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al |_-.:. :.-.-:: / / books . qooqle . com/| 

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. If/ »ti/u fne Mt-an-eriy v/ fifty twit/ «u r/rni/y, j 
&tfi&M*3C.i~yfifoc Jott-ntt of fissl-tj ■■« sy/iav€e t^urttteay .men- 


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af tetrae -Jju»A/*iu*</. ,t/id M* 


the Wt&le inifrsper-tfd with Ob/erra/ions, ~~ 

E^^ents of Elocution. i« l '^ 

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I*t inaecnce of the Greek and Latin Accent and Quantity, on the Accent and Quantity of the English, 
is thoroughly examined, and clearly defined ; and the Analogies of the Language are so 
' felly shown as to lay the Foundation of a Consistent and Pitkin) Pronunciation. 



Aad Directions to Foreigners, for acquiring a knowledge of the use of this Dictiontry, 




Author of Elements of Elocution. Rhyming Dictionary, &c &c. 

d Bert paint, «« waa oaaia, at tox, tatfvi ahnnam arbh olesat: at «rstio Roeus* plaat vidaaav, 








Ew* subjects have of late years mora employed the pens of every class of criticks thaa 
the improvement of the English Language. The greatest abilities in the nation have 
been exerted in cultivating and reforming it ; nor have a thousand minor criticks been 
wanting to add their mite of amendment to their native tongue. Johnson, whose large 
mind and just taste made him capable of enriching and adorning the Language with 
original composition, has condescended to the drudgery of disentangling, explaining, and 
arranging it, and left a lasting monument of his ability, labour, and patience ; and 
Dr. Lowth, the politest scholar of the age, has veiled his superiority in his shoit In- 
troduction to English Grammar. The ponderous folio has gravely vindicated the 
rights of analogy ; and the light ephemeral sheet of news has corrected errours in 
Grammar, as well as in Politics, by slyly marking them in italics. 

Nor has the improvement stopped here. While Johnson and Lowth have been 
msensibly operating on the orthography and construction of our Language, its pro- 
aunciation has not been neglected. The importance of a consistent and regular pro- 
nunciation was too obvious to be overlooked ; and the want of this consistency and 
regularity has induced several ingenious men to endeavour at a reformation; who, 
by exhibiting the irregularities of pronunciation, and pointing out its analogies, have 
reclaimed some words that were not irrecoverably fixed in a wrong sound, and pre- 
vented others from being perverted by ignorance or caprice. 

Among those writers who deserve the first .praise on this subject is' Mr. Elphin- 
stoa, who, in hia Principles of the English Language, has reduced the chaos to a 
system; and, by a deep investigation of the analogies of our tongue, has laid the 
foundation of a just and regular pronunciation. 

After him Dr. Kenrick contributed a portion of improvement by his Rhetorical 
Dictionary; in which the words are divided into syllables as they are pronounced, and 
figures placed over the vowels, to indicate their different sounds. But this gentleman 
has rendered his Dictionary extremely imperfect by entirely omitting a great number 
of words of doubtful and difficult pronunciation— ^those very words for which a Dic- 
tionary of this kind would be. most consulted. 

To him succeeded Mr. Sheridan, who not only divided the words into syllables, 
■ad placed figures over the vowels, as Dr. Kenrick had done; but, by spelling these 
syllables as they are pronounced, seemed to complete the idea of a Pronouncing Dic- 
tionary, and to leave but little expectation of future improvement It must, indeed, 
be ronf e isc d that Mr. Sheridan's Dictionary is greatly superior to every other that 
preoedsd it; and his method of conveying the sound of words, by spelling them as 
they are pronounced, is highly rational and useful; — but here sincerity obliges me to 
"lop. Hie numerous instances I hare given of impropriety, inconsistency, and want 
of acquaintance with the analogies of the Language, sufficiently show how imper- 
fect* I think hia Dictionary is upon the whole, and what ample room was left for 
another that might better answer the purpose of a Guide to Pronunciation. 

Nos. IM, 1*9, U», SM, 4M, 40*,471> f 4M, 630 ; and the words 4uwm, Colli cl, 
" AsMcfjr, *t«. and the mseparaM* preporitkm JHi. 


Tho la*t writer on this subject u Mr. Nares, who, in his Elements of Orthoepy, 
has shown a clearness of method and an extent of observation which deserve the 
highest encomiums. His Preface alone proves him an elegant writer, as well as a 
philosophical observer of Language; and his Alphabetical Index, referring near tire 
thousand words to the roles for pronouncing them, is a new and useful method of 
treating the subject; but he seems, on many occasions, to have mistaken the best 
usage, and to have paid too little attention to the first principles of pronunciation. 

Thus I have ventured to give my opinion of my rivals and competitors, and I hope 
without envy or self-conceit. Perhaps it would have been policy in me to hare 
been silent on this head* for fear of putting the publick in mind that others have writ- 
ten on the subject as well as myself: but this is a narrow policy, which, under the 
colour of tenderness to others, is calculated to raise ourselves at their expense. A writer 
who is conscious he deserves the attention of the publick (and, unless he is thus 
conscious, he ought not to write) must not only wish to be compared with those who 
have gone before him, but will promote the comparison by informing his readers 
what others have done, and on what he founds his pretensions to a preference ; and 
if this be done with fairness, and without acrimony, it can be no more inconsistent 
with modesty than it is with honesty and plain dealing. 

The Work I have to offer on the subject has, I hope, added something to the pub- 
lick stock : it not only exhibits the principles of pronunciation on a more .extensive 
plan than others have done, divides the words into syllables, and marks the sounds 
of the vowels like Br. Kenrick, spells the words as they are pronounced like Mr. 
Sheridan, and directs the inspector to the rule by the word like Mr. Nares; but, 
where words are subject to different pronunciations, it shows the reasons from analogy 
for each, produces authorities for one side and the other, and points out the pro- 
nunciation which is preferable. In short, I have endeavoured to unite the science of 
Mr. Elphinston, the method of Mr. Nares, and the general utility of Mr. Sheridan ; 
and, to add to these advantages, have given critical observations on such words as 
are subject to a diversity of pronunciation, and have invited the inspector to decide 
according to analogy and the best usage. 

But to all works of this kind there lies a formidable objection ; which is, that the 
pronunciation of a Language is necessarily indefinite and fugitive, and that all en- 
deavours to delineate or settle it are 4n vain. Dr. Johnson, in his Grammar prefixed 
to his Dictionary, says, " Most of the writers on English Grammar have given long 
tables of words pronounced otherwise than they are written; and seem not sufficiently 
to have considered, that, of English, as of all living tongues, there is a double pro- 
nunciation; one cursory and colloquial, the other regular and solemn. The cursory 
pronunciation is always vague and uncertain, being made different, in different mouths, 
by negligence, unskilfulness, or affectation. The solemn pronunciation, though by no 
means immutable and permanent, is yet always less remote from the orthography, and 
less liable to capricious innovation. They have, however, generally formed their 
tables according to the cursory speech of those with whom they happened to con- 
verse; and, concluding that the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one 
manner, have often established the jargon of the lowest of the people as the model of 
speech. For pronunciation the best general rule is, to consider those as the most 
elegant speakers who deviate least from the written words." 

Without any derogation from the character of Dr. Johnson, it may be asserted that 
in these observations we do not perceive that justness and accuracy of thinking for 
which he is so remarkable. It would be doing great injustice to him to suppose 
that he meant to exclude all possibility of conveying the actual pronunciation of 
many words that depart manifestly from their orthography, or of those that are 
written alike, and pronounced differently and inversely. He has marked these dif- 
ferences with great propriety himself in many places of his Dictionary ; and it is to 
be regretted that he did not extend these remarks further. It is impossible, there- 
fore, he could suppose, that, because the almost imperceptible glances of colloquial 



were not I* be caught -and described by the pen, that the very per- 
•ytihle diffinenee between the initial accented syllable* of mosey and monitor, or the 
fan unaccented syllables of finite and ta)l*ife, conld not be sufficiently marked upon 
aner. Cannot we show that cellar, a vault, and teller, one who sells, have exactly 
a* anae sound ; or that the monosyllable full, and the first syllable of fulminate, are 
sanded differently, because there are some words in which solemnity will author- 
he a liferent shade of pronunciation from familiarity ? Besides, that colloquial 
awaaaciation which U perfect is so much the language of solemn speaking, that, 
tstatas, mere hi no more difference than between the same picture painted to be 
rimed near and at a distance. The symmetry in both is exactly the same ; and 
oc distinction lies only in the colouring. The English Language, in this respect, seems 
» km a great superiority oyer the French, which pronounces many letters in the 
■stuck and solemn style that are wholly silent in the prosaick and familiar. But if 
s aokaui and familiar pronunciation really exists in our Language, is it not the busi- 
san ef a gramnuudan to mark both ? And if he cannot point out the precise sound of 
syllables, (for these only are liable to obscurity,) he may, at least, give these 
which approach the nearest, and by this means become a little more useful than 
fate who so liberally leave every thing to the ear and taste of the speaker. 
The truth is, Dr. Johnson seems to hare had a confused idea of the distinctness and ia- 

th which, on solemn or familiar occasions, we sometimes pronounce the 
Towels; and, with respect to these, it must be owned, that his remarks are not 
emrely without foundation. The English Language, with respect to its pronunciation, 
hendently divisible into accented and unaccented sounds. The accented syllables, by 
tdag pronounced with greater force than the unaccented, have their Towels as clearly 
aed distinctly sounded as any given note in musick ; while the unaccented vowels, for 
want of the stress, are apt to slide into an obscurity of sound, which, though sufficiently 
diiuuguishable to the ear, cannot be so definitely marked out to the eye by other sounds 
at those vowels that are under the accent. Thus some of the rowels, when neither under 
fa ascent nor closed by a consonant, hare a louger or a shorter, an opener or a closer 
SBaad, according to the solemnity or familiarity, the deliberation or rapidity, of our de- 
livery. This will be perceived in the sound of the e in emotion, 9 of the o in obedience, 
and of the « in monument. In the hasty pronunciation of common speaking, the e in 
awh sa is often shortened, as if spelt im-tno-tion ; the o in obedience shortened and obscured, 
sj if written uh-be-di-enct ; and the ti in monument changed into e, as if written mon-ne- 
saat; while the deliberate and elegant sound of these vowels is the long open sound 
ftey have when the accent is on them in equal, over, and unit: but a, when unaccented, 
SJHM to have no such diversity; it has generally a short obscure sound, whether ending 
s syUeble, or closed by a consonant Tnus the a in able has its definite and distinct 
ssssd ; but the same letter in tolerable t goes into an obscure indefinite sound, approach* 
hg the short u; nor can any solemnity or deliberation give it the long open sound 
h hu in the first word. Inns, by distinguishing Towels into their accented and 
ssscceated sounds, we are enabled to see clearly what Dr. Johnson saw but obscurely; 
ssd by mis distinction entirely to answer the objection. 

Equally indefinite and uncertain is his general rule, that those are to be considered as 
the auet elegant speakers who deviate least from the written words. It is certain, where 
carton is equal, this ought to take place ; and if the whole body of respectable English 
speakers were equally divided 1n their pronunciation of the word buoy, one half pro- 
tsustmg it' bew-ze, % and the other half biz-xe, that the former ought to be accounted 
the most elegant speakers ; but, till this be the case, the latter pronunciation, though 
* peas deviation from orthography, will still be esteemed the more elegant. Dr. John- 
eoa'i general rule, therefore, can only take place where custom has not plainly decided; 
sat, ■afbrtunatery for the English Language, its orthography and pronunciation are so 

• Bee the wore* Collect, Command, Jhtpatck» Domestic**, Effoxe> Occanon* 
? Principle*, No*. 88, MS. 
» % Principle*, No. ITS. 


widely diflferent, that Dr. Watts and Dr. Jones lay it down as a maxim In their Treatise* 
on Spelling, that til words which can be sounded different ways most be written accord- 
ing to that sound which is most distant from the true pronunciation ; and consequently, 
in such a Language, a Pronouncing Dictionary must be of essential use. 

But still it may be objected to such an undertaking, that the fluctuation of pronunciation 
is so great as to render all attempts to settle it useless. What will it awn us, it may 
be said, to know the pronunciation of the present day, if in a few years it wirl be al- 
tered ? And how are we to know even what the present pronunciation is, when the same 
words are often differently pronounced by different speakers, and those, perhaps, of equal 
numbers and reputation ? To this it may be answered, that the fluctuation of our Lan- 
guage, with respect to Its pronunciation, seems to hare been greatly exaggerated.* Ex- 
cept a rery few single words, which are generally noticed in the following Dictionary, 
and the words where e eomes before r, followed by another consonant, as merchttnt y service, 
ezc. the pronunciation of the Language is probably in the same state in which it was a cen- 
tury ago ; and, had the same attention been then paid to it as now, it is nottikely even that 
change would have happened. The same may be observed of those words which are dif- 
ferently pronounced by different speakers : if the analogies of the Language had been 
better understood, it is scarcely conceivable that so many words in polite usage would 
have a diversity of pronunciation, which is at once so ridiculous and embarrassing; nay, 
perhaps it may be with confidence asserted, that if the analogies of the Language were 
sufficiently known, and so near at hand as to be applicable on inspection to every word, 
that not only many words which are wavering between contrary usages would be settled 
m their true sound, but that many words, which are fixed by custom to an improper 
pronunciation, would by degrees grow regular and analogical ; and those which are so 
already would be secured in tbeir purity, by a knowledge of their regularity and 

• The old and new 'Art*, with alt the various dialects, most have occasioned infinite irregularity 
In the pronunciation of the Greek tongue -, and if we may judge of the Latin pronunciation by the 
ancient inscriptions, it was little less various and irregular than the Greek. Aultre Gellins tells as 
that Nigidius, a grammarian who lived a little more than a century before him, acuted the first syl- 
lable of VaUrl; but, says be, " si quis nunc ValerUtm appellans in casu vocandi secundum id prav 
oeptara Nigidii acuerit primara, non aberit quin rideatnr." Whoever "how should place the accent 
on the first syllable of Valerius, when a vocative case, according to the precept of Nigidius, would 
set every body a laughing. Even that highly polished language, the French, if we may believe a 
writer in the Encyclopedic, is little less irregular in this respect than our own. 

M II est arrive," says he, " par les alterations qui se succedent rapidement dans la maniere de pro- 
noncer, et les corrections qui s'introduisent lentement dans la maniere d'ecrire, que laprononctatioa 
et recriture ne marcbent point ensemble, et que quoiqu'il y ait ches les peuples les plu* polices de 
l'Buropc, des sociltes d'hommes de lettres charges des les moderer, des les accorder, et de les rap. 
prooher de la meme ligne, el les se trouvent enfin a une distance inconce vable ; ensorte que de deux 
cnoses dent l'une n*a It* imagine* dans son origine, que pour reprejenter Addlement 1'autre, celle- 
cl ne dlflere guere moins de celle-la, que le portrait de la meme personne peinte dans deux ages tres- 
eloignef . Bnan l'inconvenient s'est accru a un tel exces qu'on n'ose plus y remoter. On prononce 
une .langue, on ecrit une autre : et Pon s*accoutume tellement pendant le reste de la vie a eette biaarw 
rerie qui a fait verser tant de larmes dans l'enfance, que si l'on renoneoit a sa mauvaise ortno* . 
graphe pour une plus voisine dela prononciation, on ne reconnottroit plus la langue pailee sous eette 
nouvetle combtnaison de caracteres. S'il y en a qui ne pourroient se succe'der sans une grande fa- 
tigue pour l'organe, on ils ne se rencontrent point, oo/ils ne durent pas. Us sont echappes de la 
langue par l'euphonie, eette loi pnissante, qui agit continnellement et nniversellement sane egard 
pour l'&ymologie et ses dlfenseurs, et qui tend sans intermission a amener des Itres qui ont les 
monies organes, le meme ididme, les mimes mouvemens prescrits, e-peu-pres a la meme prononcia- 
tion* Les causes dont Taction n'est point interrompue, deviennent toujours les plus fortes avec les 
tens, quelque foibles qu'ellea soient en elles-memes, et fl n'y a presque pas une seule voyelle,' une 
seule diphthongoe, une seule oonsonne, dont la valenr sort tellement constante, qae l'euphonie n 
puisse disposer, soit en alterant le son, soit en le supprinianL" 

I shall not decide upon the justness of these complaints, but most observe that a wonse 
picture could scarcely be drawn of the English, or the most barbarous language of Europe. 
Indeed a degree of versatility seems involved in the very nature of language, and n one of those 
evils left by Providence for man to correct : a love of order, and the utility of regularity, will al- 
ways incline him to confine this versatility within as narrow bounds as possible. 


propriety is gross and palpable; besides such imperfections in pronunciation as disgust every 
ear act accustomed to them, there axe a thousand insensible deviations, in the more minnta 
parts of langsfege, as the unaccented syllables may be called, which do not strike the eat 
s» forcibly as to mark any direct impropriety in particular words, bat occasion only such a 
grarnl imperfection as gives a bad impression upon the whole. Speakers with these 
peas very well in common conversation ; but when they are required to pro* 
with «■— r ka * ia ? *nd for that purpose to be more distinct and definite in their utter- 
here their ear fails them ; they have been accustomed only to loose cursory speaking, 
sad, for want of firmness of pronunciation, are like those painters who draw the muscular 
exertions of the human body without any knowledge of anatomy* This is one reason, per- 
mot, why we find the elocution of so few people agreeable when they read or speak to an 
assembly, while no few offend us by their utterance in common conversation. A thousand 
fcuhs lie concealed in a miniature, which a microscope brings to view ; and it is only by 
pnmoameing on* larger scale, as publiek speaking may be called, that we prove the pro- 
pristy ef our elocution. As, therefore, there are certain deviations from analogy which 
m net at any rate tolerable, there are others which only, as it were, tarnish the pronnn- 
oatisn, and make it less brilliant and agreeable. There are few who have turned their 
tWafhtB on this subject, without observing that they sometimes pronounce the same word 
orayHabfe in n different manner ; and as neither of these manners offend the ear, they 
art atalossto which they shall give the preference : but as one must necessarily be more 
•ire table to the analogy of the language than the other, a display of these analogies, in a 
Itictkuary of this kind, will immediately remove this uncertainty ; and in this view of the 
variety we shall discover a fitness in one mode of speaking, which will give a firmness and 
sscsrily to our pronunciation, from a confidence that it is founded on reason, and .the gene* 
ftttesdency of the language-— See Principles, Nos. 5t0, 547, 651, etc. 

Bat, alas 1 reasoning on language, however well founded, may be all overturned by a 
enoutrJoo torn Horace— 


** Quern penes arbitriura cm, ei jus et norma loqdendi." 

This, it must be owned, is a succinct way of ending the controversy ; and, by virtue of 
this argument, we may become criticks in language, without the trouble of studying it: 
not that I would be thought, in the most distant manner, to deny that custom is the sove- 
reign arbiter of language; far from it I acknowledge its authority, and know there is 
no appeal from it. I wish only to dispute where this arbiter has not decided; for, if 
once custom speak out, however absurdly, I sincerely acquiesce in its sentence. 

But what is this^ustom to which we must so implicitly submit? Is it the usage of the 
nulutede of speakers, whether good or bad? This has never been asserted by the most 
•ufuiae abettors ef its authority. Is it the usage of the studious in schools and colleges, 
with those of the learned professions, or that of those who, from their elevated birth or 
station, give laws to the refinements and elegancies of a court? To confine propriety to the 
latter, which is too often the case, seems an injury to the former, who, from their very 
profession, appear to have a natural right to a share, at least, in the legislation of language, 
if not to an absolute sovereignty. The polished attendants on a throne are as apt to de- 
put from simplicity in language as in dress and manners ; and novelty, instead of *»ffrm y 
is too often the jut et norma loquendi of a court 

Perhaps an attentive observation will lead us to conclude that the usage which ought 
to direct us is neither of these we have been enumerating, taken singly, but a sort of com- 
pouad ratio of all three. Neither a finical pronunciation of the court, nor a pedantick 
Gmejun of the schools, will be denominated respectable usage* till a certain number of the 
general mass of speakers have acknowledged them ; nor will a multitude of common 
speakers authorize any pronunciation which is reprobated by the learned and polite. 

As those sounds, therefore, which are the most generallv received among the learned 
sad polite, as well as the bulk of speakers, are the most legitimate, we may conclude that 


a majority of two of these states ought always to concur, in order to constitute what i* 
called good usage. 

Bat though custom, when general, is commonly well understood, there are several 
states and degrees of it which are exceedingly obscure and equivocal ; and the only 
method of knowing the extent of custom in these cases seems to be an inspection of those 
Dictionaries which professedly treat of pronunciation. We have now so many works of 
this kmd, that the general current of custom, with respect to the sound of words, may be 
collected from them with almost as much certainty as the general sense of Words from 
Johnson. An exhibition of the opinions of orthoepists about the sound of words always 
appeared to me a very rational method of determining what is called custom. This 
method I have adopted in the following work ; and if I have sometimes dissented from 
the majority, it has been either from a persuasion of being better informed of what 
was the actual custom of speaking, or from a partiality to the evident analogies of the 

And here I must entreat the candid reader to make every reasonable allowance for. the 
freedom with which I have criticised other writers on this subject, and particularly 
Mr. Sheridan. As a man, a gentleman, and a scholar, I knew Mr. Sheridan, and respected 
him; and think every lover of elocution owes him a tribute of thanks for his unwearied 
addresses to the public, to rouse them to the study of the delivery of their native tongue. 
But this tribute, however just, does not exempt him from examination. His credit with 
the world necessarily subjects him to animadversion, because the errors of such a writer 
are dangerous in proportion to his reputation : this has made me zealous to remark his in- 
accuracies, but not without giving my reasons ; nor have I ever taken advantage of such 
faults as may be called inadvertencies.* On the same principles I have ventured to cri- 
ticise Dr. Johnson,t whose friendship and advice I was honoured with, whose memory I 
love, and whose intellectual powers impress me with something like religious veneration 
and awe. I do not pretend to be exempt from faults myself; in a work like the present, 
it would be a miracle to escape them ; nor have I the least idea of deciding as judge fit a 
case of so much delicacy and importance as the pronunciation of a whole people ; I have 
only assumed the part of an advocate to plead the cause of consistency and analogy, mnd, 
where custom is either silent or dubious, to tempt the lovers of their language to incline 
to the side of propriety : so that my design is principally to give a kind of history of pro- 
nunciation, and a register of its present state; and, where the authorities of Dictionaries 
or Speakers are found to diner, to give such a display of the analogies of the language as 
may enable every inspector to decide for himself. 

With respect to the explanation of words, except in very few instances, I have scru- 
pulously followed Dr. Johnson. His Dictionary has been deemed lawful plunder by 
every subsequent lexicographer ; and so servilely has it been copied, tfcat such words as 
he must have omitted merely by mistake, as Predilection, Respectable, Descriptive, Suikf p 
Inimical, Interference, and many others, are neither in Mr. Sheridan's, Dr. Kenrick's, nor 
several other Dictionaries. 

• The inspector will be pleased to take notice that my observation* on Mr. Sheridan's Dictionary 
relate to the first edition, published in his life-time, and the second, some time after his death t 
whatever alterations may have been made by bis subsequent editors 1 am totally 
quarated with. 

t See MeefUek, Sdrrhmt, Csdie, Further, *c. 

JUJLB8 U be etmerved fry the NATIVES *f IRE LA ND, m orJrr to ****** c jmtt 

Brmmmciatiam ofEnghth. 

A$ Mr. Iraertdan was a native of Ireland, and 
bad the best opportunities of understanding those 

Knariues of pronunciation which obtain there, 
ill extract his observations on that subject 
« the best general direction, and add a few of 
■y swa, by way of supplement, which I hope 
edl render this article of instruction still more 


The reader will be pleased to take notice that 
■ leave made a different arrangement of the 
ivutb, and have adopted a notation different 
ana Mr. Sheridan, 1 am obliged to make use of 
liferent fig ores to maik the vowels, bnt still 
ant as perfectly correspond to his. 
"The chief mistakes made by the Irish, In pro- 
English, lie for the most part in the 
of the two first vowels, a and e ; the form- 
er being generally sonnded 1 by the Irish, as in 
tat ward btr, in most words where it is pronoun- 
etd L as m imp, by the English. Thas the Irish 
aw nitron, mltron, the vowel a having the same 
i in the word father ; whilst the English 
ee them as if written pmptron, mavtnm. 
fallowing rale, strictly attended to, will rec- 
Ub mistake through the whole Janguage. 
When the vowel a finishes a syllable, and 
sat ike aeeeaC on it. it is invariably pronounced 
l[<Uv] by the English. To this rale there are 
bat three exception* in the whole language, to be 
fame in the words father, pap! . maml. The Irish 
any think also the word rather an exception, as 
veil v father; and so it would appear to be in 
taeir ssaeaer of pronouncing it ri-ther, laying the 
accent on the vowel a / but in the English pro- 
Bssctanoa the consonant Sk is taken into the first 
salable, as than, rmih'er, which makes the dif- 

■BTCQCe. «• 

" Wheaever a consonant follows the vowel m 
* the tame syllable, and the accent is on the 
eossoaaat, the vowel a has always its fourth 
•end, as hit, man ; as also the same sound length- 
end when it precedes the letter r, as flr % blr, 
tbeegk the accent be on the vowel ; as likewise 
vara it precedes ins, as balm, psilm. The Irish . 
igsoaat of this latter exception, pronounce all 
•eras of that structure as if they were written 
, pssvss, esespaa, eesrss, Ac. In the third 
of a, marked by different combinations ot 
vswela or consonants, such as ess, in Paul ; aw, 
la law ; aU, in call ; aid, in bald ; aUt, in talk, 
Ac. the Irish make no mistake, except in that of 
As, as before mentioned. 

The second vowel, e, is for the most part 

et by the English, when the accent is 
H ; whilst the iruhjn most words give it 
tae aoead of slender 1, sarin hate. This sound oi 
l[tt\ is marked by different combinations of 
vowels, men as ea, ei, e final mute, ee, and !e. 
la the ten last combinations of ee and ie the 
Irak never mistake; such as in meet, seem, 
JMs, believe, ax. ; but in all the others they al- 
aant aaiversally change the sound of • into &• 
Ikes, in the combination ea, they pronounce the 
eenis tea, me, flea**, as if they were spelt toy, 
an, play t ; instead of tee, see, pteese. The English 
eoastantly give this sound to em whenever the 
aceeatn on the vowel e, except in the following 
wort*, -re**, a pear, a bemr, to bemr, to ferbemr, 
to sneer, to ajar, to wear. In all which the e 
■as the sound of i in bite. For want of knowing 
these exceptions, the gentlemen of Ireland, after 
sane time of residence in London, are apt to fall 
am the general role, and pronounce these words 
■ if spelt great, beer, eweer, Ac. 

" Ja is also sounded ee by the English, and as 
I by the Irish ; thas the word decent , receive, are 
sroeoanced by them as if written deemte, reeeme. 
m a always sonnded ee, except when a g follows 
it. asm the words reign, feign, deign, Ac.; as 
she in the words rein (of a bridle), refc*-deer, 
•da, areas, mU, heir, which are pronounced like 
aaa), fsBta, srrene, aaw, mer* 

- The final mute e makes the preceding e it 
the same syllable, when accented, have the 
sound of ee, as in the words supreme, sincere, re- 
pUte. This rule is almost universally broken 
through by the Irish, who pronounce all such 
words as if written su prime, sinclre, repUte, Ac. 
There are but two exceptions to this rule in the 
English pronunciation, which are the words Mere, 

" In the way of marking this sound, by a double 
e, as thus, ee, as the Irish never make any mis- 
takes, the best method for all who want to ac- 
quire the right pronunciation of these' several 
combinations is to suppose that ea, ei, and e. at 
tended by a final mute e, are all spelt with a 
double e, or ee. 

" JEy is always sounded like a by the English, 
when the accent is upon it ; as in the words prep, 
eenvew, pronounced pray, eenemp. To this there 
are but two exceptions, in the words kty and Uy t 
sounded Jree, lee. The Irish, in attempting to pro- 
nounce like the English, often give the same 
sound to ey as usually belongs to Hj thas for 
prey, convey, they say, pree, cenvee. 

" A strict observation of these few rules, with 
a due attention to the very few exceptions enu- 
merated above,will enable the well-educated na- 
tives of Ireland to pronounce their words exact» 
lv in the same way as the more polished part of 
the inhabitants of England do, so far as the 
vowels are concerned. The diphthongs they 
commit no fault in, except in the sound of 1, 
which has been* already taken notice of in the 
Grammar* : where, likewise, the only difference 
in pronouncing any of the consonants has been 
pointed Out ; which is, the thickening the 
sounds of d and f, in certain situations ; and 
an easy method proposed of correcting this 
habit f. 

" In order to complete the whole, I shall now 
give a list of Such detached words, that do not 
come under any of the above rules, as are pro. 

• " Vide page 11, where the true manner of pro* 
nouneing the diphthong i is pointed out ; the Irish 
pronouncing it mnch in the same manner as the 

t " The letter d has always the same sound by 
those who pronounce English well ; but the pro. 
vincials, particularly the Irish, Scotch, and 
Welch, in many* words thicken the sound by a 
mixture of breath. Thus, though they sound the 
d right in the positive loud and bread, in the com- 
parative degree they thicken it by ait aspiration, 
and sound it as if it were written laudher, bread- 
her. This vicious pronunciation is produced by 
pushing the tongue forward so as to touch the 
teeth in forming that sound : and the way to core 
it is easy ; for, as they can pronounce the d pro- 
perly in the word lend, let them rest a little upon 
that syllable, keeping the tongue in the position 
of forming d, and then let them separate it from 
the upper gum without poshing it forward, and 
the sound der will be produced of course : for the 
organ, being left In the position of sounding d at 
the end of the syllable tend, is necessarily in the 
position of forming the same d in uttering the last 
syllable, unless it makes a new movement, as ha 
the case of protruding it so as to touch the teeth. 
This letter is sometimes, though not often, qui- 
escent, as in the words kemdkerchief, handsome, 

" In pronouncing the letter t, the Irish and 
other provincials thicken the sound, as was be. 
fore mentioned with regard to the d: for better 
they say bettker; for utter, ntther ; and so on in 
all words of that structure. This faulty manner 
arises from the same cause that was mentioned as 
affecting the sound of the d (I mean the protruding 
of the tongue so as to touch the teeth,) and H 
euraWe only In the same war. 



souncod differently in Ireland from what they 
are in England : 



g«th>r f (gather) 




pish, , 




kltch, (catch) 
ciarse, .( coarse) 
ciurse, (course) 

SuSsh, (quash) 
zh'ur, (leisure) 
Mi'kil, (Michael) 
drftth, (drought) 
siren, (search) 
siurce, (source) 

strength, (strength) 
knth, (length) 
strftv, (strove) 
driv, (drove) 

wrlth, (wroth) 

shism, (schism J 
brltb, (breadth) 
eowld, (cold) , 












bowld, (bold) 



f&t, (foot) 


talon, (onion) 


rtah. (reach) 













" These, after the closest attention, are all the 
words, not included in the rules before laid down, 
that 1 have been able to collect, in which the 
well-educated natives of irelaud differ from those 
of England." 

I shall make no observations on the accuracy 
of this list, but desire my reader to observe, that 
the strongest characteristic ks of the pronunciation 
of Ireland is the rough jarring pronunciation of 
the letter R, and the aspiration or rough breath- 
ing before all the accented vowels. (Por the 
true sound of R, see that letter in the Principle*, 
No. 410.) And for the rough breathing or aspi- 
ration of the vowels, the pupil should be told not 
to bring the voice suddenly from the breast, but 
to speak, as it were, from the mouth only. 

It may be observed, too, that the natives of Ire- 
land pronounce m at the end of a word so dis- 
tinctly as to form two separate syllables. Thus 
storm and farm seem sounded by them as if writ- 
ten stauwum, fa-rum ; while the English sound 
the r so soft and so close to the *», that it seems 
pronounced nearly as if written statcm,faam. 

Nearly the same observations are applicable to 
Im. When these letters end a word, they are, in 
Ireland, pronounced at such a distance, that 
helm and realm sound as if written hel-um and 
rel-um j but in England the I and m are pro 
nounced as close as possible, and so as to form 
but one syllable. To remedy this, it will be ne- 
cessary tor the pupil to make a collection sf 
words terminating with these consonants^ and so 
practise them over till a true pronunciattem la 



RULES to be observed fry the NATIVES of SCOTLAND for ottnining a just 

Promunciation of English. 


1 HAT pronunciation which distinguishes the in- 
habitants of Scotland is of a very different kind 
from that.of Ireland, and may be divided inlo the 
$"««tUy, qn*l»*y» • nd acoonttmtkm of the vowels. 
With respect to quantity, it may he observed 
that the scotch pronounce almost all their ac- 
cented vowels long. Thus, if 1 am not mistaken, 
they would pronoance habit, hop-bit ; tepid, tee* 
put; simmer, see-ner ; conscious, caae-fAsss; and 
subject, soohjert • .* it is not pretended, however, 
that every accented vowel is so pronouneed, hot 
that such a pronunciation is very general, and 
particularly of the L This vowel is short in Eng- 
lish pronunciation, where the other vowels are 
loaf ; thas evasion, adhesion, emotion, confusum, 
have the a, e, o, and ss, long ; and in these in- 
stances the Scotch would pronounce them like 
the English : but in vision, decision, Ac. where 
the English pronownce the t short, the Scotch 
lengthen this letter by pronouncing it like oe, as 
if the words were written vee-sien, decee-sum, ice. ; 
and this peculiarity is universal. The best way, 
therefore, to correct this, will be to make a col- 
lection of the most usual words which have the 
vowel short, and to pronoance them daily till a 
habit to formed.— See Principles, No. *»7. 

With respect to the quality of the vowels, it 
may be observed that the inhabitants of Scotland 
are apt to pronoance the m like nap, where the 
English give it the slender sound : thas Baton is 

E renounced S am tan, and fatal, fawtal. It may 
e remarked, too, that the Scotch give this sound 
lo the a pieccded by sv, according to the general 
rule, without attending to the exceptions. Princi- 
ples, No. M ; and thas, instead of making wax, 
weft, and twang, rhyme with tax, shaft, and 
hang, they pronounce them so as to rhyme with 
ear, soft, and sang. The short * in bed. fed, red, 
Ac borders too much upon the English sound of 
m hod, tad, mad, &c. and the short t in bid, lid, 
rid, too much on the English sound of e in bed, 
ted, red. To correct this errour, it would be use- 
ful to collect the long and short sounds of these 
vowels, and to pronounce the long ones first, and 
to shorten them by degrees till they are perfect- 
ly short 5 at the same time preserving the radical 
sound of the vowel In both. Thus the corre- 
spondent long sounds to the e in bed, fed, red, are 
hade, fade, rode ; and that of the short i in bid, 
Jtf, rtf, are bead, lead, reed ; and the former of 
these classes will naturally lead the ear to the 
true sound of the latter, the only difference ly- 

• IVat this is the general mode of pronouncing 

these words in Scot! 

indisputable; and it 

is highly probable that the Scotch have pre* 
served the old English pronunciation, from which 
the English themselves have insensibly departed. 
Dr. Hicks observed, long ago, that the Scotch 
Surmised in their language much more than the 
English ; and it is scarcely to be doubted that a 
situation nearer to the Continent, and a greater 
commercial intercourse with other nations, made 
the English admit of numberless changes which 
aever extended to Scotland. About the reign of 
Queen Elisabeth, when the Greek and Latin 
language* were cultivated, and the pedantry of 
showing amecqoainiance with them became fa- 
shionable, it is not improbable that an alteration 
in the quantity of many words took place : for as 
m Latin almost every vowel before a single con- 
sonant is short, so In English almost every vowel 
in the same situation was supposed to be long, or 
our ancestors would not have doubled the con- 
sonant In the participles of verbs, to prevent the 
preceding vowel from lengthening. But, when 
once this affectation of Latinity was adopted, it 
is no wonder it should extend beyond its prin- 
ciple, and shorten several vowels in English, 
because they were short in the original Latin \ 
and In this manner, perhaps, anient the diversity 
between the quantity or the English and the 
Scotch pronunciation arise, MX, 54*.— See Drama. 


ing in the quantity. The short * m not, todre, 
got, Ac. is apt to slide into Hie short «, as if the 
words were written nut, tudge, gut, See. To rectify 
this, it should be remembered that this is the 
short sound of aw, and ought to have the radical 
sound of the deep a in bait. Thus the tadical 
sound corresponding to the in not, eat, sot, it 
found in naught, caught, sought, tec. ; and these 
long sounds, like the former, should be abbre- 
viated into the short ones. But what will tend 
greatly to clear the difficulty will be, to remem- 
ber that only those words which are collected in 
the Principles, No. 16J, have the • sounded like 
short w when the accent is upon it : and with re 
spect to u in bull, full, jmU, tic. it may be ob- 
served that the pronunciation peculiar to the 
English is only found in the words enumerated^ 
Principles. No. 174. 

In addition to what has been said, it may he 
observed that 00 in food, mood, moon, seen. dtc. 
which ought always to have a long sound, ta ge- 
nerally shortened in Scotland to that middle 
sound ot the u in Mill .* and it mast be remember- 
ed that wool, wood, good, hood, stood, foot, are the 
only words where this sound of se ought to take 

The accentuation, both in Scotland and Ireland, 
(if by accentuation we mean the stress, and not 
the kind of stress,) is so much the same as that of 
England, that I cannot recollect many words in 
which they differ. Indeed, if it were not so, the 
versification of each country would be different: 
for, as English verse is formed by accent or stress, 
if this accent or stress were upon different syl- 
lables in different countries; what is verse in 
England would not be verse in Scotland or Ire- 
land : and this sufficiently shows how very in- 
definitely the word Accent U> generally used. 

Mr. Blphinston, who must be allowed to be a 
competent judge in this case, tells us that in 
Scotland thev pronounce silence, bids, canvass, 
sentence, triumpn, comfirt, solace, construe, res- 
cue, respite, govern, har&ss, ransack, canctl, with 
the accent on the last syllable instead of the 
first. To tills list may be added the word menace. 
which they pronounce as if written menass ; and 
though they place the accent em the last syllable 
of canal, like the English, they broaden the a in 
the last syllable, as if the word were spelt es> 
nawl. It may be farther observed that they 

{dace an accent on the comparative adverb as, 
n the phrases as much, as little, as many, as 
great, Ac. while the English, except in some 
very particular emphatlcal cases, lay no stress 
on this word, but pronounce these phrases like 
words of two or three syllables, without any ac- 
cent on the first. 

But, besides the mispronunciation of single 
words, there is a tone of voice with which these 
words are accompanied that distinguishes a na- 
tive of Ireland or Scotland as much as an impro- 
per sound of the letters. This is vulgarly (and. 
if it does not mean stress only, but the kind of 
stress, 1 think not improperly) called the accent*. 
For though there is an asperity in the Irish dia- 
lect, and a drawl in the Scotch, independent of 
the slides or inflections they make use of, yet It 
may with confidence be affirmed that much of 
the peculiarity which distinguishes these dialects 
may be reduced to a predominant use of one of 
these slides. Let any one, who has sufficiently 
studied the speaking voice to distinguish the 
slides, observe the pronunciation of an Irishman 
and a Scotchman, who have much of the dialect 
of their country, and he will find that the former 
abounds with the falling, and the latter with the 
rising inflection t ; and, if this is the case, a teach- 
er, if he understands these slides, ought to direct 

• See this more fully exemplified in Elements 
of Elocution, Vol. II. page IS. 

i Or rather the rising circumflex. For an ex* 
planation of this inflection, see Rhetorical Grain* 
mar, third edition, page 79. 



nil instruction to as to remedy the imperfection* 
Bat as avoiding the wrong, end seising the right 
at the uune instant, is, perhaps, too great a task 
for human powers, I would advise a native of 
Ireland, who has much of the accent, to pro- 
nounce almost all his words, and end all his sen- 
tences, with the rising slide j and a Scotchman, 
in the same manner, to use the falling Inflection : 
this will, in some measure, counteract the na- 
tural propensity, and bids fairer for bringing the 
pupil to that nearly equal mixture of both slides, 
which distinguishes the English speaker, than 
endeavouring at first to catoh the agreeable va- 
riety. Por this purpose the teacher ought to pro- 
nounce all the single words in the lemon with 
the falling inflection to a Scotchman, and with 
the rising to an Irishman $ and should frequently 
give the pauses in a sentence the same inflection* 
to each of these pupils, where he would vary 
them to a native of England. But, while the hu- 
man voice remains unstudied, there is little ex- 
pectation that litis distinction of the slides should 
be applied to these useful purposes, 

Besides a peculiarity of inflection, which I take 
to he a falling circumflex* directly opposite to 
that of the Scotch, the Weloh pronounce the 
sharp consonants and aspij-attoiis tmtead of the 
flat. (See Principles, No. W, 41.) Thus for big 
they say pick ; for blood, pioot ; and for good, 
coot. Instead of vir.tuo and vice, they say JLrtue 
and Jlce ; instead of teal and praise, they say 
seal and prace ; instead of these and those, they 
say thece and thoce ; and instead of azure and 
osier, they say masher and osher ; and lor jail, 
chail. Thus there are nine distinct consonant 
sounds, which, to the Welch, are entirely useless. 
To speak with propriety, therefore, the Welch 
ought for some time to pronounce the flat con- 
sonants and aspirations only ; that is, they ought 
not only to pronounce them where the letters re- 
quire the flat sound, but even where they require 
the sharp sound : this will be the best way to 
acquire a habit ; and, when this is once done, a 
distinction will be easily made, and a just pro- 
nunciation more readily acquired. 

There is scarcely any part of England remote 
from the capital where a different system of pro- 
nunciation does not prevail. As in Wales they 
6 renounce the sharp consonants for the flat, so 
i Somersetshire they pronounce many of the flat 
instead of the sharp : thus for Somersetshire, they 
say Zomersetshire s for father, vather ; for rAink, 
mink ; and for sure, tthure*. 

There are dialects peculiar to Cornwall, Lan- 
cashire, Yorkshire, and every distant county in 
England ; but, as a consideration of these would 
lead to a detail too minute for the present occa- 
sion, I shall conolude these remarks with a few 
observations on the peculiarities of my country- 
men, the Cockneys ; who, as they are the models 
of pronunciation to the distant provinces, ought 
to be the more scrupulously correct. 

Pi a st Pault or ths Lou von mm.— Pronouncing 
s indistinctly after st. 

The letter s, after st, from the very difficulty 
of its pronunciation, is often sounded inarticu- 
lately. The inhabitants of London, of the lower 
order, cut the knot, and pronounce it in a distinct 
syllable, as if e were before It; but this is to be 
avoided as the greatest blemish in speaking x the 
three last letters in posts, Jlsts, mists, Ac. must 
all be distinctly heard in one syllable, and with- 
out permitting the letters to coalesce. Por the 
acquiring of this sound, it will be proper to select 
nouns that end in st or ste ; to form them into 
plurals, and pronounce them forcibly and dis- 
tinctly every day. The same may be observed 
of the third person of verbs ending in sts or stes, 
as persists, wattes, hastes, Ac. 

Second Pa v lt— Pronouncing yt for v, 
and inversely. 

The pronunciation of v for w. and more fre- 

Snently of to for v, among the inhabitants of Lon- 
on, and those not always of the lower order, is 
a blemish of the first magnitude. The difficulty 
of remedying this defect is the greater, as the 

* See the word Change. 

cure of one of these mistakes has a tendency to> 
promote the other. 

Thus, if you are very careful to make a pupil 
pronounce veal and vinegar, not as if written tweof 
and winegar, you will find him very apt to pro- 
nounce wine and winds* if written ewe and vfW. 
The only method of rectifying this habit seems to> 
be this : Let the pupil select from a Dictionary 
not only all the words that begin with v, but as 
many as he can of those that have this letter in 
any other part- Let him be told to bite his un- 
der lip while he is sounding the v in those words, 
and to practise this every day till he pronounce* 
the v properly at first sight : then, and not till 
then, let him pursue the same method with tee 
w ; whieh he must be directed to pronounce by 
a pouting out of the lips, without suffering them 
tn touch the teeth. Thus by giving all the at- 
tention to only one of these letters at a time, 
and fixing by habit the true sound of that, we 
shall at last find both of them reduced to their 
proper pronunciation in a shorter lime than by 
endeavouring to rectify them both at once. 

Tbied Fault.— -Not sounding h after w. 

The aspirate h is often sunk, particularly in the 
capital, where we do not find the least distinc- 
tion of sound between while and wile, whet and 
wet, where and were, me. The best method to 
rectify this is to collect all the words of this de- 
scription from a Dictionary, and write them 
down ; and, instead of the wA, to begin them with 
hoo in a distinct syllable, and so to pronounce 
them. Thus let while be written and sonnded 
hoc-lie i whet, hoo-et ; where, hoe-are ; whip, hoo-ip, 
ttc. This is no more, as Dr. Lowth observes, 
than placing the aspirate in its true position be- 
fore the w, as it is in the Saxon, which the words 
come from ; where we may observe thai, though 
we have altered the orthography of our ances- 
tors, we have still preserved their pronunciation. 

Poortb Pault.— Net sounding h where it ought 
to be sounded, and inversely. 

A still worse habit than the last prevails,chiefly 
among the people of London, that of sinking the 
h at the beginning of words where it ought to be 
sounded, and of sounding it either where it is 
not seen, or where it ought to be sunk. «ThSs we 
not an frequently hear, especially among chil- 
dren, heart pronounced art, and arm, harm. This 
is a vice perfectly similar to that of pronouncing 
the e for the w, and the w for the e, and requires 
a similar method to correct it. 

As there are so very few words in the language 
where the initial h is sunk, we may select these 
from the rest, and, without setting the pupil 
right when he mispronounces these, or when he 
prefixes h improperly to other words, we may- 
make him pronounce all the words where A is 
sounded, till he has almost forgot there are any 
words pronounced otherwise t then he may go 
over those words to which he improperly prefixes 
the A, and those where the h Is seen, but not 
sounded, without any danger of an interchange. 
As these latter words are but few, I shall subjoin 
a catalogoe of them for the use of the learner: 
Heir, heiress, herb, herbage, honest, hontstp, 
honestlw, honour, honourable, honourably, hospital, 
hostler, hour, hourlf humble, humoio, humble/, 
humour, humourist, h u mo r o u s, humorously, *«! 
moursome: where we may observe, that humour 
and its compounds not only sink the h, bat sound 
the w like the pronoun pen, or the noun mew. as 
if written pewmour, pswmerous, Ac. • 

Thus I have endeavoured to correct some of 
the more glaring erroars of my countrymen, who. 
with all their faults, are still upon the whole the 
best pronouncer* of the English language : for 
though the pronunciation of London is certainly 
erroneous in many words, yet, upon being com- 
pared with that of any other place, it is un- 
doubtedly the best; that is, not only the best bv 
courtesy, and because it happens to be the pro- 
nunciation of the capital, but the best by a better 
title, that of being more generally received : or. 
in other words, though the people of London are 
erroneous In the pronunciation of many words, 
the inhabitants of every other place are erroneous 
in many more. Nay, harsh as the serftence maw 
seem, those at a considerable distance Irons the 


Mptalfa not only . mtensonnnnce many word* 
tabs separately, fiat they scarcely pronounce 

uiitj ft tingle word, syllable, or letter. 

f the short sound of the letter « in trunk, 
t7 4c. diner from the loand of that letter in 
the northern parts of England, where they sound 
it like the s in butt, and nearly as if the words 
were written free**, eoenJ t , Ac it necessarily fol- 
lews that every word where the second sound of 
that letter occurs must by those provincials be 



Bat though the inhabitants of London have 
linn manifest advantage over all the other iaha- 
bitanu of the island, they have the disadvantage 

of beingjnore disgraced by their peculiarities 
than any other people. The grand difference 
between the metropolis and the provinces is, that 
people of education in London are generally free 
from the vines of the vulgar ; but the best edu- 
cated people in the provinces, if constantly re- 
sident there, are sure to be* strongly tinctured 
with the dialect of the country in which they 
live. Hence it is that the vulgar pronunciation 
of London, though not half so erroneous as that 
of Scotland, Ireland, or any of the provinces, U, 
to a person of correct taste, a thousand times 
more offensive and disgusting. 

to s ws w is i a Knowledge ef the Marks in this Dictionary, and to acquire a right 
Prmumeiation of every Ward in the EnglUk Language, 

At the eosrods of the Towels are different in 
efferent languages, it would be endless. to bring 
parallel sounds rrqm the various languages of 
■■rope ; hot, as the French is so generally un- 
derstood upon the Continent, if we can reduce 
the sounds of the English letters to those of the 
French, we shall render the pronunciation of our 
language very generally attainable : and this, it 
Is presomed, will be pretty accurately accom- 
plished by observing the following directions : 

A ei 

N en 

B bi 


C ei 

P pi 

D di 

Q Men 

B i 

R err 

6 %i 

8 est 

T ti 

H etch 

U ton 

I a? 

V vi 

J aji 

W dobtl 

K fai 

X ex 

L eU 

Y euai 

Z wtdd. 

The French have all our vowel sounds, and 
via th e ref o re find the pronunciation of them 
▼err easy. The only difficulty they will meet 
with st um s to be i, which, though demonstrably 
consnoeed of two successive sounds, has passed 
lor a simple vowel with a very competent judge 
of English pronunciation •. The reason is, these 
two e oo n ds are pronounced so closely together 
as to require some attention to discover their 
parte : this attention Mr. Sheridan t 

gave, er he would not have told us that 
this di pn t h on g is n compound of our fullest and 
sl en d e rest soun ds I and s ; the first made by the 
largest, and the last by the smallest aperture of 
the month. Mow nothing is more certain than 
the ianconmcy of this definition. The third sound 
of «. which is perfectly equivalent to the third 
sound of e, when combined with the first sound 
of e, meet inevitably form the diphthong in ftey, 
#•#, etc. and not the diphthongal eflbnd of the 
rel i in Wa 9 and the personal pronoun J; this 
oond will, upon a close examination, be 

to he composed of the Italian m in the last 
syllable of n ame, and the first sound of e, pro- 
sly together as possible J ; and for 

• Wares, Elements of Orthoepy, page ft, 

♦ See Section III. of his Prosodial Grammar, 
prefixed to his Dictionary. 

X Holder, the most philosophical and accurate 
Investigator of the formation and powers of the 
letters, says : " Our vulgar I, as in stile, seems 
to be each a diphthong, (or rather syllable, or part 
of ft syllable,) composed of a, i, or e, f, and not 
n simple original vowel." Elements of Speech, 


Dr. Wellts, speaking of the long English f, says 
ft m sounded M eodem fere modo quo Gallorum 
ei hi voeibns snefe. menus; pens, nan is, &c. 
sennm hanet compositum ex Gallorum e 
fi I vel y." Grammatica Lingua) AnglU 

the exactness of this definition I appeal to every 
just English ear in the kingdom. 

The other diphthongal vowel u is composed of 
the French I, pronounced as closely as possible 
to their diphthong en, or the English is and 4 
perfectly equivalent to the sound tho French 
would give to the letters year, and which is ex- 
actly the sound the English give to the plural ot 
the second personal pronoun. 

The diphthong ei or ey is composed of the 
French & and i ; thus my and bee would be ex- 
actly expressed to a Frenchman by writing them 
tat and Ml. J " 

The diphthongs en and ow, when sounded like 
en, are composed of the French A and the diph- 
thong en/ and the English sounds of ***** and 
new may be expressed to a Frenchman by spell- 
ingthem laden and nfien. 

W is no more than the French diphthong en 
thus West is equivalent to Outst, and wait te 

r is perfectly equivalent to the French lettei 
of that name, and may be supplied by i; thus 
jfcke, yew, &c. is expressed by lake, urn, Ac. 

«/, or /consonant, must be pronounced by pre- 
fixing d to the French J ; thus Joy, Joy, Ac. sound 
to a Frenchman as if spelled aji, dJOi, *>c. It 
any difficulty be found in forming this combina- 
tion of sounds, it will be removed by pronouncing 
the ,/ , » ?*' "»d spelling these words «tfe*, edj&i, &c. 

Ch, in English words not derived from the 
Greek, Latin, or French, is pronounced as if f 
were prefixed ; thus the sound ot chair, cheese, 
chain, ftc. would be understood by a Frenchman 
lf &*,*£*• w . ere w "tt*n fcaere, tchize, i chine. 

Sh in English is expressed by ch in French ; 
thus Mens*, share, tec. would be spelled by a 
Frenchman chime, ehire, ttc. 

The ringing sound ng in long, sang. Sec, may be 
perfectly conceived by a pupil who can pro- 
nounce the French word Encore, as the first 
syllable of thin word 1* exactly correspondent to 
the sound in throe English words ; and for the 
formation of it see Principles, No. 67 ; also the 
word Kncere. 

But the greatest difficulty every foreigner finds 
in pronouncing English is the lisping consonant 
th. This, it mav be observed, ha*, like the other 
consonants, a sharp and flat sound ; sharp as in 
thin, bath; flat as in that, with. To acquire the 
true pronunciation of this difficult combination, 
it may be proper to begin with those words where 
It is initial : and, first, let the pupil protrude his 
tongue a little way beyond the teeth, and press 
It between them as if going to bite the tip of it; 
while this is doing, if he wishes to pronounce 
thin, let him hiss as if to soond the letter #; and 
after the hiss, let him draw back his tongue with- 
in his teeth, and pronounce the preposition in, 
and thus will the word thin be perfectly pro- 
nounced. If be would pronounce that, let him 
place the tongue between the teeth as before ; 
and while he is hissing as if to sound the letter s, 
let him withdraw his tongue Into his mouth, and 
immediately pronounce the preposition at. To 

I pronounce this combination when final in bath, 
et him pronounce en, and protrude the tongue 
beyond the teeth, pressing the tongue with them, 
and hissing as if to sound s ; if he would pie- 

direct*** tt> pomwn***. 

neMce «**, let hira first fotm wf, put the tongue 
in the M«« position -at before, and Mm as if Ho 
sound s. It will be proper to make the pupil 
dwell tome time with the tongue beyond the 
teeth in order to form a habit, and to pronounce 
dally some words oat of a Dictionary beginning 
and ending with these letters. 

These directions. It is presumed, If properly at* 
tended to. will be suflleient to give such foreign- 
ers as understand French, and have not access to 
a master, a competent knowledge of Bnglish pro- 
nunciation ; but, to render the sounds of the 
vowels marked by figures in this Dictionary still 
more easily to be comprehended — with Chose 
English words which exemplify the sounds of 
the vowels 1 have associated such French words 
as have vowels exactly corresponding to them, 
and which immediately convey the true Bnglish 
pronunciation. These should be committed to 
memory, or written down and held in his hand 
while the pupil is inspecting the Dictionary. 

Perhaps the greatest advantage to foreigners 
and provincials will be derived from the classi- 
fication of words of a similar sound, and drawing 
the line between the general role and the ex- 
ception. This has been an arduous task ; but it 
is noped the benefit arising from it will amply 
repay it. When the numerous varieties of sounds 
annexed to vowels, diphthongs, and consonants, 
lie scattered without bounds, a learner is be- 
wildered and discouraged from attempting to 
distinguish them ; but when they are all classed, 
arranged, and enumerated, the variety seems 
less, the number smaller, and the distinction 
easier. What an inextricable labyrinth do the 
diphthongs em and ou form as they lie loose In 
the language 1 but classed and arranged as we 
find them, Nos. 2S0, Sec. and 313, Sec. the confu- 
sion vanishes, they become much less formidable, 
and a learner has it in his power, by repeating 
them daily, to become master of them all in a 
very little time. 

The English accent is often an insurmountable 
obstacle to foreigners, as the rules for it are so 
various, and the exceptions so numerous; but let 
the inspector consult the article Accent in the 

Principles, particularly Nos *»», 5A3, tfW,&c and 
he w*rl soon perceive now much of our language 
is regularly accented, and how much that which 
is irregular is facilitated by an enumeration of 
the greater number of exceptions. 

But scarcely any method will be so useful for 
gaining the English accent as the reading of 
verse. This will naturally lead the ear to tli«* 
right accentuation ; and, though a different poei- 
tion of the accent is frequently to be met with in 
the beginning of a verse, there is a sufficient re- 
gularity to render the pronouncing of verse a 
powerful means of obtaining such a distinction of 
force and feebleness as is commonly called the 
accent : for it may be observed that a foreigner 
is no less distinguishable by placing an accent 
upon certain words to which the English give no 
stress, than by placing the stress upon a wrong 
syllable. Thus if a foreigner; when he calls for 
bread at table, by saying git* me seme breed, lays 
an equal stress upon every word, though every 
word should be pronounced with its exact sound, 
we immediately perceive he is not a native. An 
Englishman would pronounce these four words 
like two, with the accent on the first syllable of 
the first, and on the last syllable of the last, as 
if written giveme tomebrtd ; or rather givme 
swnbrid ; or more commonly, though vulgarly, 

fimme aemebrtd. Terse may sometimes induce a, 
brelgner, as it does sometimes injudicious na- 
tives, to lay the accent on a syllable in Ions; 
words which ought to have none, as in a couplet 
of Pope's Bssay on Criticism : 

" False eloquence, like the prismatic glass, 
" Its gaudy colours spreads on ev*ry place." 

Here a foreigner would be apt to place an accent 
on the last syllable of eloquence as well as the 
first, which would be certainly wrong ; but this 
fault is so trifling, when compared with that of 
laying the accent on the second syllable, tha* it 
almost vanishes from observation ; and this mis- 
accentuation verse will generally guard him 
from. The reading of verse, therefore, will, if * 
am not mistaken, be found a powerful regulator 
both of accent and emphasis. 


Alphabet — — — — 

No. I 

of vowels 

Juaioaieot table of the vowel* — — 

Dhphthongs and t ri ph t hongs enetmerated — 

Cmmmmitti distinguished into classes — 

U&U of tko consonant* — — 

f the tetters — — 

quoUty of the vowels — 

of ocoent an the sound* of 





Of them 


A and Us different sounds 
B and Us Afferent sounds 
I and Us e\ 

O and Us different sounds 
V amt Us different sounds — 

T and Us diferent sounds — 
W amt Us different sounds — Jtt> 
s colls* se»H<onstmonts — igo 

ff»*r*mfi AB, AI, AO f «jnI «M fto 

to ffe*r afphabetical 
of the 




of this c 

ds — — — — 
toto T. IV. Louth's 

in certain verbs, 





tf Ac 

oWtot N lit the. same tf liable 
afa word, exemplified in the 
ispvgB, oppugn, pronttgn, oxpagn, 
fu, 4». «tt* fftc ««fft*rMlw of the 








L toba» summvsd, and when mute — — 401 

M, wham sounded, and when mute — — 407 

N, ««lm*fett4t#iMJ»*«*ft(rviMftMf '—408 

Whom U ham U* ringing sound in the par- 

tsUpimbt m muuu+M tng — — — 410 

SsTaWsunmwm 909s%n\%w9nv y wswwuw Xwewtow Wwwoww mmm ^^ •* I * 

PH» Us unifmm sound — — — — 41* 

, ifa different sounds, when combined with a 414 

,jgt— to mot J is transposed — — 416 

7, Us 

is $o bo 

smooth — — — — 419 

s\Us enfftreut sounds — — — — ib. 

ITtow fa to to be pt tnmmtid like u — 43* 

1 fa to bo piwwunttd Uhe eh and «h 490 

heridanTserrour in this point detected 464 

ihfumt uunit — — — — 490 
tUsUdos into ok om the numerous ter- 

mlnatim turn — — — — ib. 
Ifly fa «Mtf tofe fAfr mmnI before a, pre- 

~fa/0««MC«a# — — — 461 



The onlp true definition of accent — No. 468 
The different position of the English accent 489 
Accent on dissyllables — — — — 401 

Dissyllable nouns and verbs differently ac- 
cented — — — — — — 

Accent on trisyllables — — — — 

Partial dependence of the English accent en 
that of the Greek and Lath* — — 
Accent on polysyllables — — — 604 

Enclftical accent exemplified to the termina- 
tion logy, graphy, 6)c. — — 613, 618 
The tendency of compounds to contract the 
sound of the simple — — — — 516 

Secondary accent — — — — 599. 

The shortening power of this accent — 5*7 


The shortening power of the secondary accent 
exemplified in the uncertainty and incon- 
sistency of Mr. Sheridan and Dr. Keurtck 
in their division of words into syllables 630 


Syllabication different according to the dif- 
ferent ends to be attained by it — 

Syllabication exhibiting the sound of a word, 
depending, in some measure, on the nature 
of the letters prior to actual pronuncia- 

The almost total independence of the English 
quantity on that of the Greek and Latin, 
exemplified by an enumeration of most of* 
the dissyllables in our lan g uage derived 
ftomjLhe Latin and Greek — — 

The only possible case to which we can argue 
from the Latin quantity to the English 

Dissyllables from the Saxon and French lan- 
guages enumereted — — — — 

Causes of the prevalence of shortening the 
first syllable of dUsyUables from these 
languages — — — «— — 

Qf the quantity of unaccented syllables end- 
ing with a vowel — — — — 

Uncertainty and inconsistency of Dr. Kenrick 
in hie notation of the quantity of these 

TbLM» different sounds — — — 466 

When the h fa silent to this combination 471 

1,naan silent — — — — — art 

<ms uniform sound ----- 476 
W. wmm silent, and whan sou nd e d — 474,476 
X fa exacts* similar to k*, and liable to the 

of sound — — 470 

's o rro w r to tsnspasnt detected 488 1 

J as a consonant, and Us different sounds 4H * 
l\ uumroperey respired by Dr. Johnson heto * 

Uncert ain ty and inconsistency of Mr. Sheri- 
dan and Dr. Kenrick to marling Out 
quanti ty of these vowels — — — 

Exception to the general rule of p ro nou ncing 
these syllables when e is followed by r 

Uncertainty of our bast orthoipists to ihehr 

syllabication of such words, exemplified 

by « Ustfrom Sheridan, Kenrick, Scott, 

' and Perry — — — — — 

Peculiar deUcacy of the sound of these eyOa- 
bles — — — — — — 

T en d en cy of o before r to go into the same 
obsc uri ty as e, exemplified in the diver- 
sity and inconsistency of our best orthoi- 
pists in marking these syllables — 

Table of the simple and diphthongal vowels, 
referred to as a key to the figures ever 
the letters in the Dictionary — — 










^»»i#»*»»^»**»^*»»»*»»>»* i »* i » 

' rti 

1 HB First Principle* or Elements of Pronun- 

elation are Letters : 

Tke Letters of the English Language mre: 

Roman. Italic. Name* 




A a 

A a 

B b 

B b 


C e 

D d 

D d 

B e 

K € 

F f 


H h 

I 1 

1 I 


J J 
K k 

L 1 

L I 

U m 

M m 

N n 

N n 

O o 


* * 

Z * 



8 t 

S s 

T t 

T t 

V u 

U u 

V v 

r v 

"W w 

W u 

X z 

X x 

T y 

Y 9 , 

Z s 

Z % 




i, or eye 

f consonant, or Jay 





u, or pou 

v consonant, or ute 

doable u 



zed, or issard. 


S. To these may be added certain combinations 
of letters sometimes used in printing ; as, ff, fi, fl, 
fl, ffl, and &, or and per se and, or rather et per 
te and ; /", jf , J, fi t Ji, and «*. 

a. Oar letters, says Dr Johnson, are commonly 
reckoned twenty-four, because anciently i and J, 
as well as u and v. were expressed by the same 
character ; but as these letters, which had always 
different powers, have now different forms, our 
alphabet may be properly said to consist of twen- 
ty-six letters. 

4. In considering the sounds of these first prin- 
ciples of language, we find that some are so simple 
and unmixed, that there is nothing required but 
the dpening of the mouth to make them under- 
stood, and to form different sounds. Whence 
they have the names of vowels, or voices or vocal 
sounds* On the contrary, we find that there are 
others, whose pronunciation depends on the par- 
ticular application and use of every part of the 
mouth, as the teeth, the lips, the tongue, the pa- 
late, Sec. which yet cannot make any one perfect 
sound but by their union with those vocal sounds ; 
and these are called consonants, or letters sound- 
ing with other letters. 

Definition of Vowels and Co n sonants. 

fi. Towels are generally reckoned to be five in 
number; namely, a, e, i, o,u;p and w are called 
vowels when they end a syllable or word, and 
consonants when they begin one. 

fi. The definition of a vowel, as little liable to 
exception as any, seems to be the following : a 
▼owel is a simple sound formed by a continued 
effusion of the breath, and a certain conformation 
of the mouth, without any alteration in the posi- 
tion, or any motion of the organs of speech, from 
the moment the vocal sound oommenees till it 

sound, possibly be a consonant in the former f Its 
initial sound is generally like that of I in shire, 
or ee nearly ; it is formed by the opening of the 
month without any motion or contact of the parts : 
in a word, it has every property of a vowel, and 
not one of a consonant. 5 '— -Introd. to Bog. Oram. 

r Thua far the learned bishop, who has too fixed 
a fame to suffer any diminution by a mistake in 
so trifling a part of literature as this : but it may 
be asked, if 9 has every property of a vowel and 
not one of a consonant, why, when it begins a 
word, does it not admit of the euphonic article an 
before itt 

f An ignorance of the real composition of «, 
and a want of knowing that it partook of the na- 
ture of a consonant, has occasioned a great diver- 
sity and uncertainty in prefixing the indefinite 
article an before it. Our ancestors, judging of its 
nature fron tu name, never suspected that it was 

7. A consonant may be defined to be an inter- ' 
ruption of the effusion of vocal sound, ariaing? 
from the application of the organs of speed* to 
each other. 

8. Agreeably to th : s definition, vowels any be 
divided into two kinds, the simple and compound; 
The simple a, e, o. are those which are formed by 
one conformation of the organs Only ; that is, the 
organs remain exactly in the same position at the 
end as at the beginning of the letter ; whereae, in 
the compound vowels i and u, the organ* alter 
their position before the letter is completely 
sounded : nay, these letters, when commencing: a 
syllable, do not only require a different position 
of the organs in ordei to form them perfectly, 
but demand such an application of the tongue to 
the roof of the mouth as Is inconsistent with the 
nature ef a pure vowel ; for the first of these let* 
ters, I. when sounded alone, or ending a syllable 
with the accent upon it, is a real diphthong, com- 
posed of the sounds of a in father, and of e in the y 
exactly correspondent to the sound of the noun 
epe ; and when this letter commences a svllable, 
as in mtn-km, pin-ion, ice. the sound of e with 
which it terminates is squeezed into a consonant 
sound, like the double e heard in queen, different 
from the simple sound of that letter in quean, and 
this squeezed sound in the commencing i makes 
it exactly similar to 9 in the same situation ; 
which, by all grammarians, is acknowledged to 
be a consonant •. The latter of these compound 
vowels, u, when initial, and not shortened by a 
consonant; commences with this squeezed sound 
of e, equivalent to the 9, and ends with a sound 

E'ven to ee in woo and coo, which makes its name 
the alphabet exactly similar to the pronoun 
pouf. If, therefore, the common definition of a 

* How so accurate a grammarian as Dr. Lowth 
could pronounce so definitively on the nature of 

?, and insist on its being always a vowel, can only 
e accounted for by considering the small atten- 
tion which is generally paid to this part of gram- 
mar. His words are these : , 

"The same sound which we express by the ' 
initial 9, our Saxon ancestors in many instances 
expressed by the vowel e; as eoster, pour; and 
by the vewel I; as to, pew; song, poung. In tire 
word pew the initial p has precisely the same 
sound with I in the words view, lieu, adieu: the i 
is acknowledged to be a vowel in these latter; 
how then can the 9, which has the very same 



ftvd be just, these two letters are to far from 
leaf simple vowels, that they nay more pro- 
ffrifbe called semi-oonaonant diphthongs. 

f. That jr and sr are consonants when they begin 
• void, and vowels when they end one, is gene- 
rally acknowledged by the best grammarians; 
mS* jet Dr. IawiIk has told os that w is eqaiva- 
kat to at ; bat, if this were the ease; it would ai- 
vbji admit of the particle as) before it : for, though 
ve save no word in the language which com- 
maces with these letters, we plainly perceive 
tan, if ve bad such a word, it would readily ad- 
sot of ea before it, and consequently that these 
icons are not equivalent to w. Thus we find 
tat the common opinion, with respect to the 
J e ss i e capacity of these letters, is perfectly iost. 

m Besides the vowels already mentioned, there 
m mother simple vowel sound found under the 00 
is the words woo and coo ; these letters have, in 
fees? two words, every property of a pure vowel, 
let when found in toad, mood, Ac. and in the 
vsrd las, pronounced like the adjective two: bore 
to ss has a sqneesed sound, occasioned by cou- 
nseling the mouth, so as to make the lips nearly 
eaeh other ; and this makes it, like the i 
a, not so much a double vowel as a sound 
reen a vowel and a consonant. 

fleraytcatsssi of VowtU and Consonant*. 

11. Towels and consonants being thus denned, 
« will be accessary, in the neat place, to arrange 
hs Into such classes as their similitudes and 
sseeinc difereoces seem to require. 

IS- Letters, therefore, are naturally divisible 
am vowels and consonants. 

11 The vowels are. *, e, I, e, st, and y and w 
wbea ending a syllable. 

It The consonants are, 6, c, d t f, g, h, J, k, I, m, 
** •* *# r. », t, e, ar, *, and u and w when beein- 
siag s syllable. 

is. The vowels may be subdivided Into suoh as 
are simple and pore, and into such as are com- 
pound and impure. The simple or- pure vowels 
sre such as require only one conformation of the 
organs to form them, and no motion in the organs 
while forming. 

Ml The compound or Impure vowels are such 
st require more than one conformation of the 
srgsas to form them, and a motion in the organs 
voile forming. These observations premised, we 
amy csjl the following scheme 

An Analogical Table of the VowtU. 



or pure 


Tr ip h t hong* enumerated. 

0. Two vowels forming but one syllable are 
fsstrslty called a diphthong, and three a triph- 
:: these are the following : 

09 hoy, 

ue niamuetudc, 
srf . . . languid, 
ay. ... . buy. 
aye . (for ever), 
eon . . beauty, 
eon. plenteous, 
ieu .... adieu, 
Jew .... view, 

at ... • Csssnr, 

em* ... . jewel, 

ia . . .poniard, 

an . . . taught, 

it .... friend. 

sw . . • • ■ law, 

la • • • passion, 

us ... » clean, 

as • eicononiy, 

ei .... voice, 

si • . • ceiling. 

so ■ ■ • ■ moon, 

ss • • . people, 

on • ■ • • found, 

m, The 

ated cad distinguished into 

its are divisible into mutes, 
and liquids. 

mt a pure vowel, and constantly prefixed the 

i sruel 
- aim 

trtkle an before nouns beginning with this letter : 
man ausau, an useful boom. They were confirmed 
Is urn opinion by finding the an always adapted 
•I)m short «, as aw snmptrt, an umbrella, without 
r?e? dre am i ng that the short st Is a pore vowel, 
•si SUsatlally dhTerent from the long one. But 
um Bttderns, not resting In the name of a letter, 

19. The mutes are suoh as emit bo Stand with- 
out a vowel, as 6, p, t, d, k, and and g hard. 

SO. The semi-vowels are such as emit a sound 
without the concurrence of a vowel, as/V *» *# •» 
x,g soft or J. 

tl. The liquids are such as flow into, or unite 
easily with the mutes, as I, ss, n, r. 

53. But, besides these, there is another clesani- 
cation of the consonants, of great importance to 
a just idea of the nature of the letters, and that is, 
into such as are sharp or flat, and simple or aspi- 

Sf. The sharp consonants are, p,/, f, s, k, e 

54. The flat consonants are, J>, v, d, s, g hard. 

55. The simple consonants are those which have 
always the sound of one letter unmixed with 
others, as 6, p,f, a, *, g hard, and g soft, or J. 

SO. The mixed or aspirated consonants are those 
which have sometimes a hiss or aspiration joined 
with them, which mingles with the letter, and 
alters it* sound, as I in motion, d in soldier, s in 
mission, and a in uswrv. 

V. There is another distinction of consonants 
arising either from the seat of their formation, or 
from those organs which are ohiefly employed in 
forming them. The best distinction of this kind 
seems to be that which divides them into labials, 
dentals, gutturals, and nasals. 

S8. The labials are, b, p,f, v. The dentals are, 
t, d, s, a, and soft g or J. The gutturals are, A, q, 
c hard, and g hard. The nasals are* ss, », and ng. 

SO. These several properties of the consonants 
may be exhibited at one view in the following 
table, which may be called 

An Analogical Table of the Consonants. 

•«• Mi* ItS^'UT 


bblfrasssl liquid 

Rhsteff tabkm {if!/l/ 

Ha*dm.*{*^ }|{snftwi}mSBr' 

«-r deatah {fit V }f {St,'3&}iSSiaV 

o-uorsi. {^^j*}****!! "** r ' 

Deoio-gmttursl or nsisl «r, hamj. 

50. Vowels and consonants being thus defined 
and arranged, we are the better enabled to enter 
upon an inquiry into their different powers, as 
they are differently combined with each other. 
But previous to this, thst nothing may be want- 
ing to form a just idea of the first principles of 
pronunciation, it may not be improper to show the 
organic formation of each letter. 

Organic Formation of the Letters. 

51. Though I think every mechanical account 
of the organic formation of the letters rather cu- 
rious than useful, yet, that nothing which can be 
preseuted to the eye may be wanting to Inform 
the ear, I shall in this follow those who have 
been at the pains to trace every letter to its seat, 
and make us, as it were, touch the sounds we ar- 

Organic Formation of the Vowels. 

SS. It will be necessary to observe that there 
are three long sounds ot the letter a, which are 
formed by a greater or less cxpansfou of the in- 
ternal parts of the mouth. 

33. The German a, heard in ball, wall, arc. is 
formed by a strong and grave expression of the 
breath through the mouth, which is open nearly 
in a circular fornf, while the tongue, contracting 

and consulting their ears rather than their eyes, 
have frequently placed the a instead of am before 
the long st. and we have seen a union, a univer- 
sity, a useful book, from some of the most respect- 
able pens of the present age. Nor can we doubt 
a moment of the propriety of this orthography, 
when we reflect that these words actually begin 
to the ear with f , and might be spelled founion, 
pouniversUf, pouseful, and can therefore no more 
admit of an before them than year and ueuUu 
8te Remarks on the Word As in this Dictionary, 



itself to the root, M to make way lor the sound, 
almost rests upon the under jaw. 

M. The Italian a, heard in father, close* the 
month a little more than the German a; and by 
raising the lower jaw, widening the tongue, and 
advancing It a little nearer to the lips, rcuders its 
sound less hollow and deep. 

35.- The slender a, or that heard in lane, is 
formed in the mouth still higher than Jthe last ; 
and in pronouncing it the lips, as if to give it a 
slender sound, dilate their aperture horizontally ; 
while the tongue, to assist this narrow emission 
of breath, widens itself to the cheeks, raises i(£lf 
nearer the palate, and by these means a less mi- 
low sound than either of the former is produced. 

80. The e in e-qual is formed by dilating the 
tongue a little more, and advancing i'. nearer to 
the palate and the lips, which produces the slen- 
derest vowel in the language ; for the tongue is, 
in the formation of this letter, as close to the pa- 
late as possible, without touching it; as the mo- 
ment the tongue touches the palate, the squeesed 
sound of ee in thee and meet hi formed, which, by 
its description, must partake of the sound of the 
consonant y. 

ST. The 4 in i-dol is formed by uniting the sound 
of the Italian a in father and the e in e-qual, and 

8 renouncing them as closely together as possible. 
ee Directions to Foreigners at the beginning of 
this .book, page 13. 

S8. The 9 In e-pen is formed by nearly the same 
position of the organs as the a in wet-ter ; but the 
tongue is advanced a little more into the middle 
Of the mouth, the lips are protruded, and form a 
round aperture like the form of the letter, and 
the voice is not so deep in the mouth as when a 
is formed, but advances to the middle or hollow 
of the mouth. 

30. The u in u-nit is formed by uniting the 
squeezed sound ee to a simple vowel sound, heard 
in jwoo and ceo ; the oo in these words is formed 
by' prottuding. the lips a little more than in a, 
forming 9 smaller aperture with them, and, in- 
stead of swelling the voice in the middle of the 
mouth, bringing U as forward as possible to the 

49. Y final in try is formed like i : and w final 
in now like the op, which has just been described. 

In this view of the organic formation of the 
vowels we find that a, e, and o, are the only sim- 
ple or pure vowels : that * is a diphthong, and 
that u is a semi-consonant. If we were inclined 
to contrive a scale for measuring the breadth or 
narrowness, or, as others term it, the openness or 
closeness of the vowels, we might begin with e 
open, as Mr. Elphinston calls it. and which he 
announces to be the closest of all the vocal 
powers. In the pronunciation of this letter we 
find the aperture of the mouth extended on each 
side; the lips almost closed, and the sound issuing 
horizontally. The slender m in waste opens the 
mouth a little wider. The a in father opens the 
mouth still more without contracting the corners, 
pie German a, heard in wall, not only opens the 
mouth wider than the former a, but contracts the 
corners of the mouth so as to make the aperture 
approach nearer to a circle, while the o opens the 
mouth still more, and contracts the corners so as 
to make i». the os rotundum, a picture of the letter 
it sounds. If 'therefore the other vowels were, 
like e, to take their forms from the aperture of 
the mouth in pronouncing them, the German a 
ought necessarily to have a figure as nearly ap- 
proaching the o in form as it does in sound ; that 
is, it ought to have that elliptical form which ap- 

f roaches nearest to the circle; as the a of the 
talians, and that of the English in father, ought 
to form ovals, in exact proportion to the breadth 
6f their sounds ; the English a in waste ought to 
have a narrower oval : the e in the ought to have 
the curve of a parabola, and the squeezed sound 
of ee in seen a right line ; or, to reduce these lines 
to solids, the o would be a perfect globe, the Ger- 
man a an oblate spheroid like the figure of the 
earth, the Italian a like an egg, the English slen- 
der a a Dutch skittle, the e a rolling-pin, and the 
double e a cylinder. 

Organic Formation of the Consonants. 

41. The best method of showing the organic 
formation of the consonants will toe to class them 
k»t) snob pairs as they mUarally fall into, and 

then, by describing one, we shall nearly describe 
its fellow ; by which means the labour will be 
lessened, and the nature of t the consonants better 
perceived. The consonants that fall into pairs are 
the following : 


f t e sh t h k ch— chair, 
v d x th dh g J-jaU. 

4*. Holder, who wrote the most elaborately and 
philosophically upon this subject, tells us, in his 
Elements of Speech, that when we only whisper 
we cannot distinguish the first rank of these let- 
ters from the second. It is certain the difference 
between them is very nice ; the upper letters 
seeming to have only a smarter, brisker, appulse 
of the organs than ine lower; which may not im- 
properly be distinguished by sharp and flat. The 
most marking distinction between them will be 
found to be a sort of guttural murmur, which pre- 
cedes the latter letters when we wish to pro- 
nounce them forcibly, but not the former. Thus, 
if we close the Jips, and put the fingers on then* 
to keep them shut, and strive to pronounce tlte p 9 
no sound at all will be heard ; but in striving to 

fironounce the b we shall find a murmuring sound 
rom the throat, which seems the commencement 
of the letter ; and if we do but stop the breath by 
the appulse of the organs, in order to pronounce 
with greater force, the same may be observed of 
the rest of the letters. 

43. This difference in the formation of these 
consonants may be more distinctly perceived im 
the s and * than in any other of the letters; the 
former is sounded by the simple issue of the breath 
between the teeth, without any vibration of it in 
the throat, and may be called a hissing sound j 
while the latter cannot be formed without gene, 
rating a sound in the throat, which may be called 
a vocal sound. The upper rank of letters, there- 
fore, may be called breathing consonants; and 
the lower vocal ones. 

44. These observations premised, we may pro- 
ceed to describe the organic formation ot each 

43. P and B are formed by closing the lips till 
the breath is collected, and then letting it issue 
fcy forming the vowel e. 

40. F and V are formed by pressing the upper 
teeth upon the under lip, and sounding the vowel 
• before the former and after the latter of these 

47. T and D are formed by pressing the tip of 
the tongue to the gums of the upper teeth, and 
then separating them, by pronouncing the vowel e, 

48. S and Z are formed by placing the tongue 
in the same position as in T and D, but not so 
close to the gums as to stop the breath .* a space 
is left between the tongue and the palate for the 
breath to issue, which forms the hissing and bus* 
sing sound of these letters. 

40. SH heard in mission, and th in evasion, are 
formed in the same seat of sound as s and * ; but 
in the former the tongue is drawn a little in- 
wards, and at a somewhat greater distance from 
the palate, which occasions a fuller effusion of 
breath from the hollow of. the mouth than in the 
latter, which are formed nearer to the teeth, v 

50. TH in think, and the same letters in that, 
are formed by protruding the tongue between the 
fore teeth, pressing it against the upper teeth, 
and at the same time endeavouring to sound the 
s or at; the former letter to sound th in think, and 
the latter to sound th in that. 

51. K and G hard are formed by pressing the 
middle of the tongue to the roof of the mouth 
near the throat, and separating them a . little 
smartly to form the first, and more gently to form 
the last of these letters. 

32. CH in chair, and J in jail, are formed by 
pressing t to sh, and d to sA. 

63. M is formed by closing the lips, as in P and 
B, and letting the voice issue by the nose. 

34. JVis formed by resting the tongue in the 
same position as in T or D, and breathing through 
the nose, with the mouth open. 

33. L is formed by nearly the same position of 
the organs as / and d, but more with the tip of the 
tongue, which is brought a little forwarder to the 
teeth, while the breath issues from the mouth. ' 

S3. A is formed by placing the tongue nearly in 
the position of t, but at such a distance from tlte 



I paste as saner* it to jar against it when the 
I balk is propelled from the throat to the month. 
I *T. \G m ring, sing, Ac. is formed in the same 
aw of sound a* bardg ; bat while the middle of 
u* loarae presses tike roof of the month, as in O, 
tie *oicc pastes principally through the nose, as 

■ V. 
m. r consonant is formed by placing the organs 

a the position of e, and squeezing the tongue 
ejuast the roof of the mouth, which produces ee, 
vaaa u equivalent to initial m. 90. 

ML W consonant is formed by placing the or- 
an ia ibe position of ee, described under u, and 
ttssisg the lips a little more, in order to propel 
tfce breath upon the succeeding vowel which it 

63. In this sketch of the formation and distri- 
Irjooa of the consonants, it is curious to observe 
\\\n* lew radical principles the almost infinite 
nri*ty of combination in language depends. It 
» wfch *amt degree of wonder we perceive that 
the lightest aspiration, the almost insensible in- 
firetieft of nearly similar sounds, often generate 
tae SKBt different and opposite meanings. In this 
view of nature, as in every other, we find uni- 
flmnity snd variety very conspicuous. The single 
fie\ st first impressed on the chaos, seems to ope- 
nte on languages; which, from Uie simplicity and 
aastay of their principles, and the extent and 
pew of their combinations, prove the goodness, 
visssai, and omnipotence of their origin. 

a. This analogical association of sounds is not 
sslv carious, but useful j it gives us a compre- 
hensive view of the powers of the letters ; and, 
nam the small number that are radically dif- 
ferent, enables ns to see the rules on which their 
varieties depend : it discovers to us the genius 
**■ propensities of several languages and dialects, 
tai, when authority Is silent, enables us to de- 
arie Agreeably to analogy. 

ft The vowels, diphthongs, and consonants. 
Ass enumerated and defined, before we proceed 

■ ascertain their different powers, as they are 
tifetently associated with each other, it may be 
decenary to give some account of those distinc- 
tions of sound in the same vowels which express 
their quantity as long or short, or their quality 
si spea or close, or slender and broad. This 
»i!l appear the more necessary, as these distinc- 
tions w frequently occur in describing the sounds 
•f the rowels, and as they are not unfrequently 
usa with too little precision by most writers on 
lae Mbject. 

Of the QuamtUf and Quality of tk4 rowels. 

ft. The first distinction of sound that seems to 
shtrode itself upon as when we utter the vowels 
a a long and a short sound, according to the 
pester or less duration of time taken up in pro- 
asoaeing them. This distinction is so obvious as 
*<o have been adopted in all languages, and is 
*hat to which we annex clearer ideas than to any 
*aer; and though the short sounds of some 
•oweh have not in our language been classed 
with anfacient accuracy with their parent long 
'4MS, yet this has bred but little confusion, as 
Tweh long and short are always sufficiently 
riasjaguishable ; and the nice appropriation of 
short sswads to their specific long ones is not ne~ 
eenery to oar conveying what sound we mean, 
vaen the letter to which we apply these sounds 
a kaovn, and its power agreed upon. 

it The next distinction of vowels into their 
utteifie sounds, which seems to be the most ge- 
Mtraliy adopted, is that whioh arises from the 
Afferent apertures of the mouth in forming them* 
Ha certainly very natural, when we have so 
■any more simple sounds than we have charac- 
ters by which to express them, to distinguish 
iheat by that which seems their organic defiai- 
'im; and we accordingly find vowels denomi 
■wed by the French e mv e ri and /erase ; by the 
hshsns ever* and etssMe; and by the English 
Mrs and ekut. 
•. Bat whatever proprie ty there may be in 
the «•« of these terms in other languages, it is 
•main they mast he need with caution in Bng» 
•si, for fear of confoandlog them with long and 
■nit Dr. Johnson- and other grammarians call 
fin a \m father the open a .* which may. Indeed, 
•h n ii cuhh it from the slender m in paper; but 
m mm the broad m in wmttr which b still n 


w» ...w .v«.» —.%» ouv. », w 

pretty generally under- 
wit I easily perceive that 


open. Each of these letters has a short sound, 
which may be called a shut sound ; but the long 
sounds cannot be so properly denominated open 
as more or less broad ; that is, the a in paper the 
slender souud ; the a in father the broadtsh or 
middle sound ; and the a in water the broad 
sound. The same may be observed of the o. 
This letter has three long sounds', heard in move, 
note, nor ; which graduate from slender to broad- 
ish, and broad like the a. The 4 also in mime 
may be called the broad i. and that in machine 
the slender i ; though each of them is equally 
long ; and though these vowels that are long may 
b e jajd to be more or less open according to the 
different apertures of the mouth in forming them, 
yet the short vowels cannot be said to be more 
or less shot : for as short always implies shut 
(except in verse), though long does not always 
imply open, we must be careful not to confound 
long and open, and close and shut, when we 
speak of the quantity and quality of the vowels. 
The truth of it is, all vowels either terminate a 
syllable, or are united with a consonant. In the 
first case, if the accent be on the syllable, the 
vowel is long, though it may not be open : in the 
second case, where a syllable is terminated by a 
consonant, except that consonant be r, whether 
the accent be on the syllable or not, the vowel 
has Its short sound, which, compared with its 
long one, may be called shut : but as no vowel 
can be said to be shut that is not joined to a coa* 
sonant, all vowels that end syllables may be said 
to be open, whether the accent be on them or 
not. 550, Sol. 

08. But though the terms long and short, as 
applied to vowels, are 
stood, an accurate ear 

these terms do not always mean the long and 
short sounds of the respective vowels to which 
they are applied ; for if we choose to be directed 
by the ear in denominating vowels long or short, 
we must certainly give these appellations to.those 
sounds only which have exactly the same radical 
tone, and differ only in the long or short emission 
of that tone. Thus measuring the sounds of the 
vowels by this scale, we shall find that the Ions; 
I and y have properly no short sounds but such 
as seem essentially distinct from their long ones; 
and that the short sound of these vowels is no 
other than the short sound of e, which is the lat. 
ter letter in the composition of these diphthongs. 

07. The same want of correspondence in class- 
ing the long and short vowels we find in a, e, o, 
and u; for as the e in theme does not find its 
short sound in the same letter in them, but in the 
I in Aim; so the e in them must descend a step 
lower into the province of a for its long sound in 
tame. The a in carrm is not the short sound of 
the a in care, but of that in car, father, Ac. as the 
short broad sound of the o in want is the true ab- 
breviation of that in wall. The sound of o in den, 
gone, Ac. is exactly correspondent to the e in 
ewan, and finds its long sound in the a in wall, or 
the diphthong ate in dawn, lawn. Sec. ; while the 
short sound of the o In tone is nearly that of the 
same letter in ton, (a weight,) and corresponding 
with what is generally called the short sound of 
u in tun % gun, Sec. as the long sound of si In vuU 
must find its short sound in the « in pull, bull, 
Ac. ; for this vowel, like the i and «, being a 
diphthong, its short sound is formed from the 
latter part of the letter, equivalent to double ej 
m the word pule, if spelled according to the 
sound, might be written peoole. 

08. Another observation preparatory to a con> 
sideration of the various sounds of the vowels 
and consonants seems to be the influence of the 
accent ; as the accent or stress which is laid upon 
certain syllables has so obvious an effect upon the 
sounds of the letters, that, unless we take accent 
into the account, it will be impossible to reason, 
rightly upon the proper pronunciation of the Ele- 
ments of Speech. 

Of the Influence of Accents on the Sounds of the. 


08. It may be first observed, that the exertion 
of the organs of speech necessary to produce the 
accent, or stress, has an obvious tendency to pre- 
serte the letters in their pure and uniform sound, 
voile the relaxation or feebleness which secceeda 



the accent as naturally suffers the letters to slide 
into a somewhat different sound, a little easier to 
the organs of pronunciation. Thus the first a in 
cabbage is pronounced distinctly with the true 
sound of that letter, while the second a goes into 
an obscure sound bordering on the i short, the 
slenderest of all sounds ; so that cabbage and vil- 
lage have the a in the last syllable scarcely dis- 
tinguishable from the e and i in the last syllables 
of college and vestige. 

70. In the same manner the a, e, i, o, and y, 
coming before r in a final unaccented syllable, go 
into an obscure sound so nearly approa ching to 
the short u, that if the accent were carefuHyiPpt 
upon the first syllables of liar, Uer, elixir, mayor, 
martyr, Ac. these words, without any perceptible 
change in the sound of their last syllables, might 
all be written and pronounced llur, Uur, elixur, 
mayur, martur, Ac. 

71. The consonants also are no less altered in 
their sound by the position of the accent than the 
vowels. The k and * in the composition of x, 
when the accent is on them, in exercise, execute, 
Ac. preserve their strong pure sound; but when 
the accent is on the second syllable, in exact, 
exonerate, Ac. these letters slide into the duller 
and weaker sounds of g and z, which are easier 
to the organs of pronunciation. Hence not only ' 
the soft c and the * go into sh, but even the t be- 
fore a diphthong slides into the same letters when 
the stress is on the preceding syllable. Thru in 
society and satiety the c and t preserve their pure 
sound, because the syllables ci and ti have the 
accent on them ; but in social and satiate these 
syllables come after the stress, and, from the 
feebleness of their situation, naturally fall into the 
shorter and easier sound, as if written soshial and 
sashiate. See the word Satikty. 


7*. A has three long sounds and two short ones. 

73. The first sound of the first letter in our al- 
phabet is that which among the English is its 
name. (See the letter A at the beginning of the 
Dictionary.) This is what is called by most gram- 
marians its slender sound, 35, 05 ; we find it in 
the words lade, spade, trade, Ac. In the diph- 
thong ai we have exactly the same sound of litis 
letter as in pain, gain, stain, Ac. and sometimes 
in the diphthong ea, as bear, swear, pear, Ac. ; 
uay, twice we find it, contrary to every rule of 
pronunciation, in the words where and there, and 
once in the anomalous diphthong ao in gaol. It 
exactly corresponds to the sound of the French e 
in the beginning of the words Itre and tele. 

74. The long slender a is generally produced by 
a silent e at the end of the syllable ; which e not 
only keeps one single intervening consonant from 
shortening the preceding vowel, but sometimes 
two : thus we find the mute e makes of rag rage, 
and very improperly keeps the a open even in 
range, change, Ac. (see Change) ; hat, with the 
mute e, becomes hate, and the a continues open, 
and, perhaps, somewhat longer in haste, waste, 
paste, Ac. though it must be confessed this seems 
the privilege only of a; for the other vowels con- 
tract before the consonants ng in revenge, cringe . 
plunge j and the ste in our language is preceded 
oy no other vowel but this. Every consonant but 
n shortens every vowel but a, when soft g and e 
silent succeed ; as bilge, badge, hinge, sponge, Ac. 

. 75. Hence we may establish this general rule : 
A has the long, open, slender sound, when fol- 
lowed, by a single consonant and e mute, as lade, 
made, fade, Ac. The only exceptions seem to be 
have, are, gape, and bade, the past time of to bid. 
, 76. A has the same sound, when ending an ac- 
cented syllable, as pa-per, ta-per, spec-to-tor. The 
only exceptions are farther, mas-ter, wa-ter. 
, 77. As the short sound of the long slender a is 
not found under the same character, but in the 
short e (as may be perceived by comparing mate 
and met), 07. we proceed to delineate the se- 
cond sound of this vowel, which is that heard in 
father, and is called by some the open sound M ; 
i>ut this can never distinguish it from the deeper 
Jsound of the a in all, ball. Ac. which is still more 
.open: by sqme it is styled the middle sound of a, 
as between the a in pale, and that in wall: it an- 
swers nearly to the Italian a in Ibscano, Romano, 
Ac. or to the final a in the naturalised Greek < 

words papa and mamma ; and in baa, the 
adopted in almost all languages to express the crwr 
of sheep. We seldom find the long sound of this 
letter in our language, except in monosyllables 
ending with r, as far, tar, mar, Ac. and iti the 
word father. There are certain words from tht* 
Latin, Italian, and Spanish languages, such ass 
lumbago, bravado, tornado, camisado, farrago, Ac. 
which are sometimes heard with this sound ofs; 
but except in bravo, heard chiefly at the theatres, 
the English sound of a is preferable in all these 

78. The long sound of the middle or Italian a is* 
always found before r in monosyllables, us car m 
far, mar, Ac. before the liquids un; whether the 
latter only be pronounced, as in psalm, or both* 
as in psalmist ; sometimes before If, and Ive, a» 
calf, hay, calve, halve, salve, Ac. ; and, lastly, 
before the sharp aspirated dental th in bath, path, 
lath, Ac. and in the word father: this sound of 
the a was formerly more than at present found 
before the nasal liquid n, especially when suc- 
ceeded by c, I or d, as dance, glance, lance, France m 
chance, prance, grant, plant, slant, slander, Ac . 

70. The hissing consonant * was likewise a sign 
of this sound of the a, whether doubled, as in 
glass, trass, lass, Ac. or accompanied by t, as lr 
last, fast, vast, Ac. ; but this pronunciation of a 
seems to have been for some years advancing u> 
the short sound of this letter, as heard in Hand, 
land, grand, Ac. ; and pronouncing the a in after, 
answer, basket, plant, mast, Ac. as long as in 
half, calf, Ac. borders very closely on vulgarity 
it must be observed, however, that the a before 
is in monosyllables, and at the end of words, was 
anciently written with u after it, and so probably 

Jirononnced as broad as the German a ; for Di - 
ohnson observes, " Many words pronounced with 
a broad were anciently written with au, as fault, 
moult; and we still write fault, vault. This was 
probably the Saxon sound, for it is yet retained, 
in the northern dialects, and in the rustic pro- 
nunciation, as maun for man, hound for hand.'* 
But since the u has vanished the a has been gra- 
dually pronounced slenderer and shorter, till now 
almost every vestige of the ancient orthography 
«ecms lost; though the termination mand in com- 
mand, demand, Ac. formerly written commaund, 
demaund, still retains the long sound inviola- 
bly •. 

80. As the mute I in calm, psalm, calf, half, Ac. 
seems to lengthen the sound of this letter, so the 
abbreviation of some words by apostrophe seems 
to have the same effect. Thus wht*n, by Impa- 
tience, that grand corrupter of manners as well 
as language, the no is cut out of .the word cannot, 
and the two syllables reduced to one, we find the 
a lengthened to the Italian or middle a, as can- 
not, can't; have not, han't ; shall not, sha'n't, Ac. 
This is no more than what the Latin language is 
subject to ; it being a known rule in that tongue, 
that when, by composition or otherwise, two short 
syllables become one, that syllable is almost al- 
ways long, as alius has the penultimate long be- 

* Since the first publication of this Dictionary 
the public have been favoured with some vary 
elaborate and judicious observations on English 
pronunciation by Mr. Smith, in a Scheme of a 
French and. English Dictionary. In this work he 
departs frequently from my judgment, and par- 
ticularly in the pronunciation of the letter a, 
when succeeded by ss. et, or n, and another con- t 
sonant, as pass, last, chance, Ac. to which he an- 
nexes the long sound of a in father. That this 
was the sound formerly is highly probable from 
its being still the sound given it by the vulgar, 
who are generally the last to alter the common 

I»ronuneiation ; but that the short a in these words 
s now the general pronunciation of the polite 
and learned world seems to be candidly acknow- 
ledged by Mr. Smith himself: and as every cor- 
rect ear would be disgusted at giving the a in 
these words the full long sound of the * in father, 
any middle sound ought to be discountenanced, 
as tending to render the pronunciation of a lan» 
guage obscure and indefinite. 183. 

Ben Jonson in his Grammar classes salt, matt, 
balm, and calm, as having the same sound of a; 
and aunt as having the same diphthongal sound 
as audience, author, law, saw, draw, Ac. 



It come* from miitus, and the two abort 
•ssebhi esag* become one Ions; vowel in eogo, 


•t. The short sound of the middle or Italian a, 
vtoeh is generally confounded with the short 
«m« of the slender a, Is the soand of this vowel 
n mi, pern, tan, mat, hat, &c. : we generally find 
tsasoaud before any two successive consunants 
ftosr excepted in the foregoing remarks), and 
mi when it comes before an r, if a vowel fol- 
bw, or the r be doubled ; for if this consonant be 
tabled, m order to produce smother syllable, 
ta» long soand becomes short, as star, marry ; 
<v, carry, Ac. where we find the monosyllable 
ss» the long, and the dissyllable the short sound ; 
sot if a come before r, followed by another con- 
it, it has its Ions; sound, as in part, partial, 


K. The only exception to this role is in adjec- 
tives derived from substantives ending in r; for 
* this case the a continues long* as in the primi- 
s*v. Thas the a in starry, or fall of stars, is as 
k*g as in star ; and the-oi in the adjective tarry, 
or besmeared with tar, is as long as in the sab- 
motive tar, though short in the word tarry, to 

si. The third long sound of a is that which we 
sure immediately derive from our maternal Ian- 
lasge, the Saxon, but -which at present we use 
lea than any other : this is the a in fall, ball* gall, 
M: we find a correspondent soand to this a in 
the aipfclhongs am and amp, as laud, law, sate, Sic. ; 
laooah it must here be noted that we have im- 

Ked opon our German parent, by giving a 
der sound to this letter in these words than 
the Germans themselves would do, were they to 
ytoaennce them. 

M. The long sound of the deep broad German 
a u produced by 11 after it, as in all, wall, calls 
or, indeed, by one I, and any other consonant, 
ewpt the mute labials p, b, f, and t>, as salt, 
mid, false, falchion* falcon, Sec. The exceptions 
to ton rule are generally words from the Arabic 
sad Latin languages, as Alps, Albion, asphaUic, 
juketed, salve, calculate, amalgamate, Alcoran, 
aaa Alfred, Sec. ; the two last of which may be 
coaudered as ancient proper names which nave 
been frequently latinized, and by this means have 
smsired a slenderer sound of a. This rale, how- 
ever, mast be understood of sach syllables only 
ss have the accent on them ; for when al, fol- 
lowed by a consonant, is in the first syllable of a 
word, having the accent on the second, it is then 
pronoonced as in the first syllables of al-ley, 
•alley, etc. as alternate, balsamic, falcade, falco- 
Ism, fee. Onr modern orthography, which has 
sane its utmost to perplex pronunciation, has 
uaee it necessary to observe, that every word 
eonpoonded of a monosyllable with 11, as albeit, 
also, almost, dommfal, Ac. most be pronounced as 
if the two liquids were still remaining, notwith- 
standing oar word-menders have wisely taken one 
sway, to the destruction both of sound and ety- 
mology ; for, as Mr. Elphinston shrewdly - ob- 
serves, " Every reader, young and old, mast now 
ho so sagacious an analyst as to discern at once 
not only what are compounds and what their 
•amies, but that at in composition is equal to all 
out of k ; or, in other words, that it is both what 
a is, and what it is not." Prim. Bag. Language, 
vol. L page ft*. See No. 404. 

•5. The w has a peculiar quality of broadening 
this letter, even when prepositive : this is always 


■Sarp _—..— ^, _* ■ ■' " ■ , «"V »» W »«»» BWWAg, ISW 

thus we pronounce the a broad, though short in 
awi, west, want, smut, what, ice. ; and though other 
fetters safer the a to alter its sound before 11, 
when one of these letters goes to the formation or 
u* latter syllable, as tail, tallow ; kail, hallow ; 
call, cai-low, 6c. ; yet we see w preserve the 
soand of this vowel before a single consonant, as 
avt-Joar, swal-lotc, Ac. 

ft. The q including the sound of the v, and 
being no more than this letter preceded by *, 
ought, according to analogy, to broaden every a 
a goes before like the w ; thus quantity ought to 
st pronounced a« if written kwontity, and quality 
should rhyme with jtlfiry ; instead of which we 
frequently hear the w robbed of its rights in its 
pmxy i and quality so pronounced as to rhyme 

with legality ; while to rhyme quantity, accord- 
ing to this affected mode of pronouncing it, we 
most coin such words as plantity and consonant 
ity. The a in quaver and equator is an excep- . 
tion to this rule, from the preponderancy . ot 
another which requires a, ending a syllable under, 
the accent, to have the slender sound of that 
letter ; to which rale father, master, and water, 
and, perhaps, quadrant, are the only exceptions.. 
87. The short sound of this broad a is heard, 
when it is preceded by w, and succeeded by a 
singht consonant in the same syllable, as wal-low, 
sumBbw, tec. or by two consonants in the same 
syllable, as want, wast, wasp, Ac. but when I or 
r is one of the consonants, the a becomes long, 
as walk, swarm, Sec. 

Irregular and unaccented sounds. 

88* But, besides the long and short sounds com- 
mon to all the vowels, there is a certain transient 
indistinct pronunciation of some of them, when 
they are not accented, that cannot be so easily 
settled : when the accent is not upon it, no vowel 
is more apt to run into this imperfect sound than, 
the a ; thus the particle a before participles, in 
the phrases a-going, o- walking, a-shooling, ax. 
seems, says Dr. Lowth, lobe the true and genuine 
preposition on, a little disguised by familiar use 
and quick pronunciation : the same indistinctness, 
from rapidity and coincidence of sound, has con- 
founded the pronunciation of this mutilated pre- 
position to the ear, in the different questions 
what 's o'clock T when we would know the hour, 
and what's a clock t when we would have the de- 
scription of that horary machine ; and if the ac- 
cent be kept strongly on the first syllable of the 
word tolerable, as it always ought to be, we find 
scarcely any distinguishable difference to the 
ear, if we substitute u or o instead of a in the 
penultimate syllable. Thus tolerable, tolerable, 
and toleruble, are exaotly the same word to the 
ear, if pronounced without premeditation or 
transposing the accent, for the real purpose of 
distinction ; and inwards, outwards, Sec. might, 
with respect to sound, be spell inwurds, outwurds, 
See. Thus the word man, when not under the 
accent, might be written mun in nobleman, hus- 
bandman, woman ; and tertian and quartan ter- 
tian and quartun, &c. The same observation will 
hold good in almost every final syllable where a 
is not accented, as medal, dial, giant, bias, See. 
defiance, temperance, Sic. ; but when the final 
syllable ends in age, ate, or ace, the a goes into a 
somewhat different sound. See 00 and 91. 

89. There is a corrupt, but a received, pronun- 
ciation of this letter in the words any, many, 
Thames, where the a sounds like short r, as if 
written enny, menny, Terns. Catch, among Lon- 
doners, seems to have degenerated into ketch ; 
and says, the third person of the verb to say, has, 
among all ranks of people, and in every part of 
the united kingdoms, degenerated into ses, rhym- 
ing with Fez. 

00. The a goes into a sound approaching the 
short I, in the numerous termination in age, when 
the accent is not on it, as cabbage, village, cou- 
rage, Sec. and are pronounced nearly as if written 
cabbige, villige, courige, Sic. The exceptions to 
Urn rule arc chiefly among words of three syl- 
lables, with the accent on the first ; these seem 
to be the following: Adage, presage, scutage, he- 
morrhage, vassalage, carcilage, guldage, pucelage, 
mucilage, cartilage, pupilage, orphanage, if Manage, 
appanage, concubinage, baronage, patronage, par- 
sonage, personage, equipage, ostifrage, saxifrage, 
umpirage, embassage, hermitage, heritage, parent- 
age, messuage. 

01. The a in the numerous termination ate, 
when the accent is not on it, is pronounced some- 
what differently in different words. If the word 
be a substantive, or an adjective, the a seems to 
be shorter than when it is a verb : thus a good 
ear will discover a difference in the quantity of 
this letter in delicate and dedicate ; in climate, 

Cimate, and ultimate ; and the verbs to calcu- 
te, to regulate, and to speculate, where we find 
the nouns and adjectives nave the a considerably 
shorter than the verbs. Innate, however, pre- 
serves the a as long as if the accent were <m a : 
bat the unaccented terminations in nee, whether 
nouns or verbs, have the a *r> short and obscure 
as to be nearly similar to the st in us i thus pa* 


lace, solace, menace, pinnae*, populace, might, 
without any great departure from their common 
sound, be written pauus, sollus, Sec. while fur* 
nace almost changes the a into i, and might be 
written furniss. 

02. When the a is preceded by the gutturals 
hard g or c, it is, in polite pronunciation, soften- 
ed by the intervention of a sound like e, so that 
card, cart, guard, regard, are pronounced like 
ke-ard, ke-art, ghe-ard, re-ghe-ard. When the a 
is pronounced short, as in the first syllable* of 
candle, gander, ate. the interposition of thn)$irfc 
very perceptible, and indeed unavoidable : for 
though we can pronounce guard and carl with- 
out interposing the e, it is impossible to pronounce 
ga r r i so n and carriage in the same manner. This 
sound of the a is taken notice of in Steele's 
Grammar, page 40, which proves it is not the off- 
spring of the present day, 180 ; and I have the 
satisfaction to find Mr. Smith, a very accurate 
inquirer into the subject, entirely ot my opinion. 
But the sound of the a, which I have found the 
mast difficult to appreciate, is that where it ends 
the syllable either immediately before or after 
the accent. We cannot give it any of its three 
open sounds without hurting the ear : thus, in 
pronouncing the words abound and diadem, ay- 
hound, ab-bound, and aw-bound ; di-ay-dem, di-ah- 
dem, and dt-aw-dem, are all improper ; but giving 
the a the second or Italian sound, as ah-bound 
and di-ahrdem, seems the least so. For which 
reason I have, like Mr. Sheridan, adopted the 
short sound of this letter to mark this unaccented 
a : but if the unaccented a be final, which is not 
the case in any word purely English, it then 
seems to approach still nearer to the Italian a in 
the last syllable of papa, and to the a in father ; 
as may be heard in the deliberate pronunciation 
of the words idea, Africa, Delta, &c. 88. See 
the letter A at the beginning of the Dictionary. 

93. The first sound of e is that which it has 
when lengthened by the mute e final, as hi glebe, 
theme, &c or when it ends a syllable with the 
accent upon it, as se-cre-tion, ad-he~eion. Sec* M. 

04. The exceptions to this rule are the words 
where and there ; in which the first e is pronoun- 
ced like a, as if written whore, thare ; and the 
auxiliary verb were, where the e has its short 
sound, as if written werr, rhyming with the last 
syllable of prefer and ere (before), which sounds 
like air. when there is in composition in the 
word therefore, the e is generally shortened, as in 
were, but in my opinion improperly. 

05. The short sound of e is that heard in bed, 
Jed. red, wed, Ac. ; this sound before r is apt to 

slide into short u ; and we sometimes hear mercy 
sounded as if written murcy t but this, though 
very near, is not the exact sound. 

Irregular and unaccented Sounds* 

08. The e at the end of the monosyllables be, 
he, me, we, is pronounced ee, as if written bee, 
hee, dec. It Is silent at the end of words purely 
English, but is pronounced distinctly at the end 
of some words from the learned languages, as ep*- 
tome, simile, catastrophe, apostrophe, &c. 

07. The first e in the poetic contractions, e'er 
and ne'er, is pronounced like a, as if written air 
and new*. 

08. The e in her Is pronounced nearly like short 
s#; and as we hear it in the unaccented termina- 
tions of writer, reader, «tc. pronounced as if 
written writur, readur, where we may observe 
that the r being only a jar, and not a definite and 
distinct articulation like the other consonants, 
Instead of stopping the vocal efflux of voice, lets 
it imperfectly pass, and so corrupts and alters 
the true sound of the vowel. The same may be 
Observed of the final « after r In words ending in 
ere, gre, tre, where the e is sounded as if it 
were placed before the r, as In lucre, maugre, 
theatre, Sec, pronounced lukur, mougur, theatur, 
Ac. See No. 418. It may be remarked, that 
though we ought cautiously to avoid pronouncing 
the e like u when under the accent, it would be 
nlmls Attici, and border too much on affectation 
of accuracy, to preserve this sound of e in unac- 
cented syllables before r; and though terrible, 
where e has the accent, should never be pro- 
nounced as if written (urrible, it Is impossible 

without pedantry to make any difference in the 
sound of the last syllable of splendour and tender m 
s ulp hur and suffer, or martyr and garter. Bat 
there is a small deviation from rule when this 
letter begins a word, and is followed by a double 
consonant with the accent on the second syl- 
lable : in this case we find the vowel lengthen ae 
if the consonant were single.— See EJjace, Do- 
spatch. Embalm* 

09. This vowel, in a final unaccented syllables 
is apt to slide into the short i: W\u* faces, ranges, 
praises, are pronounced as if written faciz, ra»gi% 9 
praixiM ; poet, covet, linen, duel, tec. as if written 
poit, covit, llnin, dull, ax. \ where we may ob- 
serve that, though the e goes into the short sound 
of i, it is exactly that sound which corresponds 
to the long sound of e.— See Port-Royal Gram- 
mar, Latin, page 149. 

189. There is a remarkable exception to the 
common sound of this letter in the words clerk* 
sergeant, and a few others, where we find the a 
pronounced like the a in dark and margin. Bat 
this exception, I imagine, was, till within these 
few years, the general rule of souuding this let- 
ter before r, followed by another consonant. 
See Merchant. Thirty years ago every one pro- 
nounced the first syllable of merchant like the 
moaosy liable march, and as it was anciently writ- 
ten marchant. Service and servant are still heard 
among the lower order of speakers as if written 
service and sarvant ; and even among the better 
sort we sometimes hear the salutation. Sir, pour 
sarvant ! though this pronunciation of the word 
singly would be looked upon as r mark of the 
lowest vulgarity. The proper names, Derby and 
Berkeley, still retain the old sound, as if written 
Darby and Berkeley ; but even these, in polite 
usage, are getting into common sound, nearly as 
if written Durby and Burke ley. As this modern 
pronunciation of the e has a tendency to simplify 
the language by lessening the number of excep- 
tions, it ought certainly to be indulged. 

101. This letter falls into an irregular sound, 
but still a sound which is its nearest relation, in 
the woras England, yes, and pretty, where the o 
is heard like short i. Vulgar speakers are guilty 
of the same irregularity in engine, as if written 
ingtote ; but this cannot be too carefully avoided. 

lot. The vowel e before I and n in the final un- 
accented syllable, by its being sometimes sup- 
pressed and sometimes not, forms one of the moat 
puzzling difficulties in pronunciation. When any 
of the liquids precede these letters, the e is heard 
distinctly, as woollen, flannel, women, syren ; but 
when any of the other consonants come before 
these letters, the e is sometimes heard, as in no- 
vel, sudden; and sometimes not, as in strive?, 
raven. Sec. As no other rule can be given foi 
this variety of pronunciation, perltaps the best 
way will be to draw the line between those words 
where e is pronounced, and those where it is not : 
and this, by the help of the Rhyming Dictionary, 
I am luckily enabled to do. in the first place, 
then, it may be observed, the e before I, in a 
final unaccented syllable, must always be pro- 
nounced distinctly, except in the following 
words : Shekel, weasel, ousel, nouset (belter writ. 
ten nuxtle), navel, ravel, snivel. Heel, drivel, 
shrivel, shovel, grovel, hazel, draxel, notel. The*© 
words are pronounced as if the e were omit tod 
by an apostrophe, as shek*l, weasH, ous'l, «rc. or 
rather as if written skeekle, ueaxle, ou&le, Ac. i 
but as these are the only words of this termina- 
tion that are so pronounced, great care must be 
taken that we do not pronounce travel, grattl 
rebel (the substantive), parcel, chapel, and vessid' 
in the same manner ; a fault to which many are* 
very prone. 

lOS. E before n in a final unaccented syllable 
and not preceded by a liquid, must always be 
suppressed in the verbal terminations in en, as to 
loosen, to hearken, and in other words, except 
the following: Sudden, mynchen, kitchen, hyphen, 
chicken, ticken (better written ticking), ferken 
aspen, platen, paten, marten, latten, patten, leaven 
or leven, sloven, mittens. In these words the e 
is heard distinctly, contrary to the general tule 
which suppresses the e in these syllables, when 
preceded by a mute, as harden, heathen, heaven. 
M if written hard'n, heathn, heav*n, Ac. ; nay 
even when preceded by a liquid in the words 
fallen and stolen, where the e a suppresses, as if 

■ «7 «***»*« A WW l/A^A/tf 

SJ U MU4 ft ShOM. 


written /nXTa and stolPn .♦ garden and 
therefore, are very analogically pro- 
gmrd"m mad burd*n ; and this pronuncia- 
ongtst the rather to be indulged, as we al- 
ways hear the e suppressed In gardener and bur- 
sVassuar, as if written gardener and burd*nsome. 
lee No. 47*. 

104. This diversity in the pronunciation of these 
terminations ought the more carefully to be at- 
test" e>l to, as nothing is so vulgar and childish as 
to boar jsrieef and heaven pronounced with the e 
distsactly, or navel and chicken with the M sup- 
pressed. Bat the most general suppression of 
tarn tetter is in the preterits of verbs and in par- 
ticiples ending in cd: here, when the e is not 
preceded by d or t, the r is almost universally 
is. Wt, and the two final consonants are pro- 
in one syllable : thus loved, lived, barred, 
\, are pronounced as if written lovd, Uvd, 
hard, mard. The same may be observed of this 
letter when silent in the singulars of nouns, or 
the fir%t persons of verbs, as theme, make, Ac. 
which form themes in the plural, and make* in 
the third person, Ac. where the last c is silent, 
and the words are pronounced in one syllable. 
When the noon or first person of the verb ends 
m jr, with the accent on it, the e is likewise snp- 
arroed, as m reply, two replies, he replies, Sec. 
when words of this form have the accent on the 
preceding syllables, the e is suppressed, and the 
y pronounced like short i, as cherries, marries, 
carries, Ac. pronounced cherrlx, matrix, carrix, 
Ac In the same manner, carried, married, em- 
bodied. Ate. are pronounced as if written carrid, 
mart id, embodld, Ac. 281. But it must be care- 
fully noted that there is a remarkable exception 
to ssany i»f these contractions when we are pro- 
nouncing the language of Scripture : here every 
aaruciptal ed ought to make a distinct syllable, 
where it is not preceded by a vowel : thus, " Who 
hath belseeed our report, and to whom is the arm 
of the Lord revealed f Here the participles are 
both pronounced in three syllables ; but In the 
to! lowing passage, " Whom he did predestinate, 
them he also called ; and whom he called, them 
he o\*n justified ; and whom he justified, them he 
also glorified," called preserves the e, and is 
pronounced in two syllables ; and justified and 
glorified suppress the e, and are pronounced in 


This letter is a perfect diphthong, com- 
of the sounds of a in father, and e in he, 
■need as closely together as possible 37. 
lhe*e sounds are openly pronounced, they 
produce the familiar anient ay ; which, by the 
old English dramatic writers, was often express- 
cd by /.* hence we may observe, that unless our 
ancestors pronounced the vowel I like the o in 
ou\ the present pronunciation of the word ay in 
the House of Commons, in the phrase the Apes 
have it, is contrary to ancient as well as to pre- 
sent usage : such a pronunciation of this word is 
now ei«arse and mstick. This sound is heard when 
the letter is lengthened by final e, as time, thine, 
or ending a 6\ liable with the accent upon it, as 
aWfe, di-al; in monosyllables ending with nd, as 
Had, find, mend, Ac. : in three words ending with 
If. as child, mild, wild ; and In one very irregu- 
larly ending with ut, at pint. 37. 

Mb. There is one instance where this letter, 
though succeeded by final e, does not go into the 
broad English sound like the noun eye, but into 
the slender foreign sound like e. This is in the 
word shire, pronounced as if written sheer, both 
when single, as a knight of the shire ; or in com. 
position, as in Nottinghamshire. Leicestershire, 
Ac This is the sound Dr. Lowth gives it In his 
Grammar, page 4 : and it Is highly probable that 
the simple shire acquired this slender sound from 
sis tendency to become slender in the compounds. 
where it is at a distance from the accent, and 
where all the vowels have a natural tendency to 
become short and obscure.— See Shire. 

107. The short sound of this letter is heard in 
hum, thin, Ac. and when ending an unaccented 
syllable, as van-i-ty, quality, Ac. where, though 
It cannot be properly said to be short, as it is not 
~ by a consonant, yet it has but half its 
mgal sound. This sound b the sound of 

e, the last letter of the diphthong that forms the 
long i ; and it is not a little surprising that Dr. 
Johnson should say that the short i was a souud 
wholly different from the long one. 651. 

108. When this letter is succeeded by r, and 
another consonant not in a final syllable, it has 
exactly the sound of e in vermin, vernal. Ac. as 
virtue, virgin, Ac. which approaches to the sound 
of short st / but when it comes before r, followed 
by another consonant in a final syllable, it ac- 
quires the sound of w exactly, as bird, dirt, shirt, 
squirt, Ac. Mirth, birth, gird, girt, skirt, girl, 
whirl, And firm, are the only exceptions to tins - 
rule, where i is pronounced like e, and ns if the 
wtfrda were written merth, berth, ancXferm. 

160. The letter r, in this cose, seems to have the 
same influence on this vowel as it evidently has 
on a and o. When these vowels come before 
double r, or single r, followed by a vowel, -as In 
arable, carry, marry, orator, horrid, forage, Ac 
they are considerably shorter than when the r is 
the final letter of the word, or when it is suc- 
ceeded by another consonant, as in arbour, car, 
mar, or, nor, for. In the same manner, the i, 
coming before either double r, or single r, fol- 
lowed by a vowel, preserves its pure short sound, 
as in irritate, spirit, conspiracy, Ac. ; but when r 
is followed by another consonant, or is the final 
letter of a word with the accent upon it, the i 
„goes into a deeper and broader sound, equivalent 
to short e, as heard in virgin, virtue, Ac. So fir, 
a tree, is perfectly similar to the first syllable of 
ferment, though often corruptly pronounced like. 
fur, a skin. Sir and stir are exactly pronounced 
as if written sur and star. It seems, says Mr. 
Nares, that our ancestors distinguished these 
sounds more correctly. Bishop Gardiner, in his 
first letter to Cheke, mentions a witticism of Ni. 
cholas Rowley, a fellow Cantab with him, to this 
effect : " Let handsome girls be called virgins, 
plain ones vurgins." 

** Si pulchra est, virgo, sin turpis, vurgo vocetur." 

Which, says Mr. Elphinston, may be modernised 
by the aid of a far more celebrated line: 

" Sweet Virgin can alone the fair express. 
Fine by degrees, and beautifully less: 
But let the hoyden, homely* rough-hewn vurgin 
Engross the homage of a Major Sfttrgeon." 

110. The sound of i, in this situation, ought to 
be the more carefully attended to, as letting it 
mil into the sound of u, where it should have the 
sound of e, has a grossness in it approaching to 
vulgarity. Perhaps the only exception to this 
rule is when the succeeding vowel is st ; for this 
letter, being a semi-consonant, has some influence 
on the preceding i, though not so much as a per- 
fect consonant would have. This makes Mr. 
Sheridan's pronunciation of the i in virulent, and 
its compounds, like that in virgin, less exception- 
able than I at first thought it ; but since we can- 
not give a semi-sound of short i to correspond to 
the semi-consonant sound of st, I have preferred 
the pure sound, which I think the most agreeable 
to polite usage. See Mr. Garrick's Epigram upon 
the sound of this letter, under the word Virtue. 

Irregular and unaccented Sounds. 

111. There is an irregular pronunciation of this 
letter which has greatly multiplied within these 
few years, and that is, the slender sound heard 
in ee. This sound is chiefly found in words de- 
rived from the French and Kalian languages ; and 
we think we show our breeding by a knowledge 
of those tongues, and an ignorance of our own : 

" Report of fashions In proud Italy, 
Whose manners still our tardy apish nation 
Limps after, in base awkward imitation." 

Shakespeare, Richard IT. 

When Lord Chesterfield wrote his letters to his 
son, the word oblige was, by many polite speakers, 
pronounced as If written obteoge, to give a hint of 
their knowledge of the French language; nay, 
Pope has rhymed it to this sound ; ' 

' " Dreading eVn fools, by flatterers besieefd, 
And so obliging that he ne'er obHg'd.* 



Mat it was so far from having generally obtained, 
that Lord Chesterfield strictly enjoins bis son to 
avoid Uiis pronunciation as affected. In a few 

J ears, however, it became to general, that none 
ut the lowest vulgar ever pronounced it in the 
JSnglish manner; bat upon the publication of this 
nobleman's letters, which was about twenty years 
after he wrote them, his authority has bad so 
much, influence with the polite world as to bid 
fair for restoring the i, in this word, to its original 
Tights ; and we not unfreqoently hear it now pro- 
nounced Willi the broad English i in those circles 
where, a few years ago, it would have been an 
infallible mark of vulgarity. Mr. Sheridan, tjfik 
Johnston, and Mr. Barclay, give both sounds, Wt 
>laee the sound of oblige first. Mr. Scott gives 

>th, but places oblecge first. Dr. Ken rick and 
luchanan give only oblige ; and Mr. Efcphinston, 
Ir. Perry, and Penning, give only obUege; but 
though this sound has lost ground so much, yet 
Mr. Nares, who wrote about eighteen years ago, 
says, " oblige still, I think,, retains the sound of 
long e, notwithstanding the proscription of that 
pronunciation by the late Lord Chesterfield." 

lit. The words that have preserved the foreign 
4>und of I, like ee, are the following: Ambergris, 
serdegris, antique, becajlco, bombesin, brasil, ca- 
pHvi, capuchin, colbertine, chioppine, or chopin, 
caprice, chagrin, ehevaux-defrise, critique (for 
criticism), festucine, /rite, gaberdine, kaberdine, 
sordine, rugkte, trephine, quarantine, routine, fas- 
cine, fatigue, intrigue, glacis, invalid, machine, 
magasine, marine, palanquin, pique, police* pro- 
JUe, recitative, mandarine, tabeurine, tambourine, 
tontine, transmarine, ultramarine. In all these 
words, if for the last i we substitute ee, we shall 
have the true pronunciation. In signior the first 
i is thus pronounced. Mr. Sheridan pronounces 
vertigo and serpigo with the accent on the second 
syllable, and the i long, as in tie and pie. Dr. 
Kenrick gives these words the same accent, bat 
Sounds the i as e in {pa and pea. The latter is, in. 
my opinion, the general pronunciation ; though 
Mr. Sheridan's is supported by a very general 
rule, which is, that all words adopted whole from 
the Latin preserve the Latin accent, 503, b. But 
if the English ear were unbiassed by the long i in 
Latin, which fixes the accent on the setfond syl- 
table, and could free itself from the slavish imi- 
tation of the Prench and Italians, there is little 
doubt but these words would have the accent on 
the first syllable, and that the i would be pro- 
nounced regularly like the short I, as in Indigo 
and Portico.— See Vertigo. 

IIS. There is a remarkable alteration in the 
sound of this vowel, in certain situations, where* 
it changes to a sound equivalent to initial f . The 
situation that occasions this change is when the 
t precedes another vowel in an unaccented sylla 
hie, and is not preceded by any of the dentals ; 
thus we hear iary in mU-iary, bU-iary, Ac. pro- 
nounced as if written mU-parp, biLpary, Ac. Min- 
ion and pin-ion, as if written min-yon and pin-pen. 
In these words the J is so totally altered to y, 
that pronouncing the ia and io in separate sylla- 
bles would be an errour the most palpable ; but 
where the other liquids or mutes precede the i in 
this situation, the coalition is not so necessary : 
'or though the two latter syllables of convivial, 
participial, &c. are extremely prone to unite into 
one, they may, however, be separated, provided 
the separation be not too distant. The same ob- 
servations hold good of e, as malleable, pro- 
nounced malva bit. 

114. But the sound of the 4, the moat difficult to 
reduce to rule, is when it ends a syllable imme- 
diately before the accent. When either the pri- 
mary or secondary accent is on this letter, it is 
Invariably pronounced either as the long Untitle, 
the snort I in tittle, or the French I in magatint; 
and when it ends a syllable after the accent, it is 
always sounded like e, as sen-si-ble, ra-tifp, Ac. 
But when it ends a syllable, immediately before 
the accent, it is'sometimes pronounced long, as in 
vUa-U-tp, where the first syllable is exactly like 
<he first of vi>al ; and sometimes short, as in di- 
vest, where the i is pronounced as if the word 
Vere written de-jest. The sound of the i, in this 
situation, is so little reducible to rule, that none 
•f our writers on the subject have attempted It ; 
and the only method to give some idea of it 
tecau to ua the very laborious one of classing 

such words together as have the I pronounced In 
the same manner, and observing the differen 
combinations of other letters that may possibly 
be the cause of the different sounds of this. 

115. In the first place, where the i is the only 
letter in the first syllable, and the accent is on 
the second, beginning with a consonant, the vowel 
has its long diphthongal sound, as in idea, iden- 
tity, idolatry, idoneous, irascible, ironical, isos- 
celes, itinerant, itinerary. Imagine and its com- 
pounds seem the only exceptions. But, to giro 
the inspector some idea of general usage, I have 
subjoined examples of these words as they stand 
In our different Pronouncing Dictionaries; . 
Idea. Sheridan, Scott, Buchanan, W«* John- 

ston, Kenriok. 
Idea. Perry. 

identity. Sheridan, Scott, Buchanan, W. John- 
ston, Kenrick. 
identity. Perry. 

idolatry. Sheridan, Scott, Buchanan, W. John- 
ston, Kenrick. 
Idolatry. Perry. 
idoneous. Sheridan, Kenrick. 
irascible. Sheridan, Scott, W. Johnston- Ken- 
irascible. Perry. 
isosceles. Sheridan, Scott, Perry. 
itinerary. Sheridan, Scott, W. Johnston, Ken- 
itinerary. Perry. 

itinerant. Shendan, Scott, W. Johnston, Nares. 
Itinerant. Buchanan, Perry. 

lltf. When i ends the first syllable, and the ac- 
cent is on the second, commencing with a vowel, 
it generally preserves its long open diphthongal 
sound. Thus in di-ameter, diurnal, ice the first 
syllable is equivalent to the verb to die. A cor- 
rupt foreign manner of pronouncing these words 
may sometimes mince the i into*, as if the wordo 
were written de-ametur, de-umal, Sec. ; but this is 
dlsgnsting to every just English ear, and contrary 
to the whole current of. analogy. Besides, the 
vowel that ends and the vowel that begins a syl- 
lable are, by pronouncing the i long, kept more 
distinct, and not suffered to coalesce, as ihey are 
apt to do if i has its slender sound. This prone- 
ness of the e, which is exactly the slender sound 
of i, to coalesce with the succeeding vowel, haa 
produced such monsters in pronunciation as Jog- 
graphy and Jommetry for geography and geometry p 
endjorgics forgeorgics. The latter of these words 
is fixed in this absurd pronunciation without re- 
medy ; but the two former seem recovering their 
right to four syllables; though Mr. Sheridan has 
endeavoured to deprive them of it, by spelling 
them with three. Hence we may observe that 
those who wish to pronounce correctly, and ac- 
cording to analogy, ought to pronounce the first 
syllable of biography as the verb to toy, and not 
as if written be-ography. 

117. When i ends an initial syllable without 
the accent, and the succeeding syllable begins 
with a consonant, the i is generally slender, aa 
if written e. But the exceptions to this rule are 
so numerous, that nothing but a catalogue will 
give a tolerable idea of the state of pronunciation 
in this point. 

118. When the prepositive bi, derived from bis 
(twice), ends a syllable immediately before the 
accent, the I is long and broad, in- order to con 
vey more precisely the specific meaning of the 
syllable. Thus bi capsular, bicipital, bi eipitsus, 
bi-cornous, bircprporal. bi-dental, bifofieme, bi- 
furcated, bi-linguous, binocular, bi-pennated, bb> 

Setalous, bi-quadrate, have the I long. But the 
rst syllable of the words Bitumen and Ritumv 
nous, tiaving no such signification, ought to be 
pronounced with the I short. This is the sound 
Buchanan has given it ; but Sheridan, Kenrick, 
and W. Johnston, make the I long, as in Bible. » 

119. The same may be observed of words be- 
ginning with tri, having the accent on the se- 
cond syllable. Thus tribunal, trUcorpsrml, tri- 
chotomy, trt-gintals, have the J ending 4he first 
syllabic long, as in tri-al. To this class ought so 
be added di-petalous and di-iemma, though the i 
in the first syllable of the last word is pronounced 
like e, and as if written de-lemma, by Mr. Scott 
and Mr. Perry, but long by Mr. Sheridan, Dr. 
Kenrick, and Buchanan ; and both ways by W. 
Johnston but placing the short first. And he 


we may conclude the* the verb to bi-seot, and 
Ike dom of-jretssw, ought to have the I at the 
tad of the first syllable pronounced like buy, as 
Mr. Scott and "l>r Kenrick have marked it, 
sssugh otherwise marked by Mr. Sheridan, Mr. 
Jerry, and Buchanan. 

the *m syllable is c**, with the ac- 
: en ike second, the i Is generally long, as chi- 
ergick, cM-rurgeon, chi-rographist, 
, chi^rography. Chimera and chv> 
hm-re the i most frequently short, as pro- 
by Bachanan and Perry ; though other- 
marked by 8heridan, Bcott f W. Johnston, 
sod Kenrick ; said, indeed, the short sound seems 
new established. CtUcmu and ch ic an e r y , from 
the French, have the i always short ; or more 
properly slender. 

m. a before the accent has the J generally 
short, as cv-vUsam* H+Utt*. and, I think, ciMeioms 
sad ci-norulent, though otherwise marked by Mr. 
various and cHation have the I long. 
CU before the accent has the I long, as 
; bnt when the accent is on the third 

SUable, as in clkmacterick, the I is shortened by 
m secondary accents— See 530. 

Cri before the accent has the I generally 
as cri-nigtrous, criterion ; though we some* 
hear the latter as if written cre-terion, but 


JH before the accented syllable, beginning 
a consonant, has the I almost always short ; 
; digestion, digress, digression, dilute, 
dUmvian, dimension, dUnensive, dhnldia- 
, dimin ut iv e, diploma, direct, direc- 

lam, diversify, diversification, d iversion, diversity, 
divert, diverttsement, dtvertlve, divest, dlvosture, 

divMe, dtvidamle, dividant, divine, divinity, divisi- 
ble,dtol siMI Uy, divorce, divulge. To these, 1 think, 
may be added, dscacity, didactick, dUacermte, dila- 
eeratiom, dilanlote, dilapidation, dilate, dilatable, 
dUaiabUity, dUection, dilucid, dUucidate, dUuci- 
d*tmn,dtmetical, dsnumeration, diverge, divergent, 

though Mr. Sheridan has marked the 
irst i in all these words long. Some of them may 
undoubtedly be pronounced either way ; but why 
he should make the I in diploma long, and W. 
Johnston should give it both ways, is unaccount- 
able ; as Mr. Scott, Buchanan, Dr. Kenrick, Mr. 
Ferry, and the general usage, is against them. 
Diuresis and dioptricks have the I long, according 
to the general rule, lift, though the last is ab- 
surdly made short by Dr. Kenrick, and the diph- 
thong is made long in the first by Mr. Sheridan, 
contrary to one of the most prevailing idioms in 
pronunciation ; which is, the shortening power 
of the antepenultimate accent, MIS. Let it not be 
said that the diphthong must be always long, since 
Casarem and Vadatus have the m always short. 

ras. The long I, in words of this form, seems 
rmnfinrrt U> rhe following : Digladiation, dijvdi- 
eaffcsa, dmmsaneration, divaricate, direction, dlrup* 
rata. Both Johnson and Sheridan, in my opi- 
nion, place the accent of the word didascalick im- 
properly npon the second syllable ; it should 
agreeable to analogy to class it with 
mis terminations in fc, and place the 
on the penultimate syllable, 569 ; and, in 
Ifcb case, the fin the first will be shortened by 
the secondary accent, and the syl lable pronounced 
like did. 5tJ. Hie first i in dkntssory, marked 
Im*; by Mr. Sheridan, and with the accent on 
•*e sruond syllable, contrary to Dr. Johnson, is 
equally ei roneoos. The accent ought to be on 
jhe first syllable, and the i short, as on the adjec- 
l ' re atlas—— See Possessory. 

ttfi. f\ before the accent ought always to be 
short : thts is the sound we generally give to the 
i m the first syllable of Jl-delUy ; and why we 
should give the long sound to the i in fiducial 
sad fiduciary, as marked by Mr. Sheridan, I 
know not : he is certainly erroneous in marking 
the first I In frigidity long, and equally so in 
ring the accent upon the last syllable of finite. 

has the I short universally. 
IS. GtgantUk has the I in the first syllable al- 
ways long. 
— U has the f generally long, as U-bation, 
-tan, tlbratkm, licentious, U-pothymy, li 
mi, tUkography, IMhotomy. Litigious has 
the I u the first syllable always short. The same 
nay be observed of libidinous, though otherwise 
by Mr. Sheridan. 

