Skip to main content

Full text of "A Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, and Expositor of the English Language: To ..."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 


^ ^ 



- - . ' * 


I'.N^^Uioli l^AiNCiUACiL: 


I .f every Wcrd it clcurljr t 

r wid ibr 


I '^M ■ V* « * V * 





.LlftoTLrtlei^ SflbihUuK ami WnrtUi tre crhitciEy invecdi^aiciL aii<t 

* . of ihc ' * ■ V ntj 

.'irv of tl ' tily 

IT) a^ iufwOWtdhf ^C NAT»vti <tr ScoTtA^fD, HtlAU&^i^d LuifDOif, for ^voulirtg 

^t>^am«in i& Fo«iiovtat, Cnr ar^irio^ t Knowl^gt of the Uic ol tKi* DicrtonAmr. 

1 it« mm<ftt iHTEMrftiiitQ wmi 

« 'l^^fcR^ A i iu.N>, 1 TYMOl OCSICAL, CRmCAL, AND GRAMMAtiCAL. 




Ipfjilaotlptjia : 




K/76 7Pc< 






J V Cilb|€cH have of laic yean more employed the p<r -7 cUTt 

c%, tfciititKc tiaptt^Tcrociit of the Eiiglillr UfiL^in[!t.s ^, iciliibi- 

n iht HMSkm birtc been exerted in cnlnVfiting .^ ^^i^^g t* l w>i Itarc 

^AndLnunorcTities been waniirvg toadd thcii ii: :. .jucrndnKtitiolheir 

tongue* Johciroo. vbofc laigc mind and jufl taflc made biiD capitbk 

.; ^4mV ^^^'^ "-^'^ ^^.'.•ri-rvr, A,^ 1 T^TMiagc wkh ongmal compofmon, hiii con- 

ddcrti igltpgi eipl:imir»^% sind arrafiG;ing it, nfid 

]g£t a iT^rxit ui HIS Liuiiay, labouri ai^d pHttCTice : uf]<l L)r* Lowih« 

the ^' cjf the age, has mJed his fuperiority in his (lioti IntfodiK* 

Tjar. The ponderous folio ha* gravely vindicated the 

r the light ephemeral fhcct of newi hft« coirc^cd trroci 

in Politicks, by flyly marking ibem in italics, ^ 

iTicnt ftapped here. While Johnfofi and I/nwth IflSe 

^iingcn tiie onhography and conftru^^ion of on ^e^ 

• I A% tiot been negledied. The iniportance'if a cn^ .*nd 

?Qtif;c(;i£]on was too obvious to be overlooked ; and the vrant of this 

mfi r* talari ty has induced fcveral ingeniom men to endeavour at a 

by exhibiting the irrcgulariiic* of pronanciaiion, and paitil* 

.^ . i ^i;.«n -ic*,havc icclaimed fome wordi that were not Rrecovcrablf 

r t.: in u wiring found, and prevented oiliers from being perverted by igno* 

Taz^e or eapnee 

Amofi^ ihoSk wrttett who d^dtvt the fir ft pr^ifc on this fuhje^p is Mr, 
Elf' ' ho, tn his Principles of the EngUfti X-anguage, has reduced the 

dkat , : m ; and, by a deep inveftigation of the analogies of our tonguet 

li^ Uid e: - I.. rjJ jtrn of a jiifl and regular pronunciatitm. 

After bini, Ijt, Ki n nek contribuied a portion ff improvement by his Rheto* 
ricil Di^ionary ; tn wbich the word^ are divided into fyllables as they are 
peoQOuoceidt ^^^d fiptircii placed over the vowels, to indicate their different 
fomdi. Bui* Icman has rendered his Did ionary eitirmely imperfefl^ 

by eiiCirdf orj-iu^i.^^ ^ great number of words of doubtful and difficult pro* 
mmciati«» — thoifc very words for wbich a Didionary of this kind would be 

7 her.'! fjcceedcd Mr- Sheridaiii who not oidy divided the words mto 

* ed iigures over the vowels as Dr, Renrick had dnnct but by 

\Ati as they are pr onounccd* fcemed to complete the idea rf 

ricing DiSionary, and to leave but httle e x^pedt a lion of future in> 

n at It muft, indeed^ be coaidfedf that Mr* SheridaD*i Diaionary i« 





greatly fiiperior to every other tliat preceded it ; and his method of convcv- 
ing the found of words, by fpelling them as they are pronounced, is highly 
rational and ufeful. — But herefincerity obliges me to Itop. The numerous 
inftances I have given of impropriety, inconlillency, and want of acquaint- 
ance with the analogies of the Language, fufhciently Ihew how imperfcft* I 
think bis Didlionary is upon the whole, and what ample room was left for 
attempting another that might better anfwer the purpofc of a Guide to Pro- 

The laft writer on this fubjefl is Mr. Nares, who, in his Elements of Or- 
thoepy, has ihewn a clearnefs of method and an extent of obfervation whicli 
dcfervc the higheft encomiums. His Preface alone proves him an elegant 
writer, as w^ellas a philofophical obi'erver of Language: and his Alphabetical 
Index, referring near five thoufand words to the rules for pronouncing them, 
is a new and ufeful method of treating the fubjeft : but he fcems, on many 
occafionsy to have midaken the bed uiage, and to have paid too little alten- 
t"on to the firfl principles of pronunciation. 

Tlius I have ventured to give my opinion of my rivals and competitors, and 
I hope without envy or felf-conceit. Perhaps it would have been policy in mc 
to have been lilcnt on this head, for fear of putting the publick in mind that 
others have written on ilie fubjeft as well as myfelf : but this is a narrow po- 
licy, which, under the colour of tenderncfs to others, is calculated to raife our- 
felves at their expcnfe. A writer, who is confcious he defcrves the attention 
of the Publick, (and unlefe he is thus confcious he ought not to write.) muft not 
only wifti to be compared with thofe who have gone before him, but will pro- 
mote the comparifon, by informing his readers what others have done, and 
on what he founds his prctcnfions to a preference ; and if this be done with 
faimefs and without acrimony, it can be no more inconfiftenc with modefly, 
than it is with honefty and plain dealing. 

The work I have to offer on the fubje<5t has, I hope, added fomething to the 
publick (iock : it not only exhibits the principles of pronunciation on a more 
fsxtenfive plan than others have done, divides the words into fyllables, nnd 
marks the founds of the vowels like Dr. Ken rick, fpells the words as they arc 
pronounced like Mr. Sheridan, and dire<fts die infpe<5lor to the rule by the word 
like Mr. Nares ; but, where words are fubjedl to different pronunciations, ii 
(bows the reafons from analogy for each, produces authorities for one fide and 
the other, and points out the pronunciation which is preferable. In Ihort, I 
have endeavoured to unite the fcience of Mr. Elphinfton, the method of Mr. 
Nares, and the general utility of Mr. Sheridan ; and, to add to thefe advan- 
tages, have given critical obfervation s on fuch words as are fubje^ to a diver- 
fity of pronunciation, and have iuvited the infpe(5tor to decide according to 
analogy and the bcft ufage. - 

But to all works of this kind there lies a formidable objection ; which is, 
that the pronunciation of a Language is neceflarily indefinite and fugitive, and 
' that all endeavours to delineate or fettle it are in vain. Dr. Johiifon, in his 
Grammar, prefixed to his Diftionary, fays : " Moft of the writers of Englifh 
** Grammar have given long tables of words pronounced otherwifc than 
•* they are written ; and fcem not fufficiently to have confidered, that, of 
** Englilh, as of all living tongues, there is a double pronunciation ; one, 
** curfory and colloquial ; the other, regular and folcmn. The 

** nunciation 

• See Principles, No. I»4, l»6, 1*9, 386, 454, 46x, 479» 480, 530; and the words 
Assume, Coliect, CovtTovt, DoKATrvt, ErBSMi&A, 8ati£TT, &c. and the iorepan« 
• bk prepoiition Dii- 



lave ei 

■^, The £ti);liilfc . 
-cT the I rcncli, v.In 
, tJiat Arc ^vlinlly rjltnt m ttic pr*> 

And if he r;iimoi pwnt 

vc lli*»fc JotinJf H bill I 

a .Li:tie IT' 
t&d tafle of ! 

tlian t!jc:i! 

. tG hiivc li;id a L-orfufcd ic!c;v of ilie tUnind- 
nti rolemn or fanplhtr ncrjliorts* me ft«ni«- 
; and with ft jfci it itiiill be 

rciy without i. T!ic Eiiglrlh 

'MUprcKuiiciation, is cviJefitly ti^ viilcii 

The accented lyUablcs, by bci: , ^ 1 mitli 

^n ihc oftaccciUcd^ have ihdr %'Oweb di citary and <Jtftin£llf 
''^ ?*n cote in tr.ufic ; i^ !iik the imacc«ntcd x^p^lU, for want 
to llidc into an obkinity ci foundf KI^it^• ijica^h ibffici- 
'- •! ' -^i-j Ciinnoi be fodctinitdy ii3iirlt(;d owt ta the eye 
JB litut nic under the accfiit- 1 hvi* li^mecf the 
Eiorclofct'' ' r,ha*ci*l*^^'£;^K■ 

u^3CC©rd! nity or i;miih4« 

: -piiiiiy a t.ur delivery - TLia UiU l>c pciccived in ihe 



found of the 9 tn emotion* ^ of the in ohedtence^ and of the in monument. In 
the hafty pronunciation of common fpeaking, the em emotion is often fhort- 
enedy as if fpelt im'ttto-tim; the in obedience fhortened and obfcured, as \£ 
written uh-he-dlence ; and the in monutnent^ changed into /, as if written 
mon-nt^ment ; while the deliberate and elegant found of thefe vowels is the 
long open found they have, when the accent is on them in eqmi^ over\ and 
unit : butd, when unaccented, feems to have no fuch diverfity ; it has gene- 
rally a (hort obfcure found, whether ending a fyllable, or clofed by a confonant. 
Thus the a in able has its definite and diftindl fouiid ; but the fame letter in /o/<f. 
rable\ goes into an obfcure indefinite found approaching the (hort u^ nor can 
any folemnity or deliberation give it the long open found it has in the firft 
word. Thus, by diftinguifliing vowels into their accented and unaccented 
foundsy we are enabled to fee clearly what Dr. Johnfon faw but obfcurely \ and 
by this diftincSion entirely to obviate the objcdion. 

Equally indefinite and uncertain is his general rule, that thofe are to be con- 
fidered as the mod elegant fpeakers who deviate leaft from the written words. 
It is certain, where cuUom is equal, this ought to take place ; and if the whole 
body of refpe^able EngliQi fpeakers were equally divided in their ptonunciation 
of the word bufy^ one half pronouncing it hetv^eXt and the other half biv,i&e^ 
that the former ought to be acconnte^ the moft elegant fpeakers ; but till this 
is the cafe, the latter pronunciation, though a grofs deviation from ortho- • 
graphy, will ftill be eftecmed the moft elegant. Dr. Johnfon's general rule, 
therefore, can only take place where (uftom has not plainly decided ; but, un- 
fortunately for the Englifli Language^ its orthography and pronunciation are 
fo widely different, that Dr. Watts and Dr. Jones lay it down as a maxim in 
their Treatifes on Spelling, that all words which can be founded different ways, 
muft be written according to that found which is moft diftant from the true 
pronunciation : and confequently, in fudi a Language, a pronouncing Dicti- 
onary muft be of effential ufe. 

But ftill it may be ohjeded to fuch an undertaking, that the fluctuation of 
pronunciation is fo great as to render all attempts to fettle it ufelefs. What will 
it avail us, it may be faid, to know the pronnnciation of the prefent day, if, in a 
few years, it will be altered ? And how are we to know even what the prefent 
pronunciation is^ when the fame words are often differently pronounced by dif- 
ferent fpeakers, and thofe, perhaps, of equal numbers and reputation ? To this 
it may be anfwered, that the fluctuation of our language, with refpeCl to its pro- 
nunciation, feems to have been greatly exaggerated^ Except a very few (ingle 


' See tbe words Collzct, Commamo, Disfatcb, Dokiitick, £f r aci. Occasion. 

t Principles, No. 88, 545. 

\ Principles, No. X78. 

S The old and new *kHli, with all the various dialeds, muft have occafioned infinite 
irregularity in the pronunciation of the Greek tongue ; and if we may judge of the Latin 
pronunciation by the ancient infcriptions,iC was little lefs variousand irrc^ar than the Greek. 
Aulas Geliius tells us, that Nigidius, a grammarian who lived a little more than a century 
before him, acuted the firft fyllable of Faleri ; but, fays he, '* fi quisnunc Valtrium appellans 
'< in cafu vocaudi fecundum id prxceptum Nigidii acuerit primam, non abcrit quin rideatur." 
•—Whoever now (hould place the accent on the firft fyllable of yaUrhu^ when a vocative cafe, 
according to the precept of Nigidius, would fet every body a-laughing. Even that highly 
poliihed language the French, tiP wc may believe a writer in the Encyclop^die, is litde Ids 
irregular in this refped than our own. 

** Ileft arriv^," fays he ** par les alterations qni fe fuccedent rapidement dans la manidre 
de prononcer, & les correfiions qui s*introduifent lentement dans la mani^e d*ecrire, 
qua la pronunciation & I'^critnre ne marchent point enfemble, & que quoiqull y ait 
dies les peuplea les plus polices de TEuri^, des fod^^s dlumunes de lettres charges des 
let modCrery det ka accorder, ft de lc« rapprocher dc b mine ligne, tUea fe ttouvent 


F It 

► *f • pi^«5ra\ly 

n th** fono^ttj^ Dt^i'msiT, tn^ tfsf rfrril: 

A divert > 


■ i 

■r2 :q jiirt:;idy wutilti be Iccufcd Ml tiieir ^utltft 
,niy Jiod *iii;ilngy. 
:hi$ kind ii ticu ccmfined If' 

. ciT not <tcc« domed to ti 
c>(*iu<Tu>, la [he more minmc pan* > M 
iMy be calledi whfch do not ftilkc ihi: 
Mti^ruprictjr m piirtiL^uIar word'*, bm o calif [i i -c. 

1 ;iei ^te« a bad inipielliun upon tlic whr4c, y^ r'l 

n man con verfiiibn t but when di 
id for th;it purpi^ic i<\ be more dj. 
c*r faits them i they h.ivc been acttiiV 
• ud, for ofHrmncfs of pionuiitLt- 
l»G IS who dr4w the mufcular eicrtJouii of the bunun 

bii — -^i^^ of anutonay. This is one restion, pcrhnp^, .1 

iif fo few people agreeable when they read or Jj ^ 'r. 
few offend us by ibcir uiterance in common couvtii.v 
I* lie concealed In » miniaiure^ which n microfcopc I nine's 
u»Ticw;^rij u i\ ordy Uy pronouncing on ;* hfgcr fc;ilc( iis publtck fpcakuig 
iBjy bcr^Jkdt liuc we prove the propriety ef our elocution* At, therefore* 


miam I eac 4^kmm mames^nhlti enforce <itie 4t dent chofet d^Qt rmie n^a *\^* un*- 

podT dtts;* km orij^itiic, (|uc |K»ur r:-prL:r£n(cr fitieUemcnt L'^utfe, cclle-ci n^^diffstc gu&t 

Mar^ ^ r?^kMI, q;^f ta portrait dc li iti^m^ pcrfdiin? pcinte dna* dcut ij|^e« tf^ etotgol^ 

1<^ r«^i Kcru ii uti tcl excci qu'tm n'*afc phm y rem dicr fJn pftiinjficf 

«aw bof' aytftf ; & I oO t'ltcnuttJme tcUcmciit pcfidiht k fcSt Ue U vic 

* -- ■ ': lAfmci di .'J, que G rwfi renon^olt i U 

. . c dc la pn nq ne rccixitlaitroit pjut U 

i^^-K- /i^A r ijij-* tnii tiuinriTL*^ LuuLiMM*ilVju dc Ciiiiic L.J 1.-1. Lj'il y eh B (ju* ik p&tfrroieoi 

Ie6.£r 'icr 0ia» oae ^rande fiti^ur pour forfane, iiu iU ne fc rcncmitrent pointi ou ili d« 

til ^>.i-Ti • dc b laitgiie p*f IVuphopie, cetre io* puiCintje, ^tii tgit coti- 

' £iii« ^prd pour rctyitmUj^ie & fci dvlcuftyrn ct i|iii trJid 

U et ^ui oQlJet rnlmet arj^aoca^ k m^me idlflme* le» tnlni« 

t i k mime pronfinciariou* Let caufci dont Ti^ioti o*cft 

rrrojtiurt Ici plui frirtes iivtc ici tcm*> ijticltjtic fnibki i^uVllsi 

pi4 ttDc feitJe vnyellci une fcuk diplicHiitij^tie^ une 

co»naiilc, que rcuphgaic u*oi puilTe d^pafer* ioit 

r* of ibefe compbititit but maft offeree, that a uriirff 

• ^^u'liflv, or ttie moll ba^rbaraut l&tigMw^e at Eurtipc. 

vtd in the very nature of bngiii»|tc, and it one oi 

iirre^ ; a Iotc of order, atid cl^ utility of regiikryy . 

\U u~ 

villalwayf isKJihitii^C^ coeillM itua ferfuiliif wititia m narrow ^tmdi aa fvil^hk. 

vHi PRE r A C E, 

there are certain Jcvl.uions from analogy which are not at any^ratc tolerabl ... 
tliere arc others which only, as It were, tamilh the pronunciation, and make ii 
Icfs hrilliaut and agreeable. There are few wlio have turned their thoughts 
on this fubjedt, without obferving that they fometimes pronounce the fame 
word or fy liable in a different manner ; and as neither of the fe manners offend-. 
the ear, tliey are at a lofs to which they Ihall give the preference j but as on ; 
muft neceflarily be more agreeable to the analogy of the language thaa the 
other, a difplay of thefe analogies, in a DI(flionary of this kind, will imnned-- 
atclv remove this uncertainty ; and in this view of the variety we fliall difcover 
a iuuefs in one mode of fp'^.iking, which will give a firmnefs and fecurity t.> 
our pronunciation, from a conlidence that it is founded on reafon, and the ge- 
neral tendency of the language. See Principles, No. 530, 547, 551, &c. 

But, alas ! rcafouing on language, however well founded, may be all over 
turned by a fingle quotation from Horace : 


" Qijcm penes arbltrium eft, & jus & norma loquendi.'*' 

This, It muft be owned, is a fuccln(5l way of ending the controverfy ; and, 
by virtue of this argument, we may become critics in language, witliout the 
trouble of ftudying it : not that I would be thought, in the mod diftant man- 
ner, to deny that Cuftom is the fovereign arbiter of language ; far from it. T 
acknowledge its authority, and know there is no appeal from it. I wifh only 
to difpute, where this arbiter has not decided ; for, if once Cuftom fpeak out, 
however abfurdly, I fincerely acquicfce in its featence. 

But what is this cuftom to which we muft fo implicitly fubmit ? Is it the 
ufage of the multitude of fpeakers, whether good or bad ? This has never 
been afferted by the moft fanguinc abettors ot its authority. Is it the ufago 
of the ftudious infchools and colleges, with thofe of the learned profeffions, or 
that of thofe who, from their elevated birth or ftation, give laws to the re- 
finements and elegancies of a court ? To confine propriety to the latter, whicli 
is too often the cafe, feems an injury to the former ; who, from their very pro- 
feffion appear to have a natural right to a Ihare, at leaft, in the legiilation of 
language, if not to an abfolutc fovereignty. The polilhed attendants on a 
throne arc as apt to depart from fimplicity in language as in drcfs and man- 
ners ; and noveky, iiiaead of cuftom, is too often the jus £5* norma loquendi of a 

Perhaps an attentive obfervation will lead us to conclude, tliat the ufage, 
which ought to direft us, is neltlier of thefe we have been enumerating, taken 
fingly, but a fort of compound ratio of all three. Neither a finical pronun- 
ciation of the court, nor a pedantick Grscifm of the fchools, will be denominat- 
ed refpeclable ufage, till a certain number of the general mafs of fpeakers have 
acknowledged them ; nor will a multitude of common fpeakers authorize any 
pronunciation which is reprobated by the learned and polite. 

As thofe founds, therefore, which are the raoft generally received among the 
learned and polite, as well as tlie bulk of fpeakers, arc the moft legitimate, we 
may conclude that a majority of two of thefe ftates ought always to concur, 
in order to conftitute what is called good ufage. 

But though cuftom, when general, is commonly well underftood, there are 
fevcral ftates and degrees of it which are exceedingly obfcure and equivocal ; 
and the only method of knowing the extent of cuftom in thefe cafes, feems to 
be an infpedtion of thofe Difttonaries which profeffedly treat of pronunciation. 
We have now fo many works of this kind, that the general current of cuftom, 




IC tbtt caikltJ rcadtr to iitjiJce cf err feafimiablr nil t. 

l2i^ ikwij til ih€ 4k. 

a*C^ufe the CTTOff 

•in, * l!il -. !i:i H It: m}.- ' 


omcthiflfp Ilk' 

I>r* Jobnlbnf , v/bnfc iricniil 
^ Invc, ;ind whole mtclk" 
vcncfation iirrU ^uc. i 

^r: midia m Mr* ^hcjMtlin*-. 


■ or iiuljiuus» 1 


licty J io llur 


.1, til) J a r 



— ,.;, orSpcakci 

^ » , - 

,. ,..^, .<, 



of Utc kngtiagc a& 




CI of wor<J»^ cicept in very few mfhrnoes^ I 

joHnfon. HU Didiotiar^* hat brcn deemed 

iLi Leticographeri anii fo icrvilel-jr has it beep 

' : "v bf mUlakc, as Prt' 

v.^* 3n J many otherti 

Ur- Kcarkk*^ nor i^veral other Dtdionaries. 


ttdtoif. ... 

i to l^>^ om^cr, eltit mf nbfenraiititti (»n Mr# SbmtUrt*t 

istm^ jmbSiOird in Kit hrc-clmcp And ihc f^otid^ fomc tiitiQ 

" »ic«^r^ti9<n» «ty ^^£ been made b]r bif tublcqucm tditoit, 1 tm 

^msmmi^ CdCi-** FtrtTiiia, ate. 


C ^ ] 


X HE rapid falc of the Second Edition of this Di^ionary catled upon me 
for a Third, at a time of life, and in a (late of health, little compatible with 
the drudgery and attention neceffary for the execution of it : but as I expeftcd 
fuch a call, I was not unmindful of whv<tever might tend to render it ftill more 
worthy of the acceptance of the Public and therefore colleded many words » 
which, though not found in Didlionaries, were conllanlly to be met with in 
polite and literary convcrfation, and which wiere well defcrving of a place ia 
the language, as foon as written authorities could be produced for them. Some 
of thefe authorities I have produced, and have left others to the attention of 
thofe who have more leifure and better health. In the midft of the impreflion 
of the prefent work, I met with Mafon's Supplement to Johnfon, and found 
feveral words worthy of infertion, but have carefully acknowledged the obli- 
gation ; and take this opportunity of thanking that gentleman for the benefit 
1 have derived from his Supplement, which I think, if continued, admirably- 
calculated for the improvement and (lability of the language. 
^ But as the great objeft of the prefent Didionary was pronunciation, I was 
very folicitous to be as accurate as poilible on this point, and therefore negledt- 
ed no opportunity of informing myfelf where I was in the leaft doubtful, and 
of correding myfelf where there was the leaft (hadow of an error. Thefe oc- 
cafions, however, were not very numerous. To a man bom, as I was, with- 
in a few miles of the Capital, living in the Capital almoft my whole life, and 
exercifing myfelf there in public fpeaking for many yeurs ; to fuch a perfon, if 
to any one, the true pronunciation of the language muft be very familiar : and 
to this familiarity I am indebted for the fecurtty I have felt in deciding upon 
the founds of feveral fyllables, which nothing but an infantine pronunciation 
could determine. If I ifiay borrow an allufion from jnufic, I might obfcrve, 
that there is a certain tune in every language to which the ear of a native is fer, 
and which often decides on the preferable pronunciation, though entirely igno- 
rant of the reafons for it; 

But rhi^ vernacular inftind, as it may be called, has been feconded by a care- 
ful invcftigation of the analogies of the language. Accent and Quantity, the 
great efficients of pronunciation, are feldorp miftaken by people of education in 
die Capital ; but the great bulk of the Nation, and thofe who form the moft im- 
portant part of it, are without tlieic advantages, and therefore want fuch a guide 
to dired them as is here oflfered. Even polite and literary people, who fpeak 
only from Aie ear, will Bnd that this organ will, in a thouiand ti}ftaAces, prove 
but a very uncertain guide, without a knowledge of thofe principles by which 
the ear irf'elf is infenfibly directed, and which, having their origin in the nature 
of lansruage, operate with fteadinefs and regidarity in the midft of the fickleft 
afFe<*tation and caprice. It can fcarcely be fuppofed that the moft experienced 
fpeaker has heard every word in the language, and the whole circle of feiences 
pronounced exadtly as it ought to be $ and if this be the cafe, he muft fometimes 
have recourfe to the principles of pronunciation when his ear is either uninforzn^ 
ed or unfaithfuL Thcie principles are thofe general laws of articulation which 


-i^^TTETf.t! ih^ clii\r4C?^T- aaJ fix Ttk? *Hyiir.t!4T'iii* nf r\ i'tt !^n(*itLii*. 











► » «l %'itV' 


thr prc\. 


i cirery vowel i 


oficmaecd U>i» ♦^ 

- ^'- ._ 

' ' / 


rmkiQAni btcTvtnc 

;, ercry 

vn\*xl in th 


n^„.., 4 1^ .^. 

« JtS 



, C'tf^hiiiy* 

tmr.^ '■ 




proTtauacci widi li 


J 11'. . 


W'c f rccjutn 

illy hciir UKHi J 

I fin4 ffK*, 

i^niUriiy vjooU rc4imi;; in >y Ik re 

tifnii tlicTitigu-igc AitJthk ..a 

^4, the acccntii.inmi ot wliichi av wtU «% die 
:rr rcf^nccd to twn or dticr (Vmpir rulct ♦ 

^ij qtimrhy Tn.iv h i in the 

-\kCc rit on ill e tl I i r<i , < . / ra '//ovti 

ri/«, /tf-r** ifjr'ti^n^* ice. Hhtj-c wecvijrndy perceive u ItrcU on the firi! 

" nrtrnln-? CVCTT lOWtl l>tlt W| afid tlii^ in cvcrjT woid iKroughtiUt the 

h«TC iifc'O conroorrnta tbUow tJae r/^ iu m €tir*vi*/mf ar % or 

"Hrrw the confoiiiini tfiat iiiccc*'J\ any other vowel in the 

3j«; i>r, kiHf ♦ where the word h not eviticitiljof our *Twa 

' ^ j'» « in the (ii ll fyUahlc of a wnrdt having tlie 

- tendency to lcn;^Th and opeiinrfs a** w;is oh- 

' {r. I ftnd it D k 

- I have never ' ,ts 

■ «4iullliis ivum iiD jHtLiiKievI ftgietiiicni 

'irf'e arc derive J fnimi fnr| iu ihcfurnicr 

rill I y ll c Ri of q u ii li ti L y I i'oe adtsptcd 

iire<5t an LnghiU c:tr whU ccruiuty; 

;icelhc nccenion wnrd> we horrt)w from the 

.,...iblc ai in thofe langw^giis, as tt^r/mrfs, rir9i^^Cf 

LJmcji adnpt the accent ot the original with etery 

n\ we derive from it, as aJtJti ity, ^ndJiijf^ ^c. yet 

voifccl is fo often contTaty to ihat of ihe Latin an4 

A itt a rnlo c^ii he d^nvn^ in thih pohtt. fiufri theft kn* 

'1. in the kuki in fjUcOion In tlic l**dltn ^aumuio^ duhttu^ 

b n L 1 a r h e F ^ . ^: h ih words cw*rit wi*/i//r 

,/, tturmurH t ri^ni ntus^ 3tc vhcre t!te 

as conli uitly pronounce it fhort in 

tan v^c tronUcr tlisil a diilcrciit iTio^ 

saatfut muasuMj it ot>t c(v»bic m tltc uncieiit iuid modem Ungii^ge&t '^^ hi the 


ti ro tfcr ^ 


^Nti: lTintJfj^*«*# ^^^^ i*4iitlf XJ*>» 

t See Principlci, No. 344j J4J- 

f »H ] 

former, two confonants almoft always lengthen the preceding vowel, and in th^ 
latter as conibntly (hortcn it. Thus, without arguing in a vicious circle, we 
find, that as a divifion of the generality of words, as they are adlually pronounc- 
edy gives us the general laws of fyllabication, fo thefe laws, once onderftood, 
direA us in the divifion of fuch words as we have never heard a^ually pro- 
nounced, and confequently to the true pronunciation of them. For thefe opcra- 
tions> like caofe and effe^, TcReh mutually a light on. each other,' and prove* 
that by nicely obferving the path which cud^m in language has once taken* 
we can more than guefs at the line Ihe mud keep in a Umilar cafe, where 
her footiieps are not quite fo difeemibk. So true is the obfervation of Scatiger a 
Jta omnibus in rebut cfrti/Jima raHone fihi ipfa refpondet natura. Dc caufis 
Jrftng, Lat. 




U which 1 hope will rrr .uUcle 

lice Qoticet that ai I hive nude a cDfffnrftiar- 

SlKriddti. I nin o\k ]i^ 

'^ i : r Lfi tTTonouticmg Enj^liOii Ik far the 

•* moft p.1 ihc two liiit I'ovcb, «/ and tr; the (utmct bcmg 

*^ ^tramtl : Irlih, m in lite wmd bir, in molt word* vhcre a 

* " t y, by die Eogiiffx. Thus die IrifU lay^ filtTCifi^ 

, ^ - ^. ^ i^*w Mkg iJi€ iAmc ioxmd a^ iti the word fiihcr t whrl0 the 

riCHJ0€5e them ;n& if written /^ri^fron, maytrm The following mlct 

iitciklrt! : — '* "t '' ^^ ; mirt;ikc Through iIk whole Iv 

' . ti the Tov i Ir. aiid the acccm rm It . 

•• ria^ij-proiloQiKCil k Ld^y 'iit*. To this rylc tl'> .« 

** cxccptfom in the whole 1 fouinl in tlic woi. i, 

^ xaam£^« The IriQi jim^ ihiak ;l11q the word mlirr aia c^ct ; vt;U as 

•* fmbrr 7 at5d frr i! wmild to be m th<^ir manner of pn > h ri* 

vowel a ; bin in the En^li(h pi' rn 

. : .hcfird fjlkblc, as ttm*, rt^^itVr, wh ^ci 

•* ' ^ eonffffijifit folbn^it the vowel a m the fainc fyllablc* and the 

** J • :ij: n:i::i:tj3,i, the vowel tf hy^s alwiiys its fourth found, at h^l, 

** ■' ' ynd kngthcned when it precedes die lei tcr r* m 

,t he on the vowel ; ;is likcwife when it precede* 

' ',' oraiitof this latter cKCCf J i ii-f 

y xvere wyiltcn kfnum, . /* 

I ui ^t mArkcd by diffcfcflt ciui <«r 

,.u, in Patil ; ii^y, in Uw ; ^//| tut , in 

i Uik« 4ec* tlic Irifh make no millake^ eiecpt in dul of /k, ja» be* 

',Tcl, f, is for the moH part fotindcd u liy the EngUfTi, wheti 

*^ '- iti it; whilft the ltt(h tn mofl words give k iIk fcmnd ol 

3i€' This found of ^ Tec] ih marked by differ tnt combi- 

* 'th 2% ea, tit e final mute, ei, and ir. In tlic two laft 

d L'f the Infb never millTikc i fiich as tn natt^fttm^fieiti^ 

' 1 the otherst they 4lmf>ll timverfally change the fouml 

*' f the combination erf. diey pronounce tlie words /m« 

' '.ff^/ay. ^i^yj : inilcad of /!**■, /irf* /^V//L I'he 

n J tf> ri7 %%'h<' never the accent is on the vowtl 

r^i ;\ i'far^ to ff^r* toy^r/f ir, tO 

: ,u(s t!ie f<»yttdof A »n fiiie. For 

:c>ii5, the gcndcmcn of Ireland, aticr ibmc 

1 _ I 4rc apt til fall into the general rule ^ und 

** ptoaoimcc ihcfc vords as it Ipdt £i^f/.».'rrt kc. 

C xiv ] 

•* £i is alfo founded ee by the Englifli, and as k by the Irifli ; thus the word 
•* de^fffi/, receive^ are pronounced by tlicm as if written dt/atcy rt/ave. Ei is 
** always founded fe^ except when a^ follows it, as in the words reign^ fi^g***. 
*• deigtiy &c.; as alfo in the words rein (of a bridle), rein deer, t^Wxr> drein^ veiit 
** heir^ which are pronounced like rain^ vain, drain^ vaif, air, 

** The final mute e makes the preceding r in the fame fy liable, when accented , 
** have the found of f^, as in the words fuprime, finc^re, repldte. This rule is 
'* almoft univerfally broken through by the Iri(h, who pronounce all fuch 
** words as if written fiiprimc, fmscirc, replite, &c. There are but two excep* 
'< tions to this rule in the Engliih pronunciation, which are the words there, 
'* where, 

** In the way of marking this found, by a double r, as thus ee^ as the Irifh 
" never make any miftakes, the beft method for all who want to acquire the 
*• right pronunciation of thefe fevcral combinations is, to fuppofe that m, «, 
" and ^, attended by a final mute <?, are all fpelt with a double e, or ee» 

<< Ey is always founded like i by the Eue^lifh, when the accent is upon it ; 
** as in the words prey^^ anveyy pronounced pray^ convay. To this there arc 
«• but two exceptions, in the words k^y and liy founded kee, lee. The Irifh, 
^ in attempting to pronounce like the Englifli, often give the fame found to ey, 
•• as ufually belongs to ei ; thus for^npy, convey^ they {^j pres', eonifee. 

^* A ftridl obfervation of thefe few rules, with a due attention to the verj' ftvr 
•< exceptions enumerated above, will enable the well-educated natives of Ire- 
•* land to pronounce their words exadlly in the fame way as the more polifbed 
'* part of the inhabitants of England do, fo far sl% the vowels are concerned. 
«* Tlic diphthongs they commit no fault m, except in the found of I, which 
•* has been already taken notice of in the Grammar* : where* likewife, the 
** only diflFcrence in pronouncing any of the confonants has been pointed out ; 
<' which is, the thickening the founds of ^ and f, in ceruin iituations ; and an 
•* cafy method propofed of correfting this habit .f 

" in order to complete the whole, I (hall now give a lift of fuch detached 
^ words, that do not come under any of the above rules, as are pronounced 
** differently in Ireland fiom what they are in England. 

* ** Vide p. 1 1, where the true manner of pronouncing the diphthong / itpomted out ; the 
*** Irlih pronouncing it much in the £»me manner as the French. 

j " The letter d has always the fame found hy thofe who pronounce Engliih well ; bat the 
*" Provincials, particularly the irifli, Scotch, and Wciih, in many words thicken the found 
'' by a mixture of breath. Thus, though they found tbe^ right in the pofitive ImiJ and 
** hroad^ in the comparative degree they thicken it by an afpiration, and found it as if it were 
"** written huJher^ hroaJber. litis vicious pronunciation is produced by puihing the tongue 
*^ forward fo as to touch the teeth in fanning that found: and the way co cure it is eafy ; for as 
** they can pronounce the d properly in the word -ioud, let them i%ft a little upon that fylla- 
** ble, keeping the tongue in the pofition of forming J, and then let them feparate it from the 
** upp-r gum without' puftiiog it forward, ami the found der will be produced of courfe ; for 
^ the organ being left in the polition of founding ^at the end of the fyllabielMi, is necefl»> 
*^ rily in the pofition of farming the fame ^ in uttering the laiMyUaUe, uniefs it makes a new 
** movement, as in the cafe of probruding it ib as to touch the teeth. This letter is fometimcs 
'' though not efteu« quiefcent, as is the words bandktrthief^ handfime^ bandfti. 

^ In prononndng the letter t the Iriih and other Provincials thicken the found* as was be- 
** fore mentioned with regard to the d; for Ifttirr^ they fay iettber: for utter , uttlters and fo on 
*** in all words of that ftru^ure. This faulty manner anfes from the fame ctufe that was 
** mentioned as affeAing the fnnnd of the d ; I mean the |nr«truding of the tongue fo as to 
^ touch the teeth, and is curable only in the fame way." 

C xv ] 

Iriihfrmm Engltjh pron, Iri/h pron» En^Iifly pron, 

'cbi'crfol ch^'ful \hx\\h ^ lengthy Icnkth 

feaxfui f^i'ful ftriiv [^Jlrove) firovc 

di&T dore driiv {Jrove) di6vc 

flj<5r flore . t^n'ure U'nurc 

gipe g^pc ten'ablc tenable 

gtth'cr (^ii/ir^r) gatli'er wiuth writh 

beard Mrd writh {luroth) wroth 

b'lOl b^ll fd'rcwcl fir'wcl 

beilK biiili rode rod 

p(lIK piLilh Ihiide flrod 

^^\1 pull l]i6ne (hon 

p^Y^vt pul'pit fliifm {fchifm) zlfm 

ck\f cilf whd'reforc wh^r'forc 

k^ch (csKri?') catch th^'refore thdr'tbre 

coAxCc {coarfg) c6arfe br^rh (^breadth) br^dth 

courfc ^cour/c ) c6ar{e cowld (fo/^) cold 

cdun c6urt bowld (WJ) bold 

inal^'cious malifli'us coffer co'fcr 

padding padding enda'avour cnddv'ur 

quo(h {quajb) qu^lh fi'it {foot) Rit 

l^zh'ur {Uifia^e) W'zhur mifch^'cvous mirchivous 

cli'mour cldm'mur In 'ion [onion) fin'nyun 

U^YA {Michael) Mi'kcl pi^t pfit 

di^th (drought) drout r^illi {reach) r^ach 

siich {/earth) s^rch fqul'dron fquod'run 

s6nrce {Jovree) s6rce zdalous zdl'lus 

c^ihion dudiion zAa'lot zdl'lut 

ftringth [firef^tb) ftidnkth 

•• Thefc, after the clofeft attention, are all the words, not included in the 
rules before laid down, that I have been able to colkdl, in which the well-edu- 
cated natives of Ireland differ from thofe of England." 

I (Kail mate no obfcrvations on the accuracy of this lift, but defire my reader 
to obferve, that the ftrongeft chara(^erift!cs of the pronunciation of Ireland is 
the rough jarring pronunciation of the letter /2, and the afpiration or rough 
breathing before all the accented vowels. (For the true found of R^ fee that 
letter in the Principles, No. 419. ) And for the rough breathing or afpiration 
of the vowels, the pupil (hould be told not to bring tlie voice fuddenly from 
^ brcaft, buc to fpeak, as it were, from the mouth only. 

It may obferved too, that the natives of Ireland pronounce rtn at the end 
•f a word fo diftindly as to form^wo feparate fy llables. Thu^florm ^nd farm 
^<^em ibiKidcd by them as '\( wrhtcnjfjwrufn, fa-ruTji ; while the linglifh found 
™ ' fo foft and {6 dofc to the «, that it fecms pronounced nearly as if writtea 

A'carlyihe fame obfcr^tions are applicable to Ivi. When thefe letters end a 
word, they are, in Ireland, pronounced at fuch a diftance, diat helm and realm 
Haxrad as if written hel-um and real urn ; but in England the / and m are pronounc- 
ed at ckrfc as poflible, aad fo as to foim but one fy liable. Fo remedy this, it 
Will be acceiTiiry for the poptl to make a colle<Slion of words terminating with 
^ic confonanUy and to pra^e them over till a true pronunciation is acquired. 


Rules to be ohfervedby the Nathes ^f Scot la»t> fir attaimng ajufi Pronuacialion 

of Engli/b* 

1 HAT pronunciation which diftinguiflies the inhabitants of Scotland Is of 
a very different kind from that of Ireland, and may be divided into the quan- 
tity, quality, and accentuation of the vowels. With lefpedt to quantity, it 
may be obferved^ that the Scotch pronounce almoft all their accented vowels 
long. Thus, if I am not miftaken, they would pronounce babkf hay-bit ; 
tepiditee-ptd ;Jittnertfce»ner ; confcloust cont'Jhus ; and fubjeS^fa^'jeQ :^ it is noc 
pretended, however, that every accented vowel is fo pronounced, but that 
fuch a pronunciation is very general, and particularly of tjhe /. This vowel 
is (hort in EngliHi pronunciation, where thp other vowels are long } th«s, «««- 
JioHf adhefion^ emotion f confufiottt haye the a^ ey o^ and ir, lone ; and in tfae(e 
inftances the Scotch would pronounce them like the Englifh ; but in tyifion^ 
declfion^ &c. where the Englifh pronounce the / (hort, the Scotch lengthen this 
letter by.pronouncing it like ee^ at if the words were written vcf^M, ieceejienj 
&c. and this peculiarity is untverfal The beft way, therefore) to corred this, 
will be to madce a colledion of the moft ufual words which have the vowek 
fliort, and to pronuunce them daily till a habit is formed. See Principles, 
No. 507. 

With refpe»a to the quality of the vowels, it may be obierved, that the in- 
habitants of Scotland are apt to pronounce the a like a'o), where the Englifh 
give it the flender found : thus Satan^ is pronounced Sanvtan, and fatai^famf' 
tai. It may be remarked too, that ^e Scotch give this found to the a pre- 
ceded by Wi according to the general rule< without attending to the exceptions, 
PrincipleSi No 88 ; and thus, inftcadof making wax^ wa/t^ and twangs rhyme 
with tax^Jhaftt and hangy they pronounce them fo as to rhyme with ho^^Joft^ 
and fong. The fhort e in hedsfid^ red*, dec. borders too much upon the Englifh 
found of ay in had^ lady mad^ &c and the (hort i in bid^ lidy rid^ too much 
on the Englifh found of r in bedy hd^ red* To<:om6t this error, it would be 
uTeful to collet the long and fhort founds of thefe vowels, and to pronounce 
the long ones iirft, and to (horten them by degrees till they are perfedly fhort ; 
at the fame time pieferving the radical found of the vowel in both, 'llius the 
correfpondent long founds to the e in bed^fedy tedyzvt badey fade^ rade ; and 
that of the fhort i \n bid^ iidy riJ^ are beady leady reed; ^nd the former of 
thefe clafTes will naturally lead the ear to the true found of the latter, the only 


* That this is the general mode of pronottneing thefe wordt in Scotland* isindlfputsble : 
and it ii highly prohahle that the Scotch have pre&rred the old £nglt(h pronunciation, from 
tvhich the Englim themfelves have infenfibly departed. Dr. Hicks obfervcd long ago, that 
the Scotch faxonrffti in tiheir language much more than the Engliih ; and it it fcarcely to be 
doubted that a fituation nearer to the Continent, and a greater commercial intcrcourfe with 
other nations, made the Engliih admit of numberlefs changes which never eitended to Scot- 
land. About the reign of Queen Elisabeth, when the Oreek and Latin langnages were cul* 
tivated, and the pedantry of mewing an acqnainunce with them became falhionabie, it is not 
improbable that an alteration in the quantity of many wordi took place ; for as in Latin 
almoft every vowel before a fingle confonant is fhort, fo in Engliih almoft every vowel in the 
fame fituation was fuppofed to be long, or our ancef^ors would not have doubled the confonant 
in the participles of verbs to prevent the preceding vowel from lengthening. But when once 
this aflredbation of Latinity was adopted, it is no wonder it fhonld extend beyond it<t principles, 
and fliortcn feveral vowela in EngUlh, becaufe they were (hort in the original Latin ; and in 
this manner, perhaps, might the diverfity between the quantity of the hngUih and the Scotch 
pronunciation arife, (54^; C543}* ^^^ DaAMA, 

t »•» J 


In the «)ii9iiitltir» Ihe tbort • ta a$^, /m{^, ^«l, flti:. is ipt cq 
' r^ nmiyM^e, gmt, Ac. To 

n A<i//. That tbc nilitul 

iDd V cd itito tlie 

f,<iri, .- ..- • . \ : \ 'J bffi to ic* 

!s which mnr colicacd in the I'rinr/piei, No 16^1 
* *> when ihc accent I » upon Jr - *ilJ witJi irf|)cd 
^c nblcfvcd, that tbr pi <ici p-ridiar 

c words entinncrjitcd, i'miLi^nti^ No. 17^ 
ltd, it mjy be oblerved^ tltat ^ m/pctft tm^Jt 
j^n, EC* b;nc ;i Inng found* isgcneriUj (hAft- 

«d in Sc i of the u in /W/ .* and it mull be remrm- 

rrc^ tiui «;i'v</» »«W^ ^«^t '^<'^'^« iiao^p fioi, are tiie of)I|r wordi where diis 
i^ixw4 «€ m oQght to ukc pkce* 

Tlie acftcmuAtioTv, both in Scot bud and trcbnd, (if by acctr vc 

fir-in ihc t^rcfi.aodiwiihic kind of lirefs; is fo much the £iii»i:r a\ t' ' '^g* 

fKW iTColkd many words tn which ihcy dt0er« Indeed it it were 

■ rii!ji;Vin of cAch country would he differtnt : for ai Enghfli verfc 

. if this accent or ilreis were upon diffcrcni fytU* 

what 1% veric tn England would not be vc He in 

ihk fuHiciendy Jl^ows how very inde&iuelf tbc 

ht«fioo, • be allowed to be a competent jadgc in tliis caJCf 

UsaiiQ S^cuknU mcy pronounce y^/'^i»<^r, ^*Vfj^, ^'^mw/i fiM^cf^ fnum^^ 
4/rjri', €9iajfruit rejrufp re/phe^ ^Qvt^rn^ Sartft, ranfi 4, ftm/h wlih the 
Tbhic inilcad of the firlK To thislill may be added the 
1 tber profiounee as tf written memfi 1 and ihougb tliey 
«cc liK ' I* of ^diia/, like cht Knglifh, they broadert 

mih. c word were fycli mtiat^h h may be farther 

led that tbej pbceai) accent on the comparative ji d verb m, m the phradct 
J,* /^-'/v. ij m.r^ir, .</ ^mitt Scc> whilc thc Engliih* etccfit In ftinc 
arti 'iet, lay no ftrefs on this word, but protiounce 

c vr«*.^>%ta i.woor three fylUbles without at^y accent on th& 

"" ♦ * — V^oottnctatibn of rmglc W4>rd«p there is a tone of voice 
ire accompaniedij tliai diftinguilhcs a native of Ireland 
' iKutUriii J.1 much AS an improper found of the kitcri* This is vulgarly, and, 
" It iVtef tttffffirafi ftrrft only, but tlie kind of tbefs, I thinkt not improperly 
fcaSlf^ - ■ there is :m afpcnty in tlie Infh diaieft, and a 

i4»s^ , it of thc Aides or infledtinns they m*ikc ufe of, 

^ikay wnhcoQ^cnLC be aihrm^d^ that much of the peculiarity which dh* 
f^B^itds Sj]c^j> may be t educed to a preJoniinant ufc of one of thcCt 
> his fufficicnily ftudied the fpeaking v^^ncc to diHinguifh 
nrnntinriation of an Infhman and a Scotchman who 
i^T coaniry^ and he will find that tlie former 
iidjiiii^, .»i*v* Uid latter with the riiiixg Infleifliont ; suid if diis 
c h 

* $eetyfttiirf«llf tiitttn^lifierf tit £lciiicni« of Elocution, Val II, ptge £3^ 

t 0» r«th9 die Hfh^ drtttmlkit For m explinatimi «f thk infi«&i«ni fee Ri^etoriv^ 

is the cafe, a teacher, if he underftands thefe Aides, ought to direS his inftruc-> 
tion fo as to remedy, the imperfedion. But as avoiding the wrong, and feizin j 
the right at tlje fame inftant, is, perhaps, too great a tafk for human powen, 
t would advife a native of Ireland, who has much of the accent, lo pronounce 
almoft ajl, his words, and end all his fentences, with the rifiig Aide; and a 
Scotchman in the fame manner, toufe the falling inflexion ; this will, in fomc 
meafure, cou^teraft the natural propenfity. and bids fairer fo: bringing the pu- 
pil to ihat. nearly ecjual mixture of b'th Aides which dillihguiAies the EngliAi 
fpeakei", than endeavourinj:^ at firft to catch the agreeable variety. For this 
purpofe the te<icher ought to pronounce all the Angle words in the leflT^n with 
die falling inflection to a iScotchman, and with the rifing to an IriAiman j and 
Aioultifrt^uently give the^aufes in a fentence the fame inflexions* to each of 
thefe pupils, where he would vary them to a native of England. Bht white the 
human voice remains uriftudied, there is little expeftation that this diftinfiion of 
the Aides Aiould be applied lo thefe ufeful purpofes. < 

Befides a peculitirity of inflection,, which I take to be a faHing circumflex, di* 
re&ly oppofite to that of the Scotch, the Welch pronounce the iharp conionants 
and afpirations Inftead of the flat (See Principles, No. 29, 41.) Thus for 5i^ 
they fay pif-k ; for bloody phot ; and for goo Jy coot. InAead of virtue znd vtce^ they 
fAj Jlrtue ^nifict ; inftead of Zftf/ and /r/i^, they fay feal zxid prace s inftead 
oiihefe and thofe, they fay thece and ihoce ; and inftead ofa%un and ofier^ they fay 
akfljer and ojher ; and for jall^ chail. Thus there are nine diftindt confonant 
founds which, to the Welch, are entirely ufelefs. To fpealc with propriety, 
tberetorc, the Welch ought for fome tjme to pronounce the flat confonants and 
afpirations only ; that is. they ought not only to pronounce them where the let- 
ters require the flat found, but even where they require the Aiarp found; this will 
be thebcft wayto acquire a habit ; and when this is once done, a diftindion 
will be eafily made, and a juft pronunciation more readily acquired. 

There is ftarcely any part of England remote from the capital where a differ- 
ent fyftem of pronunciation does not prevail. As in Wales they pronounce 
the fharp confonants for the flat, fo in Somerfetfliire they pronounce many oif the 
flat inftead of the Aiarp : thus for Some^fetJBirf^ they fay Zomerfetjbire ; for Jo" 
tber^ vatber ; fir /^ink, THink ; and fotfurej %hure* 

There are dialefts peculiar to Cornwall, LancaAiire, YorkAiirc, and every 
diftant county in England ; bilt as a conAderation of thefe would lead to a de- 
tail top minute for the prefent occaAon, I Aiall conclude thefe remarks with a 
few obfervations on the peculiarities of my countrymen, the Cockneys ; who, 
91s they are the models of pronunciation to the diftant provinces, ought to be 
the more fcnipuloufly correct. 

TiRST Fault op the Londonsrs. — Pronouncings indt/lindiy after ft. 

The letter/ after ^, from the very difficulty of its pronanciation, is often 
founded inarticulately. The inhabitants of London, of the lower order, cut the 
knot, and pronounce it in a diftin<5t fyllable, as if ^ were before it ; but this ts to 
be avoided as the greateft blemiAi in fpeaking : the three lift letters 'wipofit^Jifts^ 
ml/Is f &c. muft all be diftinftly heard in one fyllable, and without permitting the 
letters to coalefce. For the acquiring of this found, it will be proper to felefl 
nouns that end in Jl or Jie ; to form them into plurals, and pronounce them 
forcibly and diftin<ftly every day. 1 he fame may be obferved of the third pcr- 
foR of verbs ending in^j or Jies^ as perfijls^ <wajlei^ hajhs^ &c. 

* See the word Cbamge. 

C xix 3 

Sbcond Vavlt. --^Pronouncing ^vfor v, and inverf^iy^ 

The pronunciation of v for w, and more frequently of w for v, amoog |hc in- 
habirants of London, and thofe not always of the lower order, is a Wemifti of 
the firft magnitude^ The difficulty of remedying this defe^ is the greater, as 
the cure of one of thefc miftakes has a tendency to promote the other. 

Thus, if you are very careful to make a pupil pronounce veaiaxxd vinegary npt 
as if written 'svealzxid ivhifgar^ you will find him very apt to pronounce taim ai^d 
wind, as if written viae and vind. The only method of rediFymg tfi is habit Teems 
to be this : Let the pupil feled from a Didlionary, not only all the words that be- 
gin with v, but as many as he can of thoiie that have this letter in any ot;her part^ 
Let him be told to bite his under lip while he is founding the v in th«'>fe words, 
and to pnwftife this every day till he pronounces the v properly at firft fight; then, 
and not till then, let him piurfuc the fame method with the w; which he muft 
be diie^cd to pronounce by a j>outing out of the lips wi^thont fuflPorinc; them to 
touch the teeth, llius by giving all the attention to only one of thefe. letters 
at a time, and fixing by habit the true foiind of that, we (hall at laft find both of 
them reduced to tiicir proper pronunciation, in a Ihortcr time than by endea- 
yofiring to reftify them both at once. .... 

Third Fault. — NotfiuncUng h afitr w. 

The afpiratei is often funk, particularly in ^e capital, where we flo not find 
the leaft diftin^ion «^f found between m)hite and wi/r, nuhet and w-'/, where w:\dL 
w^e^ &c. The b^li method to rcdlify this, is to coHedt all tne words cf d^is 
defcription from a Didionary, anci write them down ; and inftead of ih wi, to 
'begin them with Aoo in a diftin^ fyllable, and fo to pronounce fheni. Thus, let 
'arhile be written and f<^unded hc^-ile ; 'wSt'tl hoo tt ; where^ too-are i witp, hoo* 
ipf Scci This is no more, as Dr. Lowth obferves, than placing the a pirate in 
its true pofition before the iv, as it is in the Saxon, which the words come from ; 
where .we may obferve, that though we have altered the orthography of our an* 
ceftors, we have ftill preferved their pronunciation. 

FovftTH Fault .r^N^ot founding h where U ought io he founded^ and inverfely. 

A ftill worfe habit than the laft prevails, chiefly amonjr the people of London, 
that of finking the h at the beginning of words where it ought to be founded, and 
of (bunding itt either where it is not feen, or where it ought to be funk. This 
we not anfrequently hear, efpecially among children, heart pronounced art^ and 
mi, barm. This is a vice perfeSly fimilar to that of pronouncing the v for the 
w, and ikkt w for the h^ and requires a fimilar method to corre6t it 

As there are fo very few words in the language where the initial h is funk, we 
may felefl tbefe from the reft, and without ietting the pupil right when he mif- 
pronounces tbefe, or when he prefixes b improperly to other words, we may 
make htm pronounce all the words where h is founded, till he has almoft forgot 
there are any words pronounced other wife : then he may go over thofe words 
to which he improperly prefixes the ^, and thofe where the A is feen but not 
founded, without any danger of an interchange. As thefe latter words are but 
few. I fhall fubjoin a catalogue of them for die ufe of the learner : heir^ hrirefs^ 
berbf berbagff bomfi^ hone^^ boftefllyf honour- honourubUy honourably ^ bofpital^ h'ftler^ 
honTf bmtr^^ hmnbUf biimblyf bwabUs^ humour^ bumorifi^ humorouSf humoroujly^ 

btmorfime : 

humorpme : where we may obferve, that humour and its compounds not only 
fink die b^ but found the u like the pronoun ym^ or the noun yew^ as if written 
yewtnour^ yeitmoroiu^ k.c. 

llius 1 hav^ endeavoured to corred fome of the more glarine errors of my 
countrymen, who, with all their faults* are (liU upon the whole the beft pro- 
• Bouncers of the Englifli language : for though the pronunciation of London is 
certainly erroneous in many words» yet, upon being compared with that of any 
other'place, it is undoubtedly the beft ; that is, not only the bed by courtefy, and 
becaufe it happens to be the pronunciation of die capital, but the beft by a better 
title, that of being more generally received ; or, in other words, though the peo- 
ple of Londonare erroneous in the pronunciation of many words, the inhabitants 
<jf every other place are erroneous in many more. Nay, harfh as the fentence 
may feem, thofe at a coniiderable diftance from the capiul do not only mifpro- 
nounce many words taken feparately, but they fcarcely pronounce with purity a 
Angle word, fyllable, or letter. Thus, if the ihort found of the letter u in trunkt 
funk^ &c. differ from the found of that letter in the northern parts of England, 
where they found it like the u in fo/A and nearly as if the words were written 
' trconk^famif &c« it neceflarily follows that every word where the fecond found 
of that letter occurs muft by thofe provincials be mtipronounced 

But thou?h tke inhabitants of London have this manifeft advantage over all 
the other inhabitants of the ifland, they have the difadvantage of being more 
difgraced by their peculiarities than any other people. The grand di&rence 
between the metropolis and the provinces is, that people of education in London 
are generally free from the vices of the vulgar; but the beft educated people fn 
the provinces, if conftantly refident there, are fure to be ftrongly tindhired with 
the dialed of the country in which they live. Hence it is, that the vulgar pro- 
Bunciation of London, though not half fo erroneous as diat of Scodand, Ire- 
land, ( r any of die provinces, is, to a pexfon of corred tafte, a thoufand dmes 
more oSeniive and difgufting. 



[ xxi ] 


h or iff U mttam a Knovfletfge of the Maris in this DiSionsfy, dnJ to squire 
ri^ht Pmntaciation of every Word tn the EngU/h Languagf. 

AS tiie founds of the vowels are differfnt in difiPerent languages, it Krntild be 
cttd\crs to bring parallel founds from the various languages of Europe ; 
but, as the French ts lb generally underftood upon the Continent, if »vc can reduce 
the founds of the Bnglifli letters to thole of the French, we (hall render the pro- 
QuiKiatioQ of our language Tcry eenerally attainable; and thfs, it is -.^refumcd, 
will be pretty accurately accompTifhed by obfcrving the following dire^ions i 

li d di i rf dgl etcb at dje que ell tm em 9 ft iiou mrr 

^s ti iott vi dMw ex ouai %edd 

Tbe TrtDch hsyt all our vowel founds, and will therefore f'pd the pronuncia- 
tion of them very eafy. The only difficulty they will meet with feeros to be f, 
which, tfaoaefa demooiiTably compofed of two fucceOTive founds, has p.iHed for a 
fimpk vowel with a very competent judge of Englifli pronunciation.* i he rea- 
Ion is, thefe two founds are pronounced lb clofely together as to require fome at- 
tcniioa to difcovcr their component parts 3 this attention Mr, Sh^iJanf never 
gave, or he would not have told us that this diphthong is a compound of our full- 
^ and flendereft founds i and ^ ; the (irft made by the largeft, and the laft by 
die (inalleA aperture of tbe mouth. NoV^ nothing is moire certr n thap the imc- 
curacy ti this definition. The third found of ^. which is perfedly equivalent to 
the third found of 0* when combined with the firft found €^ r, muft inevitably 
form the diphthong in kyijoy &c« and not the diphthongal fouod of the vowel 
i miAf and the petibnal pfonoun /; this douMe found will, upon a clofe eza- 
nuBadon, be found to be compofed of the Italian a in the la(t fyllable oi papa^ 
and the firft found of <, pronounced as clofely together as podible^ ; and for 
the ezadncfs of this definition, 1 appeal to every juft Engl^h ear in the king- 

The other dipbdiongal vowel u is compofed of the Fr'^nch I prrnonnced 
as dofely as pc^Hble to their diphthong nu, or the En^lifh ^i and d, perfedly 
equivalent to the found the French would give to the letters jr<7«, ^nd which it 
ctadly the found the Engliih give to the plural of the fecond perfunal pro« 
nawL - 

The£pbthong of or jOf is compofed of the French 6 snd i; thus toy and hoy 
•»ald1ie exadly ezprefled to a Frenchman by writing them t/t and BjL 

The <fiphthoDgs <m and mv, when founded like out are compofed of the 

^ French 

* MveiiQenieiits nf.Ofthdoy, mgp %. . 

f ikt SeBam IIL of hit Prolodial Orammv prefixed Co fait Diaionarf. 

\ HaUet, tlK mqtk phikibphical and ftccunce inveftigator of the formation a)id powert of 
the letter^ iky$ : - Our vu^r 1, as in/«^, feenu to be fuch a diphthong or rathv fyllable, ct 
pvt ct^ffUaiie) coaspoScacia, i, or c^i, and not a fimple original vowel.** £leineritt of fpeech, 

, Or. Walfi^ ^Kakfap ti the long Englifli «, lays it it Ibiinded « eodem fer^ nMdo quo Gial- 
vriim av in voabat mm, inaavt ; pmm, panit, &c. Nempe foouni habet compoiitum a Oal- 
knm i imam\m » Sl i 'vdi y.'* Qramftaticn Lftogus AnglicaiuB, pag. 48. 

t «« 3 

French ^ and the diphthong ou ; and the Englifb founds of thou and now 
may be cxprefled to a Frenchman by fpelling them thdou and naou. 

W \% no hiore than the French diphthbng ou ; llius IVeJi is equivalent .to * 
Ouefi, and nuall to oudil. 

T is perfedlly equivalent to the French letter of that name, and may be fup- 
plied by i; xhus yoke ^ you^ &c. is expi*efled by ioke^^iou^ &c. 

y, or / conibnant, mnft be pronounced by prefixing d to the French y : 
thus jayy joy, &r. found to a Frenchman as if fpelled djSj ff/di^ Bcc, If any 
difficulty be found in forming this combination of founds, it will be removed by 
pronouncing the //, ed, and Ipelling ihefe words edj^f edjdi, 3cc. 

Ch, in Englilh words not derived from the Greek, Latin, or French, is pro- 
nounced' as if/ were prefixed ; thus the found of chah^ chetfe^ (hatn^ &c. would 
be under ftood by a Frenchman if the words were written tch^e^ tchi%et icb^. 

^h\Xi Englifh is exprefled by ch in French; xJlx^xs Jbame^ Jharef &c, would 
be fpelled by a Frenchman chSme^ ch^re^ &c. 

The ringing found ng in long^fong^ &c. may be perfeftly conceived by a pupil 
-who can pronounce the French word Encore^ as the firft fy liable of this word 
is exadly correfpondent to the found in thofe Englifh words ; and for the for« 
mation of it, fee Principles^ No. 57 ; alfo the word Encore. 

But the greated difficulty every foreigner finds in pronouncii^ Engliifa, is 
the lifpii^g confonant th. Tbis, it may be obferved, has, like the other cdnft>- 
nants, a iharp and flat found ; fharp as in tbin^ bath ; flat as in ihat, nxtith. To 
acquire a true pronunciation of this difficult combination) it may be prpper to 
begin with tbofe words where it is initial : and fird, let the pupil protrude :his 
tongue a little way beyond the teeth, and prefs it between them as if going tp.bite 
the tip of it ; while this 3s doing, if he wilhcs to pronounce thmt let .him hifs as 
if to found the letter / y and after the hi&, let him draw back his tongue wilb- 
m his teeth, and pronounce the prepofition i>, ax)d thus will the word thm be 
perfedly pronounced. If he would pronounce that^ let him place the tongue 
between the teeth as before ; and while he is. biffing as to found the letter «, let 
htm withdraw his tongue into his mouth, and immediately pronouoce the pre- 
pofition at* To pronounce this combination when final in bath^ let him pro- 
nounce bof and protrude the tongue beyond the teeth, preffing the tongue "with 
them, and biffing as if to found // if he would pronounce <itf/^».let him firft 
form 4&i, put the tongue in the fame pofition as before, and hifs as if to/ound 
js. It will be proper to make the pupil dwell fome time with the tongue be- 
yond the teeth in order to form a habit, and to pronounce daily fome words 
put of a Dit^lionary begintitn^; and ending with thefe l^tt^rs. 

Thefe (}ire<5tlons, it is preuimedt if properly attended to, wi}l]be>fufHcient to 
give fuch Foreigners as underfland French, and have not accefs to a mafter, a 
confipetenx knowledge of Englifh pronimciation ; but to render .the founds of 
the 'vqvpclls mar^pd>y figure^ in this Di^ionary ftill more caiiily to be compre- 
hended*^ witli f^iofc Englifh words which.e^emplify the/ounds of tbe.vowels^ 
I b^iyt afloclated fuch French words as have vowels exa^ly corresponding to 
them, auil which immediately convey the true Englifh pronunciation. Thefe 
(hould be committed to memory, or written xlofwrr and hdd in his hand while 
the pupil is infpcfting tlie Di^fonary. ' '-'^ • 

Perhaps the grcatpfl advantage to foreigners and prqvincjals.^will be, de- 
rived frona the claffification of worda of a fimilar foupd* axuiilr^i/v^g tbe^line 
between the general rule ^nd the exception. Ibis has been aii arduous tafl^* ; 
.fast it>is hoped tlie-lieaefit arifing irqm it.wiU amply repay it. 'When the 
fmmeroasi T^rieties oi founds annexed to vowels, diphthotigs, and confonant^s 

t xxiif 3 


Sc fcattercd ^tbo\it \>oii.nds9 a learner is bewildered and diTcouragcd from 

atiempdng to dii^xiguiili them $ but when they arc all claifed, arranged, and 

enumevaied, the variety icems lei's, the number fmaller, and the ciiitin»flion 

caficr. "What an mcxtrlcable labyrinth do the diphthongs ea and ou ibrm as 

ibcylicloofc m the language ! but clalFed and arranged as we tind them, No. 

226, &c. and 3139 Sec. tlie confafion vanilhes, they become much lei's formida- 

ble, and a learner has it in hts power, by repeating them daily to become 

maftti of them all in a very little time. 

The Englilli accent is often an unfurmountable obdacle to foreigners, as the 
rules for it are fo various, and the exceptions fo numerous ; but let the hi- 
{^ftoTconfult the article Accent in the Principles, particularly No. 492, 50^, 
506, &c. and he ifrill foon perceive how much of our language is regularly 
aicceniedA^nd how much that which it irregular is facilitated by an enumera- 
tion of the greater number of exceptions. 

But fcarcely any method will be fo ufeful for gaining die Englifh accent as 
^e reading of verfc. 1 his will naturally lead the ear to the right accentua- 
tion ; and though a different ptofition of the accent is frequently to be met with 
In the beginning of a rerfc, there is a fufficient reeularity to render the pro- 
SK>unemg of werfe a poirerful means of obtaining fuch a dilttn£lion of force and 
iecbleneis as is commonly called the accent : lor it may be obferved, that a 
ftsoreigner is no Ids diftinguiihaMe by placing an accent upon certain, words to 
vfaich the Engliih gfre no (Irefs, than by placing the ftrefs upon a wrong fylla- 
ble. Thus if a foreigner, when he calls for bread at table, by faying, i>ive mc 
fime hnadt lays an equal ftrefs upon every word, though every word ihould be 
prosKmnced with its esad found, we immediately perceive he is not a native. 
An Eng^ifhman would pronounce thefe four words like two» with the accent 
on the toil iyUable cf the firft, and on the laft fyllable of the laft, as if written 
gi^emt tombed; or rather ^/vmir sumlridi or more commonly, though vul- 
garly, ghmme samdr^. Verfe may fometimes induce a foreigner, as it does 
IbnKDmes tnjudidous natives, to lay the accent on a fyllable in long words 
which ought to have none, as in a couplet of Pope's Eifay on Criticilm : 

** Faiib eloquence, lika the prifmatic glafs, 
" Its gaudy colour fprcads on eveiy place/* 

Here a foreigner would be apt to place an accent on the laft fyllable oF eloquence 
as well as the firft, which would be certainly wrong ; but this fault is (o tri- 
iKngV when compared with that of laying the accent on the fecond fyllable, 
fiat ftalmoft vaniflies from obfervation ; and this mifaccentuation, verfe viH 
jencrally guard him from. The reading of verfe, therefore, will, if I am ' 
^Du'/laken, be found a powerful regulator, both of accent and emphafis. 


t xxiv 3 





Definitimt of ^raxvelt and cwfimtxtt *...••«••• 5^ 

Amakfical table of the vvToels . ......•«.. l4 

Dipbtbongt and triphthongs enumet-attd v • s, tf 

Cwipmantt diflingnified 'tni9 clajjes ..•.«•'.«. l8 

AnattgUaltabU t/thecMfonauts . . S^ 

brgattU firm^ion •/ the Utttrt • 51 

Of the quantity and qnaiiiyrf tbt v&Vfeis *.•((* 

Of tbt it^uence of accent on the fiundi •/ th* Utttrt 6> 

7^« Utter A an^ i>/ different foundt 7* 

The Utter "£. and its i^etentjomtds 9S 

1 be Utter X and itt different Jinmds / « . I05 

TheUtkrOanditedjferentfmnde l6z 

The Utter ti and its diferentfomndt I71 

The vowel Y and itr different foundt . * ^ • I80 

71^ fww#/ W and its (Afferent foundt ....*.••.. Z89 

0/ tie diphthongs called femi'cnnfonantt X96 

Of the diphtkongiAR^M^ XO^aiul ail the r^isttbiirtlphahetkal order . . » I99 

Of the founds rf the coifinanU 347 

B, voAe* «rir/« .«•.#........ ibld» * 

C, rli different founds 348 

jy^ itt different founds 358 

Improperly changed ikto T. Dr, LtrmtVs opinion oftbh change in certain verhty cmjidered amd 

earreiled ...'... 369 

Vy Hi different fnunds • t • • • • • 377 

G, iti different founds . .4 379 

G alvfys mate before N in the famu fyllahie at the end of a xtford, exemplified in the words impugn, 

oppugn, propHgn, expugn, impregn, \^e, with the authorities of the m^ r^peSaiU or*- 

Ji^lP* 3«6 

n, whenfonsidedy and when mute 394 

J, its uniftrm found '...... 398 

K, wlwt founded^ and tohen mute .......... 399 

L, when founded, and when mute 4OC 

M, whenfoundedf and when mute ..>•»•... 407 

N, when it has its nafo'guttural found ......... 408 

When it has its ringing found in the participial termination ilig • . 419 

J^t when fowndedf and when mute « . , . • 41s 

PH, its uniform Jiund ........... 41% 

(^ itt different founds f when combined with a 4I4 

KfWhen itsfousldit tranjff^ed 416 

Whenitis toheprmmmcedrongh^andwhenfmooth . 419 

%,itsdifferestt founds y>id. 

When it u to be pronmmed Dhe Z 43^ 

When it is to be pronounced lUe fh and sh . . . . ^ » . 43O 

JSir. Sheridan i error in this point deleted ........ 454. 

T, its different founds ............ 4J9 

Hofw it fides into A in the numerous termination tlou ibid. 

Why it Jlidet into this found before n, preceded by the atmtt • . ^ . . . 461 

Jifr, Sheridan's error id this poisU deteffed . • 46ft 


C 'rr ] 

IH^ibiferetifiitmdi • •• . . . No. 4fl^5 

iVhmtite\kilfigtd im Utim cmamikikaiim ••.•.. 471 

y,itimmf9rmfimii . • ' -473 

ViyV:hemJiiai^aad y»i»em/oumdAiki ••«.•• 474^475 

X, u exabiyfmilar to lu, ajvJ G^tUe to thefami akeratimi cf found • 479 

Mr. SktriiMtg err9r in this f 9int dete£ied . , ' . 4^0 

Y, €1 < tfie/iiwiiBt, aW it< dfjfferenf /hmmJs ...... 48a 

Z, imfrw^lj rfffhed hy Dr. J^nfon into 9 bard 

lU trmg aamt Izzmrd • • 483 

Jti ^Jeroafmnds . " , . . . 484 

Of the Natarc of Accent. 

T%e tmty tnu difuatimk •/ aeeemt . . ^ , 488 

Tht (Bgere^ p^itm 9f the Engiifi afceHi ...... 489 

Aixtnt «■ ££jUablex . • A • . . • • . • . 491 

jyi^jlUkU mtuu amd 9€rkt SJ'ereat fy accented . 4^^ 

Ji^ctmi M fn^ildUes . . ..••.«. ^oi 

I^MTti^ dtpndame of the Kt^lifh aecetd m that •/ the Greek and Latin . . 533 

AcctjU m pd^jlUUet . . . • . . . . 504 

E,mii Tt'ic ai acunt exemplified m tie termitiai/m logy, graphy, l^e* . • 5'3f 5'^ 

metrm/svy sfsamfLade to cmtfaa the found 0/ tie /imfU « • 5IJ 

Sesamdary aeceui ^%% 

*rhff JhorteatMgpvwer rf this accent •..«... 5^/ 

On Quantity. 

Thajkaiietdng fovBtr of the focmiditry acemt exemplified in the uncertainty and incenfiflency •/ 

M£rm SUridam. and Dr» Kenrifk in iheir divifion of wiorde intofyllaifUe. . 5 JO 

On Syllabication. 

Sy^Mkicjtim Sferemi aaarding to the Sffet-eni end* te%e attained iy k . 538 
&yUaA»ci^jtn exlMting the found ef a wordy defending^ infime wUafurey m the nature ef tha 

Uttert fnear ta oiBuat ^rmmnciaiim • . ■ , . 54a 
72r mim^ tetaltBdependenu of the Enfdifo qvanUiy on that of the Greek and Latin^ exemfljfied 

iy an fir> mtimt of nto/l of At diJyUakfes in our language derived from the Latin and 

<^*rf J44 

??r omfy /^fiUr ufe mm vahicB icv can argue from the Latin fuantHy to the Englifo • ibid; 

DijyMaMei from Ae Samoa cad French language* enumerated .... ibid. 

C0^ ^tiofrevaitmu offiortemng the firf fyllahU of diffyttakUt from thefe language* • ibid. 

Of'ihe ^oantiiy of nnmccented fyllahU* on£ng with a yovuel . . 547 

- Vmeitaaiy and iM^nJtfi'eney of Dr* Kenrick in his notation of the fkantity of thefe votiel* . ibid. 
Pncotauay aid kiconfflenfy of Mt' Sheridan ant Dr* Kenrick in marking the quantity of 

t^^meSi . . • 558 

im^tmotothegmeralrwU affrtnaun^AefofifUdhlawhentiefolUxv^iyt . . . 553 
lf»er9m^ ^mr h^ arUfS^'J* *• their fyllaiieadon rffoch wprds^ exemplified ty a l^from 

UifUn^Kimruk^Saait^i"^ ^'TJ ...... 554 

PeadlarddkacyafAefimmJoftbffyUiM, . . . - ^ ^ ^ ^ SSS 
TeaimfifokejiftrUj^ i'^ ^^fi^^^rvyaee^ncem^ifidrnihodiwfitjandheme' 

fdte^de jSn2i mod eBfbihoetg^i vowdt^ referred io as a key to thtjigurot over the ktiero 
htkJH^iamMrj " ' • ' ' * • -559 


C «^ 3 


OF * 


r. X. HE Firft Principles or Elements of Fronuiict^on are Letters. 

Tift Utters of the Engtijh language Mrt : 

Roman. Italick. ^amev 

A a A a a 

Bb Bh ' hee 

C c C c fi^ 

D4 Dd die 

£e Et e 

Ff Ff ej 

Oe Gg Jie 

Hb Hh aitch 

li le tor eye 

J\ y) . j coxionant, or jay 

Kk Kk kay 

LI Li ei 

Mm Mm em 

Nn Nn . • ' en 

Oo O9 

Pp Fp pee 

Qjl ,^9 ^ 

Rr Rr or 

Sfs . SJe efi 

- T t Tt tee 

Uu Urn u or yea 

V T . y V V confonant^ or vee 
Ww IFw double » 

X X , X X eh 

Y y T' y luy 

TsZ Z % %edt or iz%ardf (483} 

t. To tlie& may be added certain combinatioiis of letters fometimes uied in 
printing % as a, ft, il, fl, (b» fli» fk, ff, £F, fi» ffi, fi, ffi» ffl» and &, ox and per fe amd^ 
or rather #//fry& ««/; a,ft,Jl,JhJl,fi,Jk,Jk,ff,ff,Ji.J^,fi,ffi, &. 

3. Our letters, fays Dr. Johnfon, are commoiily reckoned twenty-four, 
becaufe anciently i and y, aa well as » and v, were ezprefTed by the fame 
charader | but as thefe letters, which had alwstys different powers, have now 
different forms, our alphabet may be properly find to GOofiH of twenty>(uc. 

4. In confidering the fimnds of dide firft principles of language, we find 
that fome are fo fimple and unmixed, that there is nothing required but the 
opaiing of the mouth to make them underftood, and to form different founds. 
Wfaoce they hate tbc nxfB9i o£ ^omfele or veieee or ^aealfinndi* On the con- 



^twy. we find th:it there are mhcr?, whr/e prnn^TKuitiQCldetiend) c>ft the 
oUt applicat. nb* m lli 

t^cr,^t, the I j..: -_i... . -,,:__ uny c*iK i^,:,^, ..,^ tmr I 

ihnr iLiinn ". 'UQdi f 011(1 ihdc Sft Calkd iSt^Pm^fif tif kctcrs 

Ihfimmn oj ^ c^hu ami CmfuiaiHit 

5. Vcja^I-, arc ♦jeii * * r " ' ' ■ 1 mcfjr, tf^ /, i, < 

;^ ^nd 11 uri: c^Ut - ^ rd, and CO 

iir- ".vhcTi O'.cy bcg32 

^ 1 he dtfnit nn nt n vowclt Jit little Ibbte to except infi at jiiijr, ff«nu fo be 
f ViOA 1:1^ : A vnwrl i%a iimple fcumd formed by .1 conunued tSnGoa ot* llie 
jiikd J crnfcniwtion of the moyth. withoot any alteraiton in 
the pofiiici , ^LiT jiiiy nujti.pfl in the organ onpcccbt ttxmx tltc mamcm the vOp 
%al foimd u«riinic&ce« I ill keods, 

7. A ccmiQoimt njaf be defined to be« an mtcrmption of the cffufion of 

f Qcsil btmdf axifmg fri-- ^* ^ application of ihe nrg^ins nf fpccch 10 rmh other, 

H. AgreciUf to rf on, vowch m »y be divided into two* ldtid«, tbc 

simple aod cooapOoiuL iIk limpk #,#, 0, arethofe wliich arc furmcd hj one 

coQfotnLntiioci of the ctgims only i tbsit isp the organs remain ctaOly in the 

Cuoe pofitifHi at the end :ii at the bcginntng of the letter 1 whereas in die cam* 

ffOtmd vowcU i nnd % the organs alter their poiUion before the letter is c^m- 

pL.^rly foondoil ; ©ajr^ titeie letters, when commencing a fy liable, da nm only 

T^v^iie a differcQE Dof-rlan of the organs in order to lorm them pcrfceliy, but 

d ema a d ibdi an ; n of the tongue to chc roof of rhe mouths as h incoti- 

fiftcftt with die r ± pure vowel ; for the fir ft of the^e letters, i» when 

fbcmdod akioe, c^r a fy liable wkh the accent upon vL Is a rcjl diph> 

tSOllg, compf^Tefi ml u^t itHmds of a In/aihtrf and of f in /i«, exa^ly eorrcf* 

poMnit to die ibaod of the noun tye ; and when this letter commrncef a 

^laUe, sji in w/i , - i^^^ ^c the foiitid of <- ^ith which It term i nates li^ 

6|iiiorzjed »iito a 4- iound, like the doobk ehoird in fw/^i?, difTcrcm Troll 

Cbe ^m^U fotmd oi li*^^ Iciier in quean t and this fqucezcd found in t]ie com- 

fneneiaij f mufei?? \t eia<?t!y fimtlar to v in th^ fame fitu.i!ii>n 1 whtcht by nil 

jglimmEUur Ud be n confonam*. The btter of thdc com* 

p«x>sd ttwr J jpd nnt flioneucd by a confonumj commence*! 

*•? Uh thIiKj\icri:t'^ J lent to the j, ^ndcnds with a found given 

i« '.- m ^ir^ and 5^ name in die alphabet ex^^Iy fimjli^r ^o 


* y*^ ^ imffafv 1 gfimlttafl^ li Dr. Lowch eottid p&nounee fa deli»idvt1y nn the tiu* 

' Cf I, ^IH^ O^ ,t* K#i*T* &ft«rari X ffjtw* 1- ran «h1v Pi*" ar- ntlllt«d fOf by fOnfldcriog (Jl£ ^ 

'Tbt|*i3f f.m:i . r .n anceftnff in many infli^ue 

i-i With I m iht wordi mf^vJi-H, j,/.vu * tlic # I 
*'ffkte; ; liuw then €ifi the j, »L! rrry i 

r Mu initiil foufid i&gcncrni: ^Ailnj 

ri f'jrmni tfy <*ir n^enia^j of the mouth Wkitiout any mnfnifi irr • outaS of th 
i, Ml Im eM7 |irvp«rtf «f % vowel, and riot i^nr af ^ cotifyji^m/* U]tr«Ml' 

./' tbe Icirncd Cicfliop ; wkohA^ toii Ht'fd 3 fjnir ta fuJTcr any dimmutifm by a mi^iile 
. .^iu^ ;» |an «f btenCorr *% thi* t tmt it sruiy l>e t^cd, if^ hsu ewerj pmpcrty tif a vtiwff 
<>S(i tag ue«C & cMifMsmi why. when k b^im ^ woffd, d^i it not' ^dnu't <»f the eiqihoniaj 
^fudt ^ More I 


the pronoun ^<7i/f. If, therfefore, the common deflnition.of a vowerhe juil, 
thel'e two letters are fo far from l>€ing fimple vowels, that they m^y more prp- 
pcrly be called lemi-confonant diphthongs. 

9. That y and w are confonants when they begin a word, and vowels when 
they end one, is generally acknowledged by the beft grammarians ; and yet 
Dr. Lowth has told us, tliat <w is equivalent to 00 ; but if this were the cafe» 
it would always admit of the particle an befqre it : for though we have no word 
in the language which commences with thefe letters, we plainly perceive, that 
}f we had fuch a wordt it would readily admit of an be&rc: it* and confequently ' 
that thefe letters are not equivalent to *w. Thu> we find, tliat the common 
opinion, with refpedl to the doulile capacity of thefe letters, is perfedlly juft. 

ID. Befides the vowels already mentioned, ther« is smoother fimple*vowel 
(bund found under the «o in the words woo and coo ; thefe letters have, in thefe 
^WQ words, every property of a pure vowel, but wl|bn found \i\/hodf moody &c. 
and in the word too^ pronounced like the adje^iv e t'u>o : here the m has a 
fqueezed found, occafioned by contrading the mouth, fo as to make the lips 
nearly touch each other ; and this makes it, like the f and v, not (o much a 
double vowel, as a f )und between 4 vowel and a tonlbnant. 

ClaJ/ificaiion of Voxels and Confonantu 

11. Vowels and conibnants being thus defined, it will be neceffary, in the 
next place, to arrange them into iuch claffesas their fimilitudes and fpecitic 
differences feem to require. 

1 2. Letters, therefore, are naturally divifible into vowels and confonants. 

13. The vowels are, «, e^ i, 0, v^ and jp and w when ending a fy liable. 

14. The conibnants are, 3, ^ , d^ ftg^ b^ jtkp A «i« n^py q, r, /, /, v, «, z, and 
jr and w when beginning a fy liable. 

15. The vowels may be fubdivided into fuch as are fimple and pure, and 
into inch as are compound and impure. The Ample or pure vowels are ihch 
as require only one, conformation of the organs to form them, and no motion 
in the organs while forming. 

16. The compound or impure vowels are fuch as require more than one 
conformation of the organs to form them, and a motion in the organs while 
forming. Thefe obfervations premifed, we may call the following fdieme 

t An if^norance of the real compofition of «. and a want of knowing thtit it partook of the 
nature of a confonant, has occafioned a great diverfity and uncertainty in prefintig the indefi- 
nite article an before it. Our anceftors, judging of its nature from its name, never fufpec^d 
that it was not a pure vowel, and conftantly prefixed' the article an before nouns beginning 
with this letter ; as an union ^an rfffnl bock. They were confirmed in this opinion by finmng the 
OH always adapted to the (hort », as an umpire, an umbrella j withoot ever dreaming that the inort 
» is a pure vowel, and cflentially different from the long one. But the moderns, not reftirig'in 
the name ot a letter, and confulting their ears rather than their eyes, have frequently placed 
tile a inftead of «« before the long «, and we have feen a mum^ m unkferfihf^ a ufifidhooki from 
fome of the moft rcfpcdable pens of the prefent age. Npr can we doiyht a moment of the pro- 
]^cty of this orthography, when we reflcd that thefe words a^aHf begin to the ear with jr, 
and might be fpelled youm^nty^niverfity^youftfitt and can therefore no mol% admi^ of m before 
^ d^m tmi ytar ndyoaib. bie Remarks on the word Ak in this Didtionaty. 




An jinaiogkal Tdbfe of the Fo'u.rL'. 

pa pcr^l 
ta-thcr I 
wa-tcr ( r T 1 

me-tre r '^^P*^ ^^ P^''^ vowel«^ 

no-ble I 
^coo J 

f rU-tlc 

cy-der / 

io*c}d r 


compound or jmpure vowels. 

Diphthongs and Triphthongs enumcratcJ, 

17. Two 70wcUfomifiigbut'Onery liable are generally called a diphthong, 
and three a tripbthcng : thefe are the following : 

ae Cxf3T 

» ceiling 

0/1 coat 

01 languid 

at aim 

eo people 

oe aconoroy 

uy buy 

ao gaol 

lu feud 

oi voice 

^7)'^ (tor ever) 

mt Unght 

fw jewel 

oa moon 

eau beauty 


ey they 

01/ found 

eou plenteous 

«jr fey 

fa .poniard 

OIL' now 

ieu adieu 

ea cleaa 

U friend 

oy boy 

iew view 

cif (ecd 

M paffion 

tt^ manfuctude 

0^2< manceuvre* 

Confonants envmerattd and diJHngtiiJJ?ed into Clajffi^ 

i8. The confonants arc divifible into mutes, fcmi-vow'els. and liquids. 

19. The motes are fuch as emit no found without a vowel, as /;,/>, /, d^ i, 
and c and ^ hard. 

20. The femi-TOwels are fuch as emit a found without the concurrence of a 
^owd, as/; u, /, y., jc, g foft OTJ. 

:2i. Tbe liquids are fuch as How into, or unite eafily with the mutes, as A» 
», «, r. 

22. Buty beiides thefe, there is another clailification of the confunants, of 
Otat inpcntance to a juft idea of the nature of the letters, and that is, into 
«A as are fliarp or flat, and fimple or afpii ated. 
25. The fliarp confonants are, ^t/, /, /, /, c hard. 
24* The flat confonants are, h^ «, d^ z, g hard 

25 • The fimple confonants are thofe which have always the found of one let- 
ter unmixed with others, as, ^,/,/, t?, i, g hard, and ^ foft, ory. 

j5. Tbcoii^ed or afpirated confonants are thofe which have fomctimes a hlfs 
or aipJration joined with them, which mingles with the letter, and alters its 
&ttnd^ as / ID motion^ din toUier^ s in mifjon^ and % in azure, 

27. TTierc is another diftindion of confonants arifmg either from llie feat of 
their fcmutiom or from thoie organs which are chiefl v. employed in foimirg 
than. The beil diltin^ion of this kind feems to be that which divides tbeni 
into labials, denfak>gattQrai6| and naikls. 



28. The labials are, 5,/,/, v. The dentals arc, /, //, /• «, and foft^ or J. 
"irhe gutturals are, k, q, c hard, ai^d^ hard. The nafals are, m* «, and ng* 

29. Thefe feveral proj^criies of the confonants may be exhibited at one view 
in the following table, which may be called 

An Analogical 7*^bk of the Confonants^ 
Mute labials \ |^ Y^' >• f ^ 7 »»Wo- - 


C Sharp, i, itri > guttural 

I Fl^t,. ^ hard, ^^^ J "quid r 

Dento- guttural or naial ng, hang* 

50. Vowels and confonants being thus' defined and arrangedy we are the 
better enabled to enter upon an enquiry into their different powers, as they are 
differently combined with each other. But previous to this, that nothing may 
be wanting to form a juft idea of the firft principles of pronunciation^ it may 
not be improper to ihow the organic formation of eadi letter. « 

Organic Formation of the Letters* 

3 1 . Though t think every mechanical account of the organic formation of 
the letters rather curious than ufeful, yet, that nothing which can be prefentcd 
to the eye may be wanting to inform the ear, 1 (liall in this follow thofe who 
have been at the pains to trace every letter to its feat, and make uS) as it were, 
touch the founds we articulate. 

Organic Formation of the Vowels* 

32. It will be neceffary to ob&rve, that there are three long founds of the 
letter « , which are formed by a greater or lefs expanfion of the internal parts 
of the mouth. 

33. The German <f, heard in hatlf waU^ &c. is formed by a ftrong and grave 
expre(fion of the breath through the mouth, which is open nearly in a circular 
form, while the tongue, contracting itfelf to the root, as to make way for the 
ibund, almod refts upon the under jaw. 

34. The Italian tf, heard \n father^ clofes the mouth a little more than thtf^ 
German a ; and by raifmg the lower jaw, widening the tongue, and advancing 
it a little nearer to the lips, renders its found lefs hollow and deep. 

35. The flender a, or chat heard in lane^ is formed in the mouth (till higher 
than the laft ; and in pronouncing it, the lips, as if to give it a (lender found, 
dilate their aperture horizontally ; while the tongue, to atfift this narrow cmif- 


iGANre Ffm^ra 



fai of biathr widens tdrlf ta the di^ckst rail^ 'fiil*lf nciref the |)si!;itr, and bf 

J 61. l*h< f in ttm^fue .1 4^1 ^, 

»»wcl mi; kti later, ^ 

ckfc 10 the ^i c nioiDcm Ibe Idokii« 

imicfceftiic p^i^: mfwt ii fonacili wtncht 

57. 't1:«itniV«. -^ : !Kti by uniting the louud of the it^liiUI s m/oiher 
i^diht eui f^f^t/, ami prupouiicing them a% doi^fly together m [lotlibtc. See 


^8. T 


It the bcgianing uf tliis ht>c>k, p^igc xni. 

orme J by incarly the Uinvt: polition of^ the ocgaos at the 

,^TT;e is aiivHRccd .* little moic into i? ' " ' :hc 

'iiidcJ, and tbrm a round upeUtiix ol' 

:Mn the ni4>uih a^ wheti ^ u luioi^il, but 

lie mouth* 

lie J by tiiiiting the fqi' :|4c 

^' - L' 1 -uj fo<>; the m/ in thcfc .. ^ :ui- 

11 -^i in ^» Ibrming ;4 fm^lltT aperture with tiKJii, 4iuJ» 

fii ' : ^ _ 111 the mi ddk of the tnoudi » hrlaging it as larw;if d 

ispnl|}61c rocht lip<l 

40. T iaal in irj b formed like i i and ^ 6nsl in »^^i like the (»t whldi hatf 
joA bcm lirfcribed. 

la chu -- — ^^ "he or^ank forniation of the itpwcis wc 6tid tliat tf, #, md ^, 
act ibe or or pure vowels i ihxi i is ^ dipbthonj^v und thai aha, icmi* 

ccsttfbtuxTi. u wl - ' i so contrive a icaic fur ^ ' ■' ' ' Aih 

er nxrmwiMrs, ott < it, the ofitnnefsor clok \^t 

^i^T,r > -ir_ -n'lj r upc:i, ^^ Mr, Klphinllouc Cuilv it, Hud v.liuli i ccs 

tn [>; :! : Ci^iiit ^i aVL die vocal poweri, Iti the pronunci;iiion rtf \%t 

SW ibe apertiarc nf the nv luth extended on each fide ; tbe 1 : , ! , 

md llie IcNtad iflliiTiSf horirontully* The lIcniltT a '\i\ av.t/l *■. i * 

fink widtT. T -^ the mouth ttill nn ic 'he 

coctitfi, Th-: ' 10 '^f^/A not only optu. ..., . . .,., Jiao 

ifce (bnacr 4, t j ners of the motuh fo a^ to m.ikc tJic aperture 

^pp7CMe!i r- ' • « viivtvi i^vjlIc the & aliens the motith lldl more, and am* 
tniat^i^, iwi a^s to m«tke if die oi r^tumium^ vl picture of the Letter it 

fcujiiii* t: auTCi ^ ' vther vowcU were^ like o^iQ t*d;c their formi from 
ihcipdlsiecf the pionoinicin'^ thcitif the Gcrnian a otight ncccifjt- 

nlf lohafi a f * . i form.i> ii Jue^ tii tbund ; 

fcdiffitoeg? .^pprojcbcs ncarcll t ' the 

^' r, t^in;bt lo form 

Linglilh ii in ^^i^&^e 

e a narrower oval % tbi' *- in r/jr ougjii lo li^vc die curve of a pAnt* 

fniire/ed l^iuiu! of ^^ iny^tf a right line j or to reduce thefe line^ to 

<:t globe, the German a \\n obl;uc iphcroid like tbr 

l..,lun a hkean rgg, the tnglilh (lender a x Dutch 

i n^ and the double t a cylinder * 

Orgmak F^rmatkn of iti Cmfinsnti. 

4(* Tbt WH iXKiliod oTAiewiiig the organic forma tt6n of the eon^ant^ will 
^t» ck^ chrm into Cucb pain a« thef naturally fall intOf and then« by defcrfh* 


ing one, wj fliall nearly defcribc its fellow ; by which means the labour will be 
le^ened» and the nature of the confonants better perceived. The confoxiantfi 
that fall into pairs arc the following : 

p f 















42. Holder, who wrote the mod elaborately und philofbphically upon this 
fbbjedty tells us, in his Elements of Speech^ that when we only whiTper we cannot 
diftinguifh the firft rank of thefe letters from the fecond. It is certain the differ- 
ence between them is very nice ; the upper letters feeming to have only a fmar ter 
brifker appulfe of the organs than die lower; which may not improperly be 
diftingulihed by iharp and flat. The inoft marking diltin^ton between thcitt 
will be found to be a fort of guttural murmur, which precedes the latter let- 
ters when we wifti to pronounce them forcibly, but not the former. Thus if wc 
clofe thelipsy and put the Angers on th^m to ktep them 4but, and ftrive to prey- 
nounce the />, no found tit all will be heard ; but in ftriving to pronounce die h 
we (hall find a murmuring found from the throat, which feems the commence- 

•ment of the letter 5 and if we do but ftop the breath by the appulfe of the or- 
gans in order to pronounce with greater force, the fame may be obferved of 
the reft of the letters. 

43. This difference in the formation of thefe confonants may be ihore dif- 
tin^ly perceived in the s and % than in any other of the letters ; the fornier is 
founded by the fimple ifTue of the breath between the teeth, without any vibra- 
tion of it in the throat, and may be called a hiifing found ; while the latter can- 
not be formed without generating a found in tKe throat, which may be call- 
ed a vocal found. The upper rank of letters, thereforci may be called bi-eath- 
ing confonants; and the lower, vocal ones. 

44. Thefe obfervations premifed, we may proceed to defcribe the organic 
formation of each letter, 

45. P and B are formed by doling the lips till the breath is colle<ftcd, and 
then letting it iflue by forming the vowel e, 

46. F rind F are formed by prcffing the upper teeth upon the under lip, and 
founding the vowel e before the former and after the latter of thefe letters. 

47. Tand D are formed by preffmg the tip of the tongue to the gums of the 
upper teeih^ and then feparating them, by pronouncing the vowel ^ 

48* 5 and Z arc formed by placing the tongue in the fame pofitionas in T 
and Z), but not £0 clofe to the gums, as to ftop the breath : a fpace is left be- 
tween the tongue and the palate for the breath to iffue, which forms the biff- 
ing and buzzing found of thefe letter*. - 

49 SH heard in mtlfion^ and %b in evafiofi, are formed iU the fame feat of 

found as / and z ; but in the former, the tongue is drawn a little inwards, 

• and at a fomewhat greater diftancc from the palate, which occafions a fuller 

eftufion of breatli from the hollow of the motith, than in the latter, which are 

formed nearer to the teeth. . 

50. T/f in thinks and the fame letters in tbaU are formed by protrudmg the 
tongue between the fore teeth, preffing it againft the upper teeth, and at the 
fame time endeavouring to found the / or s ; the former letter to founfi tb in 
tb'mki and the latter to found tb in M#/. ^ 

5 I . /T and G hard are formed by prefling the middle of the tongue to tlie 
rcof of ilie mouth near the throat, and feparating them a Ihtle fmartly to form 
the firft, and more gently to form the lall of thefe letters. 

52. CH 


fX^u^oinC^TOT^Ti^Wii:: conSox'Wts. x»iii ^H 

I si.i 

Tf axiJ 7 tn ^^« .irc firmed br prciEtig # tojh^ and 1/ ro «/v^^H 
w4 by cjti^g U»c Ups »» '^ ^ i*»^ ^# «4 If mug ihc voic«^^B 

th( fdiiiK pofitm u In Tor Z/i H 


fhopcft. H 



56. f 

ic nistrly in the pofitinn of /, fioi at H 

Ibdia cJ 

It io JAt againfl i£, when tiic bmih H 

^^^ ti mtfir- 


■ < 

J m die r.^mc fern nf fautid as bjrd f ; buc H 


> Uic rcK>f yf ti^e itiQuthi 4» tn G* the vok^ H 


i»mM H 

y I't^cuig die or^jin* in ^* '^ ' nf^, ttsd H 

1 1 

J roof oi the moiitli* ul r^ whicb H 


tod Kv pliieificf ihc organs in the pontkm of «^ de« H 

■^ fcnkrd 

< ^re« in Of dcr to propel ibc brtath ■ 

tipoe •' 


t tbe urtii.iiiuri .iu-i ^i r! 1 !l:iri.'.i ;i J^ ^| 


i,riu' fcVv pinu ;|''l:v, !-':'' i- ty t>f ^| 

K eOTU^'ir. 

(lIs k is with jnii,i ,J -^ e ii( wondcT we pn.^ ■ 

F ^'i- ■ 

, fTvr ^tItooJI iiiJcaiblt u tf ction of nctrly limtlar fl 


rem timioppiJlKc nit 4111 ri^» luthi%Tii!W H 

k '' 

^i. d iiniformity and r^incty i^cry conf ■ ^ t . ^^H 

■ ^'' 

ki on tht cluo^i fccmi vo op? rare on Ur ; ^^H 

^B iitn. 

.\nd pduciC) of ilirir prifxt^^ks ^nd i- I ^^H 


1^ ptavt ihc gooJnd'it HifUam, ando! / ^^| 

1 l* 

m?il<^j^ri^l niibcfiiiion of founds is not cwily curious, bot tifcful ; it ^^H 

;: ■ 

r( the powers of the Icturs s und, from the^^f 


.' difFercfkt, enable* 11* to fee xhr ml:? nn which ^^| 


crs CD UH chc genius andprn ! ^^H 


,. ^._l^, rcnauthoriiy U fikni, enables ^^ a_ -^ — *^^H 

' "^ '^^'"»^*^mng** and conf*^n Ktrc rhtis enumerated und de6ric4^^^^| 


tain their di^^i -:s, iiti they are drMcrcnilv s&^^^H 

^ kK.... 

:t. It m^iy he ntccu u > ii]< -ivefnmc account of tliofe diC«^^H 

■ til^Mr 

'neftme vowels uhkii ciprcfs their qu^ntiry as long oi^^^^f 

■ fcm. 

'II119 will appeai^^H 


dr in dcrcnbiog thd^^H 


; c nul uiiif ij^uuul) uL^d with too littk pvc^^^| 


iy *cv' :^mmfUjf and ^dlkj if the F(m*th* ^^^M 

^^pv ' 

■ /^ n^i^n of found that feems to obtrude ilfclf upon m^ whcii^^B 


1 5 SL long and a fhort found according to the grca^tcr or Icf^ 1 


' \^ tliem. ^Hiis dti^in^ion la Co obvioui ■ 


^4 Atijd h tliat to which we annex clearer 1 


Uf «ey 4>cher ; ajitt Uiough tlie (hort fouadi of fome vovvcU have tiot H 


in our laneuage been claiTed with fufficient accuracy with their ^parent long 
ones, yet this has bred but little confufion, as vowels long and {hort are always 
fufEciently diflinguiihable $ and the nice appropriation of (hort founds to their 
{peci6c long ones is not neceifary to our conveying what found we mean, when 
me letter to which we apply thefe founds is known^ and its power agreed upon. 

64. The licxt diftin^ion of vowels into their fpecific f^^unds, Nvhich fcems to 
be the mod generally adopted, is tliat which arifes from the different aper* 
tures of the mouth in forming them. It is certainly very, natural, when we 
have &} many more fimple founds than we have chaiadbers by which to exprefs 
them, to diftjnguiih them by that which fecms their organic definition ; and 
we accordingly find vowels denominated by the French, ouvert axid forme ; by 
the Italian9> aperto and chiufo ; and by the Englilh, tfpen sindjhtu. 

65. But whatever propriety there may be ia the ufe of thefe terms in other 
languages, it is certain they mud be ufed with caution in Englifh for fear of 
confounding them with long and (hort. Dr. Johnfon and other grammarians 
call the a in faiier the open a : which may, indeed, diilingui(h it from the 
(lender a in pap^r ; but not from the broad a in tvatftj which is ftill more open. 
Each of thefe letters 'has a (hort found, which may be called a (hut found ; but 
the long founds cannot be fo properly denominated open as more or lefs broad ; 
that is, the a in paper^ the flender found ; the a \n father ^ the broadi(h or mid- 
dle found ; and the a in water ^ the broad found. 1 he fame may be obferved 
of the 0, This letter has three long founds, heard in m^vr, note^ nor ; which 
graduate from (lender to broadi(h, and broad like the q. The 1 alfo in mine 
may be' called the broad /, and that in machine the (lender i ; though each of 
them is equally long ; and though thefe vowels tibat are long may fa« faid to be 
more or lefs open according to the different apertures of the mouth in forming 
them, yet the (hort vowels cannot be faid to be more or lefs (hut ; for as (hort 
always implies fhut (e]\:ept in verfe), though long does not always imply open» 
we muft be careful not to confound lone and open, and clofe and (hut» when 
we fpeak of the quantity and quality of the vowels. The truth of it is, all 
vowels either terminate a fyllable» or are united with a confonant. In the firfl 
caie, if the accent be on the fyllable, the vowel is long, though it may not be 
€K>en : in the fecond cafe, where a fyllable is ter<ninated by a confonant* except 
that confonant be r, whether the accent be on the fyllable or not, the vowel 
has its (hort found, which, compared with its long one, may be called (hut : 
but as no vowel can be faid to be (hut that is not joined to a conibnant» all 
vowels that end fyllables may be faid to be open» whether the accent be on 
them or nnt. (550) (551 )• 

66. But though the terms long and (hort, as applied to vowels, are pretty 
generally underltood, an accurate will eafily perceive that thefe terms do 
not always mean the long and (hort founds of the refpedive voxels to which 
they are applied ; for if we choofe to be direded by the ear in denomiiiating> 
^vowels, lonz or (hort, we muft certainly give thefe appellations to thofe founds 
only whichfaave eiadly the fame radical tone, and diflfcr only in the long or 
fliort emi(&on of that tone. Thus meafuring the founds of the vowels by this 
fcale, we (hall find that the long /and^ have properly no fliort founds butfuch 
as fcem e(rentially diftmd from their long ones ; and that the fliort found of 
thefe vowels is no other than the fliort found of e^ which is the latter letter in 
die compofition of thefe diphthongs. (37). 

67. Tlic fame want of conefpondence in clafling the long and (hort vbwels 
we find in a^ e^ 0, and u $ for as the in thtrne does not.fimi its (hort foyid in 
the lame letter in tbem^ but in the i ia bim ; fo the ^ in tbtmmoSi defcend a ftcp 




i^irrlfitrj tliff nrrtvTnrL- oT jt Ta^.Xw. ^nn? (iitinit Tn amt. TSti? j *w t jr-i i *. \\:\t 

to the tf in y^ <!«» 

^m% lo be il)c in^uf ncc of iKr accent ) «« tlie 

■n €cn4m fylbbki hiis fo obvious an dfcA upon 

i ii\ wc t;ilte Jiccctit Into the accoatit. it will be 

.4ti) u^iin the pmpcT pranyndatl^n of the Etemcutiof 

ft mfir i'f fir(l f^l)<rrvrJ. that the cicnicm of the org;irjt of fjitech n^ecef* 

. hsi till obvious tendency to picicTYC iht 

lid, while the rcUtation <jr fceblcncfji which 

iM^tts the krtcrs tf^ ilide into a Jbmcwhal dif- 

org^ins of profiuncidtfon. Thus the firft in 

vrih the true found of thai Icticn while the 

■■" • bt*rdcrmg on tlie 1 i)\ntu the t]e«idercft of 

I1.1VC the d in the hit Jylbblc fc;irecly dif- 

; / in mc hift fyllu^ilcji oi fdltit and ^'ffifg.* 

the d, f, i *, and J, cominjf hcfnre r in a final tinac* 

" I re found fo w^mh ^nrg ta ihc (hon ir, 

kCfH upon th- fir if nf /Mr^ //>r, //w/Vi ( 

vvithMiii any pcrctprllj. m the founi [ 

_ ji be irrilijen Mndptonn: rr, /ii*r> r/<jc*rt ' 

:ini% alfo Jtrc no left altered in their founil by the poritton of I 
. The I and /in ihc cnmportnon of *» when th« < 
:% rxfcnif, &c prcfifTvc their ftrong pore found i hut i 
ond fylliblci in fjftf/?, exortrmifi Scq. ihefc letter* fhd« 
i.uuci aiiu ivL jktir ibunds of # Olid z* lAhkh are CiifJer to the organs of | 
Hence ncit only tJicfou f and the /go into /jf^, hut even the I be* 
e 1 iBfiuhoog Aide' ' fiime letterr^ when the tlrcls is no the preceding^j 

r^ftyitc Thot in y&TJw -r(y the c and / prcfcrve their pure found, hccaufel 


M,u€ the accent on ihcmibui In ficiaf ^ind /attair ihef«J 
j^e flrcfs» and from the feeUlenefs of their firuivtion aattt*^ 
i nottcr and eafi£r fcrun d^ as if wntte n fo/hm! and/f/lia/f « Se^ j 
^^*»e t — 

^m 7i« ^^ thretkmg fmmdi and two fbononei* 

^H T' 'rfl ibond of the 0r& leuer tn our alphabet ii that whkh among^ 

^H till , iu name. (See tlie letter A at the beginniiig of the Didionary^ |fl 

^B Thi-;' 


Th]& is what is called by moft grammaiians its (lender found (35) (6$) ; we 
find It in the words hde^fpadey /• aJe^ &c. In the diphthong at ve have cxadly 
the fame found of this letter, as in jiain^ gak^^am^'Scc. and fometimes in th« 
jdiphthong ra^ as bear^ /laeary pear^ &c. ; nay, twice we find it^ contrary to 
every rule of pronunciation, in the words wbtre and tbtre^ and once in the 
anomalous diphthong ao in gaak. It exadly correfponds to the ioond of the 
French e in the beginning of the words iirt. and ///?. 

74/ The long (lender a is generally produced by a filcnt e at the end of the 
fy liable ; which ^^ not only keeps one fingle intervening confonant from (borten- 
inj^ the preceding vowi-l but fometimt s two : thus we find the mute e makaft 
KAragy rage^ and very improperly keeps the a open even in range^ chat^t, &c. 
(See Chamge) ; hat. wrh thc^ mute e^ becomes batg^zxid the a continues opeo« 
and, perhaps, fomcwhat longer in hajie^ wajle^ pafte^ &c. though it mxA be 
conFjfed ihts feems the privilege only of a ; for the other vowels contrad be- 
fore the conf mants ny in revenges cringe^ piunge ; and tht^e in our language is 
preceded by no other vowel but this. Every confonant but n (hortens every 
vowel but a, when iohg nifd e fiient fucceed ; as bilge^ budge ^ hinge, fpungef &c. 

75. Hence we may eftablith this general rule : ^^ has the long* open, fwnder 
found, when followed hy a fmgle confonant. and e mute, as iade^ made^fade% 8cc* 
The only exceptions feem to be, A* - ^. a^e, ga/>e and iade, the paft time of to ^/V. 

76. ji has the fame found, when ending an accented fyllahle, as fa»perj fa" 
per^ fpeC'tator. The only exceptions "ox^ father ^ via^Jlr^ iva^ier. 

77. As the (hort found of the long flender a is not found under the fame 
charadter, but in the (hort e (as may be perceived by comparing mate and mei) 
(67) we proceed to delineate the fe*>ond found of this vowel, which is that 
beard in faiherf and is called by fome the open found '34) ; but this can never 
dillingui(h it from the deeper found of the a in ali, hnlly &c. which is Hill more 
open : by fome it is ftyled the middle found of j, as between the a \ii pak, and 
that in wall : it anfwers nearly to the Italian a in Tojcuno^ Ramana^ &c. or to 
the final a in the naturalized Greek words, papp i and mamma ; and in haa ; the 
word adopted in »lmo(l all languages to ezprefs the cry of (heep. We ield<^m 
find the long found of this letter in our language, except in mcxiofyllables end- 
ing with r, 2&far^tar^ mar^ 6cc. and in the vrari father. There are certain words 
from the Latin, Italian, and Spani(h languages, fuch as iumhago, bravado^ tor^ 
nidot camifadoi farrago^ &c. which are fometimes heard with this found of « ; 
but except in hravo^ heard chiefly at the Theatres, the Engliib found of « is 
preferable in all th^fe words. 

78. Tht long found of the middle or Italian a is always found before r in 
monofyllables. as cenr^far^ mar^ &c. before the liquids Itn \ whether the latter only 
be pronounced, as in pfalm. or both, as in pfalmiji ; fometimes before If^ and Ive^ 
as calf^halfy ealve^ halves faive. &c. ; and, laftly, before the (harp afpirated den- 
tal th in bath, patb^ laih^ &c. and in the vrotd father : this found of the a was 
formerly more than at prefent found before the nafal liquid n, efpecially when 
fucceeded ^y r» /^ or <4 £^ dame y. glance^ iawe, France^ chantif prance, gratU, 
plant yflarttyjlander^ &c. 

79. The hiding confonant x was likewife a fign of this (band of the a, whe- 
ther doubled, as in glafs^grafs^ lafs^ &c. or accompanied by / as in Icfi^fafly vqfl^ 
&c. ; but this pronunciation of a (eems to have been for fome years advance- 
ing to the (hort found of this letter, SLshcsard'm hand^ iattds grands &c. and pro- 
nouncing the a in after^ anfwers bajkety plants majl^ &c. as bng as in half ealf^ 
3cc. borders very clofely on vulgarity : it mxA be obfcrved, however, that the 
a before n in monofyUables, and at the end of words, was anciently writtea 




mdjii drrrTt, -jnd {b^rr.hAh^r prr^n^^it^c^d ni HmJ t: tire Cfrmin # : for Dr 


tied in4i 

<Tt the VI ' *.wn l)r)iabki 

nc^ii to til 4t3fc<^inp«f« 

'A &^- "i^"^ I* t^o i»>circ ih^n >^bat the 

, .. g a known nik intl>*'f ^^-^ '*- **''^ '*^cn» 

, tv.-n ihori fyllfthlc^ WcoTi. '- U 

' h:*% the pcnukinmic I** l-ju' ^ ttom 

cU ill crUJO become niir )^ <"^©, 4tc# 

>r It Lilian /I, wiiitj] : ,. confcmmitd 

,, k the iVkUnJ of i; I in mam* ^lu 

nndbdvTc :ioy uvo lucceiTn > 
ninrk^), nnd rvpn when ftt^ 

■ . . \ a^ m^fJ", 
wc liiid ihc monitiyiUibIc li:<s ihc Itm;^* an J thr dif* 
It if a ctinie b^rfi'tc r, (oil owed by iinfiliicr ccmia- 
.1% m patf, [y^rftaK ht. 

n this rule U in adjcdiircs derived frnra rub^afttiTt^ 

the <r cnntinut* \ryti^^ jis in the pi titivtivc. Thm 

as, i» »s kng 4S in^^*r ,- and the a in fhc adjcflivc 

t, 16 ki5 long iti iu ihc lublhinttvc i^r^ thoogh ihort 

. 1 of tf U ihut which wc m^irr tmmed'ately d^tWc 

on, btit V hch ;ii I ' 'li»n 

■/, (3^ : wc Hnd *» L d to 

. nnd <?w, as Alia//, A/af, fu^w, £i£c, ; tbinigii it rtmrt 

- Jrrijirovcd upon our Gcmiim paient^ by giving; «i 

cfc words than the G-i miiiifc themJelvcs would i 

04. The 

r tfrf flrft 7nf1»(frtf tmt «f tijtt Diai«fni^rt flic PtiMc Kai*c hcefi fivowred vJth foBie 

■ winn by Mr, S»mi<h, in » .Nchcme 
rs frtfjuclilly frjt'fii my jml^fmcJil* 

liiiirul ^rtvtn it by ti.^ ....^^r^ 
, I -T r f It Oiurt If in theh 
. ,: IV or in, !■ rsnn to be Cta^ndidlv 
^ otilil be diffufted at gmng 
n hlMr (imt]d nti^hf to be dif- 

.iiiiini */** • 

the bH to^i 

..T* cvc*ry ct»rri 

'he J in /.;^ - 


84. Tlie long found of the deep broad German a is produced by // after it» 
as in fl//, waUt call ; or, indeed, by one /, and any other confonant, except the 
route labials/, b^f, and v, as/ait^ bald, fatfe^falclmn^falenn^ kc. The excep- 
tions to this rule are generally words from the Arabic and Latin languages, 
as Mps^ Jlb'wn^ afphahir^ falcated, falve^ calculatf, amaigamatey /,lcoran, and ^ijred^ 
&c, ; the twalaft of which may be confidercd as ancient proper names which 
ha^e been frequently latinized, and by this means have acquired a flenderer 
found of a. This rule, however, muft be underftood of fuch fyllables only as 
have the accent on them ; for when aU followed by a confonant, is in the fir ft 
fyllable of a word, having the accent on the fecond, h is then pronounced as 
in the firft fyllables of aUhy, vol-hy^ Sec. as alternate ^ balfamcy falcade.falcation^ 
ftc. Our modern orthography, which has done it*» utmoft to perplex pronun- 
ciation, has made it ncceflary to oSfeive, that every word compounded of a 
monofyllable with U\ as albeit^ alfo, almojl^ dononfah Sec. muft be pronounced as 
if the two liquids were (liH remainfng, notwithftanding our word-mchders 
have wifely taken one away, to the deftrudion both of found and etymology ; 
for« as Mr. Elphinfton fhrewdly obferves, ** Every reader^ young and old* muft 
** now be fo fagacious an analyft as to difcem at once not only what are com- 
^ pounds and what their fimples, but that al in compofition is equal to all out 
** of it t or in other words, that it is both what it is, and what it is not.'' Prvi. 
£ag, Langu^t^ vol. L page 60. See No. 404. 

85. The w has a pecuSar quality of broadening this letter, even when pre* 
pofitive : this is always the cffeft, except when the vowel is clofed by the (harp 
or flat guttural i or ^, if, ngy nl, or the (harp labial/; as ww. noaft, ibnjjock^ 
twang; twanh : thus we pronounce the a brbad, though fliort in n»ad^ loan^ wantp 
wast whatf &c. ; and though other letters fuffer the a to alter irs found before 
//, when one of thefe letters goes to the formation of the latter fyllable, as tali^ 
ial-hw; hatl^ haUonv ; caH^cMotv &c. ; yet we fee w prefcrve the found of this 
vowel before a fingle confonant, at tnal'low^/waNon/f, &c. 

86. The q including tfie found of the w, and being no more than this letter 
preceded by i, ought accorXng to analogy^ to broaden every a it goes before 
Lke the w ; thus quantity ought to be pronounced as if written hwontity^ and 
quality (hould rhyme with joUity ; ioftead of which we frequently hear the tu 
robbed of its rigl\ts in its proxy ; and qunllty fo pronounced as to rhyme with /r- 
gai'Uy ; while to rhyme quantity, according to this affe^^edTnode of pronounc- 
ing it, we muft coin fuch words as plantity and cgnfonantity. The a in Quaver 
zad Equator h an exception to this rule, from thenpreponderancy of another 
which requires ii, ending a fyllable under the accent, to have die flender found 
of that letter ; to which nile,/iM^, ntafier B.nd water ^ and, perhaps, quadrant^ 
are the only exceptions, 

87. The fliort iiMind of this broad a is heard when it is preceded by w, and 
fiicceeded by a Angle confonant in the fame fyllable, as waNow^ fwaUhw^ &c. 
or by two confonants in the fame fyllable, as want, nvajt, wafp^ &c. ; but when 
/ or r is one of the confonants, the a becomes long, as walk^fwarmy &c. 

Irregular and unaccented Swnds* 

88. Butbefidet the lonff and fliort founds common to all the vowids» there 
is a certain tranfient indiftinA pronunciation of foroeof them, when they are 
not accented, that cannot be fo eafily fettled : when the accent if not upon it, 
no vowel is more apt to run into this imperfed found than the a 1 thus the par- 
ticle a before participles, in the pbrafes tf-going, a-walking, «*fliooting» ice, 

' feeiQs 

OF THE L^tEll ./. 


iieabi f&fi Dr. Lowtlu to be the true and i^eiiBme prcpoTition ««f, a little diT* 

led bf famflgir u& an ^ 
idd cdoMriJeac:: 

tiAinandftf fioQi 
tvcmtion of tliii 

2 lu tJie pcsiuJti- 

die fjime %woril 
out prcmttiiuuo5 or ti i ^r 

//i fSct. Thui die word «tjnt when fiat under 
r^»n in nMfman^ Imfiauhft^n^ fw<tman % 4nd ieritam 
irt, ^c* The r^ii^ i>bkrv4.uoti will hold ^oq4 ia 

. jon of dill letter Jtt the 

i-, - ■■ AV/rjPi 

r.' verb w/Jjjf h^^, Amori 1 % am! 

;i>^domH,AieKt inflated in:' ^ , , ^ ib Fck. 

ud iippi'o<iching the ihon i^ in ilic Dumciaua tcr* 

^^.viit U not ofi 'r i^ ^.JJ,..^.^. s-.,iL.^^, -(/uragi, 6cCm imd 

if writ ten r^ / Tlie except io jj-% 

-:T! words Oi Liiicc iviiiicr. ' - ' -' *!ic 

^ I > W ing : .iJiigft ftrn^gr. 

\fef when L. L ii notonitf ii 

L wurd^. li tUc word be j. luljIUn* 

tcr thirn wlicii it i% -ivcrbi thu» a 

ificc in the qiiantiiy of this l^ter, mdriktiff and 

.., AuduitimoUt and the vowels to mkulau^ to * 'i^- 

c we find the Qouns ;tnd adjec]ivx:s h.ive the r/ cor^ 

/ -c/^ howevcTt picrervo thet* jis loi^g a» '« ^i*^ 
titcd tcrmiimiiona m act^ wivctbci nouns ot 
I irc 3s to b<: nt:«irly iimiLir IQ the ^ ia ^ ; ihyi 
c. Height, wiiJiout 3iEiy great departure from 
.be written ^j//fl J, ifl//«/, &c, vihkXt Jmnaie idiiiall changtri 
^hl be WfitTen/ttrrt«/- 
Ul£. y If preceded by the gyttortils hard^ oj* «-| it i^j in polite 
^I'i'ja* r^tirncii b^ the intci^iUtkm of a found hk^ c, fo th:it idrd^ c^^ri^ 
\ like kr ard^ ghs-anit ff-^6i*rir*/, Whcu the a i* 
r^.l fvllaUcs oi\\TnJk, ^a/iJfr, l*^c. the inicrpoiiuoD 
ilted uniivofdable : for tho^vh wc can pro* 
: rrififrng the r, it i* inijioffibk to pronouikee 
T. Tills found of the a h taken notice 
"^ proves it is uot the offspring of the 
■ ■■>n to find Mr, Smithy a very accu* 
^^Sf^Kcr liUo leic mbj!;:?, eninciv ct my oplaion^ But the found of tjico. 


which I have found the mod difficult to appreciate* is that where it ends the 
fy liable, either immediately before or after the accent. We cannot give it any 
oif its three open ibunds without ^hurting the ear : thus in pronouncing the 
words abound and diadefn^ ay hounds ahhound^ and awbound ; di-ay-d^m^ di^ah- 
dem and di^aw^dem are all improper ; but giving the a the fecond or Italian 
found, as ah-hound and di-ab-dem feems the leaft fo. For which reafon I have, 
like Mr. Sheridan, adopted the ihort found of this letter to mark this unac- 
cented M : but if the unaccented a be final, which is not the cafe in any word 
purely EifgUih* it then feems to approach ftill nearer to the Italian a in the 
lad fyllable of papa^ and to the a in faiher ; as may be heard in the deliberate 
pronunciation of the words idea^ Afrka^ Deita^ dec. (88). See the letter ^ at 
the beginning of the Di^ionary. 


93. The firfl found of e is that which it has when lengthened by the mute c 
final, as \tigleh€^ theme^ 3fcc. or when it ends a fyllable with the accent upon it/ 
2s/e'Cre-4ion, adhe^M, &c. (36) 

94. The exceptions to this rule are, the words where and f/jtreg in which the 
firft^ is pronounced like a^ as if written 'o)bare^ tbare; and the auxiliary verb 
were^ where the e has its fhort (bund, as if written tver^ rhyming with the 
laft fyllable of prefer and ere (before), which founds like air. When there 
is in compofition in the word therefore^ the e is generally fhorteiiedf as In werr^ 
but in mv opinion improperly. 

95. The fhort found of r is that heard in hed^ fed^ red^ wcdl &c. ; this found 
before r is apt to Oide into fhort u ; and we fometimes hear mercy founded as if 
written murcy : but this, though very near, is not the exad found. 

Irreg^ilar and unaccented Sound t, 

96. The e at the end of the monofyllables he, he^ mt^ o/^, is pronounced ee^ as 
if written ^/r/r, '^^f, &c. It is filent at the end of words purely Englifh, but is 
pronounced diftindtly at the end of fome words from the learned languages, as 
tpitomey Jtmihy calnflrophe^ apo/iropbe^ &c. 

97 The firfl e in the poetic contradHons, e^er and ne^er^ is pronounced like 
a J as if written air and nair. 

98. The e in ker is pronounced nearly like fhort u ; and as we hear it in the 
unaccented terminations of tvri/ery reade*'^ 8cc. pronounced as if written wriiur, 
readur^ where we may obferve that the r being only a jar, and not a definite 
and diflindl articulation like the other confonants, inflcad of flopping the vocal 
efflux ef voice, lets it imperfectly pafs, and fo corrupts and alters the true found 
of the vowel. The fame may be obferved of the final e after r in words end- 
ing in cre^ gret tre^ where the e is foundrd as if it were placed before the r, as 
\n iucrCf maugret theatre, &c. pronounced /b/:ir, maugur^ theaiur, &c. See No. 
418. It may be remarked, that though we ought cautioufly to avoid pro- 
nouncing the e like u when under the accent, it would be nmit Attice^ and 
border too much on affectation of accuracy to prefervc this found of *in unac- 
cented fyllables before r \ and though terrible^ where e ha-^ the accent, fhould 
never be pronounced as if written turrtble^ it is impoffible without peJantjy to 
make any diiFerence in the found of the lafl fyllable of fplenlour and tender, ful- 
fhttr 2aidfuffe'', or matyrtundgarie''. But there is a fma 1 deviation from rule 
•when this letter begins a word, and is followed by a double conibnant with the 



:ds of the LETTrnT^^^^^H 

^1 «trr ! rcrc^tu}f^*l!nh!f :*tTTfhff cifrTTc find f he f nwd ! »nErtlj«i as if the fl 

^H ovnM' 


Kli>» ' 

'rim thr fnnt i ^^H 


'ced 3« ii ;^^H 




'J UJf luiiLj luunu KM f. ocL' i" ;r, iv7\iii \jrgm*iuirf^ ^^^B 

able err-: - r - ' t^H 


and a i ^H 


c pcotioatited ^1 


H it W4* arti'i' H 

vTittcn marehavi* 

Sertnti and ser^^ftt arc itill heajd aiTJCDg thf lewcr ■ 

i^ r t ttc n /unwr an d furmmtt % And c v et^ . i f r n 1 1 1 " t li r 1 1 rt ? r r M 

r. fi faluution^ J»VV,jy?ar /rfruuir// ti H 

^" rratirir. ©• t. 

y would be looked upon as ^ murk ^^^ i^i^ . V 

,:.— , i.^!^,-,,, . , n, 

S i?^r^,v »nd Berhky^ ft ill retain the nld f 1 

wnrrcn lAsrh ±r. J -' . i *' 

/^y ; but even thcfc, in polite ulagc, ar i no ■ 

If at if wiiuen D«rhy and Burhkj^ >d^iii H 

ndency lo limplU/ the ]nngn;iige bj- itiitaing the H 

^H DCifnlieT of ft cep 

.: certainly to be indulged. ^H 


jLo pin Irregular founds but ftill a /bund ^^' ta^^^| 

P T... 

:ds, Bn^iiit^fjejt pine! prfHw wIjctc the ' i^ i p>.e^^H 


V arc guilty of tlic ; gularity in mgim^ ASk if ^H 

■_ "fltft- 

,!\n(jt lie too carcfui^ ^:'!il» ■ 


^ in the final unaccented fylbble^ by iu biJ- fl 

■ . 

...,^ . ;:;vLuncsiiot, tbrms one of the moji pu/xling ■ 

■ '' 

on. When any cf the liquids prcfcde thcfe letters. 

H *^ 

- - "'^ - ^■'^tfidy u^smffif/jrefi j btil when any of die 

■ '" 

. I %i iht t \% fofnctimcs heacd^ as in nw>d^ 

^^ /ai^J^ ; afiv- 

\i\ jAvivei^ raven % &c* As wi other rule can he 

„, »»en for U 

imciation* perh^ips the bell hmv will be to draw 

fd, Eijvd tf ii is ncji 1 

■ vdt:: 

V, I amU:. led to do. 

H '"^ 

be i>UerveJ, liitf ^ Iveiorc /, in ^ t; A S 

^^V fffh!}^. 

luunced diitin^ly, except in the fol 4 

^M '^iff^J^^t ^'- 

/, (better written nu%zii,) nmyel^ r*n -j. ', ■ 

^^^b in'. ■ " || f'-firr^j^J^ 

/, ha^i^ dr(izihno%if. Tliefe words ^ ^ ir.ccii 1 

V an apoftrophei mjtei'l, wfo/7» ©mjV, aic, or rather ^ 


'- "*izif, kc, i but as thcfc are the only words of thts " 


iitinccdt j^cat care mud be tsikcn tiiat we do not 

^^^^ f^L--iur/-r 

, (tlie {iih(i^Ti\\\€)ypiircelt thdfdf ancf vtftl^ m the — 
:h many arc very prone. ^ ^ U 
' :' '" ' \ . and not pfcccded by a liquid* 

^H ^Ott^^ri 


Ions in m, ;as to /o<ty^ft* to keari- 


liddtHt mymhm^ lihheny kyphtn^ 

^^^^^^^^^^^^Bp^ ' 

''FTf p!aitn^ p^toif martin^ htfrn^ , 

^^^^P^r If^, 

//, In tiiriic words the / i* hcar^^ iyt B 

^^^■tetrary i^ 

1 h fnpprefica the / in thcfe fyllablc j : : J '^- W 

^^^■rioS faf ;i muUt ai Aoir^itt ^ff^thtm^ ^eaveitf a« it wntten ^irr^ n* kr^hn^ keanf n. 

f S£*:*| 


&c. ; nay, even when preceded by a liquid in the words/i/Z/n Tindftoknl where 
the e is fupprefled, as if they were written y2///'/r andJio/Pn : garden and Iwdcni 
therefore, arc very analogically pronounced ganPn and hurd*n ; and this pro- 
nunciation ought the rather to be indulgedt as we alwtiys hear the e fupprefTed 
iVL gardener and burdemomey as if written ^tfr^jrrr and burdensome. See -No. 472. 
104. This diverfity in the pronunciation of tliefe terminations ought the 
more carefully to be attended to» as nothing is fo vulgar and childilh as to 
hear stoivel and heaven pronounced with the e di(lin<^lyy or nroel and chicken 
with the e fuppreffed. But the moH general fuppreflion of this letter is in 
the preterits of verbs and in participles ending in ed : here^ when the e is not 
preceded by J or /,the e is almod univerfally iunk (362 ), and the two final 
confonants are pronounced in one fyllable : thus loved^ livedo barred^ marred^ 
are pronounced as if written, lovd^ /iW, bard^ mard* The fame may be ob- 
served of this letter when filent in the flngulars of nounsi or the fir ft perfons 
of verbs, as theme^ maker &c. which form tiemef in the plural» and makei in 
the third perfon, &c. where the lafl e is filent^ and the words are pronounced 
in one fyllable. When the noun or firll perfon of the verb ends in j?, with 
the accent on it, the e is like wife fupprefled, as a reply ^ t*afO replies^ he replies ^ 
&c. When words of this form have the accent on the preceding fyllables, 
the e is fuppreffed, and the y pronounced like ihort u as cherries^ marries^ 
carries 9 &c. pronounced cherrizj maniz^ carrtx^ &c. In the fame manner, 
carried^ married^ embodied, Sec are pronounced as if written carrid^ marrid^ 
emhodidt 5cc. (282). But it mud be carefully noted« that there is a remark- 
able exception to many of thefe contractions when we are pronouncing the 
language of Scripture : here every participial ^// ought to make a diftindl fyl- 
labky where it is not preceded by a vowel : thus, ** Who hath believed our 
<* report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revea/ed?*' Here the parti- 
ciples are both pronounced in thre6 fyllables ; but in the following pailage ; 
*' Whom he did prede{linate> them he alfo called; and whom he called, them 
" he alfo jujiifies \ and whom hcjuJlfied^ them he alfo ghrjfied.'* Called pre- 
ferves the e, and is pronounced in two fyllables ; and jt^tfied and ghrjfied fup- 
preis the e^ and are pronounced in three. 

105. This letter is a perfect diphthong, compofed of the founds of « in 
^A^r, and / in i6^9 pronounced as clofely together as pofllble (37). When 
thefe founds are openly pronounced* they produce the familiar affent ay : 
which, by the old Englifh dramatic writers, was often ezprefled by /.- hence 
we may obferve, that unlefs our anceftors pronounced th^ vowel J like the 
in 0//9 the prefent pronunciation of the word ay in the Houfe of Commons, 
in the phrafe the Ayet have it, is contrary to ancient as well as to prefent uiage : 
fuch a pronunciation of this word is now coarfe and ruftic. This found is 
heard when the letter is lengthened by final r, as Hme, thine, or ending a fyU 
lable with the accent upon it, as //-/Zr, dial; in monofyllables ending with nd, 
as biuj, find^ mind, &c. f in three words ending with Id, as child, mild, nvsld ; 
and in one very irregularly endine with ni, as pint (37). 

106. There is one inftance where this letter, though fucceeded by final e, 
does not go into the broad Englifh found like the noun eye^ but into the Sen- 
der foreign found like e. This is in the word Aire, pronounced as if written 

Jheer, both when Angle, as a htight ofthepnre\ or in compofition» as in 
NMwghamfiire, Leie^erjhire, &c. This is the found Dr. Lowth gives it in 




f I 

Ihort ;>i % Sc^Sifiic* 

t lJii» Itii^. :- .:card in htmn thh ^- ^^^-^ ^'^"iii 

"-t, a* it M Dtoict/ired !*y :- - 

*t bis ibantJ is the Jci ^L-tt^i 

V'fJg // JttJ it i ■ lly 

- rt / was a ibi^' .ji I 

hh !mrp It rnccceded by r, atitl anathcr confonant Ti^if m a ^ttiI 
Eld at" f In vermhh vetHdi^ Sec ^ 
■ imtf of flmn u ; but when it com'. 
rinaHtii Jt JGC|uirc* the ibm , 

rtft to thii^ ra]c» where i is profiouQccd like /j and as 

ic.'ms la huve tbc Hirne influence on ibis 
,11 f ^rid ». Whcti tliefc vowds come brffire dtju- 
d by a ¥Owel| as iti atdh^ tm wy^ iw.trr/» drj/^r, 

arc Ci^ fid era illy fKort«r fhan when the r U the final 
vv-bcn U i^- t'licceedcJ by another ctinfoiuint, m m arfQur^ 
t;inic m*mncT, the i\ coi^ '^ re either doi 

A vow^!» prcfcrvf* its ^ itfonnd.^? il 

f* is followed Uy -anotiicr c r, 

the accent tjpon k, the i g* ^ ^ 

i.nt to fhort e, hs he^ird in virgin^ vtrtve^ ^o 
. : iQ the filJl ivlUtWc oi/rrmefii^ though oTt 
, a Ikin. ^ir ani^/r are cxa^ly pi on ou need 
• i. ivcmsj fuy* Mn Narci, thui out anceftor$ ifillta*- 
more correctly, Biftmp Ciirdricr, in hi* fir ft letter to 
■' ifm of Nicholas Rowley^ a fellow C;iiit-ib with hijn^ 
I me girls be called vir^inff pliiin onc» -uu gim**' 

" M f akfini cHi Wijf*, fix* turpii, v^r^ va<c«ur*"* 

Mr, ElpliSnlloQi niay be modemzed by ihe aid of a far more 

^ !rDfe*t "rjVjf*! em a|ot>^ the ftJp fScptefi^ 


1 pTfc^C^l 

>n this fkuatiofi, ought to be the more earefully at- 

il iato the ibunJ of «» where it ihduld h;*ve the found 

:. !,i(ig to vulgajiiy* Perhnp^ the only exccp- 

eding VDWcl h u; for this letter being a 

cucc on the precctliug /, though not fomuch ^% 

il. Tins makes Mr- tJhcridAii*s pronunciiition ot 

iinds, hke that in %thgm^ Ic'i exceptionable than 

■-Z we citnnot give a femi-found of fbort i to cor-. 

umant iouud of Wj I h<ive preferred ihc pure found 



which I think the moft agreeable to polite ufage. See Mr. Garrick's EjNgram 
upon the found of this letter, uijider the word Virtue. 

