(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A critical and historical review of Fox's Book of martyrs shewing the inaccuracies, falsehoods ..."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



'if' 



V 



c 



t 



;a 



A 

CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL 

REVIEW 

OF 

^oKr^iS %mt. of ^atrttf 0, 

SHBWING THS 

INACCURACIES. FALSEHOODS, AND MISREPRESENTATIONS 

IK THAT 

WORK or DECEPTION. 



WILLUM EUSEBIUS ANDREWS. 



Conlian; 



FRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY W. E. ANDREWS, 

3, Chaptbrhoubb Couht, St. Paul'i Churchvard, 



1824. 
M3 



CONTENTS. 



Vtrodoctory Remarks . - . . .1 
Aftaii, first martyr in England . . 98 
Albigenses, an account of . . . 230 
Arianism. a Heresy .... 131 
Bvsii (Saint) on the authority and marks 

of the Church . . . .166 

Pastors of the Churcfi . . .167 

Private interpretation j . ibid.' 

Apostolical tradition . . . 168 

Snprcnwcy of the Fbpe . . 169 

Transubstantiation and the Mass . l7j^ 

Fasting and honoaring saints • 174 

ReligioHs ceremonies • . • l7l 

Confession «... ibid. 

Purgatory .... ibid. 

Invocation of Angels and Saintft . ITS 

Beccold (John) fVenks of . . .364 

Berengarius« his doctrine . . . 2D7 

Bmis Peter, his doctrine . . . S12 

Burniogof the city of London .« .33 

Calvin, seditious doctrhies of . . . 997 

Catholic Church, authority and works of 

67. 90, 166. 167 
unity and visibility of 

39,67,90,167 
tlie interpreter of Scrip- 

ture . , .69, 91 
apostolical succession 
and sqpreraacy of 

90, 169, 170 



Celibacy of the Clergy .... SOD 
Christianity, progress of ... 185 
Confession of Sins . , • . • 78 
Constantine the Great . . . .109 
speech to the senate . . 114 
Conversioi/ of England to'Cath'oljcism . 57 
Crhne, state Of m England . . . S87 
Cyprian (Saint) on -the Authority and . 

Marks of th« Church. . . 90 
Unity and Visibility of ditto ibid. 
Apostolical succession and 

power of ditto . . ibid. 
Placing human reason in com* 

petition with revelation . . 91 
Celibacy and the Mass • ibid. 



Deism ^xHmined . . . .. , 4A 
Deposing doctrine exploded . . .191 
Divinity of Chilst believed by the primi- 
tive fathers 39 

Dominic, (Saint) pretended artifices of £40 
Edict of Nantes . . ^ . .409 
Elizabeth. (Queen) Character of . t25, iJUt 
Faith not to be kept with Heretict ex- 
ploded S50 

Forgery peculiar to Protestantism . . S76 
France, Massacre in .... 295 
Freedom of Conscience under Henry 8th v 

and Elizabeth ... • • • $ 
Freetliinkers. petition of ... tii^ 
Germanic church, transactions of . .18$. 
Gregory Nazianscn (Saint) on the au- 

% tbority and marks of the Chuicfa 167 
Private interpretation . ibid. 

* . • 169 
170 
171 
17f 
S13 
I5t 



Apostolical tradition • , 

Supremacy of the Pope . ' 

Concession .... 

Invocation of angels and saints 

Henry of Toulouse . . 

Heresy of Arianism admitted by Fox 

Heresy of Monothelism admitted by Fox 178 

Hugonots* origin of the name . . 30O 

seditious movements of. . 301 

civil wars and criieltie* of JOH 

doctrine of some of them SSf 

Huss, Life and sufferings of . . 33^ 

Ignatius (Saint) on the Divini^ of Christ 39 

Unity of Faith .. . . ibid. 

Transubstontiatiou . . .40 

Inquisition, account of . . . 253 

established in Protettant conn- 

tries . , • . S61 

Ireland. Spoliation in • . • 95 

Irensu» (Saint) on Preserving Troth . 45 

on the Authority and Viiibility 

of the Church . . .67 
Private interpretation of Scrip- 
ture . . . . .69 
Tradition*. . . . .70 
the Mass and Transubstantiatioo 71 
Justin (Saint) Martyr, Apology of « . 40 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Justin (Saint) Martjr, testimony ia favour 
^ Qf Transubstantiation . • 49 
the sacrifice of the Mass, and Di- 
IF inily of Christ *' . " • 50i 
Kohlmannon the genuineness of Miracles 175 
Lawrence (Saint) in favour of the Mass . 86 
Liturgy in the Sctavonian tongue . • 331 
Lutlier, his disposition .... 371 
Luthei*, seditious doctrines of . . 296 
Maboinetanisniy rise of . . . . 184 
Mass, sacrliSce of ' . ' . 71, 91, 170, 329 
Massacre jn France .... 395 
Miracle oC the l^iundering Legion . . 5S 
Miraculous prevention ot the rebuilding 
^ of Jerusalem ''' i • * .' - . . l52 
Mufa^le in proof of the Divinity of Christ 173 
Missionaries (Modern) unsucceissful . 396 
Monblhelish),- a' Heresy ; . '• ..178 
Iffode of preserving TrutH .'. .' .6 
Modern Christianity ^ • • . 401 
l^unper, actions' of . ' • . . . 963 
Netherlands, outrages coinmitted in • 375 
0*Neil, (Rev. Mr.)'ittfferingfl'of, under. 

Orange inquisitors ' . . .' ... 271 
drigtih on Bibfe reading . ' . .' • .84 
Parson's staieinent of Fdx'a lies .. .10 
Penal Code agaihsf Catholics ' . ' . . 290 
Pers^cutioiis (pretended) in France • 53 
PersetutioAof the Apostles, &c. :. ' . 14 
* ' fi^st under Nero . ' \[ . ^ 
' second under IJIomltian. ' ; 28 
third under the Roman Em- 
perors '. ,'. • • .33 
fourth under the same . . 42 
fifth underihe same . . . 63 
sixth and seventh under ditto 74 
eighth under the same . . 84 
ninth under the same '. . 94i 
tenth under the same • • 102 
of the Christians in Persia . 129 
by Julian (he' lipostate . . 145 
by the Asians . • . 190 
from the eighth to the teatb . 
' cetttnry .. . ' .' . 186 
from the eleventh to the six* 
leenth Century . . , ,. 199 



Page. 
Persecution of the \Val4enses • .205 
oftheEarlof^oulouse .234 
iiV France previous to and 

during the Civil war . . .249 
hi foreign countries during 
. the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries.^ . . 295 
in Bohemia <and Germany • 330 
general in Germany . . 360 
in the Netherlands . . 3!(5 
in Lithuania^ . , ^ 383 
in China and Japan . , .^ 387 
of the Protestants in CouiV; 

tries not before described , 403 
of the Prot^aiits in France 
durgig the sixteepth and 
seventeenth centuries • 408 
in Abyssinia . . • - • 403 
pragbe, (Jerome of) X^e and sufferings 352 
Press corrupted. . • . . -. 7 
Progress of Christianity in the firbt ceo- 

tuiy . . ., , . . /. 2 
Public Ofunton appealed to in favour of 

Truth ." .' . .' . . • 3 
Quietists. . . . 1 . .407 
Reformers, mode used to propagate thei^p 

doctrines - . * ., • ' • >• f 362 
Reformation, dreadful evib of . •• .' .»:373 
Revenues ' of ibe^ Church, how «pp)C<^; 

priated • • •. . • , .• #.195 
Storlc, actions of . -. . • < • ^ • 363 
Tertttllian ou Bible reading • , .83 
Tortures inflicted on the Irish • ' . IS77 
Tradition , . . . .48* 168, 169 
Trans^bstantiation . . « 40,50,91*170 

Treaty of Limerick ' 411 

Trent, Council of . . . . . 368 

Unity of Faith. ..... 39 

Vengeance of God on the first Reformers 120 
Virgin Mary ought to be worshipped, aU 
lowed by Fox .' . . . .179 

Waldenses, pretended Persecutions of . 205 
tenets of* •' . . . ^6 
Waldo Peter^ his accusation agatnst 

Popery . . . • ^ *• . 215- 
Xavier, (St. Francis) his saeces» in Japau 391 



A REVIEW 

CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL. 

'd7u,l?'''""' Price 3d. 
NOVEMBER R,, IKS. 



.„ /cr muW no allier influ«iuc um inui vj u» 

14 hfea conneteJ of faJiekiMtd by ^alhtr Fattant, vha 



aiUtpint<MildlitvrUt,Hacche hat htm cintntteii of faiiekMd by /athtr Pattam, vha 
Aarra but wilk i^liiif diteftly und initiKclty not lot Ihan lea tiumtvUi Ha m lAii iHrrft. . 
In tCc pcnpMlivf ii a pruiting prsu c^iiicili ■« denole (^t it icot lAul In tit Cathiilict 



It jf (4* promt ihtet. 



INTRODVCTORY REMARKS. 

IN undertaking to refute and expoH the a;reatest mass of falsebood 
and cftlumny ever issued against the socipl and religious principles 
(tf our Coolie feUoff-men, we may be condemnedfor our temerity, but 
we think we shall stuid excused, when the active endeavours of bigotry, 
to give circulation to what is called Foxs Book of Martyn, are taken 
into consider^ion. With some it has been a matter of surprise that such 
on exposition has Dot been undertaken before ; but wheU the obstacles 
which have so long existed to prevent Catholic writerafrom vindicating 
their religious doctrines and social maxims are known, and the mjsfor* 
tune is that they are not known to the people of this country generally, 
that snrpfiae will entirely vanudh. It is therefore our intention to point 
out the difficulties which have stood in the way of an appeal to PUBLIC 



S . REVIE\y OF FOX'S 

OJflNION by th^ Catholics in their jlefenc^^ and the means by which 
the public mind has been deluded, as a requisite preiiminary to the Re«' 
view of the work before us. To elucidate this subject, however, in as 
clear a light as possible, it will be necessary that we give a brief outline 
of the method uniformly pursued by the Catholic church to preserve the 
truths which have been revealed to her. We are aware that some of our 
readers may have discarded the necessity of a revealed religion, but we 
beg of them to be candid in their examination of our pages, before they 
pass their judgment upon them. It cannot be denied that the greatest 
part of the civilized world ha^, in all ages, acknowledged the existence 
of certain divine truths, emannting from the'I)eity itself, and surely -it 
must be safer to go with the great bulk of mankind, than to listen to 
the speculations of certain individuals who prefer fictions to fads, ahd 
the fallible opinions of the human mind to the infallible rule of {principle 
established by the Deity. Taking the scripture merely as a work of 
history, we see much to admire, and in it we find a clear and shining tes- 
timony of the immutability of the divine councils. Works on profane 
historv have perished by time, or been destroyed by the hand of barba- 
rism, but the records of religion have been handed down to us with a 
care unparalleled and striking. Of all the ^ifcient people, the Jews 
alone preserved the monuments of their religion, and to this very diay, 
they, bear testitnony to its course ^nd progress, and the miracles and 
predictions which rendered it immovable. We see the Messiah appear- 
ing at the time predicted by the prophet^ • we see him foretelling his 
own death, th^ progress of the pew law, which took place of the o)d, ; 
without violating one single truth, and many other circumstances Ijutt' 
have been literally fulfilled. Among oilier things, he commanded his^ 
ajiostles, ty^elve humble and unknown men, to go ^rth to fill natious^ 
to teach the truths which he had revealed to them, and promising 
them that THESE TRUTHS should remamto the end of the world. We 
see these men, armed only with the spirit of CM, go forth to the woHd, 
teaching a doctrine opposed to the human passions and the general majf:- 
ims of the world, yet, in less than one hundred years, and in the midst 
of the most ftirious persecutions and the rage of tyrants, they au;ried 
and established these truths, not only in the East, where their labours 
first commenced, that is to say, Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Lesser Asia, and 
Greece, but also in the West, namely, Italy^ the several nations of the 
Gauls, all the Spanish provinces, Africa, Germany, and Great Britain; 
likewise into Persia, Armenia, the Indies, Sarmatia, Scythia, and even to 
the remotest islands. So rapid and extensive a change in public opi- ' 
nion. In favour of a oev^ system of religion, could only be effected, by n 
aupemieitural power, And the^ unify of that system must strike, convicr 
tion, we shoidd ima^ne, in the ratioQal mind, of its emanating from 
Truth itself. 

Having thns given a brief sketch of the establishment of the Christ 
tian faith, we ytill now proceed to show how its truths have been prcr 
served to this day. It^inay be proper here to observe, that as this raith 
was t>lantjad in opposition to the wishes of the rnlers of the state, and the 
propagators of it were men of obscure origin and mortified habits, 
there could be no. collusion to impose .upon mankind, and if there had, 
vhy was it not exposed } Why were not the deceivers unmasked, and 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. ^ 3 

m 

held up to the contempt of the people } That the Pivine Founder of the 
Christian religion intended that tiie truths which he commanded the^ 
apostles and their successors to teach^ shpuld be openly taughtj and 
attested by publiq, 0]?inion> is clear^ not only by his own memorable 
answer to the high priests, but by the conduct of his ministers, in all 
succeeding, ages. When. the divine Redeemer was befqre the rulers of 
the people^ the hjgb priest asked him of his disciples and.of his doctrines. 
" Jesus,'* ^ays St. John, '^ answered him, I have spoken openly to the 
'^ world; I have always taught in the synagogue, and in the templcj 
*' whither all the Jews resort ; and in secret I have spoken nothing, 
** Why askest thou me } Ask them who have heard what I have sppkeu 
*' to them: behold they knqm what things t have said.*! Such was the 
answer given by Christ to the Jewish rulers, and such is the answer 
which every CathoUe is ^bund to.give^ when questioned as. to his doc- 
trines^ After the Jews h^ crucified Jesus, the apostles began to teach 
openly, and such was the force of their inspired eloquence (for before 
they were ilUteirate men), backed by the wonders which they wrough^ 
that the saiue people,, who had but a short time before .condemned the 
Messiah as an impostor, now believed in his divinity ; and the same rulers^ 
fearing lest, their power should be destroyed, nought to suppress the 
further propagation of the Christian systeui. . 

Jt ia recprde4 in the acts of .the apostles, that Peter and John went up 
to the temple af the time of prayer, and, after miraculously curing, to the 
astonishment of the multitude, a lame voslxx., ia the name pf Jesus, Peter 
addressed the f Ie^oplr publicly, which grieved the priests and magis- 
trates, and the ancients and scribes, who had the two apostles summoned 
befpre theip^ The cpp.stancy of !(*eter and John surprised the corrupt 
and infatuated judges 5^ they withdrew to consult privately together, and 
they said,,*' What shall we do to these men ? for a notorious sign indeed, 
hath beep done b^ them to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem: it is 
^NiF£gT, and WE . CANNQT' iiENY IT. .But that it no further spread 
abroad among the pepple, lei us threaten them, that they speak no mor^ 
in the name (of Jesu^ to any jooian. And calling O^em, they charged 
them ,that thjsy should not jspeafc at aU, uor teach, in the n^me ef Je$us« ^ 
But Peter and John answering,, said, to them, ^If it betjust in the sight 
of God, to hear you ratter than God, judge ye.. For, we cannot but 
9peak the things wtich WE HAVE SEENand HEARD.'*'. Such wa^ 
the first attempt bv iuterested rulers to preyent the light of Trutli 
fron^ flowing amongst, the people j and we beg tl^e reader to bear 
this. conduct pf the priests, ^nd scribes and pharisees in mind^ as it will 
be i^^en thi^t this disposition has been .invariably followed by all those ' 
Who i^re und^r the, influence of error, and have power in their hands, 
Ttie |ilfewikh rulers could not deny tlie doctrines taught by the apostles } 
they could not deny the miracle perifbrmed by them ; they said thd peor 
pie were convinced of the divine mission of these holy men ^ they dared 
not to pgnish the Christian preachers, because of the people— such is the 
fgiree of public ppinion , .they therefore threatened them, hoping thereby 
to reduce them to sil^ce, and, by keeping the people in ignorancCi, 
prejsjerve their tottering situations. 

. \^e arejaware that the^facts we have here stated may he denied bjr 
some of ouf readers : but we wish those who doubt the veracity of scrip* 



€t 
€€ 
€t 
€« 

*€ 



4 REVIEW OF FOX'ff 

ture to give us SDii(ie proof that the writings of the inspired penrixeti 
wereji)rgeri€s, or that they were a/iercrf in the ifirst ages of Christianity ti 
suit the purposes of faction. We l^ndw that, in latter times, scripture 
has been mutilated, mistranslated, and perverted, as we shall have occa- 
sion to shew by and by; but Catholics contend, and it has never beert 
proved to the contrary, that the writings of the gospel have been handed 
down by their church to the present day without the least alteration. 
Those who reject the scripture must do it against the belief of ali ages, 
and the voice of all people, speaking generally. Besides, those rejec- 
ters of scripture are unable to name the time when the supposed alterat- 
tious were made by the Catholic church • they cannot allege the mo- 
tives aiid maiiner of the frauds; nor can they cite the authors of them ^ 
therefore it is, we think, an absurdity, and contrary to common sense, 
to suppose these writings a fallacy without the shadow of a proof, and 
in opposition too to the general received belief of all mankind. 

To these supposed frauds there must have been one of three parties 
concerned, namely, the Pagans^ the Jews, or the Christians. Upon the 
first we think there can fall no suspicion, because they had nothing lo 
do with the Christian religion but to persecute it. They tried to eradi- 
cate it in vain, and had they wished to mdke the Scripture subservient 
to their purpose^ is it not probable' that they Would have blotted out the 
crowd of miractes whereby the Christiaii religion was established sind 
themselves condemned. But admittiAg that the P^;ans did endeavour 
to cbrriipt the sacred writings, where were the Christians to allow it 
unexposed? Is it possible to thiilk it Would be done, aifd no one to take 
the least notice, of it ? We thiuk no man of rational uhderstandlt^ will 
entertain ^o vain a supposition. For the same reason we cannot cite 
the .lews as authors of the fraud. Would they not hiave retrenched 
those many pl-odigics whereby they were condemned ? The many cen^ 
snres and rebukes whereby Christ and his apbstles attacked the vain trar 
' ditions of the syrtagogue, the hypocilsy of the priests, the stiperstitiodso^ 
the people, and the Vices of the nation; besides the application of many 
prophecies relating to Christ and their overthrow. They must there- 
fore be fixed upon the Catholics, who formed'the Christian world, pre- 
vious to the pretended reforiYiation of religion in the sixteenth eentuil'y. 
But this Is impossibie: For is it not absurdity itself to suppose that all 
the Cbri^tiabd unanimously agreed upon the change, and that uo one 
should rise up in defence of TitUTH ? Or is it not equally absurd to sup- 
pose that any one single person could do it without being detected ? -^ 
We find in the Writings of Sozoraen (His. Ecch. c. li.^ that great indijg- 
nation was expressed by Spiudion against Triphilefbr offering to change 
a single word of no importance ; and we see in the works of 3t.'AilgusT 
tin {Epis. 71 and 81.) the interest that was excited by the like tad hi 
the church of Africa, though it regarded neither faith nor morals. 

But allowing the Christians had combined to alter the gospels; is it 
likely the Jews would have let such a circumstance pass pnnoticed? — 
Would Porphyrins, a Tyrian philosopher, who was a voluminous writer 
against the Christians,' have passed over such an attempt at deception? 
Would Julian the apostate? Certainly not. Celsus, an Epicurean phi- 
losopher; who lived io the reign of the emperor Adrian, and was ar bit- 
ter enemy to the Christian religion; objected to the Christians that they 



:bOOK OP MARTYRS. 5 

liad falsified tbe scriplures ; but. be was answered by Origen^wlio clearly 
pr6ved that the heretics had done so, and that the orthodox found as' 
much fault with them for so, doing as Celsus himself. We know that 
heresy existed from the commencement of the . Christian churchy and 
this was necessary in order to ipake the light of truth more brilliant. 
But how, it maj be asked, was the truth preserved in the midst of these 
contrarieties } We ai^swer, by God himself the essence of Truthi and 
an appeal io the general received conviction qfthe Christiah world. We 
read in the.^cts of the apostles, that when a difference of opinion arose 
among the first Christians, the apostles did not decide of themselves on 
the point in dispute, for we see it recorded, in FUury^s Eccksiastical 
History ^ that there were but five apostles present, tbe rest being in other 
parts preacUng the doctrines entrusted to them by their divine Master, 
With these five apostles were present as many priests as could be col- 
lected, and St. Pet^ presided over and opened the council. Each one 
gave his opinion freely, no restraint was allowed 4 and when the deci- 
•sion was made by a miyoi:ity of^vptes> the decree was put into writing, 
and sent jto t^e particular churches to be by them received as the 
word of Truths This was the first council or parliament of the church. 
The persecutiops that existed during the first three hundred years did 
not allow of the convening any public councils, nevertheless whenever, 
the truths of the Christian religion were attacked by erroneous specu- 
lators In theology, there were no); wanting learned and able defenders, 
of the apostolic faith, whose writings have been pres^ved in the 
pburch as a te3timoay of , the doctrines received from the apostles. 
Thus in the .first age we have the writings of St, Peter, St. PiPtul, the . 
four Eviuo^elists^ $t, Janxes the lesjs, the acis of St. Andrew, the apos^ 
tolic canons and constitutions, &c. &c. In the Second age, among other 
ecclesiastical writers, whose works ^have been preserved, we have St. . 
Ignatius, St. Polycorp^ St. Justin, 6cC* ^ and in the third age there were 
§t. IrenaeuS;^ bishop of Lyons, ' Tertullian, St. Clement of Alexandria, 
Origen, St. Cyprian, ^. and so on in every age dpwn to the present , 
time. 

When the conversion of Constantine caused a cessation to the perse- 
cuting spirit that bad so long rpg^d against tbe Christian it'el^ion, her 
peace was disturbed by tbe broaphing of a new error by one Arius. T6 
settle this di\dsion, and make iknown the truth, a. general council was 
convolved tp meet at Nice, t)ie principal city of Bithynia, at which 
three hundred and eighteen bishops, besides priests and deacons, met, 
on the lOtb dajf of June, in the year 3^5,, Many of these holy men ex* 
hibited marks of the sufferings they had undergone for the true faith^ 
and therefore were competent persons to discuss and decide on the sub- 
jects which had convened them together. As we shall have Qccasion in 
our Review of the Bpok of Martyrs to notice the questions which occu- 
pied this assembly> we shall content ourself here with observing that 
the points in dispute underwent a serious and soleinii discussion. As 
in the couhcil.of Jerus{|lem,.the utmost freedom of debate was allowed, 
so in this council every one was at liberty to state bis sentiments with'* 
ou^^fearor affection. To arrive at the truth the council had recourse 
to scripture and tradition. Every bishpp was called upon to declare the 
doctrine he had received from bis predecessors in that particular see, 



it 

w 

U 



^ REVIEW OF FOX'S 

and on this concurring testimonj the council decided. Thus it ivillbe 
s^en, that^ from first to last> the touchstone of truth in the Catholid 
church does not consist in the arbitrary -will or caprice of one man, nor 
in the decrees of any particuliar assembly of laynieti, but in the united 
and unbroken testimoni^ of all ages and nations^, handed* down to us by 
a continual succession of accre^ted ministers, whose «duty it is^ not to coin 
new doctrines, but to preserve the genuine apostolic ones^ 

Besides this general council of Nice, there were others held in the 
same century, for these councils or ecclesiastical parliament9areof thre6 
kindSj namely, ecumenical or general, national, and provincial. They 
Ijkave-been held in all aged, and it is only twelvemonths since (in 1 892) that 
a. provincial one. was held foi the kingdom of Hungary. The manner - 
and forp\ of decreeing in these' synods or councils we may gather from 
our own historian, venerable Bede, who thus records the decree ot 
one held in 680 at Hatfield, now called Bishop^s Hatfield, at which 
Theodorus, the archbishop of Canterbury, presided, and all the bisliops 
c^ the island were present. The Occasion, of the convening .this 
assembly was the troubles originated by the heresy of Eutyche.s. Hay- 
ing the sacred gospels laid before them, they expounded the true Ca- 
tholic faith^ and concluded their discussions in the form following : — 

As our Lord Jesus Christ, taking our fiesh upon him, did deliver 
^ unto his disciples, that saw him in person^ and heard his speeches, 

and as the symbolum or dreed of the holy fathers- have delivered unto 
** us^ and as generally all whole and universal synods, and all the com- 
•^ pauy of the holy fathers and doctors of the holy Catholic church have ' 
" taught lis 3 . so do we, following their steps, both piously and 
'] Catholicly, according to . their doctrine, (inspired to them frotn 
" heaven) profess and believe, and constantly confess, according 
*' to the said holy fathers* belief, that the Father, the Son and 
^' the Holy Ghosts are properly and truly a consubstantial Trinity 
^* in Unity, and ynity in Trinity, &c. .We receive also the holy and 
^' universal live synods that have been held before our time by the blesa^- 
*/ ed Christian fathers pur ancestors, to wit, those 318 holy bishops in 
i' the first council of Nice, (anno 315) against Arius and his wicked 
*'. doctrine, and of the 150 other bishops in the first council of Con- 
" stantinople (anno 380) against the heresy of Macedonius, and of the 
^' 200 goodly bishops of the council of Ephesus (anno 4^8) against 
" Nestprius suid his errors, and of the 930 bishops in the councirof 
'/ Chalcedon (anno 457) against Eutyclies and his doctrine, and of the 
*' other 165 fathers gathered together in the second general council of 
'/ Constantinople (anno 532) kgainst divers heretics and heresies, &c. 
''We dq receive all these councils, and we do glorify our I^ord Jesus 
''Christ, as they glorified him, APDING NOTHING, NOR TAKING 
'' ANY THING away;* 

, By this decree the reader may see how the faith of Catholics has 
been kept pure and uucontaminated, during a series of eighteen centu- 
jries^ for what the Catholics believe now was' believed in the^r*^ ages, 
nor do they believe more now, than was believed then. Neither can they 
be justly accused of practising priestcraft, nor of being priestridden, 
«eeing that every thing relative to faith apd morals must be taught 
ppenly, and therefore liable to detection if erroneous or povel ; nor can 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 1 

iht pope, himself add to, or substract from, the articles of Catholic faith 
delivered to us by Christ through his apostles. 

The reade/ having now before him a brief outline of the one unde* 
viating rule by which the Catholic is assured of the '^divine essence of 
his religion, it follows that we should show him how the reformed creed, 
or rather creeds, was first established in Eqgland. We shall confine 
our remarks principally to this country, because the facts we shall ad'** 
duee will be easier of detection, should we pervert or misrepresent any 
part of history. But first we must observe, that in the early ages oif 
Christianity the use of letters was, necessarily limited, because the art 
of printing being then unknown, the copying a work was a tedious pro* 
cess, and rendered it an impossibility to have the copies extensively 
multiplied. Still, however, there 'were, as Mre have shewn before, mea 
in all ages and all nations akilled in the learned languages, and at«ll 
times ready to detect any innovation attempted to be made in the 
rule of faith delivered by the apostles. We must here also observe, 
that in no age whatever, that we are acquainted with, nor under any 
sovereign or state, were writers restrained from publishing their sen* 
timents, and discussing theological questions, before the reign of our 
Henrys the 8th. In the 15 th century the art of printing was invented 
in Germany, and, according to our earliest writers, was introduced and 
first practised in England by Wm. Caxton, under the patronage of the 
abbot of Westminster. Other authorities say, that when printing made 
some noiBC in Europe, Thomas Boucher, archbishop of Canterbury, so- 
licited Henry the 6th to use all possible, 'means to prooire a printing 
mould, as it was then called, to be brought into the kingdom. Here 
then we have, the fact, that this new invention, so beneficial to the im- 
parting of useful knowledge, but which has unhappily been employed 
in the circulation of fraud and falsehood, by which public opinion has 
been perverted, was encouraged Ky the Catholic clergy, who are so 
grossly misrepresented as studious to keep the people in darkness and 
ignorance.^ The introduction of this at once useful and hurtful art into 
England is placed about the year 1464, and, as i^ usual with all infant 
invention?, its progress was but slow during the first century. This 
brings us to the period of the reformation, as it is called, but which 
ought rather to be termed the deformation of religion. 
. Luther began to rail against the Catholic church about the year 
15^ 5 our eighth Harry threw off his spiritual subjection to the Catho- 
lic church about ten years after. One of the first ends the evangeli- 
cal ^reformers made of the press was, to print an English translation 
of the new testament, which was followed by another of the old tes- 
tament^ but instead of preserving the original sense of the scripture, 
which the Catholic church had so carefully done during the long time 
of 1500 years, the edition by Tindall is stated to have contained no less 
than TWO THOUSAND corruptions. In the reign of James the 1st, 
the. ministers of Lincoln . diocess wrote a book against the Common- 
Prayer, which they delivered to his majesty on the 1st of Decemb^sr, 
1606. '' In an abridgment of this lyork," says Ward, in his England's 
Reformation, canto \y, "I find these following observations against it : 
'* First, that the Book of Common Prayer appointed such a translation 
'^ of the holy scriptures to be read in the church, as leaveth out of the 



8 REVIEW QF.FOXS 



*§ 
U 

u 

i€ 



text sundry words and sentences^ which were -given of divine inspiration^' 
pag. 14. It doth add both words andsentencesto the text, to the ehang*'^ 
in'g a.Ud ohscttring oi ihe meaning of the Holy ^ost» p. ld« . Sneha ' 
translation, as i$ in many places absurd, and such as do reaamsable 
.senise can be made of. p. 1^. In many places it perverteth ih^ mean- ' 
ing of the Holy Qhost, by a false tnterpretation of the fext. p. 17." Yet, 
notwithstanding these charges o£ errors, false translations tmd corrttptions' 
of scripture, the king and his bishops in the book of Candns^ -made in' 
their convocation of 1603/ and printed in 1704, compel every body no- 
der pain of excommunication to hold the said book of Common Prayer 
for true and good. — {See Can. 40.) Now we will here lake leave to ask,^' 
whether this does not resemble priestcraft and being priestriddeh much 
more than the rule of principle adopted and practised by the Cadiolic 
church r Such was the use made of the passsy by those who pretended 
to rqform religion^ and correct the supposed error* of whut they termed 
Popery. 

We have shewn that in the Catholic cJl^nrch) '^fheA any point was mt^ 
der examination, it was freely discussed and decided by the invariable 
rule of scripture and tradition. \Vhen Harry the eighth^ however, took 
upon him to rule the church of England, he adopted a different plan to 
maintain his supremacy. By an act passed in the 35th yeinr of his reign, 
it was made, treason to call the king a heretic or scldsmatic. In the 
31 St and 34th of his reign, he was m^de independent of parliament ^ 
and, in the l^st mentioned year^ an act was alsQ passed, by which it was 
. decreed, that ^* Nothing shall be taught or maintained contrary to the 
** hinges instructions. And if any ^in^uai person preach or maintain my 
*' thing contrary to the king's instructions of determinations, made, or ' 
*' TO BE made^ and shall be thereof convicted, he shall for the first 
'' ofifence recant, for the second abjure and hear a fagot, and-^fcn- h^- 
*' third shall be adjudged a heretic, and be burned^ and lose all his gooda 
'' and chattels." Thus, by an unparalleled stretch of spiritual usurpa* 
tion, the conscience of every indiyidual in the realm was iaid prostrate •'• 
at the mercy of an inexorable despot $ fojrhad this new English pope, iff- 
the plenitude of his power, ordered the doctrine of the Alcoran to be 
preached one week' and that of Judaism the next, all and every one of 
hid subjects must have sul^pitted to the same> or orcourse been liable^ 
to the penalties of this conscience -tyrannizing -statute. Such was the* 
change made by those who threw off what was called the yoke.i^f tlhe* 
pope, who could lay no more, upon their shoulders than the laWs of the* 
church permitted him; but here we have a king invested witba degree' 
of infallibility hitherto unheard of, and the religiou9 opinions and prae**' 
tices of his subject^ were to be regulated by his sole will and pleatore.* 
It was also made high treason taPKINT or publish any work against the 
spiritual supremacy of this monarch. Thus, when its free exercise be-' 
came more necessary to discuss and vindicate the trnth, this formidable 
instrument to detect error and encroachment was shacklc^d and rendered 
useless in defence of truth, . , 

Under Elizabeth the press, was more strictly forbidden to the Catho- 
lics. It was made high treason for any one to PRINT or publish tbftt 
the queen was a heretic, schismatic, tyrant, infidel or usurper. By the 
^5th, q. 1, entitled ^i» Jet to retain the queens subjects in thi^ due obedi^ 



«< 
« 

*i 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 9 

tme, amongst ^ther restraints if was enacted, that if any person or per- 
BfiilSv ftbovi^ the age of sixteen, ^' sh^l at any time aiPter forty days neit 
"tat' the end of this session of parliament, by PRINTING, Writing, or 
'^-jcatpress words or speeches, jwivisedly or purposely practice, or go 
*' about to move or persuade any f^fhet majesty's subjects, or any othet 
'^.within her highness* redms or dominions^ to deny, withstand, or im- 
pugn her majesty's power and authority in teases eccleriastical, united 

and annexed to the imperial crown of this realm^ &c every such 

persdn So offending, and being thereof lawfully ponvicted, shall be 
committed to prison, there' to remain without bail or mainprize, until 
t^ey shi^i coniorni and yield themselves to come to some church, 
*'(tA«pel, or usual place of common prayer,** &c. 

^uch was the freedom of opinion in matters spiritual aQoWed in 
the goiden days of good- qut&n Bess, as they are generally termed by 
Pieiestants! The publishers of the present edition of Fo3d*s Book 
cf Martyrs have prefaced their work with a pretended representa- 
tiofxi of the tiirtures of the Inquisition ^ but they mt|st be leminded 
thfkt.Blizabeth, who settled the reformed religion in this country, 
di4^i« by mteans ' as unconstitutional, as barbarous, and as unjust, aS 
anf act that can be verified against the tribunal of the Inquisition | 
the bare niention of which makes a Protestant shudder, while hi^ 
heart will feel elated at the name of the virgin queen Bess, of 
whose tyranny and d^potism'he is entirely ignorant, the Catholic* 
press having been shackled, and the Ptotestant press finding it more 
to Its^nten^st to keep the real character of Elizabeth from' public 
view, that its supporter^ may he at more liberty to calumniate the 
CatholicB« Be 4t koowii then thiat this queen Elizabeth was armed 
by^faer jMirliamefnrwkh th^ moist' formidable and inquisitorial powers. 
She isstied a t*o9itiiissi<>n called the high Commission court, autlip- 
rizang the n^embers thereof tb inquire, on the oath of the person ac- 
Closed, and' on the oath 6f witnesses, of all heretical, erroneous, and 
dangerous opinions ; of seditious hooks and libels against the queen, her 
magistrates and ministers i and to punish the offenders by spiritual cen- 
sures, by fine, imprisonment, and torture. The jurisdiction of this 
cdurt extended over the whole kingdom, and their power was indepea* 
dent of parliament. The punishments they inflicted 'were arbitrary , and 
their fines so heayy, as often' to bring total ruin on those who had th^ 
misfbrtuneto offend. — (See Hume, Neale's History of the Puritans, and 
o(toer historians.) Wq have heard enough of the Star Chamber exac* 
tioss.iiAder the Stuarts, but scarce a Protestant in the kingdom is ac- 
quainted with the cni^ and diabolical transactions of Elizabeth and her 
ministecs. Rymer says, ** Whoever will compare the jppwer given to 
'^'t^is tribunal with those of the Inquisition, which Philip JI. endeavour- 
** ed to establish in the Low Countnes, will find that the chief differ- 
'^'eitce between the tWo courts consisted in their nanies. One was the 
''court of inquisition, the other of high commission. In the first com- 
** missions (see one in Strype*s Grindal, App. 64) the power of inter- 
ragattng the person upon oath was not expressly inserted ^ yet the 
jv^ges- always attempted it, because they Were ordered to inquire 'by 
'^ 4dl ways and means they could devise.* " (Rym. xvi. 291. 564.) Let it 
not be thought^ by the introducing this comparison that we intend to dc- 



4f 



10 R£VI£W OF FOX'S 



/ - » 



fepd the ab,u$es of the inquisition in Catholic countries^ we condeiiHi 
injustice wherever and by whomsoever committed^ as a violation of th« 
genuine principles of Christianity^ but it . is right that the Protestant 
part of the community should be informed by what means the reformed 
jreligion.was first establisbed, in this ^ountry^ as well as of the excesses 
of the inquisition and the imputed crtieiiies of Catholics. 

It was iinder this system of terror, pain, and proscription, when the 
relaier pf truth was sure to lose his liberty, if he escaped the loss of 
iiimb, that Fox's work, bearing the title of Acts and Monuments, made 
its appearance in the English tongue^ it haying been original!/ compil-* 
ed in the Latin languagje. This Uiok was answered by father Parsons^ 
in a work callec} The Three Conversions of England, about the year 1604 ; 
but in consequence of the restrictions of the press in this country, and 
the activity displayed by the pursiiivants and informers against Popish 
books (for we should have said that all magistrates were at that time 
empowered to make domiciliary visits at any hour of the day or night in 
search of printed books in favour of Catholicism, and spies were, en- 
couraged to give information), the work of father Parsons was printed 
at St. Omer*s^ in Flanders, and could only be brought into this country 
by atealth, and then not without considerable danger to the owner. 
Under such peculiar circumstances, truth had no chance in its favour, and 
^an author might write what he pleased against it without fear of detection. 
,So it was with John Fox ; he knew the peril that was suspended over 
the ipan who should have the temerity to engage in an exposure of bis 
works ; he knew .the men whose cause he intended to promote, and he 
wrote with so little regard to truth that he actually recorded the deaths 
of individuals who were living at the very time his Acts and Monuments 
were put into circulation. In proof of this statement, Anthony Wood, 
.the Oxford historian, and a Protestant, recites a remarkable story of 
one Grimwood being actually present in a church when the clergyman 
was describing, on the authority of Fox's Jets and Monuments, the eir* 
cumstances of his pretended preternatural death, "his bowels, by the 
^'judgment of God, falling out of his body in consequence.** Griii^ 
wood in return, brought an action againist the clergyman for defamation. 
{Athen. Oxon.Hen. Morgan,) 

When the work was first translated into English, it filled three folio 
yolumes, and in the third was inserted a new calendar of Protestant 
saints, in the room of the ope in use amongst Catholics. Although our 
review will be confined to the examination of this work, as publish- 
^d by the present editors, though, by the by, in its modern shape, we be- 
lieve John Fox would hardly be able ,to recognize t,he book i^ent forth in 
his namCj, yet we cannot omit, es^tracting the opinion of father Parsena 
from his ,answer to the Protestant martyrologist. In the 2nd chapter of 
the second part of his Three Conversions, Parsons writes thus : " He that 
*' will consider the proportion of John Fox's book of Acts and Monu^ 
'/ ments fai the latter edition, he will find it the greatest perhaps in vo- 
'' lume that ever was put forth in our English tongue 5 and the falsest 
in substance, without perhaps, that ever was published in any tongue. 
The volume consisteth of about a thousand leaves of the largest paper 
that lightly hath been seen, and every leaf containeth four great co- 
lumns 5 and yet, if you Consider how many leaves of those thousand 



it 

€€ 
tt 

(( 



€€ 
€C 



4€ 
ft 



BOOK OF Martyrs. ii 

"he bath spent in ^leduction of the whol6 churchy hU or curs, and 
the whole ecclesiastical story thereof^ for the first thousand years after 
Christ, they are by his own account but three 'score And four, to wit, 
scarce the thirtieth part of that he bestowetiv in the last five hundred 
years.** And again, in the Relation of a trial before the king of France 
between the bishop of Evreux and the lord Pkssis Momay, p. '9B> the same 
anthor writes : ** I have had occasion ihese months past to (leruse a great 
part of his last edition of Acts and Monuments, printed' the fifth time in 
1596, and do find it so stuffed with all kinds of falsehood, tod deceft- 
fbl manner of telling tales, as I could never, truly, have believed it, if 
^ I had not foimd It by my own experience. Abd I do persuade myself 
'^ fully, notwithstanding alibis hypocritical Wprdsj and prbt'estations, 
** which are more, and oftener repeiated by him, thdn in all- the writers 
** together that I have read in my life, that there is scarce one ithole story 
*' in that large volume, told by himself, except when he relateth other 
'* men's' words out of records, and thereby is'bound to the formality 
** thereof, but that it is falsified and perverted one wiay or other, either in 
** the beginning,, middle, or end, by adding, cntting off,- concealing, fialse 
^translating, wrong citing, or cunnihg' juggling and fiilsification, which 
'' I do not speak for. any tooth against the man, that is dead, and whom I 
'^ never knew, but in respect of truth only, and of so many deceived 
*' souls as are in danger to perish by his deluding them. " Nor when I 
'' speak of Master Fox's falsehoods, do I make account of any errors or 
^ oversights, though never so gross, thttt are found in him; as tb reckon 
" some martyrs, that were alive at the making of his book ,• for this he 
^ excuseth in his later edition, inthathe was decfeived by false informa- 
^ tions : nor do I urge, that others are made calendai* martyrs by him, 
^ whom he cannot gainsay, but that they 'were-malefactors, and some of 
** them either m&d or denied Christ himself, and placeth he' them in his 
^* calendar for saints. These escaped, I say, are* not here to be urged 
*' by me now, but rather in another place. The p6ints that I for the 
'* present accuse him of, are wilful corruptions exid falsifications that can^ 
** not be excused f as' many other things, and for example Sake, when he 
'* recitethjany point in^controversy of thfe Catholic doctrines, he putteth 
" it down commonly in plain contrary words and sei\se, to that which 
'' he must needs know that they hold -and teach ; for so much as their 
*' public books are extant in every man's hands to tesdfy the same." 
' Parsons, however, does not confine himself to mere 'assertions, but in 
'^ his Examination of the second part of Fox's Caletidar,**h^ finrbishes ample 
proofbof the martyrologist's want of veracity. The 19th chapter of 
this part is entitled ** Anote oj more than a hvndrbd and tWsmtt lies 
** uttered by John Fox in~ less than three leaver of hi/ Acts and MonU" 
** ments, and this in one kind only of "perfiditms dealings, ih falsifying the 
** opinions of Catholics, touching covers chief points of their religion" In 
the beginning of tHis'chapter, T. Parsons observes, ^'Albeit there may be 
*' many sorts of lying and false dealing to be noted in John Fox, yet are 
"two most notorious in general, each of them containing sundry mem- 
''bers and branches under them. The first maybe ^led ^torica/, 
" when in bis narrations he purposely uttereth falsehood, for when he doth 
'* it by error, or false ihformation concerning any fact, as when for ex- 
" ample in his former edition, he putteth down John Marbeck, single- 



\% RJBVIEW OF, FOX'S 









€€ 



man of Wln^spv, and some others for martyrs, and describing thenar-: 
ticularities of their burnings and yet were never burned ; ihi$ I acT 
xpunt for error^ and not to be made account of« because his intentiqni^ 
perhaps, was not to lie. But when he .cannot chuse but know, that 
the thing p)hichh€virUeth wOs false;, this I call a milling or wilful Re.} ot 
** which Hind you have had store^ of examples before/'— thai is, ivk 
his Examination of Fox's Calendar. — 'rThe second kind of lying, (con-> 
'' tinues F. P.) may be called (iogYiia^a^, when not only m fact and jlct 
tipnS) but In doctrine, also, he falsifieth and lyeth (^ purpose^ which is^. 
so much th^ more previous than the former, oy how much less he can-. 
^' not pretend Ignorance, or misinformation of others; butwithHs awn^ 
''greater reprpach, who wiU reprehend that which he knoyrethjoot 
'' and of this kind principally we are to give examples here y , . . .and, for, 
'' this is a common shift of the heretics of. our time, always to set down, 
the state of the question guilefully, and never to suffer the reader sin?-, 
cerely to see how the case standeth between them and us, I have.the 
more willingly, been induced to lay forth this handful pf ex^mp^eia 
''in this place, ... .without any large refutation, but only shewing soma 
" authentical author or place of ours, where' ive hold the contrary jt<)^ 
" that which he affirmeth." . 

The learned examiner then proceeds to prove his positipn in. a B^aa^ 
terly manner on the doc^trines of faith and justification,. &c. which we 
shaU pass over, and give his ccdiclusioi^ of the chapter^ , " Last pf all,*' 
writes Parsons, "in the samie page 26^ n. 35, Fox hath a certain 
^' definition of a. true Christian CathpUc man^ according to the. pope fi> 
" religion, whereih are as many Res as lines, if not more, .as you shall s«e 
" examined more particularly in the next pl^apter^ Out of: whic}i heap, 
of lies, I will only now take a dozen to add to the former numbeif:; 
though in examination tjbey will arrive, at. least, tp thrice as.!jp(iipu^y« 
And so by the example of this one chapter,. you may consider in wh&t. 
'^dreadful dreams the more simple sort of Protestants are beVd^ about, 
our opinions In matters of controversies, &c. And if they please tp d^ 
this in their printed. books, what, will th^y fear to. do in pplpits and^ 
'^ private speeches, wl^ch pass more^ free from examination and.cpntjroV.^ 
" ment ; and the mpst ignorant are wont to shew the most aud^ity in, 
slandering us and our doctrine, which ordinarily th^y lay forth sa 
sauced and so powdered, as it may seem the most absurd doctrine in 
the world, and themselves joUy Mlows in refuting the same. And 
this shall sufiice for a short adiponi^ipn oijit of this chapter 5 the nfim^ 
ber of lies proved against John Fox arising to the number op more tsan 
SIX scoRB^ besides many .by me pardoned to him, which'the readei; , 
" win easily have observed in reading it over." Finally, Parsons give, 
this general character of the work: " From the. beginning to'the end 
" of this whole volume, he conimonly setteth down nothing affirmative 
"or positive of his own in matters of religion, nor anv certain rule 
" what to believe 5 but only carpeth and scoffeth at that which was in , 
use before ; so as the reader is brought into unbelief, distrust, and con-r 
tempt of that, which was accon^)ted piety and religion by his fore* 
fathers, bx^ nothing certain taug|it him in place thereof, but only ne^ 
gativeor scornful taunts, the proper means to make Atheists and In-? 

PII>ELS." 









4€ 

it 
<t 
it 
it 
a 



if 
ft 
it 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 13 

-" Thus writes the learned antagonist ot John Fox. For' the informa- 
tion of the reader we will here note, that father Parsons, whose Chria- 
tiah name was Robert^ was educated at Oxford university in the Pro- 
testant religion, and bec'ame not only a fellow of Baliol college thert in 
1572, but likewise a noted tutor. He, however, entertained some scru« 
pies concerning the reformed religion, and spontaneously resigned bis 
fellowship in 1574, went abroad^ and embrtjiced the Catholic faith. He 
was a man ot shining qualities, a great controversial writer, and had 
a very narrow escape of his life when in England in the exercise of his 
priestly functions. , 

' Ab it has been the invariable custom of Protestant writers to repre-, 
sent Catholics as condemning all those who differ from them, in matters 
of faith as heretics; and as the words heresy and heretics, not only oc- 
cur in these remarks, but will be found iki the work we are about to ret 
view. We think it necessary, in vindication of the Catholic character^ 
to give a correct definition of these terms. *' Those," writes St. August 
tin, a great CathoKc divine, in one of his epistles, " Those, who do not 
**^ defend a false and perverse opinion with violent animosity, especially 
^ if that opinion is not the work of their audacity and presumption^ but 
** the inheritance of parents who were seduced and fell into error tbem-f 
*' selves'; those, in short, who freely seek the truth, and are ready tQ 
** stand corrected, must, by no means, be reckoned among heretics."— 
Hy this exposition the reader will perceive that Protestants are nqt in-^ 
dlscriminately accounted to be guilty ot heresy 5 that matter is left . to 
the decisiori of the all-seeing Judge. Though the Catholic church, 
which is ttiepiZ/df and p^ownrf of Truth, condemns every error, as, is 
jost and equitable, yet dhe does not condemn him who errs, but prays 
for him ; and this the liberal Protestant reader, we are convinced^ will 
nbt consider kn\iinchafiiabte act, thou he may deem it to be a super-* 
stitious one. .We beg to observe also, that though we shall have occa- 
sioii to condemn the conduct of the pretended reformers of past times, 
drid the bigotry of some fana^s of the present day, yet we are far, very 
far, from imputing ihe pbrs^ctl^fig and intolerant spirit,ths(t instigated 
thefir d^eds, to the liberal and sf^'ere friend to liberty of c^ascience, of 
Whatever religious persuasion he may. be. Our desire is, to elucidate 

TRUTH, the W90LB TBiiTH, WHd NOTHINQ BUT THB TRUTH ! 

THE REVIEW. 

• . . . . . . 

The wprk begins with a '* History of the^r*^ ten Persecutions of the 
'' primitive Church from the year of our Lord 67, till the time of Coa<« 
"'stantine the great, detailing the liyes and actions of the principal 
*' Christian martyrs of both sexes, in Europe and Africa." Sucl^is stated 
to be the contents qf tike first book which the publishers have adorned 
with an engraving purporting to represent the cruelties of the Inquisi-^ 
tion. Now what analogy this frontispiece bears to the suffer! i)ga of the 
pnmiiive Christians^ will puzzle^ we think, much wiser heads to disco*, 
ver, than the *' few plain .Christians/* who have undertaken to proye 
that '* persecution is inseparable from Popery." \Ve are presented with 
thr^e monks, presiding as judges over the sufferers, one of whom is, we 
'suppose, intended for St. Peter, as he is placed on a cross with his head 






14 REVIEW OF FOXS 

dowDD^ards,. and. this great apoatle suffered m that manner. However, 
the editors of John Foil's modern Bool; of Martyrs must be told that th^ 
sufferings of the primitive Christians had long ceasf d before any order of 
monks was established, and that the " Christian martyrs of both sexes in 
'^ Europe and in Africa^" were all firm and stanch ROMAN CATHO- 
LICS. We are aware that this fact was intended to be suppressed; for 
they cunningly and not much unlike the animal whose name the mar* 
tyrologist bears,. commence '"^their details thus : ''The dreadful martyrr 
** doms which we are now about to^lescribe, arose ivofX). the persecutions 
** of the Romans against the Christians, in the primitive ages of the 
church, during the space of thjcee hundred years, or till the time of 
the godly Constantine.**— Thus by the omission of a word the uuior 
formed reader i^ lead to conclude th^t Catholics were the persecutory 
when they were the persecuted. It is well known that ia this country it 
is customary, with bigotted writers, to call the professors of Catholif 
cism Rom4ins a^ well as Papists^ and thus by the suppression of the term 
heathens or PaganSj, .an erroneous conclqsion is drawn against Catholica* 
Had John Fox, or his editors, sald^ from the persecution of the Rqinaa 
kecUhens against the Ronian Catholics, no /<x&e: ix^erence could have.beea 
drawn -, but this would not have suited the intention of the publishers, 
which they say is, to excite '' a hatred and abhorrence of the crimes of 
" Popery and its professors," However, we shall be abl^ to prove 
clearly, that neither John, Fox nor his admirers, have any claim of 
kindred whatever to these martyrs, nor to the ''godly Constantine." 

»" It is both wonderful and horrible," they say, " to peruse thedescrip- 
" tions of the sufferings of thjese GOPLY martyrs^ as they are. described 
by the ancient historians. Their torments were as curious as the io* 
genuity of tna,n, tempted by the devil, qould device; i^nd their nuot* 
bers were truly incredible." This is true eppugh ^ we. can remember 
how much our feHings have been excited in. our youth, ^en ref^ding the 
extraordinary constancy and fortitude of the primitive mariyrs, as well 
as»the effect produced by their invincible courage and exemplary piety i 
and we were cojivlnced that not)iing but. a divine power could enable 
them to bear the almost incredible tortures tiiey suffered, in the ^i^qo^epf 
Jesus^ who had died for thfein. But, then, tlieseiiiartyrs wei^e potPro^ 
testants 5 they all acknowledged thesupremacy of the bishop of Rooi^ 
and therefore were Roman Catholics. Now is it not a piece o^ the greatest 
absurdity for men to adduce the sufferings of Romafi Catholics under 
Pagan persecutors, to excU^ in t^emipds o| Protestants, *' a hatred and 
" abhorrence of the crimes of Popery and itjs professors ?'* . 

To come however tp fi^ls. " The first martyr/* they say, " to OUR 
'^ holi{ religion was its blessed Founder himself 5*' and they then go on 
to give a ** brief history of our Saviour.'* Thift history is so well 
known that we need jnot repeat it here, but go on to what they say o^ 
*' 21^ Juives, Sufferings, and Martyrdom of the Apostles, Evangelists, 
" &C.** St. Stephen is properly placed first in the catalogue, as he 
** was the protomartyr oi the Christism religion. But they make him a 
priest, when, according to their x)wn scripture, he was only chosen 
dfiacon. Now there is a great difference between one office and th^ 
other; a priest having power to offer «acrj/ice, and the deacon' is only 
authorised to preach and instruct. The concluding part of the account 






it 



BOOK OF MAFLtYttS. 15 

however, is thie most cunoiis. After describing tbfe manner of lil4 
death, namely, stoning, for imputed blasphemy; it says, " On tbe spot 

where he was martyfed, Budocia, the empress of the emperor TheoJ- ' 

dosius, erected a superb church, and thfi memory of him is annually 
" celebrated on the 26th of December.** This statement is correct, but 
not suiRciently explicit. We haye neither authorities nor dates. It is 
distinctly affirmed in the chronologic^ collections published by Scaliger 
with Busebius*s chronicle, that the saint suffered on the ^6th of De- 
cember in the same year our Saviour was crucified 5 but the saint'^s 
body was not discovered till the year 415, and it was not till the yeat* 
444 that Eudocia built a stately church to God in honour of St. Ste- 
phen, about a furlong frona the city, near the spot where he was stoned. 
(See Butler* s Saints* Lives.) Arid here'afew questions maybe asked — Oif 
what religious profession was this empress that raised a church to. St. 
Stephen ? And who are they that celebrate annually his memory ? Did 
JohA Fox aqd his comates build' churches to saints ? * Do the '^plaiA 
'* Christians," who are now circulating his Book of Martyrs, celebrate 
ftnnually the memory of this saint ? Do any other class but the Catholics 
commemorate the anniversary of the saints and martyrs ? These interroi* 
gatories mtfst be all answered in the negative^ atid therefore it is clear 
that St. Stephen Was not a Protestant, and cantidt consistently be en* 
rolled in JohnFox*s list. 

St. James the Great follows next, ahd the account of his martyrdoni 
is correctly giveh. It concludes thus : — '*^ These events took place ii> 
"the year of Christ 44 5 ahd the ^^th of July was fixed by THE 
" CHURCH for the commemoration of this saiut^s martyrdom/' The 
Church fixed the day of commemoration ; but what church, *' jpJlaih 
*' Christians ?" Your Protestant religion was pot then in existence, hor 
was there any other church on earth besides the Catholic church. 

St. Philip*s martyrdom, they say, is commi^m orated, with that of 
St. Janies the Less^ on the-lst rif May ; St. MattheW's festival is kept 
by THE CHURCH On thie 216t of September; ahd St. Mark's death is 
rightly stated to have "happened on the 29th of April, on'which day 
" THE CH0)icH commiiiiloriEites his martyrdom.'* St. Jami^s the Less i^ . 
next recorded; and here #e meet with a rematkkble statement, which 
We did il6t iixpfett from the {irestent ieditors of Fox's Martyrs. Thejr 
siy, *'He w^^s after the Ltird'is ascension elected* biJshop of Jerusalem ; 
*''he wr6tc his general epistle^ to all Christians 'j!iihd convert^ whatever, 
*" to suppress a DANGEROUS ERROR then propagating, namely, 
" 'that faith in Christ was alone sufHeierit for salvation without good 
*' Works.' " Hcfe reader we have an avowal that St. James dtmdemnei 
the dbctrini^ Of faith alone, Which 'doctrine was a principal stone iii the 
Biibel-like fabric of t*it>testiintista. It is here said to be a '* dangerous 
error," arid tfiat the ap6stleWtbtfr expressly to all Christiansand converts 
" whatever 'to suppress thld "dangerous error then propagating;" but wiU 
it be believed, yet true H is, that this very epistle of St. James Wdi 
cor*rupted by Martin Luther, the apostle of the i^efornted reiigioti, tb 
agree with his favourite doctrine, and Of all the reformers too, that 
good works were n6t necesfeaty to salvation. To the text, " We ac^ 
"^ count a man to be justified by faith," the adverb ONLY was addi^d ) 
and when Luther was charged " v;ith this c6rrupth)ri, and asked why he 






16 , REVIEW OF FOX. 

* 

did fiQ, the answer he gave was this r ''If any papist is displeased at 
** this, that I should add to the text the word only, tell hioi from me, 
*' that a papist and an ass is all one ; so 1 will havb as I command it ; 

y MY WILL STANDS FOE REASON AND LAW. We Will be DO disCipleyS of 

*' the papista, but rather their masters. Once we will insult and va* 
*^ pour over these asses.'* Again, '' Pry*thee answer these asses no- 
thing else about the word on/^, saving this, 'Luthsi^ will save it so; 
he is the doctor over all papist doctors.*' (Eplst, <td Amicum de , 
Sola.) Soeh language as this does not display much of the apostolic 
character, and very little of rationality, nor do we think even ** the plain 
** Christians** will feel themselves honoured by having such 9i father of 
their church, if such it can be called ; but the question resolves itself 
into this, either. St. James or Martin Luther was wrong ; Fox^ however, 
by the admission that the apostle wrote against " a dangerous error,*^' 
allows him to be right, and sacrifices Luther. The apostle therefore 
was a Catholic .saint, and as such they hpuour hini to this day^ How 
short sighted are men when under the influence of error; But there is 
another proof of the Catholicism of rSt. James. This apostle composed 
a liturgy or mass, a copy of which was in the university library of Ox- 
ford when Dr..» Baily wrote in 1604, and is no doubt there now. This 
liturgy contains prayers for the sacrifice of the mass and for the dead, 
two doctrines of the Catholic church rejected by the Protestants, and 
therefore St. James camiot be a martyr for their faith. 
. St. Matthias is next mentioned, but in a very brief; way. He is fol- 
lowed by St. Andrew, of vrhom they say, ** St. Andrew persisting in the 
*' propagation of his doctrines, he was ordered to be crucified on a cross^ 
*' two ends of which were transversely fixed in the ground. He boldly 
f' told bis accusers, that he would not have preached the ghry qfthe 
'' cross, bad he feared to die on it« And again, when the^came to crucify 
-^^ kim, he said, that he coveted the cross, and longed to embrace it, ' 
Now, this language does not sound much like Protestantism, because 
its disciples revile the Catholics for following the example of St. An- 
drew in '* coveting the cross.** Most Protestants reject the use of 
the sign of the cross, and those of the church as by law established 
retain it only in the oeremony of baptism. How then came these 
wise editors to produce the conduct of St. Andrew to confound them } 
Is it not a strange piece of absurdity to reproach Catholics for observ- 
ing certain ceremonies, and then bring forward an apostle to shew 
that he gloried in doing what they are taught to follow?- But we 
can tell these Foxite editors, that St. Andrew gloried in another 
Catholic « rite. It is stated in Uie account of his passion, written by 
the church of Achaia soon after his death, and cited by Remigius 
in Psalm xxi} by archbishop Lanfranc in his book against. Be ren- 
garius $ by St. Bernard in bis sermon on St. Andrew, said by many 
others, that when the proconsul MgesiS exhorted him to sacrifice 
to idols-, the blessed apostle answered him : " I do sacrifice daily to AV^ 
'' mighty God (that is One and True) ; not the fleshof bulls or blood of 
goats, but the immaculate Lamb upon the altar, whose flesh, after 
that all the faithful' people have eaten the same Lamb that is sacri- 
ficed) remaineth whole and alive as before.** Now this sacrifice of- 
fered by St. Andrew daily is that of ibe mass, now daily offered in the 



it 

it 



A REVIEW 

J^ir'S JtooH of m»ntivs, 

CRITICAL AN1> HISTORICAL. 



hoo.*«nin, 81. P«yl'.Chiitcliy«r(i, London. r ncC iW 




■tMriptMII 10 aeimted mmd the bau of Iw yemtttat vj ma aanvc pumr, •mmg HIBfll- 

)Ml rrtctol in rtmeml^nmtx of tint bumhg af th« PuoTt*iAHT cU(/ bg a PoisiH/ae-. 
tiOK, which eteaiieatd Pope to lav, in hit Eilw Epiittei, that thii pillar, " like a (uA SnUu 
Ijftt to fcwd imrf LIES." ./ '^ . . r." ". 



CCTNTINDATIOM OF THE KBVIRIV. 

Catholic church, which bU Protestants in this country, before they can 
accept civil ofGce, are obliged to swear ia damoable and idolatrous. 
CoDsequeatly St. Andrew was no Protestant martyr, 

St. Peter is called the "great apostle and martyr," and the accouot 
^Ven of his lifie is correct, so far as it goes ; but there are many most 
important omissions. For example ; the basis of Protestantism is to 
allow individual interpretation of the scriptures, by which means it ia 
difficult for a maa to know what his neighbour s creed is ; because 
what may seem right to him to-day he may consider wrong to-morrow^ 
and therefore no stability can be placed in this mode of belief, if 'siich 
jt can be called. But the Catholic grounds his faith on the unernn^ 
word of GOD, as delivered by the apostles and received by tb^ vhole 
ctiurcb; not as one'man may teach, but what afi have heard and bear 



ft 



€€ 



18 . B£VIEW OF FO%'S 

testimony to. Hence St reter, who had hitherto delivered the Chris- 
tian doctrine by word of mouth, finding that certain bnsy spirits were 
endeavouring to sow di£»ensioti among the converted Jews^ wrote two 
admonitory epistles to them from Rome^ in the seccHid of which he tells 
ihem, that ** no prophecy of scripture is made by private interpretation,'* 
ch. i. V. % 3 and in conclusion he writeis, " Even as our beloved brother 
'' Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto 
you ; as also in aU (his) epistles^ speaking in them of these things> 
in which are some things Juird to be understood, which they that are 
** unlearned and unstable rest, as also the rest of the scriptures, unto 
THEIR OWN DESTRUCTION. You, therefore, brethren, knowing these 
things, take heed lest, led aside by the error of the unwise, you fall 
away from your own stedfastness." Now here is a very ipiportant fact 
.suppressed, which certainly ought to have been noticed, because Ca- 
tholics are reproached for not allowing private interpretation, follow- 
ing the advice here given to the primitive Christians by St. Peter^ 
by which means they maintain an unity in their doctrine^ while* Protest- 
Ants are as discordant in their religious notions as. the builders of Babel 
were in their language. Now, it is as clear as that one and one make 
two, that there can be but one true faith, because Truth is both immu- 
table and indivisible 3 consequently, among the many creeds in exist- 
ence, there can be but one of them true; and which that is we should 
.think might be very easily discovered if people would take, time to re- 
flect. In. the beginning of Christianity, we find there were teachers 
of error; for example, Simon Magus, Cerinthus, Hymenaeus> Ebion, 
1&C. who all differed from each other, but all agreed in cpndeipning 
the doctrines taught by the apostles 3 so we see Protestants of endless de- 
nominations disputing each other's creed, but all combining to misre- 
present and vilify the Catholic faith. Now is this not a singular circum- 
stance ? If the Catholic church taught error, would it not be easy to 
point out the error, and when it was first introduced ? Yet this never 
has been done. And were she Uke the rest of the teachers of the igno- 
rant, as they style themselves, is it Ukely that she would have to stand 
against the combined assaults of all the various sects any more than 
either of those which oppose her ? St, Peter, it is clear, by condemn- 
ing private interpretation, was no Protestant saint, but a Catl^olic one, 
and Catholics commemorate his memory to this day. 

But to return to the martyrologist. He says, " His (Peter*s) body 
^' being taken down, embalmed, and buried in. the Vatican, a church was 
*' erected on the spot 3^ but this being destroyed by the emperor Helio- 
^' gabalus, the body was removed till the 20th bishop of Rome, called 
*' Cornelius, conveyed it again to the Vatican : afterwards Constantine 
** the great erected one of the most stately churches in the universe 
** over the place." By this confused account, without dates or autho- 
rities, we may form some conclusion on the merit due to Fox's relations. 
The story of ^'embalming** the body of St. Peter is evidently /ai<6; 
because history tells us it was the custom of the Romans to bum the 
dead bodies of their relatives, and the practice of preserving a corpse 
from putrefaction was probably then unknown to them. The Egyp- 
tians preserved the bodies of their dead, and the Jews buried them in 
the earth, as we may see by the book of Tobias, and other parts of 



BOOK OP BfARTYRS. 19 

teriptttre. From the latter, once the chosen people of Ood, the pri* 
mitive Christians, the faithful elect of a crucified Saviour, observed 
the custom of depositing the remains of tiie martyrs in the earth; bo 
tiiat '* embalming*' is quite out of the question. And when we con* 
- sider the state of the Christians at the time ; the continual apprehen* 
sions they were under, from the cruelty of their oppressors, this story 
of Fox will appear still more improbable. Then as to the body being 
buried in the Vatican, and a church erected on the spot ; what can he 
mean by this statement ?' The Vatican in the time of the Roman em- 
pire was a hill wiihoui the walls of the city, near the suburb inhabited 
by the Jews, on which stood two Heathen temples, the one of Apollo, 
and the other of Idea, niother of the gods. {See Bianchini, Prae/, in 
Ponttfi. p. 72.) On the spot where these temples stood Constantine 
the great built a church in honour of the place where 8u Peter suffered 
martyrdom, and where he .was in the first instance buried, but after- 
wards removed to the catacombs. This foUmg into decay, having 
stood twelve centuries, pope Leo the 10th projected the present mag- 
nificent temple. The means devised by Leo to ruse this edifice, may 
be said to have been one of the causes of Luther's pretended reformation. 
Again, is it probable that the Christians could build a church during 
the persecution, where two temples dedicated to idolatry were already 
raised ? And this church to stand about one hundred years unmolested, 
till Heliogabalus destroyed it? For observe, Heliogabalus reigned about 
the year 222, that is about a century and a half after the martyrdom of 
St. Peter, and upwards of a century before the reign of Constantine the 
great, when the Christians were first allowed to biuid public temples to 
worship 4he true God, Cornelius, according to the writings of Euse- ' 
bins, St. Paciahus, St. Cyprian, Tillemont, &c. succeeded St. Fabian, 
who suffered martyrdom on the 20th of January, 250. Fabian was the 
20th bishop of Rome aflter St. Peter, so that here is a mistake on the 
part of Fox. At the time of Fabian's death, the violence of the per- 
secution under Decius was so great, that the see of Rome was vacant 
sixteen months, so that Cornelms did not occupy the episcopal chair of 
that city until the year 251, thirty years after Heliogabalus. In the 
life of the holy pope Cornelius, by the Rev. Alban Butler, there is not 
the least mention made of the circumstance of the removal of St. 
Peter's body, which would not have been omitted had it reallv taken 
place. The fact is, the story of John Fox is mere fiction^ and shews 
how easQy those persons who charge the Catholics with being cre- 
dulous are themselves imposed upon. Cornelius did not fill the chair 
but sixteen months, himself suffering martyrdom on the 14th of Sep- 
tember, 252. Were Protestants, to examine history carefully, and 
look to dates and authorities, they would not be so much deceived by 
interested writers as they have been. 

St. Gregory, who lived much nigher to the primitive ages than John 
Fox, writes (L iii. ep. 30*) that the bodies of St. Peter and St. Paul, 
who suffered on the same day, were buried in the catacomb^, two miles 
out of Rome } and the Rev. Alban Butler says, '' The inost ancient 
'' ftoman calendar published by Bucherius, marks their festival at the 
" catacombs on the 29tb of June." These catacdmbs ittire the ancient 
cemeteries of the Christians, and therefore the account of St. Gregory 
is entitled to credit. Mr. A. Butler, in a note to the life of St. * 



tt 



€g 
U 

€€ 
€€ 



€€ 
tt 



€S 
€€ 

4€ 



n REVIEW, OP .FOX'S : 

Calixius, pope and martyr^ OctQber 14^ writes thuf :. ''The Cliri8« . 
'' tians never gave into the.castoma either of preserving the bo- 
** dies of their dead, lijke the Egyptians, or of burning them with the 
RcHuans, on of casting them to wild beasts with the Persians; but, 
in imitaiion of the people of Grod from the beginning of the world, 
buried them with decency and respect in the earth, where, according 
" to the sentence pronounced by God, they return to dust, till the ge-, 
neral resurrection. At Home they chose caverns or arenas for. their 
burial places, digging lodges on each hand, in each of which they 
deposited a corpse, and then walled up the entrance of that lodge. 
Boldetti proves the cemetry of St. Agnes to have been enlarged 
after the reign of Constantine ; and the same is not doubted as to 
many others. Several inscriptions on sepulchres in the catacombs 
*' given to the persons there interred the qiulity of fossores, or diggers 
** (of cemetries). See Aringhi, L i. c. 13. Boldetti, 1. i. c. 15. Botta- 
rius, t. ii. p. 136. The Pagans of Rome burned their dead bodies ^ . 
which is true not only of the rich, but in general j nor is bishop 
^^ Burnet able to produce one contrary instance -, though sometimes 
** the corpse of a criminal or slave, who had neither friends noi: money, ^ 
** might be thrown into the Puticuli, upon the heads of the ashes of the 
'' others, without the ceremony of being burnt. H. Valesius, in his 
notes on Eusebius, p. 186, observes, that it is hard to determine at 
what time the Romans began to leave off the cKstom of burning their 
dead : but it must have been about the time of Constantine the great, 
probably when he had put an end to the empire of Paganism. The 
*^ Heathens learned of the Christians to bury their dead j and grew at 
** once so fond of this custom, that, in the time of lli^dosius the 
younger, as Macrobius testifies, (Satumal, L viii c« 7t) there was not 
a body burnt in. all the Roman empire.** Now, we may here ask, 
whether it is likely that the primitive Christians could build churdkeg . 
in honour of the martyrs, when they were obliged to bury them in 
caverns privately, and werf suffering persecution for conscience sake ? 
No man of common sense can entertain such an opinion for a moment. 
Besides we have it here stated by Mr. Butler, that the Christians re- 
jected the practice of preserving the dead bodies by embcUming, and 
placed them in their mpther earth. Hence it is clear Fox was merely 
9 romance writer^ and not a recorder of truth. 

^f Christians," continues Mr. Butler, ** from the . beginning, often 
*' visited oi^t ^ devotion the tombs of th^ martyrs, and in the times of 
'' peraeeutioi^ pft^a emctaJM themselves in these c^itacombs, and as- . 
** sembled here io celebrate the divine my$terie». Whence the persecutors 
'^.forbid them tp enter the cemetries, as the judge proconsul declared 
^* to St. Cyprian^ (in aptip, p, 11^) and the prefect of Egypt to St. Dio- 
*' nysius of Alesumdria. (ap. Ens. 1. vi. p. ]ll.) See also Eus. 1. ix. c. 2. 
** Tertulliap, (ad jScapnl. c. ?.) ai^d seyeral inscriptions importing this ' 
''in BoUfiiii, (l. i. c.ll.) Mamachi, (t. u\, p, 162.) and chiefly Bot- 
" tarius Qgailist Burqet. (Epma Sotter. t. i. p. 1^.) 

'' That the catacombs were known to be nlled with the tombs of in- 
'' numerable martyrs, and devoutly visited by the Christians in the early . ! 
'' ages of Christianity, is incontestible froni the testimonies of St. Jerom, . 
'' St. Paulinus and Prudentius. St. Jerom mentions ^(in c. xl. Ezech« 
'^t» v« p« 980. e^9 Ben.) that * when hf vi^fi a boy, and 'studied fit 



ft 
4t 






BOOK OF MARTYttS. si 

'^Rome, he was accustomed on Sundays to visit in ft rotlnd the sepul- 
" chres of the apostles and martyrs^ and frequently to go into the ttjp^ 
** tad, which are dug in the earth to a great extent, and have in ^ch 
<' hand bodies of the dead like walls^ and with tfieir darkness stHke the 
mind with horror/ &c. It is clear he went not thither to plfl% as 
Basnage answers to this authority, (Hist, de TEgL 1. xviii. c. 6. n. 8.) 
" but to perform an exercise of religion and piety, as all others clearly 
*' express this practice. St. Paulinus says, that the tombs of the martyrs 
" here contained could not be numbered. (Poem. 37, in Nat. 13. S. 
*'Paulin.) 

** Hie Pctras» hie Paulas proceres $ bic mtkttyte^ onmesi 
** Olios siiuul innunieros ma^ nae tenet ambitus urbisi 
" Quosoue per innuroeras diffuso 11 mite gentes# 
" Intra Homuleos venerator ecciesia fines.'* 

Which may be thus translated :«** 

Here are the chiefs Peter and. Paul i here are all the martyrs, of virhom the precinCti of 
lite great c\\y contain an immense multitude, and whom the church, spread over inuumer^ 
able nations within the Roman boundaries, venerates. 

We must now notice another fiction John Fox has introduced for the 
purpose of deception. He says, " Before we quit this article, it is re- 
** qwMie to observe, that previous to the death of St. Peter, his wife suf- 
'^ fered martyrdom* for the faith of Christ, and was exhorted^ whengo- 
** ing to be put to death, to remember her Saviour,** Why John thought 
tt requisite to make this observation is not known, we are persuaded, to 
the great bulk of his readers, and yet the martyrologist had a turn to 
serve by it. Know then, that a state of continency is enjoined by the 
Catholic chtirch on her ministers, that they may be the less encumbered 
to fulfil the duties of their office. Those, however, who undertook to 
reform religion, as they called it, in the sixteenth century, thought other- 
wise. They had no relish for a life of restraint and mortification, but 
considered themselves as much entitled to a life of pleasure as the rest 
of the world* * Whoever will look into the new testameut, will find 
that St. Peter and the rest of the apostles, on their being called by 
thefr Divine Master, lefl all things to follow him. Father, mother^ wife 
and all. We cannot trace, by any authority, whatever, that Peter^s wife 
ever followed hint, atfterhe had entered into the apostleship; on the 
contrary, we have the testimony of St. Jerom and St. Epiphanius, who 
expressly affirm, that/rom the time of their calling, the apostles who, 
were married embracecf a state of perpetual continency« Martin Lu- 
ther, John Calvin, and among others, John Fox also, took a difiSerent 
course'when they enlisted under the banners of eodngelism. Fox had 
taken the vbws of celibacy, previous to his being ordained deacon, in 
1650, but he affcerwards ahsolvHd Mmselfjftom this oath, and took to him- 
self a wife. But as witfing was then a Hotel thing among the clergy, [ 
John Fox contrived to efet Peter s wife to Rome, and insert her in his 
list of martyrs, as he did others who were never martyred at all, to . 
make the ignorant and Credulous believe that she followed him in his 
labours to preach the gospel, and that therefore the re/bme<l clergy had 
a precedent foi^ sacrificing at the altar of Hymen. Mr. Echard, a Pro- 
te^taht divine,' in his Ecclesiastical History, Anyti,/' We are told that 
" ^t. Peter's wife suffered martyrdom before his death* by his encourage- 
'' ment,'and that hd left behind Mm a daughter named Pettonilla ; bxtt. 
" we^aV* Nflf oBHTAiwTt o«» iT.*^ ' Who after this will believe f6x}'\' 

'..,1.4 . jJ,l i it . . .S .-.• / . * . • ^ . . ^ . . 



if 



ft2 REVn&W OF FOX'S 

Of the rest of the apostles^ namely, SS. Paul, Jude, Bartholomew, 
Thomas, Simon, and John, and Luke the evangelist, there is nothing 
said that is materially incorrect or contradictory. It may here be ob^ 
served, ho\yeyer, that St Jude wrote an epistle to all the churches m 
the east, apd particularly to the Jewish converts, cautioning them 
against the heresies springing up among the Christians. This epistle 
Luther called in question, because several ancients doubted it* The 
tradition of the Catholic church however noakes it of divine and unques- 
tionable authority, and it js only on this testinoony that Protestants can 
receive it as inspired. Of St. Barnabas, Fox writes thus : ** He was 
a native of C3rprus, but of Jewish parents : the time of his death is 
uncertain, but it is supposed to be about the year of Christ 73; and 
his festival^ is kept on the 1 1th of June." Now the time of this saint's 
death is as certain as that of the others which Fox has recorded, but we 
shall have to speak of this matter by and by. Fox concludes the ac- 
count of all these saints with stating that '* his festival is observed/^ 
*' the commemoration of this apostle,*' '* the anniversary of his mar- 
" tyrdom," *' his death is commemorated,*' or '' the church commemo* 
" rates,** &c. on such a day; but in those which follow, the comme- 
moratioos> and observances and festivals are omitted. That the church* 
4id not stop commemorating the saints and o^artyrs, with the aposUe» 
and evangelists, we think is clearly demonstrated by the extract we 
have just given from the poem by St. Paulinus who lived about the^ 
middle of the fourth century, and Was bbhop of Nola. This wjritar 
affirms, that beside the chiefs Peter and Paul, the church, tjpxead overv • 
innumerable najtiops, venerated an immense multitude of martyrs, tl^ear 
deposited in the catacombs of lUime. Now .this- church covdd be nO; 
other than the Catholic church,, because no other existed that venerat- 
ed the relics of saints and martyrs. The Catholics of this day are re-> 
proached by the editors of John Fox*s £ook of Martyrs for being su^ . 
perstitious, because they practice what the primitive Christians prac* 
tised: consequently the primitive Christians were notPiotestants^ noTr 
were the martyrs of those times Protestant marty»i» 

Tin; FIRST PRDfrnVB FBRSBCirnON UNDER NERO. . 

''The first persecution in the primitive ages of thbchuscm,'*. writes, 
the martyrologist, '' was begun by that cruel tyrant Nero Domitiua^r 
'' the sixth, emperor of Rome, and A. D. 67. This monarch reigned for : 
'' the spaee of five years with tolerable credit to hiaoael^ but then gave . 
** way to. the greatest, extravagancy of temper, and to the most atiQ* 
'' cious barbarities.** As an instance of the mildness of his disposition^' 
on firsi^suming the purple;, history records of him> that once when h» j 
was about to sign an order for the death of a condemned person, he 
cried out with compassion, " I wish I could not write.*' He had for hia 
instructors, Seneca and Burrhus the prefect, of the Prstorium, to ^ 
whose counsels this moderation of temper is cfaiefiy attributed. But . 
both these teachers connived at an ^idulterous intercourse which New 
had entered into when under their guidance, so defective was the vir* 
tue of the best of the heathen philosophers; and to this indulgence of 
thftfitssions pay be laid those infiiQipua debaiicheries and that barbarity 
of heart whifj^ stfuoed the succeediog yeavf of Nero.. JBesides the crifr- 
cities he inflicted on the Christians^ he caused his mother to be slain in 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. S3 

the yearns, put to death his wife Octavia, and cut off the heads of al- 
most all the illustrious men of the empire. '' Among other diabolical 
'^ outrages,'* says the Book of Martyrs, *' he ordered that the city of 
*' Rome should be set on fire, which was done by his officers, guards^ 
*' and servants. While the city was in flames he went up to the tower 
" of Meecenas, played upon his harp, sung the song of the burning of 
" Troy, and declared, 'That he wished the ruin of all things before his 
'^ death.* Among the noble buildings burnt was the circus, or place ap- 
'*" propriated to horse races j it was half a mile in length,' of an oval 
'' form, with rows of seats rising above each other, and capable of re* 
*' cciving, with ease, upwards of 100,000 spectators. Many other pa- 
** laces and houses were consumed ; and several thousands of the peo- 
*' pie perished in the flames, were smothered, or bitmed beneath the 
" ruins. This dreadful conflagration continued several days j when 
"^ Nero, finding that his conduct was greatly blamed, and a severe 
" odium cast upon him, determined to lay the whole upon the Chris* 
*' tians, at once to excuse himself, and have an opportunity of witness- 
*' ing new cruelties. The barbarities exercised upon the Christians^ 
" during the first persecution, were such as even excited tbe commit 
^* seration of the Romans themselves. Nero even refined upon cruelty, 
** and contrived all manner of punishments for the Christians. In par- 
^' ticular he had some sewed up in the skins of wild beasts, and theii 
^^ worried by dogs till they expired ^ and others dressed in shirts made 
^' stiff by wax, fixed to axle trees, and set on fire in his gardens. This 
*' persecution was general throughout the whole Roman empire j but 
*' it rather increased than diminished the spirit of Christianity." The 
fire lasted six days together, and of fourteen wards or quarters of the 
city, only four escaped. Of tbe tortures practised on t&e Christians 
Juvenal says, 

* Death was their doonh on stakes impal'd upright, 
" Sinear'd o'er with wax, and set on fire to light 
*' The streets, and make a dreadful blaxe by night." 

N6w, if the present editors of Fox*s Book of Martyrs consider this 
conduct of Nero, in charging the primitive Christians with setting fire ' 
to Rome, to cast the odium upon them, as base and infamous ^ what^' 
we ask, can they think of the " Protestant ascendency-men," in Charles 
the second's reign, who as basely attempted to fix the dreadM fire of 
London in 1666 on the Catholics, in order to excite the hatred 6f the ig-^ 
norant multitude against them ? Nay, more than this, these Christian 
calumniators raised a monumental pillar to commemorate the dire cala*' 
mity, and round the pedestal of this column they placed thefolloinng 
inscription : '^THIS PILLAR IS SET UP IN PERPETUAL REMEM-' 
'' BRANCE OP THE BURNING OF THIS PROTESTANT CITY, BY 
''THE POPISH FACTION, IN SEPTEMBER, A. D. 1666, FOR 
" THE DESTRUCTION OF THE PROTESTANT RELIGION AND 
'' OF OLD ENGLISH LtBERTY, AND FOR THE INTRODUCHOTT 
'' OF POPERY AND SLAVERY/*— Thus, without a shadow of a shade 
of proof, did these ProtestavK accuse their Cathplic neighbours of set- 
ting fire to the city of London^ when it wiltS evidently a stroke of the 
Divine hand 5 and they next erect i^mpnxmieiit to perpetuate the ^sn^ 
der to future ages, ^as ever any it^ivi^ 10^ €TU4U.; unjust^ ^^ sfaamefiilljf 



34 . B£ VIEW. OF FOX'S 

illiberaU .We have given a representation of this mark of bigotry and 
iatoleranc^, which we consider far more disgraceful to Protestant C^ris- 
t^ans than to Koman heathens. Nero falsely charged the Christians with 
his own infamous deed, that he might have a pretext for his empties; 
fio did the Protestants under Elizabeth and the Stuarts /or^e plotd and 
raise false reports against the Catholies^ to give a kind of colour to 
their clamours for persecuting those t^hom they named Papists. When 
Janies the second came to the throne, he^ being a Catholic^ had the in- 
famous and lying inscription erased ; but stlch was the fury, such the 
bigotry of those days, that it was again inscribed on the pillar in the 
reigp of William the third, and remains t6 this day a striking and in- 
contestible memorial of the intolerant and calumniating spirit of *' Pro- 
testant-ascendency/* 

. It may here be asked, surely there were some grounds for the' charge 
thus publicly and lastingly made against the Catholics > We have said 
that there was not a shadow of a proof 5 and that we may not be accused 
of contenting ourself with bare assertion, we will refer the reader to 
Rapin*8 History of England, the author of which being a Calvinist, was a 
writer by no means favourable to Catholics. Rapin says, '' Men fiuled 
" not to give a scope to their imagination, and to form conjectures upon 
the causes and authors of this fire. The pious and religious ascribed 
it to the just vengeance of Heaven, on a city, where vice and immo- 
rality reigned so openly and shamefully, and which had not been 
sufficiently humbled by the ragiiig pestilence of the foregoing year* 
Some again, as I have said, ascribed this misfortune to the malice 
*' of the republicans : others to the Papists. And ther&were some so 
'^ bold, as even to suspect the king and the duke of York. But though 
*' several suspected persons were imprisoned, it was not possible to dis- 
^ cover, or prove that the baker s house, where this dreadful calami- 
" ty first broke out, was fired on purpose. However, [one Robert 
Hubert] a French Hugunot native of Rouen, and a LUNATIC, con- 
fessing himself guilty of this fact, was CONDEMNED and EXE- 
*' CUTED. But it appeared afterwards, by testimony of the master 
p^ the ship, who brought him from France, that though he was land- 
*' ed at. the time, he did not arrive in London till two days after the. 
*^ i|re began. It is pretended likewise, that a Dutch boy, ten years of 
*\'^^'> confessed, that his father and himself had thrown fire-balls 
'' into the baker* s hoiise, through a window that stood open. But, be- 
^ sides the objection which may be made to this testimony from the 
'f boy*s age, there must have been some circumstance in his narrative 
*' not agreeable to the fact, since it was not thought proper to make 
** a further inquiry. Perhaps this was only a groundless report.*' 

The contiaoaftor Qf Bakers CAronicZe makes tlie following observa-. 
tlons on this remarkable visitation of Divine Vengeance: ''But a ques- 
tion here arises, which having been so much canvassed, it is nectis- 
" sary to make some notice of, which is this ^ whether this fi^re were 
the sole effect of the will of Heaven, or whether the wickedness of 
men. was the instrument of Providence to bring on this dismal cala- 
mrty^^ To j>rove the latter,, it has been observed, that the extent and 
V vipletiQe of the fire was so great, and* it seemed to break out in so 
'^ many diff^tvt places, as makes it hardly credible that it should have 



€€ 
€€ 
€€ 
*€ 
€€ 
€€ 



€€ 



€€ 



ft 



f€ 
€€ 
€€ 



€€ 
€€ 



B^K OF MARTYRS. ftS 

''• prevailed 6o hx, and after that manner^ against the vigoroua opposi^. 
'' tion made to it» had not the mischief been propagated by some other 
** cause than its own strength. It is certdn besides^ that there were 
** Some persons of the republican party accused of such a design^ and 
*' executed for it not long before, namely John Rathbone, an old army 
'' colonel, and some others of the same stamp, who were convicted of 
'^ a design to kill the king, and overthrow the government ^ to effect. 
" which, they had agreed to set fire tQ the city of London in several 
places: and had pitched on the third of September for the day. 
There was also one Hubert, a French reputed l^apist, who acknow- 
ledged himself guilty of the same, and was HANGED by his own 
confession, no otlier evidence appearing against him. On the other 
side, though the devastation made by the fire was so prodigious, yet 
^ the causes that propagated it were so numerous and powerful, as to 
'^ seem commensurate enough to the mischief done. The vehemence 
** of the wind, the oldness and dryness of the houses, and the narrow-* 
** ness of the streets, have been above touched on ; and it is no great 
** wonder that the fire should become very fierce, when it had so great 
** helps. And though its breaking out in houses at a great distance from 
^ those that were on fire^ seems to intimate that it was industriously 
** carried on^ yet it is in truth no more than often happens upon the 
** like occasions. When the town of Warwick was burnt about thirty 
'' years ago, several persons, who thinking themselves safe, went out. 
** to assist their neighbours, found their houses burnt down in their 
" absence 5 the wind being extremely high, and scattering the flakes 
** of fire to such great distances, as could not have been imagined till 
** it was found by that fatal experiment. And in a late fire in London 
** a like accident, happened ; a low shed, at the length of a middling 
** street from a house that was burning, being set on fire by some flam* 
** ing- matter carried thither by a high wind, as happened within the 
** writer s knowledge. As to Hubert, the man appeared to be not very 
** well in his senses | so that what he said cannot be depended on. 
** Nor does it seem likely that those of Rathbone*s party should venture 
''on it, after so many of their accomplices were put out of the way ; 
** and their scheme no doubt utterly disjointed. For these reasons^ . 
** smd because no $oUd evidence appears to prove the contrary, it seem^ 
'' most reasonable to incline to the favourable side, and to look upon 
*\ this fire, as the act of Providence, intended as a punishment to those 
*\ times and a hqipiness to our own ; the beauty, regularity and health- 
'' fulness of the new city remaining to ours, and as we may hope, to 
many distant ages ^ while the loss and calamity of the old one, was 
confined to a very few years after this signal disaster happened.*' 
Dr. Burnet, it is true, in his History of his Own Times, to give 
some countenance to the diabolical inscription, for he was a bishop and 
a sly courtier, has a vague story of one Grant, a Papist, who procured 
himself to be chosen a member of the New River company, that he 
might stop the water at the commencement of the fire; but Higgins, 
in his Historical Remarks, proves^ from dates, that Grant was not a 
member at the time of the fire, and that, had he been so, he did not 
possess the power in question. And now let the reader compare the 
accounts of the above historians with the inscription itself i let him re- 



4( 



26 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

collect that the author of the inscription was a man (Sir Patience Ward) 
convicted of perjury; and then let him candidly say, whether the conduct 
of " Protestant-ascendency" towards the Catholics, only a century and 
a half ago, was not more shameful and atrocious than that of Nero to- 
wards the primitive Catholics at the birth of Christianity? 

Of the martyrs that suffered under Nero, Fox observes, ''Besides St,^ 
" Paul and St. Peter, many others, whose names have not been trans-. 
'* mitted to posterity, and who Were some of their converts and fol- 
*' lotvers, suffered; the ^ac** concerning the principal of whom we 
" shall proceed to describe." He then mentions Erastus, the chamber- 
lain of Corinth; Aristarchus, the Macedonian; and Trophimus, an. 
Ephesian, as converts of St. Paul, and martyrs for the &ith. He also, 
notices Ananias, bishop of Damascus, who, he says, '' is celebrated. 
** in the sacred writings for being the person who cured St, Paul of the. 
" blindness with which he was struck by the amazing brightness which. 
" happened at his conversion. He was one of the 70, and was mar- 
tyred at the city of Damascus. Jfter Ms death a Christian church toas^ 
buUt over the place of his burial, which is now converted into a. 
'* Turkish mosque.'* And he records the martyrdom of another Saint in. 
these words : " Joseph, commonly called Barsabas, was a primitive dis-, 
ciple, and is usually deemed one. of the Seventy. He was, in some degree,, 
related to the Redeemer; and he became a candidate together with, 
Matthias, to fill the vacant place of Judas Iscariot. The ecclesiasti- 
cal writers make very little other merition of Mm; but Papius informs . 
us, that he wa sonce compelled to drink poison, which did not do him 






€€ 
€i 
€€ 
€€ 
€t 

" the least injury, agreeable to the promise of the Lord, to those who 
** believe in him. He was during his life a zealous preacher of the 



gospel;' and. having received many insults from the Jews, at length 
obtained martyrdom, being murdered by the Pagans in Judea." 
Such is the account given by John Fox, and we beg the reader's at- 
tention to the remarks we shall now offer upon it. In the first place, he 
^ves us no authority for his pretended facts, nor have we been able to 
trace any'particulars of the martyrdom of the first three personages he 
has named in the ecclesiastical accounts of Echard, Butler, and others. 
Of Ananias he speaks with much certainty, though little is known of, 
him, except what is recorded in the acts of the apostles. We cannot , 
find that he is placed in the Roman martyrology, though the Greeks . 
give him a place in their calendar. That no positive records were pre- . 
served of him is clear from St. Augustin speaking of him with doubt}, 
which would not have been the case had this Ananias been one of the . 
principal sufferers under Nero, as Fox reckons him. " After his death," , 
writes this ft-otestant martyroloffist, " a Christian church was built over 
*' the place of his burial, which is now converted into a Turkish 
" mosque." And this account we presume is sufficient to gain credit with 
a Protestant, though a Catholic, who is repeatedly charged with being 
credulous and superstitious, would require some dates and authorities 
before he would believe it. Taking the time of the death of Ananias 
to be in the last year of the reign of Nero, that is, in the year 68, 
nearly six hundred yearr must have transpired before the Turks ob- . 
tained possession of Damascus. When then was this church built ? 
And by whom ? The gazetteers teU us that there are about 3000 



BOOR OF MABTYR8. 97 

mosques in Domiiscus^ tibe moat stately of wfaich was a Christian chnreh ; 
but to whom it was dedicated they do not mention. That churches 
were rais^to Uie memory of the. martyrs by the primitive Christians 
in honour of God« we do not d6ubt, because we know it was the cus- 
tom with them^ as it is with Catholics now^ though not so among Pro- 
testants; neither do we doubt that the Turks appropriated these 
churches to thmr own use, after they had orerpowered the Christians, 
as the Protestants in queen Elizabeth's time took .possession of the Ca- 
tholic dmrches raised in memory of the saints ^ but we doubt the ac- 
curacy of Fox's statement with regard to Ananias, since he has pro- * 
duced no authority, and we can find no account of him in the most 
esteemed works by Catholic authors. 

We have then only bare astertian^ for this detail, and the credit 
due to Fox's unverified statements we will now make appear. 
Joseph^ commonly called Barsabas, is '* umaUy deemed" he says, one 
of the seventy. ^^The ecclesiastical writers,*' he continues, ''make 
'' very little other mention of him," than that he was in some degree 
related to the Redeexner, andv became a candidate with Matthias 
for the vacant apostleship ; yet we are told with great confidence that. 
** he ^as during his life a zealous preacher of the gospel." Now, 
reader, this Joseph, commonly called Barnabas, is the SAJV^ PBRSON 
Fox has recorded as a martyr under the name of St. Barnabas, the de- 
tail of whose martyrdom we have a little before stated in Fox's words. 
In the account giiren by him of St. Barnabas there is not a word of his 
having been a ^mdidate with St. Matthias to succeed Judas, yet he is 
placed last with the apostles, and his festival is admitted to be kept on 
the 11th of June^ which the Catholics do to this day. St. Barnabas 
was not one of the twelve'chosen apostles, but is styled so by the primi- 
tive fathers, and commemorated as such by the Catholic church ; but- 
how came Fox to put him> there } He was first called Joses, or Joseph, 
and was one of the first and chief of the seventy disciples of our 
Saviour, but after the ascension of Christ, the apostles changed his 
name to Barnabas. Fox, speaking of this apostle under the name of 
Barsabas, says the ecclesiastical writers make very Utile menUm of hitii ; 
yet it will be seen bya reference to the acts of the apostles, that he is 
frequently spoken of there as the companion of St. Paul in many of his 
travels^ as the latter also testifies in some of his ^epistles. St. Barna- 
bas is said to have introduced St; Paul to the apostles Peter and James, 
on his coming to Jerusalem three years after his conversion. He is 
also mentioned in the acts of the apostles, chapter iv, verse 6, as being 
the first of the new converts who sold all they had and lived in com- 
mon. " And Joseph, who was sumamed of the apostles Barnabas, 
** {which is by interpretation, the Son of Consolation) a Levite, a Cy- 
'' prian born, where he had a piece of land, sold it, and brought the 
*' price, and laid it before the feet of the apostles.'' So far too were 
the ecclesiastical writers from making little mention of him, that many 
authors wrote of him, namely, Sigisbertus, in his book de Viris illustr^s ; 
Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History 5 St.- Jerom in his work de Viris 
Uludribut} St. Isidore in his book of the Lives of the Fathers ; and ve- 
nerable Bede, in his RetraoHcns. The Bev. Mr. Butler, in his account 
of this Sfiiat's life^ .sayir, " Alexander^ a monk of Cyprus in the dixth 



«8 REVIEW' OF FdlTS ' 



4S 
if 



age, liatli Written an account of his deatb. In which he relates; that 
the faith havings made great progress in Cypnis> by the assiduous 
preaching, edifying example, and wonderful miracles of this aposde, 
^' it happened that certain inveterate Jews, who had persecuted the 
^' holy man in Syria, came to Salamis, and stirred up many powerful 
^' men in that city against him. The saint was taken, roughly handled 
" and insulted by the mob, and after many torments stoned to death; 
*^ The remains of St. Barnabas were found near the city of Salamis; 
*' with a copy of the gospri of St. Matthew in Hebrew laid upon his 
^' breast, written with St. Bamabas*s own hand. The book was sent to 
*' the emperor Zeno in 485, a& Theodorus Lector relates.** (Theod.' 
LecL ii. p. 557> Suidas, &c.) We can find no account of Fox's story of 
this saint being compelled to drink poison ^ and it appears from the 
testimony of this monk of Cyprus, that his death took plaee in that 
island, and not in Judea, as John Fox states. St. Barnabas is repre- 
sented by St. J<dm Chrysostom and all antiquity as a man of a beauti-^ 
fill and venerable aspect, and of a majestic presence. So much for John' 
Fox's tale, tliat ecdesiastical writers make very little account of him, 

THE SECONI> FRIMmVE PERJSECUTION UNDER DOMITIAN.. 

The tumults and disorders which occurred in the Roman empire un- 
der the emperors Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, and the merciful di^iosi- 
tion of Vespasian and Titus, gave peace to the Christians till Domitian 
succeeded to the purple, who exceeded in cruelty the first perseciktor 
of the church, Nero, and was detestable to all men on account of the 
brutality and ferociousness of hi^ manna-s. It is related of him that 
in the beginning of his reign he was accustomed toamuse himself in. 
his closet with catching flies, and sticking them with « sharp bodkin y 
Suetonius and Eusebius record, that he debaudied his own .niece an^ 
impiously took the titles of God and Lord^ In the year 95, this tyrant . 
issued fresh edicts throughout the en^iire against the Christians, by 
which many fell victims to his barl>arity, and crowned themselves with . 
a glorious martyrdom. John Fox teUs us that he commanded all **ihm 
" Imeage qf DaM to be extirpated f bvA, as usual> he gives us no refers 
ence to authenticate his story« He then goes. on,-*-'' Two Christians^ 
*' were brought before him, accused of being of the tribe of Judah, and . 
'1 line of David ; but from their answers, he detpued than a$ idiots, and 
*' dismissed them according.** Who these Christians were,, we are no^ 
tpld, nor have we any reason slated why -Domitian sboidd have a» < 
greater antipathy to Christians descended frem David tihan from Fon«* 
tius Pilate or Herod > however we cannot help remarlong that this con*' , 
duct on the part of the Roman emperor forms a striking contrast ta : 
that of " Frotestant-ascendeacy,*' in Charles the seeend's reign. We ' 
hav^ it from Rapin and Baker, that a poor fellow, a lunatic, a reputed 
Papist, but a Brench Huguenot, was condemned and executed upon no other' * 
evidence than his own confession,— the oonfession.ctf a nUidman — for 
setting fire to London — ^whije Fox assures us that the most mercilesa^ : 
of the Roman tyrants had justice enough to despise and dismiss two . 
Christians because he perceived tiiey were idiotsr. '' Oh I the times and 
'* the manners r Again, he s^ys, " a law was nuide, ' That no Christian^ . 
" once brought before the tribunal, should be exempted from punish-' ) 



4< 



BOOK OF MARTYftS. 99 

*' meat without femunang hk reUgiiM.** Did Jdhtk EoK*fl nuttter, the 
prote(etor Somer^et^ and hisjoittlresfi the nr^£lizabeUi> boriow their 
system of legislation from Domitiaa^ when they passed laws compelling 
Catholics, under fine and mprisonment,, to. attend the new fangkd ser* 
vice of the church as by Imo established^ by whieh they wmild havere* 
Bounced their religion? The martyrok^st continues,—*'' During tlus 
f' reign there were a variety of tales> composed in order to tf^ure the 
'' Christians. Among pther falsehwds they were accused of indwent 
*^ nightly meeUngs, of eirebdlious turbulent ipirit: oihemg inmkal to the 
'' Roman empire, of murdering their, children^ anAnf being ocmnibais ; and 
at this tim^^ luoh was the infiUuaHon of the Pagans, that if famineJpeS" 
tilence, or earthquakes, afflicted any of the Boman provinces, these 
'^ calamities were sidd to be. the manifestations of the divine wrath- oc-. 
V casioned by their impieties. These^ persecutions increased the nurn* 
*^ ber of informers i and m|iny« for the sake qfgain, emoir.e awaif the U»0§ 
'' of the innocent. When any Christians were. brought before the mar. 
'' g]»trates a t^t oath was proposed, wh^, if they refused to take it, 
'* death was pronou^ed against them; and if they confessed themselves 
" Christians, the sentenpe was the same.** 

On reading this statement of Fox, of the situation of the. primitive 
Catholic Christians under Domitian, we were most forcibly struck with 
the condition of the Ci^tholics of this country in the reigns of Elizabeth 
and the Stuarts, as bearing a strong parallel to the former. Who has 
9ot heard of the. varifsty of tales composed in ord^ to in|ttre the Ca*- 
tholics, by the unprincipled and self-interested ministers of Eliaa- 
beth ? M^o has not heard of the fiilsehoeds cinculated of indecent in- 
tercourses between the secluded inhabitants of the monasteries, in order 
to find a plea for destroying them ? What were the new enaotments- 
of treason passed for by the parliaments of £lisabeth and the Stuarts, but 
to instil the belief that Catholiycs were of a rebeUious spiriti and ^eir 
pxjincq>les inimical to the British empire ) Are not the Catholics now 
daily chax^ed with committing murder through the influence of their 
iteligion ? Aj^d the unfortunate misruled and oppressed Irish, with being 
cannibals ? And at the time we are, alluding to, whi^ was the infatua^ 
iUm of the Protestants? Did they not ^ve credit to the most incredi- 
ble tales ? We shall have occasion, in the course ^f our review to enter 
more.at large into this system of invention and infatuation, but we can- 
not refrain from here asking the reader, what he can think of the state 
of men*s minds, whc^i they could believe that " an anny of Papists were 
'' training to the use of arms tmder ground i' and that a gunpowder plot 
was in progress, for " blowing up the river Thames, and drowning the 
" ^^itbful Protestajat city of London ?*' Yet credibility was given to, 
such s.tof'ie/9 ihs these, as may be seen in the second volume of Grey*s 
E^ui^ioatiop jpf Neal*s History of the Puritans. Search the records of 
parliament, i^i^d you will find, that in many petitions presented by the, 
Comfofyiis^ to iCl^les the first, the Catholics were charged with beiiig> 
the pcc(^ion of all public calamities, and their blood considered a re-i 
medy ifor all pubUc grievances. That of the CoiAmonsin 1628 reduces 
^ all publ^ misery to^the. increase of idolatry and superstition,** whicb^ 
Hyere the. !te.nns. given ito Catholicism., Xhen. again, as to in^iHrmers, 
swearing away the liy^s of the innocent, pan axSai'f^lel b^ found, f^t 



30 WEVIEW Of POX'S 

th^ enobunigemeht giveii to that inftiniocis of all informers Titua Oates^ 
■vrhb swore Away the lives cf innocent men wil& the most cold blooded 
YfUiany, ititd was honotifed^foir it with a gnard^ a i^nsion, and the title 
of Sa^tmr oftto NaiUm 9 1 !! As to a levl oath; Was not the oath of su- 
premacy inrtrariably pnt to the Catholic priests in Elizabeth's reign, and 
on Ihfeir refusing to take it, were they not sentenced to death } Is there 
n0t at thiS'dfty a UH oaihto keep Cathdlies from enjoying their here- 
ditary and common rights ? tliongh, as we shall prove in this Review, 
the' cbctrines sworn toin ihiStest, as danlnable and idolatrous, were 
believed and taught by the martyrs of John Fox, under the persecutions 
of the Roman emperors, and who are called by him ''GODLY." Now 
if l^ey were idbkiert, and Frdte^tants on taking office at this day under 
theBritlflAk 'government «toear they ti^^ 's&, they could not be *' godly /* 
and ooBSequently Jblm Ibx, by caUing them ^^ godly** must condemn 
ibe impiety of those who charge them with'practices that arcf considered 
a»'mei4ting eternal perdition: 

^The first of the martyrs Sjpeclfled by Fox is Dionysius, the areopa- 
gite, whom he describes as titivelMng into iBgypt to study astronomy, 
and there " made very particiilar observations on the great and super- 
** natural eeUpSe,-wlii<)h happened at the time of our Saviour's cruci- 
^ fixion. On his fe^Bfti to Aden's '(Fox continues) he was higlily ho- 
** noured by the people, and^t length promoted to the dignity of sena- 
'' tor of that eelebrat^ dty.'* How the toaftyrologist came'to be sd 
well acquainted with the travels of St. Dionysius, or Denis, as he is 
commonly caped, he> does^ not teH tfs. Vfe have neither dates nor 
adthbrs. The Rev. Alban Bntter mrs&es but litii^ mention of him. 
We are infermed by liiis author, on the authority of Tillemont, that he 
was converted throtigh the eloquent^ df St.. Paul; iiirhen that apostle wtu^ 
smnmmied to give an account off his doctrine. In the Areopagus at 
Athens, of which great council Dfonyisius was a distinguished membeh 
From Rollin's Ancient History, and Potter's Antiquities of Greece, we 
leartt that the AreopngiJis was so called fWmi the HUl of ifar^, without 
the walls of Athebis, where it assembled. The number of members 
was not Mfil^ited; lis it sdmetimes consisted of two- or three hundred, 
thoogh when first instituted there were only seven. For a considerable 
pefi<3/no one was allowed to be a meniber of this council, 'who had 
not sefV<^ the office of supreme magistrate Of the commohwealtl:i ^ nor 
wlU3 any one to be adopted whose morieds were not of the strictest 
and most irreproachable clmracter. Its meetings were ftlways held in 
the night; and the severity of its proceedings 'made itis judgments ex- 
treinely dreaded, while its decisions were looked upon by the peojple as 
oi^eles. Though Plato is said to have dreaded the examination of his 
theories by this coundl of sagds, St. Paul appeared before it With an un- 
ilaanted eourage, and explained the great truths of Christianity with an 
eloqnence <^at charmed (^ese masters of oratory and philosophy. Many 
of them were moved with the sanctity and sublimity of the new doc- 
trine' and the marks of a omNE mission with which St. Paul delivered 
hiniliielf 3 and among the test, Dibnysiu^^ one of the most learned and 
ttrtuobs of tliis illustrious assembly, became a convert. He was af- 
ternMrds appointed Inshop of Athens by St. Paul, and received the 
crorwll of maityyddm in the city, Which had so long witnessed his emi*^ 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 31 

Dent virtues even when a Pagan. The converwii of Hds great man 
conveys a strong proofs we think, of the divine essence .of true reli- 
gion. That Dionysius was not a Protestant martyr we coQsider clearly 
demonstrated by his body being sent by pope Innocent the third to the 
abbey of St. Denis^ near Paris^ where it is held in great veneratioo. 
This abbey is the burial place of the kings of France. 

Nicomedes^ whom Fox calls^ '' a Christian of some distinction .at 
" Rome/* was a holy priest, and consequently a Catholic martyr.-— 
The next mentioned are Protasius and Gervasius^ who> the niartyro* 
logist says, ^' were martyred at Milan j but the particiidar circum- 
*' stances attending their deaths are not recorded.** ' This is very true, ; 
but John had better have passed these two martyrs ov^ in silence, aa 
he had nothing to record of them. St. Ambrose, the eminent and 
learned bishop of Milan, style these saints the protomartyrs of Milan> 
and says they were beheaded for the faith, St. Austin, ix>th'in his S2d 
book Of the City of God, (c. viii.) and in his Co»/etfi6iu {Ivix.c. 7), 
makes mention of these martyrs, and states that many miracles were 
performed at their tomb, which is confirmed by St^ Ambrose. That 
they were not Protestant martyrs is clear by churches- being raised to 
their memory in Catholic countries^ and their festival bdag CMame-* 
inorated by the Catholic church on the 19th of June. 
< We have but one other martyr recorded by Fox under this perseeu-* 
tion, who is JSt. Timothy, the beloved disciple of St. Paul, and bishop 
of Ephesus. He gives a pretty correct account of the travels of this 
saint, and details the maxmer of his death as foUows : " At this period 
** (A.D. 97) the Pxigana were about to celebrates feast icalled Catago*- 
** gion, the principal ceremonies of which were, that the people should 
** carry sticks An their hands, go masked, and bear about the streets the 
*^ mages of their gods^ When Timothy met the procea3ion, he severely 
*^ reproved them for their idolatry, which so eiba^perated ithem> that 
'' they fell upon him with their clubs, and beat him in so dreadful a^ 
'/ maimer, that he expired of the bruises ttoodays nfier" This martyr- 
dom of St. Timothy oi^ght not to be placed under the p^seciifttion of 
Domitian, as it occurred under the reign of his successor. Nerva. - We 
may here remark too the flippant way in whichxthe nelation is given. 
The Pagans "were about to celebrate a feast," whei^asit appears they 
were actually celebrating it. Again, one of the -ceremonies was to 
carry sticks, which are afterwards converted into clubs* Such is the 
way Fox tells his tales, and yet the most unbounded oredit has^hitherto 
been given to him by the people of this country. The real- fact is, as 
gathered from the writings of Eusebius^ St. J^rom, St. Isidore, and 
Folycrates, the people of Ephes^is used, to keep a festival in honour of 
the goddess Diana, during which a oumbei^ 'SIroBg and desperate 
men paraded tlie streets> carrying an- idol representing that goddess 
in one hand and a club of iron in the other. With tha»r cktbithiey: Would 
etrikethose they met, and frequently with^such vio)e«iceft«r to^caiiee the 
death of the parties. For this^ the hcdy bishop Timothy <^harply rep mvcd 
them, saying, the god who was pleased with- such sto.crificciis wsts no 
god. He also recommended them to abandon the worship of Diana 
and adore the true God. This conduct the Pagans resented, and stoned 
Jiinrto death. The Catholic church to this day commemorates his fes* 



S« REVIEW OF FOX. 

tival <Mi the 3'4tfc bf January/ the day on which he was 'maytyred^ so thai 
Timothy was not a Prbtestant saint and martyr. 

We must here mention that^ by Domitian's orders, St. John the apos- 
lie and evangeHst^ was put into a cauldron of boiling oil, Mrithout the 
Latin gate at Rome, but came out uninjured. After this miracle he 
was banished to Patmos, a small barren island of the Sparades, only five 
mil^s in circumference, where he wrote the Apocalypse or Book of Re- 
velations. In the early part of Christianity, as at the present day« 
there were persons who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. These 
were Jewish converts, the chief of whom were Ebion, Cerinthus, and 
Nicholas of Antioch. To coi^te and silence these heretical declaimers, 
St. John Wrote his gospel, at the request of the bishops of Asia. In 
this undertaking he did not write that every individual might put what 
construction he pleased upon his words, but to declare what was the 
true fiuth which had already been delivered^ and to give a circumstan- 
tial account of some facts in the life of our Saviour, which the other 
evangelists had omitted, thereby to prove that none but God could 
have performed such extraordinary thmgs. St. John also wrote three 
epistles, one to all the Catholics in general, the second to a certain 
lady, whom he styles ** the lady elect,'* and the third to one Gaius. The 
effect of all these is, to shc^w the certainty of the Catholic faith, and to 
eithort them to continue stedfieist to the things which they had Kimlt^ 
taught bv him and the other apostles. '^That which you have heard 
^* from the beginning (he says) let it abide in you.'* (Ist epist. ii. 24.)' 
^ This is the commandment^ that as you have heard from the beginning 
" you walk in the same, because many seducers are gone out into the 
'^ world.'* (^. epist. 6, 7*) ' Th^ heathens admired the sublimity of St. 
John's diction, and a Ilatonist, speaking of what was written in his 
gospel of the maj^ty of the divine Word, that is of Jesus Christ, said 
it ought to be engraved in letters of gold, and placed in all the 
clmrches. 

It is also worthy of note, that Josephus the historian, about this pe- 
riod finished his two books against Appion, in which he defends, with 
much erudition^ his Jewish Antiquiiies, He divides this work into 20 
tomes, in the 18th of which, copter 4th, is the following striking 
testimony of the miracles of Christ: ''There was about that time 
^* one Jesus> a wise man; if at least a man he may be called. He was 
" a great worker of miracles, and teacher of such men^ as would 
" readily embraee the truth, and had many followers, both Jews and 
" €rentiles.< This was the famous Christ, who upon the accusation of 
'^ the princes and great men of our nation was crucified by Pontius 
" Pilate ! and yet those that first loved him did not forsake him i for he 
^ appeared to them the third day alive again, as had been foretold by 
" several prophets, with other wonders that he wrought, and the race 
" of Christians, who are so called from him, remain to this day." 

Joeej^us was bom in the first year of Caius Caligula, and was a 
great commander for the Jews against Vespasian, to whom he after- 
wards submitted and became a great favourite. 



A REVIEW 
JFinr'iS ilooft Of mnvtsvi, 

- CHITICAI/ AND HISTORICAL. 

.ici,.p». Price dd. 



I EifamAviNo,— JV Smmh HmcK ma a 



■McEqaolu. Tit nurtyr bemgli^ mliM , .__, _, 

t. •nd kit 1^ aena, hit armt and kgi ven hnnd wiM ciirdt, eaUed Fidicule, 
i being dram bg puUe^i aid aktdi, or wmiUiuKi, duUrttd and diiiocaltd Ut tody. 
•dtkeftet, md^tnUrtcff the n^hrf tilt b>a. Bit nda tctrt mn uilh hulu aid 
sni, and html iMtk lorcfcei. He MarQm ^^ % Mwral kwrl in tUi maqrlai cent- 
m cjquutle torlure. By tfte turnii^ i/ MC tordt and pallevi, hu bdy ihi (m/uU 
._ the unu: beonUi wAich opmcd/br IMI fMHTOic. Jwl uUbl u fcuw ty Ait lq(f onit 
w iy the ciird> hcloa the Mum, ke muinUmfated (w (lie j'lutite. 'Jkutpectetd/'lin 
I «u erercued with the mati vmtm bmrbarUy bs jVntUtwili in EluabA'i revm.- 

mrd CoMpion, ajctuit, ma I'--- — - -'-- — — — ■ — - '- - '■-'-- ■> 

athment iff death, and /other 
M (hn he^g Cath«ticprieiti. 

THE THIRD PRIMCnVE PERSECUTION UNDEH THE ROMAN 
EMPERORS. 

Sachis the head '^ven by Fox to his Bccoimtof the thinl peneco* 
tion wUch the Christian church had to Buffer. He Mys, " Between 
" the second and the third Roman persecution was but ONE YEAR. 
" Upon Nerra succeeding Domitian, he gave a respite to the Christians ; 
" but reigning only thirteen months, his successor Trajan, in (he tenth 
" year of his reign, and in A, D. 109, began the third persecution 
" against them." Bafbre We proceed any further, let us examine this ' 
short account beregh'en. The Christians, we are told,- had only one year 
of peflce; niid tbm It Is direcUfy Mated that the penecution did not be- 
gin till lb« tenth ywr of TndM snd that he night convey acme air'of 



4< 



84 iiE View Off poxs 

authority, he meption^ the year,, nam^ 108., BuJ if the pj^rjecution 
did not 4^i|l till, tl^j^ <€?»iA year , of jTrJ^ r-cign^ and ilerva reigned 
thirteen months^ have we not^ according to ^ox*s account, a period of 
eZ«;6» year* instead of one of peace ?' However he is not to be relied 
upon, a9 we have made clear, and it would have been better ibr him 
to haiV^ avoided -da^^j here, as he did in his account of the (^(^o fpr^ 
mer^xerdecutions-^.foxDneof the martyrs he has nan^ed, that is St. 
IgjTifUitis^ was condenuied by Trajftii himself^ m^ M^r^ li) I07» ^)^\fr^ 
iis a year )^f(yre the tioie fixe0 for the commencement of thie per^ecUj 
tioft by fox.. He, then goe$ on--^'' Plini^s.SfMai&duSi a heathen philps(h 
'' pher,, wrote to the^enftp^isory iii^ itiM^mr i4 ^ ^ Christians^ staUng thaii 
*', he found nothing ol^ectionable in their condactj ^ and that ' the wholj^ 
^' sum. of their error consisted In ihis, that they i|;rere wont %t certain 
*', tkae§ appointed, to jneet before day, and tq ^uig cei:taiii hyinE^ to 
*' ofie Chrijiit their God : and to confedersit^ among, thep^elveipi,, ]U> ^^"^ 
i jstaitt' from all theft, ifm^tden^, and a4uUery ^ ta l;;ee{i ii^eir %ith, and 
^todefra^ no.m^: t^rl^ich don^, then t^o depart for thf t .ttme^ l^d 
^^t(eEWards io resort a^a^ to take meat ip cpmpiifiies. together, tn>th 
'^;meu md 1!^^, <«»e *Wit^ another, and yettoUhf^t, ii^iact, ^ml'\ 
'^. 1^ ibis €pWd^ Tr^An' teturned this inde^ifiwi^ s^ncurer.; ^ThfU Clb^ris^ 
^f 4!ifMi« ou^t, iMPt 1^ Be soiught after, but wh^i^ibi^QUf^t b^f^re t|i« m^a-^ 
^i^stracy they shoiild be pu^nished.* Provol^d. by thisi )repiy,.T:9itj^\' 
^{^n e^ciaim^j,. ' Q coi^sed ' sentence I. he wpifld libt k&ve tn^^ 
^'.^Ai^ht fc^* a^ it{Qocen(me^,\imd yet would have theca piwi#hf4 
^Ikfpamf'^* The emperors igpoiierenianswer« h»yfefvet^oi^c$i^^^^.^t 
^hp^9^mtim In soiane measuie 4p abate, as hi^ officers were ^c|^^n, 
1- tf -they carried It on with teverity^ Ww he might choose tio wrest Jfa^ 
own meanlng^'-^Trajan, faowev^, soon 'alter wrote. to Je^99lep^, and 
gave orders to exterminate the stoc^ of David ; in consequence 6f 
'^ whichi all that ^'Ould be found of tl^at rac^.^ere put to d^th.^ i^bout 
'^ this perwd (he adds) the -emperor Trajan was sucqeeded by Adrian; 
" wUp cQatinu^ the persecat^m with the .'greatest rig;our/* 

HqW men, who consider- themselves so superior, in point cxt.wisdo&i 
aind knowledge, to those who believe in the Catholic faith, shQUld be 
soeasUy impjDi^4 upon ^y such ^ r^dpm relatloa f^s t^is, i^.truj|y.'a 
matter of 'aston»sAimettt«. And yet this work of John fox has ]b^n„.^r 
more than these two centuries, looked upon with .neady the same^e- 
grpe of credit (is the. gospel itself.— We are told by the martyrolo^t, 
that '* about this period the cnaperor Trajan was succeeded by Adma.'* 
Now what are we to understand by the two words ''this period V*— 
^Sheonky time stated in. the pasiages; quoted Is tb^ yetkr ]|;08iil]^t,7^aa 
reigned. nine years and. a half aftor ithat/date ; dni Adi|^ i^f^^y-ftff^o 
ytics all^t. oto month.. ..The moat aiUhevy^c 4iift(Mri4n3' relate, tfliat 
Trajan, relented his c^fueltiea before ^ia dfiatli^-jmd AdrwP diA.'9o|^>Ji^9crft 
any fresh :odid»,.ii«r did the ehui;eh jBttfecgcierousjliy juntpi the> }%tfo^ 
emperor faiid^fiUedstiie iinperial throne ei^hfc}re8J».*-:r^iibei06P4tS}6ni^^ 
<revivid of the fjeraecuifon. by Adrian, )is.fta;feed «by EeWi-Kl M^fifti^i^ 
ocoa8i<sn«l by the inftaaous ^ves ofitl^ Gttoakicft a»4iPtkA( J^rmfPi 
wiiddieiobigalsotbeviiame o£ QuiMifnto«.brDugU;0dteilWftn4:^9^9'^^^ 
Iiiiiihr^»nife^i0a4>£;the.tew Qk&t.W* toi«i(9e||ini\tQ^J;ita«WT 

tyrd«igist's acco>ttnt of Trajan s ddpiicity. He s^s) that 'Awhile the 






BOOK OF MART\ RS. 55 






€€ 
€f 
€€ 



persecution raged Plinius Secundus^ a heathen philosopher, wrote to 
the emperor in favour of the Cliristians/* Now John JFox must be a 
very ignorant or a very impudent writer, for this Plinius Secundiis, the 
heaihen ^philosopher, was no less a personage than Pliny the younger, 
the governor of the "Roman provinces of.!Ponttt& and Bythinia, so caUed 
to 41stix^aish hUxi tfom his uncle, Pliny the naturalist. Thus we see 
Fox coim>unding the nephew witli the uncle, as. we prt)ved him, in 
our second DunnJber, p. .27, making two ouurtyrs out of one person. In 
these provinces, it appears, the Christian religion had spread with as- 
tonishing- rapidity, and its professors were so eager to lay (Iowa their 
lives in support of the Divine Truths, that Pliny was at a loss how to 
act 'towards them. He therefore consulted Trajan by letter, and be- 
sides the honourable testimony given by this heathen governor to Chris- 
tian morality, to the progress of Christianity, and the undaunted 
courage of its proselytes, he also gives an account of the apostasy of 
others, who were base enough to blaspheme the Saviour of the world, 
and sacriftce to idols, to escaj)e a little transitory piin. — '' While these 
"^ things went on ia this manner," writes this governor of Trajan, "the 
" error, as is usual, spreading farther, several cases occurred- A libel 
" was put into my hands with a list of several persons by name ac- 
cused of Christianism ^ who when they denied, that they either were, 
or had been Christians, and in my presence invoked the gods, and 
offered up wine and Incense to your statue, which for that purpose I 
^'had commanded to be brought with the images of the gods^ and 
*' moreover had cursed Christ, which they say, one can nevei^ force a 
*^ good Christian to do, I dismissed then). Others accused, said they 
'^ had been Christians, but had left off being such, some of then) these 
" three years, some a great many years ago, and one no less than 
'^ twenty-five years. All these adored your unage, the statues of the 
*^ gods, and also cursed Christ.^* But though these unhappy persons 
forsook the truth, through fear or interest, or' some other worldly mo- 
tive, yet Pliny says, they bore witn<$ss to the purity of the rites atid 
cereimonies of the true religion. 

Fox and his editors blame the duplicity shewn by Trajan in bis 
answer above, but his conduct is not more blameable than that pur- 
sued by Protestant ascendency-men. Indeed the situation of the 
Catholics under '^^ Protestant ascendency*' in this country, forms. a 
strikinrg similarity to that of the primi|;ive Christians under Pagan 
ascendency. In the rei^ of Elizabeth, sneh was the terror excited 
by the penal laws against Catholies, that many were induced to prac- 
tice occasional conformity to the new church service to save their lives 
and estates. When taken up before the magistrates they had only to 
-forswear their conscience, by taking the oath of supremacy, and, like 
the apostate Christians before Pliny, they w^re dismissed. Even at 
thifr day let a Catholic, ever so immoral jond wicked ia his life, but 
renounce what are called the errors of popery, and he instantly becomes 
a good Protestant^ whilst his apostasy is trumpeted forth in all the pu)>- 
Itc prints as • a circumstance worthy of pr^se. When the CathoUcs 
peimio^ to be placed upon the same dvil equality as their neighbours, 
beJBg now in a state of debasemetLt, e^dndvely on account of ^eir 
religious doctrioe^ are Ibey not answered by '* Protestant asq^ndency;^' 



ft 
<( 
■ tt 



€( 



36 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

that they have perfect freedom of conscience and perfect toleration^ 
though they are punished with the loss of their civil immunities for 
exercising the freedom of conscience ? What can we say to this sys- 
tem of duplicity, but in words similar to those used by TertuUian — 
O confused and unjust sentence ! you make the crime to punish the 
person 3 and when he solicits to be relieved from this punishment, 
you tell him he is not in a state of infliction !** Oh ! admirable '* Pro- 
testant ascendency/* 

But let us now look to the martyrs recorded by John Fox unde^r this 
persecution. The first is thus stated: — " Phocas, bishop of Pontus, 
refusing to sacrifice to Neptune, was by the immediate order of Tra- 
jan^ cast first into a hot lime-kiln, and being drawn from thence, was 
thrown into a scalding bath, till he expired.*' We might suppose 
that the hot lime-kiln was sufficient to cause death to the martyr, with- 
out the scalding bath, unless indeed he was preserved in the first in- 
stance by the hand of Omnipotence. We have seen that St. John the 
evangelist was preserved without injury in the cauldron of boiling oil, 
not that he might immediately undergo death by a different mode, but 
. that he might live to bear testimony io the divine Truths he was com- 
missioned by God to teach. The account is absurd on the face of it, 
for certainly some reason should have been given for the martyr's 
escape from the first torture said to have been inflicted. But what will 
the reader say, when he is informed that John Fox has fallen into a 
gross error, and that the person here described as a bishop aud suffering 
under Trajan by bein^ scalded alive, was a gardener of Sinope, in the 
. province 0^ Pontus, who suffered about the year 303, in the tenth per- 
secution under Dioclesian, by being beheaded. He has, according to his 
usual custom, confined himself to bare assertion ; we, on the contrary, 
have examined authorities \ and we find in the Rev. Mr. Butler'^s Lives 
of the Fathers, Martyrs, &c. an account of St. Phocas, collected from. 
Ins panegyric, written by St. Asterius, and another written by St. 
Chrysostom, T. ii. ed. Ben. p. 704, Ruinart. p. 627. This account 
says, "St. Phocas dwelt near the gate of Sinope, a city of Pontus, and 
, " lived by cultivating a garden, which yielded him a handsome subsist- 
ence and wherewith plentifully to relieve the indigent .... His house 
was open to all strangers and travellers who had no lodging in the 
place 3 and after having for many years most liberally bestowed the 
*' fruit of his labour on the poor, he was found worthy also to give his 
" life for Christ* Though his profession was obscure, he was well known 
*' over the whole country by the reputation of his charity and virtue.'* 
. It theh goes on to say, tliat when a cruel persecution was suddenly 
raised in the church, probably that of Dioclesian in 303, Phocas was 
immediately impeached as a Christian, and such was the notoriety 
of his pretended crime, that he was orj^red to be put.^to death without 
the formality of atrial. This was executed, by striUing off his head, 
under circumstances wherein his hospitality and courage were peculiarly 
displayed towards the executioners who were sent to dispatch him. 
. The memory of this 9uirtyr, we are assured, was held in the highest 
veneration by the .Catholics in the Euxine, ^gean, and Adriatic 9^&s, 
'. and particularly by the sq.ilorSj who sung hymns to his honour. It is 
related iiy St. Asterius,. bishop of Amasea, about the year 400, in 'a 



f( 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. f S7 

discoiurse which he pronounced on the festival of this martyr, '' that a 
** tcertain king of barbaHans had sent his royal diadem set with jewels, 
** and his rich helmet a present to the church of St. Phocas, praying 
" the martyr to offer it to the Lord in thanksgiving for the kingdom 
'* which his divine Majesty had bestowed upon hind.'- St. Chrysostom 
also, iI^one of two sermons^ preached by him on a great festival of this 
saint, says, " that the emperors left their palaces to reverence these relics 
'' (of St. Fhocas), and strove to share with the rest in the blessings 
'* which they procure to men." (See Butler,) This author fiirther states 
that '* the Greeks often style St. Phbcas hiero-martyr, or sacred martyr, 
'* which epithet they often give to eminent martyrs who were not bishops, 
" as Ruinart demonstrates against Baronius. From this account it is 
evidently manifest, that Fox is under a mistake in his relation 5 and it* is 
further manifest, that the primitive Christians practised veners^ting the 
relics and invoking the prayers of the saints and martyrs, as Catholics 
do at this day, while Protestants believe and swear such practices arel 
damnable and idolatrous. This point is necessary to be borne in mind^ 
as without such a retention on the side of the reader it will be impossible 
for him to come at the truth, and act the part of an impartial juror be- 
tween-Fox and our Review of him. While, however, we are detecting- 
the lies and errors of John Fox, it is but justice to the public that we 
should, to avoid cavil, point out an error in each of our preceding num- 
bers". In a great part of the impression of the first number" the^ com- 
positor put America for Armenia (see page 2, line 13 from bottom) ; 
iLud ' in our second number we have inadvertently, in page 1 9, named 
Lieo the l%th for Leo the 10th. These mistakes we have corrected in 
the latter impressions. ' 

'[jibe next martyr noticed by Fox is the great St. Ignatius, and his ac- 
count is as follows : '^ Trajan likewise commanded the martyrdom of 
'* Ignatius, bishop of Antibch. This holy man was the person whom; 
" when an infant, Christ took into his arms and shewed to his disciples 
^' as one that would be a pattern of humility and innocence. He received 
** the gospel afterwards from St. John the evangelist, and was exceed* 
^ ingly zealous in his mission. He boldly vindicated the faith of Christ 
'^ before the emperpr for which he was cast into prison, and was tor- 
*' mented in a cruel manner ] for, after being dreadfully scourged, he 
** was compelled to hold fire in his hands, and, at the same time, pf$>er8 

dipped in oil were put to his sides, and set alight. His fiesh was then 

torn with red hot pincers, and at last he was dispatched by being torn 

to pieces by wild beasts." 