199. Mi has the i generally short, as iu minority, 
militia, mtmogvapher, minacious, minacity, mtra- 
aulous ; though the four last are marked with the 
long 4 by Mr. Sheridan ; and, what is still more 
Strange, he marks the i which has the accent on 
it long in minatory ; though the same word, in 
the compound comminatory, where the i is al- 
ways short, might have shown him hto erroor. 
The word mmnetick, which, though in very good 
use, is neither in Johnson nor Sheridan, ought to 
be pronounced with the first I short, as if written 
m i m eU ek. The I is generally long in micrometer, 
micrography, and migration. 

Iff. JW has the * long in nigrescent. The first I 
in higryication, though marked long by Mr. She- 
ridan, is shortened by the secondary accent, 537, 
and ought to be pronounced as if divided Into 

131. Phi has the I generally short, as inpkilauu 
thropy, phiUppick, philosopher, philosophy, philoso- 
phize; to which we may certainly add phUologer, 
philologist, philology, philological, notwithstanding 
Mr. Sheridan has marked the i in these last words 

1SS. Pi and pit have the i generally short, at 
pilaster, pUuitous,pilosity,pUcation. Piaster ana 
plana, being Italian words, have the i short be- 
fore the vowel, contrary to the analogy of words . 
of this form, 11 (J, where the I is long, as in pi-ocu- 
lar, priority, Ac. Piratical has the i marked 
long by Mr* Sheridan, and short by Dr. Kenrich. 
The former is, in my opinion, more agreeable 
both to custom and analogy, as the sound of the 
I before the accent is, often determined by the 
sound of that letter in the primitive word. 

133. Pri has the i generally long, as to primeval, 
prl m e vous, primttial, prunero, primordial, privado, 
privation, privative, but always short in primitive 
and primer. 

134. Ri has the i short, as in ridiculous. JUgU 
dUy Is marked with the I long by Mr. Sheridan, 
and short by Dr. Kenrick : the latter is undoubt- 
edly right. Rivality has the I long In the first 
syllable, in compliment to rival, as piratical has 
the i long, because derived from pirate. Rhino- 
ceros has the I long in Sheridan, Scott, Kenrick, 
W. Johnston, and Buchanan ; and short in Perry. 

135. Si has the I generally short, as similitude, 
sirlasis, and ought certainly to be short in siliciouo 

Setter written cilMousJ, though marked long by 
r. bheridan. Simultaneous, having the second- 
ary accent on the first syllable, does not come 
under this head, but retains the I long, notwith- 
standing the shortening power of the accent it to 
under, 637. 
lso. 71 has the i short, as in timidity. 

137. Tri has the I long, for the same reason as 
W, which see 118, 110. 

138. Vi has the I so unsettled as to puzzle the 
correctest speakers. The i is generally long in 
vicarious, notwithstanding the short i in vicar. 
It is long in vibration, from its relation to vibrate. 
Vitality has the I long, like vital. In vivifick, 
vivijtcate, and viviparous, the first i is long, to 
avoid too great a sameness with the second. Vi- 
vacious and vivacity have the » almost as often 
long as short ; Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, and Dr. 
Kenrick, make the I in vivacious long, and Mr. 
Perry and Buchanan short ; Mr. Sheridan, Mr. 
Scott, and W. Johnston, make the I in the first of 
vivacity long, and Perry and Buchanan short : 
but the short sound seems less formal, and most 
agreeable to polite usage. Vicinity, vicinal, vi- 
cissitude, vituperate, vimtneous, and virago, seem 
to prefer the short i. though Mr. Sheridan hut 
marked the three last words with the first vowe 
long. But the diversity will be best seen b> 
giving the authorities for all these words t 

> icmlty. Dr. Kenrick. 

Vicinity. Mr. 8heridan, Mr. Scott, Buchanan, 
W. Johnston, and Perry* 

Vicinal. Mr. Sheridan. 

Vicissitude. Mr. Sheridan, Dr. Kenrick, W.John- 
ston, Buchanan, and Perry. 

Vituperate. Mr. Sheridan, Dr. Kenrick, w. John 

Vituperate. Mr. Perry. 

Vmuneous. Mr. Sheridan. 

Virago. Mr. Sheridan and W. Johnston. 

Vhroge* Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Scott, Buchanan, 

and Perry. 
1 have classed vicinal here as a word with the 



accent mi the second syllable, as It stands in She* 
riclan's Dictionary, bat think it ought to have the 
accent on the first.— See Medicinal. 

130. The same diversity and uncertainty in the 
sound of this letter seem to reign in those final 
unaccented syllables which are terminated with 
the mate e. Perhaps the best way to give some 
tolerable idea of the analogy of the language in 
this point will be, to show the general rule, and 
mark the exceptions ; thoogh these are sometimes 
so numerous as to make us doubt of the rule it- 
self: therefore the best way will be to give a ca- 
talogue of both. 

140. There is one rule of very great extent, in 
words of this termination, which have the accent 
on the penultimate syllable, and that is, that the 
i in the final syllable of these words is short : 
thus servile, hostile, virile, respite, deposite, ada- 
mantine, amethystine, Sec. are pronoun red as if 
written servll, kostU, re spit, deposit, Ac The 
only exceptions in this numerous class of words 
seem to be the following : Exile, senile, edile, em- 
pire, umpire, r a my ire, finite, feline, ferine, ar- 
chives ; the substantives cbnfine and supine: 
while the adjectives saline and contrite have 
sometimes the accent on the first, and sometimes 
on the last syllable ; but in either case the I is 
long. Quagmire and pismire have the I long also ; 
likewise has the I long, but otherwise has it more 
frequently, though very improperly, short. Myr- 
rhine, vulpine, and gentile, though marked with 
the i long by Mr. Sheridan, ought, in my opinion, 
to conform to the general rule, and be pronounced 
With the i short. Vulpine, % vt\\\\ the I long, is 
adopted by Mr. Scott ; and W. Johnston, Mr. 
Scott, and Buchanan, agree with Mr. Sheridan 
in the last syllable of gentile; and this seems 
agreeable to general usage, thoogh not to analogy. 
See the word. 

141. But when the accent is on the last syllable 
bnt two in words of this termination, the length 
of the vowel is not so easily ascertained. 

142. Those ending in ice have the i short, ex- 
cept sacrifice and cockatrice. 

I4S. Those ending In ids have the i long, not. 
withstanding we sometimes hear suicide absurdly 
pronounced, as if written suicid. 

144. Those ending in ife have the I long, except 
housewife, pronounced huxxwiff, according to the 
general rule, notwithstanding the i in wife is al- 
ways long. Midwife is sometimes shortened in 
the same manner by the vulgar: and se*nnight 
for sevennight is gone irrecoverably into the same 
analogy ; though fortnight for fourteenihnight is 
more frequently pronounced with the i long. 

145. Thme ending in He have the i short, ex- 
cept reconcile, chamomile, estipile. Juvenile, 
mercantile, and puerile, have the I long in She- 
ridan's Dictionary, and short in Ken rick's. In 
my opinion the latter is the much more prevalent 
and polite pronunciation ; but infantile, though 

Kronen n ceable both ways, seems inclinable to 
'nethen the i in the last syllable.— See Juvenile. 

140. In the termination ime, pantomime has the 
i long, rhyming with time ; and maritime has the 
f short, as if written matitim. 

147. Words in ine, that have the accent higher 
than the penultimate, have the quantity of I so 
uncertain, that the only method to give an idea 
of it will be to exhibit a catalogue of words where 
it is pronounced differently. 

148- But first it may not be Improper to see the 
different sounds given to this letter in some of the 
same words by different orthoepists : 

Columbine. Sheridan, Nares, W. Johnston. 

Columbine. Kenrick, Perry. 

Saccharine. Sheridan, Nares. 

Saccharine. Kenrick, Perry. 

Saturnine. Sheridan, Nares, Buchanan. 

Saturnine. Kenrick, Perry. 

Metalline. Kenrick. 

Metalline. Sheridan, W. Johnston, Perry. 

Crystalline. Kenrick. 

Crystalline- Sheridan, Perry. 

Uterine. Sheridan, Buchanan, W. Johnston. 

Uterine. Kenrick, Scott, Perry. 

140. In these words I do not hesitate to pro- 
nounce that the general rule inclines evidently 
to the long I, which, in doubtful cases, ought al- 
ways to be followed ; and for which reason I 
shall enumerate those words first where I judge 
the I ought to be pronounced long ; Cannabine, 

omraJHne, columbine, bixan t ine, gelatine, legating, 
oxyrrhodine, concubine, muscadine, incarnadine, 
celandine, amandine, secundine, amygdalime, crys- 
talline, vitulsne, calamine, asinine, saturnine, 
saccharine, adulterine, viperine, uterine, lamen- 
ting armentine, serpentine, turpentine, vespertine, 
ke ll u ine , porcupine, countermine, leonine, sappki- 
rine, and metalline. 

160. The words of this termination, where the 
I is short, are the following : Jacobine, medicine, 
discipline, masculine, Jessamine, feminine, heroine, 
nectarine, libertine, genuine,, hyaline, palatine* 
To these, I think, ought to be added alkaline, 
aquiline, coraCUns, brigantine, eglantine: and to' 
this pronunciation of the i the proper names 
Valentine and Constantine seem strongly to in- 
cline ; and on the stage Cymbeline has entirely 
adopted it. Thus we see how little influence the 
Latin language has on the quantity of the I in the 
final syllable of these words. It is a rule in that 
'language that adjectives ending in His or inut, 
derived from animated beings or proper names, 
to the exception of very few, have this I pro- 
nounced long. It were to be wished this dis- 
tinction could be adopted in English words from 
the Latin, as in that case we might be able in 
time to regularise this very irregular part of our 
tongue ; but this alteration would be almost im- 
possible in adjectives ending in ive, as relative, 
vocative, fugitive, ace. have the i uniformly short 
in English, and long in the Latin relativus, voca-. 
tivus,fugitivus, ftc. 

161. The only word ending in ire, with the ac- 
cent on the antepenultimate syllable, \&acrospire, 
with the I long, the last syllable sounding like 
the spire of a church. 

150. Words ending in ise have the i short, wheu ' 
the accent is on the last syllable but one, m fran- 
chise, except the compounds ending in wise, as 
likewise, lengthwise, ftc. as marked by Mr. Scott, 
Mr. Perry, and Buchanan ; but even among these 
words we sometimes hear otherwise pronounced 
otherwix, as marked by Mr. Sheridan and W. 
Johnston ; but, I think, improperly. 

153. When the accent is on the last syllable 
but two in these words, they are invariably pro- 
nounced with the i long, as criticise, equalise. 

164. In the termination its, when the accent is 
on it, the i is always long, as requite. When the 
accent is on the last syllable but one, it is always 
short, as respite, 140, pronounced as if written 
respit, except contrite s but when the accent is 
on the last syllable but two, the I is generally 
long : the exceptions, however, are so many, that 
a catalogue of both will be the best rule. 

155. The i is long in expedite, recondite, incon- 
dite, hermaphrodite, carmelite, theodolite, cosmo- 
polite, chrysolite, eremite, aconite, margarite mar. 
casite, parasite, appetite, bipartite, tripartite, 
quadripartite, convertite, anchorite, pituile, sa 
tellite* As the word stands in Ken rick's Die 
tionary, swtill-it, having the i short, and the ac- 
cent on the second syllable, It is doubly wrong. 
The i in the last syllable is shortened also by W. 
Johnston and Perry, but made long, as it ought 
to be, by Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, and Mr. Nares. 
—See Recondite. 

150. The i is short in cucurbite, ingenite, definite, 
indefinite, infinite, hypocrite, favourite, requisite f 
prerequisite, perquisite, exquisite, apposite, and 
opposite. Heteroclite has the i long in Sheridan, 
but short in Kenrick. The former is, in my opi- 
nion, the best pronunciation (see the word in the 
Dictionary) ; but ite, in what may be called a 
gentile termination, has the i always long, as in 
Hiviie, Samnite, cosmopolite, bedlamite, ftc. 

157. The termination ire, when the accent Is 011 
it, is always long, as in hive, except in the two 
verbs, give, live, and their compounds, giving, 
living, «c. ; for the adjective live, as a live anL 
mal, has the i long, and rhymes with strive ; so 
have the adjective and adverb, lively and livelily : 
the noun livelihood follows the same analogy; 
but the adjective livelong, as the live-long duy, 
has the i short, as in the verb. When the ac- 
cent is not on the I in this termination it is al- 
ways short, as sportive, plaintive, Ac. rhyming 
with give, 160, except the word be a gentile, as 

168. All the other adjectives and substantives 
of this termination, when the accent is nol on ft, 
have the i invariably short, as offensive, defensive. 



• In smtSqme fts short, a* if written settle*, 

xn adnUcme, rhyming with pike, strike, ftc. 

the i loag and slender, and 

. Dr. Kenrlck, Mr. Blphinston, 

, and Barclay, have obleek 

; Mr. 8cott hat it both ways, bat gives 

slender sound lint ; and Mr. Sheridan, Mr. 

W. Johnston, ob&ke. The latter is, in 

, more agreeable to polite usage, bat 

farmer mora analogical ; for as it comes from 

we cannot write it obUke, 



snay be 


. Xares wishes, any more than antique, antike, 
' fear of departing too far from the Latin an- 
and mhiigmms* Opaque, Mr. Nares observes, 
cease a make j bnt then it mast be remem* 
thai the Latin Is opacus, and not spawn*)*. 
ISO- All th« terminations in ise have the I long, 
except to emalenine ; which, having the accent on 
nd syllable, follows the general role, and 
the i abort, pronounced as in the verb is, 140. 
observations we may add, that though 
devil suppress the i, as if written ttfl 
i, yet that cavil and pencil preserve its 
nelly ; and that Latin ought never to 
need as it is generally at schools, as if 
atfn. Cousin and cozen both drop the 
Is, as if spelled cos*, and are only dis- 
to the eye. 

e how little regularity there is in the 
of this letter when it is not under the ac- 
when custom will permit, bow careful 
we ought to be to preserve the least trace of ana- 
tnat "confusion may not be worse con- 
The sketch that has been just given 
y. perhaps, afford something like a clue to 
t us in this labyrinth, and it is hoped it will 
le the judicious speaker to pronounce with 
certainty and decision. 
It wras remarked, under the vowel A, that 
a hard gore preceded that vowel, a sound 
e interposed, the better to unite the letters, 
a we sound of the consonant. The same 
observed of the letter J. When this 
I is preceded by hard g or A, which is bat 
form for hard c, it is pronounced as if an 
inserted between the consonant and the 
I : thus sky, kind, guide, guise, disguise, cate- 
'» gwJZe, beguile, mankind, are pronounced as 
af written ake-p , ko4nd, gue-ise, dis-gue-ise, cat-e- 

r**-U*» mankeAnd. At first sight 
irprtsed that two such different letters 
i should be affected in the same manner 
bytbe bard gutturals, g, c, and k ; but when we 
I is really composed of a and e, 37, 
ceases; and we are pleased to find 
perfectly uniform in its procedure, and 
rely unbiassed by the eye. From this view of 
the analogy we may see how greatly mistaken is 
a very solid and ingenious writer on this subject, 
who says, that " ky4nd for kind is a monster of 
pronunciation, heard only on our stage.*'— Nares* 
Mngtssh Orthoepy, page 18. — Sec No. 91. 

It may not, perhaps, seem unworthy of notice, 
Shut when this letter is unaccented in the nume- 
rous terminations Uy, ibte, ftc. it to frequently 
pronounced like short u, as if the words sensible, 
visible, ate. were written sensubble, visubble, ftc. ; 
said cmartty, chastity, Ac. like charutfy, chastutty. 
floe. : but it may be observed, that the pure sound 
d i ttke e tn these words is as much the mark of 
sn elegant speaker as that of the u in singular, 
edmcaU, Ac.— See No. 170* 


V3i. Gtammarfans have generally allowed this 
setter bnt three sounds. Mr. Sheridan instances 
in naf, note, prove. For a fourth, I have 
the • in love, dove, Ac. ; for the HAh, that in 

er, sarjiw" ; and a sixth, that In woman, wolf, ftc. 
affi. The first and only peculiar sound of this 
tetter is that by which ft is named in the alpha- 
bet: it renoi res the mouth to be formed, in some 
ttxrve, tike the letter, in order to pronounce it. 
Vs may be called its long open sound, as the o 
m prove may be called its long slender sound, 65. 
Tins sound we find in words ending with silent e, 
mtane, bona, alone; or when ending a syllable 
w*n the accent upon It, as mo-tion, po-ttnt, Ac. ; 
a In tbe monosyllables, go, so. no. This 
b found under several combinations of 
els with this letter, as in moan, groom, 

bow (to shoot with), low (not high), and before st 
in the words host, ghost, post, most, and before ss 
in gross* 

i«. The second sound of this letter is called its 
short sound, and is found in not, got, lot, dec. ; 
though this, as in the other short vowels, is by no 
means the short sound of the former long one, but 
corresponds exactly to that of a in what, with 
which the words' not, got, lot, are perfect rhymes. 
The. long sound, to which the o in not and sot are 
short ones, is found under the diphthong au in 
naught, .and* the ou in sought; corresponding 
exactly to the a in hall, ball, ftc. The short 
sound of this letter, like the short sound of a In 
father, 78, 79, is frequently, by inaccurate speak- 
ers,, and chiefly those among the vulgar, length- 
ened to a middle sound approaching to its long 
sound, the in or. This sound is generally heard, 
as in the case of a, when It is succeeded by two 
consonants: thus Mr. Smith pronounces broth, 
froth, and moth, as if written brawth,frawth. and 
mawlh. Of the propriety or impropriety of this 
a well-educated ear is the best judge ; but, as was 
observed nnder the article A, 78, if this be not 
the sound heard among the best speakers, nc 
middle sound ought to be admitted, as good ora- 
tors will ever incline to definite and absolute 
sounds, rather than such as may be called non- 
descripts in language. 

J64. The third sound of this letter, as was marked 
in the first observation, may be called its long 
slender sound, corresponding to the double e. 
The words where this sound of occurs are so 
few, that it will be easy to give a catalogue of 
them: Prove, move, behove, and their compounds, 
lose, do, ado. Borne, poltron, ponton, spent on, who, 
whom, womb, tomb. Sponton is not in Johnson ; 
and this and the two preceding words ought ra- 
ther to be written with 00 in the last syllable. 
Gold is pronounced like goold in familiar conver- 
sation ; but in verse and solemn language, espe- 
cially that of the Scripture, ought always to rhyme 
with old, fold, Ac— See Encore, Gold, and Wind. 

189. The fourth sound of this vowel is that which 
to found in love, dove, ftc. ; and the long sound, 
which seems the nearest relation to it, is the first 
sound of in note, tone, rove, ftc. This sound of 
is generally heard when it is shortened by the 
succeeding liquids n, m, r. and the semi-vowels 
v, x, th: and, as Mr. Nares has given a catalogue 
of those words, I shall avail myself or his labour. 
Above, affront, allonge, among, amongst, attorney, 
bomb, bombard, borage, borough, brother, cochi- 
neal, colour, come, comely, comfit, comfort, com- 
pany, compass, comrade, combat, conduit, coney, 
conjure, constable, covenant, cover, covert, covet, 
covey, coven, discomfit, done, doth, dost, dove, do- 
zen, dromedary, front, glove, govern, honey, hover, 
love, Afbnday, money, mongrel, monk, monkey, 
month, mother, none, nothing, one, onion, other, 
oven, plover, pomegranate, pommel, pother, romage, 
shove, shovel, sloven, smother, some, Somerset, son, 
sovereign, sponge, stomach, thorough, ton, tongue, 
word, work, wonder, world, worry, worse, worship, 
wort, worth : to which we may add, rhomb, once 

mfrey, and colander, 
166. It 

n these words the accent is on the o in 
every word, except pomegranate : but, with very 
few exceptions, this letter has the same sound in 
the unaccented terminations, oc, ock, od, ol, cm, 
on, op, or, ot, and some, %a mammock, cassock, me- 
thod, carol, kingdom, union, amazon, gallop, tutor, 
turbot, troublesome, ftc. ; all which are pronounced 
as if written mammuck, cassuck, methud, ftc. The 
o in the adjunct monger, as cheesemonger, ftc. has 
always this sound. The exceptions to this rule 
are technical terms from the Greek or Latin, as 
Achor. a species of the herpes ; and proper names, 
as Color, a river in Italy. 

167* The fifth sound of is the long sound pro- 
duced by r final, or followed by another conao* 
nant, as for, former. This sound to perfectly 
equivalent to the diphthong au ; and for and 
former might, on account of sound only, be writ- 
ten faur and faurmer. There are many excep- 
tions to this rule, as borne, corps, corse, force, 
ffTge,form (a seat), fort, horde, porch, port, sport. 
Sec. which have the first sound of this letter. 

168. O, like A, is lengthened before r, when 
terminating a monosyllable, or followed by an- 
other consonant; and. like a too, is shortened by 
a duplication of the liquid, as we may hear by 


comparing lb* conjunction or with the same let- 
ters in torrid, florid. Ac. ; for though the r is not 
doubled to the eye mjlorid, yet, as the accent is 
on it, it is as effectually doubled to the ear as if 
written JferrW ; so if a consonant of another kind 
succeed the r in this situation, we find tbe o as 
Ions as in a monosyllable : thus the o in orchard 
is as long as in the conjunction or, and that in 
formal as in the word for : but the o in orifice and 
forage, where the r is followed by a vowel, the o 
Is as short as if the r were double, and the words 
written orriflce and /omuje.— -See No. 81. *•• 

160. There is a sixth sound of o exactly corre- 
sponding to the v in bull, full, pull, Ac. whicB, 
from its existing only in the following words, may 
be called its irregular sound. These words are, 
woman, bosom, worsted, wolf, and the proper names, 
Wolsey, Worcester, and Wolverhampton, 

Irregular and unaccented Sound*. 

170. What was observed of the a, when fol- 
lowed by a liquid and a mute, may be observed of 
the o with equal justness. This letter, like a, has 
a tendency to lengthen, when followed by a li- 
quid and another consonant, or by s, es, or * and 
a mute. But this length of o, in this situation, 
seems every day growing more and more vulgar : 
and, as it would be gross to a degree to sound the 
a in castle, mask, and plant, like the a in palm, 
psalm, Ac. so it would be equally exceptionable 
to pronounce the o in moss, dross, und frost, as if 
written mawse, drawse, and frowst, 78, 79. The 
o in the compounds of solve, as dissolve, absolve, 
resolve, seem the only words where a somewhat 
longer sound of the o is agreeable to polite pro- 
nunciation : on the contrary, when the o ends a 
syllable, immediately before or after the accent, 
as in po4Ue, tm-pe-tent, Ac. there is an elegance 
in giving it the open sound nearly as long as in 
polar and potent, Ac. See Domestick, Collect, and 
Command* ft may likewise be observed, that the 
o, like the e, 108, is suppressed in a final unac- 
cented syllable when preceded by c or k, and 
followed by n, as bacon, beacon, deacon, beckon, 
reckon, pronounced bak*n, beaJfn, deaJPn, beck*n, 
reck*n ; and when c is preceded by another con- 
sonant, as falcon, pronounced fawk*n. The o is 
likewise mute in the same situation, when pre- 
ceded by d in pardon, pronounced pard*n, but 
not in guerdon : it is mute when preceded by p 
in weapon, capon, Ac. pronounced weap*n, cap*n, 
&c. ; and when preceded by s in reason, season, 
treason, oralson, benison, denison, unison, foison, 
poison, prison, damson, crimson, advowson, pro- 
nounced reax*n, treax'n, Ac. ; and mason, bason, 
garrison, lesson, caparison, comparison, disinheri- 
son, parson, and person, pronounced mas'n, bas*n, 
dec. Unison, diapason, and cargason, seem, par- 
ticularly in solemn speaking, to preserve the 
sound of o like u, as if written unisun, diapanun, 
Ac. The same letter is suppressed in a final un- 
accented syllable beginning with t, as Seton, cot' 
ton, button, mutton, glutton, pronounced as if 
whiten Set'n, cotVn, &c. When x precedes the t, 
the o is pronounced distinctly, as in Sexton. 
When / is the preceding letter, the o is generally 
supprevied as in the proper names Stilton cheese, 
Wilton carpets, and Melton Mowbray, Ac. Accu- 
rate speakers sometimes struggle to preserve it in 
the name of our great epic poet, Milton; but the 
former examples sufficiently show the tendency 
of the language ; and this tendency cannot be 
easily counteracted. Tins letter is likewise snp- 

1>res»ed in the last syllable of blazon, pronounced 
*laz*n ; but is always to be preserved in the same 
syllable of koriwon. This suppression of the o 
must not be ranked among those careless abbre- 
viations found only among the vulgar, but must 
be considered as one of those devious tendencies 
to brevity, which has worn itself a currency in 
the language, and has at last become a part of it. 
To pronounce the o in those cases where it is sup- 
pressed, would give a singularity to the speaker 
bordering nearly on the pedantick ; and the atten- 
tion given to this singularity by the hearer would 
necessarily diminish his attention to the subject, 
and consequently deprive the speaker of some- 
thing much more desirable. 


171. The first sound of a, heard in tube, or end- 
ing an unaccented syllable, as in csvMdt, is a diph- 

thongal sound, as if t were prefixed, and these 
words were spelt tewbe and kewblc. The letter ss 
is exactly the pronoun you. 

171. The second sound of u is the short sound, 
which tallies exactly with the o in done, son, Ac. 
which every ear perceive* might, as well for the 
sound's sake, be spelt dun, sun, Ac.— See all the 
words where the • has this sound, No. 189. 

17S. The third sound of this letter, and that in 
which the English more particularly depart from 
analogy, is the a in bull, full, pull, Ac. The first, 
or diphthongal u in tube, seems almost as pecu- 
liar to the English as the long son nd of the 4 in 
thine, mime, Ac. ; but here, as if they chose to 
imitate the Latin, Italian, and French u, they 
leave out the e before the u, which is heard in 
tube, mule, Ac. and do not pronounce the latter 
part of u quite so long as the 00 in pool, nor so 
short as the u in dull, but with a middle sound 
between both, which is the true short sound of 
the 00 in coo and woo, as may be heard by com- 
paring woo and wool ; the latter of which is a per- 
fect rhyme to bufL 

174. This middle sound of ss, so unlike the gene- 
ral sound of that letter, exists only in the follow* 
log words: bull, full, pull; words compounded 
of full, as wonderful, dreadful, Ac. bullock, bully, 
bullet, bulwark, fuller, fuUlngmiU, pulley, pullet, 
push, bush, bushel, pulpit, puss, bullion, butcher, 
cushion, cuckoo, pudding, sugar, hussar, kuxxa, 
and put when a verb : but few as they are, ex- 
cept full, which is a very copious termination, 
they are sufficient to puzzle Englishmen who re- 
side at any distance from the capital, and to make 
the inhabitants of Scotland and Ireland (who, it 
is highly probable, received a much more regular 
pronunciation from our ancestors) not unfre- 
queutly the jest of fools. 

175. But, vague and desultory as this sound of 
tbe a may at first seem, on a closer view we find 
it chiefly confined to words which begin with the 
mute labials, b.p,f, and end with the liquid la- 
bial I, or the dentals s, t, and d, as in bull^fuU. 
pull, bush, push, pudding, puss, put, Ac. What- 
ever, therefore, was the cause of this whimsical 
deviation, we see its primitives are confined to a 
very narrow compass: put has this sound only 
when it is a verb ; for putty, a paste for glass, has 
the common sound of a, and rhymes exactly with 
nutty (having the qualities of a nut) ; so put, tbe 
game at cards, and the vulgar appellation of 
country put, follow the same analogy. All BuWs 
compounds regularly follow their primitive. But 
though fuller, a whitener of cloth, and Fulham, a 
proper name, are not compounded of full, they 
•resounded as if they were; while Putney fol- 
lows the general rule, and has its first syllable 
pronounced like the noun put. Pulpit nnn jalsVl 
comply with the peculiarity on account of their 
resemblance to putt, though nothing related to it ; 
and butcher and puss adopt this sound of w for no 
reason but the nearness of their form to the other 
words : and when to these we have added cushion, 
sugar, cuckoo, hussar f and the interjection huxsa, 
we have every word in the whole language where 
the u is thus pronounced. 

178. Some speakers, indeed, have attempted to 

^ve bulk and punish this obtuse sound of u, bee 
ickily have not been followed. The word* 
which have already adopted it are sufilciently 
numerous ; and we cannot be too careful to check: 
the growth of so unmeaning an irregularity. 
When this vowel is preceded by r in the tame 
syllable, it has a sound somewhat longer than this 
middle sound, and exactly as If written 00: thua 
rue, true, Ac. are pronounced nearly as if written 
roo, troo, Ac. 830. 

177. It must be remarked, that this sound of at, 
except in the word fuller, never extends 10 words 
from the learned languages; (or fulminant, fulm 
mtnotion, ebullition, repulsion, sepulchre, Ac. 
sound the a as in dull, gull. Ac. and the u in pus 
and pustule is exactly like the tame letter in Ma*. 
80 the pure English words, fulsome, buss, bulge 
bustle, bustard, buxxard, pteserve the a in »u 
second sound, as in us, hull, and custard. It may 
likewise not be unworthy of remark, that the 
letter u is never subject to the shortening power 
of either the primary or secondary accent ; but 
when accented, is always long, unless shortened 
by a double consonant. — See the words 
and Muculcnt, and Not. 003, 834. 



tmgmiar and Unaccented Sounds. 
Bt But the strangest deviation of this letter 
sua us regular sound is in the words 6wr, busi- 
aus, andeawy. We laugh at the Scotch tor pro- 
ssaacinf these word* as if written bewsy, oettrt- 
oon, and eswry / bat we ought rather to blush for 
oenetves in departing so wantonly from the 
feaeral rale as to pronounce them bitty, bigness, 
Ud berry. 

iff. There is an incorrect pronunciation of this 
idler when it ends a syllable not under the ac- 
cent, which prevails not only among the vulgar, 
set it sometimes found in better company; and 
that it, firing the sf an obscure sound, which con- 
fasa** it with vowels of a very different kind ; 
the* we not aafreqaently hear singular, regular, 
■msarlirnler, pronoanced as if written singular, 
fif*lar, and par-tick-e tar ; bat nothing tends 
■ore to tarnish and. vulgarize the pronunciation 
una this short and obscure sound of the unac- 
cented st. It may, indeed, be observed, that 
there is scarcely any thing more distinguishes a 
sense of mean and good education than the pro* 
association of the unaccented vowels, 547, 558. 
When vowels are nnder the accent, the prince, 
ani the lowest of the people in the metropolis, 
vha very few exceptions, pronounce them in the 
sane manner '; but the unaccented vowels in the 
neath of the former have a distinct, open, and 
■pectie sound, while the latter often totally sink 
tbenv, or change- them into some other sound. 
Those, thetefore, who wish to pronounce ele- 
gantly, most be particularly attentive to the un- 
seeeated vowels ; as a neat pronunciation of these 
' ~ of the greatest beauties of speaking. 

Y final. 

L Y final, either in a word or syllable. Is a 
vowel, and has exactly the same sound as i 
wo«M have in the same situation. For this rea- 
son, printers, who have been the great correctors 
of oar orthography, have substituted the i in its 
stead, on account of the too great frequency of 
una letter In the English languaee. That y final 
n a vowel is universally acknowledged ; nor 
Med we any other proof of it than its long sound, 
when followed by e mute, as in thyme, rhyme, Ac. 
a syllable with the accent upon it, as 
-, Ac. : this may be called its first 


lei. The second sound of the vowel y is its short 
■sand, heard in system, syntax, &c« 

Jrrtgmimr and Unaccented Sounds, 

Mb. The unaccented sound of this letter at the 
ead of a syllable, like that of i in the same situa- 
tion, is always like the first sound of c .* thus wr- 
o*h;. pleurlay, ftc. if sound alone were con- 
arited, might be written uanitee, pleurisee , Ac. 

Ma. The exception to this rule is, when / pre- 
cedes the w in a final syllable, the y is then pro- 
■sn oi icd as long rod open as if the accent were 
on it : thaw JmkUf, fualtfy, ate. have the last 
■jttsble sounded like that in defy. This long 
■Mad continues when the y is changed into i, in 
Jun^fiauJe, qmnUJlmble, Ac. The same may be ob- 
oarted of multiply and mult i p limble, ftc. ; occupy 
tad ascsjfjiaoJe, ate. 51*. 

tM. There b an irregular sound of this letter 
when the accent is on It in pane gy rick, when it is 
fe|eendy pronounced like the second sound of 
«. which would he more correct if its true sound 
were preserved, and it were to rhyme with 
Pyrrhic* j or as Swift does with Satirick: 

m On me when dunces are satirick, 
" I take it for a panegyrick." 

see the same irregularity attends this 
fetter before double r, or before single r, followed 
sy a vowel, as we find attends the vowel i in the 
sum situation. So the word Syrinx ought to 
Sucne the y like I pure, and the word Syrtis 
should sound the y like e short, though the first 
■ often heard improperly like the last. 

155. But the most uncertain sound of this letter 
a when it ends a syllable immediately preceding- 
tar accent. In this case it is subject to the same 
variety as the letter i in the same situation, and 
amg hut a catalogue will give us any idea of 
analogy of the language in this point* 

^ 180. The y is long in chylaceous, but shortened 
by the secondary accent in chylifaction and c/iy- 
lifactive, 530 : though, without the least reason 
from analogy, Mr. Sheridan has marked them 
both long. 

187. Words composed of hydro, from the Greek 
vow, water, have the y before the accent gene- 
rally long, as hydrography, hydragrapher, hydro- 
S^it h jf dr °P ick ' ■" which have the y long in 
II r. Sheridan but hydrography, which must be a 
mistake of the press ; and this long sound of y 
continues in hydrostatick, in spite of the shorten in? 
power of the secondary accent, 530. The same 
sound of y prevails in hydrauHcis and hydatides. 
Hygrometer and hygrometry seem to follow the 
same analogy, as well as hyperbola and hyperbole t 
which are generally heard with the y long; 
though Kehrick has marked the latter short. 
Hypostasis and hypotenuse onpht to have the y 
long likewise. In hypothesis the y is more fre- 
quently short than long ; and in hypothetical it i« 
more frequently long than short ; but hypocrisy 
has the first y always short. Myrabolan and my 
ropoUst may have the y either long or short. 
Mythology has the first y generally short, and my- 
thological, from the shortening power of the se- 
condary accent. 530, almost always. Phylivorous, 
phytography, vhytology, have the first y always 
long, hi phylactery the first y is generally short, 
and in physician always. Pylorus has the y long 
in Mr. Sheridan, but, I think, improperly. In 
pyramidal he marks the y long, though, in n»y 
opinion, it is generally heard short, as in pyramid. 
In pyrites, with the accent on the second sylla- 
ble, he marks the y short, much more correctly 
than Renrick, who places the accent on the fir*t 
syllable, and marks the y long (see the word.) 
Sunodick, synodical, synonima, and synopsis, have 
the y always short : synechdocke ought likewise 
to have the same letter short, as we find it in 
Perry's and Kenrick's Dictionaries; though in 
Sheridan's we find it long. Typography and typo- 
grapher oupht to have the first y long, as we Hnd 
it in Sheridan, Scott, Buchanan, W. Johnston, 
Ken rick, and Perry, though frequently heard 
short ; and, though tyrannical has the y marked 
short by Mr. Perry, it ought rather to have the 
long sound, as we see it marked by Mr. Sheridan, 
Mr. Scott, Buchanan, W. Johnston, and Kenrick. 

188. Prom the view that has been taken of the 
sound of the i and y immediately before the ac- 
cent, it may justly be called the most uncertain 
Crt of pronunciation. Scarcely any reason can 
given why custom prefers one sound to the 
other in some words; and why, in others, we may 
use either one or the other indiscriminately. It 
is strongly to be presumed that the i and y, In 
this situation, particularly the last, were generally 

E renounced long by our ancestors, but that custom 
ft* gradually inclined to the shorter sound, as 
more readily pronounced, and as more like the 
sound of these letters when they end a syllable 
alter the accent ; and perhaps we should con- 
tribute to the regularity of the language, if, when 
we are in doubt, we should rather incline to the 
short than the long sound of these letters. 


180. That w final is a vowel is not disputed, ; 
when it is in this situation it is equivalent to oo: 
as may be perceived in the sound of vow, tow-el, 
Ac. where it forms a real diphthong, composed 
of the o in um-ter, and the oo in woo and coo. It 
is often joined to o at the end of a syllable, with- 
out affecting the sound of that vowel ; and in this 
situation it may be called servile, as in bow, to 
shoot with ; crow, low (not high,) Ac. 


100. A diphthong is a double vowel, or the 
union or mixture of two vowels pronounced to- 

G.her, so as only to make one syllable ; as the 
tin a e or or, o e or or, the Greek m, the English 
ai, au, Sec. 

101. This is the general definition of a diph- 
thong ; but if we examine it closely we shall find 
in it a want of precision and accuracy •. It a 

• We see how many disputes the simple and 
ambiguous nature of vowels created among 



when « is followed by another vowel in the »am« 
syllable, it drops its consonant sound at the be 
ginning, and becomes merely doable n, 
197. The improper diphthongs arc, 

diphthong be two vowel sounds in succession, 
they must necessarily form two syllables, and 
therefore, by its very definition, cannot be a diph- 
thong : if it be such a mixture of two vowels as 
to form but one simple sound, it is very impro- 
perly called a diphthong ; nor can any such 
simple mixture exist. 

102. The only way to reconcile this seeming 
contradiction 1.1 to suppose that two vocal sounds 
in succession were sometimes pronounced so close- 
ly together as to form only the time of one syl- 
lable in Greek and Latin verse. Some of these 
diphthongal syllables we have in our own lan- 
guage, which only pass for monosyllables in 
poetrv : thus hire (wages) is no more than one 
tvllable in verse, though perfectly equivalent to 
higher (more high), which generally passes for a 
dissyllable : the same may be observed of dire 
or dyer, hour and power, &c. This is not uniting 
two vocal sounds into one simple sound, which is 
impossible, but pronouncing two vocal sounds in 
succession so rapidly and so closely as to go for 
onlv one syllable in poetry. 

10 J. Thus the best definition I have found of a 
diphthong is that given us by Mr. Smith, in his 
Scheme for a French and English Dictionary. 
" A diphthong (says this gentleman) I would de- 
fine to be two simple vocal sounds uttered by one 
and the same emission of breath, and joined in 
such a manner that each loses a portion of its na- 
tural length ; but from the junction produceth a 
compound sound, equal in the time of pronouncing 
to either of them taken separately, and so making 
still but one syllable." ,.,„,. , 

194. " Now it we apply this definition (says Mr. 
Smith) to the several combinations that may have 
been laid down and denominated diphthongs by 
former orthoepists, I believe we shall find only a 
small number of them meriting this name." As 
a proof of the truth of this observation, we find 
that most of those vocal assemblages that go 
under the name of diphthongs emit but a simple 
sound, and that not compounded of the two 
vowel 9, but one of them only, sounded long : 
thus pain and pane, pail and pale, hear and 
here, are perfectly the same sounds. 

195. These observations naturally lead ns to a 
distinction of diphthongs into proper and impro- 
per : the proper are such as have two distinct 
vocal sounds, and the improper such as have but 


190. The proper diphthongs are, 

io . . . question 

oi voice 

ou . . . . pound 
ow now 

oy ..... . boy 

ua . . . assnage 
t*e . mansuetude 
iff • . • languid. 

ea ocean 

est feud 

evf . . . . . jewel 
la . . . poniard 
ie . . . . spaniel 

In this assemblage it is impossible not to see a 
manifest distinction between those which begin 
with e or i and the rest. In those beginning with 
either of these vowels we find a squeezed sound 
like the commencing or consonant y interpose, as 
it were, to articulate the latter vowel, and that 
the words where these diphthongs are found 
might, agreeably to the sound, be spelt oshe-yan, 
f-yude,j-yewel, pon-yard, span yd, posh-yon, &c. ; 
and as these diphthongs (which, from their com- 
mencing with the sound of y consonant, may not 
improperly be called semi-consonant diphthongs) 
begin in that part of the mouth where s, c soft, 
aud t arc formed, we find that coalescence ensue 
which forms the aspirated hiss in the numerous 
terminations sion, Don, tial, &c. and by direct 
consequence in those ending in ure, une, as fu- 
ture, fortune, &c. for the letter ft, when long, is 
exactly one of these semi-consonant diphthongs, 
8 ; and when immediately after the accent it co- 
alesces with the preceding s, c, or f, and draws 
them into the aspirated hiss of sh or tsh, 409. 
Those found in the termination ions may be called 
serai-consonant diphthongs also, as the o and u 
have but the sound of one vowel. It may be 
observed too, in pasting, that the reason why in 
mansuetude the s does not go into sh is because, 

marians, and how it has begot the mistake con- 
cerning diphthong* : all that are properly so are 
syllable*, and not diphthongs, as intended to be 
signified by that word— Hotter. 

me . 

ao . 

. . aim 
. . gaol 

. • law 


el . 

.. clean 
. reed 
. they 

ie . . . . . friend 

on coat 

oe . . oeconomy 

00 moon 

ow . . . . crow. 

198. The triphthongs having but two sounds are 
merely ocular, and must therefore be classed witb 
the proper diphthongs : 

aye . (for ever) I eon . plenteous 
eau • . . beamy | ieu .... adieu 

lew .... v' 
oeu . manoeuvre. 

Of all these combinations of vowels wc shall treat 
in their alphabetical order, 


199. Ae or « is a diphthong, says Dr. Johnson 
of very frequent use in the JUatin language, which 
seems not properly to have any place in the Eng- 
lish ; since the a of the Saxons has been lung out 
of use, being changed to e simple ; to which, iu 
words frequently occurring, the a of the Romans 
is, in the same manner, altered, as in equator, 
equinoctial, and even in Eneas. 

900. But though the diphthong *> is perfectly 
useless in our language, and the substitution of e 
in its stead, in Cesar and Eneas, is recommended 
by Dr. Johnson, we do not find his authority has 
totally annihilated it, especially in proper names 
and technical terms derived from the learned . 
languages. Cesar, JEneas, JBsop, peon, ether, ' 
atlhiops mineral, amphisbana, anucephateosis, 
apharesis. agilops, osama, Ac. seem to preserve 
the diphthong, as well as certain words which . 
are either plurals or genitives, in Latin words not 
naturalised, as cornucopia', exuvia, aqua vita, mi- 
nutia, stria:, tec. 

901. This diphthong, when not under the ac- 
cent, in Michaelmas, and when accented m Dae- 
dalus, is pronounced like short e : it is, like e m 
subject to the short sound when under the se- 
condary accent, as in ASnobarbus, where an, in 
the first syllable, is pronounced exactly like the 
letter n, 589. 


SOS. The sound of this diphthong is exactly like 
the long slender sound of a ; thus pail, a vessel, 
and pale, a colour, are perfectly the same sound. 
The exceptions are but few. 

203. When said is the third person, preterimper- 
feet tense, of the verb to say, ai has the sound of 
short e, and said rhymes with bed; the same 
sound of ai may be observed in the third person 
of the present tense saith and the participle said s 
but when this word is an adjective, as the said 
man, it is regular, and rhymes with trade, 

204. Plaid, a striped garment, rhymes with 

"205. Raillery is a perfect rhyme to salary; and 
raisin, a fruit, is pronounced exactly like reason* 
the distinctive faculty of man.— See both these 
words in the Dictionary. 

200. Again and against sound as if written agen 
and agenst. 

207. The aisle of a church is pronounced exact- 
ly like isle, an island ; and is sometimes written, 

208. When this diphthong is in a final unac- 
cented syllable the e is sunk, and the i pro- 
nounced short: xhm mountain, fountain, captain, 
curtain, villain, are all pronounced as if written 
mountin,fountin. captin, cur tin, vilUn ; but when 
the last word takes an additional syllable the i 
is dropped, and the a has its short sound, as vilr 
lanous.viUanys—Sce the words in the Dictionary. 

209. The ai In Britain has the short sound ap- 
proaching to ss, so common with all the vowels 
in final unaccented syllables, and is pronounced 
exactly like Briton, 

S10. Plait, a fold of cloth, is regular, and ought 
to be pronounced like plate, a dish ; pronouncing 
it so as to rhyme with meat is a vulgarism, and 
ought to be avoided* 


ft*. Plaister belongs no longer to this class of 
wits, being now more properly written p tatter, 
rhyming with caster. 


212. This combination of vowels in a diphthong 
fc only lo be met with in the word goo/, now more 
properly written, as it is pronounced, jail. 


212. The general sound of this diphthong is that 
of the noan mire, as taught, caught, Ac or of the 
a m aaif, ball, Ac. 

214. When these letters are followed by n and 
another consonant, they ehange to the second 
sound ot a, heard in far, further, Ac. : thus aunt, 
haunt, daunt, oskounce, oskount, flaunt, haunt, 
gauntlet, jaunt, haunch, launch, craunchjaundiee, 
laundry, have the Italian sound of the a in the 
Ism syllable of pep* and M an ama* To these I 
drink ought to be added daunt, paunch, gaunt, 
and saunter, as Dr. Kenrick lias marked them 
with the Italian a, and not as if written, dawnt, 
perse*, Ac. as Mr. Sheridan sounds them. Mound, 
a basket, is always pronounced with the Italian 
a, and nearly as if written ntamd : for which rea- 
son Maundy Thursday, which is derived from it, 
oaght, with Mr. Nares, to be- pronounced in the 
same manner, though generally heard with the 
soaad of ear. To maunder, to grumble, though 
generally heard as if written ma u nde r, ought ccr- 
tamiy to be pronounced, as Mr. Nares has classed 
It, win the Italian a. The same may be observed 
of taunt, which ought to rhyme with aunt, though 
•sanded taumt by Mr. Sheridan ; and, being left 
eat of the above list, supposed to be so pronounced 
by Mr. Nares. But Mr. Blphinston has placed 
the analogy of these words in so strong; and en. 
rises a tight that I cannot help presenting them 
to the reader in his own words, though a dif- 
ferent ort h ography : " U meritoriously distin- 
«*•** , the parent's sister, from ant the 
and gives a slender shot, the servHe of a 
open, yet without pretence of so dangerous 
or any cotneidenee ; itt defiance of both sisters, 
his esmf bad power to retain the company ot 
jaunt, haunt, vaunt, taunt, daunt, gaunt, gauntlet ; 
hi all of which the u does precisely tbe same 
daty it formerly did in chaunt, graunt, mound, 
mmteeaanaund ; in saunter and sounder ; as well 
as in srawsjcA, haunch, paunch, launch, staunch ; 
all now. justly as genealogically, chant, grant, 
mand (the old basket), command, tauter, sander ; 
branch, haneh, punch, lanch, stanch. Jaundice 
•lone pleaded u radical ; and yet was found mere 
jmuUce. So, with aunt, most return to truth and 
etymology (Who do not always join issue) jant, 
hunt, sunt, taut, dant, gunt, gantlet ; and even 
the venerable Maud* Inursday, with her mand 
or basket in her hand. She had, indeed, almost 
left the language, though Astrea had not left the 
land, when analogy (or harmony) enacted : a 
broad Can J shall not in English precede n, follow- 
ed either by a dry dental, or by a sibi union ; that 
u, am shall not be followed by nt, nd, nee, neh, 
or age. ffo such sounds being sufferable in the 
angitth system an aunt, aund, aunch, ounce, or 
emngt, there shall be no such semblances. Alike 
are therefore independable chant and jant, hand 
md, chance and lance, branch and lanch, 
and santer ; sonde and bis fall self Alex- 
in all such, a, far from broad or open, is 
slender and shot ; yet hardly shorter than if the 
silent aspiration interposed in ahnt, sahnter, 
mhnee, lahneh, and the rest. Before nge, indeed, 
a Is also slender, but open ; not ah, but o j guard* 
cd tfa e re fo ie by Its own (i) servile (as we saw 
hi Its place) against every danger of change. 
and fawn remain doubtless in fauns and 
, unaltered by the adscititious depressive 
sn»lanL ,t ~/y s wr k fy Ascertained in her Picture, 
voL i. page 171. 

2IA Laugh and draught, which are very pro. 
pniy classed by Mr. Nares among these words 
vbieh have the long Italian a in father, are mark- 
si by Mr. Sheridan with his first sound of a in 
phoned into the sound of « in father, by 
the accent on It. Staunch is spelled 
the u by Johnson, and therefore impro- 
ftrij classed by Mr. Nares hi the above list. 

31ft. Vaunt and ovaunt seem to be the only real 
exceptions to litis sound of a in tins whole list; 
and, as these words are chiefly confined to tragedy, 
they may be allowed lo " fret and strut their 
hour upon the stage" in the old traditionary 
sound of awe. 

217. This diphthong is pronounced like long a 
in haul-bop, as if written ho-boy j and like o short 
in cauliflower, laurel,* and laudanum j as if writ- 
ten cdti/tower, torrel, and loddanum. In gouge 
an has the souud of slender a, and rhymes with 

218. There is a corrupt pronunciation ot this 
diphthong among the vulgar, which is, giving the 
ou in daughter, sauce, saucer, and saucy, the 
sound of the Italian a, and nearly as if written 
darter, sarce, sarcer, and sarcy ; but this pro- 
nunciation cannot be loo carefully avoided. Au 
in sausage, also, is sounded by the vulgar with 
short a, as if written sossage ; but in this, as in 
the oilier words, au ought lo sound awe.— See the 
words in the Dictionary. 


• tip. Has the long broad sound of a in hall, with 
which the word bawl is perfectly identical. It is 
always regular. 


220. This diphthong, like its near reiaoon ai, 
has the sound of slender a in pay, day, Ac. and is 
pronounced like long e in the word quay, which 
is now sometimes seen written key; for, if we can- 
not bring the pronunciation to the spelling, it is 
looked upon as some improvement to bring the 
spelling to the pronunciation : a most pernicious 
practice in language. — See Bowl. 

221. To flay, to strip off the skin, also, is ccr- 
roptly pronounced flea ; but the diphthong in 
this word seems to be recovering its rights. 

222. There is a wanton departure from analogy 
in orthography by changing the y in this diph- 
thong to i in the words paid, said, laid, for payed, 
sayed, and layed. Why these words should be 
written with i and thus contracted, and played, 
prayed, and delayed, remain at large, let our wise 
correctors of orthography determine. Stayed, also, 
a participial adjective, signifying steady, is almost 
always written staid. 

223. When ay comes immediately after the ac- 
cent in a final syllable, like ai, it drops the former 
vowel, in the colloquial pronunciation of the days 
of the week. Thus as we pronounce captain, cur- 
tain, Ac. as if written captin, cvrtln, Ac. so we 
hear Sunday, Monday, Ac. as if written Sundy, 
Mundy, Ac. A more distinct pronunciation of 
day, in these words, is a mark of the northern 
dialect, 206. 

22*. The familiar assent ay for yes is a combi- 
nation of the long Italian a In the last syllable of 
papa, and the first sound of e. If we give the a 
the sound of that letter in ball, the word degene 
rates into a coarse rustick pronunciation. Though 
in the House of Commons, where this word is 
made a noun, we frequently, hut not correctly, 
hear it so pronounced, in the phrase the Ayes 
hove it, 


229. This triphthong is a combination of the 
slender sound of a, heard in pa-per, and the e in 
me-tre. The word which it composes, signifying 
ever, is almost obsolete. 


220. Tbe regular sound of this diphthong is that 
of the first sound of e in here ; but its irregular 
sound of short e is so freqnent as to make a cata- 
logue of both necessary ; especially for those who 
are unsettled in the pronunciation of the capital, 
and wish to practise in order to form a habit. 

227. The first sound of ea is like open t, and is 
heard in the following words: Afeard, affeor, 
anneal, appeal, appear, appease, oread, arreor, 
beacon, beadle, beodrotl, beads, beadsman, beagle, 
beak, beaker, beam, bean, beard, bearded, beast, 
heat, beaten, beaver, beleaguer, beneath, bequeath, 
bereave, besmear, bespeak, bleach, bleak, blear, 
bleat, bohea, breach, bream, to breathe, cease, cheap. 


cheat, dean, cleanly (adverb). clear, clearance, I 
cleave, cochineal, colleague, conceal, congeal, cream, ' 

creak, create, creature, deacon, deal, dean, dean- 
ery, dear, decease, defeasance, defeasible, defeat, 
demean, demeanor, decrease, dream, drear, dreary, 
oath, eager, eagle, eagre, ear, east, easter, easy, to 
eat, eaten, eaves, entreat, endear, escheat, fear, 
fearful, feasible, feasibility, feast, feat, feature, 
flea, fleam, freak, gear, gleam, glean, to grease, 
grease, greaves, heal, heap, hear, heat, heath, hea- 
then, heave, impeach, increase, inseam, interleave, 
knead, lea, to lead, leaf league, leak, lean, lease, 
leash, leasing, least, leave leaves, mead, meagre, 
meal, mean, meat, measles, meathe, neat, neap, 
near, neat, pea, peace, peak, peal, pease, peat, plea, 
plead, please, reach, to read, ream, reap, rear, 
rearward, reason, recheat, redstreak, release, re- 
peal, repeat, retreat, reveal, screak, scream, seal, 
sea, seam, seamy, sear, searcloth, season, seat, 
shear, shears, sheath, sheathe, sheaf, sleazy, sneak, 
sneaker, sneakup, speak, spear, steal, steam, streak, 
stream, streamer, streamy, surcease, tea, teach, toad, 
Uague, teal, team, tear, tease, teat, treacle, treason, 
treat, treatise, treatment, treaty, ttveag, tweak, 
tweagve, veal, underneath, uneasy, unreare, up- 
rear, weak, weaken, weal, weald, wean, weanling, 
weariness, wearisome, weary, weasand, weasel, 
weave, wheal, wheat, wheaten, wreak, wreath, 
wreathe, wreathy, yea, year, yeanling, yearling, 
yearly, zeal. 

228. In this catalogue we find beard and bearded 
sometimes pronounced a* if written herd and 
herded: bnt this corruption of the diphthong, 
which Mr. Sheridan hn* adopted, eeems confined 
to the stage.— See the word. 

229. The preterimperfect tense of eat Is some* 
times written ate, particularly by Lord Boltng- 
broke, and frequently, and, perhaps, more cor- 
rectly, pronounced et, especially in Ireland ; but 
eaten always preserves the ea long*' 

230. Ea in fearful is long when it signifies ti- 
morous, and Abort when It signifies terrible, as if 
written/er/W. — See the word. 

231. To read is long in the present tense, and 
short in the past and participle, which are some- 
times written red. 

23*. Teat, a dug, is marked by Dr. Kenrick, Mr. 
Blphinston, and Mr. Nares, with short e, like tit ; 
but more properly, by Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, 
W. Johnston, Mr. Perry, and Mr. Smith, with 
die long e, rhyming with meat. 

233. Beat, the preterimperfect tense, and par- 
ticiple of to beat, is frequently pronounced in Ire- 
land like bet (a wager) : and, if utility were the 
only object of language, this would certainly be 
the preferable pronunciation, as nothing tends 
more to obscurity than verbs which have no dif- 
ferent form for their present and past times ; but 
fashion in this, a* in many other cases, triumphs 
over use and propriety ; and bet, for the past 
time and participle of beat, must be religiously 

934. Ea is pronounced like the short e in the 
following words : Abreast, ahead, already, bed- 
stead, behead, bespread, bestead, bread, breadth, 
breakfast, breast, breath, cleanse, cleanly (adjec- 
tive), clean lilt/, dead, deadly, deaf, deafen, dearth, 
death, earl, earldom, early, earn, earnest, earth, 
earthen, earthly, endeavour, feaf her, head, heady, 
health, heard, hearse, heaven, heavy, jealous, sm- 
peart, instead, lead, leaden, leant (the past time 
and participle of to lean), learn, learning, leather, 
leaven, meadow, meant, measure, pearl, peasant, 
pheasant, pleasant, pleasantry, pleasure, read 
(past time and participle), readily, readiness, 
ready, realm, rehearsal, rehearse, research, seam- 
stress, scarce, search, spread, stead, steadfast, 
steady, stealth, stealthy, sweat, sweaty, thread, 
threaten, threat, threaten, treachery, tread, treadle, 
treasure, uncleanly, wealth, wealthy, weapon, 
weather, yearn, zealot, zealous, zealously. 

135. I have given the' last three words, com- 
pounded of zeal, as instances of the short sound 
of the diphthong, because it is certainly the more 
usual sound ; but some attempts have lately been 
made in the House of Commons to pronounce 
them long, as in the noun. It is a commendable 
seal to endeavour to reform the language as well 
as the constitution ; but whether, If these words 
were altered, it would be a real reformation, 
may admit of some dispute.— See Bnclitlcal Ter- 
mination, No. f 15, and the word Zealot 

236. Heard, the past time and participle of heat r 
, is sometimes corruptly pronounced with the diph- 
thong long, so as to rhyme with rear'd ; but Luis 
is supposing the verb to be regular ; which, from 
the spelling, is evidently not the case. 

237. It is, perhaps, worth observation, that, when 
this diphthong comes before r, it is apt to slide 
into the short *», which is undoubtedly very near 
the true sound, but not exactly : thus pronouncing 
earl, earth, dearth, as if written url, urth, durtk, 
n a slight deviation from the true sound, which 
is exactly that of i before r, followed by another 
consonant, in virtue, virgin ; and that is the true 
sound of short e in vermin, vernal, &c. 106. 

2*8. Leant, the past time and participle of to 
lean, is grown vulgar : the regular form, leaned, is 

230. The past time and participle of the verb to 
leap seems to prefer the irregular form ; there* 
fore, though w.e almost always hear to leap rhym- 
ing with reap, we generally hear leaped wtiiien 
and pronounced leapt, rhyming with uept. 

243. Ea Is pronotiuced like long slender a in 
bare, in the following words: Bear, bearer, break, 
forbear, forswear, great, pear, steak, swear, to 
tear, wear. 

841. The word great is sometimes pronounced 
as if written greet, generally by people of educa- 
tion, and almost universally in Ireland ; but this 
is contrary to the fixed and settled practice in 
England. That this is an affected pronunciation 
will be perceived in a moment by pronouncing 
this word in the phrase Alexander the Great ; for 
those who pronounce the word greet in other 
cases will generally in this rhyme it with fata. 
It is true the ee is the regular sound of this diph- 
thong ; but this slender sound of e has, in all pro- 
bability, given way to that of a, as deeper and 
more expressive of the epithet great. 

248. The same observations are. applicable to 
the word break ; which is much more expressiue 
of the action when pronounced brake than breek, 
as it is sometimes affectedly pronounced. 

243. Ea is pronounced like the long Italian a in 
father, in the following words: heart, hearty, 
hearten, hearth, hearken. 

244. Ea, unaccented, has an obscure sound, ap- 
proaching to short u in vengeance, sergeant, pes- 
geant, and pageantry. 


245. This is a French rather than an English 
triphthong, being found only in words derived 
from that language. Its sound is that of long: 
open o, as beau, bureau, flambeau, portmanteau* 
In beauty and its compounds it has the first sound 
of u, as if written bewty. 

246. This diphthong, in all words except those 
that end in r, has a squeezed sound of long open 
e, formed by a closer application of the tongue to 
the roof of the mouth than in that vowel singly, 
which is distinguishable to a nice ear Im the dif- 
ferent sounds of the verbs to/fat and to meet, and 
the nouns flea and meat. This has always bee© 
my opinion; but, upon consulting some good 
speakers on the occasion, and in particular Mr. 
Oarrick, who could find no difference in the 
sound of these words, I am less confident in giving 
it to the public. At any rate the difference ia 
but very trifling, and I shall therefore consider 
ee as equivalent to the long open e. 

247. This diphthong is irregular only in the word 
breeches, pronounced as if written britches. Cheese, 
cake, sometimes pronounced chixcake. and breech, 
britch, I look upon as vulgarisms. Beelzebub, in- 
deed, in prose, has generally the short sound of 
e, as in bell: and when these two letters form but 
one syllable, in the poetical contraction of e*er 
and ne'er for ever and never, they are pronounced 
as if written air and nair. 


248. The general sound of this diphthong seems 
to be the same as ey, when under the accent, 
which is like long slender a ; but the other sounds 
are so numerous as to require a catalogue of then 


pronunciation seen* daily wearing away, and 
giving place to ihal which separated tbe vowel* 
into two distinct syllables, as it is always beard 
in geographical, giotueter, geometrical, and geome- 
trician, Georgiek is always heaid us if written 
jorgick. and must be given upas incorrigible, 116. 
. £56. Eo is heard like long u in /rod, fu>dal,Jco- 
datory, which are sometimes written as they are 
pronounced, feud, feudal, feudatory. 

2.19. Eo, when unaccented, has the sound of* 
short in surgeon, sturgeon, dudgeon, gudgeon, blud- 
geon, curmudgeon, dungeon, luncheon, puncheon, 
truncheon, burgeon, habergton ; but in scutcheon, 
escutcheon, pigeon, and witigeon, the eo sounds 
like short I. 

260. Eo sounds like long o in yeoman. &nd yeo- 
manry ; the first syllable of which words rhymes 
with go, no, so. — See the words. 

201. Eo in galleon, a Spanish ship, sounds as if 
written galloon, rhyming with moon. 

' EOU 

262. This assemblage of vowels, for they cannot 
he properly called a triphthong, is often con- 
tracted into one syllable in prose, and poets never 
make it go for two. In cutaneous and vitreous 
two syllables are palpable; but in gorgeous and 
outrageous the soft g coalescing with e seems to 
drop a syllable, though polite pronunciation will 
always preserve it. 

£63. This assemblage is never found but in an 
unaccented syllable, and generally a final one; 
and when it is immediately preceded by the den- 
tals d or t, it inelts them into the sounds oi'j and 
tch : thus hideous and piteous are pronounced as 
if written hUeous and pltcheous. The same may 
be observed of righteous, plenteous, bounteous, 
courteous, beauteous, and duteous, 993, 294 . 


the sound of long slender a in deign, 
rrqgn, feign, feint, veil, heinous, k< ir, 
heiress, l&rciga, neigh, neigh, skein, reins, their, 
tkexrs, right, freight, weight, neighbour, and their 
CMpnumis*. When gh comes utter this diphthong, 
eb6a£ti titere i* not the lea*t remnant of the 
eatioral sound, yet it has not exactly the 
ie umple vowel bound as when followed by 
rr co'tfeiuantS) ; ei, followed by gh, sounds both 
vowek* like « e ; or if we could iulcipttee the y 
eoiMwait between tbe a and t in eight, ueight, 
Ac. it might, perhaps, convey tbe sound better. 
Tbe difference, however, is so delicate as to rt n- 
th» distinction of no great importance. The 
observations are applicable to the words 
straight, straighten, &c — See the m-ord Eight. 

230. IS Has the sound of long open e in here, in 
the folk-wing words and their compounds: To 
ceU, ceiling, conceit, deceit, receipt, conceive, per- 
ceime, deceit*, receive, inveigle, seise, seisin, seign- 
ior, se ig nmt ■, seine, plebeian. Obeisance ought to 
be w tbe preceding class. — See the word. 

251. Leisure is sometimes pronounced as rhym- 
ing with pleasure; but, in my opinion, very im- 
properly : for if it be allowed that custom is 
eqejkliy divided, we ought, in this case, to pro- 
kunve the diphthong long, as n:orc expressive 
&£ the »»l«*a annexed to it, 241. 

253. Either and neither are so often pronounced 
eue-ther and nigh-th>r, that it is hard to say to. 
which r(a«« they belong. Analogy, however, 
without hesitation, gives the diphthong the sound 
of Um£ open e, rather than that of i, and rhymes 
tbeui with breather, one who breathes. This is 
the promanciatHui Mr. Garrick always gave to 
lateae vrtib ; but the trne analogical sound of the 
diphthong mi these words is that of the slender a, 
as if written ay-thcr and nay-ther. This pronun- 
t* adopted in Ireland, but is not favoured 
of oar orthoepists ; for Mr. Sheridan, Mr. 
Seoti, Me. Elphinston, Mr. Perry, Mr. Smith, 
Steele's Grammar, and Dr. Jones, all pronounce 
tfee*ie words with the diphthong like long e. 
W.Johnston aloue adopts the sound of long i ex- 
clusively ; Dr. Kenrick gives both ether and Utter, 
b**t prefers the first, but gives neither the sound 
of Urn? e exclusively : Mr. Coote says these words 
are generally pronounced with the ei like the i 
lo mine. II r. Barclay gives no description of the 
•MTinri «*f ei in either, hut says neither is some- 
tiB*n» pronounced nithrr, and by others nether ; 
sumd Mr. Nares sav% " either and neither are 
ipr>krn by *f*me with the sound of long i; I have 
h-rard even that of long a given to them; hut as 
tbe re- alar way is also in use, I think it is pre- 
ferable These differences seem to have arisen 
from ignorance of the ragular sound of ei.'* If 
by the regular way and the regular sound of this 
diphthong Mr. Nares means the long sound of e, 
are need onU' inspect Nos. 249 and 290, to see 
tbat lite sound of a is the more general sound, and 
therefore ought to be called the regular; but 
where there are so many instances of words where 
ibtt diphthong has the long sound of e, and cus» 
txras is so uniform in these words, there can be no 
sbxibt which is the trne sound. 

290. Si has the sound of long open i, in height 
and sleight, rhyming with white and right. Height 
as, indeed often heard rhyming with eight and 
w eig ht, and that among very respectable speakers ; 
bat rn*tom seems to decide in favour of the other 
proan<>cialiori, that it may better tally with the 
adjective high, of which it is the abstract. 

254. E3 has the sound of short e in the two 
wards heifer and nonpareil, pronounced heffer and 

235 This dinbthong, when unaccented, like al, 
•a, drops the former vom-el, and is pronounced 
hie short *, in foreign, foreigner, forfeit, forfeit- 
ure, sovereign, sovereignty, surfeit, counterfeit. 


This diphthong Is pronounced like e long 

as if written petple ; and like e short in 

Us pm r d and jeopardy, as if written leppard and 

and in the law terms feoffee, feoffer, 

tment, as if written fejfee,fejter, and feg- 

-».- We frequently hear these vowels con* 
traded into short o in geography and geometry, as 
f written joggraphy and Jewmetry ; but this gross 

£64. This diphthong is always sounded like long 
or etv, and is scarcely ever irregular: thus/ruo, 
are pronounced as if written fewd, 

deuce, Sec. 
dewce, Ac. 


265. This diphthong is pronounced like long a m 
and is almost always regular. There is a corrupt 
pronunciation of it like oo chiefly in London, 
where we sometimes hear dew and new pro- 
nounced as if written doo and noo; hut when r 
precedes this diphthong, as in brew, crew, drew, 
6cc. pronouncing it like oo is scarcely improper. 
-See 176, 330. 

266. Shetv and strew have almost left this class, 
and by Johnson's recommendation are become 
show and straw, as they are pronounced. The 
proper name Shrewsbury, however, still retains 
the e, though always pronounced Shrowsbury. 
Sew, with a needle, always rhymes with no; and 
sewer, signifying a drain, is generally pronounced 
shore.- but sewer, an officer, rhymes with fewer. 
—See Sewer. 

267. Ew is sometimes pronounced like aw in the 
verb to chew; but this is gross and vulpar. To 
chew ought always to rhyme with new, view, Ac. 


266. This triphthong exists only in the word 
ewe, a female sheep ; which is pronounced exactly 
like yew, a tree, or the plural personal pronoun 
you. There is a vulgar pronunciation of this word 
as if written yoe, rhyming with doe, which must 
be carefully avoided.. — See the word. 


269. When the accent is on this diphthong, it is 
always pronounced like ay, or like its kindred 
diphthong ei, in vein, reign, &c. : thus bey, dey, 
grey, prey, they, trey, whey, obey, convey, put ,-ey, 
survey, key, eyre, and eyrey, are always heard as 
if written bay, day, &c. Key and ley are the only 
exceptions, which always rhyme with sea, 220. 

270. Ey, w.heu unaccented, is pronounced like 
et: thus galley, valley, ailev. barley, Sec. are pro- 
nounced as if written gallee, vallee, 4cc. The 
noun survey therefore, if we place the accent on 
tha first syllable, is anomalous.— ••• the word. 


ff t» Thf* triphthong It only found In the word 
eye, which it Always pronounced like the letter i. 


2f*2. This diphthong, in the terminations fan, M, 
lard, wild iate, forms bat one syllable, though the 
4 in this situation, having the squeezed sound of 
«e, perfectly similar to y, gives the syllable a 
double sound, very distinguishable in its nature 
from a syllable formed without the i: thus Chris- 
tian, filial, poniard, conciliate, sound as if written 
Crist-yan, JU-yal, pon-yard, concil-yate, and have 
in the last syllable an evident mixture of the 
sound of y consonant, 113. 

273. In diamond these vowels are properly no 
diphthong; and in prose the word ought to nave 
three distinct syllables ; but we frequently hear 
it to pronounced as to drop the a entirely, and at 
if written dimoud. This, however, it a corruption 
that ought to be avoided. 

174. In carriage, marriage, parliament, and mi- 
niature, we a is dropped, and the i hat its short 
sound, at if written cartridge, marridge, par limcnt, 
mtnUure, 99. 


2T4. The regular sound of this diphthong is that 
of ee, at m grieve, thieve, fiend, lief, chief, ker- 
chief ', handkerchief '.auctionier, grenadier ', Ac. as 
if written greeve, theeve,feend, ate, 

£70. It hat the sound of long i in die. Ale, lie, 
ps>, tie, ule, at if written dy, kg, Ac. 

277. The short sound of e it heard in friend, 

{ierce, and the long sound of the same letter in 
ier, frieze. 

278. In variegate the bet»t pronunciation is to 
found both vowels distinctly like e, as if written 

270. in the numeral termination! in ietk, at 
twentieth, thirtieth, Ac. the vowels ought alto to 
be kepi distinct ; the first like open e, at heard 
In the y in twenty, thirty, Ac. and the second like 
short e, heard in breath, death, Ac. 

S80. In fiery, too, the vowels are heard dis- 

481. In orient and spaniel, where these letters 
come after a liquid, they are pronounced dis- 
tiuclly : and great care should be taken not to 
let the last word degenerate into spannel, 11.1. 

982. When these letter* meet, in consequence 
of forming the plurals of nouns, they retain either 
the long or thnrt sound they had in the singular, 
without increasing the number of syllables : thus 
a. fly makes flit; a lie makes lies, company makes 
companies, and dignity, dignities. The Mine may 
be observed of the third persons and past parti- 
ciples of verbs, at I fly, he flies, J deny, he denies, 
he denied, I sully, he sullied, Ac. which may be 

$ renounced at if written denize, denide, sullid, 
c. 104. 

283. When ie it in a termination without the 
accent, it is pronounced like e, only, in the tame 
.situation ; thus brasier, grasier f and glasier, have 
the last syllable souuded at it written brazhur, 
grazhur, and glazhur, or rather at braxe-yur, 
grawe-yur, &c. 98, 418. 


284. These vowels occur in adieu, lieu, purlieu, 
where they have the sound of long u, as if writ- 
ten adau, leu, purleu. 

285. In one word, lieutenant, these letters are 

Sronounced like short e, at if written lev-tenant. — 
ee the word. 


28a. These letters occur only in the word view, 
where they sound like ttm rhyming with few, 

U DlrFKBBirr SOUNDS OF THB ftlPflTHOMS XTE, M, IS, UXf, UHT, #0, iOV, Ac. 

the aeeeeenied o pronounced, as it nsoally h\ 
thlt situation, like short «. en if written 
SMunuss, 902. 

280. In cushion the • is sank, and the word pro- 
nounced esiJUs.— See the word. 

290. In the very numerous termination test 
these vowels are pronounced in one syllable like 
short u ; but * hen they are preceded by a liquid* 
as in million, minion, clarion, Sec. 113, the twts 
Vowels, though they make but one syllable, are 
heard distinctly : the same may be observed, 
when they are preceded by any of the other rem* 
sonants, except s and t, at champion, scorpion* 
Ac. where the vowels are heard separately : but 
the terminations turn and sian are pronounced nm 
one syllable, like tire verb shun. 

€91. The only exception to tills role is when 
the t is preceded by s : in this case the t goes 
into tch, and the I is in a small degree audible 
like short e. This may be heard in question* 
mixtion, digestion, combustion, and what is an it*» 
stance of the same kind in Christian, as if writ- 
ten ques-chun, misxhun, Ac. quest-pun, wHxt-ymn, 
Ac. 404,272. 


292. This triphthong, when preceded by a It 
quid, or any mute but a dental, is heard distinct- 
ly in two syllables, as in bilious, various, gleriows 9 
abstemious, ingenious, copious; but when preced- 
ed by the dentals t, soft c, and s, these voweln 
coalesce into one syllable, pronounced like *««**- 

287, When Ahe accent Js npon the first of these 
vowels they form two distinct syllables, as violent, 
aealet i the lastoTwhlch is sometimes corruptly 
ptonoanoed v4-Ut. 

am. la marchioness the I is entirely snnk, anil 

thus precious, factious, noxious, anxious, are 
souuded as if written presh-us, fac-shus, nock- 
shut, ang-shus, 469. 

S93. The same tendency of these vowels to co- 
alesce after a dental, and draw it to aspiration* 
makes at hear tedious, odious, and insidious, pro- 
nounced at if written teje-us, o-jee-us, and in-efd-Je- 
Us i for, as rf is but flat t, tt is no wonder it should be 
subject to the same aspiration, when the same vow. follow: nay, it may be affirmed, that so agree- 
able is this sound of the d to the analogy of Kng- 
lish pronunciation, that, unless we are upon our 
guard, the organs naturally slide into it. It m 
not, however, pretended that this is the politest 
pronunciation ; for the sake of analogy it were 
to be wished it were : bat an ignorance of the 
real powers of the letters, joined with a laudable 
desire of keeping as near as possible to the or- 
thography, is apt to prevent the d from going into 
J, and to make us hear o-de-us, te-de-ous, Ac. 
On the other hand, the vulgar, who in this case 
are right by instinct, not only indulge the aspi- 
ration of the d, which the language is so prone 
to, but are apt to unite' the succeeding syllables 
too closely, and to say ojus and te-jus, instead 
of oje-us and teje-us, or rather ode-yus and ted*- 

294. If the y be distinctly pronounced, it sunV- 
ciently expresses the aspiration of (he d. and is, 
in my opinion, the preferable mode of delineat- 
ing die sound, as it keeps the two last syllables 
from uniting too closely. Where analogy, there- 
fore, ts so clear, and custom so dubious, we ought 
not to hesitate a moment at pronouncing odious, 
tedious, perfidious, J a stidious, insidious, Invidious* 
compendious, melodious, commodious, pretudious, 
and studious, as if written o-je-ous, te-Je-ous, Ac. 
or rather ode-yus, tede-yus, Ac. ; nor should we 
forget that Indian conies under the same analogy, 
and ought, though contrary to respectable usage* 
to be pronounced at if written Ind-yau, and near*, 
ly as tn-je-an, 378. 


295. This diphthong is regularly pronounced as 
the long open sound of 0, as In boat, coat, oat, 
coal, loaf, Ac. The only exceptions are, broad, 
abroad, groat, which sound as if written brawd- 
abrawd, gra*4. Oatmeal Is sometimes pronounced 
oUneml, but seems to be recovering the long fioand 
01* 0, as in oat. 


Whether it be proper to retain 

in* It 

the hi 
this diphthong, or to banish it from our ortno* 
« raphy, as Dr. Johnson advises, certain it b the 
in words from the learned languages it 1s alway 


aj*t-ki and a*sqfoet~id* : In dee, foe, aloe, toe, 
Am, hoe (to dig), mad buboes, it is sounded ex- 
atUr like long open o: in cexee and skat, like so, 
nil written cmm and shoo: and In the verb 
du kkc short ss, aa If written en*. 


MB. There is bet ont word where this triph- 
njng ocean, and that is in Shakespeare's King 
lor, m the word oeiliaols (glance*), and, in my 
it onght to be founded as if written 


M. This diphthong is from the French, in the 
wsrasMMreer* ; a word, within these few yean, 
«f »ery general use in oar language. It is not in 
n, and the new. is generally pronounced, by 
rho can pronounce French, in the French 
; bat this is such a sound of the a asdoes 
; east in English, and therefore it cannot be 
eribed. The nearest sound is 00 s with which, 
if tab word is pronounced by an English speaker, 
at if written snesteeerw, Jt may, except with very 


leral and almost universal sound 
of tab diphthong, is that of a In water, and the 
am « in m*-trn This double sound is very dis- 
tmjuitaabie in boil, toil, spoil, joint, point, anoint, 
*c which sound ought to be carefully preserved, 
•J there is a wery prevalent practice among the 
vahjar of dropping die 0, and pr on ou nc ing these 
wards as If written bite, tile, spUo, ice. 

gsa The oaJjr instance whion admits of a doubt 
m me sound of this diphthong, when under the 
the word ahem* $ hot this word is 
more frequently written quire, that 
_ strongly inclines us to pronounce the 
*J in ekoir like king t", and which, by the common 
orthography, seems fixed beyond recovery. But 
it may be observed that either the spelling or 
me pronunciation of Chorister, commonly pro* 
wmneed tssdristfer, ought to be altered_»ftee the 

3il» When this diphthong is not nnder the ac- 
cent, it is variously pronounced. Dr. Kenrick 
pace* the accent on the first syllable of turcois, 
tad, tor I know not what reason, pronounces it 
•s if written fareis ; and turkois with the oi 
Went, as m 6eje. H r. Sheridan places the ac- 
ta* en the second syllable, and gives the dlph- 
msag the FrenesT soand, as if the word was writ- 
tan iurloif. In my opinion the best orthography 
nnm—jni, and the best pronunciation with the 
•treat on the last syllable, and the el sounded 
mn>leag #, aa if written turkees ; as we pronomice 
nrsnto wan the accent on the first syllable, and 
the ef tike short s, as if written tortiz. 

enV in 


like stogie e, and comes entirely on* 
ser ike same law* ae that vowel : thus, when it 
am s syUahle, with the accent upon it, H is 
'm§, as m An t m+ck, Po riaeti t when under the 
nmdary accent, in eec-eanenfcaJ, se e o nomlc ks, H 
alaec fchort: it is long a iu foetus, and short e 

the first diphthong is pro* 
■sauced lHce short e, as if written averdupoise. 

Jsa. In ceanaof^arnr the same sound of is sub- 
nmned, as if written eemneeeeur. 

3N In okaoMoU,x>r chamoi s , a species of leather, 
ne «i is pronounced like long e, as if written 

3*5. Adroit and devoir, Ivo scarcely naturalized 
Preach words, have the oi regnlar, though the 
1, in polite pronunciation, retains its 
tod, as if written devwor. 


The sound of uiis diphthong is regular, 
in a few words : Jt is pronounced long in 
mm, fool, rood, food, mood, Ac, Tuis is its 
fteilar wand. 

- Set. Jt has a shorter sound corresponding to the 
ahlelf, in the words wool, wood, good, hood, 
fut, stood, understood, withstood; and these are 
the only words where jjtfa 4iphUtojig hat this 

It has the soand of short t> ftn the two 
words blood and flood, rhyming with sand. 

JM0. Soot is vulgarly pronounced so as to rhyme 
with eat, hut, dec. but ought to have its long re* 
galar sound, rhyming with hoot, as we always) 
hear it in the compound sooty+See the word. 

WO. Poor wn&Jnor are universally pronounopa 
by the English as if written dors and flora; but 
in Ireland they preserve the regular sound of ee« 

311. Moor, a Mack man, is regular in polite pro- 
nunciation, and like mors in vulgar. Afeer, a 
marsh, is sometimes heard rhyming with store t 
but more correct speakers pronounce it regularly* 
rhyming with peer. 


319. This is the most Irregular assemblage at 
vowels in our language : its most common sound 
is that heard in bound, found, ground. &c. and 
this may be called its proper sound; ont Its de- 
viations are so many ana so various, that the 
best idea of it will be conveyed by giving the 
simples of all its different sounds. 

313. The first or proper sound of this diphthong 
is composed of the a in bull, and the 00 in aw, 
or rather the u in bull, and is equivalent to the 
en* in down, frown. &c. This sound is heard in 
abound, about, account, aeou sticks, aground, aloud, 
amount, around, arouse, astound, avouch, bough* 
bounce, bound, bounty, bounteous, bout, carouse, 
chouse, cloud, c lough, clout, clouterly, com found, 
couch, amchant, crouch, grouse, defiour, detour, 
devout, doubt, doubtful, drought, doughty, douse, 
encounter, espouse, expound, jfiout, foul, flounder, 
found, foundling, fountain, frousy, gloui, gout 
(a disease), ground, grout, hound, hour, house, im- 
pound, loud, lounge, louse, lout, mound, mountain, 
mountebank, mouse, mouth, noun, ounce, our, oust, 
out, outer, outermost, paramount, plough, pouch, 
pounce, pound, pout, profound, pronoun, pro- 
nounce, propound, proud, rebound, recount, re- 
doubt, redoubted, redound, rencounter, round, 
roundelay, rouse, rout, scoundrel, scour, scout, 
shout, shroud, slouch, spouse, spout, sprout, stout, 
surround, south, thou, thousand, tevse. trounce, 
trousers, trout, wound (did wjnd), slough (a miry 
place), vouch, vouchsafe, without, scaramouch. 

314. Ttie second sound is that of short u in bua\ 
and is heard tn the fo I lowing words and thelf 
compounds : Adjourn, journey , Journal, bourgeon 
country, cousin, couple, accaupte, double, trouble 
courteous, courtesy, courage, entourage, joust 
gournet, houxetrife, flourish, mounch, nourish, 
enough, chough, rough, tough, slough (a cast skin), 
scourge, southerly, southern, southernwood, south* 
ward, touch, touchy, young, younker, end young} 
tter ; but southern, southerly, and southward, are 
sometimes pronounced regularly Hke south .» this 
however, is far from the prevailing pronuncta* 
tiou. This is the sound this diphthong always hat 
When the accent is not 011 it, unless hi very few 
instances, where the compound retaius the sound 
of the simple, as in pronoun; but in sojourn and 
sojourner, with the accent on the fii*i syllaMe. 
and in every unaccented termination in our an? 
ous, this diphthong has exactly the sound of short 
w .* thus favour, honour, odour, and famous, are 
pronounced as if written favur, honnr, odur, and 


315. The third sound given to the*»e vowels 13 
that of so in coo and woo, 39, and is round in the 
following word* : Bouge, croup, group, ag group, 
amour, paramour, bouse, bousy, boutejeu, capouchm 
car touch, four be, gout (tafctc), and ragout (pro- 
nounced goo and ragoo), rendezvous, rouge, soup, 
sous (pronounced soo),xurtout, through, throughly, 
toupee or toupet, you, your, youth, tour, contour, 
tourney, tour nay, tournament, your, and route (f. 
road), accoutre, billet-doux, agouti, uncouth, wound 
(a hurt), and routine (a beaten road).— See 1'our- 

310. The verb to pear is sometimes pronounced 
to pore, and sometimes to poor ; in each case it 
interferes with a word of a different signification, 
and the best pronunciation, which is that similar 
to power, is as little liable to that exception ae 
either of the others.— See the word. 

S17. To wound is sometimes pronounced so as fip 
rhyme with found; but ibis is directly contrary 
to the best usage ; but route (a road, as, to take a> 
different route) is often pronounced so a* to- 
rn y me with doubt, by respectable speaker* 

• 1 


318. The fourth sound of this diphthong is that 
of long open o, and is heard in the following 
words : though, al'fumgh, coulter, court, account, 
gourd, courtier, course, discourse, source, rt course, 
rewurce, bourn, dough, dottghy, four, mould, 
mouldy, maul', mourn, shoutdei , smoulder, soul, 
poultice, poult, poulterer, poultry, troul (to roll 
smoothly, marked by Mr. Sheridan as rhyming 
witli (toll, bul ni'ire properly by Dr. Kenrick with 
roP), and borough, thorough, furlough, fourteen, 
cotwourse, and intercourse, preserve the diph- 
thong in the sound ot long o, though not under 
the accent. 

31U. The fifth sound of ou is like the noun owe, 
and i* heard only in ought, bought, brought, 
sought, besought, fought, nought, thought, nui- 
thought, wrought. 

320. The sixth sound is that of short oo, or the w 
in bull, ami is heard only in the auxiliary verbs 
would, could, should, rhyming with good, hood, 
stood, Sec. 

3*21. The seventh sound is that of short o, and 
heard only in cough and trough, rhyming with off 
and scoff ; and in lough, and shough, pronouueed 
lock and shock, 


342. The elementary sound of this diphthong is 
the same as t*".e first sound of ou, and is heard in 
how, now, Sec. but the sound of long o obtains in 
so many instances, that it will be necessary to 
give a catalogue of both. 

323. The general sound, as the elementary sound 
may be called, is heard in now, how, bow (a mark 
of respect), mow (a heap of barley, &c), cow, 
brow, brown, browse, pUtw, sow, row, avoir, allow, 
disallow, endow, down, clown, frown, town, crown, 
drown, gown, renown, dowager, dowdy, dower, 
dotvre, dowry, dowery, dowlas, drowse, dnwsy, 
flower, bower, lower (to look gloomy), power, 
powder, prowess, prow, prowl, vowel, towel, bower, 
rowel, cowl, scowl, crowd, shower, tower, sore (a 
swine), sow Ins, sowl, tliowl, tow (to bellow as a 
cow). This word is generally pronounced as low, 
not high ; but if custom, in this case, has not ab- 
solutely decided, it ought, in my opinion, to have 
the first sound of this diphthong, rhyming with 
how, as much more expressive of the noise it sig- 
nifies ; which, where sounds are the ideas to be 
expressed, ought to have great weight in pronun- 
ciatton, 2*1, 231. — See the word. 

824. The second sound of this diphthong is heard 
In blow, stow, crow, grow, ftow, glow, bow (to shoot 
with), know, low (not high), mote (to cut gra*s), 
row, show, sow (to scatter grain), strow, slow, 
snow, trow, below, slow, bestow, owe, own, owner, 
fiown, grown, growth, know, known, sown, lower 
(to bring low), throw, thrown,' in all these words 
the ow sounds like long o in go, no, so, Sec. 

325. The noun prow, signifying the forepart of 
a ship, rhymes with go in Mr. Sheridan, and with 
now in Dr. Kenrick. The lutter is in my opinion, 
the preferable sound ; while the verb to prowl f to 
seek for prey) rhymes with owl according to Mr. 
Sheridan, and with soul according to Dr. Ken- 
rick : the latter has the old spelling prole to 
plead, but the former has, in my opmiou, l.oth 
analogy and the best usage on its side. Both 
these writers unite In giving the first sound of this 
diphthong to prowess; which is unquestionably 
the true pronunciation.— See To Prowl. 

326. The proper names Now, Howel, Howard, 
and Powel, generally are heard with the first 
sound of thi* diphthong, as in how, now, Sic. but 
Jlowei and Stow (the historian) commonly rhyme 
with knows and know. Howard, among people 
Of rank, is generally pronounced with the second 
sound, rhyming with fro ward ; and Crosvenor as 
if written Vrovenor. Snowdon is frequently pro- 
nounced with the first sound of ow; but the se- 
cond sound seems preferable ; as it is not impro- 
bable that these mountains had their name, tike 
the Alps, from the snow on their tops. 

327. When this diphthong is lit a final unac- 
cented syllable, it has always the second sound, 
like long o, in borrow, sorr w, fellow, willow, &c. 
The vulgar shorten this sound, and pronounce the 
• obscurely, and sometimes as if followed by r, 
as winder una. feller, for window and fellow ; but 
this is almost too despicable for notice. Good 
speakers preserve the diphthong in this situation, 


and give it the full sound of open o, rhyming with 
no, so. Sic. 

328. This diphthong, in the word knowledge, baa 
of late years undergone a considerable revolu- 
tion. Some speakers, who hud the regularity of 
their language at heart, were giieved to see the 
compound depart so lar from the sound of the 
simple, and with heioick foitituHe have opi>n*cd 
the multitude by pronouncing the fust syiluhleot 
this woid as it is heard in the verb to know. The 
pulpit and the bar have for some years given n 
sanction to this piomiuciation ; but the senate and 
the stage hold ou: inflexibly against i* ; and the 
nation at large seem insensible of the improve, 
ment. They still continue to pronounce, as in the 
old ludicrous aliymes ■ 

" Among the mighty men of knowledge, 
" That are professors at Gresham College." 

But if ever this word should have the good for- 
tune to be restored to its rights, it would be but 
charity to endeavour the restoration of a great 
number of words in a similar situation, such aa 
breakfast, vineyard, bewilder, meadow, hearken,- 
pleasure, whitster, shepherd, windtvttrd, and a long . 
catalogue of fellow-sufferers, 515. But, before 
we endeavour this restoration, we should con-* 
sider that contracting the sound of the simple, 
when it acquires an additional syllable, is an 
idiom of pronunciation to which our language is 
extremely prone ; nor is it certain that crossing; 
this tendency would produce any real advantage;. 
at least, not sufficient to counterbalance the diver- 
sity of pronunciation which must for a long time 
prevail, and which must necessarily call oft our 
attention from things to words.— See Enclitic*! 
Termination, No. 514. 


320. This diphthong*! s but another form for ©J,. 
and is pronounced exactly like it. When allow 
is written with this diphthong, it ought never to' 
be pronounced allay. Custom seems to have ap- 

riropriated the former word to the noun, and the 
alter to the verb ; for the sake of consistency, it 
were to be wished it were always written allay ; 
but it is not to be expected that poets will give up 
so good a rhyme to joy, clo'i, and dettroy. 

330. The only word in which this diphthong is 
not under the accent is the proper name Savoy ; 
for savoy, a plant, has the accent on the second 
syllable ; bul the diphthong in both is pronounced 
in the same manner. 


331. When the ain this diphthong is pronounced, 
the si has the power of w, which unites both into 
one syllable: thus antiquate, antiquary, assuage, 
persuade, equal, language, Stc. are pronounced 
antikwate, antikwary, asswage, &c. 

312. The u in thin diphthong is silent in guard, 
guardian, guarantee, and piquant ; pronounced 
gard, gardian, garantee, and ptckant, 02. 

333. In Mantua, the town of Italy, both vowels 
are heard distinctly. The same may be observed 
of the habit so called : hut in mantuamaker val 

?irity has sunk the a, and made it mantusnakar. 
he same vulgarity at first, but now sanctioned 
by universal custom, has sunk both letters in 
victuals, and its compounds victualling and vie* 
tualler, pronounced vittles, vitlling, and vitlter.- - 
See Mantua. 


834. This diphthong, like ua, when it forms 
only one syllable, and both letters are pro, 
nounced, has the u sounded like w ; as consuetude, 
desuetude, and mansuetude, which are pronounced 
conswetude, deswetude, and manswetude. Thus 
conquest is pronounced according to the general 
rule, as if written conkwest ; but the verb to 
conquer has unaccountably deviated into conker 
particularly upon the stage. This errour, howZ 
ever, seems not to be so rooted in the general ear 
as to be above correction ; and analogy undoubt- 
edly demands conkwer. 

335. This diphthong, when in a final syllable. 
sinks the*, as clue, cut, due,blwe,glue, As*, 

J8* fiMnt, .accrmm, cmm, «iul»»f, imbue, un- 
true, fvrntf, subdue, perdue, argue, residue, 
ww, revemme, continue, retinue, construe, sta- 
me, tissue, issue, virtue, value, ague; in all these 
words, whether the accent be on the diphthong 
m or not, it » pronounced like long open u, ex- 
cept 10 words where the r comes before u ; in 
tais case it is sounded like oo. When the accent 
h ant oa this diphthong, as in the latter portion 
af these words from argue,-ii is apt to be feebly 
and indistinctly pronounced, and therefore care 
ssght to be taken to sound it as if these words 

residew, Ac. In Tuesday, 



were written _ _ 

•f, the diphthong, is pronounced in the same 


336. In some word* the u is silent, and the e 
short, as in guess, guest, guerkin, 

., where the u acts as a servile to preserve 
the g hard. — See Appendix. 

337. In some words both the rowels are sank, 
at in antique, oblique, league, feague, teague, cot- 

\, plague, vague, intrigue, fatigue, harangue, 
'ague. colloe,ue, rogue, prorogue. 
in all which the ue is silent, and 
Iheg pronounced hard. The q in antique and 
oblique is pronounced like k, as if the words were 
written anteek and oblike, 158. 

198. The terminations in ague, from the Greek, 
are pronounced in the same manner. Thus pe- 
i, demagogue, ptysmagogue, menagogue, em- 

mystegogue, decalogue, 
r, triatozue, catalogue, theotogue, eclogue, 
prologue, and epilogue, are all pro 
red as if written pedagog, demagog, Ac. with 
the » short. 

This diphthong after r becomes oo : thus 
is pronounced tree. l?6> 


948. The u in this diphthong, as in ua and ue, 
when both vowels are propoonced without form- 
ing two syllables, is pronounced like w : thus 
umguid. anguish, languish, extinguish, distinguish, 
rtimtqulsh, vanquish, linguist, penguin, pursui- 
vant, gulaeum, are pronounced as if written 
umgurut, amgwish, &c. and cuiss and cuisses as if 
written aviss and kwisses, aud cuirass as if 
written kuirass. 

341. The u is silent, and the I pronounced long, 
is guide, disguise, guile, and beguile; but the u 
is silent, and the * short, in guild, build, guilt, 

Cinea, guitar. Guild, in Guildhall, is, by the 
rer people of London, pronounced so "as to 
rhyme with child ; but this is. directly opposite 
to the best usage, and contrary to its etymology, 
at ft U a compound of guild (a corporation, al- 
ways pronounced like the verb to gild J, and hall. 
Dr. Jones, who wrote in Queen Anne's time, let It 
at it was then pronounced as if written CUdhall. 
la circuit and biscuit the u Is merely servile ; in 
both the c is hard, and the I short, as if written 
rJbV and Hsket. Conduit it pronounced cundit. 
Vtk. In Juice, sluice, suit, aud pursuit, the i is 
and the u has its diphthongal sound, as if 
preceded by e, and the words were ' written 
slewte, jetrof , setet, pursewt. 

343. When this diphthong is preceded by r, it 
Is pronounced like oo ; thus bruise, cruise, fruit, 
bruit, recruit, are pronounced as if written broose, 
t, broot, 838. 


The • in this diphthong is pronounced like 

in quote, quota, quota t ton, quotient, quotidian, 

utmm, slllquese, quoth, as if written 

, kwotatum. Ate. Voif, and coit, com- 

!y pronounced hteoff and kwoit, do not come 

cr this class*— See the words. 


845. This diphthong, with the accent on it, 
•whs the n, and pronounces the y like long i: 
lass buy, the only word where uy has the accent, 
rvrsses with dry, fly, Ac. : when the accent is not 
oa this diphthong it Is sounded like long e, as 
fsajsM, roguy, gluy, pronounced vto-gre, ro-gee 
<wtih the g hard, as in get J, glu-ee. The same 
bbst be observed of obloquy, ambiloquy, pauci- 
Jsfsy, so l i l oq u y, oentriloauy, alloquy, colloquy, 


This diphthong is found only in the word 

buoy, pronounced as if written bwoy, but too often 
exactly like boy. But this ought to be avoided 
by correct speakers. 

tquw, »et 

o bioauH 



347. When o follows m in the same syllable it 
is generally silent, as in lamb, kemb, limb, comb, 
dumb, Ac. except accumb and succumb : it is si- 
lent also before * in the same syllable, as in debt, 
doubt, redoubt, redoubted, and their compounds e 
it is silent before t, when not in the same syl- 
lable, in the word subtle (cunning), often inac- 
curately used for subtile (tine), where the b is al. 
ways pronounced. In the mathematical term 
rhomb the b is always heard, and the word pro- 
nounced as if written rhumb. Ambs-ace is pro* 
nounced Aims-ace.— See Appendix. 


348. C is always heard like k before a, o, and 
a ; as cord, cord, curd ; and soft, like *, before e. 
i, and y; as cement, city, cynic. 

349. When c ends a word, or syllable, it is al 
ways hard, as in music, flaccid, siccity, pronounced 
music k, Jtack-sid; sick-sity.—See Exaggerate. 

330. In the word sceptic, where the first c, ac- 
cord in p to analogy, ought to be pronounced like 
s, Dr. Johnson has not only given his approba- 
tion to the sound of k, but has, contrary to gene- 
ral practice, spelt the word skeptic. It may be 
observed, perhaps, in this, as on other occasions, 
of that truly great man, that he is but seldom 
wrong ; but, when he is so, that he is generally 
wrong to absurdity. What a monster does this 
word skeptic appear to an eye the least classical 
or correct ! And if this alteration be right, why 
should we hesitate to write and pronounce scene, 
scepter, and Lacedamon, skene, skepter, and Lake- 
demon, as there is the same reason for * in all t 
It is not, howeven> my intention to cross the ge- 
neral current of polite and classical pronuncia- 
tion, which I know is that of sounding the c like 
k ; my objection is only to writing it with the k s 
and in this I think I am supported by the best 
authorities since the publication of Johnson's 

351. C is mute in Czar, Czarina, victuals, indict, 
arbuscle, and muscle ; it sounds like tch in the 
Italian words vermicelli and violincello ; and like 
x in suffii ', sacrifice, sice (the number six at dice), 
and discern. 

333. This letter, when connected with, ft, baa 
two sounds ; the one like tch, in child, chair, 
rich, which, Sec. pronounced as if written tchild, 
tchair, ritch, whitclt, Ac. ; the other like sh, after 
t or n, as in belch, bench, filch, Ac. pronounced 
belsh, bensh,Jllsh, Ac. This latter sound is ge- 
nerally given to words from the French, as chaise, 
chagrin, chamade, champagne, champignon, chan- 
delier, chaperon, charlatan, chevalier, chevron, 
chicane, capuchin, cartouch, machine, machinist, 
chancre, marchioness. 

333. Ch, in words from the learned languages, 
arc generally pronounced like k, as chalcography, 
chalybeate, chameleon, chamomile, chaos, charac- 
ter, chart, chasm, chely, chemist (if derived from 
the Arabic, and chymist if from the Greek)j 
Chersonese, chimera, chtrography, chiromancy, 
chlorosis, choker, chorus, chord, chorography, chyle 
and its compounds ; anchor, anclwret, cachexy, 
catechism, catechise, catechetical, catechumen, echo, 
echinus, epoch, epocha, ichor, machination, machi- 
nal, mechanic, mtchanical, orchestra, orchestra, 
technical, anarch, anarchy, conch, cochleary, dis- 
tich, hemistich, monostich, eunuch, monarch, mo- 
narchical, hierarch, heresiarch, pmtateuch, sto- 
mach, stomachic, schtme, school, scholar, schesis, 
mustich, seneschal, and in all words where it is 
followed by r, as Christ, Christian, chronology* 
chronicle, Ac. To these may be added the Celue 
word loch (a lake). The exceptions are, charity, 
archer, and archery. 

pftotftftMiAtKMf ft* m «roif»oif awt a 

3M. "When ore*, signifying chief, begins a word 
from the Greek language, and is followed by a 
ttewel, U ia always pronounced ark, as in arc*- 
#•4*4, archipelago, architect, archives, archetype, 
archaUmardUeplscvpal,archldiaao»al, architrave* 
archaiologp. But when we prefix aroft to a wort 
of our own, and this word begins with a con* 
sonant, we pronounce it ft as to rhyme with 
march, as archduke, archdeacon, archbishop ; and 
sometimes, when the following word begins with 
a vowel, If it is a composition of our Awn, and 
the word does not come to as compounded from 
the Greek or Latin, as arch-enetmf. 

194. The word ache (a pain), pronounced ake, 
domes from the Greek, and was by Shakespeare 
extended to two syllables, aches with ch, as in 
Hatches j bat this is obsolete. It Is now almost 
universally written ake and ake*, except where 
tt hi compounded with another word, as head-ach, 
heart-ath, ftc. and by thus absurdly retaining the 
eh in the compound, we are putsled how to form 
the plural, without pronouncing aches in two 

000. la bkolir and chorister the ch |s almost uni- 
versally pronounced like qu, 960 : in ostrich, like 
stge, as if spelled estrldge. It Is silent m schedule, 
schism, and yacht ; pronounced seddule, sixm, 
and yot. It is sunk in drachm, .but heard in 
drachma ; pronopneed dram and drackma, 

36/, When c comes after the accent, either pri- 
mary or secondary, and is followed by ea, la, ie, 
io, or eons, it takes the sound of sh ; thus ocean, 
social, Phocwn, saponaceous, are pronounced as if 
Written oshean, seshlal, Phoshlan, saponasheous f 
jssctasson, negotiation, ice. 106. Financier has 
Jte accent after the c, Which on that account 
sloes not go into sh. 


MS. In order to have a Just Idea of the altera* 
tlnns of sound this letter i.ndergoee, it will 'be 
necessary to consider its near relation to 7, 41. 
These consonant*, like p, and b,f, and V, k, and 
'hard g, and s, and *, arc tellers of ihe same or- 
gan ; they diner by the nicest shades of sound, 
and are easily convertible into each other ; t, p, 
f, tr\ and s, may, fur the sake of distinction, be 
called sharp, and d, b, v,g, and *, may be called 
flat. For this reason, when, a singular ends in a 
sharp consonant, the s, which forms the pluml, 
preserves it sharp Sound, hs in cuffs, packs, tips, 
hats, deaths ; and when ihe singular end* with a 
flat consonant, the plural s has the sound <»f s, 
as drabs, bags, beads, lives, ftc. pronounced 
drabs, bags, ftc. 

. tip. i n the same manner, when a verb ends 
with a sharp consonant, the d, in the termination 
III, ansomeif by the preterit and participle, be- 
comes sharp, and ts sounded like t ; thb* stuffed, 
tripped, cracked, passed, ranched , faced (where 
the e H suppressed;, as tt always ought to be, ex- 
rent when we are pronouncing the language of 
Scripture), 104, change the d into t, as if written 
staff, tript, crackt, vast, vouch f,/aste. Bo when 
me verb ends in a Hat consonant, the A preserves 
its true flat sound, as drubbed, pegged, lived, 
bumoed, where the e is suppressed, and the words 
pronounced in one syllable, as if written drubb*d, 
fxgg*d, li»*d, busz'd. It may be observed, too. 
that when the verb ends in a liquid, or a liquid 
and mute e, the purtieiple d always preserves Its 
para ton nd ; as blamed, Joined, filled, barred, pro- 
nounced btam*d, joln'd, JtlPd, barr'd. This con- 
tmotion of the participial erf, and the verbal ea, 
109, is so axed an idiom of our pronunciation, 
that to alter it would be to alter the sound of 
the whole language. It must, however, be re- 
gretted, that tt subjects our tongue to some of the 
most hissing, snapping, clashing, grinding, sounds 
that ever crated the ears of a Vandal : thus 
rasped, scratched, wrenched, bridled, /angled, 
birchen, hardened, strengthened, quickened, Ore. 
almost frighten us when written a* they are ac- 
tually pronounced, as raspt, scratch t f wrench* , 
brldVd, fangPd, birch' n, strengthen**, eutck'n'd, 
dec.: they become still mere formidable when 
used contractedly in the solemn style, which 
never ouehi to be the case ; for here, instead of 
thou ttrengthWit or ttrength*n*sVst, thou eutcWn'tt 
ar fuurJrwM'M, we oftght to pronounce, thou 
vWong&Cne* or serength'nsddl, thou qwsa k 'n ut or 

eu4ck*n4dst, which are enJtefcndy harsh of 0*9 
conscience.— See No. 405. But to compensate 
for these Gothick sounds, which, however, are* 
not without their use, our language ts full of the) 
smoothest and most sonorous terminations of that 
Greeks and Romans. 

MX). By the foregoing rule of contraction, aris- 
ing from the very nature of the letters, we Seat 
the absurdity of substituting the t for ed, when 
the verb ends in a sharp consonant ; for. wile* 
the pronunciation cannot be mistaken, it is folly 
to alter the orthography j lit us the Distresses 
Mother, the title of a tragedy, needs not to hat 
written Dlstrost Mother, as we generally find It* 
because, though we write it in the former Mats* 
ner, it must necessarily be pronoaneed in the 

Ml. By this rale, too, we may see the hnpro 
priety of writing blest for blessed, when a par- 

M Bleat in thy genius, In thy love too blest 

Bnt. when the word blessed is an adjective, It 
ought always to be pronounced, even in the moat 
familiar conversation, in two syllables, as, this It 
a blessed day, the blessed thistle, &e. 

S8C. This word, with learned, cursed, and stfjtf. 
ed, are the only participial adjectives which aro 
constantly pronounced in two syllables, where 
the participles are pronounced in one i thus d 
learned man. a cursed thing, a udnged horse, pre- 
serve the ed in a distinct syllable i while the 
same words, when verbs, as, he teamed to ttrtSe, 
ho cursed the 4af, they winged their flight, are 
heard in one syllable, as if written loamd, eurst, 
and wingd ; the d in cursed changing to t, from 
its following the sharp consonant s, 390. 

303. Poetry, however (which has been one great 
cause of improper orthography), assumes the pri- 
vilege of using these words, when adjectives, 
either as monosyllables or dissyllables ; but cor- 
rect prose rigidly exacts the pronunciation of ed 
in these words, when adjectives, as a distinct 
syllable. The ed in aged and Winged always 
make a distinct syllable, as, ah aged man ; the 
winged courser t but when this word is compound- 
ed with another the ed doe* not form a syllable, 
as afull-ag*d horse, a sheuth-trtng*d fowl. 

304. It Is, perhaps, worthy of notice, that wlreh 
adjectives ure changed Into adverbs, by the addi- 
tion of the termination ty, we often find the par- 
ticipial termination ed preserved long and dis- 
tinct, even in those very words where It was 
contracted when n*ed adjectivelv : thus though: 
we always hear cenfess*d, frofesfd, deslgn'd, Ac. 
we as constantly hear con-fessed-ly, proJess-ed~ln, 
de-sign-ed-ly, ftc. The same may be observed of 
the following list of words, which, by the as- 
sistance of the Rhyming Dictionary, I am enabled 
to give, as, perhaps, the only words in the Ian. 
guage in which the ed is pronounced a» a distinct 
syllable in the adverb, where it is contracted in 
the participial adjective j Forcedly, enforcedly, 
unvelledty, deformedty,felgnrdly,u*jelgncdty, die* 
cemedly, resignedly, rejlnedty, restramedly, con' 
cemedly, unconcernedly, dtscernedly, undistern- 
edlu, preparedly, assuredly, advisedly, dispersedle, 
difusedly, confusedly, unpercetvedly, resolvedly, 
deservedly, undeservedly, reservedly, unreserveit^. 
avowedly, perplexedly, fixedly, amusedly. 

089. To this catalogue may be added severe, 
abstract subbtaiitives formed from participles in 
ed ; which ed makes a distinct syllable in the 
former, though not in the latter : thus numbed****, 
bUarednesSt preparedness, assuredness, dise***m\ 
ness, advlsednesSj reposeduess, compesedneos, a*. 
disposedness, dlffuseansas, coafusedness, dtstreso* 
edness, resolvedness, reservedness, perplexedness. 
fixedness, amazedness, have ed pronounced dis- 

000. The adjectives naked, oMtked, picked (pett- 
ed), hooked, crooked, forked, tusked, tressed, and 
stretched, are not derived from verbs, and are 
therefore pronounced In two nyl tables. The samt 
mav be observed of scabbed, crabbed, ehubhed, 
stubbed, shagged, snagged, ragged, scrubbed, natal 
ed, rugged, scragged, kotrSc^aTjageed ; io which 
we may add the solemn pronunciation nf softr. 
nocked: and these, when formed into nouns bV 



f wmitQunoii w w* ooKSMwrn ^ a*i> * 

_. Pmssed, in tbe sense of beyond, becomes « 
ftVrposHiOB, and rosy allowably be written vast, 
mp^st twelve •'clock; bat when an adjective, 
though it it pronounced in one syllable, it ought 
to be written with two, aa fussed pleas**** are 

Csent pain : this I know is contrary to usage ; 
asage is, in this case, contrary to good sense, 
and the settled analogy of the language. 

303. It need* scarcely be observed, that, when 
the verb ends in * or d, the ed in the past time 
and participle has the d pronounced with its own 
asaad, and always forms an additional syllable, 
•a temded, matted, *c. otherwise the final d could 
not be pronounced at all. 

333. And here, perhaps, it may not be useless 
la take notice of the very imperfect and confused 
idea thai is given in oar bast grammar of what 
are called contracted verbs, such as snateht, 
check t, snatpt, mist, dwelt, and past, for snatched, 
chocked, snapped, misted, drilled, and passed. To 
these are added those that end in t, s», and is, or 
a, after a diphthong ; which either shorten the 
diphthong, or change it into a single vowel ; and 
kvttead of ed, take t only for the preterit, as 
d**{t, dreamt, m eant, felt, slept, crept: and these 
are amid to be considered not as irregular, bat 
oaatracted only. Now nothing can lie clearer 
than that verbs of a very different kind are here 
haddled together as of the same. Snatched, 
c h eeked , sna pped 1 , mixed, and passed, are not ir- 
regular at ail ; if they are ever written smatcht, 
smapt, mixt, and past, it is from pure ig- 
e or analogy, and not considering that If 
they were written with td, nnless we were to 
aruooaocc H as a distinct syllable, contrary to 
the mov settled usage of the language, the pro- 
atiort, from the very nature of the letters, 
be the same. It is very different with 
here, as a liquid, and not a sharp mute, 
the verb, d might be pronounced without 
going into # just as well as in felPd, the participle 
of to/eti (to cot down trees). Hera then we find 
has determined an irregularity, which 
be altered without violence to the lan- 
dmelt may be truly called an irregular 
verb, and dwelt the preterit and participle. 

The same may be observed of deal, dream, 

i,Jeet, weep, steep, and creep. It is certain 

pronounce d after the four first of these 

is, aa well as In seated, screamed, cleaned, 

lad ratted ; bat custom has not only annexed t 

m the preterit of these verbs, but has changed 

me long diphthongal sound into a short one; 

therefore doubly irregular. Weep, steep, 

p, would not have required I to form 

meir preterits, any more than peeped and steeped ; 

bat ewrtmn, which has shortened the diphthong 

m the farmer wards, very naturally annexed t 

as the simplest method of conveying the sound. 

371. The only two words which occasion some 

doabt about classing them are, to team and to 

speii- The vulgar (who are no contemptible 

gsudoa on this occasion) pronounce them in the 

preterit lea rn t and spelt ; but as * and I will 

readily admit of d after them, it seems more 

correct to favour a tendency to regularity, both 

m writing and speaking, which the literary world 

has given into, by spelling them learned and 

spotted, nod pronouncing them learn" d and 

spetFd: thus earned, the preterit of to earn, has 

been recovered from the vulgar earnt and made 

a perfect rhyme to discerned. 

jn. To these observations may be added, that, 
m swell Irregular verbs as have the present, the 
preterit, ana participte the same, as, cast, cost, 
cmt, meu the second person singular of the pre- 
terit of these verbs takes ed before the st, as / 
emet, or did cast ; The* castedst, or didst cast, dec. 
far, if this were not the case, the second person 
of the preterit might be mistaken for the second 
person of tbe present tense. 
— I have been led insensibly to these obser- 
by their connexion with pronunciation ; 
if the reader should think them too remote 
the subject, 1 must beg his pardon, and re- 
my remarks on the sound of the letter d. 
SN. The vulgar drop this letter in ordinary and 
j, and make them or'nary and extr*- 
bat this is a gross abbreviation ; the 
a aafleieaUy shorts which is 

ordinary and extr*ord*navy ; the first in three* and 
the last In four syllables : but solemn speaking 
preserves tbe i, and makes the latter word eon* 
sisl of five syllables, as if written extraordinary. 

375. Our ancestors, feeling the necessity of 
showing the quantity of a vowel followed by me, 
when it was to be short, inserted d, as wedge, 
rUfge, badge, &c. The same reason induced them 
to write coltedge and alledge with the d ; but 
modern reformers, to the great injury of the lan- 
guage, have expelled the d, and left the vowel 
to shift for itself; because there is no d in the 
Latin words from which these are derived. 

370. D, like t, to which it is so nearly related, 
when it comes after the accent, and is followed 
by the diphthong ie, to, la or eon, slides into gift, 
or the consonant j ; thus soldier is universally 
and justly pronounced aa if written sotjer ; gran- 
deur, granjeur ; and verdure (where ft mu*t be 
remembered that st is a diphthong), verjure; 
and, for the same reason, education is elegantly 
pronounced edjueetion. But duke and reduce* 
pronounced juke and rejuce, where the accent hi 
after the d, cannot be too much reprobated. 


377. F has its pore sound in often, of, Ac. but, 
in tbe preposition of, slides into it* near relation 
v, as if written ov. But when this preposition is 
in composition at the end of a word, the / bo* 
comes pure ; thus, though we sound of singly ov, 
we pronounce it as if the / were double in 

373. There is a strong tendency to change the 
/ into v in soma words, which confounds the 
plural number and the genitive case : thus we 
often hear of a Vive's jointure, a calves head, 
and house rent, for wife 1 * Jointure, a coif's head 
and house rent* 


379. G, like C, has two sounds, a hard and a 
soft one : it is hard before a, 0, u, I, and r, as 
game, gone, gull, glory, grandeur. Gaol is tbe only 
exception ; now more commonly written Jail, 313. 

380. G before e and I is sometimes hard and 
sometimes soft : it is generally soft before words 
of Greek. Latin, or French original, and hard be- 
fore words from the Saxon. These latter, forming 
by far the smaller number, may be considered as 

381. G is hard before e, in gear, geek, geese, 
geld, gelt, gelding, get, gete-gaw, shagged, snagged, 
ragged, cragged, scragged, dogged, rugged, dogger, 
swagger, stagger, trigger, dogger, pettifogger, tiger, 
auger, eager, meager, anger, Jlnger, linger, conger, 
longer, stronger, younger, longest, strongest, 
youngest. The last six of these words are gene* 
rally pronounced in Ireland, so as to let the g 
remain In Its nasal sound, without articulating 
the succeeding vowel ; thus longer (more long) is 
so pronounced as to sound exactly like the noun 
a long-er (one who longs or wishes for a thing) ; 
the same may he observed of the rest. That the 
pronunciation of Ireland is analogical, appears 
from the same pronunciation of g in string-y 
spring-y, full of strings and springs; and wronger 
and wrongest, for more and most wrong. Bu* 
though resting the g in the nasal sound, wilhou 
articulating the succeeding vowel, is absolutely 
necessary in verbal nouns derived from verb* 
ending in ing, as singer, brlnger, slinger, Ac. pro- 
nounced sing-er, bring-er, sling-er, Sec. and not 
sing-ger, bring-ger, sling ger, 6c. ; yet in longer, 
stronger, and younger; longest, strongest, and 
youngest, the g ought always to articulate the ei 
thus younger ought always to rhyme with the ter- 
mination monger*, which has always the g hard, 
and articulating the rowel ; and this pronuncia- 
tion is approved by Mr. Nares. Forget, target, 
and together, fall into this class.— See No. 400. 

38ft G is hard before i, In gihbe, giheat, gibber, 
gibberish, gibbous, giddy, g\tt, gig, giggle, glglet 
(properly giggtrt), gild, gfil (of a fish), gimlet, 
gimp, gird, girdle, gfrl, girth, glxsord, begin, give, 
forgive, biggin, pfggtv, noggin : also derivatives 
from nouns or verbs ending in hard g, as druggltt, 
wngghh, riggish, haggish, doggish, sluggish, rhj* 

303. <Tbef< 


ore y is generally soft, as in t te $ y 9 



apology, Ac. and almost in all words from the 
learned languages; bul hard in words from the 
fclj-ton, which are formed from nouns or verbs 
ending in g hard, as shaggy, jaggy t knaggy, snaggy, 
tratgy, scraggy, quaggy, snaggy, dreggy, spriggy, 
t»iggy, ooggy,figgy, cloggy, buggy, muggy, Gyve, 
from its Celtic original, ought to hare the g hard, 
but has decidedly adopted the sou 4. 

GN in the same Syllable at the Beginning 
of a Word, 

384. The g Id this situation is always silent, as 
gnaw, gnash, gnat, gnarl, gnomon, gnomonicks / 
pronounced naw, nosh, not, narl, nomon, no- 

GN la the same Syllable at the Bed of a Word* 

S85. No combination of letters has morepnzzled 
the enticks than this. Two actresses of distin- 
guished merit in Portia, in the Merchant of 
Venice, pronounced the word impugn differently, 
and each found her advocate in the newspapers. 
One critic k affirmed that Miss Young, by preserv- 
ing the sound of g, pronounced the word pro- 
perly ; and the other contended that Mrs. Yates 
Was more judicious in leaving it out. The former 
was charged with harshness ; the latter with 
mutilating the word, and weakening its sound : 
but, if analogy may decide, it is clearly in favour 
of the latter ; for there is no axiom in our pro- 
nunciation more indisputable than that which 
makes g silent before n in the same syllable. 
This is constantly the case in sign, and all its 
compounds, as resign, design, consign, assign ; and 
in indlgn, condign, malign, benign ; all pronounced 
as it written sine, resine, Ac. In which words 
we And the vowel i long und open, to compen- 
sate, as it were, for the suppression of g, as every 
other word ending in gn, when the accent is on 
the syllable, lias a diphthong pronounced like a 
long open vowel, as arraign, campaign, feign, 
reign, deign , and consequently, unless the vowel 
at can produce some special privilege which the 
other vowels have not, we must, if we pronounce 
accoidtng lo analogy, make the w in this situation 
Ion*, and sound impugn as if written impune. 

380. The same nnalogy will oblige us to pro- 
nounce Unpregn, oppugn, erpugn, propugn, as if 
written imprtne, oppune, expune, propune, not 
only when these veil* are in the infinitive mood, 
but in the preterits, participles, and verbal nouns 
formed from them, as impugned, impugning, and 
impvgner, must be pronounced impuned, impuning, 
and impnner. The same may be observed df the 
rest. Perhaps it will gratify a curious obsei ver 
of pronunciation to see the diversity and uncer- 
tainty of our orihoepists in their notation of the 
words before us : 

impune, 8 her id an, Scott, Nares, Murray. 
Barclay says the g in this word and 
iU derivatives is mute, but takes no 
notice of the quantity of the at. 

tmpun. Buchanan, Kenrick, Perry. 

impung. W. Johnston. 

oppune. Sheridan, Scott, Nares, Murray. 

opptin. Kenrick, Perry, Barclay. 

oppung. W. Johnston. 

propune, Sheridan, Scott, Perry, Nares* 

propung, Barclay. 

tmprene. Nares, Murray. 

imprin, Sheridan, Kenrick, Perry. Barclay 
says the g is mute, but say » nothing 
of the quantity of the e. 

expnne. Sheridan, 8cott, Nares. 

expton. Perry, Barclay. 

tmpuner, 8heridan. 

impuned. Murray. 

impfrnttcr. Perry, Barclay. 

oppugner, Sheridan. 

prop&gner, Sheridan. 

propuner. Scott. 

P> opunner. Perry. 

Nothing is clearer than that all these words 
ought 10 follow the same fortune, and should be 

Srouounced alike. How then shall be reconciled 
[r. Sheridan's pronouncing impugn, oppugn, ex- 
pugn, and propugn, with the u long, and impregn 
with the e fthnri T Kenrick, who has not the word 
propugn, js consistent in pronouncing the rest 
with the vowel short. The same may be observed 


of Scott, who adopts the king sound, but he* m* 
the word impregn, Mr. Perry gives the short 
sound to all but propugn, where he makes the as. 
long, but absurdly makes the verbal noun pro* 
punner ; and W. Johnston, who has only impugn 
and oppugn, pronounces the vowel short, and 
spells them impung and oppung. Barclay, under 
the word impugn, says the g in this word and its 
derivatives is mute, without noticing the quantity 
of the vowels, bul spells oppugn, oppun ; and of 
impregn only says the g is mule ; but wriies pro- 
pugn, propung, in the manner that W. Johnson 
does impugn and oppugn : but Mr. Nares observes 
that analogy seems to require a similar pronun- 
ciation in all these words, and that the vowel 
should be long. The same inconsistency is ob- 
servable in Mr. Sheridan's pronunciation of the 
verbal nouns ; for he expunges the g in impugner, 
and writes it hnpuner, but preserves it in op- 
pugner and propugnrr. Mr. Scott has only the 
word propugner, which he very property, as well 
as consistently, spells propuner. Mr. Perry has. 
propunner and impunner, and Barclay impunner 
only.— The inconsistency here remarked arises 
from not attending to the analogy of pronuncia- 
tion, which requires every verbal noun to be pro- 
nounced exactly like the verb, with the mere 
addition of the termination : thus singer is only 
adding er to the verb sing, without suffering the 
g to articulate the e as it does in Anger and linger. 
See, The same may be observed ot a signer* one 
who signs: and, as a corroboration of this doc- 
trine, we may take notice that the additional er 
and est, in the comparatives and superlatives of? 
adjectives, make no alteration in the sound of 
the radical word ; this is obvious in the words 
bentgner, benignest, Sec, except younger, longer, 
and stronger. —See No. 381. 

387. But, in every other compound where these 
letters occur, the n articulate* the latter syllable, 
and g is heard distinctly in the former, as sig- 
nify, malig-nity, assignation, &c. Some affected, 
speakers, either ignorant of the rules for pro- 
nouncing English, or over-complaisant to the 
French, pronounce physiognomy, cognizance, and 
recognizance, without the g; but this is a gross 
violation of the first principles of spelling. The 
only words to keep these speakers It countenance 
are poignant and champignon, not long ago im- 
ported from France, and pronounced poiniant, 
champinUm, The first of these words will be pro- 
bably hereafter written without theg; while the 
latter, confined to the kitchen, may he looked 
upon as technical, and allowed an exclusive pri- 
vilege.— See Cognisance. 

388. Bagnio, seignior, seraglio, intaglio, and 
oglio, pronounced ban-yo, seen-yar, seral-yo, intat* 
yo, and ote-yo, may be considered as foreign cox- 
combs, and treated with civility, by omitting' the 
g, while they do not pervert the pronunciation 
of oar native English words* 

3M ke the same Syllable. 

380. What has been said of gn is applicable to 
gm. We have but one word in the language 
where these letters end a word with the accent 
on it, and that is phlegm; in this the g is always 
mute, and the e, according to analogy, ought to 
be pronounced long, as if the word were written 
Jteme ; but a short pronunciation of the e lias 
generally obtained, and we commonly hear it 
ftern: it is highly probable Pope pronounced it 
properly, where lie says, 

M Our ctiticks take a contrary extreme ; 
" They judge with fury, but they write with 

Essay on Criticism, 

Perhaps it would not be difficult to reduce this 
word to analogy, as some speakers still pronounce 
the e long : but in the compounds of this word, as 
in those where gn occur, the vowel is shortened, 
and the g pronounced as in yhltg-mon, fhUg- 
monous,phleg-matick, and phleg-magagues ; though 
Mr. Sheridan, lor no reason I can conceive, unks 
the g in the last word. When these letters end a 
*y liable not under the accent the g Is silent, bnt 
the preceding vowel is shortened : thus paradigm, 
parapegm. diaphragm, apophthegm, a re pronounced 
2«fadim, parapem, diaphram, epothem. 







ibtnation, at the beginning of a 
drop* the k, as in ghost, ghastoy, aghast, 
g*erktM y pronounced gost, rhyming with most; 
cutfiv, *g~sst, guerkin : but when these letters 
c -»-»*e at ti»c end of a word, they form some .of 
tfcr rreateM. anomalies in our language : gh, at 
tt* end of amrrts, is generally silent, and conse- 
ceeotty the preceding vowel or diphthong is 
fess, as high, nigh, thigh, neigh, trelgh, inveigh, 
eugh ftae obsolete way of spelling pew, a tree), 
"i, o>**gh>, though, although, dough (a chit), 
igh. fwrUmgh, slough (a miry place), through, 
wgko%tt % thorough, borough, usquebaugh, pugh ! 
I. Gh us frequently pronounced like f, as 
i, lavg-kter, rough, chough, clough (an allnw- 
ee tn weight), slough (the cast skin of a snake 
or wwe), dsoag-a, rough, tough, trough. 

Gk is sometimes changed into ck, as hough, 
iomgk, pronounced hock, shock, lock ; 
we hear only the g sounded, as in 
bmrgker, and bur* her ship. 


V. Gk in this termination is always silent, as 
. might, bought, fought, Ac. The only execp- 
_ _. is drmtght ; wnich, in poetry, is most fre- 
aaratly rhymed with caught, taught, Ac. ; v but, 

' rose, is «o universally pronounced as if ~writ- 

mrmft, that the poetical sound of it grows un- 
til, aad is becoming obsolete. Draughts, the 
ae, ts also pronounced drafts. Drought (dry- 
} is T-alj-arlv pronounced drowth: it is even 
en so by Milton ; but ia this he is not to be 
_ited, baring mistaken the analogy of this 
ai. as well as that of height, which he spells 
'**, and which is frequently so pronounced 
the vulgar*— See the words Height and 



91 This letter is no more than breathing forci- 
bly before the succeeding vowel is pronounced. 
Ax the beginning of words it is always sonnded, 
eaee-pt in heir, heiress, honest, honesty, honour, 
kmmmmrmkle, kerb, herbage, hospital, hostler, hour, 
kmutkie, kumumr, humourous, humour some. Ben 
Joanon leaves out the h in host, and classes it in 
latis re*p**et with honest. 

aftt. H is aluay* silent after r, as rhetorick, 
r h a ps o dy , rheum, rheumatism, rhinoceros, rhomb, 
>, myrrh, catarrh, and their compounds. 
U final, preceded by a vowel, is always 
at teat, as ah ! hak f ok f foh ! sirrah, hallelujah, 

39f . This letter is often sunk after re, panic u- 
tarty in the capital, where we do not And the 
l east dntiaetion of sonnd between while and wile, 
anknt and wot, where and wear. Trifling as this 
daaereaee may appear at first sight, it tends 
greatly to weaken and impoverish the pronnn- 
rjauoa, as well as sometimes to confound words 
of a very different meaning. The baxons, as Dr. 
Lrtwth observes, placed the h before the w, as 
Aansf ; and this is certainly its true place ; for, in 
the pronunciation of all words beginning with 
ara, we ought to breathe forcibly before we pro- 
nounce the sf, as if the words were written 
kooat koo-ile, Stc. and then we shall avoid that 
freUe, cockney pronunciation, which is so dis- 
agreeable to a correct car. 


JM. Jit pronounced exactly like toft g, and is 
arricctly ■aiibrm in its sound, except in the word 
hoiltlmjah, where it is pronounced like y. 


Wb\ K has exactly the sonnd of hard c : It is 
always silent before n in the same syllable, as 
tat*, kneel, knack, knight, know, knuckle, knab, 
knag, knap, knmre, knave, knit, knock, knot, knoll. 

4M. It has been a custom within these twenty 
years to omit the k at the end of words when 

Kwded by e. This has introduced a novelty 
tbe language, which i* that oi ending a word 
villi am ■■■anal letter, and is not only a blemish 

tn the face of It, but may possibly produce some 
irregularity in future formatives ; for mimicking 
must be written with the k, though to mimic is 
without it. If we use colic as a verb, which is 
not uncommon, we must write colicking and 
colicked ; and though physicking and physicked 
are not the most elegant words they are not quite 
out of the line of formation. This omission of k 
is, however, too general to be counteracted, even 
by the authority of Johnson ; but it is to be Imped 
it will be confined to words from the learned 
languages : and indeed, as there is not the same) 
vanity of appearing learned in the Suxon as in 
the Latin and Greek, there is no great fear that 
thick and stick will lose their k, though they 
never had it in the original. 


401. Ben Jon son says L meltcth in the sound* 
ing, and is therefore called a liquid. This, how- 
ever, cannot be the reason that r is called a li- 
quid ; for no two letters can, in this respect, be 
more opposite. — See No. 21. 

L is mute in almond, calf, half, calve, halve, 
chaldron, falcon, folk, yolk (better wriitea yelk, 
with the I sounded), fusil, halscr, malmsey, 
salmon, salve, talbot (a species of dog).— See 

402. L is mute also between a and * in the 
same syllable, as balk, chalk, talk, stalk, walk. 

403. L is silent likewise between a and m in 
the same syllable, as alms, balm, calm, palm, 
psalm, qualm, shalm; but when the m is detach- 
ed from the /, by commencing another syllable, 
the I becomes audible. Thus, though the / it 
mute in psalm, it is always heard in f.<tal4kist, 
psal-mody, and pat-mist ry ; but in balmy and 
palmy, where the y is an adjective termination 
of onr own, no alteration is made in the sound of 
the substantive which sink* the /, 38fl. (aimer 
and calmest ought to have the / mute, as they 
are only degiees of conipnri«on ; and palmer and 
palmervorm (except in the language ot Scripture, 
where the I in palmerteorm ought tn be Heard) 
arc only a sort of verbal nouns, which never al- 
ter the sound of the original word, and therefore 
ought to have the I mute. But though / is some- 
times mute in the noun suite, and in the verb -to 
salve, it is always heard in salver (a kind of plate). 
See Salre. 

40-1. L ought always to be suppressed in the 
anxilitiry verbs would, could, should : it is some- 
times suppressed in fault ; but this suppression is 
become vulgar (see the woid). In soldier, like- 
wise, the / is sometimes suppressed, and the word 
pronounced so-jer ; but this is far from being the 
most correct pronunciation : /ought always to be 
heard in this word, and its compounds soldierly, 
soldiership, Sec. 

405. L, preceded by a mute, and followed by 
e, In a final syllable, has an imperfect sound, 
which does not do much honour to our language. 
The /, in this situation, is neither sounded Tike el 
nor le, but the e final is suppressed, and the pre- 
ceding mute articulates the /, without either a 
preceding or a succeeding vowel ; so that this 
sound may be called a monster in grammar— a 
syllable without a vowel! This will easily be 
perceived in the words able, table, circle, See. 
which are pronounced as if written abl, tabt, 
circl, dec. and in those still more Gothick and 
uncouth abbreviated participial terminations, 
peopled, bridled, saddled, trifles, gaffies, &c. pro- 
nounced pee-pl'd, bri-dl'd, sad-dl'd, trijtx, g«j-fl% 9 
&c. 35SL 472. 

