselves can 
hardly bear this meaning. The Trvevfjiara are best taken with 
Swete to be the prophets own spirits filled by the One Spirit 
mentioned in ii. 7, xiv. 13, xxii. 17. When the prophet spake as 
a prophet, it was his spirit that was active (i. 10, xvii. 3, xxi. 10). 
Hence it seems that the text should here be interpreted as a 
similar expression in I Cor. xiv. 32, Tn/ev^ara TT/DO^TWV TT/OO^TCUS 
vTTOTao-o-eTat, where it is the prophets own spirits that are 
referred to. The divine title in our text has no connection of 
any kind with the very frequent designation of God in i Enoch 
xxxvii.-lxxi. ; 2 Mace. iii. 24, i.e. "Lord of Spirits." In Num. 
xvi. 22, xxvii. 1 6 the divine title "the God of the spirits of all 
flesh" ("iBa-^ nnnn Tl^K) has only a general reference to man 
kind as a whole and not as in our text to the special class of men. 
TUI> irpo(j)T)Twj . As in x. 7, xi. 18, xxii. 9, John associates him 
self here with the Christian prophets. 

TOV ayyeXoi/ aurou. Here Christ speaks of the angel of xvii. i, 
xxi. 9 as God s angel, and yet in i. i, xxii. 16 he is described as 
Christ s angel. The statements are not incompatible. 8elai 
TOIS Sou Xois . . . iv rdxet. This clause is repeated from i. i. 
In fact the words aTreoraAei/ T. ayyeXov avrov Saai r. SouXoi? avrov 
a Set yevfaOai Iv ra^et combine Setai T. SouXoi? avrov, a Set 
yeWcr(9ai ei/ ra^et and aTrocrrctXas Sia TOV dyye Xov avrov in i. I. 

7. Kal tSou Ipxojaai raxu. Cf. xxii. 12, where as here it is from 
the lips of Christ; also ii. 5, 16, iii. n, and xvi. 15, which as we 
have already seen should be restored after iii. 3*. 

jxaicapios 6 TY)pa)i> TOUS Xoyous icrX. This is the last of the 
seven beatitudes of the book (see note on i. 3). It is a short 
summary of i. 3, and thus the Book ends as it began in declaring 
the blessedness of those who have kept the words of the 
prophecy; but, whereas it is John that pronounces the first 
beatitude (i. 3), it is Christ that pronounces the last. 

18 a . fxaprupu) ey&j irdvri TO> aKouora, TOUS X^yous icrX. Here 
the speaker is, as Swete urges* still Christ, who gives His solemn 
imprimatur to the Book. Moreover, as in 1 6 /xa/orvp^o-at v/uv 
ravra the TOUS Xoyovs is to be taken as the accusative after 
and not after d/couoi/Ti, as is usually done : " to every- 



XXII. 18% 16, 13.] CLAIMS OF CHRIST 2Ip 

one that heareth I bear witness to the words of the prophecy of 
this book." As in 7, 10, Christ uses the same phraseology, T. 
Adyovs T. 7rpo<f>r)Tia<s T. /?6/3Aiov TOVTOV. 

16. Eyw irjcroGs eTrepJ/a TOV ayyeXoV jiou. These words recall 
i. I, /cat lo-rjfJiavev a7rocrTiAas Sta TOV dyye Xou CLVTOV, and xxii. 6, 
6 0os . . . d-TrccrreiXe Tov dyycXov avrov. According to WestCOtt 
(Add. Note on John xx. 21) aTroo-TfiXXw "conveys the accessory 
notions of a special commission and so far of a delegated 
authority in the person sent." It is strange that Abbott (Johan- 
nine Vocabulary , p. 227) ascribes to these verbs almost the 
contrary meaning : " We are perhaps justified in thinking that 
means sending away into the world at large, but 
sending on a special errand. " Our author, at any rate, 
appears to use them as synonyms. 

ujjiT^ : cf. also xxii. 6. The angel of Christ attests the contents 
of this book (rcamx) to the members of the Asian Churches. 
Others think the VJMV refers to the body of prophets in the 
Johannine school. 

eyw eiju f\ pia ical TO ye^os AauetS : cf. V. 5, 6 Aetov 6 e/c rrjs 
<f>v\fj<s lovSa, 17 pia Aavei 8 : Isa. xi. i, And there shall come forth 
a shoot out of the stock of Jesse and a branch out of his roots 
shall bear fruit; xi. 10; Test. Jud. xxiv. 5. 

"Then shall the sceptre of my kingdom shine forth, 
And from your root shall arise a stem." 

In His own person Christ is at once the root, and the stem and 
branches that spring from the root, and thus combines all the 
Messianic claims of the Davidic family. Thus He forms the climax 
of Jewish Messianic expectation. Our author lays more stress on 
the Davidic descent than Christ did Himself: cf. Matt. xxii. 42-45. 

6 do-TTjp 6 XafAirp<$5, 6 irpwifos. Here Christ is Himself the 
morning star, which in ii. 28 is promised to the faithful. The 
idea is ultimately derived from Num. xxiv. 17, "There shall 
come forth a star out of Jacob," but in the Test. Lev. xviii. 3, 
and probably in Test. Jud. xxiv. i, this passage has been 
definitely associated with the hope of a Messiah from Levi an 
expectation that was abandoned early in the first century B.C. 
As Christ is the realization of all that Israel hoped for in the 
past (^ pia KT\.), He contains in Himself the promise (cf. Luke 
i. 78) of all that is to come (6 dorr/p ... 6 7rpa>u/os) as " the 
Light of the world," John viii. 12. 

13. In this verse the Son claims all the attributes of the Father. 
In the next verse (i.e. 12) it follows naturally that He designates 
Himself as the Judge of all the world. 

yo> TO *A\4>a KT\. : cf. i. 8 (note), xxi. 6, where it is the title 
used by God of Himself. 



22O THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN fXXII. la 

6 -rrpwTos Kal 6 effx aT0 5 See note on i. 17, ii. 8 in both 
cases of Christ. 

$ dpxfj Kal TO reXos. This title is used by God of Himself 
in xxi. 6. 

The phrase fj apxy KOL TO TeXos is an abbreviated form of an 
ancient Orphic saying, which is first recorded in Plato, Leg. iv. 7, 
6 /xej> ST) $cos (<So-7rep Kal 6 TraAatos Xoyos) ap^v Te Kat reXevryv Kat 
/xe o-a Taiv OJ/TWI/ aTrai/Tcoi/ e;(a>>. Thus Plato in the 4th century B.C. 
speaks of this saying as even then an ancient one. A scholion 
on this passage gives the original form of it and an explanation : 
Ocov JAW TOV (fy/xiovpyov o-a<oos, TraXatov Se Xdyov Xeyet rov Op<f>iKOv t 
os eo-Tiv OUTOS* Zeus apx??, Zevs /xecro-a, Atos 8* CK Trai/Ta TeTVKTat, 
Zevs irvOfJirjv yairys TC Kal ovpavov do-Tepoci/Tos* /cat dp^i) /xev OVTOS 

(OS TTOirjTlKOV OLTIOV, T\VTr] 8c O)S TcXl/COV, JJL(T(ra Se d)S C^tVoV 7TaO"t 

Trapwi/. We might compare the Pauline statement, Rom. xi. 
36, e OVTOV /cat 8t a^Tou /cat ts avrov TO. Travra, i.e. God is 
the initial cause, the sustaining cause, and the final cause of all 
things. 

This Orphic logion was well known in the ancient world. In 
the first century A.D. it was familiar to the Palestinian Jews, as we 
know from Josephus who quotes it in c. Ap. ii. 22, 6 0eos . . . 
auTos eavTw /cat 7rao~tv avTap/CT^s, Q-PX*! Ka ^ / it ~ a Ka TcXos OVTOS TOJV 
TravTcoj/. In his Ant. viii. ii. 2 it appears in almost the same 
abbreviated form as in our text : Kat TOV tStov Ocov ... os ... 
apX*] Kal TeXos TOJV aTrdvroyv. In later times it was adopted by the 
Talmudists and given a Jewish turn in the third century A.D. 
by Simon ben Lakish, who strove to derive this ancient Greek 
Orphic saying from the Hebrew word nK (Jer. Jeb. xii. 13*; 
Gen. R. Ixxxi.) ; "for . . . K is the first, D the middle, and n the 
last letter of the alphabet this being the name of God according 
to Isa. xliv. 6, explained Jer. Sanh. i. i8 a , I am the first <having 
had none from whom to receive the kingdom > ; I am the 
middle, there being none who shares the kingdom with me; 
<and I am the last>there being none to whom I shall hand 
the kingdom of the world " (quoted from Jewish Encyc. i. 439). 
It is hardly needful to draw attention to the forced nature of this 
explanation or to point out that O is not the middle letter of the 
Hebrew alphabet being the i3th from the beginning and the 
loth from the end. 

Turning now from Jewish to Christian writings, we find that 
the early Christian writers were well acquainted with this ancient 
Greek saying. This phrase lies behind the text of the 
: ets 0os eo-Ttv, os PX^ V Traj/Twv en-onyo-ev Kat TeXovs 
Justin Martyr (Cohort, ad Gent, xxv.) quotes the saying 
from Plato but ascribes it to the Law of Moses. Irenaeus (Haer. 
i\\. 25. 5, "Et Deus quidem, quemadmodum et vetus sermo 



XXII. 12, 10-11.] CHRIST S COMMAND 221 

est, initium et finem et medietates omnium quae sunt habens " ; 
Hippolytus, Refut. omn. Haer. i. 19; Clem. Alex. Protrepb. 
vi. 69, Strom, ii. 22. 132; Origen,^. Cels. vi. 13; Eusebius, 
Praepar. Evang. xi. 13, ap^v avros l^wv /<at /xeWaroi/ ^8e 



12. t&ou epxofxai raxu. Cf. iii. II, xxii. 7, 20. KCU 6 
(xou jj-er 5 e fjiou. Cf. xi. i8 d . 6 /AIO-#OS />tov is here " the reward 
which I give." Cf. Isa. xl. 10, iSov 6 /x,to-0os avrov /ACT* aurov : 
Ixii. II ; Wisd. V. 15, Kal cv /cvpiw 6 //.to-$os avrwv. 

diroSoui ai eKdorw a>s TO epyoy early aurou. Cf. ii. 23, xx. 13; 
Rom. ii. 6; Prov. xxiv. I2 b (LXX, os cbrooYoWtj/ e/cao-rw /cara TCL 
cpya avrov); Jer. xvii. 10; Ps. Ixi. 13, OTL <rv aTroSwo-cis eKacrrcu 
Kara ra Ipya avrov. Our text seems to have been before i Clem . 
xxxiv. 3. 

10. Here also Christ appears to speak, as Bousset recognizes. 
There is force in His command to issue the Book immediately ; 
"for the time is at hand." As contrasted with Jewish Apoca 
lypses, such as Daniel (cf. viii. 26, xii. 4, 9) ; i Enoch i. 2, xciii. 

10, civ. 12; 2 Enoch xxxiii. 9-11, xxxv. 3, etc., which were not 
to be divulged till distant generations, our Apocalypse is to be 
made known by the Seer to his contemporaries. The older 
Apocalypses were referred to as sealed (cf. Dan. viii. 26, in order 
to explain the withholding of their publication till the actual time 
of their author. 

TOUS Xoyous T. irpo<j>T]Ttas KT\. Cf. xxii. 7, 18. In all three 
cases these are the words of Christ : cf. also i. 3. 6 icaipos yap 
eyyus- This clause and the preceding are combined by our 
author in i. 3. The same idea underlies the clause cpx /^ 011 Ta X^> 

11. 16, iii. n, xxii. 7, 12, 20, which is only used by Christ. 

[11. These words can refer only to the contemporaries of the 
Seer. But, since xxi. 6-8 refer also to his contemporaries and 
still proclaim the possibility of free and full forgiveness, this verse 
appears to be a later addition. In xxi. 6 d those who thirst after 
a new life are promised satisfaction, whereas here the door of 
hope is closed absolutely and finally against every class of sinners. 
Ver. 1 1 assumes that finality in character is already arrived at, 
and an unswerving persistence in good or evil, though there is 
still some interval between the vision and the Second Advent ; 
for the circulation of the Book among the Churches (ii.-iii.) and 
the faithful observance of its teaching (xxi. 7, xxii. 7) postulates 
some such interval. And yet the interval is not expected to be 
long; "for the time is at hand" (i. 3, xxii. 10). In Dan. xii. 
10, ii no such consideration for the sinner is shown. Besides in 
our author the whole body of the neutral nations have to be 

1 Cf. the Egyptian prayer quoted by Reitzenstein (Potmandres, p. 277) : 
- 



222 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 11, 18 b 

evangelized on the Second Advent when the Millennial Kingdom 
is established : cf. xiv. 6-7, xv. 4, xxii. 2, 17, xxi. 24-26. In the 
face of such an expectation 1 1 is an impossibility. 

6 dSiicwi d8ta)<rdTa> en, 

KCU 6 puirapos puTrai/O^rw In. 

ica! 6 SLKCUOS SiKCuocrunrjv TTOIY](T<TU> ITI, 

Kal 6 ayiog a.yio.aQr\T<i> en. 

We have already on the ground of their contents rejected these 
lines. As regards their form and diction there are further 
objections, though these are not unanswerable in themselves. 
First, as regards their form, it will be observed that, whereas 
universally in our author the second line is parallel with, i.e. 
reproduces the first not in identical but in similar terms, or more 
rarely the second and third lines (as in xxii. 13, 12) reproduce 
the first, in IT, however, it is the third line that is parallel anti 
thetically to the first and the fourth that is similarly parallel to the 
second. This form of parallelism is not found in our author, though 
there are approaches to it. It is, however, possible to regard the 
first and second lines, and the third and fourth as respectively 
instances of synonymous parallelism. But the antitheses between 
the 6 dSiKoiv and the 6 SIKCUOS and between the 6 pvTrapos and the 
6 aytos and between dSi/c^o-aYo) and SiKaiocrw^v Troir/o-arco are in 
favour of our taking the stanza as we have done above. Next 
the diction is remarkable. Thus dSi/cetv, which occurs twice in 
this stanza, means here " to act unjustly," " to sin," whereas in 
the nine cases where it occurs previously in our author it means 
"to hurt," "to damage." Next pUTrapos (cf. a7ro0e//,ei/oi Traa-av 
pvTraptav in Jas. i. 21 in like sense) occurs only here in the N.T. 
in the sense of internal defilement (cf. Job xiv. 4, TIS yap /ca&xpos 
carat dVo pvTrov; once of external defilement in Jas. ii. 2), 
pvjravOrjvai here only in N.T., and dytaor^vai, " to purify oneself 
internally " here only in our author.] 

[I8 b -19. As Porter (Messages of the Books, p. 293) remarks, 
these words form " an unfortunate ending of a book whose value 
consists in the spirit that breathes in it, the bold faith and con 
fident hope which it inspires, rather than in the literalness and 
finality of its disclosures." But these clauses, to which there are 
abundant parallels in other books, as we shall see presently, are 
not in the opinion of the present editor from the hand of John. 
For (i) these words presuppose that John looked forward to a long 
period elapsing before the Second Advent, during which the 
Book would be exposed not to the errors incidental to trans 
mission but to the deliberate perversion of his message both in 
the way of additions and omissions. 

But we know that John looked for the speedy Advent of 



XXII. 18 b -19.] INTERPOLATED PASSAGE 223 

Christ and the Millennial Kingdom an expectation which is 
expressed repeatedly in the words PX o^ai ra X v, iii. n, xxii 7 
12, 20. ^2. The style is unlike that of John. Thus we have TO>V 
Aoywi/ TOV ficpXiov -njs Trpo^Tetas TOLVTTJS in 1 9, whereas, as in xxii 7 
10, 1 8, we Should expect r. Ao>v r. Trpoc^Tet as r. /?t/2At ou rovVov 
Next after rovs Aoyovs in i8 a we shall expect, not eV a^rci but 
err avro^. Again, instead of dc/>Aet . . . T o /^pos avrov M TOV 
fvAov T^S Ccoiys we should expect d<eAa ... TO yuepos a) eV 
TO) vAa> 1% frnfc : cf. xx. 6, xxi. 8, or rrjv govaiav avrov eVt TO 
frXov rfs anj s : cf. xxii. 14. 3. The nature of the penalty is not 
what we should expect. The extreme penalty that can befall the 
evildoer in this Book is not the plagues singly or collectively, but 
the being cast into the lake of fire. The plagues are concerned 
with temporal punishments, not with eternal. Exclusion from 
the tree of life is mentioned, it is true, in 19. 4. i8 b -i9 intro 
duce a wrong note in these last verses. 

On the above grounds I have bracketed these clauses as an 
interpolation. 

Next, the custom of appending such warnings claims our 
attention. ^ We first find them in Deut. iv. 2, ov wpocrfyWte 
Trpos TO pfjpa o eyw ei/TeAXo/tat vfuv, KOL OVK d</>eAe?T6 aTr 
avrov: xii. 32: i Enoch civ. 10, "And now I know this 
mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of 
righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words." As 
opposed to this, Enoch requires that they should "not change or 
minish aught from my words" (civ. n). In the Letter of 
Ansteas (33-41 A.D. ?) 310-311, it is said that, when the Greek 
translation of the O.T. was completed, "they bade them 
pronounce a curse in accordance with their custom upon any 
who should make any alteration either by adding anything or 
changing in any way whatever any of the words which had been 
written or making an omission. This was a very wise precaution 
to ensure that the book might be preserved for all the future 
time unchanged." A terrible judgment is foretold (2 Enoch 
xlvin. 7-8) for those who tamper with the words of this book. 
In Josephus (c. Ap. i. 8) the writer claims a most faithful trans 
mission of the ancient books of the O.T. 6^Aov o 3 Zo-rlv Ipyw, T ? 
^/xetS rrpocn^v TOIS tStois ypa/A/xao-f rocrovrov yap aiaVos fjSrj 
7rapa>x>7KOTOs ovrc TrpocrBtivaLi TIS ov Sey ovSe a^eAcIV avrw ovre 
fu-raOwai TeToA^/cev. It was not unusual for writers, Christian 
and Jewish, to attempt to secure a faithful transmission of their 
works by appending solemn adjurations that the scribes should 
in no _wise change or tamper with the text. Cf. Irenaeus in 
Eusebius, H.E. V. 20. 2 : 6p/ao> o-e TOV /xeTaypa^o /xevoi/ TO yStySAiW 
TOITTO . . . Ti/a avrL/3d\r)s o /xereypai/rco /cat KdTopOuo-ys avro -rrpos TO 
dVTtypa<ov TOVTO ... /cat TOV op/cov 6/Ww? /xeTaypctyeis : and Rabbi 



224 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 8-9. 

Meir in Sota 20% "My son, be careful; for it is a divine work : 
if thou writest, were it but a letter more or less, it is as if thou 
wert destroying a world." 

TO fjiepos auTou diro TOU u\ou KT\. The Holy City mentioned 
here is that which is associated with the Millennial Kingdom. 
The tree of life was in this city (xxii. 2).] 

8-9, 20-21. John s testimony and closing words. 

8-9. Of these verses we have already found a doublet in 
xix. 9-10 (see notes), which was probably from the hand of the 
disciple that edited the Book after John s death. 

8. Kdyw ludmjs 6 dicouW Kal pXeiram Cf. 2 Cor. xii. 4, 
YfKova-ev appryra, Dan. xii. 5, "And I Daniel saw." At the close 
of his words the author gives his name as at the beginning (i. i). 
Observe the participles are in our author s usage equal to aorists 
or perfects. 

Iireo-a Trpoo-Kui TJcrai lu.irpocrOei -r&v irafc&v TOU dyyeXou. See note 
on xix. 10. Worship in the sense of prostration is here involved, 
though not divine worship : cf. Trpoo-Kwciv IVWTTLOV in iii. 9, xv. 4 
of simple homage. Yet even such homage is refused by the. 
angel. The phrase may be equivalent to irpocr/cw^o-at avroV (see 
notes on xix. 9-10 (5), vii. u). 

TOU SetKfuorros fioi Taura. Cf. i. i, iv. I, xvii. i, xxi. 9, 10, 
xxii. i, 6. Here the participle = Sa^ai/ros. 

9. opa U.TJ* owoouXos aou eiu.i KT\. Our text appears to be 
the source of Asc. Isa. vii. 21, " And I fell on my face to worship 
him, but the angel who conducted me (or rather showed to 
me i.e. os ISet^e /xot : for the Ethiopic is capable of this meaning 
and the Latin and Slavonic Versions = instructed me ) did not 
permit me but said unto me: Worship neither throne nor 
angel : and viii. 4-5, What is this which I see, my lord? 
5. And he said : I am not thy lord but thy fellowservant. " The 
Apocryphal Gospel of Matthew iii. 3 (Tischendorf, p. 59) seems 
also to show signs of the influence of our text : " Benedic me 
servum tuum. Et dixit ei angelus : Noli te dicere servum, sed 
conservum meum ; unius enim domini servi sumus." Our text 
is a strong prohibition of angel worship (0/n?<rKeta TWV dyye Awv, 
Col. ii. 1 8). That this was practised by the Jews before the 
Christian era is to be inferred from Tob. xii. 15, "I am Raphael, 
one of the seven angels : 12. When thou didst pray ... I brought 
the memorial of your prayer before the glory of the Lord : " Jub. 
xxx. 20 : Test. Dan vi. 2, " Draw near to God and to the angel 
that intercedeth for you; for he is a mediator between God 
and man : " * Test. Lev. v. 5, where Levi prays to the angel who 
conducts him to make known to him his name that he might 

1 This idea of an angelic mediator is found already in Job v. I, xxxiii. 
23 sq. ; Zech. i. 12, 



XXII. 9, 20.] YEA, I COME QUICKLY 

call upon him in the day of tribulation, and the angel replies : 
I (i.e. Michael) am the angel who intercedeth for the nation of 
Israel :* i Enoch Ixxxix. 7 6. 2 The fact that frequent admoni 
tions against the worship of angels are to be found in Jewish 
writings confirms the view that this cult did prevail in Judaism 
Cf. Mechilta Sect. nrv, Parash. 10, where R. Ismael ben Elisha 
(flor. 100 A.D.) forbids the worship of any kind of angels (quoted 
from Lueken, p. 6) : Jer. Berach. ix. 13% where men in necessity 
are bidden to pray to God and not to Michael or Gabriel: 
Aboda Zara, 42**, where offerings to Michael are denounced as 
offerings to the dead. In Shabbath i 2 b men are commanded 
by R. Jehuda (4th century A.D.) not to pray in Aramaic since the 
angels did not understand Aramaic. On the other hand, in the 
Jer. Qiddushim at its close (Lueken) permission is given to ask 
the angels for their intercession. For other proofs that, notwith 
standing strong prohibitions against the cult of angels, this cult 

did survive in Judaism, see Lueken, Michael, 6-12. 

From Christian sources we know of the prevalence of angel- 

olatry among the Jews^ cf. Preaching of Peter (Clem. Alex. 

Strom, vi. 5), f*.rj8 Kara lou&u ous cre/?ecr^e, KOI yap e/ceti/ot 

OVK eTriWavra^ AarpevovTes dyye Aois : Celsus in Origen, c. Cels. 

V. 6, TTpwrov ovv TWV lovSaiW 0av//,av agiov, t . T ov . 

dyyeAovs (rcfiovcri. 

That this superstition passed from the Jews to the Christians 

our text is sufficient evidence: cf. also Col. ii. 18; Asc. Isa. vii. 

21, vni ; 4,^5^ Justin^ Martyr, Apol. i. 6, a\X IKWOV re, KCU rov 

trap O.VTOV vtoi/ iXQovra ... /cat TOV rS>v aAXwi/ eTroyaeVwv /ecu 
ayaQuv dyyeXwv orrparoV, Trve^/xa re TO 



ical Trpoo-KwoO/xev : Athenagoras, Suppl. x., xxiv. : Clem. 
Horn. iii. 36. 

TWI> Trpo4>r]Tw> Kal rSiv TTjpoun-wi/ rods \<5yous KT\. Here, as we 
have shown in the notes on xix. 9-10, the prophets and the 
ordinary Christians are practically placed on the same level, 
whereas in xix. 9-10 the prophets are exalted far above the 
ordinary Christians, no mention of whom is made. 

Twy TTjpou n-wi/ rods Xoyous. Cf. i. 3, iii. 8, 10, xii. 17, xiv. 12. 
xxii. 7. 

TOO pipXioo TOU TOU. Cf. xxii. 7, 10 [18, 19]. TW 6eu> irpo<r- 
See note on vii. n. 



20. Xeyei 6 fxaprupui/ TaOra. Christ is again the Speaker. 
The 6 papTvpw goes back to xxii. 18, where Christ solemnly 
attests the truth of the words of the prophecy of this book. 

1 Cf. Asc. Isa. ix. 23, " Iste est magnus angelus Michael deprecans semper 
pro numamtate." 

2 The four chief angels are spoken of as intercessors in i Enoch ix. i 3 
the Watchers in xv. 2. 

VOL. II. 15 



226 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN [XXII. 20-21. 



TCIXU. Here for the third time in this chapter 
(see 7, 12) our Lord declares that He is coming speedily. On 
vat, see note on i. 7. 

Apjy Ipxou, Ku pie ITJO-OU. On this, the initial and primitive use 
of d/ATJv, which solemnly assents to the utterance of a preceding 
speaker, cf. v. 14, note, vii. 12, xix. 4. epx ov KV/ P te is the Greek 
equivalent of the Aramaic n Kjn ( = "our Lord, come"). 1 
See Encyc. Bib. and Hastings B.D. on " Maranatha." The 
Aramaic is actually found transliterated in i Cor. xvi. 22, 
and in the Didache, x. 6 : 



e TIS ayios ecmv, 

1 TtS OVK IcTTt, jU,TaVOtT(O* 



Kupt |T)O-OU. This designation is found only here and in the 
next verse in our author. 

21. T) X^P 1 ? ToG * U P L OU l^o-ou fjuera ircii TWi rwi dyia^. This 
benediction, which is unusual in Apocalypses, is an indication 
that the Book was intended to be read in the Church services. 
In the Pauline Epistles 01 aytoi includes the whole body of the 
baptized. But in our author it appears to embrace only the 
faithful members of the Church. Cf. v. 8, viii. 3, 4, xi. 18, xiii. 
7, 10, xiv. 12, xvi. 6, xvii. 6, xviii. 20, xix. 8, xx. 6, 9. It is not 
used at all in the Johannine Epistles. 

1 This explanation of Dalman, Wellhausen, etc., is preferable to that 
which is generally accepted in the Church Fathers, i.e. ^apava6d = KPN pD, 
"our Lord has come." 



I. THE TEXT. 

THE GREEK MANUSCRIPTS OF THE APOCALYPSE. 

Uncial MSS containing the Greek Text of the Apocalypse or 
part of it. The enumeration is that of Gregory, except in the 
case of SAC. 

X (iv). Petrograd. Sd. 8 2. X* signifies the original text, 
where the original scribe or a later one has intro 
duced an emendation. K a K b N ca K cb etc. are 
various correctors of the MS. 1 
A (v). London. Sd. 8 4. A* signifies as X* above. A** 

corrector. 2 
C (v). Paris. Sd. 8 3. Contains i 1 ^ 19 , 5 14 -y 14 , 7 17 -8 5 , 

9 16 -io 10 , n 3 -i6 13 , i8 2 -i9 5 . 
025 (ix). Petrograd. Formerly P. Sd. a 3. Contains I 1 -i6 12 , 

lyi-IQ 21 , 20 9 -22 6 . 

046 (*). Rome. Formerly Q or B 2 . Sd. a 1070. 
051 (ix-x). Athos, Pantokrator 44. Contains n 15 -i3 1 , i3 3 -22 7 , 
22 i5-2i ^th a commentary of Andreas in cursive. 
Photographed for Prof. Swete. 

0^2 (x). Athos, Panteleemon. Formerly r 183. Contains 
716-812. 

GREEK CURSIVES OF THE APOCALYPSE. 3 

i (xii-xiii cent.). Maihingen. Formerly r i. Sd. Av 20 . 
18 (1364 A.D.). Paris. Formerly r 51. Sd. 8411. 
35 (xi). Paris. Formerly r 17. Sd. 8 309. 
42 (xi). Frankfurt a. O. Formerly r 13. Sd. a 107. 

60 (x). Cambridge. Formerly r 10. Sd. 1321. 

6 1 (xvi). Dublin. Formerly r 92. Sd. 8 603. 
69 (xv). Leicester. Formerly r 14. Sd. 8 505. 
82 (x). Paris. Formerly r 2. Sd. O 1 . 

1 The photographic facsimile edited by Professor Lake for the Clarendon 
Press has been used for this edition. 

2 The photographic facsimile edited by Sir Frederic G. Kenyon (1909) has 
been used for this edition. 

8 Gregory s enumeration of the MSS is adopted in this edition, but for the 
convenience of those who use Von Soden s text I have added the latter s 
enumeration. 

227 



228 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 

88 (xii ?). Naples. Formerly r 99. Sd. a 200. 
91 (xi). Paris. Formerly r 4. Sd. O 14 . 

93 (x). Paris. Formerly r 19. Sd. a 51. 

94 (xiii). Paris. Formerly r 18. Sd. O 31 . 
104 (xi). London. Formerly r 7. Sd. a 103. 
no (xii). London. Formerly r 8. Sd. a 204. 
141 (xiii-xiv). Rome. Formerly r 40. Sd. 8 408. 
149 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 25. Sd. 8 503. 

172 (xiv-xv). Berlin. Formerly r 87. Sd. a 404. 
175 (x-xi). Rome. Formerly r 20. Sd. 8 95. 
177 (xi). Munich. Formerly r 82. Sd. a 106. 

1 80 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 44. Sd. e 1498. 

181 (xi). Rome. Formerly r 12. Sd. a 101. 

201 (1357 A.D.). London. Formerly r 94. Sd. 8 403. 
203 (nn A.D.). London. Formerly r 181. Sd. a 203. 
205 (xv). Venice. Formerly r 88. Sd. 8 500. 
209 (xiv ?). Venice. Formerly r 46. Sd. a 1581. 
218 (xiii). Vienna. Formerly r 33. Sd. 8 300. 

241 (xi). Dresden. Formerly r 47. Sd. 8 507. 

242 (xii). Moscow. Formerly r 48. Sd. 8 206. 
250 (xi). Paris. Formerly r 121. Sd. O 10 . 
254 (xiv). Athens. Formerly r 122. Sd. O 42 . 
256 (xi). Paris. Formerly r 102. Sd. a 216. 
296 (xvi). Paris. Formerly r 57. Sd. 8 600. 
314 (xi). Oxford. Formerly r 6. Sd. O 11 . 

325 (xi). Oxford. Formerly r 9. Sd. a in. 

336 (xv). Hamburg. Formerly r 16. Sd. a 500. 

337 (xii). Paris. Formerly r 52. Sd. a 205. 
339 (xiii). Turin. Formerly r 83. Sd. 8 303. 

367 (1331 A.D.). Florence. Formerly r 23. Sd. 8 400. 

368 (xv). Florence. Formerly r 84. Sd. a 1501. 

385 (xv). London. Formerly r 29. Sd. a 506 

386 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 70. Sd. 8 401. 
424 (xi). Vienna. Formerly r 34. Sd. O 12 . 
432 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 37. Sd. a 501. 
452 (xii). Rome. Formerly r 42. Sd. a 206. 
456 (x). Florence. Formerly r 75. Sd. a 52. 

459 (1092 A.D.). Florence. Formerly r 45. Sd. a 104. 

467 (xv). Paris. Formerly r 53. Sd. a 502. 

468 (xiii). Paris. Formerly r 55. Sd. O 30 . 

469 (xiii-xiv). Paris. Formerly r 56. Sd. a 306. 
498 (xiv). London. Formerly r 97. Sd. 8 402. 
506 (xi-xii). Oxford. Formerly r 26. Sd. 8 101. 
517 (xi-xii). Oxford. Formerly r 27. Sd. a 214. 
522 (1515 A. D.). Oxford. Formerly r 98. Sd. 8 602. 
582 (1334 A.D.). Ferron. Formerly r 103. Sd. 8 410. 



CURSIVES 229 

616 (1434 A.D.). Milan. Formerly r 156. Sd. a 503. 

617 (xi). Venice. Formerly r 74. Sd. O 13 . 

620 (xii). Florence. Formerly r 180. Sd. a 207. 

627 (x-xi). Rome. Formerly r 24. Sd. a 53. 

628 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 69. Sd. a 400. 
632 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 22. Sd. a 201. 
664 (xv). Zittau. Formerly r 106. Sd. 8 502. 

680 (xi). Cheltenham. Formerly r 107. Sd. 8 103. 
699 (xi). London. Formerly r 108. Sd. 8 104. 
743 (xiv). Paris. Formerly r 123. Sd. Ai/ 43 . 
757 (xiii-xiv). Athens. Formerly r no. Sd. 8 304. 
792 (xiii). Athens. Formerly r in. Sd. e 585. 
808 (xii). Athens. Formerly r 112. Sd. 8 203. 
824 (xiv). Grottaferrata. Formerly r 113. Sd. 8-404. 
866 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 114. Sd. a 1375. 
886 (1454 A.D.). Rome. Formerly r 115. Sd. A^o. 

919 (xi). Escurial. Formerly r 125. Sd. a 113. 

920 (x). Escurial. Formerly r 126. Sd. a 55. 

922 (1116 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 116. Sd. 8 200. 
935 Athos. 



986 (xiv). Athos. Formerly r 117. 


Sd. 8 508. 


^L.1. 


1006 Athos. 


Sd. a 1174. 




1064 Athos. 


/ " 




1072 (xiv). Athos. Formerly r 1 18. 


Sd. 8 406. 




1075 ( xiv )- Athos. Formerly r 119. 
1094 (xiv). Athos. Formerly r 120. 
1277 (xi-xii). Cambridge. Formerly 
J 3 2 8 Jerusalem. 


Sd. 8 407. 
Sd. 8 307. 
r 185. Sd. a 
Sd. a 


194. 
1470, 


J 35 2 Jerusalem. 


Sd. 8 


r / 

396. 


1384 Andros. 


Sd. 8 


IOO. 


1424 Kosinitza. 


Sd. 8 


30. 


1503 Athos. 




o 


J55 1 Athos. 






1597 Athos. 






1611 (xii). Athens. Formerly r 105. 


Sd. a 208. 




1617 Athos. 






1626 Athos. 






1652 Athos. 






1668 Athos. 






1678 Athos. 






1685 Serres. 






i74 Athos. 






1719 Athos. 






1728 Athos. 






1732 Athos. 






1733 Athos, 







230 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 

1734 Athos. 

1740 Athos. 

1745 Athos. 

1 746 Athos. 
1757 Lesbos. 
1760 Serres. 
1771 Athos. 

1773 Athos. 

1774 Athos. 

1775 Athos. 

1776 Athos. 
1778 Saloniki. 

1785 Koslnitza. Sd. 8 405. 

1795 Kosinitza. Sd. a 215. 

1806 Trapezunt. Sd. a 1472. 

1824 Rome. Sd. O 61 . 

1828 (xii). Athens. Formerly r 124. Sd. a 202. 

1841 (ix-x). Lesbos. Formerly r 127. Sd. a 47. 

1849 (1069 A.D.). Venice. Formerly r 128. Sd. a no. 

1852 (x-xi). Upsala. Formerly r 129. Sd. a 114. 

1854 (xi). Athos. Formerly r 130. Sd. a 115. 

1857 (xiii). Athos. Formerly r 131. Sd. a 1587. 
1859 Athos. Formerly r 371. Sd.,a402. 

1862 (ix). Athos. Formerly r 132. Sd. 6 21 . 

1864 Athos. Formerly r 327. 

1865 Athos. Formerly r 380. 

1870 (x). Chalkis. Formerly r 133. Sd. a 54. 

1872 (xii). Chalkis. Formerly r 134. Sd. a 209. 

1876 (xv). Sinai. Formerly r 135. Sd. a 504. 
1888 Jerusalem. Formerly r 495. Sd. a 118. 

1893 Jerusalem. Formerly r 500. Sd. a 117. 

1894 Jerusalem. Formerly r 501. Sd. a 1670. 
1903 Athos. Formerly r 513. 

1918 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 39. Sd. a 403. 

1934 (xi). Paris. Formerly r. 64. Sd. O 15 . 

1948 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 78. Sd. a 505. 

1955 (xi). London. Formerly r 93. Sd. a 119. 

1957 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 91. Sd. a 1574. 

2004 (x). Escurial. Formerly r 142. Sd. a 56. 

2014 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 21. Sd. Av 51 . 

2015 (xv). Oxford. Formerly r 28. Sd. a 1580. 

2016 (xv). London. Formerly r 31. Sd. a 1579. 

2017 (xv). Dresden. Formerly r 32. Sd. a 1582. 

2018 (xiv). Vienna. Formerly r. 35. Sd. Av 46 . 

2019 (xiii). Vienna. Formerly r 36. Sd. Av 30 . 

2020 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 38. Sd a 1573. 



CURSIVES 231 

2021 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 41. Sd. a 1572. 

202 2 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 43. Sd. Av 401 . 

2023 (xv). Moscow. Formerly r 49. Sd. Av 56 . 

2024 (xv). Moscow. Formerly r 50. Sd. a 1584. 

2025 (xv-xvi). Paris. Formerly r 58. Sd. a 1592. 

2026 (xv-xvi). Paris. Formerly r 59. Sd. Av 501 . 

2027 (xiii-xiv). Paris. Formerly r 61. Sd. a 1374. 

2028 (1422 A.D.). Paris. Formerly r 62. Sd. Av 54 . 

2029 (xvi). Paris. Formerly r 63. Sd. Av 66 . 

2030 (xii). Moscow. Formerly r 65. Sd. a 1272. 

2031 (1301 A.D.). Rome. Formerly r 67. Sd. Av 41 . 

2032 (xi-xii). Rome. Formerly r 68. Sd. Av 11 . 

2033 ( XV 0- R me - Formerly r 72. Sd. Av 60 . 

2034 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 73. Sd. Av 50 . 

2035 (xvi). Florence. Formerly r 77. Sd. Av 605 . 

2036 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 79. Sd. Av 40 . 

2037 (xiv). Munich. Formerly r 80. Sd. Av 45 . 

2038 (xvi). Munich. Formerly r 81. Sd. Av 600 . 

2039 (xii). Dresden. Formerly r 90. Sd. a 1271. 

2040 (xi-xii). Parham (Curzon). Formerly r 95. Sd. Ap 11 . 

2041 (xiv). Parham (Curzon). Formerly r 96. Sd. a 1475. 

2042 (xiv-xv). Naples. Formerly r 100. Sd. Av 400 . 

2043 ( xv )- Petrograd. Formerly r 101. Sd. Av 57 . 

2044 (1507 A.D.). Vienna. Formerly r 136. Sd. Ai/ 601 . 

2045 ( xv )- Vienna. Formerly r 137. Sd. Av 55 . 

2046 (xv). Vienna. Formerly r 138. Sd. Av 58 . 

2047 ( X 543 A - D -) Paris. Formerly r 139. Sd. Ai/ 67 . 

2048 (xi-xii). Paris. Formerly r 140. Sd. a 1172. 

2049 ( XV 0- Athens. Formerly r 141. Sd. a 1684. 

2050 (1107 A.D.). Escurial. Formerly r 143. Sd. a 1273. 

2051 (xvi). Madrid. Formerly r 144. Sd: Av 68 . 

2052 (xvi). Florence. Formerly r 145. Sd. Av 64 . 

20 53 (xiii). Messina. Formerly r 146. Sd. O a31 . 

2054 (xv-xvi). Modena. Formerly r 147. Sd. Av 500 . 

2055 (xv). Modena. Formerly r 148. Sd. Av 53 . 

2056 (xiv-xv). Rome. Formerly r 149. Sd. Av 49 . 

2057 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 150. Sd. a 1576. 

2058 (xiv). Rome. Formerly r 151. Sd. O 40 . 

2059 (xi). Rome. Formerly r 152. Sd. Av 10 . 

2060 (1331 A.D.). Rome. Formerly r 153. Sd. Av 42 . 

2061 (xv-xvi). Rome. Formerly r 154. Sd. a 1588. 

2062 (xiii). Rome. Formerly r 155. Sd. O 30 . 

2063 (xvi). Rome. Formerly r 157. Sd. Ai> 61 . 

2064 (xvi). Rome. Formerly r 158. Sd. Av 62 . 

2065 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 159. Sd. Av 503 . 

2066 (1574 A.D.). Rome. Formerly r 160. Sd. 



232 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 

2067 (xv). Rome. Formerly r 161. Sd. Av 52 . 

2068 (xvi). Venice. Formerly r 162. Sd. Av 65 . 

2069 (xv-xvi). Venice. Formerly r 163. Sd. Av 59 . 

2070 (1356 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 164. Sd. Av 403 . 

2071 (1622 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 167. Sd. Av 70 . 

2072 (1798 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 168. Sd. Av 80 . 

2073 (xiv). Athos. Formerly r 169. Sd. Av 47 . 

2074 (x). Athos. Formerly r 170. . Sd. Av 1 . 

2075 (xiv). Athos. Formerly r 171. Sd. Av 48 . 

2076 (xvii). Athos. Formerly r 172. Sd. a 1570. 

2077 (1685 A.D.). Athos. Formerly r 174. Sd. Ay 71 . 

2078 (xvi). Athos. Formerly r 176. Sd. a 1686. 

2079 (xiii). Athos. Formerly r 177. Sd. a 1373. 

2080 (xiv). Patmos. Formerly r 178. 

2081 (xii). Patmos. Formerly r 179. Sd. Av 21 . 

2082 (xvi). Dresden. Formerly r 182. Sd. a 1682. 

2083 (1560 A.D.). Leyden. Formerly r 184. Sd. Av 602 . 

2084 Constantinople. Formerly r 506. Sd. a 1586. 
2087 Basel. 

2091 Athens. Formerly r 511. Sd. Av 502 . 

2116 Athens. Sd. A/a 70 . 

2136 Moscow. Sd. c 700. 

2138 Moscow. Sd. a 1 1 6. 

2186 Athos. Sd. Av 23 . 

2195 Athos. Sd. a 508. 

2196 Athos. Sd. a 1687. 
2254 Athos. Sd. Ai/ 604 . 
2256 Athos. Sd. a 1577. 

2258 Athos. Sd. a 1770. 

2259 Athos. Sd. 
2286 Athos. Sd. 



There are thus 223 Cursives according to the above 
enumeration, which is based on Gregory s list, Griechischen 
Handschriften des NT. (pp. 48-1 2 2 ). 1 

1 In his list of MSS of the Apocalypse on pp. 360-361 there are six 
omissions and two or more wrong insertions. Von Soden (Schriften des NT. 
I. i. 289) reckons the number of Cursives as 222. Thus with the seven 
Uncials there are altogether 230 (or 229) Greek MSS of the Apocalypse. 



II. THE TEXT. 

THE MSS AND VERSIONS COLLATED FOR THIS EDITION : 
ABBREVIATIONS : SYMBOLS : ITACISMS. 

UNCIALS. Of the Uncials A and N have been collated afresh from 
photographs of these MSS published by Kenyon and Lake 
respectively. For the readings of C, 025, 046 the editor is 
dependent on Tischendorf, and for 051 on the readings 
given in Swete s edition under the number 186. 

CURSIVES. The following 22 Cursives have been specially photo 
graphed for this edition: 18, 35, 149, 175, 205, 325, 337, 
386, 456, 468, 617, 620, 632, 866, 919, 920, 1849, 1934, 
2004, 2020, 2040, 2050. Of these the following are 
defective: 205, 337, 468, 866, 919, 920, 2040, 2050. 
205. Defective: xviii. i^aTnjXOev airo crov . . . xx. 9 -rijv iraLpep- 
fioXrjv r. dytW, i.e. one page lost through carelessness of 
the photographer. 

337. Defective : x. 4-xi. i^and xxii. 17 Aeyoucra to end wanting. 
468. Defective: xix. 18 KCU o-ap/cas icrj^v/aaV xxii. 17 eiTrarco 

epX ov wanting. 

866. Defective : contains only vi. 1 7 ^epo, r. opyfjs . . . xiii. 
I2 t TOV Orjpiov Tracrav. 

919. Ends with xix. 6 vSaran/ TToAAaV KCU a)s. 

920. Ends with xxii. i KOI !Sete. 

2040. Ends with the words KCU roVos, xx. n. Photographs 

incomplete. 
2050. Defective. Omits vi. i KOI cuW . . . xix. 21 e* roV 

(TttjOKCOV LVTO)V. 

These 22 Cursives are generally quoted as 22, or 21, 20, 19, 
accordingly as one or more are defective. See under " Abbrevia 
tions " below. 

For the readings of most of the remaining Cursives cited in 
this edition the author is indebted to Tischendorfs NT. Graece 
(ed. oct. 1872) and to Hoskier s Concerning the Date of the 
Bohairic Version (1911) for select readings from the following 
26 Cursives: 180, 181, 256, 337, 367, 368, 467, 582, 664, 680, 
743. i75> J 948, 2014, 2025, 2026, 2028, 2029, 2030, 2031, 
2032, 2033, 2034, 2037, 2038, 2043. Where readings from 
the Cursives cited by Tischendorf are not to be found in 
Tischendorf, they are derived from Hoskier. 



234 THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN 

CORRECTIONS ON THE MSS 

A* = original text. A** = correction and similarly in the 
Cursives. 

K*= original text. The lead of Tischendorf has been 
followed in distinguishing the different hands 
engaged in correcting N. On these different correc 
tors (as many as fifteen ranging from the iv to the 
xii Century) and their dates see Lake, Codex 
Sinaiticus, pp. xvii-xxiv. Lake differs from 
Tischendorf in differentiating certain of the correc 
tors. Into this vexed question it is not necessary 
to enter here. 

VERSIONS. For a short description of these Versions see the 

Introduction to vol. i. 
Latin. 

Tyc = " Tyconius Text of the Apocalypse, a partial 
restoration," published by Prof. Souter in the 
J.T.S., April 1913. 
Pr = Text of Primasius in Die lateinische Apocalypse, edited 

by Haussleiter, 1891. 
fl = Palimpsestus floriacensis in Haussleiter s volume 

just mentioned. 

gig = Codex Gigas. A fresh collation made by Dr. 
Karlsson in 1891 for Bp. John Wordsworth of 
Salisbury, and put at my service by his collabor 
atorProfessor White. 
vg = Vulgate (editio minor), edited by H. J. White, 

1911. 
Syriac. 

s 1 = Philoxenian Version, edited by John Gwynn, 1897. 
s 2 = Harkleian or Syriac Vulgate, 
s sometimes is used to indicate the consensus of s 1 

and s 2 . 
Armenian. 

arm i. 2. 3. 4 _ old Armenian MSS edited by F. C. 

Conybeare, 1907. 
arm* = Armenian Vulgate. 
Egyptian. 

bo = Bohairic Version of the New Testament, vol. iv., 

edited by G. Homer, 1905. 
sa = Sahidic Version. Partial collation furnished to 

the editor by G. Horner. 
Ethiopic. 

eth = Ethiopic Version, edited by J. P. Platt (new edition), 
1899. 






ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS 235 

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS 

Or 5 = the Greek text, which accompanies the recently dis 
covered Scholia of Origen on the Apocalypse, i.e. in 
Harnack s edition, Der Scholien-Kommentar des Origenes 
zur Apokalypse Johannis, 1911. This text is not Origen s, 
though the Scholia probably are. It should be numbered 
as Cursive 2293 (x cent). 

Q r Mt. iv. 3 i4 = Origen s text of the Apoc. in his Commentary 
on Matthew, vol. iv. p. 314, in Lommatzsch s edition. 
Similarly Or CeLxx - 117 means Origen s text of the Apoc. in 
Contra Celsum, vol. xx. p. 117, of Lommatzsch s edition. 
Origen s works are occasionally quoted to show that Or 
cannot be his text. 

r " Words so enclosed are taken by the Editor to 

have greater claims to be the original than the 
alternative printed in the margin, 
f f Words so enclosed are corrupt. The Editor s 

restoration is occasionally given in the margin. 
< > Words so enclosed are restored by the Editor. 

[ ] Words so enclosed are interpolated. 

+ =add 
> = omit. 
*>o = transpose, 
pr = prefix. 

22 ( 18.35) = the 22 Cursive MSS collated for this edition 
less by the two MSS 18. 35. Where certain 
of these MSS are defective the symbol may be 
21 or 20 or 19 or 18 or even 17. 

Words in heavy type in the text are restorations of the original 
text as in 3 L 7 - 14 . 

ITACISMS. Itacisms are not recorded in the case of the Cursives 
nor yet of the Uncials excepting A and K, and not even the 
itacisms of these in such common instances as i for ei (iSov 
for etSov). Such itacisms as e for at or vice versa in these 
two MSS are recorded, since this itacism has in one case 
led to a corruption of the text. Thus Gwynn and Swete 
have rightly recognized that ircary rt in 7 16 is corrupt for 
vaurg en, the corruption being due originally to the mis- 
writing of iraunq as TrecrT?. In Q 5 AN write Treo-y; for iratarq 
a fact unrecorded by Tischendorf. In fact A writes Treer- 
twice for -n-awr- out of the five times where it occurs in the 
N.T. and K three times. Other common unrecorded 
itacisms are t for T; and o for w, or vice versa. 



III. THE TEXT AND APPARATUS CRITICUS. 



CHAPTER I. 

IOANNOY. 



I. AyoKaAyi/as Irja-ov Xptorov rfv toWev avTw 6 6fb<s Setat rots 
avTOv, a Set yei/eV&u ev raxet, *at eoAavev aTroaretAas Sta 



^ *at eo^/Aavev aTroaretAas Sta 

rov dyye Aov OVTOV T(3 SovAw avTOV Iwavvy, 2. os e^aprvprja-fv TOV 
Ao yov TOV #eov /cat T>)V /xapTvpt av fyo-ov X/oiorrov, oVa 



Iwavi/ov (Iwavov K) fc*C>A 205. 2004 | 
I 75 > 337 9 20 - 2040 | 77 a7ro/c. TOV aytov Iwavvov bo 
. Iwav. TOV 0eoAoyov ( + rjv ev IlaT/AW rrj vto-w eOeao-aro 620) 
325. 620 : a7ro/c. TOV ay. Iwav. TOV 0eoAoyov 18. 35. 386. 456. 
468. 2020 Or 8 | Iwav. TOV 0eoA. /cat i/yaTny/ievov OTTOAC. 1934 I O.TTQK. 
( + TOV aytov 919) Iwav. TOV 0eoA. /cat cvayyeAto-Tov 046. 919 | 
aTTOK. rj eyeveTO ets TOV ( + aytov S 1 ) Iwav. TOV evayy. ( + VTTO TOV 0eov 
S 2 ) ev IlaT/xw rrj V7?o-a> ets yv cftXrjOi) VTTO N^pwvos Kato-apos S 1 2 
\rj airoK. TOV aTroo-ToAov Iwav ( + Kat evayyeAtoTov 025) 025 vg | 
a*. TOV ay. a7roo-T. Iwav. TOV 0eoA. 632 | O.TTOK. rov ay. Iwav. TOV 
aTroo-T. K. evayy. TOV 0eoA. rjv iSev ev iraT/*a> rrj vrja-tD wpic evAoy. 2050. 

1. airoK. . . . TT)i/ jj,apr. I. X.] aTroAcaAvi/rts Iwawov TOV evayye- 
Ato-Tov arm 4 : aTroK. Iwavvov Ka^ws etSev I. X. eth | rjv ecWev 
... oo- e/xapTvpr/o-ev] Trjs yeva/Aev^s ets e/xe Iwavvov TOV aTroo-ToAov 
TOV *07pvat 2050 | rjv] 01 ys arm 2 - 8 *** | avrw] avrrj 046 | SovAots] 
aytots K* | K. ecr^.] significans Tyc : AC. eire^ev eth | aTroo-TetAas 1 
nuntianda Pr fl : >eth : +avra bo | TOV >88. 2015 | T w SovAw 
avT. > 1854 Or 8 : TOV SovAov avr. A | Iwavet fc<* |. 

2. ver. 2 >arm x | ocr efxapr. T. \.] /-tapTv/otav TOV Aoyov arm 8 
| TOV 0eov >Pr | Xpto-Tov > 181 | oo-a >2O4o : -f TC i : ^v arm 4 | 
Sev] + Acat aTtva turi /cat aTtva (or a: >62o) XPV ywevOai /xeTa 
TavTa I. 88. 104. 181. 205. 209. 432. 468. 620. 632**. 1957. 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2024. 2037. 2041. 2067 al: +*ai aTtva ewrcv 42: I. 



I. 3-5.] AnOKAAY^lS IfiANNOY 237 

3. Ma/capios 6 dVayivcjo-Ktov 

Kat ol O.KOVOVTVS TOV? A.oyov? T^S 7rpo<?7Tiag 
Kat rr)povvT<; TO, ei/ avrrj yeypa/x/zei/a, 
6 yap Katpos eyyvs. 

4. Iwawrys rats e7rra fKK\r)CTLai<s rats ev TTJ Ao-tV 

Xapts fyuv Kai clprjvr) O.TTO 6 u)V Kat 6 ^v /cat 6 epxofJitvos, (a) 

5. Kat 0,770 I^crov Xpto-rov 6 //.dprus 6 Trtcrros, 

6 TrpwTOTOKOS rail/ vKpcoj> Kat 6 ap^cov TWV /Jao-iXecov T^S y?}?. 

TaJ dyaTTcovrt ^//.a? Kat Xvaavrt T^fta? CK ran/ d/zaprtcof 
TO> OLfjiarL avrov, 



The MSS add here an early interpolation : KO.I airb T&V eirra 
T&V tvuTrtov rov 6p6vov avrov. See vol. i. 11-13. 



3. fActKapios] pr Kat eth : + ct 2050 : /uaKapiot arm 4 bo j o avaytr. 
Kat ]>arm 4 : ot avayivwcrKoj/Tc? bo | o aKoua>v gig arm 1 ^. 3a I Ti ^oy^ 
T. Trpo<f>. K. o aKovwv arm 2 a | T. Xoy. r. Trpo^. >arm 4 [ row Aoy.J 
+ TOVTOV? C : rov Xoyov X 046. 2042 | Trpo^TyTias SC 93. 104. 
314 : +Tavrrj<s 104. 336. 468**. 620 gig vg s 1 - 2 arm 2 a bo : + 
TOVTOV T. /?i/3A.tov eth I Kat 2 ] + oi 2040 I TT/powretr] Trotovi TCor arm 4 
: rrjpwv gig arm 1 * 2> 3 a | tv avrr) >>fl : CTT avnyo- 2050 bo | o yap 
K. eyy. >arm 1>s | Katp. yy. >2O5o |. 

4. Icuayyirjs] Itoav^cr &? : pr a eypaif/e eth : + scribens haec Tyc 
| rawr 2 ] + ovcraicr 2050 fipirjvr)] + multiplicetur Tyc | airo . . . 
cp^o/x.J a deo patre Tyc | aTro o wv AxC 025. i. 60. 82. 88. 104. 

l8l. 314. 336. 424. 432. 620. 628. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 

2036. 2037. 2041. 2050. 2067 : aTro TOV o (uv 6i. m s 429. 617. 
1934 : ab eo qui est fl gig vg s 1 - 2 bo : O.TTO 6eov o wv 046. 21 
(-432. 620. 628. 632**. 2020. 2050) al mu Or 8 : airo Kuptov o 
o>v 2016 | o 8 >205o | epxo/A.]+omnipotens Pr | Kat 4 >s 2 | r<av 2 
Ax 88. 241. 2036 : a C 046. 21 ( - 205. 620. 2020) al pm Or 8 
s 1 * 2 arm b : a o-rtv 025. i. 205. 620. 2020. 2023 al arm 2a : 
a eto-iv 2019 arm 4 | avrov >2oi8 bo : TOV 6*eov 88. 2015. 2036 
Pr fl : Irjcrov Xpio-rov eth | 

5. Kai airo I. X.] et a filio hominis Tyc : >eth | oo- ftaprv? 
TTto-roo- eo-Tiv 172. 2018 Pr gig vg arm 4 eth | o Trpwror.] "who 
is eldest" arm 2 - 3 * : +K i. 1957. 2041 al | TWV vcKpwv] "among 
the dead" arm 1 2 3 -* | ap^wv] yaaprvo- 2050 : 4-7ravT(ov bo | /?ao-t- 
X.iwv K* (corr. by scribe himself to /foo-iXewv) arm 1 - 2 - 3 a Or 8 | TW 
(> K*) ayaTTon/Tt At?C 046. 21 ( - 205) al pl Or 8 arm 4 : T<U aya-Tnja-avTL 
025. i. 6i. m s 88. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 : oo- 7/yaTnyorcv 172. 2018 fl gig vg arm 1 - 2 3 " bo | ^/-uxo- 1 ] 
>2050 : v/xas eth | Xvo-avrt A^C I. 88. (104). 181*. 314. (620). 
628. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2050 Or 8 Pr fl s 1 - 2 arm : Xovo-avrt 
025. 046. 21 (-620. 2020. 2050) al pl gig vg eth : eAovo-ev 172. 



238 AIIOKAAY^IS mANNOY [l. 6-8. 

6. KCU eTTOtr/o-ev i^/xas /?ao-tXetav, tepets TO) 0<3 /cat TraTpi avrov, 
U) ^ Soa Kat TO KpdVo? ts TOV? atcovas TWV aton/an/* 



7. iSov epxeTai tteTa TOJV vecpeXuiv, 

/cat oij/erai avrov Tras 6c/>$aX/u,os /cat omves avrov e 
/cat Koi/fovTat CTT avrov Tracrat at c/>vXat r79 y}?. vat, d 



(a) The MSS add here an early interpolation. 8. 716 efyu r6 "AX0a 
/cal r6 T 0, X^yet Ktfpios 6 0e<5s, 6 &z> /cai 6 ijf /cat 6 4px6(Jievos> 6 Tra.vroKpA.Twp. 
See vol. ii. Eng. trans., footnote, in loc. 

2Ol8 bo : Xvcravri K. TOOT/ T^O- a/JLapnaa" KtXtSwv Xovcravrt ny 
CK^vcrct TOV <oo7roiou ai/xaroo" /c. vSarocr K. Trot^travrt Ty/xatr /Sao-tXetov 
teparev^ta /c. Xovcravrt rj/jLacr OLTTO rwv ayuaprtoov ev T. atyuart airrov. /cat 
fTTOirj&ev rjfjiacr /SaortXctav tepr /crX. 104. 620. (336. 459. 628) | 
ry/xao- 2 >* : v/xas eth | e/c A^C I. 6l. m S 88. 181. 2015*. 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 : aTTo 025. 046. 21 (-620. 
2020. 2050) 250 al pl Or 8 Pr fl gig vg bo? | T. a/xa/or.] peccato 
Pr | Ty/xwv] v/xcov eth : >A I. 181. 336. (620). 2067 Pr | ev T. at/x. 
avr. > arm 1 - 3 * . 

6. iroiT]crei/ A^C 025. 21 (-386. 456. 468. 866) 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 Or s s 1 - 2 bo eth : Trot^cravrt 046. 42. 69. 104. 
3 2 5- cor 33 6 - 3 6 7- 3 8 5- 45 6 - 459- 4^8. (620). 2019 | 77/xao- N 025. 
046 al pl Pr gig vg d (s 1 - 2 ) arm : ^tv A 42. 325**. 367. 456. 
468. 517. 2016. 2020 : r^/xtov C: v/xas eth : regnum nostrum fl : 
nostrum regnum vg^): >325* | ySaa-tXetav tepcto- AN*C 21 (-325. 
456. 468. 2050) 250 alP m fl Vg<- d >: ^ao-tXetav Kat icpeio- N c 
88 Pr gig vg d : "worthy of his kingdom and priests" 
arm 1 3> 4 : /Jao-tXctav tcpart/c^v S 1 2 : /^acrtXctav aytav eth : 
/JacriXetov tepeicr 046. 2050 : ^Saa-tXeto- Kat tepettr 025. I. 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2038. 2067 al arm 2 - 3 **" : ySacrtXctov teparev/xa 42. 
61*. 69. (325). 367. 456. 468. 517. (620). 1854 Or 8 bo vi | 
Kat 2 >arm L4 bo | avrov >fl arm 1 | avrw . . . a/xrjv >Pr arm 1 
| K. TO KpaTO? . . . a/jirjv ^> arm 4 | T. attovas] TOV atwva X* j 
TWV atwvwv NC 046 al pl Or 8 fl gig vg s 1 2 arm 2 8 * : >A 025. 
88. 325. 456. 468*. 498. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2050 bo | 



7. fATa] 7rt C sa eth | T(ov>25o. 2018. 2038 | vec/>eXo)v] + atoyv 
35: -f-coeli gig arm 1 2 - 3 * 1 | o^ T at] AC 025. 046 al pl Or Mthr 314 
Pr fl gig vg eth : o\f/ovrai N i. 181. 2038. 2067 Or 8 s 1 - 2 arm bo 
[ avTov 1 > i. 205. 209 arm 1 - 3 | ?rao-] 7ravTo- s 1 2 arm : +o 172 
: TravTeo-, Trao- bo | o<f>6a\fjLO(r Kat ^-arm 1 | oc/>^aXttot s 1 2 arm 2 3 - 4a 
| avrov 2 > K* | Ko^oj/Tat] otyovrai (-erai Pr) Pr fl bo arm 1 ( 3 *) : 
oi/^ovTat Kat KOi/^ovTat eth | CTT avTOV > i. 241* arm 1 : CTT >N* 2050 
Or 8 Pr fl bo | Trao-ai . . . yrj<r\ omnis terra Pr | vat] -h /cat s 1 1 
vat a^v >> fl arm 1 : vat > bo | a/x^v] + Kat Xeyct arm 1 j. 

8. TO aX<|>a AtfC 025. 046. 21 (-620. 632. 2020) al 



I. 9-11.] AHOKAAY^a K3ANNOY 239 



9. Eyu> IcuoWr/s, 6 dSeA.c/>o? vy/.coi/ KOI o-WKotvwvos ev 
/cat /?tto~iAeia /cat virofjiovrj eV l^o ov, eyej/o^iT^v ev T^ vr^crw 
KaA.oujU.ei 77 TIoLTfJuo ota TOV Aoyov TOI) $eou /cat T^V fjiaprvptav Itrjcr 
IO. eyej/d/xr/v eV TrveujiiaTi eV T^ /cvpta/c^ ^/xe pa, Kat ^Koucra r c/>aj^^v 6irl<rw fj.ov 
fj,yd\r)v OTrio-Oev /xov 1 u>s o-aA.7rtyyos Aeyovorr;? 



ov. 



II. *O /SAeVets ypctyov 15 j3i/3\iov, 



/cat 7Tfjnj/ov rats 7rra e 

gig arm 2 - 4 * bo : TO a i. 88. 241. 385. 620. 632. 2020. 2023. 

2037. 2038. 2039. 2042. 2067 al Or 8 Pr fl Vg : +/cat eya> N* 
| re 2 ] I am arm 1 - 3 | to] + (r?) apx>? ^at (TO) TeXoo- S* i. 6i. m g (88). 
172. 205. 250. 1854. (2015). 2018. (2019. 2023. 2036. 2037). 

2038. 2050 Or 1 ^ 1 2 Or 8 gig vg bo | Xeyet Kvptos o ^cos > 
2050 I Aeyet >88 | o ^eoo- >arm x : + /cat 620 arm 2 - 3a | /cat o ?yv 
> arm 4 : "and who is" arm 2 - 3 *: "unto aeons" arm 1 | o 4 > 
1934 pxM ] + Kat 3^6 : + Kvpioo- arm 1 - 201 o 5 > 046. 2015. 
2036 |. 

9. cyw] + t/xt bo : /cat eyu> eth | IwavTyo- K* | o~vv/coivwvoo- NC 
025. 2036 al : O-VJKOLV. A 046. 205. 250. 468. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2050. 2067 al s 1 : /cotvwvoo- 21 (-205. 468. 2020. 2050) al mu s 2 : 
+ V/AWV s 1 - 2 eth | Kai /2ao-tAeia AC 046 al pl Or 8 Pr fl gig vg 

arm 1 - 2 - 3 * : /c. cv rrj /3ao-tX. ( + V/UDV eth) 025. I. 104. 205. 620. 
2023. 2038. 2067 al eth : Tr/o- /?ao-iAeiaa arm 4 : OTI rj ^SacrtXcta 
bo : >S 1>2 | Kat VTro/Ji. cv. I^o-. > arm 1 - 4 | Kat 3 ] + ev rr] S 1 | VTTO/X.] 
+ TT; S 1 - 2 : + O-OD >;o-av bo : + Sta TTTJV VTTO/X,OVT;V VJJUDV eth | ev Ir;crov 
{<* C 025. 2020. 2050 Or Mtiv 18 gig vg s 1 bo : ev Xpto-Tw A : v 
iTyo-. Xpto-T. S c - c Pr vg d s 2 eth : I^o-ov Xpto-Tov i. 205. 1854. 
2015. 2036 : ev Xpto-TO) IT^O-OV 046. 21 (-205. 2020. 2050) al pl 
Or 8 fl arm 2 -( 3 ) a | /caAov/xei/?; >i : cTrt/caXov/xevry 2050 : Xfjofievrj 
141 : | 8ta^] Kai C | ^cov] Kvpiov 620 | /cat Tryv /^apT. AC I. 91. 
172. 242. 325*. 424. 432. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2020. 2036 
Pr gig vg arm 2 - 4a bo : Kat Sta T. yu,apT. 025. 046. 21 (-325*. 
1934. 2020) al pl Or 8 fl s 1 - 2 arm 1 - 8 eth | I^o-ov AN*C 025. 181. 
2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2050 fl gig vg arm 4 : Xpiorov arm 1 : 
I>7o-ou Xpto-Tov K c - c 046. 21 (-2020. 2050) al pl Or 8 Pr s 1 - 2 
arm 2 - 3 a bo |. 

10. eyei>. ev TTI>UJI.] "and (>a) there was in me the spirit 
(holy i)" arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* : pr cyw A : pr cyto luavvrjo- gig : pr Kat 
S 1 ev Trvev/xaTt ev rr) >2O5O | c/>wv. /xcy. OTTtcrOtv (336. 2O2O 
oTTio-co) fjiov A 336. 2020. 2067 arm 1 eth : OH-IO-CD /xov c/xov. 
( + o-aA.7riyyo5 2015) ftey. C 025. 205. (2015). 2037 al 
Pr fl gig vg s 1 - 2 arm 2 * bo : <wv. OTT. /MOV /teyaX. 046. 2040 al p 
Or 8 : <f)u>vr)ar OTT. A.eyovo->70- /xot wo" o-aXTrtyyoo^ /xeyaA.T?o- 2050 : 
(f>wvr)(r ju,ey. 336. (2050). 2067 I 07rio-0ev /xov>arm 4 | aoATriyyoo-] 
pr c/xofi; arm 1 - 3 - 4 eth \. 

11. Xeoucns Aeovo-av N c> c Pr fl S 1 * 2 arm 4 : AaAovo-T;o- 920. 



2 4 AIIOKAAYtflS IOANNOY [l. 12-13. 

eZs -"E^cow jcol ek S^pmv KCU e fc H^ya/xov Kal eZ S 

Q9uareipav 
Kal efe 2a/>8 9 /cai ei s 3> t AaS e A0 t W ical cis AaoSiiu av. 

12. Koi Mtrrpafni 



/cat eTrio-Tpe^as *6W 7rra 
13. KCU ey /te o-w TWI/ Xvxvtw OJJLOIOV viov 

evSeSv/^ov TroS^ *ai ircpiefoo/i&w TT/J^S rots 
L,wrjv \pvo-aiv 

2039 2040 : ^voycrr;o- 2020 :> 104 : +/,oi 1854. (2050) arm - 
bo eth : +eya, aX<^>a K. TO co ^curocr K. o Career (u) (025. 
104) 620 : +cya, , TO a K. TO a, (o) ^pcuroo- K. (o) e^aroa- (alj 
I. 6l* 336. 628. 2019. 2020. 2023 I o/SAevr. >N* ] a 172. 424 
2018. 2020 Pr si bo | /fcdrcicr] ^Ac^ 204 o: LJa bo 
+ To K I *at Tre/x^ov >arm 4 : et mittem fl I K ai l >x* bo 
-- - cv Tr; aaia bo : +TOUO- (ovcrawr) arm I ev Ed>eo-co 



arm 



^ >i 49 . 20I . 20 i 5 . 2042. 2067 | m 

cr 5/xvpv. post wreip. pon K | Sfivpvav C 025. 046. 21 
(-205. 620. 2040) al s 2 : Smyrnam fl : Smirnam Pr gig 
fivpvov A i. 177. 205. 620. 628. 920. 2017. 2018. 2024. 
2040 : ftvpav 104*. 2040* : Z W vav N vg S i : Z^pva arm 

o.TMr 2 5 M ^ t<r mr ^ a " (-^ a - AC : -^av 046. 
2050) (AC 046) 69. no. 172. 314. 424. 1854. 1957. 2018. 
2020. (2050) : Tyatyram fl : Tyathiram gig : Thyatiram vg : CUT 
vcrr^ao- i 2038 : cr uarecpa (-T^pa 620. 632) 21 (_ 2o c 
2020. 2050) 250. 2037. 2067 al : v vaT l po t o- 025. 2 oc. 
209. 2019 : Tiatirae Pr : Thyatera bo | K aS + Ka c 200 1 



2040 
Ar : P St Aao8> P n X I 2a/)8 ^ ^ 62 : I 

SeA^av ANC 025. 046. I04 . 205. 456. 522. 620. 919. 920. 
I8 49 . I955- 2 4 . 20I 5- 2017. 2039. 2042. 2050 bo : ^AaoVA- 
t^ ** ,~ 20 ^, 456 - 620 9i9. 920. 1849. 2004. 2050) alP 1 
< Phryg,a armi | AaoS^av A*C no* 205. 2015. 2042! 2050 
bo : Aao3 t /cav 025. 046. 21 (-205. 2050) al* : Laudatiae 

12. KM] ANC 025. 205. 632**. 2020. 2050 Pr fl gig Cyp vg 
s 1- bo : ^ 2016 : K cm 046. 21 (-205. 632**. 2020. 2050) 
| 7rio-Tp. /3\ 7r. ... /cat wcTT. t8ov] convcrsus respexi ut 
viderem . et vidi Pr fl : rrTp^ ^Ae^a bo | ^A 67 r.] 

2050 ( S i) | T ^ . . . /AO ,] TO^ AaAoJ,Ta ,J 2050 

C 046 al* Pr fl gig vg ( S 2) arm* * * : AaAe? A 
i : eAaA^o-e 025. i 104* 620. al S * | 



P 2 5 ( V " 7rr< " 2 5 : 



13. Kat 1 >arm! | e/x^eo-o) AC 2004 : /xeo-ov N | T <oi/ AC 025. i. 



I. 14-15.] ATIOKAAYMS IOANNOY 241 



14. -f) Se /ce^aXry avrov /cat at rpi^es Aeu/cat ws epiov Att /coV,(fl) 

Kat Ot OC/>$ttA/XOt OLVTOV O)S <A6 TTVpOS, 

15. /cat ot TroSes aurov ofAoioi xaA/coAt/3dVa> ws cv /capuVu> f Tre 

vpupevrp f, 
/cat 17 <p<j)V7) avrov ws <f>d)vr) vSarov TroAAcoj/. 

(a) MSS add a gloss u>s xi^v. See vol. i. 28. 



181. 205. 459. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2042. 2050. 2067 Tyc 
Pr fl s arm 1 - 2 - 4a bo : TWV eTrra K 046. 21 (-205. 2020. 2050) 
alpi Or 8 gig vg arm 3 | Av^v.] + TWV xpvo-wv 172. 250. 424. 2018. 
2023 gig Vg g>v arm 4 | opoiov] o/xoiw/xa A S 1 ( = wcr oyw,oto>/Aa) bo sa : 

OfJLOKKT 1854 I TOV VIOV TOV ttl/^p. S 2 | VtOV {< 046. I. 35. 6 1*. 69. 

104. no. 172. 175. 177. 201. 250. 325. 337. 386. 456. 617. 
620. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2021. 2042. 2050 al : vio> AC 025. 
18. 205.468. 632. 919. 920. 1849. I ^54 2004. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 al pl Or 8 Pr Cyp fl gig vg arm | avOpw-rrov] + KO.L s 1 | 
ei/Seo\;//,ei/oo- . . . 7Tpie^(joo-/xvoor 1854 | 7ro8r]prj KC 025. 046 
min fere omn : TroS^p^v A (2050) | Trpocr] nv 172. 2018. 2020: 
7rt Pr fl bo : inter Tyc | /xacrroto- C 025. 046. 250. 2037. m s al pl : 
/xa^otcr A 35. 60.432. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037*. 2038. 2041. 
2067 : /xao-floio- N 104. 205. 209. 385. 498. 620. 632. 2042. 2050: 
+ avrov s 1 - 2 bo eth | xpuaai/ AN*C : \pvcnv 620 : xp^o-^v N c 025. 
046 min omn^ |. 

14. TJ 8e Ke<t>. . . . rpix-J "but the hair of his head" arm 4 | 
rpt^ecr] rpt^ato- 2050 : + O.VTOV s 1 arm 2 | AevKat >Pr fl arm 1 - 2> 3 a sa 
| wo- 1 AN 35. 175. 386. 617. 620. 632. 920. 1934. 2020. 
2040 al mu Or 8 : wcrci C 025. I. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2042. 2050. 2067 al : (oo-Trep 205. 209. 242 : /cat 
wo- 046. 18. 250. 325. 337. 456. 468. 919. 1849. 20 04 al 
| OKT epiov . . . o<f>6. avr. >arm 2 | ptov] + /cai no s 1 I \VKOV] 
Ka.6a.pov arm 4 : > no Pr fl Cyp s 1 : + KO.I 2019. 20 5 
gig vg s 1 arm 3 ** eth | wo- x twv > arm 1 - 2 - 8 -* 4 | wo- 2 ] oxrei 
(2019). 2020. 2042 : /cat bo : aut (corrupt for ut) Tyc. | /cat 2 > Pr 



15. Kai>io4. 620 Pr | o/iotot] o/AOiaxr 920 | 

025. 104. 175. 620. 2017. 2042. 2050 : aurichalco (auri- 
calco Pr) Libani Tyc Pr : aurocalco fl : auricalco gig : orichalco 
vg : "burnished brass" bo : +/cat gig | wo- ... -n-eirvp. >498. 
arm 1 - 8 *- 4 | wo- >S J arm 2 - 3 ** 01 | ev] e/c Pr fl | TreTrvpw/xei/ryo- AC 
Cyp Pr fl : ircTrvpw/xei/w K 205. 209. 336. 620. 628. 2050 gig 
vg s 1 - 2 : TrcTTvpco/xevot 025. 046. 21 (-205. 620. 2050). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 : ignitos velut in fornace ignis Tyc : 
"refined amidst a furnace fiery" arm 2 - 3 *** | /c. t] <wv. . . . 
vS. TroAA. > arm 4 | vSarwv TroAAwv] 7r\r)0ov<r Aaov 2050 (cf. 
Dan. io 6 ) |. 

VOL. ii. 16 



242 AIIOKAAYtflS IOANNOY [I. 16-18. 



1 6. /cat ^cov ev Tij 8fia X 1 P CLVTOV dorepas eWa, 

Kai CK TOU oTOftaros avrov po//,c/>at a SICTTO/AOS 6eia CKTTO- 



/cat 17 oi/as aurov a>s o 77X105 ^>aiV eV TT; 8wa/A avrov. 

17. Kai ore cTSov avrov, cVco-a Trpos TOVS TroSas avrov ws 
Kai ZOrjKev rrjv Sc^iav avrot) eV* //, Acycov 

Mr) <{>o/3ov eya> ei/u 6 TrpeoTos /cat 6 Icr^aros, 
1 8. Kat 6 ^o>v /cat 



Kat tSov aiv ct/xt t? TOVS atwva? TWI/ at(uv(ov } 
Kat c^w ra? K\ets rov Oavarov Kat TOV aSou. 

16. Kai 1 > 1854 bo sa | ^o)v X C C 025. 046. 21 ( - 2050) 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 s 1 - 2 : x v ^* T 7 2> 2 5- 4 2 4- 2018. 2019 : 
habebat Pr fl gig vg arm : >A 2021. 2050 | cv T. S. ^- ^T. 
>arm 4 | cv>2o5o | Se^. x et P l - avT - AtfC 025. 35. 61. 69. 172. 
175. 181. 205. 209. 242. 250. 432. 617. 1934. 1957. 2016. 2017. 
2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 al p : Seia avr. x L P L 
21 (-35. 175. 205. 617. 920. 1934. 2040. 2o5o)al pl Or 8 : x L P L > 
60. 920. 2015. 2040. 2050 Tyc Pr fl gig vg arm 2 : x L P L avT 
TT] 8eta 046 | ao-Tcpcor A 1934. 2O2I | po^. 8rT.] -nrevfta s 1 | 
. 209. 242. 2050 arm 1 - 3 - 4 (bo) | eKTropevo/A.J pendentem 



Tyc | c/>aiv wcr o yXiov $ Pr Cyp fl arm 4 bo : "like the sun 
flashing appeared" arm 1 - 2 - Sa | o>2o5- 209. 241. 432. 498. 628. 
632. 2020. 2042 | c/>au/ei] c/>atvwv 2067 : "was flashing" arm 4 | cv 
TV) 8w. avr. > armj. 

17. eTreaa AtfC 025. 046. 35. 205. 325. 337. 456. 620. 632. 
2020. 2050 : 7reo-ov 18. 175. 386. 617. 919. 920. 1849. 1934. 
2004. 2037. 2040 al | Trpoor] eio- X 42 : 7rt 2033 s 1 | oxr] (oo-t N* : 
(oo-et c arm : Kat wo- Or 8 bo | C^KCV AC 025. 046. 21 (~3J. 
205. 2050) al pl Or 8 : posuit Pr gig vg : CTTC^KCV t? I. 35. 6i. m ^ 205. 
2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 : inposuit fl Cyp | Se?. 
avr. AN*C 025. 046. 21 (-35. 205) al pl Pr fl gig vg arm eth 

+ Xpa K c c i. 35. 61. 205. 1957. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
S 1 - 2 | Xeya>v] + /xot I al p arm 1 - 2 - 3 | py <f>ofi >K* : 4-Icoa^e Pr | 
o TrpwT.] o TrpwroTOKoo- A : " beginning " arm 1 2 | o crx.] o > 
2050 |. 

18. K. o SWK >Pr gig : "I am life" arm 1 - 2 - 8 * | Kai 1 >K* bo 
arm | cyev. vcKp.] : " I am ( + same 3 ) who died " arm 1 - 2 - 3 a : + Kai 
t7Ti/ JJLOL eth | iSov > arm 3 | TG>I> atwvwv >>2020 | atcovcov AN* C 
025. 2019. 2050. 2067 Pr Cyp fl gig vg bo arm 1 - 2 " : +afjLtjv 
N c 046. 21 (- 2020. 2050) 250. 2037. 2038 al Or 8 s 1 - 2 arm 3 : >202o 
| rrjv K\fi8a S 1 | KAeio- A^C 025. 35. 205. 250. 325. 456. 468. 620. 
632. 2020. 2037. 2038 al. : /cAeuW 046. 21 ( -35. 205. 325. 456. 