Where Fox obtained his information respecting the infancy of St. 
Ignatius, and our Saviour*s exhibiting him to his disciples as a future 
pattern of humility and innocence, he does not tell us, and we have no 
doubt dfits being a fiction. Neither have we any substantial evidence 
that this martyr suffered the torments which the martyraiogist says he 
did. Echard writes, that some reported that he was subjected to the 
most severe and merciless torments 5 it is but justice, however, to the 
memory of Trajan, by whom St. Ignatius was condemned, to observe, 
that not a Catholic writer we have met with describes St. Ignatius as 
undergoing any torture but that of suffering death by wild beasts -, two 
£efce lions being let out upon ]ma, they instantly devoured him, leav- 



€€ 



ft 



98 REViEW OF FOX'S 

ing nothing but his large bones. Wbile^ however^ we doubt and evea 
deny the accuracy of this part of Fo^^'s statement^ we ace ready to al- 
low the correctness of Ids assertion, that this martyr " received th»^ 
" gospel from St. John the evangelist^ and was exceedingly zealous in 
" his mission^" Yes> we have it from the most authentic sourQe^ that 
St. Ignatius was not only a disciple of St. John> but also of SS* P^r 
and Paul, who united their labours in planting the faith of Christ at 
Autioch, and that he succeeded St. Peter in that see, after Evodius* 
Such a character was therefore well able to give an account of U^ doc-^ 
trine he was going to suJSer for, and. such an account he did give, though 
John Fox thought it best to tuppresi this very important fact* St. Igna- 
tius was condemned by Trajan at JnSoch, and his sentence was, *' It is 
our will, thai Ignatius, who says he carries the crucified J^m witliia 
him, be bound and conducted to Rome, to be there devoured biy wila 
'^ beasts, for the amusement of the people/* Consequently the good 
bishop had a long journey to undertake, during which it will appear 
that his zeal in his mission was not in the least abated. On his arrival 
at Smyrna, he had an interview with the holy bishop of that place? Poly<* 
carp, of whom we shall have to speak hereafter. Here also St. Ignatius 
wrote four epistles to the Christians of four different churches, nanqelyt 
the Ephesians, the Magnesians, the Thrallians and Romans. At Troas 
he wrote three other epistles, one to the church of Philadelphia, th^ 
second to that of Smyrna, and the third to St, Polycarp* It was also 
his intention to have written to some other churches in Asia, but notf 
being allowed time, he commissioned St. Polycarp to do it for him. 

We have observed, in our introductory remarks, that the doctrines 
of Christ were openly taught, both by himself and his apostles^ that they 
w^re attested by miracles of the most.extrabrdinary kind, and such as 
could not be wrought but by a divine hand ] that by these superne^tural 
occurrences an appeal was made to public opinion, which was so far 
fsonvincing, that in spite of all the powers of the world, and the work-* 
lugs of the human passions, these doctrines, combined with the purest 
system of morality, made the most rapid progress amount mapkiiid, 
and in nations differiiig in customs and hajbiu, yet preserving the s^ipe 
unity in faith. ** The Christian religion,'* writes the llev. Mr. Echavdj 
prebendary pf Lincoln, in his Qeneral Jj^cckmstical History, '^wa,s ^9W 
*^ (A. P. 101) spread through the greatest part of Europe, Asis^, i^d 
*' Africa, extending from the British islands to the farthest Indies^ ^pd 
fixing not only in citjies Bfxd populous places, but also in Iqwivs wd 
country villages, as Pliny himself testifies. The TfieiFG^Wpm cities 
were a]l under bishops of the greatest eminency and piety ) and the 
four great cities of the Homan en^pire, Ilome, Alexandria, AJiitlocb, 
'' and Jerusalem, usuajily styled apostolic churches, were governed by 
*^ apostolical men^, \iz* Evaristus in Rome, Cerdo in Ales^sindrii^ Jff^ 
*^ tins in Antioch, and Simeon in Jerusalem. Besides thjese;, we &iii4 
" Publius in Athens, Polycarp in Smyrna, Onesimus in J^phesoSj Papias 
" in Jlierapolis, with many others of primitive integrity. This was the 
<^ state of the church in the beginning of the second century, increasing 
^' and flourishing after a stupendous manner -, but grievoufly affliete4 
^^ on one side by the malice of the Jews and Pagaiis, and the presc^ni 
^' persecution under this emperor (Trajan), and no less wpvmded on tbq 






cr 

€€ 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 39 

'' other by the heretics,. the Simonians, the Gnostics^ the Menandrians, 
'' the Ebonites^ the Cerinthiant^ an'd the Nicolatians : yet still it stood 
'^ FIRM AS A ^OCK against all the powers of hell ; ihhwtig and tri" 
*' umphing in the glories of the utmost' purity and piety ^ 

We al'80 observed, that 'virhen the hostile powers of the world pre- 
vented the charch from assembling her depositaries of this Christian 
and immutable faith in genera) councils' or parliaments/ to define <ii^- , 
puted dogm^, thefe were idtvays to be found learned scholars and able 
Mrriters to defend the truth, and enable the people to shun th« snares of 
error. The first of these, in the second age of the church, Was our pre- 
sent martyr, whose death Fox hiis recbrded with much repletion, but 
has passed 6v^r the most important acts of his life. This it is tibso- 
lutely necessary to fill up, or the reader will not be able to discover 
the truth, which we are desirous he shoiild, for without such knowledge 
judgment will be made on false premises. At this time, as related by 
Echard, there were many teachers of erroneous doctrines, and it was to 
cautibn the true Christ iians against being deceived by these seducers 
that St. Ignatius wrote to the different churches founded by the 
apostles. In his epistle to the Ephesians he says, '' Let no one de- 
'* celve himself J if he be not within the inclosnre of the altar, he is de- 
prived of the bread of God. There are deceivers who talk hiiich of 
God, but do things unworthy of him : these you must avoid as yourv 
" would the approaches of so many wild beasts -, for they are mad do^s 
*' who h'M unawares : against whom you must guard yourselves,' as 
" men hardly to be cured. There is but one Fhysician corporeal and 
•' spiritual, made and riot made ; God in man ; true life in death j first> 
" passible then impassible -, evert Jesus Christ our Lord . . . Our GOl) 
" jfedus Christ. . .'. was conceived in the womb of Mary of the seed of 
David, but by the Holy Ghost . . . Now the virginity of Mary, her 
bringing forth a thild, and the death of our Lord were kept secret from 
the prince of the world. ' How then became he maniflsst to the world? 
A Star shoh^ out of the heavens, with a brightness beyond all other 
stars ... to which the sun knd moon ^itH ftll the leaser lights were 
the choru^ . . . Hence the power of magic grew faint, and every bond 
" of Ivickedness dissolved away." From these words it is incontro- 
vertible that this martyr, who was a discfjile of the apostles, be- 
lieved and taught the divinity and incarnation of Christ the second 
"person of the holy Trinity. These mysteries then' were part of t&e 
revelations th^ apo^tlei were commanded' io carry throughout the 
w:orld, and this fact\d also Worthy of notice, that not d single nation 
wascoriverted to Christianity without believing in these mysteries: " ' 
In his epistle to the people of Mognesiat, he exhorts th^ni to urtity m 
* their faith,' ^hlch is one of the fbur marjcs of ther true church. He 
writes, "Avoiding heterodox opinions, and useless fables-^labour tO 
•*'\>e strengthenediri the doctrines ot thfe Lord and of the apostles, in 
" order tmit ybti prosper in all things, iti body and spirit, m iktth and 
" charity— ^together with your respectable bishop, the united College Of 
" priests, and holy deacons. Be subtoissive to the bishop and to one 
" another, as Jesus Christ, according to the fleshy was to hJs Father, 
'" Imd the apostles to Christ, and to the Faihpr and the Holy Spirit— 



€4 
'€« 

€t 



40 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

'' that your union be in body and spirit.** ^p ad Magnesios Inter PP. 
jipost, t ii.p, SSI. Ed Amstelcedami, 1724. 

This unity is preserved in the Catholic church by all the clergy 
and laity dispersed throughout the whole universe acknowledging the 
bishop of Rome to be its head^ which Protestants deny. Many even 
. doubt that St. Peter ever was at Rome> though John Fox admits that 
he was there put to death, and buried. Others say» that as St. Peter 
raised the see of Antioch before he established that of Rome> the 
bishop of Antioch ought to have the supremacy. St. Ignatius however^ 
who must have been a better judge of the rights of his church, as he 
was cotemporary with the apostles, knew diflFerent, for in directing his 
aforesaid epistles he makes a distinction in fovour of Rome, as having 
a supremacy. In saluting the former churches he writes, *' To the 
" blessed church which is at Ephesus : at Magnesia near the Maeander : 
" at Tralles: at Philadelphia: at Smyrna:*' but, in that to the Romans, 
he changes his style, and addresses his letter : " To the beloved church 
" which is enlightened (by the will of Him who ordaineth all things 
^' which are according to the charity of Jesus Christ our God), which 
" presides in the country of the Romans, &c. (See Butler* s Saints' Lives, 
Feb, 1.) That St. Ignatius held the doctrine of the real presence in the 
Eucharist and Mass,ortransubstantiation, is also clear from his epistles 
to the Smymeans and Romans. To the first he writes thus of the 
Gnostic heretics : they '^ abstain from the Eucharist and from prayer, 
'' because they do not acknowledge the Eucharist to be the flesh of 
"' our Saviour Jesus Christ, which suffered for our sins, and which the 
^' Father by his goodness resuscitated. Rejecting therefore the gift of 
'* God they die in their disputes.** Ep. ad Smym. p. 36. 7*. ii. PP. 
Apost, Amstekedami, 1794. To the latter, '' I take no delight in food 
*' that perishes, nor in the pleasures of this life. What I desire is the 
'^ bread of God, the heavenly bread, the bread of life, which is the 
** flesh of Jesus Christ the son of God, who was bom of the seed of* 
*' X)avid ; and I desire to drink of God, his blood, which is charity in- 
^' corruptible and eternal life.** Ep, ud Rom, p* 29. Is it possible to 
inake words more plain and distinct on this article of Christian faith? 
yet Protestants not only reject it, but in this country they are compelled 
to disavow on oath what St. Ignatius had received from the apostles^ ' 
and are deemed ineli^ble to civil office until they have, made a declara- 
tion of ito being damnaUe and idolatrous. Of course John Fox could 
have no claim to St, Ignatius as a martyr of his church ^ he belongs to 
the Catholic church, which believes in this doctrine and commemorates 
his memory to this day, by offering up that sacrifice of the mass to his 
honour, which he himself used to offer to God in honour of the saints 
and martyrs who preceded him. 

Without entering into a doctrinal disquisition^ these matters are 
well worthy the consideration of the reader desirous to find the truths 
only as historical facts; because they shew what was the belief of the 
primitive Christians, and will enable him to distinguish between what 
was then and what is now taught. These writings of St. Ignatius may 
be denied, as indeed that proving the real presence was denied by Joha 
Calvin, but they cannot be disproved. Dr. Pearson/ the learned Pro* 






BOOK OF MARTYRS. 41 

testant bishop of Chester^ most ably refuted the sophism of Calvin^ and 
" the whole seven epistles^ the. same which were quoted by St. Irjenaeus^ 
'^ Origen^ Eusebius, St. Athanasius^ St. Chrysostom> Theodoret^ Gildas^ 
" &c. are published genuine/* writes Mr. Butler, " by Usher, Vossius, 
" Cotelier, &c. and in English by archbishop Wake in 1710." A copy 
of St. Ignatius* works is we believe to be seen in the college at Man* 
" Chester. 

St. Symphorosa and her seven sons are next recorded; but here the 
martyrologist commits another mistake. He says they "were com- 
" manded by Trajan to sacrifice to the heathen deities/* whereas ac- 
cording to the most authentic writers the martyrdom of this hbly 
widow and her sons did not take place till late in the reign of the em- 
peror Adrian. Trajan's persecution continued partially during the 
first year of the reign of his successor, when Adrian put a stop to it^ 
being moved, according to conjecture, by the apologies of Quadratus 
bishop of Athens, and Aristides, a Christian philosopher of that city, 
as well as by a letter written in favour of the Christians by Serenius 
Granianus, proconsul of Asia. St. Quadratus, speaking of the prodigies, 
performed in testimony df the divine essence of the Christian reli- 
gion, says, " But as to the miracles of our Saviour, they always re- 
mained, because they were real and true. The sick cured, and the 
dead by him raised, did not only appear restored, but they remained 
so both whilst Christ was on earthy and long after he was departed^ 
" so that some of them have come down to our time.** Trajan died in 
1 1 7> and Echard notes the death of Symphorosa and her* sons in 125, but 
Butler, who takes the account from the genuine acts in Ruinart, place^a^ 
their martyrdom later. This latter author says, that after some respite 
had been granted to the church, it was again subjected to persecution, 
in consequence of the Pagans involving the Christians in the disgrace 
which the Jews drew upon themselves in their last rebellion, which 
gave occasion to the final destruction of Jerusalem in 134. Adrian^ 
towards the end of his reign, erected a magnificent country palace at 
Tibur, now Tlvoli, sixteen miles from Rome, which he furnished with 
the most curious articles he could collect out of the different provinces. 
On completing the building he wished to dedicate it by heathenish cere* 
monies, and offered sacrifices to induce the idols to deliver their oracles* 
But, writes Mr. Butler, the demons answered, ''The widow Sym- 
^'phorosa and her seven sons daily torment us by invoking their 
*' God ; if they sacrifice we promise to be favourable to your vows,*'— 
Adrian, in consequence of this answer, ordered the good widow and 
her sons to be brought before him, and when he found that neither 
threats nor torments were able to subdue the invincibility of her souT, 
he commanded her to be put to death, which was accordingly done b^ 
throwing her into the Tyber. The next day her sons were brought 
before him, when preserving the constancy of their mother, they were 
)Al put to death by the command of the tyrant, who soon after, namely, 
in 138, perished miserably himself. - 

The paragraph that follows is an admirable specimen of the confused 
mode John Fox adopts to enlighten his readers. " About this time (he 
" writes) Alexander, bishop of Rome, after flBing that office ten years; 
[' was martyred, as were his two deacons^ and also Quirinus and Hermes, 



^ ^^^^ O^ FOX'S, 

'r' \^ith their ^EupiHe^, Zef|on« a Ex)nian noblemaii^ and about ten thou* 
". sand other Christians/' ^ow inde^ni^e is this narrative. What are 
^e to un4er^tand by *'.Jli.putt)w time?^' We hav^ just proved, the in- 
accuracy q£ Fo]fL*a calculatiion ^wit^ respeet to St^ Symphorosa s death, 
which he s^yp topk placjs'in Trcyau 3. reigfp. anfi we tave proved ^om 
authority, must ^ye happened in tjiat of JVarian^ bo here, if we are 19 
suppose he alludes to tne time of iSymphorosa s martyrdom^ he has com* 
9utte<^ another error, ^t Alexander succeeded St. Avarifitiis la 109, 
and siifiEered in 119, coosequently he suffered in the second year of 
Adrian/ £^ is the first bishop o^ Rpme mentioned^by Fox after Stl 
]^eter aa suffering death ^r t^e.£subtih> though his predecessDrs in the pa- 
pal chair, Linus, Cletus, Clement, Anadetus, and £vari8t:us, all suffered 
9iartyjrdoni, That J^exander was not a Frotestant martyr is clear by 
his being named to this day in the canon of tl^e mass, and ranked the 
|ixth head 9^ the Catholic church from $t. Peter. Oi the other mar- 
tyrs named we can trace ho account; there is a $t, Quirinus in the Bo- 
inan martyrology, bui he sufiered in S(>4> and was a bishop^ therefore 
he had no family. 

THE FOURTH PERSECUTION, UNDER THE ROMAN EMP^B* 
RORS, WHICH COMMENCED' A.D.I 6^1 ^ 

• • • . , 

In this |^er«ecufion> whiph finds i^s place in the reign of Marcus Au* 
relius, the Chri^stiaps suffered much, which indiiced St. Justin, Ijflelito, 
Athenagoras and Apollinaris, to write apologies to the emperor, en« 
treating him to clemency. ' Fox says^ '' maiiy Chrisiiahs were marty r- 
f' ed, particularly in several parts o( Asiaj, and iq Frajncb.'' "Xhis lat- 
ter assertion is a base ^Uehood, there being no such country as 
France at this period, as we shall shew hereafter.' He next repeats the 
various modes of torture adopted by the Pagans to sVakje the constanc]^ 

J»f t^ Christians, but he 4oes not describe the system of truth l[hey 
bllovjred, and ^y wh'ic^ ^h'ey were distinguished ^rooi others laying 
cl^ip to tb^e same honourable tiile. This is a ^rand bmissioq^ "because 
|t ieiayes tne reader in astatWof ^norance, and shifts uponhioi the door 
pf thf tei^ple of trut;h. We have seen a work purporting to be wrii- 
|en ogaini^ the evidence of Christianity, and in favour of what is called 
Dei^m. The writer is bold m assertion> very ready in Rejecting {act's 
that be^ testimony to tiie diviniiy of the Catholic or Uniyersal rule of 
(u^ egually rieady in admitting otheir facts of an 9i^osite tendency, 
^ho^gUi pot a bit bet^r autl|ient|cate^ and confounds every ^iscord^nt 
l^f^eqln jKf term Chrutiani^y. |Iere is ^he source of erro^'j it fs the 
waut pf discriminatipi), th^ Rowing some unerring gMide to regufatf 
^ur wWdftfiog smBCA, that gives ifise to tl^is state of ignorance 09 
iniatters so necessary tp jhe happiness of mankindl When we're^^ct 
piat reljgip^ Iw ^^W fi'op *^^ ^?S^?^"W °^ ^^® if oVld, tBa^ 



jlay bajqish region from aoaopgst mankind* The *uh]beiiev<^r In * re- 
y^j^d religion professes to Ibe a lover of truth } (here b nothing ^b sa- 
cred in his eye, as this bright attribute of the l>eity;' bu^ HOW can 
^ 4iscpyer THE T^UfpT withoujt admitting ^OMEJ IIUJ.|; pR 



BOOK OF MARTYBS. 44 

GUIDE TO D](R£CT HI6 ^RUD ? Caa be of bimsdf Obtiun even 
the knowledge of aoundfi, sa as to coayer&e witix his fellow-map, with- 
out an imtrucior? He koowa it is iD(ipoa3ible, There ipost b^ apmie^ 
general rule, some authority^ to culiiyaAe tl^e i^d, aad if tbajt rujl^ 
or authority is departed fron^, man becondes a bjeiwilder^d being* To 
talk then of nature being the god of the deists is> lure tbi4^. Que, oi^ 
the grossest pieces of absurdity eter uttered. Mail to be sure cornea 
into the world by the law of nature, but he ia fitted tot sociftyby tho 
force of example^ and it i^as first by instructiou, and next by. the 
power of exaj(nple, aided by the demonstration of a divine hand, in per- 
ibrming acts, contrary to the law of niature, that the Pagan, the Jew, 
the Gentile, and the Philosopher, entered tlp^ pale of Christianity, and 
braved all the terrors of pain fuui death, to evince theii coi^v]9tion o^ 
its divine origin. 

The deiat contends^ that *^ Whatever is ujofolded to the mind of man 
" as a nattural truth, and tl^e operations of nature as to that truth ma4^ 
" visible to hipp^ he cannot reject he cannot evea dQubt it. Th^ im- 
" pression is as strongly fixed on his mind, and makes part of his niind^ 
** as is nose is on his &ce> and makes part of his face. But such ia not the 
" case (l^e says) with the pretended written revelations of the Deity; erery 
" inquirer who has mental capacity and candour is compelled, from the 
" want of evidence, to reject them, and the ^norant and interested alone ad** 
" HERE TO TflEM ." — We canuot but smile at the arrogance of these reject-* 
?rs of divine revelation, who have assumed all the common sense of the 
world to themselves, and make the greatest part of mankind no other 
than ignorant or interested fools ! ! ! There b certamly a want of can^ 
dour and mental capacity in this assertion, and we think the charge oj^' 
ignorance much more applicable to the asserter than to t^ose who are 
accused. But why the inquirer after divine reve^tions should be com« 
pelled to reject them, from a want of evidence, the deist do^s not prove t 
nor caa he bring forward a particle of rational evidepce in support c| 
his assertion. The way he attempts to xpake good his assertipn is, b¥ 
rejecting evidence as dear to the unprejudiced Christian, as a nafi^n^ 
truth caa be to th£ mind of the dei^t. The Christian has ayikoHty: for 
bis belief, and the deist must have the s^e for.ipany of his iiatmr4 
truths. For example, it is a uatural truth th^t the d^st had ^ ifatber 
snd mother to bring him into the ivprld, and y^% this t^r^^h )ie coul4 
not )earq of himself he could on^y haye it UQjft authmtyi or repelafwi^f 
He knows his £either and mpther he vfill ^y ^ but hotp cfui ^jp tell but 
by autJ^rity or revelation? i}e may talk as loifg as h^ Pl^lp9 ^Qtit i^ 
nat^l truth being made visible to himt bif^ afi^er al^ he cap ^noyr 
notkiag in the first instafice without mthority or rfvela^Unji^ t!an a I1U7 
man being know a dwelling-^Hou^ irom a born, vrithoiit beipg first 
told the difference between the tn^o buildixigs? Il^ey xuay be v\sUflf to 
bio^, but he could pot know the purpose^ for lyhich th^y ^^re j:^qulse4 
uatU he had applied to some authority for information. U^nce aiitbor 
rity or revelation is ev^ry thing with mankuid, and i^ should b^ ]j[ian*f 
study tp leani the source froii^ w)^nce that ai^thority or revelftiQif pVp^ 
ceeds; whether it is human or divine. ^Vhen man wa^ fir^ created^ 
he did not know from whence he sprung 3 the infonnation .^^s io^r 
ever reveaUd to hiip. He knew be 4d no( make himself, tljat he o^.e^ 



44 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

his existence to a power superior to himself. That power exacted an 
acknowledgment from/map^ and man rendered him sacfifice, as a mark 
of his obedience. Here was the first foundation of Rrligion. This' 
revelation was continued from father to son^ by a general tradition, 
but at length, a written law was given under circumstances clearly 
contrary to ^e operations of nature. The Jews then living beheld the 
scene before them 3 it was made visible to them, and the impression 
became as strongly staniped upon their minds as the nose upon their 
faces. They communicated this fact to their children, and from their 
children it was handed down to their children's children, who also had 
the impression fixed upon their minds, and it made a part of their minds 
ad much as any naturad truth could on that of the deist. It is believed 
by them to this day, ^nd they have better authority for believing in the 
old testament than the deist for disbelieving it. 

At a period foretold by holy men of the Jewish nation, the Messiah 
or Redeemer, whose appearance in human shape formed an essential 
part of the divine revelation, was announced; and to the first in- 
quirers after his divine commission, the gospel of St. Matthew says 
his answer was this : " Oo relate to John what you have HEARD and 
" SEEN. The blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the 
" deaf hear, the dead rise again, the poor have the gospel preached to 
** them.** (c. xi, 4, 5.) Here then was an appeal to their common sense; 
our Saviour did not bid them rely upon his sole word as man, but he 
bid them exercise their reasoning Acuities ; he referred them to the doc- 
trines ihey had heard, and the prodigies they had seen, and then he left 
them to say whether his revelations were or were not entitled to credit 
coming as they did from the mouth of one whom the winds and the 
sea, and even nature itself obeyed. And here, we will take the liberty 
to ask, if those who heard the sublimity of the precepts laid down for 
their guidance, and saw these wonders^ had not evidence sufficient to 
convince thie most sceptical? We are aware that the deist denies the 
existence of these miracles; but we must here retort upon him^ and 
tell him, by this line of conduct he shews his want of candour ^ by setting 
up his own single individual notions against the universal belief of the 
whole Christian world; and surely it is much more consonant to com- 
mon sense to believe what all the world has believed before us, than to 
reject this belief in the face of such incontrovertible testimony ? It is 
a common saying, ''What every body says must be true*' and this we 
consider as strongly applicable to the divine ori^n of Christianism. — 
After the consummation of the mission of the Redeemer, the men he 
had chosen ta carry his doctrines to all nations began to preach those 
doctrines in the face of a i^ople hitherto accustomed to a different sys- 
tem of discipline, and before others who were utterly ignorant of divine 
revelation. Their words were- accompanied with the performance of 
deeds that could ^ot be doubted^ and the example of their lives carried 
conviction of the sincerity of their doctrines. These are facts as well 
authenticated and as worthy of testiiAony, as any connected with the 
history of this country: nay, more so, because there is not a country 
in the world that has received Christianity but gives credit to these 
facts, whereas the incidents related as having taken place at certain 
periods in England^ are confined to writers living in the island. Why 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 45 

then should we doubt what all th^ world believes, yet give credit to 
what is related of only a small part of it ? This is evidently showing 
a want of mental capacity, and betrays an ignorance of history by no 
means creditable to the searcher after truth. However, considering 
the use that has been made of the press in this country since the pre- 
tended reformation of religion, it is not surprising that men shoidd 
write in this strain of arrogance and ignorance, upbraiding others for 
wanting that of which they are themselves destitute, as we have shewn 
by these remarks. We do not wonder tjiat deism has spread so much 
in this country, when such pains have been taken to disfigure THE 
TRUTH, through the use the press, of which Fox's Book of Martyrs 
is a striking instance. In the course of his detail of the primitive mar- 
tyrs we have not a single attempt to elucidate the doctrines they preach- 
ed, but only a recital of their sufferings, and that in a confused manner, 
frequently accompanied with falsehood. Hence father Parsons, almost 
prophetically observed, that from the beginning to the end. Fox " com- 
'^ monly setteth down nothing affirmative or positive of his own in mat- 
" ters of religion^ nor any certain rule what to believe 3 but only carp* 
** eth and scoffeth at that which was in use before ; so, as the reader is 
" brought into unbelief , distrust, and contempt of that which was ac- 
'' compted piety and religion by his forefathers^ and nothing certain 
*' taught him in pUice thereof, but only negative or scornful taunts, the 
'' proper means to make Atheists and Infidels.*' 

But It is time to leave this digression, and return to the examination 
of the martyrs. The first recorded under this persecution by Fox is St. 
Germanicus, whose astonishing constancy when delivered to the wild 
beasts, he says, caused many Pagans to become Christians, and exasperat- 
ed others to call for the death of St. Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna. Fox 
says, the holy bishop, ** was the scholar and hearer of John the evan- 
*' gelist, and was placed by him in Smyrna." This is very true, and so 
is the account g^ven of his martyrdom ; but why not Inform the world 
uihat it was he preached, and how he caine by the knowledge of his doc- 
trines? Then^ as is the case noti;, there were constant attempts made to 
corrupt the truth, which Christ promised should never be contaminated. 
According to the ecclesiastical history of Eusebius (1. v. e. 20.) we are 
told that when one FTorinus, who had often visited St. Polycarp, had 
broached certain heresies, St. Irenaeus wrote to him in the following 
terms : '^ These things were not taught you by the bishops who preced- 
" ed us. I could tell you the place where the blessed Polycarp sat to 
** preach the word of God. It is yet present to my mind with what 
*' gravity he every where came in and went out : what was the sanctity 
** of his deportment, the majesty of his countenance and of his whole 
" exterior, and what were his holy exhortations to the people. I see^i 
'^ to hear him now relate how he conversed with John and many others, 
" who had seen Jesus Christ; the words he had heard from their 
mouths. I can protest before God, that if this holy bishop had heard 
of any error lik^ yours, he would have immediately' stopped his ears, 
and crie^ out, according to his custom : Good God ! that I should be 
** reserved to these times to hear such things ! That very instant be 
" woul have fled out of the place in which he had heard such doctrine!" 
St. Polycarp embraced the gospel when young, "and was a minister 



« 



€< 



€€ 
«< 

f 

it 



i6 'kEMEVr OF FOXS 

/ 

tliereof about 7X) years, cbhseqaenCly he was fuUy cbifapetent to ascer- 
tain and teacIitHe truths of Christianity. That hfe was a C&tholie and 
not a Protestant^ is proved by a letter from the ehureh of Sinyrna to tlie 
'faithful ofPhiloinelia^ in which is related all that happened to the holy 
bishop, aiid it distinctly $ays that this illustrious disciple of St. John 
''offeried up his prayers for the members of the Whole Catholic churdh 
'^'dispersed throughout the w6rld.** ^pud Euseb. 1. iv. c. nv. 
ThVheKtm succession are thus mentioned: ^^ Metrodorus, a tninis- 
ter^ who preached boldly^ and Pionitis, i^ho m^e Some excellent 
apologies for the christian faith, were likewise burnt. Carpus aad 
Papilus, two worthy Christians, and Agathdnica, a pious Wbman, suf- 
fered martyrdom at Pergamopolis, in Asia, abdut the 'same period." 
We liave examined the Roman Martyrology, andean find no account 
lat all of the last named martyrs 5 but of Pionius we discover Jbhn Fox 
has made another mUtafceas to his periods. Pionius was a priest of 
Smyrna, but, according to the acts or his life, written by eye witnesses, 
and quoted by Eusebius, 1 . iv. c. 15, he suffered in 230, under the per- 
. gecution ofDcicius. There is nothing siald in the acts of Bt. Pionius of 
'his having made apologies for the Christian faith^ but he is described to 
have b^en a irvHy apostolic man^ exceedingly elbquent^ and well groulided 
In the d6i!ence of tnie-ireligibn. 

*F6x next gives an' account of the ihattyrdom of *' felicitatas, an il- 
*' lustrious Roman lady of a considerable family and great virtues,'* 
and her seven sons. He relates that the three younger sons were be- 
[ beaded, and that ^*' the -mother was beheaded with the' same sword.'*— 
*We have here another proof of the little credit due to Fox's veracity. 
From their gdntdne acts In Ruinart and Tillemoht^ t. ii, the martyr- 
*'dom of these' saints took place in the fourth "general persecution, under 
the emperor Antoninus Pius, who preceded Mai'cus Aurelius. — Neither 
Mve we any authbritv that the same sword was used in beheading the 
'mother wluch beheaded her three younger sbhs^'fbr she was not exe- 
cuted liH/our months after lier sons suffered. 

nWc now come to notice a martyr of no ordinary degree, namely, St. 
Justin^ the ^reai philosopher aiid eloquent apologist for the Christians. 
Fox 'states, '*'he was a native of Neapolis, in Samaria, and was born 
'^ A: D, 103. He had the hest education those limes could afford, and 
/' travelled into Egypt, the country where the polite tour of that age^ 
'' war miide fbr improvement. At Alexandria he was informed of every 
tbirig relative to the seventy interpreters of the sacred writings, and 
shewn the rooms, or rather cells, in which their work was perform- 
ed. Justin was a great lover of truth and an universal scholar.; he in- 
^ ^'' yestlgated' the Stoic and Peripatetic philosophy, and attempted the 
'/''Phythi^gbreau systeiaj but the behaviour of one of its professors dis- 
. /*gustlngbun,' he applied bimself to the Platonic, in which he took 
/*'*ff If cat delight. About the year 133^ when he was thirty years of age 
\'*"ne becatne a'c6hvert to Christianity.*' — From this account giv«o by 
**F6x,''w]bntcH is pretty correct, it is clear that St. Justin was not void of 



it 
it 




9ii9cbver tHe truth' an)^where else, and that he votuniarily embraced them, 



J 



tt 
it 



at fui age too wl^en t&emlnd.was in full vigour. Na^ tie diid . i^pre. 
After- having convinced himself of the tnysteries and truths.of the Chris- 
tian religiojB^ he texercjsed, his " mfntql capacity,** with zeal dnd perse- 
verance in def'fpijling tke systeif he had adopted after a laborious pur- 
suit« and ttis with such iforce and animation, as to set contradiction at 
defiance. Fox says^ " It appears that only seven pieces of the writings 
'\o{ tl^.celeDfati^d martyr^ and^great philosopher^ are noV extant, 
" viz. the two. ApipWies : .an Elxhortatioato the Gentiles : ah Oration 
tq the Gf-eeks; a Treatise pq Divine Monarchy ; a Dialogue, with 
IVyphp th^ ^^w ; and an Epistle to. Diagnetus.*' But why did /lot 
tde^n^tyrotp^ist giv^ some account of the doctrines defended by ^* this 
." pplebrated martyr and great philosopher," in proof of the ^rw/A of 
.the C^ijistfaA religion ? He could not lie ignorant that there were at 
that ti|n^jff£Z7fritifi£«^o/'cre04^^ arising from the perversity of hui^ian rea- 
^^x^'^ ijl^erefpre ^e av>ght^ wh^n recording the death oi this eloquent 
apolpgist, to have given his readers some account of the isentim.ents of 
his li£^. ,Th|is omi^sio^ we must supply as it is absolutely necessary to 
cpi^^ 9ft ibe truth, the whole truth, and we wish to state nothing but 

the.truti(^ . ^ ,. , ,^' ^ J . ,. . ... c. 

.. l*^f &;st of |t% ^polpgleft ]^ to the empeifor Ai^tiouinus 

,Piu^ and.h^ two ^pns fa^xut the yesf ^50^ This emperpr httdpublji^ed 
.np ;i^w .fjdicts against tl^e Christians^ yet by virtue of formjer edicts^ they 
w^^^e pfte0gpe|rsecuted] bj the goyerxiors ^of provinces, and were every 
wh^^e tra^ifo^fl 1^ a^ abominable race of wicked and barbarous , peo- 
pl^^.fis Catholics are at ihis.present day by the bigots of '' I^rotes^aiit 
a3(sepjd(^ficj.*\ . The c.nmes an^ abpmiipiat^ns pf the Gnqstic and Carpo- 
.cmtiaq,sfjctSjc,iyhp8e,prf^cticeif we^^^ and unnatural to be nanaed 

^y>f!i?'.^^^.^f^TiS^^ ^ the .real C^rj^tians: <^£uid^ these circumstsinces 
JB^lijVed \q» the ^eft| ,pf St.^ P^.ustin, ^yho ^ho^gnt he couldoiio^ do a greater 
M^w^R ff^^\^\{ft\\^^ by writing an ^P9^gy> to wb^eh 

,ne4i4^:9^^4.K^ BF9P.*.. ,-444^^3^^% himself to the empeipr, he s^ya, 
f^'pl^i t^s.pi^sqpurjse i^ay iy>t be,look£c| upc^ a bold flourish only,;Wie 
'^jfl^sk^^a fi^rict ,ipforraf\;|ipn: be ^adf of th^ c^un^s i^d to the Chris" 
^ i tfans/ charg^^ f^i^dif i|po.n ^xa,minati<»i the^ allegations ^rave true» 
^^tej^i^em pe pums^ed^npto^ly \P \^^^ ^YlPf^ ^J?^ their 

^\£^^\^ >oWt jf :npthii)g cri,nunal can be i^a^e out against us^ reasoa 
*' ij^cj^tes, inat.' ^ hiuroile^ff pepple ought not to Jb®, injured ^pph have 
^\ j-|ppi;t., ypii can(iot,b¥^ $^ ^n^^b^ that aome of your owa.philpso- 
r%J^^9^ atheism, and \f\^\ the poeta jwith a great deal of liberty 
^y m^ Jupit^]^ jEin^.hi^i jo^ngpnes,. However the pl^ilpfophero' 
9^8 f^^ |iot 4?rbidi,a,p4.^^ PP^.ts if they are but impert^nt with 
'^4v^^^*g'^*^i.thqi|r.j<Y?t shaUt^ajoA^for ,^hdir boldness^ and Is^ifela 
'\ kf?^^ t^F tef^ Wi<*9»t J^iQg',«l bh^^^^ jfroiift the thund^er. ^Nay 
^'<tl^ey:.^r^ |^^ !i^^e^ t^^W^i^^x but r^ warded wi^b ;Pfiice^ and npppey 
'•J8%*te8u^ygsi% .WW F^fioiwWs^ A«* 4<> we dqs^rye who m^ke 
'^ proression of condep^ning all spiis of ii^sticf^j and abhornc^. the 
'•' A^jf ty^^ 9Lim ^^m . TRj»t yw Ufee thcsa thipgs uppn; tiiist j 



(( 



(( 



9Wtf#4i^# p(^w:c,:w}>pteaGfo tdpit 

*^ it i^ impossible for any traitor, villain or miser, for any one either 



4 

€S 

\ 

(C 



4B RBlVIEW OF FOX. 



<€ 

V 



€f 

'€€ 
«€ 
■€€ 



U 



vicious or virtuous to hide himself fropa God ; and that every one is 
stepping to everlasting misery^ or endless happiness according to his 
works 5 and if all meii vrere once fully possessed vrith a notion of 
these things, who would make the bold adventure to embrace the 
pleasures of sin for a setison, with his eye upon eternal fire at the end 
of the enjoyment? Who would not strive all he could to check him- 
^^ self upon the brink of ruin, and to adorn his mind with such virtues 
as might give him admission to the good things of God, and secure 
him frpm everlasting vengeance"? Now were your offenders.... 
fully convinced. of the impossibility of concealing any thing from - 
God, not only the works of their hands, but even the motion of their 
minds, the direful istorm of wrath they see just dropping on their 
^' heads, would make them haste to a better course of life as you your- 
*' felf must own ; but you seem to be afriud that this notion would force 
** every one to be good, and so quite and clean spoil your trade of 
^' punishing : this executioners perhaps may be afraid of, but surely pious 
'' princes never can. Our Master Jesus Christ has foretold our suffer- 
ings. . . .which we see fulfilled according to his prediction $ now this 
or nothing is the work of God« to declare a thing shall come to be, 
long before it is in being, and then bring about tha^ thing to pass 
according to that declaration. This Master, bom and crucified under 
" Pontious ^late, ... we know to be the Son of the true God, and there- 
^^* fore honour him in the second place, and the prophetic spirit in the 
■*^ third. In obedience to this Master, we who heretofore gave a loose ^ 
*' to debaucheries, now strictly contain within the bonds of chastity ; we 
^' who devoted ourselves to magic arts, now consecrate ourselves to the 
'' goodness of God. We who sought after nothing so much as riches, 
'' now put all our stock in common, and spread it before our indigent 
*' brethren ; we who are painted with mutual hatred and destruction, 
^' and would not so much as warm ourselves at the same fire, ..now 
*^ cohabit and diet together, tmd pray for our enemies 3 and all our 
^' returns for evils are bet the gentle persuasives to convert those that 
** unjustly hate us; that by living up to the same virtuous precepts of 
'' Christ, they may have the same comfortable hopes of obtaining the 
*' same bliss with us, from that God, who is Lord of all things. The 
** inward desires as Well as the outwaid actions, are equally manifest to 
■*' God. And I can produce abundance of both sexes, who have firom 
^' their childhood been discipled unto Christ, and lived in a constant 
*' course of spotless virginity to 60 or 70 years of age : and I cannot but 
" glory in being able to produce so many instances of Christian purity 
'" out of every nation, and of people of violence and oppression trans- 
" formed into^ quite another nature, perfectly overcome by the passive 
*' courage of their Christian neighbours. We render unto God only 
'* the tribute of divine worship, and to you a cheerful obedience m 
■'• all things else; acknowledging you to be emperors and rulers upon 
" earth, and offering up our prayers that you may be found to have 
•'' right reason joined with your sovereign power." 

Having thus described, with a strict regard to truth and justice, the 
situation and Conduct of the Christians, Justin next proceeds to ^^^^ 
' some of their ^l4)ttnnes. In consequence of the terror of the ^^^\^\ 
the malice <>f the enemies of Christianity, its professors were -***«^ ^ 



A REVIEW 

CRITICAL AND IHSTOIUCAL. 
No. 4. . ^'"'''t:L^:«;t'p^V>^ci.^';ch;«tL';,rti.':'''''''"' Price 3d.- 



thrnugl^ "» 




» danger , 


ptTuhmg tbrrn^i JU~ 






lightSe 





tffiit dutivsrance of thf Roman army iti the year 15] , 
ieeion- The army wot Hirraundedby the fnemy. and 
nne. The Boman lotdien are repruenlri ai /ighlm/ 

JeKOidti^ Toin ol (fcf lame lime; whiff thunHer aii: „ „ „ - 

Ae oppennt urmu. uni raitine both mm anil kanei le the ffmuiuf. A jtai-ticaltT deKrio- 

tiono/thiikisto,^icalJiictuitrbe}aandiathi,Aett. '^ . 

CONTINUATION OF TDC BEVIEW. 

meet in private to celebrate the divine mysteries of the Eucharist and 
the sacrifice of the Mass ; this privacy, forced upon tbeni by circum- 
stances over which theyliad no control, occasioned a report to be cir- 
culated, that tbe Christians were child 'murderers, cannibals, and par- 
ti^ers of human flesb ) on which St. Justin describes their faith as well 
as the ceremonies which take place in these clear and explicit terms : 
" Our prayers being finished, we embrace one another with the kiss of ' 
"peace. Then to him who presides ov^r the brethren, is presented 
"bread and wine tempered with water j having received which, he 
" ^ves glory to the Father of all things, in the name of the Son 
" and the Holy Qbost, and return thanks, in many prayers, that he has 
" been deemed worthy of these gifts. These offices being duly per- 
" formed, the whole asBemUy, in acclamation, answers, Amen; when 
" the ministers, whom we call de«:oii8, distribute to each one pre-, 
"seat a, portion of the ^lesatit bfeadt and the wiae and water. — 






60 REVIEW OF VOXrS 

» 

*' Some is also taken to the absent. This food we call the Eucharist, 
'* of which they alone are allowed to partake^ who believe the doctrines 
*^ taught by U9» and have been regenerated by water Ibr the relnission 
' of slOj and who lire* as Christ ordained. Nor do w« take theie gifts, 
'' as common bread and common drink 5 but as Jesus Christy our Sa- 
'^ yiour^ made man by the word of God, took flesh and blood for our 
^* salvation : in the same manner, we have been taught, that the food 
*\ whi^h has been blessed by the prayer of the words which he spoke, 
'^ »nd by whi(?h our blood and flesh, in the change, are nourished, is the 
flesh and blood of that Jesus incarnate. The apostles, in the com- 
mentaries written by them, which are called gospels^ have delivered, 
'' that Jesus so commanded, when taking bread, having given thanks ^ 
'^ be said: do tlmin remembrance of me: This u my body. In like man- 
" uer, taking the cup, and giving thanks, he said: This is my blood: 
*' and that he distributed both to them only J' Apol. \. p, 95, 96, 97- 
J&dki. Londini, an. 177^- 

In his Dialogue with Tryphon, he proves from the old testament that 
dhrist was the Second Person of the blessed Trinity, the Messias, true 
Opd and true IVian, the great high priest and sacrifice of the new law. 
Speaking of the mass, he says, *' Inflamed by the word of his callings 
" 86 it were, by fire^ truly we ar^ the sacertbtal offi^ring of God ^ as he 
" himself attests, saying, that, in every place among the nations, we of- 
*' fer to hio^Well pleasing and clean victims. These victims he accepts 
'*' fivtti his own priests alone. Wherefore, shewing preference to all 
those, wbo» through his name, offer the sacriflces, which Christ or- 
dinned to be offered) that is, in the Eucharist of bread and the chalice 
'* which in all places of the earth are celebrated by the Christian people, 
'f God declares, that they are all well pleasing to him. But the sacnficeB 
of you Jews and of your priests he rejects, saying : I will accept no 
offering f rem your iiands; because from, the rising of the snn to the gomg 
•* down of the same, my name is great among the gentiles: but ye hwe pro- 
faned it* Malach. i. — But I myself say, that those prayers and thanks- 
givings are alone perfect, and the victims pleasing to God, which are 
offered by good men. These, Christians alone have learned to offer 
in the commemoration of their dry and liquid food, (bread and wine) 
in which they are reminded of the passion which Christ suffered.*' — 
iMal, cum IVyphon. Judao, p, 386. 

Thus then it is manifest that St. Justin, who is described by Fok to 
have been '* a great lover of truth and an mifersal scholar," a c^ebrated 
philosopher and a most eloquent and ardent Christian, was not a p9»o- 
tesiisnt but a CathBlic Christian, since the Ifortner rejects the doctrine of 
the real presence and the mass, which the latter holds in common vntk 
this '^gCNJly** martyr. The reader will now see the drift of these sup- 
pressions by John Fox, and we shall be glad to learn how the modern 
editors of this Book of Martyrs will explain their ineon^is^cy m al- 
lowing men to be *' godly** in one age, and damiii^4e and idolatreusin 
another, though both believed and sifll believe in Hke SAME PGC- 
TRINSS? What kind of Christians can »^i^ call, themselves ?' Hie 
modern editors have opisnly declared tkat't/fefdr object fa pahfishiDg 
the work of fbx is to excite ** a hatred and ahhon^noe of lihe/eor- 
''TupiiOM bM cn^iftes^KjIf *9»pery andlft^ proftMSor^j- aa^iili «lieir 






€< 



tt 
Ct 
€€ 
<€ 

€€ 



boob; Off MAMTBS. ' $1 

address '' to the ChMktn pttUic;* iHy aak '^ Who but mu^t shudder 
** when he reads of the barbarities exercised on the^e ko\y mfsn^ whp 
"Jksi dared to preach the religion which u>e nam profess ? • Who bu|; 
^' must be convinced that that reUgion> whi<^ eouJd. support them i|i 
^^ the midst of the flames, and ent^^le them .to s^ their belief with 
^* their blood, was from God ^*' St(^, pl«n ChHitiaps ! What do yov 
mam bf that rdigion^ The religion which y<m new profie^s is nq^ the 
religion which was Jbrst pneaclied to the Jews »nd Gentiles. The holy 
men you have hitherto described as suffering the most excruciating barr 
barittes for their faath were all Roman CaiholicH^ admitting the supre* 
macy of ttie pope^ the real presence, the masp, praying to saints and an* 
gels, &o. and ttierefore the religion you n^w pr<^ess, .winch r^ecU these 
doctrines, cannot be from God. Admire too your consistency. You bring 
Ibrward the courageous conduct of Eoman Catholics of former iLges, 
calling them '^ holy men,'* to inspire hatred /^gainst Roo^m Catholics of 
the pre9ent age, and to shew that *' persecution is in^ep^able from Po« 
*' pery.*' Before, however, we quit St. Justin, let us .contrast the situar 
tion of the Irish Catholics in this, the nineteenth century, with those of 
the Roman empire in the second. St. Ju^n complained of the false 
and scandalous reports that were circulated to excite prejudice a^d cla- 
mour agdnst the Catholics in his time, and if we cast our eyes gn the 
Orange press of Ireland, we shall see the same disregard to truth shewn 
by the worshippers of the ^' Immortal Memory/' as tite adorers of Ju- 
piter and the heathen gods and goddesses in the days of {Ionian PagaQ 
phrensy. At the time we are now writing the Jrish papers ii^ the 
pay of '' Protestant-ascendency** are daily sending forth their calumr 
nies and libels couched in the following furious md unohristiaa lan- 
guage. 

f Europe cHes oat that Antichrist wot come, tbat the Pope vat he, an4 that aH prophe* 
" ues, i€iative to the Man of Sin aod Perdition, and the great seducer of Mankind were 
" fttlfiUed in him, . . . 




^ , ^ . . ty _ 

** «f F(>pi# }ntoler^nce~4o observe that Popery b the same in all ageji, and in all coun- 
« tri^f^that the «ame ferocious spirit which is predomioaut in the Kihbondraen of the 
** soath, also appears in those of the north. ... 

<'Too traeit is tbat the emiMficies of that detestable sToperstitioa (Popery) have tra- 
<' verged on ' feet fwift to mischief** the regions of the known world in search of proselytes : 
'< wherever their desolating path has been, * the plague hat gene before, and famine hasfoC' 
•* lowed their arrival/ If is impoatibte to mifttake t^e couotriet they have fisited^ their 
" fbotatepn are too t»teij trfbokea in the blood. . . •" 

Need we say another word^on the spirit evinced in the above ,pas* 
sages > Do they not display> in colours too glaring to be miiwqder-> 
stood, a feeling of intolerance and injustice unworthy of the Christian 
name? 

'' MIRACULOUS JNTKRFEaENCB OP THB DIVINfi BBINo/' 

It ii the fashion mth many individuals at the present day %o decrf 
the idea of s^pernativs^l works. Fox and his editors, however, are not^ 
appare.i)tly, so sqeptical* They have under, the above head recorded a 
mbaciilqtfjs interifereace of the Deity m favpur pf the joloman army, 
when placed ingre«t peril ^ but in the usuad confysed and unintelligi- 
bk maiuitr* Tki^ giceurrence immediately follows a p^ragi^^ph con- 



M • REVIEW OP FOX'S 

eluding the account of the martyrs under the fourth persecution^ which 
begins with the customary indefinite term, "About this time." Fox also 
commences his relation of this miracle with ." At this time *' and 
throughout the whole relation he mentions but one authority, that of 
the emperor^ and does not even record a single ncme as evidence in 
favour of the fact. Here then the reader is called upon to giVe credit 
to a circumstance contrary to the' order of nature — an event wonder- 
ful and beyond the power of man*s conception, on the bare assertion 
of the writer : for, as we have just said, he gives us no dates, no names 
of witnesses^ save and except an extract from an epistle of the em- 
peror to the senate, which for ought we know may be as inaccurate as 
his relation, seeing he has not said from whence it was derived. When 
details of this kind are grveri in so slight and indistinct a manner^, can 
we wonder that there are persons ready to doubt them } Can we be 
surprised that individuals, not conversant witli history, and whose minds 
are not directed to an unerring rule^ should refuse ^sent to a^c^ so 
extraordinary and so slightly attested ? We do not wonder that so 
much unbelief exists, knowing, as we do, what great pains have been 
taken for these two centuries past to keep the people of this country 
from learning the truth. We, however, will adopt a different course. 
Our object, as we have before said, is, to elucidate the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the trtfth, and therefore we will give an 
account of this great instance of the interference of the Peity, at the 
supplication of Christians, to manifest his power. 

The emperor Marcus Anrelius had made many unsuccessful attempts 
to subdue the Germans. Dissatisfied with his generals, in the thir- 
teenth year of his reign, A. D. 171, he resolved to head, a powerful 
army himself against the enemy. Fox, who is very particular where 
«vi(dence cannot be had, describes the number of the army to be 
975,000 men, but he does not say whether he had the return from the 
quarter-mastcr-general of the Roman army, or invented it himself.— 
Be this, however> as it may, the emperor had a numerous host under 
his command, and he had led them beyond the Danube, when the 
Quodi, a. people inhabiting that tract of country now called Moravia, 
surrounded him in a very disadvantageous situation. There was no. 
possibility of escape, and the men were perishing for want of water. 
In this extremity, and on the point of being attacked,, the twelfth 
legion called the Melitine, composed chiefly of Christians, fell upon 
their knees, arid poured forth their supplications to God, who liatening 
to their prayers, the sky on a sudden was darkened with dense clouds, 
from when(^e issued a thick and heavy rain, which refreshed the Ro-^ 
mans, while, at the same time, a violent wind accompanied with rain 
and lightening deprived the Germans bf their sight, and beat them to the 
ground. Terrified at this prodigy, the Germans were entirely routed, 
^nd the Romans obtaiiied a complete victory. Many thousand prisoners 
were returned to the Roman camp, antd the emperor dictated siicli con- 
ditions of peace as he pleased. This most wonderful event is ad&now-> 
ledged by both heathen and Christian writers of that periods The 
fae^ is admitted, ^xxt the parties differ as to the author of it. It is 
plilinly allowed to be supernatural on^oth sides; the>heathen6 nsctib- 
ing it either^ magic. or 'their gods ; while the -Ghrisiiana fecKM^ 



BOOK OF M.\RTYRS. 53 

a manifestation of the omnipotent power of Him who made the uni* ^ 
verse and all things therein, and whom they adored as the only One true 
God, in three pesons. But why, it may be said by some of our readers, 
should we believe this account of yours any more than that of John 
Fox? We answer, because it is verified by eye witnesses, and is as 
well authenti<>ated as any^fact in history. We do not deny the fkct 
stated by Fox, we object only to his account. St. Apollinaris, bishop 
of Hierapolis, in Phrygia, who wrote a very eloquent apology for the 
Christians about the year 175, makes mention of the miraculous event j 
and he adds that the emperor, in testimony of the miracle, gave the 
legion the name of the Thundering legion. The emperor also published 
an edict on the occasion, in which he confessed himself indebted for his 
delivery to the shower obtained, perhaps, by the prayers of the Chris- 
tians; ''and more,** IMr. Butler justly observes, ''he could not say 
" without danger of exasperating the Pagans.** We have demonstra- 
tive proof of the accuracy of this observation, in the furious behaviour 
of the Orange press in Ireland, in consequence of the desire expressed 
by the present sovereign of these realms, that bis Catholic subjects in 
that country should enjoy the benefit of the laws passed in their favour. 
Furthermore, the wonderfhl deliverance of the Roman emperor is re- 
presented on the Columna Antaniniana, in Rome, by the figure of a 
Jupiter Pluvius, being that of an old , man flying in the air, with his 
arms expanded, and a long beard which seems to waste away in rain. 
The soldiers are there represented as delivered by a sudden tempest, 
and in a posture, partly drinking of the rain water, and partly fight- 
ing against the enemy; who, on the contrary, are represented as 
stretched out on the ground with their horses, and upon them only the 
dreadful part of the storm descending. We forgot to say, that the 
emperor in th^ decree, forbad any one under paiu of death, to accuse 
a Christian on accQunt of his religion 5 but some of the governors ^d 
as little attention to this part of the decree as the Orangemen of Ire- 
land do to the letter in favour of the Catholics from George the fourth. 
The epistle quoted by Fox is rejected by the best writers as supposi- 
tious; but the original letter was extant when Tertullian and St. Jerom 
wrote, who' both make mention of it, as well as of the fact; as do also 
Eusebius and St. Gregory of Nyssa. Such an event then we think 
can no more be doubted by a man of common sense, than that such a 
person as Julius Caesar once existed. There are some Protestant 
Christians who deny the existence of miraculous powers in the church 
after the death of the apostles ; we have here, however, a fact, admitted 
by John Fox and his editors, inadvertently perhaps on the part of the 
lifter, so plainly authenticated as to' render them, we hope, no longer 
sceptical.' 

" PERSECUTIONS IN FRANCE.** 

We come now to one of the most insidious stratagems to deceive 
the reader that could enter the tnind of man. The modern editors of 
Fox*s Book of Martyrs have openly professed that their intention ia to 
excite "a hatred and abhorrence of the corruptions - and crimes of 
" Popery,** and the way they go to work, to attain this uncharitable 
end, is to corrupt the tnUh ai history as well as of reUgion. After 



% 



« 



54 REVIEW OF FQK'S 

giving aft aceouat of the mlraculouE: deliverance of the Ronuui army^ 
just noticed, and the effect it had in favour of the Christians^ they, 
next proceed to give an acccount of fresh persecutions^ which they 
infamously state to have happened in France, when> in fact» as we 
"have before said, there was no such kingdom in the world. Under a 
head *' Pbbsecutions in France/' they say, '^ Although this manifest 

interference of the Almighty in favour of the Christians^ q!6easieBed the 

persecution to subside some timei in those parts immediatety under. 

the inspection of the emperor, yet we find that it soon after raged 
^* in France, particulaily at Lyons^! where the tortures to which many 
" of them were put, almost exceeded the powers of description. AU 
" manner of punishments .we^e adopted, torments, and painful deaths 5 
*' such as b^ing banished, plundered^ hanged, hurned^ &c.| and even 
'' the servants and slaves of opulent Christians wiere racked and tor* 
" tured, to makd them accuse their masters end employers/* Now« 
reader, mark the scandalous drift of this accounts Every body knows 
that France at this day is a Catholic country. Many persons know 
that- there are Protestants residing at Lyons and the adjacent places ; 
and there are few but remember the outcry raised in this country ia 
the years 1S15 and 1816, of " Persecuiions in France,'* of which we 
shall tell a tale when the modern editors disclose their stoty. But 
there are few, and very few of the readers of the Book of Martyrs, 
who know, that at the time of the pers<fccutidns under consideration, 
Lyons ^as the metropolitan City of the' province of Gaul, forming part 
of the Roman heathen empire, and the ChHstians were all Roman Ca- 
tholics, as we shall shew when We come to relate the martyrdom and 
works of St. Ireneeus, the successor to FOnthius, bishop of Lyons, 
who sul&red in this persecution. Jn Brookes' Gazetteer, it is stated 
that Lyons was founded about the year 49, before the birth of Christ, 
by the Romans, who made it the centre of the commerce of the Gauls. 
It was afterwards destroyed by fire> but rebuilt again ; and the Gazet* 
teer says, '' many antiquities are still observed that evince its Rtimaa 
" origin." Glovis was the first Catholic king of France, and his con- 
version is said to have been trrought by a m&BCtflous victory over the 
Suevi and Alelnanni in Germany, M^o hiid passed the ithiae, ho]ri&g 
to dislodge their countrymen the FrafikB, and obtain for themfielves 
the glorious spoils of the Roman empire in Gaul. This victory was 
gained in <»he fifteenth year of his reign, of Christ 496. But the period 
of .persecution said by Fox td have occurred in Frmnee is three eentu- 
ries anterior to thiis victory^ Which caused the sovereign ai iPralice to 
acknowledge the divinity of Christ, and emhrat:e his reUgioti b^ being 
baptised in his na^aie. Here then we haVe another disgraeeful instaoee 
of the methods resorted to by John Fox and his editors to blind and 
delude the people, while they hypocritically pretend to be diffusing 
** among their fellow believers a knowledge smd love of the genuine 
** principles of ChristiaBity.'* 

From the authentic accounts of the sufferer^ under this fiersecv* 
tion in Gaul, it Appears thai they were chiefly Gl^eks, who had 
come from Asia, led by a desire to propagade the ^ kingdom of 
Christ, and invited by the ^reat interooulrtse in trade between the 
ports of Asia'jand Marsetlles. The progrtos which ^e gospel made> 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 55 

and tke eminent sanctity of the lives of its professors, enraged 
the wicked and bigotted adherents . of Pagan ascendency, who 
in a transport c£ fiiry, determined to extirpate, as they thought, the 
very name of Christianity. The confiiots of the mart3rrs on this occa- 
sion were recorded by eye witnesses and companions in suffering, and 
detailed in a letter to thejr old friends and brethren, the Christians of 
Asia and Fhrygia. The principal author of this letter is supjposed to have 
been St. Irenaeos, who was a priest of Lyons at that time. Though the 
authors of this letter say that- it was impossible to give an exact ac- 
count of what was^ndored by the martyrs, we find John Fox detailing 
an account of the death of two who suffered two years after, wit^ 
a minuteness that borders on the febcdous. Fox writes, ''Valerian 
" and Mareellus, who were nearly related to each other, were impri- 
" soned at Lyons, in the year 177, for being Christians. By some 
'^ means, however, they made their escape, and travelled different 
''roads. Hie latter made several converts Jn the territories of 
" Besancon and Chalons ^ but being i^prehended, was carried be- 
" fore Priscus, the governor of the parts. The magistrate, knowing 
'' Marcellus to be a Christian, ordered him to be fi^tened to som& 
" branches of a tree, which were drawn for that purpose. When he 
was tied to different branches, they were let go, with a design tb 
tear him to pieces with the suddemiess of the jerks. But this inven- 
tion foiling, he was conducted to Chalons, to be present at sonoEe 
idolatrous sacrifices, at which, refusing to assist, he was put to the 
torture, and afberwards fixed up to the waist in the ground, in which 
position he expired, A.D. 179, after remaini];ig three days. Vale- 
rian waa ^so apprehended, and, by the order of Priscus, was first 
brotkght to the rack, and then beheaded in. the same year as his rela- 
" tton Marcellus.** . ^ ' 

Such is the account given by Fox ; we have examined Mr, Butier*s 
lAtfes of SainiSy which is the most au^entic martyrology extant, and 
we can find no account whatever of the torture by branches of trees, 
as related by Fox. This learned and accurate martyrologist says, that 
" Marcellus was apprehended in the country, and after enduring many 
torments in that city, was buried alive up to the middle, in which 
posture he diedoa the third day, which was the 4th of September." 
St. Valerian aftfiered as described by Fox, but it does not appear from Mt. 
Ba&ler that they were relations. There is one circnmslauice, however, 
•connected with the m«nory of these martyrs^ which we cannot refraih 
from refastiog, aa it wiU clearly prove that they were not Protestant bift 
Catholic martyrs. The reKcs of St.' MarceUas weve hoaourahly kept 
in the great chxirch which bears his name at Chalons 5 and another church 
was bwit over the tomb of St. Valerian at Toumus, before the time 
of St. Gregory of Toars {"See p£t, Fr. Chijg^t, mst.de Ttmrnus, and dbh6 
PavUiott, SiHiothe^B des Auteurs de Bimrgf^ne, 1742.) In the sixteenth 
centory the Huguenots plandered this eharch of St. Valerian, and 
buraed part of his relics, but the principal portioa of them csc^ied their 
search. Thns^ then, whiie Fox eattote the oenduct of these martyrs ; 
wh^ he pmises the devotkm of ithoea who huilded chuMshes to ^tiiieif 
iDemory> aa m the <cases of Bt. Feter at fion^e, -and Ananias at Damas- 
tvm, t9e see lOie Ptotestant fitigaeiiots «f Fmaee deatro^ng thpeae 



f€ 
€€ 
€4 

t€ 
€K 
f€ 






S€ 

<C 

« 

(€ 

a 
ts 

Si 

ft 



5 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

cburcbes^ and iosuking the remains of the godly martyrsi They cannot 
therefore be Protestant sufferers for the faith; nor can primitive Chris- 
tianity be Protestant Christianity, or greater respect would be shewfa 
to the memory of those men who died for true religion. Yet John Fox 
and his editors would fedn have them pass, as we dare say they have 
passed with thousands who knew no bettifer, for Protestant saints. 

Fox also describes at some length the martyrdom of SS. Epipodios 
and Alexander, whom he describes as celebrated for their great friend- 
ship and Christian union. He says, that when the former was before 
the governor, he began to tamper with the martyr,' and pretended to 
pity his condition. "Our deities/* observed the governor, according 
to Fox, " are worshipped by the greater part of the people in the uni- 
verse, and their rulers; we adore them with feasting and n:irth, 
while you adore a crucified man j wc, to honour them, launch into 
pleasures j you, by your faith, are debarre<l from all that indulges the 
senses. Our religion enjoins feasting, yours fasting; ours the joys 
of licentious blandishments, yours the barren virtue of chastity. 
Can you expect protection from one who could not secure himself 
from the persecutions of a contemptible people > Then quit a pro- 
fession of such, austerity, and enjoy those gratyications which the world 
affords; and which your youthful years demand.*' Here then we 
have the testimony of John Fox, that the pri^piitive Christians practised 
fasting, chastity, and the renunciation of^sensual gratifications, the same 
as Catholics are taught to do at this day, and fpr doing which they are 
reviled and ridiculed by their neighbours as being superstitious. How 
many bundles of paper have been wasted in vain to prove that Catho- 
licism was allied to Heathenism ; and yet we think that the desription 
given of the state of morals by some of the reformers themselves of 
the si^rteenth century will go to prove that there was a much greater 
degree of affinity between Protestantism and the above delineation of 
.Paganism. Good works we see are described by the Pagan governor, 
.as forming part of the doctrine of the primitive Christians; but the 
primitive apostles of Protestantism abolished this necessary part of the 
Christian code. . Epipodius is made by Fox to reply in these terms to the 
governor. " Your pretended tenderness is actual cruelty : and the agree- 
*' able life you describe, is replete with everl^isting death. Christ suffered 
for us, that our pleasures should be immortal, and prepared for his fol- 
lowers an eternity of bliss. The frame of man being composed of two 
*' parts, body and soul, the first, as mean and perishable, shoidd be ren- 
dered subservient to the latter. Your idolatrous feasts may gratify the 
mortal, but they injure the immortal part ; that cannot, therefore, be 
enjoying life, which destroys the most valuable moiety of your frame. 
^' Your pleasures lead to eternal death, and your pains io eternal hap- 
^ piness." Thus thought and spoke. this Catholic martyr; at least so 
John Vox testifies; but not so the apostles of the pretended reformation 
from 'Catholicism to Protestantism. Luther gave full scope to the 
gratification of the senses; ''Faith a^ne,** he cried "is necessary for 
" our justification; nothing else is either conmianded or prohibited.** 
This doctrine of Luther, so like that preached by the Pagan governor to 
Epipodius, and rejected by the godly martyr, was eagerly embraced by 
ihe people of the sixteenth century ; and we find Luther^ Calvin^ and 



ft 

» 

ft 



ft 
ft 



t€ 



€t 
U 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 57 

Bacer, thus lamenting . the evil effeicts of their own reforming vrotkB. 
♦* Formerly," says lAither, " when ^e were seduced by the pope, every 
" one willingly followed good works ; but now people ndther say nor know 
*' any thing but how to set all to themselves by exaction, piUag^e, theft^ 
*' falsehood, usury, &c/ (Luth. in Serm. dom, post, Pent.J *' Of the thou- 
sands,*' says Calvin, " who renounced popery, and seemed eager to 
embrace the gospel, how few have amended their lives ? Indeed,- what 
else did the greater part pretend to than by srhaking off the yoke of 
superstition to give themselves more liberty, and to plunge into every 
'' kind of licentiousness/* (Calv. L vi. de ScandiJ ''The greater part 
" of the people,*' writes Bucer, '' seem to have embraced the gospel, 
'' only to live at their pleasure, and enjoy their lusts and lawless appe- 
^' tites without control. Hence they lend a wiUing ear to the doctrine, 
" that we are justified by faith only, and not by good works, for which 
'' THEY HAVE NO RELISH." (Buc. de Regn. Christ. 1. i. c. 4.) Let the 
reader compare this account of the effects of Protestant doctrines on 
the people and the effects of Christianity in the primitive ages on its 
professors, and say if they can be one and the same. 

The next subject worthy of notice is the following paragraph : 
About this time succeeded Anicetus, Soter, and • Eleutherius, about 
the year of our Lord 189. This Eleutherius, at the request of Lucius, 
king of Britain, sent to him Damianus and Fugatius, by whom the 
king was converted to Christ's faith, and baptized about the year 
*'• 179." Now, reader, whoever you be, what can you make of this sub- 
lime piece of intelligence ? Did you ever before see such language sub- 
mitted to the people of England, to diffuse among them '* a knowledge 
*' and love of the genuine principles of Christianity,'* as this we 
have just quoted ? '* About this time succeeded Anicetus, Soter, and 
*' Eleutherius about the year of our Lord 189." Who are these person- 
ages, and to what' did they succeed? Then again '^tlus Eleutherius, 
at the request of Lucius, king of Britain, sent him to Damianus and 
Fugatius. by whom the king was converted to Christ's faith, and bap- 
" tized about the year 179." Whether the latter date is an error of 
the press we cannot say, but it is a little extraordinary that the king 
should be converted and baptized ten years, or more, biefore he sent 
for persons to instruct him in the Christian faith. But who is Eleu- 
therius } Why not say where he resided / Ay, there is the rub. This 
important fact the modern editors of ' Fox wished to conceal, that they 
might the better instruct the poor deluded people of this country in 
the *' knowledge and love of the genidne principles of Christianity,'* by 
exciting in- their minds, '* a hatred and abhorrence of the bomiptidns 
'^and crimes of Popery and its professors." Know then, gentle and 
candid reader, that " this Eleutherius,*' was no less a personage than the 
POPE OF ROME, who deputed two of his missionnries to king Lucius, 
by whom he was converted ', mind, I use the words of the editors of 
this Book of Martyrs, — by these i^omon missionaries, he ''was converted 
f to CHRIST'S FAITH !*' Fox in his origmal work, the Acts and Monu- 
ments of the Church, found this historical and incontrovertible fact a ter- 
rible stumbling block to his designs ^ he therefore made many wind- 
ings and doublings in his relation of it, which father Parsons most ably 
traced out. Aware on what fickle ground the supremacy of his mas<« 






58 BEYIBW OP FOX'S 

ter and mistress slood. When it was so eiear tbat even in the second age 
of Christianity the apiritiial aufiremacy of the bishop of Rome was ae-^ 
knowledged in this island, he endeavoured to make it believed that king 
Liieiiis was converted by nusskniaries from the east, than which a more 
foul perrersioTi of truth was never attempted. His modem editors pro^ 
bahly sensible of this weakness, of the martyrologist, thought it b^ter 
to vender the passage totally umntelligible to Protestant readers, who> 
by the deceptive tricks of the press, know as little of the true history 
of their country as of the thousand £dsehoods told by John Fox. We 
will therefore endeavour to undeceive them by a short historical detail 
of authenticated £ict6, which shall unravel the jargon of the above 
quoted passage! 

Anicetus was the eleventh hi^^p of Rome after St. Peter» and siic-> 
ceeded Pius the first in the year 157 \ next to him followed 8oter in 
168) who had for bis aucttessor ** this Eleutherius,'* who was i^iplied to 
by king Lucius to instruct him and hi» people in the foith of Clnrist. 
Eleutherius was dected to the papal chair io the year 176, and the em^ 
bassy to Rome from liucius was sent about 18^. The account given 
by the Rev. Mr. Butler in his life of this holy Christian king, is so very 
interesting that we here trandcribe it for the information of the reader. 
'' We are informed by Bede,*' writes Mr. Butler, ^^ that in the reign of 
'' Marcus Antonius Vents, and Aureilus Comnsodus, a Britiah king, 
''named Lucius, sent a letter to pope Bleutherius, entreating that by 
'' his direction he might be made a Christian. This must have hap' 
'' pened about the year 189. Lucius must have reigned in some part 
'' of Britain, which was subject to the Romans, as his name indicates. 
'' Tacitus mentions Prasutagus, king of the Ic^ii^ in Noifolk, Suffolk, 
^ Cembridgesldrey and Huntii^donshire, who at his dea^h made the 
'' emperor Nero his heir, hoping by tlMt means his people would be se-* 
'' cured from injuries ^ whereas the -contrary fell out $ for the country 
** was plundered by eaiturians and slaves^ The Ame historian men^ 
'' tions^ that certain cities were given to Codiguous, ' according to the 
*' ancient ^^and received custom of the Roman people, to make even 
" kiogs the inctritments of the slavery of nations,* as he observes. 
** l^at Lucius was a Christian king in Britain is proved by two medals 
'' mentioned by Usher, and one by Houterue. Bede tel^ ua, that hy 

his enabassy to Eleuthenfts he cbUiisied the ^Ssct of hk pious request ; 

and that ^ Britons enjoyod* the light of laidat till the reign of J^ia^ 
'' destan. Lucius ihore^re was the first Chnstiaa king in lEfUtope $ it 
** no where appears in what port of Britain he reigned. The records 
^' f>f Glastenbiiry abbey, ^psifacd by MaJmashury, and otfaetS/ snentioned 
'' by Usher, tdi ua, that SL JEaciiliicriAi sieiit over to Britain S6. Fu-» 
^^^aiiua and DamiaaeSj, (ratiicr XHtrainmia or Duviaaus^) .who hap* 
'^^ia»d king Luciufl^ and many othei»» und wcm buiiad at 61iiMen« 



4< 



"** bury. In SomerseAririre, in the daaaBry of Ihiuator, there is a 

^ ehsireh which heaans ^e waam of Si. Hemvian, as Btow testifies. 

Thk aaint ift ealied hy the Wekh, Dwrian or I>wywim« aa)<s Usher; 

The Chrifltian £uth had reachnd.Biitam in the thnea of th« apoades. 

5i;« (SeauBiit L pope, afitrma> ttet fit. EaiH prfladled to t^ utmost 

teUBflb cf the W«t. GBldas suyu^ tisc ^cat 4awn ef the evangMM 
f ' iightuppeared m this ialandsiiout tte eighthyear of Pterin. XheMort t 



€( 









4t 






BOOK OF MARTYRS. 59 

** names the Britons as a nation in which St. Paul sowed the seeds of 
*' faith 'y and In another place says^ that this apostle broi^iit salvation 
to the islands that lie in the ocean. Three British bistops assisted 
at the council of Arles^ in 314^ namelyj Eborius of York, Restitutus 
of London^ and Adelfius, who is styled De cwitaie Colamas Londv* 
*' neHMum ; which bishop Usher takes to have been Colchester ; bui 
many more probably \inderstand by it Lincoln, anciently called Lin** 
dum Colonia. Also certain British bi^ops subscribed to the council 
*' of Nice against the Arians. The testimonies of St. Justin, St. Irenceus/ 
'' Tertullian, Eusebius, Saint Chrysostom, and Theodoret, demon** 
" strate that Christianity had got footing in Britain very sbou aftev 
" Christ. We cannot, therefore, wonder that a .prince should have 
^' embraced the faith in this island in the second century ^ nor do the 
objections which some have raised, deserve notice. Schelstrate^ the 
learned prefect of the Vatican library, in his dissertation on the pa* 
" triarchal authority, transcribes the following words from an ancieiki 
'* manuscript history of the kiiigs of England, kept m the Vatican li-» 
" brary : ' Lucius sent a letter to pope Eleutherius that he might be mado 
'' a Christian, and he obtained his request.' The same learned author 
*' copies the following testimony from an ancient catalogue of .the popeaj 
*' written in the time of the emperor Justinian^ as we ave assured by 
'* the title, found in the library of Christina, queen of Sweden : ' Eluthe* 
rius received a letter from Lucius, king of Britain, who desired to be 
made a Christian by his command.* '* Butler's Sainis Lives^ vol. xii. 
Rapin and Echard both record this fact, ai^d the latter, in his Each* 
siasHcal History, states, that this pope Eleutherius degraded from his 
priesthood one Florinus, ^^ a disciple of St. Folycarp, who fell into the 
'< Valentinian heresy, and moreover maintained, that God was the au* 
*^ thor of all kinds of evil.** Thus then we have here an established fact^ 
that Christ*s faith^ which he solemnly declared should never chav^e, 
and which has never yet nor ever \yiU change, because tbut^ must be 
always ONE and the SAME, was sought for by a ^agan king of this 
island at -Rome, and was introduced into this country by missioners in 
communion with the church of Rome. This fact, however, it .will be 
seen, was rendered so obscure- by the modern editcurs of the Book of 
Martyrs, that the people might haye remained ignorant of it till dooms- 
day, if we had not tiirown some light upon it. * 

The paragraph that next follows is equally as unintelligible as the 
one we have just been commenting on and eliciting, f^ox says, " £u« 
sebitts, Vicentius, Potentianus, and Peregrious, for refusing to wor- 
ship Commodus as-Hercules, were likewise martyred.'* Who these 
martyrs were, we have not been able to discover^ Butler makes no 
aaentioa of them, and Echard says, that '' the Christians esjoyed sO 
'^ much freedom from persecutk>n, that we find but o»e martyr of aota 
*' in this reign (Commodus), which was Apollonius, an illustrious se- 
" nator^ eminent for his philosophy and other parts of learaing.*' Thi« 
martyr Fox had previoui^y recorded. To the passage just quoted £rom 
Fox, the modern editors have introduced the following paragraph as a 
Hote : *^ Abottt this time>, among other pious teachers vi^om God raised 
" up to confound the persecutors fay learning aoid writing, aa the knar*- 
" tyrs ta contiroi the truth with th^ bloodj was Sera|)hioQ^ bishop of 












«6 REVIEW OF FOX S 

. ^ , ' ... 

** Antioch ; Egesippus, a writer of the ecclesiastical history from Christ'f 

" passion to his time 5 Heraclitus^ who first began to write annbtations 
upon the New Testament and epistles of the apostles ; Theophilus, 
bishop of Cesareaj land Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, who wrote 
divers epistles^ from whence we learn that it was then the practice of 
**' the churches, to read the letters and epistles, sent by learned bishops 
** and teachers, to the congregations j for writing to the church of the 
" Romans and to Soter, he says, 'This day we celebrate the holy do- 
" minical day in ^hich we have read your epistle, which always we 
** will read for our exhortation ; like as we do readMso the epistle of 
" Clement, sent to us before/ &c. By him also mention is made of the 
*' keeping of Sunday holy, of which we find no mention in ancient au- 
" thors before his time, except only in Justin the martyr, who in his 
description declares two times most especially used for Christians to 
congregate together : the first, when any convert was to be baptized -, 
the second upon the Sunday ; because, says he, upon that day God 
" made the world,'* and because Christ upon that day first shewed him- 
^' self, aft^p hia resurrection, to his disciples, &c." 

The introduction of this note is evidently intended to make the un- 
thinking and uninformed believe that the primitive Christians were as 
great bible readers, as the" people of this coimtry are now. But this is a 
mistake. The bible had not at that period been collected together as 
one book, and the portions of scripture were then in the hands chiefly 
of the clergy, who certainly did read them to the people assembled, as 
Was and is the constant practice of the church of Rome, \mi not that 
they should interpret any of the passages according to thei/pwn fanci- 
ful notions, but that they should learn therefrom the ovvj Only tbub 
RELIGION OF Christ, amldst the many errors which even tl^en daily sur- 
rounded this undeviating rule of faith. We agree with the writers of 
this not6, that God raised up pious teachers to confound the ignorant 
and perverse by their writings, as the martyrs confirmed tne truth of 
the Christian religion by their invincible courage and disregard of tor- 
ments and death. W€ have stated this before in our intrdductory 
remarks, and we have hitherto given, as a proof of the correctness 
of our assertion, the doctrines which these learned and pious writers 
defended and maintained. And why have not John Fox and his'editors. 
followed the same line of conduct? Because, then the reader would 
have ^ined some knowledge of the truth, which would not have 
been to the interests of the party they had to serve, and therefore they 
suppressed this essential part of history, that the people mi^ht remain 
in the dark. Following our own course, we will first see what Sera- 
pion says, as he is placed at the head of the list of " pious teachers 
*' whom God raised up to confound the persecutors by learning and 
'' writing," according to Fox, '' about this time,** that is, at the close 
of the second century. Serapioh succeeded Maxiinin iti the see of 
Antioch, in the year 189, or 190, and is said by Echard to- have go- 
verned that see ^1 years. He wrote a treatise against one Domninus, 
who in a persecution had fallen into Judaism -, and another treatise on 
the gospel of St. Peter, to undeceioe the brethren of the church of 
Rossa in Cilicia, in which he has the^e words ? "As for our part wc 
" receive Peter and the other apostles as Jesus Christ himself i ^^^ 



BOOK on MARTYRS. m 

" those writings wHicb falsely Tjear their name we Tejeci. as being welt 
'* apprized, thut we never received them from our foreftithers." Here 
then was an appeal to tradition and public opinion. Here is the rule 
adopted by Catholics in all ages to preserve the truth. What we re- 
ceived from our forefathers, who had it from their predecessors^ who 
received it from the apostles, who had it from their Divine Master, we 
believe to be the truth, because truth is always one and the same ; 
but that which innovators put forth, was never beard of before ! it. is 
therefore new and novel, and as such must be rejected, because it cannot 
proceed from truth, and therefore must be erroneous. 

Hegessipus was by birth a Jew, but became a Christian. His 
death is supposed to have happened about the year 180. In the year 
133 he wrote a history of the church, in five boolcs, from the passion 
of Christ to his own time, but unfortunately the work is nat now ex^ 
tant. C)f Heraclitus we find no account in the histories in our pos* 
session, and Theophilus of Cesarea is recorded in Echard as presiding 
in a council of Palestine on the subject of keeping Easter. In Butler,' 
however, this^ learned and illustrious father is stated io have been the 
successor of Eros, bishop of Antioch, who died in the year 168. 
Theophilus was born of Gentile parents, who trained him up in idol- 
atry, and gave him a liberal education. Grown to man*s estate, be 
made a diligent search after truth, and found it in the Christian reli- 
gion ^ after which, having embraced the faith, he gloried in the name 
of Christian, which he calls " dear to God, however despised by igno- 
" rant and viciot^ men/* Being fixed in his charge of the see of An- 
tioch, he set himself diligently to promote virtue and true religion, and 
draw his flock from error and idolatry. He wrote against the heresies* 
of Marcion and Hermogenes, and an apology for the Christian religion, 
in three books, addressed to Autolychus, a Pagan philosopher. la 
this latter work Theophilus teaches that God the Son, or the Divine< 
Wisdom, is coeval with the Father. He also gives the name of TVi- 
nity to the Three Divine Persons in one nature, and is the first writer, 
whose works are extant, that employs this word to express this mys-- 
tery. He tells Autolychus that it is in vain for him to look for the 
truth, unless he reforms his heart, and his views are perfectly pure. 
" All men have eyes,*' saysl be, " yet the sun is veiled from the sight 
'* of some. It, however, ceases not to emit a flood of day, though those 
whose eyes are blinded, see not its radiant light.: But this defect is 
to be laid to their charge, nor can the sun be complained of on ac- 
count of their blindness. Thus, my firiend, it is sin that darkens 
yc^r mind, and blunts the edge of your understanding. As the glass 
represents not the image if it be soiled, so the mind receives not the 
impression of God, if it lies immersed in sin. This is a humour 
which greatly obstructs the sight, and prevents the eye from, be- 
holding the sun. Thus, my friend, your impiety diffuses a cloud 
^' over the fisiculties of your soul, and renders you incapable of receiv- 
ing the glorious light." . . . '^ And as in the sea there are, Islands 
which are. fruitful and furnish good harbours for the shelter of mari- 
ners who flv to them, and are there secured from the tossings of the' 
'' tempests ; so.hath God given to the wodd holy churches; into whiose 
".flafe .iMti^ens the lovers of truth fly,. and all those who (iedire t^hb 



(C 

(t 
(t 
it 
rr 
ti 

St 



tt 

St 



» BEVIBW (» lOXa 

5' ^a/ved, ahd ejMuit>e the dreadful if rath of G^. Aind there are other 
'f UUnds which wwit w^ter, find are Sll«d wHh barrca rocks, and^ 
'^ hQia^ unisbabitahie, are destructive to sailors^ and in which ships 
'' are dashed tq pieces, or are unlbrtimatelf detailed : ao likewise are 
'^ there erroneous doctrines and here^iea which d^eetroy those who are 
'^ seduced and drawn aaide by them." The most cc^reot editions of his 
books to Autolyehos, Mr. Butler says, are, that published by bishop 
Fell, at Oxford, in 1604; that given by John Christopher Wolf, at 
Hamburg, in 17^4 > and lastly, that of the Beaedietins, with St. Justin's 
works. 

The. next learned father motioned in the above cited note is Diony- 
sius bishop of Corinth, who is stated to have written several treadses 
ifr defence of the truth, £iiadi)ius mentions in his history several of 
the ihstmotive letters of tiiis prelate to oltor ehitrcfaes, cautioning them 
tet to be led aw^ by n4m> and wild notions, but to stiand stedfaet to the 
dpetriees received from the apostles. He also notices the letter of 
thaid» to Soier, a passage of which is quoted in the note. But the 
editors of Fox do not tell us who Soter was. We. are not informed 
whether he is a Christian pastor or a Heathen philosopher. By considt<* 
ing however more, authentic authors, we find this Soter to be no otiier 
than tihe tw^Uth hish^p ^ Rome from St. Peter, and one of tibe three 
persons said to have succet^ed '^ abom this time*' no one knew who, 
till we imravelled the mystery. By sending this letter of thsooks, and 
informing the holy pf^/^ that his epistle should be read for the exhor-^ 
tationof his flock, as also that of St. Clement, a predecessor of St 
Soter in the papel chair, it is dear that the chuvch of Cormth (as did 
eH the other ehurches) acknowledged the primacy t>f the church of 
Borne. This is ^lother weighty historiic^ fact, which must be borne 
in mind by the reader who wishes to ascertain the truth. The editors 
of FosL admit that St. Clemeot wrote a letter tp the Corinthians, fol-* 
lowing tiie exunple of St. Paul^ whose epistle to that church makes 
part of the new testameot. They admit that Dionysius informed St. 
Soter tiisit this epistle was puHicU/ reed to the people 5 let us now see 
why it was sent. Bi. Clement is the person mentioned by St. Paul in 
his epistle to the PhUippians, lusd was the third bishop of Ronle after 
St. Fetear* During his pontLQcate, some serious divisions arose among 
the Christians at Corinth, on which St. Clement wrote them an ad- 
monitory and instructive qnslfle, as head q£ the Christian church. He 
oommenoes thus : - ^ The church of God, which is at Borne, to that of 
'^ Corinth, to those ^at hai^e been called and sanctified by the will of 
^ God in our Lord Jesus Christ, May the grace and peace of God, 
^ the Aknighty, be increased by Christ Jesus in every one oi you." 
He then goes on to shew the^ evil state of anarchy and confunon, and 
exhoi*ts them to unity in ibe foUowing pathetic terms ; *^ Why,'* asks 
Ihfi |K>Btiif, ''Why are there quarrels, why are there divisions among 
*' jwi \ Have we not all the same God, the same Bedeeilaer, the same 
'' Spunt, who has sanctified us by our vocation into ONE FAITH ii^ 
" Chriait Jesus > Why then do we itioide his maoabers, why do we tear 
^ fjtat owm- body into pieces \ For surely we can never forget that we 
^ tte aU me»bpns o»e of ^moither^" &e» Thjy^ epistle was written about 
the^ttsB.M^ aad'hfldiheidesiGed effect i)f beali^ the diviak>tts.lameat« 






BOOK Gt MARTYHS. B% 

ed. We see abotfaat it is mentioiied by Dionyslus a»beitig still read 
in his time, tliat is nearly a hundred years after it was penned. It 
may here be observed^ that there is a variation between the version 
§;hAen by Fex's editors of the letter written by Dionysius to the church 
of Rome, and that given by Butler in his life-<# this saint. The lat^ 
ter gives it ^us from Eusebius : *' From the beginning it is your eus- 
'' torn to bestow yaur alii» in idl |4aces, and to furnish subsistence to 
*' many ehurches. You send relief to the needy^ especially tfabse who 
^' work id the mines; in which you follow the example of your fritbers. 
** Your blessed bishop Soter is so for fi-om degenerating from your an- 
** cestors in that respect, that he goes beyond th^n ; not to mention 
" the comfort and advice he, with the bowels of a tender father to- 
wards his children, affords all that comes- to him. On this day we ' 
eelebrated the Lord's day, (Fok's editors say, the hely dondnieal day) 
** and read your letter, as we do that which was heretofeire written to 
'* US by Cleaoaenl." 

The reader will here see tbe great and unbounded charity of the 
priinitiTe ^fristians, ^ho thought it nothing te divest themselves of 
every thing to succour their distressed or oppressed neighbours. Be*^ 
fore we quit. this subject we must direct the attention of the reader to 
the admission made by these e^tors, that before the time of Blony-* 
«iuS) they find no mentidn made by any writer,, except St. Justin, of 
the tnmsfer of the sabbath^-day from the kst to the first day of the 
week. How then was it so tmiversally kndw» and adopted, sinee it 
was n^her mentioned in Scripture or by writers for near two hundred 
years after the Christian religion was first established? This is an 
important queMion, reader ; for on it hangs the rejected doctrine, by 
Protestants, of tradition. The only answer that can be given is, thai 
it was handed down by word of mouth— it was communicated from fa« 
ther to son — it was received wHh the l%ht of truth, and its notoriety 
ewried eouvi^tioa with it. What absurdity must it then be, to deny 
^e necessity of tradition in one Histance when we are oUiged to admit 
it 4b aaoUier. 

THE FIFTH GENERAL PERSECUTION UNDER THE ROSiAN 

EMPERORS. 

The Chi48tUai8 during* the reigns of the emperors Commodus, T^rti^ 
aajt, and Juiianas, Fok tells iis> bad a^ rei^ite for seVend yeare fy&m 
perseeutMM.. 3ey«ru8» too, he says^ at the begnmingof his reign, be- 
came a great favourer of t^e Christians, '' but the prejudice and fury of 
'* the iffnoraift multitude agaui pera^ed, and the obsolete laws were 
^ fwH in eioeoition agaimst the Ohristiaiis. The Pagans were alarmed at 
^' the yogpeseof Chris|ianity, and jwvived the calumny of placing acci- 
^^ defttal misfbrtunas to tiie account of vts p«ofes6ors.*^ W^> 7^> ^is 
iB-ttnetiueuaVwiay with these who are -on the wrong side of the post, and 
espttcifiUy when they hairepower in their hands. We are (M enough'to 
. miiftm4frr s<M»etbli>g of ** Proitestaiit-aMendeiiey'' about the year Iff 8, 
wlMSii « UMe ^vo«r was .tttanifested by Bartiament towards tlie perse- 
cuted and iiill^^eesed Ca^^Mcs of fhte eoui^vy* How the preji^es of 
the igUMraat^vQifrttiituiie were then wrought «pen by wleked '^nd^ fll- 
ieflifttii^ li»ei| mufi^t eeen hy ^oasultiag. ituparttfldBtery. ^Blie fwy 



€( 

\ €€ 
S( 



64 REVIEW OF FOX.' 

of the people was. inflamed to:such a. degree that in ike year 1780, it 
was dangerous for a Catholic to be publicly knowa as such, and the 
metropolis of England was threatened with destruction by a lawless 
and fanatical knob. But let us. examine the martyrs set down by Fox 
as suffering in this peiH^cution. 

. The first is thus recorded : " Victor, bishop of Rome, suffered, mar* 
" tyrdom in the first year of the third century. A, D. 201, though the 
'' circumstances are not ascertained.** — Four paragraphs further on he 
jadds : — '^ Victor, the bishop of Rome, wanting to impose a particular 
mode of keeping Easter ther^i it occasioned sonae disorders among 
the Christians. In particular Irenseus wrote him a gynodical epistle 
in the name^ of the Gallic churches. This zeal in fa^vour of. Qiris'- 
tianity pointed hjixi (Irenasus) out as an object of resentment to the 
emperor, and be was accordingly beheaded in A. P. W%.*' Frbm 
this account the reader is led .to. sqppp^,. by the introduction, of. the 
adverb " there,** that this bishop of Rome meditated an innovation in 
the practice of the church in his own particular diocess, aod :thajC the 
zeal of St. Irenseus, in resisting :this attempt .of the holy, pope, bn>i}ght 
the wrath of the h^eathen emperor upon hivOi, and was the cause of his 
martyrdpm. But a mqi^ent of , reflection must shew the absurdity of 
this story of John Fox. Victor is stated to have been the first sufferer, 
as he was martyred in 201,. and Irenieus was not put to death till the 
year following; How then could his '^zeal in favour of Christianity,", 
in oppojiing the bishop of Rome, who is also stated to have been a godly 
martyr for Christianity^ point him out as an o^ect oi resentment to the 
heathen emperor ? Can any one bje so besotted as to imagiiie tliat this 
emperor, who was intent upon the destruction of Christianity, car^d one 
jot about the disputes between the head and members of the system ? 
No man of common sense, we are sure, will entertain such an idea. 
What would it interest '' Protestant-ascendency'* at this day, whether 
Easter was kept by the Catholics at one time in Ireland and at another 
in England, and that ope of the bishops of that church was more zea- 
lous in arguing the questipn than any of the others } The intolerant 
spirit of " Protestant-ascendency" is opposed to the whole system of 
Catholicism, not to an individual member or abstract part of it,- and so 
it was with Pagan* ascendency in the time of the heathen emperors. 
St. Irenaeus was an object of resentment, not for disputing with the bi- 
shop of Rome, but fprhis great abilities and influence in converting, the 
Pagans from their idolatrous superstitions . to the divine truths of the 
Catholic church. 

Mr, Echard, in his Ecclesiastical History, says, " The Christian re« 
ligipn had now iA,D. 201) diffused its.df through all the known 
parts of the world -, but more fully and. triumphantly in the vast Ro- 
man empire, wh.ere.it was most violently opposed, and met with the 
'^ mpst terrible. conflicts. .Christians were now in. the cities, towns and 
*' villages, in the camp, in the senate, in the palace, and in all places, 
'f besides the Pagan temples and theatres; and that in such numbers 
and multitudes, that T^riuHian assures us, that if th^y had unani- 
mously retired, to any other country, the empire would have become 
fa mere .desert.aud solitude.*' T^is astonishing progress .«f an indivi-r 
^1^^ aipfi undeviatingrule.pf faith amo^ :9ik ranks of peop^» ai^d of 






€€ 

(( 



- A REVIEW 

OF 

^V'» ISooH of mnvtsvs, 

CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL. 
No. 5. 



£ipr«ii:iTioN oy the ErfannTiNa.— 7%e initdc ^a Aonun amphilheatrt/iir enter- 
taiaing Iht peiipU icilh Annt. Thne tiifica caHaimd a gmt nxtmbiT iff uaiM, made of 
Mrt palUhtd Itrma, out oboK anathCT, that the ipeclalors might hove a pirftvt view of the 
ithate pit mlheut onir hinderance. The areiiBor pit icu) itrevicd with lani, Imuclriip iht 
blood, BTtd (umundeij wtUt iron roifi or a ioliulmde. admit a iiardfram the Unettt aatii 
for a fence, that thiwild beaiU viigittTiotbt able to hati the tpectattn. Undtr ihe volti 
mere deni for the beaiU, and diaifeoni far the condemned priumeTi. The Iwa martyn are 
SS. Ferpettta and Fciicitai, attacked by a itiid ana. 

CONTINUATION OF TBB RBVIBW, 

all nations, notwithstaading the horrid persecutions of the Pagans, the 
malice of the Jews, and the treacherous attiicks of beretics, must, we 
think, carry conviction of its divine nature, and be considered a proof 
of the existence of on oupnipoteot and all-powerful Being. The holy 
pope Victor wsa a very watchful guardian of this dii'ine faith, detect- 
ing and condemning many lieresiea that sprung up in hia pontificate. 
He also Wished to bring about an uniformity in the time of celebrat- 
ing Easter, but not to impose a particular mode of keeping it, as the 
Booifc of MarUjrs insinuates. At this time Mr. Butler writes, " the 
" churches of Lesser Aaia kept it with the Jews on the 14th day of 
" the first moon after the vernal equino:^ on. whatever day of the week 
" it fell. The Roman church, and all the Teat of the iDorld, kept Eas- 
" ter always on the Sunday immediately following the fourteenth day." 
This wo* a matter of <tiKiplme, and not o( faith, but stiU unity wat 



't< 



4i 



66 fUBVIEW OP KHC'S 

\ > 

\ 

considered necessary^ and Victor was desirous to effect it. Pope Ani- 
cetus allowed the Asiatics to follow their own custom even at Rome; 
but Soter required that when at Rome they should do as Rome did. 
Sevemi eouocils i^eve held in different parta of ihe woi^d^ and the 
decisions were in favour of the Roman custom. Some of the Asiatic 
bishops, however, .defended their custom, as derived from St. Philip, 
St. John the evangelist, and St. Polycarp. Victor, seeing them obsti- 
nate, thought to bring them round by excommunication, from which 
\^ was dissuaded by St. Iren^us, and died soon after. This is tiie 
correct history of the affair of keeping Easter, so fisur as Victor was 
concerned, which Fox would make us believe was an attempt at isiposi- 
tion on the part of this pope, and the cause of St. Irenseus's martyrdom. 
/ After the death of Victor, Fox places " Leonidas, the father of the 
celebrated Origen, beheaded for being a Christian.'* Next follows a 
confused account of other martyrs, of whose names and sufferings we 
can trace no account in the authors before us. Then comes the fol- 
lowing paragraph: ''IrensBus, bishop of Lyons, was born in Oreei^e, 
and received a Christian education. It is generally supposed <that 
^' the account of the persecutions at Lyons was written by liimsclf. 
*' He succeeded the martyr Pothinus as bishop of Lyons, and ruled his 
'' diocess with great propriety $ he was a zealous opposer of heresies in 
^' general, and wrote a celebrated tract against heresy about A. D. 187." 
Here then we have it acknowledged by John Fox, that this ** godly 
martyr** was not only an orthodox Christian, but likewise ** a zea- 
lous oppofiTer of heresies in general, and wrote a celebrated tract 
^' against heresy.** Now, as heresy is defined by Dr. Johnson to be, 
''An opinion of private men different from that of tbe Catholic and 
'^ orthodox church,'* John Fox and his editors, the ''few plain Chris- 
'^ tians,** who tell the public, in their address, that they "have united 
" themselves for the purpose of diffusing among their fellow-Mievers 
"a KNOWLEDGE and LOVE of the GENUINE ^tRINCIPLES OF 
'' CHRISTIANITY, and CONSEQUENTLY (they add), a hatred and 
*' abhorrence of the crimes and corruptions of Popbry and its professors,** 
ought most certainly to have pointed out WHAT THE DOCTRINES 
WERE that, this " zealous opposer of heresies in general*' defended. 
For how can their fellow-believers obtain a " knowledge of the genuine 
"principles of Christianity,** unless they are laid down before them 
for their information? And how can they **love** these principles 
while they are ignorant of them? To tell the reader that tlus martyr 
wrote a " celebrated tract against heresy," without telling him the 
substance of the work, is saying nothing; it is leaving him as much 
in the dark as ever. But unfortunately this system of suppression, where 
information is essentially necessary to obtain a knowledge of truth, 
has been invariably followed by the adversaries of CathoHcisnEif until 
the people of this country have been cheated out of their faith, and 
their understandings bewildered, while they imagine themselves giftec. 
with a supeiiority of intellectual wisdom above their fellow creatures. 
Fox says Irenaeus wrote a "<rae^," which means a small b^ok, against 
heresy in general. Now the fact is, this work was a very elaborate 
one, and consisted of five books. In the first the learned father and 
nnartyr gives a long list of heresies. • In the second he confutes them 



4i 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. er 

from scripture^ and from the miracles performed in his day in the 
Catholic churchy which the heretics could never perfbnq. In the 
third he advances tradition ag«dn9t th^ heretics. In th^ fourth he 
pursues the same subject^ and answers the objections of those who 
denied tiie incorruptible resurrection qf the body. And^ in the ifth^ 
lie explains the mysteries of the churchy the ^1 of man^ the conpe- 
4{iicnce of it, the incarnation, the resurrection, j(o, These books wrre 
written chiefly againnt the execrable doctrines of the Gnostics, and of 
Valentinus, a priest, who fell by pride and jealousy, because another 
was preferred before him to a bi3hopric in Egypt. Valentinus bad 
been a Ratonic philosopher, and revived the errors of Simon Magup, 
adding to them many other absurd fictions, as of thirty ^^qes or ages, 
a kind of inferior dieties, &c. As an author, Iren^us was well veused - 
in the . scripture, perfectly understood the P$gftn poets, and wfis t)io« 
roughly acquainted with the systems and arguments of the heretics. 
St. Ireneus was a Greek by birth, and received bis JAstructions in the 
Chnstian fEuth from St. Folycarp, bishop pf $Qiyrna» who was a disci- 
ple of St. John the evangelist, and suffered martyrdom in the fourth 
persecution, as we have mentioned. Consequently^ the doctrines held 
by this orthodox Christian bish(^« and '* jealous oppbser ^ heresies in 
'^general,** must have been received from the apostles, iwd were 
therefore genuine. Let us now see then what these doctrines were. 

On the contested points regarding the authority, marks, vMUky, 
aposta&dtyf and infailUnUty of the Church, and primacy of the pope, which 
Catholics now and always did maintain, St. Irenceus writes: "Things 
' being thus made plain (the descent of doctrine from the apostles) it 
is not from others that truth is to be sought, which may be readily 
learned from the church. For to this church/ as into a rich x:eposi« 
tory, the fnpostles committed whatever is of divine truth> that each 
one, if so inclined, mi^t thence draw the drink of life^ This is the 
W2iy to life; all other teachers must be shunned as thieves and rob- 
bers. For what? Should there be any dispute on a point of small 
jDoment, must not recourse be had to the most ancient churches, 
where .the apostles resided, and from them collect the truth?*' JUdv, 
Hmre$es, Ub. ui. c. iv. p. SOS. Edit^ Oxonu, 1702. 

It is a duty to obey the priests of the church, who hold their suc- 
cession from the apostles, and who, with that succession, received, 
agiieeably to tiie wiU of the FaUier, the suiie pledge of truth. But as 
to those who belong not to that leadiug succession, in whatever place 
^' they may by united, they should be suspected, either as heretics, 
'' or as schismatics, proudly extolling, and pleasing themselves, or as 
^ hypocrites actuated by vain glory or the love of lucre. But they who 
'^ impugn the truth, and excite others to oppose the church of God, 
tJieir fate is with Dathan and Abirou; while schismatics, who violate 
the church's tmity, experience the punishment which fell on king 
*' Jeroboam." Ibid. L iv. c. xliii. p, 343, 344. 

** The church, extended to the boundaries of the earth, received her 
*' jGeuth from the apostles, and their disciples.^Having received it, she 
" carefrilly retains it, as if dwelling in one house, as possessing one soul, 
** and cme heart: the same faith. she delivers and teaches, with one<Ac-* 
" cord, aod as ¥gifred with one tongue: Hotr though .in the.wojrl^ there 



€< 
t€ 
ft 
€€ 
tt 
H€ 

€e 

€g 
€t 

I 

cr 
f< 



tt 

tt 



6B REVIEW OF FOX'S 



44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
£f 
44 



4S 
44 



be various modes of speech^ tbe tradition of doctrine is one and the 
same. In the chtirches of Germany^ in those *bf Spain and Gaul^ in 
those of the East^ of Egypt^ and of Africa^ and in the middle regions^ 
is the same belief^ the same teaching. For as the world is enUght'- 
ened by one sun^ so does the preaching of one faith enlighten all 
men^ that are willing to come to the knowledge of truth. Nor^ among 
the pastors of the churchy ^oes he that is eloquent deliver other doc- 

'' trine — for no one is above his master — nor he that is weak in speech 
diminish the truth of tradition. Faith being one^ cannot foe affected 
by the powers or the want of utterance.** MversUs Hareses, I, i. c. 

ii. in. p. 45, 46. Ed. Oxon, 1702. 

God placed in his church apostles, prophets, doctors; and the 
whole operation of the spirit, of which they do not partake, who dre 
not united to the church ; but, by their own bad designs and actions, 
they deprive themselves of life. For where the church is, there is 
the spirit of God; and where this spirit is, there is the church, and 
all grace: the spirit is truth." Ibid. 2. iii. e. xl. p. 266. Fufe 2. iv. c. 62., 
The heretics, of whontl have been speaking, csme long after those 
bishops, to whom the apostles committed the care of their churches, 
and they ran into devious paths, foreign from the truth. But' they, 
who adhered to the church, continued to profess, with all nations, 
the doctrine, which the apostles had delivered, with one and the same 
feith, believed id one God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; meditating 
on the same precepts; upholding the s^me ordinances, expecting the 
coming of the Lord and the salvation of men. The teaching of the 
church is true and stable, shewing to all men the same one path of 
salvation; for to her has been committed the li^ht and the wisdom of 



44 
44 
H 
44 
44 
44 

4< 
44 
44 
.44 
41 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 

^'God. As the 'wise man says: (Prov. c. 1.) ^he ntt^eth her voice in 
*' the streets; she crieth on the highest walls ; she speaketh toithout ceasing in 
^' the city gates. Everywhere the church proclaims the truth; she 
^' is the candlestick witb the seven lamps ; (Exod. xxv;) bearing' the 
*' light of Christ." Adv. Hareses, I. v. c. 20.. p. 430. 
. " The church, receiving her doctrine from Christ and his apostlei^, 
^' and alone preserving it through all 'regions, delivered it down to her 
" children. Hence it becomes our duty, to afford every assistance 
^' against the assaults of heretics; to withdraw those that are in error, 
and to strengthen the weak; in order that they hold fast the fedth, 
which they received from that church, which has preserved it invio- 
late." Adv. Hot. Prasf. lib. v. p. 392. 

The apostolic faith, manifested to the whole world, they, who 
" would behold truth, may see in every church ; and we can enume- 
^' rate those bishops, who were appointed by the apostles, and their 
successors, down to ourselves, none of whom taught, or even knew, 
the wild opinions of these men (heretics). Had the apostles really 
possessed any secret doctrines, which the perfect only were to hear, 
surely they would have communicated them to those, to whom 
they entrusted their churches. However, as it would be tedious to 
enumerate the whole list of successions, I shall confine myself to that 
'* of Rome, the greatest, and most ancient, and most illustrious church, 
^' founded by the glorious apostles, Pteter and Paul ; receiving from them 
^* her ^doctrine, which was imnouneed to all men, and which; through 



44 

44 

-44 

44 



it 
t4 
U 

4 

(4 
€4 
44 



BOOK OP MARTYRS, 69 



« 
€( 
€€ 
€1 
<€ 
41 

tc 

€1 
€€ 
€€ 
<t 
€€ 
€f 
€t 
€€ 
« 

€< 



the succession of her bishops^ Is come- down to us. Thus we -con-* 
found all those^ who, through evil designs, or vain-*glory, or per- 
versenesa, teach what they ought not. For to this churchy on account 
of its superior he^^ljship, every other niust have recourse, that is^ the 
faithful of all countries ; in which church has been preserved the 
doctrine delivered by the aposUes. They, therefore, having founded 
9SiA instructed this church, coipmitted the administration thereof to 
Linus, Of this (linus, Paul makes mention in his epistle to Timothy^ 
To him succeeded Anacletus : then, in the third plaee, Clement, who 
had himself seen and conversed with those apostles, in whose time 
their preaching yet sounded in his ears. Nor was this alone true of 
him ; as many, at that time, . were living, whom they had taught. 
To Clement succeeded Evaristus ; to him Alexander ; and then the 
sixth from the apostles, Sixtus, who was followed by Telesphorus^ 
Hyginus, Pius, and Anicetus. But Soter having succeeded Aaicetus^ 
Elei^therius^ the twelfth from the apostles now governs the churchy 
By such regular succession, has the doctrine delivered by the apos* 
ties, descended to us :. and th^ proof is most clear, that it is one an4 
Ihe sanne vivifying faith, which coming from the apostles, is at this 
time maintained and taught." Adv. Har. L iii. c. iii. p, 200, 201^ 
202,^203, ^ ' 

Against the. private interpretation of scripture, now so fashionable 
among Protestants, and especially the promoters of Bible societies, 
who condemn, one and all, the Catholics for maintaining that TH£ 
CHURCH, apd THE CHURCH ONLY, is -the expounder of the scrip- 
tures, St. Irenaeus, the '^zealous opposer of heresies in general," as 
John Fox justly calls him, teaches thus : *' Paul says : God appointed in 
his* church apostles, prophets^ and doctors. 'Where therefore are the 
holy gifts of Qod, Ihere must <^ truth^be learned : with them is the 
succession frOm the apostles ; and there is the society, whose cou^ 
munication is sound and irreproveable, unadulterated, and pure. 
These preserve the faith of one God, who made all things ; increase 
our love towards his divine Son $ and expound, without danger, the 
'' sciiptnres to i^s^ not hlasphemiug the name of God, nor dishonouring 
"' the patriarchs^ nor contemning l;he prophets." Jdversus H<Br, Z.,iv. 
c. flv. p, 34$« '^ To him that believeth, that there is one God^ and 
holds to the head> which is Christ — ^to this man all things will be 
plain, if he read diligently the^^criptures with the aid of those who 
*' are the priests in the church, and in whose hands, as we have shewn, 
rests the doctrine of th^ apostljes." . Ihid, c. iii, p. 555. 
And not only &om the. evangelical and apostolical writings, which 
" they perversely interpret, and wickedly expound, do these, (heretics) 
attempt to prove .their assertions 3 but also frojm the law and the pro- 
phet8« For ^as there eare in these many. parables and allegories, which 
may be forced into various meanings, them, they craftily fit to their 
own. purpose, and thus draw from the truth those who have n^t a 
firm faith in one God the Father, and his Son, Jesus Christ." Ad^. 
H^r, L I. c. i> p, 19. " Such being their positions, which the pro- 
phets never preached, nor Christ taught, nor the apostles delivered, 
'* they boast their own superior knowledge, and attempt to make it 
'* seem credible j forming, as it were, a rope of sand, by adducing some 



« 
u 

4< 
4i 



« 
tt 
SI 
« 

ft 

<t 

tf 
« 
<t 
iK 
tt 

ts 



td tlfiVKSW Cff ¥iSS.'S 



€4. 

it 



i€ 
U 
t€ 
t€ 
*€ 



fi 

it 



words from tbe ftarables or diiyiiigd cf the pvai^dm, or ^ Chriit, ot 

of the apostles ) but so^ as to vMale the art«ngeat«iit and «rder of 

tlie sacred writings^ and^ as far as in them lies, dlssolye tlie whole 

connection of truth."— l%id. p. 55. " Se Tarying are thim notions 

^ drawn Arom the scriptm^s, and when a ^scourse Imis been read, 

'* shaking theit hettds with great gravity, they pronounoe, UfaMt its se- 

^' cre^ meaningis abote the t;apadty of all, and thai «ileiice is the pi«of 

of wisd(ym. — ^When^ therefore, they shall be agreed among theln- 

selves om what l^y draw from the seriptiires, it Will be emr time to 

refute them. Meanwhile, thinldng wrongfully^ and not agreeing in 

ihe meaning of the same words, they convict themselves ; but we, 

having one true 'and only God for our master, 'and making his words 

the rule of truth, always speak^ke of fhe same things 3 all acknow- 

'^ ledging one God, the creator of the universe. Who sent his prophets, 

^' and in the latter times manifested his Son, to confound the wredu- 

'^ lous, and draw forth the fruit of Juistice.*' X. iv, c. xix. p. ses. 

On the contested point of TVadiHon, which Protestants reject and Ca- 
tholics stoutly hold, and which is neither more nor less than PUf^LIC 
OPINION, received and delivered down 'from age to age, this ** zea- 
lous opposer of heresies in general," -says, " When these heretics are 
convicted from the scriptures, they begin to accuse the scripture^ 
'' themselves, as not being accurate, and void of authority, and so va- 
^' riously expressed, that from th^n 'truth cannot be diseovered by those 
'^ who are ignorant of tradition. For that 'truth came not by writing, 
*' but by the living voice : wherefore Paul said : '(1 Cor. ii.6.) Haw^ 
*' belt we speak wisdom am(mg the ferfett; yet not the wisdom of this m&rid, 
*< — ^N(yw this wisdom each one of them pretends to >posse9s^ m he has 
*' drawn it from himself. For each one in his own perversity, pervert- 
'' ing the rule of truth, blushes not to vaunt himself. <On the other 
** hand, when we appeal to that tradition, which, eoming frnMn the 
*^ apostles through the succession of ministers, is preserved 'in 'the 
'*' churches, they object to it, observing ^at, being themselves wiser 
'' than those ministers, and the apostles thcfmselves, >they hove i^sco- 
*' vered the genuine tnith.«^Thi!is they assent neither to the scHptures, 
''nor to tradition." Mv. Hares, L in. c. ii. p. 199, ^00. "And ihad 
'^ these apostles left us nothing in writing, must not we, in that oase, 
'' have followed the rale of doctrine, which they delivered to those to 
'^ whom they entrusted their churches ? To this* rule many baf^baorous 
'' nations submit, who, deprived of the aid of letters, barei the words of 
*' salvation written on their hearts, and carefolly guard' the ^ doctrine 
'' which Las been delivered." Jbid. c. iv. p. 805. " Thus IPolycarp 
'^ always taught what he had learnt from the afpostles, delivering it to 
*^ the church j and these things alone are tme. To them ail the 
*' churches of Asia, and they who, down to this day, have succeeded to 
'' St. Polycarp, bear testimony. 'He was a imm^ofimueh greater au- 
'' thority, and a t(^itneSs of truth more* fftithfiil, than Valentinas «nd 
^' Marcion, and such perverse thinkers. Comii^to'llome^ in the time 
''of Anicetus, he converted many heretics to t£e ehurch ^£G<id,^an- 
''nouncing the one and only truth, Whi<>hhehiid received 'ff«om< {the 
" apostles, and which he delivered to' the elmi^h. There' isan f^iitle 
' '' of Poly carp to the Philippians/ from which msy^ be colieoted« ^wiibt 



*€ 



BOOK OP MARTYtlS. fx 

'^ w^ the character of his faith^ and the troth which he preached. 
^ Moreover, the church of Ephesus, which F^eiI founded^ and where 
** John resided to the time of Trajan, is itself a witness to the doctrine 
^ delivered by the apostles.** Mv, Haer, I, iii. c. iil. p. 909. 

Of the real presence of Christ in the sacrament of the Eucharist, or 
Lord's supper, and the sacrifice fj^ the Mass^ which CaUiolics steadfastly 
maintain, and eren resign their citxI rights for the same, as the Fro- 
teatants of this country have made the rejection of this doctrine a test 
of civil capacity, by compelling every person appointed to office to 
SWEAR it is BAIULNABLB and IDOLATROUS, this ''zealous opposer 
*' of heresies in general," (observe we quote John Fox) writea thus : — 
^, It ia our dut jr to make an offering to God, and with a pure hearty a 
** sincere faith, a firm hope, and a fervent charity to present the Maker 
of all things the first fruita of his creatures. But this pure oblation 
the church alone makes. The Jews make it not, for their hands are 
** stained with blood ; and they receive not the wch^ that is offered to 
^ €k>d. Nor do the asseinblies of heretics make it.-^Fbr how can 
*^ these prove, that the bread, over wMch the wbrds of thanksgiving 
" have been pronounced, is the body of their Lord, and the cup hfis 
* blood, while they do not admit, that he is the Son, that is, the Word 
** of the Creator of the world ? Or how again do they mahitain, that 
" the fiesh turns to .corruption^ and partakes not of life, which is nou- 
'' rished with tlie'body and blood of the Lord ? Wherefbre, let them 
'' either give up their opinion, or cease from making that ofTering. 
^ But our sentiment accords^ with the nature of the Eucharist, and the 
** Eucharist again confirms dur sentiment. The bread that we receive 
'^ is no hyi^r common bread, but the Eucharist, consisting of two 
^ tikiags, terrestrial and celestial'* Adv, Hbbt, Hb, iv. c. xxxiv. p. 326, 
997* '' They are truly vain (the heretics), who contemn the whole 
** divine system, and denying the salvation and regeneration of the flesh, 
^ maintain that it is not susceptible of incorruption. According to this 
*^ then, the Lord did not redeem us by his blood ; nor is the cup of the 
'' Eucharist the participation of his blood, nor the bread, which we 
" break, the participation of his body. When therefore the mingled 
** dialice and the broken bread receive the word of God, they become 
** the Eucharist of the body and blood'of Christ, by if^ich the substance 
" of our fiesh is increased and strengthened : how then can they pre- 
** tend, that this fiesh is not susceptible of eternal liffe > And as a sec- 
" tien of the vine laid in the earth produces fhiit in due season, and in 
'^ like manner the grain of com is multiplied, by the blessing of God, 
" which afterwards are used for the benefit of man, and receiving on 
** them the word of God, become the Eucharist, which is the body and 
^ blood of Christ : so our bodies, nourished by that Eucluirist; and then 
'' Md in the earth, and dissolved in it, shali, in due time, rise again.*' 
JM, 1. 5. c. xi. p. 395, 397, 399. 

'^ Giving advice to his disciples, to offer their first fruits to God, not 
** as if he stood in need of them, but that they might not seem ungrate* 
"'fdl, he took bread into his handi^, and giving thanks, said : Tim is my 
" body. Likewise he declared the cup to be his blood, and taught the 
** hew oblation of the new Testament, which oblation the church re* 
'* ceiving from the apo,utles, offbrs it to God over all the earth— 'to hifad 



78 REVIEW OF fOXS 



t€ 
€t 
t< 
€€ 
t< 
« 
€€ 
it 
(€ 



tt 
t< 
<€ 



who grants us food — the first fruits of his gifts in the new Testament, 
of which the* prophet Malachias spoke : I will not accept iiffertngt 
from your ha»d$. For from the rising of tlie sun to the going down of 
the same, my nameis great among the Gentiles, and in everyplace incense 
is offered to my name, a clean sacrifice. Manifestly hereby signifying, 
that the first people (the Jews) will cease to offer to Grod ; and that 
in every place^ a sacrifice, and that clean, will be offered to him, and 
that his name is glorified among the Gentiles." Adver. Hmr. l. it. 
c. xxxii. p. 3^3, 324'. " Therefore the offering of the church, which 
" the Lord directed to be made over all the world, was deemed a pure 
.sacrifice before God, and received by him ; not that he stands in need 
of a sacrifice from us, but because he that makes the offering, if Ins 
gift be accepted, is thereby rendered worthy of praise. As then in 
simplicity the church offers, her offering is accepted by God as a pure 
*'. sacrifice.** Ibid, c. xxxix. p. 324, 326. 

We have been thus prolix in our quotations from this great and learn- 
ed father of the Catholic church, who is .stiled by John Fox himself 
" a zealous opposer of heresies in general,** because we shall have oc- 
casion, in the progress of our review of this mass of falsehoods and ca^ 
lumnies, the Book of Martyrs, to contrast the orthodox doctrines of Si. 
Irena&us, with the notions of John Fox's Protestant saints, in order that 
the reader may be able to form his own unbiassed judgment on the 
merits of the question between us. We. have before noticed the im- 
piety of the test oath put to all persons in this country to qualify for 
office, from the lord chancellor down to the petty constable, and we now 
appeal to the csmdid reader, whether this qualification, in the fsu^e of 
these doctrines, so clearly expressed by a martyred '' opposer of heresies 
" in general,'* is not a disgrace to the country, and therefore ought to 
!be abolished ? For. in the vindication of the orthodoxy of this doctrine 
of the Catholic church, and consequently the heresy of FFOte8tant8> 
using the words of John Fox, we have the declaration of the learned 
X>r. Grabe,, a Protestant divine, who edited an edition of the works of 
St. Irenaeus. He observes, — *^ It is certain that St. Irenaeus, and aU 
*' the fathers — either conten[iporary with the apostles, or their immedi- 
a.te successors, whose writings are stUl extant — considered the Eu- 
charist to be the sacrifice of the new law, and offered bread and wine 
''on the altar, as sacred oblations to God the Father; and that it was 
" not the private opinion of any particular church or teaeher, but the 
" PUBLIC DOCTRINE and PRACTICE of the UNI VERSALCHURCH, 
which she received from the apostles, as they from Christ, is expressly 
shewn in this place (alluding to the last extracts above) by Irenssus, 
and before him by Justin M. and Clement of Rome.** {See p. 49 of this 
Review for St, Justin s words,) What gross impiety and inconsistency 
must it then be, for men to swear at this day, that what was the prac- 
tice of the universal church in former ages, and is proved to have been 
received by her from the apostles, is idolatrous and damnable. What 
hypocrisy to raise an outcry against Deism, and persecute those who 
are unhappily under its influence, when the persecutors themselves 
most impiously protest before the. throne of God, that what his Son, 
the Redeepier of the world, taught his apostles, is idolatry andsupsR- 
l^ririp)^^ ^nd consequently f^eriting eternal damnation* We have it 






it 



BOOK OF. MARTVRS. 79 

here stated^ by: Jjoho Fox and his ediiorB, tha4i St. IrenfletiS wm '' a 2ed« 
" 0U8 opposer of heresies in gieneral^'* we have proved from his works 
that the doctrine which he tau^t is the doetrine now preached by the 
CathoUc ehurch; yet do theae m^n pretend to be '^ diffusing amon^ 
" their fellow-believers a knowledge and love of the genukie principles 
" of Christianity/' while they scruple. not to swear that that is damnable 
doctrine which St. Irenseus^ the " zealous opposer of heresies in gene- 
" ral/' maintained was ORTHODOX. ' Reader^ is it possible to find a 
parallel in any Chiristian countiy for Impiety and inconsistency like this ? 
Having thus illed the void made by Fox and his editors in the doc- 
irinet of th<i primitive Christians^ w« will now return to his list of 
martyrs under this persecution. From Rome and Gaul^ Fox carrie$ 
his readers into Africa^ were he says^ ''many were martyred in that 
" part of the globe.*' Of these he mentions in particular^ Perpetua 
andFelidtaSy who suffered with Revocatus^ Satuminus^ and Secundulus. 
Perpetua wa« a lady of quality^ and Felicitaa a female slave; the for- 
mer had a young child at her breast,- the latter was in a state of preg- 
nancy^ and was delivered of a daughter before she suffered martyr- 
dom. The relation given by Fox is Substantially correct^ but here he 
suppresses an important circumstance or two, the notice of which 
would have shewn that neither he nor his church had any claim to these 
martyrs. Perpetua is stated to have had a vbicM), after being condemned 
to death, in whieh she was assured that her youngest brother, who 
had been dead some years, had been pardoned some feult committed 
by him when living, through her prayers. . Thus confirming the doc- 
trine then held as weU as- now, by the Catholic church, of praying for 
the souls in purgatory. When first brought bisfbce the people, they 
were exposed naked, but the condition of the one and the delicacy of 
the other, operated on the judge and the people, and they wereallowed 
to be covered. A wild cow being let out upon them, it attacked Per- 
petua first, tossing her up in the air, when falling on her back she 
raised herself up in a sitting posture, and adjusted her clothes, which 
had been much disordered. She then tied her hair, and getting up 
perceived Felicitas on the ground much hurt by the cow, whom she 
helped to rise. They then stood together, expecting another assault, 
but the people cried out that it was enough, and they were then led out, 
when the sword finished their mortal course^ and enabled them to 
enter into the joys of heaven. So great was the fame of these two 
martyrs, and their feast was cdebrated in so solemn a manner in St) 
Augustin's time, that persons were annually drawn in great numbers 
to visit their relics, which were deposited in the great church of Car- 
thage. Their mgnes are inscribed in the canon of the Mass, as may 
be seen by a reference to the missals now in use among Cath<4ics, add 
their festival is yearly celebrated" by the Catholic church, on the 7th of 
March, a convincing proof that these heroic female martyrs were Ca- 
tholics> and not Protestants. This practice of naming the saints in the 
mass, as also of praying for the dead, is coeval With the institution of 
the sacrifice itself. Anciently the names of those who were specially 
mentioned in the mass, were vfrittkn on papers or parchment folded 
twice, from which they obtained the name of dyptics, and were de- 
posited on the altar. The saints, however, who suffered martyrdom 






n BXWBSVr COf VGX9 

for the true M^, heean^g sa nuineroiis as to render it (mposafble td 
inohide them all^ they were transferred t<v the canoti^ and a few only 
were inserted^ adding thereto the general phrase/'* and to aH saints.'* 
Of the names preserved are those^ as we have before stated^ of B^r- 
petoa and Felioitas, 

THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH PERSECUTIONS UNDER THE 

ROMAN EMPEROIL& 

The space allotted by Fox to the sixth perseeotion i» so very incoQ- 
aiderable, that we do not deem it necessary to mdke a distinct head of 
H. He describes it as being raised by the empeiior Maximns, in the 
year ld35. This en^ror raised himself to the purple 1^ tlie asaassi* 
nation of the emperor Alexander Serems, one of the b^t of the Bin 
mma emperors. Maximna was by birA a barbariai!, being the son of 
a poor herdsman of Thraee^ and of gigantic stature^ beings it is said^ 
eight feet and a half high. For his eruehy towards all men he is fre-> 
quently somamed Basiris, Typhon^ and Fhalaris^ and was a monstei^ 
ol gluttony. Among the martyrs named by Fox in this persecudon 
are two popes^ whose deaths are thus recorded. ** Pontanius> bishop 
of Rome^ for preachiag agakut idtdaifi^, was banished to Sardinia, and 
there destroyed. Anteros, a Grecian^ who succeeded this bishop in 
^ the see of Rome^ gave so much offence to the government by ecUr* 
'' lecting 'the acts of the martyrs, that, after hvving held hia ^nity 
*^ only forty days, he suffered martyrdom hims^f." Now what are we 
to think of thL statement, made by men who awear that Fopery is 
idolatry* and believe the pope to be Antichrist? Here we have it 
^ stated, that one of these bishops of Rome beci^ine a ^godtty martyr,*' 
for '^preaching against idolatry," wldle his suceeseors, since the rdbr- 
nuDkaon so called, are represented to be the ehielb of idolirtem) The 
other too is made a ''godly martyr,*' for ^^eoUeetihg the acta of the 
'• martyrs," which is now-a^days reckoned to be an act of superstltien, 
But, let* US here observe, that we think it very impvobable^ that A»- 
teros lost his life through the cause stated by John Fox, beeaose the 
v^ry short time he filled the pontifical chair did not aUjow him the €f^ 
portunity of collecting the acta of the martyrs. Butler, in his aeconnt 
of these two holy popes, makes but slight BMnHen of them 5 probably 
ffom there not being my pontive records of the manner of their 
(iQaths. Eehard says, that Anteros only dnigned the coUeeti<m of the 
eists of the martyrs^ which Fabian, his suecessor, earricA into C3|:ectt>* 
tion, thA mild reign of the emperor Philip allowing him to accom^ 
pUsh the undertal&ig. 