400. This letter has not only, like/ and *, th« 
privilege of doubling itself at the end of a word, 
but it has an exclusive privilege of being double 
where they remain single ; though by what right 
cannot well be conceived. Thus, according to 
the general rule, when a verb ends in a single 
consonant, preceded by a single vowel, and the 
accent is on the last syllable, the consonant is 
doubled when a participial termination is added, 
a*, a'>et, abetting., beg, begging, begin, beginning, 
Arc. but when the accent is not on the last syl- 
lable of the vei b, the consonant remains single, 
as suffered, suffering, benefiting, &c. but the I is 
doubled, whether the accent be on the last syl- 
lable or not, as duelling, levelling, victualling, 
travelling, trateUsr, &c. This (toss irregularity, 



however, would not hare been taken notice of 
in this place, if it had not suggested an absurdity 
in pronunciation, occasioned by the omission of 
L Though the latter I is useless in traveller, 
victualler, 4c. it is not so in controller : for as ll 
Is a mark of the deep broad sound of a in ball, 
tull, mil, Ac. 84 ; so the name letters are the sign 
of tue long open sound of o in boll (a round stalk 
of a plain), tojoll, twit (ihe head), knoll (a Utile 
hill), foil, clo<Upoll,roll t scroll, droll, troll, stroll, 
toll: for which reason, leaving out one I in 
htthral, catcal, mlscal, ooerfal,farestal, reknstal, 
djownfal, wUhal, control, and utirol, as we find 
them in Johnson's Dictionary, is an omission of 
the etiunst importance to the sound of the words; 
for, a# the pronunciation sometimes alters the 
spelling, so the spelling sometimes alters the pro- 
nunciation •. Accordingly we nod some speak- 
ers, chiefly the natives of Ireland, inclined to 
give the a its middle sound to words commencing 
with at, followed by another consonant, because 
they do not see the ll in the all with which these 
words are compounded : thus we sometimes hear 
Almighty, albeit, so pronounced as to make their 
first syllable rhyme with the first of at- leu, vat- 
ley ; and extol is pronounced by the Scotch so as 
CO rhyme with coal ; and with just as much reason 
as we pronounce control in the same manner. 
For though compounds may, in some cases, be 
allowed to drop such letters of their simples 
as either are not necessary to the sound, as in 
Christmas ; or might possibly lead to a wrong 
one, as iu keconclleable (which see); yet where, 
by omitting * letter, the sound may be altered, 
the omission is pernicious and absurd, 84. The 
same observations might be extended to the nu- 
merous termination full, where, iu compounds, 
one / is omitted, though nothing can be more cer- 
tain than that Jul, with a single I, has not the 
same sound as when this letter is doubled ; for 
who ^ould suppose, without beinu used to the 
absurdity, that fulfil should stand for fullfill t 
but this abbreviation is too inveterate and exten- 
sive to afford any hope thai the great arbiters of 
orthography, the printers, will ever submit to 
the additional trouble of putting another I, 


407. M preserves its sound in every word, ex- 
cept' comptroller ; compt and accompt are now 
universally written as they are pronounced count 
and account! and though m and p are preserved 
to the eye in the ofiicer called a comptroller, the 
word is pronounced exactly like the noun con- 
troller, one who controls. 


409. N has two sounds ; the one simple and 
pure, as in smut, net, Ac. ; the other compounded 
and mixed, as in hang, thank, &c. The latter 
sound is heard when it is followed by the shurp 
or flat guttural mutes, g hard, or k ; or its re- 
presentatives, c hard, qu, or x .• but it may be ob- 
served, that so prone is our language to the fiat 
niutis, that when n is followed by k, or its re- 

Ereseutatives, the flat mate g seems interposed 
etweeu thrm : thus thunk, banquet, anxious, 
are pronounced as if written, not than-k, ban- 

J net, an-xious, but, thangk, bangquet, angkshus. 
lut this coalition of the sound ot it and g, or hard 
c. is wily when the accent is on tbein ; for when 
thegor hard e articulates the accented syllable, the 
is becomes pare : thus, though congress and rojvgre- 
gatt are pronounced as if written cong-gre-s and 
cong-gregate, yet the first syllable of congratulate 
and congresslve ought to be pronounced without 
the ringing sound of m, and exactly like the same 
syllable in contrary. The same difference may 
be observed in the words concourse and concur ; 
the first word, which has Ihe accent on the first 
syllable, is pronounced as if written cong*course ; 

• This omission of the letter L, I see, has been 
tectified in the latt quarto edition of Johnson's 
Dictionary ; and it would have been we 11 if the 
Editors had acknowledged their obligations, and 
extended their emendations to the word Codle, 
end several others. 

and the last, which has the eooent on the second 
syllable, with n pare. It must, however, be 
carefully observed, that the secondary aocent 
has the same power of melting the is into the 
succeeding hard g or c as the primary, fn : thee 
congregation and concrematlon have the .first syl- 
lable pronouueed as if written cong. 

409. It may, perhaps, be worthy of notice, theft 
when n is followed by k, the k has a finished or 
complete sound, as in link, think, fcc. ; but when 
n is followed by hard g, the g has an unfinished 
or imperfect sound, as in hang, bang, Ax. where 
we may observe the tongue to rest upon the pel- 
tate in the sound of g ; but when this letter is car- 
ried off to articulate another syllable, its sonnet 
is completed, as in anger and Bangor (the name 
of a town), where the sound of f may be per- 
ceived to be very different from the noun hanger 
(a sword), and banger (one who beats or bangs). 
This perfect souud of g is heard in all simples, as 
anger, angle, finger, linger, conger, anguish, lan- 
guish, distinguish, extinguish, unguent: but In 

•words derived from verbs or adjectives, ending 
in ng, the g continues imperfect, as it was in the 
theme. Thus a singer (one who sings), does not 
finish the g like finger, but is merely er added to 
sing: the same may be observed of singling, 
bring-lng, and hang-lug* So adjectives formed by 
the addition of y have the imperfect sound of g, 
as in the original word : thus springy, stringy, 
d"»f F. and mingy, are only the sound of e added 
to spring, string, dung, and wing ; bat the compa- 
rative and superlative adjectives, longer, stronger, 
and younger; longest, strongest, and youngest; 
have the g hard and perfectly sounded, as if 
written long-ger, strong ger, young-ger, Ac. where 
theg is hard, as in 0*ger, linger, *c. And it may 
be looked upon as a general rule, that nouns, 
adjectives, or verbs, do not alter their original 
sound upon taking ah additional syllable. In 
these three words, therefore, the Irish pronounce 
more agreeably to analogy than the English ; for, 
if I mistake not, they do not articulate the g, 381* 

410. Hitherto we nave considered these letters 
as they are heard under the accent; bet when 
they are unaccented in the participial termina- 
tion ing, they are frequently a cause of embarraaft- 
ment to speakers who desire to pronounce cor- 
rectly. We are told, even by teachers of English 
that ing, in the word singing, bringing, arid 
swinging, fiiust be pronounced with the ringing 
sound, which is heard when the accent is on these 
letters, in king, sing, and wi*g, and not as if 
written without the g, as slngln,brtngh%, sttHngin. 
No one can be a greater advocate than 1 urn for 
the strictest adherence to orthography, as long as 
the pnblick pronunciation pays the least attention 
to it ; but when I find letters given up by the 
publick, with respect to sound, 1 then consider 
them as ciphers ; and, if my observation does not 
greatly fail me, 1 ran assert that our best speak- 
ers do not invariably pronounce the participial 
Ing. so as to rhyme with sing, king, and ring. 
Indeed, a very obvious exception seems to uffet 
itself pi those verbs that end in these letters, as a 
repetition of the ringing sound in successive sylla- 
bles would prodace a Tautophony,(»** the word,) 
and have a very bad effect on the ear ; and there 
fore, instead of singing, bringing, and fiinging. 
our best speakers are heard to pronounce sing in 
brlng-tn. and fitng-ln ; and for the very same 
reason that we exclude the ringing sound fn these 
words, we ought to adroit it when the verb ends 
with in ; for if, instead of sinning pinning, and 
beginning, we should pronounce s'in-uin, pin-nits 
and begln-nin, we should fall into the same dis? 
gusting repetition as in the former case. The 
participial ing, therefore, oeght always to have 
its ringing sound, except iu those words formed 
irom verbs in this termination j for writing, read- 
ing, and speaking, are certainly preferable to 
uritln, readin, and speakin, wherever the pronun- 
ciation has the least degree of precision or so- 

411. JV 'is mute when it ends a syllable, and la 
preceded by / or si, as kiln, hymn, Hmn, solemn, 
column, autumn, condemn, oontemn. In hymning 
and litn-ning, the n is generally pronounced, and 
sometimes, in very solemn speaking, in condem- 
ning and contem-ning; but, fn both cases, eon. 
«vy jo analogy, which forbids any sound in the 
parucrplt thai was not in the verb/ let. * 



J* jnute before * and t at the 

. of words, psalm, psalmist, psalmody, 

pMimagrophw, pamtter, psaltry ; the prefix p tends. 
apart; mg tulse. a* peendography, pseudotogy, and 
n* Muerjectiara pshaw l To these we may add, 
"" " eOsa*. ptpsmagegus. It is mute in the 

wurtla between as and /, in empty, 
ptory, sumptuous, presumptuous, 
pit**, and raspberry. In cup- 

! n coalesces wilh and falls mU> ill flat sound 

fc, as nf written cmbeo ar d. It it mace in a final 
sellable between the fame letters, as tempt, at- 
ssnpf, i in linear, ejsesnpt, prompt, accompt. In 
m^ it is mate between * and t ; and in the 
rf corps (a body or troops), both » and * are 
as cations has acquiesced in toe French 
jeo of ntat military terms* 

lafkb generally pronounced like /, as in 
AsssssnAw, phantom, 4c. In nephew and Stephen 
bss tbe Msmt of s>. In d ip h th ong and frirA- 
•ang the soand of « only is beard ; and the * is 
new likewise in naphtha, ophthalmieh, Ac. In 
mvphthtgm both letters are dropped. The same 
s»y be observed of phthisis, phthisic, and oaf AI- 
noeL Id « ee n As>« the first p slides inte ph, by an 
seseataal coalition of similar letters very agrae- 

414. 47 has always the sound of * ; it is coo* 
Maatlv followed by a, pronounced like sv/ and 
•4 general soand is heard in quack, quill, queen, 
he. pronoanced kumek. Mil, kveen, Ac. That 
lee u sahjeioed to tliis letter has really the power 
st w may be observed in the generality of words 
where m soeceeda ; for we find the vowel go into 
Is* broad sooad in quart, quarrel, quantity, Ac 
as ssech as in war, warrant, want, tec. 8a. But 
It evn«t be carefully noted that this broad soand 
no«W heard under the accent; when the a, pre- 
ceded by qu, is not accented, it has the sound of 
every other accented a m the language, 92. Thus 
Ae « in quarter, quarrel, quadrant, Ac. because 
it ha% the accent, is broad : the same may be ob- 
•errrd when the accent is secondary only, 682, 
S0, as in quadragesimal, Quadrisyllable, Ate ; bat 
vben the accent is ou the succeeding syllable, 
as m qua*aratick, qna-dt angular, dec. the a goes 
brto tat obscure sooad approaching to the Italian 
e, 92. 

419. As a great number of words, derived from 
the French, have these letters in them, according 
•* oar usual complaisance for that language, we 
■duet the French pronunciation : thus in coquet, 
de qu et, etiquette* masquerade, harlequin, oblique, 
antique, apaque, pique, piquant, piquet, ear Usque, 
ereteoqum, casque, mosque, quadrille, quater-cousin, 
the fa is pronounced like A. tiueif and quoit 
eeebt to be written and pronounced coif, colt. 
Pmqmt, taquea, chequer, and risque, have been 
very properly spelled by Johnson as they are 
pronounced, packet, lackey, checker, and risk. 
Qmth ought u» be pronounced with the u, as if 
wiiuen kamth, and therefore is not irregular. 
liquor and harlequin always lose the u; and 
cssf err, conquerable, and conqueror, sometimes, 
asroculerly on the stage. This deviation, how- 
ever, seems not to have gene beyond recovery ; 
set conquest Is still regularly pronounced conk- 
uemU gustV and quotation are perfectly regular, 
sea ought never to be pronounced, as some do, 
cnVand veeatkm Cirque, contracted from circa* , 
and cmq n e , dnqu o /oQ , cinque p eris, cmqu e spe t 
We, are pronvuneed serk and sink,' and critique, 
when we mean a criticism, to daUngeish it from 
sritkk, t» pronounced criteek, rhyming with 

4HV This letter is never silent, but its sound is 
ametane* transposed. In a final unaccented syl- 

with re, the r i« pronounced 

i e, on mere, l u c r e , ombre, fibre, ochre, eogre, 

t, spectre, metre, poire, 

to which we may add, centre and sceptre; soi 
times written center and scepter ; but, in ray 
opinion, very improperly, as this peculiarity {• 
fixed, and easily understood; while reducing 
awagre to meager disturbs the rule, and adds 
another anomaly to our pronunciation, by making 
the g hard before e, 98. 

417. The Mine transposition of r is always per- 
ceived in the pronunciation of apron and iron; 
and often in that or' citron and saffron, as if writ* 
ten apum, turn, eltum % safurn : nor do I think 
the two first can be pronounced otherwise with- 
out a disagreeable stiffness ; but the two last may 
preserve the r before the vowel with great pro- 
priety. Children and hundred have slid into this 
analogy* when used colloqnially, but preserve 
the r before the e in solemn speaking. 

418. As this letter is but a jar of tbe tongue, 
sometimes against the roof of the mouth, and 
sometimes at the oriflce of the throat, it Is the 
most imperfect of all the consonants ; and, as he 
formation is so indefinite, no wonder, when it ia 
not under the accent, that the vowels which pre- 
cede it should be so indefinite in their sounds, as 
we may perceive in the words friar, Her, elixir, 
nadir, mayor, martyr, which, with respect to 
sound, might be written friur, liur, elisor, nedvr, 
mayur, martur, 98. These inaccuracies in pro- 
nunciation, says an ingenious writer, " we seem 
to have derived from our Saxon ancestors. Dr. 
Hicks observes, in tbe first chapter of his Saxon 
Grammar, that ' Comparativa apud cos (Angle- 
Saxonas) indifierenter exeunt in or, or, er, kr, or, 
ur, yr; et Superlativa in est, est, est, ist, est, 
ust, yst ; participia praseniis tenipnris in and, and, 
end, ind, ond, und, ynd ; preterit! vero in erf, c*f, 
id, od, ud, yd ; pro vario scilicet vel nvi vel loci 
dialecto.' Upon various other occasions also 
they used two or more vowels and diphthongs 
Indifferently ; and this not always from difference 
of age or place, because these variations are fre- 
quently fodnd in the same page. This will ac- 
count for the difference between the spelling and 
pronunciation of such anomalous words as busy 
and bury, now pronounced ns if written Wry and 
eery (the i and e having their common short 
sound), and formerly spelt indifferently with e, u, 
or y. n — Essay on the Harmony of Language*— 
Robson, 1774. 

419. There is a distinction in the sound c€ this 
letter, scarcely ever noticed by any of our writers 
on the subject, which is, in my opinion, of no 
small importance l and that is, the rough and 
smooth r. Ben Jonson, in his Grammar, says it ia 
sounded firm in the beginning of words, and more 
liquid in the middle and ends, as in rarer, riper j 
and so in the Latin. The rough r is formed by 
jarring the tip of the tongue against the roof of 
the mouth near the fore teeth : the smooth r is a 
vibration of the lower part of the tongue, near the 
root, against the inward region of the palate, near 
the entrance of the throat. This latter r is that 
which marks the pronunciation of England, and 
the former that of Ireland. In England, and par- 
ticularly in London, the r in lard, bard, card, re- 
gard, etc. is pronounced so much in the throat as 
to be little more than the middle or Italian a, 
lengthened into load, hand, caad, regaad ; while 
in Ireland the r, in these words. Is pronounced 
with so strong a jar of the tongue against the fore- 
part of the palate, and accompanied with such 
an aspiration or strong breathing at the beginning 
of the letter, a* to produce that harshness we call 
the Irish accent. But if this letter is too forcibly 
pronounced in Ireland, it is often too feebly 
sounded In England, and particularly in London, 
where It is sometimes entirely sunk ; and it may, 
perhaps, he worthy of observation, that, pro- 
vided we avoid a too forcible pronunciation of 
the r, when it ends a word, or is followed by A 
consonant in the same syllable, we may give as 
much force as we please to this letter at the he- 
ginning of a word, without producing any harsh- 
ness to the ear: thus Rome, river, rage, may have 
the r as forcible as in Ireland ; but bar, bard, 
card, hard, Ac. most have it nearly as soft as in 

429. As the former letter was a jar, this is a 
hiss i but a hies which forms a much more defi- 


nite and complete, consonant than the other. 
This consonant, like the other mutes, has a sharp 
and a flat sound ; the sharp sound is heard In the 
name of the letter, and in the words same, tin, 
this ; the flat sound is that of x, heard in is, his, 
was • and these two sounds accompanied by the 
asjiiiate, or h, form all the varieties found under 
this letter, 41. 

4*1. S ha* always its sharp hissing sound at the 
beginning of words, as soon, r'n, &c. and when it 
i in mediately follows any oflheshatp mutes,/,*, 
p, t, as scop's, blocks, hips; pits, or when il is add- 
ed to the iutite e after any of these letters, as 
strifes, flakes, pipes, mites. 

42*2. 3 in shut p and hissing at the end of the 
monosyllables jffs, this, us, thus, gas ; and at the 
end ot words of two or more syllables, 'if it be 
preceded by any of 'he vowels but e, and forms 
a distinct syllable : thus es in pipes and mites do 
not form a distinct syllable ; and as they are pre- 
ceded by a sharp mute, the s is sharp likewise : 
but in prices these letters form a syllable, and 
the s is pronounced like s, accord it\g to the ge- 
neral rule. 

4i3. The only exception to this rule is, the 
word* as, whereas, has, hit, was ; for bias, dowlas, 
Atlas, metropolis, basis, chaos, tripos, pas, chorus, 
Cyprus, Sec. nave the final * pronounced sharp 
and hissing. 

414. Agreeably to this rule, the numerous ter- 
minations in ous, as pious, superfluous, Sec. have 
the * sharp, and are pronounced exactly like the 
pronoun us ; and every double * In the language 
is pronounced in the same manner, except in the 
words dissolve, possess, and their compounds ; 
scissors, hussy, and hussar. 

445. 8 in the inseparable preposition dls, when 
either the primary or secondary accent is on it, 
3tt, is always pronounced sharp and hissing : the 
word dismal, which seems to be an exception, is 
not so in reality ; for, in this word, dls is not a 
preposition ; thus dissolute, dissonant, &c. with 
the primary accent on dis ; and disability, dis- 
agree, Ac. with the secondary accent on the 
same letters, have the * sharp and hissing ; but 
when the accent is on the second syllable, the s 
is either sharp or Hat, as it is followed either by 
a vowel, or a sharp or flat consonant : thus dis- 
able, disaster, disease, disinterested, dishonest, 
disorder, dlxuse, have all of them the * in dis flat 
like x, because the accent is not on it, and a 
vowel begins the next syllable ; but discredit, 
disfavour, dlsklndness, dispense, distate, have the 
s sharp and hissing, because a sharp consonant 
begins the succeeding accented syllable ; and 
disband, disdain, disgrace, disjoin, dis value, have 
the s flat like %, because they are succeeded by a 
flat consonant in the same situation, 435. 

420. S in the inseparable preposition mis is al- 
ways sharp and hissinir, whether the accent be 
on it or not ; or whether it be followed either by 
a vowel, or a sharp or flat consonant, as miscreant, 
misaim, misapply, misorder, misuse, misbegot, mis- 
deem, misgovern, dec. — See the prefix Mis. 

4*17. .V, followed by e in the final syllable of ad- 
jectives, is always sharp and hissing, as base, 
obese, precise, concise, globose, verbose,, 
putlcose, tcnebricose, corticose, jocose, oleose, t u~ 
rose, desldiose, close, sltlculose, catculose, tumu- 
lose, anlmose, vencno^e, arenose, sitiginote, crinnse, 
loose, operose, morose, edema tose, comafote, act lose, 
aqnose, slliqnose, actuate, diffuse, profuse, occluse, 
recluse, abstruse, obtuse, except wise and other- 
guise, and the pronominal adjectives these and 

#28. S, in the adjective tei mi nation sive, is al- 
ways sharp and hissing, as suasive, persuasive, 
assuasive, dissuasive, adhesive, cohesive, decisive, 
preclsive, incisive, derisive, rtcatrislve, vislve, 
plautlve, abusive, diffusive, infusive, inclusive, 
conclusive, exclusive, elusive, delusive, prelusive, 
allusive, illusive, collusive, amusive. obtrusive, Sec. 

419. It, in the adjectives ending in sory, is al- 
ways sharp and his<ing, as suasory, ptisuasory, 
derisory, derisory, delusory, Sec. 

4*10. The same muy be observed of s in the ad- 
jectives ending in some, as troublesome, Ac and 
substantives in oslty, generosity, Sec. 

4S1. He, preceded by the liquids I, n, or r, has 
the s sharp and hissing, as pulse, appulse, dense 
tense, intense, sense, perse, adverse, Sue. excet>i 


499. S has always its flat buszing sound, as i* 
may be called, when it immediately follows nny 
of the flat mutes b, d,g bard, or v, as ribs, heads, 
rags, sieves, 24. 

433. S is pronounced like s, when it forms ark 
additional syllable with e before it, in the plural s> 
of nouns, and the third person singular of verb* j 
even though the singulars and first persons erxft. 
in sharp hissing sounds, as asses, riches, cages, 
boxes, arc. : thus prices and priies have both the 
final * flat, though the preceding mute in the first 
word is sharp, 4*2. 

434. As s is hissing, when preceded by ajiquid, 
and followed by e mute, as transe, tense, Sec. ; so, 
when it follows any of the liquids withoufthe e, 
it is pronounced like x, as morals, means, seems, 
hers. In the same analogy, when s comes before, 
any of the liquids, il has the sound of x, as cos- 
met Ick, dismal, pismire, chasm, prism, theism m 
schism, and all polysyllables ending in asm, ism* 
osm, or ysm, as enthusiasm, Judaism, microcosm* 
paroxysm, Sec. 

435. S, in the preposition dis, is either sharp oa 
flat, as it is accented or unaccented, as explained, 
above ; but it ought always to be pronounced 
like x, when it is not under the accent, and is 
followed by a flat mute, a liquid, or a vowel, am 
disable, disease, disorder, disuse, disband, disdain, 
disgrace, disvatue, disjoin, dislike, dislodge, dis- 
may, dismember, dismount, dismiss, disnotured, 
dlsrank, disrelish, disrobe, 44$. Mr. Sheridan, 
and those orlhocpists who have copied him, seem, 
to have totally overlooked this tendency in the 
liquids to convert the * to % when this letter ends 
the first syllable without the accent, and the li- 
quids begin the second syllable with it. 

436. S is pronounced like s, in the monosyllables 
as, is, his, was, these, those, and in all plurals 
whose singulars end in a vowel, or a vowel fol- 
lowed by e mute, as commas, operas, shoes, aloes, 
dues, and consequently when it follows the u> or 
y, in the plurals of nouns, or the third person 
singular of verbs, as ways, betrays, news, views. 

437. Some verbs ending In se have the s like'*, 
to distinguish them from nouns or adjectives off 
the same form. 

Nouns. Verbs. 

grease to grease 

close to close 

house to house 

mouse to mouse 

louse to louse 

abuse to abuse 

Nouns. Verbs. 

excuse .... to excuse 
refuse .... to refuse 
diffuse ... to diffusa 

use to use 

rise to rise 

premise ... to premiss. 

438. Sy and sey, at the end of words, have the 
s pronounced like x, if it has a vowel before it, 
with the accent on it, as easy, greasy, queasy, 
cheesy, daisy, misy, rosy, causy, noisy ; but if the 
accent is on the antepenultimate syllable the s 
is sharp, as heresy, poesy. Sic. ; if a sharp mate 
precede, the * is sharp. *% tr*ckxy, tipsy ; if a li* 
quid precede, and the accent is on the penulti- 
mate syllable, the s is flat, as palsy, flimsy, 
clumsy, pansy, tansy, phrensy, quinsy, toisey, 
whimsey, malmsey, Jersey, kersey. Pursy has 
the s sharp and hissing from its relation, 
and minstrelsy and ■controversy have the ante- 
penultimate and preantepemikimate accent : thus 
we see why busy, bousy, tansy, and drowsy, have 
the s like s, and Jealousy the sharp hissing s. 

438. S, in the termination sibie, when preceded 
by a vowel, is pronounced like s, as persuastbls* 
risible, visible, divisible, infusible, condusibU 2 
but if a liquid consonant precede the s, the 9 
then becomes sharp and hissing, as sensible, re- 
sponsible, tensible, reversible, Sec. m 

440. .V, in the terminations sary and sory, is 
sharp and hissing, as dispensary, ad v er s a r y, 
suasory, persuasory, dadsory, iacisery, derisory, 
depul\ory, compulsory, incensory, compensory, 
suspensory, sensory, retponsory, cursory, discur- 
sory, lusory, elusory, delusory, illusory, coliusory. 

• Kvsary and misery, which have the s like s, are 
the only exceptions. 

441. S, in the termination ise, is pronounced 
like s, except in the adjectives before mentioned, 
and a few substantives, such as paradise, emits m 
rite, grist, verdigris* , mortise, trasist. 



♦tt. M 9 ha the terminations «ai and sel, when 
preceded by a vowel, is pronounced like z, as 
•at*J, omsrl, konsti, nousel, reprisal, proposal, re- 
fustt^ and sharp and hissing when preceded Ly a 
aNiwmaiii, as mental, universal, dec. 

443. «¥, in the terminations son, sen, and sin, is 
prooooneed like z, as reason, season, treason, car- 
fs.Mii, diapason, orison, benison, venison, denison, 
foisen, poison, prison, damson, crimson, chosen, 
resin, rosin, raisin, cousin* But the s in masin, 
Wim, garrison, caparison, comparison, parson, 
and person, is sharp ard hissing, 170. 

4*4. S, after the inseparable prepositions pre 
and pro, is sharp, as in pre sage, pre side, presidio I, 
preseance, pretention, prosecute, prosecution, pro- 
oodf, prosopopeia, but flat like % in presence, pre- 
maent, presidency, presume, presumptive, pre- 
su m p tion ; bat where the pre is prefixed to a 
word, which is significant when alone, the s is 
always sharp, as presuppose, pre surmise, &c. 

449. S, after the inseparable preposition re, is 
almost always pronounced like s, as resemble, re- 
sent, resentment, reserve, reservation, reservoir, 
residue, resident, residentiary, reside, resign, re- 
H gm m en t, resignation, resilience, resiliency, rest- 
biion. resin, resist, resistance, resolve, resolution, 
r e s o l ute, result, resume, resumption, resurrection. 

444. S is sharp after re in resuscitation, resupi- 
uation, me. and when the word added to it is 
significant by itself, as research, reslege, reseat, 
resurvey. Thus to resign, with the s like z, sig- 
nifies to yield up ; but to re-sign, to sign again, 
has the s sharp, as in sign : so to resound, to re- 
verberate, has the s like % ; bat to re-sound, to 
sound again, has the s sharp and hissing. 

447. Thos we see, after pursuing; this letter 
through all its combinations, how difficult it often 
is to decide by analogy, when we are to pro. 
Bounce it sharp and hissing, and when flat like s. 
In many eases it is of no great importance : in 
others, it is the distinctive mark of a vulgar or 
a polite pronunciation. Thus design is never 
heard with the * like * but among the lowest or- 
der of the people ; and yet there is not the least 
reason from analogy why we should not pro- 
nounce it in this manner, as well as in resign : 
the same may be observed of preside and desist, 
which have the * sharp and hissing ; and reside 
and resist, where the same letter is pronounced 
like i. It may, however, be remarked, that re 
has the * like s after it more regularly than any 
ether of the prefixes. 

44*. It may, perhaps, be worthy of observation, 
that though s becomes sharp or Mat, as it is fol- 
lowed by a sharp or flat consonant, or a liquid, 
u%cosmetlck, dismal, disband, disturb, Ac. yet if it 
follows a liquid or a flat consonant, except in the 
same syllable, it is generally sharp. Thus the s 
hi tubs, suds, Ac. is like s ; bat in subserve, sub- 
side, subsist, it is sharp and hissing : and, though 
it » flat in mbsolte, it is sharp in absolute aud ab- 
mlutitn ; but if a sharp consonant precede, the * 
is always sharp and hissing, as tipsy, tricksy: 
thus in the pronunciation of the word Glasgow, 
as the s is always sharp and hissing, we find the 
g invariably slide into its sharp sound k; and 
this word n always heard as if written Glaskotv. 
We see, therefore, that a preceding sharp con. 
sonant makes the succeeding * sharp, but not in- 

440. 8 is always sharp and hissing when follow- 
ed by e, except in the word discern, 

S aspirated, or sounding like *h, or zh. 

410. S, like its fellow dental t, becomes aspi. 
rated, and goes, either into the sharp -oiiud sh, or 
the flat sound %k, when the accent is o:i the pre- 
ceding vowel, and it is followed by a semi-enn- 
aanant diphthong, as nauseate, or a diphthongal 
vowel, as pleasure, pronounced nausheate and 
fUxMmre, 105. 

44 1. S, iu the termination sion, preceded by a 
vowel, goes into the flat aspiration xk, as evasion, 
eokesion, decision, confusion, pronounced evazhion, 
6c; but when it is preceded by a liquid, or an- 
other *. it has the sharp aspiration sh, as expulsion, 

sion, reversion, pronounced expulshion, 4c. 
The same may be observed of * before u : 

a rowel precedes the *, with the accent on 

tt, the * goes into the flat aspiration, as pleasure, 
r, rasmro pronounced pUshure, 


Sec, ; but when preceded by a flqafd, or another 
x, it is sounded sh, s> sensual, censure, tonsure, 
pressure, pronounced senshual, censhure, &c. 

453. Prom the clearness of this analogy, we 
may perceive the unpiopiiety of pronouncing 
Asia with the sharp aspiration, as if whiten 
Ashia ; when, by the foregoing rule, il ought un- 
doubtedly to be pronounced ■Kzh'ta, rhyming with 
Arpasia, euthanasia. Sec. with (he flat" aspimtion 
ot~ z. This is the Scotch pronunciation of tins 
word, aud unquestionably the true one : but if I 
mistake not, Persia is pronounced in Scotland 
with the same aspiration of s, and us if written 
Perzhla ; which is as contrary to analogy as the 
other is agreeable to it. 

454. The tendency of the s to aspiration before 
a diphthongal sound has produced several ano- 
malies in the language, which can only be de- 
tected by recurring to fust piinciplcs: for which 
purpose it may be necessary to observe, that the 
accent or stress naturally preserves the letters 
in their true sound ; and as feebleness naturally 
succeeds force, so the letter*, immediately after 
the stress, have a tendency lo slide into different 
sounds, which requite less exertion of the organs. 
Hence the omission of one of the vowels in the 
pronunciation of the lust syllable of fountain, 
mountain, captain, Sic. COS : hence the short- 
sound of i in respite, servile, &c ; hence the .t 
pronounced like z in disable, where the accent h> 
on the second syllable ; aud like s sharp and 
hissing in disability, where there is a secondary 
stress on the lirst sellable; and hence the dif- 
ference between the x in exercise, and that in 
exert ; the former having the accent on it, being 
pronounced cks, as if the word were written 
ecksercise ; and the latter without the accent, 
pronounced gz, as if the word were wiitten egzert. 
This analogy leads us immediately to discovet 
the irregularity of sure, sugar, and their com 
pounds, which are pronounced shure mid shugar, 
though the accent is on the fir*t syllable, aud 
ought to preserve the s without aspiration ; mid 
a want of attending to this analogy bus betrayed 
Mr. Sheridan into a series of mistakes in the 
sound of s in the words suicide, presume, resume, 
&c. as if written shoo-icide, pre-zhoom, re-zhovm, 
&c. : but if this is the true pronunciation of these 
words, it may be asked, why is not .suit, suitable, 
pursue, Sec. to lie pronounced shoot, shoot-able, 
pur-shoo t Sec. If it be answered, Custom ; 1 own 
this decides the question nt once. Let us only be 
assured, that the best speukers pronounce a like 
o, and that is the true piouunciation : but those 
who see analogy so openly violated, ought to be 
assured of the certainty of the custom before 
they break through all the laws of language to 
con form to it, CO, 71.— See Superable. 

455. We have seen, in a gieat variety of in- 
stances, the versatility of s, how frequently it 
slides into the sound of z: but my observation ' 
greatly fails me if it ever takes the aspiration, 
unless it immediately follows the accent, excep. 

in the words .rare, suzar, and their compounds; 
and these irregularities are sufficient, without 
adding to the numerous catalogue we have al- 
ready seen under this letter. 

454 The analogy we have just been observing 
directs us in the pronunciation of usury, usurer, 
and usurious. The two first have the accent on 
the first syllable, which permits the s to go into 
aspiration, as if the words were written uzhury 
and uzhurer : but the accent being on the second 
u in the last word, the s is prevented from going 
into aspiration, and is pronounced uzurious, 47'J, 

457. Thoneh the ss in passion, mission, Sec. be- 
long to separate syllables, as if spelt pax-si on, 
mission, &c. yet the accent presses the first into 
the same aspiration as the last, and they are both 
pronounced with the sharp aspirated hiss, as if 
they were but one jr.— See Exaggerate. 

459. S is silent in isle, island, aisle, demesne, 
puisne, viscount, and at the end of some words 
from the French, as pas, sous, vis a-vis ; and in 
corps the two last letters are silent, and the word 
pronounced core, 412. 


450. T is the sharp sound of D, 41 ; but though 
the latter is often changed Into the former, the 

PllOlfmfCtATIOH ti/9 TUB OOlfftOHAJfT T». 

former tkever goes tmo the latter. Hie sound to 
which this letter Is extremely prone is that of #. 
This sound of f has greatly multiplied the hissing 
in oar own language, and has not a little pro* 
mated it in matt modern tongues. That j> and b, 
t and d, k and g hard, $ and % should slide into 
each other, is not sarpristng, as they are dis- 
tinguished only by a nice shade of sound ; but 
tna' t should alter to * seems a most violent tran- 
sition, till we consider the organ ick. formation of 
these letters, and of those vowels which always 
occasion it. If we attend to the formation of /, 
we shall find that it is a stoppage ot the breath 
by the application of the upper part of the tongue 
near the end, to the correspondent part of the 
palate; and that if we just detach the tongue 
from the palate, sufficiently to let the breath pass, 
a hiss is produced which forms the letter*. Now 
the rowel that occasions this transition of t to * 
Is the squeezed sound of e, as heard in y con- 
sonant, 8 : which squeezed sound is a species of 
hiss ; and this hiss, from the absence of accent, 
easily slides into the *, and s as easily into sh : 
thus mechanically is generated that hissing termi- 
nation tion, which forms but one syllable, as if 
written shun, 199. 

400. But it must be carefully remarked, that 
this hissing sound, contracted by the t before 
certain diphthongs, is never heard but after the 
accent : when the accent falls on the vowel im- 
mediately after the t, this letter, like * or c in 
the same situation, preserves its simple sound : 
thns the c in social goes into sh, because the ac- 
cent Is on the preceding vowel ; but it preserves 
the simple sound of s in society, because the ac- 
cent is on the succeeding vowel. The same ana- 
logy is obvious In satiate and satiety ; and is per- 
fectly agreeable to that difference made by ac- 
cent in the sound of other letters, 71. — See 

491. As the diphthongs la, ie, to, or iu, when 
coming after the accent, have the power of draw- 
ing the t into sh, so the diphthongal vowel m, In 
tile same situation, has a similar power. If we 
analyse the u, we shall find it commence with 
the squeezed sound of e, equivalent to the con- 
sonant y, 30. ' This letter produces the small hiss 
before taken notice of, 459, and which may be 
observed in the pronunciation of nature, and 
borders so closely on na tshur, that it is no wonder 
Mr. Sheridan adopted this latter mode of spelling 
the word to express its sound. The only fault of 
Mr. Sheridan in depicting the sound of this wot d 
seems to be that of making the u short, as in bur, 
cur, Sec. as every correct ear must perceive an 
elegance in lengthening the sound of the u, and 
a vulgarity in shortening it. The true pronuncia- 
tion seems to lie between both. 

40s. But Mr. Sheridan's greatest fault seems to 
lie in not attending to the nature and influence 
of the accent: and because nature, creature, fea- 
ture, fortune, misfortune, Sec. have the t pro- 
nounced like ch, or tsh, as if written crea-chure, 
fea-tshure, Sec. he has extended this change of t 
into tch, or tsh, to the word tune, and its com- 
pounds, tutor, tutoress, tutorage, tutelage, tutelar, 
tutelary,. Ac. tumult, tumour. See. which he spells 
tshoon, tshoon-ebU, Sec. tshoo-tur,tshoo-triss,tshoo~ 
turAdxh, tshootelri&xh, tshoo-tel-er, tshoo-tel^er-y, 
4c. tshoo-mult, tshoo-mur, dec. Though it is evi- 
dent, from the foregoing observations, that as the 
u Is under the accent, the preceding t is preserved 
pure, and that the words ought to be pronounced 
as if written tewtor, teumult, tci.-mour, Ac. and 
neither tshootur, tshoomult, tshoomour, as Mr. 
Sheridan writes them, nor taotor, toomult, too- 
mumr, as they are often pronounced by vulgar 
speakers. — See Super able. 

403. Here, then, the line is drawn by analogy. 
Whenever t comes before these vowels, and the 
accent immediately follows it, the t preserves its 
simple sound, as in jiiltiades, elephantiasis, sa- 
tiety. Sec. ; hut when the accent precedes the t, 
it then goes into sh, tch, or tsh, as natshure or 
uatchure, na-shkm, vh^tshue or virtchue, patient, 
fee. or nashion, pashent, Sec. 404. In similar cir- 
cumstances the same may be observed of d, as 
arduous, hideous,' Sec. *93, 294, 370. Nor is this 
tendency of f before long u found only when the 
accent immediately precedes ; for we hear the 
same aspiration of this letter in spiritual, spiritu- 
ous, signature, ligature, forfeiture, as if written 

r avvw^w, «V** wmmtu^nrmm. SOgUMMOnWrO, tqgUfSMUrW^ 

teitshure, etc. where the accent ij two syllable* 
'before these letters ; and the only termination, 
which seems to refuse this tendency of the t to 
aspiration is that in tude, as latitude, longitude* 
multitude. Sec. 

494. This pronunciation of t extends to every 
word where the diphthong or diphthongal sound, 
commences with i or e, except in'the terminations 
o( verbs and adjectives, which preserve the simp to 
iu the augment, without suffering the t to go into 
the his«ing sound, as I pity, thou pltiest, he pities, 
or pitied, Mightier, worthier, ttrentitth, thirtieth* 
Sec. Tins is agreeable to the general rule, which 
forbids the adjectives or verbal terminations to 
alter the sound of the primitive veib or noon.— 
Sec No. 381. Rut in the words bestial, ceiestlat, 
frontier, admixtion,Scc.where the*,*, or m precedes) 
the t, this letter is pronounced likp tch or tsh, in- 
stead of sh, 291, as bestvhial, celes-tchiul, J'rou- 
tcheer, admlx-tchion, Stc. ; as alto when the t is 
followed by eou, whatever letter precede, as 
righteous, piteous, plenteous, Stc. pronounced 
rlgh'tcheous, pit-cheous, plen-rchcous, Sec The 
same may he observed of t when succeeded by 
uou, as unctuous, presumptuous, Sec. pronounced 
ujig-tvhuous, presump-tchuous, Sec — bee the 


405. Tli is lisping sound, as it may be called, i* 
almost peculiar to the English, 41, SO, 400. The 
Greek was certaiply not the sound we give It : 
like its principal letter, it has a sharp and a flat 
sound ; but these are so little subject to rule, that; 
a catalogue will, perhaps, be ihe best guide. 

400. Th, at the beginning of words, is sharp, as 
In thank, think, Sec. except iu the following 
words: This, that, than, the, thee, their, them, 
then, thence, there, these, they, thine, thlthtr, 
those, thou, though, thus, thy, and their cons- 

407. Th, at the end of words, is sharp, as death, 
breath t Sec. except in beneath, booth, with; audi 
the verbs to wreath, to loath, to uncloath, mseeth^ 
to smooth, to sooth, to mouth: all which ought to 
be written with the e Una I ; not only to distin- 
guish some of them from the nouns, but to show 
that th is soft; for though th, when final, is some- 
times pronounced soft, as in to loath, to mouth. 
Sic. yet the at the end of words is never pro- 
nounced hard. There is as obvious an analogy 
for this sound of the th in these verbs as for the 
x sound of s in verbs ending in sr, 4*7 ; and why 
we should write some verbs with e, and others 
without it, is inconceivable. The best way to 
show the absurdity of our orthography, in this 
particular, will be to draw out the nouns and 
verbs as they stand in Johnson's Dictionary. 

Adjccthas sad Moans. Yeibs. 

breath, to breathe. 

wreath, .... to wreaifi, to in m reu tht. 

loath to loathe. 

doth to cioathe, to uncloath. 

bath, to bathe. 

smooth, to smooth. 

mouth, to mouth. 

awaih, to swathe. 

sheath,. . . . {todtaiffci, 
sooth, to sooth. 

Surely nothing can be more evident than the aim. 
logy of the language in this case. Is it not ab> 
sard to hesitate a moment at writing all the verbs 
with the e final T This is a departure from oar 
great lexicographer, which he himself wonts! 
approve, as nothing but inadvertency could have 
led him into this unmeaning irregularity. — It may 
not be improper to observe here, that those sub- 
stantives which in the singular end * ith th sharp, 
adopt the th flat in the plural, as path. paTffs $ 
bath, baTHs, Sec. Such a propensity, is there to 
slide into the flat sound of s, that we frequently 
hear this sound in the genitive case, as My wioe*e 
portion, for say wife's portion. In the fcame man- 
ner we hear of paying so much for hou%e rent and 
taxes, instead of house-rent and taxes , and shop, 
keepers tell us they have goods of all prims, *>. 


•f k9 jwluj. Nay, tome tn to fir n to 
rtie frtural vf truth, truTxfs ; but Hri» 
be earffwliy * voided. 

4A. 1% Is hstrd in the middle of words, either 
vneo ft precedes or fallows a consonant, as won- 
aav, nepenthe, orthodox, orthography, orthoepy, 
Shnmrt, ulkmvrt, ethnick, misanthrope, phUanthro- 
■*. Ac. excepi brethren, farthing, farther, north- 
ern, worthy, burthen, murthcr, where the th is 
tat; bat the Two last words arc better written 
tor*** and sraraVr. 

•05, f% between two vowel* fs generally soft in 
words purely English, sa father, feather, heathen, 
Utter, thither, whither, whtther, either, neither, 
weather, wether, wither, gather, together, pother, 

4J5. Th between two vowels, 4n words from the 
leaned lanajnages, is generally hard, as apathy, 
asasOf, amttpatky, Athens, atheist, anthentiek, 
author, authority, alhirst, cathartick, cathedral, 
catholic*, emtmtter, ether, *tkicks, lethargy, Lethe, 
ttouttkmw. tUhawge, lithotomy, mothesis, mathema- 
thtks, •method, ymthetiek, piethorm, polymaths, pre- 
m " -imrthema, omelhyst, theatre, amphU 

47L 7* ta 

;K*tiat«8 pronounced like simple t, 
m, Okyma, Thames, asthma, phthisis, 
, p h t h itiv m i, and is silent in twafthtide. 
— ' maPotfUao. 

T silent. 

T is sitem whein preceded by s, and fbl- 
by tbe abbreviated terminations en and le, 
— , chmxten, fasten, listen, glisten, christen, 
which are pronounced as if written 
Ac, ; m bursten the t is heard : so 
trtstte, wrestle, thistle, whistle, 
. grtstie, jostle, apostle, throstle, 
\J*stie, rustle, arc pronounced as if written 

eoMtku awtale. 4k 

-• » 




— . w — , ... r the t is prononnced ; 

often, fastem, and soften, the / is silent, and at 
e end of aevvrai words from tlw French, as 
, f*arf {tautt*),, eclat. In the first of these 
* the * b<giws to be pronounced ; in the last, 
has been sometimes heard ; bat in the second, 
ver. Tempet ts more frequently written toupee, 
m s% therefore net irregular. In biltet-d ux the 
■ silent, m well as in hamthoy. The same si- 
nce of r may be observed in the English words 
Christmas* chwstmut, mortgage, ostler, bankruptcy, 
and m the second sy liable of mistletoe. In car- 
tas* and cetrrvntf the f is always mute.— See 
Mas, MS, mu\ 485. 


471. V m fiat /, and hears the same relation to 
n as • does top, d tot, bard g to A, and at to #,41. 
k ts never ftrregalar ; and ft ever silent it is in 
the word twetoemonth, -where both that letter and 
the e are, in colloquial pronunciation, generally 
staff nd , as if written twetmonth. 

W initial* 

hfL That w at the beginning of a word Is a con. 
•ansae has been proved already, 0, 50. It is 
always silent before r, as in wrack, wrangle, 
avap, wrath, wreak, wreath, wreck, wren, wrench, 
•vast, wrestle, wretch, wiggle, wright, wring, 
ormhU, wrist, write, writhe, wrong, wrought, wry, 
emry, bewray; and before h and the vowel o, 
nken long, as whole, who, Ac. pronounced hole. 
ass, he. 

475. W before h Is pronounced as If it were 

after the A, a* hoo-y, why, hoo-en, when. Ac. ; but 

■i raalr, whoop, &c. the single and double o co- 

Ifcacmg with the same sound in w, this last letter 

h scarcely perceptible. In swoon, however, this 

tater is always heard; and pronouncing it soon 

h vatgar. In sword and answer it is always silent. 

la law it miogles with its kindred sound, and the 

anaher two is pronounced like the adverb fop. 

hthe prepos it ions toward and towards, the w is 

tMsnsed, as if written toard and toards, rhyming 

** haavat and hoards ; but in the adjectives and 

•*5*s tsasarrf and towardly, froward and fro- 

•ardfelhe ar Is heard distinctly. It is sometimes 

jftyatd In the last syllable of awkward, as if 

•aaaa awdarrf; but this pronunciation is vulgar. 

4T5. X Is a letter eomposed of those which have 
been already considered, and therefore will need 
hot little discussion, 4S, 51. It is flat or sharp 
like Its component letters, and is subject to the* 
same laws. 

477. X has a sharp sound like ks, when h ends 
a syllable with the accent apon it, "as exercise, 
excellence, Ac. or when the accent h ou the next 
syllable, if it begiu with a consonant, as excuse, 
expense, Ac. 71. * 

478. X has its flat sound like gt when the ac- 
cent m noton it, and the following syllable having 
the accent begins with a vowel, as exert, example, 
exltt, &c. pronounced egxert, egzamvle, cgztst, Ac. 
The sanie sound may be observed if h follow, as 
in exhibit, exhale, Ac. prononnced egzhtbit, egthale : 
but if the seeoiKlary accent be on the * in tbe po- 
lysyllable exhibition, exhalation, Ac. this letter is 
then sharp, as in exercise, 71 : but hi compound 
words, where the primitive ends hi *, this letter 
retains its primitive sound, as fixation, taxation 
vexation, oexatious, relaxation, Ac. ; to which we 
may add the simples in our language, doxolegy 
and proximity ; so that this propensity of itj 
become egz, seems confined to the inseparable 
preposition. * 

470. X, like *, is aspirated, or takes the sound 
of A after it, only when the accent in before it: 
hence the diflerence between luxury and luxurU 
ous ; anxious and anxiety : in the true pronuncia- 
tion of which words nothing will direct as but 
recurring to first principle*, k was observed that 
*is never aspirated, or pronounced like /A, but 
when the accent is on the preceding syllable. 
4M ; and that when the accent is on ti>e succeed- 
ing vowei, fehongh the s freftnentiy Is pronoanoed 
Uke a, st ts never sounded *h: from which pre. 
mises we may conclude that luxury and tuxurU 
owe ought to be pranounced imckohury and hsgaw- 
Tr u i!* md not tugehu-ryus, as Mr. »lwridanspeMa 
i * ^ me erroor r * n » through his pronnncia* 
lion of all the compounds, luxuriance, luxuriant, 
luxuriate, Ac. which unquestionably ought to be 
pronounced lugzu-ri**Hce, ivg^m^ri-ant, 4ssr-aa> 
rl-ate, Ac. in four sy!4abh?s, and not ha three only, 
as they are divided in his Dictionary. 

460. The same principles wrll lead as to decide 
in the words anxious and anxieta: as the accent is 
belote the x in the first w«>rd, it is naturally divi- 
sible imo ankshms, and as naturally pronounced 
ankshns ; but as the accent is after the * in the 
second word, and the biasing sound cannot be 
aspirated, 455, it must neressaiily be pronounced 
angxiety. But Mr. Sheridan, without any regard 
to the component letters of these words, or the 
different position of the accent, has not only 
spelled them without aspiration, but without let* 
ting the *, in the composition of the last word, 
go into % ; for thus they stand m bis JHctionarv l 
mnk-syus, <mk~si-e-ty, 455. J 

451. The letter x, at uhe beginning of words, 
goes into t, as Xerxes, Xemophon, Ac. pronooneed 
SSer.kses, Zenovhon, Ac. ; it is silent at the end of 
the French billet-doux, and pronooneed like e hs 
beaux; often and better written beams. 


Y initial. 

488. y, as a consonant, has always the name 
sound ; and this has been sufficiently described in 
ascertaining its real character, 40 ; when H is a 
vowel at the end of a word or syllable with the 
accent upon it, it is sounded exactly like the first 
sound of i, as cy-der, ty-rrmt, reply, Ac. ; bat at 
the end of a word or syllable, without the accent, 
it is pronounced like the first sound oft, Ubertm. 
fury, tenderly, Ac. " 


485. Z is tlte flat #, and bears the same relation 
to it as b does to j>, d to t, hard g to k, and v to f. 
Its common name is ixzard, which Dr. Johneon 
explains into s hard ; if, however, this be the 
meaning, it is a gross misnomer : for the s is net 
the hard, but the soft *•: but as it has a less 

* S rofe » or w * rd » n»eaking of the reason for 
doubling the » at the end ot words, savs, M s 


sharp, end therefore not eo audible a sound, tt it 
not impossible but it may mean s surd. Zed, 
borrowed from the French, as the more fashion- 
able name of this letter ; but, in my opinion, not 
to be admitted, because the names of the letters 
ought to have no diversity. 

464. Z, like s, goes into aspiration before a 
diphthong, or a diphthongal vowel after the ac- 
cent, as is heard in vizier, glazier, grazier, &c. 
prone anced vlzli-i-er, glazh-i-er, grazh-i-er, &c. 
The same may be observed of azure, r azure, &c. 

485. Z'\% silent in the French word rendezvous ; 
and is pronounced in the Italian manner, as if t 
were before it, in mezzotint o, as if written met- 
sot into. 

Thus have we. endeavoured to exhibit a just 
idea of the principles of pronunciation, both with 
respect to single letters, and their various com- 
biuations into syllables and words. The attentive 
reader must have observed how much the sounds 
of the letters vary, as they are differently asso- 
ciated, and how much the pronunciation of these 
associations depends upon the position of the ac- 
cent. This is a point of the utmost importance, 
and a want of attending to it has betrayed seve- 
ral ingenious men into the grossest absurdities. 
This will more fully appear in the observations 
on accent, which is the next point to be con- 


480. The accent of the ancients is the oppro- 
brium of modern criticism. Nothing can show 
more evidently the fallibility of the human fa- 
culties than the total ignorance we are in at pre- 
sent of the nature of the Latin and Greek ac- 
cent*. This would be still more surprising if a 
phenomenon of a similar kind did not daily pre- 
sent itself to our view. The aecent of the Eng- 
lish language, which is constantly sounding in 
onr ears, and every moment open to investigation, 
seems as much a mystery as that accent which 
is removed almost two thousand years from oar 
view. Obscurity, perplexity, ana confusion, run 
through every treatise on the subject, and no- 
thing could be so hopeless as an attempt to ex- 
plain it, did not a circumstance present itself, 
which at once accounts for the confusion, and 
afford* a clew to lead us out of it 

487. Not one writer on accent has given us such 
a definition of the voice as acquaints us with its 
essential properties : they speak of high and low, 
loud and soft, quick and slow ; but they never 
once mention that striking property which dis- 
tinguishes speaking from singing sounds, and 
which, from its sliding from high to low, and 
from low to high, may not improperly be called 
the inflection of the voice.. No wonder, when 
writers left this out of the account, that they 
should blunder about the nature of accent : it 
wns impossible they should do otherwise ; so par- 
tial an idea of the speaking voice must neces- 
sarily lead them into errrmr. But let us once di- 
vide the voice into its rising and falling inflec- 
tions, the obscurity vanishes, and arcent becomes 
as intelligible as any other part of language. 

488. Keeping this distinction in view, let ns 
compare the accented syllable with others, and 
we shall find thin general- conclusion may be 
drawn ; " The accented syllable is always louder 
than the rest; but when it has the rising inflec- 
tion it is higher than the preceding,.- and lower 
than the succeeding syllable; and when it has 

doubled retains its proper force, which, when 
single at the end of words, is softened into z, as 
Ms, hiss." And Dr. Wallis tells us, that it is al- 
most certain when a noun has s hard in the last 
syllable, and becomes a verb, that in the latter 
case the s becomes soft, as a house is pronounced 
with the hard s, and to house with the s soft 

• See Observations on the Creek and Latin 
Accent and Quantity at the end of the Key to 
the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and 
Scripture Proper Names. 

the falling in flection tt is pronoenced higher as 
well as louder than the other syllables, either 
preceding or succeeding." The only exception 
to this rule is " when the accent is on the last 
syllable of a word which has no emphasis, mid 
which is the concluding word of a discmir»e." 
Those who Wish to see this clearly den.oitsiiaU'd 
may consult Elements of Elocution, second eiii. 
tiou, page 181. On the present occasion ic will 
be sufficient to observe thai the sirens we call 
accent is as well understood as is necessary lor 
the pronunciation of single words, winch is the 
object of this treatise ; and therefore, consult! >ng 
accent merely as stress, we shall proceed to uuike 
some remarks on its proper position in a hoi d, 
and endeavour to detect some errouis in the use 
and application of it. 

The different Positions of the English Accent. 

489. Accent, in its very natnre, implies a com- 
parison with other syllables less forcible, hence 
we may conclude that monody I bibles, properly 
speaking, have no accent : when they are com. 
b'ned with other .monosyllables, and form a 
phrase, the stress which is laid upon one, in pie- 
ference to others, is called emphasis. As em* 
phasis evidently points out the most significant 
word in a sentence, so, where other reasons do 
not forbid, the accent always dwells with great- 
est force on that pait of the word which, ftom 
its importance, the hearer has always the great- 
est occasion to observe ; and this is necessarily 
the root, or body of the word. But as harmony 
of termination frequently attracts the accent 
from the root to the branches of word*, so the 
first and most natural law of accentuation seems 
to operate less in fixing the stress than atiy of the 
other. Our own Saxon terminations, indeed, with 
perfect uniformity, leave the principal part of 
the word in quiet possession of what seems its 
lawful properly, 601 ; but Latin and Greek ter- 
minations, of which our language is full, assume 
a right of preserving their original accent, and 
subjecting many of the words they bestow upon 
ns to their, own classical laws. 

400. Accent, therefore, seems to be regulated, 
in a great measure, by etymology. In words 
from the Saxon the accent is generally on the? 
root ; in words from the learned languages it is 
generally on the termination ; and if to these we 
add the different accent we lay on some words, 
to distinguish them from others, we seem to have 
the three great principles of accentuation ; name- 
ly, the radical, the terminaiional, and the djs 

Aecent on Dissyllables. 

491. Every word of two syllables has neces- 
sarily one of them accented, and but one. It ia 
true, for the sake of emphasis, we sometimes lay 
an equal stress upon two successive syllables as 
dl-rect, some-times ; but when these words are 
pronounced alone they have never more than 
one accent. For want of attending to this dis- 
tinction, some writers have roundlv asserted 
that many dissyllables have two accents, kucIi as 
convoy, concourse, discord, shipwreck : in which 
and similar instances, they confound the disl 
linclness, with which the latter syllables are ne- 
cessarily pronounced, with accentual force • 
though nothing can be more different. Let iia 
pronounce tjie last syllable of the noun torment 
as distinctly as we please, it will siill Le very 
different, with respect to force, from the same 
syllable in the verb to torment, where the accent 
is on it ; and if we do but carefully watch our 
pronunciation, the same difference will appear 
in every word of two syllables throughout the 
language. The word Amen is the onlv word 
which is pronounced with two consecutive ac- 
cents when alone. ^"^ 

4W. There is a peculiarity of accentuation in 
certain words of two syllables, which are both 
nouns and verbs, that is not unworthy of notice * 
the nonns having the accent on the first *\ liable 
and the verbs on the last. This seems" an in! 
stinctive effort in the language (if the expression 
will be allowed me) to compensate in some mea- 
sure for the want of different terminations ft* 



ftew eilertat puti "of apeeeJt •• The words 
vfcies admit of this diversity of accent are the 




i llli .mi 
















to mmgmint 

to bombard 




to co mpact 


to co m p rise 

to concert 

to concrete 

to conduet 

to confine 

lo conflict 

to conserve 

to consort 

\x* contest 

to contract 

to contrast 

to convent 





to desert 

to ditrfntnt 












to descant 
to digest 
to essay 
to export 
to extract 
Xo exile 
to frequent 
to incense 
to insult 
to object 
to perfiane 
to permit 
to prefix 
to present 
to produce 
to project 
to protest 
to rebil 
to record 
io subject 
to eurviy 
io torment 
to trajict 
to transfer 
to transport 
to attribute. 

4W. To this analogy some speakers are endea- 
miring to reduce the word contents ; which, 
vfcen It signifies the matter contained in a book, 
a often beard with the accent on the first syl- 
lable ; but though this pronunciation serves to 
dtttiRfateh words which are different in signifi- 
carina, sad to give, in some measure, a difference 
of form id the noon and verb, in which oar 
to«f»« » remarkably deficient, still it is doubt- 
ful whether this distinction be of any real ad- 
vantage to the language.— See BowL This diver- 
wty of accentuation seems to have place in some 
eoanfKNMid verb*-— See C oun t erbalance and the 
ntaeqoeol wards. 

•*. Sometimes words have a different accent, 
u they are adjectives or substantives. 

sagas!, the month 
eump ec t 

tnamptngn-, wine 
telle, banishment 
gallant, a lover 

ijetant, a place 
minute of time 
supine, In grammar 

august, noble 

champaign, open 
exile, small 
gallant, bold 

levant, eastern 
mknkte, small 
supine, indolent. 

•5. Sometimes the same parts of speech have 
i different accent to mark a difference of signi- 

M/Sef, a blow ouffit, a cupboard 

10 Cd a2Sc , k to *"**] conjure, to entreat 
dtcert, a wilderness desert, merit 
Holster, insidious sinister, the left side. 

9 It is not improbable that the verb, by re- 
cehnag a participial termination, has inclined us 
lo stoaounee that part of speech with an accent 
starer the end than we do the noun : for though 
*e can without any difficulty pronounce the verb 
vah the accent on the noon, we cannot so easily 
jnuMDce the participle ana the adverb formed 
nw it with that accent : thus we can pronounce 
to transport with the accent on the first syllable ; 
hit not so easily transporting and transportingly. 
nm is a solid reason for the distinction, and 
sstjbt to induce us where we can to observe it. 
I n po ttkf and to s e pu l chre seem tc require it.— 
** the word. 

400. In this analogy some speakers pnmoonre 
tho word Ooneordance with the aoeeut on the flr*i 

Sr 11 able, when it signifies a dictionary of the 
ible ; and with the accent on the second, when 
it signifies agreement : bnt, besides that there la 
not the same reason for distinguishing nouns from 
each other as there is noons from verbs, the 
accent on the first syllable of the word Concord- 
once gives a harshness and poverty to ita sound 
which ought to be avoided. 

497. But though the different accentuation of 
nouns and verbs of the same form does not ex- 
tend so far as might be expected, it is certain 
that in words of two syllables, where the noun 
and verb are of different forms, there is an evi- 
dent tendency in the language to place the accent 
upon the first syllable of the noun, and on the 
last of the verb. Hence the nouns outrage, up- 
start, and uproar, have the accent on the first 
syllable ; and the verbs to uplift, to uphold, and 
to outstrip, on the last. 

408. This analogy will appear still more evi- 
dent if we attend to the accent of those nouns 
and verbs which are compounded of two words* 
Every dissyllable compounded of words which, 
taken separately, have a meaning, may be deemed 
a qualified substantive ; and that word which qua* 
lines or describes the other is that which most 
distinguishes it, and consequently is that which 
ought to have the accent : accordingly we find 
that inkhorn, outrage, chairman, freehold, sand* 
box, book-case, pen-knife, have the accent on the 
first syllable, which is the specifying part of the 
word ; while gainsap, foresee, overlook, undersell, 
have the accent on the last syllable, which is the 
least distinguishing part of the word. This rule, 
however; is, either by the caprice of custom or 
the love of harmony, frequently violated, bat is 
sufficiently extensive to mark the general tend- . 
ency of the language. Akenside brings the verb 
to commen t under this analogy : 


The sober seal 

" Of age, commenting on prodf gioos things." 
Pleasures of the Imagination. 

And Milton 
commerce • 

in the same manner the verb to 

" And looks commercing with the skfes, 

" Thy rapt soul sitting in thine eyes."-/* Ptuterose. 

400. Something very analogous to this *w* find 
in the nouns we verbalize, by changing the s 
sharp of the noun into the s fiat, or % of the verb, 
437, as a use, and to use; where we may remark, 
that when the word in both parts of speech, is a 
monosyllable, and so not under the laws of ac- 
cent, the verb, however, claims the privilege of 
lengthening the sound of the consonant when it 
can, as well as when it cannot, prolong the ac- 
centuation : thus we not only find grass altered 
to graze, brass to brass, glass to glaze, price to 
prise, breath to breathe, Ac. but the eon sharp 
altered to the s flat in advice to advise, excuse to 
excuse, device to devise, tec. The noon adopting 
the sharp hissing sound, and the verb the soft 
buzzing one, without transferring the accent from 
one syllable to another. The vulgar extend this 
analogy to the noun practice and the verb to' 
practise, pronouncing the first with the i short 
and the c like sharp s, as if written practtss, and 
the last with the 4 long and the * like *, as if 
written practize;' but Correct speakers pronounce 
the verb like the noon ; that is, as if written proe*> 
tiss. The noon prophecy and the verb to prophesy 
follow this analogy, only by writing the noun 
with the c and the verb with the s, and without 
any difference of sound, except pronouncing the 
y in the first like e, and. in the last like I long; 
where we may still discover a trace of the tend- 
ency to the barytone pronunciation in the noun, 
and the oxytone in the verb, 407.— See Appendix. 
900. This seems to be the favourite tendency of 
English verbs; and where we find it crossed if 
is generally in those formed from nouns, rather 
than the contrary : agreeably to this, Dr. Johnson 
has observed that, though nouns have often the 
aceent on the latter, yet verbs have it seldom on 
the former syllable ; those uount which, in the 
common order of language, must have preceded 
the verbs, often transmit thu accent to the verba 




they form, and inversely: thus the noun water 
must have preceded the verb to SMtfer, as the 
T«rb to correspond must have preceded the noon 
correspondent; and to pursue must claim priority 
to pursuit. So that we may conclude, whenever 
verb* deviate from this role, it it seldom by 
chance, and generally in those word* only where 
a superior law of accent takes place. 

Accent on Trisyllables. 

601. As words increase in syllables, the more 
easily is their accent known. Nonas sometimes 
acquire a syllable by becoming; plural ; adjectives 
increase a syllable by being compared; and 
verbs by altering their tense, or becoming parti- 
ciples : adjectives become adverbs by adding If 
to them ; and prepositions precede nouns or verbs 
without altering the accent of the word to which 
they are prefixed : so that, when once the accent 
of dissyllables is known, those polysyllables, 
whose terminations are perfectly English, have 
likewise their accent invariably settled. Thus 
lion becomes lioness ; poet, poetess s polite becomes 
pettier, or politely, <" even polite tier; mischief, 
mischievous; happy, happiness; nay, lioness be- 
comes lionesses; mischief, mischievousness ; and 
service, serviceable, servicesMeness, servieeably, 
and unserviceable, without disturbing the accent, 
cither on account of the prepositive un, or the 
subjunctives able, able, and aoieness. 

cOt. Hence we may perceive the glaring ab- 
surdity which prevails even in the first circles: 
that of pronouncing the plural of princess, and 
even the singular, with the accent on the second 
syllable, like success and successes; for we might 
just as well say dutchiss and dutchisses as prfes. 
ctss and princesses; nor would a correct ear be 
less hurt with the latter than with the former. 

60S. So few verbs of three syllables follow the 
analogy observable in those of two, that of pro- 
tracting the accent to the last syllable, that this 
economy seems peculiar to dissyllables: many 
verbs, indeed, of three syllables, are compounded 
of a preposition of two syllables : and then, ac- 
cording to the primary law of formation, and not 
the secondary of distinction, we may esteem them 
radical, and not distinctive : such are contradict, 
intercede, supersede, contraband, circumscribe, su- 

Crscribe, &c. while the generality of words end- 
g in the verbal terminations ise and ize retain 
the accent of the simple, as criticise, tyrannise, 
modernise, &c. : and the whole tribe of trisyllable 
verbs in ate, very few excepted, refuse the accent 
on the last syllable : but words of three syllables 
often take their accent from the learned lan- 
guages from which they are derived ; and this 
makes it necessary to inquire how far English 
accent is regulated by that of the Greek and 

On the Influence of the Greek and Latin Accent on 
the Accent of English Polysyllables. 

(a) As our language borrows so largely from 
the learned languages, it is not wonderful that its 

Sronuneiation should be in some measure in- 
uenced by them. The rule for placing the Greek 
accent was, indeed, essentially different from that 
of the Latin ; but words from the Greek, coming 
to as through the Latin, are often so much la- 
tinised as to lose their original accent, and to fall 
into that of the Latin; and It is the Latin accent 
which we most chiefly regard as that which in- 
fluences our own. . 

(6) The first general rule that may be laid down 
is, that when words come to us whole from the 
Greek or Latin, the same accent ought to be pre- 
served as in the original: thus horizon, sonorous, 
decorum, dictator, gladiator, mediator, delator, 
spectator, adulator, Ac. preserve the penultimate 
accent of the original ; and yet the antepennlu- 
mate tendency of our language has placed the 
accent on the first, syllable of orator, senator, 
auditor, cicatrix, plethora, Ac. in opposition to 
the Latin pronunciation of these words, and 
would have infallibly done the same by abdomen, 
bitumen, and acumen, if the learned had not 
stepped in to rescue these classical words from 
the invasion of the Gothic accent, and to preserve 
the stress inviolably on the second syllable : nor 
has even the interposition of two consonants been 

always able to keep the accent from moanttng up 
to the antepenultimate syllable, as we may see iu 
minister, sinister, character, etc. ; and this may 
be said to -be the favourite accent of onr lan- 
guage—Sec Miscellany. 

(c) But, notwithstanding this prevalence of the) 
antepenultimate accent, the general rule still 
holds good ; and more particularly in words ay 
little removed from common usage, such as terms 
in the art* and sciences: these are generally of 
Greek original; but, coming to us through the 
Latin, most commonly con ct the Latin accent 
when adopted into onr language. This will ap- 
pear plainly by the following lists : and, first, let 
us select some where the Greek and Latin accent* 
coincide 1 







protasis, ■ 







(d) Another list will show us where the accents 
of these languages differ : 





wapa*4mnm t 




winwot pay p 










aiTlg f M W f, 

avafaikm ets , 


•wi oW i u t a . 





In this list we perceive the peculiar tendency 
of the Latin language to accent the long penulti- 
mate vowel, and that of the Greek to pay no re- 
gard to it if the last vowel is short, but to place 
the accent on the antepenultimate. It will, bow- 
ever, be easily perceived that in this case we 
follow the Latin analogy : this analogy will ap- 
pear more evident by a list of words ending in 
osis, where, though the o in the penultimate syl- 
lable is the omega, the Greek accent is on the? 
antepenultimate t 

WepeapKuwa, «varro)i*w, 

avoflsWtr, em & eBpm+ts, 

yfo+mett, &4pvjpemt, 

turafi6p$*eit, ajiavpamr, 

nemnSpfmc t t, awoteeitsne, 

wap a Ox t tmeit, emoH&omen* 

This analogy has led us to accent certain words 
formed from the Greek, where the omega was not 
in the penultimate of the original, in the same 
manner as those words where this long vowel was 
found: such as Exostosis, formed from m and 
Srnw, SynneurosU from «w and wStx, ftc This 
tendency therefore has sufficiently formed an 
analogy; and since rules, however absurdly 
formed at first, are better than no rules at all, it 
would, in my opinion, be advisable to consider 
every word of this form as subject to the penul- 
timate accent, and to look upon apotheosis and 
metamorphosis as exceptions. 

(e) The next rule we may venture to lay down 
as a pretty general one is, that if the words de- 
rived from the learned languages, though angli- 
cised by altering the termination, contain the 
same number of syllables as in the original lan- 
guages, the&are generally to be pronounced with 
the same accent : that is, with the same accent 
as the first person present of the indicative mood, 
active voice; or as the present participle of. the 
same verb. The reality of this rule will bert ap- 
pear by a selection of such classes of words as 



a* equal mabir of syllables in both Ian- 

) Wort* which have m hi the penultimate 

if J w 



*ou%*ilent t 




Ib the* moil class of words wo flod all but the 
first have a different accent in English from 
that of the Latin. The rule for placing the ac- 
cent in that language being the simplest in the 
"1 : if the penoromate syllable is long, the 
t is on it ; if shorty the accent is on the an- 

(l) Words which have « in. the penultimate 






aiieno, | 


In this class wo find the penultimate e accent* 
ed ia English as in Latin, except in the three 
last words. The word alienate departs from the 
Latin accentuation by placing the stress on the 
first syllable, as If derived from the English noun 
The « in mnetr* is either long or short in 
, and in this case we generally prefer the 

short sound to the long one 
fhj Words which have 4 

b e ne fi cent^ 

in the penultimate 




/ijT in n ssi M , 

ot nr/ so M », 


E^^w^mwe^B^ w sweT • 

dejktent, • 




















In the torego fa g list of words we find a very 
general coincidence of the English and Latin ac- 
except In the last eleven words, where we 
rt from the Latin accent on the penultimate, 
place it on oar own favourite syllable the an- 
tepenelrJmate. These last words most therefore 
"be ranted as exceptions. 

(i) Words which have • in the penultimate 
syllable : 





































In this list the difference of the English «nd 
Latin accent is considerable. The six last words 
desert the Latin penultimate for the English an- 
tepenultimate accent, and condolence falls into an 
accentuation diametrically opposite. 

(k) Words which have u in the penultimate 
syllable : 





























Here we find the general rule obtain, with, per 
haps, fewer exceptions than in any other 
class. Adjuvate, peculate, and indurate, are the 
only absolute deviations ; for obdurate has the 
accent frequently on the second syllable.— Aee 
the word. 

fl) To these lists* perhaps, might be added the 
English words ending in tion, Hon, and Iff .» for, 
though tion and tie* are really pronounced in 
one syllable, they are by almost all our orthoe- 
pists generally divided into two ; and consequent* 
ly nation, pronunciation, occasion, evasion, tee, 
contain the same number of syllables as natte, 
pronunciatio, eccasio. evash, &c. and have the 
accent, in both English and Latin, on the ante, 
penultimate syllable* The same may be observed 
of words ending in itp, as diversity, variety, fte. 
from diver sitae t varietat, &c. 

(m) By this selection (which, though not an 
exact enumeration of every particular, is yet a 
sufficient specimen of the correspondence of La* 
tin and English accent) we may perceive that 
there is a general rule running through both 
languages, respecting the accent of polysyllables, 
which is, that when a single vowel in the penul- 
timate is followed by a single consonant, the ac- 
cent is on the antepenultimate. This is so agree- 
able to English analogy, that in words derived 
from the J»tin, where the penultimate vowel, 
followed by a single consonant, is long, and con 
sequently has the accent, we almost always ne 

fleet this exception, as it may be called, in the 
ntin language, and fall into our own general rale 
of accenting the antepenultimate. Nor is it un- 
worthy of being remarked, that when we neglect 
the accent of the original, it is almost always to 
place it at least a syllable higher ; as adjacent 
and condolence are the only words in the whole 
selection, where the accent of the English word 
is placed lower than in the Latin. 

(n) There is, indeed, a remarkable coincidence 
of accent between Latin verbs of three syllables, 
commencing with a preposition, and the .English 



woids of two syllable*, derived from them, by 
dropping a syllable •, as excello, rebcllo, inquire, 
confino, confute, c o nsum e, destro, explore, precede, 
preelamo, have the accent in Latin on the second 
syllable ; and the English verb* eretl, rebel, in- 
quire, confine, confute, consume, desire, explore, 
proceed, proclaim, have the accent, on the same 
syllable. This propensity of following the Latin 
accent in these words, perhaps, in this, as well as 
in other cases, formed a general rule, which, at 
last, neglected the Latin accent, in words of this 
kind ; as we find prefer, confer, defer, desert, tom- 

Kre, complete, congeal, Wivide, dispute, prepare, 
ve the accent on the second syllable, though 
prafero, defere, confer o, destro, compiro, compteo, 
congelo, divido, dispute, prmparo, have the accent 
on the first : and this propensity, perhaps, laid 
the foundation of that distinction of accent which 
is so remarkable between dissyllable nouns and 
verbs of the same form. 403. 

(o) Bat, when English polysyllables are derived 
from the Latin by dropping a syllable, scarcely 
any analogy is more apparent than the coincidence 
of the principal accent of the English word, and 
the secondary accent, 033, we give to the Latin 
word, in the English pronunciation of it. Thus 
parsimony, ceremony, matrimony, melancholy, Ac. 
have the accent on the first syllable, because, in 
pronouncing the Latin words parsimonia, cmre- 
monia, matrtmonio, melancholia, Ac. we are per- 
mitted, and prone in onr English pronunciation 
of these words, to place a secondary accent on 
that syllable.— See Academy, Irreparable. Ac. 

(p) With respect to the quantity of the ante- 
penultimate syllable in polysyllables, it may be 
observed, that; regardless of the quantity of the 
original, we almost, without exception, follow the 
analogy of our own language. This 'analogy uni- 
formly shortens the vowel, unless- it be u, follow- 
ed by a single consonant, or any other vowel fol- 
lowed by a single consonant, succeeded by a 
sem inconsonant' diphthong : thus the first * in 
dubious is pronounced long, though short in the 
Latin word dhbtus: the 'same may be observed 
, of the e and o in' mSdium and emporium : and the 
' first i in delirium, and the first « in delicate, are 
pronounced short in English, accoiding to our 
own analogy, 50F, though these letters are long 
in the . Latin delirium and deltcatus. For the 
quantity of English dissyllables derived from the 
Greek and Latin, see Syllabication, Noa. MS, 544, 

' Teminational Accent . 

504. We have seen that the Saxon terminations, 
regardless of harmony, always leave the accent 
where they found it, let the adventitious syl- 
lables be ever so numerous. The Saxons, atten- 
tive chiefly to sense, preserved the same simpli- 
city in the accentuation as in the composition of 
their words ; and, if sense were the only object 
of language, it must be confessed that our an- 
cestors were, in this respect, superior to the 
Greeks and Romans. What method could so ri- 
gidly preserve and so strongly convey the sense 
of words, as that which always left the accent 
on the root, where the principal meaning of the 
word undoubtedly lies f But the necessities of 
- human nature require that our thoughts should 
not only be conveyed with force, but with ease ; 
to give language its due effect, it most be agree- 
able as well as forceful ; and the ear must be ad- 
dressed while we are informing the mind. Here, 
then,terminational accent, the musick of language, 
interposes ; corrects the discordant, and strength- 
ens tne feeble sounds ; removes the difficulty of 
pronunciation which arises from placing the ac- 
cent on initial syllables, and brings the force 

• Ben Jonson seems to have had a faint idea of 
this coincidence, where he says, " all verbs com- 
ing from the Latin, either of the supine or other- 
wise, hold the accent as it is found in the first 
person present o( those Latin verbs, as annuo, 
animate. cSlebre, cilebrate ; except words com- 
pounded otfaclo, as lique-facio, liquefy ; and of 
statue, as constitute, constitute.*'— English Gram- 
ir ar. Of the extent and justness of these observa 
Uoiti the ciitica iveder will be the beat judge. 

gently down to the latle* part of the word, where 
a cadence is formed, on the principles of hat* 
mony and proportion. 

505. To form an idea of the influence of termi- 
nation upon accent, it will be sufficient to observe, 
that words which have ei, la, ie, io, earn, in their 
termination, always have the accent on the pre- 
ceding syllable ; thus atheist, alien, regaliq, am- 
brosia, Ac. the numerous terminations iu ion, ion, 
Ac. as gradation, promotion, confusion, logician, 
physician, Ac. those in ious, as harmonious, ab- 
stemious, Ac. those io eous, as outrageous, advan- 
tageous, Ac. These may not improperly be styled 
semi-consonant diphthongs, 190. 

506. The only exceptions to this rule are one 
word in iac, as elegiac, which has the accent on 
the i, and the following words in iacal, as pro- 
sodiacal,cardlacol,heliacal,gencthllacal, maniacal* 
demoniacal, ammeniacal, theriacal, paradisiacal, 
aphrodlsiacal, and hypochondriacal ; all which 
have the accent on the antepenultimate i, and 
that long and open, as in idle, title, Ac. 

507. Nothing can be more uniform than the po* 
sition of the accent In words of these terminations s 
and, with very few exceptions, the quantity of 
the accented vowel is as regular as the accent , 
for when these terminations are , preceded by a 
single consonant, every accented' vowel is long, 
except i i which, in this situation, is as uniformly- 
short : thus occasion, adhesion, erosion, and con- 
fusion, have the a, e, e, and u, long ; while visUm 
and decision have the i short. The same may be 
observed of probation, concretion, devotion, ablu- 
tion, and exhibition. The exceptions are, impe- 
tuous, especial, perpetual, discretion, and battalion, 
which last ought to be spelt with double I, as 'in 
the French, from which it is derived, and then 
it would follow the general rule. National, and 
rational, form two more exceptions ; and these 
are almost the only irregularities to which these 
numerous classes of words are subject. 

'508. Nearly the same uniformity, both of ac- 
cent and quantity, we find in words ending in tr. 
The accent immediately precedes this termina- 
tion, and every vowel under this accent but u is 
short : thus Satanic, pathetic, elliptic, harmo- 
nic, Ac. have the accent on the penultimate, and 
the vowel short ; While tunic, runic, and cubic, 
have the accented vowel long. 

500. The same may be observed of words end- 
ing in teal, ss fanatical, poetical, levitical, canoni- 
cal, Ac. which have the accent on the antepenul- 
timate syllable, and the vowels e, i, and o, short ; 
but cubical and musical, with the accent on the 
same syllable, have the u long. 

510. The only exceptions to this rale are arsenic, 
choleric, ephemeric, turmeric, empiric, rheto- 
ric, bishopric (better written bishoprick, see 
No. 400), lunatic, arithmetic, splenetic, here" 
tic, politic, and, perhaps, phlegmatic ; whlch- 
though more frequently heard with the accent 
on the antepenultimate syllable, ought, if pos- 
sible, to be reduced to regularity. Words ending 
in scence have uniformly the accent on the pen- 
ultimate syllable, as quiescence, reminiscence, 
Ac. ; concupiscence, which has the accent on the 
antepenultimate, is the only exception. 

511. In the same manner, if we take a view of 
the words ending in ity, we find the accent Inva- 
riably placed on the preceding syllable, as in 
diversity, congruity, Ac. On a closer inspection 
we find every vowel in. this antepenultimate sel- 
lable, when no consonant intervenes, pronounced 
long, as deity, piety, Ac. A nearer inspection 
shows us, that, if a consonant precede this ter- 
mination, the preceding accented .vowel is short, 
except it be u, as severity, curiosity, impunity, 
Ac.: we find, too, that even si contracts- itself 
before two consonants, as in curvUv, taciturnity, 
Ac. and that scarcity and rarity (signifying tin 
commonness ; for rarity, thinness, has the a short) 
are the only exceptions to this rule throughout 
the language. The same observations are appli- 
cable to words ending in \fy, as Justify, c **r<ifv, 
Ac. The only words where the antepenultimate 
accent in words of this termination does not 
shorten the vowel are glorify and not\fy. The u 
in these words is always long, like the first sound 
of I ; and both accent and quantity are the same 
when these words take the additional syllable 
able, as justifiable, rarefimble, Ac. ISO. 

513. To these may be added the numerous class 



ending In aroms, erons, and 
wucjj fc r e a w, and h um o r ous; all wbkh 
the accent on the antepenultimate syllable, 
canorous and sonorous; which some un- 
rholar happening to pronounce with the 
>nt on the pennttlmate syllable. In order to 
■jw their derivation from the Latin adjectives, 
and soman*, they stand like strangers 
a crowd of similar words, and are sure to 
betray a mere English scholar into a wrong pro- 

To polysyllables in these terminations might be 
added those m oMve, atory, ctivc, Ac; words 
ewdiag, in atiee can never have the accent on the 
pnmlthnate syllable, if there is a higher syllable 
V. place it on, except in the word creative ; and 
when this is the case, as it is seldom otherwise, 
the accent seems to rest on the root ot the word ; 
or on tfeat syllable which has the accent on the 
amass, adjective, or verb, with.whtch the word in 
atom corresponds : thus copulative, estimative, oi- 
tmstfite, Ac. follow the verbs to copulate, to esti- 
mate, to alter, dec. When- derivation does not 
operate to fix the accent, a double consonant will 
ftiiract it to the antepenultimate syllable, as ap- 
f*Uatiee; and two consonants have sometimes 
tin* power, in opposition to derivation, as adver- 
sative and arg u m enta tive, from adverse and argu- 
meat. Indicative and interrogative are likewise 
exceptions as they do not follow the verbs to 
Imdicutt and interrogate -• but, as they are gram- 
matical terms, they seem to have taken their 
accent from the secondary accent we sometimes 
give to the Latin words indications and interro- 
gatioe, (see the word Academy)* Words ending 
ia arm, cry. or off, have generally the accent on 
the root of the word ; which, if it consists of three 

SfHaMea, mast necessarily be accented on the 
r*t, as contrary, treachery, factors, Ac. ; if of 
ftmt or five, the accent is generally on that syl- 
lable whkrh has the accent in the related or kin- 
dred words; thus, expostulatory has the accent on 
the same radical syllables as expostulates and 
congratulatory, a* congratulate: interrogatory and 
derogatory are exceptions here* as in the ternii- 
natum otive ; and if pacificators, sucrUicatory *, 
sig nifica tory, vesicatory, &c, have not the accent 
on the first syllable, it seems to arise from the 
aversion we seem to have at placing even the 
secondary accent on the antepenultimate a 
(which we should be very apt to do if the prin- 
cipal accent were on the first syllable), ana the 
dimcnlty there would be in pronouncing such 
long words with so many unaccented syllables 
at the end, if we were to lay the accent on the 
first. Words ending in dive have the accent re- 
galariy on the penultimate syllable, except ad* 
jeetioe, which, like indicative, being a grammati- 
cal word, seems to have taken its accent from the 
secondary stress of the Latin adjecttvus (see 
Academy); and every word ending in tive, pre- 
ceded by a consonant, has the accent on the 
penultimate syllable likewise, except substantives 
and, perhaps, for the reason jast given. After 
alt, it mast be owned that word* ending in ative 
and atory are the most irregular and desultory of 
any in the language; as they are generally ac- 
cented very far from the end, they are the most 
difficult to pronounce ; and therefore, whenever 
asage will permit, we should incline the stress as 
moeh as possible to the latter syllables: thus 
r ef r a c t or y ought never to have the accent on the 
first syllable ; but refectory, with the accent on 
the first, ia a school term, and, like substantive, 
adjective, indicative, and interrogative, must be 
left ia quiet possession of their Latin secondary 

SnclUieal Accent* 

•Is. I have ventured to give the name of tncU- 

• These words ought certainly to be accented 
alike; and accordingly we find Dr. Johnson, Mr. 
Sheridan, Mr. Barclay, and Mr. Smith, place the 
accent on the second syllable; but though Pen- 
ning accents rtgnijumtery in the same manner, he 
places the accent on the antepenultimate of paci- 
Juatory;nnd Kenrick likewise accents the second 
syllable of significatory, but the first of pacifica- 
tory: the other orthoepista who have not got these 
watts have avoided these iaconsisteucies. 

tical to the accent of certain words, whose let mi-' 
nations are formed of such words as seem to lose 
their own accent, and throw it back on the hut 
syllable of the word with which they coalesce, 
such as theology, orthography, &c. The' readiness 
with which these words take the antepenultimate 
accent, the agreeable flow of sound to the ear, 
and the unity it preserves in *Jie sense, are suffi- 
cient proofs of the propriety of placing the accent 
on this syllable, if custom were ambiguous. I do 
not remember to have heard the accent disputed 
in any word ending in oiogy ; but orthography is 
not unfrequently pronounced with the accent on 
the first syllable, like orthodoxy. The temptation 
we are under to discover our knowledge of the 
component parts of words is very apt to draw us 
into this pronunciation ; hut as those words which 
are derived from the Greek, and are compounded 
of fcsyor, have universally given into this enclitical 
accentuation, no good reason appears for prevent- 
ing a similar pronunciation in those compounded 
of yfodm , as by placing the accent on the ante- 
penultimate syllable the word is much more 
fluent and agreeable to the ear. It is certain, 
however, that at first sight the most plausible 
reasoning in the world seems to lie 'against this 
accentuation. When we place the accent on the 
first syllable, say our opponents, we give a kind 
of subordinate stress to the third syllable graph : 
by which means the word to divided into its pri- 
mitives cf$i< and ndtyv, and those distinct ideas it 
contains are preserved, which must necessarily 
be confounded by the contrary mode ; and that 
pronunciation of compounds, say they, most cer- 
tainly be the best which best preserves the im- 
port of the simples. 

514. Nothing can be more specious than this 
reasoning, till we look a little higher than lan- 
guage, and consider its object ; we shall then dis- 
cover, that in uniting two words under one 
accent, so as to form one compound term, we do 
but imitate the superior operations of the mind, 
which, In order to collect and convey knowledge, 
unite several simple ideas into one complex one. 
** The end of language," says Mr. Locke. " is by 
short sounds to signify with ease and despatch 
general conceptions, M-herein not only abundance 
of particulars are contained, but also a great 
variety of independent ideas are collected into 
one complex one, and that which holds thes* dif- 
ferent pftrts together in the unity of one complex 
idea is the word we annex to it." For, as Mr. 
Locke continues, " Men. in framing ideas, seek 
more the convenience or language and quick dc- 

Satch by short and comprehensive sign* than 
e true and precise nature of things ; and there- 
fore he who has made a complex idea ol a body 
with life, sense, and motion, with a faculty of 
reason joined to it, need but use the short mono- 
syllable, man, to express all particulars that cur- 
respond to that complex idea." So it may be 
subjoined, that, in framing words for the purpose 
of immediate communication, the end of this 
communication is best answered by such u pro- 
nunciation as unites simples into one compound, 
and at the' same time renders the compound as 
much a simple as possible : but it is evident that 
this is done by no mode of accentuation so well 
as that which places the accent on the antepenul- 
timate syl lable of the words theblogy, orthography ; 
and therefore that this accentuation, without in- 
sisting on its superior harmony, must best answer 
the great end of language, 918. 

51ft. This tendency in our language to simplify 
compounds is sufficiently evident in that nume- 
rous catalogue of words, where wc find the long 
vowel of the simple changed into a short one in 
the compound, and by this means losing much of 
its original import to the ear : thus breakfast, 
shepherd, vineyard, meadow, shadow, tealous, 
hearken, valley, cleanse, cleanly (neat), forehead, 
wilderness, bewilder, kindred, hinder, knowledge, 
darling, fearful, pleasant, pleasure, whitster, whit 
leather, seamstress, stealth, wealth, health, wis 
dom, wizard, parentage, lineage, children, pasty 
gMltojg, collier, holiday, Christmas, Michaelmas 
windlass, cripple, hinder, stripling, starling, house 
wife, husband, primer, peascod, fieldfare, OirU 
from bear, dearth from dear, weary from wear 
and many others, entirely lose the sound of tl 
simple in their compound or derivative. 

510. The long i in while, when a simple, is al 


most universally changed Into a short one 1n 

£ roper names, M Whitchurch, Whltefield, Whit- 
read, WhHlock, Whltaker, Ac. for compendious- 
ness and despatch being next in importance to 
perspicuity, when there is no danger of mistake, 
it is no wonder that the organs should fall into 
the shortest and easiest sounds. 

417. It mast, however, be observed, that this 
tendency to unite simples into a compound, by 
placing an accent exactly where the two words 
coalesce, is still subservient to the laws of har- 
mony. The Greek word fcxiw, which signifies to 
3 pine, and from which the last syllables of ortho- 
oxy are derived, was never a general subjunctive 
word like \oyo< and itoepu) and even ff it had been 
so, the assemblage of consonants in the letter x 
would have prevented the ear from admitting an 
accent on the syllable immediately preceding, as 
the x would, by this means, become difficult to 
pronounce. Placing the accent, therefore, on the 
first syllable of orthodoxy* gives the organs an 
opportunity of laying a secondary stress upon the 
thud, which enables them to pronounce the whole 
with distinctness and fluency : thus Galaxy and 
Cachexy, having the accent on the first syllable, 
are very difficult to pronounce ; but this difficulty 
is removed by placing the accent a syllable 
higher In the words apoplexy, ataraxy, and ano- 

6ltt. But the numerous classes of words that so 
readily adopt this enclitical accent sufficiently 
prove it to be agreeable to the genius of our pro- 
nunciation. This will more evidently appear by 
adducing examples. Words In the following ter- 
minations have always the accent on that syl- 
lable where the two parts unite, that is, on the 
antepenultimate syllable : 

In logy, as apology, ambilogy, genealogy, Ac. 

In graph*, as geography, orthography, historic 

graphy, ice. 


In phagus, as sarcophagus, Ichthmophagus, 

phagus, Ac. 
In Coquy, as obloquy, soliloquy, ventriloquy, ice. 
In strophe, as catastrophe, apostrophe, anastrophe, 

In meter, as geometer, barometer, thermometer, 4c. 
In gonal, as diagonal, octagonal, polygonal, Ac. 
In vorous, as carnivorous, granivorous, piscivo- 
rous, Ac. 
In ferous, as baccifcrous, cocclferous, somniferous, 

In Jluons, as superfluous, mellifluous, fell\fluous, 

In fluent, as mellifluent, circumfluent, Interfluent, 

In vomoas, as tgnlvomouSfflammlvomous, Ac. 
In parous, as viviparous, oviparous, deiparous, ice. 
In cracy, as theocracy, aristocracy, democracy, ice. 
In gony, as theogony, cosmogony, hexagony, ice. 
In phony, as symphony, cacophony, colophony, Ac. 
In machy, as theomachy, logomachy, sciomachy, Ac. 
In nomy, *» economy, astronomy, 
In tomy, as anatomy, lithotomy, arteriotomy, Ac. 
In scopy, as metoposcopy, deuteroseopy, aeroscopy, 

In pathy, as apathy, antipathy, idiopathy. Ac. 
In mathy, as opslmathy, polymathy, ftc. Ac. Ac. 

519. Some of these Greek compounds seem to 
refuse the antepenultimate accent, for the same 
reason as orthodoxy ; such as necromancy, chiro- 
mancy, hydromancy; and those terminating in 
urchy, as hierarchy, oligarchy, patriarchy t all of 
which have the accent on the first syllable, which 
gives the organs time to recover their force upon 
the third, and to pronounce the two consonants 
with much more ease than if the accent imme- 
diately preceded them ; but periphrasis and antU 
phrasfs. besides their claim to the accent of their 
originals, readily admit of the accent on the se- 
cond syllable, because the consonants in the two 
last syllables do not come together, and are 
therefore easily pronounced after the accent. 
Words of more than two syllables ending in ague, 
as pedagogue, dialogue, Ac. have the accent on 
the antepenultimate. Orthoepy, having no con- 
sonant in the antepenultimate syllable, naturally 
throws its accent on the first. — See Monomachy. 

OTO. By this view of the enclitical terminations 
we may easily perceive how readily our language 
fells into the antepenultimate accent in these 

compounded polysyllables; and that tnosa ter- 
minations which seem to refuse this accent, do 
it rather' from a regard to etymology than ana- 
logy : thus words ending in asis, mo periphrasis* 
apophasis, hypostasis, antlperistasis, Ac. have the* 
antepenultimate accent of their originals. The* 
same may be observed of those ending in esis, aa 
hypothesis, antithesis, parenthesis, ice. ; but exe— 
gesis, mathesis, auxtsis, catachresis, paracentesis* 
aposiopesis, have the accent on the penultimate 
syllable, because the vowel in this syllable is 
long in Greek and Latin. But all words ending 
in osis have the accent on the penultimate, ex- 
cept metamorphosis and apotheosis, which desert 
the accent of their Latin originals, while those in 
yois are accented regularly on the antepenulti- 
mate in Greek, Latin, and English, as analysis, 
paralysis, ice. We may note, loo, that every * in 
all these terminations is sharp and bissing.~-See 
the words Exostosis and Apotheosis. 

9XL Words of three syllables ending in ator 
have the accent on the penultimate, as spectator* 
collator, delator, Ac. except orator, senator, lega- 
tor, and barrator. Bat words in this termination , 
of more than three syllables, (hough they have- 
generally the accent on the penultimate, are sol*, 
ject to a diversity not easily reduced to the rule : 
thus navigator, propagator, dedicator, Ac. are 
sometimes pronounced with the accent on the 
first syllable, and sometimes on the third : but as 
these words may be pronounced with an accent 
on both these syllables, it is of less consequence 
on which syllable we place the accent when we 
use only one, 088. The general rule certainly 
inclines to the penultlnjate accent ; but as all 
these words are verbal nouns, and, thongh gene- 
rally derived from Latin words of the same ter- 
minations, have verbs corresponding to .them in 
our own language, it is very natural to preserve 
the accent of the verb in these words, as it gives 
an emphasis to the most significant part of them : 
thus equivocator, prevaricator, dedicator, might 
be regularly formed from the verbs to equivocate, 
to prevaricate, and to dedicate ; and, agreeably to 
analogy, would have been written equivocater, 
prevaricator, fcnd. dedicator ; but an affectation of 
preferring every analogy to our own has given 
these words a Latin termination, which answers 
no purpose but to involve our language in absur- 
dities : bat the ear, in this case, is not quite so 
servile as the eye ; and though we are obliged to 
write these words with or, and not er, we gene- 
rally hear them pronounced as if they were form- 
ed from our own verbs, and not from Latin noons 
in ator. But when the word has no verb in oar 
own language to correspond to it, the accent to 
then placed with great propriety upon the a, as 
in Latin : thus violator, instigator, navigator, Ac. 
ought to have the accent on the first syllable ; 
and emendator, gladiator, adulator, Ac. on the 
last bat one. 


Hitherto we have considered that accent 
only which necessarily distinguishes one syl. 
fable in a word from the rest j and which, with 
▼*nrjlttle diversity, to adopted by all who speak 
the English language. 

MS. The secondary accent is that stress we may 
«£<^tonally place upon anothei syllable, besides 
that which has the principal accent, in order to 
pronounce every part of the word more distinct- 
ly, forcibly, and harmoniously. Thus this accent 
may be pla ced on the first syllable of convert*- 
tion, commendation, Ac* 

0M. There are few authors who have not taken 
notice of two accents upon some of the longer 
polysyllables, bat none have once hinted that 
one of these is not essential to the sound tit the 
word : they seem to have supposed both accents 
equally necessary, and without any other differ, 
ence than that one was pronounced more forcibly 
than the other. This mistake arose from a want 
of studying the speaking voice. A knowledge of 
this would have told them that one accent only 
was essential to every word of more than one 
syllable, and that the secondary stress might, «r 
might not, be adopted, as distinctness, force, or 
harmony, should require : thus complaisant, 




., mrtUm*, 

have frequently an ae« 

eaten the im as well as on the third syllable, 
issejh a s om e what lea* forcible one. The same 
aeyee absctvcd of repartee, referee, privateer, 
, ; bol is must still he observed, that, 
reenl ha allowable on the first syl* 
hate of these words, it is by no means necessary ; 
nwy map all bo pronounced with one accent, and 
tsatoa the test syllable, without the least de* 
nation from propriety. 

JaV la order to give some idea of the nature 
af the secondary accent, let as suppose that, in 
gfrmg ear opurioa of an astro n o m ical argument, 
we say, 

• lib a direct demonstration of the Copernlcan 

h this sentence, as an accent is necessarily upon 
the last syllable of direct, we seldom lay a stress 
sa the first syllable of demonstration, unless we 
■can to he uncommonly emphatical ; but in the 

awewsag sentence, 

• ft b a dameaauition of the Copernican system," 

saw. ts no accented word precedes demonstra- 
am, the voice finds a rest, and the ear a force, 
■ p la c in g an accent on the first as well as on 
las third syllable. 

ML But thoogh we may, or may not, use the 
Mcemhuy accent at pleasure, it Is by no means 
s sutler of hadrfference on what syllable we 
it: this Is Used with as much certainty as 
the principal accent Itself; and a 
m of one would as much derange 

tat place of 

rae mend of site word as a wrong position of the 
ether: and it mast be carefully noted that, though 
ve lay no stress upon the syllable which may 
save the secondary accent, the consonants and 
vowels have exactly the same sound as if the 
evabtfal syllable (as It may be called) were ae- 
rated. Thus, though 1 lay no stress upon the 
stcead syllable of negotiation, pronunciation, ec- 
ekskutick, Ac the c and * go into the sound of 
at and sa, as if the secondary accent were on the 
prrcedfaig syllable, SOT, 451. 499. 

JtT. It may be observed, in the first place, that 
the secondary accent is always two syllables, at 
tea*, distant from the principal accent : thus in 
aenmutroHon, lamentation, provocation, &c. the 
sseaadary accent is on the first syllable, and the 
arfeemal on the third ; and in arteriotomy, me* 
tmrslajy, and hypochon dr ia c al, the secondary ae- 
on* Mon the first, and the principal on the fourth 
syllable ; and in the word indivisibility we may 
puce two secondary accents, one upon the first, 
sad the other on the third. 

Ms, fa the next place it may be observed, that 
though the syllable on which the principal ac- 
eeat b placed hi fixed and certain, yet we may, 
isd do frequently, make the secondary principal, 
sad the principal secondary : thus caravan, com- 
plaisant, aeafaa, repartee, referee, privateer, domt- 
am*, eomrUtmn, artisan, charlatan, may all have 
the greatest stress on the first, and the least on 
the last syllable, without any violent offence to 
tat ear : nay, it may be asserted, that the princi- 
pal accent n« the first syllable of these words, and 
son* at all oa the last, thoogh certainly impro- 
ver, has nothing in it grating or discordant ; but 
pacing an accent on the second syllable of these 
awes would entirely derange them, and produce 
as intol era ble harshness and dissonance. The 
nme observations may be applied to demo ns fra- 
tries, provocation, navigator, propa- 
lar, and erorj similar word in the 
But, as we have observed, No. Mo, 
— ■ 1 , litis t, a\ c, and s, after the secondary 
accent, are exactly under the same predicament 
m after the primary ; that is, if they are followed 
sy a diphthong or diphthongal vowel, these con- 
are pronounced like eh, t$h t xa, or J, as 
" ufmrUaUtf, Ac. fitt. 


■a\ fa treating this part of pronunciation, it 
*H »t be necessary to enter into the nature of 

that quantity which constitutes poetry ; the 
quantity here considered will be that which re- 
lates to words taken singly ; and this is nothing 
more than the length or shortness of the vowels, 
either as they stand alone, or as they are differ 
ently combined with vowels or consonants, 03. 

550. Quantity, in this point of view, has already 
been fully considered under every vowel and 
diphthong in the language. What remains to be 
said on this subject is, the quantity of vowels un- 
der the secondary accent. We nave seen that 
vowels, under the principal accent, before the 
diphthongs ia, ie, eon, ion, are all long, except 1, 
507 ; that all vowels are long before the termi- 
nations ity and eta, as deity, piety, &c. 511 ; that 
if one or more consonants precede these termi 
nations, every preceding accented vowel, except 
the a in scarcity and rarity, signifying uncora- 
monness, is short but u : and that the same ana- 
logy of quantity is found before the terminations 
ic and teal, and the numerous enclitical termina- 
tions we have just been pointing out. Here we 
find custom conformable to analogy ; and that 
the rules for the accent and quantity of these 
words admit of scarcely any exceptions. In other 
parts of the language, where custom is more ca- 
pricious, we can still discover general rules ; and 
there are but very few words in which the qnan- 
tity of the vowel under the principal accent is 
not ascertained. Those who have' but a common 
share of education, and are conversant with the 
pronunciation of the capital, are seldom at a loss 
for the quantity of the vowel under that accent 
which may be called principal ; but the second- 
ary accent in the longer polysyllables does not 
seem to decide the quantity of the vowels so in- 
variably. Mr. .Sheridan divides the words deglu- 
tition, depravation, degradation, dereliction, and 
democratical, into de-glu-ti-tion, de-pra-va-tion 
de-gra-da-tion, de-re-lic-tion, and de-mo-crat-i-cal, 
while Dr. Kenrick more accurately divides them 
into deg-lu-ti-tion, dep-ra-va-tlon, deg-ra^da-tion, 
and dem-o-crat-i-eal ; but makes not any distinc- 
tion between the first in profanation and profane, 
prodigality and prodigious, prorogation and pro- 
rogue, though he distinguishes tins letter in the 
first syllable of progress and that in progression : 
and though Mr. Sheridan divides retrograde into 
tet-ro-grade, he divides retrogradation, retrogres- 
sion, retrospect, retrospection, and retrospective, 
into re-tro-gra-da-tion,re-tro-gres-sU>n, retrospect, 
re-tro-spec-tion, and re-tro-spec-tive. At the first 
sight of these words we are tempted to prefer the 
preposition in a distinct syllable, as supposing that 
mode to convey more distinctly each part of the 
word ; but custom at large, the best interpreter 
of nature, soon lets us see that these prepositions 
coalesce with the word they are prefixed to for 
reasons greatly superior to those which ptesent 
themselves at first, 514. If we observe the ten- 
dency of pronunciation, with respect to insepar 
able prepositions, we shall find, that those com 
pound words which we adopt whole from other 
languages we consider as simples, and pronounce 
them without any respect to their component 
parts ; but those compounds which we form our- 
selves retain the traces of their formation in the 
distinction which is observable between the pre- 
positive and radical part of the word : thus re- 
trograde, retrogression, retrospect, and retrospec- 
tive, coming compounded to us from the Latin, 
ought, when the accent is on the preposition, to 
shorten the vowel, and unite It to the root, as in 
rc+urrec-tion, rtc-ot-lec-tion, prep-o-sit-ten, Sec. ; 
while re-commit, re-convey, *e. being compounds 
of our own, must preserve it separate* 

0SI. Prom what has been observed arises thai 
general rule : where the compound retains the 
primary sense of the simples, and the paits of the 
word are the same in every respect, both in and 
out of composition, then the preposition is pro- 
nounced in a distinct syllable; but when the 
compound departs ever so little from the literal 
sense of the simples, the same departure is ob- 
servable In the pronunciation ; hence the dif 
ferent syllabication and pronunciation of re com- 
mence and rec-om-mtnd; the former signifies a 
repetition of a commencement, but the latter does 

not imply a repetition of a commendation : thus 
re-petition would signify to petition again ; while 

rep-etitum signifies only an iteration of the same 

act, be it what ft, will. The same may be observed 



trf the word* recreate and rec-reati, reforma- 
tion and rof-ormatum. 

53S. That this is perfectly agreeable to the no- 
tare of the language appear* from the short pro- 
nunciation of the vowel in the first syllable of 
preface, prelate, prelude, prologue, Ac. as if di- 
vided into preface, prelate, prelude, prologue, 
Ac. It is much to be regretted, however, that 
this short sound of the penultimate vowel has so 
much obtained in our language, which abounds 
too much in these sounds ; nor can etymology be 
always pleaded for this pronunciation ; for in the 
foregoing words the first vowel is long in the 
Latin prafatio, pralatus % pr*iud\um, though short 
in prologus. 'for though in words from the Greek 
the prejiositibn «yo was short, in Latin it was ge- 
nerally long ; and why we should shorten it in 
progress, project, &c. where it is long in Latin, j 
can only be accounted for by the superficial ap- 
plication of a general rule, to the prejudice of 
the sound of our language, 543* 

533. It will be necessary, however, to observe, 
that, in forming a judgemeut of the propriety of 
these observations, the nicest care must be taken 
not to confound those prepositions which are un- 
der the primary and secondary accent with those 
which immediately precede the stress; for pre- 
clude, pretend, &c. are under a very different 
predicament from prologue, preposition, &c. ; and 
the very same law that obliges us to pronounce 
the vowel short in the first syllable of prov-i 
dence, provocation, and prqf-a-nation, obliges us 
to pronounce the vowel open, and with some de 
gree of length, in pro-vide, pro-voke, and pro-fane. 
The same may be observed of the e in re-pair 
and reparation, re-ply and re-p-U-cation, repeat 
and rep-e-tition, the accent making the whole dif 
ference between the quantity of the vowel in one 
word and the other. 

534. The only exception to the shortening power 
of the secondary accent is the same as that which 
pi events the shortening power of the primary 
accent, 90.1, namely, the vowel u, as in lucubra- 
tion, or when any other of the vowels are suc- 
ceeded by a semi-consonant diphthong, 106 : thus 
mediator and mediatorial have the e in the first 
syllable as long as in mediate; deviation has the 
e in the first syllable as long as in deviate, not- 
withstanding the secondary accent is on it, and 
which would infallibly have shortened it, if it 
had not been for the succeeding diphthong ia; 
and even this diphthong in gladiator has not the 
power of preserving the first syllable long, 
though Mr. Sheridan, by his marking it, has 
made it so. 

5.15. From what has been seen of accent and 
quantity, it is easy to perceive how prone our 
language is to an antepenultimate accent, and 
how naturally this accent shortens the vowel it 
Calls upon : nay, so great a propensity have 
vowels to shrink under this accent, that the diph- 
thong itAeJf, ui some words, and analogy in others, 
are not sufficient to prevent it, as valiant, reta- 
liate. Thus, by the subjoining only o,f a/ to na- 
tion, with the a long, it becomes national, with 
the a short, though contrary to Us relation with 
occasion and congregation, which do not shorten 
the a upon being made occasional and congrega- 
tional : in like manner the acquisition of the 
lame termination to the word nature makes it 
nat-u-ral ; but this, it may be presumed, is de- 
rived from the Latin not oralis, and not from 
adding at to the English word, as in the forego- 
ing instances ; and thus it comes under the short* 
ening power of the antepenultimate accent, not. 
withstanding the semi-consonant diphthong v« 

630. The same shortening power in the ante* 
penultimate accent may be observed in rational 
and ratiocinate, where the first a in the first 
word, and the o in the second, are short. The 
first a in the second word is short also by the 
power of the secondary accent ; though Mr. She- 
ridan has, in my opinion, very erroneously di- 
vided ratiocination into ra-sho-syna shun ; that is, 
into a syllable less than it ought to have, with 
the o long instead of short. 

537. The accent on the Latin antepenultimate 
seemed to have something of a similar tendency : 
for though the great difference in the nature of 
the Latin and English accent will allow us to 
argue from one to the other but in very few cir- 
tfiuaatances, 5*3, yet we may perceive in that ac- 

cent, so different from oars hi general, a gte* - 
coincidence in this particular; namely, tti ten*, 
ency to shorten an antepenultimate syllabi*. 
Bishop Hare tells us, that " Qua aeamttur Mr 
tertia ah extreme, iaterdom acuta corripiunt, at 
positione sola longa sunt, ut bptune, servihu, peW- 
veUm, PamphUus, et panca alia, quo Cretict ran- 
tantur, in Anapestos. Idem factum est in nhUi- 
quam, licet incipiat diphthongo."—De Jfefr. 
Comic, pag. 62. Those words which have the 
acute accent on the antepenultimate syllabi** 
have sometimes that syllable shortened, if it was 
only long by position, as optune, servitus, pirw- 
Ihn, PamphUus, and a few others, which by this 
means are changed from Crelic to Anapestie 
feet: nay, neutiqumn undergoes the same late; 
though it begins with a diphthong. 


538. Dividing words into syllables is a very 
different operation, according to the different 
ends proposed by it. The object of syllabication 
may be, either to enable children to discover 
the sound of words they are unacquainted with, 
or to show the etymology of a word, or to exhi- 
bit the exact pronunciation of it. 

539. When a child has made certain advances 
in reading, but is ignorant of the sound of many 
of the longer words, it may not be improper to 
lay down the common general rule to him, that 
a consonant between two vowels must go to the 
latter ; and that two consonants coming together 
must be divided. Farther than this it would be 
absurd to go with a child ; for telling him that 
compounds must be divided into their simples, 
and that such consonants as may begin a word 
may begin a syllable, requires a previous know- 
ledge of words, which children cannot be sup- 
posed to have ; and which, if they iiave, makes 
the division of words into syllables unnecessary. 
Children, therefore, may be very usefully taught 
the general rule above mentioned, as, in many 
cases, it will lead them to the exact sound of the 
word, as in pro-vi-ded: and in others it wilt 
enable them to give a good guess at it, as in «V- 
li-cate ; and this is all that can be expected : for 
when we are to form an unknown compound 
sound out of several known simple sounds fwhk It 
is the case with children, when we wish them to 
find out the sound of a word by spelling it), this, 
I say, is the only method that can be taken. 

540. But an etymological division of words u a 
different operation : it is the division of a perum 
acquainted with the whole woid,and who wishes 
to convey, by this division, a knowledge of it* 
constituent parts, as ortho-graphy, theo-lngv, &c. 

641. In the same manner a person who is pre- 
acquainted with the whole compound sound of a 
word, and wants to convey the sound of each 
part to one unacquainted with it, must divide it 
into such partial sounds as, when put together 
again, will exactly form the whole, as or-thog-rm- 
php, the-ot-ogf, Ac. This is the method adopted 
by those who would convey the whole sound, by 
giving distinctly every part ; and, when this is 
the object of syllabication, Dr. Lowth's rule ia 
certainly to be followed. " The best and easiest 
rule/ 9 says the learned bishop, " for dividing the 
syllables in spelling, is, to divide them as they 
are uatnrally divided in a right prononciatlon, 
without regard to the derivation or words, or the 
possible combination of consonants at the begin- 
ning of a syllable."— Introduction to Hug. Grauu 

042. In this view of syllabication we consider 
it only as the picture of actual pronunciation ; 
but may we not consider it as directed * likewise 
by some laws of its own f Laws, which arise oat 
of the very nature of enunciation, and the spe- 
cific qualities of the letters f These laws cer- 
tainly direct us to separate double consonants, 
and such as are uncombinaule from the incoales- 
cence of their sounds : and if such a separation 
will not paint the true sound of the word, we 
may be certain that such sound is unnatural, and 
has arisen from caprice : thus the words Chrnmr 
btr, Cambridge, and Cambric k, must bt divided 



M thai letter, by terminating 
liable according id the settled rales of pic- 
, shortens the vowel, the general . pro- 
given to these words most be absurd, 
ry to the first principles of the Ian- 
•H; ancie n t , danger, manger, .and 
ander the same predicament ; hot 
of words of this kind, so far from 
the general rale, strengthens ll— See 

9ta7 By an indncrion which demonstrates the 
sSertenmg power of the antepenultimate accent 
has been shown the propriety of uniting the eon- 
it to the vowel m die first syllable of demon 
ism, f — sin rtfl i s j, propagat io n , dec. : we thus 
le upon the quantity of these vowels, which 
rtain in oar best dictlooaries ; and may 
», by a similar induction, and with the 
fptes of language in view, to decide the 
use, and analogical sound of some words 
kind which waver between different 
ions 1 The antepenultimate accent has 
smaarstinnahly a shortening power ; and I have 
not the smallest doubt that the penultimate accent 
has a lengthening power : that is, if our own 
words, and words borrowed from other languages 
<o syllables, with but one consonant in the 
le, had been left to the general ear, the ae- 
on the first syllable would have infallibly 
the first vowel. A strong presomp- 
ari s es from oar pronunciation of all 
dissyllables in this manner, without any re- 

* ' ee Drama), 

the conso- 
the par- 
ticipial terminations, as to bigim beginning, to re- 
gret, regretted s and I believe it may be confident- 
ly aAtrmed that words of two «y liable* from the 
Latin, with bat one consonant in the middle, 
would always have had the Arst vowel long, if a 
pedantick imitation of Latin quantity had not pre* 
tied it (see Drama). Let an Englishman, with 
an Bag lish education, be put to pronounce 
jr, and he will, without hesitation, pronounce 
the m long, as In stttisa .* if you tell him the e is 
meed short in the Latin nephyrus, which 
it short in Bnglish, and he should happen 
yo« the Latin quantity of the first syllable 
of e em fek , mi mie k, solace, Ac. your answer would 
he a contradiction to your rule.— What irrefraga- 
hly proves this to be the genuine analogy of 
Bagitah quantity is the different quantity we give 
a Lathi word of two syllables when in the nomi- 
native and when m an oblique case : thus in the 
Arst syllable of sidus and nam**, which ought to 
he ansae, and of miser and emu, which ought to 
he sh o rt , we equally use the common long sound 
as? the vowels : bat in the oblique eases, sideris, 
I«, aoiseri, enerU, *Ye. we use quite another 
and that a short one : and this analogy 
sroogh the whole Bnglish pronunciation of 
the l ear ned languages, 633, 530. 

Mi Bat the small dependence of the Bnglish 
emnntity on that of the Latin will be best seen by 
a selection of wonts of two syllables, with the 
accent on the first, and bat one consonant in the 
middle, and comparing them with the Latin 
from which they are derived. 

gard to the quantity of the original (see j 
and the ancient practice of doubling th< 
nant when preceded by a single vowel in 

English dUswUabUs which hews but one comment, 
or a mute end Uquid in the middle, end km 
thejbrst emUabU accented, contrasted with the 
Itntm words from which thee art derived, mark- 
ad with their respective quantities. 

Word* in which the first vowel in both lan- 
guages hi long i 







^•d h^^Beeejnp eTwVT^^BewSArsWnwsawa) 

notice, nbiUieu 
fragrance, fragro. 
license, llcentsa. 

Ben Jonson* 

• It Is highly probable that, in Ben Jon* 

•hue, the m in this word was pronounced as in , 

same he cla««es It to show the short sound of m 
•Ah met, met, end apple.— Orommu. 
































C metrwjn, 






viorOj tnbro 















enejt, crisis. 










































\ colon. 












viper a. 





creoroos, creber. 

fetus, fatus* 

edict, id&ctum. 

secret, secret us. 

«*.. $*£ 

fragrant, frigrans*- 

cogent, cogent. 



digest, sub. digestus. 












sprinx t evn4m 











Words in which the same vowel is short la 
both languages : 









rt Jf W » 














aloe, « 


































fMmine, . 

















I tenick. 






















































HI am, 












































































patent, sab. 









































Words tn which the same vowel is long in Eng- 
lish, and short in Latin : 








































favour, • 

























































patent, adj 







sacrist, , 










*k%t. thesis, 



Words in which the same vowel Is short in 
English, and long in Latin : 

eKviek, civieus. I tihid, tabidus. 

mtmick, mimlcut, \ frYgid, frtgidus. 
ethick, ^saca. I squalid, seuMdms, 































































































ickb, yffjm. 


lepra, liprmU' 
























645. In this view of the Latin and English quan- 
tity we see how uncertain it is to argue from the 
former to the latter ; for though the Latin accent 
is frequently a rule for placing the Englitb accent, 
as in words derived whole from that language, as 
abdomen, acumen. Ac. 5M, or preserving the same 
number of syllables, as in impudent, elegant, from 
Impudent, etegans, kc 503, yet the auantUv of the 
Latin seems to have no influence on that of the 
English. In words of two syllables, where one 
consonant comes between two vowels, as focus, 
basis, local, Ac. though the vowel in the first syl 
lable is short in Latin, it is long in English ; and 
Inversely, /Urid. frigid, Ueid, ice. have the vowels 
in the first syllable short, though these vowels are 
long \nfleriems,frigbims, lioldus, ice. ; so that, if 
any thing like a rule can be formed, it is, that 
when a word of three syllables in Latin, with the 
two first short, is anglicised by dropping the last 
syllable, we shorten the first syllable of the Eng- 
lish dissyllable, unless it ends with the vowel at 
MS. Thus we see the shortening power of out 
English antepenultimate accent, which shortens 
every antepenultimate vowel but u in onr pro- 
nunciation of Latin words; as in mimicus, vtoldus, 
dec. and continues its shortening power in the pe- 
nultimate accent of these words when anglicised 
intofnlmidr and vivid; and hence it is that the 
short quantity of the first vowel in dissyllables is 
become so prevalent in our language, to the great 
detriment of its sound, and the disturbance of it* 
simplicity. ^ 

It may be necessary, in the next place, to take 
a view of such words as are either of Saxon or 
French original, or not so immediately derived 
from the Latin as to be influenced by its quantity. 

Dissyllables with but one consonant in the mid. 
die, having the first syllable pronounced long; 
















evil, • 






















tool la, 


in the mid* 
ccd shorts 

























I vy, 




f tfaie 

rds where the first vowel it 

to tome inspectors 

ble thai the original teod- 

was to tbe long 

ultimate rowel. Bat as Mr* 

iously observes, "the rale b 

a l u> be admitted, and b un- 

tbe natoc e of oar pronan- 

quotes Dr. rVallb, who says, 

•%«it«ta, lingual nostra ratio anb» 

Have made the progress of Ian- 

9 will observe, it h presumed, 

amde of vowels change to the 

It consonants to the easier, 

ela to short ones. This, it is 

found to he true in all las» 

aaa oar owe ; and sach alteratioa 

»ta the nature of man and of so* 

La* object to anderstanding a Ian* 

,-fMrtrh, it b no wonder that short 

encroaching on as, and depriv- 

of oar words for the sake of 

U apparent in the abbrevhv 

■> when compounded, as in Aftea* 

g, Ac. 918 : bai as it is the business 

eet and regulate the eccentricities 

tbe excesses of custom, it should be 

ery philosophic grammarian to keep 

the original genius and general 

igaage, and to suffer custom to de> 

from them as possible. But although 

.wncy or want of analogy can alter any 

%, 4STO asa, abases A inveterate* error 
ideretur. dim enkn pro mutation* 

amutabantar A litters* : A si qaando eon- 
anJtqutd mataeset, scribenai qaoqoe modes 
reatieheiur. Unde qoum aped Simians A 
m 9ml A Arras* dieeretor A seriberetar, 
ansultb aoriam delicib e voeali rejeeta, 
aasras ill ins videretur tonus, • littera soa- 

•u, A swoo expressa; ita ot eoram loco 
. Servmf prnlatem A scriptum sit. Adoftphi 
r«ki Brngensb De Vet. et Rest. Pronan. 

pronunciation which is once acknowledged a 
settled, yet* when a pronunciation is waverii 
consistency, analogy, and general principles. ou| 
to decide against a great majority of mere fash, 
and caprice. * 

Thus nave I endeavoured to give a distinct v! 
of tbe correspondence between the accent i 
quantity of the learned languages and our 01 
and to rescue a plain Englishman (who, as J 
Jonson says of Shakespeare, has little Latin 1 
less Greek) from the supercilious criticism 
those. Greeklings and Latini tasters, who are of 
remarkably ignorant of their own language, 1 
yet frequently decide upon its accent and qu 
tity, because they have a smattering of Gr< 
and Latin. If the question turns upon the sec 
of an English word, the Latin word it is derii 
from b immediately produced, and sentei 
passed without appeal ; and yet, if the KnsJi 
man were to ask tbe rale on which this decis 
b founded, the scholar would, in all probabil 
be at a loss to tell him. Has every English wr 
he might say, the same accent as the Latin w 
from which it U derived f This the scholar co 
not answer in the affirmative, as the least re< 
lection woe Id tell him that pertunone, acrtmc 
Ae. cannot be accented after the Latin went 
Ma, acrimonia, Ac. as the Latin is never accen 
higher than the antepenultimate. But perh 
the English word is adopted whole from 
Latin. Here is undoubtedly a fair pretence 
pronouncing it with the Latin accent; and yet 
see how many exceptions there are to this r 
see No. 59*, 6. Or, perhaps, the English w< 
though anglicised, retains the same numbei 
syllables. This, indeed, may be said to be a 
ewes' rale for preserving the Latin accent, hy 
general as to be neglected in a thousand insten 
see No. 093,/, g. a, 4, A. But if the scholar, 1 
often the case, huddles quantity and accent U 
ther, and infers tbe English quantity from 
Latin, the Englbh scholar needs only to r 
him to the selections here given, Nos. 544, 542 
show the inanity of such a plea. Upon the wh 
therefore, I natter myself that men of lean 
will he gratified to see the subject in a eta 
point of view than any in which it has ever fa 
exhibited ; and the plain Englbh scholar wil 
indebtedto me for giving him as clear and 
Unct an idea of the connexion between the Gr 
and Latin accent and quantity, and the act 
and quantity of hb native tongue, as if he 
Homer and Horace by heart; and for placing 
out of the reach of those pert minor critic ks, 1 
are constantly insulting him with their kn 
ledge of the dead languages. 

Qf the Qwonttty ef fat Unaccented TotrtU not 
the seme Sellable with Consonants. 

547. Accented syllables, as we have before 
served, 119, are so strongly marked as to be ea 
comprehended, when they are once settled 
custom or analogy ; but those immediately bei 
or after the accent are in a state of uncertaii 
which some of oar best judges find themsel 
enable to remove. Borne grammarians h 
called all the open voweU before or after the 
cent short, though the ear so evidently dicti 
the contrary in the s» in utUUw, the o in obtdie 
Ac. Some nave saved themselves the troubl 
farther search by comprehending these vo* 
under the epithet obscure : nay, so unfixed 
the sounds of these voweU seem, that Dr. 1 
rick, whose Rhetorical Dictionary shows he 
possessed of very great philological abiltl 
seems as much at a loss about them as the m< 
est grammarian in the kingdom ; for when 
comes to mark the soand of the vowel o in 
first syllable of a series of words with the ace 
on the second, he makes the in promwfge, < 
pel, and preUx, long, a* they ought to be ; 
the name letter m proboscis, aroretd, and pr 
dure, short* Dominion, domestic Jt . donation, 
dom ai n , are marked as if pronounced dom-in 
dom-esHck, don-ation, and domain, with tb 
short ; while the first of docility, potential, 
m ono t ony, have the e marked long, as hi doi 
potent, and modish j though it is certain to a 
monstratton, that the etymology, accent, 
letters, being the same, the same soand mast 
produced, unless where custom has- preeh 



marked ft difference \ and that the first syllables 
of promulge, propel, and prsfsr, and those of pro- 
boscis, proceed, and procedure, have no such dif- 
ference, seems too evident to need proof*. 

548. I know it may be demanded, with great 
plausibility, how do I know that there is not this 
very inconsistency in custom itself f What right 
have 1 to soppose that custom is not as vague and 
capricious in these syllables as in those under the 
accent 1 To which I answer : if custom has de- 
termined the sound of these vowels, the dispute 
is at an end. I Implicitly acquiesce in the deci- 
sion ; bat if professors or the art disagree in their 
opinions, it is a shrewd sign that custom is not al- 
together so clear in its sentence ; and 1 must in- 
sist on reeurring to principles till custom has un- 
equivocally decided. 

649. Every vowel that is neither shortened by 
the accent, nor succeeded by a double consonant, 
naturally terminates a syllable ; and this termi- 
nating vowel, though not so properly long as if 
the accent were on it, would be very improperly 
termed short, if by short, as is often the case, be 
meant shut, 4)9. According to this idea of sylla- 
bication, it is presumed that the word opinion 
would mil into three distinct parts, and every 
part be terminated by a consonant bat the first; 


390. But it may be demanded, what reason is 
there in the nature of the thing for dividing the 
word in this manner, rather than into op4n4on, 
where a consonant ends every syllable f In this, 
as in many other cases of delicacy, we may be 
allowed to prove what is right, by first proving 
what is wrong. Every ear would be hurt, if the 
first syllable of opinion and opulence were pro- 
nounced exactly alike, op-ia-le* would be as dif- 
ferent from o*pin-l*n as o-pu-lamce f rom op-u-ienct, 
and consequently a different syllabication ought 
to be adopted ; but as opulence is rightly divided 
into op-u-lence, opinion must be divided into o-pin- 
ion ; that is, the o must be necessarily separated 
from the p, as in o~pen ; for, as was before ob- 
served, every vowel pronounced alone has its 
open sound, as nothing but its junction with a 
consonant can shut it, and consequently unac- 
cented vowels not necessarily joined to a conso- 
nant are always open ; therefore, without violating 
the fundamental laws of pronunciation, opinion 
must necessarily be divided into o-pin-ion and not 
op-inAon, and the o pronounced as in the word 
open, and not as in opulence ; which was the thing 
to be proved. 

991. If these reasons are valid with respect to 
the vowel in question, they have the same force 
with respect to every other vowel not shut by a 
consonant throughout the language. That the 
vowels in this situation are actually open, we 
may easily perceive by observing that vowel, 
which, from its diphthongal and semi-consonant 
sound, is less liable to suffer by obscure pronun- 
ciation than any other. The letter ss, in this si- 
tuation, always preserves itself fall and open, as 
we may observe in utility, lucubration, Ac. The 
*, the most open of all the simple vowels, has the 
same tendency in obedience, opake, position, Ac. 
the e in the first syllable of event, in the second 

• I am aware that this ingenious writer seems 
to avoid this inconsistency, by premising, in his 
Rhetorical Grammar, page 43, that he has some- 
times marked the * m words beginning with a 
preposition with the oratorial, and sometimes 
with the colloquial pronunciation : thus, in com- 
mune, communicate, tee. the oratorial sound is 
given as in the first syllable of common, while the 
colloquial sound changes the o into u, as if the 
words were written cummune, cummunicate, dec. : 
but the distinction in these examples does not 
touch the point : here there is a change only of 
one short sound for another, and not any pro- 
miscuous use of a long and short, or open and 
shut sound of the same letter. Dr. Kenrick him. 
self, when he marks the o in proboscis, proceed, 
and procedure, does not adopt the short u, as he 
does in commune, communicate, Ac; nor is he 
aware of the essential difference, with respect to 
the quantity of the vowel, in the double con- 
sonant in one set of words, and the single one in 
the other. * 

of delegate, the first and third of evangelist, in th« 
second of gaiety, nicety, Ac. the a in the first o# 
abate, and the second of probable, Ac. and the m 
in nullity. This unaccented letter being no more 
than e, and this sound, when long, corresponding; 
exactly with its short sound (which is not the; 
case with any of the other vowels, 4)9, 06),. the 
difference between the long and short, or, open 
and shut sound of this letter, is less perceptible 
than in any other : yet we may easily perceive) 
that a delicate pronunciation evidently leaves it 
open when unaccented in indivisibility, as this* 
word would not be justly pronounced if the 4 in 
every syllable were closed by a oonsontot, ss if 
divided into l*4lv4s4b-U-it-y ; the first, third, and 
fifth syllables would, indeed, be justly pro- 
nounced according to this division, as these have 
all accentual force, which shuts this vowel, and 
joins it to the succeeding consonant ; but in the 
second, fourth, and sixth syllables, there is no 
such force, and consequently it must remain apen 
and unconnected with the consonant ; though, as 
was before observed, the long, and short sound of 
this vowel are so near each other, that the dif- 
ference is less perceived than in the rest. Every 
ear would be displeased at such a pronunciation 
as is indicated by ut-tU4U-y, luc-cub-bration, am 
pin-ion, pos-ition, ev-vent, ev~von-gel-Ust, ab-bata, 
probibab-bte, Ac. ; but for exactly the same rea- 
sons that the vowels out of the stress ought to be 
kept open in these words, the slender 4 must be 
kept open in the same situation in the word sjs- 
di~vis-U>U-l4y t and every similar word in the 
language •. 

453. From all this it will necessarily follow, 
that the custom adopted by the ancients and mo- 
derns of joining the sirigle consonant to the latter 
vowel in syllabication, when investigating the 
unknown sotfhd of a word, has. its foundation in 
reason and good sense : that the only reason why 
vowels are short and shut, is their junction with 
a consonant ; so those that are not joined to con- 
sonants, when we are not speaking, metrical ly, 
cannot be said to be either short or shut : and 
that as all accented vowels, when final or pro- 
nounced alone, have their open sound, so those 
vowels that are alone or final in a syllable must 
necessarily retain their open sound likewise, as 
nothing but uniting instantaneously with the suc- 
ceeding consonant can shut them : and though 
nothing but a delicate ear will direct us to the 
degree of openness with which we must pro- 
nounce the first unaccented o in docility, domes* 
tick, potential, proceed, monastick, monotony, Ac. 
we may be assured that it is exactly under the 
same predicament, with respect to sound, in all 
these words : and as they can never be pro- 
nounced short and shut, as if written dossility, 
dommestick, Ac. without hurting the dullest ear ; 
so the e in event, evangelist, Ac. and the i in the 
third syllable of utility, and in the second, fourth, 
and sixth of indivisibility, can never be sounded 
as if joined to the consonant without offending 
every delicate ear, and -overturning the first prin- 
ciples of pronunciation. 

553. The only considerable exception to this ge- 
neral rule of syllabication which determines the 
sound of the unaccented vowels, is when e suc- 
ceeds the accent, and is followed by r, as in li- 
teral, general, misery, Ac. which can never be 
pronounced literal, gen-e-rat, mis-e-ry, Ac. with- 
out the appearance or affectation. In this situa- 
tion we find the r corrupt the sound of the e, as 
it does that of every other vowel when in a final 
unaccented syllable. For this consonant being 
nothing more than a jar, it unavoidably mixes 
with the e in this situation, and reduces it to the 
obscure sound of short ss, 418, a sound to which 

• It is plain that Mr. Sheridan considered the 
unaccented vowel i, whether ending a »y liable, 
or joined to the succeeding consonant, as stand- 
ing for the same sound ; for we see him some- 
times making use of one division, and sometimes 
of another : thus he divides the word dLver-si-ty 
with the 4 terminating the penultimate syllable, 
and u-ny-ver-tit-y with the same i united to the 
consonant. The same variety takes place in the 
words di-vis-i-bil-i-ty and m~di-»U4-bU4t-y, while 
Dr. Kenrick divides all words of this termination 
regularly in the former manner. 



unaccented vowel* before r have 
o evident a tendency. 
An obscure idea of the principles of sylla- 
jnst laid down, and the conlrmdictkm to 
perceived ia this exception, hat made most 
ir ortkocpisU extremely wavering and oncer- 
fas their division of words into syllables, when 
entcd * has preceded r, where we not 
tbem differing from each other, bnt 
even from themselves : 

SO. I have been the more copions in my col- 
lection of these varieties, that I might not ap- 
pear to have taken the advantage of any over- 
sight or mistake of the press : nor is It any won- 
der when the principles of syllabication so strong- 
ly incline as to leave the vowel e, like the other 
vowels, open before a single consonant ; and the 
ear so decidedly tells us, that this letter is not al- 
ways open when preceded by the accent, and 
followed by r, it Is no wonder, I say, that a writer 
should be perplexed, and that he should some- 
times incline to one side, and sometimes to the 
other. 1 am conscious I have not always been 
free from this inconsistency myself. The ex- 
amples therefore which 1 have selected, will, I 
Hope, folly iostify me in the syllabication I have 
adopted ; which is, that of sometimes separating 
the e from the r in this situation, and sometimes 
When solemn and deliberate speaking has 
to admit of lengthening the e, 1 have 
letimes made it end the syllable ; when this* 
was not the case, I have sometimes joined it to 
the r : thus, as e in the penultimate syllable of 
snrsvcernfe, reverberate, Ac. seems, in solemn 
speaking, to admit of a small degree of length 
and distinctness, it ends a syllable ; but as no so- 
lemnity of pronunciation seems to admit of the 
same length and openness of the e in tolerate, de- 
Ueerate, Ac H is united with r, and sounded in 
the notation by short m. It ought, however, to 
rfbJIy observed, that though the e in this 
hi sosactimrs separated from the r, there 

Is no speaking, however deliberate and solemn, 
that will not admit of uniting it to r, and pro- 
nouncing H like short u, without offending the 
nicest and most critical ear. 

559. It must also be noted, that this alteration 
of the sound of e before r is only when it follows 
the accent, either primary or secondary, 933,530 ; 
for when it is in the first syllable of a word, 
though unaccented, it keeps its true sound : thus, 
though the e Is pronounced like u in miter, alter*, 
tion, Ac. yet in perfection, terr\fick, Ac. this let- 
ter is as pure as when the accent is on it in per- 
fect, terrible, Ac. 