I. 19-20.] AIIOKAAY*i: IfiANNOY 243 

19. ypd{f/ov ovv a eTSes 
Kat a eio~iv 

Kat a /Ae AAei yivccrOai pcTa ravra. 

^ 2O. TO iMvo-rypiov T(DV eTTTO. do-Te/owv ous etSes 7Ti T^s Set5s fiov 
/cat ras eTrra Av^vta? ras Xpvo-aV ol CTTTOL doW/a es ayyeAot TO>I/ eTrra 
KK\r)criuv eurtV, Kat at Ai^vtat at eTrra [eTrra] eV/cX^o-tat etVtV. 

468. 620. 632. 2020) al mu Or 8 | TOV 0av. /c. T. aS. AtfC 025 046 
21 alP 1 Tyc Pr fl gig vg s 1 - 2 (bo) arm eth : TOT; aS. /c. T . ^av. i. 
2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 al . 

19. ouv >i. 498. 620. 2020. 2050 arm 1 - 2 8 * | a] o s 1 - 2 I 
eioW] o^et bo : opacr arm 1 - 2 - 341 | Kat a to-/ >arm 1 - 3 bo I /cat 1 > 
arm 2 - * a | a 2 >205o | Kat 2 > bo | a 3 > s 1 | /xcXXet] Set 2050 : Set 
p.fXXciv N* : Set ytxeAAet C : Set 2050 | ytveo-6at A^ c 21 ( - 35. 386. 
468. 617. 632. 2050). 250 aP 1 Or 8 : yeveo-^at N*C 025. 046. 35. 
61. 69. 314. 386. 468. 617. 632. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2041. 2042. 2050. 2067 I- 

20. ouo- AtfC 025. i. no. 181. 205. 209. 2037**. 2038. 
2050 : wv 046. 21 ( - 205. 2050). 250. 2037*. 2067 al^ Or 8 | etSeo-j 

- 



arm 2 | CTTI rycr Se^. NC 025. 046/250. 2037. 2067 



mn 



omn" Or 8 s 1 arm 4 bo : cv rrj Se^ta A 2038 Pr fl gig vg s 1 - 2 
arm 2.3a eth . V Tr) Xt/Ol arm i | K To>j/ 7rra Xv^vtwv 498 Pr fl 
arm 2 j Tao-^iS. 385. 429*. 522. 919. 920. 1849. 1955. 2004. 
2039. 2040. 2042 | Tacr x/o-ao->498 s 1 : TOH/ xpvo-wv Pr arm 2a : 
+ Tavra eo*Ttv 2OI : +Tavra eto-tv 93. 386 | ao-Tepecr] + eTrra 
bo | ayy. . . . etatv] ayy. eto-ti/ TOOI> TTT. CKK^. 498 Pr fl gig vg : 
TWV 7TT. fKK\Tf]a-nov i<Tiv OL ayyeAot arm 2 a | eto-tv 1 >K* I Kat ai 
Xvxv. at eTTTa. . . . eiatv >632* | at Av^v. at eTTTa AC 025. 046 
alP 1 gig vg S 1 - 2 eth : at Xv X v. eTrra 218. 429. 2018. 2019 : eTTTa 
Au^v. N* I. 6i. m 367. 2038 : at eTrra Av^v. K c 35. 205. 250. 
632**. 1854. 1957. 2020. 2037. 2050. 2067 al Or 8 | at eTTTaJ + ao- 
etSeo- 025. i. (35). (6i. m e). 69."* (205). 1955. (1957). 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2067 bo : +at x/juo-ai 2050 : +at xpv<rai ao- etSeo- S 1 : -4-ai 
172. 241. 250. 424. 2020 arm | eTrTa 6 >io4. 498 Pr fl (arm 4 ?). 
Only these authorities attest the original text (see vol. i. 34-35 ; 
vol. ii.,^ Eng. trans., footnote, in loc.). The at eWa belongs to 



244 AHOKAAWIS IOANNOY [n. 1. 



CHAPTER II. 

I. Tw dyyeXw TW ev E<eVw e/c/cX^triag "ypd{j/ov 

TaSe Xeyet 6 /cpartuv rous eWa dcrrepas ev TT/ Seia avrov, 
6 TrepiTraTtov eV //.ecrw TW> eTrra Xv^vtoov TWV 



1. TW ayyeXw TW ey Ec|>ecru) KK\T]ata<r] Since John s usage 
elsewhere attests the originality of this unique grammatical con 
struction (see Gram, in vol. i.), I add here a summary of the 
documentary evidence for it in 2 1 and in the six other passages 
where it originally occurred, 2 8 - 12 - 18 3 1 - 7 - 14 . This evidence is 
sufficient to establish the originality of TW ayyeXw TW in all seven 
passages : when reinforced by the evidence of John s usage else 
where, it is irresistible. I have accordingly restored the original 
reading in 3 1 - 7 - 14 where the Greek MSS fail us. 

2 1 T. ayy. TOO] AC (2019) s 1 arm 4 Pr (though he reads : 
angelo ecclesiae Ephesi). In the note Pr. refers to the 
peculiar construction in the text : Dativo hie casu ecclesiae 
posuit, non genetivo ; ac si diceret Scribe angelo, huic 
ecclesiae, ut non tarn angelum et ecclesiam separatim vide- 
atur dixisse, quam qui sit angelus exponere voluisse, unam 
videlicet faciens angeli ecclesiaeque personam. 2 8 T. ayy. 
TOO] A (2040 T. ayy. TT/CT o) arm 4 a . 2 12 T. ayy. TOO] 2050 
s 1 arm 4 a sa. 2 18 T. ayy. TOO] A Epiph bis Pr s 1 - 2 arm 4 O- y\ 
C >T<o 2 but does not replace it by r^cr. 3 1 T. ayy. TOO] Pr 
s 1 2 arm 4 . 3 7 T. ayy. TU>] Pr arm 4 . 3 14 T. ayy. TOO] arm 4 . 
The difficulty of the reading led to the occasional omission 
of KKXr)<rLacr in 2 18 (A), 3 14 (919. 920. 2040), 3 1 (s 2 ), 3 7 
(arm 4 ). It is interesting to observe how the evidence for 
the original reading grows weaker as the text advances. 
The assurance of the scribes grows as they write. On the 
individual passages the chief variants are given below. 
TW ayy- ] T0to " ayycXoitr arm 1 2 : pr KO.L Pr fl gig : bo sa eth 
begin 2 1 - 8 - 12 - 18 3l- 7 -l 4 with Kat (>bo sa) ypa\j/ov | TOO ev E<eorw 
eK/cXiycriacr AC : TW r^tr ev E<. e/ocX. 2019 : TO) ev E<ecrw cv rrj K- 
K\r)<TLa arm 4 : TW ev e/c/cX^cria E<^>eaov S 1 : rrjcr ev E^>ecrw e/c/cX. 
X 025. 046 min fere omn Or 8 : Ephesi ecclesiae gig vg : ecclesiae 
Ephesi Pr bo : T^CT E^etrtwv cK/cXi/cTtao- i. 2020 fl arm 1 - 2 - 3 a 
Xeyet] + /cvpioo- 172. 250. 424. 522. 2018. 2039 | KpaTwv] + TravTa 
/cat S 2 Se^ia] X* L P L Tyc s 1 : 8e|ta x L P L I 7 2 - 2 5- 2 oi^ arm 1 - 3 - 4 
bo sa avTov] + X L P l ^* I 2 ] Kat arm 1 - 2 3 * | ev />te<r.] eyw-yutecrw 
AC : em i | cTrra >498. 620. 628. 2020 Tyc s 1 arm 1 - 2 : ~T. X. T. 
xP var - 2042 | xpvtrwv X 025. 046 min fere omn : ^pvo-ewv AC : 
2050 |. 



II. 2-5.] AnOKAAYtflS mANNOY 245 

2. OtSa TO. epya 0*0 v, Kat rov KOTTOV KCU TTJV VTTO/XOV^I/ o~ov, 

Kat OTt ov Bvvrj /?acrTao-ai KaKovs, 

/cat eTrcipacras TOWS XeyovTas eavTOvs aTrooroXovs /cat OVK eurtV, 
/cat evpcs avTovs 



3. /cat VTro/JLOvrjv ^ts 

/cat ey3ao~rao~as Sta TO ovofj.d JAOV 

/Cat OV KCKOTTtaKCS. 

4. dXX* 2x<o KaTa aov oVt TT)V aydirrjv crov TT)V 

5. jAvrjfjLOVfve ovv iroOfv TrtTTTw/cas, 

/cat fjitravorjcrov /cat TO, TrptoTa epya iroirjcrov 

et Se /ny, Ip^o/iat o~ot 

/cat /ctv^o-(o TT)V Xv^vtav o~ov e/c TOV TOTTOU 
(a) MSS add 



2. oiSa] etSov 337 eth | /c. T. KOTT. >385. 429. 522 | K. T. VTTO/X. 

OTOV /C. T. /C07T. O-OV 632 | TOV KOTTOV AC 025. 35. 60. l8l. 205. 

209. 432. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2042 
Pr gig vg s 2 : TOVO- KOTTOVO- arm 1 a : TOV KOTTOV &ov X 046. 21 
( 35. 205). 250. 2067 Or 8 s 1 : TOVO- KOTTOVO- (rov arm 2 - 3 - 4 bo j 
o-ou 2 >Pr arm li2a | Kat 3 >A bo : +ot8a arm 1 | ov owy pao-r.] 
ov /3ao-ra^Lo- arm 1 - 3 | ovvrjarj 2042 : Svi/et 620. 2050 j3ao-Taai 
025. I. 2020. 2038 | KO.KOV bo | /cat 4 ] ovo- arm 1 | eavrovcr >i8i. 
2067 : +etvat vg c - f arm a | a-Troo-ToX. AN^C 025. 94. 337. 2038 vg 
arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 : + eu/at N C - c 046. 21 ( - 337) al mu Or 8 Pr gig vg v s 1 - 2 | 
/cat evp. avT. I/ .] K. evpeO^orav i^evSaTroo ToXot bo |. 

3. icai uirojji. ex- >2l8. 424. 2018 | VTTO/A. ^. ( + K. 6\uf/icr Tra.o~a.o~ 
K*) K. e^ao-T. AKC 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 2020). 250 al mu 
Or 8 vg s 1 - 2 arm 4 : et habuisti patientiam et tolerasti Pr : e(3ao-r. 
(e/^aTTTto-ao- I. 6l. mg 2037) /c. VTTO/X. ex- C 1 ) 35- (6l. mg ). 1957- 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2036. (2037). 2038. 2067 al : e/3ao-T. /xe K. VTTO/X. e^. 
025. 104. 205. 209. 336. 459. 620 : VTTOfJL. e^. K. /3ao-T. avrovo- gig 
bo I ex 610 "] habuisti Pr | /c. e/3ao-r. >432 | oia >3I4. 2016 | /cat 
ov /ce/coTTtaKeo- AC (s 1 2 ) : /c. OVK. e/co7rtao-ao- X 025. 046. 21 ( 620. 
2020). 250.^ 2037 al pl Or 8 : et non (nee Pr) defecisti Pr gig vg : 
/cat /ce/coTTia/cao- 336. 432. 628. 2O2O arm 2 a : /cat/coTrta/cao- I : Kat 
KK07rtacrao- 620 ]. 

4. a\\ AC 025. I. 385. 620. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2042. 
2050. 2067 Or s : aXXa K 046. 21 ( 205. 620. 2020. 2050). 
250 al : Kat 205 | ex 00 Kara o-ov] + oXtya gig | TTJV Trptarrjv o~ov 
aya?r^v A | ac//Kao- AN C> c 025. 046 al omn Tid : a<f>r]Ko~ N*C |. 

5. jj.^juioj eucroi 1854. 2020 | ow>Prs 1 arm 1 2 - 4 * eth | TTO^CV] 
oOev 386 : TTWO- bo | TreTTTcoKaor ( - eo- N) AxC 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 
620). 250 al mu Or 8 Pr Cyp s 2 : eKTrcTTTWKao- 025. I. 35. 104. 
205. 620. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
gig Vg. S 1 | K. /xeTav. > S 1 arm 3 | K. T. vp. epy. TTOITJCTOV >bo 



246 AIIOKAAY^IS KiANNOY [n. 6-9. 



6. a\\a TOVTO ex ls OTi f JLLCrf ^ Ta pya TWV NiKoXatrwv, a 
/xio-co. 7. O e^cov ovs d/covcraTO) rt TO Trvev/xa Aeyet rats fKK\r)o~tai<s 
Tw vtKaWt Swcro) avrw <ayeu> K TOV vAou T^S 0)77? o etrriv f T(3 
TrapaSeto-u) rov #eoi). 

8. Kai T(3 dyyeXa) TU> ev ^^vpvrj e/c/cX^aias ypai/w 
Taoe Aeyei 6 Trpcoros Kai 6 

os iyt.vf.ro veKpo? Kai 

9. OiSa o~ov T-^V 6\L\l/iv Kai r^v 
dAAtt 7rA.ouo~ios e?, 

/cai r^v /?A.ao-07y/xtav CK TWV Xcyoi/rtov lovSai oi)? e?/at eauToi>s 
/cat OVK eio-tV, dXAa o-wayooyr) rov ^arava. 

eth | epya] + o-ov gig arm | o-ot Afcs C 025. 2050 gig vg s 1 bo 
sa : > 181. 2041 arm 1 - 2 a : + ra^v 046. 21 (-2050). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 alP Or 8 Pr s 2 arm* : +ra x i | KLvrj(r(o] + 
Kara o-ou 325. 456 | CK T. TOTT. avr. >s l | cav] 35 | /xeravo^o-eio- 
(-0-10- i) 35. 104. 498. 620. 2050 : /xeraj/o^o- 205 : /xeravo^o-r/ Tyc |. 

6. exeio-] +aya^ov Pr | ort /xio-.] on fjuoycr 2040 | a> A arm 2 : 
sicut Pr | /cayo>] eyw s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 3a eth |. 

7. ouo-] (ora s 1 - 2 : + a^oveiv bo eth : aures audiendi Pr arm 1 2 - 4 
| dKovtru 617 I Trvev{j.a] + ayLoi> arm 1 - 2 - 4 eth I raitr] + CTrra A 
e/</cX.] -F-raio- 7rra C : + Kat s 1 | airrto AC 025. 046. 21 (-35. 
205) Or 8 Pr Cyp vg s 2 arm eth : >K 35. 60. 205. 209. 1957. 
2023. 2041 Tyc gig vg d>y s 1 | i/ rw TrapaS. AN*C 046. 21 (-35. 
205) al mu Tyc Pr Cyp vg s 1 - 2 arm 1 - 2 - 3- 4 . ev /xeo-w ro> TrapaSeto-oj 
X c c 025 : ci/ tieo-co rov 7rapa8eto-ov i. 35. 6i. m & 205. (c/xeo-oj 
205). 250. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 gig arm a bo | rov 6eov AtfC 025. i. 6i. m s 205. 
2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 s 1 arm a : + pov 046. 21 
(-205) al mu Or Ex - ix - 3 Or 8 Tyc Pr gig Cyp vg s 2 arm 1 -"* 
bo eth |. 

8. TW i/] See note on 2 1 . rw A arm 4 : rrja- NC 025. 046. 
21 min reU Or 8 eth : 1-770- + o 2040 | ei/ Spvprrja- KK X.r)o-Laa- A : 
Smirnae ecclesiae gig (vg) bo : ecclesiae Smirnae Pr s 1 : fv 
Zpvpvit) KK\7jo-La<r N : fv ^vpvrj CKK\. C 025. 046. 21. 250. 2038. 
2067 al mu s 2 arm 4 (Z/x.) : rrjo- CKKX. rov 2/xv/ovatou arm 1 - 3 * : 
fKK\r)<TLacr /xvpvatwv i : ^Ltvpvatwv eKKX-rjcnaa- 2015. 2036. 2037 : 
^/xvp. AC 025. 046 min omnvid gig s 2 arm 1 - 2 - 3 * bo : Z/xvp. K vg 
s 1 arm 4 | Trpwroo-] TrpcororoKoo- A | o 2 > 2016. 2020. 2041 | o 
<TO-X.] "without end" arm 1 : +o Trpwroo- rw i/Kpwi/ 69 | oo- A^C 
025. 046. 35. 205. 468**. 620. 632. 2020. 2050 Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 
arm 1 - 2 - 4 " bo : >i8. 175. 325. 337. 386. 456. 468*. 617. 919. 
920. 1849. T 934- 2004. 2040 al mu | e>7o-i/] vivit gig vg : 
revixit Pr |. 

9. o-ou AC 025. 93. 241. 25o com Pr gig vg s 1 bo sa eth : 
+ ra epya Kai N 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 Or 8 Tyc s 2 



II. 10-12.] AIIOKAAY#I2 IOANNOY 247 



IO. pr] <f>o(3ov a 

I8ov yue XXei ftdXXciv 6 Sia/3oXos e v/xoii/ ets 
Iva. 7Ttpao-0T7T KCU 



ytVou TTIOTOS ax/ 01 Oavdrov, 

KCU SajfTO) OTOl TOV 0-T<a.VOl> TT/S 



11. *O tx a)V ^ s a/covo-oVa) TI TO Trvevfta Xeyet rats e/CKX^o-icus. O 
vi/can> ov /AT) aBiKrjOrj e/c TOV 9a.va.rov TOV Stvrepov. 

12. Kat TW dyyeXw T<3 cv Ilepya/AU) fKK\rjcrLa<s ypaufrov 
TaSc Xeyct 6 ex 0017 7 "*7 l/ poiJ.(f>a,iav TTJV SI OTO/AOV T-^V o^eiav 



arm : +TO. tpyo. K. Tyv vTrofjLovrjv arm 4 | Trrw^Lav 025. 046. 21 
(-620) Or 8 : TTTwxiav AtfC i. 498. 620 : +Q-OV gig vg s 1 bo 
eth | rrjv /3Xaox.] + rrjv X s 1 - 2 : Tao- /2Xao-<^/Aiao- arm 1 - 2 - 3 a : blas- 
phemaris Pr gig vg : " I found not one " bo | e/c AtfC 046. 21 
(-35- 205) al mu Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 bo : >025. i. 35. 205. 1957. 

2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 Or 8 | eavT. 
lovo. 2015. 2036 (s 1 ) | TouSaiwv N*C 2050 arm* | eavrouo- eivai 
2019 | eivai > 468** S 1 | eavr. > 336. 620. 628 : avTovo- 314. 

2016. 2019 | K. OVK eio-iv > arm 1 | crarava] + eio-iv K c c * Pr gig 
vg arm 1 - 2> 8 |. 

10. fit] AC 046. 2020. 2023. 2050. 2067 bo : fjiyocv K 025. 
21 (-2020. 2050) Or 8 Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 eth | a] an/ 35 | /xeXXeitr] 
0eXeto- arm* | ira<rx iiv AC 025. I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 468* 
(7rao-x 620). 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2041 : TraOfiv 
046. 21 (-35. 205. 468*. 620). 2067 al mu Or 8 | tSov AtfC 025. 
i. 18. 61. 69. 104. 250. 620. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038 

a jmu p r gig yg gl arm b o : 4-8^ 046. 21 (18. 205. 620. 2020. 

2050). 2067 Or 8 s* : +yap 2050 eth : +/<at 205 | o oiafl. (3aX. 
920. 2020. 2040 s 1 - 2 eth | (ZaXXctv AK C C 025. 18. 35. 205. 250. 
919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2020 al : fiaXeiv 046. 175. 325. 337. 386. 
456. 468. 617. 620. 632. 1934. 2037. 2040. 2050. 2067 al Or 8 : 
/3aXXeiv fiaXiv K* | e Vfi. o oiafi. I. 2037. 2067 al gig | e^] a< 
18154 I iva Treipao"^. 1 iva TrfipaOf]T I . iva Treipao*^ 92 | * X- ^ l r- 
>gig | CX^TC A 1854. 2019. 2038 Pr (bo) : XTC C 025. i. 181. 
2050 : e^T no : ^Te K 046. 21 (-2050) Or 8 Tyc vg s 1 - 2 ! 
6Xuj/. ] + fjLtyaXrjv 2050 | SCK. rjfji. Tyc gig | Ty/xcpwv AsC 025. I. 35. 
104. 172. 205. 250. 620. 1957. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al : 
dierum Pr : i^epao- 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 2050) al m 
Tyc s 1 * 2 : diebus gig Vg | yivov > N* | yiveo-^e . . . Trio-rot . . . 
vjuv S 1 | axpet 2050 | f^xpi ^3 2 - 2O2 |- 

11. ouo-]-o)Ta s 1 - 2 arm 1 - 4 : +aKovv bo eth : +audiendi Pr 
arm 1 - 4 " | TO] +ayiov arm 1 - 2 eth | T. e/cxX. >arm 1 | o VIKWV] 
o yap viKtov bo (. 

12. TW ayy.] TOIO- ayyeXoia arm 1 - 2 - 8 | TO) ev II. KxX. 2050 
(save that it reads IlepKa/xw) : see note on 2 1 : TW ev e 



248 AIIOKAAY*I2 IOANNOY [II. 13-14. 

13. OTSa TTOV Karot/cets, 

OTTOU 6 6povos TOV Sarava, 
Kal /cparets TO oVo/xa xiov, 

Kttl OVK ^pViyOTG) T^V TriO-riV /XOV 



Kat eV rats i^iepats f AvTtTras,t 6 /xaprvs /xou, 
6 Trto-Tos /xov, os aTTKT<ivOr} Trap v/xtv 
OTTOV 6 Saravas 



14. dXX l^a> Kara aov oXtya, 

oVt e^s e/cet /cpaTOwras rrjv StSax^v BaXaa/x, 

os eSt Sao-Kev TO) BaXa/c ySaXetv o-KoVSaXoi eVwTriov raiv vie 



EEtpya/xov s 1 : TO> cv TT; Ilepya/xov KK\r)cria ? arm 4 * : TO> ev T. 
TI. sa : TI/O" v ITe/aya/Aw cK/cX^o-tao" all Greek MSS ( 2050) Or 8 : 
rrja- Uepya/otata)!/ (Ilcpyaiwv 1 ) KK\rj(na.ar arm 1 - 2 : Pergami ecclesiae 
gig vg s 2 bo : eccles. Perg. Pr eth | Xeyei] + Kvpioo- 205 I T. of T. 
&O-T. s 1 - 2 eth |. 

13. oiSa AxC 025. 2020. 2050 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 4 
bo sa eth : +ra cpya o~ov /cat 046. 21 ( 2020. 2050 [o-ov ra cpya 
Kat 325. 456]) al pi Or" s 2 arm 3 * | TTOV] Kai ort arm a | Kparcia-] 
CKpar^cracr bo : KpaTovviv arm 1 - 3 * | /xou 1 ] o-ov N* | ^pj/>;o-a)] + 
nomen meum et gig | rrjv TTLO-T.] TOV TTLO-TOV arm 3 | /<at 3 AC 
1957. 2050 gig vg s 1 bo eth : > K 025. 046. 21 (-2050) al pl 
Pr arm 2 - 8 - 4a | v TCUO-] airraio- 325* : in illis Pr | ^/-tepato- AC 
vg s 1 : +Tavrcuo- arm 1 - 2 : +cv raio- N* : -fato- 046. 21 (-35. 
205. 620. 2040. 2050) al Or 8 (arm 3 ** a ) : +ev ato- N c 025. i. 35. 
104. 205. 250. 620. 1957. 2018. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 (s 2 ) (arm 4 ) : -fin quibus fuit gig : +C/>UHO- i. 6i. m s : +/tov 
(ev) ato- 2040. (2050) | AVTITTCUT K*C 025. 046. 21 ( - 325. 337. 
456. 2050) al mu vg : Antiphas Pr : Anthipas arm 3 ** tt : Antipax 
gig : AvTfLTraa- Atf c - c 42. 82. 93. 325. 337. 367. 452. 456. 
498. 2021. 2024**. 2050 Or 8 : di/retTi-ao- s 1 - 2 arm 4 bo : >eth 

o /xapr.] Kat o papTva- 1 7 2. 203 2 s 1 : Trao- /xaprvo- arm 2 W | /xov 3 > 1 8 1 . 
2019 arm 1 bo : +KO.I Pr | o TTIO-TOO-] +ort Trao- fJLaprvo- (+/xov s 1 ) 
TTto-TOo* 2059 S 1 : on fjLaprvcr /xov 7rio-Too-(>- y)7rao- o Trto-revoov arm^- 7- 5 I 
/xov 4 AC 61. 69. 2050 Or 8 s 2 : >N 025. 046. 21 ( 2050) Pr 
gig Vg (arm) bo | ocr av tKravOrj 2050 : o a.7TKTav@-r] 205 : oj/ 
aTreKreivav bo eth | oo->!72. 314. 2016 | Trap v/ui>] Trap VJJUDV 
920. 2040 s 1 arm 3 * Ma : c^ v/xan/ arm 2 : + e/cet 632 | OTTOV o 5ar. 
<arotK. >2O2O S 1 |. 

14. a\X. AsC 025. 35. 205. 620. 2020. 2050 al Or g : oXXa 
046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 2020. 2050) 250. 2038. 2067 al [ Kara 

: 4-Xeyeti/ Pr arm 3 " 4 | oXtya>arm 1 - 2 - 3 * eth | ort . . . 
o^o/xara Kparowra bo | ort>C Pr Vg S 2 | ex t0 "] C X 1 



II. 15-17.] AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY 249 



OVTCDS 

6/AOU09 



1 6. 

et 8e //,?;, ep^o/xat crot , 

Kai TroXe/xrycrw yaer avTaiv ei/ TJ) pofJL<f>aia TOV oro/AaTOs /AOV. 

17. O l^cov ovs aKovo*aTa> 

Tt TO 7TVV/ia Xfiyet TtttS KK\rj(TiaL<S. 



T<3 vtKoWi 8cf>o-G> avTw TOV p.a.wa. TOV 
Kat SWCTCD avro) {j/r)<j>ov XCVK^V, 
Kat eVt TI)V \}ff)<f>ov ovo/xa Katvoi/ 
o ovSet? oTSei/ et />t^ 6 A.a/A/?aVa>j . 



A | StSa^v] -}- TOV 42. 468. 2019. 2020 | eSiSao-Kev AtfC 025. I. 
2015. 2036. 2037. 2050. 2067 al Pr gig vg : eStSaei/ 046. 
21 (-2050) al mu Or 8 s 1 - 2 arm 1 - 2 - 8 * 1 bo : StSao-Ket arm 4 | TOJ 
BaX. AC 104 : cv TOO BaX. i. 94 : TOI/ BaX. K c 21 (-35*). 250. 

2037. 2038 Or 8 : cv TO) BaXaa/x TO/ BaX. 025. 35*. 2067 et 
comm. in 250. 2037. 2067 : BaX. 046 : >X* | BaXaK AN C 
025. 21 (-386. 620. 1849. 2040**. 2050) Or 8 : Balac gig 
vg arm : BaXaa* C 046. 620. 1849. 1854. 2040**. 2050 : 
Balaac Pr : BaXaa^u, 386 | /SaXetv] /3aXXetv K c : e/x^8aXeiv 2050 : 
/3ao-tXet A | TWV] T 2050 | ^>ayetv ANC 025. I. 35. 205. 522. 
632*. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2050 Or Num x 242 Pr 
gig vg s 1 arm : TOV </>ay. 42. 325. 336. 367. 456. 468. 620. 628 : 
Kai <ay. 046. 18. 175. 250. 337. 386. 617. 632**. 919. 920. 
1849. 1934. 2004. 2040. 2067 al Or 8 (s 2 ) | ei8o)Xo#. >vg arm 2 : 
eiSwXoflvTov 1854 : de sacrificiis Pr |. 

15. au Kpar.] o Kparw 2050 | KpaTowTao-] Kparovvra bo : > 
arm l.2. 3a I NiKoX. AC 046. 18. 175. 325. 386. 456. 468. 617. 
919. 1849. 20 4 a l : v NtKoX. N 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 337. 620. 
632. 920. 1934. 1957- 2015. 2020. 2040. 2050 al (arm 4 * bo) : 
"of Nicolaus" arm 1 - 2 - 3 | o/xoiwo- AtfC 046. 21 (-35. 468/2020) 
Or 8 Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 (arm 4 ) : o /xto-w i. 6i. m & : ^v /xio-o> 2037 arm a : 
o/Aotwo- o (w 468 : t]v 2067) ftto-a> 025. 35*. 42. 181. 468. 2038. 
2067 : >202o arm 1 - 2 - 8 bo sa eth . 

16. OUK AC 046. 21 (-35) al mu arm la bo eth : povov arm 8 : 
>K 025. i. 35. 61. 69. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 

2038. 2041 Or 8 Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 arm 2 | ei Se ^77] Kat bo | croi >6i. 
69. 181. 2O2O. arm 1 - 2 - 3 a eth : crv X* | TroXe/x.J K7roXe/x7yo-a) 205 I 
avTwv] o-ov 2050 Pr : avTov arm 2 - 3 | />Tyc | TOV OTO/I,. /xov 
>arm x : +Kat ev TT/ aTretXi; 17 ^tXav^pwTrta 104. 336. 459. 620. 628 
(from the Comm. of Andreas) |. 

17. oucr] <oTa s 1 - 2 : 4-aKoveiv bo eth : aures audiendi Pr 
arm 1 - 3 - 4 | Trvev/ota] + aytov arm 1 - 8 eth | CKKXryo-.] + OTI bo | TW 



250 AIIOKAAY^rS IflANNOY [II. 18-19. 

1 8. Kat TO) dyyeXa) TU> (V uaTetpots fKK\r}o-ia<s ypcuj/ov 
TaSe Xryi 6 vtos TOV 0ov, 
6 l^wv rovs 6<0aX/xovs <ws <Xoya Trvpos, 
/cat ot TroSes avrov oftoioi xaXKoXi/?dVa>, 

19. OtSa <rov TO. epya, 

xat TT/V dydtTTT/v Kat T^V TTUTTIV Kat r^v StaKovtav Kai TT/V 

VTropovirjv <rov, 
Kat TO, epya (rov TO, co^aTa TrXetova TOV rrpwrcov. 



i/tK<ovTi K 025. 046. 21 ( 620. 2050) al pl : TO> VIKOWTI AC : 
|avrw AC 025. 046 min fereomn Or 8 : > K 6i txt Tyc gig vg d - v 
S 1 : + <ayetv 025. I. 35. 6i. m S 104. 205. 468. 620. 632. 1957. 
2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 Or 8 Tyc gig arm 4 a : 
+ TOU <ayeiv 42. 69 : +"food" arm 1 - 2 - 3 | TOV ftavva AC 21 
( 35. 205. 468. 620. 632. 2050) al Or 8 : //.avra 69 : TO yuavva 
046 gig vg arm 2 3 : CK rov /navva ^ 468*. 1957. 2019. (2050) 
Tyc Pr s 1>2 arm 4a bo : a-rro TOV fiawa i. 35. 6i. m s 104. 205. 
468**. 620. 632. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 : 
O.TTO rov v\ov 025 : O.TTO rov v\ov rrjo- ^wrjo- arm 1 : +^>ayctv 172. 

25O. 2Ol8. 2O5O | TOV KKp.] TO KfKpVfJL/Ji VOV 2O$O gig Vg | O(DQ-(a 

anTw 2 >X 2020 arm a | XevK. K. CTTI T. ^</>. >s x | ^<^>. 2 ] \j/rjfjiov 
C | Katvov] KCVOV C 175. 2040 I ycypa/xp,.] eyyeypa/A/xei/oi/ 919 : > 
Pr : + ir avTr;v bo | o ovSeto- . . . A.a/x/3. > I | o )> K* j otSev] etSev 
205. 209 bo : +avTw 2050 |. 

18. TW ev uareipoto- CKKXtjoriaa] See note on 2 1 . TOO ej/ @var. 
A : ev vaT. /cKXr/o-tao- C : TCO ayy. Tr;o- KKX. TOO ev vaT. Epiph 455 : 
ecclesiae qui est Tyatirae Pr : TO> ev cKKX^ata TT; ev vaT. s 1 : TW 
TT/o- KKX^o-tao- TTfcr ev uaT. s 2 i qui in Theatrea ecclesia arm 4 < y) : 
Tiyo- v vaT. tKKXryo-. S 025. 046 min omn vid Or 8 : Tyatirae 
ecclesie gig : Thyatirae ecclesiae vg : ecclesiae Thyaterae bo : 
Twv vaTipattov arm 1 2 : T^O- vaTetpwv KK\r)cr. 2O2O (arm 3 ) | 

VttTtpOtO- N I. l8. 35. 175. 205. 250. 386. 468. 617. 919. 920. 

1934. 2004. 2037. 2040. 2067 : vaTipottr AC : vaT^poio- 025. 
149. 201. 632. 1849. 1 955- 2O 36- 2050 : vaTetpcov 2020 : vaTrypry 
046. 620 : vaTeip?; 69. 93. 104. HO. 177. 325. 337. 456. 498. 
2021 : Thyatirae vg : Tyatire gig | eKAcX^o-tao- > A arm 1 | TOW 
o(f>Oa\iJL. A 2019. 2020 Pr gig vg (arm 2 3 * 4 ) : TOV o^OaX^ov s 1 : 
+ avTov XC 025.046. 21 ( 2020). 250. 2037. 2038 al pl Or 8 s 2 
(arm 1 a ) | </>Xoya] ^>Xo^ K Pr : Xa//,7ra8ao- 1854 I ^aX/cco \i/3av<D 
025. 104. 175. 620. 2050 : auricalco Pr : eramento thurino gig : 
orichalco vg : " unto brass of Libanan " s 2 arm 1 - 2 - 3 * 4 : " unto brass 
smelted " arm 3 ** a : " burnished brass " (^aX/(oXt/?avoo-) bo eth . 

19. ra. epy. Kai>l8l | T>;v(>2O2o) TTIO-T. K. T. ayaTr. K. T, 
SiaK. 1 8. 242. 2040 : rrjv ayaTr. K. T. StaK. K. T. TrtaT. I | K. T. 
aya-TT.] +o~ov S 1 bo eth | Tryv 2 >C 2020 | TTIO-T. ] + o-ov s 1 bo eth 
| Tt]v StaKOvtai/ Kat>K* | T>yv 8 >2O2O | StaKonav] + o-ou S 1 bo 



11.20-22.] AIIOKAAY*I2 IOANNOY 251 

20. dXXa ^a> Kara, arov 

OTL dc/>ets rrjv ywat/ca Ica/2eX, f) Xeyovcra cavr^v 7rpo^>^riv, 
Kai StSdor/cet /cat TrXava TOVS e/xovs SovXovs 
TropvevVai *at c/>ayetv etSooXo^vra. 

21. KCU ISco/ca avrjy xpovov tva /xeravo^cr^, 

KCU ov/c Tj^eXrjcrev tieTavoTycrai in T^? Tropvet as avr}s. 

22. tSov /2aXXu) avrryv eis /cXt vTiv, 

KOLL TOVS /aoc^evovras /xer avr^s ei? OXtyiv /xcya\>;v,(a) 

(a) Interpolation follows here : ^<b> /trj iJ.cTavori<rovffiv K r&v tpywv O.VTTJS. 
See Eng. trans, vol. ii. footnote, zw /-. ^dc /tij is not followed by the 
indicative in our author. 



eth | T^v 4 >A 2019 | crou 2 >S 2023 Pr | o-ot 3 ] + /cat I | 
X eipova 175. 617*. 1934 |. 

20. aXXa A 046 min mult : aAA KG 025. 35. 69. 104. 175. 
205. 314. 385. 617. 620. 1934. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2020. 2037. 
2038. 2050. 2067 al Or 8 | cx w ] ^ 7) arm 1 - 2 - 3 " | Kara crov AC 
025. 046. 21 (-35*. 632*. 2050). 250 al mu Tyc vg s 2 bo eth : 
o-ot arm 1 - 2 - 3 " : +7roAv K 35*. 181. 632*. 2019. 2022. 2038. 2050 
gig s 1 arm 4 * : +7roAAa 2015. 2036 Pr Cyp : +oXtya i | ac^eto- 
Atf*C 025. 046. 21 ( - 2020. 2040. 2050). 2037. 2038. 
a pnu p r Qyp gjg V g . a ^ Ka(r ^c ^06. 2019. 2050. 2067 Tyc 
s 1 2 arm bo eth : afarjo- 241. 250. 424. 2018. 2040 : iroOfia 
2020 | ywaiKo. NC 025. I. 104. 205. 468*. 620. 2019. 2020. 
2038. 2050 Tyc gig vg arm 2 - 3a bo eth : +CTOV A 046. 21 
( - 205. 468*. 620. 2020. 2050) al mu Or 8 Pr Cyp s 1 - 2 arm 1 - 4 | 
T7)v le&x/SeA A : Iaa/?eA K* : Zezabel Pr Cyp arm 1 - 2 - 4 a | rj 
Xeyovo-a Ax*C : rj Aeyct 046. 21 ( 35*. 205. 2020. 2050). 
al mu Or 8 gig vg bo eth : rt]v \cyova-av N c 025. i. 35*. 205. 
1854. 2019. 2020. 2038. 2050 : "who declared" arm 1 - 3 - 4 | 
ecum/v AC 025. 21 ( 620) : avrrjv $ 046. 104. 141. 336. 620. 
628 | Trpo^Tti/ AN C C 21 (-620. 919. 2004. 2040. 2050) al mu 
Or 8 : prophetissam gig : Trpo^r/rtiav N* : Trpo^ryv 025. 046. 104. 
172. 620. 919. 2004. 2019. 2038. 2040. 2041*. 2050 : propheten 
Tyc Pr Cyp vg : +avat N 2050 s 1 arm 4 | K. SiSao-/cei] Si8ao-/ceii> 
Pr Cyp Vg : /cat 8ioW/caA.oi/ ? bo | TrXava] TrXavav Pr Cyp Vg 
I eiSa)Xo0. ^>ay. I. 2019 | etSwXo^.] TO i8(oXo$irrov ? arm 1 - 3 - 4 " : 
de idolothytis vg (bo) : de sacrifices ( - ficio gig) Pr Cyp gig : 
>arm 2 |. 

21. v. 21 > 205 I /cat 1 > Pr arm 1 - 4 | avrrf] avT-rjv 2040 | /xerav.] 

620. 2050 | K. ov 0eX. /xcrav. >N* (arm a ) : K. t /xev 
tterav. 2O2O : K. ov fj,Tvor)<rv (post avrrjcr) I arm 1 - 2 - 3 

A Pr Cyp eth : fleXei s*C 025. 046 min omn Or 8 gig 
vg s 1 2 | Tropveiao- C 025. 046. 21 : Tropvtao- AN | avr^cr] ravTTyo- N : 
wv /c. ov fJLTvor)cra.v arm" |. 

22. 1800] 8 ov 2020 : +yo> i | /?oXXo> AC 21 (-325. 



252 AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [II. 23-25. 

23. KOI Ttt TfKVa ttVT^S a.7TOKTvS) Iv OdVOLTW. 

KOI yvwa-ovrai Traorai at eK/cXr/triai 

on eycu efyxt 6 epawuiv ve<povs /cat KapSia? 

KCU SUJCTO) v/uv eKaa-ro) Kara TO. epya v//,wi>. 

24. v/xtv Se Xeya> rots XOITTOIS roTs ev vaTeipoi?, 
ocrot ov/c l^ovo-iv TT/V SiSa^v ravrrjv, 

oiriyes OVK tyi/wcrav ra fiaOea TOV 2arai/a, a>s X 

ov /3aXXa> </> v/xa? aXXo /?apos* 

25. TrXryj/ o X T ><paryaraTf a^jpi ov av ^a>. 



456. 468*. 632. 2020. 2050). i. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr Cyp 
vg arm : /?aXw N c 025. 046. 325. 456. 468*. 632. 2020. 2050 Or 8 
gig bo eth : KaXa> N* \ K\IVV]V\ ^>vXaK^i/ A : Ka/xtvov arm 1 - 2 - 3 a : 
luctum <:<?^. /. Pr : "pains of a couch "arm 4 \ poLxevo-avrao- 61. 
69 Pr Cyp \ per avryo-] avryv 2050 \ /xcyaX. >arm 3 : maximam Pr 
Cyp Vg arm a \ /jLeravo-rja-ovcrLV A$ : /xcTaro^crcocrtv C 025. 046. 21 
( 2050) al pl Or 8 : /xcravoryorei 2050 : ^ravorja-rj 469 Pr Cyp bo 
sa eth \ CK. r. py. avr. >bo sa \ avrrjcr t<C 025. 046. 21 (- 35*. 
205. 468. 632) al mu Or 8 Pr Cyp gig vg s 2 arm 4 eth : avrwv A i. 
(35*). 6i. m s 181. 205. 468. 632. 2019. 2023*. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2067 vg d - v s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 3 a \. 

23. Kai 1 > A 620 arm 1 bo sa \ avr^cr] avrtuv 205. 209 
arm 2**. 3a I F J 0)(r 468* I flay.] ^/xw 2019 | epawwv AC : cpewcoi/ 
N 025. 046 min omn^ 11 : scrutator Cyp Pr | i/e<. K. /capS.] /cap8. K. 
ve<. arm 1 - ( 2 > 3 - 4 bo eth : renis et cordis Pr | KupSiav s 1 (arm 2 ) | 
a7roSo)o-(o 2050 | u/xtv>arm 1<2 - 8 bo | Kara ^> arm 1 - 2 - 3 | ra epya] 
epya C : rrjv KapStaj/ 2050 | VJJUDV AN C C 025. 21 ( 2O2O. 2050) 
Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 arm 4 eth : avrov 046. 2020. 2050 vg c - d arm 1 - 2 - s bo 
sa : avTd>v arm a : > N* |. 

24. Se>468 S 1 | rottr XOITT.] TOKT tv XOITTOICT X* J roicr 1 > 

82 94. 2O4I | TOIO- V TOICT VUT. XotTTOKT 2O5O | TOl(T V UttT.] 

rtov uarcpauov arm 1 2 3 | rota 2 > 205 arm 4 | varetpoio- X* etc - c 
21 ( 149. 620. 632. 2050) : uanpour AC : ua/nypour 025. 
620. 632. 2050 : uarr/pioio- 149 : vaTr)paicr 046 : varetpata- 
6 1. 69 : vaTiprj K c : Thyatirae vg : Tyatirae Pr : Tyatire gig | 

0(TOl] OTt 205 I 00-TlOT gig I OVK 1 >N* I X OVO " tV ] X t g g : /Att^T 

arm 1 2 * 3 | otrtvccr OVK] ouSe Tyc | ovK 2 >arm 1 | eyvwcrav] eyvcore 
Tyc arm 3 * | (3a6ca AC 046. 21 (-205. 2050). 250. 2067 
al mu : fiaOr] K 025. i. 205. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050 : 
(TO) ftaOoa- bo : altitudinem Tyc Pr : altitudines gig vg | wo- 
Xey. >arm 4 | wo-] a arm 1 2 8 " | /3a\Xw AC 025. 21 (-337. 632. 
2050) al mu Tyc gig arm 4 : /?aXco K 046. i. 61. 69. 177. 337. 632. 
1957. 2023. 2050 Or 8 Pr vg arm 1 - 2 - 3 * bo eth |. 

25. -n-Xrjv o] o ovv s 1 : " more than what " arm 1 - 2 - 3 | 
"and is with you" arm 1 - 2 - 8 | a^pt NC 69. 177. 2087 : 



II. 26-111. 1.] AIIOKAAym IOANNOY 253 

26. Kat 6 viKtov Kai 6 rqpwv a^pt rc Aovs TO. epya /xov, 
Swaco avTui e^ovcriav eVt TOJV 

27. Kat TToifj.avfl avroi/5 ev 

U)S TO. OTKfVrj TO. KCpa/H 

<I)S Kayu> iA?7<a Trapa TOV Trarpos /x.ov, 

28. Kat Sdj<ra> avTai TOV dcrrepa TOK 

29. *O rj(0)v ovs d/covcraTO) 
Tt TO Trvev/xa Aeyet rats 



025. 046. 21 al pl : ov >205o : ewer A 241 | av r/|a> ANC 025. 35. 
205. 468. 620. 632. 2020. 2050 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 bo : ai/oia> 
046. 18. 175. 325. 337. 386. 456. 617. 919. 920. 1849. 1934. 
2004. 2040 al pl |. 

26. Kai 1 >io4 < 336. 522. 620. 628. 2020 arm 1 - 2 - 3 | o 2 > 
2020 | r^pwv] /cparwv 468* | a^t reX. > s 1 | ra epya //ov a^pct 

TCAOUO- 2050 eth I ^. 7Tt T. ^/.] 7Tt > S* I Ta ^l/r/ TyC |. 

27. K. irotfx.] Trot/xatvetf (1854) S 1 : et reget gig vg : K. 7roi/xa- 
vovo-iv arm 1 - 2 - 3 | avrovcrj aurov arm 2 | <ri8r/pa] + /cat (rvvrpL^ei 
avTova- 2050 : +Kat Tyc arm 1 - 2 | oxr cr/cevocr /cepa/xt/cov arm 2 * bo | 
o-wrpt/Jerai AsC i. 104. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2050 al p . Possibly 
a slip of the author for a-wTpiftovraL or rather crwrpt/J^crovTat : 
<7WTpi/fycreTai 025. 046. 21 ( - 2020. 2050) al mu Or 8 : confrin- 
gentur Pr vg (s 2 ) : comminuentur Tyc : o-wTpt^ere s 1 (an itacism 
for erwrpti/ eTai) : confringet eas (placed before wo- 1 ) gig : 
(rvvrpti/^et (-oucriv arm 1 - 2 - 3 ) avrovcr (avrov arm 2 ) arm bo eth | oxr 2 ] 
OVTWCT- yap S 1 | Kaycu] ya> arm 1 - 2 - 3 a |. 

28. auTw] avToto- arm 2 - 4 j Trpwtvov ^C 025 al omn fere : irpowov 
A 046. 2038 |. 

29. v. 29 > Pr | ovo-] cora s 1 - 2 : +aKovetv bo eth : aures 
audiendi arm 1 * 8 * 4 | 7r^cv/xa] + aytov arm 1 3 eth j. 



CHAPTER III. 

I. Kat T<3 dyyeXw TW Iv ^apSetrtv KK\r](rfa<; ypai/^ov 
TaSe Xeyet 6 I^GJV TO. CTTTOI Tri/et /xara TOV ^cou 
Kat TOVS CTTTa darepas, 
OtSd o-ou TOL Ipya, 

OTt OVOfJM X tS Tt ^ S K * 



1. icai 1 > Pr | TOO ayy.] TOUT ayyeXoto* arm 1 - 2 - 3 - | TOJ cv 2. 
CKK.]. See note on 2 1 . ecclesiae qui est Sardis Pr : ro> cv rrj <K- 
K\r](j-ia. iSapSeooi/ S 1 : TO> ev 2ap8. S 2 : TO cv (rato-) 2ap87y(ria KK\r]ar Later 
arm 4 : T>;O- cv 2. CKK. AN 025. 046 min omn Or 8 : ecclesiae Sardis 
(Sard. eccl. gig) gig vg bo eth : T^O- 2apStKo>i/ (SapSatcuv 2. a) 
KK\. arm 1 - 2 - 3 * : TO- ev 2ap8. tKKA^crtaio- C | 7rra > 1 8 1. 



254 



AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY 



[m. 2-3. 



2. ytVou yp?7yopa>i/, Kai (TT-qpLcrov TO. XotTra a e/neXXov oa 
r& tpya ov yap evprjicdi <rov r cpya^ 7T7rX7/po)/xeva CVWTTIOV TOV 0oi) /xov. 



** b 



ovv TTW? etX?7c/>as xai ry 
/cat TT^pet /cat fjLTavor]o~ov. 



Xvi. 15. iSov epxo/xat a>s 

/xaKaptos 6 ypTiyopaiv /cat rr;pa>v TO, i/AaVta avrou, 

tva /AT) yvfjivos TrcptTrary, 

/cat /3\7r<t)(rLV rrjv acr^rjjJioarvvTfjv avrov. 



2015 | TOV 0eo7;>386 | cpya] + at Pr s 1 | ovo/xa] -f "of the 
health" bo | ort 770- AtfC 025. 35. 205. 250. 620. 2020. 
2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al mu Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s 2 arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 
bo : /cat ;cr 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 632. 2O2O. 2050) al p : 
/cat ort 770- 632 s 1 : WVTOO- arm" | /cat 8 ] + <m s 1 |. 

2. yi^ou] Kat yti/ov S 1 : ycvou 1854 | yp>7yop.] yp7;yop(ov X* : 
vigilans et stabilis Pr | oriypto-ov AC 025. 35. 175. 337. 468**. 
617. 919. 920. 1849. J 934- 2004. 2020. 2040 al Or 8 : <m7piov x 
046. i. 18. 205. 250. 632. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al Tyc Pr 
gig vg s 1 bo eth : cm/pt^wv 620 : rrjprja-ov 42. 141. 201. 325. 
385. 386. 429. 456. 468*. 522. 2015. 2019. 2036 S 2 : TrXrjptixrov 
arm 1 2 - 3 | ra A.oi7ra > Tyc eth : TOVOT XOLTTOVO- (ot) s 2 | a] ot s 2 : 
on arm a : ct Se /XT;? bo | e/xcXXov AsC 025. 172. 181. 250. 424. 
468. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or 8 
Tyc Pr gig vg s 2 arm 4 : e(or i/J/teAAev i. m s 104. 336. 620 : 
i7(or e)yu,AA.e<r 046. 21 ( 468. 620. 2O2O. 2050). 93. 201. 498 al 
S 1 : /teXXeto- arm a bo | a.7ro6aveiv ANC 025. l. m s 620. 919*. 2020. 
2050 al mu Or 8 (a7ro6vr)crKiv 468. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037) Tyc 
Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 arm 4a bo : a7ro/2aAAeti/ 046. 21 (-35. 468. 
620. 919*. 2O2O. 2050) : aTTO^SaXctv 35. 1957. 2023 | evprjKoi] 
vpr)Kav 046 : invenio vg : +<rc ort S 1 | TreTrXrjp. T. cpy. crov 141 
S 1 | epya AC I. mg : ra cpya X 025. 046. 21 al pl Or 8 | TreTrXry- 
po))U,6i/a>>20l. 386 | eva>7rtoi/] + /cvptov35. 205 | /xov> I. 205. 2038. 
2067 al p Pr s 1 arm 1 - 3a |. 



3 



a - b 



pr 



eth | ovv > X 69 Pr gig s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 



eth | ifjK. K. etX?7c/>a(r 2050 s 1 | K. i)Kovcr. K. rr/pct X 025. I. 35. 
104. 172. 250. 468. 620. 1957. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2050. 
2067 gig Vg S 2 arm 2 - 4 bo : K. rjKovo-acr rrjpei S 1 : r]Kov<ra<r rrjpti. 
arm a : et audita custodi Pr : >046. 21 ( 35. 468. 620. 2020. 
2050) al mn | Kai T77pt>arm s eth |. 

xvi. 15. t8ou] ocr Pr arm 8 | cp^o/xat] epxTat N* (sed corr. 
prim, man.) 241. 2020 Pr s 1 arm 3 : -H |at</>v7;s eth | KX7rr7/cr] + 
ra^v 2019 : +Kat 205 | o] ore N* | TT^pcov] TI/MOV 1849 | Trept- 
Traret 104. 522. 2015 : TrcpnraTqcny 2O2O : weptTraTiycrei 2019 | 
/3Xe7Tovcri i. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2038 : videat Pr | /?Xc7r. T, 
avr.] " their shame appear " arm 1 - 2 - 3 a |. 



III. 3-6.] AIIOKAAYvI/12 IOANNOY 255 



3. eav ovv /AT) 

lja> 0)5 /cXe 

/cat ov /AT) f 

wpav rjw CTTI 



4. dXXa ^cts oXtya ovo/iara ev 
a ov/c ettoXwav TO, t/AaYta 

/cat 7T6pi7raT^(rov<7iv /ACT* C/AOV cv XVKOIS, 
oVt atot etcrtv. 

5. *O vt/ctov ovrtos 7repi/?aXetTat ep i/xartots Xcv/cots, 

/cat ou /AT) eaXeii/fa> TO ovo/Aa avrov e* TT;S J3ij3\ov TTJ<S 
KCU 6/AoXoyr;cra) TO oi/o/xa avTOV evcoTrior TOI) TraTpos /xov 
/cai evaWiov TWV dyyeXwv avrov. 



3 C . oui>>620 | ypr/yop. AN C etc. : yprjyoprjo-fLcr 104. 620 : 
jo-rjo- N* Pr : p.eravof]cnf](T /xr;8e (/cat bo) ypr)yopi<ricr 2050 bo 
i/lo) 1 ] pr. veniam et subitabo adventum meum ad te Pr | r/^w 
AC 025. i. 35*. 181. 468**. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2067 vg c - d - f -e 
arm" bo : + ?rt o-e N 046. 21 (-35*. 468**) al gig vg a - v 
s 1 - 2 arm 4 eth | yvwcr AC 025. i. 35. 175. 205.468**. 617. 1934. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al : yvoxn? N 046. 21 (-35. 175. 205. 468**. 
617. 620. 1934. 2050) Or 8 : yvwo-et 104. 620. 459. 2050 : nescies 
gig vg : non scies Pr | Trotav <op. iy] "my coming" arm a | Trotav 
copav] ocav wpav (N*) : Trota wpa 181. 367. 632. 2050 |. 

4. aXXa AxC 69. 468. 2020 Or 8 : aXX 025. 046 min pi : > 
35*. 205 arm a | exeta] e^w s 1 arm 4 bo | c^. oX. OVO/A. AtfC 025. 
i. 35. 205. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2050 al Or 8 (Pr) vg s 1 - 2 
eth : ex-ov. oX. gig : oXty. e^ OVO/A. 046. 21 (-35. 175. 205. 2020. 
2050) al : oXty. OVO/A. %- 6l. 69. 175. 314. 522. 2016 : +/cat i | 
a AttC 025. 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468. 2020) al Or 8 gig : ot 
I - 35- 20 5- 20 9- 43 2 - 4^8. 2015. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 
Pr Vg : at 522 | TO t/AttTioi/ Pr | avr.] eavTtov C : +/xtTa ywatKoo- 
bo eth I 7rept7raT7yo".J TrcpLTrarrjarov A. : Trepnra.TOvo iv 620. 2050 
V g. f. r s i arm a . ambulaverunt Pr vg d arm 2 | /ACT e/Aov>arm 4 * 
: ei/toTTtov fjiov s 1 j OTI] /cat s 1 | ort . . . to-tv] eth om. here and 
trans, after Xev/coto- in ver. 5 | o-tv] + /cat avaTravcriv OVK c^ovcny 
. . . K. o epxopfvocr (from 4 8 ) 35* |. 

5. OUTWCT As*C 1 8. 35. 456. 920. 1849. 2004 al Or 8 Pr gig 
vg s 1 - 2 arm 4a bo : ovrw 325 : ovroo- N c 025. 046. 21 (-18. 
35- 3 2 5- 456. 920. 1849. 2004. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 : 
airroo- 2050 : OVTOOT OVTWO^ 467 | TreptySaX.] Trept^aXXtTat C S 1 2 : 
TTpif3fft\r)TaL 2050 : 7Tpt/?aXovatv avTOV ? bo : >eth j e^aXeti/ w] 
aTraXeti/ O) 2020 : c^aXeti/ ovo-tv bo sa | TO OVO/A. avr. . . . o/ioXoy7/o"ti) 
>i. 2015 I avrov 1 - 2 -] avrwv s 2 arm bo | K T. /3i/3\.] w ^iy3Xw 

2O4O J T. (0770-] TOH> ^WVTWV 92O. 2O4O | TO OV. aVT. 2 ] O.VTOV gig j 

fji7rpoo-(JV # | K. evwiT. T. ayy. CIVT. > 325. 456 . 



256 AHOKAAY^IS IQANNOY [III. 6-7. 



6. O ^o>v ov<s 

Tt TO Trvf-vfJLa Xeyet rats e 



7. Kat TW dyyeXa) TO> eV <E>iXa8eX<ta eKKX^o-tas ypai^ov 
TaSe Xeyet 6 aytos, 6 aX^ivcs, 
6 l^cov T^V KXetv Aaveto, 
6 avotywv Kat ovSeis /cXet crei 
Kat KXetoov Kat ovSets dVotyei, 

6. v. 6 > Pr | ovo-] cora s 1 - 2 : + aKovetv bo eth : aures 
audiendi arm 1 - 3 - 4 | iri/ev/xa] + aytov arm 1 - 2 eth . 

7. Kat 1 >Pr | TW ayy.] rotcr ayyeXoto- arm 1 TO> ev <$iX. eKKX.] 
See note on 2 1 : ecclesiae qui est Filadelphiae Pr : TCD ev <J>iXa- 
SeX<jf>ta arm 4 : riycr ev 4>tX. CKKX. all Greek MSS Or s : Philadelphiae 
ecclesiae (gig) vg s 1 bo : rryo- ^tXaScX^xov (-<^)i(ov 3) KKX^orta(r 
arm l. 2. 3a| $tAa8eX(/)ta ^C 025. 046. 205. 325. 386. 456. 
919. 920. 1849. 1934. 2004 al mu : <l>iXaSeX<iaor A 620. 2050 : 
^tXaSeX^eta 18. 35. 175. 337. 468. 617. 632. 2O2O. 2040 al mu | 
eKK\r)<na.Lcr X | Xcyet] + Kvpioo" 172. 2Ol8 | o aytotr o a\r)0. C 
025. 046. 21 (-2050). 2037. 2038. 2067 aP 1 Or pha36 s 1 - 2 
arm 4a bo eth : o aytoo- at aX^^. 172. 2018 : sanctus et verus 
Tyc Pr gig vg arm 1 - 2 - 3 : o aX^^. o aytoo- AN : o aX^tf. >2O5<D : o 
ayyeXoo- aX^^tvocr Or 8 | o 3 >337 | T^v>X* | KXetv A^C 025. 046. 
21 (-35. 205. 468**. 617. 620. 2050). 250 a l mu Or phi1 - 46 Or 8 : 
KXetSa i. 35. 69. 172. 205. 468**. 617. 620. 2015. 2019. 2036. 

2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or phiL3<5 : ( + omnes eth) claves Pr s 1 
arm eth | AdS A 2020 : TOV AdS (AalS 632) N 21 (-620. 2020. 
2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl : TOV OIKOV (from Is. 22 22 ) 
TOV AavetS bo eth : TOV aSov 104*. 218. 336. 459. 620. 2050 
arm 1 - 2 - 3 | o avotywv] Kat avvywv X | Kat 2 >bo | KXeto-ct A^C 025. 
046. 21 ( - 205. 620. 632*) al pl Qr phlL46 Or 8 arm 4 bo : KXeun? 104. 
385 : KXetet i. 6i. mg 205. 314. 632*. 2016. 2019. 2023. 2037. 

2038. 2067 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 : KXciooy 2015. 2036 (arm*) | 
KXet. (sine add) AtfC 025. (35*). 205. 468**. 632*. 2020. 2050 
al Q r Phii. 3 6,ps.xi.373 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 arm 4a bo : +avT77v 046. 
21 (-35*. 205. 468**. 632*. 2020. 2050) al mu Or 8 arm 1 - 2 - 3 
| Kat (>A : +o 2015. 2036) KXeuov AN 025. I. (35*). 172. 205. 
250. 314. 468. (2015). 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. (2036). 2037. 
2038. 2050. 2067 Or phil - 46 Or 8 (s 1 - 2 ) (bo) : Kat KX C 6i. m * 
2016 al gig arm 4 * : et qui claudit Pr arm 2 - 8 - : KXetet Tyc vg 
: t fir) o avotywv ( + Kat ovSeto- avotet Or 8 ) 046. 21 ( 35*. 205. 
468. 620. 2O2O. 2050) al Or 8 : et /Ary o afoiycov Kat KXetwv 42. 
104. 432. 459. 620 | Kat 4 ] quod Pr | avotyet AC 025. 6i. mg 205. 
2019. 2037. 2038. 2067 Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 arm 4 : avotyon/ 
468 (arm a ) : avotet (-vei N) N 046. 21 (-205. 468. 620). 
250 al mu Or PhlL46 : avot^ 104. 385. 620 |. 



III. 8-10.] AnOKAAY^IS in ANNOY 

8. OTSa crov TO. epya 

tSov SeSouKa ei/wTrtoV o-ov Ovpav 
^v ouSeis SvVaTat AcAetcrai 



Kat eTr/pryo-as p:ov TOV Aoyoi/, 
Kat OVK typ 1/770-0) TO oVo/u,a 

9. tSov StSo) CK 1-775 truvaywy^s TOV 2arai/a, 

TWIT Aeyoi/rtov eavrovs lovSat ovs eii/at Kat OVK to-tv 
dAAa {e 



TrOlT^TO) aVTOVS tVtt 

Kat irpocrKwrjcrovcTiv CI/WTTIOV TOJI/ TroSwr 
/cat yvaio-tv on eyw ^yaTrrja-d ere. 

I O. ort eriyp^o-a? TOV Aoyov rr/s VT 

Kaytu o- Trjp-qcra) CK T^S (Spas TOV Tretpaoy/ov 
T^s /xeXXovonys cpx^o-^at eVt riy? ot/cov/xevr/s 0X175, 

7Ttpaorat T6VS KaTOlKOWTaS CTTt T^9 y^S. 

8. 018. or. T. cpy. >Pr I T. epy. o-ov X s 2 | cpya] + Kat rrjv TTLCTTLV 
(rov bo : +/cat s lt2 eth | ^vp. CVCOTT. crow ai/ewy/x. 920. 2040 I 
av(oy/x. AC 046. 21 (-205. 2O2O. 2050) al Or 8 : ^i/ewy^. K 025. 
172. 205. 2016. 2018. 2020. 2050 | rjv] Acat I. 6l. in & 2037. 
2067 eth : >bo : on arm 2 | avTr)v>K (35*) 2023. 20 3 8 Pr gig 
vg arm 4 " | oTt] + ov 2020. 2036. 2037 | ^i Kp . . . . Sw.] pusillas 
. . . vires Pr f exo-] X i I. 1957. 2037 | T. Aoy.] T a epya 920. 
2040 : TOVO- Aoyovo- arm 2 3 a |. 

9. i8ou] /cat tSou s 1 | StSco AC : SeSoo/ra X : Sio\o/u 025. 046. 21 
(-205. 620. 2050) al pl Or 8 gig : 3tS<o poi 205 : StSo/u 620. 
2050 : Swo-o) Pr Vg bo eth | ^arava] + K Pr S 1 - 2 | Twi/ Aey.] 
TOVO- Acyoi/Tao- bo | aXXa>eth | tSov 2 ] Kat I. 181. 2023. 2037. 

2038. 2067 I ^OVO-tV AC 025. 69. 82. 201. 2l8. 314. 386. 

632. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2050 arm : ^oxrii/ 046. 
21 (-386. 632. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 almu Or 8 : 
77&D i | iSov . . . ^ovo-tv > eth | Kat 2 ] + TTotTyo-w avTovo- o>a bo | 

TTpOO-KWIJO-OWlK ANC 025. I. 42. 82. 149. 201. 20l6. 2036. 2050 

arm : Trpoo-Kvviyo-wo-tv 046. 21 (-149. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 a l Or 8 : +o- (o-oi) Kat Treo-owTat bo | 77^. O/WTT. T. TroS. 
o-ov K. -n-poo-Kw. Pr | Kat 3 ] + TravTfo- bo | yvcuertv AC 025. 046. 21 
(-2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 gig S 2 arm 3 *** : yvoxrojrat 2019. 
2050. 2087 vg s lvid : yvoxrwvTai 2023 : yvwo-?; N 69 Pr arm 4 
: yvwcret Or 8 | cyw AC 025. 205. 250. 468. 620. 2020. 2037. 
2038. 2050. 2067 Or 8 gig vg s 1 - 2 bo eth : >046. 21 (-205. 
468. 620. 2020. 2050) al mu Pr | rjyaTrio-a 149. 2040 | oV] 
ttt 2O2O |. 

10. on] Kat A arm 4 a | TOV Aoyov /MOV Kat r-rjv vTroyu,. bo eth | 
VOL. II. 17 



25 8 AIIOKAAY*IS 10 ANNOY [III. 11-14. 



ii. f 

Iva tirjSets Xa/fy rov arT<j>av6v 
1 2. "O VIK&V Trotr/o-u) avrov orrvXov ev TO) vaw TOV 0eov /xov, 

Kat e|a> ov /XT) cc\0r) tri, 

Kttt ypctya) 67T* O.VTOV TO OVOjUa TOV 0COV /XOV, 
Kttt TO OVO/Xa T??S TToXeiOS TOV $OV /XOV, 

r}s KCUVTJS IepovoraXrj/x, ^ Kara flaw owa e/c TOV ovpavov DITTO 

TOV 0OV /XOV, 

Kai TO ovofjid fjiov TO Kaivov. 

1^. *O ^(OV OVS (XKOVO-aTW 

Tt TO 7TVV/Xtt Xtjtl TtttS eKKX^Q-tai?. 

14. Kat TO> dyyeXw TW ei/ AaoStKia e/CKXr/o-tas 
TaSc Xe t 



6 /xapTvs 6 TTto-Tos /cat 
5 KTto-cws TOV 



K ayw] Kai Sia TOVTO Kayw eth | T^crw > X : fryprjcra arm 2 eth | 
ri?o- wpao- T. 7Ttpao-/x. Tr?o- >2050 : T^Q- wpao->S 1 bo | 7retpao-at] + 
TravTao- arm 1 2> 3 a bo | KaToiKOWTao- > bo |. 

11. epxO iSov p X o/x,at 468**. 2015. 2019. 2036 al vg d - J v arm 1 
; /cat iSov cpx- eth | pySeio- \a/3vf] M Xaftr) Tto- Ta X v 104. 336. 
459. 620 | /x^Sao-] (ne) quis alius Pr : (ne) alius Cyp | Xa^] 
Xa/3ot 2050 (arm 12 - 3 - 4 ) | o-ov] +icat s 1 arm 1 eth |. 

12. o j tKuv] TOV vt/cwvTa arm a | avTOv] avTco S* 920 Or 8 I ei/ 
>X* arm | T. vao>] T<O ovo/xart 920. 2040 /xov 1 > 385. 2019 
Or 8 s 1 | Kat u> . . . rqo- TroXecuo- TOV 0eov tiov >2O5o | Tt >N 
arm 2 | CTT avrov > C 2015 : CTT avTw 61*. 2019. 2036. 2037 : 
super illud Tyc : +TO ovo/xa /xov Kat 2020 | T. ^. /x. K. TO oi/o/x. 
>046 | K. T. ov. rrjcr TTO\. r. Qeov yutov > I. 181 S 2 : Kat 8wcrw 
avTOto- TOV OIKOV /xov arm 1 | TOV 0eov ynov 3 > s 1 eth : TOV irarpoa- 
/xov bo | T^O- Kdwrjo- TToXecoo- TOV TraTpoo- /xov bo | T; KaTtt/fotvovo-a 
AS*C 025. I. 141. 181. 205. 432. 459. 1854. 2015. 2050. 2087 : 
rj KaTa/?i/vovo-a025 : T^cr KarapaLVOva-rjo- X c : f] Kara^atvet 046. 21 
(-205. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 Or 8 | ex. T. ovp. > s 1 
arm 1 sa | CK AC 025. 046. i. 35. 205. 325. 337. 45 6 - 468. 2020. 
2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al Tyc Pr gig vg bo : a 18. 175. 
386. 617. 620. 632. 919. 920. 1849. 1934- 2004. 2040 al | Tov 4 
> 632 | aTro > 386. 620 arm 2 - 3 - 4 " | /xov 5 AC 025. 35. 205. 
468. 632. 2050 al Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 arm 3 - 4 bo : >o^6 
21 (-35. 205. 468. 620. 632. 2050) al mu arm 2 : avTov arm 3 ** a | 

KttlVOv] +Kttt S 1 |. 

13. v. 13 > Pr ovo-] amis 1 - 2 : +aKoveti> bo eth : aures 
audiendi arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 Tt TO irv. . . . eKKXr/o-tatcr > arm 4 | iri/ev/xa] 
+ aytov arm 1 - 2 eth |. 

14. TW ayy-] TOKT ayyeXoto- arm 1 - 2 | TOO cv AaoS. KK.] See 
note on 2 1 . TO> / AaoS. / CKK. arm 4 : T>?O- ei/ AaoS. CKK. 



HI. 15-17.] AIIOKAAY^a IOANNOY 259 

15. OtSa <rov TO. epya, 

OTI OVTC i/ vj^pos et cure 
oe^eAov if/v X pos rj<s rj ecrros. 

1 6. ovrws, OTI X \iapo<s * 

/Cat OVT ""J/^XPOS OV/ re ^0-To 

ytxeAAto ere e/xeo*at e/c TOV crTOytxaro? uou. otfre 

17. 6Vt Ae yets OTI IIAovcrtos et/zt X^ J 
/cat 7re7rAouT?7/ca /cat ovSei> ^petav cp((o, 

kat ov/c otSas 6Vt crv et 6 TaAatVcopos /cat 6 eAetvos 
/cat TTTW^OS /cat rucpAos /cat yu/zvos, 

025. 046 min fere omn : rrja- ev AaoS. (AaoSt/cetao- 919) 919. 920. 
2040 : r-rj ei/ AaoS. cK/cArya-taor 18 : Laodiciae ecclesiae gig vg : 
ecclesiae Laudatiae Pr : rrja- KK\r)<ria<r AaoSt/cetao- (-/ctaa 
bo) s 1 arm a bo : T>;O- e/c/cA^crtao- AaoSt/cewv i arm 2 - 3 | AaoSt/cta 
AsC 104. 149. 201. 620 : AawSt/cta 2050 : AaoSt/ceta 025. 
046. 21 ( - 149. 620. 2050) : Laudatiae Pr : Lavodike 
arm 4 o a/x^i/] + /cat K* | /cat 2 A 025. 046. 21 (-620. 2050). 
250. 2038. 2067 s 2 arm : o 69. 104. 459. 620. 2015. 2036^ 
2037. 2050 : Kat o NC 82 bo | aA^tvoo-j + Kat tf s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 
6th | rj apxn] a.7rap X r) 2015. 2036. 2037 : O.TT ap X r)(r arm 4 : 
+ T7?cr apxw arm a : o cnr ap X r)(r eth | TTJO- KTMT.] rrjo- K K Xrja-ia(r 
^ ".rrja- KTvyo-ewo- 1849 : T W TrtcrTeojo- 201. 386 I TOV ^eovl + aou 

gigl- 

15. on > s 1 I O-TOO- . . . if/vxpoa- 205. 209 arm 1 - 2 - 3 
et >N* | oc/>eAoj/ j^vx/o. ??o- T; ^eo-roa- >A i. 241 arm 1 - 2 - 3 | o<fxXo 
wc/>eAo^ 025. 046. 205. 522 : +77 s 1 | v)<r] cur 046. 336. 620. 
2017 |. 

16. OUTWO- . . . vj/uxpoo- >arm 2 | OVTWCT ort] on OVTWCT N bo : 
ort 1854. 2019 : sed quia (quoniam Pr) Pr gig vg : /cat s 1 | ij/v x p. 
ovre ^eo-r. A 025. 205. (2050) al vg s 1 : &O-TOO- OVTC if/v X poo- (N)C 
046. 21 ( - 205. 2050). i al mu s 2 arm 3 bo : K. ovre ^ccrroo- ovre 
ifaxp. >6o Pr gig arm 1 - 2 - 4 - | /cat OVTC . . . o-ro^aroo- /xov>eth | 
ovre 1 AxC 025. 046. 205. 617. 632. 2020. 2050 vg arm 3 : ov 
21 (-205. 617. 632. 2020. 2050) al Or 8 (s 1 - 2 ) | &CTTOO-] + et 
N c | i/Avxpocr] +et N^ 2050 | /xeAAw ere e/xecrat e/c T. crro/x. /xovj 
n-aucre TOV crro^aroo- crov N* | e/xea-at] e/x/xecrat 046. 617. 919. 
X 934 : /xtv N c : at/xecrat 2050 : "judge" arm 1 - 2 - 3 : +/cai 
eAeyxw (re 250. 2O2O | TOV Q-TO/X.] T^cr /capStacr bo | /xov] o-ov N* 
arm 1 - 2 - 3 |. 

17. on] Tt 18 : Kat eth | em 2 AC i. 35*. 172. 175. 205. 242. 
2 5- 3M- 617. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2020. 2036. 2037. 
2040. 2050 al gig vg s 1 - 2 bo : >K 025. 046. 21 (-35*. 175. 
205. 617. 1934. 2020. 2040. 2050). 2038. 2067 al Or 8 Cyp | 
et/xt] et s 1 | /c. 7re7rAovT>bo sa | ovStv AC 1 8 1. 2038 : ovSevoo- K 
025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2067 Or 8 | e^co] c X i<r 620 | <rv>N* | 



260 AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY [ill. 18-19. 



1 8. crvfA/SovXevd) croi dyopacrat Trap* e//,ov xP vo " t/OJ/ 7T7rvpo)/xevov 

CK Trvpos ?va TrXovriycrr/s, 
Kal tytdVia XCVKO, tva 7rpij3dXr) 
/cat /AT/ <f>avpa)@fj Y) al<rxvvrj TIJS yv/AVOTTjros <rov, 
Kai KoXXovpiov eyxpto"ai TOVS 6<jf>0aXtiotJS <rov tva 
19. eyu) oorovs eav </>iXui eXeyx<> Kai iratSevw* 
ovv Kat jueravor/orov. 



o 1 > K* 2019. 2050 | raX. K* 2050 | o roA. . . . eXeivoo-] 
"weak and miserable " bo : eXavoo- > eth | o 2 A 046. 21 (-18. 
205. 632. 920. 2004. 2040. 2050). 250 al Or 8 : > NC 025. 
i. 18. 61. 69. 205. 241. 632. 920. 2004. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2039. 2040. 2050 | eXeivoo- AC 104. 620 : eXeeivoo- X 025. 
046. 21 (-620) al pl : aXrjOwoa- 1854 | *c. yv/xvoo* K. rv^Xocr 104. 
no. 336. 620. 632. 2050 gig arm 4 - * eth | K. rv<X. > s 1 |. 

18. aujxj3.] o-v/x^ovXeuo-w 2015 arm 2 ^ 1 8 )-" : console Tyc | oroi] 
4-ovv 2020 arm* bo eth : +Xa^c arm 1 * 2 - 8 -" | ayopacrai] ayo- 
pacrov 2020 (Tyc) arm 1 - 2> 3 - : XaySetv eth | rrap ejjiov >I72. 250. 
424. 498. 2016. 2018. 2038 | Trap e/A. XP vcr - A^C 025. I. 35. 
205. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2050. 2067 al Or 8 Tyc 
Cyp gig vg S L 2 arm : x/ "- ^ap C/A. 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2050) 
al bo sa : +C/AOI/ eth | K Trvpoo-J ev Trvpi bo eth : CK Trvpacr 
046 I TrXovTrja-fio- 620. 2050 | t/xaTiov Xev/cov Pr Cyp | Xevxa] 
Xa/A7rpa bo : TLfjaa arm 1 | tva 7repi/3aX.] Trepi^aXecr^ai s 1 * 2 | tva 2 
>Pr gig vg bo eth | Trept^aXX^ 046. 61. 69. 172. 205. 617. 
1934. 2015. 2036*. 2037 : 7rpi/3aXei 104. 2050 | ^>avepw^7;] 
<j>avr) 69 Or 8 : +ev crot Pr | ato-x^^] ao-x^ocrwry 025. 35*. 104. 
205. 620. 2019 | KoXXovpiov A 025. 35. 6l. m & 205. 522. 632. 920. 
1849. 1957. 2004. 2019. 2023. 2038. 2040. 2050 al Or 8 : KOV\- 
Xovpiov I. 18. 919. 2037 : KouXovptov 385. 2015. 2036 : KoXXvpuov 
NC 175- 250. 325. 337. 386. 456. 468. 617. 620. 1934. 2020. 
2067 al : /coXvptov 046 : collirio Pr gig : colly rio Tyc Cyp vg | 
eyxpto-at (evx- K 2050 : e^ 620) A^C 94. (104). 336. 459. 468**. 
620. (2015). 2019. 2037. 2050 : lyxpwrat 104. 2015. s 1 - 2 : 
cyXpio-ov 025. I. 35. 6i. mg 1854. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2041. 
2067 eth : inunge Tyc gig vg : ungue Pr Cyp : "give to " bo : 
" lay " arm 2 - 3> a : eyxptary 2020 : /a eyxpra 046 : u/a eyxpun; 
21 ( 35. 205. 468**. 620. 2020. 2050) Or 8 : iva eyxpio^cr 205 : 
+ 7Ti 60. 432. 1957. 2041 arm | T. o<0. o-ov >S 1 | /SXeTreto- 104. 
2050 : /?Xe^icr 620 arm 4 |. 

19. yw] ort eyw arm 1 * 8 bo sa | eav] av X 2019. 2050 | ^Xeve 
AC 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468**. 617. 620. 2020). 250 al mu : 
fyXov 314. 617. 2016 : ^Xoxrov K 025. i. 35. 205. 468**. 620. 
2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al : ^fjrrf<Tov 1957 : rede Pr | ow >io4. 
181. 336. 620. 2015 arm 1 - 2 8 | Kat 2 >arm 2 | K. ^eravorjcror] er 

eth . 



III. 20-IV. 1.] AIIOKAAY*I2 IflANNOY 261 



20. iSov IcTTT/Ka 7Tt T^V OvpOLV Kttt KpOVlii 

fdv TIS aKovo-g TTJ<S $(01/77$ /xov *ai avoi^y TT)V Ovpav, 
Kat etcreAeuo-o/xat TT/JOS aurov Kat SetTr^crw yuer" avrov 
Kat auros /ACT* e/xov. 

21. 6 j/tKuV Scoo-to avrw Katftcrai /ACT e/xov eV TW Opovu /xov, 

ws Kayo) eVtK?7o-a KOL eKatftcra /xera TOV iraTpo s /xou eV TOJ 
Opovui avrou. 

22. O l^toi/ ovs d/coucraTO) 

Tt TO 7rvVyu-a Xcyet rats KK\ycriais. 



20. i8ou] + yw Or J - " 38x : on t8ov bo : /cat tSou eth | CTTI] ante Pr | 
aKova-rj] ai/ot^ct 2050 | a/covcn? . . . /AOV /cat >Or JaiL381 and else 
where | avoio> : ai/ot^et 18. 2050 s 1 : +/xot Or 10 - 11 - 381 Pr bo eth 
| /cat 8 K 046. 21 (-205. 468. 620. 632*. 2020. 2050) al mu Or 8 
Pr s 1 arm 4 : >A 025. i. 104. 205. 468. 620. 632*. 2015. 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or 10 -"- 381 gig vg s- 
arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* bo eth | -n-poa- avrov >B l I c5et7rj/7;o-a)] "will dwell" 
arm 1 : "will rest" eth | c/xov] +in trono meo Pr : +"in my 
kingdom " arm 1 - 2 - 8 |. 



21. o mKwy] pr Kat s 1 2 eth | Kayw] eyco s 1 bo eth |. 