The account of the seventh persecution is prefoced by Fox and Ins 
editon^ with the following remarks : '*In the year ^9*, Beeiua being 
'' empeixw* of Rome, a dreadfol persecution waa begun agnnet the Chris- 
'' tiaet. TUs ms occasioned partly by Ite hatred be boretohis.prede^ 
'' cesser thi^j^who was deemed a Christian, andpartlytohis jeelonsy 
^ concerning the amazing increase of Christianjtf;. fovthe heatheatem- 
'^ pies were almost forsaken, and the Christian churches- crowded with 
*^ proAelyt^^ Decias, pcovoked at this, attempted, as it were, toextir* 
'^ pate the name of Christian 5 and, unfortunately' fortheiraiMitf-of^tofoi* 
' p^l, vowji errors had about this time crept into the church: the Chris-* 



BOOK OF UAsrnB: n 



€€ 



U 



** liaii* were <at MriMet «M mch Mhert mnA a wsmM^oI contcofiont eaa 
*" saed^uMoogst tlicnu Tlw lieatlieiis in §peiieral were ambliioii# to eii<» 
*' ibree the imperial decrees tipoa diis oecaaioa^ and kwked apoii the 
^ murder of a CkrUtian aa a merit to themaeiyes. Tlie martyrs vwn, 
^ llietelare> iannmeralble." 

Naw, reader, if you be a Froieatant, we care not of what |leflmuina<» 
twB, so you are unbiassed in your mind and dcsiioas to laani tiie 
truth, oan you, we ask, maice any thing but absurdity cuit of this state* 
ment mt have quoted? Fax here ta&s of ^ the amaziog increase of 
" Cimstianity" as one 'Of Ihe caiaaes of this persecution under Deeius, 
and then laments the ^rwon that had crept into thM ekuroh, at tids 
tiaae, mb a miafoitune for the danae of the gospel! ! ! What contradie« 
tory nooaease. Why if Chriatianiity increased with amaziag rapidity, 
the cause of the gospel miust ha^e incteased also^ or does Rnc mean 
to insinuate that the eanse of Ouistianity and ikt cause of the gosp^ 
are two distinct and separate things^ ^HiBt errors idxNmded, at diis 
time, as well as in the preceding ages, -cannot be denied; but they 
had not crept into THE CHUBCH, as Fox fidsely asserts, because 
TH£ CHUfijCH being the PILLAR and GROUND of TRUTH, aa 
St. Paul declares, in 1 Tkn. in. 15, on the promise of Christ himself, 
who assured his apoatles that the SFIBIT of IHUTH should con^ 
tmue with H£S iCHURCH to Ihe END of the WORLD, ""that he 
might present it to himself a gknam C&tirc&, odt having ^poi ar 
lonaide nar any w&k tkmg, but thai it should i»e h^ and wtth* 
oui iOemiMh;' (Ephes. v. 36.) the Chureh itself COULD NOT ERR 5 
for, we ^b^ you to cftMerve, had erimr omoe orefit into iier foundation, 
she >coidd am Icmger hatie been the piflor and gfwind of ^ruth. The 
assertion then >ot Fool, that '' many errors had aliout this time crept 
" into 4Sbe •church'** is ^dearly folse md hlaa|fliemous, as we have shewn 
fiom the woilfis <of Bt, irenssus, who is acooamled by Fox ''a aealous 
^opposerofhevesieaingeneraL" Again, he states, that a variety of con- 
tentions ensued amongst the GdHistiaas, and yet a little whale before 
he aays, ^Hhe heathen tcmplca weve almost forsaken, and tiie Chiis- 
" tian churches cfowded whJh proselytes." iNEow, how are we to veeon- 
^e these two statements! These contentions amd^g the Christians, 
oomsnon sense would lead us to suppose, must hare led to tiie thinning 
of tiie churches ; for can any man in his soaaes imagine that persons 
oppoeed to each 4rt^er in point «of doQtrioe woidd cordially assemhie 
together at one and the same time to Ground the dhunehes, and not 
only thus 4:j»ngvagater in goeat masses, but Ukiewise gain prosciytes in 
<he SEiidst 4>f contentions. Let us hear take .^ example. In Ihe six^ 
teenth century the king and parliament of this oonutry thought proper 
to change Ihe old established religion, and form a nsw «ne, of which 
the sover^gn was conatitoted the head by ithie power of phriiament, 4ad 
he was armed with the iCtoi^ sword to oontnd the eensdences of his aub- 
jects. Laws were passed to compel persons to conform to the neto 
mode of worship, and a creed was framed to insure aut/brmtly, while 
the ofanrches were tidfien horn the old possessors and given to 4^0 
mxagteraoi the«new religion. Here then we hoire a tkurd^ protected 
by Ja», .and 'every human means adopted to insure its stobility. But 
it did not long exist before the menders of it were at variance with 



Trr MBVIEW OF 

each otiier; objectiont w^i^e made to its dbetriae and its dkdpli^ei 
Fresh penid statutes were enacted to enforce submissiDn^ but still "w 
" variety of contentions ensued amongst thelb;*' and what was the 
result? Not the crowding of her churches with proselytes; but the 
defection of her members to fill conventicles. Each succeeding cen-' 
tury has ptoduced additional variatioils of doctrine^ and a greater de- 
crease of attendance at the churches ; and at the time we are writing; 
instead of gaining proselytes to Christianity^ the peoii^^ane daily JPaU". 
ing into infidelity and deism^ from the confusion and absurdity of so 
many pretenders to truth. And would not this inevitkbly have been 
the case in the third centuvy^ had the church in that age been infected, 
with error ? Most undoubtedly U would. Decius would have had no 
occasion to raise the sword of persecutiim against Christianity, for in 
the absence of truth, the pretenders to it would have destroyed them-; 
selves, -and the Pagans been confirmed in their idolatry ^ but the 
church, like a dty placed on a mountain, displayed her glorious trea- 
sures to the wanderer after truth, and opened her gates to the be- 
nighted traveller. The sublimity of her mysteries, the purity of her 
morals, the excellency of her precepts, and the unity, and indefectibility 
of her faith, pointed her out as the ONLY GUiI)£ by which man 
could direct his steps through the wilderness of this world, and. hence 
the labours of her preachers were crowned with a harvest of glory, 
in bringing into her fold innumerable proselytes. 
• Th^i as to '' the heathens in general being ambitious to enforce th^ 
imperial decrees upon this occasion^ and looked upon the murder of 
a Christian as a merit to themselves^'* was not this cold-blooded cpn- 
duet iniitated by the English Protestants upon the Irish Catholics in 
the reign of Elizabeth? The late Mr. Wm. Parnell, in his Midorkal 
Apology y p« 91, says, ''When the power and pride of the English be^' 
" came so higUy exalted under Elisabeth, the jbrishwere^ considered as 
^ a sort of rebel savins, clearly excluded from the ccHiitemplation of 
^' the laws of God and man, the vicdation of whose ;r%hts foemed no 
precedent that could affect civiHzed natioos ; and it did not follow 
that a man who should spoil and MUR]>£R them might not be pos" 
sessed of an upright and gentle heart." .Nay, do we not read, in the 
public prints of the present day, outrages ^and murdei?s conunitled on 
Irish Catholics by Orange *' Protestant-asceiidency"-inea, as of Com- 
mon occurrence, and the perpetrators escaping punishment through 
the perjury of their comrades? And from what cause do these last 
mentioned atrocities arise, but from the same malignant spirit of reli- 
gious intolerance and jealousy that influenced the Roman Pagans to 
persecute the 4)rimitive Christians? 

We must now proceed to notice some oi the martyrs recorded by 
Fox as suffering in this persecution. The first is thus related: ''Fa- 
-' bian, bishop of Rome, was the first jperson of eminence who felt the 
** severity of this persecution. The deceased emperor, Philip, had> on 
'' accowit of his .integrity, committed his traasure to the caoe of this 
good man; but Decius, not finding afl.nmch as his avarice made him 
expect, determined to wreak his vengeance on the good prelate. 
He was accordingly seized 5 and on the SOth of January, A*P« ^^9 
" suffered martyrdom by decapitation," 



it 



€f 
H 



(t 



BOOK OF MARTirRS* 77 

. Such is: the account giv^n hj Ftnt, biH i» there an iadivifltial^ whose 
mind is free from prejudice^ who c^n give Credence to so ridiculous a 
tale ? Philip is supposed to. have been a Christian in his heart, from 
the mildness of his disposition, and the lenity he shewed towards them *; 
but granting that he had really embraced the faith of Christ, is anydne 
so stupid and credulous as to beHeve> merely on the word of John Fox, 
that fhi« emperor would have dared to make choice of the head of the 
Christian church for his -treasurer, knowing Uue prejudices of the 
Roman senate/ the nobility, theak-my, and the people against the Chris^ 
tians ? So monstrous an idea could never be entertained for a moment 
by any man of common sense. None. but misguided fanatics, like the 
adherents of Fox, who wish to excite '' a hatred and abhorrence of the 
" (supposed) corruptiOAS and crimes of Popery and its professors,** 
could credit such absurdity. We see in history, that the attempt of 
Charles the first to establish episcopacy and uniformity of worship in 
Scotland eventually cost him his head. We 'see that James the second 
lost his croWn through a desire to establish liberty of conscience in 
the kingdom. And we see the spirit of intolerance pervading " Pro- 
*' tefiitant-ascendency*' at this moment, in consequence of the liberid 
wishes expressed by his present majesty George the fourth, that the 
laws should be equally administered in Ireland. We see the spirit of 
party heated and inflamed to as high a degree as at any period of Pro- 
testant domination ; and can we credit that Pagan ascendency would 
not have taken alarm at the fa.vour and partiality said to have been 
shewn to pope Fabian } Let the circumcised Jew, or the blind Foxite, 
believe it ; we' will not. Echard makes no particular mention of the 
death of Fabian, Mtd Butler is very concise in his account of the life of 
this martyr. The .latter says' hei held the Papal see sixte^i years, and 
sent St. Dionysius and other preachers to Gaul, and condemned Privatus, 
a broacter Of a new heresy in Africa, as appears from St. Cyprian. In 
his life he wasi a j>attern of purity and holiness. 

Among other persons recorded as martyrs. Fox sets down '^ Cyril 
/'bishop of Gortyiia;" we have examined Butler's Martyrology, and 
£chard*s Ecclesiastical History, but ^e can find no such name in either 
of these authors. In detailing the martyrdom of St. Babylas, bishop 
of Antioch, and others. Fox falls into another of his gross mistakes. 
He says^ " On Grordian's death, in the reign of Decius, that emperor 
came to Antioch, wh^e^ having a desire to visit an aSsembly of Chris- 
tians, Babylas opposed him, and refused to let him come in. The 
emperor dissembled his anger at that time ; but soon sending for the 
bishop, he sharply reproved him for his insolence, and then ordered him 
to sacrifice to the Pagan deities as an expiation for his supposed 
" crimes.*' Here again we have as improbable a tale as we think citn 
be told. Supposing Decius to have been desirous to see a Christian as- 
■sembly, is it rational to believe that he, who is represented as one of 
the most despotic and merciless tyrants that ever breathed, would have 
submitted to a refusal from Babylas, a Christian bishop, and not only 
submit ,to a refusal, but even dissemble hi£[ anger > Is it not more 
likely that the emperor would have ordered Babylas to have been put 
to death upon the spot, and all the Christians assembled with him, had 
he met with that Qpjposition to his desires stated by Fox ? Is it pro- 



€( 

€< 
(t 
<C 



u 

U 

€€ 

I 

€( 
•€€ 
<C 
€t 
U 
4t 



78 REVllSW OF VCfJSV 

btsMe tbat An imperious tymiit^ unable lo bfook 4elay> and Miued to 
denial, ivoolil curb in his ts^e, and send ftn* the bishop on some fetnre 
day> to repffove his insolence and I'evenge hlmsdf for it, by ordering 
the prelate to sacrifice to the heathen deities? Snch a tale is incredi- 
ble; yet we see it is told and believed 5 and believed too by those tvho 
diarge thdr Cathoiic neighboiirs with bei«ig too credtdous and si^er- 
stitious ! The fact is, and it shews the jgnormnce or iaipttdenee of Fox, 
it was Philip, tine predecessor of Dedus, who was refesed adonttance 
into ^le temple of God by Babylas. The account of this transaction is 
thus related by Mr. Echard, m his Ecdesiasticol History, on the autho- 
rity of St. John Chrysostom and Ettsebius. ^' Philip, shortly after his 
''election, made a dishonouvable peace with the Persians, and.retumed 
to Antioch; where, upon theT%ii of Easter, he and his empress at- 
tempted to enter into the Christian church, to partake of the prayers 
of the congregation) but the holy Babylas, bishop of that city, well 
kafywing his bite crimes, (amoi^ others he had ordered the en^ior 
Gor«ysai to be assassinated) courageously withstood him, and laying 
Ms hand upon his heart, pronounced ttim unworthy to enter into tfie 
ahsepfoM <^ Jesus CSaist, and declared, that he should have no admit- 
tance, unless he made A GENERAL CONFI^SSION C^ HIS SIN$, 
and was placed among the number of the penitents* To all which, it is 
Said, the emperor humbly submitted, and demonstrated in his deeds, 
the sincerity and devoutneSs of his aifections towards the Majesty of 
'' HeaTcn." From this account we not only see how little Fox is to be 
relied on, eten m a matter of history, butwe also disoorer that CONFES- 
SION OF ^D^S, now so reprobated by all classes of Protestants, bat 
practised at this day by Calholics, was a doctrine of the prifioitive 
.church. This oecurrence is stated to haTO taken place in the year 
S44. Babylaii suffered in S61 . 

There is a decumslaace connected with the history of this martyr, 
related both by Pagan and Christian writers of the eariiest ages, so ex- 
traordinary and wonderful, that we feel induced to mention it here. 
JPox says, St. Babylas was beheaded, but the general accounts state tiiat 
he consummatod his martyrdom by the hardships of his imprisonment, 
mid that his chains were buried with him. The Christians built a 
dmrch it vst said over his tomb, where his body rested tiU the year 
;351, when Gallus Csesar translated it to Daphne, five miles from Att- 
ach to oppose the worship of an idol of Apollo, celebrated fer giving 
oracles in that place. Gallus erected a church to the memory of St. 
Babyla(B near the heathen temple, and placed the relics of the martyr 
in a shrine above the ground. The oracle was struck dumb by the 
.near approach of the saint's ashes, as is affirmed by St. Chrysostom, 
Theodoret, Sozomen, and others, who triumph over the Pagans on 
this occasion. In confirmation of the fact, St. Chrysostom gives in his 
works the lamentation of Libanius, the celebrated heathen sophist, be- 
wailing the silence of Apollo at Daphne. Eleven years i^r this event, 
Julian the apostate, whose hatred of the divine Redeemer has bees 
imitated by Voltaire, and the present race of deists, came to Antioch, 
that is in 362, and by many sacrifices learned of the oraele, that the 
icause of its silence arose from the neighbourii^ places being filled 
.^th dead bones. Julian xmderstood this to allude to the reUcs (^ St. 



BOOK OF MARTYAS. 7« 

BttbylaSy and ordered the Chriiilans to remove them, wluch was done 
with great eolemiuty, by carrying them back to Antioch. The foUbw-* 
ing evening the temple and idol of Apollo were reduced by lightning 
to a8hes» with all the rich and magaificent ornaments, leaving onlv 
the bare walls standing. Upon the news reaching the ears of Julian^a 
micle, who was governor of the east, he hastened to Daphne, and en* 
deavoured by tortures to compel the heathen priests to confeni how 
the accident happened, whe&er by negligence or thitmgh the Chris- 
tians. It was, however, proved by the testimony of these very priests, 
mid also by some peasants, who saw the fire fall from heaven, that 
lightning was the cause of the ruin of the temple* Julian was alraid 
to rebuild the temple, lest vengeance should fiBdl upon his own head, 
but he breathed the utmost fury against the Christians, when the arm 
of God overreached him by an untimely death in his expedition against 
the Persians. We have given this fact upon the testimony of histori- 
ans living near the period when it occurred, and thongfa some may a& 
feet to doubt its reality, we really cannot see on what grounds they 
can reject it, that would not equidly tend to discredit the relations of 
Haanibars victories, or any other event in history. Ammiaaus Marcel* 
linufl, a heathen, and Julian's own historian, says, 1. ii, p, 9St5, thai; 
he caused all the bones of dead men to be taken away to purify the 
place, which is a strong corroboration of the above relation. 
The next passage worthy of notice is the fi>llovring: — ^'^Theempefpr 
Grallns having concluded his wars, a plague broke out in the empire; 
and sacrifices to the pagan deities were ordered by the emperor to ap- 
pease their wrath. On the Christians refusing to comply with these 
rites, they were charged with being the authors of the calamity: and 
thvLB the persecution spread fr(Hnthe interior to the extreme parts of 
the empire, and many fell martyrs to the impetuosity of the rabble, 
as well as the prejudice of the magistrates. Cornelius, the Christian 
bishop of Rome, was, among others, seized upon this occasion. He 
" was first banished to Cei^um-CelUe, now called Civita Vecchia; and 
after having been cruelly scourged, was, on the 14th of September, 
A. J>. 352, beheaded, alter having been bishop 15 months and ten dUfS. 
Lucius, who succeeded Cornelius as bishop of Rome, was the son of 
Porphyrius, and a Roman by birth. His vij^lance, as a pastor, rendered 
him obnoxious to, the foes of Christianity, which occasioned him to be 
banished -, but in a short time he was permitted to return. Soon after, 
however, he was apprehended, and beheaded, March the 14th, A.D. 
** 253. This bishop was succeeded by Stephanus, a man of fiery temper, 
'' who held the dignity few years, and might probably have fallen a mar* 
" tyr, had not the emperor been murdered by his general iBmilian, 
'* when a profound peace succeeded through the whole empire, and the 
" persecution was suffered to subside.*' 

Here then we have the admission, that of the ''godly martyrs".>suf* 
fering under Gallus, the successor d Decius, those most worthy to be 
recorded, even by Fox, were two bishops of Rome. We have seen by 
the works of St. Irenseus, that the bishop of Rome was considered by 
the primitive Christians to be the supreme head of the church, as he is 
at this day by the Catholics, and of course these ''godly martyrs" could 
4^t be Protestant but Catholic bishops, it is not a little carious 4hat 



€i 
t€ 
tt 
it 

(( 
<€ 



<€ 

€( 

a 
tt 
ft 
(t 
ft 



«0 REVIEW OP FOX. 

Fox stiles Cornelius " tbe ChmHan bishop of Borne:** What aecessiijr 
there could be for this adjunct we cannot perceive^ as we do not recol- 
lect to have read of any Pagan bishops of Rome. It is true^ since the 
-reformation so called^ it has been familiar with Protestants to call the 
bishops of Rome by many vile names, which we shall not mention^ 
and style them any Uiing but " Christians 5'* however, we have it here 
admitted by Fox^ that one of the bishops of Rome at leasi was a '' Chris- 
^' tian/*. and another a vigilant pastor^ which rendered him obnoxious 
to the foes of Christianity. How Fox came to be so iincivil to -pope 
Stephanus may be a matter of surprise to some of our readers, but it 
is none to us, nor will it probably be to them, when we inform them 
that this pope was a resolute opposer of innovations and error, and 
proceeded to excommunicate some of the most obstinate innovators. 
Some of the bishops in Spain and Gaul had embraced the novelties of 
Novatiaa; others had fallen into the crime of lAheUatidy t\k?X \s, had 
purchased for money licenses of safety, falsely stating they had sacri- 
ficed to idols, to save their lives during the persecution. A controversy 
also arose. concerning the rebaptization of heretics, which gave the 
good pope much trouble. He was alsotraduced as a favourer of heresy, 
which he bore with much patience, and conducted himself as became 
a vigilant pastor, as appears by the following account, given of this 
controversy by ihe learned Vincent of Lerinus. ''When all cried out 
against the novelty, and the ^iests ^very where opposed it in pro- 
portion to every one's zeal, then pope Stephen, of blessed memory, 
^i bishop of the apostolic see, stood up with his other colleagues against' 
it, but he in a signal manner above the rest, thinking it fitting, I 
believey that he should go beyond them as much by the ardour of his 
*' faith as he was ndsed above them by the authority of his see. In his 
'' letter to the church of Africa he thus decrees: 'Let no innovation 
be introduced, but let that be observed which is handed down to us 
by ttradition.* The prudent and holy man imderstood that the rule 
of piety admits nothing new, but all things are to be delivered down 
to our posterity with the same fidelity with which they were receiv- 
ed ; and that it is our duty to follow reli^on, and not make religion 
follow us^ for the proper characteristic of a modest and sober Chris- 
tian is, not to impose his own conceits upon posterity, but to msdce 
his own imaginations bend to the wisdom of them that went before 
him. What then was the issue of this grand affair, but that which is 
;* usual ? — antiquity kept possession, and novelty was exploded." Thus 
it will be seen, that in sill difficulties and contentions, one invariable 
rule is followed by the Catholic church, namely, to aidhere to PUBLIC 
XESTIMONY, and exclude whatever savours of novelty. 

Cut what will the reader say of John Fox s veracity, when he is 
told that this Protestant martyrologist, whose work has been so long 
held in high estimation, and is now published to "diffuse among /e^ 
low-beUeoers a knowledge and love of the genuine principles of Chris- 
tianity ;" what will the reader say, when we tell hi.m, that this pope 
Stephanus, who, but for his "fiery temper^" Fox says, "might probably 
" have fallen a -martyr," is actually recorded by this same Mr. Fox as a 
martyr, in the succeeding persecution, under the name of $tephen. " In 
" the saine year,*' J'ox writ^, that is in the year 257> ^ Stephen^ bishop 






4< 



t< 
€( 

» 

« 
t€ 
U 
l< 
<f 
<( 
« 






A REVIEW 

jf!or» iSDoft Of m»vtsv», 

CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL. 



:e vf till Crou ( by 

- ,, « (jr™n( Mazentrut, wha And declafrd mar agaiBit 

km. A particular accouiK ef thU tBoader/id cucnt wiU Ac gitten in lh< n<t( taimlKT. 

CONTIVUA'noK OF THB BXVIBW. 

of Rome was beheaded ! ! !" Well might the editors of the Encyclo- 
jxtdia BrUannica say, in giving Fox's biography, that " his facts are' not 
ilwaya to be depended on," for here we have one of the grossest con- 
tradictlonB erer made by a publtc writer. That Stephanus and Stephen 
are one and the same person is evident from the dates used by Pox, 
Stephanus he says succeeded Lucius, who was martyred in 353, and 
Stephen was beheaded in 257. Now Stephanus or Stephen was cbogeo 
on the 3d of ISIay, in the year mentioned by Fox, -and sat four yearSj 
two months, and twenty-one days, according to Butter, being beheaded 
on the Sd of August in the last named year, whilst he was sitting in hia 
poDti&cal chair, Stephanus is the Latin for tbe English namfe Stephen; 
eo much for the accuracy of John Fox's martyrology. 

We have now to notice as curious an admission from John Fox and 
hia editors, as ever could be made by inconsistency itself. " Many of 
"the erroTt," he states, "which crept into the church at this time, 
" arose from the placing fmman reaion {a competition with revelations 
" but the fallacy ^ot «vc/t argumenU being proved by the most abla 



8^ REVIEW OF FOX'S 

'^ divines, the opinions they had crdated vanished before the sublimity of 
" truth."* See you this^ ye bible venders' aad private in^tpretatton-men! 
See you this statemettt from the Book of Martyrs of* J€)hn Fox. And yet 
you reproach the Catholics for adhering to revelatiop and the doctrines 
of those able divines, who made " error vanish before the sublimity of 
" truth!** You contend for the exercise of human reason in divining th^ 
mystic words of scripture, while Catholics contend for the tindeviating 
rule of P4ZBLIO opskion, i^eceived from age to age ^ and here we hav4| 
John Fox telling you that human reason being placed in coropetitioi^ 
with the revelatiQHS delivered by the apostles, occasioned errors to arise 
m. the third age of the church. And what was it but human reason, or 
rather human depravity, that occasioned the reformation, so called, of 
the sixteenth century ? What is it but the wanderings of the human 
mind, that cause such a multiplicity of incongruous sects as now over- 
spread this once Catholic land ? We wish, however, to correct one 
K^sertion made by Join Fox. Error did not creep into '* the church," 
$ince she is invulnerable -, but it spread among some of her members^ 
who being detected " by the most able divines,'* were cast out from her, 
ngreeably to the words of Christ, as given in the gospel. He tpat ViUl 
not hear the church, let him be unto thee as the heathen or publicfm* 

Of these " most able divines," we have given the sentiments of St^ 
Irenseus 3 Fox notices Tertullian, and professes to give an '' account 
** of Origen^*' but such an account as no one can derive any information 
^ to what doctrines he held and tavght. We will therefore supply 
the onussiop of Fox with resp^t to 'fertujlian and Origen, as we did 
in the case of St. Irenaeus. The first two writers held all the same 
floctrines as the iatter, it will therefore be unnecessary to quote them 
6n all theheads we-have given of the sentiments of St. Irenseus 5 we will 
therefore confine ourselves in this place to the words of Tertullian and 
Origen on the mischief arising " from placing homan reason in oompe- 
" tition with revelation.** Tertullian was contemporary witJi St. Irc- 
nieus. He wrote several able works, and def^ided the -ChnsUan 
cause with zeal and ability... His ftMthec^ms a ceaiurion in the proeon- 
sular troops of Africa, and he was, bprn at .CigrtbagQ about the sear 
160. He confesses that before )iis conver^ibn to the Christian fajth^ 
he, in his merry fits, pointed his keenest satire ^^inst it^ had been aa 
adulterer, and taken a cruel pleasure in the'blopdv games of th^ ;u^- 
phitheatre, attained to a distinguished, eminency in vice^ and was an 
ficcpmplisbed sinner. Notwithstanding these evil prbpensi|;ies^ he hac) 
?i head well stored with talent, studied the sciences In every bri^ch^ 
dived into the principles of the different sects, ^nd at length \DfcatQe a 
Christian. Having embraced the divinq law, h^ restraiilj^d his' vicious 
passions, but never sufficiently checked the v^l^em^nce of hi? temper. 
Formed for controversy, by his lively and comprehensive g^niuSj he 
set himself, soon after his conversion, to write in defence of true reli- 
gipn, which was then attacked by Heathens and Jews on the one ftide, 
and on the other by a swaim of corrupted I^eretics. When the perse-, 
cution began to rage, he v^rP^^ b^s Jpologetic, i*hich is considered not 
only his master-piece, but one of the best amongst all the works of 
Christian antiquity. This piece was addressed to the prpcons^ul and 
other magistrjites of Africa, and clears, in a most f6rcible stQe, the 



€€ 



€< 

€t 
€€ 



B©OK O? MARTYRS. 8?, 

Clirktiansfroin the. eaiuiadies' of incest and murd/er thrown upon thetp/ 
In this apology the author n^ntiuns the subiDissiqn of the Christians 
to the reigniog emperors^ their love of their enemi^:}, and their mutual 
ofaarity^ hovfor of all vice« and constancy in sufiferihg death and all 
manner of tomneats for the sake of virtue. The heattiens called 
them in derision Sarmentitja^s and Semaxians., because they were 
fastmed to trunks- o( tree^^ sLj^d stuck about with fagots to be set on 
fire. But TertuUian ansiMexs them : ^' Thus dressed about with fire« 
'* we are in our moal iUustrious apparel. These are our triumphal robes 
embroidered witJ^ palmrbranches in token of victory (such the Roman 
generals wore in their * fibQl^QiA triumphs J and mounted upon the 
" pile we look upon our^elvea as in our triumphal chariot. Who 
ever looked well into, our religion but he came, over to it ? and who 
ever came over to it bulk was- ne^Mly to iiuffer for it ? We thank you 
for condemning us, because there is suph a blessed discord t)etween 
the divine and human judgineot, that when you condemn uf upon 
'' earth, God absolveth us in heaven,** 

Among other works, TertuUian wrote a most excellent book en^- 
titled Of Prescripiion against Heretka, in whiph he thus speaks of those 
who jiafifi ^'iuiman reason in pomp^tition with revelation/* which 
fox says was the clause of error or heresy, but that it ^' vanished be- 
" fore the suMiiaity of truth V*—'' We. are not allowed to indulge our 
'^ own humour, nor to choose what fmoihjer has invented. Wie have the 
'' i^stles of our Loni for foui^rs, wh9 were ^ot themselves the in* 
*' ventors nor authors of what th^y have left us -, but thev have faith* 
*' fidly tMig^t the world the doietrines which they received from Christ.*' 
De Prasanptiane, c* vi> p. 331. Edii Pam^lU, Rothamagi, 166^. *'Now, 
^^ to knojv what the s^ostles taught, thfit is, what Christ revealed to. 
'.^ them, recDurpd must b^ had to thei churches yirhich they founded,. 
*' and which they instructed by word of uiouth, and by their ^pistles, 
^ Fat it is plain that all doctrine, which is cqnformable to the faith o^ 
'^ these moth^njekurehes, is trucj hieing that which ti^ey receivcfl from 
*^ ike alpostles > the apoi^s frpm Christ ; Christ ifrom Qod ; and that- 
^ all othecophnons must be no.Tel and false.** It>i^* c xxi, p. ^34. 

" What will you gain by recuriring to scripti^re, when on^ flenies> 
'^ whetthe a&eK asserts ? Learn. rather, who it is that possesses the 
^ fedth of' Christ 5 to whom Ih^ 9criptu]:^^ l:|qlQng ; ^rom whom, by. 
^^ whom^ ; and when that faith WA3 delivered, by. which w^ are made; 
^ Ohrist^s. Eor wltene shaU b? fpund th^ txnq &ith^ th^re will be 
th^ genuine scr^funss^ theri? the, true ipterpir^tatiqn <of them;' 
and there all Christian traditions. Christ chose his apostles, whom. 
^' he sen|t to preach to all natjms. Tl\^y delivered his doctrine, ancf 
" founded churches, from whach churched' otiiers drew the seeds of 
the sanie. doctrine, as new ones daily continue to do. Thus these, as 
the offspring of the apo9tolic churches, are themselves dtensed apos- 
tolical.' Ibid. p. 334. ''If thfe truth then be adjudged to us, wbo 
embrace the rule, which the church received from the apostles 5 the 
apostles &om Qhrist ; and Christ ifrom God -, heretics, it is plain, can« 
not l^ allowed to appeal to the scriptures, in which, ym pro,ve, they 
'* have no concern. They are not Christians ; and therefore, to theitt 
''we may say: who are you! When, -and whence came. ye > What 



* 

tt 

it 

i( 

€( 
tf 
€i 
i€ 
€t 
tt 



€t 
€€ 






84 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

*' business have you on my estate, you, who are none of mine > Mar- 
^' cion, by what right do you cut down my wood? Or you Valellti- 
*' nus, do you turn my streams ? Or, Appelies^ do ypamo%'e my boun- 
daries? The possession is mine. What right have any others to 
sow and feed here as they may choose ? The possession^ I say, is mine ; 
has been long mine ; mine first : the title deeds are in my hands, de* 
'' rived from them whose property it was. I am the hdr of the apos- 
tles. As they settled it by will, on the conditions they pre^scribed^ I 
hold it. You they disinherited, as aliens and enemies. And why are 
you such but by the diversity of the doctrine which each one of you, 
as he was disposed^ produced or received against those apostles ? 
'^ Where this diversity of doctrine is,- there will the scriptutles and the 
" expounding of them be adulterated." Ibid, c. xxx^. p. 338. . 
\ Origen was contemporary with St. Clement of Alexandria^ and suc- 
ceeded him as catechist or teacher in the celebrated school of that 
city; He was a person of great parts, and study made him a most 
perfect proficient in every branch of learning, in dialectics, in geo- 
metry, in arithmetic^ in music, in rhetoric, in the dififereat systems of 
philosophy^ in: the Hebrew language, and in the knowledge of holy 
scripture. Such a man was no mean advocate for Christianity , and his 
lectures and writings were productive of many proselytes ffom the 
ranks of Paganism. He died about the year 252. On the above oc- 
casion of error, that is, as John Fox says, the '^ placing of human 
reason in competition with revelation," Origen says, *' As there are 
many who think they believe what Christ taught, and some of these 
*' differ from others, it becomes necessary that all shmild ^rof^ss that 
doctrine' which came down from the apostles, and now continues in the 
church. That alone is truths which in nothipg differs from what is 
" thus delivered." Trcef. Lib. i. Periarch^, t. i. p. 4f. Edit. PP. S. 
Mauri, Paris, 1733. " As often as heretics produce the canonical acrip- 
''^ tures, in which every Christian agrees and believes, they, seem to 
say, Lo ! with us is the word of truth. But to them (the heretics) 
we cannot give credit, nor depart from the ftrst and ecclesiaaticfd 
tradition : we can believe only as the succeeding churches of God 
" have delivered.'* Trdc^.xxix. in Matt, t, iii. p, 864. ' 

Such were the sentiments of these *^ able divines" .on the fallacy of 
'' placing human reason in competition with revelation ;!' a fallacy that 
has unhappily produced such an endless variety of contradictory creeds 
in this once united land, that it is with much difficulty a persmi can 
find the truth, and is the cause of so many plunging into the gulph of 
infidelity. 

i?HE EIGHTH GENERAL PERSECUTION UNDER THE ROMAN 

EMPERORS. 

*'. After the death of Gallus," Fox writes, '^ -ffimilian, the general, 
^' having many enemies in the arpiy, was slain,' and Valerian elected 
to the empire. This emperor,. for the space of four years, governed 
with moderation, and treated the Christians with peculiar lenity 
and respect ; but in the year 257> an Egyptian magician^ named 
^* Mnerianus, gained a great ascendency ovei' him, and persuaded him 
*f to persequte them. Edi<?t6 were accordingly publish^d^ and the pec- 






€€ 












€€ 
€( 
t€ 



<€ 



BOOK OF M.iRT¥RS. 85 

'' secution^ ifvlifck began in the month of Aprils continued for three- 
years and three moaths. The martyrs that fell in this persecution' 
were innumerable, and their tortures and deaths as various." This* 
account is substantially correct; some were cut off at one stroke^* 
others went through the most slow and excruciating tortures : but 
though Pagan, asceadeney and cruelty were exerted to the utmost to 
aimihilat^he name of Christianity, as "Protestant-ascendency*' and 
penal codes have been put in force to eradicate Catholicism, yet the 
efiPorts of ^th parties were rendered abortive, for the Christians mul- 
tiplied under Pagan persecution^ and Catholics have increased under 
Protestant intolerance. 

After giving an account of the martyrdom of SS. Rufina and Secunda, 
two accomplished young ladies of Rome, who were beheaded. Fox 
writes : ** In the same year, Stephen, ..bishop of Rome, was beheaded, 
and about that time Saturninus, bislhop of Thoulouse, was attacked 
and seized by the rabble of that place, for preventing, as they al* 
leged, their oracles from speaking* On refusing to sacrifice to the 
'* Idols, he was treated with many barbarous indignities, and then fas« 
" tened by the feet to the tail of a bull. On a certain signal the en-* 
^' raged animal was driven down the steps of the temple, by which the' 
t " marQrr s brains were dashed out ^ and the small number of Christians 
in Thoulouse had not for some time courage sufficient to carry off the 
dead body : at length two women conveyed it away, and deposited it 
'' in a ditch. This martyr was an orthodox and learned primitive 
** Christian, and his doctrines are held in high estimation." 

Tiiis pope Stephen is the same bishop of Rome that Fox said, under 
the name of Stephanus, might have been a martyr, but for his " fiery 
" temper." Of Saturninus Fox says, he was an orthodox Christian and 
his doctrines «re held in high estimation. By whom the martyrologist 
states, not, and we have reason to believe that his modem editors can- 
not say, except by Catholics. As he was orthodox, the doctrines that 
he held were not his own, as the language quoted would seem to im-* 
ply, but those of Hie church of which he was a pastor. We have 
looked into Butler's- martyrology, the most genuine extant, and w« 
find him saying, *^ Fortunatus tells us, that he converted a great num* 
** bbr of idolaters by his preaching and miracles. This is all the ac-» 
'* count we have of him till the time of his holy martyrdom.'* Where 
Fox got his account he does not mention > that he was an orthodox 
Christian there can be no doubt, for if he had not been so, he would 
not have been a martyr, nor would the Catholics have raised churches 
io his-memtMry^as was done by one of his successors in the see of Tou- 
louse, Silvius,. towards the close of the fourth century. This fact will 
shew by whom his doctrines were held in high estimation. 

Fox next proceeds to detail the martyrdom of another head of thie 
Catholic church. '^Stephen,*' he says *'was succeeded by Sextus as 
bishop of Rome. . He is supposed to have been a Greek by birth, or 
extra<stion^nd had for some time served in the cap^^city of a deacop 
under Stephen. His great fidelity, singular wisdom, and courage, 
distinguished him upon many occasions ; and the fortiinate conelusion 
of a controversy with some heretics, is generally ascribed to his pru- 
dence, Macjianus^ who had the management of the Roman go- 



€C 
ft 
€€ 
t€ 
« 
4t 



95 RJSVIEVr OF FOX'S 






vernnficnt in the yfear 25fe, having profciired an order from the em- 
peror Valerian, to put to death all the Christian clergy in Rome^and 
the senate having testified their obedience to this mandalbe, Sextus 
" was one of the first Who felt Its severity. Cyprian tells ua, that be 
^ was beheaded August 6> A. D. 258; and that six of kLs deaconsiSiif- 
'' fered with him.' - Herethefi we httre another adntissioa }nfavi>iir of 
the ''great fidelity, singular wisdom^ and courage," as well as prode'iu^ 
in suppressing heresy, of the bishops of Rome, wfaoa^eno^ looked lipcm 
as tlie fen-headed monster described In the apocalypse, by Ihe Bible- 
aiealots and Fopfery-haters among Fvotesiants. 

But the most invidious trick at deception on the part df Cheese modeni 
editors 6f Fox remains to be piointed out. Themext martyr described 
IS St. Lawi*^nce, Wh<i was so cruelly broiled on a 'gxidiron in this per-» 
secution. Ih the very sheet dietaTling the martyrdom of i^tm lEUEid 
his deacon L^w'rence,'the raddem editors haure given a repreBettfatl(Mit)f 
the latter, and, such is their scrupulous adherence 'to'CO]fr^ctiie8s> tbift 
they have not only made the saint an old, man, but: they iiai^e dctually 
introduced a figure in the back ground, ofothed in the . ^ntifidal 
habits of a pope, t6 Smptess oh the miiids'of the vidgar lind untliiidi'' 
ing that Lawrence i^Ulfered -by order, of Ihe pope, and. tbierelbre be-* 
came a victim to the cruelties of Popecy) wheh 4fae 'fact wiiS) ike fiop^ 
had suffered martyrdom only three days before 'him, afod oraieeqti^Dtly 
could not be present 'ti,t the i^tecuti^n of his deaCon. hi 16 .i^eedtded of 
8t. Lawrence by 8t, Alnbrose ("Amb. I. i. Oj^Zfcior. c. 41, ^l.*ii>Cfca8.)i 
St. Augustin /^Mgr. truet^Y, in Jam. at 'Sehn.de Sa'Aehts}y<^xii^ lalct 
i^uthors, th^at " when Lawrence the debcon «aw hra bishop Sixtus «l>Mt to 
''be carried away tb martyrdom, ke began to weep, not for the other's 
^^ sufferings, but for his own -remaifiing behind him? wherefore he 
'^ ^ried unto him ih thei^e Words : whitl^r do.ydu.go; O FaAher> witk^ 
'^ out your sbn j aiid whithler do you haiBten, Q :lioly']Jciest, wUkmit 
*^ you d^cdfa } Ydu iftere ritever 'w^t .to olfer sadrifi^ urithonl a 
** inini^terj what then ti^tk displeased you da (me, tfa«ft ^ftiu/l^vd me 
^^'behihd yoii ? Hate ydh ptotredime^peAiaps to lite a ^owalti \ Make 
"'trfed, I ^ray yoh, Ivhclhdr ]«u have c^hbeeH.Bnto yoiisliaf < a JtMnliii^- 
**'t^r, to i^Yidfm you liftve ' committed tWcMftpensmg of onrLoi?d«bl 
^' and- thien, seeing that y6u ha VeiiOT- denied UQb6 mfe the feUbW9bip!(^ 
^' adttiinist^ing saci^ments, doHdl d^oylnfd 1;he :f4^awship of flhed^ 
•*^ ding ihy blo^ also with ydu.*' 

N(yw this \ka^9^ df 6t. Ldwr^dnde^ddes not iarptonrfiitichf^ S^ 
^estmttidm, th(yu|h ft dbes of C«£hbliisiBm; Hetiere «tdks pMidy of 
tlssis^Ag hid bli^op "at th^ b^lys^vifkf^ of 4he maas/ivkicfa PMted- 
^anfts^ndemn^pdn o^th an idolatrous and Hu^ersi^bus;; tmd ^wketi 
we take into^6n[6kl€¥^t$dn'lhi^ spef^di of ^tke :^efeet of R^mei befdpe 
'WhoM-9t(Lai«^l^tie6 ^^ctr^'d, we shall IfiUdthfe^r^Bot^^ptoriiiiie'tery 
Kke *' 'P^t6Blid»ti^flHWJ<fttfti6ncy;* Ac<»i'ding to Wiidentiia, itko ^t?«8 t&e 
'^Icypy 'df 'tbe >'ndaif; Ghi^ilfti^n 'poets, <&tid iwrtfte a fonsoits 'book 'On 
nkeCSn^n of 'M^^t^i^s, ♦ sotriewka-e nftfetoufc ttee cldsetof th^ fourth een- 
tury, the pt-efect Addi*ess^d 'LaWt^hc^ <h«8 : *^ You bfleti cofnplan 
that we treiit'yotttvith cruelty 5 but no'tc^tnrss «ife here (&hoMjg^'t*of> 
I ooiiy' inquire tnildly after "whAt co»eetns you. I am informed *^«t 
yc^r priests effer in-g^^ that the soo^ed^Mood is reeetved.tn sih'C^ 






€< 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 87 

" cw^f and that in your nocturnal sacrifices you have wax tapers fixed 
" in gold candlestidkd. Bring to light these concealed treasures 3 the 
" prince has need of them for the maintenance of his forces. I aui 
" told, that according to your doctrine, you must render to Cassar the 
things that belong to him, 1 do not think that your God causeth mo- 
ney to be coined i he brought none into the world with him; he only 
brought words. Give us therefore the money, and be rich in words.** 
Lawrence, however, anticipating that he should soon be called to God, 
from what the holy pope Sixtus had told him, had already expended 
the treasure h"^ held among the poor widows and orphans, and had 
even sold the sacred vessels to increase the sum, laying it gall out in 
the same manner. He however promised to shew the tyrant the trea- 
sures of the church. Accordingly, he gathered together a great num- 
ber of the decrepid, the blind, the lame, the maimed, the lepers, or- 
phans, widows, and virgins, and then invited the prefect to come and 
see them. The prefect was astonished and enraged at what he saw, 
and demanded to see the treasures which had been promised. St. Law- 
rence answered, " What are yoii displeased at? The gold which you 
*' so eagerly desire is a vile metal, and serves to incite men to all man- 
" ner of crimes. The light of heaven is the true gold which these poor 
" objects enjoy. Their bodily weakness and suiFerings are the subject 
of their patience, and the highest advantages ^ vices and passions are 
the real diseases by which the great ones of the world are often most 
truly miserable and despicable. Behold in these poor persons the 
treasures which I promised to shew you -, to which I will add pearls 
and precious stones, — those widows and consecrated virgins, which 
are thechurch*s crown, by which it is pleasing to Christy it hath no 
other riches; make use of them for the advantage of Rome, of the 
emperor, and yourself.'* This sight before him, and the speech of 
the saint, inflamed the prefect with fury, and he ordered Lawrence to 
be broiled on a gridiron, under which the coals were partly extin- 
guished, that his sufferings might be the greater. The prefect insulted 
the martyr,^ whilst his body was broiling, but, Lawrence continued in 
earnest prayer, imploring the divine mercy, for the conversion of Rome, 
for the sake of SS. Peter and Paul, who had there begun to plant the 
cross oi Christ, and watered it with thefr blood. 

Mr. Butler in his account of St. Lawrence*s martyrdom, writes, 
'* Prudentius doubts not to ascribe to his prayer the entire conversion 
'' of Rome, and says, God began to grant his request at the very time 
" he put it up I for several senators who were present at his death, were 
" so powerfully moved by his tender and heroic fortitude and piety, 
•' that they became Christians upon the spot. These noblemen took 
up the martyr's body on their shoulders, and gave it an honourable 
biirzal in the Veran field, near the road to 'Hbur, on the tenth of 
August in 258. His death says Prudentius, was the death of idola- 
" try in Rome, which from that time began more sensibly to decline ^ 
" and BOW, adds the same father, the. senate itself venerates the tombs 
"^ of the apostles and martyrs. He describes with what devotion and 
*' fervour the Romans frequented the church of St. Lawrence, and 
" commended themselves in all their necessities to his patronage 5 and 
" the happy success of their prayers proves how great his power is with 



€( 
t€ 
€t 
€l 
€C 
«t 



€t 



it 



88 REVIEW OF FOXS 

'' God. The poet implores the mercy of Christ for himself^ . and begs 
'* h£ may obtain by the prayers of the martyrs what his own cannot. 
*' St. Austin assures us that God wrought in Rome an incredible num- 
'* ber of miracles through the intercession of St. Lawrence. St. Gre- 
*' gory of Tours^ Fortunatus^ and others relate several performed in 
'' other places. It appears from the sacramentary of pope Gelasius^ 
" that his feast has been kept with a vigil and an octave at least ever 
'' since the fifth age. In the reign of Constantine the great^ a chnrch 
" was built over his tomb^ on the road to Tibur^ which is called St. 
" Lawreiice*s without the walls ; it is one of the £[ve patriarchal 
" churches in Rome. Seven other famous churches in that city bear 
*' the name of this glorious saint.'.' 

Ff cm these authorities it is an unquestionable fact^ that thc^ " g^lj 
^* martyr*' Lawrence held the Popish doctrines^ as they are termed 
by Protestants^ of the mas^ and praying to saints, which were conse- 
quently the doctrines of the primitive Christians, and therefore ought 
to be the doctrines of Protestants, if the latter would believe what 
John Fox says are orthodox dpctrines. Miracles are also here clearly 
established to have been performed since the time of the apostles, and 
the veneration of relics and the invocation of saints was also prac- 
tised in these times. But what can we think of the* conduct of the 
modern editors of the Book of Martyrs, in. representing libe bishop of 
Rome as superintending the execution of his deacon Lawrence, when 
they admit, in their relation of this persecution, that the bishop or pope 
of Rome was himself a martyr? This proceeding must be considered 
by every unbiassed mind a most shameful trick to deceive the super- 
ficial and unwary. It is calculated, certainly, '' to excite a hatred and 
" abhorrence of Popery and its professors," . but must be 'far, very far, 
from diffusing a '' knowledge and love of the genuine principles of 
^' Christianity." While we are remarking x>n this palpable and mali- 
cious misrepresentation of an historical fact, we feel called upon to 
state, that scarcely one cut that has appeared in this edition of the 
Book of Martyrs is correct in its delineation, wbile others are absolutely 
indecent, and deserve the notice of the Vice Suppressing society much 
more than some things that have attracted the vigilance of its officers. 
After an account of St. Lawrence's death, we have a detail of the 
sufferings and conduct of St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, but in the 
usual confused and unintelligible manner. Fox says, " Fourteen years 
*' previous to this period the persecution raged in Africa with great vio- 
" lence -, and many thousands received the crown of martyrdom, among 
'* whom the following were the most distinguished characters.'* He 
then names Cyprian, who, he says. Was beheaded in the year ^58, anjd 
eight of his disciples, who, according to his .wprds, 'f were xhartyred in 
this persecution." Now what can we gather from these words, " four- 
teen years previous to this persecution?'' Does Fox mean that Cyprian 
suffered /wice — that is, sometime iii the ^'fourteen years previous,- ' and 
again in ** this persecution." The previous period must allude to tbf 
seventh gen^r^l persecution, and Cyprian suffered in the ei^Mh, In fact 
he was martyred a few weeks after pope Sixtus and his deacon Law- 
rence, the two latter in. the month of August, 258^ and the former in 
September following. However, we \Vill let this^pass, and now look 









BOOK OF MARTYRS. 89 

into tbe character given by Fox of this great light of the primitive agei 
" Cjprian, bishop of Carthage," writes Fox, " was an eminent pre- 
*' late, and a pious ornament of the church. HIS DOCTRINES WERE 
''ORTHODOX AND PURE- his language easy and elegant ^ and 
his manners graceful. . . .Before his baptism he studied the scriptures 
with care, and being struck with the beauties of the truths they cou- 
" tained, he determined to practice the virtues they recommended. . , . 
" Soon after his baptism he was made a presbyter (that is, a priest) j 
'' and being greatly admired for his virtues and his works, on the death 
*' of Donatus, in A. D. 244, he was almost unanimously elected bishop 
" of Carthage. The care of Cyprian not only extended over Carthage, 
'* but to Numidia and Mauritania. In all his transactions he took 
*' great care to ask the advice of his clergy, knowing that UNANI- 
" MITY ALONE could be of service to THE CHURCH : this hemx 
" one of his maxims, * That the bishop was in the church, and the church 
" in the bishop 3 so that unity can only be preserved by a close con* 
" nexion between the pastor and his flock.* " Very good, John Fox | 
but before we proceed any further, let us hiere ask your wise edftors, 
if this language of St. C} prian be ORTHODOX, and you have ad; 
mitted that it is so 3 if the bishop be in the church and the church in 
the bishop 5 what become of the nvmerous sects that have no bishopf 
at all, but reject episcopacy as savourine of Popery and contrary t9 
scripture? The Catholics have ever held this doctrine of St. Cyprian, 
who learned it from the apostles -, and the greater part of the Protest- 
ants renounce it, and will have no bishops : consequently they can hav^ 
no cburcli; For example, the covenanters of Scotland abolished epis^ 
copacy, the Swedenborgians, the Wesleyans, the Independents, th^ 
Quakers, the Jumpers, the Shakers, and we knoW not how many other 
denominations of religionists, contend they can do without them : wha,t 
then i& the natural result? Common sense tells us, that what is or- 
thodox cannot be heterodox; that is, what is sound and pure cannot b^ 
unsound and heretical 3 consequently, those who reject episcopacy stan^ 
^condemned of heresy 'by this famous Book of Martyrs, which is pub^ 
lished to " difiuse among fellow^beUevers (In what?) a knowledge sLn4 
** love of the genuine principles of Christianity." 

Fox goes on, ** In the year 250, he (Cyprian) was publicly pro- 
*' scribed by the emperor Decius. . , .The bishop, however, withdrew 
from the r^e of the populace, and his effects were immediately 
confiscated. During hid retirement he wrote thirty pioiis letters to 
his flock 3 but. several schisms that then crept into the churcKgav^ 
'* him great uifeasiness. The rigour of the persecution abating, he rer 
" turned, and did every thing in his power to expunge erroneous opinion f 
and false doctrines, A terrible plague now breaking out at Carthage^ 
it was as usual laid to the charge of the Christians ^ and the nda- 
gistrates began to persecute accordingly, which occasioned' an epis- 
tle from them to Qyprian, in answer to which he vindicates the cause 

'* of Christiaiiiity." ^These " erroneous opinions and folse doctrines? 

should have been pointed otit to the * fellow-believers," as ^eft 
as the orthodox doctrines opposed to them by St. Cyprian 3 btit such 
a line of procedure did not suit the plan of the modern editors of Fox 
any more thad Fox himself, whose object was to blind ai^d not to 



ft 

<r 

€€ 



u 

« 
u 



4€ 






90 MSVIBW OF FGXS 

ettligbten. Among other errors contested bf St. Cyprian, was that of the 
jAbellatici, or Lapsed^ before mentioned, and the schisms alluded to 
were raised *by No vatus, ^n infamous priest of Carthage, and one Feli< 
cissimus, who had with five priests opposed the election of St. Cypri^m 
to the see of CartbPge. These men ^at tempted to sow divisions in the 
church, and ensnared .many to join wkh them in their impiety, which 
occasioned the holy bishop to write his work On the Unity of the Church. 
He also defended the doctrines now reacted by Protectants, and ad* 
fitted by Catholics, as the subjoined extravCts will shewj and conse- 
quently he was an orthodox Catholic bishop and martyr, and not a Pro* 
testant one. 

On the Authority and Marks rof the Church> ihaX b, of the Catholic 

church, .he writes^ '' Christ says to his apostles, and thi:ough them, to 

y all mlnistero,. who^ by a regular ordination, succeed to them, he that 

*' heareth you, heareth .me, and he that despiseth yoii^ despiseth me. 

(Luke, X. 16;) And thence have schisms and heresies arisen^ whea 

the bishop, who is one, ttnd who presides over the church, is proudly 

^'despised.*' £/). Ixvi. p. 166. .£<2U. Oxon. 1682. The reason why re* 

velationis to be preferred to human reason is thus stated: '' Because 

f'ihey turn tiot their eyes to ihe fountmn of truth ^ nor is the head 

sought for, nor the doctrine of thci heayenlyPather uplield. 'Wliich 

things, would any one seriously ponder, no long inquiry would he 

" necessary. The proof is -easy. Christ addresses Be^r : / say to thee, 

^^ thctt thou art Peter^ and upon this rock J wUl build my churchy and the 

'* gates qfheU shall not prevail against it « • .He that does, not jiold thifl 

*' unity ef the church, cau he thinlc that he holds the faith? He that 

opposes and withstands the church, can he trust that he is in the 

church?" JDe Vnit.Ecclp, 105, 106, l08, "Edit. Qd?o», 1682, 

On the TJniity fand Visibility of the Church, lie says, ''The cliurch is 

'^' one, widely extended by Hs fecundity -, as there are many xays of 

/'Ifght, ]>ut jQue sun; many 1>ranches el a tree;, hut one root deeply 

'^ fixed ^ xuaxky streams of water, but one source. Take a ray from the 

/' s\m^ the unHy of light allows not division: break a'brancli from the 

f* tree, the bmnckcannot germinate ^ cutoff the stream fcom its source, 

^ the stream dries up. So the churcih — sends forth lier rays over the 

"whole earth: jeVis the Ught one-^and rts unity is undivided.** Jbid. 

fu JOB. ** God is ofie, jQjiA C$in^ Is on^* and }us church is one^ und faith 

f'i^we, and Ixis. people^. cQonected l)y'QneioIid bond, is b/ie. XJnity 

**; cannot be severecl} npr jtlie one body, i>y laceration, be cBvided^ 

.f' Whatever is separated i(rcun<the stock, caanot^lve;. cannot breathe 

*' jips^rt^Ut loses ^e .siibstap^ of Hfe." Ibid* ft. \ 1ft. '*"!tlbLe churchy im- 

" brue^ with the light of i3ie Xord, sends /orth Tier rays, over the wliole 

^'jear^M y^etii thelirfitfon^ every w"hcre disused, and its unity u»- 

)*. divided^ ,she jexteim|s J^er orandies, by. tlie power of Jierfecuaditjr, 

f'dnto alln^giDn^ sMidiu^ streams are as widely spread.: yet .&e head 

*' is pn?^ anid the j^prix^is odqb,'** IIM. log* ^ , 

• Oa tiu^,ajpostoUc^ suecession and power of Ihe 'dburch to remit sins, 

^ writes, ''Pelei^.upoji whom the i^hurch had t>een ]buitit l)y oar 

y ,Lot4j' speaking in Die 4)ame ^ |ajl| and with the voice of the cTiurcb^ 

'^^nswered: Lord to wb^m. shall wearo? Tbou hast th^ words ^ eternal 

[*Ji l^ Siffoxfying and shewing, toat ihc^ wh9 d^jp a^t ffom Oirist, 



ft 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 9\ 

''perifih through tbeir own fault: buit tbat the churchy which beliercs 
" in Christ, and holds to that which it once learaed, never departs 
" from him 5 moreover, that they compose the chureh, who remkin in 
'' the house of Ood; and that ike plant is not planted by the Lord, (Matt« 
''XV. 18.) which is not firmly rooted, but is blown about like straw 
" by the breath of the enemy/' Ep. lix. p* 131. " The.Novatian is not 
" in the church ! nor can he be deemed a bishop, who, despising evan- 
'* gelical and apostoMoal tradition and succeeding to no one^ is sprung 
" from himself. One not ordained in the church, h^ no ohurcht** Ep, 
Ixix.'p. 18^1. " The power of reoHttmg sins was given by Christ to 1^ 
" apostles, whom he . sent ; and tp the <;hurche6, which tl^y founded; 
" and to the bishops who. succeeded them in a regular succession^** 
Inter Cyprian, ep, Ixxv. p* ^^, 

On the fallacy of ^'placing hum^^n reason in competition with reve« 
" lation,** St. Cyprian observes, " Let npt some .men deceive them- 
" selves by an idle interpretation of the wprdfi of Christ, when he said : 
'' Where there are two or three gathered together m my JBcms(, .therei I am 
*' with them. (Matt^ xviii. 20.) Corrupting the gospel, and inl^rpr^- 
** ing falsely^ they take the last words, and omit what goes before; 
'' retaining one part, and craftily suppressing the other. As. thej are 
'' cut off -from tl^ churchy so do they cut off the words of scripture. 
'' EoE, recommending to his disciples unanimity and peace, the Lord, 
''said to them: If two 4>f you shM agree f^pon 'earth, concerning angf 
" thing whatsoever they shall ask, it shall be done for them hy my father; 
''for vfhere there are two or three gathered^ ^c^shewipgi that much Is 
" gmnted, not to the number, but to the um^nimity of the suppikaqts. 
** If two of you, he says, shall ^^ee trpon €af^Aril^£iyes the first plai^ 
" to unanimity, to .peaceful concord : on this he linsists. . But how shiJj 
''he «gree with another, who has difsented; frqan the body of the 
" chttreh and «from the whole frat^rnit^ I Cfin two or rthvee be gathered 
'' together '^in the name of Christ, who it is plain^are separated icom 
''him: and hi» gospel? Fpr we -did opt leave thei^i 'bnt thej us. 
" Choosiqg for themsejlves separate opnventi<;le«i» the^ quitted thish^ 
** and the fountain of truth.** De. Unit,, .Eeeles, ,p« .1 18. . . 

Ob the state of rcelibfu^y, hp put?li4|hed a book On. ff^. Habit ofVw^ 
xgcns, which he addresses to virgins "devoted to Godi dedicated >to 
"Christ,** or such "who profess nrir^nity, and a straps :atteiutonoo. 
"than ordinary upoo the service of |God»*' Those^who thus devote 
themaelves to prayer and chaBtityj he saiys ^are '" tbf9 >0awiHr i^i »the' 
" churches 'flock, the ornament and 'lustre of ^spi^lMl #Bi^i^ ber,|oyfiil 
" 'Offfpringi ' the very perfection xX ^bionQur anpl praise, ^th^ -um^geof Crod 
"copied aeoording to the pattern 'Cfi.ipfMin^^,t^e,a)i^ 
" portion of the flock of Christ;** 

-St. Cyprian also held^the samipidofitvines on the ^pri^^epf tl^e^pss^ 
the ^real presence in the fiuch^r^st, .anii the. priipa^/of tbepqp^ias 
St. Justi% martyr,. St. IrenasifS) Teftu^li^> Ta[ndQFig^9<j imdfthuA we 
see that in every i^e of thetjhurcl^, tp the^p^ripd w^ are now^^^ived 
at, the faith and doctrinen of the OnhQdo«(^ri]»tia<»^ wei^e.C^Aad 
theSAME) while the l^erodoj^ nsntthe^es^ntidiay^ were T(ent .into 
a thousand divisions^ . : . . . - 

. 3^0 lenum^raie %\^ ftifer«nVae<^.W^;giv^n/J|?y^^^ 






D^ REVIEW OF POX*S 

of the* "godly martyrs" t)f the primitive ages, who were all, let it be 
remembered, Roman Catholics, woald' tire the reader, and swell our 
pages to a considerable length ; we must therefore confine ourselves 
to the most prominent statements, where the martyrologist has clearly 
overstepped the boundaries of truth, or suppressed the most material 
circumstances of the case. Under this eighth persecution he gives an 
account of the '^ martyrdom of 300 Christianfs^ in the following terms: 
*' Perh£^4 oneof the most dreadfnl 'events fh the history of martyrdom 
" was that which took place at Utica, where 300 Christians were, by 
'' oilers of the proconsul, placed around a burning lime-kiln. A pan 
of coals and iiic^nse having been prepared^ they were commanded 
either to sacrifice to Jupiter, or be thrown into the kiln. Unani- 
mously refusing, they bravely JUMPED into the pit, and were suf- 
*' focated immediately.** Dreadful indeed would have been this event 
had it occurred as Jbhn Fox has related 5 for had they jumped into the 
pit, instead of being thrown in, they would have been guilty of suicide, 
and cmild;ttDt']iaye been martyrs. We know not from what authority 
John Fox related this story 5 we have consulted the martyrology of the 
Rev. Mr. Butler, and he gives a very different tale. He states that 
St. Attstifr reckoned the number to be one hundred and fif^y-three^ 
which falls considerably 6hini;t>f^hvee hundred. Then, he says, the 
Tictlms were offered their choice, either to be thrown into the pit, or 
to offer sacrifice to the idols. They chdse the former, and were thrown 
in, by which they were all consumed together. 
Fox next gives a " singular account of a Christian lady," named Eugenia, 
the daughter of Philippus, governor of Alexandria, who, to avoid the 
persecution, eloped from her father's house, she having embraced the 
religion of IJhrist. " For the purpose of concealment,'* Fox says, " she 
** assumed male attire, and, calling herself Eugenius, was admitted into 
*' a monastery, or society of Christians, in the suburbs of Alexandria, 
of which, at length, by her learning and virtue^ she became the head. 
Here,*' he adds, ''she performed MANY MIRACLES, and among 
others- who w^e cured by her was a certfun matron of 'AlCTa.ndria, 
'< named Melancia, wbo; supposing her to be a man, conceived a crimi- 
'** nal passion for her, and so far lost i&ll sense of virtue and decorum, 
*' as to solicit her to gratify her desires; Eugenius exhorted her to 
*' continue in the paths of virtue^ but Melancia, enraged at the refusal, 
'' and fearful of exposure, determinied to anticipate, the accusation, and 
'' therefore immediiMiely chiirged Eugenius, and other mentbers of the 
^' Christian eomnitanity, with attempting to debauch her. This matter 
- ** being heard before Philippus, and Melancia being esteemed virtuous, 
" the accniaiion gained credit, especially as it was brought against the 
'* Christians. Then Eugenius perceiving that she and her fellow-be- 
' '' lievers were in imminent danger of death on this infamous charge, 
*' aild that it vfBB now no time for dissimulation, desired of the judge 
** to allow her time and place to msike manifest to him the truth; wbidh 
*' being granted, ' she disclosed to him that she was his daughter, and 
''that her companibns were Frotheus and Hlacinthus, two pious 
' ** eunubhs ; explaining to him and to her brethren, th^ cause of her 
'' departure from them. By this narration they were convinbed of h^r 
** innocence, and her maUgnant accuser was utterly confounded. Phi* 



4€ 
4€ 
4€ 



If 

* 

f< 



BOQK OF MARTYRS. aS 

'^liptpiis was afterwards conv^rt^ to Chrisiianity, made bishop of 
'' Alexandria, and suffered martyrdom, fiugeuia, after the deatii of 
*' her father, returning to Rome with Protheus and Hiacinthus, and 
" having there converted Basilla (a lady who was to have been mar^ ' 
" ried to a Pagan, but now refused in consequence of which she was 
" beheaded) was assailed with varh)us kinds of death, from all of 

which she was. delivered by the miraculous interference of Heaven ; 

first, being tied to a great stone and cast into the Tiber, where 
" she was prevented from drowning ; then put into the hot baths,' 
" when the fires were extinguished and she preserved; lastly, being cast 
" into a prison to die of hunger, she was fed by a superqatural hand." 

We hare given this account at length from Fox, to shew how little 
regard he has for. the understandings o{ his readers, by detailing jHich 
ridiculous romancing without a single authority to verify his extraor- 
dinary narration. That a female Christian should disguise herself in 
mens clothes, and should be raised to the head of a bociy of mpnks by 
her superior learning, is equally as fabulous as the story oi Pope Joan, 
which Protestant writers have so successfully imposed upon the credu* 
lotts people of this country. Then- again,, that an o}d matron should 
fall in love wiih this young superior ! who» in the name of common 
sense, can give credit to such a rodomontade ? Of the same piece is 
the discovery of her sex^ and the conversion of her father, who be- 
came iiimself a martyr^ while the young lady, is deprived of that 
honour by the interposition of a supernatural power in various ways ! 
We do not deay the existence of miracles ; but we are not credulous 
enough jto believe in such a tale as. this, nor any other, unattested by 
authorities; for we know that impositions have been practised in. 
every age ; though, we al(M> know that the Catholic church was always 
careful to ^guard against these impositions, and. caution the people 
from being deceived by them* Forgeries and imposture were ever 
abominated by the pastors of the church, as her canqns sufficiently tes* 
tify ; and pope Adrian I, in an epistle to Charlemagne, says, that no 
acts of martyrs are suffared to be read which .gre not supported \ff 
vouchers. That Fox's " singular account of a Christian lady/* as aopve 
eited, is . a^ complete fabrication, >we Jhave not a single doubt in. oui*; 
mind ; for, on examining Butler's Lives of Saints, we find that learned^ 
and accurate martyroligjst gives the following account of this mart}T 
Eugenia. ''She suffered," he writes, "at Rome, upder Valerian, 
" about the year ^57> and is mentioned by St. Avitus^ though we have 
'' NO AUTHENTIC acts of her sufferings^ those recited by Meta-. 
'^ phrastes and Surius deserving hq notice.^' Thus then it is clear that 
Fox*s ^' singular account** is entitled to no credit, and is like many other 
fabulous tales in his work, invented to delude the ignorant and credu- 
lous. There is one circumstance, however, that must not be over- 
looked, which: is., the admission by Fox, that the Christians, ''at this 
'' period,*' Ih^ed in communities o? monasteries, which Protestants now* 
condemn, and, at the period of the reformation so called^ destroyed 
with Vandalic barbarity and ruthlessness,. « 

Fox concludes his account of this persecution by giving the fate of 
the. author, of it, the.emperoryalcirian,. which we shall not notice 



S»4 REVIEW OF FOX'S 



€ » 



here, bnt redertb our remarks till we have got 'through the remaioii^ 
two persecutions. 

THB NINTH GENERAL FERSECUllON UNDER THU ROMAN 

EMraiRORS. 

This persecution is ushered in with' the martyrdom of Felix^ bishop 
of Rome, who was advanced to the RcHUao see, Eo& sayd, in ^74, 
*^ and was beheaded in the name year on the dSd of December/* Here 
ibx is guilty of a gross mistake. Mr. Echard> states tha^ Felix suf- 
fered in Rome, "after he held the dig»it}.JIVE YEARS, wanting 
" four days,^* which is a palpable contradiction of John Fox. Mr. But- 
ler corroborates Echard as to the period Felix governed the charcb, 
he having succeeded St. Dionysius in the year Ii69. Previous to the 
pontificate of this holy pope, two councils were held ai Aniioch, to 
inquire into the doctrines advanced by Paul of Samosaitay the proud 
bishop of that dty^ t9/io darned the dwMhf of Christ, and taught many 
impious errors concerning the mysteries, of the Trinity and lacaroatioD. 
in 269 a third council was held at the same place, when Paul was 
clearly convicted of heresy and many scandalous crimes. On this 
occasion the holy Felix wrote a letter to Maxunus, bi^opof Akxaa- 
dria, which is quoted by the ce^ndl of Epheeos, St. Cyril of Alexan- 
dria, and St. Vincent of 'LerSns, as' clearly explaining* the Catholic doc- 
trines of the whole nciystery of the Inearnatloii; Neither Butler nor 
Echard states the- manner of l»s death, though Fox, on his own asar 
thority, says he wa9 beheaded on the ^M of December. The Western 
martyrologies name him on the 30i^ of May, on whtoh day he is re- 
corded by Butler. 

The next article demanding oih* notice, is the *^ massacre Qf ^ whole 
*^ legion of Ghiistian soldiers.** Fox calls It '' a reuiarkabk affiaiiv" »d 
states it to have happened in the year 266. In thia year Dioclesiaa as- 
sociated Maximian with him ia the empire, whose disposition was as 
eruel, and his hatred to Christianity as malignaat, as IMoid^saa's. la 
the Roman army tHere was a legion formed of Christians, in. number 
about eeqo, called the llieban legion. The legion was ordered to join 
the army of Maximian, who was on the march to Gaul to quell some 
^sturbaiices. On their arrival at Octddurum, at that time a consider- 
able city on the Rhine, above the lake of Geneva, now a village ealled 
Martignac or Martigni in the Valais, Maximian issued an order that 
the whole army should join in offering sacrifiee to the gods forthesuc^ 
eess of his expedition.^ Fox adds, thkt *^ he commanded that they 
^ should take oaths of allegiance, and swear, at the same time, to as- 
^' sist him in the extirpation; of Christianity in GauV' Where Fox 
fbund this part of his tale, we do not know 5 perhaps he waa dreaming^ 
of the oath of allegiance required by Elizabeth from her Catholic sub- 
jects, which they could not -conscientiously take, and the murderous 
Attempts made in her reign to extirpate Catholicism in if eland. Be 
this as tt may, we have looked into Butler, Echard, &e» and we find 
jpo account whatever of oaths of allegiance aad extirmination. The 
legion was ordered to sacrifice and refused. On this refiisal every 
tenth man Was put to dieath, while the rest exhorted them to con^ 



4€ 



4t 

if 



U 

it 
u 



u 



BOOK OP MARYTRS. 95 

stancy. A second order was Issued^ which was followed by antither 
refusal^ and a second decimation^ " But thid second severit,y,"' say^ 
Fox, '' made no more impression than the first j the soldiers presefvi^d 
** their fortitude, and their principles; but, by the advice of their of- 
*' fleers, drew up a remonstrapce to the emperor, in which they told 
' him, * that they were his subjects and his soldiers, hrx% could n«t 
" at the same time forget the Almighty ; that they received their pay 
from him, and their existence from God. While your co^imands 
(said they) are not contradictory to those of our common master, 
we shall always be ready to obey, as we have been hitherto ; but 
** when the orders of our prince aiid those of the Almighty diflfer, we 
must ali^ays obey the latter. Our arms are devoted to the emperor a 
use, and shall be directed against his enemies ; but we caqnot siib-> 
mit to stain our hands with effusion of Christian blood ; and how, 
** Indeed, could you, O emperor, be sure of our allegiance and fide- 
lity, should we violate our obligation to our God, in whose sec- 
•' vice we were solemnly engaged before we entered the artny Yqu 
" command us to search out, and to destroy the Christians ; it is nc^t 
" necessary to look any further for persons of that denomination; we 
** ourselves are such, and we glory in the name. We s^w our cont- 
'' panions fall without the least opposition or murmuring, aud thought 
" them happy in dying for the sake of Christ. Nothing shall ppiake u^ 
" lift up our hands against our sovereign ; we had rather die wrong- 
" fullv, and by that means preserve our inuocence, than live under ^ 
load of guilt; whatever you command, we are rei^Jy to suffer; w^ 
confess ourselves Christians, and therefore cantfot persec^ute Chri^f 
^ tians, nor sacrifice to idols.' 

*' ^uch.a declaration, it might be presun^ed, (adds Fbx) would b^ve 

'*'3oftened the emperor, but it had a contrary effect ; for, enraged at their 

perseverance ^nd unanimity, h.e commanded that the wliole legiou 

should be put to death, which was accordingly executed by the onier 

t|t>op^, who cut them to pieces with their swords/^ Although Foit 

and his modern editors may consider this massacre to be. " a very te- 

*' markable affair,*^* yet it is not without its parallel under '* Prptestan t- 

ascend.eiicy ;** nor is the conduct of Afaximian^ in rejecting the just re* 

monstrance of this Christian legion, without, an exception. W^eii 

15lij;ab$th cattii^i to the throne, she formejd the plan of subverting the 

bl4 feith, which her sister IVJar^ had re-established, and pf which Wft 

shal^ have occasion to speak hereafter. In pl^ce of this ancient fpiith, 

a new religlop wad established by the temporal power, and the civflf 

3t^rd was exerted to compel t!he people to conforjnto it. In Irelaticf^' 

the Roman Catholic religiojo, that is^ the same religion for whicl^ th^ 

primitive Christians' laid down their lives, was professed by the ^hoie 

populati6n with scarce an exce]ption. There was not in tb0 'vyhoV 

isl^d at th^t time one individud in ten thousand that did.npt profess 

the Catholic religion, first planted by the preachings and miracles of 

St, Patrick in the £fth ceptury^ ,and consequently had existed th^e 

during an uninterrupted space of ONE THQUSA'ND YEARS. Bi^t 

Elizabeth, on assuming the popedom of the then new church of Ene:^ 

land, adopted a similar mode to that pursued by Maxim^an towaras 

the Theban legion, to make tlie Irish renounce their ancient faith, an 



ft 






99 REVIEW Of FOX. 

embrace tbe noTelties of the apostles of the refoma^ion so called. , la 
a work called the Government of Ireland under Sit-Jofm Perrot, printed 
in Londoa in the year 1626, it is there stated, that this very merciful 
and excellent lord deputy under '' Protestant-ascendency** drew up ^ 
plan of Government for Ireland, in which he recommended to the 
queen, " That all brehons, caraghes, bardes, and rymers, that infect 
'' the people, friars, monks, Jesuites, pardoners, nunns, and such like, 
" that openly seeke the maintenence of papacy^ a tray torous kinde of 
*' people, the bellowes to blow the coales of all mischiefe and rebel- 
'^* lion, and fit spies of Antichrist, whose kingdom they greedily exr 
^' pect to be restored, be executed hy marshal law, and their favourers and 
'^ md'mtainers hy due course of law, lo be tryed and executed as in cases of 
"treason" It i& also stated by Leland on the authority of the, Iridb 
manuscript annals of Elizabeth*s reign, that a few years after the trear* 
cherous assassination of 0*Neil, his wife and friends, in 1574, ^' the 
** Irish chieftains of the King* s and Queen*s county were invited to a 
^' treaty of accommodation. But when they arrived at ^he place (tf 
" conference, they were surrounded by troops, and all butchered on the spot^' 
Indeed, such were the horrible barbarities practised by ^^ Protestant^ 
ascedency,** on the Irish Catholics in the reiga of this queen, that 
Sydney, in his Letters and Memorials of State, 1746, vol. i. p. 24, saya, 
*' Suche horrible and lamentable spectacles there are to beholde, as 
" the burninge of villages, the ruyn of churches, the wdstinge oftuche 
'^ as hxme ben good tovsnes and cast^lls : yea, the view of the bones and sculles 
f of the dead suijectes, who parteUe by murder, partelie by famine, have 
y died in thefieelds, as in troth, hardelie any Christian wiUi drie eyes could 
" beholde" These enormities are likewise noticed by Holinshed, Cox, 
Iceland, Carew, &c.; 

Nor must we here forget that mercenary and rancorous spirit of par- 
secution manifested by the Scottish Puritans of the 17th centjiry, who, 
in their zeal for reforming religion, looked upon freedom of conscience 
as the greatest abomination. In the solemn league and covenant first 
entered into in the year 1643, the subscribers bound themselves '^ to 
'* EXTIRPATE Popery, prelacy, superstition, heresy ,^ schism, and whatsor 
*/ ever shall be found to be contrary to sound doctrine and the power of 
'^ godliness/* and they further bound themselves to discover (that is^ 
to become INFORMERS) all such as might be guilty of the s^me, to 
" receive condign punishment, as the degreerot their offences shall re- 
*' quire or deserve/' This spirit of intolerance also spread from the 
Borth into the south, part of the island, for in the journals of the House 
of Commons it is recorded, that on the 15th o^ January, 1645-6, a pe« 
tition was presented from the corporation of Ix>ndon to the House pf 
Lords, praying, ^* that no toleration of Popery, prelacy, superstition^ 
f^ heresY, schism, profaneness, or any thing contrary to sound doctrine, 
" and that all private meetings, contrary to the covenant, may be re« 
*' ^trained.'* Such was the mild and Christianlike spirit of Puritan 
" Protestant-ascendency.** 

. Fox expresses his surprise that the declaration made in the name of this 
Christian legion should not have softened the Pagan emperor. To be 
fli^re, its frankness and sincerity ought to have produced a different effect j 
but the cpaduct pf Maximian in this affair is hot one-half so junjust aad iur 



A REVIEW 

CaUTICAL AND HISTORICAU 
*"•'• liou.«oon,ScP«ul'.ChurrliTiird, London. rnCe Oa. 



EsPLAHATiOH Of xn« En a Hi VIVO. —The editm of tfte nudtra Beak ^ Martvrt ■ 
ktM JvmuKcd tweroi taoda of torlure frezlUti ok (Ae primii™ Cirulinnl ; 6ul im (to 
not recollect to fteie lent any id ftBrtnrDus M the one above Ttpteiented, enforced ty '■ Pro. 
tatml-^ctadtncy," <m Margaret, tht^feof a Tid. citite>t n/' yorfc .umcd (JiiHwtHr. 
/[rr tke ktnaui crime of ftartouftne a Calkahc pneW. Jlit place of eieciiHm um |Ae tof. 

''^. '". " ;r? ^'■^''' ■'■'™' '^'rr- '^ M ■"• '^^ »** /«■■"'■• 1W6._"„' ^ 
itUntM gKCt the follimiTig account ^ thit cnel and unparatleieJ^Kfit ;— " After lie had 
pnued. Faucet (me of the thtriffi) cmnmmded tktm to fut off her apparral, uhen ihe 
«<!& lie four women, Ttfueited him on her kneel, that, for the fcmnur rf uommkoBd' 
tku might he diipented leith, 6ul thry would not jTotil i(, ■ITtai the requtited that the 
oometKntight utparrel her, and that they tMuld tarn their facet from her during that time 
The uamen took of her cltithei and piil upon her the long linen fcaftil. Then very quiellv 
At laied her dovm tipon the £ra>tvd, her fact cmeicd mlh a handkerchief , and mm paH 
rffcer body vith the habit. The dore ma laied aj'on her / her handt the iiAncd towordthet 
face. TSct the ikeriff Mtd, Nate, ye mujl have your handt bound. Then ttco itweaou 
jMTlei iiCT- fcwdi.otid bound them to tun poitt. in the lame manner ai the feet had pre. 
wmufy ^en&^il. After this they laied weight Vfim fter, uihich vihtn tlie JirttfeU, the laid 
Jem, JetuiJetu, hare mercye v}«n mee, which acre the last words the teat heard ta tpeake 
She iHU in dying mbmtt one'quarter of an homer. A ihnrpe ttnnr, at big oi o man'ifia had 
teat put tmaer her back; upon her irai laid to Ike maalitie of teven or eight hundred 
KetghLmhich breaking her ribi, cautedthetnloburitfaranif the i'H)inc."~-LiBnrd'> Hit. 
[wjofBoelind. NoteFF. ■" ' ■ ""g'mtMi*- 



COHTINITATION OF THE KEVIBW. 



tolerant aa that of "Protestant-ascendency" towards the Catholics. 
The latter have ever been governed bjr the same sentiments as the Th»i 
bu legion expressed to their vptperot -. thejr profess to be &ithful su^ 



98 BEvimr oY'fOK:s • 

jects to the state, lit all that is not contrary to the law of God ; they 
have always bjeen ready to shed their blood in the cause of their coun- 
try J they h^Ve cJiWAy* said that w^e th^ t6 violate tfieli!^ duty to God, 
there could be no ^ec^Urity that tht?y wotiW be ftilthftilto Ike stat? ; they 
have submitted to persecution for justice sake With patience, and seeti 
their priests executed for no other crime than that of exercising their 
sacred functions ; they have declared that no power xm earth could 
make them raise their hands against their sovereign 3 they confess 
themselves to be Catholics, and therefore cannot violate their con- 
science, by taking oaths contrary to their faith 5 yet, nOlWltHsliftilUig 
jtfaese professions, which we think sufficient to satisfy any reasonable 
man or party of men, so bloated and mercenary Is the spiHt of ^* Protes- 
tant-ascendency,*' that in the face of these profeseibns of the Caj^olics, 
fcoafitaiitly repeatedi.aiid invariably confirmed by their conduct, the 
i)igotted disciples of Protestantism are incessantly calumiiiktiit|^ aAd 
Vilifying their Catholic neighbours, and calling upon *' AsceAd<*hcy'* to 
Ue«|) them proscribed and chained in slavery, while, thrqttg;h t^e nie- 
diuft) of the press, they are endeavouring, by a seiries of lies daid fkke- 
^oodft, 'Ho excite a iiatred and abhorrence of the (suj^posed) cotr- 
1^ ruptions and crimes of Popery and its professors.'* Reader, these 
faetfi ai*e undeniable 5 and we use the words of the editors of tliis 
JBook of Martyrs in proof of the «HchHstian feelings thiey arfe trying to 
txcite among Protestants towards their CAtholic neighbours. 

We now come to the account grmi by Fox of " jitbctn^ tfes jtrit 
'* BVitish m^artyrr This accouikt we i^^- gire In the xrori^ of the 
t^rotestant martyrologist, before we proceed with- our comift^'b. He 
says, " Alban, from whom St. AlUan^s, in flertibt*d»hire, received its 
** name, was the first British martyr* He was originally a pagan, atiid 
** being of a veiy humane disporftton, h« sheltered a Christiai* ccclesi- 
*^ astic, named Amphibalus, who was pursued on account of his reli- 
gion. The pious example, and edifying discourses of the refugee, 
made a great impression on the mindt>f Albcm ; he longed to become 
a member of a religioA which charmed him ,• tlife ftigitiVe mMster, 
happy in the opportunity, took great pains to instruct him ^ add be- 
fore his discovery, perfbcted Alban's conversion. Alban now took a 
f* firm resolution to preserve the sentiments of a Christilan, or to die 
the death of a martyr. The. enemies of Amphibalus. having intelli- 
gence where he was secreted^ came to the house of Albati, in oriler 
to apprehend him. The noble host, desirous of protecting his gtte^t, 
chariged clothes with him in order to facilitate his escape; and when 
<^ the soldiers c^me, offered himself up as the person for whom they 
'^ were seeking. Being accordiagly carried before th^ governor, the 
'' deceit was immediately discovered; and Amphibalus being absent, 
i* that officer determined to wreak his vengeancieupOn Albdh : with tWs 
" view he commanded tlhe prisoner to advance to the altar, and sacri- 
*' ftce to the pagan deities. The brave Alban, however, refused to 
^ comply with the idolatrous . injunctioft, aiid boldly professed himself 
'* to be a Christian. The governor therefore ordered hirtj to be scourg- 
*'* ed, which punishmeijt he bore with great fortitude, sfeipihg ip «c- 
'* quire new resolution from his sufferings : he, was tneft 'Beti^aStf^A. 
'^ The veneraBle bede states, that, upoii this 6C(^8ioti, tfcb ^MttkiM^ 






<( 



« 

u 



BOOK Ol' MARTYRS. ftO 

f' saidealy becane a convert t^ ChridClanity, aod entreated permission 
*' either to die for. Alban or with him. Obtaining the latter .request, 
^'they were beheaded by a spldier, who yoluatarily undertook the task. 
^ This haiipened on the 35d <?f Juiie, A. P. 287, at Verolam, now St. 
^ Albaa^s, in Hertfordshire where a magnificent church was erected 
f^io bis memory about the time of ponstantine the great. Tl^s edifice 
''was destroyed in the Saxon wars, but was rebuilt by 0£&i, king of 
'' Mercia, «nd.a monastery ereeled adjoiniiigit, some remains of which 
" are stili visible.'* 

la this AccoiBfit there are many points tp notice, as they will clearly 

shew that this protomartyr of England was a Catholic saint^ and not 

a ProtestBint one. It is not a little singular besides,. that the imputed 

offence for wbich Mrs. CJitheflroe sulPared under '' Protestant«ascenden«- 

cy,*' a re^nresentation of whose death prefaces this number, is the same 

as thmt Ibr widek St. Alfaan W9& martyred under Fag^n ascendency, 

lumiely, having '^ sheltered aChristiaa eGclesia^lic." And .what adds 

stiU more to the singularity of tbis coincidence is, that as St.* Alban was 

the^r^^ martyr In England under Pagan ascendency, so was Mrs. Oil- 

theroe thcjirsi martyr for the Catholic faith under the remorseless and 

ui^irinc^ed Elisdbeth^ on her commencing to persecujbe that religion 

which she swore at her coronation to. protect and follow. Thus then> 

if AlbaB be worthy of the rank of a Biartyr^ and Jphn l^ox has recorded 

him as saeh, Mrs. Clitheroeis entitled to the sanie rank, since both 

w«re Catholics 5 botii bumanely protected a persecuted fugitive for con^ 

scienee sake ; and both< refused to violate the^ir consciences, when called 

npoA to do so by their judges. Alban was desired to sacrifice to Pagan 

deities, whiich he refused 5 and Mrs.. CUtheroe^ when placed at the ji^ar. 

reiiiMd to plead gnilty, beeause she knew tbat i»o sufficient proof could 

be brought against her 5 or not guilty, because she kaxe w.such a plea \yas 

tqfiiwsijnd to« fidae^ocnl. The onJ^y djlff^'enpe between the two cases 

is^ JBI we have before said, that Atttan . was a martyr to the intolerance 

of BatgaM «aeaiHbncy y and Mrs. Qitheme felt the cruel hand of ^' Pro^ 

testaiLt^afitendency.-' The one was a i»an» wbpse sufferings were mild 

and nerolftd, compaied to the oth^;, ^ won^an, whose death was as 

harbarsrus ms it wa^ faefoa^e UDhe«rd ot 

W«have nofticed, pi^ ^8, ;Uia(t Cbrtcrtteaty was introduced into 
this eountrjr by GathoMc missionaries, veg»\aa:\y sctnt by pope £leuthe«- 
rius^^itiheirequeflticrflQx^JLiiiciiis, fieinewh^re <about it^e year 182^ 
The former pagan persecirt;iona, howe^7er,$eem not to h»ve reached this 
iBlaliii>f)fobiibliy fsom itsisobted^itil^^ its distance from the 

Romaii cti^lonies. FoK^ilacea t^ joaaxifrdoin pf St. Alban in ^87, but 
most ^mthors siky that he suffered in 3Q3> when Dioclesian began his 
embl and' gfiwral persecution agaiaat the Christians. Albsu^ was a i^i- 
ttre'of Venilaai, whleh^for many.a^a» was one of the strongest an4 
moat popiAMis cities in Britain, iiU it was 'reduced to depay by suffer* 
leg under the sieges Withe Saxons. : The p;resepi town of St. Alban s 
rose up closeito its ruins. The .saint tmvelled ;to Rome for iniprove- 
ment, ^nfl on his return Jto Biitain he settled at Verulam, wi;iere ha 
appeers>lo have been seme iof its pfiscipfid dtiaeas, as the husband of 
*lliPS,C9itheroe was4Mie of .the chief citb^ens ctf York. The acepunt 
^«ti l^^n»KAaS4i^ei# oearlf-wnrect^ nBf$fcn» it.go^s, but there are 



100 REVIEW OF FOX'S' 

many circumstances connected with the history of this dainty which 
he might ha^ noticed with much greater propriety, because better 
authenticated, than many of the stories he has entertained his readers 
with, and which we have exposed. For example, he relates, that a 
young lady, named Eugenia, performed many mir<icles while she was 
playing the impostor, by dressing herself up in men*s clothes ; and this 
statement is made upon no authority whatever ; nay, in the fac6 of im- 
probability. But the miracles recorded by Gildas, Bede, and others, 
as occurring at the martyrdom of this ssdnt, are passed over by Fox. 
Indeed, his manner of relation is so confused, that no one can under- 
stand what he means. He writes, '^Tbe governor therefore ordered 
him (Alban) to be scourged, which punishment he bore with great 
fortitude, seeming to acquire new resolution from his sufferings -, be 
was then beheaded. The venerable Bede states that upon this oc* 
casion the executioner suddenly became a convert to Christianity, and 
entreated permission either to die for Alban or with him. Obtaining 
^' the latter request, they were beheaded by a soldier^ who voluntarily 
" undertook the task.'* 

Now, from this account we are led to suppose that the occasion al-* 
luded to by Bede, was the execution of the martyr ; and yet this could 
not be the case, because then the intended executioner could not have 
requested " either to die for Alban or with him. On referring, how- 
ever, to the authority given, we find venerable Bede relating a strik- 
ingly different occasion for the sudden conversion of the executioner 
first appointed. Bede says, that the saint being led ta the place of 
execution, he cam^ to a river, which they had to cross on their way to 
the spot selected. Here the bridge was so occupied by the immense 
concourse of people crowding from curiosity to see the saint svffer, 
that it was found impracticable to pass it that evening. '* St. Alban 
** therefore,** observes the venerable historian, '' whose mind was filled 
with an anxious desire to arrive quickly at his nutrtyrdom, approached 
to the stream, and lifting up his eyes to,heaven> adidressed his prayer 
to the Almighty, when, behold, he saw the water recede, and leave 






€( 
€< 
if 

'* the bed of the river dry for them to pass over. The executioner, 
" who was to haVe beheaded him, amongst the rest, hastened to meet 



him at the place of execution, and, being moved,. 6jr divoc'e inspiration, 
threw down the sword which he carried, desiring that he might 
" rather suffer death with or for the' martyr, than be oonstraioed to 
'' take away the life Off so holy a man.** This extraordinary occur- 
rence, and notrthe beheading of the martyr, was the . occasion then of 
the sudden convelraion of the executioner. And why was not this fact 
stated by Fox, in preference to the pretended miracles wrought by a 
femsde in disguise ? Bede mentions also two other -miracles that oc- 
curred at the execution of St. Alban. After crossing the river, they 
had to ascend a hill, which was the spot fixed upon to exe0|ite the sen- 
tence. " When St. Alban,*' relates Bede, " had reached the sununit of 
'' this hill, he prayed to God to give him watery and immediately, an 
" ever-flowing spring rose at his feet, the course being confined ^ so 
'* that every one might perceive that ihe river had been befpre obedi- 
*' ent to the martyr. For it could not be supposed (adds the venera- 
'' bl^' writer) that he could ask for water at the top of the bill, who 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 101 



vr 

4 

if 



€€ 
ft 

ft. 



ft 
U 
ft 
ft 



f had not left it in tbe river helow^ unless he had been convinced that it was 
expedient for the GLORY OF GOD that he should do. so:" Bede fur- 
ther states, tKat the real executioner miraculously lost his eyes at the 
moment he severed the saint*s head from his body. 

There are many individuals who deride and disbelieve these relations 
of venerable Bede, thought as we have before stated, they are authen- 
ticated by other writers of unimpeachable credit. And yet many of 
these would-be-thought acute sceptics do not hesitate to believe facts 
not so well substantiated^ and other relations much more improbable. 
Amongst others, Hume has laboured hard to discredit the miraculous 
powers of the true church ; forgetting that the very samef arguments 
which he uses against the existence of miracles may likewise be ad- 
duced to disprove every tittle that he has written in his History of 
England. How much more conformable to common sense is the con- 
duct of Mr. Collier in his Ecclesiastical History* This learned Protest- 
ant author, speaking of the miracles above related^ says, " As for St. 
Alban*8 miracles, being attested by authors of such credit, I do not 
jsee why they should be questioned. That miracles were wrought in 
the church at that time of day, is clear from the writings of the an- 
*' cients. To imagine that Gpd should exert his onmipotence, and ap- 
pear supematurally for his servants, in no age .since the apostles, is 
an unreasonable fancy. For since the world was not aU converted by 
the apostles, why should we not believe that God should honour his 
servants with the most undisputed credentials. Why then should St. 
'' Alban*s miracles be disbelieved, the occasion being great enough for 
" so extraordinary an interposition." 

Before we take leave of this martyr, we must notice another admis- 
sion made by John Fox. He says, the saint's martyrdom took place 
at Verulam, now St. Alban*s, in Hertfordshire, where a magnificent 
church was erected to his memory about the time of Constantine the 
great. This edifice was destroyed in the Saxon wars, but was re- 
built by Offa, king of Mercia, and a MONASTERY erected adjoin- 
'* ing to it, some remains of which (he says) are still visible:* He should * 
have added, a sad memorial of the devastating spirit that directed the 
pretended evangelical reformers of religion in the sixteenth century. 
However, let it not be forgotten that Fox here allows that the memo- 
ries of the saints and martyrs were honoured by the primitive Chris- 
tians in Constantine* s time, as they are now hy the Catholics, and the 
Catholics only, if We except the Greek church. It is also admitted by 
him that the Saxon kings, who were the first to receive the Christian 
faith, on the second conversion of the island by St. Augustin, erected 
monasteries as well as churches to propiote the interests of religion ; 
whereas the reformers of the sixteenth century demolished and de- ' 
stroyed them to put the revenues into their<own pockets. ConsTe-*- 
quently these Christian martyrs and kings, the one suffering for con- 
science sake, and the other honouring the memories i9f those who thus- 
suffered, could not have been Protestants, but must ha^e been Catfao-> 
lics; ^therefore if they were orthodox, and Fox says they were, the* 
Catholics of this day must be orthodox too ; and then what can we 
think of the modegi disciples of. Fox, whose professed purport is to 
excite a "hatred and abhc^rrence of the (supposed) corruptions and- 



t« 
ft 

f£ 
ft 



io5? REVIEW OF fox; s 

* crimes of Popery (Jthat is Catholicism) toxd its professors?" The 
monastery of St. Alban*s was founded in the' year 79S, and possessed 
niany privileges ; one of which was the seniority of its abbot in parlia- 
ment over the other twenty-six, and sometimes twenty-eight abbots 
that held baronies, and sat in the senate till the time of Jlenry the 
.eighth, when they were suppressed in 1589^ a period of more thm seven 
hundred years. The church is still standing, having been purchased 
by the townsmen at the dissolution of the monasteries, for four hundred*' 
pounds, to be their parochial church. Of the rich shrine of St. Alban 
nothing is now remaining, as Weever writes, but a marble stone to 
cover the place where the dust of the renxaios of the saint lies. 

THE TENTH GENERAL PERSECUTION UNDER THE RO- 
MAN EMPEPtORJS. 

We come now to tHe last general persecution of Christianity under 
P^lgan ascendency. ¥faL introducea his account of it in the foltowing 
words : — " Notwithstanding the eSBotts of the: heathens to e^teraunate 
'' the Christians and aboii^ tli^r mode of fadth, yet t&cy mcvcBBed so 
" greatly as to become Ibnntdable by their numbers. They, howevet, 
tbrgot the precepts of their meek protdtype, and instead of adopting 
his humility, they gave themMlveB up to vcuiity^ by dressing gaily> 
livir^ sumptuously, building stsaCely edifices for churches, &c. which 
created a general dnvy, and particularly excited the hatred of Gale- 
rius, the adopted son of Diociesian, who, stimulated hy his itiother^ a 
bigo^tted Ptigan> persuaded the emperor to commence a persecution. 
It accordingly began on the 23d of February, A. IX. 308, that being 
'' the day on which the Terminalia were celebrated, and on which> as 
the lagans boasted, they hoped to put a termination to Christianity. 
The persecution began in Nieodemia 5 the prefect c^ that city re- 
paired, with a great number of of&eers and assistants, to the church 
of the Ch«istiaiM, where, having forced open the doors, they seized 
"- ttipon all the sacred books^ and committed them to the flames. This 
*' transaetion took place in the presence of Diociesian and Galerius, who 
'*• also caused the church to be levelled with the grouikl. It was fbl- 
'^ lowed by. a severe* edict, commanding the destruction of all other 
" Christian cliurches and books ; 4nd an order sOon succeeded, the ob^ 
" ject of which was to rende^ Christians of alt denominations outlaws, 
"• and consequently, to make tk^n incapable of holding any p^K^e of 
'* trust, profit, or dignity, or of receiring any protection from the legal 
** institutions of the realm. An inttaaediate martyrdom was the result 
''of the publication of this edict 3 for a bold Chfristian not only tore it 
^' down from the place to wMch it was affixed, but execrated the name 
'* of t^e emperor for his injustice and cruelty ; - he was in consequence 
'< Seised, severely tortured, and theft burnt alive. The Christian ^- 
'' lates were likewise apprehended and i<npris6ned ; and'G^rius pri^ 
*f viUely 6rdered the imperial palace to be set on fire, that the ChriS' 
'< tians inight be charged as the incendaries, iand a plausible pretext 
'* giv^ft for ciirrying oii the persecution with the greatest severity.'* 
Such ts the account given by Fox j Mr. Echard, m his HisTtory, sayi, 
that the- officers on breaking into the churches, "sought fbr the 
'* IM ACffi of the God they (the ChristiaiM) worshipped : but fhidiBg 



ft. 
« 
ft- 

it 

ft 
f(- 
t( 



ft, 

ft 
ft 
ft. 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. l^S 

'* oonfi took the sacred books and other things they fbimd, and threw 
*'. them into the fire> filling all places with force and violence/' Here 
then it is avowed by a Protestant writer, that IMAGES were in use in 
the primitive ages> as they are by Catholics now> though the practice 
is condenuied by Protestants^ evidently on weak and erroneous grounds -, 
since the . Christians of the early ages being aUowc>d to be orthodox, 
their practices could not be wrong, for if they were, those who pracr 
tised them could not be right; and what was right then must be right 

We wonder when the modern editors of the Book of Martyrs penned 
this horrible and heart-afflicting account of the sufferings of the Chris* 
tians under Dioclesian and Galerius, the forlorn and exactly similar 
situation of the Catholics under the Tudors and Stuarts of this country 
did not strike th«xi. The only difference that we can see is, that the 
persecution of Dioclesian lasted ten years, whereas the |}ersecution of 
the Catholics continued imabated during the reigns of Elizabeth, the 
8tuarts, and William of/' immortal memory," by '^ Protestant-ascen- 
dency 5 "-a space of more than a century. The persecution of Diocle- 
sian began with the destruction of Christian churches and the burn- 
iag of books. Consult the annals of Henry VIII. Edward YL and 
Elizabeth of England, and you will find the reformation so called com-> 
menced with the demolition of churches^ ohantnes, and monasteries, and 
tbe entire waste of the inost vfiluable works in literature and sacfed 
history. An order was issued by Dioclesian, ^' the object of which was 
" to render Chiristians of all denominations outlaws, and consequently, 
" to make them incapable' of holding any place of trust, profit or dig- 
" nity, or of reeeiving any protection from the legal institutions of the 
•'* realm/' And what was the object of the penal code of this country 
and Irel9,nd ? Were not the Catholics rendet^d outlaws and made in- 
capable of holding any place of trust and profit, ,or of receiving any 
protection from the laws ? Searth the records of Parliament, and it 
will be found, that a more persecuting spirit, could not exist against 
the primitive Christiana during the domination of. Pagan ascendenc5r, 
than against the Catholics, especially in Ireland, under the rule of 
*' Protestant-ascendency/' Not a Parliament was called by Elizabeth 
and the Stuarts theit did not add to the bloody catalogue of laws framed 
^ prevent the growth of Popery. Were we to cite only the heads of 
the different statutes passed we should fill a large volumct 3 but as we 
do not like to deal in assertion, we select a few passages to prove the 
truth of what we have advanced. 

On the.subject of destroying churches, Leland, in his Hibtory of Ires- 
land, writes thus : '^ Under pretence ofobetjing the orders of the state, they 
** uized all ike most valuahle furniture of the churches, which, they exposed 
** to sale without deteney or reserve. The Irish annalists pathetically 
*' describe the garrison of Athlone issuing forth with a barbarous 
*' and heathen fury, and pillaging the fi^mous church of Clonmacnoise, 
" tearing away the most inoffensive ornaments, books, bells, plate, winr 
'' dows, furniture of every kind, so as to leave the shrine of their favour- 
'* ite saint, Kieran, a hideous mpnulpent of sacril^e." {Leland, ii. 236.) 

To render the Catholic^ odious, the Protestant bishops of Ireland, 
l^ngwiiomwas (he oekbrated Ueh^r^ iir 16^^ entered a-^elemn pro^ 



tt 



i* 



104 REVIEW OF FQXS 

test egunst indulging the Catholics with the mere tc^eraticm of their 
religion, in which it was set forth, that '* the religion of the Papists is 
** superstitious and idolatrous; their faith and doctrine enormous and 
** heretical^ thef r church, in respect to both, apostatical. To give ihem^ 
therefore, a toleration, or to consent that they may freely exercise their 
religion, and profoss their faith and doctrine, ' is a grievous sin J " . (See 
Rushworth, ii. 22.) 

In 1642, the Parliament addressed the king, '' that such Popish priests 
" as are Already condemned, may be forthwith executed-, and such as shall 
'* hereafter be condemned, may likewise be executed according to lam*\ 
(Parliamentary History, x. 506.) ''It was confidently averred that sir 
John C^otworthy, who well knew he designs of the f^tion that 
governed in the house of commons in England, had declared there in a 
speech, ' that the conversion of the Papists in Ireland was only to be 
effected by the bible in one hand and the sword in the other;* and Mr. 
*' Yyra gave out tliat they would not leave a priest in Ireland. Tb the like 
*' effect sir William Parsons, out of a strange weakness^ or a detestable 
*' policy, positively asserted before many witnesses, at a public enter- 
" tainment in Dublin, that within a twelvemonth no Catholic should be seen 
** in Ireland. (Idem. xii. 49.) Now what is this but following the foot- 
steps of Dioclesian and his satellites, *' filling all places^" as Mr. Echard 
writes, '* with force and violence ?" 

That Catholics were deprived of the protection of the laws we may 
gather from Hume, who, in his relation of Oates*s infamous plot, says, 
The chief justice gave sanction to all the narrow prejudices and bigoted 
\fit^ of ^^^ populace. Instead of being counsel for the prisoners, as 
his duty required, he pleaded the cause against them ; browbeat 
** their witnesses; and represented their guilt as certain and uncontroverted. 
.... When a verdict was g^ven against the prisoner, the spectators 
expressed their savage joy, by loud acclamations. The witnesses, on 
approaching the court, were almost torn in pieces by the rabble. One 
in particular, was bruised to such a degree as to put his life in danger ^ 
and another, a woman, declared that, unless the court could afford her 
protection, she durst not give evidence. But as the judges could 
[would more properly] go no further than promise to punish such as 
should do her any injury, the prisoner |iimself had the humanity to 
waive her testimony.*' It was during the ferment of this plot, so dis- 
graceful to the annals of this once great and happy nation; that the 
declaration against transubstan^ation and the invocation of saints was 
invented, and passed into a law, for the express purpose of excluding 
from all places of trust, profit or dignity, the professors of the same 
aith that were excluded by Dioclesian, of which the modern editors 
of Fox complain aa an act of injustice, while they as foolishly and 
wickedly declarethat the purport of their labours is to continue this 
very system of unjust exclusion ! 1 1 What barefiBiced inconsistency. 

The cruelties of this tenth persecution, we are told by Fox, were so 

unendurable that " at last several of the governors of provinces repre- 

■' sented to the imperial court, that ' it was unfit to pollute the cities 

with the blood of its inhabitants, or, to defame the government of 

the emperors with the death of so many subjects.' Hence many 

'' were respited from execution 5 but though not put to* deaths they 



ft 

t€ 



€g 
€< 
4€ 
€€ 
(( 
€( 
*4 
€€ 
€$ 



fl 



U 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 105 

" \ifere subjected to every species of indignity/* Sucli w&s and now is 
the case with the Catholics of this country. Under the Stuarts there 
were many attempts made to ameliorate the condition of the persecuted^ 
but,, th^se attempts only produced more violent decrees on the part 
of " Protestant-ascendency;*' and do we not see, with our own eyes^ 
the fury and intolerance of this £ftctidn in opposing the laudable en* 
deavourjs of the present lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and many Hberal 
senators> to soften the rigour of those restrictive laws that still dis** 
ghicev our statute book ? Are not the Catholic nobility and gentry at 
the present day 5 ay^ and even the commonest of the commonalty of 
that body, '' though not put to death, .... subjected to every species 
*' of indignity ?** Is not the meanest of the " Protestant-ascendency'* 
party permitted to lord it over the first peer of the realm, because t^ 
latter chooses to follow the dictates of his conscience by paying adora* 
tion to his Grod in the same form and creed as the primitive Cluistians 
did? 

The next subject that demands our attention is the statement of Eox> 
that '* the Christians refused to bear anus under the Roman emperors.'* 
This is a gross perversion 3 for the fact is, the Christians, as a genehd 
body, never came to any such determination. However, let us hear 
what the martyrologist has to say. " At this time," he writes, ''Me 
'' Christians, upon mature consideration, thought it unlawful to bear . 
arms under an heathen emperor. Their reasons were : — 1. That they 
thereby were frequently under the necessity of profaning the Christian 
*' sabbath.-^^. That they were obliged, with the rest of the army, fre- 
quently to be present &t idolatrous sacrifices, before the temples of 
idols. — 3. That they were compelled to follow the imperial standards, 
which were dedicated to heathen deities, and bore their representa- 
" tions« Such reasons induced many to refuse to enter into the imperial 
*' army, when called upon so to do; for the Roman constitution obliged 
" all young men, of a certain stature, to make several campaigns."-— 
To these- reasons Fox has added a circumstantial account of the mar- 
tyrdom of Maximilian, " the son of Fabius Victor," who i^ appears was 
himself a Christian soldier in Numidia. How Fox came by his tale, we 
are not/ as usual. Informed. We can trace no account of it in Echard, 
and the mention made of this martyr by. Butler is very brief. The 
latter writer states that the law applied to the sons of soldiers, who were 
compelled by it to serve in the army at the age of twenty-one, if found 
to Ji)e of due stature.. Maximilian was found to answer the height pre- 
scribed, but refused to receive the mark of enlistment, which was a 
print on the hand and a leaden qoUar about, the neck, on which were 
engraved the name and motto of the emperor. His plea was, accord- 
ing to Butler, that in the Roman army 8uq>erstitions, contrary to the 
Christian faith, were often practised, with which he could not defile his 
soul. For this opinion he was condemned to death^ and suffered, ac- 
cording to Ruinart, in 296, seven years, previous to the breaking out 
of Dioclesian's persecution, yet Fox places the event " at this time y 
that is, in this tenth persecution. 

That there were some of the primitive Christians who thought it unr 
lawful to bear arms cannot be doubted 3 but it did not arise from the 
army b^ng under a heathen emperor, for that circumstance could make 






€€ 
€€ 



106 REVIEW OF FOX'S, 

BO difference. The objectioa arose from the bxms being unjust and. in- 
tolenaBt, by intrenching on the liberty of eonsciesule, and comptiling 
such Ckriatians to be present at a worship vrhich they knew to be er^* 
roaeous and sinful. • This was the pith of the objectioa -, and this is a 
hardship to which Catholics are liable ait this very day. By the mili- 
tia laws of Bni^land every Catholic is subject * to be drawn for that ser- 
vice/ and whea embodied, he itiay be compelled by tfhe mutiny law to 
fitHend at the worship of the established chiirch, though he 13 x^oasci" 
enfcioosly convinced that the worship there offiBrcd is a fake one, and 
therefore snch an one as he cannot join in without offending God. 
Hiere then is* a parallel case with the primilive Christians ;. and be it 
observed; that when, in 1806, the then administration of Uiis country 
sttens^ted^o secure U> the* British soldier freeckim of conscieaee under 
the guanuitee of LAW^ '^ Protedtaot-ascendency set up the bigotted 
^ydboopof ** Church in danger," and Hie ministers w^re kicked out in 
disgrace. In Ireland, it is true, because the people are almo^ wholljr 
Cauiolic, the liberty of worship is secured to such as may enter the 
militia in that country while they remain in the island. But the mo- 
ment they set foot on the shores of Protestant England, that privilege 
is no longer secured to them', but they may be marched off to the iirst 
Ftotesiatit ehnrch at the will ofthelr commaasder, or be punished with 
the lash lor disobodience of orders. Now, supposing a Catholic of the 
present day to be drawn for the militia, and on the ground of con- 
ecienee, like the young M^imilian, he refuses to join the regiment for 
which he has been drawn,>**what would be tl\e consequence ^ Fine and 
imprtsoament. And for what offence ? Not a dislike to bear arms ; 
not a disinclination to serve his. country in the hour of need 5 no, be is 
ready to do both : but that country, by its laws, making him liable to 
becopie a traitor to his God, by partaking in a false worship, he there* 
fore prefers the laws of God before the edicts of men. Thus then it 
is net the disloyalty of the Catholic, but the injustice of the law, that 
occasioas the refusal, and the Catholic who may suffer under '* Pro- 
testant-aseendency** in such a case, is equally entitled to the regard of 
every hater of persecution as the object of Fox*s conimiseration. 

Fox now enters into a long detail of the different martyrs who suf- 
fered in the persecation'ofDioclesian, and In order to strike his readers, 
be has arranged some of them under particular heads, such as " A Pa- 
*" gan father seeks to sacrifice his cwn son ;" — ^' Fortitude and noble conduct 
** of three Christian friends i^-^Martyrdom of three- sisters;* — " Ntmee- 
*' mis^ martyfdomsi*^^'* Martyrdom in Nnples ,•" &c. &c. Of the martyrs 
naraed by fVm, we have no clue to trace the authenticity of their acti, 
^nd some of them we have not been able to find any mention whatever 
i>y the authorities we have access to. Once more, however, we ijpish 
to impress Upoa the mind of the reader, particularly if he be a IVotest- 
aiit/^that all the martyrs during this period of the Christian church 
whQ0e acts ar6 autheuticated vrtr^ ROMAN CATHOLICS, professing 
the SAMfi ftdth as is now termed Popery by " Protes^ant-ascendeacy/* 
and towards the professors of which, the editors of this Book of Marty fi 
say, it is their object to excite the feelings of hatred and ahhorrence. 
* jLet the reader then remember, we say again, that the ^' gddly martyrs/' 
'during these tea peisecuilons imder P^gan ascendency; vPtt^ l^iJUA^ 



€€ 
€€ 



BOOK OF MARTli^RS. , IW 

CATHOLICS. It is made a subject of special notification tbat a Pfeg*an 
father should seek to sacrifice his o\Tn son for becoming a Christian ^ 
but what is this sin^e case of parental cruelty and bigotry, compared 
with the laws of "Protestant ascendency," which offereid to any unprin- 
cipled and unfeeling son the possession of his fathers estate, on ftyrsok- 
ing the reglion he was brought up in and becoming an apostate. Yes, 
reader, look into the statute books of En^and and Irelan^ and you will 
there see it enacted by Protestant parliaments, that any undutiful sdn^ on 
turning Protestant, became, by law, the possessor of his Catholic father*s 
property though Irving, and might thus reduce him to the most abject 
poverty and distress. How njany instances have come to our personal 
knowledge of Protestant parents disowning their children and turning 
them out of doors, because they have embraced the doctrines'Vf Cfitho-^ 
ficism from conviction, the same as this young Christian mentioned by 
Fox ? Nay, we will venture to assert, from the spirit diiiplayed by "the. 
modem editors of this Book of Martyrs in their address " to the Chrls- 
'* tian public," that were any of their children to become Catholics, 
they would not hesitate a moment to follow the example of this Fhgan 
father, and sacrifice the child that should dare to exercise this right of 
every human being, FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE 

Vitus, a Sicilian of considerable family," writes Pox, "was^ brought 
up a Christian? his virtues increased with his years, his constancy sup- 
ported him under all his afflictions, and his faith was superior to 

* the most dangerous perils and misfortunes. Hylas, his father', who 
^ was a Pagan^ finding that he had been instructed in the principles of 

* Christianity by the nurse who brought him up, used all his endeavours 
to bring him back to Paganism ^ but finding his efforts in vaiii, he 
forgot all the feelings of a parent, and informed against his son to 
Valerian, governor of Sicily, who was very active in persecuting the 

^ Christians at that period." So far our martyrplogist is correct ^ and 
so well, convinced was ** Protestant ascendency** of the force of early 
instruction, that she influenced her parliaments to pass laws making it 
not only penal for a Catholic to become a teacher of youth, even of 
Catholic parents, but, (so great and inveterate was her hatred of Ca- 
tholicism) it was also enacted that Catholic parents should not be the 
guardians and instructors of their own children j ! I Such an unnatnral 
law as this is no where to be found, we believe, in any country but 
England and Ireland ; and though the Pagans were cruelly bent upon 
the destruction of Christianity, yet they did not reach that climax of 
intolerant legislation to which "Protestant-ascendency** arrived. 

Another martyr recorded by Fox we shall here briefly notice, as his 
authentic acts shew what were, in that age^ the doctrines of the Chris- 
tians. He introduces his account under a head '* Conversion and Death 
^ of Cyprian.*' — He then goes on, — "Cyprian, known by the title of the 
*^ magician, to distinguish him from Cyprian, bishop or Carthage, wal 
*' a native of Antioch. He received a liberal education in his yoitth, 
and applied himself to astrology ^ after which he travelled through 
India, Egypt, Greece, &c. He afterwards settled near Babylon, and 
being skilled in the Chaldean mysteries, he employed his talents in 
^' endeavouring to draw women from chastity and conjugal faith, and 
*^ in persecuting the Christians, tiod ridiculing Christianity. He 1>c- 



€€ 
€€ 
€€ 






103 REVIEW OP FOX'S 

" came acquainted with Justina^ » young lady of Antioch^ of high birth, 

*' beauty^ and accomplishments, wjio had been educated in idolatry, 

*' but being converted to Christianity, she induced her father and mo- 

^' ther to. embrace the same faith. A Pagan gentleman falling in love 

'' with her, and not being able to obtain a favourable return to bis 

'' addresses, applied for assistance to Cyprian, who undertook the de- 

" sign, but With a treacherous intent; for under pretence of acting for 

*' his liiend, he determined, if possible, to possess the lady hiniself. 

** To effect this he employed all his skill, but his endeavours proving 

** ineffectual, he was fully convinced that a superior power protected 

*' her against his 'evil intentions. His reflections, on this account, 

** caused him to search into the truths of Christianity, and his enquiry 

*' became so beneficial^ that he renounced the errors of Paganism. 

'-* His repentance was truly sincere ^ he determined to reform his con- 

'''duct, and' to make every amends in his power for the crimes he had 

^' Go'mmilted. •• He therefore burnt his books of astrology and magic, 

" received baptism, and became animated with a powerful gift of grace. 

" His conversion had a great effect on the lovet of Justina, and he also 

** in a short time embraced Christianity. During the p^r9ecution of 

'* Dioclesian, Cyprian and Justina were seized upon as Christians, when 

/^ the former was torn with pincers, and the latter chastised 3 and after 

'' suffering other torments they were both beheaded." 

This event took place in 304^^ and the empress Eudocia, wife of 
TheodosiuS' the younger, wrote the history of these two martyrs in a 
beautiful Greek poem> of three books. ThA original work is lost, but 
some extracts have been preserved by Photius. This latter says, quot- 
ing from. Eudocia, that when Cyprian tried all the magic art he was 
possessed of to overcome the resolution of the holy virgin, *^ she de- 
^ feated and put to flight the devils by the sign of the cross J* St, Cy- 
prian himself, who. wrote his Confession, still extant, says, *' She armed 
'^ lierself with the dign of Christ, and overcame the invocation of the 
demons." St. Gregory Nazianzen adds, " Suppliantly beseeching the 
virgin Mary that she would succour a virgin in danger, she fortified ber- 
*' self with the antidotes 4)f fasting, tears, and prayers." These quota- 
tions shew clearly, that the primitive Christians wer^ in the practice of 
making the sign of the cross and invoking the virgin Mary in case of 
necessity^ as Catnolics now do, while Protestants declare the practice 
to be danmable and idolatrous. Cyprian it also appears was awfully 
struck with reverence, when attending at the divine mystery of the 
mass, which be thus describes iu his Confession : " I saw the choir of 
heavenly men, or of angels, singing to God, adding at the end of 
every verse in the psalms, the Hebrew word Alleluia, so that they 
seemed not to be men." These testimonies of "godly martyrs," who, 
of the most debase of mankind, became the patterns of all virtues and 
living witnesses of the grace bestowed by God on those who supplicate 
hid holy name 3— ^these testimonies, we. say, in favour of the doctrines 
and pracUces of the Catholic church ought to make Protestants reflect 
and shudder at their daring, when to obtain some office in the state, or 
preferment in ^e church as by law established, they present themselves 
in the presence of their Maker, and swear by his holy' name, chat what 
the apostles and their successors taught and practised' in the primitive 



ft 



€< 
i€ 

it 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 109 

ages, and is now taugbt and pracised by the greatest body« of Chris-^ 
tians, is DAMNABIJ£ idolatry and superstition ! ! ! Yet it is ut^ed 
by '^Protestant-ascendency/* that those impious tests are the bulwark 
of Protestantism, as by law established! ! ! ! ! ! 

We have now gone through the period of Roman Pagan persecution, 
and are about to enter a new epoch in the progress of Christianity. 
During three hundred years this system experienced nothing but op* 
position front the rulers of the earth and the ambition of sophisters ; 
yet in defiance of this hostility, stained with the blood of innumerable 
martyrs, and harassed by the deceits of false friends^ the ministers of 
Jesus Christ, inspired by the Holy Ghost, x^arried his doctrines to the 
farthest regions, preaching the same invariable rule of faith, and uni^ 
ing every new church under one head, namely the pope, or bishop of 
Rome. The sufferings of the Christians, and the great increase of the 
Church, had now stamped the divind origin of this system among the 
people of the Roman empire, bat the hearts of their rulers had not 
yet been touched, and it was reserved for Constantine to receive this 
special grace from heaven. Hitherto the Roman emperors were mea 
of dissolute habits and brutal passions, with here and there an excep- 
tion. Constantine, however, a Briton by birth, was endowed with 
more noble qualities. The character and disposition of Constan^ne. 
had gained him the hearts of all classes, and with one accord the people 
and army proclanied him emperor on the death of his father Constan- 
tius, which took place at York, about the year 306, Constantine being 
then about 33 years of age. Being threatened with an attack by the 
tyrant Maxentius, who ruled over Italy and Rome, the young emperor, 
like an able general,' judged it better to prevent this attack, than to 
wait the arrival of his enemy. He accordingly penetrated the very 
heart of Italy, and advanced within two miles of Rome. There* he 
pitched his tent, and resolved to come to a decisive engagement with 
his proud and sanguinary adversary. In this resolution he was strength- 
ened by the appearance of a wonderful phenpmenon, witnessed by his 
whole army as well as himself. This extraordinary occurrence we 
shall here give in the words of John Fox, before we proceed to remarlc 
upon it 

'^CONSTANTINS BECOMES THE CHAMPION OF THE CHRISTIANS* 

" Constantine the great at length determined to redress the griev- 
'' aucesof the Christians, for whieh purpose he raised an army of 
'' 3O,000 foot, and 800 horse, with, which he marched towards Rome 
'* against Maxentius, the emperor. But, reflecting on the fatal .mis- 
'' carriages of his predecessors, v/ho had maintained a multiplicity of 
*' gods, and reposed an entire confidence in their assistance } and con- 
sidering that while his own father adored only one God, he continu- 
atly prospered; Constantine rejected the adoration of idols, and im,* 
ploreid the assistance of the Ahnighty -, who heard his prayers, and 
answered them in a manner so suprtsing and miraculous, that £use- 
bins acknowledges it woidd not have been credible, had he not re- 
ceived it from the emperor*s own mouth, who publicly and sxAemoly^ 
ratified the truth upon his oathi. . ^ ' 



€€ 
€€ 
€€ 
€( 
ft 
*f 
€t 



no REVIEW OF FOX'S 

*' THE VISION OF CUN^fMWTtin, 

* ** The army being advanced Beiu* Rome, and the emperor em^doyed 
** in 3iii devont ^aculations, on the 27tfa d^ of October, about three 
'' o'clock in the afternoon, when the sim was declining, there suddenly 
. '^ a)»peared to hfm a pillar of light in the hean^ene, xTk the form of a 
^ OTOBS, with tfalfl piain Inscription on or about it TOTTaNl&A, <In this 
** oveno(Hne.* ConBtantiiie was greatly surprised at this strange sight, 
** which wa8 visible to the "vi^ole army, ^o equally wondered at it 
^' with himself. The officers and commanders, prompted by Che augurs 
" aad auspices or soothsayers^ locked upon it as an -inausptciotts omen 
^portending an unfortunate expedition > fk» emperor himself did not 
** understsnd k, till at length our Savour appeared to him in a vialixi 
^ With a cross in bis hand> commanding him to make a royal standard 
^ Vkt Hhat he had seen in the heavens, and cause it to be continually 
^ c^ried before his army) as an ensign both of victory and safety. 
^* Early the next morning, Constontine inforawd his friends and officers 
** of what he had seen in the night, and sending for proper workmen, 
•'^ sat down foy tbem and described to thenh tihe form of the standard, 
"^^ which he then ordered them to make with the greatest art and mag- 
:^* nificence; and accordingly they made it tiuis: a long spear, plated 
-^ with gold, and a traverse |nece at the top, in the form, of a cross, to 
whidi was fostened a four square purpje banner, •embroidered with 
gold, and beset with precious stones^ which reflected on amazmg 
^' lustre; towards the top was depicted the emperor ]>etween his two 
^' sons; on the top of the shidfib, ab6ve the cross, stood a*crown, over- 
*' laid with gold and jewels, within which was iidoced Uie' sacred sym- 
^ bol, namely, the two fivst letters of Christ la Gre^, X and P, 
''^ struck 6tte through the other: this devke he alteHrards i>ore not 
*^ onhr upon his fields, but slso upon hb coins^ many of which are 
•^ still extant." 

This ocrcount df Fox is sub^tafntially correct, inrt there km some mis- 
tsEkds'that require (o be <;orrected. In the finst pioee, Gonstantine's 
Hf^ther was not a Chrisiimi, though Eusebius says, that before Jiis dealh 
"be prof<0ssed the faeHef oFone only God. It is related of Gonstantius, and 
the fact is well worthy the attention of '* Protestant ascendency,** fliat 
when Diodesian sent his bloodly edicts to Gonstantius, who niled over 
the countries on this side of the Alps, namely, Gaul and Britain, he re- 
'ftised to aet upijiki Ihem himself, though sooae Gfaribtians suffered in 
BrkaSti through Ike' bigotry sbdrI emelty tif the governors, among whom 
ivrss St. Alban, whof^ ntartynkim we have related. Gonstantius, hou^ 
. evrr, soon put a ebedk to tfaeijr liiry ; hvA lest he should be thought to 
-fhvout the ChrisUons too much, he sulSsredthe churehes to be de- 
mdlistved. Though not a Christian himsdf, he had many of that 
'ftdfth tAnotig/his <»fficei^s and household* On r^eiving the edicts 
of Diode^iMf, ht •gave them i their choice, either to aaerifiee or quit 
iiieir post^. lilasry ptefotn^d their jdacesto conscience, and offered e»- 
' crifice. These apostates Gonstantius from that time ikspised and dis- 
'chsn^ed'from his service, ohsemng that those who were fililhless to 
their God would nevur.be faiUiM to him. But sueh as refused to sa- 
crifice he kept near his person. ( Eu$,\¥U, Comttmt* L. ip*C| 19^ ' How 






BOOK OF MARTYRS. 114 

di£Reretit4iS tike-ixmdHCt of '* Protestaat^oflcendency" ftrom that of thift 
Pagan emperar. Under the fgnner the f^ostate from the Catholic faith 
is rewarded with title and olfice> while the firm adherent to that ^ith Ifi 
stigmatteed as a traitor and deprived of his hereditary rights ! l^lien 
wiU com&ion sense resume its sway mnongst our intolerants ? . In tlie 
second plEce> it does not appear that Constantine raised h^s aro^y £or 
the purpose of ^snccouring the Chri$tiai»S| as Fox asserts^ but to repel 
the assauJts of Maxentins^ who, as we .before stated^ had .declared war 
a^^inst ConstantiaQ^ under pretence of avenging the death of his father 
Meximtnus^ whom Constantine had caused to be strangled in 3P8^ ha.v- 
ing naadfe several attempts on the life of the latter^ ^ However, th^ {act 
is undenislDley. that Con8t$ntine began to doubt the efficacy of Pagan 
sacrifices^ and had i^course to the one only true Qod^ whom the Chris- 
tians adored. with such fervour; and ic i^ equally undeniable^ thai; he. 
was fajuroared with a supernatinral appearance a{ THE CROSS^ the ban- 
ner under which the Christians had fought against the world and the 
-devil, and had carried it victoriously through the ranks (^Paganism. 