557. Something like the corruption of the sound 
of unaccented e before r we may perceive in the 
colloquial pronunciation of the vowel o in the 
same situation ; and accordingly we find our best 
nrthoepists differ in their notation of this letter : 
thus memory, mem orable, Imm em o rable , memorably, 
memorise, have the o pronounced like short * by 
Mr. Sheridan and Mr. Scott « and memorandum, 
with the o, as ia open ; while Dr. Kenrick give* 
the o in all these words the sound it has in th» 
conjunction or. Mr. Sheridan marks the unac 
cented o in corporal, corporate, and corporation, 
like the o in open ; but Mr. Scott pronoonceo this 
o in corporal, corporate, and corporation, like 
short «, and the same letter in Incor p or a te and 
Incorporation like Mr. Sheridan ; and Dr. Ken. 
rick, like the o in the former instances. Mr. 
Sheridan and Mr. Scott are uniform in their pro- 
nunciation of the same vowel like short u in or 
maur, armorer, armory % pillory, suasory, per- 
suasory, allegory, compulsory, cursory, and pre- 
datory; while Dr. Kenrick pronounces the o in 
armour and armory like the « in open, and the 
same letter in pillory, allegory, and cursory, like 
the o in or, nor, Ac. This diversity, among good 
judges, can arise from nothing but the same un- 
certainty of the sound of this letter that we have 
just observed of the e / but if we narrowly watch 
our pronunciation, we shall find that the unac- 
cented o may be opened and lengthened, in de- 
liberate speaking, without hurting the ear. which 
Is not always the case with e ; and this has in- 
duced me generally to separate the • from the 
succeeding r when immediately following the ac- 
cent ; though I am sensible that the rapidity of 
colloquial speaking often reduces it to short u 
without offending the ear : but when tfie o is re- 
moved more than one syllable from the accent 
the most deliberate speaking generally lets % 
slide into the other vowel : for which reason I 
have commonly marked it in this manner.- 

It may, perhaps, appear to some of my 
readers, that too much time has been spent upon 
these nice distinctions of sound, in which judges 
themselves are found to disagree; but when we 
consider how many syllables in the language are 
unaccented, and that these syllables are those 
in which the peculiar delicacy of the pronunchv 
tion of natives consists ; when we reflect on the 
necessity of having as distinct and permanent 
sounds as possible, to which we may refer these 
fleeting and evanescent ones, we shall not look 
upon an attempt to arrest and investigate 
as a useless part of philology. 

m. A TABLE «/ th* SIMPLE and DIPHTHONGAL VOWEJ.Q rtf erred to fy iki 

Figure* ever the Litter* in thi* Dictionary. 

■■olish sounds, raiacii soumm. 

tt" ^ J^ ^^ J^Uah ^ as In flte, pl-oer, Ac. 7S - - - - i in fee, tyie. 

lY S* £°* }*£*** *' M ln / 1 1 #.f .H*?.* P";* 5 ' niam-mi, 77 • in /«&, r<££. 

Li The brad German a, at i in if 111, will, wjker, 61 a in 4g«. CAdipw. 

1 i. The short sound of the Italian a, as in fit, mlt, mir»ry, 61 a in/of, am/Jm. 

L J. JW long f f Min ml. hire, mUre, me-diom, OS { in mUre, epUre. 

t.L Ac short e, a* in mit, lit.gct,** * in mttu,netu. 

\'\ 5«^*pfc«>»»f»l «•«•«» P*n«» title, 165 a V in lu'iqw, naif. 

ft. 1 The short sample I, as in pin, tiule, 167 - - - * in in*i,tUri. 

I. *. The lone open #, as In n*. nsle, nt-tlce 161 ------ - 0U1 » j^fe j^ 

I*!" y^^cloaee, asinmlve,pr»re, 164 - • - - - 0u in mouvoir, wiuvoir. 

V. i. The long brood *, as in nsr, fir, «r ; like the broad i, 167 - * in er. for. eacor 

«.«. The short brood e, as in ns% net, g«t, 163 oinhrtti.mte. 

ti. The long diphthongal », as in tibe, co-pid, 171 «** in Cieutat, ekUnmne 

1 L The short simple «, as in tab, cap, sip. 17* e»in neuf, vtuf 

1 4. The middle or obtuse u, as in bill, fall, pill, 176--. ouln beuie fonte/poute. 

g. The long broad 4, and the short f , as in Ml, 680 tf in cytfoWtf, htrfiqu* 

*i The long brood 4, and the middle obtase 4, as in th4&, piiod, 319 «rs in deu& 

7». The acute or sharp th, as in Mink, fain, 468. 
Th. The grave or flat th, as in mis, taut, 41, 66, 46% 

Ml When G k minted in the Roman character, it has its hard sound to get, gene, Ac. as go, »We 
east, Ac ; when it has its soft sound, it is spelled in the notation by the consonant J, as giant' 
Jhfcr.jieutf, jfcs^cr. Tbe same may be observed of S: the Roman character denotes its hard souud' 
■ da, nw, Ac as so, ail, sense, Ac. } its soft sound is spelled by s, as rise, tcmist, Ac. rear, re*#, Ac. 


bthecomrseof a criUeal investigation of the powers of the letters ln the foregoing Principles, 
time n scarcely a word of any difficulty or diversity of sound which has not been noticed, and the 
tnt proBimctaUon, with the reasons and authorities for it. pointed out ; so that if the inspector s'honld 
sataeet with sufficient information in the Dictionary under the word, let him consult the Principles 
moer the soaW, dtpktknng, or consonant, be wishes to be explained, and it is highly probable he will 
nett with the satisfaction he requires. Thus to know something more concerning the g in the word 
mmm, which some speakers pronounce and others suppress, let him look into the Principles under 
tat letter G, No* 666, and he will find additional observations to those in the Dictionary under the 
ueid. It is true that moat of these doubtful, as well as other words, are referred to the Principles ; 
hn tf this reference should by chance -be omitted, it is hoped that this Advertisement will supply 

mWn afmanammuammv 
umw m^aaYM4ln#ye 

X. B«— A word not found In the Dictionary amy possibly he met with m the Appendix. 





Ike figures after the words refer to the numbers in the Principles of Pronunciation pre- 
fixed to this Dictionary, where the different sounds of the letters are explained at large. 
Thus, 78 refers to the first sound of the letter A; OS to the first sound of the letter E; 
sad so of the rest. 

lie figures over the letters refer to the rowels in the words at the top of the page ; and 
the index tT before these words refers to the table of simple and diphthongal sounds, 
where the different sounds of the vowels are exhibited at one view. Thus, tt 569 refers 
to the table in the opposite page. 

**•*»*#**#****■ *+■+++++-++ +++++* ++*■» « +■*+ *+ ##> »+++, 

'++++ *++*+*+ +4 ******* ******* «* ** 


^il^'J^f TS ' **' 7' ^ *» I* 1 8I ~ n # M ' »**¥— P lne 1«. Ph lOT-Mn* 162, move 164, 
»* 1«, nftt 16*— tobe 171, tub 178, bill 17S— oil 299— pound SI 5— thin 466, this 469. 

A THE first letter of the alphabets. A, 
7 aa article Mt before noansof the siognlar nunv 
Mr; « bub, « tree. Before a word beginning with 
a vowel it is written «,m,moi. .4 is sometimes 
aaeaD,ftt,£rwft* A. A is placed before a parti- 
opje, or participial noon ; gone a banting, come a 
"SP** -^ he* a aigulocatioe denoting proportion : 
*» landlord h«U a hundred, a year. 
^7 The change of the letter a into an before a 
">**' or mute 4 for the sake of soaud seems to de- 
JJ*« amfe attention than has generally been given to 
Bi f *at of oar grammarians, end will therefore be 
■ader Lhe article An; which 


Qf tki alphabetical Pronunciation 0/ 
LeiUr A. 

^Sonuay nrofoand and ingenious observations have 
■*» ■ Mde epoB this first step to lilerature,£liat volumes 
■JfW be tiled witb the erudition that has been lavish- 
"•» *W» letter alone. The priority of piece it 
Jj*"*» 1B *U alphabet*, bee made it so taoch the ob- 
g*«tteatioa, y,^ philologists sappose the tounda- 
2S lorl,la « bo1 weakly laid, till the natural and 
^flhworyorthc first letter be fully settled, 
^■■t^owever deep have been their researches into 
y_ or y» of this letter, we Sad ao aatlior In our lan- 
PVws hitherto attempted 10 settle thedlspntes that 
■J •"*■ between the natives of England, Ireland, 
JTi*" * 1 *' aboat the true sound of it, when called 
n, 1 ****■ l******* therefore, of tracing this cba- 
■■** lareegb the circles of Gomer, the Egyptian 
wreglyphics, the mysterious Abraxas, or the Irish 

*■*, ant, it will be neeessary to consider the ne- 
■*•» a rowrl : which grammarians are generally 
JJJ* *i draaiag to be * a simple articulate sound, 
**w 4> ike impaise of the volte by the opening 

21 <fc **** c(n *• ■ P» rtl **l* r manner." Now, as 
wm f waafc by itself 1* sounded long, u nothing k»i 

its Junction with a consonant can make it otherwise, 
it Is natural, wht a pronouncing this vowel alone, to 
give it the long open sound ; bnt as this long open 
soond b threefold, as heard in face, father, and spa- 
rer, a question arises, which of these long sounds 
shall we adopt »s a common name to the whole 
species of this letter f The Engthh make choice of 
the a In face, the Irish of that In father, and the 
Scotch of that in water. Each party product- a words 
where the letter a is sonndeil in the manner th«y 
contend for; but when we demmd why one should 
have the preference, the controversy is commoaiy at 
an end ; any farther reasons are either too remote oc 
too insignificant to be produced : and indeed* K a dl> 
verslty of names to voweis did not confonnd ut in our 
spelling, or declaring to each other the component 
letters of a word, It woold be entirely needless to ea- 
ter into to trifling a question as the mere name of a 
letter; but when we find ourselves enable to convey 
signs to each other on account of this diversity of 
names, and that words themselves are endangered by 
aa improper utterance of their component parts, It 
seem* highly incumbent on us to attempt an uniformity 
In this point, which, insignificant as It may seem, Uv 
andoabtedly the foundation of a Just and regular 
pronunciation. * 

The first rale for naming a letter, when pronounced 
alone, seems to be this: Whatever sound we give to 
a letter when terminating a syllable, the same sound 
ought to be given to it when pronounced alone ; be- 
cause, in both cases, they have their prlmaiy, simple 
•oiind, uninfluenced by a succeeding vowel or conso- 
nant; and, therefore, when we pronounce a letter 
alone, it oagbt to have such a sound as does not sap- 
pose the existence of any other letter. Hut where. 
ever a terminates a syllable with the accent upon it 
(the oaly state in which it can be said to be pure ) it 
has always the English sound of that kt«er. The onlv 
exceptions to this rale are, the woids fa-t her. master 
snd water; and that these are merely exceptions an* 
pears from the uniformity with which the a is nro- 
uonnced otherwise la parent, papal, taper, fatal 
*e. The other vowels aave their names exVtiy'Sml- 
iar to the sound they have in a similar situation, aa 
the e like that in fm+grlm, the I like the i in ttJUi 
'he • as the ia *e-Me, aad. the aj like the « la fetjarv 


£7550. Fate7o,far77,fall8S,fa1 81— me M, met 95— pine 105, pin 107— no 162, mo*olG4, 

Thus, as it appear* from the general analogy of pro- 
nunciation, that the sound of the a, which the English 
adopt | is the only one that does not hec«Marllv sop 
pove th« existence of any other «ound, it inevitably 
follows that theirs only is the proper appellation of 
that letter. 

But there is another analogy by which we may de- 
termine the true aon&d of the vowels when pro- 
nounced singly ; and lhai is, Che sound they have 
when preserved long and open by the flual e. Thus 
we ca'i the letter e by the sound it Iihs in theme, the 
letter i as It sounds in time, the letter o as beard in 
tone, and the u as In tune ; and why the letter a 
should not be prouounced .1 he;! id in face cannot 
be conceived, as each of the other vowels has, like a, 
a variety of other sounds, as they :irc united with let- 
ters which, in tome measure, alter their quality. 

Tn consequence of entertaining a different idea of 
the a, when pronounced in the alphabet, we sett the 
natives of Ireland very prone to a diiferent pronun- 
ciation of the words where this letter occurs; and. 
Indeed, ie>is quite consistent with their doctrine of 
the Bound of a, that the words parent, papal, taper, 
and fatal, should be pronounced pah-rent, pah-pal, 
tah- per, una faJital. We And ihc Scotch likewise in- 
clinable to the same pronunciation of a, when in 
words, as when aloue. Thus we bear batotan for 
Satan, satocred for sacred, and latv-ity for laity; 
and this is perfccil> consistent with the manner in 
which thty pronounce the letter a, when alone : there 
4* no medium, if this be not the true pronunciation 
of these words, the a is certainly to be sounded as the 
English do : for, whenever the English give the Ita- 
lian sound, as It may be called, to the a, except in the 
words father and matter, it it always in consequence, 
of its junction with some consonant, which determines 
it to that sound ; as in monosyllables terminating in 
r, as bar. car, far: but where it is not affected by a 
succeeding cousonant, as in the word* parent, papal, 
natal, fatal, we then hear it pronounced as the 
•lender English a, both in and out of competition. 

It will, perhaps be objected, that the most fre- 
quent short sound of a, as beard in eat, rat, mat, 
carry, marry, parry, is the short sound of the Italian 
a \n father, car, mar, par, and not the short sound 
of the a iu care, mare, and pare ; but It may be an- 
swered, that tide want of correspondence between the 
name of the letter, and the most frequent short sound, 
is common to the rest of the vow els : for the o, as 
heard in cot, not, rat, is not the short sound uf the o 
In coat, note, wrote, but of the a in voter, or of the 
diphthongs in caught, naught, and wrought ; and 
if we ought tn call the a, ah, because its short sound 
corresponds to ah for the very same reason we ought 
to call the o, au; and a similar alteration must take 
place with the rest of the vowels. As therefore, from 
the variety of sounds the vowels have, it is impossible 
to avoid the inconvenience of some times sounding 
the letftr one way in a syllab.e, and another w»y in 
a word, we most either adopt the timple long sound 
when we would pronounce the letter alone, or invent 
new names for every ditterent sound in a different 
word, in order to obviate the difficulty. 

It must not he dissembled, however, that the sound 
Of a, when terminating a syllable not under the accent, 
seems more inclined to the Irish than the English a, 
and that the ear is less disgusted with the sound of 
Jh-mer i cah than of A-mer4-cay : but to this it may 
he answered, that letters not under the accent, in a 
thousand Instances, deviate from their trur sound , 
that the vowel a, like several other vowels In a final 
syllable not accented, has an otocure sound, border* 
Ing on u; but if the a, in tb s situation, were pro- 
nounced ever so distinctly , and that this pronnncUtioii 
were clearly the a in father, it wonld be nothing to 
the purpose: when the a u prouounced alone, it may 
be said not on y to be a letter, but a distinct character, 
and a noun substantive; and, as such, has the same 
force as the letters in an accented syllable. The let- 
ter a, therefore, as the first character in the alphabet, 
may always be said to have the accent, and ought to 
have the same long, open sound, as Is given to that 
letter when accented in a syllable, and not influenced 
iu Its soond by auy preceding or succeeding eoa- 

We may therefore conclude, that if all vowels,wheJ* 
pronounced alone, are accented and long, if speistng 
be the pronunciation of lettei s alone, {as it would *>« 
absurd to suppose ourselves acquainted with the dif- 
ferent consonants that determine the sound of tne 
vowels before tbey are pronoui.ced,) it follow*, thut 
in spelling, or repeating the corapunmt pait* of a 
word, we ought to give those parts their simple and 
uncorabined sound : but there is no nncombined *ound 
of the vowel a, except the slender sound contended 
for, unlets in the words father and master; ami, 
therefore, when we repeat letters singly, in oider to 
declare the sound of a word, we most undoubtedly 
give the first letter of the alphabet the sound we ever 
give it in the first syllable of the numerous class la-dy>> 
pujgan, mason, basin, Sec. 

Thus, after placing every objection in its strongest 
light, and deducing our argument* from the simplest 
and dearest principles, this important question seen* 
at last decided in favour.of the English ; who, inde- 
pendent of the arguments in their favour, m y be pre- 
sumed to have a natural right to determine the name 
of the letter in question, though it has been so often 
litigated by their formidable and learoe<i, though Ju- 
nior, relations. For though, in some cases, the nativt a 
of Ireland and Scotland adhere rather moie closely 
to analogy thon the English themselves, yet in this we 
find the English pronounce perfectly agrteablv to 
rule ; and that the slender pronunciation of the letter 
a, as they pronounce it in the alphabet, is no more 
than giving tt that simple sound, it ever has, when un- 
connected with vowels or consonants that alter ita 
power. ' 

ABACUS, aVakus, «. [Latin.] A counting 

table ; the uppermost member of a column. 
ABAFT, a-balV, ad. 545. From the fore part 

of the chip, towards the stern. 
To ABANDON, a-ban'dun, v. «. 166. To 

give up, resign, or quit ; to desert ; to forsake. 
ABANDONED, i-baa'dund, pari. 862 

Given up $ forsaken ; corrupted in the highest 


ABANDONMENT, i-banMun-mint, #. The 
act of abandoning. 

ABARTICULATION, Ab-ar-tik-6-1a'-shun, 

s. 290. That species of articulation that haa 

manifest motion- 
To ABASE, a-base*, o. a. To cast down, to 

depress, to bring low. 
ABASEMENT, i-baaeMnint, s. The state 

of being brought low ; depression. 
To ABASH, abash, v. a. To make 

To ABATE, a-bite', tj. a. 545. To lessen, 

to diminish. 
To ABATE, 4-bate', v. n. To grow lets. 
ABATEMENT, a-bate'-ment, *. The act of 

abating ; the sum or quantity taken away by 

. the act of abating. 
ABATER, a-ba'tur, *. 08. The agent or 

cause by which an abatement is procured. 
ABB, ab, 8, The yarn on a weaver^ warp. 
ABBACY, aVba-se, ». 452. The rights, 

possessions, or privileges of an abbot. 
ABBESS, ab'b&s, «. The superior of a 

ABBEY, or ABBY, il/be, *. 270. A mo- 

nastery of religious persons, whether men of 

ABBOT, aVbot, a. 166. The chief of a con- 

vent of men. 
To ABBREVIATE, ab-bre ve-ate, v. q. 505. 

T«j shorten, to cut short. 
ABBREVIATION, ab-bre-Te-Vshfin, t. 

The act of shortening. 


107, not 16*— tube 1T1, tib 172, bill ITS — Hi 209— |>8ftnd S13— *Mn 406, this 460!) 

ABBREVIATOR, ib-bre-ve-a'tur, *. One 

who abridges. 521. 
ABBREVIATURE. afc-bre'vfc-a-tchure, a. 

461. A mark used for s-bortening. 
To ABDICATE, abMe-kate, r. a. To give 

up right, to resign. 503. 
ABDICATION, ab-de-ka'sh&n, ». The act 

of abdicating, resignation.' 
ABDICATIVE* lo'd^ca-tlre, a. 512. That 

which causes or implies ail abdication. 

tt Dr. Johnson places the accent on the flr*t »yl- 
labie of this word, and Mr. Sheridaa and Mr. I'eirjr 
•a the second, 'lbe fotmer It, in my opinion, the 
moat correct. 

ABDOMEN, Ib-doWn, a. 603. A cavity 
ctiinmouJj called tlic lower venter or belly. 

ABDOMINAL, ab^dcWnie-nil, ? a. Re- 

AB DOM I NOUS, ab-doWme-nus. ) lating 
to the abdomen. 

To ABDUCE, ib-duse i , v. a. To draw to a 
different pan, to withdraw one part from an- 

ABDUCENT, ab-do/slnt, a. Muscle* ab- 
doeent serve to o|»en orpuJl hack divers parts 
of the bod j. 

ABDUCTOR, ab-duk'tor, s. 166. The mus- 
cles, which draw backr the several members. 

ABED, i-b&i', ad. In bed. 

ABERRANCE^ ab-eVrinse. *. A devia- 
tion from the right way, an errour. 

ABERRANCY, ab-eVran-se. The same with 

ABERRANT, ib-eVrant, «. - Wandering from 
the riaht or known way. 

ABERRATION, a>-3r-ra'shun, a. The act 
of deviating from the common track. 

ABERRING, ib-eVtfag,pert. 410. Going 
astray. . 

T«ABERUNCATE 1 Ab4-r0ji l kate > 9.a. To 
,peJl up by. the roots, 91. ' 

To ABET,"4-beV, v. a. To push forward an- 
other, to support him in bts designs by con- 
nhrance, eiicoorasetaent, or help. 

ABETMENT, 4-beVmeilit, a. The act of 

ABETTER, or ABETTOR, i-beVtur, a. He 
that abets * the supporter or encourager of an- 
other. 166. 41& 

ABEYANCE, a-ba/anse, a. The right of 
lea simple heth in abeyance, when it is all 
only in the remembrance, intendment, and 
consideration of the law. 

To ABHOR, ib-heV, e. «. 168. To hate 
with acrimony;, to loathe. % 

ABHORRENCE, ib-hoVrlnse, 7 a. The 

ABHORRENGY, abWr&^J act of 
abhorrint** detestation. „ 

ABHORRENT, ab-stfr'rcnt, «. 166. Struck 
with abhorrence j contrary to, foreign, incon- 
sistent with. , , 

ABHORRER, eb-horVuar, «. 28. A hater, 

To ABIDE, i-braV, 9. *. To dwell in a 
place, not to remove \ to bear or support the 
co ns e n arnces of a tftmg 1 it is used with the 
narticje with before a parson, and at or in be- 
lant apkce. 

ABIDER, 4-bVb!2r, t. 96. The person that 

abides or dwells in a place. 
ABIDlNG A 4-bl / dmg,#.410. Continuance 


ABJECT, ib'jikt, a. 492. Mean or worth, 
less; contemptible, or of no value. 

ABJECT, db'jikt, r. A man without ho^e. 

To ABJECT, ab-jlkt', r. a. 492. To throw 

AB JECTEDNESS, ab-jeVtSd-n&s. a . The 
state of an abject. 

ABJECTION, ab-jik'shun, *. Meanness 
of mind : servility ; baseness. 

ABJECTLY, aVjgkt-Ie, ad. 452. In an ab- 
ject roauuer, meanly. 

ABJECTNESS, ab$kt-ness. a. Servility, 

ABILITY, l-bll'e-te. a. 482. The power 
to do any thing ; Capacity, q ualification ; when 
it has the plural number, abilities, it frequent- 
ly signifies the faculties, or powers of the mind. 

To ABJURE, ab-jure', v. a. To swear not to 
do something ; to retract, or recant a position 
u|>on oath. ' 

ABJURATION, ab^jtt-ra'shan. a. The act 
of abjuring ; the oath taken for that end. 

To AfeLACTATE, *b-lak1ate, v. a. To 
wean from the breast. 91. 

ABLACTATION, ab*htk-ta'ahSn. ». One 
of the methods of grafting. ' 

ABLAQUEATION, to-la-kwe-a/shfa. t. 
The practice of opening the ground about the 
roots of trees. 584. 

ABLATION, ib-la'6hfa. a. The act of tak- 
ing away. 

ABLATIVE, 4Vi4-tfv, a. 158. That which 
takes away ; the sixth cade of the Latin nouns. 

ABLE, a/bl. a. 406. Having strong facul- 
ties, or great strength or knowledge, riches, 
or any other power of mind, body, or fortune ; 
haviug power sufficient. ; 

ABLE-BODIED, a-blrhjd'dld. a. Strong 

of body. 99. 
To ABLEGATE. &b4e-gate, e. a. To send 

abroad upon some employment. 
ABLEG ATION, ab-le-ga'shon. a. A send* 

ing abroad. , 

ABLENESS, k'bl-niss. a. Ability of body, 

vigour, force. 
ABLEMY, 4Mep-s*. a. 482.- Want of 

AbIuENT, iblu-fot; a. That which has 

the power of cleaning. 
ABLUTION, ib-lu'sfaun. a. The act of 

cleansingf , . 

ToABNtfGATE,aVne-gate,e.a. To deny 

ABNEGATION, fo-ne-ga'shtn. a. Denial, 

ABOARD, a-bord', ad. 295. In a ship. 
ABODE, a-bode', a. Habitation, dwell- 
. ing, place of residence ; stay, continuation in 

a place. 
ABODEMENT. a-bodetaent, a. A secret 

anticipation of something future. 
To ABOLISH, 4'DoWlsh, e. •% To annul; 

to put an end to ; to destroy. 
ABOLISHABLE, 4-b6llis&4-bL ov That 

which may be abolished. 
ABOLLSHEB, a-b6ni«h-ur ; «. 91. He Aat 

ABOLISHMENT, 4-bolHsh-mlht, a. T* 

act of Jibolisliing. ' 

ABOLITION, ih-o-llsh'ftn. a. 644. The 

of abolishing. 


tSt 659. Fate 73, far 77, fall 88, fat 81- ml S3, met 95— pine 105, pin 107— no 162, mire 164 

ABOMINABLE, a-b6m'e-n4-bl, a. Hate- 
ful, detestable. 

ABOMINABLENESS, kb6ni'e-na-bl-nSBs. 
j. 501. The quality of being Abominable; 
hatefulness, odioosness. 

ABOMINABLY, 4-bom'e-ni-ble, atf . Most 
hatefully, odiously. 

To ABOMINATE, 4-b6m-«-nate, «. a. To 
abhor, detest, hate utterly. 

ABOMINATION, a-bom-e-na'shfin. «. Ha- 
tred, detestation. 

ABORIGINES, ab-o-r?dge / e-nez. t. The 
earliest inhabitants of a country. 

ABORTION, a-bor*shun, «. The act of 
bringing forth untimely ; the product of an 
untimely birth. 

ABORTIVE, A-boVtlv, *. 157. That which 
is born before the due time. 

ABORTIVE, A-bortfv, a. Brought forth 
before the due time of birth ; that which brings 
forth nothing. 

ABORTIVELY, i-bor'tiv-le, oo\ Born with- 
out the due time , immaturely, untimely. 

ABORTIVENESS, i-bor'tiv-nSss, s. The 
state of abortion. 

ABORTMENT, 4-bort mint, «. The thing 
brought forth out of time ; an untimely birth. 

ABOVE, 4-buv , prep. 165 . Higher in place ; 
higher in rank, power, or excellence ; beyond, 
m<»re than ; too proud for, too high fob 

ABOVE, 1-boV, ad. Overhead ; in the re- 
gions of heaven. 

ABOVE ALL, a-blv-all'. In the first place ; 

ABOVE-BOARD, a-buVbord. In open 
sight ; without artifice or trick. 

ABOVE-CITED, 4-buv'sl-ted. Cited be- 

ABOVE-GROUND, a-buVgrofind. An ex- 
pression used to signify that a man is olive ; 
not in the grave. . 

ABOVE-MENTIONED, a^b&Vmin-shind. 
See Above-cited. 

To ABOUND, a-boond', v. «. 545. To have 
in great plenty ; to be in great plenty. 

ABOUT, a-bSStf, prep. 545. Round, sur- 
rounding, eucircling ; near to ; concerning, 
with regard to* relating to ; engaged in, em- 
ployed upon; appendant to the person, as 
clothes, &c. ; relating to the person, as a ser- 

ABOUT, 4-bodV, ad. Circularly; in cir- 
cuit ; nearly ; the longest way, in opposition 
to the short straight way ; to bring about, to 
bring to the point or state desired, as, he has 
brought about his purposes ; to come about, 
to come to some certain state or point ; to go 
about a thine, to prepare to do it. 

ABRACADABRA, 4b-ri-ka-daVr4. A su- 
perstitious charm against agues. 

To ABRADE, l-brade , c. o. To rub off, 
to wear away from the other parts. 

ABRASION, 4 : brafehun, f. The act of 
rubbing, a rubbing off. 

ABREAST, *-br4stf, ad. 545. Side by side. 

to ABRIDGE, a-brfdje', v. «• To make 
shorter in words, keeping still the same sub 

k stance ; to contract, to diminish, to cot short ; 

J^to deprive .of. 

i RIDGED OF, a-brldjd' 6v. Deprived. 

' >f, debarred from. 359. 

. 4 

An ABRIDGER, a-br?d'j&r, * He that 
abridges, a shortencr; a writer of coropen- 
diums or abridgments. 

ABRIDGMENT. a-brldje'intat, #. The 
contraction of a larger work into a small com- 
pass ; a diminution in general. 

ABROACH, 4-brotsh', ad. 285. In a pos- 
ture to run out ; in a state of being diffused or 
propagated. _ 

ABROAD, a-briwd', ad. 2*5. Outoft&e 
bouse; in another country; without, not 
within. ... 

To ABROGATE, aVro-gate, v. a. To take 
away from a law in force; to repeal, to annul. 

ABROGATION, 4b-ro-ga'sh6n, #. The act 

of abrogating, the repeal of a law. 
ABRUPT, ab-rupt, a. Btoken, craggy; 
sudden, without the customary or proper pre,- 
' baratives. 
ABRUPTION, *b-rup'shun, *. Violent and 

sudden separation. 
ABRUPTLY, ab-ruptle, ad. Hastily, with- 
out the due forms of preparation. 
ABRUPTNESS, ab-rftpt'n&s, «. An ab- 
rupt manner, haste, suddenness. 
ABSCESS, iVsiss; «. A morbid cavity in 

the body. 
To ABSCIND, ab-slnd", e. a. To cut off. 
ABSCISSION, ab-sfeh'un, s. The act of 
cutting off; the state of being cut off. 
£3" I have differed from Mr. Sheridan in marking 
the ss In this word, and, f think, with the best asasj* 
on my side. Though doable * is almost always pro- 
nounced sharp and hissing, yet. when a sharp * pre* 
cedes, it seems mora agreeable to the ear to pronoance 
the suoeeediog * flat. Thin, though the termination 
ition is always sharp, yet, because the * in transition 
U necetsarily sharp, the t goes Into the flat sound, as 
if written transizhion, which see. 

To ABSCOND, ab-sk6nd', v. a. To hide 
one's self. , 

ABSCONDER, ab-accWdftr, t. The per- 
son that absconds. 

ABSENCE, aVseoae, $. The state of being 
absent, opposed to presence; inattention* 
heedlessness, neglect of the present object. 

ABSENT, Jb'slnt, a. 492. Not present; 
absent In mind, inattentive. 

To ABSENT, ab-sint', v. a. To withdraw, 
to forbear to come into presence. 

ABSENTEE, Ib-sSn-le , *. A word use* 
commonly with regard to Irishmen living out 
of their country* 

ABSINTHIA1TED, a^-sfoWe-a-ttd, part. 
Impregnated with wormwood. 

To ABSIST, ab-slst', t. n. To stand off, to 

leave off. 
To ABSOLVE, ab-z6lv',t>. a. 448* To clear, 

to acquit of a crime in a judicial sense*; to set 
free from an engagement or promise ; to pro- 
nounce a sin remitted, in the ecclesiastical 
sense. _ 

ABSOLUTE, tibfeo4nte, a. 448. Complete, 
applied as well to persons as things ; uncon- 
ditional, as an absolute promise ; not relative, 
as absolute space ; not limiteo, as absolute 
power.— See Domestic. 

ABSOLUTELY, aVso-lute-le, ad. torn* 
pletely, without restriction; without condi- 
tion; peremptorily, positively. 

ABSOLUTENESS, aVso-i&te-n&s, s. 



air 167, odt 163— rube 171, tSb 172, bftll 173— oft 2W—p4und ill -thin 466, this 469. 

pleeeneas; freedom from dependence, or limits; 

ABSOLUTION. ab-a^lfrAan, 9. Acquittal; 

the remission of sins, or of penance. 
ABSOLUTORY, ib-soTo-tir-re, a. That 

which absolves. 

fj In the tort edMon of this Dictionary I followed 
lai mm lamina nf Ineiawii ■nil flri) hi Ihii wniil. ■ml 
i u* strew apou the arst syllable, contrary to 
I bad doe* some years before In the Rhyming 
r, where I had placed the accent on the se- 
which was the accentuation adopted by Mr. 
Upon a nearer inspection ef the analogies 
ge, I tad this the preferable mode of 
it, as words in this leruuuation, though very 
generally follow the stress of the corre- 
■oaa or verb ; aad coaseqaeiitly this word 
to hare the same accent as absolve, which is 
ore immediate relation of the word in question, 
aot the accent of a fleo f s jf ey which is the mo* die- 
US. Keurkk, W. Johnston, Kntick, and V ares, 
have not Inserted this word ; and Mr. Perry very im- 
properly accents it upon the third syllable. 

ABSONANT, lb so-nlnt, a. 544. Contrary 

ABSONOUS, aVao-nuj, a. Absurd, con- 

tmry to reason. 
To ABSORB, lb-sorb', e. a. To swallow 

up ; to such up. 
ABSORBENT. ab-soVblnt, # . A medicine 

that socks up nurnour*. - 
ABSORPT, to-s&rpt'.perf. Swallowed up. 
ABSORPTION, ab-sorpskun,«. The act 

of swallowing op. 
To ABSTAIN, ab-stane', v. *, To forbear, 

to den j one's self any gratification. 
ABSTEMIOUS, ab-stetoe-fis, «. Tempe- 

rnle, sober, abstinent. ' 

ABSTEMIOUSLY,, abHrtetai-fts-li, ad. 

Teanpemtrlj, soberly, without indulgence. 
ABSTEMIOUSNESS, ab-ste^-fis-niss, «. 

5S4 The a uality of being a bstemioos. 
ABSTENTION, aW&'shttn, «. The act 

of bo idiug o ff. 
To ABSTERGE, ab-atlrje , e. a. To cleanse, 

by wiping. 
ABSTERGENT, lb-stir jfat, a. Cleansing ; 

having a cleansing quality. 
To ABSTERSE, ib-stirse , r. a. To cleanse, 

to puri fy. 

ABSTERTION, ab-ster shin, s. The act of 

ABSTERSIVE, ab-st&slv, a. 428. That 

hns the quality of absterging or cleansing. 
ABSTINENCE, ab'ste-nlnse, «. Forbear- 

aoce of any thing ; fasting, or forbearance of 

Bjeeeaasvy (nod. 

ABSTINENT, lb ste-nint, a. That uses ab- 

To ABSTRACT, ab-strikf , ©. a. To take 

one thing from another; to separate ideas; 

to reduce to an epitome. 
ABSTRACT, ab-strikt'. a. Separated from 

something else, generally used with relation 

to mental perceptions. 
ABSTRACT, lb ttrakt, $. 499. A smaller 

quantity, eoutajning the virtne or power of a 

greater ; an epitome made by taking out the 

principal parts. 
ABSTRACTED, ab-stral/t&l, p. a. Sepa- 

tnted ; refined, abstruse i absent of mind. 
ABSTRACTEDLY, ab-8trak*?d-le, ad. 

WHh abstraction, simply, separate from all 

coatiofent circumstances. 


ABSTRACTION, 4b-straVshun, s. The 
act of abstracting, the state of being ab- 

ABSTRACTIVE, ab-strak'rlv, a. Having 
the power or quality of abstracting. 

ABSTRACTLY, ab-strakt'leV ad. In an ab- 
stract manner. 

ABSTRUSE, ab-struse, a. 427. Hidden; 
difficult, remote from conception or appre- 

ABSTRUSELY, 4b-strQsene,a</. Obscurely, 
not plainly, or obviously. 

ABSTRUSENESS,.ab-strfoe'ness, #. Diffi- 
culty, obscurity. 

ABSTRUSITY, ab-strn'se-te, *. 511. Ab- 
struseness ; that which is abstruse. 

To ABSUME, ab-suroe', v, a. To bring to an 
end by gradual waste. 

ABSURD, ab-snrd', a. Inconsistent; con- 
trary to reason. 

ABSURDITY, ab-suVde-te,*. 611. The qua- 
lity of being absurd ; that which is absurd. 

ABSURDLY, ab-sirdle, ad. Improperly, 

ABSURDNESS, ab-surd'n^ss, 8. The qua- 
lity of being absurd ; injudiciousness, impro- 

ABU^DANCE, a-bnn'danse, «. Plenty; 

great numbers ; u great quantity ; exuberance, 
more than enough. 

ABUNDANT, tbfa'dant, a. Plentiful ; ex- 
uberant ; fully stored. 

ABUNDANTLY, a-bin'dant-le, aa\ In 
plenty, amply, liberally, more than suffi- 

To ABUSE, a-boze', e. a. 4S7. To make an 
ill use of; to deceive, to impose upon; to 
treat with rudeness. 

ABUSE, a-base', «. 437. The ill use of any 
thing ; a corrupt practice, bad custom ; se- 
duce ment; unjust censufw, rude reproach. 

ABUSER, a-buzur, *. He that makes an ill 
use; he that deceives; he that reproaches 
with rudeness. 

ABUSIVE, a-bn'slv. a. 428. Practising 
abuse ; containing abuse ; deceitful. 

ABUSIVELY, a-b&slv-le. ad. Improperly, 
by a wrong use; reproachfully. 

To ABUT, A-buf , v. n. obsolete. To end 
at. to border upon : to meet, or approach to. 

ABUTMENT, a-but'mtot, s. That which 
abuts, or borders upon another. 

ABYSS, a-biss , s. A depth without bot- 
tom ; a great depth, a gulf. 

ACACIA, a-kafehe-a, s. 605. A drug 
brought from Egypt. 

ACADEMIAL, ak-a-deVme-al, a. Relating 
to an academy. 

ACADEMIAN,ak-a-de i me-4n,s. A scholar 
of an academy or university. 

ACADEMICAL, ak-a-d&n me-kil, a. * Be- 
longing to an university. 

ACADEMICK, ak-a-deWik, #. 608. A 
student of an university. 

ACADEMICK, ak-ka-dem fk, a. Relating 
to an university. 

ACADEMICIAN, ak-ka-de-m?sh'an, s. The 

member of an academy. 
ACADEMIST,a-cad de-m?st,or akg-d&o-lst 

i. The member of an academy . 
I A C ADEM Y, a-kid de-mo, or Ik i &lm% f 


*?M0. Fite 73, Jar 77, All 8S, i1t8I^m4 98, mit 95-i>Ue 105, pin 107— no 102, move 164, 

An aHr mbf; :or atoeietytof ra*n» uniting for the 
promotion of some art ; the place where sci- 
ences are taught ; a place of education, in 
contradistinction to the universities or pub- 
lic schools. 

J3» Dr. Johnton telle us, that this word was an* 
clenily and property accented on the first syllable, 
though now frequently on the second. That It was 
accented on the first syllable till within these few 
yean, it pretty generally remembered ; and if Shake- 
apeare did not, by poetical license, violate the accen- 
tuation of hl» time, It was certainly pronounced so 
two centuries ago, as appears by Br. Johnson's quota- 
tion of him : 

" Our court shall he a little academy, 
M Slill sud contemplative ia living arts.* 

Love's Labour's Lost. . 

And in Ben Joaaon's New Inn we find the same ac- 
centuation : 

— — — " Every house became 

" An academy of honour, and those parts 
« "We see departed.* ' 

But the acceptation or this word formerly, on the 
flrst syllable; is so generally acknowledged, as not to 
stand in need of poetic authority. The question is, 
whether this acceetuatiou, or that which places the 
atrcss on the second syllable. Is the most proper) To 
wave, therefore, the authority of custom, which pre- 
cludes all reasoning on language, ami reduces the dJv 
pnteto a mere matter of fact, it may be presumed, 
that whatever is agreeable to the most general usage of 
the language in similar words, is'Uie most proper in 
this; and it' it appeals that general usage, io similar 
words, is in favour of the old pronunciation, it most 
rertalnly, for that reason, be allowed to be the best. 
And first it may b* observed, tint as our language Is 
almost as averse to the accent on the last syllable as 
the Latin, it is a general enstojn whh us, when we 
adopt a word from the Latin, and abridge it or one or 
two of its syllable*, to remove the accent at ie4St a 
syllable higher than it was in the original language, 
that the accrn*, when the word Is naturalised, may 
not rest on tbe last. That, of Homirus we mane Ho- 
mer; of Vlrgjtiius, FfrgM; and of Horaftius, Hdrace: 
Myacl'aiku*, nltorcd to jfy'acwth, removes the ac- 
cent two syllables higher ; and caremo'nld, become 
ciremony, does the saasn ; and no law, that I know' of, 
forbids us to accent amdemia, or if yon will Ajtafcyuua, 
when inrned into academy, on the first syllable, aa it 
was constantly accented by oar ancestors, who, re- 
ceiving Greek through the medium of Latin, generally 
I pronounced Greek words according to the Latin ana- 
ogy, and tlrcrefore necessarily placed the accent of 
academla on the third syllable, which, when reduced 
to academy, required tbe accent to be removed 

Hut how, it will he said, does this aeeonnt for 
placing the accent on the first syllable of the English 
word academy, rather than the second f To this it 
may be answered, that the .numberless instances of 
preference given by the accent to the first syllable in 
similar words, such as melancholy, parsimony, dila- 
tory, See, might be a sufficient authority without any 

' " If I 

other reason. Bat perhaps it will be pardopedine 

go farther, and banarda supposition that seems to ac- 
count for the very common practice of piaoing tbe 
secant of so many of the .longer polysyllables from 
die Latin on the first' or secoud syllable. Though in 
the Latin there never *ps more than one accent upon 
a word, yet, In oar pronunciation of Latin, we coin' 
moniy place an accent on alternate *y) tables, as in 
oar own w? Ms; and when the Latin word, by betafe 
anglicised, becomes shorter, tbe alternate accent be- 
comes the princ pal. .Thus, tu pronouncing the Latin 
word accmemta,- the English naturally place an ac- 
cent on the first and third syllable, as if divided Into 
m'cra-dA-a&a ; so that when the! word becomes anguV 
cised into a'c-ade-my, the first sylUble retains the ac- 
cent it had when the word was Latin. On the other 
hand, it may be conjectured, with tome probability, 
that a fondness for pronouncing like the French has 
been the occasion of tbe alteration. A» the English 
aver suppose the French place tbe accent on the last ling to Air. 
ayUabjf, i» endeavouring to proneanee this word after | course differs 

their manner, the stress mast naturally fall on the 
second and' la*t syllables, a* if divided into aca'd-a 
mie ; and from an initiation of this, it is probable, Me 
present protnuscisfion ' of the word was produce d. 
Thus we haye * very probable reason why so mauy 
of our longer words from the Latin are acre n led so 
near the bVgiilriiug ; as, in this mode of pronouncing 
them, they seem to retain one of the. accents or the 
original. Hence the long tram of woids, oohmtary, 
comparable, disputable, admirable, 4ce, have the ac- 
cent on tbe 1kn syllable ;oe«wus<% in pronouncing tbe 
words vslunfarhts, eomparabUls, dtoputabUis, ad 
mirabiiis; ore. we ; commonly lay a stress, a pon tbe 
first, as «eil as the third vyilabte. A« to the analogy, 
as Mr. Sherid,an pretends, of pronouncing tbls woid 
with thehecvuton theeeeond syllable* because words • 
ending in wiy Inve ihe^rceenlontftc antepenultimate, 
itottritrg can be more itf founded* True it. It, that 
words of this ter ruination never have- the accent on 
the penultimate; but that, for this reaion, they must 
necessarily have the accent on the autepeaultlmate, I 
cannot well comprehend. If polygamy, economy, 
astronomy, Arc. StJVhave their accent ©a the aw»e- 
petrahimate, It arise* from the nature of the 4« muta- 
tions ; which beln*, as H were, a species, and appli- 
cable, to a thousand oth<r woida, bav*„Mke logy and 
graphy, the accent always on the preceding syllable ; 
which seems best to nriite. the. compound into one 
word: but acadtmy behcg a simple, is subject to no* 
such rule, and seems naturally to incline to a different 
analogy or pruhuueiaimn. .Thus Du Johnson seems 
to have decided justly in sa>ing the w*rd academy 
ought !» have the accent on the fir»t syllable; though 
present usage, It rhmt be confVssed, seems to lead to 
the contrary .pronunciAiion, 

ACANTHUS, &-\&ntfAs, #. 470. The 

herb bears-foot * ' . - - 

ACATALECTIC, A-bM*llk't\k 9 $. A 
verse which has the complete number of syl- 
To ACCEDE, ak-aede', r. n. To be added 

.to, to •come to. . , , , 

To ACCELERATE, ak*s£MMtte, v. a. To 

make quick, to hasten, to quicken motion. 
ACCELERATION, ak-sll-lar-a iihan, *. 
The act of quickening motion ; the state of 
the body accelerated. 555. 
To ACCEND, ik-sind, v. a. To kindle, to 
' set on tire. 
ACCENSION, ak-seVsbin, *. The act of 

kindling, or the state of being kindled. 
ACCENT, ak sent, s. 486. The manner of 
speaking or pronouncing: tbe marks made 
upon syllables to reflate their pronunciation ; 
a modification of the voice, expressive of the 
naasions or sentiments. 
To ACCENT, ak-s&t', e. a. 492. To pro- 
nounce, to speak words with pat ticular regard 
to the grammatical marks or rules ; to write or 
note the accents 
ACCENTUAL, ak-§ enOshMI, a. Relating 
to accents. 46*3. 

ty This word is in Jio English Dictionary I have 
met with ; but, conceiving Ha formation to be perfect- 
ly agreeable to the analogy of En*lttb ailjectlvis, and 
finding It used by several «ery resperuble authors, I 
have ventured to insert it. Mr. roster, in his Essay 
on Acccut and Quantity, says, " When a high note 
succeeds a low one, or rhes above the <rave tone of 
voice, the perception of it is sodden and instantaneous, 
before the eontlmiancirofthe note is. determined on*, 
way or the other tor long or shoit., l^iis I more 
clearly conceive than I can perhaps express I can 
however engage to make It perceptible to a common 
Emrlish ear iu any Oreek word, according to its pre- 
sent aecenfttal marl.* And D». Galley, io his I>is> 
serUtlon *e»tust t» i et k Accents, makes u*« of tbe same 
word, where he say a, M for if TJ0231 nie*ns,BCccr4 
1 - -' Foster, that oratorical or common dfis- 

troni music only In the number eff 


air 167, not 1G3 -tube 171, t&b 172, bull 17S— 4H 29ft-poftnd Btt~*Ain 460, Tim 46*. 

ACCESSORILY, Ak*eW-re-le, ad. It 

the manner of an accessory. 

ACCESSORY, Ak'seVso-re, a. 557. Join- 
.ed to another thing, so as to increase it j ad- 

ACCIDENCE, Ak'se-d&ise, s. The little 
book containing the first rudiments of gran*- 
mar, and explaining the properties of the eight 
parts of speech, 

ACCIPENT, Ak'se-dent, «. The property 
or quality of any being which may be sepa- 
rated from it, at least in thought ; in grain, 
roar, the property of a word ; that Which 
happens unforeseen ; casualty, chance. 

ACCIDENTAL, Ak-se-den til, s. A pro- 
perty non-essential. 

ACCIDENTAL, Ak-Fe-deVtAl, a. Having 
the Quality of an accident, non-essentiai ; 
ai, fortuil 

L *. that the former has only rovr or fire 
■***, eat that the latter has many more, then the 
Kttwhmt pronunciation of a Greek rcnicnce will not 
ifrr from the stinging of the tame sentence, when 
ki to far or tve cot responding notes in mastc, i ft. 
I «Ji ia both .case* be a song." 

Ts ACCENTUATE, ak-sin'taha-ate, v. a. 

461 To place the accent properly. 
ACCENTUATION, ak-sen-UhM^hun, *> 

Ike act of placing tlie accent in pronunciation, 

w writing. 
To ACCEPT, Ak-aipf, v. a. To take with 

pieatnre, to receive kindly. 
ACCEPTABILITY, ak-ilp-tl-bJia^-te, «. 

Ike quality of being acceptable. 
ACCEPTABLE, Ik sip-ti-bl, a. Grateful ; 

tfWhaui these twenty years this word has shifted 
to scent from the second to the ft'st syllable. 
There ace now few polite speakers wtio do not pro- 
aoanre ft BtfctptaJbU ; and it is much to be regret- 
ted that this pronunciation is become so general ; 
i" where cotuwaants of so different an organ as p 
and t arc bear the end of a word, the word is pro- 
B races ' with muebmore difficulty when the accent 
m removed higher than when It it arrested by these 
tattss; far, in this case, the force which accom- 
sa>» ihe accent facilitates the organs in their 
Inatiiioa from the formation of the one letter to 
tftc otLer. As nature, therefore, directs as to place 
ttjtsc consonant* in all wotds ending In active, 
athe. fcf ier, actirt, and uctUe ; act lb U, edible, 
srnvsV, and Mctible ; so we ought to listen to (be 
une voire fa pronouncing acceptable, susceptible, 
nrrajtfaMe, with the accent on the second syllable. 
Sot ( MunfMitottlc 

ikeqaality of being acceptable. 

ArrptTABLY, Ik'slp-ti-ble, ad. In an 
acceptable maimer. 

ACCEPTANCE, fc-aeVtaiise, $. Recep- 
tion with approbation. 

ACCEPTATION, ak-s£p-ta'shnn, $. Re- 
eeption, whether good or bad j the meaning 
of a word 

ACCEPTOR, ak-eeVtur, «. 06. The per- 
•oe that accepts. 

ACCEPTION, ik-aeVshQn, a. The re. 
ceived sense of a word ; the meaning. 

ACCE8S, Ak-seW, #. The way by which 
nj thiof may be approached; the means, 
or liberty, of approaching either to things or 
■en ; increase, enlargement, addition ; the 
ictanu or fits of a distemper. 

I? This word ia sometimes beard with the accent on 
tat frit syllable:— 

" 1U»I, watcr*grael, healing power, 
'* Of easy access to the poor * 
Ba* this pionauciation ongbt to be avoided, as 
•oairsry to analogy, and th« general usage of the 
tacaage ; as may be seen in Johnson, nnder the 

ACCESSARINESS, ak'^s-slr're-n&w, #. 
The state of being accessary. 

ACCESSARY, Ak'se's-Ba-re, #. He that, 
sot being the chief agent in a crime, contri* 
bates w u. 

ACCESSARY, Ak^-sa-re, «. Joined to, 
additional, helping forward. 

ACCESSIBLE, Ik-aeW-bJ, a. That which 

.*? ^approached. 

ACCESSION, ak-sesh'an, t. Increase by 
•wneibinjj added ; the act of coming to, or 
jgying one's self to, as, accession to a con- 
«°eracy ; the act of arriving at, as, the king's 
•tension to the throne. 


casual, fortuitous, happening hv chance. 
ACCIDENTALLY, ak-se-den tal-le, acU 

Casually, fortuitously. 
ACCIDENTALNESS, ak-se-deVtil-nlss, 

s. The quality of being accidental. 
ACCIPIENT, v ak-B?p ; p^-^nt, $. A receiver. 
To ACCITE, ak-slte', v. a. To call ; to 

ACCLAIM, ak-klame', «. A shout of 

praise ; acclamation. 
ACCLAMATION, Ak-klA-ma'ahfin, s. 

Shouts of applause. 
ACCLIVITY, ak-klfr've-te, a. 511. The 

steepness or slope of a line inclining to the 

horizon, reckoned upwards ; as, the ascent 

of an hill is the acclivity, the descent is tho 
. declivity, 
ACCLIVOUS, a*-kll'vu», a. 603, A. Rising 

with a slope. 
To ACCLOY, ak-kloe', v. a. 329. To fill 

up, in an ill sense : to fill to satiety. 
To ACqOIL, ak-kofl', v. n. 229. To crowd, 

to keep a coil about, to bustle, to be in a 

ACCOLENT, tif/ko-lent, s. 544. A bor- 
ACCOJrlMODABLE, 4k-k6m'mo-dd-bl, a. 

That which may be fitted. 
To ACCOMMODATE, Ak.kom'mo-date,v.a. 

91. To supply with conventencies of anv kind. 
ACCOMMODATE, Ak-komrao-d&te. a. 

Suitable, fit. 91. 
ACCOMMODATELY, ak-kdnrtno-date-lc, 

od. 91. Suitably, fitly. 

*. Provision of conveniei.cies ; in the plural, 

conventencies, things requisite to ease or re- 
freshment ; composition of a difference, re* 

conciliation, adjustment. 
ACCOMPANABLE, Ak-kum pa-mt-bl, a. 

ACCOMPANIER, ik-kam'pd-ne-nr, «. 

The 'person that makes part of the company ; 

To ACCOMPANY, Ak-kum'pA-ne, v. , «. To 

be with another as a companion ; to join with. ' 

ACCOMPLICE, ak-kom'plk, s. 142. An 

associate, a partaker, usually in on ill sense j. 

a partner, or co-operator. 
To ACCOMPLISH, ak-kom/pllsh, v. a. To 

complete, to execute fully, as, to accomplish 

a design ; to fulfil, as a prophecy ; to adorn, 

**r furnish, either mind or body. 


tT 550. Fife 73, fax 77, fill 88, fit 81— to* 99, mlt 06— pme 10S,pin 107— no 163, move 104, 

ACCOMPLISHED* a*-k6n f plish4d, p. a. 

Complete in tome qualification; elegant, 
finUhed in ret poet of embellishments. „ 

ACCOMPLISHER, ak-kom'pllsh-ur, #. 
The person that accomplishes. 

ACCOMPLISHMENT, ak-kom'pllsh-m&it, 
«. Completion, fall performance, perfection ; 
completion, as of a prophecy ; embellishment, 
elegance, ornament of mind or body. 

ACCOMPT, ik-kount', «. 407. An ac- 
count, a reckoning. 

ACCOMPTANT, ik-kofijr'rint, #. A reck- 
oner, cempetor. 412. 

To ACCORD, tk-kord', v. a. To make 
agree, to adjust one thing to another. 

To ACCORt), tk-kord', tr. n. To agree, to 
suit one with another. 

ACCORD, lk-kord', *. A compact, an 
agreement j concurrence, union of mind ; 
harmony, symmetry. 

ACCORDANCE, flt-koVd4nse ; *. Agree- 
ment with a person; conformity to some- 

ACCORDANT, alc-koVdant, a. Willing, 
in good humour. 

ACCORDING, Ik-kVdmg, j». In a man- 
ner suitable to, agreeable to ; in proportion ; 
with regard to. 

ACCORDINGLY, fcc-kortting-le, «d. 
Agreeably, suitably, conformably. 

To ACCOST, ak-kostf , v. a. To speak to 
first, to address, to salute. 

ACCOSTABLE, ak-kds'ti-bl, a. 405. Easy 
of access, familiar. 

ACCOUNT, ak-koanf, «. 407. A compu- 
tation of debts or expenses ; the state or re- 
sult of a computation; value or estimation; 
a narative, relation ; the relation and reasons 
of a transaction given to a person in au- 

To ACCOUNT, 4k-koant', v. a. To esteem, 
to think, to hold in opinion ; to reckon, to 
compute ; to give an account, to assign the 
causes ; to make up the reckoning, to answer 
for practice ; to hold in esteem. 

ACCOUNTABLE, Ak-kMn'ta-bl, a. Of 
whom an account may be required; who 
must answer for. 

ACCOUNTANT, ak-ko&ntant, a. Ac- 
countable to, responsible lor. 

ACCOUNTANT, ik-koftntant, *. A com- 
puter, a roan skilled or employed in accounts. 

ACCOUNT-BOOK, ak-kofljifbook, s. A 
book containing accounts. 

To ACCOUPLE, ik-kup'pl, v. a. ' To 
join, to link together. 314. 

To ACCOURT, ak-kortf, *. a. 318. To 
entertain with courtship or courtesy. 

To ACCOUTRE, ik-koo'tur, v. a. To dress, 
to equip. 316. 

ACCOUTREMENT, 4k-kotoar-meiit, t. 
Press, equipage, trappings, ornaments. 

ACCRETION, ak-kre'suAn, *. The act of 
growing to another, so as to increase it. 

ACCRETIVE, ak-kre'tlv, a. 158. Grow- 
ing, that which by growth is added. 

To ACCROACH, ik-krotsh',?. a. To draw 
to one as with a hook. 295. 

To ACCRUE, ik-kroo', e. *. 330. To ac- 
cede to, to be added to ; to be added, as an 
advantage or improvement ; in a commercial 
nejjve, to be produced, or arise, as profits. 


ACCUBATION, ik-ka-bt/shin, s. The 
ancient posture of leaning at meats. 

To ACCUMB, aJc-kfimb', e. a. 347. To lie 
•t the table, according to the ancient manner. 

To ACCUMULATE, tk*ku'mu-late, t>. «. 
To pile up, to heap together. 91. 

ACCUMULATION, Ik-ko-ma-la'shun, «. 
The act of accumulating ; the state of being 

ACCUMULATIVE. Ik-ku'ma-la-tiv, a. 
That which accumulates ; that which is accu- 
mulated. 157. 

ACCUMULATOR, ak-ka'm&-la-tar, «. He 
that accumulates, a gatherer or heaper to- 

Srther. 521. 
CURACY, aVku-ri-se, s. Exactness, 

• nicety. 

ACCURATE, ak'ku-rate, a. 01. Exact, as 
opposed to negligence or ignorance; exact, 
without defect or failure. 

ACCURATELY, ik'ku-rate-le, ad. Exact- 
ly, without errour, nicely. 

ACCURATENESS, ik'ka-rate-ness, «. Ex- 
actness, nicety. * , 

To ACCURSE, 4k-kirse', t\ a. To ddun 
to misery. 

ACCURSED, &-kita&l, ear*, a. 362. That 
which is cursed or doomed to misery ; exe- 
crable, hateful, detestable. 

ACCUSABLE, ak-ku'za-bl, a. 405. That 
which may be censured ; blameable ; cul- 
pable, „ 

ACCUSATION, Ik-ku-za'shun, «. The 
act of accusing ; the charge brought agaiust 
any one. 

ACCUSATIVE, ak-ko'za-tlv, «. A term 
of grammar, the fourth case of a noun. 

ACCUSATORY, ak-ku'dUo-re, a. That 
which producetii or coiitaineth an accusation* 

To ACCUSE, 4k~kuze', v. a. To charge 
with a crime; to blame or censure. 

ACCUSER, ik-ko'zur, «. 98. He that 
brings a chaste against another. 

To ACCUSTOM, ak-kus'tum, e. a. To 
habituate, to inure. 

ACCUSTOMABLE, ak-kus*tum-ma-bl, a. 
Done by long custom or habit. 

ACCUSTOMABLY, aUis'tum-4-ble, aa\ 
According to custom. 

ACCUSTOMANCE, ftk-kns'tnm-minse, «. 
Custom, habit, use. 

ACCUSTOMARILY, ik-kos'tum-mire-le, 
ad. In a customary manner. 

ACCUSTOMARY, ak-kustum-ma-r^ a. 
Usual, practised. 512. 

ACCUSTOMED, ak-kfls tum-ed, a. Ac- 
cording to custom, frequent, usual. 362. 

ACE, ase, «. An unit> a single point oa 
cards or dice ; a small quantity. 

ACERBITY, A-seVbi-te, «. 511. A rough 
sour taste; applied to men, sharpness of 

To ACERVATE, a-seVvate, e. a. 01. To 
heat up» 

ACERVATION, is-ir-va'shun, t. 527s 
Heaping together. ' 

ACESCENT, A-ses'sint, a. That which 
has a tendency to sourness or acidity. 

ACETOSE, is-e-tosV, «. 4S7. That which 
has m-it acids. 


167, not 166— tibe 171, tub 172, ball 179—Ml 29^-poAnd 313— tAin 466, this 460. 


ACFTOSITY, is-e-toVe-te, «. 

•tote of beiiig aceioae. 
ACETOUS, i-uetfo, a. 314. Soar. 
ACHE, Ike, «. 355. A continued pain. 
lw ACHE, ake, «. «. To be in pain. 
To ACHIEVE, at-tshere', e. a. To per- J 
to finish. J3T. 

The An ACQUIRER, ak-kwi'r&r, #. 98. The 
person thai acquires ; a gainer. 

An ACQUIREMENT, alc-kwWmfat, a, 
That which is acquired, gain, attainment. 

ACQUISITION, lk-kwe-zlsh'ahin,«. The 
act of acquiring ; the thing gained, acquire- 

An ACHIEVER, It-tshe'rnr, «. He that 

perform s what he endeavours. 
An ACHIEVEMENT, it-tshere'ment, s. 

The performance of an action ; the escut- 

chron. or ensigns armorial. 
ACHOR, Mcfir, $. 166. A species of the 

ACID, aVrfd, a. Sour, sharp. 
ACIDITY, a-sld'de-te, *. 511. Sharpness, 

ACIDNESS, issid-n&s, «. The quality of 
Wins: acid. 

ACIDULiE, a-sld'du-le, s. 199. Medicinal 
•Brings impregnated with sharp particles. 

To ACIDULATE, i-sid'do-late, e. a. To 
tinge with acids in a slight degree. 91. 

To ACKNOWLEDGE, ik-n6l?£dj, e. a. 
To own the knowledge of, to own any thing 
or person, in, a particular character: to con- 
fess, as, a fault; to own, as, a benefit. 338. 

ACKNOWLEDGING, ak-iioiaidj-ing, a. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT, ak-nflM&tfe-ment 

aSfft. — See Knowledge. Concession of the 

truth of any position ; confession of a fault ; 

confession of a benefit received. 

ACME, Iktae, s. The height of any thing ; 

more especially used to denote the height of 

a distemper. 
ACOLOTHIST, a-kolao-thkt, s. One of 

the lowest order in the Roman church. 

ACOLYTE, ik'o-llte,*.544. The same as 

ACONITE, Ikfko-nlte; *. 155. The herb 
wolfs- bane. Iu poetical language, poison in 

ACORN, a-kdrn, a, The seed or trait 
borne by the oak. m- 

ACOU8TICKS, a-koli'stikfl, s. 113. The 
doctrine or theory of sounds ; medicines to 
help the bearing. 

Tb ACQUAINT, Ak-kwanf,e. a. To make 
familiar with ; to inform. 909. I 

ACQUAINTANCE, ak-kwin'tanse, s. 
The state of being acquainted with, .famili- 
arity, knowledge; familiar knowledge; a 
sfiawt or initial knowledge, short of friend- 
ship ; the person with whom we are acquaint- 
ed, without the intimacy of friendship. 

ACQUAINTED, ak-kwanAed. Familiar, 

well known. 
ACQUEST, ak-kweW, a. Acquisition; 

the thing gained a m 

to ACQUIESCE, ik-kwe-eW, «. «. To 

rest ist, or remain satisfied. 
ACQUIESCENCE, a*-kwe-eas'ense.* A 

silent appearance of content; satisfaction, 

rest, content; submission. 
ACQUIRABLE, ak-kwM-bl, a. Attain- 

ante. 401 
T» ACQUIRE, Ik-kwlne , e. a. To gain by 

one's labour or power. 
ACQUIRED. sUc-lrwMd, part. a. 

by one's seit. 969. 
1 9 

ACQUISITIVE, ak-kwW-tk, a. That 
which is acquired. 157. 

ACQUIST, lk-kwist', s. Acquirement, at 

To ACQUIT, ak-kwlt', e. a. 415. To set 
free ; to clear from a charge of guilt, to ab- 
solve ; to clear from any obligation ; the man 
hath acquitted himself well, be discharged his 

ACQUITMENT, . ak-kwlt'mint. #. The 
state of being acquitted, or act of acquitting. 

ACQUITTAL, Ak-kwft'til, «. 157. Is a 
deliverance from an offence. 

To ACQUITTANCE, 4k-kwfc* dtnse, e. *. 
To. procure an acquittance, to acquit. 

ACQUITTANCE, ak-kwiftanse, *. The 
act of discharging from a debt ; a writing 
testifying the receipt of a debt. 

ACRE, e/kfir, «. 98. 416. A quantity of 
land, containing in length forty perches, and 
four in breadth, or four thousand eight hun- 
dred and forty square yards. 

ACRID, aVkrld, a. Of a hot biting taste. 

ACRIMONIOUS, aJc-kre-mtae-Ss, a. 
Sharp, corrosive. S14. 

ACRIMONY, akltre-mo-ne, s. 557. Sharp, 
ness, corrosiveuess ; sharpness of temper, 
severity. — See Domatic. 

ACRITUDE, ak'kre-tide, «. An acrid 
taste, a biting heat on the palate. 

ACRO AM ATICAL, ak'kro4-maf te-Ul, a, 
509. Of orpertaining to deep learning. 

ACROSPIRE, ak'kro-splre,*. 151. A shoot 
or sprout from the end of seeds. 

ACROSPIRED, ak'kro-Bpi-rid, parr. «. 
Having sprouts. 362. 

ACROSS, a-kr6ss', ad. Athwart, laid over 
something so as to cross it. 

An ACROSTTCK, t-krdss'tfk, «. A poem, 
in which the first letter of every line being 
taken, makes op the name of the persou or 
thingon which the poem is written. 

To ACT, aJct, e. a. To be in action, not to 

To ACT, 4kt, e. a. To perform a borrowed 
character, as a stage player; to produce 
effects in some passive subject 

ACT, akt, s. Something done, a deed, 
an exploit, whether good or ill ; a part of a 
play, during which the action proceeds with- 
out interruption ; a decree of parliament. 

ACTION, aVshftn,*. 290. The quality or 
state of acting, opposite to rest ; an act or 
thing done, a deed ; agency, operation ; the 
series of events represented in a fable ; gesti- 
culation* the accordance of the motions of tlie 
body with the words spoken ; a term in law. 

ACTIONABLE,aVshdn4-bl,a. That which 
admits an action in law, punishable. 405. 

ACTION-TAKING, ak'ahun-ta'king, a. 

ACTIVE, ak'dr, a. 151. That which has 
the power or quality of acting ; that which 
acts, opposed to passive; busy, engaging in 
action, opposed to idle or sedentary ; nimole, 


tT «p, Fate 7S, far 77, fill 89, fitt 81— me 93, met 95— pine 105, pk 107— no 103, move 104, 

ngile t qoiek ; in grammar, a verb active it 
that which signifies action, as, I teach, 

ACTIVELY, ik'tlv-le, ad. Busily nimbly. 
ACTIVENESS, Ak'tlv-ness, *. Quickness, 

ACTIVITY, ik-tiv'e-te, *. 615. The qua- 

lity of being active- 
ACTOR, ik'ter, «. 93. 418. He that acts, 

or performs- any thing ; he that personates a 

character, a stage player. 

ACTRESS, ik'tress, «. She that performs 

any thing : a woman that plays on the stage. 
ACTUAL, ik tshu-al, a. 461. Really in act, 

not merely potential ; in act, not purely in 

ACTUALITY, ak-tahu-alle-te, «. The 

state of being actual. 
ACTUALLY, ik'tshu-il-le, ad. In act, in 

effect, really. 

ACTUALNESS, ik'tshu-al-ness, «. The 

quality of being actual. 
ACTUARY, ik'tshA-a-re, s. The register 
, or officer who compiles the minutes of the 

proceedings of the court. 
To ACTUATE, ak'tshu-ate, v. c. To pat 

into action. 
To ACUATE, aku-ate, v. a. 91. Jo 


ACULEATE, i-kule-ate, a. 91. Prickly, 
that which trrminafes in a sharp point. 

ACUMEN, a-ku'men, a. 603, h. A sharp 
point ; figuratively, quickness of intellects. 

ACUMINATED, a-ku'meriia4ed, port. a. 
Ending in a point, sharp-pointed. - 

ACUTE, ft-kAte', a. Sharp, .opposed to 
blunt; ingenious, opposed to stupid j aoute 
disease, any disease which is attended with 
an increased velocity of blood, and terminates 
hi a few days ; acute accent, that which raises 
or sharpens the voice. 

ACUTELY, i-kutele, ad. After an acute 

manner, sharply. 

ACUTENESS, "i-kute'ness, s. Sharpness ; 
force of intellect ; violence and speedy crisis 
of a malady ; sharpness of sound. 

AD ACTED, i-dikted, part. a. Driven by 

ADAGE, idlje,*. 90. A maxim, a proverb. 

ADAGIO, a-da'je-o, «. A term used by 
musicians, to mark a slow time. 

ADAMANT, fo'a-mlnt, * A stone of im- 
penetrable hardness ; the diamond ; the load- 

ADAMANTEAN, ad4-min-tWn, a. Hard 
as adamant. 

ADAMANTINE, 4d4-man / t!n, a. Made of 
adamant , having the Qualities of adamant, 
as hardness, indissolubility.' 
13* Mr. Sheridan,. Dr. Kanrfck, and Mr. -Perry, 

uniformly pronoance tbe last syllable of this word as 

It is here marked, and W. Johnston only so as to 

rhyme with line. 140. 

ADABfS-APPLE, Id^mz-Vpli *• A 

prominent part of the throat. 
To ADAPT, i-dipt', v. a. To fit, to suit, 

to proportion. 
ADAPTATION, ad-ap-tattiun,*. The act 

of fitting one thing to another, the fitness of 

one thing to another. 5i7. 
ADAPTION, a-dapfehfin, #. the act of 



To ADD, id, ©. a. To join something to 

that which was before. 
To ADDECIMATE, ad-4eVse-mate,v.a. To 

take or ascertain fith**s. 91. 
To ADDEEM, id-deem', e. a. To esteem, 

to account. 
ADDER, id'd&r, *. 98. 418. A serpent, a 

viper, a poisonous reptile. 

ADDER'S-GRASS, id'durz-griss, s. A 

ADDER'S-TONGUE, id'dure-t&ng, #. An 

ADDER'S-WORT, id'd&ra-wurt, s. Ah 

ADDIBLE, id'dc-bl, a. 406. Possible to 

' he added. *■ 

ADDIBILITY, id-de-bil1e-te,«. The pot* 

sibftty of bring added, 511. 
ADDICE, id'dis, «. 142. A kind of ax, 

corruptly pronounced ait. 
To ADDICT, id-dikf, e. a. To devote, to. 

dedicate ; it is commonly taken in a bad sense 

as, he addicted himself to vice. 

ADDICTEDNESS, id-dik'tid-ness, 8. *Tbe 
state nf being addicted. 

ADDICTION, id-dik'shun, *. The act of 
devoting ; the state of being devoted. 

An ADDITAMENT. id-dit'i-mint, s. Ad- 
dition,the thing' added. 

ADDITION, id-dfsk'shun, *. 469. The 
act of adding one thing to another ; the thing 
added; in arithmetic, addition is the reduc- 
tion* of two or more numbers of like kind to* 
gether into one sum or total. 

ADDITIONAL, id-dish'shun-il, a. That 

which is added. 
ADDITORY, i'dde-to-re, a. 612. That 

which has the power of adding. 

ADDLE, id'dl, a. 406. Originally applied 
- to eggs, and signifying such as produce no- 
thing,thence transferred to brains that produce 

ADDLE-PATED, i ddl-pa-ted, «. Having 

barren brains. 
To ADDRESS, id-dreW, v. a. To prepare 

one's self to enter upon any action ; to apply 
to another by words 

ADDRESS, id-dress', s. Verbal applicav 
tion to any one ; courtship ; manner of ad- 
. dressing another, as, a man of pleasing ad- 
dress j skill, dexterity; manner of directing a 

ADDRESSER, ad-dreVsur, «. 98. The 
person that aodresses. 

To ADDUCE, id-duse. To bring some- 
: thing forward in addition to something ahead jr 

%y This word, though constantly arising in con. 
Versatlou, has not yet round its *ay into any of oar 
Dictionaries. It Is, however, legitimately formed, 
and has a dlrttnet •ad' specific tleoification, which 
distinguishes It from etnaSace, induct, prWstre, and 
reduce, and has netefore a Jost title to become a 
part or the language. The propriety of It Is a sonv 
clent authority. 

ADDUCENT, id-da stnt, f «. A word ap- 
plied to those muscles that* draw together the 
parts of the body. - 
To ADDULSE, id-dnlge , r. a. To sweeten* 
ADDENQGRAPHY, id-de-B6g%ri-ft, f. 
A treatise of the glands. 510. 



air 167, n£t 103— tube 171, tub 172, bill 173-iil 209— pound SIS— tain 406, this 409L 

ADEMPTION, a-deWshuji. a. 412. Pri- 

ADEPT, l-de^pf , a. He that is completely 
skilled m mil the secrets of bis art. 

ADEQUATE, id'e-kwlte, a. 91. Equal to, 

ADEQUATELY, id'e-kwate-le, ad. In an 
adequate maimei ; with exactness of propur- 

ADEQUATENES8,ta'e-kwate-n3se,a. The 
state of being adequate, exactness of propor- 

Tb ADHERE, id-hire', v. n. To stick to.; 

to remain firmly fixed to a party, or opinion. - 
ADHERENCE, id-he'r&ise, a. The qua- 

fity of adhering, tenacity J fixedness of mind, 

attachment, steadiness. 
ADHERENCY, Id-he'r&i-ae, a. 192. Hie 

sane with adherence. 
ADHERENT, M-he/rent, a. Sticking to ; 

smiled with. 
ADHERENT) id-he'rent, a. A follower, a 

parti sail. 
ADHERER, id-he'r&r, a. 98. He that ad- 

ADHESION, Id-he'zhun, a. 431. The act 
or state of sticking to something. 

ADHESIVE, ad-he'srv, a. 158, 428. Stick- 
ing, tenacious. 

To ADHIBIT, ad-hft/blt, r.a. To apply, 
to make use of. 

ADHIBmON,id-he-blsh'shun,«. Appli- 
cation, use. 507. 

ADJACENCY, ad-ja's«W, a. 182. Hie 
state of lying close to another thing. 

ADJACENT, ad-ja'sent, a. Lying close, 
bordering upon something. 

ADJACENT, td-js/sent, a. That which 
lies next another. 

ADI APHOROUS, i^e-4f fo-rus, a. Neu- 

ADIAPHORY, i-dkiffo-re, s. 534. Neu- 
tralitv, indifference. 

To ADJECT, ad-jlcf, To add to, to 
put to. 

ADJEdlON, ad-jlk'ahnn, a. The act of 
adjecting, or adding; the tiling adjected, or 
aaVled. . 

ADJECTmOUS,ad-j&-tiah'ua,a, Added, 
thrown in. 

ADJECTIVE, id'jek-tfv, s. 512. A word 
added to a noun, to signify the addition or 
separation of some quality, circumstance, or 
■tanner of being ; as, good, bad. 

ADJECTIVELY, ad'jfk-dv.le, ad. After 
the manner of an adjective. 

ADIEU, i-dJr\ ad. 284. Farewell. 

To ADJOIN, id-job, «. a. 299. To join to, 
to nnite to, to put to. 

To ADJOIN, ad-join/, e. *. To be conti- 
guous to. ... 

To ADJOURN, td-jlW, t>. a. 314. To put 
off to another day, naming the time. 

ADJOURNMENT, ad-jftrn'mgnt, a. A put- 
ting off tiH another day. 

ADIPOUS, 4d'de-pua, a. 314. Fat 

ADIT, IcVfc, a. A passage under ground. 

ADITION, Id-ish'ahun, a. 459. The act of 

going to another. 
To ADJUDGE td-jfcUe',e. a. To give the 
iting controrerted to one of the parties j to 


sentence to a punishment ; simply, to judge, 
1 to decree. 
ADJUDICATION, ad : ja-de-ka/shun,a. The 

act of grunting something to a litigant. 
To ADJUDICATE, ad-ju'de-kate,*. a. To 
• adjudge. 
To ADJUGATE, ad'ju-gate, e. o. 91. To 

yoke to. 
ADJUMENT, id'jo-mint, a. Help. 
ADJUNCT, Id'junkt, *. Something ad- 
herent or united to another. 
ADJUNCT, id'jmikt,*. Immediately joined. 
ADJUNCTION, ad-junVshun, *, The act 

of adjoining: the thing adjoined. 
ADJUNCTIVE, id-junk'tiv, *. 158. He 

that joins ; that which i* joined. 
ADJURATION, id-ju-rtfshim, s. The act 

of proposing an oath to another ; tlte form of 

oath proposed to another. 
To ADJURE, ad-jure', v. a. To impose an. 
. oath upon atfother, describing the form. 
To ADJUST, ad-jusf , r. a. To regulate, 

to put in order *, to make conformable. 
ADJUSTMENT, ad-just'mlnt, a. Regular 

tion, the act of putting in method ; the state 

of being put in method. 
ADJUTANT, id'ju-tint, a. 503, fc. A petty 

officer, whose duts it is to assist the major, by 

distributing pa v, and overseeing punishment; 
To ADJUTE, 'idrjute', e. a. To help, to 

ADJUTOR, Id-jo'tuT, s. 98, 166. A helper. 
ADJUTORY, Ad'jA-tar-re, a. 512. That 

which helps. 557. 
ADJUVANT, ad'ju-vaat, a. Helpful, useful. 
To ADJUVATE, ad'ju-vate, e. a. To help, 

to further. 503, k. 
ADMEASUREMENT, ftd-m3zh'ure-m2m% 

s. The act or practice of measuring according 

to role. 

ADMEN9URATION, id-min-shu-ra'shun, 
s. 458. The act of measuring to each his part 

ADMINICLE, ad-raln'e-kl, a. 405. Help, 

ADMINICULAR, id-me-nlk'a-ltr, a. That 

which gives help. 418 
To ADMINISTER, id-mfrnis-tar,*. a. lb 

To ADMINISTRATE, id-mto'nis-trate, v. 
a. 91. The same as Administer. 

ADMINISTRATION, ad'mKnfe-tra-sh&n* 
a 527. The act of administering or conduct* 
ing any employment ; the active or executive 
part of government j those to whom the care 
of public affairs is committed, 

ADMINISTRATIVE, ad.mln'nfo-tra-dr, «. 
157. That which administers. 

ADMINISTRATOR, Id'mm-nls-tra'tar, * 
98. 527. He that has the goods of a man dy- 
ing intestate committed to his charge, and U 
accountable for the same ; he that officiates in 
divine rites ; he that conducts the government. 

ADMINISTRATRIX, adtara-nfe-tra'-trlka, 
a> 517. She who administers in consequence 
of a will. 

ADMINISTRATORSHIP, ftdtaln-nls-tifc. 

tur-ship, a. The office of administrator, 
ADMIRABLE, ad'me-ra-bl, a. 405. To be 

admired, of power to excite wonder. 


** 659. Fate 73, fir 77, fill 83, fat 81—me 93, mit 95— pine 106, pin 107— no 169, more 164, 

ADMIRABLENESS, Ad'me-rA-bl-ness, > 

ADM1RABILITY, Aa'me-ra-bfc'le-te, j 
511, £27, i. The quality or state of being ad- 

ADMIRABLY, id'me-ra-ble, ad. In an ad- 
mirable manner. ' 

AbMIRAL, Id me-ral, $. An officer or ma- 

' gistrate that has the government of the king's 
• navy ; the chief commander of a fleet ; the 
ship which carries the admiral. 

ADMIRALSHIP, 4dW-rAl-sh?p , s. The 
office of admiral. 

ADMIRALTY, idfaie-ril-te, «. The power, 
or officers, appointed for the administration of 
naval affairs. 

%y This word Is frequently pionounced as if writ- 
ten udmkraUry t with an r In toe last syllable : nor i« 
Chit mispronunciation, however improper, confined to 
the lowest order of the people. The same may be 
observed of MayarmUg. . 

ADMIRATION, Id-rne-ra shnn, $. Wonder, 
the>act of admiring or wondering. 

To ADMIRE, id-mW, v. a. To regard 
with wonder ; to regard with love. 

ADMIRER, id-ml'ror, «. 98. The person 

that wonders, or regards with admiration ; a 

ADMIRINGLY, id-mMng-le, ad. With 

ADMISSIBLE, ftd-mfs'se-bl, a. 405. That 

which may be admitted. 

ADMISSION, ad-mish'shun, «. The act or 
practice of admitting ; the state of being ad- 
mitted ; admittance, the power of entering; 
the allowance of an argument. 

To ADMIT, ad-mlt', i/. a. To suffer to en- 
ter ; to suffer to enter upon an office ; to allow 
an argument or position ; to allow, or grant in 

ADMITTABLE, Id-mlt'tA-bl, a. Which 
may be a dmitted. 

ADMITTANCE, ad-mll'rinse, «. The act 
of admitting, permission to enter; the power 
or right of entering ; custom ; concession of a 

To ADMIX, ad-mlks', v. a. To mingle with 

' something else. 

ADMIXTION,ld-miks'tsh&n,«. The union 
of one body with another. 

ADMIXTURE, fa-mlkVtah&re, s. 46k The 
body mingled with another. 

To ADMONISH, id-mfln'hlsh, v. a. To 
warn of a fault, to reprove gently. 

ADMONISHER, ad-moVhlsh-ur, «, Hie 
person that puts another in mind of his faults 
or duty. 

ADMONISHMENT, ad-mon'nish-ment, «. 

Admonition, notice of faults or duties. 
ADMONITION, ad-mo-nish'&n, «. The hint 

of a fault or duty, counsel, gentle reproof. 
ADMONITIONER, ad-m£nfeh'un-or, s. 

A general adviser. A ludicrous term. 
ADMONITORY, ad-mon'ne-tor-re, a. That 

which admonishes. — See Domestic. 
To ADMOVE, fa-mooW, v. a. To bring 

one thing to auotlier. 
ADMURMURATION, Id-mor-mQ-ra'shin, 

f. The act of murmuring to another. # 

ADO, i-dory, *. Trouble, difficulty ; bustle, 

tumult, business; more tumuli and show of 

business Uiau the affair is worth. 


ADOLESCENCE, Id-o-leVslnse, 7 $. The 
ADOLESCENCY, fa -oJeVsen-se, $ age 
succeeding childhood, and succeeded by pu- 
berty. 510. 
To ADOPT, A-ddptf, «. a. To take a son 
by choice, to make him' a son who is not so by 
birth ; to place any person or thing m a nearer 
relation to something else. 

ADOPTEDLY, 4-dop'te\i-Ie, ad. After the 
manner of something adopted. 

ADOPTER, i-d6r/tur, «. 98. He that gives 
some one by choice the rights of a son. » 

ADOPTION, i-dor/shun, *. 459. The act 
of adopting ; the state of being adopted. 

ADOPTIVE, a-dop'rfv, a. 157. He that is 
adopted by another ; he that adopts another. 

ADORABLE, A-do'rA-bl, a. 405. That 
which ought to be adored. 

ADORABLENESS,i-do'r4-bl-ola8,*. Wor- 
thiness of divine honours. 

ADORABLY, 4-do*r4-ble, dd. In a manner 
worthy of adoration. 

ADORATION, ad-do'ra-shon, *. The ex- 
ternal homage paid to the Divinity ; homage 
paid to persons in high place or esteem. 

To ADORE, &-dore', v. a. To worship with 
etternal homage. 

ADORER, a-dA'ror, «. 98. He that adores ; 
a worshipper. 

To ADORN, 4-dorn', v. a. 167. To dress ; 

. to deck. the person with ornaments ; to set out 
any place or thing with decorations. 

ADORNMENT,a-dorn'ment>«- Ornament, 

ADOWN, l-doun', ad. 323. Down on the 

ADOWN, A-doun', prep. Down towards the 

ADREAD, a-dr£dVi<L 234. In a state of fear. 

ADRIFT, a-dr?tV, ad. Floating at random. 

ADROIT, a -droit', a. 305. Active, skilful. 

ADROITNESS, a-droh'neM, «. Dexterity, 
readiness, activity. 

ADRY, t-dri', ad. A thirst, thirsty. 

ADSC1TITIOUS, ta-se-ti&b/us, a. Ths* 
which is taken in to complete something eJae 

ADSTRICTION. Ad-strik'shun, s. The acl 
of binding together. 

To ADVANCE, ad-vaW, «?. a. 78. To bring 

forward, in the local sense ; to raise to prefcr- 

- roent, to aggrandise ; to improve ; to forward, 

to accelerate ; to propose, to offer to the public 

To ADVANCE, id-vanse*, v. n. To come 
forward ; to make improvement. 

ADVANCE, Ad-vanse' s. 79. The act of 
coming forward ; a tendency to comeforwaiO 
to meet a lover ; progression, rise from one 
point to another ; improvement, progress to- 
wards perfection. 

ADVANCEMENT, 4d-vanse'mlnt, *. The 
act of coming forward ; the state of 'being ad- 
vanced, preferment; improvement. 

ADVANCER, Ad-vAn/sur, «. 98. A pro- 
moter, forwarder. 

ADVANTAGE, Ad-vAn'tAdje, $. 90. Supe- 
riority; superiority gained by stratagem ; gain, 
profit '; preponderatiou oh one side of the com- 

To ADVANTAGE, Ad-vAntAd>, v. a. To- 
benefit : to promote, to bring forward. 


ab 1«T, aftt ltt— tibe in, db II*, bjll U«-t4& Sp^r-piind J18— rtin 4«C, m» *0», 

ADVANTAGED, id-viirti-jki, a. Pos- 
sessed of advantages. 362. 

ADVANTAGE-GROUND, id-vin'tije- 
gfMnd, «. Ground that gives superiority, 
and opportunities of annoyance or resistance. 

ADVANTAGEOUS, id-vin-ta'jus, a. Pro- 

fitable. useful, opportune. 
ADVANTAGEOUSLY, id-vin-ti/jus-lc, 

ad. Conveniently, opportunely, profitably. 

ADVANTAGEOUSNESS, id-vin-ta'jis- 

neW, #. Profitableness, usefulness, con- 

To ADVENE, id-veW, v. a. To accede 

to something, to be superadded. 

ADVENlENT,aaVve'he*ent,a. Advening, 

ADVENT, sVmnt, s. The name of one of 
the holy seasons, signifying the coming ; this 
is* the cooing of our Saviour j which is made 
the subject of our devotion during the four 
weeks before Christmas. . 

ADVENTINE. Id-reVtin, a. 140. Adven- 
titious*, that which is extrinskally added. 

ADVENTITIOUS, id-ven-tish As, «. That 

which advenes, extzjnsically added. 
ADVENTIVE, id-ven'tiv, *. loT. The 

thins; or person that conies from without. 
ADVENTUAL, id-reVtshu-il, a. 461. 

Bejatfasctp the season of Advent. 
ADVENTURE, id-veVtshure, «. 461. An 

accident, a chance, a hazard : an enterprise in. 

which something must be Jen to hazard. 

To ADVENTURE, id-ven tshute, v. a. To 
t ry the cha nce, to dare. 

ADVENTURER, id-Ten tahur-ur, s. He 
that seeks occasions of hazard, he that pots 
himself in the hands of chance. 96. 

ADVENTUROUS, id-v eVtshur-Js, a. He 
that is inclined to adventures, daring, cou- 
rageous ; full of hasard, dangerous. 

ADVENTUROUSLY, id-Ten'tshor-us-li, 

e st B oldly, daringly. 
ADVENTURESOME, id-Ven'tshur-sflm, a. 

The same with adventurous. 

sn m n ass, s. 461. The quality of being 

ad van r aresome* 
ADVERB, idVerb, s. A word Joined to 

a verb or adjective, and solely applied to the 

use of outlaying, and restraining the lati- 

fade of their signification. 

ADVERBIAL, td-yeVbe-lL a. That which 

has the quality or structure of an adverb. 
ADVERBIALLY, ld-vlroe4l-lt% erf. In 

the manner of an adverb. 
ADVERSABLE, id-versa-bl, a. 405. Con- 

ADVERSARY, idvcW-re,*. 612. An 
eupwnent, antagonist, enemy. 

ADVERSATIVE, 4d- veVssVtfv, a, A word 
■hich snakes some opposition or variety. 51S. 

ADVERSE, idVtW, a. Acting with con- 
trary directions; calamitous, afflictive, op- 
aaseo to prosperous. 

ADVERSITY, id-veW-te, *. 511. Affiic- 
t«m» calamity ; the cause of our sorrow, mis- 
sWteae ; the sute of unhappiness, misery. 

ADVERSELY, id versele, a. Oppositely, 

To ADVERT, id-vert 7 , c. «. To attend 

to, to regard, to observe. 
ApVERTENCE, id-veVnlnse, #. Attention, 

to, regard to. 
ADVERTENCY, atf-veVteW, s. The 

same with advertence. 
To ADVERTISE, id-vir-tke', v. «. To 

inform another, to give intelligence ; to give 

notice of any thing in public prints. 


*. Intelligence, information ; notice of any 
thing published in a paper of intelligence. 

J3* As nouns ending In ment. always follow the , 
accentuation of the verbs from which they are farm- ' 
ed, we frequently bear advertisement taxed with 
the grossest Irregularity for ha?tng the accent on a- 
different syllable from advertise. The origin of this 
irregularity seems to have arisen from a chauge which 
has taken place in the pronunciation of the verb 
since the noun has been formed ; advertise and ckas- 
tise were. In Shakespeare's time, both accented on 
the penaltimate, and therefore advertisement and- 
chastisement were formed regularly from them. 

" Wherein he did the King bis lord adverting 

Hen. rill. 

" My grief cries loader than advertisement.* 

Much Ads, £c. 

" Oh, then bow Quickly should this arm of mine 
"How prbVber to the palsy, chastise thee." 

Richard //. 

" And chastisement doth therefore hide its head.!' 

Jul. Casar. 
But since that thne the verbs advertise and chastise 
have fallen into an analogy more agreeable to verbs 
of the same form— for ibe verbs to promise, practise, . 
franchise, mortise, and divertise, are the only words 
where the termination Ue has not the accent either 
primary or secondary ; and if an alteration mast be " 
made to reconcile the pronunciation or the simple 
with that of the compound, we should find It much . 
easier to change advertisement and cha'stisemant 
into advertisement and chastisement than adver- 
tise and chastise into advertise and cha'ttise; ho* ' 
the Irregularity seems too inveterate to admit of any 

ADVERTISER, id-v&r-tl'zir, s. 98. He , 
that gives intelligence or information; the - 
paper in which advertisements are published, 

ADVERTISING, id-ver-tl'zfog, a. Active 
in giving intelligence, monitory. 

To ADVESPERATE, id-veV^e-rate, v. «. 
To draw towards evening. 91. 

ADVICE, id-vice', «. 499. Counsel, in- 
struction, notice ; intelligence. 

ADVICE-BOAT, id-vlce'bote, «. A vessel 
employed to bring intelligence. 

ADVISEABLE, id-vife£bl, e% 405. Pru- 
dent, fit In be advised* 

ADVISEABLENESS, id-vt't*-bl-ness> s. 
The quality of being adviseable. 

To ADVISE, td-vtoe , v. a. 4S7. To coon, 
sei ; to inform, to make acquainted. 

To ADVISE, id-vW, v, n. 499. .To con* , 
suit, as, be advised with his companions ; to ' 
consider, to deliberate. 

ADVISED, id-vl'zid, parr, a. 362. Acting 
with deliberation and design, prudent, wise j 
performed with deliberation, acted with de- 

AD^ISEDLY, ad-vVrfd-le, ad. S64. De- 
liberate! v, purp%isely, by design, prudently. 

ADVISFJDNESS, id-vf'nid-nesa. s. 365. 
Deliberation, cool and prudent procedure. 

ADVISEMENT, id-vbeWnt, s. Counsel, 
information; prudence, circumspection. 


*T 669. Fate 78, fir 77, fill 83, fit 81— me 93, met 95— pine 105,p!n 107- nA 103, mire 164, 

ADVISER, aa-vi'z&r, *. 98. The person 

that advises, a counsellor. 
ADULATION, id-ju-la shun, 5.204. Hat- 

tery, high compliment, 
ADULATOR, ad-ju-la'tur,*. 521. A flatterer. 
ADULATORY, ifd'ju-la-t&r're. a. Flatter- 

ins. 51$.— See Domestic. 
ADULT, a-dult', a. Grown up, past the 

age of infancy. 
ADULT, &-dult', «. A person above the age 

of infancy, or grown to some degree of strength. 
ADULTN£SS, i-dult'nlss, «. The state of 

being adult. 
To ADULTER, a-dul'tur, «. a. 98. 666. To 

commit adultery with another. 
ADULTERANT, A-dul'tur-ant, #. The 

person or thing which adulterates. 
To ADULTERATE, 4-dui'tur-ate, v. a. To 

commit adultery ; to corrupt by some foreign 

admixture. 91. 
ADULTERATE, 4-dul'tfir-kte, a. 91. Taint- 
ed with the guilt of adultery; corrupted with 

some foreign admixture. 

91. 98. 5b9. The quality or state of being 

ADULTERATION, a-dul'tur-a%hin, s. 

The act of corrupting by foreign mixture ; the 

state of being contaminated. 

ADULTERER, i-d&l'tur-ftr, s. 98. The 
person guilty of adultery. 

ADULTERESS, a-dul'tur-iss, s. A woman 
that commits ad utter v. 

ADULTERINE, a-dui'tor-lne, «. 149. A 
child born of an adulteress. 

ADULTEROUS, A-d&l'tur-us, a. 314. Guilty 
of adultery. 

ADULTERY, i-dul't&r-e, *. 656. The act 
of violating the bed of a married person. 

ADUMBRANT, Hd-um'brant, a. That 
which gtvesa slight resemblance. 

To ADUMBRATE, ad-iWbrate, o. a. To 
shadow out, to give a slight likeness, to ex- 
hibit a faint resemblance. 91. 

ADUMBRATION, ad-um-bra'shun, s. The 
act of giving a slight and imperfect represen- 
tation ; a faint sketch. 

ADUN ATION, ad-u-na'shun, «. The state 
of being united, union. 

ADUNCITY. A-dun'se-te, *. 511. Crook- 
edness* hooked nee s. 

ADUNQUE, a-dunk', «. 415. Crooked. 

ADVOCACY, Id'vo-ka-se. «. 546 Vindi- 
cation, defence, apology. 

ADVOCATE, advo-kate, s. He that 
pleads the cause of another in a court of judi- 
cature ; he that pleads any cause, in whatever 
manner, as a controvertist or vindicator. 

ADVOCATION, id-vo-ka'shun, «. The 
office of pleading, plea, apology. 

ADVOLATION, ad-vo-la'shin, «. The 
act of flying to something. 

ADVOLUTION, aa-vo-lu'shun, s. The 
act of rolling to something. 

ADVOUTRV, ad-vou'tre, *. 813. Adnltery. 

ADVOWEE, id-vou-ee', s. He that has 
the right of advowson. 

AD VOWSON, id-vou zun, «. 170. A right 
to present to be a benefice. 

To ADURE, a-dure , v. n. To burn up. 

ADUST, i-dust, o. Burnt up, scorched; 


it is generally now applied to the humours of 

tl»e hod y. 
ADUSTED, 4-dist'ed, a. Burnt, dried 

with fire. 
ADUSTIBLE, d-dus'te-bl, a. 179. That 

which may be adusted. or burnt up. 
ADUSTION, i-dustshun,*. 464. The act 

of burning up, or drying. 
/EGYPTIACUM, e-jlp-ti'a-cum, *. 460. An 

ointment consisting of honey, verdigris, and 
, vinegar* 
AERIAL, a-e're-al, a. Belonging to the 

air r as consisting of it ; in habiting the air ; 

placed in the air ; high, elevated in situation. 
AERIE, M, s. A nest of hawks and 

other birds of prey. 
AEROLOGY, a-fir-ollo-jo, «. 556. The 

doctrine of the air. 
AEROMANCY, a'ur-o-man-se, «. 519. Tine 

art of divining by the air. 
AEROMETRY, a-<n^om'me-tre, s. 618. 

The art of. measuring the air. 
AEROSCOPV, a-urnoVko-pe, *. 618. The 

observation of the air. 
jETHIOPS-MINERAL, e'<Ae-ups-raln'ur- 

ral, s. A medicine so called, from its 

dark colour, made of quicksilver and sulphur 

groun d together in a marble mortar. 
MTTES, e-tlfiz, #. Eagle-stone. 
AFAR, a- far, «. At a great distance ; to 

a great distance. 
AFEARD, i-fierd', part. a. Frightened, 

terrified, afraid. 
AFER, a'fur, *. 98. The south-west wind. 
AFFABILITY, af-fa-bille-te, s. Easiness 

of manners ; courteeusness, civility, conde- 
AFFABLE, affa-bl, a. 405. Easy of man- 

ners, courteous, complaisant. 
AFFABLENSS5, affa-bl-ness', s.Courtesy, 


AFFABLY4ff4-Me,ad.Courteously,civilly ' 

AFFABROUS, aftf-Drus, a. Skilfully, 
made, complete. *' 

AFFAIR, af-fare', «. Business, something 
to be managed or transacted. 

To AFFEAR, ittere', v. n. 227. To con- 
firm, to establish. . 

AFFECT, af-fekt', s. ' Affection, passion, 

To AFFECT, if-flkf, v. a. To act upon, 
to produce effects in any other thing ; to move 
tlie- passions ; to aim at, to aspire to ; to I e 
fotid of, to be pleased with, to love ; to prac- 
tise the appearance t>f any thing, with some 
degree of hypocrisy ; to imitate in an unna- 
tural and constrained manner 

AFFECTATION, af-flk-ta'shfin, *. The 
act of. "making an artificial appearance, awk- 
ward imitation. 

AFFECTED, af-feVfid, part. a. Moved, 
touched wkh affection; studied with over- 
much care ; in a personal sense, full of affec- 
tation, as, an affected lady* 

AFFECTEDLY, af-feWd-li, ad. In an 
affected manner, 'hypocritically. 

AFFECTEDNESS, af-fek'ted-ness, «. Ihe 
quality of being atfVcted. 

AFFECTION, af-f£k%hun, *. The state, 
of being atfetfted bv any cause, or agent $ 
passion of any kind i love, kindness, good- 
will to some person. 


air 1«7, not 1*3— tube 171, t8b 172, bill 17ft-fil 299— poind S13— thin 406, this «& 

AFFLATTON, af-fla'shfin, #. Act of breath- 

ing upon any thins. 
AFFLATUS, 1^-hTtus, «. Communication 

AFFECTIONATE, af-feVshin-ate, a. Full 
uf affection, warm, zealous: fond, tender. 

AFFECTIONATELY, aT-flk'shun-ate-le, 
md. 91. Fondly, t^nderi v. 

AFFECTIONATENESS, Af-fek'*hun-ite- 
neas, 8. Fondness, tenderness, good-wilL 

AFFECTION ED, fr-feVshand, a. Affect- 
ed, conceited ; inclined, mentally disposed. 

AFFECTIOUSLY, af-<e*'ah«f-le, ad. In 
an affecting manner. 

AFFECTIVE, Af-feKtir, a. That which 

affects, which strongly touches. 
AFFECTUOSITY, af*fot8hu-6V8e>te r *. 


AFFECTUOUS, If-feVtsha-us, a. Full of 

pns«k>n. 464. 
To AFFERE, Af-fere', «. a, A law term, 

signifying to confirm. 

AFFIANCE, af-fi'lnae, *. A marriage 


in the d , r ...._„ _„... 

To AFFIANCE, if-fi'anse, t>. «. To be- 

troth, to bind -any one by promise to mar* 

riage ; to give confidence. 
AFFlANCER, tefrajHsur, s. He that 

snakes a contract of marriage between two 

AFFEDATION, if-fe^aahan, > *. Mu- 

▲FFIDATURE, if-^-da'tehireJtualcon- 
tract, mutual oath of fidelity. 

AFFIDAVIT, if^e-da'rit, «. A declara- 
tion anon oath. 

AFFIED, Af-f i'ld, pert, n. Joined by con- 
tract, affianced. 569. 

of the power of prophecy. 
o AFFLICT, af-Aikf,t>. a. 

To AFFLICT, tf-fllkf, v. a. To put to pain, 
to grieve, to torment 

AFFLICTEDNESS, af-fllk'tld-nis, s. Sor- 
rowfulness, grief. 

AFFLICTER, Af-fllk'tuf, a. 98. The per- 
son that afflicts. 

AFFLICTION, af-flik'shfin, a. The cause 
of pain dr. sorrow, calamity ; the state of sor- 
rowfulness, misery. 

AFFLICTIVE, af-fiik'tiv, a. 158. Pain- 

ful, tormenting. 

AFFLUENCE, AfmVinae, a. The act of 
flowing to any place, concourse ; exuberance 
of riches, plenty. 
AFFLUENCY, Sf flu-2n-se, a. The same 
ki,£,, ai-nanse, a. a marriage with Affluence. 

I . ; trust in central, confidence ; trust I AFFLUENT. aJ'flu-Int, a. Flowing to any 
ivine promises and protection. part; abundant, exuberant, wealthy. 

ANCE. stettina*. « * T« K*. AFFLUENTNESS. af'flMut-ne'ss, s. The 

quality of brine affluent. 
AFFLUX, amks, a. The act of flowing 
to some place, affluence ; that which flows to 
any place. 

AFFLUXION, af-fiuk'ahun, $. The act of 
flowing to a particular place ; that which flows 

from one place to anoil_.. 
To AFFORD, Af-ford', v. a. To yield or 

produce f to grant, or confer any thing ; to be 

able to sell ; to be able to bear expenses. 
To AFFOREST, Af-fcVr£st, v. a. 109, 168. 

To turn ground into forest. 

AFFILIATION, Af-f iWe-a'shfa, a. Adop- 1 To AFFRANCHISE, Af-frin'tshfc, r. a. 140 
ring. To make free.. 

AFFIN AGE, If 'fl-naje, a. 99. The act of 
refin ing met* Is by the cupel. 

AFFINED, Af-fPnid, a. 362. Related to 


AITONITY, Af-f!n < he-te, a. 511. Relation 
by ■trnaft ; relation to, connexion with. 

To AFFIRM, Af-feW, *. «. 108. To de- 
clare, to assert confidently, opposed to the 
word d eny. 

AFFIRM, Af-feW, v. a. To ratify or ap- 
prove a former law, or judgment. 

AFFIRMABLE, Af-fgrinA-bl, a. That which 
Mav b e affirmed. 

AFFIRMANCE, Af-flrfnAnse, a. Confir- 
mation, opposed to repeal. 

AFFIRMANT, Af-feVmAnt, a. The person 
that affirms. 

AFFIRMATION, Af-fir-ma'shun, a. The 
■ctof affirming or declaring, opposed to ne- 
gation ; the position affirmed ; confirmation, 
apposed to repral. 

AmRMATIVE, Af-feVmA-tir,«i. 158. That 
wakfe affirms, opposed to negative ; that which 
can o r may be affirmed. 

AFFIRMATIVELY, Af-ieVmA-tfv-le, ad. 

. «L" *• P««ti»e side ; not negatively. 

AFFIRMER, Af-feVmfir, «. 98. Tne per- 
son that affirms. 

To AFFIX, Af-f &a', *. a. To unite to the 
end, t o subjoin. 

AFFIX, Irftks, a. 492. A particle united 

ta the end of a word. 
AFFIXION, Af-f Ik shin, a. The act of af- 

*- J "li the state of being affiled. 


To AFFRAY, at-fra', r. a. To fright, to 

AFFRAY, if-fra, «. A tumultuous assault 
of one or mure persons upon others 

AFFRICTION, If-frlk'shuh, «. The act of 
rubbing one thing upon another. 

To AFFRIGHT, aT-irite', «. a. To affect 
with fear, to terrify. 

AFFRIGHT, tMrTte', *. S9S. Terror, fear. 

AFFRIGHTFUL, af-friteful, a. Full of 
affriuht or terror, terrible. 

AFFRIGHTMENT, afrfrlte'm&t, *. The 
impression of fear, terror ; the state of fear- 

To AFFRONT, if-frunt', r. a. 165. To meet 

face to face, to encounter ; to provoke by an 

open insult, to offend avowedly. 
AFFRONT, af-frunt', s. Insult offered to 

the face ; outrage, act of contempt. 
AFFRONTER, aT-frun'tur, s. 98. The per- 

son t hat affronts. 

AFFRONTING, af,frun't!ng, porr. «. That 
which has the quality of affronting. 

ToAFFUSE, af-fuae', v. a. To pour on* 
thin g upon another. 

AFFUSION, aT-ftt'zhun, s. The act of ef- 

To AFFY, Af-f 1', v. a. To betroth in order 
to marri age. 

To AFFY, Ifitt, «. n. To put confidence in, 

to nut trust in. 
AFIELD, 4-feeId', ovf. 275. To the field. 
AFLAT, i-flit'.ad. Level with the ground 
AFLOAT, i-||6te,ad. 295, Floating. 


a BSD. Fatt TB, fir 77, tail 84, lit 81- mi BS, 

AFOOT, t fit', ad. S07. On foot, a 

horseback ; m action, si, ■ design ii nfi 
AFORE, I'tin', prep. Before; near. 

AFORE a-fure, ad. In time foregone or 

AF<>RFJX)ING,a-ture'go-Ing,part.a. Go 

AFOREHAND,i-fure1iind,«d. By ■ pre- 
»iou> provision ; provided, prepared ; pre. 

AFOREMENTIONED, ■-{ore'nieVihfW, 

a. 36*. Mentioned before. 
AFORENAMED, a-furo'na'mld, «. Named 

before. 369. 
AFORESAID, i-fore'sade, a. Said before. 
AFORETIME, a-fire time, ad. In time put. 
AFRAID, a-frade', part. a. Struck with 

A FTER, if 'tor, prep. 98. Fallowing In place ; 
in pursuit of ; behind ; puiteriu/ in time ; ac- 
AFTER, li'iftr, od. In succeeding time; 

f..l lowing allot tier. 

AFTERAOES, iftur-a'jei, *. Succeeding 
AFTER.rLL, n il'tur4ll' ) *i. At lut, in fine, 
AFTERBIRTH.iftur-bfcrt,*, *rhesecnn. 

AFTERCOST, inir-koBt, ». The eipense 

incurred after the original plan ii executed. 
AFTERCROP, iPtnr-lcrop,*. Second har- 

AFTERGAME, If tnr-gfcme, «. Methods 

taken alter lite tint Inm ofaffatrt. 
AFTERMATH.aftnr-mil«,«. Second crop 

AFTERNOON, Iftur-nton', *. The time 

from the meridian to (be evening. 
AFTERPAINS, iftfir-pine*,*. Pains after 

AFTERTASTE, IPtur-taste, t. Tnate re. 

rnninrng upon the tongue after the draught. 

AFTERTHOUGHT, Iftfir^Uwt, a. Re- 
flection) after Ihe act, eipedienti formed too 

AFTERTIMES, aPtur-timec, *. Snoceod- 

AFTERWARD, Iftur-wW, od. 88. In me- 

AGAIN, a-gtV, td. MW , A second time, 

any other time or place ; twice aa much 
marking the (am* quantity once repeated ; 
again and again, with frequent repetition. 

AGAINST, a-glnst, prep 300. Contrary, 


ml t DB— pine 106, pin 107— no lfii, move 1 04, 


:|jeclatiun id. 

id. 7*. Staring with eat' 




a. A drag, of im in 



A precious atone ©1 



Partaking of the na- 

To AGAZE^'a-gaic', 

0. a. To strike with 

time in which any particular man or nee ul 
men lived, aa, the age of heroci ; the space at 
a hundred years ; the latter part of life, old 
age j in law, in a man the aye of twenty-one 
yeara ii the full age, a woman at twenty-one 
It able to alienate her lands. 

AGED, a'jed, S64. Old, stricken in yean. 

AGEDLY, i'jed-li, ad. After the manner 

AGEN, a-gln', ad. 206. Again, in reform. 

AGENCY, B , jin-ee, ». Th* quality of act- 
ing, the state of being in action ; hnninnei 
performed by an agent. 

AGENT, *>nt,,n. Acting upon, active. 

AGENT, s/jent, a. A lubstitnte, a depu- 
ty, a factor; that ttbicb baa tbe power of 

AGGENERATION, id-jln-nur-a'shfin, a. 

To AGGERATE, id'jnr-ate, v. a. To heap 

up. — See Exaggerate, 
To AOGLOHHERATE, ig-glWrnar-ate,, 

e. a To (ether up ill a ball, ai thread. 
AGK}LUTINANTS,ag^hVte-rianta r >.Thoae 

medicines which have the power of uniting 

parti together. 
To AGGLUTINATE, ag-glu/tt-nate, c. a. 

AGGLUTINATIONr^^lVttna'shnB, t. 
"-■-- cohesion. 

■ rrvE, ig-g , ... 

procuring aggju- 

ToTgORANDIZE, ag/gran-dke, e. a. ISO. 

To make great, in enlarge, tueialt. 
AGGRANDIZEMENT, eg/grin-d Ire -mint. 

-^See Academy. The stale uf being aggraa- 

AGGRANDIZER,ag'gTin-dlae-ur,i. The 


if aggravating 

AGGREG^TE^a^ii'gate.o.Ol. Fram^l 

by the collection vf particular part* int., o,» 

AGGREGATE, (g'gre-gate, s. The result 

ofiheconiunciionof ruiiiiv particulars. 
To AGGREGATE, ag/gre-gite, e. a. To 

collect together, to heap man,) particular. w*o 


air 167, nfc 103— tfboHl, tub 172, bull 178— fa 209— poind 818— tftm 486V *■* 46& 

AGGREGATION, afc-gri^i'shim, «. The 
act of collecting many particulars into one 
whole y the whole composed by the collection 
of many particulars ; state of being collected. 

To AGGRESS, ip-greW, t>. ft. To commit 
the first act of violence. 

AGGRESSION, Ag-gresh'un, *. Commence- 
ment of a quarrel by some act of iniquity. 

AGGRESSOR, ag«greVsur, «. 96. The as- 
saulter or invader, opposed to the defendant. 

AGGRIEYANCE, tg-greVinse, *. Injury, 

To AGGRIEVE, ag-grcv*', «. a. To give sor- 
row, to vex ; to impose, to hurt in one's right. 

ToAGGROUP, £g-groop', *. a. To bring 

tog et h er into one figure. 
AGHAST, a-gasf,a. Struck with horror, as 

at the sight of a spectre. 
AGILE, ajil,<i. 140. Nimble, ready, active. 
AGILENESS, ijll-neas, *. Nimbleness, 

auickness, activity. 
ILITY, a-jll'e-te, *. 511. Nimbleness, 

quickness, activity. 
To AGIST, l-jfct, v. a. To takts in and feed 

the cattle of strangers in the kiug's forest, and 

tojnther the money. 
AGISTMENT, aj-tefment, 8. Composition, 

or mean rate. 
AGITABLE, aj'e-t*-bl, $. That which may 

be put in motion. 
To AGITATE, aj'e-tkte, v. a. 01. To put in 

motion ; to actuate, to move c to affect with 

pertorbatioa; to handy, to discuss, to cen- 

AQITATION, aj't-ta-sh&n, *, The act of 
moving any thing ; the state of being moved ; 
rfisruiiion, controveisial examination ; per- 
tnrtjasJco, disturbance of the thoughts ; deli- 
beration, the state of being consulted upon. 

A GITATOR, aj'e-tk-tar, t. 621. He who ma- 
na mes a ffairs. 

AGLET, If/lit, s. A tag of a point carved 
auto some representation of an animal ; the 
pendants at the ends of the chives? of flowers. 

AGMINAL, ig'me-nal, a. Belonging to a 

AGNAIL, annate, «. A whiUow. . 
AGNATION, Ip-na shun, $. Descent from 
* *" * — me fartfc I» » * direct male line 
AGNITION, ig-ntshun, $. Acknowledg- 

To AGNIZE, 4g-nbe>.a.?o acknowledge ; 

AGNOMTN ATION, ag-nom^ne-nk-'ahfin,*. 

AJl«s*on of one word to another. 
AGNUS CASTUS, aVnus-cis'tus, s. The 

AGO, i-gb'ymd. past; as, long ago; that is, 

long tome has passed since. 
AGOG, teW, ad. In a state of desire. 
AGOING, sWo'mg, «. 410. Inaction. 
ATONE, a-gon, ad. Ago, past 
AGONISM, M-nixm, s. 648. Contention 

for a prise. 

AGONISTES, M-nls'tec, s. A pike- 
■£hter t one that contends at a public solem- 
nity for a nrite. 

1» AGONIZE, sYo-ukw, n.n. To be in ex- 


AGONY, iVo-ne, t. 548. The pangs of death; 
any violent pain of body or mind. 

AGOOD, a-gud', ad. In earnest. 

To AGRACE, a-grace*, v. a. To grant fa- 
vours to. 

AGRARIAN, i-grk'-re-an, a. Relating tp 
fields or grounds. 

To AGREASE, &-greze', a. To daub, to 

To AGREE, a l -gree'. v. it. To be in concord ; 
to vield to; to settle terms by stipulation; to 
' settle a price between buyer and seller ; to be 
of the same mind or opinion ; to suit with. 

AGREEABLE, 4-gree 4-bl, «. Suitable to, 
consistent with ; pleasing, 

AGREEABLENESS, a-gree^-bl-nlss, #. 
Consistency with, suitableness to ; the quality 
of pleasing. 

AGREEABLY, a-gree'-l-ble, ad. Consist- 
ently with, in a manner suitable to. 

AGREED, 4-greed', part. a. Settled by con- 

AGREEINGNESS, a-grei/mg-ness, s. Con- 
sistence, suitableness. 

AGREEMENT, ft-gree'ment, s. Concord | 
resemblance of one thing to another ; compact, 

AGRICULTURE, ig're-cul-tchure, s. 468. 
Ti|lage, husbandry. 

AGRIMONY, ig're-mun-ne, «. 557. The 
name of a plant. , , 

AGROUND, I-gro&nd', ad. 818. Stranded, 
hindered by the ground from passing farther ; 
. hindered in the progress of affairs. 

AGUE, a'g&e, s < 335. An intermitting fever, 
with cold fits succeeded by hot. 

AGUED, k/ffu-ed, a. 362, 850. Struck with 
die ague, shivering. 

AGUE-FIT, k'gke-f k, $. The paroxysm of 
the ague. 

AGUE-TREE> k'gue-tree, s. Sassafras. 

AGUISH, a'gMsh, a. Having the qualities 
of an ague. 

AGUIS0NESS, kgMsh-niss,* The qua- 
lity of resembling an ague. 

AH, i, interj . A word noting sometime* 
dislike and censure ; roost frequently, com- 
passion and complaint. 

AHA r , AHA', a-ka', tnfrri. A word inti- 
mating triumph and contempt. 

AHEAD, 4-hea 4 '. ad. Further onward than 

AHIGHT, a-hjte', ad. Aroft, on high. 

To AID, kde, r. a. 208. To help, to support, 
to succour. 

AID, kde, fc Help, support ; in law, a sub- 

AIDANCE. adelnse, «. Help, support. 

AIDANT, JcVint, a. Helping, helpful. 

AIDER, ade'ur, $. A helper, an ally. 


To AIL, ale, v. 4. To pain, to trouble, to 
give pain ; to affect in an j manner. 

AIL, ale, s> 208. A disease. 

AILMENT, kle'ment, «. Pain, disease. 

AILING, tie/fag, part. «. Sickly. 

To AIM, kme, «. a. 80S. To endeavour to 
strike with a missile weapon: to point the 
view, or direct the steps towards any thing, to 
endeavour to reach or obtain i to guess.- 



J?5»9. Fife 7ft, & 77, ftU8S, f&tBt—meOS, 

AIB^ame, *. The direction'of a missile wea- 
pon ; the point to which the thing thrown is 
directed;- an intention, a desigii; the object 
of % design; conjecture, guess. 

AIR, are, *. 202. The element encompassing 
the earth ; a gentle gale ; music, whether light 
or serious : the mien, or manner, of the per- 
son ; an aifceted or laboured manner or ges- 
ture; appearance. 

To AIR, are, v. a. To expose to the air ; to 

. take the air ; to warm by the fire. 

AIRBLADDER, JuVblad-dur, «. A bladder 
filled with ah*. 

AIRBUILT, are'bfit, a. Built in the air. 

AIRDRAWN, are'drawn, a. Painted in air. 

AIRER,are'ur,«.98. He that exposes to the 
air. . 

AIRHOLE, areliQle, s. A hole to admit air. 

AIRINESS, are'e-ness, «. Exposure to the 
air ; lightness, gaiety, levity. 

AIRING, are'fng, t. 410. A short jaunt. 

AIRLESS, arellss; a. Without communica- 
tion with the free air. 

AIRLING, arellng, s. 410. A young gay 

AIRPUMP, are pump, a. A machine by 
means of which the air is exhausted out of 
proper vessels. 

AIRSHAFT, are'shift, s. A passage for the 
air into mines. 

AIRY, are'e, a. Composed of air; relating 
U the air ; high in air ; light as air, nnsub- 

• sUntial ; without reality, vain, trifling ; gay, 
sprightly, full of mirth, lively, light ofoeart. 

AISLE, lie, s. 207. The walk in a church. 
AIT, ate, «. 202. A small island in a river. 

To ARE, ike, e. a. S65. To feei a lasting 

AKIN, ft-kin', a. Related to, allied to by 

ALABASTER, 4l'a-bas-tAr, «. 96. A kind of 

soft marble, easier to cut, and less durable, 

than the other kinds. 
ALABASTER, ftl'4-bas-tur, a. 418. Made 

of alabaster 
ALACK, 4-lAk', interj. Alas, an expression 

of sorrow. 
ALACKADAY, i-lik'i-da', interj. A word 

noting sorrow and melancholy. 

ALACRIOUSLY, a-lAk're-us-le, ad. Cheer- 
fully, without dejection. 

ALACRITY, l-lakltre-te, s. 511. Cheer- 
fulness, spriglitliness, gaiety. 

ALAMODE, al-i-mode', ad. According to 

the fashion. 
ALAND, sUand', ad. At land, landed. 
ALARM, &-lann , s. A cry by which men 

are summoned to their arms; notice of any 

danger approaching ; a species of clock ; any 

tumult or disturbance. 

To ALARM, 4-larm', e. a. To call to arms; 

• to surprise with the apprehension of any dan- 
ger ; to disturb. 

ALARMBELL, t-larnrtdl, «. The bell 
that is rung to give the alarm. 

ALARMING, a-lirinwg, part. a. Terrify- 
ing, awakening, surprising. 

ALARMPOST, ft-linn^ost, s. The post 
appointed to «ach body of man to appear at 



mitftS— pine 105, pk 107— no MB, more 164^ 

ALAS> 4-laW, iMerj. A word expressing 

lamentation ; a word of pity. 
ALATE, aVlate*, ad. Lately. 
ALB, alb, s. A surplice. 
ALBEIT, al-be/lt, ad. 84. Although, not. 

ALBUGINEOUS, 4l-b0-jln e-fis, a. Resem- 
bling au albugo. 
ALBUGO, al-bo'go, s. 84. A disease in the 

eye, by which the cornea contracts a white* 

ALCAHEST, aTka-hist, 84. An universal 

ALCALD, al-cade', «. 84. The government 

of a castle ; in Spain, the judge of a city. 
ALCANNA, al-kin'na, «. 84. An Egyptian 

plant used in dying. 

ALCHYMICAL, il-kim'me-kal, a. Relat- 
ing to alchymy. 

ALCHYMICALLY, al-klm'me-kal-Ie, ad. 
In the manner of an alchymisU 

ALCHYMIST, aTke-mfst, *. 84. One 
who pursues or professes the science of al- 

ALCHVMY, aTke-me, «. 84. The more 
sublime chvmistry, which proposes the trans- 
mutation of metals ; a kind of mixed metal 
used for spoons. 

ALCOHOL, al'ko-h6l, s. 84. A high recti- 
fied spirit of wine. 

ALCOHOLIZATION, aTko-hdl-e-za'skun, 
s. The act of alcobolixing or rectifying spirits. 

To ALCOHOLIZE, alTco-ho-lke, «. a. To 

rectify spirits till they are wholly dephlegm- 

ALCORAN, aTko-ran, s. 84. The book of 

the Mahometan precepts, and ccedeada ; now 

more properly called the Koran. 
ALCOVE, 4l-kove' s. A recess, or part of a 

chamber, separated by an eatrade,m which i« 

placed a bed of state. 
ALDER, al'dor, s. 84. A tree having leaves 

resem bling those of the haxel. 
ALDERMAN, al'dor-man, s. The same as 

senator, a governor or magistrate. 

ALDERMANLY, al'dor-mln-le, ad. Like 

an alderman. 
ALDERN, al'dirn, a. 84, 655. Made of 

ALE, ale, s. A liquor made by infusing 

malt in hot water, and then fermenting the 

ALEBERRY, ale'ber-re, «. A beverage 

made by boiling ale with spice and sugar, and 

sops ofbread. 
ALEBREWER, ale^roo-ftr, t. One that 

professes to brew ale. 
ALECONNER, ale'kon'nur, s. An officer 

in the city of London to inspect the measures 

ofpublic nouses. 
ALECOST, aleTtflst, s. An herb. 

ALECTRYOMANCY, a-leVtre-o-man-se, 
Divination by acock. 

ALECTOROMANCY, a^lec'to-ro-min-se, 

Divination by a cock. 
ALEGAR, alle-gor, 98, 418. Sour ale. 
ALEHOOF, ale'hoof, s. Ground ivy. 
ALEHOUSE, alehouse, «. A tippling. 




laV 107, ssfcUaV- tube 171, t&b ITS, boll 17I-4U 899— pi&ud SlS-<Mn40C, this 4ft>. 

al^HOUSEKEEPEfi^e^ofWke-pdi, «. 

He that keeps ale publicly to sell. 
ALEKNIGHT, ale/nlte, $. A pot compa- 
nion, a tippler. Obsolete. 
ALE3LBICK, a-teWbik, ». A vessel used 

ia riistilimg. 
ALENGTH, l-lingta', ad. At foil length. 
4LEKT, 4-llrt', a. Watchful, vigilant; 

brisk, pert, petulant, 
ALERTNESS, i-l&rtf&s, *. The quality of 

being alert, pertness. 
ALEW ASHED, ale'wosht, * 359. Soaked 

ALE WIFE, aleVlfe, $. A woman that keeps 

tit alehouse. 
ALEXANDERS, aMigz-an'dure, «. The 

name of a plant. 
ALEXANDERS FOOT, alllgs-an'dure- 

fiit, *. 478. TTie name of an herb. 

ALEXANDRINE, al-legz-atfdrlo, t. 150. 
A kind of verae borrowed from the French, 
ant used In & poem called Alexander. This 
verse consists of twelve syllables. 

ALEXIPHARM1CK, ft-leW-iir'inik, a. 
lbs* which drives away poison, antidotal. 

ALEXITERIC AL, a-llk-se-teVre- }a.That 

kal, 509. > which 

ALEHTERICK, A-lfit-se-teVrik, 3 drives 

away poison. 
ALGATES, b gates,, ad. On any terms; 

although. Obsolete. 
ALGEBRA, iTje-bf*, «. 84. A peculiar 

kind of arithmetic. 
ALGEBRAICAL, al-je-bra'e-kll, 7 a. Re- 
ALGEBRAICK, al-je-brafk, $ lating 

to algebra. 
ALGEBRAIST, il-je-bra'ist, «. A person 

Ibat understands or practises the science of 

ALGID, iljid, a. 84. Cold, chill. 

ALGIDITY, ll-jid'd^te, *. 511. Chilness, 

ALGIFIC, ll-jiff ik, a. 509. That which pro- 

ALGOR, alfcor, #. Extreme cold, chil- 

ALGOR1SM, il'gMain, 557, > 
ALGORITHM, al'go-rfram, J 

fc? The c la the last syllable of this word escapes 
basf pnaMueed Uke u from Ms being Latla and 

s. Arabic 
_ words used 
to banl v the sciem of numbers. 
AJIAs,i , le4s, ad A Latin word, signify- 
ing otherwise. 

ALIBLE, il'e-bl, a* 405. Nutritive, nou- 

ALIEN, ale^S*, a. 505. Foreign, or not of 
we mine family or land *, estranged from, not 
•JGed to. 

ALIEN, alexin, #. 115, 885. A foreigner, 
not a dei lison, a stranger ; in law, an alien is 
m* born in a strange country, and never en- 

ALIENABLE, Ale^n-a-bl, a. That of 
«Ukh the property may be transferred. 

ft ALIENATE, alette-ate, e. a. To trans- 
fer the property of any thing to another ; to 
withdraw the heart or affections. 

tf There Is a strong propensity in undisciplined 
"Pitas to proaovace mis wito with the accent on e 


In the peon 
avoided, as 

ttrmate; bat this cannot be too- carefully 
i all tee compounds of alien Lave invaria* 
My ibe accent on the first syllable. Bat whether the 
a In thtt syllable be long or abort la a dispute among 
oar best Orthoepists. Mr. Perry , Mr. Buchanan, W. 
Johnston, Dr. aenrick, and Mr. Elpbinstone, join If 
with the consonant, and make it short ; bat Mr. She- 
ridan separates it from the l t an<l makes it long and 
slender : and, though Mr. Elphinatone'a opiuion has 
great weight with me, yet I here join whh Mr. She* 
ridan against them all; not only became I judge his 
pronunciation of this word the most agreeable to the 
beat usage, but because it ia agreeable to an evident 
rule which lengthens every vowel with the accent on 
lt, except i *hen followed by a single consonant and 
a diphthong. See Principles, Not. 505, 5*4. 

M O! 0lie*ate from Heav*n, O spir't accurst!" 

MUtons Par. LmI, 6. v. 877* 

ALIENATE, ale'y£n-4te, a. Withdrawn 

from, stranger to. 
ALIENATION, Ide-yin-a'shun, «. The act 

of transferring property; the state of being 

alienated ; chancre of affection. 

To ALIGHT, 4-lite', v. a. To come down ; 
to mil upon. 

ALIKE, 4-like', ad. With resemblance, in 
the same manner. 

ALIMENT, tile-mint, #. Nourishment, 
nntriment, food. 

ALIMENTAL, 4l4e-meVtal, a. That which 
has the quality of aliment, that which nou- 

ALIMENT ARINESS, al-ie-meVta-rc-nees, 
f. The qoality of being alimentary. 

ALIMENTARY, il-lLmeVta-re, a. That 
which belongs to aliment ; that which has the 
power of nourishing. 

ALIMENTATION, al-le-m&t-ti'shun, «. 

' The duality of nourishing. 

ALIMONIOUS, al-le-mo'ne-as, a. That 
which nourishes. 

ALIMONY, alle-mua-ne, *. 556. Legal 

• proportion of the husband's estate, which, by 
the sentence of the ecclesiastical court, is al- 
lowed to the wife, upon the account of sepa- 
ration.— See Domestic. 

ALIQUANT, aTle-qwant, a. Parts of a 
number, which will never make up the number 
exactly ; as, 3 is an aliquant of 10, thrice 3 
beng 9, four times 3 making IS. 

ALIQtfOT, alle-qwot, a. Aliquot parts of 
any number or quantity, such as will exactly 
measure it without any remainder ; as, 3 is an 
aliquot Dart of 19. 

ALISH, Vlelsh, a. Resembling ale. 

ALIVE, a-llve', a. In the state of life; not 
deajd ; unextinguished, undestroyed, active ; 
cheerful, sprightly : it is used to add em- 
phasis ; as, the best man alive. 

ALKAHEST, al'ka-hest, «. 84. An nnl r 
versal dissolvent, a liquor. 

ALKALESCENT, al-ka-lissfat, a. That 
which has a tendency to the properties of an 
alkali. M , 

ALKALI, al'ka-le. s. 84. Any substance, 
which, when mingled with acid, produces fer- 
mentatiqn. . 

ALKALINE, aMii-lto, a. 150. That which 
has the qualities of alkali 

To ALKALIZATE, al-kilU^ate, e. e. To 
make alkaline. 

ALKALIZATE, Al^klnc-iate, a. Hut 
which has the qufjisies of alkalu 



ft? 659. Fate 7S, fir 77, fall 8S, fit 81— mi OS, rait 96— pine 106, pin 107— no 1«, mora 104, 

ALKALIZATION, il-kt-le za'sh&n, a. The 

act of alkalizating. 
ALKANET, al'kA-nlt, a.Th© name of a plant. 
ALKEKENGI, il-ke-ken'je. The winter 

dierry, a genus of plants. 
ALKERMES, al-keVmez, a. A confection 

whereof the Keriues berries are the basis. 
ALL, all, a. 77. The whole number, every 

one ; the whole quantity, every part. 
ALL, all, a. The whole ; every thing. 
ALL, ill, ad. Quite, completely; altoge- 
ther, wholly. 
ALL-BEARING, all-ba'ring, a.Omniparous. 
ALL-CHEERING, all-tsbe'rhig, a. That 

which gives paiety to all. 
ALL-CONQUERING, aU^6nk*k£r-fag, a. 

334. That which subdues every thing. 
ALL-DEVOURING, aU-de-voflr'mg, «. 

That which eats up every thine. 
ALL-FOURS, all-forz', a. A low game at 

cards, played by two. 
ALL-HAIL, all-hale', a. All health. 
ALL-HALLO WN, all-haHun, a. The time 

about Ail-Saints' day. 
ALL-HALLOWTIDE, all-halQo-tlde, a. 

The Term near All-Saints, or the first of No- 
* veitiber. 
ALL-HEAL, all-hele', a. A species of 

ALL-JUDGING, all-jod'jing, «. That which 

has the sovereign right of Judgement. 
ALL-KNOWING, aU-no'fng, a. Omniscient, 

ALL-SEEING, all-seeing, a. That beholds 

ever* tiring. 
ALL SOULS DAY, all-sola-da', a. The 

day ou which supplications are made for all 

souls bv the church of Rome, the second of 


ALL-SUFFICIENT, lll-sof-ffch'ent, «. 
Sufficient to any thing. 

ALL-WISE, all-wise', a. Possessed of in- 
finite wisdom. 

To ALLAY, &-la', v. a. To mix one metal 
with another, to make it fitter for coinage ; to 
join any thing to another, so as to abate its 
qualities ; to quiet, to pacify, to repress. 

ALLAY, al-la', a. 329. The metal of a baser 
kind mixed in coins, to harden them, that they 
may wear less ; any thing which, being added, 
abates the predominant qualities of that with 
which it is mingled. 

ALLAYER, ftl-la'ur, a. The person or thing 
which has the power or quality of allaying. 

ALLAYMENT, al-la'ment, s. That which 
has the power of allaying. 

ALLEGATION, al-le-ga'sh&n, $. Affirma- 
tion, declaration ; the thing alleged or affirm- 
ed ; an excuse, a plea. 

To ALLEGE, ftl-I&lje', v. a. To affirm, to 
declare, to maintain i to plead as au excuse or 

ALLEGEABLE, al-lldje^bl, a. That which 
may be alleged. 

ALLEGEMENT, al-l!djeWnt,*. The same 
with allegation. 

ALLEGER, al-l&Me'fr, a. He that alleges. 

ALLEGIANCE, il-le'janae, a. The duty of 
subjects to the government. 

ALLEGI ANT, aidant, a. Loyal, conform 
ebb to the duty of allegiance. 

- 30 

ALLEGORICK, iWe-g6tA, a. Net real, 
not literal. 

ALLEGORICAL, al-le-poVre-kll, a. In the 
form of an allegory, not literal. 

ALLEGORIC ALLY, ii-le-goVre-kiMe, ad. 
After an allegorical manner. 

To ALLEGORIZE, Alle-go-rlze, v. a. To 
turn into allegory, to form an allegory. 

ALLEGORY, al1e-g6r-re, a.557. Afignrative 
discourse, in which something is intended that 
is not contained in the words literally taken. 

ALLEGRO, al-le'gro, a. A word denoting 
in music a sprightly motion. It originally 
means gay, as in Milton. 

ALLELUJAH, 4l-le-lu/y4, a. A word of 
spiritual exultation ; Praise God. 

To ALLEVIATE, *l-le've-ate, v. a. To 
make light, to ease, to soften. 91. 

ALLEVIATION, al-le-ve-a'ahun, a. The 
act of making light; that by which any pain 
is eased, or fault extenuated. 

ALLEY, ftlle, a. 270, A walk in a garden ; 
a passage in towns, narrower than a street. 

ALLIANCE, al-ll'anse, «. The state of con- 
nexion with another by confederacy, a league; 
relation by marriage ; relation by any form of 
kindred ; the persons allied to each other. 

ALUCIENCY, al-llsh'yen-se, a. 115. The 
power of attracting. 

To ALLIGATE, alle-gate, v. a. To tie 

' one thing to another. 91- 

ALLIGATION, &l-le-ga'shon,«. The act of 
tyiug together ; the arithmetical rule that 
teaches to adjust the price of coropounds,forra- 
ed of several ingredients of different value. 

ALLIGATOR, il-le-ga'tnr, a. 621. The. 
crocodile. This name is chiefly used for the 
crocodile of America. 

ALLISION, al-lizh Cm, a. The act of strik- 
ing one thing against another. ■ 

ALLITERATION, al-lU-er-a'shun, a. The 
beginning two or more words with the same 
letter, to give them a sort of rhyming conso- 
nance, somewhat similar to the termination of 
the adjective and substantive in Latin ; and 
used by the best writers. 

" The booknil blockhead Ignorastly rend, 
M With load* of learned lumber in bis head." 

, Popt. 

ALLOCATION, il-lo-ka'shun, a. The act 
of putting owe thing to another j the admissicsi 
of an article in reckoning, and addition of it to 
the account* 

ALLOCUTION, al-lo-kn'shon, a. The act 
of speaking to another. 

ALLODIAL, al-lo'de-al, a. Not feudal, in- 

ALLODIUM. iMo'de-fim, a. Possession 
held in absolute independence, without any 
acknowledgment of a lord-paramount There 
are no allodial lands in England. 