22. v. 22 >gig | over] wra Pr s 1 - 2 : +aKoveti/ bo eth : aures 
audiendi arm 1 - 3 - 4 | Trvev/xa] + ayio^ arm 1 eth |. 



CHAPTER IV. 

I. Mera ravra elSov, Kat ISov Ovpa, ^vewyyueVr; ev rw 
Kat rj <f>wvrj f) Trpwrrj r)v rjKovaa ws craA.7rtyyos AoAovo-^s /xer e/xou, 
Xeytov Ava/?a wSe Kat Sa^co (rot a Set ycvecr^at /xerox ravra. 

1. fiera] pr /cat arm 1 - 2 - ^ a (bo) eth | Kat 1 > Pr bo sa eth | 
tSov >eth I Ovpav 620. 2050 eth | ryvewy/xevTy AX 025. I. 2016. 
2O2O. 2038. 2067 : rjvewy/jLcvrjv 2050 : ai/ewy/xei/^ 046. 21 



(-2020. 2050). 250. 2037 al Or 8 : 771/01^ arm 1 Tyc : >arm 4 
K Pr | 



Kai 2 ] +iSov K Pr | r; 1 >498. 1957. 2020 | <f>wri] + rj AoAovcra 
/xer e/tou bo | T; Trptiyrr) >S l | T;V] T^CT 205 : >eth | wcr] +<J>wrj bo 
eth | craXTrtyya Pr gig S 1 - 2 | AaAoucrT/cr] XaXova-av N Pr gig : 
\a\ova-a 522 : Xeyovcr^cr 141. 218. 1849. 1955 : eAaX^crei/ S 1 
arm 3a | Xeytov AK* 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468. 620. 632. 2020). 
250 al mu Or 8 : Aeyovcra K c 025. I. 35. 6i. m s 205. 468. 632. 
1854. 1957. 2020. 2023, 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 : Kat Aeyovcra 
/x-ot 2019 : Kat Aeyovorrycr 104. 336. 620 : /cat Aeyouo-av gig : Kat 
eAeyev s 2 eth | avaySa] avafirjOt A | trot] crc 205. 386 | a] o<ra 
A | Set] 817 2050 |. 



262 AIIOKAAY^IS lOANNOY [IV. 2-4. 



2. U#OOS ZyCVOfJLTfjV IV 

Kal LOOV OpOVOS KITO CV T<3 
Kttl CTTt TOV OpOVOV Ktt^/ACVOS, 

3. Kat 6 Ka@r]fjLvos O/AOIOS 6pa(ret Ai $a) icurTTiSt Kat 

Kat Ipis KVKAo0ev TOV Opovov ojJLOios opdcri cr/xapay8tVa). 



4. Kal KVK\o^ev TOV Opovov Opovov? eiKoo-t Tro-ap9, 
e fo 0(rt Kai, 7rt TOVS r 0poVovs eiKOcrt Tto crapas 1 

7<r<rapa.s 



2. eu0wa AN* 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 632. 2020) al Or 8 
Pr gig vg s 2 : ev#ewo- 8e S c : KCU ev^ecuo- 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 
620. 632. 1854. 2020 al s 1 arm^ 1 - 2 - 4 - a ) eth : Kat arm 3 bo | tSov] 
i8ov arm 1 * 2 - 3 : 8ov iSov bo : tSou eiSov Pr | CKCITO >2O5o bo : 
positum Pr (arm 1 - 2 - 3 ) | ev r. ovp. eKetro 468 eth ej/ r. ovp. > 
632 | TOV 0/aovoi/ AX 046. 21 (-35. 205. 632) al mu Or 8 : TOV 
flpovov 025. i. 35. 205. 632. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 |. 

3. K. o Ka6r]fiei/o<7 AX 025. 046. 42. 6l. 93. 104. 337. 452. 
468. 506. 2019. 2021. 2050 Or s Tyc gig vg s 1 - 2 : et his qui 
sedebat Pr : > 21 (-337. 468. 2050) al mu arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 bo 
eth | opaari 205 : opacrio- 2050 | Xt^w] Xi^wv 2020 arm 3 - a : \iOov 
Tyc vg s 1 - 2 : >arm 1 bo | tao-7r. K. o-ap8. XiOv Pr | iao-7rt8t] 
ao-7rt8t 920 : rjao-TTLOi 2050 : + o-fj.apa.yod) 337 : + Kat o-/xapay8o> 
046. 42. 180. 452. 468. 506. 1854. 2021 | Kat 2 >i854 arm 1 | 
o-ap8tw AN 046. 21 (-325. 337. 456. 468). 250. 2037. 2067 
al mu Or 8 : sardi Tyc : sardo Pr : o-apStvo) 025. i. 632*. 2019. 
2038 al gig bo sa eth : sardinis vg d : sardini vg : sardion s 2 
arm 2. 3. 4. . sardon s 1 : >i854 | tptcr 025. 21 al pl Or 8 Pr gig 
vg bo eth : ipeio- K c 046 : tepeto- AN* 2015. 2036 arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | 

KVK\oOtv] KVK\.0& C)2O . KVK\(l)6cV 1 8. 1 04. 2OI*. 205. 336. 62O. 

632. 2017. 2024. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2050 : KVK\<J> 241. 
2019. 2020 I Opovov] +O.VTOV 2020 : +et ipsa sedes gig | o/xotoo- 2 
A 025. i. 35*. 104. 181. 314. 429. 632*. 2019. 2036. 2037*. 
2038 Pr vg s 1 - 2 : o/xotot 2015 arm 1 - 2> 3 - a : o/^otoi/ 205 o/xoia 
35**. 241**. 468***. 620. 632**. 1957. 2016. 2023. 2037**. 
2041. 2050. 2067 : o/AOiaxr N c 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 468**. 620. 
632. 2050) al Or s | O/A. op. 07*. K. KVK. T. Op. > N* | opao-t 
o-/xapay8tvw AN C 025. 35. 205. 250. 468**. 620. 2037. 2067 al 
Pr gig Vg : opao-et fjnayoivw 2050 : opacret o-/xapay8cov (o-/xapay8ov 
arm) S 1 2 arm 1 - 2 - 3> a : opao-eto- o-fJiapayowv 69 : opao-io- o-/xapay8tvwv 
046. 21 ( 35. 205. 468**. 620. 632. 2020. 2050) al Or 8 : <uor 
(>632*) opao-to- o-/xapay8ov 241. 632**. 2O2O : opao-ewo- o-papaKOOV 
(arm 4 ) bo |. 

4. Kai 1 AN C 025. i. 35. 205. 468. 620. 632. 2020. 2050 al 
Or 8 Pr gig vg s 1 arm 1 - 2 4 -* bo eth : >046. 21 (-35. 205. 



IV. 5-6.] AriOKAAY HS KiANNOY 263 



Kat 7rt rot? 

5. Kat IK TOV Opovov eK7ropevoi>Tat aa-rpawal /cat c/xovat Kat /3povrai 
KOU 7rra Aa/zTruSes Trvpos Kcuo/xevai CVUTTIOV TOV $poVou,(0) 

6. Kat evioTTiov TOV Opovov ws ^otAatrcra vaXivrj 6/xota /cpucrraAAa), 
Kat (^) KVKAa> TOV Opovov TeVcrapa <3a ye/xovra 



(a) A gloss is added here : # eVru/ ret eTrrd Trveufj-ara TOV deov. See vol. 
i. 117. 

() A gloss added here : ^/^ry roO dpbvov Kat. See vol. i. 118. 



468. 620. 632. 2020. 2050) s 2 arm 3 | KVK\O& 920 : KwAw 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2037. 2067 : KVK\it)6f.v 18. 104. 205. 336. 620. 2017. 
2039. 2050 | #povou] +CLOOV Tyc arm 4 | Vpovovo- 1 AK 250. 424. 
2018 Tyc : Opovot 025. 046. 21 al pl Or 8 s 1 - 2 bo | et/coo-t 1 ] -t-K-at 
104 al | Tccrtrapeo- A 025 min pi : reo-o-apio- 2020. 2050 | 
/cat 2 > 20 1 7 arm 1 | CTTI r. ct/c. r. ^poi/ > 2017 Tyc arm 1 | 7rt 
r. 0pov. /c. reo-o-. 025. 35. 632* s 1 - 2 arm 2 - 3 - 4 - 01 bo eth : TTL r. 
^poi/. rover ei/c. reo-cr. 046 min pi Or 8 : super thronos viginti 
quattuor vg (gig) : in quibus seniores sedentes erant xxiiii. Pr : 
7Tt T. et/c. TCO-O-. ^po^. (>92O. 2040) A 93. 94. 920. 2040. 2050 : 
I K. reo-0- 2 >2020 arm 1 | reo-o-apaa] recro-apto- 2050 | Opovovo~* 
>920. 2040 : +ctSov 1957. 2023. 2041 al vid | KaO. 7rpeo-/5. 2020 : 
KaOrjiAevoL 7rpeo-/?i;Tpot Pr (arm 2 - 3> 4 - a ) | Trepi^^Ary/xci/oto- 1934: 
7rept/5eySA?7p.ei/ot Pr | 7Tpt^/?A. A 025. 35. 2015. 2036. 2037 Pr 
v g g^g : +v N 046. 21 (-35). 250. 2038. 2067 (s 1 - 2 ) Or 8 
t/xartw ACUKW Pr gig : t/xartotcr >X 2050 arm 4 | avrwv] e^o^Ttcr 
gig : + et^ov arm 1 - 2 | XP VO ~* OVO ~ ^ |- 

5. TOU Opoy.j rwv Opovwv s 1 J c/cTropevovrat] e^Tropevovro 104. 
620 vg d arm bo eth (?) | ao-rp. AC. c/xov. /c. ftpovT. AN 025. 046. 
21 (-2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP 1 Or 8 Pr gig vg s 2 
arm 2. 3. 4. a QO : acrrp. /c. (3povT. K. ^>wj/. I. 385. 2020 : (3povT. K. 
ao-rp. K. ^>cov. S 1 | /cato/x. Trvpoo- 920. 2040 | Trvpoo- > vg S 1 
arm 4 | Kaio^vai > bo | Opovov 2 AN 025. i. 632*. 2019. 2020. 
2038. 2050. 2067 Pr gig vg arm bo eth : +avrov 046. 21 
(-456. 632*. 2020. 2050) al mu Or 8 s 2 | a eio-iv . . . TOV Opovov 
>N* 456 | a eo-rtv] /cat 61*. 69 Or 8 | a Atf c 025. I. 201. 386. 
2019. 2038. 2050 vg g * s 2 : at 046. 21 (-386. 456. 2050). 
250. 2037. 2067 al Pr gig vg s 1 | <TT> A : eto-tv N c 025. 046 

a }fere omn | Ta ^^c Q2 ^ I 6 r< ^ 4 5g 5^ 1957. 2015. 

2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 arm 3 - a bo : >046. 21 
(-456. 468. 632. 2020. 2050). 250 al ma (s 1 - 2 ) arm 1 - 2 - 4 | ra cTn-a 
Trvcv/Aara] TO aytov Trvev/xa eth | TrvcvyuaTa] " powers (parts 4) of 
the spirit holy (> 3*) " arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 |. 

6. Opoj ou] +avrou 104. 141. 205. 209. 620 | wo- AN 025. 
046. 21 (-386. 632*). 250. 2038 aP 1 Or 8 s 2 bo : >i. 201. 386. 



264 AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [IV. 7-8. 

7. Kttl TO <3oi> TO TTpWTOJ/ O/AOIOV XfOVTL, 

Kal TO Sevrepov woj/ opoiov /u,oo-^w, 

Kat TO TptVov wov e^ojv TO TrpooxoTrov us avOpwirov, 

KOL TO TCTapTOV <l)OV O/XOtOV aCTU) 7TTO/A^a). 

8. Kat TO, Tecrcrepa (pa, ei/ Ka$ ev avTwv e^wv dva Trrepvyas 
Kat dva7rai>o~tv OUK e^ovo"tv fjfJLepas Kat VVKTOS 

"Aytos aytos aytos Kvptos, 6 0cos 6 
6 v Kat 6 aV Kat 6 



(a) The following clause is interpolated here: KVK\66cv Kal 



632* Tyc Prarm s 1 | OaXacrcrav 620. 2050 : +GMT eth | vaXivq AN 
025. 046. 21 (-205. 325. 456. 468. 632. 2020. 2040. 2050) 
vaXwrjv 2050 : vaXrjvr) 2040 : vfXivrj 60. 205. 241. 325. 456. 468. 
498. 632. 2018. 2020. 2022. 2023 I o/xta 205 : o/^otav 2050 | Kpv- 
crraXXd)] Kpvo-raXo) 632. 2020 : /8r/pvAAo> arm 4 : "the whiteness of 
crystal" arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | e//,/xeo-(o A 1854 : "at the side of" (?) eth | 

$pOVOV 2 ] +/XOV 2O2O I K. KVK\. T. ^/3OV. >385- 429. 522. 2015. 

2050 Tyc arm 1 - 2 - 3 bo sa eth | KVK\a>] KVKAw^ev no | Teo-o-apa 
K 025. 046. 21 : Teao-epa A | ocfrOaXfjiova- 336. 620. 2015. 2019 
| ffjiTrpoo-Oev A m in fereomn : e/xTrpoo-^c 920 : tvirpovBtv X 025. 046 
: ante se Pr | O7rto-0e 920 |. 

7. Kai 1 >205o Pr s 1 | TO TrpcoTov TO <aov 386 | ^woi/ 2 > 
arm 1 | Kat 3 >Pr | e^cov . . . ai/$p.] o/xoioi/ av^pcoTrw gig arm 4 : 
ofAOtov 7rpoo-o)7TO) (ws Trpoo-WTrov eth) vtov avOptaTrov bo eth j c^wv 

T. TTpOO- . . . TT. ^(UOV ^325. 456 | ^WV A 046. 1 04. 62O. 919. 

920*. 1849. 2015. 2019 Or 8 : exov K 025. 21 (-325. 456. 
620. 919. 920*. 1849. 20 5) a l : t X ev arm 2 - 01 : yv arm 3 : >205o 
arm 1 | To 5 Ax 025. i. 35. 61*. 205. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2050 al Or 8 : >O46. 21 (-35. 205. 2020. 
2050) al mu | wo- avOpwTrov A 42. 2019 vg s 1 : quasi humanam 
Pr : coo- av0po)7roo- 025. I. 35. 61*. 104. 205. 620. 1957. 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2050 s 2 : avOpwTrov 046. 
21 (-35. 205. 325. 456. 620. 2020. 2050). 250. 2067 Or 8 
arm 1 2> 3> a : o/xotov avOpiaTrov 2018 : <ocr o/xotov ay0pa>7ra> tf j Kat 4 
>Pr | To 6 >205 | a>ov 4 AX 025. 35. 468**. 620. 632. 1849. 
2020. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al Or 8 Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 : >046. 21 
(-35. 468**. 620. 632. 1849. 2020. 2050). 250 al eth (which 
om. <oov thrice before) |. 

8. TO, Tecrtr. wa >bo | Ta AX 025. 18. 35. 205. 620. 632. 
919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2040. 2050 al mu Or 8 : >046. 175. 325. 
337 386- 456. 468. 617. 1934. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al | cv 
KO.Q ev avTuv A 025. 35. 104. 172. 181. 205. 250. 620. 2015. 2018. 
2036. 2038. 2067 al : singula eorum Tyc gig vg : cv eKao-Tov 
avT<ov $ 2020 s 1 bo eth : ev KaO cavro I. 6l. mg : Ka0 eavTwv 2050 
: ev KaO ev 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 2020. 2050) al Or 8 : singula 



IV. 9-10.] AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY 265 

9. Kai orav Swtrovcrtv TO. a>a 86av Kai Tiprjv Kai v^apicrTtav 
T(3 Ka^/xeyu) CTTI T(p Opovw, 
T<3 oiyTt eis TOVS aiaiva? TCUV aiajycDV, 
IO. 7TO"OvVTai ot CIKOO-I rccrcrapes Trpecr/JvVepoi tvvirLov rov Ku6rj- 

fjitvov 7rt TOT) 6povov, 

Kai TrpocrKvvrj&ovo-w T< aWt eis TOVS ataivas TWV aiajyaiv, 
Kat ySaXovo-tv TOVS o-Te</>dVovs avrcoi cvviriov TOV Opovov, Xeyoi/res 

Pr : + o-ra>o- 250. 424. 2018 s 1 | tx wv A i. 42. 61*. 82. 104. 
1.72. 336. 429. 522. 620. 919. 1849. 1918. 1955. 2017. 2019 
: exov 046. 21 (-205. 620. 919. 1849. 2020. 2050). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al Or 8 : e^ovra 025. 2020. 2024. 2050 : e^ei 2015 
: eixv 20 5 : 1 X OV ** 6i. m s Tyc Pr gig vg arm 4 | ava Trrep. c 
. . . o^^aAyacovJ KVK\O@V O.TTO Ttav ow^wv ecrcu^ev, ye/xovra 
bo : + a,7ro TOJV ovv^coi/ Kat eTravoo, Trrep. c KVKXo^ev" Kat 
ye/xowiv o<f>Oa\iJL<i)v s 1 | TTTepvytuv 046 | KDKXo^ei/J + Kat eoj$ev 

046 al P I +^0)^V 6 1*. 69 | K. (T(0^v] Cr<D0J/ Kttt C^wOtV Ol S I > 

218. 522. 2015. 2018. 2020 arm | eo-w^ev] e^ev 1957. 2050 : 
ante se et retro Pr | ye/^ovra i. 2020 : ex VTa 20 37 I 
620. 2036. 2037 | Kai 8 ] quae Pr | OVK fx ova iv ] OV X 
non habebant Tyc Pr gig vg a - d arm 4 | iy/x. K. WKT.] aXXa 
2050 | r}fj.cpa(r] + Te 632 | Xeyovrecr AX 025. 046. 21 al pl Or 8 : 
dicentes Pr gig : Xeyorro no. 385. 1955. 2023**. 2041 : dicentia 
vg : +TO 2050 | aytoo- ter AK C 025. 205. 386. 617. 620. 
632. 920. 2004. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2050. 2067 a l P f gig v g 
s 1 - 2 arm 1 - 2 - 4 bo eth : semel Or 8 : bis 18. 181 : sexies 141. 2020 
: octies K* : novies 046. 35. 175. 250. 325. 337. 456. 468. 919. 
1849. I 934 a l mu arm 3 - * | Kvptoo-] + <ra/3awO 205 [ o 1 >x* | o ^eoo- 
>205o Or 8 arm 1 2 | o Oeoar o Travr.] a-aftawO o TTO.VTO. 35*. 104. 
620. 1918. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037 | o 7rai/T.] TCOV 6twv eth | o 2 > 

X 2019 | O 0>V K. O TfJV 35. 201. 205. 250. 386. 20l6. 2019. 2020. 

2023*"*. 2067 (arm) bo sa | K. o on/ >62o | Kat o ep^. >eth |. 

9. Swaoucrii A 025. I. 632. 2015. 2019. 2O2O. 2036. 2037. 
2050. 2067 al : Sw(T(D<n(v) N 046. 61. 69. 104. 181. 205. 620. 
1854. 1918. 2017. 2038 Or 8 : &oon(v) 21 (-205. 456. 468*. 
620. 632. 2020. 2050) 250 al : Suxret 42. 141. 517 : So> 325**. 
456 : dederunt gig s 1 arm : dederant Pr | Swcr. T. wa] wa 
Saxrovcriv 2050 | 8o^av>X* arm 2 - a | Kat 2 > 2050 arm 2 - a | evxa- 
pto-reiao- A arm 1 * 3 - a : tv^aptcTTetav 2015. 2017. 2040 : >-2o5o 
| TO) 6pov<i> A$ 2050 : (in) trono Pr : TOV Opovov 025. 046. 21 
(-2050) al Or 8 : +Kat Trpo&Kvvrjorovcnv (-trwcrtv 2040). 920. 
2040 : + Kai s 1 J TO) a>VTt . . . CTTI TOV Opovov ">qig. 1849. 2004 
| TO) COVTI . . . aian o)]/ !> Vg* J T<OV atwv(ov> 1854 arm 1 : +a/zr;v 
( + Kat ) K 2017. 2040* Or 8 s 1 arm 2 - : +ev0eo>o- Pr |. 

10. Treaoun-at . . . T. ai<i>fu > 1 7 5 arm 3 - a | Treo-owTat . . . 
Kat Trpoo-Kw^o-ovo-tv] Kat Trpoa-Kwrjarovo-w CVCDTTIOV T. Ka^. ... 04 



266 AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [IV. 11. 

II. *AlOS C*, O KVptOS K(lt 6 0OS fjfJLWV, 

\aj3tLV TTJV ooav /cat TTJV TI/ATJV /cat TTJV Swa/uv, 

ort cru CKTtcras ra Travra, 

Kat Sta TO ^eAiy/xa <rou r/trai/ *at 



ei/c. T. irpeo-p. eth | Treo-ovvrat] TrtTrrovo-tv vg g (procedunt corrupt 
for procid.) : nrnrrov Pr vg a - 4 v (procedebant corrupt for procid.) 
I eTrecrov arm 1 | t/c] + Kat min p S 1 (arm 1 ) | Tctrcrapecr] Tcr<rapi(r 
2O2O. 2050 : Tccrcrapeicr 620 | evwTrtov . . . 0poi/ou>bo | TOV 
Ka0. CTrt^Pr gig arm | Trpoa-Kvvrjcrwcrw 1 8. 2004 : Trpocncvvovcri 
6i. mg : Trpoo-eKwow vg*- c - d - f - v : adorabunt (corrupt for adorabant) 
Pr | et(r T. attov. TWV. atoov. TO> tovrt s 1 | TW ^wvrt > arm 4 | etcr roixr 
atwvacr >> arm 1 | atwvwv] + a/>tryv X 205. 2017 S 1 arm 2 | /cat j3aXov- 
a-Lv A c (?) 025. 21 (-620). 250. 2067 al Or 8 gig vg a - c - f - g s 1 - 2 
arm 4 : K. /foAAovcru/ N* 046. i. 6i. mg 172. 181. 429. 620. 1854. 
2015. 2017. 2019. 2023*. 2036. 2037. 2038 bo : K. e/?aAAov 
V gd. v . m ittentes Tyc Pr arm a | avrov 205 | VO>TT. T. ^pov. >92o. 
2040 |. 

11. et] ea-Ttv arm 2 : + /cvpte X | o Kvptoo- A^? 046. 21 
(-35*. 205. 620. 2020). 250. 2067 al mu Or 8 s 1 - 2 arm 2 - 3 - 4 bo 
: Kupte 025. i. 35*. 69. 104. 205. 241. 336. 620. 1854. 1918. 2015. 
2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038 Pr gig vg arm 1 - : +^wv s 1 | 
K. o 0eo<r ?7/A>l | Kat 1 >025- 35*. 69. 104. 205. 241. 336. 620. 
1854. 1918. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr gig 
vg arm 1 - 2 - a bo sa eth | o 2 > 468. 2050 Or 8 | ^/xwi/ A 025. 104. 
205. 620. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2050 al Pr gig vg s 1 arm bo eth 
: +o ovpaviocr 172 : +o aytotr 046. 21 (205. 620. 2020. 
2050). 250. 2067 al mu Or 8 S 2 | SwafjLW . . . Soav . . . Tip.r)v 
620 | T^v 2 >K | T?7v 3 >A | <Wa/xu/] + /cai 69 | ra AN 025. i. 35. 
205. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050 al : > 
046. 21 (-35. 205. 2020. 2050). 250. 2067 al Or 8 | Travra] 
+ Kat Sta arov etcrtv S 2 | Sta > bo | Sta OeXrjfjLari crov A : 8ta TOV 
^eX^/xaroo- o~ov 617 (s 1 ) : ex voluntate tua (tua potestate Pr) 
Tyc Pr | r)o-av K. eKrio-0.] haec sunt constituta Pr | rjo-av Kat> 
2019 | rjo-av AN 21 (-18. 35. 468. 620. 2020. 2050) Or s 
Tyc gig vg s 1 - 2 - arm 4 : OVK rjo-av 046. 18. 69. 2020 : curt 025. 
i. 35. 104. 172. 250. 468. 620. 1854. 1957. 2018. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2050. (2067) : eycvero bo : +7ravra eth | CKTto-0. K. 
ao-t 2067 K. cKTto-^o-av > A : "and stand sure" arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* 1 : a 
KTi<r@r)crav eth j. 



V. 1-4.] AIIOKAAY^IS IflANNOY 267 



CHAPTER V. 

I. Kat e?8ov eVt TT/V Sft.av rov KaOrjfMevov ori TOV Opovov (3i/3\iov 
ycypa/x/xeVov Za-uOtv Kat ^OTrio-Ofv^, KaTecr<payi0-/xeVov o-^payto-tv 
7TTa. 2. Kat eTSov ayyeXoi/ tcr^vpov Krjpva-a-ovra Iv (fxavfj /xey 01X77 
Ti? atos di>oiat TO /3i/3\.LOv /cat A.vo-at TO.S o-<payi8a9 avrov; 3. Kat 
ovSets eSwaTO eV TO) oupavw r ov8e erri TT}S y>}s ovSf^ VTTOKCXTW TT;S of/re 
?s dvotat TO /?i/3Atov ouSe /JAeVetv avro. 4. Kat eKXaiov TroXi? OTI T ^ s 

ts aios evpeOr) dvot^at TO pL/3\Lov ovre ^ 



1. KaiJ +/xTa TOVTO eth I T. 8e.] + Kat ev /xco-w Or 8 : +TOV 
Pr Cyp | /?i/3A. ycypa/x/x. >N* |. co-w^ev] A 025. 046 min o:nn 



Tyc Pr gig vg Cyp Or Ps - xi - 372> Ezek - xiv - I82> phu - " v - 36 Or 8 bo eth : 

^ei/ X Or jo - L I69> Phil - xxv - 46 sa | oTTto-^ei/ AN i. 69 al Or jo - s - l69 - Ezek - xiv - l82 



. 3 6, 46 (^yp S 2 . e ^ w 6) ev 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. (2038). 2067 al pl 
Or 8 s 1 arm bo eth : a foris gig : foris Tyc Pr vg : + Kat O7rio-0v Kat 
35 : +Kat oTTLo-Otv 20$% i + Kat N c 42. 337. 468 arm 1 - 2>3 
y.] eo-(/>payio"/>t OJ/ 337 : Kareo"^)tyyu,tvov 920. 2040 |. 

2. eiSop ] rjKovcra gig : + aXXov 172. 250. 2018. 2050 S 1 | 

icrxvpov $ \ Kiypvo-Q-ovTa] + Kai AeyovTa eth | fv AX 046. 
21 (-35. 2020). 250. 2067 al mu Or 8 : >O25_ i. 35. 172. 
1854. 1957- 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 
Q r p a . xi. 372. PMI. xxv. 36 I ptyaXrj >l854 : +Kat Xeyovra (Pr) arm 1 - 2 - a 
( TWT] +CO-TIV I Vg | atoo- AN 025. 35. 205. 2020. 2038. 2050. 
alP Or 8 s 1 : +CO-TIV 046. 21 (-35. 205. 2020. 2050). 250. 2037. 
2067 al Tyc Pr gig Cyp s 2 |. 

3. eSuiwro N 21 (-205. 2040. 2050). 250. 2037. 2038 al : 
7 ? 8waToAo25.o46. 1.61.69. 104. 2023**. 2036. 2040. 2050. 2067 
al Or 8 : Swarat 205 : +OVTC 2050 Tyc Pr Cyp (arm) | oupava> 
AN 025. i. 35. 172. 205. 241. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al Qr phil xxv - 36 Tyc Pr Cyp gig vg s 1 arm bo 
eth : +ai/o> 046. 21 (-35. 205. 632**. 2050). 250 al Or 8 s 2 | 
ovSe 1 A 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 620. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038 al : oirre N 046. 21 (-35. 205. 620. 2020). 250. 
2067 al mu Or 8 | ?rt T. y?o-] fv TT? yr; S 1 : +KaTto 386 | ovSe 
VTTOK. T. yr7o->N 181. 201. 386. 1854. 2023* arm 1 eth : post 
avTo pon i. 2037 | ov 2 A 025. i. 35. 104. 314. 620. 1957. 
2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 : ovT6 046. 21 (-35. 386. 
620). 250. 2067 al mu Or 8 | /8i/3A.ioi>] +Kat Xvo-ai Tao- o-<j(>payi6W 
avrov S 1 | ovSe 3 025. I. 35. 104. 314. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038 : OVTC AN 046. 21 (-35. 205). 250. 2067 al 
Or 8 : Kat 205 s 1 arm 1 - 2 - a : ou yap arm 3 : sed neque Pr Cyp 

arm 3 |. 

4. T. 4 >A 522. 2050 | Kai N 025. i. 181. 2015**. 2019. 



268 AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [V. 5-6. 



5. /cat ets e/c Tttiv 7rpeo7?VTep(oi> Xeyet /xot Mr) /cXate 

6 Xewv 6 CK T^S (f>vXrj<s louSa, 17 pta Aavct S, di/o^ai TO 
j3i/3)(.Lov /cat Tas eTrra o-c/>payiSa9 aurov. 6. Kat e?Soi> ei/ /xo*a> TOV 
Opovov /cat TOJV T(rcrapa)j/ wa>j/ /cat ev /xeo-a> TWV Trpco-fivrepiav apviov 
^ear^KOS^ d>s O"c/>ay/xJ/oi/, e^wv /cepaTa 7rra /cat oc/>0aX/xovs 
a7re<rraX- ot eio"tv TO, 7rra Tn/eu/xara TOV 0ov, r a7recrTaXAvot 1 ts Tracrav 



2038 gig s 1 2 arm 2 - 4 -* : +eyo> 046. 21 (-2050). 250. 

2037. (2067) Or Ez k - XIV - * 5 OP8.xL 3 7) Or 8 Tyc Pr Cyp vg arm 1 - 8 | 
c/cXaav N* : e/cXeov K c | TroXv] ?roXw 046 : TroXXot i arm a eth : TroXXa 
205 : Travreo-bo : > Or phU " v - ^ | vpe&;] fvpeQrjv 2020 : eupe^r/o-erat 
^* | avoiai] +Kat avayvwvat I. 35. 205. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2037. 

2038. 2067 arm a | To/3t/2X.] TT;!/ crc/)payt8a arm 1 : /cai Xv<rat arm 2 - 3 
| fi\TTiv avro] Xvcrat raa crc/>payt8a(r avrov Pr S 1 |. 

5. Kai 1 ] +a.7rcKpL6r) 2050 : + tSov Tyc : +rj\6tv /xoi bo | 
Xeyet] etTrei/ Cyp Vg a S 1 bo | /xot >2O5 gig arm tt I tSov] +yap 
2050 | o 2 >N 69. 2015** s 1 bo sa : +o>v i. 2067 | 77 pia] CK 
pt^or arm bo eth : +TOV 35. 205. 2023 | avot^at A 025. i. 35. 
104. 205. 468**. 620. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2050. 2067 Or ps - .rbii.xxT.36 p r gig c yp vg arm bo eth : 
avoiei s 1 2 : o avoiacr 18. 2039 : o avotywv 046. 21 (18. 
35. 205. 468**. 620. 2020. 2050). 250 al mu Or 8 | /cat 2 ] 4-Xvo-ai 
K 2067 armW- 2 - 8 | eirra > s 1 arm 1 - * 8 ** bo eth | <rc/)payt8a<r] 
+ 3t 2040 |. 

6. ctSoi ] tSov Kai A : ctSov /cat tSov 172. 2018 Tyc vg | ev 
fieo-co . . . coa>i/ ( + Kat 620) >62O s 2 | ev /xeo-a) rov tfpovov] OpovoL 
Tyc I e/x/xecrco 1 A 2050 | /cat 2 ] +cv />tO-o> Pr arm | TCD^ TCO-O-. 
^wcov] (Ta) Tccrcrapa ^wa Tyc | (V /Xo~a> 2 >Pr S 1 arm 4 - tt : C/A/XCO-O) 
A I 7rpeo-y8.] +o)cr arm 1 - 2 | eo-T^/coo- A 025. 046. 21 (149*. 
620. 2004. 2050) al mu Or 8 : orT??/ca>o- K i. 104. 149*. 172. 2004. 
2015. 2017. 2019 : eo-Ti/c<oo- 620. 2050 : >2O38 arm 1 - 2 | wcr>i8. 
632*. 920. 20l6. 2024. 2040. 2050 arm bo sa | o-c/>ay/x.] o-c/>payio-- 

/v 104. (920*). 2016. 2017. 2020. 2038. 2067 arm a ** | ^ wl/ 
046. 104. 429. 620. 919. 2015. 2017. 2019. 2050 Or 8 : 
025. 21 (-620. 919. 2020) al mu | /c. oc/>0aX. 7TTa>2O5o 
| ot As i. 172. 205. 2020. 2038. 2067 : a 046. 21 (-205. 
2020). 250. 2037 al pl : ariva 241. 498 | Ta > 250. 2037. 
2067 | 7rra 8 N 046. 21 (-205. 2050) al mu Tyc Pr gig Cyp 
vg a".c.v s i. 2 arm 5 . > ^ T lgl> 20S< 203 g t 2050 vg d.f. f .h e^j 

TTi/ev/xaTa] 7rj/v/xa eth : powers arm 2 : powers of the spirit arm 1 - 8 : 
(parts of the seven) graces of the spirit arm 4 | TOV 0ou Tn/ev/xaTa 
I : TOV 0eov >arm 1 | 0eov] +Ta i. 42. 104. no. 205. 336. 620. 
2036. 2037. 2038 (s 1 - 2 ) arm 1 - 2 - 8 -* bo | aTreo-TaX/xevot A : a?reo-- 
TaX/xei/a S I. 205. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050 (s 2 ) : 
"sent down" bo : airoo-TcXXo/xeva 046. 21 ( 205. 2020. 2050). 
250. 2067 al mu Or 8 s 1 arm 1 - : >arm* j. 






V. 7-9.] AHOKAAY^IS IOANNOY 269 



yfjv. 7. Kat rj\0ev /cat ecXrjfav IK rrjs o^tas rov /ca^/xeVov eVt TOV 

Opovov. 8. Kat ore cA.a/3ev TO /3t/3A.toi/, TO, reo-crepa a>a *at ot cucoo-t 

Teo-o-apes Trpea/^VTepoi eTrecrav CJ/OJTTIOV TOV dpia ov, 

KiOdpav KOL c/>tdAas xP var a.S y/xov crag 

9. Kat aSovo-tv ia8r)v Kawrjv AeyovTes 

"Aios et XaySetv TO pifiXCov 

/cat dvot^at Tas o-c/>paytSas avToO, 



Kat ^yopao~as TO) ^cw cv TW at/xaTt o~ov 

CK Trdo-rys c/>vA^? Kat yXwo-cr^? Kat XaoG Kai 



MSS add gloss : at e^ni* aZ Trpovevxal r&v ayiwv. 



7. Kai 2 >bo | iA/7c/>ev] +To/?t/3Atov i**. 104. 205. 620. 2019. 
2050 Pr gig Cyp vg a * b - c - ^ *** s 1 bo sa : + avTo eth | CK] + Tryo- 
Xeipoo- 620 arm 1 - 2> 3 - a | Se^tao-] xetpoo- s 1 : +TOV ^tov Pr Cyp | 
TOV Ka^.] rrja- Ka^/xevov (sic) N* | 0povov] +TO j3i/3\iov 250**. 
2020. 2037. 2067 Tyc vg |. 

8. e\a|3ei>] aperuisset vg | /3i/3A.iov] +Kat arm 3 | Tecrcrepa AN* 
2O2O : Teo-o-apa 025. 046 al pl : ot et/c. TCO-O". Trpe<rf3. Kat T. TCO-CT. coa 
eth I Tco-o-apeto- 620 : Teo-o-aptcr 2050 | CVOJTT. T. apv. CTrcaoi/ 205 
7reo-av AN I. 104. 325*. 337. 452. 456. 506. 517. 620. 2023. 
2050 Or 8 : CTTCO-OV 046. 21 (-325*. 337. 456. 620. 2050). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al mu | Kao-Too- e^ovTeo- N | e^ovTeo"] Kat et^oj/ 
arm 1 - 2l 3- a | Kao-TOO-] 4- avrwv S 1 2 | Kt$apav] KiOapaa- I. 104. 205. 
385. 468. 617. 620. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2037*. 2038. 2041. 2067 
Tyc Prgig Cyp vg | </>iaAao-] c/>uaXao- 2050 : faaXrjv s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | 
Xpuo-ao-] xP va aar N XP va " f ] v sl arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | ye/xovorao-] /xeo-racr 620 
bo sa : yettouo-av s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | ^v/xta/xaT<Dj/] + supplicationum 
Pr Cyp fat A 025. 21 ( 2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl 
s 1 - 2 Or 8 : a K 046. 2019. 2050 | eto-t] ^crav arm 1 : CO-TIV arm 3 - a | 
at 7rpoo-vxat A X c 025. 046. I. 35. 205. 241. 250**. 468. 620. 
632**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2050. 2067 Or jer - xiv - 463 s 1 - 2 arm bo eth : Trpoo-evx" 1 N* 18. 61. 
69. 172. 201. 218. 386. 424. 632*. 920. 1849. 20 4 almu Or 8 : 
Trpoo-evxwv 82. 93. 104. IIO. 175. 177. 242. 325. 337. 385. 452. 
45^- 5 1 ?- 617. 919. I934- 1955 20 4- 2O2I. 2024 | rwv aytwv] 
OI/TOJV aytwv Or 8 |. 

9. icai 1 ^-S 1 | a8ovo*iv] aScoo-tv A : aSovTeo- Pr s 1 : cantabant 
Tyc arm (bo) : cantaverunt Cyp : +wo- Tyc | Kaivrjv wS^v Pr 
CyP vg | Katv^v] + Kat s 1 arm | et] + Kvpis gig vg v : + Kvpte o ^eoo- 
77/xcov arm 2 | avot^at] Xvo-at S 1 : resignare gig | eo-c/iayryo-] o-c/>uy<rio- 
620. 2050 : rjyop. TW ^cw A (eth see below) : +Tfjfj.aa- S 025. 
046. 21 (-205. 620. 2040*. 2050). 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 S L 2 
(arm) bo sa : i/yop. ?y/xao- TOO 0<o 172. 250. 336. 424. 620. 1918. 



270 AI1OKAAYM2 IOANNOY [V. 10-13. 

IO. Kai eVooycras avrovs TUJ $cJ) rjfjiwv /JacrtAciav KOL tepets, 



1 1 . Kai i8ov Kai JjKovcra <f>iovr)v dyyeAcov TroAAajv 
6povov,(a) Kai r)v 6 dpifytos avrwv tivptdSes tiupidSwv Kal 
XiAidSan/, 12. AeyovTes <f>wvy tteyaAr? 

r*AioV^ eoriv TO apviov TO e<rc/>ayiivov Aa/Seii/ T^V Swa/ziv 
Kal TrAovrov Kal cro^iav Kal ICTYVV 
Kal rt/x^v /cat Soav Kal cvAoyiav. 

13. /cat TraV KTi oyxa o ei/ TO> ovpavw /cat CTrt T^S y^s /cat 
(a) MSS add a gloss here : /coi TWJ/ 



2016. 2018. 2038. 2050 Pr gig Cyp vg : rjyop. TW ^ea> >;/>to>/ 180. 
205. 2040* sa : Tfjyop. rj/jLacr (>eth) *v r. at/x. <rov r. ^ew S L 2 eth : 
ev TO> at/xart crov >632 | at/xart] oi/o/xart 2040* | Travrwv ^>vX<ov 
/c. yXwcra-wv K. Aawi/ K. e^i/wv arm 2 - 3 * 4 | /cat yAeocnr^cr > s 1 arm 1 ) . 
10. auTouo-] ^/xatr Pr gig vg d - f - v arm 1 - 2 - 3 : ex iis eth | TO> 
^eco ry/xwv >A | ^acrtAetai/ AN 2050 Pr gig Cyp Vg (s 1 ) arm 4 
bo : in regnum dei eth : /JacrtAcio- 046. 21 (-2050). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 s 2 | le/acto-] teparetai/ : +Kat ySao-tAetcr s 1 eth | 
Kat 3 >eth I (3a<ri\vov<riv A 046. 1 8. 325. 386. 456. 617. 919. 920. 
1849. 2004. 2020. 2037. 2040 al S 2 : fiaa-LXcva-ovcTLv N 025. I. 
35.82. 91. no. 172. 175. 177. 205. 250. 314. 337.429- 468. 
620. 632. 1934. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or 8 al gig Cyp vg s 1 arm 4 
bo : >eth : /^acrtAevo-o/xei/ Pr vg arm 1 * 2 - 3 . 

11. Kat etSoi/ >sa eth | (jxovrjv A 025. 046*. i. 69. 205. 2023. 
2036. 2038 aP Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg arm 2 - 3 - * bo eth : wcr c/>wv^v 
X 046**. 21 (-205. 337). 250. 2037. 2067 al mu s 1 - 2 arm 4 sa : 
coo- $(m/->7 337 | TroAAwv ayyeAwv 920. 2040 Pr | TroAAwv >62O 
arm 2 | KVKAw] KVK\oOev I : KVK\ioOev 468** | Kat 3 ] +KVKAo> Pr 
arm^ 1 )- 2 - ( 3 )- a | Kat TOJV Trpccr^. > i arm 1 | Kat r/v o apiOjJi. avr. 
>arm 3 | /xvptaSecr /xvptaS. Kat > Pr gig Vg | /xvptaS. /xvptaS.] 
/xvptacr fjivpiaa- arm : fJLVpia.fr fjivpiaSwv s 1 - 2 | Kat ^tAtaS. ^tAtaScuv 
>l854 I ^tAtaSeo-] ^tAtacr s 1 - 2 | xtA.ta8cuv] arm 2 - 3 : +Kat S 1 |. 

12. Xcyoi Tecr] Xtyovrw 498. 920. 2O2O. 2040. 2050 Pr Vg : 
Kpa^ovrco- arm 1 | a&ov K 046. 21 min omn vid Or 8 : a&oo- A (s 1 ) | 
ccrrtj ] t S 1 | cr<ayii.] ear<f>payicr/j.vov 2020 | rrjv > 2019 arm 1 i 
Swa/uv . . . evAoytavJ " praise and riches and honour and glory" 
arm 1 | 8w. Kat >arm 2 - a | Kai 1 >92o. 2020. 2040 | TT\OVTOV AN 
025. i. 35. 205. 2020. 2037. 2050. 2067 a l arm eth : TOV 
TrAovrov 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 920. 2020. 2040. 2050). 250. 2038 
al mu Or 8 : rrjv /?acriAeiav bo : divinitatem Vg : /xeyaAoTrptTrctai/ 
arm 4 : > 920. 2040 | Kat 2 ] + TTJV 386 bo | Kat icr^w > bo 
arm 1 - 3 : -f *at ^ao-tAetai/ eth | Kat 4 - 5 - 6 ] + rrjv bo | Kat cvAoytav 
>arm 1 - 3 |. 

13. o A 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 468**. 620) al Or 8 gig s 1 bo eth : 
TO N : >62o : -f co-Tti/ 025. i. 35. 172. 205. 250. 241. 468**. 2015. 



V. 14.] AnOKAAYMS IO ANNOY 271 

yr)s Kal eirl rfjs tfaXdVo-T/s eoTtV, Kat TO. ev avrots Travra, 
" 



Ta> Ka0>7/Aei/a> CTTI TO) 0poVa> Kat rw dpvtu> 
^ cuXoyta Kat 17 TI/ATJ Kat 17 8oa 
Kat TO KpaVos eis TOUS attovas TWV atujvun . 
14. Kat Ta recro epa wa iXeyov A/u^v, Kat ot 7rpo-/?uTpot 
Kat 



2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2050. 2067 al Pr 
vg S 2 (arm) | CTTI r;cr y^cr] cv rrj yrj I. 2037 Pr s 1 : CTTI yr/o- 336. 
2015. 2036 | K. -U7TOK. r. y/ycr A 025. 046. 21 ( 920. 2040. 
2050). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al Pr gig V g a - c -s**-J s 1 - 2 arm 4 
eth : >N 69. 181. 218. 241. 920. 2040. 2050 vg d - f -&* arm 1 - 2 - 
bo | Kat 4 ] +ra N (bo) eth : +quae SUnt Vg | 7rt TTJO- BaXaar- 
a-rjar (T^V ^aXao-crav 2020) 241. 2015. (2020). 2036. 2037 (ci/ 
rrj OaXao-a-rj N Pr gig vg (s 1 - 2 ) arm bo eth) : + eori(v) A 21 
(-35. 205. 2020. 2050) al : +a eo-rtv 025. 046. i. 35. 205. 
429**. 1957. 2023. 2038. 2041. 2050. 2067 al : +oo-a eo-Tiv 172. 
250. 424. 2018 Or 8 : +o eo-rtv s 1 | Kat ra >20i9 : et quae- 
cumque sunt Pr | tv 2 ] CTT 2020 | avroto-] ea vg a - f - * v : eo vg c -g M : 
+ sunt gig : +Kat 42. 61. 69. 241. 632. 2015. 2037 | Travra 
^Kovo-a Xeyoi/rao- 025. 18. 314. 2017. 2039. 2050 al p Or 8 : Tra^ra 
r)K. Xeyovra A I. 69. 181. 2038 : Travra Kat ^K. Xcyovrao- N 424. 
429. 2019 gig S 1 (bo) : Travra K. r]K. Xeyovrcov 250. 2018 : -rravra 
K. r]K. Aeyovra S 2 : Trai/Tacr T;K. Xeyovrao- 21 ( - 18. 35*. 2050). 
2037 al mu Tyc Pr Vg : Travraa- Kat rjK. Aeyovrao- ( - TOJV 172). 
(172). 522 : Travra K. Travracr r;K. Xeyovrao- 046 : Travra K. r/K. TraXtv 
Xeyovra 35* : Travra. Xeyovra eth | TCD KaOrjp..] rov KaOrj^vov S 2 : o 
Ka%xevoo- arm | TW ^povw A 046. 18. 175. 250. 325. 337. 45 6 - 
617. 620. 919. 1849. 1934. 2004. 2050 al : (in) throno Tyc Pr 
vg : Opovu 141 : rov Opovov K 025. i. 35. 205. 241. 386. 468. 
632. 920. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036.2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 al mu Or 8 : (supra) sedem gig | Kat 6 >A c s 2 arm 1 - 2 | Kat TO) 
apvLu > bo | TOO apnco] TO apvtov arm 1 - 2 - 3 -:+^9I9|->7 eiAoy. . . . 
KpaToo-] " blessed exalted (> 2) and glorified ( + and almighty 3) " 
arm 1 - 2 - 3 | rf- >O25 | ^ 3 >9I9* | Kat TO KpaTocr] TravroKpaTopoa S* 
(cf arm 3 ) : >arm 1 - 2 - 4 - a | T<I>V atwvwv >arm 2 Tyc | aiwvwv Ats 
025. 104. 172. 201. 205. 250. 2018. 2050 aP Or 8 Pr gig vg s 1 - 1 
arm 1 - 4 -* : +O.MV 046. 21 (- 205. 2050). 2037. 2038. 2067 al 111 
arm 3 eth |. 

14. K. T. reo-cr. lua, eXcy. afxt]i/ >920. 2040 | Ta >205- 620 I 
To-o-epa A 2020 : Teo-o-apa S 025. 046 min pl Or 8 | eXeyov AN 025. 
i. 35*. 104. 205. 620. 632. 919. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023** 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 al Or 8 Pr gig vg s 2 arm : 
172. 250 : Xcyovra 046. 1 8. 35**. 175- 3 2 5- 337- 3 86 - 45 6 - 



272 AIIOKAAYMS IOANNOY [VI. 1-2. 



CHAPTER VI. 

^ I. Kat ctSov ore fyoigcv TO dpviov ynt av e/c rwv eTrra 
*ai rj/covo-a evos ex TWV reo-o-apa>v <3a>v Aeyovros a>s 



2. /cat CtSoV /Cat tSoi tTTTTOS 

/cat 6 KaO-rjfjivo<s ITT avrov e^oiv TO OV, 
/cat fSoO-r) avTw o-rec/>avo9, 
*at l^rjXBev VIKCOV /cat tva 



468. 6ij. 1849. I934 . 2004 s 1 (bo) | a M v Atf 025. i. 35* 69. 
314. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2050. 2067 Or 8 bo 
sa : TO aprjv 046. 21 (-35*. 920. 2020. 2040. 2050). 250 al mu | 
/cat >arm | ot] + et/coo-t reo-crapeo- Pr vg y | eTrecrav Atf 025. i. 
104. lio. 172. 250. 337. 429. 468. 620. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2050! 
2067 al Or 8 : 7 rrov 046. 21 (-337. 468. 620. 2050). 2037. 
2038 al mu : +evoj7rtov avrov arm 1 - 2 - 3 - | 7reo-av /cat >eth | Trpoo-e- 
Kwrja-av] -fviventem in saecula saeculorum Prvg d : + avrov arm 1 1. 
1. Kat] ^era ravra bo | etSov >Pr eth | ore ANC 025. i. 
104. 205. 314. 620. 1957. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037 al Pr gig 
s arm 4 bo : ort 046. 20 (-205. 620. 2020). 250. 2067 alP m Or s 
vg arm : >2038 | ^vot^ev] rjvvgcv K | /Atav >i | e/c TO>V 7rra 
AC 046. 20 (-205. 325. 456). 250. 2037. 2067 alP m Or 9 
Pr gig vg s arm 2 - 3 - 4 eth : eTrra > 025. i. 205. 314. 325. 456. 
2015. 2016. 2023. 2038 al arm 1 bo sa | o-c/>paytS<ov > K* (suppl. 
K c ) | /cat> 620 bo sa | evoo- e/c > 1957 : evoo-> 920. 2040 : 
e^ evoo- arm a : e/c > N* 468 | Xeyovroo-] Aeyovrwv X : > arm [ 



<oo- <t>wrj /3po*"n?->Pr eth | favrj AC 046. 20 (-468. 919. 920. 
1849). 250. 2037 al pm Or 8 bo : favrjv K 506. 919. 1957 gig vg 
arm : <f>wr}o- 025. i. 314. 20 i6. 2038. 2067 : <f>wy 104. 172. 
468. 920. 1849. 1955 | ppovTyv] Ppovrw s 1 : +A yovroo- A : 
+ Xeyovo-av arm | cp X ov AC 025. i. 35. 60. 82. 94. 241. 432. 
1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041 Or 8 vg a - c -g* bo 
sa : epxov ante wo- c/xov. fipovr. 2036 : cp^o/xat arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a : ep X ov /cat 
tSe 046. 20 (-35. 2020). 61. 104. no. 172. 201. 250. 314. 
385. 498. 522. 1955. 2016. 2018. 2067 Pr gig vg d - f -g"- v s eth I 

2. Kai ei8o^>o46. 20 (-35. 205. 468. 620). 250 al mu Or 8 
Tyc Pr Vg d.f.g" : pr Kal ^ KOV(ra s l | K(U l > bo | CTT avrov] TT 
avro) i. 61 (?). 2037* | eX (ov] habebat vg arm : tenebat Pr 1 ro^ovl 
sagittam Pr | i^XOtv} eir^a, Or 8 : > arm 3 | vt/ccov /cat tva 
viKYjarrj] ut vinceret et victor exiit Pr | vt/ceov] pr o A arm 2 - 4 
| Kat tva vLKrjcrrj] /cat ci/t/oyo-ev K bo sa : /c. tva vi/ojo-et I. 2023. 
2038 : K. tva vLKrja-rj (-(ret 2019) KOLL tviKrjvev 2017. 2019 : /c. 
cvt/oyo-ev K. tva vt/oyoT? s 1 : vt/cwv Kat>eth | /cat 6 > 506 vg gig s 2 
arm I. 



VI. 3-5.] AIIOKAAYvMS IOANNOY 273 



3. Kat^ ore %VOL&V rrjv o-<f>payl8a ryv Sevrepav, fj K ov(ra rov 
otvrcpov wov AeyovTo<> "Ep^ov. 

4. Kcu f.qr)\6(.v aAAos ITTTTO? Trvppos, 

Kal rw KaOrjpcvw CTT f aurov f r eSo^ avraP AaySeiV TYJV dprjvrjy 

[ejc] r^9 yfjs, 
Kal tva dAA^Aovs cr<aovcr>, 



KCU 



5. Kat ore ^voi&v T^i/ <rc/>payt3a <n)i/ TptTijv, rj/covo-a TOV TptVov 
>ov Aeyoj/ro? "Ep^ov. 

/cat ftSov, Kal I8ov TTTTTOS /-teAas, 

/cat 6 KaOrH^vos eV avroi/ e^ajv ^vyoi/ ev TT; X ei pt avrov. 



3. Tjkoi^ei ] T^i/v^ev X | TTJV cr^paytSa TT^V Sevrepav AtfC 025. I. 
172. 205. 250. 314. 424. 2018. 2023. 2038 Tyc Pr gig vg arm 
: TTJV (Wepav cr^paytSa 046. 20 (-205). 2037. 2067 al? 1 Or 8 I 
cp X ov AC 025. 046. 20 (-205. 386. 468). i. 61. 69. 82. 104. 
no- 3M. 33 6 - 3 8 5- 49 8 - 5 22 - 1955- 1957- 2015. 2016. 2019. 
2023. 2037. 2038. 2041 aP lu Or 8 vg s bo sa : ep^ou arm : 
ep X ov /cat iSe K 141. 172. 201. 205. 250. 386. 424. 468. 1918. 
2018. 2022. 2067 Tyc Pr gig vg d -&**- v eth |. 

4. Kai e^T)X0i/] Kat (e)iSoi/ /cat t8ov (K. t8ov>bo sa) e^Afl. K 
250. 424. 2018. 2067 bo sa | aAAoo->Tyc s 1 arm 2 bo sa I 
Trvppoo- NC 35. 175. 201**. 241. 242. 325. 429. 456. 468. 498. 
617. 1849. 1934. 1955. 1957. 2023**. 2024. 2037. 2041. 2067 
al mi Tyc Pr gig vg s arm 2 - : Trvpocr A 025. 046. i. 18. 61 
69. 104. no. 172. 201*. 205. 250. 314. 337. 385. 386. 620. 
632. 919. 920. 2004. 2020. 2038. 2040 Or 8 | TO> /ca^/xei/o)] 
pr ci/ A | CTT avrov ANC 025. 046. 20 (-18). 250. 2037**. 
2038 al pm Or 8 : CTT aimo i. 18. 172. 2015. 2037*. 2067 al p : 
super eum Tyc Pr : super ilium gig vg | avro> N*C 025. 046. 
21 Or 8 vg s arm bo sa eth. The atmo should stand in the 

text : Cf. 2 -!7.26 3 12.21. It should be restored (?) j n 2I 6 . > 

AK C 2016 Tyc Pr gig | Aa^tv>arm 2 - 4 | fK r w yrjo- NC 025. 
046. 20 (-205. 620). 250. 2037. 2067 al pm Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg 
s eth : >K C : e/c>A 104. 205. 209. 336. 620. 1918. 2038 : a 
rrja- yrja- i. 2019 alp I KaL L A^C 025. j. 35*. 172. 205. 250. 
2018. 2019. 2020. 2038 al Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s 2 : /cat>o46. 
20 (~35*- 20 5- 2020). 2037. 2067 al pm s 1 bo | a<f>agov(riv AC 
1849. 2019 : o-^a^coo-6(i/) tf 025. 046. 20 (- 1849). i. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 | /xa X atpa pya\rj]~ A bo sa eth |. 

5. tjj/oiley] yvv&v K : rjvoiyr) s 1 | rrjv crc/>payt8a ryv Tpirrjv] TTJV 
Tpir. <rc/>pay. r. 2019. 2020 al : TJ or<j>payi<r rj rpcrrj s 1 | rjKovva] etSoi/ 
bo | ep X ov AC 025. I. 35. 60. 91. 104. 241. 336. 432. 620. 
1918. 1957. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 Or 8 gig vg*- -** s 1 
bo : +/cai iSe 046. 20 (-35. (620). 2020). 61. 69. 110. 172. 
181. 201. 250. 314. 385. 498. 522. 1955. 2016. 2018. 2067 Pr 

VOL. II. 18 



2/4 AnOKAAYMS IOANNOY [VI. 6-8. 



6. /cat TjKovcra a>s <a>vr/v eV /^ecra) TW Tt<T<ra.p&v axov Xeyovo-ai> 
Xou/t CTLTOV Srjvapiov, 

KOL Tpets xotVtKes KpiOwv 8rjvapiov, 

KCLL TO eXatoi/ Kat TOV oTvov /AT) dStK^cnys* 

7. Kat ore r/i/oiev TT/V o-<paytSa r^v TCTapTTfv, T/KOVOU ^xovryi/ TOV 
reraprov u>ov XeyovTOS Ep^ov. 

8. Kat cTSov Kat tSou t7T7TO9 x^>PSj 

Kat 6 Ka^/xevos cTravo) aurov ovofjM avrw o ^avaros. (a) 
xat eSo$7? avTui eovcrt a CTTI TO riraprov rfjs y>}s.(^) 



(a) Here follows an interpolation : /cai 6 pS?;? -fjKoXovdei /xer ourou. 
(^) Here follows an interpolation : airoKTewai tv po/m.<paig. ical tv Xi/ty KOL\ 
dv davarcj) Kal inrb TWV 6t]plwv rijs yrjs. 



vg c. d. g-. v S 2 . +l e et h | Kat aSov>046. 20 (-35. 205. 468**. 
620). 61. 69. no. 172. 181. 201. 314. 498. 506. 517. 522. 
1955. 2016. al p Or 8 gig vg c - d -&**- v s 1 eth | Kat tSov >Pr arm 1 
eth : Kat>bo | tTTTroo-] pr aAAoo- arm 1 : pr Kat ffyXOcv eth 
/xeXacr] /xeyao- 919. 2020* | CTT avTOv] TT avrw I. 2037. 2067 al p 
| X<DV] habebat Tyc Pr vg arm |. 

6. wo- 4>uvT]^ AxC 025. 35*. 181. 314. 2038 Or 8 gig vg : 
wcr > 046. 20 ( 35*)- 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Pr s arm bo 
sa eth | ei/ /xeo-co] e/x/xeo-oo AC : CK fj.(rov s 1 : /xco-ov 35. 205 | 
Teo-o-apwv] 8 35 : >s 1 arm 1 wwv] + oxr tfxDvrjv acrov bo eth 
| Aeyovcraj/j A.eyovT(ov gig vg d-f g arm | ^otvi^-] a"xpwi 920 | 
S^i/aptov 1 ] + i/ocr Pr gig vg d | KpiOw AxC 025. i. 181. 205. 
2036. 2038. 2067 s 2 : Kpt^o- 046. 21 (-205). 250. 2037. 
al pl Or 8 s 1 | oVaptov 2 ] pr TOV A : 4-cvoo- Pr vg d : >6g. 181 | 
Kat] TO Se bo sa I Kat TO fXaLov Kat TOV owov] ~ 2 o 1 9 Tyc Pr 
Vg S 1 eth | a8tK^o"^o-] a8LKTf](TL(T O2$ : aStK^^crovTat arm 1 |. 

7. T*\V a^payiSa TTJI TeTapTTji ] rrjv rf.raprr]V o*^>paytSa 2020. 
2038 : T>;V o-^)pay. T. o^ 35 | Ty/covo-a] pr Kat 325. 456 | tjxavrjr 
AN i. 35. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023- 2036. 2037. 2038 al p Or 8 
vg s 1 eth : pr T*)V 205 : <f>(Dvr)<r 2067 : >C 025. 046. 20 
( 35. 205). 250 al pm Pr gig s 2 arm bo sa | TOV Ttraprov 

<DOl>] TO TCTttpTOV ^(OOI/ C . TTO.pTOV >S l \ fpX ov AC 025. I. 
104. 620. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2O2O. 2O23. 2036. 2O37. 

2038 al p Or 8 vg^-s s 1 bo sa arm 4 : +Kat iSe K 046. 20 
(-620. 632**. 2020). 250. 2067 alP m Pr gig vg -^ s 2 : + tS 
eth : epxo/x-at arm . 

8. Kai ei8oi>>046. 20 (-35. 205. 386. 468**. 620. 632**). 
69. 250. 314 al mu Or 8 gig vg c - v arm 1 eth | Kat t8ov>Pr s 1 
eth : Kat >bo : iSou >arm 2 | ITTTTOCT] pr KCU frf\0v eth | ITTTTOO- 
^Xwpoo-] LTTTTOV ^Xwpov Pr s 1 | ^XwpoQ-] XcvKoo~ 920. 2O4o \ pallidus 
Tyc gig vg (Pr) : " reddish " arm 1 | o Ka^r//xcj/oo-] o > C | 7rai/o> 
avTov] avTov>C 025. i. 181. 205 | avrwj + ^v Tyc Pr : avTov 
S 1 | o Oavarocr 025. 046. 20 (-35. 920. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 



VI. 9-10.] AIIOKAAY*I2 IOANNOY 27$ 



9. Kcu OT^ YIVOI&V rrjv TT^Tmjv <r<f>paylSa, etSoj/ VTTOKU roO 
0vcria(rTr)pLov ras ^as TWV eV</>ay/AeW Sta TOV Ao yov row 0eoi) Kat 
Ota TT)V /xapTvptav rfv el^ov. 

10. Kat tKpaav <<oi/27 jJLeydXy Aeyoi/TC? 

EOJS yore, 6 SCCTTTOT^S 6 aytos Kat dA^ti/os, 
ov /cpiVets Kat e/cSiKets TO at/xa i^icov 

K T(OV KttTOtKOVJ/TtoV CTTl T>}s yijs ; 

2067 alPi Or M <- -*" Or 8 : o>C 35. 336* 432. 920. 2023. 2040. 
2041 : o aOavaroa- A \ o aS^cr] infernus Tyc Pr vg d - f - v : inferus 
V g a .c.g . u all Amenti" bo | rjKoXovOei NC 025. 046 20 (~7c) 
250. 2067 aP m Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg arm 1 - 2. 4. a . aKoAov et IB 35. 
1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 s | /xer avrov AC 
02 5- i- 35- I0 4- 49 8 *- 620. 1957. 2015. 2023. 20 3 6 - 20 37- 2038 : 
/ACT avrof s 2 : avrci) 046. 20 ( - 35. 620) al pm Or 3 Tyc Pr gig 
vg s 1 : avroLcr (also rwrtv) Or Mt ii; - 18 7 | eSo^ avro> 046 20 (- 7C 
468*). 250 alP m Or 8 Pr gig vg s 1 ^ arm bo sa eth : cSofy avrowr 
AtfC 025. i. 35. 468*. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p | 
TO TCTapToi/] 4- ^epoo- 452. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037 : quattuor 
partes Vg | cv Oava.] tv>$2$ : cv T7y OXi^i bo | VTTO Ton/ erjpiwv] 
TO Ttraprov TWV Orjpiwv A |. 

9. nrji TrefxiTTT)i ox^payiSa] AC 025. 046 al : rrjv cr^)pay. TT;J/ e. 
K* Tyc Vg c : T-TJV e. a-^pay. N c 35 : rrjv (T^pay. T. TT^-KT^V 61. 69 
s 1 - 2 arm L4a |Tov ^criao-T^ptou] + Tou ^eov Tyc Pr Cyp | TWJ/ 
co-^ay^ci/wv AC 046. 20 (-35. 205. 920). 250. 2037 al pl Tyc Pr 
gig Cyp vg s 2 eth : pr TWJ/ avOpuirw K 025. i. 35. 60. 181. 
205. 209. 432. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2038. 2041. 2067 bo sa : 
Tao- eo-<ay/*,evao- S 1 : TWI/ eo-^payto-yaei/cov 104. 218. 336*. 920 Or 8 | 
Sia TOV Aoyoi>] pr 8ta TOV Qtov Kat arm 1 | Sea 2 >A Pr gig Cyp 
bo sa | /xapTupiav AtfC 025. i. 241. 632**. 2015. 2019. 2036. 
2037. 2038 Pr gig Cyp Vg bo : eK/cA^o-iav 2020 : +TOV apviov 
046. 20 (-632**. 2020). 2067 al pm Or 8 s 2 : +1770 s 1 : +I W ov 
172. 250. 424. 2018 : + avrov Pr Cyp arm 1 - 2 - 3 eth | r/i/ 



10. K P a^ ANC 046. 20 (-35*. 205. 632** 2020). 250 
p r Qyp ^ Q . K p a oy Q2 ^ j 2$*. 205. 632**. 20l6. 2019. 

2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Or 8 gig vg s : CITTOV arm 1 - 2 - 3 - tt | cfxavrj 
peyaXij AC 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 385. 620. 632**. 2020. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Or 8 Pr gig vg Cyp s (arm) bo : ^vyv 
peyaXyv 046. 20 (-35. 205. 620. 632**. 2020). 250 al rau 
\ aX^Oivoa-} pr o I. 172. 429**. 468. 620. (2018). 2037. 2067 | 

K6\KlCr] K8tK7;o-lO- S | CK TUH/ AC 046. 20 ("35*. 205. 468. 62O. 

2020). 250 al pm Or 8 : a-nro rw 025. i. 35*. 104. 205. 468. 620. 

2015. 20lS - 2023. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p : Kttt TWV 2020 | CTTt TT/O- 

yrjo-] in terris Pr Cyp I 



276 AHOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [VI. 11-12. 



II. Kat $60rj avrois eKao-TU) <TTO\V) 

Kat IppiOf) avrots tva aVaTravcroiTat ert ^povov 

(os 7rX?7pa>$u)crtv Kat ot o-vvSovXot atrrwi/ Kat ot dSeX<ot aurujv 

ot /xeXXovres aTTOKTCvvccrflat a>s Kat aurot. 

1 2. Kat etoW ore ^i/ot^ev r)v o-<payt8a rr/v KTTJV 



Kat o-ctcr/xos /xe yas eyerero, 

Kat 6 ^Xtos eyeVero yu-e Xas a>s CTCIKKOS 

Kat 17 (reX^i/ry oX>y cyevero obs at/xa 

11. e$o0Tj . . . OTO\T] XCUKTJ] eSo$?7orav . . . oroXai XeuKat Pr vg 
(Cyp) arm 1 | avroto- cKao-rw AsC 025. 35. 6 1. 69. 104. 205. 250. 
468. 620. 632**. 1957. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2067 al p 
arm 4 bo : eis singulis Pr gig Cyp : illis singulae vg : aim>t<r>82. 
91. 93. 181 : eKao-Tw > 046. 20 (-35. 205. 468. 620. 632**. 
2020) al mu Or 8 arm 1 - 2t3 - a : cKao-rco avriov (^2037) 2015. 2037 s 
eth | eppeQrj] pe9r) ^? 35. 241. 522. 620. 632 : epprjOrj 172. 242. 
250. 1957. 20l8. 2024. 2039 : eSo#?7 2038 | avroto->S 1 | avairav- 
crovrat A 025. 046. I. 104. IIO. 522. 620. 2015. 2019. 2036. 
2038 al p : avaTraucrwvrat NC 20 (-620). 250. 2037. 2067 al pl 
: avairi eva CDVTai 69** : avaTravo-acrOai Or 8 | ert (CTTI tf) XP 01/ /* tK - 
J<C 025. I. 18. 205. 632**. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Vg S 2 
bo sa : XP OVOV T6 ^ LK P OV A : enxpoi/oi/ 046. 20 ( - 18. 205. 325. 
456. 632**. 2020). 250 al pm : en rtva XP OV - f- 1 ^ 2020 : eri /JLLK. 
Xpov. 241. 2019 eth : eaxr Katpou XP OV P IK - gl XP OVOV 3 2 5- 45^ : 
p.iKpov Or 8 : ert /xt/cpov gig : /UK. ert XP OI/> Cyp : \P OV P- LK - arm 

| ewo-J-f ov I. 18. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2067 al p | TrXr/pw&ooriv AC 385 gig vg s arm bo eth 
: 7rX^pa)<j(ocri(v) N 025. 046. 20 (-620. 632. 2040). I. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 : TrX^pwo-ouo-i 620. 632. 2015. 2016. 2019. 
2036. 2040 : impleatur numerus Cyp | Kat ot o-wSovXot > 
2019 : Kat > 046 Cyp Vg bo | Kat ot aSeX<oi] Kat > 386 | 
ot /AcXXovreo- AxC 025. 35. 205. 620 Or 8 vg s 1 - 2 bo : pr Kat 
046. 20 (-35. 205. 620). 2037 al mu (Cyp) ot /xeXX. a7roKTj/j/.] 
qui occidentur gig | aTroKrev^eo-^at Afc*C 35. 82. 93. 94. 175. 

205. 241. 250. 325. 337. 456. 617. 919. 920. 1955. 2004. 

2018. 2024: +VTT avrwv N* (del. K c ) : (nroKTevtarOai 18. 42. 91. 
104. IIO. 172. 242. 385. 386. 468. 506. 620. 632. 1849. 1934. 
2015. 2016. 2017. 2019. 2023. 2024. 2036. 2039. 2040. 2041 : 
a7TOKTtvo-0at 025. 046. I. 61. 69. 336. 429. 498 Or 8 (vel Ti/eo-6tai) 
: aTroOaveiv arm | coo- Kat auroi] Kat>385. 2020 : exemplo 
ipsorum Cyp |. 

12. t8o^>i8. 94. 141. 385. 429. 522. 1849. 1955. 2039. 

2040 Tyc eth | ore rjvoi^ev] ore evuev tf* (r)vvev X c ) : pr Kat 025. 
i. 35**. 42. 61. 69. 181. 205. 209. 432. 468. 1957. 2019. 2023. 

2041 Pr | Trjv or^paytSa rt]v CKT^I/] rrjv CKT. o-<pay. Pr Tyc j 

pr tSov A vg v : (fxacr S 1 | /x-eyao* eyei/ero NC 025. 046. 



VI. 13-15.] AIIOKAAY<m IfiANNOY 277 

13. Kai ot do-repes TOV ovpavov 7recrav is rrjv yyv, 
ws crvKrj /2aAAet rovs 6Xvv6ov$ 
VTTO avefjiov /xeyaAou (reto/xei/7;* 



14. Kat 6 oupavos 
a)S j3i/3Xiov r 

Kat Trav opos /cat i/^cro? /< TOJV TO7TO)y avroV Kivrj6r]crav. 
1 5. Kai ot /2ao-tAets TT^S yiys /cat ot /Aeyio-raVcs Kai ot ^tXtap^ot 
ot TrAovcrioi /cat ot l(T\vpol Kat Tras SovAos Kat cXtvOfpos 
eis TO. o-7rr;Xaia Kdt et? ras Trerpa? TOJV opewv. 



20. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 Pr arm 3 : ~ A 2016 Tyc 
gig vg arm 4 | eyevero /xeXao- AC 025. I. 35. 205. 2015. 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Tyc Pr gig vg arm a : ~ X 046. 
20 ( 35. 205. 2020). 61. 69. 104. no. 172. 201. 250. 314. 498. 
522. 1955. 1957. 2016. 2018. 2023. 2041 al p Or 8 | wo- ... 
rpt^tvoo- >eth | o-aKKOo-] ao~KOO" S 1 | rj o-c/Xr;vr/ 0X7; A$<C 046. 20 

( ~ 35- 20 5)- 2o6 7 alpm Or8 T Y C (gig) v g slt 2 bo eth : " the moon 
wholly" arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* : oXr; >O25 i. 35. 172. 205. 250. 1957. 
2Ol8. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 Pr sa | o)O" at/xa] eto- at/xa 
1934 : wo- >Pr gig arm |. 

13. TOU oupai/ou] TOU Ocov A : >Tyc Pr vg d - f : de coelo (post 
7To-av pon gig bo eth) gig arm bo eth | 7To-av AsC 025. i. 
104. 337. 429. 2015 al p Or 8 : 7reo-oi> 046. 20 ( 337)- 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al mu arm 4 : " were shaken down " arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | eto- 
TTJV yr)v] 7rt r-r]v jTfjv 8 2^i. 468**. 2038 s 1 : super terram vg 
arm 4 (bo) : >gig | crviaj] + cruo^vt] (Tyc) | fiaXXei AC 025. 046. 
35. 61. 69. 2019. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2067 Tyc Pr gig vg 
arm 4 : aTro^aXXct 2015. 2036 : /3aAei I : fiaXXovva K 18. 172. 
205. 250. 336. 429. 468. 498. 620. 1918. 2039 Or 8 S : paXova-a 
20 (-18. 35. 205. 468. 620. 2020). 42. 93. 94. 141. 201. 209. 
218. 241. 242. 385. 424. 452. 506. 517. 522. 1955. 2016. 2017. 
2021 al p : a-n-oftaXova-a 2O2O | VTTO] airo $ 69. 2016** | avefiov 
fjityaXov AtfC 046. 20 (-35. 205). 250 al mu Or 8 Pr gig vg 
: ~ 025. I. 35. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2067 : /teyaAou>Tyc : VTTO 
/xey. (TLofJivr] avepov 205 | o-eto/xcvr;] o-aXtvo/xcvry A 181 : o-io- 
pevov 456 |. 

14. o >i | aTre^wpto-^] >arm L 2 - 3 - a bo : eraK^ s 1 arm 4 : t- 
Atx#7 eth | o)o- ^StySAtov] Kat 0)0- j3L/3Xi,a s 1 | cAto-o-o/xei/ov AC 046. 35^ 
69. 82. 104. 250. 337. 468. 2023*. 2040 al mu Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg 
s 2 bo eth : etAio-o-o/xei/ov 025. i. 2019. 2023**. 2036. 2037. 2038 : 
eAto-o-o/xevoo- K 20 (-35. 337- 468. 632. 2040). HO. 314. 1957- 
2016. 2067 al p : tAto-o-o/zvoer 632 : eAto-o-ovrai s 1 : tAt^7; arm 
bo | v?7o-oo-] viyo-o-oo- C 046 : /?owoa N : insulae Tyc Pr vg : pr 
7rao-a S 1 bo sa | avTon/>N | CKivr)Or)<rav N*C 025. 046 min pl : 

N* : (nrKivr)orav A : ecraAev^o-av 920. 2040 |. 

15. Kai 3 >>A | xiAiap^ot . . . TrAovo-tot] I. 2019. 2O2O. 2038 



AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY [VI. 16-VII. 1. 

1 6. Kai \eyovcriv rots opeonv KGU rats Trerpats 

Heaare ec/> fj/jLas /cat Kpvif/are ^/xas aTro irpoauirov TOV Ka0>;- 
fj.evov eTrt TOT) Opovov 

KO! OLTTO TT/S opyfjs rov dpi/tov, 
17. ort ^X0a/ 17 ^jae pa 17 /xeydA.^ TT}S opy^s 

Kat TIS owarat <rra.0rjva.i ; 



al p | /cat 01 io-^vpot>i. 181. 2019. 2038 : ot>tf 2024. 2040 | 
Kat tXevOepoo- AC 046. 20 (-35. 205. 2020). 250 alP m Or 8 Pr 
gig Vg S : Kat Trao- eAtvflepoo- N c 025. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 : >K* arm 4 : /cat Trai/rco- ot 
cAev^epot arm a bo | Trerpacr] oTracr arm bo I. 

16. Kai Xeyoucni/] dicentes Pr : Kat CITTOV arm 1 - 2 - a a | rota- 
opeaiv Kat rater Trer/aato-] ~ bo arm 4 : > Tyc : Kat rat<r TTf.rpa.ia- > 
arm 1 - a | Treo-are A 025. 104. 2015. 2036 Or 8 : Treo-ere C 046. 20 
I. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl : Treo-erai K | Kpvi^are] Kpv^erat S 
: Kpvif/T 385* | airo TTpocranrov . . . rou apviou>arm a | rov Ka^7/- 
//.evov . . . TTyor opy77a->S 1 | ?rt rov Opovov AC 025. I. 35. 69*. 
104. 205. 241. 468. 632. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Or 8 : ort TCO <9poi/o> K 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 
468. 632. 2020). 250 al mu : supra sedem gig : super thronum 
(Pr) vg | a* N U ] 7rt N* |. 

17. ori>Or 8 . r\ rjjjiepa t\ fAeyaXt] TT]O- opyiqcr aurou] ry peyaXr) 
rrja- opyrjar avrov y/mfpa 18 | ^ 1 >2OO4- 2O2O | rj ptyaXrj > 69. 325. 
456. 517 | avrov A 025. 046. 20 ( - 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 
al pl Or 8 Pr arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a bo : avrcoi/ NC 2020 gig vg s 1 - 2 arm 4 sa | 
crra^at] (rco^i/at 141. 242. 617. 1934 : arrjvai 250. 429. 2018. 
2019 : +ante ilium Pr arm 1 - 2 bo I." 



CHAPTER VII. 

Kai fjiera I. Mera TOVTO eTcW reatrapas dyyeXous eo-rwra? CTTI ras reo-- 

<rapas ycoj/tas r^5 y^s, Kparo^vra? roi)? reVcrapa? di/e/xovs r^5 y?}?, 
tva /x^ 7ri/c>; avcjaos errt r^s y^? yu,->jre CTTI T^S 6a\da-a"r)<s pyre CTTI 

1. jiera AC Or 8 Pr gig vg sa : pr Kat K 025. 046. 21. 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al pl s arm 3 (bo) eth | rouro AsC 046. 21 
( - 205. 468. 920. 2040). 250 al pm Or 8 s arm eth : ravra 025. 
i. 61. 205. 241. 468. 920. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 Pr gig vg bo | reao-apao- 1 C 025. 046. 21 (-35. 866) 
Or 8 : reo-crapeo- A : 8 K 35. 866 | era] per Pr | recro-apao- 2 AN C 
046. 21 ( - 35) Or 8 : reorcrdpeo- 025 : 8 35 | Kparov^raor] pr Kat 
337 S arm 1 - a | Kpo.rovvra.a- . . . aj/e/xouo- T. yr/tr >eth | reo-o-apaa- 3 
NC 025. 046. 21 ( - 35) Or 8 : reo-trapeo- A : 8 35 | rrja- yrjcr > 2O2O. 
2037 s 1 bo sa | Trv^j]] Trvtva-rj N 172. 205. 250 : Tn/eei 2019. 






VII. 2-4.] AnOKAAY^IS IfiANNOY 279 

r f Tt n SfvSpov f. 2. Kai t8oi> aXXov ayyeXov avafiaivovTa UTTO irav 
rdvaToXr}?^ ^Xtov, e^ovra o-<payiSa Oeov aWos, /cat r Kpa^k 1 aj/a 
<f>ti)vrj fjitydXy Tots reo-o-apcrtv dyyeXots ols eSoOr) avTots dSt/o/o-at rr/v * K P a t> 1 
yrjv Kat T7]V $aXao-o-av, 3. Xeyoav M?) dStK^o-r/TC TT?V y^v ^/XT;T^ TT)V /cal 
$dXao-o-av /AT/TC TO. SeySpa, a^pt or^paytVw/xcv TOUS SovXovs TOU 0eoi) 

f)fJLO)V 7Tl TtoV ^CTOOTTCOV aVTOIV. 