The deist effects to deny supernaturtd events ^ but how such a qic- 
cQittstance as the appearance of the cross to Constantine^ and his saU- 
-sequent , victpiy> under that banner, over the tyrant Maxentius, with 
•an inferior army, can be denied, consistently with common sense, we 
•are at a lo6s to conceive. The phenomeaoa was not conned to the eye 
of Comstantine $ it vras visible to the whole army, and a resemblance of 
it afterwards became the prinioipal standard of the imperial Ronaan 
army. -Now if this occurrence had been a mere preteasitH), invented 
for some sinister purpose, is it possible, we ask^ that such aii attempt 
cpukl have met with general credit as it did from all persons living at 
-that time. Lactantius, Eusebius, Artemius the mairt3Hr uader Julian 
the apastate, Cyzicemfus, Phiiostoi^gius, lan Ariaa historian^ the Alexe^ 
adtinn, or Paschal Chronicle (published by F, Raderasi and tfiore aocu'- 
mt^y by^ Dr^ Caage) cotaopikd iu 630; $os(Htt«li, Socrates, Giy|iia£u 
•atsi £iitychii2S; some of whom wiote from vaiirious fuemoifs, and as 
'vtiucbegs of a fact to U^hich many had betn eye witnesses^^ all agree i^ 
'Stating the actnal oocurcence df thss> woadediil •p^ctaole, I<actaatia«, 
'Who was 4pTecept6r tb Ciispus Csosiir^ ConstaaitiBe s 9(m» in his book 
On. the Death fifibe yperseoutora, ascribes the victory of the.iattar over 
'Maxeniiaa to Ibe miraculous vision he had in his sleep before the bat- 
tle. IMr.work was written .before Busebius 4K>mpiled the liieiof Coo- 
•fitontlntt* The llitiar writer had the ,het fn»m Constdetine hii^isdf^-^ 
According to the Bsscbal Chronicle, Ice. the insodptipn was fermed 
m iiri^t tetters^ as-^it were, of goiid^ ib the perpendieidar shaft, or 
4Nid|y of the cross firom th£ iniddie ^wb to^the bottom. . W^ shcdlgiv^ 
•a perfect < ft^re d£ it ki! otir nekt: a«Aiib(Jr. In /addition t^ this /body «|f 
epivftjiaey' evidence, fe tangnfficant^ trjuiaphal arch Wfls erected ki 
Rome in mtanory of thie vidiary, in ^e itiserip(ao& of which -CcQauitan- 
"tins atti^itiiited his 8UceMstt> Hve viiracaloua tpftaritt^n. {iesides this 
•pQblEo>moacimcnt at Rome, iSimebkis states tMA :ht lik«wi^e §et:i^ 
in the prMci|)al ball of his palace At €iosi8taxttinople>'a great figure •of 
the*' cross whieh he had «een in tha..iii9a^Mi> iuid by the |^w^ 0f 
'Whiait "^ tiad bBooxpn victorums. ^he standard ibeftir^aUM^d'^. wns 
idiMui >r':titt/ naoie ef tbt LUmmm, «Cid is ipititll! me^mtitif 4^- 



.119 REVIEW OF FOX. 

Bcribed as above by Fox. The emperor chose fifty men of the stoutest 
and most religious among his guards, to carry this banner by turns; it 
was always borne before the emperor in battle. Con'stantine also 
caused banners of the same fashion, but less in size, to be made for 
every legion, aud had the monogram of the name of Christ framed in 
the form of a Cross, on his helmet, and in the shields of his soldiers. 
Julian the apostate, on his coming to the purple, changed on his 
medals this sacred monogram into the old letters S. P. Q. R. But 
Jovian and the succeeding emperors restored it. In a wprd, the evi- 
dence of these two miracles is so clear and authentic, that we can- 
not help thinking that every rational and unbiassed mind will exclaim 
with Baluze, *^ What history will men believe, if it be allowed to 
'' call in question a foct confirmed by the most unexceptionable wit- 
''•nesses, and by ancient medals and other monuments.*' (^oi* \n 
Lactani.) We shall give a representation of the Labarum in the 'next 
number. 

This memorable appearance of the great work of mercy was foUow- 
ed by a complete victory over Maxentius, on the 97th of October, SIS, 
which put Constantine in complete possession of the Western empire. 
Such signal proofs of divine Providence in his fovour we might have 
supposed sufficient to induce Constantine to declare himself imme- 
diately a Christian : but this was not the case. Naturally humane in 
his disposition, he contented himself at first with proposing to Lici- 
nius, his colleague, whom he met at Rome, to stay all persecution on 
the score of religion, which. the latter agreeing to, an edict was pub- 
lished allowing full liberty of conscieqce,* and permitting every one to 
follow that form of worship he conscientiously ideemed right. 'This act 
of justice gave offence to Maximin, the tyrant of the ea3t, whose im- 
7>lacable hatred to the Christian name was equal to any of the unperial 
persecutors who preceded him. He declared war against Constantine 
and Licinius,' wa^ defeated by the latter in battle, and put an end to 
his life by poison. Thus, by the mysterious dispensation of an all- 
ruling Power, the tyrant^ of the earth were all cut off one after the 
other, and the whole empire was placed under a merciful prince, whose 
heart, however, was not yet sufficiently touched with diyine grace to 
embi^ce the heavenly truths which Christ came on earth to reveal. — 
It was not till h&had experienced affiiction in his fomily, and disease 
in his person, that Constantine began to reflect seriously oa the sub- 
lime precepts of Christianity, and the necessity of embracing that sys- 
tem which had been water^ by the blood of so many glorious and 
heroic martyrs.^ This state (^ uncertainty on the part of the emperor 
occasioned the augurs or soothsayers to harass and alarm the Chris- 
tians, Who were interrupted by the misguided populace in their reli- 
gious assemblies, and the pope was constrained to seek his safety by 
withdrawing himself from Rome to the mountain of Soracte. 

While these disorders were going on, Constantine was stricken with 
a leprosy; and, blinded by the errors of his early education^ he con- 
sulted the augurs how he could be cured. They told him he must 
bathe in a bath of infont*8 blood. This proposition he rejected with 
horror^ m& meditated on some past transactions, particularly on the 
condemnation of de«th he hzA passed on his own son Crispua, and hia 



A REVIEW 

CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL. 
ban>eH»in, St. FnV, Chnreh.itii, LoDddn. ITICO M. 



EirUHittOH or xni "EnatAttsi.—Tht Jigme m thel^kaaduarefraenUliim 
Vl^fimMiRmtaabiHmer.cMeitheLiAanim, It vomniicp^MilKiiCb/oU, upmuAtch 
iiB bid hfriuiUalls a crni httr, to a$ie form the figure tf a Cnii$. The up bfaeperpenJi- 

». I'm tte muUle 0/ tfcilnviniiDalaM<m^rra»nn«>mtiw(l^iian<o^Crirtit 



ty (lie iBD MtiaJ-Grufc bCUrt, X, Chi, mriuatmt M our Ch, «ul ?. Ri>, CmiMliDK ta oar 
B. nil laMHnmtwiwdlttttriMf/pnKdmllUCbi, mulniwalinhstaiwit. AmtrvU 
Mil tT ■ HHOM &!"« Awtf/rMi the erve$ bar, eft^kd with brii^ljewd; which daaled 
Aietti^ikebAMen, Mote the veUiB«eefteTwaTd$tt the imtga of the tBoenrmd ' 
«■ rbUnem— ^n«t m tb« Mttr bnui i> a mon iniutK raemilaHee of tke Cmm mji^- 
rwtd H C«MtdMtiBc, lee Oe grttent Aeet, jme 115. Thit hemeiitv iwn (xMnded very 
indeiiAeEait,thtmtcHftimJim»ednUweremktten^gMiHtheperwei>dieHlarA^ 
>r ti$if tf tilt cnafrm Ae tMiie ieum u the butt ft. OmaepedeWUtf a lUtBt erected 
w bwr jf CimMiwtinf ijr the Miiatc d^ Rome. Jke CMuei lUt tiucnptim to be plueed : " Sg 
lU uUlarf tign, Ike true mark if cmrags, I hate delitwrid ymr ci(y 'nin (k« yaJ(C ^ 
ly fo w ) . mi l eU ortd tUcMiutc muTfMPpb i^f Same to their ateieta giery." ' 

CONTINUATION Or THB XITIBW. 

vlfe Pauata, the Utter having accused the nn of attemptjiig her chas- 
tity, when she had solicited Imn to hold inceatuous intercaune with ber,^ 
In Utia state of perplexity Conatantine waa risited Id hia ^eep br siiiata. 
I'eter and Paul, wlni hdmonished him to«eek out the holy pope Silvester^ 
■» hit place i^ concealment. «nd on bo ioiag he would receiTea cure 
tluMgh the waten of b^itiam. The emperor on awsking immediatd]; 
wn^t out the good pontiff, who spent anne'dafs in iovtructing Con-, 
'taBtine, in Ifae neceuarf poiiita oCCkuttk iuO^^tAin; ytiutii he wb*, . 



U4\ pEVIBWOfFOri 

baptized with the usual ceremonies in a place adjoining the cburcb of 
St. John- Laterail in the year S94. IminediaCely, on*^ receiving the 
vraters vcH^ J>apti8iyi, the. Iq^niiBy left him. «• This miraouloi^ieute is re- 
lated by Binius and <Baromug> and we «ee no reason why it shoul^i be 
doubted any more than the wonderful conversion of St. Paul, and his 
resloration to sight from the hands of Ananias. 

We how enter a new era of the Christian church. Hitherk) she had 
expedenced the most violent opposition that Jews, Philosophers, Pa- 
gans' and Heretics could raise against her, for the space of three hun- 
dred years ) notwithstanding which her doctrines had been gaining 
ground in ev^ry quarter of the globe. She had now 'received into her 
bosom the monarch of the world ^ the imperial ruler of the vast Ro- 
Hiati empire 5 a. man who might be said to have attained the summit 
of eattiily grandeur. Hitherto she had experienced persecution frbm . 
the. state;, now she. had the first civil niagistrate in her fsEvmnr; and 
what was, her conduct in this state of prosperity? Did she, theCatho-* 
lie church, induce the emperor^ to exert force to spread her dbctrines 
<>r reclaiin error? No 3 the first slep of .this Christian emperor was 
tb declare to the world that his change of sentiment arose from a pure 
donvictlon of mind, and that it w^ I^is resolution to allow cv&y one 
df his sul^Jects the same freedom of conscience. 
j The speech Constahtine made to the senate^ on atmounctng his bap: 
im, A9 so clear a definitioh of the mild and genuine principles of the 
)^athoUc religion,, in what regards the liberty of conscience, that' 
t^i^ here ii^eti it, from Causstns Holy Court, part 11, bookii, see. 9. 
J^ayixi^ caused ti throne to be prepared in the palade of Trajan, and 
qoit^iianded il^ attendance of .the senate, he thus addressed them: — 
't.Sirs,. Ldokfct lidt but the change of religion which I have made,'^will 
appear strange to man]^, who blame all tha,t which they cannot under- 
stand, and will understiand nothing, but what flatters their presiuhp* 
tion. All novelty is odious to those who love the old age of error: yet 
I can tell you, this is no new religion which I have embraced, but 
that which was begun in the purified souts of the golden age, hap- 
''.pijy finished in oui* days. The first men of the' world had verity in 
" bloom, we now see the fruit, which we may and shall enjoy^ if we 
'^'be not ungrateful to <nir happinesS)^ and traitott)U8 to our own con- 
'sciepce. Befieve me, sirs^ the world is almost grown o'tit iof its noti- 
age, for God hath taken pity of the ignorcince therec^, and made it 
[ see, it was not time imy longer to plac^ dr^ons and owls upon aitdrs, 
nor other gods, ac<;punted as monsters, if they would return into the 
life of men. . If .our ancestors, blinded by mishap^. have. made to be 
** esteemed for divinities so many criminals, for whom our laws do 
.now. osdain punishments, we are not bound to. participate with the 
crimes of the one, n6r the errors pf the blher, under bfetexl of an- 
** tiquity* I must confess, that I from .tii J .infancy have had gf e$t dis- 
^ trust upoii th^ follies vvhich t :saw jn the superstitions m gentiles, 
** and that which further ebnfirmed lorie in this opinibn; wii8, tfaiatone 
{' day r heard the answer of an oraple, vs^hich had long time stood 
'* mute, and being demanded the cause of this silence, ai^^ered, the 
"just' hindered it. from speaking, and we found thesis ju$t w^re the 
"'Christians, who'th^n had power to stdptli. mouths \)flleViiii. ' After- 






<€ 

« 

ft 

€t 
€( 
€( 

it 



<€ 



u 



BOOK OP MARTYKS. 115 

*' wards' I began to consider those men, whom' I saw so persecuted, 
'' and that there was not a comer of the earth that was not ruddy with 
*' their blood, yet were they notwithstanding so patient in their perse<* 
'' cutions, that they had prayers on their lips for those who rent their 
" hearts out of their bodies. This then guve me matter of much 
'^ amazement; but when I came to think on their church, which 
''flourished among so many storms, and eticreased under the 
swords of persecution, this seemed to be more than humanj yet 
transported with the torrent of common opinions, I still resisted the 
voice of QoA which spoke in my heart, when it opened my eyes, and 
'' made- me once lively apprehend the dreadftil ends of emperors, who 
'' had persecuted Christianity, comparing them to the felicity of my 
*' fkther Constantius, of most glorious memory, who had preserved his 
" hands innocent even to death, free from any stain of Chriatkm blood« 
*' This was sufficiently potent to move a soul, which would easily yield 
''to reason: but Grod redoubling his inspirations, made me one day 
" behold in the heavens a prodigy, which many saw with me, to witj 
the figure of the cross, composed of most resplendent light, which 
appeared just at that time I was to wage battle against Maxentius. I 
call the living Grod to witness, that I therein read distinctly these 
" words, written as with the rays of the sun, £N TOTTXi NIKA. And it 
" is a wonder that I ddTerred still to yield myself up, till such time that 
" the Saviour of the world admonished me in a vision, to take into my 
" standards the sign which I had seen in heaven the day before., I in- 
" stantly obeyed, and 'have seen such prodigious effects succeed in the 
" defeat of Maxentius, which you have admired, attributing to man that 
*' which was a work of the Divinity. ^ I thought then to have disco- 
" vered what I was, but considerations of state, which had too much 
^ force upon my soul, stayed me, and have made me walk along 
*^ hitherto, in a life more licentious than I intended. I now protest 
" before the face of heaven and earth, that I am a Christian both in heart 
and professsioh; nor shall any motives ever alter that which I have so 
constantly resolved on. Yet for all this I purpose not to force any 
^' man in his religion, leaving for this time belief as free as the elements : 
^ yet for the charity I bear towards my good subjects, I cannot but 
'' wish them as much good as myself. Now all my greatest happiness, 
** and which 1 esteem more than my purple and diadem, is to entertain 
" the knowledge of a living God, which has been revealed to us by 
*'his only son Jesus Christ, the Doctor and Saviour of the world. 
" His person is full of miracles^ his life of wisdom and goodness, his 
" doctrine of purity; and if to conquer our pride, and expiate our de- 
" merits, he hath humbled himself, to the punishment of the cross, so 
^ much therefore the more it' ought to be honourable, since he hath 
" done for us all that which an incomparable love can do, and endured 
** all that which hn invincible patience may suffer. I can do no 
" other but love and singularly honour those who are enrolled under 
'* his standard, as my brothers in religion; and let it not seem strange 
" to any, if heretofore shewing myself very liberal to beautify and en- 
^ rich the temples of Gentilism, I now apply myself to build and adorn 
the churches. I will rende^'^what I owe to God and my own con- 
science, nor 9hall my subj^t* who are of a religion different from 






(C 



116 REVIEW OF FOX'S 



€< 
€( 
f< 
€t 
<€ 
€€ 
€€ 
€€ 

a 



'^ mine, be any way interested therein, desiring to preserve them^ as 
persons whom I hope one day to have companions in- faith^ and co- 
heirs in glory, if they add never so little consent to the lights where- 
with the wisdom of God incarnate hath replenished the world. I 
only beseech thee, O great God, on whom all sceptres and crowns 
depend, since you have united the east and west under my hands, 
you will arrange them under the yoke of your law, which is the knot 
of empires, and source of felicity. I offer unto you my person, my 
arms, my sceptre, and all my abilities,, humbly begging of you to 
accept my slender service, and to give me the assisting wisdom of 
your throne, to govern in all honour, all justice, all peace and amity, 
the people which you have committed to my charge.** 
Such were the sentiments of the first royal* convert to Christianity, 
founded on the genuine principles of the Catholic religion, in whicb 
he had just been 'instructed by pope Silvester. Our Saviour taught bis 
apostles to suffer persecution for justice sake, and he re*probated the con- 
duct of Peter, when that apostle drew his sword in defence of his 
divine Master. So the^Catholic church, from her birth to the present 
day, whatever may have been the conduct of some of her children, 
and she cannot be blamed for their partial deviation from her principles, 
condemns- all measures of compulsion in matters of conscience, as con- 
trary to the free will of noan. She points out the law to all her chil- 
dren, and while she endeavours to preserve them in the path of Truth, 
she can only pray for, and persuade, those who have strayed from her 
fold, to retrace their steps. That such were her feelings in the first 
ages^ we have a* testimony in Constantine; and that she has preserved' 
this disposition in our own days may be gathered, we think, from this 
fact^ ataX while the whole of the PW>testant statea on the continent 
have laws intrenching on the rights of conscience, perfect toleration 
in matters of religion has been granted to Protestants by the Catho- 
lic states of Gerniany. To shew ferther the feelings of Constantine^on 
this occaMon of his embracing Christianity, the same author says, that 
when he had concluded his excellent speech to the senate, acclamations 
burst forth from the senators and people in fiivour of Christianisin, 
and threats were announced against those who should refuse to abandon 
their idols. On these symptoms of popular intolerance appearing, the 
Christian emperor commanded silence, and thus addressed the people : 
No/* he said, *' I intend not any maa shall be forced in. the matter 
of his religion; the services of the world are oltentimes constrained > 
but those we render to God ought ever to be voluntai^. We have 
no greater proof of the Divinity than mercy. God sheweth what 
he is, in so long time, and with such patience, suffering the im* 
pieties and ingratitudes of men. I would have all the world know, 
** that I intend not to make Christians by necessity, but by discretion. 
** As it is a crime to deny true religion to those who require it, so 
*' it is an importunity to seek now to impose it by force on such as 
^^ demand it not. They that will not foUow my example shall not 
^' Uierefore be separated from my friendship. I am the common 
^* father of all in general, and no man ought to be frustrated of the 
'^ preservation which I owe him/* 
The^e wordfl allayed 4be eSeirvefic^p^ of the popple, and the deda* 



€t 
€€ 

ts 

it 
tt 



€t 



tt 



BOOK OF MARTYfig. 117 

4 , 

ration of Constantine was followed by the promulgation of salutary 
laws^ which left the Paganis at full liberty to exercise their supersti- 
tions^ on condition that they forbore to speak against the honour of 
bur Saviour^ or molest the Christians. In a word^ he would not al- 
low that any degree of force should be used to convert a Pagan, nor 
were the Pagans allowed to exercise any control over their servants or 
children^ to prevent them from embracing Christianity^ on being con- 
vinced of its truths. 

In concluding this first book of Fox*s work, the editors have made 
some '' Remarks on the Vengeance of God fowards the Persecutors of the 
Christians.'* Many of these are so pertinent and apposite^ while 
others require a little elucidation^ that we ,feel it a duty to lay them 
before our readers, accompanying them with a few observations which 
We trust will throw some further light upon the subject. " We cannot 
** close our account of the ten persecutions under the Roman emperors/' 
write the editors, ''without calling the attention of the Christian 
reader to the manifestations of the great displeasure of the Almighty 
against the persecutors. History evidently proves, that no nation or 
** individual can ultimately prosper, by whom Christ Jesus, the Son of 
" God, is contemned. During the persecutions of the holy martyrs 
" which we have related above, the Roman people were the victims of 
" the cruelty and tyranny of their rulers, and the empire was perpe- 
'' tually torn and distracted by civil wars. In the reign of Tiberius, 
'* five thousand persons, were crushe4 to death by the fall of a thea^e, 
" and on many other occasions the divine wrath was evinced against 
" that cruel and merciless nation. 

'^ Neither did the emperors themselves escape their just reward. — 
" Tiberius^ was murdered, as were his three immediate successors. 
'' Gralba, alter a reign of only seven months, was -put to death by Otho, 
who being vanquished by ViteUius, killed himself. Vitellius, shortly 
after^ was tortured, and his body thrown into the Tiber. Titus is 
said to have been poisoned by his brother Domitian, who was after- 
wards slain by his wife. Comraodus was strangled. Pertinax and 
I>idius were put to death ^ Severus killed himself ^ CaraeaUa slew 
his brother Qeta, and was in his turn slain by Marcinus, who, with 
his son, was afterwards killed by his own soldiers. Heliogabalus 
was*put to death by the people. Alexander Severus, a virtuous em- 
peror, was murdered by Maximinus, who was afterwards slain by his 
own army. Papienus and Balbinus were murdered by the prsetorian 
guards. Grordian and Philip were slsdn. Decius was drowned, and 
'' his son killed in battle. Gallus and Volusianus were murdered 
" by iBmilianus, who within three months afterwards was himself 
" slain. Valerian was taken prisoner by the Persians^ and at length 
flayed alive, and his son Gallienus was assassinated. Aurelian-was 
murdered 5 as were Tacitus, Florianus, and Probus. Galerius died 
in a miiserable manner, as did Maximinus of a horrible loathsome dis- 
ease. Max^tius, being conquered by Constantine, was drowned in 
his attempt to escape 5 and Licinius was defvosed, and slain by his 
*' soldiers. 

The Jews, also, for th^r o\)stinacy and wickedness in rejec^ng the 1 
gospel so graciously offered to them by Jesus Christ, were signally 



Tt 

€€ 

it 

t€ 

€t 

€t 

tt 

it 

tt 

<( 

tt 



tt 
tt 
*t 
tt 
tt 

tt 
€t 



118 BEVIEW O? FOX'S, 



€( 



punished. Forty years bad scarcely elapsed irom their cmctfixion of 
our Saviour^ when Jerusalem was levelled with the ground^ and more 
than a million of the Jews killed -, innumerable multitudes sold for 
" slaves^ and many thousands torn to pieces by wild beasts^ or other- 
'' wise cruelly slain. Indeed^ the nation may be said to have been an- 
'' nihUated— its political existence was terminated, and the descendants 
'* of that people^ which was once peculiarly favoured of God, are now 
'' scattered over the face of the earth — ^a by- word and a reproach among 
'* the nations. 

. " Thus (add the editors) it is evident that wickedness and infidelity 
'' are certainly, though sometimes slowly, punished, by Him who is 
'' just, although merciful 3 and if he has hitherto grdciotisly refrained 
'from visiting the sins of this nation with the punishment which they de* 
" serve, let us not be vain of that exemption ^ let us not attribute it to 
*' any merit of our own 5 but rather let it afford an additional motive 
'/ to our gratitude and praise ; let us unfeignedly thank hin^ for his ten- 

V der mercies daily vouchsafed to us j and, while we bow beiEbre' him 
'' in humble adoration, let us earnestly endeavour to preserve our war* 
"ship of him free from thnt ungodliness and superstition of which it has 
" been happily purged and cleansed by tlie blood of the holy mtirtyrs. So 
" shall we not only secure our happiness in this- world, but, in the end, 
'/ attain everlasting joy and felicity, through the merits of our blessed 
'* Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who gave up himiielf as a precious 
" sacrifice for our transgressions. 

/' If we (continue the editors) be negligent in the defence of the pure 
" religion which he has vouchsafed to impart unto us ) if we allow that 
gioriou&fabrie, which cost BO much blood U) raise, to be overturned by 
the open attack of the Infidel, or the more dangerous sap and mine of 
the Qitholic Emancipator ,• we alone are justly blameable.lbr the con- 
sequences that will infallibly ensue, and on our heads will rest the 
dreadful responsibility of having surrendered the citadel of our secu* 
rity to those, who await, in anxious expectation, the moment when 
f the weakness of some, and the indifference of others, shall allow the 

V power to pa^s from their hands, under the delusive hope of seemg 
'.[ it exercised with moderation**' ■ 

J. We cordially agree with the. " few plain Christians,** who have un- 
dertaken the publication of the present edition of the Book- of Martyrs 
of John For, '' that wickedness and infidelity are certainly, .though 
*' soDooetimes slowly ^ punished by Him who is just althQugh merciful;'* 
and had they turned their eyes to the real history of their own country, 
and looked more, closely into the. transactions that have parsed upon 
the. continent, since the breaking out of what is called thereformationof 
|]he sixteenth century, they would have found that tbe,vengea|ice of God 
fuLs been as awfully, manifested towards the promoters of that event and 
ih^ persecutors of Catholics, a& ag^iqpt the persecutors of ike primitive 
Christians. These "few plain Christian'* tell us, that ' they ''*hav< 
unitdd themselves for. the purpose of diffusing among their fellow- 
believers a knowledge fiXiiX love of the genome principles of Christianity, 
and CONSEQUENTLY, (they add) a hatred and abhorrence of the co^- 
^uptionsand crimes of Popery and its. professors.** Now,, we will 
tell these " few plain Christians*' in return, that they know not, or at 



> 

f 
f( 



ft 
*t 

t 

S€ 



ft 
(f 



BOOK OF MATITVRS. 1J9 

least thty practise not', the '^genuine principles of' Chrisiianiiy,** by en- 
deavouring to excit« a '^ hatred and abhorrence ' of their fellpw-mea^ 
since one of the principles of Christianity is, to love our^neighbours as 
ourselves. The Christianity professed by these *' few' plain Christians** 
is as widely diferent from the Christianity of Constantine and the Ca- 
tholic churchy as the North is separate fVom the South pole. Con- 
stantUie, whtri he forsook the superstitions of Crentilism for the sublime 
principles of Christianism, did not foster a resentment against the per- 
sons of such aa could not see as he did, though he detested the errors 
to which iheyjBtill adhered^ -so the Catholic church, as we have b^re 
$tated> though she condemns the erroneous opinion^ opposed to hei^ 
divine tniths, yet she labours to' bring back the strayed sheep> not by 
compulsion, but by prayer and mental conviction^ . The/' few plain 
Christianis*' talk of " the defence of pure religion }*' of the '* glorious 
^^&bric. that cost so much blood to raise )** and insinuate that this 
glorious £abric*' is in danger of being ^' ooertumed by the open .attack 
of the Infidel*, or' the more dangerous sap and mine of the Cathplic 
" emancipator." Her^ for the first time we have the word '' Catho*. 
uc** npentioned in John Fox's Book of Martyrs, notwithstanding the 
''glorious fabric" of ''pure religion,*' fertilized by the blood of so 
many " godly martyrs," was the HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH, so 
designated by th^ apostles themiielves iu thepreed or symbol pf belief 
whlcH.tbey.'d/ew up as a mark of the unity, of their faith, previous to 
their separating to carry the doctrines of their crucified Master to the 
-vtOHAC ibouUds Of the ear^; -We have shewn that the most eminent 
mi llMrmed Of theile martyrs maintained the same doctrines as the Ca*^ 
^holies profess no\^j and we have, at the same time^ complained of 
the sup^iression of these doctrines by John Fox and his editors, for the, 
i^urpose. of keeping their readers in a; 3tate of ignorance and delusion ^ 
ure kmist therefore be allowed jto smile at the silly coneeit of these wise 
^en of Qotbain, who qxpect that the Catholic church is io be over- 
turned Jby the liberal emancipator of Catholics from civil slavery. We 
^e jaware. that these " few plain Christi^Lns'* may retort upon us and say 
that the " p^xrt ccdigion* ' and '' glorioiis fabric" they allude to is the 
system of Phatestftntism. To this we rejoin/ that Frotesta9tism is np 
i^stem; for the ,term system xneans a commixture of many things^ 
united in; order ; but there is neither order nor unity in Protestantismjr 
Qor can there be "Such, since its fimdamental' ^asis is, that every man 
has a. right to .p^ropound a religion for himself^ and so many has been 
pcopouaded, that the same cdmusion Exists among them as among the 
buildecfl of the tower of Babel> after God had struck them for • their 
pride.and conceit. \ But ib the Catholic qhu^ch t)iere |s asystem of dU 
viae faith which ^preserves its unity and pe^ctien througjiout pR the 
nstiohp ithaV have iimbraced it> tbu$ forming.at'^ glorious fabricV of 
pjire ti^ .qnddHed rel^ibn>;noJ;..the work of huniaa ha^, but the pro- 
dociionQranialkwise God> ^boUt finger is exteiided to. protect it (torn, 
all danger. • " . ' ' : 

;: As to^.-thia *' glorioos.ftijbrio'* b^ing oyertwjned, have the '^few, plain 
Gbriistians" tteter re^ the scriiytwe ^ Or jhave they read the word of 
Qpd.0Bly to pervert If } Have they not seen thcsj prog^lseof Christ re- 
corfedf- therein; th«t; this ** glorious fabric/* /this :SC|it;of'; pure religon. 






120 IIEVIEW or FOX'S 

" which he has youohsafed to impart to us,*' is fbnnded on a rock^ im- 
perishable> and impenetrable by error^ for neither earth nor heU^ he 
assures us, has any jtower to injure it. We have seen it brave the storm 
often persecutions in three hundred years^ emitting during that jietiod 
the light of faith to nations long enveloped in Fagan bfindness '5 and 
even now it exists in as perfect purity as in former daya. The *' {^ain 
Christians/' with miore impiety^ than wisdom, speak of tibe neoeasity 
of endeavouring " to preserve their worship of Him free from that un^ 
godliness and sftperstition of which it has been happily purged : and 
cleansed by the blood of the holy martyrs." If they would endeavour 
to tell truth and shame th^ devil, they would be much better empkyed. 
What ungodliness ! what superstition ! has yet contaminated the pure 
religion imparted to the world ? Hpw> can such a thing occur, un- 
less the divine Founder of that religion has felsified his promise ? And 
where is the Christian that darea openly to charge the God of Truth 
with being a Liar ? Yet do these '^ few plain Christians^' dare insinuate, 
that a pure religion, which was never to be suUied, according to the 
solemn declaration of God himself, has been ''purged and deflfued by 
*'.the blood of the holy n>artyrs ! ! !" That it was fertilized by their . 
sacred blood, and produced abundant fruit by their sufferings, we rea- 
dily admit; but a religion once contaminated can never recover iU 
purity, and it was the conviction of the invuhierability of the Cactholic 
church that caused so many martyrs to prefer dying in it, than to live, 
in the mazes of error and infidelity. 

The '' plain Christians" further insinuate, that God " has hitheito 
'' graciously refrained from visiting the sms of this . nation wkh the 
'^ punishment which they deserve,*" this may, and we believe is the 
case, for much does it stUldeserve at the hands of divine Vengeance. But- 
let it not be supposed that it has been exempt from punishment, for if 
we look back,. and take a cursory view of the events that have taken 
place since the dawn of the reformation so called, we shall see as strong 
^' manifestations of the great displeasure of the Almighty against 
'* persecutors,'* as any Retailed by the editors of John Fox, before quoted. 
It is. a fact that cannot be disputed, that' the introduction of the 
Catholic religion, in the time of the Sakbn hep<|u*ehy, was followed by 
the establishment of the most just and salutary laws -, laws calculated 
to secure the liberty of the subject and render a nation happy. ^ Under 
the great Alfred, many wise institutions were formed, particularly iht 
trial by jury, and so moral were the people at tnattime, that it is stated 
by historians a purse of gold could be left on the highway for aucces- 
sive days without being touched. Edward the confessor, a saint of 
the Catholic church, added to the inununities and * comforts of the 
nation I and the great lord chancellor Foriescue, who died about the 
year 1471> says^ that the people of this country, in his days, had plenty 
of every necessary of life, and wanted for nothing. These are'periods 
of Catholic ascendency, we will now then take a few examples under 
'* Protestant -ascendency." 

' It is well known to all, that Henry the eighth wais the first monarch 
that renounced the spiritual supremacy of the bishopi of Rome, which 
was acknowledged by Constantine the great,on embJ'acingChrlstianityi 
and also by every Christian sovereign of thia realm; from the ttme 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 121 

of the coiiTersioh of Ethelbert^ by St. Augustin, at the close of the sixth 
century, to the twenty-fifth year of the teigu of Henry^ embracing 
the space of nearly ONE THOUSAND YEARS. Harry, it is true, 
coild not be said to be himself a Protestant^ but the germe of Ph)te8- < 
tantisnl took root through this monarch's disposition, injustice, and 
oppression. The first measure we shtill notice was the suppression of 
forty monasteries at the instigation, and to gratify the ambition, of car- 
dimd Wolsey. This proud churchman also first put into the king's head 
the scruples respecting his marriage with Catharitie, his rightful queen, 
which led to the king's claiming the dfnritual authority of the church 
of England. Wolsey soon after fell under the displeasure of Henry, 
was stripped of his possessions, and died a* beggar of a broken heart.^- 
Catharine was divorced, but maintained her honour and character 
with dignified courage and fortitude, whilst Anne Boleyn was raised 
to her pl^ce. This latter lady was looked upon by Cranmer, who was 
promoted to the primate's chair of England, as the prop of the Protest- 
ant interest. She was an adulteress, being with clUld by the king be- 
fore a divorce ensued between him and Catharine, and was actually' 
married to her privately, previous to the public separation being an- 
nounced between Harry and his lawful wife. But a short time elapsed 
however before this prop of the Protestant cause, this Anne Boleyn, 
was accused of adultery and incest, and her days were shortened by the 
axe; the last of which was the bridal day of her royal master to an-:^ 
other bed-fellow. The memory of this Protestant lady is still stained 
with dishonour, her innocence not being clearly established. Here 
let us note, that before the marriage of Anne, and while the king waa 
dallying with her, a sweating sickness appeared among her fenoalO 
attendants, and spread among the gentlemen of the king's privy 
chamber. So great was the4>rogre8s of the disease, that public busi- 
ness was suspended; imd numbers were carried of by it in all parts of 
the kingdom.— —Another measure acted upon by this monarch was the 
further suppression of monasteries for his own use. Cromwell, abladc- 
8Quth*8 son, was chosen to be the instmnieint to cairy this act of pillaged 
and mjustice into, effect. He was made secretary of state and vicar 
general, a new office never before known in the kingdom. Cromwell 
e&ecuted his office with remorseless cruelty and oppression, and he 
soon met a violent death, being condemned without a trial and be- ^ 
headed. Another of Harry's Protestant queens was ripped open to give 
hirth to a son^ who afterwards succeeded his £ftther to the throne. . A 
fourth was divorced — his^ fifth was executed for adultery — and the sixth 
had neariy experienced the same hte, but had the good luck to^escape. 
When Henry came to the throne, his exchequer Was welt fiBed.^ the 
destruction of the monasteries- yielded him. mdre money thaviail his 
predecessors for five oentiuries had received^ yetat the latter 'end of 
his leign he was competed to issue a base coinage, not only of tin and 
<^er, but even of leather* In short, to acdompli^ hia views hei oor- 
n4>ted parliament, the members of ydnch in return passed bloody }aws 
>Qd created new treasons, thus placing the Uvea of the people at die 
sole disposal of tbe'kiag; he beheaded and burned without distinction 
^hose who opposed his will; his life after assuming the sptiritual snpre- 
i>uu7 "^ one of disquietude* and vexation, Ins de«th without the con- 






122 BE VIEW OF FOX'S 

solation,of religion^ ;ind his name Is never mentioned 'without his crimes^ 
which excit^ universal execration. 

Edward VI^ who. was ripped from his mother's womb>. succeeded 
his fathQr>at the age o£. nine years^.and was prodaiBBed head. of the 
Chorqh of England. His uncle Somerset w«^ declared proteetbr of the 
realm ^ the principal measures of whose administsttion Were the de- 
struction of church properly and innovation* in rdigion^ to the.earich- 
mg of himself and his favourites. He caused, the death of his own 
l^ther^ and was afterwards executed himself* • The young king was 
Qoiupell^ by Cvanmer and Latimer to sign the death warrants 6f Bbu« 
chejr and Von Paris^ who were burned for heresy^ and in tw6 yairs af- 
ter, the king was carried off by death, not without, suspicion of being 
poisoned,. During his. sway general discontent pervaded the kingdom ; 
a law . waa passed in the first year af his< rdgn by which two justices of 
the peace might order th*e lotter V to be burnt on the breast of every 
poor man« who should be found loitering about three da'ys foir want of 
employ, and adjudge him to become the slave bf the informer, who 
might fix an iron ring round his neck, arm^or leg, and make him 
labour at any work, however vile it . might ,b^, by beating, chaining, 
or otherwise." If the poor fellow absented himself.a fortnight'^m 
tiis occupation, the letter S was' to. be burnt on his cheek or forehead, 
and he became a Wore for life. {See 3tat. i: ^dl. VI. Sj This in^unoua 
law under '^ Firotestant-asceadency" was. in fierce two yean, when it 
was repealed. Insurrections brok^ out in Oxfordshire, ^Devonshire; and 
Norfolk, in consequence of the extension of incloisujred and a niew: niode 
of letting mck rents,, and the want of thiMt'reiicf form^y distributed 
at the^^tes (rfthe monasteries. ''In.faiiLfijQ& year;** aaystBaker^in bis 
Chronicle, ** a aweating sickness infested first. Slwewabury, and. then 
the QOfth parts, and afterwards: grew ixioat extreme in Lcmdon, ao as 
ill the first week thiox^jAM^ eight hundred ptnoM} and waa so vio< 
^Mieat that.it took men. awiif in four wd twenty hours, aonietimea in 
'^rtwelve, . andaometimes iii/ksj.. . Ammgat othars of acemifit thai died 
^' of thia sickness, .werethetvosimis ofiJOtades Brandoi^,.duke ctf Suf* 
^* folk, who died within an botur. after/ jcme another, in siicb ordev that 
** boUirof them.died^dukeB. . This disease waa. propei^ to theEn^ishna* 
^Hion,.forit followed the English Ifheresoever they W^re in foreign 
-'- pa^tSy but .seized vpon none ^axky o^tt cquniry.'* As to th6 natkmal 
morals, if wdmay.^ge.icoip the portraits • dnav^n by th^. re&ihned 
|ta-eadiera thcmselvjes, .they, were.at.i^e lowest'.ebb. . Strype bas'col- 
kctedaevaad passageaironllheokl preachers on this pobit. 'trXhey 
'.^aaaeit//^ writeflDc. Ltagard> .'^jtbattbeauffedngs of the, indigent v#ere 
^^evi^d.ivith.indifferett^e by.thehard besietedtoeas of i^ nch^: tdiai in 
^ iihei^usBiat. of gala the: mpat barfefiuoed firaiids . were avowed.'AsHi jus« 
V .tified-) jtfiat aobbers Jin^ inucdeeers.escafied puttishment by tha^partihlfty 
55faf fioicB,- and tha coxiru^iion otjndges^ ^thifctibi)ich livings ^a^ijijven 
-'htola}bBel^oKc6a»er^edctathe.^se^of .tha patafoajf thatmarrid^piBfrifrere 
^-Te|)«Madl>'idis8^od.l)ypcivat€LAafiu>city> <nnd thUt fSait liauhtrGf ftrps*. 
ff : Mttitioii were juultiplied h^^d jm^qBuvcTi * . ; . ^ . . 

I Mary> the eldest jdavght^ifef Hbnry;. ilucc^^d *lwfc^ boothei; after a 
feefal&'.attempEt to;stipplani^liec on Ihethidde-onthepirt^of ^'.>Sii6teataiit4' 
ascoidcncy*** . She prtanlskd. liberty of consieieqce oh aasuming, the 






BOOK OF MARTYRS. , 1S3 

sceptre^ being a Roman fathollc^ and during tfa^firfittwd yearsofber * 
reign not an individual suffered for religious opinions^ This is a fact^ 
that deserves particular notice, and we shall take occasion to establish 
it beyond contradiction,, when we come to expose th« lies of John Fox 
in this queen's reign. During the above, space, however, Mary wa$ 
disturbed by insurrections, conspiracies and seditions, and her council 
at length determined to try the force of persecution. In her fourth year, 
iBaker says, the people v^ere afflicted with hot-burning agues, and other 
strange diseases, of which no less than seven aldermen of ^ndon died. 
Calais was taken by the French,.. and after a short reigji of fiye yearn 
JMary died of a' broken heart. 

Her half-sister Elizabeth next mounted the throne, and she in her turn 
persecuted the Catholics with the most relentless fury. Her. reign^ 
which is usually represented by interested writers as glorious to the 
nation, was one of blood, rapine, and proscription. Her court was the 
most lewd and licentious ever seen be£6re in England. Her deeds were 
marked by despotism, and her ministers the most profligate and merce* 
nary that ever cursed a people. She beheaded a female sovereign, the 
beautiful Mary Stuart, and cut oif the head of her own paramour Essex. 
She established domiciliary researches, made new treasonsj encouraged 
infonners, and created the star chamber. The courts of justice were 
corrupted by,jier connivance, imprisonment exercised at her pleasure, 
and loans raised by force and exaction. Torture was used to extort 
confession,' and her whole reign in short Was one of arbitrariness and 
cruelty. Such a succession of unchristian proceedings could not go 
unpunished J Baker in his Chronicle relatea that in her third year the 
spire of St. Paul's cathedral was destroyed by lightning. Many strange' 
birUis also happened. In her sixth year the pestilence was brought 
into England, of which thjere died . in London ^1,500 persons in one 
year. , In her thirteenth year a prodigious earthquake occurred in tlu^ 
east parts of Herefordshire. In her siiteentib year there was a gretHt 
dearth. In the year following, the river Thames ebbed and fiowed 
twice within the hour, and in the month of November the heavep|i 
seemed to be all on Are. '^ On the S4th of February," in the succeed*^ 
ing year, the same Chronicler writer, '' being a great frosty; after a. great 
flood, there came down the riv^r^ Severn^ such a swarm of flies and 
beetles> that they were judgetd .to be above a hundred -quarters]^ tiie 
mills thereabouts were damm^ up fay them for theapacesof^^four day«» 
and were then cleaned by digging ti^em out yfitix shovels." In her 
nineteenth year, it is Related by Mr. Anthony WoodijtheFro^st^at 
historiai^ of -Oxford, that on the 4th of Jujiy, Mr. RoUtqd,Jinks> aCar- 
thoUc.bpokseller in Oi^Cor^^ foe having in;hfa «hop>the,po|^'s4a[ulls4aD^ 
Cathedicr papers, was ca^t into pris^n^- and -mofl^t. unjustly, condemned tp 
lose all ius property, '§pd'iM> h^ff %9l^ his ^^ niyiledMto t|fe;piJ|^eFy^.j^ 
ta deliver hlnis^lf byr,c^>^Hig.ibem.{o^.n^^ Hs ;Owi| h^dai'jb^i^iip 
sooner'^Vi^^^e sentence passcKir^tbfaq.fi most r4fe^^.l disease burst fortih 
in the midst of the cpfuff^ ands^ed iippi^^Jtl there^present, . )(xr^at nt|n>- 
bers dropped dov^^ d^'fi^;4^ sppJtj :Pthera 90U9t 

half suffocated, ; and-^e^ ,a f^ l^qfu^afrsitef^yvaifds^' In the sp^o^Mi two 
.day8» nearly all th^,^itnef^l^ ^4? ^9'i4:?^n^>hiB.4ir8t i%ht about j^Q04o8t 
their lives, and t^he ne^fcl^^&y it-^zediipon 100 in the aeaveat istreets. 



et 

it 



€€ 
€€ 
€€ 
€t 






tf 
€€ 
S€ 
€< 



124 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

The disease was a &ihd of fairy ; for the' sick leaped out bf bed^ and beat 
with their sticks all those who came to assist them > some ran through 
the courts and streets like madmen j and others threw Ihemselyes down 
headlong into deep waters. Every hall, every college, every house had 
their dead; and what is more remarkable, all the grand jury, except 
one or two, died as soon as they bad left Oxford. Hist And, Unit, 
Oxon. 1. p. 294.) *' In her two and twentieth year,** writes Baker, " a 
strange apparition appeared in Somersetshire, threescore personages 
all clothed in black, a furlong in distance from those that beheld 
them; after their appearing, and a little while tarrying, they va- 
nished away, but immediately another strange company in like man- 
*' ner, colour; and number, appeared in the same place; and they en- 
countered one another, and so vanished aWay : and k third time ap- 
peared that number again, all in bright armour, and encountered one 
*' another and so vanished away : This was examined before sir George 
Norton, and sworn by four honest men that saw it to be true. In her 
three and twentieth year, in the beginning of April, about six o'clock 
after noon, happened an earthquake not far from York, which in some 
places struck the very stones out of buildings^ and made the bells in 
churches to jangle. The night following the earth trembled once of 
*' twice in Kent, and again the first day of May.** In her twejity-sixth 
year, (A. D. 1 588,) a similar earthqtiake happened in Dortfetshire as had 
taken place in Herefordshire in 1571* In her thirty-fifth year there was 
such a drought that the springs were dried lip and cattle died for want 
of water:' the Thames was so low that a man on horseback might ride 
over it Jit London bridge. The year following there was a great plague 
in London and the suburbs, of which*there died, besides the Lord Mayor 

Sid three "^dermen, 17,890 persons. In her thirty-eighth year, lord 
lindsdon, being sick to death, saw six^ of his companions, already 
dead, come to him one after another. The first was Dudley, earl of 
Leicester, all in fire; the second was secretary Walsingham, aJso in pre 
m& flame) the third. Picketing, so cold and frozen, 'that touching 
Hundsdon's hand, he thought he should die of cold ; the fourth, Hattoo, 
lord chancellor; the fifth, Henneage; and. the sixth, Knolles. These 
three last were also on fire : they told him that sir William Cecil, one 
t)f their companions yet living, was to prepare himself to come shortly 
to them. All this was affirmed upon oath by the said lord Hundsdon^ 
who a few days after died Suddenly; This is recorded by Fr. Costerus, 
in Compendio veteris Orthodoxte Wlei; nnd also by Philip D'OuKreman, 
in his book entitled Pedego^e' Chretienne, p. 18^. It is stated by 
T. Parsons in Ks Discussion cf Barlow* s Answer, printed in 161% p. 218, 
^hat queen BfiSfcabeth, in thebeginning df her itet sickness, told' two of 
lier ladled that she saw ©He night, as She lay 1ft bed, her own body ex- 
ceeding lean and feaiMi ih alight'df fii-e.' Ckriiden, the panegyrist of 
this qtieen, -and the ^ritef bfher 'histotV,- gives 'this account of her last 
'sickness. • ^*^In 4;he beginning of -ifer sickness;' the almobds of her 
throat swelled, bttt sooh abated again; then* her appetite- Mled her 
by degrees; and witlrtl she ga'rie? IrtrsjSlf -dveV to melancholy, and 
seetn^^'to he much troiiblfcd 'WitTi*a |y^cfuRar gri^ -foV some reason 
*' or ttther- whether it werfe*thi^l%h'thfe^olfen6fe'bf^hir disiiaise,' or (oY 
\' want of Essex, &c. She^tedked tipon Sersaf as * m WoWe ftfrV^rr wb- 






BOOK OF MARTYRS. 125 



€t 
S€ 
ft 






€« 
€t 
t€ 
g< 



man, and .her griei and indignation extorted from her such speeches ' 
as these : . They have yoked my neck* I have none whom I can trust. My 
condition is strtingely turned upside down'* {See Cambd. Hist. lib. v, 
pp. 659, 660.) F. Parsons in his Discussion before mentioned, says that 
*^ she sat two days and three nights upon her. stool ready dressed, and 
*^ could never be brought by any of her council to go to Jbed, or to eat 
'' or drink, only the lord admiral persuaded her. to take a little broth : 
'' she told him if he knew what she had seen in her bed, he would not 
'[ persuade her as he did. Shaking her head, she said with a pitiful 
" voice. My lord, I am tied with a chain ofjron about my neck^ I am tied, 
*^ and the case is altered with me^* 

Dr. Lingard, in his rebently published History of England, thus relates 
her conduct during her illness. — '' Sir John Harrington, her godson, 
who visited the court about seven months after the death of Essex, 
has described in a private letter, the state he found the queen. She 
*^ was altered in her features and reduced to a skeleton. Her food was 
nothing but manchet bread and succory pottage. Her taste for dress 
was gone : she had not changed her clothes for many days. Nothing 
could please her : she was the torment of the ladies who waited upon 
her person. She stamped with her feet and swore violently at the 
objects of her anger. For her protection she had ordered a^word to 
*' be placed by her table, which she often took in her hand, and thrust 
" with violence into the tapestry of her chamber. About a year later he 
returned to the palace, and was admitted to her presence. * I found 
her,' he says, ' in a most pitiable state. She bad the archbishop ask 
me, if I had seen TyrfHie. I replied, with reverence, that I had seen 
him with the lord deputy. She looked up with~ much choler and grief 
*' in her countenance, and said, * O now it mindeth me, that you was 
*' one who saw this man elsewhere { and hereat she dropped a tear, 
'^ and smote her bosom. She held in her hand a golden cup, which she 
*' often put to her lip^ : but, in truth, her heart seemed too full to need 
'^^more filling. In January she was troubled with a cold, and about 
*' the end of the month removed, on a wet stormy day, from Westmin- 
ster to Richmond. Her indisposition increased : but, with her cha- 
racteristic obstinacy, she reAis^ed the advice of her physicians. Loss 
'^ of appetite was accompanied with Idwness of spirits, and to add tp 
'^ her distress^ it chanced that her intimate friend, the countess of Not- 
tingham, died. . Elizabeth now spent her days and nights in sighs 
and tears : or, if she* condescended to speak, she always chQse some 
unpleasant and irritating subject : the treason and execution of Essex, 
or the pretensions of Arabella Stuart, or the war in Ireland, and the * 
pardon of Tyrone. At last she fell into a state of stupor; and for some 
hours lay as dead. As soon as she recovered, she ordered cushions 
*' to be brought and spread oh the floor. On these she seated herself, 
.under a strange notion, that if she were once to lie down in bed, she 
^ould never rise again. No prayers of the secretary, or the arch- 
.bishop, or the physicians, could induce her to remove, or to take any 
medicine. For ten days she sat on the cushions, generally with her 
finger in her mouth, and her eyes wide open, and fixed on the ground. ■ 
Her strength' rapidly decayed : it was evident she had but a short 
"time tp live." (Vol, v. pp. 610, 611, 4<o. edit.) 



is 



ft 



tl 
€i 

tt 
t< 
« 



€'e 

€€ 
€S 
i< 



126 BEVIEW OP FOX'» 

Her death was that of one in despair, and after lier decease her body 
burst the cofRn which contained it with so great a y^blence, attended 
with such a dreadful noise, that it split the wood, lead, and tore the 
velvet, to the horror and astonishment of the six ladies who were watch- 
ing it. So states F. Parsons in the aforesaid work. The demise of this 

queen took place in the year 1602, and the 45th of her reigo. ^We 

have been thus prolix from the length of her sway over these realms, 
and her being the foundress and she-pope of the Church as by law 
estabHshed. How different was the conduct of this monarch in form- 
ing a new religion to that of Constantine on embracing Christianity, an4 
how dissunilar their ends. The Christian emperor submitted with 
resignation to the decrees of heaven with the utmost piety and humi- 
lity, after a reign of thirty-one years 3 while the Protestant queen fell 
into a state of melancholy and despair at her approaching dissolution. 

James the first of England, and sixth of Scbtland, next ascended 
the throne. He was the son of Mary queen of Scotland, so unjustly 
put to death by Elizabeth, and was baptized and confirmed in the Ca- 
tholic church. His reign was a continued scene of confusion and 
struggling between him and his parliaments. The flame of irreligious 
fanaticism ignited^ and while the Puritans were contending against the 
members of the establishment, both cordially agreed in persecuting 
the Catholics, In the first year of his reign the plague in London was 
so great that there died of it no fewer than 38,244 . persons. In his 
fourth year, two great inundations occurred, the one in Somersetshire 
and Gloucestershire — the other at Coventry. Stratford upon Avon 
was burnt down, and. 160 houses in Bury St. Edmund's shared the same 
fate in bis sixth year. His eldest son, prince Henry, was carried off by 
a premature death, and the king himself was suspected of being poisoned. 

The reign of his son and successor, Charles I. was marked by the most 
deep-rooted hatred to Catholicism, and the Q)6st disastrous civil wars, 
which ended in the public exe^utioii pf the kih^, and the overthrow 
of the church. After an interregnum or commonwealth, Charles II. 
was restoredL.to his throne, aud perjury of the most horrible nature was 
.resorted to, for the purpose of exciting *' a hatred and abhorrence of 
'* the (pretended) corruptions and crimes of Popery and its professors.' 
The lives of innocent Catholics were sworn away without, the least 
remorse,, and the city of London experienced a most dreadful visitation 
by fire, which continued burning three days and three nights, laying 
waste 600 streets, -89 churches, St. Paul's cathedral, and more than 
,30,000 houses. The year previous the plague carried oS 109,000 in- 
.habitants of that city. In 1675 the town of Northampton was almost 
.totally consumed by fire 3 and in the year succeeding, no fewer than 
600 houses were burned in, the borough of Southwark. Several comets 
were also seen in this reign. « 

James Il.'Succeeded his brother Charles, but, being a Roman Catholic, 
was soon. driven from his throne to make way for a Dutchman, who had 
.married his daughter. In the reign of William III, the nation was con- 
tinually involved in continental wars, and the foundation of the present 
enormous debt was laid.' The. death of this king was occasioned by a 
fall from his h^se. Ani^e, the daughter of James II, succeeded. him. 
A great part of ier reign too was occupied in fighting battles attd iois' 






BOOK OF MARTYRS. 127 

ing. taxes* In the second year of her reign there happened one of the 
most dreadful storms of wind ever known. Baker says it wonld fill a 
large work to relate distinctly the particulars of the mischief done 
throughout England by its violence. Distracted by the iritrigues of 
the factious statesmen who ruled in her days^ this queen died of a broken 
heart. George the first now ascended the throne, and the most re- 
maHciable circumstance in his leign was a rebellion in Scotland, and 
the blowing up of the South sea bubble. This latter transaction caused 
great discontent ; and Goldsmith says, ''the corruption,. venality, and 
'* avarice of the time?, had encreased with the riches and luxpry of the 
nation. Commerce introduced fraud, and wealth introduced prodi- 
gality.'* The death of this king^was sudden. His son George II. 
succeeded to the sceptre, and the nation was still scourged with war 
and taxes. In 1745 a second rebellion broke out in Scotland, in which 
many lives were lost on both sides. This prince also died suddenly in 
his palace at Kensington. 

He was succeeded by his grandson George III, under whom the Ca- 
tholics experienced a little breathing, but not till the nation had felt 
the heavy hand of calamity. To record all the striking events of this 
most everttful reign would require more space than we can spare j we 
must therefore be content with recounting 1* few of them. The in- 
nate disposition of his late majesty would not allow of persecution ; 
but the spirit of ** Protestant-ascendency,'* which predominated in his 
councils, was frequently manifested by its acts. The reign of George 
the third was ushered in by war, and though the longest of any sove- 
reign that ever wielded the' British sceptre, the intervals of peace were 
of short duration. The seven years war was scarcely concluded when 
a commotion took place in the North American colonies, which broke 
out into an open rupture, and after a prodigal waste of blood and trea- 
sure, finally ended ih the separation of the' colonies from the mother 
country, and their erection into an independent state. Just before the 
close of this war, and while consternation reigned for the safety of 
the kingdom, a slight amelioration of the penal laws was granted to 
the Catholics, and rarther lenity towards them was meditated^ in qpn- 
sequence of their unimpeachable loyalty. This roused the bigotry of 
*' Protestant-ascendeiicy," and associations were entered into to perpe- 
tuate the" system of intolerance and persecution. A fanatic of noble 
extraction, l6rd George Gordon, was placed at the head of these com- 
bined intolerants; ana the flame Of irreligious fiiry soon burst forth, 
committing the most wanton outrages on the Catholics. Chapels were 
destroyed in England and Scotland, caltimnies were circulated in 
abundati'ce; the, lives of individuals were threatened, and even the 
safety of the city of London was endangered; before the effervescence 
of popular prejudice Could be restrained. Tliese disgraceful proceed- 
ings took place in 17S0. Lord George Gordon was tried for high trea- 
sdn/ and acquitted ; he was afterwards convicted of a libel, and sen- 
tenced' to be' Imprisoned; Previous to his conviction, however, this 
cha:n](pion of " Protestant-ascendency" renounced the Christian religion 
* and embraced Judaism, ending his days in prison, unpitied and unno- 
ticed. Shortly after this n^anifestation of the persiecuting spirit of 
'* Protestant-ascendency," 'tbe4ttngdom wai thrown into considerable 



198 REVIEW Of BOX. 

agitation by the state of the king's health, which rendered him inc^* 
ble of exercising the royal authority. The monarch was happily re- 
stored to his health, but the nation had hardly recovered from the 
shock, when it was again thrown into disorder by the breaking out of 
the French revolution, which once more involved the country in war, 
from the effects of which the next generation probably will not reco- 
ver. The heavy expenses incurred by a protracted contest of twenty- 
five years duration, have reduced the country to a state of indigence 
and poverty. A debt of more than eight hundred millions of -pounds 
sterling has {llaced her in a state of msolvency, and pauperized her 
people. The nominal capital of the debt is prindpally in the posses- 
sion of the Jews, into whose hands the estates of the nobility are si- 
lently passing, some of them obtiuned from the church ut the begin- 
ning of the reformation, while the ppor in some parts of the kingdom 
are reduced almost to the same state as in the reign of Edward VI. 
For want of regular employment they are compelled to labour on the 
roads, drawing gravel in carts like beasts of burden, for a shillii^ a day, 
and in some places the ma^^trates have fix^ the sum for subsisting a 
man, his wife, and three children, at ten pence a day. The only buildings 
of note now are prisons and penitentiaries ; in days of yore, they were 
churches and castles. It has been stated in the hojiise of conmions that 
peiijury is now become a system of pecuniary emolument -, the prisons 
are filled with offenders of every description } the crime of self-mur- 
der is enc'reasiug in a frightful degree; and whole parishes in Ireland 
have been in a dying state from starvation. While bible societies have 
been established and multiplied to circulate the scriptures, infidelity 
and deism have been rapidly increasing among the ranks of Protestant- 
ism ; the established churches are nearly deserted, or made places of 
assignation j while dissenting meeting-houses are hourly raising in the 
l^ingdom; yet this is the time when the/' few plaih Christians,* in, the 
face of these undeniable facts, would persuade their readers, that this 
nation has been exempt from calamity and had not felt the hand of di; 
vine vengeance ! ! ! What infatuation are some men blinded with, when 
pride and self-conceit take the. place of truth and common sense. 

The period of the primitive persecutions by the Roman emperors 
embraced three centuries ; the space from tlie commencement of the 
reformation to the present day, during which the Catholics have been 
the objects of persecution, is of the same duration. We have confined 
our remarks to occurrences in this country, which are more easily to he 
detected iTmisstated, and we appeal to the unbiassed reader whether 
our observations are not astonishingly analogous to the '^ Remarks on 
*' the vengeance qf God towards the Persecutors of the ^ristians" made 
by the modern editors of the modern Book of Martyrs ? 

Before we take leave of the subject, however, we will here slightly 
notice the awful end of some of the principal reformers on the con- 
tinent. Luther, by his own confession, held intercourse with the 
devil, and was found dead in his bed. Zuinglius was killed in batd^ 
fiffhting sword in hand for his new doctrine. CEcolampadius, soon 
after Zuinglius*s tragical end, was found dead in his bed, strangled, 
as Luther would have it, by flie devil. Cranmer, after pampering to 
flie vic^s and passions of Henry the eighth, conniving at the apoUatioa 



A REVIEW 

op 

^V'$ ISooft of Mavtsv^, 

CRITICAL AND HISTORipAL. 

XT n ' Primed snd PiibUsbed h; W.E. Andbbw*. 3. Chmptar- n- 
INO. y. hunse-court, Ht. Pkul'iChurchjitd. Londoi^ Fnce 



what enetlitt tawanU'lhe Cathulici vere not actlled in/ Nm or IJnnitiu, it leeii, irftcr, 
a reijrn M^^/irrtu-ttcD yean. iHiBe in hti and vitaing tht apptarance sf* her ovm penaa. 
Icon andfietfat, in o/fami lyfire. — See preceding iiuiuber, p«g« U-t. 



of cliurcli property by Edward's courtiers, and burning othera for 
heresy, was himself sentenced to th^ stuke, after having engaged in a 
treasonable conspiracy to rob his master's daughter of her legal rights. 
Ridley, Latimer, and others, who were apostates from their faith, and 
vtolaters of their clerical vowb, as well a* partakers in the treason of 
Cranmer, also shared his fate. But enough : we shall have to enter 
more fully into the lives of these three last-named characters, when we 
come to the reign of Mary, under whom they suffered, and for whicb . 
they ha^e been raised by Fox to the rank of Protestant saiuts. 

BOOK n. 



'an accocht of 1 
"sarorks; i.v bovpt, &c. by tub arian heretics^ by juuan t«r 

"aPOHTATE; BV THB GOTB8, VANDAI.B, &C. Etc." 

Such is the bead chosen by John Fox for the second book of bis 
work, and it is worthy of notice, tH^ not a word of Popery is yet in- 



€f 
t€ 
€€ 

is 



130 HBVfflW^ eF FOX^ * 

troduced by him^ nor are the Catholics charged yet as being persecti- 
tors. The natux^ inference therefore to be drawn is, that the Catho- 
lics wer&the persecuted, an4 thi^t this -was the fact ve shsdLbe able 
to prove by the moat unqu^stioniibl# t^moa^kyt The ficst. section of 
this book commences with the ^'Persecutions of the Christians in 
Persia." The editors say, that "\fk consequence of the gospel hav- 
ing spread itself into Persia, the Pi^an priests became greatly alann- 
ed, dreading the loss of their influence over the minds of the peo- 
gle^ . They therefore complained tp the emperor, that the ChristiaQ& 
#ere enemieato the state, a^dheld a treasonable correspondence with 
^ the Romans, the great enemies of Persia. ' .The emperor, being,him- 
" self averse to Christiaiuty, gave credit to their accusations, and issued 
** orders for the persecution of the Christians throughout the empire.'* 
If the reader will take th^ trouble to look into any of the numerous 
Writings that have been published by the adherents of '^ Protestant 
ascen^ncy," he will observe that the charges brought against ih& 
Catholics of this day are the some that were brought by the Persians 
against the Christians in the^ fourth century; and wha^t is iK^it lei« wofr 
thy of oliservatio^, that they tdce their rise from the saaxie Spelii^^ Ca-^ 
tjioKcism^ criias '^ Protestant-ascende&cy," it rapidly incret^smg in this 
cjQkuntry, we must therefore sound the alana, lest our churchmen lose 
"= their in^uence over the minds of liie people." Hie press instantly 
groans, with charges tei^ thousand times repentf^dj and . aa often re* 
mted, and the ears of the people are stunned with the sounds of ''No- 
I>opery," — ^" The Church in danger," &c» The people are told that the 
Catholic-s are disloyal because they hold " correspoifidence with the 
** Romans, thegreat enemies of England 5" and that the emancipation they 
are striviAg for '' in reality means the power of overtlHtowii^ all those 
** sacred institutions to establish which otir ancestors bled on the scaf- 
'' fold, and expired at the stake." But if these same people would lay 
aside their idle prejudices, and look steadily at the situation oi the 
country, while they turn their eyes over the page of history and see 
what their country was when their ancestors were Catholics, they would 
soon learn that the " sacred institutions," which raised- England so 
high in the scale of nations, were established in Catholic times, and that 
they are now little more than nominal under " Protestant-ascendency." 
Of the martyrs noticed by Fox who suffered under this persecution we 
shall say but little, and that little is, they were unquestionably Raman 
CathoUcs, and held the divinity of Jesus Christ. The first martyr on 
Fox's list under Persian persecution is St. Simeon, archbishop of Cte- 
siphon aqd Seleucia, and primate of Persia, who, on being taken before 
king Sapor, boldly avowed, " We Christians have no Lord but Christ 
'' who was crucified." This then was the belief of the Christians in 
Persia at the beginning of the fourth century, and for this belief, ob- 
serve reader, they underwent the most cruel tortures, and submitted 
to death ralher than disavow it. It may here be remarked, that the 
Rev. Alban Butler, in his martyrology, assures us, tl^t this king, in 
order to abolish the Christian religion, decreed, " that whoever should 
" embrace it should be made a slave, and he oppressed the Christians 
" with double t^xes." So were the Catholics of England and Ireland 
oppressed biy " l^HHestant-ascendeocy" with a double land tax, and 



ft 
If 



94 



iSiiBilriiitiiatioit rendei^d wof s^ thedi slatetybf apcmal code profeBsedtjf 
€»act€tf to anirfliilate th^ Popish (as Catholicism is termed) religion. 
Bot thte CHrlstian rc^gion vtajt riot abolished in Persia, nor is what is 
eaiied Fop^ry eradicated in the^^ islands. 

The second sectidri is headed ** PersecTdi&ns by the Arian HERIT- 
TtCS," arid is a mosft impottaht part of the work. The acknowledg-i 
il&^i^s here made, together with the! studied omis9ion6 in the relation, 
demimd our moi&t seridus attention, and we beg the reader will givq 
the subject all the reflectibn he is master of. Fox commences with 
stafiftg, that "the sect diehoiuinated the Arian HERETICS; had its 
origin fhbm Arius, a native of Lybia, and priest of Alexandria, who, 
in A. B. Si 8, began to publish his ERRORS. He was condemned hf 
a 6&ttfktt of Lybifth and Egyptian bi$hops, and the sentence Was con- 
Jiriiiied hy the council cfNice, A. 1>. 325. After the death of Constan- 
tine thegreat, the Arians found means to ingratiate themselves into 
tbe fitfbtnr' of Constantius, his son and silccesspr in the East ^ arid 
^*b«hefrap«f«e^ftfliW was raised against the ORTHODOX bishops and 
cler^; The celebrated Athanasitis, and other bishops, were banish- 
ed at this peHod, and their' se«s fflled with Arians." To this para- 
gtilffk the modcSrn editori^ have' added the following remarks in two 
B^rte^: *' Ariua?, the founder of thi^ sect of' heretics and the Jirst cause of 
*'thsfe^efsecittions whith are related in this section, died miserably at 
'^ GoinstantinoPple^ jtist as he was about to enter the church in triumph.*" 
" ... Il6w hthnlUating is it to perceive that the Christians had scarcely 
** escaped firom the persecutions of their general enenay, ere they be- 
*'gftti tif persecute eack other with the most unrelenting fiiry! How 
*• could' these men dare t6 arrogate to themselves tbe exclusive title of 
** Chfistu^, when every part of their conduct was at direct variance 
*' wftfe i^t precepts and practice of th^ Divine Founder of the religion 
"wltfcli they proffessW> How absurd is the expectation of enforcing 
** beli^; wi^lidW crvmitml to attempt ta effect conviction by the sword.** 

Ret^ th^ w'e have a grand specimen of the system pursued by 
** nNntestant^aseendency" to iastruct and enlighten the people. " Th^ 
? seet denominated the Arian heretics,** we are told, had its origin froni 
Aritt». S6 far it' is true, but fo^^ was the heresy this Arius taught! 
Not at wbrd is daid to throw tiie least light upon this most importiemt 
p«rt of the subject; He was condemiu^, they further sdy, by a council 
ofbishc^l butibr to^^was he condemned 1 Why did they not static 
thtoffiM^'he had cbminHted^ bA well as the fact of his condemnation > 
SupposeV for example^ one of the clei'gy xyf the church of England as by 
\i^' established took it into his head openly to impugn the doct/'inie of 
thethirty-itin^ atlieles, and for ttfis'actwas condemned by the bishops, 
as gu^ of broaciliing' errorj what should we say of that writer who 
professed to give a statement of the occurrence, yet studiously oniit- 
ted to mention the most esdentisd part of the fact, namely, the dot- 
trine he attempted to establish in opposition to that which he attacked^r 
and which constituted the offence. There are several persons how inc 
prisoib for drying Christianity and attacking its principles ^ but would 
it not be thbnght a complete piece of delusion were a Aiture historiati, 
ittrecordingr the fact; merely to say, these piE^rsons were the founderr 
of a sect, for which they were «oitdeinned } The reader would nat)!^' 



€< 
ft 
t€ 



13« JREVIEW OE FOX'S 

rally expect the WHY and WHEREFORE, or how could he form a 
just conclusion on the case ? This, however, was not the object of Fox 
and his editors; they did not wish the TRUTH should be known, and 
therefore they took special care not to relate the whole of it. We 
will however ti^e upon ourself to supply the omission. 

But before we enter on this task we must here make a. remark on the 
second note introduced by the modem editors. They observe, '^ How 
humiliating is it to perceive that the Christians had scarcely escaped 
from the persecutions of their general enemy, ere they began to per- 
secute each other with the most imrelenting fuiy !** This is a gross 
misrepresentation, for the Orthodox ot* Catholic Christians never per- 
secuted the Arians, but contented themselves with defending their 
cause by the force of reason and public opinion, as we shall speedily 
prove. We agree with the modem editors that it is absurd to expect 
to enforce belief in any creed, and criminal to effect conviction by the 
civil sword, nor did the 'Catholic church ever attempt so unchristian a 
compulsion J though let it be remarked, this is invaiiably the case with 
those who are in error,. They know that there is no other way to estab- 
lish their false notions and doctrines generally than by the effect of the 
civil sword, and they of course are doubly guilty ^ that is, of false- 
hood, by teaching that which is erroneous ^ and of injustice, by using 
coercive means to make hypocrites, for it is nonsense to call it c&nwk- 
Hon. It Is clear, that the £vine Founder of Christianity never intend;' 
^d that his system of heavenly truths and mysteries was to depend on 
earthly power, or he would never have chosen unarmed and defence- 
less men to carry it through the world. Men would never have be- 
coipe convinced of its divine origin, if they had not seen as well as 
heard the powerful voice of God through these unsuccoured agents, as 
far as worldly interests were concerned. For three centuries these 
imths had been thus spread and maintained, in defiance of the powers 
of earth and hell; and having subdued the first monarch of the 
world to the obedience of faith, it is not to be supposed that a change 
or revolution would take place in that system which it was promised 
should last for ever. But it is time to return to our martyrologist, 
and supply the omissions he has made in the history of Arianism. 

That the sect of Arians had their origin from Arius, and that he was 
a native of Lybia is quite correct. That he was a broacher of HERE- 
SY, is also tme^ and bis lieresy consisted in his DEFYING THE DI- 
VINITY OF JESUS CHRIST, which is the case with the Antitrinito- 
rians, the Unitarians, the Socinians, aad the Deists; therefore, as the 
Arian doctrine is HERESY, according to John Fox*8 statement, so 
must the doctrine of the sects |ust named be /iere<y also, and we should 
not wonder if many of the professors of these doctrines' have been ac- 
tive in thus publishing their own shame, in order, as they say, ''to ex- 
" cite a hatred and abhorrence of popery and its professors.*' By the 
rule of common sense, those who now deny the divinity of our Saviour, 
. stand convicted by this Book of Martyrs, of HERESY, which, accord- 
ing to. Johnson, is, ''an opinion of private men, different from that of 
" the CATHOLIC or ORTHODOX church," if those who denied this 
divine essence in the fourth century were heretics. And that tjie doc- 
trine pf Arius WAS heresy, we shall now proceed to prove. . -; • 



BOOK-OF MARTYRS. 133 

We have sbewn in the preceding pages that the belief of the divinity 
of the Son of God was' an essential point of Christianity^ and held by 
all the martyrs recorded by John Fox, who laid down their lives for 
this faith. Arius^ however, having been censured by his bishop for 
joining in a schism to disturb the church of Alexandria, and disap- 
pointed in not being elected to the patriarchal chair of that city, 
through envy and malice, conceived the project of gratifying his evil 
passions by thwarting the new patriarch St. Alexander, in the instnic- 
tsotts which the latter gave to his clergy. St. Alexander, like his pre- 
decessors, maintained the mystery of the Trinity, and the Incarnation of 
the Son of God, as the revealed doctrine of Christ himself to his apos- 
tles, and by them delivered to their successors in the different churches 
that had been raised by them. Arius, on the contrary, contended that 
the Son was a i^reature made out of nothings that there was a time 
when he did not exist ; and that he was capable of sin, besides other 
impieties. Being a man of grave deportment and of pleasing conver-' 
sation, he not only succeeded in seducing two Lybian bishops with 
some priests and deacons, but he publicly avowed his doctrines, and 
was drawing niany ignorant people, led away by novelty, into his eriors.' 
In this state of things the patriarch had recourse to the usual custom ' 
of the church, which is, not to rely on individual opinion, but on the* 
waited and concurrent testimony of competent judges. Accordingly 
he assembled a council or ecclesiastical parliament at Alexandria of 
one hundred bishops of the provinces of Egypt and Lybia, who dis- 
cussed the propositions of Arius, and condemned them as erroneous, and 
cmtrary to the revealed truths derioed from Truth itself, Arius persist- 
ing in his Msely conceived notions, was excommunicated and expelled' 
the church. Here then we see the sure foundation on which the Ca-' 
tholics rest their faith, and the sandy ground on which those who dif- 
fer from them raise their rickety edifice of a church. The Catholic 
church, founded on a solid rock, stands immoveable amidst the storms 
of persecution and heresy that assail her, while the sects that spring 
from the perversion of reason and common sense, make a stand for a 
while, commit havock aroand the building, but are dispersed like a ' 
rope of sand by one breath of the divine Vengeance. • Well here we 
see 'one hundred individuals, renowned for their learning and irre- 
proachable conduct, deciding, upon the strongest ground imaginable, 
that is, by the concurrent testimony of their predecessors to the very 
time of the apostles, in favour of the divinity of Jesus Christ ; and is it 
not more reasonable to suppose that these men, chosen to be the instruct- ' 
ors of others in the way of truth, must be better judges of what was 
revealed to the apostles, than one man who could not produce a single 
witness to testify in favour of his notions, but relied for success on the 
subtilties of his mind and the web of soplustry ? The reader must an- 
swer this question in the affirmative ^ and yet such is the conduct of 
those who follow the notions of this or that sectarian, instead of cling- 
ing steadfost.to the undeviating Spirit of Truth, to be found only in the 
Catholic church* 

Arius thus foiled in his impious attempts to rob the Redeemer of 
Mankind of his Divinity by public discussion, ^^had recourse to private 
intrigne and artifice.- He succeeded in gaining over Eusebius, bishop 



134 «Kviiw Of r^s^ 

Constantine^ throi}gh Hie favour c^Coi^^aotin^ l^^tt^}XQrqr|8r«i|vtedu^ 
wife of Licinius^ oontriv^d to Jiitro^nae ^ii^s <to 1m# mh^v«)i|f«&^ iv||D 
^ined her oirer^ by hypocrisy and flattery, ^;€iappi^seJb& ^use. {I^e 
then we see ike prqgres^ of em>r. i^i^efi4^ by the .fpr$;e jof xfipifpA 
and tradition, bnt unwiUing to cQt^efvt the truths its n|e^ rj9(90|ijuro^4^ 
^tratagem and dissimulation^ i^id^n^Uyl^r^tefoix^eiapFes^f^.^itsff^r'- 
vice. Arius now attempted to pcHfKHi ^he^^aind of Cqn&tantine^ ifufp^h 
the influence of Constantia, but ihe.^Hnp^ror wf^ too w^e^U in^ressi^ wi|h 
the truths he had learned to be cai^cid^ivi^ by ti^e arts laid to .cqsqs^fq 
him. In the mean while several bifihQps w^re iiers^aded to joi^ the fac- 
tious heresiarchj and .they thought to c<M^ j^heforf .th^iai by ^m^^^ag 
a mock council of their party^ in which they 4eci«eed thftt tikie 4p^i#^ 
of Ari\is was ortjiodox^ and that the pfitriarc^ AJteiiandc^sho^ild^^oei^e 
it or be declared a heretic. Thus tt^n j^^e e]jij^ch> W^i<^ hfid bi^ Ifitt^y 
been rescued from theper^ecuti^iBsof theRopi^np^ig^u^l^dert^^ 
Eaculous banner of the cross, nowiound herself troubled with the divi- 
bions of her own children^ and the'peace of the .empire wa^ tJureatei|ied 
by the tumults and seditioQS crea^d by Uie^^j^^^jk^usoppositM^pf Ar^^^ 
a,nd his adherents to the decisions qf -the church> ^^rcising thnt ppRiror 
given to her by her divine Founder: He thai hearth j^, ft^arei^ iqe. 

In this state of confusion and disorder^ Cq^st^tiiAe h^ rfieourse to 
pope St. Sylvester^ who had instructed hii^^i iin jlhe pri^iciplcls of Cluris- 
tianity, and Mvised with him as to the best means to reastofepea^and 
harmony to the church and the empire. The qiveasure propose^ and 
agreed on was such as every ratioipal mja^ W^ ii4Pprov«, ^d th^ joaoftt 
cx)pgenial to common sense that coi^ be de^nsed. It was $ff q^\ a 
convocatiw of bishops ^m every part of i^ ^SQ|^re^ who w^r^ jlp dis- 
. cuss and decide theolc^oally the i|i|keation tha^ had i^rejigted si|^h o^ft- 
t^ntion fnd disturbance. Various proyipcial a#sembUes qi ififi ldv4 
had been held during the tiipe of perseo^^<^^ when disputes on doc- 
trine had arisen, but this was the lirat gpaaerai. e6it#c^ or ^pp^^tjcn^, jpar- 
liament convened by the church, ^d as such, i^ de^rvi^g pur parti- 
cular notice. The emperof Cpnsta^tine w^a the^ residing, i^ Nici<M|ue* 
dia, and it was resolved thai the .ce^ndl sj^i^d be he}4 9t Nici^i the 
principal city of Bithynia, to whi^h pl^e ithe bi^ipps were invi^ to 
repsur. Accordingly, threjs huiuined |uid caiglitee^ bi^op^, besi4^ 
priests and deacons, resofted to 0ie pl^ce of ^^a^^^agia^.a^ qq ik^ 
19th day of June, 3^5, tl^e council w«usopj&ned in a f^ac^us h9l} si^t- 
able to that purpose. In this solemn pfirl^ua^ent pf Chiris^^Bii^kH)^ W^P^ 
to be found the greatest and n^ost fampfi^ mei| in t}ie YfPT\d, iiOt^ for 
their* extraordinary lear|iing, the rem^rk^J^e boiliift^iB^ ^ their Ut^' 
and the honourable marks which they c^ried with th^i^pf harvi^nnf*' 
fered fpr their fedth. The. ^eat HQsiiM> bishop ^f €p9#vft in Spili^* 
presided as the repreisent^tiv^ of tl^ popp, aAsiMed by tjli^ prices VMu^ 
and Vincentius* Then there w^re lihe three cetebrii^tisd paifiarebs, 
namely, Alexander of Alexandria; £^statUtlspf A^^oh; #%dllaoar 
rius of Jerusalem; all rendered famous for their deep ^ij|pi^li9dg^ <^f 
jihe scripture. The church of Africa m^ represented by tW reuoWil^^ 
Cecilian, primate qf t^t coun4;ry, who had lately triimph^ f*Y#F4h9 
]pP9ati8ts, ilSte^w]^,^f}^f§4!^i^ 



jkkA op MmtTks. 436 

!eii^ ^cept In those places where Donadflm Wad professed; ttid cooi- 
|»l!mcttted the Cal&olic church with the appellation of the whore of Btf- 
ioiij from whom we presume our '* few plain Christiaatf** have taken 
theetaadople.] Besides these great personages came l^iose courageous 
tkifettd^rs of t)ie Mth^ Hypatius of Gangra^ who was afterwards mar- 
tyred I Supsychius of Tynse Jjonginus of Neoc8e6area> Frotogehes of Sar« 
^a^ EutycMus bf Amasea^ whom the illustrious martyr Basileus caused 
to be chosen in his stead; Alexander of Byzantium^ (now Cionstantino- 
p^e) Arestanes of the greater Armenia, the ^unous Leontius of Cdesa* 
ilea in Cappadoda, and the celebrated Nicolas, archbishop of Myra^ 
the capits^ of Lyra, a large ahdent province of Asia. This last named 
hc^y man <#as so toned ^ the miracles he wrought through the divine 
powet t)f Jesiis Christ, tha( altars and chdrches were everywhere 
Mmd to Ms menteM'y. To add to the sanctity of the assembly, many 
6f Its metiotbers were mmmed in defence of the divinity of Jesus Christy 
and had come to the council to defend by their suffrages that doctvlne 
fhey had confessed by their sufferings. Of these there were the vener- 
able Totearta of Heraclea in Egypt; one of whose eyes had been plucked 
out m the pei secution of Afltucmiin. Faphnutius, bishop of higher The- 
bads, who, during the fury of that persecution, had his right eye put 
out, and his left arm cut off, and was buried aMve as it were in the 
Mats. Paul, bishop of Neocsesarea upon the Euphrates, who in the 
tittle of Licittius, had both his hands burned with hot irons $ Janies^ 
bishop of Nisibis in Mesopotamia, who displayed invincible resolutian 
IHiile 6i£ffering the mbst crutl torments under Miaimin ) and the h6ly 
Spitidion, bishop of Tremithus iii Cyprus, who likewise lost a leg and 
and ah eye in the persecutions of Maximian Gsderius. These fticts are 
stated in the writings of Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, and other i|n- 
dent writers. On the other hand, there were Eusebitts of Ceesarea, 
Maris of Chalcedon, and Theognis of Nice, who had denied our Saviour 
in l^e persecution, to save themselves from torments, besides severiil 
P^iigan philosophers, who challenged the council to dispute upon re- 
ligion, Vrhich the members accepted. In the midst of the hall was 
laid on a magnificent throne the book bf*the holy gospels, to take the 
fhtie, as it were, of Christ himself. 

Matters being thus settled, the Others came to the council, and held 
thttir sittings every day, the speakers having the most perfefct fre^om 
of debate, in order to come to a right conclusion. Arius was heard in 
^s own defence, as were also tli^e who took pwt with him. The 
different points of dispute were examined todsifted with much minute- 
ness; an exact inquiry Was made into All the texts of scripture that 
^te upon the questi<kis; and th^ arguments advanced on both sides 
^erfe canvassed with nice discrimination. The proceedings of the pro- 
"Hndal council of Alexandria were read, as were also some letters 
written by Eusebius the firiend of AriuS, and the decision was, that 
three hundred bishops declared that th^ Son of €rod was consubstantiai 
With his Father, and entirely equal to him in all his divitie perfections. 
On tl^ decision of fhe touncil b^irig declared, the doctrine of Anus 
Was redtlced to several prbpositions and anathematized as nei^, €rr6- 
n«Ottd and bftaspheinoite. Eiisebius df Nicomedia With seventeen of the 
Wiftrtips stood but, and rejected the term'censubstunWil, but.on ftirtiier 



136 BfVlEW OF FOXS 

reflecUon, fourteen of these afierwardB subscribed to the deoisioiiof the 
council, so that there were only two left in favour of Anus and his 
friend £usebius. 

It may here be necessary to remark^ that this .council was not called 
to dectee new lurti^es of faith, but to decide between that which was 
origmal and that which was counter/dt. The doctrine promulgated by 
Arius was evidently a novelty, or the people would not have been so 
shocked and affected Qn hearing it. Being new, it could not have been 
that which the apostles had received from God, and therefore could not 
be of divine origin, but must have been of human invention. How then 
could it have been supposed that the inventor would have the power to 
make the world believe, by the means of persuasion, that he'idone was 
righi and all the Vest were wrong f Such a thing was impossible. He 
might, however, by deceit and hypocrisy ^ impose upon some, and by 
threats and torments compel others to join his standard. The guardians 
of truth, on the other ^ide, proceeded upon an infallible ground. They 
referred to the gospels^and the trcuUtion of the fathers, which they found 
to be invariably decisive on the subject of Clu-ist's DIVINITY, as a re- 
vealed truth derived by the apostles from Grod himself, and as such in- 
dispensable to be believed. They had not to form a new belief, as we 
before observed, but to give testimony to the old one^ and when we. 
find three hundred bishops from all parts of the world, many of whom 
had never seen each other before, yet all coincided in the exact same 
opinion, as did also the people oyer whom they were placed, should we 
not aet contrary to common sense to reject that doctrine which is thus 
miraculously shewn to be divine, (for nothing but a divine power could 
cause such an unity in belief) and embrace the vain notions of a proud 
hypocrite as the oracle of divine wisdom ? Who can answer us in the 
negative ? Thus then the reader is in possession of the rule by which 
Catholics are guided in their religious belief. They do not take this 
upstart, nor that pretender, for their guide -, but they rely on the divine 
promises of the Founder of their church, and when any difference of 
sentiment is started, they look to the general opinion of the whole body, 
and not to an isolated branch pf the church, or two or three factious 
members of it, as the only rational rule by which to decide with cer* 
taintv. 

m 

Let us, by way of illustration, suppose a case to happen in this coun- 
try. We ail know that the pri\dlege of trial by jury is one of the 
grand palladiums of British freedom. It is a fundamental principle of 
the English civil constitution, the same as the divinity of the Son of 
God is the fundamental principle of Christianity ; for if you take away 
the divine essence of the Founder of the church of God, you make it 
stand on human strength; so if you take away the right of trial by jury, 
you take away the essence of civil liberty, and become subject to be 
condemned by individual caprice. Well, a man takes it into his bead 
to dispute the efficacy of this fundamental principle of civil liberty. 
He contends thut though the trial by jury has existed for a long, very 
long period of years, yet it is of no benefit to the security of the peo- 
ple, and therefore ought to be abolished. That such a man would find 
disciples there can be no doubt 3 for, in fact, the trial by jury was dis- 
regarded by the parliaments of Harry and Elizabeth, on their assuming 



the tight toga^wn -the ecnsdenoei of the people of England, tu head of 
thechnrchj the fonner iMMiig made absolute in his ^ill^ add the laC-* 
ter establifthing the star chamber. But could he get the sound part of 
the nation to concide with him? No, that would be impossible. Bj 
craft and cunning he might gain a pajrty over to him, and that partf 
or faction would create confusion and disorder in the realm. To alla^r 
this heat and restore quiet among the people, we will suppose the' 
reigning monarch to be animated with a spirit of truth and justice; 
and, acting under the influence of this ^irit, he sends out a proclama- 
tion summoning the most learned and celebrated men in the kingdom 
to meet him in parliament) there, after hearing what arguments can 
be advanced in favour of the new doctrine and what in defence of the 
old practice> to pronounce their judgment on the case, according to the* 
strength of the evidence laid before them. Accordingly they meet^' 
and the theory of the new plan is laid down by the inventor of it, and 
those of his disciples who are disposed to defend it are likewise allQwed 
to speak their sentiments with freedom and control.. To these theories 
are opposed a regular gradation of historical faciB, tracing the institu- 
tion ap to the time of Alfred the great, and displaying an uninterrupted 
exercise of the privilege for a series of nine hundred years, daring 
which space innumerable instances of its utility are produced fromN;he 
rec6rds of our best historians. With such a body of evidence before^ 
them, the assembly, with the exception of the broacher of the doctrine^ 
and a few adherents, all declare by acclamation in favour of the old' 
practice, and this decision is ratified by the monarch, who officially 
announces to the people the result of the important deliberations, as a 
guide for their own conduct. Now, under such circumstances as these^ 
and with a full knowledge of the facts, what would be the general 
opinion of the people of England? Would they not approve and ap- 
plaud the wisdom of the parliament ? Would they not consider* the 
decision as the oracle of Truth ; for where so many agreed and so few 
dissented, what stronger or more rational ground could there be to 
command conviction. There might be some infatuated men allured by 
the plausible and specious conduct of the innovator and his discipUs^ . 
but such individuals could only excite the pity of those who felt ithe 
conviction of truth, and be considered as warped in their senses. So 
it was with the council of Nice, in the fourth century of the Christian 
era. The fathers decided by the general testimony of the witnesses of 
each preceding age, and the universal assent of the people of whole 
Christendom confirmed the accuracy of their decision. 

Another .circumstance connected with this council must be here re- 
corded, as it conveys, in our opinion, a most striking proof of the in- 
vulnerability and duration of the Catholic Faith. Before the council 
separated, the fathers drew up a formula of faith, which is called the 
Nicene Creed, and stands to this day, in the Catholic church, the 
touchstone of orthodox belief in the divinity of Jesus Christ. It is also 
one of the creeds admitted by the church of England as by law estab- 
lished, the eighth of her thirty-nine articles stating '* the three creeds, 
" Nicene creed, Athanasius^s creed, and that which is commonly cal- 
'* led the Apostles* creed, ought thoroughly to be received and believed : 
'* for they may be proved by tha most certain warrants of holy scrip- 



40 
4* 



''^vie.** "The ^ttHiiePr ictf^ikte 'BeieohA tnmed leMS^d, unos l^ deneoa -nf tiie 
elMnrdi 4>f j^exMitfrm^ 'attd "ttM^Mlvd tlie cemcfl <^ Nice, where^ by liis 
<iibipMiioe«ttdfearflteg, lie ^cdottibuted mticli to dueidate the trtttti Df 
the diiNne -fl^n^iles fii ^be ^Trinity and Iiic&nmtion. He was after- 
travds^ 4c^to86A ^aMar(4i (€ Alexandria, md is tneiitk>ned by ¥a%, as 
liaivmg encfip«ieP6d mncbperseeution and 'suifeiing thvofi^ tbe vib- 
iMce-and tyramrf df the Arian |Mtt*ty, ^ffbtn tbey succeeded in -gaining 
the *(K9iip<»TCd power e^rer to tbeir iilterest. The creed bearh^ the natne 
of St. Athane8k»«oiiRnenoestbus: *' Whofioei/w wifl be saved: be- 
*^ifore all iMags ilt is necessary tliat he hold the CATHOLIC faS&i. 
** Which ftdMi «x«ept orety one do keep Whole and ilnddHed : with^nt 
"4oubt he "shall pei4sh *evet!i»4ittgly. And l9ie CATHOLIC fekh is 
**'iS^: IThat we worship one God in Trinity, ttnd THnity in "^tktif : 
'' neither oeni»«iding llie Persons nor dividing the Substance/* It tlien 
goes on to explain the nature eff tSie three persons in God, after which 
it stages the belief ^ €he Incarnation in these woi^ : '' Furthermore, 
'^ft is necessary to ererlastii^ salvation: that he also believe the in- 
'^ carnation of our Lord J«sns Christ. For the BIOHT FAITH IS^ 
''that we beliieT^ and coofess-: that onr Lord Jesns Christ, the Son of 
''God, is GOD and man; Godt>f the Substance of ihe Father begot- 
ien h^wt the world: and man of the substance of his mother, bom 
iftlSiewofld; perfect God and perfect Man: cf a reasonable soul and 
human flesh subsisting; equal to the Father as lonehiag his gtxd*- 
^'head: and inferior to the Father as touching his manhood,*' Sec. 
Sucli then was the doctrine of the primitive C^iristians; sm^ was €fae 
i^th of eirery nation in the world that forsook ilte superstitions and 
idolatry of Pi^anism for the sublime truths of Christianism. And raar!c> 
reader, not one country in the whole world waft ever converted to the 
Catholic or Ohfistian ftuth, that did notbefieve and icoxtfess the 'dlvitt% 
ctf the Son of God. This one simple fact, a fttcft bicontmveitible ami 
undeniable, we think sufficient to startle the Ilnitarian, the Socinian, 
iHid the Deist, without entering into a theoh^^icai ^eussion on diffbr^ 
ent points of doctrine. This important feet nrffist carry conviction to the 
unprejudiced mind, and assure him that ihoi t^tUtm iffiMh <mif Which 
had its ORIGIN FROM GOD can be of dhrine institution, and, conse- 
quently, that all others of later date, are of jtutrCs invention, and come 
within the definition of heresjg. 

The above quotations from the Athanasian creed are tak^ ont of Hie 
cmnmon prayer book of ^te church of England, the ministers of which 
church are commanded to read or sing the same at morning prayer 
on thirteen specified festivals in the year, instead of the Apostles* 
creed, as a confession of Christian fait^. In these times, however, of 
moek liberality, this creed is looked upon by many as of such an in- 
tolerant nature, that it ought to be expunged irom the service of the 
Protestant church of England. Nay, we have seen it stated in ihe 
public prints, as a proof of the benevolent disposition of his late ma- 
jesty, George the third, that when he was assisting at the solemn s^- 
vice of the church of which he was the head, whenever the cr^ed of 
St. Athanasius was read, he was remarked to omit answering the offi- 
ciating minister, when he read ihe damnatory clauses, as they are 
called, jof that Annulary. Now tills sort of HberaUty we consider in- 



BOOK or MMKIW. M* 

fleiUUrteUt^ ud tendifllg te reli^oM indiifcnatcf «Qd IntMity; iW 
wbftt does the creed vajr moee ihan theecriiiture ? Cbriet iihiMM aa^, 
<''lie:tiHt believeiih irat shatt be oondemHed/* Maik, k^. V6. He 4liM 
iMacetlaiiet the ohiireb^ let tdm be «s the iieallieii or |Niblk»ui. And 
vtlwt 4loe9 4iie «rced of ^. AtiiaiiiinuB My more ? Oeomofi o oi i fl c 4ifi« 
vs, lihat Timth canint contradidt itaelf 3 «nd tbevefbre tf ^fhe ^miilve 
CbriaiiflDis were rigbt^ Aflrfua, and lihoBe iviio think as 4ie4lid, iBiitft%e 
inreng. To aay that both were d^t^ is « f^ss abmir^ty j mid H «eti- 
Bot.be supposed that God oan approve of so many difeiHMit Mlieicras 
creeds, when he came on earlti to establish ONE, and ONE OM^Y, 
vbich was to last for ever. The '^spdl says, in ns plain ^woidls as it Is 
p^a^ttde to dictate, that ^' there shaH ^e «ne fold and one pastor/* 
Joim, X. 16 3 to say, then, that M Teli^ons ore right, U to oppose 
iwuoM. Jldligion is nn institution «stablisbed by CM bimsMf, wherc%y 
he makes known to man bow he is to worship Him, hife <sre8tor, and 
ndiat he is to bdaeve 4o obtain salTaiieB. Nothing can be more rea- 
sonable. He made us, we are his creatures; he holds Iftie thread oF 
life Bi his hands, and snrtlybe has a right toexact the terms on which 
he would accept the homag;e due to him ^mm the >«wirk of his hands. 
We haxre then before us the terms he has Imposed; weeee these terms 
enadi»aecd by thousands and thousands of the most learned and hi^ily 
enodonBed ipen of all nations and in afi ^^^f ^^ see other systems 
sfsriiig 'Up and are immediately ojqiosed, their errors pointed out^ «eRd 
eonderaned by public opinion, 4^t Is, the voice of {lU nations profess- 
ing the one faith; ond surdy it cannot be illlbersility, it cannot be un- 
dhrifltiaa to say, that error if error, and that man must bdiieve that 
widch Ood has revealed and commanded. The ant»-K;hristian spirit 
appeaa^ when men seek tofwte the consciences of tiieir fellow-men by 
pons and penalties, and not by the power oi reason and troth. This 
wms the case wilh liie Pagans when they had tht civil sword in their 
hands; this was the case with the Arians when they got the ascen- 
dency; and this was the case with the reformers wh^ they establish- 
ed *'Fk'Otestant-ascendei\cy'' in these reidms; and it will be shewn to- 
ha;ve been the case in every instance where men hafve deviated from 
ti&e tru^h. 

While C!onstaatine lived, the Arian faction were oUigcd to be cir- 
cuBiflpedt in their conduct. They therefore disseaobled^ and put forth 
ail the arts of pecret Intrijgue and chicanery to suf^rt their baffled 
eniise. By calumny and misrepresentation they succeeded in prcjudic- 
ang the mind of Conetantine against many of the most zealous de- 
fenders of the Cathc^c faith ; but, on the ol)her hand^ to preserre the 
peaoe of the entire, he had banished Arins, and the most foctious of 
his party to distant provinces. In the mean time the sister of ^e 
emperor ConBtantUte, whom we have before mentioned as having been 
infected with the heretical doctrine, foil sick, and was attended by an 
Arian priest. The reader will here observe, and we beg to impress it 
strongly on the mind of the Protestant of whatever denomination he 
may be^ 4hfU; these Arian heretics believed all the articles of faith^ and 
pmctised aM the rites and ceremonies^ novT believed in and practised by 
the church of Rome, with the exception of the fundamentid tmth of 
€hnst*s divinity. Th^ held confossion, the real presence^ the'sacrHice 



140 REVIEW OF VdOCS, 

4 

of the ma09> prayers for the dead^ tlie jnTOcatioii 6£ saints, itild, in 
fact, all those points of doctrine that have beeii rejected by the refor- 
mi^tiQn, so. called, of the sixteenth century. Had they followed the 
plan of Qur modem reformers, and stripped reli^n of every thing 
consolUig to the mind and stimulating to devotion, the people would 
easily have discovered their impious attempts,- they therefore crafUly 
maintained those doctrines ai^d ceremonies which hinged on the fun* 
damental divinity of the $on of Grod, while by speculative theory and 
subtle quibbliags they attempted to rob their Riedeemer of his god- 
head ! Well^ the Arian priest used his inftuence with Constaotia to 
prevail on her imperial brother, who really loved her, to recall the 
heresiarch Arius and his adherents torn banishment, and she unhap- 
pily for the peace of the church and. mankind succeeded with the em- 
peror^ but not without exacting that these heretics should subscribe 
to the decision of the council. This Arius consented to, and by an 
'equivocal and counterfeit submission he deceived Constantine and was 
recalled from exile. 

Thus far succe$sful> the Arians set about spreading their heresy 
through all the east, and the better to insure success, they corrupted 
the second son of Constantine, whereby they might the better tri- 
umph over their inflexible opponents, who stoutly defended the cause 
of truth, by the spiritufd weapons aUowed to the church, prayer and 
persuasion, without having recourse to the civil sword. Although 
Constantine was a zealous Catholic, and of course a firm believer in 
the divinity of his Saviour, yet, following the precepts of his Re- 
ileemer, he strictly adhered to the. professions he made in his speech 
to the senate, on the occasion of his baptism, which we have recorded 
in our preceding pages ; for no oncj that we can find in history, was ever- 
persecuted by him for holjding erroneous opinions in religion only 5 nor 
can we discover, through the same source, one single instance of an 
application to him frpm a Catholic to punish an Arian believer. That 
the "or^Aodox bishops, and clergy," as Fox styles them, were Catho- 
lics, is incontrovertible, from the title given, to the Christian church 
by the apostles in their creed, ''I believe in the holy CATHOLIC 
" churchy" which title was also adopted by the Nicene fathers in their 
creed, to distinguish the orthodox from the heterodox : ''And in one 
holy CATHOLIC and apostolic churchy" therefore, as we haVe repeat- 
edly remark.ed, the Catholics have hitherto been the persecuted, and 
not the persecutors. It is. also obvious that the suppression of the 
word Catholic by Fox, and the substitution of the term "orthodox," is 
purposely made to impose upon the unthinking and illiterate reader, 
whose mind woidd be startled, and his prejudices somewhat shaken, if 
not completely removed, were he but to know that the professors of 
the 8a$ne creed are represented in these days as cruel and wicked by 
modern editors, while they are e^Ltolled for their piet^ ami forbearance 
in the primitive ages. 

Before, however, we enter into a brief detail of the Arian persecu- 
tions, as noticed by Fox, we must here be aUowed to put upon record 
another historical fact, entirely overlooked by Protestant Writers, but 
carrying the n^ost powerful evidence in favour of the divinity of Jesus- 
Christy now so universally impugned by the disciples of Prptestantisoi. 



BOOK OF HCARTfllS. 141 

• X ■ 

1 ^ • . 

It was the invaHabk custom of the Jews to make a great hole hear 
where the body of a criminal was buried, and throw into it, as detesta- 
ble objects, such things a» belonged to his execution. From this cus- 
^ the cross on which Christ suffered had lain hidden during the Ro- 
man persecutions, and from the care which the Pagans had used to 
conceal the place where Christ was crucified^ there was no mark or 
tradition to discover the identical spot where our Saviour was buried, 
and the instruments of his death deposited. The heathens too out of an 
aversion to Christianity, had done all they could to conceal the spot of 
our Saviour*s btirial place ; for besides heaping lipon it a great quantity 
of. stones and rubbish, and building a temple to Venus, they erected a 
statute to Jupiter, according to St. Jerom, where Christ rose from the 
dead, which figure continued there from the time of the emperor Adrian 
to Gonstantine, Arianism observe began to bud about the year 318. Till 
that time the church had to contend with open enemies, now she was 
attacked by treacherous foes. Heathenism was subdued under the 
standard of the CROSS, and Arianism was now about to sustain a sig- 
nal idiscomfiture by the same instrumefit. St. Helena, Gonstantine s 
mother, though eighty years of age, undertook a journey to Palestine 
in 326. On her arrival at Jerusalem she felt a strong desire to disco- 
ver the identical cross on which Christ had suffered. With this view' 
she consulted the most intelligent people in Jerusalem, and was in- 
formed by them that if she could find out the sepulchre, she would be 
sure to find also the instruments of pimishment. The pious empress 
accordingly ordered the profane temples to be erased, the statutes to 
he destroyed, and the rubbish to be removed from the place where it' 
was supposed the crucified Saviour had been interred. After digging 
some depth, they came to the holy sepulchre, and near it they found 
three crosses, together with the nails that had pierced Christ's hands 
and feet, and the label which had been fixed to his cross. But, as the' 
title was separated from the cross, a difficulty arose to distinguish' 
which was the identical cross on whidi the Redeemer had suffered.' 
In this perplexity, according to the testimony of Sozomen, Thebdoret, ' 
and Rufinus, the holy bishop Macarius of Jerusalem suggested to the 
empress to have the crosses carried to a person then sick unto death,' 
i)ot doubting but God, on such an occasion, would manifest the trtie 
one. The suggestion was adopted, and the crosses being severally ap- 
plied, the patient was perfectly recovered by the touch of the third,' 
the other two having been applied vrithout effect. Sceptics may sneer 
at this extraordinary event, and attempt to deny it; but they might as 
well attempt to deny the existence of such a character as Constantino 
himself, as to invalidate this fact. A church was erected on the spot 
by St. Helena, where part of the cross was lodged and held in great 
veneration. Another church was built by Constantino at Constantino- 
ple, where a second part of the cross was deposited. A third church 
was built at Rome by order of the said empress, to 'Which she convey- 
ed the remainder of the cross, which church still remains, and is call- 
ed 0^ ^Ae Holy. Cross of Jerusalem, Besides, the very same piope that 
baptized Conistantine^ who, as before related, was converted through 
the appearance of the cross, instituted a featival in the church on the 
3d of May, in honour of this discovery, which festival has been ob- 






H9 vamv^ or foks 

MnFed ever giace, in eireiy CathoUe oountiy to tU» diif, as it i«-«Uri 
in tke Greek cliiirc]i. Such a weiglst of evidence we think too ponder^ 
oitf 'for unbelievers to remove^ and it waib considered by the CathoMM 
of the fourth oenturyy as it is by those of the present day, a- most sig*^ 
nal and triumphant Tictory over the enemies of Christianity. 

Constantine^ at' his death left three scms^ namisly, Constantine, Con** 
stantii^s^. and Constans, in favour di whom he divided the empire into 
three parts. Constantine and Constans were Catholics^ but Constantius 
was infected with Arianism. While the elder brother was alive 
Censtantius was h^d in fear by him> and dared not to ^iter into 
the views meditated by the Arians. But the fomier bein^ ent off' by 
death, theheretics' soon* threw- off the mask and exhibited the oesisI 
vifidictive fury agpaii^st the Catholics, Fox states that thirty bishops 
irere martyred in Egypt and Lybi% and manyr other C^riiiiimr oroeU]!) 
torpnented.. By distinguishing^ these sufferers as^ Ckmtiani} it is tafetred 
thai Fox deesoed the pexseeutors a^ti-Chrtetians^ which is*, perfiediy^ 
correot, as they certainly could/ i¥»t be ChristianS''8]nee they: wiuttei'to^ 
lob. Christ of his divine nature^ the groundwork of Chiistiaiiity^ aiiil 
•vineed & spirit- of viodidivieness and crudity the very rt^erse' of 
Christ^s preeepts. . Fox furthM* says^ that- ^* George, . the Ariaiv bishop oi 
Alexandria^ under the authoiity of the empefor, began a persecutioD 
in that - city^ . and iia environs, which wns coolimied with iJue utmost' 
sev^dty," equalling, if <he mnirtyrologist is to be credited, alid 
he may be believed here, in fiercenessandbovbayity anyof tfaeteir 
Fagan persecution^ that preceded it. George, alter riotii^in the blond 
Q# the Catholics^ was himself alaki by the Pugan people of the caty^for 
his cruelties and* oppressions* Artus> teoy a* Fox admits, met^witk^i^ 
miserable deaUi, but <the nature of his end is not staled by him. It was 
iMi foUows, The emperor Constantine, zHime short time before Ids' 
deeth^ had- been {jiersnaded by Arius that hisr ptrafesaioii of fal^ wiV' 
QTtbodax^.and thjnongh the isiiuence of Smsehiiie of Nieonedk^' wisi^ 
nyieak^Muig^ tQ iss^e aa^osder .to Bk Alexander, the last bisfaofyof B^ 
s^jsntinns and the first of Constanttnofde,. to adm^ Ariun inle the com- 
manioa of the Catholic church. TMs order wAs/aii<>usnrpalion of an-* 
t^Knrity Constantine hadr no right to assnme> and the holy bislf^ rfk- 
fnaad to confidrni to it. Eusebius, however, was ^es^ved^ to enforce it, 
and a day' was. fixed for its exeoution. A Sunday wais tdmsen that the 
a^ unght be the. more notorioiiSk llhe holy bishisp Aiexandei^, who 
had assisted at thecouneO of. Nke, had noting 'to oppose to this vio- 
lence but prayers^ whidb he offered up to Ged> with grea;t fervency. 
Asins and his frieiidsi relying on the power of the civil magistrsite, 
went to the church in great pomp and insolence^ In their way, tke* 
heresiareh felt a sudden, attaek of nature ^ he stepped aside to a place 
of convenience^ Tidtile the . procession halted to? await his return. Some 
time hi^ving elapsed the party grew impatient, and some of them were 
sent to see what. yf%A become of hincu Tliey entered the place, and' 
there found him dead,, his bowda voided out upon the ground. Thus 
perished> theimpiouaimpugnerof hisBedeemer*s divinity. Thissignal 
SifokeoftW divine judgment was immediately prpclaimed by thef^'^ 
Uc voice, and for a time the Arians were struck dumb. 
The remainder, of. the . section is occupied . with the/' Pe^WMtiwn ^' 



BOOK OB MABTYfid. Uf 

*^Paul," the holy bishop o£ Constc^tinople. The venerable, and leam^ 
ed prelate was a continual sufferer from the malice and. fury of tho 
Ariaa party:. The practice of these heretics was to flatter and gratify; 
the passions of the r.eig;ning prince, whereby they succeeded in glut- 
ting their vengeance on those who boldly and. efibctually detected and 
exposed their errors^ When by violence and injustice they exasperated 
the public voice against them^ they basely represented to the empcror> 
that the advocates of truth were the aggressors, and the cansers of the 
seditions and tumults occasioned by their own malpractices; and the 
affection which the people entertained for a good pastor was made a-matr 
ter of complaint. So • it is now with '' Protestant ascendency." The at- 
tachment shewn by the Irish Cai;holics to their truly exemplary and 
indefatigable clergy is, in these days of professed illumination, de- 
scribed as a mark of their superstition and proneness to priestcraft. 
Fox says, that Paul ''being very, much concerned at what the orthodox 
" bishops suiiered from the power and malice of the Arian faction, he 
'' j(Maed Athanasius who was then in Italy, in soliciting a geiieral coun- 
'* dl. This council was held at Sardica in IU}Tium, in the year 347> 
'' at which' were present one h.undred bishops of the western, and- se^ 
'Wenty- three of the eastern empire. But disagreeing in many pomts^ 
" the Arian bishops of the east retired to Philipoppolis, in Thrace; and 
''forming a meetkig there, they termed it the council of Sardica, fronx 
"which place they pretended to issue an excommunication agauist Ju« 
"litis bisihop of Rome; Paul bishop of Constantinople; Athanasius hi- 
"^hqpof Alexandria; and several other prelMes." So, then, the bi<^ 
shop of' Rome is here acknowledged an orthodox bishop, and the at- 
tempt to exjcommunicate him a /^ctetinon. The assembly atSardieaia 
admitted to be a general council of the church, and the club, formed 
by the seceders is called a meeting. Very good, most sapient editora 
of the Book of Martyrs i but why not be more explicit in this affair I 
Why not teU us the cause of the Arian bishops running away, and the 
points on which they disagreed ? How can any man come at the knonr^ 
ledge of the transactions of this couneU and meeting, so as to forn a 
judgment upon them, from the bungling and confused relation you 
have made > Is it not evident that your object is the suppression, mA 
the illustration, of truth? Be it then our province to clear it upu 

The council of Sardica was convened at the instance of Julius bishofi 
of Rome, through the interventionof the emperor Constans, whp wrote 
to his brother Constantius on the subject, being desirous to settle the 
unhappy disputes that afflicted the churclu Having communicated.hiSt 
sentiments to this effect, Constantius was at length prevailed upon to 
consent to his brother's proposition, Constans, it should be observed, 
reigned over the western part of the empire, and Constantius governed 
in the east. Sardica was chosen as being on the boundaries of the twa 
empires, and affording equal facility to those who came from the east 
or the west. Above three himdred bishops con]4)osed the assembly, 
according to the best historians, selected from, upwards of thirty-five 
provinces, among whom were some who had attended the council of 
Nice twenty-two years before. Hosius, bishop of Cordova in Spaiiir 
presided in this council as the representative of the. pope, as he had 
done in that of Nice. The famous confessor Faphnutius, who had 5uf« 



,144 REVIEW OP FOX. " 

- • • ... 

fered so mueh for his divine Master under the Romftn persecution?^ and 
had vindicated his cause at Nice, repaired also to Sardica, even in the 
extremity of old age to fight again his battles. The Ariatis mustered 
about eighty of their party, who, dn finding that every thing was to be 
conducted according to the laws and customs of the church, and that 
there were neither courtiers nor soldiers to prevent the most perfect 
freedom of discussion, refused to attend the meetings, and kept them- 
'selves shut up in the place where they had taken lodgings. . The ma- 
jority of the fathers finding this faction deaf to all entreaties and obsti- 
nate in their secession, proceeded to open the council, and examine 
into the. causes of contention that existed. They restored several 
orthodox or Catholic bishops, who had been unjustly deprived of their 
sees, and passed many canons of discipline, with a view to prevent ir- 
fegularities from again taking place. As to matters that concerned 
faith, they confined themselves to confirming that which had been de- 
clared at Nice. Of the twenty-one canons agreed to, the firsjt provided 
against bishops being transferred from lesser diocessesto greater, with- 
out the consent of the church; a practice which the Arians had in- 
troduced, and was considered an abuse by the Catholics. The chief 
of these canons, however, was that which related to the suprema(iy of 
the church of Rome. The Arians, to carry on their innovating pur- 
poses, had recourse frequently to councils composed of their own crea- 
tures, in which they passed decrees of deposition against such of the 
Catholic prelates as were most obnoxious to them. To guard against 
this ablise the council of Sardica decreed, that if a bishop thinks him- 
self unjustly condemned in a synod, he may have recourse to the bishop 
of Home as his lawful Judge. Another canon forbids a successor to 
be elected till the bishop of Rome had passed sentence in the cause. 
Here then it is clear that the supremacy of the pope was held by the* 
primitive Christians in the fifth century, as it is now by the Catholics 
of the present day, and for which they are calumniated and abused by 
** Protestant ascendency." 

The council having concluded its proceedings, and communicated 
the same to the pope, Julius, the emperors were also addressed and 
entreated to allow the church a full and entire liberty to govern the 
faithful by its own laws. In the mean while the factious bishops had 
withdrawn to Philippopolis, situated in the territories of Constantius, 
where they continued their cabals, and as Fox states pretended to ex- 
communicate pope Julius, &c. ; and, to add to their inconsistencies, 
they called this meeting at PhilippOpolis the council of Sardica. They 
next proceeded to prepossess Constantius in their favour, and having 
gained the Arian emperor over to their cause, they set no bounds to 
their fury and implacability towards the Catholics. Paul, the holy 
bishop of Constantinople, was strangled, after being thrown into a 
dungeon and left there six days without any kind of sustenance. In 
short, the outrages committed by these heretics, as Fox properly calls 
them, were of so horrible a nature, that we cannot better describe 
them than in^ the words of the martyrologist' himself: ''Arming them- 
*' selves with swords, clubs, &c." he says, *' they broke into one of the 
" principal churches of Alexandria, where gres^ numbers of orUiodox 
j* Christians were assembled at their devotions ; and fallingupon them ia 



A REVIEW 

CRITICAL AND mSTORICAL. 
No. 10. **"""'t:'^ 



EirLxHATiON OP THE ENOii*vma, — Thu-cut rcpratnuthe miracaUmi d^tat'i^'lht 
oHrmpt of tht Jcwi, at the mitigatuin of Julian Ae apeitalr, In rtbuild tht temple nfJen- 

COKTINirAnQH OF TffE BBTIEW, 

"a most barbarous manner, without the least respect to sex or age, 
" butchered the greater number. Fotamo, a venerable bishop of Hera- 
" clea, who had formerly lost one of his eyes in Diocletian's persecution, 
-" fell a martyr upon this occasion ; being so cruelly scourged and beaten 
"that he died of his wounds. The Arians also brote into many places, 
"public and private, under a pretext of searching for Athanasius, and 
" committed innuiocrable barbarities : robbing orphans, plundering the 
" houses of widows, dragging yirgins to private places to be sacrifices 
"of desire, imprisoning the clergy, burning churches and dwelling 
"houses belonging to the orthodox Christians ^ besides other enormous 
"cruellies," Such is the account given by Fox of the persecutions 
commenced by the Arian beretics against the Catholic Christians. 

Tba third section of this book ia headed, " Persecutions under Julian 
" tht apoitate," and commences with the following account of this re- 
n^ado monarch. "Julian the apostate was the son of Cbolorus Con- 
"stantius, and the nephew of Constantine the great. He studied the 
" rudiments of grammar under the inspection of Mardonius, an eunuch 
."and a heathen. His father sent him afterwards to Nicomedia, to be 



146 



meviEw OP POX'S 



instructed in the Christian religion, by Eusebius his kinsman ; but 
his principles were corrupted by the pernicious doctrines of Maxi- 
n^us the magician^ and Kcebplius the {Hrofessor of rhetoric. Con- 
stantius died in the year 361', when Julian succeeded^ him ; but he 
had no sooner attained the imperial dignity, tlian he renounced 
Christianity and embraced Paganism. He again restored idolatrous 
worship, by opening the several temples that had been shut up, re- 
imil^i^ such as were destroyed^ and ordering the magistrates and 
^^ people. to follow his example; but he did not issue any edicts against 
ChrUtianity. He recalled all banished Pagans, allowed the freie ex- 
<croise of relipon to every sect, but deprived the Christians of all 
offices, civil and military, and the clergy of tlie privileges granted 
to them by Constantine the great. He wtis chaste, t^onperstte, vigi- 
lant, laborious, and apparently {Hous; so that by his hypocrisy and 
^'pretended virtues^ he for a time did more mischief, to Christianity 
than the moat profligate of his predecessors. Accordingly, tJal^ per- 
secution was more dangerous than any of the former, as Juli^i^ un- 
4er th^ mask of clemency, practised the greatest cruelty, in fsei^mg 
"to delude the true believers; and the Christiian ^^ ^^^^ Vfm in 
mpre danger ai bang subverted tljian it ^ve^r h^4 b^^en. % xnn^pAs 
of a n^Quarch, at once wjtty and wicked, leiurned and hyjpip»qdticjBi; 
whoj at first, xnade his attempts by flattering gifts and faiyoirurs^ b|^- 
stowing offices an4 dignities; and then, by prohibitiag Chmtian 
sdbools, he compejOLed the children either to btecon^ idolaters, oc to 
remain illiterate. Julian ordered that Christians inight be trefjb^ 
coldly upon all occasions^ and in all parts of tl^, empire, m^ ep^- 
plcj^fd witty persons to turn them and th^ principle's int^ rifewl^' 
.Many were likewise martyred in his reign; for thmigh he ^^ net 
" publicly persecute them himself, he connived at their being nuirder- 
*' ed by his governors and officers; and though he aflEected never to re- 
ward them for those cruelties, neither did he ever punish them. We 
shall recount the names, sufferings, and martyrdoms of such as 
have been transmitted to posterity/* 
Such is. the testimony of John Fox aS to the conduct of this renoon- 
cer of Christianity, and in the whole it may be taken as correct. We 
here see that the same system was pursued by the Pagan emperors and 
by the Arians, as in later times by "Protestant-ascendency,** in the 
two islands of Great Britain and Ireland, to annihilate the profes- 
sors of Catholicism, but without effect. Wlien Elizabeth assunoed the 
throne, she renounced Catholicism, which she had professed during her 
sister Mary*s reign, and embraced Protestantism. That is, she re- 
jected that spiritual authority admitted by all nations previous to the 
reformation so called,, and set herself up as the director and governor 
of the consciences of all her liege subjects. She destroyed churches, 
and opened others with her new-fangled mode of worship. In the first 
part of her reign she did not issutf any^public edicts against the Ca- 
tholics, but her ministers covertly poisoned the minds of the ptople 
ag^niit them, by hatching up pretended plots and cons|iiracie8, in of- 
dler the better to put in execution the mercenary laws contemplated 
to ruin them. They vere asaatled on one side with bribery; on the 
otl^lH^^Eb^y weK tbtWt'^Ded'with tortures and ibm^, and coi^sc«tion 



€€ 



€< 



€€ 



t€ 



t€ 



«t 



it 



4€ 



U 



<t 



t€ 



€t 



€t 



4€ 



t€ 



it 



•€t 



<4t 



4€ 



t€ 



■€t 



44 

4€ 



U 



44 



44 



41 



BOOK or BfARTyJtS. I4r 

of their pioperty, if tl^y did n0$ abftodoa tlm^ r«Ugioii of their ioofeh*- 
thers. Tbejr w^re diB^nved of offices^ civil mA miUtaryy and tbe 
clergy were thrush out of their livingn, and deprived of the^irilcgier 
they e^oyed under Magpa Charta> to malfLe way for a set of. impciiicii* 
pied hypoerHea find illitemte pretenders to derical functions; Etixa"- 
beth was represented aa bein^. of chaate manners^, the sane aa' Vint 
has pourtrayed Julian> though it is notorious that sbe indulged in her 
amours with shameWs indec^uey ; and when it suited her purpose fhe 
could be as. h90e adissismbler ^ Julian i» stated to have' been. Elizia^ 
beth ri^$ed » per^epution agamst the Catholics, ill which cruelty waa 
practisied un^er. the moak of eliemeocy ; and the better to evadioate th^ 
se$d# of P^thQlicisj9»> the dhildr^n of CatboUes wti^ coropdlbd". ta bfe" 
come Fro^9tants> or to remain illite^e. In these days, thrpeofde 
of Ireland, who ^re aiiQost ^11 CathoUes, ure chargftd by " PiiDteatwt'- 
ascen4aney*' with being igncH^t and uneducettd, though this igno- 
rance h^^ been pcc^sioned by tlvs; camel and uajust codr of lawi^ that 
mark t^ bjoodrsffdned annuls pf this aat^end^ncy. Undn" " Protes*- 
tan^^ascendency" it if as iPDd^ tranapor^tion and deitth foi^a Catholit! 
to teach an unlettered Catholic, or instrujst him in thoSe. principles* of 
Christianity whiph led so sonny persons' in thin primitive ages to suffer 
martyrdc^, rather than violate the lea^t of them: John IB'ox aays that 
mai^y Chria^ana were martyred in Juhan*s reign, though he did not 
pujhlicly pjsrsecute them himM^lf. So in the ragn of' Elisabeth, the 
founder of " Prptes^tras^endency," Catholics ivere put to death for 
cpni^cience ai^, bui, to give acoVnurtpthesepipceedingis, it woamadc^ 
high treason to pri^tise the religion of th? primitive Christiana* Thus; 
by a species of Macl4avelism unparalleled, Cntholicir'irere' put to 
death for being Catholic Chriatiana, while the ignorant nudtitude were 
inade to l^Meve they suffered aa traitors: fox farther snya, tha£:tbmq^li 
Juli^ a&eted f^ver to reward those who practised '.criRlties onthi^ 
Chrif(inn8> uc^thar did he ever puniah them. Similar wtu the conduct 
of £tizabeth towBjrds many of her officers, who manifoated a zeal for 
'^ Protestant-aaceidency,*' by o|^pressing and murdeiing^^ the Ottholidtf.^ 
Witneaji^ her behaviour towards sir Amias Paulet, the keisper of thci 
1^lfortunate j^iary queen of Soots^ and the earl of Ssse|:, the cniel and 
vp^cenary governor of Ireland under her. £ven though th^ iH^fKted 
oueea ci S^oj^ suffered by the ofljciid consent' of £iiijpibeth,iyet did 
thia dissembler profesf to he ignorant.of the proceedings; wd rated 4M 
miniatera for uMngJbier authority. 

As Fox has given a character of this .apostate Julian, wd wiH hertf 
insert the c^hamster of the bypocrjite ]Slizi^>eth, by the pen of Dr. Lin- 
gard. " An in^ciUigent foreigner (he writes) had desciihed Elizaheiif; 
whUe she was yet a 8\d>ject, as haughty and oyerbearing t on the -duronif 
she was careful to display that notion of her own * importance, tipat 
contempt for all beneath her, and that courage in the time of daot* 
^r, which were characteristic of the Tudprs. She seemed ia have 
for^tten that ;i^e ever had a moUier : but* was proud to remind botH 
** herself and othets that she waa^the daughter of a powerful monarch; 
"Henry V1II« On oecaaiona of cereifoony she app^red in aUliBr 
''splendour, accompanied by all th« offlcera of' staie^ and with a nu* 
" merou^ re^nue of lords^ an4 ladks dreased in tb€i^ moaC gotgmmt 



€€ 



ft 

f€ 



€€ 

€< 

ft- 

f( 

ft 

ft 
ft 

ft 



ft 



148 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

" apparel. In reading the aca>unts of her court^ we may sometimes 
^' fancy ourselves ' transported itoto'the palace of an eastern princess. 
'^ When Henizner saw her^ she wad proceeding on a Sunday from her 
own apartment to the chapel. First appeared a number of gentle^ 
men, barons^ earls^ and knights of th6 garter j then came the chan- 
cellor with the seals, between two lords carrying the sceptre and the 
''sword. Elizabeth followed: and wherever she cast her eyes, the 
spectators instantly fell on their knees. She was then in her sixty- 
fibFth year. She wore false hair of a red colour, surmounted with a 
crown of gold. The wrinkles of age were imprinted on her face ; 
her eyes were small, her teeth black, her nose prominent. The col- 
lar of the garter hung from her neck; and her bosom was uncovered, 
ias became an unmarried queen. Behind her followed a long train of 
yoimg ladies dressed in white 5 and on each side stood a line of gen- 
tlemen pensioners, with their gilt battle-axes and splendid uniforms. 
' '' The traveller next proceeded to the dining room. Two gentle- 
men .entered to lay the cloth, two to bring the queen's plate, salt, 
^^ and bread. All, before they approached the table, and when they 
"retired from it, made three genuflections. Then came a single and 
married lady, performing the same ceremonies. The first rubbed 
the plate with bread and salt; the second gave a morsel of meat to 
''each of the yeomen of the guard, who brought in the dififerent 
" courses: and at the same time the hall echoed to the souhd of twelve 
trumpets, and two kettle drums. But the queen dined that day in 
private: and, after a short pause, her maids of honour entered in 
procession, and with muph 'reverence and solemnity took the dishes 
" from the table, and. carried them into an inner appartment." .... 
' . " Of her vanity the reader will have noticed several instances in the 
^'preceding pages: thei'e remains/ one of a miore extraordinary descrip- 
"tion. It is seldom that females have the boldness to become the 
"heralds of their own chanhs: but Elizabeth by proclamation an- 
" hounced to her people, that none Of the portaits, which had hitherto 
" been taken of her person, did justice to the original: that at the re- 
^' quest of her council she had resolved to procure an exact likeness 
from the pen of some able artist: .that it should soon be published 
for the gratification of her loving' subjects ; and that on this account 
she strictly forbad «dl , persons whomsoever, to paint or engrave any 
new portraits of her features without licence, or to shew or publish 
any of the old portraits, till they had been reformed according to t]ie 
copy to be set forth by authority. 

"The courtiers doon di'scdvered how greedy their sovereign was of 
"flattery. If they sought to pl€ai?e, they 'were careful to admire: and 
f adulation, the.niost' fulsome and extravagant, was accepted by the 
queen. With gratitude,- and rewarded with Ibounty. Neither was her 
appetite for praise cloyed, it seemed rather to become'^more craving, 
*' by enjoyment. : After she had passed her grand. climacteric, she ex- 
f acted the same homage to her faded charms, as had* been paid to her 
".youth; ilnd all Who addressed her,, were still careful to express their 
"'lidmiratidn of her beauty, .in the language pf .oriental hyperbole. 

"But hoWever highly t^e queen niightrthii^pf her person, she did 
"not^despisiB the aid of external oroam "Al; ter death, two, some 



ft 
ft 
ft 



u 

f€ 
€f 
€f 
ft 



ft 
ft 



BOOK OF MARTYR^. 149 



a 
it 



tc 
t( 

{ 
te 

It 

<t 



say three, thousand dresses were found in her wardrobe, with a nu« 
merous collection of jewellery, for the most part presents, which 
she had received from petitioners, from her courtiers on her saint^s 
''day and at the beginning of each year, and from the noblemen and 
"gentlemen, whose houses she had honoured with her presence. To 
"Uie austere notions of the bishop of London, this love of finery ap- 
''peared unbecoming her age, and in his sermon he endeavoured to 
''raise her thoughts . from the ornaments of dress to the riches of 
" heaven : but she told her ladies, that, if he touched upon that subject 
"again, slie would fit him for heaven. He should waUc there without 
a staff^ and leave his mantle behind him. 
In her temper Elizabeth seemed to have inherited the irritability 
"of her father. The least inattention, the slightest provocation, would 
throw her into a passion. At all times her discourse was sprinkled 
with oaths 3 in the sallies of her anger it abo^nded with imprecations 
and abuse. Nor did 'she content herself with words: not only the 
^ladies about her person, but her ^courtiers and the highest officers in 
" the state felt the weight of her hands. She collared Hattpn, she 
"gave a blow on the ear to the earl marshal, and she spat on "sir Mat- 

" thew , with the foppery pf whose dress she was offended. 

" To her first parliament she had expressed a wisl^ that on her tomb 
" might be inscribed the title of ' the virgin queen.' But the woman 
"who despises the safeguards, must be content to forfeit the reputa- 
" tion of chastity. It was not long before her familiarity with Dudley 
"provoked dishonourable reports. At first they gave her pain: but 
"her feelings were soon blunted by passion: in .the face of the whole 
" court she consigned to her supposed par^imour an apartment conti- 
"guous to her own bed-chamber? and by this indecent act proved that 
" she was become regardless of her character, and calloud to every 
" sense of shame. But Dudley, though the most favoured, was not 
" considered as her only lover : among his rivals were numbered Hat- 
''ton and Haleigh, and Oxford and Blount, and Simier and Anjou; and 
" it was afterwards believed that her licentious Jiabits had survived, 
" even when the fires of wantonness had been quenched by the chill of 
"age. The court imitated the manners of the sovereign. It was a 
"place in which, according to Faimt, 'all enormities reigned in the- 
"highest degree,* or according to Harrington, ' where there was no. 
"love, but that of the lusty god of gallantry, Asmodeus.' 