ALLONGE, al-londje', a. 165. A pass or 
thrust with a rapier. 

To ALLOO, al-loo', c. a. To set on, to incite. 

ALLOQUY, allo-kwe, a. The act of speak- 
ing to another. 

To ALLOT, al-l6f, «. a. To distribute by lot j 
to grant v to distribute, give each his share. 

ALLOTMENT, al-ldtWnt, a. The part, the 

. ALLOTTERY, al-loY tfir-e, a. 66b. That 
I which ia granted to any in a distribution ' 


atr 147. not lto—tabe 171, tub 17S, b4llm-*& TO-pound SI*— fMn 406, thii 46ft 

IbALLOvY, ll.lU 9 , tr. «. To admit; to 

grant, to yield ; to permit ; to give to, to pay 

to ; to make abatement 
ALLOWABLE, ti-lWt-bl, a. That which 

may be ad ruilted without contradiction jlawfa], 

not forbidden. 

ALLOW ABLENESS, AlJofoa-bl-niss, s. 
Lawfulness; exempt ion from prohibition. 

ALLOWANCE, aUoft'tnse, $. Sanction, 
ficease; permission; an appointment for any 
nee, abatement from the strict rigour ; a sura 

a f??K? 7^W' or ******* ai a *>pend. 
ALLOY, ftl-loe , s. 12. Baser metal mixed 

mcoiuage ; abatement, diminution. 
To ALLUDE, il-lode' v. n. To have some re- 

* JS^SSUSJ^^**." 011 . 1 il F di "*t mention. 
ALLUMINOR, il-lu'me-n6r, #. One who 

^ tt l!^I*,SlC aJ V* n t V° u 9*1** or pwcbment. 
To ALLURE^ 41-lare', v. a. To entice to any 

ALLUREMENT, H-iure'ineot, •.Entice- 
ment, temptation. " 

ALLURER, 4l-hVrir, $. 96. Enticer, in 

ALLURINGLY, al-lu'ring-le, ad. In an 
allormg manner, enticingly. 

AIXURbiONESS^^oVmg-nls, $. En- 

a i*?5SS5ki? m Si a MS ,il ^ Proposing pleasure; 
ALLUSION, il-lo'«hSn, e. A hint, an im- 

ALLUSIVE, al-lA'sir, a. 158, 428. Hinting 
at something. 

ALLUSIVELY, il-14'sly-le, ad. In an allu- 
sive manner. 

ALLUSrVENESS, il-Iu'sir-nls, #• The qua- 
lity of being aHosive. 

ALLUVION, H-Iu-ve-nn. #. The carrying of 
■my thing to something else by the motion of 
«"• w /ter; the thing earned by water. 

TjALLY, Hl-li', v. a. To mute by kindred, 
friendship, or confederacy ; to make a relation 
■etween two things. 

ALfifOND TREE, i'mfind-tree, s. It has 
leaves and flowers very like those of the peach 

ALMONDS, 2'mundz,*. The two glands of 

the throat : the tonsils. 
ALMONER, aTmo-nfir, §. 84. The officer of 

a prince, employed in the distribution of 


ALMONRY, Il'man-re, s. The place where 
alms are distributed. 

ALMOST, il'most, ad. 84. Nearly,well nigh; 

ALMS, imzjs. 403. What is given in relief 
of the poor. . 

ALMSBASKET, aWb4s-kft,s. The basket 

. in which provisions are put to be given away. 

ALMSDEED, aWdeed,*. A charitable girt. 

ALMSGIVER, aWglv-fir, «. He that sap- 
ports others by his cliarity. 

ALMSHOUSE, aWhouse, «. An hospital 
for the poor. 

ALMSMAN, £mz4nln, #. A man who livos 
upon alms. 

ALMUG-TREE, ittnjg-trei, *. A tree men- 
tioned in Scripture. 

ALNAOER, Urni-jnr, «. 88. A measurer by 
the ell ; a sworn officer, whose business former- 
ly was to inspect the assize of woollen cloth. 

ALNAGE, ll'naje, «. 90. Ell-measure. 

ALNIGHT, al'nlte, «. Alnight is a great 
cake of wax, with the wick in the midst. 

ALOES, aToze, §. A precious wood used in 
the *aat for perfumes, of which the best sort is 
of higher price than gold; a tree which grows 
in hot countries ; a medicinal juice extracted 
from the common aloes tree. 

t? This word is divided into three syllables by Mr. 
Sheridan, and but into two by Dr.Kenrick, Mr. Perry, 

ALLY^l-ll', s.— See Survey. One united 
tososW other by marriage, friendship, or con- 

JSLA*" V i here wti *■ »ffectat»on of 
E^SYi? "S* J? ™' wh * B • BO0M . **»* the accent 
- the irst »yiubi« ; and this had an appearancVof 

^L^ «k« s«ral caiUun of accenting «owu 

wiT JZ*\Z 9 »»«™crea wiia an universal 

w£*2!££ P T?TF the y like e in a final 

«-HS?. 'i !? B0t ' whatev « r *»» «*>• reason of 

awveiiy, it now > seems to have sabfided ; and this 

«• --*-*? * E n ««"y prononneed with tbe accent on 

A^ACANTp,*l.mi.kln'tur,,. A circle 
* 52??lP**■ Be, to thc borixon. 
AMI AdANTER'S STAFF, al-mi-kaV- 
tnrz-staJ, «. An instrument used to take 

AUIAN»INEL4lWii^Jne, fc i49.A ruby, 
tamer «od Iwbter thw the oriental 

ALMIGHTiWesS, al-mW-nXXoinmpo. 
ALMIGHTY, il-mhe, a. 84, 406. Of nn- 

AMONJD, i'mund, *. 401. The ^ut of the 
mn ond tree* 


Mr. Scott, and W. Johnston. , ... v 

nlon, preferable. My rvason is, that though this p 

Tbe latter is, in my opi- 

. is, that though this pin- 

ral word is perfectly Latin, and in that language is 

prononneed in three syllables ; yet,as we have the sin* 
gulat aloe in two syllables, we onght to form the pla- 
ral according to our own analogy, and pronounce it in 
two syllables likewise.— See Antipodes. 

ALOETICAL, ii.Mt / e-kal, a. Consisting 

chiefly of aloes. 
ALOFT, 4-loff, ad. On high, in the air. 
ALOFT, l-loft', prep. Above. 
ALOO Y, II 6-je, 8. Unreasonableness ;ab-. 

ALONE, i-lone', a. 645. Single ; without 

company, solitary. 
ALONG, i-long', ad. At length; through 

any space measured lengthwise ; forward, on- 

ward ; in company with. 
ALOOF, i-lttf , ad. At a distance. 
ALOUD, 4-lSud', ad. Loudly, with a great 

ALOW. 4-ln', ad. In a low place, not aloft. 
ALPHA, aTfi. s. 84,645. The first letter in 

the Greek alphabet, answering to our A; 

therefore used to signify the first. 
ALPHABET, aTf £b4t, *. The letters, or 

dements of speech. 
ALPHABETICAL, 4l-f4-blt^e-kil, a. Ac 

cording to the series of letteis. 
ALPHABETICALLY, 4l-fA-beVte-kal-U, 

ad According to the order of tbe letters. 
ALREADY, il-r&rde, ad. 84. At this pre- 
sent time ; before the present. 
ALS, ftJe, ad. Also. 

ALSO, tl'so, ad. 84. In the same manner, 



tt 359 Fate 73, fir 77, mil 83, &t 81— me 9S, mit 95— pke 105, P» 167— no 102, move lfa, 

ALTAR, Sl't&r, *. 84, 96. The place where 
offerings to Heaven are laid; the table in 
Christian chuiches where the communion is 

ALTARAGE, al'tfir-aje, s. 90. An emolu- 
ment from oblations at the altar. 

ALTAR-CLOTH, aTtur-ddth, *. The cloth 
thrown over the altar in churches. 

To ALTER, ftl'tur, v. a. 418. To change, to 
make otherwise than it is. 

Tp ALTER, al'tOr, v. n. To become otherwise 
than k was, to be changed, to suffer change. 

ALTERABLE, aTtir-I-M, a. That which 
may be altered or changed. 

ALTERABLENESS, ai'tQr4-bl-n&s, «. 
The quality of being alterable. 

ALTERABLY, al'tur-l-ble, ad. In Bach a 
manner as may be altered. 

ALTERANT, al'tir-ant, «. 555. That which 
has the power of producing changes. 

ALTERATION, aVtu^a 'shun, I The act of 
altering or changing ; the change made. 

ALTERATIVE, aT'ttr-i-tiv, a. Medicine* 
called alterative are such as have no immedi- 
ate sensible operation, but gradually gain upon 
the constitution. 

ALTERCATION, al-tur-ka'shftn, *. Debate, 
controversy, 84. 

ty Tlw irst syllable of this word, and of the sixteen 
that follow it, except although, are subject to a doable 
pronunciation, between which it is not very easy to 
decide. There is a general rale ia the language, that 
I, followed by another consonant, gives the preceding 
a its broad souud, as la salt. This rale is subject to 
several exceptions, 84 ; and if we take io these words 
Into the exceptions, there is some doubt of the ax- 
ceatioas becoming the general rale. Bat the * in 
question is now so generally pronounced, as in the first 
sylUble oiaUejf, valUf, &c that we sboald risk the 
Imputation of inaccuracy M sound it otherwise. Mr. 
Sheridan, Dr. Keorlck, and Mr. Scott, are uniformly 
for ink latter sound of a. Mr. Perry marks all in 
the saute manner, except altercate and altercation, 
and W. Johnston has only the words altercation and 
alternative, which he pronoances ia the former man- 
ner. U is certain that the former was the true Anglo* 
Saxon sonnd, and it is highly probable that the latter 
has only obtained within these few years, in words 
obviously derived from the latin as these are; bat 
there seems to be a grossoess in one soand, and a 
neatness io the other, which has so decidedly given 
one of them the preference. 

ALTERN, al-tlrn', a. 84,98. Acting by tarns. 
ALTERNACY, al-teVni-se, s. 84. Action 

performed by turns. 
ALTERNATE, Al-teVnlte, a. 91. Being by 

turns, reciprocal. 
To ALTERNATE, il-teVnate, v. a. 91. To 

perform alternately ; to change one thing for 

another reciprocally. 
ALTERNATELY, al-teYnlte-le, ad. In re- 

dprocal succession. 
ALTERN ATENESS, al-tlVnate-nSa, «. The 

Zuality of being alternate. 
TERNATION. al-tfo-ni'shaii, *. The 
reciprocal succession of things. 555. 
ALTERNATIVE, ai-t£r'ni-tiv. #. 158. The 
choice given of two things, so that, if one be 
rejected, the other roust be taken. 
ALTERNATIVELY, Al-teVni-tlv-le, ad. By 
tnrns, reciprocal! v. 

ALTERN ATIVtfNEBS, il-teVni-tiv-nis, *• 
•*-5ee Altercation. The quality or stale of 
being alternative. 

ALTERNITY, al-teVne>te, • . 98. Reciprocal 
•accession, vicissitude. 

ALTHOUGH, il-THo 1 * con], 84. NotwHh- 

a tending, however. 
ALTIIX)QUENCE,4l-tlllo-kweW,s. Pom- 

£ous language. 98. 
TIMETRY, il-tWme-tre, e. 518. The art 
of taking or measuring altitudes or heights. 

ALTISONANT, il-dsfco-nant, a. 518. High 
sounding, pompous in sound. 

ALTITUDE, al'te-tude, «. Height of place, 
space measured upward; the elevation of any 
of the heavenly bodies above the horizon, situ- 
ation with regard to Ivwer things ; height of 
excellence ; highest point. 

ALTOGETHER ? al-to-glth'ur,<to\ Complete- 
ly, without restriction, without exception. 

ALUDEL, il'u-del, s^ludels are sublim- 
ing pots used in cliymistry, fitted into one an- 
other without luting. 

ALUM, ilium, s. A kind of mineral salt, of 
an acid taste. 

ALUM-STOKE, ilium-stone, s. A stone or 
~calx used in surgery. 

ALUMINOUS,af-lu'ine-nufl, a. Relating to 
alum, or consisting of alum. 

ALWAYS, lipase, ad. 84. Perpetually, 
throughout all time ; constantly, without vari- 

AM, 4m, The first person of the verb To be. 

AMABILTTY, am-4-bii'e-te, «. 511. Love- 
liness. 5£7. 

AMADETTO, am-t-detfto, $. A sort of pear. 

AMADOT. 4m 'A-d6t, «. 60S. A sort of pear. 

AMAIN, a-mane', ad. With vehemence, 
with vigour. 

AMALGAM, 4-maTgam, \ s. The mix- 

AMALGAMA,i-maTga-m4, $ ture of me- 
tals procured by amalgamation. 84. 

AMALGAMATION, a-mal-gl-nia'shun, $. 
84.— .See Alteration. The act or practice of 
amalgamating metals. 

To AMALGAMATE, A-mal'gi-mate, v. n. 
To unite metals with quicksilver. 

AMANDATION, am-an-di'shun, $. The 
act of sending on a message. 527. 

AMANUENSIS, 4-man-u-in'sis, t. A per- 
son who writes what another dictates. 

AMARANTH, am'a-rantt, «. The name of a 
plant; in poetry, an imagittar\ flower unfading. 

AMARANTHINE, 4m-i-ran'fAin, a. Con- 
sisting of amaranths, 150. 

%y Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, and Mr. Perry v pro- 
nounce the I in the last syllable of this word short, aa 
it is here marked. 

AMARITUDE,A-maVre-tude,«.8 1 .Bitterness. 

AMASMENT, A-mls'ment, s. A heap, aa 


tT This word is spoiled with one* by Dr. Johnson, 
bat aadoabtedly ought to have doable « as well aa 
cessment, embossment, and embarrassment. 

To AMASS, i-mAs', v. a. To collect together 
into one heap or mass ; to add one tiling to 

To AM ATE, t-mlte', e. n. To terrify, to 
.strike with horror. 

AMATORY, am'a-t&r-re, s. 512. Relating 
to love. 555. 

AMAUROSIS, tm-au-rrVsls, s. 520. A dim- 
ness of sight, not from any visible defect in the 
eye, but from some distemperatore in the inner 
parts, occasioning the representations of flies 
and dust floating before the eves. 

To AMAZE, 4-maee', v,a. To confuse wltk 

to pot into 

pot into perplexity. 
AMAZE, i-maze', $. Astonishment, coafu- 

m, either of fear or wonder. 
AMAZEDLY, a-ma'z&l-le, erf. 564. Com- 

fssedly, with amazement. 
AMAZEDNESS, a-ina'z&l-nes, s. 866. The 

state of being amazed, wonder, confusion. 
AMAZEMENT, a-maze'ment, *. Confused 

apprehension, extreme fear, horror; extreme 

dejection ; height of admiration ; wonder at 

an unexpected event 
AMAZING, a-ma'zlng, port. a. Wonderful, 

AMAZINGLY, i-maxjng^l^.To a degree 

that may excite astonishment. 
AMAZON, am'A-Eun, s. 166. The Amazons 

were a race of women famous for valour; a 

ts Tab word has the aeeeat oa the ant syllable, 
contrary to Ihe Latin original, which has It on the se- 
eead; while the following word Ambagu has the 
ansae peaeltlaMte accent as in Lathi. 

AMBAGES, im-toVjes. s. 60S. A circuit of 

words, a multiplicity of words. 
AMBASSADE, ImJrfwide', a. EmbaMy. 

Not in use. 
AMBASSADOR, im-bas'si-dur, «. A per: 

son sent in a public manner from one sovereign 

power to another, 418.— See Honour. 
AMBASSADRESS, am-bas'st-dres, $. The 

lady of an ambassador; a woman sent on a 


air 167, not 16i— tube 171 , tub 17*, bull ITS— A 999— pUnd Sll-fal* 466, this 469. 

with wonder; to AMBILOQUOUS, ; am-bulo-kwus, a. Using 

ambiguous expressions, 518. 

AMBIT. sWbft, s . The compass or circuit oi 
any thing* 

AMBITION, am-bish'un, *. 607. The desire 
ot^ preferment or honour ; the desire of any 
thing great or excellent. 

AMBITIOUS, am-blsh'us, a. 459. Seized or 
touched with ambition, desirous of advance- 
ment, aspiring. 

AMBITIOUSLY, am-blsh'us-le, ad. With 
eagerness of advancement or preference. 

AMBTOOUSNESS, am-blsh'as-nes, «. The 
quality of being ambitious. 

AMBITUDE, am'be-tude,*. 469. Compass, 

To AMBLE, am'bl, t>. n. 406. To more upon 
an amble, to pace ; to move easily ; to walk 

AMBLE, am'bl. «. 406. An easy pace, 

AMBLER, ftm'blur, «. 98. A pacer. 

AMBUNGLY, anv^llng-le, ad. With an 
ambling movement. 

AMBROSIA, am-br6fehe-i,«. 606. The ima- 
ginary food of the gods ; the name of a plant. 

£3* Mr. Sheridan has pronounced this »nd the foU 
lowing word am-bro-tha and am-hrv^kmL Dr. Kea- 
rick has divided them Into the same aamber of sylla» 
Met, but has given the s the flat aspiration, like as. 
That this is the true sonnd.eee letter*?, N o.*53; and that 
these words ought to he -divided into four syllables, 
see Syllabication, Not. 5W, 943. 

AMBROSIAL, am-bro'zhe-il, a. Partaking 

of the nature or quality of arabi osia; delicious. 
AMBRY, amine, s. The place where alms 
are distributed; the place where plate, and 
utensils for housekeeping, are kept 

AMBS-ACE, amez-W, «. S47. A double 

ace, aces. 
AMBULATION, am-bu-lashon, «. The aet 

of walking. 
AMBULATORY, fcrt>Q-la-tur-re, a. That 

which has the power or faculty of walking.612. 
AMBURY, am'ba-re, *. A bloody wart on a 

horse's body. " 
AMBUSCADE, im-bus-kade', *. A private 

station in which men lie to surprise others 

AMBUSCADO,am-bus-ka'd6, «. 77. A pri- 
vate post, in order to surprise. 

AMBUSH, am'bush, $. 175. The post where 
soldiers pr assassins are placed in order to fail 
unexpectedly upon an enemy ; the act of sur- 
prising another, by lying in wait ; the state of 
lying in wait. 

AMBUSHED, im'bash-id, a. 969. Placed 
in ambush. 

AMBUSHMENT, eWbush-ment, #. Am- 
bush, surprise. 

AMBUSTION,am-bujfehun, «. 464. A burn, 
a scald. 

AMEL, amWl, #. The matter with whioh 
the variegated works are overlaid, which we 
call enamelled. 

AMEN, amen', ad. A term used in devotions,, 
by which, at the end of a prayer, we mean, so 
be it ; at the end of a creed, so it is. 

Y5 Tbi* is the only word in the language that has 
necestarily two consecutive accent*.— See Principles'. 
No. 4Q1. 

AMENABLE, a-me^-M. a. 405. Response 

ble, subject so as to be liable to account. 
AMENANCE, i-me'nanse, «. Conduct, be- 
» havioun 

AMBASSAO^am i bls-saje^.90.Anembassy 

AMBER, anVb&r, $. 98. A yellow transparent 
snbstance, of a gammoos or bituminous con- 

AMBER, im'bor, «. Consisting of amber. 

AMBER-DRINK, a^nr-drink, «. Drink 
of the colour of amber. 

AMBERORIS, im1>ur-grese, $. 112. A fra- 
grant drug that melts almost like wax, used 
both as a perfume and a cordial. 

AMBER-SEED, aWbur-seed, s. Resembles 

AMBER-TREE, anVbur-tree, «. A shrub 
whose beauty is in its small evergreen leaves. 

AMBIDEXTER, am-be-deVtfi, s. A man 
who has equal! v the use of both his bands ; a 
man who is equally ready to act on either side 
in party disputes. 

AMBIDEXTERITY, am-be-d£x-teVre-tt, s. 
The quality of being able equally to use both 
hands ; double dealing. 

AMBIDEXTROUS ? im-be-deVtrns/i. Hay- 
ing, with equal facility, the use of either hand; 
double dealing, practising on both sides. 

ssie,*. The quality of being ambidextrous. 

AMBIENT, am'be-iat, a. Surrounding, en- 

AMBlGU, aWbe-gu, t. An entertainment 
consisting of a medlev of dishes. 

AMBIGUITY, Im-be-gu'e-te, «. Doubtful- 
ness of meaning ; uncertainty of signification. 

ing two meanings; using doubtful expressions. 

AMBIGUOUSLY, am-blg'n-us-le, od. In an 
ambiguous manner, doubtfully. * 

eertaificyof meaning; dupliritjof signification. 

AMBILOGY, sWbiTlo-gL s. 618. Talk of 
si] -"- 


CT5S9. Fit«n,ftr77,fill8«,rtt81— nje9>,mit95— p^lO$,pinl07— nA 108, ni&ve UK, 

To AMEND, A-mind', e, a. To correct, to 
change any tiling that it wrong ; to reform the 
life; to restore pottages in writers which the 
copiers are tupposed to have depravedt 

To AMEND, i-meW, t». w. To grow better. 
AMENDMENT, a-mend'mlnt, #. A change 

from bad for the better reformation of life ; 

recovery of health : in law, the correction of 

an error committed in a process. 
AMENDER, i-men'dQr, $. 98. The person 

that amends any thing. 

AMENDS, a -mends', *. Recompense, com- 

AMENITY, a-min'ne-te, *. 511. Agreeable- 
ness of situation. 

To AMERCE, a-mirse', v. a. To punish with 
a fine orpenalty. 

AMERCER, 4-meVsur, *. 98. He that sets 
a fine upon any misdemeanour. 

AMERCEMENT, A-mirse'ment, *. The pe- 
cuniary punishment of an offender. 

AMES- ACE, amez-ace / ,*.Two aces thrown 
at the same time on two dice. 

AMETHODICAL, kme-fadd'e-kll, a. Oat 
of method, irregular. 

AMETHYST, am'e-taist, s. A precious 
stone of a violet colour, bordering on purple. 

AMETHYSTINE, am-e-f*is'tin, «. 140. Re- 
sembling an amethyst. 

AMIABLE, a'me-t-bl, a. 405. Lovely, pleas- 
ing, worthy to be loved ; pretending love, 
shewing love. 

AMIABLENESS, aW-i-bl-nis, «. Love- 
liness, power of raising love. 

AMIABLY, a'me-ft-bl£, ad,ln such a manner 

as to excite love. 
AMICABLE, am'me-U-bl, a. 406. Friendly, 

AMICABLENESS, amtae-ka-bl-nls, •. 

Friendliness, good will. 
AMICABLY, am'e-ki-ble, ad. In a friendly 

AMICE, am'mls, «. 142. The first or under- 
most part of a priest's habit. 
AMID, i-mld', 1 prep. In the midst,mid- 

AMIDST, *-mldsf , $ die ; mingled with, 

surrounded by ; among. 
AMISS, 4-mfe', ad. Faultily, criminally ; 

wrong* not according to the perfection of the 

thing; impaired in health. 
AMISSION, a-mWun,#. Loss. 
To AMIT, 4-m?tf, v. a. To lose. 
AMITY, im'me-te,s.611. Friendship. 
AMMONIAC, am-mo'ne-ik, «. 606. A gum ; 

a salt. 
AMMONIACAL, 4m-mo-nl'a-kal,a. Having 

the uature of ammoniac salt. 506. 
AMMUNITION, am-mu-nlsh'un, *. Military 

AMMUNITION BREAD,' am-mu-nlsh'un- 

bred, #. Bread for the supply of armies. 
AMNESTY, am'njs-te, *. An act of oblivion. 
AMNION, anrne-ftn, ? *. The innermost 
AMNIOS, im'ne-6s. 160. J membrane with 

which the foetus in the womb is immediately 

AMORIST, am'o-rist, s. An inamorato, a 

AMOROUS, fo'o-rus, a. 544. Enamoured; 

naturally inclined to love, foud j belonging to 

AMOROUSLY, aWo-ris-le, ad. Fondly, 


AMOROUSNESS, ton'o-rns-n£s, s. Fond- 
ness, lovingriess. 

AMORT, a-morf , ad. Depressed, spiritless. 

AMORTIZATION, a^mcVte-zk'sh&n, > 

AMORTIZEMENT, a-mor'tfe-ment, ] $t 
The right or act of transferring lauds to mort- 

To AMORTISE, a>moVt?z, v. n. 140. To 
alien lands or tenements to any corporation. 

£3* I hive made the last ly liable of thii word short, 
contrary to Mr. Sheridan's pronunciation of it, not 
only because it is so pronounced by Mr. Scott and 
Dr. Eenriek, bat because it is agreeable to the gene- 
ral rale. 

To AMOVE, a-moove', v. a. To remove 
from a post or station ; to remove, to move, 
to alter. 

To AMOUNT, i-mounf, v. n. To rise to in 

the accumulative quality. 

AMOUNT, 4-mount', «. The sum total. 

AMOUR, i-mour 1 , a. An affair of gallantry, 
an intrigue. 

AMPHIBIOUS, am-ilb'e-us,!!. That which 
can live in two elements. 

-AMPHIBIOUSNESS, am-fib'e-is-nis, •.. 
The quality of being able to live in different' 

AMPHIBOLOGICAL, 4m-fe-bo-l6d'je>kal, 
a. 509. Doubtful. 

AMPHIBOLOGY, am-fe-b6i'o-je, «. Dis- 
course of nncertain meaning. 

AMPHIBOLOUS, am-f ib'b6-lus, a. Tossed 
from one to another. 

AMPHISBiENA, am-f Is-be'ui, «. 92. A 
serpent supposed to have two heads. 

AMPHITHEATRE, im-ffc-f Aea-tftr, s. 516. 
A building in a circular or oval form, having its 
area encompassed with rows of seats one above 

AMPLE, ftm'pl, a. 405. Large, wide, ex- 
tended; great in bulk; unlimited, without 
restriction ; liberal,' l*/ge, without parsimony ; 
diffusive, not contracted. 

AMPLENESS, am'pl-nis, s. Largeness, 

To AMPLIATE, am'ple-lte, v. a. To en- 
large, to extend. 

AMPLIATION, am-ple-a'shon, s Enlarge- 
ment, exaggeration ; ditfuseness. 

To AMPLIFICATE, am-plife-kate, v. a. To 
enlarge, to amplify. 

AMPLIFICATION, im-ple-fe-ka'shftn, s. 
Enlargement, extension; exaggerated repre- 

AMPLIFIER, am'ple-f 1-ur, s. 98 One that 

To AMPLIFY, am'pie-f 1, v. a. 183. To en- 
large ; to exaggerate any thing ; to improve 
by new additions. 

AMOMUM,a-mo'mflm,s. A sort of fruit. , , , 

AMONG, i-munP; ? prep. 165. Mingled To AMPLtFY, 4m'ple-f 1, v. ». To lay one's 
AMONGST, a-mungsf , $ with ; conjoined self out in diffusion ; to form p< 

with others, to as to make part of the number ] senUtions. 


pompotu rente- 


mir WT, nfe l«-4oba 171, tub 17*, bill 17%-ttk iW^pJfcid ais_*«n 468,-Tm «t. 

AMPLITUDE, im'ple-tade, #. Largeness, 

arratnees ; copiousness, abundance. 
AMPLT^ im'ple, ad. Largely, liberally ; 

■T^SS OTATE, am'pu-tate, c. «. To cut 
off a limb. 

AMPUTATION, am-pu-taahun, a. The 
•P««|twn of cutting off a limb, or other part 

AMUUCT, am'4-let, a. A charm ; a thing 
mm* about the neck, for preventing or curing 

fcAMUSE, i-moze', v. a To entertain 
the mind with harmless trifling; to engage 
the attention; to deceive by artful manage- 

AMUSEMENT, tmuzement, a . That which 
sanmaea, entertainment, 

AMUSER, 4-mazur, a. He that amuses. 
AMU8IVE, 4-mu'arv, ad. 158, 428. That 
which has the power of amusing. 

AMYGDALATE, aVrnfrdl-late, a. Made of 
almonds. * 

AMYGBAIINE, i-mis/dl-lme, a. 149. Re- 
sembfiag almonds. 

AN, la, en\ One, but with less emphasis ; 
**y, or some. 

™" ?!S 1 T fil, f te ' Mld ' ts it may be called, the 

fwa saswJ c.ardcic, J* aaid by all oar Grammarians to 
a* ascd bcfsrc a vowel or a male; bat no notice to I 
•ata of awnf « instead of it before what to called a | 
T*™» « « tM*/W 6«*,a usual ceremony, a usurer, 
«■*•■ ■**■• »»y mention made of Its constant usage 
awaea it w not mttie, if the accent of the woi d 
°"- 11 * ■•eaad syllable, as en heroic action, an 
wsawf , &c. Thto want of sscuracy arises 
< - ■ - aoa, y ld,, f w« vowels, and hot attend. 
Mf sssajrleatly to the inflnenre of srcem on pronon- 
y 11 ** - A proper investigation ef the power of the 
jewels woald have informed our Grammarian* that 
, ** *■»**"' *» when long, to not so properly a vowel n 
n_ sewA consonnnt, and perfectly equivalent to com- 
y y*» *»*} J** «*«* a feeling of this has inscnsi- 
wy lawneaced the best speakers to prefix a to it in 
■ eowrersatioa, while a coafnsed Idea of the gene- 
arising from an ignorance of the aatare of the 

. -J" t«nerally induced them to prefix an to It 

5-7J*?* Th€ " nie °»»erYafions are applicable to 
**.*•■ *?* «■[ • Io »« *««• ■»» that before Aervfc, fils- 
ZTSrJrZJ^S* f*^ hirariably to be used ; bat 
IiL?L d i* w f i, * th * U to the »Me»«« of accent on 
the A that makes c» admissible in these words, we 

***£JE* ** to WOKl * where lb * * u »<>«>nded, 
as ass morse, mn house, &c. and thns set onr spoken 

language at variance. Thto seema better 

. for , "■ wasjt of accuracy in thto article than 

■Jft nro I once beard from l)r. Johnson, that onr 

-iws, particularly In the thne of the Spectator, 

tats misapplication of the article frequently 

aid not pronounce the A at the beginning of 

•*■ -*— as we do. However this may be, it 

., __-.* w a correctness of language to make 

"" ^T^&Lm 9 ?* prononcUUon as consistent as 

le : for wUch purpose il may not be useless to 

J"**™"""*** general rales. The article A 

be ased before all words beginning with a con- 

* Tr*£** *• ^T* 1 u when ioD f : M <i »• 

.^ ^Jf™* ■* ■"* ■•**• * M wordi heginnlng 

*■» J *•»* eaceot loagsi y before words beginning 

■■**•»,*• •» Aswr, em Acfr, &c. or before words 

fa* A b net mute, If the accent be on the second 

w - -i ■" i itere tt wh « »«s% »«e" Principles^ 
•o. a, and the Motes upon it. 

AN ACAMPT1CK, fa4-hjjg/dk, a% Reflect. 
■^ vrvMCted. 

ANACAMFTICKS, an-a-cam't?ks, s. The 
doctrine of reflected light, or catoptric**. 

ANACATHAATICK, in-i-ka-tair^ik, t. 

Any medicine tliat works upwards. 
ANACHORITE, to-fc'o-rlte, s. 155. A 

monk, who leaves the convent for a more aofiV 

tarv lira. 

ANACHRONISM, an-ak'kro-nism, s. An 
error in computing time. 

AN ACLATICKS, an4-klat / !ks, s. The doc- 
trine of refracted light ; dioptricks. 

ANADIPLOSIS, 4n-i-d^plA'flls, s. Redu- 
plication ; a figure in rhetorick. 990. 

ANAGRAM, in'a-gram, s. A conceit arising 
from the letters of a name transposed so as to 
form some other word oi sentence. 

ANAGRAMMATISM, an4-gr*m'm*-t»m, 
«. 434. The act or practice of making anagrams* 

ANAGRAMM ATIST, an-i.grimini.ttst, a. 

A maker of anagrams. . 
To ANAGRAMMATIZE, in-i-gram'ml. 

tlze, v. n. 159. To make anagram*. 

ANALEPTICK,an4-lep'tik,a. Comforting, 

ANALOGICAL, an-i-l6dje'£-kH, a. Used 

by way of analogy. 
ANALOGICALLY, an-A-ld^-klU, ad. 

In an analogical maimer; in an analogous 


s. 'The quality of being analogical. 

To ANALOGIZE, a-n4H^jke,r. a. To ex- 
plain hy way of analogy, 

ANALOGOUS, i-nil'Io-goj, a. 314. Having 

analogy, having something parallel. 

ANALOGY, i-niHo-je, «. 518.Resemblance 
between things with regard to some circum- 
stances or effects. 

ANALYSIS, l-nille-sls, $. 520. A separa- 
tion of any compound into its several parts ; a 
solution of any thing, whether corporal or men- 
tal, to its first elements. 

ANALYTICAL, in-aUlt'te-kll, a. That 
which resolves any thing into first principles ; 
that which proceeds by analysis. 


manner of resolving compounds into the sim- 
ple constituent or component parts. 

TO ANALYZE, an'i-llze, v. a. To resolve a 

compound into its .first principles. 
ANALYZER,an'&-ll-zur, a. 08. That which 

has the power of analyzing. 

ANAMORPHOSIS, an4-mor-fo's!s, a. De- 
formation ; perspective projection, so that at 
.one point of view it shall appear deformed, iu 
another an exact representation. 

fcJM have accented this word ou the penultimate, 
as Dr. Johnson and Mr. Sberidnn have done; as it is 
a technical word, and not naturalised like mctanum 
phogis.—Set Principles, Vo. »20. 

ANANAS, t-ntais, a. The pine apple. 
ANAPHORA, a-naffo-r4, s. 9%. A figure 

when several clauses of a sentence are begun 

with the same word. 

ANARCH, in'ark, s. 358. An author of 

ANARCHIAL, i-naVke-il 9 c. Confused, • 

without rule. 


659 Fate 73, ffrTT, fall 8ft, tit S1-- me OS, 

ANARCHY, 4n'ir-ke, s. Want of govern- 
ment, a state without magistracy. 

ANASARCA, an4-ssVka, «. OS. A sort of 
dropsy, where the whole substance is stuffed 
with pit nitons humours* 

ANASTROPHE, 4-nsWtro-fe, *. 518. A 

figure whereby words, which should have been 
precedent, are postponed* 

ANATHEMA, a-nAca'e-m*, $. 02. A curse 
pronounced by ecclesiastical authority. 

AN ATHEM ATICAL, an-a-tae-matfe-kal/i. 
509. That which has the properties of an 

ANATHEMATICALLY, an4-tae-mai'e> 
kal-ie,ad. In an anathematical manner. 

159. To pronounce accursed by ecclesiastical 

ANATIFEROUS, an-i-tiffe-rus, a. Pro- 
ducing ducks. 

ANATOCISM, jt-naf to-sfan, s. The accu- 
mulation of interest upon interest. 

ANATOMICAL, an-a-t6m*-kil, a. Relat- 
ing or belonging to anatomy j proceeding upon 
principles taught in anatomy. 

ANATOMICALLY, an-a-tom'e-kai-le, ad. 

In an anatomical manner. 

ANATOMIST, i -Da to -mist, #. He that 
studies the structure of animal bodies, by 
means of dissection. 

To ANATOMIZE, a-nat'to-mlze, v. a. To 
dissect an animal ; to lay any thing open dis- 
tinctly, and by minute parts. 

ANATOMY, i-nal'o-me, «. 518. The art of 

dissecting the body, the doctrine of the struc- 
ture of the body ; the act of dividing any 
thing ; a skeleton ; a thin meagre person. 

ANCESTOR, an'ses-t&r, «. 98. One from 

whom a person descends- 
ANCESTREL, an'ses-trel, a. Claimed from 

ANCESTRY, an'sefl-tre, s. Lineage, a series 

of ancestors ; the honour of descent, birth. 

ANCHENTRY, ine'tshln-tre, s. Antiquity 
of a family, properly ancientry. 

ANCHOR, ink'fir, «. S6S. 418. A heavy 
iron, to hold the ship, by being fixed to the 
ground ; any tiling which coufers stability. 

To ANCHOR, ank'Sr, e. it. 166. To cast 
anchor, to lie at anchor ; to stop at, to rest on. 

ANCHORAGE, ank'ur-adje, «. 90. Ground 
to cast anchor upon ; the alienors of a ship ; a 
duty paid for anchoring in a port. 

ANCHOR-HOLD, ink'&r-hold, «. The hold 

or fastness of the anchor. 
ANCHORED, ankir-red, part. a. ft5ft.Held 

by the auchof. 
ANCHORET, ank'o-rit, ? t. A re- 

ANCHORITE, ank'o-rlte, 155. $ cluse, a 

ANCHOVY, un-tshoVe, s. A little eealmh, 
, much used bv way of sauce, or seasoning. 
ANCIENT, ane'tshenL a. 542. Old, not 

modern ; old, that has been of long duration ; 

past, former. 

ANCIENT,ane'tsh£nt,«.The flag or streamer 
of a ship. 

ANCIENT, ane'tshent, «. The bearer of a, 
flag, now ensign. 



met 95— pine 105, pin 107— no 162, more 164, 

ANCIENTLY > anet8hent-le,ad.In old limea. 
ANC1ENTNESS, ane'tshent-nes, «. Anti- 

ANCIENTRY, kne'tshen-tre, «. The honour 
of ancient lineage. 

AND, And, conj. The particle by which sen- 
tences or terms are joined. 

ANDIRON, and'i-ura, «. 417. Irons at the 
end of a fire-grate, in which the spit turns. , 

ANDROGYNAL, an-dr6dje'e-nal, a. Her- 

maphroditica! j partaking of both sexes. 
ANDROGINALLY, en-drodje$-nal-le, as}. 

With two. sexes. 
ANDROGYNUS, an-drodje'e-n&s, «. An 

hermaphrodite. 482. 
ANECDOTE, 4n'£k-dAte, s. Something yet 

unpublished ; secret history. 
ANEMOGRAPH Y, an-e-m^g'gra-fe, s.The 

description of the winds. 51 8. 

ANEMOMETER, In-e-m6m'm&-ter, s. 518. 

An instrument contrived to measure the wind. 

ANEMONE,d-nem'o-ne, s.The wind flower. 

ANEMOSCOPE, i-neWo-skope, s. A ma- 
chine invented to foretell toe changes of the 

ANENT,l-n2nf,jprq>. A Scotticism. Con- 
cerning, about ; over against, opposite to. 

ANEURISM, an'a-rbm, s. 50ft. A disease of 

the arteries, in which they become excessively 

ANEW, a-no/, ad. Oyer again, another time; 

newly, in a new manner. 
ANFRACTUOUSNESS, in-Mlrtshu-us- 

n is, s. 461. Fulness of windings and rurn- 


ANGEL, ane'jft, s.642. See Chang*. Ori- 
ginally a messenger j a spirit employed by 
God in human affairs : angel is sometimes 
used in a bad sense, as, angels of darkness : in 
the st vie of love, a beautiful person: a piece 
of ancient money. 

ANGEL-SHOT, ane^it-shfc, «. Chain shot 

ANGELICA, an-jil'e-ki, s. 92. The name 

of a plant. 
ANGELICAL, an-jel'e-kal, a. 500. Resent. 

bling angels ; partaking of the nature of an 

gels ; belonging to angels. 
ANGELICALNESS, an-jeTle-kll-nes, s. 

Excellence more than human. 
ANGELICK, an-jlnik, a. 50S. Angelical ; 

above human. 
ANGELOT, tn'je-ldt, s. A musical instru- 
ment, somewhat resembling a lute. 
ANGER, ang'g&r, #. 400, 98. Anger is un- 
easiness upon receipt of any injury j smart of 

a sore. 
To ANGER, ing'gur, o. a. To provoke, to 

enrage. . _ , 

ANGERLY, ing'gur-Je, od. In an angry 

ANGIOGRAPHY, fa-je-og'gri-fe, $. A 

description ol vessels in the human body. 
ANGLE, ang'gl, *. 405. The space inter* 

eepted between two lines intersecting each 

ANGLE, ang'gl, «. An instrument to take 

fish, consisting of a rod, a line, ana a hoak. 
To ANGLE, ang'gl, v. a. To Hen with* rod 

and hook J to try to gain by tame insinnallnf 



toe in, tfe 17^ bill instil a»~pMnd 3ii-d 

ANGLE-ROD, «Vtfl*rod. a . The stick to 
which she fisher's late and nook are bong.' 

ANGLER, lag/glur, a. 98. He that fishes 
with on attale 

ANOUCISMJ ang/gle-skin, a. Ab English. 

ANGOBER,*ng;go-bur,j.98. A kind of pear. 
ANGRILY, ang'gre-ie, ad. In an angry 

ANGRY. ang/gre, a. 409. Touched with 
anger ; having die appearance of anger ; pain- 
ful, inflamed. 

ANGUISH, 4ng/gwlsh, a. 340. Excessive 
pain either of mind or body. 

ANGUISHED, ang/gwish-ld, a. Excessive* 
It nined. 359. 

ANGULAK, aog/gft-lur, a. 98. Having an- 
gles or corners. 

ANGULARITY, ang-gu-laVe-te, a. The 
quality of being angular. 

ANGULARLY, tag'gu-lar-le, ad. With 

ANGULARNESS, aVsa-lor-nls, a. The 
. quality of being angular. 

ANGULATED, anVgu-l&-ted, a. Formed 

with angles. 
ANGULOUS, tng/gu-lfis, o. S14. Hooked, 

ANGUST, an-guat',*409,98. Narrow, strait. 

ANGUSTATION, in-gus-ta'shun, a.The act 
of making narrow; the state of being narrowed. 

ANHELATION, an-ht-lafchun, a. The act 
of oaatioa. 

ANHELOSE, aavhe-leae', a. Oat of breath. 
ANLENTED, in'e-en-ted, a. Frustrated. 
ANIGHTS, i-nitee / , ad. In the night-time. 
ANIL, isrll, a. The shrub from whose leaves 
and stalks indigo is prepared. 

ANILENESS, 4-nlle'nea, > ». 630. The old 
ANIUTY, i-*ft1e-te, J age of woman. 
AN1MABLE, an'e-ml-bl, a. 405 .That which 
»av be pot into life. 

ANIMADVERSION an-e-mid-veYahun,a. 

Rrproof ; severe censore ; observation. 
ANIMADVERSIVE, an-e-mad-veVslv, a. 

That hw the power of judging. 428. 

T* ANIMADVERT, in-e-m*d-verf , t>. a. 

To consider,to observe ; to pass censures open. 
ANIMADVERTER, an4-mad-veYtur, s.He 

that passes censures, or observes upon. 

ANIMAL, an'e-mal, a. A living creature, 
corporeal; by way of contempt, we say a sto- 
pisf man is an animal. 

ANIMAL, eVe-mil, a. That which belongs 
er relates to animals j animal is used in oppo- 
sition to spiritual 

ANIMALCULE, In-e-miTkuIe, a. A small 

t? Tkss word is derived rrom the French, and 
tones Its preral by adding *; bat this ptnral Is some* 
tees exprtssed by the Latin word animalntla ,vrhich 
fc^ag awaken fbr a sfogalar by those who have bat 
• Saw! saesnory of their accidence, is sometimes made 
SMual by the change of at into * dip htboag : bat it 
' to be remembered that animalcule in the tin- 
sathes u nkm aim tf in the plural, without any 
' syilafrte \ and that the singular of animal 


ANIW ALTTY, 4n4-m4l'e-te, a. The state of 

TaA^KVlATE y B\n'e.mito,«>.a < >ro quicken, 
to make alive ; to give powers to ; to encuu* 
man, to incite, ... 

ANIMATE, aVe-mate, a. Alive, possessing 
animal life. 91, 

ANIMATED, 4a'e-ma.-tld, purt. a. lively, 


ANIMATION, 4n-e-ma'shun,.». The act of 
animating or enlivening; that which animates; 
the state of being enlivened. 

ANIMATIYE, aVe-ma-tiv, a. 157. That has 

the power of giving life. 

ANIMATOR, an / e-ma-tuj-^.521.That^bieh 
gives life. 

ANIM08E, an-e-mAse', <L 427. Full of 
spirit, hot. 

4NIMOSITY, in-e-mcVse-te, s.Vehemence 
. • of hatred ; : passionate malignity* 

ANtSE, an'nfe, *. 140. A species of apium 
* or parsley, with large sweet-scented seeds. 

ANKER, ank$r, b. 98, 409. A liquid mea- 
sure, the fourth part of the awm. 

ANKLE, ank'kl,.a...40&. The joint which 
joins the foot to • the leg. 

ANKLE-BONE, 4nk'ki-bone, a. The bone 
of the ankle. 

ANNALIST, aVm*-l?st,«. Awriter of annals. 
ANNALS, an'nalz, a. Histories digested in 

the enact order of time. 
ANNATS, in'nits,*. First fruits. 
To ANNEAL, ln-neJe' ? e. o. To heat glass, 

that the colours laid on it may pierce through ; 

to heat any thing in such a manner as to give 

it the true temper. 
To ANNEX, an-neks , v. a. To unite to at 

the end ; to unite a smaller thing to a greater. 
ANNEXATION, an-nek-stehun, 1 Con- 

junction, addition ; union, coalition. 

ANNEXION, an-neVshun, a. The act of 

ANNEXMENT, an-nlks'ment, a. The act 

of annexing ; the thing annexed. 
ANNIHILABLE, an-niTie-nl-bl, a. That 

which may be put nut of existence. 
To ANNIHILATE, in-nS'he-late, e. a. To 

reduce to nothing ; to destroy ; to annul. 

£3* Englishmen who have been bred in foreign se- 
minaries, where they pronounce the J In Latin like «, 
generally pronounce this word as if written an-ns-ke- 
kUe, because they pronounce the Latin word from 
which it is derived in the same manner: but English* 
men, edacated in their own -country, pronounce the 
i, whtn it ends a syllable, with the accent on It, both 
in Latin and English, as it Is here marked. 

ANNIHILATION, In-ni-he-mshun, a. The 
act of reducing to nothing, the state of being 
reduced to nothing. 

ANNIVERSARY, to-ne-ver'si-re,*. A day 
celebrated as it returns in the course of the 
year; the act of celebration of the anniversary, 


ing with the revolution of the year ; annual 
ANNO DOMINI, an'im-doWe-ne. In the 

Sear of our Lord'. 
[NOUS, an'no-tis, a. An American ani- 
mal, like* a lizard. 
ANNOTATION, an-no-ta'sh&n, a. Explica- 
tion; note. 
ANNOTATOR, an-no-ta'tir^ai. A writer 

of notes,"* commentator. 
To ANNOUNCE, tVnofinse', v. a* To pub- 


tt*m FlteTI > ilr77,dUet,f4t81-^n*« > mitg»---pinel05 > pliil«T~BA le^morelflt, 

lab, to proclaim ; to declare by a JimUbuII 

To ANNOY, tn-noe 1 , o. a. 129. To incom- 
mode, to vex* 
ANNOY, An-nte 7 , «. Injury, molestation. 

ANNOYANCE, an-nW'toise, *. That which 

annoys ; the set of annoying. 
ANNOYER, an-noe'&r, *. 98. The person 

that annoys. 
ANNUAlI in'no-il, a. That which comes 

yearly ; that which is reckoned by the year; 

that which lasts only a year. 

ANNUALLY,an'nu4l-le,«d. Yearly, every 

ANNUITANT, an-nu'e-tint,*. He that pos- 
sesses or receives an annuity. 

ANNUITY, an-nu'e-te, s. A yearly rent to 
be paid for term of life or years j a yearly al- 

To ANNUL, In-noT, «. a. To make void, to 
nullify ; to reduce to nothing. 

ANNULAR, an'no-lir, a. 96. Having the 
form of a ring. 

ANNULARY, 4n'nu-la-re, a. Having the 
form of rings. 

ANNULET, aVno-lit, $. A little ring. 

To ANNUMERATE, an-no'me-rate, «. a. 

To add to a former number. 91. 
ANNUMERATION, an-na-me-ra'shon, *. 

Addition to a former number. 
To ANNUNCIATE, an-nin'she-ate, «. a. 

To bring tiding. 91, SW, 196. 
ANNUNCIATION-DAY, an-nan-she-a'- 

shfin-da, 8. The day celebrated by the 

Church, in memory of the Angel's salutation 

of the Blessed Virgin, solemnised on the 

twenty-fifth of March 
ANODYNE, an'o-dlne, a. That which has 

the power of mitigating pain. 

To ANOINT^-noinf, e. a. To rub over with 
unctuous matter ; to consecrate by unction. 

ANOINTER, a-noin'tur, $. The person that 

ANOMAUSM, a-nftm'i-lkm, *. Anomaly, 

ANOMALI8TICAL, i-ndm-l-lVte-kll, a. 

509. Irregular. 
ANOMALOUS, i-noWI-lis, a. Irregalar, 

deviating from the general method or analogy 

of things. 

ANOMALOUSLY, i-n6ml-las-le,att\ Irre- 

ANOMALY, i-n6ml-le, $. Irregularity, 

deviation from rule. 
ANOMY, an'o-me, «. Breach of law. 

ANON, ft-non', ad. Quickly, soon ; now and 

ANONYMQUS, i-n6n'e-mus, a. Wanting a 

ANONYMOUSLY, 4-ndn'e-mfts-le, ad. 
Without a name. 

ANOREXY, aVno-rek-ee, *. 517. Inappe- 
tency. rr 

ANOTHER, an-tWir, a. 98. Not the same ; 
one more; any other; not one's self; widely 

ANSATED, an'sa-ted, «. Having handles. 

To ANSWER, in'anr, e. n. 475, 98. To speak 
in return to a question ; to speak in opposi- 
tton; to be accountable for; to give an ac- 

count; to correspond to, to suit with ; to be 
equivalent to ; to satisfy any claim or petition; 
to stand as opposite or correlative to some- 
thing else ; to bear proportion to ; to succeed, 
to produce the wished event ; to appear to any 
call, or authoritative summons. 

ANSWER, an'sux, s. 475. That which is said 
in return to a question, or position ; a confu- 
tation of a charge. 

ANSWERABLE, an'sor-l-M, a. 475. Hint 
to which a reply may lie made ; obliged to give 
an account; correspondent to; proportionate 
to ; equal to: 

ANSWERABLY, tn's&r-d-ble, ad. In due 
proportion; with proper correspondence; suit- 

ANSWERABLENESS, antir-l-btaej, «. 
The quality of being answerable. 

ANSWERER, an'aur-ur, s. 554. He that an- 
swers; he that manages the controversy against 
one that has written first. 

ANT, ant, s. An emmet, a pismire. 

ANTBEAR, infbare,*. An animal that feed* 
on ants. 

ANTHILL, anfhlll, s. The small protuber- 
ance of earth in which ants make their nests. 

ANTAGONIST, an-tag'o-nist, s. One who 
contends with another, an opponent; con- 
trary to. 

To ANTAGONIZE, in-taVo-nlne, e. n. To 
contend against another. 

ANTANACLASIS, int4-nl-kla'sis, s. A 
figure in rhetoric k, when the same word is re- 
peated in a different manner, if not in a con- 
trary signification ; it is also a returning to the 
matter at the end of a long parenthesis. 

ANTAPHRODITICK, tat-4-fro-dltlk, «. 

Efficacious against the venereal disease. 
ANTAPOPLECTICK, ant4p-po-pl£k'0k, 

a. Good against an apoplexy. 

ANTARCTICK, an-tark'tik, a. Relating to 
the Southern pole. 

ANT ARTHRITICK,ant-ar-arit1k, a. Good 
against the £out 

against the asthma. 

ANTEACT, an'te-akt, s. A former act 

ANTEAMBULATION, in-te-*m-ba-lV- 
shun, s. A walking before. 

To ANTECEDE, An-te-sede', e. a. To pre- 
cede ; to jo before. 

ANTECEDENCE, an-te-seMense, s. The 
act or state of going before. 

ANTECEDENT, in-te-se'dint, «. Going be- 

fore, preceding. 
ANTECEDENT,ln-te-sedlnV.That which 

goes before j in grammar, the noun to which 

the relative is subjoined. 
ANTECEDENTLY, in-tc-sfdent-le, «f. 

Previ ously. 
ANTECESSOR, an-te-slfl'sur, s. One who 

«oes before, or leads another. 
(TECH AMBER, an'te-tsham-b&r, s. The 
chamber that leads to the chief apartment— *• 
See Chamber. 

To ANTEDATE, ante-date, v. a. To date 

earlier than the real time ; to date something 

before the proper time. 
ANTEDILUVIAN, an-te-de-loVMa. c 

Existing before the deluge ; relating to teiage 

existing before the deluge. 


air 147 , afe le*_twbe 1T1 , lib 179, bill l»-«& SOO-pouitf «13-tMn 168, mil 4*9. 

ANTELOPE, fcte^ope, • • A goat with 

CttdMl or wreathed horns. 
ANTEMERIDIAN, In-te-mi-rldj e-an, a. 

EH, 37 6, 507 . Being Wore noon. 
ANTEMETICK, int-e-meVik, «. That has 

the po wer of preventing or stopping vomiting. 

AOTEMUNDANE, in-tkmoii'dane,a,That 

which was before the world. 
ANTEPAST, *n'te-past, *. A fore-taste. 

ANTEPENULT, *n-te-pe-nuU', #. The last 
t jlUbk but two. 

ANTEPILEPTICK, 4jit-ep4-lip'tlk, a. A 
M wncine against convulsions. 

Tt ANTEPONE, An'te-poae, t>. a. To pre- 
fer one th ing to another. 

AOTEPREDICAMENT, an-te-pre-dik'4- 
Mot,*. Something previous to the doc- 
twneef the pred icaments. 

ANTERIORITY, an-te-re-or'e-te, a. Pri- 
ority ; the state of being before. 

ANTERIOUR, an-te're-ftr, a. Going before. 
tfKownore commonly and better written An- 

ANTES, An'Oz, *, Pillars of large dimen- 
■PWtha t support the front of a building. 

ANTESTOMACH^nfte-stum'oJk^. A cavity 
that leads into the stomach. 106. 

ANTHELMINTHICK, An^J^l-min^ik, a. 

That which kills worm*. ' 

ANTHEM, aVttem, s. A holy long. 
ANTHOLOGY, aiMaol'6-j*, *. MS. A col- 

lection of flowers ; a collection of devotions ; 

a collection of poems. 
ANTHONY'S FIRE, torto-nlz-f Ire', s. A 

kind of erysipelas. 
ANTHRAX, An'thrLks, ». A scab or blotch 

which bonis the skin. 

ANTHROPOLOGY, •VtikrA-pM-je, *.The 
oytrine of anatomy. 

ANTHROPOPHAGI, iVtekpoT'l-jl, ». 
£w±aters, -cannibals. 

me-ln, $. A ludicrous word, formed by 
Shakespeare from anthropophagi. 

ANTHROPOPHAGY, firtaro-paf'i-je, *. 
The quality of eating human flesh. 

ANTHROPOSOPHY, an'*ro-p6Vo-fe, $. 
. SSJH 10 * ***& °* lhe ««ture of roan. 
ANTHYPNOTICK, AntTiIp-nodk, «. That 

«riS5^ !£"L th S P°. we » r 5 f presenting sleep. 
AimACID, lAe-asid, «. Alkalf. F 

ANTICHAMBER, In'te-taham-bnr. s. Cor- 

* SEy wrUt «> ft» antechamber— SetChamber. 

A*TICHRISTIAN, an-te-kr»'tahon,fl. Op- 
posite to Christianity. 

ANTICHRISTIANISM, in-te-krfe'tshftn- 
■e*t *. Opposition or contrariety to Chris- 

ANTI^HRlSTIANrrY, fct-te-kriVtahe- 
«e-tc,«. Contrariety to Christianity. 

^ ANTTCTPATE, ia-tlVe-pate, *. a. To 
y so ssttbtng sooner than another, so as to 
jwvent him ; to take up before the time : to 
■Jjjtjste, or take an impression of something, 
•Wean not yet, as if it really was; to preclude. 

ANTICIPATION, 4ntls-se-pksh{m,,. The 
•t of taking op something before its time ', 

ANTICK^aVtik, a. Odd ; ridicnrioiisrywtk.. 
ANTICK, In'tik, «. He that plays anticks, 

or uses odd gesticulation ; a buffoon. 
ANTICKLY^n'tik-le^id. With odd posture*. 

ANTICLIMAX, an-te-klfrnlks, s. A sen- 
tetice in which the last part is lower than the 
first ; opposite to a climax. 

ANTICONVULSIVE, an-teyc6n-v4l'siv, a. 
Good against convulsions. 

ANTICOR, In'te-kor, «. 166. A preterna- 
tural swelling in a horse's breast, opposite to 
his heart. 

ANTICOURTIER, an-te-cWtshftr, t. One 
that opposes the court 

ANTIDOTAL, an'te-dA'tal, «. HaviBg the 
power or quality of counteracting poison. 

ANTIDOTE, ante-dote, a. A medicine 
given to expel poison. 

ANTIFEBRILE, an-te-f eVril, a. 140. Good 
against fevers. 

ANTILOGARITHM, Me-logg-rfcta, a. 
The complement of the logarithm of a sine, 
tangent, or secant. 

ANTIMONARCHICAL, aVti-mo-narke- 

kaJ, a. Against government by a single 

ANTIMONIAL, an-te-mo'ne-al, a. Made of 

ANTIMONY, aVte-mun-e, *.556\ Antkaony- 

is a mineral substance, of a metalline nature. 

ANTINEPHRITICK, an'te-ne-frklk, a. 
Good against diseases of the reins and kidneys. 

ANTINOMY, an-tin'A-me, $. 518. A contra- 
diction between two laws. 

ANTIPARALYTICK, an'te-par-4-litlk, a. 
Efficacious against the palsy. 


Having a natural contrariety to any thing. 

ANTIPATHY, an-tip'i-<kJ, a. 518. A 'na- 
tural contrariety to any thing, so as to shun it 
involuntarily } opposed to sympathy. 

ANTIPERISTASIS, a*'te-ptr»'ri-8?g, s. 
590* The opposition of a contrary quality, by 
which the quality it opposes becomes height- 

ANTIPESTILENTIAL, 4n'te-p£s-te-leV- 
shal, a. Efficacious against the plague. 

ANTIPHRASIS, an-tif 'fra-sls, s. 519. The 
use of words in a sense opposite to their 

ANTIPODAL, an-tlp'o-dal, a. 518. Relating 
to the antipodes. 

ANTIPODES, *n-t!p'o-dez. *. Those people 
who, living on the other side of the globe, 
have their feet directly opposite to ours. 

YJ We frequently bear disputes whether this word 
sbonld be pronounced in four syllable!, as it If here, 
with the accent on the second, or in three, ss if di- 
vided into <m4i-podes, with the accent on the first 
Sllable, and the last rhyming with abodis. To solve 
e difficulty it must be observed, that the word is 
pure Latin ; and that, when we adopt tneh words Into, 
oar own language, we seldom alter the accent. If, 
Indeed, the singular of this word were in use like «t> 
Miite, 150, then we ought to form the plural regular* 
ly, and pronounce It in three syllables only ; but as It 
is always used In the plural, and is perfect Latin we* 
ought to pronounce It la four. 

" To counterpoise this bcto of the mode, 
" Soma for renown are lingular and odds 


tfMfc. Pat* 78, dr 77, till 88, dt81— miW,mitW— plnel05,plulO7— 11A 15i, move 164, 

M Wbrtottwr men dislike tssnra to pleas*, 

" Of all mtukind, these dear antipodes: 

" Through pride, not malice, they ran counter still, 

M And birth-days are their days of d resting ill." 

Young's Love of Fame. 

ANTIPOPE, ante-pope, «. He that usurps 
the popedom. 

ANTIPTOSIS, in-tip-to'sis, s. 520. A figure 
in grammar, by which "one case is put for an- 

ANTIQUARY, an'te-kw*-re. «. A man stu- 
dious of antiquity. 

To ANTIQUATE, an'tt-kwate, t?ui.To make 

ANTIQU ATEDNESS,** te-kwa-tid-nis, *. 

The state of being obsolete. 

ANTIQUE, an-tfeV, a. 112. Ancient, not 
modern; of genuine antiquity; of old fashion 

ANTIQUE, an-tieV, *. 112. An antiquity, 
a remain of ancient times. 

ANTIQUENESS, an-tilk'neV.The quality 

of being antique. 
ANTIQUITY, An-tlk'kwe-te, s. Old times ; 

the ancients ; remains of old times ; old age. 

ANTISCORBUTICAL, an'te-skor-bu'te- 
k&l, a. Good against the scurry. 

ANTISPASIS, &n-tfe'pi-sls, s. The revul- 
sion of any humour. 

ANTISP ASMODICK, 4n'te-spaz-mdd4k,«i. 
That which has the power of relieving the 

ANTISPASTICK, an-te-spis'tik, a. Medi- 
cines which cause a revulsion. 

ANTISPLENETICK, in'te-splin'e-tlk, a. 

Efficacious in diseases of the spleen. 
ANTISTROPHE, an-tis'tro-fi, «. In an ode 

sung iti parts, the second stanza of every three. 
ANTISTRUMATICK. aa'te-stru-maVik, a. 

Good against the king s evil. 

ANTITHESIS, an-tto'e-sls, s. Opposition ; 
. contrast 

' ANTITYPE, an'te-tipe, $. That which is 
resembled or shadowed out by the type. A 
term of theology. 

ANTTTYPICAL, an-te-dp'e-kil, a. That 
which explains the type. 

ANTIVENEREAL, ante-ve-ne're-tl, a. 
Good against the venereal disease. 

ANTLER, antldr, «. Branch of a stag's horn. 

ANTOECI, an-tee'sl, $. 206. Those inhabit* 
ants of the earth who live under the same me- 
ridian, at the same distance from the equator ; 
the one towards the north, and the other to the 

ANTONOM ASIA, ae-to-no-ma'zhe-a>453. 
A form of speech, in which, for a proper name, 
is pot the name of some dignity. We say the 
Orator for Cicero. 92. 

ANTRE, an't&r, «. 416. A cavern, a den. 

ANVIL, anvil, «. The iron block on which 

the smith lays his metal to be forged ; any 

thing on which blows are laid. 

ANXIETY, 4ng-zi'e-te, s. 479, 480. Trouble 
of mind about some future event, solicitude; 
depression, lowness of spirits. 

ANXIOUS, tnk'shus, <i. 480. Disturbed 
about some uneertain event; careful, full of 


ANXIOUSLY, ank'shus-Ujod. Solicitously, 

ANXIOUSNESS, ank'shfts-nes, «. The qua- 
lity of being anxious. 

ANY, In'ne, a, 89. Every, whoever, what- 

AORIST, a'o-rlst, $. Indefinite. A tense in 
the Greek language. 

AORTA, a-orta, «. 92. The great artery 
which rises immediately out of the left ventri- 
cle of the heart. 

APACE,i-pase # ,ad.Quick,speedily; hastily. 

APART, ft-part', ad. Separately from the 
rest in place ; in a slate of distinction ; at a 
distance, retired from the other company. 

APARTMENT, 4-part'ment, «. A room, a 
set of rooms. 

APATHY, ap'a-dke,s. Exemption from pas- 

APE, ape, s. A kind of monkey ; an imi- 

To APE, ape, v. a. To imitate, as an ape 
imitates human action*. 

APEAK, 2-peke', ad. In a posture to pierce 

the ground. 

APEPS Y, &p'2p-se, 9. SOS. A loss of natural 

APERIENT, a-pe're-ent, a. Gently par- 


APERITIVE, a-peYe-tfv, a. That which 
has the quality of opening. 

APERT, i-plrf , a. Open. 

APERTION, i-peVshun, «. An opening, a 

passage, a gap ; the act of opening. 
APERTLY, 4-pertle, ad. Openly. 
APERTNESS, A-perfne**, s. Openness. 

APERTURE, ap'ur-tshore. «. 460, 463. The 
act of opening ; an open place. 

APETALOUS, t-pM-lis, a. 814. Without 

APEX, a'piks, 8. The tip or point 

APHJBRESIS, a-feVe-sis, «. 124. A figure 

in grammar that takes away a letter or syllable 
from the beginning of a word. 

APHELION, ft-fele-un, * . That part of the 
orbit of a planet, in which it is at the paint re* 
motest from the sun. 

APHILANTHROPY, af'e-lan'ttro-pe, * 
Want of love to mankind. 

APHORISM, af 'o-rizm, *. 608. A maxim, 
an unconnected position. 

APHORISTIC Alvaf-o-rfete-kil, a. Writ- 
ten in separate unconnected sentences. 

APHORISTICALLY, af-o-rls'te-kal-le, ad* 
In the form of an aphorism. 

APHRODlSlACAL. 4f'fro-de-zVa-kal, ) 
APHRODI8IACK, irfro-dfeh'e4k, 461. \ 
a. Relating to the venereal disease. 

APIARY, a'pe-a-re, «. 634. The place.where 
bees are kept. 

APIECE, t-peese', ad. To the part or share 

of each. 

APISH, a'plsh, a. Having the qualities off 
an ape, imitative ; foppish, affected ; silly A 
trifling; wanton, playful. 


air \m t B*t MS— tuba 171, to* 172, boll 178— oft TO— pUnd SIS-Min 466, THIS 469. 

AP18HLY, a'puh-le, arf.In an apish manner. 
APISHNESS, a'pfeh-nia, a. Mimickry, fop. 
p ery. 

APITPAT, l-pltfpit, orf. With quick pal- 

APOCALYPSE, aUfcft-lips,«. Revelation, 
a word n*ed only of the sacred writings. 

APOCALYPTICAL, i-p&4-llp't£k4% a. 
Containing revelation. 

APOCOPE, a-pflk'o-pe, a. A figure, when 
the last letter or syllable is taken away. 

APOCRL STICK, ap-o-kroa'tik,a. Repelling 
and astringent. 

APOCRYPHA, *-p*k're-fft, a. 92. Books 
added to the sacred writings, of doubtful au- 

APOCRYPHAL, i-poVre-fll, a. Not ca- 
nonical, of uncertain autliority j contained in 
the Apocrypha. 

APOCRYPHALLY, a-p*k rt-ftl-le, od.Un- 

APOCRYPHALNESS, i-pok re^fal-n«g, a. 

APODICTfCAL, ap-o-dik't£-kal, a. De- 

APODIXIS, ip-o-dik'sls, a. 527. Demon- 

APOG^ON, lp-o-je'6ti, 527. > a. A point in 

APOGEE, ip'o-je, 60S. J tbeheavens, 

in which the sun, or a planet, is at the greatest 
distance possible from the earth in its whole 

APOLOGETIC AL, Ip-p61-o-jeVe-kal f ) 
APOLOGETICK, i^l-o-j£flk, { * 

That which is said in defence of any thine. 
To APOLOGIZE, a-p6l1o-jke, t>.n.To plead 

L| SWea* 1 — ana> 

APOLOGUE, ap'o-lfle, a. 858, 50$. Fable, 
story contrived to teach some moral truth. 

APOLOGY, a-p6To-je, a. 518. Defence, 

APOHECOMETRY, ayo-rakkoWme-tre, 
«■ 5fT. The art of measuring things at a dis- 

APONEUROSIS, i-pon-nu-ro'sfe, a. An ex- 
pansion of a nerve into a membrane. 

APOPHASIS, t-tfrUh, s. 520. A figure 
by which the orator seems to wave what he 
would plainly inainuate. 

APOPrlLEOM ATICK, lp-6-fllg^nl-tik, a. 

M MO. Drawing mmay phlegm. 

APOPHLEGMATISM, ap-o-flig'ma-tlnn, 
a A medicine to draw phlegm. 

APOPHTHEGM, ftp o-tt&n, a. 503. A re- 
markable saying. 

APOPHYGE, sVpofi-je, *. That part of a 
column when it begins to spring out of its 
has*; the spring of a column. 

APOPHYSIS, a-pofe-slM.520.The promi- 
nent parts of some bones; the same as process. 

APOPLECTICAL, ip-o-pieVte-kil, \ 

APOPLECTICkT Ip-o-plek'dk, \ * 
Relating to an apoplexy. 

APOPLEXY, «Yo-plik-a4,a.417. A sudden 
deprivation of all sensation. 

AlTOIA,aWpoVe-4,s. 605.92. A figure by 
a*&?J!" »P?ikor doubu where to begin. 
ATORKHOlA, Ip-por-rH, a. 92. Efflu- 

APOSIOPESIS, Ma^U-pMs, a 020. 


A form of speech, by which the speaker, 

through some affection or vebemency, breaks 

off his speech. 5S6. 
APOSTACY, a-p6Vrit-s£, a. Departure from 

what a man has professed ; it is generally ap- 
plied to religion. 
APOSTATE, 4-pds'tate, a. 91. One that has 

forsaken his religion. 
APOSTATICAL, Ip-pds-taTe-kal, a. After 

the maimer of an apostate. 
To APOSTATIZE, i-p6a't4-tke, •. n. To 

forsake one's religion. 
To APOSTEM ATE, A-pdtfti-mate, t>. *. 91. 

To swell and corrupt into matter. 
APOSTEMATION, 4-poa-te-ma'ahun, a. 

The gathering of a hollow purulent tumour. 
APOSTEME, ftp'o-ateme, s. 502. A hollow 

swelling, an abscess. 
APOSTLE, 4-p6s'*l, *. 472, 405. A person 

sent with mandates, particularly applied to 

them whom our Saviour deputed to preach the 


ty This word Is sometimes beard In the pulpit, as 
If divided Into a-postle, the secund syllable like the 
first of poet, If the lone quantity of the o, In the 
Latin apostolus, is urged for a similar length of the 
English apottle, let as only turn to No. 637 of the 
Principles, and we shall s«« the futility of arguing 
from the Latin quantity to our*. If these reasons are 
not sstisfactory, it is hoped that those who are abettors 
of this singular pronunciation will alter epistle Into 
e-pLstie, the second syllable like pie, and then their 
reasoning and practice will be uniform. 

APOSTLESHIP,a-p6s'sl-ah1p,a. The office 
or dignity of an apostle. 

APOSTOLICAL, ap-pds-tdl'e-kil, a. Deli- 
vered b v the apostles. 

APOSTOLICALLY, ap-6B-tdl'e-kal-le, ad. 
In the manner of the apostle*. 

APOSTOLJCK, ip-de-toiaikvi. 509. Taught 
hv the apostle*. 

APOSTROPHE, 4-p6s'tro-rt,*\ 518. In rhe- 
torick, a diversion of speech to another person 
than the speech appointed did intend or re- 
quire ; iu grammar, the contraction of a word 
by the use of a comma, as tho' for though. 

To APOSTROPHIZE, 4-poa'tro-f \ze, c. a. 
To address by an apostrophe. 

APOSTUME, ap'o-stume, a. 503. A hollow 
tumour filled with purulent matter 

APOTHECARY, Lrfth e-ka-r*, a. A man 
whose employment it is to keep medicines for 
sale. 470. 

tJ There is a corrupt pronunciation of this word, 
not confined to the vulgar, as if it were written Apo- 

APOTHEGM, aVo-tAem, «. 503. A remark- 
able saying. 

APOTHEOSIS, a>6WAc'o-s?B,*.Deification. 

£3* this word, like Metamorphosis, has deserted 
its Latin accentuation on the penultimate syllable, and 
returned to its original Greek accent r.n the ante- 
penultimate. See Principle*, Vo. 503. The other 
words of this termination, as Anadiplosis, Antip. 
to*is> Sic. retain the Latin accent, though all tbew 
words in Greek have the accent on tbe antepenulti- 
mate. This accentuation on tlie antepenultimate is to 
agreeable to tbe genius of oar own tongue, that k Is 
no wonder It is to prevalent. Johnson, shei i<*an,Ken- 
riek, Ash, Scott, Buchanan, Bailey, and Perry, have as I have done; and unly Smith, Barclay, 
and Eatick, accent the penultimate, bo eminent a 
poet as Garth approves of tbe iboica I have made, 
where ha says, 

* Allots the prince of his celestial lia* 

• An mpotktosu, and rites divide." 


*7 6M>. Fata 78, & T7, All «$, flit 81— mitt, me* 95— pke 105,pfol07-r»o Ite, move 16ft. 

APOTOMEL 4-pdt'o-roe, a. The remain- 
der or difference of two incommensurable 

APOSEM, ap'o-z£m,s. 503. A decoction. 

TO APPAL, ap-plir, e. a. 400. To fright, 
to depress. 

XS Dr. Jvbtuon tells as. that this word might more 
properly have been written Appalc; and we And 
Bacon, in his History of Henry VII. actually writes 
the compound Aypatement. Whether Johnson founds 
his opinion upon, the pale colour which fear gene- 
rally produces, or upon the derivation of the word 
from the Fiench Appalir, it cannot be certainly 
known ; bat this Is curtail., that this word bas been 
so often rhymed with all, bali, fall, Ac that such a 
ehaageas Or. Johnson recommends would be attended 
with no small inconvenience. It may be observed 
too, that spelling this word with single I, as he has 
4one, is at variance with its general pronunciation : 
for one I, when final, does not broaden the a like 
that in oil, but leaves it in the sound of that vowel 
\skfal4ow, tal-low, &c. Considering therefore that 
the pronunciation of this word is so irrevocably fixed, 
it it hut borrowing an I from the Latio PaUeo to 
Viake the sound and the spelling exactly correspond. 
We are often fond of neglecting the French for the 
Latin etymology when there is no necessity, —in the 
present case such a preference would be commend- 

APPALEMENT, ap-pill'ment, s. Depres- 
sion, impression of fear. 

APPANAGE. Ip'pA-naje, $. 00. 503. Lands 
set apart for the maintenance of younger chil- 

APPARATUS, a>p4-ra'tus, «. Those things 
which are provided for the accomplishment of 
any purpose ; as the tools of a trade, the furni- 
ture of a house ; equipage, show. 

APPAREL, ap-paVel, s. Dress, vesture ; 
external habiliments. 

TO APPAREL, ftp-psVdl, v. a. To dreggy 
to clothe ; to cover, or deck. 

APPARENT, ip-pa'rent, a. Plain, indu- 
bitable; seeming, not real; visible; open, 
discoverable ; certain, not presumptive. 

APPARENTLY, a>pa'rent-le, ad. Evi- 
, dentlv, openly. 

APPARITION, ap-pl-rlsh'un, s. Appear- 
ance, visibility ; a visible object ; a spectre, 
a walking spirit: something only apparent, 
not real ; the visibility of some luminary. 

APPARITOR, ip-pfcre-tur, s. 98. The 
lowest officer of the ecclesiastical court. 

To APPAY, ap-pa', v . a . To satisfy. 

To APPEACH, Ap-petsh', v. a. To accuse ; 

to censure, to reproach. 
APPEACHMENT, ap-peton'mem^s. Charge 

exhibited against any man. ' 

To APPEAL, ap-pele', «. n. To transfer a 
cause from one to another; to call auother 
as witness. 

APPEAL, ip-pele', s. A removal of a cause 
from an interior to a superior court; in the 
common law, an accusation ; a call upon anv 
as witness. J 

APPEALANT, ap-peilint, s. He that ap- 
peals. r 

To APPEAR, Ap-pere', *. n. To be in sight, 
to ^ .Tl slWe i t0 hecoroe visible as a spirit ; 
a to exhibit one's self before a court; to seem, 
» opposition to reality ; to be plain heyond 
dispute. r j 

APPEARANCE, ip-pe'rlnse, s. The act 
of coming into sight: the thine secn;<scm- 


blance, * not reality ; outside show ; entry 
into a place or company. ; exhibition of then 

fterson to a court ; presence, mien ; probabi- 
ity, likelihood. 

APPEARER, ap-pe'rur, s. 98. The person 
that appears. 

APPEASABLE, ip-pe'za-bl, o. 405. Re- 

APPEASABLENESS, ip-pe'zi-bl-nis, e. 

To APPEASE, ap-peze', v. a. To quiet, to 

• put in a state of peace ; to pacify, to recon- 


APPEASEMENT, ap-peze'mint, s. A slate 
of peace. 

APPEASER, ip-pe'z&r, s. 98. He that pa- 
cifies, he that quiets disturbances. 

APPELLANT, ap-pel'lant, *. A chal- 
lenger ; one that appeals from a lower to a 
higher power. 

APPELLATE, ip-pellate, #. 91 . The per- 
son appealed against. 

APPELLATION, ap-p&-la'shun, s. Name. 

APPELLATIVE, 4p-peTra-tiv, *. 157. A 
name common to all of the same kind or spe- 
cies ; as man, horse. 

APPELLATIVELY, ^p-pelli-tlv-le, ad. 
According to the maimer of nouns appellative. 

APPELLATORY, ap-peTlA-t4r-re, a. That 
which contains an appeal. 512. 

APPELLEE, ip-pll-le V s. One who is ac- 

To APPEND, ap-pind', v. a. To hang any 
thing upon another ; to add to something as 
an accessory. 

APPENDAGE, ap-pln'daje r s. 90. Some- 
thing added to another thing, without beiug 
necessary to it* essence. 

APPENDANT, ap-pin'dant, a. Hanging 
to something else ; annexed, concomitanu 

APPENDANT, ap-peVdant, s. An acci- 
dental ot adventitious part. 

To APPENDICATE, ap-pin'de-kate, *. «. 
91. To add to another thing. 

APPENDICATION,ap-pen-de-k*shun, m. 
459. Annexion. 

APPENDIX, ap-pin'dlka, a. Something 
appended or added ; an adjunct or concomi- 

To APPERTAIN, ip-per-tane', »- «• To 
belong to as of right ; to belong to by nature. 

APPERTAINMENT, ap-pir-tWment, *. 
That which belongs to any rank or diguity. 

APPERTEN ANCE4p-perU-naii8e,s. That 
which belongs to another rhing 

APPERTINENT, a>B«Vte-aent, a. Be- 
longing, relating to. 
APPETENCE, ap'pe-tlnse, "> s. Carnal 
APPETENCY, ap'pe-ten-se, J desire. 

APPETIBILITY. ap-pet-te-bil'e-te, s. The 
quality of being desirable. , 

APPETIBLE,fp'pe-te-b!, a. 405, Desirable. 

APPETITE, ap'pc-tite. ». 155. The natu- 
ral desire of good; the desire of sensual 
pleasure ; violent longing ; keenness of sto- 
mach, hunger. 

APPETITION,4p-pe-tish'dn,s^07. Desire. 
APPETITIVE, ap'pe-te-tiv. a. That which 

To APPLAUD, ap-plW, r. a. Toprtlee 
by cJapping.the hands ; to praise in general. 


ftlrl«7, n6t WS-iob© 1T1, tib 179, bill lTi— fil 2W— poind 813— **in AM, Thus 466\ 

APPI^UDEMp-plaVdur^QS. He that 

praise* or coromenda. 
APPLAUSE, ap-plaW, #, Approbation 

loudly expressed. 
APPLE, Ip'pl, i. 405. The fruit of the ap- 
ple-tree ; the pupil of the eye. 
APPLEWOMAN, ap'pl-wfim-fo, a. A 

woman that sells apples. 
APPLI ABLE, ip-pli 4-b!,«.4<W. That which 

omit he applied* 
APPLIANCE, ip-pti'iiise, $. The act of 

applying, the thinig applied. 
APPUCABILITY^p'pl^Iti-blle-U^. The 

qaaJitv of being fit tn be applied* 
APPLICABLE, up'ole-k^-M, a. That which 

nay be applied. 
APPLICABLENESS, ap'pIe-kA-bl-nes, f. 

Fitness to be applied. 

APPUCABLY, 4p'ple-ka"-ble, ad. In inch 

manner as that it may be properly applied. 
APPLICATE, ip'plS-kate, #.91. A right 

fine drawn across a curve, so as to bisect the 


APPLICATION, ap-ple-ka'shon, $. The 
act of applying any tiling to another; the 
thing applied ; the act of applying to any 
person as a petitioner; the employment of 
any means for a certain end; iutenseness of 
thought, close stndy ; attention to some parti- 
cular affair. 

APPLICATIVE, ap'ple-kl-tlr, «. Belong- 
ing to application. 512. 

APPLICATORY, ip'ple-kl-tur-re, a. Be- 
longing to the act of applying. 512. 

To APPLY, 4-pli / , v. a. To put one thing 
to another; to lay medicaments upon a 
wound ; to make ose of as relative or suita- 
ble ; to put to a certain use ; to fix the mind 
noon, to stndy ; to have recourse to, as a peti- 
tioner ; to ply, to keep at work. 

To APPOINT, ap-polnt', v. 4, To 6x any 
thing : to establish any thing by decree ; to 
famish m all points, to equip. 

APPOINTED ip-pointur, #. 98. He that 
settles or fiies. 

APPOINTMENT, a*-po>t'm&it, a. Sti- 
pulation; decree, establishment; direction, 
order; equipment, furniture; an allowance 
paid to any man. 

Te APPORTION, Ip-pore'ihin, e. a. To 
set oat in just proportions. 

APPORTIONMENT, ap-pWahfa-mint, «. 
A dividing iuto portions. 

T* APPOSE, tp-pW, c. «. To put ques- 
tions uk 

APPOSITE, ap'po-afc, *. 15*. Proper, fit, 
well adapted. 

APPOSITELY, Ap'po-zit-le, a* Properly, 
fitly, suitably. 

AP^irENESS,4p'pWt-iiia,a. Fha*« 
propriety, suitableness. 

APPOSITION, ip-po-akh'Sn, $. The ad- 
dition of new matter ; in grammar, the putting 
of two noons in the same case. 

to APPRAISE, ap-praze', e. a. To set a 
price upon any thing. 

has it, seems not to have given its present significa- 
tion, for he explains it, " to set a hi*h valqe or es- 
teem upoaany thin?;" for my recollection falls me if 
it has not b?en generally used in the scam of the 
trench word ft comes from, Apyricier, to- appraise, 
to rate, to value, to declare the just price of any thing, 
as nearly synonymous to the English word to estimate. 

APPRECIABLE, ip-pre'ahM-bl, a. 

tJ This word is the gennlue offspring of the for* 
uter ; and if we admit the parent, we cannot refuse the 
child, especially as the latter seems of more use than 
the former ; for, though we may pretty well supply 
the place of appreciate by estitmate, we have not so 
good a word as appreciable to express the capability 
of being estimated. 

To APPREHEND, Ip-pre-hind', e. a. To 
lay hold on ; to seize, in order for trial oi 
punishment ; to conceive by the mind ; to 
think on with terror, to fear. 

APPREHENDER, ap-pre-hea'dur, «. One 
who apprehends. 

APPREHENSIBLE, *p-pre-hen'se-bl, a. 
160. That which may he apprehended or 

APPREHENSION, ap-nre-hln'shfin,*. The 
mere contemplation of things ; opinion, senti- 
ment, conception ; the faculty Ivy which we 
conceive new ideas ; fear; suspicion of some- 
thing ; seizure. 

APPREHENSIVE, a>prf-heVsIv,a. Quick 
to understand ; fearful. 158. 


In an apprehensive manner. 
APPREHENSIVENESS, ap-pre-hen'siv- 

nes, 8. The quality of being apprehensive. 

APPRENTICE, tp-preVtfe, «. 140. One 
that is bound by covenant to serve another 
man of trade, upon condition that the trades- 
man shall, in the mean time, endeavour to 
instruct him in his art. 148. 

To APPRENTICE, ip-pren'tfc, «.. a. To 
put out to a master as an apprentice. 

APPRENTICEHOOB, a>pren'tw-had, *. 

The years of an apprentice's servitude. 
APPRENTICESHIP, ap-prSn'tw-ehjp, •. 

The years which an apprentice is to pass under 

a master. 
To APPRIZE, fip-prlze', t>. a. To inform.' 
To APPROACH, ap-protgh/, e. n. To 

draw near locally ; to draw near, at time ; to 

make a progress towards, mentally. 
To APPROACH, ap-protsh', e. a. To bring 

near to. 
APPROACH, Ap-protsh', a. The act of 

drawing near ; access ; means of advancing. 
APPROACHER, ap-pro'tahdr, a, 96. The 

person that approaches. 

APPROACHMENT,a>.proi*b'ment,e. Tho 
fcet of coming near. 

APPROBATION, Ip-pro-biah&n, s. The 

act of approving, or expressing himself pleased; 

the liking o( any thiifi; ; attestation; support. 
APPROOF> ip-priof, a. Commendation. 

Obsolete. * 

To APPROPINQUE, 4p-pro-p»k', a. «. To 

draw near to. Not in use. 
APPROPRIABLE, Ap-prAprW-bl, a. That 

which may be appropriated. 

A an^S^ , i?" PIA ^ ^, $m W \ . A P«»? n |Ta APPROPRIATE, Ip-propre-ate, a. a. 
•ppotnted to set • price upon thing* to be 91. To consign* some particular use or ner^ 


TeAPPBECIATE, ip-pre'ahi-ate, 
O This wevi is avt lo Joanaoa; and BeJJaj, wb* 

consign' to some particular use or per- 
son ; to claim or exercise an esciusive right ; 
to make peculiar* to annex ; in law, to alienate 
a benefice* 



17410. File 73, fir 77, All 8ft, #* ai-v*SA,mitto— pwe XQ5^h 107— nA M$, mj?e AC4, 

APPROPRIATE, ap-pro'piWkte, a. 91. 
Peculiar, consigned to some particular use or 

APPfeOPRIATION, ap-pro-prt-a'shin, *. 
The application of somethixig to a particular 
purpose ; the claim of any thing as peculiar ; 
the fixing of a particular signification to a 
wot d : in law, a severing of a benefice ecclesi- 
astical to the proper and perpetual use of some 
religious house, or dean and chapter, bishop- 
rick or college. , 

APPROPRIATOR, 4p-pro-pre-a'tur, «. He 
that is possessed of an appropriated bene- 
fice. 96. 

AP^ROVABLE, ap-proo'va-bl, a. That 
which merits approbation. 

APPROVAL, Ip-proo'val, t . Approbation. 

APPRO VANCE, ap-proo'vanse, *. Appro- 
bation. Not in use. 

To APPROVE, ap-priov', v. a. To like, to 
be pleased with ; to express liking ; to prove, 
to show ; to experience ; to make worthy of 
approbation. • 

APPROVEMENT, ap-prooy'mint, «. Ap- 

frobation, liking. 
PROVER, ap-pro&Vur, «. 98. He that 

approves ; he that makes trial ; in law, one that, 

confessing felony of himself accuses another. 
To APPROXIMATE, ap-proks'e-mate, v. *. 

91. To approach, to draw near to. 

X3 This word, as a verb, is not in Johnson ; batiU 
very frequent u»e among good writers and speakers 
Is a sufficient authority for Its Insertion here, without 
the trouble of searching for a precedent. 

APPROXIMATE, ap-proks'e-mate, a. 
Near to. 

APPROXIMATION, a>pr6k-se-ma'shnn, 
f. Approach to any thing; continual ap- 
proach nearer still, and nearer to the quantity 

APPUISE, 4p pulse, $. The act of striking 
against any thing- 

APRICOT, or APRICOCK, a'pr^-kot, s. 

A kind of wall-fruit 

\S The latter manner of writing this word is grown 

APRIL* ft'pril, 8. The fourth month of the 

• year, January counted first* 

APRON, a'pfirn, s. 417. A cloth hong be- 
fore, to keep the other dress clean, or for or- 

APRON, a'pfirn, «. 417. A piece of lead 
which covers the touch-hole of a great gun. 

APRONED, apumd, a. 862. Wearing an 

APSIS, ap'efe, «. The higher apsis is de- 
nominated aphelion, or apogee; the lower, 
perihelion, or perigee. 

APT; apt, a. Fit; having a tendency to ; 
incfined to, led to ; ready, quick, as an apt 
wit : qualified for. 

9o APT ATE, ap'tate> «. o. 91. To make fit. 

APTITUDE, ap'te-tude,#. Fitness; tend- 
ency ; disposition. 

APTLY, aptle, ad. Properly, fitly ; justly, 
pertinently ; readily, acutely, .as, be learned 
lis business very aptly. 

APTNESS, apfnes, $. Fitness, suitable- 
ness t disposition to any thing; quickness of 
apprehension ; tendency. 

APTOTE, ap'tote, #. A noun which is no% 
declined with cases. 


AQUA, alarl, «. 99. Water. 
AQUAFORTIS, Ik-kwa-ffir'tls, s. A cor- 

rosWa liquor made by distilling purified nitre 

with calcined vitriol. 
AQU A-M ARIN A,ik-kwa-ma-rl'na, *. The 

AQUA-YITJE, ik-kwa-vlte, *. Brandy. 
AQUATICR, 4-kwafik, a. That which 

inhabits the water, that which grows in f^ie 

AQUATILE, ikltwi-til, a. M5. That which 

inhabits the water. 503. 
AQUEDUCT, Iktwe-duct, s. A conrey- 

ance made for carrying water. 
AQUEOUS, aTtwe-is, a. 634. Watery. 
AQUEOUSNESS, a'kwe-us-ne's, s. Wa- 

AQUILINE, ik'we-lln, a. 145. Resembling 

an eagle ; when applied to Uie nose, hooked. 
AQUOSE, i-kwSse', a. Watery. 
AQUOSIXY, a-kwoVkte, *. 511. Water- 


ARABLE, ar'a-bl, a. 405. Fit for tillage. 

tJ The a In the first syllable of this word bas the 
short sound as much as If the r were double. Tb« 
Mine may be observed of every accented * before r, 
followed by a vowel. St. 168. 

ARANEOUS, a-ra'ne-us, a. Resembling a 
cobweb. ' 

ARATION, i-ra'shon, s. The act or prac- 
tice of ploughing. 

ARATORY, aVi-tor-te, a. 512. That which 
contributes to tillage. 

ARBALIST, arta-list, s. 503. A crossbow. 

ARBITER, litie-toi) s. 98. A judge ap- 
pointed by the parties, to whose determina- 
tion they voluntarily submit ; a judge. 

ARBITRABLE, aVbe-trt-bl, a. Arbitrary, 
depending upon the will 

ARBITRAMENT, ar-bit'trl-ment, s. ^iU, 
determination, choice. 

ARBITRARILY, ir'be-tri-re-le, ad. With 
no other rule than the will ; despotically, ab- 

ARBITRARINESS, ar1>e-tri-rl-neV. De- 

ARBITRARIOUS, ir-be-tra're-fis, a. Ar- 
bitrary, depending on the will. 

ARBITRAIUOUSLY ? ar4>e-tra'r^&a-le, «tf. 

Ac cordi ng to mere will and pleasure. 
ARBITRARY, sVbe-tra-re, a. Despotic*, 
absolute ; depending on no rule, capricious. 

To ARBITRATE, ar'be-trate, t>. a. 01. To 
decide, to determine ; to judge of. 

ARBITRATION, ir-be-tra'shun, $. The 
determination of a cause by a judge inutuaUy 
agreed on by the parties. 

ARBITRATOR, aVbe-tra-tar, s. 521. An 
extraordinary judge between party and party, 
chosen by their mutual consent , a governor ; 
a president ; he that bas the power of acting 
by his own choice ; the determiner. 

ARBITRAMENT, ar-bit'tre mint, s. De- 
cision, determination ; compromise. ' 

ARBOJIARY, ar'bo-ra-re, a. *l». Of or 

• he loTtsing to a tree. 

ARBORET,arbo-riU.A small treeorshrpfe. 

ARROftlST, iifto-rist, s. A naturaHSt 
who makes trees his study. ' 

ARBOROU0, frbo-xos, a. J14. J^JpngW 
to trees. * ' ' ^ 


A« Aug 

!?!, ti» VT*, fctH i?s*-eif »&— pMfotf Wi-^Hn 46$ Trtrt 409 

the arefcbis hop of Canterbury , for the dtbatfa* 
of spiritual cams. * 

ARCHWVPE, aVkeNtlpe, a. 33*. The oH- 

ARBOUR, aVhSr #. 314* A befrer. 
AK&U9CLE, iribts-sl, a. 351, 495. Any 
Httl* ahrah. 

ARBUTE, ir-bote', a. Strawberry t»e. 
ARC; irk, * A segment, apart of *ci*cfe ; 
an arch. 

ARCADE,ir-kade' *> A continued arch. 
ARCANUM. foa&tnia, a. M» k (Plural 
jkesnaaX Asecset. 

ARCH, attsh, a. Part of a circle, not more 
than the Half ; a building in form of a segment 
of a cwcle* used foe bridges ; vault of Leaven ; 
a chief. 

To ARCH, Irtah, v. a. To build arches ; 

to com with arches. 
ARCH, arte*, a. Chief; of the first class; 

waavjsh, mirthful. 
ARCHANGEL, atk-ane'jll, a. 354. One 

of the highest order of angels. 

J& The accent is sometimes on th* first syllable, 
ttwagh imx so properly. 

ARCHANGEL, ark-ane'jft, a. A plant 
dead nettle. 

ARCHANOEUCK, irk-an-jUlfe, a. Be- 
longing to archangels. 

ARCHBEACON, artsh-bl-kn, a. The chief 
. pbjee of prospect, or of stand. 
ARCHBISHOP, artsh-bU'&p, a. 364. A 

btshop of the ftst class, who superintends the 

condnct of other bishops* his suffragans*. 
AMniSHOPRieS> ftrtsh^bWIp-ife, a. 

The state, province, or jurisdiction of an 


ARCHCHANTER, arth-tshan'tur, a. The 

ginal of which any resemblance is made. 

ARCHDEACON, fossvd&kn, a. Ostttb* 

ARCtoEACONRY,artsh-d^n.r^*. The 
offiee or jorisdietion of an archdeacon. 

ARCHDEACONSHIP^tsh-di^n-fihlp, s. 
* S^S* * °^ "l wchdeaoon* 
ARCHDUKE, artsh-doke', a. A title given 

* princes of Apstr foand Tuscany. 
ARCHDUCHESS, artsh-d4tsh'&, a. Tne 

sister or dau ghter of the archduke of Austria, 
ARCHPHTXOSOPHER, artah-^-l6s / A-f1& 

a. Chief phitosopheT 

AMHPRELAT^ attoh-priTlate, a. 91. 
Chief pre late. 

ARCHMtESBYTER, artsh-preVhA-t&, a. 
m CUef presbyter. * ' 

ARCHAlOiOOY, aT-ka-oI'o-ji, a. A dis- 
course of antiqeitj. 

ARCHAIOLOOICK, ir-ka-o-lotfjlk, a. Re- 

la tjng to a discourse on antiquity. 
ARCHAISM, artA-fam, a?t». An ancient 

rfw nae. 

ARCHED, aVtshld, part, a. Bent in the 
fern of an arch. 

J£J?2£Li! lU ±fZ£. m l .^n*!*"* proaoaaeed 
la oaa: aynsMe; aad (his syllsbte sj bat of the harsh- 

••ass? Sa. to,a * hwd » tor w 10 "» d> *• if written 
ARCHER, irtahir, a. He tin**** with 

ARCHERY, Irtalffett*. Tbenaeoftne 
bavitbe set of sbootbgwrth the bow; the 

*KHK&^OUia , ^rtaLe^oart t s. Tbecbief 
•*■ Mtajsfii** consiaserj that beJoa*a,.to 

ARCHEU8, ar-kMs, a. $53. A potvertbdt 
presides over the animal economy. 

AKCfflDIACONAL, ar-k^dl-ak'A-n*!; e. 

Belonging to an archdeacon. 
A ^ H feM^OPAL, *'-^-pfc*o-pal;* 

3*4. Belonging to an archbishop. 
AraHH>ECT,*Vke4ekt> a. 354, A prfo- 

feasor of the art of buHding ; a builder ; the 

contriver of any thing. 

ARCHITI9CTIV&, fr-k^^eViir, «: Tfca* 
performs the works of architecture. 

ARCHITECTONICK, aMr^tlMon n?k, <f 
30ft That which has the power or skiff ofan 


The art or science of building; theetSector 
performance of the science of buirding, 
ARCHITRAVE, arTcktrave, a. Tbat part 
of a column which ties immediately upon the* 
capital, and hi the lowest member of the ehtib- 

ARCHIVE, Irttlfe*, a. 154, The ptttoea 
where records nr ancient writings are ketot 

ARCHVI^E, aMsbVtee, a. 354. fo thf? 
form of an arch. 

AfiCTATlON, ark>ta%hih^ av Connneteen^ 

ABCUATfi, arlcA-ate, «. 91 . Bent in th& 
form of an arch. 

AltCtJATf Otf,'shfin, a. The act of 
bending any thing, incurvation : the state <4 
being bent, comity, or crookedness. 

ARCUBAIJSTER, ar-ku-balla-tilr, a. A 

cross-bow man. * 

ARDENCY, aVdln-se, a. Andoar, eager- 

ARDENT, li'dfet, a. Hot, burning, ftery ; 

a £^VJS??*¥ 5 ff*iP***> afiectionate. 
ARDENTLY, IrdenMe, ad. Eagerly, af- 
fectionately. ^ " 

ARDOUR, ar'dfir, a. M4. Heat ; heat of 

AiS!5JJ22;^ , 2 ,0, l e ^ w , ire » courage. 
ARDUrrV,ar-da , e-te, a. Height, diiBcnltr, 
ARDUOUS, ir-jUs/a. 29sfsT6. Lo^ 
hard to chmb ; difficult. 

ARDUOUSNESS, aVja-Ss-nes, a. 291, 376. 
Height, difficulty, ' ' 

ARE, 2r, 75. The plural of the present 

tense of tlie verb To be. 
AREA, *>W* a. 70, 645, 614. The surface 

contained between any lines or boundaries : 

any open surface. 

To AREAD, l-reid', e, a. To advise, to 
direct, tittle used. 

AREFACTION, iK-r^iaVsbJhi, a. The state 

°* RS^l?^ $13 > the act of dryl*c 
To AREFY, aViVfl, e. a, To dry. 

ARENACEOU8,ar-e-iu\%hnM.5tr. bandy. 
ARENOSfc, ar-e-nW, a. 62T. Sandy. , 
ARENULOUS, 4r-resi4Q8, m. FuU of 
small sand, gravelly. 

AREOTICK, a-rA-arfk, «. 6A4. Such me- 
. dicinea at open the pores. 


Ahl ARM 

17 M*. Fata 78, if r 77, lU 8S, fftt 81- mi 9i 9 mil Oft— pk» 10$, pin 10T— no Htt, move 104> 

ARQENT, aVj&it, a. Having the white 
colour used in the Armorial coats of gentle- 
men, knights, and baronets; silver, bright 
like silver. 

ARGIL, ar'jfr, t. Potters' clay. 

ARGILLACEOUS, ar-jll-la'8has,«. Clayey, 
consisting of argil, or potters' clay. 

ARGILLOUS, ar-jftlOfl, a. 814. Consisting 
of clay, clayish. 

ARGOSY, aVpo-se, *. 608. A large vessel 
for merchandise, a carrack. 

To ARGUE, ir'gu, v. n, 855. To reason, to 
offer reasons ; to persuade by argument ; to 

ARGUER, aVga-Or, s. 08. A reasoner, a 

ARGUMENT, aYgu-mint, s. A reason al- 

, Jeged for or against any thing ; the subject » f 
any discourse or writing ; the contents of any 
work summed up by way of abstract ; con- 

ARGUMENT AL,lr-gu-meVtil, a. Belong- 
ing to argument. 

ARGUMENTATION, ir-gu-men-ta'shnn,*. 
Reasoning, the act of reasoning. 

Argumentative, ir-gu-mln'tl-dv, a. 

, 512. Consisting of argument, coutaiuing ar- 

ARGUTE, ir-gute', a. Subtile, witty, sharp, 

ARH>, aVrid, a. 81. Dry, parched up.— See 

ARIDITY, ar-rfa'de-tc, ». 511. Dryness, sic- 

city ; a kind of insensibility in devotion, 
ARIES, a're-2s, s. The ram ; one of the 

twelve signs of the zodiack. 
To ARIETATE, 4-rl'e-tate, v. n. 01. To 

butt like a ram. 

%y I have, in this word, followed Dr. Johnson, in 
placing the accent on the second syllable, and not on 
tbeftrst. accot fling to Mr. Sheridan, and Dr. Ash ; 
hot I do not very well know for what reason, nulvss 
it be that words of this icr initiation derived from the 
Latin generally preserve the accent of the original. 
8ee Piinclplef, No. 503, b. 

ARIETATION, A-rU-ta'shan. s. The act 
of butting like a ram \ the act of battering with 
an engine called a ram* 

ARIETTA, a-re-it'ta 1 , s. 584. A short air, 
song, or tune. 

ARIGHT, a-rke, ad. 808. Rightly, without 
errour ; rightly, without crime ; rightly, with- 
. otit faiJitigof the end designed. 

ARIOLATION,sWe-o-la'shan, s.584. Sooth- 

It ARISE, B-rW, c. u. pret. arose, port. 

arisen* To mount upward as the sun ; to get 

up as from sleep, or from rest ; to revive from 

death; to enter upon a new station ; tocom- 

i menee hostility* • m ■ M A , 

ARISTOCRACY, lr4s-t6JclLrl-se 9 s. That 
form of government wftich places the supreme 
power in the nobles. 

ARISTOCRATICAL, lr-A-tkkr*rt*-kil, 
•s.644. Relating to aristocracy. 
-« ARISTOCRATICALNEdS, ir-itateitr*- 

* ^kll-nla, I. An aristocratical alotfc 

.\StrflMANCY,l-r?M'mafl-s«,t. A fb-e- 
irtflajz of futon events by bombers. 

cording to the roles or methods of arichsBev 
tick. 517. 
ARITHMETICALLY, ar-lf A-meY-te-kll-1*, 
ad. In an arithmetical manner. 

ARITHMETICIAN, i-rta-me-tisb'tn, #. 
A master of the art of numbers. 

ARITHMETICS:, *-rfrA'me-tfr, s. The 

science of numbers ; the ait of computation 
tJ There Is a unall, bat a very general deviation 
from accuracy In pronuunciag this word, which lie* 
in giving the fli»t i the sound of short e, as If written 
arethmetlck. At this Inaccmacy is but trifling, so It 
may be rectified without any great singwlaihy. 

ARK, Irk, *.— See Art. 77. A vessel to 
swim upon the water, usually applied to that 
in which Noah was preserved from the univer- 
sal deluge ; the repository of the covenant of 
God with the Jews. 

ARM, arm, s. — See Art. The limb which 
reaches from the hand to the shoulder ; the 
large bough of a tree ; an inlet of water from 
the sea ; power, might, as the secular arm. 

To ARM,? i m, ©.a.— See Art. To tarnish with 
armour of defence, or weapons of offence ; to 
plate with any thing that may add strength ; 
to furnish, to fit up. 

To ARM, inn, v. n. — See Art. To take 

arms ; to provide against. 
ARMADA, 2r-ma'di, s. See Immbtgo. An 

armament for sea. 

ARMADILLO, ar-mi-dtao, s. A four- 
footed animal of Brasil* 

ARMAMENT, aVmi-ment, s. 808. A naral 

ARMATURE, a/mA -tenure, ». 461. Amour. 
ARMENTAL, ar-meVtal, 7 a. Be- 

ARMENTINE, aVmin-tbe, 140. j longing 

to a drove or herd of cattle. 

ARMG AUNT, Irm'gint, a. 214. Slender as 
the arm ; or rather, slender with want. 

ARM-HOLE, armTiole, s. The cavity un- 
der the shoulder, 

ARMIGEROUS, Ir-mfd'jur-rus, a. Bearing 

ARMILLARY, arWl-U-re, a. Resembling 

a bi ace let. See Maxillary. 

ARMILLATED, aVmil-la-tid, «, Wearing - 

ARMINGS, innings, s. The same with 


ARMIPOTENCE, ar-m?p'o-teJisc, «. Power 
in war. 518. 

ARMIPOTENT, ar-mlp'o-tent, a. Mighty 

Sit war. 
ARMISTICE, aVme-stis, s. 80S. A short 

truce. 149. 
ARMLET, irmlit, s. A little arm ; a piece 

of armour for the arm; a bracelet for the 


of a salt. 
ARMORER, aVmftr-Or, t. 657. He that 

makes armour, or weapons; he that dresses 

another in armour. 

ARMORIAL, ar-mtorMl, m. Belongug to 

the arms or escutcheon of a family. 
ARMORY, ir mor-e, #. 557. The ptaet fa 

which arms are reposited for use; 

•rsssefdeJenee; ensigns armorial 



sjftr Iff, nAt l«— tube 171, tnb 171, bill 175— Wl »»— pHnd SU-Mtn M^MnM 

A1UfOUR,aYinur, «.S14. Defensive arms. 
ARMOUR-BEARER, ir'mir-bW&r,#. He 

that carries the armour of another. 
ARMPIT, armpit,*. The hoUow place 

under the shoulder. 
ARMS, arms, #. 77. Weapons of offence, or 

ana ur of defence ; a state of hostility ; war 

in fgeneral ; action, the act of taking arms ; the 

ensigns armorial of a family. 
ARMY, artne, «. 482. A collection of armed 

men, obliged to obey their generals ; a great 

AROMATIC AL,ar-o-m*t'e-kal, 7 a. Spicy; 
AROMA TICK, ar-o-miYik. 627. 5 fragrant, 

strong scented. 
AROMATICKS,ir-o-m*ttks,*.527. Spices. 
AROMATLZATION, ar-o-mat-e-za'sndn,*. 

aOC tct of scenting with spices. 
To AKOMATIZE, aVro-nut-tke, v. a. To 

seen' with spices, to impregnate with spices ; 

to sent, to perfume. 

ARO& Z, i-roxe', 664. The preterite of the 
verb trtse. 

AROl KB, 4-round', ad. In a circle, on 
every side. 

AROL VD,a-roand',pr*p. 545. About. 

To AR' HJSE, i-rouze', v. a. To wake from 
sleep l» raise up, to excite. 

AROlft , 4-rrV, ad. 545. In a row. 

ARO Y IT, a-roW, ad. Be gone, away. 

ARQbEBUSE, ar'kwe-bus, «. A hand gun. 

ARQUEBUSIER, ar-kwe-bus-eer'. s. A 
soldier armed with an arquebuse. 375. 

ARRACK, ar-rak', #. A spirituous liquor. 

To ARRAIGN, ix-rane , v. a. To set a thing 
in order, in iis place ; a prisoner is said to be 
arraigned when he is brought forth to his 
trial $ to accuse, to charge with faults in gene- 
ral, as in controversy or iu satire. 

ARRAIGNMENT, ar-rWmint, *. The act 

of arraigning, a charge. 
To ARRANGE, tr-ranje', t>. a. To pat in 

the proper order for any purpose. 
ARRANGEMENT, ax-ranje'ment, s. The 

act of putting in proper order, the state of 

being put in order. 
ARRANT, arrant, a. 81,82. Bad in a high 

ARRANTLY, arrant-le, «. Corruptly, 

ARRAS, aVris, a. 81, 82. Tapestry. 

ARRAUGHT,ir.rawtr,4Ml. Seised by vio- 
lence. Out of ose. 

ARRAY, ar-i a', #. Dress ; order of battle ; 

in law, the ranking or setting in order. 
To ARRAY, ir-ia', v. a. To put in order ; 

to deck, to dress. 
ARRAYERS, ar-ra'ors, s. Officers who 

anciently had the care of seeing the soldiers 

duly appointed in their armour. 
ARREAR, ir-reer', *. That which remains 

behind unpaid, though due. 

ARREARAGE, ir-ree'raje, *. 90. There- 

saainder of an account. 
ARRENTATION, ir-ren-ta'shnn,'*. The 

licensing an owner of lands in the forest to 

away i erapt m privily. 


ARREST, a r-rlsf , «. In law, a stop, or stay ; 
an arrest is a restraint of a man's person ; any 

To ARREST, Ar-risf , v. a. To seize by a 
mandate from a court ; to seize any thing by 
law ; to seise, to lay hands on ; to withhold, 
to hinder ; to stop motion* 

ARRIERE, ir-reer', «. The last body of an 

ARRISION, ftr-rizh'un, s. 451. A smiling 

ARRIVAL, ar-rMl, ». The act of coming 
to any place ; the attainment of any 'purpose* 

ARRIVANCE, ar-ri'vanse, *. Company, 

To ARRIVE, 4r-rive', v. n. To come to any 
place by water ; to reach any place by tra- 
velling; to reach any point; to gain any 
thing ; to happen. 

To AEROBE, ar-rouV, v. a. To gnaw or 

ARROGANCE, aVro-gause, > «. The act or 

ARROGANCY, aVro-gan-se, * quality of 
taking roach upon one s self. 

ARROGANT, arVo-gant, a.81,88. Haughty, 

ARROGANTLY, ar'io-gant-le, ad. In an 
arrogant manner. 

ARROGANTNESS, ar'ro-gint-nis, *. Ar- 

To ARROGATE, Ar'ro-gate, *. a. 91. To 
claim vainly ; to exhibit umust claims. 

ARROGATION,4r-ro-ga'shun,s. A claim- 
ing in a proud manner. 

ARROSION, ar-ro'zhon, «. 451. A gnawing. 

ARROW, ar'io. «. 827. The pointed wea- 
pon which is snot from a bow. 

ARROWHEAD, ai'r6-hld, #. A water 

ARROWY, arVo-e, a. Consisting of ar- 


ARSE, arse, s. The buttocks. 
ARSE-FOOT, ars'fut,*. A kind of water 

fowl. \ 

ARSE-SMART, ars'smart, «. A plant. 

ARSENAL, ar'sknal, «., A repository of 
things requisite to war, a magaaine. 

ARSENICAL, ir-sen'e-kal, a. Containing 

ARSENICK, arse'nlk, a. A mineral sub- 
stance ; a violent corrosive poison. 

ART, ai t, *. 77. The power of doing some- 
thing not taught by nature and instinct; a 
science, as the liberal arts ; a trade ; artful- 
ness, skill, dexterity ; cunning. 
& As « before r, followed by ■ vowel, has the 

short or fourth sonnd, so when it is followed by a 

consonant it has the long or second sound.— See Arm* 

ofe, 81, 168. 

ARTERIAL, ar-te're-ai, a. That which 

relates to the artery, that which is contained 

in the artery. 
ARTERIOTOMY,lr-te-re-6t'to-me,#. The 

operation of letting blood from the artery » 

the cutting of an artery. 518. 
ARTERY, iVtur-e,*. 555. An artery is a 

conical canal, conveying the blood from tha 

heart to all parts of toe body. 


0? 4*9. Fita T.9,dr77,Jail0S,att 81-int9S,inife Jt-^nlne 105,pbl07-o6 183, move 104, 

ARTFUL. Jrtff&l, «. 17*. Performed with 

art ; artificial, not natural ; cunning, skilful, 
ARTFULLY, IrtTol-l^ad. Vith art,fkil- 

ARTFULNESS, Irf rtl-nia, «. Skill, cun- 

ARTHRCTICK, ar-fkrMk, 509. \ a. Gouty, 

ARTHRITICAL, ir-rarltfe-knl, J relating 
to the gout ; relating to joints. 

ARTICHOKE, aYtt-tshoke, ». This plant 
is very Kke the thistle, but bath large scaly 
heads shaped like the cone of the pine tree. 

ARTICK, irtik, a. properly ARCTIC. 

• Northern. 

ARTICLE, aVte-kl, a. 405. A part of 
speech, as the, an ; a single danse of an 
accou'-U, a particular part of any complex 
thing ; term, stipulation ; points of time* ex- 
act time. 

So ARTICLE, aY&kl, ©. n. 486. To ati- 

Sulate, to make terms. I 

TICUXAR, lr-tik'a-tfr, a. Belonging 
to the joints. 

ARTICULATE, ir-tik'u-late. a. 91. Dis- 
tinct ; branched oat into articles. 

To ARTICULATE, Ir-tuVu-lkte, v. a. 91. 
To form words, to speak as a man ; to draw op 
in articles ; to make terms. 

ARTICULATELY, ar-tlk'o-late-l*, ad. In 
an articulate voice. 

ARTICULATENEgS, ir-tlk'n-late-nie, s. 
• The quality of being articulate. 

ARTICULATION, Ir-tik-a-lii'sW *. The 
juncture, or joint of bones ; the act of forming 
words ; in botany, the joims in plants. 

ARTIFICE, aVte-ffe,*. 149. Trick, fraud, 
stratagem ; art. trade. „ 

ARTIFICER, lr-tir&-*Qjr, *. 98. An artist, 
a manufacturer : forger, a contriver ; a dex- 
terous or artful fellow. 

ARTIFICIAL, ar-U-fWaJ, a. Made by 
art, not natural ; fictitious, not genuine ; art* 
ful, contrived with skill. 

ARTIFICIALLY, Ir-^-flshld-Ie, ad. Art- 
fully, with skill, with good contrivance ; by 
art, not naturally. 

ARTIFIGI ALKESS,ar-t^dshtl-neV Art. 

ARTILLERY, ar-tillnr-re, s. *6*. Wea- 
pons of war; cannon, great ordnance. 

ARTISAN, ar-te-zln',' ». 528. Artfe^ P™- 
lessor of an art; manufacturer, k>w trades- 

ARTIST. I«t1st,s. The professor of an art; 

a skilful man, not a novice. 
ARTLESSLY, irtlis-le, ad. Jn an artless 

manner, naturally, sincerely. 

ARTLESS, ant'lk, «.* Unskilful, without 
fraud, as an artless maid j contrived without: 
skill, as an artless tale. 

To ARXUATE, aVtahn-ate, ©. a. 91,401. jo 

tear limb from limb. 
ARUNDINACEOUS, krfiji-de-i&'shus, a. 

Ofor like reeds. 292. 

ARUNDINEOUS, ar-un-duVe-u*, a. A- 

bounding with reeds. 
AjS. fe, conjunct. 423. In the flame manner 
with something else ; like, of the same kind 
with ; ii't the same dapee with ; as if, in the 

same manner ; as it were, in some sort; while, 
at the same time that ; equally ; how, in 
what manner ; with, answering .to like *r 
same ; in a reciprocal sense, answering to As ; 
answering to Such ; hawing So to 8S9*er it, In 
the conditional sense ; answering to So condi- 
tionally ; As for, with respec* tp ; As to, wish 
respect to; As well as, equally with} As 
though, as if. - 

ASAFOETIDA, ia-el-iSfe-di, s. A gum 
or resin brought from the East Indies, of a 
sharp taste and a strong offensive smell. 

ASARABACCA, as-sl-ia-blk'ki, *. The 
name of a plant* 

ASBESTINE, fe-be*'tin,a. 140. Something 

ASBESTOS, i*-beVtus, s. 106. A soil of 
native fossile stone, which may be split into 
threads and filaments, from one inch to ten 
indies in length, very fine, brittle, yet some- 
what tractable. It is endued with the won- 
derful property of. remaining uneoBsumed in 
the fire, which only whitens H, 

AfiCAJtIDES,afl-tire^2,s. little worm* 
in the rectum. 

To ASCEND, 4Wnd', •'. «. To mount 
upwards ; to proceed from one degree of know- 
ledge to another; to stand higher in ge- 

To ASCEND, is-aend', «. 4. To climb tip 
any thing. 

ASCENDANT, Is-aeVdint, «. The part of 
the ec lip tick at any particular time above the 
horizon, which is supposed by astrologers to 
have great influence ; height, elevation ; su- 
periority, influence; one of the degrees of 
kindred reckoned upwards. 

ASCENDANT, fe-aeVdint, a. Superior, 
predominant, overpowering ; in an astrological 
sense, above the horizon. 

ASCENDENCY, la-senden-ae, s. Influ- 
ence, power. 

ASCENSION, fe-seV0fcfin,f.461. The act 
of ascending or rising; the visible elevation 
of oar Saviour to Heaven ; the thing rising or 

AfiCENSIONDAY,a*'*eVt*fa-dA',«. T1>e 
day on which the ascension of our Saviour ia 
commemorated, commonly called Holy Thurs- 
day, the Thursday hut one bete Whit- 

A3CENSIVS, a>aem aiv, e. 168. In a state 
of ascent. 

ASCENT, Is-senf, s. Rise, the act of rising ; 
the way by which one ascends; an emi- 
nence, or high place. 

To ASCERTAIN, is-alr-iane', i?. it. To 
make oei tain, to fix, to establish ; to make 
confident. . . 

ASCERT AINER, sWr-ta'nnr, $ One -per- 
son that proves or 

ASCERTAINMENT, fa-slr-tanem&it, a. 
A settled rule : a standard. 

ASCETICK, Is-eeYfe, a. 609. Employed 
wholly in exercises of devotion and morti- 

ASCETICK, aWf ik, s. tie that retiree 
to devotion, a hermit. 

ASCITES, Is-sl'tez, «. A particnlar specie* 

of dropsy, a swelling of the loftgr ^eJJy ao4 fie* 
pending parts, from an extravasation or water. 

ASCITIC AI* afe-afce-kBi, 7 a. 507. Dropai- 

1SCITICK, is-sldk, * fcal,bydropical. 

ASCFrrriOUS* a^-tWOB, a. Supple- 
mental, additional 

ASCRWA&LE, io-8kH / bl-bI, a. 405. That 
which may be ascribed. 

To ASCRIBE, as-kribe', ». «u To attribute 
tuna eavsv ; Co attribute to m a possessor. 

ASCRIPTION, is-krip'shuit, s. The act of 


it lOT, ofe lSeV--tube 171, til> 179> blUWi— oH S9*WpMfid *18--<Mn460« Till *». 

$3* Talk- word if vulgarly pronounced Juuiius* 
grass. It nay be observed that soch •words as the 
vulgar do not know bow to spell, and which convey 
no definite idea of the thins, are frcauenily changed 
by them imo such words is they do Know bow to 
spell, and which do couvey some definite idea. The 
word in question is an instance of it : and the corrup- 
tion of tbis word into Sparrougrass is so general, 
that asparagus has- an air of stiffness and pedantry. 
See Lantern. 

ASPECT, la'pekt, $. Look, air, appear- 

■scnBWF. 2 auoe : countenance ; glance, view, act of be- 

ASCRIFTiTIOUS, iB-krSp-tlah'ua) a* That holding; direction towards any point, position ; 

winch is ascribed. disposition of any thine to something else, 

ASH. Ash, «. A tree. relation ; disposition of a planet to other 

ASH-COLOCRED, a*hlt&-urd,a. Coloured planets. 

between brown and gray. 362. & This word, as a noun, was universally pro- 

AnHlMVII *-«kl%nl«f ~ a&Q *JML Touched nonneed with the accent on the last syllable till about 

AftttAJUU, a^a»meays.»wi*,a«w. * ww,w ^ ^le ©f the seventeenth centnry. It grew and- 

»T55,5?*Ty, i_2 * A . .in **-.,!«. A f~.l quated in Milton's time, and is now entirely obso- 

ASHEN, aWshek, «. 108, 350. Made of a*h I ^ Dr< Farmer * g obi ervatloiie on this word, in bis 

* no less solid than Ingenious Essay on The Learning 

of Shakespeare, are so carious, as well as Ju*t, that 
the reader will, 1 doubt not, be obliged to me for 
quoting them: .. 

" Sometimes a very little matter detects a forgery: 
" Ton may remember a play called the Doable False- 
" hood, which Mr. Theobald was desiroas of palming 
" upon the world for a posthumous one of Shakespeare:* 
" and I see it is classed as wen in the last edition of 
" the Bodleian catalogue. Mr. Pope himself, after 
u all the strictures of Scriblerus, in a letter to Aaroa 
" Hill, auuposer It of that age ; but a mistaken accent 
" determine* it to have been written since the middle 
" of the last centnry : 

ASHES, ianfe* s. 99. The remains of any 
mine burnt; the regains of the bod v. 

ASH-WEDNESDAY, IsA-weWda, «. The 
first day of Lent, to called from the ancient 
euutnm nf sprinkling ashes on the head. 

ASHLAR, IslVUr, «. Free stones a* they 
CDsne «»ut of ilte quarry. 

ASHLERING, aeb/lfir-ing, * M5. Quar- 
terns* in garrets. A term in building. 

ASHORE, a-shW, ad. Orf shore* on the 
land ; to the shore, to the land. 

ASHWEED, ash'weed, s. An herb. 

ASHY, aWe, «. Ash-coloured, pale, in- 
cfhied to a whitish gray. 

ASIDE, i-side', ad. Td one side ; to an- 
other part ; from the cosnpauy. 

ASIKARY, aYse-nl-re, «. Belonging to 
an ass 

ASININE, is'se-nme, a. 140. Belonging to 
an ass. 

To ASK, ask, v. a. 79. To petition, to beg ; 
to demand, to claim ; to inquire, to question ; 
to require. 

ASKANCE, J.aJw f«d.8U. Side- 
ASKAUNCE,* ** kalia€ > \ ways, ob* 

ASRAUNT, aUkint', ad. 214. Obliquely, 

ASKER,lak'Qr,«. 06. Petitioner; inquirer. 
ASKER, iak'nr, $. A water-newt * 
ASKEW, a-alrir', ad. Anile, with contempt, 

To A8LAKE, sVslafce', «. «. To remit, to 

ASLANT, i-sJinf, ad. 78s Obliquely, on 

one side. 
ASLEEP, i-sleep/,snf. Sleeping; into sleep. 
ASLOPE, l-slope', ad. With declivity, ob- 

ASP, or' ASPICK, asp, or aVplk, s. A kind 
of serpent, whose poison is so dangerous and 
quick in its operation that it kills without a 
possibility of applying any remedy. Those 
that are bitten by it die by sleep and le- 


This late example 

ASP, lap, *. A tree. 
ASPALATHTJ8,sJ-plra^Afi8,*. .A plant 

called the wood of Jerusalem ; the wood of a 

certain tree. 

ASPARAGUS, 4svi>aV4-|uJ, t. The name 
•fa plant. 


" Of base Henrique*, bleeding in me now, 
' " From each good aspect takes away my trust." 

And in another place, 
" You have an aspect, Sir, of wondrous wisdom.* 

" The word aspect, you perceive, is here accented 
" on ihejffrjf »> liable, which, I am confident, in any 
" sense of it, was never the case in the time of 
" Shakespeare ; though ft may sometimes appear to be- 
« so, when we do not observe a preceding elision. 

" Some of the professed Imitators of our old poets 
** have not auended to this and many other tninutUe .- 
** I could point out to you several performances in 
"the respective styles of Chaucer, Spenser, and 
" Shaketprare, which the imitated bard could net 
" possibly have either read or construed. 

" This very accent hath troubled the annotetors on 
u Milton. Dr. Bentley observes it to be • a tans difc 
'* ferent from the preient use.' Mr. Manwarlng, in 
" his Treatise of Harmony and Numbers, very so* 
" lemnly informs ns that this verse is defective both 
" in accent and quantity. 

" His words here ended ; but hi* meek a spe ct , 
" Silent, yet spake." 

" Here, says he, a syllable Is aeuted and tang, 
" whereas it should be short »nd graved/* 

u Aud a still more extraordinary gentleman, one 
" Green, who published a specimen of a new version 
" of the Paradise Lost, Into blank verse, ' by which 
" that amacing work is brought somewhat nearer the 
" summit of perfection,' begins, with, correcting a 
" blander in toe fourth book, 

_JL_« The setting sun 
" Slowly descended, snd with right aspect-* 
" Level I'd bis evening rayt." 

* Not so in the new version: 

n Meanwhile the setting snn descending slow— 
« Levelfd with aspect light his eVwng rays." 
•* Enough of such comiumtators.— The celebrated 
Dr. Dee had a spirit, who would sometimes coo- 
•« descend to ccrrect him, vhen peccant In t/nantUy; 
•* and It had been kind of him to have a little assisted 
" the wights above mentioned .—Milton affected the 
« anttaue: but it may seem more extraordinary that 
I •' the old ascent should be adopted in fladibraar* 



VT HQ !**• 73, Jir77,dll6l,Mt 81-mi9t, met 95"-pW t05,pfol07-no 102, aAve M, 

To ASPECT, as-pikt' v. a. 499. To behold. I ASS AILER, as-seluf, 0. 06. One who iW 
ASPECT ABLE, as-pjk'ta-bl,a.405. Visible. 
ASPECTION, is-peVshun, 0. Beholding, 


ASPEN, sVpin, 0. 109. A tree, the leaves 

of which always tremble. 
ASPEN, aspen, a. Belonging to the up- 

tree ; made of aspen wood. 
ASPER, as'pur, a. 98. Rough, ragged. 
To ASPERATE, i«'pe-rate, t\a. 91. To make 


£? This word, ud those that succeed it of the same 
family, seem to follow the general rule in the soaud 
of lhv e before r, when after the accent ; thai is, to 
preserve it pure, and in a separate syllable.— See 
Principles, No. 555. 

ASPERATION, aa-pe-ra'shun,0. A making 

A5PERIFOLIOU8, as-pSr-c-fole-us, a. 

Plants, io called from the roughness of their 

ASPERITY, as-per'e-te, 0. Unevenness, 

roughness of surface ; roughness of sound ; 

Toughness or roggedness of temper. 

ASPERNATION, as-per-im'shon, 0. Ne- 
glect, disregard. 

ASPEROUS, aVpe-rus, a. Rough, uneven. 
To ASPERSE, as-perse', v. a. To bespatter 
with censure or calumny. 

ASPERSION, ae-perah&n,*. A sprinkling; 
calumny* censure. 

ASPHALTICK, Is-faTtik, a. 84. Gummy, 

ASPHALTOS, is-fal'tus, 0. A bituminous 
inflanirihible substance, resembling pitch, and 
chiefly found swimming 011 the surface of the 
Lacus Asplialtitei, or Dead Sea, where an- 
ciently stood the cities of Sodom and Go- 

ASPH ALTUM, as-itooiiM. A bituminous 

stone found near the ancient Babylon. 
ASPHODEL, as'fo-d&, 0. Day-lily. 
ASPICK, as'pik, 0. The name of a serpent. 

To ASPIRATE; as'pe-rate, c. a. To pro- 
nounce with full breath, as hope, not ope. 91, 

ASPIRATE, as'pe-rate, a. 91, 894. Pro- 
nounced with full breath. 

ASPIRATION,as-pe-ra'shmv. A breathing 
after, an ardent wish ; the act of aspiring, or 
desiring something high ; the pronunciation of 
a vowel with full breath. 

To ASPIRE, As-plre', v. «. To desire with 
eagerness, to paut after something higher ; to 
rise higher. 

ASPORTATION, as-por-ta'sh&n, 0. A car- 
rying away. 

ASQUINT, t-akwinf , ad. Obliquely, not 
io the straight line of vision. 

ASS, Ass, 0. An animal of burden ; a stupid, 
heavy, dull fellow, a dolt. 

To ASSAIL, Is-sale', c. a. To attack in 
a hostile manner, to assault, to fall upon ; to 
attack with argument or censure. 

ASSAILABLE, as-sala-bl, a. 405. That 
which may he attacked. 

ASSAILANT, as-salant,0. He that attacks. 

ASSAILANT, as-sATlni, *. Attacking, in- 


tacks another. 
ASSAPANICK,*W*paa'iiik,0. The flying 

ASSASSIN, as-sas'sln, 0. A murderer, one? 

that kills by sudden violence. 
To ASSASSINATE, as-sas'se-nltte, v. a. 91* 

Tt> murder by violence j to way -lay, to take* 

by treachery. 
ASSASSINATION, as-sas'se-iia'shun, 0. 

The act of assassinating. 
ASSASSINATOR, a*-sls'e-na-tur, 0. Mur- 
derer, mankiller. 
ASS ATION, as-sa'shun, 0. Roasting. 

ASSAULT, fts-salf, 0. Storm, opposed to> 
sap or tiege ; violence ; invasion, hostility, at- 
tack ; in law, a violent kind of injury offered 
to a roan's person. 

To ASSAULT, as-salf, t>. a. To attack, to 

ASSAULTER, is-saltfur, 0. One who vio- 
lently assaults another. 

ASSAY, as-sa', 0. Examination; in law-, 
the examination of measures and weights used- 
by the clerk of the market ; the first entrancar 
upon any tiling ; attack, trouble. 

To ASSAY, as-sa', v. a. To make trial of? 
to apply to, as the touchstone in assaying; 
metals ; to try, to endeavour. 

ASS AYER, as-sa'ftr, 0. 98. An officer of the 
mint, for the due trial of silver. 

ASSECTATION, As-slk-tashfin, 0. At- 

ASSECUTION, as-se-ku'ahfin, 0. Acquire- 

ASSEMBLAGE, as-sem'blidje, 0.90. A col- 
lection ; a number of individuals brought to- 

To ASSEMBLE, as-se'uYbl, v. a. 405. To* 
bring together into one place. 

To ASSEMBLE, as-slm'bl, v. n. To meet 

ASSEMBLY, is'SeWble, 0. A company 
met together. 

ASSENT, as-sent, 0. The act of agreeing 
to any thing ; consent, agreement. 

To ASSENT, as-sent', ©. n. To concede, to 
yield to. , 

ASSENTATION, aa-sen-ta'shon, 0. Com- 

Slianee with the opinion of another out off 
ASSENTMENT, is-senf mint, 0. Consent. 
To ASSERT, Is-slrt, e. a. To maintain, to 

defend either by words or actions ; 10 affirm ; • 

to claim, to vindicate a title to. 
ASSERTION, as-slr-shon, 0. The act of 

assorting. . . 

ASSERTIVE, is-seVtiv, a. 158. Positive, 

ASSERTOR, As-seVtur, 0. 98. Maintainer, 

vindicator, arfirmer. 
ToASSERVE,as-s4rV,e.o. To serve, help, 

or second. 
To ASSESS, as-ses', e. a. To charge with 

any certain sum. „ , 
ASSESSION, As-seshon, 0. A sitting. 

down by one. 
ASSESSMENT, as-seVment, 0. The suaa 

levied on certain property ; the act of aa- 
. seating. 


MT, B*t Itt—tobe 171, (to 17*, bill ITS— Ml SOO—polnd SIS— tfcin 4*0, Titii 400* 

To fix the rata 

ASSESSOR, fcWseVsnr, a. -98. The person 
tiwt sits by the judge ; be that aits by another 
as nest in dignity ; he that lays taxes. 

ASSETS, ia'sits, g. Goods sufficient to 
discharge that burden which is cast upon the 
eiecotor or heir. 

To ASS EVER, as-seVeV, 08. 7 

To ASSEVERATE, aVseVe-rate, 91, 555. J 

v. ** To affirm with great solemnity, as upon 

ASSEVERATION, k-slv-e-ra'shin, a. So- 
feton affirmation, as upon oath. 

ASSHEAD, staid, a. A blockhead. 
ASSIDUITY, as-se-du'e-te,a. Diligence. 
ASSIDUOUS, is-sfd'ju-us, a. 204, 376. 

Constant in application* 
ASSIDUOUSLY, is-sidja-fis-le, ad. Dili- 

gently, continually. 

ASSIENTO, is-se-Jn'to, a. A contractor 
convention between the kings of Spain and 
other powers, for furnishing the Spanish do- 
minions in America with slaves. 

To ASSIGN, is-sine', v. a. To mark out, 
to appoint ; to fix with regard to quantity or 
▼aloe ; to give a reason for ; in law, to appoint 
a deputy, or make over a right to another. 

ASSIGNABLE, as-slne'a-bl, a. That which 
itMf be assigned. 

ASSIGNATION, as-sfg-na'shon, a. An ap- 
pointment to meet, used generally of love ap- 
pdcntreeiits ; a making over a thing to another. 

ASSIGNEE, as-se-ne', s. He that is appoint- 
ed or deputed by another to do any act, or per- 
form anybosiness, pr enjoy any commodity. 

ASSIGNEE, as-Brnir^OB. He that assigns. 

ASSIGNMENT, as-slneWnt, a. Appoint- 
meat of one thing with regard to another thing 
or person ; in law, the deed by which any 
thing is transferred from one to another. 

ASSIGNS, aa-eW, a. Those persons to 
whom any trust is assigned. This is a law 
and always used in the plural ; as, a 
is left to a person's heirs, administra- 
or assigns. 

ASSIMILABLE, as-sim'e-la-bl, a. That 
which may be converted to the same nature 
with something else. 

To ASSIMILATE, is-shn'e-late, e. a. 01. To 
convert to the same nature with another thing ; 
to trine to a likeness, or resemblance. 

ASSIMILATENESS, mvslmine.lkte.nes, a. 

ASSmiLATION^aWme-la'shuji,*. The 
act of converting any thing to the nature or 
sabstance of another ; the state pf being assi- 
milated ; the act of growing like some other 

To ASSIST, Is-sisf , v. a. To help. 

ASSISTANCE, as-sU'tinse, a. Help, for- 

ft snssW A 1 a^s^Bj 

ASSISTANT, ae-sis'tint, s. Helping, lend- 
ing aid. 

ASSISTANT, as-sis'tint, a. A person en- 
ssaged in an affair, not as principal, but as 
auxiliary or ministerial. 

A s WZF ? as-alze', a. A court of judicature 
held twice a jear in every county, in which 
caast-s are tried by a judge and jury ; an or- 
dinance or statute to determine the weight of 


To ASSIZE, as-slze', e. a, 
of any thing. 