4. Kut ^/covo a TOV apiO^ov rcov ecr^payto /xcvtov tKaroi/ Teo"(7a- 
paKovra Teo-(rapcs ^tXiaSes eo-^paynr/xeVot CK TTUO-^S <J>V\TJS 



(Or 8 ) : 7To-77 920. 2040 : flarent Pr vg f - v bo | ai//xoo-] pr o C 61. 
69. 506. 522. 632*. 919. 920. 1955. 2040 : >Pr vg f - v arm 2 : 
01 cu/e/xot bo | 7ri Tr;o- y7/(r > A : in terris Pr | CTTI T^CT ^aXao-o-^cr] 

T^CT >A : + fJirjTf. CTTt TWV TTOTdfJUOV bO | 7Tt Tt SevSpOV C 046. 21 

( 35. 205). 250 al pm Or 8 (Pr gig vg) : CTTI TTO.V ScvSpor N 025. 
i. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 s 1 : 
7rt Sej/Spov A : eTTt (TO.) SevSpa s 2 ? arm bo eth |. 

2. aXXoi/ ayveXoi ] ~42. 325. 456. 468. 620. 866. 1934. 1957. 

2036 : aXXov >Pr ] aXXoi/ . . . ai a/^au/ovra] Kat avJ3rj aXXoo- 
ayyeXocr eth | ava^Satvovra] avafiavTa I bo | avaroX^o- NC 025. 
046. 21 (- 18). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 S 2 : avaroXajv A 
1 8. 2039 (s 1 ) I o-<payiSa et N] o-</>ayi8a N* | ^eoi;] pr TOV 325. 
456. 468. 620. 866 I (ovToo-] pr TOV 468 | eKpa^ev NC 046. 21. 
250. 2037. 2038 al pl Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s arm bo : tKpacv 
A 025. 2067 | tfrwr) /xcyaXr/] (jxavrjv /xeyaX?; 866 | reo-o-apo-tv et 
K c ] TO*o-apO- K* : o" 35 | ayyeXoio-] 00010- arm 4 | oio- eSo^ry] CO 

quod datum esset Pr | cumno->35. 336. 337. 2015. 2023. 2036. 

20 37 ^ v I aSifo/o-ai] a7roXeo-at arm 1 - 2 - a |. 

8. Xeywj ] + avroto- Pr bo eth | aSiKTyo^re] aSiK^o-erai X : 
+ fj.r}T Or jo - il6 | /xiyre TTJV OaXaa-vav C 025. 046. 21 (-866. 
2020). 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or JO L6 : /*r?Se rrjv 9. N % 866. 2038 : 
Kat r-rjv 8. A 432. 452. 2020. 2021 Or 8 bo sa | /xr/rc 2 ] /AT/Se N 866 
I a^pt (-0-K) A^C 025. I. 35. 181. 2038 Or jo - il6 : a^pto- ov 
046. 21 ( 35). 250. 2067 al pl Or 8 : axpicr av 94. 2015. 2036. 
2037 : tva arm 3 | o-^payto-w/xev] o-</>payio-o/xv 337. 2016. 2020. 
: " I shall have sealed " arm 1 : o-^payio-^re bo : o-</>payio-#wo-i eth 
j ry/xwv >24i. 2015. 2039. 2040 Tyc s 1 bo sa eth |. 

4. Kai T]Kouora . . . (T$pa.yicriLev<t)v >A | TOV apifytov >92O. 
2040 | co-</)payio-/x coi/] + CTTI TOV /XCTCOTTOV avTcov bo j e/caTOV . . . 
o-<^payio7>ti/oi > 1 8. 141. 385. 429. 919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2039. 
2040. 2067 | e/caToi/ TO"o-. Tto-o-apeo- 025. 205. 386. 620. 866. 

1934 : CKttTOV Kttt TCCTO-. T0-0-ap0- C 82. 104. 172. 175. 250.314. 

325. 337. 456. 468. 617. 632. 1957. 20l8. 2041 : (e/caTOf) e/caTov /cat 
TCO-O-. Kat Teo-o-apeo- 498 (2020) : CKaTov TCO-Q-. /cat reo-crapea- 69 : 
p p S 046. I. 35 al mu : CKaTOv TeoxrepaKOVTa (To-o-apaKovTa A) 
I K. TCO-O-. 8 A** I eo-(/)payto-/xevoi ANC 025. I. 3^. 



280 AIIOKAAY#I2 IOANNOY [VII. 5-8. 

5 ab . e/c <j)v\ij S lovSa StoSeKa 

K 
7. CK 



fjs Aew SwSe/ca ;(iXia8es, 
CK (frvXrjs lo-tra^ap ScoSeKa 
8. e/c <J>vX.Tjs Za/?ovXa>v ScoSe/co, 



e/c (f>v\vjs Bevia/xetv 8w8e/ca 
5 e* <f>vX.jjs PaS SojSeKa ^iXta 
6. CK <uX>?s Acr>)/3 Sw 

e/c 



(a) On the restoration of the original order of the text, see vol. i. 207 sqq. 

205. 632*. 2020. 2037. 2038 al mu Or Jo - 3 sq - (semel) Tyc Pr gig vg 
S 2 bo : eox/3ayi(r/Aevan> 046. 21 ( 35. 205. 632*. 2020). 69. 82. 
104. 201. 250. 314. 498. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2036 al p Or 8 : >s l 
sa : + 7rt T. /xeTWTTCDi/ avTcov bo | wow Icrpa^X] vtwv > arm 2 - * eth : 



5 a - b . o-4>paYio-fjiyoi A^C 025. 35. 468. 632. 2020 Or 8 Pr gig 
vg S 2 : -ju,evai 046. 21 (-35. 468. 632. 2020). 82. 201. 314. 
385. 498. 1955. 2016. 2017 al p : -juei/wi/ 69. 104. 522 : >s x 
arm 3 - 4 bo eth | Pov^fyv AtfC 025. 046. 175 Or 8 : Povpiv 61. 69. 
104. 201. 337. 498. 617. 919. 1955. 2004. 2015 : Povj3i/A i. 18. 
35- 93- 386. 456. 468. 620**. 632. 920. 1849. 2017. 2019. 2020. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 : Povfifip 60. 91. 172. 205. 385. 
1934. 2018. 2023. 2041 : Povfiew 250. 2016 : Pov(3rjfjL 314. 325. 
506. 517. 620*. 866. 2024 : Ruben Pr gig vg : Rouben bo |. 

7. * <(>uX. luji. 8w8. x^X. >X 172 | Acm] Acvet K : Aew et 
Laaxap ~ S 1 | la-cra^ap AX 025. 61. 104. 385. 522. 919. 1955. 
2017 alP Or 8 vg arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* 1 : I<ra X ap C 046. 21 (-919) s 1 arm 4 
bo : Isachar Pr : Ysacar gig |. 

8. CK <|)u\. Za|3. 8w8. x 1 ^ > T ^49 | Za/3ovXwv . . . Iwcn/^)] 
^ 1934 | I(Da-rj<f> . . . Bena/mv] ~ X 2015 | Bevta/xeiv A 025. 920. 
2038 : Bena/xu/NC 046. 21 (-456. 620. 866. 920) al pl Or 8 Pr 
gig vg S bo : Bevia/XTji/ 242. 456. 620. 866. 2017 | eo-</>ayr- 
/aej/ot AC 025. 35. 205. 468. 632. 2020 Or 8 gig vg s 1 bo : 
-/xei/at 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468. 632. 920. 2020. 2040) al mu : 
>920. 2040 Pr s 2 |. 

5 C . K <j>u\. TaS. 8w8. X iX- > | TaS] Aai/ 42. 325 (pr man. 
scripsit in marg.) 336. 456. 620. 866 : AaS i : Gath Pr |. 

6. K <|>uX. A<nr)p 8w8. X iX. > Or 8 | Ne</)(9aXtya A 046. 61**. 69**. 
175. 314. 325. 429. 456. 617. 620. 866. 919. 920. 1849. 1955. 
2004 al vg : Nephtalim arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a : Neptalim Pr gig : Ne<0oXt 
N s : Nc<0aXiv C : Ne^aX^ 69*. 201. 386. 517. 522 : Eph- 
thalim bo : Nc^aXet/x 025. i. 18. 35. 61*. 104. 172. 205. 241. 



VII. 9-10.] AnOKAAYMS Ifi ANNOY 281 

9. Mcra TavTd, eTSov, 

/ecu tSov o^Xos TroXvs, ov apiOfjifjo-ai avrov ovSct? 
K TravTOS Wvovs KOI c^vXuiv KO.I Xacov /cat yXcocrorcov, 

O"T(JOTS CVCOTTIOV TOV OpOVOV KOi CVWTTLOV TOV apVLOV, 

f 7rept/3e/3Xl7jU,VOi;S f CTToXaS XeV/CttS, Kdl <otVlKS V TtttS 

Xepcriv auTcov 

10. /cat /cpaovcriv (frwfj fjieydX 
*H o-u>T>7pia Tto 
T<3 Kafir) [j.tv a eTTt TOJ Opovw 



242. 250. 337- 3 8 5- 4 68 - 49 8 - 6 3 2 - J 934- *957- 20I 5- 2 l6 - 20I 7- 

2Ol8. 2019. 2O2O. 2023. 2024. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2040. 2041. 
2067 al mu Or 8 | e/c ff)V\. Mai/. 8co8. ^tX. > 620*. 866 Mavatro-r/ 
N 025. 21 (-175. 205. 620*. 866). i. 250. 2067 al pl Or 8 Pr gig 
vg arm : Mavaoxrryv C : Mavvacrcrr/ A : Mavacr?? 046. 175. 205. 

2037. 2038 s : Dan bo |. 

9. jjLCTa] pr /cat s 1 arm 1 bo eth | /cat t8ou K 025. 046. 21. 
250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 Tyc gig s 2 : >A Pr Cyp vg 
s 1 bo sa : tSov >C | 0^X00- TroXvo- NC 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 

2038. 2067 al pl Tyc gig s 2 : TroXuo- >Or s : o^Xov iroXw A Pr 
Cyp vg s 1 bo | ov et N c ] oo- K* : /cat A | avTov AtfC 025. i. 61. 
69. 205. 2019 al p Or 8 s bo : >046. 21 (-205). 104. 172. 201. 
241. 242. 250. 314. 385. 429. 498. 522. 1955. 1957. 2015. 2016. 
2017. 2018. 2023. 2024. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2041. 2067 al p Tyc 
Pr gig Cyp vg | eSwaTo AxC 046. 21 ( 205. 2040) al pl : 
rjSwaTo 025. i. 61. 69. 172. 205. 241. 250. 2015. 2023**. 2037. 
2040. 2067 al mu Or 8 : oWaTai 2038 arm 4 | e/c TrayTotr e$j o<r] e/c 
TravTcov cfivutv Tyc gig Vg arm 3 - 4- a \ c/>t>Xcov] (f>vXr)(r S 1 Pr Cyp 
/cat Xacov /cat yXtotro-cov >eth | eo-TcoTecr AX 025. I. 35. 205. 1957. 
2004. 2019. 2023. 2024. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p S : eo-TWTao- 046. 
21 (-35. 205. 2004. 2020). 250 al mu Or 8 : ecrrcoTcov C 2020 : 
eo-TcoTtt 93. 1955 : stantes Pr gig Cyp vg | ei/coTrtov 1 ] eTrt A | 
7rept^e/3Xr;/xei/ovcT AN*C 046. 21 (-35. 205. 2040). 250 al pl " 
gig : 7repi/:?e/3XY]p:evao- 242. 2040 : 7repty8e/3X^/xevot N c 025. I. 35. 
205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p Or 8 Tyc vg : 
/cat 7repi/3e/3X?7/xei/ot s 1 : et erant amicti Pr Cyp | </>oivi/ceo- AN C C 
025. i. 35. 104. 172. 205. 250. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2067 al p gig vg arm : palmae fuerunt Pr Cyp : ^oivt/cao- N* 
046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2020). 61. 69. 201. 241. 242. 314. 385. 429. 
498. 522. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2023. 2024. 2039. 2041 al im 
Or 8 : Kiflapat bo | cv Tatar X 6 / 00 "^] P r W av ? r gig CyP i- 

10. Kat 1 >l. 2067 bo. Kpa^ouaii ] /cpa^ovTetr I. 2067 bo S 1 : 
eKpa^ov Pr gig Cyp vg arm 

arm 1 : /cat eXeav arm 2 - 3 - 4 - a 

0CCO I. 2O37 (pOSt TCO KO.Q. 7Tt TCO OpOV.) | TCO Kav^/X6VCO ^> 



XeyovTeo-] pr /cat 2067 S 1 : eXeyor 
TOV 0eou A (in marg.) bo : 



282 AIIOKAAYvMS IOANNOY [VII. 11-14. 

1 1 . Kat Trai/res ot ayyeXot icrrrJKfiorav KVK\IO TOV Opovov KOL TOJV 
Trpearfivrepwv Kat ran/ Teorcrapa>v ojwv, Kai tirecrav ei/coTTtoj/ TOV Opovov 
7ri ra 7rpd(ru)7ra avTwv Kai TrpoareKvvrjcrav TO) 0e<3, 12. Xeyovres 

A/x^v 17 evXoyta /cat 17 Sda Kat 77 croc/>ia 

/cat 17 ev^aptcrrta Kat 77 TI/AT) Kat 77 Swa/xts 

Kat 17 tcr^vs TO) $(3 T^WI/ ets TOV? atcoj/as rail/ atwvwi/ [ a//.^!/]. 

13. Kat a7rKpt077 ets CK raV Trpecr/Jurepa)!/ Xeyan/ /xot Ourot ot 
7rpij3/3X.r)/jLvoL ras o-roXas ras XevKas rtVes etcrtv Kat Tro^ev ^X^ov; 

14. Kat etpr/Ktt avraJ Kvpte yttou, <rv oT8a?. Kat etTrei/ /tot 

Oi;TOt et(rtv ot p^d/Avot K T^S ^Xti/^ew? r^s yu.eyaX7y5, 

Kat 7rXwav ras o-roXas avrwv, 

Kat eXevKavav avras ei/ TW ar/xart ToC dpj/t ov. 

(suppl. S c ) : pr Kat S 1 | 7rt TW ^poi/w A^*C 025. 21 ( - 205. 468. 
632**. 2020). 250. 2067 al mu : ?rt TOV Opovov N c 046. i. 104. 
205. 468. 632**. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038 al mu Or s s 1 : super 
thronum Pr Cyp vg : supra sedem gig | TO> apvtw] rov apviov 
X c : + etcr rover atoovatr riav atwvoov a/jirjv N* (del. K c ). 

11. ot > N* (suppl. N c ) | KTTrjKicrav A$ ( - Ktcrai/ K) 025 : 
fCTT^Ktcrav C : eicr-n/K^crav 046. 104**. 919. 2017. 2018. 2036 : 
eto-TrjKao-av 21 (-205. 919). 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 : cum; 
Kto-av i. 205 : stabant Tyc Pr gig vg arm bo | KVKXw] CJ/WTTIOV 
bo | eTreo-av A#C 025. 42. 181. 325*. 337. 468. 517. 620. 866 
al p Or 8 : CTTCO-OV 046. 21 ( 325*. 337. 468. 620. 866). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl | ej/w7rtov . . . 7Tpocra>7rov airrwv] eTrt r. Trpocr. 
aurwi/ evwTTtov T. ^poi/. bo sa eth | rov Opovov AtfC 025. 35. 205. 
920. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al Or 8 Pr gig vg s 1 
arm 2 - 3 - a bo : +aurovo46. 21 (-35. 205. 920. 2020. 2040). 250 

al S 2 | 7Tt Ttt TTpOCTWTra] 7Tl TrpO<T(D7TOV I. 2038. 2067 bo . > 

arm 1 | Kat Trpoo-CKwyo-av T<O Of(t> ^>S l \ Kat eTrecrav . . . Xcyovrea-] 
Trpoo-fKvvrjcrav CTTI T. Trpoo-ooTra aurcDV ej/WTrtov T. Opovov rov Oeov 
Xeyovretr eth j. 

12. ajnr]! ] pr aytocr aytocr aytoor 205 | evXoyta . . . Soa] ~ S 1 
eth | Kat >/ cro<ia >A arm 4 : ante >y Soa pon 506 : post 17 

K. 17 ev^aptcrria pon 2067 | 17 v^api(7Tia >?7 N* (suppl. X c ) 
rj rt/Jirj ^> eth | Kat r) tcr^vo- > bo : Kat rj ^apttr arm 1 - 2 - 4 - a 
77 eovo"ta arm^ | TW ^eojj TOV Oeov bo ! TO> Kvptto arm 1 : 
TO) 6>eo> arm a | a^v >C 2015. 2019 Pr |. 

13. cureKpiOTj] + fj.oi Tyc gig : Xcyet /xot arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a eth | CK > 
N 1957 | Xcywv /x,ot > gig arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a eth : /tot >Tyc arm 4 | 
ratr crroXacr rao- XevKaor] racr XevKacr o-roXatr 2015. 2036 | racr 2 
>C | Ttvccr eto-iv Kat>eth : CLCTLV >i. 181. 2038 | ^X^ov] veniunt 
vg f - e arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a |. 

14. Kat >bo sa | eiprjKa A^C 025. I. 205. 2015. 2019. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p Or 8 : eiTrov 046. 21 ( - 205). 250. 
al pm : dixi Pr gig Cyp vg : Xcyw arm 1 | Kvpte JJLOV ^C 025. 046. 






VII. 15-17.] AITOKAAYvPlS IOANNOY 283 

ItJ. SlO. TOVTO IO~IV V(O7rtOV TOV 6pOVOV TOV $OV, 

Kat Xarpevovoriv avrw i^ie pas Kat VVKTOS ej> TO) vau> avrov, 

Kat 6 Ka$>7/Aevos CTTI froi; $poVouf o-KrjvtixreL CTT 
1 6. ov Treivcurovcriv CTI ovSe $i\]/vja ovo iv CTI, 

ovSe ///) iraiat] ITI avTovs 6 ^Atos ovSc TraV /cav/xa, 
17. <m TO dpviov TO dva /xeo-ov TOU Opovov 7roi/x,ai/et 

Kat oo-qyiqo-ei avTOix, ori 0017$ Tnyyas v 
6 $cos 7raV SctKvov /c T 



21 (-205). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pm Or 8 vg s arm 2 - 3 - 4 bo : 
ftov >A I. 205 Pr gig Cyp arm 1 - a | cnrcv] Xeyet gig arm 1 | 01 
epXo/Aevot] qui venerunt Tyc Pr Cyp eth : qui veniunt gig vg 
arm bo | e/c Tr;o- OXuj/tuHr rrja- /xeyaA.r;o-] OLTTO ^A.ti/^ecoo- /xeyaXryo- 
A | 7rXwav AS 046. 18. 35. 175. 205. 468**. 617. 620. 
632**. 1934. 2020 Or 8 Tyc gig vg Cyp s arm bo : cvrAaTwav 
42*. 82. 201. 325. 337. 385. 386. 429. 452. 456. 468*. 498. 522. 
632*. 919. 920. 1849. 1955. 2004. 2O2I. 2024. 2040 : CTrXaTetvai/ 
i : \VKavav 2015 : > Pr | Kat cAeu/cai/av airrao- >Tyc : "made 
them glorious" bo | Kat 4 >62o. 866 | avrao- As 025. i. 35. 60. 
93. 181. 205. 209. 432. 468. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2041. 
2067 gig vg Cyp s arm 4 bo : airrovo- 2037 : >046. 21 (-35. 
205. 468). 250 al mu Or 8 Pr arm a |. 

15. 8ia TOUTO] pr Kat 046*. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2067 | cio-tv] 
rj\6ov eth | AaTpei;ovo-tv] Soaovo-iv eth | o Ka^/xci/oo-] his qui 
sedet Pr Cyp | CTTI TOV Opovov Ax i. 61. 172. 205. 250. 385. 
2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023**. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Or 8 
s 1 : 7rt T<o 0povw 025. 046. 21 ( - 205. 2020) al mu : supra sedem 
gig : in throno Tyc Pr vg Cyp | o-K^vaxrci CTT avrova] N c - : 
ytvo)O"Kt avrovo" N* : ytvcoo-Ktt CTT avrova- N c : habitavit supra 
illos gig : inhabitavit super eos Cyp : habitat super eos Tyc : 
inhabitavit in eis Pr : " dwelleth in them " arm 1 - 2 - ( 3 >- . 

16. en 1 A 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p Or 3 gig : 
>N 2019 Pr vg Cyp s arm 3 - 4 -* bo sa | ou6Y] -f/xiy A 61. 69 
Or 8 | Su/^o-ovo-iv] 8ii// r ao"ovcrtv X 385 : Sti/a/o-coo-iv 025. 69. 2038 | eTt 2 
Ax 046. 21 ( 205. 2020). 2067 al pl Or 8 vg s 2 arm 2 bo : umquam 
Pr Cyp : >025. i. 141. 172. 205. 250. 424. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2037. 
20 3 8 gig s 1 arm 1 - 3 - 4 - a : + " neither shall they toil " bo | prj -n-aLa-Tj 
en] an emendation of Gwynn and Swete of firj TTCO-T; CTU As 025. 
i. 35. 69. 2015. 2019. 2036 al p : ov fjif) Treor^ 7rt 046. 21 (-35. 
2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pm Or 8 : ov fji-rj Treo-^Tai CTTI 2020 | 
o ->;Atoor] o >2O2o. 2037 : " cold" arm 1 - 2 - 3 : " shadow" bo | TTO.V 
>Tyc arm : TO 314. 2016 | Kav/xa] +patientur Pr Cyp (. 

17. avo. fxcaoy] evwTrtov bo eth | Troi^tavet AS 025. 046. I. 35. 
61. 69. 104. 205. 314. 429. 468*. 620. 866. 2015. 2019. 2020. 
2023**. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041*. 2067. s arm sa : reget gig 
vg Cyp : TToi^aivct 21 ( - 35. 205. 468*. 620. 866. 2020). 42. 82. 



284 AIIOKAAYtflS IOANNOY [VIII. 1-4. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

I. Kai orav r/voiev rfv o"<paytSa rrjv e/?8o/ar;i/, eyeveTo o-ty) ev 
OJ ovpai/w a>s ^utwpoi/. (0) 3. Kat f aAAos f (^) ayycAos ^A$ei/ Kai 
a-rdOrf CTTI r ro Ovcria.o-TrjpLOv^ \wv A.ij8avarroi/ ^pvo-ovv, Kat fo66rj 
rijpiov avTaJ Ov/Aia-fAdTa TroAAa, fva owcret ra?s 7rpoo~v^ai<s TWV dyttov TTOLVTWV 
7rt TO Ova-iacrrrjpiov TO ^pvo-ovV TO CVWTTIOV TOV Opovov. 4. Kat avtfif] 

(a) Verse 2 is restored in what appears to have been its original form after 
8 5 . See vol. i. 218-222, 224. 

(b) Read els. 

91. 141. 172. 201. 2l8. 241. 242. 25Q. 385. 424. 432. 498. 522. 

1955. I 957- 20I 6. 2017. 2018. 2021. 2023*. 2024. 2039. 2041** 
Or 8 : regit Pr : Tre/HTraTet /ACT avTW bo | oS^y^o-et Atf 025. 046. 
i. 35. 61. 69. 205. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 
ajp Or 8 Tyc gig Cyp vg s arm bo : oSr/yct 21 (-35. 205. 
2020). 42. 82. 91. 104. 250. 385. 429. 2016. 2017 al mu Pr I 
o>?7<r] <oo-ao- I. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 : ^coryv Kat CTTI S 1 | 
fontem Pr arm a bo | Kat eaA.eii/>et . . . otftOaXfjuav 
>2020 | e^aAti/At] c^eXet 35 | o Qtoar > s 1 arm 2 - 4 | TTO.V 

TTCLV SpCLKVOV N* I TTttVTtt Ttt SttK^Va 69 arm I SdKpVOV Cth | 

e/c TWI/ o<$aA/x(ov AC 025. 046. 21 (-325. 456. 468*. 620. 866. 
920. 2040). 250. 2038 al pm Pr gig Cyp vg s : a Tan/ ocf>6aX- 
/xtuv K 61. 104. 241. 325. 456. 468*. 620. 866, 920. 2015. 2023. 
2024. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2067 al p Or 8 vg d - v |. 

1. K<u>Tyc | oTai/ AC : OTC K 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl Or s | o-ty^] <j>a>vr] bo | rjfjLitapov AC 337. 498. 
1957 : ^twptov (fLfjL- $) K 025. 046. 21 (-337. 866). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 s : semihora Pr gig : media hora Tyc vg 
: (Dpav bo |. 

3. aYY ^ oor > sl I "n^Oev] f.%r]\6f.v 69 : before aAAoa- arm 1 - 2 

| 7Tt TO OvO-LOLO-TrjplOV A 025. I. 35. 205. 2OI9. 2O23 al mU I 7Tl TOV 

Ovo-iao-TfjpLOv X 046. 21 ( 35. 205). 69. 104. 250. 314. 385. 
2015. 2016. 2018. 2037. 2067 al mu Or 3 : ?rt TOV Ovo-iao-TrjpLov C : 
ante altare Tyc gig vg arm 1 eth : super altarium Dei Pr : 
" at the altar " arm 2 - 3 - 4 - a | e^wv] Kat et^ev arm 1 - 2 - a eth : ct^ev 
arm 3 | At/3avwTov] Xt/3avov TO C | 0v//,ia/mTa] supplicamenta Pr 
| tva 8wo-et>S 1 | Sweret A^C I. 35. HO. 172. 2OI. 250*. 337. 
386. 632. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2040 al p : SOKTT; 025. 046. 21 (-35. 
325. 337. 386. 456. 632. 2040). 250**. 2067 al mu Or 8 : 6\o 69. 
314. 325. 456. 2019 | Taio- 7r/oocreu^ator] Tao~ cv^acr 205 : orationes 
gig arm 1 - 2 - 3< a : de orationibus vg d - v : " along with the prayers " 
bo | ^vo-tao-T?;ptov] + TOV $eov Pr | TO ei/wuioi/] TO >X arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a 

4. a^epT] o Kcmvoor] N c : avafir) KO.TTVOCT K* : 0^-506 : 
arm 2 | TOJV ^v/xta/>iaTa)j/] supplicationum Pr | Tato- 



VIII. 5-6.] AIIOKAAYM2 K3ANNOY 285 



6 KttTrvos TWV 0v/xta^taTO)V TOLLS Trpoo-cvxats TOJV dytwv CK \cipos TOV 
dyyeAov eixoTTiov TOV #ov. 5. Kat elXrjfav 6 dyyeAos TOV At/Jai/ooToV, 
Kat eye/xitrei/ avTov CK TOV Trvpos TOV 0vo-tao-Tr;ptov, /cat e/?aAev eis T^V 
ywVj Kat eytvovTO f (3povTau Kat ao~Tpa7rat Kat (fxavat \ Kat o-etcr/xos. 

2. Kat t8ov f TOVS tTTTa f (#) dyye Aovs () Kat ^eSo^^o-av 1 avTOt 
f 7rra f (a) o-dATTiyye?. 6. Kat ot f CTTTO, f (a) dyyeAot ot 
Tas f 7rra f (a) o-aA.7rtyyas ^TOt/xacrav avTOVs tva 



(a) Read rpets in the first two cases after the noun but without change of 
order in the next two. See vol. i. 218-223. 

(6) The interpolator of viii. 7-12, to whom the changes in the text are 
due, added here ot tv&Triov TOV 0eov effr-fiKaaiv. This termination aaiv of 
the perfect does not occur elsewhere in our author, who uses -ctj>. 

orationum Pr s 2 arm 4 bo : de orationibus gig vg : o-vi/ T. 
Trpocrevxatcr eth | x ei P 00 ~] X L P a)V arm1 2 3 a I TOV ayy^Aov] TOV > 
498. 2020 : TCDV ayyeAwv 69*. 205 arm 2 - a : TOV apxayyeAov arm 1 
| i/o>7riov >arm j : pr TOV bo | TOV ^eov > arm 1 - 4 |. 

5. i\T]<|>ek ] eye/xtcrev arm 1 - 2 3 - a \ TOV Ai/?avwTOv] TO Xt/3avwTov 
104. 141. 205. 218. 424. 2019. 2024 | Kat cy/x. avroi/>eth | 
avTOi/] avTo 104. 205. 218. 424 | TOV ^vcrtao-TT/ptov] + TOV $eov Pr 
: pr TOV 7ri s 1 : "of Gehenna " arm 2 | e^aAev X 046. 21 Or 8 
Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : /3aAAej/ 025 : eXafiov A \ fipovTai 
K. ao-TpaTrat K. (f>(j)vai A 336. 2020 s 2 ( d - 1>p ) : /SpovTat K. ^coi/at K. 
ao-Tpa?rat K 046. 21 (-35. 2020). 69. HO. 172. 250. 314. 385. 
2016. 2018 al p Or 8 Pr gig vg s 1 bo eth : <$>u>va.i K. fipovTai 
K. ao-TpaTrat 025. i. 35. 2037. 2067 al mu Tyc arm 4 : </>wi/at K . 
ao-Tpa7rai K. fipovTai 104. 2038 : The order of all the MSS is 
corrupt. We should expect aorpaTrai first, since not only in 
point of fact the lightning is seen before the thunder is heard, 
but also because this order is preserved always elsewhere in our 
author: cf. 4 5 n 19 i6 18 . St. John is an observer of nature, and 
was not guilty of this blunder. It is due to the interpolator of 
g7-i2 > T ne original order was ao-Tp. Kai <wvai Kat fipovTai as in 
4 5 1 1 19 i6 18 . The hopeless order of A (3povT. K. ao-Tp. K. <fruv. is 
most probably due to the interpolator. The readings of N 046 
Pr vg s 1 , of 025 Tyc, are obvious attempts at correction. | Kai 
0-CIO-/XOO- >242. 617. 1934 : o-io-ftot 209 Or 8 arm 2 - s : -f/*eyao- 
vg v arm 1 - a : + eyeveTO /ueyao- vg g |. 

2. roua irra>i. 506 : Tovo->2o5 | TOV ^eov>arm 1 : TOV 
6povov 620. 866 arm 4 | co-T^Kaerti/ A^C 025. 046. 21 (-35. 325. 
456. 468. 2020) Or 8 : io-n/Kio-av 35. 468. 2020 S : eo-Tr)K(ra.v 
42. 314. 325. 456. 517 : stabant gig : stant Tyc eth : stantes 
Pr Vg bo | coo6r)o-av tfC 025. 046. 21 (-18. 919. 920. 1849. 
2004. 2040) Or 8 Pr gig vg s bo : eSotfr; A 18. 172. 919. 920. 
1849. Z 955- 2004. 2018. 2040. 2041 arm : qui acceperunt Tyc 
| o-aA.7riyyeo-] + tva o-aATrto-wo-t 920. 2040 : tubas Tyc |. 

6. 01 e X on-eo- A 025. 046. 21 (-468*. 620. 866). 250. 2037. 



286 AIIOKAAYtflS K3ANNOY [VIII. 13, 7-8. 

13. Kttl e76W Kttt r)KOV<TOL fVO<S ttCTOV TTCTO/AtVoV tV fJLCarOVpa.VqfJl.aTL 

Xeyoi/TO? <J)(Dvfj fjL-yd\r) Ouat ovai oval rots /carotKovo-ti/ CTTI rfjs y^s 
e/c TWV [XotTToiv] <COVUH> T^S (TaXTTtyyos TWV Tptwi/ dyyeXwi roil/ yu,eX- 



[7. Kal 6 TrpwTOS 

/cat eyevero ^aXa^a Kat Trvp /xc/xiy/xeva cy at/xari, 
/cat e/?X 77^77 ei5 Tryv y?}v. 
/cat TO TptVov T^S y>?s 
Kat TO rpiTov TU>J> 8eVSp(o> 
Kat Tras ^opros ^Xwpos 
8. Kat 6 SevTepos ayyeAos eo"aX7rto-v* 

2067 al pl s arm L2 - 3 - a bo eth : ot > K 468*. 620. 866. 2019. 
2038 Or 8 arm 4 | Tao >arm a | avTovo- Ax* : eavrovo- K c 025. 
046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 s 1 - 2 bo : 7r avrovo- 69 
| araA.7rio-<oo-t] 4- TOVCT craXTrtyyao" arm 1 - 8 : 4- TOVO* 7rra o-a\7rtyyao- 
arm 2 1. 

13. Kat eiSoi > s 1 eth | rjKovara] + <f>wrjv Tyc vg arm 1 - 2 - a ] 
evocr >X 025 arm bo sa | aerm As 046. 21 ( 205. 468. 620. 632. 
866). 250 al mu Or 8 Tyc gig fl s arm 1 - 2 - a 4 bo eth : ut aquilam 
Pr : ayycXov 025. i. 104. 205. 241. 468. 620. 632. 866. 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 arm a | TTCTO/XCVOV > bo | fv 
[A<rovpavr)iJ.aTL\ ev /xeo-ovpai/to-/>taTi i : in medio caeli et terrae 
eth | AeyovToo-J et dicentem Tyc eth | </>tov?7 /xcyaX?;] + Tpio- 
104. 432. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2041 : c/><in/>7 T P lo ~ 35- 2019 : 
<f>wv. p,ey. before XeyovToo- gig fl : >Tyc s 1 | ovatj twice only i. 
2038 eth | Toto- KaTotKovo-tv A 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al mu : TOVCT KaToiKOWTao- K 046. 21 (-35. 205). 61. 
69. no. 172. 242. 250. 314. 385. 2016. 2018 al mu Or 8 | CK Twi 
XotTrwv </>(ovo)i/ rrj(T o-aXTrtyyoo"] CK TT^O* C/XOVT/CT TO>V <raX7rtyya>v S 1 : CK 
T. (j)(avr](r T. XotTrcov o-aX7rtyy<ov S 2 : ^xoi/wi/ rrjo- craXTTiyyoo- > Pr J. 

7. o irpwTocr Atf 025. 046. 21 ( - 2020) al pm Or 8 s arm 4 : -f 
ayycXoo- I. 250. 522. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 
Tyc Pr gig vg arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a bo eth | Kat 3 > Tyc | /xc/xty/xeva A 
046. 21 (-205. 2020). 250. 2037 al pl Or 8 Pr gig vg s : fic/xty- 
fjievov $ 025. 181. 205. 209. 432. 2020. 2038. 2067 Tyc | v 
ai/xaTt] ev>l. 2038 al p : vSaTt 205 S 1 2 : t<r at/ta Pr gig 
J3X.rj6r)] ^Xr]0f]crav 172. 250. 424. 2018 S L 2 | Kat TO rpirov TTTJO- 
yrja- KaTeKary>i. 2018 arm 1 - 4 | T/oiTOv 1 ] Sctrrcpov arm 2 - 3 | KaTe- 
Kary 1 - 2 - 3 ] KaTKavo-av fl : KaTKavo~cv arm 2 - 8 - a | Kat TO rpiTOV T<DI> 
O6v8pa>v KaTtKar) > 046*. 175. 456 al p gig arm 3 - a : Kat KaTCKa^ 
TTOV SevSpov eth j rpirov 2 ] SevTepov arm 2 | KareKar} 2 > Tyc 
arm 2 - 3 bo Kai -Trao* oToo- Xwoo- KareKar ^> arm 



IO 4- 201 * 3 : 7ra ra \oprov 
arm 1 - 2 - 3 bo | ^Xoopoo-] TT/O* yrj<r S 1 | KareKarj 3 ^> eth |. 

8. ayyeXocr >X s 1 | too-] pr eyeveTO 920. 2040 S 1 | Trvpi 



VIII. 9 11.] AIIOKAAY\M2 IfiANNOY 287 

Kat cos opos //,eya irvpl Kaiofifvov e(3\r]6r] eis r^/r 6d\a<roav t 
Kat iytvf.ro TO rpirov r>}s tfaXao-cTT/s at/xa, 
9. Kat a.7re#avev TO rpirov TCOV KTto"/x,aTU)v TCOV eV TT? 6a\u.crcrr) TO. 



Kat TO rpirov TCOV TrXotcov 
IO. Kat 6 TptYos ayyeXos etra 

Kat 7To-ei/ CK Tou ovpavov a(TTr)p /xeyas Katoyuevos cos Xap,7ras, 
Kat eWcrey evrl TO rpirov TCOV Trora/Acov Kat f errt TCIS Triyyas f 

TCOV {i^CtTWV, 

1 1. [Kat TO ovofjia. TOV dcTTe pos AeyeTai 6 "A^tv^os] 
Kat iyivf.ro TO rpirov Ttov vSaYcoj/ a>s a.\l/iv9o^ 

Kttt TToXXot TtOV avOMTTW aTTtOoVOV K TCOl/ vSttTOOV OTl 



025. i. 35*. 205. 250. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Or 8 Tyc Pr 
gig fl vg s 2 arm 2 - 4 : TTV/OOO- bo : >O46. 21 (-35*. 205. 2020) 
al pm S 1 arm 1 - 3 - a | e/3X^^7/] 7reo-V S 1 arm | coo- opoo- /xeya Trvpt] 7TV/3 
jaeya wo- opoo- eth | eyeveTo] eyevrjOr] R \ TptTov] Sevrepov arm 2 j 
aifjLa] in sanguinem Pr |. 

9. TO TpiToi/ 1 ] + /xepoo- N 172. 250. 424. 2018. 2019 Pr gig fl 
vg bo sa eth : TO SevTepov arm 2 - 3 | TWV KTto~)aaT(oi/] piscium 
Pr : animalium fl arm 4 : creaturae vg : pr Trai/Tcov s 1 - 2 bo | 
TOOV / rrj OaXao-crr) AS 025. 205. 250. 2020. 2037 al mu Or 8 fl S 
bo eth :>i. 181 Pr vg : Twv>o46. 21 (-205. 2020). 2038. 
2067 al mu : eorum quae in mari creata stint gig | Ta e^oi/ra 
i^v^ao-] Ta \ovra i^v^^v ( + ^w?o- bo sa eth) X bo sa eth : 
Ta c^ovTa TOO- \l/v\a<r 42. 242. 468 : TWV e^oi/Twv Tao- i/^v^ao- 35* : 
TO e^ov ij/vxnv s 1 : habentium animas Tyc : >Pr fl | Sie^apT/o-ai/ 
Ax 025. (i). 35. 42. 60. 181. 432. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 
2037**. 2041 s 2 arm 1 - 2 : ^i^Oap-rj 046. 21 (-35. 205). 250. 
2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 s 1 arm 3 - a : c<f>0aprj 205 : corruperunt Tyc : 
periit Pr : interiit gig fl vg |. 

10. ayyeXoo 1 >S l \ Xa/x,7rao*] Trvp eth : +7rvpoo- bo | Kat tTrecrci/ 2 
>Pr fl | TptTOv] + ftcpoo- 2019 Pr fl Vg bo sa eth | Kat e-m raa- 
Trr)ya<r TCOV vSaTcov > A : vSaTOcr bo sa |. 

11. TOU acTTepocr] -f- TOVTOU Tyc | XcyeTat] eXcyeTo 104 arm 4 | 
o Ai/w0oo- A 025. 046. 21 (-2020). 250 alP m Or 8 s : o > N* et 
I. 69. 104. 2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p | ai/av#oor] X c : 
a\l/ivOiov N* ( + Kat XeyeTat S* del K c ) bo : a^ti/^cocr 2067 : absintium 
Tyc : absintus Pr : absinthius gig vg a - d - v : absentius vg f : absin- 
thus vgs : habsintus vg c : absentium fl : " bitterness " arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a : 
"wormwood" arm 4 | rpirov] + /xepoo- Or 8 Pr fl gig vg bo eth 
cycvero] ytveTat I. 2019. 2038 al p | cocr aij/tvOoa- (-ov Or 8 ) 2038 
Or 8 : sicut absintium (alloe bo) Pr gig vg s 1 bo sa : quasi 
absentium fl : eto- aij/LvOov A 025. 046. 21 (-620. 866. 1934)- 
250. 2067 al pl s 2 : etcr a\l/Lv6iov K 104. no. 336. 620. 866. 1934- 
2015. 2023. 2036. 2037 gig vg : "bitter" arm 3 : "into blood 



288 AIIOKAAYMS IOANNOY [VIII. 12-IX. 1. 



12. Kai 6 TerapTos ayyeXos ec 

Kai 7r\tjyr} TO rpirov TOV ^Xt ov 
Kai TO rpirov Ttys o^X^^s Kai TO rpirov TO>V 
iva orKOTiorOfj TO rpirov avTujv 
Kai f ^ ^/xepa /AT) <dV?7 TO rpirov avrfjs /cat ^ vv f 
6/AOicos.] 

into wormwood" arm 4 | K TCOI/ vSaTtov ort t-rriKpavOrjo-av] (ab) 
amaritudine aquarum (Pr) fl arm 1 - 2 - a eth : OTI 7riKpav6r)o-av ra 
vSaTa S 1 | K TCOV] ori TWV A . 

12. ayyeXoa > S 1 | eTrXvyyT;] tTrXyge arm 1 2> a a : + Kat eo-KOTiaOr) 
eth I TO rpirov TOV ryXtov Kat > 1934 | TptTov] + /xcpoa- (thrice in this 
verse) Pr fl gig vg bo sa eth | Kat TO rpirov rrjo- o-eX^v^o- > fl | iva 
<TKOTLo-6rj TO rpirov avTwi/] + Kat co~Korio~6r]cra.v S 2 : Kai to-Korio-6v} 
( Orjo-av S 1 ) TO rpirov avTiov 172. 250. 2018 S 1 arm 1 - 8< 4 - a : Kat eo-KO- 
Tto-^ry arm 2 : /a O-KOTIO-#O)O-I bo : ut minus lucerent Pr : iva O-KOT. T. 
rpirov avTwv Kat > eth | rj ^/xepa . . . vv] text corrupt : bo alone (Kat 
TO Tp. ai>T(oj/ /AY) (f>avr] rjfAcpacr Kai o/Aotwo" WKTOO") either preserves 
or recovers original sense. Pr fl and eth attempt to recover it. 
See below. Evidence as follows. TJ ^/xcpa ^ <pavr) TO rpirov 
(rtraprov A) avT^cr AN 025. 35. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Or 8 : Kat 
TO rpirov avrrja- fj,r] <f>avrj r;(>o46. 522) T^/xepa 046. 175. 325. 337. 
456. 468. 617. 620. 866. 1934 alP m ; (avruv for avTryo- 18. 69. 
141. 385. 429. 522. 632. 919. 1849. 1955. 2004. 2015. 2024 : 
avToto- for avrrjcr 386 : avrrjo- > 920. 2040 : TO rpirov avrvja- 
>202o) : et dies eandem partem amitteret Pr fl : et dies non 
luceat terciam partem gig : et diei non luceret pars tertia vg : 
Kat rj 7}fjLpa OVK ec^aive TO rpirov aim/o" S 1 : Kat 17 ly/xcpa 
OVK efavr) Kat TO rpirov arm 1 : " and the third part of them had 
not light and day " arm 3 : /x^ ^aii/wo-ii/ Kat TO rpirov rjfjLepao- Kat 
VVKTOO- eth | T] w] nocte vg f - v : noctis vg d bo eth [ . 



CHAPTER IX. 

<7r/)ui- I. Kat 6 f TTC/ATTTOS f ayyeXos o-aX7rto-i/ 

7"os > Kat eiSov do-Tepa IK TOV ovpavov TreTmoKOTa tts ryv yfjv, 

Kat e8o0?7 auTw f} KXcts TOV (ppearos rrj<s -- 



1. Kai . . . eaaXiTtaei >i849 | Kat ciSov >eth | aorepa . . . 

TWKOTa] X I ao"Tpao- . . . TreTTTWKOTao- N* | acrTepa K TOV 
ovpavov TreTTTWKOTa] ao~Tpa TTCTTTtoK. K TOV ovp. 920. 2O4O arm 4 : 
CK TOV ovp. aor. TTCTTT. gig | eto" rr)v yrjv] 7Tt TT;O- y^o- 498. 2020 S 1 
bo sa : 7rpoo~ rrjv yrjv 385 j eSo$?;] eSwKavbo | rj KXcto-] Tao- 
bo eth I TOV ^>pcaTOcr] TO>V (frpearw S 1 j TT;O- a/3vo-o-ov 5>gig [. 



IX. 2-4] AnOKAAY^U IQANNOY 2 

2. KOL yvotgcv TO c/>pe ap T^S d/2vWov, 
Kat dvf/3r) Ka7n/os eV TOV cppeaTos 
MS KaTrvos KafjiLvov /x,eyaA??s, 
Kal CO-KOTO^ ^>s Kat 6 d^p C K TOV KO.TTVOV TOV tppeWos. 

3. Kat CK^TOV Ka7n/ov c^XOov uKpt Ses ets TT?I/ yrjj/, 

Kat ^Softj avrars eowri a cos e xovcrii/ egovviatv ot ovcopTri oi T 
7175. ^ 

4. KalipptOr) avTak tVa /^ dSiKT/o-ovonv TOV xoprov r^s 
ovoe vwx^pov ovfe irav SeVSpov, t /x^ rous dv(9p 
otTti/es OVK I X ^^ ^v or<f>paft8a TOV Oeov tiri TWV 



2. Kat TJIXH^ TO <f> P 6ap TTJCT apuaaou A 025. i. 35. 104. 172 
241. 250. 620. 632. 866. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 20^6 

2037. 2041. 2067 alP Or 8 Tyc Pr gig fl vg s 2 armi-* : >o 4 6 21 
(-35. 620. 632. 866. 2020). 2038 al mu vg a - d s 1 arm 2 - 3 - bo eth I 
Kat ai/e/fyj de quo ascendit Pr | KO.TTVOO- CK TOV ^peaTotr wo- > i 

I 7 2. 325-456. 2018. 2021 I Of] K C : 7rt * | rov ^KOTOO-l TO>V 

</>peaT(ov S 1 I wo- KaTri/ocr] wcr > A : WO - CK Pr fl | /caTrvocrT c 
Ka^tvoo- N* | /xeyaX^o- AN* 025. i. 35. 205. 2015. 2036. 20^7 

2038. 2067 al- Tyc Pr vg fl arm - 2 - 3- a b ^ eth : 5 Kato/x 3 ^ 
21 (-35- 205. 2020). 250 al m Or s 2 : yueyaA^a- Kato/xc^ 141. 
432- 452. 2019. 2020 (/xeyaXov). 2O2I gig s 1 arm 4 I Kai loo-Pr 
fl | CO-KOTO)^ A 6l. 69. 181. 2038 : eo-Korto-^y 025. 046 21 
250. 2037. 2067 al^ Or 8 : tenebris obscuravit Pr fl | a^p] ao-r^p 

205 I K TOV K0.7TVOV TOV <j>pO.TOO~ KO.L > tf* (but DOt N C ) Pr fl 

arm 1 - 2 - a | TOV <peaToo-] TWI/ <^peaTwv s 1 : T>?O- Ka/xti/ov arm 3 

3. Kairi/ou] + TOV </>peaToo- Tyc vg f - v : </>pearoo- arm 1 - a I etcr] 
7ri arm bo | avTato- A 025. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 alpl Or s : 
avTOto- 046. 104 | e^ovorta] + Kat T a Kej/Tpa avrwi/ arm 1 j 
coo- X ovo-iv elowiai/] similis earn quae habent fl : rjv e X ovo-Lv s 1 : 
wo- Kci/Tpa o-KopTTtov arm 1 - 2 - : /a yei/coi/Tat coo- eth I TWO- ywo-1 or cTrt 
s 2 arm 3 bo eth : >arm 1 - 2 - a . 

4. eppeOr) Ax 025.2! (-35*). 2037. 2038. 2067 al? 1 Or s : 
ippl^ 046. 172. 250. 2018. 2024 : cpeOri 35* | avrato- A 025 
21 (-18. 919. 2004). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP 1 Or 8 : avTotcr N 
046. 1 8. 6l. 69. 172. 919. 2004. 2039 | a3iK7;o-ovo-iv A 2019 : 
aoiKTyo-coo-ti/ N 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP 1 Or 8 Tyc 
Pr gig fl vg | ovSe Trav x Xw PH >N* ( c wrote x *< above 
Sej/Spoi/) Tyc arm : /t^ irav X ^pov 2020 : Kat irav xA-copoi/ 
S 1 | x^topov . . . So>Spov]~bo | Trav SevSpor] Sa/Spa s 1 :7ra/>arm 1 : 
iravTa SevSpa arm 2 - 3 - 4 - a | t ^ TOVO- avOpta-rrovo-] + /xoi/ovo- 1957. 
2023. 2041 alP : nisi tantum homines vg arm | o-^paytSa] 
crc/)payi8av N 82. 866 | TOV ^eov] > i. 35. 181. 241. 2015. 2036. 
2037. 2067 : TOV Xpto-Tov arm 1 | /^TcoTron/ Ax 025. i. 181. 2015. 
2036. 2037. 2038 gig V g a - c - d : +OVTCOI/ 046. 21. 2 <o. 2067 alP 1 
Pr vg. fl s arm 1 - 2 - 4 e th |. 

VOL. II. 19 



290 AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY [IX. 5-7. 



5. Kat o#?7 avrats iVa fJLrj aTro/cTetVwcrtv 
dAX* tva (^a.cravKrBria Ovra.i toyi/as Tret/re. #) 

6. Kat ev rats i^iiepats e/ceiVais r)Tr)<rov<rw ot aV0pa>7roi TOI> 



/<at ov 
/cat 

Kat <f>evyei o Odvaros O.TT avruiv. 
fytotoi 7. Kat TO, o/xotw/xara rail/ aKpt SW r o/xota^ tTTTrots -ty 



Kat eTTt ras K^>aXas avrwv ws ore^ai/ot o/xotot 
Kat ra TrpocrwTra avrwj/ ws Trpoo-WTra 



(a) Text adds gloss : /cai 6 jSacra^Kr/i^s aurwj> ws ^affavifffjibs (TKopirtov orav 



5. Kai 8o0T]] et dictum est Pr eth : dictum est fl | 

025. 046. 21 (-2004). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 : avrotcr 
AS I. 104. 181. 2004 | aTTOKreti/wtrti/] aStK^croxrtv 920. 2040 | tva 2 
^S 1 | /^acravKr^crovTai AX 025. I. 35. 181. 2019. 2O2O. 2038 : 
/2a<rai/ia-0cotri 046. 21 (-35. 2020). 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 : 
cruciarentur Pr (gig) vg fl : cruciarent Tyc arm bo eth | avrwi/ 
wo- /3ao-aviayxo(r > 149 | Trattn; 21 ( - 149. 468*. 620. 866. 920. 
2020) Or 8 Tyc gig fl vg s 2 arm : Trecn; AN 025. 046. 104. 149. 
172. 620. 866. 920. 2020. 2038 al mu : 7re<r>7 CTT. S 1 : 7r\r)r) 60. 
432. 452. ^06. 2021. 2022. 2023. 2041** : 8aKr] 367. 468* bo sa 
eth |. 

6. V raio- T]fxpaia CKCicaia > Tyc : c^ T>; -^/xepa Kavrj arm 1 | 
^r^o-oucrtv] tflTov<rw 60. 82. 93. no. 175. 325. 452. 456. 468. 
517. 1957. 2024. 2041 | ot avOpwrroi > Pr | evpwo-ti/ A 025. 35. 
172. 181. 205. 209. 250. 424. 2015. 2018. 2023. 2036. 2037 : 
evpT/o-ovo-iv N 046. 21 (-35. 205. 325. 337. 456. 468. 620. 866. 
1849). 104. no. 201. 241. 242. 314. 385. 429. 498. 522. 1957. 
2017. 2019. 2024. 2041. 2067 al mu Or s gig fl vg : evprjcrua-iv i. 61. 
69. 82. 325. 337. 456. 468. 517. 620. 866. 1849 : evpovcriv 2038 : 
inveniunt Pr | aTro^aveiv] rov Oavarov 104 | <euyct A 025. I. 35. 
181. 2019. 2020. 2067 : (f>wyr] 8 : <everai 046. 21 ( 35. 2020). 
250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 Pr gig fl vg s arm bo eth | o Oavaroa- 
OLTT O.VTUV AS 025. I. 35. 205. 2015 (>a7r). 2019. 2020. 2036. 
2037. 2067 al mu Pr gig fl Vg s arm 4 : a?r avrwv o Oavaroa- 046. 21 
( - 35. 205. 2020). 250. 2038 al mu Or 8 arm 1 - 2. s. a . Qavaroo- > 
104 I- 

7. TO, ojxoiwjJiaTa] TO oyitoito/xa gig s arm 1 2> 3> a bo | o/xota 025. 
046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Pr vg : o/xotot N (s) : o/xoiw- 
fjiara A : o/xotw/xa Or 8 arm 1 - 2 - a : ojuotov arm 3 : similes erant fl 
arm 4 | avrwv] + o/xotw/xa Or 8 | o/xotot xP V(r(a Atf 025. i. 35. 172. 
205. 250. 429. mg 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p 



IX. 8-11.] AIIOKAAY*I2 IOANNOY 291 

8. Kai et^av Tpt ^as o>? Tpt ^as ywatKoV, 
Kat ot ooorres avrtov 005 Xeoj/rwi/ 






9. Kat tx av @<*>pa.Ka<s a>? $ujpaKas crt8??poi;?, 
Kat -^ <ajK>) TO>I/ TTTepuywi/ avrwv u>s <f> 

tTTTTCOV TToXXwV Tpe^OVTOOV CIS 7ToA.eu.OJ/. 

10. Kat e^ovcrtv ovpas 6/xoias o-KopTrt ots Kat Kei/Tpa, 
Kat el/ rat? ovpcus avraiv 17 eov<rta avTun/ 
dStK^crat TOUS avOptaTTovs fMrjvas TreVre. 

11. (.^pvcriv ITT avTaV /JacrtAca TOV ayyeXoi/ TT}S d/3uo-crov, 
6Vo/za avTu> c E/?pai o-Tt A/2aS8a>i/. (#) 

(a) Text adds gloss : KctJ ^ r?? EXX?;i/^^ 5^o/*a fy" AiroXXiJwv. 
Observe below how Pr fl vg add et Latine habet nomen Exterminans a 
fact which shows how glosses arise. 

Or 8 Tyc Pr gig fl vg s (arm) : " of colour of gold " bo : xp^o-ot 046. 
21 (-35. 205) al pm | Kat ra Trpoo-wTra . . . ai/<9pa>7rwj/ > arm 2 |. 

8. etxai/ AX : et^ov 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or s : 
e^oi/reo- 2038 Pr fl : >arm 1 - 2>3 - a | rptxao- 1 ] Kat at rpt^eo- avriav 
(> arm 3 ) arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | Tpi^ao- 2 > 2020 fl : rpt^eo- arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a 
yi^vatKwv] ywatKocr arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a : ut mulieres fl | axr 2 ] + oSoi/reo- fl 
Vg d | A-eovrcoy] Xeovrocr arm 1 - 2> a | rjcrav > fl s 1 arm . 

9. Kai etxai/ . . . <7i8ir]pou<r > 920. 2040 | ^wpaKaor 1 > 2020 : 
pectora Pr | wcr OwpaKaa- > 1 8. 919. 1849. 2004 gig I (j-o)v-rj 2 
>Pr fl arm 2 | tTTTrcov] pr Kat 337. 468 : >325. 456. 620. 866 | 
TroXXwv >bo I rpe^ovTwi/] rjroifjiaa-fjifvwv bo |. 

10. Kai )(ouo-ii/] Kat et^ov 2020. 2067 Tyc Pr vg arm 1 - 2< 3 - 4 : 
>fl I ovpatr o/xotao-J oupat o/xotat fl : o/xoico/xa arm 4 | o/zotao- 025. 
046. 21 (-35. 617). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 3 Tyc Pr gig 
vg s arm 1 - 2 - 3 bo : o/xotato- 617 : o/xototo- AN 69 : o/xoioxr 35 | 

(TKOpTTlOtO-] CTKOpTTlW S 1 arm 1 2> 3 a I (TKOpTTUDV Vg : VKOpTTHav t]<TO.V fl | 

Kevrpa Kat ev Ax 025. 046. 21 ( - 18. 205. 2020) al pm Or s s 2 arm 3 - 4 
bo : Kei/rpoicr Kat ev Pr fl : Kti/rpa ?/v cv vg f - v : Ket/rpa (8e) ei> s 1 : /cat 
>i. 18. 61. 104. 141. 172. 205. 209. 241. 250. 424. 2015. 2018. 
2019. 202 - 2036. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2067 Tyc gig vg eth : Kat 
ev > arm 1 : Ktvrpov (Kat arm 2 ) ev arm 2 a | rj e^oDo-ta avrcov AN 025. 
35. 172. 205. 209. 250. 424. 2018 al p gig vg bo : pr Kai i. 2019. 
2038. 2067 Or 8 (Pr fl) vg d s 1 : egovcriav c^ovo-tv 046. 21 (- 18. 35. 
205). 69. no. 201. 242. 314. 385. 429. 498. 522. 1955. 1957. 
2015. 2016. 2017. 2023. 2024. 2037 al mu s 2 (pr Kat 241. 2036) : 
(Kat) e^ouo-iai/ et^ov arm 1 - to : eouo-iav c^ovo-at 18. 61. 2039 : > 104 
eth | aStK^crat AN 025. I. 35. 172. 175. 205. 242. 250. 314. 617. 
1934. 2015. 2017. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p Or 3 : pr 
TOV 046. 21 ( - 35. 175. 205. 617. 1934) al mu | TrevTe] sex Pr |. 

11. exouaiv AN 205. 314 : pr Kat 025. I. 250. 2037. 2038 al 
Or 8 gig s : Kat et^ov 2067 Pr fl vg arm 4 - a : e^ow-at 046. 21 ( - 205) 



2Q2 AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY [IX. 12. 

12. *H ovai rj ytxta a/7nyX0ei/ loov ep^crat crt ovo oval /LL^TOL ravra. 



al mu Tyc I 7T avTwv /3ao-tXea A 025. (025* adds in mg. but 
writes avrov). I. 35. 61. 69. 205. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067. 
Tyc Pr gig Vg S 1 : CTT cumov /?ao-tXeto- 2019 : eavrwv TOV /focrtXea tf 
arm 4 : /Sao-tXea CTT avroov 046. 21 ( - 35. 205). 250 al mu Or 8 s 2 arm a 
: /2ao-tXea CTT avrov 18. 172. 452 (CTT avrovo- 104 : VTT avrcov 336) : 
| /?ao-tXea] + TOV apxovra A : > fl | TOV ayyeXov -n/o- a/?vo-o-ov] 7-170- 
a/3v(T(rov TOV ayyeXoi/ A | TOV ayyeXov AS 025. I. 35. 69. 104. 
205. 632**. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Or 8 
arm* bo : TOV > 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 632**. 2020). 250 al mu | ovopa 
avrco] pr a) X : a> ovo/xa 94 Tyc Pr fl ( + est) vg : oi/o/xa avrov 2067 
a/3aSoW AN 025 al p Tyc vg s 1 : a/3/?aaSoW 046. 325. 429. 456. 
468. 517. 620. 632. 919. 1849. I 955- 2004 : aj3(3aao(i)v 172. 250. 
920. 2018. 2040 : a/3aa8Sa)i/ 42. 82. 93. no. 337. 452. 506. 2020. 
2021. 2024 al p : a/3(3aow I. 18. 35. 60. 91. 175. 181. 201. 314. 
386. 617. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Or s 
gig arm 3 : aftflaSBwv 2019. 2041 : a/3XaSSwv 61. 69 : armageddon 
Pr : ababdon fl : albagos arm 1 - ( 2 > : nabathdon arm 4 : magedon 
bo | KO.L cv TT) As 025. i. 35. 205. 314. 2019. 2038 al p gig s 1 : 
ev Se Trj 046. 21 (-35. 205. 325. 456. 468*. 620. 866. 920). 
250. 2037. 2067 al pm Or 8 S 2 : ev TT; eXXryi/t/o; Se 325. 456. 468*. 
620. 866 : ev Trj Se TTJ 920 : graece autem Tyc vg : graeca autem 
lingua Pr : graeca lingua .fl : " who is called in " arm 1 - 2 - 3 | 
eXXT/vt/cTy] cXXT/j/tSt X 205 : + prjartL 2020. 2067 : crvpiaKrj s 1 : 
"Armenian" arm 1 - 2 | oi/o/xa e^et]~X 2019 gig : ovo/xa c^wv 522 : 
"is called" arm 1 - 2 - 3 : >Pr vg arm 4 - a eth | aTroXXvwv] pr o 2038 
bo : aTToXuwv 522. 2023* : apolion Tyc : apollion Pr : perdens gig : 
apollyon fl arm 3 " : "destruction" arm 1 - 2 : "destroyer" arm 4 
: + latine perdens Tyc : + et latina lingua nomen habens exter- 
minans Pr fl (vg) : +"who is called destruction in Armenian" 



arm 



1.2. 3 



12. rj oucu Y) jAia] ovat //,ia X* : ovat f] /w,ta N c : pr i8ov arm ( 

tSou] pr /ca 



TraprfXOf.v 2015. 2036. 2037 arm 1 - 2 - 3 " 1 | tSou] pr /cat Tyc 
Pr fl vg c - * v : > arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a eth | ep X TaL AN* 21 ( - 632**. 2020). 
69. 104. no. 385. 429. 2016. 2023* al mu Or 8 s 2 arm 1 bo : 
ep\ovTai K 025. 046. i. 172. 250. 632**. 2015. 2017. 2018. 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 vg s 1 : secuntur Pr : venient Tyc [ 
eri] at 432. 2019. 2037. 2038 : eri KO.L at 241 : alii Pr : alia gig : > 
i. 104. 498. 2023. 2067 Tyc fl bo eth | ovo] SevTcpa 104 : secun- 
dum fl arm 1 - 4 bo | /acra ravra. /cat A 025. I. 35. 172. 205. 250. 
632**. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Or 8 gig vg s 2 : 
also Pr eth but >//,era ravra : /cat /w,era ravra 046. 69 Tyc : yu,era 
ravra /cat (>/cat N 469 s 1 bo sa) are joined to ver. 13 by K 21 
(-35. 205. 632**. 2020). no. 241. 242. 385. 469. 2016. 2024. 
2039 al mu s 1 bo sa |. 



IX. 13-16.] AIIOKAAY^IS IHANNOY 293 



13. Kat 6 fcKTosf ayyeAos eo-aATmrei/ <5e/re- 
Kat r/Kovo-a <fxavyv p.iav IK TWV Keparcov TOU 6v(Tia<TTr)pLov TOU 

Xp var V T V CVWTTtOV TOU 0OU, 

14. Aeyoi/Ta TO) f CKTW f dyyeAw, 6 ^cov TT)I/ craA-Trtyya <8tvr- 
Auo-ov TOUS TeWapas dyye Aous TOUS SeSe/xeVous eVt TO) TroTa/xa) PV> 

TO) /xeyaAa) 



15. Kai \vOrj(Tav ot rccrcrapes ayyeAot 

ot T7Tot/xao7xeVot cts T^I/ wpav Kat rf/nepav Kal p^va. /cat 



ti/a aTroKretVwcriv TO rptrov TOJV a.vOpd)7ru)v. 
1 6. Kat 6 aptfytos raif o-T/mTVttaYu>i/ TOV ITTTTIKOU 8ts 



13. Kai > N (see above) | ^WI/T/V /xtai/] ~ 69 Or 8 : ff>wvrj<r 
X c 2067 : //.tai/ >&<* 2020 arm 1 - 2 - 3>a bo : (f>uvr)v /xcyaAr/v 172. 250 
424. 2018 : vocem, unum vg : unum Tyc Pr gig Cyp 



Kf.pa.TWV S 2015. 

gig vg s 2 bo sa eth : pr reo-o-a/Dwi/ 025. 046. 21. 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 aP 1 Or 8 Tyc Pr (Cyp) s 1 arm : &w 
i Pr : arcae Cyp | evwTriov] + TOV Opovov 



arm 



2 - a 



bo eth 

14. \6yon-a A* Tyc Pr gig vg Cyp : Aeyovroo- 046. 21 ( - 35. 
205. 468. 2020) al mu Or 8 : Aeyovcrav 025. i. 35. 104. 172. 205. 
468. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036 al p : Aeyovo-T/o- N c 
2067 : Aeywi/ 141 | KT<o>A2O38 | o e^wj/] TCO e^oi/rt 172. 250. 424. 
2018 | reo-o-apao-] Tea-crapetr tf 172 j TOVO- SeSe/xefovo- . . . ayyeAot 
(ver. 15) >bo, but not sa eth | 7rt] ej/ 93. 104. 432 | rw Trora/xcu > 
1849 I TCO fteyaAw] + TTora/xa) 025 :> arm 1 - 2 - 4 - a \ ev^par^] t^paTYj 
046 : pr TO) 468 : eufraten Tyc Pr gig Cyp : Al Frat sa . 

15. eXuGrjo-ay] eXv-rrrjOyo-av A | ot 7;roi/xao-/xcvot] ot >>K 18. 522. 
2O2I. 2039 : ot TrporyTOtyxao /xei ot 2015. 2036 | Kat >7/xepav A 025. 
35. 205. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Tyc Pr gig vg Cyp : Kat ao- 
rrfv rjfjicpav 046. 21 (-35. 205. 2020). 250 al mu Or 8 S eth : Kat rryi/ 
ripepav 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2041 bo sa : >X I | iva] 
+ /x>7^? | TPLTOV] + /xe/aocr 432. 2015. 2036. 2037 Pr Cyp gig vg bo 
sa eth . 

16. TOU urmicou Atf 025. 046. I. 35. 61. 69. 104. 205. 2015. 
2019. 2019. 2020. 2023. ui s 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067. al p Or 8 : TOV 
ITTTTOV 21 (-35. 205. 386. 2020). 42. 82. no. 336. 385. 1957. 
2018. 2023* al mu : TCOV tTTTrcui/ 386 | 8io" fjivpiaSccr . . . apt#/xov > 
arm 1 | Sto- xtvptaSeo- /xvptaSwi/ A 025. I*. 205. 2016. 2019. 2038 
Or 8 (Cyp) : Svo /xiynaoW fjLvptaSa(r N : /xvptaSecr /xvptaSwv 046. 21 
( 205). 250. 2037. 2067 al 1 " 11 : myriadis myriadum Tyc : octo- 
ginta milia Pr : vicies milies dena milia gig vg | auT<ov] + ut 



294 AIIOKAAYtflS IOANNOY [IX. 17-19. 

17. rj/covcra TOV apiOfjiov avTtoi/. Kat OVTOOS etooi/ TOVS ITTTTOII? lv 

rfj opacret (a) 
Kat TOVS KaOrjfJLvov<s CTT* f avTwv f lp(oi/ras $oopaKas TrvptVovs 

Kat vaKivOwovs Kat $et(oSets, 
Kat at Ke<aAat TUJJ/ ITTTTWV a)? K<aA.ai AecWa>v, 
Kai K TWV OTOfJLaTOiV avr<ji)v cKTTOpeveTat ?rvp Kat Kairvos Kat 

0etov. 

1 8. aTro TWV Tptcoi/ TrXrjyw TOVTCDV aTreKTaV^crav TO rpiTOV TWI/ 



K TOV TTVpOS Kat TOV KaTTJ/OV Kttl TOV ^CtOV TOl) K7TOpVO/XeVoV 
K TWV <TTO/XCXT(OV OLVTUtV. 

19. 17 yap e^ovcrta TWV tTTTrwv ev TW o-ro/xart avrcov ecrrti/ (d^) Kat 
<aurots> cv f aurats f aStKovcrtv. 

(a) The text is corrupt and defective : tfKovtra r. apiO^bv avruv may be an 
intrusion. After opdcret we should restore /cai roi)j Kadrj/mfrovs ^TT auro^s, 
which has been lost through hmt. Next, for /cai r. Kadrj^vovs tir fawTcDi t 

above read /cat ot Kadrj/Aevot tif abTovs ^x VTes " 

(b) Text adds an interpolation here : /col ^v rats ovpcus avr&v, al yap ovpai 
6 /xotat 60ea-i)f, ^%oi;o-at /ce0aXds. See vol. i. p. 253 sq. 



occiderent tertiam partem hominum Pr | 

eth. After /zupiaSwv two lines appear to have been lost. 

17. icai OUTOHT . . . opao-et ^-s 1 | ovrwcr >>2O2O Tyc Pr 
arm 1>2-3 a | tTTTroucr] tTTTriKOvcr 046. 69 Or 8 | eTrl eTrai/w K | e^ovracr] 
7repLJ3/3\r)[Jivovar bo | vaKtv^tvovcr Kat 0eito8ei<r] Kap^rySova ^etov S 1 

vaKtv^tvoucr] OLaKivOivovtr 325. 456 : taKtj/^tvovcr 620. 866 : 
hyacinthinas Tyc : hyacintinas vg : iacintinas Cyp gig : spineas 
Pr | Kat tfeiwSeio- > eth | tfeiwSao-] 0uo>Setcr * : 0iwSeio- c : 
"god-like" arm 4 | TWI/ crro/>taTajj/] rov o-ro/x-arocr 35 Tyc Pr gig 
Vg Cyp S 1 arm 1 2t 3 - a | CKTropevcrat] e^CTropevero 2020. 2067 | Trvp 
. . . KaTri/ocr] -^ Tyc | KaTTi/ocr . . . ^etoi ] ~ S 1 . 

18. airo] pr Kai s 1 - 2 arm bo : VTTO I | TW rptwv TrXryyooi/ TOVTWV] 
TO)!/ >C : Tpituf >K Or 8 arm 1 - 2 3 - a : TrXryywi/ > i. 2038 : ran/ rptwi/ 
TOUTWV TrX^ycov 205 aTTCKrav^crav] airKTav@r] 468. 498. 2019. 2020 
gig Vg Cyp | rptrov] + /Aepocr gig Vg bo sa eth | CK TOV Trupocr A^C 
025. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 
Or 8 Vg Cyp : UTTO TOV Trupocr 046. 21 ( 35. 205. 2020). 69. 104. 2^0. 
2067 al pm : pr Kat s 1 arm 4 | TOV KUTTVOV AN 046. 21 ( - 35*. 866). 
69. 104. no. 250. 385. 2004. 2036. 2067 al pm Or s vg Cyp bo sa 
eth : pr K C 025. i. 35*. 314. 2016. 2037. 2038 al p gig s : pr airo 
866 : >arm T | TOU 0eiov AtfC 046. 21 (-35*). 250. 2067 al pm 
Or 8 vg bo sa eth : pr CK 025. i. 35*. 314. 2016. 2036. 2037. 2038 
al p gig S | rov eKTropevo/xeyov] eKTropevo/xei ov] >IO4 : TCOJ/ eKTropevo- 

/XI/0)V 2015. 2019. 2O2O. 2036. 2037. 2067 bO | K TWV CTTO/XttTCOv] 

K TOV o-To/x,aToo- 205. 920. 1957- 2O4o gig vg Cyp s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a 

19. iinrwy] TOTTCDi/ A | ev TCO o-TO/x,aTt avTwi/ eaTti^ Kat ev 



IX. 20-21.] AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY 295 

20. Kat, ot AotTrot roil/ dv^pojTrcov, OL ovK a.7rcKTa.v6r)<Tav iv rats 



c TCOI/ epycov T 

/xry TrpocrKW tjo ovcriv TO, Satyu,oyia /cat TO. toa)Aa 
TO, ^pvcra Kai TO. apyvpa Kal TO, ^aXKa /cat TO. At$iva Kai ra 



a cure /QAeVctv Swavrat ovrc aKouetv ovre 
21. Kat ov yaerevo^crav CK TWV <^>oya)V auraij/ ovre CK TCOV 

avrtov 
ovre CK T^S Tropvei as avroov o^re K raiv KAejU-jtxaTwv avrwv. 

ovpaur avTwv] cv rater oupater Kat ei/ TW (rrop-arL avr<av r\v 2020. 2037 J 
in ore et caudis eorum erat Pr | Kat ev rato- ovpata- avrcov >i. 

2019. 2038 | avTWv] TCOV tTTTroov 385 : +CTTti/ S 2 | at yap ovpat . . . 
aSiKovo-ti/ > s 1 | o/xotat] > C* : o^otot 2023 : erant similes Pr 
arm i.2.3.4 | 0< ^ - tv AC 025. i. 35. 61. 69. 1957. 2015. 2019. 

2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038*. 2041. 2067 aP Or 8 Tyc Pr gig 
vg Cyp s 2 arm 1 - 2 - 4 bo : o</>et arm 3 : o^ewv 046. 21 (-35. 2020). 
250 al mu : ofJLOLat riav o<f>ew 2O38. mg | c^ovo-at] ex ovo " acr ^* : 
exovo-aio- c 025. 2019 : exovviv C* 2038. 2067 | Ke</)aAa(r] -f 
draconum Pr | aStKoro-tv] ^StKovaav 2020 : ^StKow Pr arm 2 - 3 - 4 - a 
bo eth : aSiKTyomxrii/ arm 1 : + av6pu>7rov<r TTCVTC fjiyvacr bo eth |. 

20. oi 2 >gig arm 2 - 4 bo | TrA^yato-] +avra)v N | ovSe . . . 
Xetpwi/ avrcov >9I9 | ovSc X 046. 61. 69. 2020 : ovre A 025. i. 
35. 205. 429**. 632**. 2019. 2037. 2038 alP Pr gig vg Cyp bo : 
ovC21(-35. 205. 632**. 919). 104. no. 172. 241. 242. 250. 
314. 385. 429*. 1955. 1957- 2015. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2023. 2024. 
2036. 2067 al Or 8 | ro)V epycov] TOV epyov S 1 | irpoarKw^aovcnv AtfC 
104*. 452. 2019 : Trpoo-Kw^o-wo-u/ 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 aP 1 Or 8 : adorarent Pr vg c - d - v - : adorent gig vg a -* Cyp | 
ra Sai/xovia Kat] TCO 8at/xovt rj 2020 : > arm 1 | etScoAa] + id est 
simulacra Cyp : + avrwv arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | XP V(Ta ] XP vcraia N : XP v<TLa 
Or 8 | Kat ra x^a (xa\Ka N) AxC 025. 046. 35. 468**. 2020. 
Or 8 Pr gig vg Cyp. s arm bo eth : >21 (- 35. 205. 468**. 2020). 
42. 82. 104. no. 201. 218. 241. 242. 314. 336. 385. 429. 498. 
522. 1955. 2016. 2019. 2024. 2039 al p | Atfliva . . . vAiva]~K 
743. 1075 s 1 bo eth | Swavrat AtfC 025. 046*. 18. 35. 104. 149*. 
205. 241. 250. 468**. 632. 2004. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 
2024. 2036. 2037. 2067 Or 8 : Swarai 046**. 21 (-18. 35. 149*. 
205. 468**. 632. 2004. 2020). 2038 aP 1 : > s 1 | aKOvav . . . 
TrcpiTraTetv] ~ arm 1 | OVTC ttKovctv > Cyp |. 

21. fjieTeyoTjaai ] + CK TOVTUV ovre 2020 | <^>ovwv] <f>u>vtav gig : 
<fxavr)(r arm 3 | oure CK rcov (/)ap/xaKto)v avrcov > Cyp arm 2 | ^ap/taKtoJv 
A 025. 046. 104. 2038 al p Or 8 : ^ap/xaKwv C 21 (-35. 205. 
468**. 632**. 2020). 250 al mu : <ap/taKwv I. 35. 205. 468**. 
632**. 2020. 2037. 2038**. 2067 al : "sorcery" arm 1 - 3 -*: 



296 AIIOKAAY#I2 IOANNOY [X. 1-3. 



CHAPTER X. 

I. Kat c?8oi/ aXXov ayycXov ta^vpov KaTafiaivovra CK TOV 
ovpavov, TrepiftepXypevov ve^eX^v, Kat -fj tpts CTTI TT/V Kec^aXrjv 
aurov, Kat TO Trpocnorrov avrov ws 6 77X105 Kat ot TroSes auTou a>s 
o-TvXot Trupos, 2. Kat ^wv v Tfl ^etpt a uTOu (3 1 fi \api8iov ^i/ewyjMeVov. 
Kat WrjKfv TOV TroSa aurou TOV Setoi> 7rt riys flaXaVo-?;?, TOV Se 
errt Tr}s y^s, 3. Kat eKpa^ev <f>wfj fj.cyd\r] wa-TTfp Aewv 
Kat ore tKpa^tv, eXcxX^crav at tTrra j3povTal ras cavrwv 



"divination" arm 4 | Tropi/etao-] Trovrjpiao- AN* : Tro/wao- N c 025. 
866 | cure K TCUI/ K\ffjifMa.T(DV avrwj/ > Pr S 1 sa | 
factorum Cyp |. 

1. KCU etSoi . . . KaTajScui OJ Ta] Kat /xcra ravra aXXocr ayy. 

eth | aXXoi/ ayyeXov A&C 172. 205. 250. 2Ol8. 2019. 2O2O. 2038. 
2067 Or 8 Tyc gig vg s arm 1 - 24 - a : -^ 104. 336. (620. 866 aXoi/) Pr 
: aXXoj/ > 025. 046. 21 ( - 205. 620. 866. 2020). i. 2037 al pm I 
la-xvpov > s 1 arm 1 - 2 | CK] airo 337 | Kat rj tptcr CTTI rrjv KC^aXiyj/ 
avrov] >arm 3 : Kat rj ipicr >arm 4 | r) (>N C ) tptcr A (-ctcr) K c C 
046. 21 ( - 205. 2020). 250 al pm Or 8 arm 1 - 2 - bo : t] Opig N* :.ry > 
025. i. 104. 205. 522. 2017. 2019. 2020. 2037*. 2067 al p : ipiv 
2036. 2037** : ipt]v 2038 : cptv 2015 | 7Tt rrjv KecpaXyv AC 181 : 
e-TTLTrja- Ke<aX?7o- X 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 

TO TTpOO-WTTOl/ CLVTOv] + t]V Vg | O 7yXtOO-] O >2O2O | Q-TuXot] CTTvXoO- 

205. 2020 Tyc vg (-vg c ) s 1 arm . 

2. Kai >2020 I e^wr AN C 025. 046. 21 ( 35. 205. 468**. 
632**. 2020). 250 al mu Or 8 : KaTe^u^ 2020 : ei^ei/ I. 104. 205. 
241. 468**. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2067 al p Pr gig vg arm : e^et 35 | /fySXaptStoj/ AN* 
C** 025. i. 2067 al p Or 8 s : /3t/3\i8aptoi> N C C* 35. 60. 61. 69. 104. 

205. 241. 432. 468**. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 

2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 : fiupXtov 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468**. 
632**. 2020). 250 al mu Pr gig : libellum vg | rjvewyfjLtvov tfC 
025. 104. 172. 205. 218. 250. 424. 2016. 2018. 2038. 2067 : 7/i/ewy- 
/xei/cov i : ai/coy/x,evoi/ 046. 21 ( 205). 2037 al pl Or 8 : >A bo | 
TOV 8e|tov >C | T770- ^ttXao-o-^o-] rrjv OaXaa-aav I. 2037. 2038 al p | 

TOV 8e V(J)VVfJiOV 7Tt TYJO" yrjCT >866 T^O~ y^O"] TV)V yi)V I. 2OI. 

386 (. 

3. wcnrep] pr Kat Tyc arm 1 - 3 - a : wcr OTC Vg | f^vKarai] rugiens 
Pr bo | eKpaei/ 2 ] +COO- N^ (del N c ) : + /AeyaX^ </>wvr; arm a | at 
cTrra ySpovTat] N c : eTrra ^>covat N* : at >I. 91. 94. 104. 866. 
2067 arm j Tao* eavrwv <^>a)vacr] Tato~ eai/rwv ^xovata N 104 gig 
S 1 arm 3 * 4 a : >> Pr | Tao- eavrwv ^covacr . . . (ver. 4) ypa^>tv > 



X. 4-7.] AHOKAAY^IS IfiANNOY 297 

4. /cat ore eXaX^o-av at tTrra fipovTai, 7JjueXXoi> ypd<j>fLv KCU 
vo-a (jx^vrjv e/c TOV ovpavov Xeyovo-aj/ "2<<f>pdyio-ov a IXdXrio-av ai 
a ftpovTai, /cat p.r] avTa ypouf/ys. 