" Elizabeth firmly believed, aad zealously upheld the principles of 
"government established by her father, the exercise of absolute au- 
" thority by the sovereign, and the duty of passive obedience in the 
"subjects The doctrine, with which the lord keeper Bacon opened 
"the first parliament, was indefatigjably inculcated by all his succes- 
" sors cluring her reign, that, if the queen consulted the two houses, 
" it was through choice, not through necessity, to the end that her 
"laws might be more satisfactory to her people, not that they might 
" derive any force from their assent. She possessed, by her prero- 
" gatiye whatever was requisite for the government of the realm. She 
" could, at her pleasive, suspend the operation of existing statutes, or 
" issue proclamations which should have the force of law. In her opi- 
"mon the chief use of parliaments was to vote m^ney, to regulate the 



iM tisvi&w o^ tosrs 



«c 



t€ 



^ mkiittife of tirade, and to legislate fot ihAVldiuil ahd 16cal intefests. 
Tb the iptrer houtie alie granted, indeed, freedom of debate: but it 
W^ to be a decent freed6m, the liberty of 'saying a^e or no;* aiid 
those who trans^ssed'that decency We^e liable, ais yk-t have repeat- 
*' iedly seen, to feel the weight of the royal displeasure. 

''A foreigner. Who had been atnbass^or \n Ehgland, informs tis^ 
^ th)M; under Elizabeth the ftdministratidn of justice was more corrupt 
" thah nM^t lier predecessors. We haVe not the meatis of instituting 
" 'ftie comparison. But We -Icnow that in her JBrst year '^e policy of 
^'Cecil substituted men of inferior rank ih the place of fbrther magis- 
^' tratesj that numerous complaints were heard of their tyriEuiny, pe^- 
'^liltSon and rapacity; «nd that a fustice of the peace wieis defined in 
^'^rlfametit to be 'an animal, wno, for half a doten chickens would 
*tK«pehfie wfth a dozen laws :' lior shall we fortii a teiy exalt^ no- 
** tlon of the ihtegrity of the hfeher courts, if We recqlject tiie judges 
''Were remrovable at the royal pleksut^, and t^at the queen h^J'stlf 
**was in ttie hrf)it"of receiving, and perinltting hlWr fiivotirites and la- 
" fees to receive, bribes as the prices of her or their ihterference in the 
•* Wits trf private individuals. 

" besides the judicial tribunals, which remain to the present day, 
*• there were in the age of Elizabeth^ several othei' i6ourts, ^e arbi- 
trary constitution of which were incompatible wfth the Gbierties of 
the subject • the court of high commission, for the (cognizance of re- 
ligious offences ; the court of star-chamber, which intticted the se- 
verest punishments for that comprehensive and undefihable trans- 
gression, contempt of the royal authority; and the courts martial, 
**,for which the qufeen, from her hasty and imperious tettjper, mani- 
^' iested a strong predilection. Whatever could be supposed to have 
''the remotest tendency to sedition. Was held to subject the oftendef to 
"martial law; the murder of a naval or military oflfcer, the hnporta- 
" iion of disloyal or traitorous books, or the resort to one place of se- 
"veral persons who possessed not the visible meaps of subsistence. 
''Thus in 1595, under the pretence that the vagabonds of London were 
'' not to be restrained by the usual punishm^nls, she ordered pir Tho- 
"mias WylHbrd to receive from the magistrates the most notoiions 
"and incorrigible of these offenders, iuid 'to execute thend upon the 
''gallows according to the Justice of martial law.' 

"Another and intolerable grievance was the discretionary powfer 
^iasstimed by the queen, of gratifying her caprice or resentment by 
' "the restraint or imprisonment of those who had given her ciffence. 
" Such persons were ordered daily to preseftit themselves before the 
"council till they should receive further notice, or to confine them- 
" selves within their own doors, or were given in custody to some 
" other perison, pr were thrown into a public prison, in this state they 
" remained, according to the royal pleasure, for week«, or months, or 
"years, till they coidd obtain their liberty by their subipission, or 
'• ISirbigh the hrtercessinn of tbeif friends, or With %he payment of a 
" valuame composition. 

"The (jaeen Vas not sparine of tfte blood of heir subjects. The 
** ^rtatutes inflicting death for reu|;ioufei bpfnipns liave been alrekdy no- 
^ ticed, hi addition, many tifew monies $fnd new t^^ason^ were crttrtwl 



44 
44 
4t 
U 



BOOK O^ MARTYRS. l§lr 

"during her reign* and the ingenuity of tiie judges gave to these ea- 
"actments the most extensive application. In 151)5 some apprentice*, 
" in London conspired to release their companions, who had been con- 
"demned by the star-chamber to suffer punishment for a riot -, in 159T 
" a number of peasants in Oidbrdshire assembled to break down inclo- 
" sureSj and restore tillage ^ each of these offences, as it opposed the 
** execution of the law, was pronounced treason by the judges 5 and 
"both the apprentices in London, and the men. of Oxfordshire, suffer- 
"ed the barbarous death of traitors. 

'^We are told that her parsimony was a blessing to the subject, and 
" that the pecuniary aids voted to her by parliament were few and in- 
'' considerable, in proportion to the length of her reign. They 
"amounted to twenty subsidies, thirty tenths, and forty fifleenths. I 
"^know not how we are to arrive at the exact value of these grants :. 
" but they certainly exceed the average of the preceding reigns : and 
** to them must be added the fines of recusants, the profits of monopp- 
"lies, and the monies raised by forced loans: of which it is observed 
" by Naunton, that / she left more debts unpaid, taken upon credit of 
"her privy seals, than her progenitors did take, or could have taken 
"up, that were a hundred years before her.* " 

Such is the description of the public and private qualities of the founder 
of" Protestant ascendency,** by one of the first writers of the day : need 
we thenwonder that the situation of the Catholics during her reign, was 
equally as horrible as that of the Christians under Julian the apostate? 
Let the reader judge, now he has the character of these two monarchs 
before him. But to return to Fox. He begins his account of the suffer- 
iri under Julian with the '' Martyrdom of Basil,** who, he says, made him- 
self famous by his opposition to Arianism and Paganism. That after 
bting put to the rack and otherwise tortured without making the least 
impression on his constancy, he was reserved for an examination be- 
fore Julian 'himself. The Rev. Alban Butler has given us the following 
interesting account of this examination in his life of this saint. " When 
'' Julian^* writes Mr. ^. " arrived at Ancyra, St. Basil was presented 
" before him, and the crafty emperor, putting on an air of compassion,, 
"said to him: 'I myself am well skilled in your mysteries 5 and I can 
"inform you, that Christ in whom you place your trust, died under 
"Pilate, and remains among the dead.* The martyr answered: ' You - 
' are deceived, who have renounced Christ, at a time when he confer-* 
" red on you the empire. But he will deprive you of it, together with 
" your life. As you have thrown down bts altars, so will he overturn 
'yom* throne^ and as you have violated his holy law, which you ha4 , 
" so often announced to the people (when reader in the church) and 
' luive trodden it under your feet, your body $haU be oast forth with-^ 
' out the honour of a burial, and shall be trampled on by nien.* ** ippr 
^his answer .Julian sentenced the saint to have hi« skin torn off every 
^y in seven different places, until there was none left. Before he 
^d he was laid on his belly and pierced with red hot spikes, under 
^ch torture he expired on the 39th of June in 3^3. As this holy 
^ntff suffered for the Catholic religion under Pagan andArian ascen- 
^<7> >o did fiftther Campion under " Protestant ascendency,'* in the 
^^^ of EliMbeth. Faithcfr Campioii Una a Catholic priest who com- 



u 

tf 

K 
€i 
ft 



153 REVIEW OF FOX'S ' 

baHed the errom of tlie reformation with more than ordinary zeal. 
He proposed to dispute on religion before the ^ueen^ the council agd 
the two universities, and declared himself ready to suffer every kind 
of torment, and shed his blood, if necessary, for the propagation of the 
Catholic faith. This bold challenge to defend the truth was answered 
by an arrest, after having eluded the vigilance of his enemies for more 
than twelve months. Hehad scarcely been lodged in the Tower when 
he was put to the rack, which torture was repeated three times, and 
with such unrelenting cruelty, that on the third repetition it was thought 
he had expired. A^er suffering thus. Campion- was brought before 
Eiizabeth herself, by her own order, and questioned as to >his aUegi^ 
ance ) he was then arraigned with twelve other priests and one lay- 
man, condemned to deatlr, and was hanged, bowelled, and quartered. 
(See Lingard's Hist, of Eng.) * . 

Fox also tells us, that '* when Julian intepded an expedition against 
the Persians, he imposed a large fine upon every one who refused to 
sacrifice to the idols, and by that means got a great sum from tbe 
Christians towards defraying his expenses. Many of the officers, in 
collecting these fines, exacted more than their due, and some of 
them tortured the Christians to make them pay what they demanded, 
" at the same time telling them in derision, ' that when they were in- 
'' jured, they ought to take it patiently, for so their God had com* 
*' manded them.* " So have the Catholics been treated, by "Protest- 
ant-ascendency." In Elizabeth's reign it is confessed by her eulo- 
gist Camden, that *' emissaries were dispersed everywhere abroad, 
''to collect rumours and catch unguarded expressions," in order to 
seize upon the persons of Catholics and confiscate their property. False 
informers and apostates from their faith too, we are told by the same his- 
torian, were encouraged to accuse the Catholics At this day, the Ca- 
tholics are deprived of their civil rights, through the means of an in- 
famous oath, and when they complain of the injustice done them, they 
are told in derision, that they have no right to complain, as their re- 
fusal to take the oath is a proof of their half-allegiance, though no 
class of the community can be more atthched to the constitution of the 
country than Catholics. So that what has been advanced by Fox against 
Julian for his treachery and barbarity, is equally applicable to the vir- 
gin queen Elizabeth and her ministers. The martyrs under Julian 
were Catholics, and the objects of Elizabeth's vengeance were Catho- 
lics too. In Julian's reign the Catholics were termed Galileans ; so 
in Elizabeth's, to brand them with odium, they were termed Papists j 
which appellation is still applied to them by bigots and intolerants. 

But the most important ^ct that took place in Julian's reign has 
been omitted by Fox. He allows him to have abandoned Christianity 
and returned to Paganism ; he allows him to have persecuted the Chris- 
tians, and heaped oppressions upon t^em 5 but he does not tell us of 
the vain and blasphemous attempt he made to falsify the prediction of 
Christ, regarding the temple of Jerusalem, In various parts of scrip- 
ture are to be found the denunciations of Jesus Christ against the city 
of Jerusalem and its temple, where the Jewish sacrifices were offered 
according to the old law, but were to give Way to that unbloody sacri- 
fice of the new law established by Christ himself. In St, Matthew's 



€€ 
€< 
€g 

4€ 






BOOK OP MARTTRI^. 1&3 

gospel/ chapter !23", it is stated, that, a little before his passion, Christ 
foretold the Jews the miseries they should suffer for their ingratitude. 
"Behold," he says, ''I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and 
scribes, and some of them ye shall kill and crucify, and some of them 
ye shall scourge in the synagogues, and persecute them from city to 
city: that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the 
earth, from the blood of righteouis Abel, unto the blood of IZacharias, 
son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar: 
•' Verily I say unto you, all these things shall come upon this genera- 
'' tion. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and 
'^ stonest them that are sent unto thee, how often would I have ga- 
'* thered thy children together, eren as a hen gathereth her chickens 
under her wings, and ye would not? behold, your house is ld% unto 
you desolate." — St. Luke says in his gospel, chapter 19, that when our 
Saviour entered Jerusalem, some days before his crucifixion, he wept 
over the city, and said, '-Ah! if thou hadst known, even thou, at least 
" in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace ! but now 
'* they are hid frbm thin0 eyes. For the days shall come upon thee, 
''that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee 
'' round, and keep thee in on every side, and shall lay thee even with 
''the ground, and thy children within thee^ and they shall not leave 
"in thee one stone ujpon another, because thou knowest not the time 
" of my visitation.'* St Mark also records, chapter IS, that when one 
of his disciples spoke of the temple and its costly materials, Jesus an- 
swered, '^Verily I say unto you, there shall not be left here one stone 
" upon another, that shall not be destroyed.** These predictions testi- 
fied to by three of the evangelists, who all wrote at different times and 
at different places, we see verified in the reign of the Roman emperor 
Titus, in the year of our Lord f^, that is near forty years after they 
were foretold. The horrors of the siege of this city are stated by 
Josephus, to whom we refer the reader. Suffice it to say, the prophecy 
of Christ was fulfilled to a tittle, and conveyed another irrefragable 
proof of his divine vrisdom and power. 

Well, Julian after declaring war against Christ and -his disciples^ 
thought himself strong enough to make void his predictions, and prove 
the divine Founder of Christianity to be, what our poor infatuated deists, 
ignorantly we hope, call him — an impostor. To complete his designs 
upon the Christians, Julian took into his special protection the Jews, 
then, as now, the reftise of the world. He excited them to build again 
their temple, and the more to encourage them in the undertaking, he 
gave them large sums of money, and assisted them with all the force 
of the empire. The Jews were elated with the designs of Jxdian, and 
flocked from all parts of the empire to Jerusalem, behaving with great 
insolence to the Christians. Contributions came in from all hands, 
and the women stripped themselves of their most costly drnaments to 
swell the funds necessary for the building. The most able workmeii 
were drawn from all quarters, and persons of high rank appointed as 
overseers, having at their head Julian's intimate friend Alypius, who 
had formerly been pro-prefect of Britain. All things were now in rea- 
diness. The necessary materials were collected, and the Jews of both 
sexes animated to sharq in the labour of the building. But behold the 






iM REViJ^r OP Fors ' 

power of Clurist, and tbe fniny attempiss of iban to set aside his 
never-fiBkiling propkecies. llie very means intended to render false the 
words of God» were designed by him to have his predictions fulfilled. 
Till this time sooie of the foundations and part of the walls of the tem- 
ple were standings and these ruins were* demolished by the Jews them- 
selves to clear a foundation for the new projected building. Thus then 
they concurred in accfmiplishing our Saviour's prediction, that not one 
stone should be left upon another, of that building so highly prized by 
themselves. Having thus cleared the way, they began to prepare the 
foundationy in which many thousand workmen were employed. But to 
the great surprise of those engaged in the work, what they had cast up 
In the day was thrown back by earthquakes in the succeeding nights. 
Nothix^ daunted, they proceed with hardened obstinacy in the work, 
but are met with still more terrible supernatural impediments. Am- 
mianus Marcellinus, a pagan writer, and a zealous defender ^f Julian, 
relflles these wonders in the following words : " And when Alypius the 
" Bext day earnestly pressed on the work with the assistance of the 
" governor of the province, there issued (he says) such horrible balls 
"' of fire out of the earth, near the foundations, which rendered the 
" place, frcmi time to time, inaccessible to the scorched and blasted 
''workmen. And the victorious element continuing in this manner 
obstinately and resolutely bent, as it were, to drive them to a distance, 
Alypius tho^ht proper to give over the enterprize." Several Chris* 
tian authoni likewise record the fact, an^ mention other extraordinary 
eireumstances and appearances attending this triumphant victory of 
Christianism over its implacable enemies. As infidelity and deism is 
rapidly spreading in this once Christian country, and as this historical 
hit is but little known among the readers of the.present age,, we will 
here subjoin the. Rev. Mr. Butler's account of it> from his life of St. 
CyrSi, archbishop of Jerusalem. 

" This judgment of the Almighty,'* says the learned writer^ '' was 
'^ ushered in by storms and whirlwinds, by which prodigious heaps 
of lime and sand and other loose materials were carried away. (TAeod. 
IB$U 1. iii. c. 90.J After these followed lightnings, the usual conse- 
quence of collision in clouds and tempests. Its effects were, first the 
destroying the more solid materials, and melting down the iron in- 
struments ^ fSoc. Ub, iii. c. 30.) and, secondly, the impressing shining 
crosses on the bodies and garments of the assistants without distinc- 
'' tion, in which there was something that in art i^ elegance exceeded 
^' all painting or embroidery^ which when the infidels perceived, they 
^ endeavoured, but in vain, to wash tiiem out. fSL Greg* Naz. Or. 4; adv, 
'' JuUam,.} In the third place came t)^ earthK|uake, which cast out the 
'' stones of the old founcUttions, and shook the earth kito the trench or 
'* cavity dug for the new 3 besides overthrowing the adjoining build- 
'' lags 9mA porticos wherein were lodged great numbers of Jewsdesiga- 
'' ed for this work, who were all either crushed to death, or at least 
'' maimed or wounded. The number of the killed or hurt was increas- 
*' ed by the fiery eruption in thelbwtb place, attended both with storms 
''and temfests above, and 'with an earthquake below. (St. Greg. Naz. 
'' Or. 9.) From this eruption, Bsany ded to aneighbourii^ church for 
shelter, but could not obtain entrance ^ whether on account of its be* 



€< 
<€ 
if 
ti 
€( 
ft 



€f 



t€ 



U 



JtoOK 09 MARTYIte. 16ft 

*'ing dosed by a secret itivisSbie hand, as tbr fMhers state the cMe; 
"(rf at legist by a spechdi providettce, throiigh the etitranee ihto tbe ora- 
" tory being <ilioked up by a frSg!itfiil crowd, all pressibg to be fore- 
" most. * This, howcvef,* SAys Gregory Nazianten, (Or. 4. ode, JwUan.J 
*'Ms invariably affirmed and believed by all, that as they strove to ftnrce 
"tbeir way in by violence, the Fire, which Iwir^rt from the foundations 
"of the temple, met and stopt them, and one part it burnt and de- 
" stroyed, and another it desperately maimed, leaving them a living 
"monument of God*s commination and wrath against sinners.' Thiil, 

eruption was frequently renev^et) till it overcame the rashness of the 
"most obdurate, to use the words of* Socrates; for it continued to be 
" repeated as often as the projectors ventured to renew their attempt, 

till it had fairly tired ^em out. Lastly, on the same evening, there 
"appeared over Jerusalem a lucid cross, shining very bright, as large 
" as that in the reign of Constantine, encompassed with a circle of 
" light. * And what could be so proper to close this tremendous scene 
" or to celebrate this det^isive victory, as the Crf>s8 triumphant, encir- 
" ded with the heroie symbol of conquest?* 

"This uiiraculous event, with all its circumstances. Is related by 
"the writers of that agej by St. Gregory Natianzen in the yearimme- 
"diately following it; by St. Chrysostom, in several parts of his works, 
" who says that it happened not twenty years before, appeals to eye- 
"witnesses still living and young, and to the present condition of those 
"foundations, 'of which,* says he^ 'we are all witnesses;' by St. Am- 
" brose io his fortieth epistle, written in 388 ; Rufinus, who had long 
"lived upon the spot; Theodoret, who lived in the neighbourhood in 
" Syria; Philostorgius the Arian; Sozomen, who sayn many were alive 
" when he wrote who had it from eye witnesses, and mentions the vi- 
"sible marks still subsisting; Socrates, &c. The testimony of the 
"heathens corroborate this evidence; as that of Ammianus Marcellinus 
" above quoted, a nobleman of the first rank, who then lived in the 
" court of Juliui at Antioch and in an office of distinction, and who 
"probably wrote his account from the letter of Alypius to his master, 
"at the time when the miracle happened. Libanius, another pagan 
"friend and admirer of fclian, both in the History of his own life, 
" and in his Funeral oration on Julian's death, mentions these earth- 
" quakes in Palestine, but with a shynera which discovers the disgrace 
" of his hero and superstition. Julian himself speaks of this event in 
"the same covert manner. Socrates testifies, that at the sight of the 
"miracles, the Jews cried out at first that Christ isGk>d; yet returned 
" home as hardened as ever. St. Gregory Nazianzen says, that many 
"Gentiles were converted upon it, and went over to the church. The- 
" odorei and Sozomen say many were converted ; but as to the Jews, 
" they evidently mean a sudden flash of conviction, not a real and last- 
" ing conversion. The incredulous blinded themselves by various pre- 
" tences : but the evidence of the miracle leaves no room for the least 
" cavil or suspicion. The Christian writers of that age are unanimous 
in relating it with its complicated circumstances, yet with a diversity 
" whidi shews their agreement, though perfect, could not have been 
''concerted. The same is confirmed by the testimony of the most ob- 
'* 9tinate adversaries. They, who, when the temple at Daphne was con« 



€< 
t< 

€€ 

t 

« 



156 BEVIEW OB FOrS 

** Slimed about the same time, by lightiu^, CSeeRmeu)^ p. 7^) pretended 
''it was set on fire by Cbristians^ were not able to suspect any possibility 
''of contrivance in this case: nor could the eveut haVe been naturaL 
'' Every .snch suspicion is removed by the conformity oiF the event with the 
'' prophecies } the importance qf the .occasion^ the extreme eagerness 
"of Jews and Gentiles in the enterprise, the attention qf the whole 
<' empire fixed on it, and the circumstances of the fact. The eruption, 
''contrary to its usual nature, was confined to one small spot y it obsti- 
" nately broke out by fits, and ceased with the project, and this in such 
",a manner, that Ammianus himself ascribes it to an intelligent cause. 
"The phsenomena of the, cro^ in the air, and on the garments, were 
"admirably fitted, as moral emblems, to prOclfdm the triimiph of 
" Christ over Julian, who had taken the cross out of the military en- 
" signs, which Constantine had put there to be a memorial of that cross 
" which he had seen in the air that presaged his victories. The same 
"was again erected in the heavens to confound the vanity of its impo- 
"tent persecutor. The earthf^^uake was undoubtedly miraculous 3 and 
though its effects were mostly such as might naturally follow, they 
were directed by a specia,! supernatural providence, as the burning 
of Sodom by fire from heav^^. Whence Mr. Warburton concludes 
his dissertation ou this subject with the following corollary. 'New 
light continually springing up from each circumstance, as it passes 
in review, by such time as Ihe whole event is considered, this illus- 
" trious uUracle comes out in one full blaze of evidence.' Even Jew- 
" ish rabbins^ who do not copy from Christian writers, relate this event 
"in the same manner with the fathers from their own traditions and 
" records. This great event happened in the beginning of the year 363.** 
The florid but infidel Gibbon, in his Roman History, is obliged to ad- 
mit this most miraculous event, but then he attempts to weaken the 
testimony, adduced by base and groundless insinuations. Quoting the 
confession of Ampiianus MarceUinus, which we have before given. 
Gibbon says, " Such authority should satisfy a believing, and must asto- 
nish an incredulous, mind. Yet a philosopher may still require the 
original evidence of impartial and intelligent spfictators. At this im- 
portant 
"pearance, 

" deliverance would be speedily improved and magnified by the pious 
" art of the clergy at Jerusalem, and^he acHve creduUty of the Christian 
" world; and at the distance of twenty years, a Roman historian, care- 
" less of theological disputes, might adorn his work with the specious 
" and splendid miracle." What miserable and contemptible sophistry 
have we here ! and yet this Mr. Gibbon is looked upon by the present 
race of Protestant Englishmen as one of the greatest ornaments of liter- 
ature. But what can the man of unprejudiced mind think of such a 
writer? and particularly when he is the panegyrist of an apostate from 
the Christian faith; when he calls-one of the most subtle and merce- 
nary tyrants that ever stained humaii nature " a devout monarch, labour- 
" ing to restore and propagate the reUgUm of his ancestors ! ! !" But let 
us look a little into the philosophy of JVtr. Gibbon. He allows the tes- 
timony of Ammianus Marcellinus to be unexceptionable, and such as 
" should satisfy a believing and must astonish a credulous, mind;" but 



€€ 
4t 



crisis, any singidar accident of nature would assume the ap- 
e, and produce the effects of & real prodigy. This glorious 



BOOK OP MARTYRS. 157 

the philosopher, he says, " may still require the original evidence of im- 
" partial and intelligent spectators T Kow, is not this language a little 
too barefaced to lay before a reader of common understanding ? ' Why 
who could be more impartial and intelligent than the Pagan writer 
named ? He could have no interest whatever in lending his aid to fa- 
vour the ** pious arts of the clergy of Jerusalem," nor in strengthening 
'* the credulity of the Christian worlds" on the contrary, it is clear that . 
his prejudices would have led him to disown the fact, if it had been pos- 
sible for him to do so. For observe, he was not. speaking of a theolo- 
^cal question, but of a public occurrence, never disputed till it was 
thought necessary by modern reformers to rob the Christian world of 
some of its brightest attributes. Besides, was not St. Gregory Na- 
zianzen a competent witness, as he wrote his account of it a year after 
the event took place, St. Chrysostom appeals to eye-witnesses for the 
truth of his statement, and is not contradicted. Sozomen wrote from 
eye-witnesses, and appeals to marks still visible, without contradiction. 
What stronger or more original evidence would ah impartial man re- 
quire than what is here offered to substantiate an historical fact> The 
historian, though he can doubt' himself, would have us believe, that, 
at that time, ** any singular accident of nature would assume the appear- 
*' ance, and produce the effects of a real prodigy." But was it an acci- 
dent of nature for balls of fire to come out of the bowels of the earth, 
and drive the workmen away, scorched and blasted]? Did Gibbon 
ever hear of a similar " accident of nature" occurring, before or since 
the event related by Ammianus and other writers ? Must it not then 
have been a real and singular prodigy } \ Mr. Gibbon states that St. 
Gregory of Nazianzen boldly says "that this preternatural event was 
not disputed by the infidels 5" he should have added of St. Gregory's 
days, for it seems that Gibbon was infidel enough to doubt it when he 
wrote. Now what more convincing proof can we require, to satisfy 
bur credibility, than this circumstance, — that the fact was not disputed 
by the spectators, the living witnesses of all classes, both Christians, 
Jews, and Pagans } Of what temper then must that philosopher be, 
who may still require '^ the original evidence of impartial and intelli- 
gent spectators?" Such philosophers as these would strike at the 
root of ALL testimony j for how are we to come at the original evidence 
of occurrences that have taken place centuries ago ? How can we tell 
that the veil of the temple was rent when oun Saviour expired? How 
do we know that Christ was ever crucified ? What original evidence 
have we or can we have of these facts? And yet they are believed by 
all mankind, with the exception of a few vain but ignorant mortals 3 
and so is the glorious miracle above detailed, by every mind not tainted 
with the folly of scepticism j for surely never ^vras there an event more 
extraordinary nor better verified. In a word, how do we know that the 
history written by Gibbon himself is not all fiction j for we have no 
*' original evidence of impartial and intelligent spectators" to vouch for 
his statements. That much of it is Mse may be safely concluded from 
the example we have selected on this subject 6f the miraculous de- 
struction of Jerusalem 5 but that we may not be charged with confin- 
ing ourselves to one single case, we will here give. Mr. Gibbon's accoimt 



158 BEVmW Ot FOX'S 

of the last words of this cruel and impious tyrant, and^heit eontrast 
it with the statemeiits of other writers. 

Julian, it is confessed by all historians, met with an untimely deaths 
foretold, according to the Book of Martyrs^ with a prophetic spirit by 
St. Basil, when examined by the emperor himself. Eog^aged i^ a war 
with Persia, the Roman army was placed in a situation of danger and 
distress, when Julian found it necessary to engage the Persians under 
all disadvantages. In the midst of the battle, Juliim received a wound 
from a javelin, which transpierced his ribs and fixed in his liver. 
From what hand the javelin was thrown was never positively discover- 
ed; some historians say the wound was inflicted by an invisible haiid : 
oti^ers that he fell by the hand of one of his own soldiers. Be it as it may, 
he received a mortal wound, and was carried to his tent, whe;re, if we 
may believe Gibbon, he finished his course more like a saipt ap4 a 
hero, than a bloody and superstitious tyrant as he lived. Our infidel 
writer says, " the philosoj^ers who had accompanied him in this fatal 
expedition, compared the tent of- Julian with the prison of Socrates ; 
and the spectators, whom dvfy, or fiiendnhp, or curionty had as* 
seifihled round his couch, listened with re^ctfttl grief to the funeral 
oration of the dying emperor. 'Friends and fellow soldiers^ the sea- 
sonable period of my departure has npw arrived, and I discharge, 
with the cheerfulneu of a ready debtor, the demands of nature. I 
have learned from philosophy, how much the soul is more excellent 
than the body; and that the separation of the nobler substance should 
''be the Subject of joy^ rather than aiflidion. I have learned from 
"religion, that an early death has c^n been the reward of piety ,- and 
" I accept as a &vour of the gods, the mortal stroke that secures me 
from tiie danger of disgracing a character, which has ^lutherto been 
supported by virtue and fortiiude, I die without remorse, as I have 
lived witliout guUf. I am pleased to reflect on the tnaoc^mce of my 
private life; and I can afiirm with confidence, that the supreme au- 
thority, thai emanation of Divine Power, bius beeii preserved in my 
hands pure and immaculate. Detesting the corrupt and destructive 
maxims of despotism, I have considered the happiness of the people 
as the end of government. Submitting my actions to the laws of 
prudence, of Justice, and of moderation, I have trusted the event to 
" the care of Providence. Peace was the object of my councils, as 
long as peace was consistent with the public welfare ; but when the 
imperious voice of my country summoned me to arms, I exposed my 
person to the dangers of war, with the clear foreknowledge (which 
I had acquired from the art of divination) that 1 was destined to fall 
by the swbr^. 1 now offer my fribute of gratitude to the Eternal 



€f 
€S 
i€ 
t€ 
€€ 
i€ 
€i 
€t 



i€ 
€t 
€< 
€t 
it 
it 
€t 
it 
tt 



€( 
(t 
€< 
€€ 
it 

" '[ Being, who has not suffered me to perish by the cruelty oi a tyrant, 

" by the cruel dagger of conspiracy, or by the slow tortures of linger- 

i< ^ ~ ' ' 

it 
ft 
it 



ing disease. He has given me in the midst of an honouraJble career, 
a splendid and glorious departure from the world ; and I hold it equally 
absurd, equally base, to solicit, or to decline, the stroke of fate. 
Thus much 1 have attempted to say; but my sitrength fiuls me, and 
" 1 feel the approach of death. — 1 shall cautiously refrain from any 
" word that may tend to influence your suffrages in the election of an 



€€ 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 159 

'' emperor. My choioe tniglit be imprudent or injudicious; and if.it 
" shmAd not be ratified by thf consent of the army, it might be fotal 
'* to the person whom I should recommend. I shall only, as a good 
" citisen, express my hopes, that the Romans may be blessed with the 
"goTemmeotof a virtuous sovereigpn.* " Such is the discoiur^e attri- 
buted to Julian by Ammianus, and to which, it seems, Mr. Gribbon 
would haye his readers give implicit credit, though he finds fault with 
this Pagan writer for b^eving aiid recording the miraculous prev^ition 
of the attempt to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem. In a note^ Gib- 
bon says, ''The whole relation of the death of Julian is giv^n by Am- 
''mianus, (xxv. 3.) an intelligent spectator. Libanius, who turns 
with horror from the scene, has supplied some circumstances. (Oral. 
Parental, c. 136-140, p. 35^36^) The calumnies of Gregory, and 
"the legends of more andent saints, (he adds) may now be Hlently 
"despised." But why so, Mr. Gibbon? Why should we despise the 
testimony of men, who, you say, wrote nearer the time of the event, 
and who of course must have better means of information? Are we 
to reject their testimony because they were taints: that is, holy and 
virtuous men? By this kind of logic we are then to reject the evi- 
dence of men of probity, and give ctedit only to the interested and un- 
principled. This method of belief may suit the infidel and the fana- 
tic, but it wiU not satisfy the Catholic, nor, we will add, theiionest Pro- 
testant, desirous of learning the truth. 

Historians agree that Julian was a vain babbler, and truly such a 
piece of silly conc^t and bombast as Gibb<m has treated us with» we 
do not recollect to have seen attriiwited to a dying maa, though he is 
ranked by our historian as a hero, fiiscinated with the love of virtue 
and of feme* This panegyric by Julian on his own supposed good 
deeds, reminds us, to be sure, of the fulsome eulogies best&wed by 
hireling and ignorant writers on the pretended blessings derived from 
Elizabeth's reign, but a slight examination of the statements on either 
side, accompanied with the actual result of their measures, will soon 
remove the gloss of these tinselled fables. The speech attributed to Ju- 
lian is a medley of falsehood and vanity, contradicted even by the his- 
torian himself, while he calls for implicit credit from his reader. For 
example : Julian is made to say that he dies without remorse, as he has 
lived without guilt ; yet the historian tells us a few pages before, that 
previous to^he battle in which he received his. mortal wound, '' when- 
ever he closed his eyes in short and interrupted slumbers, his mind 
was agitated with painful anxiety;** somewhat, we suppose, like our 
Richard the third. Now, would the man with a guiltless conscience 
be thus disturbed in his slumbers ? Again, he talks of having " leam- 
" ed from religion that an early death has often been the reward of 
'^ piety.** Piety indeed, to forswear that religion, and embrace Pagan 
idolatry. He then accepts Hue favour of death from the gods, and offers 
his *' tribute of gratitude to the Vernal Bmng" that is, one God, for 
preserving him from some dangers he appr^ended. Tl^s jumble of 
the one Supreme Being With a plurality of gods, reminds us of tfae 
eonsistency of our " few plain Christians,** who allow every discordant 
creed to be right but Catholicism, where truth only is to be found. 
Then Julian detests deipotiam^.andalways.considjartd the bftppiness pf 



u 



t 



1«0 . RKVIBW OP FOX. 

i 

I 

the people as the end of government. But how came Gibbon to tell 
us that this -very Julian treated the Christian part of the people with 
contempt and hatred? a feeling the ^' plain Christians'* are attempting 
to excite against the Catholics. Fax-say«, the persecution of the 
-Christians under Julian raged at times with more than u$ual violence, 
and the tortures inflicted were of the most horrible kind. This does 
not look like detesting despotism. Fox> among his recorded martyrs, 
mentions '^Maxentius and Juventius^ two Christian officers, put to 
^' death for reproving the emperor on account of his idolatries.'* These 
two individuals are stated by Theodoret, 1. ill, c. 15, to have suffered 
from another cause. Julian, to ensnare and perplex his Christian sul>- 
jects, while residing at Antioch, ordered the wells and meat, in the 
market place to be polluted with the oblations offered* to the heathen 
deities 5 these gross profanations excited the indignation of the above- ! 
named officers, who belonged to- the emperor's guard, 'and while they 
were at an entertainment they, among other things, let fall these words 
of the three children : '* thou hast delivered us into the hands of the 
most hateful forsakersof Grod; and to an unjust king, and the most 
wicked of all the world." This opinion of his officers seems to have 
been quite at variance with Julian's opinion of himself, and Mr. Gib- 
bon's opinioii of him too; Well the sentiments of Maxentius and Ju- 
ventius were carried to Julian, who ordered them before him and qiies* 
tioned tliem on the subject, when they gave him this answer ; — *'yff 
'^ have been so happy, sir, as to be {educated in chc true religion ^ we 
*^ have been used with pleasure to pay an entire obedience to. those ex** 
^'cellent laws and constitutions which your .predecessors, Constantine 
^'and his sons es^blished; and therefore with so much the- more soi^ 
'^ row and anguish of inind, 'we behold your majesty dispensing diaboli- 
*^ cal admonitions everywhere^ and scattering them even upon our 
''victuals and drink." This was enough for Mr. Gibbon's imnaaculate 
detester of despotism, and as he governed for the happinessof the peo- 
ple, he ordered the two officers to suffer the most cruel deaths. 

Gibbon would fain persuade us that the testimonies of St. Gregory 
Nazianzen ^'and the legends of more ancient saints," should be nUnihf 
passed over as *' calumnies :" this we are not surprised at,, since thdr re- 
lations give a very different colour to the character of our historian's 
favourite emperor. St. Gregory is said to have predicted the evils 
the empire would suffer under his reign, and Socrates describes his 
death as attended with far different circumstances than those detailed 
by Gibbon on the authority of Ammianus. . The latter allows that Ju- 
lian had a foreknowledge of his death through the mystery of dwvna- 
Hon; Fox says he was told the fatality of his end by St. Basil, who was 
mattyred by him. Socrates states that when the apostate tyrant was 
wounded, he fell into a rage, and casting' some of his blood Cowards 
heaven, exclaimed *' O GalUlean, thou hast conquered." This statement 
' is corroborated by Theodoret aiid Sozomen, writers of the most unble" 
mished reputation and nearly cotemporary with the event. Much more 
might be said on<the flippancy and inconsistency of this popular histo- 
riaii, but enough has been ^ven to shew why he thought it best, that 
• '^the- legends of the more ancient saints should be silently despised." 
-The fact is, that while. he Was charging the .clergy of Jjerusalem of the 



A REVIEW 

OF 

CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL. 



ExFLAKATiONOr THE E«oii»viKD.— JAii cul TtpTCKati tiuoaaicvt. the fmdoi 
Ariatldiig, er^eringiht Ungue of the deacon Hcpm-atui ta be cut ml, /or maintammg the 
dimitv of Bur Samaur, and the yimng Jeacim, ojler niffcring the Inn ff hit tongue, niira- 
nUmulii'froclaimiiig uiih on audibk voice, Wio( •• CHriMt u Ci>d."~^r page 174 tf Ihit 



COVTINUATION OF 1 

fourth century with practising the pious art of delusion, he himself 
was writing under the base influence of pelf, well knowing that tlte 
people of England, in his days, were like the Jews in the days of Isaiah, 
•nd would pay him better for writing smooth things, that is for telling 
them lies, ti>an they wpuld for telling che truth. 

We raust be allowed to make one more observation before we dis- 
tniss Mr. Gibbon. — Julian, it will be seen, declined namiug his succes- 
sor, and the choice of the army fell upon Jovian, who happened to be 
a 34ddier and a man of talent, as well as a Christian. This circum- 
stance is lamented by the historian in these words : "The triumph of 
" Otrittianitg, nod the caUimitia of the empire, may, in some measure, 
" be ascribed to Julian himself, who had neglected to Kcitre thefutitTe 
' exteutiort of hit dengru, by the timely and judicious nomination of so 
' associate and successor." — So, then, the " triiunph of Christianity" is a 
matter of regret with this writer, and the stopping of persecution a c»- 
Itfflity to tbe empire' What on outrage to humamty 1 i^ni yet this 



162 BEVIEW OP FOX'S 

man's work is to b^ found in tbe libraries of most Protestants wbo can 
a£ford to purebase it. Need we wonder tbat infidelity is spreading so 
rapidly among tbe higber classes of tbls country ? That tbe ^^ future 
*' designs of Julian" were tbe extirpation of Cbrktiamty' cannot be 
doubted ; but He wbo supports it by tbe migbt of bis power^ laugbed 
tbe blaspbemer to scorn^ and sbewed tbat tbe designs of an apostate 
were as impotent as tbe malice of tbe beatben. Tbat tbe divine Justice 
was more immediately concerned in tbe circumstance of Julian's death, 
may fairly be inferred from tbe series of public calamities and judg-* 
nients tbat befel tbe empire on tbe occasion, sucb as terrible cartb- 
Quakes, a season of excessive beat and drougbt, witb tbe necessary 
consequence, famine and pestilence. So tbe ancient bi^torians testify. 
' Tbe fourtb section of tbis second book is beaded, " Persecutions of 
ttie Christians by the Goths, ^c." — Fox informs bis readers, tbat, " during 
**^ tbe reign of Constantine tbe great, several Scytbian C^tbS embraced 
'^ Cbristianity, tbe ligbt of tbe gospel baving spread considerably in 
** Scytbia, tbougb tbe two kings of tbat country, and tbe majority of 
*^ tbe people continued Pagans." Hence tben*it is manifest, tbat tbere 
i^as something more tban biunan in tbe system of Cbristianity, or how 
cjould the truths of tbe gospel overcom^4be force and stratagems of 
tbe world, and effect such extraordinary changes in tbe character of 
tlipse who embraced this system? — ^The martyrologist then goes on: 
*f Fritigern, king df the Western Goths, was an ally of the Ronians; 
"^ but Athanaric, king of the Eastern Goths, was at war with them. The 
'^ Christians, in the doniinions of the former, lived unmolested ;. but 
'^ the latter having been defeated by the Romans, wreaked bis ven- 
^^ geance on his Cbristi^in subjects. Sabas, a Christian, was the first who 
'^ felt the enraged king s resentment. ^ Sabas was humble and modest, 
'^ yet. fervent and zealous for the advancement of the church. Indeed 
" tbe sanctity of his life, and the purity of his manners, gave the 
" greatest force to his doctrines. In the year 370, Athanaric gave 
** oroers, that all persons in his dominions should sacrifice to the Pagaxi 
deitie;», and eat the meat which had been offered to tbe idols, or be 
put to death for disobedience. Some humane Pagans, who had 
.*' Christian relations^ endeavoured to save them by offering them meat 
*' which had not received the idolatrous consecration, while the magi- 
strates were made to believe that all had been done according to their 
direction. But Sabas too well knew St. Paul's principles to imagine, 
tbat tbe sin lay in eating ; be knew that giving tbe enemies of the 
faith an advantage over the weak was all that made tbat action cri- 
minal in Christians. He therefore not only refused to comply with 
what was proposed to him, but publicly declared, that those who 
sheltered themselves under that artifice, were not true Christians." 
• Fox goes on with a few other minor circumstances of this saint's mar- 
tyrdom, and says, that he suffered by drowning on the 12th of April, 
A.D. 372. 

Before we enter on a criticism of this accbunt, it .will not be unin- 
teresting to tbe reader to give a brief detail of these Gothic kingdoms, 
and shew how tbe ligbt of Catholicism was first spread among them. 
The Goths were a barbarous people inhabiting the province of Goth- 
land in Sweden, from whence they passed into Fomerania, acconiHig 






€f 
<t 

if 
€< 
€< 
V< 
ft 



BOOR OF MARTYSS. l«l 

to TWatiid, nai tbeaoe elteiid«d tiiftmselvtis ^loiig' the Diumbe 9aA 
into Tliraco mod Gceecf . By tlieir furioua iacuriiQiia into the RomM 
ftmiiire» tkey ptofreA themwhes tfQuideMQe neighbo^n, wA finatty 
overthrew ike Western p«irt of i%, erectiogp ou its rulna the kin^vi ^it 
the OUto^hfk, or Stutera Gotto, in liety, end of the ViAigot^he or 
Weitem 6«lhB, in the northern pcirts of Franee and Spain.— TheM^ 
people began to recem the iighi of the GatboUe feith about the reign 
ef Valerian, who imre the pjurple from S60 to 2^8^ frooi <^rtaui prieat^ 
vrhom they had made eaptivea and earned a^ay> in their inrDads,: fnun 
Oalatia aad Cafipadooia. These piQua ecolMiaaties, by healing their 
siek^ and preacUaig thegospel» eon verted aeveral .among them, aecord- 
M^ to Soaomen and PhUostorgins. In the great oounoil of Nioe^ the 
sid»Mription of TheophiUis^bic&ep of Gotbia, i4 to be found ; and »Qae^ 
qnently he was a Catholic biah€^» m were the converted Qotba at. that 
time, in the yew^ 374, $U Baeil^ a £fttber pf th^ CatiboUe eh«rch, oaskt 
mended the faith, of the Qotha ; but U^|UU0» the ^ueuelmQ ^ /Bm^t 
phiina, be^g j^nt en aome oeca^ien to Co n s l Nitft iii elpkr ilk 3f6» be. mw 
gahied over by the Arian herettca<»aiitd on. hi^ ?etum pei^yierteAthe failh 
ef hia countrymen. Athanarie* king of ^ Tb^rvinglan Ck>th9 whe 
bordered on the empire, raised ^ I^ 9ay#» ^ \AiH>^f pereeeution agHiHit 
tke Chrisdaiis in S90. Fritigefnea> the Uug of the Wettften Ootfae, 
iraa at war with Athanaric, and being in danger from the euperiority of 
his adversary, he sought the alliaqce of tho emperor Videna, aii<C m 
mder to imbioe the latter to ^u^cour him, be embr^eed Gh«l9tifmity 
and the Arian heresy at the same time, the empe^Of bimfielf being an 
Arian. Thua i^ AjnimUm introduced among the Qpth? from Mrorbtty 
intereat, while the CathoUe faith obtained its footing by the whUmity 
and purity of its heavenly principles.'*— The reader wiU hem obaerve, 
that aa the penecntion noticed by Fo% pommenced in 3110, and aa 
^ianiena \yna not intyodueed till six years after, the martyrs suffering 
under it were all CathoUea^ of which &ct we shall s<>Qn o9^ a ecci^ 
wincing proof. 

it ia now time to examine Fox's aeoount of St. Sabea.*-*He »ay», thf^ 
this majrtyr ''was the/r«^ who felt tbe enraged king's r^entntent $,*' 
and yet it appears, by his own statement, that the^ persecution, ijn^gfed 
two years before 8abas si#ered I Now nre we tQ si^^pgose that jtlMjre 
was not a Christian martyred during two long yeavs of per^0^iiio% ^and 
that perseoution too. represented to be a blQoc^ one ? Qe^ide^ iEets 
says, ''Sabns was soon: after af^rebended andr carried be^ptr^ s^ magi«r 
trate, who inquired into bis fortune 99i circum|;^an(^j, ifirhen, fincUng 
that he was a person of obsoufe station, he was (ti494^^<4» umov^ 
of notice.** Now how are we f^ reconcile these. $)$mtradi(^;ory state^ 
menta > In one place tbe martyr is made the j!!r^ tQ foe^ the kite's, yeor 
geanne; and immediately after he is diamisaed by a magUtrate as.nnr 
toorl&sf ofnoHee, We point out this discirepancy in the martyrolpgiat'a 
language, to shew the litfle rebance t^yat canbe (placed in his aca»unts^ 
and the almost total dis^regai'd to truth ,that appears throughout bi9 
work. From the authentic nets pf this martyrs life, which may bf 
inund in the Rev. Alban Butler*s Sfm4s lAoeg, the Greeks commemor 
rate fifty-one martyrs who suffered, the tyro moat iUuatrious of wl^h 
ware S& Nicetas and 9abas« M. tN %cewnt g( the forjner ipLpt'a 



U 






l« REVIEW OF FOX'S 

Itoctth, Mr^^iiUer slaies that the usiial' method of the ^rseeutors wad 
to burn the Christians with the children in thfeir houses^ or in the 
cHarches where they were assembled together: sometimes/ he says, 
they were ^stabbed at the foot of the altar ^ consequently there were 
many, very many, that suffered during these two years^ and therefore 
St. Sabas icould not be the first, as John Fox asserts and afterwaris 
contradicts. — ^The records of this martyr's death are contained in a 
letter from the church of Gothia to that of Cappadocia, which oonckules 
thus : " Wherefore offering up the holy saa^ce, on the day whereon 
^' the jBartyr was. crowned, impart this to our brethren, that the Lord 
may be praised throughout the Catholic and Apostolic church for 
thus glorifying his servants.*' Here then' we have a convincing te8« 
-timony that this martyr and the church to which he belongeii were 
Cathblic y for the holy sacrifice mentioned is the mass, which Protest- 
ants^ swear is idolatrous ; and it was offered in honour of the saint's glo- 
rioiis lAartyrdom, which Protestants say is idolatry also. This fact is 
further stated to be imparted, that it may become publicly knpwn 
thrciughout the Catholic and Apostolic church, which clearly sfacfws 
that this doctrine, rejected by Pitotestaiits, was the doctrine of the pri- 
mitive Christians and martyrs, derived from the apostles. This doc- 
trine instill that of the Catholics throughout the worlds and therefore 
the Catholics, and the Catholics only, can lay claim to the faith once, 
*and for all, delivered to the saints, 

Prievious to quitting this account of Fox, we will take leave • to draw 
'the nbtitce of the reader to the snares which he says the Gothic perse- 
cutors laid to entrap the Christians. Our martyrologist speaks indig- 
nantly of these artifices, but he forgets that the same or similar prac- 
^tices were put in force by the first evangelical reformers to Prptest- 
•antism, %nd are now in fuU use by the disciples of Pro|;estant*asceh- 
debcy." In £li2abeth's reign, an act was passed 16' compel all persons 
to attend to her new form' of worship, under corporal pains and penal- 
tieSj and many Catholics, through weakness, made occsisional confor- 
miiy to secure their liberty and property. This act of hypocrisy was 
txHidemned by the Catholic church in Elizabeth's days as it was by St. 
SabaS, who is applauded for so doing by Fox 5 and Catholics in these 
daye^, l>y refusing to take the impious test oaths, by which they are 
deprived of the. exercise of their civil rights, act on the same. principle 
laid down by St. F^ul, and which caused St. Sabas to declare himself 
cfieaty It Christian. But "what difference is there, we ask, between the 
conduct of tbese Gothic persecutors of the Christians, in commanding 
thi6 latter to eat forbidden meats, to save their lives, and the conduct 
of Ph>te8tant-ascendency," in forcing Catholic children into school^ 
where a f<^rbiclden book is used to proselyte them,, to obtain a fidse 
education, or renlain ignorant of letters > For our part we can see no 
' diffei^nce, except that ijte Goths pUt the Christians to death in case of 
refusal, and " Prbt^statit'-ascendency" contents itself wi^ keeping the 
Catliolies itr ignorance, and then taunt them with being so ! ! 1 ^ The 
one sends the Christians to heaven by a temporary suffering, the other 
keeps. ttie Catholics On eArth In continual slavery, and revile them for 
pers^tiflg in their religious belief. > 
' ' Calholics kik>w that the sin does not lay in r eocft^ the book; any 



BOOK OP .MARTYB5. 



106 



more than the mere eating of the forbidden meats waa condemned by. 
Sabas ; the crime conai&ts in " giving the enemies of the faith an ad- 
'^ vantage over the weak/' and thereby hazarding their salvation by 
falling into the snares of error. The basis of Protestantism is the spirit 
of self-interpretation^ which leads to endless contradictions and diver- 
sity of creeds. The basis of Catholicism is submission to divine autko' 
rity, by which Truth and Unity are preserved in the churchy though that 
church is spread through the whole worlds and embraces all nations. 
Were then the Catholics to conform to this rule of reading the scripture 
without note or comment) they would act in contradiction to the prin-. 
cipies of their churchy and become hypocrites^ like the Christians in the 
persecution of the Goths, who appeared to conform to the decrees of the 
king by eating meats^ which though not actually profaned by heathen 
sacrifices^ were nevertheless supposed to be so by their persecutors, and 
thus they belied their faith though they did not partake of the polluted 
offerings. The fact is^ the Catholic church has invariably condemned 
the immoral doctrine of equivocation and mental reservation^ and as 
constantly inculcated that simplicity and godly sincerity are truly Chris- 
tian virtues, necessary to the conservation of justice, truth, and the se- 
curity of the rights of society. We do not attjpmpt to dejiy that many 
of her members, both kings and ministers, and'prelates and magistrates, 
and people^ have beeaguUty of duplicity, as we see in the case of this 
persecution of Ath&naric ; but the church, as a body, is not to be blamed 
for the defalcation of individual members, any more than the principles 
of the British constitution are to be condemned, because some bad men 
may and do violate them. Now if Sabas was right in publicly declar- 
ing " that those who sheltered themselves under that artifice were not 
'' true Christians 5" must not the Catholic clergy be right also, and de- 
serving of the same praise as Fox bestows upon St. iSabas, in declaring, 
that those who shelter themselves under the artifices of Bible-school 
promoters to obtain education, are not true Catholics ? We are sure 
the unprejudiced reader will decide in the affirmative. 

The next article is the '^ opposition of Etisebius to the Arian heresy*' 
Fox tells us, that " Eusebius, bishop of Samosata^ muade a distinguish- 
*' ed figure in ecclesiastical history, and was one of the most eminent 
'' champions of Christ against the Arian her§syV' and he gives a pretty 
fair JELCcount of the dispute between him and the emperor Constantius, 
concerning the deposition of Meletius, patriarch of Antioch, who was 
also a stout opposer of this impious heresy, and a firm defender of the 
futh'of the Nicene council. But the most important statement made 
by Fox, and tp which we ' call the particular attention of the Protestant 
reader, is thisi . /' About this time," he writes, " the see of Caesarea 
having become vacant, Eusebius was iqistrumental in promoting Ba- 
sil to it, on which pocasion Gregory the younger calls him. The pillar 
of TBUTH, the light of ^ the world, the fortbess of the churc^^ the 
RULE of FAITH, the support of the, faithful, and an instrument in the 
" hands of God for bestowing favours on his people/* Thus then it is 
admitted by Fox, and, of course by his modern editors, *' the few plain 
Christians,'* that "about this time,** namely, the middle of the fourth 
century, there was a pillar of truth, a rule of faith, and a church of 
God, of which church the fathers and bishops were the fortresses uiw- 



€f 



€( 



<t 



€t 



16(J »E VIEW OP FOrS 

deirWliose fire^ or By whose writings and pi^enchings^ tlie i^ltlifitl fbtind 
support againsrt the wiles of heresy and the attacfks of heretics. But 
why, we ask, as we did in ttie case of St. Ignatius, (see mtt ftc^fcip, 
p. Z9) of St. Polycarp (tM. 45;, St. Justin the martyr <p. 47), St. Iremfens 
(p. 6^.), and Tertullian (p. 83.) ; WHY, did not John Pox iaform hid 
readers WHAT DOCTRINES this pillar of truth, Easebius, and hid 
fellow-prelates Basil and Gregory the younger, taught? Why £dhe 
leave thetn in a state of darkness as to the sum and substance of theit 
belief, contenting himself with the bare statement that Etrsebfus "was 
^ one of the most eminent champions of Christ againi^ the Arian herc^ 
^ sy,** and that " Gregory the younger calls* him, the pillar of truth," 
fee. > Such a statement conveys no light to the reader, who may form 
to himself any thing or nothing. And this, as we have before otoserved, 
was the intention of John Fox, as it is also that of his modem editors. 
Neither of them desire that the incth should be told j but as we have 
](>ledged ourself that our intention is to give the truths the whole *nWA, and 
nothing hut the truth, we will here fill up the chasm made by John Fox, 
in his account of the persecution of the Ghristiatis by the Arians. 

Eusebius was, as Fox records, an eminent champion of Christ against 
the Arians, and spent the greater part of his episcopal life in trarvelling 
through Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine, to strengthen the Catholics ia 
their faith by his preachings, until he fell a vtctrm to Arian loalloe, at 
t)olicha, a small city forty-one miles from Saitosata, in S80. His death 
Was occasioned by a tile thrown from the top of a house by an Ariail 
Woman^ as he was passing in t^e street. It does not appeal that h^ 
left any writings behind him, but the two prelates named with him as 
iiis associates, have left us their sentiments in writing, which have been 
presierved to this day. St. Basil, we are rightly told by Pox, was 
promoted to the archiepiscopal see of Caesarea, by the aid of Eusebius, 
and he Was praised for this act by ''Gregory the younger," that is St. 
iSregory Nazianzum, who was bishop of Constantinople, which see he 
afterwards vacated, and retired to Nazianzum, near which city lie wai 
bom, and from which hie took the name, to distinguish himself (torn 
a younger brother called Gregory of Cesarius. It is allowed by Pox 
ihat these jgreat lights of the church opposed the heresy t^th^ Artans, 
Which was ^ denial of the divinity of Jesus Christ. St. Gr<^ory, in 
%is oratibns, and St. Basil in his book against Eunomius, fnaintafins th6 
divine essence of the Son of God, as did all the fathers Ijiirt preceded 
them. They also maintained all the doctrines now held by Catholics 
and condemned by Protestants as idolatrous and Superstitious, as will 
he seen by the following quotations, which, on comparison with ihast 
teferred to above, will be found to be perfectly uniform and con- 
sistent ) a conf\'incing proof that the never-failing protiilses of Christ, 
that the Spirit of Truth should abide With hfe church, ktid. teach her 
all truth to the end of thie worlft, was given to the CaQidlic church, 
and to ihat church alone. 

We will begin with St. Basil, as he cRefl in syd, ten years before St. 
Gregory Nazianzum. On the Authority and Marks of the Churfch^ St. 
!basU writes: "The order and government of the church, is it not rtia* 
'* riifestly, and beyond contradiclaon, the work ^f the Holy Ghost? 
*' For he ga'c^ to Ks church (I Cor. %ih 36.) Jlrit aposftks^ secondly pro^ 



n 



€€ 
ft 
€€ 



ft 
€( 



fiOOK OF MARTYRJS. 167 

^phets; t^dlp tedf^ers, ^c." L. de Spirku. & c. 16. t. iii. p. 34. Edit. 
PP. S. MauHj Pwris. 1731, 17^, 1730.— ** We indeed ourselves are of 
little value; but^ bf the grace of Grod^ we remain ever the same, 
unaffected by the common changes of things. Our belief is not oHe 
at Seleucia, and another at Constantinople 3 one at Lampsacus^.and 
** atiother at Rdme; and so different from what it was in former times, 
** but always one and the same.*' Ep, 351. od. Ev^esmoi, t. iii; p. 386. Edit. 
Bened, Parisns, 1731.-^^' As malky as hope in Christ, are one people, 
'^ and they, Who are of Christ, form one church, though it be named 
" in many places." Ep. 161. ad AmphiL t, iii. p. 362. — " It is more just 
** to judge of our concerns, not from this or that man, who walk not 
*^ in truth;- but from the number of bishops, who, in all regions, are 
united to us. Let the cities of Asia, the sound part of Egypt and of 
Syria, be interrogated. These by letter communicate with us, and 
we with tbem. From these you may learn, that we are all imani- 
^' mous; all think the same thing. Wherefore, he, who declines our 
'* communion, may be considered by you, as separated from the uni- 
" versal chUrcli. It is better we should lose our lives, and that the 
^' diurches should remain unanimous, than that, on account of our 
** childish feuds, the faithful should be so much injured." £p. 204. 

od NeoctESi *. iii.' p. 307. St. Gregory Nazianzum says, '' To one, in- 

deed, is given the sword of wisdom; to another the sword. of knowledge, 
1 Cor. xii. 8. My brethren^ let us respect, and guard, and main-* 
'^ tain this order. Let some hear, others speak, and others act." 
Orat. xxvi. t. 1. p. 450. Edit, Co{onuE, 1690. 

On the Succession of the Pastors of the Church, from the apostles, 
St. Basil writes, — " If we depart from the life-living root, the fedth in 
*' Christ ; like withered branches, we are cast out and committed to 
" the flames. For if we do not rest on the foundation of the apostles, 

*' being imsupported, we are lost." Com, in Esaiam, t, 1. p. 391. On 

the name of Catholic, St. Gregory signs himself in tlie document call- 
ed his fVill, " Gregory, bishop of the Catholic church of Constantino- 

On the disputed point of Private Interpretation, now so warmly and 
pertinaciously contested by Protestants, St. Basil thus addresses a 
heretic: — " What is it yous ay ? Shall we not allow more to antiquity? 
Does not the multitude of Christians claim respect, who now are, 
as well as those who went before us ? These abounded in every grace, 
'^ and must we disregard them against whom you have lately brought 
out your impious discoveries? Must we shut our eyes, and, sup- 
pressing all recollection of every holy man, submit our understand- - 
ings to your deceits, and idle sophistries? Truly, your influence 
must be great, if, what the devil could not effect by his wiles, we 
should concede to your dictations; that is, persuaded by you, 
we should prefer your inventions to that tradition of belief, which, 
in all former times, prevailed under the direction of so many holy 

men." L. 1. Adv, Eunom. t.l.p, 210. St. Gregory Nazianzum says, 

*' To one indeed, is given the word of wisdom : to another the word of 
*' knowledge: (1 Cor. xii. 8.) My brethren, let us respect, and guard, 
'' and maintain this order. Let some hear, others speak, and others 
act. We must not all e^cercise the office of the tongue, which Is 






€< 
€t 
,€€ 
■€C 

i€ 
€i 

« 



U 



« 



16« REVIEW OF: FOX'S 

" the most prompt and ready memlierj for all are not aposUes^ nor 
" prophets, nor expounders. To teach is great and eminent; but to 
** learn is void of danger. You that are a sheep, why do you arrogate 
" the function of the shepherd } Beiqg the foot, why will you 1>e the 
" head } Why do you pursue the great, but uncertain and perilous, 
*' gains of the ocean; when you may till the earth in safety V Orof. 
. xxvi. t. 1. p, 450. '^ Truly, there should have been a law among us, 
whereby — as among the Jews young men were not allowed to read 
certain books of scripture — ^not all men, and at all times, but 
'^ certain persons only, and on certain occasions should be permitted 
'< to discuss the pouits of faith.'* Ib'ul. p. 462. '' If these berelies 
*^ may freely teach and promulgate their opinions, who does not see 
" that the doctrine of the church will be condemned, as if truth were on 
" their side? But two opposite doctrines, on the same point, caa- 

" not possibly be true." OrcU, xlvi, p. 722. Rufinus, a priest of Aqui- 

leia, who flourished from the years 372 to about 410, relates of these 
two saints, that '' during the thirteen years they spent at Athens, lay- 
ing aside all profane words, they applied solely to the sacred writ- 
ings, explaining them, not from their own presumption, but by the 
'* authority of those ancient fathers, who, it was plain, had received 
" the rule of interpretation, from apostolical succession.*' HisL Eccles, 
/, 11. c. 9. p. 256. Edit. Basil. 1562. 
On apostolical Tradition^* which Protestants reject, St. Basil writes, 

* In our first number, p. 4, we spoke of the after impossibility that error should be in- 
troduced into the doctrinrs of the church of Christ without detection from some one^ and 
we gave two instances, from the writings of Sozonien and the works of St. Augaslin, a« 
proofs of the care observed by the ^'uardians of faith in the Catholic t'hnrch, lest a w&rd 
chould be improperly applied in defining her doctrines. (Ibid.) We have now the op- 
portunity of furnishing a third instance in our own case> and ns we Iny no claim to infaiii- 
bility, and have no other desire than that of stating to our readers the truHi, and nothing 
but the truth, we feel more pleasure than reluctance in arknowlcdf^ing a mistake we have 
inadver:cntly conimitled. In giving the sentiments of St. Irenteui o!i the doctrine of 
TRADiTiaN", i^. 70, we observed, that this " is neither more nor /eu than PUBLIC OPI- 
" KION* received and delivered down from age to age.*' This observHtion has drawn 
from a very learned and pio»t excellent divine the following remarks. '* What ! Tradition, 
*' which is the word ofGodt unwritten indeed, but delivered by Christ to his apostles; the 
" unerrhig word of God, revealed by God to inan^-Traditioii, which has been made known 
^ to us and decided upon by the inspired councils^ assisted by the Holy Ghost, the pro- 
•* niised Paraclete-^-Tradition, which conveys to us the truths of Heaven with certamty 
** equal to the inspired writings, and which, in fact, gives authenticity, meaning and cl- 



it 




faith and cometh from God.' Faith, and what is divinely laugbr, 
" object of tradition, and therefore is not matter of opinion, which may change according 
" to circumstances ; and therefore the voice of Tradition is not to be worked on by huroyn 
*' effor's such as you have recommended ; it is the t'oice of God and not of man^ the expre.«s 
" testimony of the God of truth, and not the mere opinion of men. By railing it public 
" opinion you do not clear up the difficulty, for as long at it is opinion, it is subject to er- 
^ ror. You talk of appealing to opinion, but it is Tradition that is to govern and direct 
** opinion and beJief. 1 have said enouch I tbink to make yon see the immense difference 
** between this opinion, which is the result of human reasoning, and Tradition* which is re- 
** vcaled Truth, the unwritten word ; and I might say that this is no more opinion, or de- 
^* pendent upon opinion, than is the written word of God in the scriptures the result of bu- 
*' man stud^', or tci be explained by human opinion, wit, or fancy." We fliank.our inesti- 
mable /riend for his clear Jind luminous definition of this doctriue, in which we perfectly 
agree with h'lm. In making our objectionable (statement^ we did not allude to the doctrines 
and ceremonies taught and practised by the upostles and^ their successors, we only intended, 
by the cxpre&sion, to convey to the Frotestant reader/ that when any new or notfcl doc- 
Uipc \»d» atie.ropled to be fouled on tlie Jieople, by pretenders to inspiration, that Catho* 



BOOK OF BiARTYilS. 1«9 

" Among tbe pointa of belief and practice in the churchy Hupie were deli- 
" vered in writings while others were received by apostolical traditicm in 
.*' mystery^.thatis^in a hidden muiner ; but both have equid authority^ nor 
^' are they opposed by any one, who is but slightly versed in ecdesifra- 
" tical rites. For if we attempt to reject as matters of little moment, such 
" points as were not written, we shall, by our imprudence, offer a signal 
** injury to the gospel, confimng the whole preaching of faith to a mere 
" name." He then alludes to many practices in use among the £as« 
'' tern churches at that day, and inquires in what part, of scripture they 
'* are to be found. " But,' he observes, " by TRADITION they 
'* would be brought down to us; and the day would not suffice me, 
'' were I to enumerate all those points which have been thus delivered.'* 
De Spir. Sancto, c. 37* t. iii. />. 64. " If nothing elate that is unwritten 
" be received, then this may not. But if the greater part of our sa- 
" cred rites is unwritten, together with many others, let us receive 
'* this. In my opinion, it is apostolical to adhere to unwritten tradi- 
" tions." Ibid, c, ^9, p. 60. " Separate not the Holy Spirit from the 
** Father and the Son ; let tradition deter you. For so the Lord taught, 
•'' the apostles preached, the fathers maintained, the martyrs cofiiirm' 
" ed. Be satisfied to speak, as you were instructed.'* Serm, vi. adv, 
.Sabel, t. ii. p, 194. ' " Some turn to Judaism on account of the (ap- 
'' parent) confusion of the divine persons, and others to Paganism from 
'' other motives : so that neither the divinely inspired scriptii^re has any 
" effect on them; nor can the apostolical traditions compose their dif- 
" ferencea'.*' De Spirit, Sand. c. xxx. t, iii. p, 66, " Let us now con- 
sider, what are our notions concerning the Divine Spirit, as well 
those which we have drawn from the scriptures, as what we 
have received from the unwritten tradition of the fathers.*' Ibid* 
ix> p. 19. " It is the common aim of all the enemies of sound 
doctrine, to shake the solidity of our faith in Christ, by annulling 
■" apostolical tradition*" He adds : " They dismiss the unwritten 
" testimony of the fathers as a thing of no value.'* Ibid. c. x. p. 21. 
-From these latter extracts we may learn the sentiments of this great 
defender of the true faith on the mystery of the holy Trinity. — ; — St. 
.Gregory Nazianzvm says, on the doctrine of Tradition, *' I wish, 
" to the last breath of life, that deposit should be confessed of those 
^^holy fathers, who lived nearest to Christ, and to the origin of our 
faith, and that profession maintained, which we imbibed with our 
milk, which we uttered with our first speech." Orat. vi. t.l. p. 141. 
My sheep hear my voice, that voice which was instructed by the sacred 
oracles, and the writings of the holy fathers. What I have learnt 
from them, I shall always teach, not varying in a single point as the 
times may vary. In that profession I was born; in that I will die.** 
X}rat* XXV. p. 440. 

On the Supremacy of St. Peter and his successors in the see of Rome, 

.lies did not ground their faith on the word of this or that man, but on the universal tradi- 
tion or testimony of the Church, from the lime of the apostles to the present moment. 
Opinion* we are now convinced, is too vague and incorrect a terra, and therefore we have 
jDO hesitation in renouncing it. We cannot however, (juit the subject without calJingtbe 
attention of the Protestant reader to the strong hold which Catholics are thus demoustratf^^ 
to have of the incrrabilitj^ of their faitli. 



14 

t< 

c. 



(€ 
U 
€€ 
ft 
(€ 
H 



4< 



X€ 



4t6 witflffwr OF K)X« 

^t. Basil WfttM^' I^eter, frdoi being a dsiiermSD^ was called to th6 
'' ^stleiship 3 and firom the eminence of his faith^ received on him- 
*'rtetf the building of the chtrrch." Adn. £imom. 1/11. t. \. p. 940. 
St. Oregoify ]N'aa^ian2nim says^— '' You see, how Peter, among the disci- 
•* jJles of €hrist, all great and all worthy of choice, is called a rock, 
*< and receives o^ the profession of his faith the foundations of the 
^ chiitdi; whde John is particidarly beloved, and rests on the breast 
*««of Chiist^ and Ifhe O^her disciples bear this preference without re- 
^ pining.** Orai. xxvi. t 1. p- 458. In his seventh oration he stiles 
Tteter, " the pillar of the chunih.** Rid, p. 142. 

On the doctHnec^the Real Presence of Christ in the holy Eucharist, 
or Xford's Supper, Which Protestants deny, and those of the church of 
9&ngland as by law established, make the denial c^ it on oath- a quali- 
fication ft)r civil mid ecclesiastical office, St. Basil writes/— ^^ About the 
^ things, that God has spoken, there should be no hesitation, nor 
*^ doubt, but a firm persuasion, thdt all is true and possible, though 
*^ nature be agMnst it. Herein lies the struggle of faith. The Jsws 
•* therefore strove among themselves, saying: How can this man give us Ms 
flesh to edi? Then Jesus said to them: Amen, amen I say unto you: 
except you eat the flesh of the Son of inan, and drink his blood, you shall 
not have life in you.'* (Jo. vi. 53, 54.) Reguld vii. Moral, U ii. />. S40. 
^^ Withwliat lear, with what conviction, with what affection of mind, 
^^ should We partake of the body and blood of Christ? The i^stle 
^^ leaches us to fear, When he says: He (hat eateth and drinketh unworn 
"'^ thily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself (1 Cor. x4. 29.) j while 
** the Words of the Lord : This is my body, which shall be delivered for 
*' yott (ibid. 24), create a firm conviction/' Ibid* in Reg. brev. quwst. 
clxxii. p, 472. *' The Christian must be without spot or stain — ^and 
*' thus prepared to eat the body of Christ, and drink his blood.** Jhid. 
in Moral, reg, Ixxx. 22. p. 318.—' — ^St. Gregory Nazianzu&i says, speak- 
ing of his sister, who laboured under a grievous disorder, "Despair- 
*' ing of all other help, she has recourse to the universal physician — 
^ she fails down in faith before the altar, and cialls upon him who ia 
^' there adored.** Orat, 11. t. I, p. 186. ^ Without doubting, eat the 
•* body and drink the blood, if thou desirert to live.*' Ibid. Orat. idii. 
f. ^90. 

On the sacrifice of the Mass, which Luther abolished in his system 
of pretended reform, at the instigation of the devil, if we may believe 
his own words, and Protestants of the chuk*ch of England as by law 
^fttabli^hed sWear to be idolatrous, St. Gregory NaziaUzum writes, 
^ And Where, and by whom could God be worshipped in those mystic 
''^ lind elevating sacred rites, than which nothing among us is greater 
''nor more excellent,- if there were no priesthciod, or sacrifice? 
Knowing this, and knowing besides that no one was worthy of this 
great God, this sacrifice, and this priesthood, who had not first' of- 
" fered himself a victim to the Lo'rd — how should I dare to offer to 
him that external sacrifice, that antitype of great mysteries, or to 
take up the name iind habit of a priest?*' Orat, 1. t. 1. p. 3, 38. 
Julian, in impure and wicked blood, washes away his bc^tiismsd rite, 
^' opposing Initiation to initiation— 'he defiles his hands, in order to pu- 
rify them from that unbloody sacrifice, through which we commu- 






U 
ft 



U 



a 

et 

t< 






BOOK Of MAHimSv I7I 

^ nicate ^th CM^, with his dhiM tMiire^ «n8 hi« soilfrpiiigB." Oiw^ 
i^. tn JuUan, t. I. p, 70. 

On the doctrine of Ganfedsidn, rejei^ted and reviled by Psrotestnatd, 
but now practised by Catholics^ St. Basil writes^ *' In the confessiGn of 
sins^ the saioe method tnti^ be observed^ as in laying open the in- 
firmities of the body. For as these are not rashly communicated to 
every one, btft to those only who understand by what method they 
may be cured 5 so the confession of sins must be made to such per- 
sons as know how to apply a remedy.** In Quast. Bree, Itig. ^89. 
t. ii. p, 492. He afterwards states who those persons are : " Necessarily^ 
^ our sins nmst be confessed to those^ to whom has been committed 
^ the dispensation of the mysteries of God." Ibid, Reg, 888. p. 51i$. 
St. Gregory Nazianzum says^ alluding to the worlds of penance then 
appointed by l^e cinirch to be performed^ and the danger lest the sin- 
ner be surprised by death before they are completed,—" But, perhaps/ 
supplieautly thou wilt pray to the liord, that he will yet spare the 
Tine, and -not cut at down, accused as it is c^ sterility, but permit thee 
to manure round it : that is, to employ tears, and grocois, and prayers^ 
and watchings, and the maceration of soul and body, and in fine that 
correction which consists in the confession of sins, and the lowly 
•humiliation of life." Orat, xl. t, l.p. 642. "Think it not hard td 
^ confess thy sin, reflecting on the baptism of John, in order that, by 
'^ present shame, thou mayest escape the shame of the next life. Thus 
" will it be made manifest, that thou really hatest sin, having deemed 
" it deserving of contumely, and having triumphed over it.** Ibidi p^ 

657. 

On the doctrine of Purgatory, so much contemned and derided by 
Protestants, but steadily maintained by Catholics, St. Basil writes, 
^ The words of Isaiah, Through the wrath ef the Lord is the kind burn- 
ed, (ix. 19,) declare, that things that are earthly shall be made the 
food of a punishing fire; to the end that the soul may receive fisvour 
** and be benefitted. And the people shall be as the fuel of the fire (Ibid.) : 
"This is not a threat of extermihation* but k denotes expurgation, 
*^ according to the expression of the apostle : If any man*s works burn, 
'^ he shall suffer loss ; but he himself shall be saved, yet so as jby fire, (1 
Cor. iii. 15.)'* Com^ in c, ix. Isai. t. l,p, 654. " And the light of Israel 
shall be for a fire, (Isai. x. I7.) The operative powers of fire are 
chiefly two; it enlightens, and it burns. The first is cheerful and 
** pleasant ; the second bitter and afi9icting. The prophet adds : And 
" he shdll sani*tify him in a holy fire, and consume the glory of hi^ forest 09 
** grass. He here shews the nature of fire. It enHghtens and purifies. 
^ But how does this fire puriff, if it cohsumes? Truly, since our God 
" is Called a consuming fire, he will consume the wood, and what vices 
" arise from matter, which adhere to the sotQ, in the flesh, not in the 
** spirit. And when the fire shall have consumed all the wood of sin^ 
*' as it does grass, then that matter being destroyed which Was fuel to 
" the chastising fire, the prophet says : The burnt mountains shall repose^ 
" and ike hills, and the thick forests, and the consimiing fire shall cease, 
'' that feed upon them:* Ibid. p. 563. 

On tleligious Ceremonies, and particularly on making the sign of 
the cross, whereby Catholics attest their belief in the blessed Trinity, 






4€ 
44 



ira REVIEW OF FOX'S 



4i 
€< 
€i 



4t 
€< 

« 



and the Incaarnation and Death of our' Saviour^ St. Basil writes,—-'' If we 
attempt to reject those practices, as things of little moment, which 
rest on no written authority, we shall; by pur imprudence, materi- 
ally injure the gospel itself j even we shall reduce the very preach- 
ing of oiur faith to a mere name. Such (to mention that in the first 
place which is most common) is the practice of making the «ign of 
the cross, by those who put their hope in Christ. In what writing 
has this been taught?'* Lih.de. Spiritu. S, c. xxvii. (. iii. p^ 54. 
On the doctrine of Fasting, and more particularly on the fast 
of Lent, which Catholics observe at this day, as a primitive institution 
of their church, derived by tradition from the apostles, and Protestants 
deride as superstitious, St. Basil writes, " To them, Who willingly un- 
dertake it, fasting is at all times, profitable — but chiefly now, when 
a solemn fast is everywhere published. There is no island, no con- 
tinent, no city, no nation, no comer of the earth, where it is not 
heard. Let no one then exclude himself from the number of fasters -, 
in which number every age, all ranks take their place." Homily ii. de 
Jajun.t, ii. ]9. 11. 

On the honour and respect due to the Relics of Saints, which Catho- 
lics now practise and Protestants declare to be superstitious and idola- 
trous, St. Basil writes, " Affection to our departed brethren is refer- 
^' red to the Lord, whom they served; and he who honours them that 
f died for the faith, shews that he is inspired by the same ardour j so 
" that one and the same action is a proof of many virtues.*^ Jd. 
Amfj^os. MedioL Ep. cxcvii. t, iii. p. 287- '' If any one suffer for the 
name of Christ, his remains are deemed precious. And if any one 
touch the bones of a martyr, he 'becomes pastuker, in some degree, 
" of his holiness, on account of the grace residing in them. Where' 
''fore, precious in the sight of God is the death x>f his saints** Serm* in hae 
verba PsaU cxv. t* i. p. 375. '' I am greatly pleased, that you have 
^* raised an edifice to the name of Christ. And I am desirous, should 
I be able to procure some relics of martyrs, to join you in your soli- 
citude and labour.** J^. ccccviii. Arcadia. Episct. iii. p. 142. 
So on the invocation of Angels and Saints, the rejection of which on 
oath is made a qualification to pfiice in this country, St. Basil and St. 
Gregory are very explicit. The former, in celebrating the feaat of the 
forty martyrs of Sebaste, in 'the Lesser Armenia, who suffered under 
the emperor Licinius, in 320, and whose memory is commemorated to 
*this day by the Catholic church on the 10th of March, thus addresses 
his hearers, " These are they, who, having taken possession of our 
country, stand as towers against the incursions of the enemy. Here 
is a ready aid to Christians* Often have you endeavoured, c^ten have 
you toiled, to gain one intercessor. You have now forty, all emit- 
ting one common prayer. Who is oppressed by care, flies to their 
aid, as does he that prospers: the first to seek deliverance ; the se- 
*' cond that his good fortune may continue. The pious mother is found 
^' praying for her children; and the wife for the return and the health 
*' of her husband. O ye guardians of the human race! O ye power- 
" fill messengers before God! let us join our prayers with yours.** 
HomiL XX in. xl. Martyr* t. ii. p. 155, 156. The latter, in his funeral 
i>ration on this very saint Basil, his particular friend, says, ^' and now 



ft 



tt 



4t 
€< 
«< 



BCX>K OF »L«ITVRS/ 173 

" hej kdeedj id in heaven 5 there, if t mistake not, offering up sacrificed 
" iot ua, pouring out prayers for the people: for he has not left us so, 
" as to have deserted us. And do thou, sacred and holy spirit, look 
" down, I beseech thee, on us: arrest by thy prayers that sting of the 
" flesh which was given to us for our correction, or teach us how to 
" bear it with fortitude : guide all our ways to that which is beat : and, 
"when we shall depart hence, receive us then into thy society 5 that 
"with thee, beholding more clearly that blessed and adorable .Trinity, 
** which now we see in a dark manner, we may put a final close to aJJi 
" our wishes, and receive the reward of the labours which we have 
borne," Ora^, xx. de LaucL S. Basil, t. i. p. 272, 373. In the same laur 
gttage he addresses St. Athanasius, and adds, — " He, in a good old age» 
" dying after many conflicts, now regards, I doubt not, our concerns, 
'' and being himself freed from the bonds of the flesh, stretches out his 
" hand to us." Orat. xxiv. p. 425. 

By these quotations from the writings of two great and emlnentlj 
gifted prelates of the primitive church, it is plain. what was then be- 
lieved by the members of that church. From a comparison too with the 
extracts we have given from the fathers of the first and second century, 
it will be seen that the doctrines of all of them were one and tbb 
8AMB. There is not the slightest deviation to be found, and these same 
doctrines are still taught by the ministers of the Catholic church, and 
by them only, at this present day. Now, if Eusebius of Samosata, 
who opposed the Arian heresy, and who was instrumental in promoting 
Basil, the teacher of the foregoing doctrines, to the see of Caesarea, and^ 
for which conduct he was called by ** Gregory the younger ' as Fox" 
styles him, though he Kfippened to be the elder brother, " The pillar of 
" truth, the light of the world," &c. was deserving of this distinguished 
character, and it lippears that Fox allows him to be so entitled, it ne- 
cessarily follows that the aforesaid doctrines are orthodox truths ; 
and then what are we to think of those who reject them? Ay, and not 
only reject them, but absolutely swear that some of them are IDOLA- 
TROUS and DAMNABLE! ! ! We must leave the modern editors of 
John Fox*s Book of Martyrs to explain this manifest piece of inconsist- 
ency and impiety. 

Before we take leave of the persecutions carried on by the Arians, 
we must be allowed to record a fact, which, though of the most asto- 
nishibg nature, is nevertheless so clearly authenticated that none but a 
sceptic can reject it. About the year 484, Hunnericus, king of the 
Goths, persecuted the Catholir^s with the most barbarous and unre- 
lenting fury. The tortures inflicted upon these bold confessors of the 
divinity of Christ exceeded, if possible, those exercised upon the Chris- 
tians by the Pagan emperors. All Africa abounded with martyrs, and 
wooden horses, iron hooks, fire, flaming blades, wild beasts, and other 
instruments of cruelty, were put in requisition to shake the constancy 
of the Catholics. Cyrola, a notacy and the false patriarch of the Arians, 
having invaded the bishopric of Typasus in Mauritania, the inhabitants 
of that city refused to submit to his jurisdiction, and many of them 
quitted the country to avoid him. By art and persuasion, however^ he 
induced some of them to stay, and endeavoured by prayers and threat*- 
cntngs to induce them to embrace Arianism : but he found them all 



ir4 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

Bteadfaiit^ wkic^ tbrew him into the highest rage. ' The impious in-*, 
truder made his complaints to Hunnericus^ charging the Catholics with 
meeting to celebrate the holj mysteries/ and sing openly the prdses of 
Jesus Christ, consubstantial with his Father. This representation highly 
incensed the tyrant, and he immediately sent his officers to Typasuif, 
with orders to cut out the tongues even to the root of all those who 
would not become Arians. This bloody order was executed with more 
than ordinary barbarity on persons of all distinctions, who nevertheless 
contimted to proclaim aloud that Jesus Christ was true God. Korwas 
this the impulse of the moment, for it is recorded that these wonderful 
confessors of Christ's godhead continued to speak, during the rest of 
their lives on all subjects, as before their tongues were plucked out, 
•with the exception of two, who falling into the sin of incqntinency, 
were deprived of this grace, and became utterly dumb. 

Such an illustrious miracle as this we are aware is not generallj 
Icnown^ even among CatholicSj^ and is sufficient to stagger the credibi- 
lity of many of our readers. 8ome of thetn will probably exclaim. 
Such a tsde as this : might do for the dark ages, but in these enUghtened 
days who will believe it ? We do not give it as an article of faith, but 
we state it as a recorded fact, attested by living witnesses, and there- 
fore though wonderfttl and incomprehensible, yet not to be discredited 
by a rational mind, for in this case there can be no rule for giving cre- 
dence to any circumstance recorded in history. We have now before 
us Mawibtmrf's History of Ariafiism, translated into English by Wm. 
Webster, A.M. Curate of St. Dunstan's in the West, from which we 
take the following extract.^ — Speaking of the foremcntioned miracle, 
the author says, — '* Now this is not one of those imaginary wonders, or 
'* fables, nor any of those deceits, or subtle illusions which your too cre- 
*' dulous people are apt to take foi* miracles. For there are so many unde- 
** niable witnesses who assure it, not only upon the credit of those that 
" saw it, as hath done St. Gregory the great, (^Dialog. 1. S, c. 32,) but upon 
** having seen it themselves, and inquired into the matter with all tbe 
*^ strictness imaginable at Constantinople, where several of those saints 
had retired, that it is impossible to disown it without purposely and 
impudently belying those men whose veracity is incontestible. Vic- 
tor of Utica, who was then on the place, wrote some time after con- 
cerning it, wherein he says, that if any one cannot easily believe it, 
he desires him to take a journey to Constantinople in order to be con- 
firmed in it by his own eyes, because he may there see the deacon 
Reparatus, who speaks perfectly well, without his tongue, and is for 
that reason in great honour at the court of Zeno, and particularly es- 
teemed by the empress Ariadne, (ConsHtut de Offic, P. Pnet Afric. Ifi- 
ceph, 1. 17. c. II.) who even pays him a kind of religious veneration. 
" The emperor Justinian, who was then at court, declares that he him- 
'* self saw those venerable men, who gave a plain account of their mar- 
*' trydom without any tongue. Procopius, the historian, CLih, l.debell. 
** Vand» c. 8.) who was a man of undeniable honour, and who served in 
that emperor's army with great reputation, says, that in his time he saw 
several of them at Constantinople, who could talk with a great deal 
*' of freedom. iBneas of Gaza, a Platonic philosopher, (7om. 6, Bibl. 
P. P.) who has given us an excellent .dialogue upon the immoeiaUty 



tt 
u 
u 
t< 
u 
tt 

€t 
tt 



tt 
tt 



ft 

€< 
€( 
€C 

€t 

t 

€C 
€< 

tc 

<€ 

i 

sc 
tc 
sc 



t( 



BOOK OF MAItHatS. l^B 

7'Of vfthe ^\A, a^ whd fldulirhed in t^se days, aays, in tliifl work wbi«h 
wa9 wiitjtem uader the name. of Axitheus, that being inirited thitlicf 
by the report of 8o Mronderful a things he was resolved to see with 
hi9 own eyef^, and examine tbese miraculous men, and having caused 
them to open their' months^, he found that their tongues w«re c\tt oift 
to the root/ and that nevertheless they talked freely and distinctly, 
and g9yt him a perfect account of the whole affair. So many ^eat' 
men all c^greeing iu the same thing, and giving testimony of it in 
their public writings, undoubtedly would have been convicted of fal^ 
sity by a prodigious number of the inhabitants of Constantinople, h^d 
they been so impudent as to aver publicly that they had seen a thing' 
in that city which . had never happened. Now after this I cannot' 
well conceive tha» any man of common sense would say that he did' 
" not give credit to it."- 

We cannot take leaye of this extraordinary supernatural event, with^ 
out laying before our readers the reasoning of a living author, whose 
arguments we consider completely decisive on the subject. A work 
ha^ lately been published in the united states of America, where the 
greatest freedom prevails on religious matters, in defence of the divi- 
nity of Jesus Christ^ The author is the Rev. A. Kohlman, superior of 
the Catholic seminary of Washington city, and the work is entitled, 
UnitarianUm Philosophically and .Theologically Examined, in a series cf 
periodical numbers} comprising a Complete Refutation of the Leading 
Principles of the Unitarian System.*' Speaking of this astoni^ing mi- 
racle at Typa$us in confirmation of the divinity of Christ, and arguing 
very strongly in its favour, the author observes, — " It may stiU be ob- 
*^ jected, that it is an . undeniable fact, that church history is replete 
" with false legends, and spurious miracles, and that from the impos- 
sibility of discepuittg true and genuine miracles from such as are mlse, 
it wonld be wise to reject them aU indiscriminately. To this ob- 
jection I thus reply, and ask, will ^Und logic panction this strange 
way of reasfHiing: there is a false and spurious coin, therefore 
^' there is no genuine coin: there are errors among men, therefore 
there is no truth: the testimony of the senses and the testimony 
of men, have at times deceived men, therefore they always de- 
'* ceive men. Philosophy frowns at such conclusions, and directs us 
''to argue with an ancient keen philosopher, (TertuUian,) in a quite 
contrary way : there exists a spurious coin, therefore there exists a 
genuine one> because the spurious is but an imitation of the genuine 
on^. 'Shere exists error among men, therefore there exists likewise 
'' truth : for error> being nothing but a mimic imitation of truth, neces- 
sar/ly presupposes truth- At times, our senses and men deceive us -„ 
therefore tiiey always do so ^ if this ?;onclusion be true, then it will be 
absolutely impossible to be sure of dny thing that surrounds us^, or 
that has. come to pass before us, and it will be very easy for any one to 
pipve to you, that Alexander and Csesar are nothing but empty names 
of imaginary beings that never existed, and that this tmiverse itself 
is nothing more than an empty dream» Such reasoning, therefore, is 
not philosophical. How, therefore, shall we arrive at the certain 
knowledge of both historical and physical truths } By listening to the 
im^ijltQbk principles imprinted inonr ^oulsby the hand of ourCreator, 



€€ 



€C 
« 



tc 



tt 

tc 

tc 

tc 

tc 

«( 

tc 

cc 

tc 

€t 



17« REVIEW OP FOX. 



€i 
€C 

€€ 
€< 
t€ 
€( 



<€ 
St 
ft 
€C 
« 



€€ 
€S 
« 



wbich dictate to ng to keep equally 4iloof from opposite extremes^ 
aad to admit a^ unquestionable^ no testimony, either of our senses, 
or of men, but such as is accompanied with all the characteristics of 
truth and veracity. In conformity with this principle^ We shall re- 
ject, or at least look with suspicion, upon any faict that is not suffi-' 
ciently attested, either by our senses, or by men; and we shall, on 
the contrary, admit as indubitable, any public, solemn, and inter- 
esting fact, that comes recommended to us by a constant and uniform 
** evidence of our senses, when sound and duly applied, or of men, es- 
'' pecially of most imquestionable probity and veracity. A fact thus 
^^ attested, is so absolutely certain, that we feel our n^ind irresistibly 
'' impelled to give it, in spite of us, our assent. Now, any one ac-' 
'* quainted .with church history, must adcnowledge, that a considerable 
portion of the wonders which, for the space of these eighteen hun-' 
dred years, occur in the annals of Christianity, are of ibis character, 
and are attested to the highest degree of moral certitude. They were ' 
sensible facts, perfectly within the reach of our senses) they were 
public facts, wrought in the midst of the most populous cities, they 
were interesting facts, as relating to the great concerns of salvation, 
** than which Christians have nothing dearer in this world: they wi^re 
'' facts recorded at the time they happened, and when those on whose 
persons they were wrought, were still living ; they were facts attested 
by friends and enemies, when these would have had the greatest in- 
terest to deny them, if it had been in their power to do so. Of this 
** description, were numbers of miracles related in the anniils of the 
^' church ] of this character was the very miraculous fact of men speaking' 
*' without tongues, which has been quoted above. This fact, therefore, 
has been unanswerably proved,, and of course, it alone, at once de- 
cides the famous controversy between Christians and Unitarians : for 
it undeniably proves, that the consubstantiality of the Son with the 
" Father, which the primitive Christians defended, is a divine doctrine/ 
*' and Arianism was, and still is, an impiety. For it is manifest, that 
(rod in no way can sanction a religion or doctrine more solemnly/ 
than by stamping upon it, in a most authentic manner, the seal of his 
supreme authority and approbation, that is to say, by working an un- 
questionable miracle in its confirmation. Do you, in fine, deny the 
the existence of miracles, because church history relates none, and 
keeps a deep silence on this subject? But can you possibly open any 
monument of antiquity, where your eyes will not meet with some 
prodigy, wrought on the most important and public occasions, and 
may we not here well apply the well known passage of the Poman 
*' orator, \Plence sunt omnes sapientum voces, pleni saptentum libri, plena 
exem rorum vetustas; expunge from the annals of the church the stu- 
pendeous wonder^, with which the Lord has been pleased to illustrate 
his holy church, and to recommend her as his own work to all nations, 
and you will strip the monuments of venerable antiquity of at least 
one*third of their contents, of one-third, too, the most interesting of 
all that they contain Jn the scriptures.** ' 

In closing the iiceount of the horrible excesses of the Artan perse- 
cutors, we will briefly detail the progress and duration of this heresy, 
in order to shew the mutability and ctiversity of eftor, cofttrntfted with 



t€ 



€( 
IC 
<C 
ft 
t< 

ef 
*< 
« 



€t 

tt 

€C 
<( 
€< 
t< 



A REVIEW 

OP 

ifbv'fi Hooft of mavtsv^, 

CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL. 



No. 12. 



ExplahatIi. . .. 
•• cciinflriBii bg the Sacetlai 



FfOHATiKo. — 'Ilia luib) pape Martin u i«B teUiraing fnm 
riUM, ia tb4 pretence m the tenate, ttrnped i^f'ati hU chihet 
dragging him along {(innig't Ihe cjly nf CmitantinilpU by a 



ehmm fixed ti bii neek. A few ^th£ people an cryiijf AnaAeJim, hil t^ rat are as 
tthdMot viAgri^ si (A< cnwl treotwcnt cf iheir tpirmil fttiter J'arTeiutaig iJwiniiiim- 

CONTIKDATION OF TBE BETIIW. 

the unchangeableness and indivisibility of tratb. The birth of Arian- 
isin took place about the year S06, and its ascendency to power may 
be dated from the death of Constantine the great, in 337, wbm his son 
ComtantiuB, wlio succeeded his father in the government of the east, 
embraced the heresy, and took its abettors into protection. In the 
field of argument the Ariana, like our present sectarians, were power- 
less; they ■ therefore grounded their success on fraud and violence. 
Relying on the protection of the civil authority, they deposed the ortho- 
dox prelates at their pleasure, and filled their places wjth Arians, the 
Mme as the Catholic bishops of England were displaced by Elizabeth, 
«Ad creatures of the Reforniation, so called, substituted in thsir sees. 
In the yeorS^S ^.council of biahpps >vas assembled at. Nice to the num- 
ber of S48, wbo decidedagalast ^e doctrine of Anus. -In 35? another 
council of 250 btslibpa was held at Ssrdica in niyricunt, of whom then 
were SO of tiie Arian party. The Arians seeing thtU they conld not 
carrf tjielr mcasarM, igcvded; tht rest «f tbe. prel»tes proceeded 



178 REVIEW OF FDXS 

canonically^ and confirnHed the decision of the Nicene fathers. In 359 
a third council was held at Arminium in Italy of above 400 bishops^ of 
-whom 80 were Arians. Here the latter had recourse to frauds ^and by 
using ambiguous expressidna, imposfsd upon many of the fa^yers*«issem- 
bled a formulary of faith which they took to be orthodox. But truth 
is always to be found when sought for 5 and the trick was no sooner 
discovered than those who had signed the fictitious fonqulary imme? 
diately withdrew their signatures^ and professed their adherence to the 
true faith. We have related how this heresy was introduced among 
the Gochs^ and enough ha» been said of thehorrible cruelties and out- 
rages committed by its adherents. Before the end of the century^ (the 
fourth) the Arians^ as is the case with all who depart from the truths 
be^an to differ aihong themselves qonceming their own tenets and 
divided , into various sects; as we see Protestantism liow sundered: 
these divitiiohs weakened their strenth, and the hand of God sooii be* 
came visible upon them. The Ostrogoths Were converted by degrees 
to the Catholic faith, and their kingdom extinguished in 552 by the 
death of their king Totila, who was defeated and slain by the emperor 
Justinian's troops. The Visigoths in Spain were brought over, witii 
their kitig Reecard, to the Catholic faith, about the year 587, by St* 
Hermenegild. The Seuvi, a German people, were converted from 
Arianism a. few years before. In 535 the emperor Justinian sent Beli- 
sarius into Africa, who defeated the Arian Vandals and put an end to 
their kingdom and power; In 572 the Lombards conquered part of 
Italy and established a kingdom and with it Arianism ) but Charlemagne 
vanquished them in 774, and extinguished their dominion. Hunneric, 
one of the most cruel of the Arian persecutors, died a miserable deatb, 
being eaten up by worms. Ancient Roine too„ in 54.6^ was tQtiGdly ,d^ 
stroyed by fire and famine, a' striking example of the vengeamieof 
God, on those who persecute his saints and contemn his laws. 

The next article worthy of notice in the Book of Martyrs is headed 
*' Bishop Martin," and profiesses to give an account of the chief ac- 
tions of the life of this prelate. We are now got into the seventh cen- 
tury, and the account given is so very extraordinary for a Protestant 
martyrologist, that we here giv^e it at length: — ^''Martin, bishop of 
Rome, was bom at Lodi, in Italy. He was naturally virtuous, and 
his parents bestowed on him an excellent education. He toc4c or- 
ders, end on the death of Theodore, bishop of Rome, was advanced to 
that IMPORTANT SEE, by an imanimous election, in which all par- 
ties gave him the fidlest praise, and admitted, that he wf 11 merited a 
trust of such importanee. The first vexation he received in his epis- 
^' copal c^iacity, was from a set of HERETICS, called MONOTHE- 
LITES -f who not daring, after the express decisions of the coundl of 
Chalcedon, to maintain the unity of nature in Christ, asserted artr 
fuUy, that he had but one will and operation of mind» • This sect 
was patronized' by the emperor Heraclios 3 and the fio'st who at- 
*' tempted to stop this ptogress of these errors, was Sc^hioniua, bishop 
of Jerusalem. . Martin, who oni>this ocetoien cotneided in sentiments 
with the bishop of Jerusalem, called a councH, whiehr consi^tiBd of 105 
biahops, and they uiuinirnmisly condemned* the errors in question^ But 
the ctmpevor, provoked at Jlme proceedings, prdiBS«d Oljmpius; hi* 



ft 

t( 



€< 
€( 
K 






BOOK OS BIARI'YIW. 179. 



rr 



€€ 



€< 
<€ 

te 



it 






lieutenant in Italy, tp rqiair to Itome^ and seize the^ bisbop^ The 
lieutenant performed t^e journey ; but on his arrivall at Rome, be. 
*' found tbe prelate too much beloved to induce him to attempt any 
*^ open violence J be therefore suborned a ruffian to assassinate him at 
*' the altar ; but tbe fellpw^ after promising to execute the deed, was. 
seized with such horror of conscience, that he had not tbe power to 
perform his undertaking. Oljrmpius thus finding it would be very, 
difficult to destroy Martin, put himself at the head of his troops, and 
marched against the Saracens, who had made some inroads into Italy^ 
*' but during this expedition he died. His successor was Calliopaa, 
who received express orders to seize Martin, which, with the assist-. 
ance jof a considerable body of soldiers^ he performed ) shewing the- 
clergy the imperial mimdate, which commanded him to dispossess, 
Martin of bis bishopric, and cany him a prisoner to Constantinople* 
Having endured various hardships, during a tedious, voyage, he 
^' reached the imperial city of Constantinople^ and was thrown intol 
pHson* While in confinement, he wrote two epistles to the emperor., 
to refute the calumnies forged' against hiim with respect to his faith. 
*' and loyalty ^ for a proof of the soundness of the former, he appeals, 
to the testimony of the whole clergy> and his own solemn prptesta- 
tion to defend, the tiruth as long as he lived 5 and in answer to the. 
objections made against the latter> he declares he never sent either 
money, letters, or advice to the Saraeens, but only remitted a sum 
*' for tbe .relief of poor Christians among those peoj^^ : he concludes 
*' with saying, %heX nothing could he more false than what the heretics, had 
** alleged against him concerning the blessed Virgin, WHOM HE FIRM* 
" LY BELIEVED TO BE THE MOTHER OF GOD, AND WOR-. 
'' THY OF ALL HONOUR AJBTER HER DIVINE SON. In his se- 
cond, letter he gives a particular account of his being seized at Rom^ 
and his. indisposition and ill. Usage since he Was dragged fi'om that 
city 3 and ends with wishing «nd. hoping his persecutors would re-» 
*^^ pent of their conduct, when the object of their hatred should be re<« 
moved from this world. The fatigues that Mttf tin had undergone, 
and his infirmities, were so great, that on the day appointed for hia 
trial, he was brought out of prison in a chair, beiing unable to walk« 
'^ When he was before the court, the judge ordered him to standi 
'^ which not being able to do, two men wer0 ordered to. hold him up« 
*' Twenty witnesses were produced against him, who swore as they 
'^ were directed, and charged him with pretended crimes^ Martin be<% 
gaa his defence, t^ut as a^ooa. as he ei^re^ upon an investigation of 
the errors which he had combalted, one of the senators stopped him, 
*' and said) that he was only examined respecting civil affairs, and 
*' consequently that ecclesiastical mattery heid nothing to do in his de? 
" fence. . The judge then prevented him frpm going on. Martin wai^ 
*' then ordered to be exposed in the most public places of the town^ 
^' and to i>e divested of aU marks of distinction} but all these rigoura 
'' be bore with Cbristian patie]|ce« After lying some months in prison^ 
*' he was sent 'to-^an island at some distance, and there cut to pieces-* 
''A.D*6&6;v 

Here ar^ soma Yery imfM^rtant faots io attract ih,e attention of ,the 
r^er.; In tht Hijfl place ii muslt be obaeFved, thai 



IK 









180' RBVI]I^W OP FOX S 

Had b^an its career, toid ivbs' making great prdgr-ess in tbe east^ while' 
the Christian emperors, it appears, were giving eaeouragemeat to 
heresy in their dominions. We have hefore noticed the destmction of 
the ancient city of Rome and the fall of the empire^ yet here we see it' 
acknowledged by John Fox, that the ^Umportant see"^ of that city still 
survived, and thatthe bishop vrks exercising his high jurisdiction over 
the church. Can we have a greater proof, or a plainer confession, of 
the supremacy of the pope, than this statement of the Book of Martyrs, 
which the *'few plain Christians" are now publishing with a view, as 
they profess, to diffuse " among their fellow-l^elievers a knowledge asd 
" love of the genuine princ'^les of Christianity V* The pope is here 
praised for his opposition to the heresy 'of the Monothelltes, as the for- 
mer popes and martyrs have been pndsed for their opposition to Arian- 
ism and other heresies. ' Now, if the popes were right in opposing 
heresy in the seventh and preceding centuries, and who can doubt it, 
since John Fox says so ? they must be also right in opposing it in the 
sixteenth or nineteenth centuries ; for error must be resisted and truth 
maintained in all cases and in all ages. By the relation of Fox it would 
seem that the emperor Heraclius was l3ie persecutor of this holy pope, 
whereas it was this emperor's son Cotistans, who, three years after the 
martyrdom of the saint, fell himself ,by the hand of an assassin. In- 
deed the whole relation of Fox, though true in substance; is a jumble 
. of circumstances without order, and errqpeous in detail. The martyro- 
logist says, the first vexation pope Martin '^'received in his episcopal 
'* capacity was from a sect of heretics called Monothelites j who not 
** daring, after the express decisions of the council of Chalcedon, to 
** maintain the unity of nature in Christ, asserted artftilly, that he had 
'* but one will and operation of mind." — Again, he says, " the^r** who 
^ attempted to stop the progress of these errors was So]4irdnius, bishop 
^ of Jerusalem, Martin, who on this occasion coincided in sentiment 
" with the bishop of Jerusalem, called a council, which consisted of 
** 105 bishops, and they unanimously condemned the errors in ques- 
** tion.*' Now by this account the reader is led to suppose, in the first 
place, that the Monothelites sprung up in the time of Martin's popedom, 
and in the next place that he Called the council of 105 bishops in con- 
junction vfith Sophronius, the bishop of Jerusalem. But this is quite 
erroneous. This heresy, which was no other than the old one, broach- 
ed by Eutyches, in a new shape, started up about the' year 633 } it was 
.patronized by the emperor Heraclius, who published an edict* in its 
favour, called Ecthesis^ or the Exposition, which declared there was 
only one will in Christ, namely, that of Uie Divine Word, and denounc- 
ed heavy penalties against liiose who should assert the contrary. Thus 
we see the civil power was resorted to, as in the case of the Ajrians, to 
enforce a belief that was contrary to the true doctrine received fit>m 
the apostles. St. Sophronius was appointed to the patriarchate of Jeru- 
salem in 634, and he was no sooner established in his see, than he 
'called a council of all the bishops in his patriarchate, to examine the 
Monothielite heresy. The prebtes aceordiogly met, and not only con- 
demned the heresy, but composed a sy nodical letter to explain and 
prove the Catholic feuth. The' council of Chiilcedon, alluded to by 
Vox, was held in 451^ oearl^^ t#o hundred jnears prior to the time oif 



BOOK OP MARTYRS. 181 

So^Tonoud } but thk letter wiis confirmed in the sixth general -council 
held subsequently in 680. This proceeding on the part of St. Sophro^ 
dIos miosi certainly induced the abettors of Monothelism to practise 
craft and deli&sion, the same as the abettors of Protestantism are com- 
p^ed to do to keep their dupes in the dark ; and it was in consequence 
of these practices that the holy pope Martin called a council of bishops 
in the Lateran church at Rome in 649 ; not^ however, in conjunction, 
with St. S^phronius, for. that holy prelate died in 639, according to 
8om« writers, or, as Papebroke thinks, in 644. -Martin, observe, was 
elected to the " important see'* of Rome in 649, and it was thi» proceed- 
ing in support -of the true faith that led to the vexations and sufferings 
•he afterwards etperienced from the tyranny of the temporal powei^ 
,We noticed the ediet issued by Heraclius 3 his son. Constans published 
another ealled the Typus, which imposed silence on both parties, ^he 
Lateran fathers censured both documents 3 the one fpj: fHivouring he* 
resy, t^e other for enjoining silence when truth was in danger. '* The 
''Lord/* said the fathers, ''hath commanded us to shun evil, ^and do 
" good I but not to reject the good with the evil. We are not to deny 
" 9t the same time both truth and error.*' The condemnation of the 
AiA&r edict occasioned the persecution of the pope by Constans. 

^Of the varioufli hardships endured by this holy pope, in the discharge 
of his divine functions, there is nothing very contradictory except the 
account of his death. Fox says he was cat to pieces^ but Mr; Alban 
Butler makes no mention of this circunlstance, and seems to infer that 
he died in prison, worn out with the cruel treatment he had under^gone* 
It is not a little singular, however, that the charge brought by. t)^e he^ 
T^etips agf^nst this holy martyr should be similar to those alleged against 
the Catholics by " Protestant-ascendency," and particularly by the in- 
ftfrnoUs plotters -<>f that foul conspiracy which had Titus Oates for its 
chic^ instrument. Martin, it seems, W2U3 charged with disloyalty, with 
•aiding the enemies of government, with sending money to the Saracena, 
and witnesses were procured who could perjure themselves for profit^ 
but -could not establish what they swore. So it has been since the reign 
of Protestantism. Plots have been invented and. charged upon the 
Catholies, from the time of Elizabeth to the end of the Stuart rule ; and 
even to this day in Ireland allegations of this kind are made by the 
Orange partisans and papers. The creatures of " Ascendency" are ever 
ringing the changes on the pretended disloyalty of Catholics, because 
'they hold the spiritual supremacy of the pope over the Christian church, 
though this supremacy was held by all the martyrs that Fox has hitherto ' 
recorded. Unable to encounter this stubborn fact ; unable to wipe out 
of the annals of history that the pope was the supreme ecclesiastical 
head of the Christian world before the reformation, so called, of the 
sixteenth century, the founders of " Protestant-ascendency" made the 
belief of the pope's supremacy a civil offence, and when a Catholic was 
put upon his trial, for adhering to this article of his creed, he was con- 
demned to suffer the death of a traitor to his temporal sovereign, and 
not anathematized as the broacher or favourer of error* lie. was ex- 
amined, as;one of the senators is said to have observed to pope Martin^ 
^ respecting civil afeirs, and consequently that ecclesiastical matters 
^' had nothing to do in hU defence^" 



isS REVIEW Ot FOX'S 

But Tvliat are we to think of the defence made by this holy pope; 
at least that which Fox and his editors have imputed to him? Is it 
possible that Martin could be a Protestant martyr, after the doctrine 
he is stated to have defended in his epistle to the emperor? It is true 
Hve do not find the Rev. Alban Butler, in the life of this sunt, million- 
ing any thing about these epistles, nor are we aware that there was 
%ny circumstance in the times that called for the pope's declaration of 
doctrine; but Fox has said it, and we beg the reader's particular at^ 
tention to it. In the first epistle Fox says, this *'godiy martyr" de- 
clared, ^' that nothing could be more false than what the heretics had 
**' alleged against him concerning the blessed Virgin, whom he finmhf 
^* believed to be the mother of God, and worthy of all honour after her 
'* dwine Son'* See you this, gentle reader 5 see you this declaration 
put tor the account of a bishop oi Rome--one of John Fox's ^ godly 
martyrs,*'— for the purpose of ** diffusing ... a knowledge and love of 
** the genuine principles of Christianity," and by men too who swear, 
that to honour the blessed Virgin is downright idolatry ! ! ! What tlie 
heretics of those days had alleged against pope Martin we do not 
IcnoW, but Fox says the pope declared the charges to be false, and thnt 
he firmly believed the blessed Virgin ought to be honoured as tlie 
mother of Grod, So do the Catholics believe at this day 5 and they are 
not only stigmatized by " Protestant-ascendency" as idolatrous, but are 
'excluded from civil oifice by means of an infamous test brought for- 
ward under the most infamous circumstances, when . the lives of Ca-> 
tholics were sworn away by a set of the most infamous wretches tknt 
ever disgraced the human form, who were, paid by the parliament Ickt 
this infeqnous work out of the people's money: we allude to the hor«» 
rid conspiracy of Shaftesbury and Titus Oates. 

Now, reader, if the doctrine of pope Martin was genuine in tlie 
seventh century, it must also be genuine in the nineteenth 5 for truth 
is always one and the same. If it were rank heresy to deny honour 
to the blessed Virgin then, it must consequently be so now ? Qbrbsy-^ 
you will please to observe, is defined by Dr Johnson to be, '^An 
"^opinion of private men, different from that of the CathoUo and 
'' orthodox churchy" and here we have John Fox telling tis that tlie 
head of that church in the seventh century, in opposilTon to certain 
heretics, that is certain private men, declared in writing that tlie 
blessed Virgin is worthy of all honour i^ext to her divine Son, So say 
the Catholic and orthodox church now, and so she always did and al- 
ways wiU. What then are we to think of those who deny he^ this 
honour upon oath, and who are, compared in numbers with the Catho-* 
)ic church, but a body of private men> The Protestant reader wiU do 
well to reflect on this discrepancy between the genuine doctrines o£ 
pope MaY'tin, and the modern doctrines of ^* Protestant'-ascendency**' 
We would also have him bear in mind the different modes pursued by 
the Catholic church and ^ Protestant-ascendency** when a point of doc-*- 
trine is disputed. We see by Johp Fo%*s statement, that pope Maltm 
did not' decide on his own individual judgment in the case of Mono-» 
thelism, which was '^an opinion of private me^ different from the 
^' Catholic and orthodox church;'* but he assembled a ootancil of I07 

bislipps^ aU learne4 md competent meU| wht wer$ also ^vem^ by ^ 



h60K OF MARTYRS. 183 

' ■ 

fale the most saf^ and certain that could be demised. This rule wds to 
examine the written and unwritten word (^ God; that is^ to compare 
the gospels with the apostolical traditions, and decide thut what had 
always he^n taught by the church, and had been received by the apos- 
tleSi must be of divine institution and faith 5 and consequently what 
eould not be proved to have such an origin must be human invention. 
Such a mode of proceeding as this is consistent with sound reasQUy and 
forms a chain of ei^idence incontestable and unbroken. On the other 
hand. Protestantism has nothing of this kind to rely upon. Luther,* 
Calvin, Harry the eighth, Elizabeth, and in fact the whole clan of 
evangelical reformers were innovators, by imposing their- own '^pri' 
** vate opinions** -upon the ignorant and credulous for divine truths. 
Some by the power of the sword, and others by the cant of hypocrisy. 
When Henry established his ecclesiastical supremacy,, it was under the 
terror of pains and penalties) and by the same means did Elizabeth 
assume the popeship of the church of England. Protestantism was 
not raised by the supernatural hand of Grod, but by the operation of 
human power and deception. In England, for example, when the 
thirty-nine articles and book of common prayer were framed for the 
uniformity of belief and worship, the universal church was not con- 
sulted as to their orthodoxy and antiquity, bi^t their merits were sub- 
mitted to a lay-parliament; to a body, in comparison with the church 
of Christ, of private men, deputed by the people of England to manage 
their temporal concerns, but who assumed the right to manage their 
spiritual aflhirs, heretofore regulated by the councils of bishops from 
all parts of the world. Thus then the " genuine principles of Chris- 
tianity" became subjected to the whim of lay-legislators, and articles of 
faith were made to vary according to the taste of the times or the schemes 
of plotting statesmen. Hence the endless diversity of creeds that now 
distract the, minds of those who still retain some spark of religious 
sentiments, and the great increase of infidelity among others, who, 
witnessing the gross contradictions of the contending sects, and the 
abuses that arise from a state clergy, conclude that religion is only a 
political instrument to further the interests of the ambitious. But it 
is not so with the Catholic, who can see in the history of his church 
the mark of a divine hand, and an undeviating guide to the haven of 
salvation. Abuses may creep in, with regard to some of her ministers, 
^who are subject to the same frailties as other human beings, but in her 
faith and morals she is always ONE, always HOLY, always CATHO«> 
IjIC and APOSTOLICAL. . This feet has been acknowledged by John 
Fox to the seventh century, as we see in his account of ^^ Bishop Mar" 
Un" and we shall be able to prove, in the course of our review of his 
Sook of Martyrs, that it is still the same. 

. Constans, the murderer of the holy pope Martin, as we have before 
stated, was murdered in his turn by an assassin. He was succeeded 
by his son Constantine Pogonatus, a virtuous and orthodox prince. 
Under his reign the sixth general council of the church was called at 
Constantinople, being the third whieh was held in that city, with a view 
of healing the divisions that had so long disturbed the Christian world; 
Two hundred and sixty bishops from all parts of the east assembled on 
the 7th day of November, in the year 680. Each bishop sat in order 






184 REVIEW OJ? R)X:S 

accordii^ to the dignity of tliie'see herepteaented^ and ia the middte 
of th^ asdembly^ according to ancient custom^ was placed the book of 
the holy gospeb. The pqf>e*s legate presided and opeoj^d the connciL 
The question for discussion was this, — ^Whether in our Lord Jtosa 
Christ there were two natural wills or only one^^two operations or only 
one, as the Mopothelite party had asserted. The leaders of the partv 
were present, and were called upon to state the grounds of their opir 
nion. They did so, and were heard with attention. The council next 
proceeded to examine what had been written for and against the doc* 
triive, what the gospels said, what the fathers testified, what preceding 
councils had defined, and what apostolical tradition had handed down. 
This examination occupied eighteen sessions, so that it is clear the 
members of this coimcil did not decide hastily. The decision of thet 
council was, that the doctrine^ was new and false, being contrary to that 
taught by the apostles. They therefore decreed as follows, *' We de« 
fine, that in Jesus Christ there are two natural wills, and two natural 
operations, and we forbid the contrary to be taught." This decree 
was,. properly authenticated, the council dissolved, after sitting ten 
months, and Monothelism shortly afterwards expired. 

We have alluded to the rise of Mahometanismj it is now necessary 
to give a brief outline of its progress. It will be seen that heresy had 
been most fruitful in the eastern churches. Arianism, which dented 
the divinity of Christ, bad its birth in Alexandria; Macedonianism, 
whiph denied the divinity of the Holy Ghpst, took its rise in Constan- 
tinople; Donatism commenced in Africa} Pelagiauism took root in 
Carthage; Nestorianism began at Constantinople, as did aldo Eutychi* 
ailism f aU which errors were more or less encouraged and countenanc- 
ed by the temporal rulers of that part of Christendom. Such opposi- 
tion to the divine commands, not to mention the violent acts of injus- 
tice committed against the liberty of conscience, by the persecutions 
of the faithful believers, could not be expected to remain long un- 
punished. If the Pagan emperors experienced the vengeance of Hea- 
ven for their enormities against the primitive Christians, we must look 
for l\eavier judgments against the apostates from Christianism and the 
oppressors of the orthodox. Accordingly we see the sword of Maho- 
metanism raised to chastise the rebellious monarchs of the east, and 
carry destruction to those places that favoured the impious heresies we 
have named. Arabia was soon overrun by the barbarian followers of 
this pretended prophet, who was an Unitarian, and taught his parti- 
sans to take up arms for religion, promising them a paradise of idl the 
sensual pleasures, if they died fighting in the cause. In (>34, Omar, 
the second caliph after Mahomet, invaded Syria, where he defeated' the 
brother of the emperor Heraclius, and soon became master of Damas- 
cus. He then divided his army, one part of which he sent against Egypt. 
In 636, Jerusalem, after a siege of two years, surrendered to bis arms. 
Antioch soon followed, cyid in the course of ten years this chieftain 
made himself master of a^ Syria, Palestine and £gypt. Alexandria 
^tood a siege pf fourteen months, The library of this <^ty was de- 
jaitroyed by ei^press order of the caliph, and the number of volumes waa 
^o great, that, it is said, they suffice4 to light the fires of four thQU-« 
§^d b^th^ for si;^ months. The next epterprise of these ruth)ei»9 W«r« 



BOOK OP MARTVUS. m 

riol^8 Wlis agiuast the kingdom of Persia^ whicb bad persecuted the 
Christians, and now felt the hand of Mahometanism, being subject* 
«d to its dominion. In MZ they invaded other parts of the eastern 
Koman empire, and in 712 they passed from 'Africa into Spain, ivberc^ 
they sporead terror all over the country by their horrid cruelties. < The' 
amazing growth of this strange power now received a shock by the 
desertion of some of its chiefs, who renounced subjection to the Ara^ 
bian caliph and proclaimed theniselves independent. These disputes 
for power gave rise to civil wars, which for a time stayed their further 
irruptions into the remaining province^ of the Greek or Constantino- 
politan empire. While these events were passing oh the borders of ' 
the empire, her internal state was agaii^ agitated and thrown into dis* 
union by the schism commenced by one Fhotius, who had been nomi* 
nated, though but a layman, by the emperor, to the patriarchal chair of 
Constantinople, in the year 858. This schism led to many disorders^ 
and several attempts were made to heal the breach, but in the end 
they proved fruitless. The Greeks remained obstinate, and for theif- 
contiimacy to the divine authority,, the Almighty abandoned them to 
the mercy of the Mahometans. After years of wasteful warfare, in 
1*453 Afaiiomet the second laid siege to the city of Constantinople, 
which after' a brave resistance was carried by storm, and an end put to 
the empire of the Greeks. The fate of Constantinople was truly de- 
plorable. Forty thousand Greeks perished in the slaughter, and 
60,000 were afterwards sold for slaves. The churches were profaned, 
meat was served up in the sacred chalices, and for three days the bar- 
barians rioted with such licentiousness, that they committed the most 
enormous and horrible crimes it was possible to perpetrate. 
' While these disorders were going on in the east, the true £uth was 
making great progress in the Pagan nations in the north and west. In 
:532 St. Eleutherius converted the people about Toumay. In 536 St; 
•Vedast converted the people in Artois. In 537 St. Paternus carried 
the light of the gospel to the people of Constance; and Spain received 
the fidth from Rome. In 596 our own country renounced idolatry for 
•Catholicism, on the preaching of St. Augi^stiu; and the year following 
the people of Little Britdhy embraced the gospel from the hands of 
St* Paul de Leon. In the seventh century the South Saxons were con- 
verted by St. Wilfrid 5 the West Saxons by St. Birinus; the East Angles 
by St. Felix 5 and the Mercians by St. Ceadda. St Swibert preached 
the ^th in Germany, St. Willibrord in Friesland^ St. Kilian in Fran- 
conia^ St. Columba among the Swedes, and St. Eligius among the Fle- 
mish* In the eighth century Germany received the light of faith, which 
was first cariied there by one of our own'coimtr3rmen, of wht»m Fox 
has taken some considerable notice in his Book of Martyrs. And here 
we beg the' reader to keep in remembrance, that this propagation of 
truth was invariably eflfected by the preaching of holy and unarmed 
men, fortified only with .the divine Spirit, the precepts and morality of 
the godpel, and the gift of performing miracles, to flash conviction of 
their heavenly authority. In no instance was Catholicism planted 
among heathen or apostate nations but by the power of persuasion and 
the streogth of truth; nor can a case, we believe, be pointed out, wher^ 
4be Catholic fiuth was ever totally annihilated, after having once taken 



|8« HEVIBW Of i!0X$ 

vcfoU Thongli theconfitries of theeaStbtfvebeea^&Otaihedestracticm 
of Constantkiople iki 1453, tinder thie d<»ninio& of MBhometaiiisiD^ yet 
the Catholic reli^n still exists in that capital^ and m almost erery 
piurt of the Turkish empire. Neither could the violence nor craft of 
the reformers of the sixteenth century destroy the seed of truth, 
though in many phices they nearly choaked it with the weeds of error. 
Though Protestantism, like Arianinnj, &c. was supported in almost 
every country; where it reared its head, by the infiuence and power of 
the civil' magistrate, and corporal pains and inflictions were esen^ised 
on those who adhered to the ancient and true faith, yet there is not a 
place in the world, whiere Protestantism is professed, nor any other error 
arising from apolstasy, but there are also believers in the Catholic and 
orl^iodox faith. This we must ccmsider a striking feet of the univer- 
aality and ^nuineness of that creed which the " few plain Christians" 
^buse, caltti^niate, tod wish to excite a hatred against. 

The seconid^ectioa of the second book of Fox is headed " Pbksbcu- 

** TIONS FROM THE EIGHTH TO THE TENTH CBNTUAY," and COmmeUCeS Tfith 

an " Account of Boniface." This Bonifece is the great saint of that 
naijie, who, by his extraordinary missionary labours, was the illustrious 
instrument of bringing the people of Germany to tiie knowledge of the 
laith of Christ. Fox, in his account, admits that our saint, who was an 
£nglishman, and a native of Devonshire, was gifted with most eminent 
talents and was a profound scholar ^ that he was indebted to the care 
nnd skill of the abbot of Nutscelle for his knowledge in the divine law, 
and that he could explain " the holy scriptures in the literal, moral, and 
" mystical senses." That the abbot " seeing him qual^kd for the priest- 
'^ hood, conferred upon him that holy order, when he was about thirty 
** years of age. From that time (Fox omtinues) he began to labour 
for the 9alvatwn of hk fellow creatures; in thetnrogress of which he 
gave the first proofs of that apostolical Eeal, whidi afterwards made 
such glorious conquests in a most savage and barbarous part of the 
*' world." The martyrologist then goes on to state, that Bonifece was 
induced " to forsake his country, relations land friends* in order to be of 
service to THE FAITH, and extend CHRISTIANITY on the conti- 
nent/' that the abbot would have dissuaded him from the attempt, 
but finding him resolute, he sent two of the monks to assist him. That 
on arriving on the continent, he found the time of conversion was not 
yet come, and therefore returned to the monastery : that the abbot dying, 
he was chosen to fill his place, but that '^ he either never aiccepted of 
that post, or quitted it very soon ; for he obtained letters from Daniel, 
bishop of Winchester, his diocesan, which recommended him to THE 
'< POPE, and all the bishops, abbots^ and princes, he should find on his 
*' way to ROME^ where he arrived in the beginning of the year 71^* 
** He was received (Fox states), by Gregory the second with great 
** friendship, and after several oonferenees with hiiki, finding him full 
'' of zeal, he dismissed him with A COMMISSION AT LARGE TO 
'' PREACH THE GOSPEL to the Pagans, wherever he found them." 
Fox then goes on, ** Having passed through Lombardy and Bavaria, he 
** (Boniface) came to Thuringia, which coilntry had before received 
^' the light of the gospel ^ but at the tame that Boinfece arrived Ihere, 
I* a had made little pn^;res6« His first exertions, therdbre. Were to 






•ti 






w< 
u 

€€ 

I 
U 

Mt 






€< 
4f 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 187 

^ bring the tarrupted Christhns back TO THE PURITY OF THE 
GOSPEL; and having complbtxd thift pioUfl woric \^ith great ass!- 
daity, and hearing that Radbord, whom he formerly in Tain attempted 
to convert, was dead, he repaired to Utcecht, to assist Willebrod, the ' 
first bishop of that city. During tiie spaee of three years, these wor- 
thv pastors laboured, in coi^unction, in EXTIRPATINQ WOLK" 
TRY and PROPAiSATING THE FAITH j and so fiir succeeded, 
that most of the people received baptism, and many: of the Pagan 
temples were converted into Christian churches.** After stating 
some further successes of the saint, Fox says, he was called to Rome 
by pope Gr^ory, who conferred x^x>n him the episcopal character, 
that he might pursue his labours " with more authority and to greater 
advantage.*' He then goes on: ''Being thus qualified for jforming his 
new church, he left Rome, having with him six letters from the pope ; 
one to Charles Martelj a second to all bishops, priests, counts, &C.5 a 
third to the clergy and people under his more immediate direction'; 
a fourth to the five princes of Thuringia, and their Christian subjects ; 
** a fifth to the Pagans in their dominions ; and a sixth to the whole 
'' body of Saxons. The purport of all these was, to recommend him to 
this protection of the Christian powers, and exhort the Pagans to hear 
him, and quit their errors and superstition.** Though the statement 
of Fox on the whole is pretty accurate, we cannot help thinking he has 
outstretched the truth here, or else he has made the influence of the pope 
much gi^eater than even Catholics suppose him possessed of. That the 
holy father should recommend the zealous missionary to the care and 
protection of the Chiis^n powers is very natural, but that he should 
address the I^ieigan people by letter, and volunteer his exhortations 
where he was neither known nor cared for, and where it was uncertain 
whether Boniface would obtain a hearing, is a very improbable tale; 
but our martyrologist likes to deal more than a little in the marvellous^ 
when he thinks it will suit his purpose. 