Irregular and unaccented Sounds. 

111. There is an irregular pronunciation of this letter which has greatly 
multiplied within thefe few years* and that is, the ilender found heard in ee. 
This found is chiefly found in words derived from the French and Italian 
languages ; and we think we (bow our breeding by a knowledge of thofe 
tongues, and an ignorance of our owti : 

" Report of fafhioiift tn proad Italy, 
** Whofe manocrs ftUl our tardy apiih natio* 
'^ Limpa after, in baie awkward tmitatioti. 

Sbak^are^ Xiciard 11. 

When Lord Chefter€cld wrote his letters to his fpn, the word ohttge was, by 
many polite fpeakers, pronounced as if written obleegCt to give a hint of their 
knowledge of the French language; nay, Pope has rhymed it to this found : 

** Dreadini^ eVn fools, by flatterers h§Ju£i^ 
« And fo fAUpng^ that he De*er o%V." 

But it Mras fo far from havine generally obtained, that Lord Chefterfield 
ftridly enjoins his fon to avoid this pronunciation as afie^ed. in a few years, 
however, it became fo general, that none but the loweft vulgar ever pro- 
x^ounced it in the EnglHh manner ; but upon the pablication of this noble- 
man's letters, which was about twenty years after he wrote theno, his autho- 
rity hashed fo much influence with the polite world aato bid fair for reftoring 
the \ in this word, to its original rights ; and we not unfirequently hear it 
now pronounced with the broad Englifh i, in thofe circles where, a few years 
ago, it would have been an infallible mark of vulgarity. Mr. Sheridan, W. 
Jobndon, and Mr. Barclay, give both founds, but place the found of Mge 
f^ft, Mt. Scott gives both, but places eUeege firft. Dr. Kenrick and Bu- 
chanan give only oblige ,* and Mr. Elphinfton, Mr, Perry, and Penning, give 
only oUeege ; but though this found has loft ground fo much» yet Mr. Nares, 
who wrote about eighteen years ago, fays, *' oblige ftill, I think, retains the 
'^ found of long r, notwithftanding the profcription of that pronunciation by 
« the late Lord Chefterfield.'* 

112. The words that have pref^^rved the foreign fi)und of f, like ee^ are the 
following : AmbergTioy verdegrUy antique^ becaficoy hombtidn^ bradly cafiixdj ca/mclany 
colbertiney c/uofipiney or chopifh cofiriccy chagrhiy chevauX'de'foUej critiqtte (for criti- 
cKm)y/e»tucineyJHzeigabarc^y/KU>erdine9 9(^dineyruginey trephine^ guarantiney 
routmeyJasdneyfitiguCi mtriguey glacii^ muaiidy macldnty magazmcy mariney paUm- 
guhiy fiiguCy fioticcy /irq/ilcy recUatruey man-da^riney tabourrnty tambouriney tonfmcy 

* tran^m^riney tdtramarine. In aU thefe words, if for the laft i we liibilitute ee^ 
we (hall have the true pronunciation. In Jignior^ the firft i is thus pronounced. 
Mr. Sheridan pronounces vertigo znd/erpigo with the accent on the fecond fylla- 
ble, and the i long, as in tie and pie. Dr. Kenrick gives thefe words the fame 
accent, but founds the i a$ e in tea and/tf». The latter is, in my opinion, the 
general pronunciation ; though Mr. Sheridan's is fupported by a very j;eneral 
rule, which is, that all words adopted whole from the Latin pnderve the Latin 
accent, j;;o3, b») But if the Enghfh ear were unbiased by the lone < in Latin, 
which fixes the accent on the fecond fyUable, and could free itftlf from the 



thr FrcAcli ami tulianct ilwri: 
^ on il*c fira iylbbi , 

cjTt /, as in /nJiyc 

doubt Imttlldk 

> « n h i a1 jf 'fKe fi ntttiou 



■ It Lu '.lAiiit Jiiiu "-'JK~, UJT)' JTi. ' 

:\ be not too diibmi. The i^ 

Muanced maljaM. 

: io mofl dJSicttk to retltice to nik h wbeo it 

■ ■■ ar 


t^'£jK#/if ; .11 id vvlirii It cud* ji fy t 

f, i%/in/iMt,nj rjf'uScc. But 

c fore the ace eat, it > ik^nouH' 

: nrilJyllablc iscia^) . . i -it viiWf 

wh«tc tic I i% prODouoccd a« il the word ^trc 

^ ;,v »..^..u ^i ihe I, to tbu ijltsatioat is lb Itltlc reducible co 

c of our writers on tJic fabjei^ H^ve iatienipted it ( ytnd the ooiy 

iu -iTc IC'QK idea ot' it, fccms to be the very bboriotj* ore of chiHifig 

?rd> tc^g^cr as hiive tlic i pronounced m the flimc m^imefiandobrerv^ 

'"'riefti caznbt»aiJOQ» o£ other ictters that may pofl'tbly be the caufc of 

(<nmck <yf Oy$, 

the I is thconl* ind 

!Qm^»f with a c ,rjj» 

i its CQf1i[-: TiS. 

ic4 of gcr. iia* 

^ . .„.j ;..i.... m our dltL.^.^ i ; * ...^ ,,^ li.. 

^Sbdidan* SciHtt Buchanuii, W; JohiiiltiUt Kcurkk. 

r^ Scottt Buchanan* W, JohtiAoiit Kenrick. 

1, Scottt BttchanaUt W» Jcbnlloti, KenrictfC 

, Kenrick, 

r^oit, W, johafton, Kemick. 

<^o ^Jienilan, ScOtt, Perry* 

SLi^rUr*. ScoUi W. Johnfton, Kcufieic. 

'^M, W- johitAoUt Nares. 

Viicn t cr '^■* '*"1^''"!'* "nd th^ accent is l41 ul^ jl-^..ii.u, tun:- 

rith a vfj ves ill long open diphthongal fatmd , 

r^t'irmtH't^t ai-arr-^t^p xc, ujc nnt Tv liable is ecjmvakfit to the verb to 


Se* A corrupt, foreign manner of pronouncing thefe words, may fometimc^ 
mince the i into f, as if the words were written dfametur^ de-umatf &ۥ ; but this 
Is difgufting to every juft Englifli ear, and contrary to the whole cufrent of 
analogy. BtTides> the vowel that ends and the vowel that begins a fyllable are* 
by pronouncing the / long, kept more di(lin6t» and not fuffered to coxlefce, as 
they are apt to do if t has its (lender found. This pronenefs of the e^ which ts 
exa^ly the flender found of /, to coalefce with the fucceeding vowel, has pro- 
duced fuch monfters in pronunciation sisioggrapAy 9Xid jomm^try for geo^rapiy and 
getmetryy ^nd joijict for gfforgict. The latter pt thefe words is fixed in this ab- 
furd pronunciation without remedy ; but the two former fecm recovering their 
right to four fyllables ; though Mr. Sheridan has endeavoured to deprive them 
of it, . by fpelKng them ^ith three. Hence we may obferve, that thofe who 
wifli to pronounce corre<aiy, and according to analogy, ought to pronounce the 
firft fyllable of ti-^graphy^ as the verb to buy^ and not as if written hc^ra— 

117. When i ends an initial fyllable without the accent, and the fucceeding 
fyllable begins with a cnn/onunt, the 1 is generally flender, as if written e* But 
die exceptions to this rule are fo numerous, that nothing but a catalogue will 
give a tolerable idea of the (late of pronunciation in this point. 

118. When the prcpofitive ^r, derived from lu (twice), ends a fyllable im- 
mediately before the accent, the i is long and broad, in otder to convey more 
precifcly the ipecific meaning of the fyllable. Thus 6Uapfular^ bi-ctpHal^ bi^ 
dftitousy di^orjiousy In-corponfl, bi-dental^ bt'/ariouny bi'farcated^ bi-fitiffuousy bi- 
nocular^ bi-penttatedy bl-petnleuff bi-quadrate^ have the i long. But the firil fylla- 
ble of the words Bitamen and Bitummous having no fnch iignification, ought to 
be pronounced with the l fhort. This is the found Buchanan has given it \ but 
Sheridan, Kenrick, and W. Jobnfton, make the / long, as in BibU, 

IT 9. The fame may be obferved of words beginning with /r/, having the 
accent on the fecon J fyllable. Thus tri-bunaU tri corporaU tri'cholomyi trUgetUaU^ 
have the / ending the ^x{i fyllable long, as in tti-al. To this clafs ought to be 
added, di^tahus and di-hmma, though the /in the firft fyllable of the laft'word 
is pronounced like ^, and as if written de'-Iemma^ by Mr Scott and Mr. Perry, 
but long by Mr Shefidan, Dr. Kenrick, and Buchanan ; and boih ways by W. 
Johnfton, but placing the fhort firft. And hence we may conclude, that the 
verb to bi se/i^ and the noun li'/^ion^ ought to have the i at the end of the firft: 
fyllable pronounced like bfif^ as Mr. Scott and Dr. Kenrick have marked it, 
though otherwife marked by Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Perry, and Buchanan. 

120. When the firft fyllable xschu with the accent on the fecond, the / is 
generally long, as chUra^ri ffl, ehUrufglc^ cbi-rurgcofty cbi-rographift, chirographer^ 
chi-rography. Chi-mera and M-mfricaih^vcxhc i moft frequently fhort, as pro* 
nounced by Buchanan and Perry, though otherwife marked by Sheridan, 
Scott, W, Johnfton, jmd Kenrick ; and, indeed, the ihort found feems now efl 
tablilhed. Chicnrii^ and chicanery^ from the French, have tlip i always (hort ; or 
more properly (lender. 

121. Ci before the accent has the /generally (hort, as cl-'miianf ci-virity^ and^ 
I think, ci'li'ious and ci-run-u^ent^ though otherwife marked by Mr. Sheridan . 
Ci^barious and ci-tathn have the 1 long. 

122. Cll before the accent has the 1 long, as cfi'mafiet ; but when the accent 
is op the third fyllable, as in c/tma^tric, the i isihortened by the fecondary ac- 
cent. See 530. 

123. Cri before the accent has the i generally long, as crMgerous^ crl-tetton ; 
though we fom«limes hear the kttcr as if written cre-terlony but I think impro- 
pcrly. 124. IXt. 









• U 





1]* J but why he tlj- > the i m ■ 

It bo til way*, h J!., .vv. .li.i i'^' ■ 
. Pcny, und ihc gcticnil tii 
'z ii)C t long, accordiw to tht 
It oifitlc iKurt by Dr. Kcnrtck^ 
*■'■ ' n fan, comr^ry to uncct Uh 
, rhc ihoricning power of the 

^e diphdioDg mud be i^W4y» lungt imcc 
- lliort. 

itiim» fee mi confined U) iIjc following j 
, i/fiskiWr^jfifi iUrifttm^ i/i'**^tio/». Both 
I iLicc the accent ot the word didifiatu im- 

, --- , - -Mould fccm 0)or« agrcc-ihk to analogy to 

^^ terminationjt in k^ and p'ace Uit accent on the pe« 
-'t^ ' n thh cafe^thc / in the llrft will be iJioricncd by 
l.ihle proniiitnccd like did (527), The rtrfl 
{^ h'ii. Shcndnn, and with the accent on thefccond 

!, c iifonf arc cfjti-iUy erToncJ^u**. llic accent ought 

ia ih^ urU iyJiabic^ «uid the / ihorti u on the adjcOive d$m* Sec Postt^- 

^ ought iilways to Ik lliort ; thi\ U th '^e 

firtl fy liable afjjVifhfji itnd vvlty wc ' c 

. tiji i\ii\X fiJ icia y^ itji m.itkcd by ' I 

■ oncous in marking the tirit 1 in/ ^. . ^, 1 J 

; tiic accent u^Jon the bft fylbblc nf^«/i*. fimax& b^s tbc 

die i m the fir/i fyllible always long. 

fi/. Litizhut hu^ ihcj in ihc (ir:i fyB*i» 

l.troc Hi. IT L> 

c obfcncd (H^ iibidinoHSt though Other wii^ 

!,*h ih^ foiir iMl Rve in.irkcd with the long 1 b J 

ks the / whicb has the ac 

J the corii|X^ond > 9''«'9]rV/£i/<7p 

; n bim his error* The w^ord 

1 vihcrin Jobnfon nor bberidan, 

.' ibort a& if written mm-ci-'k* The 1 ii 

'Vt and mig^atkn. 

' r. The lirft / in nyrijiatimf though 
ui, i> Ki-jnencd by ilic Iccondaiy acceni (5'i7)i 
35 if dii/ldcd inio mg'ri-Ji'CaUm^ 
^p Fh Jus- Lbt J gcncr ally fht)rt| as in fh^anlhr&phyp phiftfifiic, pffihfiph^r, 



ph&ofophy^bhilofophivse ; to which wc may certainly add, phMoger^phMopjl^ phi- i 
hlog'jy phmlogicaly notwithftanding Mr. Sheridan has marked the i in £efe laO: I 
words long. 

132. Pi and pTt have the t gcherally (hort, as pllajler^ pituitous^ ptl^fy* plica- 
ttm. Pifificr^ and piazza^ being Italian words, have the / fliort before the vow- 
elf contrary to the analogy of words of this form (116), where the i is lon^, 
asin Ai^ariifar,^n-ori/jr, &c. Psratisalhas the i marked long by Mr. Sheridan, 
and fliort by Dr. Kenrick. The former is, in my opinion, more agreeable 
both to cuftom and analogy, as the feund of the i before the accent is often de« 
termin^d by the found of that letter in the primitive word. 

133. Pri has the i generally long) as in primtva!^ primnontf piinutial. primeroy 
ptimordtaL privadOf privation^ privative^ but always (hort in primitive^ Vina primer, 

I34« Ri has the i fhort, as in ridtcuhtts» Rigidity is marked widi the i long 
by Mr. Sheridan* and fhort by Dr. Kenrick : the latter is undoubtedly right. 
Rivality has the i Ion? in the firft fyllable, in compliment to rivals as piraiica/ 
has the / long, becaute derived from piraie. Rhinoceros has the rlong in Sheri- 
dan, Scott, Kenrick, W. Johnfton, and Buchanan'; and (hort in Perry. 

13;. Si has the i generally fliort, ^s JsmHiiude^finqfis^ and ought certainly to 
be fhort xn/ilkious^ (better written cUiciousi) though marked long by Mr. Sheri- 
dan. Simuhaneout having the fecondary accent on the firft fyUable, docs not 
come under this head, but retains the i long, not^^ith (landing the fhortening 
power of the accent it is under (527). 

136. 77 has the 1 (hort, as xvLtitnidlty. 

137. Tri has the i long, for the fame reafon as bit which fee (1 18) (1 ipV 

138. Ft has the i fo unfettled as to puzzle the correftell (peakers. The i is 
generally long in vicarious^ notwith (landing the (hort i in %>icar. It is long in 
vibration from its relation to vibrate, Fitaliiy has the 1 long, like viiaL 
In vhvifichy vivrficaien and viviparousy the firft / is long, to avoid too great a fame- 
ncfs with the fecond. Fivacioua and vivacity have the / almoft as often long as 
fliort ; Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, and Dr. Kenrick, maketlieiin vivacious long, 
and Mr. Perry and Buchanan (hort ; Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, and W. John- 
fton, make the 1 in the firft of vivacity long, and Perry and Buchanan fiiort ; 
but the (hort (bund feems lefs formal and moft agreeable to polite ufage. fHci- 
niiyf vicinal^ vicijjitttde^ vituperate^ vtmineouB and virago^ feem to prefer the (hort 
c, though Mr. Sheridan has marked the three laft words with the firft vow^l 
long. But the diverfity will be beft feen by giving the authorities for all tliefe 

Vicinity. Dr. Kenrick. 

Ftcinity. Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, Buchanan, W. Johnfton, and Perry. 

Vicinal Mr. Sheridan. 

Viciffitude* Mr. Sheridan* Dr. Kenrick, W. Johnfton, Buchanan and Perry. 

Vituperate. Mr. Sheridan, Dr. Kenrick^ W. Johnfton. 

Vituperate. Mr. Perry. 

Vxnancous. Mr. Sheridan. 

VXrago. Mr. Sheridan, and W. Johnfton. 

Virago. Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Scott, Buchanan, and Perrf. 

I l^ve claiTed vicinal here as a word with the accent on the fecond fyUable as 
ft (lands in Sheridan's Didionary, but think it ought to have the accent on the 
fiifi. See MeDiciKAL. 

139. The fame diverfity and uncertainty in the found of this letter feems to 
reign in thofe final unaccented fyllables which are tcrminaud with the mute <•. 
Perhaps the beft way to give fome tolerable idea of the analogy of the language 



m^% poiiii« wtU b«« n» (kow th« geticr^l mlc. ami marie ilie nc^prions} tWigh 
iefe are fonxumci la iiuxiieto^*^ . — t i bi oC the mW Hfclf i thett- 

lore the bdk way will be ID f^ivc 

^1l- lie 

fjT/i7/, d-K 

.tve liic I 

•■ iT -I 

' J d Dp Led b^^ Mi . 

;ei Intig h hi 

i kO^ 


. a ifi woiU» of ihi^ ur* 

/ have the I long* j unditig wq Jbmcu'inc* 

icc'i^ as it wrhlCTiJmiii^ 

r have the i long, ejcccpt houfi'^i/iff pro noil need 
general rulc^ iio(wiih^UtiJlng the i m tt^/r if always 
ih ., ,»-*.. itincsi nioricticd m the irime manner Uy the vulgar j 
T fivTvm^li H% gcme rrrcyocably into iJic fame amilogy i U^oggh 
i\-i j9v:tt€m$^ni^ht i% ntorc frcquenUy prou^^unccd with the f lortg, 
Tboie emlmjt m //f have ihc / lliprt^ except rfcmrUf, thanmrnik^ *ftipik. 
tii/, have the i long m >Sh rridJiTV- s Difi .ifid 

oriinion the letter j* the much more pi iittl 

-fii^, thnit^K pronoutiecabk bolti w^y^t icdlSf 
■^c laM JylLihlc, See JuvtMiti. 

has the t k^ogi thf mmf with tmi ; 

have the iicccni higher than the prn ultimate, hai^c 

_ _: J.III, th^t die only mctliod to give an idea td h will 

jlogiie oi words vihete ii h pronounced iViffarcntly, 
f*^ '*^' r'>! be improper to fee the drffcrcni founds given to 

ne Words by different onl^oepiiU s 

t^ W. johnftoQ. 

) ■ 

» W* Joliiillon, Perry. 
ri Pern*. 

ran, W. Johnitoo, 




149. In thefe words 1 4o not hefitate to pronounce, that the general tvAe 
inclines evidently to the long i, which, in doubtful cafes, ought always to be 
followed ; and for which reafon I (hall enumerate thofe words firft where I 
judge the i ought to be pronounced long ; CannMnCf carabine^ cdumbine, htzan- 
tintf geiatiiUy legaiine% oxyrrbodiru'j concu^ncf mufcadinef uuarnadhu^ ceiaiuHncp 
ahnandine^ feeundsnci am'^gdaiiney crjiftuiiinef vUuHhcj talamney afin\m%faturnme%f€t' 
charincy adulterine^ vlpcrine^ uterine y lament'met armentim^ ferpcntme^ turpentine^ vef" 
periiae^ belluifte, porcupine, countermine^ ieonine^ fappbirine^ and metaUine, 

150. The words of this termination, where the / is (hort, are the following ; 
Jacobine^ medicine j difciplir.e^ mafcuHne^jeffandne^ feminine^ heromet neSartne^ Uber^ 
tine J genukuf hyaline, palatine. To thefe, I thinkt ought to be added, atfa/i«'» 
aquiline, coralline, brigarainef eglantine : and to this pronunciation of the 1, the 
proper names, Falentine and Conjhntine, ieem ftrongly to incline ; and on the 
ftage, Cymbeline has entirely adopted it. Thus we fee how little iufhience the 
Latin language has on the quantity of the i inr the final fyllable of thelb words* 
It is a rule in that language, that adje^ves ending in Uii or inur^ derived from 
animated beings or proper names, to the exception of very few, have this i pro- 
nounced long. It were to be wifhed this dtftindion could be actoptedin Engliih 
.words from the Latin, as in that cafe we might be able in time to regularize 
this very irregular part of our tongue; but this alteration would be almoft 
impofiible in adjedives ending in ive, as relative, vocative ffugitiwj Sec have the 
i uniformly (hort in EngliHi, and long in the Latin relativusy vocativuSffugiti^ 
VUIf &c. 

151. The only word ending in tret with the accent on the antepenultimate 
fyllable, is acro/pircj with the i long, the laft fyllable founding like }^fpite of 
a church* 

152. Words ending in ife have the i fhort, when the accent is on the laft 
fyllable but one, ^%francbife, except the compounds ending in *aji^,^%Ukemfe^ 
Ungtbwife^ &c. as marked by Mr, Scott, Mr. Ferry, and Buchanan ; but even 
among thefe words we fometimes hear otberwife pronounced 0/^«r«r/z> as mark- 
ed by Mr. Sheridan and W. Johnfbn ; but, I think, improperly. 

153. When the accent is on the laft fyllable but two in thefe words, they are 
invariably pronounced with the i long, as criticife, e^uahfe. 

154. In the termination ite, when the accent is on it, the i is always long, 
as requite. When the accent is on the laft fyllable but one» it is always (hort, 
as refpite (140). pronounced as if written r^pit^ except contrite ; but when the 
accent is on the laft fyllable but two, the i is generally long : the eicepdons, 
however, are fo many, that a catalogue of both will be the beft rule. 

155. The f is long in ejc/ieditcj recondite jincondttte^ hemuiphrodite, Carme&tey 
theodxilite, coamopQUteychryaoUte^ ertrmte^ aconiteymargoritey marcoiite^paraute^a/i^ 
ftelitcy bi/iartite, tripartite^ quadripartite^ convertite^ OHchoritCy fntuite^ scaelliie. 
As the word ftands in Kenrick's DxCdonzry fa^tellitt haying the i (horts and the 
accent on the fecond fyllable, it is doubly wrong. The i m the laft fyllable is 
fhortened alfo by W. Johnfton and Perry, but made long, as it ought to be, by 
Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott» and Mr. Narep. See Reconditb. 

156. The f is fliort in cucurbitcy ingenitCy definite^ ind^finite^ injimte^ kypocriee^ 
favourite, reqtdsiteypre-requimtejperquisitey exquisite, oppoeiteyVJiA oppoeite* He^ 
teroclite has the i long in Sheridan, but (hort in KenricL The former u, in my 
opinion, the beft pronunciation, (fee the word in the Didiionary;) but tte^ ia 
what may be called a Gentile terminatbn, has the i always long} as in Hiviu^ 
Samnite, co/mopo/ite, bedlamite^ &c. 

157. lie termination ive^ when the accent is on it^ is always longt as in 



^ tiiuft tfi the t^v^'pvfd^, ^ftt^v 9f^i anil thf *V cmnpf*UTi*if , fyvift'^ ^^i^f. irr t 


- ;« 
^raernf, kc, rhyming wjih^'t^- (t5o)tCicq>i the«H»d bCA 

esand fubflaniivcs of tHs tenpftiatiofi, wbeatfic 

The I 

h fiht 









-n/tf/Ai, but long in f' 
. the I long and tlcndct, :iii 
H Mr, Pcrrv, Buchiman» and 
'4 It both ways • vci tljcflt-'tid-T . 

s^fidW. J*3l, :h. The bit 

'ait the former morr amtlo^' 
:r(n©t write it olfih, :i^ Mr, N 
?«, mMiiAti tor fear ot dcr»»nm[; tr 
0;A«|aft Mr N'are?^ obfcrvcsi h^is i 
^^t>£Trd. thit tJie Latin Is &ptutti. and not tfpaqum* 

. T1-. infi^ h;ivc ihc t loTig., ctcept tO rttf!fnixt ; i^vhtch 

! -le> follow I the general mlc, and has ihe 

-vi- tv^ (J4DJ To ihe^c obfeirrttiona wc ttiaf 

' W/ fiipprcf*i tbr iV as it' wrfu.n **V ^ntl ^-rtfV, yei 

rvc %x% found dlftio^Iyi and that Lutm ought never 

^ generally at fcbooh, as if wnucn iMfn. C^tifin ;ind 

n f;c^?: inTn; mi:y \hz uat vowcli, as if fpdlcd rc^w, and ate only dinfmguilh^bk 

L totiWcrr, 

^^ Thtti'T sty there is in the found of iLh Iciier when it 

^Hk #QC acL n ctiftom will permit, bow ciireful wc r^nglit 

^Kto be 10 p , '* confufioo may not be worfe 

HP cefifcciul.' lit given mjf, pt.rbaps,4flf»rd fttmc* 

' 1 -\ 'i^' . .: ,. v, dinr& aiinihia kbyrinth, and it ii hoped it will cnabU the 
fffnnofin^c with more certainty and decirion. 

J':r the vowel -^, that when a hard ^ or r preceded 

*,•■ t iiAerpnfedjihe better to unite the Iciiers, aiid f it'tcn 

the {fTQxA of the tOTifottitm. The fame may be obfcrvcd of the IciUf A When 

Jed by hatj^ or k\ which i& but Another form for hard r, it 

* an r \^rrc infertcd bccweeii the e onfon;ini and the vo^'el i 

-^uU^gm^, Ju' ' ■' ' "ri. are pronounc* 

rlMt two iiidi diilcrciR leUcr^ as a and r 

i . . r by the hard gtntuniU, jf, r, and i ; btit 

ly CMJn poled of ^ and r, (57/) oui fnrprile ceafes | 

he- cm pci fe^tly uniform in ^ts proccdnre, and en» 

m this view €f the analogy wc may fee how 

1 £i iiir'tiijiius writer on this fubje^, who fap, 

relation, heard only 011 our llagc*" 

, ,i^v ^;- r^^ No. 91. 

.1 unworthy cf notice, that when this letter is un- 
-n'"-'' : > \ iUff &c* it is frequently pronounced 
■ ^' -vr' ^, .: Jtc, were written itnmUk„ visMkf 

*^-» lad «i«n/i, A'j^jjJy* ^c* tike ij6i?rw^//, cbafiuiiyf &c>i byt it may be ob- 

Thtti '^^ 
I be 10 p 





ferved) that die pure ibundof i like g in tbef^^ words is as much the sntrk of an 
elegant fpeakcr as that of the u injngular, educ^tty &c» See No. 179. 


161. Grammarians have generally allowed thit letter but thrise founds. Mr. 
Sheridan inftances them in nct^ note, prove. For a fourth. I have added Uie in 
Uvff fiovtf &c. ; for the fifth, that in vr» nor^fwi and a fixtht that in wom^ff, 

i6a* The firfl and only peculiar found r>f this letter is that by which it Is 
named in the alphabet : it requires tlie mouth to be formed* in i^mt degrce» 
like the letter, in order to pronounce it. This may be called its long open 
found, as the o in prnve may btr called its long {lender ibund, (65 . ) This found 
we find in words ending with (ilent/* as tong^i^ney ahw; or when ending a fyU 
lable with the accent upon it, a^ motion^ po-unif &c. ; likewife in the moM»fylla- 
bles, gOi so no. 1 his found is found under feveral combinations of other voweh 
with this letter, as in moan^ groan , bowy (to {boot with), iovf (not high), and 
before^ in the words ofl.ghift^poft^ ^uft, and before y/" in ^ro/f, 

163. The fecond found of this letter is called its Siort iound, and is found 
j^ 0«/, goti lou &c» ; though this, as in the other (hort vowels, is by no means 
the {hort fi>und of the former long one, but conrefponds exa^y to that of a in 
mfhat, with which the words isro/, gf^ i<u, are perfefb rhymes. The long found, 
to which the e in poi and sat art ihort ones, is found under the diphthong au in 
ttaugh^ and the ou in sought ; correfponding exa^ly to the a in haiif balK &c. 
The ihortibund of this letter, like the {hort found of a in father (78 ; (79 :, is 
frequently, by inaccurate fpeakers, and chiefly thofe among the vulgar, kngth* 
ened to a middle found approaching to its km^ found, the in or. This foimd 
is generally ^icard, as in the cafe of ^ , when it is fujpceeded by two confoaants : 
thus Mr. Smith pronounces broths fnjth^ and mrnhn, as if written hraw^h^ frawth^ 
and mawth^ Of the propriety or impropriety of this, a well-educated ear is the 
bell judge ; but as was obferved under the article A (79)1 if this be not the 
ibund heard amon^ die bell fpeakers, no middle found ou^ht to be admitted, 
as &ood orators will ever indine to definite and abfolute iounds, rather than 
fuch as may be called non descHfts in language. 

164. The third found of this letter, as was marked in the firft obfervation, 
inay be called its long (lender found, correfponding to the double 0. The 
words where this ibund of « occurs are fo few, that it will be eafy to give a ca* 
talogue of them : Prwet mtme, hhevi, and their compounds, iaret do^ ad^, Rome^ 
f&itront fonion, spoBtmi^ tfdfCf whom» womb, iamb* Sfonttm is not in Johnfon ; and 
this and the twct preceding words ought rather to be written with «o in the laft 
fyliable. Gold is pronounced like goold in familiar converfation ; butjn verfe 
iind folemn language: efpecially that of the i'Scripture, ought always to rhyme 
with Mtfoldi &c. See Encoai, Gold, and Wind* 

1 65 . The fourth found of this vowel is that which is found in iove^ dove^ &c . ; 
and the long ibund, which feems the neareft relation to it, is the firft found of 
p in mif, towj row^ &c. 1 his found of is generally heard ^iien it is ihortened 
by the fucceeding liquids ff,Mr,ir, and the femi-vowels v, «, tb : and as Mr Nares 
has given a cauuogue of thofe words, 1 (hall avail myfelf of his labour. Mow^ 
qffroni^longej amongy amongBt^aUomey, 6om$9 bom-barij borage^ borougky brother^ 
cochinealy colour^ comcy comely ^ comfiiy conifbrty c<nfifiany^ comfiata, comrade^ combat^ 
condidtyconeyy conjure^ constable^ covenant^ coveryeov^tyCoroet^orv^yCOzen^dUcomfity 
dwcy dothy doaty davcy dozeriy dromedary^ fronts glTvo^ g^verjiy honty^ hnitr^ /ox»<, 




166. li 

. ^.f : i 

m rrrry i«iOf di except fimtgt\t^ 

\ m lf« tin 

_. __^ :_ - , > terh^tthc fjme founJ m n<: tin«e. 

;initk»it« 00 urAt ^^^ ^t <?^i 9^» ^ ^* ^^^ ^nd # ^m/. »» f»i«i« ^ I. 

e4 kmgdsmn^ mmkm^ ama%tifSf gaihpt tuUr^ turrit t ifQuhki^a^j ^^. , M 

irODoonccd as if wjinen mammm^t ^^*^ i* mfthifdy kc^ The ^ in 

B / fr, as fii^//fiiMi^i'pt 5ic, bait alw^yrnhb founds 'llieexrcniiont 

^:r ri hnicat Urms iroin tlte Greek or Ljiiii« at Jct^r^ a ijpet 

, .11 pfOfkcr oamc&i as Calor^ 11 river in Italy . 
•: hSL lound of * is the long fnund produred bf ' ^iwl^ or ftjjlowvd 
aiMXliCff coolboaot, JA^/^nfontur. Thi« found i W t^jutvaktit to 

itif^i*K&nt: <w« ; mil /or and formtt might, en < 1 fctmd otily, ba 


t6y. J 


efuhr 100 nd 

d ftmnmr* There arc Tnntty cxccpliotix to Uii» nile, at i 

I*, fst^tfonm (a £ed%)*firf^ hmdu p&r^k^ pnrtf if^i, itc. which 

i of ihia letter. 

fcngtikcoed before r, when tcrmifiauriET ^ mmmWUhUt or 

ubnant; stndf like a loo, ia i •. hy a dfipUciition 

w*^y hear by comparing the cojj,.i..^„. u er with the famt 

f/, Ac, ; for though the r is not doubled to the ere Injfaeidf 

00 itf it i« a* effcdhiallf doubled to the ear hs \i writfen 

ufoca&t of another kind fucceed tlie r tn thi$ fitu.itiojiN we 

uomify liable ; thu^ ihe « m ftfihard \% ai long a» in 

■. m firpiiiif as in the v ord/ftr ; bitt the o 'morijLf 

lowed by a vc>^*eh ilie * if as Ihort as if the #* were 

n Arrifice Mixd firrn^e^ See No, Bi, 

' I » rxailly corrcfpcndmg en the » in hull^/mU^ 

g only in the following wnrds, may be calM 

it)cfe words arc ^v^»b^i», Ifmam^ werfifiif ^w&lf, and the pro- 

ii^^'^€fflfr^ and iVoix^erhampt^tu 

Imeguiar and unQennifd S&undt* 

HHat wa^ obi'crred of the a^ when followed by a hquiu ^md a motc^ 
he oyrrted of the « with equal juitncis, 1 his letter, like a, has a ICfK 
to IcDgthcDt when followed by a Ilqiird and .inorher < r, or b^* 

/and « ipoif. But this kngibof a^ in thi^ fitu.HiutK cry day 

^^ and, as it would be ^rols to a liegrtw lo found 

^ - , - ! ' c the 4 Infaim^pfaim^ 6c c. fo tt would Ue equal - 

Jt iiR^v|#utinabk to prcm<?uiK:€ ihe fi in mefi^ droJi^VLty^frtifi* a« if written m^ww/u 
^nwgiiftd n jtr^. riiT f 'Tf),) llic p tji the compeiinds of/j/tf^ ix%di£^!vf^ #i- 
J^kr,^ w0rd$ where a fomcwhat longer fouitd of the # Is 

J(iJ^**l'j - ation : on the contrsiry, when the * cadb a fylUbkt 

QsmrdLi^ , the accent, a> in p9'Itttt hftfo-itnt^ &c* ihcrcii in 

cii found nearly as long as in p&'Ur and ftQ^mh See. 
idCowKANO* It may likcwife bcobfervcd, thai the 
v,jj)prcticd m a final unaccLntcd fjrliable when preceded by 
id hy n* as ktnettf bntiQn^ iiraon^ he^kfjn, rethcn^ pronounced 
hmifi^ JtiU^nt hitlhff nfk*n ; and when r h preceded by aooiher confo- 




aant> ^s/alcon^ prononnced /a<vPn. The o is likewife mute in the fame fitua- 
tion when preceded by </ in pardon^ ^ronoimced pard% but not in Guerdon : it is 
mute when preceded by^ in tveapoth capm, &c. pronounced nueap^n^ cap^n. Sec, ; 
and when preceded by / in rtafan^ Jeafifn^4renfm\ oraifmy htnifin^ dentfin^ urj* 
fin^foi/ont poifouy prifon^ damfcn^ crinfon^ advcwfoih pronounced reax^n^ treaz^n^ 
&c. ; and maBoriy bason^garrUofn^ legsorij capqrison^ comparisonydimihei'Uon^ parson^ 
and perton^ pronounced mas^n^ has^n^ &c» Unifim^ diapafonf and cargafon, feeniy 
particularly in folemn fpeaking* to preferye the found of « like ir, as if written 
Mtufitftf diapazuttf 8cc^ The fame letter is fuppreffed in a final unaccented fyl* 
lable beginning with /, as Ssicnf cotton f buitont mutton^ gluttony pronounced as if 
written Set^sif cot^n^ &c. When x precedes the /# the o is pronounced diftinc^ly, 
as in Sexton, When / is the preceding letter^ the o is generally fuppreffed, as 
in the proper names Stlhon cheefe^ Wilton carpets^ and Melton Mowbray^ &c. 
Accurate ipcakers fbmetimes druggie to preferve it in the name of our great 
epic poet, Milton ; but the former examples fufficiently (hew the tendency of 
the language ; and this tendency cannot be eafily counteraded. This letter is 
likewife fupprefled in the laft fyllable of bkutou^ pronounced b!a%*n ; but is al- 
ways to be preferved in the fame fyllable of horizon^ This foppreffion of the o 
muft not be ranked among thofe carelefs abbreviations found only among the 
vulgar, but muft be coniidered as one of thofe devious undencies to brevitj, 
which has worn itfelf a currency in the language, and has at lail became a 
part of it. To pronounce the o in thofe cales where it is fuppreiTed, would 
give a fmgularity to the fpcaker bordering nearly on the pedantic ; and the 
attention given to this fingularicy by the hearer would necefiarily diminifh his 
attention to the fubjed, and confequently deprive the fpeaker of fomething 
much more deiirabk. 


171. The firft found of 0, heard in tube, or ending an tmaccented iy liable, 
as mcu4ie^ is a diphthongal found, as if e were prefixed, and thefe words were 
fpek tevabe and kewbk. The letter « is exadly the pronoun joir. 

17 a. The fecond found of » is the (hort found, which tallies exadly with 
ths o in done^fonj &c. which every ear perceives might as well, for the ibund's 
iake, be fpelt duut iun^ &c. See all the words where the has thb found. 
No, i6y. 

173. The third found of this letter, and that in which the Endtfli more 
particularly depart from analogy, is the u mbull^/ullfpull^ kc. The firft, or 
diphthongal u in tubep feems almoft as peculiar to the Englilh as the long found 
of the i in tbine, mme^ &c. ; but here, as if they chofe to imitate the Latin, Ital- 
ian, and French », they leave out the e before the v, which is heard in tube, 
mukfScc. and do not pronounce the latter part of u quite fo long as the op in 
foolt norfo (hort as the « mduU^ bat with a middle found between both, which 
IS the true ihort found of the 00 in remand woo^ as may be heard by comparing 

' woo and mfool ; the latter of which is a perfed rhyme to buff. 

1 74. This middle found of «r, fo unlike the general found of ^at letter, ex- 
ifts only in the following words : bully/uUy pull ; words compounded of/w0, as 
wonderful^ dreadfulyb,c,buHotky bully^ bullet^ bulvfark^uUerJ^uWf^'mllypuUeyyftuU 
let y pushy buohy buehelypulfnt^fmssy buUicny butcher^ cuohhnj cuckooy puddingy ougar^ 
hvjarybu%%a, 2Xid.put when a verb : but few as they are, except/s//, which is a 
very copious termination, they are Aifficient to puzzle Ehgliflimen wfaorefide 
at any diftance from the capiulf and to make the inhabitants of Scodand and 




blmd« (who. It If kigblf p 

aaon iVoin our aocr" - 
17^, Bill T^euc 

bMUt i ^ «^ill) die 

fc-^T fU'f, /-i, 

the qu^it 

«e tf,^ Jry \ 

fccived a much fnor^ftguUr preaimd* 
" !y the jtiX of t'oo1«« 

liiid oi the « m^y «i trfi G»fii« 00 

wor J\ u'hich iKifiti with tlic mute 

^ 1I / or tbc dcmim /t ^ «ikI ^p m« in 

*i« lite 
3 very 






^) All i?a.7** com^ 
But thmigh Julki\ A wiiiuncr ut doch, a;r 
,t . - TnT^,.uf,jeJ of /!.//, they arc ibundcii «it it ;:,s 

cT^i rule, and hn% its tir(l fy Ibble pronounced Like 

V' r ->"'■ ^vifh ibc |>cctdWiiy cm accoaoi of 

related tu it i and htilir aad /ig^ 

• ■(i u-ui iiir ' ' : I'^ED 10 iJve oUitr 

c ^iddcij . t htijfiir^ and tile 

V£iUfc every word iti \Xi^ wLuk iuiga^ij^e wtictr the 11 it 


' -I ptc^fi to give hulk and /f^ 

'ut L luliowed, rhc uord; ji^C 

'^^' vtiumerou^; and we c;i. u cardul to 

tr: • '?^o iiu iTjeguWity. WJ. vowei i^: piie- 

ct4&$ b> bicf it has a Ibund llimewhat ionger th^n thts mld^ 

dUfntir. ...,,.,,,, a writ! en p^ : tbu«, rw^, irw, Skd arc pronouoce^ 

t : r,v _. : ", t ^i rws^ |r^ &C. (339). 

I- i: J L i - rcmajiccd, that this faiind of m, cscept in the word /ulkr^ 
I t> u J V. id, ffornthe learned Ian guii^^cii ; fot Jalminatii^/iiimfmtkfft 
ri: ., ' \ i^fktrt^ &c. found die 11 a^ in duU^ guii^ &c. and tlic u %npm 

h' :. rVkt the fame kttcr m /W. So the pure Enghih wordi, 

? ' rrt/, prcicrve the u in us fccond ibundtaii 

d'c not h<! nnwonhy of remark, that the 
I : mary or it 

lj:_ .:• -i, ■'■•;■ ■■',.. . .Mitcned by ii 

^tKftiW cgnwcoac* liet the words Drama and MocuLgfiT, and Mo* 50§, 

irrtgular and Unacccntrd H*iund*^ 

1^ let the ftnugelt deviation of iliis letter from \t% regular found h tn 
tk( wtinii httfp ifjfimff, and Ifmry. Wc Uugh at the Scotch for prDnouncing 


I " ■ 

mtk w u 

■ fccr 

hem^Jtni'ft^ and U^ufry ^ but wc onght rather to 
10 wantonly from the general rule as 10 pro* 

i iGf orre^t pronunciation of tliis letter when it end* a fylla* 

prevails, not only umong tlie vulgar, hat b 

.panyi and that is, gi^fing the u an obfcure 

vock'oiiad» it witli vgwcls of a very different idnd ; thus we not 

car /iina^tr* ff?uldi ^ and pariictilar^ pronounced as if written 

/ ; but nothing tcnd^ more to tarnlQi and rtd- 

.,;j^*,.w..>.^ ..— --i Ihoit and obfcure found of the unaccenitd it* 



It may, indeed, be obfenred, thae there is fcarceFf any thing more diftinguifhes 
a perfon of mean and gooi edacation than the pronunciation of the onaccenxed 
vowels, (547) {S5^)> When vowels are under the accent, the prince, and 
the loweft of die people in the metropolis, with retj few eiceptrons. pronoance 
them in die fame manner ; but the unaccented vowels in the mouth of the 
former have a didindl. open, and fpecihc found, while the latter often totally 
fink them, or change them into fome other found. Thofe, therefore, who wifh 
to pronounce elegandy, muft be particularly attentive to the unaccented vow- 
els ; as a neat pronunciation of thefe, forms one of the greacteft beauties of 

i8o- T final, either in a word or fyllabfe, is a pure vowel, and has exa^Iy 
the fame found as i would have in the fame fituation. For this reafbn, prm- 
tersywho have been the great correflors of our orthography, have fubftituted 
the I in its ftead, on account of the too great frequency of this letter in the En- 
glifli language. Thatjr final is a vowel, is univerfally acknowledged ; nor 
need we any other proof of it than its long found, when followed by * mute, 
as in fbjmef rhymes &c. or ending a fyllable with the accent upon it, as Buyimg^ 
€ydir^ Sec. this may b^ called its firft vowel found. 

1 8 1 . The fecond found of the vowel jr is iu fhort found, heard irifyfiemffyn- 
tmif &CC, 

Irregular and Unaccented Soundiu 

182. The unaccented found of this letter at the end of a fyllable^ like that 
of i in the fame fituation. is always like the firft found off/ thus v/uw/^, pUu^ 
rifyf &ۥ and if found alone were confulted, might be written mamtft^ pkwrifety 

185. The excrptiott to this rule is, when/ precedes they m a: final fyllable» 
they is then pronounced as long and open as if the accent were on it : thus 
S^J^fjt ^uaHJy^ Sec. have the lafr fyllable fomided like that in defy. This long 
found continues when the y is changed into i, vtijuftifiabk, quaiyittble. ficc. 
The fame may be obferved of mtdtiply and mubiplhhhf &c. ; occupy and oecupia- 
hht &c. (512). 

184. There is an irregular found of this letter when the accent is on* tt iq 
fanegyric, when it is frequendy pronounced like the fecond found of ^ ; which 
would be more corref^ if its true found were preserved, and it were to rhyme 
with Pyrrhic ; or as Swift does with Satiric : 

<* On me when 'unoet tre fttiri<k> 
" I uke it for Apamgyrkk" 

Thus we fee the fame irregularity attends this letter before double r, or before 
fingle r, followed by a vowel, as we find attends the vowel i in the fame fitua- 
tion* So the word Syrinx ought to preferve thejr like i pure, and the word 
Jyrtu (hould fouad the y like e Uiort, though the firft is often heard improperly^ 
like the Uft. 

185. But the moft uncertain found of this letter ts, when it ends a i^llablc 
immediately preceding the acoei^ In this ca6 it is fubje^k t»die fome vftriety 

• as 



ait&e Jrtter j m the ikiDt rituauau ^fi^i nothing bat sk catalogxic wiU give ut 

»T * ' t : ' ■ " . point 

i ^^cd by the fccisciiUj^ accent tfi 

l^y \^ iiiioat Uk lead rcafcm from an«** 

^^ktdk h4*c liie / lung iu Mr* i 

vterof ibtr ffCMtidtry accent, (530) l*h*: f 

i Wfl and hyper hit ; which 4 re grncr-ill^ bc*ird 

Ktnruk ha% nviriicd the Uucr Iliort, ^^^fljjd sod 

t h< v Irj Tig 1 i k c w i fc . In hypftthtjti t Ij c / i s mt/rc frcq ucnt- 

i- -vr/iV /it is mote ircqiiciitly loiigihmi Ilifirt; 

^ -^ I Hon Afyrahlaft und myr&peUfi m^y hiive 

Jl J gencr;tUy ftinri^ a^d iM^/Atf- 

iary accent, ^530,) altnoft a1* 

^ die firft jf always long, la 

X . ; i^f./jij always. Pjhru i h^ tlic 

. J tiiinlc tmproperly* in^/ftfmiiij/ he marks ihc 

n^ it is generally he;ird llion^ ^s xvk ff^ram^si^ la 

fccimd fyiliblc, he marks diejtfkori^ much rnora 

-.40 places the accent on the frit fylbblc, and markf 

J.) Sjfm^iUtJjmdi affJJFfi^nimiif andjTMerjTyf/, have thcjf 

^B vJwai . itrviri: ^'t/irr'i^c^ A**- oiight like wife 10 have the fime Icutf ihart, a* we 




^'pJ)j ytnd ij^f'af/iif ought to h4vc the hfi\ jf long* us we find it 

'tt» By-^hanan^ W, Johnftont Kenricki and Perry» ihoagh frc* 

;ugh tyrattrnmi ha* the V marked 111 on by Nlr. Per* 

?Jic long iband, as we fee it marked by Mr, Sbcri* 

<n, W, Johnfton, and Kcnrick* 

tiiat ha» been t4keti of Uic ibund of the i tnd ^ Smmedi- 

ccuu iiinay julily be called the mod uncertain part of pro- 

dy any realbn ciin be given why cullom prefers one found 

; words t und why* »n others, we may nk either one or tlie 

'■' Ii is flroagly 10 he prefumed ihat the i and ji in tbi* 

c lafl, w;is generally pronounced long by our ance[lori| 

^adoally inclined to the fJiortcr jbund as more readily pro- 

wwafcd, and as jnore !tkc the found of tlicfc letters when ihey end a fylkb>kaf» 

tsr tbf accent 5 and, perhaps we fhould cDtitrihinc to the wgalirity of the bn- 

pfCt if^wWi «vcare in doubtf we Hionld rather incline tQ tlie ihon thaa the 

W{ mod o£ tlieie letters, 

1^9. Tbir w ftcal » a v<iwel, h not difputed (9) ; when it Is in thi^ rituatmn> 

ii ttfuir^leM 10 oo ; ^^^ ^^v he perceived in the found of note, taw^eU ^^* 

tt &irfiai a real i\v < compofed of the ^ in ^a^ier^ and tlie 00 in ww 

- ^ -f r 4t the end of a fyllablc* without affeiling the 

[Itnation it may be called ftrvilcj as in Lg^t to 

^ h BIPH- 



190. A diphthong is a double yowcI, or the union or mixture of two vowels 
Iftonounced together, fo as only to make one fyllable ^ as the Latin aeQT^,oe 
or ff> the Greek t<, the Englifh ahou^ &c. 

191. This is the general definition of a diphthong: but if we examine it 
clofely, we (hall find in it a want of predfion and accuracy.* If adiphthong 
be two Towel founds in fuccefiion, they muft necdlarily form two fyllables, and 
therefore* by its very definition, cannot be a diphthong ; if it be iuch a mix- 
ture of two vowels as to form but one fimple found) it is v^ry improperly called 
a diphthong ; nor can any Aich funple mixture exift* 

192. The only way to reconcile this feeming contradidion,. is to fnppofe 
that two vocal founds in fuccefiion were fometimes proaouneed fo clofely to- 
gether as to form only the time of one fyllable in Greek and Latin verie. Some 
of thefe diphthongal fyllables we have in our own language, which only pais 
for monofyllablei in poetry 7 thusiw (wages) is no more ui;lt one fyllable in 
"verfe^ though perfedly equivalent to higher (more high)» f^ich generally paf* 
fes for a difiy liable : die fame .may be obienred of dire or Jyer^ Aour znd power ^ 
&c. This is not uniting two vocal found into one fimple found, which is im- 

^ ^(lible, but. pronouncing two vocal founds in fucceflion fo rapidly and fo clofe- 
ly as to go for only one fyllable in poetry. 

1 93 .. Thus the-beft definition I have found of a diphthong is that given us by 
MrrSmith. in his Scheme for a French and Englifh Di^ronary. ^* A diph* 
«f thong (fay^ this gentleman) I would define to be two fimple vocal (bunds 
<« uttered by one and the fame emtfiioo of breathy and joined inr fuch a man- 
« ner that each lofes a portion of its natural length ; but fiom the jundion 
^ produceth a compound found, equal in the time of pronouncing to cither of 
M diem uken feparately, and fo making liill but one fyllable." 

194* '* Now if we apply this definition (fays Mr. Smith) to the feveral 
*^ combinations that may have been laid down and denominated diphthongs 
^ by former orthoepifts, I believe we fhall find only a fmall number of them 
^ meriting this name." As a proof of the truth of this obfervaMn» we find^ 
that mod of thofe tocal affcmblages that go under the name of diphthongs 
emit but a fimple fbund» and that, not compounded of the two vowels, but one 
of them only, founded long : thus pain aaidpantypaU 2adpakt ^rar and heref are 
perfcAly the fame founds. 

195. Thefe obfervatioQS naturally lead us to a diftindion of diphthongs^in- 
to proper and improper : the proper are fuch as haxt two diftiii& rocal founds^ 
and the improper fuch as have but one. 
. X96. The proper diphthongs are, 

ea oceatk k qoeftion ey^ boy 

eu feud of voice na afiuage . 

enu jewel . ou pound »/ maniaetude 

ia poniard cw bow m languid. 

$e fpaniel 
In this aflemblage it is impofiible not to fee a manifcft diftin^on between thofe 
which begin wim. e or i, and the re&. In thofe beginaing with cicber of thefe 


*^ We fee bow miny dlfptitet the fimpis and ainbigvoiis natore of voweti crested among 
mmmaria&s, and how it has begot the miftake cononnhiE diphthongs ; all that are propei'ly 
M are fyJUbl^ and not diphthoi^gi, at iaundcd to be fignified byjthat word. £M6r. 



i it verc, to aiiic 

Lxir vOQtmmciite 
I wostsitKi^ we or 

tit VBM UXtTi-,i 

A *v»«,| lake the comirr-"' • ™ '— 

" ''ly to din (cnjtuj, : 
I and as tbefc di; 

f ^^i'lc: [ami 

. cikC* lor liic JciKr w, wir 
Etgs (8) ; and wljcn iojTT .... z 

.\ cl.c preceding i^ r, or I; und dr^iw^ tKcm into the atpi- 

'f-^^. I'boJc found in llie tcnnin^ "^'^' • "■ v be 

' . r . ^ jTongs alfD, an the and u hn^c l>u . rnft 

J too# m pnlUng, thai the rca'bn %viiv m jt: (^jmemdi 

IS bccTufe when w ii f. IJov,'cd bv anodicr vo^'d ill 

v,u'tL, w oiop^ its confoiiiUit ^ad ^t the begiimifijjt and I 

^H i|^j. Tbr improper ili|pjiiho0gi are, 

^H £t Odkt ia clean k friend 

^H ji mm i£ reed lo coat 

^^^^^ 49 gaol ri ceih'ng' 4ff ceconorny 

^^^H #< ought i» people €9 moon 

^^^Hu. sw law rr they iH«f crow, 

^^^|Bpb Tb^ trbhilionRA having but two founds arc mtrtlf ocular» and nmft 

0jf (for ewes} eou plenteous /foi view 

tsu bcaarf '^^ ;idku ota Toancruvrc* 

Of aO didtf combmatioiis of vaweU we ihdl ireat in thrir Jtlphabctioil or- 


s is a dRphtJiong, fays Dr. JohtifoTit of very frequent wfe in thcl 
-. ^*^^^^'ch fecms not properly to have :iny place in the Englifh ; ^ 
iins has been locg out of ufc. being changed lOf fimplc ; 
qucnily occurring, the jt of the Remans ii, in the fame 
1 fquatQr, f^uiiit^^iaii and even in Enem^ 
lOO, btJtUvottgn ihc diphthong*** perfe^ly afekfs in our language, 
Att fobdiuititxi o^ * in its {le;id, in C^/at and /neaSf i;^ recommended by DrJ 
Jio^aicm, ifte do aoi lind his authority has totally .innilul.itcd it, rfpeci;ilty in ' 
prrjpir jiamri and lechnica! term^' derived from the learned languages. Cafar^ 

it)fiAfJt ' 1 ''''■ the diphthong, as well as eertain words 

wiiidt nre od^r pluniis or genitives, in Latin word& not naturalt^edp mt^omu* 

r*^ir. r^lrr*^ ir.TWj7 -I'tV^, tttm' tuffji, 10^ <SiC. 

jogt when not under the accent, in MUhaeimdi^ and when 
c rr^^^'^'tnced like ihort e ; it Is like #, fubje£t to the (hort 
irf accent, as in Mndarhm^ wJicrt *fl, in the firft 
^l^i^aiCi ii prQn'Jwti*.ca cA^iUiy like the letter a, (JJq)^ 




ioi. The found of this diphthong is tizQlj like the long (lender found of 
a; thus path a veiTel, and/a/ri a colour^ are perfedly the fame found. The ex- 
ceptions are but few. 

203. Whenya/^ is the third peribn preterimperfe^ tenfe of the verb to Jay ^ 
at has the found of fliort e^ ^rid/aid rhymes with bed; the fame found of at may 
be obferved in the third perfon of the prefent t^nk faith and the parcictple/iiV j 
but when this word is an adjedlive, as xht /aid man) it is regular^ and rhymes 
with trade, 

204. Plaid^ a (b-iped garment, rhymes with mad. 

20c. Raillery is a perfed rhyme to fakry ; zndraifin, a fruit, is pronounced 
ezadily like reafott^ the diftindlive faculty of man. See both thefe words in the 

2c6. A^aitt and Againji found as if written agen and agfnfl. 

207. The aijle of a church is pronounced ezadly like ifle^ an ifland, and is 
fbmetimes writ ten tie, 

208. When this diphthong is in a final unaccented fyllaUe, the a is funk, and 
the i pronounced flinrt : thus mountabi^/ountawf captain t curtain^ viflaht^ are all 
pronounced as if written, tnountin, fountin^ captitt, curttn^ viliin ; but when the 
lafl word talces an additional fyllable, the / is dropped, and the a has its (hort 
ibund| as villanotut viUany, Sec the words in the Didionary. 

209. The ai in Britain has the ihort found approaching to u, fo common 
with all the vowels in final unaccented fyllables,and is pronounced exadly like 

210. PiW/, afoldof cloth, is regular, and ought to be pronounced like 
platCf a diih ; pronouncing it fo as to rhyme with meat is a vulgarifm, and ought 
to be avoided. 

III. Plaifter belongs no longer to this clafs of words, being now more pro- 
perly writlcn fiafierp rhyming with cq/ler» 


tit. This combination of vowels in a diphthong is only to be met with in 
the word^Wf now mor« properly ^Titten, as it is pronounced, j«i7* 


213. The general found of this diphthong is that of the noun anue^ as taughu 
. eaughi, 8cc. or of the a in hail^ balU &c. 

214. When thefe letters are followed by n and another confonant, they 
change to the (econd found of a^ heard in far, farther^ &c, : thus auntt haunt ^ 
dauntf a/iaunce^ qfkaunt^ ftannt^ haunt, gaumlett jaunt^ haunch^ lattnch^ eraunch^ 
jaundice^ iaundry^ have the Italian found of the a In the laft fyllable of papa 
smdmamtua. To thefe I think ought to be added, daunt, faMnch^ gaunt , and 
faunter^ as Dr. Kenrick has marked them with the Italian /i, and not as if writ- 
ten danontfpaivnch, &c. as Mr. Sheridan founds them. Mauad, a ba(ket,is al- 
ways pronounced with the Italian a, and nearly as if written mamd % for whicli 
reafon Maundy lliurfday, which is derived from it, ought, with Mr. Nares, to 
be pronounced in the fame manner, though generally heard with the ibund of 
0fv. To maunder, to grumblC) though generally heard as if written mawnder^ 
ought certainly to be pronounced as Mr. Nares has claflect it, with the 




hSxn <r. The fixrm rmr h^ r^hfrrrftl of f^fwm^ wTnt?*! rm^t tn rhrmt ^ih 

x^fcd ti; h: 

Tong dniJ curio tn a ii^tit* chat 1 


■ re 


I in 


|ji*„ . t , u n A iit 4s J tbocgli a d > tier t' rj t . 

» I jrcnt\ fiftcr- fmru 

••x' -i iiMiAj VM^ ,Li».iK. *-* ij l>roiid opni, yd >^. *. 

•• m Tiuif coincidence ; m dcfiajicc uf !>oth flfteis, 

•• 1^- mpiny o(Jakfftf havni* vaunt ^ tauntx daunt. ; 

*^' c lit does piecifely the fame duty k ^ . jr 

** ft* " '^(ijedjJ ; in yi#uwf^r 4nd ^uW/f ; u 

■•ir- \ Jlatt/tf/f ; Al now juiliy ^i gcr4. li\ 

"ritfAft ff*»Jf imiii^ (tiic t>ld bdrkci)» Cf^ntmamis /attrn\ famkr ; hrtmh^ ^vu*^, 
'^ /mi$t ktdt/oMck JaMndkf aXo^vl pleaded u radical ; and vtt wa« f^und 
**«(»< /A^aif. So with aitniw mud rtiyrn totnith and etymology {vf\%<^ dd 
" ljitailvaryijoi& itfucl. tjxii, k^nt^ vanft tant% dant. j^anip p^afifi ; and even ll>c 
** Ttaoilbk M3^^^ ,\ with her mand m bafket in her h;iTid. She had. 

^ mdcxdi almc^d 1 ;r!^gc% liiough Alli^» had oot kft the bnd, Ai^hcn 

** Wiaief^(e*rktr;:. :cd i « bro^id fay) (kiU i^ot in EngUth precede /ft 

^ Athmcd eidkr ^/ •« ^- > o«^nta1> or by 2 fibtUiWTi ; that is» 4ju fhaU nc^t be fol- 
, "lawtdhj ftf, tt/f «fr, Ji/jfr, or wjf. No ftich founds being lulTcrablc in ihc 
" EagTifii Jyflcffit ^^ ^t$itff emd^ uuncht aumtf or stin^e ; iherc IIiaU be no fucb 
[**fisibh9Cti* Ahke are tj-iereforc inSfpcnLihh* f^unt and Jam i hand uni 
* mnrf, dmc^ and ^at^- h'amh md /a»r^» ^^is/^r and fmiter ; Sandt znd htf full 
^ Uf SomtStr, In all fuchi d far from brc^ad or open, is Ocndcr and ihut i 
•' ytf Bardly ibortcr than if the fileut afpiration imeipofcd in ahnt^ fiiktUer^ 
^Mmi^ k^ittf and tbc reft. Before ff|r, indeed, (/ is alfo Hcnder, bui open ; 
l^'oa^i^ bat fi ,- guarded thcrciwe by its own (i) fcrvilc (as mc fjw in 
» 1^ pbtt) agaioH erery danger of ehm^i^ Fnun AXidfmm tcniain doubtlcf* 
[•* io/nv ^d/a^tfMf^ uitidttfrcd by the adfcititioos dcpreffivc fibilanE," Pft^- 
4: ,.^ ,;-. 7 ;* |^^ PlBmt^ voL i. page 1 7 1 - 

>^»^i>/t which are very properly clalTcdby Mr, Narci amoog 
. n iux\^ the Inng Italian ^ mf^ther^ arc in^irked by Mr. Sheridan 
rnl of ^iniMt kngth«ued into the found of u \i\ father^ by plac* 
>a it Si€iuntb ii fpcllcd without ihe n by Johnfon » and lliereforc 
^ " , r»?d by Mr. Nares in the iibove lift, 

^^ ii6, /Vi*. v-ir feem to be tbc only rc;il cxceplions lo thi* found of 

^Pimdteirl^k i as ibefe worda arc chiefly contined lo tragedy, thfif 

'* srT -^ -f:^^-,; :o " fret and ftrut ihcir hour upon the llage" in ilicold Iradi- 

I It: ' 

tig ispronoanced like long in hmuh&y* as if written io ^oy ; 
.i ^apljjfv^ii^t'^ tattfilf and laudanum \ as if written €GliyiQWfr% 
In £i3»2^, &u has Uie found of llender ^i and rhymes with 

iS at corrtipt prommeiatioo of ibis diphthong among the vulgar, 

^^jc ^u in d^ughttr^ fmat^ faui^ir^ '^x\d fituty^ ihc found of the 

I V a* if wrilien dartir^farcff far£fr^ ^ndfarey ; but this pro- 

1^11*01 be t300 e;iref Lilly :i voided. .'*« in y<i£//^^^ alfo^ is founded by 

rjth (hort ^t as if wriKitu Jl/f^^gc ; bui in this, a» in the otlier word?*, 

'' to fooad ii«p^. Sec the words la the Dtflionary. 


2 1 9. Has the Icfbg broad found of a in hall^ with which the word tawl is 
perfectly identical. It is always regular, 


210. This diphthong) like its near relation ai^has the found of flender a in 
fay. dny^ &c« and is pronounced like long e in the word quay^ which is now 
fometimes feen written kty ; for if w« cannot bring the pronunciation to the 
fpelling, it is looked upon as fome improvement to bring the fpeUing to the 
pronunciation : a mod pernici^'us pradice in language, i^e Bowl. 

221. To ^<2y, to ftrip oflF the (kin, alfo, is corruptly prononnbed^^f but 
the diphthong in this word feems to be recovering its rights. 

222. lliere is a wanton departure from analogy in orthography, by chang- 
ing the/ in this diphthong to i in the words paid^ faidy laid* for payed, fayed^ 
and layed* Why thefe words ftiould be written ^ith t and thus contradted, and 
jplayedy prayed^ and delayed, remain at I^rge, let our wife correctors of orthogra- 
phy determine. Stayed s^fo^ a participial adjedive, fignifyiag^Ari^, is almoft 
always written ^W. 

223. When ay comes immediately after the accent in a final fyllable» like 
«f, it drops the former vowel, in th^ colloqiial pronunciation of the days of 
the week. Thus as we pronounce captain^ curtain^ &c. as if wntteh capiin, cur- 

^fht &c. fo we hear Sunday, Monday, &c, as if written Sundy, Mundjy, &c, A 
more diftind pronunciation of day, in thefe words, is a mark of the northern 
dialed (208). 

224* The familiar affent ay for yes, is a combination of the long Italian a 
in the laft fyllable of papa, and the fir ft found of e. If we give the a the found 
of that letter in hally the word degenerates into a coarfe ruftic pronunciation. 
Though in the Houfe of Commons, where this word is made a noun» we fre- 

' quently, but not corredlly, hear it fo pronounced, in the phrafe the Ayu have it. 


215. This triph^ong is a combination of die flender found of a, heard in 
pa-per^ and the e in me^tre. The word which it compofes, fignifying tver^ is 
^molk obfelete. 


226. The regular found of this diphthong is that of the firft (bund of e in 
here ; but its irregular found of {hort e is fo frequent, as to make a catalogue of 
both neceflUry ; efpecially for thpfe who are unfettled ia the pronunciation of 
the capital, and wiib to praftiie in order to form a habit. 

227. The firft found of «i is like open ^, and is heard in die following words : 
Afeards affear, anneal, appeal^ appear, appease, aread, arrtar, beacon, headUy beadroll, 
heads 1 headsman, heagle,beah, beaker, beam,hean, beardybearded, beast, beat, beaten, bea* 
mer^ beleaguer jbeneath, bequeath, bereave, besmear, besp€akJbleach<jbleak,blearjbleat^ohea, 
breach, bream, to breathe, cease, cheap^ cheat, clean, cleanly (adverb), clear^ clearance, 
cleave, cochineal, coUeagnCi conceal, congeaL cream^ creaky crease^ creature, deacon, deal, 
dean, deanery, dear, tUcease, defeasance, defeasible, defeat, demean, demeanor^ decrease^ 
Jreantf dreary dreary^ eacby eagcry eagle, eagre^ eary easty caster^ easy^ to coif eaten, 




* ' - r'^ Jfrui, ttam^ itttr^ icai^r^ irui^ i^ rucir, jrintf* 

liS, Ir /and Arr limri pmooufieed af 

t^xikteoWi d^ i^d^^; but tlji> corrupiioflof iliC dipliibonj^, whkli Mr. 
SHttH^xxiViu lulopudi fcetui con^atd to ihe Ht;igc. Sec tli* word. 

3;;. TWpctteniDfpttfc^ tenle of «j/is lomctimcs wriiicn #!.% partlcul:^!^ 
tr;^ L^rti Boungbmlitt nul frequently 1 3ind,perlup^ moTC corrc^ly, prowounc- 
wdtU dpcd^Uf in ixduid ; but r&ien always prcfcrvcft the ra longn. 

JT_ X/ in C'^ffU ':% long wlicn U flgiiities iimoremt And Jliort wliCQ it ftglli* 
M Jtrful i^cc the wordp 

: > in the prcfcitt teaiCf ;md fliott in the p<i£l and p^rtkiii 

c, •*:! ii .1! % wrklcnr^i/. 

tji* "fra/, a u'ji:, ti marked by Dr< Kcnrlck^ Mr* Elph*nlloni and Mt, 
Kir«s,«^ &Qrt#likcii/ ; but more properly by Mr. Sbcridjfi, ^f^, Scott, VV. 
J«ikiafto!i,ICr. Pert % ' ' Tr, Bmith« wiih llie long ,*, ihymiiig with mmt. 

i^|, iW, die p' lic^ tcwfej and p;inTtij>)e of loltJit h frequently 

fre«nni • c/ (a wager); and if utility were the only ohjc^ of 

taugiagc, unly hz the preferable pr^^inunctairon, as nothiHj 

rtaodi more to obtcunty than verbs which have no diiereitt furm for then 

IfTclHt 4fMl pad timet ; but fdihion in ihht *a% in many other cafes* triumphs 
ovtf ti>f jmd proprieij | a&d if/| for the paA time and pjurticipk of ^ai mud 




; iri4_ 


. (TiiC IK 

sd like the (hcnt r in the followmg words ^ Ahrtwtt^ 

li ve ), ckafdihy ticadf dca diuf datf^ drvfrn , deur^h^ dmih% 
li'Mi^ rariih tarihm^tarthlyy CTidrav^ury/rufhrf^iieedf 
/i<r£n.>nfi htavy^ JcahtiM, un/ifarl, ij^ittead^ lead* leaden^ 
triidpkof to tfanj^tmrn^ itartfing^ iraJitr%lcavrrt^ 
'trU feuaant^ fih^Qmni^ filrmianf^ /drumntnt^ fdea^ut'c^ 
. )i rmdiii j rcadtncAS^ na !ij^ rtatff}^ rchtararJ^ rrftmr*e^ 
rurth^^/^read^ nirad^ &fci.i(/att^ fiCeudUf^fitifih^ Mi^ihy^ 

,^ ^tyftthn\ iftam^ zruhi^ ^en/onMt zruiomii/. 

, comi^oanded of %faK ^s ijiftanccs-of 

c It is ceftuinty the more iifa,il icjundi 

ly btco made in the Howfc of Coninifms m pro^ 

^, i?r noun. It is a commendable 3teal to endeavour to 

iw^mn \he itogtuge A3 weU as the conditution ; but ^'hciher, if tlicfe words 

^1^ alirredi, ft vcmld he n real reformation, may admit of fome difpute. Sec 

* ~ Timimriipt^ No* f 15, and the word Zialot, 





256. ffcardf the paft time and participle of bear^ is fometimes corruptly" 
pron<mnced with th€ diphthong long, fo as to rhyme with reared;- but this is 
iuppofmg the verb to be regular ; which» from the fpellingi is evidently not 
the cafe. 

237. It is, perhaps, worth obfervation, that when this diphthong cotnes 
before r, it is apt to Aide into the (hort ci , which is undoubtedly very near the 
true foimdt but not exadUy : thus pronouncing ^^fr/, earti^ dearth^ as if written 
«r/, urth^ durtb^ is a fligl^t deviation from the true founa, which is ezadly that 
of i before r» followed by another confonant, in virtue^ virgin : and that is the 
true found of fhort e in vermin^ vernal^ &c. ( 1 08). 

2 38. Leant\ the pad time and participle of to leany is grown vulgar: the 
regular form leaned is preferable. 

239. The pad time and participle of the verb to leap^ feemf to prefer the 
irregular form ; therefore, though we almoft always hear t6 leap rhyming with 
reap, we generally .hear /fdf^// written and pronounced leapU rhyming with 


240. Ea is pronounced like long (lender a in bare^ in the following 
words : Btar^ (fearer 1 breaks forbear ^forf wear ^ greats peoTtfteak^ fwear^ to iear^ 

241. The -wor^ greai is fometimes pronounced as if written ^r.prf, generally 
by people of education, and almoft univerfally in Ireland ; but this iscontrary 
to the fixed and itttled pra^ice in England. That this is an aSedled pronunci. 
atioti, will be perceived in a moment by pronouncing this word in the phrafe^ 
Alexander the Great ; for thofe who pronounce the word greets in other cafes. 
will generally in this rhyme it wiph/i/^. It is true the ee is the regular found 
of this diphthong ; but this {lender found of ^ has» in all probability, given way 
to that of a as deeper and more cxprefflvc of the epithet ^r^o/. 

242. The fame obfervations arc applicable to the word break; which is much 
more exprei&ve of the adion when pronounced break than breeky as it is fome- 
times affeftedly pronounced. 

^43. Ea IS pronounced like the long Italian a in/atberf in the following 
words : Hearty hearty ^ hearten^ htarthy hearken, 

, 244* Eat unaccented, has an obicure found, approaching to (hort Uy in ven^ 
geaace^fergeantf pageant y zxid pageantry, 


245. This is a French rather than an £ngli(b triphthong, being found only 
in words derived from that language. Its found is that of long open o> 
as beaut bureau^Jlavtheau^ portmanteau. In beattty and its compounds it has the 
firft (bund of o, as if written bewty. 


246. This diphthong, in all words except thofe that end in r, has a faiieezed 
found of long open e formed by a clofer application of the tongue tdVbe roof 
of the mouth, than in that vowel iingly, which is dt(Ungui(habie to a nice ear. 
in the different founds of the verbs toj^^f^ and to nieet^ and the nouns jS^a and 
meat. This has always been my opinion ; but, upon confulting (bme good 
fpeakers on the occafion, and in particular Mr. Garrick, who could find no dtf- 
i)prence in the fowd of tbefe words^ I am lefs confident in giving it to the Pub- 

Ac Jinf mte f 

k b wtiil^ ^«r nuti ««i«r. 

itct cs but rcry ti tfiing, aad I {kill ibcnfort con* 
Duly^ lo iht ward hrtfchit profiottnccd as 

p for #t>rr 


I ounds , When g^ comes atter i3 1 1 
. im of the S4X0I1 guttural fboiuli ) 


^4SL Tbc goicra] iboiici oftHIs diphthong ftemi to be the f^uns at #f » when 
mid thr -'«' *. t.:.4. i* ^i;.' Jong tlcndcr ji r but the other ibaodf am fo 
mnacD^ l .^ ue o ^' t It c in »IL 

£j riiv uii lu jqJ ui iMu^ flenjcr* In tfiig^^ fwm, /#»«, 'W/ir 
Maami« Aftr, ktirttu inxm^ht ^mi't^h^ nei^^t/iant rfifttf tftfir, thaa 


. f% -tiwcl iutuTiJ as wbca followed by otlicf Cuulqu.iiUv; «% 

^ fo! oth vowel* li ke <i r I or if we coamstnpoic the jf cort* 

fc imI i in /J|fA^t -w/qht^ Ut. it mighty |>erh;ip«« i:ooirty llic 

t . r^CRce, however, is fb delicate as to render tliis dillitse* 

!* L L L :. J ,;r. oJicc, lltc fiimc obfcrvatjonf are applicable to the words 

J /tj/ ' ■'*^: See tlic word Eight, 

Qd rf long open t m imtt in the following words and 

_; clafs. See the word . 

i.s pronoimced a^ rhymitig with pkiifmn % but» in 

y : for if it b€ allowed th *t cullom i| equally dlyi- 

, \ o pronounce the di plilhong long, a* more cipi cffi vc 

i lO it, (14')' 

1 ^TTther arc To often pronounced cyMkcr and ni^k^htr^ that 
di cUh they Ucbng. Analogyhowcvcrp wiihom hefi- 
V ng the found of hmg open t^ rather tlianthat of/, and 

II TT,! , V I :' .'Vf .one who breathes. This is the pronunciiitinn Mr. 

G^T < t -1^. n tlirfc words I but the true analr«gical found of the diph- 

t/ion^. ,n rj:; . T of the flendcr «, as if written ay ihir ^^dnay-thtr^ 

'" - -^ .red in Ireland, hot is not favoured by one of our 

Jan, Mr, 8coit, Mr, Elphlnfton^ Mr. Perry, Mr, 
,i«£L\, : unin^r, and Dr. Jones » nil pronounce thefe words with the 

iffctk/' w t. W. Johnflon ahme adopts the found of long i C3ccl«- 

C ' . \ Mrrand i'^n but prefers the fir ft, but gi*es 

^ iTively: Mr. Coote fayi* thefe words are genc- 

:hc i in 7nhe. Mr Barclay gives no dcicrip- 

L J . , (Ut fiiy* is^i/if?' is fomeiimei pronounced rt//^fr» 

*vr ; aod Mr Nares lays, *' rili'^r and nnihfr arc fpoken bf 

* ! (lai^ of lniv4 J I r have iK^xd even that f^f long a given to 

, is nlfo in ufCi I think it is preferable Tliefc 
... ,i^n from ignorance of the regular found of «" '" 


^UIMi VI Tj 

the Fw^gular'^found o*^ this diphthoTiGj Mr* Nar«s 
wc need only iafpe^ N(?* Xf^and J 5? to fee that 
: "* the 


the (bund of it is the more general found* and therefore ought to be called the 
regular ; but where there are fo many mftances of words where this diphthong 
has the long found of r, and cuftom is fo uniform in diefe words* there can 
be no doubt which is the true found. ' . 

253. £f has the found of long open i, in l^tgbt zxL^JUgbu rhyming with 
tvbite aDd right. Height i5« indeed, often heard rnyming with eight and weighty 
and that among very refpedable fpeakers | but cuftom feenu to decide in fa- 
vour of tlie other pronunciation, that it may better uUy with the adjective higS^^ 
of which it is the abftrad. 

254. Ei has the found of fliort ^, in the two ix^ords Aafir and nofipardlf pro- 
nounced^^r and nonpareil, 

255. Ims diphthong, when unaccented, like at (208), drops the former 
vowel, and is pronounced like fhort i, in foreign^ foreigner fforfeiif forfeiture^ fi- 
vereigttffovcreigniyf furfeiti counterfeit* 


256. This diphthong is pronounced like e long in peopk^ as if written /«f/ir / 
and like e (hort in leopard ^aid jeopardy 9 as if written leppard snAJeppardy ; and in 
the law Xtrmsfeojififeoffer^ ztiA feofhtent^ as if vrntvtnfefee^fefirt ^Xidfeffment. 

257. We frequently near thde vowels contraded into (hort o in geography p 
and geomitry^ as if written y^^^d^ii^ sokdjommetry ; but this grofs pronunciation 
feems daily wearing away, and giving place to that which feparatfsthe vowels 
into two diftindt fyllables, as it is always heard in geographiealf geometer fgeametri-. 
calf and geometrician. Georgic is always heard as if written/or^/c, and moft be 
given up as incorrigible (116). 

258. Eoi^ heard like long u xn feod^ feodalyfeodatory^ which are fometimes 
written as they are ^rotkOonctdffeudffeudaU feudatory. 

359. Eoy when unaccented, has the found of u (hort in surgeouysturgemf dud- 

geouf gudgeon^ bludgeon^ curmudgeon^ dungeon^ luncheon^ puncheon^ truncheouf hwrgeonp 

iahergeoHt but in scutcheonfeicutcheonyptgeonf and widgeon f the eo founds like (hort i. 

260. £0 founds like long in yeoman and yeomanry % the firft fyllable of which 

words rhyme with^^, notjb. See the words. 

' z6 1 . £0 in galieon, a Spanifh (hip, founds as if written galloon^ rhyming with 


262, This affemblage of vowels, for they cannot be properly called a triph- 
thong, is o(ten contracted into one fyllable in profe, and poets never make it gm 
for two. In cutaneous and vitreous^ two fyllables are palpable; but in gorgeous 
and outrageous tlie foft g coalefcing with e feems to drop a fyllable, though 
polite pronunciation wiU always preferjee it. 

263. ThisaiTemblage is never found but in an unaccented fyllable, and gene- 
rally a final one ; and when it is immediately preceded by the dentals dor f, 
it melts them into the founds of J and tci : thus hideout and piteoue are pro- 
nounced at if written hijeous and pitcheout. The fame may be obferved of 
righteous f pkhteouf, homiteouSf courteous^ heauteousf and duteoufp (293) (294). 


Z64. This diphthong is always founded like long u or ewt and is fcarcely 
ever irregular : thus/?i^dr, deitccf 5cc.are pronbimced as if writtcnyJw/, dewce, Sec. 


265. Tbis dijJitbcmg is pronounced like long », and is aimed always rrgii. 
lar. There is a comipt pronunciation of it like 90 chiefly in London, where wc 
fometiines bear Jevfj and tutv pronounced as if written t/oo and noo ; but when 
r precedes this diphthong, as in bremf^erewy drewt &c. pronouncing it like oo, 
isfcarccly improper. Sec 17^» 339* 

266. Shrai and i/mii have almoft left tbis dafs, and by Jobnfon's recommen* 
dation are become .^^w zndjirovf, as they are pronounced. The proper name 
Urevf/huryf however, dill retains the e^ though always pronounced Shrow/bury. 
&v}, with a needle, always rhymes with no ; and/rci^^r, fignifyinga drain, is 
generally pronoanced ^tr/ •* hnife^uterf an officer, rhymes with ^^rui^r. Sec 

1^7. £« b fometimes pronounced like atu in the verb to chttv ; but this is 
t;rQ& and vulgar. To cbe^ ought always to rhyme with ne^^ vUw, &c. 


268. This txipbthoog exifts only in the word ewe^ a female (heep ; which is 
proooanccd exaoEdj iiie ytWf a tree, or die plural perfonal pronoun yoa. There 
is a fu^ar proounciation of tbis word as if written yjt^ rhyming with doct 
whidi mud be carcfiitly avoided. See the word. 

269. Wbeo the accent is on this diphthong, it is always pronounced like ay^ 
crUke its kindred diphthong, ei, in vetnyreij^nt-kc: thus bey, dey, grfy,prty^ they^ 
iriy^ «R&7, e^, tcmvey^ fmrvey^ furvty^ hey^ fyre^ and eyrty^ are always heard as 
if written hay^ day, &€. Key and Ly are the only exceptions, which always 
rhyme withy^ (320) • 

270. Eyj when unaccented, is pronounced like ee : rhus gaUey\ valley ^ alley ^ 
harltyf ftc. are prononnced as if wiittcn goIUe^ vallect &c. The nounyj/nTjr, 
tlierefore, if we place the accent on the £rit fyllable,- is anomalous. See tiie 


271. This ttiphtbonfi^ ii only found in the word eys^ which is always pro* 
noimced like the ktter /. 


372. This diphtboog, in the terminations ian^ iaU iardf and iaie^ forms but one 
fyU^kythonrh the i in this dtnatioo, having the fqueezed found of ^^ perfe<5tly 
iunilzi 10 y^ gives the fyUable a double ibund, very didinguidiaMe in its nature 
AtJA a i^^le formed withont the i : thus ChriJHan^ JOalf poniani^, conciliate ^ 
found as tf written Cbrtfi-ycuif fi-ymU pon-yard^ concil-yate^ and have in the lad 
fyllahle an evident mixture of the ibund 6i y confonant (113). 

273. In dummuif thefe vowels are properly no diphthong ; and in profe, the 
vord ong^t to have three difttoft fyllahle^ ; but we frequently hear it fo pro- 
mnced as to diop tfie # entirely, and as tf written dimand* This^ however, 
u a cormptioii thai ongjht to be avoided* 

274. In 


274. In csrringey marriage^ parliament and miniature^ the a is dropped, and 
the f has its fhort foundi as if written car ridge , marridgey fariimentp mimture 


275. The regular found of this diphthong \i that of ^^ as in gl^ifQe^ Mi^ 
fondf lieff l0rgef chiefs kerchiefs kandiercbie/^audiiomer^grfHa^rtBct. <S if iKFtitten 
grMve9 tbeevet feend^ &c. 

276. It has the found of long t in diti hie^ Ue^pte^ iie^ w, a^ if Written dy^ 

277. The fhort foundof^ is heatdin/rf^iK/|>i^ar,ifchdthelodgfi>and6f the 
fame letter in tier^ frieze. 

278. In variegate the beft {>roiianctation is t6 foiihd both tt)^^ls diftinaly 
like e, as if written vary e^gate, 

279. In the numeral terminations in ietbf 2s twentieth, tbirtieib^ 3cc. the vow- 
els ought alio to be kept diftindl ; the firft like open e^ as heard in the^ in 
twenty^tbirty, &c. and the fecond like (hort e, heard in breathy deatby &c. 

2S0. Injiery too, the vowels are heard diftrndly. 

281 . In orient and fpamet where thefe letters cottlfe afiter i fiqUtd, &^y are 
pnmoanced dillin^ly ; ^tid great care fhould be taken not tf6 letthe laft 'word 
degenerate inxo Jpannel (113)- 

282* When thefe letters meet, in confequence of forming the plurals of 
nouns, they retain either the long or (hort found they had in the fingular, 
without tncreadng the number of fyllables : thus a^ makes^nv, a Ik makes 
Uti^ company makes companies^ and digniiyt Sgnitku The (aitte may be obfcrv* 
ed of the third perfons and pad participles of verbs, as tjly. be jHet^ / drny, be 
denies^ be denied^ I fidiys be/ufUedy See. which maiy be |>ronOttnced a» if written 
dtmt^fdenide^/uiBd, Sec* (104). 

283 . When ie is in a termination without the accents it h ^roitouticed like 
only, in the fame fituation ; thus bra/ten glatier, and graxier^ hare the laft 
fjllabk ^nded as if written brazbuTf glai^bur^ and graishar^ or rather as^i^ 
jwr,^Ai».3W>&c. (98) (418). 


284. Thefe vowels occur in adieu^ Ueu^purReUi where they have the found of 
long »» as if written aden^ leu, pur li^-, 

285. In one word, lieutenant^ thele letters are protelmeed Idbe flft>it ^ its H^ 
wxitten lev^enant. See ,the word« 


286. Thefe letters occur oidy in tbe word xtk^^ wheft tbir^ fbttlkl like ^^ 
ibyning witbyMu, mn», 


287. When the accent h upon the firft of thefe tciwels they femit V9ft dif- 
tba fyllables. as viMaA^ vhiet ; the laft of which » fottietiitiei eontptly 
pranounced violet* 

a88. In umrMoMefi the i u entiMlf fcnfcy t^ die MtfMieed # pm- 



1^ k ttftftDy Is m this (hoaljcm, like Rion «i n tf ^iien nup^fcn* 

"^« the 9 h fimki and ihe word prcmotmced fM^i^ ^'^'' t^c wvmiI. 


very niuncrou* ixiimnntroTi i^j^i 

thcfc 1 

-irt •! Wt when ihcjr arc pr ■-- 
He (11$), the twu ^oivd*. 

bv JD^ of the cnbcr ccmi 
w %0WTli arc hf^tfd f<- 



tji, TO« .;, i^ben pf^<*eded by l liquid, far anjr maxt btit a dtfit;il, 

hhmdi^mCiit in :%»d fylJablcs, »s in hiOnvt, varhnt, ghtku ' " rgfm 

' \i^ttfmtM* Hat wficti preceded by rhe dtnt.ili f» Ir'K r :it l :;U 

Elic tettdindiioiii /ivn mid uc^ 


ictd in 


;^FC pen* 

in thik 

codldcetmci cne t 


193. HV lame i 

III to ^^xi»ofi. m,i ' 


ronountrd like /^w# ; thtis/rA'iflJtf^fy^iLi;^;^^^ ncxhut^ 
rtrn prr^h-us^fd^-rhir^ n':ck'f^*ff\ ttn^'-ihui (459)* 

■,,,,... ^ . . .. iti- 

-tit i ior ni d i^ but tlai r, 11 js fio wonder h 

i[ innn, when the faitjc vo-wuls folbiA^ \ rtay, 

h this fotJTid of the </ te t}i« ^nak)|tf df 

, Liijii.i= vsc are upon CKtr guard> th« or"-?!* -itu- 

, however, pretended that thh \% the , rt»- 

u:c lAKt fii Analogy it were to be wilbed it were : bm ^n i^jrwj- 

Tamcof tb^ real fkower^ of the letters, joined with akutlablc dcfiic of keeping 

^ai DExr 91 )»offibleio ibe orthographjr, \% apt to prevenL j? ' 31x0 

J^i^i^ f^TTrafc^ w* b^fif Wr*«r, tf^^U^nit StC- On the ntl , .ar, 

1^. ItCi^, not only ^ jiraiion of the rf, 

%^ ^^ ^ n, but arc apt E' ,ccc«dingiylkble5 

d to «y ^^«/ and ti^mt mflead ot" ^/f-t(/ «.nd ti^jt^m^ m ratiier 

1 ^lj(liii^f pronotinced, it fiifficientlf ctprc^es the aipi ratioa 

il ' ■ ■'* . .r.;n,nn, the preferable mode o* d^nteaiing the foarld, its 

in t . ,( fyojri unitmg too clofcly. Whtft analogy , thefft- 

fc^u, u. n, iiT74j. AT^ I fo dubious, ■»*€ ought not to hefit:itt » momeni it 

^ ' * , tmm«4mii^frfiMdif>iit^ xmdj!udhm»^ ai If written, ^/^-^a/,, U^fi^fiM% ftt* 
oir mibp p^v^, uJr^fttf^ 8cc, ; nor Oiould we ibiget that /iti/ijw come* untMr 
' tkAinr s^- iiyghtt thwigh contrary to refpcaable ufage^ to be pro- 

PiagfJif ^ , . la^ahf And nearly as Injfm (376), 

Hj Tiif dSphitumg i« regttliily pt&nounccd U the long open found of 0« is 
I ^4ii nor, 1^, fttitft fc^i *e. Tile only tJtteptiona are, *r<W, <iirW, ^^wfr. 
■ wjiicb 



which found as if written hrawd^ ahrawd^ grawt. Oatmeal is fometines prO' 
Hounced ohmeaif bat feems to be recovering the long found of ^i aat in 04f« 


396. Whether it be proper to retain the in this diphthong, or to hanilh tc 
from our orthography, as Dr. Johnfon advifest certain it is^ that in words from 
the learned languages it is always pronounced like fingle /»and comes entirely 
under the (ame laws as that vowel : thus when it ends a fyllablet with the ac» 
cent upon it, it is long, as in jin^toe-ch Pe-ri-^^i ; when under the feooadary 
accent, in oie^umemealt oee-MomicB^ it is like e (hort ; it is long e mfoe^iut and 
ihort e in foe-iU and ajfafott-tda : in d^e^/oefjioe, /«#, sbroe^ hoe (to dig), and SiU 
hocif it is founded exadly like long open 9 : in came T^djboet like 00, as if written 
caiwf zx^Jho ; and in the verb doe^^likt fhprt up9A xtwritten dn. 


397. There is but one word -where this triphthong . occurs, and that is in 
Shakefpeare's King Lear, in the -worfi mBade (glances), and, in wj opinion, 
it ought to be founded as if written anl^ads* 


398. This diphthong is from the French, in the word manofvnni a iword, 
within theie few years, of very general ufe in our language; It is not in John- 
fon, and the deu is generally pronounced by thofe who can pronounce French, 
in itit French manner ; but this is fnch a found of the u as does not cxifl in 
Englifli, and therefore it. cannot be defcribed. The neareft found is oo z with 
which, if this word is pronounced by an Englifli fpeaker, as if written maaa^nfre^ 
it may, except with very nice French ears, efcape critiqifm* 


299. The general, and almoft univerial found of this £phthoog> is that of a 
in wateTi and the firft e in me^fre. This double found is very diftinraifbable 
in MlffoUf/foilfJMntf fiunif amnt f See, which, found ought to be carenilljr pie« 
fervedi as tnere is a very prevalent pradice among the vulgar of dropping the 
e» and pronouncing; tbefe words as if written hUet tiU^/fiUt Uc. 

300* The only mftance which sulmits of a doubt in the found of this diph* 
thong* when under the accent, is in the word eifoir ; but this word is now fo 
much more frequently written gutref that uniformity ftiongly inclines us to 
pronounce the « in chair like long / , and which, by the conunon orthography, 
feems fixed beyond recovery. But it may be obferyed, that either die fpelUi^ 
, or the pronunciation of Chorifter^ commonly pronounced ^j^riftiTf ought to 
be altered. See the words. 

301. When this diphthong is not under the accent, it is varioufly pronounc- 
ed* Dr. Kenrick places the accent on the firft fyllalble of tureoU, and. For I 
know not what reafon, pronounces it as if written turkht s and ttirkm with the 
at broad, as in hoys. Mr. Sheridan places the accent on the fecond fyllable» and. 
gives the diphtliong the French ibund as if the word was written tuHuofi. In 
my opinion the beft orthography is turpnifef and the beft pronunciation ^with 
the accent on the laft fyllame) and the 91 finiiided like kmgo as if written #«tr- 



^■kt J as we prooouiurc JtrSei/tt wiiit xht accent oa tlic firfi ff U«blc» ai>d iht «# Uk« 

^Btn f, 3^ if wtlttra tprm* 

^r 301. In m^dmf^M^ die firft ^phthocsg is pronopnced like (hon r, a< if wnv 

P303. In #««a«^r the fiuae fotand of # U fubflittitf d, as if wntten ipmfffmr. 
|04« la/itfymr^ or ch^m^u a fpecie^ of kiiiihcf , the m t» pruoouiK«<l Itkc 
ig f t ^ HT wnUeoj&inninep. 

505. /jf/reir and ifv^^ two fcarcelf aaturuU/ed Frmch word$i have the d 
rr^^r. tlsough the latter wotd, to poUte pronuDdatioci« retaiaa \i% French 
^rjuJ. 2: 1 1' iKTitiea iU^^ifAT, 

^1 306. The &cmd of this dtphchopg h regulan escept in a few wordi ; k it 
^M pomiiiaictd long in m9om^fi&ntf^l^ rsod^ Jbodj trmd^ he. This tf its regular 
P icxadp 

307. lihisa&aner fbcmd ccrrcfponding to the 9 in i*//, in the wt)rdJ 
-awc*^, ^9<J. raJ, &a^. f^^ fio&d^ unJcrJtoifJ^ lolthJi^Qd i aitd thcfe aj< the onlf 
'•^ /lOg has this middle jbund, 

. . .- — V i***^MJ otlhort u in the two words WW and jfd«4 rhyming 

.5s«f fe valgarly prociounced fo at to rh jme with *«/ , but^ &c. but ought 
re its long,* rtguhu^ifoui}d»r!i^mipg with if^t^ m we alwsi^'s hear it b the 
*i>sr/, See the word^ 
|lCw htm i&d/bar are uciWcrfany pronouQced by the EnfrHQ]^ at if writtea 

v>ij*n I bat in Irelaod ibry prcfciire the r ! of ^, 

/U* Jf^»f. a bkt I: maTi, i* regtikr in polite uii, and like jw^w^ 


is fon]etimc» heard rhyming wixlijhrt t but more 
c regularly, rhjmmg with poer. 


^^^Hn'haii uie jDoft irregukr ;tJfcmbbge of vo^e!& in our kfigiiage : its 

^^HB camBDOB found is that heard in htimi% founds grQundt 6ec. and thii may be 

^^^td fU pec^per found s but its devintions are fo many tnd fo vnrious^ that 

the bdit vdea of it will be conveyed by giving ihc fimplcs of all its dtifercnt 

511. Tie Srft or prf*pcr found of this diphthong is compofed of the am haUf 
ifidthe m in wm^ or rather the u m tuUt and is equivalent to the aw in /fo^ft, 
^••*i^ TUisuw^l i^ ill *T*d in aAcmndy atfota^ acCQuntf acoustic a^ (j^^uud^ akmi^ 
nd^ m*^uch^ hough J bounce^ bounds BcuttiUi titUfUe&utf 
f^'' . f'louif ctoutrrly^ compound^ rfju^A^CfiuchaTii^ crcuck^ 
htjdouhtfulj drou^hudfjiig/itJjf dmiar^ mcQunirr^ 

, hfjtcr^ houne^ wj/ioimd^ hud^ huTi,^t^ iQttat^ hiiif 

intt^^oundyftouiJirofQknd^ftronmm^ prctnountt% 
-•"^nt^ rtdQuht^ redouhted^ rrdftuud^rcncnunFrr^ rotmdf 
if/^ 6courj if cii/, shouu nhruudj Mlimch^ aftQUMc^ ^pcutf 

■ ul^ 9caramQuch* 
. ^^wl fom^d ^^ that of Q\Qnum bud^ ^yl U heard In the follow- 


(a tBmme^pTmnd. 

if Jin: 


ing V^rds ^nd th^ir cpiupQund^ ; A^joyrny joum^y^ joumaly bour^eorif country, 
cousin^ cou/iie^ accou/ile^' double J trouble^ courteona^ courtesy^ courage^ encourage, 
joust ^ fouptetj liQusewife^fiouri^h^ Tnounch^ n/ourhf^ enough^ chough^ rougkj t^u^h^ 
slough\si cast skin)) scourge^ southerly^ soutlierriy nouthcrnvfoodf aouthwardy touchy 
touchi^ youngy yoiinker^ aod youngster ; but sotUheriy^ eoutherny and southward 
arc fometimes pronounced regularly like sout6 : this, however, is far from the 
prevailing pronunciation. This is the found this diphthon^^ always has when 
the accent is not on it, unlefs in very few indances, where the compound retains 
the found of the (imple, as in frorioua ; but xn/ojourn zndfijourner^ with the ac- 
cent on the firll fyllable, and in every unaccented termination in our and •»/» 
this diphthong has exa^ly the found of (hort u : thtisfavaurf honour^ odour ^ and, 
famouu are pronounced as if written y^tiur, honur^ odur^ znd/amm. 

315. The third found given to thefe vowels is that of 00 in co»and 9000 (39 )» 
and is found in the following words : Bouge^ croufi^ groups ^ggf^ufi^ amour^ fta^ 
ramour^ boiise^ bousyy boutefeu^ caftouch^ cartouche fo^rbe^ gout (taste)} and Ta^tntt 
(pronounced 5*00 and ragoo J j rendezvous, rouge^ soufi^ sous (pronounced aooj^ 
aurtout^ through, throughiy^ toufiee or toufiet^ youy your, yoiUhy jtour^ contour j 
tourrmyytoumament, /70z/r,and route (a road), actoutrcy biUet-doux^agoutiy wicouthy 
wound (a hurt), and routine ( a beaten road) . See Tou r nk y. 

316. The verh to fo^r is fometimes pronounced to foref and fometimes to 
poor; in each cafe it interferes with a word of a different figttification, and the 
beft pronunciation, which is that fimilar to foweff is as little liable to that ex- 
ception as either c^the others. See the word. 

317. To«uw«Wis fometimes pronounced fo as to rhyme with /©grii^; l>ut 
this is diredly contrary to the beft ufage : but route (a road* as to take a dif. 
ferent route J t is often pronounced fo as to rhyme with doult^ by refpedable 

318. The fourth finmd of this diphthong is th^t of long open 0, and is heard 
in the following words : Though, although, coulter, court, accourt, gourd, coureierj 
course, discourse, source, recourse, resource, bourn, dough, douglty,four^ mtnUdj 
mouldy, moult, mourn, shoulder, smotUder, soul, fioultice, fioult,poiUterer, fumltryj 
trouiy (to roll fmoothly, marked by Mr. Sheridan as rhyming with doO^ but 
more properly by Dr. Kenrick with roll), and borou^bj thorough, furlougb^ fbur^ 
Utn, cqncourfty and intercottrfr, preferve the diphthong in the found of long 09 
though not under the accent. 

3 19. The fifth found of ou is like the noun awe, and ts heard only in •u^bi^ 
bought, brought, fought^ be fought, fought ^ nought^ thought^ metbought^ wrought. 

320. The (Ixth found is that of (hort 00, or the a in bull, and is heard only- in 
the auxiliary verbs would- could, Jhouldf rhyming with good^ hood^Jlood, &c« 

321. The feventh found is that of ihort o, and heard only in cough and ir^ugb^ 
rhyming with offattdfcof: and in hughy TLtkdJh'mgh, pronounced bck zt^Jb^ck. 

. om 

izi. The elementary found of this diphthong is the fame as tlie firft found 
of ou, and is heard in bo^. now. &c. but the (bund of long obtains in fo znaxxy 
inftances, that it will be neceffary to give a catalogue of ooth. 

323. The general found, as the elementary found may be called, is heard in 
now, bonjj, bonv (a mark of refped), monv (a heap of barley, &c.), co^, hro^tu 
brown, browfe, plow^ fiw- voWf av'>w> aJ/onu, Sfalow, endow f down, clown^frp^vtjn 
to^n, cronutty drown^ gG<ufn^ renown^ dowager, dowdy, dower ^ dowre, dotury 
do^jjery, dowlas, drowfe^ drovffy, Jhwer^ bowfr, kwer (to look gloomy), fotuer* 



f.mirr, ^rT^r/t^, fryti\ frt^trf, ^>Tt/*. ts-rvirh ^iUvr, r*»fA c.-z^'^. 
xd) decide J, U oc»ght, in my opinion, to hjive ihc lirtl i 


I It 


^ it i» JIOC icT 

ham ths Itwir oo ihctr to 

th jf>Mi^v ji^ much marc cifir-^'--^ . . 
li iire the iicas to be cjtpn-Si ; < : iv . : : 

^ ' t), Sect! 

^ till ^ il i p r ) CAfd 1 n i/o*tf» T^IIN #f»tir, ^f^ o*, 

/j^' ^iiuE high cotgraf*), r*ir» 

the ocw founds Ifkr \'i'* 

li; the forepart <:>f ift 

i>r. Kcnirick. lli'^ " . ' . ' '"» 

the verb tn firo^vt (tci feck tor prey j thy mrs with 

_,.J;m* and withfiai ^ccotAit^'^ s^^ T>r, Kciuick : the 

^^S/''^^'^ to ple«4, but the f«r m my opiuioa^ 

-'* -f^igcon its fvde* Bolb th--jt **i.M.r* unite in giving 

ijsig to/rnivf/j ; whkli i:. unqucHionabif the Hue 

;/a*ii/* Hatv^eL Ho*m^rd^ and i*<nw//> gcncrsiHy arc 

'• ' ' 11^% as in hp^t ff^*^*-^ ^c l>i»t Ha^»fi 

rieriUly prLniLMi' - rbym* 

'mr^ AS if WT^ r 1 , j ' i^iitly 

ind tif ^11* ; Lui ihc iccuiul iv^irtJ Ictiii If | 

thcfc mountains hiid Uif:it namcj lit. . i^i^ 

33;, When tl 



?T is in a final unai;x€nt«! fy liable, it h^% always 
> in UrTff*Wtf>rfQ'Uff ftlk'^h cvi/fWr ^c. The vnl- 
^lid pronoimcc the 3 obfcnrely, and frjtnclinies ai tf 
dj>d/eilfrf for ^^inS'UJ AndjyUt^ ; i>iit this i^ almoft 
. Good fpcakcr'i prefcr^^c tbe dipbtlior g lu Um!^ fitlia- 
' , ibimd of open &, rhyming with n»»y&i &c* 

» in the word km^Uigej^ has of Utc yearv tindcr;;r>nc m 
'-: Somu fpcakcri, ^ho Ii;i4 the regulirty of thtif bn- 

gtarc ^ licin^ wc i to fee tbe compound depan lb far from ihc found 

c^iht tmpXc^ iod >ick foftltndc h^vc oppcfcd the multitude by ptc^ 

aeuactsg %ht 6rfi fyitjibk of this word as it is heard iu the verb to km^ l*he 
K^^StirJ \hc Ba/2,ivc for fome ycar^ given a fanaion toihis* pronunciaucin ? 
^' \iA^ hold out inSexihly ;igainft it i and the Nati m a% 

l^t: „.,.,.„i. u ihc tznprovtiDcnt* They ftill continue to pronounce* 

ai ii eke cU ItuScrouj rhymes^— 

•• Amm^ tl»e wti jbty vsvm ti tmni^ft^r 

'1 L ! 1/ . . lt r* c the good fortune to he rcllorcd to ii^ right*, 

: V, li L! '(' ; ^ oar the rcUoration of a great number of wordi 

,'! ijr , ^it n, : i-j as breakfftjh v'tmyard^ h^tiJer^ mtMiioWf fnarhn^ 

- If, Mindwafd^ and a long catalogtic of fellovr fufTcrcTs 

c: endeavour this rcftoration, we Ihonid conftdcr, that 

-^-cirng toEi louito v4 the llmpk, when it acquires an additional *yJiab!e» is 

m iioa of prtmuQCtaticm to which our language is extremely prone s nor is 



it certain that crofling tbi8 tendency would prodace any real advantage ; at 
leaft, not fu£Bcient to counterbalance the diveriiiy of pronunciation which mult 
for a long time prevail, and which mud necefTarily calIo£f our attention from 
things to words. See Enclitical Termination. (No» 514). 


329. This diphthong is but another form for or* ' and is pronounced exactly 
like it. When ailoy is written with tliis diphthongs it ought never to be pro- 
nounced allay. Cuftom feems to have appropriated the former word to the 
noun, and the latter to the verb ; for the lake of confiftency, it were to be wifh- 
ed it were always written ailay : but it is not to be expeded that poets will 
give up fo good a rhyme lo joy ^ cloy^ and dfftroy, 

350. The only word in which this diphthong is not under the accent* is the 
pi-oper name Savny ; for favay^ a plant, has the accent on the fecond fyllable ; 
but the diphthong in both is pronounced in the fame mannen 


331. When the a in this diphthong is pronouDced* th^ has the power of ^> 
which unites both into one fyllable : thus antiquate^ antiquary ^ afuage^perfuade^ 
equal y ianguag:^ &c. are pronounced antikwafe, antikwary^ attm>a^e^ &c. 

332. ll)e u in this diphthong is filent* in guards gtiardian^ guaraiUce^ and pi ^ 
quani ; pronoimced gardi^ gard'uin^ garantee, and piciant ( 92 ) . 

333. In Manhtaj the toWn of Italy, both rowels are heard diftin^ly. The 
lame may be obferved of the habit fo called : but in nianUmmahr vulgarity has 
fonk the a, und made it mantumahr, Tlie/ame vulgarity at firft, but now fane- 
tioncd by univcrial cuftom, has funk both letters in vi£luaby and its compounds 
viauatiingand viaualier, pronounced, w///«, vMngy and viukr. See Mantu a. 


334. This diphthong, like ua. when it forms onlyone fyllable, and both letters 
are pronounced, has the u founded like iv ; as confueiude^ defuetudey and manfue- 
iude^ which are pronounced con/wetude, defwetude^ and manfwetude, Thmtonque/I 
IS pronounced according to the general rule, as if written conkwejl; but the verb 
to conquer has unaccountably deviated into conier^ 4)articularly upon the fta^e. 
This error, however, feems not to be fo rooted in Ae general ear as to be above 
correQion f and analogy undoubtedly demands rW'zcr^. 

335 . This diphthong, when in a final fyllable, finks the^ as che^ cue^due^ tiue^ 
gluCi hue^jlucf rue, sue^ truty muey accrue^ emue, endue, imbue j imbrue ^ pursue ^ 9ub^ 
dueyfierduejargueyj^due, avenue J rei^enufy eonttnuey retinue, conatrue, Mtatue^ tie- 
sttc^ itsue^ virtue^ value^ ague ; in all thefe words, whether the accent be on the 
diphthong ue or not, it is pronounced like long open ii, except in words where 
the r comes before u ; in this cafe it is founded like eo. When the accent is 
not on this diphthong as in the latter portion of thefe words from ar^ug^ it is 
apt to be feebly and iodiftindly pronounced, and therefore care ought to be 
taken to found it as if thefe words were written arget^f rmdew^ &c, la Tuefii^y^ 
me, the diphthong is pronoimccd in the fame manner. 

336. In fome words the » is filent, and the ^ pronotmced (borti as vaguefs 
g^Ji, gufrim, goerdM, where the a^s as a fervilc to prcfcrvc the g hard. See 

3S7- Xn 




IkK, wicb tbe ^ 
5)9* Thb <li|il«ii40ti^ after 

c^ « in .ti»/i./Af ADtj Mfptr in prouoLj |^ aj if the 

ns in <>,»«.-, frora the Grtek* »re iirnnoonccJ in ibe iHmc 

r becoinrt 0$ : thus J^«r ii proootUKcd if» 


^40, Tbe»« 


f hn fi "^ . '^^ I r 

n ja^i and w^, when botSj rowc!* 3irc pro- 
'-«, is pronounced Itkevi/ thus Unguidp 

A* if HThtcn i^tn^witi^ rjt'g^^i/Ij^ &c. and tuifi 

I .iiid ktut^it and f i/ir^/j» as it wntlcn l^iVrfA* 
ihc I proLiounccd long, m guide ^Sf^mfe^ guiU a^nd 
i r. Jl3^-w/A/, Air;// - ' ' jr* 

. j'le of London. 10 

but itii* b dir<;ci1y uppolUc to thc belt ylay.c* and coutriiry 
5i ii IS a compound r4" ^Wi (-i corpamiion, iilw^tys fjro* 
jwid /jiii/ Dr. Junes, who wrote in Qiicco 
. I pronounced as if writtea 67/i/i^diy. lixctrimit 
> ly fervilc 1 in both the c is huirdt aiul ihe i fhoit^ ai i£ 

v..i-:_-, - Comlmt 1% pronounced cundii* 

34J. i fitit^ and p'^r/tttif the i ii^ f»Icnt» and the «* has its dtph- 

iMgai »^^^^^J, •, 1; |.*cCG4ed by r, And the words were ymtten^fit^ief p^u^ 

145 Wiaca thli diphthong Is preceded by r^ h is pronomnced like ««; thoi 
'if ffn^ frhit^ $rut:, r^cruttt arc pionounccd as if writlca hwjff €r&9/ij 


itbifidi I need like *w 1 gtf^fr, fiio/iJt j««/W/Mir* 

*«* ffBoi^u' , y ; i ''^» f*'o/^i ^"^ »f wriucn hif&Uf kweia^ 

• i ^«if, com rri only pronounced itt^a^^'and kw^ii^ do net 
See the ifcords* 


: *tcccnt on it, finkr the iff and pronounces the 

word M/herc uy has the accent, rhymes with 

. this diphtiiong it h founded like long <, 

.!fiif ro-gn^ {with the ^ hard, asin^^^^,) 

noimced ohU-tJuai amhil9^mtt &€. 


PS^£ . 



346. This dipHlhong is found only in the word fcwy, pronounced as If writ- 
ten bwoyy hut too often exadlly like boy. But this ought to be avoided by cor- 



547. When h follows m in the fame fyllable it ts generally (Ilent, as m Arm^, 
iembf limb, comb, dumb^ &c. except accumb ^nd fuccumb .* it is filent alfo before/ in 
the fame fyUable, as in debty doubt, redtubu redoubted^ ^xid their compounds : it is 
filent before /, when not in the fame fyllable, in the vrord/ubiie (cunning), of- 
ten inaccurately ufed (or /kbtile (fine), where the b is always pronounced. In 
the mathematical term rh§mb the b is always heard, and the word pronounced 
SKs if written rbumb. jimbt-aee is pronounced Jims-acc, See jfffemKx. 

34S. C is always heard fike i before 0, and u ; as card, cord^ curd ; and 
ibft, like / before e, i and.jr ; as cemeni^ city, cynic. 

349. When c ends a word, or fyllable, it is always hard, as in nmficfjlacctd, 
JtccUj, pronounced mufik^flak^ijik^ty. See Exagoeratb. 

350. In the word j^^///r, where the firft c, according to analogy, ought to 
pe pronounced like/y Dr. Johnibn has not only g^iven his approbation to the 
found of ^, but has, contrary to general practice, fpelt the -wordjiefiic. It 
may be obferved, perhaps, in this, as on other occafions, of that truly great 
man, that he is but feldom wrong ; but when he is Ih, that he ts generally 
wrong to abfurdity. What a monfter does this vford Jhptic appear to an eye 
die lead claflica} or correA ! And if this alteration be right, why fhould we he- 
fiiate to write and pronounce /tene, fcepter, and Laced^emon^ Jkeiu, Jkepter^ and 
Lahdamcn^ as there is the fame reafbn for i in all ^ It is not, kowerer, my 
intention to crofs the general current of polite and claflical pronunciation, 
which I know is that of founding the c like i; my objection is only to writing 
it with the i%* and in this I thinlc I am fupported by the bed authorities fince 
the publication of Johnfon's Dictionary. 

351. Cis mute in C%ar, Cuarinap vidtiolif indiS, arbufck, corpufcie^ aadrntti* 
cU ; it founds Vikt4cb in the Italian words vermiceUi and vtoRnceib ; and like % 
^fij^^^ffacrijice^^cey (the number fix at dice,) znddt/.ern. 

352. This letter, when conneded with ^, has two founds ; the one like tch in 
cbUd, chair ^ ricb^ which, &c. pronounced as if written tchildt tcbair^ ritchy mAhch, 
Sec. I the other like^t, after / or «, as in belch^ bench, ficb, &c. pronounced beijh, 
henfh^fijh, &c. This latter found \t generally given to words imta the French, 
as chaiw^ chagrin^ chamadc, chamfiagne^ chamfiignon^ chandciier^ chaf^tron^ cfmria- 
tan^ chcvaHer^ chevrcn^ chicane, capuclduy car touchy machine^ machumt, chancre, 

353. Ch in words from the learned languages, are generally pronounced like 
k^9Achalcogratih^ chalybeate, cfiamicUon, chamtjmiie,^ chaos^character^ chart, ckcam, 
chely, chcmiMt, (if derived from the Arabic, and chymitt if from the Greek,) 



tAHT D. 


» dfirmmme^t cJtfyro^s^ cMer^ rAan^^t rAwf. rk»r^' 

, f "jTjjf )WKi r.a ( miii-»»:uT» 


But when vrc prcjli 

ihg Ci'Uii \«ard /{A^ (4 Uic;. ll^c <i- 

i i^'ordfrom t 

A wor J of our awn. 

W^t «Kitha CAD£osu&t,ii'c pronounce it lb hs m rhyme wi:h m^irtr^^^turcfiduitt 

vo»t\,'ii \iw ^ com , 
pCttDded {tqeti -' 
HrTht - 

'^metimes, when the folio wiog wfvrU btgin^ uith s 
rjur own» and iJk word docs not ct^ix^c 10 m com* 
"* **f Latin, ;ii €irth-fntntf» 

y pani,) (>mno«nc£d ake^ comci from Ujc Grceh and 

'* ' ic^,af^ri v?«di ^A, «i m^iif^ivf ; but 

writien mkt i»nd ^lr/| except where 

J kitiiA^iodicr ^^ord,.ii iuad-ash^ hart-ach^^ic and by thusAb- 

rhr f.^ h tli«? tompound, wc at e [mzzkd how to form ihe plu- 

in two fyllidilcs, 

the if /j is a I moll nmvcrf^Jly pronounced like ^ 

as »f fpcHcd rt^fufge. ll is filcnt \n fchedui^ ^fiLifm^, and 

;.-, yrsrwr, .ind yoi. It 1* ftink in dr&cbm^ but heard id 

r/pr<ioofmced ^^ww and drachma, 

WhrvL r ifTTTjcs after ll)C accent, cftlicr prim^Ty or fcc*<>n4ar7,' md h fol- 
- :.', j% /.-:>« or «>ttit it lakci the foiind of *i .* tliii*^ ^^a/tf foffiaf^ PJ^* 
i^ij^foKiTe^uiijamn^i^f mgGcUii&n^ arc prc»nounci:d as if writlcn^4&rflWiy©A'^» 
Phifitmfifmt^twmt ^c. (196). Fmamier has the Accint after tlie r, iR:hidi 
CO ikai accotmi does 001 gp into th. 

fl idea of the Ahcratinfvs of fmmd this letter un- 
to confider il« near rdatton 10 T (41)- Thcfe 
. f\ m\d Vt ki and hard g^ and ^^ and s, arc letters of ihc 
^.. „. . by the niceft (hades of Ibund, apd are c;*(jly conveniUe 
f, j>,y; ^, and is may, for the fake of didinClicn, be caJkd 
- -. ^- n^jy be called flat, Foi this reatbn, \vhcn a fmgti* 
, the ff,^htch fnnns the phimli prefervc* tit (harp 
. v^|//i ; and when the fmgnlar ends with a flat 
iind of S| at drabikfla£ff lf*id^, /iivip 3£C*prci* 

ifter^ when a verb tndi? whh a (Harp cofifonant, ihe ^, 

^e, tjecomcs Ihatp, and 

(i^fa(fdt (where the t 

I be-, Gxctpt when wc i*rc pronoutvcingthe Un- 

e ihc//tnto /, as if wntccn^tj^, .vi^f, (rackt^ 

crb eiids iu a flat cr iifonitni, ibc d prefervei 

, : i, fix^d^ ifu%^dt where the / is ftipprclfcd, and 

iblcj ai if ^Titrcn dfuU*d,pfpg*d, hv^d, ^u%%*d* 

"^^ It 


It may be obferved too, that when the verb ends in a liquid, or a liquid and 
xnute e^ the participle J always preferves its pure found ; as blamedt joined, JUUd^ 
barred^ pronounced ^/<7«V,yoi«V,///V, barred. This contradKon of the parti- 
cipial^^, and the verbal en (103), is fo fixed an idiom of oar pronunciation, 
that to alter it, would be to alter the found of the whole language, it mud, 
however^ be regretted, that it fubjedls our tongue to fo;jie of the moft hlflincr, 
fnapping, claflimg, grinding, founds that ever grated the ears of a Vandal ; 

• ened^ &c. almoft frighten us wh«n written as they are actually pronounced, as 
rajpufcratcht^ wrenebt^ bridle d^fangTd^ birch* n^^rengih^n^d^ quick* n^d^ &c. they be- 
come ftill more formidable when ofed contradledly in the folemn ftyle, wfaich 
never ought to be the cafe ; for here, inftead oithouJlrengthWtU Qtfireaglb*n*d'ttt 
thou quick* n^Jt or quiek*n*itfl^ we ought to pronounce, tbouJirength*nefii>Tfimgtb'- 
nedji^ thou quick* nefl^ or quick'nedfi^ which are fufficientlyharfii of all confcience. 
(See No. 405.} But to compenfate for thefe Gothick foands, whicht however^ 
are not without their ufe, our language is full of the fmootheft and moft (bno- 
rous terminations of the Greeks and Romans. 

360. By the foregoing rule of contradion, arifing from the very nature of 
the letters, we fee the abfurdity of fubftituting the / foi ed^ when .^he verb 

jends in a (harp confonant ; for, when the pronianciation cannot be miftaken, 
it is folly to alter the , orthography : thus the D'tfirfpd Mother^ the title of a 
tragedy, needs not to be written DiJIrefi Mother^ as wc generally find it, be- 
caufe, though we write it in the former manner, it mult neceflarily be pro- 
nounced in the latter. 

361,. By this rule, too, we may fee the impropriety of writing hUfl ioxUef" 

fed, when a participle. * 

. " Blcft in thy genius, in thy love too Meft.**— /**/*. 

But when Ihe word biejfed is an adjedive, it ought always to be pronounced, 
even in the mnrffamifiar converfation, in two fyllables, as this is a bksted day, 
the blessed thiOle, 5cc. 

362. This word, with karned^ curfed^ and winged^ arc the only participial 
adjectives which are conftantly pronounced in two fyllables, where the parti- 
ciples are pronounced in one : thus a learned man^ a eurfed things a waged horfe, 
prcferve the td in a diftind fyllablc ; while the fame words, when verbs, as 
he learned fo ivritef he- eurfed the day^ they winged their fitght^ arc heard in one 
fyllable, as if written learnd^ curfl, and wtngd; the d in eurfed changing to /, 
from its following the iliarp confonant / (358). 

363. Poetry, however, (which has been one great caufe of improper ortho- 
graphy), afTumes the privilege of ufmg thefe words, when adjcAives, either 
as monofyllables or diffyllables ; but corred profe rigidly exadu the pronun- 
ciation o£ed in tliefe words, when adjcdives, as a dilUn^ fyllable. The ed 
in aged and wlngrd, always make a diftin£k fyllable, as an aged mam ; the nuin^' 
ed courftr : but when this word is compounded with anotlMnr^ the ed does not 
form a fyllable, as afulhag*d borfe^ aJheath'w\ng*dfwol 

364. It is, periiaps, worthy of notice, that when adjeaivcs are changed 
into adverbs by the addition of the termination /f, we often find the participial 
termination ed preferved long and diftindt, even in thofe very words where it 
was contracted when ufed adjedlively : thus though we always hear confess* d^ 
profess* d defign*d^ &c. we as conftantly heat eonfesA-ed-lyy pro/ess-ed-ly^ de- 
srgn-edJyy *c. Th^ fame may be obferved of the following lift rf wordi, 




b) cbe tfllftsUKC oi tfac Rhytning Diafonai^, I itm enabled to give« 

ifi ihc 44I 

i» contr^tfttd in 

■ j*fMcd frvfral nhfira^ fobflinefvri f^rmt4 


luT^ <tf pTtim]ufM:ed diuin^rtiy. 

'^iftr- 'd* Afc niit Jcrivccl tr^ni verhn, and mrr tKcrcforc 

' • * he ^njc m^y be obfc'vcd vf ftMiJ^ tfuHid^ 
fiig^^vd^ €ru^hfd^ itft'udhfidf tfof^^rd* ng^rdf 
iii'.ii wc m;iy iidd. the iolcifiii pronuQca'ion of 
nmed inui riourij hf ihc addition of n n^ pre* 

^uMcsi §Kiju :i\f*iv a* /i^<^ i I'Ut when an adjc^ivc, ihtHi^h U 

ifinsrsri irj r- ik, ir ouglit to he wiittcn with rw'Ot as /fi^i 

littft 1 ktiow k contrary to uHt^e; but ui;igc is, 
o good fctife, and the fttdcd unfiogy of ihc liui- 

I Tict-1\ l^rcctv ti? ^^Tifervcd^ tliat when the verbs ends tn / or J, tlier^ 
the ^/ pronounced with \\% nwn found, si nd 
^.. .^^ v.* >*«**--- * . ...^J.Cy as latidid^ matud^ 3tC- Ollienvife the fmal J 
; bf pnkoOQnoed at alt 
Andhf"^ - -' f r^. it may not He ufelefs to talc notice of the very ira- 
\ md corJ thiSt is given in our bed gtiirnmar, u!" \vh;it art called 

4, mth^ , X To tJietV art* ;iddcdt tliolt" that end 

;ig; uhidi either fliorten the drplithong^ordunge 

j:kad of f^i tuke t only for iht prt^tcritn a* f/#£i/ir, 

, S crrpi I and thefe arc faid to be coiifidcred not Vi\ irregular, 

Nnw nothintr can be clearer tliiin that verbs cfu very dit- 

c: her a ^ of the fame* i^nauhdtthchd^jm^^fd^ 

- ^ .1 . .1 1 a I a II ; i f ih cy a r c ev er u r i t ictxfnutt ht r ^-r ri r, 

J pure ignorance of analogy* and not confidcrmff 

/ \ya\cih wc were lo pronauncc it as a dillilt^ J')T- 

J u I age of the language^ the pronunciation* 

Liic iciursj nmJl he the fame. It is very different with 

J» and not a lliarp mute, ends the vcj b. d njight he pro- 

f jufl as Well a^ iujiftd^thc participle 1 f to/// (to 

v** find cuftom has determined an irrcgulariiyj 

i- "Vice to th I : J r/^/ may be truly 

ri preterit , . ■ iple, 

j/i {h'c&m^ m€ari^jfci% nvitp^^Cff^ and f^i^**/^* 
.„^ J '.- .2ie tour iirfl of thcib words* as well at m 



Jeaied,/cf earned, chancJ^ and reeled; but-cuftom has not only annexed / to the pre- 
terit orihefe verbs, but has changed the long diphthongal found Jnto a (hort 
one ; they are therefore doubly irregular. If^eep. fleep^ and creeps would not 
have required / to form their preterits, any more \ki-3Si peeped, zndjieeped; but 
cuilom, which has fliortened the diphthong in the former word, very naturally 
annexed / as the fimpleft method of conveying the found. 

371. The only two words which occafion fome doubt about clafUng them 
are, to harn and to JpeiL The vulgar (who are no contemptible guides on this 
occafion) pronounce them in the^reterit leanti and /peitj but as n and / will 
readily admit of d after them, it feems more correal to favour a tendency to 
regularity, both in writing and fpeaking* which the literary^ world has given 
into, by (polling them /rarW and j^^//*-^, and pronouncing them Z^^imV and 

JpelPd : thns earned f the preterit of to eattiyhyiS be^ recovered from the vulgar 
earnif and made a perfed rhyme to difiened, 

372. I'o thefe obfervations may be added, tliat, in fuch irregular verbs as 
have the prefent, the preterit and participle tlie fame> as, ea/i^ cofi, evif &c. the 
fecond perfoo lingular of the preterit of thefe verbs takes e</ before the ett^ as 
/ cafiy or did caft ; Thou cajiedji^ or d'tdft caft, 8cc* for if this were not the cafe, 
the fecond perfon of tlie preterit might be miftaken fonhc fecond perfpn of tlie 
prefent tenfc. 

373* I have been led infcnfibly to thefe obfervations by their connexion wfth 
pronunciation ; and if the reader fhould think them too remote from die fub* 
jed, I muil beg his pardon> and refume my remarks on the found of the let- 
' tcrd, 

374. The vulgar drop this letter in ordinary^ and extraordinary^ and make 
them or*nary and exir*or^nary ; but this is a grofs abbreviation \ the beft pronun- 
ciation is fufficiently Ihort, which is ordinary and e'xtrord'nary s tlie firft in tliree, 
9nd the lalt in four fyllables : but folemn fpeaking preferves the /, and makes 
the latter word confifl of five fyllables, as if written extr* ordinary. 

375. Our anceilors, feeling the neceflSty of fhowing the quantity of ayowcl 
followed by ge^ when it was to be ihort, inferted d^ as <wed£e, ridge, had^e^ &c. 
The fame reafon induced them to write colledge and ailedgef with the df but 
modern reformers, to the great injury of the lauguage, have expelled the df and 
left the vowel to fhift for itfelf \ bccaufe there is no d in the ijatin words from 
which thefe are derived. 

376. D like /, to which it is fo nearly related, when it comes after the ac- 
cent, and is followed by the diphthong rV, h, la, or eou, Aides into gzb^ or the 
confonanty; thm foJdier is univerfally apdjuftly pronounced as if written^/- 
jer ; grandeur, grarCjeur ; and verdure (where it muft be remembered that visa 

diphthong), v^r^/ur^; and, for the ikme reafon, education is elegantly pronounced 
td'Jucation, But duke and reduce, pronounced yv^^^ and re-jucey where the accent 
is after the d, cannot be too much reprobated. 

377. F has its pure found in ofut^ off, &c. but, in the prepofition pf^ Aides 
into its near relation v, as if written 01*. But when this prepoiition is m com- 
pofition at the end of a word, the / becomes pure ; thus* though we found of 
iingly ov, we pronounce it as if the/ were double in nuhereof, 

' 378. There is a (irong tendency to change the/ into v in fome words, which 
coiibunds the plural number and the genitive cafe : thus we often hear of a 
wve*ajoi7iturey a calx^e^i head^ and houze X€nt^ for wife* 9 joint wre, .a cay*9 headj 1 
and h(m9€ rent. 



\*n fJ. ^;Vt r, h.i^ tvvt* 'lu *n n tiartl and a fofr onci ii b hwrd fiffof<| 
l« '; gramltMr* G^ioi u the uolj eict^oa | 


1 an J ftimctTfnre (hfV : If if f^jcueraUf 

^irctt forming b) Iki die Im y Im!^ 

re r ta ^w«fp, w^Hr. i^^frr, jf^ftf, 1!^^^^ ^Nfiiff^ ^^, j ^ w * -f?r f*| 

L ^rciciiUtin^ the tiKjctcdtn^i >owri : thu^/^^je^i 
! , to fnnnd cxinflly like the ooun ^ hng-^r i^ouft' 
^ thing) ; Uic fume may be iib'rrved iM' ihc rfd< 

/,r/ itf^*f^ f U U of (h I r; ; iin d tu r wrtp^^/r AVkd 

^(1 wrong. But tlioiJi^ii r.: '^ ^ '* " iHll 

r ih? fucceeJitig vowcK ti i i 

, liC* iind not Jin^'ffr, Irin^'^fr ^ fhtf&^tr^ 

, ;<u.| youn^tr ; hn^Jl* Jim tl)c 

late rh* r/ tliui /OM/rj'i^r ou. vine 

! lias ill Wii y % r h c ^? li •< r d , ,ifi d ;* r i ten Ut i n g 

;. iipprovcd by Mr, NajTCi* F^r^^H^latg4t^ 

Sec N'*, 409. 

■.^.■- -.^.>---. j-'.>.-,--- - ^•,-: -■ -i.^.^^vc*^ 

I hard jf, as dru^ifi^ 'mas^i/b^ '^'^#* ^mt/^ ^ 

V (nCt^ ms in ^%^t ^^%.f ^^^ snd jilmofl in alt 

Inn harti in words from tlic Saxoo uhkli 

ijin ! in ff b^rd, 3.^ Jhs^gj /''^^j^J* ^*'Wt 

lit to hivc the ^ laid, but 
4ka4iiiUli afcdo|9icd tii« Ml g, 

G^ h ihtfiime SyflaMr at ih Beginning of a IFW/. 

littJ.it4on is always fikntt as gfia^t i^fi* gt^(tf$ gnfirlt 

CX i> tm/amr S^fMk at th End ^f a fV^rd. 

onibi nation hf letters }xx% mere ptir/lcd the cnttcs than this Two 

!(ny:nifHf^l ni^rtt tii P^iftm in the Aftrd'ani of Vtm^t^ pronounced 

ch 'onnd her advocate in th<; ne wi pa pen- 

^t by preierving Uic found of^^ prono^jnccil 

*w^ fm^ikj ; and tfac oiher conteiidcd^ tbtt Mrs, Yatet was more judi- 

1 clous 



cious in leaving it out. The former was charged with harihneis ; tjiic latter* 
with mutilating the word» and weakening its found ; hut if analogy may decide, 
it is clearly in favour of the latter ; for there is no axiom in our pronunciation 
more indifputable than that which makes g fdent before n in the fame fyllable. 
This is conftantiy the cafe '\tijignf and all its compounds* as refigHf defign^ cm- 
' fg^% ^fig^ • ^"^^ ^^ tniii;fnt condign^ maUgtty benign ; all pronounced as if written 
sincy rezincy &c. In which words we find the vowel i long and open, to com- 
penfate, as it were, for the fuppt'efljon of^, as every other word ending in^Ot 
when the accent is on die fyllable, has a diphthong pronounced like a long open 
vowel, as arraign^ campaign^ fiig^*^ reigtif deign / and confequently* unlefs die 
vowel « can produce ibme'fpecial privilege which the other vowels have not, 
we mudf if we pronounce according to analogy^ make the u in this (Ituation 
long, and found impugn as if written impune, 

586* The fame analogy will oblige us to pronounce imprcgn^ oppugn^ ^^p^g** 
propugn^ as if written imprency oppune^ fxpuWy propune^ not o.nly when diefc verbs 
are in the intinitive mood, but in the preterits, participles, and verbal nouns 
formed from them, as impug/ud, impugning ^ and impugner^ mud be pronounced 
impuned^ impuning^ and impuner. The fame may be obferved of the reft. Per- 
haps it wiU gratify a curious obferver of pronunciation to iee the diverfity and 
uncertainty of our orthoepies in their notation of the words before us. 

impune* Sheridan, Scott, Nares, Murray. Barclay (ays the g in this word 
and its derivatives is mute, but takes no notice of ue quantity df 
the u, 

impun. Buchanan, Kenrick» Perry. 

impung. W. Johnfton. 

oppUne. Sheridan, Scott, Nares, Murray. 

oppun, Kenrick, Perry, Barclay. 

oppung. W. Johnfton, 

propune, Sheridan, Scott, Perry, Nares. 

propUng* Barclay. 

imprcne. Nares, Murray. 

imprint Sheridan, Kenrick, Perry. Barclay fays the^ is mute> but (ays no* 
thing of the quantity of the e, 

cxpune. Sheridan, Scott, Nares. 

expun. Perry, Barclay. 

intpHner. Sheridan. 

impuned. Murray. 

impunner. Perry. Barclay. 

oppUgker, Sheridan. 

propugner. Sheridan. 

propunet* Scott. 

prophnmr. Perry. 