/cat 6 ayycXos oV etSov eo-Twra eVi T^S OaXdva-rjs Kal eVt T^S 



Tr)i> X 6 *) 301 ai &Tov ryv otgiav eis roi/ ovpavov, 

6. Kal w/xocrev eV TW OJJ/TI et9 rov? atwvas roJv atuvcoi/, 

os tKTio-ev TOV ovpavov Kal ra tv avraJ, /cat rrjv yrfv Kal ra Iv 

avrfj, 
Kal rrjv Od\ao~o-av Kal TO. ej/ a-vrrj, on XP^vos ov/ce rt tcrrai. 

7. aXX ev rats ^/xepats 7~^s <f>Mvf)<s TOV f cfioo/jiov f dyyeXov, orai/ 

- - Oeov, ws 



arm 1 - 2 | rao- eaurwi/ <<m/ao- . . . (ver. 4) (BpovTai 1 >386. 620. 
866 |. 

4. or ] oo-a N 432. 2036. 2037 Pr gig | fipovTat 1 ] + voces 
suas vg v | yj^XXov AC 046. 61. 69. 82. 181. 201. 218. 386. 452. 
498. 920. 2020. 2024. 2038 Or 8 : epeXXov K 025. 20 (-386. 
920. 2020). i. 104. no. 250. 314. 385. 2015. 2037. 2067 al pl 
KOU ore ... ypafaiv] "And I heard the things which the seven 
thunders said : I was about to write them also." bo | e* TOV 
ovpavov] +TOV cfiSopov S 1 | o-^payio-oj/] nota tibi Pr | a] ocra N 94 : 
o S 1 I evrra >C gig arm 2 | /cat 3 >Tyc Vg bo | py avra AN C 025. 
046. 20 ( - 35). 250 alP m Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s 2 arm 1 - 2 - 3. 4 . aVTa 
> arm a : pr] avTo s 1 : /Acra ravra I. 35. 60. 181. 432. 1957. 2023. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 | ypaifnjtr] ypa<j>rj<r 205 Or 8 : 
ypafaio- I. 35. 60. 432. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041 : ypaif/eiar 104. 522. 2015 : ypa{f/ov 2067 I- 

5. o ayyeXocr] TOV ayyeXov Pr Vg a - c - f - % \ eo-Tcora >42y. 498. 
522. 2016*. 2020 gig | ypv] pr oo- s 1 | Trjv ociav >A i. 35. 
2019. 2038 vg s 1 | eto- TOV ovpavov] in caelo gig |. 

6. Kai wfxoo-ci/] +o ayye/W Tyc | ev TW ^wi/rt . . . ei/ aur^ 2 
>Tyc | ev TW Cwvrt A c 025. I. 35. 104. 175. 205. 314. 617. 
I 957- 20I 5- 2 l6 - 20I 7- 2 i9- 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP 
: per viventem Pr gig vg : ei/ >N * 046. 20 (-35. 175. 205. 617). 
250 alP m Or 8 | ran/ aiwvwv] >i. 181. 241. 632**. 2038. 2067 : + 
a M v 336. 620. 866. 2019 | /cat ra ei/ avrw >arm x bo | /cat Tt]v yrjv 
Kai ra i/ avT-r] >A I. 181 I /cat ra ev avr?; 1 >256 arm 1 bo | cv 
avTrj 1 ] ev avTOia- 2015. 2036. 2037 | Kat TTJV OaXao-Q-av /cat ra fv avrrj 
N C C 025. 046. 20 ( - 205. 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pm Or 8 
vg s 2 armW- 2. 3 . >AN* 141. 205. 429. 522. 2016. 2017. 2020. 
2023 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 arm 4 - a | / avr^ 2 ] ev avToio- arm 1 | OVKCTI 
co-rat] ov/ccTi co-rt N* 141 : OVK ecrrat en I. 2036. 2037 : ert OVK 
ccrrat s 1 |. 

7. a\\ >gig bo : OVK s 1 | rrjo- (jxavrjo- >Tyc s 1 arm 2 | TOV 



298 AHOKAAY^IS IQANNOY [X. 8-9. 



TOVS eavrov SovAovs TOVS 7rpo^jras. 8. /ecu 17 

TOV oupavov TraAii/ f XaXovcrav per e/aov /cat Aeyovo-av f "YTraye Aa/3e 
TO fit.fiX.iov TO rjvcuyfJievov TO ei/ X l / To ^ ayye Aov TOV ecmoTOs evrt 
T^S OaXdo-o-rjs KOL CTTI T^S y^s. 9. Kat aTr^A&x 7rpo<s TOV ayycXov 
Aeyw avTo> Sowat /xot TO ySi/SAapt Stoi/. /cat Ac yet yu,ot Aa /? Kat 
KttTacpaye avTO, /cat TriKpavet o-ov T^V KOtAtW, dAA ei/ TW 
- " 



o-ov eo"Tai 



cfioopov ayyeXov] TOV ayyeXov TOV cfiSopov K : TOV >C 
peXXfL 18. 104. 172. 429. 522. 1849. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2018. 
2019. 2036 | /cat AtfC 025. 046. 20 (-35**. 386. 468**). i. 
250. 2037. 2038 alP 1 Or 8 vg a -& s 1 - 2 eth :>35**. 60. 201. 386. 
432. 468**. 1957. 2023. 2041. 2067 Pr gig V g c - f - v bo arm : tune 
vg d | ereAeo-0T7 AtfC 025. 20 (-35**. 205. 468*). 250. 2038 alP m 
s: +yap bo : TcXeo-Or) i. 35**. 205. 468*. 1957. 2015. 2019. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2041. 2067 Or 8 : TeAr0et 046. 104 : TeAeo-^- 
vat 35* : finietur Pr (gig vg arm) | wo-] o 60. 432. 1957. 2015. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 S 1 arm 1 - 2 - 4 -* : oo- 35 | evrjy- 
yeAto-cv] evT/yyeAto-aTO 35. 60. 93. 181. 432. 506. 1957. 2015. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2041 Or 8 | TOVO- eavTov SovAovo- AsC 025. 35. 
205. 2020. 2038 : TOVO- SovAovcr eatrrov Or 8 : TOVO~ SovAovo- avrov 
046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 2020). 250 al mu s 1 : TOVO- avTov SovAovo- 69. 
2019 : TOIO- eavTov SovAoto- i. 2037. 2067 al p : TOIO- avTov SovAota 
2015. 2036 : TOIO- SovAoto- avTov 498 gig arm 1 - 2 - 4 : per profetas 
servos suos Pr : per servos suos vg arm 3 - a bo | TOVO- Trpoc/^Tao-] 
pr Kat K eth : TOIO- 7rpoc/;Taio- i. 498. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2067 I- 

8. icai f] 4>WMf] t\v Tjicoucra] Kat rjKovo~a (fxDvrjv 104 Pr (gig) vg d 
S 1 arm 4 | AaAovo-av . . . Aeyovo-av A^C 025. 046. 6 1. 69. 104. 
1957. 2019 ( + /AOI). 2038 (Pr) gig vg s 1 arm 4 : AaAovo-a . . . 
Aeyovo-a 20. i. 250. 2037. 2067 alpm Or 8 | /cat Aeyovo-av >Pr : 

+ /xoi arm 2 | v?raye] +Kat 91. 175. 242. 314. 617. 1934. 2016. 
2017 Pr vg d arm 2 - 3 | ficfiXtov AC 69. 314 Pr gig vg : fiifiXapi- 
8iov N 025. i. 2038. 2067 al p Or 8 s : fiifiXioapiov 046. 20. 250. 
2037 al pm | yveuy^evov A^C 025. i. 61. 172. 250. 2018. 2019. 
2038. 2067 al : avecoy/xevoi/ 046. 20. 2037 al mu Or 8 : >s 1 | /X/H] 
>C arm 3 : cv >3I4. 2016 : CK x^pocr 2019 Pr gig vg | 0oAao-- 
o->;o- . . . y?7o-] s 1 |. 

9. Kai ainf]X0a . . . Xaj3e > s 1 | (nnrjXOa A 336. 498. 517. 620. 
866. 2024 Or 8 : aTrrjXOov tfC 025. 046. 20 (-620. 866). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al pl | Aywv avTw] >Tyc : avrw >Pr | oovvai 
ANC 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468**. 2020). 250 al pm Or 8 Tyc Pr gig 
vg s 2 arm 4 : Soo- 025. i. 35. 205. 468**. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 bo | fiifiXapiSiov A**C 025. 
i. 2038. 2067 al p Or 8 : fiifiXapiov A* : fiifiXtov K al p (Pr gig vg) : 
fiifiXioapiov 046. 20. 250. 2037 al pm | Xafic Kat KaTac/>aye avro] 

avTO Kat Karac/>aye N* : Aa^e avTO Kat KaTac/>aye avTo X c eth 



X. 10-XI. 1.] AIIOKAAY#I2 IOANNOY 299 

IO. Kat ZXajSov TO /3i/?AaptStov IK rqs ^ctpos roG dyyeAov Kat 
KaT<ayov avro, Kat rjv ev TW o-TO/xart /xou yAvKu w< tteAi /cat ore 
</>ayov avro, eiriKpdvOr) f] KOiAt a /xou. II. Kat AeyowriV /xot Act ere 
7raA.iv Trpo<f>r)Tev(T(U eTrt Aaots Kat Wvecriv Kat yAwo-o-ats Kat j8acrtA.ti)criv 



arm* : accipe librum et devora ilium vg : Aa/3e avro o-ot bo | o-oi>] 
o-ot S 1 | rrjv KotAtav] rrjv KapStav A Or 8 : +O-QV s 1 : ej/ TT? KotAia 
arm 1 2 - 3- a \ co-rat yAvKv] Pr : yXvKv ">s l |. 

10. Kai] -f- ore Pr | Kat eAa/3ov . . . Kare^ayov avro > gig | 
/2tAaptStoi> AC 025. i. 2038. 2067 al p Or 8 s : /3t/3Atoi/ N 046. 20 
( - 35- 205). 250 al mu (vg) : /2t/3AiSaptov 35. 60. 69. no. 205. 432. 
1957. 2015. 2017. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2041 : libellum Pr ] 
Kat rjv . . . e<j>ayov avro >Pr arm 1 | yAvKV wo- /xeAt A 046. 2019 
arm 3 : wo- /xeAt yAwu C 025. 20. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 
gig vg s arm 4 : yAvKD >arm 2 - a : wo- /xeAt >eth | ore </>ayoi/ avro 
">2tco. 424. 2018 arm 2 I 7rtKpav^l eyc/xto-^ N Pr gig arm 1 - 2 - 4 

*J _ * "_ v 1 \ I ~\ 



/cotAia] KapSta Or 8 (but writes KotAta above) | /xov] + TrtKptao- 



ajpr M 

liTXflyouoir AM 046. 20 (-35. 205. 468**. 632**. 2020). 
250 al mu Or 8 vg a *- c - s sa : Aeyet 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 241. 468**. 
632**. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 al p Tyc Pr gig vg a " d - f - v s arm bo eth | xaAti/ Trpo^ry- 
Tcvo-at] -^2020 : TraAtv > arm 2 | Aaoto- . . . e^i/ecrt] ~ S | CTTI 
Aaoto-] eTrt Aaov 617. 920. 2040 s 2 : eTrt Aaoixr 172 : in populos 
Pr : populis gig vg | e<9j/e<riv AN 025. i. 35. 205. 241. 468*. 2016. 
2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p Or s gig Jg bo : pr CTTI 046.^ 20 
( - -2C. 2oc;. 468*. 2020). 250 al mu s | Kat 

\ V* ** ^ OOJ.I 

^arm 1 j yAwo-crato-J pr 



CHAPTER XI. 



I. Kat eSofl?? /xot KaAa/xos o/xotos pa/3Sw Aeywi/ "Eyctpe Kat 
erprjo-ov TOV vaov TOV ^eou Kat TO ^vcriao-Tijpiov Kat TOI^S Trpoo-- 



1. Kat &o0t] fxoi] dedit mihi Pr : eSwKai/ /xot bo | KaAa/xoo- 
o/xotoo- pa/3Sw] Aaron virgae similis Tyc : harundinem aureani 
similem virgae Pr bo (mss pl ) eth | o/xotoo- pa/?8w] wo- pa/38oo- 2020 | 
Acywv AN C 025. 20. i. 2038 alP m Tyc Pr gig vg : +/xot 743. 1075. 
2067 arm 1 - 2 - 01 bo eth : Aeya N* : Kat c^wvry Aeyovo-a 2015. 2036. 
2037 : pr Kat etcm/Kei (o-T>/Ket N c> c : to-rr/Ket 046) o ayyeAoo- 
c - c 046. 60. 61. 69. 104. 172. 250. 424. 432. 1957. 2018. 2023. 
2041 Or 8 s 1 - 2 * arm : pr Kat o ayyeAoo- eurrT/Ket 2019 | eyeipe AN 
025. 046. 175. 325. 456. 620. (866). 920. 1849. 2004. 2037* al 



300 AIIOKAAY*I2 IOANNOY [XI. 2-4. 



2. *at ryv avXrjv rrjv e^wflev TOV i/aov e 

egwuev Kat /x,-) avT^j/ /AeTpT/V^g, 6Vt iSoOyj TOIS 201/ecrtv, Kat Tnv 
Tip aytai/ 7raT?jo-ovo-ti/ /x^i/as Tecro-epaKon-a Kat Svo. 

3. Kat S(6cra> Tots Svo-ti/ /^apTvo-tV yuov, Kat irpo<j>r)TV(rov<Tiv ^epa? 
XiAias Sta/coo-tas fgrJKovra f Trept/^ySA^eVovs f O-CLKKOVS. 4. OvYot 
etW at Svo eAatat Kai at Svo Av^vtat at IVUTTLOV TOV Kvpt ov TT?S y^? 

Or 8 : eyetpov 60. 94. 205. 2038 : eyapat 20 (- 175. 325. 456. 620. 
866. 920. 1849. 2004). i. 250. 2067 al | Kat 2 > 104 Tyc bo | 
/u,eTp>yo-oi>] ptTprjo-ai 104. 920. 2040 | TOV 0eov > arm 1 - 2 I TO 
0vo-tao-T?7pioi/] + TOV 0eov Tyc Pr : + avTov eth I ei/ avTw] illud siff 
arm 4 \. 

2. Kai -rv\v au\T)i> ... jAeTpYjcnrja > gig I rrjv avXrjv TTJV] N c : 
TY]<T avXrjcr r-rjar K* : atrium autem (Tyc) vg : ara autem Pr I ew- 
Otv 1 A 025. 046. 21. 2067 a!? 1 Or 8 Tyc Pr vg s 2 arm 1 - 2 - 3 - bo : 
errco(9ev N I. 172. 181. 250. 2018. 2037. 2038 S 1 | i/aov] K c : Aaov 

2037 | e&o&n/ 2 AN C I. 35. 6l. 69. 172. 181. 250. 424. 432. 506. 
J 957- 2015. 2018.2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 Or 8 s : 
o-w(9ej/ 025 : ecrw N* arm 1 ** : e&o 046. 21 (-35). 2067 al? 1 
arm 1 *- bo : foras Tyc vg : > arm 2 - * eth | /xeTpTyo-r " 
I : //.erp^creto" 104. 2036 I TOIO" c^i/eo"tvl N c : pr Kat N : 
ryv aytai/] 7] TroAtcr rj ayta arm 1 bo | rrjv aytai/ > Pr | 
^eTpTyo-ovo-tv A : + / avr^ bo : " that they shall trample under 
foot" arm 1 | Tecro-epaKoi/ra Atf : Teao-apaKOVTa 025. 21 (-35) al pl 
Or 8 : / 046. i. 35 | Kat Svo A 046 (p). 21 ( - 35. 205. 617. 919. 
2020). 429. 2067 alP s arm : Kat > K 025. 69. 205. 250. 617. 
9i9- 2018. 2020. 2023. 2037 Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg bo : /3 i. 35 
al . 

3. Kat irpocJ>T]Teuo-oucru ] ut profetent Pr eth : Trpoc^Tevo-at 
S 1 : Kat > bo | StaKoo-tao- > 69 | cgrjKOvra] + TTCI/TC N c - c 69 
arm 1 - 2 - 3 | 7repi/5e/5A77/xi/ovcr AN* 025. 046. 35*. 91. 104. 242. 920. 
1934. 2015. 2036. 2041 :-/>ii/otN c C 21 (-35*. 920. 1934) i. 
250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al^ Or s TycPr vg : amictis gig I o-aKKovo-1 
saccis Tyc Pr gig vg v |. 

4. at 8uo eXaiat Kai >i*. 2038 | at 1 ] N c : ot N* : >2O5 s 1<2 ( ? > 
| cAatat] avAatat A : aAatat C | at Svo 2 AN C C 025. 046. 21 ( - 205. 
620. 866). 250. 2037. 2067 al pm Or 8 arm : Svo 620 : Svo N* 205! 
866 aP s 1 - 2 ( ? ) | at ei/wTTtov AC 025. 046. 21 ( - 35. 175. 205. 386. 
1934. 2040). i. 250. 2037. 2067 alP 1 bo : ot ei/wTTtoi/ 201. 386 : 
at >N 35. 61. 69. 104. 172. 175. 205. 241. 242. 314. 424. 1934. 
2016. 2017. 2018. 2038. 2040 Or 8 : in conspectu Tyc vg : sub 
conspectu Pr : coram gig | TOV Kvptov KC 025. 21 ( - ^c. 20?). 2^0 
2067 alP- Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s arm 3 - 4 bo : TOV > A 046 : TOV ^ov 
I - 35- 20 5- 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 al p arm a : "the lord 
God " arm 1 - 2 | T^O- y^o-] pr Trao-^o- s 1 arm 1 - 2 : super terram gig : 



XI. 5-6.] AIIOKAAY4 I2 IOANNOY 301 



eo~roJre9 S Ka -t Tl5 CLVTOVS 

c/c rou o-ro/xaros avrwv /cat /careo-0tet rot s e;($poi)s avTu>v.(a) 6. 
OVTOL ZXOVCTIV TT/V covo"tav /cXeurat rov ovpavoV, u/a /MT) ueros fiptXKJ 
ras T^/xepas ri}s Trpoc/^retas avroi)i>, /cat fovcriav e^ono-ii/ tTrt ran/ 
t>8ara)v 0"Tpeceiv aura eis atju.a /cat 7raraat rryv y^v ev Trdcrrj 
ocra/as lav 



Text adds a gloss here : /cal e? rts de\ria"g avrovs adiKijaai, oi/rcos Set 



> bo | eo-Ttureo- Atf*C 046. 21 (-35. 205. 337. 468. 617. 
632**. 866. 920. 2020. 2040). 250 al mu Or 8 s : co-Tonreuo- 866 : 
eo-Toxrat tf cc 025. I. 35. 104. 205. 241. 337. 385. 468. 617. (620). 
632**. 920. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 al p : stantes Tyc vg : consistentia Pr . 

5. KCU 1 TUT ttUTOUOr 0\l aBlKTjaai] KCU 1 Tt $eAoV(Tl ttVTO 

TTotiyo-ovo-t bo? : "and they (he arm 2 - 3 - 4 ) shall desire (desire 
arm 4 ) to hurt them" arm | avrova- 0eA.ei AC 025. 046. 21 
(-468*). 2037. 2067 al mu Or 8 Tyc Pr vg s 2 : ~ K 172. 250. 
468*. 2018 gig : Oe\L (a8t/cr;crat) avrovcr 69 S 1 | ^eXei] OfXrj 104. 
2038 : 6e\r)o-ci Pr arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* : voluerit gig vg | a8iKr;o-at] + sive 
occidere Tyc | irvp CKTropcverat . . . a8tK7](rai >>2O5 | eKTropeverai] 
eKTTopevo-crai 61. 69 Or 8 arm 1 - 2 - 3 -" : exeat Pr : exiet gig vg | *at 
>bo | KaTo-0ui] devorabit gig vg arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* : comburens Pr | 
t no-] S c : f] TUT N* C I : ocrTto- 2020 S 1 arm | OcXrjcrr) AS : OeXrja-ei 
2020 Or 8 arm 1 - 2 - 3 -" : fleAei C 025. 046. 21 (-2020). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl Pr s arm 4 : voluerit gig vg | OcX-rjo-T) avrovo- AC 
025. 046. 21 (-468*). 250. 2037 al p Or 8 gig vg : ~ i. 468*. 
2019. 2023. 2038. 2067 al mu Pr S 2 : ^eX^tr^ (aSi/c^o-ai) avrovcr K 
(s 1 ) | aSuoyo-at] aTTOKTetvat 432. 2015. 2019. 2O22. 2036. 2037. 
2067 | ovraxr] > A : OVTW 18. 205. 617. 632. 919. 920. 1849. 
1934. 2004. 2040 | avrov] pr Kai Pr : avrova- 620. 866 s 1 arm 4 | 
a.TroKravO rjvai] aSiKr)@Y)vai arm 4 |. 

6. ourot] pr /cat s 1 : on bo eth | rrjv tgovcriav AC 025 Or 3 : TT/I/ 
>K 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl | eovo-tay KAeto-at TOV 
ovpavoi/ ASC 025. I. 35. 205. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al mu Tyc Pr gig (vg) s : + /cai after e^owtav Or 8 : TOV 
ovpavov tova-iav K\to-at 046. 21 (-35. 205. 2020). 250 al mu : 
eoixriav TOV ovpavov /cA.eio-ai 69. 498. 2020 | KXetcrat] /xerpT/o-at 
arm 4 | veroo- (3pex r j]~ T< 2O 37- 2067 al p : verovo- fipexn 49 : veTovcr 
fiper) 2020 : veroo- Ppt\ti 429. 522. 2015. 2017. 2019. 2021 : 
KaTa.fta.Lvt] VCTOO- s 1 arm 4 : pluat Tyc vg : imbrem pluat Pr : 
pluat pluvia gig : " they rain " arm 1 : + CTTI TYJV y^v bo eth \ racr 
r//xepao-] cv rater 7//xepato- I. 2037 Tyc Pr (vg) S 1 arm 4 : pr iracrao- 
bo | Tfja- 7rpoc/)7/reiao- avroov 025. 21 ( - 617. 920. 2040). 250. 2038. 
2067 al mu Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 - 2 arm : r^o- irpo^Tiacr avTn>v 

046 : avruv Trjo- Trpo^raaa I. 617. 920. 2037. 2040 al pl j 



302 AIIOKAAYtflS IQ ANNOY [XI. 7-9. 

7. Kat orav TeXecrcocrtK TYJV /zaprupiW avrwv, TO Orjpiov TO 
avafialvov CK T^S d/3ixro-ov Trot^o-et /ACT* avrwv TroXc^ov Kat vtK^o-et 
airrous Kat aTTOKTevet avTOu?. 8. Kat TO TrruJ/xa avrwv CTTI TJ}? TrXaTttas 
T^S TroXews T^? /AeyaA-T/s, ^TIS KaXetTat TTi/ev/u-aTiKtos 5o8o/>ia Kat 
AtyuTTTOs, OTTOD Kai 6 Kvpios avTaij/ (TTavpa)Orj. 9. Kat fiXeTrovcrtv 
K TOJJ/ Xaa>v Kat (frvXwv Kat yXworo-oiv Kat ZOrwv TO TTTw/xa aurwv 



(TTp<f)lV aVTtt (TTpcfalV Ttt vSttTtt S 1 | 

omnium aquarum Pr | cto- at^a] in sanguine gig | Kat] X c : >N* | 
ej/ Traa-rj TrXrjyrj ocraKicr eai/ OeXrjcrwcrLV A^C 025. I. 35. 205. 2015. 

2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p Or 8 Pr gig vg 
S arm 1 - 3 - 4 - a eth : ev Trao-r; TrXTyy^ after OcXrjo-iao-Lv 046. 21 ( - 35. 
205. 617. 920. 2020. 2040). 250 al mu | i/ 7rao-77 TrX^yT/ AXC 025. 
21 (-617. 920. 2040). I. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2067 alP m Or 8 Pr s (arm 3 - a ) : cj/ >O46 al* vg (arm 1 - 4 ) : ev -rraa-rj 
>gig : >6i7. 920. 2040 | eaj/] av C 2020 | 6/eXr/o-coo-tv] OcXrjcrov- 
crtv C : #eX<oo-ti/ 69. 498. 2019. 2038 : 0eXovo-iv 181 |. 

7. Kai oTai/ TeXeawo-ii/ >6i7* (but not 617**). 920. 2040 Or 8 
(through homoeotel.) arm 2 - 3 | TeXeo-wo-tv] TcXeo-ouo-t i. 2037. 2067 
auroov] rr)<r (avrwv Kat rt]v eth) Trpo<j>r]Teia(r (-av eth) avTwv bo eth 
TO (9r/ptoi/J + TO TCTapTOv A | TO ai/a/2aivoi/] N c : TOT ava/3atvov {<* 
TO avafiawuv A : quae descendit Tyc | aySuo-o-ov] OaXao-a-rja- s 1 ] 
/xeT avTtov TToXefjiov A^C 025. 046. 21 ( 205). 250 al mu Or s Tyc 
Pr (gig vg) s : TroXe/xov /XCT auTtov I. 205. 2019. 2037. 2038. 2067 
al p | viKTjo-ei] veiK-rjo-r} C : viKrja-rj 104 : vicit Tyc | Kat a7TOKTi/ei 
avTOVo- > i. 172. 181. 498. 2019. 2021. 2038 | Kat > bo | 
a7roKTi/et] occidit Tyc |. 

8. TO irrwjjia AC 046. 21 ( 35. 205. 2020) al mu Or 8 Tyc arm 3 - a 
bo : Ta TTTw/xaTa X 025. I. 35. 172. 205. 250. 1957. 2Ol8. 2019. 

2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p Pr gig vg s arm 1 - 2 - 4 ! 
67Tt TT^O- TrXaTctao-] CTTI TWV TrXaTctcov s 1 : in plateis Tyc vg arm 4 : 
in platea gig : in medio Pr : "in the midst of their street" 
arm 1 - 2 - ( 3 >- a : pr o-Tat x- c bo sa : pr cao-et 432. 2015. 2022. 2036. 
2037 : pr proicitur Tyc : pr ponet Pr : pr jacebunt gig vg d - v arm 4 
: pr posuit eth | T^O- TrXaTetao- > eth | TroXewo- T>;O- /aeyaX^o-] Tryo- 
/xeyaXT/o- TroXecoo^ 205 : ev rt] TroXa rrj yLteyaX^ arm 1 - 3 : + puf/ei 94 : + 
aTa^a 2015. 2036. 2037 :+ jacebunt vg a **- c | 5oSo/xa] + Kat 
eyyuo- o TroTa/xoo- X c : Segor arm 1 - 4 : + Kat Ba/3vXcoi/ arm 4 | Kat 
AtyuTTTOo-] >Pr : Kat To/io/opa 2019 : + Kat Ba^SvXwv arm 1 - 2 : "of 
Khemi" bo.j OTTOV Kat] Kat > X c i. 61. 69. 104. 172. 181. 250. 
424. 919. 2018. 2019. 2038. 2067. s 1 bo eth | avrwv] K c : > K* : 



9. pXeirouo-u ] /?Xe^ovo-tv Pr gig vg arm 1 - ^ 3 - a bo eth | Xaan/ 
. . . </>vXwv] N s 1 bo | <vX(ov] pr TOJV 046 j Kat e^j/wv] > i Tyc 
arm 1 : + "they shall look upon " bo | TO TrToyta . . . ^/xto-v >Pr | 
A^C 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2020. 2040). 250 al pm Or 3 



XI. 10-11.] AIIOKAAYtflS IOANNOY 303 



Tpets Kat ^/xtcrv, Kai ra Trrai/zaTa avTwv OVK a^iovtriv TtOfjvat 
ts /xi^Ty/xa. IO. Kat ot KaTotKOiWes CTTI ri}s yr/s \aLpova~Lv ITT avrot? 
Kai fixfrpawovTaL Kat Suipa TrtfJuf/ovcrLV dAAr/Aots, ort ourot ot Suo 
7rpo<j)7)TaL e/?ao-dVto-av TOUS KarotKoiWas eVt r^s yiys. 

1 1 . Kat /xera ras rpets ^/xepas Kat rjn.i(TV irvtv^a a)?ys CK TOV 
eto-?}A$ev cV avrots, Kat o-T^o~aj/ eVt TOUS TroSas avraJj/, Kat </> 



Tyc arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a : ra TTTw/xara 025. i. 35. 205. 1957- 2015. 2019. 
2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 gig vg s arm 4 
bo | Kat rjfMLa-v ANC 025. 35. 429*. 432. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2040 
al p Or 8 Tyc gig vg s arm 4 : Kat >046. 21 (-35. 2040). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pm | ra TTTw/xara] ra cro)/xara 2037 arm 3 : TO aoo/xa 
69 : "their bones" arm 1 - 2 - a | a<touo-iv A^C 025. i. 181. 2015. 

2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 Tyc vg : a^o-ovo-tk 046. 21 ( - 2040). 
250. 2067 al pl gig s arm bo : a$iao-t 2040 : a^t^o-tv Or s | /xi/r;^a 
(A) N* 025. 046. 21 (-205). i. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al 1>m Or 8 
Tyc gig arm 1 - 2 -* bo : fjivypeiov C 2019 : fj.vrjfj.aTa N c 205. 522 al p 
Pr vg s arm 3 - 4 |. 

10. 01 KaTOiKOUi/Teo-] pr TravTeo- bo | 7rt T^Q- yryo-] CTTI TTTJV yrjv 
172. 314 : CTTI >20i5- 2036 | xaipovo-tv] x a PW OVTOLL 2O2 2067 
Pr gig vg s arm 4 bo | e?r avToto-] ev avTotcr 2015* 2020. 2036 | 
v<f>paivovraL A^C 025. i. 35*. 181. 205. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2040 Or 8 arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* : epulantur Tyc : ev(f>pav6r)o-ovTaL 046. 
21 (-35*. 205. 2040). 69. 104. no. 250. 314. 2067 Pr gig vg s 
bo | Kat ev</>pau/. >eth | TTfjul/ova-iv A C C I. 35. 205. 2037**. 2040 
al mu Or 8 Pr gig vg s bo eth : Tre/xTrovo-tv N 025. 2015. 2019. 2036. 
2037*. 2038 Tyc arm 2 - 3 - 4 (sa ?) : Swo-ouo-u/ 046. 21 (-35. 205. 
2040). 250. 2067 al mu | aAA^Aoio-] aAAr/AowC 517 | ovTot >s x | 
ot 8vo 7rpo(j>rjTai] ot Trpo^r^Tat ot 8uo ^ : Trpo^^Tat ^> Pr | TOVCT Karoi- 
Kovvraa- e-m rrja- -yrjv] COS per plagas Tyc |. 

11. rao- rpeia AC 046. 21 ( - 35. 468. 1849. 2020). 2037. 2067 
al pl Or 8 s 2 : Tao-> N 025. i. 35. 69. 141. 250. 432. 468. 1849. 
1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2038. 2041 s 1 arm 1 - 3 - 4 -* 
bo : > arm 2 | ry/xepao- Kat TJ/UO-U] ^/xepacr after ry/xtcri; 69. 2015. 

2020. 2036. 2037. 2067 : Kat > 69. 2020 : Kat >y/xto-v > arm 1 2 | 
rjfjua-v] rjfjLicrov AN* : TO rjfjLLcrv C | farja^ ^cov S 1 arm 3 - a : > bo 
| CK TOW Oeov] > 468*. 617. 632* : K > arm 1 - 2 - 4 bo | CK TOV Oeov 
L(rrj\0v] ei(rr)\6ev CK TOV 6eov C | CL<rr]\Ocv] eio-eAevo-CTat bo eth | 
ev avToto- A 94. 2015**. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2040 Or s : ev > C 
025. I. 35. 104. 181. 2020. 2038 : eta- avTOvo- N 046. 21 ( - 35. 
2020. 2040). 250. 2067 al mu Tyc Pr gig vg arm bo sa eth : CTT 
avrow 1957. 2023. 2041 :s 1>2 = ev avToto- or ctcr avTOuo- | eo-Tr/o-av] 
o-T^o-ovTat 202O bo eth | avTWv] + Kat Tri/ev/xa 0)170- CTrec-ey CTT avToi;o- 
S 1 | 7T7reo-v AC 025. 35. 325. 337. 456. 468. 620. 632**. 866. 
920. 2037. 2038 al p Or 8 : CTrtTrco-etTat 2020 arm 1 - 2> 3 * bo : 7ro-ev 
K 046. 21 (-35. 325. 337. 456. 468. 620. 632**. 866. 920). 250. 



304 AIIOKAAYM2 IQANNOY [XI. 12-14. 

/ze yas eVeVecrev eVi rous 0ea>powras avrovs. 12. Kat ^Kovcrav r <^(ov^ 
MeyaA^i/1 CK rov ovpavov fAeyovcrav 1 awois Ai/a^are wSe Kat dve- 
eis rov ovpavov lv ry vefaXy, Kai e^ewp^crav avrovs ol tyOpol 



13. Kat^ei/ cKcirg TO wpa eyeWo creicr/xo? //.eyas, Kai TO Scjcaroy 
rtys TroAews CTretrei/, Kat a.7reKTaiv6rj(rav eV ra> <rao-/*u! oVojaara avOpw- 
7ro)i/ xjA-iaSes 7rra^ Kai ot AOITTOI tjujtopoi eyeWro Kat eoWav Soaj/ 
r< ^(3 TGI) ovpai/ov. 

14. e H oval 17 Sevrepa aTr^X^ei/ tSov 17 ouat ^ rpmy ep^erat 



2067 al p eth : cyei/ero s 1 | rover tfcwpowracr] TWV ^ewpovi/rwv C 02^ 

" 



35" 



12. > Pr | YjKouaai/ AC 025. 429** al vg s : ^Kovcra 046. 
21 (-2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pm Or 8 Tyc gig arm bo 
sa : aKovcroi Tai 2020 | <]>uvr]v /xeyaA^j/ CK TOV ovpavov] de caelo 
VOCem magnam Tyc | <t>wi]v ^yaX-rjv . . . Aeyovcrav (\cyovo-a 
046**) A 046* 21 (-35. 205. 2040). 250 alP Or s : <f>w w 
^eyaXrycr . . . Aeyoucn/cr NC 025. I. 35. 60. 181. 205. 432. 1957. 
2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 | avrotcr] 
> A 2015 Tyc gig : avrova- 2016* \ avajSaTc AC 025. 325. 452. 
456. 506. 2019 Or 8 : ava/Srjre 046. 21 (-325. 456. 620. 866). 
250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP 1 : ava^eire 620. 866 : ascende Tyc : 
"rise ye up and come up" arm 1 - 2 -* | e^wpr;crav] e0e<opow 498. 
2020 s 1 : "shall see" bo | O.VTOVCT] "their going up" arm 1 - 2 I ot 
e^^pot] pr Trai/recr arm 1 - 2 |. 

13. KCU ev AxC 025. i. 35. 205. 250. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 
al mu Or 3 p r g lg vg s arm 1 - 2 - a bo eth : Kat> 046. 21 (-35. 205. 
2040) al mu Tyc arm 3 - 4 | wpa AxC 025. i. 205. 2019. 2037. 2040 
alP Or 8 Tyc Pr vg s arm 1 - 2 - 3 - bo eth : ypepa 046. 21 ( - 205. 
2040). 250. 2038. 2067 al pm gig arm 4 | eyevero] co-rat arm 2 bo 
Kat ro] <oo-r ro C | Se/caroi/] y 046 bo : SwSe/caroi/ 175. 2017 : + 
/xepoo- bo eth I e7reo-cv] fTreo-av s 1 : " was swallowed up " arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 
| oi/o/x,ara avOpuTrw xiAtaSccr ?rra] numero LXX milia hominum 
Pr : pr Kat S 1 | oi/o^ara avBpwir^v\ > arm 1 : oi/o/xara avOpuTroi s 1 : 

arm | ot AOITTOI] + aj/^pwTrcoi/ arm 4 : " after that " arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a 



| e//,</>o/2ot cyei/ovro] evc^o^ot yei/. C : v </>oy8a) eyei/. K 69 Or 8 Pr 
(sunt missi) s 1 : in timorem sunt missi vg : "fear ( + great arm 1 - 01 ) 
was (shall be arm 2 ) in all " arm 1 - 2 - 3 - : " were astounded " arm 4 [ 
eyei/oi/ro Kai] yci/o/xej/ot 2015. 2036. 2037 | rov ovpavov] >Tyc S 2 : 
+ et terrae Pr : rw ei/ rw ovpava> s 1 : " heavenly " arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a |. 

14. r] ouai t] Scurepa] rj 1 > K c i. 172 : pr Kat 386 : pr tSov 
arm 1 - 2 - 4 - a : iSov at ovat at 8uo s 1 | a.7rr)\6ev] -rrap-qWev X 2015. 2036. 
2037 : a.7n)\0ov s 1 | tSov] pr Kat vg a s 1 arm 4 bo :> 104. 205. 209. 
218. 314. 2018 arm 3 eth : Kat arm 1 - 2 - a eth | tSov -q ovai rj rpir-q 
AC 025. i. 35. 2019. 2020. 2038 al p Or 8 Pr (vg) s (bo) : 

rj Tpirr) ovat tpxerat 2015. 2O 3 6 - 2037 : tSov ouat rj rpirr] 



XI. 15-16.] AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY 305 



15. Kat 6 f ?/3So/xos f ayyeXos ecraA.7rurev KOL eyeVoi/TO $(oval <T/MTOS> 
/AcyaXat ei/ TO) ovpaj/cp Xeyoi Tes 

Eyerero 17 /3a<n\eia TOV KOO-/JIOV TOV Kvptbv fj/jiwv /cat TOV 

Xptorov avTov, 

Kat /3ao"tXeuo~et et? TOVS ataivas TWV aioovcov. 

1 6. Kat ot etKOO-t TeVaapes irpeo-fivTCpoi ol ivuinov TOV Oeov KaOrj- 
ITTL TOV? Opovovs avTwv 7recrav 67rt TO, TrpocrouTra OLVTIOV KOL 



2040 : 77 ovai 77 TpiTrj (ra^v) ep^crai 205 : toov epxcTai rj ovat 
X 2019 gig : 77 ovat 77 T/DiT>7 tSov ep^erat 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2020. 
2040). 250. 2067 al mu | epx TCU ] veniet vg (arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a ) : eXrjXvOc 
s 1 : tr. after ra^v 205 . 

15. Kat] + ore arm ] - 2 - 3 - a | o e/38o/xoo- ayyeXoo- eo-aXTricrei/] ot 
CTTTa ayycAot ecraXTrio-av arm 1 [ o > A | Kat 2 > arm 1 2< 4 - a | eyev- 
OVTO] X c : cyevero K"* arm 1 2< 3 - a | ^>covat /xeyaXat] <f>wr] fjLya\r) arm 1 3 
eth : (Jxavr) arm a | ev TO> ovpavw] e/c TOU ovpavov arm 1 - 3 bo eth I Xcyov- 
To- A 046. 18.61. 69. 82. 93. 1 10. 314. 325. 336. 429. 432. 452. 456. 
506. 517. 522. 617. 620. 866. 919. 920. 1849. I 955- 2004. 2021. 
2039 O r8 : A-eyouo-ai N C 025. 21 (- 18. 325. 456. 617. 620. 866. 
919. 920. 1849. 2004). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl I eyei/ero 77 
/foo-iXeia] eyei/ovro at /SacriXetat i. 104. 205. 2038 | 77 j8ao-tXcta] pr 
Trao-a arm 1 - 2 - a | TOV KOO-/XOU] huius mundi gig vg : > 2015. 20 37 P f 
arm 1 - 4 | TOV Kvpwv TJ/XWV] pr Kat 1934 : TOV $eov TJJJUOV 2015. 2020. 
Pr : Kat TOV #eov 77/xwv S 1 : TOV Kvptov TOV 0eov rj^wv bo | Kat 
TOV Xpiorov avTov] I77O-QV Xpiorov 205. 1934. 2015 (pr TOV). 2036. 
2037 arm 1 - 2 : Kat > arm 4 | /SacrtXevo-et] /?ao-iXevi 69. 172. 325. 
336. 456. 517. 620. 866. 2015. 2018. 2036. 2037* : regnavit gig 
S 1 j TOVO- atwvao"] + Kat cio* TOVCT atwj/ao- arm 4 : TOV atoova bo I TWV 
atoovwi/] + a^rjv N 94. 141. 181. 2020 vg c arm 2 bo pl |. 

16. oi 1 > N 5 * A bo | ctKoo-t Tco-o-apeo- A^C 025. 18. 175. 205. 
250. 386. 617. 920. 1849. 1934. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu 
Or 8 : KS 046. 21 (-18. 175. 205. 386. 617. 920. 1849. 1934. 
2020). I. 104 al p : etKoat Kat Teo-crapeo- 429 al p | ot ci/toTrtov NC 
025. 21 (-35*. 205. 2040). 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 s arm 1 - 2 - 4 -* 
bo : qui in conspectu del sedent Pr (gig) vg : ot> A 046. i. 35*. 
61. 69. 104. 181. 205. 209. 2038. 2040 Cyp arm 8 j TOV 0eov AC 
025. i. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 
2067 al p Pr gig fl vg s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 4 - a : pr TOV Opovov 046. 21 ( - 35. 
205. 2040). 250 al pm Or 8 s 2 arm 3 | Ka^ei/ot A 025. i. 35. 104. 
632**. 1957. 2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p Pr gig vg Cyp (s) 
arm bo eth : pr ot 61. 69. 205 Or 8 : KaOrjvTat N C C 82. 2040 : ot 
KaOrjvTai N* 046. 21 (-35. 205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 250 al pm | 

7Tt TOVCT $pOVOVO-] 7Tt QpOVOV arm 1 | TT(O~aV ... TO) ^(1) >> arm 1 

I 7reo-av . . . aimo^ > arm 4 | avrwv > bo | eTreo-av A(N*)C 025. I. 
104. 1 10. 337. 429. 620. 866. 2016. 2023*. 2067 al p Or 8 : 

VOL. II. - 20 



306 AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY [XI. 17-18. 

17. Euxapto-Totyx.V crot, Kvpte 6 $eos 6 Trai/TOKpaVwp, 
6 a>v KCU 6 rjv, 

on i\r)<j>as rrjv Svya/xtv crou rqv 
/cat 



^. Kat Xv 17 opy7 o-ou, 

/$. /cat <6 Katpos> Sia<$eipat TOVS Stac/!>0a poj/Tas 

^. /cat 6 Katpos TCOI/ VKpu>i/ KpiOijvai, 

g. TOVS jjiLKpovs Kat Tot>s /ueyaXous, 

^. Kat Sowat TOI/ fjiio-Oov rots SovXots o-ov, 

. rots 7rpoc?7Ta<,9 Kat Tots dyt ots 

/! Kat TCHS (^OySoi /xei/ots TO ovo^txa crov. 



046. 21 (- 337. 620. 866). 250. 2037. 2038. (2040) al mu : pr Kat 
X 2040 I ra TrpooxoTra] TO Trpoo-wTroi/ fl bo | Kat 2 > bo sa | TOO $eto] 

> gig : " the Lord God " arm 1 - 2 - a | XcyovTeo-] eAeyoi/ arm 1 : Kat 
eAeyoi/ arm 2 - a |. 

17. CTOI] o*e 046 | Kvpte] Kvpiocr $ 2038 | o ^oo-] + ^wv 2015. 

2036. 2037 gig vg arm 2 | o 2 ] N c : > K* | wv . . . ?7v]~gig eth | 
o^v] + Kat o ep^o/xei/oo- 051. 35. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 

2037. 2040. 2041 al p (bo) | OTI] pr Kat K*C : Kat arm a : oo- 
arm L 2 | etX^c/)ao-] etX-^^eo- C | crov rrjv fie-yaXrjv > arm 1 bo |. 

18. wpyi.cr0T]crai>] S c : cupytcr^T; i<* : opyLcrOycrav 149. 20 1. 2015. 
2017 al p | Kat 2 ] OTI bo | crov] + CTT avTOvo- 2O2O | Kat 8tac/)^etpat] Kat 

> A arm 2 : quique exterminandi sunt Pr : et conrumpantur fl : 
8x<0epr bo | Stac/)^etpovTao- AK 046. 21 ( - 35. 468**). 2037 al pl 
Or 8 arm bo eth : 8tac/>0eipai/Tao- C 35. 60. 104. 172. 241. 242. 
250. 468**. 1957. 2018. 2023. 2041 Pr gig fl vg Cyp s : <#- 
povTao- 025. I. 2038. 2067 | Katpocr] K\r]po(r C : +Trj(r Kpto-(oo- bo 

| TO>1/ VCKpCOv] TWV 0VWV 617. 920. 2O2O I TOVCT VfKpOVCT bo | 

Kpt^vat] > Pr : Kptveio- arm 3 : Kptvat bo | TOVO- /atKpovo- Kat TOVCT 
fjLeyaXovo- Att*C Or 8 : TOIO- (pr Kat 2020 gig) /xtKpotcr Kat Toto- 
juteyaXotcr K c - c 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Pr gig fl 
vg Cyp s 2 arm : TOUT /xtKpoto- /xeTa TWV /xeyaXwj/ s 1 . It is possible 
to explain the variation of tenses as due to the dislocation of 
lines h and g. Thus Atf*C preserve the ace. (TOVO- /ziKpouo- in 
apposition to the subject of Kpt^vai) even after the transposition 
of the line after Kat TOIO- <o/3. o-ov. Next comes the corrector s 
stage : the ace. is changed into a dat. to agree with TOIO- <o/?. 
Possibly the original order was a, b^ h, g, c, d, e,f. The TOVO- 
/uKpow KrX. would then qualify TOW Sia<0eipovTao- KTX. In any 
case the order in the MSS is wrong. | Sowat] + at/rota- bo | Kat 
TOIO- aytoto-> Pr gig | TOICT aytoto- Kat TOIQ- (> X) ^)O/3ov/w,voto-] 
TOVO- aytovo- Kat TOVO- <f>o/3ovfjivov(r A (a correction ?) : TOIO- aytoto- 
Kat>o5i : Kat>35*. 205. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 al p 
arm i. 2. a I aytoto-] + aov 617. 920. 2020 |. 



XI. 19-XII. 1-2.] AIIOKAAYM2 K2ANNOY 307 

19. KCU 7>otyr; 6 vaos TOV <9eov 6 h/ r<3 o^pavw, Kat Jtyft; r) 
Kt/^wTOS T77S Statfr/KT/s afoov ei/ TW i/aw avrov, Kat tyivovro dorpaTrcu 
/cat c/xovat /cat ftpovral /cat O-CICT/AO? /cat xaAaa ^fydX-rj. 



19. i, ro iyi) A (^1717) C 025. i. 35. 61. 69. 104. 172. ->o< 

>s 95 Ju 2 15 l l8 2 I9> 2 23 2 3 6 2 37- 2038. 2040. 2067 
al Or eth : 7,t X 0r, 046. 21 ( - 35. 205. 2040) al" u | o o, TO, AC 
6i. 69. 172. 250. 2018. 2020. 2040 Or 8 gig fl arm bo eth : O>K 
025. 046. 21 (-2020. 2040). 2037. 2038. 2067 alP 1 Tyc vg s I 
ovpovco] + avo) N* (del. K c ) | 0*^77] SoOr) C \ r W Sia^^o- atrovl 
TOV ^eov arm a | avrov 1 AC 025. i. 35*. 172. 205. 250. 2015. 2018 

2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 alP gig vg s arm 1 - 2 - s. 4 . TOV v 
21 (-18. 35^. 205. 386. 2040). 2067 al^ Or 8 : K vpwv 046. 18. 
104. 1957.2039: TOv0eovK20i.386fleth : > Tyc bo I evTwrnwl 

> arm 2 : pr " which is " arm 1 - 3 eth | avrou 2 > s 1 bo | eyeroi/ro] N y : 
eyei/ero N* | /cat c/>wj/at /cat ySpovrat AtfC 025. 046. 21 (-2020) 
Or s Pr annO-9.B. sa eth : c/><omt . . . j3porrai~6 9 . 172. 250. 
498. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037 gig fl s (arm 4 ) bo : /cat <cm at 

> 314. 2016 Tyc : /cat poi/rai> vg | /cat (mo^ocr AtfC 025. i. 
SS* . 2 ^- 2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2040. 2067 al p Or s Tyc 
Pr gig fl vg s arm 2 - 4 - eth : Kat o o-eio-/xoo- 181 : Kat o-aoyxot 172. 
250. 424. 2018. 2037. 2038 arm 1 bo sa : > 046. 21 (-35*. 205. 

2020. 2040) al mu arm 3 | Kat x^*& ptyaXr)> Tyc |. 



CHAPTER XII. 



I. JV(X6 0"77/X6OV /ZCVCt G)CDt/?? .!/ XOJ oi)/i/7i/fi) 
x ^ /A* ^ K ;*/* UiyJV l^" TIU UUpaVW, j^r.j .. ^ t/ ^ :/J /x./;^ci f/ 

TOI/ r/Atov, Kat T) o-eArjvr) vTTOKarw TWV TroSojv avrfjs, KOL l-jri T7k 
Ke^aXTJs avTTjs o-rec/)avos acrrepajv StoSeKa. 2. Kat ev yacrrpt 



1. KOI] > Pr : + t8ov bo | Trept^e^/aei/r;] ircpt^AtTro/xei/r; A 
o-eX7?v7y] N c : rr;v aeX^r?!/ N* : 17 > i. 175. 498 : +T?K 2020 | 

aKavflcov s 1 | SwSeKa AN C 025. 046. 21 ( 35. 337) Or 8 : 
Svo i. 181. 2037. 2067 : t/^ 35. 337. 2015. 2017 al : xxil 
- 

2. cr yaarpi X ouo-a] erat praegnans ventre Pr : in utero 
habebat fl : "she was with child" arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* | Kat Kpa^t N 2040 
vg c -&: Kat > A 025. i. 35. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 : Kat 
<fKpa/ C Pr fl vg f - v : CKpa^ev 21 (-35*. 1849. 2040). i. 104. 
no. 172. 250. 2016. 2067 al mu Or 8 vg d s 2 : eKpa^ej/ 046. 1849 aP 
arm 4 j eKpaKcj/ 35 ? : Kat Kpao/ gig arm 1 - 2 -* : "who cried out" 
arm 3 * : et clamans vg a s 1 : Kpa&vo-a bo | wStvovo-a] pr Kat A s 
eth | Kat /5ao-avt^o/x.i/7?] Kat > bo : et cruciabatur Pr fl : "and in 
many pains she was nigh " arm 1 | re^eiv] pr rov 468**. 2040 |. 



308 AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY [XII. 3-5. 



/ecu 1 Kpaet (iStVoDcra Kat /3ao-ai/to/x,ei ?7 TtKeiv. 3. Kat w^Or) aXXo 

irvppbs o-^/xetov iv T<3 ovpai/w, Kat tSou SpaKtov r /xeya? Trvppos^, c^wv KecjSaXas 

/i^yas evrra Kat Kepara SeKa, Kai CTTI ras Ke^aAa? auTOi) eTrra SiaS^/xara. 

4. Kat 17 oupa auTov <rvpet TO rpirov rcuv do-Tepwi/ TOT) ovpavov, KOL 

/3aXev avrovs eis rr/v yT^V. Kat 6 SpaKW ecrr^Kev IVWTTIOV rrj<s 

ywatKos TJ}S /icXAoixnys TCKeu/, ti/a oVav reKr; TO TZKVOV 



. Kat TKv vlov, apcrev, os /xeAAet Trot/xaiVctv TravTa TO, ^^77 
o) o-iSrjpa Kat ypTrda-O-r] TO TCKI/OV avr^s TT/OOS TOV $eoj/ Kat 
TOf Opovov avrov. 

3. fxeyaa irup(p)oor A 025. 051. I. 35. 172. 205. 1957. 2015. 
2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041 al p Tyc vg s 1 sa eth : 
~XC 046. 21 (-35. 205. 2040). 250. 2067 al mu Or 8 Pr gig fl s 2 
arm 1 - 2 - 3t a (bo) | /xeyao-] + " exceedingly " arm 1 : " it is very 
great" bo | irvppov A 025. 051. 21 (-18. 205. 337. 386. 617. 
919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2040). 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Or 8 : rufus 
Tyc Pr gig fl vg eth : -n-vpocr C 046. i. 18. 205. 250. 337. 386. 617. 
919. 920. 1849. 2040 s : "fiery" arm 1 - 2 - 3 -" : "of colour of 
fire " bo : > arm 4 : + o/xotoo- irvpi eth | CTTL raar K(/>aAaor] CTTI T>/O- 
K^>aX^<T 205 (arm 1 - 2 ) : e?rt Tao- 7rra KecpaXacr arm 4 j avrov] avruv 
A 172 | 7rra 2 >l. 181. 2038 |. 

4. T) oupa aurou] > gig : avTov > i | o-u/m] trahebat Tyc Pr 
fl vg | TOOV ao-repwv] S c : +TO rptTOV N* j TOV ovpavov] }> i. 2067 : 
TWV ev TO) ovpava) S 1 | avroucr] + K TOV ovpavov arm 2 - 4 | eto" rrjv yrjv 

4 | eor^Kev] eo-T^Kt C S : eo-Tr; 61. 69 | T^O~ /xeXXovo-Tyo- 
> bo eth : " who wished to bear " arm 1 - 2 - 3 sa | TCKCIV] 

051. 35.432. 1957. 2023. 2041 I TCKT;] + 7) y vvr) arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | 
TO TCKVOV avrrjtr >arm 4 | TCKVOV] TratStov 2O2O : filium gig Vg bo : 
natum Pr fl | avryo- > bo | Kara^ayrj] + avTo(v) arm 3 : + avTo(v) 
o SpaKwv arm 1 - 2 - a | tva . . . KaTa^ayr/] iva eav reKrj TO TCKVOV o 
SpaKtov Kara<^ayf] avTO bo : tva OTav TCKT; Karafpayr) TO TZKVOV avrrjo- 

eth|. 

5. ereicei/] + rj yvvrj Tyc arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | viov > Tyc Pr arm" | 
apo-ev AC : apo-ei/a 025. 2038. 2040 : appeva 21 (-2040). I. 
250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 : apei/a 046 | /xeXXet 7rot/x,atveti/] "shall 
shepherd" arm 1 - 2 - 3 : recturus est Pr gig fl vg | -rravra ra 
eOvrj ] Ta ^1/77 205. bo : " his people " arm 1 - 2 | ev pa/88o> AxC 
046. 21 (-35*. 205. 2040). 250. al pl Or 8 Pr gig fl vg s 
(bo) : v >Q25. 051. i. 35*. 181. 205. 498. 2015. 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 | Kat 2 > Pr | ripTracrOr) AC 025. 21 (-386. 
2040). i. 69. 104. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 : ypiraxQ-n 
046 : rjpTrayv) K 60. 241. 385. 386. 432. 1957. 2016. 2023. 2040. 
2041 | TKi>ov] TratStoi/ 2O20 I avrrjar > bo | Trpoo- 2 >i. 205. 2019. 
2037. 2038 al p j. 



XII. 6-8.] AIIOKAAY#I2 IQANNOY 309 

6. KOL f] yvvr) e<vyev ci<s TTJV epr)[j.ov, OTTOV r^ct eKt TOTTOV 

r ^ avTrjv r)/ze pas x^Atas 



7. Kat cyeveTO TroAe/xo? eV TW ovpavuJ, 

6 Mtxar)A Kat ot ayyeAot avTov TOV TroAc/x^crat /xera TOV 






v Kai ot ayyeAot avTov, 8. Kat OVK 
ovSe TOTro? upe$r7 f avTwv f ert cV T<5 ovpava). 

6. T] 1 >*2O5 | OTTOU e^et . . . avro TOV Ofov] "where was her 
place (a place for her arm 2 - a ) prepared of God " arm 1 - 2 - a : 
"which hath there a place prepared of God" arm 4 : Kat (>bo) 
etcr TOV TOTTOV ov rjTOifJiao-tv avrrj o Otocr bo sa eth | e^et] et^e 2020 fl 
vg d s | cKet 1 AN 025. 046. 21 (-2020). 250. 2067. al pm Or 8 s 1 
arm 3 - 4 : tr after TOTTOV 205. 241. 632** gig : >C 051. i. 69. 2019. 
2020. 2037. 2038 al p Pr fl vg s 2 arm 1 - 2 - a | ryToi/i,ao-/xevov] pr 
auTry arm 2 - a : +O.VTT} arm 3 | O.TTO TOV 6eov AC 025. I. 35. 1957. 
2023. 2037*. 2038. 2040. 2041 : aTro >2O5 : VTTO TOV Oeov 046. 21 
(-35. 205. 468*. 620. 866. 2040). 250. 2037**. 2067 al lnu Or s 
: VTTO Oeov 468*. 620. 866 | exet 2 ] tr after avryv 468 Pr fl : >o5i 
s 1 | Tpe<f>wo-Lv A 025. i. 18. 205. 250. 617. 2020. 2037. 2040. 2067 
al mu Or 8 : eKTpe<u>o-/ 046. 21 (- 18. 205. 617. 2020. 2040) al mu 
: Tpe<f>ovo~iv sC 051. 2019. 2038 : CKT^C^OVO-IV 429. 522 : "she may 
be fed " arm 1 - a | aim?v] N c : avrov N"^ : > 69 arm 1 - a | x L ^ ia < r 
8taKoo-tao- c^Koi/Ta AS 025. 21 Or 8 (arm 3 "- a ) : -|-7revT K 
(arm 1 - 2 - 3 *- 4 ) : x^ lao " StaKoo-tacr g 046 : ao- 2015 : aw^ 69 : \i\. 
Kat StaK. Kat C^K. s : mille ducentis quadraginta gig : " a thousand 
two hundred and ninety " bo |. 

7. iroXejAoa] + /xeyacr gig bo | o] o TC A s 2 | TOV TroAcju^o-ai AC 
025. 35. 432. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2040. 2041 al p : > Or 8 : TOV 
>N 046. 21 (-35. 2040). i. 69. 104. no. 250. 314. 385. 429. 
2015. 2016. 2017. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu s 2 : ut pugnarent Pr 
fl : pugnabant Tyc (gig vg) arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* : TroAe/zowTeo- s 1 arm 4 | 
jneTa] KaTa i. 20 1. 386 al p Kat o SpaKW . . . avTov] Kat o SpaKcov 
Kat ot ayyeAot avTov 7ro\fj,rjo-av 205 S^ 1 )- 2 | Kat o SpaKoov] TOV 
SevTepov S 1 |. 

8. Kai] sed fl arm 1 - a : >arm 4 | to-x^o-er A 21 ( - 35. 205. 337. 
1849 (2020). 2040). 250 al mu (bo) eth : to-x^o-av ( + Trpoo- avTov N % ) NC 
025. i. 35. 205. 337. 1849. 2015. 2019. (2020). 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 al mu Or 8 Tyc Pr gig fl vg s (arm) : tcrxvov 046. 69 : + 
TroAe/xw /ACT avTwi/ bo | ovSe AtfC 046. 21 (-35. 205). 250. 
2067 al mu : ovTe 025. i. 35. 205. 2019. 2037. 2038 al p Or 8 | 
TOTTOO- tvpeOrj avToov] Tore evpe^Ty N* : TOTTOQ- > 69 | evpc^ 
avTwv AC 025. 046. i. 69. 2020. (2040) al mu Or 8 gig vg : 2015. 
2036. 2037. 2067 Tyc (Pr) fl s 2 : evpe^ avTOttr N c - c - 35- 1849*- 



3io 



IOANNOY 



[XII. 0-11. 



9. KOL cjSXrjOr) 6 SpaKOH> 6 /xeyas, 6 oc/us 6 a 
6 KaA.ov/x,vos Attt/2oAos /cat 6 ^aravas, 
6 TrXavwi/ Tryv otKovyueViyv oXjjv 
ffiX-rjOr) eis rrjv yfjv, 

KCU ol ayyeXoi avrov /xer avTOv J3Xrj6yjo-av. 
IO. /cat rjKOvo-a c/xDvryv /jieydXrjv ev TW ovpaj/u> Aeyovcrav 
"ApTi eyeVero 17 crtor^pta /cat ^ Swa^u-i? 
Kai 17 j3ao~iXfLa TOV Oeov rjjjiwv KOL rj covo~ta TOV Xpto~Tov 

avTov, 

oVt ejSXrjOr] 6 Karrjywp TO>V dSeXc/)(ov ^ 
6 Kar^yopwv aLrous evojTrtov TOV ^eov 

VU/CTOS. 

II. /cat aurot IviKTrjcrav avrov Sia TO at/xa TOV apviov, 
Kat ota TOV /Voyov T^5 /xapTVptas avTcoy, 
/cat ov/c ?)ya7T7yo-av Tr/i/ if/v^y avTwi/ a^pt 6a.va.TOV. 



2019 S 1 arm : tvpeOrj avrta 21 ( 35. 1849*. 2O2O. 2040). 104. 
HO. 250. 314. (-^385) al mu | TOTTOo- avTwv Tt i/ Tto oupavw 
Pr I CTI > k s c - c 104. 2015. 2036 s arm |. 

9. o jxeyacr o o<j>io-] o /xeyao- o^>io- {< I. 2067 : o o<r o 
617. 920. 2040 Pr bo : /zeyao- oc/>to- 2038 | o OC/HO-] pr Kat arm 2 
o Ata/3. /cat >eth | Kat o ]$aTarao- AC 025. I. 35*. 2038. 2040. 
2067 aP Or 8 s : Kat > K bo : o > 046. 21 (-35*. 2040). 250. 
2037 al pm | o TrXai/cov . . . yfjv >Tyc | o TrXavwv] qui seducebat 
Pr (bo) eth : qui seducet fl | cfiX-qOri] pr Kat gig fl s T -< 2 ) : Kai 



7reo-ev arm 4 : " the lion fell " arm 1 - 2 | /ACT O.VTOV 



506. 2015. 2036. 2037 
av >Tyc arm 1 
10. 



avTov > 051. i. 35. 2038 : 

arm 3 - a : eTreo-ei/ arm 2 |. 
\ <f)0)vr)v /JLGyaXrjv . . . Xeyov- 
Xtyovo-rja- 2067 | ptyaXyv >arm 4 | ev 
TO> ovpavw] e/c TOV ovpavov 205. 2040 Tyc Pr gig s 1 arm 1 4 - a : after 
i. 2037 al p : >> 452. 202 1 | apTt > Pr : iSov s 1 | Kat 
eovo-ia TOV Xpiorov avTov > Tyc S 1 
KarefiXyOrj I. 35. 2023. 2038. 2067 al p 



>>fl | Kat rj 
Xpto-Tov] KVptovC 



: exclusus est Tyc : " hath fallen " arm | Kar-qyup A 
NC 025. 046. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or s : "the betrayer" 
arm 4 | T<OV aSeAc/xov r;/>t(ov >> s 1 j o KaT^yopcoi/] qui accusabat Pr 
vg s 2 : "who was betraying" arm 4 | avTovo- A 025. i. 205. 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 : avTwi/ tfC 046. 21 ( 205). 250. 
a ]pi Q r s : ^> bo | ^eov] + Kat TOV Kvptov (I^ov Xpto-Tov) arm 1 - < 2 ) | 
>//x,cov 3 >i. 61. 69. 522. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2039. 2067 arm 1<2 a 
bo eth . 



11. Kai 1 ] OTt bo : >arm 



avTot OVTOI 



>Pr | 

superatus est Pr | avTov] ab ipsis Pr : >s 1 | Sta TO at/xa] Sta TOV 
aifjiOLTOcr 69. 2019 arm 1 2- ^* a : ev TW atyutaTt s 1 ; Sta TO ovofjLa. 2015- 
2036. 2037 | TOV apnov] +TOV 0ov arm 1 - 2 j TOV Aoyov] >>C arm 4 : 



XII. 12-14.] AIIOKAAYtflS ID ANNOY 311 



12. Sta TOVTO v(f>pa.LVCcr6e ol ovpavot /cat ot ev O.VTOIS 
oval TT)V yrjv Kat T?)V ^aAacrcrav, 

OTI KaTJ3f] 6 8ta/?oAo5 Trpos v/AaSj e^aji/ 0v//tov /xeyav, 
etSa>? oVt oAtyov Katpov ex t< 

13. Kat ore etSev 6 Spa/cwi/ ort ejSXrjOr) ei? TT)V yr}v, eSi co^ev TT/V 
yvvatKa ^ns ereKev TOV apo-eva. 14. Kat eSo^r/crav r^ yvvatKt at 
Svo 7TTepvy9 TOT) deTOV TOV //.cydAov, tva Trerr/rat ei? TT/V tprjfjLov 

Cl? TOV T07TOV aVT^5, O7TOV Tpe^eTttt CKt KdlpOV KO.L KatpOL 5 Kttt 



TOV Xoyov arm 1 2t St a : TO atyu,a bo r^o~ /xapTvpiao-] T>;V 



C : TO>V /xaprvptojv arm 4 | avTwv] avTov 172. 205. 241. 632. 2022 

A | 



arm | /cat 3 ] OTI bo | ov/c] ovx A | Tryv ^vx^v] Tao- \J/VXO.(T 172. 250. 
424. 2018 vg c<dif v arm 4 | avTwv] cairns t? c ] a^pt] fiexpt 4^8. 
620. 632*. 866 |. 

12. 8ia] pr Kat 205 eth | ot ovpavot A 051. i. 35. 241. 429**. 
632. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al p 
Or 8 arm 1 -" bo eth : ot >NC 025. 046. 21 (-35. 632. 2040). 
250 al mu s : o ovpayoo" arm 2 3 : ovpavoo- arm 4 ev ai>Toicr O-K^I/OWTCO- 
A 025. 046. 21 ( 920) Or 8 s : ev airroto- KaracrKrjvovvT^a- C : 
KaToiKowTeo- ev avToio- (Pr fl vg bo sa eth) : "all (>arm 3 : 
ye arm 1 ) who are dwelling ( the dwellers arm 3 ) in them 
( it arm 3t4 - a )" arm : ev avrotcr KaToiKOWTea 385. 429. 506. 522. 
920. 2Ol6. 2037 (gig) | TK]V yrjv Kat rrjv OaXacrcrav C 025. 35*. 
2015. 2036. 2038. 2040 : pr eto~ S : pr TOIO- KOLTOLKOVO-L I. 
2037 : rrjv aya.7rr)v KOLL TYJV OaXacrcrav A : rt) yrj Kat rr) OaXacro-r) 046. 
21 (_ 25*. 2040). 250. 2067 al pm Or 8 : vae terrae et mari gig fl vg s 
arm bo eth : vae vobis (tibi Tyc) terra et mare Tyc Pr | KaTe/fy] 
KaTa/?atvet s 1 - < 2 > : "is fallen" arm 1 - 2 - 8 -*! StaySoXoo-] "dragon" 
arm 1 - 2 - 3 *- 4 : " adversary " arm 3 ** a | v/xao-] avTovo- s 1 | ex a)V ] P r 
I. 2037 arm 3a | X W1/ ^ v / xov j"-eyav] />uyai/>N arm 1 : /xcyav e\ wv 
6vfj,ov 2067 : e^wv Ovpov ^.eya 2020 : cum ira ingenti Pr |. 

13. o SpaKwy on e|3Xr]0Ti] t<* : oTt /3\-r)Or) o SpaKwi/ N c | e(3\r]8r)] 
"fell" arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 1 eth but both = eftX.^ \ eSiu^ev] eScoKev S* : 
^eSi(o|ei/ N c : eStwKev gig | apo-ei/a &C 025. 35. 61. 69. 2040 Or 3 : 
apcrevav A : appej/a 21 (-35. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl 
apeva 046. 2015 : mov s 2 : "child" arm 1 : "male" arm 4 : "male 
child " arm 2 - 3 - a : TOV vtov (TOV) appcm 506. 680 bo sa eth |. 

14. e&oe^aai/] eSo^ N c 205 S 1 arm | rrj ywatKt] avrrj bo | at 
Svo TTTepvyeor] TTTepvyeo- Svo 468* | at Svo AC 025. 35*. 104. l8l. 
517*. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2038. 2040. 2067 (s 2 ) : >arm 1 - 2 3 : at> 
N % 046. 21 ( - 35*. 2040). 2037 al pl Or 8 s 1 arm 4 - a bo eth | TTTcpvyeo-] 
+ (at) //,eyaAai bo | TOU aeTOvj TOU > N* arm bo : pr wo- Pr bo I TOV 
/xeyaXov ^-arm 1 bo | TreT^ratJ TreTaTat 046*. I. 919. 2015^ 2020. 
2036 : TrtcrrjTat 386 : +rj yvvrj bo | eto" T^V ep^/xov > I. 181. 2037 | 
eto- 2 >Tyc arm 1 - 2 3 | avrrja- >bo eth | OTTOV Tpec^erat AsC 025. 
i. 35*. 201. 314. 386. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 al p 



3 I2 



IOANNOY 



XII. 15-18. 



77/ZlO-V KatpOV 0.7TO 7TpO(T(07rOV TOV O^COJS. I $. Kttl /3a\eV 6 O<lS K 

TOV (TTO/xaros avTov OTrtcrca rfjs ywatKos v8<op ws TTOTa/jioV, tVa avrrjv 
TTOTafjLocfropTrjTov TTOLijcrr). 1 6. /ecu tf$or)Bfi<Ttv rj yrj ry yvi/atKt, Kat 
rji/ot^ev f) yf) TO crro/xa avT^s /cat KareTrtei/ TOI/ Trora/xov o> /3a\ev 
6 opaKooi/ CK TOV o TO/Aaros avTov. 1 7. /cai wpyicrOij 6 8pcx/cojv 7rt 
TT) yvvaiKt, Kat aV^A^ey Trot^crat TroAe^aov /Aera TWV AotTroii/ roi) 
<nrepfjLaTO<s O.VTTJS, raiv rr/povvToov ras ei/roXas TOU #eot) Kat 
T^V fiaprvpLav Irjvov. 

1 8. Kat fa-raOTf] ?rt rr)i/ afjifjiov TT}S 6a\d(ro"r]<S. 



Tyc Pr gig fl vg s 2 : pr tva Or 8 : OTTOV Tpe^Tat 506. 517. 2017 : 
OTTWO- Tpe</>77Tat 046. 21 (-35*. 386. 2040). 250. 2067 al mu S 1 ! 
cKet] >Tyc Pr fl vg bo eth : before OTTOV gig | Katpov Kat Katpovo-J 
Katpovo- Kat Katpov arm 1 : Katpov Kat Kaipoi/ arm 3 : Katpov arm 2 
Katpov] > K* : Kat Katpov K c | Kat Katpovo-] Kat >> 456 s 1 | Kat 
ty/xto-v Katpov >C | 77/xtcrv] N c : 77/xto-ov X* j. 

15. J3a\ei>] eXaySev A* : VTrepe/3aA.ev 104 | K TOV crro/xaTOO- 
avTov] tr. after T770- ywatKOO- I | OTTIO-O) T. yvi/atKOo- after 

bo sa | vSwp] >385 429. 522 : "venom" arm 2 | wo- 
to- TTOTa/xov 1 8 : >arm a | tva . . . 71-01770-77 >bo | avrrjv 7roTa/xo- 
<f)OprjTOV 7TO177O-77] TroLTjo"rj a.vnqv 7TOTa/xo(op77Tov C \ avTrjv Afi^C 
046. 21 ( - 35. 205). 250. 2037 al pm Or 8 Pr gig vg s : TavTTyv 025. 
I. 35. 104. 205. 2038. 2067 al p | 7TOTafjLO(f>opr]TOv 71-01770-77] 7roTa/xo- 
(j>oprjTov 7rot77cret 104. 2019. 2038 : perderet Pr : faceret trahi a 
flumine vg : faceret ictu fluminis trahi ad se gig |. 

16. Kai eJ3or)9rjaey . . . yuyaiKi I>bo | Kat 1 ] sed Pr | T77 yvvatKt 

- y yv >337 I -n yn 2 > 141. 250. 424. 45 2 - 2018. 2019. 2021 

Pr gig arm 1 - 4 | TO o-TOtial TOV o-TO/xaToo- 18 | Kat KaTtTrtci/ . . . 
CTTO/xaToo- avTov > S 2 ( codd -) j Kat 3 >> bo | TOV TTOTa/xov ov] TO vSwp o 
A arm 1 - a : TOV Tnmx/xov o 456 : TOV TroTa/xov vSaroo- bo | e^SaAev] 
V/?aA.cv 046 Or 8 : aveXa/8ev 6 1. 69 (69 after yvvatKt ver. 17 repeats 
Kat lyvot^ev . . . aveAa/3ev) : " poured out " arm 1 - 2 - 3 - * | CK TOV 
o-TOita TOO- avTov] " upon the woman " arm 4 : OTrto-w TT;O- yvvatKocr 
bo : >arm a |. 

17. icai wpyiaOir] . . . y ui/aiKl > arm 1 - 4 | topyto-^^] opyLaOr) 
046. 104. 2019. 2038 : iratus Pr | o SpaKwv > Pr | e?rt > C Pr | 
Troirjarai TroXe/xov] ^* ^ | yuteTa] pr Kat 2040 | T<OV XOITTWV] TCOV 7rt- 
A.ot7roov X : T77Q- yvvatKoo* Kat arm 1 : > arm 2 - 3 | TOV o-7rep/xaTOo-l 
de semine Tyc Pr Vg | avTTycr] Trjo- yvvaiKOO- bo | Taa- evToXao-J 
T77v evToXTyv Pr arm 1 | tyo-ov A^ C C 025. 046*. 21. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al p Or 8 gig vg s arm 8 - 4 -* bo : pr TOV 046**. i. 104. 
no : TOV 0eov N* : 0eov 522 : Jesu Christi Pr vg c arm 1 - 2 eth |. 

18. ver. i8>Prarm 2 | eora^ AxC 61. 172. (205) al p Or 8 Tyc. 
gig vg a - d - f - v s 2 arm 1 - 3 eth : eo-Ta^v 025. 046. 21 ( - 205). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al pl vg c - * s 1 arm 4 - a bo |. 



XIII. 1-8.] AnOKAAYvUS ID ANNOY 313 



CHAPTER XIII. 

I. Kal flSov CK rfys 6a\d(ro"r)s Oypiov avaflcuvov, 
f.\ov Kf.po.ra. SeKa Kai Ke(aXas cTrra, (a) 
Kat 7rt ras Ke<aXas avrov 



2. KOL TO Oypiov o etSov rjv o/totov 
Kat ot 7rdSs CLVTOV MS apKOv, 
Kai TO crrofjia avrov a>s (rTOfj.a 



Kat coooKcv auTw 6 SpaKiav T^V Swayu.iv avrou 
Kat TOV Opovov avrov KCU e^ovcrt ai/ fj.yd\r)v. 
3. Kat /uav CK TWI/ Kec^aXaiv avroC ws tcr^)ayyu,ei/^v ets 
Kttt 17 TrXrjyr] rov Oavdrov avrov e6cpa.7rv@r]. 

Kat eOavfidcrOr] O\YJ YJ yrj f OTrtVw TOV Oypcov f, 

() MSS add a gloss to prepare the way for xvii. 12 : /ccd ^TrJ rcov Ke 
avrov d^Ka Sia.5ififj.aTa. See vol. ii. English transl., footnote in loc. 



1. Kai etSoi K TTja OaXacraiQa >2C>5 | K T^CT OaXacrcrrja- . . . 
aya/Jau/ov] CK rrjcr Oa\a.(r(rr)(T after avaflaivov (Tyc) Pr S 2 arm eth [ 
Brjpiov ava/?atvov] -^ Tyc : + /xeya arm 1 j X OV ] X WI/ T> IO 4- no. 
429. 522. 20l6. 2017 | Kepara SCKO. KCU. Ke<f>a\a(r CTTTO] Kepara 
Ka Kai > I : Kepara SeKa . . . Kec^aAao- 7rra -~ vg arm 1 - 2 - a : 
Kf.pa.ra 8e/<a ~ 468 | racr Ke^aXaer] rrjv Ke<f>a\r)v arm | avrou] 
avruv (025) | ovo/xara A 046. 21 (- 2040) al pm Or 8 vg S 2 : ovo/xa 
C 025. i. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr gig s 1 arm bo eth | 
/?Xa(T<>7jU.ta(r] yeypa/x/xei/ov bo |. 

2. TO Orjpioy] bestiain Pr gig : bestia vg | yv o/xotoi/] ~ 172. 
2015. 2018 Tyc Pr vg | rjv > i. 181. 209. 2038. 2o67 com gig 
arm 1 - a | auTov 1 >Tyc | wo" 1 ] similes gig | apKou AxC 025. 046. 21 
( 35. 632. 2040). I. 250. 2037*. 2038 al um Or s : apKrov 35. 61. 
172*. 201**. 241. 385. 429**. 522. 632. 1957. 2037**. 2039. 
2040. 2041. 2067 al p | o-To/Aa 2 >202o s 1 arm 1 - 2 - a | XCOI/TOO- AC 
025. 046. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Tyc Pr gig vg arm bo sa 
eth : XeovTwv X 61. 69 Or 8 S | avrco] avrov 866 | o > N* | ryv 
8wa/xtv avTov Kai TOV Opovov avrov Kat > arm 1 j Kai TOV Opovov 
airrov>2C>37 | Kai fovo-Lav /AcyaXr/j/] > 385. 429. 522. 919. 1849. 
1955. 2004. 2024 : Kai >IO4. 2038 : + eSwKei/ avT<o A** |. 

3. Kai^ + euW 2040. 2067 Tyc vg d - v | fjuav] /ua arm 1 - a : 
unum caput Pr : TrX^yryv (?) bo | CK] >046. i. 205. 2019. 2037. 
2038. 2067 : 7ri bo | avTov] 7TTa Pr | wo- AxC 025. i. 35*. 205. 
385. 2015. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038 al p Or 8 : tocret 046. 
21 (-35*. 205. 2020). 250. 2067 al mu : rjv arm 1 -" : > arm 2 - 3 | 



314 AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [XIII. 4-5. 

4. Kat TrpocreKvvrjo-av TW SpaKoi/Tt 

rrjv l^ovcrcav T<3 OrjpL(a t 



/cat TrpocreKvvrjarav r ro Orjpiov^ Xeyoj/Tes 

Tts o/xoio? TO> 0->7pta), 

/cat Tts Swarai TroXejiiTjcrai /ACT avrov j 



5 a . /cat iSoOrj avT(3 aro^aa XaXow jacyaXa Kat ^X 

(a) On the restoration of 5 b to its original place before 7, see vol. ii., 
English transl., footnote in Zoc. 