ASSIZER, as-si'znr, a. An officer that has 

the care of weights ai;d measures. 
ASSOCIABLE, as-so'she-a-bl, a. That 

which may be joined to another. 

To ASSOCIATE, as-s6'she-ate, v. a. 91. To 
unite with another as a confederate ; to adopt 
as a friend upon equal terms; to accompany. 

ASSOCIATE, as-so'she-ate, a. 91. Con- 

ASSOCIATE, is-so'she-kte, a. A partner ; 
a confederate ; a companion. 

ASSOCIATION, as-so-she-a'shun,*. Union, 
conjunction, society ; confederacy ; partner- 
ship ; connexion. — See Pronunciation. 

ASSONANCE, as'so-nanse, a. Reference 
of one sound to another resembling it. 

ASSONANT, as'so-nant, a. Resembling 
another sound. 

ToASSORT,'as-sort>«a. To range in classes. 

To ASSOT, as-s6f , v. a. To infatuate. 

To ASSUAGE, as-swaje', e. a. SSI. Tomiti- 
pate, to soften ; to appease, to pacify ; to esse. 

ASSUAGEMENT, as-swaje'ment, a. What 
mitigates or softens. 

ASSUAGER, as.8wa'jur, a. 96. One who 

pacifies or appeases. 

ASSUASIVE, as-swa'air, a. 158, 428. Soft* 

eiiing, mitigating. 

ToASSUBJUGATE, Is-sub'jo-gate, v. a. 
To subject to. 91. 

ASSUEFACTION, as-swe-fak'shnn, a. The 

state of being accustomed. 
ASSUETUDE, as'swe-tude, a. SS4. Accna- 

toniance, custom. 

To ASSUME, as-sume', e. a. 454. To take ; 

to take upon one's self ; to arrogate, to claim 

or seize or. unjustly ; to suppose something 

without proof ; to appropriate. 

ty Why Mr. Sheridan ihonld pronounce Ibis word 
and the word consume without the A, iud prrnuwe 
•ad resume us if written prezhoem and rahootn, is 
not easily conceived ; the * oagbt to be aspirated In 
•II or none.— See Principles, 454. 476, 479. 

ASSUMER, as-su'mnr, *. 98. An arrogant 

ASSUMING, as-sn'mmg, pert, a. Arrogant, 

ASSUMPSIT, as-sfWsIt, *. A Toluntary 

promise made by word, whereby a man 

taketh upon him to perform or pay any thing 

U another. 

ASSUMPTION, as-sam'shon, a. The act 
of taking any thing to one's self; the suppo- 
sition of any thing without farther proof; the 
thing supposed, a postulate ; the taking up 
any person iutt> heaven. 

ASSUMPTIVE, as-sum'tir, a. 157. That 
which is assumed. 

ASSURANCE, aeh-shn'ranse, a. Certain 
expectation; secure confidence, trust; free- 
dom from doubt, certain knowledge ; firmness, 
ui 'doubting steadiness ; confidence, want of 
modesty ; ground of confidence, security 
given ; spirit, intrepidity ; testimony of cre- 
dit ; conviction ; insurance. 

To ASSURE, ish-shure', a. a. 175. To give 
confidence by a firm promise j to secure an- 


J? M9. Fife tt, fa* 77, fall 8S,#t 81-mi»,*ilt9G~pb6l05,p!nl07~i^l62,«iT'eI«4 f 

ASTROLOGICAL, a^tro-loo 1 le-ktl, *m *> 
ASTROLO&ICK, ft»-ti4-l6d'jlk, J 

a. Relating to astrology, profess ing astrology. 
ASTROLOGICALLY, 4s-tro-lfa'j±-kil-le, 

ad. In an astrological manner. 
To ASTROLOGIZE, ae-troTo-jbse, v. a. To 

practise astrology. 
ASTROLOGY. aa-troTo-je, a. The practice 

of foretelling things by the knowledge of the 

ASTRONOMER, ts-trfa'no-m&r, a. He 

that studies the celestial motions. 
ASTRONOMIC AL>-ti4-nom£-kil,Mr9. > 
ASTRONOMICK, lavtro-noWifc, - i 

a. Belonging to astronomy. 

ASTRONOMICALLY, ae-tro-noWe-ttl4e> 
a. In an astronomical manner. 

other ; to make confident, to exempt from 
doubt or fear ; to make secure. 

ASSURED, fak-shA'r&, or aa-ahord, port. a. 
*59. Certain, indubitable ; certain, not doubt- 
ing : immodest, vtciouslv confident. 

ASSUREDLY, aeh-shu'rld-le, ad. 364. Cer- 
tainly, indubitably. 

ASSUREDNESS, aah-sho/red-nes, *. 865. 
The state of being assured, certainty. 

ASSURER, aah-aho'ror, a. Ho that give* 

that gives security to make 

assurance : he 

Sood any loss. 
TERISK, aVte-riak, *. A mark in print- 

AS&RISM. aVte-Am, a. A constellation. 

ASTHMA, aaf mi, *. 471. A frequent, dim- 
cult, and short respiration, joined with a hiss- 
ing sound and 8 congh. 

ASTHMATICAL,a^mAre>kil,i a. Tnm- 

A8THMATlCK,a8t-mat1k, 500. J bled with 
an asthma. 

ASTERN, (k-atlrn', ad. In the hinder part 
of the ship, behind the ship. 

To ASTERT, t-stSrtf, v. a. To terrify, to 
startle, to fright. 

ASTONIED, i-8tcVe-&i, part. a. A word 
used for astonished. 

To ASTONISH, is-ton'nteh, v. a. To con- 
found with fear or wonder, to amaze, 

ASTONISHINGNESS, ^ton'nlah-iag-nes, 
*. Quality to excite astonishment. 

ASTONISHMENT, as-tdnlsh-ineat, a. A- 
mazetnent, confusion of mind. 

To ASTOUND, astound', v. a. To astonish, 
to confound with fear or wonder. 

ASTRADDLE, ketrad'dl, ad. 405. With 
one's legs across any thing. 

ASTRAGAL, ia'tri-gil, a. 508. A little 
round member, in the form of a ring, at the 
tops and bottoms of columns. 

ASTRAL, aVtril, a. Starry, relating to the 

ASTRA Y jUrtA', ad. Ont of the right way. 

To ASTRICT, aa-trfetf , e. a. To contract 
by application. - 

ASTRICTION, lavtrik'akftn, a. The act 01 
power of contracting the parts of the body. 

ASTRICTIVEj la.trik'tfv, a. 15S. Stiptick, 
binding. m _ 1 

ASTRICTORY,aa-trlk'tir-re,a, Astringent. 

ASTRIDE, i-atrlde',ed. With the legs open. 

ASTRIFEROUS* aa-trif e-rfia, a. Bearing, 
or haying stars. 

To ASraiNGE, As-trfoje>. a. To make a 
contraction, to make the Jparts draw together. 

ASTRINGENCY, ia-trin'jen-ee. a. The 
power of contracting the parts of the body. 

ASTRINGENT, aa-trb'jent, a. Bindiag, 
contracting. __ 

ASTROGRAPHY, 4a-tr6a/r4-fe,a. 518. The 
science of describing the surs. 

ASTROLABE, aa'trd-labe, a. An instru- 
ment chiefly used for taking the altitude of 
the pole, the sun, or stars, at sea. 

ASTROLOGER, aa-troTo-j&r, a. One that, 
eapinosuig the influence of the stars to have 
a casual power, professes to Sort tell or dis- 
cover events* 

ASTRONOMY, aa-tron'ne-me, a. A mixed 
mathematical science, teaching the know- 
ledge of the celestial bodies, their magnitudes, 
motions, distances, periods, eclipses, and 
order. 518. 

ASTRO-THEOLOGY, as'tro-fnc-oTo-je, a. 
Divinity founded on the observation of the 
celestial bodies. 

ASUNDER, i-sun'dui, ad. 98. Apart, se- 
parately, not together. 

ASYLUM, i-ailnm^. A sanctuary* a retVge. 

ty Nothing can shew mare plainly the tendency of 
our laocnage to aa aatepeaelUraafte accent than the 
vulgar profiaocUdon of this word, which generally 
places toe accent on the first pliable. This is. however, 
an unpardonable offence to a Latin ear, which hisitts 
on preserving the accent of the original whenever w« 
adopt a Latiw word into oat owa langaaga watawai 
alteration.— See Principles, No. 30* 

ASYMETRY, aVgim'ml-tri, a. Contrariety 
to symmetry, disproportion* 

ASYMPTOTE, a* aim-tote, a. Aeymptoten 
are right lines, which approach nearer and 
nearer to acme curve, but which woald never 
& I have preferred Dr. Johnson's aceeatuasteo on 

the first syllabic, to Mr. Sheridan's and Dr. Ash's on 

the second. 

ASYNDETON, i-ain'di- ton, #. A figure 
in grammar, when a conjunction copulative is 

AT, it, prvp. At before a place notea the 
nearness of the place, as, a man is at the boose 
before he b in it ; At, before a word signify*, 
ing time, notes the co-existence of the time 
wfih the event ; At before n superlative adjec* 
tive implies in the state, as at most,, in the, 
state of most perfection, &c At signifies the 
putifttW condition of the person, a» f at peace; 
At sometimes marks employment or attention, 
as, he is at wora;At U sometimes the same with- 
furnished with, as, a man at arras *, At some- 
times notes the place where any thing is, aa 
he is at home ; At sometimes ia nearly the 
same as In, noting situation ; At some- 
times seems to signify in the power, or obe- 
dient to, aa, at your service ; At all, in any 

ATABAL. (kf 4-bal, a. A kind of tabour used 
by the Moots. 

ATARAXY, If t4-rik-afc, a. 517. Exemption 
from vexation, tranquility. 

ASTROMKSlAN^aV^ro-lo'ji-a^a, Atfro- ATHANOR, fr*'*-n$r, a. 160. A digesting 
loger. ** furnace to keep heat tor some tuna, 



sir W 9 ait UtU-tabe in, fob 172, boU *73-oll SO^pJund in^tf* 466, thu400. 

ATHEISM, at*e4sm,#. 505. The disbelief 
of a God 

ATHEIST, a'tte-ist, *, On* tgat denies Ae 

existence of God. 
ATHEISTICAL, a*faMs't&*al, a. Give* 

to atheism, impious. 

ATHEISTICALLY, a4ke<fe'te-kaI4e, ad. 
In an atheistical manner. 

The quality of being atheistical. 

A1HEISTICK, a4fe-b'tlk, a. Given to 

ATHEOUS, a'tne-tkt, «. 506. Atheistiok, 

ATHEROMA, ta-eVi&'iua, #.527. A species 

of weii. 
ATHEROMATOUS, fc*4.*4«»'JUtfo a. 

Having the qualities of an atheroma oc cusdy 


ATHIRST, i-taut*?, a*. 106. Thirsty, in 
want of drink. 

ATHLETICK, ifft-lltik, a. 660. Belonging 
to wrestling ; strong of body, vigorous, laity, 

ATHWART, &'tkwlrt,frep. Across, trans- 
verse to any thing ; through. 

ATILT, A-tilt', ad. With the action of a 
man making a thrust; in the posture of a 
barrel raited or tilted behind. 

ATLAS, atlis, s. A collection of maps ; a 

large scjuare folio ; so roe Urges the supporter of 

a building ; a rioh kind of silk. 
ATMOSPHERE, ifmo-s&re, *. The air 

that encompasses the soKd earth on all sides. 
ATMOSPHERICAL, fc-mo-sfeVt-kal, a. 

Belonpng to the atmosphere* 
ATOM, if torn, s. 166. Such a small parti- 

deas cannot be physically divided ; any thing 

extrrmelv small. 
ATOMIC ALji-tfm'e-kal, a. Consisting of 

atoms ; relating to atoms. 
ATOMIST, itrto-mist, $. One that holds 

the atomical philosophy. 
ATOM Y, af o-me, *. An atom. 

To ATONE, i-tone', v. n. To agree, to 
accord ; to stand as an equivalent for some- 
thing ; to ansvi er for. 

To ATONE, i-tone', v. a. To expiate. 
ATONEMENT, ktone Wat, #. Agreement, 

concord ; expiation, expiatory, equivalent. 
ATOP, i-tip, ad. On the top, at the top. 
ATRABILARIAN, it~tri-b^l»'re4n, a. 

Melancholy. 507. 

ATRABILARIOU9, it-trl-b^'re-as, «. 
My)t nfTK*lick - 

ATRABILABIOUSNESS, it-tri-bi-la're- 

ns-nia, $. The state of being melancholy. 

ATRAMENTAL, it-tia-mln'tal, o. Inky, 

ATRAMENTOUS,it-tri-men'tus,a. Inky, 

ATROCIOUS, i-feo'shnj, a. 20?. Wicked 
hi a high degree, enormous. 

ATROCIOUSLY, i-tro'sbiU-lt\, ad. In an 

ATROCrOUSNESS^-trofl^nca,^ Hie 
avafity 9* being taorawnelj obntnaj, 

ATROCITY, i.tros'ae-a,s. Ml. Horrible 


ATROPHY, at'tro-H, s. Want of nourish, 
ment, a disease. 

To ATTACH, it-ta1sh', v. «. To arrest, to 
take or apprehend ; to seise ; to lay hold on ; 
to win; to gain over, to enamour ; to fix to 
one's interest. 

ATTACHMENT, it-titsh'meat,,*. Adhe- 
rence, regard. 

To ATTACK, it-Ok',*. a. To assault an 

enemy ; to begin a contest. 
ATTACK, it-tik', r. An assault 

ATTACKER, at-tak'fir, s. 08. The person 
that attacks. 

To ATTAIN, it-bine', e. a. To gain, to 
procure : to overtake ; to come to: to reach ; 
to equal. 

To ATTAIN, it-One', v. n. To come to a 
certain state ; to arrive at. 

ATTAINABLE, it-tane'i-bi, «. Thai which 
may be obtained, procurable. 

AWAINABLENESS, ^tane'aVbl-nea, * 
The quality of being attainable. 

ATTAINDER, It-tine 'dor, *, 08^ Tka act 
of attainting inlaw; taint. 

ATTAINMENT,at-tWment,s. That which 
is attained, acquisition ; the act or power of 

To ATTAINT, it-tanf , «. a. To Attaint is 
particularly used for such as are found guilty of 
some crime or offence ; to taint, to corrupt. 

ATTAINT, it-tanf,*. Any thing injurious, 
as illness, weariness ; stain, spot, taint. 

ATTAINTURE, it-tine tshure, «. 461. Re- 
proach, imputation. 

To ATTAMINATE, it-tlm e-nate, 0. a. To 
corrupt. Not used. 

To ATTEMPER, it-teWpor, out. To mingle, 
to weaken by the mixture of something else; 
to regulate, to soften ; to mix in just propor- 
tio ns ; to fit to something else. 

To ATTEMPERATE, at-tim'pe-rate, *. m. 

To prop ortion to something. 555. 
To ATTEMPT, it-tlmt', tui. 412. To attack, 

a ^??iSCS, tt P4 OU h to **y ' to wwteavoor. 

ATTEMPT, it-tlmf, s. 412. An attack, 
an essay, an endeavour. 

ATTEMPTABLE, at-t&attl-bL «. liable 
to attempts or attacks. 

ATTEMPTER, at-temf tor, s. The person 
that attempts ; an endeovourer. 

To ATTEND, it-teW, 0. a. To regard, to 
fix the mind upon; to wait on ; to accompa- 
ny ; to be present with, upon a summons j ft© 
be appendant to; to be consequent to; to 
stay for. 

To ATTEND, it-tend' «, «. To yield at- 
tontion ; to stay, to delay. 

ATTENDANCE, it-tentfinse, t. The act 
of waning on another ; service ; the persons 
waiting, a train ; attention, regard. 

ATTENDANT, itten'daat, J. One that 
attends : one that belongs to the train ; one 
that watts as a suitor or agent; one that is 
present at any thing; a concomitant, a con- 
sequents - 

ATTENDER, it-ten'dar,«.08, Omtoanjpn, 



j? 669. Fate TB, tar TT,ftll 8S,ftt 81-meOt, mft 05— pint 105, pin 107- nA 101, move 1««, 

ATTENT,4t-t8nt>. Intent, attentive. 
ATTENTATES, it-teVtatea, *. Proceed- 
ings in a court after an inhibition is decreed. 
ATTENTION, at-teVshun, #. The act of 

attending or heeding. 
ATTENTIVE, at-teVtlv, a. 168. Heedful, 

ATTENTIVELY, 4t-tin'tiv-le, orf. Heed- 

fullv, carefully. ^ _ , _ 

ATTfeNTIVENESSyat-ten'dv-nes^. Heed- 
fulness, attention. 
ATTENUANT, 4t-t2n'&-4nt,a. Endued with 

the power of making tliin or slender. 
ATTENUATE, at-tgn'a-ate, 01. Made thin 

or slender. 
ATTENUATION, at-tfa-ft-a'ahon, *. The 

act of making any thing thin or slender. 
ATTER, at'tftr, *. 08. Corrupt matter. 
To ATTEST, it-t&f . v. a. To bear witness 

of, to witness ; to call to witness. 
ATTESTATION, 4t-teVta'shun, a. Testi- 
mony, evidence. „ . _ 
ATTIOUOUS, 4wfaa-fts, a. Hard by. 
To ATTINGE, it-tlnje', v. a. To touch 

slight I V. 
To ATTIRE, it-tW, v. a. To dress, to ha- 
bit, to array. 
ATTIRE, it-tire', s. Clothes, dress; in 
hunting, the boms of a buck or stag \ in bota- 
ny, the flower of a plant is divided into three 
parts, the impalement, the foliation, and the 
ATTIRER, it-tl'rur, e. One that attires 

another, a dresser. 
ATTITUDE, at'te-tOde, *. A posture, the 
posture or action in which a statue or painted 
figure is placed. ■ 
ATTOLLENT, it-toTl&it, a. That which 

raises or lifts up. 
ATTORNEY, at-tir'ne, a. 166. Such a per- 
son as by consent, commandment, or request, 
takes heed to, sees, and takes upon him the 
charge of other men's business, in their ab* 
sence; one who is appointed or retained 
to prosecute or defend an action at law ; a 
law ver 
ATTORNEYSHIP, it-tfir'ne-ship, s. Hie 

office of an attorney. 
ATTORNMENT, it-turn'ment, * . A yield- 
ing of the tenement to a new lord. 
To ATTRACT, at-trakt', t>. «. To draw 

to something ; to allure, to invite. 
ATTRACTICAL, at-trak'ti-kal, a. Having 

the power to draw. 
ATTRACTION, at-trak shun, #. The power 
of drawing any thing ; tbe power of alluring 
or enticing. 
ATTRACTIVE, at-trak'tlv, a. 168. Having 
the power to draw any thing; inviting, allu- 
ring, enticing. 
ATTRACTIVE, It-trlk'tiv, s. That which 

draws or incites. 
ATTRACTIVELY, it-traVtiv-le, od. With 

the power of attracting. 
ATTRACTIVENESS, it-trak'dv-nis, s. 

The quality of being attractive. 
ATTR ACTOR, it-tral/tur, a. 08. The agent 
that attracts. 

ATTRACTATION, 4t-tr4k-ta'shtra, a. Fre- 
quent handling. 

ATTRAHENT,atrtfa-h2nt,4. 608,/. That 

which draws. ... * __ 

ATTRIBUTABLE, it-trlb'n-ta-bl, a. That 

which mav be ascribed or attributed. 
To ATTRIBUTE, at'trlb-ate, e. o. 402. To 

ascribe, to yield ; to impute, as to a cause. 
ATTRIBUTE, If tre-bnte, s. 402. The thing 

attributed to another; quality adherent; a 

thing belonging to another, an appendant j 

reputation, honour. 
ATTRIBUTION, At-tre-bn'sh&n, a. Com- 
ATTIUTE, lt-trlte', a. Ground, worn by 

ATTRITENESS,4t-trife'n£s,s. The being 

much worn. 
ATTRITION, it-trlsh'ftn. s. 607. The act 

of wearing things by robbing ; jrrief for sin, 

arising only from the fear of punishment ; the 

lowest degree of repentance. 
To ATTUNE, it-tune', v. a. To make any 

thing musical ; to tone one thing to another. 

—See Tune. 
ATWEEN, 4-tween', ad. or prep. Betwixt, 

ATWIXT, 4-twiksf • prep. In the middle of 

two things. 
To AVAIL, 4-vile', e. a. To profit, to turn 

to profit : to promote, to prosper, to assist. 
AVAIL, 4-vUe', a. Profit, advantage, 

AVAILABLE, i-vala-bl, a. Profitable, 

advantageous ; powerful, having foice. 
A V AILABLENESS,4-val4-bl-n&,4. Power 

of promoting the end for which it is used. 
AVAILABLY, l-vala-ble, «d. Powerfully, 

AVAILMENT,4-vale'm&it,s. Usefulness, 

To AVALE, 4-vkle', e. a. To let fall, to 

AVANT-GUARD, 4-v4nt'gard, *. The van. 
AVARICE, 4v'a-rlfl, a. 142. Covetousness, 

insatiable desire. 
AVARICIOUS, 4v-4-rish'as, a. 202. Co- 

AVARICIOUSLY, 4v-4-r?sh'us-le, ad. Co- 

AVARICIOUSNESS, 4v-4-rlsh'us-nes, #. 

Tlie quality of being avaricious. 
A VAUNT, 4-vantf , interject. 216. A word 

of abhorrence, by which any one is driven 

away. m 

AUBURNE, 4w^urn, o. Brown, of a tan 

AUCTION, awk'sh&n,*. A manner of sale 

in which one person bids after another; the 

tiling sold by auction* 
AUCTIONARY,awk'shnn-4-re,a. Belong 

ing to an auction. 
AUCTIONEER, awk-shnn-eer , a. torn 

person that manages an auction. 275. 
AUCTIVE, iwk'tlv,*. 168. Of an increasing 

auality. Not utfd* 
CUPATION,aw-ku-p4'*un,s. Fowling, 
bird catching. 
AUDACIOUS, aw-da-shis a. 202. Bold, 
1 impudent, 


air M y *At 1«6— tube 171, lib 178, bill 171— Ml 200— ptlnd 8lsW*ln 466, this 46aV 

AUDACIOUSLY, aw-da-'ahus-le,*</. Bold- 
It, impudently. 

AUDACIOUSNESS, Aw^ashus-nes,*. Im- 

AUDACITY, Aw-dAVe-te, a. 511. Spirit, 

AUDIBLE, eVde-bL a. 406. That which 
HAT be perceived by hearing i load enough to 

AUDIBLENESS, iw'de^l-nes, a. Capa- 
bieness of being heard. 

AUDIBLY, Aw'de-ble, ad. fa such a man- 

nrr a* to be heard. 
AUDIENCE, AVje-ense, a. 293, 204. The 

act of bearing ; the liberty of speaking granted, 
a bearing ; an auditor?, persons collected to 
bear ; the reception of any man who delivers 

AUDIT, AwMit, a. A final account 

To AUDIT, Awdfe, «. a. To take an account 


AUDITION, iw-d Won, $. 607. Hearing. 
AUDITOR, Aw'de-tar, $. 06, 508, 6. A 

; at person employed to take an ac- 

it ultimately ; a king s officer, who, yearly 

■iaing the accounts of all the ander-om- 

cers accountable, makes up a general book. 

AUDITORY, Aw'de-tSr-ie, a. 657. That 

which has the power of hearing. 

AUDITORY, aw'd£-tar-re,s. An audience, 
a collection of persons assembled to hear ; a 
pJaoe where lectures are io be heard. 

AUDITRESS, aVde-trls, «. The woman 
that hears. 

To A V EL, A-veT, v. a. To pnll away. 

AYEMARY, a-ve-ma'ie, a. A form of wor- 
ship in tumour of the Virgin Mary. 

AVENAGE, aVen-ldje, a. 01. A certain 
quantity of oats paid to a landlord. 

To AVENGE, A-vAnje', v. a. To revenge; 
to punish. 

AVENGEANCE, l-YeVjiue, $. 244. Pu- 

AVENGEMENT, A-Tenje'mint, a. Venge- 
sitee, revenge 

AVENGER, a-venjur, a. Puniaher; re- 
venper, taker of vengeance. 

AVENS, aVenx, a. Herb Beanet. 

AVENTURE, A-ven'tahure, a. 461. A mis- 
chance, a causinpa man's death, without felony. 

AVENUE, aVe-no, a. 885, 608. A way by 
which any place may be entered ; an alley, or 
walk of trets before a houke. — See Revenue. 

T» A YER, A-vir' v. a. To declare positively. 

AVERAGE, aYftr-aje, a. 90, 655. That duty 
or service which the tenant is to pay to the 
king ; a medium, a mean proportion. 

AVERMENT, A-YeVment, a. Establishment 
•f any thing by evidence. 

AVERNAT,A-veVnAt,s. A sort of grape. 

To AVERUNCATE, Iv-eWfag'kate, v. a. 

To root up. 91, 406. 
AVERS ATION, av-er-saahun,a. Hatred, 


AVERSE, A-veW, a. Malign, not favour- 
able ; not pleased with, unwilling to. 

AVERSELY, i-veWie, ad. Unwillingly ; 

AVOttENESS, a-vWaee,# Unwilling- 

AVERSION, A-Tir'ahun, *. Hatred, dis- 
like, detestation ; the cause of aversion. 

To AVERT, i-verf , v. a. To turn aside, to 
turn oft, to put by. 

AUGER, aw'gur, a. 06, 166. A carpenter'* 
tool to bore holes with. 

AUGHT, awt, pronoun, 808. Any thing. 

ty This word Is not a pruooao, as Dr. Joaasou has 
marked it, bat a tabsUolive. 

To AUGMENT, Awg-mintf, v. a. To in- 
crease, to make bigger or more. 

To AUGMENT, awg-ment', c. a. To in* 

crease, to grow bigser. 
AUGMENT, Awg-menf , a. 402. Increaae ; 

state of increase. 
AUGMENTATION, Awg-mea-ta'shun, a. 

The act of increasing or making bigger ; the 

state of being made bigger ; the thing added, 

by which another is made bigger. 
AUGUR, aw'gur, «. 06, 106. One who pre- 

tends to predict by the flight of birds. 

To AUGUR, aw'gur, e. a. To guess, to con- 
jecture by signs. 

To AUGURATE, iVgu-rate, v. a. 01. To* 
judge by augury. 

AUGURATION, aw-gu-Ta'shun, a. The 

practice of augury. 
AUGURER, aw'gur-ir, a. 556. The same 

with augur. 

AUGUR1AL, aw-gu're-Al, a. Relating to 

AUGURY, iw'gu-re, a. 170. The act of 

erognosticating by omens ; the rules observed 
y augurs ; an omen or prediction. 

AUGUST, Aw-gust', a. 404. Great, grand, 

roval magnificent. 
AUGUST, AVgust, a. The name of the 

eighth month from January inclusive. 

AUGUSTNESS, Iw-g&st'nea, a. Elevation 

of look, dignity. 

AVIARY, a've-A-re, s, 505. A place enclosed 

to keep birds in. 
AVIDITY, A-vid'e-te, a. Greediness, ea- 

AVITOUS, AVe-toa, a. 608, 814. Left by a 

man's ancestors. Not used. 
To AVIZE, A-vlze', r. a. To counsel; to 

bethink himself, to consider. 
AULD, iwld, a. Old. Not used. 
AULETICK, aw-leV&, a. 600. Belonging 

to pipes. 
AULICK, iwllk,a. Belonging to the court. 
AULN, Awn, a. A Fiench measure of length, 

an ell. 
To AUM AIL, Aw -male', v. a. To variegate. 
AUNT,int,s.2i4. A father or mother's sister. 

AVOCADO, av-o-ki'do, a. A plant— See 

To AVOCATE, Av'ro-klte, *. a. 01. To call 


AVOCATION, Ay-vo-ka 'shun, a. The act 
of calling aside ; the businesj that calls. 

To AVOID, A-rSld', e. a. 200. To shun, to 
escape ; to endeavour to shun J to evacuate, 

to V 5 '* A %» 

To AVOID, A-toM', v. a. To retire ; to be- 
come void or vacant. 
AVOIDABLE, A-Toid'A-bl, a. That which 

k may be avoided or escaped. 



*?*#•. fife ft, Ar7r,4Ud>,rtt 81-meQ*, adit Hfc-jutt 10i,ptatt7-ao; lfl9, aSto U*, 

AVOIDANCE, tvoWfatse, s. Tke ad off AUSPICIOUS, aw-spkh'As, a. 999. Wit* 
avoiding ^ the course by which any thing ia I omens of success ; prosperous, fortunate ; fla* 

carried off. 
AVOIDER, 4-Ydld'er, *. 9ft. The person 
that shuns any thing ; the person that carries 
any thine away ; the vessel in which things 
are carried away. 

AVOIDLESS, {-▼Okies, a. Inevitable. 

AVOIRDUPOIS, iv-^r-du-poi^, a. 309. A 
kind of weight, of which a pound contains 
sixteen ounces, and is in proportion to a 
pound Troy as \7 to 14* 

AVOLATION, Av-o-la'sbiib, a. The flying 

To AVOUCH, i-voutsh', ©. e. To afirm, to 
maintain ; to produce in. favour of auother ; to 
vindicate, to justify. 

AVOUCH, ft-vo&tsh', «. ftia. Declaration, 

AVOUCH ABLE, sWUtsh&bl, a. That may 
be avouched. 

AVOUCHES, a-voitah'er, t. He that 

To AVOW. a-viu', ». a. To justify, to de- 
clare openly. 

AVOWABLE, i-Yoa'i-bi, a. That which 
may be openly declared. 

AVOWAL, a-ro&'il, a. Justificatory decla- 

AVOWEDLY, i-vo&'ed.le, ad. *64. In an 
avowed manner. 

AVOWEE, av-61-e', a. He to whom the 
right of advowsrm of any church belongs* 

AVOWER, 4-vou'ur, a. 98. He that avows 
or justifies* 

AVOWRY, i-v&u're, *. Where one takes 
a distress, the taker shall justify for what cause 
he took it ; which is called his avowrv. 

AVOWSAL,&-yo&'z41,s.442. A confession, 

AVOWTRY, a-vou'ti e, a. Adultery. 

AURATE, aw'rjtte, «. A sort of pear. 

AURELIA, aw-rele-1 A term used for 
the first apparent change of the eruca, or mag- 
got of any species of insects, the chrysalis. 

AURICLE, ftw're-kl, t. 405. The external 

ear ; two appendages of the heart, being two 
muscular caps, covering the two ventricle* 

AURICULA, Iwtik'Ul, «. Bear's ear, a 

flower. . • 

AURICULAR, aw-rLVa-utr, a. Within the 

sense or reach of hearing | secret told iu 

tiie ear. 
AURICULARLY, Iw-rik'u-la 1 r-le, ad. In a 

secret manner* _ 
AURIFEROUS, aw-iifte-roi> «, That which 

produces gold. 
AURIGATION, aw-reVga'ahan, a. The act 

of driving carriages* Not used. 

AURORA, iw-r&'ri, s. 645. A species of 
Crowfoot ; the goddess that opens the gates, of 
day, poetically the morning. 

AUSCULTATION, iws-kul-ta'shfci, s. A 
hearkening or listening to. 

AUSPICE, ftw'spls, «. 140, 142. The omens 
of any future undertaking drawn from birds ', 
protection, favour shown ; influence, good de- 
rived to others from the piety of their patron. 


. vourable, kind, propittoua; lucky, happy, 
applied to things. 

AUSPICIOUSLY, iw-spJsh'4s-le, ad. Hap- 
pily, prosperously. 

AUSPICIOUSNESS, Iw-splsa'as-nes, aaV- 
Prosperity, happiness. 

AUSTERE, iw-stere', a. Severe, harsh,. 

rigid ; sour of taste, harsh. 
AUSTERELY, aw-sterele, atL Severely, 


AUSTERENESS, iw-stere'nls, s. Severity, 
strictness, rigour ; roughness in taste. 

AUSTERITY, Iw-steVe-te, s. 511. Severity, 
mortified, life, strictness j cruelty, harsh dis- 

AUSTRAL, Wira!, a. Southern. 
AU&TMNfi, aw0 4 tr!n> a. 14Q/. Southern. 
AUTHENTICAL, iw^lnte-ktl, a. A«- 
thentick. 509. 

AUTHENTICALLY, aw^neWti.k4l*1^ aaV 
With circumstances requisite to procnm aa- 

t. The quality of being authentick,genuinenea9. 

To AUTHENTICATE, iw-taeVte-kate, vm. 

To establish any thing by authority. 91. 

tT I have inserted this word without any precedent 
from our other Dictionaries; bat it is, in my opftnloo, 
sufficiently established by good usage to give it a place 
in ail of tneoju 

AUTHENTICITY, iw-f aln-tls'se-te,*. Au- 
thority, genuineness. 

AUTHfeNTICK, aw-lAeVtlk, a. That whick 
has every thing sequisite to give it authority. 

AUTHENTICKLY,aw-r*eVtik-le,ad. Afte* 
an au then tick manner* 

AUTHENTICKNESS, aw-MeVtik-nla, a. 

AUTHOR, Iv/ttur, s. 98, 418. The first 
beginner or mover of any thing : the efficient, 
he that effects or produces anv thing ; the first 
writer of any thing ; a writer in general. 

AUTHORITATIVE, Iw-f/i6r'e-ta-tlr, o\ 
Having due authority ; having an air of. au- 

AUTHORITATIVELY, iw-tt6r'e-ta-t1v-ley 
ad. In an authoritative manner, with a show 
of authority ; with due authority. 

nea, s. Authoritative appearance. 

AUTHORITY.lw-f Aor'e-te,* . Legal power ; 
influence, credit ; power, rule j support, coun- 
tenance ; testimony ; credibility. 
f^t This word i* sometimes pronounced as if writ- 
ten aittoritjf. This affected pronunciation Is traced 
to a gentleman who wa» one of the greatest ornaneots 
of, as well as one of the politest areolars of 
the ace, and whoa* authority has been sufficient to 
sway the bench and the bar, though author, authen- 
tic, theetre, theory, fa. sad a thousand similar words 
where the th la heard, are 'constantly taring them in 
the f «ce. 

The public ew, hnwerer, is not so far vkiated as to 
acknowledge this innovation : for though it may with 
security, and even approbation, be pronounced ia 
WesJssttotter Hall, It weald aot beqnite so safe for an 
actor to adopt It on the stage. 

t word, which is derived .from It, ought, cm that 

to profpostkka. 





—^ teosettjt. Bit Urate observes", that, ac 
cording to tbobest Latin critics, tbe word ought to be 
written muct#rUas t and Uut, according to this' re a. 
■earing, we ought to writ* aad pronounce attctority 
aad auctor: but Chit, I presume, is fjuther than these 
iaaovators wemid choose to go. Tbe truth it, auch siu- 
gaJartiies of pronunciation should be left to the lower 
erstics ; who, like coxcombs in dress, would be utterly 
WMoticcd if they were not distingaibhed by petty de- 
vtatknas from the rest of the world. 

AUTHORIZATION, aw-rAo-re-aa'shdn, t. 
Establishment by Authority. 

To AUTHORIZE, aw'tAo-rlze, *\a. To give 
authority to any person ; to make any thing 
legal ; to establish any thing by aathority j 
to justify, to prove a thing to be right; to 
give credit to any person or thing, 

AUTOCBASY, iw-t*k'ri<e, ,. 510. Inde- 

pendent power. . 
AUTOGRAPH, aw'to-*r(f,t. A particular 

person's writing, the original. 

AUTOGRAPHICAL, lw-to-gitf«-k*l, a. 
Of one's own writing. 

AUTOMATICAL, Sw4b-vAtkJfk%+ Hay- 
ing the power of moving itself. 

AUTOMATON, aw-t£n'a-ton, «. A ma. 
chine that hath tbe power of motion within 

AUTOMATOUS, aw-tom's-tos, a. Having 
m Itself the power of motion. 

AUTONOMY, aw-ton'oi-me, «. 518. The 
fiviiig according to one's own mind and pre- 
scription. Not in nse. 

AUTOPSY, iw'tdp-se, #. Ocular demon- 

AUTOPTICAL, lw-tot>'te-ka1,a^PerceiTed 
by one's own eyes. • 

AUTOPTICALLY, Iw-top'te-kll-li, «d. 

Bv means of one's own eyes. 
AUTUMN, aVtum, t. 411. The season of 

Ae year between summer and winter. 

AUTUMNAL, Iw-tum'nlj, a. Belonging to 
aura mit. 

AVULSION, t-vfa'shin, a. The act of pull- 
ing one thins from another. . 

AUXES1S, fcvg-ze'sis, «. 47$, 520. Am- 

*¥™H A ^fy^'jtr.4TB.\ «. and a. 
AUXILIARY, awg-zfryl-ri, jHelperV 
, sman t ; helping, assisting. 

ATmUATfON,awg-ztU-a'Bhun,,. Help, 

To AWAkr, t-w&te', «. a. To expect to 

AWAIT, t-wife 7 ; s. AmbuaL 

^Sf^fw.** To row out 
of sleep ; to raise from any state resembling 
sleep ; to pot into new action. 

To A WABJM-wike>. ». To break from 
sleep, to cease to sleep. 

**[£*> *****'* «• Without sleep, not 
steeping. ri 

To AWAKEN, i-wiAn, 10S.— See Awake. 
To AWARD, 4-wtrd', v. a. To adjudge, 

tojts* anything by a judicial sentence ; 2 

jwdge, to determine. 

4 oetenSttrtio T ^' , *" Jwdfflieilt » wntence, 

AWARE, i.wire',0. Vigilant, atteatiie. 


To AWARE, A-wsW, o. ». Td taeware, to 
he cautious, 

AWAY, 4-way 7 , ad. Absent from any place 
or person ; let as go; begone j out of one's 
own power. 

AWE, aw, s. Reverential fear, reverence. 
To AWE, aw, v. o. To strike with rever- 
ence, or (ear. 

AWEBAND, iVbind, 9; A chock. 

AWFUL, awTol, a. 173, 406. That which 
strikes with awe, or fills with reverence ; wor- 
shipful, invested with dignity ; struck with 
awe, timorous. 

AWFULLY, tw'ful-l^ad. In a reverential 

AWFULNESS, aVfoi-nis, 9. The quality 
of striking with awe, solemnity ; the state of 
being struck with awe. 

AWHILE, 1-hwbV, ad. 397. Some time. 

AWKWARD, iwk'war<l,«. 475. Inelegant 
nnpolite, untaught; unready, unhandy, clum- 
sy ; perverse, untoward. 

A^K^ARpLY, JwkVurdai,od. Clumsily, 
unreadily, inelegantly. * 

AWKWARDNESS, iwk wird-nes, 9. In. 

elegance, want of gentility, clumsiness. 
AWL, all, 9. A pointed instrument to bore 

holes. r 

AWLESS, aVlfe, a. Without reverence ; 

a mS!£ * i he po wer of causin « reverence. 

AWME, awm, 9. A Dutch measure answer- 
ing to what in England is calk d a tierce, or 
one seventh of an English ton. 

AWNING, aw'ning, 9. 410. A cover spread 
over a boat or vessel to keep off tbe weather. 

AWOKE, 4-wAke', 9. The preterite of 


AWORK. t-wirk', ad. 165. On work, in a 
state of labour. ^ Wi 

AWORKING,4.wuik1ng, «* In the state 
of working. 

AWRY, i-rl', ad. 474. Not in a straight 
direction, obliquely ; asquint, with oblique 
vision ; not level, unevenly ; not equally be- 
tween two points ; not in a right state, per- 
versely. ' r 

AXE, Iks, 9. An instrument consisting of 

a metal head, with a sharp edge. 
AXLLLAR, aks'aft-lar, 47*.; a. Belong*)* 
AX .^ARY, Ikszh-lk-re, \ totheTn?. 

pit. — See Maxillary. 

AXIOM, te'shum. 9. 479. A proposition 
evident at first sight. * v** w* 

AXIS, 4k'sis, 9, The line, real or imari- 
nary, that passes through any thing, on whfch 
it mav revolve. v ^ 

A^^kTal *U V tt *^«* 

AJLLE-TT^Rilr/al-tree,; passes through 
the midst of the wheel, on which tbe circum. 
volutions of the wheel are performed. 

AY, ie, ad. 105. Yes 

D^iolarV. I>ireCt,0,U to Fo^€ia •V•' * r **** ■* *'• 
AYE, Ik, ad. Always, to eternity, forever. 
AYGREEN, atgriln, s. Tbe same with 

AYRY, td 7 «,-$«• Airy. 


17 06l>. Fate 74, sir T7, fall 81, Hi 81— mi 0ft, salt *5— pine 105, pm 107— n\o 16*, more 161, 

AZIMUTH, aVe'mfo*, #. The azimuth of 

the sun, or of a star, is an arch between the 
meridian of the place and any given vertical 
line ; magnetical azimuth, is an arch of the 
horizon contained between the sun's azimuth 
circle and the magnetical meridian ; azimuth 
compass, is an instrument used at sea fur find- 
ing the sun's magnetical azimuth. 

AZURE, a'zhore, «, 484. 461. Bine, faint 


BAA, b2, *. 77. The cry of a sheep. 

To BAA, bl, v. ft. To cry like a sheep. 
To BABBLE, baVbl, c. «. 406. To prattle 

like a child ; to talk idly ; to tell secrets ; to 

talk much. 
BABBLE, baWbl, t. Idle talk, senseless 

BABBLEMENT, baVbl-mint, a, Sense- 

less prate. 
BABBLER, baVbl&r, 08. An idle talker ; 

a teller of secrets* 
BABE, babe, «. An infant 
BABERY, ba'bur-re, «. 558. Finery to 

pleMse a babe or child. 
BABISH, ba'bish.a. Childish. 
BABOON, bl-boon , «. A monkey of the 

largest kind. 
BABY, ba^be, *. vulgarly baVbe. A child, 

an infant ; a small image, in itnitatiou of a 

child, which girls play with. 

BACCATED, b4kfka-t$d, a. Beset with 
pearls. Having many berries. 

BACCHANALIAN, ba^-ka-nale-an, «. A 

BACCHANALS, bltfta-nate, *> The 

• drunken feasts of Bacchus. 
BACCHUS BOLE, biklcos-bole, *. A 

lower, not tall, but very full and broad-leaved. 

BACCIFEROUS, b£k-slrtros, a. 655. 


BACHELOR, bfttsh'e-lur, «. A man un- 
married ; a man who takes his first degrees ; 
a knight of the lowest order. 

BACHELOR'S BUTTON, batsh'e-lnn- 
bat'tn, s. 170. Campion, an herb. 

BACHELORSHIP, bftsh'i-lur-sbJp, $. The 
condition of a bachelor. 

BACK, bik, 8, The hinder part of the 
body ; the outer part of the hand when it is 
shut ; the rear ; the place behind ; the part of 
amy thing out of sight ; the thick part of any 
tool, opposed to the edge. 

BACK, bak, ad. To the place whence one 
came ; backward from the present station ; 
behind, not coming forward ; toward things 

• past ; again, in return ; again, a second time. 

To BACK, bak, c. a. To mount a horse ; 
to break a horse ; to place upon the back ; to 
maintain, to strengthen; to justify, to sop- 
port; to s econd . 

To BACKBITE, baVbfo, *. av To censure 
or reproach the absent 


BACKBITER, btk'bl-tar, «. A privy calum- 
niator, censurer of the absent. 

BACKDOOR, baVdoie, «. The door be- 
hind the home. 

BACKED, bakt, a. 350. Having a back. 

BACKFRIEND, blk'fre'nd, $. An enemy 
in secret. 

BACKGAMMON, bak-gam'mun, 8. A 
play or game with dice and tables. 166. 

BACKHOUSE, bak'house, a. The build- 
ings behind the chief part of the house. 

BACKPIECE, blk'peeae, a. The piece of 

armour which covers the back. 

BACKROOM, bik'roora, «. A room behind. 
BACKSIDE, baVslde, «. The hinder part 

of any thing; the hind part of an animal ; the 

yard or ground behind a house. 
To BACKSLIDE, bik-sllde', v. ». 497. To 

fall oif. 

ty I have iu this word preferred Dr. Johnson's ae> 
reutuatiou on the secoud syllable lo Mr. Sheridan** 
vii the first ; for the reasons see IViuclple* aiidvr the 
number marked. Dr. Ash, Rntick, Scott, aud Perry, 
are on the side of Mr. 8beridan; and Dr. Johnson 
and W, Johnston only un that which 1 have chosen ; 
but Mr. Sheridan and Dr. Ash, by marking the noan 
backslider with the accent on the second syllable, as 
it is always heard, have. betrayed th«4r pronunciation 
of the verb.; for one of these modes mast be wrong, 
as the verbal oonn mast unquestionably have the 
same accent as the verb. 

BACKSLIDER, baWt'dir, s. 08. An 

B ACKST AFF, b&k stAf, a. An instnunont 

useful in taking the sun's altitude at sea. 

BACKSTAIRS, blk'stara, s. The private 

stains in the house. 
BACKSTAYS, bik'stase, 8. Ropes which 

keep the mast from pitching forward. 

BACKSWORD, bik'sord, a. Aawoidwith 

one sharp edge. 

BACKWARDS, baVworda, ad. 88. With 
the back forwards ; towards the back ; on the 
back ; from the present station to the place 
behind ; regressivtiy ; towards something 
past ; out -of the progressive slate ; from a 
better to a worse state ; past, in time past. 

BACKWARD, bJtk'wnrd, «. Unwilling, 
averse ; hesitating ; slupgish, dilatory ; dull, 
not quick, or apprehensive. 

BACKWARD, baVword, ad. The things 

bJTcKWARDLY, b&Vaid-le,'fld. Un- 
willingly, aversely. 

BACKWARDNESS, blkVird-nfe, a. Dul- 
ness, sluggishness. 

BACON, balm, $. IT0. The flesh of a 
hog salted and dried. 

BAD, bid, a. IU, not good; vicious, cor- 
rupt; unfortunate, unhappy; hurtful, un- 
wholesome ; sick. 

BADE, bid, 75. The preterite of Bid. 

BAD&E, bidje, «. 74. A mark or cogni- 
sance worn ; a tokeu by which one is knoann ? 
the mark of any thing. 

To BADGE, bidje, c. «. To mark. 

BADGER, b&d'j&r, «. 98. A brock, an 

BADGER, bld^ur, a. One that buys corn 
and victuals in one place,, and carries it to* 

BADLY, bidle, «sV Not well. 



air 107, nfe 108— tab* IT I, t4b 172, bull 178— Hi 299— potad 818— *Mn 466* this 46fc 

BADNESS, bid'afe, a. Want of good 

Te BAFFLE, biffl, t>. «. 405. To elude ; 
to confound ; to crush. 

BAFFLER, biflor, t. 98. He that baffles. 

BAG, big, a. A sack, or pouch ; that part 
of animal* in which tome particular juices are 
contained, as the poison of vipers ; an or- 
namental parse of silk tied to men's hair ; a 
term used to signify quantities, as a bag of 

To BAG, big, v. a. To put into a bag; to 
load with a bag. 

To BAG, big, t>. *. To swell like a full bag. 

BAGATELLE, blg-tUft', j. A trifle. Not 

BAGGAGE, b*Wgfcije, «. 90. The furni- 
ture of an army ; a worthless woman. 

BAGNIO, baWyo, $. 888. A house for 
bathiugand sweating. 

BAGPIPE, big'prpe, t. A musical instru- 
ment, consisting of a leathern bag, and pipes. 

BAGPIPER, bigfpl-pur, a. 98. One that 
pk»» on a bagpipe. 

BAIL, bale, a. Bail is the freeing or set- 
ting at liberty one arrested or imprisoned 
upon action either civil or criminal under 
SBcarttj taken Cor his appearance. 

To BAIL, bale, v. c To give ball lor an- 
other; to admit to baiL 

BAILABLE, ba'lsVbl. a. 406. That may 
be set at liberty by bail. 

BAILIFF, boVfif, s. A subordinate officer ; 
so officer whose business it is to execute ar- 
rest*; an under-steward of a manor. 

BAILIWICK, bale-w&, a. The place of 
the jurisdiction of a bailiff. 

To BAIT, bate, e. a. To put meat to tempt 

To BAIT, bite, v. a. To set dogs upon. 

To BAIT, bate, c. n. To stop at any place 
for refreshment ; to clap the wings, to flatter. 

BAIT, bate, a. Meat set to allure animals 
to a snare ; a temptation, an enticement ; a 
refreshment on a journey. 

BAIZE, haze. a. A kind of coarse open cloth. 

To BAKE, bike, v. a. To heat any thing 
b a close place ; to dress in an oven ; to 
harden in the fire ; to harden with heat. 

To BAKE, bake, e. «. To do the work of 

BAKEHOUSE, bakVhiuse, a. A place 

for baking bread. 
BAKER, ba'k&r, a. 96. He whose trade 

n to bake. 

BALANCE, baTIinse, a. A pair of scales ; 
the act of comparing two tbinps ; the over- 
plus of weight; that which is wanting to 
■take two parts of an account even ; equi- 
poise r* the beating part of a watch ; in astro- 
nomy, one of the signs, Libra. 

To BALANCE, baThlnse, v. a. To weigh 
m s balance ; to coonterpoise : to regulate an 
tccowtt; to pay that which is wanting. 

To BALANCE, blllanse, t> n. To hesi- 
tate, to fluctuate. 
BALANCER, ballin-sur, s. The person 
^tkat weighs. - • 

*ALASS RUBY bAlts-ru'bc, *. A kind of 


BALCONY, bil-ko'ne. a. A frame of 
wood, or stone, before the window of a room. 

BALD, biwld, a. Without hair; without 
natural covering ; uuadomed, inelegant ; 
stripped, without dignity* 

BALDERDASH, bawl'dur-dash, a. Rude 

BALDLY, biwldle, ad. Nakedly, meanly, 

BALDMONY, biwld'mun-ne, a. Gentian, 
a plant 

BALDNESS, bawld'nls, a. The want of 
hair ; the loss of hair ; meanness of writing. 

B ALDRICK, biwl'drlk, a. A girdle ; the 

BALE, bale, s. A bundle of goods. 

BALEFUL, bale'ffil, a. Sorrowful, sad; 
full of mischief. 

BALEFULLY, baleful-le, ad. Sorrow* 
fully, mischievously. 

BALK, biwk, a. 402. 84. A great beam. 

BALK, biwk, a. A ridge of land left un- 

BALK, bawk, a. Disappointment when 
least expected. 

To BALK, biwk, v. o. 402. To disap- 
point, to frustrate : to miss any thing. 

BALKERS, biw'kurz, a. 98. Men who 
give a sign which way the shoal of herrings is. 

BALL, bawl, a. 88, 77. Any thing made 
in a round form ; a round thing to play with ; 
a globe ; a globe borne as an ensign of sove- 
reignty : any part of the body that approaches 
to roundness. 

BALL} biwl, a. An entertainment of 

BALLAD, billid, a. A song. 

BALLAD-SINOBR, baTlld-sfog-ur, a. 
One whose employment is to sing ballads in 
the streets. 

BALLAST, baTlist,*. 88. Something put 
at the bottom of the ship to keep it steady. 

BALLETTE, bil'llt, s. A dance. 

BALLOON, b*l-loon', a. A large round 
short-necked vessel used in chymistry ; a ball 
placed on . a pillar ; a ball of pasteboard, 
staffed with combustible matter, which is shot 
up into the air, and then bursts ; a large hol- 
low ball of silk filled with gat, which makes 
it rise into the air. 

BALLOT, baTl&t, s. 166. A little ball or 

. ticket used in givwg votes ; the act of votiug 
by ballot 

To BALLOT, billut, v.n. To choose by 

BALLOTATION, bil-lo-ta'shun, a. The 
act of voting by ballot. 

BALM, bam, a. 408. The sap or juice of 
a shrub, remarkably odoriferous ; any valua- 
ble or fragrant ointment ; any thing that sooths 
or mitigates pain. 

BALM, bam, a. The name of a plant 
BALM OF GILEAD, bim of gft'yid. a. 

The juice drawn from the balsam-tree ; a plant 

having a strong balsamick scent. 

BALMY, bam'e, a. 408. Haying the qua- 
lities of balm ; producing balm ; ' soothing, 

. soft, fragrant, odoriferous; mitigating, as- 

BALNEARY, bal'ne-i-re, a. .A bathinf- 

> room. 


ft?*59. Fate 78, fir 77, Alt fit, fit 81— me 98, m?t95-~pme 106, pin 107- no 163, mire ft**, 

BALNEATION, fcal-ni-a shftn, s. The 

act of bathing. . 

BALNEATORY, btl'ne-ft-tir-re, a. Be- 

longing to a bath. 512, 557. 
BAXsSAM, bawl'sim, «. 88. Ointment, 

unguent. , 

BALSAM APPLE, baWlsta-ap-pl, *. An, 

Indian plant. 
BAI£AMICAL,b4l-iim'^k4l,84.1 „ 
BALS AMICK, bal-saurik; 509. j unc 

tuous, mitigating. 
BALUSTRADE, bal-4s-trade', $. Rows 

of little pillars called balusters. 

fy This word is often corrupted into banisters, as 
the banisters of a staircase. 

. Balustrade mean* the row of small pillars support* 
tog the guard of a staircase, lakcu collectively ; as a 
colonnade means a culler tion of col a mas in regular 
order; bat, this collective term, there is the 
distributive balusters ; meaning cither the whole 'of 
tba balustrade, or any part of it ; at each of the small 
pillars that compose it may be called a baluster. 

BAMBOO, barn-boo', «. An Indian plant 

. of the reed kind. 

to BAMBOOZLE, bim-boo'zl, e. a. To 
deceive, to impose upon. A low word. 

BAMBOOZLER, bam-boo'zlor, *. A cheat. 

BAN, bin, «. Public notice given of any 
thing ; a curse ; excommunication ; interdic- 
tion ; Ban of the Empire, a public censure 
by which the privileges of any German 
prince arc suspended. 

t AN AN A TREE 9 bl.n4 f h|.tre^,«.Plantain. 
AND, bind, ». 'A tye, a bandage, a 
chain by which any animal is kept an re- 
straint ; any union or connexion ; any thing 
bound round another ; a company of persons 
joined together ; a particular kind of neck- 
cloth, worn chiefly by the clergy ; in architec- 
ture, any fiat low ruoulding,fascia # face,or plinth. 

To BAND, bind, v. a. To unite together 
into one body or troop ; to bind over with a 

BANDAGE, bintildje, *. 90. Something 
bound over another : the fillet or roller wrap- 
ped over n wounded member. 

BANDBOX, bdnd0)6ks, j. A slight box 

used for bands and other things of small weight. 
BANDELET, ban'de-llt, «. Any flat 

moulding or fillet. 
BANDIT, b&n'dit, 7 s. An outlaw- 

BANDITTO, ban-dltfto, J ed robber. 
BANDITTI, ban-dlt'te, s. A company of 

outlawed robbers. 
BANDOG, bin'ddg, «. A mastiff. 
BANDOLEERS, bin-do-leerz', «. Small 

wooden cases covered with leather, each of 

them containing powder that is a sufficient 

charge for a musket. 

BANDROL, band'roll, «. A little Hag or 

BANDY, bin de- «. A club turned round 

at bottom for striking a ball. 
To BANDY, ban'de, c. a. To beat to and 

fro, or from one to another, to give aud take 

leciprocally ; to agitate, to toss about. 

B ANDYLEG, bin de-l£g, $. A crooked leg. 
BANDYLEGGED. ban'd«4egd, «. Hav- 
ing crooked legs. 589. 
ftAKB^bJm«i ». Poison; miiehief, ruin. 
To BAftE, line, «. a. Tw poison. 


BANEFUL, baneful, a. Poisonous ; 

stnicti ve. 
BANEFULNEBS, bane'ffc-nie, $. Poison-: 

ousness, destructiveness. 
BANEWORT, baneVort, *. 88 Deadly 

To BANG, bang, v.*. 409. To beat, to 

thump *, to handle roughly. 
BANG, bftng, s. A blow, a thump. 
To BANISH, bin'nlsh, v. a. To condemn 

to leave his own country ; to drive away. 
BANISHER, ban'nish-ur, $. He that 

forces another from his own country. 
BANISHMENT, ban'nish-ment, a. The 

act of banishing another ; the state of being 

banished, exile. 
BANK, bank, «. 409. The earth rising on 
, each side of the water ; any heap of earth 

piled up ; a bench of rowers *, a place where 

money is laid up to be called for occasionally ; 

the company of persons concerned in ma- 
naging a bank. 
To BANK, hank, v. a. To lay up money 

in a bank ; to ettclose with banks. 
BANK-BILL, bank-bill, s. A note tor 

money laid up in a bank, at the sight of which 

the money is paid. 
BANKER, bink'ur, «. 98. One that traf- 

ficks in money. 
BANKRUPTCY, bank'rup-se, «. 472. The 

state of a man broken, or bankrupt; tlte-ac* 

of declaring one's self bankrupt. 

BANKRUPT, bank'rupt, a. In debt be- 
yond the power of payment. 

BANNER, Mn'nftr, a. 98. A flag, a stand- 
ard ; a streamer borne at the end of a lance. 

BANNERET, ban'aur-lt, $. A knight 

made in the field. * 

BANNEROL, ban'nor-roll, *. 655. A little 

flag or streamer. 
BANNIAN, bAn-yan', s. A man's undress 

or morning gown. 
BANNOCK, ban'n&k, $. 166. A kind cf 

oaten or pease-meal cake. 
BANQUET, UnkWt, s. 408. A feast. 
To BANQUET, bankTtwit, v. n. 409. To 

feast, to fare daintily. 
BANQUETER, banklcwet-nr, «. A feaster ; 

one that lives deliriously ; he that makes feasts, 
B ANQUET-HOUSEj bankWt^house, 
BANQUET1NG-HOUSE, bank'kwlt- 


A house where banquets are kept. 
BANQUETTE, bink-ket', *. A small bank 

at the foot of the parapet. 
BANSTICLE, ban'stik-kl, $. 405. A small 

fish, a stickleback. 
To BANTER, ban t&r, e.a. 98. Taj. lay upon, 

to rallv. 
BANTER, ban'tur, «. Ridicule, raillery. 
B ANTERER, ban'tur-ur,*.One thatbanten. 
BANTLING, bantling, s. A little chad. 
BAPTISM, bap'tlzm, «. Baptism is given 

by water, and that prescript form of words 

which the church of Christ aoth use ; baptism 

is often taken in Scripture for sufferings. 
BAPTISMAL, ba>tk*nll, a. Of or peN 

Uinins to baptism. 
BAPTIST, baptist, «. Ra that administers 






flftrMT, not 18*— tube 171, tab 179, bill 17ft— oft MO— pofmd alaV-tfai 44^ this 469. 

BAPTISTERY, btp'tfe-tftr-^, t. 555. The 
place where the sacrament of baptism is ad- 

To BAPTIZE, bip-tke', t>. «. To christen, 
to administer the sacrament of baptism. 

BAPTIZER, bip-ti'zur, *. 98. One that 
christens, one that administers baptism. 

BAR, bir, 9. 77. A piece of wood laid cross 
a passage to hinder entrance ; a bolt to fasten 
a door ; any obstacle ; a rock or bank at the 
entrance of a harbour; any thing used for 
prevention, the place where causes of law 
sue tried ; an enclosed place in a tavern where 
the housekeeper sits ; in law, a peremptory 
exception against a demand or plea ; any thing 
by which the structure is held together ; bars 
in mask are strokes drawn perpendicularly 
across the lines of a piece of music, used to 
regulate the beating or measure of musical 

To BAR, blr, c. a. To fasten or shut any 
thing with a bolt, or bar ; to hinder, or ob- 
struct : to prevent ; to shot pet from ; to ex- 
clude from a claim ; to prohibit ; to except ; 
to hinder a suit. 

BARB, barb, #. Any thing that grows in 
the niece of the beard ; the points that stand 
backward in an arrow ; the armonr for horses. 

BARB, birb, «. A Barhary horse. 

To BARB, birb, v. a. To shave, to dress 
one the beard ; to furnish the horse with ar- 
saoar ; to jag arrow* with hooka. 

BARBACAN, bartt-kin, s. A fortifica- 
tion jilaced before the walls of a town ; an 
opening in the wall through which the guns 
are levelled. 

B ARB ADOES CHERRY,bar-ba'doz-tsher'- 
re, a. 166. A pleasant tart fruit in the 
West Indies. 

BARBARIAN, bir-biVe-in, s. A man un- 
civilised, a savage i a foreigner ; a man with* 
oat pitv. 

BARB ARICK, bir-bsMk, a. Foreign, far- 

BARBARISM, bsVbi-rkm, s. A form of 
speech contrary to the purity of language ; 
ignorance of arts, want of learning ; brutal- 
ity, savageness of manners, incivility; cruel- 
ty, hard ness of heart. 

BARBARITY, bir-baVe-te, s. Savageness, 
incivility ; cruelty, inhumanity, impurity of 

BARBAROUS, birti-rus, a. 314. Stranger 
to civility, savage, uncivilized; unacquaint- 
ed with arts ; cruel, inhuman. 

BARBAROUSLY, baVo£*£s-le, ad. With- 
out knowledge of arts ; in a maimer contrary 
to the rules of speech ; cruelly, inhumanly. 

BARB AROUSNESS, baVbi-ras-nls, «. In- 
civility of markers ; impurity of language ; 

To BARBECUE, baVbi-ka, v. a. A term 

for dressinz a hog whole. 
BARBECUE, baVbe-ku,*. A hog dressed 

BARBED, baVbid, or birb'd, 102. Far- 

nished with armour; bearded, jagged with 


BARBEL, birnrt, s. 109, 405. A kind of 

tab fciond in rivers. 
BUB£R,bir1jar,a.~99. A man who shares 

i he beard. 


BARBERRY, baVber-re, * IHpperidm* 

| bush. 

! BARB, bird, s* A poet 
BARE, bare, a. Naked, without covering; 

uncovered in respect ; unadorned, plain, sim- 
ple ; detected, without concealment ; poor, 
without plenty ; mere ; threadbare, much 
worn ; not united with any thing else. 

To BARE, bare, ». a. To strip. 
iBARE, hire, preterite of To Bear. Al- 
) most obsolete. 

j BAREBONE, bare'bone, «. A veiy lean 
i person. 

BAREFACED, bare-faste', a. 350. With 
the face naked, not masked ; shameless, uu- 
BAREFACEDLY, bare-f&stelc, ad. Open- 
ly, shamelessly, without disguise. 564. 

BAREFACEDNESS, bare-faste'nls, *. Ef- 
frontery, assurance, audaciousness. 3oV>. 
BAREFOOT, bare'fut, a. Without shoes. 
BAREFOOTED, bWAt-id, a. Without 

BAREHEADED, bkre'hid-ded, a. Un- 
covered in respect. 
BARELY, b«.re-)£, oa\ Nakedly, merely, ; 

BARENESS, tfarefejta, *. Nakedness;. 

leanness ; poverty ; meanness of clothes. 
BARGAIN, biggin, s. 206. A contractor 

agreement concerning sale ; the thing bought 

or sold ; stipulation. 
To BARGAIN, b&Vgln, r. n. To make a 

contract for sale. 
BARGAINEE, bir£m-nee, s. He or she 

that accepts a bargain. 
BARGAINER, baVgm-nur, s. 98. The per- ' 

son who proffers or makes a bargain. 
BARGE, birje, s. A boat for pleasure ; a 

boat far burden. 
BARGER, bar'jfir, s. 98. The manager of 

a barge. 
£ARfe% birk, «. The rind or covering of a 

tree ; a small ship. 
To BARK, birk, r. <u To strip trees of their 

bark. . 

To BARK, birk, v. a. To make the noise 

which a doe makes ; to clamour at. 
BARKER, baVkur, $. 96. One that barks 

or clamours ; one employed in stripping trees. • 
BARKY, baVke, a. Consisting of bark. 
BARLEY, bir'lfc, «. 270. A grain, of which 

malt is made. 
B ARLEYBRAKE, birle-brake, s. A kind ; 

of rural play. 
BARLEYCORN, birtc-korn, s. A grain 

of barley. 
BARM, binn, *. Vest, the ferment put 

into drink to make it work. 
BARMY, baVm&, a. Containing barm. 
BARN, barn, $. A place or house fbr laying 

up any sort of grain, hay, or straw. 

b ARN ACLE, Dir'nA-kl, s. 405. A bird like 
a goose, fabulously su ppoaed. to gro iv on trees ; 
a species of shell fish. 

BAROMETER, bi-rora'me-tir, t. 510. A 
machine for measuring the .weight of the aft* 
mosphcre, and the variations w it. in order 
chiet}jt to determine the shanges of the 


#560. Fkt©7»,flir77,iill8a,flt 81— me W,met95--pWie5,puil07-- no 162, mo veldt", 

BAROMETRICAL, bar-o-met'treVk*l, «. 
Relating to the barometer. 609, 515. 

BARON, baVrfin,.*. 166. A degree of no- 
bility next to a viscount ; baron is one of the 
judges in the court of exchequer ; there are 
also barons of the cinque ports, that have 
pfaces in the lower house of parliament ; baron 
is used iu law for the husband in relation to 
his wife. 

BARONAGE, baVron-adje, j. 90. The dig- 
"nitv of a baron. 

BARONESS, baVrttn-4s, «. 557 A baron's 
• lad j. 

BARONET, baVrfin-et. *. 557. The lowest 
degree of honour that is hereditary ; it is be- 
low a baron, and above a knight. 

BARONY, baVrfin-e, j. 657. That honour 
or lordship that gives title to a baron. 

BAROSCOPE, baVro-skope f #. An instru- 
ment to shew the weight of the atmosphere. 

BARRACAN, oaVri-klb, #. A strong thick 
kind of camelot. 

BARRACK, birYftk, s. Building to lodge 

BARRATOR, baVr4-tfir, s. A wrangler, 

and eucourager of lawsuits. 
BARRATRY, baVri-tre, *. Foul practice 

in law. 

BARREL, baVrfl, t. 99. A round wooden 
vessel to be stopped close ; a vessel contain- 
ing liquor ; any thing hollow, as the barrel of 
a gun; a cylinder. 

To BARREL, baVrft, e. a. To put any thing 
in a barrel. 

BARREN, baVrin, a. Not prolifick ; un- 
fruitful, not fertile, sterile ; not copious, scan- 
ty ; unmeaning, uninventive, dull. 

BARRENLY, baVrin-le, ad. Unfruitfully. 

BARRENNESS, baVren-nls, *. Want of 
the power of procreation ; unfruitfulness, steri- 
lity • want of invention ; want of matter : in 
theology, want of sensibility. 

BARRENWORT, baYren-wurt, #. A plant. 

BARRFUL, baVfull, a. Full of obstruc- 
tions — properly Barfid. 

BARRICADE, bi-re-kide 7 , j. A fortifica- 
tion made to keep off an attack ; any stop, bar, 

To BARRICADE, bir-re-kade', «. «. To 

stop up a passage. 

B ARRICADO, bir-re-ki'do, $. A fortifica- 
tion, a bar. — Sec Lumbago. 

To B ARRICADO, bir-re-ki'do. v. a. To 
fortify, to bar. 

BARRIER, btrtre-iir, *. 98. A barricade, 

an entrenchment ; a fortification, or strong 

■place ; a stop, an obstruction ; a bar to mark 

the limits of any place ; a boundary. 

f& Pope, by the license of his art, pronounced this 

word la two syllables, with the accent on the last, as 

If written barrier. ' 

" Twiat that and reason what a nice barrior * 
m For ever separate, yet for ever near." 

£oa* on Man, Ep. I. v. $15. 
And yet In another part of his works he places the 
aeecnt on the first syllable, as we always hear It in 

" 8*fe in the love of ITeav'a an ocean flows 
u Around oar realm, a barrier from the feesV 

BARRISTER, baVrln-tttr.*. A person quali- 
. fed to plead the causes of clients in the courts 
of justice, 


BARROW, birirow,*. Any carriage moved 

by the hand, as a band-barrow. 
BARSHOT, b&Vshot, «. Two bullets or 

half-bullets joined by a bar, and used chiefly 

at sea to cut down the roasts and rigging of 

To BARTER, bir'tor, v. n. 98. To traffick 

by exchanging one commodity for another. 
To BARTER, bir'tur, r. a. To give any 

thing in exchange. 
BARTER, bir'tur, «. The act or practice 

of trafficking by exchange. 

BARTERER,bir'tur-ur,«. He that trafficks 

bv exchange. 
BARTERY, baVt&r-re, «. 555. Exchange 

of commodities. 
BARTR AM, baVtrlm, «. A plant, pellitory. 
BARYTONE, baVe-tone, *. 

tt A word with the grave accent on the last sylla* 
ble. If the Inspector ducts not know what Is meant 
by the grave accent, it may be necessary to Inform 
him, that writers on the Greek accent tell us that 
every syllable which has not the acute accent has the 

J;rave; and as there could bat be one syllable seated, 
n that licuguage, the rest mnst necessarily be grave. 
What these accents aie has pa tiled the learned to 
urach that they seem neither to understand each other 
nor themselves ; bat it were to be wished they had 
kept this distinction into acute and grave out of oar 
own language, as it is impossible to annex any clear 
ideas to ft, except we consider the (rave accent mere. 
ly as the absence of the acnte, which reduces it to no 
accent ac all. If we divide the voice Into Its two 
leading inflections, tbe rising and felling, and call the 
former tbe acute and the latter the grave, we can an- 
nex distinct ideas to these words ; and perhaps It it 
an Ignorance of this distinction of speaking sounds, 
and confounding them with high and low, or load 
and soft, thst occasions the con lotion we meet with 
in writers on this subject.— See Elements of Elocu- 
tion, page do. Also Observations on the Greek and 
Latin Accent and Quantity, at the end of the Key to 
the Classical Pronunciation of Greek and Latin 
Proper Names. 

BASE, base, a. Mean, vile, worthless; 
disingenuous, illiberal, ungenerous; of low 
station, of mean account; base-born, bom 
out of wedlock ; applied to metals, without 
value ; applied to sounds, deep, grave. 

BASE-BORN, base'born, a. Born out of 

BASE-COURT, bWkort,*. Lower court. 

BASE-MINDED, base-mlnd'ed, a. Mean 

BASE-VIOL, base-vl'ol,*. 166. An instru- 
ment used in concerts for the base sound. 

BASE, base, «. The bottom of any thing; 
the pedestal of a statue ; the bottom of sv 
coue : stockings ; the place from which racers 
or titters run ; the string that gives a base 
sound ; an old rostick play. 

BASELY, basele, ad. Meanly, dishonour- 
ably ; in bastardy, as basely born. 

BASENESS, base'nls, «. Meanness, vile. 

ness; vileness of metal ; bastardy; deepness 

of sound. 
BASHAW, bish-aV, s. Among the Turks, 

the viceroy of a province. 
BASHFUL, blsn'ful, a. Modest, shame-, 

faced, shy. ' 

BASHFUtLY, baWrtl-le, ad. Timoron*. 

Iy f modestly. 
B ASHFULNESS, bish'fal-nis, s. Modesty , 

foolish or rustick shame. 
BASIL, b&Vil, s. The name of a plant. 


nor t67, not 16ft~-tube 171, tub 172, bdli 173-421 299— pound 513— thin 4<W> mm 449. 

BASILICA, bi-zlPe-Irl, t. The middle vein 
of the arm. 

BASILICA, bl-zfl'e-ki, *. The basilick 

BASILICK, bi-zllllk, a. Belonging to the 

BASILICK, bd-zMk,*. The basilick vein ; 
a large hali. 

BASILIkON, ba-*M-k6n, *. An ointment 
called also telrapharmacon. 

BASILISK, baVe-llsk, *. A kind of ser- 
Dent, a cockatrice, said to kill by looking. 
Be is called Basilisk, or little king, from a 
comb fir crest on his head j a species of cannon. 

BASIN, ba'sn, *. 405. A small vessel to 
hold water for washing, or other uses ; a small 
pood ; a part of the sea enclosed in rocks ; 
any hollow place capacious of liquids ; a dock 
for repairing and building ships ; Basins of a 
Balance, the same with the scales. 

BASIS, ba'sfs, $. The foundation of any 
thing ; the lowest of the three principal parts 
of a column ; that on which any thing is 
raised ; the pedestal ; the ground-work. 

To BASK, bisk, v. a. 79. To warm by laying 
out in the heat. 

BASK, bisk, e. a. To lie in a place to re- 
ceive heat. 

BASKET, bts'klt, s. 99. A vessel made of 
* w »g*» rashes, or splinters. 

BASKET-HILT, bsVkit-hilt, t . 99. A hilt 
of a weapon so made as to contain the whole 

BASKET-WOMAN, bfrk?t-wftm-un, s.166. 
A woman that plies at market with a basket 

BASS, base, a. properly Ba$e. In musick, 
crave, deep. 

BASS-VIOI^blse-vl'ol,*. 106.— See B<us- 

BASS, bis, *. A mat used in churches. 

BASS-RELIEF. b*W-leef', *. Sculpture, 
the figures of which do not stand out from the 
ground in their full proportion. 

BASSET, bls'sit, «. 99. A game at cards. 

BASSOON, bas-soon 1 , «. A musical instru- 
ment of the wind kind, blown with a reed. 

BASTARD, bastard, $, 88.A person born of 
a woman out of wedlock ; any thing spurious. 

BASTARD, bsVtiid, a. Begotten out of 
wedlock ; spurious, supposititious, adulterate. 

To BASTARDIZE, bls'btr-dJze, v. a. To 
convict of being a bastard ; to beget a bastard. 

BASTARDLY, bas'utrd-li, <id. In the man- 
ner of a bastard. 

BASTARDY, baVutr-de. An unlawful state 
of birth, which disables a child from succeed- 
ing to an inheritance. 

To BASTE, baste, v. a. To beat with a stick ; 
to dnp batter upon meat on the spit : to sew 
sl ightl y. 

BASTINADE, ois-te-nade' 7 $. The act 
BASTINADO, bis-te-na'dJ, J of heat- 
ing with a cudgel ; a Turkish punishment of 
beating au offender on his feet. 
To BASTINADE, bas-te-nade',1©. a. To 
To BASTINADO, bas-te-na'do)/ beat.- 

See iMmbagOm 

BASTION, bislshun, t. 291. A huge mass 
* «***» usually feced with sods, standing 
oat bom a rampart ; a bulwark* 


BAT, Wit, #. A heavy stick. 

BAT, bit, s. An animal having the body 
of a mouse, and the wings of a bird, not with 
feathers, but with a sort of skin which is ex- 
tended. It brings forth its young as mice do, 
and suckles thera. 

BAT-FOWLING, biffou-ling, s. Bird- 
catching in the night-time. 

BATABLE, ba'tl-bl, a. 405. Disputable. 
Batable ground seems to be the ground here- 
tofore in question, whether it belonged to Eng- 
land or Scotland. 

BATCH, batsh, s. The quantity of bread 
baked at a time ; anj quantity made at once. 

BATE, bate, $. Strife, contention. 

To BATE, bate, v. a. To lessen any thing, 
to retrench ; to sink the price ; to lessen a' 
demand ; to cut off. 

BATEFUL, bate'ful, a. Contentious. 

BATEMENT, batement, s. Diminution. 

BATH, bfoh, s. 78. A bath is either hot 
or cold, either of art or nature: a vessel of 
hot water, in which another is placed that re- 
quires a softer heat than the naked fire ; a sort 
of Hebrew measure, containing seven gallons 
and four pints. 

To BATHE, bbthe, v. a. 467. To wash in 
a bath ; to supple or soften by the outward 
application of warm liquors ; to wash with 
any thing' 

To BATHE, baMe, v. n. To be in the water. 

BATING, ba'tfog, prep. 410. Except. 

BATLET, baflet, s. A square piece of 
wood used in beating linen. 

BATOON, bi-toon', «. A staff or clu,b : a 

truncheon or marshal's staff. 
BATTAILOUS, baVta-lus, a. Warlike, with 

military appearance. 
BATTALIA, bat-tale'y£, *. 272. The order 

of battle. 
BATTALION, blt-tal'yun, 9 . 272, 507. A 

division of an army, a troop, a body of forces ; 

an army. 
To BATTEN, batf tn, e. a. 10S. To fatten, 

to make fat ; to fertilize. % 

To BATTEN, bif tn, e. n. 108. To grow fat 
To BATTER, bdt'tur, e. a. 98. To beat, to 

beat down; to wear with beating; to wear 

out with service. 

BATTER, blt'tur, s. A mixture of several 
ingredients beaten together. 

BATTERER, baftur-rury*. He that batters. 

BATTERY, baVtur-re, s. 555. The act of 
battering ; the instruments with which a town 
is battered ; the frame upon which cannons 
are mounted ; in law, a violent striking of any 

BATTLE, bat'tl, $. 405. A fight; an en- 
counter between opposite armies ; a body of 
forces ; the main body of an army. 

To BATTLE, b&t'Ll, v. it. To contend in 

BATTLE-ARRAY, bat'tUr-ra', s. Array 
o r ord er of battle. 

BATTLE-AX, bat'tl-iks, s. A weapon, a 

BATTLE-DOOR, baTtl-doje, s. An instru- 
ment with a round handle and a fiat blade, Jo 
strike a ball or a shuttlecock. 

BATTLEMENT, bittl-ment, s. A wall 



tt 660. Fate n, fir 77, All 88, fitt 81— mi »,in£t •«— pine 105 ,pln 107- no 102, mite 104, 

with open places to look through or annoy an 

' enemy. 

BATTY, b&t'te, a. Belonging to a bat. 

BA VAROY, bav-a-rAe', «. A kind of cloak. 

BAUBEE, biw-bee', «. In Scotland, a half- 

BAVIN, baVfn, «. A stick like those bound 
op in faggots, 
v BAWBLE, baw'i;1, a. 405. A gewgaw, a 
triflinp piece of finer v. 

BAWBLINO, baw'bllng, a. 410. Trifling, 

BAWCOCK, bfiw'k6k, s. A fine fellow. 

BAWD, bawd, *. A procurer or procuress. 

To BAWD, bawd, r. ft. To procure. 

BAWD1LY, baw'de-le, ad. Obscenely. 

BAWDINESS, baw'de-nls, *. Obscene- 

BAWDRICK, baw', s. A belt. 

BAWDRY, baw'dre, *. A wicked practice 

* of bringing whores and rogues together ; ob- 

BAWDY, baw'de, a\ Obscene, unchaste. 

BAWDY-HOUSE, baVde-house, #. A 
house where traffick is made by wickedness 
. and debauchery. 

To BAWL, ball, vl n. To hoot, to cry out 
with great vehemence; to cry as a fruward 

To BAWL, bull, v. a. To proclaim as a 


BAWREL, bawMl, s. 99. A kind of hawk. 

BAWSIN, baw^m, s. A badger. 

BAY, ba, a. 220. A colour. 

BAY, ba, s. An opening into the land. 

BAY, ba, «. The state of any thing sur- 
rounded by enemies. 

BAY, ba, «. In architecture, a term used 
to signify the divisions of a barn or other 
buildings. Bays are from fourteen to twenty 
feet long. 

BAY, hi, #. A tree. 

BAY, bit, «. An honorary crown or garland. 

To BAY, ba, *. n. To bark as a dog at a 

thief; to shot in. 
BAY SALT, ba'salt, s. Salt made of sea 

water, which receives its consistence from the 

heat of the sun, and is so called from its brown 


BAY WINDOW, baVindo. *. A window 
jutting outward. — See Bow Window. 

BAYARD, ba'yird, s. A bay horse. 

BAYONET, ba*yun-n£t, s. A short sword 

fixed at the end of a musket. 

Y$ This word is very frequently pronounced btigo- 
wet, but chiefly by the vulgar. 

BDELLIUM, deVyam, «. An aromatick 
gum brought from the Levant. — See Pneu- 

To BE, bee 2 e. ft. To hare some certain 
state, condttioo, quality, as, the man is wise ; 
it is the auxiliary verb by which the verb pas- 
sive it formed : to exist, to have existence. * 

BEACH, beetsh, «. 227. The shore, the 

BEACHED, bcetshgd, a. Exposed to the 

feEACHY, beetsh'e, a. Having beaches. 
BEACON, belui, *. 170. Something raised 


on an eminence, to be fired on the approach 
of an enemy ; marks erected to direct naviga- 

BEAD, bede, t. 227. Small globes or balls 
strung upon a thread, and used by the Roman 
Catholics to count their prayers: little bails 
worn about the neck for oruaiuent ; any glo- 
bular bodies. 

BEAD-TREE, bede'trec, «. The nut of this 
tree is, by religious persons, bored through, 
and strung as beads, whence it takes its name. 

BEADLE, be'dl, *. 227, 405. A messenger 
or servitor belonging to a court ; a petty officer 
in parishes. 

BEADROLL, bede roll, s. A catalogue of 
those who are to he mentioned at prayers. 

BEADSMAN, beedztain, «. A man em- 
ployed in praying for another. 

BEAGLE, be gl, «. 227, 405. A small hound 
with which hares are hunted. 

BEAK, beke, s. 227. The bill or horny 
mouth of a bird ; a piece of brass like a beak, 
fixed at the head of the ancient galleys ; any 
thing ending: in a point like a beak. 

BEARED, be/kid, or bekt, a. 362. Having 
a beak* 

BEAKER, befeur, «. 96. A cup with a 
spout in the form of a bird's beak. 

BEAL, bele, «. 227. A whelk or pimple. 

BEAM, beme, «. 227. The main piece of 
timber that supports the lofts of a house ; any 
large and lone piece of limber ; that part of a 
balance, to the ends <f which the scales are 
suspended ; a cylindrical piece of wood be- 
longing to the loom, on whicli the web is gra- 
dually railed as it is woven; the ray of light 
emitted from some luminous body. 

BEAM-TREE, beme'tree, *. WHdservice. 

BEAMY, befae, a. Radiant, shining ; emit- 
ting beams ; having horns or antlers. 

BE AN, bene, «. 2ZT. The common garden 
bean ; the horse bean. 

BEAN-CAPER, beneTca-pur, *. A plant. 

To BEAR, bare, v. a. 240. To carry as a 
ourden : to convey or carry ; to carry as a 
mark or authority ; to carry as a mark of dis- 
tinction ; to support, to keep from falling; to 
carry in the mind, as love, hate ; to ertdjtas, 
as pain, without sinking ; to suffer, to under- 
go ; to produce, as fruit ; to bring forth, as a 
child ; to support any thing good or bad ; to 
behave ; to impel, to urge, to push ; to presa ; 
to bear in hand, to amuse with false pretences, 
to deceive; to bear off, to carry away by 
force ; to bear out, to support, to maintain. 

To BEAR, bare, *. *, 73. To suffer pain; 
to be patient ; to be fruitful or prolific* ; to 
tend, to be directed to any point ; to behave ; 
to be situated with respect to other places ; to 
bear up, to stand firm without falling ; to bear 
with, to endure an unpleasmg thing. 

BEAR, bare, *» 73. A .rough savage animal ; 
the name of two constellations, called the 
Greater and Lesser Bear; in the tail of the 
Lesser Bear is the Pole star. 

BEAR-BIND, bare'blnd, «. A species of 

BEAR-FLY, bare'fli. «. An insect. 
BEAR-GARDEN, bWgar-dn, «. A place 

in which bears are kept for sport ; any place of 

tumult or misrule. 


■or 167, Dot 169— tnbe 171, ttb 173, bill 173— oil 299— poind 313— tAin 6611, Ten 469 

BEARS-BREECH, Urz'brUsh, a. The 

name of a plant* 
BEAKS-EAR, bWeer, a. The name of a 

plant. The Auricula. 
BEARS-FOOT, barsftt, a, A species of 

ht llehore. 
BEARS-WORT, iduVwflrt, t 165. An 

BEARD, beerd', j. 228. The hair that 

grows on the lips and chin; sharp prickles 

growing upon the ears of corn ; a baro on an 


YX Tbie word, as Pr. Keariek observes , is frequent- 
ly pronounced s» a« to rhyme with herd; but 1 am 
of Ms opinion that this pronunciation is improper. 
Mr. Seou and Mr. Perry give it both ways. Buchanan 
smmd» it short, like Mr. Sheridan. W. Johnston 
makes it rhyme with laird, a Scotch lord : but Mr. 
Elphiatrtoa, who b the most accurate observer of pro- 
awavtatton I ever met with, gives It as I have done. 
Ike stage has, in my opinion, adopted the short sound 
of the diphthong without good reason, and In this in- 
stance oag ht not to be followed ; as the long sound is 
not only more agreeable to analogy, but to general 
■sag?. I am glad to find my opinion confirmed by 
so good a judge as Mr. Smith ; and though the poets 
so ©I ten sacrifice pronunciation to rLyroe, that their 
amhnitry, ia these cases, is not always decisive, yet, 
as Shakespeaje says on another occasion, 

* They scill may help to thicken other proofs 

M That do demonsiratc thinly." 


m Ratt'd at their covenant, and Jeer'd 
*• Their reverend persons to my beard." 


" Some thin remains of chastity apaear'd 
" £v*n under Jove, but Jote without a beard.'* 


The ImpropriHy of pronouncing this word at it is 
heard on the *Uge will perhaps appear more per- 
ceptible by carrying this pronunciation into the com- 
pound*, as the tVse suond of great may be detected 
by the phrase Alexander the Great, 841. 

" Old ptouheeies foretell our fall at hand, 
M When bearded men In floating castles land.*' 
" And as yoang striplings whip the top for sport, 
' On the smooth pavement of an empty court, 
M The wooden engine flies and whirls about, 
" AdnuVd with clamours of the beardless rout" 


To BEARD, beerd, *. a. To take or pluck 
by the beard ; to oppose to the face. 

BEARDED, beerdfei, a. Having a beard ; 
having sharp prickles, as corn; barbed or 

BEARDLESS, biennis, a. Without a 
beard ; youthful. 

BEARER, bare'ur, «. 98. A carrier of any 
thing; one employed in carrying burdens; 
one who wears any thing ; one who carries the 
body' to the grave ; one who supports the pall 
at a funeral ; a tree that yields its produce ; 
m architecture, a post or brick wall raiseejPsp 
between the ends of apiece of timber. * 

BEARHERD, barVhird, a, A mfn that 
tends brars. # 

BEARING, barefag, «. 410. The site or 
place of any thing with respect to something 
else ; p-sture, mien, bejiaviour. A • 

BEARWAUD, bare'wlrd, «. fL keeper of 

BEAST, beeat, a. 227. Aft animal dis- 
tinguished from birds* insects, fishes, and man ; 
an irrational animal, opposed to man ; a bru- 
tal savage man. 

BEASTLINESS, beeatli-nes, $. Brutality. 


BEASTLY, beeatfle, a. Brutal, contrary to 
the nature and dignity of man ; having the 
nature or form of beasts. 
To BEAT, bete, v. a. 227, 283. To strike, 
to knock j to punish with stripes ; to mark 
the time in music; to give repeated blows; 
to strike ground ; to rouse game ; to mix 
things by long and frequent agitation ; to 
batter with engines of war ; to make a patl 
by treading it; to conquer, to subdue, tc 
vanquish; to harass, to over- labour; to de- 
press ; to deprive by violence ; to move with 
fluttering agitation ; to beat down, to lessen 
the price demanded ; to beat up, to attack 
suddenly ; to beat the hoof, to walk, to go on 

£3* The past time of this verb is by the English 
uniformly pronounced like the present. Nay, ex- 
cept in solemn language, the present, preterit, and 
participle, are exactly the same ; while the Irish, more 
agreeably to analogy, as well as utility, pronounce 
lie preterit as the noun bet, a wager ; and this pro- 
nunciation, though contrary to English usage. Is 
quite conformable to that general tendency observa- 
ble in the preterits of irregular verbs, which Is to 
shorten the vowel that Is loug in the present, as eat, 
ale (often pronounced etj; hear, heard; dea% 
dealt ; mean, meant ; dream, dreamt ; &c. 

To BEAT, bete, v. n. To move in a pulsa- 
tory maimer ; to dash, as a flood or storm ; to 
knock at a door ; to throb, to be in agitation ; 
to fluctuate, to be in motion ; to try in differ- 
ent ways, to search ; to act upon with vio- 
lence ; to enforce by repetition. 

BEAT, bete, «. A stroke, or a striking. 

BEATEN, be'tn, pari. 103. From Beat. 

BEATER, be/tur, «. 98. An instrument 
with which any thing is beaten; a person 
much given to blows. 

BEATIFICAL, he-a-tlfe-kal, la. Blissful. 

BEATIFICK, be4-tlrtk,509,/' It is used 
only of heavenly fruition after death. 

BEATIFICALLY, be-a-tlfe-kal-tt, ad. In 
such a manner as to complete happiness. 

BEATIFICATION, be-4t'e-fe-ka'sh8n, a. 
Beatification is an acknowledgment made by 
the Pope thai the person beatified is in hea- 
ven, and therefore may be reverenced as 

To BEATJFY, be-4t'A-f 1, a. a. 183. To bless 
with the completion of celestial enjoyment. 

BEATING, bete'ing, a. 410. Correction 
by blows. 

BEATITUDE, be-ife-t&de, t. Blessedness, 
felicity, happiness ; a declaration of blessed- 
ness made by our Saviour to particular virtues. 

BEAU, bo, a. 245, 481. A man of dress* 

BEAVER, bee'v&r, $. 227, 98. An animal, 
otherwise named the castor, amphibious, aad 
remarkable far bis art in building his habita- 
tion ; a hat of the best kind ; the part of a 
helmet that covers the face. 

BEAVERED, bee'vord, a. 362. Corcred 
with a beaver. 

BEATJISH, bo^sh, a. 245. Befitting a beau, 
foppish. . 

BEAUTEOUS, bn'tshe-ns, a. 269. Fair, 
elegant in form. « » > 

,BEAUfE0USLY, btftshe-us-le, ad. In a 

; beauteous manner. 
BEATJTEOUSNESS> bu'tshe-o^nea, $, TV 

I state of being beauteous. 

[BEAUTIFUL, bMe-ftl, «. Fair. 



& 559. F&te 73, far 77, fall 83, fit 81— mi 93, m?t 95— pine 105, pin 107— no 162, m&\ • 104, 

In a 

BEAUTIFULLY, bu'te-fil-le, ad. 

beautiful maimer. 
BEAUTIFULNESS, bi't^-f^l-n^a, $. The 

quality of being beautiful. 
To BEAUTIFY, bute-il, v. a. 183. To 

adorn, to embellish, 
BEAUTY, bu'te, s. That assemblage of 
' graces which pleases the eye; a particular 

grace ; a beautiful person. 
BEAUTY-SPOT, bu'te-sp6t, *. A spot 

placed to heighten some beauty. 

BECAFICO, bik-i-feTto, s. 112. A bird 

like a nightingale, a fit'- pecker. 
To BECALM, be-kam 1 , v. a. 403. To still 
the elements ; to keep a ship from motion j to 
quiet the mind. 

BECAME, be-kame'. The preterit of Be- 

BECAUSE, be-kawz', conjunct. For this 
reason ; for ; on this account. 

To BECHANCE, be-tsbinse', v. n. To 
befall, to happen to. 352. 

To BECK, b£k, v. a. To make a sign with 
the head. 

BECK, bSk, «. A sign with the head, a 
nod ; a nod of command. 

To BECKON, beVkn, v. n. 170. To make 
a sign. 

To BECLIP, be-klty, «. «. To embrace. 

To BECOME, be-kum', «. a. To enter into 
some state or condition : to become of, to be 
the fate of, to be the end of. 

To BECOME, b£-kSm', v. a. To appear in 
a manner suitable to something ; to be suitable 
to the person ; to befit. 

BECOMING, be-kum'mlng, part. a. That 
which pleases by an elegant propriety, grace- 
ful. 410. 

BECOMINGLY, be-k&m'ming-le, ad. After 
a becoming manner. 

BECOMINGNESS, be-kum'mlng-niss. #. 
Elegant congruity, propriety. 

BED, bid, *. Something made to sleep on ; 
lodging ; marriage ; bank of earth raised in a 
garden ; the channel of a river, or any hollow ; 
the place where any thing is generated ; a 
layer, a stratum ; to bring to Bed, to deliver 
of a child; To make the Bed, to pot the 
bed in order after it has been used. 

To BED, bid. v. a. To go to bed with ; to 
be placed m bed j to he made, partaker of the 
bed j to sow, or plant in earth ; to lay in a 
place of rest ; to lay in order, in strata. 

To BED, d&, v. n. To cohabit. 

To BEDABBLE, be-dlb'bl, r. a. To wet, 
to besprinkle. 

To BEDAGGLE, be-da^gl, r. a. To 

To BEDASH, bi-dash' v. a. To bespatter. 

To BEDAWB, be-diwb', v. a. To besmear. 

To BEDAZZLE, be-daVzl, v. a. J*> make 
the sight dim by too much lustre. 

BEDCHAMBER, bidtshame-bfir, s. The 

chamber appropriated to rest. 
BEDCLOTHES, b&i'cloze, «. Coverlets 

spread over a bed. 

BEDDING, T>id'ding, «. 410. The materials 
of a bed. 

To BEDECK, bi-dek', v. a. To deck, to 


To BEDEW, be-da', t. a. To moisten gently 

as with the fall of dew 
BEDFELLOW, b&l'gl-lo, #. One that lies 

in the same led. 
To BEDIGHT, be-dlte', e. a. To adorn, to 

To BEDIM, be-dim', v. a. To obscure, to 

cloud, to darken. 
To BEDIZEN, be-dl'sn, v. a. 103. To dress 

out. A low terra. 
BEDLAM, b£dltim, «. 88. A madhouse; 

a madman. 
BEDLAMITE, bidlfim-lte, 1. 155. A mad- 
BEDMAKER, bldfaa-kur, «. A person in 

the universities, whose office it is to make the 

BEDMATE, bld'mate, s. A bedfellowi 
BEDMOULDING, b£d'm6ld-ng, s. A par- 

ticuiar moulding. 
BEDPOST, bld'post, #. . The post at the 

corner of the bed, which supports the canopy. 
BEDPRESSER, bid'prls-s&r, «. A heavy 

lazy fellow. 
To BEDRAGGLE, be-drag'gl, r. a. To . 

soil the clothes. 405. 
To BEDRENCH, be-drensh 1 , v. a. To 

drench, to soak. 
BEDRID, bid'rld, a. Confined to the bed 

bv age or sickness. 
BEbRITE, bid'rlte, #. The privilege of 

the marriage bed. 

To BEDROP, be-drop', «• «• To besprinkle, 
to mark with drops. 

BEDSTEAD, bid'stid, s. The frame on 

which the bed is placed. 
BEDSTRAW, b&'straw, $. The straw laid 

under a bed to make it soft 
BEDSWERVER, b&Pswir-v&r, r. One 

that is false to the bed. 
BEDTIME, bSd'time. «. The hour of rest. 
To BEDUNG, be-dung', c. a. To cover 

with dung. 
To BEDUST, be-dust f , v. a. To sprinkle 

with dust. 
BEDWARD, b£d'ward, ad. Toward bed. 
To BEDWARF, be-dwlif, v. a. To make 

little, to stunt ' „ 
BEDWORK, b&Pwfirk, s. Work perform- 

ed without toil of the hands. 
BEEp bee, s. The animal that makes honey ; 

an industrious ai.d careful person. 
BEE-EATER, bee'e-tor, t. A bird that 

feeds a pon bees. 
BEE-FLOWER, bee'floft-ur, «. A species 

jgl fool-stones. 
B^-GARDEN, bee'gir-dn, s. 108. A place 

to sfcthives of bees in. 
BEE-HIVE, beehive, s. The case, or box, 

in whwi bees are kept. - 

BEE-MASTER, beetafts-tar, *. One that 

BEECrf^eetsh, s. A tree. 
BEECHBm bee'tshn, a. 108. Consisting 

of the wooa.of the beech. 
BEEF, be£f,$. The flesh of black cattle 

prepared for 'food ; an ox, bull, or cow. It 

has the plural Beeves. 

BEEF-EATER, beePi-tur, s. A yeoman 
of Uic guard.— Probably a corruption of the 


air 167, n4t 16S— tube 171, tSb 172, b oil 173— ill 299— pMnd SIS— «*in 466, -MH 469. 

French word Beaufttier, one who attends at 
me wieboard, which was anciently placed in 
a Benr/et. 
BEEN, bin. The participle preterit ofTo Be. 

tfTMs word, in the solemn, a* well as th« familiar 
a)jt a baa shared the fate of most of those words, 
vfcka, won their satire, are in ihe noH frequent 
a*, ll is scarcely ever heard otherwise thau as the 
assa Mm, a repository for corn or wine , and mast be 
fUced saoog thoee deviations wbtch language is al- 
«■>• lialkr to in snch words as are auxiliary or snbor- 
slaate to others ; for, ah those parts of bodies which 
are the moss frequently handled grow the soonest 
by constant friction, so such words as are in 
il aae seem to wear off their articulations, and 
sm*w inegalar than others. So low as the age 
•f Jssnea the First. I have arcn this word spclled-By*. 
BEER,be&r, a.Liquor made of malt and hops. 
BEET, bWt, a. The name of a plant 
BEETLE, beetl, «. 406. An insect distin- 
guished by having hard cases or sheaths, un- 
der which he told* his wings ; a heavy mallet. 
BEETLEBROWED, beet'tl- broad, a. Hav- 
ing prominent brows. 368. 
BEETLEHEADED, bee'ti-hld-id, a. Log- 
ger-headed, having a stupid head. 
BEEXLESTOCK, bee/fl-stok, «. The handle 

of a beetle. 
BEETRAVE, beefraTe, \ 

BEET-RADISH, beet'rad-lsh, J 
BEEVES, b&erz, s. Black cattle, oxen. 
To BEFALL, be-fiwT, «.». To happen to; 

to come to pass. 
To BEFIT, be-fft', c. a. To suit, to be suit- 
able to. 
T» BEFOOL, be-fool', v.o. To infatuate, 

BEFORE, be-rfW, prep. Farther onward 
in place ; in the front of, not behind ; in the 
pretence of; nnder the cognisance of; pre- 
ceding in time ; in preference to ; prior to ; 
sapenor to. 
BEFORE, be-fore/, ad. Sooner than, earlier 
m time ; in time past ; in some time lately 

Eist ; previously to ; to this time, hitherto ; 
rfher onward in place. 
BEFOREHAND, be-fWhlnd, ad. In a 
state of anticipation or preoccupation ; pre- 
viously, by way of preparation; in a state of 
accumulation, or so as that more has been re- 
ceived than expended ; at first, before any 
thing is done. 

BEFORETIME,be-fore'time,ad. Formerly. 

a. Beet. 

To BEFORTUNE, be-foVtshune, v. ». 461. 
To betide. 

upon alms ; a petitioner ; one who assumes 

what he does not prove. 
To BEGGAR, beggar,*, a. Toredace to 

beggary ,U> impoverish; to deprive; to exhaust. 
BEGGARLINES8, beg'gar-le-nes, a, The 

state of being beggarly. 
BEGGARLY, beg/gur-le, o. Mean, poor, 

BEGGARY, big'gnr-e, s. Indigence. 
To BEGIN, be-gin', v. n. To enter upon 

something new ; to commence any action or 

state ; to enter upon existence ; to nave its ori- 
ginal ; to take rise ; to come into act. 
To BEGIN, be-gm', v. a. To do the first ad 

of any thing ; to trace from any thing as the 

first ground ; to begin with, to enter upon. 
BEGINNER, be-gln'nur, a. 95. He that 

gives the first cause, or original,' to any thing ; 

an unexperienced atternpter. 
BEGINNING, be-gfo'ntog, t. 410. The first 

original or cause: the entrance into act or 

being ; the state in which any thing first is ; 

the rudiments, or first grounds ; the first part 

of any thing. 
To BEGIRD, be-gerd', v. a. 160. To bind 

with a girdle; to surround, to encircle; to 

shut in with a siege, to beleaguer. 
BEGLERBEG, beg/ler-beg, a. The chief 

governor of a province among the Tutks. 
To BEGN AW, be-niw', v. a. To bite, to 

eat away. 
BEGONE, be-gon',i»*erje<rt.Go away,hence, 

awa v • 
BEGOT, be-got', \ The part 

BEGOTTEN, be-g6Vtn, 108. } passive of 

the verb Beget 
To BEGREASE, be-greze / , e. a. To soil or 

dawb with fat matter. 
To BEGRIME, be-grbne', *. a. To soil with 

dirt deep impressed. 
To BEGUILE, be-gulle', v. a. 160. To im- 
pose upon, to delude; to deceive, to evade; 

to deceive pleasingly, to amuse. 
BEGUN, be-jgon'.The part.passive of Begin. 
BEHALF, b£haP, s. 78, 40e.Favour, cause ; 

vindication, support. 
To BEHAVE, bc-have', v. c. To carry, to 

To BEHAVE, be-have', v. ». To act, to 

conduct one's self. , 

BEHAVIOUR, be-h*ve*yur, s. 294. Man- 

» 461 *** °* hehaving one's self, whether good or 
* I bad ; external appearance ; gesture, manner 

v. a. 

To make foulsL of a S Uon 5 •"•!■"«• of manners, gracefulness ; 

* W ^BJ conduct, general practice, course of life ; so 

— - * «assf? ** up0D one> ^ cnav * our » a umiliar phrase, 

To BEFOUL, be-foul 
to soil. 

To BEFRIEND, be-frend', v. a. To fayos#; n oting°sach a state as requires great caution. 
to be kind to. # To BEHEAD, be-hid', «. a. To kill by cut- 

To BEFRINGE, be-mnje', ». a. To dedsfttte, ting off the head. 

at with 

To BEG, 
To BEG, 


v. *. To live upon 
, v. a. To ask, to s 
e any thing for gran 

rate, to 

To BEGET, be-glf, «.«. To 

procreate ; to produce, as effects 

as accidents. 
BEGETTER, be-gettfir, t. 96. He that 

Bnaeraa*e9,'OT oegaca. 
BEGGAR, tt%{ftr,#. 418. One who lire* 

Sj ■ 

BEHELEfkshe-held'. Part, passive from Be- 
I hold. , A . 

P«- 1 BEHEMOTH, be*he-m6th, «. The hippo- 
potamus, or river horse. 
BEHEST, be-hest', $. Command 
BEHIND, be-hfod, prep.— See IFtnd. At 
the back of Another; on the back part; to- 
wards the bsck ; following another ; remain- 
ing after the departure of something else ; re- 
maining after the death of those to whom it 


XT 559. Fate 73, far 77, fiU 63, fit 81— me OS, mil 94— pine 105#?n 107- no 102, more MM, 

belonged \ at a. distance from something going 
before ; inferior to another. 

BEHIND, behind', ad. Backward. 

BEHINDHAND, be-hind'hand, ad. In a 
state in which rents of profits are anticipated ; 
not upon equal terms with regard to forward- 

To BEHOLD, be-hold', v. a. To view, to see. 

BEHOLD, be-hold', tnterjfct. See,lo. 

BEHOLDEN, be-hol'dn, part. a. 103. Bound 
in gratitude. 

BEHOLDER, be-hol'dor, *. Spectator. 


BEHOLDING, be-hol'dlng, part, from the 
■. verb Behold Seeing, looking upon. 
BEHOOF, be-hooF, *. Profit, advantage. 
To BEHOOVE, bc-becV, «. n. To be tit, to 

be meet Used only impersonally with it, as/ 

It behooves. 

\3t This word Is sometimes improperly written ftt- 
hove, *ml corruptly pronounced a* rhyming whb rove; 
bat this is contrary to the analog of worda of tbis 
form ; which preserve the same sound of the towcI, 
both in the noun and verb ; Ktyroof, prove; urt/e, 
wive ; thief* tldevt ; &c. 

BEHOOVEFUL, be-boove'fSl, a. Useful, 

BEHOOVEFULLY, be-hooveful-le, ad. 
. Profitably, usefully. 
To BEHOWL, be-houl', v. a. To howl at. 
BEING, betuig,«. 410. Existence, opposed 

to nonentity ; a particular state or condition ; 
. the person existing. 
BEING, befog, conjunct. Since. 
BE IT SO,be'it-so. A phrase, suppose it to 

be so ; let it be so. 
To BELABOUR, be-la'bur, v. a. To beat, to 

BELAMIE, bM-me, *. A friend, an intimate. 
BELAMOUR, bll'a-moor, s. A gallant, con- 

BELATED, be-latdd, a. Benighted. 
To BELAY, be-la'. e. a. To block up, to stop 
. the passage; to place in ambush. 
To BELCH, bllsh, v. n. To eject the wind 

from the stomach ; to issue out by eructation. 
BELCH, b&sh, «. 352. The action of eructa- 
tion ; a cant term for liquor. 
BELDAM, bll'dim, «. 88. An old woman ; 

a has 
To BELEAGUER, be-le'g&r, t>.e.To besiege, 

to block up a place, 
BELEAGUERER,be-le'gur-&r,t. One that 

besieges a place. 
BELFLOWER, bSl'flour, *. A plant 

To BELIEVE, be-leev', v. a. To credit upon 
the authority of another ; to put confidence 
in the veracity of any one. 

To BELIEVE, be-leev', «. *, To have a firm 
persuasion of any thing ; to exercise the thro- 
logical virtue of faith. 

BELIEVER, be-lee'vur, s. 98. He that be- 
lieves or gives credit; a professor of ChrisU- 

BEL&VINGLY, be-lee/vlng-le, ad. After 
a believing manner. 

BELIKE, be-like', ad. Probably, likely, per- 
haps ; sometimes in a sense of irony 

BELL, bill, s. A vessel, or hollow body of 
cast metal, formed to make a noise by the act 
of some instrument striking against it ; it Is 
used for any thiug in the form of a bell, aa the 
cups of flowers. 

BELLE, bill, s. A gay young lady. 

BELLES LETTRES, bel-la'tar. Polite li- 

BELLIGEROUS, bil-lldje'£-rus,a.314, 618. 
Waging war. 

BELLIGERANT, bil-rfiUe'e-rint, «. (18. 
Waging war 

BELLIPOTSNT, bft-lip'po-tent, a. 518. 
Mighty jn war. 

To BELLOW, billo, v. it. 327. To make a 
noise as a bull ; to make any violent outcry ; 
to vociferate, to clamour ; to roar as the sea or 
the wind. 

BELLOWS, b&lus,*. The instrument need 
to blow tjie fire. ' 
\3 The last syllable of this word, like that of Gal 

lows, is corrupted feeypnA recovery into the sound Of 


BELLUINJE, blrli-lne, «. 149. Beastly, 

BELLY, bltfe, *. 188. That part of the hu- 
man body which reaches from the breast to the 
thighs, containing the bowels ; the womb ; that 
part of a man which requires food ; that part 
of any thins that swells out into a larger capa- 
city ; any place in which something is enclosed. 

To BELtY, belle, v.n. To hang out, to bulge 

BELLYACHE, beVle-lke, s. 355. The 

BELLYBOUND, bAle-bound, a. Costive. 
BELLYFUL, beVle-ful, ». As much food as 

fills the belly. 
BELLYGOD, blMc-g&l, s. A glutton* 
B ELM AN, blll'min, s. 88. He whose boei. 

ness it is to proclaim any thine in towns, and 

to sail) attention by ringing his bell. 

BELFOUNDER, beTfoun-dfir,*. He whoWBELMETAL, blll'met-tl, s. 405. The metal 
trade it is to found or cast bells. TL*°f which bells .are made. 

BELFRY, belfre, s. The place where the 
bells are rune. 

To BELIE, be-li', v. a. To counterfeit, to 
feign, to mimick ; to give the lie'to, to charge 
with falsehood ; to calumniate ; to give a false 
representation of any thing. 

BELIEF, be-leef,*. Credit given to some- 
thing which we know not oi ourselves ; the 
theological virtue of faith, or firm confidence 
of the truths of religion ; religion, the tody 
of tenets held ; persuasion, opinion ; the thing 
believed ; creed, a form containing the articles 
of faith. 

BELIEVABLE, be-leefvft-bl, a. Credible. 


VlBELOCK, be-l6V, v. a. To fasten. 

IWELOKG, be-lAng'tv. «. To be the pro- 
perty of ; to be the province or business of; 
to adhere, or be appendant to ; to have rejav- 
4^orvto ; to be the qualify Or attribute of. 

BEHED, be-luv4d, o. Dear. 

\3 lAword, when aa adjoctiv?, is nsaally pro- 
noaiieed^A. tbiee .s>il*bi*», as a bttovtd sen ; and 
when » pHciple in two, as ha was mocb svioreo^— 
See Princrples, Ko. Sf)e. 

BELOW, fae-Jo', prep. Under m place, Hot 
so high ; inferior in dignity ; iuleiior in excel* 
1enee ; urrworthy of, unbefitting. 
J BELOW, bt-li', «f. In the lower piaoe $ usj 


dt 167, nftt KB— tabe 171, tib 172, 

^f BEP 

21 299— pUnd SIS— tain 466, Tint 400. 

inoppositkai to beav*a; , if* hell, in the j BENEFICENT, be-nePe-sInt, a. Kind, 
rruiuiui of tlvc dead. I doing pood. 

BENEFICIAL, bin-e-f Jsh'aV. Advantage- 
ous, conferring benefits, profitable; helpful, 

BENEFICIALLY, bln-e-fish aUe, ad. Ad- 
vantageously, ^elpfull v. 

BENEFICIALNESS/ be*u-e-flsh'al-n&, a. 
Usefulness, profit. 

BENEFICIARY, ben-e-fish 7 ya-re, «. 113. 
Holding something in subordination to an- 

^S^'^ T ° drag ' ° rin - BE)&FICIAKY, ^4-fi^-r*. .. m. 

TftfiSLOWT, be-lout', r. a. To treat with 

opprobrious language. 
BELSW AGGER, bll-swag'gur, * . A whore- 

m**** t. 

BELT, belt, a. A girdle, a cincture. 
BEL* ETHER, be'U'weTH-ur, a. A sheep 

wmch lead* the flock with a bell on his neck ; 

hevce, I© bea- the hell. 
To BEMAD, be-mid', ecu To make mad. 

Ito BEMOAN, be-mone', v. a. To lament, 

fa* t«e«ail. 
BEMO A N ER 9 be-mo'nur, a. 98. A lamenter. 
To BEMOIL, be-moil', «. a. To bedrabble, 

U» bemire. 
To BEMONSTER, be-mona't&r, v. a. To 

make monstrous. 
BEMUSED, be-muxd', a. 359. Overcome 

with musing. 

BENCH, benan, a. 352. A seat of justice ; 

the persons titling upon a bench. 
BENCHER, beVshur, a. 98. The senior 
: teeanbers of the society of the inns of court. 
To BEND, bind, v. a. To make crooked, to 

crook ; to direct to a certain point ; to incline ; 

tu subdue, to make submissive. 

To BEND, bind, t>. n. To be incurvated ; to 
Iran ur jut over ; to be submissive, to bow. 

BEND, bend,*. Flexnre, incurvation; the 
crooked timbers which make the ribs or sides 
of a ship. 

BENDABLE, bln'da-bl, a. 406. That may 
be heat. 

BENDER, ben'dur, «. 96. The person who 
brtids ; the instrument with which any thing 
is bent. 

BEND WITH, beadVita, a. An herb. 

BENEAPED, be-nept', a. 352. A ship is 
said to he bene«|ied, when the water does not 
Bow high enough to bring her off the ground* 

BENEATH, be-neme 7 , prep. Under, lower 
in place ; lower in rank, excellence, or dignity j 
unworthy of. 

BENEATH, be-nenie', ad. 467. In a lower 

' pUce, under; befaw, as opposed to heaven. 

BENEDICT, ben'd-dikt, a. Having mild and 
Salubrious qualities. 

BENEDICTION, bin-e-dik'sh&n, *. Bless- 
ing, a decretory pronunciation of happiness ; 
the advantage conferred by blessing ; acknow- 
ledgments for blessings received ; the form of 
instituting an abbot. 

-BENEFACTION, bwn4-Mk'shu]l, f. The 

act of conferring a benefit ; the benefit con- 
ferred, i 

BENEFACTOR, ben-e-fnktir, 1. 166. He 
that confers a benefit. 

BENEFACTRESS, bjn4-fak'tr|s, a. A 
woman who confers a benefit. 

BENEFICE, beVe-ris, a. M2. Advantage 
conferred on another. This word is generally 
used for all ecclesiastical livings 

BENEFICED, b&^-iist, «. 362. Possessed 
of a benefice. 

BENEFICENCE, fafcjsirt-stae,*. Active 


He that is in possession of a henefict*. 
BENEFIT, ben'e-f it,a. A kindness, a favour 
conferred ; advantage, profit, use. 

£3* Benefit of Clergy la law is a privilege formerly 
allowed, by virtae ot wbicb a niao convicted of felony 
or manslaughter was put tu r*- acl in a Latlu book of a 
Gothkk bliick character; and if U»e Oi dinar y of 
Newgate said Legit ut Clertcitf, I.e. he reads Ilka a 
clerk, be was only burnt in the hand and set free, 
otherwise be suffered death for bis criote. —Builej. 

To BENEFIT, ben 7 e-f it, v. o. To do good to. 

To BENEFIT, ben'e-f it, e. *. To gain ad- 

To BENET, be-nlt', t>. a. To ensnare. 

BENEVOLENCE, be-nlv'vo-lense, *. Dis- 
position to do good, kindness ; the good done, 
the charity given ; a kind of tax. 

BENEVOLENT, be-nev'vo-llnt, a. Kind, 

having good-will. 

BENEVOLENTXESS, bkneVvo-Ient-nla, 
l. The same as benevolence. 

BENGAL, bin-gall', «. A sort of thin slight 

BEN J AMIN, b4Vja-min, a, The name of a 

To BENIGHT, be-nite', e. a. To surprise 

with the coming on of night j to involve in 

darkness, to embairass by want of light. 

BENIGN, be-nlne', a. 385. Kind, generous, 
liberal ; wholesome, not malignant. 

BENIGNITY, be-nfciie-te,*.Gi-aciou8nes8, 
actual kindness ; salubrity, wholesome quality. 

BENIGNLY, be-nlneae, ad. Favourably, 

BENISON, ben'ne-zn, a. 170, 443. Blessing, 

BEN NET, ben'nlt,*. 99. An herb. 

BENT, bent, «. The state of being bent; 
degree of flexure ; declivity: utmost power; 
application of the mind ; inclination, disposi- 
tion towards something ; determination, fixed 
purpose ; turn of the temper or disposition ; 
tendency, flexion ; * stalk or grass, called tile 

BENT, beat, part, of' the verb To Bend. 

Made crooked ; directed to a certain point ; 

determined upon. 
BENTING TIME, beVtmg-tLme, #. The 

time whan pigeons feed on bents before peas 

are ripe. 
To BENUMB, be-num', r.a.To make torpid; 

to stupify. — See To Numb. 
BENZOIN, ben-zom',t. A medicinal kind 

of resin, imported from, the East Indies, and 

vulgarly calfed Benjamin. 

To BEPAINT, be-pani 7 , v. a. To cover with 


To BEPINCH, be-plnch', e. a. To mark with 

To BEQUEATH, be-kwerae', v. a. AST. To 

leave hy will to another. 

BEQUEST, be-kwistf, «. S34, 414. Some- 
thing left bv will. 

To BERATT LE. be-rif tl, v. a. To rattle off. 

BERBERRY, baVblr-re, a. 655. A berry of 
a sharp taste, used for pickles. 

To BEREAVE, be-reve', c. a. To strip of, 
to deprive of ;-to take away from, 

BEREFT, be-rlft*. Part, pass of Bereave. 

BERGAMOT. beVg6-m6t, «. A sort of pear, 
commonly called Burgamot, and vulgarly call- 
ed Burgamee, a sort of essence or perfume, 
drawn from a fruit produced by ingrafting a 
lemon tree on a burgamot pear stock ; a sort 
of snuff. . 

To BERHYME, be-rlme', v. a. To celebrate 
in rhyme or verses. 

BERLIN, blr-lln', s. A coach of a particular 

BERRY, beVre, «. Any small fruit with 
many seeds. 

To BERRY, beVre, «. ». To bear berries. 

BERTRAM, beVtrim,*. 88. Bastard pelli- 

tory * i „ 
BERYL, beVru,«. A precious stone. 

To BESCREEN, be-skreen', v.a. To shelter, 

to conceal. 
To BESEECH, be-seetsh', v. a. To entreat, 

to supplicate, to implore ; to beg, to ask. 
To BESEEM, be-seem', e. n. To become, 

to be fit. 
To BESET, be-setf, n. a. To besiege, to hem 

in ; to embarrass, to perplex ; to waylay, to 

surround ; to fall upjin, to harass. 

To BESHREW, be-shroo', e. a. To wish a 

curse to ; to happen ill to. 
BESIDE, be-slde', > prep. At the side of 
BESIDES, he-sides', \ another, near ; over 
and above ; not according to, though not con- 
trary ; out of, in a state of deviation from. 

BESIDE, be-slde', lad. Over and above ; 

BESIDES, be-sldes', J not in this num- 
ber, beyond this class. 

To BESIEGE, be-seeje',t>. a. To beleaguer, 
to Jay siege to, to beset with armed forces. 

BESIEGER, be-seejur, s. 08. One employ- 
ed in a siege. 

To BESLUBBER, be-slub'bur, r. a. To 
dawh, to smear. 

To BESMEAR, be-smeer', t>. «. To bedawb ; 
to soil, to foul. 

To BESMIRCH, be-smertsh', v . a. To soil, 
to discolour. 

To BESMOKE, be-smoke', e. a. To foul with 
smoke ; to harden or dry in smoke. 

To BESMUT, be-smut', v. a. To blacken 
with smoke or sooL t 

BESOM, be'zum, «. An instrument to sweep 

To BESORT, be-*orf , v. a. To suit, to fit 

BESORT, be-sorf, s. Company, attendance, 

To BESOT, be-so 1 1', v. «. To infatuate, to 

stupify ; to make to dote. 



seech : which 

. Part, pass, of Be- 

To BESPANGLE, be^pWgl, e^To adorn 
with spangles, to besprinkle with something 

To BESPATTER, be-spAftur, v. a. To spot 
or sprinkle with dirt or water. 

To BESP A WL, be-spawl', o. a. To dawb 
with spittle. 

To BESPEAK, be-speek', r. «. To t>rder or 
entreat any thing beforehand ; to make way 
by a previous apology ; to forebode ; to ^peak 
to, to address; to betoken, to shew. 

BESPEAKER, be-spee'kur, s. He that 

bespeaks anv thing. 
To BESPECfcLE, lie-speVkl, v. a. To mark 

with speckles or spots. 

To BESPEW, be-spu', e. a. To dawb with 

spew or vomit. 
To BESPICE, be-splce', r. a. To season 

with spices. 
To BESPIT, be-spit', v. a. To dawb with 

To BESPOT, be-sp6f , e. <c. To mark with 

To BESPREAD, be-spr£d', «. a. To spread 

To BESPRINKLE, be-sprlnkld, v. a. To 

sprinkle over. 
To BESPUTTER, be-sput'tur, v. a. To sput- 
ter over something, to dawb any thing by 


BEST, be*st, a. Most good. 
BEST, bhty ad. In the highest degree of 
goodness ; fittest. 

To BESTAIN, be-stine', v. a. To mark with 

stains, to spot. 
To BESTEAD, be-stld', v. a. To profit ; to 

treat, to accommodate. 

BESTIAL, beVtshe-ll, a. 404. Belonging 
to a beast ; brutal, carnal 

BESTIALITY, bis-tsbe-il'e-te,*. The qua- 
lity of beasts. , 

BESTIALLY, bls'tshe-aWe, *. Brutally. 
To BESTICK, be-stfc',*. a. To stick orer 

with any thine* 
To BESTIR, bl-steV, c. a. 109. To put into 

vigorous action. 

To BESTOW, be-sto', t>. a. To give, to con- 
fer upon ; to give as charity j to give in mar- 
riage ; to give as a present ; to apply ; to lay 
out upon ; to lay up, to stow, to place. 

BESTOWER, be-sto'ar, *. 08. Giver, dis- 

BE8TUAUOHT,be-strawf,iNirt. Detract- 
ed, msd. 

To BESTREW, be-strrV, v. a. To sprinkle 
over. — See Strew. 

To BESTRIDE, bi-strlde', e. a. To stride 
over any thing ; to have any thing between 
one's legs ; to stop over. 

To BESTUD, be-atud', r. «. To adorn with 

BET, bit, 9. A wager. 
To BET, bit, v. a. To wager, stake at; a 

To BETAKE, be-tak*', c. a. To take,. to 

seise ; to have recourse to. -j 


107, ft4t 16S— tube 171, tab 172, boU m-4& S99~-p&nnd 31S — #&iift 466, this 460* 

To BETHINK, be-4Aink', v. «. to recall to 

To BETHRAL, be-*Arall', o. «. 406. To en- 
slave, to conquer. 

To BETHUMP, be-fa&mp', «. a. To beat. 

to BETIDE, be-tlde 1 , v. ». To happen to, to 
betail ; to come to pass, to full out. 

BET1ME, b^-tlme', £ «rf.Seasonably; early; 

BETIMES, be-tbnz',) soon, before long 
time has passed ; early in the day. 

To BETOKEN, be-to'kn, «. a. To signify, 
to mark, to represent: to foreshow, to pre- 

BETONY, beVto-ne, *. A plant. 

BETOOK, be-to&k'. Irreg. pret. from Be- 

To BETOSS, be-tcV, v. a. To disturb, to 
agi tate. 

To BETRAY, be-tra', v. a. To give into the 
hands of enemies ; to discover that which has 
been intrusted' to secrecy ; to make liable to 
soaarthmg inconvenient ; to show, to discover. 

BETRAYER, be-trtfr, *. He that betrays, 

a tr aitor. 
TO BETRIM, be-trsW, t. a. To deck, to 

dress, to grace. 

TO BETROTH, bi-troW, v. a. To contract 
to any one, to affiance ; to nominate to a bi- 

ToBETRUST,be-irtet',f>.a. To intrust, to 
pot into the power of another. 

BETTER, beVt&r, a. 98. Having good qua- 
lities in a greater degree than something else. 

BETTER, beVtur, ad. Well in a greater de- 

To BETTER, beVt&r, v. a. To improve, to 
mefiorase ; to surpass, to exceed, to advance. 
BETTER, b£ttnr, «. Superior in goodness. 
BETTOR, bettor, s. 166. One that lays bets 

BETTY, bekte, *. An instrument to break 
Open d oors. 

BETWEEN, be-tween', prep. In the inter- 
mediate space ; from one to another ; belong- 
ing to two in partnership ; bearing relation to 
two ; in separation of one from the other. 

BETWIXT, be-twfcsf, prep. Between. 
•BEVEL,) 1 3 v 4, ' is. 99. In masonry and 
BEVH* J Miru > > joinery, a kind of 
sooare f one leg of which is frequently crooked. 

BEVERAGE, hjv'ur-id>, $. 90, 555. Drink, 

fiqeor to be drank. 
BEVY, bev4, «. A flock of birds; a com- 

panj, an assembly. 

To BEWAIL, be-wale', v. a. To bemoan, to 

To BEWARE, be-ware', *.». To regard 
with caotioii, to be sospicious of danger from. 

To BEWEEP, be-weep , «. a. To weep over 

or upon 
To BEWET,be-weV,o.a. To wet,to moisten. 
To BEWILDER, be-wfi'dur, v. a. To lose 

in pathless places, to pasxle. 515. 
To BEWITCH, be-wltsh', t>. a. To injury 

by witchcraft ; to charm, to please. 

BEWRCHERY, bc-wbahfir-rL a. 

- -A- - » MJUC ' 


BEWITCHMENT, be-wfcsh'mint, $. Fasci- 

To BEWRAY, be-ra', v. a. 497. To betray, 
to discover perfidiously : to show, to make 

BEWRAYER, be-ra'ur, «. Betrayer, dis- 

BEYOND, be-yomi', prep. Before, at a dis- ' 
tance hot reached ; on the farther side of; far- 
ther onward than ; past ; out of the reach of; 
above, exceeding to a greater degree than; 
above in excellence ; remote from, not within 
the sphere of.—- To go Beyond is to deceive. 
)& There is a pronunciation of this word so obvi- 
ously wrong m scarcely to deserve notice ; and that 
is sounding the o like a, as if the woid were written 
beyond. Absurd and corrupt as this pronunciation 
is, too many of the people or London, and those not 
entirely uneducated, are guilty of it. 

BEZOAR ; be'zore, a. A medicinal stone, 
. formerly in high esteem as an antidote, brought 
from the East Indies. 

BEZO ARDICK, bez-o-aVdlk, a. Compound- 
ed with bezoar. 

BIANGULATED, bl-4Wgu-u-t&1 y "L. 
BIANGULOUS, bl-ing'gff-las, 116. f a# 
Having two cornets or angles. 

BIAS, bUs, a. 88. The weight lodged on 
one side of a bowl, which turns it from the 
straight line ; any thing which turns a man to 
a particular course ; propension, inclination. 

To BIAS, bias, v. a. To incline to some side. 

BIB, bib, s. A small piece of linen put upon 
the breasts of children, over their clothes. 

BIBACIOUS, bl-bi'shus, a. 118. Much ad- 
dicted to drinking. 

t? Perhaps the first syllable of this word may be 
considered as an exception to the grneral rule. 117. 

BIBBER, blb'bur, s. 98. A tippler. 

BIBLE, bi'bl, s. 405. The sacred volume* 
in which are contained the revelations of God. 

BIBLIOGRAPHER, bib-le-6g"gdl.fur. A 

BIBLIOTHECAL,blb-le-6tA'e-kll, a. Be- 
longing to a library. 

BIBULOUS. blb'fi-lus, a. 314. That which 
has the quality of drinking moisture. 

BICAPSULAR, bl-kap'sh&lar, a. 118, 552. 
A plant whose seed-poucli is divided into two 

BICE, bke, «. A colour for painting. 

BICIPITAL, bUlp'e-tal,118,*>a. Having 
BICIPITOUS, bi-s1p4-tus, j two heads; 
it is applied to one of the muscles of the arm. 
To BICKER, blkkur, v. a. 98. To skirmiBh, 
to fight off and on ; to quiver, to play back- 
ward and forward. 

BICKERER, blk'ar-ur,«. 555. A skirmishet. 
BICK.ERN, bikkurn, *. 98,418. An iron 
ending in a poiut. 

BICORNE, btocorn, 118. ) a. Having two 
BICORNOUS, bl-kor'nus, S horns. 

BICORPORAL, bl-koYpo-ril, a. 118. Hav- 
ing two bodies. 

To BID, bid, v. a. To desire, to ask ; to 
command, tar order; to offer, to propose; to 
pronounce, to declare ; to denounce 

fifiQ BIN 

HHMKEfel hjd'dri. aart. van. 108. Invited ; thinrord Is derived from a substantive, it ought to 

BIDDER, bid'dir, «. 98. One who offers or 

proposes a price. 

BIDDING, bid'dlng, #.410.Command,order. 

To BIDE, bide, e. a. To endure, to suffer. 

To BIDE, bide, v. n. To dwell, to live, to 
inhabit ; to remain in a place. 

BIDENTALjbt-deVtal,*. 118. Having two 

BIDING, bi'dfog, «. 410. Residence, habi- 

BIENNIAL, bl-in'ne-al, a. 116. Of the 

continuance of two years. 
BIER, beer, #. 275. A carriage on which the 

dead are carried to the grave. 
BI EST IN OS, bees'tlngz, *. 275. The first 

milk given by a cow after calving. 
BIFARIOUS, bl-fa're-us, a. Twofold. 
BIFEROUS, blffe-rus, a. 503. Bearing fruit 

twice a yem . 

tT We tee thai the antepenultimate accent on this 
word, a* well »■ UB Bigamy, and some others, has the 
power of shortening the vowel in the first syllsble.635. 

BIFID, bl'f Id, 118. 7a. 503, 535. 

BIFID ATED, blf fe-da-tid, J Opening with 

a cleft 
BIFOLD, bl'fold, a. Twofold, double. 

BIFORMED, bl'formd, a. 302. Compounded 
of two forms. 

BIFURCATED, bl-fur'ka-te f d,a.ll8. Shoot- 
ing out into two heads. 

BIFURCATION, bi-fur-kaWtn, «. Division 
Into two. 

BIG, big, a. Great in bulk, large ; teeming, 
pregnant; full of something; distended, swoin; 
peat in air and mieu) proud ; great iu spirit, 

BIGAMIST, big'gi-mist, *. One that has 

committed Digamy. 

BIGAMY, bVga-me, s. 635, 503. The crime 
of having two wives at once. 

BIGBELLIED, b^bel-lld, a. 282.Pregnant. 
BIGGIN, biggin, *. A child's cap. 
BIGLY, Mgle,**. Tumidly, haughtily. 
BIGNESS, bfg'nls, a. Greatness of quan- 
tity ; size, whether greater or smaller. 

BIGOT, big gut, s. 160. A man devoted to 
a certain party. 

BIGOTED, bfggut-ed, a. Blindly prepos- 
sessed in favour of something. 
fcj From what oddity I know not, this word Is fre- 
quently pronounced as if accented en the last syllable 

but one, and r* geuerally found wrivten as if it ought 

to be so prononneed, the t being doubled, as is usual 

when a participle is formed from a verb that has lis ac 

cent on the last syllable. Dr. Johnson, indeed, has 

very Judiciously set both orthography and pronuncia- 
tion to rights, and spells the word with one t, though 

he finds it with two in the quotations he gives us from 

Garth and Swift. That the former thought it might 

be prononneed with the accent on ths second syllable 

Is uiglUy presumable from the use ne makes of it, 

where be says : 
- Bigotted to this idol, we disclaim 

v " Rest, health, and ease, for nothing bat a name." 

Tor if we de not lay the accent on the second sylla- 
ble here, the verse will be unpardouably rugged. This 

mistake must certainly take its rise from supposing a 

verb which does not exist, namely, to bigot ; but as 

have the same accent ;- thus though the words 
and billet are verbs as well as nouns, they have 
the accent oa the first syllabi«, the participial adjee-' 
fives derived from them have only onef.artd both 
are pronounced with the accent on the first syllable*, 
as balloted, billeted. Bigoted therefore oogbt to 
have bat one t, and to preserve the ecceat oa the first 

BIGOTRY, blg'gut-tre, s. 555. Blind zeal, 
prejudice ; the practice of a bigot. 

BIGSWOLN, blg'swoln,a. Turgid. 

BI LANDER. bll'an-ctfr, «. 503. A small 
vessel used tor the carriage of goods. 

BILBERRY, bil'ber-re, *• Whortleberry. 

BILBO, bH / b6, *. A rapier, a sword. 

BILBOES, bft'boze, $. 296. A sort of stocks. 

BILE, bile, 8. A thick, yellow, bitter liquor, 
separated in the liver, collected in the gait- 
bladder, aud discharged by the common duct, 

BILE, bile, s. A sore angry swelling. Im- 
properly Boil. 

To BILGE, bilje, t. *. 74. To spring a leak. 

BILIARY, bil'vanre, «. 113. Belonging * 
the bile. 

BILINGSG ATE, bftlngz-gate, #. Ribaldry; 
foul language. 

BILINGUOUS, bl-lWgwus, a. 118. Hav- 
ing two tongues. 

BILIOUS,bil'yus, a. 113. Consisting of bile. 

To BILK, bilk, o. c. To cheat, to defraud. 

BILL, bftl, s. The beak of a fowl. 

BILL, bill, «. A kind of hatchet with a 
hooked point. 

BILL, bill, «. A written paper of any kind ; 
an account of money ; a law presented to tho 
parliament; a physician's prescription; an 

To BILL, bill,©, a. To caress, as doves by- 
joining bills. 

To BILL, bill, v.a. To publish by an ad- 

BILLET, blllit, *. 00, 472, 481. A small 

1>aper, a note.— Billet-doui» or a soft Billet, a. 

BILLET, biftit, *. 99. A small log of 

wood for the chimney. 
To BILLET, binfe, v. a. To direct a tot. 

dier where he is to lodge ; to quarter soldier*. 
BILLIARDS, biTyurdz, s. 113. A kind of 

£3* Mr.Nares has very judiciously corrected a falae 
etymology of Dr. Johnson in this word, which might 
eventful iy lead to a false pronunciation. t)r, John- 
son from ball ana yard, or slick, to push it 
with. So Spenser— 
" With dice, with cards, with halliards far jsriit, 
" With shuttle-cocks, unseeming manly wit." 
Spenser, says Mr.Neies, was probably misled, aa welt 
as the Lexicographer, by a false notion of the etymo- 
logy. Tiic word, as well as the game, Is Frvncb, Mf» 
liardi >nd made by the addition of aeummoo icr^ 


ruination, from blue, the term for the ball ascd la 

BILLOW, bftlo, s. A wave swollen. 