Nothing is clearer than that all thefe ^vords ought to follow the fame fortunei 
and fbould be pronounced alike. How then fhall be reconciled Mr. Sheridan's 
pronouncing impugn^ oppugn^ ^pug^f and prepugn^ with the u long* and impregn 
with the € mort ! Kenrick, who has not the viot^ propuga^ is confident in pro* 
nouncing the reft wijli the vowel ftiort. The fame may be obferved of Scott, 
who adopts the long found, but has not the word impregn. Mr. Perry ■frives the 
ihort found to all hyitprQpugn^ where he makes the u long, but abfuitily makes 
the verbal nounpr^pvaner ; and W. Johnfton, who lias only impugn and oppugn^ 



r.« th^ ▼f^^ref fliortt HTJ^ fp<r7If th^rm /fnfw^^ and nffvn^. Birdir. imdcr 

i« route t 

<0^g/f ^ b--. :■ ^ :-- -- .-- - . ^. 

otk in M ihttt word*, ^ind that the ir 1 1 

-V '- '■ r':rv;iblc in Mr* Micral-i*^'' ' 
;^» the ^ in imptt^tvr^ jiti 
pu\nrr Ai\'.\ pt-'jf'U^imr* Mr. Scot: ' l| 

roperly^^ as wcU u% conisftcmly ij 
'- jmmr^ An J " ' r nftttnner only, — i ' 
rn not iiu * ihc »tn;iln{Fv nf , 

im to bv jj; tjnoimctrd ctt 
uikm : ihn% iing^r \% on; 
to ;trtic«latc die tf ;i?i it doc^ ui Jtn^fr 
i! I if a jf^nrTf one who j/|^Fft# ; ;ind JIJ» u i 

: that the atidition^l fr and ftf, in ibc cam 
. .v,j ...ivcs, make no akcrriiiad id the found of tht 
ai5 in the words 6ertf»ruf, hinignai^ Sec* eiicpt ^^Kn^rrt 
Ho, %%t. 

r compound wlierc theft kttcrt occur, lliu m aitim* 
i^tnr, arid J ii Hc.ird d'idincflly m fhc formcri as si^*mfy. wix'/- 
ivV xc Some af!c6cd fpokcrs cither ignorant of ihc i uki I 

priitiou£.;.;;sg lu;^liili,or ovcr-compbifAnt lo the Frcnchg pronoy n 
€KfmTm»tii asd ftrpgrnxanst^ without rhc » i Hut this \% m grnfs v. 
foftpnnctple^oi fpcUiRg^ The only words to keep thcic fpcakcr:, \\\ cpunic- 
nance xre ^MUtffff suxd ck^mpignonf not lon^ i?ri^ imported frnm Fr.irtrr, atnd 
jnxiBtyooced p^Mani* t$>am/>im&n The firQ of i = U w ill W ; !\crc* 

afcer vntico wtthoot Uie ^ ; while the Utter, i \n the kn ; tjr be 

loolocd Q poo u$ iech ni-cal, and al lowed an cxcl « ll v c pr i v i lege , Sec C o a k ri. a k c 
^vi>t ft..-., ,*.^.,-^*- ^.-ra^fht ini^pw^ and r?^/ici pronounced ^^rtyo% tfrn-yttti 
, may be conlidcred :n foretgn coicomb** :tnd lre:ir 
tjj uriiuLing thegt while thcj do not p<;rvert the pronundaliott 
ofoTij jgltOi n-ords* 



Wi-» H- V ,*^ f;p|| Qf ^ji is applicable lojrw We Ii:ivc but one wof^ 
Tc tlicfe leitcTS end a word widiihc accent on lu andthitl 

Uic g Is always mute, and the e ;iccording to analogy oiiglit 

. i 1 ng* as if the word were written j^-jw/ ; but a ihnn pitinun^ 

*' obt-aincd, .ind we commonly hear Mjl^mi It ri 

, . , . ccd k properly, where he fapt 

•* Ottr encics take « coni rary ^ utreme ; 

" Hvy jwlgc with fiirj, but they write w«h/6A^Bi." 

Sfijim CrliUifm. 

^Prrhjpt jf vtotiW not be difficult to reduce this word lo analogy, as fomc 

irce the f longi but in the cojripGiinds of this wqt^, as in 

. ^M w^Lvit, ihc vowtl tslliortened* and the^ piooonncediis in^'/%- 

f-»«ma«/.7>J^/^-flMS/iV| and phitg-m'i^&^mt ; thoiigh Mr* iihciidanf i or tin 



reafon I can conceive, finks the g in the laft word. When tbefe letters ^xi^ a 
ly liable not under the accent, the^ is filent, but the pi^ceding vowel Ls (hort- 
ened : thus parafigm^ parapegm^ diaphragm^ apopUbfgm^ are pronounced paradm, 
parapenif d'lapfram^ apotbcm, 


590. This combination^ at the beginning of a word, drops the ib, as in^i^o^, 
ghastly ^aghasiy gh<:i ktn^ jronounced^f/T/, rhyming with moftsgastlyf agasttguerkin^ 
but when thele letters come at the end of a word, they formibme of the greau 
eft anomnlie m our langaa.^e ; ij-A. at the end of words, is generally filent, and 
conltqutfrnly the preceding vowel or diphthong ts long as hlgbn nigh^th^bf ntigk^ 
*weigh. mveigh^ eugh (the o »iole:e way of ipellingj'.-w, a tree j, b^ugo^ dou^h^ though^ 
although^ cloiig\i , a cliff), p.ongh^furljugh^ dou^^h ^a miry place), tbrougb^ ibrgugh* 
fji, tborou.'b, boroughy Mquebaugh^ pugh ! 

391. CH h frequently pronounced like f^ 'Jl^ laughs laugbter, cougbycbough\ 
clougb (an allow mce in weight), i^ough the cail (kin of a fnakc or iatx^)^emough9 
rougby tQii'^b^ irough 

. 392. Gb is fometimes ch mged into ct^ as bougbf ibwgb, hugb, pronounced 
hock^ sbochy lock I fometimes we hear only the g sounded, as in burgh^ burgher^ 
and burghtnbip* 


393. Gb in this termination is always filent^ zsjigbt^ nigbi^ hougbufou^, dtc« 
The only exception is draugfit ; which, in poetry, is moft frequency rhyaied 
'Vfxih caugbti taugbt, &c but, in prole, i» fo univcrfally pronounced as if writr- 
ten draft, that the poetical found of it grows uncouth, and is becoming obfolete* 
Oraugbti^ the game, is alfo pronounced drafts. Droughty (drynefs is vulgarly- 
pronounced drowtb : tt is even written fo by Milton ; but in this he is not to 
oe imiutcd, having miilaken the analogy of this word, as well as that of biighi^ 
which he fpells bclgbtb^ and which is frequently fo pronounced by the Tulgar« 
iSeethe words Height and Draught. 


394. This letter is no more than breathing forcibly before th» fucceeding^ 
vowel is pronounced. At the beginning of words« it is always founded* ex* 
cept in bffsr^ heirefsy bontfl^ bonefly^ boncur, bonQurabt'cy btrbs berbage^ bo/pitaf, b^fer^ 
bour, bumble y bamoury bumorous^ humorfome, Ben Jonfon leaves out the b m h^^ 
and claffes it in this refpe<5l with bcnefi. 

395. H is always filent after r, as rbftorky rbap/ody, rbeumy rbsunusttfin^ thln^ 
eerosy rbomby rbubarby tnyrrby catarrby and their compounds. 

396. H finals preceded by a vowel, is always filent, st^ ab I bab I «b / fibt 
^rrcd)^ hallelujab'. Messiahs " 

397. This letter is often funk after ^zv, particularly in the capital^ where ive 
do not find the leaft dilh'ndion of (bund between W//^ and 'o;//^, mbn and voct^ 
taobere and wear Trifling as this difference may appear at iirft fiiht, it tendt 
greatly to weaken and impoverifh the pronunciation, as well as toroetimes to 
confound words <f a very different meaning. The Saxons, as t>r Lowth ob» 
ferves, placed the b before the nv, as bwai ; and this is certainly its true place ; 
for, in the pronunciation of all v^ords beginning with wA, ive oii^lit lo breathe 



^t^f thcTore we frmwimc* die ^i», as iF the i^c«id« wcr^ wnttcQ ^41, W*^« 
ttd dial htkAct cockoe^r ffonimtuBoiw vrhidi U fo dh 

•'^U- like fniij» #it»4l U pcrfi;^lr tifiifami m rt* 
, where it it pronounced lil 


Jr tifii 

^99. /riii« evmilty the ioiind t^hard €^ it in stlwajs filent t3cfr>rc • m the 
\ Imaik^ imightt im^p kfmtkh^ kmh^ if^i^ ift^ff hmff^ 

I' ■- ■ 'u!i, 

v>^' iibatbeoi ■cuic^^tD withfr he / ai the end 

ofv^t^irtiaipttcided bye. 1i i into the bn- 

giia|[Ct'<ir^u<fbni!biMUemlrn^ a word with ;tn unnjujil ktier* -ind is not artlr 

m bkttilil Inui^ Ia^c tT t kf.? inaT pebbly produce (omc iTrtg:ularity infntuTe 

tjc written wnli tlic ^, though to mrmL h without 
" ^ '^h is noi tincommoa, wc mutt uTrtc co^kiitrj 
.indf^f?vfitirt/arz rjot ihc moll clcgam "wotdfi 
! xrr iii line ot fotmiitic^n* Thisomiffion of lis, howci'cf, 

finsTJi r.ided, even by the authCiHty of johufon i hot ii iitd 

^< ^ :•-_.: i' ' i words from tf " ■ :; ; dud indeed* 

-'- - r f^f uprcxiiii, ^iixoQ xti b iht 

L^ua aaJ' 1 r that tJtkJ^ and /A^ i will iofc iheir I, 

Ben Jofifan A*- * meltcth in the fdunding* and 1% iherefofe c:ilkdl a 
Tbut howc ' :)t be the realbn ilrM r h called ii liquid : f<?t mCt 

— - — , be more €ppofite. tieeNojil, 

2 if, tak^^y l'a<VPt fMdr&tf, /afcf/rr^fifif y^ili (better 

U iikMc iil£a between # and k in the ikme fylUblci ais Mkt ff>jlk, ialkf 

t fifeof tikewifc tiet^Ten «? siod Mr in the f^n ' :» us ahnifhaim^ 

f, <r*ir-^m. /&*fA* ; Hut wheii the m is det^i .i the / bf cam- 

mcf audtble* llios, though the / Is mute in 
..;//. fifif^rti^efyi tittdpal'mijlry ; but '\n hnim^ and 
* ivc tcrinin4Uon of our own, no alteration is m.ide 
•^' ' uj Live which finks the /. (jS6). CWtmer ^tid £iilmfjf 

, i* they are only degrees of corap»rilbn ; and fjitner 
iU^j.j*Tr:T-.r^ ^ti^Lt^n in the langu^ige of fcfipture^ where Hid In pafmrrtvofm 
^ghrro brh^nttj arc im!y a fcmof verbal nounSp which mvtr alter the found 
M tbe origrrui^vtird, :iiid dicrefore ought 10 have the / mute* But though / is 
i^3«]atin»rs mtfir in the nmmfiivrt and m the verb wfalv^r h is always heard 

'*-;i.T'r ':: h-r ' • Sec SAtVE* 

*'**-/, ^iM-^i: I ivippretredlhtheaujiltaryverbs'aH3xi^,f0if/jf/t^tf///| 

lii MeUniei fapprea«d mfimi ; but tfaii fappreffion Is beeoine vulgar (fee 




the word). InjbJSkry Hkewife, the/ is fometimet foppreffcd, and the word pro- 
nounced yo-jtr ; but this is far from b^ing the moll corrcdl pronunciation : / 
ought always to be heard in this word, and its compounds fiidieriy^ fMkrJbif^ 

405. X. preceded by a mute, and followed by e^ in a final fyllable, has an 
imperfedt found, which does not do much honour to our language. ITic /, in 
this fituation, is neither founded like e\ nor le^ but the e final is fopprefled, and 
the preceding mute articulates the /, without eitlier a preceding or a fucceeding 
vowel ; fo thar this found may be called a monfter in Grammar — a fyllable 
without a vowel ! This will eafily be perceived in the words aB/ey tohle^ circle^ 
&c wh»ch are pronounced as if written abl^ tabU circl. Sec. and in all thofe Clill 
more Gothick and uncouth abbreviated participial terminations, ^c^W, hridUdt 
faddiedt trkfUsygoffiss^ &c. pTOTionnctdpee-pTd, bfi-dl'dj fad-di'd^ trijlz^ ga^Jfa, 

&c. (359) (47*% 

. 406. This letter has not only, like/* and/, the privilege of doubling itfclf at 
the end of a word, but it has anexclufive privilege of being double where they 
remain fmgle ; though by what right cannot well be conceived. Thus, accord* 
ing to the ger*eral rule, when a verb ends in a fmgle cOntbnanc, preceded by a 
iingle vowel, and the accent is on the lail f) liable, t£e confonant is doubled when 
a participial termination is added, as, abeff ahettin^^ beg^ ^^g'^gt ^J!*^* be^inning^ 
&c. but when tlie accent is not on the Uft fyllable ot the verb, the confonant 
remains fingle, 2Afufftred^ Juffkring^ benefiting^ 5cc. but the / is doubled, whether 
the accent be on thelafl fyllable or not, as dueUUg^ levsU'mg^ vkBuaUiug^ Ravelling ^ 
traveller^ Sec. This grofs irregularity, however, would not have been taken 
notice of in this place, if it had not fuggcfted an abfurdity in pronunciation, oc- 
cafioncd by tlie omiffion of/. Though the latter / is ulelefs in travflf^tf viSteal^ 
ier, &c. it is not fo in controller : for as H is a mark of the deep broad found o£a 
in hall) tall^ all, &c. (84) ; fo the fame letters are the fign of the long open found 
ofo in ^o// (a round flalk of a plant), tojolli nofl (the head), knoll (a litde hill), 
/«//, clodpoliy roUjfcroU^ droU^ trolUfirolU toll : for which reafon, leaving out one 
/ in beihraU €atcaU mifcal^ overfah foreflal, reinfiaU dbnunfaU yoUbai, eontrBi^ and 
sff/v/, as we find them in Johx^on's Didionary, it an omiffion of the ntmoft im* 
portance to the found of the words ; for as the pronunciation fnmetimes alters 
the fpelling, fo the fpellingforoetimes alters the pronunciation.* Accordingly 
we find fome fpeakers, chiefly the natives of Ireland, inclined to give the a its 
middle found, to words commencing with «/, followed by another confonant, be* 
caofe they do not fee the // in the alfynth which theie words are compounded : 
thus we fometimes hear Abnightyj albeit ^ fo pronounced as to make their firO: 
fyllable rhyme with the firft of al4ey, valley ; and extol is pronounced by the 
Scotch fo as to rhyme with coal ; and with juft as mudi reafon as we pronoancc 
control in the fame manner. For though compounds may, in fome cafes, be al* 
lowed to drop fuch letters of their fimples, as either arc not neceflary to the 

V found, as in Cbrifimas ; or might podibly lead to a wrong one, as in Reconcile^ 
o^Af (which fee) ; yet where, by omitting a letter, the found may be altered, the 
omiflion is pernicious and abfurd. (84.) The fame obfervations might be ex- 
tended to the numerous termination/«//, where, in compounds, one /is omitted » 
though nothing can be more certain, than that/tf/, with a fmgle /, has not the 

. iame found as when this letter is doubled ; for who could fuppofe, without be* 

« Thii omiflion of the letter Z, 1 fee, has been redified tn the laft qnuto edition of John* 
foii't Diaionary ; and it would Hstc been well if the Editors had adcnowlcdged ikeir obiig»- 
CJ009 and extended their emendations to the word Codli, and feveral ochen» 




r ; €0mfi and «^. 

iiic oncfimpic and pore, a%m m^n^ ny/, ^^<c. ; tlie 

*.irp ot fl ' ' J<ori ; Of tt« re- 

.* hut k i . prnTi**!% our lain- 

.1% H'hcO n li iuUuWt^d by jijur ii- i. . ' rvci, ihc 

3 between Uictti : ihu^ Majsjt, ^j/;-, , /5w :ire 

.;'f*^, baft'^ud^ ^R..iflcn4j, but, fjttijj^l^ i^rtgfftf^f^ 

I the louud of jv 'indj'p or hArd r^ is only luhen 

tin ; iur v*1jcii ihe^or h*irJ r artJcuIatcs the acccji^cd fyUa* 

,rfj;^-;<, yci ihc fit rt iyUu^blc of imgrmuiait^ and 

cd wjthoiit die ringing Ibund of n, and eia^Jf 

. The fame difTcrcncc m^iy be obfervcd in the 

: TI3C fir ft word, "which hj& the accent osi the firft 

if wriiua cmg^tourfa und ihc Ull^ which h*is ih^ 

\\h n pure. It miifl, however^ bt card ally ob- 

i: has the r4jnc power of melting liie n into the 

(522); Lhusia^ary-p^'i'^i/i&w iOid t^acrfmaim 

if vL'rittca f^*.^'. 

, of notice^ thiit when n is followed by i, 

11 J, us in/f«if /j^ifli, 4SCC. ; but whe^ « is f 1- 

an untinithed or impeffe^ft found, as in A^w^", km^^ 

rlir- tn^i TiTc turefl Upon ihe p^bte in the found of 

to artteulaie another fyllablct its found is 

the n^me of a lown), whci e ihcfotmdofj? 

:nt from die noun hunssr (a Avord., and 

; rhis pcrf^dt found of ^ u heard in all Um^ 

■f , c^Hj^rty iiifgmlb^ iitnLjniJi^f tlijUttgut/h^ txlmguffi^ 

liiiivcd from vcibs or ajje^ives, ending m ng^ the J' 

I tt w;is in the thctnc. I'htis ^fmk'fr (one who ftng&)i 

-, but is nicrrly rt uddcti \oJi*g: the f^iifie may 

, aud j^utrj frff, ijo atfjc(itives formed by the 

,nd of .Vt ^t^ In the original word ; tlius 

J onJ)' the fount! of t added lofpring^Jlnng^ 

riiivc and fnpcrlatfvc udje<f^ires, kn^^^rrjironf^^r^ 

I *'^i'»/ *^/^ hiive the ^ hard and perfeflly foun J- 

'^-X^^* ^c. where the ^i^ hard, a»< m 

.. ***#^A u iKA; 1^1 1^ i*. :d npotiasa general rule, that nouns^ 


adje^ives, or verbs, do not alter their ongmal found upon taking an addttional 
fyUable. In tliefe three words, therefore, the Irilh pronounce more agreeably 
to analogy than the Ei^lifh ; for, if I miftakb not, they do not articulate the g^ 

410. Hitherto we have confidered thefe letters as they are heard under the 
accent ; but when they are unaccented in the participial termination mj;, they 
are frequently a caufe of embarralTment to fpeatcers who d^dre to pronounce 
corredly. We are told, even by teachers of Englifh, that w^, in the word 

J^ngifffff i^ingitt,^9 and fwinffing^ muft be pronounced with the ringing found, 
which is heard when die aetent is on thefe letters, in kints^^Jing^ and w/nt^, and 
not as jf written without the 5^ ^sfinffin^ Irlng'tn^ fwingln. No one can be a 
greater advocate than I ain for the ftri^ieil adherence to orthograpby« as long 
a5 the public pronunciation pays the leaft attention to ic ; but when I Hnd let- 
ters given up by the Public k, with refpedt to found, I dien confider them as 
ciphers ; and, if my obfervatibn does not greatly fail me, I can aflb't, that 
our beft fpeakers do not invariably pronounce the participial ing^ fo as to 
rhyme wich^/r.?, k'mgy and ring. Indeed, a very obvious exception foems to 
offer itfelf in thofe vems that end in thefe letters, as a repetition of the ringing 
found in fucceffive fyllables wouM produce a Tautt^heny, (fee the word,) and 
have a very bad cffe«$l on the ear ; and therefore, indead oijinging^ Mnging^ 
9Xid^ng'mg^ our beft fpeaikers are heard to pronounce ^h.^-ta, Mngnn, and 
fi$ng4n; and for the very fame reafbn that we exclude the rinffing found in 
tbeie words, we ought to admit it when the verb ends with in ; for if, inflead 
of^nn'mgt pinning^ and beginnings wc Should pronounce^^-iiiff, pin^mn^ and ^r* 
gin-ninf we ihould fall into the fame difguding repetition as in the former 
cafe. The participial ing^ therefore, ought alwa^ys to have it< ringing found, 
except in thofe words formed from verbs in this termination ; tor •wWfm,^, 
rending^ and fpenking^ are certainly preferable to wrifin, reading zodjpeakia, 
wherever tl)e pronunciation has the leaft degree of preciiion or folencinity. 

41 1. i\r is mute when it ends a fyllahle^ and is preceded by / or n, as kiln^ 
hymBf ismn, fiietiinf column^ autumn* condemn* a^ntemn. In hym^ning^ and Um-ning, 
the n is generally pronounced, and fometimes, in very iblemn fpeaking, in 
condem-ningp and contemning ; but, in both cafes, contrary to analogy, which 
forbids any found in the participle that was not in the verb (3B1 ). 


412. This letter is mute before / and t at the beginning of words, pfttlm^ 
pfeiimijt^ pfalmody^ pfalmograpby^ pfahcr, pfattry ; the prefix tfeudn^ fignifying 
falfe, as pfeudfigraphy^ ppudoiogy^ and the interjeAion/»/b'>w / To thefe we may- 
add //i/2/if, ^/ya/^, ty/magokue. It is m-te in the middle of words between 
Jll and/, \Xi empty^ fempfirefs^ peremptory* fumpiunut. prefumptu9%ts» redemptim^ ex* 
nation, and rafpberry* In cupboard it coalefces with and falls into its flat <bund 
4 as if written cubboard. It is mute in a final lyllablc between the {dxno^ letters, 
as timpt^ attempt^ contetnpt* exempts prnmr^y accnmpt In r^fCfipt it is mute between 
i and /, and in the military cwps (a body of troops) both p and /are mute» as 
cuftom has acquiefced in the French pronunciation of moli military terms. 


41 3. Pb is generally pronounced like f^ as in pb'dofophyj pbanidm^ &c. In 
nephew and St^^hen it has the found of v. In dipbthmtg and tripM^ifg the found 


i beards iuid the A ii mmt lifcewtff in n^^kk>u i)^kk»fmkl, kc. In 

Z i 

414. C!^** alwar* the lound f^fl .* it h conftanUy followtd by #« ptofkciitfK« I 
^ se w I and iu getierml found i« heard Infua^k^ ^uHL quctrs, &c. profKninc^ I 
I, («a»7, 1'ttii^^Pt, 5fec* 'Hiiit the IT t'ubJL>ined to thit letter rcmlly ihc powrfl 
tnaybe "^— ■ -J in the gcnendky of wordi where a fuececdK i ior wgl 
3«r.:' tbe broad ibund in quarts qmirreL quantitf* 4c e. sik muc!i \ 

^4r^ ^cvjf rj» ?, -it»<m/, &c* ( 85 ) But ii mutl he carefully nored, thai this J 
bc<^d fimud \s Dti\y hcird under the accent 5 when the a^ prtcc Jc 1 hy if/«, is not J 
MfJCtAj^ It has tlic fkmad of every athet atccntcd # in the liin^iirt^c. (91). I 
TW^ Y^ e m m$arUr^ ^$drrrL fnadram^ ^c. bcc4Ulc it h^% the accent . 1^ lirn^ct 1 1 
l!he 6iiBe tfixf m cAaiCerved when the acccot is fccond^ry only Cfii; t ] 

in «M«&^^auli fMirifi^^V, ^<^- ; bat when the acceot is oia the fi /^ ' 

fytUbk^ ak m fm^Mttk^ qua^dran^Ur^ Sec. the it goci into the obfwutic iauii4 
jpfj«ye/f/nif m *J:z fe^d^ a (93;. 

^ > ; rtiber of vvords^ derived from ihe French, hA?e thcfc let- 

r ' ^ to our ufoalconiplaifiiiicc for that UnguigCi wc ad<>pt 

J- . : thu'i tn c^uett doquHt fttfnttfCt miiifittrad*% hariequmf 

-: :sf/mt ihe qu « pronounced like I. ^mif and qfi&ti ought to 

be ^T'.ticci 4.ti4 nriXfloufKed c<>i/; coiu PaqufU isqufft dnqutr, and rifque^ h'Avt 
been vcrr properly fp«lkd by JohnJon as they are pronounced paciit^ h^itf^ 
ilfhr^ and ri.I. ^^h cwight to be prrinounccd with die m^ m if wrillcn 
11; u*» . A:>ti tLi^f .for^ t^ not irregular. Lifu^r and LtrUqiun always l^H'c the u ; 
»oJ . -nfvrr, r;>tr.fT-.,/i/#j and c^nqutr^r^ fLimelimeSt pjniculatly on the St.ige. 
Tiit^ Li<!v\ \i?i>n* \v rwev^f, fctm& not to have gone Keyoiid recovery % and cmq^i-j^ 
nftdlicrukfly pfonotiticcd CQniwc/l. Sll^otc and quGtattm arc perfedlh regu- 
lar* ^nd ivutrlit iitvci to be pronoiiuced as fomc do, co/^and e^fatm. Clfquf^ 
V r ' i v/, and cinffu^t cin^ue-f^ilf t'tnque'P^jrhf cinqut-fp&t'td^ arc pro- 

aiuuti^:J^':*t «^.. «i ; andf'riigj^i wlicn wc mean a criticifm. to dilllnguilh it 

horn 9if tfi, U pronounced m/ffi, rhy ming widi^ai , See Quoi r and Quo- 


^iCr." ''-'.- vet lllent, but its found is fometimestranrpofcd. Tna 

t Gb^ niLk' , terrmniting wiih re, the r is pronounced after the e^ 

, ^fifrf, ej%r€^ maugrer fcpukhn^ thmtr^^ ^<5rf, mttrt^ 

.'Irf^ aa^utr^^ mqfj:r€; to which we may add » anirif 

uiJofiHi *o^ ^ '^^J^^'* ^^^'^ *r/'>>/^'^ ; but, in my opinion, vciy 

.r ' y is Hied, and calily und.rllood ; while red.>ctng 

jHk^y . the rule, and adds anoilicr anomaly to our proniincia* 

tkHk~, ..^:^.^ , :.ard before r (9B). 

41;/ lln §tmt rranip >ri^on of r is always perceived in the pronanciatiofi of 
md t>Mi ; Jiod often in tliat of citron li^d fajfrettf as if written afurfi, rwrn, 
^f^mn : fvQT do I think the two 6rft can be pronounced othcrwifc with- 
I di&rrcaibW ftiiPdcfs i but the two lM\ may prefcrTO the r befort the TOwel 
^ m With 



with great propriety. CbUdren and hundred have flid into this analogy* when 
ufcd colloquially, but prcferve the r before the e in folemn fpeaking. 

418. As this letter is but ajar of the tongue, fometimes againft the roof of 
the mouth, and fometimes at the orifice of the throat, it is the mod imperfcft 
cf all the confonarits ; and, as its formation is fo indefinite, no vronder, when 
it is not under the accent, that the vowels which precede it fliould be fo indcfi- 
4fitein their founds, as we may perceive in the woids friar j lier^ elixir^ nadir^ 
mayor^ nuulyr, which, with refpca to found, might be written friur^ liur^dtxur, 
Badur,mayurimanun (98). Thefe inaccuracies b pronunciatiout iayt an inge- 
nious writer, * we feem to have derived from our Sazdn anceftors. Dr. Hicks 

* obibrves in the firil chapter of his Saxoft Grammar, that <* Comparauiva apud 
** COS (Anglo-faxonas) indifferenter exeunt in <ir, jrr, er, «r, •r, vrtyrg et Su- 
'« perlativa in a//, artt #//» «^ ost wt.jfii ; participia pr«fentis temporis in W, 
^< and, endy ind, ond^ umd^ynd ;, prxteriti vero in ad^ ad^ id, od^ vd^yd ; pro vario 
** fcUicet vel sevi vel loci disdeda/' ' Upon various other occafions'alfo tliey • 
« ufed two or more vowels and diphthongs indiflPercntly ; and this noti always 

« from difference of age or place, becaufe thefe variations aie frequently found 

* in the fame pa?e. This will account for the difference between the fpelling 

* and pronunciation of fuch anomalous words as busy and bury, now proneunced 
' as if written buy and beryj (the 1 and e having their common (hort found,) and 

* formerly fpelt indiffierently with #, «, er jr.* Ettay on tic ffammy rf Language, 
Robibn, 1774* 

4 1 9. There is a diftindlion in the found of this letter, fearcdy ever noticed hj 
any ef our writers on the fubjedk, which is^ in my opinion, of no (mall import* 
ance ;, and that is, the rough and fmooth r. Ben Jonfon, in his Grammar, 
lays it is ibunded firm in the beginning of words, and more liquid in the middle 
and ends, as in rarer^ ripep 1 and fo in the Latin. The rough r is formed by 
jarring the tip of the tongue againft the roof of the mouth near the fore teeth : 
the fmooth r is a vibratioaof the lower part of the tongue, near the root aeainft 
the inward region of the palate, near the entrance of the. throat. This latter 
r is that whicli marks the pionunciation of England, and the fonner that of 
Ireland. In England^ and particularly in London, the r in lardt bard^ card^ 
regardt &c. is proaouneed fo much in the throat as to be little more than the 
middle or Italian a, lengthened into laadi haad^ caadt rtgaad; while in Ireland 
the r, in thefe words, is pronounced with fo ftrong a jar of die tongue aeainft 
the fore*part of the palate, and accompanied with fuch an afpiration or ftrong 
breathing at the beetnntng of the letter, as to produce that harfhoefs we call the 
Irifh accent. But if this letter is too forcibly pronounced iff Ireland, it is often 
too feebly fomided in England, and particularly in London, where it is fome- 
times entirely funk \ and it may perhaps, be worthy of obfervation, that, pro- 
vided we avoid a too forcible pronunciation of the r, when it ends a word or is 
followed by a confonant in the fame fyllable, we may give as much force as we 
pleafe to this letter at the beginning of a word, withgut producing any harihnefs 
to the ear : tiius Romet river ^ rage^ may have the r as forcible as in Ireland.; 
but bar 9 hardy card^ bardy 6cc. muft have it nearly as foft as in London* 


420.. As the former letter was a jar, this is a hi(s ;. but a hi(s which forms 
a much more definite and complete confonant thaa the other. This confonant, 
like the other mates, has a fiiarp and a fiat found ; the (harpfonnd is heard in 
the name of the letter, and in the words^ tam^ sin^thi/ c the flat found is that 


_. ^ * -fcfc 


Kf!i^ heard in is^ bit, was : and thele two founds, accompanied by the afplrate, 
3r 6f form all the varieties found andcr this letter (41 ). 

421 . 5 has always its (harp hKTing fomid at the beginning of words, as jooth 
i'm, &c. and when it immediately follows any of the (harp mutes/, L p^ u a» 
i^^ftf ^ocks^hift, pitSf or when it is added to the mute e after any of thefc let- 
ters, as strifityfiikesf plpts^ mites. 

42 3« ^ is (harp and oi(Iing at the end of the monofyllables jr<r/, thh, us, thutf 
^ai ; and at the end of words of two or more fyllables, if it be preceded by any 
of the Tcwels hut <t and forms a did in 61 fy liable : thus es m pipit and mtta do 
Bot form a diftind fyllable ; and as they are preceded by a (harp mute, the / 
is (harp likewife : but in prices thefe letters form a fyllable, and the / is pro- 
Boonccdiike », according to the general rule. 

.423. The only exception to this rule is, the words «/, nvhereas^ Bat, biff was g 
for hiat^ dtvffiatf Maiy metropolis f has is ^ chaos y tripos ^ pus ^ chorus y Cyprus, &c. have 

^ final f ptononnced (harp and hiding. 

424. AgreeabVy to this rule, the numerous terminations in ous^ as piouty sum 

perfmmuf 3c£. ha^etbe t (karp, and are pronounced exactly like the pronoun us t 

and every doable # ia the language is pronounced in the fame manner, except 

indie "wards £is9he9 possess ^ and their compounds ; scissorsy hussy , and hussar • 
41 f. Sin the in/eparable prepofition ^//, when cither the primary or fecon* 

dATjzccent is on it (521)9 is always pronounced (harp and hiiTmg ^ the word* 
Ssmaiy wfuch feems to be an exception, ts not fo in reality ^ for, in this wordf 
dis is oot 2 prrpofidon : thus dissolute^ dtssonanty &ۥ with the primary- accent 
^n Ms ; VBddssahii'ajy disagreCy &c. with the fecondary accent on the fame letters, 

have the s (harp and biffing ; but when the accent is on the fecond fyllable, 

the / IS either (harp or flat, as it is followed either by a rowel, or a (harp or flat 
xoofonamx: ^xxsdisaUey disaster, disease^ disintcretiedy dishonesty disorder, disusey 
hare all of them the 1 in ^ flat like s, becaufe the accent is not on it, and a 
TowcI begins tlic next fyllable ; but discredit, disfavour, diskindnessy dispensey dis- 
tastcy have the / (harp and hiflSng, becaufe a (harp confonant bev>ins the fuccecd- 
itig accented fyllable ; and disbandy disdain, disgrace, disjoiny disvalue, have the 
xflatli3» 2, becaufe thtj are fucceeded by a flat confonant in the fame fitua.- 
tion (435). 

426. fin the infeparable prepofition mis is always fliarp and hi (Ting, whe- 
ther the accent be on it or not ; or whether it be followed either by a vowel, 
or a Iharp or ftit conibnant, as miscreant, misaim, misapply^ misorder, misuse^ mis* 
le^aty misdeemy misgovem, &c. See the prefix Miss. 

427. S fblUiwcd by ^ in the final fyllable of adjeftives, is always (harp and 

biffing, as iasCf obese, preessey concisey gidboseyverboscy morlose, pulicose, tenebricose, 

mrlkon^joeosiy deose, rugose, desidiose, close, siiiculose, calcutosc, tumulose, animose^ 

'maemuyoremsey si^enoscy erinosey looscy operose, morose, tdematoscy comatose, acetose^ 

§qaoseysiBfa9seyaawasetdiffiue,pro/use, occJuse, recluse, abstruse, obtusey except nsjise 

vss^ethergmuy and the pronominal adjedives these and those. 

428. ^, io the adjedive termination eive, is always (harp and hifling, as 
etsanoeyfertaatney oseuaMve, diseuaehe, adhestve, cohesivcy decisi f>ey precisive, inci* 
aevey derisk^ eicotrisivef w«iw, pkumve, abusive^ diffusive, infw^ive, inctuiive, coo* 
ciueive, exciwavey tbteroCf dehsshcypreiushey allusivcy illusivey collusivcy amusive, 
eknmff Sec, 

429. ^, in the acgcAive* ending in wjr, is always (harp and hiflSng, as «w- 
^eryypereaasorff decisorjy deriwyydeiuaoryy &c. 

43a The finie may be obferved of « in the adjeftives ending in smcy as 
inUnmatt ^c. ^M (obBtUiO:rt$ kk ^^ty, generosity, dec. 



431. Sft preceded by the liquids /, »» or r, has the « (harp and hiflingi as 
fu/fit opp\Uj€f denjff tenfe^ tntenjc^ Jtnfe^ verfe^ adver/ci &c. except cieanfe. 

S promuncfd Hie b. 

432. 5 has always its flat buzzing found, as it may be called^ when it im» 
mediately follows any of the flat mutes b^ i, g hard^ or v, as rih^^ hea/U, rag»t 

Jm)es 1*4). 

433. ^ is pronounced like sj when it forms an additional fy liable with e be- 
fore it« in the plurals of nouns, and the third perfon fingular of verbs ; even 
though the fingulars and firfl perfons end in fharp hifTmg founds, as «//» 
ficbeu, cage9^ boxes, &c. : thus^nV^« and priz09 have both the final/ flat, though 
the preceding mbte in the tiril word is (harp (422). 

434. As / is hifling, when preceded by a liquid* and followed by tf route, 
as trofffif teft/e, &c. ; ib when it follows any of the liquids without the ^, it is 
pronounced like %, as morais, meansf feew^^ ber^. In the fame analogy, when 
y" comes before any of the liquids, it has the found of s, Mco/m^ic^ diJmaU 
fi/mire^ cbafin^ prifm^ tbelfm^ fcbifmt and all polyfyUablet ending in afwtt ijmy 
^mr or yfmfTLienthufiafm^judaifmf mUrocofm^ paroxyfin^ &c. 

435. Sf in the prepofition ^«, is either iharp or flat, as it is accented or un« 
accented, as explained above ; but it oueht always to be pronounced like 
%f when it is not under the accent, and is followed by a flat mute, a liquid, or 
a \'OW€l, as disable^ dUeasCy dUordeVy dUtue^ di^band^ dzMiainy disgrace j ditvalue^ 
diBJom^dMke^dialodgc^ dumay^ diftnember^ dumountydinmiMy dihnaturedy dUrank^ 
jdUriHib^ di rcbe (425)* Mr. Sheridan, and thofe orthbepifts who have copied 
Ibim, feems to have totally overlooked ih^s tendency in the liquids to convert 
the ^ to » when this letter ends the firft iyllable without the accent, and the 
liquids be^n the fecond fyllable with it. 

436. S IS pronounced like », in the monofyllables a«, », bhj wom^ theft *^09^ 
and in all plurals whofe fingulars end in a vowel, or a vowel followed by e 
mute, as commasf operas^ Bboe»^ aloes^ dues^ and confequently when it follows die 
w or jr, in the pluralb of nouna, or the third perfon fmgular of verbs, as w«y«, 
ieirayst Jif«tf«, vienvs^Stc. 

. 437. Some verbs ending in ae have the < like s, to difHnguifh them from 
nouns or adjedivjcs of the fame form. 

Nouns Verbs Nouns Verbs 

jfrea9€ to greau ^txcuf^e to exaue 

fh%c to clo 4 refu9e to refkt 

house tohoim d'^u9€ \c^ diffme 

poti^ to OToiMr ti«e to ure 

kuae to loM3e riwe 'to riae 

to abuH ^emui to 

43^- 4^ 3°ct ^«)F, at the end of words, have the • pronounced like % ijT it has 
A vowel before it, with the accent on it, as eeuy^grtmay^ W^9cb€9^^i4iaisf^ mty^ 
FMjr, rtfiwjf, nohy / but if the accent is on the antepenmtimate fyllable, the « is 
Ihaip, as bnny^ poeay^ &c. ; if a (harp mute pretede, the « is fharp, as iriciayt tip- 

2; if a liquid precede, and the accent is on the penultimate fyllable, the « is 
^ tas W^jfy/b.^, elunuyjpeuuyttamyt pbrensy^ qkinsyy toUy^ ^hmafyt maimwyt 
J^raeyt wr^ey. Puroey has the « (harp and hiflmg &om its relacionio /kt a and 
mattnh^ and tmtroowy Liivc the antepenultimate and preaatepenultimate 

accent •< 


accat: thus we iec why hijjf hmfyy loufjt and drow/y^ have the / like s, and 
jssi.ij^ the iharp hiding /. 

459. Sy in the termination sihle^ when preceded hy a TOwcl, is pronounced 
liifc s, as perfiuifibU^ riJibU% vifibU^ iUv'tfibii^ inftftbUt conclufihit / but it a liquid 
coTiionant precede die s^ the 1 then becomes (liarp and hiiling, ^%Jentibi€t njpQn- 
jiUf, tauiUe^ revcrsfhify &C. 

440. S^ In the terminations sary and sory^ is (harp and hifTingf as dUpensary^ 
i^vcnarjf suajory^ persuaswy^, dccijory. incisory^ derisory, dtpuUory, compulsory^ w 
cfnsory^ compeasory, SMtpenJoryfieMJoryf.r^pomoryt cursory^ discursoryf iusoryy eluso* 
tf^dslujory. iliussfy^ cQHus9ry, Aojary and misery f which have the / hke st, are 
the only exceptions. 

441 Sy in the tennination f/^t is pronounced like s, except in the adjed^ives 
b^tort mentioned, and a few i'ubltantiveS) fuch SLSparaJhcy anue, rise, grut, ver» 
diiristy m9rt'u€y travise. 

4 ft. S in the urminations sal and iei, when preceded by a vowel, is pro. 
ncanced'^ s, ^aoid/, ouuiy housely nouf^al^ reprtaU proposaiy refusal y and iharp 
and htOingvVkcn preceded by a confonant. as ntennaU univcrtaty dec. 

443 ^, in \be termination son^ sen, and /m, is pronpunced like s, as rtafon^ 
fr-tjooy tm^t eargafony diapafiny oriforij bentfnn, veni/on^ dertijon, Joijor$^ potjon^ 
fri/ioif damj&ft crimf^tSy cbofeuy. refin^ rofiny raijin^ coujin. But the / in mahm^ 
idjesh ^arriJoMf cafarifiuf compart/on^ parf(M% and perjon^ \% iharp and hilling, 


444. ^ after the inieparable prepofitions pre and proy Is fharp, as tn prefage^ 
frefikypnjidialjprejtaacffprefenffny projecuie^profecutionyprofcdy^ projopopetay but 
flat like % in prejcncey prejident^ pre^ ienfy. prefumey prefumpitvc, prtjumpttom but 
where the ^^ is prefixed to a word which is fignihcant when alonC) die / is al» 
ways fiarp, 2& pre fuppofc^ pre furmijey &c. 

445. ^ after the infeparable prepodtion rf is almofl always pronounced like 
2y as refemiieyrejeni^ refenimcnU refervcy nfervatioriy rejervoir^ rt/tduey refidenty re- 

^daalgryy rrfidiy refign^ reJignmctUy reftgnaiion^ rejtiiencey rejuums^ rejtliiiony refine 
rtjifiy r^Jlamcey refohfiy resdutioriy refoluU rejult% refume, refumptiom, reJurreSion. 

446. 5 is (harp afiter re in rtJufcitatioHy refupmatlon^ &c. and when the word 
added to it is (ignificant by iti'elfv as refearcby refeige, refeaty rejuriey. Thus to 
ff/^s, with the J like «» fignifies to yield up ; but to re ftgtiy to fign again, has 
the i iharp, as in^^tr .- io to refound» to reverberate, has the t like % ; but to nr- 
JowUy 10 ionvA again, has the 9 fharp and hiifing. 

447. Thus we fee* after purfuing this letter through all its combinations, 
boir dffficait it often is to decide by analogy, when we are to pronounce it iharp 
and hiffing. and when flat like %• In many cafes it is of no great importance : 
m othen it is the diftin^ve mark of a vulgar or a polite pronunciation. Thos 
^^^isBBver heard with the / like « but among the lowed order of the people 4 
and yet there is not the kaft reafon from analogy why we ihould not pronounce 
it is this maoDery as well as in refign : the fame may be obierved oi prejide and 
^Jifi^ vhicji have the / (harp and hifiinfi; 4 and refide and re/tjiy where the iame 
^tter is fronoonced like s. It aiay, however, be remarked, that r^has the 
t hkt z after it more regolariy than any other of the prefixes. 

^^ It may, perlu^« he -worthy of obiervauon, that though « becomes 
Aarp or &ic» as it is fblkiwed by a iharp or flat conionant, or a liquid, m 
u/metkf S/maL^ dijkand^ d^rb^ &C. yet if it follows a liquid cir a flat coniA- 
1^^ except ia ibeifUBe lyllahle, h is generally iharp. I'hus the # in tubsL, 
M< &c is i&e • i but xokfiib^^, fuh/idey fubjtft^ it is iharp and hifling ; and 
>^i^4i46 Ibt in flii^fat itti Ikuy ift^^n^ and ab/muvn^ but if a ihaip 



confonlat precede, the a is always iharp and hii&ngy as tip/yj irickfy : tbns in 
the pronunciation of the word Glasgow, as the s is always (harp and hiflln^y 
^e find the g invariably Aide into its (harp found k ; and this word is alwrays 
heard as if written Glafiow, We fee, therefore, that a preceding fharp coii« 
fonanc makes the fucceeding / fharp, but not inverfely. 

449. S is always (harp and hiillng when followed by e^ except in the word 

S atpiralcdf or totmdhg ftie fh, vr zh» 

450. ^, like its fellow dental /, becomes afpirated, and goes either into the 
fharp found sb, or the flat found xh^ whence accent is on the preceding 
Towel, and it is followed by a femi-confonant diphthong, as nauttate^ or a 
diphthongal vowel, z%pieasuref pronounced nausbeate SLndphtimre (195)* 

451. ^, in the tennination mttf preceded by a vowel, goes into Uie flat 
afpiration zh^ as evanon, cobesUn^ decifiottt conftuion^ pronotmced evazhiom^ Sec . % 
but when it is preceded by a liquid or another j, it has the (harp afpiratioxi sJ^^ 
as exfulfion, dimension^ peventon^ prongomced mpuhhlon^ dec. 

4;a. The fame may be obferved of « before u ; when a vowel precedes the 
«, with the accent on it, the / goes into the flat afpiration, ^spUawre^ meoMure^ 
treajvre^rasuretpumomkccdfiezburej See; but when preceded by a liquid* 
or another /, it is founded sb, as sensualf censure^ tonsure^ fresamtf pronoaaeed 
sentbuait c^nsbure^ &c. 

453. From the cleamefs of this analogy, we may perceive the impropriety 
of pronouncing ^sia with the (harp afpiration, as if written ^sbia ; when> by 
the foregoing rule, it ought undoubtedly to be pronounced Azbia^ rhymin*; 
with Arpasia^ eutbanaaiai &c. with the flat afpiration of z. This is the Scotch 
pronunciation of diis word, and onqueftionably the true one : but if I miftake 
not, Persh h pronounced in Scotland with the fame aspiration of /, and as 
if written PerzM^ ; which is as contrary to analogy as the other is agreeable 
to it. ^ 

454« The tendency of the /to afpiration before a diphthongal found has 
produced feveral anomalies in the language, which can only be dete^d by 
ffecuiring to firft principles: for which purpofe it may be neceflaiy to obierve, 
that the accent or ftrofs aatnrally preferves the letters in their true found ; and 
as feeblenefs naturally fucceeds force, fo the letters, immediately after the 
ftrefs, have a tendency to Aide into di£Ferent founds, which require leis ex- 
ertion of the organs. Hence the omiffion of one of the vowels in the pro- 
nunciation of the laft fyliable c£ foufUain^ matmt^f eaptmnt &c. (20S) : hence 
the ihort found of i in resfite% servile^ &c« ; hence the / pronounced like z in 
dDaablcf where the accent is on the fecond fyliable ; and like x (harp and hiflin^ 
in JisabiSlyj where there is a iecondary fbefs on the firft fyliable ; and hence 
the difference between the x in exercUe^ and that in exert ; the former having 
the accent on it, being pronounced cks^ at if the word were written ecktercixe ; 
and the latter vrithout the accent, pronounced ^z, as if the word were writ- 
ten 0gzfrt>, This analogy leads us immediately to difcover the irregularity of 
#tfrf, /i^ar, and their compounds, which are pronounced tbure and ahti^arp 
though the accent is on the firft fyliable, and ou^ht to prelerve the / without 
afpiration $ and a want of attending to this analogy has betrayed Mr. l^eri- 
dan into a feries of miftakes in the found of / in the words tmcide^ freiume^ 
resume^ &c. as if written abookkhf prfzboomf re-zboomf 8cc» ;'but if this is 
the true prononciatton of tbefe words, it may be aikedf why is oot smi^ smk-^ 


ail<i^«f, &c. to be proBOimced sbooi^ shxtot-ahle^ pur-ihoo f &c. If it be anfwer- 
cd,Ciitlom ; 1 own this decides the quedion at once. Let us only be aHurcd^ 
!bithebcftfpeakers pronounce a like 9, and that is the true pronunciarion r 
ba ibofc iwho fee analogs fo openly Tiolated» ought to be affured of ihc cer- 
Qiriy of the cuftom bcfose they break through all the laws of language to 
conform to it (69) (71). See SvPBRABLr. 

455. Wchavc feen, ia a great variety of inftances, the verfatility of /^how 
&equently it (Hides into the found of % : but my obfervation greatly fails me if 
it ever takes the afpiration, onlefs it immediately follows the accent, eicept ia 
tbe words xsrr, sngmr^ and their compounds : and thefe irregularities are fuffi- 
cient, without addiBg to the numerous catalogue we have already feca under 
tiiis letter. 

456. The analogy ve ha^c }uft been obfervmg dircfts us in the pronuncia- 
tion of iinp7, Msunn and usurious. The two fir(t have the accent on the Brft 
fyMAe, w^ch permits the s to go into afpiration, as if the words were writ- 
tea wzhw^ aiui y/xhunr : but the accent being on the fccond u in the laft word, 
the 1 IS pTeveGSed (rom going into afpiration^ and is pronounced uxwioks (479) 

457. Tbongh the u iafajji^m^ mission^ &c. belong to feparate fyUables, as if 
(jpch^^tMi, mi/'sffaat &c. yet the accent preiTes the firft into the iame afpira^ 
tion OS the lail, and they are both pronounced with the (harp afpirated hin^ as. 
if they were bot one a See £xagg£rat£« 

45 S. ^is (ilent in /r/r, isiandy ahlcf demesne^ puisne^ vitcountf and at the end of 
ibme words &om the French, as past sou*% vh-i'vis ; and in corps the two lad 
letters are filent, and the woid pronounced core {^ii)» 

459^ 7*15 the ibarp ibund of /) (41 ) ; but though the latter if often changed 
iato die former, the former never goes into the latter. The found to which 
^his letter is extremely prone is that of «. This found of the / has greatly muU 
lipliedthe hifiing in our own language, and has not a little promoted it in mo(i 
modem tongncs. That/ and ^, / and </, k and g hard* / and z, (hould Aide in* 
to each other, is not furprifing, as they are dillinguilhed only by a nice fhade 
ef ioond; but that / (hould aker to s feems a moil violent ttanlition, till we 
ccmfukr the organic formation of thefe letters, and of thofe vowels which al* 
ways occafion it. If we attend to the formation of t we (ball End that it is a 
Steppage 0/ the breath by the application of the upper part of the tongue near 
the end, to the correfpondent part of the palate ; and that if we jull deUch the 
tongue fiom the palate, fufficiently to let the breath pafs, a hifs is produced 
which foHM the letter /. Now the vowel that occafions this tranfition of r to / 
is the f^qoeezed found of Cf as beard in y confonant (8) : which iqivcezed found 
is aijpecies of hifs ; and this hifs, from the abfencc of accent, eaiily Hides into 
the /y and/ as eafily into sJ^ : thus mechamcally is generated that hiding termi- 
nation Iras, which forms but one fy liable, as if written nhun (195). 

460^ Bat itmud be carefully remarked, that this hi (Ting found, contni(5ted by 
the / before certain diphthongs, is never heard but after the accent : when the 
accent falls 00 the vowel immediately after the /, this letter, like x or ^ in the 
ikeie fitnatios, preserves its fimple found : thus the c in social goes Into shj be- 
caiafe the accent is on the preceding vowel ; but it preferves the fimple found 
^i t'f^HcUty^ kecai^e the accent is the fucceeding vowel. The fame analogy is 



obvious in satmte and sattHy ; and is perfcdly agreeable to that difierence made 
by accent in the found of other letters (71). See Satiety. 

461 . As the diphthongs ia^ ir, io* or iu, when coming after the accent, have 
the power of drawing the / into j^, fo the diphthongal vowel Uf in the fame fi tua- 
tion, has a fimilar power, if we analyze the u, we (hall find it commenie ^rith 
the fqueezed found of ^ equivalent to the confonant y (39). This letter proda* 
ces the fmall hifs before taken notice of (459)9 and which may be obfenred ia 
the pronunciation of nature and borders fo clofely on natshur^ that it is no txron- 
der Mr. Sheridan adopted this latter mode of fpelling the word to exprefs 
its (bund. The only fault of Mr. Sheridan in de piling the (bund of this word, 
feems to be that of makings: the u fliort» as in bur^ cur^ 5cc. as every correft ear 
mud perceive an elegance in lengthening the (bund of the Uy and a vulgarity in 
Ihortening it. The true pronunciation feems to lie between both. 

462. Bat Mr. Sheridan's greateft fault feems to lie in not attending to the 
nature and influence of the accent : and becaufe mUuret creature^ fetUure^firttMiep 
misforiumey 8cc. have the / pronounced like cb^ or tsh, as if written erea'thure^ f^t^'- 
Uburt'i &e. lie has extended this diange of / into tch or uh^ to the wo'-d tum^ and 
its compounds, /K/or, ttitortu% ItUorage^^uteiage^ tutelar ^ tutelary ^ &c. tumuli^ tumnmr^ 
3cc* which he fpells tsboon, tsboon^Mef Sec. tsbootur, tthoO'trusy tsboo^ur-idttb, t^J^oo^ 
$il-ui%b^ uhoO'tel-er^ tsho^'Ul-tr^y^ 80c. ttlm-iMult^ tsboo-mur, &c. Though it tr evi- 
dent, from the foregoing oblervations, that as the u is under the accent, che 
preceding / is preferved pure, and t]iat the words ought to be pronounced 9j% if 
written tewtor^ tewmultj tewmour^ Slc. and neither tsbootur^ tiho^muUj tsfwnnaur^ 
as Mr. Sheiidin writes them, nor /00/or, fgemu/tf toomcari as they are often pro- 
nounced by vulgar fpeakers. See Su p b« a b l r . 

463. Here, then, the line is drawn by analogy. Whenever / comes before 
tbefe vowels, and the accent immediately follows it, the / preferves its fimple 
found, as in M'thiades^ elephantiasis ^ satiety, &c. ; but when the accent precedes 
the /, it then goes into sh^ tcby or tth^ as natihvte or naichuret na-shiom^ wr^-uhm^ or 
viruhue^ patient^ &c. or naibiont patbenif Sec, (464). In fimilar circamftances, 
the fame may be obferved of </, as arduous, btdeout^ Sec ( 293) (294) (376). Nor 
is this tendency of t before long « fonnd only when the accent immediately pre- 
cedes ; for we hear the fame a^iration of this letter mfpiritualj/pirituous^yt^na^ 
tatre^ ligature, f Off e'lture^ as xfwmxtntpiriuhuaf^spiritibuotu^ tignattbuntligatshure^ 

. forfeitibure, &c. where the accent \s two fyllables before' thefe letters ; and the 
only terffliuation which feems to refufe this tendency of the t to afpiration is tbat 
in tude^ as latitude, Icngitude, tiw/titude, Sec, 

464. This pronunciation of / extends to every word where the diphthong- or 
diphthongal found commences with i or ^ except in the terminations of verl>s 
and adjeSivesy which preferve the fimple in the augment, without fuffierm^ rlic 
I to go into the biffing found, as /jp//y, tb(m pitiest^ bepUies^ or pitied^ mi^btier^ ^ttfor- 
Sbiery ttsfentte^h^ thirtieth^ &c. This is agreeable to the general rule, which forl>i<3< 
the adje£Hves or verbal terminations to alter the foumi of the primitive -Vferl> 01 
nnun. See N0..38 1 . But in the words bestiah cekttialtfrottHerf admixtmt^ Sec 
where the s,xorn precedes the /. this letter is pronounced like tcb or //A» infte^c 
of ji ( 291 ), as bes-tcbial, cekt-ttbial, fnn^ebeer^ admix-Ubion^ Sec. ; as alio ^irhei 
the / is followed by eou^ whatever letter precede, as rigbteoms^ piteoBs^pUmt^aw^j 
Sue. pronounced rtgbtcbeofu. pttfbeomt^ plen-tcbeoutf Set, The fame may be ob 
ierved of / when fucceeded by uou as un^wmtt prefumptumUf Sec. pr o no a aa^^ 
ung^ihuomt frtfumpAcbuouu Ac. See the words^ 


-It h ' c fciuiid V, . . . tu 

%% ' 14 ^Ai iViund \ h\\\ ihcfc are To luiie lubjed io 

I pit. be I he belt guide. 
4t ihc j; of wordit \% tharp^ >ti m ihan^^ th'ittf ^c* cicepl 

ti'i ^ 'J. f, lAtf^f /j6r*«t fiir^ ihfe^ tfjriri ibfmt f^'^ t^ v.f^^ Mr/r^ 

thoti^ ihitgh^ fhuti, thf^ And their c- : . 

,wii' -. iferSs tp 'wrrath, Eo J'(^//^» to imtlmth to <«/A to imooih to 

I lo njirr ; »li wliich o^ght 10 bc writicn With ihc r HrtjJ i not only to dif- 
JuflM of ihcm Trooi the aouns, htit. to iliow th.u M %\ fgft : for though 
llbriitn4l«u£dni^TT]e'i proootinced fbft ;iJt in lo ^mth^ ta aiwiA, &c yetlAc 
att^«u*i rf ^i»m<l* 1% ftever pronounced hard, 'Fhcre is as obvioui ;iti Jiniilogy 
lor ihu too&tl C^ vcrU^^i us far the ^ found of j in verbi ending in 

/r (41TM ^r, ,J write Tome verbs whh <-, and others without it^ 

1* " ' k- rWbeit way 10 fh >w the abjurduy of mir crrthograpby in 

thi ■ 4/t voltiie 10 dmw out the aoum und verbs its they ^aml ia Jobi»^ 

At^eairct and Noim«, 



to ^rmiie. 


to *U»rra//j, to In^Q^fSth* 


to /^tf/y^^. 


10 ctoalbe^ tJQ undimih. 


10 A*M^. 


to tm^^tk 


to fflWul^* 


to fmtaihf. 



1 i«^*. 

to /a(?|^. 



:\ be mote evident Uian the aniilogy of the ka^uage In this 

L .. ..-^, -,4ard to hc'itaie a on»mcJlt Jt writing all the verbs wtdi the 

.^ ilii* U a dcp^irtare trom oar le*ict»griiphcr, which he himfelf 

-- -' — ^^ Qoching but in idvericncf coald h^ve led him into ibis un- 

i jty — It mif not be improper to obfet* c here, th;it tbofe fub- 

-'-. '^ il-if cod with iJj iharp itdopt the th Rai In the plur4j, 

xc iivich a propenriiy is there to (lide into the flat 

iy hear This Ibund in the genitive cafe* a& M? wiwV 

n , In the fame manner we he^ir of paying fo inuch 

,^d of home'^eni ati4 iaxa : and fliopkccpcrf tellns 

'.'. inllcad of ait pricti Nwyt fotnc go lo far ai to 

ftjnrmv jrat ,* but this mull !^e carefuJIy avoided 

ajSS :ie of words, cither when it precedes or follr>ws 

GOOibO^riCt sktf^it^hef^ ntfcftthe^ orghoJ^x^ orthography^ orthoepy, th*wjrt,atf>^0rtt 

hne^ mhdtMfhvf^^ fl^nthrffy^ Btz except hrrHf^tH farthmg^ farther^ n&rthfmt 

^rttf^ htttJS^^ muffhif. wber« the th is Hal i but tlie two Uft wgrdf art better 

n 469. T^ 


469. Tb between two vowels is generally foft in words purely Eneltfli, as 
father^ fealher-theathcn^ hither^ thUhttswhither^ whether ^dtber^ nc'uhw^ weMiber^ tvc- 

thetx wither^ gather^ together ^ pother^ mother, 

470. T/j between two vowels, in words from the learned Ungaages, is gene* 
rally hard, as apathy f sympathy^ mntlpatby^ Athens^ aiheift^ authentic, author, authori- 
ty, athirfi, cathartic, catheJraK catholic, catheter, ether, ethics, lethargy, Lethe, levia- 
than, litharge, lithotomy, mathesis, mathematics, methofl, pathetic, plethora, polypuithy, 
prcthonotary, anametha,amethyjl^ theatre* amphitheatre, apothecary, apotheosis, 

471. Th is fometimes pronounced like.fimple t, as Thomas^ thyme, Thames, 
asthma, phthisis, phthisic, phthisical^ and is filent in twel/thtide, pronoonted/w/^- 

T silent. 

473. Tis filent when preceded by /, and followed by the abbreviated ter- 
minations en and le, as hasten, ehafteu,fasten,listetty glisten, christen, moisten, which 
are pronounced as if written haee^n^ chace^n, &c. ; in hursten the / is heard : fo 
castle y nestle, trestle, wrestle, thistle, whistle, epistle, bristle, gristle, jostle, apostle, 
tbrostje, bustU, justle, rustle, are pronounced as if written, cassle, sscssle, &c. ; in 
pestle i!t\t t is pronounced ; in of ten, fasten, and eoften, the / is filent, and at the 
end'of feveral words from the French* as trait,gout, (tafte)* eclat. In the firft 
of thefe words the / begins to be pronounced ; in the laft> it has been fometimes 
heard ; but in the fecond, never, toupet is more frequently written taupeex and 
is therefore not irregular. In hiUet-doux the / is filent» as well as in bamtboy. 
^Tht fame filence of / may be obferved in the Englifh words, Christmas, chesnut, 
mortgage, ostler, bankruptcy, and in the fecond f3^1able of mistletoe, lii currsmt 
and currants the / is always mute. $ee No. 102, 105, 405. 


473. ^ is fiat/y and bears the fame relation to it as b does to ^, J to t,hsiTd 
g to k, and s to / (41). It is never irregular : and if ever filent» it is in the 
word twelvemonth, where both that letter and the e, are in colloquial pronancia- 
tioU) generally dropped, as if written twePmonth, 

W initial. 

474. That fv at the beginning of a word is a confonant, has been proved 
already (9) iS9)' I' « always fdcnt before r, as in wraei, wrangle, wraM, wrath, 
wreak, wreath, wreck, wren, wrench,wrest, wrestle, wretch, wriggle, wrigbt, wring, 
wrinkleiwrist, write, writhe, wrong, wrought ^ wry, awry, bewray; and before h 
and the vowel a, when long, as whole, who, 6cc. pronounced bok, boo, &c. 

475. IV before b is pronounced as if it were after the b, as hoo^, why, hoo-en, 
when, &G.; but in whole, whoop, &c. the fingle and double coalefcing with the 
fame found in w, this laft letter is fcarcely perceptible. In swoon, however, this 
letter is always heard ; and pniuouncing it so^, is vulgar. In sword and asu^mer 
it is always filent. In two it mingles with iu kindred found, and the number 
two is pronotinced like the adv^ b too. In the prepofitions toward and towards^ 
the w is dropped* as if written /^av/ and toards, rhyming with hoard itnd hoards; 
.but in the adjedives and adverbs toward and towardly,froward soidfrowarcBy, 
the w is heard diftindly- It is fometimes dropped in the laft fyllable of 
etwiwardf a^ if written awiim/i bat this pronunctadoa is vidgSB** 

^16. X 

A^ X ftmltuer eompofed of ihofc wtiMi hir^ bcco atrtajf conGJrrfdt 

itHerrCoct ^U need bur lit 

;i). Tt t» iUc or diarp l^e 



7. Jt ha 

» SI V 


\ wtib < 

i r r, vhcn it cndi 4 lyUuble with the accmi tt|3 

'fy^tt v%c. of when ibc accent ii on the acxt fylUblei if 1^ 


47 H. Xbas t'.i tia: foiitict like^t when Uic uercenl ii not on it« snd tli '' ' 
tiigffBaVik havtfv^ the accent he^ni with a vowel » a.» utirt^ rxi$m^i, 
proocu! -ampf^f £;g%ittt $6€^ The f^nrc found fnar be o 

I fnlW,. rdkt/rt ^c^ pronounced ig'-Mthit, f^rMfr r Km rf 

<i*rx ifjce&i be t-a liic x in the polffyll-ibk rxhibuhn^ r 
u dsen florid, ms in txtrthf ( 7 1 ) i but m compound woj 
cid» m 4« tins later reiaiiu %n pnmUivc found, ^sjix^t'jnt iaxamn. v^a. 
9<rxiiti*«i, nitttffte, &c. i 10 vilikh wc miif »dd ihc flmpkt in our Unguagej 
damwk^ ami frvnmkj z (n tJiat Uiis popenritj of « to beeonief/s, fcemib con* 
tftocd 10 tlur tofqaaEnhk prcpofuion. 

479> i^ liley« a aipcrated« or mkes the fonnd of k aAer It, only when tJu 

scccit ^ fic^ve 1* ' *- '^^ ^-^'-rencc between htttfrf end /«*.^*jiria«« ; ifnxio 

ausci ^fitf/ in ^ ion of which wordi, uoihrng will dlie^l 

bot tccittrmj to m\' ^ it wa^ ahfeFvod that ; is never ^dptrated, ol 

promtaccd blceii^* L the accent is on the precedmg fylbblc (45o)<f 

andibuwIlRn tlic ac.cui 1^ naihc futceeding vowtl, thougli d^e » ifTequefitl| 
is proDOOactJ like &, it i^ never founded %^ : from which ptemrfts we mi _ 
COflchdr^ tbit /lunr^ and hmrhtist ought to be pronounced tafkihury ani ' 
i^fttnii^* Mid HOC /^-^o-rjcf/i as Mr, Sheridan fpells it. The fame ermur 
juhj tbtmgh bit profiimciatifm of all tbe compound &« iuxuriamftiur-mrianf^ lux* 
mri^ie^ Stv'. K^ri'rh unqueflionably ought to he pronounced lug*^U'ri'^n€€^ (tt£^U'_ 
ri I four fySkbkf^ and not in tJirec only, as they ar 

4B0. Tl t^^^s ^*^1 ^c**^ "^^ ^^ decide in the i^'Ord ^nxiou^ *nd 

mmmetj t ^ l (> heiWe the j? in the firH word, it U natni^tUy divinhk 

mto imk^mz natgr«1ly pronounced ani'thm : but as the accent is after 

ihcam theut'DQU word, and the hifling found cannot h^ strpiriUed 456), it 
itmft nasfikrily be ptonounced an^-^ittj. But Mr. SherkUn. wiUjout any rt- 
^; ■ : compDWcnt kiters of thdc words, or the diiFcrenl pofiiion of the 

k'.. tkn rvnly fpelkd ihcm wiih©ut afpl ration, hut without ktting the * 

m liic <;oiupo/kinn of the hid wordf go into ^ ; for thus tliey Hand in htf Vk" 
^^Oftary ' mi-spts f ^nk'i i ^e^ff , (4561. 

4S1* Tbc letter *, at the beginning of words, goes into z, as Xerx^»t Kens- 
pirn. Jcc* pToaocnced 2^*^?^^/!'/, Zmflott^ &c, j it ii filcnt At the end of the 
FnaKb hl^ im^^ aad protiounccd like « in Uam ; often and better written 

2^ T. li always llic fame found j and ihi? has been fiifi_ 

Jy dcil Tig its B;al cb ampler (4<5) ; when it is a rowel at 

Ecod 1^ ' ii>k witb the iicccnt upon it, it is founded eia<aly hkc 

t^idl iti\^^^ - ^^'t ty-rmhft'pij^ &c* 1 but at the end of a word or 

ifiUUc. wiilumt tbc ACiccni, it is pronounced like ihe Hrfi found of f, Bm]f% 



483. Z IS the flat i, and bears the fame rclatton to it as ^ doc$ to ^, i to /» 
hard J? toi, and v to /*. Its common name is »sMir^» which Dr Johnfon cx- 
phins into / hard; if, however, this be the meaning, it is a grofs mlfnomtr : 
for the % is not the hard, hut the foft s .•* but as it has a left iharp, and there- 
fore not fo audible a found, it is not impoffible but it may mead / surd. ,Zed% 
borrowed from the French, is the more falhionable name of this letter : but, in 
my opinion, not to be admitted, becaufe the names of the letters ought to have 
no diverfity* 

484. Z, like /, goes into afpiraiion bf^ore a diphthong, or a diphthongal 
vowel after the accent, as is heard in vixier^ glazirr^ grazier t &c pronounced 
vM'i'er^ glazbi'ery grazh'nr^ jtc. The fame may be objferved df nziirr, r** 
9urt^ &e. 

485 Z IS filent in the French word rendezvous ; and is pronounced in the 
Italian manner as if / were before it. in mzs ^into, as if writtep nut9*>uoio. 

Thus have we endeavoured to exhibit a juft idea < f the principles of pronun- 
ciation, both with refpea to fmgle letters, and their various con>bmations into 
fyllables and words. The attentive reader mull have obi'erved how much the 
founds of the letters vary, as they are differently a.Tociated. and how n^uck 
the pronunciation of thefe aflbciations depends upon the pofition of the accent. 
This is a point of the utmoft importance, and a want <f attending toil haa 
betrayed fcvcral inceni'>us men into the groifed aMiirdities. lliis wiUmorc 
folly appear in the obfervations on accent, which is the next point Co be con- 


4S6. The accent of the ancients is the opprobrium of modern criticifm. 
Nothing can (how more evidently the fallibility of the human faculties than 
the total ignorance we are in at prefent 6f the nature of the Latin and Greek 
accent .f This would be Hill more furprifing if a phenomenon of a fimilar 
kind did not daily prefent itfelf to our view. The accent of the Engliih- lan- 
guage, whi'^h is conftantly founding in our ears, and every moment open to 
mveftigation, feemsas much a myilery as that accent which is removed almoft 
two thoufand years fromoor view, Obfcarity. perplexity, and confuOon, run 
through ev^ry treatife on the fubje6t, and nothing could be fo hopelefs as an 
attempt to explain it, did not a circumftance prefent itfelf; which at once ac« 
counts for the confufion, and affords a clew to lead us out of it. 

48^7. Not one writer on accent has given us fupb a definition of the voice as 
acquaints us with its effential properties : they fpeak of high andlow^ loud and 
fi>f^ quick and flow, but they never once mention that ftriking property which 


* Profeffor Ward, fpeaking of the realbn for dtmUias^ the < at the end ef words fayt, 
^ t doabled reuint iu proper force, which, when fiDvIe at the end of wordi, it ffiaudw^o «» 
** as bhtiiit " And Dr. Wallts tells ns, that it is ahnoft certain when a noun has i hard in 
die laft fyilakle, and becomes a verb ; tbu in the latter cafe the « becomes foft, as a imse b 
yronoitnced with the hard /, and to iitut with the i foft. 

t SeeOMervations onthc Greek and Latin Accent and Qnantity, at the end of tb« K0f 

D, and Scriftve l^npo Kmb«i* 

to the Cbfioa pcwiBciatiMi eC Greek, JLatia, 



^ uCKeft rpealung (mm rmgii)^ feuixb^ fine! whitlu fiom itt f\\Sm^ fiom 
y^io low, xml (mm low lo bigh wraj noi impxvperh be c^lV- i 

r dcYoicc Ko M^rmieft *lfhciJ writers ktl ihnOUt ot tJir :iti 

r the nattsre ef jiccent : ii wai ir. 

. ., , .^^ , ... I A 3D idea t>i' the fpcjkmg votc« n^' i 

izowttCQT* 0O! Iifi tiv ocice divide the voice ima it\ 
- ' '*- bfc QT»t f Tgiii ilit«, an d accent be comci « n p i e- u p j^ n > i v a\ .* i t ^v u i n '* j 

'rpiog Ui^v '^^ " »nm view, let ua compare the accented fftbblc 
♦ aad wt < I thi% general conclutlon m^jf be 4ftwii j • Tlit 

itiidei than the rdii but whcfi It Ii ' '^ 

- preceding, iifid lower than the in 

Awn, it is pnmcmnced higiicr *i> wcU ^t* 
r preceding oT futcecding,** rbc oaly 
'* when the accem h un the Lift iyUAble of a word 
. and which u the concludtng u-tird of a dskouric," 
» wiio ^r^ tAkcthis dearlj denaoi^lVatedt may cunfuk Eletnenis of Elo^ 
B*£rc ttrl PT?;N*n rr^-f. ig|^ Qh the pTcfent occalipn it will be fufiitknt 
ID ohfen '. ill accent \s a« well under ft ond a* it necedary fot 

fic fHetfUi^t^^L 1 v^ordsi U'hich is the cpa>]cO ol thii irciitife ; iind there* 

or*, canilderiii^ i -.ercly as ftrcfs, we Ih'il! proceed to make fome remarks 

Mti pfOfier pointcn tn a word^ and cndcavotir to deteffc ibme eirours in the 
faadap^licarioii of ie. 

The ^ifirtfit p9ffiiont ef tk Engiijh Aicent, 

4$f* Acfeatp m tts very nature, implies a comparifon with other fyUahlcs 

'iferciUe^ hence we maf conclude, that monofyllubks, prDperly fpcakmg* 

ift 00 accent : whtTi ilie)* arc combined with other monofyllables and form a 

iliraffp tbc is bid upon cme« in preference toothers, is called cm* 

' '^'* -^ . evident!)' points out tlie mofl figniiicant word in a fen* 

tr reafons d<^ not forbid, the accent ;ilw^ys dwells witlj 

' - --I of the word which, from its iiriportiince, the heurci 

ccafion toob ervc ; and this is necejrarilf the root, or 

>; r>ui at harmooy of termination frequently attracts tlieac- 

ntotto the branches of words, fo the iirft and moi\ natural law of 

•jraic Ids in filing the ft re Is than Liny of the other. Owr 

Indeed, with peffedt uniformity, leave the principal 

Tcflioo of whst fecmi its lawful propeity (501) ; 

n.irioEJS, of winch our language is full, aflume a 

' anginal accent, and fublc^ing many of the words 

^tcit own cbflicul lawi- 

4',^ rcforej feems to be regulated, in t great nicafurcp by ety- 

r ■ '•■ .■ fmitj the Saxon, the accent is generally on the root; in 

- mguages, it ii generally on the termination ; and if to 

> (. 4 s Lit accent wc lay on jbme words, to diftingtufti them 

t'j tf» have the three great principles of accentuation; name- 

1}^ uic rmiic^i, iLki icrmLOajUonalr mud the diilinftive. 

Eyctj ' ' '^^^ fjfliablcs has necelTarily one of them accented, and 
_1* b - ' ^ the ^kc of ciinphafis, wc Ibmctimes lay an ctjual flreis 




upon two (ncceBiye fyllables, as iiUreSffime-times ; but when thefe words are 
proRoanced alone, they have never more than one accent. For want of attending 
to this dtftindion» fome writers have roandly afTerted* that many diflyllables 
have two accents, fuch as convojfy coneourfi^ difcord, flnffwrech : in which, and 
iimilar infiances, they confoond the diftindnds, with which the latter fyUables 
areneceflarily pronounced, with accentual force; though nothing can be more 
different. Let us pronounce the laft fyllable of the noun torment as diftin^y 
as we pleafe, it will {iill be very different with refpedt to force* fvonx the fame 
Arllable in the verb to ttfmtanii where the accent is on it.; and if we do bat care- 
foUy watch our pronunciation^ the fame difference will appear in everyr word 
of two fyllabks) throughout the language. The word Amen is the only word 
which is pronounced with two confecutive accents when alone. 

492. There is a pecoliarity of accentuation in certain words of two fyllablcs, 
which are both nouns sind verbs, that is not unworthy of notice; the nouns hav- 
ine the acceht on the firft fyllabk, and the verbs on the kft. This (eaoA aa 
inuindtve effort in the language (if the expreffion will be allowed me) to com- 
penfa^e in fome meafure for the want of different terminationi Ibr thefe differ- 
ent parts of fpeech.* The words which admit of this diverfity of accent* axe 
the following. 



























to abj^a 
to abilnt 
io abdraa 
to accent 
to affix 
io a(rign 
to augment ' 
to bombard 
to cement 
t9 colleague 
to coU^a 
to compaa 
to comp6und 
to compr^fs 
to concert 
to concrete 
to conidua 
to confine 
to conflfa 
io ^onf^ve 
to confort 
to cont^ft 
to convent 




to defclnt 


to dig^ft 



to exp6rt 


io extriia 


to exile 


to ferment 


to frequent 


to import 


to inc^nfe 


to iniuit 


to objea 


to perfume 


to permit 


to prefix 


io premtfe 




io pref^nt 


to produce 


to proj^a 


to prot^a 




to rec6rd 


to refufe 


to fubj6a 


vioff a partidfl 

ttl termiiutioo. has iDcUnc^ 

to phmounce that part of fpeech with an accent nearer the end than we do the noon £ f q^I 
thoBgh we can without any difficulty pronoonce the Terb with the accent 00 the nocasa* ^w^^ 
cannot To eaiily pronoonce the partiaple and the adverb formed from it with that «eccxit • 

thoi we can pronoonce to trmt/fart with the accent on the firft fyUable ; Vnt not fi» «mfil J 
frii^^ rim g wnAtrii^f^nuifly. Thii it a foUd rcafon for the difUndion, and ought to ias^^^ 
ti8wbcrewectoteob(tfvet(« At'^MrrtuAtiOitfMnUitVktott^sai^^iX^ Scctl« 







to converfc 



to convert 



U convia 



U convoy 


to def^n 



9q difcount 


to furv6y 
to torment 
to trajta 
to transfer 
to tranfpdrt 
to attribute 

493* To this analogy, fame fpeakers are endeavouring to reduce the word 
csntnOi s whicb, when it fignifies the matter contained in a book, is often heard 
«-!th the accent on the firfl fyllable ; but though this pronunciation ferves to 
diillngtiini words which are difitrent in fignification, and to give, in fome mea* 
fure, adifimnce of form to die noun and verb, in which our tongue is remark* 
ab\y deficient, dill it is doubtful whether this diftin^ion be of any real advan« 
tagt to the language. See Bowl. This diverfity of accentuation feems to 

have^laceVn fome €OD^K>and verbs. See Countbr balance and the fubfe- 

quent words. 

494. Sometimes words have a different accent, as they are adje^ives or 


eagufis the month 

cbamp^n^ wine 
hdh^ banifhment 
£all6atf a lover 
Lcvoja^ a place 

w^Wr of time 

Jitfme^ in grammar 

augOfty noble 

cb^faigHf open 
nciU, fmall 
ghllanty bold 

i^ant% eadem 
miniite, fmall 
fupine^ indolent 

495* Sometinies the iame parts of fpeech have a different accent to mark a 
iif ercnce of iignification. 

to tbi^fiirt^ to praaiie magic ; 
diftrt^ a wildemefs 
k&ffk^ a blow 
9isi/La-f infidious 

10 conjure^ to intreat. 

defertf merit 

huffelf a cupboard 
Jinipr^ the left fide 

496. In this analogy fome fpeakers pronounce the word Cmcordana widi 
the acoemonthe firft fyllable, when it fignides a di^ionary of the Bible ; and 
with die accent on the fecond^ when it fienifies agreement : but befides that, 
^^rt is not the fame reafon for diftinguifnin^ nouns from each other, as there 
U noons from verbs ; the accent on the firit fyllable of the word Concordance 
gives a harfbaeis and poverty to its found, which ought to be afbtded. 

497. fiat though the different accentuadon of nouns and verbs of the fame 
fcrm does not otend fo far as might be ezpededy it is ceruin, that in words 
^ two fyllabks, where the noon and verb are of different forms, there is an 
<7^^t tendency in the language to place the accent upon the firft fyllable of 
tl^ioon, and on the laft of the verb. . Hence the nouns 011/rtf/^, upjiart^ and 
^'proar^c the accent on the firft fyllable ; and the verbs to v/Zj/Zf to ufhoMt 
3^toit{||^ ontlielaft. 


4984 This analogy will appear ftill more evident if we attend to the accent 
of thofe nouns and verbs which are compounded of two words. Every dif- 
fyllable compounded of words which, taken feparately. have a meaning« may 
be deemed a qualified fubd^ntive ; and that word which qualifies nr defcribes 
the other, is tliat which n^od diftingui(hes it, and confequently is that which 
ought to have the accent : accordingly we find that inkhorn^ outrage^ thairman^ 
freeboUyfand-box^book^cafe^peH'knife, nave the accent on the firft fyllable, whick 
is the fpecifying part of the word ; while gainfay^ forefeet overlook^ underfeil^ 
have the accent on the laft fyllable, which is the leaft diftinguifhing part of the 
word. I'his rule, however, is either by the caprice of cuftom, or the love of 
harmony, frequently violated, but is fufficiently extenfive to mark the general 
tendency of the language. Akenfide brings the verb to comment under this 
analogy : 

The fober leal 

** Of age, «««rawirti«^onprodigioiuthiogft.? 
And Milton in the fame manner the verb to commera : 

• *' And looks tommtrmig with the flcies, 

« Thy rapt foul attiogin thino eyet."— i/ Pem/iyo. 

499, Something very analogous to this we find in the nouns we verbalize* 
by changing the / (h:^rp of the noun into the / flat, or % of the verb ^457)9 as 
a use, and to use ; where we may remark, that when the word in both parts of 
fpeech is a monofyllable, and (b not under the laws of accent, the verb» how- 
ever, claims the privilege of lengthening the found of the confonant, when it 
can, as well as when it cannot, prolong the accentuation : thus we not only find 
grafi altered to grazft bra:s to braze^ g!afs to gla%$^ price to pr}%i% breath to 
breathe. &c. but the r or f (harp altered to the ./ flat in advice to advife9 excufe 
to excuft^ device to devifcf &c The noun adopting the (harp hifling ^und, andL 
the verb the foft buzzing one, without transferring the accent from one fylla- 
ble to another. The vulgar extend this analogy to the noun praQice and the 
verb tofraaife^ pronouncing the firft with the i fliort and the c like (harp #, as 
if written ^rtf^//}, and the Uft with tlie i long and the /like s, as if written 
praQize ; but corredl fpeakcrs pit)nounce the verb I'ke the noun ; that is, as if 
written praSift, Vht noun prophecy and the verb to prophefy follow this analogy, 
only by writing the noun with the r and the verb with the /i and without any dif- 
ference of found, except prono incing ^e y in the firft like o amf in the laft like 
f long ; where we may ftill difcover a trace of the tendency to the barytone pro- 
nunciation in the noun^ and the oxytone in the verb (467). See Appendix • 

500. This feeras to be the favourite tendency of Englifh verbs ; and where 
we find it crofled, it is generally in thofe formed from nouns, rather than the 
contrary : agreeably to this, Dr. Johnfon hah ohierved, that though nouns have 
often the accent on the latter, yet verbs have it felciom on tne former fyllable ; 
thofe nouns which, in the common order of language, muft have preceded the 
verbs, often tranfmit this accent to the verbs they form, and inverfely : thus 
the noun noaler muft have prec^eded the verb to water ^ as the verb to correfpond 
»uft have preceded the noun correfpondent ; and to purfut muft clkim priorit j 
xopurfuit^ So that we may conclude, whenever verbs deviate frnm this rule» 
it is feldom by chance, 9nd generally in thofe words only where afuperior law 
of accent takes place*. 

. . decern 


Jcmii m TwifiMkt. ^H 

^^L^I. Ai n-nlJ 

i Ifii-fcarein fvll iUei, fbe mnri ^ ifllv fs ihcTr :irfriU tiHiUiU ^^H 

by beer ^^H 

' h to them ; ^^H 

tcriuiiuiionfc ;<rc ^^CTiCiuy nivjun, lui'. MKvv>ijg^^^H 

{ltd, Tliu^ /i>4 UcconKi //OTT/// ; pici^ poettft ; fiJiU ^^^| 

i-.dJyt nnd M/tfirvianlij^ witUmil i ^^^M 

.€ prtfpofUlvi: if/ir, or ihi: fu1jjun£li> ^^H 

^^^ff^RR nrnf< ^c mav pctcdro tiii: glanntt ^bfurdit? which prcvuiU cvtn m ^M 

li _ I . - ■ 

Tonanncmg the pkn^l d ^rim^/i^ tnd G^cn the rtn* ^1 

^^H_ ** 

.. the feconti fylL+Wc, like yir^r-y/ ;iiitiy«*v^/ f hjr H 

^B we mi 

. Juiih^fi :ini! Juuh^ft, ^* frur^ft and prim 'pi / ^| 

^^V ¥\ 

tcfs htjn With rhc bitcrthiin witT^ ♦^->^'nKT- ^^^| 


rccfyllaltks Collnw the Eitiitlrtgy > m tttofc ^^^| 

^K " 

cbc iuccnt to die \a\\ fylliiblc, m u lxs. ucconomj ^^H 


>\^%\ m;iny verbs, intfccJt of three iVlUbks arc ^H 

^H «i>n 

fjf two ryllublcs ; and then, afcorjing to ll^c ^^^| 

^H priTr.r 

not thj: feconJary of diftinOion. wc m^v eftecm ^^^| 


ve ; ftich nrc amtf^ii^^ irtUrcfJ^, /■■ f ja- ^^^B 

^B ir,r 

., &c- \fchik the gcncndky rf wiM :^ in ^| 

^V ' 

itnd icf, retain the accent of ihc fimplc* 4^ truuffrf ^M 


nd iKc whok tribe of trifyUiiblc verbs m afft 'cry ^^ 


f on t!ie latl ij Ibblc : but word* of tlirfc fylla* ^M 


: m the Iciifned l^mguitgcs frofo which they 4re ^| 
I ncccitiry to inquire Iwvr far Engbih stccent h re- ^M 



».» ^,;^aiid l^atln. ^| 

^Koiib/«^k^ ' 

' * ^Vi-^i #ii^ /Uilia ^tf^if r, «ff li* ^tftvfl/ -?/ B^liJ^ PahfylMks. H 

^B f-i 

* '^i lirgtlyfrom the Itsimed langtisgcs, it it H 

^H m>: 

11 Ihouid be in fome inrafiiTc inflAienctdby H 

^H iJktt 

k accent, w;is^ indeed, eflcntiaUv different ^| 


! s frcim the Creek, coming to us throngh ^^H 
t-d as to lofc their ongin;u accend and 10 ^^H 



- ; the Laiiii accent H'hich we muil chiefiy ^^H 


!j our own. ^1 

^^^^^^^^^^^r ' 

It may he kid down if ♦that when words came H 


u or Latin, the f ^rnc accent oogbi to be preferved ^| 


1- w tr.-mr^Ui^ AfCQrum, didator^ gUJiaior^mfdhturf ^M 


>c tlie penultimate accent of the original 1 ^M 


v ix^i.M.iiCy of oar languitgc has placed the accent H 


01*1 finator^ attdit^r, ckairixy p/ethra^ Sec. in oppo* ^M 

^^^^^^V ' 

' un of thcfe wordsi and would have infallibly ^M 

^^^^^^K , 

. '1?, ^nd ^cumtn^ ii tJie learned had not fteppcd ^| 

^^^^V^i^ ii^^u 

^i^^Hh ^^4i Ap^ ^I^< i^vaibn of the Gothic accent, aad H 


i^ ^_^B 


to prefcrvc the ftrcfs inviolably on the fecond fyllable : nor has even the inter- 
pofition of two confbnants been always abl^ to keep the accent from mount- 
ing up to the antepenuhimate fyllafcle, as we may fee in m'tmfter^ finifier^ 
charaSer^ &c. ; and this may be faid to be the favourite accent of our language. 
See Miscellany. 

(c) Butnotwithftanding this prevalence of the antepenultimate accent, the 
general rule ftill holds good ; and more particularly in words a little removed 
from common ufagc, fuch as terms in the arts and fcicnces : thcfe are generally 
of Greek original ; but coming to us through the Latin, mod commonly con- 
traft the Latin accent when adopted into our language. This will appear 
plainly by the following lifts : and firft, let us fcled fome where the Greek 
and Latin accents coincide : 











'fdj Anotlier lift will fhow us where the accents of thefe languages dif- 
fer : 























In this lift we perceive the peculiar tendency of the Latin language to ac- 
cent the long penultimate vowel, and that of the Greek, to pay no regard t» 
it if the laft vowel is fhort, but to place the accent on the antepenultimate. 
It will, however, be eafily perceived, that in this cafe we follow the L.atin 
analogy : this analogy will appear, more evident by a lift of words ending in 
ofis'f where, though the c>in the penultimate fyllable is the omega, the Greek 
accent is on the antepenultimate : 

tVip0^«^x«^«Cy ^xMftcf^etffti^ «r«#'r&/u4t0'iry}t»rit^ 

ti'r^ticcvi:^ junTttyif^arn^ 9t/r«p6p«»c, o^uveisiiMTif, 

This analogy has led us to accent certain words formed from the Greek where 
the omega was not in the penultimate of the original, in the fame manner as 
thofe words where this lone vowel was found : fuch as Exostosis % formed from 
'is and •0^f«T, Synneur^fii from o-dv and v«i/fcv, &c* This tendency therefore 
has fufficiently formed an analogy ; and fmce rules, however abfnrdly formed 
at firft, are better than no rules at all, it would> in my opinion, be advifablc 
to confider every word of this form as fubjedl to the penultimate accent, and 
to look upon apotbeofit and metamorphofts as exceptions. 

(c) The next rule we may venture to lay down as a pretty general one, is 
that if the words derived from the learned languages, though an^licifed by 
alteriog the terminatioDi contain the fame number of fyllables as m the ori- 




\m ts« V Oil 

f of inch cbttfes oif «rorili la fa«r« im 



Words wfiSdi iu%e« Tit the pcTmhimatc ffU^ble : 
prrraltntt prxrflJcnSi ififlimoui, 

^ iff 5c en 5, ^ mtl.igittCi ' 

at* 1, fuiTrugan, lutfragaiu, 

3«. itr^A\ <"lir. ' AC find all but tlic two firj^ have a diffcftnt acr 

|tOi' L;tim. The rule frir pUcing Uic ficccnt m that 

^ i^-^ .-..-i * ,. *.. the world : «f the pcmtltJmutc lyil^^hle U lanj^ 
iLc ^tteo^ \\ Qfi it ; ifiliort^ the acccot is an the n.rtte()entih(in lU* 


fg) Wor<!* irUdi lu^e r in the penultimate fyllahle : 


^ a^ t^jnincnt, 

prxccdentj ^jiccllcnt, 

eh'T-taru,, alienate^ 

1% d£ legatee, 

i .MLiltimatr r accented in Englifh as in Latio, ex- 

TIk wriid iihcnaii dcp.iftsfrom the Latin »' ccn* 

fsr»n the fJrfi fy liable, a^ it derived fVom the Englifh 

r^h cither long or fhort in Laim, £iAd in this cafe 

da. ^ 


;il cnO| 

Lue^lia^^Uj jircliu- Uis: ifiort found to the Jong one* 
/i^ Wordi vhkb bavc i in the penuhimale ryllahle : 

1 f- Jf^\, f 4*lf J 





dccl vus. 


con let en*. 









r-^ ., ,.,. 

JIj ppliciitei 

fupp!tcans» { 



















. .s, 




-, ..kE;>, 
















;....,. 5^ 













^ m^rds wc 

find a very general coincidence of the 

4,. . 

. except in 

the hift eleven 

wc^r Js, where w^r depart 

iW Lauaa4i«2cttifmtlM: penaltimate^ and place 

it on oar own favrmntc 



Atcti<r 6N PdLYSttLABLXS. 

fyllable the antejpdiulliMte. 

TH^fe lift W6rdi^ in^ft dieltfert be, ranked as 

























fij Words Sahich hiVe b lA the pfeiitaltifAate fyllablfe : 

interrogate, interrogo, omnipotent, omfifpotens, 

\ diiTonatit, 

In this lift the diScrencc of the Englifh and Latifi accent is confiderable. 
The fix laft words defcrt the Latin penultimate for the Englifli antepenulti- 
mate accent, and condolence falls into an accentuation diametrically oppofitc. 

(k) Words Vrhich have u te the penultimate fyllaMe ; 

iabulate, fabul^r, 

maculate, maculo, 

adjuvate, adjuvo» 

c6rnigat€^ corrugo, 

petulant, petulans, 

difputanr, difputans, 

{mpudent» irapudens, 

fp^culate, fpeculor, 

pullulate, pultulo, 

Here we find the general rule obtain, with, perhaps, fewer ejceptions than id 
any other clafs. Adjuvate^ pecuhte^ mdim/uraiey at« the only abfoitiitb devia- 
tions ; for o^daratehzs the accent frequently on the fecond fy liable. See the 

(0 To thefe lifts, perhaps, teight be added the Engllfti word* ending in 
thttfjtony and ity : for though tioh ^iidjhn are rea4y prtmounced in one fvUable, 
they are by almdft all our orthtiepifts generally divided into two ; And confe- 
quently natidn^ pronunciation^ occafion^ txafan^ &e. contain the fame ntimber of 
fyllables 2is »d//d, pronunciation eccofioy evafio^ &c. kftd have the accent in both 
Engliftx and Latin, on the antepenultimate fyllaM«. TheVame may be obferv- 
ed of words ending in i/y, as dvoerfity^ variety^ ^c from droerfittut ^oeerietas^ 

(m) By this fekd^ion (whtth, though not an t»aA enumeration erf every 
particular, is yet a fufficient fpecimen of the cott^fpondence of Latin and £n« 
glifk accent) we may perceive that there is a general rule running through 
both languages, nefpef^ing the accent t^i polyfyilahles, which is, that when a 
fmgle vowel in the penultimate is followed by a fmgle eonfonant, the accent is 
on the antepenultimate. This is fo agreeable to Englifh analogy, that in 
words derived from the Latin, where the penultimate vowel, followed by a An- 
gle confonant, is long, and consequently has die accent, we almoft always nc- 
glea this exception, as it may be called, in the Latin language, and fall into 
our own general rule of accenting the antepenultimate. Ndr is it unworthy of 
being remarked, that when we neglc^ the accent of the original, it is almoft 






















j^j\^Ttv Ui rTirc t 

r al !cna a frHiblc liighrr: ais mf^m mi imUoKi 4W U 1 


1, ^hmr tbi a^c^nt o4 tjie fotgltOi word m ^^1 


coioct4eD(t€ ti neectii lietwcen Lutiti H 


•'^^ - ^-.athcEn,-'^^ d» ■ 


It?** vtitfk H 








^^■■k. •nco' 

* ^H 




. . . i^».^.w^ ^tj^ ^^H 


T 16 ki nn ( 4 9 1 )> ^^H 


ifi'ci it^edcfjvcd from the Ltt - * « — vc ^^H 


marc ;ipprtfit ih*in Uic coi ic ^^ 
T ;tnd the t'e i>nd<ir]r *i>. i \^ M-e ^| 


^^no fi 

u pTontuidHikm of it. fiiii^jvY,^ H 

^^^^k^» icx'/i 

■ the accent Ofi tlic ;: .ic, ■ 


von fit, rMTimmh^ •ft . f| H 

^^^^pc are frt 

ill our Ens^Iiili ■ uMlivk WM^dt, H 


.a iylbbic. .* luKKfAlAiLl, H 

HTrf / TT^^j rd^ 

<i3 !ci die gttantity of t!ic anicpenultimattf iyihihlc m polyfyl- H 


r,at, regitidlds of the quaniity of the origiti^d, wt H 


How the analogy of our own l.mgiingt, I'hii iiiiit- H 


vowel, unJefs it be w, followed by a fmglc ctm* ■ 


f llowcd by ti llnglc coi^foiuiUf fucctcdcd by ;i fl 

VIS the hrfl y in iiubim$ is pronooncfd long, thongh H 

iffOTX tli tliC i^.' 

y .* tlic funic m,>y be obfcrvcU of die r nT)d m me* ^^^1 

„ MmBiA rm*5^ . 

^^fll i in JfllrittfTit and tb(? fuif ;■ in f/rrWrr. are pn- ^^H 


11 aJTidogy (f07 , ti ' c ^^H 


VI, l'V>r thc^«tj//i//v ii ^1 

^^^HLi-4t^4£n«W Iryfii iIm. Gicck iubi litiiiii, foe Svi«i.AitCATiOM| iw. 543, ■ 

Tfrmmatjon&i Mc^ni . 

^^^^^t W^ l%^v«' 

' ^*'^ *hat the Sajfon tcrfni nations, i cgardlcf> f-f h^iPtnnrjf, hI- 


licrc they found it* let the advciiritioui iylbijlcs be ever 


' nttrntivc chkfty to fcnfp, prcfcfvcd the f^me llm- 


i\m the comparnion of thctr WiiuK \ und, if fcnfc 


- . it xnuft ht' cunfeffffd, that oar aiiict:itDr» weie. 


r.cki aad i\om4ns. What mcdjod could to 




1 af tli«s cciwctdencc, whcr^ lie f^yi^ ** dl vcrlfi^ 


r othtTwift*. hoy ^ht iii-c(^r!f a* if f- f^vuni! in sh* 


M^^ animate. t wrtfij^ 


^ tfff, u nf»^' \ 1 UrAfit*^ 

^^B^^€« tie: cir^cl 

aniijiUJUtiioi tn*;l''«nir^v*tJofi|, wui rictht ti»:fl jiit^gie. 


rigidly prefcrvc, and fo ftrongly convey the fenfe of words, as that which al- 
ways left the accent on the root, where the principal meaning of the word un- 
doubtedly lies ? J^ur the neceffi ties of human nature require that our thoughts 
ihould not only be conveyed with force, but with eaie ; to give language its 
due cfFe^, ic muft be agreeable as well as forceful ; and the ear ttiuft be ad- 
dreffed while we are informing the mind. Here, then, terminational accent, 
the mufic of language, intcrpofes ; corredls the difcordant, and (irens^thens the 
feeble founds ; removes the difficulty of pronunciation which arifes tt'om plac- 
ing the accent on initial fyllablcs, and brings the force gently down to the lat- 
ter part of the word, where a cadence is formed, on the principled of harmony 
and proportion. 

^^, To fo|-m an idea of the influence of termination upon accent« it will be 
fufficicnt to obfei-ve, that words which have e'h ia^ ie, iot eou^ in tlieir termination^ 
always have the accent on the preceding fy liable : thus atheists alien^regatia^ am- 
hrosla^ &c. the numerous terminations in hn^ ian^ &c. as gradation^ promotion^ 
confusion^ lo^iciart^ physician^ Sec. thofc in icus^ as harmonioui^ abstepu9ust &c. thofe 
in eous^ as ouiragfous^ advantageousyScc, Thefe may not improperly be (lyled 
fcmi confonant diphthongs (196). 

506. The only exceptions to diis rule are one word in iat^ as elfgiacy which 
has the accent on the f, and the following words in iacal,9S protodtaca/, carJia- 
calf Miacal, genethUarai^ maniacal^ demomacalf ammoniacaif iberiacdlt paradisiacal^ 
aphrodisiacal^ and hypochondriacal; all which have the accent on the antepenul- 
timate i, and that long and open, as in idle^ title, &c. 

507. Nothing can be more uniform than the pofition of the accent in words 
of thefe terminations ; and with very few exceptions ; the quantity of the 
accented vowel is as regular as the accent ; for when thefe terminations are 
preceded by a fingle confonant, every accented vowel is long, except 1/ which, 
in this fituation, is as uniformly ihort: thus occasion, adhesion^ erosiont^ni con- 
fusion, have the a, e, 0, and o, long ; while vision and decision have the r fhort. 
The fame maybe obferved oi probation, concretion, devotion, ablution, and exhibit 
ihm* The exceptions are, imfetuous, especial, perpetual, discretion and battaiivn, 
which laft ought to be fpelt with double /, as in the French, from which it is 
derived, and then it would follow tlie general rule. National and rational, form 
two mofe exceptions 5 and thefe are almoft the only irregularities to which 
thefe numerous claffes of words are fubjea. 

508. Nearly the fame uniformity, both of accent and quantity, we find in 
words ending in ic. The accent immediately precedes this termination, and 
every vowel under this accent but tt is (hort ; thus Satanic, pathetic, eliptic, har- 
monic, &c. have the accent on the penultimate, and the vowel (hort ; while 
innicy runic, and cubic have the accented vowel long. 

509. The fame may be obferved of words ending in ical, 2J^ fanatical, poetical, 
tevitical, canonical^ ^C. which have the accent on the antepenultimate fyllable, 
and the vowels Cy i, and 0, ihort ; but cubical and musical, with the accent on 
the fame fyllable, have the u long. 

510. The only exceptions to this role are arsenic, choleric, ephemericy turmeric^ 
enpiricj rhetoric, Inihopric, (better written bishopricky fee No. 400), lunatic, arith- 
metie, splenetic^ heretic, pciittc, and, perhaps )»^/r^m/7/fc ; which, though more fre- 
quently heard with Uie accent on the antepenultimate fyllable, ought, if pof- 
fible, to be reduced to regularity. Words ending in scence have uniformly the 
accent on the penultimate fyllable, as quiescence, reminiscence, &c. i concupiscence^ 
which ha^ the accent on the antepenultimate, is the only exception. 

51 1. In the ikme manner, if we take a view of the words ending in </jr, we 



ft^d tk accent itirariably placed on the preceding fyllablp, as in diversity, 
c&9grtityy &c. Oo.a dofer infpe^ion we find evety vowel in this ante{)cnuhi' 
mate fyllable, when no confonant intervenes, pronounced long, as deity^ pi^ty^ 
kt. A nearer infpcdion fhows us, that, if a precede this termi> 
lution, the precediz^ accented vowel is fhort, except it be i/, as leverity, curi^ 
Mty^ htpuuity. See. : we find too, that even « contra<fls itl'elf before two con- 
toTuaU- as ia earwiy, iaciiuruiiyt £cc. and that scarcity and rarity (lignifyin^ 
uncommonnefs ; for rarity f thinnefs, has the a fhorc) ; are the only exceptions 
to this rule throughout the language. The fame ob ervations are applicable 
to words ending in ifyj yisjmt:fyf ctari/y^ 3cc, The only words where the an- 
tepeanltimate accent in woids of this termination docs not Ihortcn the vowel, 
arc gkrify and notify . The y in tliefc words is always long, liice the firft found 
of i ; and both accent and quantity are the fame when thcfc woxds take the 
ad£tional fyUable ahU^ zsjustijiahlei rarefiabU, &c. (183). 

511. To thefe may be added the numerous clafs of words ending maroi/s^ 
e/vif/, and wflw, as barkarausf vocifiroujy ^nd humorous: all which iiave the 
accent on the anupennlumate fyllable, except canorous and sonoroug ; which 
foTOit nnlncky fcholar happening to pronounce witli the accent on the penul- 
timate iyilahJe, m order to ihow their derivation from the Latin adjedives, 
<atiar§m suuijotarQus^ tbej ftand like (Irangers amidH a crowd of fimilar words 
an J ai7 ^ire to betray a mere Englifh fcholar into a wrong pronunciation. 

To polyiyllabks in theie terminations might be added thofe in ative^ atory^ 
fTTt^, &c. ; words ending in ativf can never have the accent on tlie penultimate 
fyllable^ if there is a higher fyllable to place it on, except in the word treativf i 
and when this is the cafe, as it is fcldcm otberwife, the accent feems to red 
on the root of the word ; or on that fyllable which has the accent on the noun, 
adjefiive or vcrb^ with which the word in ative correfponds : thus copulative^ 
eststmtkx, mUirative^ &c. follow the verbs to copuLie^ to estimate^ to alter^ &c. 
V^htsA derivation does j)ot operate to fix the accent, a double confonant will 
attrad it to the antepenultimate fyllable, as appellative ; and two confonants 
hare fbmcdines this power> in oppofition to derivation, as adversative and 
ar^mnUt^vey from advene and argument, IncJicative and interrogative are like- 
wife exceptions, as they do not follow the verbs to indicate and interrogate : but 
a< they are grammatical terais, they feem to have tuken their accent from the 
fccondary accenty we fometimes give to the Latin words indicotivus a^d inters 
rogatnx (fee the word Academy). Words ending in ary, ery. or ery, have 
generally the accent on the root of the word ; which, if it confifts of three 
iyllaUes, maft ncceflarily be accented on the firft, as contrary^ treachery^ fae- 
/s'-y, ^c. ; ff of four or fi\t^ the accent is generally on that fyllable which has 
the accent in the related or kindred words : thus eypostulatory has the accent 
on ibc {ame radical fyllabies as expostulate ; and congratulatory, as congratulate : 
sBferr^aitry aad derogatory are exceptions here, as in the termination ative s 
and it paaficatorjt Jacrjficatory^^ signijicatoryy vesicatt^ry, &c. have not the ac- 
cent 00 tbe firil fyllable, it £^m% to arife from the avcrfion we feem to have 
at placing even the fecondary accent on the antepenultimate a, (which we 
ihouid be very apt to do if the principal accent were on the firft fylUble,) 


• llicie vrordi ov^ht certainly to be accented alike ; and accordingly wc find Dr. lohn- 
SeAiMt* Sbcridiii, Mr. Barclay, and Mr. Smith, place the accent on tbe fccond fyllable; 
WdM^ii Fenoisg zcoenxtjigtificaspry in the fame manner, he places the accent on the ante- 
pes«kii»Sc ^ pacificatory i afld Kcnrack fikewife accents the fecond fjUable oS /tgnijtcatory^ 
imt ^hA ^ pagifcaUry : the 9ti|cr 9rthdeptfta,who have not got thcfc words have avoided 


and die difficulty there would bo in pronouncing fuch long words wilh fo many 
unaccented fylkbks at the end, if we were to lay the accent on the Hrii. 
Words ending in ^ivs have the accent regularly on the penultioiate fyllable, 
except adjtcUve^ which, like indicatives being a gramniattcal word, feems to 
have taken its accent from the fecondary llrefs of the Latin adjcQiims ( ice 
Academy » t and every word ending in /iW, preceded by a confonant, has the 
accent on the penultimate fyllable likewife, except tuhstanlive ; and, perhaps, 
for the rcafon jud given. After all, it muft be owned, that words ending in 
ative and atory ure the roofl irregular and defultory of any in the Linguag;e % 
as they are generally accented very far from the end, they are the moft di/H- 
cult to pronounce ; and therefore, whenever ufage will permit, we iliould in. 
cline the ftrefs as much as poflSble to the latter fyllabLcs : thus refraQory ouglit 
never to have the accent on the firft fyllable ; but reftQory^ witli the accent on 
the i?r{l, is a fchool term, and, like substantive^ aajMye^ indicalivef and inter' 
rngaiive^ mud be left in quiet polTeflion of their Latin fecondary accent. 

EmUtical Accent, 

513. I have ventured to give the name ofenc/ilical to the accent of certain 
words, whofe terminations are formed of fuch words as feem to loie their ow n 
accent, and throw it back on the laft fyllable of the word with which tlicy 
4:oal€fc€, fuch as theology, ortA^grftphy, &c. The readinefs with which tliefc 
words take the antepenultimate accent, the agreeable flow of found to the car, 
and the unity it prefervesin the fenfe, are fufficient proofs of the propriety t>f 
placing tlie accent on this fylLihle, if cuftpm were ambiguous. I do not re- 
member to have heard the accent difputed in any word ending in »ipgy t hut 
orthography is not unfrequentiy pronounced with the accent on the firdfyilal>le, 
like orthodf.xy. The temptation we are under to difcover our knowledge of 
the component parts of words, is very apt to dr^w us into this pronunciation ; 
but as thofe words which are derived from the Greek, and are compounded 
q{ xiy*>i^ have univerfally given into this enclitical accentuation, no ^00 J 
reafon appe;jrs for preventing a fimilar pronunciation in thofe compotinded of 
ypa^w, as by placing the accent on the ant€|)enultimate'fyllable the word is m 11 cl- 
more fluent and an rotable to the ear. It is certain, however, that at iiril 
fight the moft plaufible rcafoning in the wnrld feems to lie againft this accen- 
tuation. When we place the accent on the firft fyllable, fay our opponent^, 
we give a kind of lubordinate ftrefs to the third fyllable gi-ap^ : by which 
means the word is divided into its primitives op8«c and yp^S^i&j ^nd iho£c din- 
tin<5l ideas it contains, are picfcrved, which muft neceflarily he confounded 
by the contrary mode ; and that pronunciation .of compounds, fay tjicy, mult 
certainly be the beft which heft prefervc> the import of the fimples. 

514. Nothing can be more fpecious than dii« reafoning, tijl we look a littl- 
higher than langua(;e, and conlider its obje(5^ ; we (hail dien difcover, tha.t ii 
uniting two words under one accent, {o as to form one compound term, w - 
do but imitate the fuperior operations of the miod, which, in order to collcc 
and convey knowledge, unites feveral fimple ideas into one complex on»- 
" The end of. language,** fays Mr. Locke, " is by (hort founds to fignify wit': 
•* eafe and difpatch general conceptions, wherein not only abundance oF pa r 
^< ticulars are contained, but alfo a great variety o£ independent ideas are col 
*• levied into one ccmplex one. and tliat which holds theic diifercnt parts i<. 
" gethcr in the unity of one complex idea, is the word we ^nnez to iu*^ p<-k 
as Mr. Locke continues, ** Men, in framing idj&asy feek more th^ convenicno 


1 cnmpfi ' 
art J mt^tioni \s i 

Til, thiifi tbf 

I hat ihi^ h tfoiK b> 'M- 

. (jl.KCi die ;KCk*tit on die ;i; 

tnfifUnX oa lU 4U|»cn9r harukonyt mull belt ^ulWcr tlic grc^c end oi' bin- 

10 our lingaage, to fmiplify compntimli, h fyflicif nily 
lu cv^irtloguc of w'orJs, wliere we 6ni the kmg vn^rcl 
»»* ^ a (lion otic in the comp und, imd by thi • meiinv 

^ ' import to the C.*r; ihui ^rMjf/rl^/, #ir;>Afi^fif, Wff- 

fu, hrdtkent valhy% ektmif^ ihuni^ {V^A%\^firrheB(U 

7, hindfr^ krtn'mli^^^'i tiarUng^ fiM^'faU p/iaiiint, flrn' 

tf^mjirrfs^ tusi/fh^ wtatil^^ hmiih, lifhd^mm ^^t^atdf 

^ . g&iftn^f {^7ieff h^lidiiyf Chrhtmat^ Mkhaclmat^ 

fiFi •) f/fi^r, ^•rjrf fr om lw//*r, ati J many ochiTi| 

cT : in ihfjr compound or derivative 

. > ulitfi A finiplc fi ahnoil univeifiilly cfuingfd intt> 
i^*a» ^5 Wh'nchurrh^ WhhjiAK Wbttbrfdd. fVhHlKk^ 
U joufnefs and defpjKch bcin^j new tn importaiicc to I 

jv ^<> d mgcr of milhtkc, it rs no wonder Uut tlic or* 

^ . 1 .in d ca I le (I fo uo tj s * 

4crved^ thit ihisi tendency lo atike fimptei in- 
: accent cxaifdy where the two words coalefce, 
...^i of lurmofif- The Greek word J^»i», winch 
1 wi*ich die lail fyllables ni'^nAoii&xy arc derived, 
iLVLiiis5fiv^ word like >«>if and >m^^ f ^'iJ cvcti If it had 
i;c of conJbnanu m ibe leutr *- would have pTcvcntcd 
I uccrnt on the fylkble immcdiutdy precedtngt as 
li, hsfcomc JrfHcult to ptTonounce* Pkcir^ the ac^ 
il fj^liabk of erdoSjfjft gives the ^rg4tiis an oppor- 
iry ftreA upon die ih'irdr which enables diem lo^ 
tt^neis and fluency ; ihu^ Galff^y and Caih§xy^ 
lylkblc, are very difHcuh to prnnouricei botJ 
':ing the accent a ly liable higher in the wordil 

chiffcs of words th;it fo readily adopt this cticlkical 
I' tn Ik* tvrrceuble to tbe genius of our prontincta- , 
car by aLfducing cxamplcf. Wordi in the \ 
.. ..*.^ «»...i,» the ace cTit on that fy liable where die two 
ri the aniepeautdmate lylhblc : 

j^, 9M Mfmli^yt omMkzn gmdl^^gy-, &c . 





In ioquy^ as oh/oquy, soliloquy, ventriloquy, (cc. 
In strophe, as catastrophe, apostrophe, anastrophe^ &c* 
In meter, as geometer, barometer, thermometer, &c. 
Itigonai, as diagonal, oSagotud, polygonal, 8cc. 
In vorous, as carnivorous, gramvorous^ pisctwrous, &c. 
In/erous, as hacciferous^ cocctfirous^ somniferous, &ca 
li\Jlttous,2iS^ superfluous. Mellifluous, feliyiuouSf^. 
Ivkjluent, as mell^fuent, circumfluent, interfluent, &c« 
In vomous, as iguifiomofts,^mmivomousf 6ic* 
lo parous, as viviparous, oviparousrddparcus, &c. 
. In rr<j<rjr, as theocracy, aristocracy^ democrmcyt &c. 
In^0ii)>as theogony, coimogonyphexagony, S^c^ 
In ^i&o/trjf, as symphony, cacophony, colophony 9 9lc, 
In mtff^j^, as theomachy, logomachy, sciamachy. Sic. « 
Id R«m^, as eeconomyy astronomy, Deuteronosnyj Scc* 
In /^mjFy as anatomy, lithotomy, arteriotomy, &c. 

In /ro^, as metoposcopy, deuteroscopy, a€roscopy% &c. ^ 

In pathy, as apathy, antipathy ^idiopathy, dec. 
In mathf,zs opsimathy, polymathy, &c. &c. &c. 

519. Some of thefe Greek compounds feem to refufe die antepennltimate^ 
accent, for the lame reafon as orthodoxy ; fuch as necromancy, ehirmcmcy, hydro- 
mancy; and thofe terminating in qrchy, as. hierarchy^ oligarchy, patriarchy ; alV 
of which have the accent on. the 6rft (y liable, which gives the organs lime to 
recover their force upon the thirds and. to pronounce the two conumants with 
much moreeafe than if the accent. immediately preceded them ; but /fri/i&rdifV 
zndantiphrasis^. beddes their claim to the accent of their originals,. readilf 
admit of the accent on the fecond fyllable» becaufe the confonants in the two 
laft fyllables do not come together, and are therefore eafily pronounced after 
the accent. Words of more than two fyllables ending mogue, zspecU^ogue, 
dialogue, &c. have the accent on the antepenultimate. Orthoepy having no 
confonant in. the antepenultimate fyllable, naturally throws its accent on the 
firil. See MoNOMACHY. 

5^20, By this view of the enclitical tersiinationi. we may eafily perceive how 
readily our language falls into the antepenultimate accent in theft compound* 
ed polyfyllables ; and that thofe terminations which feem to refufe this accent, 
do it rathex' froip a regard to etymology than analogy : thu& words ending in 
asis, zs periphrasis, apophasss, hypostasis, antiptristasis, &c. have the antepenul- 
timate accent o£ their originals. The fame may be obferved< of thofe ending 
in ^/i/9 as hypothesis,, antithesis, parenthesis, &c. ; hxkX, exegesis, mathesis, auxesis^ 
catachresis, paracentesis^ aposiopesis^ hav^ the accent on the penultimate fyllable, 
beeaufe the vowel in this fyUable is long in Greek and Latin. But all word« 
ending in osis have the accent on the penultimate, except metntmrphosit and 
apotheosis, which defert the accent of their Latin originals, while thofe tnysis 
are accented regularly on the antepenultimate in. Greek, Latin, and Englifh, 
as analyeis, paralyse, 3cc. We may note too,, that every / in all thefe termi- 
nations is (harp and hiffine« See theWosds Exostosis and Apotheosis* 

531. Words of three fyUables ending in ator have the accent on the penul- 
timate, as ipeftaior^ collator, delator, Slc. except orator, senator, legator, and 
hasYator, But words in this terminattonof more than three iyllables, thoueh- 
they have generally the accent on the penultimate, are fubjed to a diverdty 
not eafily reduced to the rule; thus ttavigaiorf fropagatort dtdkator,3cc. are 





tefdmes ptononiiced 'with tht acceni on' the firft fjllaMf, tifjd frf-nfftrne* on 
ik Unrd ; Uot i&t theft worils may be pronoiiticrd wjtli < 
JJrAiUcs^ it is of klTi €oiUeqyeiK:e ofi whicli Jj llih!^ \vr | 
i<veylco'Al]rooe(5i^). Tlif^Bcril rule ten te 

^Kemi; but as aU tbdc wordf t^ verbal iip ; ii^^-jf ^^ ^ ie- 

mcti from Liitin words of the fame tcittiinAU(yii;i, b^vt verr>« ccirre[po«u(ling 
to diem tn ottr own languagt. il is very &,itural to prefervc the jtcccnt of tlie 
Ttrb in ibefe wurds, ax it gives tn emphafu to the moH fign^^i inc part of 
them: thu% f--'^^''T^ frcxsamat^rt drJkamr^ might be rcgttli'' *"-Tiecl 
I ftom the rexl: .** tfl#, to ^revarkdit, anil to dfdkat^ ; aoJ* ,' to 

aaaloTjt wouia fiiVL- tKcn ^rritlen rfuiv^aterf prrt'arUnttrf *ind dr<i.'f<iffr ; but 
ad affection of preferring every auitlogf to ntir own, has givcti thcfc wotdi 
a Latin tmniAauoo, "^hicn anfwcrs no purpofc, byt to involve our Lmgtiugc 
n^ aibftxrjvtki ; hut the cjr, in ihii cafe, is tiot qulie fo Tcrvik 3s ihc eye : atui 
lS:«Q^h iKe ate obliged to write thefe wnrdu with ^r, and not rr, we genera My 
btM tWem {ntJfvOQDCcd as if ihcy were fornacd from our o^n verb*, and not 
itoni Laimiioiaitt YCi atcr. But when the^ord has no verb in onr own Un- 
^*itre to ctJTrefpcmd m h, the accent is then placed wkb greal proprictf upon 

IA<\ <lilc ; and mitndni<frf gksfmtor^ aJuIatar^ Scc, on the I.if! 





J3I. HolicrtD wc ha^ confidered that accent only, which ncccffitrily dif- 

* I mc fytLable to a word it am the refl i and which, with very little 

dftirfitT. i« idopced by all who fpcak the Englifli Unguage- 

ri — - j^^ j^ chat ftrcfs wx may occaiionally place ui>oii 

tt whkh hastlie principiil accenit m order to pro-* 

ihe word snore dliHn^ly, forcfhtyi and harmoniouilj*. 

Tli be placed on the firft fy liable of cQnvtnatkn^ c^mm^nJa' 

P5. Tbere axe few authors who have not taken notice of two accents upon 
fomeof tb« long«7 polyfylJahlciif but none have once hinted that one of thefe 
is Dot cfirniiar to the found of the word: ihcy feem to have fuppofed both 
aectom r^uAify necefrarjt and wkhoyf any other difference than that one was 

''^'^ — ' -^'-^ •'-dhlf than the oUier. llib miftake arofe from a want 

.^ voicCp a knowledge of this would have told theiUi 

vjxAi ..Tjc ^r*!sc o: ifential to e%'cry word of more than one fyllabk, 

aod th«C t^ licor H migbtf or might fiot» be adopted, as dlftindnefsi 

fnr^Ct ur hirBiiioy IciOLiid ^^quitt i ihnB tompimtanft €omrahandfCafm?an; and 

-TttSvt fanh^TO^ srttj^K^ c^fttiauf mffiaphytick^ have frequently an accent on 

tijc 6r&. si^dl ai on the third lyllable, ihiugh a fomewhai lefs forcible one. 

The f^m* Tnay hr ohfo^cd of rrpartre, reftra^ prlvaiier^ domineer ^ 5cc. ; but 

U that though an accent be allowable on the firft fyl- 

: 11 by no Bieans neceifary \ they may all be pronounced 

'k^sh cut 4cceat| ami tbat 00 the kil fylUble, without the kaH deviation &om 

•\ order m gi^e fnme idea of the naitjre of the fccondary accent, Set 
fpJitt thatt itt gi^rog otir opinion of an aftfOaomtcal argument, we fay. 


. « It 18 a direA demooaration of the Copanican fyftci^i." 

In this fentencc,' as an accent is necc£irily upon the laft fyHable oti direQ^ Ti'fc 
fcldom lay a llrefs on the firft ffllaibie of demomtrai'i9nt unlids we mean'to be. 
uncommonly cmphatical ; but in the following feiitehcc, 

** It is a d^onftrittmi oF the Copcmican fyftcm." 

Here, as no accented word precede^ ^emonstrathn^ the voice Bnds s^ rcft» and 
the ear a force, iu placing an accent on the firft, as w^Jl a$ on ih» third fyl- 
lable. / . 

^i6» But though we may, or may not, ufe the fecondary accent at pkafurc, 
it i^ by no means a mattei of indifference on what fylliibltf we place jt x this is 
fixed with as much certainty as th? plac« of the principal accent xtMti and 
a wrong pofi- ion of one, would j^s much derange ,tlK found of tlie word, as 
a wrong polition of the other: and it mufl bo, carrfuUy noted, that though 
we lay no ftrefs upon the fyllable which may have the fecondary accept, the 
confonants and vo.veL have exadly tlie fauie fouadas if the doubtful fyllable 
(as it may be called) wer^ accented, Thus, thou)«cb I lay no ftreis upon tlie 
fccond fyllable of neoaiatioft^ fronuncutthftt ecckstasHc^ 3cc. the ^ and * go into 
the found of sh and aA, as if the fecondary accent were on the preceding fyl- 

Ik'^le (55.7) (« 0(459)- • ." 

527. It may be cbferved, in the firfl place, that the fecondary accent is 
always two fyUables, at leaft, diftant from the principal accent : thus in de* 
monstration^ lamentation^ frwocatioHi &c. the Secondary accent is on the Erft 
fyllable, and the principal on ^e third; and in art^lototny^ mtteordogy^ and 
hypochondriacal the fecondary accent is -on the nr(l, and the principal on the 
fourth fyllable; and in the word iudivisihiUfy wc may place two fecondary ac« 
cents, one upon the firil, and the other on die third. 

528. In the next place it may be obierved, that th^ugl;i ilie fyllable on 
which the principal accent is placed, is Exsdand certaiut yet we maytand do 
freq^uentl/ make the fecondary principal, and ^he principal ^condary i thus 
caravan 9 complaisatit^ vtoiiny repartee^ referee^ privaieeK* dvmimer^ cctir^t%att9 ar- 
iizan^ charlatan 9 may all have the greate(l ftreii» ou the firft, s^id die leaft on 
the lad fyllable, without any violent offence to the ear : nay, it iruy be a&rt- 
ed. that the prixicipal accent on tlie tir(l fyllable of thefe words, and none at 
all on the la(l» though certainly improper^ has noth'uig in it grating or dif- 
cord mt ; but placing an accent on the fecond fylUble of thitrfe worc& would 
entirely derange them, and produce ao intolerable hariiinefs and diffonance. 
Tlie fame obfervations may be applied to d<mpn^raU(m^ UmtntaiUn, prrooeaiion^ 
navigator 9 propagator 9 alligalor, And every fin^lar word in the language. But, 
as we have obierved, No. 526,. tlie confonants /, ^,.^ and i, after the fecotx- 
dary accent, are exadly uiidcr the fame predicament as after the primary; 

. t6at is, if they are followed by a diphthong or diphthongal YOwel, thefe con- 
fonants are pronounced like jh^ td» %bf or j, as sfnkniiosUj,. puriiaUtj, &c. 


J29. In treatinj^* thi> part of pronnnciation, it will not be neceffary to enter 
into the nature otthat quantity which conOitutes poetry ; the quantity here 
confidered will be thatwhich relates to words take&iuigly ^ md this is nothing 


tbe Uii^lh or liiortftcf* of the viwkIa, eitSKr j. 

1 il9t>et or 


vtrv irs' 


I vtnvcl, except the j 

' b(U tt .* wnd t ij- 

ons if and /Wf aii^ il 

.11 |50mUttg out. tkrc wc tin J rv 1- 

ruk> for lire iictrtnt Hnd qtj.if-rit _, u 

tins. In oihzr jtm^i of iht " whctr cni^ 

m flill djfcovcf gentrnl rult:* i .imu mcfe att bwl 

qtiuntttf ff Uic vowel under the principal -icctitt 

' ve but a common *Ji»irc of edutntmn, and arc 

M(i oi the c:ipTt.>i* JTC Cridcim at a k»K far tha 

■ he 

degrs d^ Htvitde f*-#Vf-fi*ff, and di'*m^-crm-i<4il i whiJcDr, Kcnrn 

Lai miko^iiM 

. between the tirll » m pr^fdrtanm and ^r^ifjuf. fit*yit* 
m and ^rcrd^irrt tliou\»h he diftingu*Oic» thif letter 
;itid that 'mpf^*rfft9m anvj though Mr. 8KcriJ.«il 



L [i dt pr c jKJiiiroti s ■ ' 4 

ly itipcri&r to ' ni» 

Uic tendency < ; , e* 

ifOKp«r«iik prcpmiuoiiVi wc (hall hnJi that t^i iiT>ct wnrdl 

-Sifi^urwhalc liora oiLcr LmgUiigcs, wc confide j ^ ^^^* -^'^^ P^**' 

Dill any refpccl to ihtir comfrt>oeiit p*iT!i 1 ^ nt ihwic tcm- 

, ftitnfi o Uriel V€t retain the traces fii thai Inrmaiion, in the dit 

u c)bi«nfabk beiucen the prcpofiiive and radical put to ^\t 

'^^-'/ ^ " '--4'^fl, ftttf^itB, and n//-o//-rtf.t'^, c* niing ctisrr* 

ught, wheiiihc aiccni 11 on the prvpotiimn, 

a ^3iiue It to tht root, as in rff~ur^rfc*fkn* re^-Qi U€ thu^ 

- ' rt<tmmitt'^t Slc^ being conipriandsi of our own, 

ir hfi^ hcc« ohfcTvedf ar»fes this general nik s where tht 

■ A the firoples, and the j arts of the wond 

' I and asif of cwnpafition^ then the pncptj* 

- J' lii^c'. >k; but when iJje cnjnputind departs €rcf 
■ri a: i rnpkspthi: lame departure h oh icrvaHcta 

, ivcflor iJk di&ereiit iylUbication and praniiucvaifrjn of r* ^^M' 
-m^I i :hc Jcrruer figjiiRci a icpctitloi^ of a coniinct3c^iDeii% 



*kvffi (^ANTITY. 

biut die Utter does not imply a repetition of a commendation : thus re-peiitaft 
would fignify to petition again ; while rep-Hstlon fignifies only an iteration of 
the £m!iea£t,be it what ic will. The fame may be obferved of the words re* 
4ragte and rec-rtate^ re-formation and ref-ormaiion, 

532 lliat this is perfe^ly ajAeeable to the nature of the laM^agty appears, 
from the fliort pronunciation of the vowel in the Hf ft fyllable otfrefaccy prelate^ 
freludti proUgue^ Ac. as if divided into pref-aie^ prd-ate% prel-ude^ prd-ogue^ &c. 
Itismi^ch to be regretted, however, that this (hort found of the penultimate 
Towel has fo mudi obtained in our language, which abounds too much in theft 
fennds $ nor can etymology be always pleaded for this pronunciation; for ia 
Che foregoing words^ the tirft vowel is long in the Latin pr^faihypr^laitUypr^U' 
Hurny though fbort aa/>ro%8/ : for though in words from the Greek the prepo- 
fidon «rf wa^ fliort, in Latin it was generally long : and why we (hould ihorten 
it in progtefs^ prtj^s 8cc, where it is long in Latin» can only be accounted for 
by the fnperticial application of a general rule, to the prejudice of the found 
of oar language. .(543 .. 

533- tt will be neceflary, however, to obferve^ that m forming a judgement 
of the propriety of thefe obfcrvations, the hiceft care rauft be taken rHW to con- 
found xhdc prepofitions which are under the primary and fecondsay accentf 
^nith.thofe which inmiediately precede the ftrefs ; for preclude, preienJ, Sec, are 
under a very difierent peedicament from prologue, prepofthon^ &c.? and the ^crf 
ftmc law that obliges us to pronounce the vowel feort in the firft fyfiable oJF 
frow-Jencst proV'O-catioM^ and prof-a-nrnfion, obliges us to pi^nmnnce the V>\vel 
open* and with fome degree o^ length tnpro-vuiey pro^oie, iittd pro* feme. The 
fiune may be observed of the.r in re-pair and rtp^a-ratum^ rrply^zvkd rep li-<atio»y 
fio^poat ztidrep'O^iticmf the accent making the whole diffierence between the quan- 
tity «f the vawel in or^ word and the other. 

554. The only eiception to the Aortening power of the fecondary accent is 
the fame as that which prevents the (hoxtening power of the primary accent, 
{5039) namely, the vowel », as ;n lucubration, or when any other of the vowels 
, are fucceeded by a femi confonant diphthong, ( 196 :) thus mediator and media* 
Serial hzvt the e in the iirft fyllable as long as in mediate ; deviation has the e in 
die firft fyllable as long as in deviate^ notwithftanding the fecondary accent is 
on it, and which^would infallibly have fhortened it, if it had not been for the 
liicceeding diphdiong ia f and even this diphthon'^ in ^'Wia/or has not the 
power of preferving the firft fyllable long, though Mr- Shei idan, by his mark- 
ing it, has made itu). 

535. From wBat has been feeu of accent and quantity, it is eafy to perceive 
bow prone our language is to an antepenultimate accent, and how naturally 
this aceent (hortens the vowel it falls upon : nay, fo great a propenfity have 
vowels to (brink under this accent, that the diphthong itielf, in fome words, 
and analogy in others, are not fufficient to prevent it, as valiant* retaliate^ 
Thus, by uie fubjoining only of al to natum^ with the a long, it becomes na* 
thmalf with the a ihort, thoi^h contrary to its relation with oceajion and eon^ 
gregotiofif which do not (horten the a upon betn? made octafional and coagrega- 
ikaal: in like manner the acquifition of the iarae termination to the word 
iMterf, makes it uat-^*ralf but this, it maybe prefumed, is derived from the 
l»atin uttiuraHst and not ftom adding a/ to the £ngli(h word, as in the fore* 
fjo^ms inftanoes ; and thus it comes nnder the (hortening power of the aate-^ 
|)enuTtimate accent, notwithftandin^ the femt-confbnant diphthong ». 

536. The £une (hortening power in the antepenultimate accent may be pb- 
fereediAnitftpiM/andr«<Mifnuito> wheretbefirftain the firft word, and the in 


^omwrrrr A! 



, arc fiioit. The Rift <? 

jf r ."it-iv iiT : triiuj'.*!' 



IS, i»t 


* CTTO- 

} MCcfii <m 



: Ihort. 

■ fccmcd to Uzrt fomcthiijg of 

:!vo^n u)c ^TL.ii LijriLicTicc in ibc tuitore ol ihc Latin 

view MS to ^irgLic fnm one to the mhet hut in very 

' imm 

_ • ■■■ -^ ' - ■ sunit 

'' lAifiimff/rrvUMM^f^rveifmp Pftm^iniutt ci p^atca di4., i^iio Crci> :ir, tjt 

A5.j:ftriVi-i. likm Ci5ym eft in neniiqusm^ Wctt iiicipvat di; i- *^. " Z>f 

words whtcb lave the ;ictJic accent tin the an* 

-r--— ometim^ thitt lylbhlc il^JriCTUfd, if it w;y on\j 

li^sgb^ ^^ Afui^prr^eiimj Piimphiita^ ai^d a few others wiitdi 

by tbttBi<u.i^ u *ivm Crctic to Anape^ic feet i nxy^nfmii^u&m tu^ 

ier^oa tLc far jogh U bcgini with a dipbtlioog. 

Et\:-:^«^ — » «- --^--^Tllablcs, is a verydiflFcrcut QperAtlon^ according to 
i 1 1, T!ie objed of ffUahi cation maf be, cither icr 

ct^uiiirD 10 i;<ixovn ; ic found of words they arc im^cquaimcd with, or 
w dig ctvowki^ o£ a word or to exhibit the ex 4^ (nonuaciaiion of it. 

: * '■ ' ■ ' II *idvrtnceiifl reading, but is ignormt of 

![ m^y not be improper to lay down the 
lit between two vowrob mtifl go to 
. L- logethcr mtifl t^e diviiicd. Fdrihcr 

i< wcniid be ablurd to j^o witli i child t for telling him that com- 
be dt% tdcd into their llmples, and that fucb conlbn^nts as muy be< 
inwrj tc^n a fyllihli^, requires a previous knowk J ee of words, 

catiT'' ^'^ I'i ;>ofeJ to have ; and which, if ttiey nave, nialees 

c fiy^cofk of word ^ ^ bl es unne c c Iti ry , Chi 1 dr e n* th ere fo re, m ii y be 

^pc ' .r-..,*! r^ . »? , ^1 f^i(J alKivcmentiontd, as, in many tafcs, it will 

Ht V the word, a** in ptn-vi-dedr and in others, it v^ ill 

^ki^Dic inciD CO giv.: 4 g's'.'ti gnef^ at it^. as in d^-ii-catc ; ai^d this is all th^t can 
Hk tfl^tfbdt for when wc ^re to form an unknown compound toiind, out of 
^ ' ' ' : (which it the cile with chtldrcji, wheo wc wifh 

. a word by fpeUing it ;) ihih I fay, is tlic onljr 



Tc till 

cal dirilion of words h a^ di^rcnt operation : it ts 

! with the whole word, and who willies to 

_ lige of its con ilituent parts f n% Grth^gr^phf^ 

t^rn^ frnit\nrr^ a pcrfon, who is pre*acqiiainted with the whole 

id wants to convey the round of each part to one 

upimi. UK tde it into fucb partial founds as, when put toge* 

-\y form the whole a* PMhog^ru-pl^y^ ih-pi-Q-g^^ &c. This is 




the nietl^od adopted by thofe who would convey the whole found, by giving 
diftinftly every part ; and, when tliis is the obje<d of fyllabicationi- Dr. Lowth's 
' rule IS certainly to be followed. " The heft and eafieft rule," «)»$• tlie learn- 
ed bilhop, '* for dividing the fyllables In fpelltng, is, t a divide them as they 
** are natnrally divided m a ri^ht ptonunciation, without regard to the deri- 
*• vation of word?, or the poflible combination of confonants, at the beginning 
*< of a fy liable.*' InftoJuSion to Eng. Gram, pag. 7. 