386. IQ57- 2O 37- 2067 : ccrtfrayiACmj (?) 
arm 1 : cr^ayrjcr bo : occisum fuerit Pr | airrou 2 ] > 046. 205 : TOV 
Oavarov N* (corr. first hand) | eOav^aa-Orj A 051. i. 1 8 1. 2015. 
2019. 2036. 2037. 2067 gig (s) : eOaviJLacrTfaO ir) C : fOav^aarfv ^ 
025. 046. 21. 250 al pl Or 8 bo : admiratae sunt Pr | 0X17 rj yrj] 
v o\rj TIT) y-rj 051. i. 181. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2067 : in terra gig : 
gentes inhabitantes terram Pr : + Kat yKoXovOrja-tv eth | OTTLCTW TOV 
OrjpLov] OTTIO-OC TOV Oypiov 2020 : post bestiam illam gig : ad bestiam 
Pr | oTrtcrw TOV #>7pioi; = nTin ^PIKO, corrupt for nTin nnjO3. 
See vol. i. 337, 351 |. 

4. TO) SpaKoi Ti . . . TrpocreKunrjcrai/ 2 > I. 385. arm 2 bo 
Spa/covrt] $?7pia> arm 1 | ort cSco/ce . . . ^Typtoo 1 > bo | ort cSoo/ce^ 
A^C 025. 172. 181. 205. 209. 250. 424. 2015 ( ore )- 2018. 2019. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 Or 8 Tyc Pr vg s arm 4 : +o 
Spa/cwv arm 1 : TOO SeSco/cort 046. 21 ( - 205. 2040) al pm : TO> Sovrt 
6 1. 69 : qui dedit gig arm 3 - a | TTJV e^oucrtaj/] TTJV > Or s : +GLVTOV 
arm 1 - 3 - 4 : omnem potestatem suam Pr | TW ^ptco 1 ] ro> Orjpiov 
920 : avro) arm 1 j Xeyovrecr . . . Orjpua >S 2 | Kat Trpoo-eKvvrjo-av TO 
Orjpcov > 051. 181. 205. 2038. 2067 arm 2 - 4 - a | TO OypLov A 2036. 
2037 al p : TO) Orjpiu xC 025. 046. 21 ( - 920). 250 al pm Or 8 : TW 
Orjpiov 920 | Tier 1 ] ouSetcr arm 1 TO) Crypto)] + TOUTW s 1 - 2 bo eth : 
illae bestiae Pr Kat 3 AsC 025. 046. i. 35. 60. 61. 69. 172. 181. 
205. 241. 250. 432. 452*. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 Or s Pr gigvg s bo eth : 
rj Tyc arm : >21 ( - 35. 205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 104. 1 10. 314. 
385. 2016 al p | SwaTai AxC 025. i. 35*. 172. 205. 250. 498. 
920. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 : SwaTocr 046. 21 ( -35*. 205. 920. 2020. 2040) al pm Or 8 . 

5 a . KCU &o0Tj . . . j3Xaa<|>T]fuaa > I. 2016. 2017. 2038 Pr | 
o-To/xa > arm 1 | XaXow] XaXowTocr 205 : XaXetv arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a bo 
eth : loquendi gig | jSXacr^/xtacr ^C 201. 386. 2020. 2040 al p 
V g(a). d s (2) 5 arm l. 2 . fi\ao-<]>r)iJitai 620. 866 Vg c - f - % v : ^Xacr^^ta 
A 172. 181. 241. 250. 424. 632**. 2015. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2067 : 
y8Xacrc/>?7//,iai/ 025. 046. 21 (-386. 620. 632**. 866 (920). 2O2O. 
2040) al mu Or 8 s 1 arm 3 - < 4 )- a : blasphemare gig : +yeveo-^at arm 



XIII. 6-8. ] AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY 315 



6. Kat T/votei> TO (TTO/xa avTov ts /SAacr^tu as Trpos TO 
j3\a<r<f)r)fjif)crai TO 6Vo/xa avTov /cat Tr)v o K fjvrjv avTOv 

P Kat TOVS 1 eV TO) OVpai/tO (TKrjVOVVTCLS. 

5 b . Kat eSd^ry avTa) eovo-ta Trot^crai /x^vas Teo-Q-epaKovTa /cat Svo, 

7. /ecu cSo^iy avT<3 TToriJo ai TroAettov /xera TCOV dyttov Kat 



avTco eovo-t a CTTI Tracrav cpvAryv Kat Aaov Kat 
yAajo-Q-av Kat Wvos. 

Kat TrpocTKW ^o Ovo iv avTov TravTe? ot KaTot/cowTts ITTI T^S y^j 
ToiP ov yeypaTTTat TO ovo/xa r avTOv 1 ev T(3 ^t^Atco Tiy? 00175 
TOV dpn ov TOV eo-<^)ay/xeVov aTro KaTa/SoA^s KOO-/XOV. 



6. Kai 1 ] deinde Tyc | To 1 > 175. 337. 617. 1849 | o- 
^Aao-^/xtao- AC I. 94. 172. 250. 424. 2018. 2019. 2040 vg : eto- 
/8Aao-<?7/xiaj/ 025. 046. 21 ( 2040). 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 
Tyc gig s 2 : in blasphemia Pr arm 1 - 2 - 4 - a : /?Aacn/7/xeo/ s 1 arm 3 bo 
eth | /SAao-^T^o-ai] pr Kai bo eth : Kat e/5Aao-</7/x^o-ev arm 1 - 2 - a : 
tva /8Aao-</>->?/x?7o~>7 S 1 | avTov 2 ] X c : ai;TOV X* | Kat rrjv o-Krjvrjv avrov 
>C | /cat TOVO- cv T. ovp. (TKrjvovvTacr ^ c 025. 046*. I. 205. 
632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al m vg bo arm 4 : TOUO- ev T. ovp. 
o-K^v. A*C 046** 21 ( - 205. 632**. 2020). 250 al m Or 8 Tyc s 2 : 
TOV ev T. ovp. o~Kr)vovvToo- (> eth) Pr gig eth : rwv tv T. ovp. O-K-^VOVVTWV 
S 1 : T7]v cv T. ovp. arm 1 - 2 | o-K7;i owTao-] O-K-^VOWTCO- X : otKOVi/rao- 
386. 2019 : KaToiKovvTaor 149. 201 : o~Kr)vr)v arm 3 **- a 






5 b . Kai eSoOif] . . . TroiY]crai >arm 4 - a | ^ovo"ia> N* | 
AC 025. i. 94. 181. 632**. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 Tyc Pr gig vg s eth : +o 0eAet X : pr TroAe/xor 046 21 
( 632**. 2040). 250 al pl : +Ta rf.po.ra. a tOeXycre eth : TroAe/xr/aai 
6 1. 69 Or 8 bo sa : Trot^o-at TroAe^o-at (TroAe/xov arm 2 ) KaTa TWV 
aytcov Kat vtKr/o~at avTOVo" Kat eooOrj ( + avT(ov arm 1 : + e^ovo~ta arm 2 ) 
vtK>7 (vtK^o-at arm 2 ) arm 1 - 2 : >arm 4a | /xr/i/ao- > arm 2 | Teo-o-epaKorTa 
AXC : Teo-o-apaKOVTa 025. 21 (-35). 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 | 
TCO-O-. Kat 8vo A 336. 620. 866. 2040 Tyc gig s : Kat > xC 025. 21 
( - 35). 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 Pr vg : /x/3 7 046. 35. 2015. 2019. 
2036. 2038 al p : (/cat) Svo >arm 2 |. 

7. aura) 1 ] + e^ovcrta 386. 920. 2O2O | TroLrjcrai . . . avrco 2 >AC 
025. i*. 61. 69. 181. 2038. 2067 arm a sa | tr 7* after 7 b s 2 : after 5* 
arm 1 - 2 - 8 | arm 1 - 2 - 3 | Trot^o-at TroAe/xov N 046. 21. 2037 al m Pr gig 
s l. 2 . ^j^mg X y 2i 2^0 2018 al p Or 3 Tyc Vg | /xeTa TWV aytcov 
>Tyc | viK^o-at] vicitPr | c^ovo-ta]s c : e^ovo-tai/ K* | Tracrav </>vA?yv] 
Trao-ao- Tacr c/>vAao- bo eth | Kat Aaov] Kai Aaovo- C arm 4 : >> 051- 
J - 35- T 957- 2019. 2023. 2038. 2067 Tyc arm 1 - 2 bo |. 

8. irpoaKU^Yjaouaii/] 7rpoo-Kvvr)(Tav Pr Vg v arm 2 - 3 eth | avrov 
AC 046. 21 (-35. 205. 468. 2020. 2040). 250. 2037 al mu Or 8 : 



316 AHOKAAY^IS IO ANNOY [XIII. 9-10. 

9. Et TI<; \L ovs a 
IO. et n<s eis 
eis 

ei ris eV 
<aiJr6s> f CLVTOV f eV yaa^atpvy a 

^OSe (TTtV 17 VTTO/AOVT] Kttt f) 7TLCTTIS TtOV aytW. 



N 025. 051. I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 468. 1957. 2020. 2023. 
2038. 2040. 2067 al p : > Tyc | Travrecr . . . yrjtr] 7ra<ra rj yrj 
arm 1 | e?rt >920. 2040 | T. y^cr] rrjv y-qv 920 | ov ov C Pr : ovai 
A : ot ov s 1 : <DJ/ ov N c (but X* om. ov) 025. 35. 175. 205. 250. 
386. 617. 632**. 919. 1934. 2020. 2037.2038. 2040. 2067 al pl Or 8 
Tyc gig vg s 2 arm bo eth : em/ ovre 046. 21 (-35. 175. 205. 386. 
617. 632**. 919. 1934. 2020. 2040). 385 alP : w ovre no j 
yeypaTTTat] yeypa^/xevot S 1 | TO oi/o/Aa AC 046. 21 ( - 35*. 2040). 
250. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 Tyc Pr s 2 bo : ra ovo^ara. K 025. i. 
35*. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2040 gig vg arm eth : > s 1 | avrov AC : 
cumov K* 2040 s 2 arm : >tf c 025. 046. 21 (-2040). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 | ev] CTU 046 bo I TO> ^Aiw] 
TO) > C : /3t/3Aw K* : rw ^t^Aco N c : TT; /3i^Aco i al p | ^coTyo-l + TO> 
S 1 | ecr^ay/xevou] eo-</)payio-/xj/ov I. 242. 336. 2020 Tyc | aTro] irpo 
s 1 : pr TOV Pr eth |. 

9. i TIO- exci] oo-Ttcr e^et arm 2 : o e^wi/ arm 3 - 4 : ot CXOI/TCO- 
arm 1 - a | over] cora, s Pr arm : +audiendi arm bo eth |. 

10. eicr atx/xaXwatav 1 AttC 025. 046. 35*. 205. 2015. 2020. 

2036. 2038. 2040 vg a - c - f - arm : +a7rayet 250 Or 8 gig vg d - v s : 
+ 7rayet 2018 : -f uTrayei bo : at^/xaAaxriav array ci 424 : at^/xaX- 
a)o-icu i. 61. 69. 241. 632**. 2017. 2037 : e^ei aix//,aA.o><ncu/ 051. 
21 (-35*- 20 5- 632**. 2020. 2040). no. 201. 314. 385. 498. 
522. 1955. 1957. 2016. 2041. 2067 al : aix/AaAeoTi^i (-T^crei 
2019). 104. 2019 : captivum duxerit Pr | cwr at^aAwo-tav 2 A 218. 
2018 Or 8 gig vgs : >KC 025. 046. 21. i. 61.69. IO 4- Iro - 201- 241. 
3 I 4-3 8 5-49 8 - 5 22 - 1955- r 957- 20I 5- 2016. 2017. 2019. 20 3 6 - 

2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 arm bo | virayei] avvayci i. 2037 : vadet 
vg c : et ipse capietur Pr | ^axa-ip-rf- 2 AC Or 8 : fjia X aL P a N 025. 
04.6. 21. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl | aTTOKTavO-rjvai 1 A : On 
this Hebrew idiom see vol. i. 355 sq. : aTroKreim K 632**. 2015. 
2036 (gig s 1 - 2 ) : aTTOKratj/et 051 : a7roKTevi/ei 250. 2018. 2040 Or 8 : 
aTTOKTem C 025. 046. i. 35. 104. 172. 205. 506. 620. 866. 1957. 
2019. 2020. 2023. 2037. 2041. 2067 al p arm 4 bo eth : occiderit 
Pr vg : >21 (-35. 205. 620. 632**. 866. 2020. 2040). 69. 82. 
no. 314. 385. 429. 2016. 2017. 2038 al p arm 3 | avrov] pr Set NC 
025. 046 al mu Pr vg s 2 | ev /JLa X aipr) 2 AC 025. 046 Or 8 : ev /xaxat/oa 
N 35- 20 5- 620. 866. 2040 s arm 4 bo : > 21 ( - 35. 205. 620. 
866. 2040). 69. 82. no. 241. 314. 385. 429. 2016. 2017 al p | 
aTT/ 2 aTroKTai/^o-erat gig s 1 sa eth : awoKTevovo-Lv avrov 



XIII. 11-13.] AIIOKAAY*I2 IOANNOY 317 

II. Kat cTSov aXXo Ovjpiov ava/fotvov eV rrjs y>}s, 
/cat *X T/ KepaTa 8uo o/xota dpvta), 
Kat f eXaXet f ws 



12. Kat TT/V eovo-tav TOV TrpwTOV Orjpiov Tracrav Trotet evwTrtov 



avrov 



a, 
Kat Troiet Trjv yr)v Kat TOUS ev aurj KarotKovi/ras tva Trpoo-- 

Kwrjo-ovo-tv TO Orjpiov TO TrpuJTOv, 
ov lOepairtvOr) f] TrX^y?) TOV Oavdrov avTOV. 



13. Kat Trotet OTj/maa /xeyaXa, tva Kat Trup Trotf) CK TOV ovpavov 



bo sa | wo/xovry . . . TTICTTIO-] ~ S 1 | vTro/xovr;] sapientia gig | 
7rt(7Tio-] ^Xt^to- 498. 2020 | aytwv] + /xaKaptos (rri bo : + f^aKapiar- 
uos Kat ov Oav/Jiaa-i ^arav eth |. 

11. ciSov] tSou 617 I OrjpLOV >Tyc | avajSairoH ava^atvvov C 
ava^atvcov 104 | Svo] tr after apvtw 2O2O : SeKa Svo 181 : ^ 
(-18. 35. 468. 620. 866. 2020. 2040). 42. 82. no. 314. 385. 
2016. 2017 al p arm 3 | o/xota] ovo/xa C : o/xotov bo : Kat o/xotov yv s 
apj/tw] pr TO> 620. 866 arm 3 - 4 - a : apvtov Pr vg s 2 | eXaXet] On the 
corruption of the Hebrew source here, see vol. i. 358 sq. : XaXet 
gig : XaXow bo | SpaKwv] pr o arm |. 

12. TOU TTpWTOU 6T]plOu] TOV ^T^plOV TOV TTpCOTOV 69 | TTttO-aV ^ 

Pr arm 4 | Trotet 1 ] eTrotet 2020 Or 8 Pr vg s 2 arm bo : Trotrpet 172. 
2^0 424. 2018 : tva TTOt^o-et s* 1 ) : irotetTat 051. 35* | va)7Ttov avTov 
Kat>Pr arm 1 | Trotet 2 AC 025. I. 205. 620. 632**. 2015. 2019. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 al mu Tyc gig : Tnmjcm 172. 250. 424. 
2018 S 1 : orotet 046. 20 (-205. 620. 632**. 2040). 69. 104. no. 
314. 385. 2016. 2023. 2067 al Or 8 s 2 : fecit vg arm bo : 7rt Pr 
arm 3 * | T^V yr?v Kat] evwTTtov 025 | Kat 3 > Pr | TOV<T iv avrr} KaTot- 
KOWTao-] tr v avTfj after KaToiKovrrao- C 6 1. 69 gig Vg eth : 
inhabitantes terram Pr : eos qui in ea sunt Tyc | iva Trpoo-Kvvrj- 
o-ovo-tv AC 69. 104. 429*- 5 22 - 20I 9- 2 3 8 : Kat Tpo<"cwiy- 
o-ovcrtv S 1 : tva 7rpoo-Kwr?o-axrtv 025. 046. 20. 250. 2037. 2067 aP 
Or 8 : ut adorent Tyc gig arm : ut adorarent Pr : Trpoo-Kwtv *y 
adorare vg | TO ^^ptov TO TrpwTov] TO> ^pto> TW TrpcoTto 172. 314 . 
452. 468. 2018. 2021. 2040 : bestiam priorem Tyc (Pr) j TOU 
0av<mxu >A I aiW 2 >O25- 6l. 69. 632* Pr Vg |. 

13. -iroiei] Trot^o-a 172. 250. 2018 Tyc s 1 arm 4 bo : crrotet 
2016 : fecit Pr gig vg arm L2 - 3 - a | o-^/xeta /xeyaXa] - 172. 250. 
2018 I tva Kat 7rvpAN Co2 5 . I. 172. 250. 632** 2018. 2020. 
2038. 2040. 2067 aV gig vg s 2 : ita ut ignem Pr : Kat > 205 lye 
s 1 arm 4 bo eth : tva ev TrXavi; iron) (TTOLCL 2015) vvp 2015. 2030. 
2037 : Kat Trvp tva 046. 20 ( - 205. 632** 2020. 2040) al m 
Trvp tva 61. 69 | TTOITJ (TTOICI 2015 : Trotr/o-r; 250. 2018 Pr gig vg) CK 
rov ovpavov KaTa/^atvetv (KttTa/^aivvt^ C : KaTa/V at I 7 2 - 2 5- 



318 AIIOKAAY*I2 10 ANNOY XIII. 14-15. 



KarafBa.ivf.iv ets rr)v yrjv eywTriov TOJV dv0p(07ro>i/. 14. Kai. 7rA.ava rov 
KarotKOwras eVt T^S y^s Sta TO. cr^eta a e Sotf?; avr<3 
TOW Orjpiov, Xe ywi/ rots KarotKoikrii/ 7rt r^s y?}? 



eiKOi/a TO) OrjpLy, os ex et T ^ ""A.iyy^V -n/s /xaxat/n?? Kat efycrtv. 15. 
Kat tooOr) f avr^ f Sowai Trvevpa rrj eiKoVt rov 6fyptov, Iva Kat 
XaXrjo-y rj etKcbi/ TOT) $r/ptoi>, Kat Troirja-rj Iva 6Voi eav 
etKoVa TO) Orjptov a 



2018 : discendentem Pr) AC 172. 250. 424. 2015. 2018. 2020. 
2036. 2037. 2067 Tyc Pr vg arm 1 - 2 - 3 - * : de celo faceret 
descendere gig : 71-007 (Trotei 025. 2040) Kara/?atvetv K rov ovpavov 
X 025. I. 2038. 2040 al p s arm 4 bo eth : K TOV ovpavov Karaftaivrj 
(-vci 104. 314. 429. 522. 2019) 046. 20 (-205. 2020. 2040). 
104. 314. 429. 522. 2019 al mu Or 8 : Kara^ao/ry CK TOV oupavov 205 | 
eto- rrjv yr)v AttC 025. i. 205. 250. 2037. 2038 al mu Or 8 gig vg : 
7rt rrjv yrjv 046. 20 (-35. 205. 2040). 6l. 82. 104. no. 314. 385. 
1957. 2016. 2067 s arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a bo : CTTI rrjo- yrjo- 69 : >35- 2040 
Pr arm 4 [. 

14. TrXam] TrXavrjo-ci s bo : seduxit Pr : irXavav arm 1 | TOVO- 

KttTOtKOWTaO- A^C 025. 046. 205. 468**. 620. 632**. 920. 2020. 

2040 Or 8 Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : pr TOVO- C/AOVO- 051. 20 ( - 205. 
468**. 620. 632**. 920. (1849). 2020. 2040). 82. no. 314. 385. 
429. 2016. 2017. 2023 al | 7rt rrjo- yrjo-] terram Pr vg : rrjo- yrjo- 
arm 1 - 2 | 8ta ra cr^/xeta . . . CTTI rrjo- yr/o* 2 > 046* S 2 | ra o-Ty/ma] 
TO 0-rjfj.eLov arm 4 | Aeyon/] Xeyov 046**. I. 6l. 69. 2OI. 386. 620. 
2040 : Xeyovroo- 046.^ : et dicit Pr 7rot?;o-at] pr Kat K | etKoi/a] 
tiKOvav A 2038 | oo- AC 025. 046. 6l. 172. 218. 250. 424. 2015. 
2018. 2019. 2036. 2038 Pr gig : o K 20. i. 2037. 2067 al pl vg s 1 : 
coo- Or 8 | e^et AxC 025. i. 250. 2020. 2038 al mu Pr gig vg s 1 
arm 4 bo : et^e 046. 20 ( - 2020). 2037. 2067 al mu Or 8 s 2 | rrjv 
TrXrjyrjv AC 025. 35. 205. 250. 620. 632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 al pl Or 8 : TrXrjyrjo- K : ryjv >O46. 20 (-35. 205. 
620. 632**. 2020. 2040). 42. 61. 69. 82. no. 141. 201. 
3*4- 3 8 5- 429- 452. 49 8 - 5 6 - 5 1 7- 5 22 - *955- 2016. 2017. 
2021 bo | rrjo- /xa^atp^o- (pr aTro 6l. 69 Pr) Kat e^o-ev (^crerat 
arm 1 - 2 - 3 ) A^C 025. 35. 61. 69. 250. 632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 al mu Pr gig vg s arm bo : Kat e^crev a-rro ( + TTJO- 
TrXrjyTjo- 336. 620. 1918) r^cr /xaxatpaa 046. 20 (-35. 205. 
632**. 2020. 2040) al mu Or 8 : rr)o- /xa^. K. e&o-tv aTro T. 
TrXrjy. r. pa^. 205 | /xaxatp^o- A^C Or 8 : /Aavatpao- 025. 046. 
20 al pl |. 

15. auTTj AC 025*. (The feminine may be due to the 
gender of the Hebrew word nTl ; but the late emendation in N 
025**. 046 must be adopted) : avrw N 025**. 046. 20. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl | Sowat >C arm 3 | Sowat 7n/ev/x.a Ax 025. I. (35). 
205. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al mu Pr gig vg s : ^046. 20 ( - (35). 



XIII. 16.] AIIOKAAY^IS IQANNOY 319 



1 6. KCU Trotei Trai/ras, TOVS /xtKpovs Kat rows /xcyaXovs, Kai 
TrXovariovs Kat rov? TTTW^OVS, Kat TOVS eXev^epovs /cat TOVS SouXous, 
tva Scoo"iy avrols ^dpay/j-a CTTI Try? ^etpos avruw TT^S Sepias 77 7rt TO 

205. 2040). 250 al mu Or 8 | LVOL KO.I XaXr)<rr) rj etKcoi/ TOU Oypiov 
>C 69. 336. 468*. 617. 620*. 2015. 2036 s 1 - W arm 4 bo (but not 
sa eth) | wa /cat] ~ Pr arm 2 - a : /cat > 104. 205. 2020. 2037. 2040 
gig arm 1 : oTiarm 3 | XaXrjcrr)] XaX-rjcrti 104. 522. 620**. 2040 : cXaXet 
arm 3 | Kat 71-01770-77 . . . Orjpiov 3 >C 2015 | /cat Troirjcrrj . . . avroKTav- 
Q(jL>criv\ /cat a7TOKTivat ocrot ear /xr; TrpocrKwrja-ovarLV r. Orjpiov Kat T. 
etKova avTov bo | 71-0070-77 (on this Hebraism ( = 71-01770-01) see vol. i. 
Introd. ; Gram. 10. i. (<$)) A 025. 046. 20 (-468. 617. 620. 
2004. 2040). i. 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 Pr gig vg : 7701770-61 X 61. 69. 
250. 468. 522. 617. 620. 2004. 2019. 2036. 2038. 2040 s : cTrotet 
arm 3 eth | wa. A 025. 104. 506. 2019. 2037. 2040 Pr gig vg s arm : 
>K 046.20 (-2040). 61. 69. 172. 201. 250. 314. 385. 498. 
522. 1955. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2036. 2038. 2067 al p Or 8 vg a - s | 
eav] av X I. 205. 2037. 2038 al mu : >2Oi6. 2040 | TrpoaKvvrj- 
o-(ocrtv A 025. 046. 20. 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Or 8 : TT/OOO-KWTJO-OVO-U 
N 051. 69. 104*. 452. 2016. 2019. 2038 arm 1 - 2 - a : adoraverunt 
Tyc : adoraret Pr : adoraverit gig vg : adorabant arm 3 | Trjv 
eiKova A i. 2037. 2067 al p : T77 eiKovt X 025. 046. 20. 250. 2038 
al pm Or 8 | Tf]v eiKova TOV $77ptov] TO Orjpiov Kat T77V etKova avrov 
Tyc bo | TOV 077/oiou 3 ] + tva 051. i. 35. 632**. 1957. 2023 al p : 
+ neque acceperunt inscriptionem in fronte aut in manu sua 
Tyc | a7TOKTav$u)o-iv] aTTOKTavOyvai 6 1. 69 Or 8 : aTTOKretvat bo : 
occidatur vg c - d - f - v |. 

16. iroiei] 7roi77crei 5< c vg s arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a bo : fecit Pr | fjiLKpovcr 
. . . jacyaXovo-] ~ Pr arm 4 | Tovo- 2 > i< | Kat 3 > S 1 | TrXovo-touo- . . . 
TTTCO^OVO-] ^K 2036 | Kat TOVO- TTTco^ovo- Kat TovcT tXevOcpovcr] > Pr : 
TTTW^OVCT . . . eXev^epovo- ^arm a | eXtvOfpovcr . . . SovXovo"] ^620. 
1918. 2019 eth | Kat TOVO- Xeu#epovo-]>205. 2038 : Kat TOVQ- 
8eo-7TOTao- S 1 | tva>bo | 8too-tv (Swat N c ) AtfC 025. 046. 35. 42. 
60. 61. 69. 172. 181. 250. 314. 432. 468. 1957. 2018. 2019. 2020. 
2023. 2037. 2038. 2041 al Or 8 : Soxret i bo : 8(00-77 051 arm : 
Soxrwo-tv 82. 104. 175. 205. 336. 429. 498. 522. 617. 620. 919. 
920. 1849. 1955. 2004. 2015. 2017. 2036 al pl : 6Wovo-tv 18. 91. 
94. 141. 201. 209. 325**. 337. 385. 386. 456. 632. 1934. 2oi6. 
2067 al : 80^77 s : Xa/2o>o-i 506. 2040 : habere Pr vg avroto-] N c 
avru) K* : aXXrjXoLO- gig : >5o6. 2040 Pr Vg ^apay/xa AtfC 025. 
I. 172. 205. 241. 250. 498. 522. 632**. 2015. 20l8. 2019. 2020. 

2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p Tyc Pr gig vg s arm 2 - s - 4 - a : xap a y/ xaTa 
046. 20 ( 205. 632**. 2020. 2040) al pm Or 8 : TO x a P a 7l^ a avrov 
506. 2040 arm 1 | ri^a- x* L P 0(r i" 7 ? * Se^tao-] TWV ^eipwv . . . TWI/ 
Se|ia)i/s | T77o- 1 >20 (-35. 205. 2040). 42. 82. no. 201. 314. 385. 
429. 498. 517. 522. 1955. 2015. 2016. 2017 al | 77] Kat 181, 2020. 






320 



AIIOKAAYtflS IOANNOY [XIII. 17-18. 



ju,TO)7rov avrwv, 17* KCLL fva fjirj Tts ovvrjTcn, ayopdcrai rj Tr<a\f)o~aii et 
/AT) 6 ^<ov TO xapay/xa, TO oVotta TOV Orjpiov 77 TOV aptO/Jiov TOV 
6Vo/xaTog avTov. 18. 128e 77 oro<ta eo-Ttv* 6 e^oov vow ^r/^io-aTO) 
TOV apiOfJiov TOV Orjpiov, apiOfJ-bs yap dv^pwTrov IOTTLV /cat 6 dpt0//,os 



2038 arm 2 - 3 - 4 - bo | TO /ACTWTTOV Ax 025. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468**. 
920. 2020). 250 al mu Or 8 Tyc arm a (bo) eth : pr av 2020 : 

TOV tUTWTTOV C : TWV /ACTtoTTtoV 046. 05!. I. 35. 205. 468**. 

920. 2015. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr gig vg arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 ! avTa>v 2 > 
2015 Pr . 

17. icai 1 AN C 025. 046. 20. 250. 2038. 2067 al pl Or 8 gig vg 
arm 1 - 2 - 8 - a : >K*C 314. 2015. 2017. 2036. 2037. 2041. Pr s arm 4 
bo : sic ergo facient Tyc | ^77 TUT] /x^Seio- 172. 250. 2018 | Svvrjrai 
ANC 18. 35. no. 141. 172. 205. 241. 250. 385. 429. 432. 468. 
632. 1849. 1955. 1957. 2004. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2040 al mu 
Or 8 Tyc Pr gig vg s 2 : Swa/rat 025. 046. 051. 20 ( - 18. 35. 205. 
468. 632. 1849. 2004. 2020. 2040). i. 61. 69. 104. 201. 314. 
2015. 2016. 2017. 2024. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p arm 1 - 2 : 
Swr/o-eTcu arm 3 - 4 - a bo : ^>S l \ ayopacrai . . . TrooAiyo-at] ~ 172. 250. 
2018 rj 7ra)X7yo-ai] > Tyc : KO.I TrtoX^o-at arm 3 - a : +CTI 172. 250. 



2018 s 1 | /A??] fjLrjr C o ^wv] o>C : 27 t^wv i : c^ arm a : 
ot e^ovTcar Tyc | TO oi/o/xa TOU Orjpiov A 025. 046. 20 ( 2020). I. 6 1. 
69. 104. 172. 201. 250. 314. 385. 498. 522. 1955. 1957. 2015. 
2016. 2018. 2023. 2036. 2041. 2067 al Or 8 vg : TOV ovo/xaTocr TOV 
%HOV C 2037. 2038 Pr vg c - 4 f - v s 1 - 2 arm 3 eth : TOV ffypiov rj (KUI 
2019) TO ovo/x,a avTov K 2019. 2020 bo : pr 77 Tyc gig arm 4 : + 
rj TOV apiOfjiov TOV Orjpiov 046 | 77] /cat Pr arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a | TOV api^/x,ov] 
TOV aptOfjiov eth j. 

18. T) cro<j)ia] sapientiae Tyc | eo-Ttv] e^et Or 8 : tr before 77 
o-oc/ua gig : +Kat s 1 | vow] pr TOV i. 172 : ovo- N* 325*. 
620 : ovv 69 : vovo- 1918 : o-o<tav arm 1 - 3 | TOV apt#/xov] 
TO ovo/xa 6l. 69. 2019 | av^poJTrov caTtv] ~ 205 Kat o apiOfJiOo- 
avTov >tf S 1 | Kat AC 025. 046. I. 35. 60. 94. 205. 432. 
632**. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2041. 2067 al mu Pr gig vg s 2 arm 1 - 2 - 4 - 1 bo eth : >20 (-35. 
205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 61. 69. 104. no. 172. 250. 314. 385. 
498. 522. 2016. 2018 al p Or 8 Tyc | avTov] +CO-TIV C 025. i. 35. 
60. 94. 205. 432. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2041. 2067 Tyc gig vg<- c > s 2 arm L2 - a bo | eaicoo-toi (-at K : -a 
025. 104. 336. 385. 620. 1934. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067). c^/covTa 
( + /cat 2037 S) e AN 025. 104. 149.^336. 385. 620. 1934. 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 Pr gig vg s bo : x&r 046. 20 ( - 149. 620. 1934. 
2040). i. 69. 250. 314. 429. 498. 1957. 2017. 2018. 2019. 2023. 
2036. 2041 al mu : xo- 2015 : e^a/coo-ia Se/ca e C : arm 4 Iren. v. 30. 
I : DCXC Tyc |. 






XIV. 12-13.] ATIOKAAY^JS IOANNOY 321 

xiv. 1 2. *Q,0 -Yj VTropovrj TUV dytW eo-TtV, ot rypovvTes rots erroAus 
TOV 0ov KCU^TIJV Tria-nv I^o-ov. 13. Kal r//<ovo-a </>wi/^s e/c TOV 
ovpavov AeyovV^s Tpdif/ov Ma/cdptot ot ve/cpot ot eV /cvpiw aTroBi rj- 
O-/COI/TCS aTr aprt. vat, Aeyet TO irvevfj-a, iva avaTrarjo-ovraL CK TWV KOTTWI/ 
j , Ta yap Ipya avTwv d/coAov#et /xer 



xiv. 12-13. On the restoration of these verses to their original context, 
see vol. i. 368-369. 

xiv. 12. w8e TJ OTTO/JU^T]] o Se imo^vwv /xcra bo : ^Se 8e rj VTrofjiovrj 
eth I w8e>69 | rj > 1934 | co-rti/J + wSe i. 35. 69. 104. 205. 620. 
1957. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al : tr before 77 vn-o/jiovrj Pr 
gig | ot Ti/pouj/reo-] TOJV rrjpovvTwv ^ 2004*^. 2019. 2O2O. 2040 | TOU 

OtOV >I. 2067 | TTlO-Tll/] + TOV 35. 432. 1957. 2023. 2041 I IT/O-OV] 

4-Xpto-Tov 582. 1948. 2014. 2015. 2034. 2036. 2037. 2042 arm 1 - 2 
bo : + x<*-PW OVTaL 35* I- 

13. 4>o>i/T]o- . . . \youaT](7] (Jxjivrjv . . . Acyovo-av 386 | <fxavr)(r] 

+ aAAiyo- peyaXrjo- bo | eic TOU ovpavov Aeyouo-^o-] Aeyowo-^o- ( + /xot 
2020) K TOV ovpavov K 2020. 2037 | Aeyovo-7/o-] + JULOL 051. I. 35. 
205. 468. 632**. 1957. 2015. 2019. (2020). 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2067 Pr gig vg d arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* | ypai/w >bo | ot i/e/cpot 
>eth | fv Kvptw AN 046. 20. al pl Pr gig vg arm bo : +v)(juav s 1 : 
Xpto-Tco C 025 : (TOJ) 0ew s 2 | aTro^o-KovTeo-] "should they rise" 
bo | air aprt joined with what precedes P 35. 205. (337). 468**. 
498. (632**). 1957. 2004**. 2040. 2041 al s arm bo : joined 
with what follows 046. 20 (-35. 175. 205. (337). 468**. (632**). 
2004**. 2040) al mu Pr gig vg : without punctuation AtfC 051. 
175 | i/at, Acyet Ax c C 025. 632**. 2004**. 2020. 2040 al Pr gig 
vg s arm 1 - 3 - 4 -* 1 : /cat Aey 205. 2018. 2019. 2041 arm 2 : ^046. 
20 (-632**. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 69. 104. no. 314. 2023 al mu 
: vai>N* 620 bo | Trvev/xa] + TO aytov 2004**. 2040 arm 1 - 2 - 3 eth 

ai/aTra-^o-ovTai AtfC : avaTravo-oj/Tat 046. I. 620. 2038 al p arm 2 - 3 - 4 
: ai/a7ravcrojvTat 025. 20 ( - 620). 250. 2037. 2067 al pm : avaTravwi/- 
Tat 05 1 : avaTravon-at arm 1 - a : requiescant Pr gig vg : + a-jr apn bo | 
e/c] a7ro6l. 69 | KOTTWV] cpywv 6 1. 69 | TOJI/ KOTTCOI/ avrwj> Ta yap cpya 
avTcov a/coAov$t] T<OV KOTTWI/ TWV epywv avTwv <C> a/<oAov^>7o-6t 
bo | Ta yap epya . . . /XCT avTtoi/>s 1 | Ta yap AtfC 025. 336. 506. 
2004**. 2020. 2040 Pr gig vg s 2 arm 4 : Ta Se 046. 20 ( - 2004**. 
2020. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl arm 1 - 2 - 3 - 01 eth | 
Kat ooyyijo-ci avrovo~ eiar ^ODT/O- Trrjyyv voarwv bo ^ vid ) |. 



VOL. II. 21 



3 22 AIIOKAAYtflS IOANNOY [XIV. 1-2. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

1. Kat etSov Kat tSov TO dpviov ecrTos CTTI TO opo5 
Kat /ACT auTOv IxaTOV Tecro-epaKovTa TeVo-ape? 

cxovo-at TO 6Vo/za avTOV Kat TO oVo/xa TOV TraTpos avTov yeypa//,- 

[AtVOV eTTl TaV /XTO)7T(OV aVTOJV. 

2. Kat rjKovo-a <f>u>vrjv CK TOU ovpavov 
o)5 (jiwvrjv vSaTwv TroXXcov 

Kal ws ^an^v /3povn?5 /xeyaA.^. 



o)5 Kt 
t5 Ki0apats aiiTaiv, 3. Kat aSovcriv o>5 w 



TOV ^povov Kat ei/oVtov TWV Teo-o-apwv 



1. Kai eiSoi Kat i&ou] et ecce vidi Pr : Kat /xTa TavTa eth | 
Kat 1 > gig | Kat tSov > gig Gyp bo (cf. eth) | TO apvtoi/ . . . Stan/] 
supra montem Syon agnum stantem gig | TO apvtoi/ ANC 046. 
20 ( - 35. 205. 468**) s arm 3 - a bo eth : TO > 025. i. 35. 205. 250. 
468**. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
al p arm 1 - 2 - 4 | CO-TOO- AtfC 025. 2036 : CO-TWO- 046. i. 205. 250. 
2020. 2037. 2038. 2040 al p : ea-rrjKoa- 20 ( - 205. 2004. 2020. 
2040). 2067 al mu : co-TrjKuxT 104. 172. 2004 : stans Tyc : stantem 
Pr gig Cyp : Stabat Vg | 7rt TO opocr 2twv] evrt opoo- C | /ACT avTov 
AC 025. 35. 205. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al Tyc Pr gig 
vg Cyp s 1 arm bo eth : + aptfyioo- 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 2020. 2040). 

~- 



Teo-o-apeo- 025. 250. 386. (620). 1934. 2O2O. 2037. 2040. 
2067 al pm : CKaTov To-o-apaKovTo-o-apeo- 149 : p/xS 046. 20 ( 149. 
386. (620). 1934. 2020. 2040). i. 2038 al pm | X ova-ai] pr at 69 : 
CXOVTCO- gig vg : habebant Pr Cyp | aim>u Kat TO ovo/xa > 025. I | 
TO oi/ojaa 2 >I04. 336. 522. 620 | avTOV 3 > 385 | yeypa/x/xevov] pr 
TO A s 2 : eyyeypa/xevov 385 : Kaio/xevov I |. 

2. tum\v l - 2 3 ] ^cov^o- 2067 | ^wvryv 1 >92O | CK TOV ovpavov 
too- <f>(t>vrjv > 620* | <a)vr?v vSaTcov TTO\\O>V Kat 005 ^covr/v > bo 
I <an/r7v 2 >Tyc | Kai o>o- c^an/T/v fipovTyo- ^yaXr)<r > 2015. 2036 | 
coo- 2 ] aut Pr : >arm 2 - a | ^xoi/^i/ 3 >Tyc Pr | fipovrrjo- ^yaX^o-J K c 
: /xeyaXryo- >X* : ~ Pr : jSpovT^v ^yaXrjv Tyc bo | Kat rj <j>uvrj rjv 
rjKova-a AC 046. 20. 250 al pl Pr s 2 bo : Kat > s 1 : Kat <j>wrjv (-rja- 
2067) rjKova-a 025. i. 1957. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 arm 3 : 
et vocem quam audivi Tyc gig vg : Kat r/Kovo-a 0)0- ^wi/^v arm 1 - a | 
o)o- 3 ]>i.i957.2038. 2067 : + </>a)V7;i/ arm 4 | Kt^apwSwi/ Ki0aptovTa>v] 
Kt^apwSov KiOapL^ovra S 1 : Ki0apo>Sovo- bo | ev Tato- Kitfapato- avrwv] 

wv > C : cv T. K. avrov s 1 : > Pr bo |. 

3. Kai aSoucri^] Kat (> bo) aSovTeo" 743. 1075 s 1 - 2 bo eth : et 



XIV. 3-4.] AIIOKAAY^IS IflANNOY 323 



3 b - c - KOI ouSeis eSvVaro /xafleu/ rrjv u 

/? a L e/caroi/ Teo-crepa/coi/Ta reWape? ^iXiaSe? (a)* 
4 Ct OIL? rot ot d/coAov$o{Wes r<3 dpvtu> OTTOU a> 
4 d - ourot rjyopdo-Qrjo-av UTTO TUJV d 



(a) Text adds following interpolation : 3*. O l iiyopturtfvoi curd TT?J 
4 a . DUTCH elfftv ol /j.era ywaiKwv OVK fj.o\vvdr)(rav irap6ti>oi yap d<rii> 

(b) Text adds gloss : K al r< 



cantabant Pr gig vg arm | wo- woV AC i. 35*. 2015. 2019. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2040 aP vg s 1 sa : wo- > X 025. 046. 20 ( - 35*! 
2040). 250. 2067 aP 111 Pr gig s 2 arm bo eth : ev WOT? ( K awri) 
bo | woV /cati/77i/] ~ 1934 | Kaiv^v] + /cat -rjv K (^i/ above the line) 
: pr /cat arm 3 | evu-mov TOV Opovov] > 42. 498. 1918. 2020 : 
+ TOU 0eou gig arm 1 - 3 | /cat 2 > 42. 498. 1918. 2020 | reo-o-apcoj 
>. 205 /cat TO>V Trpeo-pvTCpwv > C arm 1 - 3 | /cat 3 ] + ej/GJ7rtoi/ 
gig S 1 arm 2 - 4 - a | oi;Seto-] ovSe eto- 046. 20 (-35. 205. 620. 
1934. 2020. 2040). no. 201. 385. 429. 1955. 2016. 2017 : 



arm 



eS 



OVK 



waro AtfC 20 (-386. 617. 2040) al : ^Swaro 025. 
046. 250. 386. 617. 2037. 2040. 2067 aP 1 : ov ovj/arat 2038 
(arm 3 - a ) : r/Swa/^i/ arm 4 | /xa^etv] dicere Pr gig vg (-&** d scere) . ^ tc 
know " arm a bo eth | et w] /cats 1 | at > K c 104. 620. 1849. 1955. 
2004. 20I 5- 2017* | eKarov rco-o-epa/covTa rcoro-apeo- AN C (C) : e/caTo^ 
reo-o-epa/coj/ra /xtai/ N* : reo-o-apeo- > C : c/caroi/ Teo-crapa/coi/ra reo-- 
o-apecr 025. 386. (620). 1934. 2040 : /carov ^ I : p/x3 046. 20 
(-386. 620. 1934. 2040) al mu | x^WJeo- >Pr | ot rjyopao-fjicvoi 
O.TTO Tya- yrjar] quae empta erant de terris Pr |. 

4. OUTOI . . . a.v uirayei] ourot cto-tv ot a/coXou^oui/reo- . . . VTrayrj 
OL /xera ywatKcov . . . yap eto-tj/ 205 | ovrot eto-tv >A (205) | 
fj.o\vv6r]o-av] cpoXwav ra t/xarta avrwv bo | fto-tv 2 ] permanserunt 
Pr Cyp | ourot 2 AsC 025. i. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040 gig 
vg a -s s 1 (arm 1 - 2 - 3 -) : +CKTIV 046. 20 (-(205). 2020. 2040). 
250. 2067 Or 8 Tyc Pr vg d - f Cyp s 1 * arm 4 bo | ot 2 >K a/coAov- 
^owreo-] aKoXovOrjcravrea- 920 S | OTTOU av A^C 025. i. 35. 172. 
205. 250. 314. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 al mu : av >i849 : OTTOV eav 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 
1849. 2020. 2040). 61. 69. 104. 1 10. 201. 241. 242. 385. 429. 
1955. 2016. 2017. 2024 al m Or 8 | VTrayet AC 104. 172. 336. 620. 
2015. 20I 9- 20 3 8 s2 : va dit Pr : v-rrayrj X 025. 046. 21 (-620). 
250. 2037. 2067 alP 1 Or 8 s 1 : ierit Tyc (gig vg) : "shall go" arm | 
rjyopacrOrja-av A^C 025. I. 172. 250. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 aP Pr gig vg s 1 (arm 4 ) bo eth : pr VTTO 
I?7o-ovo46. 051. 20 (-2040). 69. 104. no. 314. 385. 2016 al mu 
Or 8 S 2 | aTTO TWI/ av^pcoTTtov > C | a.irapxq AC 025. 046. 20 
(-620). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP 1 Or 8 gig vg s arm 4 bo : 
rjar x 336. 620. 1918 : ab exordio Pr (placed after TCO 
: >eth | TW apvtto] pr ev $* : TOV apj/tov arm |. 



324 AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [XIV. 5-7. 

elffiv 5. Kat ev To> (rro/xart avTtov ov% tvpeOi) 

a/AW/AOt ^yap eortv\ 

6. Kai eTSov aXXov ayyeXov TTCTO/XCVOV ev ^ 
K adi)[jLti>ovs ex VTa euayye Xiov aiwvtov evayyeXio-at cVt TOVS r KaTOiKovvTa^ 
eVt TT}? y??s icai eVt 7rav e0vos Kai <vXr;v Kat y\u<r(rav 
Xaov, Xe yan/ ev </>a>v# 



7. 3>o(3ri0r)TC TOV Oeov Kal Sore avrw So^av, 
on ^Xflev 17 wpa T^S KpiVews avrov, 
Kat TrpocrKu^^craTe TW Troir)<ra.vTi rov ovpavov 
Kal TT]v yrfv Kal $aXa<r<rav Kai Trr/yas vSarwi/. 

5. KCU] ort s 1 : >Pr | cv TOD o-ro/xart cumov ov^ evptOrj AsC 025. 
I. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2041. 2067 al Or s Tyc gig vg s : in quorum ore non est Pr : 
oi>x vpe#77 ev ro> crro^a.n avrwv 046. 20 (-35. 205. 2040). 69. 
82. 104. no. 250. 314. 385. 429. 2016. 2017. 2018 al (bo) eth 
ev TO> crro/xcm] ev roicr (rroyuicun arm a bo | i/^cvSoo-] 80X00- I. 2037 
al p arm 2 | a/xw/xot yap cto-iv X 046. 20 (-35). 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 al pl Or 8 vg a **- c - d s armt 1 - 2 - 3 ) <4 bo sa eth : on a/iw^ot to-iv 
051- 35 : 7 a P > AC 02 5- lSl T y ^8 vg f -s- h - v : et inventi sunt 
sine reprehensione Pr | a/xw/xot] a/Aoj/x^rot 104 | eto-tv] 4- ovrot 
flaw 01 aKO\ov9ovvT(T TOJ apnw 218. 242. 250. 617. 1934 : + 
"before God" arm 2 . 

6. aXXov ayyeXor A c - c 025. 35. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2040 al mu Pr gig vg Cyp s arm bo eth : ~ 218. 250. 2018 : aXXoi/ 
>N* 046. 20 (-35. 2040). 2038. 2067 al pm sa : ayyeXov >Tyc | 
^rero/xevov AC 051. 20 (-617.919). 69. 250. 385. 1957. 2016. 
2018. 2036. 2037. 20 3^. 2067 al : 7TToj/i,i/oj/ 025. 046. i. 617. 
919 al : Trera/xtvov X | ev > 35 | p.eo-ovpavt)^a.rL\ K c : /xeo-w ovpavrjuaTi 
S* : /x0-ovpavto-/xart I : ovpavw ai/xari S 2 | ^\ovra\ + CTT avroo S 1 | 
evayyeXto-at AC 025. 046. 20. 2038. 2067 al pl : evayyeXtorao-^ai 
(X) 60. 218. 250. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2041 : 
pr epxojuevov 2015. 2036. 2037 : vayyeXioi/ra bo | eTrt 1 AtfC 025. 
2 1 8. 250. 2018 s 1 : >046. 20. 498. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl | TOVO- 
KaToiKowTao- A 051. 35*. 61. 69. 2015. 2036. 2037 al p s 2 Tyc : 
TOVO- KaOwevovo- $C 025. 046. 20 (-35*. 2020). 250. 2067 al pm 
S 1 Pr gig Vg : TOVO- KaOrj/jifvovo- ( + *ai 2019) TOVO- KaTOiKOvrrao- I. 
205. 2019. 2038 : TOIO- KaOrjpcvoLo- 498. 2020 : >Cyparm L 2 - 3>a | 
7Tt TTJO- yf]o- > arm 1 - 2< tt | Kai CTTI Trav . . . Xaov >Tyc | CTrt 2 > 
I. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 | <j>v\rjv Kat yXwo-o-av Kat Xaov] 
Xaovcr K. <^>vXacr K. yXcoo-crav S 1 : Trao-av <vX. K. TravTa Xaov K. 
7rao-av yXwo-Q-av bo |. 

7. \tyuv~] >K : tr after /xeyaX->y 104. 620 : XeyovTa 051. I. 
35 Pr Cyp | ev <j>wr) ^yaXrf] ev >A : magna voce vg : >Tyc | 



XIV. 8-9.] AIIOKAAY^IS IfiANNOY 325 

8. Kat aXXos SevVepos ayytXos rjKoXovOrjcrev Xeyw 

"EiTT(TV 7Tf(TfV Btt/3vX<W ^ JAtydXr), 

rj K TOV oivov [TOV 0v/xov] T^S Tropvetas avTr}s 7re7roTi/cev 



9. Kat aXXos ayyeXos rpiros r)KO\ov6r]o-v avTots Xeyoov ev <f>wvfj 



El TIS TTpOCTKVVfi TO OrjpLOV KCU TTJV 61/CoVa OLVTOV, 

/cat Xa/z/?aVei r ro ^apay/Aa 1 CTTI f TOV /xeTWTrov f avTOv 77 CTTI 



metuite potius Pr Cyp | TOV ^eov AtfC 025. i. 35. 205. 
250. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 al 1 
Pr vg Cyp s arm 1 - 2 - 4 - a bo : rov Kvpiov 046. 20 ( 35. 205. 2040) 
al pm Tyc gig arm 3 | avTa> 8o|av] ~ 2015. 2020 | avrov >i. 104 | 
TO> TTOtT/cravTt A^C 025. I. 35. 205. 250. 1957. 2018. 2019. 2023. 

2036. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 : pr aura) 94. 104. 336. 620. 1918. 
2 O2O : O.VTOV TroirjcravTa 046* : avrov TOV TronycravTa 046**. 20 
( 35. 205. 468. 620. 2020. 2040). 2037 al mu i avrw TOV Troirjo-avTa 
468 : deum qui fecit gig arm 2 /cat OaXao-o-av AC 025. 314. 2040 : 
/cat 6a\ao~o~ao- I : Kat r^v OaXao-aav N 046. 051. 21 ( 2040). 250. 

2037. 2038. 2067 al pm bo : /cat >2oi9 Pr vg d - f Cyp arm 1 - 2 | 
Trrj-yacr vSarwv] racr Tr^yacr roov vSarcoi/ 6 1. 69 : ra vSara bo : omnia 
quae in eis sunt Cyp arm 1 - 3 * |. 

8. aXXoa Seurepoa ayyeXoa A 046. 20 (18. 35. 205. 2040). 
i. 250. 2037 al mu Pr arm 1 - 2 - 8 - 4 bo : (Wrepoo- >6g Tyc vg eth : 
ayycAocr >>X* 2040 S 1 : aAAo<j ayyeAocr otvrepov C : a\\oo~ ayyeXotr 
ocvTfpoo- K c 025. 18. 35. 60. 94. 104. 141. 205. 209. 314. 432. 
1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. (2038). 2041. 2067 s 2 arm a : aXAoor > 
2019 gig | 7)KO\ovOrjo-ev] yXOev 205 : r]Ko\ov0i s 1 : + avrottr 468*. 
620 : + avro) Pr s arm 1 - 2 - a bo eth | Xeywv . . . rjKoXovOrjo-w (ver. 9) 
>N* (suppl. K c ) 325. 456 | XeycovJ + ev <f>wvrj /xeyaX^ 205. 620** | 

7T0-V 7T0-1/ A 025. I. 35. 24!. 432. 632**. 1957- 2OI5- 2OI9- 

2023. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2067 al p Tyc Pr gig vg s arm 2 - a : " is 
fallen, is lost" arm 4 : CTTCCTCV c C 046. 20 ( - 35. 325. 456. 632**. 
2040). 250. 2038 al mu arm 3 bo eth : 7recr/ eTrecrev CTTCO-CV arm 1 | 
TI e/c TOV AC 218. 250. 424. 506. 2018. 2020. 2039. 2040 Tyc vg 
s : rj > N c 025. 046. 20 (-325. 456. 2020. 2040) al mu Pr gig 
arm 4 bo : on /c TOV i. 2019. 2037. 2067 | TOV Ovpov TYJO- Tropvttao-] 
rr)o~ TTopvetao- TOV OV/JLOV 920 | TOV Ov/Jiov > I. 2037. 2041 I 1170- 
Tropvetao-] T7]o~ TTOpvLacr ^C 046 : >arm 4 I avT^o-] Tavrrjo" 046. 82. 

104. 175. 337. 385. 617. 620. 919. 920. 1849. 1934 al P | 7T7rOTLKV 

A 025. 046 m in fereomn Tyc vg eth : 7r7rra>/cav K c 181 (-KCV). Pr 
arm 4 bo sa : -n-eTrot^/cev 919 : biberunt gig . 

9. K<H >386 | aXXoo- ayyeXocr TpiTOO- AC 025. 046. 20 ( 325. 
456. 1849). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pm gig vg s arm 3 - a : ayyeXoo- 



326 AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [XIV. 10-11. 

IO. Kat avTos TriVrat c/c TOV otvov TOV 6vp.ov TOV Oeov 

TOV Ke/cepacr/xevov aKpaVov eV TW TroTvypiu) TT?S opyqs avTOv, 
Kat /3ao-ai/to-#??o-eTai ev Trvpt /cat 0eta> 

Tun> dyyeXwi/ Kat ei/coTrtov TOV dpvtov. 



II. Kat 6 KaTTi/os TOV /3ao-avio-//,ov avTu>i> ets ataivas atwvcoi/ 

dva/3atvet, 

Kat OVK e^ovo"tv di dTravo-tv ^/xepas Kat VVKTOS, 
ot Trpoo-KVi/ovi/Te? TO Grjptov Kat T^V etKOi/a avrov, 
Kat et Tts Xa//,/3aVet TO x<*pay/x,a TOV 6Vo/zaTOS avTOv. (0) 

(/?.) Vers. 12-13 have been restored to their original context after xiii. 18. 

aAXoo- TpiTOo- 1849 : aAAoo- ayyeXoo- rjKoXovOrjorev TptToo- c : aXXoo- 
Tptroo- ayyeXoo- arm 1 - 2 - 4 bo : tertius angelus Pr eth : TPITOO- > i. 
6 1. 69 : ayycXoo- 181 | avroto-] avTco A Pr arm 1 - 2 - 3 | v <^coi/r; 
ei/ > 617 : voce magna Pr gig vg : > bo | Trpoo-Kwet] 
a-cL 2020 arm 2 bo : adoraverit vg : "hath worshipped" 
arm 3 - a | TO ^^ptov] TW ^ptw C 468. 2040 : TO ^vatao-T^ptoi/ A : 
TO TTOTr/ptov 69 : tr TO #77pioi/ before Trpoo-Kwet I | rrjv eiKOva] ry 
etKOi/t 104. 468. 620. 1918. 2040 | avrov] avTWi/ C | Kat 3 >C 69 | 
Xa/x/3avet] X^^eTat arm 2 bo : " hath received " arm 1 - 3 - a | TO 
Xapay/m 250. 432. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2040 arm 1 - 2. 3. a s i. 2 (?) . 
X apay/xa AN 025. 046 min^ 1 . TO is here necessary. Its absence 
is due either to a slip of the author or to a primitive corruption. | 
X apay/>ta] nomen Pr : + avTov S L 2 arm 0- 2 - 3 - a > | TOV ^T^TTOV] TW 

/X,TO)7rO) | >; 7Tt T^V X^lpa ttVTOV > S 1 ami 1 | ttVTOV 3 >6l. 69 f. 

10. Kai 1 >boeth | oivovjTroTT/piovarm 1 - 2 - 3 - 01 | TOV ^eov] TOV Kvptov 
s 1 : avTov 6 1. 69 : >arm T | aKpaTov >Pr Cyp | ev TW TroT^ptw] CK 
TOV TrorrjpLOv A 104. 336. 620. 1918 | Ti70- opyryo-] TTJV opyrjv A | 
avTov >Pr arm 1 - 2 - a | ^ao-ai/tcr^^o-eTat] pao-avLcrOycrovTai A 6 1. 69. 
IIO. 2004**. 2019. 2040 bo TCOV ayyeXcov A 56 bo : T. ayy. avTov 
6th : ayyeXwv aytwv N c 025. 35. 61. 2004**. 2O2O. 2040 gig vg 
S sa : ayyeXwv Kat ay tan/ 2038 : aytwv ayyeXwv 69 ( + ayia>v 2019) : 
TWV aytwv ayycXwv 046. 20 ( - 35. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 250. 2037. 
2067 al pl Pr Cyp arm^ 1 - 2 - 3) - 4 : " God " arm a | apvtov] ^povov s 2 . 

11. TOU pao-ai/io-jaou] tormentorum vg arm 3 - 4 : de tormentis Pr 
Cyp : >arm 1 - 2 - tt | avrwi/] UVTOV 104. 205. 336. 452. 1918. 2021. 
2023 arm 2 * | eto- tuwvaa- . . . avajSawti > 620 | eto- atcoi/ao- 
( + T(ov K) atwvwv A 046. 20 (-205. 468*. 920. 1934. 2004**). 
250. 2038 al pl Pr gig vg Cyp s arm : etcr atwva atooj/oo- C 205. 
2015. 2036 : etcr atwva atwvcov 025. 051. I. 61. 69. 104. 468 . 
920. 1849. J 934- 20 37- 2o6 7 to " atwt/aj]/ 2004** : "for ever" 
bo | aj/a/3au/et] ascendet gig vg c - d - v Cyp arm bo : tr before eio- 
atwi/ao- TWV atwvwi/ Pr arm 4 bo sa (eth) | CXOVCTIV] habebunt Pr Cyp | 
avaTravo-tv] tr after VVKTOO- 35*. 2020 | TO OrjpLOV Kat rrjv 



XIV. 14.] AnOKAAY^lS IQANNOY 327 



14. Kai eTSov, Kai I8ov 

Kai CTTI TT/V v<j)\r)v f Ka.OrjfJLfvov O/AOIOJ/ f vlov di/0pw7rov, 



8p7ravov 6v. (a) 

(a) Text adds here a doublet of xiv. 18-20 from another hand. See vol. 
ii. 3, 18 (ad Jin.}, 21 sq. : 15. Kai #\Xos #776X05 t^rjKdtv IK TOV vaou, tcpdfav tv 
iri TTJS 



8ri fjXdev i) &pa deplcrai, 

6 rt e^rjpdvdr) 6 depia/j-bs TTJS 7^5. 

16. Kaltfia\ev 6 /ca^^-ei/os tirl TTJS ve(pt\T]s r6 dptiravov avrov tiri TTJV yrjv, 

TO) @7)pUD KOLl Tt] IKOVL 468. 2OI9- 2O4O I TT) flKOVT] 1 04 | TO 2 
>I. 205. 2037* |. 

14. Kai eiSoi/ > 6? S 1 eth | Kat tSov > bo eth I vtfaX-r) 
nubem albam Tyc Pr : nubem candidam vg bo | 
vefaXrjv KaOrj/Jitvov] SUpersedentem Tyc | r-qv ve^eA^v] rrj 
2004** | Ka6rjfj.vov o/xoiov] KaOrjfjitvocr OJJ.OIOCT I. 104. 205. 620. 
632. 1957. 2023. 2037. 2067 al | O/JLOLOV > Tyc eth | mov AK 
046. 42. 61. 69. 82. no. 201. 218. 325. 337. 386. 429. 452. 
456. 517. 522. 919. 920. 2016. 2017. 2021. 2024. 2036 Tyc: 
vtwi/ 2015 : VLOO- I : VLOV 025. 506 : vtu> C 051. 20 (-325. 337. 
386. 456. 919. 920). 104. 250. 314. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu Pr 
gig vg s 1 : TOD vico s 2 | avOpwTTov] pr TOV s 2 : av^pcoTro) 620. 2020 | 
e^wv A 025. 046. 20 ( 325.456.468. 2004**. 2020. 2040). i. 
314. 2037. 2038. 2067 Tyc : pr o 2041 : e^ov X C C : e^ovra N* 
42. 325. 385. 45 2 **- 45 6 - 468. 506. 517. 2004**. 2015. 2036. 
2040 Pr vg : c^ovrt 2020 gig | CTU rrjv Kc^aA^v A 18. no. 141. 

2OI. 385. 386. 429. 522. 632. 919. 1849. 1955. 2OI 5- 2020. 2036 

: CTTI rrjo- Ke^aA^o- &C 025. 046. 20 (18. 386. 632. 919. 1849. 
2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al mu : in capite Tyc gig vg : super 
caput Pr | j/ rr) x t P l ] 67rt TY 1 V X L P a sl I a ^u 2 ] + habens Tyc : + 
" he had " arm 1 - 2 - 3 - | ofr] ACVKOV s 1 ]. 

15. aXXoa ayycXoo-] ~ 2016. 2020 | CK TOV vaov] tr. after 
Kpa(Dv A : >Fr | vaov] +avrov X : ovpavov 051. I. 35. 104. 181. 
205. 336. 632**. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al p 
arm 2 - 4 - a | cv ^cov^ /^cyaA^] + Aeywv bo eth : (arm 1 - 2 - a ) : ev 
fjLeyaXrj rr) <f>wvrj I : > Pr | TTC/XI^OV . . . rrja- 7170* > S^ | Kai 
Oepia-ov >arm 2 rjXOev] + <rov 051. i. 35*. 181. 2019. 2037. 2038 
: + <rot 104*. 620 al p | Oepicrai AC 025. 046. 20 (-18. 468**. 
632. 919. 1849. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 
al mu : pr TOV 18. 385. 468**. 632. 919. 1849. 1955. 1957- 
2004**. 2023. 2040. 2041 al p : TOU OepLa-pov N 2020 : "of (the) 
reaping of the earth" bo | OTI erjpav(hj . . . yrja- >s 1 -^ bo | 
^pav6-rj\ " is arrived " arm 1 - 2 - 8 - a |. 

16. ver. 1 6 >arm a | o Ka^/zevoo- . . . ve^eAryo- >S 2 | 7rt rrjcr 
ve<jf>. . . . avTov > I I TYJO- ve^eA^o- AN 241. 336*. 498. 2019. 



328 AIIOKAAY^IS IQANNOY [XIV. 18-19. 



1 8. Kai aXXos ayyeXos t^yXOev e/c TOV Ovcnaa-TTqpiov (a), Kai 
</>eoi/f) /xeyaXry TW e^ovTi TO opeTravov TO 6v Xeyoov 



o~ov TO SptTravov TO ov 
Kai rpvyrjcrov TOVS /3oT/ovas T^S d//,7reXov TTJS 
OT6 ^/c/xacrav at arra(j>vX.al avrf]<s. 



19. Kai /2aXev ($) TO SptTravov avTov ts T^I/ y^v, 
Kat erpvyrjo-cv rrjv a/x/TreXov TT}S y^s, 
Kat e/JaXci/ eis T>)V X^vov TOV OVJJLOV TOV $eov rov 

icai 9epl<r0r) i) yfj. 17. Kcti dXXos 1X776X0$ %rj\6ev K TOV VOLOV rou 



(a) Text adds a gloss : 6 e xwi e^ovffiav irl TOV irvp6s. 

(b] 6 dyyeXos is here added by the interpolator of 15-17. 

2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 : Tt}v ve<j>e\rjv C 025. 35. 175. 205. 250. 
468. 617. 620. 1934. 2004**. 2040 al pm : rrj ve</>eAr7 046. 20 ( - 35. 
175. 205. 468. 617. 620. 1934. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 42. 61. 69. 
104. HO. 201. 1955 | Kat cOcpLo-97) 17 y^] /cat e0epicrev TT/V y?;i/ 
vg f - v : demessus est terram fl : > bo |. 

17. ver. I7>69- 2039 | e^X^ei/] ^X^ev 046 | vaov. . . ovpavco] 
ovpavov bo | TOV ev TOO ovpai/co] TOV > 104. 141. 620. 1849 : TO> 
>C : pr TOV ^eov arm 4 : avTov fv TW ovpavoy 205 | Kat avTocr > bo 
sa | 8/37ravov o^v] po/x,<j6aiav o^ctav bo (also in ver. 1 8) j. 

18. eT]X06^] >A 2038 Pr : tr after flvaiao-Tr/ptov 35 | CK TOV 
^vo-iao-T^ptov] > Pr : de ara del fl | o ex<ov AC s gig vg (arm) 
eth : o >K 025. 046. 20 al omn fl bo | c<j>wr)(rcv] + ev 20 (-35. 
2O 5- 3 2 5- 337- 45^- 46& 2004**. 2020. 2040). 69. 104. no. 
250. 314 al p | e<j!)(oi/^o-v] tKpagcv s | <j>wrj AK 046. 337. 920. 
2004**. 2016. 2020. 2040 fl gig vg s 1 arm 1 - 2< 3 - a eth : Kpavyrj C 
025. 20 (-337. 920. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 alP 1 s 2 bo : "tongue" arm 4 | Xeywi/] K c : Xcyw X* : >s l \ 
Trepif/ov . . . ov KOI] >arm L 2 - a : " come thou " arm 3 | wc/x^ov] + 
o-v s 1 j o-ov TO S07rai/oi>] + o-ov 385 : TO SpeTravov (rov X | fiorpvao-] 
(3oTa.va.o- 20 1. 386 : fiorpvo- 2015. 2036. 2038 | rrjcr a^tTreXov] vine- 
arum fl : >l arm 1 | OTI ^K/x,ao-av . . . avrrjo- >bo | lyK/xao-av (rj^- 
A : rjy- 620) at o~Ta<j)V\ai A^C 025. I. 35. 104. 205. 468**. 620. 
632**. 2004**. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 
al gig Vg (fl) S^- 2 : ^K/Aao-v 77 o-Ta^v\rj 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 
468**. 620. 632**. 2004**. 2020. 2040). 250 al mu arm 1 - 2 - 4 -*! 
avrrjo- AC 025. i. 35. 205. 468**. 632**. 2004**. 2015. 2020. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 al mu gig vg fl s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 4 eth : ev 
avTr) arm a : rrjo- yyo- 046. 20 (-35. 205. 468**. 632**. 2004**. 
2020. 2040). 104. 250 al mu s 2 |. 

19. J3a\ei> AC 025. 046. 35. 205. 620. 632**. 2004**. 2020. 
2040 : misitgig vgfl : ee/3aXei/ 20 ( - 35. 205. 620. 632**. 2004**. 
2020. 2040). 82. 104. no. 172. 250. 385 al p | ets rrjv yrjv AC 



XIV.20-XV.2.] AnOKAAY*l2 IO ANNOY 329 

2O. /cut ira.Tr)Or) 77 A 771/09 c<i>0i/ -n}? TroXews, 

/cat i&jX0V at/xo^ e/c T^S A^i/ou a^pi TW/ ^aAii/wi/ rail/ ITTTTWI/ 

ttTTO CTTaStOOV XtAlW ea/CO<ri(OV. 



TOV 



025. 046. 20 (-2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl gig vg fl s 2 
bo : CTTI 1-770- 7770- K 498. 2020 s 1 arm 1 - 3 - 4 -* 1 | etcr rrjv Xrjvov 
TOV ptyav A(C) 025. 046. 20 ( - 205. 386. 620. 632**. 2004**! 
2040). 61. 69. no. 141. 242. 314. 385. 452. 2016. 2017. 2021. 
2022. 2023*. 2024. 2039. 2041 al p s 2 : TOV jjLtyav >i8i. 424 : 
L(T TOV Xrjvov . . . TOV /xeycu/ I. 201. 386. 498. 522. 1957. 2038 
al : r Trjv X-rjvov ... r rjv ^yaXrjv X 104. 205. 250. 620. 
632**. 2004**. 2015. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2067 s 1 : in 
torculari (-ar fl) . . . magnum Tyc Pr fl : in lacum . . 
magnum (-am gig) gig vg | Xrjvov] aXwav C : + TOV oivov 2020 | 
Ovfjiov] TOV BvfjLov 386 i >337. 62o. 2OO4** arm 1 - 2 - 3 - a I. 
20. 7raTT)6r]] CTraTrjo-tv (-av eth) arm 1 - 2 bo eth : ert^r; i | rj 
oo-] o X-rjvoo- 205. 336. 498. 522. 1957. 2004**. 2019. 2020 : 
Ttjv XTJVOV bo : in torcolari Pr fl arm 1 - 2 - 8 | tw6*v AC 025. 046. 
20 (-35. 205. 2020). 250 al pm : co> K i. 35. 205. 2015. 2020! 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 : extra Tyc Pr vg fl : a foris extra gig 
| T7]cr 2 ] TOV 452. 522 I ctTro oTaSitoj/] ?rt (TTaScwi/ s 1 : per stadia Tyc 
vg : per stadios Pr (fl) | X iXtwv e&Koo-Lw AN C C 025. 35. 386. 
(620). 632. 1934. 2004**. 2040 Pr fl gig vg bo sa : X iXiw 
OLO.KOO-IUV X* 506. 680 : ax 20 (-35. 386. 620. 632. 1934. 
2004**. 2040). 61. 69. no. 314. 498. 2015 al : x ^- <&*. & 
2037 : a. x g 2036 : SCKO /cat e eth : mille quingentis gig |. 



CHAPTER XV. 

2. (a) Kat etSoi/^ to? 6dXao~o-av vaXivrjv pc/Ji.i yfjLcvrjv Trvpi, /cat rot-s 
i/t/ccoj/ras e/c TOV OijpLov /cat e/c TTJ<S et/covo? avTov /cal e/c TOV dpiOjuiov 
TOV oi/o/^aros OLVTOV ea-Taira? crrl TYJV 6dXa.o-o~av TTJV vaXivrjv, evovras 



(a) xv. i. is an interpolation : Kal eldov &\Xo <ryiJ.eiov tv r< otipav$ 
Kal 6avf^a<rT6v, dyy\ovs eTrra ^oj/ras Tr\r)yas eirra rds ^cr^dras, 6 rt fr afrrats 
tre^a-dr) 6 dv/uM TOV 6eov. The subject of xv. I. is not touched upon till xv. 
5, where the phrase Kal pera ravra eldov shows that a new section and a new 
subject begin. See vol. i. 106 and footnote ; vol. ii. 30. 

1. Oaufiaoroi ] Oavpao-iov 6 1. 69 | ayyeAovs] angelos stantes 
fl | TrXrjyao- CTrra] ~ 920. 2015. 2016. 2O2O. 2036. 2037. 2067 : 
7rra >20I9 I V o-vraio-] fv ravrats 35. 205. 2015. 2036. 2037. 
2038 : in his Tyc |. 

2. uaXinrji/] vitreum perlucidum Tyc | /cat TOVO- VLK . . . ecrrwrao- 
7Tt T77v OaXao-o-av] et super mare stantes uidi eos qui ... uictoriam 
ferent fl : et superstantes uidi eos qui . . . uictoriam ferent Pr I 



330 AHOKAAY^IS IO ANNOY [XV. 3-4 

Kt$apas TOV Oeov, 3. Kai aSovatv (a) rrjv wftyv TOV apvLo 



MeyaAa Kai $av/xao-Ta TO. epya crov, 
Kvpte, 6 $09 6 TravTOKpaTwp 
SiKaiat Kat aXrjOival at 6801 trov, 
6 jSao-iAevg TWV ^e^vwv 1 . 

4. TIS ov pr) (f>o/3r)6r), Kv pte, 

Kttt SoaCTl TO OVOfJLOL (TOV, 

on zovos oVtos; 



OTI Travra ra e^vT? rj^ovcriv 

Kttt TTpOO KVVrjO OVO lV cVtoTTlOV O~OV, 

6Vt TO, StKatwjaara orov e(avpu>$ryo-av. 
(#) Text adds a gloss: rrji* y5?j Mcou<r^ws roO 5oi/Xoi; roG 



vtKOwracr C | CK TOU 6r)p. Kat CK TT^CT ctKoi/oa aurou AC 
025. 18. 35. 205. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al s arm 1 - 2 -* : CK 
T. 0. Kat rryo- etK. avrov S 104. 336. 620. 1918. 2020 Pr fl : e 

T77S IK. Kttt K (> 5 2 2 ) TOV Orjp. OLVTOV (> 2040) 046. 20 (~l8. 

35. 205. 620. 632**. 2020). 61. 69. 522 al : K TOV Orjp. 
avTov 632** : bestiam et imaginem illius gig vg bo sa eth : 
bestiae Tyc | Kai CK TOV apiO^ov AsC 025. 046. 20 (-35. 205. 
468. 620) al s arm L2> ( 4 )- a : et numerum gig vg bo : Kat CK TOV 
Xapayju-aToa avTov Kat (>2Ol8. 2019. 2036) CK TOV apt^/xov 051. I. 
35. 205. 250. 468. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2067 | Kat CK T. api0. 
. . . avTov >62o Tyc Pr fl | eorwTao- > Tyc arm 1 j T. vaXtvr;^ 
>fl Preth | KiOapaa- ANC 025. 35. 632**. 920. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 al pl bo sa : rao- KiOapacr 046. 20 (-35. 632**. 920. 2040). 
82. 104. no. 172. 201. 250. 385. 498. 2018. 2022 alarm 2 - 4 - a | 
TOV #eov] pr Kvptov N : >fl . 

3. icai a8. . . . TOU 6eou>C | Ka^^-bo | aSovo"tv] aSovTao- N 
743. 1075. 2067 Tyc Pr fl vg s 1 - 2 bo | T^i/ 1 >92o | Majvo-ecoo- AN 
046. i al pl : Mwo-ccocr 025 al m | TOV SovXov AN 025. i. 35. 205. 250. 
632**. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 a l : SovXoi 1 
046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 632**. 2020). al pl | /xeyaXa Kat flau/Aaora TO 
epya crov] magna et mirabilia operati sunt Tyc | o ^eoo- o > 620 | 

StKatat ... at oSot ofov] SiKata Kat aXrjOwa ra epya o~ov s 1 arm 1 - 4 
o (3aa-i\V(r\ /3ao-tXevo- N c 429. 632 : /SacrtXcv N* 1 8. 94. 241. 
385. 522. 919. 1849. 2004. 2039 : pr tu es fl | TWV eOvwv AN C 
025. 046. 051. 20 (-2040). i. 69. 104. no. 250. 314. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al gig Cyp arm 4 bo : omnium gentium Pr fl arm 1 eth 
: TOOV atwi/cor N*C 94. 2040 Tyc vg s : "of aeons and king of 
all Gentiles " arm 2 - a |. 

4. Tier] pr Kat 2019 arm a | ov ^77] o-e ov N 2040 | (j>o/3r]6r) ANC 
025. 046. I. 6l. 69. l8l. 205. 241. 632**. 2019. 2O22. 2040. 



XV. 5-6.] AnOKAAYMS IQANNOY 33! 

5. Kat /ACTO. ravTa cioW, Kai 7/1/01777 6 vabs f TT}? (TKrjvrjs rov 
paprvpiov f (a) eV TW ovpavw, 6. /cat ^rj\0av f oi eTrra ayyeAot f (b] 
[oi e^ovres ras OTTO, TrXryyas] e /c TOU vaov, eVSeSv/zeVot f Atfloi/ f (<:) 
KaOapov Aa/Z7rpov Kat 7repiewo-/AeVot Trept TO. - 



(a) For the probable origin of this corrupt phrase, see vol. ii. 37 sq. 
() Here the hand that inserted xv. I changed dyyeXoi ^TTTCI into 
077. and added oi 2x ovTe s s cirra irXrjyds. 
(c) See vol. ii. 38. 

2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr fl gig arm bo : + o-e 051. 20 (-205. 
632**. 2040). 104. no. 250. 314. 385 al pl vgseth | Kvpt>6i. 69 
Pr gig arm eth | Soao-i AC 025. 046. 18. 175. 325. 456. 617. 632. 
920. 1934 al : TIS ov 8oaa-cL 2040 : oa.vq K i. 35. 104. no. 
2 5- 337- 3^5- 3 86 - 4^8. 919. 1849. 2004. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 
al pl : So^acroi 205. 620 | /xoi/oo-] pr o 35 : pr a-v et 468 s 1 : tu solus 
Pr gig arm | oo-too- A^C 025. i. 205. 2015. 2036. 2037. 2038 
al s 1 : pius Pr. vg a *- c -& : et oo-too- 632**. 2020 : oo-too- et 2019 al 
: pius es vg a **- d - f - T : aytoo- 046.20 (-205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 
104. no. 250. 314 alP 1 : aytoo- 2040. 2067 al : sanctus es gig 
arm 4 : sanctus et pius es (es et dignus arm 1 - 2 - a ) fl arm 1 - 2 - a : 
oo-tocr t /cat SiKaiocr S 2 | Tra^ra ra $1/77 AxC 025. I. 35. 205. 386. 
2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 al Pr fl gig vg s arm bo : iravra. 2040 : 
Travrco- 046. 20 (-35. 205. 386. 2020. 2040). 69. 104. 250. 314. 
385. 2022 al pl | evojTTiov o-ov] + Kvpi A 205. 2040 arm a : TO oj o/xa 
<rov bo | ra SIK. o*ou e^avepco^yyo-av] SIK. ei/wTrtov o~ov <j>av. N : 
(StKatoor) s 1 | <avepw#?7o-av] magnificata sunt vg c - %* . 

5. icon 1 > Pr fl | /txera ravra] /xcr avra C | Kat 2 ] -f t8ov Tyc 
Pr vg arm 4 : i8ov bo | rjvoiyrj > arm 4 | o i/aoo-] + rov 6cov 620 :> 
Tyc | rr)<s o-K77v70-] +T>7o- aytacr gig : 77 a-Krjvr) Tyc | cv TCO ovp.] pr 
o s 2 arm" eth . 



6. e|T]Xeoy A** N 025. 046 al omn* : ^rjXOav C : 
| ot CTTTa a77eXot] ot ayyeXoi ot eTrra 325. 456. 468 | oi 
AC 20. 250. 2037 al s (arm) bo : ot > N 025. 046. i. 242. 
2036. 2038. 2067 al : habentes gig fl vg : cum (vii plagis) Pr | e* 
rov vaov AtfC 025. i. 35. 104. 205. 241. 385. 620. 632**. 2015. 
2019. 2022. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al gig fl vg s : tr 
before ot 2 201. 386 S 1 (bo) : CK rov ovpavov 60. 1957. 2023. 
2041 : >046. 20 (-35- 205. 386. 620. 632**. 2040). 250 al Pr 
arm 1 - 2 | cvSeSu/xevot AtfC 025. i. 35*. 2040 al Tyc Pr gig fl vg s 1 
arm 4 bo : pr ot vja-av 046. 20 ( - 35*. 2040). 250 al pl (s 2 ) arm 1 -* | 
At#ov KaOapov AC 242. 2O2o Iu s. 2039 : lapide mundo vg^ d > : Xwov 
KaOapov 025. 051. 20 ( 2O2O m S). 104. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 
al pl s arm : XLVOW KaOapov 046. 61. 69. 94. 498. 2019 : linteamine 
mundo vg d : lintheamen mundum gig : lino mundo Tyc : linea 
munda Pr : linteamina Candida fl : KaOapovs Ao/ovs N : "with 
garments of linen" bo | Aa//,7rpov] Xapirpovo- s (bo) : Kat 



332 



AIIOKAAY>H2 IfiANNOY [XV. 7-XVI. 1. 