BILLOWY, bfrlo-e, «. dwelling, turgid. :* 

BIN, bin, t . A place where bread at trios* 
I is repealled. I 

1 BINARY, blna-re, 118. Two double. • 



•fir IfiT, n*t l«t— tttbe 171, tftb IT*, bill 17*— o*l 290—pUad SlS-^rtn 4*6, raw 40B. 

ft BIND, bind, o. a. To confine with bonds, 
to enchain ; to gird ; to enwrap ; to fasten to 
any thing; to fasten together; to cover a 
would with dressings ; to compel, to constrain; 
to oblige by stipulation; to confine, to hinder ; 
to make costive ; to restrain.-— To Bind to, to 
oblige to serve some one.— To Bind over, to 
oblige to make appearance. 

To BIND, bind, v. a. To contract, to grow 
stiff; to be obligatory. 

BINDER, bind'or, s. 98. A man whose trade 
it is to bind books ; a man that binds sheaves ; 
a fillet, a shred cot to bind with. 

BINDING, binding, j. 410. A bandage. 

BINDWEED, btod'weed, s. A plant. 

BINNACLE, bln'a-ld, A sea term, meaning 
the compass box. 

tT This word is not in Johnson ; and Dr. Ash nod 
sar7 South, who have it, pronounce the i in (he ftist 
•Tibbie abort, la Is piobably only a corruption of 
Ike word Bittacle. 

BINOCLE, bin'no-U, s. 405. A telescope 
fitted so with two tubes, as that a distant ob- 
ject may be seen with both eyes. 

YT The same reason appears Tor pronoaneing the i 
as ike first syllable of this word short as in tiigamg. 

BINOCULAR, bl-nok'u-lftr, a. 118. Having 
Ufoejres. 88,98. 

BIOGRAPHER, bUg'gra-fftr, s. 116. A 
writer of lives. 

BIOGRAPHY, bl-cVgrsWe, i. 116. An his- 
torical account of the lives of particular mcu. 


BIPAROUS, bJp^-ria, a. 503. Bringing 
forth two at a birth. 

ty This word and Bipedal have the i Ions in Dr * 
Asb and Mr. Sherfclan ; bnt Mr. Perry makes ihei in 
law first long, and in the last short; analogy, however, 
seasasto decide in favour or the sound I have given 
ft. Fur though the penattimate accent has a tendency 
« the vowel when followed by a single con- 
la bijxd t tripod, Arc the antepenultimate 
i a greater tendency to shorten the vowel it 
.—See Bigam* and Tripod, 60S. 

BIPARTITE, blptlr-tlte, a. 155. Having 
two correspondent parts. 
tT Every Ortboeplst has the accent on the first stU 
laMe of this word bat Entick, who places it on the 
stead; bat a considerable difference is found In the 
ewastfuy of the first and last f. Sheridan and Scott 
them boih long. Nares the last long, Perry both 
^ aad Bochaiian and W. Johnston a« I have done 
Taw varieties of qoantHy on this word are the 
snore surprising, as all ibese writers that give the sound 
of the vowels make Ik? first i in tripartite short, and 
the last long ; and this uniformity in the pronuncia- 
tion of one word oaght to have led them tp the same 
ereaeactaUon of the other, so perfectly similar. The 
shortening power of the antepenultimate accent Is 
srtdeat in both. 903. 

BIPARTITION, bl-plr-tish'an, t. The act 

of dividing into two. 
BIPED, bfyeSd, a, 118. An animal with two 

BIPEDAL, blp'pi-dil, «. SOS. Two feet in 

length, — See aiparous. 
BIPENNATED, bl-peVnl-tid, a 118. Hav- 

iug two wings. 
BiPETAXOUS. bl-peYtA-los, a. 118. Con- 
of two fiower-hwtves. 

BIQUADRATE, bi-qwi'drate, 01. ? «. Th«i 
BIQUADRATICS bl-qwa-drat'ik,* fourth 

power arising from the multiplication of a 

square by itself. 
BIRCH, borteh, j. 108. A tree. 
BIRCHEN, bortshn, a. 103, 405. Made of 


fT An Englishman may blosh at this elnster of coin 
sonants for a *> liable ; and yet this is anqnektionabiy 
the exact pronunciation of the word ; and that- our 
language is fall of these syllables without vowels.—. 
See Principles, Ko. 103, 40$. 

BIRD, burd, *. 108. A general term for the 

feather kind, a fowl. 
To BIRD, bfird, t;. n. To catch birds. 
BIRDBOLT, burd'bolt, «. A small arrow. . 
BIRDCATCHER, tr&rd'k^tsh-ur, *. 89.0ne 

that makes it his employment to take birds. 
BIRDER, bfird'ur, «. 98. A birdcatcher. 
BIRDINGPIECE, burd'lng-pcese, #. A gun' 

to shoot birds with. 
BIRDLIME, burd'lime, «. A glutinous sob-. 

stance spread upon twigs, by which the birds 

that light upon them are entangled. 

BIRDMAN, b&rd'man, «. 88. A birdcatcher.' 
BIRDSEYE, burdz'i, s. A plant. 
BIRDSFOOT, bnrdz'fot, s. A plant. 
BIRDSNEST,bnrd2'nist, «. An herb. 
BIRDSNEST, bordz'nlst, «. The place 

where a bird Jays her eggs and hatches her. 

BtRDSTONGUE, b&rdz'tung, «. An herb. • 
BIRGANDER, bir'gan-dor, s. A fowl of 

the goose kind. 

BIRTH, berta, #. 108. The act of coming 
into life ; extraction, lineage ; rank which is 
inherited by descent; the condition in which; 
any man is born ; thing born ; the act of bring- 
ing forth. 

BIRTHDAY, berf/i'da, s. The day on which, 
any one is born 

BIRTHDOM, berrVdnm,*. Privilege of 

BIRTH1S T IGHT ; blrf/*'nlte, «. The night in 

which any one is born. 
BIRTHPLACE, berf A'plase, s. Place whe?w 

any one is born. 

BIRTHRIGHT, birfsVitte, «. The rights 
and privileges to which a man is born; the right 
of the first born. 

RIRTHSTRANGLED, blrtVstrang-gid, a . 
Strangled in being born. 359. 
£3* See Birchen, 

BIRTH WORT, b2rrAV6rt,«.lG6. The name' 
of a plant. 

BISCUIT, bisfcit, *,841. A kind of hard dry 
bread, made to be carried to sea ; a composi- 
tion of fine flour, almonds, and sugar. . 

To BISECT, bUekt',*. a. 118, 119. To di- 
vide into two parts. 

BISECTION, bl-seVshun, s. 118. A geome- 
trical term, signifying the division of any 
quantity into two equal parts. 

BISHOP, bfeh'ap, 8. 106. One of the head 

order of the cle rey. 
BISHOP, bfch'op, «. A cant word for ami** 
tore of wine, oranges, and sugar. 


ft? JS9. Fate 7% y At 77, All SS, lit SI— mi W, met 08— pine 10$, pin 107— no 162, more 1*4, 

BI9HOPRICK, blsh'ap-r*k,#. Hie diocese 

of a bishop. 
BISHOPWEED, blsh'up-wecd, «. A plant. 
BISK, bisk, j». Soup, broth. 
BISMUTH, blz'muf A, «. Marcasite, a hard, 

white, brittle, mineral substance, of a metalline 

nature, found in Misuia. 

BISSEXTILE, bls-seks'tll, $. 140. Leap- 

yy Mr. Scott places the accent on the first syllable 
of this word ; Dr. Kenrick on the flirt and last; Mr. 
Sheridan, Dr. Johnson, W. Johnston, Dr. Ash, Bu- 
chanan, Perry, £olick, and Bay ley, on the second ; 
Mr. Scott, Dr. Kenrick, and W. Johnston, pronounce 
the last i long, as In tile. But as the accent is on the 
second syllable by so great a majority, analogy deter- 
mines the last i to be short. 

BISSON, bls'sun, a. 168. Blind. ' Obsolete. 

BISTORT, bls'tort, «. A plant called snake- 

BISTOURY, bls'tur-*, s. 314. A surgeon's 
instrument used in making incisions. 

BIT, bh, t. The iron part of the bridle 
v which is put into the horse's mouth. 

BIT, bit, s. As much meat as is put into the 
mouth at once ; a small piece of any thing ; a 
Spanish West-India silver coin, valued at 
seven-pence halfpenny. 

To BIT, bit, v. <u To put the bridle upon a 

BITCH, bltsh, *. The female of the dog 

kind ; a vulgar name of reproach for a woman. 
To BITE, bite* t>. a. To crush or pierce with 

the teeth ; to give pain by cold ; to hurt or 

pain with reproach ; to cut, to wound ; to 

make die month smart with an acrid taste ; to 

cheat, to trick. 

BITE, bite, 8. The seizure of any thing by 
the teeth ; the act of a fish that takes the bait ; 
a cheat, a trick ; a sharper. 

BITER, bl't&r, «. 98. He that bites ; a fish 

apt t o take a bait ; a tricker, a deceiver. 
BFTTACLE, blf tl-kl, «. 406. A frame of 

timber in the steerage, where the compass is 

placed. More commonly Binnacle. 

BITTER, blt'tur, a. 98. Having a hot, acrid, 
biting taste, like wormwood ; sharp, cruel, 
severe; calamitous, miserable; reproachful, 
satirical ; unpleasing or hurtful. 

BITTERGROUND, bittur-groand, «. A 
plan t. 

BITTERLY, bltftur-le, ad. With a bitter 
taste ; in a biting manner, sorrowfully, cala- 
mitously ; sharply, severely. 

BITTERN, blt'turn, s. 98. A bird with long 
legs, which feeds upon fish. 

BITTERNESS, blt'tur-nSs, «.A bitter taste ; 
malice, grudge, hatred, implacability ; sharp- 
ness, severity of temper ; satire, piquancy, 
keenness of reproach ; sorrow, vexation, af- 

BITTERSWEET, blt'tur-sweet, s. An apple 
which has a compounded taste. 

BITUMEN, be-tu'men, t. 118, 503. A fat 

- unctuous matter dog out of the earth, or scum- 
med off lakes. 
&* This word, from the propensity of oar language 

ta> the antepenultimate accent, is orten pronounced 

with the stress oo the first syllable, as if written Ufu- 

men j aci this last mode of sounding the wo*a m«v 


be considered at the moat eomuoe, (bough not the* 
most learned pronunciation. For Dr. Ash is the only 
Orthoepist who places the atceiit on the first syllable ; 
bm every one who gives the round of the unaccented 
vowels, except Buchanan, very Improperly makes the 
I long, as In idle j bat if this sound be lone, it ought 
to be slender, as in the second syllable of risible* ter- 
rible, tic. 117.591. 

BITUMINOUS, be-ta'me-nus, a. 118. Com- 
pounded of bitumen. 

BIVALVE, bl'vilv, a. lis. Having two 
valves or shutters, used of those fish that hare 
two shells, as oysters. 

BIVALVULAR, bl-vll'vu-llr, c. Having 

two valves. 
BIXWORT, blksVurt, «. An herb. 
BIZANTINE, blz'an-tlne, s. 149. A great 

piece of gold valued at fifteen pounds, which 

the king offers upon high festival days. 

)3* Perry Is the only Ortboepist who pronoancea tb« 
last i in this word short , and Dr* Johnson remark*, 
that the first syllable ought to be spelled with y, a« 
the word arises from the custom established among; 
the emperors of Constantinople, anciently called £?a> 

9 ts>«wOe>t*Wfi>e- 

To BLAB, bllb, v. a. To tell what ought to 
be kept secret. 

To BLAB, bllb, v. s£ To tell tales. 

BLAB, blib, *. A tell-tale. 

BLABBER, bllb'bur, «. A tattler. 

BLACK, bilk, a. Of the colour of night ; 
dark ; cloudy of countenance ; sullen ; horri- 
ble, wicked ; dismal, mournful. 

BLACK-BRYONY, bllk-brl'A-ne, «. Tho 
name of a plant. 

BLACK-CATTLE, blaVklt-tl, t. Oxen, 
bulls, and cows. 

BLACK-GUARD, bllg-glrd', a. 448. A 
dirty fellow. A low term. 

BLACK-LEAD, bilk-lid', $. A mineral 
found in the lead mines,much used for pencil*. 

BLACK-PUDDING, bl*k-pud'din£, s. A 
kind of food made of blood and grain. 

BLACK-ROD, bllk-r6d', 9 . The usher be- 
longing to the order of the garter, so called 
from the black rod he carries in his hand. He 
is usber of the parliament. 

BLACK, bilk, «. A black colour ; mourn 

ine : a blackamoor ; that part of the eye which 

is olack. 
To BLACK, bilk, ©. a. To make black, to 

blacken. • 
BLACKAMOOR, bllk'l-more, «. *A negro* 
BLACKBERRY, bllk'ber-re, s. A specie* 

of bramble ; the fruit of it. 

BLACKBIRD, blaktourd, s. The name of a 

To BLACKEN, bllkltn, e.a. 103. To make 

of a black colour ; to darken, to defame. 

To BLACKEN, blak'kn, c. *. to grow 

BLACKISH, bllk'lsh, a. Somewhat black. 
BLACKMOOR, blak'more, $. A negro. 
BLACKNESS, blik'ne 1 *, 8. Black colour ; 

BLACKSMITH, blak'smfra, s. A smith- that 

works |n iron, so called from being- very 

BLACKTAIL, bllk'tale, t.The ruff or 

A small fish. 


ak \m> mfeieiwjipo ki, <ftb 17% ktai m-to m~*Mnd m-rttn 4*6, nui^ 

BLACKTHORN ; bUk'<^ni,#,66. Thetloe. 

BLADDER, Wld dir, ,. w. That vessei 
in the body which content the urine ; a Mis- 
ter, a pustule. 

BLADDER-NTJT,bUd'dur-nit,a. A plant. 
BLADDER SENA, blto'dlr-eeVI, i. A 

BLADE. Wide, a. The spire of grass, the 

green shoots of corn. 
BLADE, blade, «. The sharp or striking 

part of a weapon or instrument ; a brisk man. 

either fierce or gay. 

BLADEBONE, fiadeT>one, t. The sea- 
poia, or scapular bone. 
t? Probably corrupted from Platebont: Greek 

BLADED, bia'dgd, a. Having blades or 

BLAIN, Mine, a. A pustule, a blister. 
BLAMBABLE, blAW-bl, a. 405. Culpa- 
ble, faulty. r ^ 

BLAMEABLENESS, bla'mi-bl-nes. a. 

BLAMEABLY, bla'mi-ble, ad. Culpably. 
To BLAME, blame, a. a. To censure, to 

charge with a fault. 
BLAME, blame, t. Imputation of a fault; 

crime, hart. 

BLAMEFUL, blame'ful, a. Criminal, amity. 

BLAMELESS, blameles, a. Guiltless, in- 

BLAMELESSLY, blameles-le, ad. Inno- 

BIAMELESSNESS, blameleVnes, s. In- 

BLAMER, bla'mur, t. 96. A censurer. 

BLAMEWORTHY, blameVfir-THLfl. Cul- 
pable, blameable. 

To BLANCH, blansa, e. a. To whiten ; 
to strip or peel such things as have bosks ; to 
obliterate, to pats over, 

SH^ H ??» olln ' ,,h4r >*' 9 8. Awhitener. 
BLAND, blind, a. Soft, mild, gentle. 
1* BLANDISH, blan'dfah, v.a. To smooth, 

BLANDISHMENT, blin 'dlsh-m&t, #. Act 
of fondness, expression of tenderness by ges- 
ture ; soft words, kind speeches; kind treat- 

BLANK, blank, a. White; unwritten; con- 
fused ; without rhyme. 

M^^K* blank, a. A void space; a lot 
by which nothing is gained ; a paper unwrit- 
ten ; the point to which an arrow or shot is 

BLANKET, blinklt, #. 9Q. A woollen co- 
— *^: *7*» *P* ko**!y woven ; a kind of near. 
To BLANKET, blanket, «. o. To ©over 

^V^lt&S***}* *° *°. M in » blanket. 

* --- Inn blank man- 

— ., .. _ To 
in terms of impious irreverence of God : 
■o apeak evil of 

To BLASPHEME, bias-feme', «. «. To 
•peak blasphemy. 

BLASPHEMER, bias-femur, #. A wretch 
that speaks of God m impious and irreverent 

BLANKLY, Winkle, a. Inablax 
^■^^Ith paleness, with confusion. 
To BLASPHEME, bits-feme', e. 
speak in terms of impious irreverence < 

BLASPHEMOUS, blaa'fe-moa, a. Impi- 
eaaiy irrevoftnt with regard to God. 

X3 We sometime* hear this word pronounced with 
the accent on the second syllable, like blaapbesae ; and 
as the word blasvkemus in Latin baa the second syl- 
laWe long, end the English word has the same num- 
ber of syllables, It baa as good a right to the accent 
on the second syllable, as Sonorous, Bitumen, Acu- 
men, Ac. ; but placing the accent on the flr»t syllable 
of blasphemous la by much the moat polite ; as, nn- 
fortanately for the t4her pronunciation, .though the 
learned one, it has been adopted by the vulgar. 603. 

BLASPHEMOUSLY, blaVfe-mos-le, ad. 
Impiously, with wicked irreverence. 

BLASPHEMY, blas'fe-me, a. Blasphemy 
is an offering of some indignity onto God him- 

BLAST, Mist, «. A gust or puff of wind : < 
the sound made by any instrument of wind 
music ; the stroke of a malignant planet. 

To BLAST, blast, o. a. To strike with some 
sadden plague ; to make to wither ; to injure, 
to invalidate; tu confound, to strike with, 

BLASTMENT,blast'inent,t. Sudden stroke 
of infection. 

BLATANT, bla'tfnt, a. Bellowing as a calf. 

To BLATTER, blir/tur, v. n. To roar. 

BLAY, bla, a. A small whitish river fish ; 
a bleak. 

BLAZE, blaze, t. A flame, the light of 
the flame ; publication ; a white mark upon a 

To BLAZE, blase, «.»• To flame; to be 

To BLAZE, blaze, v. o. To publish, to make 
known ; to blazon ; to inflame ; to fire. 

BLAZER, bla'zur, s. 08. One that spreads 

To BLAZON, •bla'zn, o a. 170. To explain, 
in proper terms, the figures on ensigns armo- 
rial ; to deck, to embellish ; to display, to set 
to show ; to celebrate, to set out ; to blase 
about, to make poblick. 

BLAZONRY, bUzn-rt, a, The art of bla- 

To BLEACH, bleetsb, ». a. To whiten. 
BLEAK, bleke, a. Pale ; cold, chill. 
BLEAK, bleke, s. A small river fish. 

BLEAKNESS, blekefees,*, Coldness, chiU 


BLEARY, blcTte, a. Bleak, cold, chilL. 
BLEAR, bleer, a. Dim with rheum or wa- 
ter; dim, obscure in genrral. 
BLEARBDNESS, Mee'rld-nSs, *. 365, The, 

state of being dimmed with rheum. 
To BLEAT, blete, v. a. To cty as a sheepw 
BLEAT, blete, a. The cry of a sheep or lamb. 
BLEB, bllb, a. A blister. . 
To BLEED, bleed, r. n. To lose blood, tea 

run with blood ; to drop as blood. 
To BLEED, bleed, o. a. To let blood. 
To BLEMISH, blenrlsh, v. a. To mark with 

any deformity; to defame, to tarnish, witfe 

respect to reputation. 
BLEMISH, hlenVlsh, a. A mark of do* 

rbrmity, a scar ; reproach, disgrace. 
ToBI^CH, bfessh,v.B. W2. To shrink;' 

to start back. . 

To BLEND, blind, a. a. To mingle toge- 
ther; to confound ; to pollute, to spoil. 

BLENT, blent Tke obsolete part, of BU»d. 

To BLESS, blfcs, «. a. To make happy, to 
prosper, to wish- happiness to another; to 
praise ; to glorify for benefits motived. 



W 559. Fit«TS,fif 77; itt 8S, fist*l-m4 99, 

BLESSED, bleVs&Lparr. a. 561. Happy, 
enjoying heaveiilyfefrcity. 

BLESSEDLY, bieVs3d-Ie, af Happily. 

BLESSEDNESS, bleVsfcl-nSe, *. Happi- 
ness, felicity, sanctity ; heavenly felicity ; Di- 
vine favour. 

BLESS ER, bleVsur, *. 98. He that blesses. 

BLESSING, bleVs1ng,a. 410. Benediction; 
the means of happiness ; Divine favour. 

BLEST, blist, part. a. 561. Happy. 

BLEW, bin. The preterit of Blow. 

BLIGHT, bltte, «. 595. Mildew ; any thing 
nipping, or blasting. 

To BLIGHT, bllte, t>. a. To blast, to binder 
from fertility. 

BLIND, blind, a. Without sight, dark ) in- 
tellectually dark ; unseen, private ; dark, ob- 

To BLIND, blind, v. a. To make blind ; 
to darken ; to obscure to the eye ; to obscnre 
to the understanding. 

BLIND, blind, $. Something to hinder the 
sight : something to mislead. 

To BLINDFOLD, blindfold, «..a. To hin- 
der from seeing by blinding the eyes. , 

BLINDFOLD, blind'fold, a. Having the 
eves covered. 

BLINDLY, bllndle, ad. Without sight; 
implicitly ,wiihout examination ; without judg- 
ment or direction. 2 

BLINDMAN'S-BUFF, blind-minz-buf, «. 
A play in which some one fs to have his eyes 
covered, and hunt out the rest of the company. 

BLINDNESS, blmd'nfo, s. Want of sights 
ignorance, intellectual darkness. 

BLINDSIDE, blind-tide', s. Weakness, foi- 

BLINDWORM, bltod'wftrin, #. A small 

viper, venomous. 
To BLINK, blink, v. n. To wink ; to see 


£3* This word has been nsed for some years, chiefly 
in Parttainmt, as a verb active ; as when a speaker 
has omitted to take notice of some material point in 
question, he is said Co bll*k the question. It were 
to be wished that every word which flnds its way 
into that house had as Rood a title to remain there 
as the present word. It combines in its signification 
an omission and an artful intentiou to omit; and as 
this cannot be so handsomely or so comprehensively 
expressed by any other word, ibis word, in this sense, 
ought to be received. 

BLINKARD, blink'urd, *. 98. One that 
has bad eyes ; something twinkling. 

BLISS, bite, «. The highest degree of hap- 
piness; the happiness of blessed souls; feli- 
city in general. 

BLISSFUL, blfe'ful. a. Happy in the high- 
est degree. 

BLISSFULLY, blls'fol-li, ad. Happily. 

BLISSFULNESS, blkiul-nes, s. Happiness. 

BLISTER, blis'tur, $. 98. A pustule formed 
by raising the cuticle from the cutis ; any 
swelling made by the separation of a film or 
skin from the other parts. 

To BLISTER, bllsHux,©.*. To rise inblisters. 

To BLISTER, blistur, v. a. To raise blis- 
ters by some hurt. 

BLITHE, bib-He, a. 467. Gay, airy. 

BLITHLY, bllrirle, ad. In a blithe manner. 
13* These com pounds of the word blithe ought to 

be written with the final «, as bliihely, bUtttesame, 

flee. ; for, as they stand in Johnson, the i might be 

pronounced, shot t^See Introduction to the Rhyming 

f>ie4tomary, Cu-lkographical Aphoiism the 8th. 




Alt 9S-* tin* 105, pin l*r-4i»14tr, mJSrc 1*4, 

BLrTHNESS, bllrn'nlV , m \ 

BLITHSOMENESS, blhH i «4m-ne t s, / 
lity of being blithe. 

BLITHSOME, blrm'sum, a. Gay, cheerful. 

To BLOAT, b!6te, «. a. To swell. 

To BLOAT, blote, fc. ft. To grow turgid. 

BLOATEDNESS, blo'tid-nb, *. Turgid- 
ness ; swelling. 

BLOBBER, blob'bur, 8. 98. A bubble. 

BLOBBER-LIP,bl6rybur-lip,#. A thick lip. 

BLOBBERLIPPED, bl&b'bur-lipt, > a 

BLOBLIPPED, bliblfpt, J 

Having swelled or thick lips. 

BLOCK, bl6k, #. ^ A short heavy piece of 
timber ; a rough piece of marble ; the wood 
on which hats are formed ; the wood on which 
criminals are beheaded ; an obstruction, a 
stop ; a sea term for a pully ; a blockhead. 

To BLOCK, bl&k, v. a. To shut up, to en- 

BLOCK-HOUSE, bloVhouse, t. A fortress 
built to obstruct or block up a pass. 

BLOCK-TIN, blflk-tin', *. Tin pure on 

BLOCKADE, bldk-kade', *. A siege tar- 
ried on by shutting up the place. 

To BLOCKADE, bl6k4tade', r. a. To shut 

BLOCKHEAD, bloVhld, *. A stupid fel- 
low, a dolt, a man without parts. 

BLOCKHEADED, blok-hid'&i, a. Stt*. 

Zid, dull. 
OCKISH, blok'feh, a. Stupid, dull. 

BLOCKISHLY, bl6Vlsh-le, ad. Inastu- 
pid manner. 

BLCcKlSHNESS, bl6k'feh-n&, «. Stu- 

BLOOD, bind, «. S08. The red liquor that 
circulates in the bodies of animals: child; 
progeny -, family, kindred ; descent, lineage ; 
birth, high extraction j murder, violent death ; 
temper of mmd, state of the passions ; hot 
spark ; man of fire. 

To BLOOD, blud, «» a. To stain with blood ; 
to inure to blood, as a hound ; to beat, to ex- 
asperate. , 9 

BLOOD-BOLTERED, blud'hol-turd, «. 

BLOODSTONE, blud'stone, $. The blood- 
stone is green, spotted with a bright blood-red. 

BLOOD-THIRSTY, blud'faurs-te, a. De- 
sirous to shed blood. 

BLOOD-FLOWER, blud'flofir, t. A plant. 

BLOODGUILTINESS, blud'gflfe-nes. #. 

Murder. , .- 

BLOOD-HOUND, blftryhound,*. A hound 

that follows by the scejit. 
BLOODILY, bl&d'e-le, o. Cruelly. 
BLOODINESS, blud'i-nes, *. The state 

of being bloody. 
BLOODLESS, bludles, a% Without blood, 

dea'l ; without slaughter. 
BLOODSHED, blud'shid, «. THe crime t>f 

blood, or murder ; slaughter. 
BIX)OTOHEDDHR, v blud'shM-dur,«. Mm* 

BLOODSHOT, blad'shdt, > a.Fille<l 

BLOODSHOTTEN,brud'sh6t-tn, J ***** 

blood bursting from its proper vessels. lOBi 
BLOODSUCKER, blud'suknr, $. A leech, 
a fly, any thing that sucks blood r a murderer 


BLOODY, blsVfe, <l fitamedwith blood; 

c ^u ei, murderous. 
BLOOM, bloom, a. A blossom ; the state 

of iaunatority. 

To BLOOM, bloom, v. m. Tohring or yield 

blossoms ; to produce, as blossom* $ to be in 

a state of yoaai. 
BLOOMY, bldom'me, a. Fall of blooms 

BLOSSOM, blos'sum, «. 166. The flower 

that grows on any plant. 
To BLOSSOM, blos'sum, v. n. To put forth 

lb BLOT, blot, v a. To obliterate, to make 
writing invisibJe : to efface, to erase ; to bior ; 
to disgrace, to disfigure; to. darken* 

BLOT, blot, s. An obliteration of some* 
thing written ; « blur, a spot ; spot in repu- 

BLOTCH, blotsh, s. A wot or pustule 
upon the skin. 

To BLOTE, Mote, «. a. Tq smoke, qr dry 
by the sshoke* 

BLOW, Wo7*. »24. A stroke; the fetal 
stroke ; a single action ; a sudden event; the 
act of a fly, bv Which s>e lodges egg? m flesji. 

To BLOW, bio, «. a. To move with a cur- 
seat of air. This .word U used; sometimes imr 
persjanalry with It ; to pant, to puff ; to breaihe 
hard ; to sound by being Mown ; to play mu- 
sically by wind ; to bloom y to blossom.— -To 
Blow over, to pass away without effect— r'fo 
Blow up, to fly into the air by the f^rcc oi* 

To BLOW, bio, «. a. To drive bv the force 
of the wind; to inflame with wind; to sweH, 
to puff into sise; to sound' an instrument of 
wind mnskk ; to warm with the breath ; to 
spread by report ; to infect with tlie eggs of 
flies.— To Blow out, to extinguish by wind,— 
Xp blow up, to nlse or swan with breath.— 
To blow up, to destroy with gunpowder.-— To 
blow upon, to make stale. 

BLOWZE, blouxe, a. 823. A ruddy fat- 

whose hair is in dis- 

BLOWZY, blou'se, a. Sun-burnt, high-co- 

BLUBBER, blub our, «. The part of a 

whale that contains the oil. 
To BLUBBER, blfiVbur, v. n. To weep in 

such a manner as to swell the cheeks. 
BLUDGEON, bl&Tjun. #. 259. A short 

•tick, with one end loaned. 
BLUE, blu, a. 8S*. One of the seven ori- 

g jiml co joors. 
BLUEBOTTLE, blo'bot-tl, *. A flower of 

the heU shape ; a fly with a large blue belly. 
BLUELY, bluOe, ad. With a blue colour. 
& There is ao toeonifetfency in spelling (bis and 
ar words with the sUeat e, and leaving it out In 
aad r r aJfv »M«h shows now maeh oar ortho- 
Mill waais regalatfog. sntwithstsadbig the la- 
ud aftwthm of Dr. Johnson. My opinion it, 
fast Sae servile t ought to be omitted in these words : 
far say reasons I matt refer the inspector to the Intro- 
daefttn to the Sbymlag Dictionary, Aphorism the 8th. 

BLUENES3, lufthls, #. The quality of 

BLUFF, bluf, a. Big, surly, blustering. 
BLUISH, bluish, a. Blue in a small do- 

TeBLUNDI^blmVdur,e». 98, To mis- 

take grossly ; to err very widely.; to floDnxfaaj 

. to ^tnmble* 

To BLUNDER, blOnUur, p. a. To mi» 
foolishly, or blindly. 

BLUNDER, bl&n'dfir, ». A gross or shame- 
ful mistake. 

BLUNDERBUSS, blun'dur-bMS. a. A gun 
that is discharged with many ballets. 

BLUNDERER, blun'dur-fir,*. A blockhead. 

BLUNDERHEAD, bl5n'dur-h?d, «. A stu- 
pid fellow. 

BLUNT, blunt, a. Dull on the edge or 
point, not sharp ; dull in understanding, not 
quick ; rough, not delicate j abrupt, uut ele- 

To BLUNT, blunt, v. a. To dull the e<lge or 
point ; to repress or weaken any appetite. 

BLUNTLY, blunt'l2, ad. Without sharp- 
ness; coarsely, plaii\ly. 

9LUJPTNES3, bBnt'nes, s. Vantofe-dg* 
or point, coarseness, roughness of maimers* 

BLUR, blur, a. A blot, a stain. 

To BLUR, blur, e. a. ' To blot, to eflhee ; 

to stain; 
To BLURT, blurt, v. a. To let fly without 

To BLUSH, blisb, v. n. To betray shame 

or confusion by a red colour in the cheek'; to 

carry a red colour. 
BLUSH, brash, «. The colour in the cheeks ; 

a red or purple colour ; sudden appearance. 
BLUSHY. bfish'e, a. Having the colour 

of a blush. 
To BLUSTER, blfit'tftr, «.*. To war, ae 

a storm ; to bully, to puff. 
BLUSTER, blurt&r, a. Roar, noise, tumult ; 
1 boast, boisterousness. 
BLUSTERER, bloYtiif -fir, s. A swaggerer, 

a bally. 
BLUSTROUS, blus'trus, a. Tumultuous. 

noisy. i . . 

BO, bo, inter), A word of tenor. 
BOAR, bore, s. 296. The male awiue. 
BOARD, bord, $. A piece of wood of move 

length and breadth than thkkiiess pi table, at 

which a council or court is held; a court of 

jurisdiction ; the deck or floor of a snipe 
To BO ABD, bord, v. «. To enter a ship by 

force ; to attack, or riiake the first attempt ; to 

lay or pare with boards. 
To BOARD, bord, r. n. To live in a house 

where a certahi rate is paid for eating. ' * 
BOARD-WAGES, bord-wa'jiz,«. 99. Wages 

allowed to servant* to keep themselves in Via-' 

BO ARD£R,,bot'dur, a. One who diets with 

another at a certain rate. 
BO ARISH, bire'^h/o. Swinish.brutal,cmel. 
To BO AST y fafet, v- ». To di*pfoy one's own. 

worth or actions. 
To BQAST, host, c. a. Jo brag of; to mag* 

mtv, to exalt. 
BOAST, bAst, a. A proud speech ; cause 

of boasthig. 
BOATER, bost'Or. #. A bragger. 
BOASTFUL, boatful, <*• Ostentatious. 
BOASTING LY, txist'fog-lc, ad. Ostenta- 

BOAT, bote, s. 205. A vessel to pass the 

water in. 
BOATTON, bo4'ihuu, s. Roar, noise. 

F3 ' 


& MO Fl to 78, far 77, dUl 88, fit 8 t—me 98, met 9*— pine 105, pin 107- no 10*, move 104, 

BOATMAN, bote'man, ">#. 88. He that 
BOATSM AN, botesWn, J manages a boat. 
BOATSWAIN, bo'sn,*. An officer on board 

a ship, who has charge of all her rigging, 

ropes, cables, and anchors. 

£3* Till* word Is universally pronounced In com- 
mon conversation as it is here marked : but in read- 
ing it would savour somewhat of vulgarity lo contract 
it to a sound so very uulike the orthography. It 
wonld be advisable, therefore, in those who are not 
of the naval profession, where it is technical, to pro- 
nounce this word, when they read it, distinctly as It is 

To BOB, b6b, tj.o. To beat, to drub; to 
cheat, to gain by fraud. 

To BOB. bob, o. a. To play backward and 

BOB, bdb, t . Something that hangs so as 

to play louse ; the words repeated at the end 

of a stanza ; a blow ; a short wig. 
BOBBIN, bobbin, s. A small pin of wood, 

with a notch. 

BOBCHERRY, bob'tshir-re, «. A play 
among children, in which the cherry is hung 
so as to bob against the mouth. 

BQBTAIL, bob'tale, *. Cut tail. 

BOBTAILED, bob'tal'd, a. 850. Having a 

tail cut. 
BOBWIO, bob'w g', 8. A short wig. 
To BODE, bode, r. a. To portend, to be the 

omen of. 

BODEMENT, bode'm$nt,s. Portent, omen. 

To BODGE, bodje, r. n. To boggle. 

BODICE, bod'dfs, «. 142. Stays, a waist- 
coat quilted with whalebone. 

BODILESS, bodde-les, a. Incorporeal, 
without a body. 

BODILY, bdVde-le, a. Corporeal, contain- 
ing body i relating to the body, not the mind ; 
real, aetnal* 

BODILY, b6d'de-le, ad. Corporeally. 

BODKIN. bodTtfo, «. An instrument with 
a small blade and sharp point : an instrument 
to draw a thread or riband through a loop ; 
an instrument to dress the hair. 

BODY, bftd'de, s. The material substance 
of an animal ; matter, opposed to spirit ; a 
person i a human being ; reality, opposed to 
cepretentation ; a collective mass ; the main 
afmy, the battle ; a corporation ; the outward 
condition ; the main part ; a pandect, a gene- 
ral collection ; strength, as wine of a good 

BODY-CLOTHES, bod'de-cloze, #. Cloth- 
ing for horses that are dieted. 
BOG, bog, *. A marsh, a fen, a morass. 

BOG-TROTTER, bdg'tr6t-tur, $. One that 

lives in a boggy country. 
To BOGGLE, Mg'gl, v. n. 405. To start, 

to fly back ; to hesitate. 

BOGGLER, bftg'glur, «. A doubter, a timo- 
rous man. 
BOGGY, bftg'ge, a. 283. Marshy, swamp. 
B()GHOUSE,f)6g'house^. A house of office. 
BO HEA, bo-he', $. A species of tea. 

To BOIL, boll, r. a. 299. To be agitated tor 
heat; to be hut; to be fervent ; to move lisp 
boiling water ; to be in hot liquor. %■ 

To BOIL, boll, v. a. ' To seeth ; to heat 
by putting into boUjng water; to dress in 
bolttnji water. 


BOILER, boll'ur, a. The person that boill 
any thing ; the vessel in which any thing i» 

BOISTEROUS, bols'tlr-us. a. Violent, 
loud, roaring, stormy ; turbulent, furious { 

BOISTEROUSLY, bols'tir-us-le, ad. Vio- 
lently, tumultuousjy. 

BOISTEROUS N ESS, bokter-us-n^i, #. Ta- 

multuousness ; turbulence. 

BOLARY, bo'la-re,a. Partaking of thetsa- 
ture of bole. 

BOLD, bold, a. Daring, brave, stout; exe- 
cuted with spirit ; confident, not scrupulous % 
impudent, rude ; licentious ; standing out to 
the view. — To make Bold, to take freedoms. 

ToBOLDEN,bold'd'n.vji.l08.To make bold. 

BOLDFACE, bold'fase, «. Impudence, 

BOLDFACED, bold'faste, a. Impudent. * 

BOLDLY, bold'le, ad. In a bold manner. 

BOLDNESS. bold'neV. Courage, bravery ; 
exemption from caution ; assurance, impu- 

BOLE, bole, a. The body or trunk of a 
tree ; a kind of earth ; a measure of com con- 
taining six bushels. 

BO LIS, bills, s. Bolis is a great fiery ball, 
swiftly hurried through the air, and generally 
drawing a tail after it. 

BOLL, bole, *. 406. A round stalk or stem. 

BOLSTER, bole'stur. t. Something laid in 
the bed, to support the head ; a pad, or quilt j 
compress for awound. , 

To BOLSTER, bole'stur, e. a. To support 
the head with a bolster ; to afford a bed to ; 
to hold wounds together with a compress \ to 
support, to maintain. 

BOLT, bolt, t. An arrow, a dart, a thun- 
derbolts— Bolt upright, that is, upright as an 
arrow ; the bar of a door ; an iron to fasten 
the legs ; a spot or stain. 

To BOLT, bolt, r. a. To shut or fasten with: 
a bolt ; to blurt out ; to letter, to shackle ; to 
sift, or separate, with a sieve ; to examine, to 
try out ; to purify, or p«rge. r 

To BOLT, bolt, r. n. To spring out with 
speed and suddenness. 

BOLTER, bolt'ui, t. A sieve to separate 
meal from bran. * 

BOLTHEAD, bolfhld, s. A long strait- 
necked class vessel ; a matrass, or receiver. 

BOLTING-HOUSE, bolting-house, ». The. 
place where meal is sifted. 

BOLTSPRIT or BOWSPRIT, bo'sprlt, a. 
A mast running out at the head of a ship, not 
standing upright* but aslope. 

BOLUS, bo'lus, s. A medicine made up 
into a soft mass, larger than pills. 

BOMB, bum.*. 165. A loud noise; a hol- 
low iron ball, or shell, filled with gunpowder, 
and furnished with a vent for a fuse, or wooden 
tube, filled with combustible matter; to be 
thrown out from a mortar. 
£J" 1 do not hesitate to foHow Dr. Kenriek and 

Mr. Hares fn this won), and ail Its compounds, in 

giving the o its fourth sound, equivalent to the second 

, waica makes it rh>sa« with 7Vss. from Ac 

soand of a, though contrary to Mr. Sberfdaii's proonn- 

Johnson's derivation of the 'verb to bump, front 
the tanrs vrli^n as bomf* t nukes tl»c proHUttetsuen 1 
have three snore agreeable to analogy. 


' Dr.Jol 


sir 107, nut 16S— tube 171, tub 172, bull 17S— Ml 299— pound SIS— *Mn 400, this 409 

BOMB-CHEST; bum'tsheat, $. A kind of 

chest filled with bombs, placed under ground, 

to blow up in the air. 
BOMB-KETCH, bfin/keteh, \*. A kind 
BOMB-VESSEL, bumVes-sSl, J of ship, 

strongly built, to bear the shock of a mortar. 
BOMBARD, brWbard, a. A great gun ; a 

barrel for wine. 
To BOMBARD, bom-bird', v. a. To attack 

with bombs. 
BOMBARDIER, onm-blr-dee/, a. 275. The 

engineer whose employment it is to shoot 

BOMBARDMENT, bum-blrd'mint, s. An 

attack made by throwing bombs. 
BOMBASIN, bom-ba'-zeen', s. A slight 

silken smff. 
BOMBAST, bum1>ast,*. Fustian, big words. 
BOMBAST, bom-blsf , a. High-sounding. 
BOMBASTICK, bum-bas'tlk, a. High- 
sounding* pompons. 

EJ» Dr. Aab is the only Lexicographer who has 1b- 
Sv-rted this word ; b«t 1 think its general usage entitles 
it to a place iu the language, especially as it has the 
true adjective termination, ami relieves as from the 
Inconvenience to which oar language la so subject, 
0*ai off having the substantive and adjective of the 
sasaa form; and though, as bombast stands in Dr. 
Johnson, the substantive bus the accent on the last 
syllable, and the adjective on tbe first, contrary, I 
ntink, to the analogy of acfceotuaiton, 494 ; yet this is 
eat a Dangling way of supplying the want or different 
words for different parts of speech —eVe Bowl. 

BOMBUIATION,bom-bu-la/shun,j. Sound, 

BON AROBA, bo'ni-ro'bi, «. A whore. 

BON ASUS, bo-na'sfis, a. A kind of buffalo. 

BONCHRETIEN, bon-kreVtaheen, s. A 
species of pear. 

BOND, bond, #. Cords, or chains, with which 
atty one is bound ; ligament that holds any 
thing together ; onion; connexion ; imprison- 
ment, captivity ; cement of union, cause of 
anion ; a writing of obligation ; law by which 
anv one is obliged 

BONDAGE, bondage, «. 00. Captivity, 

BONDM AID,b6nd'made,s. A woman slave. 

BONDMAN, bond'min, «. 88. A man slave. 

^ONDSER VANT,bo^kd'seV-vanM. A slave. 

BONDSERVICE, b6nd'ser-vis, $. Slavery. 

BONDSLAVE, bond'slave, $. A man in 

BONDSMAN, bondz'min, *. 58. One bound 
for another. 

BONDWOMAN, bond'wum-un, $. A wo- 
man slave. 

BONE, bone, *. The solid parts of the 
body of an animal ; a fragment of meat : a 
bone with as much flesh as adheres to it— To 
make no Bones, to make no scruple ; dice. 

To BONE, bone, v. a. To take out the bones 
from the flesh. 

BONEXACE, bone-Use', *. Flaxen lace. 

BONELESS, boneles, ov Without bones. 

.To BONESET, bone'slt, v. n. To restore a 

btnie out of joint, or join a bone broken. 
BONESETTER, bone'seVtur, *. One who 

makes a practice of s tting bones. 
BONFIRE, boVflre, t. A fire made for 


ty Mr. Sheridan pronounces Oris woid bonef.rt ; 

69 r 

Dr. Keurick, Mr. Scott, Mr. Ferry, and W. Johnston, 
make the first syllable rhyme with don; and though 
in the first edition of this Dictionary I made it rhyme 
with tun, I now prefer tbe sound rhyming with doit. 

B0N6RACE, bon'gris, #. A covering for 

the forehead. 
BONNET, bon'nit, «. 99. A hat, a cap 
BONNETS, bon'nitfl, s. Small sails set 

on the courses of the miazen, mainsail, and 

BONNILY, bfa'ne-le, ad. Gaily, hand- 
BONNtNESS,b6n'tte-n£s,*. Gayety,hand- 
- someness. 
BONNY, bon'ne, a. Handsome, beautiful ; 

gay, merry. 
BONNY-CLABBER, b6n-ne-kliVbur, s. 

Sour buttermilk. 
BONUM MAGNUM, bo'nOm-mag'num, a. 

A great plum. 
BONY, bi'ne, a. Consisting of bones ; full 

of bones. 
BOOBY, boo'be, «. A dull, heavy, stupid 

BOOK, book, s. A volume in which we 

read or write ; a particular part of a work ; 

the register in which a trader keeps an ac- 
count. — In Books, in kind remembrance. — 

Without Book, by memory. 
To BOOR, book, v. a. To register in a book. 
BOOK-KEEPING, book'kfeep-ing, #. The 

art of keeping accounts. 
BOOKBINDER, book / bln-dur, a. A man 

whose profession it is to bind books. 
BOOKFUL, book'fol,*. Crowded with on* 

digested knowledge. 
BOOKISH, bookish, a. Given to books. 
BOOKISHNESS, bMtfsh-nes, a. Over- 

BOOKLEARNED, booklern-ed, a. Veised 

in books. • 

BOOKLEARNING ; b^uka6rn-lng,*. Skill 

iu literature ; acquainted with books. 

BOOKMAN, book-man, «. 88. A man whose 
profession is the study of books. 

BQOKM ATE, book'mate, «. School-fellow. 

BOOKSELLER, book'sil-lfir, «. A man 

. whose profession it is to sell books. 

BOOKWORM, book'wurm, a. A mite that 
eats boles in books J a student too closely fixed 
upon books'. 

BOOM, boom,*. In sea language, a long 
pole used to spread out the clue of the stud- 
ding sail ; a pole with bushes or baskets, set 
up as a mark to show the sailors how to steer ; 
a bar laid across a harbour, to keep out the 

To BOOM,boom,t?.». To rush with violence. 

BOON, boon, «. A gift, a grant. 

BOON, boon, a. Gay, merry. 

BOOR, boor, «. A lout, a clown. 

BOORISH, boorish, a. Clownish, rastick. 

BOORISHLY, bttrlsk-le, ad. After a 
clowuish manner. 

BOORISHNESS, boorlsh-nls, a. Coarse- 
ness of manners. 

To BOOT, boot, v. a. To profit, to advan- 
tage ; to enrich, to benefit. 

BOOT, boot, s. Trofit, gain, fid vantage— 
To Boot, with advantage, urei and above jr— 
| booty, or plunder. 

80S BOT 

& a®. Fate ft, At f 7,rtH 6», Cftt 81— me t», rait 95— pfoe 105,pin 107- no 16?, move 164, 

implies, intimacy, confidence, fondjiess, as, mj 
bosom friend. 

Yy This word is pronounced four ways, ltoswsm. 
^HznMi. end Boowm, the oo like * lu bull ; end 
boozbm, a» cm In tosu*. Sheridan 'and Scott adopt the 
third sound; Perry seems to mark the fourth; Dr. 
Keswick has the eecond and fourth, kmt seems to prefer 
the former ; end W. Johnston has the second ; and 
that is, fa my opinion, the most general : hut the stage 
seems to have adopted the fourth sound, which baa 
given ft a currency afooof polite speakers, and makes 
It the most fashionable. Mr. Elpbiostou, a nice ob- 
server, at well as a deep Investigator, announces the 
second, bat teUs ns that the third was the original pro- 

To BOSOM, boo'zum, «. a. To enclose in the 

bosom ; to Conceal in privacy. 
BOSON, bo'sn, «. 170, 103. Corrupted front 

Boatswain, which see. 
BOSS, bfls, «. A stud ; the part rising in 

the midst of any tiling ; a thick body of any 

BOSSAOE, boVskje, $. GO. Any stone that 

has a projecture. 
BOSVEL, boVvel, «. 448. A species of 

BOTANICAL, bo-tin'e-kil, 4 ) a. Relating to 
BOTANICK, bo-tan'nlk, J herbs,skUled 

in herbs. 

BOTANIST, bflt'd-nlst, s. 60S, b. 54S. One 
skilled in plants. 

BOTANOLOGY, boi-an-ol'A-je, t. A dis- 
coorse upon plants. 518. 

BOTCH, bfttsh, #. S52. A swelling, or 
eruptive discoloration of the skin ; a part in 
any work ill finished 5 an adventitious part 
clumsily added. 

To BOTCH, botsh, v. a. To mend or patch 
clothes clumsily ; to put together unsuitably, 
or unskilfully ; to mark with botches 

BOTCHY, boVtshe, a. Marked with botches 

BOTH, boia, a. 467. The two. 

BOTH, botA, cosy. As well. 

BOTS, b&s, t . Small worms in the entrails 
of horses. 

BOTTLE, bcVtl, «. 405. A small vessel of 
glass, or other matter; a quantity of wiiie 
usually put into a bottle, a quart ; a quantity 
of ha y yr g rass bundled up. 

To BOTTLE, bit'ti, c. a. To enclose in 
bottles. ^ wm m 

BOXTLm^ WER^t^-floi-u^. A plant. 

BOTTLESCREW. b6Y ti-skrM, s. A screw 
to pull out the cork. 

BOTTOM, bottom, s. 166. The lowest part 
of any tiling j the ground under the water ; 
the foundation, the groundwork : a dale, a 
▼alley ; the deepest part ; bound, limit ; the 
utmost of any man's capacity ; the la»t resort ; 
a vessel for navigation ; a chance or security ; 
a ball of thread wound up together. 

To BOTTOM, boftum, v. a. To build up, 

to fix upon as a support; to wind qjhjii 

To BOTTOM, bftt'tum, v. a. To rest upon 
as its support. 

BOTTOMED, boYtom'd, a. 359. Having a 

BOTTOMLESS, boYtum-lls, a. Without a 

bottom, fathomless. 

BOTTOMRY, bo 1 t'tum-re, $. The act of bo*. 

rowing money on a ship's bottom. 

BOOT, b&ot, s. A coming for the leg, used 

by horsemen. 

BOOT OF A COACH, boot, $. Tne place 
under the coach-bos. 

feOOT-HOSE, bWfhoae, i . Stockings to 
serve for boots. 

BOOT-TREE, bo&f tree, s. wood shaped 
like a leg, to be driven iuto boots for stretch- 
ing them. 

BOOT-C ATCHER,bWfkJtsh-mv«. The per- 
son whose business at an Inn is to poll off 
the boots of .passengers. 

BOOTED, boM'Sd, a. In boots. 

BOOTH, booTH, «. A house built of boards 
or boughs. 

BOOTLESS, booties, a. Useless, unavail- 
ing; without -success. 

BOOTY, boo'te, «. PJunder, piMage ; things 
gotten by Yobbery; — To play Booty, to lose by 

BOPEEP, no-pMp', 9. To play Ropeep is 
to look out, and draw back, as if frighted. 

BORACHIO, bovrat'tshjt *> A drunkard. 

BORABLE, bo'rl-bl, a. That may be bored. 

BORAGE, bflr'fdje > <r. 90, 165. A plant. 

BORAX, bo'riks, s. An artificial salt pre- 
pared from sal ammoniac, nitre, calcined tar- 
tar, sea salt, and alum, dissolved in wine. 

BORDEL, boVdel, s. A brothel, a bawdy- 

BORDER, boYdux,*. 08. The outer part or 
edge of any thing ; the edge of a country ; 
the outer part tit a garment adorned with nee- 
dle-work ; a bank raised round a garden, and 

. set with, flowers. 

To BORDER, b&Ydur, v. n. To confine 

•upon ; tA approach nearly to. 
To BORDER, boYdar, e. a. To adorn with 

a border ; to reach, to touch. 
BORDEREfe, boYd&r-ur, s. 655. He that 

dwells on the borders. 

To BORE, bote, «. a. To pierce in a hole. 
To BORE, bore, v.n. To make a hole; to 

push fot wards to a certain point. 
BORE, bore, s. The hole made by boring ; 

the instrument with which a hole is bored ; the 

size of any hole. 
BORE, bore. The preterit of Bear. 
BOREAL, bo 4 re4l, «. Northern. 
BOREAS, bo're-is, a. The north wind. 
BOREE, bo-ree', s. A step in dancing. 
BORN, born. Come, into ike. 

BORNE, borne, Carried, supported. 

£3* See Appendix. 

BOROUGH,bar / ro,s. SI 8,390. A town with 
a corporation. 

Tq BORROW, boVro, e. a. To take some- 
thing from another upon credit: to ask of 
another the use of something for a time ; 
to use t»s one's own, though not belonging 

BORROWER, boYro-fir, s. He that bor- 
rows *, he that takes what is another's. 

BOSCAGE, hoVkaje, *. 90. Wood, or 

BOSKY, boVke, a. Woody. 

BOSOM, boo'zum, s. The breast, the heart j 
the innermost part of an enclosure ; the folds 
of the dress that cover the breast ; the tender 
affections ;«Jfclinaik>n ( desire ; in composition. 



air 1W, »ot i«-t4b« m, t4b 172, b&U 17S-tti 299~pto>d 3i3-«Mn 456, mi 4C9. 

30UD, biud,». An insect which breeds 

hi malt- 
ToBOUGE, boodje, e. a. S15. To swell out. 

BOUGH, bU, *. SIS. Anannora large 

•hoot of a tree. 
BOUGHT, biwt, S19. Preter. of To Buy. 
To BOUNCE, boons*, «. «. To fajl or fly. 

ayafast any thing with great force ; to niAke 

a sodden leap ; to boast, to bully. 
BOUNCE, bo&nse, *- A strong sudden 
a sudden exaefc or noiie ; a boast, a 

BOUNCER, bSAn'sur, «. A boaster, a bully, 
aa empty threatener ; a liar. 

BOTWD, bound,*. SIS. A limit, a boundary ; 
a Suit by which any excursion is restrained j 
a leap, a jump, a spring ; a rebound. 

To BOUND, bound, ©. a. To limit, to ter- 
minate ; to restrain, to confine ; to make to 

To BOUND, bound, r. n. To jump,to spring ; 
to rebound, to fly back. 

BOUND, bound. Part. pass, of Bind. 

BOUND, bound, a. Destined, intending to 
come to any place. 

BOUNDARY, boun'da-re, «. limit, bound. 

AOUNDEN, b&AnMin. Part. pass, of 

Bind. , 

BOraDING-STON&boun'dlng^tone, 7 

BOUND-STONE, boQnd'stone, J 

A stofte to play with. 

BOUNDLESSNESS, bittndles-nes, *. Ex- 
emption Crom limits. 

BOUNDLESS, bound'les, a.- Unlimited, un- 

BOUNTEOUS, boun'tche-us, a. 26S. Libe- 
ral, kind, generous. 

BOUNTEOUSLY, boun'tche-us-le, o4. li- 
berally, generously. ..,,,, 2 

BOUNTEOUSNESS, bifln'tche-us-nfis, *. 
Mnnirkenor, liberality. 

BOUNTIFUL, boun'te-ful, a. liberal, ge- 
nerous, munificent. 

BOUNTIFULLY, boun'te-ful-le, ad. Ii* 

BOUNTIFULNESS,boun'te-ful-nfi8,*. The 
quality of being boumiful, generosity-. 

BOUNTIHEAD, bJ$n / ti-h^d,)*.Goodness, 

BOUNTYHOOD,boun'te-hud, J virtue. 

BOUNTY, boun'te, 8. Generosity, libera- 
lity, munificence. 

To BOURGEON, b&Yjun, t>. *. SIS, 259. To 
sprout, to shoot into branches. 

BOURN, borne. #. A bound, a limit ; a 
brook , a torreut. 
ty 1 have differed from Mr. Sheridan and Dr. 

Keorkk in tbe pronunciation of this word. They 

mate fceoattd as If. written boom , but, if my memory 

Ml me not, it to a rhyme to mourn upon the stage; 

sad Mr. Garrick so pronounced it. 

" That aadlseover'd country, from whose bourn 

• Bo traveller returns."— tMuiftarCs Hamlet. 

I am fortified in this pronunciation by the suffrages 

of Mr. Elpbtaslon, Mr. Mares, and Mr- Smith. 

To BOUSE, booze, t>. n. To drink lavishly. 

BOUSY. boo'ztS, a. Drunken. 

BOUT, bout, «. A turn, as much of an ac- 
tion as is performed at one time.* 


To J&OW, bin, ». a. To bend, or inflect* tof 

beud the body in token of respect or submis- 
sion ; to bend, or incline, in condescension ; 
to depress, to crush. 
To BOW, bou, v. a. To bend, to suffer flex- 
ure ; to make a reverence ; to stoop ; to sink 
under a pressure* 
BOW, boa, *. An act of reverence or sub- 
BOW, bo, s. An instrument of war ; a rain- 
bow ; the instrument with which stringed in- 
struments are play upon ; the doubling of a 
string in a slip knot.— Bow of a ship, that part 
of her which begins at the loof, and suds at 
the sternmost part of the forecastle. 
To BOW, bo. To bend sideways. 

£3* While some words are narrowing and contract- 
ing their original signification, others are dividing and 
subdividing -into a thousand different acceptations. 
The verb to bow rhyming with cow might originally 
signify flexure every way, and to serve for that action 
which made any thing crooked, let its direction be 

what it would : but St appears certain that at present 
it only means that flexure which is vertical, and which 
may be called a bowing down, but is by no means so 
applicable to that flexure which is sideways or hori- 
zontal, and for which necessity seems insensibly to 
have brought tbe verb I have inserted into use. This 
verb seems accompanied by the word out as the other 
is by down, and we may sajrjuch a thing botes down, 
but another thing bows out, or swells sideways : the 
first verb is pronounced so as to rhyme with cow p 
now.icc. and the last with go. no, &c Milton seems 
to have used the word with this sound, where in his 
Penseroso he say— 

" And love the high embowtd roof, 
« With antique pillar's massy proof." 
But as nothing can tend mora to the ambiguity of lan- 
guage than to have the words spelled in the same 
manner sounded differently in oider to distinguish 
their meaning by their pronunciation, I would humbly 
advise to spell the word bow (to shoot with), and the 
verb to bow (to bend sideways), with tbe final «; this 
slight addition will relieve a reader from Jue embar- 
rassment be is under at first sight, where be Is not 
thoroughly acquainted with the circumstances of a re- 
lation, and does not know how to pronounce tbe word 
till he has read the context. For the propriety of this 
additional e, see the words Bowl and Form. 

1 cannot refrain from quoting Mr. Mares on this 
word, as his opinion has great authoiity:— •• A bow 
" for arrows, and to bow, whvn it signifies merely to 
" bend any thing, have ou> like o long. This riisiinc- 
M tion I believe to be right, though our great Lexico- 
" grapher has not noticed It. He gives to bow, in every 
u sense, the regular sound of ow. (that is, rhyming with 
u coo>.^ Hot of this instance th* first and fourth ap 
" pear to be erroneous ; tbe third Is doubtful ; and in 
'< the second tbe word is used to express an Inclina* 
u tion of the body, but metaphorically applied to 
" trees. See the four instances from Shakespeare, 
u Dryden, and Locke, under 'lobow, v. a No. 1." 

A want of attending to the different ideas the word 
bow conveys, as it is differently sounded, has occa- 
sioned the inconsistent sea terms ; the bow of a ship 
rhyming with cow; and an anchor, called the best 
bower, rhyming with hour; and bou; in the word 
bowsprit, rhyming with go, no, &c. 
BOW-BENT, bo'bent, a. Crooked. 
BOW-HAND, bo^and,«. The hand that 

draws the bow. ^ _. • . 

BOW-LEGGED, bolegd, «. 869. Having 

crooked legs. 
BOWELS, boa'Sls, «. Intestines, the Teasels 

nnd organs within the body ; tbe inner parts 

of any thing; tenderness, compassion. 
BOWER, bou'ur, *. 08. An arbour ; it seenis 

to signify, in Spenser, a blow, a stroke. 
BOWER, bon'or, «. An anchor so calks!. 



& 550. Ftte 73, ffr 77, fall 8»,ftt 81— me OS, mit i*— pine 10ft, pin 107— no 101, store 164. 

To BOX bftki, «. a. To enclose In a box. 

BOX, bolts, s, A blow on the head giren 

with the hand. 
To BOX, b4ks, v. *. To fight with the fist. 

BOXEN, boVsn, a. 108. Made of box, re . 
sera tiling boi. 

BOXER, triks'Qr, t. A man who fights with 
his fists. 

BOY, boe, $. 483. A male child, not a girl ; 
one in the state of adolescence, older than an 
infant ; a word of contempt fur young men. 

BOYHOOD, b&hQd, t. The state of a 

BOYISH, boelsh, «. Belonging to a boy ; 
childish, trifling. 

BOYISHLY, boe'ish-le, ad. Childishly, 


BOYISHNESS, boe'lah-nes, e. Childish- 
ness, triflingness. 

BOYISM, boelmn, s. Puerility, childish- 

BRABBLE, bdtt/bl. a. 405. A clamorous 

To BRABBLE, bral/M, v. n. To content 

BRABBLER, brablur, t. A clamorous noisy* 

To BRACE, brase, v. a. To bind, to tie 
close with bandages ; to strain up. 

BRACE, brase, t. Cincture, bandage ; that 
which holds any thing tight — Braces of a 
coach, thick straps ot leather on which it 
hangs.— Braces in printing, a crooked liae 
enclosing a passage, as in a triplet ; — tension, 

BRACE, brase, a. A pair, a couple. 

BRACELET, brasel£t, $. An ornament for 
the arms. 

ty I have, In tht pronunciation of ibis word, made 
tht a long and slender, as In brace, as 1 and ii in Dr, 
Kenrlck, W. Johnston, Mr. Perry, and air. Scott ; 
and not short, as in brass, as Mr. Sheridan lias marked, 
it; aod which. I believe, is the prevailing pronuncle* 
tioa In Ireland: for though many compouuds shorten 
the vowel in the simple, as is shown at Urge in Hie 
Principles of Pronunciation, 90S, S16; yet I Ibiiik 
sack words are exceptions as are only diminutive*, 
plarals and feminine*.— St* Patroness. 

BRACER, bra'sur, «. 98. A cincture, a 

BRACH, britsh, *. 252. A bitch hound. 

BRACHIAL, brik'yil, a UZ. Belonging 
to the arm* 

BRACHYORAPHY, brt-klg'gri-fe, t . The 
art or practice of writing iu a short com* 
pass. 353. 

BRACK, brtk, «. A breach. 

BRACKET, brak'kh, «. 99. A niece of 
wood fixed lor the support of something. 

BRACKISH, brak'tsh, a Salt, something 

BRACKJSHNESS,brik1flhn^. Saitness. 

BR.4D, brld, s. A sort of nail to floor rooms 

To BRAG, brig, v. n. To boast, to display 

BRAG, brig; *. A boast, a proud exprea- 

BOWERY, boMr-re, a. Pull of bowers. 

BOWL, bole, #. A vessel to hold liquids ; 
the hoi low part of any thing ; a basin, a foun- 
tain.— See toe next word. 

BOWL, bole, s. Round mass rolled along 

the ground. 

£3* Many respectable speakers pronounce this word 
so as to rhyme with ham, the noise made by a dog. 
Dr. Johnson, Mr. Elphinston, and Mr. Perry, de- 
clare for It ; bat Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, Dr. Ken- 
rick, and Mr. Smith, pronounce it as the vessel to hold 
liquor, rhyming with hole. I remember having been 
corrected by Mr. Ocrrick for pronouncing it like 
hsvt: and am upon the whole of opinion that pro- 
nouncing It as 1 have marked It is the preferable mode, 
though the least analogical. Bat as the vessel has in- 
disputably ibis sound, it is rendering the language still 
more irregular to give the ball a uisTerent one. The 
Inconvenience of this Irregularity is often perceived 
In the word 6010. To have the same word signify dif- 
ferent things, is the fate of all languages J but pronounc- 
ing the same word differently, to signify different 
things is multiplying difficulties without necessity: 
for though It may be alleged that a different pronun- 
ciation of the same word to signify a different thing is in 
some measure remedying the poverty and ambiguity of 
language, it may be answered,- that It Is in realhy In- 
creasing the ambiguity by setting the eye and ear at va- 
riancc,and obliging the reader to understand the context 
before he can pronounce the word. It may be urged that 
the Greek unci Latin languages bad these ambiguities In 
words which were only distinguishable by their quan- 
tity or accent. But it is highly probable that the 
Greek language had a written accent to distinguish 
such words as were pronoonsed differently to signify 
different things, and this is equivalent to a different 
-spelling ; and though the Latin word lego signified ei- 
ther to read or to send, according to the quantity with 
which the first syllable was pronounced, It was eer* 
talnly an Imperfection in that language which ought 
not to lie imitated. Ideas and combinations of ideas 
will always be more numerous than words ; and there- 
fore the same word will often stand for yory different 
Ideas : but altering tun sound of a word, without alter- 
ing the spelling, in funning an unwritten language. 

To BOWL, Kile, v. a. To play at bowls; 

to throw bowls at any thing. 
BOWLER, bol&r, a. He thai plays at 


BOWLINE, boalin, *. A rope fastened to 
the middle part of the outside of a sail. 

BOWLING-GREEN, boring-green, t. A 
level piece of ground, kept smooth for bowlers. 

BOWMAN, bo'mln, s. 88. An archer. 

30 WSPRIT, bo'sprft, *. Boltsprit; which 

BOWSTRING, bo'string, *. The string by 

which the bow is kept bent 
BOW-WINDOW, boVin'do. 

fT Dr. Johnson derives this word, and, perhaps 
Justly, from Bay-window, or u window forming a 
bay In. the Internal part of the room ; but present cus 
|om has universally agreed to call these windows taw* 
windows, from the curve, like a bow, which they form 
by jutting outwards. However original and jnst, 
therefore. Dr. Johnson's derivation may be, there Is 
•tittle hope •ofa<c.enformity to it, either In wilting or 
pronunciation, while there is apparently so good an 
etymology, both for sense and sound, to support the 
present practice.— o>e 7b Bow. 

BOWYER. bo'yojr, «. 96. An archer; one 
whose trade is to make bows. 

BOX, a b6ks, a. A tree; the wood of it. 

BOX, bolts, s. A case made of wood, or 
other matter, to hold any thing ; the case of 
the mariner's compass j the cheat into which 
Money pot; seat in the play-house. 


sion ; the thtng boasted* 


utr 167, ndt MS-tfl* 171, tit 178, bft]l 17$— til 29*-pouiid Sl*-.fMu 460, thm 400. 

BRAGGADOCIO, brlg-gl-do'ahe-o, *. A 

peauasr* boosting fellow. 
BRAGGART, brig-girt, «. 88. Boastful, 

BRAGGART, braggart,*. A boaster. 
BRA GOER, braWgur, s. 96. A boaster. 
BRAGLESS, bridles, «. Without a boast 
BRAGLY, brsVtt, a* Finely. 
To BRAID, bride, v. a. To weave together. 
BRAID, bride, «. A texture, a knot. 
■RAILS, br&b, *. Small ropes reeved 

tkruagh blocks. 

BRAIN, brine, «. That collection of vessels 
aad organs in the heed, from which sense and 
snrfion arise ; the understanding. 

lb BRAIN, bribe,*.*. To kill by beating out 
the brain. 

BR AINISH, briuelsh, a. Hotheaded, fu- 

BRAINLESS, branelea, a. Silly. 
BRAINPAN, brane'pin, s. The skull con- 
taining the brains. 

BRAINSICK, braue'sik, a. Addleheaded, 

B£ufblCn^Y,bran^s&.le,ad. Weakly, 

B8AINSICKNESS, brane'sik-n&, s. In- 
discretion, giddiness. 

BRAKE, brake. The preterit of Break. 

BRAKE, brake, s. Fern, brambles. 

BRAKE, brake, s. An instrument for dress- 
ing heap or flax ; the handle of a ship's 
pomp ; a baker's kneading-trough. 

BRAKY, brail, a. Thorny, prickly, rough. 

BRAMBLE. braWbl, s. 405. Blackberry 
Sato, dewberry bosh, raspberry bosh j any 
loegh prickly shrub. 

BRAMBUNG,br4m^lkg,s. A bird, called 
also the mountain chaffinch* 

BRAN, brands. The husks of com ground. 

BRANCH, brlntsh, s. S62, 78. The shoot 
•fa tree froni one of toe main boughs ; any 
distant article ; any part that shoots out from 
the rest ; a smaller river running into a larger : 
any part of a family descending in a collateral 
fine ; the offspring, the descendant J the ant- 
lers or shoots of a stag's born. 

To BRANCH, brlntsh, r. n. To spread in 
aaauehes ; to spread into separate parts ; to 
speak diffusively ; to have bonis shooting out. 

To BRANCH, brlntsh, t>. a. To divide as 
into branches ; to adorn with needlework. 

BRANCHER, brf n'tshur, s. One that shoots 
oat into branches ; m falconry, a young hawk. 

BRANCmNESS,branshe-nls,s. Fulness 

BRANCHLESS, branshles, a. Without 
•hoots or boughs j naked. 

BRANCHY, brin'she, a. Full of branches 

BRAND, brand, «. A stick lighted, or fit 
ts he lighted ; a sword ; a thunderbolt ; a mark 
uude by burning with a not iron. 

To BRAND, brand, v. a. To mark with a 
sate of hdamy. 

BsUNI>GOOSE,bra^'goos,*. A kind of 

""" »w r . 

To BRANDISH, brln'dish, t>. a. To ware 

or shake ; to play with, to flourish. 

BRANDLING, brandling, *. A particular 

BRANDY, brln'de?*. A strong liquor dis- 
tilled from wine. 

BRANGLE, brlng'gl, s. 406. Squabble, 

To BRANGLE, brlng'gl, v. «. 406. To 
wrangle, to squabble. 

BRANK, brink, s. Buckwheat. 

BRANNY, brln'ne, a. Having the appear- 
ance of brau. 

BRASIER, bra'zhur, $. 28S. A manufac- 
turer that works ir. brass ; a pan to hold coals. 

BRASIL, or BRAZIL, brl-seel', t. An 
American wood, commonly supposed to have 
been thus denominated, because first brought 
from Brasil. 

BRASS, bras, *. A yellow metal, made by 
mixing copper with lapis ealaurinaris ; im- 

BRA9SINESS, rjriVse-ne'a, s. An appear- 
auce like brass. 

BRASSY, bris'se, a. Partaking of brass ; 
hard as brass ; impudent. 

BRAT, brlt, s. A child, so called in con- 
tempt ; the progen v, the offspring. 

BRAVADO, brl-va'do, $. A boast, a brag. 
— See Lumbago. 

BRAVE, brave, a. Courageous, daring, 
bold ; gallant, having a noble mien } magnifi- 
cent, grand ; excellent, noble. 

BRAVE, brave, $ . A hector, a man daring 
beyond prudence or fitness ; a boast, a chal- 

To BRAVE, brave, v. a. To defy, to chal- 
lenge ; to carry a boasting appearance. 

BRAVELY, bravele, ad. In a brave man- 
ner, courageously, gallantly. 

BRAVERY, bra'vur-re, s. 666. Courage, 
magnanimity : splendour, magnificence j show, 
ostentation ; bravado, boast. 

BRAVO, bravo, «. Spanish. A man who 
murders for hire. 

To BRAWL, brawl, ». *. To quarrel noisily 
and indecently ; to speak loud and indecent- 
ly ; to make a noise. 

BRAWL, brawl, «. Quarrel, noise,8currility. 

BRAWLER, briwlur, s. A wrangler. 

BRAWN, brawn, *. The fleshy or mus- 
culo™ part of the body; the arm, so called 
from its being mu«culrms j bulk, muscular 
strength ; the flesh of a hoar ; a boar. 

BRAWNER, briVnui, s. A boar killed for 
the table. 

BRAWNINESS, biiw'ne-nes, $. Strength, 

BRAWNY, braw'ne, a. Musculous, fleshy, 

To BRAY, bra, r. a. To pound, or. grind 

To BRAY, bra, v. *. To make a noise as an 

ass ; to make an offensive noise. 
BRAY, bra, s. Noise, sound. 
BBAYER, bra'ur, s. One that brays like 



ft? 510. ttte 71,rtr 77, fill 83,flt 81— me 98, mettt— pk« 10S, pm 107—BO16*, sseWe 1*4* 

an ass ; with printers, an instrument to tem- 
per the ink* 

To BRAZE, Into, v. «. To adder with 
brass ; to harden to impudence. 

BRAZEN, brsYsn, «. lift Made of brass ; 
proceeding from brass ; impudent 

To BRAZEN, bra'an,e. ft. To be impudent, 
to bull j. 

BRAZENFACED bra'xn4ase, *. An impu- 
dent wretch. 

BRAZENFACED, fam'zn-faate, «. 86U Im- 
pudent, shameless. 

BRAZENNESS, bra'zn-nls, «. Appearing 
like brass; impudence. 

BRAZIER, braze'y&r, «. 283.— See Br osier. 

BREACH, breetsh, «. The act of breaking 

any thing ; the state of being broken ; a gap in 
a fortification made by a battery ; the viola- 
tion of a law or contract ; difference, quar- 
rel ; infraction, injury. 

BREAD, brid, «. Food made of ground 

corn ; food in general ; support of life at large. 
BREAD-CHIPPER, brk'tship-ur, *. A 

baker's servant. 
BREAD-CORN,brea"korn,f. Corn of which 

bread is made. 
BREADTH, brldfA, *. The measure of any 

plain superficies from side to side. 

To BREAK, brake, «. a. 240, 242. To burst, 
or open by force ; to divide *, to destroy by 
violence ; to overcome, to surmount ; to batter, 
to make breaches or gaps iu ; to crush or de- 
stroy the strength of the body ; to sink or 
appal the spirit ; to subdue ; to crush, to dis- 
able, to Incapacitate ; to weaken the mind ; 
to tame, to train to obedience ; to make bank- 
rupt ; to crack the skin ; to violate a contract 
or promise j to infringe a law ; to intercept) 
to biuder the effect of ; to interrupt ; to sepa- 
rate company ; to dissolve any union ; to open 
something new. — To Break the back, to dis- 
able one's fortune.— To Break ground, to open 
trenches. —To Break the heart, to destroy 
with gTief.— To Break the neck, to lux, or put 
out the neck joints.— To Break off, to put a 
sodden stop.— To Break off, to dissolve,— *Tp 
Break up, to separate or disband. — To Break 
upon the wheel, to punish by stretching a cri- 
minal upon the wheel, and breaking his bones 
with bats. — To Break wind to give vent to 
wind in the body. 

To BREAK, brake, v. n. To part in two; 
to burst by dashing, at waves on a rock ; to 
open and discharge matter ; to open as the 
rooming; to burst forth, to exclaim: to be- 
come bankrupt; to decline in health and 
strength; to make way with some kind of 
suddenness, to come to an explanation; to 
fall out, to be friends no longer ; to discard. 
— To Break from, to separate from with 
■ome vehemence' — To Break in, to enter on* 
expectedly. — To Break loose, to escape from 
captivity.— To Break off, to desist suddenly.— 
To Break off from, to part from with violence. 
—To Break out, to discover itself in sadden 
effects. — To Break out, to have eruptions 
from the body. — To Break out, to become 
dissolute. — To Break up, to cease, to inter- 
mit. — To Break up, to dissolve itself. — To 
Break up, to begin holidays.— To Break with, 
to part friendship with any. 

BREAK, biuke, s. State of being broken, 


opening; • pome, «n interruption; 
drawn, noting that the sense U suspended. 

BREAKER, orA'k&r, s. He that breaks 

any thing ; a wave broken by rocks or sand- 

To BREAKFAST, breVttst, *. ». 284, 615. 

To eat the tirat meal in the day. 
BREAKFAST, brek'fast, s. 88. The first 

meal in the day ; the thing eaten at the xUst 
meal ; a meal in general. 

BREAKNECK, tarake'n&k,*. Asteepplaoa 

endangering the neck. 
BRE AKPROMffiE, brake Vom-k, *. One 
that makes a pmotice of breaking his pro- 

BREAM, (bvexne, «. The same of a fish. 

BREAST, brest, s. The middle part of the 
human body, between dieneok and the~be|jjr 3 
the dugs or teats of women, which contain the 
milk ; the part of a beast that is under the 
neck, between the forelegs; the heart; the 
conscience ; the passions. 

To BREAST, brest, c. a. To moot id 

BREASTBONE, breWbone, «. Hie bone of 

the breast, the sternum. 

BREASTHIGH, bsist-bl, «. Up to the 

BREASTHOOKfi, brisfheoks, *. With 

shipwright*, the compassing timbers before, 

that hefp to strengthcu the stem and all the 

forepart of the ship* 

BREASTKNOT, brfet<ndt, «. A knot or 
bunch of ribands worn by the women on the 

BREASTPLATE, bresfplate, *. Armour 
for the breast. 

BREASTPLOUGH, bi est'plM, «. A plough 
used for paring turf, driven by the breast. 

BREASTWORK, bresfwurk, $. Works 
thrown up as high as the breast ef the de- 

BREATH, brefm, a. 437. The air drawn ix& 

and ejected out of the body ; life ; reapi. 
ration ; respite, pause, relaxation ; breeze, 
moving air ; a single act, an instant. 

To BREATHE, breTHe, v. it. 487. Todrmw 
in and throw out the air by the lungs ; to live ; 
to rest ; to take breath ; to inject by breathing j 
to eject by breathing ; to exercise ; to now -. 
or actuate by breath ; to otter privately - to 
give air or vent to. j 

BREATHER, Tjre'THur, #. One that breathes 

or lives. 

BREATHING, bre'THmg, *. Aspiration 

secret prayer ; breathing place, vent. 

BREATHLESS, breta'lls, a. Out of breath, 

spent with labour ; dead. 

BRED, bred. Part. pass, from To breed* 
BREDE, brede, s.— See Bnrid. 

BREECH, breetsh, t. 247. The lower part 
of the body ; breeches ; the binder part of 
piece of ordnance. 

To BREECH, breetsh, v. a. 247. To p U 

into breeches ; to fit any thing with 1 " 
as to breech a gum 

BREECHES, brkdtfz, r. 447, §9 
garment worn by men over the fer 


air 1«. tit 16«-tAbe 171, tftb 1T1, bill US— Hi S00-fUadtl>-Mb46a k TH»«ft, 

To BRICK* brik, v. a. To lay with bricks. 
BRICKBAT, brlk'bdt, a. A piece of brick. 

BRICKCLAY, brfoVkla, a. Clay used for 

making bricks. ^ 

BRICKDUST, brik'dost, a. Bust made by 
pounding brick*. 

BRICK-KILN, btuVkll, a. A kihi, a place 
to burn bricks id. 

BRICKLAYER, bifctt-ur, a. A briok 

BRTCKMAKER, br?k'ma-kftr, a. One whose 
trade it is to make bricks. 

BRIDAL, brl'dil, a. Pelonging to a wed- 
ding, nuptial. 

BRIBE, bride, a. A woman new married* 

BRIDEBEB, bride'bid, a. Marriage bed. 

BRIDECAKE, brlde'kkke, a. A cake dis- 
tributed to the guests at the wedding. 

BRIDEGROOM, brlde'groom, a. A new 
married num. 

BRIDEMEN, brlde'min, \s. The attend- 
BRn>EMAIDS,brlde'mid£,J ants on the 
bride and bridegroom. 

BRIDESTAKE, bride'stake, a. A post set 
in the ground to dance round* 

BRIDEWELL, bride'wll, a. A house of 
correction. * 

BRIDGE, brfdje, a. A building raised 
over water for the convenience of passage; 
the upper part of tbe nose ; the supporter of 
the strings in stringed instruments of nu- 

To BRIDGE, bridje, v. a. To raise a bridge 
over any place. 

BRIDLE, bri'dl, a. 405. The headstall and 
reins bj which a horse is restrained and go- 
verned ; a restraiut, a curb, a check. 

To BRIDLE, bri'dl, r. a. To guide by a 
bridle ; to restrain, to govern. 

To BRIDLE, bri'dl, v. a. To hold up the 

BRIDLEHAND, brl'dl-hand, a. The hand 
which holds the bridle in riding. 

BRIEF, breef, a Short, concise ; contract- 
ed, narrow. 

BRIEF, breef, a. A short extract, or epi- 
' tome; the writing given to the pleaders, con- 
taining the case ; tetters patent, giving license 
to a charitable collection ; in musick, a mea- 
sure of quantity, which contains two strokes 
down in beating time, and as many up. 

BRIEFLY, brelf-le, ad. Concisely, in few 

BRIEFNESS, brief nea, a. Conciseness, 

BRIER, brt'ur. a. 98, 418. A plant. 

BRIERY, brl'orrre, a. 655. Rough, fall of 

BRIGADE, bre-gkde', a. 117. A division 
of forces, a body of men. 
jen'er-il, a. An officer next in order 
below a major-general. 275. 
BRIO ANftI^brVln-d!ne,150. )a. Alight 
BRIGANTINE.brtg'an-tine, } vessel, 
such as has been formerly used by corsairs or 
pirates; acoatofmaii. 

of the body ; to wear the breeches is, in 
a wife, to usurp the authority of tbe husband. 
To BREED, breeds ». a. To procreate, to 
generate ; to occasion, to cause, to produce ; 
to contrive, to hatch, to plot; to produce 
from one's self; to give birth to ; to educate, 
to qualify by education ; to bring up, to take 
care of* 

Tb BREED, breed, v. a. To bring young; 
to increase by new production; to be pro- 
daced, to nave birth ; lo raise a breed. 

BREED, breed, a. A cast, a kind, a sub- 
division of species; progeny, offspring ; a 
number produced at once, a hatch. 

BREEDBATE, bried'bata, a. One that 
breeds quarrels. 

BREEDER, brte'dur, s. 08. That which 
produces slay thing ; the person which brings 
np another ; a female that is prolifick ; one 
that takes care to raise a breed. 

BREEDING, breeding, s. Education, in- 
struction; qualifications; manners, know- 
ledge of ceremony; nurture. 

BREEZE, brees,a. A stinging fly. 

BREEZE, brees, a. A gentle gale. 

BREEZY, breeze, ad. Fanned with gales. 

BRET, brit, a. A fish of the tnrbot kind. 

BRETHREN, breWren, a. The plural of 

BREVIARY, breve'yi-re, a. 507. An abridg- 
ment, an epitome; the book containing die 
daily service of the Church of Rome. 

tT AH *or ortboepfus bat Mr. Perry proooaace the 
am ivilabJe of ibis word long ; bat If aetaortty were 
aileaf, analogy woald decide for the pronunciation I 
bare givea. 534. 

BREVI AT, breve'yit, a. US A short com- 

BREY1ATURE, breve/ 4-tshure, a. An 

abbreviation. 465, 113- 
BREVITY, breVe^te, a. 511. Conciseness, 

Tb BREW, brio, a. a. «fc9. To make li- 
quors by nixing several ingredients ; to pre- 
pare by mixing things together ; to connive, 

Tb BREW, brio, a. a. To perform the office 

mJk gk auawss^aw^Kv' 

BREWAGE, broolfle, a. 00. Mixture of 
various tilings. 

BREWER, broo'&r, a. A man whose pro- 
fession it is to make beer. 

BREW HOUSE, brooTioQS, t. K house ap- 
propriated to brewing* 

BREWING, bitting, s. 410. Quantity of 
liquor brewed. 

BKEWIS, broola, a A place of bread 
aoaked in boUiug fat pottage, made of salted 

BRIBE, bribe, a. A reward givan to per- 

wert the judgment. 
Ta BRIBE, bribe, v.c T6 give bribes. 
BRIBER, bcVbir, a. 96. # One that pays for 

curropt practices. 

BRIBERY, brtbir-re, a. 555. The crime of 

taking rewards for had practices. 
BRICK, bA, a. A mass of burnt day; a 





tt 550. Fate Xl,ftr 77, fill 83, fit 81- ml OS, mlt 96— pine MS, pin 107— no 102, m6v* 164 

BRINK, brink, s. The edge of any places 
as of a precipice or a river. 

BRINY, brine, a. Salt. 

BRISK, brisk, a. Lively, vivacious, gay ; 
powerful, spirituous j vivid, bright. 

BRISKET, brls'klt, t. 09. The bi east of an 

BRISKLY, briskle, ad. Actively, vigo- 

BRISKNESS, brisk'nea, $. .Liveliness, ri- 

fcT A ' 1 oor ©rthoeplsts sound tht last I In this word 

loug ; aud yet my memory fails me if the slag « dots 

not pronounce It short: a pronunciation to which the 

stage it very prune, as Valentin* Cvmbellne, See. 

are heard on the stage as if wnluen Valentin, Cj/mbf 

u Von may remember, scarce three years are past, 
" When in yoar brigatUime yoa sail'd to see 
" The Adriatic wedded by our Duke, 
■« And 1 was with yoa." Venice Preserved. 

BRIGHT, brke, a. Shining, glittering, 
full of light j clear, evident ; illustrious, as 
a bright reign; witty, acute, as a bright 
genius. , 

To BRIGHTEN, brrtn, v. a. 103. To make 
bright, to make to shine ; to make luminous 
by Tight from without ; to make gay, or alert ; 

' to make illustrious ; to make acute. 

To BRIGHTEN, brl'ta, v. n. To grow bright, 
to clear up. 

BRIGHTLY, brltele, ad. Splendidly, with 

BRIGHTNESS, brlte'nis, t. JLustre, splen- 
dour ; acuteness. • 

BRILLIANCY, brll'yan-si, $. Lustre, splen- 

BRILLIANT, brll'yant, a. 118. Shining, 

BRILLIANT, brll'yant, $. A diamond of 
the finest cut. 

BRILLIANTNBBS, bilTyant-nea, s. Splen- 
dour, lustte. 

BRIM., brim, t . The edge of any thing ; the 
upper edge of any vessel ; the top of any li- 
qiror ; the bank or a fountain. 

To BRIM, brim, v. a. To fill to the top. 

To BRIM, brim, v. a. To be full to the brim. 

BRIM FUL, brimful , a. Full to the top. 

BRIMFULNESS,brim'fal-nes,*. Fulness to 
the top. 

BRIMMER, brim'mur, «. A bowl full to the 

BRIMSTONE, brimstone, «. Sulphur. 

BRIMSTONY, brim'sto-ne, a. Full of brim- 

BRINDED, brin'did, v. Streaked, Ubby. 

BRINDLE,'dl, s. 405, »59. The state 
of being, brinded. 

BRINDLED, brin'dld, a. 405. Brinded, 

BRIN E, brine, *. Water impregnated with 
salt, the sea ; tears. 

BRINEPIT, brine'plt, s. Pit of salt water. 

To BRING, bring, v. a. 408, 400. To fetch 
from another place ; to convey in one's own 
hand, not to send ; to cause to come ; to at- 
tract, to draw alone j to put into any parti- 
cular state ; to conduct ; to induce, to prevail 
upon.—- To Bring about, to bring to past, to 
effect. — To Brine forth, to give birth to, to 
produce.—- To Bring in, to reclaim. — To Bring 
in, to afford gain. — To Bring off, to clear, to 
procure to hi acquitted. — To Bring on, to 
engage in action. — To Bring over, to draw to 
a new party. — To Bring out, to exhibit, to 
show.— To Bring under, to subdue, to repress. 
— To Bring up, to educate, to instruct. — To 
Bring up, to bring into practice. 

BRINGER, brW&r, *• 400. The person that 
brings any thing. 

BRINISH, brl'nlsh, a. Having the taste of 
brine, salt. 

BRIN ISHKESS, btfnfsh-nes, s . Saltaess. 


gour, quickness *, gayety. . 

BRISTLE, brls'sl, «. 405, 472. The stiff hair 
of swine. 

To BRISTLE,brls's],n. a. To erect in bristles. 

To BRISTLE, brlssl, v. a. To stand eiect aa 

BRISTLY,brlsle, a. Thick set with bristle*. 

BRISTOL STONE, brUtol-fltone, j. A kind 
of soft diamond found iu a rock near the city 
of Bristol. 

BRIT, brlt, *. The name of a fish. 

BRITTLE, brlftl, a. 405. Fi agile, apt tt> 

BRITTLENESS, brlftl-nSs, s. Aptness te- 

BRIZE, brlze, t. The gadfly. 

BROACH, brotsh, *. 295. A spit 

To BROACH, brotsh, v. a. To spit, to pierce 
as with a spit ; to pierce a vessel in order to 
draw the liquor ; to open any store ; to give 
out, to utter any thing. 

BROACHER, brotsh'ur, *. A spit; an open. 
er, or utterer of any thing. 

BROAD, brawd, a. 205. Wide, extended 
in breadth ; large ; clear, open ; gross, coarse j 
obscene, fulsome ; bold, not delicate, uot re- 

BROAD CLOTH, brawd'cltok, t . A fine 
, kind of cloth. 

To BROADEN, braw'dn, r. a. 10*. To 
grow broad* 

BROADLY, hrWle, ad. In a broad 

BROADNESS, briwd'aes, $. Breadth, ex- 
tent from side to side ; coarseness, fulsomeneas. 

BROADSIDE, briwd'slde, s. The side of a 
ship ; the volley of shot fired at once from tht 
side of a ship. 

BROADSWORD, briwd'sord, «. A cutting 
sword, with a broad blade. 

BROADWISE, briwd'wlze, ad. 140. Ac- 
cording to the direction of the breadth. 

BROCADE, bro-kade', *. A silken stuff 

BROCADED, bro-ka'd&l, a. Drest in bro- 
cade ; woven in the manner of brocade. 

BROCAGE, broTddje, «. 90. The gain gotten 
by promoting bargains ; the hire given fur any 
unlawful office ; the trade of dealing iu vA 

BROCCOLI, brokTto-lc, s. A species of 

BROCK, brok, «. A badger. 

BROCKET, brftklcit, s. 90. A red deer, 
two years old. 

BROGUE, brog, s. 137. A kind of shoe $ a 
corrupt dialect. 

To BROIDER, broe'dor. *. a. To adotn ! 
with figures of needle-work. 

BROIDERY, broe'dur-re. s. 555. Emb 
d«ry, flower-work* 


mti 167, oft lfiS—tibe 171, tub 173, bill ITS — Ml 290— poind SIS— Min 406, this 469. 

BROIL, bshll, j. A tumult, a quarrel. 

To BROIL, broil, o. a. To dress or cook by 

Lying on the coals. 
To BROIL, brill, e. a. To be in the heat. 
BROKE, broke, preterimperfect tense of the 

verb To break. 
To BROKE,broke, 9. a. To transact business 

for others. 
BROKEN, brokn. 10S. Partpass. of Break. 
BROKEN-HEARTED, bro'kn-har't&l, a. 

Having the spirits crushed by grief or fear. 
BROKENLY, bro'kn-le, ad. Without any 

regular series. 

BROKER, brokrjr, $. A factor, one that does 
business for another £ one who deals in old 
household goods ; a pimp, a match-maker. 

BROKERAGE, bri'knr-idje, $. 90. The 
pay or reward of a broker. 

BRONCHOCELE, brdnko-a&e, #. A tu- 
mour of that part of the aspera arteria called 
the Bronchos. 

BRONCHIAL, brftn'ke-al,') a. Belonging 
BRONCHICK, bron'kik, J to the throat. 

BRONCHOTOMY, bron-kotto-me, $. The 
operations which opens the windpipe by in- 
cision, to prevent suffocation. 518. 

BRONZE, bronze, t. Brass; a medal. 

BROOCH, brootsh, s. A jewel, an ornament 
of jewels. 

To BROOD, brood, ». a. To sit on eggs, to 
hatch then; to cover chickens under the 
wing; to watch; or consider any thing anx- 
ioasly ; to mature any thing by care. 

To BROOD, brood, v. a. To cherish by care, 
to hatch. 

BROOD, brood, s. Offspring, progeny; 
generation ; a hutch* the number hatched at 
once ; the act of covering the eggs. 

BROODY, broo'de, a. In a state of sitting 

on the eggs. 
BROOK, brook, «. A running water; a 

To BROOK, brook, v. a. To bear, to endure. 
Te BROOK, brook, v. n. To endare, to be 

•on tent. 

BROOKLIME, brookllme, t. A sort of 
water ; an herb. 

BROOM, broom, *. A shrub, a besom so 
called from the matter of which it is made. 

BROOBfLAND, broomland, *. Land that 

BROOM STAFF, broom'staf, «. The staff to 
which the broom is bound. 

BROOMY, broo'me,a. Fnll of broom. 
BROTH, broik,*. liquor in which flesh 

BROTHEL, broWel, U. A 

BROTHEL-HOUSE, brora'e^bouscjbaw- 

BROTHER, brSm'ir, s. 96. One born of 
the same father or mother ; any one closely 
■sited ; any one resembling another in man- 
ner, form, or profession. Brother is used* in 
theological language, for man in general. 

BROTHERHOOD, bffai'ur-hud, $ The 
^ ~ r quality of being a brother; an asso- 
of men for any purpose, a fraternity j a 
men of the same kind. 

BROTHERLY, brrWur-le, a. Natural 

to brothers, such as becomes or beseems a 

BROUGHT, brtwt. S9S. Part. pass, of 

BRO W,broft^. The arch of hair oyer the eye* 

forehead ; the general air of the countenance j» 

To BROWBEAT, brdu'bete, r. a. To de- 

tbe edje of atiyjiigh pJoce. 

press with stern looks. 
BROWBOUND, broul>ound, a. Crowned. 
BROWSICK, broi'sik, a. Dejected. 
BROWN, bro&n, a. The name of a colour. 
BROWNBILL, broun'bll, s. The ancient 

weapon of the English foot. 

BROWNNESS, bri&n'nls, *. A brown 

BROWNSTUDY,bro&n-stud'de,«. Gloomy 

To BROUSE, bronze, e. a. To eat branches 
or shrubs. 

To BRUISE, bro&ze, r. a. 34S. To crash 01 
mangle with a heavy blow. 

BRUISE, brooze,*. A hurt with something 
blunt and heavy. 

BRUISEWORT, bi oWwo. t, *. Comfrey. 
BRUIT, broot, s. 343. Rumour, noise, 

BRUMAL, broo'mal, a. Belonging to the 

BRUNETT, brio-net', *. A woman with a 
brown complexion. 

BRUNT, brunt, «. Shock, violence ; blow, 

BRUSH, brush, *. An instrument for rub* 

bing ; a rude assault, a shock. 
To BRUSH, brush, «. a. To sweep or rub 

with a brush ; to strike with quickness ; to 

paint with a brush. 

To BRUSH, brush, e. a. To move with 
haste ; to fly over, to skim lightly. 

BRUSHER, brush'ur, *. He that uses a 

BRUSHWOOD, brush'wood, *. Rough 
shrubby thickets. 

BRUSHY, brish'e, a. Rough or shaggy, 
like a brush. 

To BRUSTLE, brus'sl, v. a. 472. To crackle. 

BRUTAL, broo'tal, a. S4S. That which be- 
longs to a brute ; savage, cruel* inhuman. 

BRUTALITY, broo-tal'e-te, $. Sarageness, 

To BRUTALIZE, broo'ta-llze, 0. a. To 

grow brutal or savage. 
BRUTALLY, brWtal-le, ad. Churlishly, 

BRUTE, (root, a. 339. Senseless, uncon- 
scious ; savage, irrational ; rough, ferocious. 
BRUTE, broot, «. A creature without 

BRUTENESS, broot/nla, «. Brutality. 
To BRUTIFY, broof te-fl, e. a. To make a 

man a brute. 
BRUTISH, broo'tlsh, a. Bestial, resembling 

a beast ; rough, savage, ferocious ; gross, car-* 

nal ; ignorant, on taught. 

BRUTTSHLY, broo'tlsh-le, ad. In tne man- 
ner of a brute. 


W 549. Fate 7S,ttr 77, fall 89,fitt 81-mi OS, 

BRUTISHNESS, br&otfch-nee, a, Bruta- 
lity, savageness, 

BRYONY, brl'o-ni, «. A plant. - 

BUB, bib, t. Strong malt liquor. A law 

BUBBLE, boVbl, s. 405. A small bladder 
of water ; any thing which warns solidity and 
firmness ; a cheat, a false show ; the person 
To BUBBLE, bub'bl, v. n. To rise in bub- 
bles ; to run With a gentle noise. 
To BUBBLE, bub'bl, t>. a. To cheat 
BUBBLER, bub'blnr, «. 405. A cheat 

BUBBY, b&b'be, «. A woman's breast. A 
low word. 

BUBO, bfrbo, $. The groin from the bend- 
ing of the thigh to the scrotum : all tumours in 
that part are called Buboes. 

BUCANIERS, b&k>i-neerz',«. A cant word 
for the privateers, or pirates, of America. 

BUCK, bok,5. The liquor in which clothes 
are washed j the clothes washed in the liquor. 

BUCK, buk,s. The male of the fallow deer, 
the male of rabbits and other animals. 

To BUCK, bftk, v. a. To wash clothes. 

To BUCK, bilk, r. n. To copulate as bocks 
and does. 

BUCBKB ASKET, b&Vbas-kit, s. The bas- 
ket in which clothes are carried to the wash. 

BUCKBEAN, buk'bene, s. A plant, a sort 
of trefoil. 

BUCKET, buk'kU, s. 99. The vessel in 
which water is drawn oat of a well ; the vessel 
in which water is carried, particularly to 
quench a fire. 

BUCKLE, buk'kl, s. 405. A link of metal, 
with a tongue or catch made to fasten one 
thing to another ; the state of the hair crisped 
and curled. 

To BUCKLE, buVkl, v. a. To fasten with a 
buckle; to confine. 

To BUCKLE, bnk'kl, v. «. To bend, to 
bow. — To Buckle to, to apply to. — To Buckle 
with, to engage with. 

BUCKLER, b&klur, «. A shield. 

BUCKMAST, buk'mist, «. The fruit or 
mast of the beech tree* 

BUCKRAM, bSk'ram, #. A sort of strong 
linen cloth, stiffened with gum. 

BUCKSqpRN - PLANTAIN, buksliorn- 
plin'tm, s. A plant. 

BUCKTHORN, buk'tafrn, s. A tree. 

BUCOLICK,bu-k6l1ck,*. A pastoral. 

& From the ^tendency w.e have to remove the ac- 
cent to the beginning of sack Latin words as we An- 
glicise by dropping the last syllsble, we sometimes 
bear this word improperly accented on the first syl. 
table.— flee Academy. The aathorkies for the accent 
on the second syllable are, Mr. Sheridan, Dr. Johnson, 
W. Johnston, Mr. Perry, Dr. Keorick, Balky, Dr. 
Ash, and Bntick ; Bncbaoan stands alone for the ac- 
cent on the first. 

BUD, bud, *. The first shoot of a plant, a 

To BUD, bid, v. «. To put forth young 

shoots, or germs ; to be in the bloom. 
To BUD, bid, v.* To inoculate. 


■ . . 

mit 95— pine i05>pjn 197— no 165, move 164. 

To BUDGE, budlje, v. n. To stir 
BUDGE, bidje, a. Stif, formal. 
QUDGER, bud'jur, s. One that stirs. 
BUDGET, bncVjek, t. A bag, such as may 

be easily carried ', a store, or stock. 
BUFF, buf, s. Leather prepared from the 

skin of the buffalo, used for waist- belts, 

pouches, 6cc. ; a military coat. 
To BUFF, buf, c a. To strike. A low 

BUFFALO, biffsUo, *. A kind of wild 

hull or oowi 
BUFFET, buffit, «. 99. A blow with the 


BUFFET, buf-feV, *\ A kind of cup- 

To BUFFET, buffit, t>. n. 99. To box, to> 


To BUFFET, buffit, r. n. To play a box- 
ing match. 
BUFFETER,buffit-tir,s, A boxer. 

BUFFLE, buffi, *. 405. The same with 

BUFFLEHEADED,buffi-he\i'3d,<i. Dull* 

BUFFOON; buf-f&on', t. A man whose 

profession is to make sport by low jests and 
antick postures, a jack pudding; a man that 
practises indecent raillery. 

BUFFOONERY, buf-f6on'ir-re, s. The 
practice of a buffooji; Iqw je»ts f scurrile 

BUG, bift, #. A stinking insect, bred in 

old household stuff. 
BUGBEAR, bug'bafe,*. A frightful object, 

a raise terror. 
SUGG IN ESS, bug^e-nls, s. The state of 

being infected with bugs. 
$UGGY, bug'ge, a. 28S. Abounding with 

BUGLE, bu'gl, 405. "> *. A hunting 

BUGLEHORN, bu'gl-hW, | horn. 

BUGLE, Ua'gl, #. A shining bead of black 


BUGLE, bu'gl, s. A plant 

BUGLOSS, ba'glos, a. The herb ox-tongue 

To BUILD, bild, v. a. S41. To make a fa- 
brick, or an edifice ; to raise an^ thing on as 
support or foundation. 

To BUILD, bUd, t?. n. To depend on, ts> 
rest on. 

BUILDER, bftd'ur, s. 98. He that buUda, 
an architect* 

BUILDING, bildlng, # . 419. A fabrick, 
arl edifice. 

3UILT, bllt,*. The form, the structure. 

PULB, bulb, s. A round, body, or root 

BULBACEOUS, bul-ba'shus, a. The same 
with Bulbous. 

BULBOUS, birbus, a. 814. Containing 

To BULGE, bnlje, v~n. To take in water, 

to founder, to jut out • 

BULK, bulk, *. Magnitude, size, quautity j 
the gross, the majority ; main labrteJu 

BULK, bilk, <. A part of a building jut- 
thig out. 

BUUUiEADMlk-bid',*. A partition made 
across a ship with boards. 

BULKINES9, boNcta!* *. Greatness of 
stature, or sise. 

BULKY, burke, a. Of great size or stature. 

BULL, boi, *. 173. The male of black cat. 
tie ; in ibc scriptural sense, an enemy power- 
ful, and violent j one of the twelve signs of 
the zodiac* ; a letter published by the Pope ; 
a blender. 

BULL, bnl, #• In composition, generally 
notes large size. 

BULLBAITING, bul'ba-tmg, «. The sport 
of baiting bulls with dogs. 

BULL-BEGGAR, bitb^g-ur, s. Something 
terrible to fright children with. 

BULL-BOG, bnl'dog, «. A dog of a particu- 
lar form, remarkable for his courage. 

BULL-HEAD, bolnld, «. A stnpid fel- 
low ; tbe name of a fish. 
BULL- WEED, bul' weed, s. Knapweed. 
BULL-WORT, bnl'wort, a. Bishops-weed. 
BULLA CE, bftllk, s.96. A wild soar plum. 
BULLET, bullft, t . t9. A round ball of 


3r 167, not 163— tube 171, tab 172, ball ITS— ill 290— poind 313— thin 406, THIS 40*. 

'which Is t protuberance or ■ welling; and the •welting 
out of the liquor when a glass It foil stems die nature! 
offspring of the snbsuatlve Bump. 

Ur. Ash, whose etymological knowledge seems very 
extensive, gives this word the tame derivation, bat 
tell* as that the word BumpkiuU of uncertain etymo- 
logy : a little attention, however, would, I think, nave 
led him to tbe same origin of thU word -as the former; 
for the heavy and protuberant form of the rustics*, 
to whom this word is generally applied, might very 
naturally generate the appellation. 

BUMPKIN, bump'kfo, s. An awkward 

heavy ru stick.— See Bumper. 

BUMP&INLY, bump'kuvle, a. Haying the 

manner or appearance of a clown. 

BUNCH, bunsh, «. 352. A hard lump, a 
knob ; a cluster ; a number of tilings tied to- 
gether ; any thing bound into a knot. 

BUNCHBACKED, bunsh'bakt, a. Having 
bunches on the back. 

BUNCHY, bun'sbi, a. Growing into 

BUNDLE, bfin'dl, *. 405. A number of 
things bound together.; any thing rolled up 

To BUNDLE, bin'dl, e. a. To tie in a 

BUNG, bung, s. A stopper for a barrel. 

To BUNG, bong, v. a. To stop up. 

BUNGHOLE, bungOtole, «. The hole at 
which the barrel is filled. 

To BUNGLE, bnng'gl, e. n. 405. To perform 


To BUNGLE, bnn'gi, v. a. To botch, to 
manage clumsily. 

BUNGLE, b&ng'gl, v. a. A botch, an 

BUNGLER, bong'glQr, t. A bad workman. 

BUNGLINGLY, b&ng'gling-le, ad. Clumsi- 
ly, awkwardly. 

BUNN, bun, «. A kind of sweet bread. 
BUNT, bunt, #. An increasing cavity. 
BUNTER, buntur, *. 98. Any low rulgar 

BUNTING, binding, s.The name of a bird. 

BUOY, buoe, t . 846. A piece of cork or 
wood floating, tied to a weight. 

To BUOY, bflee, v. a. To keep afloat. 

BUOYANCY, buoe'an-se, $. The quality of 

BUOYANT,buoe4nt^. Which will not sink. 

BUR, bur, a. A rough head of a plant 

BURBOT, bo/but, #. 166. A fish full of 

BURDELAIS, bawle-la', a. A sort ef 

BURDEN, bui'dn, a. 103. A load ; some- 
thing grievous ; a birth ; the verse repeated 
in a song* 

To BURDEN, burtrn, v. a. To load, to en- 

BURDENER, bui'dn-nr, *. 98. A loader, an 

BURDENOUS, bfir'dn-us, a. Grievous, 
oppressive; useless. 

BURDENSOME, buVdn-sum, a. Grievous, 

BULLION, bil'yun, s. 118. Gold or silver 

la tbe lump nirwroaght. 
BULLITION ? bul-lish'un, *. 177. The act 

or state of boiling. 

BULLOCK, bolluk, a. 166. A young bull. 

BULL?, balle, a. A noisy, blustering, 
quarrel ling fellow. 

To BULLY, nolle, e. a. To overbear with 

noise or menaces. 
BUUHJSH, bnl'rush, «. A large rush. 

BULWARK, boiwurk, «. A fortification, 

a emadci ; a security. 
BUM, visa, a. The part on which we sit ; 

it b tncd, in composition, for any thing mean 

or low, as bum-bailiff. 

BUMBAILIFF, bum-bilrf, a. A bailiff of 
the meanest kind, one that is employed In 

BTJMBARD, bum'btrd, # .—See Bombard. 

BUMBAST, bom-basf , *. 

& A cloth mads of patches; patchwork ; more pro* 
M-ty writs** B mnt mM t, m derived by Mr. Sccvens 
ween Btmu\grimmt, made of silk. 

BUMP, b&np, 9. A swelling, a protnbe- 


TeBUMP, bomp, e. «. — See Bomb. To 

■sake a load noise* 
BUMPER, b&m'pir, t. 98. A cup filled. 

%y Twer* Is a a plaaalbls derivation of this word 
•mm the French Boas Pen, which, ssy the antl*cieri> 
eel crftsrks, was the toast which the Monks gave to 
aw Pope io a fall alasi. The farther a deriva- 
tfna Is traced tbe better it Is liked by the oommon 
crowd «*f crUfcks; bat Mr. Erphiaston, who saw farther 
ftma Fngiirfi and French etymology than any oilier 
saSsor I have met with, contents htmfteif with derrv- 
tag this word from tbe word Bump, which, as a 
va»». stasis ii tbe action of some heavy body thai 
noise, and, as a noon, Implies the ge- 
of stjch aa action on the anjmsi frame. 
f w 


tt MO. Flte 78,(lr 77, All 88, flit 81— me Of, nit 05— pin* 10ft , pin 107— no 168, mftra 164 

BURDENSOMENESS, bfrdn-sum-nea* #. 

Weight, uneasiness. 
BURDOCK, burttftk, *.— See Dock. 
BUREAU, bu-ro', *. A chest of drawers. 
BURG, burg, *.— -See Burrow. 

BURGAGE, bur'gadje, *. 90. A tenure pro- 
per to cities and towns. 

BURGAMOT, bur-gi-mof, «. A species of 

BURGAKET, or BURGONET, bur'go-iiit, 

s. A kind of helmet 
BtJRGESS, bur'jes, s. A citizen, a freeman 

of a city ; a representative of a town cor- 


BURGH, burg, «. 892. A corporate town 
or borough. 

BURGHER, b&r'gur, *. One who has a 
right to certain privileges in this or that place. 

BURGHERS HIP, bu&r-shlp, s. The pri- 
vilege of a burgher* 

BURGLARY, b&r'gla-re, #. Robbing a 
house by night, or breaking in with intent 
to rob. 

BURGOMASTER, bftygo-mas-tur, s. One 
employed in the government of a city. 

BURIAL, beVre-al, «. 178. -The act of bu- 
rying, sepulture, interment ; the act of placing 
any thing under earth ; the church service for 

BURIER, beVre-ur, *. He that burries. 

BURINE, bu'rfa, *. A graving tool. 

BURLACE, burlaw, j. A sort of grape. 

To BURL, burl, v. a. To dress cloth as 
falters do. 

BURLESQUE, bur-Usk', a. 415. Jocular, 
tending to raise laughter. 

BURLESQUE, bur-leak', s. Ludicrous lan- 

To BURLESQUE, bur-lesk', v. tu To turn 
to ridicule. 

BURLINESS, burle-nSs, ». Bulk, bluster. 

BURLY, burle, a. Big of stature. 

k To BURN, burn. v. a. To consume with fire ; 
to wound with fire. 

To BURN, burn, v. «. To be on fire ; to be 
inflamed with passion ; to act as fire. 

BURN, born,*. A hurt caused by fire. 

BURNER, bur'nur, *. A person that burns 
anything. * 

BURNET, bir'nlt, $. 99. A plant. 

BURNING, biriimg, «. 410. Stateof inflam- 

BURNING-GLASS, bur'ning-glts, $. A 
' glass which collects the rays of the sun into a 

narrow compass, and so increases their force. 
To BURNISH, boYnish, e. a. To polish. 
To BURNISH, bftr'nish, v. ». To grow 

bright or glossy. 

BURNISHER, bur'nish-ftr, «. The person 
that burnishes or polishes ; the tool with which 
bookbinders give a gloss to the leaves of 
books ; it is commonly a dog's tcoth set in 
a stick. 

BURNT, burnt. Part. pass, of Burn. 
BURR, bur, j. The lobe or lap of the ear. 

5J2?5 EI * b ¥'V- 99 - A sort of pear. 
BURRO W,bAr / ro>. A corporate town, tf»at 

is, not a city, but such as sends harnesses to 
the parliament; a place fenced or fortified ; tli€ 
holes made in the ground by conies. 

To BURROW, bur'ro, e. a. To mine, as co* 
nies or rabbits. 

BURSAR, bur'sur, s. 88. The treasurer of 
a college. 

BURSE, burse, s. An exchange where mer- 
chants meet. 

To BURST, burst, v. n. To break, or fly 
open j to fly asunder ; to break away, to 
spring ; to come suddeuly ; to begin an action 

To BURST, burst, t>. a. To break suddenly, 
to make a quick and violent disruption. 

BURST, burst, *. A sudden disposition. 

BURST, burst, \part. a. Diseased 

BURSTEN, buVstn. 472. J with a hernia or 

rupture. 405. 
BURSTNESS, b&rsf n&, «. A rupture. 

BURSTWORT, burst'wurt, t. An herb good 
against ruptures. 

BURT, burt, s. A flat fish of the turbo t kind. 

BURTHEN, bur'THn, *. 468.— See Burden, 

To BURY, beVre, v. a. 1T8. To inter, to 
- put into a grave ; to inter with ritqs and cere- 
monies ; to conceal, to hide. 

BUSH, bush, s. 178. A thick shrub,; a bougk 

of a tree fixed up at a door, to show that 

liquors are sold there. 
BUSHEL, b&sh'ft, s. 173. A measure con- 

taming eight gallons ; a strike. 
BUSH1NESS, bosh'e-nis, s. The quality of 

being bushy. 
BUSHMENT, bush'm&it, s. A thicket. 
BUSHY, bosh'e, a. Thick, full of small 

branches ; full of bushes. 

BUSILESS, blz'ze-lls, a. 178. At leisure. 

BUSILY, blz'ze-le, ad. With hurry, «c- 

BUSINESS, bfe'nee, *. 178. Employment, 
multiplicity of affairs ; an affair ; the subject 
of action; serious engagement; right of ac- 
tion; a matter of question. — To do one's 
Business, to kill, destroy, or ruin him. 

BUSK, bosk, «. A piece of steel, or whale- 
bone, worn by women to strengthen their 

BUSKIN, bus'kln, «. A kind of half boot, 
a shoe which comes to the mid-leg ; a kind 
of high shoe worn by the ancient actors of 
tmflVuv* ' 

BUSKINED, bfWkfod, a 869. Dressed in 

BUSKY, busTce, a. Woody. 
BUSS, bus, *. A kiss, a salute with the lipa ; 

a boat for fishing. 

To BUSS, bus, v. a. To kiss. A low word. 

BUST, bust, s. A statue representing a man 

to his breast. 
BUSTARD, bus'turd, «. 88. A wild turkey. 
To BUSTLE, b&s'sl, v. «. 472. To be busy. 

to stir. 

BUSTLE, bus's!, $. A tumult, a hurry. 

BUSTLER, bdslur, *. 98. An active stir- 
ring man. 

BUSY, blz'ze, a. 178. Employed with ea*. 

nestness ; bustling, active, meddling. 
To BUSY, blz'zl, e. a. To employ, to engag*. 


■tr 167, afe 1«— tobe 171, ttb ITS, bbl IT*— Ml 


pUnd SIS— (kin 460, thii 40». 

BUSYBOBY, btVt^bott-de, s.A vain, med- 
dling, festastical person. 

BUT, b&t, cosysmcf . Except ; yet, neverthe- 
less ; the particle which introduces the minor 
of a syllogism, now ; only, nothing more than ; 
than ; not otherwise than ; by no other means 
than ; if it were not for this ; however, how* 
best; otherwise than; even, not longer ago 
thau ; yet it may be objected ; but tor, had 
mot this been. 

BUT-END,buf£nd',#. The blunt end of any 

BOTCHER, b&f tshar, #. 175. One that kill* 
animals to sell their flesh ; one that is delight- 
ed with blood 

To BUTCHER, buttshur, v. a. To kill, to 

BTTCHERLINESS, bftttobnr-le-nes, *. A 

butcherly manner. 
BUTCHERLY, baftshor-le, a. Bloody, bar- 

BUTCHERY, bot/tshur-re, #. The trade of 
a botcher ; murder, cruelty ; the place where 
blond is shed. 

BUTLER, bailor, #. 96. A servant employ- 
ed in furnishing die table. 

HUTMENT, botWnt, #. That part of the 
arch w hich joins it tu the upright pier. 

BUTT, but, s. The place on which the mark 
to be shot at is placed ; the point at which the 
endeavour is directed ; a man upon whom the 
company break their jests. 

BUTT, bit, $. A vessel, a barrel containing 
on e hand red and twenty -six gallons of wine. 

ToBJJTT, bat, e. a. To strike with the head. 

BtJTEER, buftfir, s. 96. An unctuous sub- 
stance, made by agitating the cream of milk 
till the oil separates from the whey. 

1* BUTTER, bit'tar, v. a. To smear, or oil 
with batter; to increase the stakes every throw. 

BUTTERBUMP, buttor-bump, #. A fowl, 

the bit tern. 
BUTTERBUR, bnft&r-bar, s. A plant. 
BUTTERFLOWER, b&t'tfe-flou'ur, #. A 

yellow flower of May. 

BUTTERFLY, bat/tor-fll, #. A beautiful 

BUTTEBIS, botftUT-rls, «. An instrument of 
steel used in paring the foot of a horse. 

BUTTERMILK, bottur-mfik, $. The whey 
that is separated from the cream when the but- 
ter is made. 

BUTTERPRINT, buttir-prmt, #. A piece 
of carved wood, used to mark butter. 

BTJTTERTOOTH, bnttar-tootk, s. The 
great b road foretooth. 

BUTTERWOMAN, buftor-wum-on, «. A 
woma n that sells butter. 

BUTTERWORT, b&ttar-wftrt, s. A plant, 

BUTTERY, but'tur-re, a. Having the ap- 

p —ra ncc or qualities of butter. 
BUTTERY, bittfe-re, a The room where 

provisions are laid up. 

BUTTOCK, botf t&k, #. 106. The rump, the 

part n ear the tail. 
BUTTON, b&tf to, s. 10S, 170. Any knob or 

hail ; the bud of a plant. 
To BUTTON, bot'tn. v. a. 406. To dress, to 
to fasten with buttons. 

BUTTONHOLE, bftttn-hole, #. The loop 
in which the button of the clothes is caught* 

BUTTRESS, baftris. #. 09. A prop, a wall 
built to support another £ a prop, a support. 

To BUTTRESS, baftris, v. a. To prop. 
BUXOM, bak's4m,a. 106. Obedient, obse- 
quious ; gay, lively, brisk ; wanton, jolly. 

BUXOMLY, bnk's&m-le, ad. Wantonly, 

BUXOMNESS,bok sum-nee, #. Wantonness, 

To BUY, bl, e. a. To purchase, to acquire 
by paying a price ; to manage by money. 

To BUY, bl, v. *.To treat about a purchase. 

BUYER, b\ f £r, s.He that buys, a purchaser. 

To BUZZ, biz, v.n. To hum, to make a noise 
like bees ; to whisper, to prate. 

BUZZARD, buz'zurd, #. 88. A degenerate 
mean species of hawk ; a blockhead, a dunce, 

BUZZER, buz'zur,*. 98. A secret whisperer. 

BY i kl* I P re P' It notes the agent ; it notes 
9 tbkf} the instrument ; it notes the 
cause ; it notes the means by which any thing 
is performed ; at, or in, noting place ; it notes 
the sum of the difference between two things 
compared ; not later than, noting time j be- 
side, noting passage ; near to, in presence, 
noting proximity ; before Himself, it notes the 
absence of all others j it is the solemn form of 
swearing ; at hand ; it is used in forms of ob- 
testing ; by proxy of, noting substitution. 

ty The general sonntl of this word is Hk« the verb 
to buy ; bat we not unfreqnently hear it pronounced 
like the verb to be. This letter sound, however, Is 
only tolerable in colloquial pronunciation, and tbea 
only when wed as a preposition; as when we say. 
Do yon travel 6jr land or by water ? But in reading 
these Hues of Pope i— 

M By land, by water, they renew the charge ; 

" They stop the chart**, and they board the barge. 
Here we ought to five the word by the sound of the 
verb to buy ; so that pronouncing this word like oe, 
is, if the word will be pardoned me, a coUoquiaUmm* 

BY, bl, ad. Near, at a small distance ; be- 
side, passing ; in presence. 

BY AND BY, bl'and-bV, ed.In a short time. 

BY, bi, s. Something not the direct and im- 
mediate object of regard, as by the by. 

BY-CONCERNMENT, br*k6n-sern'm*nt #. 

Not the main business. 
BY-END, bl'2nd',s. Private interest, secret 

BY-GONE, blgon , a. Past 
BY-LAW, bmw', s. By-laws are orders 

made for the good of those that make them, 

further than the nublick law binds. 
BY-NAME, bl'hame', s. A nickname. 
BY-PATH, bfpat*', s. A private or obscure 

BY-RESPECT, hl'ii-sf&t'.s. Private end 

or view. 
BY-ROOM, bl'room', s. A private room 

BY -SPEECH, bl'speetah', #. An incidental 

or casual speech. 
BY-STANDER, brstan'dfir, «. A looker on* 

one unconcerned. 
BY -STREET, bVstreetf, s. An obscure street 
BY -VIEW, bl'vt,#. Private self-interested 




t? 559. Fate 73, far 77, fill 88, fat 81- me 9S 

BY- WALK, bi'wawkf, * Pt Lvase walk, not 

the main mad. 
BY-WAY, bi wk', ^. A private and obscure 


BY-WEST, be-w&f, a. Westward, lo the 

west of 

BY- WORD, bi'w&rd', *.A saying, a proverb; 
a term of reproach. 

*+++++ ++■++>+ *• 



CAB, kab, «. A Hebrew measure, contain- 
ing about three pints English. 
CABAL, ka-baT, #. The secret science of 
the Hebrew rabbins ; a body of men united in 
feme close design ; .intrigue. 
ty Tbe political signification of this word owes its 
original to the five Cabinet Ministers in Charles the 
Second's reign; Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Ar- 
lington, and Lan Jerri ale: this Junto were known by 
die name of the < ahal ; a word which the initial les- 
ters of their name* happened to compose. 

To CABAL, U-bil', c n. To form close in- 

C AB AUST, kab'4-llst, «. One skilled in the 

traditions ot the Hebrews. 
CABALISTICAL, kab-al-lU'te-kal, 
CABALISTICK, kab-al-lls'tik, 

Something that has an occult meaning. 
GABALLER, kft-ballfir, $. He that engage* 

in close designs, an intriguer. 
CABBAGE, kab'bidje, «. 00. A plant 
To CABBAGE, kAb'btdje, v. a. To ateal in 

cutting clothes. 
CABBAGE-TREE, kar/Mdje-tre^ * A 

species of palm-tree. 
CABBAGE-WORM, klb^dje-w&rm, #. Aa 

CABIN, kaVbln, a. A small room | a small 

chamber in a ship ; a cottage, or small house. 
To CABIN, kab'bin, a. *. To livein a cabin* 
To CABIN, k4b<bin, v. a. To confine in a 

CABINED, kaVbfod, <u att. Belonging to 

a cabin* 
CABINET, kabfo-et, «. A set of boxes or 
drawers for curiosities: any. place in which 
things of value are hidden ; a private room in 
which consultations are held. 
CABINET-COUNCIL, k4b4n*-ko1m'fiu> 

A council held in a private manner. 
CABINET-MAKER, kab'in-St-ma'kar, «. 

One that makes small nice work in wood. 
CABLE, ka^l, •. 405. The great rope of 

a •ship to whioh the anchor i» fastened. • 
C ACHECTICAL, ka-kik'ri-kal, 1 a. Hatv- 
CACHECTICK> kfckektfe, / ingan 

ill habit of body. , fc 
CACHEXY, klk'kek-«e > «. 617. Such a dU- 
teraperature of the humoprs" as hinders nutri- 
tion, aad weakens tha vital and animal func- 

& Mr. aaartaan is the only OrthoSplat who accents 

this word on the fiist sjilable as I hav* done : aad yet 

.every other lexicographer, who has the wore, accents 

Aiwrtrg, Ataxy, and Ataraxy, on the first syllable, 

except Mr .Sheridan, who :recenU Ajturexy, and BaiTey 


i, mk 05— pine 105, pni 107— no 168, move 164, 

Ataxy, on the penultimate, Wheaee this variety and 
inoanaiatcnev should arise, it Is not easy u> detennia*. 
OrUodoxy and Apoplexy Had sufficiently chalked oat 
the analogy of accentuation in these words. The ter- 
minations In <nry aad exy do not Ami species of 
worda which may be called enclitlcal, like logy and 
graphvi Mft but seem to be exactly under the prediea*- 
mant of thasa Latin and Greek words, which when 
adopted into Enalish by dropping their Last syllable, 
remove the accent at least two syllables hlgber.-See 
Academy, 9 

CACHTNNATION, kak-km-nk'shun, s. A 

CACKErMl^'kttir-ft, *. 555, 09. A flsh. 

To CACKLE, kakTtl, t>. ft. 405. To make a 
noise as a goose ; sometimes ft is used for the 
noise of a hen ; to laugh, to giggle. 

CACKLE, kik'ki, i. The voice of a goose or 

CACKLES* kaklfir, •. 96. A fowl that 

cackles ; a tell-tale, a tattler. 
CACOCH YMXC AL, kak-ko-kWc-kll, > 
CACOCHYMICK,kak-k6-kWIk^53^09 f 

a. Having the humours corrupted. 
CACOCHYMY, kik'ko-knn-me, J. A de- 
pravation of the humours from a sound state. 


adopted for reasons given under the word Cmehtry^ 
which ate. 

CACOPHONY, ka-k6fle-ne, #. 518. A bad 

sound of words. * . ■ ■ *.. 

fbCACUMINAIIE, ki-kutoe-nite, eu*. W 

make sharp or pyramidal. 
CADAVEROUS, ka-daVe-rus, a. Ravma; 

the appearance of a dead carcase. Jb 
CADDIS, kid'dia, «. A kind of tafe 

riband ; a kind of worm or grub* 
CADE, kade, a. Tame, soft, as a cade lanrfv 
CADE, kade, f. A barrel. 
C ADENQE, ka'denae, J *. FaU, state of 
CADENCY, ka'dln-se, J sinking, decline ; 

tbe fall of the voice ; the flow of verses, «tf 

periods ; the tone or sound. 
CAfiENT, ka'dlnt, a. Falling down. 
CADET, ka-d^f, s> The younger brotherj 

the youngest brother j a volunteer in the army , 

who serves in expectation of a commtsaioi^ : 
CADGER, kSd'j&r, #. A huckster. 

ty This word is only used by the Talgar hi Load»s% 
where if is not applied to any particntar piofeuion ot 
employment, bat nearly In the same sense as car mud- 
geon, and is corroptly pronoanced as ir writieu 
CADI, kk'de, a. A magistrate among the 

CADILLACK, ki-dHldk, •. A sort of pear. 
CAESURA, t^-7-a'ra, * 479, 480. A figure in 

poetry, by which a short syllable after aCtfrn : 

pietaloot is made h»ng ; a pause in verse\ 
CAFTAN, klftan, *. A Persian vest or 

CAO, kig, •. A barrd or wooden vessel, 

eetftaifeiftgfowr orUva g»ttoa». 
CAGE, kkje, #. An enefftanfe of twigs oi 

wicey in wt&b blrtfc are iepl ; a pssoa for wild 

beasts ; a prison fur petty malefactors. 
To CAGE, kaie, e. ». To enclose to a cagtx 
l CAIMAN, ka'maDi t. 88. The Asnettcan 

name of a crocodftrk 
To CAJOLE, ki^Ale', «.*. To natter, to 
1 sooth. 


ftlr 1«7 # nftt lfitWttbe 171, tib 178, bull 173-421 290— pftfind 313— tftift 406, Tin 460. 

•■ A flatterer, a 

CAJOLER, .k^jiOhy ev 


CAJOLERY, c4-jolur*e, *, 6S5. Flattery. 
CAITIFF, ka'tif, s. A mean villain, a despi- 
cable knave, 
CAKE, kike,*. A kind of delicate bread ; 

any thing of a form rather flat than high. 
ToCAKE, kike, v. «v To hardea at dough 

in the oveu. 
CALABASH, kel'a-bash, #. A specie* of a 

larfe gOurd. 
CALABASH TREE* kM-blsh-tree, *. A 

tree of which the shells ate used bjrtue ticgroes 

for cups, asako far instruments of rnusick. 
CALAMANCO, hdtU-mang'ko, * A kind 

of waulleu stuff. 
CALAMINE, kali-mine, *. 149. A kind or 

fossile bituminous earth, which being mixed 

with capper, change* it into brass. 
CALAMINT, kiH&-inint, t. The nave of a 

CALAAHfOUS, ksVllto^-t6a,d. Miserable, 

involved in distress, unhappy, wretched. 
CALAftflTOtJSNfigS, kA-ffi^4ft*Be*, *. 

Misery, distress. 
CALAMITY, lrl-htflrt4£, #. sBrfortttae, 

cause of misery. 
CALAMUS, k3l'£-mua, #. A sort of reed 

of swe%t~sc«nted wood , aaefttUmed wiSeripfnre'. 
CALASH, k*-laah', «. A amaH carriage of 

CALCARIOUS. k4Mca're-us,<fc Partaking 

of the nature or calx. 
CALCEATED, kaTshcSa-tld, a. 450. Shod, 

fitted with shoes. 
€ AJBeDONIUS, kafcai-dfal-n* 'A kind 

of precious stone. . 
CALCINATION, tfl^alr'saen, a. Saefi a 
SMinaymt of bodies by fire as renders them 
reducible to powder ; chymical pulverizatibii. 

CALCINATORY, kil-ska-t4r4,#. A ves- 
sei used in calcination. 
fcTaTr. B fc tHd ah amies this word ©U the first syfc 

aad Dr. Jobatoa aad Mr. Perry on the second'. 
the same accent as on the verb To calciue &%. 

it CALCINE, kal-slne', a. To burn in tit* 
fire to a calx, or substance easily reduced to 
powder ; to ourrt up. 

To CALCINE, kil-sW,t.*. To become a 
calx by heat. 

TeCALCULATE, kaTkft-late, e. «. To com- 
pote, to reckon j to adjust, to project for any 
certain end. 

CALCULATION, kil*ko4**huB, #. A prac- 
tice or manner of reckoning, the art of num- 
Jbeifn* ; the result of arftrnnetieaf operation. 

CALCULATOR, kir*ku>la tur, *. Ml. A 

CALCULATORY, kAl^a-lktar-e, * Be- 

lon ging to calculation. 512. 
CALCULB, fcfiVknle, s >ftecle*ft^,on*0iite, 
CA1XJULOSE, kal-ku-lose' \n. Stony, 
CAICULOUB, kaito-lu*, f gritty. 
CALCULUS, kal'koJus, $. The atone* in 

the Madder. 
CALDRON, kivvlUron, t. 166; A pot, a 

holler, a kettle. 
CALEF ACTION, sil-t-fa**hun, *. The act 

of heating any thing; the state of being lieatt-U. 
CALEFACTlVE, kai^'ftktlv, «. That 

which makes mty tiling hot, heating. 

CALEFACTORY, kal4-<uk'tntvc, <r. That 

which heats. 
To CALEFY, kal'e-fl, r. a. 18». To grow 
hot, to be heated. 

C ALENBAR, kat'eVdur, *. 88. A refciafc* 
of the year, in which the nMMiths, and atoU'd 
times, are, marked, as festivals and uolyda) a. 

To CALENDER, kal'in-dur, ». a. To OreU 

CALENDER, irfitfA-dur, •. ©g. A hot press* 

• fwrs* in which ciotbtere ssaonth their cloth. 
CALENDERER, kaTen-dutv&r, #. The per- 

stiii who calenders. 
CALENDS, kal'endz, «. The first day of tiha 

rtomli among the Romans. 

CALENTURE, kaTen-tahure, s. 461. A dig. 
temper iri be^cHmates, wRerem they imagine 
the sea to be green fields. 

CALF, kftf, i. 401, *8. Tile young of a cow ; 
the thick , plump, Bulbous part of the leg: 

CALIBER, kaTe-bur. *. The bore, the dia- 
meter of the barrel of a gun. 

\^t loY. Sheridan accents tbia word on the second 
• syllable, and gives the i the sonnd of doable e, like 
I the French ; bat Johnson^ Kenrlck, Atfc, Bucbaoan, 
i Perry, and Entick, consider the word as perfectly 

aafliHsed, sail place the accent on the first syllable, 

as I have done. 

C ALICE, kalis, s. A cup, a chalice. 
CALICO, kil'e-ki, *. An Indian stuff made 

of cotton- 
! CALID, ktHd, a. Hot, burning, 
CAIXDITY, ki-lldde-te, s. 611. Heat. 
CALIF, *> .inj r 5 A title assumod by the 
©AUPHj^ 11 ^ I Bncoe8Sot8 6fMdho* 

met among the Saracens. 
CAMOATIO^, kAl^-ga'shua, a.DarkneiB> 

cloudiness. , 
CALTOINOUB; k4-lidje'£-n6 6 , a\ Obscurey 

CALIOINOUSNESS, kMidje'e-nus^ls, t . 

■Llea SMPw%^ass>at 

CALIVER, kaTM&r, t. A handgun, a har- 
c^Uebuee, an oid-nresket 

To CALK, kiwk, v. <r. TO stop the leaks of 
a ship-. 

CALKER, kiwltftr, s. The workman that 
stops- the leaks of a ship. 

To CALL, kiwi,*, a. 77. To name ; to surn- 
mrJri or invite ; to corrvoke ; to summon judi- 
cially^ in the theological sense, to inspire 
with arfiourt of |iiety ; to invoke, to appeal 
to ; to proclaim, to publish ; to make a short 
visit ; to excite, to put in action, to bring into 
▼lew 1 ; to stigmatize with some opprobrious 
denomination.— To Call back, to revoke.— To 
Catt in, to retame raone^r at interest— -To 
Call over, to read aloud a hat or muster-roll. — 
To Caltaiit, toimaUenge. 

CALL, kawl, ti A yncal address ; roqtris^ 
won j dislne vocation ; suromens to true reH 1 - 

Osn impulse ; •authority, command ; ade- 
, a claim ; an iiistrumeut to call birds ; 
■cail^i:vnDaiiou,enrployment; a nomination. 

CALLET;t* i,,1 * t '*• AtrW, • 

tAfiLlKO, kiwUlng, *. VocaUr>n^ profcs- 
siotu trade; proper atatien, '.or employ mejitj 
class of persons united by the anme employ- 
ment or profession ; diviae voeaiion, invita- 
tion to the true religion. 

6 1 


& 660. Fate 7S, fir 77, flit 8$, fit 81 —mi OS, ra£*t 06— pine 106, pin 107— no 169 j mite 164, 

CALLIPERS, kille-pure, «. 08. Compasses 
with bowed shanks. 

CALLOSITY, kAl-loa'se-te, *. A kind of 
swelling without pain. 

CALLOUS, klllus, a.Hardened, insensible. 

CALLOUSNESS, kdl'l&s-ne's, s. Induration 
of the fibres; insensibility. 

CALLOW, kil'lo, a. Unfledged, naked, 
wanting feathers. 