542. In this view of fyllabix:ation we confider it o^lj as the pidare of 
adlual pronunciation ; but may we not confider it as direded likewife by fotne 
laws of its own ? Laws, which arife out of the very nature of enuiiciation, 
and the fpecific qualities of the letters ? Thcfe laws certainly dired us to 
feparate double confonants, and fnch as are nncombinable from the incoalef- 
cence of their founds ; and if fuch a feparation will not paint the troe found 
of the word, we may be certain that fuch found is unnatural, and has artfen 
from caprice ; thus the words Cbamberj Cambridgcy and Cambrkit mud be 
divided at die letter m, and as this letter, by terminating the fylhble accord- 
ing to the fettled rules of pronunciation, (hortens the vnwel-^e general 
pronunciation given to thefe words mud be abfurd, and contrary to the firft 
principles of the language. AngeU^ ancient^ da^er^ mtngir^ and ranger^ are 
under the fame predicament ; but the paucity of words of this kind, fo far 
from wekkening the general rule, Arengthen it. See Change. 

543. By an indndion which demondrates the fhortening power of the 
antepenultimate acccnt> has been fhownthe propriety of uniting the confonant 
fo the vowel in the ^t^ fy liable of /iaji^rifiraihn^ lanuntcdUn^ profagaihfif &c. 
we thus decide upon the quantity of thdfe vowels, which are fo uncertain in 
our bed di^ionanes ; and may we not hope by a fimilar indudion» and with 
the Brft principles of langUiige in view, to decide the trnCf genuine, and ana- 
logical found of fome words of another kind which waver between different 
pronunciations ? The antepenultimate accent has unqaeftionably a (horcening 
power; and I have not the fmalle(l doubt that the penultimate accent has a 
lenghthening power : that is, if our own words, and words borrowed from 
other languages of two fyllables, with but one confonant in the middle^ has 
been leit to the general ear, the accent on the fird fyllable would have infal- 
libly lengthened the firft vowel. A ftrong prefumption of this arifes from 
our pronunciation of all Latin diflyllables in this m.mner, without any regard 
to the quantity of the original, (fee Drama,) and the ancient pdidticc ofi 
doubling the confonant when preceded by a fingle vowel in the participial ter- | 
roinations, as to beg$n% beginnings to regret^ rcgrettsd : and I believe it may be 
confidently affirmed* that words of two fyllables from the Latin* with but 
one confonant in the middle, would always have had the fird vowel long, if 
a pedantic imitation of Latin quantity had not prevented it (fee DaAMA)^ 
Let an Englifhman, with only an Englifh education, be put to pronounct 
xepbyr^ and he will, without hefitation, pronounce tlie e long, as in vcxnith , 
if you tell him the c is pronounced fliort in the Latin zephyr us ^ which make 
it fiiort in Englifh, and he {hauld happen to aHc you the Latin quantity of thi 
firft fyllable of coimc^ mimiCf folace^ &c. your anfwer would be a contradl<s 
tion to yoor rule.— What irrefragably proves this to be the genuine analog 
of Englilb quantity, is the different quantity we ^ive a Latin word of tw 
fyllabks when in the oomtnative, and when in an oblique cafe : thus in the fir 


^ It is highly probable that, in Ben Jonfon*s time, the a in this word was pr o n au n c cd 
m M, iioee be dalTet ic to fhow the Otort foimd of a fi^ih tfit, «0, and aff^\ Gramaar. 



fylbble cl Jiduf and nomtn^ vrhich ought to be Jong ; and of mtfer and wtu^ 
^•iwA ought to be Oiort, we equally ufe the commonTong found of the vowels ; 
be: in the oblique csi^cs^ Jidcris^ nominisf miferif onerist &c. we ufe quite ano- 
iha found, and that a [hr*n one : and this analogy runs through the whole 
Iflglifti pronunciation of the learned languages (533) (535). 

544. Bat the (mall dependence of the £ngli(h quaniity on that of the Latin 
will be heft feen by a ieledion of words of two fyllables, with the accent on 
th^ (irft, and bnt one conibnant in the middle, and comparing them with the 
Latin words from which they are derived. 

Fjigliih disfvSablea 'which have but one c(m9(3fnant^ or a mute and liquid in the mid^ 
dky and have the Jtrat syllable accentedy contrasted with the Latin Vfordajrom 
vhi<h they are derivedy nuirked with their respective quantities. 

Words in which the firft vowel in both languages is long : 

































libra, libra. 





trinus. . 






























* ovalis. 







fibra, fibra. 



metrumy metnim. 








••Kftf, rrphon. 



it^Atr, colon. 







vibro, vibro. 

















tigris, tigris. 







vocal is. 



prseda. ' 







pre tor. 















, crebrous. 



xfiff'/c, crlfis* 












"l rigreffus. 


fibra, f Ibnu 




tigris, ligris. 




bolus, bolus. 





digeft, fub. 











^ 'trophaeum. 






















iyrinx, o-vf#T(. 


in which the fame vowel is Ihort ii 

L both languages. 














































g«icl, . 



' st&tutus. 
































































































febrilis, t^nlin. 











1* *"""^J 




























ihim, . 

























































patent, sub. 


























I^ORii io w]))ch the aamp Towel ii 

long in English, 

and short in Lstbr 

































trdchsus. . 


































choral, ' 




nivalis ii 










. pedal, 






recent, «. 








^^^*h schesis. 



^V/f, thesis. 







)itent, adj. 

























roset, ' 





















Words in 

which the iame Towel U 



















































t^por. . 




























































re fin a. 










prod aft io. 


















echo, •p'tt. 






lepra, lepra. 























































545. In this view of the Latin and Englifli quantity, we fee how uncertain it 
is to argne from the former to the latter ; for tliough the Latin accent is frc- 
qaentlj a rule for placing the Englifh accent, as in words derived whole from 
that language, as abtbmen^ acumen^ &c. (503), or prcferving the fame number 
cflyllables* as in impudent^ elegant^ from impudens^ elegant^ &c. (503), yet the 
^Uiinrtfy of the Ladn ieems to have no influence on that of the Engliih. In 
word^oC two ijllables, where one confonant comes between two vowels, as/d. 
CBx, hafiiy ioctdy &c. chough the vowel in the fird fyllable is (hort, in Lat'm, it 
is Irng in Englifh ; and invcrfely, flariii^fngidf hvidj &c. have the vowels in 
the &rft {yUable fhort, though thcfe vowels are long inJlorUus^fngidusf lividusj 
Sec. ; fo that if azry thing like a rule can be formed, it is^ that when a word of 
three fylbbki in Latin, with the two firft fhort,is anriicifed by dropping the lail 
fyliable ; we fhortcn the firft fyUable of the Engliih diffyllable, unlefs it ends 
wih die vowel « (535)^ Thus we fee the Ihortening power of our Englifli 
ancepenoltiaiate accent, which fhortens every antepenultimate vowel but u in 
our proonndadoa of Latin words ; as in tmnilcuffvividuiy &c. and continues its 
flwrtenin^ power in the penultimate accent of thefe words when angliciied 
into jffu»ri and whJ; and hence it is that the (hort quantity of the firft 
'^^d in di^Uables is become (o prevalent in our language, to the great de- 
tt'nnent of its fooBd, and the diftorbance of its fimplicity. 

Ii may be neceffary, in the next place, to uke a view of fuch words as are 
either of Sauton or French original, or not fb immediately derived from the 
Latin, » to be influenced by its quantity. 




with but one confonant in the middle, 

pronounced long : 


























































DifiyDaUes with but one confonant in the middle. 

pronounced fliort : 







^ wagon, 







• damafic. 














' nitho^. 










































baivihg the firft fyllable 
























































FfOB ' virc fc< a great majority of v -<re 

die Ml \r ' . LherdWc, to (ohk iniptt^fori i ,cm 

iiiptob^btc xt I tcntic::cy f>f oiir Siton Unguage wai lo iIjc kng 

jt^ nft c vowcK But as Mr. N« res very judkluui])^ ob- 

.ktly general to be admiued, and k undoubiedlf 

. .*. ...v o.*..^.^ ^, Hirpronundaiion :**for wbickhc <|notcs I)r* Wallitp 

, ** Hwc irt<klur gcnuma lingua: noHrx ratto ;Lnt»qiu*" EitmiwU ^ 

S4& Tbofe itijo bai-c made tlic probers orboguagci their ftudjr. will 6l>- 
fcrre, tl n ^jTcfcnc ■ V rie Bro^d Ibundi of vowels change lo djc lIcnd^T,* 
•lie di^Eicv&i cfsttib; .le eaner« and the long vowcli id ilicjrt otic** Thi^ 

It b u&ftg^afcdi ^lu t< ioui^d t<i be true in ^11 kngiiagcs, us w cll ;ts our own ; 
^fij f Dcb alicntioe fecmi founded m the njiturt tpf nun and of fockty* llic 
TKti objeS eo liadetlfaMi^nig a language V»cmg dcfp^tcli^ it is no w ondcr dtai 
*liOft Mrnis Mifie ten teaoachmg ou us, ;ind depriving us of the tune nf our 
iiP«>Ris /or cftt iUe cif ^ainmg lime. This is apparent in ihc ahbieTtation of 
fii&^ef wlien cd*i«;>fitini!f il, as in hmwUdge^Jhe^btrd^ &c. (518)* but a* it is 
ifcebiifiodi ai^n * and regulate the eci;cntridue& af nature and lie 

■Kcc&s «f culkooi^ *i u., be the care cf every phttofophic gramoiarian to 
ce^liH eps nfiQD tiie origiiial genius and gcneial fcope of hts language, and 
toloffcTCdibm 10 depoii as litdc from them as poflible. Em although no 
tOconfi^QiCT Of want oi' anwlogy can alter any pronunciation which is once 
mkaxm^tdgtd itoA fetiled, yet when a pronunciation is w^vcnng:, confiflcncy, 
*Mi*yf «Jid general principles^ ought to decide againll a gicai majority ot 
wmt BdKion and caprice. 
Tl-Tn *»trre I endeavoured to gtre a diflin^ view of the ccrrefpondenee be- 
nd quantity of the learned l;mguagcs and our own j iind 10 
• ^lifhman (whotas Ben Jonfmnfays of Shakcfpcarc, hai Iktk 
teiiOi«^k,) fruinthe fupcrctlioui *;riUi:iimof thofc Crcekiings and 
-rt «r>.r. are olien icmarkably ignorant of tlieir own language, and 
ie open its accent and qu;mtity, becaufc they have a fmat^ 
J Latin. If the queftion iuni5 upon the accent of an Eng* 
I word il \% derived from \% im mediately producedp and fen^ 
npeal; and yet if the EngHihman were to ailt the rule 
. founded, the fchoUr would, in all probability, he at a 
^-^ ■ T ) -^i ^^ :i word, he might tviy, the fame accent as 
■I »-'i^ .: \' • Ml i, ;( i ,].;ivcd? This the fchoUr could not anfwcr IS 
^K *^f a grmr t a T : : l rccolkaiim woulJ tell him that parftmrnn^ mr'm^^ 

^H *^ CBBof he I ;ui cr the Latin ^arftmoma^ acrirmma, &c as the LaiJn is 

^^ketrcr AceeotadlughcT than the antepenuhimaie. I'ut perhaps the EnghOi word 
I^Bii adopfted «We irom the Latm. Here is undoubtedly a fair pretence for pro- 
^^^ovneh^tT'viiitte Latin accent i and yet wc fee how many eicceptions there 

^ ^ A ik>fBit pro ribp AlMtfUA <St irivrtrr^tyi errtjc mjlii* obtrudcf etur. 01 jm crtim pro nmiiitickae 
■^K» auralMCttif & laco^je , 9c 411 An do canJuctudo aikpiid mut^fTet, ftribcndi quoq^ 
*ate» fatim f«ftmli»tiu. tlsid« qwitin apud Efiiiium & PLiutum 5»« it ^cr«(i dicerecur & 
ll^Wvs^a podcA iMikit ;iQfkim •lchci}« « irQCalt rrje^a, quod vaitut rtliti^ vidcretuf foiiu« s 
™** fi^AbLi d^ ik iibm> ^i ut conjm Imo iV^f & Stn^vx prohttini Sc Ccripnun liL 

^^i^fmf§^ka^bi BnffeEt. : Re^ Fronun. LiD^js Or^cx Cwnincntaiiui* 




are to this rule (fee No. 50J, L) Or, perhaps, the Englifh word, thoQgh an- 
glicifed, retains the iame number of fyllables. This, indeed, may be faid to be 
^general rule for preferving the Latin accent, but fo general as to be negleded 
in a tboufand inftances (fee No. 503,/;^, b^ it k.) But if the fcholar, as is 
often the cafe, huddles quantity and accent together^ and infers the Englifh 
quantity from the Latin ; the Englifli fcholar needs only to refer him to the (c- 
Ifi^ions here given, (No. 544) (545), to (how the inanity of fuch a plea. 
Upon the whole, tlierefore, I flatter myfelf that men of learning will be gratifi- 
ed to fee the fubjeft in a clearer point of view than any in which it has ever been 
exhibited ; and the plain English fcholar will be indebted to me for giving him 
as clear and dtdin^ an idea of die connexion between the Greek and Latin ac* 
cent and quantity, and the accent and quantity of his natire tongue, as if he had 
H6mer and Horace by heart ; and for placing him out of the reach of thoie 
pert minor critics, who arc conftantly infulting him with their knowledge of 
the dead languages. 

Of the Quantity of the Unaccented Vowels not in the same Syllable vnth ConsMonts: 

547. Accented fyllables, a» we have before obferred, (1799) ^xt (6 ftrongly marked as to be 
eafily comprehended when they are once fettled by cuftoiu or analogy $ but thak iiomediately 
before or after the accent are in a ftate of uncertainty, which fome ofour beft judges find them- 
fclves unable to remove. Some grammarians have called all the open vowels before or after the 
accent fhort, though the ear fo evidently didates the contrary in the • in ytWfy^ the • in oBcdi- 
tncty &c. S6me have faved themfelves the trouble of farther fearch by comprehending thefe 
vowels under the epithet obfcure ; nay, fo unfixed do the founds of thefe voweb ieem, that Dr. 
Kenrick, whofe Rhetorical Di^ottary (hows he was pofleifed of very great philological abilities, 
feems as much at a lofs about them as the meaneft grammarian in the kingdom ; for when he 
comes to mark the found of the vowel In the firft fy liable of a feriesof words with the accent 
on the fecond, he makes the in fromulgty propel^ and /re/r'x, loi^g, as they ought to be ; and the 
fame letter in probofcUt procetd, and procedure^ ihort. bominhn^ domifiicy iuiatimf and domain arc 
marked at if pronounced dom-inion, dom^it, doH-atioM, and dom-am^ with the « Ihort ; while the 
iirft of doiiiitj^ potential^ and monotony^ have the o marked long, as in donor, ptSeutt 9Xid medijti 
though it is ceruin to a demonftration, that the etymology, accent, and letters, being the lame, 
the fame found mufl be produced, unlefb where cuftom has precifely marked a di£ference ; and 
that the firft fyllables oi promulggf prtpei, and/ro/itx, and chofe of promts, proceed, zndproctibtre, 
have no fuch diiference, feems too evident to need proof. ' 

548. I know it may be demanded with great plaufibility, how do I know that there is not 
this very inconfiftency in cuftom itfelf ? What right have I to fijppofe that cuftma is not as 
vagne and capricious in thefe fyllables as in thofe under the accent r To which lanfwer : if 
cuftom has determined the found of thefe vowels, the difpote is at an end. I implidty acqul- 
efce in the decifton ; but if profefTors of the art difagree in their opinions, it is a (hrewd ngn 
that cuftom is not altogether fo clear in its fentence ; and I muft infift on recurrii^ to prind> 
pie* till cuftom has unequivocally decided. ' 

549. Every vowel that is neither fliortened by the accent, nor fucceeded by a double coofo- 
nant, naturally terminates a fyllable ; and this terminating vowel, though not fo pn^ierfty long 
as if the accent were on it, would be very improperly termed fliort, if by fhort, as is often the 
cafe, be meant ihut 6s)» According to this idea of fyllabication, it is prefumed that the word 
opinion would fall into three diftin<5l parts, and every part be terminated by a confonaat bat the 
hrft, thus wpin'ion, 

* I am aware that this ingenious writer feems to avoid this inconfiftency, by pronifing, in 
his Rhetorical Grammar, page 43, that he has fometimes marked the in wotds b^rioniug 
with a prepofition with the oratorial, and fometimes with the colloquial pronunciation : thus, 
in commune, commnnieate, &c. the oratorial found ia given as in the firft fyllable of commm, while 
the colloquial f^und changes the into v, as if the words were written cummMne,atmmmKicaU,iiLc.'. 
but the diftindion in thefe examples does not touch the point : here there is a change only of 
one fltort found for another, and not any promifcuous ufe of a long and ihort, or open and fhut 
found of the liune letter. Dr. Kenrick himfelf, when he marks the e mprobofcie, froceed, and 
procedure, does not adopt the fiiort u, as he does in commune, communicate, &c. ; nor isAe aware of 
the e0ential difference with' refped to the quantity of the TOwel> in the doable coolbaant in 
one fet of words, and the fingle one 10 the other* 




f k taaf he dcmafukU* wtiM nsJii 

E 11} th^ ^3 — — - '^ — *^ '- 

i I tjMt tn^ til* «> ftftlil b« 

rvcfft cftf!'T V''»'*vc* ][»f*>- 

« f 

# |»r«]iniaRCC(il ■• in ih^i word ii/Nr« anid not 
'he rowel iti <jtKflion, they havr the fame 

y .> f.Hi^jJj.kiVr !]iri)U,'liiul[ t1i- !j(lL':jJjje» 


leuynttttm, Jkt* *Vhe «, thf- ho 




, -. '."^ t^e 

■J Iltut Unn jiti* 

v^e UiJt ad itJf 

lim wcml \vuul4 iicM, bcr luiUy priJtJiuyjHctl 

^, 5» if ffividrH intfi i4fjtv'it*l^fiit'^t thu 

It ti> the i >n- 

-' ' - - -ijt- 

^loni tiar rhc vuweb ouio) Eht: iitci* ought ta in: fcepl fipoi 
^^ be trrp; open 10 the fume OttiaTioi> iti th« word ijf«^'«fi«^ 

.vv,r>i;it elit <oftoni miopted by tTie anei<iiUind 

■ 'i fyilal** call CHI, whr-rt invcllijfsit- 

t and good fciiTc th^it \hc onlf 

. LLiuL, 111 LI .11 cotirunint , id thofc thjii art 

'^'C arc tioa: ■ lly.c^nootbc fa id to be drhcr 

nrMi 1. kA prfvnnutfced afrtmc, have thcur 

btc tiiuft pttelTafity retain their 

y with the fiicc<:cding confoiiant 

mg but a fkhcwtc tur wili dk^sl^^ HI lo the degfce of oprtl* 

^^ri.-c thr fif(! tinacfclllci t in iiMttiiy, dum/itu^ p9tmiii*it /r*- 

t it t* c^.x^ly iindtr the f^mc prcdicimcutt 

they tin Rcvtr he pnioimntcd fhfirt w»d 

' ' tllcll cif ; fo the r ii! rtvffi^ 

i'fcondt fuurtb^ %nd JiEf h 

vn L^.. *^-..M>iMM. .-^ >* j.i.i.v ^ iM Liv. ^...,,...i,..f.t without ofiendtfig every 

Ltffnio^ the fiHl prtliCipki of pronunciAtLots* 

.'1 etjrifnlef td the uTJiftrfjted vowel r, whethcf ending a fylU- 

Ankuuinv. ,1* fiandifhf for ttic fame fifutid ; f«T we fee nilti 

' inother : thut he divide* the word 4L 

. I L , a nd tf ny^^tr-iii jf Wi ih the fam e < unit - 

iy ukc* pb<;t; ill the wordsrf^^if t4i/l.ify and in-di-^t-l- 

'vqrd^ of thti towin^tion rcguhrljf in die fonnttf mm- 


SS^. The only confidcrabic eipceptioB to this general rule of fyllabication which dctcrtnuje«» 
the found of the unaccented voweli, is when e fucceeds the accent, and b followed by r, as 
m Uieral^ j^eneral^ miscryy &LC. which can |» ever be pronounced iit-r-raif gem-e-raJt misery, &c. 
without the appearance of a/Tedation. tn this fituation we find the r corrupts the found of 
the fy as it does that of every other vowel when in a final unaccented fyUable. For diis con- 
fonant being nothing more than a jar, it unavoidably mixes with the e in this fituation, and 
reduces it to the obfcure found of fliort m, (418,) a found to which the other unaccented voweU 
before r have fometimes fo evident a tendency. 

554. An obfcure idea of the principles of fyllabication juft laid down, and the contrtdldtion 
to them perceived in this exception, has made moft of our orthoepifts extremely wavering and 
uncertain in their divifion of words into fyllables, when the unaccented e has preceded r, w here 
we not only find them differing from each other, but fometimes even from thcmfelvcs : 




mix-zur jp. 

m/t er-yy 





















mum mer^y 








V0'cif-e.rous y 






yn itiMr-fbly 





mit trut'ble^ 

mist ryy 


iur-gc ryy 





























Jin, ryy 





ve ci/er-cusy 













SSIf. I have been the more copious in my collc^ion of thefe varieties, that I might not ap. 
pear to have taken the advantage of any overfight or miftake of the prefs : not is it any wonder 
when the principles of fyllabication fo Arongly incline us to leave the vowel e, like the other 
vowels, open before a fingle confonant ; and the ear fo decidedly tells us, that this letter is not 
always open when preceded by the accent, and followed by r, it is no wonder, I fay, that a 
writer fhould be perplexed, and that he fliould fometimes incline to one fide, and fometimes to 
the other. I am confcious I have not always been free from this inconfiftency myfelf. The 
examples therefore which I have feleded, will, I hope, fully juftify me in the fyllabication I 
have adopted; which is, that of fometimes feparating the e from the r in this fituatioo, and 
fometimes not. When folemn and deliberate fpeaking has feemed to admit of lengthening the 
ty I have fometimes made it end the fyllahle ; when this was not the cafe, I have fometimes 
jouied it to the r : thus, as « in the penultimate fyllable of incarurate^ reverberatty &c ieems, in 
folemn fpeaking, to admit of a final! degree of length and diftindnefs, it ends a fyllable ; but 
as no folemnity of pronunciation feems to admit of the fame length and opennefs of the r 
in toUraUy dcliberaUy &c. it is united with r, and fonnded in the noution by ihort ■• It onght, 
however, to be carefully obferved, that though the « in this fituation is fometimea feparated 
from the r, there is no fpeaking, however deliberate and folemn, that will not admit of uniting 
it to r, and pronouncing it like ihort », without offending the niceft and moft critical ear. 

SS6. It muft alfo be noted, that this alteration of the found of e before r is only when ic 
fellows the accent, either primary or fecondary, (522) (530 ;) for wl^cn it it in the fidit fylia- 

i.^j^fcT 4 *.r^*r» 

■T ftdil'-r-^, ThA' ruo much iime h..i^- - -n» 

iii,s/' !^^rui. Ives, are fmittd lu '- ^t 

mmiccjeiitfd, tnil Lkat th':R lyiLiuiet 

^tion 4?f ottivrq (Utiijlli: whrfi w< 

1 ^1^ * j.-^- Lj , ^L". jj t Ibuiidi at poflihlc, !*» which wc iii»| 

wc Chall titit lv«k ttpoti ail attempt t9 itrrcll oijd in* 

J.59- ^ TABLE of the SIMPLE ohJ DIPffTHONG'fL BOWELS referred 
to by the Figures over the Letters in this Diaionary, 


1 . d. The long flendcr Englifli Of as in flte, pi-pcr,7 ^ .^ ^^^ ^ 

2. i. The long Italian a, hs in fflr, ft-ther, pa-pi, 1 ^ j^ .^^^ ^^^^^ 

mara-mi, (77) J y » • 

3. k. The broad German «, as in fill, will, wi-ter, (83) d in 4//, Chdions. 

4. d. The fhort found of the Italian a, as in Rt, mit, 1 ^ ^^ /a/ mfl/Z/i. 

mdr-ry, {81) ' 3 

J , ^. TOe long tf, as in m^, h^re, md-tr?, mfe-dium, (93) i in J!»//r^» ^i/r^. 
2. ^. The fhort ^, as in m^t, Wt, g^t, (95) e in wf/Z^, «f//^v 

I . I. The long diphthongal /, as in pine, tUtle, (105) di in Idique^ naif 
?. 1. The fliort fimple /, as in pin, tlt-tle, (107) i in inn^t ^i^f^- 

1. 6. The long c^n^, as in n6, note, no-tice, (162) \Tiglohe% Me. 

2. d. The long clofe 0, as in m6ve, pr6ve, (164.) ou in mouvoir, foavoir. 

4. 6. The fliort broad 0, as in n5t, hot, g6t, (163) « in i»//r, c#/i!A 

1. 6. Tlie long diphthongal tf, as in tihbe, cu-pid, (171) ww in Cioutat^ chiourme, 

2. i^. The (hort fimple u, as in tiib, ci^p, sdp, (172) /*» in »fii/i ^oeuf 

3. fi. The middle or oblufe tf, as in bull, fiul, piilL (173) ou in bouhtfouley poule^ 

61. The long broad 6, and the fliort 1, as in 611, (299) o'i in eyctoide^ heroique. 
6i\, The lonjr broad 6, and the middle obtufe 6, as ] ^ •« ^ >, 

mth6f.p6ftnd,(3i3) | '•"^ «« ''»^''- 

TA. The acute or Iharp tb^ as in tb\vk^ th'iw (466). 

Th. The grave or flat th, as in this, Tnat(4i) (50) (469)* 

560. When G is printed in the Roman charafter, it has its hard found in 
^^/, gone^ &c. as go, give, ^t^^e^ &c. ; when it has its foft found, it is fpclbd 
in the notation by the confonant 7, as giants finger ^ ji^nt^Jin-jer, The fame 
may be obferved of ^ .* the Roman chara^er denotes its hard found in sstiftun, 
&c. as fo, fit, fenfe, 5cc. ; its foft found is fpelled by &, as rose^ raisef &c. roze, 
raze. Sec, 


In the courfe of a critical inveftigation of the powers of the letters in the forqroiag Princi- 
ples, there is fcarcely a word of any difficulty or diveriity of found which has not been notic- 
ed, and the true pronunciation, with the reafonn and authorities for it, pointed oat ; fo that ii 
the infpedor fliould not meet with fufficient information in the Didionary under the word, 
let him confult the Principles under the twtoW, dipbtbongy or eonfvMMt^ he wifhesto be explained, 
and it is highly probable he will meet with the fatisfadion he requires. Thus to know fonic- 
thing more concerning the^ in the word impugn, which fome fpeakers pronounce and ot)icr» 
fupprefs, let him look into the Principles under the letter G, No- 386, and he will find addt- 
tional obfervations to thofe in the DiSionary under the word. It is true that moft of thcfr 
doubtful, as well as other words, are referred to the Principles; but if this reference itkould b> 
chance be omitted, it is h<»>ed that this Advertifement will fu|^ly the deficiency. 

N. B. ^ word not found in the Dt^ioaary, may poiTibly be met with in the Appeadix. 





Hfrrt^ the v(mrh m (ht irer^* nt thr r^ tftHfiegt t 

^ r> i^ tAd »«i^ in iht u/i/ioitili /Mi^t\ 


-skill t 611,: |>Ai*itiJ ; l/jin> TKif* 

.f d.t 

' Bfti: 

^^wt), it ?i 

■ 'mn* 
. ii» brfof r 

-y ^jf our 


■ ■ * tn 


{UiiU rtjckavimr la *jl>v(iaie a. <\ ' 
fftiimntly inie* wlic» it » [irii 
tbc HtiTptjtJufc ^ Of, tji other l*w*>r.Jiit Et> m- 
quiiri? wliat ii »f>r trtif n?"tt*r nf tlrr firfl let* 
tcr tir ihc Eii^ -r wt 

lire to fay ii Tf , '- ^t ^* 

A;n! fi f ft ^ tl w ili it.' 1 • > t ". 1 1 ,. r y n » r o r ] k kr thtf 
tiaturc ijf a vnwrl ; which grMnmarTatu arc 
gt-n— ^^-' '-'td in flefiniuji; ti> be *' a firn- 
•* P fnwn tU for tiled by the Sn 

« r. . by thr opening only ui 1 

** mouth fli a pauinjLt jna"t»f?r." Now, 
33 tverf vnwel fey hkU 11 founded Img, m 
r>othiti^ btit itijiiuAt It'll with icotitbiianicaii 
mate It fit hrf wife, it h naluul, when pfo- 
UfiUlicing this vywcl klnnf, tv ■ . ' ■>: 

hifilir of'tii found i hut 3i this lonj: i 

iff]. ' ", ^ --'--- --^ 
lit, ' ' 

n, , 

' rhcs 

.Tii pi- 
ll K*- 

Kacb p^fty prD(Jt]c<'«%nrd»wht;rcthr k-tter 
ii i-^ rniindrd iti the fnaoncr they ttmittid for; 
Init vJveik Vk-t Jeniniid why oi%e fliould hnvc 
I j I .: , t h c * on trovf rf y U com w nnl y 

at . furthet fcafon* are <ithcr t*»o 


CO (559).— Fdte, f^, feU, fit 
rcmdtc or too inCgniflcaiit tobc produced : I 
and indeed, if a divcrfity of names to vowek I 
did not confound us in our fpcBing, ob dc- 1 
claring to each other the component Ustters 
of a word, it would be entirely nccdlcft to 
enter into fo trifling a queftiou as the mere 
name of a letter ; but when w^ find our- 
felves unable to convey figns to each other 
on account nf this diverfity of names, and 
that words themfelves are endangered by an 
fmproper utterance of their component parts, 
it feems highly incumbent on us to attempt 
a uniformity iivthis point, which, infignifi- 
cant as it may Teem, is undoubtedly the 
foundation of a julb and regular pronuncia- 
The firH rule for naming a letter, when, pro- 
nounced alone, feenu to be this : Whatever 
found we give to a letter when terminating 
^fyllabie, the fame found ought to be given 
to it when pronounced alone ; becaufe, in 
both cafes, they have their primary, fimple 
found, uninfluenced by a fucceeding vowel 
o^confonant ; and therefore, when we pro- 
uonnce a letter alone, it ought to have 
fuch a found as^toes not fuppofe the exift- 
cncc of any other letter. But wherever a, 
terminates a fyllable with the accent upon 
it, <the only (Ute in which it can be faid to 
be pure,) it has always the Englifli found of 
that letter. The only exceptions to tliis 
rule are, the vrords fa-tier, ma-fer, aod 'wa- 
ter: and that thefc are merely exceptions, 
appears from the uniformity with which the 
a is pronounced otherwife in parent, papal, 
taper, fatal, &c. The Other vowels have 
thdr names cxa6lly fimilar to the found they 
hsve in a fimilar fituation, as the e like that 
in me-vrim, the i like the i in ti-tU ; the as 
the o m ne-6le, and the u like the w m twtcr. 
Thus, as it appears from the general analogy 
of pronunciation, that the found of the a, 
which the Englifh adopt, is the only one 
that does not neceflarily fuppofe the cxift- 
cnce of any other found, it inevitably fol- 
lows that theirs only is the proper appella- 
tion of that letter. 
Silt there is another analogy by which we may 
determine the true found of the vowels when 
jpronounced fingly ; and that is, the found 
they have wheh preferved long and open by 
the final e. Thus we call the Tetter e by the 
found it has in theme, the letter i as it founds 
in lime, the letter as heard in tone, and the 
u as in tune ; and why the letter a fliould not 
be pronounced as heard in face, cannot be 
conceived, as each of the other vowels has, 
like a, z variety of other founds, as they are 
united with letters which, in fome mea- 
lure, aher their quality. 
Is confequenoe of cotertaiuog a diffident idea 

; — m^t m^t ;— pine, pin r — 

of the a, when pronounced in the alpbabetr 
we fee the natives of Ireland very prone to 
a different pronunciation of the words where 
this letter occurs ; and, indeed, it is quite 
confiftent with their doArine of the found 
of a, that the words parent, papal, taper, and 
fatal, fliouId be ^onounced palfrentfpah^al^ 
talfiper, and fab-tal. We find the Scotch 
likewife inclinable to the fame pronuncia- 
tion of a, when in wg/^j, as when alone. 
Thus we hear Sawtan for Satan,fa^vereel for 
fttcrei, and larfy-Hy for laiif ; and this is per- 
fe6^1y confiftent with the noanner in which 
they pronounce the letter a, when alone : 
there is no medium. If this be not the true 
prommciation of thefe words, the a is cer- 
tainly to be fomided as the Engiifli do : for, 
whenever the Engliih give the Ualiaa found, 
as it may be called, to the a, except in the 
wotdA father and mafier, it is always in coa- 
fequenoe of its jundton with fome confooant, 
which determines it to chat found ; as in 
monofyllables terminating in r, as Uir, ear^ 
far : but where it is not afleded by a foe- 
ceeding conforant, as in the words parent^ 
papal, nataktfatal, we then hear it pronounc- 
ed as the flender Englifli a, both in and out 
of compofition. 
It will, perhaps, be objeded, that the mofb fre- 
quent flioct found of a, as heard in cat, rat^ 
mat, carry, marry, parry, is the fliort found 
of the Italian a Uifatber,car, mar,'par^ and 
not the ibort found of the a in earefmartf and 
parti but it may be anfwered, that this 
want of correfpoodencc between the name 
of the letter, and the moft frequeot fiioct 
found, is common to the reft of the vowek : 
for the 0, as heard in cot, n«t^ r§t, h not the 
fliort found of the « in coat, note, tmrtie^ but 
of the a in xtrnter, or of the diphthongs in 
caught, naught, and wrought »\and if we onght 
to call the a, ah, becau& its fiiort found cor- 
refponds to ah, for the very lame reafon 
we ought to call the o,aui aid a fimilar al« 
teration mnft. take place with the reft of the 
vowels. As therefore, from the variety of 
founds the vowels have, it a impoffiblc to 
avoid the inconvenience of fometimea found- 
ing the letter one way in a fyllable, and 
another way in a word, we mnft: either 
adopt the fimple long found when w^e would 
pronounce the letter alone^ or invent new 
names for every different found in a different 
word, in order to obviate the difficulty. 
It muft not be difiembled, however, that the 
found of K, when terminating a fyllable not 
under the accent, feemsmorte inclined to the 
Irifli than the Englifli a, and that the ear is 
lefs difgufted with the found of jV^^mew^-i^al 
than of A-mer-i cay : hut to this, it may be 
anfwered, that letters not under the accent 


M 4 th* 





s» pro* 




"I r 

tW uccsii, led «iiigiic tA ^vc * s 
«^l0«id« at ugri«n to tK^i n 

Wc ai#y ^ 3 f all tfowrJ*^ 

p.:M 'aDfiuCain' iic 

J- ii( A w«ril, we ought to givt 

iDiMiMi . i>«a 1 1 iiombtiiKllbitiidof 






m kU 




H3%W7:) \G iritis bug^iL 

t . - 

^•. -^ 

«»=3:ixj^ li^iii ; lilt: u |r|»ciiiMA Digmbct nf ii 

Ai&AitDotci[},d-Mn^d4\ihJ. pitr. (^^l), 
; fof fftkctt ; crffrttjiietf in Ihc 

A 1 1 ,v s I j > s s%\ ;1 - LWd k't n- m^ t . % . 

/^ui KTi L t' L AT i<*N, ub-lr-fik*t'i4ii'rtiftxi* 
ft, {%9o)- That fi^cict of jrticuI'iticMi ihic 

I'o Aba?*i, i-kllc', V, a» To VJd\ 

dtjwiif Ut dcprcf-, * ' I". „ , 1-,^^ 
-' 'i fl A a F M I K T, ii ■ r , H, 'THc 

ftiitr i*f being bitJMj^r.t iMi, ■ 4!rpr&JIWt. 
To AttAiHt a^biHh'. v. j. lo malse 

To AtiTi, u-l>iitc'. V, a. (545*1 To 

To An ATI:, d-b4tc*- v. n* To grow 

AftATBMEKT, l*bAtc'mint. ** Tlic a^ 

A w A T f h , iVbd'nl r , * * ( 9S ) » The agcirt 

or t^3kVk(c by wlijth in uliarctttcntii procurciJ* 

A&Ut i^^. ft. l*lic ) oin aa a weaver's 

-\ K « M" If , till 'by,* Jt. I .(4 ^ T VT! I e rights, 

I, (111*, cjT |*rivtk'g:i f , 

. i „ .. ^ ^^ ubln-Ik li. i . , , . .. J , • I ;>r of Ji 

11 uti fiery « 
A Slit V, or Abut, 4b*b^. t* (*7©V A 

nioti^fry uf rdigio^s |)cHdiit« w1i«thfr 

men or womtn. 4 

ABh<ir» ribbiTit. s, ( j66). The chief of 

a cfinventdt incii. 

To A B B n E V J A T £, Ab -b r^' V c- Ate. T . a * 

To Ihort^f), to cut fhtirt* (505 u 
/^BiiHi'ViATtn)^, ib-br^-v^-i'ihrin* i. 
1 h* a6 of Ow*rtcoing. 

AiiBftF.viATORjAb-bf 6- v^-4'ii&r- -s * One 

who ahridgf*, (5ai)» 
Ajjhm tvfATCKk,^b-br^'vW*tcbi!irc^s. 

1461 , A Riiirk <jfcd ffir iliofiniing. 
To Abdicatej db'dc^kiUc, v* a* To 

gm up figbt, 10 rdjgn* (iC\l )* 
Abhicatiow, rtb^dt-ka'tbuO, s. The 
a^ fjf abdicating^ j^cfign^tiqn* 

Abokative^ ttb'd^<i-tlvc, a* (yii)- 

That wbkh niufev^^f implies an libdkutjon* 
^fj^Dr, Juhiiloii pbcf!» tT 1 the firll 

lyll tiblc of rhii WOfil^ nr r tfUa Aliltt 

V oti the fccond. 1 In: tyrmrf tJ* 
Kin, the iiif>£l cwrc^ 

A B I 


A B N 

0^ (559). — FAte, fir, fall, fat; — m^, mdt ;— pine, pln$-— 

Abdomen, Ab-do'm^n. »• (503). A 
cavity commonly called the lower venter or 
belly. (5»i). 

Abdominal, 4b-d6m'ni6-n4L 7 

Abdominous, ib.d6m'mS-ni!ks. j ^' 
Jlelatinj^ to tlie abdomen. 

To Abduce, 4b-d6fc'. ▼. a. To draw 
to a different part, to withdraw one part 
from another. 

Abducent, db-du'f(Snt. a. Mufcles 
abducent, ferve to open or pull back divers 
parts of the body. 

Abductor, 4b.diik't6r. s. (166). The 
' Mtticles, which draw back the fevcral 

Abed, i-b^d'. ad. In bed. 

Aberrance, db-dr'rlnfe. s. A devi- 
ation from the right way, an crrour. 

Aberrancy, &b-i§rrin-s^. s. The fame 
wich Aberrance. 

Aberrant, &b-^r'rSnt. a. Wander 
iog frooii the right or known way. 

Abkrration, 4b-er-r4'fh&n. s. The 
ad of deviating from the common track. 

Aberring, ib-^r'ring. pare (410). 
Ooing aftray. 

To A B r. R u N c ate, ib-^-ri&n'k4te. v. a 
To pull up by the roots* (91). 

To Abet, i bh'. v. a. To pu(h for- 
ward another, to fupport him in hisdefigns 
by connivance, encouragement, or help. 

Abstmbnt, &-b^c'm^nt. s« The a^ 
of abetting. 

Abetter, or Abettor, i-b^t'tdr. f. 
He that abets ; the fupporter or encourager 
of another. (166). (4x3;. 
.Abeyance, d-ba'4nfe. s. The right 
of fee fimple lieth in abeyance, when it is 
all only in the remembrance, intendment, 
^d confidcration of the law. 

To Abhor, db-h6r'. v. a. (168). 
To hate with acrimony ; to loathe. 

Abhorrence, ^b*h6r'r6ife. 1 

Abhorremcy, ^hAr'r^-s*. J ^* 
The ad of abhorring, deteftation. 

Abhorrent, 4b-horV^ut. a. (168). 
Struck with abhorrence; contrary to, fo- 
reign, inconiiftent with. 

Abhorrbr, dbJior'r&r. s. (28). A 
hater, deteOer. 

To Abide, 4-bIde'. v. n. To dwell 
in a place, not to remove ; to bear or fup- 
port the confcquences of a thing ; it is ufed 
with the particle tifiih, before a peifon, and 
ai or M before a pUce. 

Abider, d-bi'ddr. s. (98). The pcr- 
fon that abides or dwclli ia a place. 

Abiding, a-bi'ding. s. (4I0). Cob- 

Abject, ab'j^kt. a. (492). Mean or 

worthlefs ; contemptiMe, or of no value. 
Abject, 4b-j6kc'. s. A man without 
i hope. 
To Abject, ^ib.jdkt^ v. a. (492). 

To throw away. 
Abjectedness, db-j^k't^d-n£fs. t. 

The ftate of an •bjed. 
Abjection, &b-j^k'{hOin. s. Mean- 

nefs of mind ; £av^ilicy ; baievefs. 
Abjectly, db'jdkt-U. ad. (452). In 

an abjed mamAsr, meanly. 
Abjectnebs, &b'j^kt-ndfs. s. Servi- 
lity, nieannefs. 
Ability, d-bil'^-t^. «. (482.) The 

power to do any thing ; capacity, qualifica- 
tion ; when it has the plural number, abili- 
ties, it frequently (ignifies the faculties or 

powers of the mind. 
To Abjure, 4b.-jurc'. v. a. To fwear 

not to do fomething ; to rctrad, or recant 

a pofition upon oath. 
ABjuRATioNy ab-jii-ri'ftiAii. s. The 

aA of abjuring; the oath taken for that end. 
To Ablactate, &b4'ik't4te. v. a. 

To wean from the breaft. (91). 
Ablactation, db4^k-td'{hdn. s. One 

6f the methods of grafting. 
Ablaqueation, db-lu-kw^-i'flidn. s. 

The practice of opening the ground about 

the roots of trees. (534). 
Ablation, db-U'lhCih. '$. The ad of 

taking away. 
Ablatiye, ibld-tiY. a. (158). That 

wiiich takes away ; the fixth cafe of the 

Latin nouns. 
Able, 4'bl. a. (405). Having ftrong 
• faculties, or great ftrength or knowledge, 

riches or any other power of mind, body, 

or fortune ; having power fbficient* 
Able-bodied, il*bl-b6d'did. a. Strong 

of body. (99 \ 
To Ablegate, ibl^-gftte. v. a. To 

fend abroad upon fome employment. 
Ablegation, db-Wgd'flifin. s. A 

fending abroad. 
ABLf^N6$s,4'bl-n^s. s. Ability of 

body, vigQur, force. 
Ablefby, ab'16p-f<&. s. (483}. Want 

of fight. 
Abl(7rnt, &b1&-int. a. That which 

has the power of cleaning. 
AsLtTioN, db4&'niAn. s. The ad of 

To ."VbnegatEi ib'n6-g4tc. t. a. To 

deny. (91). 


A B R 

—oi, mitt, nitTf n6( t— tube. xtXt, 1>&t( ^—iXi j— p&6nd —ri'm, rmt 


A. . 

Vi^it^^^ilijb^ $. i>«- 


I (i$j). la a 


s. HabitalinUt 




V, 4, To 
blii* Th;it 






! .1, a- Hate- 


-'' being 

t Mwt- ujc. ad. 


^'^j-nAiQ. T. a. 



"V o^j!. &.The 


Afc 'r 1 1" 

i4,. f ; the piHltirc of 

• ' : c diic time* 
, a. Brought 
a^ i.f birth; t}i4t 



_,;^ _ . : ad. Bom 
dia ««c How; i«iii4twrdy, im- 


f . Tbc 


rtmc; in iiii" 


■^-t*. pre?. (165). Higher 

wtT^ itr cxccU 
ro<» proud fof , 

;d. OtcT-head J la 

aV, In ibc firft 


AiiOVl*ftri.%itDf A-h* 

In opoi 


**\ Bf 3 V k »c I T 1 Vf k •bt) V « r u^ kL 

A , 'T • J. An 

^ niia u 

A DO V t . M i ^ 1 1031 1. »*ul* bdv 'ni^-Oiibil. 

See Aiwvt-cmtJ, 

To Anuuwn, J-b6imd'» ¥• n. (f4|)* 

i'o hdTc ia grn*t J'tety* *' ** ** P'^^^ 


rurrtHimthi OOMMin- 

ing, vvbsh . f^ti'^i^i;^ 

tn, ' [lar- 

fon, ■ _ ^ iiuo* 

A* Jllrf¥jint, 

A nci t^ T I a-b A u L^ , iul , Ci r mUrly i m 

fircuU ; Dearly ; the lon(^dl msy* to f<ppo- 
fition to ihrf!>rtfi flrsfj^fit wht* f n liriiw 

ih«u(i to t i 1 1 red, 

nr poim i to gu Ahuuc AthifiK,(t» ; 
AimArATiAiRAi iib*r4-kil'dubV«U A 

fo-pcrlhtioti^ charm a},*iitti|l )i|;ues> 

rrflt, t^ li^cAi dway froni the fithtS p*ftM, 

A B n A $ I o Ft , 4 4i rA '/.h nn* %, The a^ of 

mlihingi a rttbliw* off- 
AuREAsr»^-bri^il^ ad* (545)- Side 

by Ctic- 

To A II R 1 0c F , 4-biidjtj'. V. a, Ti> make 

^cirtrr in wurvli^ keeping iiill tJi^ Jime fub- 
fUnix; 16 ciMitm^ 1 tn dimttiiili, tn cot fhorf ; 
to dcpfirc of< 
AsRiuGiD'or, a-biidjd'ov. Dcptivcd 

tif, dcbaritd from. (,159}- 
An AsKJDCEt^ i-briil'jur, s. He thai 

-bridge*, a fiifjrtcncr * a, wfritcr of cnnipcn- 
diuitiB or abridgmtnti. 
AiiKioGMfeurr* a-hryje'iTjint. s. The 
CdOtTAdioD of a Wji^cr work inta a fbiaJi 
compaf^V a dtrnidi^tjijn in gcccr^ii* 

AiitoACH^ 4 br6tlV. ad, (295)* In a 

poUtirc to run out j in a fi«ite of being dif* 

Tutedor prupagsted- 
Abkoad, :Ub^iiwd^ ad* (^i^i^ ^^t 

of tiic hniife i, in ■notber €smmMj i withimt, 

fa ft wiiliiji. 
To AanoGATr, '•:.¥.». To 

take awai froiii ,> cc» 10 repeili 10 

annul- (91 J. 
AuROCAT[oit|Sb^ry*g4^flii)fi. s, The 

i^ of abfogstinf, the tvptai of akw. 

A B R 


A B S 

^ (559).— Fdte, fir, fill, fat i— m^, m^t 9— *pine, pin ;- 

. ABRUPT,ab.rApt'. a. Broken, craggy ; 
fudden, witJiout the cuftomarf or proper 

Abruption, ab-nip'fhiln. s. Violent 
aiid faddeii feparation. 

ABRUf»TLT, ab-rfiptl6. ad. Haftsly, 
without the due fcmuof preparataon. 

Aj»ruptn£SS, ab-rfipi'n^ls. s. An 
abrupt manner, haftc, iudAennch* 

Abscess* db's^is. $. A morbid cavity 
in the body. 

To Abscind, &b-sind'. v. a. To cut 

Abscission, ab-slzh'An. s. The ad 
of cutting: off : the ihrte o£ being cut oif. 

^ I have differed fiom Mr. Sheridaa in 
marking the sj in this word ; and, i think, 
with the beft uTage on my fide. Though 
double / is ahRod always pronounced fmp 
tmd iiiffing, yot when a fliaip s precedes, it 
leena more agreeable to the ear to pro- 
nonncethe-fucceedingj flat* Thus, though 
the terminataoD f/MM is always iharpj yet be- 
canfethe /« tfrff/j^m ts meceffartly (harp, 
the / goes into the flat found, as if written 
troM/fxhicn^ which fee. 

To Abscond, 4b-ik6ad'. ▼. a> To hide 
one*s ietf. 

AiiscoND«R, db-rc6n'd5r. s. The per- 
£mi that ableo&ds. 

Absrnce, ib'sMe. s. The (late of 
being abfent, oppofed to prefence ; inatten- 
tion, keedlc&efs, negled of the prefent ^>b- 

Absent, &b'l^t. 9 (492). Not pre- 
Cent ; aixleitt in mind, inattentiipe. 

To Absent, &b-fi^t^. v. a. To with- 
draw, to forbear to eonie into prefence. 

ABSKjtT&B, &l>-s^-ti&'. s. A word 
ufed commonly with regard to Irifiimen liv- 
ing out of their coontry. 

Absinth I ATED, ib-slnV*i-A-tdd. p. 
Impregnated with wormwood. 

To Absist, Hb-siftf. v.n. Toftand 
off, to leave off. 

To Absolve, 4b-z41v'. ▼. a. (448). 
To clear, to acquit of a crime in a judicial 
fenfe-; to fct free from an engagement or 
promife ; to pronounce a fin remitted, in 
the ecciefiaftical (cafe. 

Absolute, aVs6-ldte. a- (448). Com- 
plete, applied s» well to perfons as things ; 
unconditional, as an ahMute promife ; not 
rebtive, as abfolute fpace ; not limited, as 
abfohtte power.— See Domutig. 

Absolutely, ftb's^-lute-l^* ad. Com* 
pletely, without reftridion ; without condi- 
cion; peremptorily, pofitively. 

Absoluteness, Ib'a6-lftte-n6fs. s. 
Completenels ; freedom from dependence, or 
Umiu; dclpotiim. 

Absolution, 4b-s&-liji'fh6n» s., Ac- 
quittal ; the lemtflion of fins, or of penance- 

Absolutory, db-sar^-tCir-r^. a. That 
which abfolves. 

f^ In the firft edition of thisDi^onary I fol- 
lowed the accentuation of Johnfon and Afli 
in this word, and placed the ftrefs upon the 
firfl fyllable, contrary to what 1 had done 
fome years before in the Rhyming Di^ion- 
ary, where I had placed tlie accent on the 
icc^nd, and which was the acccntuatior 
adopted by Mr. Sheridan. Upon a nearer 
infpedion of the analogies of the language, 
I find this the preferable mode of marking it, 
as words in this terminatiiw, though very 
irregular, generally follow the flnefs <if the 
correfpondingnoun or vtrb ^andconfequcnt- 
Ij this w«rd osgbt to have the iame iKxrnt 
as o^tv, which is the morisimmediate rela- 
tion of the word in queiUon, and not the ac- 
cent of aifolute, which is the moDb diftant. 
(Sli). JCenrisi, W. Jchajm, EfAkk^ and 
Naru, have not infcrtcd this word ; and 
Mr. Perry very improperly accents it upon 
the third fyUable. 

AB50HANT, db's6-nant. a. (544). Con- 
trary to reafon. 

Absonous, £ib'sA-nds. a. Abfurd, 

contrary to reafon. 
To Absorb, Ilb-s6rb'. v. a. To fwal- 

low up ; to fuck up. 
Absorbent, 4b-s6r1»^t. s. A medi- ' 

cine that fudcsup humours. 
Absorpt, db-s6rpt'. p. S^vailowcd up. 
Absorption, ab-s6rp'ftx4n. s. The 

ai3 of fwallowiog up. 
To Abstain, db-ftine'. v. n. To for- 
bear, to deny one's felf any gratification. 
Abstemious, 4b-lWm^-ds. a. Tem- 
perate, fober, abfiinent. 
Abstemiously, db-ft^'m^-As-U. ad. 

Temperately, fobcrly, without indulgence. 
Abstemiousness, ib-ft^'mi-iis-n^'s. 

s. (534), The quality of being 

Abstention, 4b-ft^n'Mn. $• Tlic act 

of holdii^ offl 
To Absterge, dbJb&je'. v. a. To 

deanfe by wiping. 
Abstergent, ib-ftfir'jfnt. a* Cleanf- 

ing ; having a fleaAfing quality. 
To Absterse, ib-ftWc'. v, a* To 

deanfe, to purify. 
ABsrERTioN, db-flir'(h<b» & The a^ 
, of deanfing. 


C A 

B^ indvet nAr, nAt ^ — tAbc, tiVW I>*i0 J^-^il ; — pAfmd ;— l^, TtiJu. 

iupwrt, ih'fi^*ndfilc* s. Forbear- 

i:f, r, a* To 
rtirr; to fpp*ntt 





i^^itth'^l t*!* , j;c*rfaIJy ulid with 

nul pci<cpi«ofkf * 

\ A 

tut Of 

'. ahfkrtft iMtAi af mind. 
LT, .^?»-"rll:''td4c, ad, 

^'■in, /rripiy. Juparitc from 

I A i • Til A cr I V t . i^r? rlk 'tiv 

.^ ol being ab- 



in an 

I ;fe'. a. (427). HnJ- 
;id, Ob. 

. V, a. To bring 

Incooliaent ; 

^* (51 iK 

' : t . ; tiatf whicb 

/\ !< V LI ft£JL^ ttb^tlnili^. ad« Improper- 


IW6, ■. The 

1 ; mjudtriadfiefii 

J. lu 

To Aivii, &-Ut2e\ V, a. (437)1 To 

make ^n i)I ^fr of ; to dfcciw. to OUpflfe 

upon ; tn (ffiH with nirf*'n«*ff. 
A Bv s r , ' The rll ofe 

of in I' %bftd ctiUpnt 

iVJuccmciit i uujuit t^riiiurL^fudc frproft()w 
ABtf&Ett ^-biVziV, !!* IJe time niukei 

an ill ufc; he fb#t deceives |bp tkit re^ 

prn«chira wirb rii(knc^f«. 
A ttu s r ^ B, 5-bu'slv , a. (418). PniOif- 

Atti'^ivELY, il-bu'iif Ic. ad Impfo- 
jmty, bjr J wrofljj ilk ; r^rodclifull^* 

To Aaur» i-hiit'. v. n, Obiijlclc* Ta 
rnd 'j,e, tg bonier upon ; m meet, or ■ip* 

Aai^TWiiNT, Mnit'tntni* s* Tliat 

wbicb ftbofi, nr hurd^rt ufmn another 1^ 
A»vss, i-bifs'* s, A depth witbout 

AcACiAt A i. (5Ci). A 

AcAPtMtAL»dk4*d4;'ai^4L «. Rdai* 

AcADiMUVt £k^i-d6'm^*an. %* A 
fchohr t»f An aodfriiiy of onivtrfily. 

A< n'ik. s. (508 ). 

-^ ---' ^-'-^'P 

A c A i>i M K K , i^k-bud^nilL a« Relate 

i ng I <» 4A «iii vcrfity . 
AcAi>iMiciA»if sik-k i-d^mifli ^in* s* 

I ha mcniWr (if au ^icaikoif . 




The mtmbcr of w* acJtJcTny. 
AciPEMYf < ©r . 

life. %. Plenty ; 
4|WMitit7( cinbcr- 



r.lJful J 

An iHemHy oi T- 
lilt promci;»rtn ai 




, .^rt tf> the uultcditics ur 

ion telJ* u*,Hi4i cbiiwofdwJi 
i » J propcrli acci n t rti on ih c fit ft 
i^lJultlr, though titiw fremiti tqtiy oo the fe- 
v^iriLl, T hit it W4* acr..'iitinl on the fifft 
lylbbic till wsilii. i" s'upm*- 

ly gctJtrally rem Sh»k«f«- 

peMfc did twU b) Liut^icji M-mk, violate 
ibc afi<;p lit tilt ion uf bt* tii&«, itiraicef- 

A C A 



. 05- (546) — F4te, ftr, fill, fit 

tainlf prononDced fo two centuries ago, a» 
appears Ky Dr. Johnfon's quotation of him ; 

" Onr court (hall be a little academyy 
** Still and contcmplatiye in liting arts." 
Loves Labeurt L$p» 

And in Ben Jonlbn's Ne^ Jhu we find the 
fame accentuation : ^ , 

^ Every houfc became 

'* An academy of honour, and thofe puts 
«* We fc departed."——— 

But the accentuation of this word former* 
ly, on the firft fyllabfe, is fo generally ac- 
knowledged, as not to ftand in need of 
poetic authority. The queftion i», Whe- 
ther this accentuation, or chat which places 
like ftre& on the fccond fyllable, is the moft 
proper ? To wave, therefore, the autho- 
rity of cuftom, which prechides all reafon- 
ing on language, and reduces the difpute to 
a mere matter of fadl, it may be prefumcd 
that whatever is agreeable to the moft ge- 
neral nfage of the language in Hmilar words, 
is the moft proper in this; and if it appears 
that general ufage, in finular words, is in 
fovour of the old pronunciation, it muil 
certainly, for that reafon, be allowed to be 
the beft. And iirft it may be obferved, 
that as our language is almo(^ as averfe to 
the accent on the hft fyllable, as the Latin, 
it is a general cuilom with us, when we 
adopt a word from the Latin, and abridge 
it of one or two of its fyllablcs, to remove 
the accent at lead a fyllable higher than it 
was in the original language, that the ac- 
cent, when the word is naturalized, may 
not reft on the laft. Thus of Homcrw we 
make Homer ; of FirgiUut, f^irgil , and of 
fforatius, Horace: Hyatfintbusy altered to 
Hy'acmtby removes the accent two fyllabies 
higher; and e^eremonia, become eeremony, 
does the fame ; And no law, that I know oi, 
forbids us to accent acaiemia ; or if yon 
will Ax»$Kiut'i» when turned into academy ^ on 
the firft iyilable, as it was conftant^ ac- 
cented by our anceftors, who, receiving 
Greek through the medium of Latin, ge- 
nerally pronounced Greek words according 
to the Latin analogy, and therefore necef- 
farily placed the accent of academia on the 
third fyllable, which, when reduced to 
academy required the accent to be rcnnoved 
But how, it will be faid, docs this account 
for placing the accent on the firft fyllable 
<jf the Engliih word academy^ rather than 
the fecond ? To this it may be anfwered, 
tliat the numberlcfs inftances of preference 
given by the accent to the firft fyllable in 
limilar words, fuch as meiaficboty, fiarfiMotiy, 

; — ^m^, mfit ; — pln^ pin ; — 

dilahry, 8lc might be a fufficient a^ithofity 
without any other reafon. But, perhaps, it 
. will be pardoned me if I go further, and 
hazard a fuppofition that ^ms to accoont 
for the very conmion prance of placing 
the accent of fo many of the longer polyfyl- 
lables from the Latin on the BA or fecond 
fyllable. Though in the Latin there never 
was more than one accent upon a word, yet 
in our pronunciation of Latin/ we com- 
monly place an accent on alternate fylla- 
ble«, as in our own words; and when the 
Latin word, by being anglicifed, becomes 
fliorter, the alternate accent becomes the 
princi|»l. Thus in pronouncing the Latin 
word, academia f the'£nglifli naturally place 
an accent on the firft and third fyfii^le, as 
if divided into ac'^^U-mi^ t fo that whea 
the word becomes angUcifed into ac^O'-de^ 
my^ the firft fyllable retains the accent ic 
had when the word was Latin. On the 
other hand, it may be conjetSured with 
fomc probability, that a fondness for pro« 
nouncing like the French has been the oc- 
cafion of the alteration. As the BngUHa 
ever fuppofc the French place the accent 
on the laft fyllable, in endeavouring to pro- 
nounce this word after their manner, the 
ftrefs moft naturally fall on the fecond and 
laft fyllabies, as if divided into d-cad^-piUs 
and from an imitation of this* it is probable, 
the prefent pronunciation of the word was 
produced. Thus we have a very probable 
reafoa why fo many of our longer wortU. 
from the Latin are accented fo near the be- 
ginnmgi as, in this mode of pronouncmg 
them, they feem to retain one of the ac- 
cents of the original. Hence the long tnin 
of words, 'voluntary^ comparaUe^ di^miaUe, 
admirable, &c. have' the accent on the 
firft fyllable, becaufe in pronouncing the 
words votuntariusy comparaURt^ difittta^ilit^ 
admirahilisy &c. We commonly lay a ftnrfs 
upon the firft, as well as the thbd fylJabie. 
As to the analogy, as Mr. Sheridan pre- 
tends, of pronouncing this word with the 
accent on the fecond fyllable, becaufe words 
ending in my have the accent on the ante- 
penultimate, nothing can be more ill found- 
ed. True it is, thit words of this ternu* 
nation never have the accent 00 the penul- 
timate ; but that, for this reafontthey mull 
neceftarily have the accent on the antepe- 
nultimate, I cannot well comprehend. If 
Poi\;amy, aconomy^ ajiranmy, &c. (5I3) 
nave their accent on the antepenultimate, 
it arifes from the nature' of the termina- 
tions; which being, as' it were, a fpccics, 
and j^plicable to a thoufand other words, 
have, Hke logy and grapbyt the accent ai* 
ways on the preceding fyllable i which 

A C C 


A C C 

B^ mdve, adr, n&t ; — -tAbe, tAb, bAll ;— ^1 ; — p6And :— /Ain, this. 

» beft to unite the compound into one 
: bot aeofiemy being a fimpk) it fab- 
jed to DO fnch ink, and feems nattmDy to 
Bdinc to a dii&rent analogy of pronnoci- 
' ~ Thos Dr. J<Anfon feems to hare 

dendcd juftiy in laying tbe word mt^iewn 
mto^bt to have the accent cm the firft fyl- 

bble; thougli prefent ofage, it mnft be 
confcfled, feems to lead to the contrary pro- 

AcAHTHus, " i-kln'/i&As. s. (470). 

The herb heart-foot. 
AcATALKCTic, IUkslt4-l£k'tlk. s, A 
'veife ^vhkh \a» the complete number of 
To AccftDB, tt ftde'. ▼. n. To be 

adde&to^iocome to. 

To AcciLiKATt, ik-sdMAr-dte. ▼. a. 
To make qiii<k,tobafkeBf to quicken motion. 

AccEi.ER.\rxoN9 ak-sd4^-4^{hiAn. s. 
The zA oi qaidkening jootloD ; the ftate of 
the bodfj accekrared. ($$$)» 

To Acc£iio» 4fc-6dnd'. v. a. To kin- 
dk, to fet 00 fire. 

AccEwsioN, ^k-^n^flifin. s. The ad 
ci k]odyag,or the ftate oi being kindled. 

AccisT, dk'sdnt. $- (486). The man- 
aer o£ fpeaking or pronouodng ; themarkB 
made opoo iyliaUes to regulate their prp- 
mmdatson ; a modification of the voice, ei- 
freSxc ci die paffiona or fentimcntt. 

To AcccMTy ^-^inxf^ V. a. (492). 
To prooomKC, to ipeak words with parti- 
cahr regaid to the granMnatical marks or 
raks; to write or note the accents. 

AcceiiTtJAL, ik-5^'tlh641. a. Re- 
lating to acocBta. (463 >. 

^ This word is in no Englifli Didionary I 
have met with ; but, conceiving its forma- 
tion to be perfedly agreeable to the analogy 
of £ng:Sih ai^edivea, and finding it nfed by 
fevcral very rcfpoAable anthors, 1 have ven- 
taredtom&rtk. Mr. Fofter, in his Eflay 
•n Accent and Quantity, fays, *^ When a 

* Ug^ note facceeds a low one, or rifes above 
" me grave tone of voice, the perception of 

* it is iadden and inftantaneous, befu'e the 
■< fwttnntinfe of the note is determiftd one 
**- way or the other for long or ihort. This 

* I BEiBR dearly conceive, than I can per- 
** hap^ cxprefiu I can however engage to 
^ asaike k perceptible to a common Engliih 
** car in any Greek word, according to its 
** prt£tMxtsceemtaai mark." And Dr..GaUey, 
ui hk Di&rtatibn againft Greek Accents, 
amkes nfe of the iiune word, where he lays, 
"Ver if noEOI means, according to Mr. 
'^ Fofter, that oratorical or common difcourfe 
" differs from mufic only in the number of 
** konds'* '• that the former hai only four 

". or five Botes, but that the ktter has many 
" more, then the aetentuai ptonunci;>tlon of 
** a Greek fcntencc will not differ fiom the 
** finging of the fame fentence, when fet to 
" four or five corrcfponding notes in muGc, 
** /. e, it will in both cafes be a fong." 

To AccKiiTUATE,ak-f6r.'tJhii-ilte. v.a. 
(461). To place the accent properly. 

Accentuation, dk-s^-n-tliiM-u Ih'm. ». 
The a^ of pkcing the accent in pronunci- 
ation, or writing. 

To Accept, ^k-$^pt'. ▼. a. To take 
with pkafure^ to receive kindly. 

Acceptabiuty, 4ic.sdp-ta-bin£-t^. 9. 
liht quality of being acceptabk. 

Acc£ptablr, 4k'sdp-ttt-bl. a. Grato- 
ful; pleafing. 

^ Within thcfe twenty years this word has 
fliifted its accent from the fccondtothe firft 
fyllabk. There are now few polite fpeak* 
ers who do not pronc«ince it a/uptahU ; 
and it U much to be regretted that this pro- 
nunciation is beaome fo general ; for where 
confonaots of fo different an organ as / and 
/ are near the end of a word, the word k 
pronounced with much more difficulty 
when the accent is reoioved higher than 
when it is arrefted by thefe letters ; for, in 
this cafe, the force which accompanies the 
accent facilitates the organs in thek tran- 
fition from the formation of the one letter 
to the other. As nature, therefore diret^ 
us to place the accent upon thefe confonanu 
in all words ending in uSfiw^ Mive, iHive^ 
e^ive, and yffiw ; aaiUe, eSiiU, oGihU^ and 
vHiUe ; fo we ought to liften to the fame 
voice in pronouncing aceeptaUe^ fyfctptibU, 
forruptihUy with the accent on the (econa 
fyUabk.--See C^mwufidaile, 

Acceptablensss, ^k's^p-ti-bl-n^fs. s. 
The quality of being acceptabjc. 

Acceptably, &k'sdp-ta-bl^. ad. In 
an acceptable manner. 

Acceptance, dk-s^p't^nfe. s. Recep- 
tks with approbation. 

Accept at lOM, &k-s£p-t^'fhdn. s. Re- 
ception, whether good of bad ; the meiuiiiig 
of a word* 

Accepter, dk-sdp't^r. s. (98). The 
perfon that aceq>ts« 

AccEprioN,' ak-tdp'fhAn. s. The 
received fcnfe of a word; the meaning. 

Access, ^k-fdf*'. s. The way by which 
any thing may be approached ; the meant, 
or liberty, of approaching either to things 
or men; increafe, enlargement, addition; 
the returns or fits of a diftemper. 

f^ This word k fometimes heard with the 
accent on the firft.fyUablCt 

A C C 


A cc 

a^ (559)-— ^ite, ar, ftll, 

"' Hail, watjBr-g:nicl, healing power, 
<* Of eafy aecefi to the poor !*' 
But this pronunctatioii ought to be avoid- 
ed as, contrary to analogy, and the general 
ufage of the language, as may be leen in 
Johnfon under the word* 

iVcCESSARINBSS, dk's^S-S^'r^-D^Ift. S 
Thefiateof being acceflary. 

AccE$8AKY, iWa{'{k'rL s. He that, 
not being the chief agent in a crime, con- 
tributes to it. 

AccB8$ARY, &kT(§f-^-r£« a. Joined 
to, additional, helping forward. 

Accessible, ak-fl^s'll^-bl. a. That 
which may be approached. 

Accession, ^k-l^fh'An. t. Increafe 
by fomething added ; the ad of coming to, 
or 'joining one's felf to, as, accefllen to a 
confederacy ; the adk of arriving at, as, the 
king's acceffion to the throne. 

Accessor iLY, dk'f<^-fb-r^4i. ad. In 
the manner of an acceflory. 

Accessory, dk'fSf-f6-r^. a. (557)- 
Joined to another thing, fo as to increafe it ; 

Accidence, Hk'f^-d^nfc. s. The lit- 
tle book containing the firft rudiments of 
grammar, and explaining the properties of 
the eight pares of fpeeck. 

Accident, ikT<&-d^nt. s. The pro- 
perty or quality of any being which may 
>e separated from it, at \csSt in thought ; 
in grammar, the property of a word ; that 
which happens nnforefcen ; cafualty, chance. 

Accidental, 4k-ft-d^n'tdl. s. A pro 
perty non effential. 

Accidental, dk-ft^-d^n'tdl. a. Hav- 
ing the quality of an accident, non-cflen- 
tial ; cafnal,fortuitOtts, happening by chance* 

Accidentally, dk-s^^'tll-k. ad. 
Cafually, fortuitoufly. 

AcciDENTALNBss, dk-(^-d^'t41-n^s. 
s. The quality of being accidewtal. 

AcciPiENT, ik-slp'p^-dnt. s.* A re- 

To AcciTB, 4k-slte'. v. a. To call; 
to fummon. 

Acclaim, dk-klAme'. s. A (hout of 
praife ; acclamation. 

Acclamation, ik-kl4 mi'Mn. s. 
Shouts of applaufe. 

Acclivity, dk-kllvV^-t^. a. (511). 
Tlie fteepnels or flope of a line inclining to 
the korizdn, reckoned upwards; as the af- 
cent of an hill is the acclivity, the defcent is 
the di-'clivity. 

Acclivous, Ak-kU'viis. a. (503, b.) 
RifiHg with a Aopc. 

fat ;-^in^ m^ $-— pine, pin ^— 

To Accloy, ftk-kl6^'. v. a. (529). 

To fill up, in an ill fenle ; to fiH to fuicty. 
To Accoil, 4k-k6il'. v. n. (2*9). To 

croud, to k^ep a coil about, co buftle, to be 

in a hurry. 
AccoLKNTy dk'k&-l(nt. s. (544)* A 

AccoMMODABLB, dk-k&m^fn6-d4-bl. a. 

That which may be fitted. 
To Accommodate, dk-k&m'mA-d^te. 

V. a. (91 )• To fupply with comvemcncies 

of any kind. 
AccoMMODATBy ik-kftm'ixiA-d&te. a. 

Suitable, fit. <9i). 
AccoMMoDATELY, ik-k&zn'in6-d4te- 

1^. ad. (91). Suiubly, fitly. 
ACCOMMODATION) &k-k6m-m6-d4'- 

Qx^n. s. Provifion of conveniencies ; 

in the plural, conveniencies, things reqoi* 

fite to eafe or refreshment ; compofitioo of 

a difference, jreconciliatioo, adjuihnenu 
AccoMFANA^LEp 4k-kOtm'p4-Di-bl. a. 

Accompanier, ftk-kfi]n'p&-n^-&r« • s. 

Hie perfon that noaket pm of the cain|»a-' 

ny; companion. 
ToAccompany» dk-kAxn'pA-n^. t. ^ 

Tobewithaootberatacompamoo; c6j<hb 

with. (165). 

AccoMfLicB, ik-kAm^plls. s. (142). 
An aflbdate, a pattaker, ufutUy in an lU 
fenfie ; a partner, or co-qteratar. 

To Accomplish, ak^kAm'plifh. v. «• 
To complete, to execute fully, aa, to aceom- 
pltfli a defigo ; to fulfil, at a prophecy; to 
adorn, or fttmi!h either mtud or body. 

Accomplished, 4k*k6in<pll(h-M. p. a. 
Complete in fomc qnalificatioD } ekgant, 
finiihed in cefped of embeUifhmcnta. 

AccoMpLisHBEy ik-kdm^plUh-df. s. 
The perfoB that aGcompliihes. 

s. Completion, full performance, perfec- 
tion ; completion, as of a prophecy ; emb^ 
lifliment, elegance, ornament of mind or 

AccoMPT, &k-k^(lnt\ s. (407). Ao 
account, a reckoning. 

AccoMPTANT, dk.k6i&n't&iit. s* A 
reckoner, computer^ (41%)* 

To Accord, ILk*kW'. y. a. To make 
agree, to adjufl one thing to another. 

To Accord, 4k.k6rd'. r.n^ To agree^ 
to fuit one with another. 

Accord, ak-k6rd'. s. A compad, aa 
agreement ; concurrence,, ouioii of stind ; 
harmony, fynuaetry. 

ft ^^ 




b-k^ding. p. In a 
. , ;i. Tofpeak 

it', t. f407). A 

eoi»|r«a^ait ri ^te of rtt>c&fci j the (tiiic 
AT r<^tik J * Lxrfn^outkfi ; v^lut or rffinu- 

f"£^^ . i«bdm irtcn to a perfoti 

la 49ciior»i7i dflMtfiO, dUgnmefit of 

T-» A iklA^it', V. a. To 

«^t^^r . to Im^ (8 oplnjiin ; in 

T< to give an Accotuit, 

10 MAke up the fec- 

»uc^£, xo 4X4 wcT I** pfa^ice i to Kold in 

mil' lie ftei{ttsrcd \ wLo 

: V&n'cAat* 3- Ac- 

.-, . ;^,j,...-jbW for. 

JlcrounTAUT, ik k.iun'tilnt. u A 
^ A Jiij«] fciilcil or cniptoycd in 

fill c T'^ufkbx:. 



. A 

1 - I'tr. ik k/>fT . V. a, (518). 

T' A 1 I- r T » t . ' - A' >-V ttir. V. a. To 


I k^ttlAr-in^lp S- 




u s llieaa 


nr t0 

IS to bofiire It. 


h if added. 


w a. To 


• i 

:^. (»f5)^ 

To A^ 

1 1 

\ n. ^ttgl* 


iik-Hi U'AAn, s. The 



To Accutta, ilk ' * ' ' 

To fir 4e tJtc isbt. nt 

To /Vrri;i)iirLATt«IVkiriiifi-1itc« f. a« 

Tc» pif up! to Ik^7^ " - '* ^ ' 
At'CUMULAtl-N, i»^tt. t* 

AccuMVLATift, 5k-ktVn»ti.lA.|lr, a. 

ThAt which KcumuUirt; thAC which iiic* 

cumul*trti* 1J57)- 
A r c Lf « t* L A TOii , ik*k 6 ' m t*i-U» E 5f * I. 

He t hit aecmntiltttet, « githcf^ or hcapct 

in^ctluT* I J 11.) 
Ac c u Jt AC Y , ik'k4-rd i^* s. ££m4tfitr&^ 

AccvuATF, Sk'kA-riTe- a. fgi). Es- 

»^T »i oppoffd tor r igoartQCt ; 

e»*<ftp withhftt ddi L . c. 

ACJUKATELV, &k'ktUfaic4^* dd. Ex- 

m^ly^ wttbcmt crroufp ruccly* 
Ac^ u«AT£t«iih, ik'k4-H(c-lk^t. t. 

Exsdticft, nicety. 
To Ate u Rbi, 4k*kl\ffc^ v. a. To iloiom 

fft mifcry. 

ArcuRsfD.fik -bVrcd, part* a (|6i.) 

That which U cuffed qx doomed to ratfrfj i 
eiccr^Kkp hatcfwl, iictefKiWc, 

Acri^^ARLif ik-WAAA. a. (40f)< 
That which mty be cenfuieili blame Able | 

AccusATnui ik*kH-7A'(liftn. «. Tbc 

aiS of mccuftiig ', the charge hrotight af sniitjl 
any one* 

AccufATi?!, ilk*k6Vd4lv. a. A icrm 

of grajTLEnstr, the fourth caff flf a douti* 
AcrijSAT<iRy* dk*ky'z***tA-fu, a* Thtlt 

which pciduceth or ci^titaioeth aa Accufa- 

tioii. (511)* 
Tt> Acct^ SI, 4k-b*uc-* v. a. To cliargc 

with a crime i in bUme or crnfure* 

AccusEit. lM6'xi"ir,$. (gS). He tliat 

briugi a charge a^i^ainft *nrjih€r* 

To Accustom, 4k.k>'*i ulm. v. a- To 

hahituatCf to inure. 
AccosTortABLE* ik-k<"!s'ti^m.mi•bl. 3- 

Dune hy long cuftom or hahil* 
A ecu ST wABLY^ik-kiVt^ra4bW,ad* 

According t* cukam* 

AccusTO«A*)CE» ^k-kOs'tdm-en^nif. s- 

Cu[Lom* habit, ufe* 

AcciJsTomAftti-Vt Ak-k^s'ti^fU'mi- 

rtlt ad* In a c«ftom;iry manner. 
AccusTOMAitT, ik«ky*'tAm-tna-r^* a. 

Accu»TOWEi>, ilk^kus'l'lm-^d, a Ac- 
cording to cullomj tfc<inctit, d^yaU (sAiJ- 

A C O 



CjT (559). — Fdtc, fir, fill, fit ; — ^m*, m4t ;'^phe, pin ;-^ 

Ace, ife. s. An unit, a fingle point on 

cards or dice ; a iinall quantity. 
AcFKBiiY, 3.*ir'W-i^. s. 1511). ^ 

rongh four tafte ; applied to men, fliarpncfi 

of temper. 
To ActRVATE, ifdr'vite. v. a. (91). 

To heap up* . 
AcvRv/.TioN, d>{<Jr-v4'ftii!in. s, (527). 

Heaping together. 
Acescent, d-fiiJs'ftnt. a. That which 

has a tendency to fourcels pr acidity. 
AtET sE, ds.i.t6{e'. a. (427). That 

which has in h acids. 
ACETosiTY, i$-d-t6s'^-t*. s. (511). 

The ftate of being acetofe./ 
Acetous, d>lc'tiis. a. (314). Sour. 
Ache, Ake. s. (355)- A continued 

To Ache, ftkc. ▼. n. To dc in pain. 
To Achieve, 4t-tftifive': v. a. To per- 
form, to finifli. (»57V 
Ah AcMiFVFR,it-t{h6'vflr. s» He that 

performs what he endeavours. 
Am AcHiFVEMENT, 3t-tfli^vc'm^nt. s. 

The performance of an adion ; the efcut- 

cheon, or cnfigns armorial. 
AcHOR, i'kor. s. (166). A fpecies of 

the herpes. 
Acid, ds'sid. a. Sour, fharp. 
Acidity, d-sld'd^-t^. s. (51 1 ). Sharp- 

nefs, fourncfs. 
Aciokess, &s's1d-n^$. s. The quality 

of being acid. 
AciDULiE, d-sid'di!i-M. s. f 199). Mc« 

dicinal fprings impregnated with (harp par 

To Acidulate, i-sld'di-Ute. v. a* 

To tinge with acids in a flight degree. (91% 
To Acknowledge, &k-n6n^dj. v. a. 

To own the knowledge of, to own any 

thing or perfon in a particular charader ; 

to confeis, as, a fault { to own, as, a benefit. 

(3»8). • , 

AcKNOWLSDGiNO, ak-n611ddj-lng. a. 

Acknowledgment, &k-n6nddje* 

m^nt. s. (228). See Knowledge. 

ConcefSon of the tl^th of any pofition ; 

confelfion of a fault ; coolieflion of a benefit 

Acme, ik'mi. s. The height of any 

thin?; more efpeciaUy ufed to denote the 

height of a diftemper. 
AcoLOTHisT, ^k61'lA-thlft. 5. One of 

the lowed order in the Roman church. 
Acolyte, Ak'Wite. s. (544). The 

fiunc as Acolothift. 

Aconite, ik'ki-nitc. s. (155). Tbe 
herb wolfs-baae. In poetical laigufege, poi* 
fon in gcneraL 

AccRN, A'k6rn. s. The feed or fruit 
borne by the oak. 

AcousTiCRS, aJcWi'ftiks. s. (.^13). 
The doArine or theory of ibunds; medicines 
to help the hearing. 

To AcQtuAiNT, ik.kwdnt'. v. a. To 
make familiar with ; to inform. (%Q%)» 

A cqu A I N T A N c e , ^-kw4n't4nfe . s. 
The date of being acquainted with, famili- 
arity, knowledge r familiar knowledge; a 
(light or initial knowledge, fliort of iricoil* 
Ihip; the perfon with whom we are ac- 
quainted, without the indmacy of friend- 

Acc^ainted, 4k-kwin't£d. jsu Fa* 
miliar, wcll*known. 

A c<i\3 E 8 T» dk-kwift' , s. AcquiHtion ; 
the thing gained. 

To AcqyiEscF., 4k-kw^4is', v, n. To 
reft in, or renvMn fatasfied. 

AcQ^isscBNCb, ik-kw6-^fs'^nfc. s. A 
filent appearance of coatent \ fittisfaAkm, 
reft, content ; fnbmifiion. 

AcQuiRABLii, dk-kMa'ra-bl. a. Attain- 
able. (405 )• 

To Acquire, ik-kwire'. v. a. To 
gain by one's labour or power. 

Acquired, dk^wi'rM. particip. a. 
Gained by one's felf. (36^). 

An Acquirer, 4k kwFrftr. «. (98). 
The perfon that acquires ; a gainer. ^ 

An AcQjjiRKMENT, ^k-kwirc'nitet. s. 
That which is acquired, gain, attaimnent. 

AcQjjisiTioN, ik-kw^-zlih'fliAii. %. 
The ad of acquiring ; the thing gained, ac- 

. quirement. 

Acquisitive, ikkwiz'z^-tlv. a. That 
which is acquired. (157)- 

AcQuisT, ak«kwift'. s. Acquirement^ 

To AcQj/iT, ik-kwlt'. V. a. (^1$)* 
To fet free ; to clear from a charge of guilt* 
to abfohre ; to clear from any obligation ; 
the man hath acquitted himfelf well, be dif- 
charged his duty. 

Acquitment, ak-kwit'm^nt. s. The 
ftate of being acquitted, or ad of acquitting. 

Acquittal, dk-kwit'fSl. s. (157). 
Is a deliTerance from an offence. 

To Acquittance, dk-kw)t't4nfe. v. n« 
To procure an acquittance, to acquit. . 

AcQj; iTTAN CE, ik-kwit'tinfe. s. The 
ad of difcharging from a debt ; a writing 
teftifying the receipt of a ddt. 


AcmnoniouMt Jt-kr^ mi*i'irf-di* a. 




irp»eU of tcm- 




, An acrid 



. (^ii). 

' lid of feed*. 


red. part, A. 


\ thwart, lakl 

. it. 


k. &. A poem^ 


•f^fy (inc bttrg 

IaLcc* tnj 

pel fan or 

tli'ap im ♦- 


T.- .-■ - 

r:\. y. n. io uc m a^i<>(^, 

T,. ,-. 

a Topcrfomi a bor- 

fi ' ■* r . 

li I Ibgcv |>I-if rr ^ to prf>- 

\ . , a deed, 

ftl^ 'ilortiig iiHt»cU the iditJti prafiird^ 
withovi i«tef7tiptkii I a decree o( parliLi- 

AcTtOn, IFHifinu »* (a9o\ The 

ill a 
I r ^ the 

' hi a. Tlut 

- ^^w, pijRiRiabk. 

A c"dr.iu(i5t)* TltatwliTch 

hm tW mrr or qoaltty of nHiag ; tK^t 

AcTiTCttt Ik'tlrjfr* ad* Bufily* 

AeTirm«fii» &lc'kit<Q/A& s. Quick- 

._ ritiTT lU ivV^ie, t. (jif)* Tin; 

AcTOit, ,, ,. , f9f^ »tH He 

chat Bd", *ir pTfonnii ii 'r tint 

prrlurtuitti a thiir.t^Jcf » * r . 

Act i lit s, Ak'tri^fn. n. p.r* 

furmt ^n]f thipg; a wniii i; ^ ; )» tia 

in t^, not mrrelf p^tcittlAl; in a4t, nof 
purtly iu r|KCub(titirt. 
AcTUAi^irv, ^k U^tVM'lM*. I. Tbe 

ftjtc af hcing a^tuL 
Actually^ uk'tlh^^l-l^. ad. la a^t 

A L T t r A L If t^ !^ , 1 k 't 111 ihiV nt{% , t * ITlC 
quality of being 41^1 uaJ* 

AcTUARY't^'*'ty»a A r^ * Thcregifttf 

or oiicer who cotiipifri rKe mifiutet of the 
procecdmif'j of the etmrt- 

To AcTWAT*^, &k'UbCi-dic v. a* Ta 

|iiif into 3i^)ort. 
To AcL'AT£, uk'ij#iitc V* a, (yi)* 

To fharpcn, 

AcuLt ATt,fi-kA'K-iie-si*(9i )< Prick- 
ly, ihiic which tcrmittain *m a fhstrp pauU' 

ActJMf w. a-hVmfiiv *, co;| h. A 
Ihirp poitit; 6guraiivelypqaidiiid4 id'mtzl- 

Ending in ^ pAint, fhiirpi^fitdtcitf 
A c u r I , :i»K iitu/. :i. Sharp, oppnfed to 
tilunt ; mgtntiiui, opposed to tlupid t acut^ 

:iii jD^rrAled vrlcHiiy uf b1m<d, mid Icrmi* 
ii;ir^i in A few dayi; iiictiic Accent^ thiAt 
whidi laifef ar iKiup*rj> tht vwice* 
Acutely, A-^uie1t% Jid. Aficr an 

acute mail tier, fliarply* 

AcvTitiEjs, iAiitc n^Cs, s, Sharpnefsp 
forte of mtclk^lt ; ^ioWnc*? ami fptcdy cri- 
Gs of i miiUiiy ; ^arpiicfA uf Tntiiid* 

AiJACTEt># ll*ii4k'ttd* part* a. Diivcn 

by forcft 
AnAct, idaje. s* (9c), A maiiiti,a 

Ai^AGt , uslA j^o» s. A term iifed by 

muQc^ns, to murk. 4 Uuw itmc* 
Ai>Ai^ANT, Sd'l mint, s, A 0ooc nf 

impcn{:rrml>lc h^rdncsi | ttic dbmond ; rt»e 


Hard At Adjmaiit. 
AD*WAHTrNC. W-:*t-inrin't1n. ^^ Made 

of adim4mi h^vip^ tht ituiilitLe^ uf ^d^manti 

»K (iirdficfA* indLOoluhility. 
J^ Mr* SherulaD, Dr. Kcuridt, and Mr. 



A D H 

tCJ* (559) — Fite, fir, fill, fit ; — m^ mit ; — ^pinc, pin;—* 

Ferry, uoi£orinly pronounce the hft fyilable 

of thi^ word as it is here marked, and W. 

Johnfton only fo as to rhyme with /rVif .^140). 

Adam's APPi^E, 4d'aniz4p^pl. s. A 

prominent part of the throat. 
To Adapt, ^-dapt'. v. a. To fit, to 
. fvjt, to proportion. 

Adaptatioji, dd-ap-t4'ftiiln. s. The 
«A of fitting one thing to another, the fit- 
neis of one thing to another. (5^7)- 
Adaption, i-dap^fhdn. s. The a^ 

of fitting. 
To AoD; id. V. a. To join ibmetbing 

to that which was before. 
To AoDfciMATE, 4d-ddsT<£-n;)4tc.v. a. 

To take or afceitaiu tithes. (91). 
To ADOP.BM,^-d^^'.v.a.Toefteeni, 

to aecoiittt. 
Adder, dd'ddr. s. (98) (418). A 

fierpent, a viper, m poifonous reptile. 
Adder's-grass, ad'di\rz-grif9. s. A 

Adder's-tomgue, &d'd&rz-ti&ng. s. 

An herb. 
Adder's-wort, id'ddrz-wArt. s. An 

Addible, ^M^-bl. a. (405). Pofli- 

ble to be added. 
Addibility, ad-d*-bilW-t6. s. The 

poflibflity of being added. (51 1}- 
Addice, 4dMis. s. (142). A kind of 

azy corruptly pronounced adz. 
To Adojct, 4d-dlkt'. v. a. To devote, 
to dedicate ;,it is commonly taken in a bad 
fenie, as, he addided himfcif to vice. 
Addictedness, id-dik't^-n^fs. s. 

The ftate of being addided. 
Addiction, id-dik'fhdn. s. The aA 

of <icToting ; the fiate of being devoted. 
An Ad 01 TAME NT, dd-dit'i-mtot. s. 

Addition, the thing ailded. 
Addition, 4d-diih'lhdn: s. (459). 
The ad of adding one thing to another ; die 
thing added ; in arithmetic, addition is the 
redndion of two or more numbers of like 
kind together into one fnm or total. 
Additional, id-difli'Mn41. a. That 

which is added. 
Additory, dd'd*-t6-r*. a. (512). That 

which has the power of adding. 
Addle, 4d'dl. a. (405). Originallj 
sppUed to eggs, and fignifying fuch as pro- 
duce nothing, thence transferred to brains 
that produce nothing. 
Abdle-pated, 4d'dl-pA-tW. a. Hav- 
ing barren brains. 

To Address, id-dr^s'. v a. To pre- 
pare one*s felf to enter upoo any wOdon ; tm 
apply to another by words. 

Address, 4d-dr5fs'.s. Verbal applica- 
tion to any one ; courtihip ; maimer of md* 
dreiling .another, as, a man of pleafii^ ad- 
dreis ; (kill, dexterity ; moaner of dire^ii^ 
a letter. 

Addresser, Sd-drSs'iiir. s. (98). The 

perfon that addrefles. 
To Adduce, 4d-diie'. To bring 

fomething forward in addition to Ibiaetlunv 

ab-eady produced. 
f^ This word, though conftantly arifi^g m 

conTcrfatlon, has not yet found its way int» 

any of our Didionaries. It is, however, 

legitimately formed, and has a dilUnd and 

fpedfic (ignification, which diftinguiflies k 

from amdiice, induee^ produce, and redkt^, and 

has therefore a juft title to become a part 

of the hmguage. The propriety of it is a 

fufficient autlrarity. 
ADDucmT, 4d-d6'ftnt. a. A word ap» 

plied to thofe mufdes that draw together 

the parts of the bo^. 
To /^DDULSB, 4d-dUfc'. ▼. a. To 

Adosnography, &d-d^&e'gi&.A. s. 

A trtatife of the glands. (jlS). 
Ademption, ft-d^rn'Mni. s. (412). 

Adept, d-dipt'. s. He that is com* 

pletely ikilled in all the fecrets of hii|art. 
Adi.qpatb, 4d'^-kw4te. a. (91). 

Equal to, proportionate. 
Adequately, &d'^-kwdte-k. ad. In 

an adequate mamicr, with exadnelt of pro* 

Adequatenbss, ftd'^-kw4te»ndfs. s. 

The ftate of being adequate, ezadnds of 

To Adhere, 4d-hdre'. v. n. To ftick 

to ; to remain firmly fixed to a party, or 

Adherence, ftd-h^r£nse. s. The,qua- 

lity of adhering, tenacity ; fixednefs of mind, 

attachment, fteadinefs. * 
ADHEREiiCY, id-h£'rdn-(l^. s. (182). 

llie fame with adherence. 
Adhbrrnt, &d-h£Vdnt. a. Sticking 

to ; united with. 
Adherent, ad-h^'rdnt. s. A fol- 
lower, a partiian. 

Adherer, &d-h^'in&r. s. (98). He 

that adheres. 
Adhesion, id-h^'zhdn. s. (4;!). 

The ad or ftate of iUckiiig to fomethiiig. 



— liio, tffif. 

- \r>^i \t*^y 


. . , . aJ.Mb'bH. r. a. To 

, lo male uic of* 

. Tl-ft 5. (iSj), 

ft^c i>i to «fiathe7 tiling ♦ 

iiT, ^ J . .uit. a, Lying 

KT. iJ-U'sifit. 1- Iwit which 
T* » ILd-Jte'. ▼. 4. To add to, 


Ar, . s JiMlk*ta* s. The aa 
^adjprtto^oridifiRgi ^ tiling oaje^eil, 

LApifCriTJOei, id-J^^llOi^i)s* a. 

««rd tddtod t<» ■ »obo> to dftiiff the dddU 

^ance^^MBHeof bde^; ilz, gcxid, bad, 
ApiicrtTf tT« I<l';^k'tlv4^, atL After 
^im «i>mfT 9f an Mycc^vc* 

1. (184)- Faa-well. 

T 19 pi$t to. 

lit .. T, n. To be 

[ To Auj^vt^ft^, Ad*jdni'. r* a. (514). 
To f9i eS X9 imtthcT ibj* xrtming *h€ time* 
AtijoommAt^iT, A^J-j^kn^oi^iil. 4. A 
IMt^tisif •off tSU mutltcr d*j^ 

A^tT, Ad'\' \ paJiagt under 

Amriont 1"^ ** (459)- ^^^ 

Tc Jjc\ V. a. To 

f .... ....^^ ,A..,,., . ,^rtM tfl &nc of the 

p^rtitt ; to fcaiciw< lA a puiulbm/CEit ; fiin- 

T^- - ^ ^..„^^ - n^ E4# a litigant. 

[To ATE, ^d ju'd^-k4te. v. a 


iTc) Tt|4d'J4-g4tc. %•. a* (91). 

AbfwHEMTf AdliVmeot. f. Help, 
AlftecT. ' ' «- SoiBctliiijg 

^ Tl»«^ 

^vthCT; tile 


AOJL ' • , 

He tKs^t jinttt i 
AlJjU*tATi NJ 

D^ of pf 

form of ^3.1 , , 
To Aojvtt, Md-jftrc\ r. a. To ti 

pofi* an otth u|>oa aftodtcTi prcrcribinf tl 


To Adjuit* 4d*ji1ft'. V 3 Trt f^f<N 

btCp 10 puc m order * 

Al>JUSTM|£lST, ild-j L- 

ktidji, ehc a^ of putimj; m metltod; thci 
lUteof beitigput Hi mrthod* 
AojL'TAWTi idju*unt. n. (50J* I.' 
A pttiy fifflcrr* wliiife duty it to Siflifi 
inajar, hy iliflritjitttiig pajr, and 

To ADjUTi, Sd'j^te'. r. a. To lielj 

t<> concur. 
Au/tJTot, ad'jA*tdr. s, (98) (i6«S). 

A JiKlper, 
Adjutohv, ad'jiVtdr-rA, a. (ji^)- 

'rUat which hdpi, I Ji7)* 
Adjutakt, Idj^-vdfit. a. Helpful* 


To Adjuvati^ ^d'jiVvAic* v. 3- To 

hdpt to further* (s^S*0* 
A D M £ A 5 u ft f M # f« r , ^ d -mi %}i%ir€' rnhxi^ 
«. Thea&orprw^keof tnc»Asti4g9i0coKiA> 
ing t4 ruk* 

fht'in, i. (4>i) The a^ of iTjeaftir- 

ijig 10 each hii p;tft, 
ADMiH(cnt» id*ni'm'^-kL s- (405)« 

Help, fiipport- 
Apmixkuljiii* Ad*mc'fift'^4ilr. a. 

Thai which gi*^«4 help- i-fiS . 

To ADMtHisTFR, iid-fTiii'nlf-tiir* v- 1* 

To gi^c, fo afford, fii fupply? to *^ *■ tl 
TfiiBiiftcr or jfTcitf in atif employmcsit 
office; to perform the office of SS vdm* 
ilr&iqr* C9»)» 

To ADMiNtsTRATF, iU^mm^iiif- 
¥. a. (91), The fame as ndwA] 

A D M m I ST a A T I o K , Ad-in! n -nlf-mS%i 

4, i 5 5 7 > » r he a ^ of adm in iH^dg' ^ coo* 
during AJiy fmplwymf !it ; the adiWc or c£r 
cc\ittve pzr, ■ ^ '^ ihty{t to mbata 

thr CMt '■ . ciflgtimitiod* 

AoiitiiiiTRATivL, iJ-mm'nif-iri-tlv. 
^^ ( 1 1 7 7 ' That wh kb admlniAer v 




0C3' (559)-— F^te, fir, fMU fit ; — m^, mftt ;— pinet pin ;— 

Adm in istrator, id'raln-nlf-tri't^r. 

9. (98) (527). He that has the goods of a 

man dying inteitate, committed to his 

charge* and is accountable for the fame ; 

he that ofliciates in divine rites ^ he that 

condudks .the government. 
Admin isTRATRiXy 4d'mln-nls-tra'- 

triks. s. (527) She who admtni- 

fters in confequejice of a will. 
Administratorship, id'mln-nlf-tr4'- 

tiir^ihip. s. The office of admini- 

Admirable, 4d'm^-rd-bl. a. (405). 

To be admired, of powtr to excite wonder. 
Admirablbness, id'Tn^-ru-bl-l 

n^fs. V s. 


(511) (527). The quality or ftate of being 

Admirably, dd'm^-r4-bli. ad. In 

an admirable manner. 
Admiral, &d'm6-rdl. s. An officer 

or magiftrate that has the government of 

the king's navy ; the chief commander of a 

fleet ; the Alp which carries the admiral. 

ADMiRAL8Hip,4d'md-dd-fhip\s. The 
office of admiral. 

Admiralty, Wm6-rll-tA. s. The 
power, or officers, appointed for the &dmi- 
niftration of naval affairs. 

][jr This word is frequently pronounced as if 
written admiredtryt with an r in the bft fyl- 
lablc"; nor is this mifpronunciation, how- 
ever miproper, con6oed to the lowcft order 
of the people. The fame may he obferved 
of Mtiyoralty, 

Admiration, 4d-md-r4'(h^n. s. Won- 
der, the aift of admiring or wondering. 

To Admire, 4d-mire'. v. a. To re- 
gard with wonder; to regard with love. 

Admirer, id mi'rdr. s. (98). The 
perfon that wonders, or regards with admi- 
ration ; a lover. 

Admiringly, ad-mi'rlng-1^. ad. 
With admiration. 

Admissible, ad-mls'f<&-b] . a. (405). 
That which may be admitted. 

Admission, ad-mUh'thi^n. s. Th- 
ad or pradlice af admitting ; the ftate of 
being admitted ; admittance, the power of 
entering ; the allowance of an argument, 

To Admit, &'d-mk'. v. a. To I'nfFer 
to enter ; to fuflPcr to enter upon an office ; 
to allow an argument or oppofition; to allow, 
or grant in general. 

Adm ITT ABLE, ad-mk'iiil-bl. a. Which 
may be admitted. 

Admittancb, ftd-mlt'tanfe. t. Th« 

ad of admitting, pemiiffion to enter ; the 

power or right of entering ; cuftotn ; cod- 

ceffion of a pofitioii. 
To Admix, id-miks^ ▼. a. To min* 

gle with fomething elfe. 
Admixtion, id-miks'tihi^n. s. The 

union of one body with another. 
Admixture, &d-miks't{h&re. s. (461). 

The body mingled with another. 
To Admonish, ftd-m^a'nlfh. ▼• a. 

To Warn of a fault, to reprove gently. 
Admonisher, 4d-m6n^ni{h«!Sr. s. The 

perfon that puts another in mind of his fanlu 

or duty. 
Admonish m en t, Ad-m^'nlfh-m^nt. 

s. Admomt;»oii, notice of faults or duties. 
Admonition, &d-m6-nlfh'Aii. s. llie 

hint of a fault or duty, connlel, gentle re- 
Admonitionbr, id-iD&-nifli'&i-6r. s. 

A general advifer. A ludicrous teni* 
Admonitory, dd-m&h'n^-tikr-r^. a. 

That which admooiibes.— See Domrstic 
To Admofb, 4d-ni<i6ve'. v. a. . To 

briug one thing to another. 
Admu rm u ra tion, &d*nifir-m&-ri'- 

fliAn. s The a6k of murmuring to 

Ado, d d66'. s Trouble, difficulty ; 

buftle, tumult, bufinefs ; more tumult and 

(how of bufiueis than the affiiir is worth. 
Adolescence, 4d-6-l^s'aSnfc. 1 ^ 
Adolescency^ dd-A-Ws'sAn-fft. J 

The age fucceeding chiklhood, and fuceeed- 

ed by puberty. (510}. 
To Adopt, d-<i6pt'. v. a. To take a 

fon by choice, to make him a fon mho is 

not fo by birth ; to place any perfon or thing 

in a nearer relation to fomething elfe. ' 
Adoptbdly, ^niVW-l*. ad. After 

the manner of fomething adopted. 
Adopter, 4-di^p'tdr, s. (98). He 

that gives fome one by choice the rights of 

a fon. 
Adoption, 4 dop'Mn. i. (459). 

The ad of adopting ; the ftate of being 

Adoptive, 4 d6p'tlv. a. (157). He 

that is adopted by another ; he that adopts 

Adorable, &-d6'ra-bLa. (405).That 

which ought to be adored. 
Adorableness, d-d6'r4-bl-n^s. s. 

Worthincfs of divine honours. 
Adorably, IL.d6'r4*bl^. ad. In a 

manner worthy of adoration. 

A D V 


A D V 

AaoRATioif, i<U6-ri'(hi)a. s. The 
atonal hoaage p^^i to the diYinity ; hom- 
age paid to pcrfoo> in high place or efteem. 
To Adore, ^-d^re'. v. a. To woiibip 

with external homage. 
AooftEK, i-<i6'rdr. 5.(98). He that 

adores ; a worfliipper. 

To AooRM, 4.d6rn'. v. a. (167). To 

drtft ; to deck the peifon with ornaments ; 

to Cet oat any place or thing with deoprations. 

ADO&vMeiiT, i-d6rn'm^nu s. Oma- 

nent, cmbellifhmcm. 
Adoww, k-ddiUk'^ ad. (523}. Down, 

on tine grcmid* 
AiK>v^, l.d66n'. prep* Down to- 

vacda the mnnd. 
Adhkad, l-dr^'. ad. (234). In a 

ftace of fear. 
Adrift, i-drift'. a<L Floating at 

Adroit, i'^Mt'. a. (505). Adtiv^, 

ADaoiTNSss, a-dnSit'n^. s. Dexte- 
rity, leadinrfc, a^^ity. 

Adry, l-dri^ ad. Athirft, thirfty . 

AosciTiTiousyld-fd-tlfh'ds. a. That 
whidi i» taken in to complete fomcthing 
dfc. 514). 

AosTRfCTi-iN, ^d-ftilk'ftiAn. s. The 
ad U hfndicy together. 

To /\dtahce, 4d-vanfe'. ▼. a. (78). 
To bring forward, in the local fenfe ; to raifc 
to prefemaan, to aggrandize ; to improve ; 
to Corward, to accelerate; to propofe, to 
oficx to the pohUc 

To AovAJiCf, id-vinfc'. v. n. To 
come forward ; to make improvement. 

Advawcc, il-T^nfc'. s. ,79). I'he aft 
of earning famrd ; a tendency to come 
£nward to mtOL a lover ; progreilion, rife 
frum cat point to another; improvement, 
y^ti^^tHk t0W2nk perfection. 

«A «f cn«nng Gorward ; the ftatc of being 
adviMK^ pnitrment ; Improvement, 
A^vjinckR, 4d-^^nT1ar• s. (98), A 

proDiocer, brwardeT' 
ADVAHTAisf, id-viin'tuJjc. s. (90)- 
Siiperiarif y : tiaficriorify gain cd by tlra t i^cm ; 
gaix>, pn^^r ; jircpondcrsEioii on one fide of 
th^ compariibD. 

To AovAHTACE, ^d'Tan'Eadje, v. a. 

To b<^ic£t; to promote, to bring for- 

AoTATTAGSDf &d-vin'U-jM. a^ Pof^ 

b611 1'-^U ; — p66nd ; — /i&in, this. 

gr6&nd. 8. Ground that gives fa- 
periority, and opportunities of annoyance or 
AnvANTAGEoust dd-vllnti'ji^s. a 
Profitable, ufeful, opportune* 

AoVANTAGEOUSLYy ud-V^n-t^^Af-l^. 

ad. Conveniently, opportunely, profita- 

Adyantagkousncss, Id-yin^tA'j^f- 
n^fs. s. Profitablenefsi ufeAilaefs, 

To AoTENB, &d-vdne'. v. n. To ac- 
cede to fomething, to be fuperaddcd. 

A OVEN 1 EN T. &d-v^'n^-^L a. Adven- 
ing, fuperadded. 

Advent, dd'v^nt. s. The name of 
one of the holy feafoos, figoifying the com- 
ing ; this is, the coming of our Saviour ; 
which is made the fubje^ of oar devo- 
tion daring the four weeks before Chriil- 

Adventine, 4d-vin't1n. a. (140.) 
Adventitious, that which is eztrinfically ad- 

Adventitious, id-v^n-tlfli'i'is. a. 
That which advenes, extrinfically added. 

Adventive, 3d-vfin'tlv. 1. '1^7). 
The thing or perfon that comes from with- 

ADVENTUAL,dd-v6n't(h6-&l. a. (461). 
Rebting to the feafon of Advent. 

Adventure, ild-v^n'tOiiire. 8. (461). 
An accident, a chance, a hazard ; an enter- 
prife in which fomething muft be left to 

To Adventure, ^d-vdn't(hfire. v. a. 
To try the chance, to dare. 

Adventurer, &d-v^'t(hur-(ir. s. He 
that feeks occafions of haaard, be that puts 
himfelf in the hands of chance. ' 98). 

Advbnturous, id-vfin'lftiiir-As. a. 
He that is inclined to adventures, daring, 
coorageoui ; full of hazard, danmous. 

Adventurously, id-vdn'tihir-As-W, 
ad. Boldly, daringly. 

Adventuresome, 4d v&i'tMr-fiim. 

* a. The (ame with adventurous. 

Advbnturbsomrnbss, dd-v^n'tfh&r- 
giam-n^ft. s. (461 ). The quality of 
being adventurefome. 

Adverb, ^d'vdrb. s. A word joined 
to a verb or adjedive, and folely applied to 
the ufe of qualifying and reibaining the 
latitude of their iignification. 

Adverbial, dd v^r'b^-il. a. That 
which has the quality or ftruaurc of an a4- 
verb. * C 

A D V 


A D U 


C3- (559) F4te, fir, M, fat ;— m*, mil ;— pine, pin ;— 

\dtkrbially» dd-vdr'b641-14. ad. 
o In the manner of an adverb. 
fVovFPSABLF, dd-v^-'sHbl. a. (405). 

Contrary to. 
ADVkRSARY, dd'v^r-sd-r^. s. (512). 

An opponent, antagonift, enemy. 
Advmrsativh, dd-v^r's4-tiv. a. A 
word which makes fome oppofition or ¥A- 
riety. (51a.) 
Adverse, Hd'y^rfc. a. Ading with 
contrary diredions; calamitouat a£3idiYe, 
oppofed to profpcrous. 
Adversity, ^ . -v^r'ft-t^. s. (511). 
Afflidion, calamity ; the caufe of our for- 
row, miafortune ; the ftate of unhappinefs, 
Advfrsfly, id'vfirfe-l^. a. Oppolitc- 

ly, unfortunately. 
To -Vdyert, 4d-vdrt'. v. n. To at- 
tend to, to regard, to obferYe. 
AcYERT^NCi, ad-v^r't^Dlc. s^ Attcn. 

tion to, regard to. 
Adyfrtency, 4d-vdr't^n-fi. s. The 

fame with adYcrtence. 
To Advertise, id-Y^r-tlze'. v. a. 
To inform another, to give uitelligence ; to 
give notice of any thing in public prints. 
Advertise- J ad-v^r'tiz-mint. "I 
MR NT, i^&d-v^r-tlzc'mint. J 
IntelUgrcncc, information ; notice of any 
thing publiflied in a paper of intelligence. 
f^ As ncuna ending in ment always follow the 
accentuation of the verbs from which they 
are formed, we frequently hear advertifement 
taxed with the grofieft irregularity for hav< 
ing the accent on a different fyllable from 
advirtife* The origin of this irregularity 
fecms to have arifen from a change which 
has taken place in the pronunciation of the 
/ verb fince the noun has been formed : adver' 
tifi .and cbafiife were, in Shakefpeare*s time, 
both accented on the penultimate, and there- 
fore adveriifemeM and tbaJH/ement were form- 
ed regularly from them. 
^ Wherein he did the King his lord advert 
tifer HcK. VUI. 

** My grief cries louder than advtrtifement" 
Much Ado, &c. 
*^ Oh, then how qaickly fliould this arm of 

^ Now pris'ner to the paUy, cbaJHfe thee." 

« Richard II. 
*' And thafiifimnd doth therefore hide its 
head." Jul. Casar 

But (ince that time the verbs advertife and 
^Bifi havefollenintoan analogy more agree- 
able to vefbs of the fame form— -for the verbs 
XopremifiipraBi/e^ranthyetmorfifef and tRver^ 

^, are the ooiy words where the termina* 

tion ife has not the accent either primary or 

fecondary;andif an alteration muft be made 

to reconcile the pronunciation of the fimplc 

with that of the compmind, we fliouki find 

it much eafier to change advertifemtia and 

ebaftifimtmt into adverttfrntnt and cbtfifemniit 

than advertife and tMye into advertift 9dA 

' ebSfiifes but the irregularity feems too iove* 
terate to admit of any alteration. 
Adyc&tisek, ad-vdr-ti'zAr, s. (98). 
He that gives intelligence or information ; 
the paper in which advertifcments ar^ pub- 
Advertising, dd-vSr-ti'zln^. a. Ac- 
tive in giving intelligence, monitory. 
To ADYESPBRATEt dd-v6s'p&-r4te. 

V. n. To draw towards evening. (91}. 
Advice, ad-vice', s. (499). Counfelp 

inftmdion, notice ; intelligence. . 
Advice-boat, &d-vlce'b6te. s. A vcf- 
fel employed to bring intelligence. 

Adviseable, &d-Yi'zd-bl. a. (405). 
Prudent, fit to be advifed. 

Adyisbableness, id vKzi-bl-n^s. s. 
The quality of being advifeable. 

To Advise, dd-vfze'. v. a. (437)« 
To counfel ; to inform, to make acquaint- 

To Adyisb, id-vize'. v n. (499). To 
confult,as,he advifed with his companions ; 
to coniider, to deliberate. 

Advised, id-vl'z£d. part. a. (36a). 
Afting with deliberation and defign, pru- 
dent, wife; performed with dcliberadon, 
aded with defign. 

Advisedly, id-vi'zdd-1^. ad. (364). 
Deliberately, purpofely, by defign, pnidoit* 

Deliberation, cool and prudent prooe^ire. 

Adyisfment, &d-vize'mdnt. s. Coun- 
fel, information ; prudence, drcumfpcAion. 

Adviser, dd-vi'zur. s. (98 J. The 
pcrfon that advifes, a conufellor. 

Adulation, &d-jiLi4d ihiki. s. (294). 
Flattery, high compliment. 

Adulator, &d-j6»U'tAr. s. (521). A 

Adulatory, ftd^^-U-tOr^r^. a. Fht- 
tering. (511). A^ Domeitic. 

Adult, &*dUt'. a. Grown tip ; paft 
the age of infancy. 

Adult, d-dult'. s. A peribn above die 
age of infancy, or grown to fome degree of 

Adu LTN CSS, t-dfllt'ndfs. %. Tht fiate 
of beiog adult. 




A D V 



aAt mdrCf ndtf ii&t;-^t&be, tAb» b^l ;— 611 ;•— pd&nd :-*/i&tn, this. 

To Adultk&9 d.«dAl't5r. ▼. a. (98). 

(5j6}. To commit adaltery witK another. 

ADULTeRANT, l^dl'tiir*&nt. s. The 

perfim or thJng whidi adalteratet. 
To Abo kT BR ATE, lUdiU'tdr-to. ▼• a. 
To cnmmif adoltcry ; to corrupt by fome 
bhc^a admiztiirc- (9^*) 
Abolteratb, i-d^'tiir 4te. a. (91). 
Tainted with the giitU of adukcrj ; cor- 
rapted with lomefofeipn admixture. 
AoDLTSRATBHCss, a-ddl'tAr-itc-n^fs. 
». (91"^ (93^ (559> The quality or ftatc 
oChetng adokcrate. 
Advltbratiok, i^dAl-tfir-i'lhAn. s. 
The aft of comiptiag by foreign mixture ; 
the ftatft «l hcmg comaminatedl 
Adulterer, i-d51'tftr-(^r. s. (98). 

The perlfio gniky of adakery. 
Adulteress, i-diSi'tAr-ifs. s. A wo- 
man that commits adultery. 
ADULTtKtmE^ i-d^ytArAnc. s. (149). 

A child bora of an adnherefs. 
Advltbrous, d-ddl'tAr-^. a. (314). 

Ovflty at adahery. 
Adultery, irdil'tAr^ «• (55^)- 
The ad ol nohdng the bed of a married 
Advmbraut, ld'Ain1>r4nt. a. That 

whidigivet a flight refiembhncc. 
To AouMBEATBvid-Ainlir^te.T.a.To 
Sa&&w out, to give a flight likeneft, to ex- 
hAit a £uiit reibiibbnoe. (91). 
Adombratioii, 4d-Ain-brd'{hi'in. s. 
The atft of giviog » flight and imperfed re* 
preDEncatioo ; a faint flcetch. 
Aawatuhi, 4d-un-4'{hthi. s. The 

ftatc of being miitcd, union* 
Adovcity, i-<idn'{S-ti, s. (511). 

Qrookedtocfi, hooVrdnHti. 
A0if»<^e, il-ddnh/. a. (415)* Crook- 
ADVOCACY, ld'v6^A-fi. E. (546)- 

Viidirahqn, defence, apohigy. 
Adyocate^ id'Y&-k4tc. s. He that 
that pleaditfae canfe of another in a cAturt of 
js^camre; he that pleads any caofe, in 
whatever mamer , as a controvertift or Yin- 
A0?oc^rioii9 4d-YA-fci'Mn. s. .The 

oflkeof pkadii^» plea, apology. 
A0Y<>f.Ariost £i-v6-lA'fliAn. u The 

ad of flying to fomething. 
Abyolutiok, id-v644'(h^. i. The 

aft oC rolling to iomething. 
AoTOBTRY, id.v66'tr6. s. (3>3^- 

Advowee, 4d-Y6«i^'. s. He that has 
the ng^ of advowfipo* 

Advowson, 4d.v66'zfin. s. (170). 

A right to preTent to a benefice. 
To Adure, d-d6re'. y. n. To burn 

Adust, i-dAft^ a. Burnt up, fcorch- 

ed ; it is generally now applied to tbe ha* 

monrs of the body. 
Adusteo, l-dAil'dd. a. Burnt, dried 

with fire. 
Adustible, d-dda't^-bl, a. (179). 

That which may be adufled, or burnt up. 
AousTioN, i-dds'cMn. s. (464}. 

The aft of burning up, or drying. 
^GYPTiACUM, ?-jip tl'^<CiTn. (460). 

s. An ointment coniifting of honey, verdi« 

gris, and. vinegar. 
Aerial, M'ri-4I. a. Belonging to the 

air, as confifting of it ; inhabiting the air ; 

placed in the air ; high, elevated in fittui- 

Aerie, ^'r^. s. A ned of hawks and 

other birds of prey. 
Aerology, d-4r-6nA-ji. s. (556). 

The doftrine of the air. 
Abromancy, i'Ar-A-mAn.f^ s. (519). 

The art of divining by the air. 
Abrometry, i-Ar-6m'm^-tri. (518). 

s. The art of meafuring the air. 
Abroscopy, i.6r-6s'k6-p^. s. (518). 

The obfervation of the air. 
iETHiops-MiKERAL, 6'/4A-iips-inln^ 

Ar-ril. s. A medicine fo called, from 

its dark colour, made of quickfilver and fnl* 

phur ground together in a marble mortar. 
Myites, ^ti'i^z. s. Eagle-ftone. 
Afar, l^f^r'. a. At a great diftance ; 

to a great diflance. 
Afeard, i-ffeid'. participial a« Fright- 
ened, terrified, ah^id. 
Afbr, AfAr. s. (98). Thefouth-weft 

Affability, df-ft-billA-t^. s. Eafi- 

nefs of manners ; courteoufnefis civility, 

Affable, dffa-bl. a. (405). Eaff 

of manners, courteous, complaifant. 
Affableness, s. Courte- 

•fy, affability. 
Affably, iffi-bW. ad. Courteoufly, 


Affabrous, W^fi-briis. a- Skilfully 

made, complete. 
Affair, 4f.f4re'. s. Biifinefs, fome- 

thing to be managed or tranfitfted.. 
To Appear, 4f-ftrc', y. a. (227). 

To confirtn, to eftahliih* 

A F F 



Apfect, df-ffekt'. s. AflPedbion, paflion, 

To /iFFECT, df-fikt'. V. a. To aa 
upon, to produce cffedsmany other thing; 
to move the pafSons; to aim at, to ai^ire 
to ; to be fond of, to be pleafed with, to 
love ; to pradife the appearance of any 
thing, with fome degree of bypocrify ; to 
imitate in an unnatural and confijraincd 

Affectation, df-ftk-tyflii'm s. The 
aA of making an artificial appearance^ awk- 
ward imiution. 

Affl<ted, df-fdk't^d. participial a. 
Moved, touched with affedion; ftudied 
with over-much care ; in a perfonal fenfe, 
full of afTedation, as, an affeded lady. 

Affectidlv, af-f(§k'tW-lfi. ad. In an 
affeded maimer, hypocritically. 

Affectedness, tf.fek'tW-ntfs. s. The 

quality of being affeded* 

Affkction, df-f^k'ihtan. s. The ftatc 
of being affedcd by any caufe, or agent ; 
paflien of any kind; love, kindnefsi good- 
will to fome perlon. 

Affectionate^ |f-fi§k'flidn-dte. a. 
Full of afiedion, warm, zealous ; fond, ten- 

Affectionately, 4f-ffik'flii5n-Ate-W 
ad. (91). Fondly, tenderly. 

Affsctionatenbss, ^'f^WQiAn-ktc- 
ntf . 5. Fondncfs, tenderncfs, eood- 

Affectioned, 4f.ftk'(hftnd. a. Af- 
fected, conceited; inclined, mentally dif- 
pofc<i' (359)- 

Affbctiously, lf-ftk'Ms-l6. ad. In 
an affeding manner. 

Affective, 4f-ftk'dv. a. ThatwRIch 
affe^, which firongly touches. 

AFFfiCTuoslTy,A^f<&k-tfll^-6s'sM6. s. 

Affectoous, df-ftk'tfliA.fls. a. Full 
of pailion. (464). 

To .*\ ffere, df-fere'. v. a. A law term, 
fignifying to confirm. 

Affiance, 4f-fi'infe. s. A marriage 
contrad ; truft in general, confidence ; truft 
in the divine promifes and protedion. 

To Affiance, df-fi'^nle. v. a. To be- 
troth, to bind any one by promife to mar- 
riage ; to give confidence. 

Affiancer, &f-n'Sn-nir. s. He that 
makes a contraA of marriage between two 

Affidation, df-f^-dA'ihdn. 1 

AFriDATURE, 3f-f6.^d't(hure.3 '' 
Mutual contra^, mutual oath of Oddity. 

fit ; — mfi, mit 5 — pine, pin ;— 

Affidavit, df-ft-di'vlt. s. A declara- 
tion upon oath. 

AFFiiD, llf-fi'W. participial a. Joined 
by contrad, aifianced. (362). 

Affiliation, Af.fil-16-d'(h6n. s. 

Affinage, if.ft'nijc. i. (90). The 
ad of refining metals by die cupel. 

Affined, if'fi'nW. a. (362). Relat- 
ed to another. 

Affinity, dffln'nftfi. s. (511). 
Relation by marriage ; relation to, coimec- 
tion with. 

To Affirm, 4f-fdrm'. v. n. (ib8). 
To declare, to aficrt confidently, oppofed to 
the word deny. 

Affirm, df-f&m'. v. a. To ratify or 
approve afofmer law, or judgment. 

Affirm ABLE, if-f<&rro'a-bL a. That 
which may be affirmed* 

Affirmance, 4f fi^r'minfe. s. Confir- 
mation, oppofed to repeal. 

Affirmant, if-fir'm^nt. s. The per- 
fon that affirms* 

Affirmation, Af-ftr-mi'fliAn- s* The 
a A of affirming or declaring, oppoled to ne- 
gation ; the pofitton affirn^ed ; coofiiiDAtioR, 
oppofed to repeal. 

Affirmative, ^-f£i'm&-tlv. (158). a. 
That which affirms, oppofed to negative ; 
that which can or may be affimied. 

Affirmatively* iif^nA-tlvALad. 
On the pofidvc fide, not negatively. 

Affirmer, &f-f^'m6r. s. (9B). Hie 
perfon that affirms. 

To Affix, 4f-fiks'. v. z. To tnutc to 
the end, tofubjoin. 

Affix, iffiks. s. (492). A particle 
united to the end of a word. 

Affixion, fif-flk'fhdn. s. The aft 
of affixing ; the date of being affixed. 

Afflation, if-fl^'ihdn. s. A£t of 
breathing upon any thing. 

Afflatus, df-fi&'t^is. s. Communica- 
tion of the power of prophecy. 

To Afflict, af-fllkt'. v. a. To put to 
pain, to grieve, to torment. 

Afflxctedness, ^-flik'tid-n^s. s. 
Sorrowfulnefs, grief. 

Afflictbr, 4f-flik'tAr. s. (98). The 
perfon that afflids. 

Affliction, df.flik'fhfin. s. The caufe 
of pain or foirow, calamity ; the fiate of 
forrowfulnefs, mifery. 

Afflictive, dfcflik'tlv. a. (158). 
Painful, tormenting. 

A F I 



-- n6> sn6T€» n^r, n&t ; — tAibe* tAb« 

AfFLusMCB, iFfiiyto£t. 8. Theaaof 

iamiag to any place, concooxfc: exube- 

xaoce ol riches, plenty. 
Affluemct, ^'fl&-^ii-f<&. s. The fame 

with affineace. 
Afflucmt, Affld-dnt. a. Flowing to 

any part ; abundant, exuberant, wealthy. 
Affluent HESS, iFfl^-^nt-n^s. s. The 

«pa£t7 <]£ being affluent. 
Afflux, ^fKkks. s. The ad of flow- 

sag to tome place, afflnence; that which 

flowi to any pace* 
A?FLuxioir,df-fldk%An. s.The ad of 

towing to a paitkalar place; that which 
flcrwt irom one place to another. 
To Aftokt>, i£4lirdf. ▼. a. To yield 
or prodnoe ; to grant, «r cpnier any thing ; 
to be able to icli ; to be able to bear ez- 
To ATfx>KMST, i£'f6r^M, v. a. (109). 

(168). To turn graood into foreft. 
To AFTRAucHisEf If^jin'tihiz. V. a. 

(140). To make free. 
To Atfilay, idt^rk'. v. a. To fright, 
to terrify. 

Aff&at, i£4ik\ s. A tumultuous af- 

taak of one or owre perfoni upon others. 
AFFRfCTfOM, iffrik^ihAn. s. The ad 

ofmbbfog ose thing nponaaodier. 
To AFFtLiQHT, Itf-frite'. v. a. To af- 

fcA imk fear, to terrify. 
Affright, ^-frite'. 8. (393)« Ter- 

Bdr, €ear. 
Affkigmttui., M'friu^ihl, a. Full 

o£ affirig^ or terror, terrible. 
Affv^ightmevt, if-frite'in^Dt. s. The 

iwprcfion of fear, terror ; the (Ute of fear- 


To Affkomt, tf.fxAm'. T. a. (165). 

To meet Sajce to face, to encounter ; to pro- 
'vokc by an open infult, to offend avowedly. 

AFFmonT, dl-fr^xit^ s. Infult offered 
to the fsfic ; outrage, aft of contempt. 

Affrohw, if-trto'tfir. s. (98). The 

AFFsosTtmc, if^fr^n'tlng. part. a. 

TJi^C wbkb hsi ilkc qua^lity nf a^onting. 

To A f rust, if-fi^xe^ v. a. To pour 

tmc thiag upon anoih^r* 

Affusiom, if-Wihiin. s. The aft of 

To Afft, If-fi'. V. a. To betroth in 

To Afi^p aJ'-fi'- V, n. To putconfi- 
diQSccii, te put truffc in* 

AFiiu>i i^fifcld'. a*i' {«75)' To the 

bill ;— Ail ; — ^iind ; — liKn, this. 

Aflat, &.fl4t^ ad. Level with the 

Afloat, d-fl6tc'. ad. (195). Floaft- 

Afoot, &.f6i'. ad. (307). Oil foot, 

not on hofloback ; in ad:ioo, is, a dcfign is 

Afoke, l-f6re^. prep. Before, nearer 

in place to any thing ; Iboner in time. 
A FORK, Si'i6re'. ad. In time foregone 

or paft ; firft in the way ; in £root, in the 

fore part. 
Aforegoing, i-f6re'g6-itig. part. a. 

Going before. 
A FOR EH AND, d-f^lidnd. ad. By a 

previous proTifioB » proridcd, prepared; pre- 

▼iouily fitted. 
Aforementioned, ^-f&re'mfn'(hiSnd. 

a. (363). Mentioned before. 
Aforenamed, 4-f&rc'ni'mM. a. 

Named before. (362). 
Aforesaid, &-f6re's4de. a. Said 

Aforetime, d-f6re'tlme. ad. In time 

Afraid, &-fr^de'. participial a. Struck 

with fear, terri^ed, fearful. 
Afresh, i-frifh". ad. Anew, again. 
A FRO NT, 4-frCint^ ad. (165). In 

front, in dired oppofition. 
After, df'tCir. prep. (98). Follow- 
ing in place ; in purfuit of ; beliind ; pofte- 

rior in time ; according to ; in imitation of. 
After, Hf'til^r. ad. In fucceeding 

time ; following anqther. 
Afterages, 4f'tdr-4'jdz. s. Succeed- 
ing times, pofterity. 
Afterall, df t6r-^l'. ad. At laft, in 

fine, in condofion. 
Afterbirth, aftiir-bdr/A. s. The 

Aftbrclap, 4Ft<ir-kl4p. s. Uuex- 

peded event happening after an affair b fup- 

pofed to be at an end. 
AFTBRcosT,.4Ftdr-k6ft. s. The ex- 

penfe incurred after the original plan is ex. 

Aftercrop, drt6r-kr6p. s. Second 

Aftergame, afti'ir-gime. $. Me- 
thods taken after the firil turn of affairs. 
Aftermath, af'tCir-m4/^. s. Second 

crop of gra£» mown in autumn. 
Afternoon, jlf'tilr-noon'. s. The 

time from the meridian to the evening. 
Aftbrpains, ^Pti\r-pdnez. s. Pains 

after birth. 




A G G 

q;;^ (5j9)._F4tc, fir, fUl, ftt ;— mi, m^t ;— pine, pin j 

LrTERTASTE, 3ft6r-t4fte. s. Tafte 
remaining upon the tongue after the dranght. 

LFTERTHOOGHT, M't^T'thkwt. S. Rc- 

flexions after the ad, expedients foqued 
too ]»tt. 

LFTERTIME8, dPtftr-tlmcz. S. Suc- 
ceeding times. 

LrTERWARD, dPtAr-wSird. ad. (88). 
In fuccceding time. 

LFTERWiTt Itf't&r-wlt. s. Contriv- 
ance of expedients after the occafion of viing 
them is paft. 

Lgain, d-gte'. ad. (206). A fecond 
time, once more ; back, in reftitutioo j be- 
fides, in any other time or place ; twice as 
mnch, marking the fame quantity once re- 
peated ; again and again, with frequent re- 

^ We find this word written according to 

the general pronunciation in the Duke of 

Buckingham's verfes to Mr. Pope : 

<* I little thought of launching forth a^«M, 

•• Amidfi adventVonsrovcrs of the pen.** 

kcAiNST, 4-ginft'. prep. (206). Con- 
trary, oppofite, in general ; with contrary 
motion or tendency, ufed of material adion ; 
«ppofite to, in pbce ; in expedation of. 

^GAPB, i-gipe'. ad. (75.) Staring 
with eagemeftw— See Gape. 

^QARiCK» ig'A-rlk. s. A drug of ufc 
in phyfic, and the dying trade. 

\.GAST, i-g&ft'. a. Amazed. 

Vgate, d^it. s. (91). A precious 
ftone of the loweft dafs. 

^GATY, ftg'A-tA* a.- Partaking of tb€ 
nature of agate. 

fojA^GAZE, d-gize'. V. a. To ftrike 
with amaxemcnt. 

\ge, ijc. s. Any period of time at- 
tributed to fomething as the whole, or part 
of its duration ; a fucceffion or generation of 
men ; the time in which any particular man, 
or race of men, Hvedyas, the age of heroes; 
the fpace of a hundred years ; the latter part 
of life, old age ; in law, in a man the age of 
twenty-one years is the full age, a woman 
m twenty-one is able to alienate her lands. 

%ged. i'jdd. a. (363 J. 01d,aricken 
in years. 

\gedly, i'jM-U. ad. After the man- 
ner of an aged perfon. 

\oeh, 4-gin'. ad (206). Agairt, in 

^oehcy, A'jin-f<&. s. The quality of 
ading, the ftate of being in a&ion ; bufinefs 
performed by an agent. 

\GENT9 4'j^t. a. Aaing upon, aaive. 

fVcENT, 4'jtet. s. A fubftitttte, a de- 

puty, a fadfcor ; that which has the power of 
ACGENERATION, ^-j^-n^r-4'fll&[L S. 

The ftate of growing to another body. 
To Aggerate, Ad'jiir-4te. v. a* To 

heap up.— See ExAOosaATE. 
To Agglomerate, ftg-gl6m'mAr.Atc. 

T. A. To gather up in a b^, as thread. 
Agglutinants, ig-glA't^-nints. s. 
Thofe medicines which have the power of 
uniting parts together. 

To Agglutinate, ftg-gl&'t^nite. 
V. n. To quite one part to another. 

Agglutin ATioN, 4g-gWt6-n4'fli4li.s. 
Union, cohefion. . 

Agglutinative, ig-glfi'tfe-ni-tlv. a. 
That which has the power of procuring 9^ 
glutination. (5t%y 

To Aggrandize, &g'grin-dlze. v. al 
(159). To make great, to enlarge, to ex:ak. 

Aggrahdizembiit, Ag'grin-dlzc- 
mdnt. s. See Academy. The ftate 
of being aggrandised. 

AoGRAHpizER, ig'grin-dizc-Ar. s. 
The perfon that makes another great. 

To Aggravate, 4g'gi4-vAtc. v. a. 
(91). To make heavy, in a metaphorical 
(enfe, as, to aggravate an accuiatioiii to nuke 
any thing worie. 

Aggravation, 4g-grJ-vA'{hdn. s. 
The aa of aggravating ; the circomftasccs 
which heighten g^ilt or calamity. 

Aggregate, &e'gr^-g&te. a. (91). 
Framed by the coUeAion of particolar ports 
into one m«fb 

Aggregate, ig'gr^-gite. s. The rc- 
fult of the coHjunSion of many particulan. 

To Aggregate, ^g'gr^-gAtc. v. a. 
To colka together, to heap many particu- 
lars into one mafs. 

Aggregation, ig-gi^-gA'A^n. s.Thc 
ad of coUeding many particulars into «iqc 
whole ; the whole compofed by the collec- 
tion of many particulars ; ftate of being col- 

To Aggress, dg-grdfs'. v. n. To 
commit the firft aS of vic^cnce- 

Aggression, 4g-gr^(h'iin. s. Com* 
mencement of a quarrel by fame a6 oC ifii* 

AcGREssoRtAg-grfes'sAr. $.(98). The 
aflauher or invader, oppofed to tlie defend- 
ant. (4x8}. 

Aggrievance, ig-gr^'vinfe. s. Inju- 
ry, wrong. • 

To Aggrieve, ftg-grAve'. v. a. To 
give forrow, to vex j to izppofe, to hurt ia 
ODc'tri^ht. (175)- 





A H I 

— n&y mdvcy ni&r, nit ;-^Jkbe, tftb, 

ToAcGftovp> 4g-grWp'. V. a. To 

kiag together into one 6giire. 
Agha!»t, &-gafi'. a. Struck witb hor- 
ror, a at the fight of 3 ipedrc. 
Agile, ijll. a. (140}. Nimble, 

itadj, aAire. 
Agilencss. ijll-ntfs. s. Nimblenefsy 

^iacknds, a^Tity. 
Agility, l-jiV^-t*. s. (511). Nim- 

Uenei»« qyiflrnrft, a^Tity. 
To Agist, l^ilV. v. a. To take in 
and feed the cattle of ftrangers in the king's 
farc£b,aiid to gather the money. 
A.Gas*rM£VT, 4j-ift'jntoc. s. Compo- 

yofiiuoDfac mean rate. 
AGiTk.^1.1, iy^^-bL 8. Hat which 

naay he putisi motJOB. 