7. Kat cv CK TWV Tccrcrapcoi/ wwv cS<t)Kv rots cTrra dyyeAois eTrra 
cptaAas xpvcra? y/x,ovVas TOV Ovpov TOV Ocov TOV COVTOS eis TOV? 
atuivas TOOJ/ at<ovajj/. 8. Kat lyejAicrOr) 6 vaos KaTrvov CK TT^S 86r)$ TOV 
$eov Kat CK T^S Swa/Accos OVTOV, Kat ov<5ets eSvvaro cio-cA^cti/ eis TOV 
raov a^pt TcAccr0a>o-iv at cWci TrXTyyat TWV CTTTO, d 



2017** Tyc gig s 1 arm lt2 - a : et Candida Pr (arm 4 ) : 
candido vg : >386 fl | Kat 2 > i. 205 bo | Trept] > i. 181. 2016. 
2037. 2067 : 7rt 2015. 2036 Tyc s 1 bo sa eth |. 

7. ev > N* i. 104. 181. 336. 620. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2039. 
2067 arm a : unus gig fl vg | CK > 205 | cirra? > X | xp^o-ao- > Pr 
S 1 arm 2 - a | ye/xovo-acr > 3 2 5- 45^ I TOVO " aiwvaa TWV atwvwi/] TOV 
atwva TOU atcovoo- 367. 468 : + afJirjv & l8l. 205. 209. 2015 S 1 
bo |. 

8. o mocr] o>i934 : +TOV Oeov gig arm 4 | KCUTVOV XAC 025. 
i. 35. 205. 620. 632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al : pr TOV 
386 : fumo Pr fl gig vg arm : pr CK TOV 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 386. 
620. 632**. 2020. 2040). 250 al s bo | tK 1 > 468* s 1 arm 2 * 3 **-** 
bo | K 2 >Pr arm 2 - a | coW. AC 20 ( 2040) al pl : rjBvv. i. 250. 
2037. 2040. 2067 al mu | eio-\0etv] tr after vaov N : eA^etv 620 | 
a^pt] a^pio- ov C | at tTTTa TrXr/yat] septem (>bo) plagae illae 
Pr bo : septae illae plagae fl | cTrra 2 > 025. 051. i. 35. 60. 
94. 181. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 



CHAPTER XVI. 



I. Kat rjKov&a /xcyaA.-//? (jWv^s CK TOV vaov Xeyovcrr)*; Tots CTTTCL 
dyyeAots YTrayeTe /cat eK^eeTC Tas CTTTO, c/>taXas TOV 0v/xov TOV ^eov ets 



1. jJLYa\T)a (fxu^Tjcr AC 046. 42. 6l. 69. no. 175. 325. 337. 
386. 456. 468. 920. 1934. 2016. 2022. 2040 al bo sa : ~K 025. 

I. l8. 35. 205. 250. 617. 620. 632. 919. 1849. 2004. 2020. 2037. 
2038. 2067 aP 1 Pr gig vg | <j>wrj(r] + CK r. ovpavoveth | CK TOV vaov 
AsC 025. i. 35. 205. 250. 632**. 2020. 2040. 2067 al s arm* : 
tr after Xeyovo-^cr 2037. 2038 : CK TOV ovpavov 42. 367. 468 arm 4 bo 
sa eth : >046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468. 632*. 2020. 2040) al pl arm 3 | 
Kat 2 > i. 104. 181. 205. 337. 620. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037 
al gig arm 1 bo | CK^CCTC AsC 025. i. 181 : eK^eaT 046. 051. 
20. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl : CKKC X TC (c- 6l) 6l. 69 | eTrTa 2 
>025. i. 35. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041 fl bo 
eth | c/>taXacr] + quas accepistis Pr | ets rrjv y^v] CTTI rrjv y-rjv s 1 : 
bo : eio- T. Tracrav y;v eth : > fl arm 4 |. 



XVI. 2-4.] AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY 333 



TT)I> yfjv. 2. Kai aTrfjXOcv 6 Trpwros Kai ^ 

T7JV y>}r Kai lyf.vf.ro /\.KOS KO.KOV KOI irovrjpov evrt TOUS di/$pw7rov9.(a) 



3. Kai 6 Scm-epos i^\ fV rr/v ^laXryi/ avrov eis r^v flaAacrorav Kat 
iyivf.ro at/za ws veKpov, Kat Trao-a i/ vx?/ C w ^5 aTreflavev, TO. iv rfj 
OaXda-a-rj. 4. Kat 6 Tpi ros e^e x" 1 T ^ fo&W avToi) ets TOVS Trora/xous 
Kat ras Trr/yas TWV vSarwv Kat iyivovro al/za.(^) 

(a) Text adds the gloss: TOI>S x" Tas T ^ X^ a 7/" a ToC ^p^ou xai TOI>S 
Trpoa/cwoOj/ras T^ ^6^1 auroO. See vol. ii. 43. 

(b) Text adds an interpolation 5 a : Kai iJKova-a. TOV ayyt\ov rCiv vSaTuv 
X^OVTOS, in order to introduce 5 b -;. These clauses 5 b -7 originally followed 
after xix. 4, to which context they are restored in this edition. See vol. n. 
122 sq., Il6 sq. 



2. Kat airT)X6. . . . eicr Ti]v yT]\>>$* | Trpwroo-] + ayyeAoo- 172. 
181. 218. 250. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037 arm 1 - 2 -" bo eth 
| eio-] 7Ti i. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 S 1 | TT?V yrjv] rrjo- yrjfr 2038 | eXKOo- KaKOv Kat irovrjpov] 

\KOV (-KOO- N C ) TTOVrfpOV Kttt KO.KOV N* I KttKOV > A 1849 . KttKOV 

Kat >2o67 bo eth : vulnus pessimum magnum Pr : ulcus saevum 
et malum fl : vulnus magnum (saevum vg) et pessimum gig vg | 
CTTI] eto- i. 35. 205. 1957. 2015. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 
2067 al : in gig vg bo | TO xpay/^a] tr after Orjptov 620 : +nommis 
Pr | Kat 5 >fl | Tovo 4 * >I04. 385. 620. 1918. 2015. 2036. 2037 | 
Trpoo-KW.] tr after tKOva I. 2037 | rr} eiKOvt] r-qv ctKoi/a S i. 35. 

2036. 2037. 2067 : > arm 2 |. 

3. Kai oSeur. e^ecy > K* | otvrfpocr AK C C 025. 94. 2040 Pr 
fl gig vg arm 4 eth : 4-ayycAoo- 046. 20 (-2040). 250. 2037 
2038. 2067 al pl S arm 1 - 2 - 3 -* bo | eycvro] + rj OaXacrcra fl gig S 
eth | at/x,a wo- vcKpov] wo- at/xa veKpov 104. 1 8 1. 205. 620. 1918. 
2038 : velut mortuis sanguis fl | wo- veKpov >Pr | wo-] won X : ^ 
i. 209. 468** i/^x??] ^VX^Q- A | wr;o- AC 2040 eth : wo-a K 025. 
046. 051. i. 35. 104. 205. 620. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 Tyc gig vg s 1 - 2 arm tt bo sa : quae erant viventes fl 
>20 ( - 35. 205. 620. 2020. 2040). 69. 1 10. 250. 314 al Pr arm 1 - 5 

Ta AC 2038 s 2 : TWV 2040 : > K 025. 046. 20 ( - 2040). 250. 

2037. 2067 al Tyc Pr fl gig vg s 1 bo | a7rt6avfv] tr after OaXao-arj 
1948. 2014. 2015. 2034. 2042 arm 1 - 2 - 3 -" | ev rrj Oa\.\ CTTI TT?O- 
OaXa<r<rr)(r X \. 

4. TpiToa] + ayy Ao<r 051. I. 35. 172. 205. 250. 1957; 2018. 
2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 sarm 1 -- 
eta-] 7Tt tf 051. 94. 2016 Pr vgbo sa | Tao- AtfCo25. 35. 60. 1957. 
2022. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2040. 2041 Pr fl gig arm bo : pr ts 046. 
20 (~35- 2040). i. 250. 2037. 2067 al s : pr CTTI 94. 2016 vg | 
yvovro A 2019. 2040 Pr fl gig s arm 2 bo sa eth : eyVTo 
NC 025. 046. 20 (-2040). i. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP 1 vg 



arm 1.3.4.al 



334 



AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY 



[XVI. 8-12. 



8. Kai 6 TeVapTOS e^^ccv TTJV <j>ia.\yv avrov eirl TOV rjXiov Kat 
o66rj avTw Kav/xaTtVat TOVS dv$paJ7rovs ev Trvpt 9. /cat eKav/jtaTio-- 
Orjcrav ol avOpWTroi Kavfjia yaeya, Kai IpXao-^rjfjLrjorav TO 6Vo//,a TOV $eov 
TOV e^ovTos TT/V eovo-tav eVi ras TrX^yas TavTas, Kat ov /xeTevcfyo-av 
Sovvat avToJ Sofav. 

IO. Kai 6 Tre/xTTTOS e^e ^eev TT)V <f>La\r)v avYov eVi TOV Opovov rov 
6-rjpiov KOL eyeveTO ^ /3ao-iA.eia avroi) ea-KOTWfJLtvr) (a) . . . KOL c/xa- 
o-covro ra? yXwo-aa? avrwv e/c TOV TTOI/OV. II. Kat 
TOV ^eov TOV ovpavov eK Taiv TTOVWV avTtov Kat CK TWV eXKcov 
Kat ou fjifrevoTjcrav CK TOJV epywi/ avTwi/. 12. Kat 6 IKTOS 



(a) Several clauses lost here : see vol. ii. 4^ sq. 

5 a . TOU ayyeXou] angelos Pr | TWV voWwv] pr TOV eut 2040 : tr 
after Aeyoi/Too- 205 : quartum gig |. 

8. reTaproo- AC 025. 046. 175. 325. 337. 468. 617. 620. 632*. 
920. 1849. 1934. 2004. 2040 al gig vg( d ) s 2 arm 3 - 4 : +ayyeXoo- 
051- I- 18. 35. 205. 250. 314. 386. 456. 632**. 919. 1957. 2015. 
2018. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al m Tyc 
Pr vg d s 1 arm 1 - 2 - a bo sa eth | evrt] in gig vg | Kav/^aTto-at TOVO- 



avOp. ev (>K 2038) Trvpt Atf 025. 35. 205. 2020. 2038. 2040 
gig s (i). 2 . aes t u afficere hom. et igni vg : Kav^t. ev irvpt T. avOp. 046. 
20 ( - 35- 20 5- 2020. 2040). 250 al pl : ignem et aestum inicere 
hominibus Pr | ev Trvpt] Kav/xaTt //.eyaXco bo |. 

9. Kaujxa fxeya] Kav/xaTt /xeyaXca 94. 2015. 2036. 2037 :>bo I 
efiXaa-^yfA-rjcrav AxC 025. I. 205. 2019. 2O2O. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2040. 2067 al Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 4 - * bo : +ot av<9/>w7rot 046. 
20 ( - 205. 2020. 2040). 250 al pl S 2 arm 3 | TO ovo/xa] evwTrtov A : 
KaTa TOV ovo/xaToo- 2040 : etcr TO ovo/xa 2015 : > arm a | rqv AN 
02 5- 35- ^o. 181. 205. 432. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2038. 2041. 
2067 : > C 046. 20 (-35. 205). i. 250. 2037 al pl arm bo | ov] 
ov X t C |. 

10. irejAirTocr A^C 025. 046. 20 ( - 35. 205) gig vg( d ) s 2 arm 3 - 4 
sa eth al : +ayyeXoo- 051. 35. 172. 205. 250. 1957. 2018. 2019. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al Tyc Pr v g d s 1 arm 1 - 2 - * bo 
: ayyeXoo- I | TOV Opovov] TOV Opovov 2020 | eo-Korw/xevTy AN*C 025. 
20 (~45 6 ) : eo-KOTHTfJievr) c - c 046. 456. 385. 2015. 2O 37- 
2067 | e/x,ao-a)VTO AC 025 al mu : epaa-cr. 046 al mu | K] airo N % 051. 
35 Tyc bo sa | TOV TTOVOV] doloribus suis Tyc |. 

11. ver. 1 1 >Pr | TOV ^eov T. ovp.] TO ovo/xaTov ^eov ( -f TOV ovp. 
S 1 ) 1957 s 1 I Kat K TWV eXKwv avr.] >N 172. 2022. 2031 arm 4 : Kat 
CK. T. epytov avTwv bo | eK 2 >O25 205. 2020. 2038. 2067 | eXKwv] 
\KOVO-<DV 2020 | /xeTevo^o-ev] tr after avTwv 3 468 | eK TOXV. epy. avTwv 
> N gig arm 1 - 2 |. 

12. 6KTOO-] + ayyeXoo- 051.35. 172. 205. 250. 620. 632**. 1957. 
2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 Tyc Pr 



XVI. 13-14.] AnOKAAY*l2 IOANNOY 335 



rrjv <t>id\r)V avTov lirl TOV Trora/xov TOV /xe yav TOV ^v 

/cat efypdvOrj TO votop avrov, iva TOi//,ao-0T? T} 68os TU>^ /3aoriX<W 

TWV a7ro "dvaroX^s 1 fj\LOV. 1 3. KCU cTSoi/ K TOV (TTo/xaTOS rot) d 

Opa/COVTOS KOLL fK TOV OTO/XaTOS TOV 0T]plOV KO.I 



^ 
TOV ll/V007TpO(j)^TOV TTVC^aTtt Tpid O.KQ.Bo.pTa.(a} 14. J U. eKTTOptV- 

erat f (fi) e-rrl TOV? fiaa-iXels rf;s OIKOV/^ VTJS 0X^9, o-wayaytu/ auroix; ts 
TOV TroXejuiov T^S r ^epas TI}S /xeyaXr/s 1 rov ^eov TOV 7rai/TOKpaTopos.(<r) 



(a) Text adds gloss: ws /Sdrpaxor 14- 

TTOIOVVTCL ffTJfJ.fia. 

(d) X 051 change A tKiropeverai. into tKiropeveaVai. Corrupt lor e/c7ro/>ev 
/xeva the change being made by the interpolator of the preceding words. 
See vol. ii. 48. Pr (see below), recognising the need of this participle, inserts 
it after rpla, and some Gk. MSS insert 4iciropey6tvTa after /3drpaxot. 

(c) MSS insert here as xvi. 15 a verse which originally stood after in. 3 a 
and where it is restored in this edition. 



gig vg d s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 4 - a bo | currov placed after faaXyv AtfC 046 al mu 
: tr before T. <iaX. 20 ( - 18. 35. 205. 632. 919. 920. 1849. 2004. 
2040). 42. 61. 69. 104. 201. 314- 45 2 - 49 8 - 5 1 ?- 20I 7 : > 9 20 I 
7rt] in gig Vg : per Tyc j T. TTOT. T. /Ay.] TOV //.eyav TroTa/xov 051 
| Tov 3 AC I. 69. 172. 250. 2015. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2067 
bo sa : >K 025. 046. 20 (-2040). 42. 82. 104. 201. 314- 3 8 5- 
429. 432. 498. 522. 1955. 1957- 2 l6 - 20I 7- 20I 9- 2022 - 202 3- 
2038. 2041 aP 1 | *v<j>p.] (/p. 046 | e^pav^] siccavit gig vg cuW 
>i. 181. 205. 2019. 2038 bo | TWV jgao-tXewv] vementi regi Pr : 
regi venienti gig : regis arm : > Tyc | Ton/ 2 > s 1 | avaroXcov A 
051. i. 35. 314. 468. 1957. 2015. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2041 
S 1 bo : avaToXryo- KG 046. 20 (-35. 205. 468. 2020). 250. 2038. 
2067 al s 2 |. 

13. eiW] foo6r) N | K TOV Q-TO/A. T. 8. . . . T. 6r)p. K. > N* | < 

T. O-TO/X. T. SpdK. K. > C 3 2 5 337 S 1 ?- J 9 l8 I K TOV O/* T ^ ! 

Kat>20i9 arm 1 | Tpta a/ca^ap. ANC i. 35. 104. 205. 620. 1957. 
2015. 2019. 2020. 2036.2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 al m Tycvg 
s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 4 - a : ~ 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 620. 2020. 2040). 250 al pl arm 3 
: O.KO.Q. >92o : T pia>gig : tres exeuntes inmundos Pr | wo- PO.T- 
pa X ot] wo- (wo-et K*) /3aTpa X ovo- K* 94. 49 8 - 2OI 9- 2O2 - 2O2 3 : 
coo-ct (3aTpa X QL S c 2067 : + eKTropcvflcvTo, 241. 2015. 2036. 2037 

:>i*|. 

14. SaifJioviwv] + aKaOapTtitv 2040 : Sai/xovwv 051. I. 35- 205. 
2015. 2019, 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al | a( + Kat 2015) 
eK7TopevTat A 20 (-205. 620. 2040). 69. no. 250. 314. 365. 
429. 498. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2023. 2039 al p lye: 
a eKTropevovTat 046. 104. 336. 620. 1918. 2019 : eK7ropveo-0cu 
051. I*. 2022. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 : a K7ropeveo-0cu I : 
eKTropevovTai N c : e/oropeveTai 205 : et exeunt (procedunt gig vg) 
Pr gig vg arm 4 eth : >bo | CTTI] cto- K | T^O- OIK.] T. yrjo- /cat (> 2037) 
T. OIK. i**. 2037 : T. yrja- bo | 0X7/0- > i* s 1 arm 3 bo | TOV >o5i. i. 



336 AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY [XVI. 16-18. 

1 6. KCU a-vvriyayev avrovs ets rov TOTTOV rov KaXovpevov E/Jpa ioTi 
Ap MaycScov. 

17. Kai 6 e^So/x,os e^e^eej/ r^v <j)La\.rjv aurov CTTI Toy depa Kai 

e^r/X^ey <j)<Dvr) /AtydXr) CK TOV i/aou (XTTO TOV Opovov Xeyovo-a reyoj/ei/ 

1 8. /cat eyevovTO do-Tpavrai /cat <a)i/ai /cat jSpovTai, Kat 0-6107x09 

&vdpwiroi eyeVero /xe yas, oios OVK eyeVero d</> ov r aV#pa>7ros eyeVero 1 eVi r^5 y^? 

^y^OPTO 

205. 2019. 2022. 2038. 2067 al | rryo- ^/x-. r. /xey. N 61. 69. 2020 : 
ad diem magnum vg : diei magni Tyc gig : -nja- /xey. ^/x. A 2040 
bo : rrjcr rjfji. tKcivrjcr r. />tey. 046. 051. 20 ( 205. 2020. 2040). 
I. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al Pr S : 7-170- rj/Ji. eKeiv^o- 205 | rov ^eoi;] 
domini Tyc arm 1 . 

16. owYjyayei ] crw^yayov K S 2 : o-wa^et vg d - ^ s 1 arm 1 - 3 | avrova- 
>S l | rov 1 >K 6 1. 69 arm bo | TOTTOV] Trora/xov A | roi/ 2 >6l. 69 
bo | TOJ/ /caA. e^pa. >Tyc | ap /xayeSan/ AN 051. I. 35. 104. 172. 

205. 241. 250. 468. 620. 632. 1957. 20l8. 2019. 2020. 2023. 

2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 s 2 arm 4 -* : hermagedon vg : 
ermagedo gig : ermagedon Tyc : armageddon Pr : ermakedon 
bo : /xay<W 20 (-35. 205. 468. 620. 632. 2020. 2040) al S 1 
arm 3 : yaayeSScoi 046 : /u,a/ceS8a>v 6 1. 69 |. 

17. KCU o e{38.] Kai ore N* (/cat o X c ) : +ayyeXocr ^ c - c 051. I. 
35. 172. 205. 250. 468. 1957. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 

2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al Pr gig vg d s 1 arm 1 - 2 - 4 -* bo | CTTI T. 
aepa] etcr r. aepa 051. I. 35. 6l. 69. 205. 1957. 2015. 2016. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al s 1 : in acre (-a gig : -em 
Vg) Pr gig vg | //,eyaX>7 > A I. 181. 205. 209. 2038 | e* Atf I. 
94. 181. 205. 209. 617. 2019. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 : 
a 046. 20 (-205. 617. 2020. 2040). 250 al pl | vaov AN 60. 
61. 69. 2040 Pr vg s arm 2 bo sa : +TOU ovpavov 046. 20 ( - 468. 
2040). 250. 2067 al pl : oupavov i. 94. 181. 241. 2015. 2019. 

2036. 2037. 2038 gig arm 3 - 4 -* : ( + oup. TOV 468) vaov Kat 468 

Cth | CLTTO TOV 0pOVOv] TOV OtOV N . Kat (>2Ol) ttTTO T. OpOV. TOV 

Ocov 201. 386 : >o5i* gig j. 

18. Kai] + eu0eaxr 386 | ao-rpaTT. K. ^>tov. K. fipovr. A 42. 82. 
141. 2015. 2019. 2036. 2040 al Pr gig vg arm 2 bo sa eth : fipovr. 
K. ao-rp. K. <a>v. K. fipovr. K* : aorp. K. <^(ov. 046 : fipovr. K. ao-rp. K. 
^>(ov. N c 920 : ao-rp. K. ftpovr. 205. 181. 2038. 2067 Tyc s 1 arm 4 : 
<o)V. K. J3. Kat ao-rp. i. 2037 a l : oTp. K. ftpovT. K. <f>o)v. 051. 20 
( 205. 920. 2040). 61. 69. 104. no. 141. 172. 201. 250. 314. 
385. 432. 1918. 1955. 1957. 2016. 2018. 2022. 2023 al s 2 I 
eyevero 1 Atf I. 35. 61. 69. 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 

2037. 2038. 2040. 2041 al Tyc gig vg s arrr^ 2 - 3 )- 4 - < a) bo : >046. 
20 (-35. 205. 2040). 250. 2067 al pl Pr sa | otocr OVK eyei/. . . . 
OVTOJ /xeyacr] et signa magna Pr | otoo- OVK eyei/ero] oio- OVK 
eyevovro N* : otoo- ou yeyoi/i/ 920 | a<^> ov] ex qua die gig | 
avOpiaTrocr eyevero A bo :~ 2O2O arm 3 - a : av$pu)7rot eyevovro N 046. 



XVI. 19-21.] AIIOKAAY*I2 IOANNOY 337 



o-LO-fj.o<; OVTOJ //,eyas. 19. /cat (a) at TroXcts TOJV t^voJv 
7rccrav /cai Ba/3vX(W ^ //.eyaXr; f/jLvrjo-Or) CVMTTLOV TOV $eov SovVat 
avTTj TO TroTrjpiov TOV oivov TOV $v/zov TT?S opy^s avTov 20. *al 
Trao-a vr}o-os (pvyev, Kal oprj ovx evpcOrjtrav. 21. KCU ^aAa^a 
u>s TaXavTtata Kara/?atVet CK TOV ovpavov CTU 
t /3Xacr(^-tjiJ,7)crav ol avOponroi TOV Oeov e/c TT}S 
OTI fAtydX.r) fcrrlv Y] TrXrjyr] avriys <T<f>o8pa. 



(a) MSS insert before /ca the words : /cat tytvero i] ?r6Xt$ ^ fj.cyd\f] e^s rp/a 
See vol. ii. 52. 



35. 6l. 69. 181. 2019. 2036. 2038. 2040 : oiavOptDTTOi (ovpavoi 506) 
eyevorro (>I957 y^yovao-Lv 337 : eyej/ovTo ot av^p. 205) 051. 20 
( 35. 2020. 2040). i. 104. no. 250. 2037. 2067 al pl Tyc gig vg 
S arm 2 - 4 sa | CTTI Tr/o- yrja- > 69. 104 | rrjXiKOVTOcr o-eio-/xoo- otTto 
/xeyao-] >bo : tr after eyei/eTo 2 arm 2 | OIJTW] OVTWS I. 498. 2015. 
2018. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040 al . 

19. u iroXeur] rj TroXto- K* S 2 | ai >2OI5. 2036. 2038 | eTrecrav 
A c 046. 051. 35. 104. no. 337. 452. 468. 498. 620. 2015. 
2020. 2023. 2038. 2041** : eTrto-ov 20 ( 35. 337. 468. 620. 
919. 2020). I. 69. 250. 314. 2037. 2067 al pl : eTreo-ej/ N* s 2 | 
Sovvat] pr TOV K 632**. 2015. 2036. 2037 I TO TOT.] /c Pr | TO 
>K 2040 | Tov 2 > x bo | T. OV/JL.] tr before T. oivov 468 eth : 
tr after opyyo- Pr : +/cai s 1 : > Tyc | T. opy. >6i. 69 gig arm 4 | 
avrov]>J< bo : TOV 0eov 2019 eth . 

20. Kai 1 > i | 7rao-a vr)<rocr ^>vyei/] omnes insulae fugierunt 
Pr arm bo eth | oprj] pr omnes Pr : +KO.I 2015. 2036. 2037 | 

CVpC^O ai j + TOT Ot ttTTO dVOToXtOV <J3VgOVTdl 7Tt 8vO"/XaO" Kttt Ot O.7TO 

8vo-/xa>v to~ ai/aToXao- co-Tat yap 6\i\f/io- jj.cya.Xr] ota ov ytyovtv arro 
KaTaj3o\r)ar KOO-/XOV ovS ov /xry ytvrjTai 468. 

21. fAcyaXt]] /3tata 920 I wo- TaXavT.] tr after KttTa^atvet 920 | 
wo- > 2022 Pr | KaTa/fcuvci] KaTcftr) s 1 arm bo | TOV ^oi/>386 | 
CK] 7rt 205 I TrX^yr/o- . . . ^aXa^o-] 920 | CO-TIV] cycvcTo Pr vg 

r) TrX. avr. >Vg | avT^o-] >O46 arm 2 - 8 - a : tr before 07 -rrXrjyr) 205 : 
avTrj 18. 69. 104. 175. 250. 325. 386. 456. 617. 620. 920. 2015. 
2016. 2020. 2037 al : avTov 1 8 1. 385 : a grandine Pr |. 



VOL. II. 22 



33 8 AIIOKAAY*I2 10 ANNOY [XVII. 1-3. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

I. Kcu rj\0*v ets CK TWI/ CTTTOI dyye Xwv TO>V XO VTO>V s "" 
Kat l\dXr)<rev per fyov Xcyan^Acvpo, Sa |u> (rot 
TO Kpt/x,a TT}S Trdpi/r/s TT}S /AcyaXr/s 
Ka6r]^vr)<s CTTI vSarov TroXXwv, 
- - 



( - ? eTTOpvcuo- ^ 

t epeOvo-Ovjo-av ot KarotKOVvrcs TT)V yi}v CK TOV otvou 
T>}S TTOpvctas avrtys. 

7. Kol dTT^cyKeV / ts ^/*w el/ 7rvv>aTi Kal cTSov ywaueo 

Xaortos a>v 



1. r,X0c,] e^Xtev A | acr] TUT 104 arm^-* | CK > M 2015 
2040 I ayyeX. . . . ^>taXa<r >Tyc | r. X ovrov] qui habebat gig | 
eXaX^o-cv] dixit Tyc | /xer c/x. X y. >TyC | Xcvaiv] +/toi I. 205 
20IS. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 | r. /xey. > s^ | vSar. uoXX. A 
025. i. 172. 181. 205. 218. 250. 2015. 2018. 2019. 2036 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 bo : Ttf>v uSar. TCOV TroXX. 046. 20 (-205. 

2040) al pl arm 1. 

2 ae0 rial + " sinned and " bo | CTropvcvcravJ cTroirycrev Tropvtav 
bo Sa I Kat ... avrrjo- >TyC Pr | e^vo-fyoWl ^^^v 2O 5 | 
ot Kar. T. y.] tr after avr^o- I | e/c] aTro 920 | otvovj otKov X 



TTOpveiacrl Tropvria- 205 |. -i 

3 aJwyiMK] a^v^iccv 920 : duxit Pr : tulit Tyc gig | 
uot 386 I ep^iov] +TOTTOV 2040 I ev A 025. 046. 35. 175- 25- 
325**. 468 617-620.632**. 1934- 2020. 2040 Tyc Pr gig Gyp 
vg bo (arm) : >i8. 82. 93. 141. 201. 218. 325*- 337- 385- 3^6- 
420. 456. 498. 506. 522. 632*. 919- 920. 1849- 1955- 2004. 

202 4 * 2039 al | aSov] tSa A | ,7Tt] +TO 9 20 I %HO, A* 35. I 75 . 

20^. 617. 620. 632**. 1934- 2020. 2040 : +TO 18. 325. 337. 

^86. 456. 4 68. 6 3 2* 919- 920. 1849- 2004 I KOKK] KoyK. O 4 6 

yea ... (ver. 4) icol" > 4 68* | y^ovra A* 025 (s 2 ) : y^ov 
046. 051. 20 (-468*). i. 61. 6 9 m g. no. 172. 201. 241. 250. 314. 

385- 498. 522- 1955- 1957- 20I 5 . 2016. 20l8 2019. 2022. ^2023. 

2024. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2039. 2041. 2067 (s 1 ) : y^co, 104- 429. 
2017 I oifo^ra A 025. 046. 20 ( - 35- ^75- 205. 617. I934> 
61. 69. 104. no. 201. 241. 385- 429- 498. 522. 1955- I957- 
2017. 2022. 2024. 2039 : ovo/xaruv I. 35- 6i m *. 172. 175- 2O 5- 
2.0 314. 617. 1934. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 | e X co, A 104. 201. 429. 919. 2017 : 
$L * 025 : c X ov 046. 051. 20 (-468*. gig). I. 250. 2037- 
20^8. 2067 alP 1 | K^. rr. /cat > I I ^KO] Kat T, yvvrj . . . rrp 
W (ver. 18) 025. 2020. (On this addition see Tischendorf, 
crit. note in loc.) |. 



XVII. 4-6.] AIIOKAAYtflS KUNNOY 339 

KepaTa SeVa. 4. Kat 77 yvvyj ty irfptpc/3\rnjLcvrj 

Kttt KOKKIVOV, Kat K^pv^p.^ ""xplWu) 1 Kat At0o3 Ttyou u, 



Kat /xapyaptTats, ^ovcra TroTTJptoi/ xpuo-ovi/ eV TT} xpt avr^s r ye/xov S 
/2SeAuy/xaTOJi/ KCU ra aKfiOapra TTJS Tropj/et as avrijs. 5. /cat eVt TO 
/ACTWTTOV avr^s ovo/xa ycypaju/xeVov, pvo-Typiov, 

BABYAON H MEPAAH, 
H MHTHP TON f HOPNON f(a) 
KAI TON BAEAYFMATON TH2 TH2. 

6^ /cat tSa r^i/ yvi/auca pe6vov(rav CK TOV at/xaTO5 rwi/ ayiW Kat 
eK TOV at/x-aros TWV /xaprvpwi/ 



(a) Tyc Pr vg arm* = Tropi>iw, which the parallelism in the next line 
requires. See vol. li. 65. 

4. 1}v] T; I | TTOp^pOw] TTOp^Vpav 051. I. 35. 175. jSl. 205. 

250. 314. 617. 1934. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 al p : 7rop<j>vpa s 1 | Kat 2 >i957 | Kat 3 Atf i. 104. 250. 
424. (620). 2018. 2019. 2020. 2022. 2037 al Tyc Pr gig vg s 2 
arm 3 - 4 - tt bo : > 025. 046. 20 ( - 620. 2020). 2038. 2067 al mu s 1 
arm | Kexpvo"o)yu,ev7^J 7reptKexp^o~a)yu,ej/77 250. 424. 2018 : Kypi;o~CL>#.eva 
s 1 : "gildings embroidered" arm 2 | xpuo-teo A 046. 20 (-35. 205. 
2020. 2040). 250. 2067 al mu : xpvo-w 025. i. 35. 205. 1957! 
2015. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041 | At(9*. 
Tt^. . . . /xapy.] ~arm 4 - a | At(9. n/*.] At#ovo- Tt/xtouo- s 1 : Aitfoio- 
Tt/xtoto- S 2 arm | juapy.] /AapyaptTao- S 1 : " pearl " arm | exouo-a 
T. Tropv. avrrja- > 025 | fx ov(Ta ] P r Kat Tyc s 1 : et habebat Pr I 
TTOT. XP V(r -] ~i- 205. 1957. 2015. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 al : tr XP V(T - after aurr/o- 1 920 | ei/] CTTI s 1 | ye/zoi/ Atf c 




39 : mmunditia vg a 

-tiae Pr vg a ** (s 1 ) : -tiarum Tyc vg d (bo) | r. Tropi/. >gi g 
A i. 35. 104. 172. 205. 241. 250. 468*. 632**. i 957 . 2015. 

20.l6*. 20l8. 2019. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 

2067 al Tyc vg s 1 arm 2 eth : T^O- yrja- 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468*. 
632**. 2020. 2040) al mu gig arm 3 : totius terrae Pr Cyp : 
Kat TT^CT y-rjv tf s 2 : aur^cr /x-era rrja- yrja- 0X770- bo : >arm 4 - a I. 

5. 01/ojj.a] ovo/xara 18. 919. 2004 : >s x arm 2 eth | ^ 
sacramenti Pr : ev /xvo-rr/ptw arm 3 - a | T. iropv. K. >gig | 
fornicationum Tyc Pr vg (arm 2 ) | T. y^o-] totius terrae Pr [. 

6. ei&a (t8a A) A$ : eiSov (tSov) 025. 046. 051 min pl | tK 1 A 
i. 35. 104. 172. 205. 241. 429. 468**. 632**. 2015. 2016. 
2017**. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al mu Pr gig 
vg s : >K 025. 046. 20 (-35. 205. 468**. 632** 2020. 2040). 
69. 82. no. 250. 314. 385 al imi | T. atfji.] TO> ai/xaTt N* 2020 : 



740 AIIOKAAY#I2 IOANNOY fXVII. 7-8. 

%JT" L 



Kat I6avp,a<ra tSa>v avrrjv 6av/j,a //.eya. 7. Kat etirtv JJLOL 6 
ayyeXos Ata Tt e$avju,acras ; r eya> epai crot 1 TO fjLVO-TiqpLoi/ TTJS ywatKos 
Kat rov Orjpiov TOV /3acrTaovTOS avTrjv, rov e^ovros ras 7rra Ke<}!>aXas 
Kat TO, SeKa Kepara. 8. TO Orjpiov o cTSes ^v Kat OVK CO-TIV, /cat 
vwdyeiv /zeXXet dva/3atWiv CK TJ}S a(3v(rcrov, KOL ets aTrwXetav r v7rayt n * Kat 
6avfjiacr6r](rovrai ol KCLTOLKOVVTCS CTTI TT}S y>?9, wv ou yeypaTTTat TO 
oi/o/xa 7ri TO y8t^8Xiov T^? ^w^s a.7ro Kara/3oX.rj<i KOCT/XOV, ^ 
o Tt ^v Kat o^/c eorii Kat Trapeo-Tat. 



sanguine Tyc arm | Kat 2 AN 025. 35. 205. 468. 632**. 2020. 
2040 al mu Tyc Pr gig vg s arm bo : > 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 468. 

632**. 202O. 2040). 82. 110. 250. 385 al | K T. at/A. 2 ] K >3I4- 

2016. 2041 al : sanguine Tyc arm | yaapT.] //.apTvpiwv A : pr aytcov 
325. 468. 620 | Irja-ov] pr TOV 2040 : + Christi Pr : >i. 2019. 
2067 arm a | tS. avr. Oavfj,. /u,y. >bo | tr tScoj/ arT. after /xcya N 
2020 S 1 | avryv >6i. 69 . 

7. epu aot A 046. 20 (-35. 205). 250 al mu gig s eth :~K 

025. I. 35. 6l. 69. 1957. 2OI9. 2022. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 

2041. 2067 al p vg : tibi ostendam Pr bo | TO > arm | T. yvi/.] 
huius mulieris Pr | TOV S ] Kat 2020 : pr Kat i. 2036. 2037 | Tao- > 
205 arm 2 - 4 | errr. KC$.] ~ Pr vg | SCK. Kep.] ~ Pr vg |. 

8. TO 0T]ptoi ] pr Kat Tyc arm* eth | o ei8eo- >Tyc | rjv] rj A : 
pr o arm | Kat 2 ] sed Pr : > s 1 bo | aTrwXetai/] + irae Tyc | twrayet 
A 181. 468*. 2037 : vadit Pr s 1 (eth) : vTrayeti/ X 025. 046. 20 
(468*). 250. 2037. 2038 al pl s 2 arm (bo) : ibit Tyc gig vg | 
Oavfjiao-Orja-ovraL A 025 s : <9av/x,a0-oi Tai N 046. 20. 250. 2037. 2038. 
2067 min omn : mirabantur vg*- f - ^** arm a | ot Ka.TotK.] pr Travreo- Pr 
arm 3. 4. a 5 | 7rt T-^O- y^o- AN 025. i. 35. 175. 205. 250. 617. 
1934. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al p gig s arm 3 - 4 - 01 bo : r-rjv yt]v 
046. 20 ( 35. 175. 205. 617. 1934. 2040) al pm Pr vg : rya- yrja- 
arm 2 | ov yeypaTTT.] OVK eyeypaTTTat A | TO ovofAo. A 046. 20 ( 35. 
175. 205. 468. 617. 1934). 69. no. 385 al mu s 2 arm 4 bo : Ta 
oi/o/x,aTa N 025. I. 35. 175. 205. 250. 468. 617. 1934. 2037. 2038. 
2067 al p Pr gig vg s 1 arm 2 - a eth : +avTw arm* | eTrt 2 ] ev 2036. 

2040 Pr gig vg s 1 arm | TO /fySXtov AN 025. 051. i. 35. 175. 205. 
250. 314. 617. 1934. 1957. 2016. 2019. 2023. 2037. 2038 al : 
TOV J3i(3\iov 046. 20 (-35. 175. 205. 337. 617. 1934. 2040). 69. 
82. 104 al mu : TW /3i/?Xta) 337. 2040 Pr gig vg s 1 : /St/SXw 2036 
(arm) | /SXcTrorrwv] ySXcTrovTeo- I. 35. 1957. 2019. 2022. 2023. 

2041 Pr gig vg | T. Orjp. (oTt) yv AN 025. I. 35. 205. 2020. 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 al p Pr gig s arm bo : OTt -rjv T. Orjp. 046. 20 
( - 35. 205. 2020. 2040). 250 al | o Tt so apparently Pr vg d - v 
arm 2 : OTI 046 min omn gig V g a - c - f - ^ h bo arm 3 - 4 -* : AN 025. s 
would support either reading | CO-TU/] eo-Tat 386. 920 | Kat 6 ] + 
TraXiv N* | Trapeo-Tat AN* 025. 046. 051. 20 (-632**). 69. 
104. 250. 314. 2067 al pm Pr arm 4 : Trapeo-Tti/ N c i. 181. 



XVII. 9-13.] AHOKAAYMS IOANNOY 341 






g. r flSe 6 rovs 6 X<oy cro^t av* at ITTTO. 

/3ao-tAets () eto-tV ol TreVre tTrecrav, 6 els rrtv, 6 aAAos 
ijAflei , Kat oTav eAtffl oAt yov auTov Set /neu/ai. 1 1. Kat TO flrjpt ov, o 
^i/ Kat OVK eariv, Kat avros oySoos eorrtv, /cat CK TOJV eWa eoTiv, 
Kat ets aTTtoAetav VTrayet. 12. Kat ra SeKa Kepara a ctScs Ka 
/3ao-tAets eto-tV, otrtves /?ao-iAetav OWTTCO eAaySov, dAAa i^ovcriav a>s 
/xi av a>pav Aa/A/JdVovo-tv /xera TOU Orjpiov. 13. OVTOI 



(a) Here follows a gloss giving a second explanation : fy?; efo-fr, STTOU 
77 KadrjTai 4ir avr&v. KaL 
(t>) The same gloss adds err-rd. 



241. 336. 632**. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 gig s arm a 
bo : >vg |. 

9. wSe o vouo- o ex o-o4>.] joined with what precedes 046. 18. 
69. 201. 337. 385. 386. 456. 498. 522. 919. 920. 1849. 1955 al : 
"he who hath heart with (and eth) wisdom let him under 
stand " bo eth 2 | <o8e] pr et Pr : > 046 | o c X w] T<U X ovrt 
s | ai] Kat 2040 : >o5i | 7rra] >6l. 69 : tr after eio-ti/ I | TT] 
cTravw 6 1. 69 | OTTOV . . . CTT avrwv] ubi . . . supra illos gig s : 
super quos Pr vg bo eth . 

10. Kai 1 > 620 | /Jacr. CTTT. acrtv A 025. I. 35. 205. 241. 

632**. 1957. 2OI9. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 

al Pr gig vg s (arm 3 - 4 - a ) : CTTT. /3ao-. eio-iv N bo sa eth : /3ao-. eio-tv 
CTTT. 046. 20 (-35. 205. 632**. 2020. 2040). 250 al mu (arm 2 ) | 
7To-av] eTreo-ov 20 (~35- 337- 468. 920). 42. 69. 82. 104. 250. 
2067 al | o 1 ] pr Kai i s 1 arm bo : +8e 2041 Pr eth 2 | <rriv] pr OVK 
bo : superest Pr | o 2 ] pr Kat vg arm bo eth | avr. Set /zetvai A 025. 
I. 35. 69. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al : avr. /xtve ^et (Set N c ) N* : 
Set avr. ^etvat 046.20 (-35. 2040). 250 al mu (Pr) gig (vg) |. 

11. Kai 2 > 468*. 2040 | Kat 3 > X | avroo- A 025. I. 35. 175. 
205. 250. 617. 632. 1934. 2037. 2038. 2067 al Pr gig vg (s 1 ) bo : 
OUTGO- X 046. 20 (-35. 175. 205. 617.632. 1934) al (s 2 ) | oySooo-] 
pr o N 452. 2017. 2021 : octavo loco Pr | K. CK. T. CTTT. eo-Tty] 
cum sit ex vii Pr j vTrayet] vadet vg : ibit Pr (arm 2 - 3 - a ) |. 

12. otrivea] hii Pr | /?ao-tAetai/ > bo | OVTTO)] OVK A : ovrto N* 
a\Aa Ax 69. 2040 : aAA 025. 046 min pl : > bo arm 4 | <o<r 
^ao-tAeto-] regni Pr | /xtav upav] una hora Pr gig vg | Aa^/3. . . . 
OrjpLov] " having followed the wild beast "< bo | Aa/x/3avovo-tv] pr 
ov 620 : accipient gig vg c - d - v : tr after %>iov 920 | tteTa TOV 
Orjpiov] post bestiam vg |. 

13. ouToi] + omnes Pr | yvw^v exovo-tv A 025. I. 35- 205. 
2037. 2038. 2040 aP Tyc (Pr) gig vg (arm) : ~ 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 
2040). 250 al mu sa | CXOVCTII/] habebunt Pr | TIJV > 61. 69. 2038 
arm 2 - 3 - * | e^ovo-tav A 046. 20 ( - 35. 205. 386. 468. 920). 250 al m " 

arm 2.3. a. pr ^v ^ 025. I. 35- 172. 201. 205. 385. 386. 468. 498. 

920. 1957. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al | 



342 AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [XVII. 17, 16, 14. 

yvwprjv ex ov(rLV ) Ka TYJV Swa/xti/ Kat egova-iav avrtov TU> OrjLtD 
StSdao-/ (a). 17. 6 yap #eos eStoKev eis ras KapStas aimoi/ 
nyi/ yvw^rjv avTOv,(6) /cat Sowat TT)I/ /2ao-tAetav avTwv TO) 
o-XP L TeXeo-^crovrat ot Aoyot rou $eov. 

1 6. Kat ra SeKa Kfpara a etSes /cat TO Orjpiov, 

OVTOL fJLLO"rj(TOV(riV TT)V TTOpvrjV, 

/cat rjprjfjuDfjLevrjv 7roLr)<TOVcn.v aiur^v Kat yvfjivrjv, 
Kat TO,? crapKas avrfjs (frdyovrai, 
Kat avrrjv KaraKavcrovo-ti/ ^ti/ Trupt^. 

14. oiSrot /xera TO> apviov 7ro\/jirjcrov(Tiv, 

Kat TO apviov vtK^cret at^Tov?, 

OTt K^ptOS KVpiWV IfTTLV KOL j3a(TL\CV<S /3a(ri\0)V, 

Kat ot /xer avrov K\fjTol Kat KXeKTot Kat TTLCTTOL. (r) 

() Text of xvii. 14-17 dislocated and glossed. On the restoration of the 
original order, see vol. ii. 61, 71 sq. 

() A doublet here follows /cal TTOITJO-CU ^lar yj>wjj,r)t> : see crit. notes below, 
and cf. xvii. 13. 

^ (<:) What was originally a marginal gloss on xvii. i text adds here : 15. 
Kat el-jrtv fj.oi To, vdara a eTSes, 06 i) Trdpvr) KddtjraL, \aol Kal 6x^ot elalv /cat 
Kal 7\cDcrcrat. 



avrwv] eavTuv i (s) : > arm 2 - 3 - a | TCO (9>/p.] diabolo Tyc | St8oao-ii/] 
Swo-ovo-tv 94. 2036. 2037 Tyc bo : (WWouo-t 218 : tradent Pr vg |. 

17. Oeoo-] Kvpioo- 6 1. 69 | eoWei/ >TyC | avTwv 1 ] avrov K* | T. 
yv. airr. K. Troifja-aL >94- 620. 1918 arm 2 - 3 - a eth | avTov] avrwv K c | 
K. Troirja-ai piav yi w^v] >A 2036. 2037 Tyc gig vg : et esse illos 
in ( + uno arm 2 - 3 - a bo sa eth) consensu ( + et metu Pr) Pr 
arm 2. 3. a b sa eth | Kat TroiTyo-at > N c | fjnav yvujjLyv N 025. i. 
35. 2019. 2022. 2037. (2040). 2067 al : ~ 046. 20 ( - 35. 2040). 
250 al mu : fjiLav > 172. 2018 : -favTcm/ 2040 s 1 | Kat >gig vg bo | 
6Wat] dabunt Tyc : Ut dent gig Vg | rrjv 2 >bo sa | avrwi/ 2 ] avrw 
A : avTov 046. 61. 69 : >2O36 Pr arm 2 - 3 - a bo sa | TeAco-^o-oi/Tat 
AN* 025. 051. i. 35. 181. 205. 209. 432. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2041. 2067 : TeA.eo-#uxrii/ 046. 20 (-35. 205). 69. 104. 
no. 250. 385. 2016 al pl |. 

16. a eiSeor] tr after Bypiov 205 eth | K. TO Oypiov] TW ^ptw s 1 
arm 2 : TOV Orjpiov arm 3 - a : + o etSeo- (Pr) : >Tyc arm 4 | pLo-rjo-ovo-iv] 
odio habent Tyc | Troiya-ovcnv (TTOLOVO-LV Tyc) avrrjv K. yvp.vv)v Atf 
025. i. 205. 632**. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2040 al Tyc gig vg s 2 arm 2 
Sa : TTOirjo-ovo-tv avr-rjv Kat (>bo) yvp.vr]v Trotr/crovcriv (-(rcoorij/ 617) 
avryv 046^**). 20 (- 205. 632**. 919*. 920. 2020. 2040). 250 al 
bo eth : Kat yvfAvrjv TTOL-TJO-OVO-LV avrrjv 424. Pr S 1 arm 4 : K. 
>046*. I. 82. 141. 218. 498. 919*. 920. 2016. 2019 | airr. 
^632 | c/>ayovTai] ^aywvrat 18. 632 : edunt Tyc | KaTaKautr 
Kava-ovo-iv I. 181. 205. 2019. 2020 | ev A 20 (-920). 2037. 2038. 
2067 al pl bo sa : > K 025. 046. 172. 250. 920. 2018 Pr gig vg |. 

14. TToXejnrjcrouorii/] TroAe/xovo-iv Tyc arm 2 - 3> a | ot /XCT avrou] 



XVII. 18-XVIII. 2.] AIIOKAAY^IS K3ANNOY 343 

1 8. Kat i) yvvT] r)V cTSes earn/ rj TroXts rf /zeyaXry rj 



TOV 



quicumque cum eo erunt Pr | KXrjr. . . . CK\. . . . TTIOT.] e/c\. 

. . . 7TIOT. . . . K\r)T. Pr I K\r)TOL Kttt > gig | Kttl 4 ] > Vg a> C f b> V I 
OTl I. 2037 | CKXeKTOt Kttt > I IO. 2O2O | /cX. . . . 7TK7T.] ~ I"J2. 
2Ol8. 2036. 2O37 : Ot /cXe/CTOt . . . Ot TTLCTTOL bo | Kttl 5 > 205. 
2067 |. 

15. curci/ A Tyc Pr vg s arm 4 bo sa : Xcyet 025. 046 min onm 
gig arm 2 - a : > eth | /xotj -f angelus Tyc | ra vSara] ravra N 
-] 



ravra ra uSara N c | etSco-] otSacr 104 : vides Tyc : + KCLI rj 
175. 617. 1934 | ov] super quas Pr Cyp s 1 | rj > K c | Tropvy 
mulier Tyc bo | Xaot] pr /cat S | /cat 0^X01 > vg | oxXoi . . . 
yXajo-trat] 920 o^X. ewriv K. eQvrj K. yXa)(r<r.] turbae ( + et 
gentes Cyp) ethnicorum et linguae sunt (sunt et linguae Cyp) 
Pr Cyp : " multitudes of nations " bo |. 

18. eo-Tii/ > Pr S 1 | r\ ftey.] TOV Otov 920 | iff > 18. 201. 386. 
2039. 2040 | T. /focrtXetov] T. ^acriXciwv K arm 2 - 3 - tt bo eth : > 
arm 4 : +TOJJ/ 336. 620. 1918 | rycr yrjcr A 025. 18. 35. 175. 205. 
468. 617. 632**. 1934. 2020. 2040 Tyc gig vg s arm bo eth : 
terrarum Pr : pr e (046). 325. (336). 337. 386. 456. (620). 632*. 
919. 920. 1849. (1918). 2004 al mu |. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

1. MCTO, Tcurra cT8ov aXXov ayyeXoi/ /cara/Saii/on-a CK TOV ovpavov, 
fov(Tia.v /xeyaX^v, Kat yj yrj <j><aTLa-6r) e/c T^S 80^? aurov. 

2. Kat c/cpa^ev iv tcr^upa <fr(t)vfj Xeywv 



Kat eyeyero KarotK^T^ptov Sat/xovtwv, 

Travros Trvcv/xaro? ^aKaOdprov Kat /tx,e^t- 



Kat (frvXaxr] Travros opveou aKaOdprov Kat 
fjitvov (a). 

(a) Text of these last two lines is uncertain. Possibly we should read 
e-nplov for irvetfjMTOs (cf. Jer. 1. 39), cf. A 250. 424 Pr gig s 2 below : or else, 
with 250. 424 Pr gig s 2 , read an additional line : KO.L (pv\aKTj Travros Orjplov 
aKa.dd.pTOv. 

1. fxera raura] pr Kat 051. I. 35. 104. 205. 250. 468. 2020. 
2037. 2038 al gig vg eth : et Pr | aXX. ayy] ~ 35. 175. 242. 250. 
617. 920. 1934. (1957). 2016. 2017. 2023 | aXXoi/] erepov 1957 : 
> i. 6 1. 69 arm 4 | cx VTa ] P r Kat 20 5 et ^ I /**) ^ 8 arm 2 | K 2 ] 

aTTO 386 : +TOV TTpOCTtOTTOV ttVTOV Kttt bo 6th |. 

2. Kpa|l/] KKpa^J/ A | V A 025. 35. 432. 452. 1957. 



344 AIIOKAAY*IS IOANNOY [XVIII. 3. 



T&1TUKW 3, OTl CK TOV olvOV \TOV OvjJ-Ov] TY)? TTOpVeittS ttVT^ 

Trdvra. ra eOvrj, 
KCU ot /?ao-tA.ts T?}S y?}s /xer avr^s eTropi/euo-av, 
Kai ot /x,7ropot TT?S y>?s CK r^s Swa/xews TOT) o-rpijvovs au-njs 



2019. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2040. 2041 Tyc vg (bo) : >K 046. 20 
(-35. 2040). i. 141. 181. 241. 250. 336. 385. 429. 522. 1918. 
1955. 2037. 2067 Pr gig | io-\vpa <j}(avr) ( + ytxeyaA/ty I. 181. 2067 : 
+ KOLL /xcyaXr; 205. 2019 ) Atf 025. 046. 20 (- 18. 620. 632. 919. 
1849. 2004). i. 181. 250. 432. 452. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 vg s 2 (arm 4 eth) : to-^vpav <j><i>vr)v 18. 141. 
241. 336. 385. 429. 522. 620. 632. 919. 1849. 1918. 1955. 2004 : 
<a>i/>7 /xeyaA.77 ( + K.O.I to-^upa Pr) Pr gig s 1 arm 2 - a (bo) : fortitudine 
Tyc | Xeyan/ > 025 bo | 7recrei/ 2 A I. 35. 104. 172. 205. 468**. 
632**. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2040. 2041. 2067 Tyc Pr 
gig vg s arm 2 - 4 : > N 046. 20 (-35. 205. 468**. 632**. 2040). 
250. 2038 al mu arm 3 -* bo sa eth : +e7reo-ev 025 | Ba/3.] pr 77 046. 
61. 69. 2067 : +17 TroXio- bo sa eth | Karot/c.] habitatio etrefugium 
Pr | 8ai/xoi/t(oi/ Atf 046. 2040 Tyc Pr gig vg : Sat/xoi/a>v 025. 20 
(-2040). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al | ^vXaK^ 1 - 2 >Pr | Travroa- 1 
. . . /xe/xio-r7/xei/ou 2 ] omnis immunditiae et iniquitatis Tyc 
Travroo- 1 . . . <vXa/o7 2 > 18. 205 | Tryeu/xaroo"] + Sat/xovtov 620 
aKa.6. 1 . . . opveov >O25. i. 61. 69. 104. 181. 242. 617. 919*. 
1934. 2016. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 s 1 arm 2 | K. 
ite/xto-^/xevou 1 A 336. 620 gig arm 4 : > tf 025. 046 min fere onm 
(Pr) vg s 2 bo sa eth : -f- et omnis bestiae immundae Pr | <f>v\. 
j. 632** | opi/eov] OrjpLov A \ a/cafl. 2 >92O | K. it/xi- 
K. /xe/xtacr/xevou 18 : >6i. 69. vg ( vg c ) : pr KCU <f>v\a.Kr) 
7ptov aKaOaprov 250. 424 : + et career omnis bestiae 
immundae et odibilis gig s 2 |. 

3. T. OIK. T. Gup. X 046. 20 ( - 35. 205). 250 al pl Tyc s 2 : T. 
0iyx. T. OLV. 025. 051. i. 35. 172. 205. 241. 432. 1957. 2018. 
2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 gig arm 3 - 4 -( a ) eth : T. 
otv. >AC vg : T. 0v/x/>Pr s 1 | r. Ovp. r. -rropv.] T. -rropv. r. Ovp. 

C | T. TTOpV. >2l8 S 2 I 7T67T. TTO.VT. T. tO. > Pr | TTeTTOTlKCl/ 94. 
432. 2019. 2036 (S 1 ) I 7T7TOKeV (7T7rW- 35. 2037). 025. I. 

35. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2041 : TreTTto/cao-t (TTCTTO- 242. 498. 
617. 2020). 051. no. 175. (241). 250. 337. 468**. 522. 617. 

632. (1918). 1934. 1957. 20l6. 2017. 2020. 2024. 2039. 2067 
al p Tyc gig Vg S 2 arm 2 - 3 - : Tre-Trrw/cai/ AC : 7T7rro>Kao-i(v) K 
046. 20 ( 35. 175. 337. 468**. 617. 632. 2020). 61. 69. 104 
al p arm 4 bo eth | /xer avr. CTropv.] ot /xer our. Trop^evcravreo- 256. 
336. (620). 628 Tyc arm 2 - 3 - a : /xer avrrjo- > Pr | T. y^o- 2 ] avrrjo- 
I. 920 | r. Svv. ^> bo J O"rp7yvouo-] vrprjvov C 149. 2OI. 241. 
2037. 2067 |. 



XVIII. 4-6.J AIIOKAAY*I2 IOANNOY 345 



4. Kat rjKovcra. aXXiyv ^)wvryi/ CK TOV ovpavov Xcyoutrav 

Ee X$aT r e avrijs 6 Xao? /xov\ 

tra /xr) wvKoivwfivqTe rat? d/xapTtats avr^?, 

Kat CK TWV TrX^yuiv avr^s ti/a xir; \dj3rjrC 

5. OTI fKoXXrjUTqa Q.v OLVTTjs at dtiapTtat a^pt TOT) oupavou, 
Kat fivr]iJi6vV(rv 6 0eos TO, dStK^/xara. avTi;s. 



6. a.7roooT avrrj a>s /cat avrrj a7re8aj/cev, 
Kat StTrXwo-are StTrAa Kara ra Ipya 
ev TW TTorr/pta) w *Kpa(Tv Kepacrare avrV; 



4. aXXriv (fxoi T)!/] aXXrja- ^cov^cr C 2067 : ~ 2020 : aAX. > 
arm s. 4. a 5 O I Xeyovo-av] -OT/O- 2067 | e^eXOare AN 2036. 2038 : 
|eA0Te 025. 051. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2017. 2023. 2037. 2040. 
2041. 2067 Tyc gig vg s arm bo : e&XOe C 046. 20 (-35. 205. 
2040). 250 al pl Pr | e avrrja-] tr after /xov J<C 025. 2020. (2067) 
eth : >i. no. 181. 2038 | c^] OLTT 2067 | o > 205. 2038. 2067 
| /a>386 | OWKOIV. ANC : avyKotv. 025. 046 min omu | Kat 2 >s j | 
K. K T. TrX. avr. )>O25. 051. 35*. 2038 | T. TrAr/ycov] TT;O- 7rXt]yrj<s 
gig S 1 Xa^re] Xa^re 386 : /SXa^re 051. 2036. 2037 (Tyc Pr) |. 

5. aimjCT 1 ] avrrj s 1 (bo) : avrwv arm 2 : >Q2O | a^pt] ewo- 025 : 
/xexpt 2037 | /xvr//xoi/.] + avr^o- 18. 35. 82. lio. 172. 337. 385. 
456. 632. 919. 920. 1849. 1955. 2 4- 2018. 2022. 2023 al p : + 
avroto- 386 eth | 0eoa-] dominus vg : dominus deus Pr | ain-^cr 2 ] 
avrcoi/ Tyc arm 2 |. 

6. airoSoTe . . . auritjcr] et (>Cyp) ideo reddidit ei duplicia 
(dupla Cyp) Pr Cyp | aTroSore] aTroStStoa-tv arm 2 - 3 - a | Kat 1 > vg 
(-Vg a ) I avreStoKev] + v/xu/ 051. I. 35. 175. 205. 468. 617. 632**. 
1934. 1957. 2016. 2037. 2038. 2041 gig vg v arm( 2 )- 4 : +T//XU/ 2067 
arm 3 - tt | Kat 2 >X eth SiTrXaxraTe (StTrXao-are 18. 2004) A^C 46. 
20 (-35. 175. 205. 617. 620. 632**. 1934. 2020). 61. 69. 82. 93. 
1 10. 385. 2022. 2024. 2039 al mu Tyc gig vg : + avr-rj 025. 051. 
i. 35. 104. 175. 250. 617. 620. 632**. 1934. 1957. 2016. 
2037. 2038. 2067 al S arm 4 bo : + avrryv 205 : + avra 2020 | 
SiTrXa A 025. 046. 051. I. 35. 104. 175. 205. 250. 617. 620. 
632**. 1934. 2016. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 : pr ra N*C 18. 
61. 69. no. 325. 337. 385. 386. 456. 468. (632*). 919. 920. 1849. 
2004. 2022 | (ra) SiTrXa A^C 025. 35. 175. 617. 620. 632**. 
1934. 2020. 2040 Tyc Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : +OKT *ai avnrj 
(avrot 69) Kat (>6l. 69) 046. 20 (-35. 175. 617. 620. 632**. 
1934. 2020. 2040). 61. 69. 82. no al mu | ra > 149 | ev TW 
7ror7pi(o] in calicem gig | TroT^ptw AC 025. i. 35. 175. 250. 325. 
617. 1934. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 Tyc Pr (gig) vg s arm eth : 
>62O : + avT7;cr N 046. 20 ( 35. 175. 325. 617. 1934. 2040). 
69. 104. IIO. 385 bo | <*>] OKT 172. 2O2O bo | eKepao-ev] + u/uv 



AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY 



[XVIII. 7-9. 



7. oo-a eSo^ao-ev avrrjv Kat o-Tpr?vtao-v, 
TOCTOVTOV Sore avTy /3a(ravL(rjj.ov KCU 

on eV T-fj KapSta avTrjs Aeyet on 
Kd^/xat /3acriA.i(rcra 

Kat ^P 01 ^ K *fy* l j 

r> tSa>* 



8. Sta TOVTO eV /x,ta ^cpa ^ovcrtv at 
f Qa.va.ros KOI irivOos /cat 
Kat eV Trvpt Ka.TaKav9r)(TCTai, 
ort lo-\vpo<s 6 $eos 6 KptVas 
9- Kat rKXavcrovTat 1 Kat Koif/ovrai eif ^ 
ot /ACT a^T7)s Tropvevo-aj/re? Kat o-rp^vtao-avT?, oraj/ 

(a) On this line see vol. ii. 100. 
632** | Kepao-are] remixtum est Cyp Pr : " shall be mingled" 



arm 2 j avrtf] avTiqv 046. 620 



Kat Pr arm^ 
(-35**- 175- 205. 632** 



7. oaaj pr 



025. 046. 20 

1934. 2020. 2040) al : tavrrjv N c i. 

35**. 69. no. 175. 205. 250. 632**. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 al pl | TOO-OVT. Sore] Kepao-are I j Sore] Score 025 : datur Pr 
Cyp (arm 2 ) | Sore avr. >S X | avrrj >gig | K. 7rev0.] >o5i. I. 35. 
60. 181. 432. 1957. 2023. 2041. 2067 : +populo suo Tyc | ort 1 ] 
Kat i : Stort 2036. 2037 : + *at 205 : >O5I. 2038 | Aeyet] + 
Babylonia Tyc | ort 2 ] + eyw 172. 250. 2018 : >i. 620. 2067 i 
Ka^/xat ANC 025. 35. 175. 617. 620. 632**. 1934. 2020. 2040 
gig vg s arm 3 4- a : Ka#iw 046. 61. 69 arm 2 bo : Ka$too- 18. 82. 
1 10. 325. 337. 385. 429. 456. 522. (632*). 919. 920. 1849. I 955- 
2004. 2022. 2024. 2039 al p : + Ka#oxr 468 : + coo- 205 : t/xt 
Ka#wo- 201. 386 : sum Pr Cyp | /3ao-tAto-o-a] /?ao-tAevovo-a C | OVK 
et^it] non possum esse (esse non possum Cyp) Pr Cyp 



avrr^cr] pr 



(arm 



2. 3. a> 



8. fJiepa wpa 61. 69 

-] Gavarov 046 arm 2 | Kat 1 AN 025. 35. 205. 620. 920. 
2040 Tyc Pr gig vg sW- 2 arm 3 - 4 - a bo : > 046. 20 (-35. 205. 
620. 920. 2040). 82. no. 172. 201. 250. 314. 385. 429*. 498. 
522. 1955. 2018 al arm 2 | Kat 3 >l8 | ev Trvpt] tr after KaraKavO. 
(arm 2 ) bo eth | KaraKau^r70"rat] KaraKavOrjorovTai Tyc : KavOrja-erat 
237 I o ^oo~ A 2040 vg eth : o $eoo- o Kvptoo* X* : Kvptoo- o ^coo* 
N C C 025. 046. 20 (-175. 617. 920. 1934. 2020. 2040). 250. 
2037. 2067 al Tyc Cyp gig s 2 arm 3 - 4 - a bo : Kvptoo- 141. 175. 242. 
314. 617. 1934- 2016. 2020. 2041 Pr s 1 arm 2 : Kvp. o 0eoo- o 
Traj/TOKparwp 2036 : Kvpiocr o TravTOKparcop 2037 | Kpti/ao-] Kptvwi/ X c 
i. 175. 250. 314. 617. 1934. 2016. 2036. 2037 : (qui) iudicabit 
Tyc vg I. 

9. K\aucrorrai AN i. 18. 205. 2019. 2004. 2038. 2067 al p : 



XVIII. 10-11.] AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY 347 



KO.TTVOV T^S TTVpUXrttoS ttVT^?, IO. O.TTO fJM.Kf)66f.V (7T7yKOTS SlO, TOV 

<o/3ov TOV f^anravLcr^ov avTrjs, Aeyorres 

Ovai, ovai 17 TroAts ^ /xeyaXr;, 
J$a(3v\wv -^ TrdAis 17 Icrxypd, 
OTL fjiia ojpa ^A^ev ^ Kpio-ts o~ov. 

I I*. Kttl Ot e/ATTOpOl rqS yv}? /cAaiOVO-tV Kttl TTCvOoVCTLV CTT* ttUTr/1/, 
23. [OTI Ol /JL7TOpOL f (TOV f ^(TttV Ot /JLCyKTTaveS T>yS y^<j] (tf) 

II. ort TOV yojjiov avTa>v ouSets dyopdet OUKC TI, 

(a) This line is provisionally restored here: see vol. ii. 102, 112. But 
it is best to take it as a gloss on I i a . 

icAavo-ovo-iv C 025. 046. 20 (18. 205. 2004). 250. 2037 al pl | 
/cAauo-oj/Tcu (-o-ouo-u/)] + avrrfv 025. I. 35. 205. 2036. 2037. 
2067 S 1 : +TauT^i 2019. 2038 /cat KOi^.,>>92O | /cat 2 >bo | CTT 
OUT?? >6l. 69 Pr | cum? A I. 205. 498. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2040 : avT-rjv tfC 025. 046. 2O ( 205. 2020. 2040). 250 
al : currier 2067 : avruv 620 | ot 1 >i8 | K. o-Tp^v.] >t<* 456 : + 
Kat <TTva(Dcriv S c j /3/\e7r<oo-iv] t8o>o-tj/ X : ^AcTrouo-tv 051. 522. 

2OI7. 2038 | TTVpWO-eWO-] TTTOIO-CCOO- t<* j. 

10. cnro] pr Kat Pr arm 2 | eo-Tr/KOTor] co-TWTeo- 2040 : crTyKovrca- 

2036. 2037 : o-Trjcrovrai arm 3 - a bo | T. <f>o(3. >i849 I Tov PUVW- 
La-fjiov] TOV ftaa-avLcrfjLov 1849 (arm 4 ) : tormentorum gig : >>arm 3-a 
| AcyovTto-] Kat Ae|ovo-tv s 1 arm 2 - 3 - a : >arm 4 | ovat 2 ] + ouat 172. 
250. 2018 s 1 : >i4i. 2019. 2038 | rj 1 > 1934 | T] /xey. >Pr 
^a^vAwv] pr rj 172. 250. 2Ol8. 2023 | to-^vpa] o^ypa 2036. 2037 
/xta o)pa] /xtav copav A 2040 : pr ev I. 2O2O. 2037. 2067 | r]\6ev ^ 
A | o-ov] eius gig |. 

IP. TYJOT Y HO ] <rov 456 : 4-crov S : terrarum Pr | KAatouo-tv K. 
TTcvOovo-iv A^C 025. i. 35. 205. 1957. 2023. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
2067 (Pr) gig : KAavo-ovo-t (-aovTat 2036) K. TrtvO-rjaovo-i (-6ov(nv 
314) 046. 20 (-35. 205. 2040). 250. (314). (336). (1918). (2036) 
vg s 1 - < 2 > arm 3 - 4 - a (bo) : KA. Kat > s 2 : Kat irevQ. >336. 620. 1918. 
2036 : Kat 2 >bo : flent plangentes Pr | CTT avr.] tr after KAatovo-tv 
2020 | ?r] v A i. 2036 : f<f> 051. 181. 2019. 2037. 2038. 
2067 : pr e<^> cavrovo- 468 : >Pr | avT-rjv $C 025. 94. 336**. 
620. 1918. 2017 gig vg (Pr) : avrrj A 20 (-620). 104. 250. 
314. 1957. 2022. 2023 al mu : avrr)<r 61. 172. 2018 : avTovo- 
046 : cavTovo- 051. 181. 2038 : eauroto- i. 2019. 2036. 2037. 
2067 |. 

23 e . on ANC 025. 046. i. 35. 175. 250. 617. 620. 1934. 

2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 Tyc Pr gig vg s arm 2 - 4 eth : >19 (-35. 
175. 617. 620. 632. 1934. 2040). 82. 201. 385. 429. 498. 522. 
1955 bo | ot 1 > A 2040 | o-ov > 325. 2019. 2036 | ^o-av > 
386 |. 

ll b . aurwv] avrrjcr 172. 2016. 2020 | OVKCTI (Kat OUKCTI 620. 
1918 : OVK eo-Ttv 456 : iam Pr ; > arm bo eth) joined with what 



348 AHOKAAY^IS IOANNOY [XVIII. 12-13. 

12. yofjiov xpvcrov KOL dpyvpov KCU XiOov TIJJLIOV Kat fiapyapiTiav, 

KCU j3vCTCriVOV KOI TTOp(f>Vpa<S Kat CTlplKOV KO.1 KOKKtVOV, 

Kat TraV vXov 6vwov KOL TTOV (TKCUOS \<f>dvTLVov KCU TTOLV 
\l0ov crKeOos e/c r vXov } 

V Kat oriorjpov KCU 



13. KOU Ktvi/a/xwtiov Kat a/xco/xov Kat $iyxta/xara, 
Kat p-vpov Kat AtySavov KCU ou/ov, 

precedes 025. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2037 Pr gig vg s 1 : joined with 
what follows AC 046. 19 al pl s 2 : without punctuation N . 

12. xpucrou] XP vcrovv C O2 5 620. 1918 : \pvcriov 94. 2019 | 
apyvpov] apyvpovv C 025 : apyvpiov 94. 181. 2OI. 386 | Xi6. rt/x.] 
XtOovcr rttuovo- C 025 (bo) : At0wv ri/xtcov Pr S arm 2 | /xapyaptrcov 
K 172. 2018. 2040 Pr gig s arm 2 - 3 - a : /xapyapiracr (-rater A) AC 
025 bo : /xapyaptrou 046. 20. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Vg 
ftvcrcr. . . . KOKKU/OV] sirici et purporae et coccineae vestis Pr 
fivva-ivov AC 025. 046. 20 (-35. 205) al pl gig : fivcro-ivwv X : 
jBvarcrov 051. I. 35. 205. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 

2041 Vg | K. TTOpC/). > A | 7TOp</>UpaO- tfC 025. IO4- 205. 62O. 

632**. 2018. 2037**. 2040 : 7rop</>vpou 046. 051. 20 (- 205. 620. 
632**. 2040). i. 69. no. 314. 385. 2037*. 2067 I K. o-tpiK. >i. 
920 crtpiKou AttC 025. 046. 051. 104. 620. 1849. 2017 al : 
crrjpiKov 20 (-386. 620. 1849) al pl : crvpiKov 172. 386. 2016. 
2018. 2019 | ?rav vXov . . . rt/xtwrarou] omne lignum incensi et 
omne vas ligneum et omne vas eburneum preciosum gig | K. TTO.V 
vX. 6mvJ\ et omnis ligni citrei Pr : tr after rt/x. bo | vAov] 
CTKCVOCT A : vXwov 025 | eAc</>. K. TT. crKevocr >arm 2 | K. trav cr/c. K 
vA. > gig I Trav crKevocr 2 > Pr | K > C 94 | vXov $C 025. 046. 
20 ( - 2040) al fere omn Pr s (arm) (bo) : Aitfov A 2040 vg eth | 
rt/xtwrarov] rt/xtov S 1 | ^aAKOv . . . crtS^pov . . . /xap/xapov] ^aAKOv 
. . . (TLorjpov . . . /xapttapoi/ S* bo | ^aAKOvJ KaAKOv C* 1 K. o"t8. 
> arm 2 | K. /xap/x. > N i |. 

13. Kii mjui- AxC 025. 046**. 19 ( 35*^. 205. 620. 919. 
1934. 2020). 104. 250. 2038 al p (Pr) vg : Ku/a/x- 046*. i. 35**. 

69. 172. 205. 314. 620. 1934. 202O. 2022. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2067 
al mu gig bo | Ktvva/xco/xov (Ktva/xco/xov) AC 025. I. 250. 2037. 
2038. 2040. 2067 al mu vg gig s arm (bo) : Kivm/xio/xou (Ku/a/xw/xou) 
tf 046. 19 (-35. 2040) al mu : cinnamum Pr | K. a/xw/xoi/ A^*C 
025. 35*. 93. 172. 181. 218. 250. 314. 2016. 2018. 2019. gig vg 
s 2 : >K C 046. 20 (-35*). i. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl Pr s 1 arm 
bo | $vtua/xara] $vtua/xa i. 2037. 2040. 2067 Pr gig arm 2 bo : 
-/xarocr 046. 6 1. 69 : -ttarwv 201. 386. 620 Vg | K. /xvpov > C 
/xvpov] /xvpwi/ 386 (arm 2 ) : /xvpov vg s 2 : oyxvpvav 2036. 2037 
AtySavov] Ai/3avov Vg | otvov . . . cAatov] ~ 175. 218. 242. 250. 
314. 617. 1934- 2016. 2017 | K. otvov ANC 025. 35. (175). 205. 



XVIII. 15-16.] AIIOKAAY*I2 IOANNOY 349 



/cat IXaiov /cat cre/xtoaXtv /cat crT 

/cat KTrjvr) /cat 7rpo/3ara (a) Kat i//v^as dv$pa>7rcov. (3) 

. ot etiTropot TOI TCOV, ot 7rAouT>^cravTS aTT auTT^s, 0.770 
Sia TOI> <j>6j3ov TOT) 
1 6. Xe yovres 

Ovat, ouat 17 TroXts 77 
77 7rpif3e/3\r)iJivr) j3v<rcrwov /cat 7rop<f>vpovv /cat KOKKIVOV, 
Kai /cexpvcrw/xevT} ^pvcrtw /cat Xt$a) ri/xtu) /cat /xapyapmi, 
on /xia a>pa -Yjprj^Or] 6 TOQ-OVTOS TrXovros. 



(a) Here follows an interpolation : /cai forTra^ /cai peScDi /cai auii&ruv. See 
vol. ii. 102. 

(3) Verse 14 is restored after 21 : see vol. ii. 105. 108. 

(617). 632**. (1934). 2020. 2040 al Pr gig s arm bo sa eth : >046. 
20 (-35- I 75- 632**. 205. 617. 1934. 2020. 2040) al mu : *. otvov 
Vg | eXatoi/] eAatov Vg | /c. o-e/x. > Pr | (re/xt8. . . . ^\>yo.<T\ 
o-ju,i8aA.ca)cr . . . O-ITOV . . . Krrjvwv . . . Tr/DO/Sarwv . . . \l/v\ (i)V v g I 

K. O-tT. K. KT. > S 1 I Kai 9 > bo I 0-IT01/] (TtTOV 62O bo | KTTf]Vr} K. 

7rpo/?ara AC 025. 35. 205. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al Pr gig 
(vg) s 2 arm 3 - 4 -* bo sa : ~ 046. 20 (-35. 205. 2040). 250 al m 
arm 2 : /c. Trpo/?. >42. 1957 | tTTTrw^] ITTTTOVO- 2040 s arm 2 : equi Pr | 
pcSwv AttC 025. 046. i. 18. 205. 632. 919. 1849. 2004. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al mu : paioW 051. 20 (-18. 205. 632. 919. 1849. 
2004). 82. 104. 250. 314. 2016 al mu : pcSton/ 61. 69. 2022 : peSacr 
Pr s arm 3 - 4 - a | peSwv /cat >arm 2 bo | o-w/x. /cat >337- 386 arm 2 | 
o-w/tarojv] crw/jtara s : o-w/xa bo : if/v^w 6 1. 69 : mancipia (-orum 
vg) Pr vg : porcorum Tyc : mulorum et camelorum sa | /c. ^vx- 
av6pJ\ et diversi generis animalia Pr : K. i/a^v avOpwrrov bo eth : 
>Tyc |. 

15. Tourwi ] avrrjo- Pr : <rov bo | avr^o- 1 ] <rov bo | cn-7/(rovTatJ 
Stabant Tyc | 8. r. <f>o(3. r. ft. avr. >Tyc | /cXatovrecr (/cXavorowtv 
s 2 arm 2 bo eth) AtfC 025. i. 18. 35. 175. 250. 617. 632**. 1849. 
1934. 2004. 2037. 2038. 2040 Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 arm 3 - 4 -" (bo) 
sa : pr /cat 046. 325. 337. 386. 456. 468. 620. 632. 919. 920 al s 2 
arm 2 eth | /cat > bo | Trevtfowreo-] TTCJ/^O-OVO-IV s 2 arm 2 bo eth |. 

16. XeyoKTecr (Xcyoixrtv 046. 522 : cpovcrtv arm 3 - a eth) AsC 
(046). 175- 325- 337- 336. 456- (522). 617 al- Tyc gig s 2 (arm 3 - ) 
bosa(eth) : pr /cat 025. 051. 19 (-175. 325. 337. 45 6 - 6l 7- 620 )- 
250, 2037. 2067 Prvgs 1 arm 4 (eth) | ovat^ + o-oibo | ovat 2 A^Co25. 
35. 175. 250. 617. 1934- 2020. 2037. 2038. 2040 al Tyc Pr gig vg s 
arm (bo) sa eth : +ovat 172.2018 : +o-otbo : >o46. 19 ( - 35. 175- 
617. 1934. 2020. 2040) al mu | rj TroX. 77 ttcy.] rj /xeyaXr/ 7roXr 2020 
bo | rj /M y. rj Trepi^X. >* | r)* > A | 77 7Tpi/?e/3X.J quae v ^stata 
est gig | fivo-ar. . . . /cexpvo-wjaevr; > 325 | /3vo-cr. . . . /co/c/c.J A | 
J3vo-<r. . . . Trope/).] ~ Pr | ^vo-crtvov (j3v(TivQV 025. fivvovvov i) 



350 



AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY [XVIII. 17-19. 



17. KOI ?ras KVJ3epvrJTr)<; Kat Tras 6 CTTI TOTTOI/ 7rXea)i>, /cat vavrai 
Kal oo-ot TT/V 6aXo.(T(Ta.v epya^ovrat, cbro /xaKpoflev ccrr^o-av 18. /cat 
e/cpaav /SXeVovres TOI/ KO.TTVOV rfjs 7rvpu)<rea)s aur^s, Xcyovres Tt s 
o/jota rrj vroXet TT) /zeyaXiy / 19. Kat c/3aXoi/l ^ow ^ 7r > Ta S 
avrwv, /cat eKpaav /cXatovrcs /cat 7rev0owTS, Xeyorres 
Ouat, oval ^ TroXts ^ p,ey 01X17, 



i. 35. 175- 250- 6l 7- 620. 2037. 2038 al Tyc (Pr) gig 

V ga. c. f. g. h . j3 va -(j- ov 046. l8. 337. 386. 456. 468. 632. QIQ. 920. 