- Fox next proceeds to enumerate the transactions of this apostle of 
the Germanic church, in the erection of monasteries and bishoprics, 
which we here give in his own words:-*-'* In the year 731, Gregory 
" the third succeeded to the papal chair, upon whose accession Boni- 
"" face sent persons to Rome, to acquaint him with the success of his 
" labours, testifying his obedience, and desiring assistance in some diffi-' 
'' culties which occurred in his mission. The pope not only answered 
'^ the message by assuring him of the cotwrnunian and friendship of the 
" see of Rome f but, as a mark of respect, sent him the pallium, grafit- 
^' ed him the title of ardibishop, or metropolitan of all Germany, and 
^' ernpowered him to erect new bii^oprics. Bonifiace, in consequence, 
'" not only erected new bishoprics, but built several monasteries. He 
'^ then made a third journey to Rome, in 738, when Gregory, who had 
" much affection for him, detaii^ed him there the greatest part of the 
" year. At length having left Rome, he set out for Bavaria, upon the 
'^ invitation of Odillo, duke of that country, to reform some abuses in^ 
'' troduc^ by persons who had never recewed holy orders. At this time 
^' Bavaria had oiily one bishop; he therefore, pursuant to his oommis- 
" sion.firom Rome, erected IJiree new bishoprics, one at Saltzburg, a 
f^^^qond at Freisigen, a third at Ratisbon> and tlms all Bavaria was 



188 KBVffiW-OF lOXS 






€( 
€< 
<€ 
€t 
ft 
€S 
it 



^'divided into four' dioceses. This regulation vtbs soon after confinM 
hy the pope. He next established four other bishoprics; viz. at £r- 
furt> Baraboufg, Wurtzbourg^ and Achstat. In the year 741^ Gre- 
gory the third was succeeded in the popedom by Zachaiy^ who con^ 
^^ firmed Bonifoce in his power, and approved of all he had done in Ger- 
many, making him at the s4me time archbishop of Mentz, and me- 
tropolitan-over thirteen bishoprics. He did not, however, lose his 
simipiicity,-or forget his innocence in his ecclesiastical dignity. Dar- 
ing the ministry of this prelate, Pepin was declared king of France j 
and it being that prince's ambition to be crowned by the nK)6t holy 
prelate he could find, Bonifoce was solicited to perform that cere- 
mony, which he did at Soissons in 752." Fox coftcludes his accoimt 
with the martyrdom of the saint who was killed with fifty-two of his 
disciples, by a ix>dy of Pagans, on^the 5th of June, 755. ' 

In conchi^Qg, Fox observes, ^ thus fell the great father of the Ger- 
manic church, the honour of England, and .the glory*of his barba- 
rous age." To this observation, his modern editors have, added the 
following remarks by way of note. ^' Having given the'foir side of the 
character of Boniface, the archbishop, it behoves us to say, that ht 
was a great abettor of all the abmrdilies and BLASPHEMIES of Po- 
pery: though for ^is he is net go much to be blamed; because in Ms 
time the. candle of the true gospel was not lighted. By his < authority 
Childerie, king of France, was deposed, and Pepin, the betrayer of 
his master, was recognised as king. From Boniface proceeded that 
detestable c^^rine which now. stands registered in the pope's decrees, 
(dk. AO. cap. si papa;) which states, that in case the pope were of 
most filthy living, and forgetful or negligent of himself, andof Chris- 
/' tianity, in such a degree, that he led imiumerable souls with him to 
V hellj yet ought no man to rebuke him for so doing, * for he hath,' 
*' says he, ' power to judge all men, and ought of no man to be judged 
''again.'" ^ 

Here then we have the ''few plain Christians'* at variance with their 
fovourite author, and making assertions that are flatly contradicted by 
the work they are editing '' to excite a hatred and abhorrence of the 
" corruptions and crimes of Popery and its professors." They give 
" the fair side of the character of Boniface, the archbishop," from the 
book of John^^Fox, but then it behoves them to SAY, — ^yes, jrcs, read- 
er, to SAY, but not to prove-^*' that he was a great abettor of all the 
" absurdities and BLASPHEMIES of Popery;' but although he was an 
abettor of blasphemy, yet he was not even blameahle in the eyes of these 
pious exciters of hatred against the present professors of Catholicism; 
because, because, good souls, they have got it into their heads that 
" in his time the candle of the true gospel was not lighted.** These wise 
editors talk of the absurdity and blas{^emy of Popery 3 but we ask the 
man of. common understanding wheither their own absurdity and blas- 
phemy do not exceed that imputed by them to Popery 3 though,, by the 
by, we are not told in what the latter consist. Enough has been said 
however ta convict the former of both. We are now got into the eighth 
century of the Christian church, we Jiave had innumerable " godly 
martyr's'' recorded as sufferiiig for the faith of Christ, among whom 
are many of the bishops of Kome, and behold we are told by the ''few 



€< 
4t 



t( 
*€ 
€C 
tt 
*< 
H 
<t 
4C 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 1S9 

plain Cliristians** tbftt '^the candle of tlie gospd wm not ycjt Ught" 
*f €(f ' // / What ! did Christ leave his apostles and their sucessors^ and- 
all the victims of Pagan and Arian vengeance, in the. shade of dark^ 
Hess 3 though he himself stated that he came to enlighten and to re^' 
deem the world? Did he permit the Pagan nation^ to be converted to 
Christanity^ working miracles to confirm the authority of the mission- 
aries, and allow them to teach blasphemy in his name > What horrible 
impiety ! What barefaced absurdity is this ! Such matchless impu- 
dence and falsehood was never before submitted to a people laying claim 
to rationality. And will you, Protestants of England, suffer yourselves 
to be any longer deluded and imposed upon by such groundless asser*' 
tions as these ? Compare the statement of Fox with the assertioQ of 
his modem editors, and say if they are not the most unblushing liars 
that ever stained paper. 

To make their .want of veracity plain to the meanest capacity, w;e 
wiU enter a little further into the merits of this case. Fox bears the 
clearest testimony to the true faith being taught by the church of 
Rome at this period^ and the zealous labours of our countryman to 
carry that faith to those nations that were under the shade of darkness ; 
consequently the candle ti7a« burning in our own island, and the light 
of the true gospel was spread by the efforts of Englishmen, holding 
their commission from the pope. St. Austin was sent to England in 
596, by pope Gregory the great, where he imparted the light of faith, 
and it Was carefully treasured in those establishments of learning and 
piety, the monasteries^ which were so ruthlessly destroyed by the ty« 
rant Harry and his successor. That Rome was then, as she now is, 
the mother of the Christian world, is unequivocally admitted by Fox, 
as he states that Boniface received his commission from one pope, and' 
that his commission was confirmed by two successive pontiffs filling the', 
see of Rome. Again, it appears from Fox's account that some parts of 
the continent had received the light of the gospel, and its professors 
by some means or other became corrupted ; but that Boniface set him- 
self to reform them, and completely succeeded in biinging them back to 
the purity of the gospel, ^Now how could he do this, if we >are to be- 
lieve the modern editors of this Book of Martyrs ? They say, '' the 
" candle of the true gospel was not lighted" in the time of Boniface — 
while Fox says, he brought back corrupted Christians to the purity 
of the gospel, and propagated the faith among Pagan idolaters. Here 
is a contradiction which the wise editors probably did not expect to see 
exposed. They thought they, had only to impute absurdity and blas- 
phemy to Popery, and all would be well. Truth was not their object, 
though they pretended to be influenced by a desire^' of diffusing among 
their fellow-believers a knowledge and love of the genuine principles 
of Christianity.'^ Where these " genuine principles" are to be found 
they have not yet shewn their '' fellow-believers j" and we suppose 
the tallow-chandler is not y^t born that is to make their candle of the 
gospel. 

' That Boniface was a Catholic missionary, there can be no doubt 5 and 
that he possessed the pure faith, we have the evidence of John Fox, 
whose testimony being confirmed by the most authentic historians, 
will go much further with the man of unbiassed miod, than the unsup* 



€( 



€C 
€< 
€< 
tt 
€t 
€« 



tt 



190 JSOEVtBW^ OP TaSi'9 

ported and ittflk^onXik assertions of ike " feW plaui Ctirfsluitis;'*^ The 
ReT. Albaa Butler^ in his life of this great man, say$^ '^ A collection 
of St. Bonifece's . letters- wa^ published by Serrariua, in 1665...^».; 
By his epistles it appears, tha^^ in all his designs and actions, he ha4 

nothing in view but piety and the service of God In the fourtby 

speaking of the necessity of confession, he says: 'If we should 
conceal our sins, God will discover th.em pnblicly in spite of uf. 
And. it is better to discover thein to one man than to be publiely ex- 
posed and covered with confusion for them in the sight of all the in^ 
'^ habitants of heaven, earth, and hell.' (Horn, itv p. 195.) ••••The 
*\ style of this saint's writing (Mr. B. observes) is dear, grave, and 
*^ simple. He everywhere in them breathes an aposMieai spirit, and 
*' his thoughts are just and loiidJ' The same author states, that " St. 
^' Boniface wrote a circular to all the bishops, priests, deacons, ca- 
" nons, monks, nuns^ and all the people of England, conjuring tjiem 
** earnestly to join in holy prayer, to beg of God, who desires that idl 
'* may be . saved^ that he would vouchsafe^ in his infinite mercy, to 
'' shower down his blessings upon the labours of all those who are 
employed in endearourkig to bring souls to his saving knowledge 9sA 
holy love." These sentiments, we think, do not sa^ocur much oi 
absurdity and Idasphcrary, while they exhibit a heart influenced with 
true charity, and inspired with the light of divine feith. In a letter 
to Cuthbert, archbishop of Canterbury, the saint gives us a true pic- 
ture of the zealous pastor, and shews how ardently he desired ta 
labour to plant the light of &ith among infidids. ^' Let us fight," he 
says, *' for the Lord in these 4ays of bitterness and affliction. If tins 
''be the l¥ill of God, kt lis die for the laws df our fathers^ that we 
'^ may arrive with them at the eternal inheritance. liCt utf not be dumh 
dogs, sleeping eentinels, hirelings that fly at the sight of the wolf: 
but watchful and diligent pastors, preaehing to the great and smali^ 
to the qch and poor, to every age and condition, be[ing instant in 
** season and out of season." Such is the. man whom these '' few plaia 
Christians" have charged with being '^ a great ahHtor of all the o^ 
'* MLrdiHes and 6£(Mp^ei»ter of Popery }'' and yet, oh! absurdity sublime! 
was himself hlameUss, because the true gospel was then mnfmownIM 
Would it not be better for society, if these exciters of hatred agaiast 
Popery and its professors were inibu^d with similar Christian senti' 
meats as this imputed abettor of absurdity and blasphemy ? 

Fox informs us that Boniface was invited into Bavaria for the pvr^ 
pose of reforming /' some abuses introduced by persons who hud nevtf 
" receive holy orderg ;" and, as usual, he omits to tell us what those 
abuses were. But what shall we say of those preachers '' who have never 
" received holy orders V It is clear that John Fox considered orders 
necessary for the exercise of the ecclesiastical functions, or he would 
not have noticed this circumstance in his account of Boniface. And 
what then shall we say of those men who lay claim to the mil of preach- 
ing by inspiration ? Of being sent, not by the regular line of succession 
from the apostles, but by their own conceit and fanciful ideas } Such as 
thescy we think, must stand condemned aa well in these days as in the 
time v>i Boniface^ But let us see what the abuses were that our saint had 
to reform* Fox gives Odilla the credit of sending f&Jt 6Xk ^onifw^) 



tt 
tt 
tt 



tt 



<( 
tt 



BOOK OF MARFYBS. Idl, 

. I 

Mr^ A. Butkr however saya that the merit is due to CarlpmaB, the son 
of Charles Martel^ mayor of the palace and prince of Lorrain, and bro-> 
titer to Pepm» who afterwards changed the mayoralty into a kingdom. 
This prince subdued ' Odilo, the duk^ of Bavaria^ and made him tri-* 
batary; while his chief aim^ we are told, was to consult by peace the 
happinesa of his people, to protect religion, and to cultivate the useful 
arts. " He bent his whole authority,*' writes Mr. Butler, " to second 
the zeal of our saint in all his undertakings. Two impostors were 
stirred up by the devil, to disturb the infant church of Germany, 
The one, Adalbert, a Frenchman, pretended to know the secrets of 
** hearts, gave his own hair and the parings of his nails as relics,, and 
'* wrote his own life, filled with absurd pretended miracles, enthusiasm, 
and pride. The other, called Clement, a Scotsman, rejected the ca-^ 
nons or ecclesiastical laws, taught that Christ in his descent into hell 
" delivered all the souls of the damned ; he also held heterodox opi- 
" nions concerning predestination. St. Bonifiice, in a council in Ger- 
'' many, condemned them ix>th in 742 .... and the sentence of the saint 
*' and his council was afterwards confirmed by the pope in a synod at 
" Rome in 745." fCenc. t. vi. p. 14, 15, and St. B<ynif, ep. 138.) Here 
we see again the carefulness of the pastors of the church to guard 
against every degree of imposition, and their di£Bidence in not presum* 
ing to act on their own individual authority, but by the common con- 
sent and advice of their confreres in solemn convocation. 

But, the '' few plain Christians" will exclaim, you have not noticed 
our charge against him. of deposing, by his authority, the king of France, 
and broaching that detestable doctrine, that no man ought to rebuke 
the pope, let him be ever so wicked and scandalous in his life. As to 
tlie latter charge, if there be an individual of comnxm imderstanding: 
capaUe of giving credit to so foul an accusation, we really pity himl 
It is of so stupid and gross a nature, it is so improbable and disgust^ 
ing, that we should be trespassing upon common sense to undertake ita 
refutation : but it is not so with the former allegation. This has been 
a firuilful source of calumny and misrepresentation, which neither th^ 
seat of justice nor the walls of parliiunent have been able to withstand! 
The deposing power has been a bugbear of long standing, and was in- 
vented by the reformers of the sixteenth century, as a cloak to cover 
their own deformity ; but, we think, by this time it is become thread- 
bare. However, as the charge involves an historical fact of an inte- 
resting nature, we will go somewhat at large into the question, for th^ 
information of the reader. The *' plain Christiaps" say, that ''.by his 
(Boniface^s) authority, Childeric, king of France, was deposed, and 
Pepin, the betrayer of his master, was recognised as king." Now thid 
assertion is as palpable a falsehood*, as that of the candle of the true 
gospel not being lighted in Boniface's time. The saint had no more to 
do with the deposition of Childeric than we had. It is true he crowned 
Pepin after he was chosen king by the unanimous voice of the nation; 
and we cannot see any great crime in that action. William the third 
was crowned king of England by the then archbishop of Canterbury, 
after James the second, his father-in-law, had been driven from the 
thibne ; therefore we trust it, is not absurdity and blasphemy in a Ca- 
tholic prelate to cn»m a king chosen by a Catholic people 5 and oon^ 



ft 
tt 



sutea^y and piety, when a Protestant bishop does the same for i ia6^ 
narciL elected by a Protestant people ! As well might the modern 
editors of John Fox charge the death of Loqis XVI. in 1793 to the ac-' 
count of Bani&ce> as the deposition of Childeric, because pope Fins 
VII. some years afterwards cnfwned Napoleoil fionqmrte emperor of 
France. These events in temporal affairs are the inscruiable designs of 
Divine Providence to chastise indolent kings as well as depraved people, 
in which religious faith has as little shcure as the " few plain Christians*' 
parta&e of common s'^ase. This act of the meek and lowly Pins ha^ 
given rise to much animadversion on the part of many stanch and 
good. Catholics j which is a flat contradiction to the -pretended doctrine 
Imputed to Boni&ce, that the conduct of a pope is not to be censnredj 
be his life' ever so wicked or scandalous* 

. The a&ir of deposing Childeric is thus. stated by Albah Butler, in a 
note to the life of St.' BodifiEice : — ^^'The Merovingian race, so called 
from king Meroveus, in whom the French crown was first made he- 
reditary, -filled the throne three htmdred and thirty-five years; under 
twenty^two successive reigns of kings in Paris« The CarloTingiaii 
line, so-called from Charles Martel, possessed the crown during four- 
teen reigns, and terminated in Liewis ¥• in 987> who died withioat 
issue. "[Die nobility passing by his uncle Charles duke of Lorrain, 
chose Hugh Capet, son of Hugh the great, the powerful count of 
Paris, who ^defeated Charles, and imprisoned him for life. The Cs" 
petian race of French kings reigUs to this doy^ but was subdivided 
into two younger branches ; the Valesian, which begun in Philip VL 
''of Valois in 1328; and that of Bourbon, which was called to the 
''throne in Henry IV. in 16&T, and was descended frpm Robert, fourth 
" son of St. Lewis count of Clermont, who marrying, Beatrix of Bbor^ 
hon, his posterity took that title. The kings of France of the first 
race, from Clovis U. son of Dagobert I. in 643, to Childeric III. in 
752, during ten reigns successively through a whole centttry, had 
given themselves up to an inactive life; and were sunk in indoknce, 
never concerning themselves with the state, in which the supreme 
authority was entrusted to the mayor of the palace : and this magis- 
tracy was often the cause of wars, and became at length hereditary. 
Thus, the kings were merely titular. This form of government was 
a source of continual factions, and other disorders, very prejudicial 
to the public weal. The crown, in all the barbarous nations which 
came from the north, was originally elective, as Bobertson shews in 
his learned preliminary discourse to his history of Scotland | but 
among the French and most others it soon became hereditary. The 
"constitution of the French government being become inconsistent 
with itself, on this occasion, it was judged necessary to restore the 
original form, and for this purpose to transfer the crown upon him 
" whom the laws of the state bad already vested with the whole regal 
" power and authority. Childeric III« sumamed the Stupid, having 
" been titular king nine years, was shaved a monk at Sithiuor.St. 
" Bertin*s in 752, and died there in 755. . • .How difiicii^lt soever (the 
writer adds) it may be to excuse Pepin from taking ambitions steps 
to prepare the way for this revolution, the case. is. very diffennt as 
to the persons who only acquiesced in an unaiiintous rf splutiMi talM 



€t 
S€ 
€< 
€< 
*€. 
<€ 
€f 
4€ 



« 

€t 

I 

€t 
€€ 
€€ 
€€ 
ft 
U 
t< 

1 

te 

C€ 

*f 



tt 
t( 



€< 
€< 



A REVIEW 

or 
CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL. 

XT-, ta Printed >n<l Publiihed hv W. E. Andrmwi. 3. Cli.Dter- « ■ 



kmg Henry DuTiden, hatband n/' Uic unfartanaU fiary ljuffn «/' Scots, ailh ali-hU ler- 
tantt and attcndOHti, oi he luu iich at hit koiue of Kirl^a-Jielil, Tlic nntriEcn and ptrpt- 
. _r ..■.,..-, .^„_ __.!_,. ,._^«___. ...... BoAioJ/J, 



COSTISIIATIOM or THB BETIRW. 

" by those who were best acquainted with right ami law in a siicces- 
" sion, which till then seemed only hereditary, under certain restric- 
" tiona, B8 frequent examples in the French, English, and other new 
" kingdoms, of the same original, from the northern transmigrations, 
"shew. ...The circumHtancesof the dethroning of Child eric, and of 
" Pepin's election, are related so differently, aad the true history is so 
" obscure, that it is easy for every writer to give it his own glosf. . . . 
" That the election of Pepin was ananiniJui, and a transaction of the 
" whole nation, and of all the powers that could be consulted in it, is 
" proved in note 43 on Serrarius Rerum Mogunticar, by Georgii^ 
*' Christiajius Joannis. Francoi. 1723, p. 332." 

From this authentic statement the reader will be able to ^pronounce 
the infamy due to the assertions of the itiodern editors of Fox, to de- 
fcrae the character of a " godly martyr," who is acknowledged hy the 
niartyrologist himself to have been an honour to his country. Boni- 
face deposing* king by his own authority! Was ever so idle a calumny 



194 REVffiW OF FOXS 

before inrented? What authority could Boniface posseds of himself, 
when it is clearly and repeatedly stated by Yo%, that the martyr held 
himself in obedience to the pope> and that he received his commidsion 
or authority froln the see of Rbme. Deposing po>(^er indeed ! ' lyho 
ever exercised the* deposing power so effectually as the heroes of the 
Reformation, so called, of the sixteenth century? Much clamoiu we 
know has been raised against the supposed deposing power of the 
popes, and Catholics are obliged at this day to renotmce on oath this 
power, which never was an article of their faith, while Protestants 
claim the right of exercising it under certain conditions. Not an in- 
stance can be produced of a sovereign being actually deposed by a 
pope, though many were deprived of their dominions by '^ Protestant- 
ascendency." The reformers of Scotland deposed Mary, the unfor- 
tunate queen of that country, after blowing up her hiisband with gun- 
powder. Christina, qtteen of Sweden, was obliged to resign her sceptre 
py her reforming subjects. The Protestants tried h^d to depose 
Charles the fifth of Germany j and inany attempts were made by the 
fiuguenots of FraUce to depode theiir sovereigns. Did not <' Prote^iHst- 
ascendency*' endeav(mr tb shut Mary out of the throne of T^n^isoA; 
and were not Charles I. and his son iJames II. deposed by Proteisti^ ? 
Is it not a part of the statute law of the kingdom, at this momefit, '&at 
should the sovereign become a Catholic, or marry a Catholic princei^, 
he is instantly deposed } Is it not a principle with Orangemen to swear 
allegiance to the king condtHanaliy ? And are Catholics still to be 
taunted with the deposing power attributed by bigots to the pdpes, 
but never allowed them by the chtiirch ! We are 'tiot torry that the 
charge has been 'made, because it has given us the opportunity of te- 
butting it with facts that are incontestible and overwhelming. . "When 
the Catholic reli^bn Was intihoduced among Pagan nations, no altera- 
tion was made in the civil privileges or customs of the coimtry, where 
tiiey were not contrary to £aith and morals. The system of Catholi- 
cism is purely spiritual and not of this world, therefore it is adajited 
to every form of civil government, nor has it any divine commission to 
interfere in the concerns of kingdoms and states. 

The martyrologist proceeds to give an account of '' Massacres by the 
'' Saracens" and the death of ^' WincesUms, duke of Bohemia" which we 
shaU pass over, as containing not^iing worthy of remark. His next 
subject is " Adalbert, bish>op of Prague" on which we must be allowed 
'to say something. After stating the great virtues and endowments of 
Adalbert, he says, that ''soon after the decease of Dithmar (the arch- 
'' bishop), an assembly was held for' the choice of a successor, which 
'^ consisted of the clergy of Prague and the nobility of Bohemia. Adal- 
*' bert*s character determined them to raise him to the vacant see, 
" which th^y did on the 19th of February, 983, and immediately dis; 
' patched messengers to Verona, to desire Oiho IL would confirm the 
" election. The emperor granted the request, ordered Adalbert to re- 
''pair to court for investiture, gave him the ring and crosier, and then 
f sent him to the archbishop of Mentz for consecration. That cerc- 
'' mony was performed on the ^9th of June the Same year y vid he 
f* was received at Prague with great demonstrations of public joy." 
From whenictb Fox takes this account we are not toldj all is assertion*; 



BOOIC iW UARTmS. 19l» 

aot a slA^le autbaritgr U quoted : and «re bare reason to conclude t]uit 
it is wholly groundless. Hitherto^ as in the case of St. Boniface^ Fox 
has acknowledged the ^premacy of the pqpe, or bishop of Rome, but 
BOW he makes an attempt to shift the supremacy to the emperor Otho. 
Xhe emptor was requested to. confirm Adalbert's election, he says, 
on which the inonarch sent for .the prehite-elect tp court for investi- 
titre^ and there giving him the ring and crosier^ ordered him off to 
the arohb^op of Meutz .to be consecrated. Tljus tale is very plau- 
aible, but not i{m%e eorrectj if we are to believe the Jtey. A. Butler, in 
his life of this saint ^ and as the latter martyrologist has given us aju- 
ihonities for what he ha6. related, it is more reasonable, we thinlc, to 
give credit to a writer ^ho brings forward evidence in support of his 
relation than a man who does not. Mr. Butler says, Aikdbert was 
chosen by an assembly held a few days after the deaUi of his prede-: 
cessor, that he endeavoured to prevent his election, but ineffectually. 
and was consecrated in 983 by tibe archbishop of Mentz. Not a woni 
4ifaaut going, to couot, and receiving the ring and crosier from the em- 
poor; and it would seem, fropi Mr. B.'s account, that the emperor di4 
not see AcUbevt until some years after he was made bishop. The 
<!laun ,of investiture hM not then, we believe, been raised by the tem- 
poral sovereigns ^ and if it had, ithe exs^eror could not have issued or- 
ders for consecration to the archbishop, finr that bein^ a purely spl^ 
-ritual act, no temporal authority could be exercised to enforce it. 
The pope and the pope only could grant spiritual jurisdiciiiHi, and it is 
he, -by virtue of the authority given by Christ .to Peter and his hucr 
cessors^ that confirms the election of all bishops. In the elmxenth cen- 
tury, it is -true, the Jungs of Germany, of France and Epglaod, laid 
claun to the privilege of investiture, which is a term used to ewresa 
the ri^itand the act of investing persons with certain powers, both 
eccle«astical and civil. The ceremony as regarded Mshpps and ab- 
bots was the deli very < of the ring and crosier, but as it bore the appear- 
ance of simony, the act was condemned by the supreme pontififS, and 
resisted by those prelates who were remarkable for the sanctity of their 
lives and tiie upr^fatness of their conduct. Of these St. Ansebn, arch- 
lushop'Of Canterbury, in the time of William Rufiis^ .was a brilliant ex- . 
ample. 
Pox next states, that Adalbert '' divided the .revenue of his see into 
fsuTiparta, according to the directiom of the cations extant in ihejjflh 
cetUury, The first was employed Jn the building and ornaments of 
the church ; the. second went to the maintenance of the clergy ^ the 
third was laid out .for the relief of the poor ; and the fourth reserved 
" for the support of huuself and fiamily, which was always made to in- 
clude twelve indigent persons, .to whom he allowed daily subsist- 
ence J' Mr. Butler .adds, that these twelve poor -oEuen were kept in 
honour of the apostles, and that the holy prelate en^loyed the whole 
of his own patrimony in alms. ''He had in his chamber a good be4»" 
writes Mr. B. " but on which he never lay -, taking his short rest on a 
*' saekcloth, or on the bare floor. His fieUts were ireguent, and his 
'' life most austece." . Hanee* th#n, it is, clear, that this martyr, .ha« 
Jiouredby JPjok, was t CathoUc wd not a ^testant bishcp. The latter 
ipielates mm m littla ineUtted to reUnqpoJidi the comfeit of a jfood b«d« 



€€ 



€€ 



190 . REVIEW OF FOX'S 

that they add to the enjoyment by taking bed-fellows besides^ and 
bed^fellows too that would not ^hare lodgings with them if they slept 
■ on sackcloth, like the h61y Adalbert. But we wish particularly to im^ 
^reds Upon the mind of the reader, especially if he be a Protestacnt/the 
admission here pade/by Fox a!tad his inodem editors, that by the canons 
eictaut in the' Jifth tentury, the revenues- given to the church were di- 
vided into four pa/ts, namely, one to ndse tod repair places of worship, 
a second to maintain the* clergy, a third to relieve the poor, and the 
foutth to support the bishop. We wish him also to bear in mind, that 
while this kingdom was Catholic, the church revenues were thu& inva- 
riably appropriated, and oftentimes -made to contribute largely to the 
exigencies of the state. But is this the case now ? Has the nation bet- 
tered itself , by the change introduced at the refbrmalioU, so called, of 
the sixteenth century^ Who is the individual, not interested in the 
question, that will answer us in the affirmative ?^ In the time of Adal*- 
bert,and in all Catholic countries at this period, the clergy are;enjbined 
celibacy, so that their wants are few, and their cares for a family less. 
Wl^en this country Was Catholic, no rates were raised beyond :the tithe 
to bpild and rejpair churches • none to sU|>port the poor, nor were tKxes 
levied to relieve the, indigent clergy 'aiitd th^r families. The most heau>- 
tifid febrics were raised to become temples of worship (or the livisig 
God; alms-houses and hospitals were effected for the poor : and ininh, 
and all this without a tax, except the tithe levied for the civil estabHslF- 
'ihent of the clergy.* But when the state began to xneddle with religion ; ' 
'when it was thought -necessary to reform that system of divine revela- 
tion which was never to be altered or stand in need of alteration, what a 
change has^ this intermeddling ^tnade in the situation of 'the country. 
' The revenues heretofore destined to works of charity and hospitality^ 
were ^ven to hungry and corrupt o^rUers ; and, as tiie practice of godd 
works and self-denial were laid aside, as superstitious customs, the 
clergy were allowed to niarry. Till this ^riod a mieirried elergyuaan 
was 'a 'nonentity, and by the laws of the couhtry, the- offspring of an 
ecclesiastic, if such were unfortunately bom, were rendered incapable 
of inheritance, so strong Was public feeling against the vAmse of a dis- 
cipline derived from the apostles^ and held sacred by the Catholic 

church. ... ' 

Tlie adversaries of this church, however, as we before observed, had 
. no taste' for restraints of the flesh, but they gave an unbridled -license. 
,tO the passion^, and secured, as -far as they could, the means of gratify- 
ing them. La,w3 were passed to allow the reformed 'clergy tO' marry 
' and le^timate their issue; while, for the support of their families,. the 
whole of the tithes were given to them;* leaving the churches and the 
poor wholly unprovided for. The impoHdy of tl^is system soqn made 
^ its appearance, by the disturbances and discontents of the indigent, and 
\ new laws were passed ta levy rates on land and trade to maintain the 
poor and keep the churches in repair. At first these measures bore 
lightly on the people,' and the delusive dread' of Popery, which the in- 
' terested were continually instilling into the public miiiidi prevented ti!ie 
bulk of , the ilation from discovering the wofiil change that had been 
' made ^thu an unmarried to a married clergy. Tl^e present posture of 
' aflBairs has, however, contributed greatly to open the eyes^of tbie }>eo- 



BOOK orWAKPfJig. m^ 

pie/ and' nothing but the most stupid folly cauldindc^e theniod«Ftt> 
editors of Fox\» Book of Martyrs to notice so creditable an instance of> 
(Uainterestedness and self-^devotion on the part of Adalbert^ a Catholic • 
bishop in the tenth century^ when the conduct of the; reformed cler^ in 
the. nii^eteenth is the subject of censure and, reproach for their- selfish-- 
Qess and .want of attention to the instruction of their- flod&s. These « 
exciters of '^hatred and'abhorrence of the (supposed) corruptions and • 
'' crimes of Popery and its professors/* should have recollected that- 
those who live in glass houses ought not to be the first to throw stou^ : > . 
and when they undertook the publication of this mass of falsehood and * 
fact^ compounded together for deception, but professedly given to diffuse- 
'' aniong their fellow believers a knowledge s^d love oi ih&. genuine' 
'^ prmcqfles of CkrUtiflnity^^ they should have cast, a view over the pre- • 
sent.situation of ' - Protestant-Ascendency/' and have ascertained whether • 
the corruptions and crimes of her followers are not more enormous and . 
censurable than those they impute to Popery, While they are extol- 
ling Adalbert for dividing tlve revenues of his see into four portions for 
religious purposes, the publis press is daily teeming with instances > 
of avariciousness and extortion on the part of " Protestant-ascendency/* • 
It is a fact luideniable, that thci clergy of the establishment are. paid 
better than any other clergy in the wkole world^ and less worked. • 
In Ireland alone, where the mass of the people are Cathode, the. 
clergy of the establishment are computed to receive more than the 
clergy^ Catholic and Protestant, pf the rest of the civilized world. 
Apd yet, while bishppp are dying worth 300,0Q0/. property and up* . 
wards, the people are sidled with taxes to maintain the sons and 
daughters of clergymen in the shape of pensioners and half-pay offi- . 
cers) to keep the poorer clergy from going to the workhouse 3 and to • 
raise. churches, when dissenting places of worship are erecting by the. 
i^ide of them ! ! But this is not ail. In Catholic times, hospitals and . 
charitable foundations were established by donations given through > 
motives of piety 3 now the people are called upon, besides .paying thejr. 
poor and church rates, to contribute towards national schools, bible, 
schools, societies for promoting Christian knowledge, missionary so- . 
cieties.and numerous other establishments, ostensibly formed for chari- 
table purposes, but principally applied to support idle hangers-on, too. 
lazy to w:ork and too proud to beg. 

While we are now writing, a bill is pending in parliament to em-', 
power the inhabitants of a parish in Ireland to repair the cathedral, in. 
consequence of .the neglect of the bishop, and clergy to do so. This 
fact forms so striking a contrast to that related by Fox of the holy. 
Adalbert^ that we feel, impelled to record it, as we find it given in the. 
public papers. — ^'^ A bill," says XYie, DubUn Evening ,Po9t, "a private 
*' bill, is at present before parliament to enable the inhabitants of the 
" parTsh of Templemore, in which the cathedral of Derry stands, to, 
" raise. ^ sum of money.for its repair, ahd to create an economy f^ad 
'.'for>its future maintenance: we shall, probably, never hear a word 
*^ about the business, for it is a privs^te bill, and, like other joaatters of 
" that kind, managed in the snu^est manner by the honourable house f 
'* but we happen to have heard^ something about this matter, and a 
'[ more pbjectionable job, a more bare&c^d manoeuvre of certain digni-^ 



m mviftw OF Fors 






4* 






" tartlM of tlie thurck. Id ibcyre a bvrdaD fitM tlidfftfwn to tile sb(^^ 
^ of ifte inhflliltaiits of the psoiih of Templetnore, we lunre never heard 
*^ of.— -Who will beHeve ii> The cathedral of Derry is in mfaisv— The 
** cathedral upon whose roof the caimoii were planted against king 
'^ James's army, is in ruins. The bitiiop who gets only 90fifM. a^year 
" froin this poor diocese has not been within its walls ibr many a>year. 
'^ The dean, who, poor fellow, has only 4,0002. a-year, haa not per- 
'* formed service in it for two years. Bishop, dean, and prebendaries, 
** have all forsaken it, and the only memorial of its former ^lendbnr, 
^ save, indeed, its dilapidated walls, is a snuff box in possession of the 
club of Derry apprenticed, fin'med out of the oak-beam upon wiiich 
the aforefaid cannon was placed. Ob, Derry, Derry,yiitf ikon. But 
*^ now fbr the job. Some good natured citizens, a lew years ago, who 
'^ were pimtd of their cathedral, subscribed to the amoimt of 9,000/. for 
'^ its repair 5 with becoming deference they left the money in the hoDdi 
of the bishop, and he, after building up and pulling down, with about 
as much taste as he has shown in tlie biidlding of his own many- 
'^ headed itionster at Fahan, determined at last to put up four wooden 
pinnacles upon the tower, dashed ovtt with sand and gravel to imi- 
tate stone; but the winds had no more respect ibr his pinnacles 
than his lordship had for the cathedral, and down they came one 
'^stormy night. The citizens were indignant; this bishop was giwid 
^ and mighty; and<«when they demanded an account, he abruptly left 
*^ his palace in his chaise and fbur, and vowed that he would never 
" again patronize the ungrateful citizens of Derry. He kepi his word ; 
'' for many years he never slept in Derry, because his palace stood op- 
** posite the cathedral, and fbr years never put his fbot within its walls. 
" But still the cathedral became worse and worse, and at last the con- 
** gregation, dean, chapter, and all, were obliged to leave it, and to beg 
** permission to repeat* their prayers in the Presbyterian meeting house. 
*^ Such has been the condition of the cathedral of Derry for the last 
** two years ; the cathedral of a diocese, whose lands are to be num- 
** bered in no lets than forty»nine parishei, whose rental, if set at full 
" value, would be at least l90fiOOL a-year, which gives a net income 
** of W,000/. to its bishop, and contidns the greatest patronage of any 
** diocese in the empire. Loud, frequent, but vain were the applica- 
*' tions made to the bishop and dean ; they were wise in their genera- 
" tion, and having consulted the statute book, they found that no law 
" could compel them to spend one shilling — as for respect fbr the church, 
" had not the bishop sufficiently shown his zeal for it, by giving all the 
" b^st livings in his diocese to his sons and nephews — what more could 
^ be expected froih him } If the citizens of Derry wanted a place of 
^ worship, they were to pay fbr it; as all solicitation was in vain, the 
" citizens did not think it necessary to exert themselves, and they ac- 
^ cordingly agreed to assess themselves in an annual sum for ever for 
" the repair of the church. The corporation did the sattie — a second 
^ subscription was raised, but all would not do. Sir G. Hill was there- 
^ fore instructed to bring a bill into parliament to enable the parish to 
** raise a smn of money upon the futh of the ahnual assessment of the 
" parish, and the subscription of the corporation; Imd, after a great 
" deal of diifitsulty, he persuaded the dean, with the concurrence of the 



/ 






BOOK OF MARTYRS. li» 

'< \nBhop, to saddle kk $t$ecei$or in the deanery nrHh l&a aontiajl confi^i- 
btttioa of &ve hundred pounds for tlie future repaks of the catliedral. 
Now tkis k a rank job — it is felt to be a job by tifate dtiz^^mof JHrrj, 
" aad it will, when known, be stigmatized as a job by eVery honour*' 
" able mind, by every well-wisher of the church.*' Now, reader, tak- 
iag leave of these wooden pinnacles^ turn ^oor eyes to tlK>se beautiful' 
and grand fl|»ecimen8 of taste and architecture, still standing as Aionu- 
menta of the ddU and devotion of our ancestors, and then look at the- 
paltry, eeeotions now going on under the.name of churches. In the one 
you see sublimity and grandeur of design; in the other a parsimony of- 
execution that flashes conviction of the superiority of the dark age^ over 
these erdightened daya, at least in the science of ecclesiastical architec- 
ture; and when we take into consideration that the churches raised by 
the Catholics mere done without a single act of parliament or the least 
compulsory tax upon the people, save and except the tithe, while no- 
thing can be done in these days without the force of parliament and the- 
aid of the tax-gatherer, it must be acknowledged the position of the 
two penods will not bear a contrast. 

But we must return from this digression to the martyrologist* Adal-* 
bert is represented as the most amiable of characters, wbA the peoj^e- 
over whom he was placed the most depraved. Unable to recover them 
fiom their state of impiety, '* he determined," we are told by Fox, " to 
" CONSULT THE FOFE, and made a journey to Rome' for that pur- 
pose. Hence it is incontestible that Adalbert was what our modern' 
editors call a Papist, and John Vox, " a godly martyr," and that the* 
pope was at this time the head of the church; for we are further told 
by John Fox, that ,the pope advised Adalbert to give up his bishopries 
that the archbishop of Mentz applied to the pope to send him back to 
ii, that he was sent back by the pope with leave to retire again if he 
found the people still inoorrigible, that finding them as bad as ever, he 
left lus bishopric and directed 'his attentiotk to the conversion of the 
Boles, that the archbishop of Mentz applied to the pope a second time, 
and Adalbert was commanded to return* The people Were obstinately 
bent on opposing his a&oaonitions, and going to preach the feuth at 
Dantzic, he met with death on the S3d of April 997^ being stabbed 
witii knees. With this acknowledgment of the supremacy of the pope 
in the tenth century, Fox closes his third book. The ntaLi introduces 
us to most important subjects; we therefore give it a distinct head. 

BOOK IV. • 
'^ raasscuTiQNs ik vabious countbieSj from Tna eleventh to the 

^' SIXTEENTH CENTURY." 

The first section of this book is distinguished by a sub-head, entitled, 
" Persecttiiom.in ike eleomUh century" and commences with an '' account 
" <tf arehbkhop Aiphage^" who filled the see of Canterbury finom 1006 
to 1012. This prelate, according to Fox*s account, was a stanch Ca« 
tholic and a monk. He was also a man of the most exemplary piety 
and abstemious habits. " The see of Winchester," writes Fox, " being 
" vacairt by the death of Ethelwold, a dispute arose respecting a sue-. 
" cessor to that bishopric , The clergy had been driven out of the i^" 






t€ 



300 HEVIEW OF FOX'S ' 

'' thedral Ibr tMr' soCuiddoDw Uves^ but were admiticd agaiit} bjr kii% 
'^ Etlielred, upon certain terms of reformation. The monks, who had 
been introduced ufxin their expulsibny looked upon themselves as the 
chapter of that church; and hence arose a violent contest between 
thcBti and the clergy who had been re-admitted, about the election of 
a bishop } while both parties were vigorously determined upon sup- 
porting their town man: This dispute at last ran so high, that Dun- 
Stan, archbishop of Canterbury, as primate of all England, was ob«' 
liged- to- interpose, and he consecrated Alphage to the vacant bi-^ 
sh(5pric, to" the general satisfaction of all concerned in the elec- 
** tion. The behaviour of Alphage was a proof of his being equal to 
^ the dignity of hie vocation. Piety flourished in his diocese ^ umty 
** was established among his clergy and people $ and the conduet of 
'^ the church of Winchester made the bishop the admiration of the ' 
'' whole kingdom. DUnstan had an extraordinary veneration for Al* 
** phage, and when at the point of death, made it his ardent request to 
" God, that he. might succeed him in the see of Canterbury; which a6«' 
cordingly happened, though not till about eighteen years after Dun-* 
stents death. In the course of that period, the metropolitan church 
** was governed by three successive prelates; the last of whom waa- 
^* Alfric; upoti whose decease in 1006, Alphage was raised to the see of < 
*^ Canterbury. The people belonging to the diocese of Winchester 
" were too sensible of the loss they sustained by his translation, not to 
** regret his removal to Canterbury. Soon after he was made archbi- 
*' shop, he went to Rome and re(:eived the pallfropi pope John XVJU." 
That this. prelate was a Catholic, or, as the modern editors of Fox 
would say, *' a Papist/^ admits of no doubt, since he went to Rome 
to receive the pall from pope John XVIII. We have no account here 
of his being sent to court for investiture, and receiving the ring and 
crosier from the king, but on his appointment to the primacy of tke 
English church, Elphege, as he is named by Catholic writers, goes to 
Rome and receivee^ his commission from {he pope, consequenUy this ' 
** godly martyr" admitted the supremacy of the chair of St. Peter, aft 
did also the whole nation. Fox amuses his readers with a supposed dis- 
pute about a successor to the see of Winchester, on the death of Ethel- 
wold ; we have consulted the Rev, A, Butler's marty rology, and that 
^ry learned work. Dr. Milner's History of Winchester, in neither of 
which do we find the least mention of such a contest ; it is therefore 
to be placed among the many fables to be found in this work of delu- 
sion and falsehood. That there were scandals existing at this period 
among the clergy, cannot be denied, and among other offences, some 
of the secular priests had taken to themselves v^ves in violation of 
the canons, for which they were expelled the churches by St, Dun- 
stan, and St. Ethelwpld, the predecessor of Elphege, following the 
example of the holy primate, ejected the secular caiions from his ca- 
thedral at Winchester, and placed mcmks in their stead. As the at* 
tempts on the part of good prelates to restore discipline and preserve 
morals have become the subject of virulence and abuse with many of 
our Protestant historians, and particularly of that popular writer, Mr. 
Hume, it may not be amiss to ent^r briefly into the subject, as oeca- 
9m may offer in the pourse of our review, to make references to Ifaif 



BOOK OP AL\RT¥AS. Ml 

period. That the 4igc^Uae 4yf the primitive ages ei^ditied coiHiiieiicy^ 
to the clergy is proved to demonstration by the numerous c9A6n8, in 
those ages of pure Christianity^ against the marriage of bishops^ priests/ 
and deacons. St. Jerom, an unimpeachable witness in the fourth age/ 
testifies that in the. three great patriarchates of Rome^ Alexandria/ and 
Antioch, no individuals were admitted into the ecclesiastical state but 
such as voluntarily embraced a life of celibacy, or were mutually and 
freely separated from their wives. So when this country received the' 
feuth of the gospel in the time of pope Gregory the great, the same* 
discipline was introduced by St. Augustin, by whose i^postolical eater- 
tions the light of truth was enkindled in this island. The cmistant in-*^ 
roads made by the Danes upon our ancestors occasioned great disor-' 
ders, and the ex<iesses of the lower orders of the clergy were a source: 
of scandal to the nation. The bishops exhorted and reproved in vain; 
and strong measures were absolutely necessary to' reduce men to a' 
sense of their duty, who were grown callous through the force of bad 
habits. Accordingly, in the year 944, a synod of bishops, abbotsy 
and nobles was convened, in which, by the joint concurrence of the 
civil powers, it was decreed, ''That all clergymen in higher orders* 
" shall lead a chaste life, conformable to the character they bear^ un** 
^' der the penalty of forfeiting tbeir^mporalities, and being. deprived 
" of Christian burial, if they die impenitent.'* By many writers this 
decree has been looked upon as an act of tyranny, and there are many 
persons now, .though. they exclaim against the burden of paying tithes, 
that think it hard the clergy, should not be allowed to marry. The 
experience of eighteen hundred years on the part of the Catholic 
church, and that of three, centuries on the side of the reformists, ^Ut 
suffice, we think, to convince any reasonable mind of the vast advan- 
tages obtained by. the . former over the latter. And what degree of 
hwshness or oppression can be substantiated in the above decree ? No' 
person is compelled to enter into ecclesiastical orders, and on doing' so' 
they do it with a full knowledge of the engagements they* enter into; 
the act therefore being voluntary on their part, there can be neither 
injustice nor tyranny on the part of the church for maintaining that 
state. of discipline which is necessary to make her ministers respected 
and their morals unblemished. The Saxon king Edgar, on occasion of 
these disorders, thus addressed an assembly of prelates convened to 
remedy the scandal. "These sacred foimdations,*' says he, '* we.now 
'' see sacrile^usly vrasted by dissolute phurchmen upon tiieir dogs, 
" their birds, and their . concubines. In vain have you expostulated, 
" exhorted, rebuked. The houses of the clergy are become the seats 
** of riot and intemperance, the resort of libertines, of singers, and buf- 
" foons. The people murmur, all good men are scandalized. The 
** evil increases, • efficacious remedies must be applied. The sword of 
'' St. I^eter is in your hands, I vrield that of Constantine. The spirit 
'* tual power is yours, the civil mine. The joint exertions of both is 
" necessary to suppress the present insults offered to religion, to ba- 
^' nish vice, and to purify the polluted altar of God. Unclean intru- 
" ders have taken possession of the sanctuary ^ it is time they should 
'' be compelled to quit their concubines or their livings. Too long 
^' have they bid defiance to the laws and all lawfid authority* But 



«x» fiBviBW OF rox'i 

*^ slfll^tet jtttliQe be temf^ered with lutmaAky; lei ua give eflcotingi' 
*^ inmt to rapcnlnnoe; we ofcv tbem tlte ohoioe ehkcr to submit to the 
'f chaate'aiid ancienl diAcipliiie of the church, or to relinqvi^ their 
" eccleaiaslical poaMsrioas^" These senthnents, wor^y a Ghiisthta 
king, were delivered about the year 969, and we find the effect pro- 
dttoed by them in tiie etatement of John Fox, who says, that through 
the exertions and bdiaviour of Elphege, ** piety flourished in his dio- 
'' cess, unity was established among his clergy and people, and the 
*' eoaduct cif the church of Winchester made the bishop the admira- 
'' tion of the whole kingdom.*' Such reforms as these, governed by 
tiie spirit of true religion and juatice^ are sure to lead to the same re- 
sults, namely, the hi^pmeaa and improvement of the people of every 
rank and condition; but the measures pursued by those who called 
themselves reformers in the sixteenth century, originated in the wont 
passions of human nature, and have consequently been attended with 
the greatest evils t^t can possibly afliiot mankind, as we shall have 
occasion to shew in the progress of our labours. 

Fox next proceeds to detail the events which led to the martyrdom 
of Blphege by the Danes, in which the holy prelate shewed the greatest 
devotion to the interests of his people, and the utmost disregard for his 
own fote. After being translated to the see of Canterbury, haring 
filled the episcopal chair of Winchester twenty-two years, tiie Danes 
laid siege to the former city, and took possession of it. Fox, in his 
narrative, says, these barbarians took the plfice by storm, and destroy- 
ed aU that came in their way; that tiie monks endeavoured to detain 
the. bishop in the church, but he broke from them, and ran into the 
midst of the danger; that the Danes seined him, and obliged him to 
remain till the church was burned and the monka massacred ; and then, 
he continues, they ''decimated ali the inhabitants, both ecclesiastics 
** and laymen, leaving only every tenth person alive: so that they pot 
'' 7336 persons to death, and left only/oitr monks and 800 laymen alive." 
We notice this statement to shew mdiat little reliance can be placed 
upon the details of this martyrologist, and tiie contempt he has for the 
understandings of his readers. How could he come with su(^ exacts 
ness at the population of this city in the eleventh century, as to know 
the precise number to a single individual that sufltered in this decimal 
tion, especially as it took plaee, according to his own account, ii^cr 
an indiscriminate slaughter of the people, and a total masaaere of the 
monks ? W^ any man of common sense believe it possilde fiur Fdx to 
become acquainted with such particulars .at such a distant period? 
Does it not carry every appearance of fiction, and prove how caiefal 
the reader ought to be in crediting the statements quide by him, when 
given with such pretended minuteness ? Were any man ta attempt at 
this day to enumerate to a single lifo, the loss of killed and wounded in 
storming a besieged town, would he be believed? Would he not be 
taken for an impudent aaserter, and laughed at or kicked for his impu- 
dence? We think such would-be his fote with every rational man, and 
such should be the treatment towards the anthoi and editors of the 
Book of Martyn. 

To afi>rd our readers the opportunity of contrasting the account of 
this martyr*s death, as given by Cathdic writers, with that related by 



HOOK OF MABXYBS. 9M 



tax, vre hen ^isrtiici 9L^pmt^^htm9ilA^^^ 
tiwi event. /'Burins the skigt,^ Mr. B. vritefl^ *'' h0 afte« Mat out t» 
" die enemies to desire them to a|MHfe his ianoeenj^ sheep, whom he e»* 
" deavoored to aaimaite egainst the weest that eoold hafipen. AoA 
'' hairing^ prepared them, % hie zeal0iia evhoitatiQiis, rather to suffep 
" the utmost than renomiee their fatth^ he gave them the blessed eu- 
" charist, «id reeomraended them to the divine protection. Whilst he 
'' was thos empfayyed in assisting and eneovraging his people, €anter- 
" Imry was taken by storm. The infidels^ on. entering the city^ mode 
'' a dreai^Eul slau^ter of aH that came in their way, without distinc* 
*' tion oi sex or age. The holy prelate was no sooner appvized of die 
'^ barbarity of the enemy, but breaking from the monks, who would 
" have detained him in the church, where they thought he might he 
"safe, h^ pressed through the Banish tioopsi^ and made lusway to 
'^ the place of slaughter.** Br. MUner, in his EEutmj of Wmchnter, 
says, " He was seen to rush between the miwderers and their helpless ^ 
** victims, crying out to the former : ^If you are men, spare at least 
" the inQocent and the 'unresisting ) or, if you want a victim, turn your 
" swords upon me ^ it is I who have so often repioaehed you with 
'■ your crimes, who have supported ami redeemed the fHrisoners whom 
" you hove made, and have deprived you &i OAuy of your soldiers, by 
'' converting them to Christianity.* The person and the raetit eS 8t. 
" Bl^iege were well known to the Banes $ having been sent upon chf- 
" ferent embassies to them, and rendered them many charitable offices. 
" Hence they did not dare to strike him, but satisfied themselves with 
" seizing vipon him, and committing him to close custody, mtending 
'' to extort an enormous sum for his ransom* Boring his confinement 
" of seven months,, these Pagans, being alarmed at an epidemieal dis^ 
" temper wUch afflicted them, were upon the point of releasing him, 
" without any ransom. At length, however, their avarice prevailing, 
" they sent for him to Greenwich, where their fleet then lay, and put 
" the question finally to him, whether he was prepared to pay the 3000 
** marks of gold, which they had imposed as his fine. His answer 
"was, that all the money which he could command, had been spent 
" upon the poor, and that if he had more, it would be their property j 
" in a word, that he had no gold to bestow upon those, in whose pre* 
^^ seace he stood, except that of true' wisdom, which consisted in the 
'' knowledge of the living God. Being provoked at this answer, they 
" beat him to the ground, and began to overwhelm him with stones, 
*' and the horns of sla^htered oxen ) whilst he, raising up his eyes to 
" heaven, thus addressed himself to his divine Master : O good Shep* 
** herd, do thou waick over th^ ehUdren oftkif church, ^wbam, mth my last 
" breath, I recommend to th^e.- Our saint having pronounced ibis prayer, 
" and continuing to suffer, a Bane, by naiiie Thrun, whom he had the 
" day before baptized, moved by a cruel kind of pity, struck him on 
" the head, with his battle axe, and completed his martyrdom.** Here 
we see these two Catholic writers confining themselves to general 
facts, which do not admit of dispute, and such should be the rule of 
every author who is desirous to narrate the truth and nothing but the 
truth. 

The last martyr feebrded by Fox, in this book, to whom Catholicism, 






(t 

« 

(€ 
ft 



M4! ' KfcVflEWQFRyxs: 

ean hiy ckhD, is Stoiidatts^ bishop of Cxwovf,, The character giren 
of thi^' holy prelate by the martyrologist is of the most glowing de- 
scriptibn. He was a prodigy io learning, amiable in his disposition, 
austere in his devotions, and fixed in embracing the ecclesiastical state. 
On being admitted to holy orders, the then, bishop of Cracow made 
him a canon of his cathedral. ''In this capacity/' says Fox^ ''he lived 
in a most, exemplary mannef, and performed his duties ¥nth unre- 
mittiUff assiduity;" His yirtues charn^ed the bishop, and he would fain 
have resigiied his bishopric in favour of Stanislaus, on account of his grest 
age, but the latter refused to. accept of it on account of his want of 
years. The bishop however died in 1071> and all concerned selected 
St^nidaus for his successor, but he still refused, for the reason before 
stated, f At length/.' continues Fox, " the king, clergy, and nobility 
unanimously joined in writing to pope Alexander U. who, at their 
entreaty,^ sent ah. express order, that Stanislaus should accept the bi- 
shopric. He then obeyed, and exerted Imnself to the utmost in im- 
proving his flock. He was 'equally careful with respect both to 
^' clergy and laity^ kqvt a list of all the poor in his diocese, and by 
" feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, and administering remedies 
" to the sick, he proved faimsdf not only the godly pastor, but the pby- 
" sician'and benefactor of the people.'' Here then it is clear that this 
" godly pastor," this ^'physician and benefactor of the people," wss 
'•' a Pafifist** as the inodem' editors pf Fox would call him, that is, a Ca- 
tholic, according to the right sense pi his creed. He is explicitly stated 
ad yielding to « the commands of the pope, therefore. he must have al- 
lowed the authority and supremacy of the pope, and so must the kin^ 
and clergy and 'nobility jof Poland,, by making their application to Alex- 
ander U. to enforce their election. Thus it is manifest the supremacy 
of the pope was received with the light of Christianity, whidi would 
pot have been the case had there not been divine authority for it. Fox 
next proceeds to detail the martyrdom of the saint, which arose, fnon 
bis courageous opposition to the imbridled lust and brutish extravagan- 
cies of the then Idng of Poland, Bolesslas U. This monarch, it appears 
was an archetype.of our Henry VIII. who murdered the pious bisbop 
Fisher, for adhering to the same spiritual supremacy that Stanislaus 
ackpowledged, and who refosed to sanction Henry's enomiities as Sta- 
nislaus reprobated the cruelties ci Boleslasr Why Fox should make a 
distinction between such characters, either in the case of the monarchs 
or the prelates is irreconcileable to common sense ; yet so it is, 93A 
)the m<Alem editors of his book are busily employed in circulating this 
mass of delusion and incmisistency, in order, they say, to diffuse 
5' among tWir fellow-believers a knowledge and love of the gemme 
f ' prmdples of Christianity ! ! " Precious principles of Christianity 
must they be that require £ilsehopd and deceit for their support. But 
to return to Stapislaus. After several unsuccessful attempts to bring 
the kin^.to a sense of his duty to himself and to his people, Stanislaus 
excommunicated the monarch, and forbad him to be received into the 
church during divine service. BoleslaiTin his rage dispatched some of 
hih servants to get rid of titie bidhop, but they were awed by his vener- 
able aspect, on which the king plunged his dagger into the Q^int'8 
heart at the foot of the altar, where- the martyr was at his devotions. 



BOOK OP. MARTYRS. «05 

This happened In 1079. We. cannot quit this account without caUing 
the attention, of the reader to the amiable self-devotion and charity 
exhibited in the conduct of these two'CathoUc bishop$, and the:gener^ 
course' of life of the re/bri»ed (as they are called), bishops and .ministers 
under '' Frot^stantvascendency." ; . . ' 

PERSECUTIONS OF THE WALDENSES m FRANCE. 

We are ,now arrivesd at a very important period of our review, and 
we beg the readei^'s inost earnest attention to the subjects that may 
come befbte him. Hith,erto the martyrs recorded by Fox have been 
Catholics, renowned for their exeinplary devotion and sincere piety ^ 
practising every apt of charity, and believing in one system of fo^th, 
derived from the apostles, and ci^rried by their successors into. all na- 
tions. The whole of Europe had at this time received the Catholic 
fedth, and. in eyery country a regular hierarchy had been established, 
over each of which the pope held the spirituid supremacy, as head of 
the whole, by divine appointment. In the preceding pages, we have 
seen hp^ heri^sy rose up in the churches of Asia and Amca, and as every 
error became known, was condemned by the pastors of the chuvch> in 
which condemnation Fox has joined most cordially; we have see^ that 
the broacbefs and adherents of the erroneous doctrines .invariably had 
recourse to the civil sword, when foiled in argument, and nowdt was 
that the eastern countries were nearly subdued by the sword of ^ Midio- 
metanism for their impiety and presumption. With the exception of 
the note introduced by the modern editors of Fox to the life of St. Bo- 
.ni^e, we, have no intimation whatever of any error having crept into 
the church of Christ, nor could such be the case, since Christ had pro- 
mised that HIS church should NEVER ERR, but that the Spirit of 
Truth should Abide with her even to the end of the world. Now, unless 
we could rely upon this promise of Christ, and who shall we believe be^ 
.fore God hiniself? would it not be more consistent to renounce Chris- 
tianity at once, than to be so beset with folly as to give credit to the no- 
tions pf this pretender to inspiration, then to that. railer against what 
is cfdled Pppery, without examining what claim they have to be be^- 
lieved in preference to the whole church of Christ ? Without some 
rule for our guide; it is impossible we can go right, and we have be- 
.fore us the rule which was followed by the successors of the apostles, 
•and by. every chuiich after the seal of truth was imparted to the peo- 
ple; But, in contradiction of this rule, in the very face of history, 
and without a- single tittle of evidence, we are now assured . by Fox, 
that the system of faith which had civilized the Pagan world, was be- 
come infected with error and superstition. Here are his words, sensi- 
ble reader, and we, beg your particular attention to them. " Before 
" thi^ lime (he writes) the church of Christ was tainted vfiih many of 
" the errors of f>opery, and superstition began to predominate j but a 
"few, who perceived the pernicious , tendency of such errors, deter- 
" n)ined to shew, the light of the gospel in its real purity, and to disperse 
" those clouds whiph artful priests had raised about it, in order to 4elude 
*' the people.: The principal of these worthies was'Berengarius, who, 
; '* about the year 1000, boldly preached gospel truths according to their 
."primitwe purity ^\ Many, from conviction, went over, to his doctrine^ 



9€ 
U 
U 
€€ 
€€ 
€S 
€€ 
€t 
U 



906 REVIEW OF FOX*S 

^' tuid were^ on tkat Mooont^ calkd Berragarians. B^rengnins wtl 
'< succeeded by Peter Bntis, who preached at Tmiloaae^ under diepn* 
Hcihn of «f» earl, named HfldephotaSHS; and the whole teneti of the 
refifrmm, with the reamnutji tiieir separatUmfrom the church of HonK, 
were puhUshed ui a book written by.Bmis und^r ^le title of -hinif 
CnatST. In ^he year 1 140, the number of the reformed was very greaH, 
and the probability of their tncfcafttog- alarmed the pope/who wrote to 
several princes U^bumh them ^eir dcMninions, «^d enqdoyed many 
learned men to terUe against them. In 1147, H^ary of Toidoiise, 
being deemed their most eminent preacher, thmf were caEed Henri* 
cians, and as they foould not admit' of any proofk relatwe to reUgum ha 
** iohat could be deduced from the scriptures themselves, the popiidi party 
'^ gave them the name of Apostolics. Peter Waldoy or Yildo, a native 
"*' of Lyons, at this time became a strenuous opposer of popery^ and from 
^ him the refemied t ec eifyic d the appeOatioB of H^ildo^, or.Waldenses. 
*^ Waldo was a man eminent <fbr his learning and benevolence; andUi 
'^ doctrines were adopted by midtitud^s. 1^ bishc^ of liyons, taking 
'' umbrage at the freedom with which he treated the pope and Romish 
'' clergy, setit-to admonish him to- refrain in futni^ from such discomves; 
" but Waldo answered, ^That he could not be silent in a caui^e of suck 
" impor|tance as the salvation of men*8 souls 5 wherein he most obey 
••' Ciod rather than man/ " 

Such is the introductipn made by Fox, on changing his tone respect 
-ing the subject of religion; let us now examine his statements by^ 
test of history. We have shewn the impossibility of the smallest de- 
gree of error in points of faith creeping into the church of Christ, 
though Fox blasphemously asserto that it was tainted with many cor- 
ruptions ; but we do not mean to deny that there weire artful priests. 
Who sought to delude and lead others into error. Among these we 
have seen Arius and his abettors, both bishops and priests, condemned 
'by Fox himself, Novatus, Eutyches, Nestorius, and a swann of heretics, 
who were immediately detected and denounced by the guardians of the 
true iaith as soon as their novelties began to be made public The 
same was the case with Berengarius, who is named by John Fox as the 
p r in cipal among " the worthies," w1h>, about the year 1000 '^ preached 
■*' gospel truths according to their primitive purity." This ''worthy," 
this gospel preacher, was honoured with the Catholic priesthood, 
and nominated archdeacon of Angers, in France, by Hubert of Tea- 
dome, bishop of the see, about the year 1089. He first broached er- 
rors against marriage and infant baptism, about the year 1047> but soon 
corrected himself. He next began to teach 'his novelty respecting the 
real presence of our Saviour in the blessed eucharist, about fifty years 
after the period stated by Fox, and as soon as he had declared himself, 
his own schoolfellow, Adelman, bishop of Brescia, warned him that he 
stood in opposition to -the seiise of the whole Catholic church. Here 
then we have a man placing his own individual opinion against the 
general conviction of the wtole Christian world; and is there a be- 
ing simple enough to believe that Berengarius knew better than the 
whole of mankind put together, and that he only was in possession of 
the truth? Toentertain such an idea would be madness, and yet here 
tcre a set of men putting fmrth such folly, in order to dilfose^ tlvsy say, 



BOOK OP MARTYRS. Wr 

nmong '^ their fellow-belierers (Must tiot those -wHolcilleve with them 
*^ be fellow-fiinatidi>) -a knowledge and h>ve of the genuifte prineiplel^ 
'' of Christianity.'* A very ratiorod idea of Christianity truly f 

Bossuet^ in his learned and acute WMtory of the FatiatUms of ike Pr<^ 
iestafit Churches, says, that Berengarius was not only reproached by 
Adebnan, but that all the authors of that age upbraided 1dm with im- 
pugning the faith of the whole unwerse, and consequently the notion's 
he taught must be as downright heresy as the notions of Arius^ and 
others, stigmatized as such in this Book of Murtyrs. For we wish thb 
reader to bear in mind, that heresy, as defined by Dr. Johnson, is^ '' ah 
^' opinion oi private men Afferent from that of the Catholic and orthodoic 
^' church;*' and a heretic, according to the same authority, is, ''one 
^' who propagates his private opinions in opposition to the Catholic 
*' church/' By these definitions it is evident that Berengarius was a 
heretic, and his notions heresy, because he was but a private individual 
opposing the Catholic church, and his opinions were embraced only by 
a few private men. Fox, in his account of the pet'secutions of the 
Catholics by the Arians, and of the martyrdom of pope -Martin, al- 
lows the right and authority of councils to define matters of fhith; 
now, if the popes and bishops possessed rightly that power in time 
of persecution, they could not be drvested of it in time of peace* 
the power vested in the guaidian's of faith in the fourth and seventh, 
must also be vested in t&em in the eleventh and nineteenth centuries; 
and we see them exercising this tight with the same forbearance and 
clemency towards Berengarius, though the civil authorities were theti 
Catholic, as when the temporal power was in the hands of heretics, 
and Catholics were the objects of persecution. This is a fact which 
cannot be too often repeated, since it is little known to the Protestant 
community, it having been the object of the writers of that party t6 
suppress and misrepresent every circumstance that might tend to elicit 
the truth of history, and bear in favour of that fiedth which is immutable 
and can never change. The proceedings t^ainst Berengarius We find 
so clearly detailed by the Rev. Alban Butler, in a note to his life of St. 
Leo IX, and the authorities he has produced so numerous and concltt- 
sive, that we should be guilty of a dereliction of our duty to the pub- 
lic were we not to lay before them the account of this judicious and 
accurate writer. 

" The news of this heresy," says Mr. B. ''no sooner reached Rome, 
<' but St. Leo IX. condemned it in a council which he held in that city 
" after "Easter in 1050. But as Berengarius could not be heard in per- 
" son, the pope ordered another council to meet at Vercelli three months 
" after, at which the heresiarch was summoned to appear. He was 
" soon informed of the condemnation of his error at Rome, and imme- 
diately repaired^ into Normandy to the young duke William the bas- 
tard. In a conference before that prince at Brione, he and a cleric, 
who w^ his scholar, and on whom he much relied in disputation, 
" were reduced to ;8ilence by the Catholic theologians, and rev<^ed 
their errors. But Berengarius insolently reniewed them at Char- 
tres, whither he withdrew, as we are informed by Durand,' abbot of 
Troarn, (1. de Corpore Domini, p. 437. (See also Mabillon,) Atta 
" Bened. u. 16. et- Anal. 1. 59. a. 740 ^^* ^^ I^* c^ien^-the HKiJuncil 



ig 
ft 

€€ 



€€ 
€t 
if 



«Q6 . REYIEW^ OF FOX. 



U 
€f 






€f 

€t 
ft 
tt 






'^tU Vercelli in September, at which Berengarius did not appear^ but 
only two ecclesiasticor in his name, who were silenced in the disputa- 
tion : the doctrine which they maintained was condemned, and the 
book of John Sqotus JSrigena [from which he took his errors] thrown 
'< into the flames. In Oct^iier the same year, 1050, a council at Paris,. 
ih' presence of king Henry, -unanimously, condemned Bereng^arius and 
his accomplices, and the king deprived him of the revenue of his be- 
*' tteficc; In 1054, Victor II. having succeeded the holy pope Leo IX. 
held immediately a council at Florence, in which he confirmed all 
the decrees of his predecessor. He causied another to be assembled 
the same year at Tours by his legates, Hildebrand and cardinal 
Gerard,, in which Berengarius made his appearance iiccording to sum- 
'' mbns* ' He at first began to vindicate his error, but at length so- 
lemly retracted it, and bound himself 6y oath to maintain with the 
Catholic churcl^ the fiEuth of the real presence 'in the blessed eu- 
charist. . This retractation he signed with his own hand; and 
thereupon was received by the legates to the communion of the 
** church. {Lanlranc. p. 234, Anonym. (Je multipUc, condemn. Be- 
'' xtikg. p. 361. Guitm. L 3, t 18. Bibl. Patr. p. 462. Mabillon,. &c.) 
" Yet the perfidious wretch, soon after he was come from the coundl, 
I' mfuie a jest of his oath, and continued secretly to teach his heresy., 
To.ahut eyery door against it^ MauriUus, archbishop of Rouen, made 
41^' excellent confession of the Catholic faith, which he obliged, all to 
'/ subscribe : in which many other prelates imitated him. (See Mabjl- 
lon,^ Act, t. 9. p. ^26, et Annal, t. 2. p. 460, &c.) Eusebius Bruno, 
bishop 'of Angers, ytk his letter to Berengarius, mentions a second 
council held. at Tours against him. After the death of pope Stephen, 
wha h&d succeeded Victor, Nicholas II. assembled at Rome in> 1059, 
a council pf one hundred and thirteen bishops, at which Berenga- 
rius i^as present, signed the Catholic confession of faith on this 
mystery presented him by the council, and having kindled himself 
a ^re In the tnidst of the assembly, threw into it the booksi which 
contained his heresy. Tl^e pope sent copies of his recantation to all 
" places where his errors had raised a disturbance, aad admitted him 
to eommunioD* Nevertheless, the author being returned into France, 
relapsed into his ecror, and spoke injuriously of the see of Rome, and 
the holy pope Leo IX. Alexander II: wrote him a tender letter, ex- 
horting him to enter into himself, and no longer scandalize the church. 
''•Eusebius Bruno, bishop of Angers; formerly his scholar, and after- 
wards his friend and, protector, did the same. In 1076, Geratd, car- 
dinal bishop of Ostia, presided in a council at Poitiers against his 
'' errors. ^-Maurillus, archbishop of Rouen, had condemned them in a 
council at Rouen, in 1063. (Mabillon, Analect. p. 2^^4,^27, and 
514.) Hildebrand having succeeded Alexander II. under the name 
of Gregory VII. called Berengarius to Rome in 107S, and in a coun- 
cil there obliged him to give in a Catholic confession of faith.* The 
bishops of Pisa.and Padua thinking afterward that he had not suffi- 
ciently expressed the mystery of transubstantiation and his former 
relapses having given reason to suspect his sincerity, the pope de- 
tained him a year 4it Rome, till another council should be held. This 
met in Febru.ary, 1079, and was composed of two hundred |md fifty 



€€ 

t 
ft 

t 

if 

. ff 

t 
I 

€{ 

t 
ft 

,t( 

X 

ft 

ft 

t 

ff. 
ft 
ft 
ft 

4t 
ft 

.a 

fC 

f( 
<t 
f< 
ft 
tf 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
if 



A REVIEW 

or 

J^l^'iS ilooft of jttavtsviSt 

OtmCAL AND HISTORICAL. 



mtaftkt 



.(HiTiOH or THS EvoBAViHB. — TV tabject of Ihii etl it the auamnatim of 
f duteWu or Chaleaimeuf, Che pope*! ttsatt, m tht ISfJt if Jiamary, 1108, hj a 
Bftht fount if Taulmut, the prtUOor if theAUngaua,"!^ aaathtr flt^UH. 'iMi 
and aAer videnea, nuh at pUnda-ii^ churdia, nuoacrciiy tht priatt, ud j>i/- 
ffvitf. occaiiifned tht cnuade raittd agantt tkeK miiguidal ond detpcrntc wrctcuft 



CONTINUATION OF THE mBTIBW, 

" bishops. In it Berengarins declared his firm ^tfc that the brrad mf 
" wine are subatantiaUy chaaged into the body aadbload c^ Chriat, did' 
" prostrating himself, confessed that he had till tten erred on the mys^' 
" t«ry of the eucharist. (See Mnrtemie, Anecdot. t. i. p. 109.) Aftef 
" so solemn a declaration of his repentance be returned to the vomit 
" when he arrived in Prance. Then it waA that Lanfranc, who had been' 
" nine years bishop of Canterbury, in 1079, wrote his excellent confu- 
" tation of this heresy, in which he mentions the pontificate of Gre^r^ 
" VII. and the last council at Some, in lOfS. Ftom which, and othet- 
" circumstances, dam Clemencez demonstrates tbat he could ncMhav^ 
" published this work whilst he was abbot at Caen, as MahiHaa and 
" Fleury imagined. Ai)out the same time Guitmtind, afterward biihojl 
" of AversB, ne^ Naples, a S(!holar of Lanfranc, published also a learned 
"boi^ on the bod)* of Christ, against Berengarius. Alger, a priest and 
" scholastic at Liege, afterwards a monk of Cluni, who died in I I30j 
" wr6tef[ls6^an incomparable book or the stuue-gubject, by tlte resdbig 






€€ 
€€ 
€€ 
€€ 
€t 
if' 



210 REVnW OF POX'S 

'' of which Erasmus says his faith of, the truth of that great mystery^ 
'^ of which he never doubted^ was much confirmed, and he strongly 
" recommends to all modern Sacramentarians the perusiJlof these three 
treatises, preferably to all the polemic writers of his age. Durand, 
'' monk of Fecam, afterward abbot of Troam^ about the year 1060, 
'^ likewise wrote on the body bf our Lord, against Berengarius, which 
'* book is publi^ed by D* Archery in an appendix to the works of Lan^ 
"'franc. * * * • 

' " These treatises of Lanfranc and Guitmund doid>tless contributed to 
open the eyes of Berengarius, who never pretended to make any:re« 
ply to either of them, and whose sincere rc^ntance for the eight last 
years of his life is attested by irrefragable authorities of the same 
age, as by Clarius the monk, who died ten years after him, and almost 
in his neighbourhood. (Spicileg. t. ii. p. 747*) Richard of Poictiers, 
a monk a( Cluni, (Ap. Martenne, Ampl. Collect, t. v. p^ 11680 the 
" Chronicle Qf Tours, (Ap. Martenne, Anecd.t. iii.) and others*. ^ These 
'^ eight years he spent in prayer, alms^deeds^ and mamiej labour,' in. the 
''lisle of St. Cosmas, below the city, then belonging to the aibb^ of 
^^ Marmoutier, where he died in 1088. William of Malmsbury. writes, 
'^ that he died tremblings after making the following declaration:. 'This 
'*' day will my Lord. Jesus Christ appear to xjote eitl^r to glory, .by his 
'< mercy, through my repentance 5 or, as I fear, on the jacc^unt.of others, 
^ to my pimishment.* Oudin^ the apostate, betrays. a blind passion in 
'f favour of the heresy, which he had embraced, when- he preteiids to 
'' call in question his repentanc^. . (De Script. Eccles. t^ ii. p. 635.) 
^. Cave carries his prejudices yet farther, by exaggerating beyond all 
** bounds, the number of his ifollowers. If it amounted- to three hmi- 
** dred, this might seem considerable to Malmesbury and others^ who 
" complain tha^ he seduced m^hy. Not a single person of note is men- 
'' tioned an^ong them. Cave says, his adversaries were only the monlks. 
''But Hugh, bishop of Langres, Theoduin of Liege, £usebius Bmaoof 
''Angers, the two scholastics of Liege, Crossechin and Adelnian,inany 
" of the bishops who condemned him, and others who confuted his 
" error, where not of the monastic order. Never was any heresy more 
" universally condemned over the whole church. The unhappy author 
'f It conyicted fipm his writings of notoriqus falsifications (Martenxie,. 
'^ioc. cit. p. 111. &c.) and of perfidy from his three solemn retracta- 
^' tions falsified by. him, viz, in the Jloman council of pope. Nicholas II. 
<* (Cone, t. ix. p. ilOlO and in thcxse of St. Gregory VII. in IO78 and 
" 1079; not to mention that which he mad^ before William the hast$trd» 
" duke of Normandy. From the fragments and letters of this here- 
^ siarch which « have reached us^ it appear^ that his style was dry^ 
*' harsh, full of obscure laeonisms, no ways equial to the reputation which 
*' he borf) of an abie^granunariam, or to that of the^ood writers of tiie 
aame age, Lanfranc,. Adelman, St. Anselm, ^c» His manner of writ- 
ing is altogether sophistical, very, opposite to the simplicity with 
*' which the Christian religion w^ preached by the apostles, . We have 
" extant the excellent writings of many, who entered the Usts agaii^ 
"him ) Hugh, bi|hop of Langres, Theoduin, bishop of ]^i^ge,, j^usebius 
Bruno, bishop of Angei^^ (who had l^een ,^me time his. pr6tector)i 
I^aofnUiQy Adelman, scholastic of M.ege> aifterward bishop of Brescria, 



€ 



0t 






it 
if 
it 



BOOK W? MARTYBS. «1 

'* Guitmutid, iaionk of the crodd of l^t. Leofmi, aflUsHeard bishop of 
" Aversa, B. M aurillus^ archbishop of Rouen^ Bnino^ afterward Mshop 
''of Segnt, ]>or8nd, abbot of Troarik is Nbrmaady, B. Wholpb^ixi, 
'^abbdt of'Brunvilliers^ tiear Cologn. Ruthard, monk 6f Cqv^w^^ afte»-^ 
" ward abbot of Herdfleld^' Geoffery of Vendome^ wliose first writing - 
''was a treatise bn the body of i)tfri' Lord 3 St Anastasius, monk of St.\ 
'^ Michael, afterward of €lUn2, J^ald, teonli Of Ctuni, Albert^ monk of 
" mount Cassittd/ Adeel$ii ilio^ik of Becy Gosedtin^ sebolastio of Lieg«^ 
' an anonymous autltol- published by ChiAet/ Sec. See the' Hiatoify of 
Berengaiius, wh)t»e by Frftncis' le RxSyC) prbf^sorinlawa at'Attgeirs^: 
in 4to. 16^6 : and' by MabillOh in his Anacleta, t. ii. p. 477'. and itgain^ 
" in his Acta Belied, t; i^i Fl^iiry, lS^^!(ot. Ecdes. and Ceflliet/ 1; xx;^ , 
'* p. 280. liave followed 'this latter io their accoutits of this famcms:he«^ ' 
" resiarch. But his liistory is most acfcumtiely ^ven by FF* Clemeiicei^' 
" and Ursin Diirand, in thei^ contrntiatioii of the Historic Literaive do^ 
"' la France, t. Tiii. p. 197, "whd have pointed ontand denioni^itfated s^ve-^^ 
"ral gross mistakes and Miis^epresetVtatk)il!^ Of Qudin''aM|iCave,.ther' 
" former in His Bibl. Scriptor; Ecelies; t i). the latter iii l^s^Bisli Liter.'N 
From this 'statement, ft is plaid -that Bevehgarius <(HMlld kot be a 
preacher of ** ^spel truths, according to their piittitive pivrityr ^^ 
Fox asserts • nor did'thfe popes, by Whom his^ doctrine was condemned/ 
do more than Pox allowed the pop^s had «r right to do, in Ihs account^ 
of the martyrdom of pope Martiii in the seventh century. By a. 
reference to page 178 of our Review; it will be seen thai -Fox stated- 
thatMaHin (ialled a 6ounciI of Wshbp^i on the heresy of thcMonothe-; 
lites, by whom the heresy Was condemned y and by the aceount^ quoted' 
from Mr. Butler, it appears that T^eo* XI. and his successors did no - 
more toWards Berengarius'J ' His opinioh -was- n^u? and J»w^^ like- the* 
opinions' of the Moh6thel!tb£i' / aM^ai^ such, 'ft Was condemned by the 
ministers of Chrisf s ch\irch,^app6iilted to ^ard the Mth. delivered to 
them, that' tiO novelty or error may creep thet-ein. The only difference 
that we can discover in the two' cas^s is> that in the eisdse ofihe-Mono- ' 
thelites the civil powers W^re against the pope; wherea^^ in that of 
Berehgatius, the tetnporal monarch^ were itt unity with the h^odof 
the dhiircfi. [ItL the casA' of pope Mairti^, he exhibit^/ In the perseeu-* 
tions he siiffeWd for diftfendiiig '' gospel trtithS ' accordifig to their pi4-' 
" mitive purity,*" a mind impressed with the tfixtbs h€ preached, and-a: 
courtige Unshaken at thetohii^nts-he endtitfed; whereas BerengartiW' 
displayed bd:sehess and ti^eaclic^y^ih hii^edndtiet, vidiMingliis solenlh 
oath, and at last i^pehting' hid''mi9de6d^,"and deelaHifg his doctrine/ 
which Fox calls ptire'gospfel-ttW;hs;'tobe rib othfer thah f AL8BH0OD. 
Had B^rengarius - been inspir^dVith 4hk Spirit of IVnth, lis the apostles^ * 
and Catholic fathers, and bishops Were,' why^ did; hfe not pi'^bh bis* 
doctrines with the sam^ undeviatin^fhrhihess as they. ^id,sealiiig their' 
conviction with their blood, ahd in fevery instance defying tortufea; 
and death to the reiiunciatidnof ffaosef tmthfr whieh had been imparted - 
to them ? We see council after co^ndl 'called ' to ksohaider 'and- d^de 
upon the new opinions of 'tfais^her^ardi^' We see -all these aytioda 
agree in deciding against him, and'yet we-^re told that he '^ preached^ 
" goapel-tniths according to their .primitive purity.*' A very pretty 
worthy ihtist he be, ^at tould Tetrb<ftjmd return to liis^vemit -tim#' 



€€ 



%\% BBVIEW OP FOX-5 ^ 

after timfe/tmd af'lftst die CDndemiiing and renouacing the- gospel* > 
trutlift lite preached ! ! ! 

But, We are told by Fox^ this '' principal" of ** the worthies** vr^' 
succeeded by ^' Peter BruiS) who preached at Toulouse, under the 
protecffori'Of aa'ear(; and the whole tefieU of the reformers, wi^ the' 
reeuaris of their separation from the church of Rome, were published' 
in a book written by Bruis, under the title of Anticbbist $*' a Talua- 
ble composition, we have no doubt, and not to be excelled, for fable > 
and falsehood;* the Book of Martyrs of John Fox excepted. But what 
necessity eould th^re be &r Peter to preach under the protection of an 
earl, if he were commissioned, like the apostles of Christ, to teach all* 
nations ? The ai>ostles and the primitive fothers did not preach under* 
the protection of men of this world/ but against the passions by which 
men of this world are generally influenced. We could have wished * 
that John Fox had given us some quotations from this famous work of* 
Peter Bruia, published scHcae hundred years before printing was invented ! ! 
Why did niot John give an extract or two from this book, that his 
readers might have learned what the tenets of the earl-protected Peter 
were ? Fox has hitherto been sadly defective; here ; and we have fre- 
quently had to supply his omissions, as we shall do in the case of his- 
friend Peter. Know then,' reader, that this Peter de' Bruis was a 
native of Dauphine in France, and began to dogmatize when but 
young, some time about the middle of the twelfth century. By an 
hypocritical demeanour, he gained reputation among the populace, and- 
particulariy women : while the writers of that time charge him with 
committing the most wicked actions, and being the most corrupt in 
morals. Mr. Butler tells us, in a note to his life of St. Bomitaic, that 
Peter the venerable, abbot of Cluni, wrote against the errors of Peter 
de Bruis, and reduced them to five, viz* '* That he denied the validity 
*' of infant baptism : condemned the use of churches an4, fiUars ^ and, 
'' foherever his rabble was strong enough, beat them down: rejected. the 
'' mass : denied that alms and prayen» a.vaii the dead, and forbade the 
** sin^ng of the divine praises in churches : rejected thcvenevation of 
" crosses, broke them down, and made bonfires of the wood, on which 
'' he boiled grent pots of broth and meat, for a banquet, to which ke < 
'' invited the poor." This disposition is not much allied to the de- 
meanour of the apostles and the primitive fiithers^ who neither stirred 
up sedition nor broke the peace of the country in which they preached. 
But if the' doctrines of Peter de Bruis, be '* gospel-truths,, according to 
** their primitive purity," why do not the ** few plain Christians/' who 
have edited this account, for the purpose of diffusing '^ among their 
feUow-beUevers (or' fellow-fanatics) a knowledge and love of the 
genuine principles of Christianity," follow the same gospel-truths \ 
We know that they have, like Peter de Bruis, rejected the mass and 
prayers ^r the dead, and the veneration of crosses ; but why not deny 
the validity of infant baptism also ? Why not knock down the churdbes, 
PB well as destroy the ^tars ? Why not forbid singing in the churches? 
^o be consistent, if these were " gospel-truths" in the twelfth century^ 
t^ey inust be "^ gospeUtniQihs" in the nineteenili* The truths for which 
the martyrs, heretc^re recorded by Fox, laid down their lives, were > 
divine revjdiitions cbinmitted by Christ to bis apostles/ and by th^ to 



€€ 
€€ 



it 



BOOK OP l£fitTVRS. S13 

ibeir raoO!M8oiriBy all of whieh^ and ob more^ baVe been held by the 
Catholic chorch from her first foundation to the present day $ whUe it 
appears, from the aecount of John Fox, that the refmnen, or -dogma- 
tiaers against that church, could never agree on their ''gospel-truths:'* 
The primitive Christians, too, be' it observed, raised up churches and 
altars to offer up the aujgust sacrifice of the mass, and assembled therein 
tosii^praisesto the most High; but Peter de Bmis, we see, beat 
them down, and- rejected the mass. Now, if Peter- preabhed ** gospel* 
^truths according to their primitive purity,** the miartyrs of the primi- 
tive ages could not be '' godly martyrs,'* thov^h John Fox styles them 
so, beomse they were opposed to these '' gospel-truths ;'* and truth, we 
ail knowy must be one and the Mone^ It cannot be ifti« to-*day, and that 
to-morrow ; but the lante yesterday, and to*day, and for ever. Leaving 
the '* few plain Christians" to get out of this dilemma, we will proceed 
a little further in our remarks. ' 

> FoK goes on, ''In the year 1140, the number of the reformed was 
'f very gneat ; and thtfNrobahUUtf of their increasing alarfned the pope, 
Vfho wrote to several princes to banish them their dominions, and 
eipployed* nmny learned men to write against them." This latter 
.adogission is something in favour of Popery, since it is allowed that 
V there. were "learned meo,*^ who could WRITE against tibese pre- 
» tended .reformers, and we will add, with accuracy too. Many oi iSbeir 
works are still extant, and are referred to as evidence of the impiety 
:and inconsistency of John Fox's new allies. But what «hall we say 
•to the pope's writing to " several princes" to " banish" the reformers 
.from their dominions } JVho were the -prtnces, and to iokat port of the 
WDiid were the reformers to be sent ^ The only place in Europe at 
4h]s time infected with error was the «outh of Fnmce, ail the rest of 
.this division of the globe was Caith^^c; therefore, to banish the 
.reformers £rom tfadur own country would «nly be to spread the error 
.wider, and this we «an. hor^y conceive the. popewcrald consent to. 
Besides, to what country, as we before asked, could they be banished? 
: Where were the vessels to convey tliem to foreign parts ? It- is mani- 
fest that Fox is here speaking 4it random, and with no r^ard to truth 
for the understanding oi his readers; and had he not written before 
.that period, we should have been led to euppose that he borrowed his 
.idea from the report spread in the time of Oates^s jplot, which, though 
.ridiculous in itself, was almost univiersally believed : namely, that the 
Jesuits, intended to convert this kingdom to Popery^ by cutting the^ 
throats of all the Protestants in it. A grand plan of proselytism. The 
fact, however, is^ that besides the learned men employed to tori^e 
against these pretended reformers, other zeajous men were engaged to 
preach to them,BnK>ng8t whom wereSt. Bominic and St. Bernard, who 
/Converted a great mimy of them back to the Catholic foith by the force 
^f reason and Ihe aid of miracles, which they worked in evidence of 
their divine commission, if we are to credit the most • respectable 
writeractf that age. 
Fox next, says, " In 1147> -Henry of ^Toulouse, being deemed their 
most eminei^ preacher, they were called Henricians^^ and as they 
would not admit of any proofs reUUive to reUgion, but what could be 
deduced from the scriptures themselves, the Popish party gave them 



a 

4t 



SM . NSfXKWQBmXA 



•€, 



tb0 4ame ^iApt^Q^csC- Wixf tito{^l|»ks:of]iaas.Heof^«koiddbe 
. tMoAt^tlfmioUies, ralhert UmA < i$far^^^i»i4^-. Hrhkbx WQ . Uiak vqnid liate 
.jbeen a- ipagrnd aptprppiinte teaP> .if titeiri ootiOBft. w«re .auc^.as tFox 

every recukai iojljeUeve tWibilsi^tm is,aaiiiiw»tton of Foxls^bi^iu 
,weciititiot.tJpace-itrin aayof the.CfrtbfiUQW|»lei«.we;are AcquBkitod 
;wUh. But wl]i9it.4rQdit wiUitthe te^dei'Jbe.liQiicefoTth.iftcUjied to give 
J4»ltii Fox; w}iea,lie;uiiiifontted. tbitt thejAp^^^^adiys . or JwiOTdgun^ «> 
.far; ffom 4e<ki(H9g.:«orj^ttr^.propfe. for! their .religiious, or mtlier irre* 
ligioufl, opiuioiis^. actUttUy T^i.ec!!^ the (^ teatament^'and admitted 
oaly a, part of the oew* FQUowiiig.the Lcustpmary . rule of the church, 
>atf. allowed by JEk>Kia.tbe caae of t& Mosiotbellte.berciBy^ a council was 
held in the year l\7^y at Lombea^ iteax Alby> .where: the errors were 
jexainiQedj.pravedi..aiid.coadeiniied.. Bousaet saya, the acts of this 
council are i-ecited at length in Roger de.HoYedens AaaaU.of £og- 
Jaod;^ who faegiits hia 'account thus : '^ There were heretics va, the pro- 
/' yinc^ of Toiuloose^ whO'^ouid have^ themselves be .caUed good men, 
*' and w^rQ mainlttifted by the^eipLdittiB «oi: I^oiobez. Those said,. they 
■** neither .receiKred the law of Moses, nor.theiirap^ets, nor the ps9lms, 
^' not the old testament, jK>r the docte^xs of the j»yti i3xcept.the go^iels, 
*' St. Paul's epistles, the senteb caaonicsQ,. epistles, ibib ucts^ and the 
*^ revdatiods/' .A veiy neat way. of .deducings p«B)(8>fiom. scriptuit, 
and a very respectable set o£v/. worthies,*! ta predob '^ goqielTtruths 
*' according to their primitive |iority.'V , To abfew Uieiraie' character of 
^the new f^ilies of John Fox and hia modevnceditons^ tot .traduce th^.Chri^ 
tian faith now spread over the Wodd, we here j^ubjoin the Be v. Mr. 
Sutler's description of this ^ most, enaancut .preadier,'* as Eox styles 
him, Henry of Toulouse. > ^' His (feier^Bruis). disciple. Heiiry, a pre- 
•'' tended hermity an ^oquent but ^UUtesaAe SBm,«pfapagated.hi&eriors. 
•^' >H«ldd>eft, the (Zeidous and pious bishop of .Mans, .fiunous for. his 
elegant letters,, sermons^ and other:works,;.tiQlls.us^. that while lie 
weut to llome to procure the .popci*^ leave, to-jetire to €luni (whicli 
he did not . obtain)^ that hypocrite,^ who went barefoot .even ^in the 
'* middle of winter, and ate a^d slept oo,sooEie hilLin.the open air, ob- 
tained surreptitiously leave to pra9ach4>eaahce in hlsdiociess. Wbea 
he had gahied crowds of innnctierable. followers, hyjEailmg against 
their superiors and the clergy, then-heiopenlydisocxv^Mied his heresies. 
^' Regardless of the eenlures which the jekrgy fulminated against him, 
^' he continued his sections. discourses,. though the clergy convicted 
him of havii^ committed aduUery on 1 Whitsunday, .&c. Fanaticism 
often extinguishes all;s<iinse of; modesty and: decency! Jtfenry, attach* 
f* ing lewd womai to his party,: persuaded ithem that.thc^ obtained the 
f' pardon of all past sins by puldic immodesties in the. church, and 
** made' inttimieiid)le<martia^s among, the :peDpie, all wh|ch he caused 
*' to be contracted with the like .sl]«meful ceseiuonies, as- is related 
'' in the history of the bishop of Mans, Acta £pise.: Cenoman. Hilde- 
*' hert, upon his return, was surprised to see the havoc which the wolf 
^' had made in :faii^ flock, but in a short timel regained their confidence, 
** convicted Henry publicly<of ignorance and impo^urp, and obliged him 
to leave hia diocess,andjreturn ta his own country. Hist, de TEgl. de 
Fr, 1. 22. t.viii. p« 191. Now,,we will h^re ask thereader what he &ks 












44 






BbOK OF MARTYRS. 818 

bf the ** feW'plidn Chritttans,'* wHo hkine pui out this Bank ofMattifrt 
tfUfa the Tiew, a^ tHey Uray, of diffilslfig ammig their '^ fellow-believers 
" a knowledge and love of the- genuine prineiples of Chifistiaittiy ?" 
Cmild doeba fellow as trhis Henry be a4eacher of Christiamty? And 
jFet this book tells ins, tiiion no mslhdrlty whatever but the hare asser^- 
^M df its asMum Uuit he was one 6f the ** most^ewiaent preacfaera*' of 
the refbrtned) one of ^e ^'worthies/* who hud determined to ahew 
the Uf^ H}f' the goipei ift Hb^ teal purH^ ; while the most unquestionable 
Bilthoriticsft represent hiin as* a lowd aUd cormpt hypocrite,: an. instil 
gator of sedition^ and a violator of the laws of morality. What pre^ 
citilis ankillaries luive these " few plmn Christians** colleaguid them- 
selves widi; in order to create ** a hatred and abhorrence of the (snp- 
**]p»8cd) corraptions and crhnes of Pdpery and its {Mrofessbrs !" 

The next of these ^' woHhies*' is the chief of the sect called JFof- 
de9»s»,'df whom Fox ' thus speaks: '' Peter Waldo, or'Valdo, a native 
'" of Lyons, at this time became a strenuous c^poser oi Popery ; and 
from him the reformed received the appeUation of Waldoys, or Wal- 
denses. Waldo was a man eminent for his learning and benevolence ; 
^ and hiS'doctrines were adopted by multitudes/ The bishop of Lybns 
'^ taking umbrage at the freedom with' which he treated the pope and 
'^ the Romish clergy, sent to admam9h him to refrain in future from 
'^ such discourses ; but Waldo answered, • ' That he could .not be silent 
in a cause of such importance as the salvation of men*s souls, wherein 
he must obey God rather than men/ " Such is the introduction given 
by Fox to the transactions narrafted cbnC^erhitig these deluded aftd un- 
happy sectarians ; for, that they '4^4 not fellow the '' genuine princi- 
pies of Christianity*' must be taken as ^eMaln, since tlieir notions never 
obtained general circulation like the revealed tnystieries of the Catholic 
ehiireh, and were of themselves viiriable. Peter Waldo, by Fox*s ac- 
count,' laid claim i;o the care of men*s eouls 5 but who gave him autho- 
rity to do so? He could produce no other title to preach '' gospel- 
'' truths according to their primitive purity/' than his own individual 
assertion, unaccompanied by any testimony of a divine chaige ; and was 
ill likely that the whole Christian world would listen to such a fiEmatic ? 
As well might the '' few plain Christians** have linked themselves with 
the niad prophet Brothers, or the cunning mother of the expected 
Shiloh, Johfltnna Southeott, to diffuse the '^ genuine principles of Chris- 
" tianity'* among their fellow-believers, as to ally themselves with 
Peter Waldo, the infiituated merchant of Lyons, He certainly suc- 
ceeded in deluding the unwary in his days, as !l^thers and Johanna 
have in our own ^ but happily their notions never became general, and 
therefore could not be genuine. By this statement, too, it is clear that 
persecudon was not then an inseparable ingredient in Popery, as the 
^ few plain Christians*' assert; for it appears that Waldo was only 
admo9iis?ied, not punished, for his abuse of the clergy. But we must 
'now see what Waldo had to say ag;ainst Popery, and what doctrines he 
taught, which Fox has placed under special titles, and we copy them 
literally. 



4« 
*€ 



*^ ACCUSATIONS OF rBT£R WALDO AGAINST POPBRY. 



4€ 



His principal accusations against the Roman Catholics were, that 
they affirm the church of Rome to be the only infolUble church of 



axe VBYfSW 



^Christ upon earth; and ihat .the p^pe is its bctd/.apiid-the'victtr of 
^' Christ; vthat they hold <he absurd doctrine of traiis^bstaiitiati^i^ in- 

< 






€€ 






sisting that the bread and wine giyen in the sacrament is the very 
identical body and .blood of Christ which was. aailed to the ero06 $ 
^* that they belicTe there is a i^ace called piiirgatory> where, the sonb of 
f' persons^ after this life^ are purged from the sins of mortality, and 
*' that the pains and. penalties here inflicted may be abated aooordisg 
'" to the masses said by and the money paid to the priests; thai they 
teach; the.eommnnion of one kind> or. the receiving the. wafer.ooly, 
is sufficient for the lay people, though the cleigy nuut bei indalgid 
'' with both bread and wine; that they pray to the Virgin Mai^ and 
sunts, though their prayers ought, to be immediately to God; that 
they pray for souls departed, though God decides their fate imne- 
diately on the decease of the person ; that Uiey will not perfonn the 
*' service of the church in a language understood by the pecq^e in 
'* general ; that they place their devotion in the number of prayers, 
*' and not in the intent of the heart ; that they forbid marriage to the 
clei^, though God allowed it ; and that they use maii^y things hi 
baptism, though Christ used only water. When pope Alexander the 
/' third was informed of these transactions, he excommunicated Wahlo 
*' and his adherents, and commanded the bishop of Lyons to extenu" 
.*' fiaie them: thus began the papal persecutions, against the Wal- 
1** denses.'* 

*' TENETS OF THE WALDEN8B8, 

. '' 1. That holy oil is not to be mingleS in biqpUsm. 
" S. Tliat prayers used over things inanimate are superstitious. 
'^ 3. Flesh may be eaten in Lent-; the clergy may marry } and auri- 
'" eular confession is imnecessary. 

4. Confirmatiou is nq sacrament; we are not bound to pay obe- 
dience to the p<^e; ministers should live upon tithes; no ^gnity 
sets one clergyman above another^ for their superiority can only be 
'' drawn from real worth. 

'' 5. Images in churches are absurd; image- worship is idolatry; the 
pope's indulgences ridiculous; and the miracle pretended. to be 
done by the church of Rome are false. 

6., Fornication and public stews ought not to be allowed; puiga* 
*' tory is aifiction; and deceased persons, called saints^ ought. not to 
be<prayed to. 

f' 7. Extreme. unction is not a sacrament; and masses^ IndqlgenceB, 
*^ and prayers, are of no service to the dead. 

" 8. The Lord*s prayer ought to be the rule of all other prayers." 
Well, here we have the accusations of Peter Waldo^ and the tenets 
he attempted to establish. For the first time, we have something is 
the sh^e of doctrine in the Book of Martyrs; and let us now compare 
these accusatiQus and doctrines with the truths taught and believ^by 
the primitive Christians^ Hitherto Fox's " godly martyrs" have been 
all of them Catholics ; but now, all at ouce, the reformers have become 
possessed of the " gospel truths preached according to their primitire 
" purity." The first of bis principal accusations against the Roman 
Catholics, we are told, is,/' that they affirm the church of Rome to be 
^ only infallible church of Christ upon eai-th; and that the pope >s 






u 



;9!amaf m»FyTa. tit 

r Hs Imd, bmA the licar oC Cliriflt;* lb be sure^ the CiilMtc8*ib4iBi9i 
upon this article ^ and would they npt be fooU to pyt their tmit in a 
church which they b^eved to be faUibU,? Wh|it reliance could they 
have on the oprrectneasof the tepets they believed, if they were sot 
8ur<s they had t)iem from^uaerriiig authority? WQuld they not rest on 
kmm assurance, if the. church they followed was liabl<^ to error? 
.VKsidd they 9f>t be. more consistent by rejeqtipg their church at once, 
if theytlpoiight her Allible? As to the church of Rope: bdng the <^ 
infallible (^uffcb, there can be. but (me jtrvie church, which miist be in* 
fallible; and thi&re is no other but the CathoUc church that can lay 
claim to inftdlibUity, because she, and she only, can trace her doctrines 
up to the apoatolic ^ges. For example, by referring to page 39 of our 
Review, it will be seen that St Ignatius, who is. ranked by Fox a ** godly 
jnartyr,'* ao4 was co^mporary with the «postles, succeeding St.,Peter 
in the see, of Antioch, held the infiillibility of the church of Rome, 
and the supremacy of the bishop of that see over the whole churchy- 
consequently, Peter Waldo was opposed to this *' godly martyr/' St. 
IrensBus, bishop- of Lyons, who is termed by Fox " a zealous op- 
'^ poser of heredes in general,'* maintained in his writings, and sealed 
with his blood, the same doctrines held by St. Ignatius, see page 67* 
TertuUian also defended the inftdlibility of the church, see page 83. 
St. Cyprian, who lived in the third age, and whose " doctrines were 
^rthoidox and pure,*' according to the testimony of Fox himself, bore 
.witness to the inffdlibility of the church, disputed by Waldo, as may be 
seen in page 90. St. Basil, admitted by Fox to have been a '' pillar of. 
truth," and St Gregory Nazienzum, cotemporary with St. Basil, both 
living in. the fourth century, preached the doctrines of infelUbility 
.and supremacy, see pp. 166, 167> 169, 170. So much for th^ first 
accusation. 
The second charge is, " that they (the Catholics) hold the absurd 
doctrine pf transubstantiation, insisting that the bread and wine given 
in the sacrament is the identical body and blood of Christ which was 
nailed to the cross." Well, and in believing this doctrine, they 
believe no more than what the apostles taught, and the primitive 
Christians believed. See our. preceding pages 5 namely, 40, for the 
sentiments of St. Ignatius on this point; p. 49 and 50, for those of St. 
Justin, a Christian philosopher, who. suffered at Rome about the year 
166; p. 71, for those of St. Cyprian ; and pp. 169 and 170, for the 
belief of St. Basil and St. Gregory. 

The third charge is, " that they believe there is a place called pur- 
" gatory.'* So did St. Basil and St. Gregory Nazien&um, see our 
Review, p. 171, as a doctrine received from the apostles. Tertullian, 
in his work De Cor, MiUt. p. 289, mentions " oblations for the dead on 
" the anniversary day." And, in his treatise on single marriages, he 
advises the widow " to pr^y for the soul of her departed husband, 
'* entreating repose tp hiiu, and participation in the first resurrection, 
" and making oblations for him on the anniversary days of his death 3 
" which, if she neglected, it may be truly said of her, that, as far as in 
" her lies, she has repudiated her husband." — De Monoganda, c. x. 
p. 955. St. Cyprian says, on this point, " Our predecessors prudently 
advised, that no brother departing this life should nominate any 



it 
it 

St 






41S SBVUmr JD» tH»X« 



liifl ^ecutiMT ; and shdiitd life do it^ tliat noMoMon BhoviA 
^ 'be madd fer Wm, rior Mcf^e offered ftip his rcpoBe." — ^Ep. I, p. S: 
NBinberkRs^ other witnesses could be adduced in fiivour of this doc- 
trine; ^btit^e think thoM we hav^ produced^ and who are admitted by 
Vox tohaire-teen- Eruppolters of orthodox doetiines and opposers of 
liereftiesy will-b^ deemed titiifidentby the reader. 
' The next '«>hiii^ !» rather premature^ and does not belong^to 
^PWeJr liV^ddo: ft is, '** that they teach the commuoion of one 
''^cifid,-oi' the fe^civing the wafer only, isT sufficient for' the lay 
'^'people, though the clergy must be indulged with both 'bread 
^'-and wine.*' The reoeiTfng utfder one kind is not iMk article of £dt!h, 
but a' matter of discipline; and in Peter Waldo*s tiihe, it appears that 
the laity as well as the dergy received under both kinds. It was not 
tin John Huss began to dogfnatifee, that it was finally ruled by the 
<!6imeil of €<nistanc^i that c^mmumon should be administered to' the 
iaity under one khid only. mius,'then, John Fo^ is at his old trade of 
•lying, and nothing more need be said about it here. 

Catholics are next accused of praying ** to the Virgin Mary and 
'*' saintS) though their prayers ought to bfe immediately to God.*' Oh 
this point, we shall refer the reader to St. Basil and St. Gregory, both 
•competent judges^ by Fox's admission, whoiie sentiments will be found 
p. 172- Pope Martin, too, (see p. \7^,) 'maintained the doctrine of 
honouring *the Virgin Mary next to God; and surely, as he was a 
**' godly martyr/' he could not be a heretic, and a preacher, of Popish 
doctrines. 

• The rest of the accusations are riot ^rthy of notice^here, and would 
take more space than we can spare to rttf^ite-ithem;- we VRl'the^fore 
<*ontent'Ourself wfth^bserring, -tlmt as -we hav^proved^ by th^ evidence 
of unimpeachable witnesses, that the leading charges heref made in 
Peter Waldo's namd, against the church of^ Home, apply with equal 
force against all the "godly martyrs" hitherto recorded by John Fox, 
the modem editors of his Book of ilfCEf ^^r« must either expunge them 
from this book, or put Peter Waldo among the list of hcfretics admitted 
by Fox to be such in his records of the acts of his godly Catholic mar- 
tyrs. Of the tenets -imputed by Fox to the Waldenses we must say a 
few words, because, like his other statements, they are fabiilous and 
absurd. Of the first and second nothing need be said, they are rites 
instituted by the church, and not revealed articles of faith. So we may 
say of the third, with the exception of confession, which is of apostolic 
institution, and flesh ineat » eaten by Catholics in I^nt *, but what will the 
'reader say, when We shtlll prove that the Waldensfes rejected marriage 
altogether, and held that -confession was valid if made to laymen. Of 
the fourth, confirmation was not a subject of dispute With them ^ they 
h^ld obedience to the pope until he coUdemned thdr errors; and in- 
stead of allowing ministers tithes, they were to "hold nothmg, but live 
upon alms. How would the established and dissenting clergy like 
such a ten6t should be taught hj any of their flocks ? And then as to 
'the equc^iy of dignity, is not this a thorough leveUihg system > Will 
the '^ plain Christians'* say that this tenet is one of the ** genuine prin- 
" ciples of Christianity." Of the fifth, there is not the least appearance 
in history that Waldo ever troubled his head about it) and of the sixth so 



"fiir vM lie fw»tf ^sidloWiiigibniicMic^ trt€fW0> titet My m '#e b^dre 
"ataid^ abt>ogal;ed matrimoriy as uiikt^^^i^> ai^ encvmyag^d the piy>mis- 
cous intercoureeof the sexes. The rest- w« have already ^hevn to b^ 
contrary to the belief of the pnimi^^e'C^iti^iiais^ and therefore could 
not foe orthodox. Of the- seventh, extreitoe undttoA tvas not a contested 
point, and masses "WF^re not whoUy'nJbOtiShed, as one was idlowed tobe 
^;ofeb>atbd every year. ' In this denial we^are borne outtiy BossUet, iH 
his Variatims of the 'Protestant C^urchesl who in Ms 11th book, vol. ir, 
^i^T giving an account of a conference held between ^the' Catholics 
and Widdenses, says. No. 80, '^ Without examining here which side 
'* was right or wrong ih this clebate, it is plain what was the ground of 
" it, and which were the points contested} and it is more dear than 
" day, tha^ in these beginnings, far ftcfsn bringing the real presence, 
** transabstantiation or the sacraments in^- question, they did not as 
*' yet so much' as mention praying to saints, nor relicks, nor images;" 
' As Fox has fa^ured us with his version of the tenets of the Walden- 
sea, ^ Will hcfre give them as stated by his first antagonist father Far « 
6ons, on the authority of all the Writers that exerted themselves to 
controvert the erroneous notions of these infetuated people, and lived 
contemporary with them. 

*' 1. That all e^nal concupiscence and conjunction is lawful when 
" lust doth burn u^.^ 

" 2. That all oaths are uialawful unto Christians for any cause what- 
'* soever in this world, because it is written, nolitejurare. Do not swear, 
" Matt, v, Jac, V. 

" 3. That no judgment of life «id death is permitted to Christians 
'' in this lifey for that it is written, noUte judieareyMAtt. 7. Luc. 6. 

^4. That the creed of the apostles is to be contemned, and no ac- 
" count at all to be made of it." 

"5. Tliat no other prayer is to be used by Christians but only the 
" Pater noster set down in scripture. 

" 6. That the power Cff consecrating the body of Christ, and of hear- 
'' ing! confossions, was left by Christ not only to priests, but also to lay- 
*• men if they be just. 

'' 7. That no priests must have any livings at all, but must live on 
*' alms, and that no bishops or other dignitaries are to be admitted in 
** the clergy, but that all must be equal. 

'' 8. ' That mass is to be said onc^ only every year, to wit, upon 
'' Maunday Thursday, when the sacrament was instituted and the apos- 
^' ties made priests: for that Christ daid, <2o this in my remembrance to 
'' wit (say they) that which he did at that time. 

*' 9. Item, That the words of consecration must be no other> but 
" only the Pater noster, seven times said over the bread,. &c." 

These and other articles, to the number of thirty-^faree, were con- 
demned by the church in council, as in the case of Arius, Donatus, and 
the Monothelites, mentioned by Fox ; and we think it but just that the 
author of the Book of Martyrs and his modem editors, the *' few plain 
Christians," should shew when and how the pope and prelates of the 
church lost the right of eondemning error in doctrine. Besides, to 
what a wretched situation must the '* plain Christians" be reduced, 
when they find it necessary to associate themselves with sectarians of 



9ao BKVIBW m. 90XS 

an inunmml diAra^r, ,aiid yrho diifered fkma tbem too Jn nuny-ppints 
j»f doctrine as widely as Frptestants do from Cailiolip8^.fori the p^^pQse 
of diflEuQu^ Ihey 89y«/' ai^ong their fellpw beliey:er8 a love. and kiiow- 
^' ledge oftlie, geauine principles of Christijani^^" ai|d ''a hatred and 
V abhorrence of the eonruptions and crimes of popery and its professors" 
Sjut we must now leave, the rc^er to form his^own unbiassed conclu- 
sions on the tenets of the Wajidemses^ whicl^ a^e r^resented hj Fox 
andh^s editors to be '^gospel truths acoprding to their primitiirc pu* 
'* rity^'* and enter into the historical transactioas related by the mar- 
iyrojogist. 

.!Fox writes^ /^ Waldp remained three years undtsooyered in Xybns, 
though, the uti|iost diligence was nafii to. apprehend hjUnj but at 
length he found an opportunity of escaping, from the place of his 
concealment to the mountun^ of Dauphiny. He soon after found 
means to propagate his doctrines in Dauphiny and Ficardy^ which 
so ejcasperated Philip^ king .of France^ l^at he put: the Is^ter pro- 
yince. Which contidned mopt of the sectaries^ under military ^execu- 
tion ) destroying above 300 gentlemen's seats^ erasing some jwalled 
towns, burning many, of the reformed, and driving others into. Flan- 
ders and Germany. 

Notwithstanding these per^equtions (Fpx conti|^ues], the reformed 
religion seemed to flourish; and the Waldens|ss,.in vnrious parts, 
." became more numerous than ever. At length the pope acQUsed them 
of heresy, and the monks of in^morality. The^e slanders tiiejf how- 
ever, refuted | but the pope, incensed at their increfiae,. usjpd all 
means for their extirpation 5 such as excommunicaUons, anathemas, 
canons, constitutions, decrees, &q. by which ^they were rendered in- 
capable of holding. places of trust, honour, or profit; their lands 
were seized, their goods confiscated, and they were pot permitted to 
be buried in consecrated ground. Some of the Waldenses having 
taken refuge in Spain, Aldephonsus, king of Arri^n, at the instiga- 
tion of the pope, published an edict, strictly ordering all Roman 
Catholics to persecute, them wherever they coiild be found; and 
decreeing that all who' gave them the least assist^moe should be 
*' deemed traitors. The year after this edict, Aldepjumsus was severely 
punished by the hand of Providence; for his sqnwas defecated in a 
great battle, and 50,000 of his men slain« by which a considerable 
portion of his kingdom fell into the hand? of the Moors.. The re- 
formed ministers continued to preach boldly against the Bomish 
church ; and Peter Waldo, in particular, wherever he went, asserted, 
that the pope was antichrist, that, mass wfis an abopiination> that the 
*f host wa? an idol, and that purgatory was a fable." 

Now, through the whole of this account we havc^.npt one single au- 
thority quoted to substantiate the accuracy of it, ^.but, as usual, all is 
assertion, bare assertion. However, with the man of sense apd^pene- 
tration, the statement carries with it its own refutation. But unhap- 
pily there are too many hurried away by their own .prejudices and pas- 
sions to discover the specious mode of the narration, and therefore it is 
our duty to lay bare the falsity of this account. Of the pope, the mass, 
and purgatory, enough 'has been said to shew that Waldo*ji no- 
tions were contrary to the belief of the ^^ godly martyrs" of Jpl^^ FoXj 



4f 

t 

4< 

t 

«( 
<f 
*4 
€€ 
€€ 

€f 
€f 
€€ 

€€ 
<€ 
€€ 
€( 
€t 
€€ 
€( 
€( 
€€ 
*€ 



BOOK OF MARTYRS; 221 

from llie first' to tbe devebth century^ tfa€refore thej coiild'not'be ' 
" gospel tmths according to their primitiye purity," but were " opi- * 
" Dions of private men, different from that of the Catholic and orthodox ' 
" church/' which Dr. Johnson defines to be hbbesy. — But to the nar- ' 
rative of Fox. Waldo, he says^ was secreted at Lyons three year&, not^ 
withstanding all' the diligence used to apprehend him, and at last escap- *. 
ing to the mountains of Dauphiny, he soon after fbiliid means to pro* 
pagate his doctrines io that province and Hcardy. This put the king: 
of France in a pasdion, and '' he put the latter province, which eon- 
" tained most of the SECTARIES/' we quiHe Fox's owa wmrds, ''ui»- - 
" der military execution $ destroying above ^00 gentlemen* s seats, eras^ ': 
'' ing some 'walled towns, burning many of the reformed," and driving 
" others into Flanders and Germany." ' First let us observe, that let ^ 
the tenets of Peter Waldo be what they might, they co^d not be the> 
doctrines of the Christian chur<ih, because Fox says that those wlio held 
them were "sectaries" and. Dr. Johnson tells us, a sectary is ''one who 
" divides from public establishments, and joins with* those distinguish-^ > 
"ed by some particular WHIM j" not it appears by "gospiel truths' 
*' according to their primitive purity/' but some foo^sk WHIM of the ' 
human brain, and therefore worse than stupid must those be, who, ia ' 
these enlightened days, entertain the idea that Waldo's tenets were' 
right, and the doctrines of the church of Rome were wrbng, when 
the latter had been in existence nearly twelve hundred years, and could ' 
be traced to the apostles themselves. Then we are told that the king 
was exasperated merely at the preaching of Waldo; and caused mill-' 
tary exepution to be enforced, towns to be erased, and a greisit number * 
of gentlemen*9 seats to be destroyed. Now the fact is. Fox has jum- 
bled the history of the Albigenses with that of the Waldenses, though > 
he afterwards makes a sectidn of the persecutions of the former. Let 
us come to dateaand we shall soon see what reliance is to be placed on ' 
Fox's assertions. Peter Waldo began to turn reformer, as these dogma- 
tizers are imaptly termed, about tiie year 1160, inconsequence of the^ 
sudden death of one of his fellow merchants, while conversing with* 
others op. business^ Fox says he was sought for but remained undisco* ' 
vered ^Are^ years in Lyons ; Boilsset, however, in his Variations, gives 
quite a difierent tale.. The latter writer proves, from dates and author > 
riti^, that Waldo preached about twenty years, before any official no* 
tice was taken of Ms conduct, when pope Lucius III. condemned Iheir ' 
errors in 1181. The same writer states, that about the year 1194 a* 
statute of Alphonsus or Ildephonsus, king of Arragon, redcons the 
Waldenses amongst heretics anathematized by the church. ''After 
*' this pope's death/' writes Bousset, *' when in spite of his decree these ' 
*' heretics spread themselves far and near, and Bernard, archbishop of 
Narbonne, who condemned them after a great inquest, could not stem ' 
the current of their progress, many pious persons, ecclesiastics and 
others, procured a conference in order to reclaim them in an amicable 
'* manner. Both sides agreed to choose for umpire in the conference, a ' 
holy priest called Raimond of Daventry, a man Uluatrious for - birth, : 
but much more so for the holiness of his life. The assembly was ' 
very solemn,^ and the dispute h^ld long. Siich passages of scripture^ 
''as eadi party, grounded itself on^ were produced on Ik^thsides* /Hie/ 






u 
ti. 



• , 



ft 



3R vasvnm ov VOX'S ' 

" Vatidois (or Waldensed) wi^re i:N)iidetnned and declared ^efeCTcs. It 
''• tberebf appears (eontiaued-Bous^etJ that Uie Vandois^ tbough con- 
'': demned, had not as yet broken all ineaMirea wHk the church of Rome, 
''•in that tibey. had agreed to the iiti^rBge oi a Catholic and a priest." 
It also, appears that the- Waldensea were not then objects of peneeKtm* 
seeing that the church, 4K:ting on the principle of charity^ and modera- 
tion, sought to oon^vinee these mislead m^ of their enrors by persua- 
sion, and to bring abo|ita reconciliation ii^ an amicable manner. That 
the erasing walled towns and destmying gentlemen's teats ai^ fictions 
we hare not the least doiMj^^n 4s aiso that of driving' the reformers 
into Flanders sad Gertnatiyi fat if tl^e teader wilt only take a glance at' 
the geographical sltnatioa of the respe^trve conntriesj he will find the 
two last mentioned places -on 'the •north side of France, while the Wal- 
denses inteted thersoath^rn provinces. Had Fox said they were driven 
into Spain and ItiUy lie would havebden les8< liable to objection. 

< Having carri^ddestru^tion a^fiongthe ranks oi the Waldehses, which 
only made^ them;«hesay8, fruotifyi Fox next insures .us, that ''the 
' p<^ye atiength' accused tl^embf 'heresy, and the 'monks of immorality. 
These' slanders (he'asscvts): tihey, bovfever, refuted 5 but the pope, 
incensed at their incrtaisei Used all meanis for thfeir extirpation 5 such 
''- as exeomnmnieations^ailathemas, canons, constitutions^ decrees, &c. 
''-by which they were rendered incapable of holdtdg places of trust, 
" honour, or profit,-' &c. Let us^ here ask the sensible reader if such 
an aecount as : this icarries with it the semblance of truth? From what 
Fox here states^ th^qperaecution was copamenced by military execution, 
and ended by jpinterZ, censures. • iAnd w9iy did not the defender of the 
WaldcBses give .us a specimen or two of their refutation of the charge 
of immorality brought against them 'by the monks? To.say that these 
slanders, as Fox. calls. them, were; refuted; is saying just notj^tng. Any 
one may .deny w fectj but to deny a fact and to prove it false, are very 
different thio^s^ . Any. of. the un^tunate women that prowl the streets 
of the metampoliftfart'luce may^asserttSisit she is a virtuouawotilimj hut 
if she ean be proved < to have: been* giidlty of incoMinence by uhim- 
peaehable..witnea8e» aiuL^her.^wiit declaration, what ' becoitie§ tjif her 
assertion of. inndcehced .^So it wad with the W^^enses ^ Ithey stood 
coodemhed:by tiseir own tene^s^ and conduct, - and it is for th6de' l^ho 
call tihith.slaader Jto ptoveiihe. injrusti(fe^ of the charge. But thiis Tox 
has not doae, nor dm he or. his m<>d9avh editors do do; because the evi- 
dence of real history is against him. From the manner in Whfch'^Fox 
speaks- of iexcooiniuniektHma, &o. mid the deprivation of^llices, &C. we 
might be led to suppose, that the pope* was all powerful and the state 
of the Waldsnses vevypitifiil; t)ut observe, reader, there were very 
few places mthdse. days of profit, office being then considered more of 
honauB thanuof gain^ (would to heaven such feelings prevailed now- 
a-days in this Protestant country,) and the Waldenses renounced all 
such things^ ibr which they' were also called The Poor Men of Lyons, 
Of the edict of Aldephonsus, of which we have before spoken, it does 
not appear to have l>een one of persecution, since measures of <xmcilia- 
tion.wei^. resorted to after its promulgation. 

,- We , corner now to Fdx*s:-acco«irtof the "origin of the inqukitiim;' 
which he gives ih ithese wordF : • ^^ These proeeedingsjof Waldo, and 



BOOK OIF MARTYllS. 9«3 

''his reformed companions, occasioned the origin; of inqtiisitors.) lor , 
'^ pope Innocent III, authorized certain monks inquisitors^ to find and . 
'' deliver over the reformed to the secular poirer. The monks upon 
" the. ^^eu^ surmise or information, gave up- the reformed to. the magis- 
'' trate, who delivered them to the executioner^ for the process wfls - 
" short, as accusation supplied the place of evidence, and u fair trial * 
" was NEVER GRANTED to the accused."— If this account be true, , 
though we are inclined to believe that there is not a man of sense ca*> t 
pable of giving credit to it, the Catholics in those days must have been ' 
the most inhuman of all oppressors, an^d influenced by the mo^ diabo-' 
lical spirit. Bul^ reader, is not this, account over-coloured ? Can you • 
believe that a country but lately resc^ued from a state of barbarism by ' 
the benign influence of the CaUiolic religion .y for, take noticej France - 
was converted to Christianity by Catholic missionaries acting in obedi- • 
eoce to the pope y can you believe, we ask, thart the ministers of that • 
religion which had civilize4 barbariaj^s, and taught thorn the principles 
of charity and justice, would all .at once become so corrupt and lost to 
every sense of tenderness and compassion, as they are here described 
to have been ? We cannot think 'it. We feel convinced that«you will 
put this account to the credit^ of bigotry and shameless assertion, and 
not to a plain statement of facts. — " Accusation supplied the place of 
** evidence -, and a fair trial was NEVER granted to the accused !**-<-> 
Grod of heaven ! that men c^ling themselves Christians, and profossing 
to be influenced with a desire of diffusing *' a love and knowledge of the 
"genuine principles of Christiapity,!* shoMld, in these enlightened days, 
put forth so palpable a falsjchood. But let us try this account by the * 
test of dates and history.-^Waldo, as we have before stated, began to 
dogmatize about the year 1160; Innocent succeeded to the popedom 
in 1198, which makes a space of thirty*eight years between the appear- 
ance of the one as a preacher of " gospel-truths according to their pri- 
" mitive purity,*' to use John Fms words, and of the other as the 
establisher of the inquisition. Now the inquisition was not established 
till two years after Innocent had been elected to tlie papal chair, and 
then not in consequence of the '^ proceedings of Waldo and his reform* 
ed companions,** but in consequence of the immoralities and outrages • 
of another sect of heretics, called Albigenses, whose proceedings threat- 
ened destruction tp civilizjed society, and called uppn every well**wisher 
to decency and rectitude of conduct to- oppose the pernicious desiigns of 
those distiirberd of the public peace. We are not the defender of the , 
inquisition, because as an Englishman and a Catholic we have nothing 
to do with it. It never was an establishment in this country, wbeil the 
king and people and parUaDne^t were Catholic, though tribunals simi- 
]ar> if not worse and more oppressive^ such as high commission coarts 
and star-chambers, were instituted as soon as the nation becarhe, as it 
was called, reformed, in the reigns of Henry the 8th, Edward 6th, Eli- 
zabeth, and the Stuarts. Nay, at the very moment we are writing -, at 
the very time, when the " few plain Christians'' are ckoulating this mass 
of calumny and lies to '^excite hatred and abhorrence of the pretended • 
" corruptions and crimes of Popery and its professors 5'*' a body of 
people in Scotland called Freethinkers we petitioning the legisjiature of! 
this Protestant country against proceedings not unlike those laid to the. 






€€ 



M4 ftfivtew oPvdxy 

charge of th6 monk inquisitors of the twelfth century. As we do not 
deal in assertion and fiction^ like John Fox and his modem editors, we 
here annex the petition as a document of dngalar interest, after all the ' 
bales of paper that have been wasted to inculcate the notion that '** per- 
*' secution is inseparable from Popery/' and that Kberty of coilscfence 
was obtained by the reformation, so called.-*— The pruMic joufnads neport 
that Mr. Hume, on presenting the p^Hion to the house of Comrnoos on 
the evening of the 18th of May, 18^4, said, the petitioners " complained 
" of the interference of the magistracy and policcf with their discussions. 
" Their room had been forcibly entered, and the whole of their books 
^' taken frpih them by the public 6ffi<^ers. Were men in the present 
' enlightened tim^s to be Subject to this kind of inquisition > Th^erehad 
lately appeared in the papers a decree, signed by Terdindnd, with 
*'^ whom we seemed to be running a race, in putting an end to all in- 
" quiry; Ferdinand, however, only took * forbidden books* from those ' 
'' who possessed them. We were not content with that, but we pUtaiah' 
'* ed the persons of the possessors f Was it to be endured, that because ' 
** a man differed in opinion from the authorities in Scotlaiid, he ishould ' 
'' on thai account be at once imprisoned. He trusted some answer would 
be given to the case of the petitioners. The Lord Advocate observed, 
that the honourable memlier for Aberdeen was very ill-informed With 
respect to the circumstances of the case which he had described, into 
/'which however he (the Lord Advocate) would not go.-^Mr. Ifume 
" remarked, that as the learned lord would not make answer, be (Mn 
" Hume) should set it down that there was an inquisition in Scotland, 
'' atid that the learned lord was the grand inquisitor/' The following 
is the petition, which was ordered by the honourable house to }^ 
printed, 

" Unto the Honourable tUe Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, in Parliament assembled ; the Petition of the undersigned Individualsy whj^ were ^ 
Membdrs of th6 Edinburgh Free-thinkers' Zetetic Society ; humbly shewetbr 

*' That your petitioners' are of opinion* that severe laws, made to sappress free discaMonr* 
and punkui tfapse who question the truth and divine origin of religion, are extremeijp per- 
nicious to society, as they ere often employed to support error and suppress truth ; and 
thus fettering the human mind in its progress of knowledge and Iroproyenient, they make 
men ignorant bigots or preteudin|^ hypocrites. Sach laws are seeming proofs of the weak- • 
ness of religion, and make inquiring men suspect it is imperfect, and unable to support , 
itself. That if the Christian Religion is a divine revelation, no discussion can injure it, nor 
tmy human efforts overturn it ; if it is founded on truth, free discossimi will exhibit that 
truth, and consequently strengthen every rational mind in the belief of it ; but if it is 
founded on errors, severe laws may harrass individuals who criticise it, and may prop it 
up for a time, but cannot perniatiently support it against truth and reason. 

** T^t the laws of Scotland, made tor the support of the Church, and the pudishtnent of 
what 18 called blusphemy, were so severe and oppressive, that they suppressed all inquiry 
into the foundation of Christianity, or the truth of its doctrines, and compelled every one 
to submit to the established opinion, whether right or wrong. That though two of the 
statutes which awarded the punishment of death for what is called blasphemy were re- 
pealed by the Unitarian Act, passed in 1B13» yet as free discussion on religious subjects is . 
still considered by every one to be very dangerous, your petitioners apprehend that there 
are other laws yet in force for the protection of eatablisued religion, which are far too 
severe for the efili|;htened and inquiring spirit of the present tine. 

** That your petitioners, though peaceable members of society, and strongly attached to . 
their country, regard these laws as still allowed to exist for their oppression ; and even if 
these laws should be oonfidered in dissuetude (which Js doubtful), the uncertainty of that 
matter, and the apprehension lest they should be prosecuted for the open expression of' 
their opinion, leeps their minds in a state of great uneasiness, and ereates a dislike to the 
laws or their country, instead of a respect for them. 

<* Thatypttr)>etitiQtters conscientiously differ in opinion from the establbhed religion of, 
their country, but' have no wbh whatever to distttrb it : they conceive that Detsb sod 



A REVIEW 

OF 

CRITICAL AND mSTORJCAL. 

Vn 1 fi Pnnt"* •"'* P'lljliihed bj \V. E. Andbcws, 3, Chapter- „ . „ , 
INO. lO. houK-couct, Sr. Pnul'iCliurdijurd, Loudon. FriCC dd. 