To .AGITATE, iL)'^4Ate.T. a. (91). To 

pot mmoHoii ; to aft]iate,tDinoTe ; to affeA 

with pcrcorhation ; to baodf , to ^cuii, to 


ActTATion, ^j-A^'fh^ $. The ad 

of moving any thing ; the ftate of being 

naovedi difirvffion, cootroTerfial ezamina- 

taon; fertortntioB, diftiirbancc of tbe 

t hiwghto ; 4dilKfatioa, the ftatc of being 

, bAll >— 611 ;— p66nd I'^^bitip this. 

To Aoomii, 4g'6-nlzc. ▼. n. To be 

in exccffiYe pain. 
AoONV,ig' s. (548). The pangs 

of death ; any violent pain of body or mind. 
Agood, &-g6d'. ad. In eameft. 
To Aohack, &^4c^. v. a« To grant 

favours to. 
Agrarian, i-gri'r^-in. a. Relating 

to fields or grounds. 
ToAoREASB, 4-gr£ze^ a. To da wb, 

to greafe. 
To AGREE, 4-grW. ▼. n. To be in 

concord ; to yield to ; to fettle terms by fti- 

pulation ; to lettle a price between buyer and 

feller ; to be of the fame mind or opinion ; 

to fuit with. 
Agrseablb, i-grdd'ft-bl. a. Suitable 

to, confifient with ; pleafing. 
Agrebableness, a-er^'i-bl-ntfs. s 

Confiftency with, fuitablencis 

ty of pleafing. 

AoiTAToa, ^^U-tJIir. s. (521). He 

AoLET, ig^, s. A tag of a point 
cured into fime reprclentatioo of an ani* 
■ail ; the jieiidanr s at the ends of the chives 
of flowers. 

AoMisAL, ilg'iii^^i^ a. Belonging 

AovAii*, ig'sik. s. A whitlow. 
Agvatioii, ftg-n4'fliAn. s. Defcent 

iron the fune fttber. In a dired male line. 
jAciiitioii» igniih'An. $• Acknow- 

To Agnize, Ig-nize'. v. a. To ac- 
knowledge ; to own. 
AcHOMtvATioii, ig-n&Tn-in^-ni^fliAn. 

a. AUaJifl* of one word to another. 
Agm us Castvs, ig'ni^s-cis'tAs. s. The 

Ago, i-ff6'. ad. Paft ; as, long ago ; 

chas i^loag time haapafled iince. 
Agog, 4i^g^'* ad. In a ftate of defire. 
Agoing, d-g6^g. a. (410). Iti 

Agov£, i-gAn'. ad. Ago^ V^^\ 
AcomisM, ig'A nlzxn. s. (54S). Con- 

tcaiaa&ir aprise. 
AO'^visTESv ^g-6-nis't£z. s. A prize- 

Spaa^ out that coolends at a public folem- 


t to ; the qoali- 

Agrbbably, i-grM' ad. Confift- 
cotly with, in a manner fuitabie to. 

Agreed, &pgr£^'. participial a: Set** 
ded by confent. 

Ac RK SINGH ESS, t-grM%g-ntfs. s. 
Confiftence, fniublenefs. 

Agreement, i-gr^d'm^nt. s. Con- 
cord; refemblance of one thing to another ; 
compadt, bargain. 

Agriculture, Ag'ri-cAl-tchdre. s. 
(469^ TiUage, halbandry. 

Agrimony, ag'r^mdn-n^. s. (557). 
The name of a plant- 

Agrouhd, a-gr66nd'. ad. (31))* 
Stranded, hindered by the ground firom 
paffing further ; hindered in the progreis of 

Ague, A'g&e. s. (33?). An intermit- 
ting fever, with cold fits fncceeded by hot. 

Agued, 4'gd-W. a. (362) (359). 
Stmck with the ague, ihivering. 

AouB-Fir, ^'gueflt. s. The parozy/m 
of the ague. 

Agub-trbb, 4'g6e-trM. s. Saflafras^ 

Aguish, ^'gu-ifh. a. Having the 
qualities of an ague. 

Aguishness, I'^A-lfli-n^fs. s. Tbe 
quality of refemblmg an ague. 

Ah,&. interjedion. A word noting 
fometiines diflike and cenfure; moft fre- 
quemly, compaflion and complaint. 

Aha^Aha% k'hk'. interjedion. A 
word intimating triumph and contempt. 

Ahead, d-hM^. ad. Further onward 
than another. 

AHiGHT|ft-hke\ ad. Aloft, on high. 

A I R 


A L C 


CjI* (559)-— F4tc, fir, fall, fit ; — m6, m^t ; — ^pine»'piii ;— 


Aid, dde. v. a. (202). To help, 
to fupport, to fuccour. 
in, 4de. s. ^Help) fupport ; in law, 
a fubfidy. 

IDANCE9 ^de'&nfe. s. Help, support. 

1 DA NT, &de'4nt. a. Helping, help- 

iDEK, Ade'Ar. s. A helper, an ally. 
fDLEss, Adel^s. a. Helplefs, un- 

Ail, ile. v. a. To pain, to trouble, 
to give pa(n ; to affed in any manner. 

iL, ^le. s. (202) A difeafe. 
iLMENT, ^le'm^nt. s. Pain» difeafe. 

1 LING, ile'ing. participial a. Sickly. 
D Aim, kme. v. a. (202). To en- 
deavour to ftrike with a miifile weapon ; to 
point the view, ox dircA the ftept towards 
any thing, to endeavour to reach or obtain ; 
to guef<. 

iM, ^me. s. The diredion of a milHle 
weapon; the point to which the thing 
thrown In direAed ; an intention, a defign ; 
the objeA of a defign ; cnnjedure,guefs. 
iR, ire. s. (202). . The element en- 
compafling the earth ; a gentle gale ; mufic, 
whether light or fcrious ; the mein, or man* 
ner, of the perfon j an affeded or laboured 
manner of gefture ; appearance. 
3 Air, Are. v. a. 'To ezpofe to ihe 
air ; to take the air ; to warm by the £re. 
I R BLADDER, ^e'bUd-d^r. $« A blad- 
der filled with air. 

iRBUiLT, Are'bilt. a. Built in the air 
iR -DRAWN, Are'dr^wn. a. Painted in 
air. ^ 

iRER, ire'dr. s. (98), He that ex- 
poies to the air. 

[RHOLE, Are'hole. s. A hole to admit 

iRiNEss, Are'^-n^fs. s. Expofure to 
the air ; lightnefs, gaiety, levity. 
rRiNO, Are'ing. s. (410)- A fliort 

[RLFss, Arel&fs. a. Without commu- 
nication with the free air. 
[RLiNG, drc'llng. s, (410). A young 
gay perfon. 

[RPUMP, Are'ptop. s« A machine by 
means of which the air is exhaufted out of 
proper veflela. 

[RSHAFT, &re'(h&ft. 8. A pafiage for 
the air into mines. * 

[Rr, ^re'^. a. Compofed of air; re- 
lating to the air ; high in air ; li^t as air, 
Linfubftanti^); without rcaKty, vain, trifling; 

gay, fprightly, fall of mirth, lively, light of 

of heart. 
Aisle, ile. s. (207). The walk in a 

Ait, &te. s. (202). A fmall ifland in a 

To Akb, &ke. y. n, (355). To fed a 

lading pain. 
Akin, &-kln'. a. Related to, allied to 

by blcKid.' 
Alabaster, il'4-bdf-tdr. s. (98). A 

kind of soft marble, ealier to cut, and lefs 

durable, than the other kinds. 
Alabaster, dl'i-bftf-ttir. a. (41 S). 

Made of alabafter. 
Alack, ft-ULk^. interjedion. Alas* sm 

expreflion of forrow. 
Alackadat, ^4ik'll-d4^ interjedt. A 

word noting forrow and melancholy. 
Alacriqusly, i-lak'r^-ds-U. ad. 

Cheerfully, without dejedion. 
Alacrity, 4-14k'krd-t*. s. (511); 

Cheerfubiefs, fprtghdinefs, gaiety. 
Alamods, il-4-m6de'. ad* According 

to the faihion. 
Aland, 4-l^nd'. ad. At land, landed. 
Alarm, a-lirm'. s. A cry by which 

men are fummoned to their arms ; notice of 

any danger approaching ; a fpecies of clock ; 

any tumult or diftuibance* 
To Alarm, d-lc\rm'. ▼. a. To call to 

arms ; to furprife with the apprcheafioQ of 

any clanger ; to difturb. 
Alarm B RL L, dolkrm'b^n. s. The bell 

that is rung to give the alarm. 
Alarming, i-liLr'mtng. particip. «• 

Terrifying, awakening, iurpiifiiig. 
Alarm POST, i-l&rm'p6(t s. The poft 

appointed to each body of men to appear ac 
Alas, 4-lifs'. interjc<aion. A \':'ord ex- 

preifing lamentatiop ; a word of pity. 
Alate, £i-14te'. ad. Lately. 
Alb, 41b. s. A furplice. 
Albeit, M-b*1t. ad. (84). Although^ 

Albuginbous, il-bCi-jin'^-As. a. Re- 

fembling an albugo. 
Albugo, 41-b{i'^. s. (84). A difeale 

in the eye, by whidi the cornea contrm Aa a 

Alcahest, 41'k4-hdft. s. (84). Aa 

tmivcrfid difiblvent. 
Alcaid, il c4de'. s« (84). The go- 
vernment of a caftle ; in Spain, die judge 

of a city. 
Alcanka, 41-kin'na s. (84), ^n 

Egyptian plant ufed in dying* 


'4* **'"*, 





A Li 

— aA, mdvjt, fi&r, T>6t I — ^i&be, i*\K b6U j— ^H ;»— ^pA^bul i*^^iti« tmii. 

UrnTMisr, iiVke-imlL v (84). Onr 
%' . |it-f fjc» «>*^ prof e Oct iht fatnce of ai- 



■ofr* tin! 

A high 



hu«k ef the illaJiiiOMUi |!rn:ept»« md cr^- 
dHrr'a ; aa«r owrc pfupritf cjUied the 

, IMdWr'. s> A rect^fs^ or pan 

wlskii U flKtd 4 bed ol Jbc^ 

[84^ ALTccliaving 
iukle ^iC the biL7.e!^ 

t II Lt . ll'd^*iEittii-l&. ad, Like 

- man. 



A beverage 

One that 
Ati tiffin 

tnfpe^ the 

Ab herb- 

, 44dc*tA^niibi*4^. 
«» iile-gftr. ». {9B) (41^ J- 

Ground iiy. 
• , .. .a. i\ tippling 

\ t.1 M£;vii<»iF«m«tie'b66re*k^*p^r. s 
Mf tlt«tkME9« ^ F«>V«s)7 1« fen 

1. WatchfuJj vigilsni ; 
-'ft, f , The qnality 


Ai,iiCNiciHT, 4le'nitc. %* A potcois- , 

Alim mViL », A vefUaCod 

in diitji 
AtfwaTffi 1-lingr^'* ;ii!* At tuHl] 

ALKirr. 4-1 In'* 1 

Soaked tn mfc 
At < % 1 r t Me'wtfc* i, A woman tliAl 

AtaiA^D^KStiiM^gi-il'dArz. %. The 
tiifoe of i pLint. 

Rjt'. s. (ai^I Tlir - - * -• herb. 

AttlTAliTlRiltlH. 11 S. 


<!«r, 1.,. .-^.-.^.; ■ 

At*3cirP(At wiCKp A4ck %. a. 

That which drtTct «Wif pu'i .... ^,. .iotal* 

(509,) la- 

At-t iirKR tcjc, t4^k*fM*f*Hk- J 

Thit which diko iwajr [Hiif<Dii* 
A L J 1 T ii s, iVrg kcs . ad. On any icrms ; 

Although. Olfnlrte, 
AtGEfRA, arjW>rl, G, (84). A pecu- 
liar kind ol arithcoettc* 
A L G E a ii a I c A x.t iU -j^-br i'd-k4L 1 
A L c Jt B 1 A I c K > 41 i^-br 4'lk, J 

RcJayjig to ftlgchfi, 
AuctintAisT, il j<^*bri'Vft . f . A perfoa 

that uDder&iridi 01 pra^ifet tht fdence of I 

Aj.cio» aVjy. a^ (^4)' ^''^^* ^^*^^' 
Algidity^ il-jid'tixy^ii. s,t5*0- Chll- ! 

ncfi« cold. 
Algific, iljirnW. a. C509)* That 1 

whkh produced coldi. 

A LCOR, M'gur. s. Eitremc coldj chil- 
li ef^. I 

f^ The & m the UA Ty liable of thit word 
efcape* being' pronounced iiX^m froiu U* be- 
ing Latin Mid ffldom uf&dr ;4ldv) 

\t.ooiiiiii» ll'gA^rlzm, {557). 

AliCORiTflM. iI'i;c*-rlMni, 

Arabic wopds ufe^ to imfhf the fdencc of J 

Alia3i 4l6-i5- ad* A Latin wordi fig* 

tiifying otherwifc 
Aliblb» ^l'#-bL a* (405)* Notritive^^ 



A L I 


A L L 


Alien* Ale'ydn. a. (505). Foreigntor 
not of the fame family or land ; eftraoged 
from, not allied to. 

Alien, ik'yfih. s. {113) (283). A 
foreigDer, not a denifoQ» a ftranger ; in law, 
an aU^n it one born in a ftrange country, 
and DCYer enfrancfaifed. 

ALiBNABLEy 41e'y^a*i-bl.a. That of 
whiduhe |iraperty may be tisuufcrred* 

To Alienate, 41e'y^-4tt. v. a. To 
(ramfer the property of any thing to no^* 
ther ; to withdraw the heart or ai^dtions. 

f^ Theie is a lltfong propenfity in undifcipiin* 
ed fpeakers to pronounce thi s word with the 
accent on « in the penultimate ; but this can-^ 
not be too carefully avoided, as all the oom- 
poundt of 0lun have invariably the accent on 
the Mt fy liable, fiut whether the a in this 
fyllable be long or (hort, is a difpute among 
our beft OrthS^ifis. Mr. Perry, Mr. Bu- 
chanan, W. Johnfton, Dr. Kenrick, and 
Mr. Elphinftone, jpin it irhh the confonant, 
and msuce it (hort ; but Mr. Sheridan fepa> 
rates it from the /, and makes it long and 
(lender: and though Mr. Elphinftone*s 
opinion has great weight with me, yet I 
here join with B4r. Sheridan againft them 
' ' all ; not only becaufe I judge his pronuncia- 
tion of this word the moft agreeable to the 
bcft ufage, but becauie it is agreeable to an 
evident rule which leogthens every vowel 
with the accent on it, except t when follow- 
ed by a fingl^ Gonfonast and a diphthong. 
See Principles, No. joj) (534)- 
*' O Senate from Heav*n, O fpir*c accurft !'* 
MiUon*4 Par. Z^,*. v. 877 

ALiENATEy&le'y^a^e. a. Withdrawn 

from, ftranger to. 
Alibnation, Alc-y^-i'fhAn. s. The 

ad of transferring property ; the ftate of be- 
ing alienated ; change of aflfedion. 
To Alight, i-litc'. v. a. To come 

down; to fall upon. 
Alike, ft-lilce^ ad. with refemblance, 

in the fame manner. 
ALiMFNTy in^-m^nt.$. Nouriflimenty 

nutriment, food. 
Alimbntal» &]4^-in^n't&l. a. That 

which has the quality of aliment, that which 

A LI M E N T AR 1 N fts s^il-U-iD^' tipr^n^fs. 
' s. The quality of being alimentary. 
ALiMF.NTi^RY,dl4^-nMln't&-r^. a That 

which belongs to alim<nt ; that which has' 

the power of nonrilhing. 
A1.1M6NTAT10N. IQ-l^-mfo-ti'ihOn. s. 

The ^tulity of nourilhing. 

Alimonious, U-I^-m^^n^Os. s« That 
whiflk Boorifliet. 

Fte, fir, fill, iki j— m^, ra^t ;— plncjb pin ;— 

ALiMOiiY,ill^*iiiAn-n^. s. (556). L^ 
gal proportion of the huiband*seft»te,wlucii» 
by the fentence of the ecclefiaftical court, is 
allowed to the wife, upon the ^count of fe- 
paration.— See Domestic. 

Aliqjljant, &ri^-qwint. a. Parts of a 
number, which vrill never make up the 
number cxadly ; as, 3 is an aliquant of 10, 
thrice 3 being 9, four times 3 making x%k 

ALI(^roT, M1^-qw6t. a. Aliquot parts 
of any number or quantity, fuch as will ex- 
adly meafure it without any remainder ; ai, 
3 is an aliquot part of xa. 

AbisH, ^e'lfh. a. Refembltng ale. 

A LI VI, 3[-livc'. a^ In the ftate of life j 
not dead; unextinguifhed, undeftrcyyedy 
adive ; cheerful, fprightly : it is ufed to add 
emphaids ;. as, the bcft man alive. 

Alkaheit, Urid-h^ft. s. (84). An 
univerfal diilblvent, a liquor. 

Alkalescent, Hl-k^idff&it. a. That 
which has a tendency to the properties of an 

Alkali, 4rk&-U. s. (84). Any fub- 
ftance, which, when mingled with add, 
produces fermentation. 

Alkaline, &l'k4-Un. a. {150}. Tliat 
which has the qualities of alkali. 

To Alkalizate, lU-kM'i^zite. ▼• a. 

To make alkaline. 
Alkaluate, &l-k&n^-z&te. a. ' Hat 

which has the qualities of alkali. 
Alkalizatioh, AMdUU.zd'ihJ^n. s. 

The wBL of alkalizating. 
Alkanit, il'k&-n6t\s. The naxneof a 

Alkekengi, ftl-k£-kdn'j6. The winter 

cherry, a genus of plants. 
Alkermes, &l-k£?ni^z. s. A confec- 
tion whereof the kermes berries are the 

All, ill. a. (77). The whole number, 

every one ; the whole quantity, every part. 
All, ill. s. The whole $ every diing« 
ALLyill. ad. Quite, completely; al- 
together, wholly. 
All-bearing, ill-bi'ring. a. Omni- 

All-cheerino, iU-tfli^Vlng. a. That 

which gives gaiety to all. 
All-conc^ ering, ill-conklc^-lng. a. 

(334). That whidi fubduet every tbmg. 
All-devouring, yi-d^*v66r^lDg. a* 

That which eau up every thing. 
All-fours, all-f6rz'. s* A low game 

at «irda» pkyed by two. 

4v .■-'•Civ 



■Jl^.^ >iw ., . AH health. 

MlU- nA»»- «- The 


iB4Lf 4ltMe'- s- A fpccics of 


'' f^-*lng, a, Tliai be* 
^^!-i*Miu44'. s. The 

«» are ftitiie for alt 
„ iUiHK, the fJccmid of 

, Poifeflcd cvf 

. . . _ . a- To mii one 

i&rul « tdi xfiflciMT, »o Mfc€ it jttttf for 
^piiPgK h to jam .uaj duof to anmlterr To m» 
^ : ki ^^Bani Cq ^mkCito paeUy, to 

«/ a II: ii^rd td r^'ini^ to ti»rdcn 

ihem^lt^ iiifF xa»y *^^ ny thing 

A;.!. -r. fp The pcribn or 

Uuug ^iu-ii tui iJi« pamtT or ^utlity of ai- 

t, :, aUi'mtnt. s. Thut 


, V, a* To atfirmt 
* ^ c'4-bL a. That 

^ L I , AMrJje'ituhit . s* The 

i,LkQ ixt iiiieaj<^^. i. He that aU 

J ^ : . V ^ . ase. s» 1 he dutj- 

Attic J lUcon* 

A , il.U-gar'riJt, a. Not 

j\i It, 41-11} In 

id« Alter 4X1 ftlkgnrkil m^ftntr* 
Ta AttfCfi*iii» AH^-r - - r a. 
T*> turn inii* lUt^orf^to f /ofy. 

II Ifitf tided thftt U not c<it)CiifTcu < 

nm " ^ ni < if inn. It <irl» 

Allflujap, AM£4^'t1 »• A word 

cf fpiritti»J eiuintton ; Fr^ife Ood« 
To ALLfcVijiTi, i*M*'v* 4tt. If. t- To 
njftke Ugh U to cijc, to fuftrtt. (91 u 

Ai*i,EtiiiTjott| 11 k-v^-A'lK'm. s- 'Hi^ 

1^ of iiiakiDi^ Vi^ht 1 thit hj fthieliiiif , 

Alle^ dll^. E, {lyo} A w^lk in a< 

garden % i paffjige in towm , nwrower ihMXk 

A LLt A»i c tf iUlt'^fift. *►• I'hc lUie of 

cfjfictc^ion with anodttr ^^ - 

Icfigtic t f^l**^'**'^ 1^7 ni*rri. 

any form of kin<tr<d ; I lit j 

eadi tjther. 
AtLicuNCY, iMilh'y^o *^> 

The power uf attraCiing. 
To A L LI GATE, ^'iii^g4t€. T. A^ 

tk <»tic ihicig 10 in&ihsF* (9 1)* 
Ai.triGATio*i, jU-l^-giVlMn* I, 

adfc of tytn^ ti^geiKcr; ttic Mrithxii 

thit lc*€hCT to «d)uft I he pri'. 

potjnd&, fdrmcd of iaw&il i ngrcdiiat ^ 

fcreiit value* 

AtLjaATOft, ^Ui-gi'o'ir. •. (fi*)- 
The fr&ciJtlik* Thii iinttie i* chtdiy ufed 
for the a-*^t6dilc *if America. 

ALttsioti» 4Uuh'iin, s, TheaSofi 
ftriking eni tlung aj^&inft aQotkcr. 

AtLiTiRATTOK^Al lU-cr-4'fhln. s.Thc | 

bcj(in^ing^ twft or niorr wordi w*t' 

kttcr to give ?hcm * ion of rhyi 

nance- foiuc^what dmiUr to the t»... 

of the Adje^ivc md fobftiulivc ia l^ann 4 

asd lifcd by the bcft wrUcr*. 

**Ttn: bookful blodthcad ignf»rsiittf fe»d 

<* WitB loadf of kaf ae<l lumber la hU head/ 

Allocation, lU^kVftrm. s. The a^l 

of potiidg one thing to tittjthcr: the admi^J 
fifln of in irtide in f cckoniajg, m6 addiiii*! 
of it to thi? itcount' 

ALLoctTi.n, 4i4<^ WlhM. I* Thi 

aa of fpciking to anathcr- 
Ali-odial, iUiyd^AU a. Not fcudiV^ 

AttooiuMi 4ll6'dA*Ctm* s^ Poffitdiq 



A L M 

-0* (559).— F4te, ftr, fill, ftt 

\^4d in abfolute indcpendeace, without any 
acknowledgement of a lord paramount. 
There are oo allodial lands in England. 
LLLOMGB, &14ilbdje'. s. ( 165)' A pafs 
or thnift witn a tidier, 
b Allo , 41-166'. V. a. To fct on, 
to incite. 

llloquy AllA-kw^. $. The aa of 
Ijpeaking to another. 

> Allot, 41-l6t'. v. a. Todiftributc 
by lot ; to grant; to diftri^ute, give each his 

LLLOTME11T9 il46t'mdnt. $. The part, 
the (hare. 

LLLOTTERY, lUAt'tflr-^ S. (SSS)' 

That which ii granted to any in a diftribu- 

!*o Allow, Sl-16{i'. v. a. To admit; 
to grant ; to yield ; to permit ; to give to, to 
pay to; to make abatement. / 

Allowable, &l-lou'4-bL a. That 
wjikk may be admitted without contradic 
tion; Uwiul^Bot forbidden. 

^LLOWABLbNESS, &l-16fl't,-bl«n^fs. ^. 

, I/awfulneia, exemption from prohibition. 
Allowance, ilAoh'inic . s Sandion, 

Uomoe ; permiffion ; an appointment fior any 

ufe, abatement £roni the ftri A rigour ; afum 

granted weekly, or yearly, aa a ilipend. 
Llloy. al-16*'. s. . ( 32 i. Bafcr metal 

miied in coinage; abatement, diminntioo. 
!*o Allude, ilU\de'. v. n. to have 

fome reference to a thing, without the di- 

reA memioQ. 
Uluminor, U 16'm6-ndr. s. One 

who colours or painti upon paper or parch« 

"^o Allure, 4HAre'. v. a* To entice 

to any thing. 
Lllorembnt» Al-lire'mfat. s. En- 

ticemeot, temptbtion. 
Illlurbr, il-14'rdr. s. (98). Enticer, 

Llluringlt, il4AVlng-16. ad. In an 

aUuriug manner, entioingly. 
Illlukingness, dUurl 

lilg-ntfs. s 
Ij^nticement, temptation by propofing plcA- 

ILLUSION, il-M'zhte. s. A hiiit, an 
implication. . 

ALLUSIVE, 41 lu'slv. a. (i58)'(428). 
Hinting at fomcthing. 
kLLusiTELv, '4l-la^slv-l^. ad. In an 
alluiive manner. 

LLLusfVFNEsa, 41-lii'slv-nis. $• The 
quality of being allufive. 

^LLUTioHi 41-l^v^i&m. s. T)^ car* 

— m^, mil j-^pine, pin 1— 

ryifl^ oC any thing to fomethin^ die by the 
motion of the water ; the thing carried by 

To Ally, ilW. v. a. To unite bj 
kindred, friendihip, or confederacy ; to make 
a relation between two things* 

Ally, &l-li'. s. See Svivey. One ■ 
united to foroe other by nuuriage, frieod- 
flup, or confederacy. 

^ A few years ago there was an afleA^tion 
of pronouncing this word,* when a novip 
with the accent on the firil fyllable ; an^ 
this had an appearance of piecifion from the 
general cuftom of accenrmg nouns in thia 
manner, when the lame word, us a verb, had 
tihe accent on the laft ( 49) ; -. but a ckder 
infpedioo into the analogies of the laoguoi^e 
ihewed this pronunciation to be improper, 
as it interfered with an univerfal rule, whscl^ 
was, to pronounce they like r in a fijaai ui^ 
accented fyllable. But whatever Wits the 
reafon of this novelty, it now feeros to have 
fubiided ; and this word is now generally 
pronounced with the accent on the (ecotid 
fyllable, as it is mixforn.ty marked by all tKe 
Orthdepifts in our Umguage. 

Almacantkr itl-mu. kln't «' r. s. A cir- 
cle drawn parallel to the horizon. 

Almacanier's Staff, al-mj-kW* 
tArz-lUf. s. An inltrumem ulcd 
to take obfervations of the fun, about the 
time of its rifing and fcttiug* 

Almanack, U'ma-nik. s. v. 84)- A 

Almandihe, di'm&n-dine. s. (149). 
A ruby, coarfer and lighter than the orien- 

Almightinfss, 41*n]i't^ nds. s. Om- 
nipotence, one of the attributes of Gixl. 

Almighty, M-mi'te. a. (84; (406). 
Of unlimited power, omnipotent. 

Almond ^'mund. s. ^401). The nut 
of the almond tree. 

Almondtree, a'mt^d-tr£^. s. It has 
leaves and flowers very like thofe of the 
» peach tree. 

AlM'Nds, ^'mdndz. ». The two 

•^ gbnds of the diroat ; the toafili* 

Almoner, 4rni6-ni^r. s (84). The 
officer of a prince, employed in thedifti^ 
bution of charity. 

Almonry, U'miiin-r^ s. The pbce 
where akM are difttibuted. . 

Almost, ^'mM. ad. (84). Neurlyt 
well nigh. , 

ALMs,imz. s. (403). Wbat U.giv«n 
in relief of the poor* 

Almebae&bt, iznz'bif'kljL. s. Tbe 



lube I 

«tr pot to 

i>il j— 2>6a«id I 

^tm'dUd. 5, A cliantsi 
f r ft. imy.*i?W-^ir s* He ibat 
i* An hof- 

- .. i*\ man w!jo 

rnutf tr^. s, A tree 




(90)^ Ellmca- 

^^vsK nfar«r wu, mb Ifcr wick b tKe 


'. A preciniis ttooti 

f f^rfcniM, of which tJit 

■ in gold ^ a Uec 

x t a fnfdkinal 



" 'MT', (iTO tiuT iiuf» tvvt.1 iiy l.lT. 

n^ and ui th«t 

m tJirec fyilahlc* ; 

-jbr a/v ki iwy 1)1- 

1 |iionqu«cc it in 


a. Confiil- 

I Aloft, Litdt\ ad* On brgb» iii the 


^^ A 

AL^fTt i h%{i\ prcp» Above. 


-], Smglc J 

Av«i*^^ «il. / *tu 

ill jj« At ^ diiUnce* 

A tow, 4**6'. ad. In alow pbcc, not 

lore ii4«d i» figitUy tl»e 


«^ 1 



ALI-HADlTrt AILV» .iij.j lU ' *' 
«d^ v\(cori!uij| In the firilrr c»! ■ 

tlii* itfffi Hi (iTi>f ; before the pre few - 

Almi, m^K iia* ($4). In tbf fuvc 

ritjftftrri }tk<wilit* 
Aliak, iliur. s. {R4) (58)* The 

place wlK^rc oT. Hmttn afiiMdf 

thr t.iblr ir 1 ; rdie* wllfv* 1 

cfunmumon i» 4*-.,., .,..,,., 4. 

ffrvaltrm<fnt f? <«a} obbiimii at ihc ftUtf « 
At TAt 'CLOTH, M'ttlr-clAih, *. 

dciib tlifown «yer ihe aIcu In chitrditt. 
IoAltfh, 4i'uir. v. a. (41^). To 

ihfinj^^jtci mtltje ^b^wif« thair it »• 
To AltkrjM'iA*. v. n, To 

fi(h^n»ff« than il waf,iobc f li»Kigi4, ttt i 

fcr chrtfjj^e* 

ALTEHAitLtp 4rtiir4<b].r a« Till 

which m3)f tic i^lecred or ch^iiged> 
Altirabline^^i il^ciir4 M-Q^fi; 
The q;ii«Jiiy ni bcing^ aJtcrtbt^. 

ALTEiAHLy, M't Hr-4'b U, ^. In fit eh 

E m*i»ner »§ may be ilv^red* 

which h*i the power of prfti!ti<ing chm^ct* 
AtTPii/iTirjN, fil'tAr-i'lhiln. H. llie 

Dvl of »lctru]|; at thztiptigi the cKiiigr 

cine* cilkd #''.— ■-. rr foch 31 haTe 1 
immrdiitt f<f nl. rfj, but gf a^yaJly 

^aiii upon the ^ .-..^l. 

AtTCRCATiots, il-tk^ir U'flitin. »- Dc' 

r^ ( Me of thii word. «nd eftht 

tia,LL. J' Jlfjw it, except MKnfj^^-ir^ 

fiihjtd to a double prtitiuiKJuiiun, hefwceti 
which U i» not ^^17 eafy t*i df cide- Tlicre 
it a gentfral rule in the languagF, th%t /, fnf- 
Iowt,<«l by ai leather confumttity ^ivri the ^ic- 
cedm^ a ici broad ff)ui]<t« ^ in Jdt* Thi* 
rule ii fttbjr<a la ttvcral CEtcptknii fS^U 
utid if wc tAc id t! ' ' -^ ' V- 

ccptirms, there ii foTi 

lion'- '^■i--'''*"'"'"' *^-i'- ..i ., u.^. l'..i tj.i; 

ii j; T^lly prfinouncfd, 

ai 1:. ' .. / : mihj^Miilhy^ ^C» 

that w£ OuMiid ritk the nupuritlon of %mt^ 
curacy to found tt of hen* ifc, Mr- tfhcri* 
dun, Dr* K<riir !r. Scoti, ape unU 

forrtily for tki? i of 4. Blr. Pcny 

A LtJ 


•A MA 

CO (559).— FAtc, fir, fill, 

marks all in the fame manner, except altera 
cate and altercattM ; and W. John{U>n has 
only the words ahercaiimt and altermatiw, 
which he pronounces in the former manner. 
It is certain that the fdrmer was the true 
Anglofaxon found, and it is highly probable 
that the latter has only obtained within 
thcfc few years» in words obvioufly derived 
from the Lttin as thcfe ace ; but. there feems 
to be a grofinefs in one found, and a neat- 
iiefs la the other, which has fo decidedly 
given one of Ihem the preference. 
Altbrm, al-t^rn'. a. (84) (98). Ad- 

ing by turns. 
Altfrnacy, 41-tir'ni.ft. $. (84} 

Adion performed by turns. 
AtTBRNATfi, 41-t^r'nAtc. a« (91). Be- 
ing by turns, reciprocal. 
To AtTKRNATE, il-tAr'nite. t. 
(91). To perform alternately ; to change 
one thing for another reciprocally. 
AtTERNATfiLY, 41-tdr'nfite-16. ad. In 

reciprocal fucceflion. 
Altbrhatbntss, ftl-t^r'nitc-nifs. s 

The quality of being alternate. 
Alternation, il-tdr-ni'ftiin. s. The 

reciprocal iuccefiion of things. (SSS)- 
Alternative, 41 tdr'ni-tiv. s. , 158), 
The choice given of two things, fo that if 
^ke be rejeded, the other muft be uken. 
Alt brnatively, dl-t^-'ni-tiv-U. ad. 

By turns, reciprocally. 
Alternativeness, 41-t^r'ni-tlv.nds. 
s. See Altercation. The quality or 
ftate of being alternative. 
Alter jiTY,41-t^r'n646. s. (98). Reci- 
procal fuccelfion, viciilitude. 
. Although, 41-thA'. conj. (84), 
Notwithftanding, however. 
Altiloc^encr, dl-ttnA-kwdnfe. s 
Vompous langaage. (98 \ 
, Altimetry, 4l.tim'm6-trt. s. (518). 
The art of taking or meafuring altitudes or 
Altisonant, 41-t!5'i>6<-n4nt. a. (518). 

High founding, pompous in found. 

Altitude, iU'ti-tude. s. Height of 

place,fpacemeafttred upward; the elevation 

of any of the heavenly bodies above the ho- 

/ riRon; fituation with r«gard to lower things; 

height of excellence ; higheft point* 
Altogether, M-t6-g^th'4r. ad. Com^ 
pletely, without reftridlion, without excep- 
Aludel, ftl'Ji-d^l. s. Aludels arefiib- 
liming poU ufed in chemiftry, fitted into one 
another without luting. 
Alum, 4n5m. 3. A kind c^ mineral 
•fait, of an add tafte. 

ftt ;— m^, m^t ; — plnp, pin ; — 

Alum-stone, 4nAm-ft&ne. s. A (lont 

or- calx ufed in furgcry. 
Aluminous, 41-16'md-DAs. a. Relat- 
' ing taalttm, or confining nf aliun- 
Always, kVwkzt. ad. (84)* Pcrpc- 

eoally; throughout all time; coofiantly, 

without variation. 
Am, 4m. The firft perfon of the vexh 

To be. 
Am ability, &m-4*bir^-td. s. (51 iX 

Ixyvelioels. (j^7). 
Amadetto, 4m.4-d^t'tA. s. A fort of 

Amaik)t» 4m'4-d6L s. (503). A fort 

of pear. 
Amain, 4.ni4ne\ ad. With vehe- 

mence, with vigour. 
Amalgam, 4-m4i'24ni. 7 

Amalgama, 4-m4rg4-md. j 

The mixture of metals procured by amal* 

gamation. ^84). 
Amalgamation, 4-in41-g4-Tni'flidn. 

s. (8A See Alteration.— The aA or 

pradfcice of amalgamating metals. 
To. Amalgamate, 4-Tn41'g4^ 

V. n. To unite metals with quickiUver. 
Amandation, 4m-4n-d4'niAn. s. The 

ad of fending on a mefiage. (517). 
Amanuensis, d-ni4n-&-^^sls. s. A 

perfon who writes what anpthcr didate^ 
A maranth, 4m'4-r4nM. f . The name 

of a plant ; in poetry, aa iroaginary fiowcr 

AMARANTHlNF,4m4-r&n7iSin. a. Con- 
fiding of amaranths. (150). 
f^ Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, and Mr* Kerry, 

pronounce the « in the laft fyllaUe of this 

word fiirat, as it is here marked. 
AMARiTUDE,4-ni4r'rd-t^de. s. (81.) 

Amasment, 4«ni4s'm&nt. s. A beap» 

an accunwilation. 
^ This word is ijpelled with one 9 by Dr. 
Johnibn, hut undoubtedly ought to have 
double s as well as cejfmait^ emUffmdtt^ and 
. tmbarraffment^ 

To Am AS, 4-m4s'. v. a. To colka 
together into one hit^^ or ma(s ; to add one 
thing to another. 

To A MATE, 4-mitc'. V. n. To terrify, 
to firike with horror. 

Amatory, 4m '4-tir-r^. s. {512). Re- 
lating to love, .sss^* 

Amaurosis, 4m-ita-r&'sls s. ($:to). 
A dimnefs of fight, not from any vifiUe de. 
fed in the eye, but from fome difiempera. 
tvre in the JBDer parts, occRfioniag w v- 

A M B 


A M B 

oA, mAve, ii6r, n6ti — Ukbc, tSb^ \Ml ; — M\ ; — p^^nd : — fMn, tni«. 




jniiafjtioii of ftia &9iS 4tifl HoiitJnglidnrv 

T A 1 Alt, 4*ni4ic', v, a. To confufc 
i..!i ttfiTor ( to put imo c^ofufioci with 
wt:n(U r ; IQ pot iota ptqpksi^^ 

A M * »^ . 1 -m 4 7 c V s . A ilo niihment 
*: J* 

A«^AEi;iiiitT, A ' ' cnt, s. Cotl- 

Uicil «p^cbe0iic r^e^. homkf s 

A ' * " g* P^t, a. Won- 

A ri '* ;^ I '^ f- t V , 4. I . - 'i.lnw;4i^^ ad. To 
AmdzoMt imi-T'^n 4, (166), Tlic 

r l^it wocid A^ d^ uctm eik the fir{l TjrK 
UliU^coutrafj toO*e Ljrtin or--J-ni which 
totk OD tic fccggi d; wliil 'ing 

If. ^f «# ira^A in«iciptki(X of wurdi, 

/*j « . * : 1 A nt, im^taiv^4c'* a. Em 
AiiBA - ink4)«l*'»A-d;^r. s, A 

pcgistr uttttUc tusnner frotD auc 

<r^^, , .., ij to a&otltcr* (4tS).— See 

rabiiCAdur; « wmiuiA f<ne 
AiiiAiJtae, Im'W-tije. s, (90). 

qmal|< irgii i fublbA^ oif » gumtnoiti ur hi- 

Am»i«^ UriMr* ^* OyniliVmg of 

.A c. 1- (I I a J. 

Mil bkit-^lM* I. Re- 
. 5. A 

Aiit}t£i:xrti, Im b^^d^^ti&r. s* A 
mm mmhmtepMfiU n^ of boi&i»ti 

01:1 . ! I P^^f difpuui* 

Ar4h(r>EiTivtiTYf ilm-b^-dc i-t^r'j 

t* The ^luiEt^ 111 ^iif hith ^lUkUy |« 1 

toth hiiiidi ^ 49uyt 4fe«liii^< 
AM»U!iixiiotit, 4iii^^ Jct'trut* ;i. 

Hafing, with (-au»tbatity < 

ANtii0£xtitot/s}iitit iiD-M'iiH'trAs* 
nds. s. Thei|tt;iUty of being ambi* 


Ai«Bii?4Tt blm^bWut, a, SarrottJK 

ttig^ tncomp«ffing , 
Amsiou, iini-b6 g^"i. K An rntcrtaiij 

mtttt conUiUtig of a medley tjf (itJhc:«. 
AwiaiGuiTif, f^-tr s. Doubts 

futudtof mc^ _ rtMiitjr of tigxitS* 

A Kt u I G 1; o c s» ^ni'Mg^iLi-^ A* a » Ooubu 

fui^ having two nifuitngi ; uiki^ dnubi/a) 

AwaiGuousLY, Am-bi ' ' . ad, 

if] an ifublgaoiu msH^utr^ ;. 

Ambtouousnesi, Ain 1 -, 5, 

Uncertainty of tticAning , ^ ■ MJg- 

Ambilogv, ajn^bil'lA^g^s t. (ji8). 

TUk of ambigiioui fi '' > n 
Ambuoq^' US, .' '.wus* a, 

U fiog tni biglioui erj^' r l Hj i 1 f i >- ^. J 1 8 > 

A»iiii, fimb^c s* The ct^mpaTi or 

drcuit of any thing- 

AMlll^to^FT ttm-bllh^An s. (S^?)* 
The dclkc *>f prefcrificnc tic hon*Mir ; tbe ^ 
lire of aoy th^ETj^ grc4t or citctlcfii* 

AMBittaus* itin-bilbWs. a (4f9)r 

5ci^cd or totifhrd with anihitiotf^ 4e&«M 

A M B I T 10 u St Y » Am- l>ifti'*\s4^- ad* 
With eagcnie^ vi advjyiceEicm or pffd^r* 

Ambit to ti s n k s St ^^ ^ bifb' us-ti^ a« 
The quality of bciiijsr ambitioui- 

Coflipsjifs cifcuit* 

To AMutE, am'bL V- p. (40?)- '^o 

move upoR an wnble, to pee | la trtowet- 

fdy ; to Witik daintily. 

AMbtf, iLm'bU i. (405}* An caff 


AMSLim, fljnT>lflr s. (9H). A pacer. 
A M n E. i N G t V , ii m blingl^ . ad* Wib 
an ambling mfiTcmrtrt* 

Th< imagiriiry fanA vl the gi>d*i the Oimfi 

of a plant. 

A M £ 


A !tf M 


O (S59)--^^t^» ar, fill, fit ;— m*, mdt ;— plhc, pin ;— 

1;^ Mr. Sheri^n basproooimced this ami the 

following word «M-^r«>-^aod am^br^^i. 

Dr. Kenrick has divided ihem into the Uaat 

number of fylkUes, but haa givoQ the * the 

flat arpiratioB,like %b. That thiais the true 

found, fee letter 5, No. 453 ; and that thefe 

words ought to be divided into four fylla- 

hlesj^ee Syllabication, No. 541,543. 
^MB&«>siAL, dmbr6'zh^41. k. Par- 

takiz^ of the nature oc <|oaUty of ambrofia ; 

Ambry, im'brft. s. The place where 

alms arediftributed ; the place where plate, 

and utenllls for houfe-keeping, are kept. 
Ambs-ace, 4mez-^e^. s. (347). A 

double ace, aces. 
Ambulation, am-bi-U'(hiln. s. The 

ad of walking. 
!\mbc7latory, AmnjA-U-t^-r^. a. 

That which has the power or &culty of 

walking. ^,51 a.) 
Ambury, dm'bi-rA. s. A bloody 

wart on a horfe*s body . 
^MBuscADR, dm-biis-kdcle'. s. A 

private ftation in which men lie to furprife 

Ambuscado, &m-bAs-kd'd&. s. (77). 

A private poft, in order to furprife. 
Ambush, din'b(^ih. s. (175). The 

poft where foldiers or aifaflins are placed in 

order to fall unexpedtedly upon an enemy ; 

the a«ft of furprifing another, by lying in 

wait ; the ftate of lying in wait. 
\mbushed, dm'bibilh-dd. a. (359}. 

Placed in ambuih. 
VMBusHMkMT, Am^b^fli^n^iit. s. 

Ambaih, furprife. 
^MBUSTjoN, dm-tAs'tfhi'in, s. {^6^.. 

Aburn, afcald. 
Vmel, itn'mhl. s. The matter with 

which the variegated works ate overbid, 

which we call enamelled. 
kMRK, 4'ii)dn'. ad. A term ufed in 

devotions, by whieh, at the end of a prayer, 

we mean, fo be it ; at the end of a creed, fo 

it is. 
y This is the only word In the language that 

has neceflarily two confecutive accents. — 

See Principles, ; 491). , 
Imbnablb, 4-m6' a. (405). 

Refponlible, fubjed fo as to be liable to ac 

count. * 

kMENANCE, i-m6'ninfel s, Condua,. 

'o Amend, &-nldnd^ v;*a. To cor- 
red, to change any thing that is wrong ; to 
reform the life ; to reftore paflages in wri- 
ters which the copiers arefbppofed to have, 

To Ambhd, lUmdnd'. v. n. To grow 

Amendment, S-mdnd'm^nt. s. A 
change from bad for the better reformatioo 
of life; recovery of health; in few, the 
cotredion of an error committed in a pto- 

A MENDER, 4-m^'dikr. s. (9a). The 

perfon that amends anything. 
Amends, k-rnhn^'. s. Kecompeci^, 

Am£nity, A-m^n'mfe-t*. s. (511). 

Agreeabienefs of fituation. 
To A mer c B, 4-mfirfe'. v. a. To pun- 

ilh with a fine or penalty. 
Amercer, i.mfir's^. s. {98% He 

that fets a fine upon any miideme^or. 
AMERCEMEMT^d-m^rfe'm^nt. s. The 

pecuAiary punilhment of an o&nder. 
Ames-ace, imez-dcc'. s. Two aces 

thrown at the fane time on two dice. 
Ambthodical, i-TsA'fh^dt'^-Vil, a. 

Out of method, irrcgnhr. 
Amethyst, dm'A^Mst* s. A precious 

ilonc of a violet colour, bordering on piur- 

pie. ' 

Refcmbling an ametbyft. 

Amiable, A'ni6-i-bl. a. (405). Love- 
ly, pleafing, worthy to be loved ; pretending 
love, (hewing love. 

Ami ABLENEss, A'^s. s. Love- 
linds, power of raifing love. 

Amiably, i'm^-dpbl^. ad. Sudi a 
manner as to excite love. 

Amicable, Arn'mA-ka-bL a. TaocI. 
Friendly, kind. ^-^^i 

Amicableness, im'ih6-ki-bl-ci^. ». 
Friendlinefs, good will. 

AMicAALYr liD'A-ldUbW. ad. In a 
fnendly way. 

4mice, ftna-mis. 9. (142). The firft 
• or undermoft part of a prieftV habit. 

Amid 4 mid'. 1 

Amidst. A-mldft'. • f P^^P- 

In the midft, middle; mingled with, fur- 
rounded by; among. 

Amiss, 4-inis'. ad. Faalttly, criminal- 
ly ; wrong", not according to the perfe^iiMi 
of the thing ; impaired in health. 

\missi.)n, a-milh'iia. s. Lofs. 

To A m IT, 4-mlt'. V. a. To lofe . 

Amity, im'm^.tA. s. (5M). Friend. 


Ammoniac, din.in6'ii^-Sk. s. (cocl 
Agtutt;afkU. ^ ^^" 



31. f S, 




— od, m6vt^ n6r, nit ;— tAbe, tflb, bUl ;— ^H ;— pAftnd ;— liin, THit . 

^VKcmiACAL, am-mA'lli'i-kdl. a. I The quality of being able to live in difTer- 
Hifzog the utnre of anupooiac bit, (506). | «tit eleminCi. 


Ammunitioh, liDpinA-nini'An^ s. Mi- 

AuMviriTioN BaBADt Im-mA-nlfli'dn- 

brdd. s. Bread for the fiipply of 

Amsestt, tm^o^s-t^. s. An a© of I 

Ahwhw, im^n^^^n. 1 

Anwios, 4m'n*-^. (166), J** 

The iimerinoft membrane with -vi^ich the 

fcetitt m the womb is immediately cmrered. 
• XitnwvM, &riii6'inftni. s. A fort of 

Amohg, a-mftn^. \ 
Amougst* a^iiiifrft'. J P"^P 

Minified with ; conjoined with •thert, fo as 

to malbe pazt of the nombcr. 
Amorist, im<4^Hi. s. An inamorato, 

Amorous, Im'o-rds. a. (544). Fnam- 
ouied ; natvaliy IncUned to love, fond ; be- 
longmg to love. 

AnioROTi5LY,4m'&.nis.I6. ad. Fondly, 

Amoxovsjisss, ibn'&>n&$-n^s. s. Fond- 
nefi, hnriagnek. 

Amort, A^mdn', ad. Dcprc/Ted, fpirit- 

AMoarizATxoify 4-in6r-t^z4'l 
ftftn. / 

AiiotTizsMKiir, d-mVtlz- f ®' 
m^t. J 

The r%ht or sft of translerring land* t» 

Amphibological, Im-f6-b6.16d'ji- 

Ul. a. (509). Doubtful. 
AMrHiBOLoor. 4in-f*-bM'A.jd. «. Difc 

courfe of uncertain meaning. 
Amphibolous Am-flb^bMAs. a. Tof- 

fed from one to another. 
^MPHUB«NA, im^is-b^-nt 9. (9a}. 

A ferpent fuppofcd to haye two beads. 
Amphitheaibf, im-f 4 /i*A'i.tdr. s. 
(ii6\ A buildiilg in a circular ot 6¥ti 
form, having its area cncompafled with 
rows of feats one above another. 
Ample, 4m'pt a. 405). Large, wide, 
extended; |^«atin bnlk; unlinuted, with- 
out reftri^on ; liberal, large, without par- 
itmony ; difiiiiivt, nee contraded. 
Amplinbss, dm'pl-nSs. s. Largeneft, 

ToAmpliatb, Am'pl£4te. v. a* To 

enlarge, to eifend. 
Ampliation, dm-pW-A'Aidn, s. En- 
largement, exaggeration ; difiufeneiib 
To Amplificatb dm'pIlP^-kite.v.a* 

To enlarge, to amplify. 
Amplification, im-pl4 ft-kd'fl)ilin.s« 
Enlargetnent, extenlion ; exaggei ated reprt^ 
Amplififr, am' b. (98). 

One that exaggerates. 
To Amplify, im'pl^fl ▼ a. (183). 
To dalarge ; to exaggerate' any thing ; to 
improve hf new additions. 
To Amplify, im'pl^-fl v. n. To lay 
one's felf o6t in diffnfion ; to formpompont 
To Amobtisb, i-ni6r'tlz. v.n, (140). Amplitude, iin'pld-tYide. s. Large- 

To alien lands or tenements to any corpo^ ne^ greatne{s , copiouihcis^ abnadance. 
^'^' . ^ Amply, 4m'pl4. ad. Largely, liberal- 

r:^! have made the bft fyHable of this werdf fy ; copioully. 
ft«rt,a«rafyto»fe^^ y^ AmpOtatb, 4lri'pA-tAtC, ▼. a. To 

tioB 9i k,«otoaiy beeaofe it is fo pronoun 

oeA\9fUt. Scnit aad Dr. Kenrick, but be- 

«ufc it isagreable to the general rule. 

To AnovtA^aM^c'. v. a. To remove 

from a peft cr ibtieo ; torenuyve, to move, 
to alter. 

To Amouwt, LnMnxf. v. n. To rife 

to ID the JccmilKive quality. 
Aii9crvT, i^ndiiaf, s. The fum 


Amoob, i-md^^r'. s. An affair of gal- 

l2«rr, Ml intrigue. 
-^«^«»«*otm im-nb'*-ds. a. That 

which ca live ia two dements. 
Amphzbiobsbess, 4m4Tb'd^.n«s.s. 

cut off a limb. 

Amputatiom, 4ni-pA-tA'fliAn. s. The 
operation of cutting off a limb, or other part 
of the body. 

Amulet, &fn'ft-Mt. s. A charm f a 
thing hung about the^eck, for preventing 
or curing a difeale. 

ToAmus^p, d-mize'. v. a. To cnter- 
tam the nnind with ^nrmleis trifling; to en- 
gage the attentatn ; to deceive by artful 

Amusbmbnt, i-mfwe'm^nt., 8. That 
which amufes, entertaiiiment. * 

Amusbr» &oiii&^zAr, %, He that amii- 

fet. • E « 




(CJ* {559).— Fite, fir, ail, fit J— m*, m^t ;— rplnc, pin;- 

Amusive, d-md'slv. ad. (158) (428). 
That which has the power oJF »mufiDg. 

A MYGDALATE, d-iDlg'dt-litc. a. Madc 
of almonds. 

Rcfcmbling almooda. 

An, in. article. One, but with Icfs em- 
phafis ; any, or fome. 

^ ThU indefinite, and, as it may be called 
tRe nfflomt article, i» faid by all oiii; Gram- 
marianftto be ufed before a vowel or b mute ; 
but no notice is taken of ufing.a iiiftead of 
,it before what is called a vow^el, aa a ufeful 
iiooi, a ufual ctretnonyya ufufery &C ; nor is 
any mention made of its conftant ufage be- 
fore b when it is not mute, if the accent of 
the word be on tfie fecond iyilable, as an he' 
rote a^icH, an hiflorical a$e<ninty &c. This 
want of accuracy arifes from a want of ana* 
lyzing the vowels, and not attending faffi* 
ciently to the influence of accent on pro< 
nunciation. A proper inveftigation of the 
power of the vowek would have informed 
our Grammarians, ths* the letter n, when 
long, is not fo properly a vowel as a femi- 
confonant,and perfedly equivalent to com- 
mencing y (8) ; and that a feeling of this 
has infeniibiy influenced tlie bcft fpeakers to 
prefix a to it in their converfation, while a 
confafed idea of the general rule arifing from 
an ignorance of the nature of the letters has 
generally induced them to prefix am to it in 
writing. The fame ebfervations are appli- 
cable to the b* The cas alone tells us, that 
before beroU^ hi/lorical^ &c» the €m ooght in- 
variably to be ufed ; but by not difcovering 
that it is the abfence^ accent on the & that 
makes tfii admiflible in thcfe wordf, we are 
apt to prefix an to words where the b is 
founded, as an borfe, an bmfiy Set* and thus 
fet our fpokcn and written language at vari- 
ance. This fcems better to account for the 
want of accuracy in this article* than a con- 
je&ure I once heard from Dr. Johnfon, that 
our anceftar£, particularly in the time of the 
Spedator, whett this mifapptication of the 
article frequently occun, did not pronounce 
the b at the beginning of words fo often as 
we do. However this may be, it fcems ne> 
ceflary to a corrcSncf& of language to make 
our orthography and pronunciation as con- 
fiflent as polnble : for which pnrpofeit may 
not be ufclefs to attend to the following ge- 
neral rules. The article ji muft ]>e ufed be- 
fore all words begmaiiig with a confonant, 
and before the vowel u when long>: and the 
article An muft be ufed before all words be- 
ginning with a vowel, except long u ; before 
words begtnniog^ith'i& mute, as an bemr^ an 
air, &c. or before words where the b k not 
mate, if the accent be on the fecond fyUibIc, 

as m btreie aShn, am biftorieal auwmt, Slc. 

For the few words in our lismguage where 
the <& if> mate, fee this letter in the Principkt, 

Ko^ 594 ; u)d for a juft idea of the letter «, 
• ' and fthe reafon why it admits of am before it 

when long, fee Principles, Ho. 8, and the 
Notes upon it. 
Anacamptick, 4n-A-lc4m't3k- a. 

Refleaittg, or refleded. 
Anacampticks, An-i-WLm'tlks. «. 

The doArine of refledcd light, or calop- 

Anacathartick, in4-W-/A&r'dk. s. 

Any medicine that works upwards. 
Anachorite, 4n-&k'A-rite. s. (155). 

A monk who leaves the convent for a meet 

folitary life, 
Anachronism, 4n-4k'kr&-nlihi, s. An 

enoc in eomputtne time. 
Ahaclaticks, an-^-kUt'lks. s. The 

doArinc of refleaed light ; dioptricks. 
Anadiplosis, &B4-dApl6'sis. s. Re- 
duplication i. a figure in rhetorick. (5»0> 
Anagram, jLn'd-grAm. s. A cnncdt 

arifing from the letters of a name tranfpofipd 

fo as to form fome t»ther word or Dentence. 
ANAGRAMMATisMf &n-ll-gT4m'ini- 

tlfm. s. (434). The aa or pnuSicc 

of makmg anagrams. 
Anagrammatist, ^n-i-gr&m'xni-dft. 

s. A maker of anagrams. 
To AHAGRAMMATlZB,^-4-gr&m'mi- 

tlze. T. n. (159). To make ana- 

Analepticic, in-4-ldp'tlk. a. Com- 
forting, corroborating. 

Analogical, dn.&.lMjc'e-Kl. a. 
Ufed by way of analogy. 

Analogically, &n.a.l6dje'^-k41-*. ad. 
In an analogical manner ; in an analogous 

Analogicaln ts3, &n-4-16dje'i-kil-n^. 
•w The quality of being analogical. 

To Analogue, 4-iiAl'l6-}be, v.a.To 
expl&in by way of analogy. 

Analogous, d-n4n6-gds. a. (ju)- 
Having anak>gy , having fometlung p«ni«l. 

Analogy, &.nall6-j^. •• (5»8)- ^c- 
femblance between things with regard to 
fome circumftances or e&db. 

Analysis, i-nal'R sis. s. (520). Afej 
paration of any compound into its fcftfM 
parts 5 a Cblatinn of anything, whether cs«- 
poral or mental, to its fiHk elements. 

Analytical, 4n4.1lt'tika. a. Tte 
which refolves any thing mto firft prina- 
plct: that fi^iich proceed* by annlyfis. 








^ ii6» wAtc, n6r9 n6t ;-^tftbe» tdb, bflU ;— ^11 ; — pbiind ;--isim, TMrt* 

The mMWHT ol rtfehnngoonyontKU into the 
wnip i c oofMnmcnt or cooxpoocDt pnrts* 
To AKAI.TZE, JUi'&-lize. v. a« To re- 

^Ahc a compoiiiid into m&ft priodples. 
AvAi-TZEty iUi^i-li-zib'. s. (98.) That 

wliidiliias the power of aoalfsioff. 
Anamorphosis, ftn-d-mdr-fo'sis. s. 
Befannatioo; p e rip c ^ TC projedioii,ibthat 
at ooe point of ^e« it ihsll appear ieform- 
ed,i& ancthcr an aatA reprefenution. 
^ 1 itsve accented this wovd on the pcsalti- 
mate, as I>r . Johnfinaad Mr. Sherktan have 
dfioe ^ ai it is a techniod word,an<i aot na- 
t«nlbcd\ike m et am tr^yU .^Scc Principies, 
Mo. $v^ 
ANASAs^i-ni'n&s. s. The pine apple. 
Anaphora^ &'ii&Pf6.Ti. s. (92). A 
figore wheniirvera] daalb of a fentcnce are 
hegm with the £une word. 
Ai/AiCH,in'iurk^s, (353)- An author 

AKARCRiALy d^r^k^4L a. Confufed, 

Ana&cht, in'ir-ki. s. Want of go- 
vanncDt, a ftaic without magiftracy. 

AxAsAacA, In4-ar'ki. s* (92). A 
foR of dixrafy, where the whole fubibuoce it 
flnfled with pttoicoes h amours. 

Anastkopss, i-nil['tr6-ft. s. (5^1 8). 
A Bgarc whereby words»which IhoiAd have 
been precedent, are poftponed. . 

Akathema, i-na/^16-n)4. s. (92). A 
ciafe pronoimced by ecdefiaftlcal authority. 

AHATHEMATICALf dn4-/^&-ni&t'£-ku. 
. (509 1. That which has the properties of 

Ak ATH EM ATIC ALLTf dll4-/iW-mut'6- 

kil-lS. ad. Inananathematical man- 

To A]rATHCKATiz6»ln4/;(^^-ini-tize. 

V. a. (159). To proRowiQe accnrfed by ec- 

ckfiaftical authority. 
AxATiF^&otTs, dn-ft-tiff^-rds. a. Pro- 

Amatocism, d-nit'tA-sizin. %. Tht 

accumobtifln of imereft upon intefelL 
AKATOiiicAL,in4-tdm'^-kdl. a. Re- 

Utiog <a bef ongii^ to anatomy ; proceeding 

opon pribdplet taught in anatomy. 
ANATOMicAti.]r4A-d-t6in'^-k21-U. ad. 

Is an anatooskal nanaer. 
An ATOM t ST, i-ndt'A.inlft. s. He that 

ftndksdie Ansdure of anhnal bodies, by 

To AnATomzEf ft-iiit't6-mlzc.'v. a. 

ToiBftdan animal; to by anything open 

diffi o fti y, and by minute parts. 

Anatomt, ft-n4t'6^in^. s. (518). The 
art of diileding the body, the doarine of 
the ftruaure of the body ; the ad of divid- 
ing any thing; a'ikeleton; a thin meagre 

Ancs«toe, fta^i^f-tdr. t. (98.) One 
from whom a perfon deJTcends. 

Ancbstril, ^'i^ltr^l. a. Claimed 

Ancestry y inTitf-tr*. s. Linc-^ge* a 
ieries of anceftore ; the honour of ddcent« 

AnchenteT) inc'tlh^n-tr^. s. Anti- 
quity of a family, properly ancieiKry. 

Akch.-r, tnk'ir. s. (353) (418). A 
heavy iron, to hold the (hip, by bcingr fixed 
to the ground ; any thing which confers la- 

To Anchor, 4nk'iir. ▼. n. (166). To 
call anchor, to lie at anchor ; to flop at, to 

Anchorage, &nk'i!^r4dje. 5. (90). 
Ground to caft anchor upon ; the andiors of 
a ihip; a duty paid for anchoriDg in a port. 

Anchor-hold, dnk'iir-h6]d« s. The 
hoM or faftnefs of the anchor. 

Anchored, ink'flr-red. part. a. (353)- 
Held by the anchor. 

Anchoret, &nk'6-r^ 1 

Anchorite, Sink'6-rice. (155). J ^' 
A rechife, a hermit. 

Anchovy, 4n-tih6'v& s. A little iea- 
filh, much ufed by way of (auce, or feafoo- 

Ancient, iae'tMnt. a. (542). Old, 
not modem ; old, that has been of kng du- 
ration ; paft, former. 

Ancient, inc'tfh^nt, s. The flag or 
ilreamcr of a (hip. 

Ancient, Ane'tfli^nt. s. The bearer 
of a flag, now enfign. 

Anciently, 4iie'tih6at4^. ad. In old 

Ancientness, 4ne't{hdot-n^s. s. An- 

Ancientry, &ne'tflidn-tr6. s. The 
honour of ancient lineage. 

And, And. conjundion. The particle 
by which fentences or terms are joined. 

Andtron, ftndl-i&rn. s. (417)* Irons 
at the end of a fire-grate, in which the fpit 

Androginal, dn-drod'e'^-nal. a. Her- 
maphroditical ; partying of both fexes. 

Androginally |dB-dr6dje'^'-nal-l£. ad . 
With two (exes* 

Androgynus, &n-dr6dje'6-nAs. s. An 
hermaphrodite. (4B3). 



A N I 

fl^ (559). — F&tc, fir, filli fit 5 — 91^, mit ; — phic, pin ;— 

Anecdote. &n'^k d6te. s. Something 

yet uilpubliihed ; ii^cret hiilorj. 
Ani'MOgraphy, an-^-m6g'gr4-fe. s. 

The ddiiaiptioo of the winds. (518). 
ANiMOMRTfR, in-^-m^rn'm^-t^r. s. 

( f 18). An inftrument contrived to meafure 

the wind. 
AiffFMONEt i-nhaf^-TiL s. The wind 

Anemoscope, &-ndm'64k6pe. s. A 

machine invented to foretel the changes of 

the wind. 
ANbNi. intot'. prep. A Scotticifm. 

Concerning, about; over agaioft,appofite to. 
ANKURif>M An u nzin. s (50. . A 

dffeafe of the arteries, in which they become 

exceflively dilated. 
Ankw. 4 n6'. ad. Over again» another 

time ; newlj^ in a new manner* 
^NFRACTUovsNBss, &n-fr&k't{h&-Af- 

n^8. s (461). Fmlnefs of windings 

and tuminga* 
Angkl inc'j^l. 6. ^542). Sec Orange. 

Originally a meflenger ; a fpirit employed 

by Qod in human affaiis : angel is fome- 

times ufed in a bad fenfe,as, angels of dark* 

seis ; in the ftyle of love, a beautiful perfen; 

a piece of ancient money. 
Angelas hotV Ane3£l-(h6t. s. Chain 

Angelica, ftn-jfi'^-kl s. (92). The 

name of a plant* 
Angelical, 4n-j^r£.k41. a. (so^)* 

Kefembling angels ; partaking of the nature 

of angels; belotfging to ai^els. 
Angblicalness, &n-jSri^kd!^ds. s. 

Excellence more than hnman. 
Angblick, &n-j^'llk. a. y,5o8). Ange- 
lical ; above human. 
Angslot, ftil'j^-16t. s. A'mufical in- 

Ibrument, fomewhat rdembliBg a lute. 
AwoER, iatfgiiT, s. (409} (98). An- 
ger is nneamiefs upon receipt of any injury ; 

finart of a fore. 
To Anger, 4ng'gAr. ▼. a. To provoke, 

Angbrly, ftng'gdr*^. ^d. In an angry 

Angiooraphy, An-j^-6g'gr4*ft. s. A 

defcriptioii of vdflels in the human body. 
Angle 4ng'gl. s. (405). The fpace 

intercepted between two fines interfeding 

each other. 
Angle, Ang^gl. s. An inftnimcnt to 

uke fiih,confi&igof a rod,alincaiidahook. 
To AiTGLE, ing'gl. V. a. To fiOiwith 

a rod and hook; to trftogatobyibineij^ 

finuating artifices. 

Angle-rod, ing'gl-r&d. s. The fiick 

to which the fiflxer^s line and hook are bung. 
Angler, ing'glAr. s. y^j. He that 

filhes with an angle. 
AnGLiciiM, ing'gld-slzm* s. An £n- 

glifli idiom. 
An COVER, ing'gA-bdr« s. (98). A 

kind of pear. 
Angrily, dng'gr^l^. ad. In an angry 

Angry, Ang'gT^. a» (409). Tj^uchcd 

with anger ; having the appearance of aa* 

ger ; painful, inflamed. 
Anguish, 4ng'gwi(h. s. (540). £x- 

ceifive pain either of mind or body. 
Anguished, Ing'gwiih-M. a. Excef- 

fively pained. (359)* 
ANGotAR»ing'gfl lir.a. (98}. Having 

angles or comers. 
Angularity^ ing-gti-]Ar'6<L s. 

Th^ quality of belag angular. 
Angularly, tng*gii I^tAL ad. With 

ANCuLARNEs$,4ng'g^i-l{ir*ii6s. s.The 

quality of being angular. 
Angulated. ang'gU4-t^d. a. Form- 
ed with angles. 
Angulous, ^ng'gA-Us. a. (314). 

Hooked) angular. 
Angust, 4n-g&fl^ a. (409) (98}. 

Narrow, ftrait. 
Angustation, 4n gAf.tiL'fliAn. s. The 

ad of making narrow : the fiate of being 

Anhblation, 4n«h^-14'fhAn. s» The 

w& of panting. 
Abhelose, an-h^l6ie^ a. Out of 

Anisnted, 4n'&^n-t£d. a. Fruftrated. 
Anights^ 4-nilea'. ad. In the night* 

AjjiLjinll. s. The (hrab from whofe 

leaves and (talks indigo is prepared. 
Anileness, a-nile'ns6. ? / x 
Anility, 4-nUli-t*. 5 *• l^^o). 

The old age of woman. 
Animablb, 4n'£-m4-bl. a. (405). That 

which may be put into life. 
Animadversion, 4n*^4n4d*v6r'fhtin«^ 

8. Reproof; fevere cenfure ; obfervation. 
Amimadvbrsive, 4n-6-m4d-v^'slv. a« 

That has the power of ja4giog- (438) 
To Animadvert, 4n-^«in4d-v&-t'.v. a^ 

Toconiidery to oUerve ; topafs cenfure upocu 
Adnimadvb&ter, 4h-^-in4d-v£r'tAr 

He that pafles ccalmib ttrobicrvei upon 




^«Uf Ai^ an'd-mftl. s. A living dec- 
lare, oorporcal ; by way of concempt, we 
&j a ftapid mao is an animaj. 

Akimal, An'^ndl. a. ihat which be 
loogs or nhtet to animalt; aDknal is nfed 
in oppofitios to ipiritual. 

AviMALcuLE, in-^m^'kule. s. A 

^ This word is derivc4 from the French, 

and forms its pkral hy adding j ; but ^is 

plural is fomctines eacprefied by the Latin 

word amimta/atimf which being miftaken for a 

fiognfar by thole who have but a faint xne- 

aiory oC their accidence, is fonietjmes made 

^tenlhy the change of a into s diphthong : , 

iKft It Qii^ttabc rcmefflbered, that Animai'' 

odr m tbt ^galar, makes animakuks iji the 

plaral, without aa^ addkional fyUable ; and 

that theilngiikr of ammde^ is mumaiculum, 

ANfMAtiTYy in^n:ii'^^ s. The 

ftKe of ansiaiaJ axicact. 
To Amimatb^ ii/^^inAtc. v. a» To 
^HJekeB, to maice aiire |to give powers to ; 
to encDiiFi^, to incitew 
AviMATi, i&'^-m&te. a. Alive, pof- 

fefinganuaallifiB. \.9l). 
Abimated. dn'd-mi-t^d. part. a. 

JLiwcif , Tigorooa. 

AniMATiou, in^mk^Qitn, s. The a^ 

of aoBoiating or enliTcning sihat which ani- 

mttes ; the fiate of being enlivened. 
AsiMATivB, in'^m^lv' a. (157). 

That has the powo: of giving Ufe. 
A11EMATOR9 ^^^-ni4*t^r. s. (521). 

That which gives li£e« 
Amimose, lA-^in6i«'. a. (4^7). FuU 

of ipint, hoi:. 
A«tMOsiTT,.in-6-in6f's&-t^. s. Vehe- 

meace of hatred ; paflionate malignity. 
Astsi, in'nls. $. (140). A ijpecies of 

apftim or patfley, with brg^ fwcet-fcented 

A«Kiii,4nV6r. s. (98) (4C9). A li- 

<|Didmca&re the iomtk part of the awm* 
Ankle, inkOd. s. (405). The joint 

which |oiDi the foot to the leg. 
A»t,liik1d-b6iie. s. The bone 

of Che ankle. 
Ahhalist, 5n'n4-llft. s. A writer of 

AarvALs, in'nilz.s. Biftorles digeded 
m the exa^ order of time* 

Amats, In'n&ts. s. Firft froits. 

To Aiciff AL» in-a^le'. t. a. To heat 
gMik tlat the oolaarslaid on it may pierce 
xhroQg^- Co heat aa^ thing in foch a man- 
ner mt»fffiwt k die trve temper. 

To Amwt^ Ibi-n^kA^ t, a. To unite to 

bt'ill ;-^oi! ;— p6t*:nd :— /Ain, Ti!i$. 

at t!ic end ; to unite a (mailer thing to 1 

Annezatiow, an-nc-k.6i'lhan. $. Con- 
jundion, additioD i anion* coalition* 

Annexion, An-n^k'fhjin. s. The aA of 

Aknexmeht, 4n-n^g'fn6nt. s. The 
ad of annexing'; the thing annexed. 

ANN»HiLABLE,dn-nili^U>bi. a. That 
which m»^ be pot out of exiftcnce. 

To Annihilatp* in-nili^-lite. ▼. 9. 
To reduce to nothing ; to dcfttoy ; to annul. 

fy' Engliihmen who hate been bredin foreian 
femioarics, where they pronounce the f in 
Latin like e, generally pronounce this word 
as if written Mfme-^late^ bccaufe they pro- 
nounce the Latin word from which it isde« 
rived in the fame manner : but £nglilhmen» 
educated in their own country, ponounce 
the i, when it ends a fylJable, with the ac- 
cent oa it, both in Latin and EngUib, as it is 
here marked* 

Annihilation, dn ni-h^ U'fhfin. s. 
The a^ of redvcng to Bothing, theftate of 
being reduced to aothlng. 

ANNivFRSAtv, dn-nfi-vir'sl.rf. s. A 
day celebrated as it returns in the courfeof 
the year ; th^a^ of celebration of the anai- 

Anniversary, dn-n^-v^r'si-rfi a. Re- 
turning^ with the fevdlutioB of the year; 

A\NO Domini, an'n6«dom'e-n^. In 

the year of our Lord. 
Annolis, 4n'n6'lis. s. An American 

animal, like a liaard. 
Annotation, an-ni-tA'fliiin. s. ExpK- 

caticn ; note. 
Annotator, 4n-n&-t4'tdr. s. (511). 

A writer of notes ; a ootnmentator. 
To ANNouNctt in-n66nfe'. v. a. To 

publifli, to proclaim ; ta dedare by a judi- 
cial fent£fice. 
To Annoy, dn-n6i'. v. a. (329). To 

incommode, to Vex. 
Annoy, dn«n66'. s. Injury, niolefta- 

Annoyance, dn-n^^'dnfe. s. ITiat 
#hich annoys , the adl of annoying. 

Annoypr, dn-no^'dr. s. ^98). The 
perfon that annoys. 

Annual. in'ni-M a. That which 
comes yearly ; that which is reckoned by 
the year ; that which lafts only a year. 

Annually, in'mi-il-U. ad. Yearly, 
every year. 

Annuitant, an nu'^-tant. s. He that 
pofleifcs or receives an annuity. 

A N S 


A N r 

Cjp. (559).— FAtc, fir, fill, fit ;— m^ m4t ;— pine, pin ;— 

Annuity, an-iffi'6-t6. s. A yearly rent 

to be paid for term of life or years ; a yearly 

To Annul, an-nffl'. v. a. To make 

void, to nullify ; to reduce to nothing. 
Annular, in'nft-larta. (98). Having 

the form of a ring. 
ANNULARY,&n'nu-li-r*. a. Having the 

form of ringa. 
Annulet, 4n'n4-Wt. s. A litde ring* 
To Anno MBRATE, 4n-n&'mi-ritc. v. a. 

To add to a former number. (91}. 
^NNUMERATicN, ^n-n^-m^-r^'ftiftn. s. 

Addition to a former number. 
To Annunciate, in-niin'flifi^te. v. a. 

T^brin|r«i<J««>g» (9^^) (357) (i9^)- 

Annunciation-day, dn-nAn-m^-A'- 

' ftfln-di. 6. The day celebrated by 
the Church, in naemory of the AngeFt fa- 
liitation of the Bleifed Virgin, folemnized 
00 the twenty-fifth of March. 

Anodyne. dn'6.dine. a That which 
has the power of mitigating pain. 

To Anoint, S-noint'. v. a. To rub 
orer with un^ous nuitter ; to confecrate by 

Anointer, a-n6in't!ir. s. The pcrfon 
that anoints. 

Anomalism, i-n6in'&-lkm, s. Ano- 
maly, irregularity. 

AN0MALisTicAL,l-n6ni-a-lis't^-]dl. a. 
(509)' fn-cgular. 

Anomalous, i*n6m'4-l&s. a» Irregu- 
lar, deviating from the general method or 
analogy of thinga* 

AtiOMALOusLY, d*n6m'4-lAs-U'. ad. 

Anomaly, &-n&in'4-U. s. Irregularity, 
dcTiattoo from rule. 

Anomt, in'iS-m6. s. Breach of law. 

Anon, &.n6n'. ad. Quickly, foonj 
now and then. 

Anonymous, 4-n6n'6-m6s. a. Want- 
ing a name. 

Anonymously, d-n6n'6-mi&f-l^ ad. 
Without a name. 

AwoRFXY, an'nA-r^k-st;. s. (517) 

AiTOTHER, in-(iTH'<ir. a. (98). Not 
the fiune ; one more ; any other ; not oae'« 
felf ; widely (Afferent. 

AvsATSD, ^s&-tdd. a. Having han- 

To Answer, dn'sftr. v. n. {475) (98). 
To fpeak in return to a queftion ; to fpeak 
in oppofition ; to be accountable for ; to 
gift an accoont ; to corrcfpond to, 40 fuit 

with ; to be equivalent to ; to fatiify any 
claim or petition ; to ftand as opposite or 
corrclitivc to fomcthing clftf ; to bear pro- 
portion to ; to fucceed, to produce the wxih* 
cd event ; to appear to any call, or authori- 
tative fummons. 
Answer, dn'sdr. s. (475)- That 
which is faid in return to a queflion, or po- 
iition ; a confutation of a charge. 
Answerable, in's^-i-bl. a. (475)* 
That to which a reply may be nude ; oblig- 
ed to give an account ; correfpondent to ; 
proportionate to ; equal to. 
Answer ably, in'sdr-&-bU. ad. In 
due proportion; with proper correfpond- 
ence ; fuiubly. 
Answerablene&s, &n's&r-A«'bl-n^. $. 

The quality of being anfwerable* 
Answer EK, SLn'sAr-(ir. s. (554)* He 
that anfwert ; he that manages the cMitro- 
verfy againft one that has wdtten firil. 
Ant, int. s. An emmet, a ptfinire. 
Antbear, 4nt'b4re. s. An animal 

that feeds on ants. 
Anthill, int hill. s. The fmall pro- 
tuberance of earth in which anU make their 
Antagonist, in-t4g'A-ni(L s. One 
who contends with another, an opponent ; 
contrary to. 
To Antagonize, An-tig'A-nlze. v. n. 

To contend againfl' another. 
Antan ACLASIS, int4-ni4cl4ys. s. A 
figure in rhetorick, when the fame word is 
repeated in a different manner, if not io a 
contrary fignification ; it is aUji a returning 
to the matter at the end of a long parcsitho- 
Antafi^roditick, 4nt-i-frA-dlt'ik. a. 

Efficacious againft the venereal difealc. 
Antapoplectick, 4nt.ap-p6-pWk'ilk, 

a. Good againft an apoplexy. 
Antarct ic K, 'in-tirk'tik. a. Relating 

to the foutbem pole. 
Antarthriticr, 4nt-&r-/Mt'lk. a. 

Good againft the gout. 
AhtasthmaTick, lint-ift-ml^tU. a. 

Good againft the afthma. 
Anteact, an'tA4kt. s. A former aA. 
Anteambulation, An*t£-inn»b&-li'- 

fbfin. s. A walking before. 
To Antecedb, 4n-t^-sMe'. v. a. To 

precede ; to go before. 
Antecedence, dn-tA-sA'd^nfe. s. The 

aA or ftate of going before. 
Antecedent, 4n-ti-s^dftnt. a. Go- 
ing before, preceding- 




AxTECEDENT, dn-t*-i^'d*nt. s. That 

fHkh. goes before ; in gnunmar, the noon 
to whiidh the relative is fubjoiacd. 
AiiTECEDEMTLYi in-t6-s^'ddnt*U. ad. 

AiTECE$50K, ^n-c^-sfts'sdr. s. One 

wlu> g(tes before, or leads another. 
AiTECHAMBiit« in't^-tftAm-biV. s. 

The chamber that leads to the chief ajwrt- 

oifltt. See CHAMBaa. 
To AifTtDATSy an't^-tUktc. y. a. To 

dau earlier than the real rime ; to date 

litmuihmg before the proper time. 
AnT&DILCVlAMt iti-t^ dd-l&V^4ii. a. 

Cxiftangbeftrc the defaige ; relating to things 
exiftin^ hrfore die ddiige. 
AnTtLOft, Iin'ti(-I6pe. s« A goat 

with cnrkd or wreathed horns. 


(394) (^^6) :j07)> Bang before noon. 
Amtemetick, int-^-mMk. a. That 

has rfiepoverof prevesting or flopping vo- 
Akteml^hoami, ia-t^-mAn'ddne. a. 

That vhidi was before the world. 
A»Tf ?a«T, &n'ti£-pa(l. s. A forc-taftc 
AKTiPEwuLT,in.t^pd-nftlt'. s. The 

AsTErtLErricKj int-5p-^-Wp'tlk. a. 

A Bcdidoc agaiaft convuUtoos. 
To A XTEP0ȣ, dTi^t^-p6ne. V. a. To 

prefier one thing to a2H>ther. 
AntbpaedicahKnt, ^n-t*-pr<i-dik'4- 

iB^Dt. s. Somethmg previous to the 

d«i6biDe of the preificaments. 
AniTEniouTT, lb-'^-r^4r'd-t^. s. 

Monty ; the £bte of being before. 
A«iEEiODK.» an-t^r^-ftr. a. Going 

f^ Now nore commoDly and better written 

ibrraroi. * 
AiiTEs, li/tfa. 8. Pillars of large 

dtwifitftcBi that ivpport the front of a build- 

Amtejtomich, dn't^-ftdm'Ak. s. A 

cavitj diat leads into the ftomach. (166.) 
A|iTHELiiuiTHicK» &o-^M-inhiVi&ik. 

a. That vbich kills wonn«. 
Anthem, in'(i^m« s. A holy ibng. 
AhTHOLocYy lii-M6r6-j^, s. (518). 

AeoOMoo of flowers ; a eolledion of de- 

voCfoof ; a eoHedioo of poema^ 
AsTKoafir's Ff»«, 4n'i6-nlz-firc'. $. 

A land of eryfipebs. 
AiTSftAx, in7i&rdks. s. A icab or 

Uouh whkh boms the ikio. 
Amtheopologtv ^n^<ir6*p6VA<j^. s 

Tit doftsinc of anatocnr* 

bftll ;— ^U ;— p6find :— ^in, THif . 

AwTHROPoPHAGi, lln-/i&r6-p6PA.ji. 9, 

Matheaters, cannibals. 
Anthropophaoinian, An^/iSr6-p6fll- 

jhi'^-dn. s. A ludtcroas word 

formed by Shakefpeare from anthropophagi. 
Ahthbopophagv, lin-/^r6-p<M'4-j^. s. 

The quality of eating human fleflu 
Anthroposophy, An'/Ar6-p6»'A-ft, s. 

The knowl^ge of Ihe nature of man. 
Anthypnotick, Ant hip-not^ik. a. 

That which has the power of prerentiog 

Antiacid, &n't^4s1d. s. Alkali. 
Antichambek, ftn't^-tfliAm^bi^. 9t 

Corruptly written for antechamber. Set 


Antichristian, Hn-t^kils^tihAo. a. 

Oppofite to Chriftianity. 
ANTtCHEiSTiANisMy in-t^-kHs^tfli^- 

Uin. 1. Oppofttion or contrariety 

to Chriftianity. 

Antichristianity, &n-t^-krlitih^- 
dn-^'t^. s. Contrariety to Chriftianity. 

To Anticipate, dn-tU'*-pAte. ▼. a. 
To take foracthing fooner than another, fo 
as to prevent him ; to take up before the 
time ; to foretaftc, or take an impreffionof 
fomethin^, which is not yet, as if it really 
was ; to preclude. 

Anticipation, Sn't1s.s^-pi'{h\in, s. 
The ad of taking up fomething befoic its 
time; forc-tafte. 

Antick, dn'tlk. a. Odd ; ridicoloiifly 


Antick, dn'tlk. s. He that plays an« 

ticks, or ttfcs odd gefticulattoo ; a builbon. 
Antick LY^ ln'tlk-1^. ad. With odd 

Anticlimax, ftn-t^-kll'maks. s, A 

fentmce in which the laft part is lower than 

the Jrft ; oppofite to a climax. 
Anticonvulsive, dnt^-con-vWflv, 

a. Good againll coavulfioos. 
Anticor, In't^-kdr. s.. (166). A 

ptetematnral fwelling an a horle*s breaft, 

oppofite to his heart. 
Antic OUR7IER, IUi-ti-cdre't(hiir. s. 

One that oppofes the court. 
Antido^^l, Sn'tWA'tfil. a. Having 

the power or quality of counterading poifon. 
Antidote, in't^*d6te. s. A medicine 

given to expel poifon. 
Antiecbrile, an-t^f(&b'rU. a. (140.) 

Good agaittft fevers. 
Antilogarithm, in-tW6g'i-rl/Ani. 

s. The complement of the logarithm of a 

line, tangent, or fecant. 




(t^ (559)-— F4te, fitr, ftlf, fat ;^ni6» m^t;— phie, pin ;— 

Anti MONARCHICAL, in't^-mo-nir'ki- 
kal. a. Againft govcrniiient by a 
(ingle pcrfon. 

ANTiMOHiALy^n-t^-myn^-al.a. Made 
of antimony. 

Ahtimonv, 4n't6-mi>n-^. s; (5s6\ 
Antimony ie a mineral fubftance, of a me- 
talline nature« 

ANTiKtPHRiTiCK, An-t^-Ti^-frlt'lk. a.. 
Goo<i agaiiift difeafet of the reint and kld- 

Antinomy, 4n-tln'6-Tn6. s. (518). 
A coutradl jfcioD between two laws. 

Aktiparalytick, 4n'c6-pir-4-llt1k. 
a. Efficadoufl againft the palfv. 

Antipathetical. 4n'ti-pa-M^t'^-kil. 
a. Havinga natural contrariety to any thing. 

Antipathy, dn tlp'd-//^. s. (518). 
A natural contrariety to anything, fo as to 
&im it inTolnntarily ; oppofed to fympathy. 

Antipsristasis^ 4n'td-p^-iis'^-sis. s. 
(510). The oppofition of a contrary quali- 
ty, by which the quality it nppofes becomes 

Antipestilkntial, in't*-p^s-tt 15n'- 
flial. a. Efficacious againll the 

Antiphrasi8, 4n-tirfri-sls. f. (519 ) 
The ufe of words in afenfe oppofite to their 

Antip. DAI, tin-tlp'6-d41. a. (518). 

Relating to the antipodes. 

Antipodes, dn-tip'6-d^z. s. Thofe 
people who, living on tlic other fide of the 
globe, have their feet directly oppofite to 

fy^ We frequently hear difputes whether this 
word (houldbe pronounced in fourfyllahles, 
as it' is here, with the accent on the fecond, 
or in three^ as if divided into an'ti'/tcdet^ 
with the accent on the firft fyllah]e,and the 
laft rhyming with abodes* To folve the dif- 
ficulty it muft be obfcrved, that the word is 
pure Latin; and that when we adopt fnch 
words into our own language, we fcldom al- 
ter the accent. If, indeed, the fingular of 
this word were in ufe likc/atcUfie ( 155 ' , 
then we ought to form the plural regularly, 
and prone unce it in three fyllables only; but 
ai it is always ufed in the plural, and is per- 
(cA Lathi, we ought to pronouipl it in four. 

** To counterpoife this hero of the mode, 
*' Some for renown are fingular and odd ; 
" .What other men diflikc is fure to pleafe, 
" Of all mankind , thefe dear aniipiks : 
** Through pride, not malice, they run counter 

'< And birth-days are their days of drefling ill.*' 
Ttuitg*! Lava of Fame. 

Antipopr, j^n'td-pipe. s. He tlinr 

ufiirps the popedom. 
ANTipTosfis, dn-tlp-t6's!s. s. (520). 

A figure in grammar, by which one cafe is 

put for another. 
Antiquary, In't^- kwl-r^. s. A man 

ftudious of antiquity. 
To ANTi^uATt, &n't6-kwAte. v, a. 

To nrake obfolete. 
Antiquatbdnbss^ Wt^-lcwA«tdd*n^s. 

s. The ftate of being obfolete. 
Antique, 4n-tddk'. a. (ii2\ Anci- 
ent, not modem ; of genuine antiquity ; of 

old faihion* 
Antique, dn-t^dk'. $. (ill). An 

antiquity, a remain of ancient times. 
Antiquen^ss, An tfi^k'n^s, s. The 

quality of being antique. 
Antiquity, an tik'kw^*. s. Old 

times ; the ancients; remains of old times ; 

old age. 
Antiscorbutical, 4n't6-fk6r.b6't^. 

k^l. a. Good againll the fcurvy . 
,Ant(spasi8, 4n-tWpi-sls. s. The re- 

vulfion of any humour. 
An Tf SPASMODIC K, An't6-fpiz-m6d'lk- 

a. That which has the power of relieving 

the cramp. 
Antispastick. an-t6-(^4s'tlk. a. Me- 
dicine which caufe a revuLfion. 
'ANTisPLKNr.TicK,an'tMpl^'6»tlk. a. 

Efficacious in dtfeaCes of the (pleea. 
Antistrophe, An-tis'tTo-f^. s- In au 

ode fung in parts; the fecond ftanza of 

every three. 
Antistrumaticr, in'te-ftrit-mdt'ik. 

a. Good againll the king's evil. 
Antithesis, uii-Ui/^'^-sis, s. Oppo- 
fition ; cpQtraft* 
Antitype, dn't^tipe. s. That wJiich 

is refembled or fiiadowed out'hy the type. 

A term of theology. 
Antitypical, •in-tife-tlp'^-kiil. a. That 

which explain* the type. 
Antivenrrral, ^n't^-v^-n^'r* il. a. 

Good againft the venereal difeafe. 
Antlrr> ftntlAr. s. Branch of a 

ftag^s horn. 
AKTORci,&n-tW'sl. s. (296). Thofe 

inhabitants of the earth who live under the 

fame meridian, at the Dune diftance from the 

equator ; the one towards the north* and 

the other to the fouth. 
Antonomasia, dn-t6-n6-m4'2h£-4. s. 

(AS^)' a form of fpeech, in which, for a. 

proper name, is put the name of fome dig- 
nity. We fay the Orator for CHcero. f 9 3 ' 




— B^ lO&Te, ndr, nftt ;*-tfibe» tAb, bAll ; — uil ; — pAund ;— /iUnp this. 

Aytu, in'tik. s. (416). A casern, 

AvTiL. in'vU. s. The iron block on 

which the finith lays hismctai to be forged ; 

2sy tfamg OD which blows ase laid. 
AviiFTY^dng-zr^-t*. s. (479) (480). 

Trauhle of miDd abotft Tome future event, 

k^AcJtJtdt i depreflxon, lowoeft of fpirits. 
Amious, ink'(h(ks. a. (480). Dif-, 

tnrbcd about femeoncertaiii event ; careful,: 

ffali of inqoktiide. 
AxxiovsLY, ink'ihCis-I^. zd. Solicit- 

Asiiouaimsst ink'fhds-A^s. s. Tbe 

(]vaii&:y of hong ansoas* 
Amy, ^'n^ a, ^S9). Every, \Bho- 

ever, wbitevcr« 
A OR 1ST, A'o^lft. s. Indefinite. A 

tenfe io the Greek hnpagt. 
AotiTAt H-dr'tii. s. (g2). The great 

artery which rifts nmnedbtely out of the 

left voitride of the heart. ^ 
AfAct, i-p^Ue^. ad* Qaick, fpeedily, 

A?AiiT, l-p^Tt*. ad. Separately from 

the reft m pbce ; m a ftatie of diftindion ; 

at a ififtasce, retired from the other com* 

ApA£rM£]fr,a*|iirt'fii^nt. s. A rooTD, 

afiit efrooots. 
A? 4Tflr, ip'a-#W. s. Exemption from 

Arc, 4pe. s. A kind of monkey ; an 


To Afe, ipe. V. a. To imitate, 

an ape imitatethmnan aAions. 
AF%jLt« i pike*, ad. In a poChire «o 

pierce tke grovid. 
Ap£psrt2p'^s& s. (503). A lofs 

of lytnrU coocoiSion. 
ArKKitKT, i-p^'r^^it. a. Gently 

A T EuiTiYi, l-p^^-tlv. a. That which 

baa the qn£ty af opcinng. 
ApEaT» i-pm^ a. Open. 
AP£aTio3i,ip^flidn. «. An open- 

iti|r,a p«i^fle,a gap^ the aA of opening. 
AP£aTLT» i.p^l£. ad. Openly. 
.^psiiTifK5%4-p4rt'c6s. s« Opennefs. 
ApEETPity Ip'dr-cihiire. s. (460). 

(463)* The ad of oiieiiio|^.taii open place. 
ApETAUwft 4.p&'A4&s, a. (314). 

VTidwai fiowcf-kaire^' 
Apix,k'ptts. s. ^The tip or point. 
Apha&iiii, i-feraft-sls* s. (1*4% A 

fifpot IB grammar Ait takeatway a letter 

'T iylbbJefrcm tbe begsofdng oC a word. 


w.ak.J ' 

\p HI LION, d-f(ft1c-An. t. Thact part 

of the orbit of a planet, in which it is at the 

point remoteft frqm the fun. 
\pHiLAj«THftOpr9 iP^lhi'fMmyt. ^. 

Want of lo^e to mankind. 
AtHOKisM, iif 6«tl7m. s. (503). A 

maxim, an unconneded poiiti«m. 
Aphoristical, 4f.o.ris't£.kdl. a. 

Written in feparatc unconnedcd fcntcncci. 
Aphoristically, ^f-<5j-ris't^-kdl-l^ 

ad. In the form -of an aphonTm. 


Aphrodisiacx^ affn2)-dlzh'( 

(45 1). Relating to the venereal difcafe. 

Apiary, 4'p^4-r^. s. (534). Tlic 
place where beea are kept. 

ApitcEy 4-p^^re'. ad. To the part or 
(hare of each. 

Apish, 4'pi(b. a. Having the quali- 
ties of an ape, imitative ; foppilh, afTc^ed ; 
iillj, trifling ; wanton, playful 

Apishly, &'pifh-ld. ad. In an apifli 

Apishrcss, Vpl(h*n£s. s. Mlmjckryp 

ApiTPATy 4-pit'pit. ad. With quick 

ApoCALYPARt a-p&k'i-llpt. s. Revela- 
tion, a word ufed only of the facred wrlt- 

Apocalyptical, d-pok-a-llp't^-kaL a. 
Containing revelation. 

Apocope, a-p6k'6-p^. s. A figure, 
when the laft letter or fy liable is taken away. 

Apocrv STICK, 5\p-6-kri'is'tik. a. Re- 
pelling and aftringent. 

Apocrypha, d-p6k'rd-fu. s. (qi). 
Books added to the (acred writings, of 
doubtful authors. 

Apocryphal, i-pok'r^-fal. a. Nojt 
canonical, of uncetuin authority ^contain- 
ed in the apocrypha. 

Apocryphally, A-p6k'rt.f4i-U. ad. 

AvocaypHALKCSs, &-pak'r6>f]|l-nds. &. 

Atodictical, ip-A.-difc't^-kil. a. 

ApoDixis,l^-A-dik'slf. «. (527). 

Apoojbom, ip-A-j6'6n. (517). 1 ^ 

Apoobb, ip'6*j^. (503). 3 

' A point in the heavens, in which the fun, 
or a pkmet, it at the greateft diftance poffi<- 
ble from the earth in iu whole revolution. 

A P O 


A P O 

a> (559)- — ^f 4te» ft*"» ^» f*t ;— mi, m^t ; — pine, pb ; — 

AVOLOGETICAL, 4p-p61-6-jfit'^-k^l. 1 

Apologbtick, a-p6Ko.]^t'ilc. j 

a. That'inhich U ijud in defence of any 

To Apologue, i-pin6-jiie. v. n. 

To plead in favour. 
Apologue, ip'A-lfig. s. (338) (503 >. 

Fable, dory contrived to teach fome moral 

Apology, H-p6r&-jd, s. (518). De- 
fence, excttfe. 

t. (517 ). The art of meafuring things at 

a didanc^. 
Aponeurosis, d-p4n-ntLi-ri'sls. s. An 

ezpanfion of a nerve into a membrane. 
Apophasis, d-p(^f a-sis. s. .( 520). A 

figure by which the orator feepis to wave 

what he would plainly infinuate. 
AP0PHLEGMATicK,4p-6 flSg'nid-tik.a. 

(5io\ Drawing away phlegm. 

s. A medicine to draw phlegm* 
Apophtwpgm, dp'6-/^6m, S-. (503)- 

A remarkable faying. 
Apophyge. u-p6f^-j6. s. That part 

of a column where it begins to fpring out of 

its bafe ; the fprine of a column. 
Ap' PHYsis, a-pori-sls. s, '520). The 

prominent parts of fome bones ; the fame as 

Apoplectical, ap-d-pUk'td-kal. 1 
Apoplectick* dp.6-pl^k'tik. J 

Relating to an apoplevy. 
Apoplexy, sl.p'o-plt^!>s6. 8. (517). A 

fndden deprivation of ali feniation. 
Aporia, 4-p6'ri£-i. «. (505) 19a). A 

figure by which the ipeaker doubts where to 

Ap'^rrhoba, ip^pAr-rd'i. s. (9a). 

Effluvium, emanation. 
Aposiopesis, i-p6zh-^-6-p^'sls/ s. 

C510). A form of fp«ech, by which the 

Speaker, through fome affedion or vche- 

mency, breaks off his fpeech. (526). 
Apostacy, d-p6s'td-s6. s. Departure 

irom what » man has profeiTed $ it is gene* 

rally applied to religion. 
Apostate, a-p6s'tAte. s. (91 ). One 

that has forfakcn his religiaik. 
A post ATI c A L, ap»p6&-t4t'^-k41. a. 

After the manner oi an apoflyto. 
To Apostatize &-p&s't&-tize. v. n. 

To forfake one*« reHgion* 
To Apostematr. a-p6s'ti^-m4te. V* n 

(91). To fwell and corrupt into matter. 
ApOstsmation, 4-p6s-t^TftA^fh&o. s. 

Xhegathering^of a hoUow purulent tumour. 



Aposteme, dp'6-ft6rae, s 
hollow fwellingy an abfcefs. 

Apostlf, ^.pos'fl. s. (472) (405 '^. A 
perfon fent with mandates, particufatjly ap« 
plied to them whom our 2)aviour dcpute<l to 
preach the gofpel. 

f!f Thb word is fometimcs heard in the pul- 
pit > as if divided into a-fo-fiU i the lecoad 
fyllable like the firft of /«-««. If the Iod^ 
quantity of the 0, in the Latiii ^p^mimj. Is 
urged for a fimilar length of the £ngH{h 
apofilt^ let us only turn to No. 537 of the 
Principles, and we ihall fee the futility of ar- 
guing from the Latin quantity to ours. If 
.thelicreafonsare not fatisfedory* it is hoped 
that thofe who are abettors of this fio^lar 
proAtinciation will alter e^if-tU into ^-^i-ftU. 
the fecond fyllable like fie^ and then thcir 
reafoning and practice will be untfarm. 

a\postlj:ship, d-p&s'fl-lliip. s. The 
office or dignity of an apo^e. 

Apostolical, dp-p5s-i6r6-kll. a. IDxi- 
Uvcred by the apoftJes- 

AposTOL)CALLY,ap-6s-t&r£-k&l-16. ad. 
In the manner of the apolUcs. 

Apostolic, dp-6s-t6rUk. a. (509).. 
Taught by the apoftles. 

Apostrophe, d-p6s'tr6-ft. s. (518). 
Id rhetorick, a diverfioa of fpeech to ano- 
ther perfon than the fpeech appointed did 
intend or require ; in grammar, the contrac- 
tion of a word by the ufe of a conuna, a» 
tho' for though« 

To Apostrophize, d-p6s<tTo-flze. v. 
a. To addrefs by an apoftrophe. 

A post u ME, ap'6-ftume. s. ($0^^^ A 
hollow tumour, filled with pnrolait matter- 

AprrHKCARV, d-p6/A'6-ka-r^. s* A 
man whofe employment it is to keep medi- 
cines for fale. (470)' 

f^ There is a corrupt pronunciation of this 
word, not confined to the vulgar* as if it 
were written Ap^cery. 

Apothegm, ^p'6^/>em. s, (503). A 
remarkable faying. 

Apotheosis, dp &-/M;i'-sis. s* Deifi- 

0r This woid, like M€tam9rpb^yham dcfcrt- 
ed its Latin accentuation on thepa^nUirearc 
fyllable, and returned to its erigiisal Greek 
accent on the antepeooltimate. Sec Princi- 
ples, No. 503, page 49. The other words 
of this ternu^tion, as Amadipt^^ .Atutptt/h^ 
&c. retain tne I^tin accent, though all thefe 
words in Greek have the accent on the ante- 
penultimate. This accentuation 00 theaR- 
tepenultimate is fo Agreeable to the geniu» 
of our own tongueJSGu it ia no woader it is 
fo prevalent. Johnfoa, Sheridan^ Kcnrick, 
Afh, Soott, JBucl{«ii«n,^Biiley, and ^enj- 

A P P 



— jiih mdvc, n6r, n&t ;— tibe, tdb, b&ll ;— 6if ;— p66nd ; 

kfe adopted it as I fiaTc done; aad 00I7 
Smidi, Barclay, and Eotick, accent the pc- 
w rt t MMte . bo eminent a poet as Garth ap- 
proves of tfae choice I have made, where he 

** AXbu the prince of hkceleftial Hue 
** An mfttke^tf and rites divine." 

A?OTOMB, i-p6t'6.nie. s. The rc- 
nuadcr or difference of tvo incommenfur- 
able ^oantitics. 

Afosem, ip'd-z^ziL s. (503). A dt- 

To A??AL, ip-pXll'. V. a. (406). To 
fright, to dcprc&. 

(If I>t. ]QhnfioQ teUs ns^that this word might 
mfsn proaeriy have been written Appalt ; 
and we fedBacwi, inhis Hiftory of Henry 
Vn. aAnsDy writes the compound AppaU* 
memf. Whether Johnfon foands his opinion 
upon the ^ coloor which fear generally 
proihices, oropon the derivation of the word 
from the Avoch Apfa&r^ it cannot be cer- 
cainly inowa ; hat this is certain, that this 
word has been feoftca rhymed with«tf,W/, 
/iff> &c. that fnch a change at IH, Johnfon 
recoBsncnda wonldbeattended with nofmall 
iocoa^Kmence. Ittnay be obfenFed too, that 
fpeHing this word with finglc ; as he has 
done, is at variance with its general pro- 
nundatic9:£Qr oDcA when final, does not 
hroadea thta Hfce chat in all^ but leaves it in 
the /bond of that vowel in fal-Uw, iaUUw, 
&c.^ Conlidering tberefiore that the pronun- 
ciatian of this word isfo irrevocably fixed; it 
is bot bof rowing an / from the Latin FmUn 
to make the ibond and the fpelling ezadly 
condpood. We are often foiid of neglcding 
the French for the Latin etymology when 
there is no occefity,— in the prefent cafe 
fi^c^ a piciierence would he commendable. 

ApPALENEHT/lp.pMrindnt. s. De- 
preSoa, mipreffioB of fear. 

A?PAifjiGE,ap'p4.iiijc. s. (90) (503). 
Lands fiet ap4rt for the maintenance of 
yooBger du&en. 

Af^AniiTci, *pp4"rA't^3. 1. Thofc 
x-iMOg* wfaich ire pi*»^4cd for the dccom- 
phUunesa: el my p^f pofe ; ;is the tool* of a 
rrade, the itaBifspc of a houle; etjuJpagc, 

A p f^AR EL, Ip-pViL s. Dress, veftutc j 

^ff^maJ hab^iaicnts. 
To *-v p pAK 1 1., ap-pir'^1 . V* a* To drisft, 

i -jodke J 19 cwver, or deck, 
A . f ifci^iiT, 4j>-pi'r^nt, a^i Plain, mdu- 
"^^^ feemlng, not re^l ; vtCiUe ; open, 
"'^-«ftnht; ctTtain, »ot p-cfumptive- 
Ap^AtimTi.T, ap-pA'rC-nt-Rs ad. Evi- 

A r^r 4«rrmji,4p>p^ rifli'AiL 5, Appear- 

ancc, vifibility ; a vifible objea ; a rpcdf^ 

a walking fpirit; fomething only apparent, 

not real ; t he vifibility of fame lominary. 

Apparitor, 4p.p^r'6.tiir. s. (98). 

The loweft officer of*the ecdefiaftical coUrt.^ 

ro Appay, 3lp pA'. V. a. To latisfy. 

Po Appeach, Ip-pitfh' V. a. To ac- 

cnfe ; to cenftirc, to reproach. 

Appeachmemt, fi^ -p^tlh'm^nt. », 
Charge exhibited againft any man. 

To Appeal, &p.p^lc'. v n. To tranT- 
fer a caufe from one to another; to caU 
another as wttneis. 

Appeal, ap-p^lc'. s. A removal of a 
caiUe from an inferior to a foperior coort ; 
in the oonimon law, an accufation ; a call 
upon any as witnefe. 

Appealart, ap-p4l1dnt. $. He that 

To Appear, dp-p^re'. ▼. n. To be in 
fight, to be vifible ; to b^ome vifible as a 
fpirit ; to exhibit one's felf before a court ; 
to feem, in oppofition to reohty ; to be plain 
beyond difpute. 

Appearance, ^p-p^'rHofe. s. The ad 
of coming into fight ; the thing feen ; fern- 
blanft, not reality; outfide fliow ; entry in- 
to a place or company; exhibitiAD of the 
perlbn to a court ; preience, mien ; probabi- 
lity, Hkclihood. 

Appearer, dp-p^'nar. ». (98). The 
perfoii that appears. 

Appeasabli, ap-p^'24-bi. a. (405). 

Appeasablencss, dp-pd'z&-bl-i>£». s. 

To AppaASi,4p*p^ze'.v.a. Toquict, 
fb put in a fiate of paacc ; to pacify, to re*> 

Appiasement, &p-p^ae-mtot. s. A 
fiaie of peace. 

Appeasbr, dp p^'zAr. s. (98). He that 
pacifies, he that gmets diihirbances. 

Appellant, dp p^l'ldnt. s. A challen- 
ger; one that appeals from a lowei to a 
higher power. 

Appellate, dp-pAlldte. s* (91). The 
perfoD appealed againft. 

APPELLATION) dp-p^4d'fll{^n# •• 

Name. "* 
Appellative, dp-p^rid-tlv. s. (1J7). 

A name common to 9S cttht lanie kind cf 

^aes \ as man, horic. 
Appellativbly, dp-pdlld-iiv46. ad. 

According to the mannef of nouns appeUa 

Appellatory, dp-p^l1dptAr«r£. a. 

That which contains an appeal. (jXft). 

A P P 


A P P 

(E5*{5j[9)— Fite, fiir,.fiill, fat ;—m^> m^t ;— pine, pin;- 

Appellee, dp-p*l-l^'. s. One who is 

•fo APPBN0, fip-p^ncP. V. a. To hang 

• any thing upon ancthcr^to add to fomeChing 

• asanacceffory* . 
Appendage, apf^'d&je. s. (90). 

SonKthbg added to another* thing, without 
bieing ncceffary to its.eflence. 
ApptNDA>iT,ap-pin'dADt. a. Hanging 

to fomething eUe ; annexed,, ceocomiunt. 
Appkndant, ap-p&n'dSnt. s» An acci- 
dental or adventitioui part. 
To AppENDiCATE,4p-p&n'd6-k4tc.v.a. 

(9j}. To add to another thing. 
Appenjdicatios, 4p.p^n-d^-k4'fkfln. s. 

(459). Annexion. 
Appemdix, 4pp^n'dlks. s. Something 
appended or added; an adjond or coocomi* 
To Appertain, ftp-pir-tine'. v. n. To 
belong to as of right ; to belong to by na- 
APPBftTAlNMEHT, &p p^r-t^nC'lH^t. S. 
That which belongs to any rank or dignity. 
Appertkmancb, dp p6r't6-n4nfe. s. 

That which belongs to another thmg. 
Appertinbnt, Sp-pfir't^-n^nt. a. Be- 
longing, relating to. 
Appetence, dp'pe-t^fe. 1 ^^ 
Appetency, ilp'pe-tfin-s6. J 

Carnal defire. 
Appetibility, ap-pfit-tW>ll'i'-te. s 

The q^uaiicy of being defirable. 
Appktiblf, dp'pt-t^-bl. a. (405). 

Appetite, ilp'p^-^^e s. (155). The 
natural dcfire of good; the defire of fcnfual 
pTeaiurc ; violent longing ; keenoc£» of fto- 
niacb, hunger. 
Ar PETITIONS, app^-tlfli'An. 

Appftitive, ip'p^-t^-tlv, 
which defircs. 

s. (507). 


To Applaud, ^p-pUwd'. 

V. a. To 
; topraife in 

praifc by clapping the hands 

Applauikr, dpplWddr. s. (98). He 

that praifes ot commends. 
Applause, ap-pl^wz'.s. Approbation 

loudly exprefiedl 
Api'LE,4p'pl. s. (405). The fruit of 

the apple tree; the pnpit of the eye. 
AppLtwoMAN. up'p -WLim-iin. s. A 

woman that fells apples. 
Appliablb, 5p ph'i-bl*a« (405). That 

which may be applied. 
Appliance, apHpli'lnfe. s. The a^ of 

applying, the xhiim applied* 

Applicability, ip'pl^-k^-bll'A-ti. s- 
The quality of being fit to be applied. 

Applicable, ap'pl^-kd-bl. a. That 
which may be applied. 

Applicableness, dp'pl6-k4-bl-n^s. s. 
FitneTs to be applied. 

Applicably, ip'plf-ka-bl5. ad. la 
fvch manner as that it may be properly ap- 

Applicatb, ap'pl^-kite, s. (9i> A 
right line drawn acrofs a curve, ib as to bi- 
fed the diameter. 

Application, dp pK-kA'(hftn. s. The 
aA of applying any thing to another ; the 
diing applied ; the a& of applying to any 
perfoB as a petitioner ; the employment of 
any means for a certain end ; hitenfenefs of 
thought, clofe lludy; attention to fome par- 
ticular affair. 

Applicative, &p ^I^-k4-tiv. a. Be- 
longing to application. (5 1 a). 

Applicator Y, 4p'pl^^k«l-tAr-ri. a. Be- 
longing to the aA of applying. (51^)- 

To • Appl«» d-pll'. V. a. To put one 
thing to another ; to lay medicaments upon 
a wound ; to make ufc of as relative or Ci- 
table ; to put to a certain ufe ; to fix the 
mind upon, to-ihady ; to-have recoorfe to» as 
a petitioner ; to ply, to keep at work. 

To Appoint, dp-p6int'. v. a. To fix 
any thing; to.eftabli(h any thing by decree ; 
to fumifii in all points, to eqnip. 
Appointer, ap-poin't&r. 5.(98). He 

thatiettles or fixes. 
AppoiNTMEitT, ^p-p6int'm^nt. s. Sti- 
pulation ; decree, eftablifhrnent i diredion : 
order ; equipment, furniture ; an allowanct 
paid to any man. 
To Apportion, &p-p6re'fli&n. v. a. To 
fet out in juft proportions. 

Ap PORTION mrnt, dp-p&rc'flifln-mcm. 
8. A dividing into portions. 

To ApposB,i^-pAzc'. V. a. To put 

Apposjte, ip'p&-zlt. a. (156). Pro- 
per, fit, well adapted. 

Appositely, ap'p6-zit-l)6. ad. Pro- 
perly, fitly, luitably. 

Appo8itbness» ^'p6-«k-n/^. s« Fit 
nefii, propriety, fvitableneis. 

Apposition, &p*p6-zl(Vi&n. s. The 
addition of new matter ; in grammar, th'. 
putting of two nouns in the fame cafe. 

To Appraize, 4p-prAze^ V. a« Toic: 
a price upon any thing. 

Appraiser, 4p-prtt'zir. s. (98). A 
perfon appointed ta fet a price v^aa ihiaf 

A P P 



-Tife» mivr, nAr, n tit ; t^i^c, t^b, b6!i;*«i^Lj ;^p^6Eiil:*^Mn, tmu. 

1 z*> v.n*: !*^ 


V a 

price itf 
w the 


■.{^ iip pjMUIl 

,.:F T.^-^.Tt- 

uc a|>i rthcrtdcil or 

■ C.i|11|«ti:^ 

i.j Ljy which 
rMrpicioJi of 


r»T/nMs, I, {140)* 

anf to ftTvc 

■ . oTidition th?it 

, iQ tihc mcfui time, cn- 

fum tit ht>ttrt* (i4ai- 
\ii, V* a. 


utp, 3. 

1. To ill' 
V, n. Td 

' 4^ time I 

T a» To 

LM jmicji ^ ill bw^ I 

<3ni»t^^ '^--' f ^ Til of ndYiDeicf . 

/\ r I" « Oil ctitAyHTf ii p^ pr€jt A ' m^o£4 >. 

ad of f"' " 1 LipfcfliniE hixiifdf {tIciI* 


A Ff it OOF, i<p-pr6<ii'', s^ Commemlsu 

Tn A t* r i a p IK qii a, ilp-pnV'plril'* r, a. j 

T^ draw te>. Nui iit uk« 
ApFROPiiiA&Li, dp-pi6')>rc-4-bK a. 

Th at whi c h may Uc u p n r* -t^r 1 1 r - ■ .1 , 
To ArriDriMTt, v. 

** (5(11* Trt ctiiilji^ii ' . f *if<f ! 

right ^ til ni^kc fj'. L J 
to Alii:QiiiEc A benefice. 

AppaoPAUTi) ip-pri'pt4 4ie. ii. 
( ^i ) . retuUiTt € ooiigncd m ibm< jnrtko- 

Aj'rEOfSiATiOKj ap*prM pre-i'fliOti, ». 
The apf Ijcjtloci of ftimethlng' to ipariiciiJif 

iif fbitie tti 1^ ._ . Jiap'- I 

irr» bilhopnck, or coikge* 
AppRorftiATOfi^ jippr&*pr^4'ttjir. s» 

irie ihmt b piiUclTcii ul an appropriated bc:-^ 

Appaotablk, iip-pfA<l'vi-bL a. That 

whidt eicrit^ Approbwiian. 

AprfiovAL, Ap-ptd6'v4l- I. Appto- 

AfffcovAJiCB, 3i|>prt*j<i'irAiife, s. Ap- 

prplMtioti. KoT m li/e. 
To A F p R o V E , il p- r r<i^ '» v', V . a. To 

l^ke^ to bf pl^aTctl ^nh ; tp rtpreft likinff : 

to prove, tg flaow ^ td cipcrteut* ; to null e 

Wfjithi' uf ;ipproh:it!ii>[l» 

A !» p m n V c %\ t N T , lip-pnldT'inthi t s. 

Approbation, liking* 

ApFRovj-it Ap-pniAViV. s. (9S)* He 

tliat appr£tve»^ he lilftt roakcf trml ; ki Uw. 
cnic th^t> touhffing felony ^ hmik^f^ ac- 
cuks another. 

To ApffcoxrMAT^t iip-pr6k%'€*m4te. 
r* n. [91), Toipproach, todnw nc»r Ifl. 

^ Thi* word, ai a verb, » not in johQi<»0 ; 
byt Its very frc^iufftit ufe among gond wri- 
ter) and fp«a1i«r* U a foffidcnl *i*thor*ry for 
it* iafertion here, triihoui thr Uoubic 01 
Searching !«» » pT<f*fe4eiJi^ 

A Q^U 


A R B 

cy (559)' 

Ap»fcOxiMA^TE, dp-pruks'6-mite. a. 
Near to. 

Approximation, ip-prok-B^-mi'ftAn. 
s. ApproabcH to any thing; coatinual ap- 
proach nearer ftill» and nearer to die quan< 
tity fought. 

Appulsh, ap'pAlfe. s. The zA of 
ftriking againft any thing. 

A»RicoT, or Ap&icocKy i'prA-k6t. s. 
A kind of wall fruit. 

0^ The latter manner of writing this word 
is grown Tulgar. 

April, i'pril. s. The fourth month of 
the year, January counted firft. 

AproNv ^'piVn. s. (417). A cloth 
hung before, to keep the other drefs clean, 
or for ornament. 

Apron, ^'piw\. s. (417). A piece of 
lead which covers the touch-hole of a great 

Apron'BD, ^'p^rnd. a. (362). Wear- 
ing an apron. 

Apsis, 4p'&ls. s. The higher ap{^ is 
denominated aphelion, or apogee ; the low- 
er, perihelion, or perigee. 

Apt, 4pt. a. Fit ; having a tendency 
to; inclined to, led to ; ready, quick, as. an 
apt wit ; ({Ualified for. 

To Aptate, Ip'tAte. v. a. (91). To 
make fit. 

Aptitude, ap'te-tide. s. Fitnefsj ten- 
dency; difpofition. 

Aptly, apt'16. ad. Properly, fitly; 
jullly, pertinently ; readily » acutely, as he 
learned his bufinefs very aptly. 

Aptness, ipt'n^s. s . Fitncfs, fui table- 
nefs; difpofition to any thing; quicknefs of 
apprehenfion; tendency. 

Aptote, Sp'tdte. s. Anounvhichis 
not declined with cafes. 

Aqua, 4'kwa. s. (92). Water. 

Aq^a*fortis, ak-kwi-for'tis. ». A 
corrofive liquor made by diililllng purified 
nitre with calcined vitriol. 

Ac^y A- MARINA, i,k-kw4n)i-ri'nd. 
The Beryl. 

Aqua-vit-e, ak-kw^-vt't^. s. Bran- 

Achjatick, ^-kw^tlk. a. That which 
inhabits the water ; th^ which grows in the 

AQUATiLE,4k1cwi-til. a. (145). That 

. which inhabits the water. (503'. 

AqufiDUCT, ak'k'w^-d&t^. s. A con- 
veyan^ made for carrying water. 

AouEous, aicwA-As. a. (534). Wa- 

Fitc, fa^ f^ll, fit ;— m^, mit ;— pine, pin ;- 

Aqueovsness, 4'kw6>As-n^s. s. Wa- 

Aquiline, Ik-wd-lb. a. (145). "Re- 

fembling an eagle; when applied totbe nofe» 

Aquosr, i-kwtfc'% a. Watery. 
Aquosity, d-kwos'^-t^* s. (511). 

Arable, ftr'&bl. a. (405). Fit for 

0" The a in the fiftk fyilable of this word 

hai the fliort found as much as if the r 

were dottble. The fame may be obierved 

off every accented « befora r, followed bf a 

vowel. (81) (168). 
A ran sous, 4-r4'n£-ds. a. Refiem- 

bltng a cobweb. 
A RATION, li-rA'flidn. s» The aft or 

ptaSice of ploughing, 
AratOry, ar'4-tAr-r*. a* {5 12). That 

whifch contributes to tillage. 
Arbalist, ^r'ua-rift. s. (503). A 
T crols-bow. 
Arbiter, ir'W-ti'ir. s. (98). A judge 

appointed by the parties, to whoCe decpr- 

mination they voluntasjly fubniit ; a judge. 
Arbitrable, ir'b^-rri-bl. a. Arbitra- 
ry, depending upon the wilL 
Ak Bi r ra M e n r , ^r- blt'tdl-ni^ot. s . 

Will, determination, dioice« 
Arbitrarily, dr^b^.trlr^-li. ad. 

With no other rule than the will; defpoti- 

cally, abfohitcly. 
Arbitrariness, ir'W-tri-r^-nfe. s. 

Arbitrarious, Hr-b^-tri'rA-As. a. 

Arbitrary, depending on the will. 
Arbitrariously, ir-b^-^^'r6-5s-W. 

ad. According to mere will and plealune. 
A R b 1 r R Aft Y, ^r'bMri-rfi . a . Oefpotick» 

abfolute ; depending oni no rule, capirici- 

To Arbitratr, ir'h^-trite. v. a. (91 ). 

To decide, to determine ; to judge of. 
Arbitration, ir-b^-tr^ftifln- s. The 

determination of a caufc by a judge mutual- 
ly agreed on by the parties. 
Arbitrator, 4r-W.triL'tiV. s. (521). 

An cxtraordiaary jndge betweet party and 

party, chofen by their mutwl oonfedc ; a 

governor; a prefident; he tHht ha» the 

power of a&icg by hi? ownc^Oice % the dc* 


ARBlTRBM6NT,4r-blt'tr^lB£nt.S. I>c- 
cifion, determination; compromife. 

Arborary, &r'bA-rt-r^. a. (512). Of 
or belonging to a tree. 




—nil mdvcy n6r, not; — rtbe, tftb, 

AtBo«tT»itr'bo-r^t. 6. A {xnsdl tree 

AftBo&isT, &r'b6.rift. s. A natural^ 

v^omikcs trees hit ftady. 
AuBcaous, &rl>6*TAs. a. (314). Be- 

AiLBouR, ir'Wr. s, (314). A bow- 

Akbuscle« &r1>A$.fl. s. (351) (405). 
Abj little ihnib. 

Aksotk, ir'bdte. s. • Strawberry 


Arc, &Tk. s, A feginent> a part of a 

Arcjjji, ^-kidc'. s. A continued 

ARCAKUM^b-U'nto. s. (503). (Plu- 
ral Are0u\ A featt. 
ARCH.drtfh. s. B»tof a circle, not 
taarc than the laU; a hi9diiig in form of a 
&gBaeBt of a eirde, uteA for bvidges ; vault 
«fhawa ; a ddef. 
To Arch, Artfli. v.a- To buijd arches ; 

Arch, irtfli. a. Chief, of the firft 

c^S «r«ggifc« mirtlifiil. 
Archahgei, kA'AneTj^h s. (354). 

One of tfce h^fccftonkr of aofcls. 
C^ Tie aeccDt k fixnetimes on Sic^ft fylla- 

hk, though ant £» prnperhr. 
AgCHAnGSLf &rk-ane'j^. s. A plant, 

Archangeuck, &rk-an*jdl1ik. a. Be-^ 

Ivigiiiji; to ardtaogeb. 
Archbcacoj!, * irtlb-b^lcn. 8. The 

chief phce olpro^ieA, or of fignaL 
ARCHBUHott irtfh-bKb'ilp. s, (354). 
Aluflsop of die firft dali, wlu> fuperinteodt 
the ooodad of ochpr blihpp$ his fuffi-agrana. 
AicKBisHOfaicx, 4rt(h-t>ifli'Ap-rik. s. 
The ftate, pRm^ce^ or jiiriididloD of an 

ARCMCHAMTsa, 4rt&-tfhan'tAr. s. The 

chief daoter* 
Arcrdi&cov, irtih-dS'bu s. One that 

&PfBa the hi&op's place and office. 
Archoeacomry, irtfh-d^'kn-r*. s. 

The offoe orjarifdi^Km of an archdeacon. 
AscH2>£AC0«SHUP> idrtih-d£''kn-iblp.. s. 

The office of as archdeacon. 
Arcadctkb, 4rtlh-diike'. s. A title 

pwm to ptkoaci Auftria and Tufcauy. 
AtcBoucMEss, 4rtih<l&t{li'6s. s. The 

^fttt m dng^tr ei the archduke of Auf- 


ARCHrsfLosorHBa, &itft-(%*I&s'6-fur. 
s. Chief phUofiDpher- 

bull J— 6il ;— poiund :— Mia, this. 

Arch PRELATE, iitih-prfil'Uic. 8.(91/ 
Chief prelate. 

ARCHPREbBvrER, uitfb prd&'b^-C^r. s. 

Chief prclbytcr. 

Archaiology, ilr-kit.6r6-ji. s. A dif- 
courfe of aatiquky. 

Abchaiologick. &r ki-6-16d'jik. a.- 
Relating to a difcourfc on antiquity. 

Archaism, ^r'kd-Um. s. (353). An 
ancient phrafe. 

Arched, h'lfhld. part. a. Bent in the 
form of anarch. 

fj" Wordi of this forin are collnquially pro* 
nouDced in one fyllable ; and thi« fyllable in 
one of the hariheft that can be imagined, 
for it founds at if written arttht, (3i9)* 

Archer, drtih'Ar. s. Hethatihoots 
with a bow. 

Ai^CHERY, irtfti'Ar-*. s« The ufe of the 
bow ; the ad of (hooting with the bow ; 
the art of an archer. 

Arches-court, 4rt{h'dzc&rt. s. The 
chief and moft .ancient confiftory that ho- 
longs to the archhifhop of Canterbury, for 
the debatiug of fpiritual caufes. 

Archetype, iKk^.tipo. s. (354). The 
original of which airy rcfemblance it made* 

Archetypal, &r-k£-ti'pdl. a. Original. 

Archeus, drkd'As. t. (393). A pow- 
er that prclideii over the animal occonomy. 

Archidiaconal, ir-ki di-Ak'6-nil. a. 
Belonging to an ardidcucon. 

Archirpiscofal, dr-k6 d-pis'kopdl. 
a. (354)* BcloDgiDg to an archbifhop. 

Architect, ur kc-tckt s. (354). A 
profeiTor of the art of building ; a builder; 
the contriver of any thing. 

Architectsve, in k<^.tdk'tlv, a. That 
pcrformt the work of arch itcdurc. 

Ahchitectomck, ur-ki-t^k-t6n'nit 
a. (509). Th-it which has the power or 
ikiU of an architcd. 

Architecturl, Ar'kt.tM'-tfliiirc. s, 
(461), The art or fciencc of building ; the 
e0cd or performance of the Icience of build- 

AucHiTBAVEtir'kL'-trive.s. That part 
of acolunm which lies immediately upon thd 
capital, and is the lowelt member of the en- 

AiicHivts, 3tr'kivcz. $.(3^4). The 
places where records or ancient writings arc 

Archwise, Artni'wizc. a. (354)- ^^ 
the form of an arch. 

ArctatioNi irk-t^'Ihftn. s. Confine- 



A R I 

«> (559).— F*t<» f^^ fl^» 
Arctick, irk'tik. a. Northern. 
Arcuate, ir'Wi-ite.a. (91). Betit in 

the form of am arch. 
Arcuation, ir-ki-4'ftifin. s. The 

96t of bendiii^ any thing, incurvation ; 

the ibte of being bent, curvity, or crook- 

Arcuba LISTER, ^r-kii-b&lls-tilir. s. 

A cro&-bow man. 
Ardency, ^'d£n-s^. Ardour, ea- 

Ardent, &r'd£nt. a. Hot, burning, 

fiery; fierce* vehexnent; pafltonate, affec- 

Ardently, &t'd^^^-l^- ad. Eagerly,, 

Ard^uRt &r'di!ir. s. (314). Heat; heat 

of afiedion, as love, ddire, courage. 
ARDuiTY)4r-d&'6-t^. s. Heighty diffi- 
Arduous, ILr'jA-iis. a. (293) (37^). 

Lofty, hard to climb ; difiicult. 
Arduousnrss, ir'jA-ds^fis* s. (293) 

(376). Height, difficulty. 
Are, ir. (75). The plural of the prc- 

fent tcnfc bf the verb To be. 
Area, A'r^-ft. s. (70) (545) (534). 

The furface contained between any lines or 

boundaries ; any open furface. 
To a read, i-r^d^ t* a. To advife, to 

diredfc. Little ufed. 
Are faction, dr-r^fdk'(hi)n. s. The 

ftate of growing dry, the zA of drying. 
To Arefy, 4r'r^ fi. v. a. To dry. 
Arenaceous, &c-6*n4'£hl!is. a«,(527). 

Arenosb, 4r-A-n6fe'. a. (527). San- 

Arenulovs, d-r^n'ii-liis. a. Full of 

fmall fand, gravelly. 
Areotick, &-r^-6t'ik. a. {534)« Such 

medicines as open the pores. 
Argent, ir'j^nt.a. Having the white 

colour ufcd in the armorial coats of gentle- 
men, knights^ and baronets; filver, bright 

like illver. 
Argil, ^r^U. s. Potters clay. 
ARGiLLACEOust irJlM4%As. a. Clay-; 

ey, confining of argil, or potters clay. 
Argillous, ^rjirids. a, (514}. Con- 

fifiing of clay, «1ayifii. 
Argosy, Ar'gA-s^. s. (503). A large 

Yefielfor merchandice, a carrack. 
To Argue, ir'gft. v, n. (355). To 

reafon, to oiSer reafont ; to pcrfuade by ar- 
gument ; to difptttc* 

fit ;— n)6» m^t ; — pine, pin ;— 

Arguer, 4r^gi!uAr. s. (98). A^rea- 
foner, a difputer. 

Argument, 4r'gu-m^nt. s. A reafon 
alleged for or againft any thing ; the fub- 
jeA of any difconrfe or writing ; the con- 
tents of any work fummed up by way of 
abflra<5l ; controverfy. 

Arc u MENTAL, drgii-mdn'tal. a. Be- 
longing to argument. 

Argumentation, &r-gf>mln-ti'fhiln. 
s. Reasoning, the z€t of reafbning. 

Argumentative, ir-gA-men'td-tlv. 
a. (512 . Coofiilingof argument, contain- 
ing argument. 

Argute, ar-gAte'. a. Subtile, witty, 
iharp, fiirilL 

A&iD, ir'rid. a. (81 )• Dry, parched 
up. — See Arable. 

Aridity, a-rld'd^-t^. $. (511). Dry- 
ncfs, ficcity ; a kind of infenfibility in devo- 

Aries, A'ri^z. s. The ram; one of 
the twelve figns of die zodiack. 

fToARiETATB, &-ri'^t4te. v; n. (91)- 
To butt like a rara. 

0* I have, in this word, followed Dr. }ohn- 
fon, in placing the accent on the fecond fyi- 
lablc, and not on the firll, according to Mr. 
Sheridan, and Dr. Afli ; but I do not very 
well know for what reafon, unlefa it be 
that words of this terminatibn derived 
from the Latin generally preferve the ac- 
cent of the original. See ptinciplcs. No. 
503» *• 

Arietation, iUrW-tA'flifin. s. The aS 
of butting like a ram ; the ad of batteriiig 
with an engine called a ram. 

Arietta, A-r6-^'td. s. (534). A fliort 
^» ^f^ogt or tunc 

Aright, ft-rlte\ ad. (393). Rightly, 
without errour ; rightly, without crime ; 
rightly, without fatlmg of the end dcfigned. 

Ar EOLATION, 4-r^-6-]&'(hAn. s. (534}> 

To Arise, 4-rize'. v. n. pret. ttrofe, 
part, arifen. To mount upward as the fun ; 
to get up as from ileep, or from reft; to re- 
vive from death ; to enter upon a new fta- 
tion i to commence hoftility. 

Aristocracy, ^r-if.t^k1cr&-ft, s. 
That form of government which places the 
fupreme power in the nobles. 

Aristocratical, Ar-rlf-tA-krit't*- 
k&l. a. (544)* Relating to arifto- 

Akistocraticalnsss, Ar-rif-t&-kr&t'- 
t^kil-Q^t. fr. An ariftocratical 
ftate. . 



A R R 

— no, mdve, nor, nit ;— tAbc, lAb, b^iU ;— 611 ;— poind ;-./Ain, this. 

Aa/TH«A»CY,a-rWm4n-fd,s, A fore 
teSiDg of future events by nuznbcn. 

AfiiTHMBTiCAt, ir-l/i^raftt'ti-lciJ. a 
According to the ruka or metkodi of afith- 

roetick. .5»7)» 


ad. In an arithmetical maoner. 
Arithmeticiam, 4-rW in^tifii'lb. s. 

A mafter qf the art of oumbers* 
A»iT«M£TicK, i-ii/A'm^^jIc. s. The 
idenoe of oombcrs ; the art of computation. 
it There is a fmall, hut a very geoeral devi- 
ation from accoracf io pronouncing thij 
"wwd, whiA lies in gi^isg the firft i the 
fcmiA o£ Ihort r, as if written m-etlmetick. 
As 1^ imccuwcy is but trifling, fi> it may 
be reaified vitkmt aay peat fingnhiity. 
Ark, 4rL <j.-..Sec An. (77 ). A veifel 
to fwini upon the vatar, afpally appHed to 
that a which VcA waspfdervcd from the 
mmncrfaJdc/age; the repo&tory of the co- 
waant of God irith the Jewi. 
Awn. inn. s.^^^t Art. The llmh 
whid> reaches from the hand to the ihoul 
det; thfhrgchooghofatrcc; aninl€tof 
vmcrfranthefea; power, might, ttsthe 

To Abw, hmu V. a.— See Art. To 
feniia with armour of dclbice, or wpapons 
ot obce; to plate with arty thing that 
any addibtagth ; to iumilh, to fit up. 

To Arm, Arm. t. n. — See Art. To 
caheams; to proride againft. 

AiMADA, ir.nii'd4. s. %ctLvmhago. 
Aoamtasiest ibr fea. 

Armadillo, kt-nA-dVLIb. s. A four- 
footed Buxml of Bralil. 

Armamimt, ir'ma.m&it. s. (503). 

Ahmatcae, Ar-mA'tfhire. s. (461). 

AMEirriin, ir'mfe.rinc. (149). J ^ 
Bdoopngto a drove or herd of cattle. . 

Armgaukt, irm'gint. a. (214)* 
Slender IS die arm ; or rather, flendcr with 

Arm holi, Irmtile. s. The cavity 

Boder the ihsrider. 
Armigeroi/j, ir^d'jilr.iTls. a. Bear- 

AtmiLLAjtr, Sr'*. a. Rcfcmb- 
J«g « bracelet.-* See Maxillary. 
Armillated, Ar'mil-la.tW. a. Wear- 


Abmwcs, irmOngz. s. The iame 


ARMipiTtafCR, ir-m1p'6^tefc. s. 
i'weriBwar- (518). 

ARMii»oTFNT,ir-mip'A-t^t a. fligh- 
ty in war. 

Armistice, ir'md-ftis. s. (503 \ A 
Ihort truce. (14a). 

Araalef, irm'lit. s. Alittle.irm; 
a piece of armour for the arm ; a bracelet 
for the arm. 

Armoniak, ir m6'nA4k. s. (505). 
The name of a fak. 