CALLUS, kill&s, #. An induration of the 
fibres ; the hard substance by which broken 
bones are united. 

CALM, klm, a. 80. Quiet, serene ; undis- 
turbed, unruffled. 

CALM, kirn, s. Serenity, stillness; quiet, 

To CALM, kirn, r. a. To still, to quiet ; to 
pacifv, to appease. 

CALMER, klm'ur, s. 40$. The person or 
thing which lias the power of giving quiet. 

CALMLY, kimle, ad. Without storms, or 
violence : without passions, quietly. 

CALMNESS, kamtoSs, #. Tranquillity, 
serenity ; mildness, freedom from passion. 

CALOMEL, kil'o-mil, *. Mercury six times 

CALORIFICR, kal-o-riffc, a. That which 
has the quality of producing heat. 

CALOTTE, kaMotf, #. A cap or coif. 

CALTROPS, kaTtrftps, *. An instrument 
made with three spikes, so that which way 
soever it falls to the ground, one of them points 
upright; a plant mentioned inVirgiFsGeorgicks, 
under the name of Tribulus. 

To CALVE, kaV, v. n. 78. To bring forth a 
calf, spoken of a cow. 

To CALUMNIATE, k4-lum'ne-ate, v. a. To 
slander. 91. 

CALUMNIATION, k4-lum-ne-a'sh0n, «. A 
malicious and false representation of words or 
actions. M , . . - 

CALUMNIATOR, ki-lum'ne-a-t&r, #. 621. 
A forger of accusation, a slanderer. 

CALUMNIOUS, ki-Utmfae-us, a. Slander- 
ous, falsely reproachful. 

CALI T MNY, Ml'fim-ne, *. Slander, false 

CALX, kAlks.«. Any thing rendered redu- 
cible to powder by burning. 

CALYCLE, kaTe-ki, $. 405. A small bud of 
a plant. 

C AM AIEU, ki-mi/yoi, *. A stone with va- 
rious figures and representations of landscapes, 
formed by nature. 

CAMBER, kam'bfir,*. A piece of timber 
cut arch-wise. 

CAMBRICR, kam^rlk, j. 542. A kind of 
tine linen.— See Chamber. 

CAME, kame. The preterit of To Come. 

CAMEL, kam'el, t . 90. A beast of burden. 

CAMELOPARD, ki-m&lo-pird, $. An ani- 
mal taller than an elephant, but not so thick. 

CAMELOT,!.* l2f j *. 00. A kind of 

CAMLET, 'JkamlSt, \ flttt ff originally 
made by a mixture of silk and camel's hair ; 
it is now made with wool and silk. 
CAMERA OBSCURA, klm'e : ri-4b-skM, 
t. An optical machine used in a darkened 
chamber, so that (he light coming only through 
a double convex glass, object** opposite are 
represented inverted. 
r 94 

CAMERADE.— See Comrade. * 

CAMERATED, k4m'ir-a-t4d. a. Arched. 
CAMERATION, k4m-eV-a'sh6n, a. A vault- 

ing or arching. ... 

CAMISADO, k£m-e-sa'do, s.77. An attack 

made in the dark, on which occasion they put 

their shirts nutwaid. 
CAMISATED, kaWe-sa-t4d, o. Dressed 

with the shirt outward. 
CAMLET, klmle't, *.— See Camelot. 
C AMMOCK, kinVmuk, #. 166. An herb, 

petty whin, or restharrow. 
CAMP,kamp, *. The order of tents placed 

by armies when they keep the field. 
To CAMP, kimp, v. n. To lodge intents. 
CAMPAIGN, kAm-pane', *. »86. A largo 

open level tract of ground ; the time for which 
• any armv keeps the field. ... _ 

CAMPANIFORM, k4m-pAn'e-(orm, a. A 

term used of flowers which are in the shape of 

a bell. . . . . ^ 

CAMPANULATE, kam-patfa-late, a.Cam- 

CAMPESTRAL, kam-peVtr4l, a. Growing 

in fields. 

CAMPHIRE, kim'flr, $. 140. A kind of 
resin produced by a chyniical process from 
the camphire tree. 

CAMPHIRE-TREE, k4m'nr-tree, s. lh« 
tree from which camphire is extracted. 

CAMPHORATE, kim'fo-rkte, *. 01. Im- 
pregnated with camphire. 

CAMPION, k4m'pe-un, #. 166. A plant. 

CAN, k4n, *. A cup. 

To CAN,kdn, v. n. To be able, to fare 
power ; it expresses the potential mood, as, I 

can do it. -.,•_« , , 

CANAILLE, k4-nale', s. The lowest people. 
CANAL, kd-nil', t. A basin of water is a 

garden ; any course of water made by art ; a 

passage through which any of the juices of the 

body flow. 
CANAL-COAL. This word is corrupted 

into keVnil-kole, *. A fine kind of coal. 
CANALICULATE!), kan-i-lik'tt-la-Od, «. 

Made like a pipe or gutter. 
CANARY, kd-na're, *. Wine -brought from 

the Canaries, sack. 
CANARY-BIRD, kl-na re-bird, s. An ex- 

cellent singing bird. 
To CANCEL, kan'sll, v. a. 00. To cross a 

writing : to efface, to obliterate in general. 
CANCELLATED, kin'sel-la-tid, a. Croetw 

CANCELLATION, kin-sel-la'shun, #. An 
expunging or wiping out of an instrument. . 

CANCER, kinfcur, t . 08. A crabfish ; the 
sign of the summer solstice; a virulent swelling^ 

ToCANCERATE, kln'sir-rkte, tut. 01. T© 
become a cancer. » 

CANCERATION, ka**ur-ra'shun, s. A 
growing cancerous. 

CANCEROUS, kln'sur-rus, a. Having the 

virulence of a cancer. .»-,„- 
CANCEROUSKESSAc4nWr-rfls-nls, s.TIm 

state of being cancerous. . 

CANCRINE, kangloln, a. 140. Hating the 

qualities of a crab. 408. 
CANDENT, kflVd&t, a Hot. 


alt Iff, nftt M— tAbe 171, tib 17*, bill 17S-411 2W— poind 113—tMn 400, this 4tt>. 


CANDJCANT, kaVde-klnt, a. 

CANDID, kfn'dld, a. White ; fair, open, 

CANDIDATE, ldtn'de-date, t. A competi- 
tor, one that solicits advancement. 

CANDIDLY, kan'dld-le, ad. Fairly, inge- 

CANDIDNESS, kindid-n&, «. Ingenuous- 
ness, openness of temper. 

To CANDIFY, kin'de-fi, v. a. To make 

CANDLE, kin'dl, «. 405. A tight made of 
wax or tallow, surrounding a wick of flax or 

CANDLEBERRY-TREE, kin'dl-blr-re- 
tiee, #. Sweet-willow. 

CANDLEHOLDER, kin'dl-hold-ur, t. He 
that balds a candle. 

CANDLELIGHT, kaVdl-tite, #. The light 
of a candle. 

CANDLEMAS, kaVdl-mfts, t . 88. The feast 
of the purification of the Blessed Virgin, which 
was formerly celebrated with many lights in 

CANDLESTICK, kAVdl-stik, *. The instru- 
ment that holds candles. 

CANDLESTUFF, katfdl-st&f, t Grease, 


CANDLEWASTER, kln'dl-wks-tuT, #. A 

spendthrift. ' 

CAN DOCK, kaWdok, #. A weed that grows 

in rivers. 
CANDOUR, kan'dur, «. $14. Sweetness of 

temper, purity of mind, ingenuousness. 
To CANDY, k4n'de,e. a. To conserve with 
* sugar ; to form into congelations. 

To CANDY, kln'de, v. «. To grow con- 

CANE, kine, t. A kind of strong reed ; the 

plant which yields the sugar; a lance ;a reed. 

To CANE, kane, v. a. To beat with a cane 

or »tick. 
CANICULAR, ki-nik'a-lar, «. Belonging 

to the dog-star. 

CANINE, Id-nine', «. Having the proper- 
ties of a dog. 

CANISTER, kin1a-tur, $. 9&. A small bas- 
ket ; a small vtasel in which any thing is laid 

CANKER, kingfeur, *. 409. A worm that 
preys opon and destroys fruits; a fly that 
preys upon fruits ; any thing that corrupts or 
consumes; an eating or corroding humour; 
corrosion, virulence ; a disease in trees. 

To CANKER, kAng'kur, v. ». To grow 

To CANKER, kang'kur, t>. a. To corrupt, 

to corrode ; to infect, to pollute. 

CANKERBIT, lriiiglrir-bit, part. «rf.Bitten 
with an envenomed tooth. 

CANN ABINE, kin / nft-bme,«.149.Hempen« 
CANNIBAL, kin^e-bal, t. A man-eater. 
CANNIBALLY, kln'ne-bAl-le, <td. In the 
manner of a cannibal. 

CANN1PERS, kin'ne-purz, #. Callipers. 

CANNON, kin-nun, ». 106. A gun larger 
than can be managed by the hand. 

CANNON-BALL,.kin-nun-bawl', )*. The 
CANNON-SHOT, kan-nun-shoY, S balls 

which are shot from great puns. 
To CANNONADE, kan-nfounade', t> ». To 
play the great guns ; to attack or batter with 
CANNONIER, kanrnun-neei', *• The en- 
gineer that manages the cannon. 275. 
CANNOT, kin'ndt, v. it. of Can and Not 

To be unable. 
CANOA, ? *a ia, it. A boat made by 
CANOE, J Kan - no ° y \ cutting the trunk 

of a tree into a hollow vessel. 
CANON, kin'un, s. 166. A rule, a law ; law 
made by ecclesiastical councils ; the books of 
Holy Scripture, or the great rule ; a dignitary 
in cathedral churches ; a large sort of printing 
CANONESS, kiii'un-nes, «. In Catholic 
countries, women living after the example of 
secular canons. 
CANONICAL, k4-n6n'e-ka1, a. According 
to the canon ; constituting the canon ; regu- 
lar, stated, fixed by ecclesiastical laws ; spi- 
ritual, ecclesiastical. • 
C ANONICALLY, ka^n6n'e-kal-le, ad. In a 

manner agreeable to the canon. 
CANONICALNESS, k4-non'e-k4l-nes, *. 

'the quality of being canonical. 
CANONIST, kin'non-nlst, «. 166. A pro- 

feasor of the canon law. 
CANONIZATION, kln-no-ne-za'shun, «. 

The act of declaring a saint. 
To CANONIZE, kiVno-nke, v. a. To de- 
clare any one a saint. 
CANONfcY, kan'fin-re, \s. Aneccle- 

CANONSHIP,kaVun-ship, f siastical be- 
nefice in some cathedral or collegiate church. 
CANOPIED, kln'o-pid', a. 282. Covered 

with a canopy. 
CANOPY, kin'o-pe,*. A covering spread 

over the head. 
To CANOPY, kin'o-p*, •. a. To cover with 

a canopy. 
CANOROUS, kA-no'rus, «• 612- Musical, 

CANT, klnt, s. 'A corrupt dialect used by 
beggars and vagabonds ; a form of speaking 
peculiar to some certain class or bod v of men ; 
a whining pretension to goodness ; barbarous 
jargon; auction. 

£3* It Is scarcely to be credited, that the writer In 
the Spectator signed T. ihoald adopt a derivation of 
this word from one Andrew Cant, a Scotch Presby- 
terian Minister, when the Latin cantw, so expressive 
of the slnging*or whining tone oi certain preachers, Is 
so obvious an etymology. The Cant of particular pro- 
fessions Is an easy derivation from the same origin, as 
It means the set phrases, the routine of professional 
language, resembling the chime of a song. Quaint, 
from which some derive this word, is a moch less 
probable etymology. 

To CANT, kant, r. n. To talk in the jargon 
of particular professions ; to speak with a par- 
ticular tone. 

To CANT, klnt, v. a. To toss or fling away. 

CANTATA, kan-tk'dL t. ltaUan.A song. 77. 

CANTATION, kan-ta'shon, «. The act of 

CANTER. kaVtir, «. 08. A hypocrite ; a 
short gallop. 

CANTHARIDES, kin-f fcaVe-dfa, s Spa- 
nish flies, used to raise blisters/ 


Or 5f». Fate 7J, A 1 97, til W, Aft #l--ae .», m& Ofr~*dne 106 ,pb iOSV^ 1*8^ info Mtf, 

C ANTHUS, kan'JA&s, 0. Tk# comer of the 

CANTICLE. k4n^-kl,t. 405. A song; the 

Song of Solomon. 
CAKTLE, kind, *. 405* A piece wijth 

GANTLET, kantlet, #. *>. A piece, a frag. 


CANTO, kiato, «. A book or sectkm of a 

NTON, kaWtun, «.l,6d. A small parcel or 

division of Uitd ; a small community, or clan. 
To CANTON, kan'tto, e. «. To divide into 

little parts. 
To CANTONIZE, kiotibk-ke, e. o. To par- 
cel out into small divisions. 
CANVASS, kan'ris, $. A kind of cloth 

woven /or several uses ; solicitation upon an 

To CANVASS, kiVria, *. «. To sift, to 

examine ; to debate, to controvert 
To CANVASS, kan'vis, «. ». To solicit 
CANY, ka'ne, a. Full of canoe, consisting 

of canes. 

CANZONET, kan^taeV, *, A little song. 

CAP, k&p, *. The garment that covers the 
head ; the en$ign of the cardinaUtc ; the top- 
most, the highest ; a revere pee made by un- 
co verinp the head. 

To CAP, k4p, v. a. To cover on the top ; to 
snatch oif the cap.— To Cap verses, to name 
alternately verses beginning with a particular 

CAP-A-PIE, Jrip4*f IT, «. Ffou head to 

CAP-PAPER, kjp'pa-pir, «. A sort of 

coarse brownish paper. 

CAPABILITY, ka-pa-bft'e-te, t . Capacity. 

CAPABLE, ka'pa-M, a.— Bee Incapable. 
Endued with powers equal to any particular 
filing ; intelligent, able to understand ; capa- 
cious, able to receive ; susceptible j qualified 
for; hollow.' 

CAPABLENESS, ka'p4-bl-n& ? s. The Qua- 
lity or stale of being capable.' 

CAPACIOUS, ki-pa'shas, a. Wide, large, 
able to hold ranch ; extensive, equal to great 

CAPACIOUSNESS, lrf-pa'shos-n&, s. The 
power of holding, largeness. 

To CAPACITATE, ka-pls'e-tite, e. a, To 

enable, to qualify. 
CAPACITY, kJUpsVi-ti, $. «ai. Tfc* now 

of ootttaiuUv ; the force or power of the mind ; 

power, abUity j room, space ; state, condition 


CAPARISON, WUpart-sfln, •. J70. A sort 

of cover fur a lu>r*c> 4«J& 
To CAPARISON, ka^e-sim, 9.0. To 

dress in caparisons ; to dress pompously. 
CAPE, faape, «. Headland, promontory-; 

the iieok-|Heoe of a cloak or coat 
CAPER, k&'pQr, *. 08. A leap, or jump. 
CAPER, ki'por, «. An acid pickle. 
CAPER-HUSH, ka'pdr-bftsh, s. This plant 

grows In tbt booth of France, the buds are 

pickled for eating. 

To CAPER, ka*pfir, v. n. To dance frolick- 

soraely ; to skip for n.erriment. 
€APERER,ka'pur-rar, #.556. A dancer 


CAPIAS, kVpM*,*. «o. A writ o/f*eon> 


CAPILLAX^QU*, tf p.-*U-la'a*&e, «• *%e 

same with capillary. 

CAPILLAIRE, fcia.p&-late', a. «yrop of 

CAPILfeAtfENT, ki-plil^mint, t. Small 

threads or hairs which grow up 111 the mJlovfUe 

of aflower. 
CAPILLARY, kip-pilltae, a. Resembling 

hairs, small, minute. 
C APILLATTON, kap-pft-lafchun, t. A small 

ramification of "vesiejs. 

CAPITAL, karVe-til. a. 88. Relating to tfre 
head ; criminal in the highest decree ; that 
which affects life ; chief, principal ; applied 
to letters, large, such as are written at toe be- 
gining or heads of bopki —Capital stock, die 
principal or original stock of a trading cora- 

C Ap/tAL, kftp'&-tai, 9. The mpper part of 
a pillar ; the chief city of a nation. 

CAPITALLY, kap'e-t*14e, ad. In a capital 
manner, so as to affect Kfe, as capitally con- 

CAPITATION, klp-c,tVsbuJV «. Nmncra- 

tionr by heads. 
CAPITULAR, ka-pltsb/n-lor, #. 88. The 

body of the statute* of a chapter ; a member 

of a chapter. 463. 
To CAPITULATE,kA-pkfh ; Uate,r.n.Ol.To 

draw up any thing in heads or article*; to 

yield or surrender on certain »tf pjsiajdoos. 

CAPITULATION, ka-pitsji-tt-la'sh«n, «. 

Stipulation, terms, conditions. 
C APIVI TREE, kl-pe've-tree, *. A balsam 

CAPON, ka'pn,*. 4W, If 0. A castrated cock. 
CAPON N I ERE, ka>pla^neer' s.AcoYered 

lodgment, encompassed with a little parapet. 

CAPOT, ki-p6f, s. Is when one party wins 
all the tricks of cards at the game of Piquet 

CAPRICE, ki-preese', or kap'reese. Freak, 
fancy, whim. 

f& ¥bc ins matuier of praoooncijn; this word It the 
most established ; bat the second dors not want i*s 
patrons. Tans Dr. Yoang, Id his Lovt of Fame :— 
" lis tree great fortunes some great nica confer; 
** 13i|t often, ev*n in doiug right, they eir : 
" From emprice, not from efcnfoe, their favours come ; 
** Tfcoy give, bat think it toil to know 10 whom * 

CAPRICIOUS, ki-prWas, a, Whimsical, 
fanciful. f 

CAPRICIOUSLY, ka-prish'os-le, ad. Whim- 

OAPRICIOUSNESS, kl-nrfsh^s-nls, s. 
Humour, whimsicalness. 

CAPRICORN, klp tf pr^-k6rn, t. One of the 
signs of the zodiac k, the whiter nulsi ice. 

CAPRIOLE, kip-re-ole*, s. Caprioles are 
leaps, such as horses make in one and the same 
place, without advancing forward. 

CAPSTAN, kaVfetln, *. A cylipder wiq& 

levers to wind up any great weight. 
CAPSULAR, kjp'shn-lsr, 4«. I q. Holloa 
C APSULARV, klir%ha-lar-e, f like a 

CAP8ULATE, kip'sho^ate, la. fin- 
CAPSULATED, kapWU^^, J oloaed. 
or in a boa. 


air KIT, not U»-t*be 171, tub lT2,biU m-Ki 299--pound 313-#Mn 46t>, this 400. 

CARBUNCULAR, kir-bung'ku-lur, a. Red 
like a carbuncle. 

. * * __ hpAt nr cold. _ ... 

Captain „ 

in-chief of an array. 
CAPTAIKRY, Wr/tln-re, t. The power 

gm m certsMu district, the chieftainship. 
CAPTAINSHIP, kap'dn-ehfe, «. The rank 

er post of a captain; the condition or post of 

a cwef commander. _ ^ 

CAPTATION, kAp-ta'strun, *. The practice 

of catching favour* 
CAPTION, kap'ahun, t. The act of taking 

CAl^OUS, kap'sh&s, <r. S14. Given to 

cavils, eager to object ; insidious, insnanng. 

CAraOUSLY, kip'shus-le, ad. With an 

CATOOTONbIs, klp'shus-nis, t. IncUna- 

TaTAS^T^T^ip'tTvate, t>. a. To take 
prisoner, to bring Into bondage ; to charm, to 

CAPHVATION, k^p-tc-va'shin, t. The 

act of taking one captive. 
CAPTIVE, klp'dv, *. 140. One taken in 

war ; one charmed by beauty. 
CAPTIVE, kapttr, a.Made prisoner in war. 
CAPTIVITY, ka>dv'c-wi, * Subjection by 

the fate of war, bondage ; slavery, »«vitude. 
CAPTOH, kap'ttir, *. 1«6, He that takes a 

(JCFro^^pShure, s. 461. The act or 

Jractice of taking any tb'mg J a prise. 
PUCHIN,kaia-Bheen',«. 115. A female 
garment, consisting of a cloak andhood, made 
mimhation of the dress of capuchin monks. 
CAR, *Jt, j. 78. A small carriage of bur- 
den ; chariot of war. » 

CARABINE, or CARBINE, kar-bW 1. A 
small sort of fire-arms, 
r-r Dr. Ash. Bailey, W. Johnston, Entlck, and Bo- 

J«ba*o B art Mr. Perry on the tost ; * h »«*'lJ5""!- 
1 TJr. Asfcv Bscbtnaa, Dr. Johnson, aaa tMMey, 
'JremTSuo^t^ nit; bat Mr. Scott, EnOc*, 

Perry, sml Keorlck, more mer* on the last. The 
rru^n is. that if we accent Carbine on the trst sy Mn- 
Ue, is* last oe*to\ according to ftnelhgy, to have sbe 
. short : but •» the J is always long, the accent ought 
is be oa the Utt syllable. 140. ■ - 

CARBINIER, kir-be-nttr', *. A sort of 

CARACK, kaVik, $ . A hwge ship of burden, 

cSrAT, Ki^f'- Awd^tgfjwir 
CARACT, S ' I grams ; a manner of 

expresMue the fineness of, go^d. 
CARAVAN, kaVa-vin, a. 514. A troop or 

body of merchants or pterin"- , , , - . 
CARAVANSARY, kar-l-van at-r*, a. A 

buo«e baitt for tha reception of travellers. 
CARAWAY, ksttwli. A plant. 
CARBON ADO, kANbo-na'do, a. 02. Mea* 

eat acmes, to be broiled. 77. 
To CARBON ADO, kJf-bo-nA'do, ».«• To 

cut or hack.— See Lumbago. ■ 

CARBUNCLE, kar'nunk-kl, *. 40ft. A je*vel 

shining in the dark ; red spot or pimple. 
CARRUNCLED, karOronk-kld, a. Set with 

carbsttcles y spottec', deformed with pimples. 



heat or cold. . 

CARCANET, kar/ka-nit, *. A chain or 

collar of jewels. * 

CARCASS, kar'kas, *. 03. A dead body of 
an animal; the decayed parts of any thing; 
tliemain parts, without completion or orna- 
ment; in gunnery, a kind of bomb. 
CARCELAOE, kar'se-tidje, s. 90. Prison 


CARD, kird, •. 92. A paper painted with 
figures, used in games ; the paper on which 
the several points of the compass are marked 
under the mariner's needle ; the instrument 
with which wool is combed. 

To CARD, kard, «. a. To comb wool. 

CARDAMOM. , This word is common- 
ly pronounced kiVda-mum, #. A medicinal 

CARDER, kJr-dir, s. 98. One that cards 
wool ; one that plays much at cards. 

CARDIACAL,kir^lf-kal, }* Cordial, 

CARDIACK, kaVdWk, i haying the 
quality of invigorating. 

CARDINAL* Idi'dkial, a. 88. Principal, 

CARDINAL, kirMe-nal, $. One of the 
chief governors of the church. 

CARMNALATE,kaj^de-na-kte, }«.£" 

CARDINALSHIP, karMe-nal-shlp, S office 
and rank of a cardinal. , 

CARDMATCH, kird'matsh, s. A match 
made by dipping a piece of a card in melted 
sulphur ; a party at cards. 

CARE, klre. *. Solicitude, anxiety,concern ; 
caution; regard, charge, heed 111 order to pre- 
servation ; the object of care, or of love. 

To CARE, kare, v. n. To be anxious or 
■olieitoaT ; to be ii*lined, to be disposed ; to 
fo affected with. m . m ^ mA _ . 

CARECRAZED, kare'krazd, a. So9. Broken 
with ©are and soiiaitBde. 

T<» CAREEN, ka-reen', v. a. To caulk, to 

CAREER, ka-Veer', *. The ground on which 
a race is run ; a course, a race ; full speed, 
swift motion ; course of action. 

To CAREER, ka-reer>.». To run with 

swift motion. _ , ,, ., 

CAREFUL, kare'fal, a. Anxious, solicitous, 
full of concern ; provident, diligent, cautious, 

CAREFULLY, kare'ful-le, a(f. In a manner 

that shows care ; heedfully , watchfully. 
CAREFULNESS, kare'iul-ries, *. Vigilance, 

CARELE8LY, kartleVle, ad. Negligently, 

CARELESNESS, kkrelis-nfe, $ . Heedless- 

ness, inattention. ,„... . ^. . 

CARELESS, karelcs, a. Wi&out care, 

without solicitude, unconccnied, negligent, 

heedless, unmindful, cheeiiul, undisturBed ; 

unmoved ny, uiiooncerneci at. 
To CARESS, ka-reV, v. a. To endear, to 

CARESS, ka-r«V, «. An act oi endearment. 

CAR CAJt 7S, fir 77, ill 181, fit 81— niiM,mJtfl5— pine 1*5, pin 107— no 102, move 104, 

CARET, ka'ilt, «. A note which shows 
wbeni something interlined thould be read, 
as a. 

CARGO, kar'go, «. The lading of a ship. 

CARICATURE, kar-lk-a-tshore', 461. 

& Thk word, though not in Johnson, 1 have not 
scrupled to insert, from its frequent and legitimate 
usage. Baretti tells us that the literal sense of this 
word is cert* quantlla Hi munitions eke si met tee 
neW arckUrusoocltro, which, in English, signifies the 
charge of a gun ; bat its metaphorical signification, 
and the only (one in which the English use it, is, as he 
tells us, dlcJiesi anche di ritratto ridicoio in cui send 
grandemente aceresciute i dijffetti, when applied to 
paintings, chiefly portraits, that heightening or some 
features, and lowering others, which we call in Eng- 
lish overcharging, and which will make a very ngly 
picture, not unlike a handsome person s whence any 
exaggerated character, which is redundant in some of 
Its parts, and defective in others, is called a Caricature. 

CARIES, ka're-lz, «. 99. Rottenness. 
CARIOSITY, ka-re-os'e-te. Rottenness. 
CARIOUS, ka're-us,a.S14. Rotten. 
CARK, kirk, s. Care, anxiety. 
To CARK, kark, v. n. To be careful, to be 

CARLE, kirl, s. A rude brutal man, churl. 
CARLINE THISTLE, klr-line-tals'sl. t. A 

C ARLINOS, killings, #. In a ship, timbers 

lying fore and aft. 

CARMAN, kaVm&n, s. 88.' A man whose 
employment it is to drive cars. 

CARMELITE, Urine-lite, «. 150. A sort 

of pear ; one of the order of White Friars. 

CARMINATIVE, klr-mln't-tlv, «. Carmi- 
natives are such things as dispel wind and 
promote insensible perspiration. 

CARMINATIVE, klr-min'4-tiv, «. Belong- 
ing: to carminatives 157. 

CARMINE, kir-mrae 1 , *. A powder of a 
bright red or crimson colour. 

J3* Dr. Johnson, Sheridan, Ash, and Smith, accent 
this word on the first syllable ; but Mr. Nares, Dr. 
Kenrlck, Mr.8cott, Perry, Buchanan, and Entick, more 
properly on the last :— for the reason see Carbine. 

CARNAGE, kar-nldje, $, 90. Slaughter, 
havock ; heaps of flesh. 

C ARN AL, kar'nal, a. 88. Fleshly, not spi- 
ritual ; lustful, lecherous. 

CARNALITY, kar-nll'e-te, «. Fleshly lust ; 
grossness of mind. 

CARNALLY, kaVdtl-le, ad. According to 
the flesh, not spiritually. 

CARNALNESS, kaVnll-nes, #. Carnality. 
CARNATION, klr-na'shnn, «. The name 
of the natural flesh colour. 

CARNELION, kat-nele'ySn,*. US. A pre- 
cious stone, more commonly written and pro- 
nounced Cornelian. 

C ARNEOUS, klVne-us, a. Fleshy. 

To CARNIFY, kaVne-ti, v. *. To breed 

CAR NIVAL, kaVne-val, #. The feast held 

in Roman Catholkk countries before Lent. 

CARNIVOROUS, klr-nivVo-rus, a. Flesh- 
eating. 518. 

C A RNOSITY, kar-ncVst-te, $ . Fleshy ex- 

CARNOUS, kaVhos. a. 314. Fleshy. 

CAROB,ka'r6b,s. A plant, 

CAROL, kir'rul, 1. 100. A song of joy and 

exaltation ; a song of devotion. 
To CAROL, kaVrnl. v. nVTo sing, to wa» Me. 
To CAROL, kaYrul, e. a. To praise, to 

CAROTID, ki-r6t1d, a. Two arteries which 

arise out of the ascending trunk of tlte aorta. 
CAROUSAL, kft-rou'zal, #. 88. A festival. 
To CAROUSE, kl-rouz',e. n. To drink, to 

To CAROUSE, k&-rouV, v. a. To drink. 
CAROUSER, ka-rotear, *. 98. A drinker, 

a toper. 
CARP, karp,*. A pond fish. 
To CARP, k&rp, v. it. To censure, to cavil. 
CARPENTER, kaVpin-tur, t . 98. An arti- 
ficer in wood. 
CARPENTRY, kaYpen-tre, t. The trad* 

of a carpenter. 
CARPER, kar'pur, t. 98. A caviller. 
CARPET, kir'pk, s. 99. A covering of va- 
rious colours ; ground variegated with flowers. 

— To be on the Carpet is to be the subject of 

consideration. * 

To CARPET, kaVpit, v. a. To spread with 

CARPING, kaVping, part. a. 410. Captious, 

CARPINGLY, kiVping-le, ad. Captiously, 

CARRIAGE, kartfdje, $. 90. The act of 

carrying or transporting j vehicle ; the frame 

upon which cannon is carried ; behaviour ; 

conduct; management. 

CARRIER, kar're-ur, «. One who carries 
something ; one whose trade is to carry goods ; 
a messenger ; a species of pigeons. + 

CARRION, klrVe-un, s. 160. The carcass 
of something uot proper for food ; a name of 
reproach for a worthless woman ; any flesh so 
corrupted as not to be fit fur food. 

CARRION, kiVre-un, a. Relating to car- 

CARROT, kaVr&t, «. 108. Garden root 
CARROTINESS, kaVrfit-e-nla, «. Redness 

of hair. 
CARROTY, kaVrot-e, a. Spoken of red 

To CARRY. kiVre, v. a. To convey from a 

Elace j to bear, to have about one ; to convey 
y force ; to effect any thing ; to behave, to 
conduct ; to bring forward ; to imply, to im- 
port ; to fetch and bring, as dogs. — ro Carry 
off, to kill.— To Carry on, to promote, to help 
forward. — To Carry through, to support to the 
To CARRY, kfo-e, v.n. A horse is said to 
carry well when his neck is arched, and he 
holds his head high. 

CART, kirt, t. 92. A wheel-carriage, used 
commonly for luggage ; I he vehicle m which 
criminals are carried to execution. 

To CART, kirt, e. a. To expose in a cart. 

To CART, kirt, v. n. To use carls for car- 

CART-HORSE, kartfhorse, #. A coarse un- 
wieldy horse. 
CART-LOAD, klrUode', s. A quantity of 

any thing piled on a cart > a quantity suffi- 
cient to load a cart 


air 1«7, ftfe 16S— tAb* 171, lib 17», bill 17»— 8H M0— ptftnd *1S— (Un 4M,t«s46«. 


CARTWAY, karVwh, a. A way through 
which a carriage may conveniently travel. 

CAKT-BLANCHE,kirt-bliiieh',#. A blank 
paper, a paper to be filled np with such con- 
ditions aa the penou to whom it is sent thinks 

CARTEL, klr-teT, *. A writing containing 

CARTER, kirVur, #. 08. The man who 

drives a cart. 
CARTILAGE, kaYte-lfotfe, 8.90. A smooth 
. and solid body, softer than a bone, but harder 

than a ligament. _ 

CARTILAGINEOUS, karte-U-jin'yus, 

CARTILAGINOUS, kar-tc-tfd>'e-nus, 


a OmwtioE of cartilages. 
CARTOON, Mr-toon', a. A painting or 
drawing upon large paper. 

C ARTOUCH, kar-t&otsh', «. A case of wood 
three inches thick at the bottom, holding 
bills. It is fired oat of a hobit.or small mortar. 

parchment filled with gunpowder, used for 

the greater expedition in charging guns. 
CARTRUT, klrtfrat, *. The track made by 

a cart wheel. 
CARTULARY, kaVtshu-lt-re, c 461. A 

place where papers are kept. 

CARTWRIGHT, kirfrhe,* A maker of 

To CARVE, klrv, e.o. To cut wood, or 

stmte ; to cat meat at the table ; to engrave ; 

to choose one's own part. 
To CARVE, kirv, v. *. To exercise the 

trade of a sculptor ; to perform at table the 

•fice of sopplying the company. 

CARVER, kar'vnr, s. 98. A sculptor ; he 

that cat ap the meat at the table ; he that 

chooses for himself. 
CARVING, kaVvmg, t. 410. Sculpture, 

afore* carved. 
CARUNCLE, ktVonk-kl, $. 405. A small 

protaberance of flesh. 81. 

CASCADE, kas-kade/, #. A cataract, a 

CASE, kite, t . A covering, a box, a sheath ; 

the outer part of a house ; a building unfur- 

C ASE-KNIFE, kWnlfe, s. A large kitchen 

CASE-SHOT, kaie/shot, a. Bullets enclosed 
ma case. 

CASE, kase, a. Condition with regard to 
eatward circumstances : state of things ; in 
physic, state of the body ; condition with re- 
gard to leanness, or health : contingence ; 
eaestion relating to particular persons or 

To CASE, kase, v. a. To put in a case or 
ssver ; to cover as «a case ; to strip off the 

Ts < CAslHARBEN, kaseliir-dn, e. a. To 

harden on the outside. 
CASEMATE, kaae'mate, t. A kind of vault 

t? aich of stone-work. 


CASEMENT, kize'ment, «. A window 

- opening apon hinges. 

CASEWORM, kase'wurm, a. A grub that 

•makes itself a case. 
CASH, kash, «. Money, ready money. 
CASH-KEEPER, klsh'keep-ur, s. A man 

intrusted with the monev. 

CASHEWNUT, ki-shoo'hut, *. A tree. 
CASHIER, ka-sheer', s. 275. He that has 

charge of the money; 
To CASHIER, kl-sheer', v. a. To discard, 

to dismiss from a post. 
CASK, kisk, *. A barrel. 
CASQUE, kisk, s. 415. A helmet, armour 

for the head. 
CASKET, kas<kit, s. 09. A small box or 

chest for jewels. 
To CASSATE, kas'sate, v. a. 91. To vacate, 

to invalidate. 
CASSATION, kas-sa'shOn, #. A making 

null or void. 
CASSAVI, kis'sa-ve, 7 s. An American 
CASSADA, kaa'si-da,* plant. 

CASSIA, kAsh'she-i, «. A sweet spice men- 
tioned by Moses. 
CASSIOWARY, kaahWie-o-wa-re, «. A 

large bird of prey. 

CASSOCK, kts'suk, *. 166. A close gar- 

CASSWEED, kiVweed, $. Shepherd's 

To CAST, klst, v. «. 79. To thiww with the 
hand ; to throw away , as useless or noxious ; 
to throw dice, or lots ; to throw in wrestling ; 
to throw a net or snare j to drive by violence 
of weather ; to leave behind in a race ; to shed, 
to let fall, to moult j to lay aside, as fit to be 
worn no longer ; to overweigh, to make to pre- 
ponderate, to decide by overbalancing ; to 
compute, to reckon, to calculate ; to contrive, 
to plan out ; to fix the parts in a play ; to di- 
rect the eye ; to firm a mould ; to model, to 
form. — To cast away, to shipwreck ; to waste 
in profusion ; to ruin. — To Cast down, to de- 
ject, to depress the mind.— To Cast off, to dis- 
card, to disburden one's self ; to leave behind. 
—To Cast out, to turn out of doors ; to vent, 
to speak. — To Cast up, to compute, to calcu- 
late ; to vomit. 

To CAST,klst, v.*.92.To contrive,to turn the 
thoughts to j to admit of a form by casting or 
melting ; to warp, to grow out of form. 

CAST, kist, 8. The act of casting or throw- 
ing, a throw ; state of any thing cast or thrown ; 
a stroke, a touch ; motion of the eye ; the 
throw of dice ; chance from the cast of dice ; 
a mould, a form ; a shade, or tendency to any 
colour ; exterior appearance ; manner, air, 
mien ; a flight of hawks. 

CASTANET, kaVta-nlt, *. Small shells of 

ivory, or hard wood, which dancers rattle in 

their bauds. 
CASTAWAY, kastft-wa, s. A person lost, 

or abandoned by Providence. 
CASTELLIN, kas-tel1?n, 7 s. Constable 
CASTELLAIN, kas'tel-lhne, J of a castle. 
CASTER, klstur, *. A thrower, he that 

casts ; a calculator, a man that calculates fbr- 

- tunes. 

To CASTIGATE, kls te-gtte, e. a. 91. To 
chastise, la chasten, to punish. 


Or J*9. Pate 73, fllr77,fall 8«,flrt St—meat, m£t tt—plne It5,phl07—tt& lGa,more 154, 

discipline; punishment, correction; emenda- 
tion. . 
CASTIO ATORY, kasterga-tir-i, «. Puai- 

tive. 518 
QASTILE SOAP, ksVtciUope, a. A kimd 

of soap. 
CASTING-NET, kaVdng-net, «. A net to 

be thrown into the water by hand to catch fish, 
CASTLE, kis'sl, f . 472. A house fortified.— 

Castlea m the air. project* without reality, 
CASTLED, kls'sld, a. 44tt, 472. Fnrnished 

with casUes. 
CASTLING, fcbtalog, a. AnabortKa, 
CASTOR, kas't&r, $. 98. A bearer. 
CASTOREUM, kAs-tteWuii, a. In phar- 
macy, a liquid matter enclosed in bags or 

purses, lew the auus of the caator, eusely 

taken for his testicles. 
CASTRAME1ATION, Uavtri-me-tkWsB, 

t. The art or practice of encamping. 
To CASTRATE, ksVtrke, v. a. To geld ; 

to take away the obscene parts of a writing. 
CASTRATION, his-trjfrhfin, a. The act of 

CASTERIL, \ v ..,*Jh S s. ©9. A mean or 
CASTREL, J *** m h I degenerate kind 

of hawk. 
CASTRENSIAN, kas-treVshe-in, a. Be- 

longingte a camp, 
CASUAL, kazhu-al, a. 451, 45$. Accident- 

el, erismgtfiim chance. 
CASUALLY, kfeh<kal-le,4uL Accidentally, 

without drsign. 
CASUALNESS, kaxh'u4l-*es, a. Accident- 

CASUALTY, ka*h4-*Ute, a. Accident, a 

thine happening by chance. 
CASUIST, khaVu-ist,*. One that studies 

and settles cases of conscience. 
CASUISTICAL, kazh-n-frte-kil, a. Re- 

lating to coses of conscience. 
CASUISTRY, kiaVu-uvtre, «. The science 

of a casuist. 

CAT, kit, «. A domestick anuual that 
catches mice. 

CAT, kit, a. A sort of ship. 

CAT-O'-NINE-TAILS, klt-i-aW-tala, a. 
88. A whip wkh nine lashes. 

CATACHRESIS,kaa-kre'»is,*.52& The 
abuse of a trope, when, the words *fe ten tar 
wrested from their native signification jua 
voice beautiful to the ear. 

CATACHRESTICAX, kiU-kreate-kHy a. 
Forced, far-fetched. 

CATACLYSM. katl-kllzm, a. A deluge, 
an inundation, 

CATACOMBS, kat'a-komt, •. Subterrane- 
ous cavities for the buriitl of the dead. 

CATALEPSIS, kat-a-lipsis, «. A disease 
wherein the patient is without sonee, and re- 
mains in Uie tame postal* in which the disease 
seized him. 

CATALOGUE, Ufa-log, a. U8. An anu- 
meratioo of particulars, a list. 

CATAMOUNTAIN, kat-l-mo&ntin, a. A 

fierce animal resembling a cat. 

C ATAPHRACT, k4f a-frakt, *. A horse- 
man, in complete annoon 

CATAPlASM^a-pla**,*. AponWce. 


CATAPULT. kafi-pSit, #. 4B9. An engine 
used anciently to throw stones. 

CATARACT, katA-rikt, a. A fail of water 
from on high, a cascade. 

CATARACT, kit tUiki, $. An inapisaation 
of the crystalline humour of the eye ; seme* 
times a pellicle that hinders the sight. 

CATARRH, kt-tir 1 , a. A detection of a 
sharp serum from the glands about the head 
and throat. 

CATARRHAL, kl-tsVral. .a. Relating to 

C AT ARRHOUS, k*-tarV6s, } the catarrh, 
proceeding from a catarrh. 

CATASTROPHE, ki4aVtro4e, a, Th# 
change or revolution which produces the con- 
clusion or final event of a eramatick piece ; av 
final event, generally unhappy* 

CATCAL, ka t'klll, 406. A sqneakio* in- 
strument; need in the playhouse to condemn 

tt This word oaght audoaMedly to be written with 
double {.—See Principles of Pronnnclatloa, letter JT>, 
and Introduction to&byming Dictionary ,Ortbograpbl- 
cal Aphorism XII. 

To CATCH, kjttsk, <?. a. 89. To lay hold on 
wish the hand ; to stop any thing flying ; to 
seise any thing by pursuit j to stop, to inter- 
rupt sailing; to insnare, to entangle in a 
snare; to receive suddenly ; to fasten sud- 
denly upon, to seize ; to please, to seise the 
affections, to cbann ; to receive any contagion 
or disease. 

Y$ This word b almost universally proaooaced In 
the capital Mk« the nonn ketch/ bat tUs deviation 
from the true sound of a is only tolerable in colloquial 
prenqaeiatien. and ought, by correct speakers, to a* 
avoided even to that. 

ToC ATCH, katah, e. s. To be contagiosa, 
to spread injection, 

CATCH, Utah, sJSeirure, the act of eessnsj, 
Uie act of taking quickly ; a song sang; m msc- 
eessioa ; watch, the puatoce of seising : an 
advantage taken. bow laid on ; the thing 
caught, profit ; a short interval of action ; a 
taints slight oontacjon; any thing that catches* 
as a hook ; a sraallswrft- sailing ship. 

CATCHER, katshur, a. He that catches j 
that in which any thing is caught. 

CATCHFLY, kitah'fll, a. A plant,Campioji. 

CATCHPOLL, katsh'pole,*. A sergeant, 

CATCHWORD, kitoh'w&rd, a. Hie weed 
at the corner of the page under the hist line* 
which is repeated at the top of the next page, 

CATECHETICAL, k&t-e-kit'e-kil, a. Gcei- 

sistiog of Questions and answers 

la the way of q aea tft m and answer. 

To CATECHISE, kaV4-keiaw, v. a. To rn- 
strnet by asking questions j to question ; to 
interrogate^ to examine. 100. 

CATECHISER, kaYe-ker-aur, s. 100. One 

who catechises. 
CATECHISM, klrt-kfem, $. A form of in- 

•fraction by means of questions and answexa 

concur »ii njr religion. 
CATECHIST, k*ft~knrt, a. One whose 

charge is to quesiiou the uniustructQd conceru* 

jnp rellpon. 

CATECHUMEN, klt-c-ktoien, $. Onn 
who is yet in the first rudiments of Christi*' 
unity. 503. 


air 1*7, not ltt-4ube m, lib If 3, bull KJV4& 299-po.nnd SlvWItin 466,™ I4«m 


a. 509. Belonging to the catacirasuent. 
CATEGORICAL, JtAU^r'^kil, a. Ab- 
solute, adequate, positive. 
CATEGORICALLY, kk4rg$rt-k4U # juL 

Positively, expressly. 
CATEGORY, kM-gar.*, «. A oiaas, a 

rank, an order of ideas, predicament 
CATENARIAN, kAksVnn'rc-an, a. Relating 

lb a chain. 
To CATENATE, klt'i-natt, «. & To chain. 
CATENATION, k&t-^ai'ah&u, #. Link, 

regular connexion. 
To CATER, katfir, v. «. 98. To provide food ; 

to bay in victuals. 
CATER, ka'tnr, s. The fosjr of casds and 

CATER-COUSIN, U't^kAs-zn, j. A petty 

tavoarke, one related by blood or mind. 
CATERER, ka'tfir-ftr,*. A purveyor. 
CATERESS, ka'tnr-Tts, «. A woman en* 

ployed to provide victuals. 
CATERPILLAR kettfr^or, «. A worn 

sustained by leaves ar.d fruits :' a pJant. 
To CATERWAUL, kifrn^ferl, «. n. To 

asake a noise as cats m ratting time ; to make 

any offensive or odious noise. 
C ATES, kites, j.Viands, food, *«& of meat, 
CATFISH, kit'f isfa, *. A seaman in the 

West Indies. 
CATHARTICAL, U-faaVte-feaL > a. Pur- 
CATHARTICK, ki-thir>^ $ g^ve. 
CATHARTICK, kn-taiVtlk, e. 600. A me- 

diciae to purge downwards. 
CATHARTIC ALNESB, kl^r'ta-kal-nls, 

a, Paraing quality. 
CATHEAD, Ut'hid, s. In a abip, a piece 

of timber with two shivers at one end, oaring 

a rope and a block ; a kiud of fossile- 
CATHEDRAL, ksWM'dril, a. 88,Episct>paJ, 

containing the see of a bishop ; belonging to 

an episcopal church. 
CATHEDRAL, ki-iae'dril, #. 88. The bead 

cbtsfch of a diocese. 
CATHERINE-PEAR, UM-ur-rla-pW, *. 

An interior kind of pear. 

t^Tsiaprw^ Aasa^^^{vteTrrt|teavuhs«4 
la she sccoad syllabi*- instead of e, as Jt comes frpm 
law Greek K*l*pc, shjalfying part. 

CATHETER, kfe*'MAr, «. 9$. A hollow 
and somewhat crooked instrument to thrust 
into the bladder, to assist infringing away 
the mine when the passage Is stopped. 

CATBOLES, tftnol* *, In a snip, two 

little holes astern above the aim-room ports. 
CATHOUCISsi fcn-^rtlskm, *, Ads>e- 
rence to the Catholick church. 

CATHO UC£, kliVWtk, a. Usireisaior 

CATHOLIC9N, kA-Mk-ktn, s. An uni- 

versa! medicine. 
CATKINS, kitldon, s. Imperfect flowew 

tanging from trees, in manner of a rppe or 

CATLING. klt'Jng, «. A dismembering 

knife, need by surgeon* ; oatgu4, fiddJeMtrings. 
CATMINT, kit^mmt, a. A plant. 
CATOPTMCAL,kfc-a?Wka% attainting 

•o the catoptricks, or vision by reflection. 
CATOPTRIC**, kit^p'triki, * Thai part 

of opticki which treats of vision by reflection, 


CATPIPE,katype,#. CatoaL 
CATS-EYE, kltsl, *. A stone. 
CATS-FOOT, kaVtot, *. Alehoof. 
eAT>8-HE AD, kata%id, *. A kind of apple. 
CATOILVER, tffsil-vur, *. 98. A kind of 

CATS-TAIL, kltstate, *. A long ronnd 
svbstanee that grows upon nut-trees : a kind 
of reed. 

CATSUP, oniveraaliy pronounced kltsh'Qn, 

t. A kind of pickle. ry 

CATTLE, kaV«l,#. 406. Beasts of pasture. 

not wild nor domestick. 
CAVALCADE, kfcaUtaaV, *. 624. A pro- 

cession on horseback. 

CAVAUlX^ldk4-leMa.aT6. Ahorse- 
ma* a knight; a gay, sprightly, military 
man ; (he apeehAtum of the party, of Kiae 
>Cha/Wa the iW J * 

CAVALIER, kh-Uhy, a. Gay, sprigWIy, 
ya/Ws*; fieuerops, h/aye; disdainful, haughty. 

CAVALIERLY, Uv-4-licr'le, ad. Haughfi- 
ly, arrogantly, disdainfully. 

CAVALRY, kaVii-re. Horse troops. 
Jo CAV ATO> j£ vtt ^ a Tp hoUo ^ 

C AVAZLON, k4-vi'«n0n, s. The hollowing 

of tlje earjlh (or cellarage, 
CAUDLE, kaw'dl, s. 405. A mixture of 

w . l ^, vl ? <,<n ^ ingredients, gjven to women in 

GAVEjJcaye,*. A cavern, a den; a hollow. 

any hollow place. 

CAVEAT, ki'ye-it, s. A oave at is an intima- 
tion given to some ordinary or ecclesiastical 
judge, notjfyiqg to him that he ought to be- 
ware how he acts. 

CAVERN, kaVurn, *, 665. A hollow place 

in the ground. 
CAVER&ED, kaVornd, a. -362. Fall of 

caverns, hoi low, excavated; inhabiting a cavern. 
CAVERNOUS, kaVur-nfts, o. 557. Full of 


CAVESSON, kaVe>#un, #. 98. A sort of 

noseband for a horse. 
CAUF, kiwf, s. A chest with holes, to keep 

fish nJiae in the water. 
CAUGHT, kiwt, *!«, gog. parf. pajw# f^m 

To catch. 

CAVIARE, ka-veV, s. The eggs of a stwr, 
^aon sahed. 

& Either the spelling ftr the pronunciation of this 
ward should foe altered : we have po Instance in lhe 
language of sounding are, are.- the jmeient fpt'lttnK 
feens 10 nave be«a caviare; Uiongh Buchanan and 
Pstlfw, 10 compltonce with the 0tonuncia(k>n,eptJl H 
caveer, and W.John*on cavear ; and^sh, as a leas 
usual spelling, caviar: but the piciionaryDe ia Crasca 
*pells it conaie. 

In CAVIL, kivH, n. n. 159. To raise oap- 

tious and frivolous objecthms* 
To CA YIJ^ kkil, o. a. To rncckrn or trent 

• with objectioas. 

CAVIJ^ Wll, a. A Wa* Pt frivolons ob- 


CA VILlWVTiaN, kiv-ft-Jittfci, s. Ttn 4if- 
position to make captious objections. 

CAVULER,M4r'irJU r , .. An unfair aAvev- 
sary, a captipus d'isp«l*iU. 

CAVILUNGLY, klv^-lmg-le, ad. Inn 

cavilling manner. 
GA VILLOUS, kAVv^-lns, a. Full of ohiee- 




tJ 559. Fate TS, fife 7T, fill W, fit 81— mi «S, 
CAVITY, kivfc-te, •• ill. Hollowness, 

hollow. . 

C AUK, kiwk, t. A coarse talky spar. 

CAUL, kiwi, *. The net in which women 
enclose their hair, the hinder part of a woman s 
cap ; any kind of small net ; the integument 
in which the guts are enclosed ; a thin mem- 
brane enclosing the head of some children 
when born. _ , . , 

CAULIFEROUS, klw-llf ft-rfis, o. A term 
for such plants as have a true stalk. 

CAULIFLOWER, kolle-flM-ur, «. A spe- 
cies of cabbage. 

CAUSABLE, kiwfei-bl, a. 405. That which 
may be caused. 

CAUSAL, kiwfcil, a. Relating to causes. 

CAUSALITY, kiw-all'e-te, «. The agency 
of a cause, the quality of causing. 

CAUSATION, klw-A'ahun, #. The act or 
power of causing. 

CAUSATIVE, kiWkt-tlr, a. 157. That ex- 
presses a cause or reason. 

CAUSATOR, kaw-sa't&r, *. 521. A causer, 
an author. 98. 

CAUSE, kiwz, s. That which produces or 
effects any thine, the efficient; the reason, 
motive to any Siing ; subject of litigation ; 

To CAUSE, kiws, v. a. To effect as an 


CAUSELESSLY, kiwrtls-le, ad. Without 

cause, without reason. 
CAUSELESS, kiWlfa, a. Original to it- 
- self; without just ground or motive. 
CAUSER, kiw'zur, s. 08. He that causes, 

the agent by which an effect is produced. 
CAUSEY, 1 kaw'ze, K j. A way raised 
CAUSEWAY, 3 kaWwi,(. and paved 

above the rest of the ground. 

YJ Dr. Johnson tell* u> that this word, by a falsa 
notion of its etymology, has been lately written eatae- 
wcjf. It Is derived tiom the French ckatusJe. In 
the Scripture we find it written causey, 

** To Shuppiin the lot came foilb westward by the 
" causty."— 1 Chron. xzvL 16. 
Dot Milton, Dryden, and Pope, wiite it causeway ; 
and these authorities seem to have fixed the pronun- 
ciation. This word, from its mistaken etymology, 
may rank with Lantern,— which see. 

CAUSTICAL, kaws'te-kll, \a. Belonging 

CAUSTICK, kaWtlkj J to medica- 
ments which, by their violent activity and 
heat, destroy the texture of the part to which 
they are applied, and burn it into an eschar. 

CAUSTICK, kawstik, «. A caustick or 
burning application. 

CAUTEt.k&w'tll, t. Caution, scrapie. 

CAUTELOUS, kiw'te-lus, *. Cautious, 
wary ; wily, cunning. 

CAUTELOUSLY, kaVte-l&s-le, ad. Cun- 
ningly, silly, cautiously, warily. 

CAUTERIZATION, kaw-tur-iA-aa'shon, «. 
The act <>f burning with hot irons. 

To CAUTERIZE, kaw'tur-lze, v. a. To burn 
wirh the cautery. 

CAUTERY, kTw't&r-re, «. 555. Cautery 
is either actual or potential ; the first is burn- 
ing by a hot iron, and the latter with caustick 

CAUTION, kiVshun, «. Prudence, fore- 
sightfWarincss; provisionary precept; warning. 


mlt 05— pine 105, pin 107— no 16% more KM, 

To CAUTION, kaWshon, e.a. To warn, to 

give notice of a danger. 
CAUTIONARY, ktw'shin-A-re, a. Given 

as a pledge, or in security. 
CAUTIOUS, kaVshfis, o. 292. Wary, 

CAUTIOUSLY, kaw'shus-le, ad. In a wary 

manner. , a 

CAUTIOUSNESS, klw'shus-nes, s. Watch- 
fulness, vigilance, circumspection. 
To CAW, klw, v. a. To cry as the rook, or 

crow. ... 

CAYMAN, kk'min, t. 88. American alliga- 
tor or crocodile. 
To CEASE, sese, v. n. To leave off, to stop, 
to give over j to fail, to be extinct ; to be at 
an end. 
To CEASE, sese, a. To put a stop to. 
CEASE, sese, «. Extinction, failure. Ob- 
CEASELESS, sesells, a. Incessant, per- 
petual, continued. 
CECITY, sJs'e-te, s. 50S. Blindness, pri- 
vation of sight. 

ty I have given the e In the first syllable of this word 
the short sound, notwithstanding the diphthong iu lb« 
original cedtas; being convinced of the shortening 
power of the antepenultimate accent of these word*. 
124, Ml, and of the pre-antepen ultimate accent of 
Cfftotery and Prefatory. 

CECUTIENSY, se.-ku'she-in-Be, s. Cloudi- 
ness of sight. 
CEDAR, se'dfir, $. 88. A tree ; the wood of 

the cedar tree. 
To CEDE, side, v. «. To yield ; to resign ; 

to give up to auother. 
CEDRINE, settrlne, a. MO. Of or belong- 
ing to the cedar tree. 
To CEIL, sele, t>. a. To cover the inner roof 

of a building. 
CEILING, seling, s. The inner roof. 
CELANDINE, sfl'in-dme, «. 149. A plant. 
CELATURE, s&t-tshnre, s. 461. The art 

of engraving. 
To CELEBRATE, siVle-brlte,r.a.To praiac, 
to commend ; to distinguish by solemn rites ; 
to mention in a set or solemn manner. 91. 
CELEBRATION, sil-e-bra'shun, s. Solemn 
performance, solemn remembrance ; praise, 
renown* memorial. 
CELEBRIOUS, se-le'bre-os, o. »05. Fa- 

mous, renowned. . 

CELEBRIOUSLY, se-le'bre-ts-le, ad. In a 

famous manner. . , % 

CELEBRIOUSNESS, se-leObre-os-aia. #. 

Renown, fame, 
CELEBRITY, se-lebtore-t*, $. 511. Cele- 
bration, fame. 
CELERIACK, sc-leVMk, o. Turnip-rooted 

CELERITY, se-liVre-te, s. Swiftness, 

speed, velocity. 
CELERY, sere-re, s. A species of parsley t 

corruptly pronounced Salary. 
CELESTIAL, se-lls'tshal, a. 272. Heaven- 
ly, relating to the superior regions ; heavenly, 
relating to the blessed stale ; heavenly » with 
respect to excellence. 
CELESTIAL, se-leVtshll, ». 454. An inha- 
bitant of heaven. 
CELESTIALLY, *e-lis tshll-li, erf. In a 
haavanly manner. 


air l«7, aAt Mi— tube 171, tib ITS, bill 17t-o1l*99— po&nd Sl|— tain 466, this 409. 

1WCELESTIFY, se-leate-il, e. a. To give 
something of a heavenly nature to any thing. 

CELIACK, ae/le-ik, a, Relating to the 
lower belly. 

CELf BAC Y; s&'e-bl-se, #. Single life. " 

CELIB ATE, Bill-bit, j. 91. Single life. 

CF.LI*, sell, *. A small cavity or hollow 
place ; the cave or little habitation pf a reli- 
gious person ; a small and close apartment in 
a prison ; any small place of residence. 

CELLAR, sehor, *. 88. A place under 

(found, where stores are reposited, or where 

bquors are kept. 
CELLARAGE, seVlur-i4je,«. 90. The part 

of the building which makes the cellars. 
CELLARIST, seH&r-lst, «. 555. The but- 
ler hi a religioos house. 
CELLULAR, sillo-lir, a. Consisting of 

fittle cells or cavities. 
CELSITUDE, sll'se-tude, s . Height 
CEMENT, sta'mint, *. 492. The matter 

with which two bodies are made to cohere j 

hood of onion in friendship. 
To CEMENT, se-m3nt', v. a. To unite by 

mesas of something interposed. 
To CEMENT, se-mgnf, v. a. To come into 

conjunction, to cohere. 
CEMENTATION, seWiu-ta'shnn, #. The 

act of cementing. 
CEMETERY, stoW-ter-e, *. A place where 

the dead are re posited. 
CEN ATORY, s eVnl-c&r-e, s. 505. Relating 

to supper w— See Cecity. 511 . 
CENOBITIC AL, seMO-bit'e-kll, a. living 

in community. 50&. 
CENOTAPH, sen'o-taf, s. A monument 

lor one ei«ewhere buried. 
CENSE, *£nse, $. Publick rates. 
To CENSE, sense, v. a. To perfume with 

CENSER, sen's&r, #. 96. The pan in which 
incense is burned. 

CENSOR, sen'sor,_#. 166. An officer of 
Borne who had the power of correcting man- 
ners ; one who is given to censure. 

CENSORIAN, sen-s6're4n, a. Relating to 
tta censor. 

CENSORIOUS, sen-so're-us, a. Addicted 
to censure, severe. 

CENSORIOUSLY, siu-so'ie-us-le, ad. In a 
severe reflecting manner. 

CENSORIOUSNESS, sen-so'ri-us-nes, «. 
Disposition to reproach. 

CENSORSHIP, s4n's6r-*blp, s. 166. The 
office of a censor. 

CENSURABLE, seVshu-rl-bl, a. Worthy 
of censure, culpable. 

CENSURABLENESS, sin'shu-ra-bl-ncW, $. 

CENSURE, sen'shure, «. 462. Blame, re- 
primand, reproach ; judgment, opinion ; judi- 
cial sentence ; spiritual punishment. 

To CENSURE, sfcrthure, v. a. To blame, 
to brand publick ly ; to condemn. 

CENSURBR, seWehur-ur.j.He that blames. 

CENT, slat, a> A hundred , as five per cent ; 
that is, five in the hundred. 

CENTAUR, seWtiwr, a. A pottical being, 
■ app o sed to be compounded of a man and a 
anise ; the archer in the sodiack. 

CENTAURY, seVtaw-re, $. A plant 

CENTENARY, sin'te-na-rfc, *, The number 
of a hundred. 

CENTESIMAL, sln-teVe-mal, #. Hun- 
dredth. 88. 

CENTlFOLIOUS, 8ea-tc-mlius,a.Havin* 

a hundred leaves. 
CENTIPEDE. sen'teVpcde, a. A poisonous 

insect. — See Millepedes. 
CENTO, sln'to, #. A composition formed 

by joining scraps from different authors. 
CENTRAL, sen'tral, «. 88. Relating to the 

centre. . 
CENTRE, sintur, t. 416. The middle. 
To CENTRE, sen'tur, v. a. To place on a 

centre, to fix as on a centre. 
To CENTRE, sen'tur, v. n. To rest on, to 

repose on ; to be placed in the midst or centre. 
CENTRICK, sen'trik, a. Placed in the 

CENTRICAL, s4n'trik-4l, a. Placed in the 


&Tbin word, though la consUnt a*age. Is not fi* 
any of oar Dictionaries. It seems to be perfectly 
equivalent to Centrick; but custom, in time, generally 
either Snds or makes a different shade of meaning be- 
tween words where no such differeace was perceived 
at first. 

CENTRIFUGAL, sJn-trif i-gal, «. Having 
the quality acquired by bodies in motion, of 
receding from the centre. 

CENTRIPETAL, sen-trfp'e-tU, a. Having 
a tendency to the centre. . 

CENTRY, s2n'tr4M.-~See Sentinel. 

CENTUPLE, sen'tu-pl, «. 405. A hundred* 

fo,d - , i * t 

To CENTUPLICATE, sen-tu'ple-kate, *. «• 

To make a hundredfold. 
To CENTURIATE, sin-tu're-ate, v. a. To 

divide into hundreds. 
CENTURIATOR. s3n-ta-re4't&r, s. 521. A 

name given to historians* who distinguish 

times by centuries. 
CENTURION, seWu're-un, s. A military 

officer, who commanded a hundred men among 

the Romans. 
CENTURY, stn'tshu-re, «. 461. A hundred, 

usually employed to specify time, as the se- 
cond century. 
CEPHALALGY, f&a-Ul-je, $. The head- 
ache. . ^ 
CEPHALICK, se-ftlllk, a. 569. That which 

is medicinal to the hear}. 
CERASTES, se-rls'tea, #. A serpent having 

CERATE, se'rit, «. 91. A medicine made 

of wax. _ 

CERATED, scVrA-tid, a. Waxed. - 
To CERE, sere, t>. a. To wax. 
CEREBEL, seVe-bel, f . 50*. Part of the 

CERECLOTH, seWclolh, *. Cloth smeared 

over with glutinous matter. 
CEREMENT, sere'metit, «. Clothes dipped 

in melted wax, with which dead bodies were 

infolded. ' , . . . 

CEREMONIAL, seV-e-mo'ne-al, o. Relating 
to ceremony, or outward rite ; formal, observ- 
ant of old forms. ,...,. _ 

CEREMONIAL, #4r4-mo < nMl, «.Outwarji 
form, external rite ; the order for rites and 
forms iu the Roman church. 

CER EMONI ALNESS, set-e-mo'ne-al-nci, 
j. The quality of being ceremonial. 



tfdflfcFta tt, 4*71 ,&**,** 8l-rt4«e,mIt9»w^i^lo5,tAiiI0T— bil^, AstaM*, 

C&R8M<»ttO%Fg» *ir4^o'»e*ue, a. Con- 
sisting of outward rites; fait of ceremony ; 
attentive tb throat ward rites of religion ; civil 
and formal to a fault. 

CEREMONIOUSLY, sfr4*iaofae4s4e,sfcl. 
In a ceremonious manner, formally. 

t. Fondness of ceremony. 

CEREMONY, seVe4&o-ile, t . 499.0iitw«rd 
rite, external form in refigfon ; forms of civi- 
lity ; outward forms of state. 

CERTAIN, aeVtin, a. 208. Sure, indubita- 
ble ; determined ; hi an indefinite sense, some, 
as a certain mart told me this ; uudoabting, 
put past doubt. 

Certainly, s4Vti*-i*, «*. iadabftawj, 

without goes lion ; without fail. 

CEIeTAlNTY, seYtln^, *. Exemption fro* 
doubt ; that which is real and fixed. 

C&RTES, seVte*, ad. Certainly, in troth. 

CERTIFICATE, ser-tlf e-k&, t. 91. A writ- 
ins made in any court, to give notice tb an- 
other court of any thing done therein ; atly tes- 

To CERTIFY, seVte-fl, v. a. To give certain 
information of ; to give certain assurance of. 

CERTIORARI, •eV-ahe-&-rl i rl, a. A writ 
issuing oat of the Chancery, to call up the re- 
cords of a cause therein depending. 

CERTITUDE, eeVte-tude,*. Certainty, free- 
dom from doubt. 

CERVICAL, seVve-kil,*. Belonging to the 

CERULEAN, se-rule4n, la. Blue, sky- 

GERUtEOUS, ee-rule-us, f. coloured .— 
See European, , . 

CtRULtFiCK:, s&r-o-llf Ik, a. Having the 
power to produce a blue colour. 

CERUMEN, se-r&'ttiii, «. The wal of the 
ear.— See Bitumen. 

CERUSE, se'ruse, s. White lead. 
^J" I prefer Df. Kenrtek's, Mr. Perry't, sad, as fat 

m I e*» guts* oy their accentuation, Dr. Ash*s and 

Bailey's pronunciation of this word, who make the 

first syUaMe long, to Mr. Sheridan's, Scott's, and Eo- 

rick's, who make it snort.— 8ee Principles, 5ZQ. 

CESARI AN, se-za¥e4n, a. The Cesarian 
section is cutting a child out of the womb. 

CESS, see, «. A levy made upon the inhabit- 
ants of a place, rated accordrne to their pro- 
perty ; an assessment ; the act of laying rates. 

To CESS, ale, e. a. To lay charge on, to 

CESSATION, ses-si'shun, t. A stop, a rest, 
a vacation ; a pause of hostility, without 
peace. ' 

CESSAVIT, eia-skMt, «. A writ. 

CESSIBILITY, sIs-se-biTe-te,*. The qua- 
lity of receding, or giving way. 

CE88IBLE, s&'se-bl, «. 495. Easy to give 

CESSION, seahfchun; «. Retreat, the act of 
giving way; resignation. 

CESSIONARY, sesh'she-o-ni-re, a. Imply- 
ing a resignation. 
CESSMENT, sestaent, t . Ad assessment or 

CESSOK, seVsfir, «. W, 166. He that ceaseth 
or seglecteth so lone to perform a duty belong- 
ing to him, as that he ineuneth the danger of 

CESTUS, sts'riis, ». The girdle of Vetoes. 
CETACEOUS, se-uVshia, a. *5T. Of the 

whale kind. 

CHAD, sh4d, 3. A sort of fish. 

To CHAFE, tshafe, e. a. to warm with rob- 
bing ; to heat j to perfume ; to make angry. 

To CHAFE, tah&fe, e. a. To rage, to fret, to 
fume ; to fret against any thing. 

CHAFE, tshafe, t. A heat, a rage, a fury. 
CHAFE WAX, tshafe'waks, s. An officer 

belonging to (he lord high chancellor, who fit* 

the wax tor the* sealing of writs. 

CHAFER, tshafe'if,*. 98. An insect; a sort 
of yellow beetle. 

CHAFF, tehaf, s. The husks of corn Ha* 
are separated by threshing and wiuiiowing ; it 
is used for s)ny. thing worthless. 

To CHAFFER, tshaf fur, v. m To haggle, 
to bargain. 

CHAFFE&ER* tsh*lflur-t*5t», 9. A bttye*, 

CHAFFINCH, tbhiffmah, «. A bird ae> 
called; because it delights in chaff. 

CH AFFLESS, tshaTlls, a. Without chafc 
CHAFFWEEl), tahafweed, *. Cudweed. 
CHAFFY, tshaf % a.Like chaff, fall of chaff, 
Ctf AFINGDISH, tshaling-dfah, «. A ▼ea- 
sel to make any tiling hot id j a portable graft* 
for coals. 

CHAGRIN, sbl-green', t?.a. Ill htuattti*, 

To CHAGRIN, ahA-green', a. a. To rex, t» 

put out of temper. 

CHAIN, taaane,«. A series of links fittteni 

ed one within another ; a bond, a manacle ; a 
fetter ; a line of links with which land is mem- 
swred ; a series linked together. 

To CHAIN, tshane, e. a. To fasten or link 
with a chain ; to bring into slavery ; to put on 
a chain ; to unite. 

CHAINPUMP, toftahe'pump, s. A pu*>£ 
used in large English vessels, which is double, 
to that one rises its the other fails. 

CH AlNSfiOT, t8hane*mot, a. Two bullet* 
or half bullets fastened together by a chain,- 
which, when they fly open, cut away whatever 
is before them. 

CHAIN WORK, ts*ane y wurk,*. Work: *it& 
open spaces^ 

CHAIR, tshare, #. 52. A moveable seat ; a 
seat of justice, or of authority ; a vehicle 
borne by men ; a sedan. 

CHAIRMAN, tshWman, «. 88, The prari- 

dent of an assembly ; one whose trade it is to 
earry a chair. 

CHAISE, shaze, #. A carriage either of 

pleasure or expedition. 

J^ The vulgar, who are unacquainted with the spell- 
ing of this word, and ignorant of its French deriva- 
tion, are apt to suppose It a plural, and call a sfiitje 
carriage a shaft ; aufl tbe potlfe seem sometimes at"« 
loss whether they shoald n»t conti'ter it as both *i«- 

Solar and elilral ; but tha best usage seems tv h««% 
ttermteed it to be, to this rested, regular, and |o 
make the plural chaises. 

CHAIXOGRAPHER, kai-k6g'gr4-fur, ». 

SS3» An engraver in brass. 
CHALCOGRAPHY, kal4coVgi*4e,«. 
graving &a brass. 


nor 167, nSt 16*— t46e ITT, tun IT*, bull ITS -S3 299—pMatf 315— </ihl 4tto, tttit 4X19. 

CHALDRON, 1 utrfM-jU $•• 41T - A dr ? 
CHAUDRON,;***** 111 ' J En^igh 

rarusure of coals, consisting of thirty-six 

bushels heaped up. The chaldron should 

weigh two thousand pounds. 
CHALICE, tablrfs, a. 14*. A cup. ft bowl; 

the cnmrnnmoa cup* a cup used in acts of 


CHALtCRD, teha*l»t, 04 tTO-Hsrrftfg » ctili 
or cup. 

CHALK, tshltrk, *. 402. A white foftite, 
usually reckoned a stone, but by some tank- 
ed among the boles* 

To CHALK, tsh&wk. ear. To rub with chalk ; 
to manure with chalk ; to mark or trace out, 
as with cha lk. 

CHALK-CtTTTER, ttiiawkTOt-tflr, s. A 
man that -digs chalk. 

CHALKY, tsblwk'ke, a, Consisting of 
chalk : white with chalk ; impregnated with 

To CHALLENGE, tahatteaje, a. a, To call 
anotber to answer far an offence by combat ; 
to call to a contest; to accuse ; inlaw, to ob- 
ject to the impartiality of any one ; to claim 
as duo ; to call one to the performance of con- 

CHALLENGE, tshlflenje, *• A summons 
lo combat ; a demand of something as due ; 
in law, an exception taken either against per- 
sona or tilings. 

CHALLENGER, tahlMeWjir, *. One that 
desires or summons anotber to combat ; one 
that claims superiority ; a claimant. 

CHALYBEATE, kl-luYbe-et, a. 01. tm- 
prefDsOed with iron or steel. 

CHAMADE, shi-maaV, ». The beat of the 
drum which declares a tirrrander. 

CHAMBER, tehime^nf,*. 543. An apart- 
ment in a bouse generally used for those ap- 
propriated to lodging ; any retired room ; any 
cavity or hollow $ a court of justice ; tl'ie hol- 
low part of a gun where the charge is lodged ; 
the canty where the powder is lodged In a 

& 1 have fat this word departed from Mr. Sheridan 
sad Dr. Keswick, because I think the best asage has 
asttirety departed frost them. About thirty years ago 
me list syllable of Chamber was universally pro- 
so as to rhyme with Paim, Psalm, &x. ; bat 
time it has been gradually narrowing to the 
soaad of a la oamt^fatae, ocaad seems now 
to be rally established In this sound. This, however, 
m to be regretted, as It militate* with the laws of »yU 


there are few words in the language whi 
we cannot so divide into parts u to show by mis di- 
vttioe the quantity of the vowels ; thh word forma an 
exception? lor me betas: anconbinebte consonants, 
we casus* end the am syllable whb a ; and if we 
Jean as to it, tee e becomes short, and requires another 
Bet if two such words as Com and Bridge 
resist the blind force of cavtout, which has 

far ao many years reduced them to Comebridge, why 
should we wonder that Ohmmber and Cambrick, Tkn- 
aesaate and Ymmamh, snoeM yield to the same unre- 


To CHAMBER, tehattWfaur, v. *. To be 

waaton,to intrigue ; to reside as la a chamber. 

CHAKBERBR, tahemel>ur*fV s. A man of 

CHAMBER-FRLLDW, tshame'bfiT-fel-ro, 

s. One that lies in the same chamber. 
CHAMBERLAIN, tshame'bor-lm, t. KB. 


Lord great chamberlain of England Is the sixth, 
officer of tlie crown ; lord chamberlain of the 
household has the oversight of all officers be- 
longing to the Ming's chambers, except the 
precinct of the bedchamber ; a servant who 
has the care of the chambers. 

CHAMBERLAINSHIP, tshame'bur-lia. 

ship, s. The office of a chamberlain. 
CHAMBERMAID, tshame'bQr-made, «. A 

maid whose business it is to dress a lady. 
CHAMBREL of a horse, kam'brll, «. The 

joint or bending of the upper part of the 

hinder leg. 
CHAMELEON, kl-me1e-Sn, *. A kind of 

lizard, said to live on air. 

! CHAMLET, kimlSt, s.— See CarneUt. 

; CHAMOIS, shi-raoeV* An animal of the 

goat kind, the skin of which made into leather 

is called Shammy. 
CHAMOMILE, kaWi-mlle, #. 359. The 

name of an odoriferous plant. 
To CHAMP, tshanrp, «. a. To bite with a 

frequent action of the teeth ; to devour. 

To CHAMP, tshimp, v. n. To perform fre- 
quently the- adtion of biting. 

CHAMPAIGN, shim-pane', «. A kind of 

CHAMPAIGN, tshim'paae, a. A flat open 

CHAMPIGNON, shim-pfryun, #. A kind 

of mushroom. * 
CHAMPION, tshaWpcSnn, «. A man who 

undertakes a cause in single combat \ a hero, 

a stout warrior. 
To CHAMPION, tnham'pe^n, v. a. To 


CHANCE, tshlnse, *. 78, 79. Fortune, tiie 
cause of fortuitous events ; the act of fortune; 
accident ; casual occurrence, fortuitous event, 
whether good or bad ; possibility of any oc- 

To CHANCE, tBhinse, t>. a. To happen, to 
fall out. 

CHANCE-MEDLEY, tehshise-metfle, s. la 
law, the casual slaughter of a man, not aftege* 
ther without the fault of the slayer. 

CHANGEABLE, tshaa'st-bl, a. Accidental, 

CHANCEL, tshaa'tel, ». The eastern part 
of the church » in which the altar is pieced. 

CHANCELLOR, tshantoei-l&r, *. An officer 
of the highest power and dignity in the court 
where be presides. 


The office of chancellor. 

CHANCERY, tabin'sihve, sv The court at 

equity and conscience. 
CHANCRE, shlnk^ry * 416. An ulcer tun* 

ally arising from veneres! maladies 
CHANCROUS, shank***,*. Ulcerosa. 
CHANDELEBR, shan-fJc-leeV, a. A branch 

for candles. 
CHANDLER, tshandtfr, t. An art&ah 

whose trade la to make candies* 

Ta CHANGE, tshanje, a. a. 74. To*ntoue 
thing in the place of another ; to resigsi any 
(hing for the sake of another ; to discount a 
larger piece of money into several smaller ; to 
give and take reciprocally ; to ahcr ; to mend 
the disposition or mind. 


J? 569. Fata 7S, far 77, fill 8t, fit Sl-me»,mettt6--plne 105,plnlir7- no 162, move l<Vf , 

Y£ Thb word,with others of the Mime form, raeh is 
rangcjtrangr, jrutngr, fec.are, In the west of England, 

Conouiieed with Hie short foand of a In ran, man, 
>. The Man« may be observed of the a in the first 
syllable «>f angel, ancient, «tc. which, in that part of 
the kingdom, soniula like the article an; and this, 
thcngh disagreeable to a London ear, and contrary to 
tlte best us4gc, which fonnslhe only rule, is more 
analogical than ptououacing them as If written 
ehmlngt, strainge, aincieni, aingel, Ac. for we And 
awry other vowel in this situation shoit, as revenge, 
khtgr,*iwnge, Are. 

To CHANGE, tehlnje, v. *. To undergo 
change, to suffer alteration. 

CHANGE, tehJtnje, $. An alteration of the 
state of any thing ; a succession of one thing 
in tlte place of another ; the time of the moon 
in which it bectns a new monthly revolution ; 
uovelty ; an alteration of the order in which a 
set of bells is sounded ; that which makes a 
variety ; small money. 

CHANGEABLE, tshahje'4-bl, a. . Subject 
to change, fickle, inconstant ; possible to be 
changed; having the quality of exhibiting dif- 
ferent appearances. 

CHANGEABLENESS, tehknje4-bl-nes, t. 
Susceptibility of change ; inconstancy, fickle- 

CHANGEABLY, tshanjel-ble, ad. Incon- 
stantly. _ 

CHANGEFUL, tohanje'f&l, a. Inconstant, 
uncertain, mutable. 

CHANGELING, tshanjeling, t. A chUd 
left or taken in the place of another; an idiot, a 
natural ; one apt to change 

CHANGER, tshane'jur, «. One that is em- 
ployed in chauging or discounting money. 

CHANNEL, tehaVnel, «. 00. The hollow 
bed of running waters ; any cavity drawn 
longways; a strait or narrow sea; a gut or 
furrow of a pillar. 

To CHANNEL, tshan'nel, v. a. To cut any 
thing in channels. 

To CHANT, tenant, c. a. To sing ; to cele- 
brate by song; to sing in the cathedral service. 

To CHANT, tsbant, e. a. 78. To sing. 

CHANT, tshant, *. 70. Song, melody 

CHANTER,tahin'tnr, #.A singer,a songster. 

CHANTICLEER, tahinte-kleer, t. The 
cock, from his crow. 

CH ANTRESS, tshantris, « .Awoman singer. 

CHANTRY, tshan'tre, s.Chantry is a church 
endowed with revenue for priests, to sing mass 
for the souls of the donors. 

CHAOS, ka'6s, a. 858. The mass of matter 
supposed to be in confusion before it was di- 
vided by the creation into its proper classes 
and elements ; confusion, irregular mixture ; 
any thing where the parts are undistinguished. 

CH AOTICK, ka-oTttk, ^Resembling chaos, 

To CHAP, tshop, v. a. To divide the surface 

of the around by excessive heat ; to divide the 

skin of the face or hands by excessive cold. 

& The etymology of this word will not suffer as 
to write it chop ; and universal usage will not permit 
ns to pronounce it chap: so that it matt be classed 
among those incorrigible words, the pronunciation 
and orthography of which must ever be at variance. 

CHAP, tohop, t . A cleft, a gaping, a chink. 
CHAP, tehop, 8. The upper or under part 

of a beast's mouth. 
CHAPE, tahape, *. The catch of anything, 

by which it is the W ?n its place. 


CHAPEL, tshtp'el, s. A chapel is either 
adjoining to a church, as a parcel of the same?, 
or separate, called a Chapel pf Ease. 

CHAPELESS, tshapells, a. Without a 

CHAPELLANY, tehlp'pel-lln-ne, s. Acha- 
pellany is founded within some ether church. 

CHAPELRY, tshap'pel-re, «. The jurisdic- 
tion or bounds of a chapel. 

CHAPFALN, tenor/fain, a. Having the 
mouth shrunk. — See Cotcoi. 

CHAPLAIN, tshaplin, s. 208. He that at- 
tends the king, or other great person, to per- 
form divine service. 

CHAPLAINSHIP, tshayira-shlp, «. The 
office or business of a chaplain ; the posses- 

-•sion or revenue of a chapel. 

CHAPLESS, tshoples, a. Without any flesh 
about the mouth. 

CHAPLET, tshaple* t, ». A garland or wreath 
to be worn about the head ; a string of beads 
used in the Roman church ; in architecture, a 
little moulding carved into round beads. 

CHAPMAN, tebip'min, $. 88. A cheapener, 
one that offers as a purchaser. 

CHAPS, tehops, s. The mouth of a beast of 

^rey ; the entrance into a channel. 
APT, K.i.ju* Spot*. pan. Cracked. 
CHAPPED, r h *PM cleft 
CHAPTER, tehap'tftr, s. A division of a 
book ; an aisembty of the clergy of the catlie- 
dral; the place in which assemblies of the 
clergy are held. 
CHAFTREL, tshiptrel, s. The capitals of 
pillars, or pi last res, which support arches. 

CHXR, tehir, t . A fish found only in Win-* 

ander-meer, in Lancashire. 
To CHAR, tshar, v. a. To burn wood to a 

black cinder. 
CHAR, tehare, s. Work done by the day. 
To CHAR, tehare, «. n. To work at other** 

houses by the day. 

Y7 " As the maid that milks, 

" Aad docs the meanest chert? 

In Ireland they seem to have retained the genuine 

f>rauunciattoa of this, as well as many other old fing- 
tsh words ; I mean that which Is agreeable to the or- 
thography, and rhyming with tar. In Engtish it ia 
generally heard like chair to sit on, and Its campooorf, 
char-woman, like chairwoman. Skinner, 1 know, 
admits that the word may be derived from the Dntr* 
keeren. to sweep ; and Junius spells the word char*, 
and tells us the aaxuns have the same word spetlMt 
cjfrre, signifying; business or charge ; but be its deri- 
vation what it will, either' the orthography, or thr pro- 
nunciation, ought to be altered ; for, as It stands at 
present. It is a singular and disgraceful anomaly. 

CHAR-WOMAN, tshaieVum-un, #. A wo- 
man hired accidentally for odd work. 

CHARACTER, kar4k-tur, s. S6S. A mark, 
a stamp, a representation; a letter used ia 
writing or printing ; the hand or manner erf 
writing : a representation of any man as to his 
personal qualities ; an account of any thing 
as good or bad j the person with his assem- 
blage of qualities. 

To CHARACTER, ktVlk-tur, *. «. To in- 
scribe, to engrave. 


CHARACTERISTICS kar-ak-te-rk'. 
Constituting or pomtiug out the ttuacharaatisr 



sslr 167, nftt I6S— tube 171, t&b 17% bill 179— ill 2»-pound alS—tJUn 408, ftls JfJtt, 

i4s / t£-kil-nl*, t. The quality of being pe- 
culiar to t character. 

CHARACTERISTICS, kir-ik-te-Hs'tlk, t. 
That which constitutes the character. 

To CHARACTERIZE, kiVik-te-rke, t>. a. 
To give a character or an account of the per- 
gonal qualities of any man , to engrave or im- 
print; to mark with a particular stamp or token. 

CHARACTERUESS,Ui / £k-tfo-l&^ With- 
out a character. 

CHARACTER Y, kaY4k-tur-re, t. Impres- 
sion, mark. 

CHARCOAL, UhAVkole, $. Coal made by 
burning wood 

CHARD, tsbird, s . Chard* of artichokes are 
the leaves of fair artichoke plants, tied and 
wrapped up all over but the top, in straw ; 
Chard* of beet are plants of white beet trans- 

To CHARGE, tsbaije, v. a. To intrust, to 
commission for a certain purpose ; to impute 
as a debt ; to impute ; to impose as a task : 
to accuse, to censure; to command; to mil 
upon, to attack ; to burden, to load; to fill ; 
to load a gun. 

CHARGE, tshirje, s. Care, trust, custody ; 
precept, mandate, command ; commission, 
trust conferred, office; accusation, imputation; 
the thing intrusted to care or management ; 
expense, cost ; onset, attack ; the signal to fall 
upon enemies ; the quantity of powder and ball 
pot into a sjun ; a preparation or a sort of oint- 
ment applied tothe snonlder-splaits and sprains 
of horses. 

CHAROEABLEL tsbaVja-bl, a. Expensive, 
costly ; imputable, as a debt or crime ; sub- 
ject to charge, accusable. 

CHARGEABLENESS, tshaVja-bl-nk, $. 
Expense, cost, costliness. 

CHARGEABLY, tsbiVja-ble, ad. Expen- 

CHARGER, tshaVjir, «. 98. A large dish; 
an officer's bone. 

CHARILY, tsha're-le, ad. Warily, frugally. 

CHARINESS, tsha're-neV*Caution,iiicety. 

CHARIOT, tshaVrc-ut, s. 543. A carriage of 
pleasure or state ; a car in which men of arms 
anciently placed. 

retain lac sooad of J, aud give It three syllables. 

CHARIOTEER, tshar-re-it-teer', s. He that 
drives the chariot. 

CHARIOT RACE, tshlrVe-it-rase, s. A 
sport where chariots were driven for the prise. 

CHARITABLE, tsblr'e-tl-bl, a. Kind in 
giving alms ; kind in judging of others. 

CHARITABLY, tshaVe-tl-ble, ad. Kindly 
fiberaUy ; benevolently. 

CHARITY, tsbaVe-te, s. 160. Tenderness, 
Usjdncss, love ; good will, benevolence ; the 
theological virtue of universal love ; liberality 
to the poor ; alms, relief giveu to the poor. 

To CH ARK, tflbirk, r. a. To burn to a black 

CHARLATAN, sbaVtf-Oa, *428. A quack, 

CHARXATANICAL, ahar-tt-tsVe-kil, a. 
Qaactlah, ignorant. 


CHARLATANRY, sblrfi-taiw*, a. Whee- 
dling, deceit 

CHARLES'S WAIN, tshirlciz-wane / , #. 
The northern constellation called the Bear. 

CHARLOCK, teharlolt,*. A weed growing 
among the corn with a yellow flower. 

CHARM, tshlrm, s. Words or philtres, ima- 
gined to have some occult power ; something 
of power to gain the affections. ' 

To CHARM, tshlrm, v. a. To fortify with 
charms against evil ; to make powerful by 
charms ; to subdue by some secret power ; to 
subdue by pleasure. 

CHARMER. tshaVmibr, «. One that has (ho 
power of charms, or enchantments ; one that 
captivates the heart. 

CHARMING, tshsYmlng, port. a. Pleasing 
hi the highest degree. 

CHARMINGLY. tshaVming-le, ad. In such 
a manner as to please exceedingly. 

CHARMINGNESS, tsnar'mrog-nes, s. The 
power of pleasing. 

CHARNEL, tsnaVnSl, a. Containing flesh, 
or carcases. 

CHARNEL-HOUSE, tshirtoeU-hofise, a, 
The place where the bones of the dead are re- 

CHART, kirt, or tshirt, s. A delineation of 


tZT As this word Is perfectly anglicised, by catuatj 
off the a In the Latin Charts, and *in the Greek 
XflPY,we ought certainly to naturalise the initial let- 
ters by pronouncing them as in charter, €harU]f,&cj 
bat sack is our fondness for Latin and Greek originals, 
that we catch at the shadow of a reason for pronounc- 
ing after thete language*, though in direct opposition 
to the laws of our own. Thus we most frequently, If 
not universally, hear this word pronounced as Cart, 
a carriage, ana perfectly like the French Carte. 

CHARTER, tshaYtftr, ». A charter is a writ- 
ten evidence: any writing bestowing privileges 
or rights - r privilege, immunity, exemption. 

CHARTER-PARTY, tshirtfr-par-te, s. A 
paper relating to a contract, of which each 
party has a copy. 

CHARTERED.tAhir / tfird,a 350. Privileged. 

CHARY, tsha'ri, a. Careful, cautious. 

To CHASE, tshase, v. a. To hunt; to pur- 
sue as an enemy ; to drive. 

CHASE, tshase, s. Hunting, pursuit of an* 
thing as game; fitness to be hunted \ pursuit 
of an enemy ; pursuit of something as desira- 
ble ; hunting match ; the game hunted ; open 
ground stored with sueh beasts as are hunted ; 
the Chase of a gun is the whole bore or length 
of a piece. . 

CHASE-GUN, tsnase'gun, a. Guns in the 
fore-part of the ship, fired upon those that are 


CHASM, kazm, s. 353. A cleft, a gap, an 
opening ; a place unfilled ; a vacuity. 

CHASTE, tsbiste, a. Pure from all com- 
merce of sexes ; pure, nneorrupt ; not mixed 
with barbarous phrases; without obscenity; 
true to the marriapis bed. 

To CHASTEN, tshasetn, e. a. 405. To cor- 
rect, to punish. 
£3* Thl* word U sometimes falsely pronounced wits 

the a short, so ss to rhyme with fasten; but it it ex 

actly sutler the same predicament as the verb to hosts, 

which, when formed Into what is called an inchoative 

verh, becomes hasttn, and with which chasten is a 

perfect rhyme. 



• • • 

*755«. Fate 7S,fir77, fall 83, flit 81— me9S, me" 1 95— ptoe 1<>5, pm IW--I10 i*S, moVeUM, 

To CHASTISE, tshfts-rW, v. a. To ptmfeh, 
to correct by punishment ; to reduce to order 

CHASTISEMENT, tshas'tfe-raint, s. Cor- 
rection, punishment. — See Advertise. 

CHASTISER, tshds-ti'zur, *. A punisher,a 
' corrector. 

CHASTITY, tsh£s'te-tc, s. 511. Purity of 
the body } freedom from obscenity ; freedom 
from bad mixture of any kind. 

, fcj 1 h* ve in this word departed from Mr. Sheri- 
dan, and several other speakers, in the bound of the a 
Jo the first syllable, as no analogy can be clearer than 
that which prevails in words of this termination, where 
ta* antepenultimate accent always shortens the vowel. 
Thai, though the a, e, aud I, are long in humane r *erene, 
and divine, they are short in huin4iH<ty,serenUy t and 
divinity ; and unless custom clearly forbids, which I 
do not believe is the ease, chustity ought certainly to 
have the a as I have marked it. 

CHASTLY, tsh&itele, ad. Without incon- 
tinence, purely, without contamination. 

£3* In these words Dr. Johnson has very improper. 
ly> omitted the silent t; they ought to be written 
chastely and chanteness. — See Introduction to Rhym- 
ing Dictionary, Orthographical Aphorism the 8th. 


To CHAT, tshat, v. n. To prate, to talk idly; 

• to prattle. 

CHAT, tshat, s. Idle talk, prate. 

CHATELLANY, tshat'tft-lln-e, s. The dis- 
trict under the dominion of a castle. 

CHATTEL, tshat'tl, «. 405. Any moveable 

To CHATTER, tshattur, t>. n. To make a 
noise as a pie, or other unliarmonious bird ; to 
make a noise ty collision of the teeth ; to talk 
idly or carelessly. 

CHATTER, tshaVt&r, «. Noise like that of a 
pie or monkey ; idle prate. 

CHATTERER, tshatftur-rfir, «. An idle 

CHA VENDER, tshaVfa-dor, t. The chub, 

a fish. 
6HAUMONTELLE, 8ho-m3n-t&', *. A sort 

of pear. 
To CHAW, tshaw,t>. «.— See To Clew. 

CHAWDRON, tshawttrun, *. Entrails. 

CHEAP, tsbipe, a. To be had at a low rate ; 
easy to be had, not respected. 

To CHEAPEN, tshe'pn, «. a. 10$. To at- 
tempt to purchase, to bid for any thing ; to 
lessen value. 

CHEAPLY, tshepele, ad. At a small price, 
at a low rate. 

CHEAPNESS, tahepe'nis, a. Lownesa of 

To CHEAT, tshete, v. a. To defraud, to im- 
pose upon, to trick* 

CHEAT, tshete. s. A frand, a trick, an im- 
posture ; a person cuilty of fraud. 

CHEATER, tshe'tfir, *. 95. One that prac- 
tises fraud. 

To CHECK, tshik', r. a. To repress, to enrb ; 
to reprove, to chide j to control by a counter 

To CHECK, tshlk, r. ». To stop, to make a 
stop ; to clash, to iuteifere. 

CHECK, tshe"k, s. Repressure, stop, rebuff; 
restraint, curb, government ; reproof, a slight; 
in falconry, when a hawk forsakes the proper 


game to follow other birds ; the cause of re> 
■si rain t, a stop. 

To CHECKER, 7 ..i*,,*,. 5 1>. «. To varfe- 

To CHEQUER, J wneK m > ( gate or diver- 
sify, in the manner of a chess-board, with al- 
ternate colours 

CHECKER- WORK,tsh&'ar-wurk, ». Work 
varred alternately. 

CHECKMATE, tshik'mate, s. The move- 
ment on the chess-board that puts an end to 
the game. • 

CHEEK, tsheek, s. The side of the face be - 
low the eye ; a general name among niecba- 
nieks for almost aJi tbuso pieces of their ma- 
chines that are double. 

CHEEK-TOOTH, toheek'tooiA, t. The 
hinder tooth or tusk. 

CHEER, tsheer, $. Entertainment, proYi- 
sioHS ; invitation to gayety ; gayety, jollity j 
air of the countenance ; temper of mind. 

To CHEER, tsheer, v. a. To incite, to en- 
courage, to inspirit ; to comfort, to console, to 

To CHEER, tsheer, v. n. To grow gay or 

CHEERER, tsheerur, *. Gladdener, giver 
of gaiety. f 

CHEERFUL, tsheer'ful, or tsntrifll,a. Gay, 
full of life, full of mirth ; haviug an appear- 
anoe of gayety. 

\*T Tbb word, tlke/ear/vl, hu contracted an tane- 
galar pronunciation that seems more expressive of the 
tarn of mind it indicates than the long open c, which 
languishes on the ear, aud is notaVin to the smartnes* 
and vivarify of the, idea. We rvgret these irregulari- 
ties, but they are not to be entirely prevented; aud 
as lisey sometimes arise from an eftbitof the mind to 
express the idea more forcibly, they should not be too 
studiously avoided ; especially wheu custom bas giveo 
them considerable cifrrrticy ; which I take to be the 
case wiih the short pronunciation of the present word. 
Mr. Sheridan and some other Orthoepies seem to 
adopt the latter pronunciation ; and W. Job us ton. Dr. 
Kenrtck, aud Mr. Perry, the former; and as this is 
agreeable to the orthography, and,, It may be aitdtd, 
to the etymology (which indicates that state of nriud 
which arises from being fall of good cheer), It ought, 
unless the other has an evident preference in custom, 
to he looked upon as the most accurate. 841, 842. 

CHEERFULLY, tsheer/fui-le, ad. Without 
dejection, with gayety. 

CHEERFULNESS, tsheerTul-ne*, «. Free- 
dom from dejection, alacrity ; freedom from 

CHEERLESS. tsheMfe, a. Without gayety, 
comfort, or gladness. 

CHEERLY, tslieerlt, a. Gay, cheerful, not 

gloom v. 
CHEERLY, tsheerfe, ad. Cheerfully. 

CHEERY; turret, o. Gay, sprightly. 
CHEESE ; tsheeze, s. A kind of food made 

by pressing the curd of milk. 
CHEESECAKE, tsheeze'kake, «. 3*47. A 

cake' made of soft curds, sugar, und butter. 

CHEESEMONGER, Uheeze'mung-gur, « 

One who deals in cheese. 
CHEESEV AT, tshceze'vat, t. The wooden 

case in which the curds are pressed ia to cheese 

CHEESY, tsheeze, a. Having the nature 

or foim of cheese. 
CHELY, ke/le, 853. The claw of a shellfish. 
To CHERISH, tshirVfeh, v. a. To support 

to shelter, to nurse up. 

Ohe cm 

w*r!67, notlOft— tkbe If 1, tub 172, bill 178-431 290— p&nd 3 13 ~tMn 400, Wis 46V. 

CHERISHES, tsheVrWur, *. An encou- 
fager, a supporter. 
CHERISHMENT, tsfaeVrish-mint, «. En- 

eouragemenL, support, comfort. 
CHERRY, tsheVre, 1 «. A tree 

CHERRY-TREE, tshMe-iree, J and fruit. 
CHERRY, tsnirre, a. ReMStbting a cherry 

in coloor, 
CHERRYBAY, tsh?rVe-be,«. Laurel. 
CHERRYCHEEKED, nhe*/e-tsbikd, a. 

Having ruddy phcrti 
CHERR YPIT, tsheVre-p3t, $. A child's play. 

in which fluey throw cherrystones into a snsau 

CHERSONESE, keVso-nes, i. 353. A pen- 

CHERUB, tsheVub, i. A celestial spirit, 

which, in die hierarchy, U placed neat ih order 

to the Seraphim. 
CHERUBI^ Uhe-rUlk, a. Angelfck, »- 

latrnf? to the Cherubim. 
CHERUBIM, tsheVn-bim, #. The Hebrew 

plural of Cher ab. 

tt Those who nndertUnd no language bat their 

owi an apt to cetnmlt an unpardonable fault with 
•ritica, hf mistaking this word for a lingular, and 
writing the ptoral ChtrvMms. Others are apt to ewn- 
snil a will greater ftait Hi speaking, which is (bat of 
forming un adjective from this word, as Jf wricfen 
Cttrmh+Birtil, or C4*r»M«fcoC instead •* Okm&ck. 
Bow hard fa the fate of an Englishman* who, to write 
aadafoak Ma oaun language properly, aunt notedly 
understand FrrarhJ^lin,aad Gre&k,bot Hebrew also I 

CHERURIN, twbeVsVhin, a. AnpdicaL 
CHERVIL, tsheVvil, ». An «mheMiftrous 

To CHERUP, tsheVup, v. »* To chirp, to 

me aaheetfal voice. 
CHE&S, tshea, #. A nice and intricate game 

io fmitatiofi of m batik between two armwu. 
CHESS-BOARD, tshee'bord, «.The board or 

table on which the jane of chess is -played. 
CHESS-MAN, tabSmin, *. 88. Apujroet 

CHEflSOM^tabin^afo*. Itlfijtfellow earth. 
CHEST, tshest, ». A box of wood or otter 

CHESTED, tshesf Id, a. Hating a cheat. 

CHESTNUT, to heWnot, }$. A 

CHESrrmJT-TREE, taUr^ot^trM, J tone ; 
the fruit of the chestnut-tree; the name of a 
brow n colour. 

CHEVALIER, sh?v4-leef>.352. A knight. 

CHEVi^X^E^ERlSE, B*iv-o~dk-fc&xe', 
a> 36*. A piece of timber traversed with wooden 
spikes, pointed with iron, five or six feet long, 
s»edfe ckA^ibg a passage, a tornpike, or 
tppjaaaoe C 

CHEVEN, tsheVvn, $ . 103. A river fish, the 
ssasae with c hub. , 

CHEVE RiL, tsfclvfr-il^. A kid,kidleather. 

GHETROJ?, to>lv'rfin. In heraldry it je pre- 
sents two rafters of a house as they ought to 

ItoCHEW, tsnSo, tahlw, «. a. To grind with 
the teeth, to masticate ; to meditate, or rumi- 
nate in the thoughts ; to taste without swallow- 
i7 Into Jattnr praaeswietloa Is grown vulgar. 

4wCSEvy 9 tah&o, r. a. Tb champ upon, to 

CHICANE, Bhe-kkne',*. 352. The art of pro* 

tractiug a contest by artifice; artifice in general. 

To CHICANE, shi-kine', t?. a. To vrolontf 
a contest by trick*. 

CHICANER, she-ka/nir, *. A petty sophis- 
tor, a wrangler. 

CHICANERY, sht^a'ajrr-e, t. Sophistry, 

CHICK, tshik, )s. Hie young of a 

CHICKEN, Jtahikln, 104.} bird, particular T 
4jr pf a hen, pr small bird ; a word of tender- 
ness ; a term for a" young girl. 

CHICEENHEARTED, tshlkVfcar-tid, a. 

Cowardly, fearful. 
CHICKENPOX, t»hlk'in-p6ks, $. A pus- 

talons distemper. 
CHICKLING, tshfrling, «.A small chicken. 
CHICKPEAS, tshlk'peae, a. An herb. 
CHIC&WEEB, tshikV^ed,f. A plant. 

To CHIDE, tshlde,o. a.To reprove ; to drive 
away with reproof; to blame, to reproach. 

To CHlDhVtBhidfi,t?. a. To clamour, to scold ; 
to quarrel <wtih ; to make a noise. 

CHW>E», tshi'dur, a. 96. A rebuker, a re- 

CHIEF, ishii^ a. Principal, most eminent ; 
eminent, extraordinary ; capital, of the first 

CH|EF, tflheef^.875. A commander^ leader. 

CWEFLE08, ^aheefl^s, a. Without a head. 

CtflEFEY, tsheefle, «d. Principally, emi- 
nently, more than common. * 

CHIEF^E, tsbeef 're, ». A small rent paid 
to .the lord paramount. 

CH1EJF* AW, tshttf *, s. 208. A leader; 
• commander j the head of a clan. 

)& This Word ought undoubtedly to follow captain, 
qswYvftt, 4itiaia, ftc.inSh* pronaneiation of too last 
sfllaftlea taoogbf'isow its being loss in one, we are 
not so well reconciled to it. 

QfPEYAtfCE, Mie'viase, $. Traffick in 
which money is extorted, as discount. 

CHILBLAIN; ts^lhlanei «. Sore» made by 

CEHLD, Mhlkl, s. An infant or very young 
• -person ;' one -intbe line of fihSrtron, opposed to 
the parent ; any thing the product or effect of 
.asjsejmt -4Fo m wflh <Suld, to fee pregiratit. 

TaJGlIIW. tshHal,^. «. To bring children. 

C^liJai&ilttKO, tAA\d%k-i&s,part.Tbe 
act of bearing cHiidsen. 

CHTIJ>h^> tahlloYb^d, s. The state of a 
woman briugiug adhfid. 

C^I^BiRTH, *A sW'T^efs, *. Trarail, la- 

CHILDED, tshll'ded, a. Famished with a 

nfaiht Little osad. 
, CHIIJ)ERMASS-DAY,tshn'de>.inas-da>. 
The day of the w**k; thjouglioiitthe year, an- 
awesjng to the faj on which the feast of the 
Holy Innocents it solemnised. 

CHILDHOOD, tshUdlind, t. The state of 
infanta, the time in which we are ohiidten ; tlie 
time of fife between infancy and puberty ; the 
properties of a chHd. 

CHILDISH, tshttd'ish, a. Trifling 4 becom- 
ing only childreiw trivial, puerile. 

CHILDISHLY, tshtWiah-le, aW. la a c%BoV 
ish trifling way 



& 559.FXt*7S,far77,fall83,ftt81~m*», 

CHILDISHNESS, tshlldlsh-nis, t. Pueri- 
lity, triflingness ; narmlessness. 
CHILDLESS, tahll<n^,a. Without children. 

CHILDLIKE, tshlldllke, a. Becoming or 

beseeming a child. 
CHILIAEDRON, kU4-l-e'dr6n, #. 55$. A 

figure of a thousand sides. 

\S This word ought to have the accented * long ; 
sot on account of the quantity in the Greek word, bat 
because, where no rule forbids, we oagbt to make 
vowels accented on the peaaltlmale long. 54tf. 

CHILIFACTORY, kil-e-itk'to-rc, ad. Mak- 
ing chyle. — See CkyUfactory. 

CHILIFACTIVE, kil-e-fAk'tir, ad. Making 

chyle. — See Chylif active. 
CH1UFICATION, kiKe-fe-ka'shun, *. The 

act of making chvle. — See Ckytificatton. 

CHILL, tshft, a. Cold, that which is cold to 
the touch; having the sensation of cold ; de- 
pressed, dejected, discouraged. 

CHILL,tshfl,v.«. ChUnesSyCold. 

To CHILL, tshfr, v. «. To make cold ; to 
depress, to deject ; to blast with cold. 

CHILLINESS, tshfc'le-nis, t. A sensation 

of shivering Cold. 

CHILLY, tshille, a. Somewhat cold. 

CHILNESS, tshll'nes, t . Coldness, want of 

CHIME, tshlme, s . The consonant or har- 
raonick sound of many correspondent instru- 
ments ; the correspondence of sound ; the 
sound of bells struck with hammers ; the cor- 
respondence of proportion or relation. 

To CHIME, tshhne, e. ». The sound in har- 
mony ; to correspond in relation or propor- 
tion ] to agree ; to suit with ; to jingle. 

To CHIME, tshlme, c. «• To make to more, 
or strike, or sound harmonically ; to strike a 
bell with a hammer. - 

CHIMERA, ke-me'rt, $. 858, 130. A rain 

and wild fancy. 

CHIMERICAL, ke-meVre-kll, «• Imagi- 
nary, fantastick. 

CHIMERICALLY, ke~meVie-kal4, ad. 

Vainly, wildly. 

CHIMNEY, tahWne^.The passage through 
which the smoke ascends from the fire in the 
house ; the fireplace. 

CHIMNEY-CORNER, UhWne-kortiur, $. 
The fireside, the place of idlers. 

CHIMNEYPIECE, tshim'ne-peese, t. The 
ornamental piece round the fireplace. 

CHIMNEYSWEEPER, tshWne-swee-pur, 

s. One whose trade it is to clean foul chimneys 

<rf soot. 
CHIN, tshln, s. The part of the face beneath 

the under lip. 
CHINA, tshtae, or tshM. $. China ware, 

porcleain, a species of vessels made in China 

dimly transparent. 

%& What could Indece us to so irregalar a pronun* 
clatioa of this word Is scarcely to be conceived. One 
would be apt to suppose that the French first import- 
ed this porcelain, and that when we purchased it of 
them we called it by their pronunciation of China 
{Sheen); bat being unwilling to drop the a, and de- 
sirous of preserving the French sound of t\ we a»a> 
srardly transposed these sounds, and turned CAia* into 
Gftjsiasf. This absurd prommciatloa seems only to- 



rait OS— pine 105, pin 107— no 148, move 194, 

lerable when we apply it to the. porcelain of China, 
or the oranges, which are improperly railed China 
oranges; but even in these eases it seems a pai don- 
able pedantry to reduce the word to its trie sound. 

CHINA-ORANGE, tsha'ne-eVinje, *. The 
sweet orange. 

CHINA-ROOT, tslihut-root, a. A medicinal 
root brought originally from China. 

CHINCOUGH, tshuVkof, s. A violent and 

convulsive cough. 
CHINE, tshfoe, $. The part of the back in 

which the backbone is found j a piece of the 
. back of an animal. 

To CHINE, tshine, e. a. To bat into chines. 
CHINK, tshink, t . A small aperture long- 

To CHINK, tshink, e. «. To shake so as to 

make a sound. 
To CHINK, tshink, e. n. To sound by stri 

ing each other. 

CHINKY, tshink'e, a. Full of holes, gaping 

CHINTS, tshints, #. Cloth of cotton made i* 

CHIOPPINE, tshop-pene', $. 11). A high 

shoe formerly worn by ladies. 

To CHIP, tship,v.a.To cut into small pieces. 

CHIP, tshlp, «. A small piece taken off by a 
cutting instrument 

CHIPPING, tshlp'ping,s.A fragment cutoff. 
CHIRAGRIC AL, kk-ii^gre-kll, a. 190, 868. 

Having the gout in toe hand. 
CHIROGRAPHER, kl^s/gri-Ar, s. He 

that exercises writing. 

CHIROOR APHIST, kl-rog'gra-f 1st, «. Chi- 

CHIROORAPHY, kl-fog'gri-fe, «. The ait 
of writing. 518. 

CHIROMANCER, kfro-ntln-sur, s. One 
that foretels future events by inspecting the 
4 hand. 

CHIROMANCY, kir'ro-msW, «. 858,519. 
The art of foretelling the events of life by in- 
specting the hand. 

To CHIRP, tshirp, *. ss. To make a cheer- 
ful noise, as birds. 

CHIRP, tsherp, s. The roice of birds or in- 

CHIRPER, tflheVpnr, s. 89, One that chirps. 

CHIRURGEON, kl-rorj^un, ». 858. One 
that cures ailments, not by internal medicines, 
but outward applications, now written Sur- 
geon; a surgeon. 

CHIRURGERY, kl-r&r'je-re, #. The art of 
coring by external applications, now written 

CHlJllJTRGIC AL, kt-rurje-kal, *> a. Beloog- 
CHIRURGICK,kl-rii / jik,86S.J ing to sur- 
gery. • 

CHISEL, tshis/sil, s. 108,99. An instrument 

with which wood or stone is pared away. 
To CHISEL, tshuVzil, v. a. 108. To cut with 

a chisel. 
CHIT, tshit, $. A child, a baby ; the shoot 

of corn froiri the end of the grain. 
To CHIT, tshh, v. n. To sprout 
CHITCH AT,tshirtshaV.Prattle, idle P«*e. 
CHITTERLINGS, tahlt'tur-llngt, s. The 

guts of au eatable animal; the frill at the boaoam 

of a shirt. 555. 


■Ir 167, not 16S— tube 171, tub 17t, bill 178—111 299-pound 31»— rkin 40(1, Tint MO. 

CHITTY, tshlfte, al Childish, like a baby. 
CHIVALROUS, tslM-rb, a. Relating to 

chivalry, knightly, warlike. 
CHIVALRY, Uhlvll-re, a. Knighthood, a 

aaUitsry dignity ; the ooalificetkms of a knight, 

.as valour j the general system of knighthood. 

CHI VE8, tahlvs, s. The threads or filaments 

rising in flower*, with seeds at the end 3 a 

spears of small onion. 
CHLOROSIS, Ue-r&ais,t. MS. The green 

To CHO AK, tshoke, e. «.— See Choke. 
CHOCOLATE, tshok'4-lite, *. 91. The not 

of the cocoa-tree ; the mass made by grinding 

the kernel of the cocoa-nut, to be dissolved in 

hot water; the liquor made by a solution of 

s. A honse lor drinking chocolate. 

GHODE,tshode.The old preterit rromChide. 

CHOICE, tshoise, s. The act of choosing, 
election ; the power of choosing ; care in choos- 
ing, cariosity of distinction ; the thing chosen; 
trie best part of any thing; several things pro- 
posed as objects of election. 

CHOICE, tshoise, a. Select, of extraordi- 
nary value ; chary, frugal, careful. 

CHOICELESS, tsholscles, «. Without the 
power of choosing. 

CHOICELY, tahome'le, ad. Cnrionsly,with 
exact choice ; valuably, excellently. 

CHOICENE8S, tehofae'nes, s. Nicety, par- 
ticuiar value. 

CHOIR, lrwh*,s.iW;M6. An assembly or 
band of singers; the singers in divine worship; 
the part of the church where the singers are 

To CHOKE, tshoke, v. a. To suffocate ; to 
stop up, to block up a passage ; to hinder by 
obstruction ; to suppress ; to overpower. 

CHOKE, tshoke, *. The filamentous or ca- 
pillary part of an artichoke. 

CHOKE-PEAR, tshoke'pare, a.- A rough, 
harsh, unpalatable pear; any sarcasm that 
stops the mouth. 

CHOKER, tsho'kur, s. One that chokes. 
CHOKY, tsho'ki, a. That which has the 

power of suffocation. 
CHOLAGOGUE8, kMUgogs, *. Medicines 

having slie power of purging bile. 

CHOLER, koTlur, s . The bile ; the humour 
supposed to produce irascibility ; anger, rage. 

CHOLERICK, koll&r-rlk, a. Abounding 
with choler ; angry, irascible. 

CHOLERICKNESS, kollnr-rlk-neVi, «. An- 
evv , irascibility, peevishness. 

CHOLICK.— See Colick. 

To CHOOSE, tshotae, e. a. I chose, I have 
chosen. To take by way of preference of se- 
veral things offered ; to select, to pick out of a 
number ; to elect for eternal happiness ; a term 
of ihoulogmni 

tT This word Is lomethncs Improperly written 
aunt**, watch ta a needless departare from its Preach 
s Sjm a lmj in r a a fsajyasweil as from oar own analogy 
w tie preterit cases. 

CHOOSER, tshoe'c&r, s. He that has the 

power of choosing, elector. 
To CHOP, tshop, v. a. To cut with a quick 

blow ; to devour eagerly ; to menace, to cut 

into small pieces ; to Dreak into chinks. 
To CHOP, tshdp, v. ». To do any thing with 

a quick motion ; to light or happen upon a 

To CHOP, tshflp, e. o. To purchase, gene- 
rally by way of truck ; to put one thing in the 
place of another ; to bandy, to altercate. 
CHOP, tshop,*. A piece chopped off; a small 

piece of meat ; a crack, or cleft 
CHOP-HOUSE, tshopliouse, s. A mean 
bomse of entertainment. 

fy Dr. Johnson, In this definition, teems u» have 
rated a chop-house too low, and to have had a CooV*- 
shop or an Eating-house In hit mind. 8ince coffee- 
houses are Become caUnphontei and- taverns, chop- 
houses are, perhaps, a little depreciated ; but this was 
not the case till long after Dr. Johnson's Dictionary 
was published; and 1 think they may still, without 
any impropriety, be called Reputable houses of readf 

CHOPlN,toho-ptin>. lit. A French Houid 
measure, containing nearly a pint of Winches- 
ter ; a term used in Scotland for a quart of 
wine measure. 
CHOPPING, tshftr/pmg, a. An epithet fire- 

Sueutly applied to infants, by way of commen- 
ation, meaning lacge or well grown. 
CHOPPING-KNIPE, tsh6p'plng-nlfe, s. A 

knife used in chopping. 
CHOPPY,tsh6p'pe,a.Pnll of holes or cracks. 
CHOPS, tshops, s. The month of a beast ; 
the mouth of any thing in familiar language. 

CHORAL, ko'ril, a. 85S. Sang by a choir; 

singing in a choir. 
CHORD, kftrd, t. The string of a musical 

instrument ; a right line, which joins the two 

ends of any arch of a circle. 
To CHORD, kord, v a. MS. To furnish with 

CHORDEE, kor-dee', *. A contraction of the 

CHORION, ko're-fln, s. The outward mem- 
brane that enwraps the foetus. 
CHORISTER, kwirtfsvtur, «. iOO. A singer 

in the cathedrals, a singing boy ; a singer in 

a concert. 356. , . . . 

CHOROGRAPHER, ko-rflg'gil-iar, s. He 

that describes particular regions or countries. 
CHOROGRAPHICAL, k6r-ro-graf'c-kal, 

a. Descriptive of particular regions. 
CHOROGRAPJUCALLY, kor-ro-gr4f'e- 

kil-le, ad. In a chorographical manner. 

CHOROGRAPHY, ko-rVgra-fe, a. The art 
of describing; particular regions. 

CHORUS, kd'rus, s. 853. A number of sin- 

' gers, a concert ; the persons who are supposed 
to behold what passes in the acts of the an- 
cient tragedy ; the song between the acts of a 
tragedy ; verses of a song in which the com- 
pany join the singer. 

CHOSE, tahose. The preter tense, from To 

CHOSEN, tsho'oi, 10$. The participle pas- 
1 sive, from To choose. 

To CHOOSE, tshoise, e. a. To hare tha CltOUGH, tshuf, s. SOI. A bird whkh fro 

power of choice. 


1 quents the rocks by the scs« 


W50* rtfeTS^rfr^S^dtSl— me&O, m4t95-ptoe 105,pfcl07-ni 102, move 161, 

To 0HOUB2, fetiouse,*. «*b eaedt, to tHek. 

CHOUSE, tshofise, *. A bubble ; a tool ; a 

trick of sham. 
CHRISM, krfenv.353. Undent, or unction. 

To CHRISTEN, krfs'sn, r. a* 472. To bap- 
tise, to initiate into Christianity by water j to 
* name, to denominate. 

CHRISTENDOM, krle sn-din, s. The col- 
lective body of Christianity. 

CHRISTENING, krirtn-fng, t. The cere- 
mony of the first initiation iifto Christianity. 

CHRISTIAN, krlsty&n, a. 901. A professor 

of the religion, of Christ. 

CHRISTIAN. krfat'y&a, «. lit. PrbfeMfinfc 
the religion of Christ. 

CHRISTIAN-NAME,krist'yfa-nairif^/rb c 
name giveij at the font, distinct from the sur- 
name. . 

CHRISTIANISM, kAt^ua-feni, s. The 
Christian religion; the nations professing 

CHRISTIANITY, krfc-ishe-an'e-tj, a. Tne [ 
religion of Christians. 

To CHRISTIANIZE, krisfj In-ize, e. a. To 

make Christian. 
CHRISTIANLY, krlsf yuMe, «*. Like a 

Christian. . 

CHRISTMAS, kria'ositvf. 88,472. The day 

on winch the nativity of our blessed Saviour 

is celebrated. 

CHRISTMAS-BOX, kxbWs-'bokft, «. A 
box in which little presents are collected at 
Christmas. The money so collected. 

CHROMATICK, kro-nuttfk, a. Relating to 
colour ; relating to a certain species of ancient 

CHRONICAL. krcVi-kil, > 4. 509. Relat- 

CHRONICK, kron'Ik, $ irig to time ; a 
chronical distemper is of loag duration. 

CHRONICLE, krin'fU, $. 858. A register 
or account of events in order of time > a his- 
tory. 405. 

To CHRONICLE, kron'e-kl, e. o. 405. To 
record in chronicle, or history : to register, to 

CHRONICLER, kron 'i-kiur, t. 98. A writer 
of chronicles ; an historian. 

CHRONOGRAM, tootfo-gri*, $. An in- 
scription including the date of any action. 

nutt'e-ka), a. Belonging to a ctobnogmnB. 

CHRONOGRAMMATI8T, k±on-no-£tin*'- 
nnt-tist, s. A writer of ctoooonumk, 

CHRONOLOGER, kro.nane.jir^ He that 
studies or explains the science of computing 
t>ast time. 

CHRONOLOGICAL, kron-no-lodje'e-kil, 
a. Relating to the doctrine of time. 

CHRONOLOGICALLY, kr6n-tto-lfaje'e- 
kal-le, ad. In a chronological manner, ac- 
cording to the exact series of time. 

CHR0NOLOGIST, kro-noTo-jtat, «. One 
that studies or explains time; 

CHRONOLOGY, kro-n6l'o-je, a. The sci- 
ence of computing and adjusting the periods : 
of time. 

CHRONOMETER, kre-n6m 4 ne-tar, a. An 
instrument for the exact mensuration of time. 

CHRYSALIS, krfc'sa'-rfe, a. 508. AureHa, 
or Jhe first apparent change of the maggot uf 

. any specie* of insects. 

bHRYSOUT^strsVee-lrte^.l&;A preciosns 
stone of a dusky green, with a castor yeffowi 

fcHUB, tsfcub, #. A river fish. TheeheMn. 
CHUBBED, tshuVbld, cu 99. Big-headed, 

like a chub. 
To CHUCK, tdmi, t». *r. Tb make a noise 

like a. hen. . x . 
To CHUCK, teliCE,tV.<i. T6 call as a hen calls 

her young ; to give a genile blow under the 

CHUCK, tfthuk, #. The roice of iInjb;b 

word or endearment. " 
CHUCK-FARTHING, tsh&kf ir-Tr*W, #. 

A play, at which the money laws with a chock 

into the hole beneath. 

To CHUCKLE, briltfer. 0. n. ttO. TO taugk 


To CHUCKLE, fehuVkl, v. s. To call as a 
hen ; to cocker, to fondle. 

CHUET, ^ho&lt, «. 99. Forced meat Ob- 
CHUFF, tehttf, t • A blunt clown* 
CHUFFILY, tsbuf 'fe-le, «o\ StomachfuUy. 

€ltUFFt$£S8> tah&f'fe«n£s, *. Clownish- 

CHUFFY, Ishftf j«B) a. Susiy, fat 

CHUM, tshum, a; A chamber fellow. . 

CHUMP, tab ton*, a. A thick heavy piece of 

GHURCH, tshartsh* e. The collective body, 
pf Christians ; the bod v of Christians adher- 
ing to one particular form of worship j the 
place which Christians consecrate to the wor- 
ship, of, God. 

ToCHURCH, tshorish, c.a. To perform with 
any one the office of returning thanks after 
any signal deliverance* as childbirth. 

CHURCH- ALE,, tshurtsh-ale', a. Awake, 

ox feast* commeraoratofy of the dedication of 

the cnurch, _ ' 

CHURCH- ATTIRE, tshnrtsh-it-tfce', «.Th« 

liabit in which menpfficiatc at divine service. 
CHtfftCHMAN, tshfrtalrtnan, a. 08. An 

ecclesiastic; a clergyman ; an adherent to the* 

cluirch of England. 
CHURCHWARDENS, tshfirteh-waYdnr, a. 

103. Officers yearly chosen, to rook \6 the 
■ ilsssdi, churchyards, and such things as be* 

'ions to both* „ a 

CHURCHYARD, tshirtah'yard, a. The» 

ground adjoining to the church, in which the 

fiend are busied ; acemeterv. 

CHURL, tshSrl, s. A riutick, a countrvman ; 
a rude, surly, ill-bred man ; a ruiaer, a niggard, 

CHURLISH, tshur/li&h, a. Rude, brutal* 

harsh ; seliislk avaricious. 
CHURLISHLY, tehurllsh-te, od. Rudely, 


CHURLISHNESS, tahurlish-nls, s. Bruta- 
lity, raggedtiesk of matifiet. 
CUtJRME, tshtjrm, $. A confused sound, t 

noise. Obsolete. 
CHURN, taliurn, «. The vessel in which the 
butter U, by agitation, coagulated. 


a&r 167, not 163— tibe 171, tub 172, bill 173— ill 299— pound 313— t/iin 466, Tins 459. 

To CHURN, tshftrn, r. a. To agitate or shake 
anj thing by a violent motion j to make but- 
ter by agitating the milk. 

CHURRWORM, tshorVunn, s. An insect 
that turns about uinibly, called also a fan- 

CHYLACEOUS, MMIm, a. 186. Belong- 
ing to chyle. 

CHYLE, kHe, «. MS; Tke white juice form- 
ed in the stomach bj digestion of the aliment. 

CHYLIFACTION, kli-le-iak'shin, «. The 
net or process of making chyle in the body. 

CHYIJFACTIVE, kil-lc-fak'tlv, a. Having 

the power of making chyle. 
CHYLIFICATION, tiU-fe-ka'shin, $ .The 

act of making chy le. 

^HYLIFICATORY, kH-e-fe-ki'to-re, oifl. 
Making chyle. 

CHYLOU8,khofl,a.l60. Consistingof chyle. 
CHYMICAL,kim'e-k4l,><L Made by chy- 
CH VMICK, k Wmlk, $ mistry; relating 
to ekymislry. 

CHYMICALLY, tfm'mi-kal-lc, ad. In a 
chymical manner. 

CHYMIST, lrjm'migt,«. .A professor of eby- 

\y Scholars have lately discovered that all the na- 
tion* of K'irope have, for many centnries past, been 
crtoavous ia spelling mis word with a jr instead ef an 
r; that is, Citymlst instead of Chemist: and if we 
cra%c their reasons, they very gravely tell ns, that In- 
stead of deriving the word from %vuof, juice, or from 
%/m, Xaw. or x«»» to melt, it ia more justly derived 
f rjosa the Arabic kema, bJeek. Bat Dr. Johnson, who 
vexy well understood every thing that could he urged 
ia favour of the new orthography, has very judicious- 
ly continued the old ; and Indeed, till we see better 
reasons than have yet appeared, It seems miner to ia* 
voor of an affectation of Oriental learning than a li- 
beral desire to rectify and improve oar language. But 
let the word originate In the ttart or West, among the 
Greeks or Arabians, we certainly received it from our 
common Ukguaduct» t (if the word will be pardoned 
snej the Latin and French, which still retain either 
me y , or In substitute 4. 

Besides, the alteration produced a change in the pro- 
■variation, which, from Us being but slight, is the less 
JUsfv to be attended to ; ami therefore the probabi- 
lity is, that, let ns write the word as we will, we shall 
still continue to prenounce the old way; for in no 
FagHsh word throughout the language does the e sound 
like jr, or I short, when the accent is on it. 

This improvement, therefore, in our tpeiling,would, 
hs all probability, add a new Irregularity to our pro- 
nunciation, already incumbered with too many. War* 
barton, in his edition of Pope's work*, seems to have 
been che first writer of note who adopted this mode 
of spelling from Boerhaave, and the German critics'; 
and he seems to have been followed by all the inscrip- 
tions on the cbymlsts' shops in the kingdom. Bet, till 
the voice of the people has more decidedly declared 
Itself, it is certainly the most eligible to follow Or. 
Johnson and our established writers in the old ortho- 
graphy.— See Mr. N area's Enclish Orthoepy, p. (85, 
where the reader will see Judiciously exposed the folly 
of altering settled modes of spelling for the sake of 
far-fetched and fanciful etymologies. 

CHYMISTRY, klrn'mls-tri, «. The art or 
process by which the different substances 
found in mixed bodies are separated from each 
other by means of fire. 

CIBARIOUS, sl-ba're-os, n. 121. Relating 

to f«sod. 
CICATRICE, or CICATRIX, sik'a'.trls, #. 

142. The soar remaining after a wound; a 

mark* an imprejsure, 


CICATRISANT, slk-i-trVzant, s. An appli- 
cation that induces a cicatrice. 

CICATRISIVE,slk4-trl / 8iv.<i.l58,428.Hav- 
ing the qualities proper to induce a cicatrice. 

CICATRIZATION, 8lk-4-tre-zk'shun,j.The 

act of healing the wound ; tlie state of being 

healed, or skinned over. 
To CICATRIZE, slk'a-trize, e. a. To apply 

such medicines to wounds, or ulcers, as nkin 

CICELY, sfel^ «. A sort of herb. 
To CICURATE, slk'u-rate, v.a.91. To tame, 

to reclaim from wildne&s. 503. 
CICURATIOfysik-o-ra'shun, s. The act of 

taming or reclaiming from wildness. 
CIDER, si'd&r, a. The juice of apples ex- 
pressed and fermented. 
CIDERIST, shlfir-fst^S. A maker of cider. 

CIDERKIN, slMur-kfa, *. The liquor made 
of the gross matter of apples, after the ciucr 
is pressed out. 

CILIARY, sll'yi-re, a. 113. Belonging to the 

CILICIOUS, se-lish'us, a. 314. Made of hair. 

CIMETER, slm'e-tfir, s. 98. A sort of sword, 
short and recurvated. 

CINCTURE, slnk'tshure, *. 461. Something 
feorn round the body ; an enclosure ; a ring* 
or list at the top or bottom of the shaft of a 

CINDER; sfa'dur, «. 98. A mass of any thing 
burnt in the fire, bat not reduced to ashes ; a 
hot coal that has ceased to flame. ' 

CINDER-WOMAN, sk'dur-wum-un,)*. A 
CINDER-WENCH, sin'd6r-wensh, J wo- 
man whose trade is to rake in heaps of ashes 
for cinders. 
CINERATION, sfa-i-ra'shun, s. The redac- 
tion of any thing by fire or ashes. 

CINERITIOUS,sIn-e-rlsh'4s, a. Having the 
form or state of ashes. 

CINERULENT, se-neYu-lfct a. 121. Full 

of ashes. 
CIN6LE, stog'gl, s. 405. A girth for ahorse. 
CINNABAR, sln'na-bar, «. 166. Vermilion, 

a mineral consisting of mercury and sulphur. ' 

CINNAMON, sm'ni-mun, $. 166. The fra- 
grant bark of a low tree in the island of Ceylon. 

CINQUE, sink, «. 415. A five. 

CINQUE-FOIL, slnkf oft, «. A kind of five- 
leaved clover. 

CINQUE-PACE, aink-pase, *. A kind of 
grave dance. 

CINQUE-PORTS, slnk'ports, «. Those ha- 
vens that lie towards France. 

CINQUE-SPOTTED, skk'spot-ted,a.Hav. 
inn; five spots. 

CION, si'fin, a. 166. A sprout, a shoot from 
a plant ; the shoot ingrafted on a stock. 

CIPHER, si'fur, s. 98. An arithmetical cha- 
racter, by which some number is noted, a 
figure ; an arithmetical mark, which-, standing 
for nothing itself, increases the value of the 
other figures ; an intertexture of letters ; a 
character in general ; a secret or occult man- 
ner -of writing, ot the key to it. 

To CIPHER, si'fur, r. it. To practise arith- 

cm ciR 

W 54V. Flte 73, Ai 77, fill 6*,ilt81— mi OS, nit 96— pine 105, pi* 107— oA 101, mfae 104, 


To CIPHER, si'fur, v. a. To write in occult 

CIRCLE, eeVkl, a. 108. 405. A curve line 
continued till it ends where it began, having 
all parts equally distant from a common centre : 
the space included in a circular line ; a round 
tody, an orb ; compass* encloenre ; an assem- 
bly surrounding the principal person ; a corn- 
pan j ; any series ending as it begins : an in- 
concIusiTe furm of argument, in which the fore- 
going proposition is proved bj the following, 
and the following interred from the foregoing ; 

To CIRCLE, s2Hd, e. a. To more round any 
thing; to enclose, to surround; to confine, to 
keep together. 

To CIRCLE, seVkl, ». n. To more circularly. 

CIRCLED, seVkld,a. 869. Having the form 

of a circle, round. 
CIRCLET, seVkllt, a. A little circle. 

CIRCLING, seVktfng, part. a. Circular, 

CIRCUIT, eirfkit, a. 841, 108. The act of 
moving round any thing ; the space enclosed 
in a circle ; space, extent, measured by tra- 
velling round ; a ring, a diadem ; the visita- 
tion of the judges for holding assises. ' 

To CIRCUIT, seVklt, v. n. To move circu- 

CIRCUITER, seVklt-tlr, a. One that travels 


CIRCUITION, aer-ka-ish'&n, a. The act of 
going xeuud any thing ; compass, mace of ar- 
gument, comprehension. 

CIRCULAR, aeVka-lir, a. 88, 41A Round, 
like a circle, circumscribed by a circle ; suc- 
cessive to itself, always jeturniug^— Circular 
Letter, a letter directed to several persons,who 
have the same interest in some common affair. 

CIRCULARITY, aer-ka-tfrc-te, a. A circu- 
lar form. , 

CIRCULARLY; seVku-lir-li, ad. In form of 
a circle ; with a circular motion. 

To CIRCULATE, seVku-late, v. a. 91. To 
move in a circle. 

To CIRCULATE, seVki-late, e. «. To put 

CIRCULATION, seV-ko-la'shun, s. Motion 
in a circle ; a series in which the same order is 
Always observed, and things always return to 
the same state; a reciprocal interchange of 

CIRCULATORY, seVkn-la-tur4,«. Belong- 
ing Jo circulation; circular. 512. 

CIRCULATORY, eirtn-lsWnr-e, a. A chy- 

ntical vessel. m 

CIRCUMAHBIENCY, sir-kuni-aWbe-in'- 

se,a. The act of encompassing. 

CIRCUMAMBIENT, sfc-kfWaWbe-enVi. 

Surrounding, encompassing. 
To CIRCUMAMBULATE, ser-kom-sWba- 

l4te, ». n. ©l. To walk round about. 
To CIRCUMCISE, seVkum-slae, v. «. Tocat 

the prepuce, according to the law given to the 

CIRCUMCISION, ser-kom-skh'on, a. The 
rite or act of cutting off the foreskin. 

CIRCUMDUCTION, sfr-kira-duk'shan, a. 
Nullification, cancellation ; a leading about. 

CIRCUMFERENCE, ser-kfWA-r&ise, a. 
The periphery, the line including and sur- 
rounding any thine ; the space enclosed in a 
. circle; the external part of an orbicular body ; 
an orb, a circle. 

CIRCUMFERENTOR, sir-kum-fe-reVtor, 
«. 166. An instrument used in surveying, for 
measuring angles. 

CIRCUMFLEX/SeVklhn-fl&s,*. An accent' 

used to regulate the pronunciation of syllables. 

W AM our prosodlsfs tell as that the circumflex 
accent Is a couposirloa of the grave and the acute ; 
or that it is a raising or falling of the voire upon ilia 
same syllable. If they are desired to exemplify this 
by aetaal promaciatlfw, we find they cannot do It, 
and only pay at with words. This accent, therefore* 
in the ancient as well as modern languages, with re- 
spect to sound, has no specroe utility. The Frencfc, 
who make use of tbia circumflex in writing, appear, 
in the usual pronunciation of it, to mean nothing mora 
than lone quantity .-*8ee Barytone. If the iokpector 
would wish to see a rational account of this accent, as 
well as of the front and acute, let him consult a 

work lately published by the Author of this Dictionary, 
called A Rhetorical Gr am m a r, the third edition ; or, 
A K*9 to