■ ExPLJKAtiow OP THE Eno HiViKO,— ^t eoii/«rCT« 6etm«mSt._DDmmu: mil WfM' 
of IAe Albigetaian chi^i, the fartatr dnu up in unfiiij a I'tnt afMiiEiim qfllie Catliolic 
,Jiiilh- tBithfnoft iifeach article /ran l^neui tMianml. Thit writing htgavc to the he- 
retUt CO eiamine. Their miniiieri and chicfi, after uuich alttrcation abmit it, agreed to 
throB it intr) tkcfire, lai/ine, that if it bamed, then foiM regard the doctrine it etmtnned' 
mtfaitt. "BoKf: can intd Vte fiantt it iciu ssl iiauiffd in the ieatt, TKii enrr»rdiiHry- 



'i Ji/e, rftrarfvric ^ it/oUo, £ 



CONTINUATION OF TH0 RETIEW.. 
ClnistiaTU. if thev act according to their profeis 
ntny cnrrj on ili'eir diwuuioiu witli temper am 

Tjina with each other in good norlts, and not st „ 

" That yoor pelittoneri «re doe uiiioni to engage in IlieoLo{icsl contitiTany ; but ol 
(hey ire weekly coniignod to etemal perdition Train tlie puJpil, and daily by man; of the 
people, tliey have jurcljr the itrongett reBXitu li examine iie truth of Ibese doctiined and 
ttie merit uf th«» booki, rrom wliKh they are ttireatened with luch aareleudng •etcntT^ 
'TliBt your petitioner! being conuened to eternal niiiFiJ'inBlif'e laeomc, and also upfiirljr 
dealt with in this, they are not allowed by ih« law to answer the aTguinenta and eiamine 
the doctrinei of those Chri-tiani who attack their opinfon, abuie their dutMIta aod ma- 
- tiiei, aitd oie .every eierlion ID nwke thein detested by their fellow men. 
- " That, « your petit ioiien Bra compelled lo pay their full proportion of the established 

•iiteotwith'tlieirprofesmoin, if they were tn visit thoso whom they think bate gone aitnj'. 
•nd eadBBKHir.tD inslract Iheui. rather than lo roihly to pronounce ibeircondemnoliai. 
nial, by the pruieeutiam ilislituled acainst alt those who are known to )>rint'flr lell their 
bwin, foBt pefitkmeM 'ne preveutcd fconi tthtaining those booki which defeod ar adr^ 



926 



fiSVIBW OF FOX'S 



cftte tbeir own 'opinionsi and are thas depriTed of the benefit of the press, and exduded 
from the same privileges which are enjoyed bj every other sect, however extravagant. 

*' That your petitioners bein|$ Jiable to be punished if thev meet together for public dis- 
enssions or iiiMTUddbii« aito tfonvinced that it is through theTorbeamice <rfllie civil autho- 
rities, a^d not under pntectiou of the )aw8» that thi^ can meet ibr that purpose ^ colise- 
quently, in their present state, they hare as little interest in the stability of the laws and 
institutioos of their countty, as Jews or Alienai 

«• That your petitioners, m publishing theb opinions toncerning revealed religion, and in 
defending their opinions, conceive that they are no more guilty of blaspbemy than the 
Jews, who openlv dispute and ridicule the doctrines of Christianity, ana even reproach 
the charaeter of its founder, yet are protected bv law. 

** That your petitioners have no motive but tne love of truth in questioning the divine 
origiii of Christianity, and can have no interest in following error when it 19 so dsngROtt; 
tfaey^have as deep an interest in discoyerinj; and supporting true religion as any other 
men :' thejr onestion the diTine origin of Chnstianity from the sincere convicticm of. their 
minds, which their inquiries into its origin have produced, and not irom any wisb to distorb 
tiie peace of societ^^ or the happiness of indiTidoals. 

" That your petitionen do not conceive thai their public discussions, or the drcnlation 
of their books^ate dancerous to relision ; as it is only reflecting men who engage in such 
inqnines, their principles are never nkely to be generally embraced; beside^ divines inr 
cntcate that the church is founded on a rock, and cannot be overthrown ; and many who 
dave stniUed the human character, are convinced that the principle of devotion is so deeply 
planted in the human heart, and to much influenced by surrounding circnro»tanees,.tliat it 
will never be destroyed by any argifinents, however rational or strong-. Xbat the unre- 
itrained circulation of books, and free discupnon of all religions- subjects, would be of neat 
benefit in clearing away error and superstition, and displacing, the mer^s of true religion^ 
and also in directing and assisting the human mind in acquiring knowledge» and tfana pro- 
modng the improvement and happiness of mankind." 

Letit be here noticed, thatthese complaints of persecution are not made 
against Popish tyranny in the '* dark ages,** but agm*£^t '*Frotestantr 
ascendency" in our own enlightened da^$. Not against the ministers and 
authoritied of the Catholic churchy but against laws enacted by men 
who h^d thrown o£f the yoke, as they termed it, of Popish supremacy > 
and raised up what was called the standard of evangelical liberty. 
Here let us revert to the ease of Berengarius, and compare the coa- 
dttctof the Catholic divines in that age to the steps taken against these 
oomplainiBg ** Freethinkers** of Scotland. When the errors of Beren- 
garius became known, the pen and tongue were employed to convince 
him and those who espoused his notions that they were hi the wrong. 
Council after council was called 5 he was allowed to defend his ideas 
trithout restraint 3 he did defend them, but the streiigth of Triith was 
too powerful for him to withstand it ^ he was forced by reason and facts, 
not by pains and torments, to give way, and his opinions soon be- 
came buried in oblivion.. And why is not the same course pursued to^ 
wards these Freethinking petitioners. The answer is obvious. The 
chain of divine authority was broken by the pretended evangelical re- 
formers of the sixteenth century 5 all was left to human ^libiliCy, and 
conviction lost its hold in an unerring guide. To carry their point, 
^thierefare, they had recourse to the civil sword 3 and the temporal ma- 
gistrate wa3 called in to restrain the mind, and put in force human laws 
p^sed to establish an '^ Ascendency/* wherever the reformers obtained 
the upper hand, raised by human interests and human power. But, it 
may be asked, did not the Catholics call in the civil sword and human 
l^yiB to coerce conscience and punish those who differ from them in 
opinion? When this difference was confined to opinion, and not ex« 
'tended to aciiom, threatening the safety of the community, we believe 
NSVER, Not a single instance of such tai inMngement on the4iberty of 
;3ii^on9cience on the part of the Catholic church can be produced^ because 






BOOK^ OF MARTVUS.. 9^ 

Ae is not iiiTe«ted> with human but dirine authoriiky, and If there hi|t:« 
been any suck violation in particular Catholic countries,, bom ^ca2 cir-< 
cumstances^ the church itself is no more involved in the outrage, than 
Protestants of the present day can be charged with the villanous penu- 
ries of Titus Oates, and the fanatic gullibility of the parliament of that 
day in believing his absurd and palpable lies. It does not appear that the 
Waldenses experienced any persecution, while they cox^ned them« 
selves within the bounds of peace, nor has Fox been able to make tbi^ 
founder of this sect a martyr, which no doubt he would have done bad 
Peter Waldo met with a violent death. Mr. Alban Butler say8> they sub- 
sisted in certain valUes in Piedmont till 153Q, when CBcolimipadiua ai|d 
the Sacramentarians of 3witzeiiand entered into a treaty with them, 
which, however, was unsucoessfuL '' Six years after this,** continuea 
the same writer, '^ Farel and other Calvinistic ministers/ by shewing 
" them that their temporal safety made it necessary, effected a union^ 
*' but obliged them to reject several errora which they maintained, and 
" to acknowledge that a Christian might sometime^ lawfully swear he- 
''^fore a magistrate, and punish male&ctors with death; also that the 
" ministers of the altar might possess temporal estates, aod that wicked 
" ministers validly confer the sacraments. They ^kewlse engaged 
*' them to maintain that the body of Christ is not in the eiicharist, and 
'* that there is no necessity of confessing Qne*s sins : which points were 
contrary to their former doctrine* Notwithstanding this union, most 
of the Vaudois adhered to their ovm principles tUl, in 1630, they 
were compelled for protection to receive Calvii^istic mipisters.*" 
(Note to tife of Si. Dominic.J From this statement it is clear that the 
Waldenses were not in possession, of the religious truths imparted to 
the apostles, and it is equally certain that geff^inteKest influenced them 
to yield to the dogmatical spirit of the Calvinistic ministers, who could 
not convince the former of their error though they icould terr^ then) 
into submission through fear of their personal safety* An examination 
into the history of this country, of Ireland, and in feet of aU Protestant 
Goimtries, since the era of the ^eforoiation^ so called, will sh^w thai 
Catholics were not to be so cajoled or alarmed out of their faith, which 
they know to be of divine origin, and therefore must not be bartered 
away for temporal interests. 

As this Is the question on which the principal and most odious of the 
charges brought against the Catholics rests, namuely ReUgious Persecu-^ 
tion, it may not be amiss, before we enter further into Fox's statements, 
to give a few authorities on the subject. We have stated that perseicu" 
turn is no tenet of the Catholic church, and we solemnly declare that 
were such a teuet to form part of her aystem, we would instantly leave 
her comoiunion, and turn our pen against such an unhallowed viola- 
tion of the right of conscience. Up to this period history furnishes ^ot 
a single case of penal proscription, other than spiritual censures and ex-» 
communications, which the church was authorized by her divine Founder 
to exercise, as we find in the words of scripture. He that wiU not hear 
the church, let him he imto thee as tiie heathen jot puhlican. Accordingly, 
in the. case of the Arians, the Monothelites, &c. who are recognised 
as heretics by Fpx, we see the church declaring jthe doctrine received 
bom ih^ apiHUAes, and i^iiaithematizlng those sm^ dbsthuttely oppogmed 



€€ 
44 



aWf REVIEW OF FOX« 

fbe imth* But nothing further. No physical force was exercised i» 
cbmpel submission on the part of the Catholics 3 biit, on the contratfy 
whenever the Arians gained the dvil '* ascendency," the former became 
Tictims of persecution. When Arianism was subdued by the triumph 
<bi truth, and Catholicism became the general belief of the Christian 
world, no other means were applied than the decision of councils and 
spiritual- powers of the church, to caution believers against the specious 
notions of Berengarius. It is true, an attempt was made at the latter 
cind of the fourth century, by a Spanish bishop named Ithacius, to raise 
a persecution against Priscillian and his followers who were guilty of 
heresy, but his conduct was reprobated and opposed by St. Ambrose, 
bishop of Milan, and St. Martin, bishop of Tours, two of the greatest 
ornaments of the Catholic church, who are held in the highest venera- 
ration to this day by Catholics. The Rev. A. Butler thus speaks of this 
affair in his life of St, Martin. *' Neither St. Ambrose nor St. Martin, 
would communicate with Ithacius or those bishops who held com- 
munion with him, becaiisethey sought to put heretics to death.. We 
cannot wonder at the offence these saints took at their prosecuting 
** Priscillian in such a manner, when we consider how miuch the church 
" abhorred the shedding of blood even of criminals, and never suffered 
^ any of her clergy to have any share in such causes. St. Martin con- 
** tinually reproved Ithacius for his conduct, and pressed him to desist 
'^ from his accusation^ He also besought Maximus not i/o spill the 
" blood of the guilty j saying, it was sufficient that they had been de- 
^ clared heretics, and excommunicated by the bishops^ and that there 
*' was no precedent of an ecclesiastical cause being brought before a 
'' secular judge.** From these sentiments which are the genuine senti- 
ments" of the church, nothing can be clearer than that persecution fonns^ 
no part of her system. Whatever of blood that has been shed under 
pretence of religion is not to be laid at her door, but has been occa- 
sioned by the circumstances arising. out of the erroneous doctrines dis- 
seminated, which have \iniversally been productive of tumults and se- 
ditions, endangering the public peace, and threatening the destruction 
of jproperty and civQ society. Wheii disorders such as these arise out 
6f the preaching of fanatical empirics in religion, it becomes the duty 
of every friend to social order and justice to do his best in stemming 
the torrent of irregularity and error thus commenced^ and preserve by 
the enforcement of just laws that order which is essential to the safety 
of the community or nation to which he belongs. 
- In support of this axiom we need not look for authorities in the 
*^ dark ages,'* as they are called by the upholders of " Protestant-as- 
cendency,'* since we have been furnished with the decisions of men in 
high official situations binder this very ascendency, and in these en- 
lightened days. At the Lent assizes for Cornwall, held at Launceston, 
on the 1st of April, in the year we are writing, (1824) a young woman 
was tried for the murder of her younger brother, which it appeared she 
cop!imitted under the influence of religious frenzy^ imbibed by her con- 
nexion with a sect of Methodists called Revivers, The learned judge 
(Burroiigh) before whom the unhappy creature was tried, in stating 
tt|e citsc to the jury, Baid,4-" The Almighty had expressly declared 
5<th9t p^vrder and^suictde were two of the highest crimes .that called 






<( 
U 
€< 
i€ 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. «» 

" for bis vengeance ^ but mich was tbe delusion thi& young wdinan bad 
"^ laboured imder^ tbat slie first murdered her brother, and then con* 
^ templated self-destruction, conceiving that by committing these high 
*' offences she should be securing a way to heaven. It appeared that 
this ybung female had been in the habit of attending reUgwus meet- 
ings, as they were caUed, where the wildest and most extravagant 
**. excitements were used that could possibly operate on the minds of 
'' the weak, and lead them from a just sense of the importance and duties, 
of religion. He knew nothing of the particular sect of per^ns that 
had been spoken of to-day, and God forbid that he should be con-* 
ceived as wishing to restrain any person from following those re^- 
li^ous customs which were most conformable to the conscience ; 
^' that he did concfeive that the general benefit of society should be attended 
"to, and therefore he could not but consider, that the doctrine and mode 
'* of worship, fohich inculcated the pernicious principles this young woman 
''had acted upon, loere injurious to society, and OUGHT TO B£ SUP- 
*' PRESSED* He therefore guarded the pastors of those congregations 
" against continuing those practices, as being derogatory to true reUgion,. 
" and dangerous to the safety bf the community" Such is the decision of 
an English Protestant judge, and will the *' few plain Christians ** who 
have published a cheap edition of the Book of Martyrs, to diffuse " a 
'' knowledge and love of the genuine principles of Christianity,*' and 
excite '' a hatred and abhorrence of the (pretended) corruptions and 
" crimes of Popery and its professors -" will they^ we ask, dare to con- 
travene these excellent sentiments from the seat of justice ? We 
doubt if they have effrontery sufficient, and yet they must do it, or give- 
up the new allies and martyrs of John Fox. 

About the isame time the above bewildered youDg creature was com* 
mitting murder in this Protestant country, through the delusion of 
religious fanaticism, a still more horrid scene was going on in the. 
Protestant canton of Zurich, in Switzerland, the particulars of which 
were communicated through the public papers, and are these: A young 
woman, who had lived for sopae time a very irregular life, persuaded 
herself, all at once, that God demanded her life, to obtain at the price 
of her blood the salvation of sinners. She succeeded in making h^r* 
&mily adopt this idea. One of her sisters under her tuition devoted 
herself also to death. They armed the hands of their parents and 
friends^ and expired slowly under . their blows. According to their 
express commands they were fixed to crucifixes, and their executioners 
waited patiently for three days, in expectation of their resurrectien^- 
agreeably to the assurances of the young prophetess. The murderers 
and their accomplices, to the number of eleven, having aipong them; 
the father^ brother, sisters, and four of the principals, have been con- 
demned to imprisonment and hard labour for life, or for a period. of 
years in proportion as they took a more or. less active part in the hor- 
rid scene of carnage. The house where this deed was perpetrated has 
been demolished, and it has been forbidden to build another on the 
spot. — ^Here then we have the doctrine of the English judge acted upon 
by the authorities of this Protestant canton, and will the " few plain 
Christians,^' make it out that these fanatical murderers were martyrs 
for religion, and the punisbmeut iniSkted on them is religious persecu-* 



i3» REVIBW C» HHTS 

« 

ikmP Th«]r most do so, we db tidl tbem, Br tlaey mutt ghre «jp tkeir 
dear antOu^ries in opposing Bopery, th^ Albi||;eiftP8, who were a set of 
wretches infinitely worse than the poor misl^ cr^atureti w<e have just 
tioticed. 

To the«e authorities We hiiTe to add anodier^ whose character and 
that of the assembly before which the opinibns were deHvefred and ap- 
platided, miidt have considerable We^ghtWith the reader^ especially if 
he be a Protestant. At the anniversary meeting of the '' Protatrnt 
Society for the Protection of ReUgums liberty" held on the IMhof May, 
18S4, loiil Holl^d^ who acted as chairman, said, '* With ofnmons the 
'' legidlatufe had nothing to do > it was for them only to look at act9^ 
" the ftuits of 6pifiion$; and bs lon^ as those adts in no way interfered 
^^ with the tranquWity or prosperity alt the country, he should always 
" look upon any inteiferience as a needless and, nmulvised proceedii^/* 
This declaration, i^e are told by tlve pap^s, >ni8 iF«ry wangly cheered 
by the meeting, and we think very justly, fblly it most certaixdy is, 
lb attempt to control or suppress ojAriiMis by legislative measures, be- 
cause while man Is endowed with free w31 no human force can prevent 
lliln ftt>in exercising his thoughts or stating his mind, unless he is de- 
prived of the use of speeich aifd pen — but when these ophtions are con- 
Tcrled into acts, and when these acts interfere with the tranquUHty and 
prosperity at the country, then indeed legislative interference hecomes 
necessary, according to t)ie authorities quoted, not to persecute for apt' 
fdofis, but to secure the tranquillity of society from outrage and Ss" 
order.. Th'e petitioning Freethinkers 'of the nineteenth century do not 
i^eaV to have eointnitted one breach of the "peace ; they call for Ae 
instruction of the established clergy, to brittg them into the path of 
truth, if they shall find that they have strayed therefrom 5 and yet while 
a nest of bigots calling themselves '' plain Christians," are circulating 
a wotk abounding With folsehood, calumny, and misrepresentation. 
With a view to instil a deadly prejudice agionst the CathoUcs, as being 
persecutors from principle, Freethinking Protestants , are conoplaining 
agaihst ^the per^ctitions of ascendency Protestants 3 and persecution 
for opinion too^ and not for any violation of the civil rights of society. 
These ''pMn Christians '* disert that ^^persecution is inseparable fioin 
Ifepery 5^' we hate aljready Shewn, ty historiclil facts, that persecution 
neVer was practised by the Cathottcdmrch to the period of the Wid- 
dei^es, afid we ^all how proceed ^Co shew -that the cmsftde entered 
iifto against the Albigenses was not^a pevsecu^n for reltgioas opinions, 
bfit ah Opposition of fohie agtdttst force; ir defensive resistance df dia- 
bolical acts t^t meil^ed the'Whdle -of ChfistendomwHh blood and 
immoridity, 

THE AliBIGBNSES. 

Of these Wretched people Fox gives the following account. '* The 
" Albigenses," he says, " were people of the refmued religion, who 
" inhabited the country of Albi. They were condemned on aecovmt of 

religioh, in the council of Lateran, by order of ipope Alexander III. ; 

but they increased sot^p^iidi^Umtly^thisX mahy dties were ia&abited by 
^ persdtis only of thHr pei'suatAon, and several emineninohiemen embmced 
** their doctrines. Amon^ the latter were Raymond, earl of Ibolouse, 
** Raymond, earl of Foix, uie aaki of Bezieyes^ %m. The poip^, at length> 






BOOK OF M^TYilS. 231 

'^pr^mded ih«vt he Jvrtsbed to drwur tliem to tbe fiomkh &tth by 9$vnd 
" argmimU ami okar rea$oning, and for this end ordered a general disr 
" puiaihn $ in which, however^ the popish doctors were entirely over" 
" (xnne by the argumenta of Arnold, a reformed clergyman^ whose rea- 
" flomngswere JO sirong, that they were compelled to canfeu their force.** 
Such ia the jaceount given by Fox, which we think carries with it its 
Own relutation. For the reasonable man would naturally observe, if 
tibe Popish doctor? were entirely 4>vercoine ; if the reasonings of Arnold 
were so stioiig as to compel his antagonists to confess their force ^ how 
did it happen that he could not carry his truths, as they are rehire- 
dented to be hy,Vo%^ through the world, as the apostles and their 
Popish 8i»ccessora did the revelation of Christ ? If the Albigenses pos- 
sessed the true faith^ how was it they did not propagate it by preaching 
instead of oammg sedition, rebellion, and carnage ? Why did they not 
imitate the apostles and primitive Christians, by suffering martyrdom 
Ibr 'thisir feith, without having recourse to physical force as other here* 
tics had done before them ? — 'Von says they were condemned on accounc 
of re%to» ; no. such thing $ they were condemned pn account df their. 
irrdigioQ, as we shall hereafter shew, — ^They were condemned, he 
says, in the council of Lateran, by order of Pope Alexander IIL Iliere 
are fattr councils of Lateran, in the second o£ which Arnold's errors 
appear to have been condemned. This council was held m 1139, 
under pope Innocent II« and consisted of nearly a thousand bishops f 
BOW «re we to believe that Amold*s powers of eloquence were so 
iorcible as to be able to vanquish such a host of learning and wisdom 
as was here congregated together } — ^Arnold too> it appears from the 
■lost authentic historians, was not a leader of the Albigenses, for the 
Rev. Alban Butler says, " The ^Uowers of this heresiarch were called 
" Publicans or Poplicans."— -Thus they were a s^, havii^ no claim to 
tiie naerring syatemof the universal church, and as such dwindled into 
Bothing. The third general council of Lateran, held by Aleacander III* 
do not seem to have noticed this heresy, beii^ called for another pur* 
pose. A ocMincil was held at Tours in 1163, during the same pontiii^ 
cate,at which St. Thomas i Becket; archbishop of Canterbury, assisted, 
where the heresy was examined and condev^ned. The fourth Lateran 
council was held in 1215, under Innocent III. and was composed of 
upwards of four hundred bishops, and eight hundred abbots and friars, 
numnoned from all parts of Chnstendom, and as the different sovereign^ 
were refureaented in it by their ambassadorsii it may With perfect pro- 
priety be called the parliament of Christendom. This assembly <Ud 
most certainly take into consideratkin the innovations and impioua 
novelties of the Albigenses, and in so doing they adhered strictly to the 
establ^hed customs of the church, as practised in the time <)f the Arians 
and Monotbelites, when Fox had so much regard to councils as to air 
low those to be heretics who were condemned by these ecclesiastical 
parliaments. In the first place, the fathers examined the propositions 
advanced by the Albigenses, and compared them with the copstant 
belief of the Catholic churdh, as handed down from the apostles, and 
confirmed by preceding councils* They found the propositions to be 
erroneous and contrary to the revealed' truths of God, and opposed to 
the morality of the gospel, and consequently they were condemned by 



2^2^ REVIEW OF FCWCS ' 

the Lateran fatnerfi^ as tlie council of Nice crnid^iAiied ihe errmvt 
Alius, and Fox acknowledges bim and his folldwers to -be heinrtics. 
After defining tbe faitb, tbe council next proceeded to make regolatioiis 
^r tbe reformation of manners, and in passing these rules of public 
discipline, the council had the sanction of the civil power, so thai there 
was the unanimous consent of the two powers, and of tiie Christian 
people against these pretended reformers of religion. From this brief 
statement, and a reference to the dates we have given, but which Fox 
has studiously avoided, some estimate may be formed of the eonfosed 
manner in which the martyrolo^st g^ves his relations. * 

It is now time to give the reader some idea of- these aoxilkriesof 
John Fox and his modem editors. The Albigeniiies were a desperate 
sect sprung from the Waldenses, and embracing all the worst part of 
the Manichean heresy. Among other immoralities, they declared mar- 
riage to be unlawful, professed to abhor the sex, and practised that 
most horribleof crimes, which shall be nameless, the perpetration of 
which now-a^dayr excites so just a horror in the mind of the peoplcr 
-^Bousset, in his Fariaiiarts, notices the sermons of St. Bemaind, who 
wAa very instrumental in" bringing a number of these deluded souls to 
the path of truth and unity and the bosom of the Catholic church. 
^ But what he (St. Bernard) most insists on," writes Bouaset, ''is the 
*^ hypocrisy, not only in the deceitful appearance of their austere and 
^* penitential life, but also in the custom they constantly observed of 
^^ recei^ng the sacraments with us (Catholics) and professing our doC" 
^ trine puhUcly, which they inveighed against in secret, St. Bernard 
** shews> their piety was all dissimulation. In appearance they blamed 
** commerce with women, and nevertheless were sdl seen to pass days 
and nights apart with them. The profession they^made of abhorring 
the sex, seemed to warrant their not abusing it. They beheved all 
oaths forbidden, yet, examined concerning their foith, did not stick 
*' at perjury: such oddness and inconstancy is there in extravagant 
'^ minds ! .... St. Austin (writes the same author) informs us that 
** thes^ people [the Manic^eans, from whom the Albigenses spnuig], 
who debarred themselves of marriage, allowed liberty for every thing 
else. What, according to their principles, they properly had in ab-( 
'' horrence, (I am ashamed to be forced to repeat it)^ was conception; 
" wheref>y it appears, what an inlet was opened to the abominations 
** whereof the old and new Manicheans stand convicted." This learned 
prelate enters into the history of the rise and errors ^>f these heretics 
in a very elaborate manner, and produces a host of writers, who en- 
Tountered their fiedse doctrines, and exposed their wild and impious no^ 
'tibns. — ^Alanus, a Cistercian monk, surnamed the universei doetor^ 
wrote two books against the Albigenses and Waldenses about the year 
1^19. Peter of Vaux-Sernay wrote a history of the Albigenses, and 
describes their errors. Luke, bishop of Tuy, in Spain, we are informed 
by the Rev. Alban Butler, wrote three books agaihst the Albigenses, 
about the year 1270. In the first he establishes the intercession of 
saints, purgatory, and prayers for the dead ; in the secQud, the sacra- 
ments, sacrifice, and benedictions of the church, and the veneration of 
crosses and images ; and in the third, he detects their fallacies, li^i 
dissembling of their ^sentiments, setting up false miracles, and torrupf- 



€€ 
€€ 
if 






u 



BOOK OF MABTYRS. 335 

ing the wtiimgs ^ CaJ0wU/C dacton. ' RainetiuB SacHo^ 'wHo from a chief 
of theWaldonses became a Catholic and a friar, m 1250^ and conse- 
quently wais a perfect ma^iter of the myBterieii of the sect> wrote a book 
soon afiter his conversion, which he entitled, De Hteretids, that is. Of 
Heraies, wherein he lays open the abominable vices of this most per-* 
nicious heresy. — ^Having quoted these and many authors in support of 
his exposure of the enormities of these " people of the reformed reli-*- 
gioo," as John Fox calls them, [How much nxgher tO' the truth would' 
he hav^been had he said drformedf] Bousset observes^ ''.Such were 
" the Albigenses .by the testimony of all their cotemporary authors, 
'' npt one excepted. The Protestants blush for them, and all they can 
'' answer is, that these excesses, these errors, and all these disorders of 
'' the Albigenses, are the calumnies of their enemies. But have they* 
" so. much as one proof for what they ^vance, or even one author oF 
•' those' times, and for more than four hundred years after, to .back 
'* them in it ? For our parts, we produce as many witnesses as have 
'* been authors in the whole tmiverse who have treated of this sect. 
*^ Those that were educated in their principles have revealed to us their 
'* abominable secrets after their conversion. We trace up the damn- 
able sect even to its source : we shew whence, it came, which way it 
steered its course, all its characteristics, and its whole pedigree 
liranching from the Manichean root.*' 
Bttt,> it may be ob8erved> you have given us authorities only on one 
side ; you have not stated any writer but who was a Catholic, and there- 
fore must be considered with some degree oi suspicion. Well, then, to 
remove this objection, we will quote the testimony of a Protestant his- 
torian, whose evidence we imagine will not be suspected. Mosheim, 
in his Ecclesiastical History> speaking of the Albigenses, and other he- 
retics of the 13th century, isays, '' Certain writers, who have accustomed 
'* themselves to entert^n.a high idea of the sanctity of all those who; 
** in the middle ages, separated themselves, iroai the church of Rome; 
** suspect the inquisitors of having attributed falsely impious doctrines 
" to the Brethren of the Free Spirit. [By which name some of the Al- 
'^bigenses designated themselves^] But this suspicion is entirely 
grmmdles8 .... Their shocking violation of decency was a consequence 
of their pernicious system. They looked upon decency and modesty as 
^ marks of vnxaard' corruption. .... Certain eniliusiasts amongst them 
** maintained that the believer could not sin, let his conduct be ever so 
'' horrible or atrocious.**' Vol. iii. p. 384, Maclaine*s Translation. — ^After 
this description of J(^n Fox*s '^ people of ihe reformed religion,** may 
we not jui^y say with Bousset, " How comes it then to pass that the 
^' Protestants undertake the defence^ of these, villains ? The reason (he 
** anslirers) is but too evident. It is the earnest desire they haye of find** 
ing out predecessors. They ineet with none but such as these that 
stood out against venerating the cross, praying to saints, makii^ ob^ 
lations for the d^ad. . They are concerned to find no where this foot- 
steps of their reformation but amongst, the Manicheans* Because they 
inveigh against the pope and church, the reformation is inclined to 
£urour them.** See here what worthy associates the " few plaindhris-^ 
tiaas**.have chosen as models of example .to *' diffuse among their 
" fdlowrbelievers a knowledge and love of the genuine principles of 



u 
u 



u 
u 

St 

t( 

IS 



M 



SS4 . BEVaW OF FOKIS 

«' CiffiitfaiDiiy i" and io esdte ''a halved aad alihoirreaee ef tiie ^iv- 
*^ tended) corruptions and ccinMi of Fopery and its professors.** 

Having now given a oonreet sketdi of tlw sgamtofit of the Albigenses, 
it foUows that we furnish some account of their actions — ^theyhctif of 
their c^panioos, Butfirst«f all we ttnist give John Fox's account of the 
** Pam^xconon of tbb Euil of To0i4>i7af /' which he details in these 
wordSy to which we beg the paiticular attention of the reader.—-'' A 
^.finar, named Feter^ having been murdered in the dominions of the earl 
'' of Toulouse ^ pope made the' murder a preUnoe to permcmte that 
** nobleman and h» Mthgecii. He sent peteons thnm^iout all "Ewealpe, 
" in iK4er to jaise Ibroes to act coecdi^ely against the AlbigenstSy and 
^ ptomised Faradise to all who would assist in this war^ (whMi he 
^ termed holy), and bear anns for/or*y days. The same indalgenoes 
*' were held out to all who entered for this purpose, as to such asen- 
'• gaged in crusades to the holy land. The pope likewise sent:orders 
^ to M arehiuhops, buhopti, ^; to e^oonummiicate the earl of Tomkrase 
'' evenf Sabbath andfetUial; atthe sunetimeab8<^ving all his sulijects 
^ from their oaths of allegiance to him, and commanding them to pmr- 
** ^tue luM perwn, pouea his lands, destraif his property, and mwrder such 
^ of his subfects as conthroed faithjklto him. Tlie; eari of Toukmse, 
^ hearing <^ these mighty pr ep ar a tions against him, wrote to the pope 
** in a very candid manner, desiring not to be condemned unheard, and 
^assuring him that he had not the least hand inPeter*s death: for that 
** friar was kilkd by a gentleman, who, immediately after the murder, 
^ fLed out of his .tecritovies. But the pope, being determined onhasde^ 
** etruction, was resoltfed not to hear hie defence: and a Ibrmiddble armyj 
" vnth several noblemen and prelates at the head of it, began its march 
** against the Albigenses. llie earl had only the alternative to oi^ose 
** force by force, or submit : and as he despaired of success in attea^pt* 
'' ing the former, he determined on the latter. The pope's legate behig 
^ at Valence, the earl repaired thither^ and said, 'He was smpriaed 
** that suchanuml>erof iarmed men should be sent against him, before 
^-the least frmfofhis guiU had been deduced. He thercfofre came vohm* 
** tarily to surrender himself, armed only with, the testiaiODy of a ^food 
^' conscience, and hoped that the troops would be prevented from plaa- 
*^ dering his innocent sub^cts^ as he thought himself a sufficient pledge 
^ for any vengeance they^ chose to takeonaccount-of the death of the 
''ffiar.' The legate rqilaed, that he was very glad the. earl had volun- 
'^ tartly surrendered ; but, with respect to the proposal, be could not 
" pretend to countermand the onbers to the troops, vaietm he woold 
** consent to deliver up dentil of behest forttiad castles an seeurities for 
^ his fotuiB behaviour. At tlus demand the earl peroeived his error 
** in submitting, but it vras too late ; he. knew himself to be a pri- 
** soner, and therefore sent an order for Ihe delivery of tiie casUea. The 
^ pqpe's legate had no sooner garriaoned tibese plaees, than he ordered 
'' the respective governors to appear before him. , When they canae, he 
" said, 'That the earl of Toulouse having delivaved up his castles to the 
'' pope, they must consider that they were now the pope's jaftjsctt, and 
" not the earl's ; and that they must tiiepefere aict conformably totheir 
" new allegiance.' The governors were greaHy astonished to see their 
^^ lord thm in chains, and themselvas c<NiipeHed to act in a manner so 



BOOK QV/MUSirSBS. MS 

^' eontiwy to thdr hnUnatUmi «hid vofuoicncM. But the mbsMuent 
" treatment of thetarlmffliiBted ifaem «till lure^ Ibr he wus stnpp^ 
"nearly naked, led nine ikn/ee roitnd ^ p*tme^ friar Fet€T,mnd^yiN^j 
*' soDtti^d before ali tlite |aooplev Not «oiitent«i^w4feh tlils, the legvte 
^'ohtigedhim to«o«ar ifast he would be :«6aitait <to tle|idpe dniiogthe 
" remainder of Mb li£e> coft^mit to ibe (Starch cf Rome, undmeke hreoan* 
*' dlaMe war againat the, Albigen«e&; aad' eren ordered him^ by the 
^' OBthshe had newly taken, to jobi ihie. troops, ^snd inapeet the idege <4l 
^ Be2ierea. But tMnking this too lord an injimetiGB, he to(4& «& 4Xp* 
*' poitanity pTiTntely ^totqnit the army, > and •detennkied to go to ^ pope 
'' and reiate ^ iU usage he imd recewedJ' . 

Before #e mc^ any comment on this rotation, we will here ask the 
reader if he eter teiida nfedise delectable piece of improbai^Hties «iid ^ 
coatradklioBS? What are we to think of the rationaUty df those peo- 
ple ^0 can take aueh a tale for fact, when there la tiot a date nor mi 
aachority for one single ciroHmstanoe detailed? Here is hijustice, 
marder, cmelty, . robbery, nay every crime in the black catalc^ue of 
human depravity imputed to the pope and his legate, while the poor 
earl is represented as a precious jewel of the first water, and his sub- 
jects as pure as the martyred innocents under Herod. Out upon mich 
barefaced misrepresentations and falsehoods ! ^lame on such ci^du- 
lity as this book has met with. By this account the archbishops and 
bishops are 'converted into lleiitenants and major generals, and the 
po^*s legate is made commander in diie^ while the pope hims^f is 
oae of the best recruiting sergeants we reeoUect to have met with in 
onr fDourse 'of reading, seeing he could raise a formiMde army at his' 
beck, headed by noblemen and prelates. The pope first orders aU the 
archbishops, bishops, &c. to excommunicate the poor luckless earl 
every saft^ath and festival 3 then the bishops, or the earl's subjects, or 
botii, for we cannot say which is named by the pronoun ^ them," are 
commanded to pursue this persecuted earl, to possess bis lands, to de- 
stroy his property, to murder his faithM 45ubjects, and yet he not only 
escapes from all tiiese terrible evils, but he writes acandid, very candid 
letter, to'the pope, desiring not to be condemned unheaird, and assuring 
tiK holy fether that it was a GENTLEMAN, yes, reader, a GENTLE^ 
MAN who killed the friar Peter, and then ran away ! ! ! Believe this, 
ye readers of Fox, if you will, but pray do not charge the Catholics in 
future with credulity. Take it in for gospel if you like, good " plain 
Christians,** but let us hear no more of the absurdities of Popery. 
W«ll, finding ail the fulminations of the bi^iops and archbishops inef- 
fectually, though so frequepotly ^repeated, for how long a time Fox does 
not say^ finding the pursuit of his^rson, <he possession of his lands, 
the destruction of his property-^for all this we are told was commanded 
before the earl comphdned— ^it does not appear that a hair of his head 
was touched, and the pope, who is bent upon his destruction, orders a 
formidable army, with noblemen and prelates at the head of it, to march 
forthwith, but not against the earl; no, the papal wrath is all at once di- 
rected against the Albigenses. llien again we have the earl upon the 
boards. The Albigenses are nothing and the earl is every thing. He finds 
it necessary to submit because he cannot overcome by force, and submit 
he does with a good conscience, to sav^e his innocent subjects. Whait a para- 



C36 KBVIEW OF FOK*S 

gon of a mlef ) What an immaculate patriarch of the' *' tkform^ peo- 
pur But do yoti really believe this tale, reader?** Do you really 
think the one party 96 grossly unjust, and the other so amsdentimuly 
innocent ? But 46 the narrative. One would suppose that this siib- 
mission would have been sufficient to have gratified tlie most obdurate 
heart; but no, John Fox knew the capability of his reader's mind, 
and /Ids modein editors seems to have as high an opinion of the capa- 
city of their reader's credulity, or they would not have ventured to 
impose these absurditi.es upon them. The legate, however, who is 
here commander in chief and civil governor too, is not satisfied; he 
must have seven of the strongest^ castles as securities for the earl's good 
behaviour, though he had been long before dispossessed of his property, 
Unless indeed the bishops' excommunications and commands were dis- 
regarded by the people, and then what becomes of the power of the 
pope ? The eyes of the earl, we are told, were now opened, and he saw 
his error, but it ^as too late, and away went his castles. Well, tbele< 
'gate, like a cautious general, and he seems to have understood military 
tactics better than ecclesiastical discipline, by a happy stroke of leger- 
demain, instantly transforms the earl's subjects into subjects of the 
pope, and the governors of the castles are astonished^ yes " greatly asto- 
nished," to find *' themselves compelled to ac^ in a manner so contrary 
** to their incUnatums and consciences^ Biless us ! what pretty cmr 
sdence* the '* reformed people" had in those days. The primitive mar- 
tyrs oould not be compelled to violate their consciences. Duugeons, 
tortures^ and death, had no effect on them; they suffered all witii in- 
vincible constancy, hi which example they were followed by the Ca- 
tholics when persecuted by *' Protestant-ascendency;" biit here, it is 
said, the pope's legate could make these, lords and governors of the 
^* reformed people" act against their conscienc'es, without any resistance 
on their part. Those who wiK believe this account will belieVe stny 
thin^* In conclusion, the poor earl is whipped round the grave of the 
friar, made to swear obedience to the pope, to conform to the church 
of Rome, to make interminable war against his innocent subjects, the 
Albigenses, and moreover, installed bp compulsion inspector general 
pi the siege of a fortified town in which the Albigenses had taken 
refuge ! ! ! ! Now, reader, what is your opinion of John Fox ? Do yon 
not think him a complete master of th^ art of falsification ? But What 
must we think of the mental foculties of those who have so long looked 
upon his Bdok of Martyrs as a specimen of historical veracity } What 
but prejudice the most douded, and bigotry the most bloated, could 
induce any one to credit such a mass of palpable absurdity and impro- 
bability as we have here dissected ? 

Bjut it is time we should lay before the reader a more faithful and 
authenticated account of tlie origin of these unhappy transactimis. The 
Rev. Albain Butler writes thus : — " Charles the bsdd^ king of France, in 
^' 855, made Raymund, son of the governor of Toulouse, hereditary go- 
vernor and count, reserving only a homage to be paid to himself and 
successors. Raymund V^ the tenth sovereign count of Toulouse, duke 
^* of Narbonne, and marquis of Provence, diedazealousdatholic,in 1194, 
*' His son Raymund VI. openly protected^ these impious. heretics, who 
'' in armed troops expelled the bishops, priests, andmonks^ demolished 






BOOK C* MARTYRS. 2Sr 

" monasteries, and plundered churches. They were also countenanced 
'* in their seditions and violences by the earls of Foix and Comminge, 
" the viscount of Beam, and other princes in those parts. Popelnno- 
" cent III. ordered Arnold, abbot of Citeaux, to employ his noonks in 
'' preaching against these heretics in Languedoc. Accordingly twelve 
" abbots of that order were charged with that commission. But the 
'• princes opposed their endeavours^ and Peter of Chateau^nuef, a Cis- 
'' tercian monk, the pope's legate in Languedoc^ who exerted his au- 
" tbority against the heretics, was assassinated on the banks of the 
" Rhone, near the town of St. Giles's, where he and some other mis- • 
" sionaries were coming out from a conference with the count of Tou-' 
*' louse, in 1208. The pope excommunicated the murderers, and espe- 
'- cially the count of Toulduse^ who was looked upon as the principal 
" author^ and exhorted Philip Augustus, king of France, and the lords 
" of that kingdom, to raise a crusade against the Albigenses and the 
*' said count." By this statement, which is gathered by Mr. Butler 
from the most ancient end authentic historians, a different colour is 
given to the conduct of the conscientious earl of Toulouse and his dear 
innocent subjects. It is here stated that the Albigenses were the ori» 
ginators of the disorders which produced such scenes of carnage and 
blood as stain the annals-of that period. One of the opinions held out 
by these people was, that the clergy had no right to temporalities; the 
fruits of which opinions we see^ wer6 the demolition of monasteries' 
and the plundering of churches. In these outrages the people were 
encouraged by the earl of Toulouse, a feudatory lord to the king of 
France, who, no doubt, thought it a fine opportunity to add to his for- 
tune at the expense of the church, as our reformers of the sixteenth 
century did. Thus it was not the murder of the legate only, as Fox 
represents, but the previous seditions and violences of a lawless horde 
of impious desperadoes, that occasioned the crusade entered into to put 
them down; And even force was not attempted until the power of 
persuasion was found to be unavailing. Again it is here stated that the' 
king of France was exhorted by the pope to raise an army to restore the 
seditious to obedience ; but Fox makes the pope and his legate not only' 
the raisers but the directors of the army. Of course this was done to' 
'' excite a hatred and abhorrence of the (pretended) crimes and c(»rrup* 
" tions of Popery and its professors/' and to accomplish this act of 
Christian charity, an adherence to truth was not at all necessary on the 
part of John Fox, and his modern editors. Not a word does Fox men- 
tion of the sending preachers to reclaim the misguided people from 
their errors, which was the province of the head of the church and fa- 
ther of the faithful ; not a syllable of the excesses committed by the 
seduced multitude before the force of arms was applied to subdue 
them ; no, this was not his object, because then it would have been 
clearly seen that the measures taken to repress the outrages Were only 
measures of defence and security, whereas John Fox wanted to make 
them measures of persecution. In this account by Mr. Butler there is 
every appearance of truth. He gives us names and dates, and his lan- 
guage has none of that high-colouring which distinguishes Fox's rela- 
tion. It is clear that the Albigetises were the occasion of the crusade 
by the excesses they committed, Th$s« excesses they were not con- 



888 RBVHKW OF FOX'S 

tent to perpetrate in their own country, but tbejr ovevnm ^ereraloiher 
provinces in bodies o^ from four and five to eight thousand men, laying 
towns in waste, pillaging the country, and furthering the priests, some 
of whom they flayed alive. Father Parsons, in his reply to Fox, says, 
that they ^were guilty of the most beastly, and filthy actions in^e 
churches, committing fornication therein and other acts of immorality. 
Now, we will here ask the " few plain Christians** if any set of men 
were to be guilty of the like offences in this country and in these days, 
whether all parties would not unite in reducing them by force of arms 
to subjection, and punish the ringleaders with deaths Wheth^the 
military would not be instantly sent against them to prevent their 
further progress and outrages? And whether any man would be be- 
sotted enough to call such a mode^of preventing robbery, sacrilege ^d 
murder, a religious persecution? Had the Albigenses confined theoi- 
selves to €pimon$, and not violated the bounds of decency and disturbed 
the peace of society, they would not have been the objects of military 
vengeance, but would have been reclaimed by the usual arguments of 
the church, pef^wion a^d truth.; but as the firuits of their opiaioiu 
shewed themselves in acts of violence and injustice, apd as they refused 
to listen to the voice of reason, the civil authorities found thems^vet 
necessitated to repel force by f(nree, and this is* the pefsecution' wbich 
bigotry is ever and anon bellowing in the ears of the ignorant aad cre- 
dulous, to inspire '^ a hatred and abhorrence of the (pretended) oorrup- 
" tions and crimes of Popery and its professors)** or, in other words, to. 
excite a hatred and abborrenee against that church in which thi^ t^ 
truths of religion are to be found. 

Fox next gives an account of the *^ Siege of Benieres/' and m voA 
exaggerated tenps that we Jay it before our readers, as another ffeci- 
men of the little regard paid by thds- historian to the rational faeuldes of 
his readers. He writes, ^' The anny, however, proceeded )» besi^ige 
Bezieres; and the earl of Bezieres, who was governor of that city, 
thinking it impossible to defend the place, came out, and {nresentii^ 
" himself before die legate, implored mercy for the inhabitants j iati- 
" mating, that, there were as many Soman Catholics as Albigenm lA 
the city. The legate rq)lied> that all accuses wereuselessf theplace 
must be delivered up at discretion, or the most dread&il consequen- 
ces would ensue. The tuA of Besieres returning into the city, told 
the inhabitants he could obtain no merey, ui^ss the Albigenses would 
abjure their religion, and conlorm to the worship of the church of 
Borne. The ^man Catholics pressed the Albigenses to comply with 
this request; but the Albigenses nobly sAaweised, that they woald 
not forsake their religion fer the base price of their frail Mfes tbst 
'^ God was able, if he pleased, to defend them; but if he would begto^ 
rifled by the confession erf" their faith, it would be a great honour to 
them to die for his sake. They added, th«4 they hftd rather di^kas^ 
the pope, who could but kill thi^r bodies, Hhai^ God, who could ^ 
*' both bo^ and soul into helL On this the Popish party, finding did' 
*' importunities ineffectual, sent their bishop to t^e legs^, beseechii^ 
him not to indude them in the chastisement e^ the Albigensed ; aai 
representing, that the host means to win the latter over tothe Bomao 
Catholic iiersuaitoii, was by gpeatleneaa» and not by %»iir* The ^ 



u 
u 



€€ 
€€ 
€( 
t€ 
ft 
f< 
4f 
(t 
€€ 



ft 



tc 

€( 



BOOK OP MARTTBS. S3t^ 

'* gate upoa hm/timg ihls, flew into a violent passbn with tlie bbhofi, 
'' and d^lared that, ' If all the city did not acknowledge their fault, 
" they should taste of one curse without distinction of religion, sex, 
" or age; " 

Here the legate is again* represented as the most bloodthirsty and 
cruel of monsters. He is still commander-in-chief and director of all 
the military operations. Inexorable alike to the Catholics and Albi- 
geases, nothing can move him to mercy, nothing satisfy him but slaugh- 
ter and destruction. The Catholics and Albigendes are equally ba- 
lanced, just as many of the one as the other, and then how kind to- 
each other. The Cathblics pressing the Albigenses to abjure their re-- 
Ugion ; pretty religion truly that taught them to destroy churches and 
murder priests. Then the Albigenses nobly refuse to "forsake their 
** religion for the base price of tJmr frail life : that God was able, if he 
" pleased^ to defend th^xi ; but if he would be glorified by the confes- 
'' sion of their faith, it would be a great honour to them to. die for his 
" sake.** What cant and hypocrisy is this ! Pretty confessors of the 
faith, truly, to teach that marriage was unlawful^ and practice the most 
indecent acts. But if they wished to be glorified by the confession of 
their faith, why did they not follow the example of the primitive niar- 
tyrs, who were glorified by the confession of Christ's, i^ith ? These 
holy men did not resort to fire and sword to propagate and deflend the 
faith they had received from the apostles, though they continued stoutly 
to maintain the truths revealed to them by word of mouth and writing, 
but no further. , They inculcated the necessity of practising every 
moral virtue, and submitting to lawful authority ^ whereas we have 
shewn that John Fox's new confessors of the faith preached acid prac- 
ticed the most abcMninable vices. Well, but the Catholics finding the 
^bigensiaa confessors obstinate, sent their bishop to the legate, " be- 
" seeehing him not to include them in the chastisement of the Albl- 
" genses ; *' and they moreover took the liberty to represent to the 
legate, through the .bishdp, ^^ that the best means to win the latter 
" over to the Roman CatlM>lic persuasUm, was by gentleness, and not by 
" r^greter.*' This sensible hint, we are tc^, put the legate into a violet 
passion with the bishop, and he declared that '' if all the city did not 
" acknowledge their fault, they should taste of one curse without dis- 
" tinctioa of rdigim, s^, or age.** — ^Now if this character of the legate 
were true > if these barfaarous/ and imjusUfiable proceedings were oc- 
casioned by the principles of the Catholic religion, as the bigots of 
asceadettcy insinuate; if the Albigenses were such innocent and good 
men» as John FoA represents them to bej is it not, gentle reader, a 
subject of astonishment with you, as it is with us, that the CathdLics 
did not become disgusted with a religion that oould instigate the re- 
presentative of the head of their church to become s^uch a monster of 
cruelty, and instantly renounce so horrible a system } yet we da not 
fiad that ihis was the case, but on the contrary, ^hile the crusaders 
were contending against the Albigenses in the south of France, Ponie- 
rauia, Finland, Sweden, and liie n6rthern nations were reo^ving the 
Christian faith from Catholic t&isaionaries. 

It is but too true that ci»el eifiLcesses were eommitted by the em- 
Naders qh taking the ipwoL of Bezieres, hut not bjr the tf rectioii of the 






^840 KEVISW OF For. 

kgate. The earl of Toulonse had then made hia peace' with the pofv'- 
ers assembled^ and the army having nothing to do, siege was laid to 
Bezieres, where the Albigenses had fortified themselvto^ which bein^ 
taken by assault, the inhabitants were barbarously put to the sword.— ^ 
-Fox says, 60,000 persons were murdered ; the Rev. Alban Butler re- 
duces Ihe number to one*fourth. This latter writer, speaking of this 
and other transactions of the crusaders, says, '' The inhumanity of 
*' which action is not to be palliated, though the inhabitants of that 
** town were robbers and murderers, and guilty of all manner of crimes, 
** as Feter of Vaux-Sernay (c. 16.) and, from him, Fleury- observe ; 
*^ and though the innocent perished by their own fault by refusing to 
'* separate themselves from the guilty, when required so to. do...-. 
^' Crimes and seditions (Mr. B. continues,) are not to be punished or 
revenged by other crimes. Avarice, ambition, or revenge in many, 
only covered themselves under a cloak of zeal for religion.*'-^llies^ 
just sentiments are Uiose of etery Catholic writer, and are conformable 
to the genuine principles of the Catholic chiir^h. How unjust and dis^ 
graceful then must that conduct be, .which charges the Catholic ir^i- 
gion with the crimes and excesses arising from the worst passions of 
human natiure, and which that religion was established by God iumself 
to curb und conquer. 

To enter into an exposure of the whole of the misrepresentations and 
exaggerations, fictions and falsehoods, of Fox, in his ^account' of the 
Waldensesand Albigenses would require. a bulky volume, we.nmst 
therefore be content with a few of the most prominent instances of h& 
utter disregard of veracity as an historian. The following account is 
given under the head, *' Cruelties of thb Fopk, and Abtificbs of 
Dominic. — ^'^ When the pope (writes Fox)' found tlwt these cncel means 
" hdd not the desired effect, he determined to try others of a milder na- 
" ture 'y he therefore sent several learned monks to preach maaoiig thb 
** Waldenses; and induce them to change their ^opinions. Among these 
'^ monks was one Dominicy who appeared extremely zealous in the 
^* cause oi popery. He instituted an order, which, from him, was called 
the order of Dominican friars -, and the -members of this order ha vie 
ever since been the principal inquisitors in every country into which 
^' that horrid tribunal (the inquisition) has been introduced. Their 
" i^vrer was unlimited ) they proceeded against whom they pleased, 
'' vnthout any consideration of age, sex, or rank. However iofiaiBOUS 
^^ the accusers, the accusation was deemed valid ; and even anonymous 
'^ informatibns were thought sufficient evidence. The dearest friends 
or kindred could, not, without danger, serve any one who was im- 
prisoned on account of religion -, to convey to those ^ho were cob- 
^* fined a little straw, or. give them a cup of water, was called yoooiirtf^ 
the heretics ,* no lawyer dared to plead even for bis own brother, or 
notary register any thing in favour of the reformed^ The maliee of 
the papists indeed, went beyond the grave, and the bones of maof 
*' Waldenses, who had been long dead, were dug up aikd burnt, • If a 
^'.man on his death-bed were accused of being a JhUower of Watdo, his 
'' estates were confiscated, and theA^tr defrauded of his iniieritanc4: 
f* and^Some were e^en obliged to make pilgrimages to Jthe Holy I^and, 
.'l^' while the Dominicans tdok possession of their iiauAesrand pitqpei^, 
-^^ which they refused to surrender to the owners upon their return/' 



ft 









A REVIEW 

■ ■ , ■ OF 

jn>)r'$ Hooft of m»vt^», 

CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL. 




Not a date, nor (ui uithority, a here given as a voiK^r for the cor- 
rectness of tbia Btory, but all, as usual, is bare iiasertiotij yet over- 
charged and false as it evidently is, bow many are there that have cre- 
dited these atrocious calumnies ? We have shewn by dates in our last 
iramber, that W^do began bis preaching forty years before the ori^n 
of tbe inquisition, and St.'Dilminic, according to the Rev. A. Batter, was 
not bom tin ten years after Waldo turned defoTmer, namely, in the year 
117(^ at Calarmaga, in Old Castile. St. Dominic was pf noble parents, 
but renoiiiKed worldly grandeur to become a servant of God. He was ~ 
fiuned for bis prbHeiency in learning and knowledge of the holy scrip- 
tutes, and his life, as given by the ancient and best writers of it, that 
is, F. Tbeodoric, of Arolda, CouBtaatine, bishop of Orvieto, Bartholo- 
mew, btsbop a( Trent, F. Humbert, and Nicholas Trevet, is represented 
u 009 o£ ciuiity and self-denial, and that he bad no more to do with 






«4S , R^VlltW - OF PoX'S ;\ 

the origin of the inquisition than John Fox had.— But mark the accU' 
racy of 'Fox's, aceowt He aays^tbat *^^hen the p<^pe fbundrthat these 
'' cruel means (the proceedings of the inquisition) ' had not the^desired 
** effect, he determined to try others of a milder nature : he therefore 
sent several learned monks to preach among the Waldenses, and in- 
duce them to. change their opinions. Among these fi^is one Dominic^ 
who appeared extremely zealous in the cause of Popery." .That SV 
Dominic was zealous in the cause of true religion cannot be denied ; 
but Fox has here transformed the Albigenses into the Waldenseis^ for it 
Was against the' former heretics that St. Dominic preached^ and not 
ag&inst the latter^ as w'e have shewn by a comparison of dates. Neither 
cotild the pope have tried the' cruel means stated by Fo^ before he sent 
the learned inonks to preachy for St. Dominic died on thej6th of Au- 
gust^ 1^^1> and the project of the first court of inquisi^on was formed 
in IS29. It istrue that some authors make the legate Peter of Q^^el- 
nau^ the %rsil intjuisltor^ in 1204 3 this is the legate that was muirderied 
ff hyti gentleman^' and the Bollandists^ in a long dissertation, endeavour 
to shew that St. Dominic was the first inquisitor 3 bu{;!^rites the Rev. 
A. Butler^ in a nbte to the life of this saint, ** Touron observes, (ch, 13, 
''p. 88.) that the Albigetises in Languedoc iieither were, nor could be 
f the object of such a court as an inquisition while St. ])omihic pipeached 
\* there 5 far froms being occult, they were armed, preached pttjblicly, 
^' and had the princes in their interest. He, secondly, takes notice that 
'^ St. Dominic is never mentioned by the original. authors of his life to 
f' tiave employed against the heretics any other arms than those of in- 
f struction and prayer, in which they^ descend to a very particular de*- 
'f tail." — ^William of Pay-Caurens, chaplain to Raymund VIl. Qoimt of 
iToulouse, in his Chronicle, (c. 43.) and Bernard G'^onis, reliaie that 
pope Gregory IX. in 1233, that is, twelve years after the death of St. Da- 
minici nominated two Dominican friars in Languedoc the Jlrst inquisi- 
tors. That St. Dominic was the founder of the monastic order of Do- 
minicans is undoubted, and that monks of this order were emplc^ed in 
the inquisition is not to be denied 3 that some of them may have been 
guilty of excesses and cruelties we do not pretend to di&putc) but that 
tiie crimes and offences of individuals are to be charged to the whole 
body, is neither just nor liberal 5 and as well might Catholics chaige 
the Protestants of this day with the' horrid atrocities committed by the 
•Huguenots and " Protestant-ascendeiicy*' in the sixteenth centiiry, as 
the ^* few plain Christians" attempt to fix the excesses whiek todiL 
place in the south of France in the thirteenth- century on the GathoHcs 
of the nineteenth or their religion. 

: As^Fox has given us a pretended account <tf the artifices and cmel- 
tie9 of St. Dtouflic, and represented his <^dkr as blood^^thirsty Impiisi- 
ters, it is no more than justice.that the public should be infonned thai 
if they are slated in the Book of Mattyrs to hiLve been mercenary and 
ufiprincipldd tormentors of heretics, >other writers shew they were also 
the oivilisers; and instructors of the savage race ot bBrbarians.«^ltf r. 
BuHer says, '' St. Dominic made frequent missionary excursioiis ; aoid 
*-' fomi4ed ocmvents At Bergamo^ Brescia, Faensa, ttftd Viterbo, and vi* 
f^ sit|4 those he had already founded. He sent some of his religiom 
int^ Morocoo^ Pbrtugal, Sweden, Norway^ iittiHMISIi^pmsA 



K 



it 



it 
it 



BOOR OF MARVYRS. 

t 

• ■ .■». 

^ GilWt with iwdlve otlier^ into EogVuid, who citablUied monASterijet 
" 6f tlubB order in Csmterbury^ London^ and Oxford. The holy patriarch 
*' in hid MQCQ^d genei^ chapter, held- at Bologna in 1^21^ divided hid 
" otifnifV^ eight pfovincea, and , sent some of his religious -into Huo* 
" gff^y^. Greece, Faiestipe> and other countries. Among these missiona* 
'5<)i(i^ F< t^fful.of Hungary founded in Lower flithgary the monasteries 
^ of Ge^.er zs^y^pxlm, converted, great ^umbers^ of idolaters in Croa* 
" 6bl^ SeltayQii^f^ Transylvania, Valachia;, Moldavis^ Bosnia, :and ServUi 

aQd^temrifji® tt\e qhurehes whichhe had there; founded under the c^^^ 
'* of ot&er-bbpMrerA^ preaehed with like auccessin Cunwnii^ the inW 
** bitants of which, country w^remost savage and barbarous. He bap-v 
" tisE^d among thetn a, duke ci^ed Brut^ with his vassals, ^and one of 
'* the diief primfes ^i the ^^oi^ntry n«aDe 9e]|^nborcli» Andrew the ki^g 
^' of Huttgtiry and father .of St. ^li^abetjb« st^ding god^e^her^ .Thi« 
*' iwaIqus .apostle of 8p.,in&y nations ^ulffered.a glorious mcM^tyrdom 

with nin^ .religious fri^^^.of h;is order^ dispensed in tbose^ parts i 

some, being- :beb^ad€4j. others shot with arrows, stiibbed with ,lancef> 
" or bunftt byjjiie Tartars In 124^, in their grea^ irruption in those 
'' eoutttrie^ Bmhop* S^qc% with forty nine religious: of this pjpder^ 
^' were butchered for the foith by these barbarians in a second irruption 
" in 1860, .at Sendomir i^ Poland, and are honoured on the second of 
"June." . : . • . 

The truth of this statement can be verified by the histories of the 
countries .named, and Wi^ tliink it forms a.compliete contrast to the caur 
dam tales 'Ol. Fjok* While he is charging the, p^e and ^he Dominicafis 
with being thesauthpr,s of all the crQelties, real o^ imaginary, practised 
upofii the Albigenaes, wo see .ihe briglv,test ];nkembers of this same order, 
with.the' holy .founder, at their head, engaged in converting infidels -to 
the &ltkQf..ChriM»'Wjlth.nP other, means than the force oi persuasion 
and the holiness of their lives, and, like the primitive Christians, suf*- 
iening abartyr4om for their faith -wi^ meekness and fidelity. How un- 
like is tbis conduct to that. pursued by John Fox s. "reformed .people ;*' 
the oni^ coft verting ruthless .savages intb pious Christians by the mUd 
and peraiiasive truths of the Catholic faith j the other-brutalizing the 
Ignonuit multitude by their in^pious notions, and exciting coinmot^on 
itt.e^ery sodety by the practice pf the most indecent and outrageous 
Actions.. 

After giving JUany^ other incredible tales, unaccoippanied with the 
least authority,, be concludes hjt» account of the surrender of the earl of 
Toulouse^ witiii atating scune conditions which the earl was compeUecl, 
hcsaySi to.enlerinto^. He then adds, '' After these cruel conditions, 

(spflsricnis one^). a' severe persecution took place against the Albigen* 

ses, ' many :of. whom suffer.ed for the faith) and express orderawere 
" isaued that the Icftg $hoHld not be permitted to read the sacred writingir 
Though thisrsstatem^nt is given as coming from Fo]i^, we h^tve no doubt 
that it ia aOtinyentioQ of his modern editors, intended to suit the ta/ste 
of the pre^eiat bible-reading age. But, reader, if you only look to the 
period w^eatfais suppose^, order was made, it will at once strike you, 
that tih^e couU ^^ A0 ^oessity for making it, because at tha^ day 
^car^aly: any of the people, could read, and as printing was not then in- 
stMA^ f^iesucf ,the..s%ci;^ wrUiogB were scarce, and chiefly in the 



* 

* 
<t 



«44 tUETIfiW OF FOX'S 

lundfl of tlie clergy, tHe only perflons c^nible of rmdlrt^ thein^ who re^ 
gularly expounded t{|e most important parts to the people. 

The editors then go on^ — '' From this period we find no forther Ac- 
** oomit of the Alhigenses till t6e commeneement of the $ee4m$eenth 
** ceistwy ; but although they are not Sdrnttly mciilumeti^they aolered 
** ill common with their ProtetUmt brethren, at various times ^ and ill 
" ^B90, a cruel persecution was commenced against them/' Ami thitf 
ttatement is sufficient 4o gain (credit with the enUgkkned people of this 
country ! At least so think the ''few plain Christiana," or, we take if 
for granted, they would not have made it. We, however, have a better 
ppitiion of our countrymen, though they hafve lo&g been the victims of 
delusion and hypocrisy. The first period alluded to by the editors must 
be the tUrte^th century, and if history make no mention of them till 
the seoenteenih, where have th^ been stowed during the intervening 
four hundred years ? Is it not strai^e &at history diottld all at once 
become silent on these pretended iuteresting victims of persecutioB ? 
Then ngain, they are not dMndly mentioned even in the seventeenth 
century, and yet it is boldly averred that they suffered in common with 
Phytestants. Then the Alhigenses were ito^ Proteatants, though they 
are stated to be hreihren. Now is not this likewise somewhat strange ? 
If the Albigenses were right the Protestants must have been tDmng; 
for two varying creeds could not both be true. It is an unerring prin- 
ciple of the Catholic faith, that it is always one and the Mome. Never 
cSmnging or dividing, but indivisible, and therefore true* Here, how* 
ever, we have two distinct appellations of religionists> both represented 
as suffering indiscriminately for thdr &ith» and raidced of course an 
martyrs, though the one must have condemned- the other as hblding 
erroneous opinions, since both could not be right. Such is the ineoti^ 
sistency of man when lie deviates firom the true pttth> and seeks hia. 
road in the wilderness of error. 

. Before we quit this part of the Book o/Mm-tfrs, we must oftsr'ii fewr 
words on what is ^id to the chaige of St. Dominic and the Fspists.^— 
Vox says, that *' if a man on his death-Sed was aceused of beii^ a Jbt» 
*' lower of Waldo, his estates were confiscated, and the heir d^4mded ^ 
^ Ittsinkeriidnce" Supposing this statement, for the sake of argmnent^ 
to be true, what is this compared to the crueHi<^s of the penal code in* 
vented by ** Protestant-ascendency*' against the followers of the -ancient 
fiiith ? not, observe, new and vague and iqipious noHofis, but the old 
Catholic faith derived from the apostles. We have only to refer to tlie 
statute bdok, since the reign of the young pope Edward VL and we 
.shall find that laws have been passed twpnty times more nnjust than aay 
here laid' to the <;harge of the Dominicans. In the time of Elizabetli 
neither age nor sex wall sftered ; forged letters were introdnokl ,int6 
the houses and on the persons of Catholics, in order to form a plea for 
seizing their persons and property. Infonners the most infomons were 
employf^ to swear away the tivesT of the most innocent ; and a son, hj 
turning'^PMestant, was legnlly empowered to rob his Cathi^c father ti 
K9a$ estate^'and ^his brothem and sisters of-^ their inheritance, witlieuit 
>pin<uting till he or ih«y were on their deadb-6^. « ^mI are the Calhdlica 
'^^Sngland and ^|||pmd,^hile such horrible and ui^ttsttleciees continue 
'to disgrace the siirf^ut^-book ottloB Protestimt^eouatry^ to^ repioeched 






u 
*f 
it 



BOOK OF MABTYftS. ^ 

Urillrabiues tKat may, and we will aay liave, crept into the jurisprudence 
of foreign countries, because the people of those countries happea to 
profess the same fbith>^ Were inde^ those abuses to be sanctioned by 
the principles of their church, then they would deserve censure and 
eaiecratlott 5 but as this is moi the pase, the conduct of those who en^ 
Heavour to mislead and deceive the ignorant for the purppse of exciting^ 
hatred and abhorrence of their fello^r subjects, richly merits the loath- 
ilig and detestation of every friend to justice ,and good faith. 

To shew the gullibility of some persons,, when Catholicism or Popery, 
as the '' plain Christians** call it, is the theme of declamation and slan- 
der, we will here insert an account given under a head entitled " Cau- 
itvnr OF fRB BISHOP OF Aix/' Fox, or his nM>dern editors, says, '^ The 
*' blriiop of Aix being at Avignon, with some priests, they were one 
^ Aty walking along the streets with some courtesans, and seeing a man 
^ who sold obscene pictures, they purchased several, and presented 
^ them to the women. A bookseller, who had a great number of bibles 
*^ in the French language for sale, lived at hand. The b^hop stepping 
^ up to hiofr said, ' How darest thou be so bold as to sell French mer- 
'^ ishandize in this town V The bookseller replied with a kind of sneer, 
*^ ' My loiid, do you not think that biblea are as good as those pictures 
which you have bought for the ladies V Enraged at the sarcasm, th^ 
bishop exclaimed, ' I'll renounce my place in paradise if this fellow 
is not one of the W^denses. Take him away^^ take him away to pri- 
'' son;' These expressiona occasioned him to be terribly usfod by the 
** rabble ; and the aes^t day he w^ brought before the judge, who, at 
*' the insti^tion of the bishqp, condemned him to the flames. He was 
*' accordingly burnt, with two bibles hanging froo^ his neck, the one 
" before and the other behiad." 

Such is the first part of the story, and we beg the reader particuls^rly 
to remark, that this bishop is pot specially named but generally | 
neither is there a single date by which we can trace the truth or folse- 
hood fk the statement. But will any one believe that in those days, or in 
these, the clergy would be so callous to decency as openly to walk the 
streets with codrtesans and purchase obscene prints? Then as to th^ 
French biUes, and the boldneas of the bookseUer^ is it probable, if the 
bishops and priests were such characters, that the bookseU^. wovl^d 
thus accost them } Besides, in the time of the Waldenses printing, waf 
unknown, and bookseller's shops were of course not in existence. It is 
therefore clear that the man was not burnt .ifirith his two bibles, and we 
dare be bound that the reader will think with us, that thiia part of the 
story is a bungling attempt at lying. 

The tale goes on, *' The princqial persecutor of thje Merindcdiiftiis was 
** this bikhbp of Aix> who persuaded the president and couftsejijors of 
^ the court of pariiament to send a great army through all l^rovence^ 
" In order to destioy those who professed the reform^ religion. These 
** poor people, on seeing the army, reccmimended themselvea. to God., 
^' and prepared for death. While they were in this gmvpua distress, 
" mourning and liunenting together, news was brought that the arjnjr 
** was retrod^ and no mAn knew at that time haw,pr by U!:ba^ nf€mn$,; 
but it Was afterwards, known that the lord of Alen^, a wise and g/fiod 
man^ dedi^red toJthe presidtntof Cass^eie, that he QUght, not ^ pni- 



41 



S4(r KBVltW of FdX'S 






ceed agamst tlte inbabiUmti o^ Merfhdol by ibite of itaia/ wUbMI^ 
Judgment or condemnation ^ and Used manyar^medts-tathifl eiecl* 
."The president wbb at length persuaded to detail tihetiomsiiisrioii 
^ "vvhich hie had givtti ouC^. and cause i^e annjr to retire* The Mtpriu- 
^'doTiand understanding ^at the army wa^ K^jired^ gave>tAiia])k8 to God^^ 
** comforting one another with' acknonitioii end eo^drtaMdn idwaysta 
''have the fear of God before their cyeli/'-^Now readcfi whaA cioi yoa 
make of this account > * Here we hAve a bishop of Aix^ but of what 
Aame^ and when living, we are not inform^, persuading the court of 
pitfliament to incur the expense of raising and marching an army to 
extirpate such of the people of Provence rolled Merindoliaiia as pro- 
ftssed the f^onned religion 3 we haverthepeO{Aepatientiyw«ilii^ their 
destruction^ when^ all on a sudden^ the teA<4btearmy di8a|»pear», Idth- 
6ut Vfayme or reason, in the midst of the moutniBg a&d lamentirtien of 
the people. It however soon after tiirhs outj that this lucky ffiighi was 
bccasloned by tlie declaration of a t^tM ^d^gioH man^ cailed'thelordof 
Alenc, to the president 'of Gassan^e/that'^iroug^'iiot itoipfRN^ited'toex^ 
If emities without listening to justice and meitj.* Itiishad tiie^iilieDded 
effect, and'tl^e Merindolians, whoeverlhey are, began. ito comjfort and 
exhort one another, *' always to have'tlie fw^f^God 'before tlieiri^es/' 
This disgusting cant may do for 9ome*f(dk^ biiti'wc thiak tlie d^a of 
hypocrisy and delusion are wefuri^^fMVlwoiiy.-^Wehave no dates to 
govefti us; therefore we cannot learn the peiiod<if ih]»iBrdnder£al traas- 
action. indeed we have' no hesital^Yrto pr#iioiiBoe ite whole afisium, 
dumsily manufdctured y Wt at tlie 4ittie it -wiasr coined; tlue Ai^thor was 
well aware that the itiore marvelloUiE^ the slbiy^ ioH aspersed the Ca* 
tholics, the ttiore readily it would gain credit among: the bewOdered 
Frotestiints, However, one thing may te'dnrvrnfiKMn ibis part of the 
tale, and that !?, by Fox's ownf shewmg iheCathbliasiare not teveriably 
a persecuting ^ect, ^inte'.they icould in^hi^-iiisttinfleiistcb to* tlie voice 
of JtD9t!(^^, and leiive the reformed' tiiluilitesliMI. 7!lie cowrt aad-psrha- 
meiit wei'e Catholics as well ais'tfefe plret^dded pexiraniititig^bialiOp i the 
armjr'tvas of course 'Catholic^' a.nd'there' is'eveiTf reosoa to*suptioj9e the 
tvibe anc) good lord of Alehc 'was e GAthoVc^if not^ thergsreater thi$ me^ 
rit'ahdibrbearance of the Catlblic preiidofttof -Ctoshaaefi ia iKctlngOB 
the advice of d fe/brm«^ lord. Thus then it is node manifeiit, byiFox'a 
01;^ cohflgssioil, that persecution is Separable' ftokb Popety^^and eoase- 
quently the " few plain GhHstiiah^ are ih less'tha^ a.few plain liars, 
by stating'thaV ** persecution is in^e'patable ^mm^^pkry" 
' But thebest part of the story 3^e«rei]Kelaa-*tobe:'t61d; it is as .fol^ 
lows :—r;" Shortly after, the bishop o^€aVafl)onannBitfarM«ft'iDd0l^«iui 
.** cidling' before hiiii the chMreri, gave th^m^ibofi^^ and^^cchamanded 
"^ thttn tplearnfhe paternoster and' the creed )iif lxMn'S^^ MoM'^f^them 
^ At^s^VeVed that they AlretD the patertfOd«erliild^4ftef^reed'elteadyMiJ> 
^Hn, hta th^y o6uld not undetstand wHattlSbp^ipikV/^iadDOBpif^ the^i^d^r 
'^' idngU^. The- bishop ans«^^r^ 't^t> it waa y^td'mceimitififkey^ ^tauldi 
^* it ^ein^ 'sufficient' that theyl^heftir il/lu '£atii<)i ahd(ihiife'i&<w«a ilot.re- 
^' qtfisite f6i^ tKeir''dalvati6h id ixfndJ^rkmd br ejb^rotfMll^^bwticiar ^^ihar 
:^fcAtk ; for there were many Ushdpti and ^dtmtor^^ d/;rdt|im^vwhoai it 
'^ would trouble to ea^ovTid the'pateraOsieimmd^Att*«Te^!f-1Stt bailiiF 
^ of Merindol/uamed Andretr Maynardy-asM/iHial jnnpoia'il wi^ 



« 



41 



BOOK OF MARTYR?. 847 

*' serve to say tbe paternoatei: and tbe creed, and not to und€r$kind the 
■* same: for in so doing they should biiit mock and ^^riide God. Then 
*' said the bishop, ' Do yov, understand what is signified by these 
*' words, * I believe in God V The bailiflF answei;ed, ' I should think 
"' myself very miserable if I did ndt understand it :* an4 he began to 
*' gwe an account of his faith. Then said the bishop, ' 1 did not think 
'* tl;iere had been such great doctors in Merindol.' The bailiff answered 
'' ''Th6 least of the inhabitants of Merindol can do it more readily than 
I : but I pray you question one or two of these yoptng cHUlr^, that 
you may understand whether they be well taught or no.* But th^ 
bishop either knew not how to question them, or would not. On this 
*^ a person named Pieron Roy said, ' Sir, one of these children may 
" question with another, if you think fit ;' and the bishop consented. 
" Then one of the children began to question with his fellpwa, with q^ 
'* much grace and gravity as if he had been a schoolmaster ^ and the chil^ 
'• dren, one after another, answered so to the purpose, that it,was won" 
'* derful to hear themt WTien the bishop saw he could not thus .prevail^ 
*' he tried another way, and went about hy flattering words to effect his 
'' purpose. Wherefore he said, that he now perceived they were not 
*' so bad as many thought them to be; notwithstanding, to satisfy their 
persecutors, it was necessary that they should make 'some small ab- 
** jiuration, which only the bailiff', with two officers, might make in his 
** presence, in the wame of all the rest, without any notary to record the 
*' same in writing j and by so doing they would obtain the favour even 
** of those who now persecuted them : and that this proceeding might 
not be vmrepresented, it should be reported only to fhe pop^ and to thp 
high court of parliament of Provence. The CHlLWtEN,. however, 
unanimously, reftLsed^^Xid said that they conceived the wayinwluckth^y 
" had been instructed was the pure faith of Jesus Christ, and that in a&- 
'^juringU, they would be denying their Redeemer,"- 

This is as delectable a dish of the marvellous as we ever recolleQt" 
seeing served up to satiate the palates of the most barbarously igna- 
i:^t and credulous of the Protestant race. It has long been fashionable 
to charge Catholics with being too easy of belief. and giving credit ip 
the most absurd tales of the priesthood, but we defy the iQost deter- 
mined opposer o| the Catholic faith, to. produce a pretended fact from a 
Catholic writer that shall equal in absurdity and improbabUity the story 
we have just quoted. Who the bishop of Cavaillon is no one can 1^11, 
but admitting him to have been a real character, is it probable that l^ 
would have conducted himself as he is represented to have doiie. . He 
is pourtrayed as a dunce and a hypocrite, while the children of thjc 
Merindolians are diamonds of the.^rst water. . Now> if we understand 
John Fox, the Merindolians were of the reformed religion,, but o£what 
creed he doth not say. They are however opposed to the Catholic doc- 
trine, and is it likely that a Catholic bishop should go amongst ^uqh ja 
people, and not only command their children to say their prayer^^ ipa 
language they did not understand, but openly acknowledge that m^^ 
of his dignified brethren "wer^ ignoramuses, JohnFox, you may have 
been as cunning as tbe animal whosename ypu beai:, but tl^is sto^y will 
not do in these days. It is here intended to cast an insinuation again$i.t 
the service oJF the Catholic church being said in Latin, and theceforii 






248 REVIEW OB JfOX'S 

• • • 

the bishop is made to sacy that it was not requisite for their sflltation 
that they (the children) should understand or expound the articles of 
their faith. Certainly not to expound them^ because it is. not to be ex- 
pected that children are able to teach, when they stand in need of being 
taught. It was always a principle however of the Catholic church, 
that the people should understand the articles of their faiths and for 
this purpose Christ the divine Founder of this church appointed pastors 
and teachers, to whom he promised the Spirit of Truth, which should 
lead them into all truth, and he commanded them to teach and instract 
the people all that he had revealed to them. And the better to accom- 
plish thi3, he gave them the gift of tongues, so that they spoke in the 
vernacular language of the people they preached to. To say that it is 
not necessary to understand the articles of faith is an insult to common 
Bense, and could only be made by those who are void of that quality. 
In no instance whatever can the Catholic church be proved to have 
prevented the people from'' praying in their mother tongue^ and the 
clergy were aliray assiduous in expounding the scriptures to them in the 
same language. In fact, this is one of the ends for which they were 
appointed; and not, as is the case with Protestant preachers, to dope 
the people out of their money and appropriate it to their own support, 
while tney tell them to expound the faith for.themselves.^ 

T^en as to the learned bailiff of Merindol, Hir. Andrew Maynard; he 
is made to say that unless he. understood what was signified in the 
words ''I believe in God," he should be very miserable} and forthwith 
he gives the bishop an account of his faith, to the great surprise of the 
prelate.. Now what kind of a faith master Andrew held we are not 
told ; whether it agreed with the Waldenses, or the Albigenses, or was 
peculiar to the Merindolians, or any other reformed creed. Ttds deal- 
ing in generals is very convenient to avoid detection, and therefore we 
must be content to leave the very knowing Mr. Andrew Maynard, bai- 
liff of Merindol, in the year nothing, to enjoy his theological wisdom, 
while we look a little farther into Fox's statement. Wise as the bi- 
shop found Andrew the baili£P, the latter had the very great modesty to 
underrate himself, and give the preference to the children of his town. 
A wonderful generation of religionists these Merindolians must have 
'been, when the infant race were more wise than the experience of ma- 
ture age. Well might the poor bishop exclaim, he " did not think there 
" had been such great doctors in Merindol." He, poor man, though a 
bishop, was an ignorant fellow compared to Andrew the bailiff; but how 
insignificant must he have appeared when the little Solomons began to 
question one another. The bishop was so confounded, it appears, with 
Andrew's astonishing lore, that he did not, pr would not know how \o 
question the young wiseacres, so one Pierron Roy is conjured up to 
propose that the infant theologians should question each other, to which 
the bishop consented. . Now comes the grand trial 3 one more wiste than 
all the rest, we presume, jumped up as the questioner, and he pefformed 
his part with so much grace and gravity, that it was charming^' be- 
hold him, as well as wonderful to hear the pert answers that were 
given. Oh ! astonishing race ! but what a pity that so much learping 
and' wisdom should not have descended to future generations. Well, 
the bishop was astounded, and well he might be, at witnessing such s^ 



BOOK OF MARIYRS. U9 

set of yonng dodors in dvriitity ; stiU he wa« not to be diverted from 
his piirpose^ and he now tried to cajole them by a species of flattery. 
They were not so bad now as he thought they were}' but perfect .as 
they appeared to be^ something must be done to appease their perse- 
cutors. Who these persecutors were we are left to conjecture ^ hitherto 
ihe pope and the bishops have been described as the most relentlesd 
tormentors of the human race, but now a bishop is made the mediator. 
Well something must be done ) some trifling concession must be made 5 
and a small abjuration on the part of the bailiff and two ofiicers in the 
presence ci the bishop> would suffice. Furthern^ore^ that this proceed- 
ing might ftol he misrepresented, it was not to.be stated iis writing, the 
only way we' should have thought to prevent its being misrepresented^ 
and it was only to be reported to the pope and the parliament, who we 
suppose were to be ^tlsfied with this piece of hypocrisy/ and the, 
Merindolians were to save their bacon. But mark, reader; whether 
the bailiff and grown up people were inclined to Ml into the scheme of 
the bishop is not stated, btit we are told that the CHILDREN, yes, the 
CHILDREN UNANIMOUSLY REFUSED to accede to the plan, de- 
claring *' that they CONCEIVED," Oh! how ripe Were their under- 
standings 5 that '* they CONCEIVED the way in which they had been 
'^ instructed was the pure faith of Je^us, and thstt m abjuring it, Ihey 
^' would be denyi^ their Redeemer." Let Mimch^usen beat that, 
and I will consent to become a believer in John Fox's Book of Martyrs. 
Not a word is said of the pure fiiith this race of Solondons had been 
instructed in; not a syllable of its doctrine^ All is bare assertion; all 
is left to conjecture. After this specimen 6f the manner adopted by 
Fox to describe the persecutions of the Waldenses mid Albigenses, we 
need enter no further in our remarks on that ^art of the book. ... 
The next section is devoted to the relation of *' Persecutions im 

"FkANCB previous to and during the CrVIL WARS OF THAT NATION." 

—The first story told is the fbllowing :-^'* In the year 1524, at a towh 
*^ id France called Melden, one John* Clark affixed' a bill on the churgh 
'' diaor, in which he called the pope antichrist : ^ for this offence he was 
'' repeatedly whipped, and then branded in the forehead. His mother, 
'^ who saw the chastisement, cried with a loud voice, ^ Blessed be 
" Christ, and welcome these marks for his sake.* He went afterwards 
' to Metz, in Lorraine, and demolished some images, for which he had 
'' his right hand and nose cut off, and his arms and breasts torn by pin- 
" cersj whOe suffering these cruelties, he sang the 11 5th psalm, which 
** expressly forbids superstition. On concluding the psalm^ he was 
'* thrown into the fire and burnt, to ashes." — ^Admitting; this tale to b(e 
true, though we much doubt it in the whole, we will take leave here to 
ask, if tbis Protestant martyr did not give the first provocation ? We 
are not going to justify the treatment he experienced, nor shall we ap- 
plaud the zeal of his mother, who imagined he was suffering for Christ's 
sake, because he Was punished for a breach ^f the peace atid. abusing 
the head of the Catholic church. Now, we. shoutd be glad to know if 
a Catholic were tH fix up a bill against the dpor of St. Saviour's church, 
in the borough Of South wark, in which parislb, we believe, the "few 
plain Christjai^s" .reside 5 if, we isay, a Catholic Were to fixiipab^I 
against the stud church door^ reflecting on the character ctf'hi^ present 



!M> ABvpw Of poxia 



ipcuefltyaa head of tlie churchy raqd oalliog kim bj vlk nameSj would 
ni^.oot be taken before a ma^&trate and punished for the offence ? And 
would not these *[ plain.Chiistians/' who condemn the puniAers of John 
Clark^ be the first to approve of the sentence on tlie Catholic offender ? 
.We have not a doubt but they would, ^d not t]iink it persecution 
either. And were he to have a mother eneourage him under cKastise- 
ment^ as John Clark had, they would look upon )ier as a fanatic old 
woman. Then as to his demolishing of images j under what authority 
did be so act ?\ Who gave him commission to ,be^in^ the work of de- 
sjtruction? He might think these, images wer^ put to superstitious 
purposes, and while he. confined his opinions to himself no one could 
reach him ; but when h.e. began to manifest the fruits of \^8 opinions, 
ihe clearly became a violator of the law— -a breaker of the peace — and 
therefore subjected himself to the penalty of the ]|aw*-^As we before 
.said, we are not the defender of persecution, nor are we, the justifier of 
cruel and unnecessary punishments 5 but we contend that John Clark 
did that forwhiclf be would be punished in this Protestant country^ and 
therefore he is not entitled tathe hoAour of being » m$tr^yr for religion. 
Suppose a Deist, were to. take it into )us h^ad tO: puU down and .destroy 
;the crosses whfcb, adorn the n^w Pip^st^nt churches just erected in 
this country ; woul^ he not feel the severity of t^e law for so doing ? 
And would the '' few plain jChristians** pku;e him among. John Foil's 
martyrs in their next, edition of the work? This John Clark was a 
fiarder o/wjool by trade, in the. town of lle^u^, according i|;o father P^ 
•niers, history, not Melden,. as Pox states erironeoii^ly. He is recorded 
by Theodore J^eza^ the first founder o^.the Calvinist churches of 
Jdeaux and Metz^ as well aS/a. joiartyr of that sect, J^uther, it 13 here 
to be observed, began to dogmatize in 1517,. six years before the pe- 
riod of Clark*a. execution 3 the pretended refoi^n^tionliad, of course, 
•made some pirogress. in.Gen^any ^d Prance, and this outrageous con- 
,duct pf. Clark -is. considered the Jbreruniier of those evils that after- 
wards ^iicted t)ie latter country. Clark was no doubt a disciple of 
.Zuinglius, who began, ta pr,eajch against indulgences at^ Zurich in 
Switzerland, in the year .151£|, two years after Luther ha4 begun at 
Wittemberg. In the year 1522, he, in conjiihctioli with some other 
priests that. had .emb^aeed his party, presented a req^ges^ to the civil 
'magistjrates. of Switzerland, to be fdlowed to have wives, f^eolsLTiDg 
that he and his had not the gift of cofitmence, anij'that the deeds of 
.the flesh had rendered them in/amott^, tp the greai si^ndal of, the faith- 
ful. {SeerZuingUus'swQrks^.Ui,.]^.,!}^.} .Vr. Heylin, in IdsHhiory of 
the Presbyteriam, ^9^y.9,;** The Ziiinglian feformation was begun in de- 
, ^' facing in^age?, (•see ih^ out to iHk number) deprying the established 
'^^Eists. and ^pointed, festivals^ aljpVshing set forms of ^worship^-deny- 




« 

I 

a 



which he found them at present. Th^^y 4iflfered also^in the doctrine 
. irfpiredestination/^hidik tiuthejp taught apcording 'to .ijie current of 
;,", the ancient faljiers, who. lived and flourished Wore the Wplings of 
..".St. Augustine i 9p that the Eomanists had .not jpy itffvixg fa except 
; If agrinat.^^t^ jtarticuta^ jvhen. U was. g^^sgU >ir.^^. »<^iwtacn 






ft 
4< 
U 



BOOK or. MASfTYRS. ^1 

'* ia the tmitioH iif 7^^^'' Thus U fo indf ^fmlablj d«a*, ^bat tbiv pre^ 
(eB4ed martyr, wae a violator of the peace, and suffered for invading tbf 
seearity of flociety^.not for his reUi^Qus.qpMons. , 

The ne&t tale .we .shall noticfi is the following :>— '' Shortly after the 
" oorooationof Heiiry the ^ecqnd, a tailor ^as. appre^henifed for voorking 
^ <m a,sawt*4 day $ being asked why h^ gave sudx an- offence fo Tel£- 
" gion, hia reply was, 'I am a:pqor man,, and have pothing*hut mj 
^Viabourvto dqiend'Hpem; necessity requires that. I should be indus- 
" trious, and my. oanseience^ telU me there is no.day,but the sabbath 
" which I ought tp lieep saered from labour.' Having* expressed himr 
sdf thn9>'he was committed to prison^ aj^d th^ Kffair being soon after 
rumoured at.opur^, some, of the-nobles persuaded the king to be pre«- 
" sent ;at ^tl^e .trial. . On the day apppintedji the monarch appeared in a 
■' superl> ..chair of .8tale». and the bishop <of ]M[ascon wasordered to In.- 
'* tenw«te the {Nrisonen The tailor, on perceiying the king, paid his 
"obedieiiea to. him in^ the most respectful manlier. .The. king was 
" nmch aSeoted with] his arguments, -and seenpied to mvsej on which 
"the bifliop exclaimed, 'He is an obstinate and.iippudent heretic ^ 
** let .him. be taken back to pirisoOi,, apd burnt to death/ The prisoner 
" was accordin^y Qonveyed to prison ^ and the bi^op artfully insinu^ 
ated,. I^t title .heveiics, aa he (galled the reformed, rhad many sp^ 
ciou%arg:i«Bflients,;whldiy at first hearing, appeared conclusive ; but 
anexanofiaatieni, they were found tp be fJEdse, He then ^deavoured 
to persuade the king to be^present at the execution, .who at length 
"* consen<;ed> and repaired to a balcony which oyerlookei} the place. 
" On seeing .the;kingy the tailor fixed his eyea steadfastly upon him, 
an^eyen while the jflfunes were consuming him, kc^t gazing insueh 
amanneJTi asthi^wi'the monarch into irisible coi^fttsipii, and obliged 
him to retigre beiki:e the martyr waa dead. He.vWfKf spnoncii shocked, 
that he,43puld notrrecpver hisspiiifs for somi& timer; ,and what added 
tohis diiqpitot <was, his oontinuaUy dr^jami^g^ for many nights, .that 
** hesaw' tibe tailoc.'V^th. bis eyes fi^ed upop b^, in the same manner 
" as during ^ oieciition.!*-— ^Whether ^his talewi^ mv^ni/e^ as,a cou^* 
ter-^part of Qeniry the eighth's e^^amination of Nicholson oZiof Lambert, 
for. denying the real prsBe^e, wc^ know:;not.; but. we cc^mot help 
thinking, the .poor tailor was highly honoured by the french.king's rie- 
ceiving him in a 9iq>erb ohftir of stat^* IVionarchs now-'a-days are not 
so condescending. - But will, any .one, jnhis sober sense*^, believe that a 
king would .trouble hiniseif sp much about a ipan*s, wprking^os^ a sainff s 
day? WiC' think not^ andtwhen it is. taken in:t0 vqonsideratipn that 
there waa aot^hat sQrftapa of jtaxatio^.tik^at now griofis the^ people to the 
eafth^' tiiat there -wf^. not 8o,nikU6h ppyer|y,(.aiud^9ansequenUy^not.f9o 
muoh JBuecessity to.wpvkas initfaes^di^ys,. we m^ put th^ story down 
as another . fietio% im^v^ied to excit^.ti}i^<i|^orf|i^t to^hajbr^df^lBi^ 
Catholicismi : l%i» relater woiuld rmake us;))^liava the tailor coul4 ma^e 
an JmiNtfessfon -upon' the ^tngi though he .Qouhd; pojk oift ,the bishopi j andi, to 
get hidsa burned,; hs- is oomp^ed >tp ^nakp t^ebi^hepa, ^jl^„^and the 
king a .cypher./ . The bishop; ofdeff . tjp^. poor, tailor* to [pcispn.audf to hs 
executed^ add this tpp^nppn Jhi9 barecomnpiand. Then the bishop per- 
suades the^kingr to. be presenti tt^ough he. had l^efora witne#s^ his 
mercifcd -.dilpoii^A; towards Ibe mtor.« :Jh^ king^con^^ts, aqid t^e 



u 
ff 



^*^ 



4€ 
.4* 

4i 
.*€ 



353 ^VtEW OF FOX'S 

tailor fixes hii eyes so steiidfiifttly on the monardli^ that not even fiii 
tortures of tlie fire conld make Iritn change bis countenance^ and the 
king was at length obliged to retire. Bnteven^ here the taSor would 
not leave him, for his image continued to haimt his majesty for many 
nights, but how many Fox is not able, or was ilot willing, to declare. 
Keally such storfes as these; and so long and rqieatedly UAA, imd we 
lament to' say, implicitly credited, reflect no gneat degree of saj^ity 
on the part of the people of England. We have not seen it» eqiml ex- 
cept in this same Book of Martyn, where three menr are represented 
lianging on a gibbet for eating roast goose on a Ftiday^ 

One more tale, and we will turn to another subjeet : " Peter Serre/' 
writes Fox, '* was otiginally a priest, but refiecting on the errsrs of 
Popery, he, at length, embraced the ref&rmed religion, and learned 
the trade of a shoe-maker. Having a brother at Toulouse, who was a 
6%of«d Roman Catholic, Serrc^, out of fratenial knre, nMide a Journey 
to that city,in brdej'to dissuade him fVom his^ superstitions: the bro- 
ther's wife not approving of his design, lodged a eohiplaint against 
him, on which he vtas- apprehended, and made a foil deelara^iro of 
his^ foith. The judge asked him concerning his occupotioli, to whicli 
^ lie replied, ' I have of late praiiHiised the tmde of a shoemaker:' ' Oi 
*^ late !^ t^aid the jiidge, ' atid what did you practise formerly ?^— ^' lliat 
^ I am almost ashamed 'to* tell yoci/ exclaimed Serref^ ' because it was 
" the vU^est and most wieked oteupatwn imaginable,* The jtldge, and all 
" who were present, from these words, supposed he -had been a miir- 
** derer or thief, and that what he spoke was throuj^k contrition. He 
** was, however, ordered to explain precisely what he mefemt; when, 
with tears in hb eyes, he exclaimed, ^ O; I was formerly a FonaB 
ntiEst !'* Thiis reply So much exasperated the judge, that he con- 
demned Scire to be first degiraded, then to liave his tongue cut, and 
** aflerwards to be burnt." Had wi^ been Peter's jtidge we certainly 
should not have condemned him to the stake, but Wbidd teve confined 
him to the lapstone till he had enough of it. Vile and wicked as the 
occupation of a pDpish priest is represented to be, we think Peter Ser- 
re's case is almost a solitary one, for there haVe not becin many priests, 
we believe, that have exchanged their 'brie viary for a last, though many 
a cobbler has forsaken his last to become vehat is called a minister of 
the gospel, since the days df evangelical liberty, or n^her self-inter- 
preting licentiousness. Peter the cobbler, hdwever, must have been 
better off than the poor tailor whose ctoe we just noticed. Snip could 
not allow himself to be idle oh a ssdnt's day, but Snob could leave his 
work to convert his brother from Popery ; and by a singidar' coinci- 
dence, both Snip aud Snob were burned for their' pains, if we are to 
believe John Fox. When, the reformed rc;ligion gbt the ascendency in 
this eountry, and the Catholic priests were made' t6 quit their livings, 
that cobblers, tinkers, and weavers, might occupy them, [at least soch 
is the statement of Dt. Heylin, a Protestant writer} the Catholic priests 
were so littie' inclined to leave their vile aiid wicked ocisupatkm, that 
our Protjefstant legislature abs^^utely found it necessary to offer them a 
bribe, and act5ordingly an act of parlianiient' was passed allowing all 
apostate'priests from the cfhurch of Roni« an amitiity of twenty pounds 
tt-yvar} but even this could hot induce them td betray Hieir trust) on 



4t* 
•tt 



BOOK OF MAierYRS. 258 

the contrary^ they preferred deadly dungeons, tortares, bfunishment, and 
every degree of persecution from '' Protestant->a8eendenGy/* to the re* 
noimoement of their sacred profession. This is an inoontestible fact^ 
aad can that be ia vile and wicked occupation, when men who foUoW it^ 
renowned for the superixcellent qualities of the mind, and spotless 
parity of character, cannot be induced to forsake it under circumstances 
of eitiier tenor or temptation ? This is a question we would Tecofu-* 
mend the '' few plaiit C^ristlalis** to pouder over well. They may get 
a few ignorant creatures to bdiere tiietr tale about Peter Serre, but the 
sensible part of the people will think with us, that there is neither au- 
thenticity nor probability in the relations of John Fox ; in a word, that 
they are too high ooloujred to be true. 

BOOK V. 



HISTOIIICAL ACCOUNT OF TtfB INQITISITION IN SPAIN^ POBTUGAt, 

SvcB-is t)&e head of the fifth book of this Book of Martyrs^ and a more 
Avitful them^ to alarm the sensitive feelings of English Protestants 
was. nev^r: invented. From our infency we have been accustomed to 
hear^f the terriUe cruelties of the Popish inquisition, and we can well 
recollect listening to an itinerant vender of trash, who constantly at«* 
tended Norwich market some forty years ago, holding Ibrth in a cant* 
iag, whining tone, on the blood-thirsty principles of the Catholic reli- 
gbn, to induce the gaping multitude to pyrchase his lies, which they 
did with ayidity, and, no doubt, put them down as gospel fects.. Young 
as we were tht^, the abcmunable lies we heard told for truths made an 
impression' on our mind never to be erased ; and we could not then 
help feeling indignant at that system of pretended religion, which had 
recourse' to felsehood, calumny, misrepresentation, ay, every specie* of 
defamation and injustice, to excite prejudice and ill-will against the 
professors of truth. What we then heard stated as the principles (^ 
Catholics w^ knew to be palpable and barefaced Uet, because we were 
then under a course of instruction by our venerable pastor, which in^- 
culcated and enforced the verv opposite doctrines. The purest spirit 
ef charity, we were told, was the corner-stone of the Catholic reli^on, 
and never have we known any other spirit to influence those who fol»- 
low and .practice the precepts of that religion^ If men^ professing to 
be Catholics, give way to their passions or su£fer themselves to be go- 
verned by temporary policy, or unjust and cruel motives, religion itself 
is not to be condemned because such men make a mockery of or insult 
its divine . mimdates. Al^uses we know have been committed, in the 
name of religion, by Catholics as well as Protestants, and this will al- 
ways be the <:ase while human nature remains what it is ; but religion 
itself, that is pmw and undefiled religion, being of divine origin, can 
never vary nor be any other than worthy of its divine Founder, who 
while on eafth, went about doing good to aU men, suffering evils from 
others, but offering none in return. 

The first section commences with the " Obigin, Progress, and 
^'Crubltibs op thb Inquisition/' in the following wohIs :»—" When 
'* the reformed religion began to diffuse the pure Ught of the gospel 






9M wanxw OF rosrs 

'' e^roK^fonf Europe, the bigoted ^Rcnaan CMulioB^ teatkkgikit expft« 
^ sure of iHe frauds and afrfctef of their church,' detmniiiaAttO leai^iiv^ 
^' thing unattempted to crush tfafe refo/rmatwn iMt Hb infittcjr^ pope ltt* 
" nocent III. therefore instituted a number «f'tfi9utiiior», or persoos 
^* who were to miikeinquiry after, apprehend, and punisii the pr(»fe8« 
^ sorsof the reformed fidtK At ^e head of tiiese'UMpdailorf was 4iiie 
Dominic, who wascaooniaed by the pope, in order to render -hie au- 
thority the more respectable. He and the other mqmmiwg'yiBSited the 
'' various l^mixn Cathoiw countries, and treated the Pfolepteite with 
'' the' utmost severity: but at length the pope, not findmg' thent so 
^ useful as he expected,' resolved upon the estalWahment of fixed and 
^ regular courts of inquisition ; the first ofiiceof wfhich waa estiMisiicd 
** In the city of Toulouse, and Dominic became the first inquuiiton 
" Courts of inquisition were liJLso^ erected in several other countries; 
*' but the Spanish inquisition became the most powerful, and the most 
** dreadful of any. Even the Mngi Of Spain- themsdvea, though arbi- 
" trary in all other respects, were taught to dread its power; and the 
'^ horrid cruelties exercised by the inqaiBltioii, compelled fikuUiiihide$ 
^'.who differed in opinion from th^ Catiicflfcs; car^Uy to conceal tk^ 
^ sentiments. The Dominicans and Franciscans were the most ^Moafi 
'^ of all the monks: theSe, therefore^ the pope kiyested with aa exefti- 
^* swt right of presiding over, and managing the dfflTerent courts *of in- 
^' quisition. The friars of those two orders were always selected "from 
^* the very dtegs of the people, and therefore were nol much taroubled 
** with scruples of conscience; Utiey were obliged, by the rules (<if their 
" respective orders, to live Very austere lives, which rendered their 
** manners unsocial, and better qualified for their barbarous endqploy- 
** ment. The pope gave the lilquisitora the mo^t finlUniied' pomei^, as 
^ judges delegated by him, and immediately representing ^person : they 
^ were permitted to excommunicate, or sentence to death, whom they 
<' thought proper, upon the slightest information of heresy ', were allowed 
** to publish crusades against all whom they (deemed heretics, and en- 
*' lev into leagues with sovereign princes, to join tho^ crusades With 
** their forces. About the year 1S44, their power was farther increased 
*^ by the emperor Frederick the second, who dechMdiifmself the pn>- 
*** tector and friend of all inquisitors, and published 'two cruel edicts, 
" viz. that all heretics, who continued obstinate, shoiild be burnt i aoid 
** that those who repented, should be imprisoned for l^. This zeal in 
" tl|6 efmperor for the inquisitors, and the Roman' Catholic persuasion^ 
*^ arose from a report which had been pit>pagated throughbttt Ikarope, 
" that he intended to turn Mafiometah; Uie emperor therefore jadtHcfiMly 
'' determined, by the height ofUgotry and crdelty to shew his attach- 
^ ment to Popery** . 

This is Fq^'s account of the origin and progress of the inqinsttion ; 
but such an account as can only be believed by ^e most besotted 
"mind. In the first place> Innocent III. had %een dead three hundred 
years previourio the reformed religion^ or ^hat is so called, makhi|^ its 
appearance in Europe. Secondly, St. Dominic was not canonized' till 
thirteen years after his death, that is, in 1234, by Gregory IX, there- 
fore it is a DIRECT FALSEHOOD to say he was thus honoured to 
make his imputed office of inquisitor the more respectable. Thirdly, 



fiOOK OF IStkRftRS. ^5^ 

W filtva iilieWn, in our preeedftig ]Miges, that Sfi. Bo^nio was sent tb 
preach Hgninst Che Aftigensetf^ a^ that the member^^of his order were 
employed to gain onrier Pagan coutitfied to Catholicism ; and how, we 
should be glad to learn, could St. Dominie treat Protestants with seve- 
rity^ when there was not a Protestant in Europe till some hundred years 
after t'hi^ first pretended inquisitor had paid the debt of nature? 
Fourthly^ he' says, the kings of Spain were taught to dread the power 
of the inquisition, and f^ it wai^ fey ^e power <^ the kin^ that this tri- 
bunal was established. Fifthly, multitudes who differed in opinion 
from the Catholics were, he says, compelled carefully to conceal their 
opinions. An' odd sort of a reformed religion this must be, that its 
professors were careful to concesd it. This was not the case with the 
primitive Christians ; with John Fox's first martyrs 3 they made open 
profession of their faith, as Catholics always did^ in spite of knives, hal- 
ters, or gibbets. Sixthly, the pope, he says, invested the Dominicans 
and Franciscans with an exclusive right of presiding in this tribunal^ 
because tliese firiars were always selected from the very dregs of the 
people, and tfaerefbre not much troubled with scruples of conscience ; 
and yet he admits they were obliged to lead very austere lives ! This 
is no very ^rest compliment on the part of John Eox towards the peo- 
ple; however history tells us, that among the Dominicans and Fran- 
eiscanSy there were a number of the most learned men and exemplary 
characters. Seventhly, he says« the pope gave the inquisitors unlhmted 
powers, and aftertrards these powers were hicrecued by the emperor 
Frederic II. Now if the pope could grant them unlimited power, how 
could the emperor add to that ^wer ? Then, he says, these inquisitors 
were allowed by the pope to enter into leches with sai^ermgn princes, 
and to join them with thsAr farces. Surely, if this be true, these*inqui- 
sitors, sprung from the dregs of the people, m«st be wonderful fellows 
to ra&e forces without holding territories, and colleaguing with sove- 
reigns though having no scruples of conscience. Sixthly, how fortu- 
nate was it for the Roman Catho&cs, that a report should be raised 
that the emperor -was about to become a Mahometan. But for this 
lucky circumstance, we suppose, the Catholic church would not have 
had » stone to rest h{)ion, tiO judichusly for het did the emperor deter* 
mine to shew his attachment to Popery by the heighth of bigotry and 
cruelty.. Ah! how many of our enlightened Protestants have been 
duped by this miserably told tale ) this compound of falsehood and 
nonsense. 

But before we proceed any further in our remarks we will here give 
dome extracts from the Encyclopedia Methodkpie, respecting this tri- 
bnnal< The articles in that work, relating to religious subjects were 
furnished by the abbd Bergier, a canon t>f Paris, and director to the pre* 
sent king of France. This divine is in high estimation among Catho- 
lics, and as it will be seeh that he animadverts very freely on the in- 
stitution, it must necessarily follow that this tribunal b totally uncon- 
nected with the religion of Catholics. 

'^ Inquisition.— An ecclesiastical tribunal, erected by the sovereign 
" pontiffs in Italy, 6pain, Portugal, and the Indies; with a view to the 

extirpation of the ^ew$. Moors, Infidels, and Heretics. It is not by 

any means our object to eulogise thid tribunal or its manner c^ pro- 



« 



ft 

€f 

€f 

€( 

U 

U 

€€ 

t€ 

tf 

€f 

€t 



89« . RBVOeW C« FOX. 

*' ceediiig, biit^ as it has been to heretics and infidab a fnii^ subjeel 
'* of caiamnies and imposture, one natundly seeks to ascertain what is 
^' true and what is false in the reports relating to it. The date of its 
'^ institution is about the year 1200^ It was erected by pope Innocent 
*' the third, a^fainst the Albigenses, a set" of perfidious heretics, who 
*' were guilty of profiming the sacraments, a belief in which they ex- 
** eluded from their creed. But the council of Verona^ held in 11S4, 
** had, before this time, directed the bishops of Lombardy to make 
** strict search after heretics, and. ii^ when apprehended, they remained 
^' obstinate, to deliver them over lor corporal punishment to the civil 
magistrate. (Fleufyi IB»i. Ecd. I. 73, n. &4,> The count of Tou- 
louse adopted this tribunal in 12^5 and in 1333 pope Gregory the 
ninth confined the management of it to the Dominicans. Innocent 
IV. established it in every part of Italy excepting Naples. It was 
established in Spain in 1448, in the reign of Ferdinsuid and Isabella, 
and in Portugal, under John the third, in the year 1557* In these 
two kingdoms it was subject to the same regulations. In the year 
1545, Paul the third had formed the congregation of the.InquisiUon 
under the name of the Holy Office, which was confirmed by Sixtus the 
fifth in the year 15S8. When the Spaniards established themselves 
in America, they introduced the inquisition also there, and it was 
" introduced into the Portuguese dominions in the £ast Indies as scxm 
^* as it had been sanctioned at Lisbon. 

From this detail, and from what we shall afterwards take occasion 
to observe, it will satisfactorily appear, that in NO kingdom in Chris- 
'' tendom was the tribunal of the ij^uisitian erected wUkout the consent 
(in some instances indeed it was at the request) of the iooere»gn. 
This is a fact of essential consequence > a fact, however, itudunUli^ 
*' omitted in declamations against this court. The authors of these de- 
clamations would insinuate that it has always owed its ^neetioa to 
the mere authority of the pope ; and that too in violation of the r%hts. 
of the sovereign^ whereas it is demonstrable, thatin no single metiMce 
'* has the inquisitorial court exeercised its juris4ietiqn unless supported by 
the supreme authority^ 
In 1355, Alexandler the third, with the consent of St. Louis> estab- 
** lished the Inquisition in France. The grand inquisitors were the 
superior of the Cordeliers of Paris, and the provincial. of the Domi- 
^' nicans. The papal .bull directed the inquisitors to consult the bi- 
shops, to whos6 advice, however, they were not obliged to submit. 
'^ This novel species of jurisdiction gave umbrage equally to the ecde- 
siastical and the civil authorities, and the opposition which it met 
*' with shortly reduced the dignity of these monks to a mere name. 
Had the bishops in other slates exhibited the same 'firmness, their 
authority might have cpntinued undimimshed. 

The inquisition had be«?n established at Venice in 1389, bat, instead 
of being dependant on the. pope, as in other states, it was entirely sub- 
ject to' the senate ; and in the 16th century it was decreed that the as- 
sistance of three senators should be necessary for every judicial pro- 
*' cess. This decree made it easy to elude the authority of the cpurt of the 
*' inquisition, which authority was in consequence annihilated in this 
'/state." 



a 

€C 
tt 
9€ 
€€ 
4( 
*€ 
tt 
€t 
tt 
tt 

tt 

tt 
tt 
tt 
ft 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 

tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 



;;■ ' ' ; dKITItiAL ANI* HlSTORlCAt. ' ^ 

■M« . Tr Printeii «nd Published by iff, E. An iiMwf', X ChhpUit- ti* £'^ b J ' 
iMQ. L7. - . k.M»«oynfSr;p^<iOttiitci>;Kd,LMidM. . V^V^.M, 



. Ex*^Ait«T<oH «F T«E BiioBiTiKa — 1» ihcHur 1799. ttc Ko; p. WN£il.mi.lrit^- 
Cmotic fritit. tuoi tat:ftt up hy the taquiiitatt if '■ Prateilanl-aicendencVi'* oitd a/1^ , 
bmc tAnnm bite n liMlAiaiiic pwf In Ac buTTaela ^ Fbugbi'i enlleil tie Uoefc Mil, woi ' 

■faam tkamt BtuAiattd (i> the BaU-ftKi/, *kre h« rscMc^iiwi kurfmi nail •n«nt|i:|i«'' 
la^utimfiietal by tii.Hghr ihJ I^ Aoiufcd ats; ^er which a wire -cot nwi introAenl, > 
anned vith tcropi if"tm «r lead, with aMckhevniJlugged In make himiluAe the triaagti, 
niiiWrJUfftoTtiH«#««iM<fiv.A«p<HWM«rMWltiw7ro«Uk)tBMcMa.^^ 

/u^0i>^butwWi*iil*ffit».~Arteilatifiiemfeti^J!fthltmmae^ 
qmlcM, or " JPiotcMMit-uueiidcncj ■" will lit fif'i^, w uu <h((it. . , ., 

. ( . ' COKTIflUATXOfl or TBS KBTJKW. 

'^'Hm sonnigBs of N>ple* sndSldly olainif!4BRg%t,. from; papal' 
"c(moeMknM,tatheiexfPclieof bcdeaiMlicd juritiKclion. - Thiicteint' 
f gWe' riBC todisptdeB'Wbvesn tinpope apd tbe fcii^ Dbovt. Mu righr 
" of ^ipointing the inquimtofs-ftbe oooteqaence mai.UiKt none w««- 
*' ^pointod. Aadif tfaeiltqvirition Iras at lengA Mtablitdiett in Sicily, 
*' <A. D. 1478) oa it had' bcttU. Itt Spaio, tt .vraa 4UII more than in Sfnia- 
^ ti ptieUege af the eroK*. . : ..■ . . . ; , ■ 

- "^K|fne>cMda, « DomiaieMkf.wbo was-Qtqdecwr^inql.and gnndTip-- 
•f qsiaitor, gaf e loittiM tntqiiul in. Spdia ; (b« JuridAcuJ.fonn .wh)<^Ji 
" still retaiiu. It is sai3 that in the space of fourteen years l)e ioMtl- 
ftotedaore tltair MjODO juridical pnrae^sas. Rnd.Utat not less; (])aa 
'^ftre brsiK'tboiHaiid pM>p}e..*i!4EM'4il\JM this M«ovntis, pndMttf- 



** One word as to the mode of pBopeeding* The acciMed is not coB' 
^^ firoQted with his accuser, and every informer is attended to, though 
'' a chilA; Mmi^^m,^ wrnicnini^ stigmatieed ^th« hattfi>f jiu- 
*' tice.^ A-86iv4dtx)8es'8igdnst his faiiieiv a- w^ against h^ hutband^ 
'' a brother against Jiis jtmlhfe : 1.^ &a^, Uie;u;cnM0 is obliged tq be* 
'' come his awn ju^'users and to divine and confess the crime that is iyn* 

j39|ted to,|iimy andyoi^which be haano knowledge. * 

Tltts imheardnof mode of proceeding is, calculated, no ^nbt; to 

keep all Spain in a state of alarm, but it must not be imagined that it 



• .♦« 



*^\ is adopted to the letter. It is not every accusation^ thmig^ it may^eXi 
?^ cite suspicion in the inquisitors, that authorizes them to arrest or pu^ 
•^^nish the accused. In Spain a man, whether natwejor formgner^ suqi 
^^.Uoe ai securebf,- and wUh at much liberty as eltewhere^ j^ramded Ordogf^t 
^^ kutiumg ipiriidoes not incite him to ditturb. the pubUc peace, 

■\ ** The decliEdmers against the inquisition have drawn in the blackest 
'j colours the punishment infiicted by this tribjoaaU whicli they stylQ 
H aute daft, acts of fiiith. . A priest, say they, in a surplice, or a n^nkj 
^ m^hoSe profession is. that of mildness,and charity, is the person who, in 
'^a i^t and dreary dungeon, directs the torture of a fellow jpim^ivei 
*^, t^e unbappy victim follows a pnocession of mon)is lo .the pil^ pr^f»sied 
^ lb|p his. executioQ^ and the king, whose presence .disp^iisea merpy to 
*i criminals, assists, on a seat lower than the inquisitor^s, aa witness to 
*^ the death of his own subjects expiring in the flames, 

i^' AU this is undoubtedly very paUietic. But it should be qua&jSed 
^ by the following observations. Ist* Itbespeaks a.wanl .of candour 
^ to insipunte, that the fire is tiie portion of all whorn^ the inquisition 
^ coiidenms. It is the {Amishment inflioted only for dimes,, whichave 
'[visited in the same manner among thc»e nations in which the inqufc 
'^sition is not known. Such as sacrilege, pro&nation, apostasy, magic 
''.Other crimes are punished with perpetual imprisonment, cot^nemcot 
"4a a mo^iastery, the discipline and .other species of penance,. Sdlj. 
'f It is a custom in all* Christian natfons, thai criniinals' should be-ssr 
" 'sisted at their execiitipn by the priest, who exhoits them to pat&ence. 
"•^He is often aceompanied by members of the cpn&atemity of tibc^^M, 
"^who oflbr up thdr phrjrers for the criminaV and bestow the right ojt 
"sepulture on his body. Query. Is this' a mark of cruelty f Sdtf, 
" Capital punishments are very rare faotii in Spain and Fortugal; sad 
" no single instance- can be produced of itshavHig been inficted st 
'^^Boiae. At'ftdme the inquisition was always less severe thai^ say 
'^whefs else, and the form given to it by Tbiqaemada h|M.neiwr been 
"V tTMelved lit BomeJ This suppn^sion of these matters is n.reflsction 
'^ on the eaddoar aAd sincerity of our dedaimeisB^ 

^ Agahi, " it is somewhat absurd to denominate these executions hu* 
^ man saerlilees. To all punisihmenlaB Inflicted for crimes against.rdi* 
'^ gion, this appellation might with equal justice be applied. These 
'■ prbfodnd -genltemea will have some diMculiy to persuade the Ghiis- 
'*^iaii world Hia* no offences of tUsnatuve bughtto he pqnishedinth 

^ ^^lUi^nMteh a Sj^ahiard with the horrors of the in^itioo^hSiiBB 
'%iihswer) that wars on accewit of rel^^,^hl^^hehingdem!o£ Fmace 
^tflone, have caused more blood to be shed than has beeii:.spil^|pihe 



ti 



'rtsriUottd* (Tjtle InqiiifkuHi oteritlie white ^vdrU : md'^ht «mv atf» 
'i that bysieatw of ihii ipripiiattUH^ Spain bad been preeervcd ffonrsviy* 
'^ infection ^ iht nsicleUljriwlndi aithir dayior^ llid rest ttf Bn* 

'^, oipQ. Teil Jiiln dut:war8.arerof aienpcmsrjrnatuc^ and miast soon* 
'f jinbaidid ; but'that theinqaisilion'it woidA Mf im, once cntabtished,. Iie-*^ 
'[ ea*ie6ri^}iecnlan0Bt iBstkatii6n«^le trill t^j bf anappt^ tofacCa-*-^ 
'5 FisHce^Germanjr/the^tBtea of VeiaiBejrfeaTe sniqpretted,' after ImtIp^ 
f adialUadd It | andihaiking'.OlFaitagal haa very much .diiataaed if of* 
'f itft.ter6onria(liia dondniDn«.i He laa)pidaitted:tlla6 the pvooiirator-' 
'f gioacferal^ whoiathe proridcatOff, stihUoonnnunieate: to Itlie'iacchi86d.t)ia. 
'' aftid^ ofimpeabhibeataiili'tfae lianle oi the witnei^Biea^r ^dty, That 
^.the' aocu0Od ahall hAva the rpoi*^ o£' id&oofhig :an advoeate with> 
'f .whoknrhtt^niAjr also ediifer^> ^ 3dly/l!1i8t noaentenceiof the mxpn*:- 
'.' j^on shall be pot into' execution natil it hn been oonfirmnd'bj hia 

• /^Tfae fierao»)Mtlio hai dedaiwed with the g^eateit vhnlene^ artist 
V this tabun^> ecknowtedgea^howeae^ that excesaea have;fii3qneiit}y- 
'5 .bee9l'im|Nfted: to k« of iwhidi k haanot Ifeeh-gv^tty. . In hia o^nnioii 
*■ it betrays' a* want of jddgnient to; giiraiid aa inTieetive on uneertam-' 
'f tieftj. and atili more wa-^aa MsehoitMlsl • it wece well hlul he aeted on ' 
^ Ata pdttGtplc'tnd diacovered a iittlermora eandour in hia relataona* : 

. '^ Wt Qoidudlyooiq^idate France and Qannany that th^ acre'fraO' 
*i feom: the inflaenoe'of thiatribnnab Yet we^ havia no he^itatteat !«: 
*f declaHng our fiiin canTicAioni tiiat #ere oar infidel f^ibaophere to' 
'' b€6eenie*nia8teva> ihefmoald eataidiahlan kupilaiiticMi.nideh more ae** 
'5 vera than that of JSpsi^." 

% Wm^ have heaa ^tvsm P<«xa ataKteaaent of the origin* and pragreaa of' 
the in^pnaitkin^ and a oohnter tatateibani of: a ikioi^ modem cfotev from ' 
the4>to of a CatimHc; Th^-reader-haathereflnre befote hun t^ aide9^ 
c^tte^ueatibny^aaMlircettae^liently k beiA^ ablato mdce hk'cooclu-^ 
aaoilt: W^lttve^Mriniithalt^hiBfinttalaferaent is {lalpably fialse ^ the 
aeapnd beara the stukp af anfheaticityr and tiw instltutimt not be^g 
af^oyed of by tiie wi^er, :oonroborait«i what we have before aadeaSedr 
awi.a^ainaepeat/.thatitheftribuaBi^f thfe inqm4ti0h has nomore to 
da wkh th^ rev€talcld tititha of tiK ^^tathoBe rel^ion, than Chriatianky 
had inthe leataiblishment in these' countries of the high commii9aion« 
co«rt8» the ataivehamber^ and .the piraal atatates enacted agaiaat Ca« 
thdiicknu-W£akiBgttbe ongin of tiie iiM|Biditio« at ita earlieat date/lto 
Cathelle fakh -had exiatcd liOO years wkfaout it ; in many part8> Bng- • 
lltttd, for cBuuBple, k neva- had existence in'Cadiolic Um^/ and of 
oowrae it unanot^k acnaapoiMnIt part of the Caihblic ehnrcl^-^Fox'aityv: 
it.was.eatahfislied by tbepithoiity of thepope^ the abb£ Bergierj* on^ 
the.0Oiitmry> aaserta^ that" in no -Angle hii^dam in GhHstoidphi waa^ 
tMa tribunal erected witheitt the consent of the civil power. Hehbe it 
was clearl|iami2ti^bm)al»iiavhigi'ddB^ officersKto assist and^ 

gttidi^ its pfocaaa in vSitattMiof doetviae.? Nocountry ptevloiBitO' ^' 
refiMrmation^ jBp^callad, vWaa:anae:d^oted to thcr^CathaKc^ftitb 
Eng^aad^ an4 yet» as wehaae before) observed/- this tribunal of the in* 
(|iiisilion.waansMrr4bw^uaed*ia6 ' Jiadthepope thd^Wetof eitablisii'' 
ing>k*at<hiff Yttmvwill andplteaim^ aaFeqLinepeesents.him.to basa^ had;' 
WMdd.i^ luA havx^ttectjtd'this.pOweEfid instkiition ^efcrfciHmQj' 



9fff' nmMr'. or soots: 

ivlMreliia ldBi]«iice>dxil«ndcUt| t)min9, in every part of CkrUteiidbiik r 
f^Fy with the exeepttcm bf TuiJcey and iBiii0b»* the Galhote TeU^en 
was ettiibyshad - ia every ^quoi^ 6f the glober ivHuni the veformas of 
the sixteenth eemtaxy iH^ain to^- preach evsngelical; lUicriy^ or father 
selfru^terpretiiig licei&tiniMBciss. Ftoos the.iioebmit givfeti bylbx; the 
reader is)lea tQ sonchpAe t^ none fnit dhibi^lieal monstef» ^mM tere 
amy eonceni.:iii. ^le ioquisitmn* and thi^ notie biU} l^'diabolkbilTdi|rieA 
dooki saiietion(>siich procaeedings. Coiihi the prinoiplea of Ciitholietsm 
be fairly proved as leading, to pasecntlon-and'tiie horrible proceedings 
imputed to the iaipu^itida, we would instancy- riendaace onr dkorch^ 
though We^ should certainly be at mloss where to find another tliat has 
the BQiarks^af ! being a truejtme. Bntwe know they canndt j w«know 
that^shewlE. mnahipnre lBuiuiidefiled» proleeted h^r the'pi«>niiBes of 
her (^iiiePdunder> i^kn^ hiany o£ her children ma]; viokte her pre* 
cepts and cause scandals to arise among the ignorant and prejvi^ced. 
'.Biitwhya^eiheC^kdieHGslof RngiiMid'tod Irdand-tv be ao anspar'* 
iagly.apd unremifttii^^ tannted wi^- Ihe eacesacs^ and abases of ihe 
Spani^ and Ibrtiigueae:iBf|Uisitioas^ when cruekies mote hcirnble aad 
badDaroas have been ^cbamiitSed ;by^^tlieeidJghteieied4isc^]ea of Pro* 
test^atism in their own ooontrieBl la this JIooAp of Jfivlyra we have 
accounts of aKifO!c2a.^i of the Blade of jbortariag; 6f the liarbarities of 
the inquisitien, its traachery, ita enormities^ and wevknow not what 
ahuseSy .all iihputed« td the i^pirit of iEV>pery> biil wedo 'iidt aed a word 
of the cruelti^ the cokl-^blooded enactniiesits, the pcfrjunes, the pio* 
8criptions> the raddags^ ithe- fatd£<halagihga,'the bunungs^ tiieiidiip- 
pings, the deportations, and the whole-hangihgs. that have beeii pat ia 
dcecatktt in Snglahdiand Ii^hiild catCaiholicft^ aad, iafact, m every 
oountry where Protestantism. gained the a8eendency,i£ron)i the'cositeentll 
cnilury/to otii<own.timpas. It isian iacoolnwertibla&ct, ire^>fdedin 
the' page >6f history, i aad not dsspuied by t)ier«neralc8' ol *GatiiojlieifiiiH 
that (^Gfitliblie kc^i^^a was iatraduoed iataiUcoMatries.ia d|^positM« 
toiFag^aa:peraecai^on, and* that it' was ihe aSeendailt religion Ibfeea* 
turiesLbefora, aay dedreea 6f ioo^Ntoal'panuhmeait wes^ pwsed' agataat 
persona! infected- Kvith hereticdL lopiaioas; Aad U3ip\ Wel» ^cse decries 
passed? Whp. were penal iwfilcl^onB resorted to at last I iTI^ answer- 
is. obvious and 'in^fiitabie. JKeeaaae wttht theomftieal opinions physieal 
proaeiediaga, 'the Iraitsjof these opiaiods, (Hreret!oinbk&ed». Which thseat-' 
enad. tfad security of property aad peace iof society ^ ' tl^efiare 4he> lawld 
aiithlalriMaa were omapeUid tby duty, aad « Just regard iak tte safely ef 
^ Mate, to repelfor^seby foree, ithtn the tnfi»en»e ofpavaaaaien had 
feiifld^ 'Had not the Aibigenses heeta 'imbued with> the mostr hbrrMe 
fenaticism,'iand had tl^eynqt sought to prapagatcth^ beastly dec- 
tdaes by sedation and iiabellidn, massacre and plunder, die iaqaisilioa 
WKaild ptobddyjieverfhad eatistenee^ aad what can add greater wdght 
tt^^his e|iiiw>n thah ^ttte feet that this tiihtaal was only partially esta* 
Mnhed ia the Catholic states of Europe I Bat let «s look to the effects 
pvodueed by. the diasiwiinalioii af Protestantism, , aad we shall aee that 
it. had sdar^y begua to, Iveathe befera persecution and prascriptioas 
apfpeooad ift ils.^trqia. . te true ia the condadhig ohsemratieo of tfca 
a^Hi Beamier, ^imOiiaaeGoaat of the inquisilion, ^*<t]iat.waradiirinldel 
'< plyloscqplieeb ie hecome maatera» th^y would establish aBi i i w| ai<i t ii n 



BOOS OF MARWRS^: 961 

'f mn^moTc severe tlun that of rSpaln." Look to -Hic nign of our, 
e^th HeniT, and the succeanve soTereigng that have filled the throne 
of this empire. Look to the, laws that were passed l^ " Froteatant aa- 
coideney,'. and the execnthms that were repeatedljr enforced on Catho*, 
Ika, aad only for being Catbqlici. Faaaing overfor the present the 
lat^ and bloody civil wars engendered by the perntetous doctrines of 
the 'evsBgeltcql reformers in France, Germany, and £ng:luid, a mere 
glance at the executions which took place, by the power of:"Protest-, 
ant ascendency," will suf&ce to shew that persecution is, in fact, an in*' 
gredteat.of error, whereas truth will triumph better by the force of; 
reason titan of the civil swcH^ 

Harry .waa no sooner invented by his servile parljanient with the tiile., 
. of snprenie head of the church of England, than he contrived tp Ii«ve a 
I4W passed, by which power was given to him to punish such of his 
snbjeots as would not conform to his whims an4 caprices in matters of- 
religtotu ihKtnne. That is, who would not ^»eiiev« ttus thing to-day, - 
apd that to-morrow, according as the supreme head should dictate ood ' 
command. Uow i^umerous were the-execidions in tliia tyrant's reigU' 
both of Catholics and Frotestants. In his successors «hort rule, Cran- 
mer, the apoatleiof Protestantism in Ei^land, qiiliged the young king ' 
Edward to sign the death warrants of Van Parre and Joan Bucher, in ■ 
which he was joined by Ridley, the Protestant bishop of Qloucester.-^ . 
Besidea the almost innumerable Catholic missionary priests who suf- 
fered in i^lzobeth's T^gji, after wulergping the, tortures of tjierackr- 
the scaveiwer'^ daughter, theilittle ease, and/other^nstruments of- 
cruelty, whiph.we shaU .notjce hereafter, Ijie unfortunate Mary queen , 
of Scotland, waa beheaded, after eufiering^ £ig!ti^eQ yeara imprisonment . 
fyrbtft. religious belief. 1 '_■.;. . 