Armorer. ir'm^T-Ar. s (^57% He 
that makes armour, or weapons; he thu 
dreifes another in armour. 

Armorial, dr-m6'r* il. a. Belong- 
faig to the arms or efcutcheon of a family. 

Armory, 4r'mi'ir-i. s. (557V The 
place in which arms are repofited for ufc ; 
armour, arms of defence; enfigns armo- 
rial. « 

ARMOUR,fcr'mAr. s. (314)- Dcfcnfive 

Armour-bearer, ir'mAr-bire'dr. s. 

He that carries the armour of another. 
Armpit, irm'ph. 8. The boUow place 

, under the (houlder. 
Arms, krmz. s. ("^7). Weapons of 

offence, or armour of defence ; a ftate of 

hoftiliry ; war in general ; adion, the aA 

of Uking arms; the enfigns armorial of a 


Army, &r'm^. s. (482^ A coHeaion 

of armed men, ohligcd to obey their gene« 

rals ; a great numher. 
Aromatical, ir-b'jxAxft-VkX. > 
Aromatick, dr.6.mAt1k. (527;. J ** 

Spicy ; fragrant, ftrong ftented. 
Aromaticrs, dr-6.mdt'iks. s. (527), 

Aromatizatiom, ar-6.mat^.zA'fliAn. 

s. The adl of (centiog with fpices. 
To Aromatize, ir'r6-mi-tize. v. a. 

To fccnt with fpices, to impregnate with 

fpices ; to fcent, to perfume. 
Arosk, i-rAze'. (554). The preterite 

of the Tcrb Arxfe. 
Around, d-r66nd^ ad. Io a circle, 

00 every fide. 
Around, 4-r66nd'. prep. (545). ' 

To Arouse, S^r66ze'. v. a. To wake 

from flejp ; to raife up, to excite. 
Arow, 4-r6'. ad. {s^s)- In a row, 
Aroynt, 4-rdlnt'. ad. Be gone, away. 
Arqurbuse, ir'kw^bfis. s. A han^ 

Arouebusier, ftr-kw^-biis-^^r'. s. A 

foldier armed with an arqnehufe. (270< 
Arracx, 4r-rik^ s. A fpiritaotK 

Kqnar. O 

A R R 



(O^ (559)_Fite, fir, fldl, 

To Arriich, 4r-r4nc'. v. a. To fet 

a thing in order» in its place ; a prifoner is 

faid to be arraigned, when be is brought 

forth to his trial ; to aqcttfe, to charge with 

faults in general^ as in^ controverfy or in 

Arraiokmcnt, Sr«r4ne'm£nt. s. The 

ad o£arcafgning, n charge. 
To AKHANGEt ^r-rinje'. v. a. To put 

in Uie proper order for any purpofe. 
Arrangement^ ir«r^nje'in^nt. s. The 

ad of putting in proper ordecj the ftate of 

being put in order. 
Arrant, ir'r&nt. a. (80 (82). Bad 

in a high degree. 
Arrantly, dr'rint-W. a. Corruptly, 

Arras, dr'tds. s. (8j) (82). Tapcf- 

Arraught, ir-r&wt'. ad. Seized by 

Tiolenoe. Out of ufe.. 
Array, 4r-ri'. .s. Drcfs; ovderof 
' battle ; in law, the ranking or fetting in 

To Array, ir-r4'. v. a.. To put in 

order ; to deck, to drefs* 
ARRAYVRs,4r-ri'firs. s. Officers, who 

anciently had the care of feeing tht foldiers 

duly appointed in their armour. 
Arrear, 4r-rto^. s. That which re- 
mains behind unpaid, though due. 
Arrearage, dr-r^Vdje. s^ (90). The 

remainder of an4iocouBt. 
Arrentatiox, 4r-rdrf-t4^flidn. s.Thc 

licenfing an dwner of lands in the foreft to 

Arreptitious, 4r-r^p-tlfh'us» a. 

Snatched away ; crept in priTily. 
Arrest, 4r-rM'. s. Inlaw, aftopor 

ftay ; an arreft is a veftraint of a man's per- 

fon; anycaptioi^. 
To Arrest, dr-t^R^ v. a. To fetze 

by a mandate from a court ; to feizeany 

thing by law; to feise, ^ lay hands on ; to 

withhold, |p hinder; to ftop motion. 
ARRifiRF,ar-r^£r'. s. The laft body 

of an army. 
Arrision, ilr-rizh'fin> s. (45 1)* A 

fmiling upon. 
Arrival, 4r-rrvM. s. The aft of 

coming to any place ; the attainment of any 

Arrivance, ir-rl'vinfe. s. Company 

coming. ^ 

To Arrive, ir-rive'. v,n. To come 

to any place by water ; to reach any place 

by travelling ; to reach any point i to gain 
mi thbg ; to happcik 

fit J— m^, m^t ; — plnei pin ; — 

To A R rode, 4r-r6dc'. v. a. To gnaw 
or nibble , 

Arrogance, 4r'r6.gdnfe. 1 

Arroganoy, 4r'i>6-g4n-si. J ^' 

The ad or quality of taking much tipon- 
one*s ftlf. 

Arrogant, ir'ro^int. a. {81) (82). 
Haughty, proudi 

Arrogantly, ^r'rA-gant-lc. ad- lit 
an arrogant manner; 

Arrogantness, Ib-'n^gibitpn^s. s. 

To Arrogate, ^r'r^-g4te. v. a..{9i). 
To claim vainly ; to exhibit unjoft claims. 

Arrogation, dr-r6-g&'ih(^n. s. A 
claiming in a proud manner. 

Arrosion, ar-rA'zh^n. s. (451). A 

Arrow, ir'ri. s. (327). The pointed 
weapon whichis^fhot from a bow. ^ 

Arrowhead, ^r^rA-h£d. s. A water 

'Arrowy, Ar'tA-fi. a, Confifting of 

Arse, kfCt. s. The buttocks: 

Arsb-foot, &rs'f&t. s. A Jtmd of 
water fowl. 

Arse-smart, irsTmirt. s. A plant. 

Arsenal, 3:r's^-nU. s. A rcpofitor)- 
of thingB requifitc to war, a magastoc. 

Arsenical, ^r-sto'^kiil. a. Contain- 
ing atfcnick* 

Arse NICK, &rfe'nik. s. A mmeralfub- 
CUince ; a violent corrofive poifon* 

Art, &rt. s. (77). ITic power of do- 
ing fomething not Uught by naiture wad. in- 
OtmA ; a fcicncc, as the liberal arts ; a tzsule ; 
artfiilnefs, (kill, dexterity ; cunning. 

0^ As a before r, followed by a vowel, baa 
the (hort or fourth found, fo when it is fol- 
lowed bj^a confonant it has the long or fc* 
condfoufld. See Arabu, (^8t) (168). 

Arterial, ir-t^'r^Al. a. That which 
relates to the artery, that which is contained 
in the artery.. 

Artbriotomy, ir-t^r^-it'tA-m^ s. 
The operation of letting blood from the ar- 
tery ; th£ cutting of an artery, (518). 

Artery, Ar'tiir-6. s. {sS$)* An 
artery is a conical, canal, conveying the 
blood from the heart to all parts m xh- 
body. ^ 

Artful, a.rt'f&l. a. (174). Per- 
formed with art ; artifleial, not amtaral 
cutming, ikilful, dexterous. 

Artfully, &n'Kil-l^. ad ^ With art. 


A R T 


A S C 

» DO) mdrc, nor, not ; — tibe, tAb, bftll ;— 611 ;~pAind ;— ^i^in, thi&. 

AirFDL«£4s, anTid-n^s. s. Skill, 

AfTHKiTicK, ir-Mrk'ik. (509). \ 
Ahthritical, ir^Ark'*-kAl. j ' 
Gouty, rehtjog to the goat ; Pelsti^ to 


Artichoke, ir't^-tlhike, s. This 

pbat a very like the -thiftle, bat hath large 

kaif beads flipped like the cone of the pine 


Abtick, ir'tik. a. properly Arctic. 

Article, kr'i^ kL a. (405). A part 
-of ^cch, Mtkc, 20 ; a ^gle-daiifc of an 
xccNHft, a particular part of any complex 
thing ; term, ftjpoiataoa ; point of time, ex- 
aft time* 
To Article, kt'U.kl v. 
To fiipiilate, to make terms. 
Akticvlam, ir-tjk'u-lib-, a. Belong- 
ing to the joibcsl 
ARTicDLiiTB. ^-tSk^A-litc. a. (91). 

Di&ia£t ; branched ont ioco articles. 
To Articulate, ir-tik'6-Utc. v. a. 
(91 ^. To fotin words, to fpcak as a man ; 
to^iaw ap in articles ; to nraikc terms. 
AKTicuLATtLY, ir-tik't-lite-l*. ad. 

ARTicyLATEwi«,ir.tik'4-litc-n&. s. 

'fie ^nalfcy of being articulate. 

AHTicirLAnoM, i^T.tik-A-14'fliAn. s. 

The JBBdore, or joint of bones; the zA of 

femnng Words ; io botany, the joints in 


Artiuce, ir't4.fis. s. (142). Trick, 

irand, firatagem ; art, trade. 
Artificcr, ar-tjpf6-sdr. s. (98). 
M artift, a laamufcrtrBfer ; iorgcr, a con- 
trtfcr ; adexteMQf or artful feUow. 
Art/ficui., kr<i^r\fh'iil, a. Made by 
art, not natnral; fiAitioii8,oot genuiilt ; ait- 
f^ caaairedwkh fldlL 
Artiticullt, ir-td-fifh'Al-l^. adL 
ActfeQy, wish (kin, with good contrivance ; 
by art, not mcaraSy. 
Artifkialsess, ir.t*-flfli'41-n&. s. 

Artillery, irtUlflr-r^. s. C555)- 
Weapowofmr; casmon, great ordnance. 

ARTiSAH, ir-t^.zdn^ s. (528). Artift, 
pcttfeflbr 0/ as art ; noanafaAurer, low 

AiTisT, Artift. s. The profcflbr of 
a«t \ a ftSfalnuti, not anovice. 

A&TLEssLY« &rt^^l6. ad. Io an art- 
Jdamvaer, naturally, SnaxtSj, 

AftTLEis, ftitlSs. a. Uofldlfiilywith- 



out fraud, as aa artlefs maid; contritcd 
without ikill,as an artlefs tale. 

ToArtuati, Ar'tftiWte. 1^. a 
(461). To tear limb from limb. 

ARt7NDiKACiotr«, 4-rilkn-de-nA'ni56. 
Of or Kke reeds, (ana). 

Arunoineous, ar-iki-dln'^-6f. 
Abounding with coeds. 

As, iz. coDjttnft. (423). In the fame 
manner with fometbing elfe ; like, of the 
hme kind with ; in the ftme degree with ; 
as if, is theiame nunner ; "*• it were, in 
ibme fort ; while, at the fame tkne that ; 
e4{ually ; how, in what manner ; with, aiw 
fevering to like or &arie ; in a reciprocal 
fenfe, anfwering to As; anfwering to Such; 
having fo to anfwcr it, in the conditional 
feafe ; anfwering to So conditionally ; At 
for, with rcfpca to ; Aa to, with rcfped to ; 
As well ak, qt^uaUy with ; As though, as d, 

Ajafoetida, if-s^f&t'^-diL s, A 
gmn or refin fought from the Eaft Indies, 
of a (harp tafte and a llrong offenfive fmell. 

AsARABACCA,tf-sWa-b^'kA. s. The 
name of a plairt. 

Asbestine, izA>h't\n, a. {140). 
Something incomboftible* 

Asbestos, dz-b^s'tCis. s. (166). A 
fort of native foflile ftone, which may be 
fplit into threads and filaments, from one 
inch to ten inches in length, very nne« 
brittle, yet fomewhat tradable. It is en* 
dued with the wonderful property of »• 
maining uuconfumedin the fit e, which only 
whitens it. 

AscAAinssy iSkir'^-dhz^ s. Little 
worms in the redum. 

To A^eno, ^'^Ifidf. V. n. To 
mount upwards; to proceed from one degree 
of knowledge to another ; to Hand tiigher 
in genealogy. 

To Ascend* if-s^nd'. v. a. To climb 
^ any thing. 

Ascendant, df-s^n'dant. s. . The 
part^f the ecliptick at any particular time 
above the horizon, which is fuppofed by af- 
trokigera to liavc great influence ; height, 
elevation; fuperiority, influence; one of the 
degrees of kindred reckoned upwards. 

Ascendant, 4f-s^n'ddnt. a. Supe- 
rior, predominant, overpowering ; in an af- 
troiogical fenfe, above the horizon. 

Ascendency, &f s^n'd^n-s^ s. Influ- 
ence, power. 

Ascension, af-s4n'(h^n. s. (45O- 
The ad of ^^dii^ or riGng; the viiible 

. elevation or our Saviour to Heaven ; the 
thing lifiog or sunisting* 




(d^ (559).— F4tc, ar, fall, f^t;— m^ m^t;— pine pln;~ 

On (borct 

Ascension Day, af-sdn'fhi'iii-dd'. s. 
> 1*hc daj' on which the afccnfion of our Sa- 
viour IS commemon^d, commonly called 
Hoh 1 hurfday, the Thurfday but one be- 
fore Whitfantidc. 

As'".«f^5ivr, if-s^nViv, a. (158). In a 
ftate of afcent. 


fis^nt'. s. Rife, the ad of 

rifing ; the way by which one afccnds ; an 
cmincDFe, or high place. 

To A:>cEkiAiN, Jifsdr-tine^ v. a. 
To make certain, to fix, to eftabliih; to make 

Asc^i-TAiNFR,&f-sdr-ti'n'5r. s. The 
perfon that proves or eftaWiflics. 

AsrERTAiNMEMT, fif-sfir-tAne'iii^nt. s. 
A fettled rule ; a (landard.^t'ik. a. (909). Em- 
ployed wholly in exercifes of devotion and 

AscTFCK, ilf-s^t'ik. s. He that retires 
to devotion, a hermit. 

Ascites, af-si'tez. s. A particular 
fpccics of dropfy, a fwelUng of the lower 
bcLiy and depending parts, from an extra- 
vafMion of water. 

AsicuCAL. af-sic'c-kal. 1^ /.^-\ 

AsciTi.K 4s.sit'ik. 5^- ^5^7)- 

Dropfical, hydropical. 

AsciTJTious, af-s^ tifh'As. a. Sup- 
plemental, additional. , 

AscAiB.Hi.! , ^s-ikri'bS-bl, a. (405). 
That which may be afcribed. 

To Asau3K, a-kribe'. v. a. To attri- 
bute to as a caufe ; to attribute to as a pof- 

Ascription, ^-krip'ftiiln. s. The 
ad of afcribing. 

AacRiPTiTious, af-krip-tifh'As. a 
That which is afcribed. 

Ash, &(h. s A tree. 

AsH-coLOURED, d(h'ki\l-drd* a. Co- 
loured between brown and grey. (s^2)* 

Ashamed, d-fhi'iudd. a. (359) (S^*)- 
Touched with ihame. 

Ashen, &(h'(hdn. su (103) (359). 
Made of afh wood. 

AsHE2,d(h'lz. s. (99). The remains 
of any thing burnt \ the remains of the body. 

AsH-WKDNESDAY» &fh-W^z'd4. S. 

Tlie firft day of Lent, fo called from the an- 

cienC cuHom of fprinkling eihes on the head. 
Ashlar, dfh'ldr. s. Free ftones 

as they come out of the quarry. 
AsHLERiNG, d(h1fir-lng, s. (SSS)* 

Quartcriog 10 garrets. A term in buil^g* 

Ashore, arfti^rc'. ad. 

on the land ; to the lUorc, to the land. 
AsHWEEO, aih'w^^d. $. An herb. 
Ashy, afh'6. a. Afli-colourcd, pale, 

inclined to a whitiffi grey. 
Aside, 4-side'. ad. To one fide j to 

another part ; from the company. 
AsiNARY, 4s's6 nl-ti. a. Belonging 

to an afs. 
AsiKiM E, is'si-nine. a. (149)' Bebng. 

ing to an afs. 
To Ask, d(k. v. a. (79). To petition, 

to beg ; to demand, to claim s to mquire, to 

queilion ; to require. 

Askance, l^.fl,^nfc'. j ad. (214} 


Sideways, obliquely. 

AsKAUNT, i.fkant'* ad. (114). Ob- 
liquely, on one fide. 

AsKER. &fk'flr. s, (98). Petitioner; 

AsKBR,41k'iV. s. Awaternewt. 

Askew, 4-M'. ad. A fide, with con- 
tempt contemptuoufly. 

To AsLAK e, a-flikc', V. a. To remit, 
to ilacken. 

Aslant, u-flint'. ad. (78). Oblique- 
ly, on one fide. 

Asleep, d-fl6^p'. ad. Sleeping ; into 

Aslope, 4-fl6pc'. ad. With decliTity, 

A.SP, or Aspic K, Afp, or afplk. s A 
khid of fcrpent, whofe poifon is fo dange- 
rous and quick in its operation that it kills 
without a poflibility of applying any reme- 
dy. Thofe that arc bitten by it, die by 
fleep and lethargy. 

Asp, dip. s. A tree. 

Aspalathus, as-p4ra-/jfttJs. s. A 
plant called the wood of Jemfalem; the 
wood of a certain tree. 

Asparagus, fts.pdr'4-g&s. s. The 
name of a plant. 

ij3r This word is vulgarly pronounced S/>ar^ 
roxvgrafi. It may be obfervcd, that fuch 
words as the vulgar do noCknow how to 
fpell, and which convey no definite idea of 
the thing; are frequently changed by them 
into fuch words as they do know how to 
fpell, and which do convey fome definite 
idea. The word in queillion is ao i&ftance 
of it : and the corrupdoa of this word into 
SfarromrMfs is fo general, that q/f^ramu has 
an air of fttfiheft and pedantry. See I4AK- 





— no, vn^^vcy n6r, n6t;— -tibc, tiftb, bM j— 6il ;— pound i^tFm, this. 

Aspect, fts'pckr. s. Look, air, ap- 
pearance ; countenance ; glance, iricw, aA 
of beholding ; dirc<Hion towards any point, 
pofitjon ; dil'pofition of any thing to fome- 
thing clfc, relation; difpo^tionoif a planet 
to oth^ planets. 

fj" This word,as a noan, was univcrfally pro- 
nounced with the accent on the laft fyllable 
tili about t)ie middle of the fevcnteenth ccn- 
tmj. It grew antiquated in Milton's time, 
and is now entirely obfolctc. Dr. Farmer's 
obfenrationi on this word, in his no lefs folid 
than ingenious Efiay on TLg Learning of 
Skake/prare, arc fo curious, as well as juft, 
ihat the reader wilJ, I doubt not, be oblig- 
ed to me for quoting them : 
Sometimes a very little matter detccfts a for- 

* g«7* You may remember a play called 
« the Double FaUehood, which Mr. Theo- 

• bald was dcfirous of palming upon the 
•' World lor a poilbumous one of Shake- 

, •• fpcare : ^nd I fee h isclaffed asfuch in the 
" h& edition of the Bodleian catalogue. Mr. 
** Pope hiiijfelf, after all the ftridures of 
** Scriblenis,in a letter to Aaron Hill, fup 
•• pofes it of that age ; but a millaken accent 
** determines it to have been written fince 

" a nrw verfton of the Paradifc Loft, into 
•* blank yerfc, " by which tbat amazing 
" work is brought fomcwhat nearer the 
** fummit of pcrfedion," begins with cor- 
" reding a blunder in the fourth book, 
i'he (ctiing fun 

' the middle of the laft century : 

"^ ^ This late example 

*• Of bafeHenriquez, bleeding in me now, 
" ^Tom each good af[>ea takes away my 
And IB another place, 
** Yon have an aj^^ Sir, of wondrous 
'* The word afp^a^ yon perceive, is here ac- 
" cented on thcfrfi fyllable, which, I am 
** confident, in any fcnfe of it, was never the 
*• cafe in the time of Shakefpearc; though it 
. *• may fomctioies appear to be fo, when we 

*• do not ob&rvc a preceding Slifion. 

** Some of the profefl'ed imitators of our old 

*• poets have not attended to this and many 

•* other mmvtia : 1 could point out to you 

* feversl performances inthe refpe(ftive^j^/« 

** oC Cliaucer, Spcoctr, and Shakefpeare, 

•• which the tmUaUd bard could not poflibly 

•• liavt either read or omilnied. 

" This very accextt hath troubled the annota- 

" tors on Miltoiu Dr. Bently obfarvcs it 

'* eo be a teir difierent from the prefont ufe." 

** Mr. Maowaring, in his Trcatife of Har- 

*• moaj and mmiber8,very folemnly informs 

•■ Bs, that this vcrfc b defedive both in ac- 

" cent and qoamity. 

** Um words here ended ; but his meek a/' 

« Silent, yet ^?akc,"—— 
** Hoe, fiiyi be, a fyllabk is meuied and kng^ 

^ iR^icreas it fliookl \itfi9rt voAjravedr 
^ And a ftiU more extraordinary greBtkman, 

'<4Hie Cffeco,wfcopvbIifteda^%cciaMnof 

« Slowly dcfccndcd, and with right af» 

pt£l — 
** Lcvcird his evening ray*." 
" Notfo in the nnu vtrfion : 

*« Meanwhile the fetling fun defccndin^ 

flow— ^ 

" Level I'd with afff^fi right his cv'ning 


•* Enough of fuch commentators. — The ccle- 

•* bratcd Dr. Lte had a^/r//, who would 

" fomctimcs condefcend to correA him, 

«* when peccant in quantity : and it had been 

" kind of him to have a little alTiftcd the 

•• -wights above mentioned. — Milton affe<5l- 

" ed the antique; but it may fccm more cx- 

" traordinar)', that the old accent (hould be 

** adopted in Hudibras." 

To Aspect, df-pckt'. v. a. (492). To 

Aspfctable, af.p^k'ti-bl. a. (40c). 


AspECTiON, Sfpdk'flu'm. s. Behold- 
ing, view. 
Aspen, as'p^n. s. (103). A tree, the 

leaves of which always tremble. 
AspFM, 4s'pdn. a Belonging to the 

afp-trce ; made of afpen wood. 
AspER, As'pur. a. (98). Rough, rug- 
To Asperate, As'p^-rdtc. ▼. a. (91). 

To make rough. 
(j:;5* This word,and thofc that fuccecd it of the 
fame family, fccm to follow the general rule 
in the found of the i before r whtn after the 
accent ; that is, to prcferve it pure, and in 
a feparate fyllable.— See Piinciplcs, No. 
AspERATioN, as-p(^-rA'fhiin. s. A 

making rough. 
AspERiFOLious, as p^r-^-fo'l^-iis. a. 
^ Plants, fo called from the roughncfs of their 

Asperity, 4s-pdr'6-te. s. Unevennefs, 
roughnefs of furface ; roughnefs of found ; 
roughnefs, or ruggedncfs of temper. 
AspERNATiON,as pdr-nA'fhiin. s. Nc- 

gle<5l, difregard. 
AsPKROus, ds'p^-r(is, a. Rough, un- 
To Asperse, ds-p^rfc'- v. a. To be- 

fpatter with cenfure or calumny. 
Aspersion* ds-p^r'lh^iu s. A fprink* 
ling calumnyy cenfure. 



(O" (559)— Fi^tc, ar, £411, fat 5— in^> ni^t j— pbe, pm ;— 

a. (84). 

AspHALTiCK, ds-fal'tlk, 

Otinimy, biramioous. 
AsPHALios, ^fdl'tfis. s. A bitumi- 
nous, inflammable fvbftancc, refembling 
pitch, and chiefly found fwimming on the 
furface of the Lacns Afphakitc«, or Dead 
flea, where anciently flood the cities of So- 
dom and Gomorrah. 
AsPHALTUMt as-fil'tilm. s. A bitu- 
minous flone found near the ancient Baby- 
AsPH0Dtt,is'f6-d^l. s. Day-lily. 
AsucK, ds'plk. s. . The name of a 

To Aspirate, ds'p^-ritc. v. a. To 
pronounce with fuU breath, as hope, not 
ope. (9Z.) 
AspiRATn,As'pi-Tite.a. (21 (394). 

Pronounced with full breath. 

Aspiration, 4s-p6-r4'ftifln. s. A 

breathing after, an ardent wifli ; the aS of 

afpiring, or dcfiring fomcthing high ; the 

pronunciation of a vowel with full breath. 

To Aspire, Hs-pire'. v. n. To dcfire 

whli cagcmefs, to pant after fomcthing 

higher ; to rife higher. 

Asportation, As-p6r-t4'{hiln, s. A 

carrying away. 
AsQiuNT, d-fkwint'. ad Obliquely, 

not in the ftraight line of vificn. 
Ass, ifs'^s. An animal of burden; a 

flupid, heavy, dull fellow, a dolt. 
To Assail, ds-s41e'. v.a/1 oattackin 
a hoiUlc manner, to affault, to fall upon ; to 
attack with argument or cenfure. 
Assailable, ds-s^li-bl. a. (405} 

That which may be atucked. 
Assailant, &s-sa'14nt. s. He that 

Assailant, 4s-84'lint. a. Attacking, 

AssAiLER, &s-s4liir. s. (98). One 

who attadki «i)other. 
AssAPANiCR, 4s-si-pan'nik. s. The 

flying fquirrel. 
AssAssiM, ds-sis'sln. s. A murderer, 

one that kills by fudden violence. 
To Assassinate, &f-sAs's6-n4te. v. a. 
(91). To murder by violence; to way-lay, 
to take by treachery. 
Assassination, £s sds-s6-ni'Mn. s< 

The a6t of aflTaflinating. 
A^^sASSiNATOP, 'dS-sis'^-ni-tAr. s. 

Mtfderer, man-killer« 
Assation^ is sA'fhi^n. s. Roaftuig. 
Assault, ^-s^lt'. s. Storm, oppofed 
toiiip or itg^ ; violence ; inv»fioD, hojiility, 

attack ; in law, a violent kind of injury «£• 
fered to a man*sperfon. ' 
To AssAULT,as-silt', v. a. To attack, 

to invade. 
Assaulter, as-sMt'fir. 8. One who 

violently aflaults another. 
Assay, 4s-su'. s. Examination ; inlaw, 
the examination, of meafoxes and weights 
ufcd by the clerk of the market ; the fiitt 
entrance upon «ny thing ; attack, trouble. 
To Assay, as-s4'. v. a. To make trial 
of ; to apply t<>, as the touchftonc in aflay- 
ing metals ; to try, to endeavour. 
AssAYER, As-si'ftr. R. (9^^. An officer 

of the mint, for the due trial of filver. 
AssKCTATiON, &s-8^-ti'(h<in. s. At- 

AssECUTiON, ds-s^k{i'fhi\rf. s. Ac- 
Assemblage, &s-s6m'bUdje. s. (90). 
A coUeAion; a number of individuaU 
brought together; 
To Assemble, fts-sdm'bl.v. a. (465). 

To bring together imp «ne place* 
To Assemble, is-s4m'bl. v. n. To 

meet togetber. 
Assembly, as-s^m'blt:. s. A company 

met together. 
Assent, lis-s^nt'. s. The acl of agree- 
ing to any thing; confent, agreement. 
To Assent, ds-stot'. v. n. To con- 
cede, to ^icld to. 
AssKNTATiON,4s-s^-tA'flifin. s. Com- 
I pliaace with the opinion of another out of 
A53ENTMENT,as-s^nt'mint. s. Con- 

To Assert, 4s-sdrt'. v. a. To main- 
tain, to defend either by words or adions ; 
to affirm ; to claim, to vindicate a title to. 
Assertion, ds-s^r'Aita. 5. The ad of 

aflefting. \ -o r 

Assertive, 4s-s&r'tlv. a, (158). Po"- 

tive, dogmatical. 
Assertor, as.s^r'tftr. s.<98J. Main- 

tainer, vindicator, affirmer. 
To Asserve, Issdrv'. v. a. To ferve, 

help, or iiecond. 
To Assess, Is-s&s'. v. a. To charge 

with any certain fum. 
AssEssiON, ds-t^lh'fln. s. A fitting 

down by one. 
Assessment, as-s^s'm^nt. s. The 
fum levied ob certain property ; the aA of 
AsfEssoR, fc-sis's6r. s. (98). The 
peifon that fits by the judge; hetha| fiu 




#i n6, mdvCf n6r» n6t ; tfrbe, t&b, 

hf anodier as next in dignity ; he tbat byt 

A:»sKTS, as's^ts. s. Goods fuffictent to 

diicharge that burden which is caft upon 

the executor cirhetr. 
To AssfcvER^ As^v^b-, (93}.'1 

To ASSEVEKATB> ^-«dv'^- >• V. a. 

rite. (91) (555). 3 

To affirm with great folemoity^ as upon 


A5SPTBRATinN4s-s£v-^-r4'{hfin.s. So- 
lemn affirmation, as upon oath. 

AsftHSADyis'h^d. s. A blockhead. 

AssiDOiTV, as-s^-dii'd-td. &. Dili- 

Assiduous, ls-sld'j&-i\8. a. {2^^)* 
(376). Cosftant m application. 

AssiDvovsLY, is sld'j{i-dsl^. ad. Dr-- 
lonely, cootimially. 

AssiEfiro, hrs^isi'td. s. A contraA 
or coeventJon hetween the kings of Spain 
and other powers foe fumiihing the Spanish 
dominions in America with flaves. 

To AssiGNt is-sine'. y» a. To mark 
oot, to appoint ; to fix with regard to quan* 
tity or Tahiei to gire a reafon for ; in law, 
to appoint a depoty, or make over a right 
to another. 

AssfGJiABLE, ^-sine'ft-bl. a. That 
which may he aiEgped. 

AssfGNATiON, is-slg-n&'fhdn. $• An 
appoiocmcnt to meet, ufied generally ofkve 
^pomtmescs^ a making over a thing to 

AssiciiEB> &s*s^-n^'. 8* Heth^^t is ap- 
pomtcd or deputed by another to do any a^, 
•r perCbrm any bnfioeisy or enjoy any com- 

AssiGNca, iiS-A'n^. s. (98). s. Hethat 

AssiCKMEMTT, &S-4{ne'm^t» S. Ap- 
pointment of one thing wi^h ceg&rd to aqp- 
ther thing er perfbn ; in law, the deed by 
vihidk any tUng is transferred from one to 

As8lG]l8,as-smz^ $. Tbofe perfqps ta 
whom any ttuft is afligned. Iliifl is a Law 
term, and always nlcd in the pluraU As a 
legacy » left to a perlbn*s heirs, adniiniflra- 
tora, or^^w. 

Assimilable, is-slm'^d-bl. a. That 
wbjdi may he converted to the Dune nature 
with fomethiog^ dfe. 

To Assimilate, &s-$W^-Ute. v. a. 
(91'^. To convert to the iaihe nature with 
another dung ; to bring to t ltkene!s» or re- 

AfisiMiLATiHEssy as-$lm'fn^l4te-n^s. 
s. Likeneis. 

bAll >— AU ;— .p6ftnd ;— 4iin, this* 

AssiMiLATioK, It-slm-mM&'Mn. s. 
The a^ of convertiiv any thing to the na- 
ture or fttbftance otanosbcr ; the (late of 
being aflimiiatcd ; the a& of growing like 
fomc other being. 

To Assist, As-sift', v. a. To hdp. 

As8isTAiicK,as*sis'dlnse. s. Help, fur- 

. therance. 

Assistant, &8-«ls'dnt. a. Helpings 
lending aid. 

Assistant, &s-sis't&nt. s. A perfon 
engaged in an affair, not as princTpai, but as 
auxiKary or minifterial. 

Assize, as-slze^. s. A court of judica- 
ture held twice a year in every county, in 
which caufes are tried by a. judge and jury ; 
an ordinance or ftatute to determine the 
weight of bread. 

To Assize, ds-size'. ▼. a. To fix the 
rate of any thing. 

Assizer, ^-sl'zdr. s. An officer tliat 
has the care of weights and meafures, 

AssociABLE, ds-s6'(h£-&^bL a. That 
which may be joined to another. 

To Associate, 4&-s6'{h^-Ate. v. a«* 
(91). To unite with another as a confede- 
rate ; Jto adopt as a friend upon equal terms ; 
to accompany. 

AssociATB, &s-s6'(hd-dte. a. (91), 

Associate, ds*sA'fti^4te. 9. A part- - 
net ; a confederate ; a. companion. 

Association, ds-s6-{h^.A'fbAn. s. 
Union, conjun^ioo, fectety; confederacy; 
partnership ; cotme^ion^-^Sce PaoNONCi- 


Assonance, us's6-nftnie. s. Refn-ence 

of one found to another refembHng it. 
Assonant, 4s's6-niat. a* Refembling 

another fonnd. 
To A s sort, is-sdrt'. y. a. To range 

in daffies. 
To A.ssot, is*s6t'. V. a. To mfaltiatc. 
To Assuagr, df-fwijc'. V. a. (331)- 

To mitigate, to foftefl ; to appeafe, to pa- 
cify ; to eafe. 
Assuagement, fis-sw4je'xndnt. s. 

What tnkigates or foftens^ 
AssuAGER, &s-s«'&'ji'^r. 8.(98). One 

who pacifies or appeafes. 
AssuAsivE, ds-sw4'slv. 3^(158) (428}. 

Softening, mitigating. 
To As30Bjt7GATt, 4s»sdb'j(i-gite* ▼. 

a. To fnbjed to. (91). 
AssuEFACTioN, ils-sw^-fUc'ihJ^n. 8. 

The ftate of being accuftomedv 
AssuETUDE, 4s'sw^t4dc. 8. (334-) 

Accufiomance, cnftom* 




Q^ (559).— FAtc, ar, f^, fit ;— m^, mSt ;— pine, pin ;— 

To AssoME, 4s-s4me'. y, a, (454)* 
To take ; to ukc upon on«:'« .ftdf ; to »rro- 
gatfi, to claim or feizc oojuftly ; to fuppofe 
fomething without proof) to appropriate. 
0^ Why Mr. bherid^ ibould pronounce this 
word and the wprd to^imv^without the iK,and 
frefume and refume^'SA iJF writtcn/rntAoow and 
rezbpom, h not eafily conceived; the/ ought 
to be aipirated in all or none.— ^ee Princi- 
ple, • 454) (.478) (479)- ^ ^ 

As s u M B R , is-si'mftr. s. { 98 ). An ar- 
rogant man. 

Assuming, iss^i'mlng. particip. a. 
Arrogant, haughty- 

AssuMfsiT,as-sy\mMt.s. Avoluntary 
promife ma4c by word, whereby a num 
uketh upon him to perform or pay any 
thing to another. ' 

Assumption, &s-sdm'(hAn. s. The aft 
of takingr any thing to onc*8 felf ; thefuppo- 
fltion of any thing without further proof; 
the thing fuppofed, a poftulate ; the taking 
up any perfon into heaven. 

Assumptive, ds-siim'tlv. a. (157) 
That which is aflumed. 

Assurance, ifh^hu'rdnfe. s. Certain 
expe^tton ; fecure confidence, tnift; free* 
dom from doubt, certain knowledge ; firm- 
nefsiundoubting flea(finefs;confidence,want 
of modesty ; groand of confidence, fecurity 
given ; fpirit, intrepidity ; teftimony of cre- 
dit ; convi^ioD ; iniurance. 

To Assure, ith-lhiire'. r. a> (175) 
To give confidence by a firm promife ; to 
iecure another ; to nuke confident, to ex- 
empt from doubt or fear, to make fecure. 

Assured, 4(h.(hu'rM, or &s-{h6rd. 
particip. a. (^59^- Ceruin, indubitable; 
certain, not doubting ; immodcft, vicioufly 

Assuredly, &fti-(li6'r<&d*l^. ad. (564}. 
Certainly^ indubitably. 

The fiate of being affured, certainty* 

Assurer, Alh-fbu'riir. s. He that gives 
aifurance ; he that gives fecuxity to make 
good any lofs. 

Asterisk, as'td-rl(k. s. A mark in 
printing, as *. 

AsT E R 1 s M, as't^-rism. s. A conftella- 

Asthma, 4ft'mi. s. (47 1). A frequent, 
difficult, and ibortrefpiration, joined with a 
biffing found and a cough. 

Asthmatical, iftmat'^-k&l. 1 

AsTHMATlCRyafl-mat^k* (509}. J 
Troubled with an afthma. 

Astbrn, 4-ftdrn'. ad. In the hinder 
pan of the (hip, behind the ihip. 

To Astert, 4-ftfct', V. a. To terrify, 

to fiartle, to fright. 
Aston I ED, d-ft6n'6-5d. part. a. A 

word u(ed Unr aftonifhed. 
To AST NisH, 4s-t6n'ni{li- v. a. To 

confound with fear or i^onder, to amaze. 
AsroNisHiNGNEsSyuf- 6n'ni(h-ing-n^. 

a. Quality to excite aftonifliment. 
Astonishment^ af>t6n'l(h-in6nt. s. 

Amazement, confiifion of nund. 
To Astound, ds-toClnd'. v. a. To aflo- 

nifli,to confound with fear or wonder. 
AsTRADObs, i-ftrild'dl.- ad. (465}. 

With one*8 legs actofs any thing. 
Astragal, ls'tri*g&l. s. (503). A 

little round member, in the form of a ring, 

at the tops and bottoms of cohimos. 
AsTRAt, is'tr&l. a. Starry, relating to 

the ftars. 
aAstray, d-ftrA'. ad. Out of the right- 
To Astrict, 4f.trlkt'. v. a. To con- 

tcaA by upplication. 
AsTRiCTioN, df-trik'Mn. s. The ad 

or power- of contrading the parts of the 


tickv binding. 
AsTRicTORv, ftf-trik'tiir-ri. a. Aftrin- 

Astride, &>{lrlde^ ad. With the legs 


AsTRiFERous, ^-trif^-ifis. a. Bear- 
ing, or having ftars. 

To AstRiNGE, &f-trlnje'. v. a. To 
make a coatra(5lion, to make the paru draw 

AsTRiNGENCY,4f-trln^j£n-s^. s. The 
power of contradUng the parts of the 

Astringent, ftftrin'j^nt. a. Binding* 

AsTROGRAPHY, 4f-tr6g'ri-Cfe. s. (5i8). 
The fcience of defcribing the ftars. 

Astrolabe, sis'tr6-Ube. s. An tnftni- 
meut chiefly vfed for taking the akitvde of 
the pole, the fun, or ftars, at fea. 

Astrologer, uf-tr61*A-j<ir. s. One 
tliat, fuppofing the influence of the ftm to 
have a cafual power, profeflet to foretel or 
difcover events. 

AsTROLOGiAN, di^trA-U^^-an. s. Af- 

Astrological, lfrtro-16d'j^-7 
kil.(509). U. 

AsTROLOGicRy 4i-tr6-16d-ilk. J 
Relating to aftcdofy, ftofeffiog afirology* 

A T 


A T O 

— ii&»m&ve, n&r, nStj tdbe, tflb, bfill;— 6il;— pddndt— /i^in,THii. 


a^ la an aftrok>gicaf manner. 
ToAsTROtoGizE, df-ir61'6-jize. v^n. 

To prsAilie aflrology. 
AsTnOLOGY. al-tr'V6-j^. %. The prac- 

^ce of fareteDing thii^ by the knowledge 

of die ftira. 

AsTaoMOMER, If-trWnA-miir. s. He 
thsi ftudies the ceiefttai motions. 

AsTAOHOMiCAL, ^-tr6>n6m'^ 
kll. (509). • 

Atr&owoMicKy ^-tr6-a6m'lk« 
Belong^ to iftrouomy. 

A%-Ti.oiioitiCA.LLY» ^-tr&-n6m'6 kAl* 
\k. a. l& an ailionomical manner. 

AsTftOsiOMT, lLf-tr6n'n6-zn^. s. A 
vn l sf A ffY^*}»fn\ ^\^ \ iacDce* tcachioff the 
knowledge of thecdeikVal bodies, their m»g- 
nitndcj^ m mioi w , diftanrpt, periods, ecUpfes, 
and order. (518;. 

A s TR o-Tii£o LOG'tr6-/W-61A-j^. s. 
i>ivxnicf Ibfmded 00 the obfervation of the 
cckftial bodies. 

AsuND£&,^-sAn' (98). Apart» 
iiepaffately, not together. 

AsYLUMt il-silihn. s« A fan^uary, a 

f^ IMuag cifl i&ew more pUunly the ten- 
dency of our laogsage to an antepeniiUIniate 
aodent than the Tolgar prononctation pf this 
word, which generaUy phces the accent on 
the firft fyilabk. This is however an un- 
pardonable offence to a Latin ear, which in 
fiib on preferring the accent of the original 
whenever we adopt a I^atin word into our 
own fangoage without alteration. — See Prtn- 
dples. Mo. 503. 
AsYMM ETtY, i-slrn'm^-tr^. S. Con- 
trariety to iyninietry, difjproportioQ. 
Asymptote, is'sim't6te. s. Afymp' 
foces are right lines, ^hich approach nearer 
and nearer to iomc carve, but which would 

fpr I have preferred Dr. Johnfon's accentual 
tkm OB the &il fylkbl^ to Mr. Sheridan*s 
and Dr. Aih*8 on the fecoad 

Asyiij»%t '«, ll-sln'd^-ton. s. A figure 
in grammar, when a eonjnndion copuUtive 
is omitted. 

At, it. r rep. At before a place notes 
the neamefi of die place, as a man is at l!he 
hoafe before be is in it ; At before a word 
fignifyiog time, notes the co-cxi(lenee of the 
time with the event; At before a fuperla- 

tive a^eAive implies in the ftate, as at moft, 
in the ftate ol moft perfedbn, &c. At iig^ 

ttifiesthe narcicalar condition of the peribn, 1 « , , ^ 1 „ % 

•aatpcaT; At fomctimes marks eitpIOy.pTOMY, &jf6.xn^. s. A 
« attentiott, as he is at work ; At |To AtON£» a-tone • y« 

the fame witii fimiflitd with, a 

a man at arms; At fometimes notes the phMfe 
where any thing is, as he it at home ; At 
fometimes is nearly the fame as in, noting 
fituation ; At fometimes feenu to ifignify in • 
the power of, or obedient to, as at yonr tu 
vice ; at all, in any manner. 
ATABAt, 4t'i-btK s* A kittdof uboor 

ufed by the Moors. 
Ataaaxy, &t't^-rlk-sA. s. (517). £»• 

emption from vexation, tran^nillity. 
Athanor, 4/i6'l-n6r. 9. 166). A dU 
geftiag furnace to keep heat for ibme tiinc. 
Atheism, k'if>^A(m. s. (505). llie , 

difbcHef of a God. 
ATHfcisTt 4'/A^i(t fl. One diacdenlei 

the exigence of God. 
Atheistical, &«/>&£-ls't^kil. a. Given 

toatheiim, impious. 
Atheistically, ^M-ls't!6-kiU£. ad. 

In an atheiftical manner. 
Athsisticalniss, 4-/^^ls't£-kil«n^» 

s. The quality of being afheiftiral, 
ATHEisTiCKy A-/M-is'cik. a* Given to 

Atheous. 4VM«ds. a. (505). Athe- 

iftick, godkfi. 
Athbeoma, ^h^vb'mL s. (527}- A 

fpecies of wen. 
Athbromatousi fU^«^r6m'&-tds. a* 
Having the qualities of an atheroma or car* 
dy wen. 
ATHiR9T,i-/i^Arft'. ad.(io8}.Thirft7, 

in want of drink. 
ATHLETicK.ft/M^tlk. a* (500). Be- 
longing to wreftling ; ftrong of body , vigor* 
Athwart, ft-zAwirt'. prep. Acrofs, 

tratifverie to any thing ; through. 
Atilt, d tilt', ad. With the adion of a 
man making a thruft ; in ' the pofture of a 
barrel railed or tilted behind. 
Atlas, &t'ld$. s. A coile<5tion of maps ^ 
a large fqaare folio; fometimes the fnpportj 
er of a building ; a rich kind of iilk. 
Atmosphere. dt'm6-stire, s. The air 
that encompaifes the folid earth on all fides. 
At M ' s p H E R 1 c A L, it- mo-sfi&r'^-k&l. a« 

Belonging to the atmofphere. 
At >m, at't'im. s. ( 166.) Such afmall 
particle as cannot be phyiSodly divided.; 
any thing extremely iinall. 
AtoMicAL, ^-t5m'^-k&l. a. Confifting 

of atoms ; relating to atoms. - 
Atomist, dt'tA-raift. s. One that holds 
the atomical philefophy. 

An atom, 
a. To agree, 




A T T 

C> (S59).— Htf , ftr, ftU, fit i^m^ m^t ;— pinp, pin ;— 

Attaiht, 4t-t4nt'. 

to accord; to ftand as an equivakqc for 
fomcthii)^ ; to ^niWe^ for* 

To Atone, i-tine'. v. z. To expiate. 

AxOM^MfWTjii.tZinc'm^t* s. Agr«c«^ 
ai^t, a»vpr4; qQpi^txoo, capiatory equi- 
valent. * 

Atop, 4.0p'. ad. On the top, at the 


ATRi9ILARIAN,tutri-M-l4'l^4ll* a. 

Me]ai)chpl]r» (597J. 
Atqabilariovs, 4t.tr44)^-U'rMs. a. 

Atrabilariovsneis,! tt^tri-W-U'r*- 

ds-n^s. s. The ftate of being mdan- 

Atrambmtal, lt-ti4-jn&i't4La. Inky, 
Atramfwtous, it-tr<i*ininWs. a. 

Atrocious, 4-tri-fliftg. m. (^92). 

\yi{^«d ip a high deercc, enormoiis. 
Atrociously, ii^w/MiAL 9id. In an 

a^ociqiis mafia^. 
Atrociousness, &-tr6^fhAsrn^9* s. 

1^. quality fif bc^ coafmottily criminaL 
Athocity, 4-tr6s's6-t4. s. (511). 

Atrophy, it'tr6-ft. s. Waatofnou- 

riitunca^ a difealc. 
To Attach, 4t-t4tfli'. v. a. Toar- 

rcft, to take or apprehead ; to feixe ; to lay 

holdQu; towia; to ^lain over, to cnamoar ; 

to fix to one's intereft. 

ATTACHME^iT,tt4itfli'mint. s. Ad- 

herence, rcgardi* 
To Attack, 4t-t4k'. v. a. To a^ault 

an eiiemy ; to begin a conteft. 
Attack, 4t.t4fc'. a. Anaffauh. 
Attacker, 4t»t4k'ilr, s. (98). The 

perfim tl^ attach 
To Attaiw, 4t-t4ne'. v. a. To gain, to 

procure; to ov«rtake{ to come to; to reach; 

to equal. 
To ATTAiii,4t-t4nc'. v.n. To come 

to a certaiu ftatc ; to arrive at 
Attairable, it-t4ne'A-bl. a. That 

which may be obtained, procttrable. 
Attainablenbss, It-t&ne'd-bl-n^s. s. 

The quality ^f being attainable. 
Attainder At-tine'ddr. $• (98), The 

adk of attaiatii^ in kw ; taint. 
ATTAiK*iEWT,4t-t4ne'rodnt. s, TTiat 

which it attained^ acquifition; the aa or 

power of attaining. 
To Attaint, it-tint', v. a. To at- 
taint is particularly ufed for fuch 

»«Mav «a vacvH-HlAAij UJCtt EOT men aS ATC *^^ v* maauiiu <uij 

found guilty of fome crime or offence ; to Attir, At'tAr. s. (08) 
tain^ to coiTopt. * tcf. 

s. Any thing in* 
jurious, asilhicis,wearioefs; ftain, fpot, taise. 

Atta iMTURB, dt-tAne'tfli(irc. t. {461 ). 
Reproach, imputation. 

To ATTAMiNATE,4t-tini'4-nite.v. a. 
To corrupt. NottiTed. 

To Attemper, dt-tdm'pAr. v. a. To 
^ingi^ to weaken by the mixtiire of fome- 
thing clip; to regulate, to (often; tomizw 
jnlt proportions; to fit to fomcthing die. 

To ATTEMPBRATB,At-t£ni'p(ft^te. ▼. 

a. To proportion to fcmething. (555). 

To Attempt, 4t-ttot'. v. a. (411). 
To atuck, to venture upon ; to try, to en- 

Attempt, it-t^mt'. s. (41a). An at- 
tack, an efiay, an endeavour. 

Attemptable, At*t^mt't4-bl. a. Lia- 
ble to attempts or attacks. 

Attempter, it-ttot'tflr. s. The per- 
fon that attempts ; an endeavonrer. 

To Attend, it-t^nd'. v. a. To regard, 
to fii the mind upon ; to wait on; to accom- 
pany ; to be prcfent with, upon a fummona ; 
to be appendant to ; to be coofequent to ; 
to ftay for. 

To Attend, 4t-tind'. ▼. n. To yidd 
attention ; to ftay, to delay. 

Attendance, it-tAi'dinfc. s« The aft 
of waiting on another; fervice; che peHbna 
waiting, a train ; attention, regard. 

Attemoamt, it-tdn'dint. s. One Aat 
attends ; one that belongs to the train; one 
that waits as a Alitor <v agent ; one that is 
prefent at anything ; a concomitant, a coo* 

Attender, it-tfo'ddr. s. (98), Com* 
panlon, aflbctate^ 

Attent, it-t^t'. a. Intent, attentive. 

Attentates, ftttin'tAtcs. s. Pro. 
ceedmgs in a court after an inhibition is 

• decreed.^ 

Attention, it-t^n'ihiin. s. The ad 
of attending or heeding. 

Attektivk, it-tte'llv. a. (158). 

Heedful, regardful 
ATTENTivEtY, 4t-t&iMv44. ad* 

HeedfuUy, carefully. 
Attentiveness, &t-t^'th-n^ s. 

Heedfulncfs, attention. 
Attenuant, 4t-t&j'6.ant a« Endued 

with the power of making thin or flender. 
Attsnoat'e, at-tte'u-4te. a. (91). 

Made thin, or flender. 
ATTENUATioii,&t-tfe-A-^fiidn.8. The 
ad of making any thing thin or flender. 

porrapt mat- 




«« &&» mdy€f n6r, n&t ; — t&be, tftb, 

To ArrssT, it-t^(l^ v. a. To bear j 

wittcisolt to wkods ; to caU to witnd«. I 
Att£statiom, fttrt^-tA'(hdn. s. Tef- 1 

umonjy evidence. I 

ArriGuovst ^U-tlg'^-As. a. Hard by. 
To Attinge, dt-tlnjc'. V. a. To 

tovdi fligfatly* 
To ATTiR.jt, &.tire'. v. a. To ditfs, 

ArriftE, 4c tire', s. Clothes, drefs; 

botunf^ tEe Mawat of a plant is divided in* 
to three parCB» the impskloBieDty the foJia- 
tkm, and the attire. 
Atti^er, &t-ti'r6r. ft* Otie that at- 

tirea BiMther,a dicfe. . 
A-t-rrrtiin^ it't&^6de« s. A poftare, 
thepoftare er adaoA'di which a ^latue or 
painted figure i» placed. 
ATTOEpLENTy ic-t^ll^t. Su That 

ATTOsiaBtp it'ttr'DL s. (i£;). Such 
a pcrlba at bf oooleiity commwdment, or 
req^oeft, takes heed to, fees, aod ukes upon 
him the charge of other men*! bofinefa, in 
their ahfiencc ; oae who is appointed or re- 
tained to profieeaia or de%nd an adiun at 
lawr ; a hrwjer. 

ATToawtTSHiFy ftt-tfir'n^-fhlp. s. 
The office of an attorney. 

Attoritmeht. it-ti)m'mtet s. A 
Tteidiog; of the tenemeut to a new lord. 

To Attract, it-trikt'. v. a. To 
draw to Ibmething ; to aHore, to invite. 

Attractical* ic-<r4k't^k41. a. Hav- 
ing the power to draw. 

Attractiow^ it-trAk'fhfin. s. The 
power of drawing any thing ; the power 
of aUBn0g or encidng. 

Atteactive, 4t-txik'tlv. a. (158). 
Having the power to draw any thing; in- 
vitmg^ aflurifi^ enticing. 
AtTEACTivE, &-crl£'tly. s. That 

wUd» draws or caticas. 
Attractive LT, it-trik'tiT-K. ad. 

With the power of attraAifljr. 
ATTEAcriTEEEESy &Mrik'ciT*n^. t. 

The qsiifisy of hemg aftradive. 
ArfAACTOE, it-trdk'tftr. s. (98). 

The ^edt that tttra^ 
ATraaCTATioE* it-ttik-tA^fhAn, s. 

ArrEAHENT, 4t'tr4-htot, s. (503,/) 

lint' which drsws. 
ATTaiEurABx.B« iE-trlVb-tiUbl. a. 

Thai whidi nM he afcribcd ot attribat- 

ToArtMgm^^ ixfttiMax. v. a. 

ad. or prep. Be- 
In the 


V. a. 

To profit, 
to profper. 

bW $— Ail J— ^jAdnd ;--i^n, t h is. 

I (49*)- '^^ aftrike, to yield 1 to imptitk, U 

to a canfe. 
Atteieute, At't^b&te. s. (491)* 

The thing attrtb«tfcd to antdief 1 ^^aalhy 

adherent; a thing belooging to another, all 

appendant ; repotation, hononr. 
ATTRKUTioNt At*tr^-b&'AiAn. c« 

Attritr, it-trite^ a. Groaiid, won% 

by rubbing. 
Attrit£me08, ItHrite^B^s. a. Thd 

being much worn. 
ATTRtTioNy At.trifli'fin. .s. (507). 

The iA of wearing things by rabbii^t ; 

grief for fin, ariflng 6nly from the fear ol 

ponilhment ; the loweft degree of repent* 

To Attune, 4t-timc'. ▼. a. To make 

any thing mufical ; to tune one thing to 

another. — See ToMr, 
Atweek, 4L-tw6^n^ 

twixt, between. 
Atwixt, 4-twjkft'. 

middle of two things 
To Avail, 4-vilc'. 

to turn to profit, to promote, 

to aflift. 
Avail, &.v&le^ a. Profit^ adraatage, 

Available, &-v4'14-bL a. Profitable, 

adrantageous ; powerful, having force. 
AtailablenbsS) A-v4'li -binds, s. 

Power of promoting the end for which it 

Atailably, i-v4'll-bld. ad. Power- 

fully, profitably. 
ATAiLftifNT, 4-v&Ie'in^nt. s. Ufefal' 

ncA, advantage. 
To AvALE, d-vAle'. v. a. To let fall, 

to depre£k 
Atant-ouaed^ i-vlm^g&rd. s. The 

AvAEiCR, Av'i-rls. e. (f4>)* Coret- 

onfnefs, iHfiKtiable defire. 
Avaricious, 4v4l-riih^A5. a. (292). 

AvARicioir&LTy &t4-ri(h'Ai-U. ad. 

AVAEfCI0U9MBSS, ^-A-TlQl'^ti^. S« 

The quaHty of being avariciottfi. 
AvAUET, fk'Vknt'. iflterjed. (if6). 

A word of abhorrence, by which any one 

is driven away^ 
Au^t7EMB, hw^ftr&v a. Browoi of a 

tan colour. 
AuCTioE, &wk'flidn« s. A manner 

of fale hi which one perfoR bids after ano- 
ther ;. thi thtfig folf byt andB^n. 



A U G 

c:> (559)--^F4te» fir. aU, {it |— m^, m^t ;— ptee, pin j— 

Auction ART, &wk'flnin4.r^ a. Be- 

loogicg to an audion. 
AvcTiOMEER, &wk-(hfin-**r'* s. The 

peiibn that Hisnaget an auaion. (»75). 
AircTivB, ;.wk'tiv, a. 158). Of an 

incrcaiiog quality. Not ufed. 
AucupAiiON, &w.lci,pA'flifln, s. 

Fowling, bird catching. 
Audacious, iw^i'lhAs. a. (292)- 
. Bold, impndent. 
Audaciously, iw-d4'Ms-l*. ad. 

Boldly, impudently. 
ALnAciousNJTss, iw-d4'lhCis»nds. s. 
■ Impudence. 
AuDACi . V, &w.d4s'4-t*. s. (511 

' Spirit, boldneft. 
AuDiBLt, iw'd^-bh a. (405 U That 
which may be perceived by hearing ; loud 
enough to be heard* 
Audible K ESS, 'Vd^.bl-nes. s. Ca- 

pablenefs of being heard. 
Audibly, iw'd^.bl<S. ad. In fuch a 

manner as to be heard. 
Audience, iw'j^-^nre. s. (295) C294 . 
The ad of hearing ; the liberty of fpcaking 
• granted, a hearing ; an auditory, pcrfons 
collcdcd to hear ; the reception of any man 
% "who" deliver* a folemn meiTage^ 
Audit, iiw'dit. s. A riniil account. 
To Audit, &w'dit. v. a. I'o take an 

account finally. 
Audition, ^w-difli'iln. s. fcc7V 
Hearing. ^^ '^ 

Auditor, iw'd^tiir. s. (gB) f yoj, B,> 
A hearer ; a perfon employed to take an 
account ultimately ; a hinges officer, who, 
yearly examining the accounts of all under 
officers accountable, makes up a general 

Auditory, ^w'd^.tiV-rt. ^ '557). 
That whidi ha« the power of hearing. 

Audit or Y iw'dA-tur-r^. s. An a«- 
dience« a coUedion of perfoos aflembled to 
hear ; a place where lednres are to be heard. 

AuDiTRESS, 4w'd^^rts. s. The wo- 
man that hears. 

ToAvEL, i-v^r. v.a. To pull away. 

AvEMARY. A-v^-mi'r^. 5. A form 
of worihip in honour of the Virgin Mary. 

AvFNAGE ^ven-idjc. s (91). A 
certain quantity of oau paid to a landlord. 

To Avenge, ^-v^njc'. v. a* Tore- 
▼enge; topuniih. 

ATrvG^ANCE, 4-T^n'j4nfe. s. (244). 

Atbngement, 4-ytejc'niint. s. Ven- 
geance, revenge. 

AvBNOER, a-vlnjftr. s. Poniflier; 
Ttvenger, taker el vengeance. 

AvENs, av'^nz. s* Herb £en]le^ 
AvEMTURE, d v^n'iMrc. s. (461). 
A mifchancc, caufing a man's deadi, with- 
out felony. 

AvKNUE, iv'^-ni. s. (335) ($03). 

A way by which any place may be entered ; 

an alley, or walk of trees before ahonie*— - 

See Revenue. 
To Aver, a-vfir'. t. a. To declare 


AvERAGF. 4v'ftr-ijc. 8. (90) (555). 
That duty or fcrvice which the tenant Jji to 
pay to the king ; a medium, a mean nip- 

.-Averment, iyi^r'ment. s. Eftablilh* 
nient of any thing hy evidence. 

AvtRNAT, a-ver'nat. s. A fort of 

lo .'^vERUNCATB, av-^r-illng'kiLte. 

V. a. To root up* ^ 91) (^r^S.) 
AT ION, av^-sAflnin. 

«. Ha- 


tred^ abhoncncc. 
Averse, ^-vcrfe'. a. Mal?gn, not 

favourable; not pleafed with, unwilling to. 
AvF.iisELv, ^vcMt'i^. ad. linwil. 

lingly; backwardly. 
AiKR8tNt£8, a-verfe'nis. s. Unwil. 

lingnefs, backwardnef*. 
Avti'siON, a-v^r'lhi'in. s. Hatred, 

diilike, detcftatton; the caufe of aver- 


To Avert, a-v^it'. v. a. To turn 

afide, to torn off, to put by. 
Auger, 4wg r. s. (98; (t66). A 

carpenter** tool, to bore holes with. 

Aught, kwt. pronoun. ,393). Any 

(T^ This word is not a pronoun as Dr. John* 

fon has marked it, but a fobftaotivc. 
To Augment, &wg.m6nt'. v.a. To 

incteafe, to make bigger or more. 
To Augment, Awg-mdnt'. v. n. To 

incrcafe, to grow bigger. 
AuGMfaMr, iwg'm^nt. s. (49a). In- 

creafe ; ftate of increafe. 
Augmentation, iwg-m^n.tA'flifin. s. 

The ad of increafing or making bigger; the 

ftatc of being made bigger ; the thitig add- 

cd, by which another is made bigger. 
Augur, iw'gfir. s. (98) (166). One 

who pretends to predid by the flight of 


To Augur, &w'g6r, v. tu Toguefs, 

to conje&ure by iignt. 
To Augurate, kw^gii-ridt. y. n. 

(91). To judge by ai^gniy. 
AuGURATioN> &w-ff4»r4^ihAjL s. The 

praAict of augury. 

A V O 


A U 8 

— no, mdve, xiAr, not i — tibe* tAb, 

AocpftsiLy 3iw'gfcr-Ar. s. (SSS)' Tbc 
tec with ani^r. 

AvGORiAi., kw-g&^r&-&l. a. Relating 

AuGORYf iLw'gA-rdr s. (179). The aA 
of prognofticadng by omens ; the rulet ob* 
liErWd by mogiirs ; an omen or predidion. 

August. ^w-g<ift'. a. ^494}. Great) 
gnady zoyal, magnificcDt. 

August, iw'gSft. s; The name of 
tbe eighth month from Jaanary inclufive. 

Augustmess, ^W'^gftu'n^s. s. Eleva- 
tion of look, dignity. 

Atiaht. i'v^4-T^. s. (505). A place 
U&ckffcd to Veep birds in. 

Avidity, a-vld'i-tA. s. Grcedinefs, 

AviTOus, 4v'6^fts. a. (503) (314). 

IjcH by a man** ancefioTs. Not ufed. 
To AvizBf iMzc\ V. a. To counfel j 

«o bethink himieUt ft) coofider. 
AvLD^ k-wld. a. Old. Not nied. 
AuLETTCK, iwJdtlk. a. {509). Bc- 

AuLicK»i^Uk. a. Belonging to the 

AuLif, k^ti, %. A French xneafure of 

length, an elL 
To Ai7MAiL^ 4w*m&le^ y, a. To 

Autfr, ant. s. (214). A father or 

mochcT*s fiAer. 
AvocAiK>» iT-64ci'd&« s. A plant, — 


To A^ocATB, Iv'To-Wtc. V, a. (91). 

To calla-way. 
AvocATioK, iv.T&4cA^fhdn. s. The 

aA of caffisg afide ; the bufinefs that calls. 
To Aroin, a-v^jid*. t. a. (299). To 

Aon, to efcape; to cttdeaTOv to fliun ; to 

evacuate, to qnix. 
To Avoid, a-v6ld'. v. n. To retire ; 

to becoBic Yoid or vacant. 
AvomiBLi;, d-v61d'4.bL a. That 

which may be avoided or efcaped. 
Avoidance, 4.v65d'dnre. s. The ad! 

of avoi£og ;the coorie by which any thing 

is earned off. 
Avoidsr. a-v6id'^. s, (98). The 

pedbo thai flms any thing ; theperfon that 

carries anything away ; the vcflel in which 

things are carried away. 
AvofDi^feiTs, &-T6idl^s. a. Inevitable. 
Avoiaoopois^ ftv-^*db-p6iz'. a. 

(ac»). Aland of we^ht, of vri^kh a pound 

comaiaafizteoft oonccsy and it in prapartkm 

t»>y9HATlKi7a» 17 to M- 

b611 ;—• &n f-*p^&nd ;— /^*n, this. 

AvoLATtoN,&v^.l4'aiAn. t. The fly. 

mg away. 
To A vouc H, i-v66t(h'. v. a. To affirm, 

to maintain ; to produce in favour of ano- 
ther ; to Tindicate, to juftify. 
Avouch, &•v6Clt^l^ s. (3X3)« Decla- 
ration, evidence. 
A VOUCH ABLE, ^v6(ttfli'4*bl. a. That 

may be aTouched. 
Avouch BR, &*v6iitfh'^r. s. He that 

To Avow, d.v6(l'. v. a. To juftify, to 

declare openly. 
AvowABLB, i-v6iLL'A-bl. a. That which 

may be openly declared. 
Avowal, &-v6ii'U. s. Juftificatory 

Avowedly, 4.v6(i'W-tt. ad. (364}* 

In an avowed manner. 
Avowee, 4v-6^-6'. s. He to whom 

the right of advowfon of any church be* 

Avowee, ft-v6fi'Ar. «. (98). He that 

avows or jvftifies. 
Avowry, a-vo^'rA. s. Where one takes 

adiArefs,thc taker (hall juftify for what caufe 

he took it ; which is called his avowry. 
Avowsal, &.v6{i^zal. s. (442). A 

Avowtry, &-vA{i'tr*. s. Adultery. 
AuRATE, iw'rite. s, A fort of pear. 
AuRELiA, iiw.ri'J64. A term iifcd 

for the firft apparent change of the eruca or 

maggot of any fpecics of inieds, the chry- 

Auricle, &w'rfi-kl. s. (405). The 

external ear ; two appendages of the heart, 

being two mufcular caps, covering the two 

ventricles thereof. 
Auricula, &.w-rlk'i^.la. s. Bear's ear, 

a flower. 
Auricular, &w-rlk'&-ldr. a. Witliin 

the fenfe or reach of hearing ; fecret, told 

in the ear. 
AuRicuLARLY, 2iw-rik'u-14r-W. ad. 

In a fecret manner. 
Auriferous, kw.rirf&-rj^s. a. That 

which produces gold. 
Au RIG AT ION, &w»r£-g4'ihAn. s. The 

ad of driving carriages. Not ufed* 
Aurora, Iiw.r6'ri. 5.(545). A fpe- 

des of crowfoot ; the goddefs that opens the 

gates of day, poetically the morning. 
Auscultation, kwf-ki^l-t&'fli£in. s. 

A hearkening or Mcoing to. 
AvsFici, &wTpl$. s. (140) (142). 

The oiBcni of any future uDdertakJog drawn 




0^ (559)*--F&tet Ar, fill* fit ;-^«)^, m^ ;— ] 

from bird*; protedion ; favour (bewn ; in- 
fluence ; ffood deriTed to ochert irom tlie 
piety of their patron. 

AuspiciAL, iw fplih'il. a. (192)* Re- 
lating to prognofUckt. 

Auspicious, &w-fplfh'^. a. (292). 

• With omcnt of fuccefs ; profperoua, fortu- 
aate; &voiirable, kind, propitious ; lucky, 
liappy, applied to things. 

AusPicioufiLYf ^w-fplfh'&sJ^. ad. 
Happily, profperoufly. 

AusPiciousNEsSy &W-rpUh'As-D^. 8. 
Profperity, happinels. 

AusTEKE, &w-ft^«'. a. Severe, harfhy 
rigid ; four of taftc, harih. 

AusTBRELY9&w-ft£re-l^.ad. Sevorely, 

AusTEREMEss, &w-(l^'n^s. s. Seve- 
rity, flridnels, rigour ; voughneis in tafte. 

Austerity, kW-ft^r'A-tA. s. (511). 
beveritya mortified life, fiiidneft ; crueky ; 
harih difcipline« 

Austral* kws^tr^. a. Southern. 

AusTRiNEy kw&'trin. a. (140}. 

AuTHENTicAL, kw-Ziftdn't^-kH. a. Au- 
thcntick. (509.) 

Authentically, J^w./iJdn'tA-k4U^- 
ad* With circumfbnces requifite to pro- 
cure authority. 

n£s. s. The quality of being authen* 
tic, genuincnels. 

To Authenticate, kw-4i>ia't^kitt. 
▼. a. To eftabllfh any thing by authority. 

f^ I have inCnted this word without any 

precedent from our other DiAionaries ; but 

It is, in my opinion, fuffidently eftabliihed 

by good u&ge to give it a place in all of 

Authemticity, &w-/i(&i»tis'sM^. s. 

Authority, genninencis. 
Authentick, &w-/Mn'tik. a. That 

which has every thing requifite to give it 

Authemticklt, kW'tUxiftlk'l^, ad. 

After an authentick manner. 
Authenticknbss, &w-^Mn'tik«n&. s. 

Author, Aw'/Mr. s. (98) (418). 

The firft beginner or mover of any thing; 

the efficient, he that efie^s or produces any 

thing; the firft writer of any thing ; a writer 

in general. 

Authoritative, kw^Atr^^k'tit. a. 
Having^ doe aiitbdrity ; IttY&ig ad fthr d ta- 

iC, pin ;.^ 

AuTHOaiTATIVBLYf iw-/Mrt-tA-tiv- 

\L ad. In an authoritative manner^ 
with a fliew of authority ; with due aatho- 

Authoritativenrss, iw-lMr'^t^- 
tiv-^t^s. 8. AuthoritatiTe appear- 

Authority, &w-M&r'*-td. s. Legal 
power; influence, credit; power, tnle; fiip- 
port, countenance ; teftimony, credibility. 

fy' This word is fometimes pronounced as if 
written Mutarity. This atteftcd prommcia^ 
tion is traced to a gentkoun who watMie 
of the greateft ornaments of the law,as weB 
as one of the politeft fcfaolors of the afe,aiid 
whofe authority has ben fufficient to fwsy 
the bench and the bar, though a»<kr, mtitm^ 
tu,theairegthc«ry, &C. and athouland fimilar 
words where the tb is heard, are coitftantly * 
ftaring them in the face. 

The public ear, however, is not fo far vitiated 
as to acknowledge this innovation ; for 
though it may with fecurity, and even »]»«> 
probation, be pronounced in Welhntnfter 
Hall, it would not be quite fo iaf e for an 
ador to adopt it oft the ftage. 

I know it will be faid, that mtoriku is better 
Latin, that the purer Latin never had the ^^ 
and that our Word, which is derived f^om it, 
ought, on that account, to omit it. But it 
may be obferved, that, according to the bcfl! 
Latin critics, the word ought to be written 
«anlferite#, add that according to this reafon* 
ing, we ought to write and prooounce mAv- 
rify and aaihr : but this, I prefume, is fai> 
ther than thefe innovators would chonfe to 
go. The truth is, fuch fingularities of pro« 
nunciation fliouldbe left to the lower order 
of aitics; who, like coxcombs in drefa, 
would be utterly unnoticed if they were not 
diftinguiihed by petty delations from the 
reft <^ the world. 

AuTHORtzATioHy&w./i^'r^zA'niAn. s. 
£ftablifiwicnt by authorit]^* 

To AuTKORizE, &w7M-ri«e. v. tu 
To give authoritf to any peifoo ; to mAc 
any thing legal; to ellablifli any thing hf 
authority ; to juftify, to provo a thing to be 
right; to give credit to any perfon or thing* 

AuTocRASY) kW't6k'tk*itt. s. 1518). 
Independent power. 

AuTOGRAPK, kw't&'grU. s. A paxtw 
cnlar perfon's own vrritaig, the originaL 

AuroGRAPiiicAi.r iw-td-gr&d-UlL 
a; Of one's own writinr. 

Automatical, ^W'tMnit^d-kll. a. 
Having the poW«t of moving ididl. 

AuTOMATOK,4w-tdia^&-t6ii. s. A; ma* 
ehiB< that hath th<(«iR^«f inoli«B 1' 

A W F 



— i>i, m&rt^ o4r, ndi;— rtbe, tAb, bUI ;— 611 ;— pAftad z^tMn, jn 


i4rous« W^«€iViD'i445. a. H$r- 

r ID mkU ike iMwer ef inMsoa. 


A I 


L , f . Ocular 4f 



fri^rd by Ofli^'i 

AuTUMHAi-^ iw-t4m^ft«l* a* Belong- 
ing to 
AvoL&ioH, ivyfiVftiftfw u The aa of 

AUE> z-^ib.S. (478) (520J 

At/IJLJdil, 41T^^ (47^)' 

3 IT' 



i-^rt'. T :i. 

To «pca. 
' ' ift ftoro for- 

A . uih. 

X*'* "^» • * ^ • , a-vrii(r . v. a. To roufe 
wt tit i}r^p ; tanufc &om 3&j Itite rd<»v» 
Uts»g Ovrf ; 10 |iut loto new kIiou. 

To AvAKE* fi.-"w?4kc\ V, fi. To brdak 

AwAi^tt i*wikc'* B. Wiibotit fleepv 
To .\W4iCB, &*wilin* (to^). See 

To .aw4ftii» i-wird'. v, a. To ad^ 
jiM%c fo gtf« <ttf tkxti^ ^j i judkkl ieii< 
t^cet to f94fe» 19 dacrmme« 

AwAmti, Ir^v^bd'. s. Judgmenti fen* 
iCDcc« iVti If m mti on ■ 

A u A fr t^ 4^«4fe^ a- VigiUnt , atteti* 

To A will, ft*wire^ V, lu To beware, 

AwAT, iid- Abfent, from 

m^ ^U ^ -c*^ tec ut^D; bcgoBe ; out 

A VI, Aw. r. 

Tv A^t, i% 

To ftrlke t?pitb 

11^1. a. (r 

A cfitck. 

rtnpff ; ittxdKipAiJ^ ioiFtftcd with < 

AwFULtf , iw^fJil-k. ad. In m reti 
rcntkl fn&ttner- 

Awi ■ . ' '"■ I nH. », Tb#" 

ititC tJl tK-li:- I'TUCK wur) tWC 

AwtitLm, 4-bwilc'. id^ (|97)' So»k 
Aw K WAR©, AwkV^rd, a. (47$ )« 

handy , chmUy LLiUuwBrd* 

AwKWARDLY.nvjc vvLixd'l^.ad. Clmn* 

AwKW4iii>Nf;ss» &%vkVdrd^Qlf^ f. 
[iickfancc, WKDt of gcfitiliiy, clumSiirJk 

AwLt all. ft* A ptijmcd inilrvineq 

to bore holes* 
Aw LI 5 St Aw'l^s. a. Withont tcw< 

f enct I wilKvuc th^ power af e^ttfing i 

AwME« iwiB. i* A Dutch ine^fur 

anfwcring rn what iu Er>gldiid ui billed I 

tji^rc^, or ane^rcvcnth of an EngLljh tiiii* 
Awning, iw'nlrig- s. (410). A cove 

fprc^Ld over a boiic vr vc^ to keep nS ih 

AwQKt* k-whW* The pmctiie of 


A won If 4*w^rk'- ad. (165). On 

workfiO a ftate of lItbQllf. 
AwDltKlSCt ti-wt^ik mg- ad. In the 

flue of working* 
AwRVt i'^i^ ad. (474). Noi ill 9 

ftrtight djrcdiofTf oblh^uely i afqiiint, with j 

obhqut vifion ; not ifvcU uaevcnij \ fiefl 

c^uilJy bcewccii iwo pomtf ; fiot in i right 

(bte, psrverfcly* 
A X £ iki^ £ A n i n fl ru m en c conf lAi ng 

of a ntcul h«ad, with a fharp edge. 
AriLLAa, 4k£'ftll4S.r, 47S)- 

Bcltinging Co the 9rDipit*^-S(ce MAitfr*! 


Alt 10 M, ak'ihftm. s (479). A propo- 

{tlion eTidciit it firA nghc< 

AiiSi dk'slf. £ The 1iTie» real or 
ir!iii|rin&ry, that paflVf through wnf thmgn«m j 
which k m&y revoLvc. 

AxL^i ^k'sL (401 )« 

The pin whicK paflei through the mtdft o£| 
tlic wheel, on wivieh the cireufnvohitioPiof j 
iht: whc^l arc perfomicd. 

Ay, kL ad. f lOf ). Yes. 

g^ Si?c Dire^ont ta Fordgtivrit prefi«<^ to 




^ (559) — ^**«» ^^9 fl^U ^*» — m*, mit ;— pine, pin;— 

ArSt iL ad. Always, to eternity, for 

ever.'gr^^n. s. The fame with 

Avar, i'r^.a« See Aiar. 

Azimuth, iz^^-rndtB, &• The axi- 
muth of the fun, or of a ftar, it an arch be* 
tween the meridian of the place and any 

given tertical fine ; magnctical osiaiQtb, is 
an arch of the horlsoo contained becween 
thefan*6azinuith cirde and the mcgiictical 
meridian; azimuth compaia, ia .an inftru* 
ment ufed at (ea for finding the Cm** ntag* 
netical azimuth. 
Azure, 4'zh&re, a. (484) (461). 
Blne» faint blue. 



AA, b&, s. (77). The cry of a 
V. n. To cry like a 

To BkAf hi 

To Babble, bib1)l. v. n. (405}. To 

prattle like a child ; to talk idly $ to tell fe> 

cretf ; to talk much* 
Babble, hib'bL s. Idle talk, fenfelefs 

Babblsmen T,b&b'bl-2n^t . s. Senfelefs 

Babbler, bib'blilir. s. (98% An idle 

talker ; a teller of fccrets. 
Babb, b4be. s. An infant. 
Babery, b4'bAr-rA. s. (SSS)' Knery 

to pleafe a babe or child. 
Babish, bA'bifb. a. Cbildilh. 
Baboon, b4-b66a^ s. A monkey of 

the largeft kind. 
Baby, b4'b6. s. vulgarly bSb'b*. A 

child, an infant ; a fmall hnage in imiution 

of a child, which girls pUy with. 
Baccated, bftk'k4-t£d.a. Befet with 

pearls. Having many berries. 
Bacchanalian, b&k-kft-n4'l^-dn. s. A 

Bacchahals, b&k'k&-d[lz. f. l*he 

drunken feafts of Bacchus. 
Bax:chv8 Bole, b&k'kAs-bAle. s. A 

flower, not tall, but very full and broad 

BACciFejtous,b&k-slf£-rAs. a. (555). 

Bachelor, b&tfli'Mdr. s. A man un- 
married ; a man who takes his firft degrees ; 

a knight of the loweft order. 
Bachelor's Button, b4tfli'MArz< 

bdt'tn. s. (170}. Campion, an 

BACHeL0RSHip,b4tfh'^-ldr-fhip.s« The 

condition of a bachelor. 

Back, b&k. s. The binder part of the 
body \ the outer part of the hand when it 
11 flmc) the rear; the place behind; the 
part of any thing out of fight ; the thick 
part of any tool, oppofed to the edge* 

Back, bik. ad. To the place whence 
one came ; backward from the preiiient fka* 
tioii ; behind, not coming forward ; toward 
tilings paft ; again, in return ; again, a ic* 
cond time. 

To B A c K, b4k. V. a. To mount a horfe ; 
to break a horfe ; to place upon the back ; 
to maintain, co ftrengthcn; to juftify, to 
fupport ; to fecond. 

To Backbite, b4k1>lte. v. a. To cen- 
fure or reproach the abfent. 

Backbiter, b^k'bi-tdr. s. A privy ca- 
lumniator, cenfurer of the abfent. 

Backd. or, bdk'dore. s. The dooi be- 
hind the houfe. 

Backed, bdkt. a. (359)* Having a 

Backfriend, bik'frdnd. s. An enemy 

Backgammon. b*k-gam'ni"n. s. A 
play or game with dice aiidubies. ; 166.) 

Back- ousb. l>a.»^'hui*iic. s. . ne build- 
ings behind the chief part Qf the houle. 

Backpibcf, Kkpt^le. s. The piece of 
armour which covers the back. 

Backroom, ba.k'ra6m. s. A room be* 

Backside, bik'slde. s. The hinder 
part ofany thing; the hind Jfiart of 'an ani- 
mal ; the yard or ground behind a houfe. 

To Backslide, bak-ilidc'. v. 0.(497). 
To faU off. 

0* I have in this word preferred Dr. John- 
fon*$ accentuation on the fecond lyllaUe, to 
Mr. Sheridan's on the firft ; for the reafona 
fee principles under the number marked. 
J>r. Aih, Entick, 5GMt| and Perry, are on 


B A F 


B A K 

•* sAy Tn^TCy tk&Tf n&t; t&be» tl^b, biMI ^— ^U ;— -p^und ; — //^in^THis. 

Bafflvr. hXi'Mr. s. (98). He that 

Ac fide of Mr. Sheridan ; and Dr. Johnfon 
anii W. Johnfton only on thit which 1 have 
cbofea ; hut Mr. Sheridan and Dr. Afh, by 
markiog the noun kickjlider with the accent 
on the fecond fyllable, as it it always heard, 
have betrayed their prominciation of the 
verb ; for one of thefe modes ntuft be wrong, 
a» the verbal nbun mud nnqaeftiooably have 
the fame accent as the verb. 

BACKst.iDERy l>ik-fli'ddr. s. (98}. An 

Backsta? r,bdk'fUr. s. An indniment 

ufeful in taking the fun*» altitude at fea. 
Bacsstairs, blk'ftdrz. s. The private 

SUin in the houfe. 
Backstays, bdk'dize. s. Ropes 

which keep the mail from pitching for- 

Backsword* blk's6nL s. A fword 

vrlch one /harp edge. 
BACK«r.4RD3> bdkV-ird'z, ad. (88). 

'With tht back forwards ; towards the back ; 
on the back ; from the prclent ftation to 
the place behind ; regreilively ; towards 
fomething pad ; out of the progrcflive date ; 

from a better to a worfe date ; pad, in time 

Backvabd, bdk'wilird. a. Unwilling, 

averfe; heiitstiag; flaggiih» dilatory ; duU, 

HOC qoick, or ipprchenfive. 
B AcitwAAD, bdkVdrd. ad. The tilings 


Backwarolt, bik'wiird-K. ad. Un- 

wdlingly, averfely. 

iiefii, finggiflmc^ 
• Baoim, bd'kn. 8,(170). The flefliof a 

hog ^ted and dried. 
Bad, bid. a. Ill, not good; vicious 

corrapr; imfnrtonau, unhappy; hurtful, 

nnwholefome i iick. 
Bao&, bid. (75). The preterite of 


Badoe, bidje. s. (74)» A mark or 

cognizance worn ; a token by which one is 

known ; the mark of any thing. 
To Badge, b4djc. v. a. To mark. 
BADGBR^bld'jikr.s. (98). A brook, an 

Badger,^ bid^^. s. One that buys 

eom uhd riAaak m one place, and carries it 

hito azsoeher. 
Baovy. bad'W. ad. Not well. 
Badhess, bad'nds. t. Want of good 


To Baffli, hiPfL V. a. (405). To 


Bag, bag. s. A fack, or pouch ; that 
part of animals in which fome particular 
juices are contained, as the potfon» of vipers; 
an ornamental purfe of filk tied to men's 
hair ; a term ufed to fignify quantities^ as a 
bag of pepper. 

To Bag, bag. v. a. To put into a 

bag ; to load with a bag. 

To Bag, bug. v. n. To fwcU like a full 

Bagatellr, bag-a-t^r. s. A trifle. 

Not Englifh. 
Baggage, big'gldjc. s. f9o). The 

furniture of an army ; 1 worthlcfs woman. 
Bagnio, ban'yo. s. f388J. A houfe 

for bathing and fweating. 
Bagpipe, bAj'pipc. s. A muncal in* 

ilrument, condiling of a leathern bag, and 

Bagpipf R. bag'pi-pur. s. {98). One 

that plays on a bagpipe. 

Ba'l, bale. s. Bail i- the fieeing cr fct- 
ting at liberty one arrcded or imprifoned 
upon a«5lion either civil or criminal, under 
fecurity taken for his appearance. 

To Bail, bdle. v. a. To give bail for 
another ; to admit to bail. 

Bailable, bd'la-bl. a (405). That 
may be fet at liberty by bail. 

Bailiff, bi'lif. s. A luborJinate offi- 
cer, an officer whofe bufmefs it is to execute 
arrcfls } an under-fteward of a manor. 

Bailiwick, bdl^-wlk. s. The place of 
the jurifdidlion of a bailiff. 

To Bait, bate. v. a. To put meat to 
tempt animals. 

To Bait, b4te. v. a. To fct dogs up- 

To Bait, bite. v. n. To ftop at any 
place for refrelhment ; to clap the wings, to 

Bait, bite. s. Meat fet to allure ani- 
mals to a fnare ; a temptation, an entice* 
ment ; a refrelhment on a journey. 

Baize, bize. s. A kindof coane open 

To Bake, bike. v. a. To heat any 
thing in a clofe place ; to drefs in an oven ; 
to harden in the fire ; to harden with heat. 

To Bake, bake, v. n. To do the work 
of baking. 

Bakf HOUSE, bike1i6^ife. s. A place 

for baking bread. 
Baker, bi'kur. s. (98). He whofe 

trade is to bako* 


B A L 


H A C 

C^ (S59)-— l^^te, ftri Rll, flt ;~Tni, m^t ;— pine, p\tk ;— 

B^tANCB, blll^bfe. s. A patr of 

fcales ; the adt of comparing two things ; 

- the overplus of weight ; that which it want- 

■ sog to make two parti of au account cvoa ; 

cquipoife ; the b^ing part of a watch ; in 

afironomy» one of the figns, Libra. 

To Balancb, Wllinfc. v. a. To weigh 
in a balance ; to cotrnterpotTc ; to regiilate 
an account ; to pay that which it wanting. 

To Balance, bM'Mlnfe. v. n. To hefi- 
tate, to flttfiuatc. 

Balancrr, bal'14n-fiir. s. The pcrfon ; 
that wcighjj. 

BAi,A88RuBy,b41'if-r&'b6.s. A kind 
of Ruby. 

Balcomv, bdl-Wh^. s. A frame of 
wood, or ftone, before the window of a 

Bald, b^wld* a. Without hair ; with- 
out natural corering ; unadorned^ inelegant; 
ftripped, without dignity. ^ 

Balderdash, biwl'dftr-d^fli.s. Rude 

pALDLY, b&wldl^. ad* Nakcdly^mcan- 
ly, inelegantly. ' 

BaldmonY) b4wld'mAn-n5. s. Gen 
tian, aplant. 

Baldness, biwld'nfis. s. The want of 
hair ; the loft of hair ; meannels of wait- 

Baldrick, bSiwl'drlk. s. A girdle ; the 

Bale, bile. s. A bundle of goods, 

Baleful, bile'fld. a. Sorrowful, fad; 
full of mifchicf . 

Balepully, bMc'fiil-K, ad. Sorrow- 
fully, mifchic^oufly. 

Bali, Wiwk. s. (402) (84). A great 

Balk, b^wk. ?. A ridge of land left 

Balk, bawk. s. Difappointment when 

To Balk, b^wk. v. a. (402). To dif- 
appoint, to fruftrate ; to mifs aoy thing. 

Balkem, bkw'kiirz. s. (98). Men 
who give a fign whidi way the (hoai of 
• herruigfris. 

Ball, b4wl. 8.(33) (77)' Any thing 
made in a lennd form ; a round thing to 
play with ; a globe ; a globe borne as an 
cnfign of foYereifpity ; any part of the body 
that approaches to roundneft. 

BALL,biwL s» An cntertainnient of 

Ballad, ball&d. s. A fong. 

Ballad-singer, bffllid-sing-fir. s. 

One whofe employment is to fisg baHa<& iar 

Ballast, bill^ft. s. (88). Somethings 

put at the bottom of the fiitp to keep it ika* 

Ballbtte, bdlldt. s. . A dance. 
Balloon, b&M66n'. s. A laree round 

(hort-necked veflel ufisd in chymiSry s a bad! 

placed on a pilfer; a ball of pafteboard, Chif« 

fed With combuftible matter, which is flioc 

up into the air. and then burfts ; a large hol- 
low ball of filk filled with gas^ which makes 

it rife into the air. 
Ballot, bUIAt. s. (166). A little baH 

or ticket ufcd in ^viog votes; the aft of 

voting by ballnt. 
To BALtoTjbaiflt, T. n. To choofc 

by ballot. 
Ballotatioic, MlJA-ti'fhftn. s. The 

ad of voting by ballot. 
Balm, bftm. s. (403). The fap or juice 

of a Ihrub, remarkably •doriferous; any 

vahiable or fragrant ointment ; any thin^ 

that fooths or mitigates pain* 
BALMyb^m.s. Thenameof aplaxit* 
Balm of Gilead» \Am of gll'yid. s^ 

The juice dffswn.frooi the balfiun tree; «. 

pUnt having a ftfoogbaUalntcfoenc 
Balmy, b&m'A* a. (403). Hiving the 

qualitfcsof bafan; producing babn; fbolfaisg* 

foft ; fragrant, odorifeiCnis ; mitigathig, af-- 

BALNEAEY,b41'nA-4-r6.$..A bathing* 

Balneation^ b41-n£*&'fli6n. s. The vuEt 
of bathing.. . 

Balnbatory, bil'n^A-tAr.rt. a. Be.- 
longing toa bath. (5i») isS7)' 

Balsam, bkwl'Rkm. s,(88). Omtment, 

Balsam Apflk> bitwlTiim-ap-pL $• 
An Indian plant. 

BALeAMicAL,b41-s4m'^.Wl. (S4). > 

BALSAMicic>WLl-sto'lk. (509)» > 
a. Unduous, mitigating. 

BALUSTBADP.,bdl-flf-trAde'. s. Rowv 
of little pillars called baluftfrs. 

f^'h'u word is often corrupted into baniftert ,. 
as the bafiifters of a ftaireafe. • 

Baluftrade means the row of fmall pillars fiip- 
porting the guard of a ftaircafe, taken col* 
fedively ; as a colonnade means a oolledim 
of columns in regular order ; bnt,befidea this 
cbUedive term, there i* the diftribative B»- 
lufters ; meaning cither the whole hi the 
bahifttode, or any part of k ; as «adi of the 
fmall pillarslbtt compofe It tnarbedOMa 

B A V 



— nb^jaa^n, nAr, n^t i^tAb«» t4b, kill ;--dll j~p6ftnd ;— ^i^in, this. 

^AMsoOf bam-bid'. s. An Indian 

plant of the rced kind. 
To Bam^ooilk, bdm-b^d. v. a. To 

decoTc, to impede opon. A low. word. 
BA11BOOZ1.BR9 b&m-bdd'di&r. s. A 

B4»> baa. s. Public notice given of 
any thing ; a cvrfe ; cxcMnmamcatioo ; in- 
UX^^dotki Ban of the Empire, 1 public 
cenfiirc by which the privileges of any Gci- 
man prince are fui^nded. 

Bam AMA Ta£e, bi-ni'iii-tr££. s. Plan- 

BAVDvbtnd. fi. A tytf a bandajge, a 
<3baan hy which any animal is kept in re- 
ftrunt ; any mion or connexion ; any thing 
boandroD&d another ; a company of perfons 
joined together ; a pwtkidar kind of neck- 
cloth worn chidly by the clergy ; in ardii- 
te^ure, any flat km motlding, fada, face, 

To 3am», biad. r. a* To unite toge 
cber into one body ar tfoop; to hind over 
with ahood* 

BA«DAOE,binMldje. s. (90). Some- 
tlung bonndover another ; the fillet or rolp 
ler wnqpi^ over a wounded member. 

I^AHvmuh b4nd1)6ks. s. A flight box 
niied for bands atnd other things of fm^ll 

Basuelst, bin'dtAiu 8« Any .flat 
moiiJdiiy or fiUef . 

Bandit, bdn'dlt. 1 ^ a ^ ^„^ 

lawed robber. 
8AN0ifTi,ybEi'«ilt't6. s. A company 

of outlawed robbers. 
Bah DOG, bdn'd6g. .s. A roaftiff. 
BAMDOLKiifta,bdaJ6-lMrz\ s. Small 

wooden cafes covered with kather, caeh of 

them oootaaung powder that is a fufficient 

cfaaige for a mnlket. 
BAHDftoi., Ubd'rAU. s. A little flag or 

BAiinv, b^'d^. s. A club tnraed 
raund at bottom for llrddng a ball. 

To Bandy, b4a'd^. v. a. To beat to 
a^d fto^or from one to another; to give and 
takereaprocifiy ; to agitate, to tols about. 

BAmDYhBOfMA'dibA^g* s. Aorooked 

£AND7i.BaoED,Ub'd^l^d. a. Hav« 

mg crooked legs. (3^)« 
Banb, bAne. s. Poifon; mifcbief^ 

To Bani, biLne. r. a. To pciisbn. 
BAagfiiH Mae'f&L »• Poiibnout ; do- 

BANEFULiiKss,bAne'ftl.n^s.s. Pbifon- 

oulhefs, defiruai^encis. 
Banewort, bAnc'wdrt. s.(88). Dead* 

ly nightihadc. 
To Bang, b4ng. v. a. (409). To beat, 

to thump ; to handle roughly. 
Bang, bing. s. A blow, a thump. 
To Banish, bin'nifk. v. a. To con- 
demn to leave his own conuiry i to drive 

Banish ER, bin^nifli-Ar. s. He that 

forces another Arom his own ooontry. 
BANishMfcNT, bin'nlfli-m^nt. s. Tbe 

aA of bancflung another 1 the Hue of being 

baniihed, caile. 

Bank, b4nk. s. (409). Tlie earth ru 

fing 00 aach fide of a water ; any heap of 

e^rth piled upt a beach of rowen ; a place 

where money is laid up to be called /or oc- 

cafionally ; the eampany of perfons concent 

ed in managing a bank. 
To Bank, bdnk. v. a. To lay up mo* 

ney in a bank ; to inclofe with banks. 
Bank-bili., bdnk'bilL s. A note for 

money laid up in a bank; at the fight ol 

which the money is paid. 
Banker, bdnk'&r. s. (98). One that 

traflicks in money. 
Bankruptcy, b&nk^h!kp.s<^. s. (473)* 

The fiate of a man broken, or bankrupt; 

the aA of declaring onc*s felf bankrupt. 
Bankrupt, ybk'rilpt a. In debt be« 

yond the power of payment. 
Banner, bftn'n^ir. s. (98). A flag, a 

fiandard ; a ibeamcr borne at the end of a 

Banneret, bdn'nAr-^L s. A knight 

made in the field. 
Bannerol, b^n'nAr-r611. s. {SS5)» A 

little flag or ftreamer. 
Ban N IAN, b&n-yin^ s. A man^s un- 

dreis, or morning gowa. 
Bannock« bin'nJkk. s. (166). A kind 

of otten or peafe-meal cake. 
BANQykT, b4nk'kw^t. s. (408). A 

To Banquet, bank'kw^t. v. n. (409)« 

To feaft, to fare daiatily. 
Banc^u eter, bink'lcw6t-ftr. s. A feaft- 

cr ; one that lives delicioufiy ; he that inake* 


BANoyET-irouEB, bink'kw^t- 

BANQUETING-itOVflSi b^Dk'kv^t- 





B A R 

(Cjr (559). — Tkttf fir, fill, fit ^— m^, mdc ;«-pin€, pin ;-^ 

Banquet re, bdnkk£t\ s. A fmall 
bank at the foot of the parapet* 

BANsri LK, hdn' s. {405). A 
fmall fi(h, a ftlc]det»ack. 

To Ban rtK, bin'tAr. v. a. (98). To 
pldy upon, to rally. 

Banter, ban'tAr. & Ridicule, rail- 

B.>. sERsiL, b&n^tAr-iir. s. Ooe that 


B^wciNO, bintllrg. &. A little 

Ba? I i8M,bdp'tlzni. s. Baptifm is giv« 

. CD by water, and that' prefcript form of 

words which the church of Chrift doth ufe ; 

baptifm is often taken in Scripture for fuf- 


B^PTrsMAL, bip-tlz'mil. a. Of orpcr- 
talning to baptifin. 

Baptist, bip'tift. s. He'thatadminif- 
tcrs baptifm. 

Bapti'stbry, bftp'tlf-tiar-i 8, (555). 
The place where the lacramcDt of baptifm 
is admiaiftcred. 

Tn bAPTisu. bap-tize' v. a. To 
chriflen, to adminifter thsiacrament of b^H 

BA?'risp:R, bAp-ti'zi\r. s. (98), One 
that chriilea«» one that adminifters bap- 

BAk.bir. s. fyj), A piece of vrood 

' bid acrofs a paflage to hinder entrance ; a 
bolt to faften a door ; any obftftcle *, a rock 
•or bank at the entrance of a harbour ', any 
thing nfcd for prevention ; the place where 
canfes of law are tried ( an indofed place in 
a tavern where the honfekeei^er fits; in law, 
a peremptory exception againft a demand or 
plea; any thing by whidi theilrudure is 
held' together; ban in moiic, are ib'okes 
drawn petpen<ticularly acrofs the lines of a 
piece of mufic, ufed to regulate the beating 
or meafure of mufical time. 

To Bar. bir v.a.Tofaftenorfliutany 
thing with a bolt, or bar ; to hinder, to ob- 
Amd ; to prevent ; to flmt out from ; to ex- 
clude from a chim ; to prohibit ; to except ; 

Barb, b&rb. s. Any thing that grow^ 
in the place of the beard ; the points that 
iland backward in an arrow ; the armour for 

Barb, b&rb. s. A Barbary horfe. 

To Barb, Wrb. v. a. To (have, to 
dreis out the beard, to fnmiih the horfi^ with 
armour ; to jag arnwi with hooks. 

Barbacan, b&r1)d-kAn. s. A foitifica- 
tsoo flaced bcfwB dMw^«f «tdinii«a 

opening in the wall throogh which the giuiB 
are levelled. 

Bakbadoes ChcrrY) bir-bi'ddz 
tih^r'r*. s. 166). A picafantiait 
fruit in the Weft Indies. 

Barbarian* bir -b^'r^-in. s. A man 
uncivilized, a favage; a foreigner; a aaaa 
without pity. 

Barbarick, bilr-b&r'ik. a« Fordgn* 

Barbarism, b&r^i-rlzm. s. A form of 
fpeech contrary to the purity of language ; 
ignorance of atts, want of learning ; brutali- 
ty, favagenels of manners, indvihty ; cmei- 
ty, hardiiefs of heart. 

Barbarity, bir44r^£^£« s* Savage- 
neis, tndvility ; cruelty, inhumanity ^ impu- 
rity -of fpeech. 

Barbaro.'s, b^r'bft.rA8« a«« (3I4)- 
Stranger to dvilit]^ lavage, una vilixc^ ; un- 
acquainted with arts ;.cniel, inhumao. 

Barbarously, b&r'b&r^s-I^ ad. 
Without knowledge of arts; in a matmer 
contrary to the rule* of fpeedi ; craeUy, iiH 

Barbarousness, bftr^bi rflf-n^. s. 
Incivility of manners; impurity of bttgi^agcs 

To Barbbcub, bir'bi-kft. v. a. A 
' term for drelTing a hog whole. 

Barbecitb^ bir'b^-k^, % Ahogdref. 
fed whole. 

Barbed, bir'bdd, or birbM. (362). 
Fumflhed with armour ; bearded, jagged 
with hooks. * 

Barbel, b&nbl... 8. (102} (405^ A 
kind of fifh found in rivers. 

Barbbh, b^r'bih-. s. (98). A man 
who fliaves the beard. 

BARBERRY/bir^bdr-r^. s. Pippcridgj: 

Bakd, b4rd.«. (77). A poet. 

Bare, b^re, a. Naked/vithout cover- 
ing; uncovered in refped ; unadorned, plain, 
fimple; dete^ed, without concealment; 
pocN*, without plenty; mere; threadbare, 
much Worn ; not united with any thing elfe- 

To Bar£.. b4re. v. a. To ftrip* 

Bare, b^re. preterite of TccBear. A1« 
moft obfolete. 

Barrboms, b4re'b&ne.s. A very leaa 

pcrfoo. ^ 
Barefaced, b&re-fifte'* a. (359)* 

With the face naked, not maiked ; Ihame- 

BARPFACROLy,b&re-ftfte^&ad. Open- 

ly,ihamelcf»Iy, without di%«ifc* isM' 




BAREVooTED,bdire'f&tpU. a. Without 

— uA, mftve, nAr, niti-i-tfibct ttt, bill ;-^U ;-^p6imd ?-^iJin, this. 

BAKCFACiD«fi«8t b&re^f4fte'n^s. s. of aobifitj next to z TiTcoiim; baroo »one 

ffrontciy , affurance, sndadonitids. ^365*. of the judges in rhe court of exchequer; 

BiiEFOOTp b4i«Kit. a. Without there arc »Jfo barooi of the dnque port% 

that have places iii the lower houlSe ot par* 

liament ; hunn k ufed in law for the bu£i 

band in relation to his wife. 
Bar ON AG x» b^r'riin4dje. s* (90). 

The dignity of a haron. 
Baron Es Si. birV^n-es. u (557)* A 

baron's lady. 
Bar< net, bdrVdn-it. t. (557). Tb« 

loweft degree of honour that is hereditary ; 

ic is below a baron, and above a knight. 
Barony, bir'run-^. • {557). That 

honoHT or lordfllip that gtv«s title to a b»* 

BAEBHEAPEDt bib^U>d£<l« ft, Un- 
covtfcd in rdptfd* 

Barsi^Ti bixc'l^ ad. Nakedly, mere- 
ly, enlx. 

BAAENEsSt bdre^n£s. t« Nakedneft; 
W a im e ft ; poverty; mcanscfs of clothes. 

Ba&gai«« b&r'gin. 9, (208). A con- 
traft or afrreeracnt coocoitiiig lale ; the 
ttuBsbeoghtorfiuld; ftipnlatkn. 

To bAncAi«,b4t'gm. V. n. To make 

a comraA Car fide. 
B A&G Aiii£Ey b&T^^n-Q^^. s. He or ibe 

that mcccpts a bargain. 
BjiRGAfNCR, hkrgiik'B&r.s. (98). Tbe 

pcrioo who pndlen jor asaket a bargain. 
BargEs: bArjcm s. A bo^t for pleaiure i 

a iMat for burdeo*- 

Ba&c^», b&T3«k. s, (98). The man* 

ager of a barge. 
Baex, b^k. s. Tbe rind or covering 

mi a tne) a fiaaH Ihip* 
To Bark, b&rk. ▼. a. To ftrip trees of 

To Bark, hkxkm ▼. n. To make tlie 

noife whjcb a dog unkea; to clamour at. 
Barxir, b&r'ktb*. s.' V98). One that 

barlEs or daoievs ; one employed in firip^ 

puig trees. 
Barky, bkrl^i. su Confiftmg of bark. 
BAB.I.ET, bit^. s. (a^p). A graittf of 

vsluchmalt i» nnde« 
BAaLMBRAKE, b&r^^-bfike.s. A kind 

of raral piay . 
Baai.s7cor«9 bkr^^-khrVL •• A pain 

of barky. 
Barii« b4nn. s. Yeft, the ferment put 

mto drinkto make it work. 
Barmy, b^m^ a* Containing barm. 
Barr, bim. s. A place or houfe for 

laying <p any fort of grain, hay, or ftraw. 
Barmacle, b&r'na-U. s. 140;}. A 

bird like a goofe, fabulouOy fuppofed to 

groir 00 trees ; aipeciea of ftell mh. 
fiAROM£T£R, bl»r&m'm^tAr. s. (518% 

A jnachiBe for meaforing tike weight of the 

atmoAbcfc^ and the variationa ih it, m or- 

4cK diidi/ to detczmine the changes of 1 

BaromstricaLx baT-6-m^t'tr6-kll. a. 

Rcfatiag to ^le banmeter. (509) (siS)* 

BiUttii bia'v&ii. .•• (t66)t A degree 

BaeoscofRv b^r'r6>ik6pe.s. An in(lni« 
ment to fhev tbe weight of the atmof* 

Barracan, blr^r^kin. s. A drong 
thick kind of camelot. 

Barrack, bii'rik. s. Building to 
lodge ibldicrs. 

Barkator. bir'rd-tiif s. A wrangler, 
and encourager of law fuits. 

Bahra'try, Ulr'r4-cr6. 9. Foul prac- 
tice in bw. 

Barrel, biVrll. s. (99). A round 
wooden vclTel coke ftoppcd dofe ; a veflcl 
containing Ikjuor ; any thing hollow, as the 
barrel of a gun ; a cylinder. 

To Barrel, yir'fil. v. a. To put anf 
thing in a barreL 

Barren, bir'Tdn. a. Not prolifick ; un- 
fruitful, not fertile, fttt-ile; not copious, 
fcanty ; unmeaning, uaiiiventive, dull. 

Barrenly, b&r'ien-l^ ad. Unfruit« 

Barbenness, bftr'ri&n-n^. s. Want of 
the power of proacation; unfniitfuJncis, 
fterility ; want of invention ; want of mat^ 
tcr ; in theology, want of fenfibility. 

Barr£nwoht» bur'r^n-wdrt. s. A 

Barrful, b&r'Pill. a. Full of obftruc- 
■ tions^'properly Ba a ruL, 

Barricade, ba-ri-kide'. s. A forti- 
fication made to keep off an attack ; apy 
ftop, bar, obftru^on. 

To Barricade; bir-r^-kade'.v. a. To 
ftop up a paffage. 

Barricado, bAr-ri-k4'd6. s. A forti- 
fication, a luir..— ^cc Lumbago. 

To Barhicado, h&r<^'kk^\ ▼• a. To 

Barrier, bir'r^dr.E. (98). A bam- 
cadc, an entrenchment ; a fortification, or 
ftropg place i ailopyia ob&i?i^on ; a bar 




flC^ (559) — Fit«» fSit, PjlU, fdt }-^m^ si)& ;-r-plne, pin;r-<- 

to mark the limiu of any place ; a bound- 
f^ Pope, by the licenfe ot his art, pronouuced 
this word in two iyllablct, with the accent 
on the iafi, asif written bar^reer. 

" "Twixt that and reafon what a nice barrier/ 
•* Foi ever fcp*rate, yet for ever near." 

£Jay on Man, -5/». i. ▼. ai5. 
And yet in another part of his works he places 
the accent on the firft fyllable, as we always 
hear it in profe. 

*' Safe in the love of Heav*n an ocean flows 
" Around our realm, a harrUrftom the foes." 

BARHrsTER, bar'ris-tiV. s. A perfon 
qualified to plead the caiifes of clients in the 
courts of juftice. 

Bar.«<ov/, bar'row. s. Any carriage 
moved by the hand, as a hand-barrow. 

Barshot, b tr'ihC^t. §• Two ballets 
or half-bnlleta joined by a bar, and ofed 
chieiiy at fea to cut down the mads and rig- 
ging of ihips. 

To Barter, bar'ttlr. v. n. (98). To 
traflick by exchanging one commodity for 

To BXrtir, bir'tftn v. a. To give 
any thing in exchange. 

Baktbr, b&r'tiir, s.. The adl or prac- 
tice of trafficking by exchange. 

Barterer, bir't6r-iir. s« He that 
traffickaby exchange. 

Barter Y,bir'tiSr-r6. s. (SSS)* ^^' 
' Changs' of conunodities. 

Bartram, b&r^tr4m. s. A plant, 

Barytonv» b&r'^tAne. s. 

f^ A word with the grave accent on the laft 
fyllable. If the inipeAor does not know 
what k meant by the grave accent, it may 
be necefiary to inform hin, that writers on 
the Greek accent tell us that every fyllable 
which has not the acute accent has the grave; 
atid as there could but be one fyllable acuted 
in that language, the reft muft neceflarily 
be grave. What thefc accents are has puz- 
sled the learned fo modi that they feem 
neither to onderftand each other nor them> 
felves; but it were to be wiihed they had 
Isept this diftindion into acute and grave 
out of our own language, as it is impoffible 
to annex any dear ideas to it, except we 
confider the grave accent merely as the ab- 
fence'of the ac«te» which reduces it to no 
accent at all. If we divide the voice into 
its two leading inflexions, the riling and 
falling,, and call the former the acute and 
the latter the grave, we can annex diftin^ 
ideas to thefe words : and perhaps it is an 
ignorance of this difiio^uMl of fpeaking 

founcb, and confounding them with hi^ 
and low, pr loud and foft, that occaiions the. 
confuiion we meet vrith in writers on this 
fubjed. — See EUmemts 0/ £Uciit$oM,'ptge 6o. 
Alfo obfervatlons on the Greek and Latin 
Accent and Quantity, at the end of the K^ 
to ibe CUMcal Fnmuticlutkn 9/ Gredt tuidLatm 
Proper Namex* 

BASfit b4ie a. Mean, vilei worthlefs i 
difingenuous, illiberal, ungenerous ; of lofvr 
ilation, of mean account ; bafe>b9rtt, bom 
out of wedlock; applied to metals, witfacat 
value \ applied to founds, deep, grave. 

Base-born, bAl'e'bdrn* A. Bom out 
of wedlock. 

BAsif-couRT» biie^&rt. s. Lower 

Bask-mindbo, b&fe-mind'M. a« Meaa 

BASk-viOL, bife^vl^Al. s. (x^). An 
inflrmnent ufed in concerts for the bale 

Bask, bAfe. %,^ The bottom of any 
thing; thepedeftalof aftatue; the bottom 
of a cone ; dockings ; the place from which 
racers or tiltcrs run ; the ftring chat gives a 
bafe fiound ;. an old niftick play. 

Basely, b4fe'l^ ad. Meanly* dis- 
honourably ; in baftardy,as bafeb^boro- 

Ba s K N c s s » b4fe'n^8 . s. Nleannefs^ 
vilenefs ; vilenefs of metal; btftardy, deep- 
nefs of found. 

Bashaw, UUh-iw^ &. Among the 
Turks, the viceroy of a province. 

BASHFUL,b^wTiU. a. Modeft»(hame* 
faced, fliy. 

Bashfully, bdfliT&I*!^. ad. Timor*. 
oufly, modeftly. ' 

Bashfulnbss^ b&(li'f£il-ni&£. s. Mo- 
delly, fooliih or ru(lic fliame* 

Basil, bUz'il. s. The nameof a plant. 

Basilica, bi-zU'^^kl s. The middle 
vein of the arm. 

BASiLicA»bd-zir£-k&, s. Tliebafdick 

Basilick» hil*zilllk« a. Belonging 
to the bafllica. 

Basilick, b&.zinik. s. ThebafUick 
vein ; a large hall. 

B A SI Li KON, bi-zll'^-k&n. s. An oint- 
ment called alfo tetrapharmacon. 

Basilisk, biz'^ liik. s. A kind of 
ferpent, a cockatrice, faid to kill by k>okiD|^. 
He is called Baiili(k, or little kine, from a 
comb or cnll on his head; a ijpecies of can* 

Basin, b4Tn. s. (405 )• A fmatlTer- 
fel to hold water for warning, or odier nfes ; 
afiatf pond} ap«rt«r the icaiUoM:iD 




-^ xAf mAYCf tAt, nAt ^-^-tftbe* tdb, b&D ;-^n |'«>*p6&ad ;-^tt]i« this. 

ndb; any hnllow phce capadous o£ Kqoids; 

a dock for repairing and building fliipt; fia- 
Sm of » balance, the fiune with the foJet. 
iisis, bi'sls. s. llie foundation of 
any thing ; the lowcft of the three princi- 
pal parts of a coloms ; that on which any 
thmg k raifc4 ; the pedcfial ; the ground- 

To BA5K,bdfk. T. a. (79). To -warm 

bykyiDg out In the heat. 
Bask, bsiik, v. n. To lie in a place 

to recei^re heat. 
Basket, b&s'kh. s. (99). A veflel 

tviade of twigs, roflies, or fplinters. 
%AS&T.T-H1LT, bis'kit-hllt. S. (99). 

A hih cf a weapon to made a* to contain 

die whole hand. 
Basket-vomah, Wfs'Wt-w^ni-fln. s, 

(166). A woman that ptiet at market with 

A ba&ct. 
Bass, bife. su properly Bas^« In 

aittiiCy grarey deep» 
Bass-tioi., bskiewTl'iil. s. (166). Sec 


Bass, bis. s« A matnfed in churches. 
Bass-&klief, bfts'r£-MP. s. .Sculp- 
ture, the figares of whkh do not ftaod o«t 

Drain the giomid in their fiiU proportion. 
Basset, bts'slt. s. (99}« A game 

BAssoojf, b^.sddn\ s. A ma/ical 

inftmnent of the wind kind, blown with a 

Basta&d, bis^tUrd s. fS8\ A per* 

fiao born of a wooann ott of wedlock ; any 

♦king feonotti. 
Baatasa, 1^'tlrd a* Be^ttenout 

of wedlock; fpnriovs, fqppofitaioaa, adiil- 

To Bastaadizs, b^'tdr-dize. v. a. 

To coDvid of be^ » baftard ; to beget a 

Bastaadlt» bls'tftrd-U. ad. In the 

manner of a balbrd* 
Bastaadt, Us'tlr-d^. An unlawful 

ilate of birch, which difablet a child from 

fecceediBgto an hihcritance. 
To Baste^ b^fte. V. a* To beat with 

a itisk p to ^ip bitter opon meat on the 

Cfit; toStfwOAtlf, 
BASTitfAoe, bis-t^nAde^ 
Bastiiiado bis-tA-n4'd&- 

The aa of beating with a oidgel; a' 

StUWiilhmenf of beating an ofleodcr on his 

To BAsnvApst b&s-t^Ade^ 1 
To BASTnADo^ b^s-tft^'tfi. j 

To hcip««6ee LtrksAOO. 

1; a Turk. 


BASTtOMy b^s'tfli'^n. s. (391). A 
huge mafii of earth, ufaally faced with 
ibd», ftanding ovt frcfii a rampart ; a liui- 

Bat, bdt. s. Aheavyftick. 

Bat, bUt. s An animal having thr 
body of a moufe, and the wiogs of a bird, 
not with feather*, bat with a iort of ikin 
which is extended. It brings forth its yoang 
as mice do, and fockles them. 

Bat-fowling, hat,'f6iLi-llng. s. Bird- 
catching in the aight-time. 

Batabls, hytkJbl. a. (405). DiA 
pouble. Batable gronnd fcems to be the 
ground heretofore in queAion, whether it 
belonged to England or Scotland. 

BatcHi b&tfti. 8. The quantity of 
bread baked at a time ; any quantity made 
at once. 

Bats b^te. s. Strife» contention. 

To Bats, bite. v. a. To leifcn any 
thing, to retrench \ to fink the price ; to 
leflen a demand ; to cutoff* 

Bateful, bite'iiU. a. Contentioas. 

Batbmbnt» bite'm^nc. s. DimisO' 

Bath, hhib, s. (78). A Bath is ei- 
ther hot or cold, either of avt or nature ; a 
veflel of hot water, in which another it 
placed that requires a fofter heat than the 
naked fire ; a fort of Hebrew meafurCfCoa* 
taming feven gallons and four pints. 

To Bathe, hiuSc. v. a. (467). To 
waih in a bath ; to fupple or foften by the 
outward application of warm liquors ; to 
wafii with any thing. 

To Bathe, hi^ht. ▼. n. To be in the 

BATiNOy b&^clag. prep. (410). Ex- 

Batlet» bttl^t s. A fquare pi^ce 
of wood nfed in beating fiocn. 

Batoom, b4-tWn'. s. A ftaff or dub ; 
a truncheon or marlhal's ftaE 

Battailous, bit'ti-Ws. a. Warlike, 
with military appearance. 

Battalia, biMAle'ya. s« (27a). The 
order of battle. 

Battalion, b&t^'yAu. s. (271). 
(507). A dhrifion of an army, a troop, a 
body of forcea ; an army. 

ToBattbw, Wlt'tn. v. a. {103). To 
fatten,' to make bt; to fertilise. 

To Batten, Wlt'tn. v.n. (103). To 
grow lat. 

To BatVbe, Wlt'tAr. v. a* (98). To 
beat, to beat down; to'wesr with beating; 
to wear out with farrioe. 

B A W 


B E ^ 

Batter, blt'tfir. s. A mixture of fe- 
veral iDg;redients beaten together. 

Batterer, b&t'tdr-r&r. s. He that 

Battery, bat'tAr-r*. s. (555). The 
adt of battering ; the inilruments with 
which a town it battered ; the frame upon 
which cannons are mounted; in law, a vio- 
lent flriking of any man. 

Battle, bit'tl. s. {405). A fight; 
an encounter between oppofite armies ; a 
body of forcei ; the main body of an army. 

To Battle, bii'tl. y.n. To contend 
in fight* ' 

Battle-array, bftt'tl^Lr-ri^ s. Ar- 
ray, or order of battle. 

Battl£-ax, bit'tl4ks. $• A weapon, 
a bill. 

Battle-door, bit'tl-d6re. s. An in- 
ftrument with a round handle and a fiat 
bhide, to ftrike a ball or a fhuttlccock. 

BATTLBMBNT,b&t't1-m^nt. s. A wall 
with cfpen placet to look through or annoy 
an enemy. 

BATTy, b&t't^. a. Belonging to a bat. 

Bayaroy, biv4-r6£'. s. A kind of 

Bavbeb, blLwb^^ s. In Scotland, a 

Bavin, hiv'in. 8. A fttck like thofe' 
bound up in faggots. , 

Bawble, bkw'bl. s. (405). A gew' 
gaw, a trifling piece of finery. 

Bawbling, biwlsllng. a. (410). 
Trifling, contemptible* 

Bawcocr, biw'k6k. s. A fine fellow. 

Bawd, b&wd. s« A procurer or pro- 

To Bawd> bWd. V. n. To procure. 

Bawdily* b^w'd£-k'. ad. Obibenely. 

BAWDiN£ss,biw'd^*n6s. s. Obfcene- 

BAWDRiCK,biw'drIk. s. A belt. 

Bawdry, b&w'dr^. s. A wicked prac- 
tice of bringing whoresaiid rogues together; 

Bawdy, b&w'de. a. Ob(cene, unchafte. 

Bawdy*house, blLw^d^-hd&fe. s. A 
hottfe where tiaffick is made by wickedncfs 
and debauchery. 

To Bawl, bill. v. n. To hoot, to cry 
out with great Yehcmence ; to cry as a fro- 
ward child. 

To Bawl, bill. v. a. To proclaim as 
si crier. 

Bawril, Ww'rll. s. (99}. A kind of 

F&te, ftr, AH, &t i-^mi^ m£t ; — plne^ pin ;— 

Bawsin, biw'sin.. s. A badger* 

Bay, bA. a. (220). A colour. 

Bay, bi. s. An opening into the 

Bay, b4. s: The ftatc of any thing 

furrottnded by enemies. 
Bay, bk, s. In architedure, a term 

ufed to figtiify the divifions of a barn or 

other building^. . Bays arc from fourteen to 

twenty feci long. 
Bay, b4. s. a tree. 
Bay, bd. $• An honorary crown or 

To Bay, bA. v. n. To bark as a dog at 

a thief; to (hot in. 
Bay Salt bi'sklt s. Saltma.^eoffea 

water, which receives its coofiftence from 

the he4t of the fun, and u io called from its 

brown colour^ 
Bay Window, b4V!n'd6. g. A win* 

dow jutting oorward. — See Bow window. 
Bayard, bA'y^rd. s. A bay horfe. 
Bayonet, hi'y'in-n^. s, A fliort 

fword fixed at the end of a muikec 
^ This word is very frequently pronounced 

hagonci, bat chiefly by the Yulgar. 
Bdellium, d^ryi&m.s. An aromatick 

gum brought from theLcTant. Sec Pncv* 


To Be. btt. V. n. To have ibme cer- 
tain ftate, condition, <piality, as the man is 
wife ; it is the auxitiary verb by which the 
verb paflive is formed; to exift, to bme ex- 

Beach, b^tih. s. (227% Thefiiore, 
the ftrand. 

Beached, b^dtfh'^d. a.Expofedtotbe 

BBACHY,b^^tfli'i. a. Having beaches. 

Beacon, b^'kn. s. (170). Sonjctbing 
raifed on an eminence, to be fired on the 
approach of an enemy ; marks creAed to di- 
teat navigators. 

Bead, b^de. s. (227). Small globes or 
balls ftrungupon i thread, and ufed by the 
Roman Catholics to count their prayers; 
little balls worn about the neck for orna- 
ment ; any globular bodies. 

Bead-tree, b^de'ird^. s. The nat of 
this tree i^ by rchgious perlbns, boiled 

. through, and (bung as beads, whence it 
takes its name. 

Beadle, b^'dl, s. (227) (405). A 
mefienger or fervitor bcleftgiog to * court ; 
a petty officer in paiiflies. 

BfiADitoLL, b^de'rAll. s. A catalogue 
of thofe who arc to be meiitioncd at pray^ 

B E A 


B E A 

^— n&, m&Te, n&r, n&t;— t&be, tAb, 

Beadsman, bc^dz'm^n s. A man em* 
pioycd in praying for another. 

Beagle, b^'gl. s. (227) (405). A 
fiiun hound with which haret art hunted. 

Beak, b^ke. s. (227)- The bill or 
horny month of a bird ; a piece' of brafii 
like a beak, iised at the head of the ancient 
^aHies ; muy thing ending in a point like a 

Be\ksd, b^'k&l, or b^kt. a. (362). 
HaTifig a beak. 

Bcake;, b^'kdr. s. (98). Acupwith 
a fpout 10 the fonn of a bird's beak. 

B&A.1., b^le. t. (227). A whelk or 

Beam, btoe. & (227). The main 
piece of timber thu fupportttbe k>ft$ of a 
boufe ; any huge and long piece of timber; 
that part of a Imiance, to the end« of which 
the Scales are fofpeodcd ; a cylindrical piece 
«f wood heloflgang to the loom, on which 
the web is gnidHaJily rotted as it it wove ; 
the ray of light emitted from fofoe laminous 

B«AM-Tt£s, b^mc'ti^. s. Wadfer. 

BiAMT. Wmk. a. Radiant, ftiining ; 
cm^tii|g beaaif ; having horns or antlers. 

Bean, bisics. (227). The common 
garden bean; the hoiie bean. 

BsAir-CAPCRy b&ne'ki-pv^r. s. A plant. 

To BsAE, hire. ▼. a. ( 240). To carry 
aa^borden ; to conrey or carry; to carry 
as a mark of anthority ; to carry a$ a mark 
oCdiftinAioas tofopport, to keep from foil- 
iag ; to carry in the mind, aa lore, hate; to 
eodure, aa pain, widioot finking ; to fairer, 
to niifego ; to produce, aa fruit ; to bring 
Ibrth, aa a child ; to iappoct any thing good 
or bad ; to behave ; to impel, to urge, to 
poA; to prefi; to bear in hand, to amnfe 
with falfe pretences, to deceive ; to bear off, 
to carry away by force ; to bear out, to fup* 
port, to maintain. 

To Beail, hire. v.n. (73). To fuffer 
pftin ; to be patieoc ; tp be frnitiid or pro* 
lifids ; to teod, to be direded to any point ; 
to behave ; to be fitoated with refped; to 
acherpbces ; to bear up, to ftand firm with- 
«oc fiJfing \ CO bear with, toendure an un* 
pleafio^ th^. 

BeAa, &re. s» (73)* Atoogh favage 
animal ; the lame of two confteQations, 
caO^ tl|0 Gnater aad^I^efief Bear, in the 
tulaCdwJUiler Bear is the Polcfitr. 

Bear-euip, b^e'bijMt s. Afjpecies.of 

BsAft-VLfi hkn'Bl s; An infea. 

B^^a-aAtjDftH^ bibre^gir-dn.s. Aplace 

bUl ;— All ;— pA6nd : — Min, this. 

in which bears are kept for fport, any place 
of tumuk or mifrule, 

Biae's-brbi ch, baiz'brliflu s. The 
name of a plant. 

• RAR*»-F A R, birz'd-^r. E. The name of 
a plant. The Auricula. 

Bear's-fo'^t, barz'fut. s. A fpectes 
of hellebore. 

BeakVwort, bArz'wfirt. s. {165). 
An herb. 

BfcARD. b^rd. E- (228). The hair 
that grows on the lipt and chin ; ibarp 
prickles growing upon the ears of corn ; a 
barb on an arrow* 

0* This word, as Dr. Kenrick obicrves, is 
frequently pronounced £> as to rhyme with 
herd: but 1 am of his opinion that this pto* 
nunciation is improucr. Mr. Scotland Mr. 
Perry give it both ways. Buchanan founds 
it (bort, like Mr. Sheridan. W. Johnfton 
makes it rhyme with iatr</^ a Scotch lord : 
but Mr. £Iphinfton, who is the moft accu* 
rate obficrver of oronunciation 1 ever met 
with, gives it as I nave done. The ftage has, 
in my opinion, adopted the fliort found of 
the d^hthong without good reafon, and ia 
this inftance ought not to be followed ; as 
the long (bund is not only more agreeable 
to analogy, but to g<meral ufage. I am glad 
tdfind my opinion confirmed by fo good a 
judge as Mr. Smith ; and though the poets 
lb often facrifice pronunciation to rhyme, 
that their authority, in thefe cafes, is not 
always dedfive, yet, as Shidufpeare fays on 
another occafion. 

They ftill may help to thicken other proo& 
•« That do demonftrate thinly."— 0/iMlfo. 
** Raird at their covenant, and ]eer*d 
" Their reverend perfons to my Seant." 

** Soffle thin remains «f chaftity appear'd 
" £v'n tinder Jove, but Jove withiMit iUarJJ* 


The impropriety of pronouncing this word a| 
it is beard on the ftage, will perhaps appear 
more perceptible by carrying this pronnn« 
ciatiou into the compounds, as the faUe found 
of great may be deteded by the phrafe Altxr 
amder th< Great (M^)' 
** Old prophecies foretel our All at hand, 
** When bearded men in floating cafiies land. 
** And as yoimg ftripUngs wmp the top for 

<* On the fmooth pavement of an empty court, 
*' The wooden engine flics and whirls about, 
** Admir'd with damoimof the^arifl:^ rout.*' 


To B«ART>, b^fd. V a. To take or 
phiek by ibc hwfd ; to oppofcto tht /ace* 

B £ A 


? E A 

0;5» (55^),— FAte, fir, M, fit ; — ^m*, m^t ;^ptne9 pin i 

Bearded, bWrd'W. a. Having a beard; 
having Iharp prickles, as, corn ; barbed, or 

Sbardlsss, b^d'l^s, a. Without a 
beard; youthfvl- 

Bearer, bAre'fir* s. (98). A carrier of 
anytbjpg ; oneemploycd in carrying hardens; 
one who wears any thing; one who carries 
the body to the gnHt one who fupports the 
pall at a funeral ; a tree that yields its pro- 
duce ; in architedure, a pod or brick wall 
raifed up between the ends of a piece of 

Beartherd, bire1i6rd» s. A man that 
tends bears. 

Bearing, bire'lng. s. (410). The 
fite or place of any thing ^ith refped to 
fomething elfe ; geftnre, mien, behaviour. 

Bearwar'd, birc'wird. s. A keeper 
of bears. 

B^AST, bWft. s. (227). An animal 
diftingiufhed from birds, infeAs, fifhes, and 
tnan ; an irrational anitxipJ,oppofed to map; 
a brutal iavage man. 

BEASTLiNEss,bWft1*-nfis.s. Brutality. 

Beastly, bddftlA. a. Brutal, contrary 
to the nature and dignity of man $ haying 
thenattrc or form ol beads* 

To Beat, b^te. v. a. (aa;) (233).To 

' ftrike, to knock; topunifh with ftripes; to 
mark the time in mufick ; to give repeated 
blows; to (Irike ground ; to roafe game ; to 
mix things by long and frequent agiution ; 
to batter with engines oi war ; to make a 
path by treading it; to conquer, to fubdu«, 
to vanquifh ; to harafs, to over -labour ; to 
dcprefs; to deprive by violence; to move 
with fluttering agitation; to beat down, to 
leflen the price demanded ; to beat up, to 
stuck fuddtfly ; to beat the hoof, to walk, 
to go on foR. 

ff^rAc pad time of this verb is by the Englilh 
uniformly pronounced like the prefent. 
Nay, except in folemn language, the prefent, 
preterit and participle are ciaAly the fame j 
while the Iriih, more agreeably to analogy, 
as well as utility, pronounce the preterit as 
the noun hft, a wager ; and this pronuncia- 
tion, though contrary to £nglilh ufage, is 
quite conformable to that general tendency 
obfervableinthe preterits of irregular verbs, 
which is to fliorteu the vowel that is long in 
the prefent, as ea/, ate, (often pronounced 
etj : Bear, beard f deal, ddt s mean, meat^ ; 
dream, dreamt, &c» 

To Beat, b<fete. v. n. To more in a 
pulfatory manner ; to daih, as -a fl(M>d or 
ftorm; to knock at a door ; to throb, to be 
in agitation ; to flnduaie, to be in motion ; 
•tq try in difiercnt ways, tQ {e^cb ; to «ft 


uj>on with vic^ence ; to enforce by repeti* 

Beat* b^te. s. A ftroke, or a ftrildng. 

Beaton, b^'tn. partidp. (103). From 
Beat. , 

Beatbk, b^'tdr. s. ^98). An inftru- 
ment with which any thing is beaten ; a 
perfon ranch giveo to blovrs* 

Beatifical, b^-i tlf^kdl. 

Bbatifick, b*-4-tiFik. (J09). 
Blifsful. It is «fed only of, bnvcdly frui- 
tion after death. 

Beatifically, b*4-tifi-k41.W. ad. 
In (iich a manner as to complete Ivppi* 

Beatification, b^*dt'6*f(&-k^'fh6n. s. 
Beatification is an acknowledgment made 
by the Pope, that the perfon l^tified is in 
heaven, and therefore nay be reverenced as 

To Beatify, b^4t'^ fl. v. a. (1S3). 
To blefsVith the coo^letion of ccJeftial en- 

Beating, b^te'lng. s. (410). Correc* 
tion by blows. 

B£ATiTUDE>bMt'6.t^de. s. Bleiftd- 
neis, felicity, happinefii ; a declaraticm. of 
blefledneis our Saviour to particu- 
lar virtues. 

Beau* bo. s. (245) (4S1). Amanof 

Beavbh, b^'vAr. s. (127) (98 J. Aa 
animal, ochcrwife named the ca^ftor, aaj^sbi- 
bious, and remarkable for his art in building 
his habitation ; a hat of the bdk kin^ i the 
part of a helmet that covers bis faop. 

Bk AVE RED, b^'vird. a« {362). Co- 
vered with a beaver. 

Beauish, bolib. a. (245)* Befitting 
a beau, foppiih. 

Beauteous, b6't(b^-ft». a, (263). 
Fair, elegant in form. 

Beaut EousLY, biVtfh^-As-U. ad. In 
a beauteous manner. 

Beauteousnfss, b&'tih^-Cis-ndj. s. 
* The ftate of being beauteous* 

Beautiful, bft't^fiiL a^ Fair- 

Beautifully, bu't^-f 614^ ad. In a 
beautiful manner* 

B £ A u Ti F u LN E ss, b^'t^-f6]^nds« s. The 
quality of being beiutifn^ 

To BEA0TiFY,bft'ti4K V. a. (i^S)- 
To adorn, toembdlift. 

Beauty, b^'tA. s. Thataflbmbfcagcof 
graces which pleafes the eye ; n pamailtt 
grace % a beautiful peribn. 

Beauty-spot, b6't^-»rp6t. s. A ^pdt 

c j^aced to heighten iamc beauty. 




— oih mAvc, n&Tt n&t;— t&be, tAb, bill ;— 611 j~pA6nd ;— /i&in, this. 

Bnurico, b6k4Uf&^k6. s. (iii>. ^ 

bird fike a nigbdn^e, a fig-pecker. 
To Bbcalm, n^-k^Lm'. v. a. (403). 

To ftill tbe ckmenM ; to keep a ihip £rom 

motion ; to quiet the mind. 
Became, b^-kAme'. The preterit of 

IVc wng- 
Becausk» b^-kiwz'. conjund. For this 

txakn ; for ; on this accoant. 
To Bbchahce, b^-tllulnie^ y. n. To 

befal, to happen co- (35&)« 
To Beck, b^k. ▼. a. To make a Hgn 

with tbe head. 
l^KCK, b^k* s. A fign with tbe head, a 

nod ; a nod of commasd. 
To B£CKoii,b^k'kxu ▼. n. (170). To 

inalte a fign. 
To Beclip, b44d1p'. y. a. To cm 

To BscoMEf b^kAm^ y. a. To enter 

Into iome ttite or coodition ; to become of, 

to be tbe fate of, to be the eud of. 
To Become, b^-ki^m'. v. a. To appear 

in a Tuanncr fiikafale to fomethiog ; to be 

fnitablfr to the pcriiNi ; to befit. 
Becoming, b^-kdm'mjDg. part* a. 

That which pleaiisbjr an elegant propriety, 

gracefoL {410). 
BEcoMiifGLr, b^-kftm'mlngl^. ad. 

jUeer a becoming manner. 
Becomimgness, bd-katn^mhig-nH. s. 