1849. 2004. 2067 al vg d - v | Trop^vpovv AtfC 046. 19 ( - 325. 386). 
2037. 2038 al pl : 7ropc/>vpav 025. 94. 141. 172. 201. 241. 250. 
2018. 2019. 2067 | /cat 2 >025- 175. 242. 617. 1934 | KOKKIVOV] 
KOKKLva s 1 I /cat 3 ] > 051. i. 2036. 2038 arm 4 : 77 eth | /cexpuo-.] 
/cexpuo-w/Acvoy X : Ke^pvcrco/xeva s 1 (bo) : >arm 4 | xP v o" tw AC 025. 
046. 19 (-35). 25oal pl : xpvcrw J< 051. i. 35. 61. 69. 1957. 2019. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al : auro Pr gig vg : pr cv NC i. 

35. 1957. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 | Xl#. Tt/A.] Xl#Ol(T 

rt/xtoto- s^- 2 arm 2 - 3 - a | rt/xtw > 046 sa | /xapyapm; AxC 025. 
2040 Pr arm 4 bo (sa) : /xapyaptrato- (-rao- s) 046. 19 ( 2040). 
250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al fere omn Tyc gig vg s arm 2 - 3 -" | //.ia] in 
hac gig | r)pr)ijui)0r}~] cprj^Or) 051. I. 2036. 2038 | o >O25. 2040 |. 

17. o >025. i. 314. 1957. 2016. 2017. 2036. 2037. 2038 al I 

7Tl TOTTOV TrXcWv] pr CTTt TWV TrXotWl/ S 1 . 7Tl TWV TrXotWV ( + O I ) OfJLL\O(T 

i. 2037 : TrXewv CTTI TWV TrXotwi/ 2016 : super mare navigans Pr 
(bo sa) : (qui) manibus navigat Tyc | TOTTOV (pr TOV X 046. 468 : 
pr ilium gig) AsC 046. 19 (-35. 175. 617. 1934) al mu gig vg 
s 2 arm : TOOV TrXotwv 025. 35. 181. 250. 314. 617. 1934. 1957. 
2017. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2038. 2067 | TrXeon/] navigabat (-avit 
Vg c ) gig Vg c | K. VO.VT. . . . epya^ovraL ^> bo | otrot T. ^aX. 
epya^ovrat] quotquot mare operatur Tyc | T. 0aX.] *v TTJ 6a\.aa-o"rj 
Pr gig vg v arm 3 : maria (mari vg d - f ) vg a> c - d - f - g | cpya^ovrai] 
morantur Pr | eo-T^o-ai/] stabunt Pr arm |. 

18. Kai CKpa^ai/ > 2020 Pr | /cat > 2067 arm 4 | e/cpa^av AC 
025. 172. 2018. 2038. 2040 Tyc gig vg s 2 : /cpaov X 046. 051. 
19 ( 325. 468*. 920. 2040). I. 250. 2037. 2067 : e/cXatov 920 : 
e/cXavo-av avr^v S 1 : e/cpavyaov 42. 325. 468*. 517 : /cpaowiv 
arm | /3Xe7roi/reo-] opwvreo- I | KCLTTVOV NC 025. 046. 19 al fere omn 
Pr Tyc gig s arm bo sa : TOTTOV A 60 vg | rtcr > C | iroXct] + 
ravrr) C gig vg arm bo |. 

19. e|3a\oi> (-av C) ^C 046. 19 (-325. 617. 2040) al fere omn 
vg s (bo) : c(3a\\ov 025. 051. 325. 385. 617 gig : 7re/?aXov 
(e7T/3aXXov 2040) A 2040 : mittentes Pr | \ ovv >62o | T. /ce^.] 
r-rjcr Kec/>aX^o- N 2026 bo | avrwv] eavrwv C | Kat 2 > arm 2 - 4 bo | 
eKpagav ( + cj>iavr) fjieyaXr) arm 4 ) AC 2Ol8 Vg S arm 4 : /cpaov 
025. 046. 19. 250. 2037. 2067 al pl gig : clamabunt Pr : TrevtfowTecr 
arm 3 * a : > arm 2 j /cXatorreo- K. Trcv^ovi/retr] > A i : pr Kat 3 2 5- 



XVI.TI. 21, 14.] AIIOKAAYMS IOANNOY 351 

ei/ $ tTrXovTrjcrav Travrcs ot e^ovres TO. TrAoTa ev rrj OaXdcrcrr)) 
f CK T^s TifJiLOTrjTOS avT^s ort /ua a>pa r)pr)fJL<j}6r).J (fl) 

21. Kai lypev ets ayyeAos l(r\vpo<s XiOov ws ftvAtvov /xe yav, Kal 
e/?aAev ets TT/V 0aAao~o av Aeya>v 



17 
Kat ov /A?) evpeOfj In. 

14. Kat 17 oTrajpa o-ou T^S 7rt$v/>u as rjjs 

avnyA^ev a/Tro crov, 
Kai Travra TO, AtTrapa Kat ra Xa/x?rpa 

(ZTTO (TOV. ^ 



(a) Text corrupt. We should read : #rt ,ut ti;p^ rjpr)fj.udr) ^ Tifju6rr)s 
O.VTTJS : cf. vers. 10, 16, and see vol. ii. 106 sq. Ver. 20 is restored to its 
original context after 23*- b . See vol. ii. 92 sq. 

(b] On the restoration of the order of the text, see vol. ii. 92, 105, 108. 
(f) Here follows a gloss : /cat OVKTL OU/UTJ ai)rd evp-f]ffov<ri.v. On a possible 

explanation of it in connexion with the loss of 22 b which I have restored, 
see vol. ii. 92, 109, and footnote in loc. of English transl. 

468* arm 3 - tt : ~ 325. 468* : tr after Acyovreo- 325. 468*. 517 \ 
Aeyovreo- ( + voce magna Pr) A^C i. 172. 2018. 2040 Pr vg f - s 
(arm 2 - 3 - a ) bo : pr Kai 025. 046. 19 (-325. 468. 2040). 250. 
2038. 2067 al pl gig vg a - c - v s arm 4 : >468** vg d | ovat 2 AC 025. 
046. 19 ( - 337. 468*. 2040) Tyc Pr gig vg s arm sa eth : +ovat 
172. 250. 2019 : >N 141. 337. 432. 452. 468*. 506. 2019. 2021. 
2040 bo | r) TToA. 77 /*ey.] rj /xeyaAvy TroAtcr 1849 | ra >i. 35. 172. 
175. 617. 1934. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al | ev r. 0aA. . . . 
aim^or] de mari et de pretiis ems gig | CK T. TI//-. avr. > Tyc | 
ir) pr) 1*0)6?)] cprj^Or) I. 2036. 2038 |. 

21. Kai 1 ] pr Kat CKpa^ei/ (fxDvrjv bo | K. ^pev] tr after icrxvpov 
bo | eto- ayyeAoo- ia"xypoar At^.] ei<r a ... At^. A. The letters 
between a and A are not visible, but the space is only enough for 
five or six. eto-]-M airran/ 337 | ayy. to-^.] e* ran/ ayyeAwv TWV 
S 1 | to-^pocr] tcr^fpov (tr after At$ov N*) N* 141. 149 : 
Tyc s 2 | Ai0ov wa] >bo : \i6ov >2oig : <oo- >arm 2 | too-) 
2036. 2037 : ad magnitudinem Pr | ya^Atvov (/xvAiKov C) 
AC : molarem vg (bo) : /xvAov 025. 046. 19. 205. 2037. 2038. 
(2067) : molam (-ae Pr) Tyc Pr gig s^- 2 arm : Attfov K (2019) | 
/xeyav] />tya 2019. 2O2O : tr before too- 2067 | ouraxr] pr on N 
620 : hoc Pr vg arm 2 | /?a/?uAo>v] pr ilia Tyc | /xeyaAr^ -n-oAto-] 
//.eyaAoTToAto- 2067 | TroAtcr >Pr | ert] + ev avrr) N 046. 6 1. 69 . 

14. TJ oirwpa] pomorum (-a vg) Pr vg : hora gig (arm 4 ) : > 
arm 2 - 3 - a | r) >C | o-oi; 1 placed after oTrwpa AN C 025. 2040 (Pr) 
V ga.c. f.g. h.v . tr a f ter ^v^rjo- 046. 19. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 gig 
vg d s 2 arm : in both places 172. 2018 s 1 : >bo | TT/O- eTrt^v/xtacr] 



35 2 AIIOKAAYITS K2ANNOY [XVIII. 22. 

22 a ~ d . Kai (0)1/17 Kt#aou)8<iov Kai f /Aovo-iKoii/ f 
<C ov /AT) aKOvcrOfj iv crol erf > (#) 
Kai, < (pwvr) > (#) avX^Ttov Kai cra\7ri(7Ta)V 
ov a> aKovo-#7 ey (rot en. 



23 d . Kat (fxavrj VV/A<IOV Kai vvfj,<f>r)<i 
ov /AT) aKOvvOrj fv <rol en 



22 e ~ h . /cat 



OV 



(TOt Tt. 



ov JAY) aKOva-Or} ev crot en* 
Necessarily restored, yet found in eth : see below. 



rj e-mOvfjiia Pr s 1 | aTrrjXOfv] discendent vg d arm 2 | ra 1 >6i. 69 | 
XtTrapa] pL-rrapa N* : +CTOU 2040 | ra 2 A 025. 046. 19 al fere omn : 
>C 2036. 2067 | aTTwXcTO AC 025. 046. 19 (-35. 620). 250 
al pl arm 2 - 4 eth : aTrwXoi/ro N 35. 104. no. 172. 336. 432. 620. 
1918. 1957. 2018. 2023. 2041 gig vg bo sa : perient Pr : aTrw^eTo 
2067 : a.Trr)\Ocv 051. I. 2036. 2037 s 1 arm 3 - a | OVKCTI] + avra 
/3Aei/ficr Kat s 1 [ ov /JLTTJ avra Atf 2018. 2O2O. 2040 : avra ov pr) C 
025. 046. 19 ( - 35. 175. 617. 1934. 2020. 2040) algig vg : tr avra 
after cvp. i. 35. 175. 250. 617. 1934. 2037. 2038 (arm) | evpiy- 
O-OVCTLV AtfC 025. 18. 172. 250. 424. 2018. 2019. 2039 vg s 
(arm 2 ) bo : evp^o- (-eio- 104. 620). 046. 19 ( - 18. 35). 2037. 2067 : 
fvpr)o~io- (-rjo- 051). 051. I. 35. 432. 1957. 2023. 2038. 2041 Pr 
gig arm 8 * a : + ovre \f/v)(ao- av^pwTrwv TOV XOITTOV C/ATTOOCVO"^ 241. 
314. 2016 | K. OVKCTI . . . evp^o-ovo-ti/] joined with ver. 15 by 172. 
2018. 2019 s bo eth |. 

22 a " d . Kai 4>a)VT] . . . aaX.morwi ] Kat ov /XT; aKovcrOr) i/ avrrj 
<j>(j)vr) /XOVO-IKOV Kat KiOapacr Kat avAov Kat ^>wv?/ o*aX7rtyyoo- ov 
p,rj aKovo-6v) ev avnr) eth. Here observe that the Ethiopia has 
already restored the missing words in 22 b>c - | Kai 1 ] >K i Tyc : 
ovSe bo eth | Ki0apa)8<oj/] KiOapao- S 1 arm 2 bo eth | /AOVO*IK. . . . 
o-aXTT.J^S 1 I avXrjT(Dv] avXtorwy 620 : sinfoniacorum Pr | avX. Kai 
> bo | o-aXTTio-Twv AC 025. 046. 19 al fere omn gig : o-aA.7rtyya>v 
(-00- s 1 arm 2 ) K 172. 2018 s arm 2 -* : <TaXiriy vg bo : fistularum 
Tyc : tibicinum Pr : +Kat 2020 | o-ot] avrrj gig vg c>f eth |. 

23 C - d . fart]] </>toi/r7v X* bo | vv^tjcr] pr <pu>vy C 920 s 1 Cth |. 

22 e h . K. irao-Tcxi . . . . en] >6i. 69 s 1 arm : tr. after ev o-ot 
en 2 104. 620 | Tracr TC^vtrryo >!9i8 | Trao~i)o- re^vtrjar C 025. 046. 
19. 250. 2038. 2067 Pr gig vg s 2 : > AN bo : +7rtvota 1918 [ 
o-ot 1 ] avr>7 vg c * v eth | K. </>wv^ /AV\OV . . . ert 2 AC 025. 046. 19 
(-18. 919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 Pr 
gig vg arm 2 bo : >K 18. 141. 172. 385. 522. 919. 920. 1849. 
1955. 2004. 2020 s arm 3 - 4 -" eth | /xvXov] pvOov C | a.Kova-6-rj] 



XVIII. 23-XIX. I.] AtIOKAAY*J2 IOANNOY 

553 

a 



ov py <j>a.vrj eV crot m. 
20. Ev<f>paivov eV avr^, oupai/e, 

fyoi KaJ ot dTroVroAot Kai ol Tr 
o fch r^ 



^ o 

on cKtw o 



23 f . 5rt fr r^ ^^^ f era, f(a) ArA 
24- icat cv av T?7 at/xa Tr^o^^r.Sv Kai d r * 



/cat 

() Read 



046 : ^, 9I . I7J . 



20. u<f>peui/ou 



vg- L ; 4 . g (eth) | Jor^ : f 5^.5- jy.38 a, gig 



te 



CHAPTER XIX. 



crania /ca^ ^ So^a Kal ^ SvVa/tt? rov 



2038. 2041. 2067 

VOL. II. 23 



354 AnOKAAY^lS IO ANNOY [XIX. 2-4. 

2. on a\r)6Lval Kal SiKatat at Kpto-s avroC 



OTl KplVCV TT)V TTOpVrjV TT/V 

r)Ti<s </>#tpi> rrjv yrjv cV rfj Tropva a au 

TO at/xa T<OV SouXwi/ avTOu e/c 



3. Kal Seurepov 

AXXrjXowa 
KCU 6 KaTrvos aurr/s avafiaLvci eis rots aiaWs TOJV auoj/un/. 

4. Kttt 7T0-ttV Ot tKO(Tt T(T(Tapf(T 7rpO*/3vTpOl Kai TO. TC 

e?rt ra> 



632**. 2020). 250. 2037** al vg bo : tr after fieyaXrjv 2019 eth : 
>i. 104. 181. 241. 336. 620. 632**. 2020. 2038. 2067 Tyc Pr 
gig s arm | /xtyaX^v] /xcyaXov 337. 632** : tr after TroXXov 1957. 
2023. 2041 al : > i. 141. 2036. 2038. 2067 Pr arm 4 | o^Xou 
TroXXov] o^Xwr TToXXtoi/ Pr vg f - s s 1 : tubarum multarum vg a c - T 
arm- : aquarum multarum vg (l | TroXXouJ > arm 3 - a : +clamantium 
voce magna Pr | Xeyovra>/] dicentis gig : Xeyoixray no : +TO i. 

2037 | <ro)T. . . . OoaJ eth I a-wrrypiaj lausvg*-^* | rj So^a ( + Kai 
ynw 632** arm 2 - a bo sa) K. TJ 8w. AsC 025. 35. (632* " ). 2019. 
2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 Tyc vg s 1 arm 2 - a bo sa eth : t\ 
Sw. K. T? 8oa ( + K. y TL^r) S 2 ) 046. 19 ( - 35. 632**. 2020. 2040). 
250 al 1 1 gig s 2 arm 3 : K. rj Svr. >#* Pr arm 4 | T. Oeov r//xcov > 
2067 | rov Ocov ANC 025. 046. 19 (-632**). 250. 2038 al pl gig 
bo sa : TW ^ew 241. 632**. 2019 Tyc Pr vg s arm : Kvpua TO> 0*w 
1-2037 | T//XWV] +est vg |. 

2. aXtjOikai] CKpti/cv aXry^r; 468 | ort 2 ] qui Vg : + sic Pr | 

TToXll/ 69. 94. 2O9. 241. 632**. 2O23 | rjTKT . . . 

>bo | 7/rr . . . yr/v >2O26. 2031. 2037 arm 8 - a | 
KC 025. i. 172. 632**. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2040 al : ot 
046. 19 (-632**. 2040). 250. 2067 al : fKpivev A I Tropveia C 
025. 046. 19 al pl : TTopria AN | /cat] + KO- 2040 | avrov 2 ] avrrja- N* | 
fK xetpoo- AsC 025. 046. 19 (-35*. 620. 632**. 920). 250 al : 
e/c T?;O- ^ctpoo- i. 35*. 620. 632**. 920. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al : de manu Tyc gig s 2 sa eth : CK (TWV) xeipwv Pr vg 
s 1 arm 8 - 4 - a : xpoo- >arm 2 bo |. 

3. Kai 1 > s 1 | etprjKav AN* 025. i. 35. 172. 2018. 2036. 2037. 

2038 : fiptjKaa-Lv 61. 69. 201. 250. 386. 2040. 2067 al : etTrav (-ov 
2020) C 2020 : dixerunt ( = etpr/Kav or eiTroi/) Tyc Pr gig vg s 
arm (2. s). 4 sa e th : cipher 046. 19 (-35. 386. 2020. 2040) al bo | 
o >386 | avrrjor] avrw Tyc : de ilia Pr : > i. 241. 632**. 
2067 | ava/3aivei] ave/Jaivej 172. 2018. 2020 s 2 : avcftr) 2036. 
2037 S 1 arm : ava/fyo-erai bo |. 

4. eireaai A^C 025. 046*. i. 325. 337. 498. 620. 2023. 2036. 



XVI. 5-7.] AIIOKAAY*I2 11} ANNOY 355 



xvi. 5 b . At /catos i, 6 &v /cat o rjv,(a) 

*Oo-ios ort ravTa 



on cu/xa ayt /cat 
/cat at/xa avrots rSe Sw/cas 1 TTCU/ 
atot 



7. Kat YjKovo-a TOV Ova-LavTrjpLov Ae yoi/ros 

Nat, /cupte, 6 #eo9 6 TravTO/cparwp, 
t Kat OLKaiai at Kptitreis crov. 



(a) On the restoration of xvi. 5 b -7 to their original context, see vol ii 116 
120-124. 

2038. 2041 : CTTCO-OV 046** 19 (-325. 337. 620). 250. 2037. 
2067 : tr after 7rpco-(3. 620 | ot (>6p) etKoo-t reo-cr. 7rpeo-/3. A 046. 
18. 61. 69. 201. 337. 386. 920. 1957. 2004. 2019. 2036. 2037. 

2039. 2067 Pr gig (s 1 ) arm : ot Trpeo/;?. ot ei/cocrt TCO-O-. C 025. 19 
(~ l8 - 337- 3 86 - 620. 920. 2004). i. 250. 2038 alP 1 vg s 2 | et*. 
reo-o-.] /c8 046. I. 35. 337. 468. 919. 920. 1849. 2004. 2038. 2040 
al I T(ro- ( oa AtfC : reo-o-apa (8 35. 456. 2040 al mu ) 025. 046. mini 1 | 
&oa >N* | TOJ (>9I9) Opovo> ANC 046. 19 (-35. 386. 468. 620. 
632**. 920. 2020). 250 aK 1 : rw Opovw 025 : TOV (>2o^) Opovov 
! 35- 3 g 6- 468. 498. 620. 632**. 920. 1957. 2019. 2020. 2023. 
2036. (2037). 2038. 2041. 2067 al | a^v a\\rj\.] ~ 35 : >arm 4 

v >337 I aAATyX. >Pr |. 

xvi. 5 1 . StKaioa] +domine vg d eth | > 104 arm 1 - 2 - 3 - * | o 2 
Co25. 20 (-337. 617. 632* 919. 920. 1849. 1934) al: oo- 
046. 61. 69. 82. no. 141. 337. 385. 429. 452. 522. 617.910. 
920. 1849. 1934 al* 1 : >arm a - | r, v ] " is " arm 2 - 3. | 0(rt0r AC 
046. 175. 250. 325. 337. 456. 468. 617. 620. 919. 1849. 1934- 
2004. 2020 al rnu arm 2 : o ocrtoo- N 025. 051. 35. 94. 181. 201. 
205- 314. 3 8 6. 5 1 ?- 632. 920. 1957. 2015. 2016. 2018. 2023. 
2036. 2038. 2041. 2067 al (arm 4 ) : sanctus vg : *ai oo-too- 2040 s : 
et sanctus gig arm 1 - 3 -* sa eth : /cat o oo-toa- i. 18. 424. 2019. 
2037 : et qui es pius Pr : >bo |. 

6. aifAa 1 ] at/xara K 620. 1918. 2019! a ytwv . . . Trpo- 
^TWV] ~2o6. 2017 s 1 arm 3 | aytwj/l yu-aprv/xov bo | /cat 2 ] ideoque 
Pr arm 1 - 2 -* 1 : >bo | at/xa avroio- Scdoj/cacr (cSw/cao-) AC 025. 046. 
go al fcr omn vg s 2 : at/xa eoWo- avroiar gig s 1 : cSw/cao- avroto- 
at/xa 6 1. 69 Pr (arm 4 ) sa (eth ?) : cSw/ccur aipa avroia- bo : avrour 
>arm 2 | SeSw/cao- AC arm 2 - 4 : eSw/cao- K 025. 046. 20 al ornn I TTUV 
(iriv C) A(C) : Trietv X 025. 046. 20 al fere omn | a^tot] pr ewrep K : 
pr ort 336. 620. 628. 1918 Pr (gig) s 2 bo (sa) eth : pr ut 
vg* * v |. 

7. TOO Ouor. Xeyoi Too- A^C 025. 20. 250. 2038 al pl vg f - s 
arm 4 bo : pr CK 046. i. 2037. 2067 vg c - d -( v ) arm 1 - 2 - 8 : ^wn/v ex 



356 AHOKAAYOTS IOANNOY [XIX. 5-7. 



xix. 5. Kcu <wv) ttTro TOV Opovov cgrjXOev Xeyovo-a 
Aiveire rw 0ea> i^aon , TTCII/TCS ot SovXot aurov 
Kat ot <o/3oiy/,ei/oi avroV, ot fUKpol KOI ot /xeyaXot. 

6. /cat r/Koixra ws cfxiivrjv o^Xou TroXXoC Kal ws <f>(j)vr)V voa.Tu>v 
TroXXuiv Kat d)S cfrwvyv fipovruv - 



AXX^Aouta* 

ort e/3ao-tXevo-ej/ Kvpios, o 0eos o iro.vTOKpo.rwp. 
x at/ P a) J aev Kat ayaXXiw/xei/, 

/cat 8w(ro/iev T^J/ 8d|av aura), 
6Vt 5X0y 6 ya/xo<; TO apvcov, 

Kat 17 yw^ avrov ^roi/xao ev eavr^K, 



(>arm) r. 0vtr. Xeyovo-av 2019 arm a : alterum (aliam vocem Pr) 
dicentem (-ens vg a ) Pr gig vg a : ab altari dicens vg v | aXrjOLvai . . . 
StKatai] ~ arm 1 ^*" (bo) eth | StKatat] o StKatocr bo | Kat 2 >bo |. 
xix. 5. <|>wn) ... ^t]\Qev . . . Xeyouora] A c 025. 046 : 
<f>wvai . . . egijXOov . . . Xeyouo-at N* : > arm 2 - 4 | CLTTO AC 046. 
19 (-35- 175- 6l 7- 632**. 1934). 250 al mu : K N 025. i. 35. 
175. 241. 242. 617.632**. 1934. 1955. 1957- 2 l6 - 20I 7- 2019. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 al mu | Opovov ANC 025. 19 
gig vg s arm 3 - a bo : ovpavov 046. 61. 69 Pr | cfyXOcv] tr before 
aTro r. 6pov. N : > s 1 | TW ^eto ANC 025. 046. 325 al p : TOV Oeov 19 
(-325). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl | Ty/xwv] v/xwv Pr : -faiyetre 
2040 : > 1 8 arm 4 | Kat 2 A 046. 19 al omn Pr gig vg s arm 3 - 4 - a bo 
eth : >C 025 | avrov] dominum Pr : TO ovo/xa avTov s 1 /UK/OOI 
. . . ^eyaXot] ~ Pr | ot /xtKpot] pr Kat i. 2023. 2037 al arm 4 : pr 
S 1 | ot 3 >I75 | K. ot /*ey.] /xcra rwv /xcyaXcov S 1 bo | ot 4 > 



. 

6. wa 1 AX 025. 046. 19 vg s 2 bo : tr after </>wvr;v 2019 s 1 
arm 4 eth:>i*. no. 172. 181. 2016. 2018. 2037. 2038. 2067 
Tyc Pr gig arm 3 - a | o^X. TroXX.] o^Xwv TroXXwv s 1 : tubarum (-ae 
vg) magnarum (-ae vg) Pr vg a - c - d - f - v | too- 2 X 025. 046. 19 ( - 386) 
p r gig V g s arm 3 - 4 - a bo eth : >A 181. 201. 314. 386 Tyc | vSar. 

TTOXX. . . . fipOVT. tO-X-l ~ Pr I PpOVT ] + ToXXcOV Kttt 468 | LO~XVp^] 

magnorum vg j Xeyovrwv (-ovo-wv $ : -ovo-rjo- 2067) A(^) 025. 
172. 314. 2018. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2040. (2067) al Pr gig 
Vg : Xcyovreo- (-TOO- 620). 046. 18 (-35. 2020. 2040) al mu : 
Xeyovrao- 051. i. 35 al : dicentes Tyc | KV/OIOO- o 0eoo- A c 025. 
046. 18 Tyc gig vg s 2 arm bo sa : o 0eoo- o Kvpioo- K* : o 0eoo- o 
0eoo- 2038 : o 0oo- 051. I. no. 181. 2019. 2067 : Kvptoo- Pr s 1 | 
o 0eoo- A i. 2023. 2040 Gyp s 1 arm 2 - 4 bo sa eth : +^<ov K 025. 
046. 18 (-2040). 250. 2037. 2038 2067 aP 1 Tyc Pr gig vg s 2 
arm 3 -" | o iravTOKp. >gig |. 

7. aipw^ev] x^P ^^ ( Kai X at P/ xev arm 4 ) s 1 arm | a 



. xaipw^ev x^P ^^ 

025. i. 94. 172. 181. 2018. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
7 : -a>/*e0a 046. 18 (-2040). 250 al pi | Kat 2 >s l | 8o>o-. T. o. 



2067 : -a>/*e0a 



XIX. 8-10.] AnOKAAY^lS IOANNOY 357 



8. Kat eSoflr/ avrfi iva 

j3va-(TLVov XafAirpov KO.Oa.p6v. (a) 

9. Kat Aeyet /xot Tpfyov MaKaptot ot cis TO SctTrvov rov ya/xov 

TOl) apVLOV KeKAr7/XeVOl.($) 

(a) An incorrect gloss follows in the text : rb yap fivaaivov ra SiKcuw/Aara 
TUV aylwv iariv. See vol. ii. 127 sq. 

(6) Text adds a doublet of xxii. 6 a . 8-9 : Kai X(fyet juot Ofrroi o X&yot ol 
aXydivoi rov deov elfflv. IO. /cat t-rreva ZfJLtrpoadev TUV TroScDv airroO TrpoffKvvTJaat 
avry. Kal Xyei ftoi "O/>a /J" crw5oi;X6s croi; efyu KO! TUV d5eX0d)i aoi rci)^ 
tydvTUV rty fj.apTvpiai> It)(rov ry ^ey irpoffKvvrjffov i] yap (tapTvpla Itjffou tarlv 
rb TTJ/eO/xa r^s irpoQrjTetas. See vol. ii. 128-129. 

avr.] glorificemus nomen eius Tyc arm 2 | Swo-o/xei/ A c Pr gig vg 
arm 4 : Scocrw/xev (Socrw/xev 2019) 025. 2019. 2036 : ow/xei/ S* 046. 
051. 18. i. 61. 69. 104. 241. 242. 250. 314. 1957. 2018. 2023. 
2024. 2037. 2039 al mu : "we give" arm 2 3> a : So^ao-w/xev 2067 cf. 
Tyc arm 2 | T. So. avr. AK C 025. 046 min pl gig s eth : cumor. 



] auTcov N* : avrov I. 175. 181. 250. 617. 1934. 
yvvrj] wp^r) N c - c : sponsa gig : + TJ VV/JL^-T] arm 3 - 4 - a | 



Pr Cyp vg 

2017. 2038 

avrov] auTw arm^bo : > i. 104. 181. 336. 620. 1918 | 

avrrjv 18. 2037 |. 

8. Kai]+-Kat 1934 | 7rept/?aA>7Tai] 7rept/?aAr/Te A : 

69. 1 10. 172. 522. 2023**. 2037 : Trepi/Se/SA^Tat 175 | Xa^rc. KaO. 
AN 025. 104. 620. 1957. 2040 Tyc Pr gig V g a - c - f -e- h - v arm 2 bo 
eth : 051. 35. 2036. 2038 : XafjLtr. Kat KaO. 046. 18 ( 35. 620. 
2040). 250 al pl vg d s 2 : KaO. Kat XafjLTr. i. 2019. 2037. 2067 s 1 : 
AevKov Aa/xTT. (ayatfov sa) KaO. (Ka0. Kat Aa/r. arm 8 - a ) arm 3 - 4 - a sa | 
J3vo~o~ivov 2 ] + mundum Pr : + XCVKOV arm 2 | T. aytwv] tr after eo-nv 
i al gig vg s 1 |. 

9. Xeyet fioi >arm 2 | Aeyet] etTrei/ S 2 bo : etTrov S 1 : + eto- (CK) 
TODV Trpeo-ftvrepuv arm 3 - a ypa\j/ov] TraAtv S 1 : >l. 2037. 2038 j 
eto- > 149 | TO AN 025. 18 (-386. 468. 620. 2020) al pl : TOV 
046. 172. 336. 386. 468. 498. 522. 620. 2020 | Tovya/xovAN c 046. 
18 ( - 620). 250. 2067 al pl Pr vg sW- 2 arm 2 - 3 - a sa eth : >N* 025. 
i. 336. 620. 1918. 2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 gig arm 4 bo | apvtov] 
+ etcrt s 1 | KeKA?7//,i/oi] + Kat Svyye Kat aTriorreo- wo- Set (from the 
comm. of Aretas) 314. 2016 | K. Aeyet 2 . . . eto-tv > arm 3 - a | 
K. Aey. /xot 2 AN C 025. 046. 18 (-2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 
al pl (Pr) gig vg (s) arm 2 - 4 (bo) sa : > N* 314. 5 22 - 20I 9- 202 

t 2 ] 



eth | Kat 2 ] + iterum Pr | Acya 2 ] CITTCI/ s bo | Aoyot] + pov N* s 2 | 
ot 8 A 91. 242. 1934 (s 1 ) : >N 025. 046. 18 (- 1934). 2 5- 20 37- 
2038. 2067 al pl arm 4 sa | oA^^tvot] vera et iusta Pr arm 2 | aAr^. 
TOV Oeov eto-iv A 025. 046. 18 (-35. 2020. 2040). 250 al pl gig 
V ga. c. d. f. h. v s . aXyQ. eto - tv T . e0 v N* 051. I. 35. 1957. 2O2O. 
2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 (Pr) arm^- 4 : TOU Oeov 
N c 522. 2040 vgs |. 

10. elytra AN 025. 35. 325. 337. 386. 456. 620 al 



35 g AIIOKAAY#I2 10 ANNOY [XIX. 11-12. 



II. Kat eTSov rov ovpavbv 

Kttt tSoV 17T7TOS XfUKOS, ^ \ 

/cat 6 Ka077/xevos CTT avroj/ [KoXou/tefOs] TTIO-TOS /cat, 
Kat ev SiKaioo-wi? Kpwei Kat TroXe/xet. 



12. ot 8e 6<0aX/xot avrov 

Kat 7Tt njv K<fca\r}V avrov StaSij/xara TroXXa* a 
(a) Here follows an interpolation : e%w^ 6vop,ayeypa^vov o ovdds oWev ei 



046. 1 8. 175. 468. 617. 632. 920. 1849. 1934- 2004. 204oal mu | 
ffjL-rrpoo-Oev] CI/WTTIOV 046 | r. TroS. > 620 | avrov] rov ayyeXov 620. 
1918. 2040 | Trpoo-Kwrjo-at avTd) (avrov 046) Atf 046. 18 Pr gig Vg 
S 2 arm 2 : Kat (>bo sa) Trpo<TKvvr](ra avru 025. 2036. 2037. 2038 
s i arm 3.4.a bo sa eth | Xeyet] etTrev S bo | /xot >arm 4 | opa w] + 
Troika- 2017. 2040 : vide ne feceris Pr gig vg : pr M wpoo-Kwei 
468 m e eth : " obey (see thou art evil, and he said to me arm 2 ). 
Fall thou (>arm 2 ) not down before me " arm 2 - 8 - a | opa >s 1 bo | 
crwSouXoo-] pr ort Pr bo eth : +yap gig arm 2 - 3 - * | o-ov 2 ] >S 314 : 
+ Kat i. 181. 2038 | I^o-ou 1 ] pr rov 241. 429** : +xpt<rrou Pr 
arm* : (TO>) Kvptw arm 2 | TTPOCTKWT/O-OI/] + /xaXXov S 1 | f) yap /x,apr. 
tr/o-ov] sanctificatio enim testificationis Pr | TO TTV. rrja- 7rpo</>.] 
spiritus est et prophetiae gig : "the spirit holy which is in 
the prophets" arm 2 | hyoW 2 Atf 025. 046. i. 35. 61. 69. 181. 
336. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 : pr TOV 18 ( - 35. 
1934. 2040). 250. 314. 2018 al pl : TOV VLOV 242. 1934 I irpoc/>77- 
retao-] aX^etao- 2037* bo |. 

11. Kcu 1 ] /cat (>bo) /xera ravra bo eth : >Pr | T/vecoy/xci/ov AS 
025. 432**. 2067 : ai/ewy/xevov 046. 18. 250. 2037. 2038 aP 1 | K. iSov 

tTTTT. XVK. >632* | KttX. TTtQ-T. K. ttX^^. 046. 18 (- 175- 617. 1934)- 

250 al pl s bo sa eth : vocatur (vocabatur Pr Cyp vg arm 2 ) fidelis 
et verus (verax gig : + vocatur vg a - c - d - f - h ) Tyc Pr Cyp gig vg 
arm (2). 4 . ^O-T. Ka x. K. aX^. : KoXov/xevoo- > A 025. 051. I. 
(35*?). 91. 175. 181. 242. 314. 617. 1934- 2016. 2017. 2036. 
2037. 2038. 2067 arm 3 -* | K. ei/ Swc. Kpti/ct] > Tyc : aequum 
iustumque iudicat Pr | K. ?roX. >Tyc bo |. 

12. 01 8e] + ot K : Kat 01 Tyc bo | wcr A 172. 250. 1957. 

2018. 2019. 2040 al Tyc Pr gig vg s arm 2 - 4 bo sa eth : > 025. 
046. 18 (-2040). i. 2037. 2038. 2067 al arm 3 - a | CTTI. T. KC<.] 
ev Tf] K<j>a\r) 6 1. 69 : in capite gig vg | exH et habebat (habens 
Pr : portabat Cyp) Pr Cyp arm a | ovo/xa ( + /xeya Pr) yeypa/x/xcvov 
A 025. i. 35*. 104. 175. 241. 242. 617. 632**. 1934- 2016. 

2019. 2036. 2037. 2038 al Tyc (Pr) Cyp gig vg s 1 arm* bo sa : 
ovofjiara ( + 7roXXa arm 2 ) ycypa/x/xeva K c 42. 325. 336. 468**. 517. 
620. 1918 arm( 2 )- 4 : ovo^ara yeypa/x/xei/a ( 920) Kat ovo/xa 
yeypa/x/xevov (ra ovo/xara ycypa/x/xeva arm 8 ) 046. 18 (-35*. 175- 



XIX. 13-15.] AIIOKAAYvMS IOANNOY 359 

13. Kal 7repi/?e/?A,?7/xei/os Ifjidriov r y3e/?a/A/xei/oi/ 1 ai/xan, pepavriff- 
Kal KK\r)Tai TO oVo/xa avrov O Aoyos rov 0eov. & vw 

14. /cat TO. orpaTev/xaTa TO. tv TU> ovpavw r)KO\ov@i atau> tip 

tTTTTOlS AeUKOlS, 

r ftvcrcnvov AevKOi/ 1 KaOapov. \evKopfo 

~ / ~ , / . / ~ 

K rov 0-ro/xa.Tos auTOv eKTropeverat po/x9aia oeia, 

?va 



Kat avro9 TTOt/xavet avrovs 

KOL avro<s Traret T^V Xryvov TOU otvov TOI) Ovfj.ov T?)S opy^s row 

TOO 



325. 468**. 617. 632**. 1934). 250. 2067 al mu s 2 arm 8 | 

o ovS. >N* | o > arm 3 | avroo-1 qui accipit gig : + /xoi/oor 2026 bo 

eth . 

13. irepi{3J3Xiifiei o<r] circumdatus est Tyc arm 2 - 3 : vestitus 
erat vg : erat coopertus Pr | /^a^/xevov A 046. 051. 18 ( - 2040). 
I. 2037. 2038. 2067 (s 1 ) arm sa : Treptpepa/xjaei/oi/ X* : 7reptpepai/Tr- 
/xcvoi/ N c>c : pepavnayxei/oi/ 025. 2019 : eppavno-fMCvov 172. 250. 
2017. 2018. 2040. Similarly Tyc Pr gig Cyp vg s 2 arm 3 bo eth 
cu/zan] pr fv 175. 218. 242. 250. 314. 617. 1934. 2016. 2017 
KKXr)TCLi Atf c 025. 046. 18 (-35. 175. 617. 620. 1934) al pl vg f - v 
arm 2. 3. a ^ sa ^ . xexXy (JQ oi/o/xa) $* : /caXeirai I. 35. 175. 242. 
250. 617. 620. 1934. 1957. 2016. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2067 al Tyc Pr gig vg a - c - d - h s 1 arm 4 : KaXov^evocr (s 2 ) bo | TO 
ov. O.VT.] avr. TO ov. 69 : >bo |. 

14. Kai 1 >Tyc | ra o-rpar.] TO a-Tparevfia gig bo | Ta 1 >6i. 
69. 2038 | Ta 2 025. 051. 18 (-325. 468. 617. 620. 920, 2020). 
241. 242. 250. 429. 1957. 2023. 2024 al Tyc Pr vg s 2 sa : avrov 
2017 : >As 046. i. 61. 69. 94. 104. 172. 181. 314. 325. 336. 
468*. 498. 517. 617. 620. 920. 2016. 2018. 2020. 2036. 2037. 
2038 gig s 1 (arm) bo eth | ev T. ovp.] TOV ovpavov (TO>V ovpavuv 
468** s 1 ) 468**. 920 s 1 (arm) eth : TW >2O4o : > bo : tr after 
avra) gig rjKoXovOet] TjKoXovOovv 051. I. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2039 | 
e< ITTTTOIO- (ei/^)i7r7rotcr 620) A,eu/coto- AN 025. I. 104. 620. 2019. 2O2O. 

2O37. 2O4O. 2067 al P : 7Tl tTTTTOtO- \VKOLCT 046. 18 ( 35*. 62O. 

2020. 2040). 250 al pl : c^tTTTTot TroAAot 051. 35*. 1 8 1. 2036. 2038 ] 
vSeSv/xj ot] evSeSvyaevoio- N* : evScSu/xeva 632 : evSeSv/xevov 920 : 
pr KCH s 1 | j3vcr(rwov XCVKOV (Aa/x-Trpov 94. 2037 bo) N 025. 046. 
18 ( - 2040). (i). (94). 250. (2037). 2038 al^ Pr Tyc (gig) (s 1 ) 
arm 4 (bo) (sa) : Aev/cov pwcrwov (Aev/co/?vo-o-ii/ov 2040) A 2040 : 
+ K.OLL K i. 456. gig s 1 sa : XCVKOV >arm 2 - 3 | XCVK. KaO] ~ 104 s 2 : 
Ko.9. Kat \VK. arm a : <jf>(oroo- XCVKOV (corrupt) eth | KaOapov] 
purpureum gig : >bo |. 

15. aurou] avTwi/ s 1 arm 2 bo | K7ropeveTat] exiebat Pr arm | 
o|eia AN 025. i. 35*. 2019. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038 al gig vg s 1 



3<50 AIIOKAAY^IS IfiANNOY [XIX. 16-18. 

1 6. Kat ^ct (a) 7rt TOV jJLrjpov avTOv ovo/xtt ycypa/x/xevov, 

BACIAEYC BACIAEHN KAI KYPIOC KYPIHN. 

17. Kai etSov era ayyeXov earwTa ev TO> ^Xta>, KOI Kpaev 
fJLcydXrj Xeywv TraVt rots opveots ToTs Trcro/xevois ev /xeo-ov- 
AeGre crvvd^O^rf. cts TO SetTrvov TO //,eya TOV 0eov, 18. tva 



Kai crdpKas ITTTTWV Kat TO>J/ Ka^/zeVcov CTT avTwv, Kat o~apKas TravTtov 
(a) Text adds : ^TT! rd Ipdnov Kai. See vol. ii. 137. 

arm bo sa eth : pr SIO-TO//.OO- 046. 18 ( - 35*. 2020). 250. 2067 
al pl Tyc Pr s 2 | ev awr;] ev avT(o 2020 S 1 : ex GO Pr | TraTa^] 
7raTaet N 104. 385. 620 : TraTa^cucrtv S 1 : Trapara^r) 325. 5 J 7 I Ta 
c^j/Ty] pr 7rai/Ta 498. 2020 gig sa | Kat 3 >Tyc | TraTet] 7raTrj(TL Pr ] 

T. OtV. T. ^U/A. ^-S 1 I T. OvfJ.OV ( + Kttt I. 2OI9- 2036. 2037. 2038. 

2067 al p arm 3 ) placed after oti/ov A 025. 046. 18 (-2040) al pl 
Tyc vg s 2 arm eth : tr after opyrja- K sa : tr before TOV oivov 
2040 : >Pr gig bo | TTJO- opyyv] pr Kat 2040 : >s 2 arm 4 - a : + 
avrou 620 | ^ov] + magni Pr |. 

16. Kai 1 ] ai)Too" Tyc | e^et A : + CTTI (> Tyc) TO ijaaTtov (Ta 
t/xaTia aurou S 1 : TO /xerajTrov 2040 : +auTOU 920 bo sa eth) Kat 
(>s l ) 025. 046. 18 al omn Tyc Pr gig vg s^)- 2 arm (bo sa eth) 

771 >t< bo Sa | TOV /A77pOJ/] TOVO" fJLTJpOVCT S 1 arm^ I ttVTOV > Q2O 

oko/xa yeypa/x/x. >arm 4 | oi/o/xa] pr TO I. 2037 : >gig vg |. 

17. ei/a A 025. i. 35. 104. 241. 632**. 1957. 2020. 2023. 
2038. 2040. 2041. 2067 al Pr gig vg eth : a\\ov $ 2019 s 1 arm 4 - tt 
bo sa : + aX.Xov 172. 250. 2018 : > 046. 18 (-35. 632**. 2020. 
2040). 2037 al pl Tyc s 2 arm 2 | eKpaev AN 025. 18 (- 18. 2040) 
al pl Tyc Pr gig vg s arm : cKpa^ev 046. 18. 181. 2040 : Kpawv 
bo | $<avr) A 025. 35. 175. 250. 468**. 617. 620. 632**. 1934- 

2020. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 a l pl P F gig V S P r v ^ 4^- l %- 
61. 82. 104. 325. 336. 337. 386. 456. 468*. 632*. 920. 1849. 
2004 al Tyc arm 4 - a bo sa | Xeywj/ >35*. 617 | 7rao-t TOIO- opv.] 
iravTa Ta opvea arm 2 bo | ?rao-t > 2040 S 1 | T. TTCT. fv /xco*.] caeli 
Pr | TTCTO/X,. AS 046. 18 (-456) al pl : TTCTW/X. 025. 456 al | 
o-vva.x.6r)T > 051. I. 2037. 2038 Pr | TO (TOV 91. no. 385. 452. 

2021. 2041) 8et7ri/ov TO /xeya (tr after 6eov 920) AN 025. 046. 35. 
(91. no). 325. 337. (45 2 )- 45 6 - 6 3 2 - (9 20 )- l8 49- 2004. (2021). 
2040. (2041). 2067 al : TOV SetTTv. TOV /xcyav 18. 172. 175. 201. 
242. 250. 314. 336. 386. 468. 617. 620. 1918. 1934. 2016. 2017. 
2018. 2O2O | TO /x,eya TOV 0.] TOV ^aeyaXov 0eov 051. I. 2019. 2023. 
2036. 2037. 2038 arm 2 - a eth | TO //,eya >gig |. 

18. Kai crapK. x 1 ^- > * 2023 arm a | o-apKao- 3 > Tyc | K. T. 
Ka0. . . . -n-avTcov >6i7 | aimov 025. 046. 17 (-617). 250. 2037. 
2038. 2067 al pl : avTOto- N : avrovo- A 61. 69 | crapKao- 5 ] pr Tao- 18. 
632. 1849 | TravTcoi/] aTravTcov 046* : +TWV 1934 >l. 2067 S 1 bo | 
Te >i. 314. 2067 | Kai 7 As 025. 17 (-632**. 1849. 2020) al pl 



XIX. 19-21.] AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY 361 

eAev$epo)i/ re /cat oWAooi/ /cat //.t/fpuv KGLL p,eyaAa>y. 19. Kat ctSov TO 
OrjpLov KOL TOVS y?ao-iAts T^S yr}s /cat TO. <ny>aTety/,aTa avrwy <rvvr]y- 
/xeVa Trotryo-at TOV Tro Xe/xov ^tera TOV KaOrj^evov eVt TOV ITTTTOV /cat 
/xera TOV o-TpaTCv /xaTOS avTov. 20. Kat ctnao-Or) TO 6r}pwv, Kat 
r ^tT\ivTov~^ 6 ^ev8o7rpoc/>7?T?7<j 6 Tronjcras Ta o-^/xeta eVooTrtoi/ avTOt>, 6 
ev ots 7rXdvr)o-v TOVS Aa/JcWa? TO ^apayyota TOV Orjpiov Kat TOV? auroi} 
Trpoo-KWOiWas ^ T ^i/ C t/coVaT avToC ^WI/TCS IjSX^Orjcrav ot 8uo et? T^I/ T eu 
AI/AV^V TOV Trvpos T^S KatoyaeV^s eV ^etw. 21. Kat ot AOITTOI aTrtKTai/- 
0770-aj/ cj T^ po^aia TOV Ka^ry/xeVou eVt TOV tTTTrov, TT? cgeXOovo-y CK 
- avTOv, Kat Travra. TO. opvea -- 



TycPrgigvgs bo : >o 4 6. 61. 69. 241. 429. 522. 632**. 1849. 
2020 | /uKpwv AN 025. i. 172. 175. 242. 250. 617. 1934. 2018. 
2019. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al mu : +TC 046. 17 (-175. 
617. 1934. 2040) al mu | /xeyaAon/] pr TOH/ N 2040 |. 

19. Ot]pioi ] + Kat Ta o-TpaTev/xttTa avrov s 1 | /c. T. ^Sao-.] tr after 
yrjo- 920 | yryo-] oiKOv/xej/^tr 620 | K. Ta orpaT.] KaTa Ta TpaT. (sic) 
X* | avTwv 025. 046. 17 (-456?. 620?. 920?. 2040?). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 alP 1 Tyc Pr gig vg s arm 1 - 4 - a bo : avrou A 314. 
2016 arm 2 sa | o-w^y/zera] tr after TroAe/xoi/ 2040 | TOV AN 046. 
W (-35- I 75- 386. 617. 2020. 2040) a^ 1 : > 025. i. 35. 175. 

250. 314. 386. 617. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP | l7T7rOv] + (TOv) 

ACVKOV Pr arm bo sa eth | /xeTa 2 > bo sa eth | TOV o-rpaT.] TWV 
o-Tpa.TtvfjLo.Tutv s arm |. 

20. Kai 2 >Pr | /XCT avTov (/x,Ta TOVTOV i. 2023*. 2037. 2038) 
o K (i). 35. 69. 432. 1957. 2020. 2023**. 2036. (2037. 2038). 
2041. 2067 (Pr) vg s 1 arm 2 - 4 : ot (o 025 arm 2 ) ^T avTov ( + K<U 
bo) o A (025). 2021 (arm 2 bo) : ot /*CT avTov ot (>424) 424 
arm 1 : o /xe T avTov 046. 17 (-35. 2020). 250 al? 1 gig s 2 | \j/cv8.] 
^evSoTrpo^Tttt 424 arm 1 | ev oto- cTrAav. . . . T. CIK. avT.] quibus 
signis seducti erant adorare imaginem bestiae et qui acceperant 
caragma illius Pr | Aa^oi/Tao-] TrAavw^Tao- 1 7 7. 1 80. 33 7 TO x<xpay/xa] 
Ta xpay/xaTa456 | Tovo-Trpoo-Kw.] ot Trpoo-KwowTeo- gig : Twirpoa- 
KVI/OVVTWV S 1 | TYJV Koj/a N* 920. 1918. 2020 : Tfj etKoi/t AN C 025. 
17 (-920. 2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 aP 1 : TO X apay/xa 046 j 
4a)i/Tcr] Kat KaTefirjo-av Kat s 1 : pr Kat s 2 : TOV WI/TOO- arm 1 - 2 - 4 : 
^wi/Tao- bo : >Pr | cfi\r)6r)o-av] fiXyOrjo-ovTai I. 2019. 2O2O. 2038. 
2067 : c/?aAov arm bo sa | ot Svo] tr after ^etw 920 : 



arm . .0. . TOV0 . vo b sa et h : > 45 6 gig arm 4 
T-TJV Kato/x. Trvpt Kat bo j Tf]<r Kato/xev^Q- AN 025 Pr vg : TTJV 
Kato/xei/^j/ 046. 17 al onm gig bo | cv (9eto)] / TW ^eto> i. 172. 175. 
617. 2018. 2019. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038 al : et in sulphur gig : 
Kat $eiov s 1 : igne et sulphore Pr (cf bo) |. 

21. popfxua] + avTov 2040 | ITJTTOV] + (TOV) ACVKOV Pr eth | eK 1 ] 
920 | opvea] epTTCTa 617 |. 



a:ro 



iv rrj 



362 AIIOKAAYM2 IOANNOY [XX. 1-3. 

RESTORED ORDER OF THE TEXT. 
CHAPTERS XX. 1-3, XXI. 9 -XXII. 2, XXII. 14. 15- *7- 

XX. i. Kcu ctSov ayyeXov Kara/SatvovTa CK TOV oupavou, 
evoi/ra rrjv K\eiv rr)<s a/3vcr(rov 



2. KCU KpaVr?o-v TOV Spa/covTa, 6 otjfus 6 
os eo-riv Sia/SoXos /cat 6 
avrov 



3. /cat /3aXev auToy ts T)V a/3vo-crov, 

Kat e/cXeto-ev Kat eV^paytcrcv 7rdVa> avrov, 
tva /x-^ TrXav^crr; ert ra e^^T/, 
axpt Te\crOrj ra x^ia err;- 

/xera ravra Set Avfl^at avrw /xt/cpoi/ 



xx. 1. ayyeXoi ] pr aXXov K c 2017. 2050 Tyc s 1 arm 1 - 2 - a sa eth : 
+ aAAov 336. 620. 1918 | CK T. ovp. > K* I K\etv] /cXaSa (-ai/ 
620). i. 104. 620. 2037. 2067 al | aXvo-iv /xey.] aXvcreo-tv /xey. * : 
aX^o-ts /xeyaXry Tyc : ~ bo sa eth | /xey. >Pr | 7ri T. x/> A 046. 
18 (-2020). 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl : ev TT; xP l 2O2 T Y C 
Pr gig vg s arm bo sa eth |. 

2. o o<|>ia o apxaiocr A (s ?) : TOV o<iv TOV apxaiov X 046. 18 
a |omn . S erpentem (pr ilium Pr : anguem Tyc) antiquum Tyc Pr 
gig vg : TOV apx<uov 2036 | oor A 046. 18 al omn : o N 2050 | CO-TIV] 
cognominatus est Pr | Sta^oXoo- A 046. 18 (-2020. 2050). 250. 
2037. 2038. 2067 arm 4 : pr o N 69. 498. 2020. 2036. 2050 arm a 
bo sa | K. o o-ar. > 2050 | Kat 2 >bo sa eth | o 8 As 046. 35. 
175- 250. 325. 337. 456. 617. 1934. 2020 al mu : >o5i. i. 18. 
386. 620. 632. 920. 1849. 2004. 2037. 2038. 2040. 2067 al | (o) 
o-ttTavao- AX I. 175. 617. 632**. 2016. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040. 
(2050) Tyc Pr gig Vg S 1 arm bo : +o TrXavwv TYJV OLKOV/JLCVYJV oXrjv 
(>6i. 385) 046. 051. 18 (-175- 6l 7- 632**. 2040. 2050). 250. 
2067 al pl S 2 | x 1 ^- eT7 7 * e /3 a ^- atrrov >tf |. 

3. Kai . . . apucrcroi >arm 4 eth | cKXeio-cv] cS^o-ev ( + avrov i) 
I. 181. 2036. 2037. 2038 : eSryaev Kat KXto~V arm 4 : +TO oTo/xa 
avrrjo- bo sa | (rc/)payto-ev] + o-c/>paytSt eth | e-Travw arrow] e/x/u,vwo- 
avrov A | TrXavrja-r] (-cret N) AN I. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2040 al : 
TrXava (->/ 2050) 046. 18 ( - 2040). 250. 2067 al pl | CTI] tr after 
tOvrj s 1 : >i. 69. 141 Tyc bo eth | Ta 1 ] >35 : pr TravTa s 1 | a. x pi 

. en) > S 1 | ax* 01 ] a XP Lcr av 2O 5 I TeXco-^r/] TeXeo-^wo-i 141. 
241. 386. 2067 | Ta 2 > 051. I. l8l. 2036. 2067 I /xTa AN 046. 



XXI. 9-11.] AIIOKAAYvMS K2ANNOY 363 



xxi. 9. Kat r)\6tv ets K TWV CTTTO, dyyeAwi/ T<OJ/ 
7rra <taAa9, f TCOV ye/AovTwi/ f TCOV CTTTO, 7rA?7ycov TOJV cV^aroov, Kat 
*AaA>70-ei> fj.T /AOV Aeya)V Aevpo, Seta> o-ot TT)V vvfjL<f>-rjv [TT?I/ yvvaiKa] 
TOV apviov. IO. /cat dTnyveyKey tie cv 7ri/v/xaTi TTI opos tieya Kat 
vij/rjXoVj Kat ISet^ei/ teoi TT)V TroAiv T^/V dytav lepovcraAr/yu, Kara- 
f3aivovcra.v CK rot) ovpavov O.TTO TOV Ocov, II. l^ovorav T?)V 6oav TOV 
6 <oj(rr7p avr^s o/x,otos 



18 ( - 35. 175. 617. 1934. 2050) al mu Tyc Pr gig vg(- v > s 1 : pr Kai 
i. 35. 175. 617. 1934. 2050 al vg v arm bo eth : +8c 385. 429 s 2 | 
Set Av^. avr.] XvOrjo-erai s 2 : Avcret (eAvo-av arm 2 ) avr. arm 1 - 2 | XvO. 
avr. A 046. 18 (-35. 175. 617. 2020) al mu : ~ N i. 35. 175. 
250. 617. 1957. 2016. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
Pr gig vg | Av^vatJ Avo-at Tyc s 1 | [UKpov XP OVt ] 20 5 : P r CTt 
bo sa |. 

xxi. 9. eur] o Trpcorocr 172. 2018. 2020 | CK > i. 172. 205. 

20l8. 2020. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 CTTTtt 2 > gig Vg I T(0l/ 

ye/xovTO>v A^* 025. 181. 2036. 2038. 2050 : rtov ye/xovcrwv N c : racr 
ye/xoucrao- I. 104. 2037 (s) : ye/zovcracr 046. 18 ( 2050). 61. no. 
385. 1957. 2016. 2023. 2037. 2067 al mu : plenas Pr gig vg : 
c^ovo-ao- 2018 | Twi/ 4 AX 025. i. 35. 104. 172. 205. 632**. 2018. 
2023. 2037. 2050. 2067 al s arm 4 bo : > 046. 18 (-35. 205. 
632"**. 2050). 250. 2038 al mu | Kat 2 > bo sa | ScupoJ + Kat vg 
arm 2 4 i + wa. bo sa | rr/vywaiKa (pr Kat arm 1 - 2 - : + Kat 42. 2017) 
placed after wfi^v AN 025. 35. 172. 218. 250. 2018. 2020 
Tyc Pr gig vg s (arm 1 - 2 - a ) bo sa eth : tr after apviov 051. i. 205. 
2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 al : tr before rr/v wfj,<fj. 046. 18 ( 35. 
205. 2020). (42). 104. no. 385. 2016. (2017). 2023 alP 1 arm 4 |. 

10. airTji/eyKei ] r/i/eyKev 2050 : duxit Pr : tulit gig : sustulit vg I 
cv 7rvev/x. > Pr | 7rt AK 172. 2oi8. 2050 i err 025. 046. 18 al pl I 
opoo-] opovo- 2020 I Kat 2 > 205 bo I Kat 3 > arm 2 bo sa | /xot] /xe 
149. 325. 620. 1934 | TroAii/ Ax 025. 046. 18 (-35. 175. 205. 
617) al pl Tyc Pr gig vg s arm 1 - 2 - 4 bo eth I + TTJV /x-eyaA^v 051. i. 
35. 175. 205. 250. 617. 1957. 2016. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2041. 2067 alarm" | T>yv 2 ] Kat 051. i. 35. 175. 205. 250. 617. 
2016. 2036. 2037. 2038 arm a | CK T. ovp. Ax 025. 046. 18 ( - 18. 
175. 617. 2004) Tyc Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : a^o r. ovp. 18. 175. 
218. 250. 617. 2004. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2039 | OTTO T. 6. AN 025. 
i. 35. 104. 205. 241. 632**. 1957. 2020. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 
2050. 2067 al Tyc Pr gig vg s 1 arm bo eth : CK T. 0. 046. 18 
( 35. 205. 386. 632**. 2020. 2050). 250 al pl : >6i. 201. 386 |. 

11. exouaor . . . 0eou] >A 522 : TTJV <a)Tiowai/ avrrjv 2050 : 
r) etrrtv ayta rj ye/xei So^rjcr bo | r. 8otav] + a7ro X gig : lumen 
claritatis Pr | T. ^eov] + Kat i. 104. 205 Pr S 1 arm 1 - a (bo) : + ev 
rj rj yvvrj TOV apviov r] avoo lepovo-aAry/x viro 6eov KOo-fM-rjOrjo-fTou KOI 

743. 1075. 2067 : > arm 4 | o <j>uo-Tr)p avr.] cocr 



3^4 AIIOKAAY^ES IOANNOY [XXI. 12-13. 

Kpvo-TaAAi ofTi. 12. exoucra Tei^os /xe ya Kat v{f/rj\6v, e^ovo-a 
TTvAiovas SwSeKa, Kat e:rt rot? TrvAeoo-tv dyyeAovs ScoSe/ca, Kal ovo/xara 
eVtyeypa/x/xeVa, a ecrriv ra oi/o/xara TCUJ/ SwSeKa <vAoov vtaij/ lo-aTA 



13. aTTo draroArJs TruAaW? Tpets, Kat airo poppa 7rvAcoi/es T/oets, /cat 

<axr 7-770- avy^or s 2 : ei/ avrry (770- TO arm 4 : + yv arm 1 ) <GHT 
arm | o/xotoo-] + CO-TU/ Pr : >bo arm 1 | At(9. TI/X.] At0ov (-wv arm 1 ) 
Tt/xtov (-wj/ arm 1 ) arm 1 bo : Attfoto- rt/xtoicr arm 2 - a : > arm 4 | 
Tt/xiwTaTw] TI/XIW gig vg s 1 | wo- At<9.] tr after tao-TriSi arm 4 : >O5I. 
* 35*- 94- I0 4- 181. 205. 241. 632**. 2020. 2038. 2050. 2067 
arm 2 : coo- <o>o- bo | /cpuo-raAAiorrt AN 18 (-18. 337. 617. 
632*. 1934. 2020. 2050) : Kpvo-raAtoi/Ti 025. 046. r. 18. no. 172. 
337- 3 8 5- 49 8 - 5 22 - 6l 7- 632*. 1934. 2018. 2020. 2036. 2037. 
2038. 2050 : sicut crystallum (cristallo gig) gig vg : refulgenti 
in modum cristalli Pr : " crystal-seeming (-gleaming arm 1 : >arm 4 ) 
and (> arm 4 ) luminous (living arm 2 - a ) " arm ]. 

12. exouaa 1 ] c^ofTi N : exovcrav 172. 2018 Tyc : +re I. 2037. 
2067 : et habebat (-et Pr) Pr vg | v^Aoi/] latum Pr | e^ovo-a 2 ] 
exovo-av 104. 172. 2018. 2050 al Tyc : e^oj/rao- N* : pr /cat 2036. 
2037 : Kat 2067 bo : o e^et Pr : Kat et^e arm 1 - 2 - a eth | ScoSc/ca 1 ] ift 
046. 35. 205. 337 | K. e7ri r. TrvA. ayy. SwScKa > A 2050 vg f arm 4 | 

CTTt TOtO- 7Ti;AcOO-tV 025. 046. 18 al fer6 Omn \ 7Tt TOVO" TTvAwi/aO- N 94 : 

in portas ( + habens gig) Pr gig | ayy.] angulous Pr vg a - c - v : pr 
TOW bo | Sw8e/ca 2 175. 617. 1934. 2020 : Se/caSuo 18 ( 35. 175. 
205. 617.^1934. 2020). 104. no. 172. 201. 498. 522. 2018. 2023. 
2024 : t/3 N 046. 35. 205 | oi/o/xara 1 ] + avrwi/ K s 1 | 7rtyeypa/x/xeva] 
yeypa/x/xeva gig vg c - d - f - v S 1 : eyyeypa/x/iei/a (ery- 2050) 94. 2050. 
cf. inscripta vg a - \ a co-riv . . . lo-pa^A > arm a | a eortv > Pr 



arm 



ra oj/o/xara A s : tr after lo-pa^A 2050 : oj/o/xara (o^o/xa bo) 



046. 18 (-35. 205. 2050) al mu gig vg arm 4 bo : >K 025. i. 35. 
205. 241. 432. 1918. 1957. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2041. 2067 
Pr arm 2 | SwSe/ca 3 ] t/3 s 046. 35. 205 | VLUV AX 046. 18 ( - 35. 205. 
386. 920. 2050). 250. 2038 al mu : pr ran/ 025. 051. i. 35. 104. 
1957. 2023. 2041. 2050 al arm 4 : >i8i. 201. 241. 386. 517. 
920. 2017. 2036. 2037. 2067 s 1 arm 1 - 2 -" | lo-pa^A] pr rov 201. 
205. 386. 2017. 2036. 2067 |. 

13. amTo\T]<T A 025. i. 205. 2017. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2050. 
2067 S : ai/aroAwv 046. 18 (-205. 2020. 2050). 250 al | Kat 1 * 2 - 3 
> 051. i. 205 arm 1 - 4 -* Tyc Pr | Kat 2 - 3 > 2037. 2038^ 2067 | 
^oppa (-pao- 2050 : /?opa 920) . . . I/OTOV . . . Svoyxwv N c 025. 
046. 18 (-386). 250. (2037). 2038. (2067) al fere omn Tyc Pr gig 
vg s arm 4 -" : ySoppa . . . ySoppa . . . VOTOV K* : ygoppa . . . 
Svoyxoov . . . vorou (/xeo-^/x^ptao" i) A I : SVO-/XCOF . . . ySoppa . 
VOTOV 386. 1957 arm 1 2 -" : VOTOV . . . /?oppa . . . SvoyxaH/ 522 : 
VOTOV . . . 8vo-/xo>v . . . floppa (bo) : + Kat a?ro /xecnj/x/Spiao- TrvAw- 
V<T Tpeto- 2037. 2067 | Tpeto- 1 - 2 - 3 ] y 046. 35. 337 |. 



XXI. 14-17.] AnOKAAY^a IfiANNOY 365 



0.7TO VOTOV 7TvXu>VS TpClS, KO.I CLTTO SuO^/AWI/ TTuXtJOVCS TpeTs. 1 4. Kat TO 

TIX? Tr}s TroXews ex<i>v $e/xeXtous StoScKa, Kat CTT* avriov SwSe/ca 
ovoLtara rcov SooStKa aTroo-ToXwi/ TOV dpi iou. 15- Kai o XaXaiv XICT 
e/xou e?x v ^^rpov KaXa/xov xP v o~w> ^ a ptrpw?) TT/V iroA.iv 



KCU 



Kat TO TCIXOS ai/n}?. 1 6. Kat ^ iroXts TeTpaywvos 
Ketrai, /cat TO /XT/KOS auT?}? ocrov Kat TO TrXaVos. *at e/xerp^crev T^V 
TroXtv T(3 KaXa/xu> eVt ^TaSt ovs 1 StuStKa x*^ l< ^ 0)V To ^ K 5 ^a 1 T 
Kat TO v^os avT^5 to-a eariv. T 7- Kat e/xerp^o-ev TO 



14. TO Teixoa] muri Pr arm 1 | e^cuv A 025. 046. i. 104. 498. 

522. 1849. 20I 7- 20 3 8 : X OI/ ^ OS 1 - 18 (~ l8 49- 202 - 20 5)- 
250. 2037. 2067 al pl : habens gig vg : xe 2020 arm a : habent Pr : 
>S* 2050 arm 1 - 2 - 4 | OepeX. SwScKa] ~ 149. 1948 bo eth : Tpet/xe- 
Xtovo- Tpeto- 2050 | ScoSeKa 1 ] t/3 N 046. 35. 205. 337 | K. evr. auT > 
I*. 104 | 7T avTcov] in ipSO gig : pr yeypa/xyxei/a (-ov bo) bo eth | 
ScoSeKa ovo/x,. . . . apvtov >2O5<D | SwSeKa 2 ] t^ (pr TWV 35*) 046. 
35**. 205. 337 : SeKaSuo 93. 94 : > I*. 104 Pr bo | ovo/xara] 
ovo/xa bo | SwSeKa 3 ] i K 046. 35. 325. 337 : >Tyc s 1 arm 1 - 2 | TOV 
apvtov] pr Kat Tyc Pr : TOV vtov s 1 . 

15. Kat 1 > 2050 arm 4 | perpov KaXa/xov AX* 025. 046. 18 
( - 2050). 250. 2067 al pl Tyc gig s 2 arm 4 : harundinem (auream) 
ad mensuram Pr : /xeTpov KaXa/xov c 517. 2016. 2050 cf men- 
suram harundineam vg : /xcTpou xaXa/xov s 1 : /xeTpov > i. 2036. 

2037. 2038 arm 2 - a bo eth : KaXa/xoi/ >arm 1 /xeTp-^o-^] tteTp^o-ci 

046. 104. (2O5O). 2067 | K. T. TTVX. ttVTT/O- > S 1 arm 2 | K. TO TeiX0- 

(Ta Ttx^ Pr arm bo eth) aw^o- (>vg) Ax 025. 175. 205. 617. 
632. 1934. 2020. 2050 Pr gig vg s arm bo eth : >046. 051. 18. 

35- 3 2 5- 337- 3^6. 45 6 - 62 - 9 20 - l8 49- 200 4 al pl j. 

16. auTT)o-] tr before To-paycovoo- N : >arm 1 | Kat 3 A 2050 Pr 
vg s 2 arm 2 - 4 - a bo eth : >K 025. 046. 18 (-2050). 250. 2037. 
2067 al pl gig s 1 arm 1 | TrXaToo-j -f avrycr s 1 arm | TW KaXa/xco AX 
046. 18 (-35. 175. 205. 617) : pr v 025. i. 35- 175. 181. 205. 
250. 617. 2016. 2017. 2036. 2037**. 2038. 2067 : harundine 
(pr de vg) Pr gig vg sa : > bo arm | c?rt] per gig vg : ab Pr 
o-raSiovo- (-ov S c ) A (N c ) 046. 18 ( - 205). 250 al pl : o-TaSicov * 
025. i. 205. 2018. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 | StoSeKa Atf 025. 
2050 : if? 046. i. 35. 205. 632**. 2018. 2038 : 8eKa8vo 18 ( 35- 
205. 632**. 2050). no. 201. 385. 498. 522. 2016 al ma | x t ^ ia <^ / 
Ax 025. 35*. 632**. 2020. 2050 Pr gig vg s 1 bo : pr Kat 046 : 
+ Su>S<:Ka (ip 046. 35**). 046. 18 (-35*. 632**. 2020. 2050). 
250 al mu (s 2 ) : >arm 1 | TO XI^KOO-] /X^KOUO- bo sa : pr Kat 2020 s 2 : 
+ atm7o- s 1 arm | TrXaToo-] +avr^o- 2050 s 1 arm 2 - 4 - a bo sa eth | K. 
T. v\l/o<r >arm 2 | avTryo- 2 >2O5- 2050 Pr gig arm |. 

17. |XTpT]a (-Tpto-ev 620. 2050) AX 025. 35. 620. 2037. 

2038. 2050. 2067 al p Pr vg c - d - v s arm : e^erprjOrj gig vg a - f - g bo : > 
046. 18 (-35. 620. 2050). 250 al mu | Tet X oo-] x^oo- X : muros 



366 AIIOKAAY^IS IOANNOY XXI. 18-19. 



airr75 eKarov TCfrcrepa/covra To-o-apeoi/ irrj^wv, /xerpov dv^powrov, o 
ZCTTIV dyyeXou. 

1 8. /cat 77 IvSwfjLrjcris TOV TCI\OVS avr^s tao-Trts, 

Kat 77 TroXts xpvcriov Ka.0a.pov OJJLOLOV vaXu) Ka$ap<3* 

IQ. [Ol] OffJL\LOL TOV Tt^OVS T^S TToXewS TTaVTl Xl 0<l> Tl/XlO) 



6 $e//,e Xtos 6 7rpa>Tos iao~7ris, 6 ScvTtpos o-a7r<tpo9, 6 rptros 
XaXK^Scov, 

V gc. d. v | KaTO(/ T0 -crepaK. Tecro-.] 8 Kat eKaroi/ Teo-o-epaKoi/ra A : 



K : p/x8 046. i. 18. 35. 104. 325. 337. 456. 632. 920. 
2004. 2020 : nonaginto OCtO gig | retro-epa*.] Teo-crapa/covra 025. 
175. 205. 386. 617. 620. 1934 : o-epaKOi/ra (orapaKovra 2050) 
1849. 2050 | T(rcrapa)j/] reo-o-apto- ^tXtaSecr 2050 | TT^WV] TT^CWJ/ 
N : o-TaStwv arm a : >Pr bo | /u,erpoi/] /xerpw s 1 :/u,rpa (placed before 
7n7X wl/ 2 ) s2 bo | av$po)7Toi;] oupavov 2050 |. 

18. K. if) e^Swjji. TOU Tix-] in structura murus gig | rj l A^ c 025 
Tyc s arm 1 - 2 - 4 : rjv X* : rjv -q 046. 18. 250. 2037. 2038. 2067 al pl 
Pr vg bo | ei/Soyu?o-ior AK C 498. 2020 : ev 8w/xao-t X* cf gig : 
ej/Scocrio- 2050 : tv&o/uLrjo-io- 025. 046. 051. 18 ( 2020. 2050) al pl | 
avrrjo- > 175. 2050 Tyc arm 4 | tao-Trto-] ex lapide iaspidi Pr vg 
(arm 2 - 4 ) : pr too- bo : > Tyc [ XP V(r *<*#] XP V(ria) Ka-6ap< 2014. 
2034. 2036. 2042 vg : xp^nov (pr e/c Pr) KaOapov Pr s arm 1 - 2 - 4 | 
o/xotov] o/xota 051. i. 35. 205. 2036. 2038 Pr : pr Kat gig | vaXw 
At? 025. 046. 18. 175. 337. 456. 617. 920. 1934 : veXw (veXXw 
385. 498) 35. 205. 325. 386. 620. 632. 1849. 2004. 2020. 2050 
al pl | KaOapta >O25 | r; TroXio- xpwtoi/ . . . Kaflapco] civitas aurum 
mundum (purum gig) simile ( + et gig) vitro mundo (puro gig) 
Tyc gig : ipsa vero civitas ex (>vg) auro mundo similis vitreo 
(simile vitro vg) mundo Pr vg : ^ 71-0X10- ( + 0X77 arm 4 ) xp^o-tov 
Ka.0a.pov ofjLoiov (or ofjioia) vaXw Ka^apa> s arm 1 * 2> 4i a : "the city 
was wrought of gold pure like glass pure " bo : o/xota 77 TroXtcr wo- 
rjo- rj TTOL^O-LO- CQ-TL v ^pva-Lw Ka.Oa.pM eth |. 

19. 01 6ejAe\ioi A^ c 025. 046. 18 ( - 35). 250 al mu Tyc vg sa : 
pr Kat * i. 35. 104. 2018. 2023. 2036. 2037. 2038. 2067 s arm 
bo eth : pr ubi gig : + autem Pr | rryo- TroXewo-] + o/u>tw 2050 : > 
Pr | iravri XiO. TI/X.] omnia ex (ex omni Pr) lapide pretioso Tyc 
Pr : XiOoio- ri/uoio- S 1 : TTCLVTW XiQuv TI/UCOV arm | rt/xtw K^KOO-^-Y]- 
pievoi] ^205 | /ceKoor/x^ei/ot] -/xei/w 1849. 2OO 4 : >6l. 2050 Tyc 
Pr gig arm | o 0e/x. . . . iao-7no- > arm 4 | o ^e/xeXtoo-] pr Kat s 1 
arm 2 eth : +TOV retxovo- arm 1 - 2>a : >gig | Trpwroo-] to- K | o 3 ] pr 
Kat X Tyc S 1 arm 2 eth | o-a7r</>etpocr] cra/A7r<eipoo- 2017 : -fjpoo- 051. 
2020. 2050 : -tpoo- 025. 046. 2004 Pr vg gig bo : saffyrus Tyc | o 4 ] 
pr Kat X s 1 arm 2 eth. (Also before o 5 and ver. 20 o 1 - 9 K arm 2 
eth add Kat : s 1 except ver. 20 o 8 - 9 ) | rptroo-] / (also 8 e . . . 



XXI. 20-22.] AIIOKAAY*a K1ANNOY 367 

20. 6 TtVapTOS o-/x.dpay8os, 6 7re/x,7TTOS o-apSoVv, 6 IKTOS adpSiov, 
6 !/?So/zos XP^o-oAi^05, 6 oySoo? /8r/pvXXos, 6 evaros TOTra^iov, 
6 SeKaros XP vo " 7r P ao " os ^ caTOS va.KivOo<s t 6 



21. Kat ot SwSeKd TTuXwves SwScKa /Aapyaptrat, 

dva ets <?Kao-TOS Ttov TrvXwvwv ^v e evos /AapyaptVov" 

Kat 17 TrXaTeta TT}S TroXews XP vo " t/ov Ka6apov o>s vaXos Siauyrys. 



22. Kat vaov OVK etSov ev 

6 yap Kvptos, 6 0os 6 TravroKp droop, 6 vaos avrqs e<rriv, 
Kal TO dpviov <^7 /a/?a>TOS T^? Sta^Kr/s avr^s>.(^) 
(a) Lacuna restored by means of xi. 19. See vol. ii. 170 sq. 



t Ya - - 202 ) 4 6 min mu vg*- c : Kap X - 2018. 

2050 vg f - * v s 1 bo : KaXiScm/ s 2 : sardonius (-icus vg d ) Tyc vg d |. 

20. ff|Aapap8o<r] acr/xap- 2050 | o-ap8oi/v|] o-apStovv 149. 1934 
aP : cmX8ovv 2024 : o-ap8tovv| (-Siwf 2050) A 2050 | o-apStov] 
o-apSioo- i. 35. 104. 205. 2020. 2037. 2038. 2067 alP Pr vg v : 
sardinus (-onium Tyc : -inon bo) Tyc vg v bo : o-aptSov (o-apbov s ) 
s \ /fypvXXoo- minP 1 vg s : ^piAXocr A 385 (Tyc) Pr gig : ^pvX- 
Xtoo- (-iw 025 : pipvXX- 046 : ^ptXX- i) 025. 046. 051. i. 61. 104. 
175. 617. 2016. 2036. 2037. 2038** : fapvlXr)* 2050 : W AXocr 
(^vptXX- 2023 bo) 149. 2023 bo | evaroor A 046 mm? 1 : evvaroo- 
025. 051. 35* 205. 241- 242. 385. 522. 632. 2016. 2023. 2037. 
2038 2050. 2067 al mu : *ff N | TOTTO.&OV] TOTraStov N* (S 2 ) : TOTrav- 
Ctov (rcwravStov s 1 ) 025 s 1 : iraf w 45^ : topaxinos Pr : dopation 
bo | xpvo-oTrpao-oo-] -ov A : -too- N c : -oxnxr 104 Pr vg*- * : -tvocr 42. 
3 2 5 5 1 ?- 62 - I 9 1 ^ ^y c : 7ra<ro (- rao- 00 " 49^ : 7rao " ro0 61. I 4 I - 
2024). 61. 82. 141. 337- 385- 429* 45 6 - 498. 5 22 - l8 49- 2024 : 
chrysoliprassus vg f - v | vaKLvOoa-] wuuvOivov Tyc (bo) : lacmctus 
gig I aacewrroo- A 025. 046. IIO. 175. 3 2 5- 456. 617. 620. 2004. 
2038* al mu : -u/ocr X* : a/iedvcroo- K c 051. 18 ( - 175. 3 2 5- 45 6 - 6l 7- 
2004). I. 104 al pl : a/xv^eo-oo- s 1 |. 

21. 01 8woKa iruXw^a] duodecim portas Pr : ideo Tyc | 
/xapy. >Pr | 8a)S Ka 2 >N* 2030 bo | /xapyapmu] + ei<rtv Vg | avaj 
iva A 2018 : pr Kat 456 : pr cur s 1 | o-] +Kai 025 Tyc vg s : > 
205 I Tu>v7rvX. . . . /xapyapn-ov > bo | T. TrvX. ^ >Pr | irvWwvJ 
TrvXwv 498. 2020 : +wv X* | ef] pr cocr 025. 046. 61. 2036 | TrXar. 
T. TToX.] plateas eius Pr | xp^o-. KO&.\ ex auro hmpido (puro s 
arm 1 - 2 - *) Pr s 1 arm 1 - 2 - a | wo-] Kat 051 Tyc | vaXoo- (-ov 205) AN 
025. 046. 175. 205. 456. 6l 7 : veXoo- (veXX- 385. 498. 2020, 
min pl I 8tavy>7cr] Stavyeo- 205 !. 

22. vaov OUK eiSov] OVK ctSov vaov bo sa eth | cv avrryj cv avro) 
140 : >eth I o yap] on o N* : o yap o N c | Kvptoo- o (&