Durii^ JfWP^ ^ first'e ixign, il^ parliam^t W^unc^ingly em- . 
plogKd ^ jietitiomng the king ftir severe laws beu^enfoioed^igainst. 
theFapij^, JnCh^leithefirat'a reign,.a,8olemnleaguew)d covenant . 
'WM ef^tfred into to- evtermini^ Fcqtery »q4 .^"i^hicy' V>4 an archbishop 
of thti^establidted church vfw murdered by it band' of Puritans ,heat^ . 
b^ religions frenzy. 1bi» Poritan faction afterwards obtaining the as- 
cendency, the kitfg himself was brought ^ the, block, and is now ho- ^ 
noured^ by;the' eatoblished duirchas a royalj^^yr.^ $0 clear jt is, . 
that'Wheii^rrorgaint the ascendency, peraecRtioR IB a constant attendant ' 
in its tr^. Did not Cal^ burn Serve^ for opposing him in his ; 
mad and blasphemous doctoines > Did-,n0t the ^Iqguanots persecute^ 
the Catiicdics with fire ^swori 
th^ got the ascendency J "We 1 
tpw orriyes, tltat will mal^ e vc 
ihie; have a Hpaik of ttiame ie&. 
m^cana aod I''ranc«icana:,]^mg 

«^ it'ftet^ dai^in.ibe, public j 

nuu.of the es^bkshad cp^ir^ a: ^ 

nifide viwtiag . wagiaivatet .jrf, pi 
ar^ impaseo, on the cc^yjpted-ol 
forjtniwte debtors immuKd then 
shpnU the Cn^olics. of Ehgl^< 
Sp^uh ^d-Fpttufpiese.^Qi^^ 



aw i^ViEW OT-rok's - 

e'rectot in their own couniry, when IVotiestant cfcwfymen Ikre "iutiiTtnlr 
, employed in England and Ireland. 
" A coniiderable ipace of this Booft (/ Wiw(y^*' is bccnpiefllri detdKng 
the supposed siifferings of individnds whose na^e* are gtVen, bntnei-; 
fher date nor anthori^ ti inentiohed td flirnisfa ■ clue whei%by inqoii?, 
may !« instituted to leam th*' accuracy of the statements made. We 
have a'descriptlon of an atito dafS- At Madrid it) the year 1683, Matlf a 
CfentTiry and'a Ealf ago, "init on whose "authority not a wOrd is said,—' 
This story, howerer, must not be {llaced td Fox's account, since he had 
been dcftd some hundred years hefore'tHe affdr is said to have happeo- 
edj it is nevertheless as highly-coloured as many of his improbabilities, 
ainA therefore entitled to just the same degree of credit. We -win here 
give the concluding part of this tale, and' the reader «H! then be able' 
to say whether we haVe done injostice to its aUthOr. ■" Nexr followed 
" the burning of iwentg-one men and womeh, Whosd intrtpidity in saf- 
"■ ferine tiat horrid deatfi was Irulff astdnithing-.- some thrust their han^ 
'* and feet into the flamea with the iitoit tbmntteii 'fojtUude; aiid tR of 
" them yielded toi flielr fate with' tuch' resolution, that maiiy of the 
" offlaieif s^cta tors lamented that sucfa- heroic soiils Juxd not' hem more 
"enlightened.' The situation of the king was so near to the crimintds, 
"" fhat their dyin^ groant wire ven; amHoU to Mm: he 'c*UM not, Tkw 
'• ever, be absent from this dreadnil sc^ne, as It is esteem«da rrt^iow, 
"onej aiidhis coronation oath' obliges' hbn to' giet a ianeliah'lrtf'Mt pre- 
"leneeto oBifte actrqf ite (Htonaf." '' file least' rMltrtioh will mCw' 
the gross absurdity of'this'relatibri.' The.astoiriahing' fhtr^dity and 
dauntless fortitude of these Victims are Btttedfo'bestieh'iui'tijeicile'the 
amazement of th^ spectators, *whiU'tfaeirdyin^'^v>att9'3i%'i^p'iMente^ 
as having .a contrary effect upon the kiiig;. But why shbtijo'liM tfie 
sovereign be equally' fcsnrich araazefl at tftfe';fbrtitiide of "the snffit^rf 
asthepeoplfe* ' Am'why didnofthese reputed mak^yrsefcifece'the' 
eame fortitudie ^ tKe last as tbey'ar^, Tcpr^scntcd' 'iff tkye'iJlW'wn st 
firet? In Uiec9^e'of ihc'flnnii|ive'n!iartyrs we flriU'ijorfilbtf'iSf'dyii^ 
groans, but all ii toiTie'irt&'cheariM fcfUtutfe'&nd'Tiivmdlile'conra^ 
the most excruciating tOrtiires producing nothhigbytpraiiep Uttd^oT' 
ation of the glorious nun^ bt Jesus Christ.'yhe secontfpe'rSoil qf flie 
blessed TrihTty, whom they ickuowleiJgOT t* "be 'GOa,' 'by iriiofe 
power an^ grace they were enabled to suffer foif tiissqle;? ■ Whyflren 
did hot tbes6 victims (jf the inqu^ltion iblfo^^ a^ gldrrouj au'exginnle! 
TTiis qnesiidn the f^^i^n^aiMsti^na" wJllliH^'Bonie dfficiilwin, 
iiiflilsth66d| 

ftie ctincla- 

i«niaili:*to,; 

feiisa".'*" Ha . 

^Sfi corotiB- 



Bone or BCAnratt. tn 



hi a fit^te of cnrfl ilavery^ and e5calti&(r ai Skl^tiiMi 'to 4)ri«iiintee o^ 
Ihan nHCh tki^jix^eniiry iMt^ndeaey and CDid4il0odad cnielty, us wcf thtHl 
hereaiter prbv« beyoad contradiction. In thia Temark wt wiah not M 
coii'rey the sUehtest censure upon the memory of Oebrge tlM thirds W 
caAae we consider him to have been sincere' in Mb scniples, any there* 
fore eikitled to the reterd of every honoitbiaii $ our reitiArks ard^i* 
rected to ihose who took advantage of the kind's v<eifittntion of his imtik 
to construe tthe clause into a menoimg not coil&m^lated by the frameri 
of it, fbr the purpose of witlihokling justice from their feuowsiibject^. 
One more tale, and we shall arrive^ we think^ at the climax of im- 
pudeikte and lyins, even in this Book o/Mtiriffr^. " A FroUsitmt taHof 
" of Spain, named John Leon/* say the edito^s^ *' traveled to GennoiM 
** and froni thence to Geneba^ where hearing t&it a great number Jt 
** EmffUih Frot^tants were returning to th6ir nation eimnthf, he, wii 
*' itome more Spaniards, determinea to go ^th theni; The <^NiiiM 
** inqiidaitors being apprized of thdr intentions, 4lent a nuratxir of HutiA^ 
** fiars m punmt of them, who overtook thiHa at a 8ea(K>rt in ZeatdhS. 
** The prisoners were heavily fettered, hahdcuifed, gagged, had H^bS^ 
" heads and necks covered with a kind of iron net-worn, and (a tibis 
" miserable condition ^y were conveyed #o iS^Miia, tbrbtrn Into a did- 
^l^ffeon, almost fiunidied, barbarously tortur^, and then btirnl.'* p^ IStf. 
We think the father of lies himself cannbt beat this preciotfs marciaii, 
dfadiM up to tickle the palates oi English FrotestanlSir--#iir<»ly these 
Sptmi^h iik|uikHors must be gifted 'with otnn^^olence ta p^^ferin- all 
that they lire here said to have done. !Wby, j^t^ciM^feUoWfir coUklMnd 
ilMir fi^tliars to jleizje renegaido tliilbfs in iiid|i^endeiit stiites^ ^ if a Sp^ 
fiUahi Wbb not firee fWmi. the nuKS of tfc(6 ktitiiBitien, thoii^ undef :th^ 
Iptt^tection of a ibretoi iikdep^ndeiit pdWer ^ ^ ^WisaA sectirity ccmld ihert 
W^ been In tSngland fmm the gtijpe of the«^ famlHarsi We wond^ 
When puritan bigotry invented the tale that thd Jediufs had laid a tMti of 
gUHpOwdcir jbo blow tip the TliflDii«^.attd droilM pool* Prbttetant Londbn^ 
&^ did not also add; that tfafe fhmfliars of the Spanish inqoisiikm wiei^ 
t6 ffy away with the people, io iurretiiem lOI bnmed in ppoitt ort&nh 
M into Papisjfcs. let any ike tdkeH ^etteer itt bfo liibdt andilajr a 
nmp of Sutoi^ befbre hiiujlef him then read this statement in thfe 
'600k of Mart^tt, tnd'isiper he ias cast his eye ov<^^ the geoghfphiJMd 
situation of Spain, Germany, Gehe^ and ^^esland, li»t htiii say, wh^tiei^ It 
he possible, without the aid of a.s^rnatuii^ pOWer, f6t eV«a Spiiiiaib 
ihquisitoirs to niake a seizure such iss is described by Fok's editcfrs^ Whi^ 
ther the Zealand here nam^ is inl^fitded fair l>entiiiii)c> ^ fftie df tie 
todted provinces 6{ HcOlaiid, ^e at€ not told, iiof have W« aiq^4ajte 
H«1ien tiie ifibir td6k place • biit let ^f^fcheiei< of the tW6 be sKkNMH 
by the f^'^pbixi CUnstiaits,** w^ be^tlie r^er to t^tioo ttat tiMi 
%re ProMtam states, and is it ther^fcire' likely that the famillafa of ^tie 
ihqtilsitbrs could.tsJc^ the'dlble-of the tntveBers, at one fell sWe^, end 
convey th^m over itr i$Mdn. Pdrt>bter^i' the naiVattr is^ iMit content 
>ith ntfving the pbOf , S|Mnii$h taftor seized by the ftM^r^^^ bll€*th'e 
Siiglish iMtestants an^ soine mOre Spaniards Wei« all snared bytlie^e 
n^iOus and ftr-sdtoted traeeiii of liertitfctailort, leind s^ §mh. Whiit 
noit will the «^pkdn Christians'' assert to aliirm the pr^itficei of the 



t0 



ft 



h^ jbeed^dievii on ihut part, to Buik«i comipoB ^o^^ ,)>)iiflvJCbr'ilie ^r^ 
dliUty.of our ciNiii^r)39t<»i»: Md yfi% we fear. Ibeir^. are aom^-w^ f>efwur» 
to to cftUl ftMribef conTiiieeii before ikey .wiU,.ireUnqu^b. itbe \|mgr 
rQ0tj^ jniejudieea. ioi^ib^d f i^oni 11^^ 

.'>^e tliirfl 3eeiiaii;^l J^is book h specially ^evpfed.' io t]|e " Tbui* 
5f A9P^t^irs»i9a9QF^B»IaA4« MAivp.K>'Vwl|Q$e^ei|sey weiunetol4,''«a9 
f^|i«bli$ha4 by Ai^. desire of «^retary G/rfiggs,.tbe9r^)^isbo|»9 pi, Cm* 
f* ierhwqf^wd York> Ibe bifibops of Londoi^ 1iyiiiche3ter,£ly, Norwif:]!, 
Sariuii> Cbicbe^ter^ $l» Asaph^ Ifincohv BriBt<>l| jpet^rborougb, Bangor^ 
,&c.'* > Mr. Martin^ U m stated^ \yeiii: to Tfiah^gBL, 4ii tbe Lent of f7H> 
9ritb b'ls. wife aiu) four, cbildreii. (lis bi^g^age beiug examip^j if 4^^ 
iwd otber bool^ weije discovered and sei^^ . 3ut Qptwitbfltandiiig the 
1>ibie would besp^ him a Cbri^tijMv tW Spa^iaida. took ]bam for a 
iJff9P fit ;fir«t, because bis own name wqs Ifaac 4ia4 one of his sons was 
$Httaed.4bf0ha$n* Aft^r.^some, 0her.romd*^bout iinpyobabijl^ties and 
jidiculou^ desorjpitions^ .the narii^ive gpea coi^ " He wiis then r^m^oA* 
.^.ed tQ bisdungepp; .was shaved on Whit^un-ev^, {^having being ,al- 
** towed only, ihree times in. Me jffiar)^ ^d ^^ n^^^ day one o^.^he 
/^ga^lers gaye him Qome/mni^VKf^/tq IS^e.put i^to the,fioer4is;he'Wiis 
?f jbo TQoeiy^ a visit from the Iprds of .t)i&, inquisition* , Two- o( ttl^m 
.'6.9P9ordiBgly cftiffje^ asked, many trlyi4 qf^tions^ conGlu4iog. tben},as 
,? UPM« with, * We wiU 4o .you all thj9 ftfi^ssjfie y(e,.(»x^* , Mr* ACfuriif^ 
^nui l ai n ed gawBl y , of th^ havings prpioj^ him a li^i'^Jier: tor jikf^ 



/' q^te^.in the wprld^ fortejjwf^ly ^ WT ftj^gji}]!^ yfif, ^j^i^^ 
/^ whatywj Jftid^WpiisaWv -T4^, )w*49ft:one,pf ^^be.iM 
•f MTapUed^.^LawyjWS «Fe qoA^Uqiv^ jt^ sp^ak.bpr^' rvM:tWj ]theg|fi)k;r 
•//^ ^. secretary g?^?i^ ow* of th^ dunge^Or to tewgfe amJ,Sj^r.^flf%tiff f;9)|10 
.? cieiiiicp irefraifilrcp:^ ^/ifig,i»,^^/ac^»tf Uii^]^ t]^7msj 
iffb^ .d«f<Md^:by.aman.wjbq.§^refid^l«d j^;pffb?^^^ ^^^ 
4h9^ who are ereduloiM fnp^ghr^e^^>^(^is r.ej^lbjxj) ]ife^^ 

wev^r,f49 ij^mlj ii wijit Jie; 




jm,f9pi)UPm,of Durcqiin^ryme^b h»wev^r9r49 winlj \\ wiU» j)e;j9[epf±a9][ 
fftrbdlt^iKPw, 31^inqiHi4itpcff^i^:pot.|pich|a^U^^ ij^rt^liij^mfMj^pfy 
!wh^ none is <f^quvPf d^ and F^t^WA wj?r w. to tbi? ^]R(^ 4f{l^<^ 
^t4lM5 gaoler apd aecxetary* TsJ»,|v^iMi pu^/of tbe.dqijl^jft^ 
ifti'their «ir*k.«f .th^wittj^.r.epj^,«f ^»ifiqui$itpy,,Av*ttF t^pfj^m^f 

4umielf bad mill* to dq,t^>:TMrew?t A*3ilwgMn« ^*%i*f(/^S9»> .i«?i^.'*« 
.;iltiot ttettar^tp have d^i]^ \2ifffj^^,,^^\i^^»u^.fixfpk^x^ 

fifi |hrorss^4ba1^.iirl|ich iain^t6rie§#ipgr.<o>S.^fHs^ ?%!?<??i?^jJWf 

itidviDaalil b^in&^iianpc^ i^ hift de%np^ an^ w ^^t^iT^H.^nJE^^ ^ 
fjisfenca/at all? ,Xlif^ r^uU/>f. I»aap, ^ipif tfn ^; tjpi^ i^flfJ^ givioiii^p^ 
IworA^ft <^AbQ^J^,WIlUiBft^ 

'^/ cwnyicjtedj ... . ^ ^ .^ , 

:4rioiinQf>bft donf^injowofiSpaiih^p <5bq.flj^^^twjhup^Eeft,}^^ 

s''«ad being sftfttAiHCiXW? tP JJ^.S?ll?ygiiicPfffi)^?^l^«'89J^^^ 






YHWii te<s4iiY«*t^ *Wdi»d iM^cfrtlmipgl]^ ♦« «»iret8«r;4li9'<^IV oft 

^e pea^ noising the ea^ecutioner.mve, Mripp^l^ia^ti^ U|i \m^ 
. toiler,' poturop^ ^bou^iiif. ni^^iu^ 1^ hUaqiitqf ibe^priiMXi^^ H« 
!'. waft then papunted QD.aa;fi49y ap4 received lu^.twQhHndi*ed I^iB^Aif 
1' ainidsi th^, 8hout9;iuiii i»eUiiigft pf ihe^ .people. , Hp. le^^ained » 4^^ 
r night after th» \A^e^\,fu^Oi^Xii^;t^^ 

!' wa^put Ui fiiol ibr fic^e d^y ^ tiU he .couM be^enioa bpar4^ £|ii^ 
''.Ual^ $hlp f which had no/sooner happeiifedi t^aii.news was bro^jigl^pl 
f^'s^ rupture between 9ngl«i4-wid; Spain, and that ehip«;MriU]^|ii^l^ 
** othef8> was stopped. MrJMartin iipt heixig /pq^iflefe^ as a prisoner 
'' of war, :wa8 put on board of :a i|a)pabufgh triider, >q4 ^l^ wife ^4 
f' children -soon came to; him j, -^Hit iie wi^ pbli^dtqp^,!;^ wiiAtihe 
{'Joss of ^\a effects^ which ba^ bem eml^e^^; l)y. the inqi^apiiiQ9."r-** 
The singularity of this sentence/ ^d the >lncky ^lunipj^r of a {rupture 
^itb £lng)and, are rathcar improbable storie^*' It is. |ieed^fss:t9 499119^^ 
IL penalty of .fwohiindredUibes ugc^a mm 

reach^andyou have giveb bin^.a sp^cixnenof -.the lasbj^ by fs^ecuiipg 
the sentence before liapd $ and we mi^ht b^ led. to supposeithatjilr^ 
Martin wpuld b^ less. Ukely. to* escape- u*^ tbe| tiands of .tbf Spiu^ia]^ 
in 4Jb^ ^vent of. ^^yf^x, than in- the l^m^.o/.prpfouh^ peace. But pto* 
Jbably'tiiA bishops fut, whose desire the case of baiap If^ia w»| pub« 
Itshed^ were pf. qpinien .with Shafte^l>)iry^<}ie,prpm^ Pl#^'^ V^ 

£moH$*plot^.t|hat the/greater th^ lies the xdpf^ likelQ^pod: wa? therj^.of 
this credulous people dt.J^ni^Ifmd swallowiii^^tljem for.i^qts^ .So ti^ie 
is thcC bbserva^QU.pf >fr; Ci^obbetf^th^tof «aiflaj^pjjs of jtfee,^j4»^^^^^ 
M«*/'f9testanf^lftp4 is the, greats S ,. , -r ... ii-p.-toi^.. ;,iii - 
J .,JBitbertqiWe;?iave Jieeppnly ot^e; ade.of t?ie^ue^^^,fj^Septin^,/jw 
xriUpfw^nfh^.JpnM^efiig^ byj^^^^^ 
tiioe.to lay open pjiotteriMWR^f^vey tut Uieffgi^ 
accufi^y^.of oiiir ^tatepf^en^^tb^t^persecutiopi^ (pi^coiitx^tapt.wifl^^rpir* 
^^fify?>^^ % ^coiptoC^e qrigfn, pw^ 

li^bt.oS ^ih^ jfofpef.j^l^rougboujt ^urope, t]^e.1i)|go|ted Box^;»ai\ p^th^i^si 
&af)ne the ^efjKW^re of the^ai^ and fi&W^fif/tbeU.fAufe^'^t^it* 
^nqixuaiTtb leave .>pothiqg-unatjte|n the r^m^^,ili^ftB 

y. iiif^i^cy j. pope loaocent III therefore; instituted a niu^ol^r pf w^^ 
^' Wfy^'persof^, w^o were to mak^Jnqmi^wer^appreli^d/ai^ 
*' liish (be p/oif^fsora of ih^reiorjo^ 
poceiitl^* yrasdead long I;r€^re:t)l;[^ f^or^fi^i/^i^fi^^ 
ipncej,an4if webnly Ifw^ across^ $^V.Gwrgp>^cjJiann^,Mfi&s^^ 

tbf bi?pig3ited :Iwp»^ Wi?oer thc^i^ueAfjp of J^r^ppir sga^ d/^athj aM fhat 
a^ pre^tyia, robe of mvf^f Wf^ ,proti^^d^^ef e, l^y. qiieen ;&&^,i^}fj^ 
r^r bw. xwtm^ea ^ t^,4afc ^;wy lUV.bave discf^a 

age, as the duke' of Wellmgton is styled^ who owes n^8trpf:liis,^]pjlli^ 
^ry exploits. t«)Ji;|ish talent andjcpi^e) an4 whpi^returo^ dpoma^li^ 
pe(^e of Irelapd^ ^y.-^? votes, in pfMrnaj^enl^ .p^^tual slavery,; baf 
^vQ^eA thatj t)ie jl?ro]t^stant f^^^on was vatteixip|:ed^ Wt iaeffiecUiiisJly^ 
id ,1(55 ^hwt,4owqJ^^Jr^t]bj[jtfi^ m(jut](k 9? the caixnon'wid the j^oinf 






df file iMjfonet. Wt hsw&hk (MirReyitfW/pagefj'to mid iOB, Hetiilei 
M«e,<^ tlie eitonflflties practised iipcm tkat IBLftfted peojple ^ it iiow be- 
eowes us «a ifti6w>'' by the most fndnUtdU^ tctefitticArf, HktU, ^irUli die 
Kawl^lrs against tPdfiidlrctttdly liitTe beenrin^ii^ %1ie -diaftgeSiifMiout 
kitemiissic^v <>" the pretended lidr^fs of the ifiqi^sflbii> CAtltoli^ Ire- 
htiid hai^beeR fiaWcrmg the Inost gilAditig afe.t« df inftwfcice^ ^ ttaosi 
sHiigfdiiary^aad eold'^blboded cititdiiidi; tittderiftoiAqimiors o^ Fitih 
testa&tHftsceiHieffcy/' tliat the most merciless of 1ituna;i(i«Uhitt^eoald iiH 
i^cf oir Ills weaker ieHow-moital,. ElitaTiefh trame' to ihe crMrn la fhe 
yctof'1558/afid hef ''first concern fttiys. Mr, Pl<^en in Irfs HiMor; 
** df Ireland^) was to promote ihe refbnned reUgion through Irelandj 
^ Its su^cessAiliy as iAie had thro^h Etiglahd/not only us to'tlie spi- 
^Mtmi siiprehliBt^/ whii^h Iddbe lier 'ftrther had' attempted, but as to 
'^eiFcnd ^gmatical points of iaith. ConsciotKS that this innotfitioQ 
^' would be* strongly pj^posed ereik ^ a ^mtliament of the pAe, she gtve 
^'special instructions "to. her lientenant to*pr^i!^pdse''ihe members to 
^ forward her yieWs> and ordered Writs to be issued to the tepresenta- 
^ isifeA of ten counties instead of aoLi as had heretofore l>een tfsttiL 
<' Being^ tolerably $ecure of amtjority in bofbliotise^, a p^udiameiitWBS 
'^'eontened in the second vesr of her reign j by tThich it' was enacted^ 
'^that tlie s]^ritttal jurisdiction should be restored fo'the crown | Dist 
^ aH the acts of her nster Mlurjr, by nrhich the cIt9 es t atilish ih^iit of 
.*^'the Bxman'Catholic reli^on had been rented/ slki^d be repMei; 
^'that the qui^en should b^ .enabled-toappofnt'oomuitsskteerB to exer- 
^ dlse Ecclesiastical juri&Actidh ; %t all: offitet)! ind Dii^isteiii; eccle^ 
«^kksticfid or %; shouM'dn pdn of forfeito^i^ c(Ad tdtiil itti^apftcity tAke 
'' the oath of supremacy ; that every per&fon/ii^'^ll^ist iAn aid^^'Abet^ 
<^focv ot (SdimsieHdr, M10 dboxAft: Hi $xif^kf InsStitiii^ the '' ^t^fitoal 
^^nttMii^y^^^lH<bishdp of Rome^ shdntd £nffit%r^h« %r9t oMtk 
^'klPlds estatet^'rdEd and personal (or be^ imprisdih)M%r one^ye^rlf tiot 
^ worth 9D{;y$ in<^r a" pntmumte <br* the setottd dill^eei^' fiiTd betiome 
«'^g«^'of In^ treason for IJie tldrdy «^.itte Hl^e pt'f^tmmi 
^''prayer shouM be enlbrped as in Englaird/ thlKt><^iy1pi)^^^ 
^ tesdrt ioihe estabBshed chureh, and atteh^'t&e h^ sefiSrfebrtiifder 
^ pa£n 0$^ ecclesiastical censilres^ and of the fbifeiture^ df fil^elfe^neiiGe 
*» for every offence, to be levied by the clmrfcfttrfcraeriir1>y dinmff of 
^ the hmds^dr chattels of tiie dei|[ulter« thittthe fih1;-iVtd&^ttd'tt^- 
*^ tieths of tdl diurch r^et^entt^t sfadvdd be reistdrM to tbe cibt^h^; fltad 
^^ bid writ and Ibrm.of cong^df^te supersede by,fhrkti^$ letters 
**^p^tit, ^whith iv i\itute dl x^tions t&ireL0eajit9iiisi,ii&t€io be 
** iAMel ' Tjbese ordinanees w«re '^Ifo^red 1>y an^ act bf tfedoj^tion of 
«*^th^ onsen's til$e Id ^e^eto^^ y and jtwastttade (i'lc^e of;^<^^ 
^ t|d, ilpedi^ and ^ea4&n to imte, ag^nsf U**^ ' 9tidb^^r^iMB« of the 
ineari^^opted to ^preadih^ pure J^fat 6tihe gog^l. In tlid iiAtitif <^ 
ihe te!bnmtthAi> among'thq.Caibdlks df Iretafit/by^dtlife de^lMid im- 
ijl^^rt^irtd <by Roteirtaiijt biedts) she ifeW <hiJ-'f«Tr^ 

5«*n«U2abetlr; '! ^ ' ' V^ , i- •-;^''>? »' v 

It must h^re be obsi^ired, tla^ihe Irish Had hi^'.pi^KMM^ tit 
Catholic rid^io^' &r about one thoti^^d y^ars wUeH'h^r AottiatflSi- 
sMftreth and her miniiEiters tddk it mto thi^ir i^^ to doitfpti^ tbem 
to leHnqcdsh that MUh i¥lddi had exbted so loiigty Ite powtr 



of conTi'(!!fr6n; and WMctt It ^ T^tA]^ ecmcrfviJ^'^Mf ^W- to jgkf^ 
way to tlie powee of aa» of -fiMtiaittettt.'^ ^^ikif <iiii«>%e«ii ':/^M^ 
and d&tMes in the charch of Bome^ why wereth^ lioe»e*Kpos«i W^SlM 
ki^ by €he new ^efotmersV AniexpoMonof^hAs^lihiNl w««mi^¥e 
had a miidi ghsaterei^ct tipto'the^i^citlte ffiiMs-^ the Miii1^toi<ili%^ 
^M^f ^n^wdei^ atidthedi^'of ^tlalded«t^«i. I%e dM«I^Mn^^«^ 
siWgl^ piece bf priestcraft wouM ha^ done tnore g<bod*llMi^ lfte^M^< 
itt^ ^f 'tweMy cottages and' MngfngoP'fli% ^ft»ent» *fr (!ODiBtMte«€> 
treason, that h, inerdy because ttey wpAM hO^betotti^l'triiSlOilB W^tti^ 
€rod» The ci»e here iii quSteflifbrettt td iSiatof the :^lgfen9^/>0vef 
whom Pox hai§ made such dolefttlbmeiitaflaoiiiy. The AHi^tyfles Wttiilttll^ 
to introduce %^ theories, many oT'^McIf ' wer^^ddiietl'^ df iittiillb#sM 
lity and endangered the peace of society. ' 'The^mfh'vmi^fta^fluesstori' 
dl a reli^on which had stood the test bf iffteen'tandirol yeiti^, aiidih' 
possession of p^perty and pritilefgisrtoo'io Whid^fhey lydd an iniail|ik-* 
able r^ht. This property was WcSted !h)|ii thew/iheii'-prh^leges* 
were invaded, and they were pertecuted to deatii.to^tnake thtem ffir-^ 
^ swear their &tth. AhodfionsMigarchy ^aned^*rtM«stittt-a«i*wd«ttey''^« 
was estis6lislied, with aU the raitiific^ions of lii^tlisitoi^, bo^npts of in^ 
qniry, torturing to extort confessions on suspicion of %eitig'€a1^i^;' 
9xA eveey itpecieS of xru^l^ and ivtjus^cewert put^in praMtttf byiSftr 
I^ro^agators of the refbtntiedrdigion. ])r.t3tiriywyiCi^i MiysftrJliibw^^ 
less lA his History of Ireland; thkt^ "^Mheard of^ettJt6l«!«to ^iHSHs eom^' 
'"^ ttficted on the pvdyinibials pf Mtitistei' by th^ Sii^^hi ^^mm^^fom^-^' 
*^ i&iesdf those provbciiids; Wen, #omen awd^^*^, wi**e 'rtti* lEMpeed • 
'"into fcasdcs and otheP WottsteS/ which 'Wi^thA^J^tLi^ 
Of tl^tji -altfeiapted'Wescape fWmi ^!h*'«aAe»;4h*y^^iW*%^^*fl 
^iibbed by the sohfi^hr'li^o^ M«^ 
tl^, ttions^'t€xX^thtn t(^ tal^%»inftt^sd»ilkf|M^€^^ 









Ut&^'Pfjpi^ ^ebds:": Many'ctf^cPwbmeiimm'Mhli'ha 
'• ti^4, t«th «ieir cMdfen at t^Wr^rea^s^ ^ttt^tigJed'^A tftdi'ittb-' 
'' theirs hfaf"/' We ftamenotilieyeJttnpiir^llM^id'^tioim^ 
by thepropagatoi^s of the ** pure llgirt bf the got^f^iit* th6 Mhhe^of ; 
tM r^rmation, i»o called, '#ith an'iiitentiontb exHt^liatredWrisveiri^ 
against the! prcsetit' pi^fessors of ftvCestantiSfA^ 'Wtt-^t!i'«hc'.i*s#'bf 
e^ling'ddWtt * - - _ ^ 

fiaic's' -fio<?Af 
improbable 

''and abftojrre . . ^^ ^ , . . ^ 

"pery and its pirffcisorsi'*^ 'i*Ji}le^ the' tiaafe ^of ^ii«6ry ft so teaAc ' 
wl^fc the 'deeds of ^^Prbtesttet-asceikSh?^^^^^^ ^ Ti^' th^ su^ceedfi^* 
reigns, the s^me scenes of bl^od and proscriptioii were a£ted Ot^r^ 
ahdover'agaiki, and%c^'he too tedBtis U '^ l*^aa<irwere^wi(to 
recount thfetjij^'^c'i^il.therfcfbt^; fcrbreHtyiiglfcfe,'icorie^6Wii 1»^ut» 
owii times. In oirder tdf ]»ieW ihat i^e;^^^ '^'it^tyti^ 

is ever ^e ^i^e, ^tfaail^^; ti^dictive'andi^eiii^e^s»t to^ l^ho^^^ 

lies.. R has ever^been'a fkvourite tad6ic.Wi& ihe siscehdeiftcy'liictibil to' 
create (ialse smarms, and work upon t^ fearS and pi^dices ievf th^peo«' 
pie. * Hence has* originated ijie gmteM/(M^ of t)^e paipal^ hi th^* 
Book of Martyrs,^nd ^tht datiSs tif iiba^nary massacres fadd' to' the' 



m94 w^mfvnamJm Ire)|tnd«.lo j^ ftipiJi4 in tbe Qmige.4md imceiuleiicy 
]Wliei9(tfaiolb>ofwilne8. .■ .;r -. r. 

o/^Mimsh bekM jmA ievff hi9pn t^ theatres 4>f.iFel^us anioiofilyy 
lIpfpHr^M^ fim^d^iif tiMs,.r0iiKPui|M>9«<>)^^ the jp^ 1779> tbe mmifigeni 
Vp§iuij4di vimfeit'their l^gfiUy and power m^a^paoioe tha^ usually pro* 
nvmmV miwiyr,: - Tliia* diapMitiqpi 4nt liagan -to ^ew iUf3£ in the. 
tmi^ of Araiagli, . Ae moat PioteBtaat pouniy inall Irelaa4, wd ^u- 
ti|iilQd,>fofliiwtiiig.^iOl tt^.yaar. 1794, wb^ U broke qat, into .open 
jfifgii^efi, .^ Of tbeae aolaqf Tid^d<!^;;wbiQb^ we ahiill not .here par« 
tf^Hlarj^ey t^e laite M% Cuiviiai.. thiar ^appke in Jiia pb^fLin the af i^ate : 
Qerrcpv^d apeak* be aju4r.'/aa an .^p witness, -ideclacuig tbem to be 
'ifae«iea«4tf fjaxNBe aj|Q9f4t)Si9nd berrorth^ b^ had^eper aefV(i,tn a court 
"'^ff; jiiatica*. }t .waa rVi^i :tbci jCathcdics n^gfat. huave e^cp^ted, wl^n , 
*' 4bl^'fi>vuid .tl^sMP ay9iwf94 eiieQiij^s continued in authpiitj^'wd tbe ma- 
^f lipeiQf an fnijpla^aUeigpy^emiaentsl^ to ^idjf»pni£y \XaiMpy vengeance 

^;«^i«u(ilk|i9dl^tbyrl|Urf>**. liiifgenU^fnanyire^n^tber^ 
ff Piotfrtant. Qa.tb(i> l^ eif July, 47d5j ^ reverendrdivinepf j^e eatab- 
liabod ebj«ir^h,iMre^b0d>|i'iae|riiM>ii in* commeniQratiof) oif theba|;^e of 
tjto 6ogi9Gi i^.Po^(ta4adW|p» : In hjL9,4ij9«Pm^ ij^ef^fi^tiinidi ^irorked 
fl^^fwetl itpon tbe mndf f^lua baaiiaii^ that in tgD^igj^cMne they aitfckjed 
th^rhpu^pB^anfi 'pfi|i99^a,of tbeirpatbc^.nefghl)^^ murdered teo 
u^i^adil^ jfie^H^u^t^.., Thia /fl»ay ^ j0n8i4^ied the.)5ni| gfapd' exploit 

an4 ^ iW ffWfymertog.j^e^nwigf^^ffatyjP , jet^^H?lwit'¥w*P*J«S'««» 
<|f this fdlkur qC /; ]Pxpi•5atf^lM^qf^llj^ ;^r^ fh>^4e'n.writee ithva. in 

i*h|W.»iWW8v?*'tlu&5J>i#i^^ p^^tfQea^n.^f(9Q^^loi^yin 

^♦l|«ir. woA 4>i;^Virm]wUm»' lTJ^ m^^'f^^^m^^KW^ 
^^mte4 i^i(b^44^ii|^ before s^^ of yduTiii 

'/>M>. b^tU,wwl^9iM^..-Not o|4];^^|p||i9ff;f8f9^^^:CatM^Q 

'/i»KMPf * <^llolM?i^#^!?*»4^ef B^Wl *«f indiyijdiial |p tbe^nMiUie- 
4wity i9f ti»f«|er^it9qBai»i4^ ^me^iSuigi^l^ dir^]f j^xnmM, 

^,4»i|tra0aa to .be ooaua^ted wkb Juauppnltyr • At that time co mmene ed 
( «^.4fa^ul #yatep^ ^ia9h Mjf^ pratt^ <^8cri|^^ #8 « ap^^Piiec^^ 
*V4ji#^i«^ijfl;^|e4WttOTMMaof JW^ <^jiBdAM^WMit% iX)e^«Qio*. 
*^i <iWWKiwbviiar.% > ba^ditji,^if bo, ^»»gif^ *1^« religion ^ t^ 4if^ 
**i jpa^ c opwi wdf »jUh ^gyff^tey ^md^city w4'A^ii£ideocerthe n}Qa^Ei|rn4 

^^mfm-.- "T^m^'vmfe^^^^^^ thi^eiv^pwi^jemv^xr 

'Sj?W^NtwMt ^af«^tot i8,,a.ban4itJ|t fl^^^ 

•t W^ii>j*he.i^»niff^ Gq^ aW.«»«ciHfj»fr 4^IHitiSiHi|»ej^ in th^.Jiame 



f 



V 



i 
U 




9*,, 

•'^ 



f« 

€€ 



obJectoNdf riiis rathlebs pefseolitbn are nhor^A^^h,^ itf^ftme'ftlV 
deed dip easy-proof : li is smpfjfa ptttfessum of die'Rmnan CA^dBdfiMl 
M4A kvitiittate eonnesdotf n^li a pet^ii )pi^e8flhig thatMtK * ^AMV-^ 
^ le^9 tiaiidilti have tonstitiited t^ienifsaTes judges bf this rieW-spift^Ml 
^ df'd«iinqu«iicy> and Aile'iseiif^iit^ CItey ba-ve denoimced is <»4uat1yittlt4 
^isise and lenible! fcisim^upless tbana ^dftsektidtKif fall-|^i^ 
*' pfeftf, iand ail iu&mediaWbaiiishmefKi* it ^oidd he'extf^tMy pAtlMl 
^* and stfrely ilnheeessary/todetantlfehoiWrs^ttrfttiBttendthe^x^ 
'^ ofs6tadeal&di1ineiDe)iUinid'aprosenf»^ AprMcrfjHitoil^^AtceFilifi^ 
^^ ly ^xe^edft^ ' ift the <^ib|»arative nttiftb^ of tbbse it consigns -fb ^vtriil 
*' and naisery^ eveii^y'^if ample 'that modem and ancient bistmy ean isit|i^ 
" ply: lbrwb4?Kb»<^l¥ebeditl> Of i^^lnieMoryofbtait^ 
we read/crf ittof^ than half tfa^ in9ia%itiaits of a pofMddas coiliiili^ de-^ 
priv^ at one-bto^ of fbelnedbs, as'^miell as of ihe-frnita, bf thdf'iiH 
^^ diislry/ and driven/ IflK the' isdd^t of an inclement -sekfton^ Ws^ktt 
" abftltef iot tk^iuMelWsi)* a^ t^eai' hlslplei^afiiniilfes whe¥e t^ftce ttmf 
*' gittde- thean.'' t\k\i (a^noi cix%g^ratbd pioFti^ of th^ bbrrid tscene^ 
^ nom «etin^ia4lii6^^«ffiy,<' ¥et surely it is sMcient to awaken sen'-** 
^ timentfr of indigiAtidn And <eeoi|ia9sioVE hi thci coldest %d»o«is. .Tfttese 
*' horrors are >aow dctingpvith impmuty. The spirit of :imfMffli^ jts- 
^' tice (wittM)ut^whiek law is nothing 'better ^tlrnn an- instmment of 
^' tpvMkf) h«» foi" a time ^isHppeared itf th& eodnity, itiid the idupimm^ii 
^^ of the mi^sttacy of' Armagh is' bebotoe a coiUiilbit tdpi« <of eoftl^^i"* 
^' aatiott in every cohier of ^he kingdom.*' * • ' '* 

In ^ digbate in the Ii4sh House of Commonsoa th^ QOIWcff t^braktjr; 
1796/ Mr. G^atoaii' thus 'describes tlie hbrriblie |>racti6ei^'of Ihe Orange- 
Haen:— -'''These ^iisurgeats hlive organized their rebellldn, and Ibvu^d 
^ them^lves into a commrttee>' who sit and try the Catholic Weav^ri^ 
^« and inhabitants^ when a|^hetldedMs^y and ittegbll^>'aiBd«i8ertersi. 
** That rabeUioBs oomMttee they call the comMttee of Slders> who',* 
** when the unfortunate' Catholie is torn from his family' and iboinV 
** ted broaght beftM« them In- juilgttient^> if life give thala liquor vo^ 
moneys tltef sotaetimies dtschar^ him, othevwf sei th^y send hlin tij 
a rcemvdilg officer as a deiertCr: - They 'generally ^i^ this Cathi^cij 
ndtleeio qult<tlieirfii]i&S'and^#eIfingii( tiihl^ 
their houses ebuceit^d ia' these short bttt 'plain words : Q0 to hiW, 
** Connaught tonmt receive fou. ' Flf^ and fetggat, fVki, ' Thretham^^ and 
** Jokn Thrtutov^i They followed these notices withiythl^l and puae- 
** tual <exeeuti(Hi of the horrid threat. In tnony instances thejr i^ted 
^* down the houses' of the teiiantryi or what they called rad&edtho' 
'' house, so tliat the fkimlly musfflyor be buried in tlie grave of their 
" own cabin. The teteat of the murders that had hwtt cofinnitted by 
'' that atrocious and irebeUiOua bandttd he had heaifd, but not Mr asdcAr«i 
^ tained, as ^' state them to the house; but ^;n all the inquiries he 
''could make, lie odUKcted; that theCathoUe kihsMtaataof Artnwh 
''were actually put ouir of the xnoteetioii of the -law; thMithe ttSvf 
^ gistrates had been supine and partial, and that tiMhorrid iMUid^ hai 
met with complete suceess, anu fiN>m the magistiiuey witii verf-MMo 
disehcou r ageime nt r ' • ^ '* j 

Among the aufferartrs fron these attocities waaiMr. Beraard Coile^ 






X. 



U 



m igsvaw «# wn 

gpw Tjiii gentlmnwn vrm a CaijiQUpj.and had exwled Ms iniiietteete 
}ireiienre the peace of 1^9 neighboiMrlioodraiid- loeep hb Cotliolic oftftn-' 
Usfrn^i^ wkhaii Ui0 (MMMMUof r^ layv* The eonsfsqueBce was, be becwne 
l^«^afkad vietiiyi of/' Proteaiiiiil<9iyH^4aiicj.** A piiaeipal paii i^ hb 
pil9pefty» Ui«a ia the haacbof wtt«Tei% waa daalroyed. - He^f^^if^'io a 
aa«igip|r%t^f;namacl Gveer> for rcdreaa^ whiHrafvtfed to ti^« exiuntiiaUeiifl 
far gmit waraai^tB* Mr. CoHe pffoiecated thb teonn^ aaa|^atnile and 
fMUit hunv .He- waa faoteoaad -ta m. mOB^ impriMHWaeiit and fiaed 
900L M a watter of course he waa-oooMaitted to Newgpite'.and his 
IMMee-eraaed fo^ad^the Uet erf mi^^istfatet* But V-U Gnieriraaa stanch 
(MtpiKMrlcr* ^ ''iPMetU^*aaeeadeBe]Pi" his fiae-wastherefere redaeed 
ifll-tMp^pfacej.aad Iprd Clares reatoaodlaaa to tii« eomoEMSBioaoC the peace; 
So wo^h^i; thf^eCander: BowiHPrk wtiat foil to. the iajioped Ca^hofie. 
A odafvir^cjf.wpii eoteaed iQtoagaiastSfe. CeUe la^ takeaway hialife 
lipoa aiiidse ^diarfeof hi^MemMi, aadh^ WM coanaailjted to priaoa, 
fe^id Mm^- 00ip4ep»>' hi bhitaforeaaid Watoi^w^ "wfon^ ti^jfeOowinf^ex* 
f' t |» »Pg> i»H3r IrieeaclNNTgei-of iica^ a «epi»tod S^^rfat^dielnpilNitii^a 
targa ^t^»iiatity:«f hvdl 4fB|trii]gea AWMiga^a auiDher of Bi^sU^for 
tbof pvq^iase ef> deatypying the Preteitapts^ aad riao at Uip sana^tiHie 
5' ^fi^eeriiiga perspii' to 1^ oae of hia w^Mkeif^ to aasiat in overthrMving 
f .t]ie-kia§^»'gpimngiaiit,naiMi all m^^iataatea* The Bev« Mr. M«i0^i 
fthe- :eva^g«^iBEec .of .£<eatadewP> before whew the exenaipatians of 
^' the- coaai^ratora were awoni» iadaeed saeb of tbeai ae wereorliad 
*' been Catholics, to read ^elr reoaotatioa befovetbey were exaaundli 
\^ Mjr^Collewae'oeafle^ above eight months ta priaeiii vainly en^ieat- 
'/. ingi <ea4 aijgiiig to be put upon bia tnah JEkiiir of the cnaQfiralors 
^ against 'bi9> Ufoi-leueheil with reoaorse,: dapeaed^ ia the Hieaa ^me» 
5Sbafea» diffi^Qt/piagiftpatea, that they hid been anbonied to swear 

V folaely!agiai^8t.hiieL ; Soaae^f them adde^ that they had beeaoom- 
*l |ieUedh9r.t^ve*aaiaiif«'Whoai they neaaedJ^thak^aSdayitatto' swear 
V.Mie/e«^haageii|0t;huai|nd oiherss thattheyhad^bean' rewarded for 
^f having ^dape ao witfai elothea and meaey^ l4>v^.€otle waa eelaiged 
tf ;witbP«^«4iriel^: aftar- a«^' wpniionment of eightnioathab^. WiaMBg ^ 
V^ Urommte theiieal^Dfi the ceiuipirator0» he waa pre^aeated fifom doiag 

V it by the*JQ4ge»: beoafeae hia ojaatifal waa* still haa^gtag over him, 
f' vfiane^r: it> jsaigbt be ^eiipediant for the^town to hriag it fofirard. 
** Th}a« m^nagenfifiil <^ jusliee bespeaks 4he aphrit of theae by- whom it 
^.fiiaa edinif|iBtorad»'' Nor was this ail. finding hie life in danger, 
hawiant' to ]>ttbU%, ^bave pessecatian atiU foUowad- hiniK He was iKift 
mAf raAised tba aaerof the Uqen<^haU to vend^ bia gaodaUk^i other 
a>a#thania» but^ ^ee pnrehasing a^ hense- for that piupeea> he had no 
aooneri taken p p aae ga ioti- of it^ when forty^eighi woiaen ^of^A dbtfdrea 
aad fo«ir troopers' were biUetod ifien: him* for t^n. iweafce f^ ^^ 
ihiye» N^HTi did hla anffaringa here ceaaa i for hi^ \Hf» be was amated 
tfaider- It fotoe chMge^ end coaottittfxl fto Neafgete' in DaUiq, from 
wkano« ha-weerenaawFed .t».Kil aMdah ai a^ in w^ch t;wo<gaela he aaf* 
foired* ihreei yMre^ nod :a>.half* itapnsoamenl^ ra, eeniid^nable tim^. i" 
vAMary coafinameat: aad loaded .with $61b#« weigMitf!iraii8^ * P>^ 
are focta that can be verified on oath> as the gentleaaajD i» al<B»(|lr i>g* 
lirHhouta ahatte of guib beivg.pfpvedjagfiiiist hipsi 9flm U0m^baiPS 



B9PK Of MAimniS. %7h 

prove th/^ trutli of wJiat. is here, stated, and xnote than ^e have alatedy 

1^ the bar of die sciwieu i • 

. We have another tale to relate atill more horrtfyiog and unjuat, 

vlii^h is the-ease .erf the BJev« Mr. 0*HeiL— ^l!he few *' piaiA Christian" 

m^ atprn^ about the iinliinited. P9^ers g^rante^ by- the fo^ to, the. m* 

ffuiaitoreyVhite it, is stated: by a more creditable witness that this mv* 

llmit^i power was. clipped by the king. of Porti)^g;al» if it wereevev 

gri^i^ted;. but we defy;tbem.to, produce an instance of reUgioua perse>* 

cation duly authenticated, ^qual in ferocity to the treatment experi^^ 

enced« under '' Protestant-ascendency,** by father 0*Neil, the preseni 

parish priest of Ballymacoda. lliis Catholic pastpr was tajLen up4» 

179^9 b|r Oraflge.inqiusitora^jon ^tMspicioit^.only.on w^iam, observe 

neader, ofhaving sanctioned spme murders in the year pi^ecipding* Otoe 

qf th^ accusiationp against^ the inqmsition is^ that the. accused is nevev 

Qonfranted m^itti the accuser^, and that every, injbxmer is attended to : 

weU.let U9 .now. see father 0*Neil|s account of >. what liehad to undergo 

^m..the hand^ of the '^Puptest^int-ascendency * inquisition inlrelaad« 

TIms . extracts we have hisire giyeu; are taken from the humble remon-* 

stisanceof Mr^ 0*Neil^ 4ated October 23^ 1803, and addressed to the 

Qpbility and gentry of the. county, of Cork, . in which his parish is situ* 

litftd. The remonstrance was oecasioned by his being charged by a 

Pmtestant r aK^ n dency** law. lord, in that same year,. with having been 

pnof ed to have been guilty of sanctioning the murders of 179B, trans* 

ported to Botany bay, and since pardoned by the mercy of govern** 

f mept." A^r denying in the most solemn manner that he was 

ffoXUly of the smallest offence charged against him, .and challenging 

lljspersecutora to produce the sliglUest proof of criminality, the Rev« 

Mr» P*ifileil thua proceeds ; — '^ It was tiig peciiliar misfortune that the 

[ chaig^ then, made against me> were not only withheld from, myself^ 

r but fiven-my friends had no Jntimat]((>n of them»> except by common 

rfporty ,which.then was busily employed in disseminating .the various 

'^/(Uacities,..sttppqsed to have, been comxnitted by mjs,: but nothing 

'5 specifically authenticated had transpired: the very committal was 

^< so yagn^ as -to have excited th«f aftonishmentof a. professional friend 

^, of mine in^IMdilin,. fmd .to. have eventually led to my dischar^.. I 

shall now proceed to the particulars of my case. Immediately upon 

a^y.arrest^ I was brought into Youghal, where, without any previous 

'^ tr^d^ I was emfined in, a l o athsome receptacle 4>f the barrack, called 

*' the black-hole.} rendered still more offensive by the stench of the 

'5 common necessary a^ioiining it. In that dungeon I. remained from 

*f Friday until Monday, when I. was conducted to the BaU-ally to re^ 

'■ G^ye my punishment. No trial had yet intervened, nor ever after* 

'f I was stript and tied up } six soldiers stood forth for this operation ^ 

'/.^oane of ihem right-banded, some of th^qci leftrhanded men,, two at 

't a time (as \ judga from the quickness, of the ladies) and relieved at 

'^rioitervals,. unlill Vadjoeceived two^ hundred. and aejenty*five lash^si 

*t «Q vigorWsly and so deeply in^oted, that my back and the points*of 

^.mjT'SbqfiddAra^rl'vjsre quite bioredoft^ . At.thatimoment alattev 

^,wias handed. to tI^^ officer 4^reaiding^ written,..! understand,.inmy^« 

"-y^«ur by. the h|Ae »!». Q^t. QIB^, pf it4f t^bm^, It bappiily intfr* 



« 

€€ 
€€ 



m 

r 






***rttpted my punrihment. ^piit t liad'iibt hittiertb shaken ttie tdangfej' 
*• il idisjAby of feeli% which it seems wis eagerly expected flroin me. 




^ th'e' power of it^ Jti defiaiice of ilumie my wa^irt1)and .was cut for 
••'the fiiitshing strokes gf this lacerathig instrument. The tci^ first' 
*l5a6h^ aarit reneWcrfaH in;^ ^angs^.and shot coimil^ye agony throogli 
** nir ietttii'e fraisie^ made the. shake th^tHangie indeed. ' A s^cotad inV 
•*fl!etibn of it pfenebated.my.I<>Jns,'apd tore tnem eit^ruciatingly; tfe' 
*", third* maintained the tremulous- exhi|;>ition long enoi;lgh-^the%pecta-' 



tors were. satisfied. 

^Jiihould spare 'y6U> myloj:ds and'^gentlem^h^ the ilfiB^fiii^'niH 

nuteiiess of this last detail^ but if Wilt be.fbuiid materitily comnectMl' 



ti '» 



** Youghal, tinder gen 'f. Graham, by order 6f: the "pisirquiflf' 
<* Bdbre4hfe cputt 1 was not brdught j nor aijijr frf^nd of teuie^sttm*, 
**^m6ned thitherto speak Ydrine: It was eyeh ii sub^ebt of streaMe 
^ remaA fh the i>ri$on-^hlp/that while I stood thetie among the^sUIonr/ 
my trial, as:tihey'term^*^t> was gmng on in Yoiighal. Witfette-tw^ 
ceedings of that eoiirt I'amtorlliis day. uiiVquainied: It was Nereid 



^'I kiiow, in consequence of tii memorial upon my situation, batKttdlo^ 
^ ii distinguished nobleman, and by him presented at the castle; I 'i^, 
•^ not consulted with regard to its contents, Unfortunatety'^br mt, it' 
^yfaa pehne^ with ^ore .4:eal'thatt iiccurAcy • setting forth anmg 
^ other hardcAiips; that ^l^er my punishment, I ^ad l>eeh left wiiSboni 
'' me^al as^^uce ^ (0ii the report, I presume of a4siMer4inrlifw, yrho. 
^Visited 'me in the ipteihral hetween the whipping and apoibtonys sr* 
^ rival);' it l^rthel* stated thatl had been wfupiand thrown ^to'a iM'[ 
**lgemi instead lof 8Cfttihg,'as it ong^ttO have done, tluit Iliad keen 
^'ihrhwnAnto a dinifi^hahivfMpt. Thl^ itivi^sibn wasTatiil'to me. For* 
•*'thie/eVidetoce tif Mr. fereen; a^thecary, liiokt plausiMjr'cdlitradicted 
^ these allegs^tibhs of 'ifhe' memorial; and that Cii^ttsiaiitee,' ithen 
** coupled wKh^^lbte'shb^recjnent horrid charges atidaciousfy ^/br^«d and 
^ fnsied into \1ie dinmtiffiof the' iiiquir^i ^cited jm' iflmosfr invincible* 
^prejudice iti the miridof the merctniriord Cbrnwallxs against me. 

' '''For when, srfter a considerable laps^ of time, my profesisibnal friend 
** in Dublin, renewed his eflbrts to serve me, at the risk of being^eemed 

^ •* importuhate and iroublesom^,'l|e Was still g^ciously honoured with 
^•an audienpe, n^herefn to preclude all^fiiture inieffcrence, aS quite in- 
** effectual and hop^lesis, his excellency directed colonel Littlehaies to 
^ read these minutes to my patron. ' Th6y reported that I l«Bd fredy 
♦' avolved to Mr. Benjamin Oreen, apothecary, whHeh* was, dressing 
*• rty wotinds, at the nme 1 was about to be sent on board* -ttre* prison- 
*" *ip, that! deserved aH I had sulfered'tadmore j Kfr I wm privy to 
f the n^urders, &c. &c. committerfin my jmnsh-: that I c6uld aeeomit 
*''for my eonduct in ho olfierway'/than by attribufiiig'ltlte llicUist%^^ 
^ tion of this devil :^ and thkt f ^d^erved'te be shdt, TheWuea cd^of 
•« tliis^^«i{ mdmee, ir^ by i^MikgWit,4»i 

^m^ Sir, Oreen v^iL'tt^num CblM^W/'lIfy r^fte<H«!>leiiit»reeM6r, 



A REVIEW 

OF ' .' -■' 

JRnf 'S$ ISfMift Of m^trtstTiS/ 

CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL. 

xi„ 10 Printed and PuLiIialiedbvW. E-AHDREwa, 3, Ctiaplei- n-l oj 
no. 10. huuw-cuurt. St. PuurjChurclijatd, London. rTlCe M. 



V4TION ov THE En an iviiio.-~Thi> cut Ttpreienti a poor Catholic pemOnttH. 
i^thein^Mlort'iiiid/amiUartiftlttOna^taKeodimC^iii inlmd, wJiivMiHinue 
h, taken aw ij) tiiOt v^/iirtimiiliE cttatara were tahtn yppn Byiplciun. onrj plactd 
andi, uouut cut Ike fcoir of a pridmer'j head very eUntti, ia/arm of the crusj.nmf 



^itt Tvbbvae gunpowder Armiffl At rmoinii^ hair, let il anirre. Thit nockiag jmceu 
At TBoU, aniithe head left tatallv and aUeraUu btittered. — See Mi. Hnv'ilusucrei 



"beings .quite unprepared to meet such an aoc^uattoa, hung down his 
" head and withdrew. But be lost no time in cotnmunicatiog thia re*' 
" TeMe to my. ordiaacy, doctor Coppinger, v/ho was equtdly astotusbed 
" at these assertionsi but who seized the opporUuiity, until a refutatiait 
" of all could bepnjicured, to point in (he interim, to the designing and' 
" notorious talaelmod of Mr, Green's Catholieitg. In a very-few days' 
"Mr. Green, bimself spcmtaaeously furnished my bishop witb a pf-' 
"reniptory denial of tbe above particulars, under his own hand < de- 
" daring moreover in a written ncknuwledgment, that no conferva' 
"tion ^d paaaed between him and the prisoner, but as between a 
." mtdicai man and hU patient. . This Aiiue gentleman abo ingenuui^ly 
". presented biiOBttf et tfae parish cbapel of UaUymacotia, offering to< 
" UMl&e ootklkai ha ha,d not given the evidence b«re attributed to hi|p. 



3r4 ' ttSWWIt OP FMTS 



ti 



^ AnoUier respectable gentlemaa i^ represented m these minutes to 
haye said^ that immediately after my piinishment> I acknowledged to 
<' him thi^^ Ijims privy to the,maisdf r of two sbldSei^j liuUr I l&ew of 
'' a guA kept iamy parish for the purpose of m«rder, and remietfkable 
'' for the certainty of it# aup : h^ is. there^ beside stfited to have said^ 
** that I made this declaration^ not under any apprehension of punish- 
^' ment, but I seemed rather io speak, as one clergyman would to another 
*\ ^^ a fnmii^ of contrition: such at least is the substance of thif ^ntle- 
** man*8 words, as ^Etr as my friend in Dublin, to whom the evidence 
'^- WB8 read, could recollect it. Now fiom the nature of the comma- 
"* nication, which it is here asserted I made, it will be naturally sup- 
*' posed, that tiie gentleman had a. private interview with me after my 
''• punishment : but he himself is thoroughly persuaded that he had 
'^ mot* I never laid my eyes on him since I saw him at that time, in 
*' the public BaUralley. During my flagellation he stood opposite me, 
'^ close to the triangle, with a paper and a pencil in his hand> noting 
'f down whatever then occurred to him. He asked, did you not kt^ow 
^' thatJare-artM were taken from my house ? My answer was rather too 
^^ahort. Sir, 1 heard you say so ; but I felt i^t the moment, by heavier 
'f atiokes,the consequence oC my impoliteness, I really conaidered that 
** g^tieman, on account of his apparent insensibility at the time, as 
'f the very reverse of a friend ; and while I now positively deny my 
^i^ haviiig made the acknowledgment above reported, I shall take the 
'f liberty to ask ; first, whether it be consistent with likelihood, that 
'f< when such a severe punis^ent and so witne^ssed by him, was over, 
'* I had selected that very gentleman in order to criminate m^^sdf to 
'f such a confident, without any possible advantage ? I beg^ leave td 
'f ask in the second place> if I had made this acknowledgment at Hm 
'^Ball>alley> why a certain »ibaltem« dechoklg that hfijied powettoact 
" as he pleased by me^ should take. me (naked and bleeding. as I wa^) 
'^ into a small ioomin.tfaecoraerof.the BaUralley, and sternly tell jne tliat 
'' if Iwould not now make im avowal of gtjdlt> I should be broughtoul 
'^ to receive a repetition of my punishment; and afterwards to be shot. 
** And why he> should repeat that menace the same evening in the gad 
'' and still more forcibly the day following. The circttmsta;nces of his 
'* exertions on that occasion are too striking to be omitted. After 1 
** had answered him in the comer of the Ball-alley, that I would sufBsr 
'' any death rather t&an acknowledge a crime Whereof I was not 
'^'guilty, he told me 1 should' be set at liberty if I ifouldragree to a ee^ 
'^tain propoaal which he then made me; but justice and tnsrthcom- 
'^'ttHnided nke to reject it. When conducted to gaoly after a lapse of 
^'three liaurs, I \99A pitesented with a reiresfament: it iqppeared to be 
'^'Wine and water, b«it must ha;ve had some other powerlil ingredient; 
'^'Isp it spee<tily brought on astupor. The same officer soonicoused me 
'* tMH iny lethargy, with a renewed effort to extort Uiis avowal iron 
'^ me : he drew his sword; he deiclarpd he would 4iever part with me 
**- imMl it we#e given in writing ; he threatened that I should be forth* 
*^ with led out again ; flogged as before ; shot ; hanged y my bead eat 
«f off to be exposed upon the gaol*top, and my body tluown into 
'*'tho river: that he ii^mld aDoiv me but two minntea to delemiae.' 
** nven goings ta the door, he called for a sjcrip of papier, WhUe tbasea« 



it- 



'*^ou!? if r persiirtecf longct In' rifi^y i^^fusal. ITnder thlir ittipTeflsida h 
" scribMeif f^ ilotb I6f ih^ broker; whiclt they htdHftnlly eried cfvU^wmar. 
'•^#liAt<Byjr i^ttted i fh€>«ifite expressioiis 6f it, I donot:^ Mbv»^ 
'' vtifsnt tttc^ect ; it putjpifr ted a \i^i^ Ufatft my btbth^r iilIgM no longer' 
'' ihdtAjge utiea^neilsr ttpbn my acc6tint, for I deiserv^d what i got4> 
'' TKe officer tHtBdHfw -, niy jsisfei^iii-law theti got adihiltatie^ : cAie tbUb 
** me, she htAjxist heard the s)eiiftitiel say, that dufing mjr enttneponbh-^ 
" meht, hothtng^ ivais agaiiist me: however thatf tlw paper f bad jua*» 
''^ ^rittcne virdttld asstitfedfy htfrt^ me. I extMiiied thftt* their dneadibt 
*^ tflV-cftkt^ had'<otnpcffled' me to write it ; which ei^elhmatioti behtg' cor*' 
'^^ricU'tb tHe officer, he returned the next-day: he dalled me .to thei 
'^ gtol window cbmmandiiigc a Viefvr of the gWo>#^, ^hereon^ t^my menr: 
"" were litag^hg: their bodii^d'flo bloody fhW I tttoi%iiM the^ wore rtd 
'* jttekets. A third halter remaini^d yet unoccupied, which he-dedarsd' 
ti^as^int^Meti for me, should-I per^gt itf^iscl^lmfi^' the aforesaid note. r 
Look, said he, at tibesie men ; look at fihat rope; your ti^iOttielitl ahiHt 
be ^or^ethan-tHMrs, if you disown ^halyoti Wrote yesterday: aMi^' 
'"^ tAkt it' was still in my power to get free, f inlagii^d f riMtt this' Uiat: 
^he Wonted money front me; or a farottritemalrei^iehlhadooea^' 
siohially lent him. My answer was; if you libefnltle me yoU sttoH* 
ahhiy^'fitid me thankful; there is nothinjg in my power that I ndH 
riot' do. Bo' not then attempt, sdd'he, to exculpate ybiirs^, and $of 
rttti-ed. I now prociirtd paper, Where6n' I wrote 6 foftnttl pKOtoilt'' 
f^inst wfaat he had extorted frbm the tUi alxnre; thati'ShbtildlbeeK^* 
''^ eciited; thi« prdttet niight appeiii' alt^i' mf dMthi I WAyCe a seeofttf; 
'* with the 9ame design; but I left them boHi after meHh^the gai^; ap^' 
" prdhettishne; that should they befbuiid in my^posse^dii, they n^nt 
cauM m^to be treated t^thtadditioiial severity. Neither did lafter* * 
wardS'llirliile'iti ^adl, opehly assert my ihhoc'ehcerfoi' that Ve^yresfa^hy* 
Now, so* little* erlgdit^ seiefms = to' have been attached tb this papl^r,/hi ' 
any'i^iibseqtietit prbceeding, that-it-w^ neVerafter, fomy loiOWledge,': 
''prodilbedagaihsttnb. Indeed there iif r^taon todmagiaethiitivrftiAl^isrt 
'' g^htlendati is' reported' tb have advanced in'th#^M>v^ mihiitesj ^rm* 
''rVshr^r said hf hitu ; becausetlie same -audacity ^which|/brg«(f a decltt^ ^ 
" rktijon for Mr; CWen, might be dariilg enohgh tb^/o/^e^a aitttfiair d<^ ' 
"claWtittti for this geritieman.'' 

Such i^ fother <rKefrs account of the system of tortdHtig" under ' 
"Protfestarit-ascferideney,^' only twenty-five years ago, afed ^#tf challedgfe ' 
tfi^'^f^ivplkfn Christians** to produce an atithedticated ^aredlel inkaH^'* 
of crdelty practised' bjf any df 'the in^juisltors in Catholic foreign codif* ' 
trie^, fhiih the'timie of the' Albigen^es to^the preseiiit day. We'do notf-^ 
see that PotUaS'dby vvltere laid/oi'geTytdihe charge of the itiquimklili'* 
but here; in the case of fother O'Neil; we^nd a direct charge made dti" 
the ** Pi'OtPistWit-aisteudericy inquisitors of ybf^g^ etiderieik agojlhaf -> 
the unfortunate prisoner, and^ ih his absence * too, for'the p^rjiose <^' 
having hiin'fhrther ptmished. The modes of process adopted -hf tM>^ 
inqvdsition, accbrdifig tb the 'account of thisBooXr ofriURxWjfrs, are,-- 
'''Ut'i Td' proceed b^im^prutadon, or prosecute on cSmnnKMi report; %- 
'''by therinformatibnof afty indifferent person who chooses 16 inipracfht^ 
'' another; 3, on the information of spies who are retained by the in<« 






€<: 



S7tr Bfi^mW (Hf FOX'S 

!^ ^piiiition ; aAd; 4» 00 tbe omifMMon of tbe prisoiier hinMlf;* Very » 
Vf^, admittiQg iliti SjtqtenieBt to be, oorrect^ has not " Protestaot*^ 
aMendency**' acted, upon the i«lf*9ame inodes, from her very birth to 
the present period ? , In 1584, mizabetii^ issued an ecclesiastical com- 
missioii, empowering tweotyHfoor nenibers^ half derics and half laksi 
or any three of them^ to visit ju^d . reform all errors, heresies and 
Mnsms ; to regulate M opiniops, and to punish -evei^ breach of uni- 
fetinity in the ^ubUc 'wor^ip. llie jurisdictiofv of these commission- > 
ers eltended over the whole kingdom, and their power was despotki 
being under no control. They had directions to proceed in which ever 
way they thought proper, either by the rack, by other species of tor- 
ture, by fine^ or by imprisonment. Suspicion was sufficient tp.creai^e 
guilt, mi sttiqieoted persons were frequently tortured to implicate their 
iMatives* Spies wid infonners were encouraged and paid to hunt out and 
iiapeic^'.the Catholic for following the dictates of his conscience, and 
tte Catholie priest for exercising his ministerial functions. In short, a sys- 
temef eq^ was eataWsl^ed by the first reformers under '' j^otest- 
aoft^esoendeney/* which has contii^uied ever nnce, a disgrace tp its 
fimndets and to the com|try which tolerates it. We make not tlus 
alilem^t upon ba^re assertion, but refer the reader to Neale*s Bi/story 
of the Puritans a|id Hume* s Histpry of England, where a eonobora- 
ttei -of our statement will be found. The '' few plain Christians"' may 
flair .what they pleiase of the tyranny of the pope, and the povirer of ]us 
mipfemacy, but a reference, to the statute-book of England, when Eng- 
land was Catholie and since she has been ^rotestauitized, will demon- 
sfkatively prove, that the supremacy of Rome was perfect mildness to 
the ascendency of Protestantism* 

On the cha^eof^gsry, which the Rev, Mr. Whitaker, in his Via- 
dieation of Mary Qmeen of Scots, says, is peculiar to Protestantism, we 
wiU here notice a case in the ^oqU cf Martyrs, More thjm six jfe^^ of 
Ihsi praoiouB massof Ues^ are occupied with the pretended sufferings of 
a WUliam Lithgow in Spain, who, it is stated, was a man of a good £1- 
nidly eiEKd a great irayelian No date is given in the accounts but we 
luvfe now befovQ us a worki publiaAied in 1^92, and purix>rting to be 
the tefi^^ edition of /^Lithgow*s Nineteen Years Travels through the 
'^.n^fM^ eintnent plac^ in the World, &c. also an Account of the Tor- 
*' ture he suffered under the Spanish Inquisition, by racking, ani^ other 
*'iidmpian: usages;. fi>r his awning the Protestant Keligion. 1*ogether 
with his. miFc^qilom deliverances from the Cruelties of the !^apists, 
.which far exi^dedany of the Heathen CQuntries herein largely, de- , 
bribed,'- Now by the author*s own account, he appears to have.vi- 
sttedeveryflathoUcGountrym Italy, without meeting the least molesta- 
tiph,fnd hifl^rr<^t. at Malaga was on suspicion.pf his being a spy, 
ufit on accjiunt of his rel^giqn* But the. period of his travels (if be 
ever did travel, w^ich we much doubt, and think the work a.^mpila- 
tlptt from other works, written for the purpose of alarming the ccedu- 
Icpis- pufi|tasus,iM^ that dayageiast Popery) toojlfi j>lace when prejii^e 
ran high against the Catholic faith, and. there. can be no doubt, but it 
was wniten tjo gratify the credulity, end prejudices of the £o{^is)i peo- 
p\t. It is A- beastly composition, abounding witli obsceijuty and &lse- 



€€ 



. »' 



BOOK o:f martyrs. m 

liood, wWcli " the fc\r plaitf Chrifitiahs*' bAve Ycry pfo]^tly Mttppreme^. 
They have also taken care to give a new version of Mr. LithgowVowft 
words, and if they can take such a freedom in one instance^ who cail 
doubt but they will do so in other cases > 

UTHGOW*S ApCOUNT. . POx's ACCOUNT. 

. William Ifitbgow, in 1692, says The Book of Martyrs, in 1824^ 
as follows :— «• detailing Lithgow*8 tale> puts the 

i:" ^teS. ^hehiquisitcj arisiijg. expressed folk>wing wor& into the mouth of 

himself thus, 'Benold the poWerfa! majesty ., . P ,. 

of Qq6*9 mother, comnuiikief of her Son, ^^^ mquiSltor : — 
equal t© the Father, wife to the Holy Ghost, ** After sorpe time, the inquisitor addres8e4 

queeo of heaven, protector of aneels, and Mr. Lithgow in the following words; • Yoa 

«>le^ftema<rkr of the earth, &c. How thou ^^^ ^^ <*^fln «p as a spy, acctted of 

hefaiR first taken as a spy, aaeusfid for treacUciy,.and tortured, as we acknowledge, 

treachery, and innocently tortured, (as we innocently ;( which appears by the account 

acknowfedge we were better informed lately l»tely received from Madrid of the intentions 

-from Madnle of the Bnglish intenticm) yet vf the EhcUih) yet it was the divinepower 

it was her power, her divine po^er, which that brought those judgments upon you, for 

brought these judgments upon thee : in that presumptuously treating the blessed miracle 

Ihou^hast wrote caloraniously against her of Lorette wiili ridicule, and espMsvng 

-biessed miracles of lioretta, and acain^this yourself in your writings irreyerently of his 

holiness, the great agents and Chrut's vicar holiness, Christ's view: upon earth; there;, 

on earth. Therefore thou hast justly fallen ft>'« yoo »»« j«wtly »'*«> "*» ««r hands by 

into our hands, by'her special appointment : thdr special appointment : your books and 

thy books and pepers are miraculously trans- papers are miraculously^ translated by the ai^ 

lated by her special providence with thy sistance of Providence influencing your own 

owii- countrymen ; wherefore thou mayest cotmtfymen.* " p. 144. 
iclearly see tne impeMettakle B^yHaBiies of our 
glorious lady in punishing her oiFeuders: 
and for a humble satisfacdon, repent thee or 
thy wickedness, and be eonverted to the ' 

My BMClier dnuch.' " ^..441. 

' 'Here we see that Lithgow accuses the inquisitor with giving '<Mii6 
power tn the blessed Virgin Mary^ which in his day was most impli* 
citly believed 5 for the press being then shut against the CaliiolScs^-n6 
opportunity was afforded them to remove so gross aiid adomnioUd 
a felsehood^ and therefore the people of England, not seeing the 
accusation ^contradicted, very naturally gave eredit to it. But now, 
%ihbe the pres^ has been opened to the Catholics, and the piribtio mind 
is in a great measure disabused of this most preposterous idea, that ^e 
greatest proportion of the Christian world gave divine honours td th^ 
Mother of God, and allowed her to be equal to God the f\Ather| now 
ihat Catholic writers ban vindicate the principles of their ftlth, im'd 
throw the Msehood in the teeth of the fs^ifier, a little more caution 
is' deemed necessary hi deceiving the people, and words less liable to 
objection, and of different meaning from those used by the authdr,' are 
substitutied bjr the modern editors of this Be&k p/M^tprs, This simple 
but irrefutable fact we think will be suffident to enaUe the reader 
how to appreciate the veracity of the work we arc reviewing, indetail- 
ing the tortures said to have been practised on Lithgow and others by 
the inquisition. 

We have ali^ady given one instance of modem toiture practised by 
the inquisitors of '^ Protestant*ascendeney/* we shall now state a feW 
more eases executed on indiviidnalsy and under ttie same modes of p(o- 
eess said to be adopted by ftyreign inquisitors/ In Mr. Hay's HistvNry 
of the Insurrection of Wexford in 1798, [speaking ioif the transactiottS 
^vUch tei^fc flKk^b^bre the nsit^jgtf the people, that is, prior to any 



f re ^SVIBW QF,Fp^*^ 



(fvttpt lieU 4>f rijQi or Itfeach of 4lie peace^ lauA ^irjieii 4li(e.fHM>r <^<Mif 
jpcfwrnt^ ^ete vxete^y suspected by the 0>iang^ or " Frojteatiuiil-jM* 
ptu^def^Y^* .9^ ^^%8 ^i^4 Insbmea, that gentleman writes thii9;-«p 
'' The orange system maide no puJbUeajppc^a^^fu^ce in the county of Wex- 
'-' ford, until the beginning of April, on the arrival there of the north 
^ Cork militia, comm^ded by lord Kingsborough. In this regimetft 
^ there nv^re a great number of orangemen, ^ho were sei^us in mak- 
" ii^g pn>sei]rtes^ and di8pla3ring their devices ; haying medals and 
''orange ribbons triumphantly pendant from their bosoms. It is ber 

V lieved J that previous to this period, these were but >liew actual oraBge*- 
" men in thye county ; but spon after, those whose principles inclined 
f^ that way, finding themselves supported by ^b^ militf^-y, joined the 
^ association, and publicly avowed themsi^ves, by assuming the de- 
f^ vices oi the fraternity. 

** It is said, that the north Cork regiment were also the inventors^ 
f* but they certainly were the introducers of piteh^cap torture into the 
** county of Wesford. Any person halving thpir hair cut shorty (and 
**' therefore called a croppy, by which appellation the soldiery desig* 
" natod an united Irishman,) on being pointed out by some loyal neigb; 
^ hour, was Immediately seized and brought into a guiuod-lMMise, where 
" caps either of eocurse linen or strong brown paper, Hbeameared inside 
** with pitch, wesa .^ways kept jeady fof service. The' lanfortnoat^ 
** victim had one of these well heated eompresaed on his head, and 
^ when judged of a proper degree of coolness, so that it could not be 
^ easily pulled off, the sufferer was turned QMt amidst iljbie .horrid aeokr 
^ mations of the merciless torturers $ and to the viisw4>f vust nnuhers 
^Vof people^ wh^ generally crQwde4 ahpi^ the guarjirhpyse dooTi at- 
5^ tsaeted by tlus aHicted cpes of. ^he tormente^. • Mmf of th»se per^ 
^* ^^scMked ip Diis nuioniss, es^periencf^^ fi^ditipnal f|i^sjl».frQiaa ^ 
iH mgii^ pitfsh iripklipg into 4Jipif ^yes^ This ^ordc^^ r^ ^e mMitio9 
^^#f •^md^fmfBitf tq ^eserkaen. sportsmen, who r/siteWfid fj^eii hjom^ 
** ytlhot ei^talioB^ <m t|ia repctitioi^ pf ^ se|irj^4Aacc|d^^ !• w^^ 
f* ihtir gaoEie wa^ liable upon being turned o^t ^ fqr \n tl^^ confuirioa 
f'Htnd hurry oi 4»9capi|^ froo^ the fevpcious pfofAa qf tb^s^ mor^ ^ 
f* saiKSge barbarW^s the blindeid yiptims fr^q^Uy ^U or ioi94^^^r^aUy 
y .dasbipd their h^sfds ^g^nst the Wfdls i^ liieir w|iy. The pajnof i^ 

V engaging tiiis pitchjed c^p bom the head nius^ ^ qe^ tointol^r^b]a. 
f The hair W8^ oftqn Xfxm Wt by the i«ots, ^ no(^ vs^Pf^^n^yw^ 
f^,^ tiie skin wi9r<» so scaled pr b^ster^ a3 t^or t^^S^ ^i OQffm <^ 
ff ailing with it. The terror aii|^ disuiaytb«t the^op^tr^i^ o^jp^sioi)^ 
'* lure ineoeceivaU^e. A serjjiiapi ?f tj^9 .W^th Coffc pi$4wffie4. j^ * 
\y Dei^ was uiost iogeswm# if^ iiMreptii^g jocw nj^^ of tiQ^i*(iifa. Jlfpfef*- 
i<>iHtf gWPOWdar-ifi^ fjF^qjici^y n^hbed i^o this bijr qv^ dofi^ 4pl 

^ ithaik set on ftre; mw^t^^yF\^^^^f^^ms % *^i« P^TPWWl»ftfl tfru **W 

^ of their ears snipt off $ sometimes an entire ear, and Q^ea \^}^.Wf 
¥ y(tue ofmpletely pvi off j and many Iqst pm^ of theff x^fn^i ^^^githe 
*f Uke pn^ianUipn* Bi^, atra^gg to teU, ^J^^^Obifooit^s ^fy: jffjUM 
M pnietiaed without thq lea^.reii^ve in q|^|^.#aj^#^^.m;i^i)gi§t^ 
^* oifiaer ^ver ioterfpfed^ ^uf shaipf&lly pon^fvfd ^ tl^i^ f ^^j^priiftfi^^ 
^' amde of qmeliqg the people/' ' ,. 
Mr. Akif n^er, a Pro^^tant g^olJejQftp, wJig m^\p|^ j||))^ yff^^ pfiit, 



m(Ai OF BfAlOYRS. i^Td 



*€ 

€t 

f€ 

$( 

(* 

€S 



4* 






tmA was master l>f «i acadetny at Rbes^ retail the fcllowiog xAStancea 
of torture :•— '' I now heard of many panishtnepts of suspected persons 
'' bo^ by :fioggtnp and strangulation^ bdng put into elecution in the 
bamick'*3fard^ (in Ross) to eactort confession of guilt. There were 
two of these victims brought frtnn. the barrack to the court^'house to 
undergo a repetition of former punishments. One of them of the 
name of Driscol, whs found in Camlin-wood» neat* Ross^ where he 
said, he geneinlly wandered as a hermit. Upon him were found two 
Roman Catholic prayer-liaoks, with which it was supposed he ad- 
*' ministered oaths of disloyalty. He had been strangled three timcs^ 
*^ and flogged four times during confinement, but to no purpose 1 his 
'' fellow-sufferer was one Fitzpatrick of Dunganstown, near Sutton'4 
parish. This man had been a Newfoundland saih>r^ but long utterly 
disqualified to foUow that occupation, by reason of an inveterate 
** scurvy in his legs. He therefore commenced abecedapan, near Sut* 
** ton's parish. It happened that a magistrate who was a yeonian, and 
** others of his corps, passed by his noisy mansion, which was no other 
^' than a little thatched stable, that like a bee-hive, proclaimed the in« 
dustry of its inhabitants. The magistrate entered, followed by the 
other yeomen. ' Here is a man,' says the magistrate, sp^ddng of the 
** master, as I idiall call him, though his authority was now for some 
^•lime to have an end ; and a severe vacation it was, ' Here is a man 
'^ who, I presume^ can have no objection to take ihe oath of allegiance^ 
** *— What do you say, Mr. Teacher >*— ' O dar n lemtrga," (i. e. by this 
^' book^ '* I viriU take it, sir, -and thank you fpr bringing it to me.* ^ 
** saying, he took the book, which the magistrate held forth, and Hot 
** only took itfie oatii with the most cordial emphasis, but added another 
^ expressive of his loyalty at all times. Upon this, the magistrate re« 
** garded his companions with a look of dry humour, and observed, that 
'* 1^ i0ti*e he a Idyal man indeed. ' Well ^bitn, niy loyal friend, I siip^ 
pose you wiU readily swear to allthe p&es>'and to the owners ttOfl 
possessors of them. Of which you have any knowledge Y The man 
'' swore he had no certain knowledge of the kind ; and that he neter 
" saw a rebeVs pike in his Hfo, or a pike of any kind since the rebellioti. 
'' ' tlie^,* says the magistrate, 'you shall swear that you will, to th^ 
** utmost of your future knowledge, or hiformotlon this way, give in th<6 
" best manner you can^ i^ such information to a lawful magistrate^ of 
** other officer in his majesty's service.' * No, sir,' answered Fitzpatrick, 
"'I will not swear that : I wHl bring no man's blood on my head, an4 
^ if I do inform, who wiU support and protect me, when I have lost all 
** mf scholars, and my neighbours turn upon me V Upon this he was 
*' immediately apprehended and escorted to Ross : he was not strangled 
^' however, but flog^d with great severity ^ and it was not with dry 
'' eyes that I saw &e punishment inflicted on this humble pioneer of 
'' Htcirature." 

Toihese horrible inflictions are to be added the daily transportations 
of unfortunate victims, who were sent off in cart-lottds from twelve t6 
fifteen at a time, without trial by jury. In Enniscdirtby, Ross, and Go*" 
tey, several persons were not only put to the torture in the usual way, 
but a great numbel^ of houses were burnt, and measures of barl^arous 
Cruelty practiseci. -^ At Carew * things wer4 carried to itill greater 



u 
$4 



MO RBYiEW OP.FOK'& • 

*' leng^ ^ Sqt iBdepmianiXy of .bornbig^ whiffing; And iarMfe^ioraU 
f' shapes, on jFriday the 25th of May, tweatyoeigbt pcisqiiefft we^e 
V brought ouJt of the place of coofinemeot^ and delilmeraieliy shot in a 
y ball-allej hy the yeomeo, and a, party Qf the AmUIj^ militia j the uf 
f'vfernaldeed being sanctioned by the presence oi their officer^ l-r-Many 
',' of the men thus inhumanly butchered, haid been confined on mere 
f.^suspicipn I ! !'' Hays Wej^ord, p. 76.' — J^ut, it mfiy b« said* these aaen 
:iver6 punished fqr disloyaUy and not for heresy » Be it so ^ .and so said 
the p\inishers of the MbigenseSf There is one great difference, how« 
ever, in the two cases ; which is, the Albigeosea were opposed because 
their notions led to immorality and disorder, and outrages had been 
pommitted by them before they were coerced 5 while the Catholics of 
Ireland \yere tortured on suspicioti Qnly> and professed a religion that 
had been established in the country fourteen hundred years. It mat* 
ters not to the sufferer for why he is torturedj whether for heresy pr sus* 
pccted disloyalty; we cannot see any differeyi^*^^ in thejscale of hiiina* 
uity 3 but there is a wide distance in the., parties charged^ the due 
accusing the other with what he is guilty of himself; while the other 
remains quiet and say. nothing. What can we think .-of m^n who are 
making the. most strenuous, ejt^rtions to ii^culcate the, .belief that 
f' Popery is inseparable from persecution,' *r by the detail of transactions 
said to have taken place some centuries b^k, while in the neighbour* 
ing country, of Ireland, under jthe rule of ^ their .own beloved ''Protest- 
Ant-asccndeney,*' the most horrible, tortures have been practised on 
Catholics witlun the last twenty*five. years ? '' Change but the.iiaiBe> 
*.' the tale is, told of you,** . ^ . / 

. Ip reading the abuses imputed by Fox toth^ inqjBisitiQ4| of Catholic 
countries, we. are most forcibly stritck with the analogy they bear to 
the conduct of '* Prqtestant-ascendenpy" in that ,il^-&ted coui^tryy Ca- 
tholic Ireland.— For exa^le ; the Sook of Martyu .sap, '' Most of the 
*' inquisitor's cruelties are. owing to their, rapacity : they: destroy life to 
*' possess the property.;; and under pretence pf seal, plimder individuals 
V. of their j:ig^ts*" .liow far this charge is cqri^ect, .with regaord to the 
Spanish and Portuguese inquisitors, we know not 3^ npr have we any 
pr>ean8 of ascertaining froQi the account Fox has givci^ us, the wholeof 
it as usual resting upon assertion.. Were what he §tat^ to be, true, we 
must suppose these fellow s of the inquisition, .'^ho, by-the-by, accord- 
Ing to Fox, are friars selected from the. dregs of the p^ple., to be the 
richest dogs in the world. And yet we do not he^ any thing of their 
immense wealth through any authentic source; ^or cs^i we divine what 
they could do with it, seeing they were not allpwed to have wive^ and 
families to expend theii^ riches upon. It is tru^e we have read of Fro- 
testant bishops and clergymen dying. wprth hundreds of thpusanddi 
wrung out of the labour of poor Catholic peasants,, but then they had 
so^s and daughters looking to them for fortunes, and that of course 
alters the case* But the cruelties of the iAqiii9ttprs,:it is. allied, .were 
owing to their, rapacity, and life was wafito^ly sacri^ced to, ppssess 
property. We have before stated that the reforf^jved i^^Ugion^ .was at- 
tempted to be enfQr.fied in Ireland by thf^ bayonet ajid. sword ^ . we have 
;iow to add, that the murders committed by thesie, rcfornaed iAquisit^rs 
(:puld only be outdone by their insatiable jrsqpagity."^ yoj;a<^KMia wss 



BOOK' OP MAMTYIlg. ^1 

tht appelileof Mms^ i^ebAers of the puri light of ihi go9pet, thai ti6^ 
,thing^ lets .duui the total extirpaiion bf ik^ tixAives mid the i^hsute of 
all tibe laitiiB .would satisfy them. We have it on reeoi4, that in the 
r«ign of James? the firsts and at the reetdration of his girandson Chillies 
the second, the natives of Ireland were despoiled of no less than 
J0;6^,83T aci-es^ and when the revolution under William the Dutch- 
man was completed> 1^0180^792 acres more were added to this plunder. 
Here then> we< have rapacity in good earnest ^ here we have Catholics 
,robbed.of their property to satisfy Pi^otestant invaders ; l^er^ we have 
the rigkts of Cathcdics trampled upon and violated under pretetice of 
zeal for the pure light of the -gospel. ' It nu^es us smile to see thfe 
" few plain Christians" exclaiming agaipst the rapacity of Catholic in^ 
.quintora^ when the voracious appetite of '' Prtylestant<*a8cendency" is 
grinding the poor Catholics of Ireland to the lowest state of poverty 
by her parish- vestries, churchy-rates/ and tithes. It appear!) from the 
parliamentary debates, that, in the year 1S07; there were no less than 
1286 actions on cases con]ie6ted with tithes in ^re counties in Ireland. 
At the October quarter sessions atGdrt^in 1S3S> one tithe-proctor pro- 
cessed eleven hundred persons for tithes. They were all, or most of 
the lower order of fanners or pealsants :^-^the expense of eaeb proceiSs 
about eight shillings. A Mr. Collis, at one of the late tithe-meetings 
in Ireland, is stated to have addressed the auditors thus :•*— ^^ Id li^l6; 
they could not but recollect^ that one half of the erop was eompletely 
destroyed by the heavy rains which Ml incessantly during the bar- 
" vesirseason, and the other luiif so materially damaged, as really to 
'' injure life while it seemed to sustain it. At that unexatnpled pinied 
** of public caUmity, when tiieir feOow-oreatures wiere perishing every 
" where around them with hunger and diisease, did the tithe>K)Wtiers 
" from- humanity at least, if not from justice; red|iee' their impoiitiwis^ 
in proportion to the injury of the crop. No-^fer from abating one 
jot of either >the rate or the rigoui^, they levied' their vsual charges 
with Uieir usual' severity^,'* Ano&er instance is thus related hymn 
Grattan^ m one of his qpec«hes :-— '^ I have two dedreesin my 'himd frota 
'* the vicarilil court of Cloyne ; the first exconunuhiciitiiig one man, the 
second exoommualcating four men illegally; most arbitrarily, for rie^ 
fusing to pay lithe for ^rf.** In a pamphlet entitled, '' A Report of 
the Committee of the Parish of Blackrath^ in the Corunty of Kilkeh« 
" ny," we find the following spebimen of the expenses to ^hich a poor 
jman is put by a citation to the bishop's court, a species of inqiiisitioa 
&r.niore intolerable to;the Catholk -peasant in Ireland, l^an the inqui« 
sition in Spain is to a Ptotestant* ** The whole, sum in dispute is^6i9. $ 
'' the fee .to counsel is a guinea; 'The very first step, therefore, that 
'' the poor man takes for his defence, he has to -pay nearly four times 
.'' the amount of the depiand he contests. He has next to pay twocita^ 
" tions fcHT his two. witnesses, lB»i6d.^^asA is (to say^ 12s. 6d. for the 
'^ firsts and 1«. forHihe Aeoond.* The trial generally ends in a decree 
^' agpioat the iuifiH*tttnate peasant; which is followed up by. a nftoaition 
^^*— aad*the costs of both rare stated to add :near %L 16s; Sd.- to his losses^ 
** He is then bandit A over to the seculiir ami ; f The parson processes 
*' his wretched parishioner to the civil-bill court : thrirehe is decreed^ 
''as a mattef of oourse, wilhout'baingev^n allowed (6tEang;e to s^y !) 



9 






u 
n 



MS KtmW OS »3K'« 



^4o4nterMto<lieiMiit«of ysM«w And utei eoita Mfarw } Tit 
*' <»9lfl ^f Ike decree me It. Ud.; the cMts of the wamwl If. Id.) 
" line fee0of Ihe bailiff ivrho etLecntes tibetrarraato ate at.4iL ; tiie fees 
"of tke two keepers wlio watch the difltmas for imr jdi^aad nigbtB 
'' awioiMKt (at 9a. 6il. a day for eaeh) to II. ; and ImiAy, the JUicticMieer*B 
" fees ooae to 6«. 3d* indUiig altogether the mtm of 61. 19f . tSd., bo that 
** the clefgjinaii sdls the wM^ tmp to satiafy the tithes, and tnniB 
'' the ndsmhle wretdi, his wife and children, to the road, to b^ or 
" to steals or to starve. High-^spSrited as the poor IriahitHin may be, 
^' he will never :htve the ccnirage to renew the contest against sack 
''powevfel odds.*' Here is ''iVptestant»a8oendency** rapacity with a 
imngeBnoe ! Let the '* few plain Christians*' heat this speeiDieB d 
^poUataon and extortiea in any Qitholic country whateTcr, «nd weiviU 
hie aileot. 

Fqh ftmther tdls us, ** Upon all occasions the inqntsitoia catrf on 
'^ their paaoesaea with the vtnost severity. They seldom shew meitf 
*io « Piiotestant; aadaJew, w(ha inmd Christian, is far feom heiiig 
'* aecnre; for if he is known to keep company with another ntew^ronr 
^' verted Jew, a suspicion arises that they privately practice togedwr 
" seme Jewish ceremonies j 4f >he keep ooaqMny wkh a person who 
'' was latdiy a Protestant, kat now profess^ Pbpery, ihcy are aocnsecl 
f of plotting together; hot 4f he associate with a Roman CathaUc, ao 
^ aBCttsatioa is often laid agriiiAt him for only pretending to be al^flst, 
** and the eonseqvence is a jcontlscation of his effects, and the loss 0f 
f his Ufe if he complain," Here a^ain the nacrtytotogist most have 
fisitwtt his pielure feom the inqniaton cf ** PDotestantHascendeacy" iA 
ifeland. The ahb^ Bergier says,rtlhat n niian ihay ««side as aeoneely ifi 
fi pa an -as in any other oonntry, pnoTided hedoes not nse a dognnrtladng 
spirit to ditftttih the peace of socials but this is nftt the casewdA the 
Cfithi^ ift iBeland oven ht this day^ IBhe Orange ot .^IVotestspit^as- 
nendency*' inquisllots ha^e no feding of mevey.for a Catholic, and 
aoaree a year passes over without somfe murder being oommitted by 
Orangemen on Catholies. If a Pit>testaat tarns Oalbtsliiv tie instsody 
hecQBMS an-obyeot af parsecntion and ridicule taiotig his bigottod ac- 
qoainilance $ and if a Catholic priest were to marry a^Cothallc andPro* 
te8tant» he inottrs the penalty of transportation, aitd thapian asMMiis* 
tion of tke most tender kind is fothidden by '' PrDtestaataaeendcacy^ 
between a Catholic and Protestant. Nay to sach a pitchwaa 4hig sfB* 
terii of separatinn carried, that tj^ Piotestant caid-porteflis ^titiooed 
the house of Conanont to prafcnt Cadtelics in the Jame enapioymrot 
fcom asaaeiaiing and working with tham, and the re^pivktUe body of 
Protestant haclutty coaehraen did .the aome very Ifibapal act Then aft 
tp the security of personal liberty ; for years have theCathalhes ip aamt 
parts of Irehmd been liable to be traoqiorted, without trial bf ymtlt 
anerely for beidg found outof l^is house between aun<«^t and sun-rise; 
and hundrads have heen actually fom fiom their witfes and chUdren, 
and aaddenly seat off to' Botany hay for no other ofeide. Lit nst.tiien 
tiw few '^ p^ Christians" tidk any moire ^fiaseouiity or {dotttag, or 
associating, m Spain, whfle sudi transaotiens as> I inae jast descmcd 
liia going on in Iseland* 

il^ain Wool sayji, '' This dieadAil engine of ity ritany may at^ansr Um bt 



t€ 
t< 
ft 
€€ 
tl 
€€ 
€f 






tt 
ft 
ft 
ft 



BOOK OF MARnms. fia» 

introduced lata .a couitify wbejre the CfUhoSi^ ham the upper ha^di 
and heace how conefv/ aught wC'to be, whaiire not curWwttbeucbmi 
qrbiirary cwri, to pr^v^at itg intrpductum ! In treating of this enb*^ 
ject» an elegant auljior pathetically says, ' How horrid a soene ^A 
perfidy and inhumanity ! What kind of oouuaunity xnust that he 
whence gratitude^ love, and mutual forbearance with regard to hn« 
man.frailtiea are banished! What must that tribunal be, which 
obliges parents not only to erase from their minds the remembrance 
of their own children, to extli^guish all those heen sensations of tesH 
** derness and affection. wherewith naturjs inspires them, but even to 
'' es^tend their inhumanity so far as to force them to commence thi^ 
accuserSj C^ consequently to become the cause of the cruelties in* 
fUcted upon them ! What ideas ought we to form to ourselves of %, 
tribunal which obliges children not only to stifle every soft impulse of 
" gratitude, love, and respect, due to those who gave them birth, but 
even forees them, and that under the most rigorous penaUies, to be 
^es over their parents, and to discover to a set of merciless Juqiur 
sitQFS. the crimes, the errors, and even the little lapses to which they 
^re exposed by human frailty ! In a word, a tribunal which will not 
'' permit relations, when imprisoned in its horrid dungeons, to give ' 
" ea^h other the suocours, or perform the duties which religion eoijoinij 
''.must be of an infornal nature. What disorder and confusion wm^ 
" such oonduot give rise to in a tenderly affectionate fomily ! Anei^* 
*' piression,innoGent in itself, and, perhaps, but too true, shaU,.from an 
indiscreet zeal, or a panic of fear, give infinite uneasiness to a &mily } 
shall niin its peace entirely, and perhaps .cajise one or -more of ita 
members to be this unhap^ victims of the most barb^iQUs of all tri** 
hunal9« What distractions must necessarily hrt9k forth in a house 
where » husband and wi& are at variance, or the cluMren loose anA 
wielded I WaU such children scruple to sacrifice a father, who ^en-* 
" deavpurs to restrain them by his exhortations, by reproof^^or pateiipai 
'f connections } Will they not rather, after plundering his house U> mp^ 
** port ^ir extravagance and riot, readily deliver jap their unhappy p»* 
** Kemt to all tiie horrors of a tiibupal founded on the blackest ipjustic^ ^ 
** A fiotous husband, or a Ipose wtfe, has an easy importunity, aaaiated 
** by^p^ansof the persofution in question, to rid themselve^of one wh» 
'' is a cheek to their yices, by delivecuig him, or her, up to the rigwr» 
'•' pf thj^ inquisition*** 

Now all this is ver^.pathetic and sublime^ but there is oi^e i^equisite 
necessary .to render it cr^dible^ and that is, ito wan:!; pf truth. Ope 
would ^nppos^,fBom this relation, that Protestants ivere extremely pWn 
tifiil In Spain, and that the most unnatural consequences ro^nlti^d to &*» 
milies by this pretended mode of proceeding by the inqui^tion^ but thuf 
"never waa the Qaae. ,8caredy a Spanish Frote9t8nt>.n$iy we believe not 
one, Y9^ to be fi^und in the wh<He kingdom^ at the p^riodapoken of t^ 
thoae who were pf that persuasion being foreigners, e^igiiged in.pon^ 
mercial pursi]iit9> and who were as safe in the ei\layment of their gsivr 
tqrid T^f^ end endearments as the CatboUcs tibem^elv^^ ^ut.hi^ iia 
Ipok a Mttle nearer, home^ and we ahall see, that as giseat restraiiics a#4 
fia ipq^isUbri^Ji procedurefi were practised in. Ei^gland and lri?|aiid» 
tbpfvfib und^ a dl^i^rent vaxxi^^ ^^. what fox ha^ here, bxcoight forward 



It 
tt 
ft 
tf 
ft 



«84 REVIEW OF FOX'S 

*gain6t the inqutsition in Spain.* Forexaiiiple, when Uic inodern feditors 
6f thin Book of Martyrs spoke of the tribunal which '' pbliges parents not 
•^only to erase firom their minds the remembrance of their own children," 
8tc. did riot the Protestant Charter and Foundling Schoots in Ireliand occur. 
to them? These establishments were founded in the yedr 1733, for the 
purpose of phjselyting the children of Catholic parents 5 and s^ eager 
#ere the managers of them to obliterate from parents the remembrance 
of their children, and from children the knowledge of their parents, 
that those who were bought or kidnapped in the south werie sent to the 
^hbols in the north of Ireland, and, vice versa, those, obtained in the 
north were sent to the southern schools, where their names were 
Changed, BXid their parents never suffered to see them. Now what are 
we to think of such a system as thiSj^ encouraged too by largif'grants of 
the public money by '* Protestant-ascendency.** We defy the few 
**^ plain Christians'* to produce institutions of a similar unnatural nature 
in feny chilized or even barbarous country in the world. Then agmn 
as to the refusal of relatives to visit unhappy prisoners in their dun- 
geons, we need only to look into the regulations now lately adbpted 
by the visiting magistrates of our gaols at home to find soniethiag of 
h parallel to the complaintd 6f John Fox and his editors. And as to 
the children plundering the house of their father and rioting on his pro- 
perty; was not every encouragement given by •^'Protestant-ascend- 
ent?/* to the undutiful and "proliigate child to rob hid Catholic fither of 
his property and reduice him to beggary, by only declaring himself a 
Protestants In an address presented by the Catholics of Ireland to the 
fttther of his present majesty, in 1775, this most unnatural law, this 
horrible act of injustice, this specimen of Protestant legislation, is thus 
described i—" By the laws now in force in this kingdom, a son, how- 
* ever irndtitifiil or profligate, shall not merely by the merit of con- 
•"forining to the established reli^on deprive the Roman Catholic father 
''of that free and fiiU possession of his estate, that power to mortgage 
** or any other way dispose of it, as' the jexigencies 6f his alfiurs may 
** require, but shall himself have full libterty immediately to' mortgage 
** 6r otherwise alienate the reversion of that* estate from his ^unil^ for 
** ever 5— « regulation by which a father^ contrary to the order of na- 
** tiire, is put under the power of his son,' and through which an early 
^'dissoluteriess is not only suffered but encouraged, by gi^ng a per- 
'' nicious privilege, the frequent use of which has broken the hearts of 
*• many de«(efving parents, and entailed poverty and despair on some of 
*• the most ancient and opulent families in this kingdom.*'^ Oh ! shame, 
where is thy blush? Ought not, fcaridlrf. reader, these **''few plain Chris- 
tians" to hide thfeir heads until they can' erase this most infimous 
law from" the page of history. .wr . . , , 

Tb enter into a minute refutation and comparison of* the gross 
charges brought by the " plain Christians" agftinst the Spani^ inqui- 
sition, would fill a large volume j We shall therefore 'coniefit^OursciVcs 
wiHi noticing one more as connected with the liberty of the press; « 
I^Hfilege inuch prized, but scarcely enjoye<d, by llie people of t&sVxnm- 
try.' ; The Bobk qf^Martyrs'Bt&tes as follows :y-l; **Tlie ihqufeittoh dso 
*' takes 'cognizance of all liew books ^ and toleratea or conflchintwidi 
tilt sasxi^ justice ahd impartiality by which all Hs ptlodeedf^aUK ^s- 



QOPK OE M^B.TYB$. 



U 
€* 
tt 
€€ 
€i 
t* 
€€ 
*t 
€€ 
€€ 






<t 



tinguistM^. . When a book is published^ it k. carefully read by aoiaai 
of the feauliars;^ ivho^ too ignorant and .bigotted to dietingui^ ihc/ 
tKUt)i» imd top maliciouA t^o relish beauties, search not .for themerita^.. 
but fer the defects of an author^ and pursue the slips pf his |nji with 
unremitting diligence. They rei^i with prejudice^ judge with par^i 
^Ut^ < pursue ^errp^ with avidity, and str$pn that which is inBocicnt. 
into an offensive, uieaniqg. They misapply^ confound, and penrect'. 
the sense I , and when they have gratified the n^allgnity #f their dis^j 
position, chs^rge their blunders upon the author, that a proseoutiom 
may be founded upon their false ooneeptioos, and designed mi8rq[>re«i 
** sentations, 

%• *^ Any trivial chafge causes the cenfure of a book| but it is to be* 
** observed, that the censure is of a three-fold nature, viz. !• When 
'< the book is wholly conidemned. 2. When it is partly cqndexttned> 
'' that is, when certain passages are pointed out as exceptionable, * 
*^ a^d ordered to be exp^mged. 3. When it is deemed inoennect^ :tiie 
** mc^aning, of which is, that, a few words or expressions displease the^ > 
'^ inqiiisito^Sv Tbese, therefore^ are ordered to. be :altered, and suehi 
** alleratioiiis go ufider the name of cQrrection^» 

3« /' There is a catalogue of condemned books annually pid>tished. 
'' under the three different heads of censures^ already mentioBed, which* 
'' toeing prin|;ed on a large sh^t of paper, is hung up in the moat con- 
spicuous places. Afi^ef which, people are obliged to destroy all aaaiij 
books as come under the first censure, and \o keep none belonging; 
'* to' the other .(wo.ce%|uu'es, unless the exceptionable paMiges haver 
been e^punge^i as ^^. either case disobedience would be of themeet^ 
" fatal consequence -y for the possessing or reading the proscribed hooka 
'' are deemed very atrocious crimen. The publisher of such bdok isf 
*' usually, ru^ed in his circum^ta9ce«^ and.^ometim^ obliged to pas»j 
*' the remainder of his life in the inquisition* , 

4. '^ Wlf ore^uch an absurd and^detestable system exercises itadeadly. 
*^ influ^np^ Q;ii;erthe literature of a natipn, can we be surprised that the/ 
grossest igx^orance and the most bigotted superstition prev^ ?. JHo^ - 
can that, people become enlightened, among whom th^ finest produor 
tiona of gfjniu^ ar^.pr^hibited^ all discuiusiqn prevent^, the most inr • 
''.npcent inquiries liable to misconstruction and punishmi^iMu the ma^r 
rials for U^inking pjroscribed, and even thought itself chained dawa» 
and chef^k^ by the fear of its escaping into expression, and thu/l 
bringing cf^tain ^i^d.c;ruel punishment on him who has d^ed to.ex- 
ercise his reason^ the noblest; gift of bis Aliuighty Creator. Surely - 
'< every, well wisher ^to the human race, must rejoice in the downfal ot^ 
*\ this q^ost barbarous and infernal of, all tribunals ; an4 must vie^v with 
*', indignation, and abhorrence the iniquitous attempts now making to . 
*' rerestablisb it in those unhappy coun^tries .which so 4ong groaned 
". under. its «^PY'\ . 

Now with regard to paragraph 1, the people of England are too ready 
to cpndenan foreign institutions without looki)^ intp the state.of ^h^fi:, 
OfKn country- l^he inquisition takes cognizance :of all new bool^ aj»4 
is it fi9t,the.p^ce.9f the attorney-general.here V^ do the same^ Is he . 
npt empowered to. file ex oficio informations against, any author or- 
publisher whp may wri^e ,or publish what he may deem a libel? bi : 



€€ 



€t 
it 
if 
U 



REVtfiW OP F65r«'» 

asfldie peraoA so tafeiMBd i^itist pirt'ta ebflnlcferable exp^fl^ irhd ifl« 
oowirfNii«iiee i» defend himseff^ Had, if (bund guilty itf tbe offtiUm of tlie 
jury, contigned to priMH at tiie discretion of hia judges) Asto^^e 
jmiiee and tmparlMxty by whitoh all the proceedings of the inquisition 
nre diitaiigiiS8hed> do wis not see tbe partisans of tbMe inpov^rbere 
aUowei toi do tkiH which an opponent of the ministry ddite dot tb? 
Pny what can w<e think of the< fitct that While Mr. Hone was thtfee 
aic^itted' hj London juHes for writing and pubfishing a pK^itieal pa- 
fody on the litlHPgy of the established church, a publisher Of Hhe same 
w^rk' itti th» eountry was found guilty by another' jury^ and* selit^ to pri- 
son for the offence. If the familiars of the inquisition are too igtiora&t 
and bigotted to distinguish truth, w<e can say the seme bf' the ''few 
plaiU'Chi^istians^** if Hke formed read With prejudice, &b.; i^iHtf mis- 
a^y, oonfonnd,- fltd pertert tlie«ense of the author, &fe. is nottbistlie 
cflse in Sngtandt Can any one be so unacqUiditftM with 'the proceed- 
ings ttetm in libel cases as not to discover this'Sinii9arttf> Areiibt 
oouns^ engaged and paid, 1^ one to misapply, confomid and perreH, 
tlleiOtUer- to defend, elneidateand justify the authi>r. Are niOC ttitfiMs 
sometimes (to be sure it i« rarely) acquitted of libel casee b^ En^tstod) 
aU ia not tbe<prosecutfon of course founded upon '^falee conceptions 
''and* designed^ misrepresentbtkms?" 

Weeome ndw to'paragiraphs 3 and 3; which relate to -th^dehsttre of 
u We wiltnot here ent^r into the pfoprietyoFaceilsbirshipitlunigh 
weiscvu}^ not to say, that tliiat' society must be'tnore hap/py and' free 
wheeeMsdbood'is suppressed etnd'truth preserved, ihfetn where falftdibod 
and immeridityib idlowed with impunity, and tM;h; if^t<^^o6pUtitdji 
f wpienlly ' punished. ' By the shewing of the' ^* f<bw plidhi Cltristisiis/' 
tliem*ia<8it least some appea:nuice of justlceaiid consistency' in thii^ Ades 
of the- censorship: Workaare not wholly suppreksM it i^inS, uifless 
they are wholly objectionri»l&5 but- by ertLSing" the objectfbnbblb p»- 
niges^oralteHngihem,thewor^ih«y bepubKsfaedi' Th?is»'i^e^olatioD, 
wi^take iifb^ngMmted; re^nrdrworlia^iit manuscript; iBie*i^dfot« if tlie 
avttior isobsthtate and persists in ptd^ishing tlve voatte^bbjectetf^ibi 
he' does it? at hSe peril' knJOftmgiy ; wtiereas^ in' Bflg^knd'h<r has i*) 
means of knoilHng' what' is right and what is wtoug, untSl^HeiHlole 
ex|MNiBe of printing is incurred, and iihould lie £M^he weight of the 
aMofney^general's displeasure; and a jury is called to git^ their opfmos, 
fot'it is c^vfniovf, bjo^ n^t fad, (except thttt of selling or' writing) thiit 
deierniinesa' libel in Ehglknd, away he goes ^'prison, and i;S^ printer 
probably loses his', bill. 'Phus the jury faerC'are called upon' to pede- 
tM;e into the heart of the defendant; to decide upon his ntbHijetl (ithidi 
iS' the nttribote of God and not of man) and to say whether h'e'Wifivac- 
ttnitedby moffce. As* the catalogue of prohibitled bdokfrarenladepnb- 
lie, there can be no plea of ignorance $. and if 'the publisher (^piohibitied 
books wiU set himself up in £Bu;e of the authority of the cOUfitty, wliy 
he must take the consequences that follow thisact of-disob^ence. 
But thisisnot the ease In England; let a book be ever so'obiNMhe abd 
Immar&l^ it may be printed; andliowmany are there of this ^ntttote in 
general circulation in this- kingdom? There is here no laitr' or nde 
laid down by which an author tnay be able to guide; his renncrks, bitf 
afi^is Ueentiousness, utdess some fainfliar gets oifonded;'aird -thenaspy 
is sent to purchase a copy^ an indictment or information follows, the 



€< 
€( 
gf 



BOOK OF MARTYRS. 'm 

puUishftsr 18 fined aBdimprbonied, and Msmetimes mined inrhis circQnr*' 
stances, aad obliged to pass the reinaindtr of kis ]lfe inpriBoncfr in p9*' 

i» paragrapb4. wei llave a lamentation oTer the ignovmice and t^uper-** 
statioa of the people Ibring utider the inquisition 3 but vre segahi< «af M 
the '^'0laii» Christians^" look at lomei^^We »e ready to MoW timt 
th^eis miiieh> usefiil kncmtaigie to be found in>finglsnd:no«r anl^ttg: 
the asiddldag. ranks of life ^ but if we h)ok back only a eehtutyipiat^ 
we shalii find that as nauoh^ nay more, ignorance and eoperstiiron pve*- 
vailed in England as etner could exist in Spain -and PortiagaU . The mo* 
dern editors talk of tfmkmg being proscribed, ^ and thought itself chain* 
eddbwn,,and choalked by 1^ fear of its escaping into expression, and 
thus bringing certain and cruel punishment on him ^ho has dared td' 
exercise his reason, the noblest^lt of his- Almighty Creator,' *«*<^urely 
we must lire under ablessed state of freedom> ^en such taekpressib£Ey> 
gri^is raised at ^e state of Spain. And yel^ reader, let it not be fbts^ 
gotten^ ti^ while these men are vomiting their execrationa agaaist> 
the Spanish inquisitors- for chaining, down thought, should any mu» 
^Atitifc 'meanly df thegovemment and legislature of this country, he dixre 
not let his thoughts escape into writing, or he is sure of *' bringing 
'' certain and cruel punishment on him who has dared &ua to exercise 
''his reason,, the noblest gift of his Almighty Creator $** there being u 
low thoti subjects a man to imprisonnaent and traQsportatton shoidd he 
write any thing that may tend to brine tiie goverm&ent and parliament 
intO'Cfintempt. Are* the '' few plain C%ristian»*' awar>e that Mp, Cobbett • 
wa» shut up. two years in Newgate^ and paid a ftae of ooe tiiousand 
pounds^' besides entering into heavy recognizances, for expressing his 
thoughts* 5 for daring '' to exercise his reasouy the noblest gift of QodJ* 
-«*Iiave they forgot that Mr. L. Hunt, and his brother Mr. John H«iit, 
hte^e both- suffered fine and imprisomnent in Coldbath*fiekls: prison for 
expressiag»'thefi» thoughts ? A number of other inetances could be ffto* 
dveediWhereEogUshmen have been punished for daring ^'toeoiercise^ 
'' tMir reasonytte^noblest giaof the Almighty Cre8tov.**-^Wie shoulA- 
rejoice, with ewry well-wisher to the human race, in thedowttfolldf - 
all barbarous and infernal i^ibunals 3 and if the attempts- made to esto^ 
blisk them in Spain are iniqidtous, vre detest and abhor them. HowofRer, 
vfe cannot help femihding the '' few plain* Christians'* that we are not 
disposed to take their aeoountof the conduct of the inquisitkm for our 
guides and we think they would be as charitably employed in endear- 
Touting to ameliorate the condition of their own countrymen and the 
people of Ireland, instead of spending their hypocriticcil benevolence 
on those whoiieither ask them for it nor stand in need of it. 

It is a foiling peculiar to the English, since the people have been 
Ptolieatantifeed, to miiid ev<ery body*s business and neglect- their own. 
TlittS, every opportuiiity is taken to relate the horrors of the inqui^tibn 
in foreign countries^ but eearce any attention is given to the internal 
state df their own.. Noise enough is made of the number of jiersons said 
t0 be bumt by the inquisition, and the more marvellous the statement 
the more readily it is believed. It is represented that the pominicanr 
TVM^uemado^ instituted more than 80,000 jiiridical processes in the 
spaoe^ol. fourteen years^ This the abM Bergier soys id evidently aa 



«i8 . REVIEW OF FOK. 

exaggextilkfti. W^ tfaank:n> loo» ' It #a8 stated in The Timesr daily pa- 
per^ of March ^1^ I880> under the head Spaiush inteUigence^ that from 
the year 1621 to 1665, a space of 44 years^ 2,816 persons were bamt 
alive by the inquisition; makkig an average of 64 in a year.- Fnmi 
1665 ta 1700, a space of thirtyrfive fears; 1,728, atehiging little JBOore 
tiiab 40 in a ye^r. From 1700* to 1746, a spdce of Ibny-six yelurs;' 
I>S64v beaag an average of t^irty-fonr anlkuaHy^ From 1746 to 1754; 
a period of eight yeaiis^ only liO were biirnt. Fh>m 1759 to 1788, a> 
space of twentj*-nlne years^ no more than four suffered. . Froiiii 1788 
ta LSOS,-^ piiriod of fiO y«ai^s, not ONE ilidividaal was bui^t/ Such is 
the sftitemeiit in Tire Times, )mper, and it is alleged to be 'given to shew 
the diminution of ito violence mdi the increase of knowledge. Siooe 
then ihia tnUbunid is grown so harmless and inoffensive-, that njot ONE 
single peraon hftS^boefti tnifcHed by it within the last thirty-six years/ 
and only fiMU^ within tht last fifty-^ine years, is it not infiuny in the- 
extreme to'eadea^ouitto exei^ ahatred and abhorrencfe in the'mindsof 
Bnaleilanfts stgninst thciirCa$hdlio neighbours, by idean&fdf exa^erated 
and islse. re{)i«atotatloos k¥S|N»tanig this tribunals 
' We will now by iVny Nof ciMtBBi chaise the scene, and take a view - 
of the situation of Piiotottant England. . Let us here Qb6el^ve, that the 
ioqloisitiom takeb Icogiiizanfce.of other fences besides that of ha^esy, * 
8tte& to sacrilege, prolanation/i&t:^ said that the ptjople miay not he ig- ' 
norant, thefr-Are frequwtiy jremiaded fram the pulpit of the laws in 
f(irce, a manifest prMf that thete exists in'Spam «id Portugal a. desire 
t» ptilvent an .increase o^feriiAe. We have seen too that as knowledge 
hiss inortaascd^ the ^ectttiond under the hif|tiiisiitiott have/^creased. 
Biif is this the casft with Pfotesitant Engiand } Wei have niMr b^ote us 
ah official return bf ^^ tb^ nvaaber df persons charged wiUk criminsl o£- 
" fenfces, who* were committed to. the different gaols, in Engtotd and 
*' Wales fortf iid, from theye^v 1805 to: 1816,? a spaee iof fourteen years, 
from whlish.we mnke the.foUowing selection. Of persolis'comlBiit^i 
there weire 98,4A3, of which liumW 37j^B3 were^dUotNUlged;, no proof 
of giuH hoin^ es^Vshed against, thi^m. Of the 61,^01 convicted, 
8^0 were oond^laned to death, and of these 1,085 w;ere executed, 
making an average of better than seventy*four pejrsond in a year, whick 
exceeds the .mnmber laid to the charge of fJie in<iuisitlon two bundled 
yiaairs ago. The sufferei's under the inquisition at the distant peiiod 
attnded tQ> amounted to 9,816. in fbrty^four years, while the. exeOutionfl 
in England, jin the.eidi^ftened days of seriptnral knowledge, as.they are 
caUed, and in one-third of the time, ainounted'to 1,0$$, being nearly 
tworfifthsof those inSpaitii where Bible societies, and Bartlelt s-bidld- 
ings Societies for promoting Christian^Knowledge by slander and lies, 
ai^ not known. When the ^'few plain Christians*' again expatiate on 
the enormities of the inquisition; we would recomoiend them to place 
before their eyes this official account of. the state of the £nglish criminal 
courts, and' we think the balance will be in faf our of the Catholic 
c0ui^ries. Only think. Christian reader, ifjaile thO. papers were ad' 
mitting that from the year ,1TS8 to the present day, fkol: one crimioal 
was executed by the inquisition, in only |>'OURTB£N ye^sqf that 
period ONE THOUSAND AND THIRT¥<riVE of ouir unfortiwiat^ 
faUpW'Creatures were hanged for different. Cfinx^s in this enlightened 



A REVIEW 

OF . 

CHTTKAL AND HISTTORICjU^. 

Mr. 1 a Printed and PuniiOied bv W. E, Awdbewb, 3, Chapter- « . nJt 
i.yu. 13, hiMiie^ouit, S(. PiurjChmrcbyafd, LgndoQ. rnCB Jq. 



EiPLjI NATION Ol" TBI EnORAVI NO. ~lAu Ctl( TtpToentl thl bTOK d'Adrttl lift 

iloIuiMftri tariflrifjjm /breing- his Cathaiic pritmert to jump from llit Uwen upon the 
pika of Ms lolduTS. Thii infiumim Uader of Iheeaspet rrfonien ablieed hii chOditn ta 
waAlltirhandimlheMoodqfCatholKi. -^ ^ '^ ■> 



H OF THE R 

Proteetaat country of England and Wales, where tliought I3 allowed to 
exercise itself in abusing Catholics and their religion witit impunity, 
but where truth is seldom encouraged and sometimes punished. In this 
space of time, too, that is from 1805 to ISIS, no less fhiui ELEV^Pf 
THOUSAND, NINE HUNDRED AND FORTY-THREE persons 
were seuteoeed to banishment in England and Wales. It mi^t herb 
be remarked, that as the labours of the Bible societies increased, and 
their calumnies against the Catholic clergy were multiplied, the num^ 
ber of conviction^ and esecuttons augmented in a frtghtAil degree, I^ 
I813, no less than 7,164 commitments took place, of which number 
1,731 were females — 120 were hanged, and 767 transported. In 1815, 
the number of commitments was 7,818, executions 57, transportations- 
958. In I8I7, committed 13,932, of these S,174 females— executed 
115, transported 1,734. In the year following, 13,567 were sent W 
pritNHi, of whom 2,^33 Were females — 1,^54 were sentenced to deatU, 
97 hanged, and 2,052 transported. 



890 ^ RSVmW OF FOX'S * 

I 

Was ever such a picture as tliit exhibited in any Christian couatrjr? 
yet do we find the prostituted press of this country incessantly boast- 
ing of the wisdom and superiority of its people over other nations. 
Ck>ul4 we give credit to the vain-boasting assertions of the hirelings of 
the press^ this country^— -while exhibiting the most deplorable scene of 
JBimorality and erime \ of nusery and wretchedness on one hand» and 
luxury.and de(>aucliery on the other^ — ^would appear to have reached the 
^ very ^em^ of bliss cuod perfection. What can we think of the illibenility 
and hypocrisy of the ''few plain Christians,*' who have congregated 
to diffuse the most abominable lies and misrepresentations sonong the 
people of England, for the avowed purpose of exciting hatred and ab- 
horrence against one-third of the population of the united empire, 
merely for being Catholic^ white such scenes of dishon^ty and crime 
as we have just described, are going on under *' Protestant«aaeendencyr 
They may talk of the deadening influence qf the inquisition over litera- 
ture \ of prohibiting the finest productions of genius ; of the ignorance 
and superstition of the people ,* but let them tell us whete the i^ss is 
more abused than in England? Where crime is more frequent ? Where 
punishments are more numerous? When they have done this, then let 
them rant, and whine, and lie about the inquisition as much as they 
please ,• we will not oppose them. But until they can do this, we do 
hope the good people of this country will not permit the foul tales (rf 
this Book of Martyrs to have any influence over tbem, but that they 
will keep a steady eye to the situation of their own country^ before they 
trouble themselves with what their neighbours are doing* 

We have frequently referred the reader to the statute-book for proof 
of the inquisitorial and mercenary spirit of '^ Protestant-ascendency" 
towards the professors of Catholicism. As the greater part of our 
readers may not have access to this book, we will here give an abstmct 
of some of the laws passed regarding education, marriage, property, 
and the clergy, which will be sufficient to convey a* just idea of the 
feelings which pervaded those wha could enact apd pass such decrees 
to hwrrassand punish men, women, and children, for no other cause 
than their professing that fieiith which was first planted by the apostles, 
and was.the faith pf England nine hundred" years before a brutal and 
lascivious monarch thought proper to deform it. 

EDUCATION. 
7 W, 3. s. 1. c. 4. Sending a child abroad to be educated in the Popish rellgiou* dtfaer 
ysi a public seminary or a private family » or sending any thing for it» mainleiianee/ was 
jktftuiied with disabUity to sue or prosecute in law or equity for any wrodgor aaydeauMi, 
m'toh^ guardian ' or exedutort to take any thtng %y legacyt deed, or gift; or to hear any 
Kdfee; with ^ft^ture of good^ and chattels, latMb teneamts, fattraditaaE»ttli» aaniiitici, 
oiHces.'ahd t^tes of freehdtd daring life. And a tingle jnstioe i^pon ■napicipB tsi^ 
summon and ^x«mnie the ipenions saspecled» to have evidence, against themsj^vcsr vbA 
suttmbn witnesses to aitfwer upon oath ; and if the oilence seemed pnabahle, bind the sos- 
.pBDted party to the seanonSf and there he was bound to answer.tailMt%; wad shnwW.tiie 
adflHoe^pon trial, ^ipear frottflhU^ dienthe offender is bound tojprove wfaereihe child wiii 
iB^r Vhat the money -va^.^e^t^ And the iud is to be presumed unlawful, till the sospected 
party prove Ute n^otive ; 'and being entered on recofd shall be a coifvictioh, nM only 0f 
the supposed sender of the child, but of the absent child ; and the infant convict shall incor 
the li» diMbilxtifis : add of these forfeitures the |x>oty b to be divided between 6ie kia f 
«GI^ ^ piousriufomieri 



BOOK OF MARTTBS. 3ftl 

Theitt b iadaed ft pro? iio that Uie infant npoo hit iatam or t#ffl?« moBthi after coning 
of ag6> mmyhf pcayflr or motioa in open court, obtain a trial ; but upon that trial he miut 
prove negatively that he was not sent contrary to the act* or it shall be taken for granted 
agamst htm Ms if it had been ftilly proved. And if he should do so* stiU he ihall loose his 
goods and chatties* and all the pro&ts of his lands prior- to his oonvictionft and the rest bd 
restored only upon condition of swreAring certaui oonstramed oatfas^ and making forced 
metaphyncal declarations of belief in open court* 

. N. B. 1V> avoid future repetitionsf it may be here briefly stated* that the oaAs, and de* 
chkratiotts generally intended, throughout, are those of oU^ianeei abhorrence, abjnratiooi 
and against transubstautiation* 

t Ann. s. 1. c. 6. Sending or suffermg to be sent a child under SI, eioept sailors, ship 
boys, merchants^ apprentices, or factors, without special license of the queen or chief go* 
vernor and four privy counsellors, like penalties. * 

A judge or two justices suspecting any child to be sent, may convene father, mother, te- 
latioii or goaitiian, require them to produce the child within two months, and unless they 
prove it ta be in Kngland or Scotland, it is to be convicted as one educated in foreign 
parts, and suffer accordingly. 

8 Ann. s. 3« Protestants converted iirom Popery' mutt educate their children under four- 
teen in the established religion, or forfeit all offices of trust or profit, and be disabled from 
sitting in either house of pariiament, or being barrister or attorney, and be for ev^r disqoa- 
liiied» 

f Amu a. 1. c. 6. Where either father or mother is a Protestant, tlw chancellor is to 
make an order for educating the child a Protestant till eighteen, appointing wiiere it shall 
be educated and how, and also by whom ; the father to pay alt the clwrges diractad by the 
court : and the child may be taken away fh>m the Popish parent. 

7 W. 5. 1. 1. c. 4. Papists are forbid to instruct youth in atty public school, and even.in 
private houses, unless ihose of the family, under pain of fine and imprisonment. 

8 Ann. c. S. s. 15. A Papist teaching publicly or privately, or entertained as an ushe^ to 
a Protestant schoolmaster, to be esteemed a PopUh reguiar ckrgifman canfict, and suffix all 
the puns inflicted upon such, that is, Ist^ to be imprisoned in the common gaol ; Sd, to b0 
transported ; dd, if he returns to his friends and native land, to suffer as a traitor. Any 
person entertain