Elegant congmity, propriety. 
Bed, bM. "s. Sometbin? made to fleep 

00 ; lodging; marriage ; bank of earth raif- 

ed in a garden ; the channel of a river, or 

any boQvvir ; the place where any thmg is 

ge n e r ated ; a hyer, 1 ftratUm ; To bring to 

Ban, to defircr of a child ; To a3<dce the 

Ban, to pot the bed m order after it has 

been uted* 
To 6ff]»t b^. V. a. To go to bed with ; 

tn be placed in bed ; to be m^de partaker 

oC the bed; to fow, or pkAt in earth ; to 

Jay in a pb<e of rdft ; to lay in order, in 

To BxD, Ud. ▼. iL To cobabit. . 
ToBboabile, b^Kiibl)!. y. a. To 

wet^ to befpchiUe. 
To Beoaogle, b^dAg'gl. v. a. To 

To Beoas0, b^Mih\ V. a. To be- 

To BtOAVa, b^clkwb'. T. a* To be- 

To BEVAEtLB, WwdJtz'zL Y. a. To 

anke the figfai dim by too much bdbe. 
BsbcHAMiin, b^'tlbime^Mr. i. The 

BfiDCL0ATHs,b^d'd6ze. i. .Coverlets 

fpread over a bed. 
Bedding, i^d'dlng. s. (410). The 

materiala of a bed. 
To Bedeck, b^-dik'. y. a. To deck, 

to adorn. 
To Bediw* b^d4'. V. a. Tomoiften 

gently, as with fall of dew. 
Bbdfellov, b^'ld-16. B. One that 

lies in the iame bed. 
To BBDiGur, b*-dite'. y. a* To adorn, 

To Bedim, bWlm'. y, a. To obfcorc* 

to cloud, to darken. 
To BBDizEN,b^-dKzQ. Y. a. (103). 

To drels out. A low term. 
Bedlam, b^d^lAm. s. (88). A mad- 

houfe ; a madman. 
BKDLAMiTK,b^d1Am-he. s. {155). A 


Bedmaker, b^d'md-k^r. s. A perfoa 

in the wiiTerficies, wholie ofiice it is to make 

the beds. 

Bedmatb, b£d'm4te. s. A bedfellow. 

BiDMovLDiNG, b£d'm61d-ing. s. A 

particular moulding. 
Bedpost, b^ci'p6lK s. The poft at 
the corner of the bed, which fupporu the 
Bedpr»ssee, b£d'prSs-si!ir. s. A hiea- 

vy lazy fellow. 
To Bedraggle, b^.dWlg'gL v. a. To 

ioil the ckithes. (405)* 
To Bedrekch, b^-dr^nfti'. v. a. To 

drench, to (oak. 
Bedrid, bid'Hd. a. Con6ned to the 

bed by age or ficknefs. 
Bjedrite, b^dVite. s. The priTilege 

of the marriage bed. 
To B»drop, bi-dr6p'. v. a. To be- 

fprinkle, to mark with drops. 
Bedstead, b^d'fl^d. s. The frame 

on which the bed is placed. 
Bedbtraw, bWftriw. s. The ftiaw 

hid nndeir a bed to make it foft. 
Beoswsrver, b^dYw^r-vAr* s. One 

that is falfe to the bed. 
Bedtime, b^d'time. s. The hour of 

To B&DUNO; b^-dang^ v. a. To co- 
ver with dung. 
ToBfDtisT, bi-dfift'. Y.a. Tofprin- 

B EDWARD, b^Vkrd. ad. Toward 

To Bedwarf, b*^w4rf . y. a. To 




cO (559)-— F4te, fir, ftll, fit ;-*ir&» mit 5 — ^pbc, pin ;— - 

BcDVORK, Wd'wi'jrk. s. Work p«r- 
formed withoot toil of the hands. 

Br.K- b^e s. i he animal that makes 
honey ; an indoftrious and careful perfon. 

Bee EAT7R W6'^-tdr. s. Abirdthaj 
feeds upon beea. 

Bee-flowbr, W^fl^ti-ir. 8. Afpe- 
cies of fool-fiones. 

Bee-garden b6^'g2Lrdn. s. (lOj). 
A place to fet hiyes of beet in. 

Bee HivF, V)^'t'hivc. s 'f'hecafeiOr 
box, in which bees are kept. 

Bee MAST fR» bWm4s-L(in s. One 
that keeps bees. 

Beech, b^^tih. s. A tree. 

Beechen, b^^'tflin. a. (103). Gon- 
fifling of the wood of the btech. 

Beef, b^^ . s. The fldh of black 
cattle prepared for food ; an ox, bull, or 
cow. It has the plural Beeves. 

Beef-eater, b^f^-ti'ir. s. A yeo- 
man of the guard — Probably a corruption 
of the French word Seau/rtifr, one who at^ 
tends at the fideboard, which was anciently 
placed in a Braufet. 

Been, bm. The participle pretei it of 
To Be. 

^ This word, in the folemn, as well as the 
familiar ftyle,hab ihared the fate of moft of 
thofe words, which, from their nature* are 
in the mofi frequent ufe. It isTcarcely ever 
heard otherwife than as the noun bin, a repo- 
fitory for corn or wine, and muft be placed 
among thofe dcTiations which language is 
always liable to in fuch wordsas are auxiliary 
or fubordinate to others; for, as thofe parts of 
bodies which are the moft frequently handled 
grow the fooneft fmooth by conilant fridlion, 
fo fuch words as are in continual ufe feem 
to wear off their articulations, and become 

' more irregular than others. So low as the 
age of James the Firft, I have feen this word 
f pelled ByM> 

Beer, b^^r. s. Liquor made of malt 
and hops. 

Beet, hHt s. The name of a plant. 

Beetle, b^M. s. (^405). An infe^a 
diftinguilhed by having hard cafes or (heaths, 
wider which he folds his wings ; a heavy 

Beetlebrowed* bd^'d br66d. a* 
Having prominent brows. (362). 

Beetle HEADED, hii'tl'Md-id. n. 

Logger-headed, having a ftupid head. 
Beetlestock, bd^'tl-fiok. s. The 

handle of a beetle. 
Bebtrave, bWt'rive. 1^ ^^. 

BiiET-RADISH, b^frid-Uh. J *"''^*^- 

Beeves, b^^x. s. Black cattle, oreA. 

To BtFALL, b^-Piwl'. V. h. To hap- 
pen to ; to come to pafs. 

To Befit, b^-flt'. v. a. Tofuit, to 
be fujtable to. 

To lifcFOOL, bi^66r, V. a. To infa- 
tuate, to fool. I 

Be fore, b^'f^re'. prep. Further on-- 
ward in place ; in the front of\ not behind ; 
in the prelence of; under the cognizance of; 
preceding in time ; in preference to ; prior 
to ; fuperior to. 

Before* bMore'. ad. Sooner than» 
earlier in time ; in time paft ; in fome time 
lately paff ; previoufly to ; to this time, hi* 
therto ; further onward in place. 

Beforehand, be fe'^rtliiind ad. In a 
flate of antictpatioo or preoccupation ; pre- 
vioufly, by way of preparation ; in a ftatc 
of accumulation, or £d as that more has been 
received than expended ; at firft, before any 
thing is done. 

BEF('RKTiME,b6f6re'time. ad. For* 

ToBefortune, b^'f6r'c(h&ne. ▼. n. 
(461). To betide. 

To liEFOuiA b6-f6(il'. V. a. To make 
foul, to feiL 

To Befriend, b*-Wnd'. ▼. a. To 
favour ; to be kind to. 

To Befrinoe, b^-frinje'. v . a. To de - 
ctrate, as with fringes. 

To Bf^G, b^g. V- n. To live upon alms^ 

To Beg, b^g. v. a. To aik, to feek by- 
petition ; to uke any thing for granted* 

To Beget, b^-g6t'.v.a. To generate, 
to procreate $ to produce, as effeds i to pre* 
duce, AS accidents. 

Begetter, b^.git'tfir.s. (98). He 
that procreates, or begets. 

Beggar, b^g'gftr. s. (418^ Oncirho 
lives upon ahns; a petitioner ; one who ai^ 
fumes what he does not prcrve. 

To Beggar, b^g'gdr. v. a. To reduce 
to beggary, to Impoverilh ; to deprive; to 

BSOOARLINESS, b6g'ffAr-ld-fi^ ^ 
The date of being beggar^. 

Beggarly, b^g^g^r-i^ a. Mean« 
poor, indigent. 

Beggary, big'gAr-^. s. Indigence. 

To Begin* bA-gln'. v. n. To enter 
upon fomething new ; to oomlnence any ac- 
tion or ftate ; to enter upon exiflence ; to 
have its origioal; to taSrehfe; to come into 

To Begin, b&-ghi'. v. a« To do the 
firft aft ^ vytUi^i to trace ten any 

B £ H 



— noy m6ycy air, aAt »-— t&be, tdb» 

tUng w the firft gnnmd ; to bc^ with»to 
, escer upon. 

BcGiMHER^ b^-gln'iiiir»s. (95). He 
tkas givcft die 6rft caufe, or original, to any 
thizig ; an nnczperieoced attempter. 
Begin KIN G9 b^-gln'nhig. s. (410). 
the firft original or caofe ; t£e cmnmce into 
»A or being ; the ftate in which any thing 
firft » ; the rn^mcntb, or firft grounds | the 
Mt part of any thing. 
To Begikd, b*-g^rd'. ▼. a. (160). 
To bind with a girdle ; to furround, to en- 
circle ; toibvc in with a iiege,toheIeagner. 
BEGtEKBEG,b5g'ler-b^g s. The chief 

gofveroor of a proYincc among the Turkt. 
To B£GiiA\v»b^Dltw'. ▼. a. To bite, 

to eat away. 
Begone, b^-g&n', interjeA. Go away, 

hence, away. 
Bscor, b*-g6t'. 
BsGOTTiif, b^-g6t'to. (105). 

The part, paffive of the verb Beget. 
To BcGREAsc, bi-gr^zc'. ▼. a. To foil 

Off dawb with ht matter. 
To BBG&mE, b^-grime^ v. a. To foil 

with dirt deep impreircd. 
To B&GOiLfc, b6-guile^ ▼. a. (160). 
To impoTe upon, to ddode ; to deceiTe, to 
evade; to de<»Te-pfeafingly, to amufc. 
BccujB, h^-giai'. The part, paflive of 


Bbbalf, b^4iir. s. (78) (403)* Fa- 
Tonr, canfe ; vindication, fupport. 

To bBRAvg, b^-h4ve'. ▼. a. To carry, 
to oondo A« 

To BsHATt, b^&ve^ V, Q. To aa, 
to conduft oae'i lielf* 

BiHATioua, b^hAve'yAr. s« (294). 
IManner of bchavioe one'i ielf, whether 
goedur had ; cMtenad appearance ; gcftnre, 
Budmer of adion; dc^^ce of manned, 
gjcaceffdncft ; eondud, general pradice, 
coorle of life ; To be upon oneV BdiaTiour, 
a faaqliar phraic, noting fnch a ftate at re» 
flirts great cautioD. 

To Beh£ai>, b6-h£d'. ▼. a. To kill by 
cnttiug off the head. 

B£H£LD, bi-bUd^ PartJcip. paffive 

BsHSMOT H, b^li^inodi. s. The hip. 
poporjBiiu» or river-hcrle. • 

Behest, M4i^. s. Command. 

BSB41I1S M^iad'. prep.-^ee Wind. 
At the hade of aootber; on the hack part; 
twMds the back ; foUowing another^ re- 
after the departure of - teiething 
' the'deatbdtha&to 

b(dl;— -611 f—p6tod}—/i^in, THIS. • 

whom it belonged ; at a difiance from fome* 
thing going beZpre ; inferior to another. 

BiHiNO, bf-hind'. ad. Backward. 

BEHiffDHAKD, b^-hindliAnd. ad. In a 
ftate in which rents or proiiu are antici- 
pated ; not upon equal terms, with regard 

To Be HOLD, b^.h61d'. ▼. a. To view, 
to fee. 

Bf.hold, b^-hAld'. intcrjea. See, lo. 

BEHOLDtN, b^.h6rdn. part. a. (103). 
Bound in gratitude. 

Beholder, b^«hoI'diV. 1. Spedator. 

Beholding, b^-htiMioc:. a. (410% 

Beholding, b^*h6rding. Part, from 
the Tcrb Behold. Seeing, looking upon. 

Behoof, b^«h66f. s. Pro6t, advas* 

To Behoove, b^-h66v\ v. n. To be 
fit, to he meet. Ufed cnly imperfonaily 
U'itk rV,as it behoovcu. 

f^ This word it fomctimes improperly writ* 
ten iehtve^ and corruptly pronounced as 
rhyming with row ,• but this is contrary to 
the analogy of words of this form ; which 
prefenre the fame found of the vowel, both 
ra the noun and verb ; as /rs^./row; wj^, 
WW ; tiU/, tbievcy &c. 

Behooveful, b^-hodvc'fiiL a. Ufeful, 

Behoovefvllv, b^-hMveY&l-M. ad* 

Profitably, ufefuUy. 
To Behowl, b6-h6(d'. v. a. To 

bowl at. 
Being, b^^ing. s. (410). Eiiftcnce, 

oppofed to non<^ntity ; a particular ftate or 

condition ; the perfon exiftiog^ 
Being, b^'ing. coojund. Since. 
Be it so, bd'it-s6. A phrafe, fuppofe 

it to be fo ; let it be fo. 
To Belabour, h^-14'bilr. v. a. Tq 

beat, to thump. 
BfiLAMiE, b^l'^-m4. s. A friend,, an 


B£LAMouR,b^ri-mMr. s. A gallants 

Belated, hi'\k\hd. a* Benighted. 
To Belay, b^-lA'. v. a. To block up, 

to ftop the paflage ; to place in ambufl). 
To Belch, b^lih. v. n. Toejedthe 

wind (rom tl^e fiomach; to iflue out by 

Belch, belfh. s. (35a). The adion of ^ 

erudatioiT; a cant term for liijuor. 
BELDAM^b^'dlba. s. (88). An old 



B E M 

*fo Beleaguer, b^-l^'gik. v. a. To 
befiege, to block up 9 place. 

B$L£AGURER, b^-lS'gil^r-Ar. s* One 
that befieges a place. . 

BBLFLowEfi, berfl^Lir. s. A plant. 

BelfoundeRi b^l'fo'^n-diV. s. He 
.wbofe trade it is to found or a£t bells. 

Belfry, b^Yrfe. s. The place where 
the bells are ruDcr. 

Tb Belik, b^-li . V. a. To counterfeit, 
to Atigfi, to mimick ; to give the lie to, to 
charge with falfehood ; to calatiiniate ; to 
give a falfe reprefentation of any thing. 

Belief, b^-W^P. a. Credit given to. 
ibmething which we know not of ourfelTes ; 
the theological virtue offaidi, or firm con- 
fidence of the truths of religion ; religion, the 
body of tenets held ; perfuafion, opinion ; 
the thing believed ; creed, a form contain- 
ing thc;irtiGle8 of faith. 

BfeLfEVABLSy b^-l^V2<>bL a* Credi- 

To Bblieyb, bMi^v'. V. a. To credit 
upoA tilt authority of another ; to put con- 
fidence in the veracity of any one. 

To BEbiETfi, b*-l^*r'. V. n. To have 
a firm perfusdlQa of any thing ; to exertife 
the tbcQlogkal virtve of &ith. 

Believer, b**U6'vdr. s. (98). He 
tlut believes or gives credit ; a profeiTor of 

BaLiBviNGLY* b^-U^Mrig-Id* ad* 
After a believing maaner. 

Beliks, bMike'. ad. Probably, likely, 
perhaps ; fometimes in a fenfe of irony. 

Bbll, b^U. s. A vefTel, or hollow 

body of caft metal, formed to make a noife 

by the ad offome inftrument ftrikingagamft 

It ; it is ufed for any thing in the form of a 

^bdl, as the cups of flowers. 

Bille, b^. s. A gay young lady. 

Belles Lettres, b^l-l&'tAr. Polfte 

BsLLiGERovs» bdl-lldje'e-rAs. a. 
(314) (518). Wagmg war, 

Bei^licercnt, b^l-Fidje'^-r&nt. a. 
(ii8.) Waging war. 

Bei^ipotent, b€l-Up'p6-tint. a. 
(518'. Mighty in war. 

To Bkli^w, bil'lA. V. n. (327). To 
make a noife as a bull; to make any violeht 
oofecvy ; to vociferats, to cbniour ; to r6ar 
as the fea or the wind. 

Bellows '^I'lilis. 5. The inftrument 
ufed to bkiw the fire. 

^ Th^.laft fyllable of this word, like that of 
Gallows, is corrupted beyond recovery into 
the foood of Ar/. 

f4t ;— •mcy m^ ;*-*pbey pin } — 

Belluine» b^%-ine. a. (149). 
Beaftly, brutal. 

Belly, b^l'l^, s. (182). That part of 
the human body which reaches £tom the 
breaft to the thighs, containing the bowels; 
the womb ; that part of a man which re- 
quires food; that part of any thing that 
fwells out into a larger capacity ; any {dace 
in which fomething is inclofed. 

To Belly, bfil-li. v. n. To hang out, 
to bulge out. 

Bellyache, b^ri6-Ake. s. (555). 
The cholick. 

Belly B9UKD, b^lld-b^find. a. Coftivc. 

Bellyful^- bdl'M-ffU. s. As much 
food as fills thebcUy. 

Bellygod, b£ri^-g6d, s. A glutton. 

BblmaiI, b^ll'min. s, (88). He whofc 
bufinefs it is to proclaim anything in towns, 
and to gain attention by ringing his bell. 

BSLMETALy b^irm^t-tl. S. (4O5). 

The metal of which bells are made. 

To Belock, bW^k'. v. a. To faften. 

To Belong, belong', v. n. To be 
the property of ; to be the province or bnfi* 
nefs of ; to adhere, or be appendant to ; ti» 
have relation to ; to be the quality or attri- 
bute of. 

Beloved, b^lflv'W. a. Dear. 

f!f This word* when an adjedive, is ufually 
pronounced in three ryllables,as a AeUved (on; 
and when a participle ' in two, as he was 
much bfUvd^-Stc principles. No. 360. 

Below, b^-lA'. prep. Under in place. 

not fo high ; inferior in dignity ; infaior in 

excellence ; unworthy of, unbefittmg. 
Below, be46'. ad. In the lower place ; 

00 earth, in oppofition to heaven ; in hell» 

in the region^ of the dead. 
To Belowt, b^-166t'. V. a. To treat 
■ with opprobrious langfuage. 
BEL8WAGOER9 b£l-fwig'gdr* s. A 

BelT) b^lt. s. A girdle, a cindare. 
BfiLWETHER,b^ll'w?TH-t&r. s. A (hccp 

which leads the flo<^ with a befl on his 

neck ; hence. To bear the beli. 
To Bemad^ b^m&d'. v. tu fTo make 

To Bemi&b^ bd-tnhre'. ▼. a. Todrsigp 

or incumber in the mire. - 
To BsMOANy b£-m6ne'. v. a. To la* 

ment, to bewail. 
BFMOAMEfiy b^-mA'nih'. s. (98)* A 

ToBemoii^ b^ni6D^ v. a: Tobe* 

drabble, to bemirc 




•— q6, mdve, n6r» ii6t ; t&be, tjib, 

ToBntoNSTER, b^«in&ns-t(^r. v. su 

To make monftroui* 
B£MOSEi>, b^-miLizd^ a. (359)- Orer- 

comr wscb mufing. 
BsiiCHt Unih. 8* (35a). A feat ; a 

fiat of jfttfkJcc i the perfon fitting upon a 

B&ncHER, b&i'fh'V. s. (98). llie 

feaior membert of the fociety of the iniu of 

To Bekd, b&id. V. a. To make crook- 
ed, tQ crook ; to dire^ to a certain {oiitt ; 

to incline *, to fubdiie, to make fobmiluyc. 
To Bemd, b^nd. v, n. To be incur* 

-vated \ tolcao v jot over ; to be fubmifllve, 
to bow. 
B£ND, b^d. 8. Reiurt, incarvation ; 

the cro<Acd timbers which make the ribs 

or iides of a Aip. 
BSN0ABI.B, b^'dl-bh a, (405}. That 

msty he beat. 
BEWDERt b^n'dflr. s. {98). The perfon 

who bends ; the inftrmnent with which any 

thing ia best. 
Bevbivith, hisid'whh^ s. An herb. 
BENBAfED, b^-n^pt'. a. (352). A fliip 

is laid to be bcneaped, when the water does 

aot £ow high cooogh to bring her off the 


BEWFATNt bi-n^Hc'. pTCp. UndcT, 

Ivwcr in place ; lower in rank, eicettencej 

or digoitf ; unworthy ofi 
Bekrath, b^-D^Hc'. ad. (467). In 

a bjwer place, under ; below, as oppofed to 

Bevcdict, b^'^-iU:t a. Having miid 

and fiiluhrioiis^^ialiiiei. 
Bsif EoicTios, b£n-^dlk'(hQn. s. Blef- 

mgt a decretory pronaodaition of happineft ; 

the advantage conferred by blefiing ; ftc- 

koowledlgments for bleffingt receiv^; the 

fom of infiituting an abbot. 
Behkfactior, b&i-<^.ftk'fliein s. The 

aA of coirfctxittg a benefit ; the benefit cop- 

Benefactor, bfo-^.fak'tdr. $.(166). 

He th»t coufcn a benefit. 
B£Br£FACT&E8s,bdn*^-£IVtr^s, 9. A 

woman who coafcn a benefit. 
Bemcfick, bdn'^fls. s«. (14&). Ad- 
i vantage oooficoed on another. This word 

is generally iiied for a& ecclefiaftical livings. 
Bei|eficed«^ ben'6-flft. a, (352^}. Pof- 

feSed oC a benefice. 

Bj^9EE,icEJiC£, bioB^f^-seof^. &. Ac* 
live goodnds. , 

Bf iCjKFijCEET, b&-nH^^s^. a. Kind, 

bdll ;— 6!1 $— p6{ind ;— /i&in, this. 

Bemrficial, b^n-^-flfh'il a. Advan- 
tageous, conferring benefiu, profitable ; help* 
fuT, medicinal. 

Beneficially, b^n-*.nfli'Al-16. ad. 
AdvaKtageoufly, helpfully. 

Beneficialnfss, bdn-^^lfb'dl-n^s. s. 
Ufefulne&, profit. 

BEMEFiciARVf b^4-fifli'y4.r*. a, 
(113). Holding fismething in fubordia»« 
tion to another. 

Beneficiary, b£n-^-fi(b'yA*r^. s, 
(1x3). He that is in pofleflion of abcnefice. 

Benefit, b^n'^-fit. •. A kindnefs, a 
favour conferred ; advantage, profit, afe. 

^Benefit of Clergy in Uw b.a privilege 
formerly allowed, by virtue of which a man 
convidted of felony or manflaughter was put 
to read in a Latin book of a Oothick black 
character; and if the Ordinary of Newgate 
faid Z«^> ut Cierieus, u e. he reads like a 
derk, he was only burnt in the hand and 
fet free, othenvife he fuffered death for his 
crime.— i^ai/rjr. 

To Benefit, bto'Aflt, t. a. To do 

good to. 
To Benefit, bin'^-fit.v.n. To gain 

To Benet, bA-n^t'. ▼. a. To enfnare. 
BENEvoLENCE,b^-n^v'v6-Unfe. s.Dii^ 

pofition to do good, kindnefi; the good 

done, the charity given ; a khid of tax. 
Benevolent, b^rn^v'v6-lSnt. a. Kind« 

having good-will. 


s. The fame as benevolence. 

Bengal, b^n-gUr. s. A fort of tbin 
. flight ftuff. 

Benjamin, b$n^j&*ni!n. s. The name 
of a tree. 

To Benight, b^-nke'. v. a. To fur- 
prife with the comuig on of sight ; to in- 
volve in darknefs, to embarrafs by want of 

Benion, b^-nine'. a. (385). Kind, 
generous, liberal; wholefome, not malig- 
nant. > 

Ben lamTY, b*-nlg'nM^. s. Gracionf- 
neis,aanal kindnefs; (alubrity,wholdbac^ 

Benignly, b^-ninel6. ad, FaauHua- 
Uy, kindly. 

Benison« b^'n^aui. s. (170) (443)* 
Bleffing, benedidlion. 

B&SNET, bte'n^t* Su (99). An herb. 

Bent, btet. s. The ftate of beine. 
bent ( degree of fiexure ; dcclirity ; oonolt 
po5F^ appUcRtioii of the samd^ imdinatiiD, 
difp^AUDA towanU i w a cth in g ; dotorauaa- 

B £ S 



0^ (559) — ^Fitc, fair, (Ml, fit; — m^, mdt ;— pine, pin;— . 

tioOs fixed purpofe ; turn of the teniper or 
difpofltion; tendenqr, flexion; a &alk or 
grais, called the fieot-gr^ 
Bbnt, Wnt. part, of the verb To bend. 
Made crooked ; direded to a certain point ; 
determioed upon* 

BEMTiNGTiM£»b^n'tlng>tlme.s. The 
time when pigeons feed on bents before peas 
are r^ie. 
To Benumb, b£-ndm'. v. a. ,To make 

torpid; to ftupify.— See To Nomb. 
Benzoin, b^n-z61n'. 6. A medicinal 
kind of refin, imported from the,£aCb IndieSi 
and vulgarly called Benjamin. 

To BEPAiNT,b^-pAnt'.v.a. To cover 
with paint. 

To Bbpinch, b^-pinib'. v. a* To mark 
with pinches. 

To Bfc^ieayhv b^-kwATHe'* v. a. 
(467). To leave by will to another. 

BEoyESTy bd-kw5(l'. s. (334) (4-14) • 
Something left by will. 

To Bbratti,e, be.r4t'tL v. a. To rat- 
tie off. 

Bbrberry, birl)fir-rA. s. (SSS)' ^ 
berry of a iharp taftc, ufed for pickles. 

To Bereave, b^-r^ve'. v. a. To ftrip 
of, to deprive of; to take away from. 

Bereft, b^-rtft'. Part. paff. of Be- 

Berg A MOT, bAr^gi-m6t. s. A fort of 
pear, commonly csdled Burgamot, and vol* 
garly called Burgamee, a fort of elTence or 
perfume, drawn from a fruit produced by 
ingrafting a lemon tree on a Burgamot pear 
ftock ; a fort of fnulF. 

To BfRHYME, bA-rime'« v. a. To cele- 
brate in rhyme or verfes. 

Berlin, bA^•lla^ s. A coach of a par- 
ticular form. 

Berry, Mt'tL s. Any fmall frnit 
with many feeds. 

To Berry, h^rL v. n. To bear 

Bertram, bdr'tr&m. s. (88). Baftard 

Beryl, b^'ril. s. A precious ftone 

To Bescrben, b6*ikr£^'. v. a. To 
iheker, to conceal. 

To Beseech, b^-ft^tfh'. v. a. To en- 
treat, to foppiicate, to implore ; to beg, to 

To Bbsebm, b^6to'. y. n. To be- 
ooiBe,to best.- 

To Beset, bA-s^t'.v. a.Tobc(iegc,to 
kem in; to embarraTs, to perplex ; to way- 
lay, to fiy^^v^ I ^ ^ upon, to harafi. 

ad. Over 

To Beshrbw, b6.(br5y. v. a. To wifli 

a curfe to ; to happen ill to. 
BBsiDE,b^-side'. > ^^^^ . _ 

Besides, W-sides'. S ^^' 

the fide of another, near ; over and above ; 
- not acoordbg to, though not cootrarj ; 

out of, in a ftate of deviation from. 
Beside, b£-side'. 1 

Besides, besides'. 3 

and above ; not in this number, beyond thf» 

To Besiege, b^*s^je'. v.a. To be- 
leaguer, to lay.£ege to, to befet with ttmcd 

Brsiegbr, b^{<^£'j^. s. (98). One 

employed in a fiege. 
To Brslvbbbr, b6-fl6b1>Ar. v. a. To 

dawb, to finear. 
To Besmear, b*-fm^&^.v. a. Tobc- 

dawb ; to foil, to foul. 
To Bbsmirch, bd-fm&rtib^ v. a. To 

foil, to dilcolour. 
ToBesmoke, bi-fraike'. v, a. To 

foul with fmoke; to harden or dry in 

ToBESMUT,b4-fmftt'. v.a. To blacken 

with Imoke or foot. 
Bbsom, b^'zAm. s. . An inftrumentto 

fwecp with* 
ToBssORTyb^-sdrt'. v. a. Tofait,K> fit. 
Besort, bi-s6rtf. s. Company, attend* 

ance, train. 
To BE«0T,bd-s6t'. v.a. Toinfataate, 

to ftupily, to make to doat. 
Bbsouoht, b^-siwt'. Part. paff. of 

Beleech : which fee. 
To Bespanglb, b^-fpdnsfgl. v. a. To 

adorn with fpangles, to Seiprinkle with 

fomeching (hitting. 
To Bespatter, bfi-fpit'tftr. v.a. To 

fpot or fprinkle with dirt or water. 
To Bespawl, b^-fpliwl'. v. a. To 

dawb with fpittle. 
To Bbspbar, b^-fpWk'. v. a* To order 

or intreat any thing beforehand; to make 

way by a previous apology ; to fitrebode ; to 

fpeak to, to addrefs ; to l^tokcn, to fliew. 
Bespeaker, h^-fp^'k^r. s. He that bc- 

ipeakt any thing. 
To Bbspecklb, b^-fpdk'kl. t. a. To 

mark with fpeckles or fpots. 
To BBS^£W, bii-fp{k'. v. a. To dawb 

with l|>cw or vomit. 
To Bespicb, b^-fplce'. v. a. To feafbn 

with fpices. 
To Bespit, bd-fph'. v. a. To dawH 




B E W 

To mark 

V. a. 

T, a. 

-«- aA» mdve, n6r, n6t j 

ToBupoT, b^ fp6t'. V. a 

To BEsvftEAOt U-fprdd'. 

i^xoui over* 
To Besprinkle^ b^-fprlak'kl 

To ^riskk over. 
To BEspvTTPKyM-fp&c'tdr, ▼. a. To 

fp«tter over (bmctihiii^y to dawh any thiog 

hj i|nittering. 
Best» bdl. a. Moil good. 
Best* h^il. ad. Inihe higl^eft degree 

of goodnds; ficteft. 
To BE$TAiif,b^-ftine'. v. a. To mark 

with ftsinsy to ipot. 
To Bestead, bA-ftW. v. a. To profit; 

to treat, to accommodate* 
Bestial, b6s't{hd4l. a. (464). Belong- 
ing to a beaft ; Imital, canal. 
Bestiality, b^tib^al'6.t^ s. The 

qvalitjr of beafts. 
Bestiallt, h^^t/h^ti-M. s. Braullj. 
To Bestick, b^fiii'. T. a.. To ftick 

over with any thing. 
To Bestie, b^-ftdr'. ▼. a. (109). To 

pot into vigorooa adioo. 
To Bestow, bA-ft6'. v. a. To give, to 

confer open ; to give aa charity ; to give in 

marriage ; to give as a prefent ; to apply ; 

to lay oBt upoD ; to ky up, to flow, to place. 
BtsTowkE, bi^ko'tr. s. (98). Giver, 

Besthaucht» b^*(lriwt^ particip. 

DiOraaed, mad. 
To Besteew. b^-ftr6'. v. a. To fprin- 

Ue over. S ee Stkbw. 
ToBESTElDE,bd-lbr]de^▼• a. Tofiride 

over any thing ; to have any thing between 

ooe^lega; to ftep over. 

To Bestod, b^ad', v. a. To adorn 

8. A plant. 
Irreg. prct. from 

▼. a. Todif. 

BcT, bfc s. A wager. 

To Bet, b^. f, a. To wager, to (lake 

3t a wager. 
To BfTAEk, b^-tdke'. V. a. To take, 

to ica2e ; 10 ha^recoorfe to. 
To Beththe^ U^hink^. v. a. To re- 

cal torelleaiott« 
To Betheal, b^-Mrill'. v.a. (406). 

To eo/Iave, to coaqner. 
To BsTHVH?f hi-ibiimp'* v. a. To 

To Betidi, b^tldc'. v. n. To happen 

to»to he&U ; to come to pa(», to fall out. 
Betime, b^-dme'. I . 

Betihcs, hUtmif. S 

Seabta^; early; fooo, befors king time 

iaa pdTfld ; culy m the day. 

tibc, tAbt b^U ;— 611 ;— p6find ;— /Ain, trisv 

To Betoeen, b*-tA'kn. v. a. To fig- 
niiy, to mark, to repreicnt j to foreihcw, co 

Betowy, b^t't6-n^. 

Betook, hUd6k\ 

To Be toss, b^-t6s', 
turb, to agitate. 

To Beteay, b**tri'. v. a. To give in- 
to the hands of enemies ; to difcover that 
which has been entruiled to fecrecy ; to 
make liable to fomcthuig inconvenient ; to 
ihow, to difcover. 

Bbteayre, b*-tr4'dr. s. He that be- 
trayi, a traitor. 

To Bethim, b^trim'. ▼. a. To deck, 
to drcfs, to grace. 

To Betroth, bA-tr&M'. v. a. To con- 
trail to any one, to affiance ; to nominate 
to a bifiioprick- 

To Betrust, W-trflft'. v, a. Toen- 
tmft, to put into the power of another. 

Better, bit'tilr. a. (qS). Having 
good ^oalitiea in a greater degree than 
Something elfc. 

Bettee, b^t'tdr. ad. Well in a greater 

To Bettee, bdt'tiir. v. a. To im- 
prove, to meliorate ; to furpaft, to exceed, to 

Better, bSt'tAr. a. 

Bettor, bfit'tiir. s. (166). One that 
lays bets or wagers. 

Betty, bet't6. s. An inftrument ta 
break open doors. 

Between, b^-tw^n'. prep. In the in- 
tcrmediau fpace; from one to another; be-> 
longing to two in partnerfbip ; bearing ro* 
lation to two ; in fepaiation of one from the 

Betwixt, bc-tw!kft'. prep. Between. 

!"";}"''»• ^•(99); 

In mafomy and joinery, a kind of fiiuare, 

one leg of which is frequently crooked. 
Bevehagi, b^v'iWidje. s. ^90; {^SS)* 

Drink, liquor to be drunk. 
Bbv y, b^v'A. s. A flock of birds 5 a 

company, an aflcmbly. 
To BfeWAiL, b^wilc\ ▼. a* To bo- 

moan> to lament. 
To Beware, b^-wirc'. ▼• n. To re* 

gard with caution, to be (hfpiciouf of daa« 

ger from. 

To Bevtbep, bA.w4*p'. T. a. To weep 

Superior in good- 



B I F 

Cy (559).— '^ite, ar, fall, 

To Bewet> W-wdt', V. a. To wet, 
to motfien. 

To Bewilder, W-wirdAr. v. a. To 
lofe in pathlcfs placet, to puzzle (515)* 

To Bewitch, W-wkfti'. v, a. To in- 
jure by witchcraft ; to charm, to pleafe. 

Bbwitchery, W-wltfti'flr-r6. s. Fafci- 
natioD, charm. iSSS)' 

BEWiTCHMENT,' W-WUfll'mfitlt. S. 

To Bewray, W-ri'. v. a. (427)- To 
betray, to difcover perfldloofly ; ta (how, to 
make viilble^ 

BBWRAYF.R,W-ri'Ar. s. Betrayer, dif- 

Bbyond, b*-y6nd'.prcp. Befot^, at a 

. diftance not reached; on' the farthbr fide of | 
farther onward than; paft, out of the reach 
of; aboTe, exceeding to a" greater degree 
than ; above in excellence ; remote from, 
not within thefphere of; Togo beyond, b 
to deceive. 

1^ There ia a pronunaacion of thi» word fo 
obviouJOy wrong as fcarcely to defeive no- 
tice ; and that is founding tjie • like a,, at if 
the word were written b^anJ. Abfurd and 
corrupt as this pronunciation is, too many 
of the people of London, and thofe not cn^ 
' tirely uneducated, are guilty of it. 

£EZ0AR,b^'z6re. s. A medicinal (lone, 
formerly in high efteem as an antidote, 
brought from the Bail Indies. 

Bezoardick, b^z-6-&r'dlk. a. Com- 
pounded with bexoar. 

Biangulated, bi4ng'c;u-U-t6d. > 

Biangulous, bi4ng^u4iis. (ii6). 5 
a. Having two corners or angles. 

Bias, bi'l«. s. (88). The weight lodg- 
ed on one fide of a bowl, which turns it 
from the ilfaight line ; any thing which 
turns a man to a particular courfe ; propen- 
fioo, inclination. 

To Bias, bi'Ss. v. a. To incline to 
fome fide* 

Bib, bib. s. A fmall piece of linen 
put upon thebreafts of diildren, over tJieir 

BiBACious, bi-b&'Ms.a.(ii8}.Much 
addided to drinking. 

fpr perhaps the firft fyllable of this word may 
be confidcred as an exception to the gene- 
ralnde. (117). 

Bibber, bib'bAr. s. (98). A tippler. 

Bible, bl'bL s. (405). The facred 
volume, in which are contained the revela- 
tions of God. 

BiBLIOCRAPHER, bib-lWg'grfl-f Ar. s. 
A traofcriber. 


ftt ;— TO*, mit ;— pbc, pin ;— 

BiBLlOTHECAL, hih-U'^i'^-kH. a. 

Belonging to a library. 
Bibulous, bib^ilAs. a. (^ia)* Thar 

which has the cpiality of drin^ng moifttire-- 
BiCAP8UL/iR,bi-kdp'fh6-ldr a. (itS). 

(55 a>. A plant whofe fced-ponch is di- 
vided into two parts. 
Bice, blfe. & A colour for paintiag. 
Bicipital, bi-slp'd.t41. (118). > 
BiciPiTOus, bl-slp'*-tAs. > ** 

Having two heads $ ft is applied to one of 

the mufdcsof the arm. 
To Bicker, bik'kftr. v. n. (9^>. 

To flLirmifli, tb fight off and on ; to qoivcr^ 

to play backward and forward. 
BicREiiER, bik'ftr-ilr. s. (SSS^* ^ 

BicKERN. blk'kdm. s. (98) (418). 

An iron ending in a point. 
BicoRNB, bi'k6rn. (118); 
BicoRKous, bi-k6r'ni!^s. 

Having t^O' horns. 
BicoRPORAL, bi-kAfpA-rftl. a, (ti8). 

Having two bodies. ' 
To Bid, bid. v. a. To dcfire, to afk ; 

to command, to order ; to offet, to propoic ;. 

to pronounce, to declare ; to denounce* 
Bidden, bld'dn. part. paff. (toj). 

Invited; commanded. 
Bidder, bid'di&r. s. (98). One who 
. offers or propofes a price. 
Bidding, bld'dlng. s. (410). Cotn- 

mand, order. 
To Bide, bide. v. a. To endure, to 

To Bide, Wdc. v. n. To dwell, to 

live, to inhabit ; to retnain tn a place. 
Bidental, bi-d|6n't41.a. C>i8). Hav- 

ing two teeth. 
Biding, bidding.' s. (410). Refl<fence, 

Biennial, bi-£n'n^ld. a. (ii6). Of 

the continuance of two yean. 
BiBic, b^dr s. (275). A carnage on. 

which the dead are carried to the gravt. 
BiESTiNGs, b^^s'tlngz. s. {ty^.y 

The firft milk pven by a eow after calving. 
BiFAROus, bl-fi'r^-is. a. Twofold* 
BiFEROus, blff^-rfis. a. {503). 

Bearing fruit twice a year* 
^^ We fee that the antepenultimate accexii; 

on this word, as well as on Bigattiy, and 

fome othen, has the power of fliortciiaii^ 

the vowel in the firft fyUible (555). 
Bifid, bl'fld. (118). I 

BlFlDATBD, blfW-dA-tW. 5 *' 

• (503) (535> Openiog With a cleft. * 



B I L 

— so, mdve, n6r, n6t|— t&be, tAb» 

SuroLD, bl'f6Id/a. Twofold, doable. 
SinntMEDy bi'f6rmxL a. (36a). Com- 

foBBded o£ two lonns. 
Bifurcated, bi-f&r'kd-tdd. su (xi8). 

fihooring ont into two headt. 
Bjpurcatiom, bi-ftlr-kA'fliftru s. Di- 

▼ifioQ into two. 
Big, big* a. Great in bulk, large ; 

teemiDgy pregnant; (ullof fomcthtng; dif- 

teaded» fwolo; grat io air and mien; 

proud ; great in fpint, braTc. 
Bigamist, bl^ga-mid. 8. One that 

baa committed bigamy. 
Bigamy, big'ga-m6. s. (535) {503). 

The crime of having rwo wives at once* 
B1GBCLME9, big'b^.lid. a. (aSa). 

J3iGGiif, bIgfgViu s- A child's cap. 
SiGLT, blg'Ii^. ad. Tumidly^ haugh- 


'BiGVSSB, big^o^. s. Greatnefs of 
^saatitj ; Szc^ whether greater or (malier. 

Big >T, big'gdt. s. (i66). A man 
devoted to a certain party. 

BiGOTsi>, big'gdt-£d. a. Blindly pre* 
pc^fied in Cavoor of fomething. 

j;3^ From what oddity t know not, thia word 
is frequently pronounced at if accented on 
the hit fyllahle hot one, and is generally 
foond written as if it ooght to be fo pro- 
nooBced, the # being doubled, as is ufual 
when a participk is formed from a verb chat. 
has its accent 00 the bfk fyllable. Dr. John- 
fon, indeed, has very judacioufly fet both 
ordK^praphy and pronnndatian to rights, 
and fpeUs the word with one /, though he 
finds it with two in the qootations he gives 
OS fr«m Oaith and Swift. That the former 
tbonght it might be pronounced with the 
accent on the fecood fyihhle, is highly pre- 
ibmaUe from the nic ho makes of it, where 

*■ Bi^oftted to this idol, we difclaim 
«* Rdl, health, and ea^, for nothing hot a 

For if we do not lay the accent on the fe- 
cond lyiiaUe, here the vetfe will be nnpat- 
4lotiahIy ragged. This miftake mall certaix>- 
iy cake ittrife from fnppofiag a verb which 
jdoes not ezifi,Bamely, as higat j but as this 
word m derived from a fobfiantive, it ought 
to have the bmt accent ; thus though the 
wocds iaUet and iUlet are verbs as well as 
Donnvyet as they have the accent on the 
fcft fyOahfe, the participial adje^ves deriv- 
ed fram them have only one #, and both arc 
ptonovKed with the accent on the firftfyl- 
bhlc,asM>to/, MUitd. Afatci therefore 
•oi^ht to have bat one ^, aadtopidfenrethe 
ssocoit « the firft fyltahle. 

bUI ; — All s— p6(md : — thin, this. 

BiGOTRYy big'gilt-tr^. s. (555)- 
Blind seal, prejudice ; the praSice of abtgot. 

BtqawoLNy blgTw&ln* a. Turgid. 

Bilander, biFdndil^r. s. (503). A 
imall veflel ufed for the carriage of goods. 

B1LBERRY9 bll'bdr-r^ s. Whortle- 

BiLBOy \AVhh s. A rapier, a fword. 

Bilboes, blVbAze. s. (296). A fort 
of ftocks. 

Bile, bile. 6. A thicks yellow» bit- 
ter liquor, feparated in the liver, coUeAed 
in the gall-'bladder, and difcharged by the 

Bile, bile. s. A fore angry fwelling. 
Iffipf opcrly Bolt. 

To Bilge, bilje. v. n. (74). To 
fpring a leak. 

Biliary, bll'y4-r^. a. (113). Be- 
longing to the bile. 

Bilingsgatk, blVllngZN»gii^e« s. Ri* 
baldry, foul langua^. 

BiLiNGuousy bi-lmg'gwfis. a. (1x8). 
Having two tongues. 

Bilious, bil'yds. «. (113). Confift- 
iiiUng of bile. 

To Bilk. bilk. v. a. To cheat, to 


Bill, bill. «. The4>eakof a fowl. 

Bill, bill. s. A kind of hatchet with 

Bill, bUl. s. A written paper of any 
kind ; an account of money ; a law prcfent- 
cd to the parliament; a phyfieian*s prcfcrip- 
tion ; an advertifemeot. 

To Bill, bill. v. n. To carefs, as 
doves by joining bills. 

To Bill, bill. v. a. To publifhbyan 

Billet, bilTit. 8. (99) (472) (481)- 
A fmall paper, a note ; Billet-doux, or a 
foft Billet, a love letter. 

BiLLiT, bllTit. 8. (99). AfmalUog 
of woodibr the chimney. 

To Billet, bllllt. v. a. To direa a 
•foldier where he is to lodge; to quarter fol- 

Billiards, bU'yurdz. s. (113). A 
kind of play. 

#ir Mr. Nares has very judiciouily correded 
a falfserymologyof Dr.Johnfonin this word, 
which might eventually lead to a falfe pro- 
nunciation. Dr. Johnibn derives it from 
ball and yard, or fUck, to pofli it with. So 

«« Wtthdice,with cards, with baUiards far unfit, 

" Withihuttlc-cocks,unfecming manly wit' 

B I P 


B I R 

^ (559) — F*t«> ^r, fill, fit ;— m^, tn^ ;— pine, pin j— 

Spencer, fays Mr. Nares, was probably mifled, 
88 wdl as the l^exicographerj by a falfe no- 
tion of the etymology. The word, as well 
as the ^me, is French bUlutrd; and made 
by the addition of a common termination, 
from bilUi, the tern for the ball ufcd in 

Billow, bin6. s. A wave fwoUen. 

Billowy, biri&-£. a. Swelling, turgid 

BiM, bin. s. A place where bread or 
wine it repofited. 

BiNACLK, bin'5-kl. A fea term, mean- 
ing the compais box. 

^ This word is not in Jnhnfon ; and Dr. 
A(h and Mr. Smith, who hayc it, pro- 
nounce the / in the firfl fyllable fhott. It is 
probably only a corruption of the word Bit' 

Binary, bi'nd-r^. ( 1 18). Two double. 

To Bind, bind. v. a. To confine with 
bonds, to enchain ; to gird, to enwrap ; to 
faften to any thing ; to faften together ; to 
cover a wound with drcffings; to compel, 
to conftrain ; to oblige by ftipulation ; to 
confine, to hinder ; to make coftivc ; to re- 
train ; To bind to, to oblige to ferve fome 
one ; to bind oTcr, to oblige to make ap- 

To Bind, bind. v. n. To contraft, to 
grow ftiff; to be obligator}'. 

Binder, bind'i'ir. s. (98 \ A man 
whofe trade it is to bind books; a man that 
binds iheavcs ; a fillet, a (bred cot to bind 

Binding, binding, i. (410). A 

Bindweed, bind'w^d. s. A plant. 

Binocle, bin'n6-kh s. (405). A 
telefcope fitted fo with two tubes, as that a 
diftant objed may be fecn with both eyes. 

I^The famereafon appears for pronouncing 
the i in the firft fyllable of this word Ihort 
^zin Bigamy. (535^« 

BiRncuLAR, bi-n6k'&-lAr. a. (118). 
Hating two eyes (8S) C98). 

Biographer, bi-6g'pri-fiir. s. (116). 
A writer of lives. 

Biography, bi-og'gri ft. s. (ii6>. 
An hiftorical account of the lives of particu- 
lar men. (518). 

Biparous, biip'plL-rus. a. (503) 
Bringing forth two at a birth. 

^ This word and Bipa/ai have the t long in 
JDr. Afli and Mr. Sheridan ; but Mr. Perry 
makes the i in the firft long, and in the laft 
Ihort : analogy, however, feems to decide in 
favour of the found I have given it. For 
though the penultimate accent has a tenden- 1 
cy to lengtheii the vowel when followed by | 
n finglc coofonuit, M in Hfttff trifod^ &c. 

the antepenultimate accent has m grettt^- 
tendcncy to fliorten the vowel it fisUs upots. 
— See Bx c A scr and Tripod (503}. 

Bipartite, bip'pir-tlte. a. K^^SSh 
Having two corrcfpondent partik 

fy Every orthoepift has the accent on the 
firft fyllable of this word but Entick, who 
places it on the fecond ; but a confidcrablc 
dilerencc is found in the quantity of the firil 
and laft i. Sheridan and Scott have them 
both long. Kares the laft long. Perry both 
Ihort, and Buchaniin and W. JoJinilon aa I 
have done it. The varieties of quantity on 
this word are the more furprijing, as all 
thefe writers that give the found of the 
vowels make the firft i 'miri/artiufhott^ and 
the laft long; and this uniformity in the pro- 
nunciation of one word ought to have led 
them to the lame pronunciation of the other, 
fo perfcdly fimilar. The (hortening power 
of the antepenultimate accent is evident in 
both ^503). 

BiPARriTioN, bi-pir-tiib'An. s. The 
ad of dividing into two. 

Biped, bi'p^d s. (118). An antmal 
with two feet. 

Bipedal, bip'p^^d&l. a. (503). Two 
feet in lengUi. — See Bi parous. 

BiPFNNATED, bi-pdn'n^-t^d. a. (118). 
Having two wings. 

BiPETy\Lou». bi-pdt'tAlus. a. (118), 
Confining of two flower-leaves. 

Bic^ADUATE, bi-qw&'drAtc. (9i)»7 

Biquadratick, bi-qw^.drat'ik 3 
The fourth power arifing from the mulri- 
plication of a fquare by itfelf. 

Birch, bArtfli, s. (108). A tree. 

PmcHEN b^ir'tfhn. a. (103) (405}, 
Made of birch. 

f^ An finglifhman tnay blufli at this elitfter 
of confonants for a fyllable ; and yet this is 
unqneftionably the cxad pronunciation of 
the word ; and that our language is full of 
thefe fyllables without vowels.— See Prin- 
ciples, No. 103, 40J. 

Bird. b^rd. s. (to8}. A general 
term for the feather kind, a fowl. 

To Bird, bArd. v. n. To catch birds 

B1RDBOLT9 bArd'b61t. s. A fmall ar- 

BiRDCATCHER, bftrd^kitflx-Ar. 8.(89). 
One that makes it his cmploymciit co t^c 

Birder, b5rd'{ir. & (98> A bird- 

Birdingpifcr, b{krd'mg-p^^. s. A 
gun to ihoot birds with. 

Birdlime, birdlime. 8. A giminoas 
fnbfiance foread upon twigs, by which die 
birds that £gbt upon tlicm ire cstaiiglod. 




B I T 

BitMAii, bitrd'mdn. s. (B8). A 

jBixosvtc, bdrdsB'i. s. A plant. 
BiRPSFooT» biirdz'ftt. s. A plant. 
BiRSSMEST, bftrdz/n^ft. s. An herb. 
fiiRDSKEST, bfirdz'a^ft s. The place 

vKerc a bird lays ber eggs and hatches her 


BiBDSTOMOvfi, bArdz'tdng. $• An 

B'RGAiiDBR, b^i/gin*diir. I. A fowl 

of the goofr kind. 
BiitTH hkrtb. s. (108). The aA of 

coming into Efc ; eztraAicm, fiiieagc ; rank 

'm\k\dti b 'mbcrtted by ii«fcent ; the condition 

in wbtcb any man k bo#ta ; tfaiog bom ; the 

ad of brmging forth. 
Birthday. * ^r/A'd4. s. The daj on 

which 207 one is bom. 
Birthoom, b^Tf/b'dAm. s. Privilege 

BiRTHNfGUT, bdirM'nkc. s. The night 

in which any one is bom. 
BiRTHVLACE, hirth'plAk, s. Place 

where aay one is bom. 
BiTR HEIGHT, h^Tth'nKC. s Therights 

and prxTikges to which a man is born ; the 

r^ht of the 6rft bom. 
BfRTHSTR AKGLf D,b^r/i6'ftr4ng-gld. a. 

Sciasgled 20 being bora (359)* 
f^ :>ee JBuchem. 
BiRTHWORT» bdr/^wtirt. s. (166). 

The name of a plant. 
Biscuit, bislcit* f. (340- A kind 

of bard dry bread, made to be carried to 

fea; a compofiticn of fine flour, ahnonds 

To Bisect, bUdkt'. ▼. a. (118) 

(J19). To divide into two pavts. 
Bisection, bi-i^&k'ihAn. s. j 118). A 

geooietrtca] tenn, fignifying the ditifion of 

any <|uantzty into two equal parts. 
BiSMor, b\{h'ap. s. (166). One of 

the head order df the clergy. 
BiSHcr. bUh'6p. s. A cant word for 

a oixtuK cf wine, oranges, and fugar. 
]^i8HorRiCK, bifti'6p-rlk. s. The dio- 

cefeof abifiiop. 
BisHOPWEEft, bifh'Ap-w^dd. 8. A 

BiiXybiik. s. Soup, broth. 
Bismuth, hlz^mttb, s. Marcafite, a 

bard, white, brittle, mineral fnbftance, of 

a «n*»»ni nf nature, found at Mifnia. 
Bissextile, bis-s^ksVil. s. (140)- 

^ Mr. $cott places the accent on the firft 
ffQabk of this vord i Dr. Kcndrick on the 

bftll j-^11 ;— p6An<l ;— ^i&in, thi«. 

firft and lad ; Mr. i»hcridan, Dr. Johnfon, 
\V. Johnilon, Dr. Alb, Buchanan, Perry, 
£ntick and Bayley, on the fecund ; Mr* 
Scott, Dr. KeTidrick,aiid W. Johnfion, pro- 
nounce the laft i long, as in tile. But as the 
accent is on the fecund fyllablr by (o great 
a majorit)', analogy determines the lafti to 
be (bort. 

BissoN. bis's{in. a. (166). Blind. 

B I s r on r, bis'tort. s. A plant called 

BisTcijRY, b!s'tflr.d. s. (3I4\ A 
furgeon^s indrument ufcd in making inci- 

Bit bit. s. ITieiron part of the bri- 
dle which is put into the horfc*« mouth. 

BiT: bit s. As much meat as is put 
into the month at once ; a fmall piece of any 
thing; a Spaniih Weft-India filver coin, 
▼allied at fcvcn-pcnce halfpenny, llerling. 

To Bit, bit. v. a. To put the bridle 
upon a horfe. 

BtTCH, bit(h. s. The female of the 
dog kind ; a vulgar name of reproach /or a 

To Bite. bite. v. a. To crufli or 
pierce with the teeth; to give pain by cold; 
to hurt or pain with reproach ; to cut, to 
wound ; to make the mouth ihaart with an 
acrid tafie ; to cheat, to trick. 

Bite, b:te s. 1 he fcizure of any 
thing by the teeth ; the ad of a filh that 
takes the bait; a cheat, a uick; a (harper. 

BiTtR, bi'tur. s. (98;. He that biles ; 
a fiih apt to take a bait ; a tricker, a dc> 

Bittacle. bk'tl-kl. s. (405 '. A 
frame of timber in the ftcerage, where the 
compafs is placed. More conamonly Bzh- 


Bittfr, bh'tiV. a. (98). Having a 
hot, acrid, biting taftc, like wormwood; 
(harp, cruel, fevcre, calamitous, miferablc ; 
reproachful, fatirical ; unpleafing or hurtful. 

Bittercround, bit'tvir-ground. s. 
A plant. 

Bitterly, bit'tAr 16 ad With % 
bitter tafte ; in a biting manner, forrowful- 
ly,calamitoufly; (harply, fcverely. 

BiTTfRN. 'it'ti^rn s. {98/. A bird 
with long legs, which feeds upon fiflk. 

Bitterness bit'tur-n^s- f. A hitter 
tafte ; malice, grudge, hatred, implacability; 
Iharpnefs, fevcrity of temper; fatire, pi- 
quancy, kecnncfs of reproach ; forrow, v«* 
ation; adfflidion. 

Bitterswfrt, bk'tur Twto. s. An 
a^le iwhich hM » compounded tafte. 

B I. A 



CO.(559) — ^Fite, ftr, fldl, fit ;—m*, mfit }— pipe, pU|- 

BiTUMiN, b^-tti'men. s. (u8) (503). 
A fat un£hjou« matter dug out of the earth, 
or fcummcd off lakes. 

.^fV This word, from the propeniity of our lan- 
guage to the antepenultimate accent,i8 often 
pronounced with the ilrefs on the firftfylla- 
Me, as if written 6it'if»meH ; and this laft 
mode of founding the word may be confider- 
€d as the moft common,thoagh not the moft 
learned pronunciation. For Dr. kih ii the 
^^nly nrtho^pift who places the accent on the 
firft fy liable ; but every one who gives the 
found of the unaccented vowels^ except 
Buchanan, very improperly makes the / 
lon^, as in idle ; but if this found be long, 
it ought to be (lender, as in the fecond fylla- 
ble oi viftblr,terribUi &C. (117) (551). 

BiTUMiNO*. s, b^-ti'm^-n5s. a. (ii8). 
Compounded of bitumen. 

Bivalve, bi'vitlv. a. (ii8). Havin? 
two valves or Ihutters, ufed of thofe fim 
that have two ihells, as oyflers. 

BTVALVULAR,bi-vil'.v6-14r, a. Having 
two valves. 

BixwoRT, hiksVilrt, s. An herh. 

BiZANTiNE, blz'dn-tine. s. (149). A 
^eat piece of gold valued at fifteen pounds, 
which the king offers upon high feftiVal 

f^ Perry is the only orthdepift who pronoun- 
ces the laft I in this word fhort : and Dr. 
JohnfoQ remarks, that the firft fyllable 
ought to be fpelled with jr, as the word ari- 
ses from the coilom eftabli(hed among the 
Emperors of Conftantinople, anciently call- 
ed Byzamtiom. 

To Blab, blib. v. a. To tell what 
ought to be kept fecrec* 

To Blab, blib. v. n.* To tell tales. 

Blab, blib. s. A telltale. 

Blabber, bl&b'biir. s. A tattler. 

Black, blik. a. Of the colour of 
n^ht ; dark ; cloudy of countenance ; fullen ; 
horrible, wicked ; difmal, mournful* 

Black-bryomt, blik-bri'6-n^ s. The 
name of a plant. 

Black-cattlr, biik'kit-tl. s. Oxen, 
bulls, and cows. 

Black*guaad, bl&g-gird'. a» (44S). 
A dirty fellow. A low term. 

Bt.ACK•LEAD9b1ik-^^d^ s. A mineral 
found in the lead mines, much ufed forpen- 

Bi*ACK-puDDiNO,blak-p^d'dlng. s. A 
kind of food made of blood and grain. 

Black-rod, bUk-r6d'. s. The uftier 
lielonging to the order of the garter ; fo call- 
ed from the bbck rod he carries tn hit hand. 
He » ttlher of t|ie parliamcot. 

Black, bl4k. s. A black colour; 

mourning ; a blackamoor ; that part of the 

eye which is black. 
To Black, bl4k. v. a. To make black, 

to blacken. 
Blackamoor* bl&k'4-m6re. s. A ne>- 

Blackberry, blik'bdr-r^. s. A {pecies 

of Ixramble ; the fruit of it. 
Blackbird, blik'bArd. s. The name 

of a bird. ^ 

To Blackbn, bliklcn. v. a. (X03). 

To make of 4 black colour ; to darken, to 

To Blackem, bULk'kn. v. n. To gro-w 

Blackish, blak^flu a. Somewhatt 

Blackmoor, bl^k'm^re. s. A ne- 
Blackness, bMk'n^s. s. Black colour ; 

Blacksmith, b]ak'0n1/i&. s'. A fmitli 

that works in iron, fo called from being ^e- 

ry fmutty. 
Blacktail, bllik'tile. s. The ruff cir 

pope. A (JB|«11 fifh. 
Blackthorn, blikVMrn. s. The floe. 
Bladder, bl4d'ddr. s. (98). That 

veflel in the body which contains the ariDC; 

a blifter, a puflule* 
Bladdbr-nut» bl4d'd(^r-n&t« s. A 

Bladder SENA,bUd'dAr*&^n'a. s. A 

Blade, hUde. s. The spire of grafc, 

the green (boots of corn. 
Bladc« bWde. s. The (harp or ftriking 

part of a weapon or inftrument ; a brilk 

man, eitfier fierce or gay. 
Blade BONV, bl&de'b6ne. s. The&apu- 

la. or fcapular bone. 
If^ Probably corrupted from Platehau : C3ceek 

Bladld, bU'ddd. a. Having blades or 

Bl A IN, bl4ne« s. A puftole, a blifier« 

Blame ABLE) bU'mi-bl. a. (405}. 
Culpable, faulty. 

BLAMiiABLBiiEssy b}4'« 6. 

Blambably, blA'ma-bl&. ad. Culpa- 

To Blame, bldme. v. a. To cenfure. 
To charge with a fault. 

BtAME; bUme. s, Iinputatio& of a 
fault ; crime, hurt- 

B L A 


B L E 

— 11&, m&ire, ndr, ndt;— «6be, tftb, bdll ;—- 611 ;~p66nd ;— /iin, thu. 

BiitrEFui.9 bUme'fM. a. CTiminal, 

Blameless, bUroe'Us. a. Guiltlefs, 


Bl A M £ LS s LY,' blimcl^s-l^ . ad . Inno- 

Bl4«iele8]iess» bUfne^Us-a^s. s. Jn- 

Blamrr, bl&'mi&r, s. (98}. A cen« 


BLAMEWORTHlTy blAme'w^T.TH^'. a. 

Culpable, Uameable* 
To Blanch, blinfli. ▼. a. To whiten ; 

to ftrip «r peel fvch things as have hulkt ; 

to cUiUntc, to pafii over. 
Blanchcr, blln'flitkr. s. (99). A 

Bland, blind, a. Soft, uaild, gentle. 

T'o Blandish, blin'difli. ▼. a. To 
finooth, to fflftor. 

BLAKDisHifENT, faMu'dlih-mdnt. s. 
A^ of ioDdocfsyexpreffion of tcndcrnefsby 
feftore; foft w«r&, kiftft fpeeches; kind 

BLAVRfbttnk. a. White, unwritten; 
ccoMfcd; wIthoBt rhyme. 

Blank, blink. s, A void fpacc ; a lot, 
by which MCfaing is gained ; a paper un- 
•wrkttn ; the poim to which as arrow or 
iboc is direded. 

Blank! r, bMnkIt s. (99). A wool- 
len cover, Ibfc, aiidlooicly woven ; a kuid of 

To Blanket, bUnklt. v. a. To cover 
vridk ahlaidtct ; to toft in t bhnket. 

Blankly, blink'U. a. In a blanl^ man- 
aer, with palenels, with conftilion. 

To Blaspheme, bl&f-fimc'. v. a. To 
Ipcak in tenna of impions irreverence of 

To Blaspheme, bUf-ftme^ v, n. To 
^pcak bla^hemy. 

Blasphemer, bli<-f^mdr. s. A wretch 
that fpeaks of God in ioipioiis and irrever* 
cnt terms. 

Blasphemous, blis'ft-mds. a. Impi- 
onfiy irrevcreac with regard to God. 

fir ^c fomettoies hear this word proooonced 
with the accent on the fecond fyilablc like 
Maijpheme ; and as the word hlajpbemns in 
X*atin has the leoond fylbtbfe loi^, and the 
Eaghih wonlhasthe fame mmiber of fylla- 
bks,it has as good a right to the accent on 
the fec6Bd f^bk» as Bimmu^ Bitmmtn^ 
Ammtm^ &c ; hut placing the accent on the 
firftiyWIe of bhOpbemons is b/mndb die 
tDtA polite ; as,ODfortutiately for the other 
pronnnciMioo^thongh the learned one,it has 
been ado^pced by the vulgar {503). 

Blasphemously, blits'f^-mi^s-ld. ad, 

Impiouflf , with wicked irreverence. 
Blasphemt, bUs'ft-m*. s. Blafphemy 

is an c^cring of fome indignity unto Oo<f 

Blast, hlaft. s. A guft, or pnfFof 

wind ; the fonnd made by any inftrimient 

cf wind mullck ; the ftroke of a malignant 

To Blast, bWft. v. a. To ftrike with 

fome fodden pUgnef to make to wither; 

to injure, to in>ralidate ; to confound, to 

ftrike with terror. 
Blastment, hldft'mdnt. s. Sudden 

ftroke of infeaion. 
Blatant, blA'tint. a. Bellowing as a 

To B latter, blut'tir. v. n- To roar. 
Blay, bU. s, A finall whitifh river 

fifh ; a bleak. 

' Blaze, bUze. ». A flame, the light of 
the flame ^ pnblicasion ; a wiute mask up- 
on a horfe. 

To Blaze, blAie. v. n. To fkme ; to 

be coBfpicmHU* 
To Blaze, bldze. v. a. To pablifh, to 

make known ; to blazon ;.to inflame ; to Arc. 
Blazer, bld'z(ir. s. (98). One that 

fpreads reports. 
To Blazon, bl4'zn. v. a. ( 170). To 

explain, in prf>per terms, the figores on en- 

figns armorial; to deck, to embcllifli ; to dif- 

play, to fet to (how; to celebrate, to fct 

out ; to blase about, to make publick. 
Blazonry, bl4'za-rd. $. The art of 

To Bleach, bte6t(h»v. a- To whiten. 
Bleak, bWke. a. Pale ; cold, chill. 
Bleak, bUke. s. A (mall river fifb. 
Bleakness, bl^ke'n^s. s. Coldnefsi 

Blkaky, hWYL a. Bleak, cold, chill. 
Blear, blMr. a. Dim with rheum or 

water ; dim, obfaire in general. 
Blearkdnbss, bl6^'rSd-n£s. s. {^6$). 

The ibte of being dimmed with rheum. 
To Bleat, bl^ew v. n. To cry as a 

Bleat, bl^te. s. The crj of a Ibeep or 

BLEB,bWb. s. Abliftcr. 
To Bleed, bl^M. v. n. To lofc blood, 

to run with blood ; to drop as blood. 
To Bleed, bl*6d. v. a. To let blood. 
To Blemish, bWmllh. v. a. To mark 

with any defotmiry ; to defame, to CMrniib, 

with refped to repatatioo. 

B L I 


B L O 

QCJ* (559)- — Fite, far, fiill, fit j— m*, m^t ;— pke, plni 

Blemish^ bl^mlrti, s. A mark of de- 

formity, a fear ; reproach, difgrace. 
To Blanch, bi^nlh. v. n. (352). To 

(hrhiky to ftart back. 
To Blend, bl^nd. v. a. To mingle to- 
gether ; to confonnd ; to pollote, to fpoil. 
Blent, bUnt. The oblokte participle 

of Blend. 
To Bless^ bWs. V. a. To make happy, 

to prolper, to wifli happincfs to another ; 

to praile; to glorify for benefits receiv- 
Blessed, blds's^d.particip. a. (361). 

Happy, enjoying heavenly felicity. 
Blessedly, bl6s'&dd-l^. ad. Happily. 
Blbssednrss^ bl^s's^d-n^s. s. Hap- 

puicft, felicity, fandity ; heavenly felicity ; 

Divine favour. 
Blkssel, bl^s'stir. s. (9^). He that 

Blegsing, blis'slng. 9. {410). Bcne- 

dtdion; the means- of happiiieft; Divine 

Blest, bl^ft. part.a. (361). Happy. 
Blew, bli!i. Tlie preterit t)f Blow. 
Blight, blitc. s. (393). Mildew ; any 

thing nipping, ar blafting. 
To Blight, blitc. v. a* Tb blaft, to 

hinder from fertility. 
Blind, blind, a. Without fight, dark ; 

intellc^uaUy dark ; unfeen, private ; dark, 

To B L IN Df blind, v. a. To make blind ; 

to darken ; to obfcure to the eye $ to ob- 

fcure to the underftanding. 
Blind, blind, s. Something to hijiuler 

the fight ; femething to miflead. 
To Blindfold, blind'f6ld. v. a. To 

hinder from feeing by blinding the eyea. 
Blindfold, blind'f61d- a. Having the 

eyes covered. 
Blindly, blindly, ad. Without fight ; 

implicitly, without examination; without 

judgement or diredion. 
BLINDMAN*S-BVFF,blind-man7.4>l\P. s. 

A play in which fome one is to have his eyes 
. covered, rad hunt oat the reft of the com- 
Blindness, blind'nds. s. Want qf 

fight ; ignorance, intellcdaal darknefs. 
Blinds IDE, blind-side', s. Wealcnefs, 

BLiNOwoRm, blind'wArm. 8. Afmall 

viper, venomous. 
To Blink, blink, v. n. To wink ; to 

fee obfcnrely* 
0' Thh w«td has been ufcd for fome years; 

chiefly in Parliament, as a verb adUve ; at 
when a fpeaker has omitted to take notice 
of fome material point in queftion, he is laid 

" to ilini the queftioo* It were to be wiihe4 
that every word which finds its way into 
that honfe had as good a title to remain 
there as the prefcut word. It combines ia^ 
its (Ignification an omiifion and an artful in- 
tention to omit ; and as this cannot be £• 
handfomely or fo comprehenfively ezpreifed 
by any other word, this word, in this fenfe« 
ought to be received. 

Blinkard, blink' Qrd. s. (gS\ One 
that has bad eyes ; fomething twinkling. 

Bliss, blis. s, 1 he higheft degree of 
happinefs ; the happincft of bieHcd finiis ; 
felicity in general. 

Blissful, blis'fU. a. Happy in the 
hfgheft degree. 

Blissfully, bli:>'f&l*]^. ad. Happily. 

Blissfulne8S> blis'f&l-n^s. s. Hap- 

Blistkr, blis'tAr. s. (98). A puftale 
formed by railing the cuticle from the cntis ; 
any fwelling made by the feparatioii of « 
film or ikin from theiOtherpaftk 

T< Blister, blls'tdr.v. n. To rifeifi 

To Blister, blls'tflr. v. a, To.raife 
blifters by fome hurt. 

Blithk, bliFHe. a. (467). Gay, airy. 

Blithly, bliTH'l^. ad. In a- blithe 

^ Thefe compounds of the word iiUhe ovif/bt 
to be written with the final r, as Uiihefy, 
bbtbefimet &c. for as they ftand in Johnfon, 
the f might be pronounced (hnrt.-^See In* 
trodu6lion to the Rhyming Di^iontfy , Or- 
thograq)hical Aphorifin the 8th. 

Blitheness, bliTH'n^s. 1 

Bliths^meness. bliTH'sAm-n^. J * 
llie quality of being blithe. 

BLiTHsoME,bliTH'sAm. a. Gay, cheer- 
To Bloat, bWtej v. a. To fwell. 
To Bloat, blptc. v. n. To grow tur* 

Bloatednbss, bl6't6d-n6s« 

gidnefs ; fwelling. 
Blobbrr, blob'bilr. s. (98). 

Blobberlip, bl6b'b(ir4ip. s. 


Blob lipped, b)6b'llpt. 

Having fwelled or thick lips. 
Block, bl6k. s. A (bort heavy piece 

of tiffibc^ ; i toiigb piece of marble *. the 

t. Tor- 
A bub- 
A thick 





.•^ nih Jn3ve» ii6r9 n&t ;-*t&be« tAb» b&Il ; — 611 1— pd(^nd ;— -/iUn, THf««' 

WDodoD which faaU are ibrmcd ; the wood 
00 which criminal!* are beheaded ; an ob- 

ftrodioo, a. ftop ; a fea term for a pulley ; a 


To Block, bl&k. v. a. To fliut up, to 

Block* HOUsK,bl6k'h6£ire. s. A for- 
trc& Built to obftruA or block up a paft. 

Bl ck-tin, bl5k-tln'. s. Tin pure or 

Bloc K A Of t blokJciUie^ s. A fiegc car- 
ried OD by ihnctiofr up the place. 

To Blockade, bl6k-k4dc'. v. a. To 
(hut up. 

BLOCKHiAP^bUkliM. I. A ftupid fel- 
low, a dolr,a man withont partt. 

Blockhcaded» bVok-h^ ed. a. Stu* 

Blockish, bl6k1(h. a. Stupid, doll 

Blockishlf, hl6kl{b^L ad. In a (lu- 
pid fliajDier* 

BLOCKI^HNKSSt bliklfll^D^. 8. StUpl 

Blood, bl4d. u ( 308 ) . The red li- 
(|uor tk« ciRulBtM ui the bodiea of ani 
mab; dt'dd ; progeny ; family^ kindred 
defceot, haeage; birth, high extra^ion; 
mufder, Tident death ; temper of mind, 
ibce of the pai&ooii | hot fpark ; man of 
To BlooDj blAd. v. a. To (lain with 
blood ; to enqre to bhiod, as a hound ; to 
heat, to exaiperare. 
Blood-bolter ED, bl&d1>&I-ti!^rd. a. 

BLooDSTONs,bUd'ft&ne. s. The blood- 
ftoocia green, (potted with a bright blood- 
Blood-thirstt, bifid Vi^drf-t^.. a. Dc- 
firooa to filed blood. 

Blood- FLOWER, blAd'fl6&r. s. A 

Bloodgoiltinsss, bl6d'gilt^^nds. s. 

Blood-i»oukd, bWd'hiiind. s. A 

hound that foSowt by the fcent. 
Bloodily, bliid'*-U. a. CrueBy. 
Bloodiness, blCid'^-n^s. $. The ftate 

of hcin^ bloody. 
BLo>oi.ass, blAd'Us. a. Without 

Uood, dead ; wichout flanghter. 
Bloodshed, bldd'ih^d. s. The crime 

ofUood, or murder ; flaughter. 
BLQODsuEODEKy bHd'fli&l-dAn s. 

B booDiiioT, bl&d'fix6t« \ 

BLOODsaoTTKM, MAd'lb&Wfl. J ** 

Filled with blood bvrfting from itt proper 

▼eifcU (103). 
Bloods ucKitR,blAd'sfik»Ar.s. A leech, 

a fly, any thing that faelu blood $ a mur- 
Bloody, bli*id'^. a. Stained with 

blood ; cruel, murderoui. 
Bloom, bb6m, s. A bloflbm ; the 

ilate of immaturity. 
To Bloom, b15Ain. v, n. To bring or 

yield bloflbms ; to produce, asbloffom* ; to 

be in a (late of youth. 
Bloomy, bl6dm'm£. a.Fullof blooniSf 


Blossom, bUs'sto. s. (166). The 
flower that grows on any plant. 

To Blossom, blos'sil^m. v. n. To pat 
forth bloflbms. 

To Blot, bl^t. ▼. a. To obliterate, to 
make writing inviiible ; ^to efface, to eraie ; 
to blur ; to difgrace, to disfigure; to darken* 

Blot, bl6t. s. An obliteration of fomc* 
thing written ; a blur, a fpot ; a fpot in re* 

Blotch, bl6tfh. s. A fpot or puftule 
upon the ikin. 

To Blote, blAtc. V. a. To fmokc, or 
dry by the fmoke. 

Blow, bl6. s. {%2^). A ftroke; the 
fatal ftroke ; a lingle adion,a fudden ereut ; 
the aft of a fly, by which (he lodges eggs in 

To Blow, blA. t. n. To move with a 
current of air : This word is ufcd fometimet 
imperfonally with It ; to pant, to puff ; to 
breathe hard ; to found by being blown ; to 
play mufically by wind; to bloom; to bloT- 
fom ; To Mow over, to pafs away without 
efied ; To bh»w op, to fly into the aar by 
the force of gunpowder. 

ToBL0w,bl6. V. a. To drive by the 
force of the wind ; to inflame with wind ; 
to fwell, to puff into fize ; to fonnd an 
inftrument of wind mufick ; to warm with 
the breath ; to fpread by report ; to iofed 
with the eggs of flies ; To bk>w out, to 
extinguifli by wind ; To blow up, to raife 
or fwell with bteath ; Tq blow up, to da- 
ftroy with gunpowder ; To blow upon, to 
nuke dale. 

Plowzb, bliiize. s. (313). Amdc^ 
fat-faced wench; a female whofe hair it in 

Blowzy, bl6&'z^. a. Suxi4>anit, high 

BLUBBEK,blflb'bdr. s. The part of a 
whale that contains the«ik. 

To BLuaatR, bWb'bdr. v, n. To weep 
iofttcb amanner as to fwdl the diedn. 





<0 (559)— ^^te, ftr. filU 

Bludgeon, bl&d'jAn. s« (259)r A (hort 
ftick, with one end loaded. 

BLUEybl^. a ^535)* Oneofthefeven 
original colours. 

Bluebottle, bWbAt-tl. s. A flower 
of the btll Ihape; a fly with a Urge hlue 

Blu ELY, blii'l^.ad.With a blue colour. 

^ There is an incouMency in TpcUing this 
and ilmilar woi^ds with the (ilent r, and 
leaving it out in dnty^ and truly ^ which fliows 
how much our orthography flill wants regu* 
lating, notwithftan(£ng the. labour and at- 
tention of Dr. Johufon. My opinion is, 
that the £ervile t ought to be omitted in 
thefis words % for my reafons, I muft refer 
the infpeiftor to the Introdndion to the 
Khyming Diftlonary, Aphor iiin the Sth. 

Blueness, bU'nds. s. The quality of 
being bine. 

Bluff, blAf. a. Bigifurly, bludering. 

Bluish. bl&'Ub. a* Blue in a fm^l 

To Blunder, blAn'dilkr. v. n. (98). 
To miflake groisly ; to err very widely; to 
flounder, to ftumble. 

To Blunder, bl^nMJir. T. a. To mix 
fooliflily, or blindly. 

Blunder, bli^n^dQr. s. A grofs or 
duuiieful miftake. 

Blunderbuss, blAn^dC^r-bAs. s. A gun 
that is difcharged with many bullets. 

Blukderer,. bl&n'd£ir-iEir. s. A block* 

BLUNDERHEAD»bll^n'ddr-hid. s. A 
ftupiid fellow. 

BLUNT»blAnt* a. Dull on the edge or 

point, not fharp ; dull in under ftandiog, not 

Ijuick \ rough, not delicate ; abrupt, not ele- 
To Blunt, bl&nt. v. a. To dull the 

edge or point \ to rcpref» or weaken any 

Bli/ntly, bltinrt^. ad. Without 

fliarpnefs; coarfely, plainly. 
Bluntn ESS, bl6nt'n^. s. Want of edge 

or point, coarfeneft, roughnels of manners.. 
Blur, bl(^r. s. A blot, a (lain. 
To Blur, blflr. v. a. To blot, toef- 

hct ; to fiain. 
To Blurt, blfirt. v. a. To let fly 

without thinking. 
To Blush, bli5(h» v. n. To betray 

ihame or confufion, by a red Golour in. the 

cheeks ; to carry a red colour. 
Blush, blAfh. s« The colour in the 

theeks; a red or purple colour; fudden 


fit ;— m^ mhl ;«^piDe, pin ;-i^ 

Blushy, bld(h'd» a. Having tbe co^ 

lour of a blttih. 
To BlustbR) blCks'tfir. v. n. To roar, 

as a ftorm ; to buUy, to puff. 
Bluster,: bli^s^tiSir. s. Roar, noife, 

tumult ; boaft, boiftcroulnels. 
Blusterer. bliis'tC^r-ik. 8. A fwag- 

gerer, a bully. 

Blustrous, bl^'trds. a. TumultOk^ 


Bo, b&. interj. A word of terroor* 

Boar, b6re s. (295). Tbe malefwine. 

Board, b6rd. s. A f>iece <)f wood of 
more length and breadth than thickucfs; a 
table, at which a council or court is held ; %• 
coBTt of jurtfdi^on ; ^edeckorfloorof a 

To Board, b&rd. v. a. To enter a (Kip 
hy force ; to attack, or make the firH at* 
tempt ; to lay or pave with boaitis. 

To Board, b6rd. v. n* To live in a 
houie, where a. certain i«te is pai^ for eat- 

' iPff« 

B^ARD-wAGms, b&rd-w4'|lz. s. (99). 
Wages allowed to fierranta to Jbeep thon^ 
feWes in ■ visuals. 

Boarder, b6r'ddp. s. One who diets 
with another at a certain rate. 

BoARi»H, b^re^lh. a. Swiniih^ brutal, 

Tb Boast, b6fl. v. n; To difplay one's 
own worth or a^ons. 

To Boast, b6ft. v. a. To brag of; to- 
magnify, to exalte 

Boast, b6(l. s. Aproudfpeech ; 
caufe of boaftihg. 

Boaster, b&ft'Ar. s. A bragger. 

Boastful, boft'fM^ a. Oftentatiouan. 

tBoASTiNTGLT, b6ft'bg4^.ad. OAenta- 

Boat, b6te. 8» {tgs\' ^ ^^^ ^ V^ 
the water in. 

BoATiON, b6.A'(hdn. s. Roar, noife. 

Boatman, b6te'mdn. \ .gj.* 

BoATSMAN, bfttes'mtn. J *' ^^^^' 
He that manages a boat. 

Boatswain, bo'fn, s. An officer on 
board a fliip, who has charge of all her ng* 
ging, ropes, cables, and anchors. 

^ 1 ttis word is aniverlaUy prowowwyd in 
common converfation as it is here maxlced : 
but in reading it would faTour fomewhat of 
vulgarity to contrad it to a found £b ^cry 
unlike the orthography. It would be vui- 
vifeable, therefore, in tfaofe who are not of 
the naval profeffion, where it is tcduical, 
to pronounce this word, when they oead ii* 
diilindly as it it wtittoo. 




«-]ii»inATe, ndr, nfit; tftbc, tAb, 

To Bob, b6b v. a- To beat, to drub ; 

CO dot, to gain by fraad* 
To BoBt b^b. T. xu To play backward 

aod forward. 
Bob, b6b. s. Somethiog that hangs (b 

OS to play loofe ; the words repeated at the 

end cf^ Aaiiza^ ablow ; a Ihort wig. 
BoBBiii, bob'b'in. s. A finall pin of 

wood with a notch. 
BoBCHtKRY, b6b't{h^r6. $• A play 

flDoBg children, in which the cherry is hiuyg 
ib as to hob againft the month. 
Bobtail, bAb'tMe. s. Cttt tail. 
BoBTjLitBis b6b't41Ua. (359). Hav- 

BoBWtQ, b^Mg'. ^ A fliort wig. 
To BoD£, b6de. ▼. a. To portend, to 

be the omen dC 

BopEMijiT, bdde^m&it. s. Portent, 

To Bodge, h&dje^ v. n. To boggle. 
Bodice, b&d'dls. s. (142}* Stays, a 

w«ftcootqmked with whaJehone. 
BoDii.«ss, bM'd6-U& a. Incorporeal, 

BooiLT, b^d^d^Ig. a. Corporeal, con- 

taioiBg^ body ; reMqg to the body , not the 

-mnd; jcaJ, adiial. 

BoDitr, hodW-te. ad. Corporeally. 

BoDKiv, bid'kin. «. Aninftrnment 
with a finaObhtde and ihai^p point ; an in- 
ibmtenttodraw a thread orriband through 
a loop; an inftmment todrefa the hair. 

Body, b6d'dfe. $, The material fub- 
ftaice ol an animal ; matter, oppofed to' 
%Mtt ; a pcrCoo ; a bnman being ; reality, 
oppticd to reprefattadoo ;* cnllediTe mafo; 
thg wain a imy; the battle; a corporation ; 
the OBtward cooditioQ ; the main part ; a 
pnded, agoietal coOeftion ; "ftre^tb, .as 

BOOY-CLOATHB, b6d'd*<l&«J. 6. 

ChadttBg for h«i«a.that are dieted. 
Boo, b&g, <. A mar(h,« fen, am*- 

BoG-raoma, bog'tMt.tdr. s. One 

that fives in a boggy coontty. - 
To BoGG<.B, b&g'gl. V. «. i^Oj). 

Toibft, to iy bade ; to hefitatb 
BooGLiR, bdg'gMff, s. A doabter, a 

timoroiis mas. 

Boggy, big'gi. a. (283). Marfliy, 

BoGHo^Bt^ b6gliA6fc. s* A houTe of 

BoH«A, bi-h^. s, A fpccici^rf tea. 

b&n J— All ;— p6&nd ;-^iin, this. 
To BoiL, b611. V. n. (299). To be agi- 

tated by heat ; to be hot, to be fervent ; to 

move like boiling water; to be in hot liquor. 
To Boil, bAll v. a. To fceth ; to heat 

by putting into boiling water ; to drefi in 

boiling water. 
BoitBR, bAH'ftr. s. The perTrni that 

boils any thing; the vcffel m which any 

thing is boiled. 
Boisterous, b61s't5r-fts. a. Violent, 

loud, roaring, ftormy ; turbulent, farioos ; 


Boisterously, b6i$'t*r-Af-W. ad. 

Violently, tumnltooufly. 
BoisTFnousKESs, bAis't^-fif.nds, s. 

Xumnltuoultiefs, turbolence* 
BoTLARY, bA'W-r*. a. Partaking of 

the nature ef bole. 
Bold, bAld. a. Darlno:, brave, flout ; 

executed with IJ>irit ; confident, not fcrupuo 

lous ; impudent, rude ; licentious ; ftanding 

out to the view ; To n^ake bold, to uke 


To BoLDEH, bild'd'n. v.n. (loa). 
To make bold. ' 

Boldface, b61d'f^e. a. Impudence, 


Boldfaced, bAld'ftfte. a. Impuden^ 
Boldly, b61d' In a bold manner. 
Boldness, b&ld'nl^s. s. Courage, 

bravery ; exemption from oaotion ; affur« 

ance, impadence. 
Bole, bAle. s. The body or tmnk 

of a treet • kind of earth ; a meafure of corn 

containing &l boihels. 
SoLis, b6'l!s. s. Bolts i« a great fiery 

.ball, fwifdy hurried through the air, and 

generally drawing a tail after it. 
Boll, b61e. s. (406). A round (lalk 

or ilem. 

Bolster, b61e'(ldr. s. Semething 
tlaid in the bed, to fopport the head ; a pa4 
or quilt ; comprels for a wound. 

To Bolstsb, bAle'ftiir. v. a. To 
fttpport the head with a bolfter ; to alibrd a 
bed to ; to hold woundstogether with a com* 
prefs ; to'fupport, to maintain. 

Bolt, b^lt. s. An arrow, a dart ; a 
thunderbolt ; Bok uprwht, that is, upright arrow ; the bar of a door ; an iron to 
faftefl the legs; aXpot or ftain. 

To Bolt, b^lt ▼• a. To fliutorfaften 
with a bolt; to blurt out; to fetter, to fhac- 
kle4 to lift, or ieparate with a fieve ; to ex- 
amiiM, to try out ; to purify, or purge. 

To Bolt, b61t. v. n. Tofpringoujj 
with rpeedand faddetmefe. 




^ (559).— Fate, fir, All, fit 

BoLTHR, Wlt'i'ir. s. A fleve to fepa- 

ratc meal from bran* 
BoL>-HEAD, boltOi^d. ». A long 
ftraig:ht-necked gUfs vcicl; a matrafe, or 
Bolting-house, b61t'ing-b66fe. «. 

The plaoe whete meal is fifted. 
BoLTSPRiT, or Bowsprit, b6Tpr!t. 
8. A maft running out at the head of * flilp, 
not ftanding upright, hut allopc. 

BoLU», bo%s. s. A medicine made 
ap into a foft mafs, larger than pilU. 

BoMB« bfim. s. (165). A loud noifc; 
a hollow iron ball, or ihell, filled with gun- 
powder, and fumi(hed with a vent for a fn- 
fee, or wooden tube, filled with combuftible 
matter ; to be thrown out from a mortar* 

{5r I do not hcfitatc to follow Dr. Kenrick 
and Mr. Nares in thia word, and all its com^ 
pounds, in giving the its fourth found, 
equivalent to the fccond found of if, though 
contrary to Mr. Sheridan's pronunciation, 
which makes it rhyme with 7omyJrwM,8Lc, 
Dr. Johnfon's derivation of the word to 
Bump, from the fame origin as Awn*, makes 
the pronunciation 1 have given more agree- 
able to analogy. 

Bomb b'^m'tOi^ft. s. A kind 
of cheil filled with bombs, placed under- 
gcound, to bk>w up in the air« 

Bomb-k£tch, biim'k^tfti. ? ^ 

BoMB-vLssPL, bum'v^s-sel. > 

A kind of (hip, ftrongly built, to bear the 
ihock of a mortar. 

BnMBARD, biim'bArd. s. A great gun ; 
abarrel for wine. 

To Bombard^ b&mMrd'. v. a. To 
attack with bombs. 

Bombardier, bi^m-bir-d^dr'. s. 
(275 \ The engineer, whofc employment it 
is to fhoot bombs. 

Bombardment, biVm-bird'radnt. s. 
An attack made by throwing bombs. 

BoMBASiN, bftm-b4.zi^n'. s. A 
flight filken ftuff. 

Bombast, bdm'bdft. s. Fttftian, 
big words. 

B«WBAST,biim-b4ft'* a. Higt found- 

Bombastick, bt\m.b4s'tlk. a. Higb- 
founding, pompom. 

^ Dr. Afh is the only lexicographer who ha» 
inferted this word ; but I diink its general 
iifage entitles it to a pkce in the language, 
cf|>ecia]iy as it has the true ^ed^ive tcrmif 
nation, and relieves us from the inconveni- 
eace to which our hmgnage a fo iiilijed, 
that of having the Aibftantive and Bi^oAm 
of fhe (ame toim i ml tkoi^b, at hmtafi 

; — tnd, m^t ; — pints, j»n ;-^ 

ftands in Dr. Johnfoo« the fubftantive haa 
the accent or the laft fyUabie, and the ad- 
jeAive on thefirft, contrary, 1 think, to tite 
analogy of accentuation (494) ; yet this is 
but a bungling way of fupflying the want 
of different words for different parts of 
fpeech. — See Bowl. 
DOMBULATION, bto-bi'R'fh'm. $• 

Sound, no^fe. 
BoNAROBA, bi'iid-ro'biL s. A whore. 
BoNAsus, b6-n4'sAs. i» A kind of 

Bonchrktiam, b6n-krd'tfhWn. s. A 

fpecies of pear. 
BoNDy b6nd. s. Cords, or chains, wiili 
which any one is bound ; ligament that 
holds any thing together; union, connei ton ; 
imprifonment, captivity ; cement of union, 
caofc of union ; a writing of obHgatioB; taw 
by which any one is obliged. 
Bondage, btin'dige. s. (90). CaptivU 

ty, impriibnment. 
Bondmaid, bond'mide. s. A uomau 

Bondman, bond'min. s. (88). A man 

Bond<^er?ant, b(^nd's^r-vaQt. s. A 

Bondservice, bond's^r-vls.s. Slavery. 
Bond&lavc, b<^nd'fl4ve. s. A man in 

Bondsman, bondz'mln. s. (jS). One 

bound for another. 
Bondwoman, bond'wim-fln. s. A 

woman flave. 
BoKK b6ne. s. The folid parts oftlic 
body of an animal ; a fragment of meat, a 
bone with aa much flelh a» adheres <rtQ it ; 
To make no bones, to make no ficrupk > 
To BoNSfb&ne. v. a. To tak^ oiu ilie 

bones from the flefli. 
Bone LACS, b6ne-liLfe'. s« Flaxen lace* 
Bo V BLESS, b^ne'Us. a. Without bones. 
To BoNtsBT, bonc's^t. ▼• n. To rc- 
flore a bone out of joint, or join a bone 
broken. ^ 

BoN rsetxery bo«ie'«^-t&r« s. One wko 

makes a pcadice of fetting boocf. 
Bonfire, bdb'flre. s. A fire made for 

^ Mr. Sheridan pronounces thia word ime^ 
firt ; Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Scott, Mr. Perry, 
and W. Johnfton, make the firft fyDable 
rfajrme with An; and though ia tie firil 
edition of thjfe Diftioaat^ I made it riiyme 
with tuny I now prdcr tiie fiMud rliynMng 




-^ ah, mbfTtf ]aAr» ii6t ;«-«U>e, t6b, 

BoiTGRACEf bdn'gr&t. s. A covering 

kttht foirelMail. 
BoK v£T,b6n'nlt. s. (99). A hat« a cap. 
BotcMBTs, bon'niu. s. Small fails fet 

ao the courict of tlK miseo, malnrail, and 

BoMNiuY, b6n^n^>l& ad« Gayly, hand- 

BonxtNBss, b6o^ii^<4i^ s. Gayety, 

BoHKYy b5n'n^. a. Handfome, beau- 

tifiil;gpy, merry. 
BoHHY-CLAiBERt bdii^i^-kldb'bil^r. s. 

Sour buttermilk. 
BoMUM Magnum, b&'ndm-m&g^ndmr 

1. A great pbunb. 
Bony 9 b6'n6. a. Confiding of bones ; 

fiiU ofboocs. 
Booby, b^d^b^. s. A dull» bcavy, ftu- 

pid fdlaw. 
Book, b66k. f . A Yohime in which 

we read or write ; a panicubu* part of a 

wock I the re^fter in which a trader her p« 

as accmmt; In b<H>fca, m kifid rememhrance; 

Wuhoat book» \j nenory. 
To Book, b46t ▼. a. To regtftcr in a 

BooKKS£PfNG,bMk'k^p-1ng. s. The 

art of keeping accounts. 
BooKBfif]>£K, b6dkl>in.ddr. f. A man 

whole profeffion it b to hind books. 
BooKFUL, b<^6k'f(il. a. Crowded with 

imdigeftcd knowledge. 
Bookish, b6dk^fh. a. Glyen to books. 
BooKisHXESs, b66k11h-o^ s« Over- 

BooKLEARiiEDyMdk^Uni-^d.a. Verfed 

BooKLBARNiNG, bd6k1^m-1ng. s. Skill 
in ikaMmt i acqaaintcd widi books. 

B00KMAN9 bddk'mftn. s. (88). A man 
whoCe 'peoieffioD b the ftudy of books. 

BooKMATB, bddk'm&te. s. Scbool- 

BooKSKtLEt, bddk's^MAr. s. A man 
whole proleffion it is 10 fcit books. 

BoOKWoaM, bddk'wAim. s. A mite 
that eats holes hi books; a flodent too cbfe- 
ly Used spon books. 

BooM» b66m, s. In fea langoage, 
a keg pole olbd to Ijpread out the che of 
^ fti^dii^ iaa ; a pole widi bdhcB or baf- 
keta, Cet «p aa a mark to fliew the Tailors 
kaw^a fteer ; a bar kudacrofii» hafhenr, to 
keep aat the enemy. 

Tip Book, bdtau v. &• To mih with 

bAH I— -Ail ;<— ^(ind ;— l£tii» yhis. 

Boon, bd<2tt, s. A gift, a graau 
BooN,bjon. a. Gay, merry. 
BooR» Mdr. s. A lout, a down. 
Boorish, bddr'ifli. A. Clowntih, rof- 

Boorishly, bAdr^ifh*!^. ad. After a 

clowniih manner. 
BooRisHNftss« bMrl(h-n£s. s. Coarft« 

nefs of manners. 
To iJooT, b6At. r. a. To^profit, to ad- 

fanugc \ to enrich, to benefit. 
Boot. b66t. s. Protit, gain, ad^an- 

tsge ; To hoot, with adTantage, orer and 

above ; booty, or plunder. 
Boot, bd6t. s. A covering for the 

leg, ufcd by horfemea. 
Boot of a Coach, bddt. s. The place 

under the coach-box. 
B(>oT*HOfiB, bootlidze. s. Stockings to 

ienrefor boots. 
BooT-TREfi, bddt'trM.s. Woodibaped 

like a leg, to be dniYco into boots for ftvetch* 

tag them. 
BcoT-CATCHfiR, bddt'k^tfli-fir. s. Tbe 

perfon wbofe bufinefs at an inn is topuUoff 

the boots of pafleogers. 
BooTLD, bddt'^d. a. In boots. 
Booth, bA6TH s, A houfe built of 

boards or boughs. 
B<^>oT i.Ess, bddc'Us. a. Ufelefs, una- 
vailing ; without fuccefs. 
Boot v, b6d't*. s. Fkmder, pillage ; 

things gotten by robbery; To play booty, 

to lofe by defign. 
Bo PEEP, b6-p^dp*. s. To play Bopeep, 

is toolook ont» and draw back, as if frighted. 
BoRACuio, b6-r&t'tfh6. s. A drunlatd. 
BoRABLf, b^'ra-bL a* That may be 

Borage, bftr'lidje. a. (90) (165). A 

Borax. b6'rilks. &, An artificial fait, 

prepared from Ikl ammoniac, nitre, calcined 

tartar, fea (ah, and alum, dilTolved in wine. 
BrRDSL, b6r'd£l. s. A brotheli a baw- 

BoRDfiR, bAr'dAr. s. (98). The outer 

part or edge of any thing ; the edge of a 

coumry ; the outer part of a garment adorn- 
ed with needlo-woric ; a bank raffed round 

a garden, and fet with flowers. 
To B RO8R, bor'dAr. v n. To confine 

upon ; to approach nearly to. 
To BoRD&R, b6r'ddr. v. a. To adorn 

with a border ; to reach, to touch. 
BoRPBRER, b6/dfir-^r. s. (555). He 

that dwells on the borders. 

Bt) S 



adr (559)-— F4te, flr, faH, ftt ;—jai^ m&t;^p\act pki ;-^ 

To BoRBy bore. v. a. To pierce in a 

To BoRE» l>6re. v. n. To makea hole ; 
to ptilh forwards to a certain point. 

Bore, t^re. s. The hole made by 
boring ; the inftmment with which a hole 
ifi bored ; the fizc of any hole. 

Bore:, hire. The preterit of Bear. 

BoR€AL, bo'T^-li. a. Northern. 

B0REAS9 b6'rc 4s. «. The north wind. 

Bore E , b&-r^'' s* A ftep in dancing. 

BoRV, bdrn. Come into life. 

B0KNE9 b^rne. Carriedy fupponed. 
' See Appendix. 

OROUGH, bAr'ri. « (318) (j9o). 
A town with a corponttion. 

To Borrow, b6r'T6. v. a. To take 
ibmething from another upon credit ; to aik 
«of anotherfhe uie «f fometking for a time ; 
to life as oac*s own, though not beloBging 

Borrower* bir^ri-iir. -s. He that 
borrows ; he that take» what a another^ 

BoscAGB, b6s'kije. s. (90). Wood, 
or woo(tiand^ 

Bosky. b6s'k6 a: Woody. 

Bosom, bdd'zQm. s. The bread, the 
lieart ; the innermofi part of an endofure; 
the folds of the drefs that cover the hreaft ; 
*ht tender affedions ; inelinAtion ; defire ; 
IP compofition, implies intimacy, confidence, 
Amdiuls, as my bofom firiend. * 

:f^ This word i« pronovnced four ways, j9o- 
Mtm^Suamtm^ and Baojum^ the m like u m 
Ml; and &0osm», te m in hmje, Sheridan 
and Scott adopt the third found ; Perry fcems 
to mark the fourth ; Dr. Kenrick has the fe- 
cond and fourth, but feems to prefer the for- 
Qier ; and W. JcJmftoo^s the fecond ; as>d 
that is, in my opinion, the moft general ; hut 
the ftage feems to have adopted the fourth 
frand, which has gif en it a currency among 
poAite fpeakcrs, sod makes it the moft fa- 
ihional)^. Mr. Elphinfton, a nice obferver, 
4a well as a degp inreftigator, announces 
the fecond, but tells us that the third was 
the origin^ pronunciation. 

To Bosom, b66'zflin. v. a. To in- 
dofe in the bofom ; to conceal in privacy. 

Boson, bo'fn. s. (170) (103). Cor* 
mpted from Boatfwaio, which fee. 

Boss« b6s. s. A ftud \ the part rifing 
IB the midft of any thing; a thick body of 
any kind. 

BossAGC, b6s^s4je. s. (90). Any 
Aooe that has a procedure. 

BosvEL, b6z'v£l. 8. (448). A fpecies 

a. Relat- 


Botanic A i^ b6-f^'^-UU. > . 
B0TANICR, b6-tlin'nlk. J ' 

iog to herbs, (killed in herbs* 
Botanist, b6t'4-nlft. s. (503, 

(543)* One Skilled in ftUnts. 
BoTANOLOGY, b6t4n-61'6-j6, s. A 

difcoiirfe upon plaau (5i8\ 
Botch, b6tfh. s. (352). A fwelliiig„ 

or eruptive difcoloradon of the (kin ; a nart' 

in any work ill finiihed ; an adventitioiis 

part clumfily -addod. 
To Botch. b6t(h. v, a. To mend oc 

patch clothes clamfily ( to pot tbgtiher 

uofuitably, or unlkiifuHy^ to mark witk 

BoTCHY, bit'tflife. a. Marked with 

Both, \3hth. a. (467). The twa 
Both, b6/A. conj. As well. 
BoTS, b6ts. s. Small worms in the 

<ntnuls of horfes. 
BoTTLB, b&t'tl. s. {405). A fmall 

veifel of gla£^ or other matter ; a quantity 

of wine ufualjy put into a bottle, a quantj 

a quantity of hay or grafs bundled up. 
To boTTtE, b6t'tl. V. a. To endoft 

in bottles. 
BOTTL£FLOWE«, b&t^l-fi6Ct*ik'. s. A 

BoTTXrfiscRBW, b&t'tl-ikrAA* s. A 

fcrew to pun out the cork* 
Bottom, b6t'tfim. s. (166). The 

loweft part of any thing-; the ground under 

the water ; the foundation, the groundwork; 

a dale, a valley ; the deepeft part ; booad, 

limit ; the utmoft of any man's capadty^ 

the laft rcfort ; a veffcl for navigation ; a 

chance, or fecurity ; a bail of thread wovod 

up together. 
To Bottom, b6t'tAm. v. a. To build 

up, to fix upon as a iapport ; to wind upon 

To Bottom, bit'tftm. v. n. To reft 

.up<^ as Its Tuppoit. 
BortOMED, .b6t'tAm'd. a# (359). 

Having a bottom. 
Bottomless, bdt'tAm-Us. a. With- 
out a bottom, fathomleij. 
Bottomry, b6t't&m»r6. $• The aA 

of borrowing money 00 a fliip*s boctoau 
BouD, b6(id. s. An infed whtcfa 

breeds in malt. 
To BouGE, b6ddje. v. n. (3i5)« To 

fweU out. 
BouoH»b6ti. 8. (315). An arm or 

a large ihoot of a tree. 
Bought, bLwt. (319). Preter. of 


B O U 



^OD^ m&rcp nor, nftt;*— t&be» tAb, 

ToBovHCE, b^^ife. t. n. Tor fall 

•rBxagainft any thing with great force; 

to nake a fuddcn leap; to bodk» to^bnUy. 
BouKCK, b66iife. s. A itrong fudden 

blow; a fudden crack or noif(^} a boaft, a 

Bouncer, b65n'sdr. & A boafter, a 

buUjy as empty thrcatcser ; a Uar. 
BouHD, \MuuL s- (jip. A limit, 

a boundary ; a limit by which any excurlion 

is reilxaioed ; a leap, a jtiinp» a fyring ; a 

To BousD, b^^nd. ▼. a. To limits 

t» tcxmioate; to zeftraiD» to confine; to 

uahe to bound. 
To BoYMiis b66iid. ▼. B. To jiunp» 

to fpring ; to rcheond, to fly back. 
Bound, b^Aod. Paotkiple pailive of 

Bound, hiUmd. a. BeSined, intend- 

ing to come to any place. 
BovHDAir, b6Wdl-ri. s. Limit, 

BoDHDEN, b6&n'd^. Participle paf- 

BOONDIMO-STONI, bMnMijig-ft6tM» > 
BovuD-sTONR, b6imd'ft6ne. 3 

«. A ftBttewpbywith. 
BouMDL£ssi$Bss, b66ndl^n£s« s. 

'£zcniptiQfiijBam hnuti* 
Boir»DLEs5, bi^^nd'Us. a, Unlimtc- 

ed, nnconfiocd* 
BouHTBOus, b&fio'tdii&*ds« a. (263). 

Uicniykiad, genecoQt* 
Boty«TSotJsi.T9 b64];k'tcfa6-A946« ad. 

Libcffdly, je&eroiilly* 
BouNTEousNEst, b6(m'tcb^As-n^a» s. 

nnuuflccnce, nberatity* 
BouHTiFOL, b66a^t^fi^ a. Liberal, 

geDewtHtip ipWHnffnt. 
Bou«TiruLi.T> b66n^t£-ftiM^. ad. 

BouNTiTULuBss, b6do't^«f!U-n^s. s. 

The qgaatity of being bountiful, genero&y. 
BocnrriHEAD, bAiiai't^-h^d. 
BovMTYHooD, b6An'cd-hAd- 

BoDvrr, b6(tai't6. s. Gcncrofity, 

fiberaiity , smificence* 
To BovRGEOM, bAr'jte. v. n. (313). 

{XS9)* '^^ iproot, to (hoot into branches. 
BooEN, bArxKr. s. . A bound, a limit ; 

a bro^ a torrent. 
4pr ikavc differed firom Mr. Sheridan and 

Dr. Xotrick in the- proaoociation of this, 

word, they make it* fovnl as if written 

Sm9^ bvc il my memory ful me not, it is 


b&ll V— AB ;— pAfind :— /iHn, thut. 

ariiymetoflPMmvpontheftage; and Mh 
Garrick fo pronounced it. 

** That imdifcover'd country, from whole Uurm 
"* No travcUcr rtianu"^Shmit^mre*4 hamlet, 

I am fortified in thu proonnciatioa by the 
fofiragesof Mr. £lphinftoa, Mr. Nares, and 
Mr. Smith. 

To Bouse» b66ze. v. lu To drink 

Bousr, bdd'z^.- a. Drunken. 

Bout, b66t. s. A turn, as much of 
as aAion at is performed at one time. 

To Bow, b66. V. a. To bend, or 
infied ; to bend the body in token of tefped 
or fubmiffion ; to bend, or incline, in coo* 
defccnfion ; to deprefs, to cmlh. 

To Bow, h6ii, V, A. To bend) to 
fiifier flexore ; to make a reverence ; to 
ftoop ; to fink imdcr preflhrc. 

Bow, b6^. 8. An aft of reverence or, 

Bow, b&. 8. An inftniment of war ; 
a rainbow ; the infiniment with which ibmg 
inftmmenu are played opon ; the doubling 
of a firing in a flip knot ; Bow of a ibip, 
that part of hei which begint at the loof^ 
and ends at the ftemmofl; part of the &ve- 

To Bow, bi. To bend tideways. 

f^ While fome words ate narrowing and ooiW' 
trading their original fignification, othns 
arc dividing and fttiidividing imo a thoofiad 
diHerent acceptations. The verb to i*w 
rhyming with tvw might originally figaify 
flexure every way, and fii fenre for tfaat 
a4^n which made any thing crooked, Isc 
iu diredion be what it would : but it ap> 
pears ccitain, that at prefcnt it only meaa» 
that flexwre which is vertical, and whsdb 
may be called a Stwng damm^ but is by oo 
means fo applicable to that flexure which is 
fidcways or h^risomalt and £ai which, oe» 
ceifity feemainicnfihly to have brought the 
verb I have infcrted into ufe. Th» veri^ 
Seems accompanied by the word m# as the 
other is by i/«fM, and we may fiiy fuch a 
thing hvw* dfwm^ but another thing i««w mT, 
or fwells fideways: the firft verb ispv^ 
Rounced fo as to rhyme with cotv, mw, JU;. 
and the laft with ^, m, dec. Mihon fecma 
to have ofed the word with this £onui, 
where in his Ptrnfirt/h be fiiyu ■■ 

** And love the high mhwed roof, 
** \V idi aiiti^iue pilhuV mafly proof. ** 

But as nothing can tend mare to the ambi<>^ 

Sity of hmguage than to have words ipd- 
1 in the fimie manner founded diflerently 
in order todiftinguiih their meaning by their 
pronunciation, I would humbly adira& ta 




(O (559).— FAte, fer, fall, fit ;~in^, m^t ;— pine, pln;~ 

fpcll the word i#w (fo ftoot with), and the 

verb to bow (to hcnd fidcwtys), with the 

final e; this flight addition wUl relieve a 

reader from the embarraflment he- i« under 

at firA fight, where he it not thoroughly 

acquainted with the circumftancen of a re- 
lation, and does not know how to pronounce 

the word till he has read the context. For 

the propriety of this additional ^, fee the 

words Bowl and Form. 
1 cannot refrain from quoting Mr. Nares on 

this word, as his opiubn has gteat autho- 
rity :— ** A hew for arrows, and to bow, 

" when it fignifies merely to bend any thing, 

" have mo like • long. This diftin^ion I 

** believe to be right, though our great 

** Lexicographer has not noticed it. He 

*' gives to ^tir, in every fenfe, the regular 

*' found of ow, (that is rhyming with cvw.) 

** But of this inflance the firft and fourth 

" appear to be erroneous ; the third is 

^ doubtful ; and in the fecond, the word is 

*^ ufed to exprefs an inclination of the body, 

*< but metaphorically applied to trees. See 

" the four inftances from Shakefpeare, Dry- 

** den, and lK>ck, under To bow^ v. a. 

" Ko. I.'* 
A wantof atteBding to the diiferent ideas the 

word bvw conveys, as it is differently found- 
ed, has occafioncd the inconfiftcnt fea termb; 

the bow of a fliip, rhyming with eowt and 

an anchor, called the beft bo-u^r^ rhyming 

with hour ; and bow^ in the word bnofprit, 

rhyming withjv, w, &c. 
Bow-bent, b6'Wnt. a. Crooked. 
Bow.HANO»b6'hand s. ThQliand that 

drawa the baw. 
Bow-LBGGED, bo'Wgd. a. (359). Hav- 
ing crooked legs. 
Bowels, b&^'dls. s. Inteftines, the 

veflek and organs within the body ; the in- 
ner parts ef any diing ; tendemefs, compaf- 

Bower, b6iVifh-. %, (98). An arbour : 

it fcems to fignify, in Spcnfer, a blow, a 

Bower, h6^i'fir. s. Anchor fo called. 
Bow£Rv,b<iiLi'ftr-r6. a. Full of bowers. 
Bowl, b&le. s A vcffel to hold liquids ; 

the hollow part of any thing ; a bafin, a 
fiouAtain.— See the next word. 
Bowl, b61e. s. Round mafs rolled 

along the grmind. 
^ Many refpe^ablc fpcakcrs pronounce thi« 
word (o as to thyme with Uvai^ the noife 
made by a dog. Dr. lohnfon, Mr. Elphin- 
iloD, and Mr. Perry, declare for it ; bat Mr. 
Sheridan, Mr. Scott, Dr. Kenrick, and Mr. 
Smith, protiounced it as the veflel to hold U«> 
quor, rhyming with boU. I remember hav- 
lfl]g^ec& corre^ed 1>7 Mr. Garrick for pro- 

nouncing it like Uml: and am upon the 
whole of •pinion, that pronouncing it as 1 
have marked it it the preferable mode, 
though the lea ft analogical. But as the 
velTet has indifpntably this fonnd, it is ren- 
dering the language flill more irregular to 
give the ball a dittiervnt one; The incon- 
venience of this irregularity is often perceiv- 
ed in the word botv ; to have the lame word 
fignify different things, is the fate of all lan- 
guages ; but pronouncing the fame word 
differently to fignify different things, is 
multiplying difficulties without neceiEty ; 
for though it may be alleged that a differ- 
ent pronunciation of the fame word to fig- 
nify a different thing is in fome mealore 
remedying the poverty and ambiguity of 
language, it may be anfwered, that it is in 
reality increafing the ambiguity by fietting 
the eye and ear at variance, and obliging 
the reader to undcrfttad the context be- 
fore he can pronounce the word. It may 
be urged, that the Greek and Latin lan- 
guages had thefe ambiguities in words 
which were only diftinguifliable by thctr 
quantity or accent. But it is highly pro- 
bable that the Greek langiftge had a writ- 
ten accent to diftinguim fuch words as 
were pronounced difoently to fignify dif- 
ferent things, and this is equivalent to a dif- 
ferent fpelling ; and though the Latin word 
Ugo fignified either u read or to/end^ accord- 
ing to the quantity with which the firft fyl- 
lable was pronounced, it was certainly an 
impcrfcdion in that language whidi ought 
not to be imitated. Ideas and combinitions 
of ideas will always be more nomcroos than 
words; and therefore the fauM word will 
often ftand for very different ideas : but al- 
tering the found of a word without altering 
the fpelling, is forming an unwritten lan- 

To Bowl, fcAle. v. a. To play at 
bowh ; to throw bowls at any thing. 

Bowler, b61ilr. s. He that plays at 

Bowline, boiMln. s. A rope fadened 
to the middle part of the outfide of a fail. 

Bowling-green, b6'ling.grifn. s. A 
level piece of ground^ kept finooth for 

Bowman, b6'mdn. s. (88). 

Bowsprit, biTprlt. s. 
which fee. 

Bowstring, bA'ftrlng. s. The ftring 
by which the bow is kept bent. 

Bow-window, b6'win'dA. 

^ Dr. Johnfon derives this word, and, pcr- 
hajMi, juftly, from Bay-^imdo^^ or a window 
forming a bay in the internal past of the 
rooms Imtprafent coftom has tmivetfally 

An archer. 
Boltfpric ; 

41 A A 

* RA 

from the canre, like a Avw^ wmek tknyibrm made the a long aad ftcndcv aa In jrwj, u 

aodjaft,thcrc£oi«» Dr. ]<iiiqfiMi'ft4«rintioit 
auy be« |]pc|r« mUt^tlift pf « coplbrivJiy 
tg tt« either ia writiBg pf prcpun^UeOi 
while there is spJMrenuy fa good an et/i 
iBo^ogy » both for Icnic aikd fouiid, to fopporl 
Ae prel^ pndice-— dee Tto Box/, 
BovrtR, bA'ydr. s. (98 ). An archer 1 

one wk^ tnde it to mak» bowi. 
Box^ h^ks, $. A tree f the wood of it 
Bo St h&ks. $. A cafe soadc of wood, or 
other matter, to hold any thing ( the ^e 
qi the manae^'f comyaTa; the clueil imo 
which money gineij is pat j feat ia tijc W«y- 

To Bciz, b6k$, Tl a« Towcbfcia^ 


Boir^bf c A bW oa tha hi^ 

^'ven with the toid« 

Tp »0Z, b6U V, n. To fight with tliQ 
BogtH.b&k^rii.a* Cipj), Made of box, 

vcfonhlhw box. 
Boi^«> boks'te, u A nun who fid^i a 

Wltht^^f, ^ 

Boy.hW $.(484 A wwU child* no« 

»^ ; QD^ in the (lale pf ftdoMceoce, oi4f r 
i^ ao JA^mt; i ward ef owt^napt fo« 

UoYH^op^ W^TiW. ji. The ft^te of a 

Bovisir* )i6d1fli, ft, Bdpainxig to a 


BoTisHLT,t>6inib4^afl, CbildiAJy, 

BoTisii,b^4aziiL s, PnwTitFr ^Wifh^ 

SiiAi9Lc»br^l>l, $r (405), A ila* 
To BftABEi.1^ brAt/U. y. lu To co 

BftAmsctt.brtt'Ur. s. AdanicKMS! 

To fift4f K, MA, ?, •» To biQd» i» tie 

Bract* bi^We. «. CtnAore, bandage ; 
dMt wUeh faoldiiay tfahig tight ; Braca of 
acoodL ehldk firapt of leather on wMA it 
hnp? fltncea Ift frbcing, a crooked Uiie hi. 
cmig a paflage^aa in a triplet^ i«aion« 

Bft*cE,M&. f . A paU.a CQ^p|tk. 
BR^CK«rfwtrd6ridt,s» Aa^a^»aale&c 

Petry, and Mr. ycott ; and nut Ihorc «• ia 
W>>M Mr. Sheridan haa marked iC( ^d 
which, 1 bcKeTc, it the prevailtag frmna^ 
ciation 10 Irebnd : for though many coi»* 
pound* ihorten the towcI in the fimple, at 
It ibewn at large in ti^ Pringplct 0/ Ptp. 
Kinciatioa. (jo8^ (sxs) 5 y« I think fiich 
w«rdi«reezoaptAoiki at are only dimiastlTta. 
phiralf and fcminfaefc^FATEONau* 

BaAC«a.brA'iAr.$.(98> Aciaa«rc, 
a bandage* 

BtACH, hrAtflu I, (ajj.). a b»t«h 

BRACHYGRAfify, bfiJslg'grt.f*. f. 

The art or praAke of wn&g in a Aort 

compaft (353). 
BRAca, br&k. s. A breach. 
BtACKEr, brdk'klt. f. (99). Apiece 

fif wipod fi<«d fi^r the fupport of ifamethfajr. 
BaAc<ifir,brik'i&.a. Sak,fomethinj 

B%Ac%jsnnRt$, hrdklfhafc. 9. S9IU 

BaAP» brSd, 1. A Ibrt of naSL to floor 

rooms with. 
To Brao, brijr. V. IV To boaft, CO 

dilplay oftent^tiouflv. 
Brao. br4g. », A boaa» % ^<md ex- 

preflion ; the thing boafted. 

BRA004DOCIO bri^-g«-di'(h*-6*s. A 

pwffin&bopftiiiy (ErUow* 
JJraoorrt, bxig'gJn. a. (88). Boaft* 

fill, vciip]jro(tmatloHi. 
Braggart, brig'girt. s, A bnoftcr. 
Braooer, britg^gftr. *». (98), A 

BaAGi,csst hiiigfUs. a. Witixnit a 

Bragly, br4gl^ Finely. 
To Braid, bride, na; To w«af?e toc 

B« AID, br^e. f. A teitute, a kfloe. 

Brails, brdtz. g . pmall ropes ri^eved 
ihrovghbUdkt. - 

Braim, brine, s. Th« coBe^Koii of 
veiSbIt and ofgaatfii thehcad, fton which 
ienfe and motion arife ; the vadtrteHfiog, 

To BRAiH, brill*, r. m. t To kiU by 

_ oat tho braki. 
Braxnish, brAnt^Uh* a. 


BaAi«vss% bviiMlll^ «. 



S ft A 

O {559>— FAte; ftr, ftll* %;*-«*, m*l ;— i>iiie, plni_ , 

BaAtvPAv, br4ne'p4ii. b. Tht ikull 

coDtainin;^ the braiAfw 
.BiL^iNSic«,brdne'sik. a.. Ad(9ehead- 

ed, giddy. 
Brain SICKLY, brdne' Weak- 
ly, headily. 
Bratnsickness, br^ne'slk-nds. s.. Im 

difcrecipD, glddinefi. 
Brake, br&ke. The preterit of Break. 
Brake, brake, s. Fern, brambles. 
Brake, br&ke. 9. An inftrument for 

drelEng hemp or flai ; the handle oC* (hip*t 

pump ; a baker's koeading-troiiglu 
Braky, br&'k& a* TDomy, prickly, 

BRAMBLB«btim'bL s. (405\ Black- 
berry bttih, dewberry boih, nifpberry b«ih ; 

any rou^ prickly ihnib. - 
BrAMBLtNd; br4m'bllnfi[. s. A bird; 

called alfo a mouutato cha%ndi. 
BRAN>br&h. s; llie hufks of com 

BiiANC!!, brintfh. s. (is^) (jS) The 

ihoct of a tree from one of the main bouglU ; 

any diftant article ; any part that ihoouout 
> from the reft ; a fmallcr river running intb 

a larger ; any part of a family defccnding 

in a coUaiecah Uoq ; the of^psing, the de- 

fce&dattt ; the antlers or ihoots of a ftag*a 

horn. ^ 4 

To Branch, bdlnlfli. v. n. To fpread 

in brai^chet ; to fpread into feparate parts ; 

to fpeak diifufiYely \ to have horns fliooting 

^ To BRAiiCH,brdmfli. v.a. Tb dHrtde 

as into branches^ to adorn with'neecUe- work. 
Br AN CHER, bran'tihAr. s. .One that 

flioots out into branches ; in falconry, a 

young hawk. 
Branchin1!ss, !Mln'fli&-ti^. s« Fuk 

nefs of branches. 
Branchless, briiifhlif. a. Wfthout 

(hoots QT boughs ; naked. 
Branchy', brln'fh^. ' . a. Full of 

branches fpreading. 
Brand, brdnd s. A ftick lighted, or 

fit to be lighted ; a fword ; a thunderbolt ; 

* • a nark made by burning with a hot iron. 
To Brand, br&nd. y.'S. To mark with 

a note df inOuny. 
Brandgo^^Sj^, br&od'gdAi. s« A kind 

of wild fowl*. 
To Brandmh, brAn'dlfli. ▼. a. To 

wave or fhake ; to play with, to flonrilh. 

* Brandli^, br&ndlhig. s. A particu* 

^RANtfy^dLnM^. i. A fiipng liqoor 
diftiOcd mn wioe« 

Br ANGLE, far&tig'gL s. (405). Squab- 
ble, wrangle. 
To BRAN<3Lt, bdlng'gl. v. n. (405). 

To wrangle, to r<{ttabble. 
Brank, brink* s. Buckwheat. 
Branny, brin 'r\t. a- Having the ap- 
pearance of bran, 
BRAsiFR,bri'zhi!ir. s.fzSs)- A ma- 

nuladurcr that works iobrafs; a pan to 

hold coals. 
Brasil, or Brazil, br&-z^r. s. An 

American wood,conmionly fuppofixl to have 

been thus denominatedfbecaufe firft brought 

from Brafil. 
Brass, br^. s. A yellow metal, made 

by mixing copper with bpis caUminaris; 

Brasmn B&s, briU's^-n^s. a. An ap* 

pearance like brais. 
Brassy br&s's^. a Fartakiiigofbrafs;. 

hard as brais ; impudent. 
Brat« brie 8. A child, Co called in 

coDterapt ; the progenr, the offipring. 
Bravado, bra-vi'dd. js. A boaft, a 

bcag.— See Lumbago. 
Brave, brive. a. Courageous, darings 

bold ; gmUant, having u noble main ; ma|p^ 

nificent, grand ; ezceUent, noUe. 
Brayr, br&ve. s. A heAor, a man 

daring beyond prudence or fitse&; a boall, 

To Bravb, br&ve. v. a. To defy, to 

challenge ; to carry a boufting appearance* 
Bravbly, brAve'l^. ad. la a brave 

manner, conrageoufly, galhntry. 
Bravery, brirvtir-ri. s. Is^S)' Coa- 
. rage, magnanimity; iplendour, magnifi* 

cence ; ihow, oftentatton ; braYado, bwft. 
Bravo, brVv6. s. Sfanijh, A man wbe 

murders for hire. 
To Brawl, br4wl. v. n. To quarrel 

Boifily and indecently ; to fpe^lc loud and 

indecently ; to make a noHe. 
Brawl^ br&wl. 5. Quarrel, n(nfe,fcor- 

Bbaw^er, briw'b&7. s. A wrangler. 
Brawn, brawn, s. The flcfby or muP 

aikms part of the body ; the arm^ fo called 

from its being nrafcuMs ; bulk, mulcvlar 

firength ; the flcih of a boar; a boar. 
Brawnrr. br^w'nCkr. s. A boar killed 

for the tabk. 
Brawn IN ESS, briw^a^n^.i Strei^;th, 

Brawny, br&w'nf. a. Mufculoixs» 

ilcfliy, bulky. 
To Bray, bHL v. a. To p(Muid» oar 

grind linaH. 

B It £ 


B £ R 

To B£A7» brA. V. n. To make a noife 
jiiD a£i; to make an offenfive noife. 

Briv, br4. s. Noifcy ^bund. 

Brayer, brA'fir. s. One that brays 
like an a& ; witli priBtefs, as inllrttmcot to 
temper the ink. 

To Braze, brAze. v^ a. To {older with' 
bra& ; M harden «o impatience. 

BaAifif, ]>r^'2n. a. (103). Made of 
braii; preceedfaig ftom brafs ; iBipudent. 

To Brazes, bri'zn. r, n.. To be ini- 
padcnt^to biillf • 

BfiAiF.NPACft, bri'zn-f^fe. s. An im- 
p«iAeBt stretch. 

Bb.azeh¥ac£D, brA'zn-fA(le«a. (359}. 
Impndcnt, ikamele£». 

Brazenness, br4'zn-n^. s. Appear- 
ing like brai« ; impudence. 

Bhazier, brizc'yiir. $. (283). Sec 

BasACBfbr^itiL s. The adlof bieak- 
iag Mnj thing | the ilate of being broken ; 
a gap in a fortification made by a battery ; 
tlwe violation of a hw or contra^ ; differ- 
ence, <{aartel ; inf ration, injury. 

BH£AD,br6ds Food made pf ground 
com ; food in general ; fupport of life at 

Bkead-chiptzml, br^d'tftilp-ir. s. A 
baker's ferrant. 

Bread-corn, brdd'korn, s. Corn of 
which bread is made. 

Breadth, hr^dtb. s. The rocafure of 
any phia iflperficies £rem fide to fide. 

To Briak, br^ke. r. a. (140) (342). 
To borft, or open by force ; to divide ; to 
4dksaj hy -n^ence ; to oreroooie, to fur- 
inoont ; to batter, to make brdachet or gaps 
in ; to croii or deilroy the firength of the 
hody ; to fink or appal the (pirit ; to fub- 
doe ; to cmfiiy to diiable,to incapacitate ; to 
-weaken the mind ; to tame, to train to obe- 
dience; to make bankrupt; to crack the 
Ikinj to ^riolate a contra^ or promtfe; to 
infringe a law ; to intercept to hinder the 
cffe^ of; to interrtipt; to feponte company ; 
to diflolYe any nnion ; to open fomething 
new; To bfcak the back, to difable one's 
fortimti To hccak ground, toopen trenches; 
To break the keart, to deftroy with grief; 
To break the neck, to kx, or put o«t the 
neck jomts ; To Weak off, to put a iiidden 
ibip; To break off, to difiblTe ; To break 
^>ta feparace or diiband; To break upon 
the wheel, to puniih by ftretehing a crimi- 
■■f Vfwi die wheel, and breal^ag hii» bones 
^"^ Wu; To break wind, to giTeTent to 

To fis£AK, brike. t. n. To pact in 

•pymd;— .'Ain, this- 
two : to borft by dafhing, as waves on a 
rock ; to open and difchargc matter ; to open 
as the morning ; to burft forth, to exclaim; 
to become bankrupt ; to decline in health 
and ftrength ; to make way with fome kind 
of fuddennefs; to come to an explanation ; 
to, fall out, to be friends no longrcr ; to dif- 
card ; To break from, to feparate from with 
fome Tehemence ; To break in, to enter un- 
expcdledly ; To break loolc, to efcape fron^ 
captivity ; To break off, to dcfift fuddenly ? 
To break off from, to part from with vio* 
Icnce ; To break out, to difcover itfelf in 
fudden cffeds; To break out, to have erup- 
tion* from the body ; To break out, to be- 
come diffulute ; To break up, to ceafe, to 
intermit ; To break up, to diffolve itfelf ;* 
To break up, to begin holidays ; To break 
with, to part fricndlhip with any. 

Break, brAke. s. State of beinp; brok- 
en, opening ; a paufc, an interruption ; a 
line drawn, noting that the fcnfe is fuf- 
pendcd. . . * 

Breaker, bri'k^r. «. Hethatbreaks 
any thing ; a wave broken by rocks or fand • , 

To Breakfast, br^k'fdft, y. n. (234). 
(S^S)' To eat the firft meal in the day. 

Breakfast, brdk'fdft. s. (88). The 
firft meal m the day ; the thing eaten at 
the firfl meal ; a meal in generaL 

Breakneck, brike'n^k. 5. A ftcep 
place endangering the neck. 

BREAKPROMisB»brike' s One 
that makes a practice of breaking his pro- 

Bream, brdme. s. The name of a fifli. 

Breast^ brOft. s. The middle part of 
(he human body, between the neck and the 
belly ; the dugs or teats of women, which 
contain the milk ; the part of a bead that 
is lender the neck, between the fore legs ; 
the heart ; the confciencc ; the pafilons. . 

To Breast, br6ft. v. a. To meet in 

Breastbone, briftTj^ne. s.The bone 
of tlie bread, the fternum. 

Breast HIGH, brdil'lil. a. Up to the . 

Br BAST HOOKS, br^ft'h66ks. ». With . 
fiiipwrights, the compafling timbers before, 
that help to ftrengthen the dem and all the 
forepart of the ihip. 

BREASTKNOT,br^ft'not. s. A knot or 
bunch of ribands worn by the women on . 
Breastplate, br^ft'pUte. s. Armour 

]bRKASTPLOU0H,. brdft'pU^. S. A; 

B R i; 



slourk «p:d for pmag tpK , dia^«P liy ^1^^ 

Breastwork, Hr^ft'w^rk* s» Works 
cbniw9» vp 11 high M4he broift 9£ tbtdt- 

B»fiATM, br^^ «. (4<)7). The iiir 
dra«rti IntiMl ^«aM eat ttf tlife Ufiy^ll^ ; 

'brtfeac,inovfog sift t ^itt|^te lA^oa irttimt. 

T6 hitfcATHfe. bi^THc. V, n. {43^^). 

* Tb draw in and throw out Ae ah* "by the 
Jung* ; 10 live ? tb rift; tx> tak* bmth -, to 
' Jnje^ by breathing j to ejcifi by brtatbln^ ; 
ip ^crdfc ; to mote i6r adhiate by brtatfi ; 
\o vttcr priratel^ ; to give air 6f vtJit tb. 

BaE'^THERt brt'trt^r. s. One iblt 
' breathes, or lives. 

Brkathi>io» br^'THlng. s. Afpiration, 
fecret prayer $ breathing place» veot. 

Breathless, br^i'lfis. a. Out of 
bkreath, fpent with labour ; dead. 

Bred br^d. Partkip. paC fio^i To 

BfLEBE* br^de. s.^-^-Sce Braid. 

Breech, brd^tlb. s. {247). The lower 
^afC of the body ; bretiJlest ibe hipd«* t>4it' 
of a piece of ordnance. 

To Brfech» br^^tlh. v. a. (a4?). To 
put into breeches ; to fie any thtog with a 
breech, a^ to breech a gun. 

Breaches, bricch'iz s, (247) (09)* 
The garment worn by men over the ^wcr 
part of the body *, to wear the breeches, ik, 
vx a wife, to ufarp the authority of the huf- 

To Breed, brWd. v. a. To procreate, 
to generite ; to occafion, to catife, to p^6- 
'^oe t to contrive, to hatch, f plot 1 te pr6- 
tiaoB, from ooe'stelf ; to give birth to; co 
edocate, ta ipalify by tdiMction ; to bring 
3«p, tb tale care of« 

To Brcid, br^d. V. n. Ta Mng 
voung : to inoreaie by oe^ proAidKott ; to 
ife |)rodB(Se4 to have birth 1 toimifo a breed. 

Breed, br^d. s. A caft, a kind, a 
IbbdivSfiDfeoffpeciei; prAgcav, ii8^*<iig ; 
a number produced tt ottos, a luiMh. 

B«tEDBAtE, briM1>4te. «. One that 

breeds quarrels. 
BftisDER, bri£'d&r. 8. (98). That 
«4iloh fMdooea aby thing} the periiita 
%HiichWh)gi op stiother 1 • fenak that is 
prolifiek ; one that tahci ottt ^ caifii k 

> BftKBBiirclik^'dbi^. s. £d«ctfMms» 
iaftro^tion ; qualificatiom; iiiamiMi,lBMr- 
Mge df cemuooy ; li»tik>c« 
BtEEZE, bi^^. 8. A ftingittg flf* 

Brsb^ Y, br«£'rt. ad. Fimjyti. ffrtdi 

gales. . ^ ..... 

Bret, br^t. $/ A fi£b of ■ tbf liirb#t 
BRf thren« br^T^'fio. n. The plural 

of brother. 
Breviart, brtve'yi-F^* 8. (507)1. Aa 

abridgment, an ^itome } |h« book ooatwu- 

ing the daily fervioe of the Charch of Rome. 
^ All our orthoejplfls hu$ Mr. Perry ftp- 

nouncc the firft pliable of this word long- $ 

hut if authority Were filebt, analogy would 

decide fur the prpnunciatl6n f hite givcti.. 

Bre?iat, brive'y4t.s.(I!1|^ Alhott 

Breviaturb, br^ve^yt-tflifhr. n. An 

ahbreriation (4*5) (XI3>. 
Brevity, br^v'^-t*. 8. (^tt). G^rti- 

eift:neis^ Ihor^oefs. 
To Brew, brM, v. a. f JJp). Tb-maltc 

li^onhy mixing' feverai ftfgred^Mitft; t6 

(tt-epM^ by Aiixtng dtfii^ tb^rah^t tb Cfl*- 

lri«b, to pl«t. 
To Bre#. hf^. t, n. To fcifwrti the 

office of a brewh*. 

BuKWAGB) brod'idje. t, (^6). Mixture 

«f vbriobiTl^ingt. 
)3REWFR,br66'dr. s. A man vkofe 

profeffion it is to makfe beer. 
BREWHoubE, brA6'h6(is.^s. A home 

Impropriated U^ brewing. 
Brewing, br(^6'lng. 8.(410). Qaatt* 

tity of liqibr brewed. 
6Rbwi8, brM'ls 8* A piee« <of Ikfietod 

foaked i^ bnaingist pottage, tnaie of ^ttRl 

&RieK, btibtt. 8. Ar0vi«rd givcft to 

pcVVMt Ime jQdglllClilt. 

To Bribe, <*ibfev ^. a.Td gt^ebt^bbs. 
BaibER, brl'biSi-. $. (98). Oh< tlijit 

pays for corrupt pn^Aiice^ 
BRiBERY, briTjiir-ri. k- Uss)- . ^Hic 

oninc of taking rewards for M ^Hf^tm* 
BR'ic«t brik. 8. A imfE pf teim dm. ; 

aWifftapfdlikRatai^. ^ 

1V> BhK^ic, fenic. v. ^ Tb Utj ^Wth 


BiTtvBAt, brUtlrft. 8. A piece of 

BRtcRctAY,brlktft, s. iCliiLy ufed for 

making brick** 

BRKKQOfT, brft'4Aft. «. X>aft I»i4e 

BtKrc»Kitff» Mkldl. <» A ii3ti» m 
} |iaei ttt hiQ^ Mflk> in* 
BRicRLAYftA, brik'U-*.^ A WfcA: 

B R I 



s. The at- 

SticKMAKEit, bHk'mA-kfir. B. One 

vio(e trads ii !• to make brickie 
BftiP4i.» bri'dlL a. Belonging to a 

wedding, nuptial. 
BaiDE, bride, s* A woown new inaiu 

B&1BEBFB, bridcT>W. e. Marriage bed. 
Bridecake, brldc'kAke^ i» A cake 

diSributed to die gadhtt tke wedding. 
BaioEGROOMy bridc'grddm. s. A new- 

BfiiDEviEN, bridpe'tnin* ? 
BaipvNAiDt« bride'midz.3 

tendmts on the bride and bride-groetn. 
Bait>tsrAEE, bHdc^ftAkc. s. A poft 

fet in the gronnd, to dance round. 
BaiOiWELL, brldcVtt. i. A houfc of 

SmrcEt bridjc. 6. A btiiWhg raifed 

ortr wzterfor the coBYcofcncc of paffagc ; 

the upper ptxt of the nefe; the fttpporter 

of the ftnngtin /binged inftnunents of 

To 15m»oe, bTidjc. v» a. To raifk a 

bridge orcr any place. 
Bridle, bri'dl s. (40 j)- Thebead- 

fbdl a&d rcxnf by «riudi a hode it reftrained 

and governed; a refiraint, a curb, a check. 
To BjifDLE, bri'dl. T a. To guide by 

a bridk ; to reftnun» to govern. 
To Bridle, bri'dl. v. a. To hold up 

.^the head. 
rfa f DLEH AiiD% brf'dl-band . «. The hand 

ubichhokb the bridle in tiding. 
Bytp. br^^f a, Short, concife ; €on- 

traded, narrow. 
BatcT, br«f. s. A fliort«itraa» or 

epitome ; the writiBff given the pleadrtn 

containing the cafe ; lettcrt potent, giving 

hceafc to a charitable coUe^ion ; in ««- 

fick, ^maSmt of i|uantitj, which containi 

two ftKkcs down ia he^Xmg time, and aa 

many op* 
BaiEVLv, brHfl^. ad. Concifely^ in 


BaiErsEesbst^a^* <• Coocifeaefs, 

Baiia, bri'flf. ^ {98) (418). A plant. 
BaiEar, brl'6r-r*, a. <555)« Hough. 

BaiGADS, brigidc'.s. (117). A *- 

BaiQA'biffa GEa^kAt., ^>rlg-l*<liftfer'. «. 

Ja dker Bttt ia «rte Vekiw a aHJor-ga. 

Bcral «^a57j. 
Bfltf^aanattbrig^^HUne. (1 50) 


b6U s-^<&U ;«^£uid |<*^^ THIS. 

A light vefiel, fwch aa has been fomwHy nM 
by corfairs or plratei ; a coat of mail. 
0" All our orthdepifts found the laft i in thi« 
word long ; and yet ray memory falls me if 
the (lage does dot pronounce it Inort ; a pro* 
nunciation to which the (lage is very prone, 
as Fatentine^ Cymhel'mey kc. afe heard on the 
ftage as if written Faientim, Cymkelin, &C. 

** Von may remember, i«arce three yean are 

'* When in jouf irigantimc yoo (Uii*d to fee 
** The Adriatic wedded by our Duke, 
*• And I waa with you.** ymue ^refirmd. 

BticHT, brhc a* Shining, glfitering, 
full of light ; clear, evident; illuftrio«s, at a 
bright reign; witty, acute, at a bright ge» 

To Brighten, bri'tn. v. a. (103). 
To make bright, to make to (hinc ; to make 
luminous by light from without ; to make 
gay, or alert ; «to make iUuftrious; to maka 

To BaiOHTBw. bri'ta. v. a. To grow 
bright, to ckarnp. 

Brightly, britel^ ad. SplendkUf, 
with luftre. 

Brightness, brite'n^fi. 9. Luftre, 
fplcndour ; acutenefa. 

Brilliancy^ bnl'yan*s^ •• Luilre* 

Brilliavt, biil'yant. a. (113). Shiai- 

ing, fparkling. 

BaiLLiANT. briryint. u Adiamooi 

of the fined cut. 
BaiLkfANTNEss, bHryint-nes. •. 

Splendour, luftre. 
BaiM. bf im. «• The edge of any thing 5 

the upper edge of any vciTel ; the top of aay 

liquor ; the bank cf a fountain. 
To Brim, brim, t, a. To fill to the 

To Brim, brim. t. n. To be full to 

the brim. 
BaiMFUL,brWf61. a. Fall to the top. 
BRiMKULME8s,brlmYiiI«nd&.ft. Fulneft 

to the top. 
Brimmer, brlai'mir. I. A bowl full 

to the top. 
BaiMBTONfi, brifn'fl6ape. §, Sulphur. 
Brim STONY, brim' ft6-n^. a. Fall of 

BaiNDRD.brlnWd.a. Streabed, tabby. 
BaiaOLB, brki'di s. (405) (359)- 

Tbc ftate af bei^g brindled. 
BaiNatfio,bria'dld,a.(405). Brind- 

cd, ftreaked. 
BatwR, brine, s. Water larifregflated 

with frit, thiAa}tl«i. 

B R0 



BitaADf br&t^d. a. (195). Wfde« ery 
tended in bfeiAli;4arg«; clear, tfpen; groTs, 
oiarfe) obfceniv fuUbme; boU, oot deU-. 
cate, not referred. 

Broad Clothe btkwd^clUL s. A£ne. 
kind of cloth. 

To BftOADEit; briw'dn* v. lu (103). 

Broadl«i briwdl^. zd% In a luroad 

0* (559).— FAtc, ftr, ftll/flt ;---m6^ ihAt ;*-^ttei pin ;— 

BRixiriT, brhie'ph. s. Pit df fait 

water. ' • 

To B^iHG, bring, v. a. (4olB).(409). 

To fetch from another place ; to convey in 

one*b own hand, not to fend; to. 
' come; to attrad, to draw long; to fm into 

any particular ftate ; to conduft ; to induce, 

to prevail upon ; to bting about, tobrins: to 

yafi, toeffed ; To bring* forth,' to give 

©irth to, to produce ; To bring in»' to re- 
claim ; To bring in, to afford g^iii ; To 

bring off, to clear, to procure, to be ac<^uit- 

ted; To bring on, to engage in adion :" To 

bring over, to draw to a new party ; To 

bring out, to exhibit,, to (hcfw; To. bring 

under, to fubdue, to repref« ; To bring -uf, 

to educate, to inftrud; To bring up,to bdi^ 

Br I K' G E R , brlng'Ar. « . ( 409 ) . The 

perfoa tha^ brings any thing. 
BaiMisH^ bri'nifh. a. Having tb€ (la(e 

of brine, {alt. 
BftiKiSHMEsSybri'niik^n^s s. Salcnefs. 
Brink, brink, s. The edge of any 

p^ce,' as of « precipice or a river. 
BRiMY, bri'n^ a. Salt. 
B&iftK, br)(k. a. Lively, vivacioust 

gay, powerful, fpirituous ; vivid, bright. 
Bni8»BT,brVkit. •. (99). The bread 

of aa animal. 
BaistLV, brlfkl*. ad, A^ively, vtgo- 

BfttfiSME^ss brUk'n^s, s. Livelinefs, 

vigour, quicknefs ; gayety. 
BtisTLK, bris'fl. s. (405) (472). 

The ftiff hair of fwinc. 
To Bristle, brls'(l« v. a. Toeredin 

To Bristle, bris'fl. v. n. To ftand 
. «red as brifUea. 
Bristly, brlsl^. a. Thick fet with 

Bristol Stqn9, br!s't61-ftAne. s. A 

kmd of foft diamond -found in a rock near 

tbecity of BriftoLi 
Brit» brlt. s. The name of a fifh. 
BaiTTLE, brlt'd. a. (405)- Fragile, 

apt to break. 
:|^niTTLEVE8s, brlt'tl-n^. s< Aptnefs 

tobreak. • 
Brizi, brize, s. The gadfly. 
Bk6ach, br6tfli. a (295). A fpit* 
To Beoach,' br6tfli. v. a. To fpit, to 
pierce as with a fsit ; to pierce s yftStl in 

order to draw the liqnori toopeoruoy ftore; 
to give out, CO utter any thing, 
QaoACHERf br6tih'i^. s. A fpit; an 
opeser, or uttcra of a^y thiqg. . 

Broadkess, brkwd'n^s. s. Breadth, 

extent from Me to. fide ; coorfene&yJCuIfome- 

n'efj.* ' 
Broadside, hrJiwd'skic. s. The fide^ 

of a ihip ; the volley of fiiot fired at once 

fnmi the fide of a Ihip. 
Broadsword, briwd's6rd. s. A cut-. 

ting fword, with a broad blade. 
Broadwise, br^wdVize. ad. (140}. 

According to the dire<fUon of the breadth* 
Brocade. br6'kadc'* 5. 4. filkcn fluff 

Brocaded, br6-)<A'd^d. a. Dreft in 

bcodkde ; '>voven in the manner of bro- 
Brocage,' br6'lcldje. s. (90). The 

gain gotteo by pron^tiog barga^oti.tbe hire 

given for any unlawful dlEcc ; the trade of 

dealing in old tilings. 
BitoccoLi, brOk'k6-l^. s. A fpecics of 

BaoCH, br&k. s. A badger. ", . 
Brocket, br6k'iclt. s* (s)9)* A ro9 

deer, two yearaold^ 
Brogue, brAg. s. (337)* A kinc| of 

fhoe ; a corrupt dialed. ; 

To Broidcr, brd^'dftr. v. a. To adorn 

with figures of peedle-wofk. . 
Brxxidery, br6^'d5r r^. s. [$$§ }. Em- 
broidery, flower»w«^. 
Broil, br^l. s. Acumoltf aqoarreL 
TbBaoiL. brAll. r.iL, Todreliioir 

cook by bying ofi the coali« 
To Broil, brOil. v. n. - To be in the 

Broker br6ke. ' Preterimpei fe6t lenfe 

of the verb To break. 
To'BKoitE, br6ke« V. n« Tocontrad 

ba^neia for othuii. • 
Broken, br&'kn. (103). PaxUpafilof 

BreA. ; 1 ., . 
BRORFN-HBARTkDt.br6'ka4)ir'tti. a« 

HAving the fpiritapmibed by grief or fear. 
BROK4iiLT, br6'ka46./ail. Witfaoc^ 
. any regular feries. 

BftOitE!L, br&'kdr. s. A faAor, one 
* dial docs bidiiie|A.iBr looU^qr-iOiie iriio 



B R U 

ieak io old kooilehotd goods; a pimp, a 

BxoKiRAGEt brolciJrUdje. s« (90). 
The pay or reward of a broker. 

BuoNCHocfLE) br6n^-s^le. s. A 
tamoor of thai part of the aipcra arteria 
colled the Bronchot. - 

Bronchial, bron'W-al, > ^ i>^i««„ 

Broxchick, bnSn'kik. l^'^^^^^Z' 
iog to the throat* 

Bronchotomy* br&n-k6tl6-m^. s. 
The operation which open* the windpipe by 
incxGon to prerent fuffocation (5l8j> 

BRoiisE,br6nze. s. Brafs; a medaL 

^scoocH, bT65tib. s. A jewels an orna* 
ment of JeweU. 

To Brood, br66d. y. iu To fit on 
eggs, to hatch them ; to cover chickens un- 
der the wing ; to watch, at confider any 
thing vndouHj ; to nuuore any thing by 

To Br 000, brd6d.T.a. Tocberifliby 
cafe, t0 hatch. 

Bkood, brd6d. $. Offspringv pro- 
geny; ^ncratioa; a hatch, the qumber 
hatched ai once ; the a<A of cOTerlng the 

Broody, ^brWdA, a. In a ^ate of fit- 
ting os the egpc 
Brook, bnidk. s. A running water ; 

To Brook, brd6k. ▼. a. To bear, to 
/ endure 
-To Brook, br56k. t. n,. Tq endure, 

to be coatent. 
Brooklimk, br66k'lime. s. A fort of 

water; anheib* 
Broom, br6dni. s, A ibrub, a beibm. 

Sd caQcd horn thematter of which it it made. 
BROOMLAJrD,brd6m'lind. s«Land that 

bears hroom. 
Broomstaff, br66m'fttf.s. The ftaff 

to whkh the broom is bound. 

B ROOMY, biiSd'm^. a. Full of broom. 
Broth. bT6tL $• Liquor in which 

Brothel, broTH'M, 1 

BR'»THEL-HOU8t,br6TH'dl-h^trfc.3 1 

A hawrdy-honfe. 

Brother, brfirn'^ir. s. f 98). One 
bora of the £une father or mother; aiiy one 
dofely united ; any one refembKng another 
in maaner, larBi, or profeifidn ) -fit other is 
idcd in theological uognage, for man m 

. geaeraL . 

B&OTHEanor^D, br At H ' Ar-hWr a. The 
Aace or polity of bdog a brother 4' an aflb- 

bull ;— ^11 ;— .p6iind :— /i^ln, this. 

ciation of men for any purpofe, a fraternity ; 

a dafs of men of the fame kind. 
Brotherly, br6TH'i*ir-l^. a Natural 

to brothers, fuch as becomea or be£cems a 

Brought, briwt. (393). Part psrf- 

five of Bring. 
Brow, br6u. s, • The arch of hair 

over the eye ; forehead ; the general air of 

the countenance ; the edge of any high 

To Browbeat, br6u'bctc. ▼. a. To 
. dcprcfs with ftcrn htoks. 
BRo\vBOUND,br6t*i'b6{ind. a. Crowned. 
Browsick, br6Ci'slk. a. Dejeiflcd. 
Brown, br6un. a. Tlie name of a 

BR0WH3ILI,, br6in'bU. t. The ancient 

weapon of the Engliih foot. 

3rowniie9s, br64n'n^s. s. A browm 

BRowNSTUDY,br6&n-fti!id'd^. s. Gloo- 
my meditations. 

To Browse, br6Aze. v. a. To eat 

branches or ihrubs. 
To Bruise, brdAze. v. a. (343). 

To cniih or mangle with a heavy blow. 
Bruise, br6dze. s. A hurt with ibxne- 

thing blunt and heavy. 
Bruisbwoet, br66ze'wArt. s. Com* 
. frcy» 
Bruiti br66t. s. (343). Rumour, 

noife, report. 
Brumal, brd6'm41. a. Belonging to 

the winter. 
BuuMiT, br^6-n^t^ t. A woman 

with a brown complexion. 
Brunt, brCint. s. Shock, violence ; 

blow, ftroke. 
Brush, biiifli. s. An inftnlment for 

robbing ; a rude alTault, a ihock. 
To Brush, bri'irti. v. a. To fweep or 

nib with a bmlh ; to firike with quickncfs ;. 

to paint with a bru(h. 
To Brush, brAfti.v.n To move with 

hafte ; to fly over, to flcim lightly. 
Brush er, briliih'iir. s. He that ufet a 

Bmushwood, brA{h'w6^d. s. Rough, 

Oinibby thickets. 
Brushy, brufh '^. a. Rough or fhaggy, 

like a bruih. 
To Brustle, briis'lL v. n, (472)« 

To cf ackle. 
Brutal, br65'til. a. (343)- That 

which belongs to a brute ; favage, oudK 

inhuman, -. 




C> {ff^}.*mmtite. At, foB, fie j^P-rM^r mit »^pfaie« pltt| 

To BRUTALfZBy brdydl-^ltze. tf. A. 

xci-|ff6W bffvttl or uf7Lfft» 
BRUTAx«Ly)br66'tdl-l^. ad. CharHIb* 

Brute, brWt, a, (339)- ScnfcldS, tin- 

conlBoiit; iavage, irrational ; rovgb^fefo- 

9ituTv» brdd«. s. A creature witbout 

Brutxiikss, brd&t'n^i. f. BrutalitT. 
To Brvtifv, brdit'i^i/l, v, a. To 

make a man a brotc 
Bii(JTi8»,brdd'tl(h. a. Beftial, refem- 

htktif^ a beaft; rongfa, hrtgtj ferocioav; 

grois, carnal ; ignorant, untaught. 
Bftv^isiTLY. brod'tllbl^. ad. In the 

manner of a brute. 
Biii^ri»HKt88, brM^tHb-n^s. s. Bnt- 

tality, fairageneit. 
BftTONYy brr^nd. a. A p^tant. 
BuB> b^b. 8. Strong mah licjuor* A 

low word. 
BvBBLRf bdb1>l. 8. (405)1 A fmall 

hbdier of water ; anj thing which warns 

ibfiSty^ and flrmneis ; a cheat, a fUfe fliow ; 

the peribn chewed. 
To Bubble, bAb'bl. t. a. To rife in 

Mibfei ; tomn with a gentle n«ife. 
To Burble, bAVbl. ▼. a. To cheat. 
Bubbler, MblilCir. >. (405). A 

Bvbbt, btftb'bi. s. A woman's brcaft. 

A low word. 
Bubo, bA'b6. s. TTie groin from the 

bending of tho thigh to the ftrotmn : all 

tomowv in that part are called Baboet. 
BucAHiERf, bAk4-nMrz'. s. A cant 

word for tlie privateen, or piratca, of Am^ 

Buck, bAk. s. The liquor in which 

ckythet are Waihedt the clothes w^lhed in 

the liquor. 
Buck, bAk. 8. The male df the fallow 

deer, the male of rabbits and other animals. 
To Buck, bAk. ▼. a. To wafli clothes. 
To Buck, bAk. ▼• n. To copulate a$ 

bucks and does. 
BucKBA8KBT,b&k'UU'-k£t. 9. The b if- 

let id whidi clothes are carried to the waft. 
BucKBKAK, bAk^ne. s. A plant, a 

fort of trefoil. 
Bucket, bAk'klt.s. (99). Theveflel 

in which water is drawn out of a well ; the 
' tfeffelinwfakhw«tcri9e«aM,panietthBi7 

ti quench a 0re. 

BvcuLE, bftk'ld. s. (4of> A fink of 

metal, with a tongue or catdi made to Ikfieo 
one thfibg to aaodier ; the ftato of thtf ktir 
crifped au ouiled. 

ToBuciCLK, bAk'kh ▼. a. ToCallcn 
wkh a bnckkr ; 8o tmSam, 

To Buckle, bAk'kl. v. n. To bend, 
to how ; To buckle to, to mfffif to; To 
buckle wi^, to ettgagn with. 

Buckleh, bAkaAr. a. A fliieU. 

BucKWA8r, bAk'mifl. s. Thefruitor 

Buckram, bAkVAm. s. A fort of 
ftrong hnen doth, JHflfened with gum. 

BucK8HORH->LANTAiif, bAks'hAni- 
pUn'tln. 8. A plant. 

Buckthorn, bAk'/Mm. s. A tree. 

BucoLiQip, bA*k611(;);. «. A p^o- 

0* From the tendency we have to refi|«vethe 
accent iq the begiwitng of fnch X«afin worAs 
as we anglidae hj droppi^ig the |aft fjrlla- 
bk, we foiiMtimes hear this word improper- 
ly accented on the firft iyOable. — See Aca- 
Dcicr. The authorities for the accent osi 
the feeofld lyUabte are, Mr. Sheridan, Dr. 
Johnfon, W. Johnfton, Mr. Perry, Dr- 
Kenrick, Bailey, Dr. Adi, and Entkk; Bu- 
chanan fUttds alooe for thft aoieaff «n the 

Buo, bAd. s. The firft flioot «f a pbnt» 

To Bud, bAd. v n. To put ferth 

young fteota, or gorms 9 «i be la che 

To Bun, bAd. v. a. To inoeiifaife& 
To Buogs, bAdje. v. n* Toftkw 
Bubob, bAdj<f. a. Stiffs formal. 
BunoER, bAd'jAr. s. One tbatllh^. 
Budget, bAd'j^. s. A ba^ focb aa 
^ may be eafily carried ; a ftoee, or A«^ - 
Burr, bAf. 9. Leather prepared frooi 

the flcin of the bnikb, ulra for-waljl beks^ 

pouches, &«. a miikary coat. 
To Buff, bAf. v. a. To ftrike. A low 

Burr aloe, bArf(rl&. f, A kind of wM 

bull or cow* 
Buffet, bAPflt. s. (99). A btow with 

Buffet, bAf-flt. a, A kind of cup- 

To BirFFBT,.bAf'flt. (99> To 

boa, to Bea8« 
To Buffet, bAf'flt. v. n. T«]te)ra 

B^mtraa^rUffit^rAr. a» A I 

B U L 




f^'a, <.(40|). Tbc fame 
lHTjiiiito,!>4rfl hid'M. a Dull, 
f ti^f-ftV*tt*. ^ A man vshofc 

, .* , f,. ..♦ Ijy Jq^, j^Q, j^p^ 

Tti U The 

A stinking lafta, brcj 

A frigfitfttl 

V* «, The a^tc 

. ^J. Abound* 

V s. A liimt- 
A (liining b^.id oi 

A plartt* 
j}^>%, %, rht herb ox- 

To BlmlqJiiIA f,a (341 V To make 

r 3{t edifice I tA nife lliy thmg 

I hiliL V. a. To depend on» 

I'Ar, 4. (v^). He that 

Md^bg.a, (410). Af4. 


7odf, orroot* 

iQ£r#,bu]m*tbilt,i, The fame 

if.a^<3i4}. Comain- 

n. TataVc in wa- 

'l% fize, qvian 
I an of a buiklmg 
A p;tnidoii 

piiWtsW, mA irwuknt i one of ifee iw^iW 

I Cgn» of ihr iMiiick ; « letter pKliihcd b> 

Ipurt uf laitiii|f fauJJ» wilh «l«ii(i, 

ihiitg icrftblrta f fight chiMf en wrth. 
&ui.l..rKJG, buldAg ». A dot; af a 

p«ftkt*Uf form, ir murk able for hii^^ouf4j;t , 
Brj-L-Hi;An, b'lh^d R, AitypidL'l- 

J©w J f he n»itic of « lilh. 

BifLL-woRT, biil'wiirt. s, Bhhops- 

BtJM.ACE,bi3irik,s. (98), A wild four 

BoLLt T, bullit, s, (99), A tt)und ball 

Bu L I. ! OS , hh\ >rm - V in), G olil or 

filri^r m ihc (ump 11 n wrought. 

BtFLLiTJON, hdi-lilh' ti s, J77)%Tbc 

ad ar fiatc of toUmg, 
i^vhtncm, bi<l hak i* ( 166). A young 

BtttLV, bfVIItV s A nolfy, bluflcnng, 

^uifrcllmg fellow, 
BuLnt^H, biMVi^ib, s, A large rufh* 
BtawAHK.yiPwiVk s. Afortifica- 

C4itou,& dlidel; a (uutiij, 
T-UM, bilm- s. I he pan on wh*ch wc 

fit ; it 11 ufed, in compsfitiorj^ f^ itjy tKimf 

uieJiri or luw, a I bum-biiUff* 

Bt'JwiiAtLiFr. b^m-bJiltf s. A baHifF 
o{ the meinefl kind, one thit it employed 
in arrcUs. 

Bu(4fi4ii0t bilkm'blrd. s* See Bohi* 


Ht MBAST, bum bilV t* 

^ A c btb msitf c f p»t '^ Ti -^^ ' ^ ^' ^ ^ ■ vv . .r v - m rvre 

pi ojjcf ly writ! tn i T ^^r. 

StcYcii* from ^<wi^^. k 

Bumf* bump* s» A iwciling, 4 protu^ 

To BtJMp, b^mp, V. a, — Sec Bomi» 

To maltc 1 loud noitc* 
BuMj^Efi, bum'pilr* s. (yS)* A cup 

^ There » ]i plaufible dcrivatjfjnof thi» word 
ffom the French Ban i'ert^ which, hj the 
*iiti*ckrical cntict, wa» the t^ifl which the 
Monki gave to the Pqpe m a full gbit* I'bti 
farther a derivition ii traced* tht- better k 
» iiicd by the c(imm«n crtiwd tif crjtict; 
but Mr. EiphinftoD, who f»w f,irdicr into 
En^liP^ and French etymitingy than any :iu- 
ihort have ttiet with, comentshimfclf with 
deririiig this word from ihc word Sumpf 
whidj, at a verh^ %iiifici the adion of forac 
itcAY/ body ihMi ixij^ea « dctif^ notfe, «nd, 

B U O 



^ (559).— Fite, fir, fill, fit ;— m^ mil ;— pine, pin ;— 

as a noun, implies the general eifed of fuch 
an aiSion on the animal frame, which is a 
protuberance or fwclling ; and the fwelling 
out of the liquor when a glafs is full feems 
the natural offspring of the fubftantive 

Dr. Am, whofe etymological knowledge fccmH 
very extcnfive, gives this word the fame de- 
rivation, but tells us that the word Bumpiin 
IS of uncertain etymology ; a little attention, 
however, would, I think, have led him to 
the fame origin of this word as the former ; 
for the heavy and protuberant form of the 
rufticks, to whom this word is generally ap- 
plied, might very naturally generate the 

Bumpkin, bi\mp'kin. a. An awkward 
hca\7 ruftick — See Bumper. 

Bumpkin Lv, b5rap'kln-16. a. Having 
the manner or appearance of a clown. 

Bunch, bunfl). s. (352). A hard lump, 
a knob ; a clutter ; a number of things tied 
together ; any thing bound into a knot. 

BuNCHBACKED.bCinfli'bdkt.s. Having 
bunches on the back. 

Bunchy, bin'lhi. a. Growing into 

BuMDLE, biVi'dl. s. (405). A number 
of things bound together j any thing rolled 
up cylindrically. 

To Bundle, bin'dl. v. a. To tie in a 

Bung, bfing. s. A ftoppel for a barrel. 

To Bung, bing. v. a. To flop up. 

Bung HOLE, bAng'hole. s. The hole at 
which the barrel is filled. 

To Bungle. bAng'gl. v. n. (405)- 
To perform clumfily. 

To Bungle, bi^ng'gl. v. a. To botch, 
to manage clumfily. 

BuNGLfe, bi^ng'gl. s. A botch, an 


Bungler, bing'gMr. s. A bad work- 

Bunguhgly, bimg'gUng-l^. ad. 

Clumfily, awkwardly. 
BuNN, biin. s. A kind of fweet bread. 
Bunt, bfint. s. An increafmg cavity. 
Bunter, biWtAr. s. (98). Any low 

vulgar woman. 
Bunting, b&n'tlng. s. The name of a 

BuoY,bii6^ s. (346). A piece of cork 

or wood floating, tied to a weight. 
To Buoy, biCioi. v. a. To keep 

Buoyancy, biWan-s^. s. The quality 

of floating. ' l. 

Buoyant, b&6^4nt. a. Which will 

not fink. 
RuR, bCir. s. A rough head of a plant. 
Burbot, biWit. s. (i66> A fiih full 

of prickles* 
BuRDELAis, bur-d^4iL'. s. A fort cf 

Burden, bijr'dn. s. (103). A load ; 

fomething grievous ; a birth ; the Terfe re- 
peated in a fong. 
To Burden, bur'dn. v. a. To load, to 

Burdb3ier, bilr'dn-iir, s. (98). A 

loader, an opprefTor. 
Burdenous, biir'dn.^is. a. Grievous, 

oppreffive ; ufelefs. 
Burdensome, b6r'dn*sfim. a. Gricv- 

ou«, troublefome* 
Burdensomeness, bfir'dn-sflm-n^s. s- 

Weight, uneafincfs. 
Burdock, bflr'd6k. s. — See Dock. 
Bureau, bu'r6. s. A chcft of draw- 
BuRG,bArg. s. — Sec Burrow, 
Burgage, bir'gidje. s. (90). A te- 

nurc proper to cities and towns. 
BuRGAMOT, b\ir-gi-m6t'. s. A fpccies 

of pear. 

n6t. s. A kind of helmet. 
Burgess, bCir'jSs. s. A citizen, a 

freeman 6f a city ; a reprefcntatiTc of a 

town corporate. 
Burgh, b6rg. s. (392). Acoiporate 

town or borough* 
Burgher, b^r'gdr. s. One who has a 

right to certain privileges in tWs or that 

Burghership, b6r'gdr-ftilp. s. The 

privilege of a burgher. 
Burglary, bCir'gli-r^ s. Robbing a 

houfe by night, or breaking in with mtcnt 

to rob. 
Burgomaster, bAr^gi-mif-tiir. s. 

One employed in the government of a city. 
Burial, b^r'r^al. s. (i?^)- T^ie act 

of burying, fepulture, interment ; the ad o* 

placing any thing under earth ; the churcli 

fervice for funerals. 
BuRiHR,bdr'r^ekr. s. He that buries. 
BuRiNE, bii'rln. s. A graving tool. 
Bur LACE, bfirlife. s. A fort of grape. 
To BuRL,biirL v. a. To drcfs cloth .i> 

fullers do. 
Burlesque, btir-Uik'. a. (415). Jo- 

coiter, tending to:r«ifc toghter. 





t, liur4c(k\ V. n. To 
ii KtiKfi**, biirn^-11^5, 4. Bulk, bluA 

\ a. Big of flaturc. 

ii fjr^. 

tJll < ■* h V^ n \VtjI 

y lire. 

:i If- > A pcnon that 


), A pknl* 
,, „.(4io). SUteof 

in mn 
.^„, _._ -_ .„_.-.ic3 their 


iO».Y.O. To grow 


fori L,„ . 

r . s* The pcr- 

' ^ iC of Bmn* 
The lobe or lap of tlic 

- BUi bilr'flL s- (99). A fort of 


^ fcdds bar* 

* pU<:c IcJiccd or 

f ' iji tlic grr^und by 

r <V. V, CI, To mine a^ 

<], The trca^ 

^' /Vn cxcbaogc where 

Ft y,n, Tohrff*k,or 

M --vay I to 

i 111 u . ' r V. a. To break fad- 
:n^« A ^uick and viotciit difmp 

A fuddcndifruption. 

Bun ft li III. s. A iLiiiiilj ot tbt: mr* 
bot kiiui* 

To Buitythdr'rd. v*a. (17S}. To mter, 

fA pnf itif^ A fyra¥r ! ro Uiitr with ntfi imi 

B , A llii k ffirtih i 

:|ig£ a (|^r«tolhow 

BvisHiHKsstbiiiV^ n^ii. i. Tbc quality 

of Wciiig bijfljj". 

By^KMtNr^ b^lVmdfit. s. A thicket. 
BLtsHV, b{ilVc-a, TliicktfuU of I'm ;i! I 

brat^chi^i^l fuU ot lutftieit 
BLfULF.a$t buV.c4^s. a* {t?^}, Allci* 


BtrsiLv. bh'*^l6, ad. With Imrvf, 

Bu£jM£S3,M//rt^s. s» (17S), Employ- 
ment, multiplicity of affkiri ; an ifTAif ; t Jic 
fubjdd tjf adlioii; tcrmu* %;iig4gemcnt; right 
of tidioo ; a mattff fif qucftion ; To do ooc » 
bufmcr^^ to kiU, dcflmyf cir futii him* 

Busk* bAtk. s. A pic.cofftccl^ 01 
vvh^]<!b4)ni;, wum bf women to flrcngiheti 
rhdr ilays. 

BusKJN, bus'kln* s, A kind of half 
booc, a fhoc whitfi conic* ut the jnid4<r|j ; 
a hind of high 0io^ worn by the aiickiit 
a^iirs of eiagedy. 

DtiSKiNci>, biVkind, a. (359). DreC- 

cd in bttlkmf, 
BuiK^, bAs'kc, a. W.iody. 
BtTss, bds. s. A kifs, a falatc wtilr 

tipii; abQ;(t for filhiiig* 

To Buss, bils* v> a. To kifs* A low 

BuiT, bi\ll. s. A flatac reprefcnimg a 

man to his brraft,^ 
Bk/STARD, bi*ii'liitd. s. (88}. A wild 


To BtJsTLE, bds'n. V* n. {472). To 

be bufy, to ilir. 
BusTLk, biViL s. A tymult, a hurry, 
BusTLEn, bds'Iui* s. C98), Anaaivc 

Uirring man. 
Busy, bl?//i. a* (17**)- Employed 
ivith cataeflneiA ; biiftling,a^ive, mcdUJUig. 
To Busy, hiz'^d. v. a. lo employp to 
I Bu s Y BOOT, bi/:'mi-b6d-d^. s. A vaifi> 
^ mcddliii^r fantaAicft) pcrfian* 


240 ' 

B Y 

tt^ (559)' — ^F^tc, ftr, fill, fit ;—in*, mAt ;— pine, plai--p 

But, bi'it. conjundl. Except ; yet, ne- 
▼erthelefs; the particle which introdifces 
fhe minor of a fyliogifm, now ; onlj, no- 
thin£^ more than ; than ; not othcrwife 
than ; by no other means than ; if it were 
not for this ; however, howbeit ; otherwife 
than ; even, not longer ago than ; yet it may 
be objeded ; but for, had not this been. 

BuT-^ ND, bAt'dnd'. t. The blunt end 
of any thing. 

Butcher, biit'tfli'V, s. (175)- ^^^ 
that kills animals to fell their fleih ; one that 
is delighted with blood. 

To Bu . CHR^, ctit'tlhAr. ▼• a. To kill, 
to murder. 

BuTCHKRLiNESs, b&t'tfliAr-l^-nds, s. 
A butcherly manner. 

Butcherly, btit'tlhdr-U. a. Bloody, 

Butch LHY, bftt'tfhiir-ri, s. The trade 
of a butcher ; murder, cruelty { the place 
where blood is ihed> 

BuTLERj biit'lflir s. (98). A fervant 

employed in fumiihing the table. 
But Mi. NT. bAt'mfint. s. That part of 

the arch which joins it to the upright pier. 
Butt, b*it s. The place on which 

the mark to be fhot at is placed ; the 

point at which the endeavour is direded ; 

a man upon whom the company break th^ir 

Butt, bAt. s. A vefTcl, a barrel con« 

taining one hundred and twenty-fix gallons 

of wine. 
To Butt, bAt. v. a. To ftrike witli 

the head. 
Butter, bflt'tflr. s. (98). .-^n un^uous 

fttbftance, made by agitating the cream of 

milk till die oil feparates lirom the whey. 
To Butter, bfit'tfir. v. a. To fmear- 

or oil with butter ; to increafe the ilakes 

every throw* 
Butter BUMP, b{kt'ti!ir-bi!imp. s. A 

fowl, the bitten. 
Butterbur, bdt'tflr-bdr. s. A f^ant. 
Butterflower, bAt'tir-fldft'Ar. s. 

A yeUow flower of May. 
Butterfly, bAt't6r-fll. s. A beauti- 
ful infed. 
Butteris, bftt'tiir-rls. s. An inftm 

tncnt of ftcel vied in paring the foot of a 

Buttermilk, bAt'tAr-milk. s. The 

whey that isfepirated from the creim when 

butter is made* 
Butterprint, bi'it'tiir.prlnt. s. A 

piece of carred -wood, u£ed to Burii btttCE. 

Buttbrtooth, bilt'tAr-t66/^ s. The 
great broad foretooth. 

Butter wo MAN, biVtiir-wAm-fin. 9, 

' A woman that fells butter. 

Butter wort, bftt'tiir-vrftrt. $. A 
plant, fanicle. 

Buttery, biVtflr-r^« a. Having the 
appearance or qualities of butter. 

Buttery, bAt'tiir-r^. s. The room 
where provifions are lard up. 

Buttock bittAk. s. (i66). The 
rump, the part near the tail. 

Button, bflt'tn. s. (103) (170). 
Any knob or hall ; the bud of a plant. 

To Button, b^Vtn. v. a. (405). To 
dreis, to clothe ; to faften with buttons. 

Buttonhole, bCii'tn hile. s. The 
loop in which the button of the clothes is 

Buf TRESS, biVtrls. s. (99)- A prop, 
a wall built to fupport another ; a prop, a 

To Buttress, bfit'trls. v, a. To prop. 

Buxom. bi:ik'sAm. a. (166). Obedi- 
ent, obfeqnious ; gay, lively, brtflc ; wanton, 

Bu xom lt, bOk'sdm*U. ad. Wanton- 
ly, amoroufly. 

BuxoMNBss, bdk'sijm-ncs. s. Wan- 
tonnefs, amoroufiaefs. 

To Buy, bi. v. a. To purchafc, to 
acquire by paying a price; to manage by 

To Buy, bl. v. n. To treat about a 

Buyer, bl'dr. t. He that buys, a pur- 

To Buzz, bdz. V. n. To hum, to 
make a noife like bees ; to whifper, to prate. 

Buzzard, bftz'zArd s. (88). A dc- 
generate or mean fpecies of hawk ; a block- 
head, a dunce. 

Buzzer, biiz'ziir. s. (98). A fccrct 

By, -J r^* > prep. It notes the agent ; 

it notes the inftiuraent ; it notes the caufe ; 
it notes the means by which any thing is 
performed ; at, or in, noting pbce ; it notes 
the fum of the difference between two 
things compared; not later than, noting 
time ; befide, noting paflage ; near to, in 
prefence, noting proximity ; before Hioi- 
felf, it notes theabfeoce of all others ; it is 
the folemn form of fwearing ; at hand ; it 
is nfed in forms of obteftiog ; by proxy of, 
L ZMtiagfahftituciUB. 




— no, m6ve, n6r, nAt ;«-^Abe9 tib, 

|jr The geBoral loand of this word is like 
dicferii to huy ; but we not mifreqaemly 
Aear it pronounced like the Terb to he. This 
btter found, however, is only tolerable in 
colloquial pronunciation, and then only 
when nfed as a prepoiition ; as when we 
fay. Do you travel iy land or hy water ? 
fiat in reading thefe lines of Pope: 

'' By Iuid,4y water, they renew the charge ; 
** lliey ftop the chariot, and they board the 
Here we ooght to give the word hy the 
found o£ the verb to hiy ; fo that pronounc* 
ing this like fo, is, if the word will be par- 
doBcd me, a uiUfniatifm, 
By, bl. ad. Near, atafmall diftance ; 
befide, paffing ; in prcfence. 

Br AMD BY, bi'lad-W. ad. In afhort 

Bv, bi. s. Something not the dircft 

and immediaec ohje^ of regard, as by the 

Br-coKCERiTMBNT, bl'k&n-sim'indnL 

s. Not the main bufineis. 
Bt-imik bi'ind'. $. Privatcintcreft, 

fecrct advamage. 
By-goke, bi'gdn'. a. Paft. 

buB ;—■ 611 ;-»p6{ind ;— /^in, this. 

By-law, bi'liw'. s. By-laws arc or* 

ders made for the good of thofe that makr 

them, farther than the publick law binds. 
By-mamb, bl'ndme'. s. A nickname. 
By-path, bi'pd/i^'. s. A private or 

obfcure path. 
By-resplct, bl'rt-fp^kt'. s* Private 

end or view. 
By-room, bi'r66m'. s. A private 

room within. 
By-speech, bi'fp^itfli'. s. An inci- 
dental or cafual fpeech. 
BY-sTANDbR, bi'lUn'di^r. s. A looker 

on, one unconcerned. 
By-stre8t, bi'ftr^dt'. s. An obfcure 

By-view, bi'vii'. s. Private felf-in- 

terefted purpofe. 
By-walk. bi'w4wk'. s. Private walk, 

not the main road* 
By-way, bi'wA'. s. A private and 

obfcore way. 
By-wfst, b^.wfift'. a. Wcftward, 

to the weft of. 
By-word, bl'wiird'. s. A faying, a 

proverb ; a term of reproach. 


CAB, Idb. s. A Hebrew mca- 
fore, cQDtainiog about three pints £n- 

Cabal, ti-bal'. s. The (ecret fcience 
of the Hehfl^ew rabbins ; a body of men 
united in fome clofe defign ; intrigue. 

ilT 'Hie political fignification of this word 
o^ves its origiiial to the five Cabinet Minif- 
tc» in Charles the Second's reign ; Clifford, 
Aihley.Biiclungham, Arlington, and Lau- 
derdale: this Junto were known by the name 
of the Ctihd ! a word which the initial let- 
tcn of their flBDct happened to oompofe. 

To Cabal, kl-b4l'. v. n. To form 
cMb intxigset. 

Cavali ST, k4V4.M. s. Oneikilkdin 
the tradicaoof of the Hebrews. 

Caiallistical, k4b-M.lU't^.kU. 1 

Caballutick, k4b-'41-Vls'tlk. j 

a. SoxBcthmg that h$» an occult meaning. 

Caballed, kd-billdr. s. He that 
lo ckfe 4cfigm9 attintrifittC- 

Cabbage, klbl)idje. s. (90). A plant. 
To Cabbage, kab'bidje. v. a. To 

fteal in cutting clothes. 
Cabbage tree, kab^bldje-tr^c. s. A 

fpccics of palm-tree 
Cabbagf.-worm, k«LbVidje-wi!inn. t. 

An tnfcA. 
Cabin, kibVm s. A fmall room ; a 

fmall chamber in a (hip; a cottage, or fmall 

To Cabin, k^b'bln. v. n. To live in 

a cabin. 
To Cabin, k&hl>ln. ▼. a. To confine 

in a cabin. 
Cabin to, kllb'blnd. a. (362 j. Belongs 

in g to a cabin. 
Cabinet, kubin dt. s. A fet of boxes 

or drawers foe cnriofities; any place ia 

which things of value are hidden; a prtvatt 

room in which coniiiltations are held. 
Cabinft-couscil, kub m dt-ko^m'sil. 

#• A council held in a private manner. 

t AC 


C A L 

^5" (559)' — r^tc, fir, fill, fit ; — ^m^, mfit ;— pine, pin ;- 

Cabin ET-KARER, kab1n*dt*m4'k&r. s. 
One that makes fmall nice work in wood. 

Cable, kA^l. s. (405). The great 
rope of a (hip to which the anchor is faf- 

Cachectical, ka-k^k't^-k^. > 

Cachectick, kd-k^k'tik. 3 ^' 

Having an ill habit of body. 

Cachexy, kik'k^k-s^. s. (517). Such 
a difiemperature of the humouri as hinders 
nutrition, and weakens the vital and animal 

Q^* Mr. Sheridan is thconlyorthoepiftwho 
accents this word on the firft fyllable as I 
have done ; and yet every other lexicogra- 
pher, who has the word, accents Anorexy^ 
Ataxy, and Ataraxy, on the firfl fyllable 
except Mr. Sheridan, who accents Anorexyy 
and Baily Ataxy on the penultimate. — 
Whence this variety and inconiiftency 
IhouLd arife, it is not eafy to determine. 
OrthoAncyzxL^. Apoplexy had fufficiently chalk- 
ed out the analogy of accentuation in thefe 
words. The terminations in axy and exy 
do not form a fpecies of words which may 
be called encUticaljlike logyamdgrapby (517), 
but feem to be exadly under the predica- 
mentof thofe Latin and Greek words, whhh, 
when adopted into Englifli by dropping their 
laft fyllable, remove the accent at leaft two 
fyllables higher.— -Sec Academy. 

CACHtN nation, kak-kln-n^'lhiin. s. 
A loud laughter (353). 

Cackebel, kik'ir-il. s. (SSS^ (99)- 

To Cackle, k^k'kl. v.n. (405). To 
make a noife as a goofe; fometimes it is ufed 
for the noife of a hen; to laugh, to giggle. 

Cackle, kdk'kl. s. The voice of a 
goofc or fowl. 

Cacklbr, kdkliir. s. (98). A fowl 
that cackles ; a telltale, a tatlcr. 

Cacochymical, kdk-k&-kim'^- 
kll. _ 

Cacochymick, k4k.k6-kim'*'- ^* 

' (353) (509)- 

Having the humours corrupted. 

CococHYMY, kdk'k6-klm-in^. s. A 
depravation of the humours from a found 

$2r Johnfon and Bailey accent this word Ctfr«- 

. shyx/yy Sheridan and Buchanan CaeocVymy^ 
and Dr. Aih Ca<focbymyi and this laft acccn- 
tuatipn I have adopted for reafons given 

* under the word Cachexy — which fee. 

.Cacophony, ku-koi'o-n^. s. (518). 
A bad found of words. 

To Cac CM IN ATE, k4-ku'm6-n4tc. v, a. 
To make iharp or pyramidaU 

a'ik. r 

;j, I s. Fan, ftate of 

Cadaverous, ka-div'^ r(is. a. Having 
the appearance of a dead carcafs. 

Caddis, kdd'dis. s. A kind of tape 
or riband; a kind of worm or grub. 

Cade, k&de, a. Tame, foft, as a cade 

Cade, k4de. s. A barrel. 

Cadence, ki'ddnfe, 

CADENCiy k4'dfin-s6. 

finking, decline ; the fall of the voice ; the 
flow of verfesjor periods; the tone or fonnd. 

Cadenty kA'd^nt. a. Falling down. 

Cadet, ki-d^t'. s. The younger bro- 
ther ; the youngeft brother ; a volunteer in 
the army, who fcrves in eJEpe<5latioa of a 

Cadgsr) kWjAr. s. A hnckftcr. 

J3r This word is only ufed by the vulgar in 
London, where it is not applied to any par- 
ticular profeflion or employment, bat near- 
ly in the fame ienfe as curmudgeon, and is 
corruptly pronounced as if written Cogger* 

Cadi, k4'd^. s. A magiftrate among 
the Turks. 

Cadi L L A c K) ki.-dU'llk. s. A fort of 

CxsuRA) s^-zdVa. s. (479) (480). 
A figure in poetry, by which a fiiort fyllable 
after a complete foot is made long ; a paule 
in verfe. 

Caftan, klLftdn. s.^A Perfaan vcft or 

Cag, kag. s. A barrel or wooden vcf^ 
fel, conuining four or five gallons. 

CagE} k^je. s. An inclofure of 
twigs or wire, in which birds are kept ; a 
place for wild beafts ; a prifon for pcttf 

To Cage, kdje. v. n. To inclofe In a 

Caiman, kd'mttn. s. (88). The Ameri- 
can name of a crocodile. 

To Cajole, k&-j61e'. v. a. To flatter, 
to foothe. 

Cajoler, ki-j6'lftr. s. A flatterer, a 

Cajolery, kd-jo'lir-ri. s. {SSS^- 

Caitiff, kd'tlf. s. A mean villainy a 
defpicablie knave. 

Cake, k&ke. s. A kind of delicate 
bread ; aay thing of a form rather flat tfaao 

To Cake, kike. v. n. To harden a^ 

dough in the oven. 
Calabash, kiU'44>ifli« s. A fpecie&o{ 

a large gpiird* , - 

C A L 


C A L 


liAtH «^ 

• of ^ . the 

I for ctif% i* «ii>' ioT ia£tri»tu(^tu« at 



itM'tl^nilat- *. The name 


I W^^lfcs. Misforione, 

xQiii; i. A fort tif reed 

cf-^Liiirij woirf, ttieftiioncd in Scrip- 

'/'''" A finaSl carriage 
X'iH* a, (450)- 

> fenders 

-T— V ki4l-ilti'^*t*ir-^* s. A 

r,.-rtj.t* thii word on the 
11 and Mr. Per- 
*he fame accent 

V, X To 

iLibftantr eaCly 

,ti, Ta be- 
te. V. a. To 

IdUJcd-U'ftidn. s* A 
' :nmg, the irt of 

£ iiY, aVWft UH4f.^. :i. Be- 

CAtcuLOif, kfilku iil.rc':i ^ -. „^ 
C,%i.i rAts. Brku4Ai.$, Tbe ftcrne b 


C* L 1 1 ' Jrun* •• ( 1 6(5;. A pot, 

ad ^ l&eiim|^ my tlim^ ; the £bu of bekijf 
licit t J. 
C41- tiv. a. Tlut 

Ca l t t-AK 1 uit¥, k*i t-Uk'tdr-^ a» Tliat 

ToCALtrv,kUV'.a v,ii. (its). ^^^ 

grow htjf , tn hi- hfateJ, 
Ciittwi^A iur, «. (8ft). A 

Pcgiibct ' iw which the uiuothA* 

aod tbttil tiitiiu, -£C mjtrk«d,aifcfitir34t*)ii 

To CAi.t??i:>KJi, kurdti-diif, v. a. To 

fkzU dfttli. 
CALE)*i>tii*, HIV^n'dAr.s. (98), A hot] 

pfL'fit # prdt if* ivhitli cktliicTi fmooij 

their dotlu 
CALFNDKHiR, kiU'cn-d^r-ar. s* Tin 

per fotj who taJecidcFfe. 
CALtiJost kii'cuvl/- u The firft dai 

of the month amotig the RiimanSp 
CALi;NTURE, kir^n-ifli4rc. s. {461)- 

A diftcn»t»ef in hot climiics whfrcia they 

iniajrmc the IJe* 10 Lc gr^-trt Gdd|- 
Cai,f, kaf- s. (401 I n^)' '^^c young _ 

of a cow i tiii; duct, pliuup, bulbouipsirt olj 

the ieg. 

CALittiU, kH'c bur. s. The bofe, the 

diirottcr of the barrel of a gao* 
^ Mr. ShcTidan accent* thb word on itr 
fccond fylbblc, aud give* the iihr found i 
diitibld f like the Freuch; hui Johnfon, 
Kcorick , Aih, Buchanan , Perry , md Eniitk , 
confider the wond »s perfedly anglidfed, 
and place ihc accent on the fi rft fylhhic ^^ 
I have done* 

Callce, kills, $, A cwpt a chalice. 
CALicot kil'4*k&. s- An Indian ftufl 

fxij.dc of cot ton i 
Caljo, kolld. a. Hot, hnrmng. 


Calif, 1 j^nif. j 

s, A tide i 

Caliph* J t 

filmed by the fucci;irof« Of M^omet amon 

the Saraccnt. 
CaliqatigNi kkl4^-g4'M0t s. Dark* 

nefi, doudin ds. 
Caligjnoos, kl41djc'i?-iiiis, n. Ob- 

tcwre> dim. 

C A L 



C^ (559)— F^te, fir, ftU, ftt ;— ni^, m^t ;— pine, pin ;- 

C A L I G I Nou s N E s s, kA-lldje'^-nftf-n^s 

Calivfr, k^r^-vfir. s. A handgun, a 
harquebufs, an old mulket. 

To Calk, kawk. v. a. To flop the 
leaks of a ihip. 

Calker, kaw'kiir. s. The workman 
that ftopt the leaks of a (hip. 

To Call, kiwi. v. a. (77). To name; 
to fummon or invite; to convoke; to fom- 
mon judicially ; in the theological fenfe, to 
infpire with ardours of piety ; to invoke, 
to appeal to ; to proclaim, to pobliih ; to 
make a ftiort vjfit ; to excite, to put in ac- 
tion, to bring into view ; to ftigmati2e with 
fome opprobrious denomination ; To call 
back, to revoke ; To call in, to refume mo- 
ney at intereft ; To call over, to read 
aloud a lift or mufter-roll ; To call out, to 

Call, kAwl. s. A vocal addrefs ; re- 
quifition; divine vocation ; fummonsto true 
religion ; an impulfe ; authority, com- 
mand; a demand, a claim ; aninftrument 
to call birds; calling, vocation, employment; 
a nomination. 

rtl'l'tl' I ''"I'l^t- «• A trull. 

Calling, kawrilng. s. Vocation, pro- 
feffion, trade; proper ftation, or employ- 
ment ; clafs of pcrfons united by the fame 
employment or prof^ffion ; divine vocation, 
invitation to the true religion! 

CALLip¥Rs,kari^-pijrz. 5.(98). Com- 
paflfes with bowed fhanks. 

Callosity, kall6s's^-t^. s. A kind of 
fwelling without pain. 

Callous, kdrius.a. Hardened, infcn- 

Callousness, kM'h'is-nfis. s. Indara- 
tioQ of the fibres ; infenftbility. 

Callow, k4ri6. a. Unfledged^ naked, 

wanting feathers. 
Callus, kdVli!^s. s. An induration of 

the fibres ; the hard fubftance by which 

broken bones are united. 
Calm, k^m. a. l^o). Quiet, ferene ; 

uadifturbed, unruffled. 
Calm, k^m. s. Serenity, ftilbefs ; 

quiet, rcpofe. 
To Calm, k^m. v. a. To ftill, to 

quiet; to pacify, toappeafe. 
Calmer, kim'Ar. s. (403).Thc perfon 

or thing which has the power of givingquiet. 
Calmly, k^ml^. ad. Without ftorms, 

or violence ; without paiBons, quietly. 
Calmness, k^m'n^. s. TranqailHtj. 

fer e&ity ; mildneft, freedom firan paffion. 

Calomel, kSl'6-m^l. s. Mercury fix 

times fublimed. 
Caloripick, kil-6-rlPik. a. That 

which has the quality of producing heat. 
Calotte, k4-16t'. s. A cap or coif. 
Caltrops, kdrtr6ps. s. An inilru- 

ment made with three fpikes, fo that which 

way foever it falls to the ground, one of 

them points upright ; a pbnt mentioned 

in Virgil's Georgick, under the name of 

To Calve, klv. v. n. (78). To bring 

forth a calf, fpoken of a cow. 
To Calumniate, kl-iCim^n^-ite. ▼. a. 

To flaader (91). 
Calumniation, kd-lftm-n^*&^(bAn. s. 

A malicious and faUe reprefentation df 

words or adtona. 
Calumniator, ki-lijin'n^-A-t&r. s. 

(5 3 X }. A forger of accufation, a llandcrer. 
Calumnious, ki-ldm'nd-ds. a. Slan- 

derous, falfely reproachful. 
Calumny, kal'dm-ni. s. Slander, falfe 

Calx, kalks. s. Any thhig rendered 

reducible to powder by burning. 
CALYCLE»kil'^-kl. s. (405). Afmall 

bud of a pHmt. 
Camaieu. ki-mk'ydd, s. A fione with 

various figures and reprefentatioos of land - 

fcapes, formed by nature. 
Camber, kim'b Ar. s. A piece of tim- 
ber cut arch-wife. 
Cambrick, kAme'brlk. s. (^2). A 

kind of fine linen. — See Cbambek. 
Camb, kime. The preterit of To 

Camel, k^m'^1. s. (99). A beaft of 


Camelopard. k&-ni^n6-pird. s. An 
animal taller than an elephant, but not fo 

Camelot, 7y^.^^^^ 

Camlet, > 
A kind of ftufiforiginally made by a mizturr 
of filk and camel's hair ; it b cow made 
with wool and filk. 

Camera Obscura, k4m'c*r&-&b.ficA- 
rL s. An optical machine ufed In a 
darkened chamber, fo that tlie light coming 
only through a double convex glaft,obj€As 
oppofite are reprefented inverted* 

Camkrade. — See Comradb. 

Camerated, kilm'^r*iL-t£d. a. Arch« 

Cameration, k&in«^r*i'ih^ a* A 
tiulting marching. 

I s. (99). 




C&«isad6, kam-^-rA'«16w s, (77). AniCANCEk^ kin'si'ir. s. (98). A cral>. 
madL made m the dairk, 00 whickoccsifioo | fifli ; the figli of the fommer folftice *, a ¥»- 

thej put their (hires outward* 
CAMisATEOt kAin'^'i^*t^d. a. Drefled 

with the ih^ outward. 
Camlet, k&m'l^t.. s. See Camelot. 
Cammock, k^m'm.U. s. (166). An 

herb, petty whin» or refiharrow. 
Cxnt, kamp. s. The order of tents 

pbued by xnoiei when they keep the field. 
To CAHtp, klmp. V. n. To lodge in 

CAMPMCic«k4mp&iie'* s. (385). A 
Ur^,opai,le^ tra^ of ground} the time 
for wUch my army keeps the field* 

CAurAHiTo&M, klin*pln'ii^-f6rni. a. 
A term sied oC flowcn which are in the 
fliape of a bell. 

CAMfAsvLATB^ kim-pin'ui-Ute. a. 

CjkMPusruAi.fkim'-p^'triL a. Grow* 

CAMMfiRB, kto'flr. f. (i4o)« A 

kitid of sefinprodnced by a cfajrmicalpro- 

cda &OD& the camftoe tree. 
CAMPHt&k-TREfi, kiim'fir-cr^6. s. The 

tree from which camphtre it cxtraded. 
Camphorats^ feiin'f6*rAte. s. (91)* 

liiiprq^ted with camphire. 
CAHrioM, k^'p^-i&n. s. (166). A 

plant* — 

Cavj kia. s. . A cup. 
To CAHr k&n. V. n. To be able, to 

have power; si czprefies the potentialmood, 

aa I can doit. 
CAnAivr.%, ki-nile'. s. The lowed 

Caw A,, klUn4l^ i« A bafin of water 

in a garden ; any cMffie of water made by 

art ; a pal&ge tbroogh which any of the 

jnicet of the body flaw. 
Caval-coai.. This word is corrupt* 

ed into kSn'nil-rkdle. s. A fine kind 

of coaL 
Cam ALfcvLATSD,kiD44ik^&-U-tld. a. 

Made fike a pipe or gutter. 
CANARry ki-n^'r^. s* Wine brought 

firom the Canaries iatck. 
Camart^bird, ki^lA'r^-biird. s. An 

ezceUent fioging bird. 
To Ca»csl« kdn'sfl. v. a. (99). To 

crofs a writiog; to effiice^ to obliterate in 

CAiictLLATsx>t kins^Ui.t£d. a* 

Gakcsllatiom* kia-s^lli'Mn. -s. 

An expaapag or wipoig out of a& inftni- 



mlent fwcliing, or fore. 
To CANcii^RATB, k^n'sH^r-ritc. y, n. 

(91). To becofiic a cancer. 
Canceratios, kiin-st^ r^l'fh^n. •• A 

growing cancerous. 
Canckrous, k4n's0r-r^. a. 

the virulence of a cancer. 
Cancerousness, kan'si\r.r^$-n^s. s. 

The ftate of being caneeronf. 
Camcuine, kung'krln. a. (140). Har* 

ing the qualitiet of a crab (408). 
Cawdents kin'ddnt. a. Hot. 
Cakdicant, kla'd^-klLnt. a. Crowd- 
ing white. 
Camdio, kWdld. a. While j fwrj 

open, ingenuous. 
Candida rEy kdn'd£-d4te. s. A cont- 

petitor, one that foliciti advancement. 
Candidly, kin'did-U. ad* Fairly, 

CANDiDNEfSy kin'dld-n^s. s. Ii)ge* 

nuoufiieff, opennefs of temper. 
To Candipy, kiln'd^.fl. y. a. To 

make white. 
Candle, k^n'dl. s. f40$). Alight 

made of wax or tallow, turrounding a wick 

of flax or cotton. 
Candlsbbrry*treE9 klb'dl-b^r-r^ 

tr^^. s« Sweet-willow. 
Candlbholdbr» kin'dl<Mld-Ar. :«. 

He that holds the candle. 
CANDLBLiGHr, kdu'dl-Utc. s. l*he 

light of a candle. 
Candlemas, kdn'dl-mi&s. sw (98) 

The feaft of the purification of the Blefled 

Virgin, which was formerly celebrated with 

many lights in churches. 
Candlestick, kAn'dl-ftik. s. The 

inftnunent that holds candles. 
Candlestuff, k4n'dl-ftiif. s. Grearei 

Candlew-aster, kln'dl-wAi-tAr. s. 

A fpendthrift. 
Candock, kiln'd6k. •. A weed that 

grows in rivers. 
Candour, kdn'dAr. s. (314V Sweet- 

nefc of temper, purity of mind, ingenuouC* 

To Candy, kin'dft. v.* a. To con- 

ferve with fugar ; to form into congelatiout* 
To Candy> kftn'd*. v. n. To grow 

Cane, kioe. s. A kind of ftrong 
reed; the |)hmiiiiMclikTi«i<^*^^*8^» ^ 



C A K 

^ (559).— FAte* Or, flU ftt ;-^in*, mAt ;-^plne, pUt j 

ToCahe, kAne. v. a. To beat with 

a cane or.ftick. 
Canicular, kft-nik'ii'Un a. Belong- 
ing to the dog-ftar. 
Canine, ku-nine'. a. Having the 

properties of a dog. 
Canister, kSn is-tfir, s. (98). A 

fniall tiaiket ; a fmall Yeffel in which any 
. thing is laid up. 
Cankfu, king'kiir. s. (409) A 

w«nn that pfeys apenr^ and dieftroys frnks ; 

a By that preys upon fruits ; anything that 
j corrupts or confumes; an eating or corrod- 
ing humour ; corroiion, Tinilence; a dileafe 

in trees. 
To Canker, kinglcfir. i. n. To grow 

To Canker, kdng'krir. v. a. To cor- 
rupt, to corrode i to infed,to pollute. 
Canki:rbit, kar.g'kvir-biL part. ad. 

Bitten with an envenomed tooth* 
Cannabin£9 k&n'n^-bine. a. (149)' 

Cannibal, k&n'n^-b41. t. A man- 

cater* . 
Canniballv, kfin'n^-bdl-W. ad. In 

The manner of a cannibcd. 
CANKiPEits, k4n'n£-p5rz. s. Callipers. 
Cannon, kin'nAn. s. 166). A gun 

larger thafl^ be managed by the hand. 
Cannon-ball, kdn-ni'in-biwl'. 1 
Cannon-shot, kdn-ni'in-ilidt' 3 

The balls which are (hot from great guns. 
To CA^iNONADK, kin-n/in nAde'. v.n. 

To play the great guns; to attack or batter 

with cannon. 
Cannon ur, kan-ni^n n^^'. s. The 

engineer that manages the cannon (175). 
Cannot, 'r;an'n6t. ▼. n. of Can and 

Not. To be unable. 

s. A boat made 

OE, J 


Cax _ 

by cutting the trunk of a tree into a hollow 

Canon, kin'ilin. s. (166). A rule, 
a law ; bw made by ccdefiaftical soundLi ; 
the books of Holy Scripture, or the great 
rule ; a dignitary in cathedral churches ; a 
large fort of printing letter. 

Canonjrss, kin'fln-ni^s. s. In Catho- 

. lie countries, women liring after the exam- 
ple of fccular canons. 

Canonical, ka-n5n'^k41. a. Accord- 
ing to the canon ; conftituting the canen ; 
regular, ftated, fixed by ecdefiafUcal laws, 
fpiritual eccleiiaftical* 

Canonic ALL V, • M-non'i^-k^l-W. ad 
la a roawper agreeable tg the canoDi 

CANONiCALNess^ ki.*n6n'd-k&l-ii£%. 
The quality of being canonicaL 

Canonist, kan'nC^n-nift. s, (i66). A 
profeflbr «f the canon law^ 

Canonization, kan-n6-n6-z4'lh^ s. 
The aA of declaring a faint. 

To Canonize, kdn'n^-nize. v. a. To- 
d^lare any one a>^aint« 

Canonry, k4n'an*r6. > »_ 

Canonshi?, k^n'CinAlp. 5 '' ^^ 
eccleiaftical benefice ta fomt cathedral or 
collegiate church. 

CAN0prED,k&n'6.pld^ a. (262}. Co 
vered with a canopy. 

Canopy, k&ni'6-p(fr. s. A coveting 
fpreM OTer tfce head. 

To Canopy, kAn'6-p^, v. a. To corcr 
with a canopy. ' 

Canorous, ki-n6^rds. a. (512). Mufi- 
cal, tuneful. 

Cant i'4nt. s. A corrupt dialc6b 
ufed by beggars and vagabonds ; a han of 
fpeakine peculiar to fome certain dafa or 
body ox men; a whining pretcnfion to 
goodsels; barbarous jargon ; addion. 

0r It is fcarcely tobe cre£ted» that the.wri« 
ter in the Spe^ator figned T. fliould adopc 
a derivation of this word from one Jbubm 
Cant, a Scotch Prefbyterian Miniftcr, when 
the i/atin cantus't fo ezpreflive of the fioj^in^ 
or yvhining tone of certain preachers is fo 
obvious an etymology. The Cant of par- 
ticular profeflions is air eafy derivation from 
the fame origin, as it means the fetphrafes, 
the routine of profeJffional language, refem- 
bling the chime of a fong. ^Moafti, from 
which Ibnae derive this word, is-ainiidi left 
probable etymology. 

To Cant, k4ot. v.n. To ulk la the 
jargon of particuUtf ptofeffioDa; toipcak 
with a particular tone. 

To Cant, ktet. v. a. To to&.or fling 

Cantata, kin-ti'tl s. balum. A 

fong (77). 
Cantation, k&n-t&'Mn. s. The aa 

of finging. 
Canter, k&n'tfir 8. f98). A hypo- 
crite ; a (hort gallop* 
CANTHA»tDEs»k4n-/ib4r'^-dds* s. Spa- 

nilh flies, ufed to raiie bliftcfs. 
Canthus. kinVi^As. s. Thccomcr 

of the eye. 
Canticle, k&n^^kl. s. (405). A 

fong ; the fong of Solomon. 
Cantlf, kdn'tl. s. (405). ♦A piece 

with comers. 
Cantlct, kintl^t. 8. (99). Apiece» 

a fragment.. 



A book or fedioii 

ri O^ Lad; A lillilll <«lltMrii^ 

T . . Mn'rtu* ^. «. To Svidc 

. klu'tt^n-ltc/ V, a. 

. ; ^.U, »* A k mi of cloth 

^ iU, V. II* To rdt* 

11., kJlci tAs< ▼. 0. To fo- 

c Tdlof cmncs, con- 

Ca^jl ajiir, kin /O-fnlt*. s. A lillk 

C^ ' ^ ■ ^ - ' n^.i_r,T thilt CO- 

" c*? on die 

C A r , r . * , *^l'pd*4 a. From head 
f# Jooc. 

r . - ^ . ,1 r , Ir^lp'pi .pAr, <• A for t 

^ I Mn?-iil 4, Sec laC^pMhU. 

i_c - „ , ^ ^ - H , tWe lo uoderft^^t S 

cmndcB»;ahkt«rt«dfC*i fiili^ptibU; qui- 

C ^ Ibc 

Cat j.u't^., -,1 I^Viiius.^ A, Wide, 
1. ,'. .:! tf tintajiiuJi; dtcnftvc, «<|uai 

iU. V. a. 

To c • 


t^ 1, (jn). The 

l^-Tf cr or power of 

'1 .n. v.. a, 

C ^omoQ- 

C/irtft, k4'pur, i. (^ft)* A ktlfh Of 

Cap* A, kVpi^T, V ' picUc 

{•lint fTTAWt (P the i>oirth oi Frmcr, itif 
*ttil» Arc pwklcti {[If c^tijig* 
fo CArm. i.4'pi>r. v, ti. To Jjuoce 
ftclkkitimirlj- 1 tw 9u^ for ai«ifiin€Ol» 

Cafsriri ki4 piV-riJir* s. iSfll- A 


CAft^ii, Ici'p^iU. t. (aS)* A writ 

^^ of ctctttliAil* 

Capjvi AtfOHHt k*ip-pil4A%6i* A. 

Thr ffiiic wiJ^h ir»pill4ry. 
C A f 1 1 L Ji 1 1I ir , ka{j-piWl re'- «* Sjrtip 

of mjiidcnhiiif . 
CAflLtAwUNTt It^-pUii fn^nt, I. 

$111 aO thttad4t>r kiim whkh gri^w up in ihc 

middle iifi flow«r» 
C^pitLAiY* KA|upU1i-Td- t. Rcfcni' 

blmg haif9» fmili» minute* 
CAPit^ATio^. kdp^pil U'Mn. V. A 

fiTiAll raroifitiitjon of vcfTLl** 
CAnxAi,, kip^^44L a. fH8). Rebt. 

ing to the htaJ ; rrkimil in tbr hi|i!v*!ft 
degree; th*t which ;iffL-di life; Lhief. prin- 

wfilifn . hookti 

Cafital* Kip'<^ i^K s~Thc upper 

pan of |»i1bf ; tlie chtef dt^ nf a UJitiori* 
Capitaliv, klp'^ taJ4t^/ ad, to a 

tmiaX munficf, fo •« 10 aiff«^ liic^ «* €>!«• 

tally cnnvitfted* 

merAtitin Ijy Kca«Iw 
CAriruLAi^ ki-pUdi'M-bjr. s (88). 

TJve twidy of the (litttic* of a chapter \ u 

Tticmljcr of a ehaptcf 4*j)» 
ToCapitulatf, k4*pitiH'ii4ifc.(5iO* 

"T. n* To draw up atiy thtuje in t»«ad» or 

articici I to field or furteoder on ctn*ia 


CAiTTULATtON, k^-pltfhHi-U'Ma. f- 

Self uUtion, term^ cgndkinDt* 
Capivx riiEfcf ki jM^'vc trfi6* s. A 

balfijm tree. 
Capok, btpn. s. (405) {170) A 


Caponkierki k4p*p6n-TiMr', t. A 
covered lodgmcflt, encompalT^d witt 1 tiEiie 

CAfOTt k^^ik** s, I^ when one par- 
ty mm Sill \h€ trkki of c*rd» at the gituc 
of Piquet- 

CAFuictj k4-pr<^^iV. or kdp'rfiic 
FrtiU* ^iicf » whtjn. 




^Thc firft manner of prononncing this word 
is the nioft eftabliflied ; but the fecond does 
not want its patron*. Thus Dr. Young, in 
his Love tf fame : 

«* *Tis true great fortanes fome great men con- 
fer ; 

" But often ev*n in doing right, they err : 

** Vtom ca/triegf not f|om choice, their favours 

'• They give, but think it toil to know to 

a. Whimfi- 


L^. j 



Capricious, ki-prifti'iis 

tal, fanciful. 
Capriciouslv, ki-prifh'As-W. 

Cafriciousness, IcA-prifli'ds-n^s 

Humouft wbimficailnefs. 
Capricorn, kap'pid* kom. s. One of 

the figns of the zodiack, the winter folftice. 
Capriole, kSp-;^.6le'. s. Capriojes 

are leaps, fuch as horfes make in one and 

the fame place, without advancing forward. 
Capstan, kap'ftan. s A cylinder with 

levers to wind up any great weight. 
Capsular, k^p (hifi-lar. (452). 
Capsulary, kkp'fhiL-lir-^, 

HoUew like a cheft. 
Capsulate, k^p'M lite. 
Capsulated kSp M.U.t^ 

cfofedy or iiM^box. 
Captaim, klp'tln. s. (208). A 

eommander ; the commander of a company 
' in a regiment $ the chief commander of a 

ftip ; Captain General, the general or com- 

mander in chief of an army. 
Captainry, kAp'tm r4. 8. llicpower 

over a certain diftria^ the chieftainfliip. 
Captainship, kitp'tm.fhJp. s. The 

rank or poft of a captain ; the condition or 

poft of a chief commander. 
Captation, kap.tA'lb^n. 5. Thepiac- 

ttce of catching favour. 
Caption, k&p'iKdn.s. The aftoftak- 

11^ any perfon. 
Captiou$, k-Ap'Ms. a. (JI4). Given 

tocavils,eager toobjed ; inl]dious,enfnaring. 
Captiously, klp'(hul-U. ad. With an 

inclination to objed. ^ ' 

Captiousness, kip'flidtn^s. s. Incli- 
. nation to objeA ; peeviihnefs. 
To Captivate, kdp't^.ydte. v. a. To 
take prifoncr, to bring into bondage; to 
charm, to fubdue. 

CAptivation, k4p.t*.v4'flian, s. The 

w6t of taking one captive. 
Captivs, kftp'tiv. s. (140). One tak- 

di ID iNW ; one durmcd bj ^Bty. 

Fitc, ftr, fill, ftt ;---m^» m^t ;^irfne, pin ^^ 

Captivk, kilp'tW. a* Made prifiinerm 

Captivity, kHp-tlv'^t*. s. Subjeaion 
by the fate of war, bondoige; flavcry, iervi* 
tude. » . 1. 

Captor, kSp'tfir. s. (<66). He that 
takes a prifoner, or a prise. 

Capture, k^p'tlhAre. ,3. (461}. The 
ad or pradice of taking any thing; a 

Capuchin* kip*ia-(h££n'. 8. (ilj). A 
female garment, confiding of a eloak AnJ 
hood, made in imitauoB of the dreia of 
capuchin mookjk 

Car, kir. s. ,78). A fmall carriage of 
burden ; chariot of war. 

Carabine, or Carbine, kix-blne'. s. 
A fmall fort of fire armi. 

(O* Dr. Afli, Bailey, W. JohnfioD,£ntick,»Qd 
Buchanan, accent Carabine on the lafi fylla^ 
ble, and Dr. Jobnfon and Mr. Perry on the 
firft ; while Mr. Sheridan, Dr. Afli, Bu- 
chanan, Hr, Johnfon, and Bailey, accent 
Carhini on the feft: but Mr. Scott, Entick, 
I'erry, and Kenrick, nEiore properly on the 
laft. Thercafon is, that if we accent Car* 
hiMt on the firft fyllable, the laft otight, ac« 
cording to analogy, to have the / ihort; hoc 
a9 the i 18 always long, the accent ought to 
be OB the laft fyllable (140}. 
Carbinier k&r- bd-n^dr'. s. A fort of 

light horfemao. '^' 

Carack, kir'kk. s. A large flitpof 
bnrden, galleon. 

four gralnit; a manner of cspreffiog the 

finends of gold. 
Caravak. kdr'&^vdn s. (524). Atfoop 

or body of merchants en* pilgrims. 
Caravansary kdr-4>van'sil-rt. s. A 

koofe built for the reception of trsvellera. 
CAKAWAY,kdr^*wA* s. A plant. 
Carbonado, kiT-b6-n&M6. s. .(92). 

Meat cut acrofs to be broiled (77). 
ToCarbonad', k^r-b6M'd&. v. a. 

To cut or hack — Sec LvjidBAOo. 
CarbukclEi kir'bx'^nk-kl. s. (40J). /^ 

jewel Ihining in the dark ; ttA i^t or pim- 

Carbon cLEn, kar1>5iik-kld. a. Set 

with carbuncles ; fpotted, deformed with 

pimples v36a). * 
Oarbuncolar, Ur-bftng'kft-Hr. a. 

Red like a carbuncle. 
CARBuNctTLATiok, kir*bi5ng-kft-l&'» 

fli An • s The blafti^g 6t young bud% 

I7 heat or cold. 




^a6^ mirc^ ndr» ii&t|«^i»lftbet tAb, 

CAttAjA-r, Idhr^Idirn^t. s. A cbain or 

C9&V of jewels. 
Caecas* k^kds. s. (92). A <fead 

bodjrof an aiUBil; the deesTed |Mit« of 
* MOf tfaangr ; the- maki psf ts, without ctrni- 

pfetion cr onwnwit ; ia gttoncryYaluiidof 

CAnctLAGEf ULr^s^-Udje* . s« (90) 

Cabd, k4rd. s. (92). A paper painted 

wkto fii|geni» w£eA ni gmet ^ tw p^'cr en 

wiiidi the frvent points of the compafr are 

narked under the . manpcr't accdle ; the 

infinunent with which wool m combed. 
ToC^B.D»kiLTd. V. a. To comb wool. 
CA1.11AICOMOM, ThU'wordis commonly 

pronotinced Utf'dlb-mi&m. s. A ihe- 

Carder, kir^dfir. s, (98). One thai 

cArdi wool ; one that pJayj miich at cards. 
Caroi ACAL, kAr-dVi'W* } n ^' ^ 
Caawaci, kkr'dMLk. S ^•^'''■*^^' 

faa^'viiif the ^ftoliry of iaWgoratnig, 
Cakdiwai.* kJtr'd^nil. a. (88 j. Prin- 

opal, chief. 
Cardivai., kVd&ndl. s. One of the 

chief g ot efwas of the diarchy 
Caaoivalati, Hr'd^-n&-Ute 7 
Caboimalshif, Hr'dA-na.ihip. J ^' 

Caaow ATCH9 kird'in4dh. s. A match 

itade hj d^ppingapiece of acard inmeked 

l»%ilnir ; apatty at cards. 
Care, kAre s. Solicicude, anxiety, con- 
cern ; eautHm ; regjml, charge heed 10 or 

da to ipeeferfatioii; the ohj^ of care, or 

To Car I, k-Arc. t, n. To be anxious 

or jblkttoiis, to he inclined, to be difpofed ; 

to he a^eScd with. 
Carrcr\z£d, iare'krdzd. a. (359). 

Brokea wkh care ind folidtude. 
To^n'. T. a. To caulk, 

to ftop i2p kado. 
Caaeer, IdrMi^. 8. The ground on 

wlucharacekrao; a conrfe, a race ; full 

Ipeed, fwift modoa ; conrie of adiOR. 
ToCarxer, ki-ri^r'. v. n. To run with 

fwift motion. 
Careful. kare'fM. a. Anxious, folici- 

tooa, IjbII of concern ; prorident, diligent, 

cautioaa ; watchful. 
CARRfvLtY, ki^rc'ftU^. ad. In a 

mama that Ihows care ; hecdiully, watch- 

CAR8YVL!fiss,Mre'f&l.n£f. s» Vigi- 

bUl ;*«-&ll ;>— p^^nd :*-/Mn, this. 

Carelessly, kAreldf-W. ad. 'Negli- 
gently, heedlefaly. 

Cakklrssness, kirel^f-nds. s. Heed- 
leffnefs, inattention. 

Carh.ess, kure'lds. a. Without oire, 
without folicitude, unconcerned, negligent, 
heedlefs, cnmindful, chccrfui, undi/lurbed ; 
nnmoYcd byjunconcoriicd at. 

To CARf 6s, kd-r^s'. v. a. To endear, 
to limdic. 

Caress, ki'rSs. s. An slA of endear- 

Caret, ki'r^t. s. A not^ which (hew* 
where ibmething interlined Iboitid be read, 
a» A* 

Cargo, kir'gi. s. Tbt ladbg of a 


Caricature, kir-iV.i,tfl-6re'. (461), 

{Jr This word, though not in Johnfon, I have 
not fcrupled to infcrtjfrom us frequent aiid 
legitimate ufagc. Baretti tells ur, that the 
literal fenfe of this word is certa guaaiita di 
mmiinwiu cbej! $Mttte ntlT arcbibufo 9 ahrv^ 
which, in Engliih, fignifies the charge of a 
gun : but its metaphorical fignification, and 
the only one in which the Ecghfb ufe it, is, 
as he tells as, dUbifi atuhe di ritraiU ridUolo in 
cut finfi grandtminte actrefdute i dijetti^ whcR 
applied to paintings, chiefly portraits, that 
heightening of fome features and kywering 
others, which we call in £ngli/h OTercharg^ 
ing, and which will make a very ugly picf 
tuf e, not unlike a handfome pcrfbn : whence 
any exaggerated oharaaer, which is redun^ 
dant in fome of its patu, and defedire ia 
others, is called a Caricature. 

Caries. k4'rd-iz. s. (99). Rottennefi. 

Cariosity, k4-r^-us it^. Rottcnnels. 

Carious, k4'r*-rts. a. (314). Rotten. 

Cark, kirk. s. Care, anxiety. 

To Ca« k, kirk. V. n. To be carcfulj 
to be ansious. 

Carle, k4rl s. A rude, brutal man, 

Car line Thistle, kir-line-Mis'fl. s, 
A plant. 

CARLiNCs,kir11ng«.s. In a (hip, tim- 
bers lying fore alid aft. 

Carman, kir'man.'s. (RR). A mati 
whofe employment it is to drive cars. 

CARMRLiTfe,'m^-lite. «. (156'. A 
fort of pear; one of the (vdcr of White 

Capminatiye, k^r-min't-tiy. tf. Car- 
minatiYes are fuch things asdifpel wind and 
promote inlcn(&ble peripiration. 

CARMiNATivk, kLr.roin'4-tJv. a. Bc- 
lo^giog t9 €annijiatfyca<i^7). 




C> (559)— ^^tc, ftr, fill. 

Car MINK, Icir-mine'. s. A powder of 

a bright red or crimfon colour. 
t2r Dr. Johnfon, Sheridati, Aih, and Simdi, 

accent this ord on the fixft fyllable ; but 

Mr. rtares. Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Scott, Perry, 

Bochanan, and Entick, more properly on the 

iaft :— for the reafoil, fee C ARBf nb. 
Carnage* kdr'nidje. s. •,90.1. Slaugh- 

ttti havock ; heapi of fleih. 
Carnal, kAr'nAl a. (88). Flefliiy, not 

fptritual ; luftlnl, lecherous. 
Carnalitv, kcir-nil^6-t6. s. Flefiily 

Inft ; groflkeft of mind. 
Carnally, kcLr'n:llU ad. According 

to the fiefli, not fpiritnaUy. 
Carnaln i* s8, kdr'a^l-n^s. s. Csirnality. 
Carnation, k&r-ni'flidn. s.Thename 

of the natiiral fleih colour. 
Carnslion kir>nile'yAn s. (113). A 

^eciou ftone, more commonly written and 

pronomiced ComeSam, 
Carmeous, k4r'nd-fls. a. Flefliy. 
To Carnifv, kilr'n^-fl. v. n. To breed 

Carnival, kir'n^-vil. s. The fcaft 

held tn Roman Catholic countries before 

CARNiTOROus,kir*nlvV&-r^s.a. Flefli- 

oting (ji8.) 
Carnosity, k&r-n&s's^-t^. s. Flefliy 

Carnous, k^r'nfts. a. (314). Fleihy. 
CaroB) k4-r6b'. s. A plant. 
Carol, k&'riiK s. (166.) ATong of 

joy and exultation ;fong of devotion. 
To Carol, k&r'r&l. v. n. To fmg, lo 

To Carol, k&r'r^L v. a. To praife, to 

Carotid, ki-r6t'ld. a. Two arteries 

whife ariie out of the afcending trunk of 

the aorta. 
Carousal, k&-r6A'da. s. (88). A fcf- 

To Carouse, U-rddz^ v. n* To drink, 

to quaff. 
To Carouse* k4-r6&z'. v. a. To drink. 
Carousir, k&.r^&'zdr'. s. (98). A 

drinker,a toper. 
Carp, kkrp. s. A pond fi(h. 
To Carf, k&rp» ▼. n. Toccnfure, to 

Carprktsr, k&r^pte-tAr. $.(98)* An 

artificer in wood. 
Carpentry, k&r'pte-tr^. s. The trade 

«f a carpenter. 
CARPKRy kir'pdr* i. (98). A cavilkr* 

Bt ;— 4iid» mil ;^-^hie, pin ;«^ 

Carpet* k&r-plt. s. (99). Aqovertng 

of various colours ; ground vRfifgated with 

flowers; to be on the cafpet,iftobethc 

fabjed of coniideratiott. 
To Carpet, kir'pit. ▼• a. To fprea^ 

with carpets^ 
Carping, k&r'ping. part, au (410). 

Capticras, oenforius. 
C A H F I N G l Y, k^^ping-1^. ad . Captioui^ 

ly» ceororioufly. 
Carriage, kdr^ridje. s. (90), llie a(5l 

of carrying or tranfporting ; vehicle ; the 

frame upon which cannon is carried ; be- 

havioiir ; condudl ; manmment. 
Carrier, kAr'r^^r.s. One who carries 

fomething ; one whofe trade is to carry pi« 

geqns ; a mei&nger ; a fpecies of pigeons. 
Carrion, kar rd-Cin. s. (166}. The 

carcafs of fonethiog not proper for food ^ 

a name of reproach For a worthlcls woman ; 

any fleih fo corrupted as not to be fit for 

Carrion, kir'r^-^n. a. Relating to 

Carrot, kir'rftt. si {166). Garden 

Carroti-nRss, kir'rAt-^-nfis. s. Red- 

nefsof hair. 
Carroty, kar'rat-** a. Spoken of red 

To Carry, kir'rd. ▼. a. Tt) convey 

from a pkce $ to bear, to have about one 7 

to convey by force ; to eSc6^ any thing ; 

to behave, to condudl ; to bring forward ; 

to imply, to import; to fetch and bring, as 

dogs ; To carry off, to kill ; To carry on, 

to promote, to help forward ; To carry 

through, to fupport to the lafi. 
To Carry, kar'r^. v n. A horfe is laid 

to carry wdl, when his neck is arched, and 

he holds his head high. 
Cart, k^rt. s. (92) A wheel carriage, 

«M commonly for luggage ; the vdiicle io 

whidi aiminalsare carried to ezecutiioiL. 
To Cart, kart. v. a. To expofe in a 

To Cart, Hn. v. n. To nfe carts for 

Cart-horsb, k&rt'hdrfe. s. A coarie 

unwieldly horfe. 
Cart-load, kirt-lMe'. s. A quantity 

of any thing piled on a cart ; a ^ouitity fuf- 

fident to load a cart. 
Cartway, kirt'wA. $. A way throueh 

which a carriage may conveniently travel. 
Cart-blamche, k&rt-bl4nfh'. s. A 

blank paper, a paper, to be filled up with 

Xuch conditions as the parfon to vrhom it as 
fent thinks proper. 




— AJ^md^e, n^» o&t; t&be, tAb, 

Cajltzls U^r'tA. s. A wriiing con- 

tuaiog ftipolationf* 
CAtrKB, ki^r'tAr. s, (98). Tb^ man 

vfao dcives a cait* 
Cartilage, kir'ti-lMje, s. (90). A 

fiaooth md folui body, fofttr th»a » booe, 

hmtharda cbaa a ligunenc. 
Cartilagikeous, kibr'l^-li'JMi. 

ytis. (II3). 
Cartilagiiioi7s» k4r-t4*ttdj< 

n^s (5I4')- 
Canning oT cartOa^. 
CAiirooji» k&r-tWn'. ». Apawmiogor 

dn^mg upon large paper. 
CAKTOurH,ViT-ioAtlh'. s. A cafe of 
wood thiee inches tUd at tlte bottom, 
hoL^ng baUi. It u find oot of a hobit or 
fmal) mortar. 
CART.AGB, ?jy^trUjC. {90). J$. 

A cafe of paper or parchment filled with 

gwpowdcr, Qled for the greater ezpeditioo 

in cnarpi^ gana* 
Ca*t«.vt, kkrt'T&t. 5. The track made 

by a cart wHed. 
CA&TULAaT, kir'tftfi-tt-r*. s. (461) 

A place where pspen are kqit. 
CAK-nraiGHT, kirtVitc- 1. A maker of 

To CA»rfc, kkrv. v. a. To cut wood, 

eriZone; to cat meat at the table; to en- 

gfave ; to dioofe ooe'a own part. 
ToCsavK. kirv. V, n. To cxercife the 

trade of a fcnlptor ; to perform at table the 

office of fnpplt«og the compapy. 
CAavrR.K&rV^T 5.(98). A fculptor; 

he titat cau ap the neat at the table ; he 

that choaTes Ux him£elf. 
Cakvisg. kir'vbg. s* (410). Sculp- 

turCy.£^at!C% carred. 
Carwucle. kir''1ak-kU s. (405-) A 

teafl pcotidictaDce of fleih (81). 
C A8CADS , kif-kide'. s. A cataraa, a 

Case, kAJc. s. A covenng. a box, a 

Ibeash ; the onter part of a haufc ; a build* 

si^ unfitrnHhof* 
Casc-xnife, kilc'nife. s. A large kit- 

Cass-skot, kiic'Ih^t. s. Ballets cn- 

dofed in a caie. 
Casi, kife. s- Condition with teprd 

to ootward ciromifianfet ; ftate of things ; 

in phyiidt, jbte of the body ; condition with 

regard ta Wanne£i, or health ; contbgeoce ; 

qoeftiott rtbttnr to particiikr pcrfoat or 

ihingi; r^rdcautioQ of any qtieftion or 

bAIl V— ^U ;-«-p6{iQd i-^hxa^ this. 

fiate of the body, mind, or affiibn ; the ira^ 
riation of nount i lo caft, if it fluwld hap^ 

To Cass, kilfe. v. a. To put in a cafe 
or cover ; to ovnt «s acafie \ toftrip off the 

To CASENARDBNykilfeli&r-dn.v.a. To 
hatden on the otttfide. 

Casematb, k:ife'm4te. s. A kind of 
▼aolt or arch of fione-work. 

CAS£iitcNT,k^ze'm£nt s. A vrindow 
opening upon hinges. 

Caseworm. k^iVwArm. s. A grab 
that makes itfelf a cafe. 

Cash, kalb. s. Money^ rieady monef. 

CASH-^EEPf a, k&ih'k^^p-(^. & A man 
cntrafted with the money. 

Cashkwnut, ka-(h^5'n&t. s. A tree. 

Cashier, ki-ft^^'. s (275). He 
that has charge of th^ mcuey. 

To Cashier, ki-fh^r'. v. a. To dif- 
card, to difinififrom a poft. 

Cask, klfk. s. A barrel. 

Casc^ue, k4fk. s. (415). A helmet, 
armour for the head. 

CAs*BT»kas'kit. $. (96). Afmallbox 
Off cheft for jewels. 

To Cassate, kls'sdtc, t. a. (91). To 
vacate, to invalidate. 

Cassation, k^-siL'fhAn s. A making 
null or void. 


can plant* 

Casma, UiWMA. s» 
nKntiouedby Mofcs, 

Cassiowary kalVihi-^wdrfi. s. A 
large bird of prey* 

Cassock, k4s's6k. s. (166). A dofe 

Cassweed, kds'w^M. s. Shepherd** 

To CASTjkdft. V a. (79), To throw 
with the hand; to darow away, as ufele£i 
or noxious ; to throw dice, or lots ; to thrvw 
in wreftling ; to throw a net or fnare ; t« 
drive by violence of weather ; to leave be- 
hind in race ; to ihed, to let fall, to mouk ; 
to lay afide, as fit to be worn no longer ; to 
ovcrweigh, to n»ke to preponderate, to de- 
cide by overbalancing ; to compute, to reck- 
on, to calculate ; to contrive, to plan out ; to 
fix the parts in a play ; to dired the eye ; 
to form a oaould ; to model, to form ; To 
caft away, to Ihipwreck ; to wafte in profu- 
fion ; to ruin ; To caft down, to deje^, to 
dcprcfs the mind; to caft off, to difcard,to 
diflmrdeo one's felf ; to leave behind •, To 

y * f \ li r *• An Amen- 
A fwect fpicc 




80* (559) — FAte, ar, fill, fdt ;~-m^ mit ;— pine, pto;-,- 



Gift out, to turn oat of doors; to vent, to 
ipeak ; To caft up, to compute, to calcu- 
late ; to vomit. 

To Cast, kift. v. n. (92). To con- 
eriV^ to turn the thoughts to ; to admit of 
a form by cafting or melting; to waq>, to 
grow out of form. 

Cast, k4ft. s. The aft of cafting or 
throwing, a throw; ftate of any thing eaft 
or thrown ; a ftroke, a touch ; motion of 
the eye ; the throw of dice ; chaqce from 
the caft of dice ; a mould, a form ; a fhade, 
or tendency to any colour ; exterior ap- 
pearance ; manner, air, mien ; a flight of 

Castanet, kls'td ndt. s. Small fhells 
of ivory, or hatd wood, which dancers rat- 
tle in their hands. 

Castaway, kds'idwi. s Apcrfonloft, 
or abandoned by providence. 

Castcllin, kds-tilTin. 

Castkllaik, kis't^lUae, 

Caster, kAs'tfir, s. A thrower, he 
that cafts; a calculator, a man that calcu- 
lates fortunes. 

To CAirroATE, kSs't^-gAte. v. a. 
(91). To chaftifc, to chaften, to punifh. 

Castigation, kls-te gA'fli4n. s. Pen* 
ance, difcipline; puni&ment, correftion; 

Castigatory, kas't^.g&-tdr-^. a. 
Punitive (514). 

Casti L E Soap, kds't^6l-s6pe. s. A kind 
of foat>. 

CA8TiN0-!fET,kisYingii^t. s. A net 
to be thrown into the water by hand to 
catch 6ih. 

Castle, kls'fl. s. (472); A houfe for- 
tified^ Cai^Iesin the air, proje^s witjiout 

Castled, kds'fld. a. (405) (472). 
Fumiflied with caftlcs. 

Castling, kittling, s. An abor- 

Castor, kis'tAr. s. (98). A beaver. 

Ca stor eu m . kif-t&'r^-Am. s In phar- 
macy, a liquid matter endofed in bags or 
purfes, near the anus of the cafior, faliely 
taken for hb tefticles. 


s. The art or pradice of encamping. 
To Castrate, kas'trdte. v, a. To 

geld ; to take away the ohfceoe pans of a 

Castration, kis-trA'fhto. 5. The aft 

of gcldidg. 

I kls'tril. 15.(99). 


mean-or degenerate kind of hawk. 

Castremsian, kif-crdn'lh^4n. s. Be« 
longing to a camp. 

Casual, k&zh'a4}. a. (451) (453). 
Accidental, ariiing from chance. 

Casually kizh'u41-l(&. ad. Accident-- 
ally, without deiign. 

Casualnebs, kizh'{i41*n&. s. Acct- 

Casualty kizh'A-Al^t^. (• Accident^ 
a thing happening by chance. 

Casuist, kizh'tL-Mk. s. One that du- 
dies and fettles cafes of confcience. 

Casuistical, kizh-Ck-ls'ti-k&l. a. Re- 
lating to cafes of confcience. 

Casuistry, klzh'Ws-trd.B. ITie fci- 
ence of a caibift. 

CATnkAt s. A domeftick animal that 
catches mice. 

Cat, kit. s. A fort of ftitp. 

Cat-o'-nine-tails, kit-^Unine'tUz. s. 
(8S). A whip with nine laflics. 

Catachresis, klt-i kr^'sls. s. (^20). 
The abufe of a trope, when the words are 
too far wrefted from their native fignifica- 
txon ; as a voice beautiful to the ear. 

CATACHRESTicAL,k4t4-krds't£.kAl. a. 
Forced, far fetched. 

Cataclysm, kit'i-kllzm. s. Ad.lBgc 
an iuundatioo. 

Catacombs, kdt'i-komz. $. Subter- 
raneous cavities for the burial of the dead. 

Catalepsjs, kit &-l^pVis. s. A.difeafe 
wherein the patient is without (cafe, and re- 
mains in the £une poftnre in vrfaich the dif * 
eafe feized him. 

Catalogue, kAt'&46g. s. (338). An 
enumeration of particulars, a lift. 

CATAMouNTAiN.ku.t-d'in6An'tln. b. A 
fierce auimal refembling a cat. 

Catafuact, kit'&-frakc. s. A horfew 
man in complete armour. 

Cataplasm, kit'a-pULzm. s. A poul- 

Catapult, kit'a-pfth. $. (489). An 
engine ufed anciently to throw fttfoes. 

Cataract, kSt'd-rikt. s. A fall of 
water from on high, a cafcade. 

Cataract, kat'd-rakt. s. An infpifla- 
tion of the cryftalline humour of the eye ; 
ibmetimcs a pellicle that hinders the light. ' 

Catarrh, kk-t&i'. b. A defluaion of 
a iharp ferum from the glands about the 
httd and throat. 



C At 

iacfstj^ to tht cmittrh, ^rocf <«liDg fruin & cs^ 

C' -r<^ 5. The 




- ^ ^9), To Uy 

• 'n\iit -^ lit 
, to <fi- 

Jy J to 
io pkdc, to 

'(I onlvrrfiiflj pronoim- 

A«^^^^ hff4ittdfi^^^Smi^, to be tvold 

f. n. TobecoAtagi- 

. the ^ft af 
Uyi along 
c ipoftiire of 

r cotitAgion ; any 

C\T - '?!rt!i3! catches; 
Cat— kiift'pAU. s. A f«j«am, 

^ 1 

C\ ^'- 

'-'---:^ '- T^--'-'^.f 

Vk r, 

Cu- : . . .... 

C .1 T L . ^^ r T. C A 

: To, 

,^,.U'm; to 

.. (i^«). 

CAri -;^,^^, 

:„a;:^, ;. A form ©f 

charts i* f'j au j*i<3n the uniiiili>i<ftcd «ock 

Ca iv ^4i-f-ki'men* i. One 

- yn m the firft rudiment* ^ ChiiJU- 

■ .i©i). 
CATiCMUmixtCAL, min'^* 

^•f ^1 (509 J. i :^ ,^r 10 J,e 

Cat fnoRicALtv, Ui4-g^'^.kil ^,iA 

Cat? OUR V, kiit'l^6r * s. A claf*, sn 

r^Jik, nu order of idrit, |iredicarm-nt« 
CATfc>rAitiAH,kAt.^*i;i't^.4n. ik, Kch\* 

ing to a cham, 

ToCatenat*!, kit'^-n^te. ?. a. To 
CATimATiOK, k4t4.B4'fliAiw •* LwOc, 

To Cat Ik, k^'tur^ v. a* £98), To pro- 
vide fo&rf, 1^ hny IB vifltiftU. 

Catk*, kilter, s. l*he four of eir4£ 

Cat** ecu Jin, ki't6r-k^t-$it. s. A 
petty fji^opntCi one rcbud bf bbod or 
mind« , 

Cater I Rj ia'liir*^r. *♦ A purveyor. 

CAriiuss, k4'tiir*rds 1. A woman 

employed to prnviik TiauaU. 

CATFft FILL ATI, k^t'tur-iil-liV. s. A 

worm fiiftajned by Jcarc* wid Imiit; a pLaot. 
To Catkhwaci.» klt't^r-w.WL v n- 

To nijlkt 1 noiic ^^ cats in ruttinsr Uta< ; 
to make aijy offcnlive or ^dtoua ooile* 

Cat££, k4tes« 3. Vbnds, too J, 4\{k 

of me:^» 
Catfish, kilt'fUll, s. A fea fifh iinfac 

CATMAftTiCAt, H^lkr'ii'lM. \ 
CjiTftARTiCK, ki-lMr'tik. J^' 

CATHAitTICItt k^.f/j^'tlk, S, (509). A 

iTtedictne to purge downward. 

CATHAfLTtCALMSSf ki'/iir't^k^- 

n<!i. s, Ftirging qtldhjr 

CATWEAo,k=*t'hed &. Iti a flrip, a piece 
t»f timber wiib two (hiTcn tt one tnd, hav- 
ui^ a rope and a block ; 1 kind of fof$t. 

Cathedral, U.^^'dr^ a, (88). 
Epifcf^pRl, totitamUig the ke nf « biIhop-| 
belonging to ta epLfcdpal clmrdi* 

CAT**Er>nAL, ki-zMMrlli:. tS5), Th0 
head church of t diiK^fc^ 

C A V 


G A U 

cO". (S59) — Fite, fir, fUJ-, Et ;-^m*, ittdt f*— pine pin^ 

Catherine-pear» k5/i&-ilir-ria-p4re'« s. 

An inferior kind of pear. 
^This proper name ought to be written 

witli as a in the fccondfy liable inftead of ^, 
~'as it coiiie:) ff om the Greek K»ixpo>> figoi- 

eATHETEfe,ki/W-tAr. s. (9^)' A hol- 
** low and fomcwBat erookcd inilnimciit to 

.thruft into the. bladder, t^aflillr ifi bringing 

away the urine wfaen^che paflage is flopped. 
G/iT>iOLFi..,kat'h6l/. s. fii afli'ip,two 

little holesaftem abovathe gutt rpoikipdrts. 
OA^TH^LicisWi R;^*-/^*r^ sizm. s. Ad-' 

herence. to t^e Catholick Church. 
dATfirtLieic, lc^A'6-lik.'a;- URiverfal 

or general. 

GATHOLfcoN, k4-/^6r6^k6ii;' s* An' 

univeH^I mtdicitie,' 
CAf kInS, kat'klnu.^. Imperfect flow- 
ers hanging from tree^, 10 mannerof a rope 
' or cat'^-t^jL . . 
Catling, klitllng s A.difniembcfing 

•kbiii, ufedby fyrgeens;. catgut,fiddlc^f ifigs. 
Catmikt, kat'minc. ». A plant. 
CAfkiPtRrcAt, Mt-6p'tr5-Ml. a* -Re"' 

latiog til the catoptrjcks, or vH^ott by reflect 
. tioiu 1 - ' • 

CitToPTRiCKs, kdt-op'trlks. -s. Thkt 
'* part of dpttd^s which 4X6atft of ^oa by fe. 

flexion. ■ , 
Cat PIPE, kat'pipe. s. Catcaf. 
Cat's- BYB, kits'i. s. A ftonc, 
CatVfoot, kdts'fiit. s. Alehoof. 
Cat*s-head, kdts'h^d: 4- A kind o£ 

CAT^iLypR, kit'sll-viir. s. (98). A 

kind of fofli>. • 
CiT's-TAit. kdts'tdlc. s. A longrouiid 

iubftance that grows upon nut trees ; a kind 

Catsup^ univerfally pmnonnced 

k£tfh'dp. s/ A kind of pickle. . 
Cattle,. kk'tl. s. (405), Beafts of 

yadure, not wUd nor don^euick* 
CAvALCADE/kiiv dl-Vide'. s. (524}. 

A proceilion on horfcback. ' 
Cavalikr. t:av4-lWr. s. '(275). A 

horfeman, a knighr; a gay, fprightly milita- 
ry man ; the appellation of the pa^ty of King 

Charles the Firft. 
Cavaler, k5v-i4^6r'. a. Gay, 

%r^htly, warlike ; generou*, brave; >dtl- 

dainful, haughty. 
Cavalierly, kiy l*1^^r'l^. ad. 

Hauglitilyi arrogantly, dildainfuUy. 
Cavalry, k\ril-r*. Horfe troops. 
To Catati, kk'ritc. v. a. To hollow. 

Cavaziok, ki-yi'^ihAn. s. Tie hollow^ 

ing of the earth for cellarage 
Caudle, kiw'dl. s. {405> A mixture 

of wine and other -ihgredients, given to wo-- 

men in childbed. ^ . 

Cave, k^v^. s. AcsivcjrQt, SLsHen ; a 

hollow, any hollow place. 
CAyRAT,.ki'v^-it. Sv A caveat is an 

intimation given to fonte ^^orduiary or co 

def^aftical judge, noti(yiBg,to him, th^ he 

ought to beware howiie a As. • 
Caver.k, kiv'iirn, s, (555 J-^ A hollow 

pUce in t^ ground. • • . 
CAviiRNFD,Hv'ilrnd. a. (jj6i). Foil 

of.cavcmsi hoUoWy. excavated; i&habitUi|^ 

a cavern. 
Cavernous, k&v'6r-ni\s. a. (sST)* 

. FuU of csMtnA > • 
Gavesson. k4v'6f fi'^n. s. (9«). A fort 

of nofcband ibr'a-fiorffc. . 
CAUFi khvff. 5. A cfieft with holes, to 

kifcp fifti alfvc in the water. 
Caught, kWt. (213) (393). Part. 

paf^. from To catch* i 

Caviare, kirv^^. $. The. eggs of a 

flprgcVn falted.^ , 
0- Either the fpcUing or, the pcofi\iBciaci«R 
yti this ji¥Qrd (bould ht ateeced . we hfRV no 

inflance in the language of fottOilNig mrr, 
< ^re A the^anei^rfpelliflg fum» to haw boeti 

Caviare ; tHongh Buchanan-, and Bailey, in 

compliaiiee wi^ the pronunciation, fpcU it 
, ^avf^r, and' W. Johnfton CatAMr; and A&i, 
' - as a lef8ufual-fpelling,C<rp/rr .- but theDii:- 

' tionary De la Crufca fpells it CaviaU* 
.1*0 Cavil, k-Av'lKv.n. (159). Toraifc 

:captious and frivolous olpije^ons. 
To C^viL,yLv'il. V. a. To receive or 

treat ;with objeAionsv 
CAviLt kav^iL s. A falle or frivolous 

Cavillation. k^v-lUA'Atiii. f . The 

dii^fition to make captious objedlons* 
Caviller, kdv^vU^Ar «. Aftttn£ur 

adverfiuy, a captious di^utant;^ ' 
Cavellihgly. kiv^U'ling*!^. ad. la a 

cavilHng manner. 
CAVfLLOvsyklLv' a. Fnllofob- 

Cavity .kAv'^^^. s» (511). Hollow- 

Be(s,. hollow. 
Cauk, kiiwk. », A cearfe talfcy fpar. 
Caifl, kk^l. s. The net in which wo- 
men enclofe their hair, the hinder port of a 

woman's cap; any kind of fihall net ; the 

bcegumeiit in ^N^ich the guts are enclofed ; 

a thin membrane enclo&ig (hcliead of ibac 

childrea when bora. 



C E L 

^^, mSfv^y ndr, nftti-^ifae, tAb, biifl ;— 411 ;— pifand :— /^in, th 


tcfm for fsch plants aw hare a true fttlk. 
CiVLIFLCyWER, k611^-flA4-dT. 8. A 
^MCICS Ok CwiM^C* 

Causablb, kiw'z4-W. a. (405). That 
wfaidnnar be caoftd. 

€avsal> K&w'dQ. a. Relating to 

CAvsAbiTY, k^w-zdre-t£. s. The 
ageuy of a canie, the quality «f caflfing. 

Causatiom, kiw-z4'thAn; s. Ihe 
aft or power df cas6og. 

Cavsati7e, kiw'zi-tlv. a. (iy7) 
Thai exprdTes a caide or reafoa. 

CAvsAToii,k^w-zVt{l^r. s. {s^i}> A 
caafw ; an aachor (98)* 

Cause^ kiwx s. That which produces i 
orefiefts aoy thing, ilie efficient; the rea- 
foa, modye to aoj thing; fabjed of Uttga- 
ctoo; party. 

To Cause, kkwz. y. a. To effeA as an 

CAfjs£LESsi.T, kkwzliiC'U. ad. With- 
out canie, withottt rcaibn. 

Cavscliss, kavrz'l^s. a. Original to 
iiielf ; withont joft ground or motive. 

CAUSft, kaVz^^r. s. 98). He that 
canfis, the agent bf which an eSEeA ia pro* 

Caused, > k&w'z^. ? s A way 

sailed and pared above the reft of the 
^ Dr. Jcdodbn tcOa ua, tl^t this word, hf a 
bi£c noboo of iuetymobgyihaa been lately 
writtea camfewty. It ia derived from the 
Trench ebamssie. In the Scripture we find 
It wrtttcn caauy, 

'* To Shnpptm the lot came forth weftward 

** hy the caify. — i Cbron, xxvi. 16. 

Bat Miltoo, Drydcn, and Pope, write it mi^ 

. 'wmj ; and thefe anthoritics feem to have 

filed the proonnciatjon. This wordi from 

itsmiibJKA etymology, may rank with Laif 

«fnv— which fee. 

CausVical fcaw^'t^-kil. ?^,B,i 
Caustick. kiws'tlk. > . . 
ing to mcdkameots which, by their violent 

^Aivttj and heat, deftioy the texture of the 

part to whidi they are applied, and bum it 

into an efchar. 
CAt;sricic,kiws'tlk. s. Acaoftickor 

bormng application. 
CA«TiL,kaw'tSl «. Caution,' fcrnple. 
CAOTtLOus, kiw'td-tiks. a. Cautious, 

wary •, wily, cunning. 
Ca u telous l y, kiw^fA-lftf-1*. ad. Cun- 

Jiingiy, £ly, ^rautiouily, w^ily. 

Cautehixation, kiw-turr^zl'fh&n. 
s. The a6l of burning with hot irons. 

To Cauterize Wiw tar-ize. v. a. To 
burn with the cautery. 

Cauterit, kaw'tiir-r6. s. (5?^) Cau- 
tery .is either a&ual or potential ; the firft 
is burning hy a hot iron, and the latter with 
cauftick medicincii. 

Cautioh. kiw'l^l'!n. s Pnidencc, fore^ 
fight, warinefs; provifiooary precept ; warn- 
: To Caution, kWfh^n. v. a. To 

warn, to give notice of a danger. 
' Cautiomary, kiw'lhrtn-4-rd'. a. Givei^ 
-as a pledge, or in fecurity. 

Cautious, ki\^'flnls. a. (292). Wary, 

Cau nousLY, kiw'ihdf-!^. ad. In a 
wary manner. 

CAunousNESSt k4w'{hii5-nd9. s. 
Watch fulnefs, vigilance, circumfpc^oo. 

ToCAw,kiw. V. n. To cry as the rook, 
or crow. 

Cayman, kd'm^n. 6. (88). American 
alligator or crocodile. 

To Cease, fdfe. v n. To leave off, to 
ftop, to give over ; to fail, to be extind ; to 
be at an end. 

To CEASBif^fe. a. To put a ftop to. 

Cease, ftfe* s. ExtindioUy failure. 

Cfi ASK LESS, sdfelds. a. InccfTant, per- 
petual, continual. 

Cecity, sds'd-tfc. s. (503).'Brmdn^s, 
privation of fight. 

(j^ I have given the e in the firft iyllable of 
this word the fliort found, notwiHiftandhig 
the diphthong in the original C^citna ; being 
convinced of the fliortening power of the 
antepenultimate accent of thefe words 1 14) 
(5rx ; and of the pre-antcpenukimate ac- 
cent of Cenatory and Prefaicry* ' 

CECUTiENSY,sd-ku'lhd dn-sd. s. Clou- 
dinefs of fight. 

Cedar, sd'dAr. s. (88). A tree j the 
wood of Ehc cedar tree. 

To Cede, sdd*. v. a. To yield 5 tore- 
«fign ; to give up to another. *' 

Ckorine. sd'drine. a. (140). Of or be- 
longing to the cedar tree. 

To Ceil, s61e. v. a. To cover the in- 
ner roof of a building. ■ 

Ceiling, se'ling. s. The inner roof. 

CELANDINE) S^r^-dhlC, S. (149)' A 

Celatuee, sa'a-tfliurc. s. (461). Tlic 

art of engraving. 
To Celebrate, s^n^-biate. v- a. To 

C E If 



«*" (559)— '^*t«» ftr* fillf at >^in*, Di£t supine, plm \ 

jpraiie, to commend ; to dtftipgwih by ib^ 

lemn ritea ; to mention in a iet or folemn 

manner (91). 
Celebration, sdl«^-br4'(hftnL s. So- 
lemn performance, folemn remembrance ; 

praife, renown, memorial. 
Cklebri >u$» s^ l£'br^-ds. a. (505). 

Famous,' renowned. 
CKLBBar)USLY, s6 U'br^-dri^. aJ. In 

a famous manner. 
Cel£briousni:ss» s^ le'bri*ds-n6$. s. 

Renown, fame< 
Celebrity, s^Ub'briU. $. (511). 

Celebration, fame. • 
CELfeRiACK U'Wri'ik, a. Tumep- 

rooted celery. 
Celerity, sd-Wr'ri-t^. s. Bwiftncfs, 

CfcLfeRY s^rd-r^. s, A fpcciesof parf- 

ley ; corruptly pronoiinced Sax. art, 
Celesiial, s^-l^s :ih.ii. a. (271). 

Heayenly, relating to the fopcrior regions ; 

hearenly, related to the bleflcd date; hea- 

▼enly, with refped to excellence. 
Celestial, sM^sMWl s. (464). An 

inhabitant of heaven. 
Celfstiallv. sM^s'tlhU-ld. ^d* In 

a heavenly manner. 

To CELbSTIFY, S^-l^s'l*-fl. To givc 

fomething of a heavenly nature to anything. 

Cbliack. sd'ld-dk. a. Relating to the 
lower belly. 

Celibacy, s^V^*b4-s^. a. Single life 

Celibate, s^r^-blt. 8. (91). Single 

Cell> U\» s. a small cavity or hollow 
pilace; the cave or little habitation of a reli- 
gious perfon ; a fmall and dofe apartment 
\a apnfon ; any fmall place or refidence* 

Cellar, s^riiir. s. (>^8). A place un 
der ground, where ftorea are reported 
where liquors are kept. 

Cellarage. sSri^r-ilje. s. (90). Tlie 
part of chebuildiog, whidi makes the «el* 

Cellarist, s^lli^rld. s. (555). The 
butler in^a religions hovfe* 

Cellular* seriii-lHr. a. Confifting of 
Uttle cells or cavities. 

Celsituoe, sers^-tftde. Si Height. 

CiMBNT, s^m'mdnt. s. (49a). The 
matter with which two bodies are made to 
cohere ; hood of miioB in friendihip. 

CiM6NTATioN,s£m-^n*ti'ibAn s, Tls« 

Cemetery, sifern'mA-tir-^. a. A pUc# 

where the dead are repofinid* 
Cenatohv* sin'n4-t6i-i s, (505)* 

Relating to fapper.-^«-Sec CaciTV (JX%)' 
Cenoei r icAL, sen-no-bit'^-Wl. a. l-iv» 

tngin community (503). 
Cemotapw. sfin'6.taf. s Aipoaament 

for on^ eUewhere biiriodv 
Cense, fignfe. s PubFick rates* 
loCiNss, {^fe. V. a. To perfume 

with odoiva. 
Censer, f<gn'R^r. $. (98} The ^n m 

which incen(e is burned. 
Censor, fdnT6r. s (166). .\n of- 

ficer of Rome who had the power of cor* 

reding manoers \ one whp i> given to ecu* 

Ci Ns^RiAK. s^n-so'rMn. a* Relating 

to the ccnfor* 
Censorious^s^i s6'r6>iis. a. Addidked 

to cenfvre, fevf re. 
Censor I 'Usly* s4n-$6'ri<(^s-U« ad. In 

a fevere refle Aing manner. 
Censokio'jsnpss s^n- s&-iA-As*ii£$» s. 

pifpoiition to reproach. 
Cbn9'>hihip sc^ "^ir-Qiip. &• (l(S6}. 

The office of a cenfor. 
Ceksurablb, s^n'ihi\ rjl-bl. a. Wdr<- 

thy of cenfbre, culpable. 


Censure. s^n'Oiure. s (45a)- Blame* 

reprimand, reproach ; judgcmeiit, opiaiofi ; 

judicial fentcnce ; fpiritoal punifhmeat. 
To CENSURE, s^n'lhirc. . v. a. To 

bkme, to brand publickly ; to condutui. 
Censurer, s^n'fhur-i&r. s. H€ that 

ToCemrkt, s^-m^nt'. 

V. a 

To unite 

by means t>f fomething interpofed. 
To Ce Ml NT, s* mdnt'. v. n. To come 
into cofljun^oOi to cohcvc* 

Cent, sint. s. A hundred* as five per 
cent. ; that is, five in the hundred. 

CKHTAURjS^n'tftwr. s. A poetical be* 
ing, fuppofed to be compounded of a man. 
and' a horfe ; the vdier in the sodiack. , 

Centaury, sdn'tdw-rd. s. A plant. 

Centenary* s6n^t^-nS<rd.s.The nam- 
her of a hundred. 

Cemtisimals ste'ti4'^-ll(lil. E, Hun- 
dredth (88\ 

CENTIF«LlOVS,f^n*t^f&'l&«&E.a HaT« 
ing an hundred leaves. 

C s N Ti p xoB* s^n't^^^de. s. A poifon^ 
ed infe^. — See. Mills ps^bs. 

Cento, sdnt6 s. A compofition 
formed by joiAtng ftraps ffom difoeat w^ 


C E R 


C E S 

^ n&» lD6ve, D&r» 2i&t;<-^t&be» ti^b^ b^ll ;«i-6U ;f— p6Jind ^^Mn, this. 

CsNTftikL,9fo'tr&Ia.(88). Rcbtisgto 
tiic centre. 

CsNTRBy sfo'ti&r. s. (416). The mid- 

To Cents I, s^n'tiSr. v, a- To place 
oa a centre, to 6x as on a centre. 

To Cehtrf, s^n't^r v. n. To reft on, 
to repoTe; ou ; to be placed in the midA or 

Cek lEiCK, Un'tiik. a. Placed in the 

C£iiTRicAL» 8^Q'tnk4L Placed in the 

^ ThU -word, though in conftaat nfagc, it 
not in any of our Di(ftiODarics. It feems to 
Ve pcrCe^ly equivalent to Cen/rid ; but cuf* 
torn, in tinic, gcceraUy either finds or makes 
ai different {bade of meaning hetween words 
where no fuch difference iras perceived at 

Cektbitvcal, sin'tfif&'gkl a. Hav- 
ing' the qnality acquired hj bodies in motion 
o£ receding from the centre. 

Centripetal, s^-trlp'e-til. a. Hav- 
ing a tendency to the centre. 

CfiMT&Yi sfei/tr^. s. See Sentinbl. 

CfcMTOPLE, sdn'ti-pl. a. (405). A 

To Ln»TUPLicATf,s^n-tu'pl^-k4te. v. 
a. To nuke a hundredfold. 

To Cektubiate, sen'tii'r^-Ate. ▼. a. 
To divide into hundreds. 

Cextvbiator* s^n-t4-r^-4'tilr. s. 
(511). A name given to hiHorians, who 
diftingui& times by centuries. 

Centurion, s^n tu'r^-An. s. A mili- 
tary officer, who commanded a hundred 
nacA aaaoo^ the Romans. 

Century, »te'tM-T^. s. (461). An 
bundred, ufoally employed to fpecify time, 
a» tlie lecond century. 

CEPHALALCYySdfi-lal-j^. s.Thc head- 

Cfphalicr, s^-fllOik. a. (509). That 
fvhidi it medicinal to the head. 

Cerastes, s^r&s'tte. f; A ferpent 
haTtng bonub 

CERATE, ^'rat s. (90- A medicine 
made ojf wax. • 

C£RAT£D> s^'i4-tW. a. Waxed. 
To C£R£» fi^re- ▼. a. To wax. 
Cf&ebei., s^*.ba- s. (503> Part of 

tbchtaio. . 

Ckrecloth, s^re'cl6th. s. Cloth uncar- 

cd WHS with glntinoiia nuitter. 
Cbremcrt. s^re'xn^Dt. ft. Clotjiesdip 

ped in mekcd waa» with Wbtfb doid bodies 


Cebemonial, sdr-i'n)6'nMl.a. Re- 
lating to ceremony, or outward rite ; for- 
' maJ, obfervant of old forms. 

Cedemonial* t£r-^-mu'n^-dl s. Out- 
ward form, external rite ; the order for 
ritci and forms in the Roman church. 

s« The quality of being ceremonial. 

Ceremonious, sdr-i m6'ne-i\g.a, Corr- 
fifting of outward rites; full of cereihony^ 
attentive to ihe outward rites of religion; 
civil and formal to a fault. 

CERbMONIOU'JLY, S^r-d-tD^'nd-lVs-W, 
ad. In a cevemonious manner, formally. 

s. Fondnefs of ceremony. 

Cf.remony, s^r'^-m6-n(i. s. (489). 
Outward rite, external form in religion ; 
forms of civility ; outward forms of Aate. 

Certain, ser'tm. a. (208). Sure, in- 
dubitable ; determined ; in an indefinitE 
fenfe, fome, as a certain man told me this ; 
undoubting, put paft doubt. 

CERTAiNLY,ser'tJn-ld\ ad. Indubita^r 
bly, without qucilion ; without fail. 

Certainty, sdr'tin-t«^. s. Exemption 
from doubt ; that which is real and fixed. 

Certes» s^r't^z. ad. Certainly^ in 

Certificate, s6rtlf'^-k^t. 8.(91). A 
writing made in any court, to give notice to 
another court of any thing done therein ; 
any tellimony. 

To Certify, s4r't^-fl. v. a. To give 
certain information of; to give certain af- 
furance of. 

Certiorari, sfir-fh^-6-ri'ri. s. A writ 
ifluing out of the Chancery, to call up the 
records of a caufc therein depending. 

Certitude, s^r'ii-t^ide. s. Certainty, 
freedom from dotkbt. 

Cervical, ser'v^-k^. a. Belonging to 
the neck. 

CBRULEOU'.,S^-rule-OS. j ^ 

coloured.—- See Euxopean. 

Cerulifick, sir-WiPlk. a. Having 
the power to produce a blue colour.. 

Cerumen, s6-ru'mdn. s. The wax of 
of the ear. — See Bitumkn. 

Ceruse, s^'rife. s. White lead. 

fy* I prefer Dr. Kcnrick*s, Mr. Perry's, and, 
as far as I can guefs by their accentuation. 
Dr. Aih*» and Bailey's pronunciation of this 
word, who make the firft fyllable long, to 
Mr. bhcridsn's, Scott's, and £ntick*i, who 
make itfliort.— Sec Principles, 529. 

ICesarian, s^-zd'r^-^n. a. The Cefari- 

C H A 



Cy (559).— FAte, fir, fill, flt 5— m^i mfit ;— pine, pin';— 

.an feAion is cutting a ^rhild oat ^of the 

Cess, s^s. s. A levy made upon the 

idhaiiitanu of a |»laoe, rated according to 

.tbeir property; anaiTcirinent; the a^ o£ 

laying ^ates. 
To CbsS) s&s, v. a. To laj charge on« 

to afTeifl. 
Ces«ATJON« s^rs^%^^n. s. A flop, a< 

reft, a Tacation ; a pauie of hoftility, with- 

4>ut peace. 
Cessavit, sef-sA'vit s. A writ. 
CfissiBiLiTr, s^f-s^-bil'd-ift s. The 

quality of receding, or giving way. 
Ces s I b l e, sei's^- bl . a . (405 ). £afy to 

give way. 
Ces&ion, sdHi'fhdn. s« Retreat, the ad 

«f giving way ; refignation. 
Cessionary, s^lh'lh^-6-nd-r6. a. Im- 

filying a refignation. - 
CessmeiIt, s^s'm^t. s. An affefTment 

or tax. 
Cessor, sifsiV. s. (gS) (166). He 

that ceafcth or negle^thfolong to pprforiti 

a duty belonging to hini) as that he mcur- 

reth the<danger of law. 
C«STUS, s^ftils. s. The girdle of 

Cetaceous, s6-ti'fliAs. a. (357). Of 

the whale kind. 
Chad, Md. s. A fort of fifh. 
To Chafe, tfli&fe. v. a. To warm with 

rubbing ; to heat ; to perfume ; to make 

angry. ( 
To Chafe, tfti4fe v. n. To rage, to 

fret, to fume ; to fret againft any thing. 
Chafe, tlhife. s. A heat, a rage, a 

Ch^fe Wax, tfliAfeViks. s. An o6fi- 

cer belonging to the lord high chancellor, 

who fits the wax for the fealing of writs. 
Chafer, tOiAfe'Ar.s. {98). Aninle^fl ; 

a fort of yellow beetle. ' 
Chaff, tfti^. s. The hufks of com 

that are feparated by threihing and winnow- 
ing ; it isufed for any thing wortJilefs. 
To Chaffer, tMf'fiir. v. n. To hag- 

^le, to baigain. 
Chaffer BR, tlhdffdr-Ar. s. A buyer, 

Chaffinch, tfh4Pfinfh. s. A bird fo 

called, becaufi: it delights in chaff* 
Chaffless, tfh^l^s. a. Without 


CHAFFWEBOttlhATw^^.s. Cudwced. 
Chaffv. tSbmi. a. Like chaflF, fuU 

CHA!^fNGl>iSH, tM'flng-dlfh. s. A 
veffel to make any thing Iiot iii ; a portabk 

Chagrin, M-gr£^n'. v. a. HI humour^ 

To Chagrin, M-grWn'. v. a. To vex, 
CO put out of temper. 

Chain, tiliAne. s. A feriesof links faf- 
tened one within another ; a bond, a mana- 
cle;; afettcr^ a^liae of linkb •'^th which 
land is meafured $ a feries linked together. 

To Chain, t(h^e v. a. To faiien or 
link with a chain ; to bring into flavery ; to 
put -en « chain ; to nnite. 

Chain PUMp,tih4ne'pi!^mp. s. A pump 
ufedin large Englifli veflel6,which is double, 
ib that one xifes as the ot!her falls. 

Ch AIM SHOT, tihane ib6t s. Two bul- 
lets or half bullets failened together by a 
chain, which, when they fly open, out awajr 
whatever is before them. 

Chainwork, t(bine'w4rk. s. Work 
with open fpaces/ 

ChAir tihkre 5.(52). A moveable 
feat ; a feat of juftlcc, or of authority ; a 
vehicle borne by men ; a fedan. 

Chairman, tlh;^te'mlih. s. (88). The 
prefident of an affembly ; one whole trade 
it is to carry a chair. 

Chaisk« In.ize. s. A carriage either of 
pleafure or expeditictfi. 

0" The Vulgar, who are un^quaintcd with 
the fpeliiog of this word, and ignorant of its 
French dei ivation, are apt to fuppofc it a 
plural, andcall a fingle carriage aj0tfj ; and 
the Polite fcem fometimesat a lofs whether 
they (hould not confider it as both iingnlar 
and plural ; but the beft niagc feems to have 
determined it to be. in this refpcd, regular, 
and to make the plural cbaifa, 

Chalcographfr, kal-kog'grd-f^. s. 
(353 '. An engraver in btafs. 

Chalcoorakhy, kal-kug'gra-f<fe. s. 
Engraving in btals. 

dry Englifh meafure of coals, confiding of 

thirty«fix btifhek heaped up. The chaldron 

fhould weigh two thoufftid pounds. 
Chalice, tlfadris. s. (142). A cap, a 

bowl, the communion cup, a cup ufed ia 

Chawced, tihU^in:. a. (359)« Having^ 

« cell or cup. 
Chalk, tfhiwk. s* (402). A white 

fbffi], ufually reckoned a ftonc, hut by fome 
. ranked among the boks. 
J To Chalk, tihiwk. v. a. To^mb iTith 

C H A 


C H A 

— nA, m6vc, ii6r, n6t f tAbc, tdb, 

cbalk; to manure with chalk ; to mark or 
tncc out, as w Ith chalk . * 

CHALK-cuTrER,t(hiwk'kiit-tilr, s. A 
man that digi chalk'. 

C.'iiiLKY, dh'iwk'ki. a. • Conriftingof 
chalk; white with chalk ; imprognatcd with 

To Challenge, tfKari^nje. v. a- To 
call aDother to anfwcr for an offence by com- 
bat; to call to a contcft ; to accufc ; in law 
to objci^ to the impartiality of any one ; to 
ciaim as due ; to call one to the performance 
•f conditiona.- 

CHALLtNGE,t{hai1^nje. s. A fiimmons 
to combat ; a demand oif fomething as due ; 
in Vaw, an exception taken cither againll 
perCon* or things. 

C H A LLENGERaftiil'l^n-ji'ir. s.Ofic that 
deiires os {umaaQO& another to combat ; one 
that cbims fupenority ; a claimant. 

Chalymatb, ki-YiWh^-it. a. (91). 
Bnprcgtuted with iroo w ficeL 

Chamad^, ihi-mkde^s. The beat cf 
the drum which declarer a Surrender. 

Chawber, tlb^mebMr. s (542}. An 
apartment in a houSc generally ufcd for thofe 
appropriated to lod^ng ; any retired room ; 
any cavity or hollow; a court of juliicc ; 
the hollow part of a ji^un where the char^< 
is lodged ; the cavity where the powder i& 
lodged in a mine. 

^^ I have in this word departed from Mr. 
Sheridan and Dr. Kenrick, becuufe 1 think 
the bcft ufage has entirely departed from 
them. About thirty years apo the firft fyl- 
Lible oi Chamber wasunivcrfaliy pronounced 
f o as to rhyme with Palm, Pfalm^ &c.; but 
Hnce that time it has been gradually nar 
rowing to the flcndei found of a in eamcy 
fame^ &C. and feems now to be fully cfta- 
blifbed in this jGDund. This, however, is to 
be regretted, as it militates with the laws of 
fyliabtcatioit . there arc few words in the' 
language which wie cannot fo divide into 
-parts asto (kow by this divifion the (juantity 
of the vowels; this word forms an exception; 
for flM^, being uncombinable confonants, we 
cannot end the fird fy liable with a ; and if 
-we join « to it., the a becomes (hort, and re- 
quires another found. But if two fuch 
-words as Cam and Bridge could not reGd the 
hUiid force of cuftom, which has for fo many 
years redvced them tp Cambridge^ why 
ihotild we wonderthat Chamber and Cambrlck, 
TiMwuth and Tarmwth^ (hould yield to the 
iame nnrcJentuig tyrant ? 

To Chamber, tlhilrae'bur, v. n. To 
ht wmUHi, to intrigue ; to refide as in 
a £hamba. 

CHAMBEiiER,tfli4nie'biir-Cin s« A man 


b'lil ; — oil J— p6und ; — ih\x\^ 

Chamberfellow, tlhimel 
s. One that lies in the fame cli 

Chambkr-laim, dbamc'biM „.- 

(208 . Lord preat chamberlain of En^luKl 
is the fixth oflicer of bhe crown ; Urd cham- 
berlain of the houfehoid has the overfightof 
all uihcerb belonging to the king's cham- 
bers, except the prcciiit5l of the bedcham- 
ber; a fervaut who has the care of the cham- 

Chamber LA IN SHIP, rtliAmc'b(ir-lin- 
fliip. s. The office of a chamberlain- 

Chambermaid, tfhAmc'b''ir-mide. s. 
A maid whofc bufincft i^ to drcfs a lady. 

Chambrel of a horfe, IcAm'bril s. 
The joint or bending of the upper part o£ 
the hinder leg. 

Chameleon, ka-m^lc^-iln. s, A kind 
of lizard, faid to live on air . 

Chamlet, kam'l^t. s. See Came- 


Chamois, fliu-mic'. s. An animal of 
the goat kind, the (kin of which made int» 
leather is called Shammy, 

Chamomile, k^an'o-mlle. &. (353)« 
Thti name of arr odoriferous plant. 

To Champ, tfhamp. v. a. To bite 
with a frequent adion of the teeth; ta 

To Champ, tf]i3mp. v. n. To perform 
frequently the ad ion of biting. 

Champaign, Ihdm-pane'. s» A kind 
of wine.. 

Champaign, tnidm'pdne. s. A flat 
open country. 

Champignon, fKum-pln'yrin. s. A 
kind of muihroom. 

Champion, tHiHm'p^-ijn. s. A roaft 
who undertakes a caufe in dngle combat ; a 
here, a ilout warriour. 

To Champion, tlhum'p^-^in. v. a. Ti> 

Chanck, tfhanfe. s. (78) {79). For- 
tune, the caufe of fortuitous events; the- 
adl of fortune ; accident ; cafual occurrence^ 
fortuitous event, whether good or bad; 
poflibility of any occurrence. 

To Chancr, tlhinie. v. n. To hap- 
pen, to fall out. 

CHANCi'-MbDLKY.tllianfe-m^d'l^. s. In 
law, the cafual flaughterof a man, not alto- 
gether without the fault of a flayer. 

Chanckablk, tih^n'sa-bl. a. Acciden- 

Chancel, tfliin's^l. s. The eaftern 
part of the church, in which the altar is 

Chancellor, tthan'sfil-Wr.s. AnofE- 

C H A 


C H A 

flC> (559).*— EAte, ftr, fall, fut ;--md, ftiit ;— pine, pin 5-^ 

cer of the highell power aad dignity in the 
csnrt where he prefidet. . 

Chance LLOH s lii p, t<h&n'ft^l-K>r-(hip«6« 
The afilce of ebttoccllof . 

Chaw . ei v, t<hAnVir-<i. s. Tlic coatt 
of tquhf and eonfcience. 

Chancre Mnk'rtr. s. (416). Anul- 
cer» ufuaUy arifing from venereal maladies. 

Chancrous, (lidnk'n'ts. a. Ulcerous. 

Chan DELI FR, llian-d^4^r'. i* A 
branch for candles. 

t^HANDUER, tOiind'lfir. s. At! artifan 
whofe trade is to make candles. ' 

To Change, tfbinje. y. a. C74). To 
put one thing in the place of another ; to re- 
iign any thing for the fake of another ; to 
difcount a larger piece of money into feve* 
ral imaller ; to give and take reciprocally ; 
to alter ; to mend the difpodtion or mind. 

f^ This word, with others of the fame form, 
fuch as yanve^Jhraagey mange<t &c* are in the 
weft of En^lattd, pronounced with thelhort 
found Mam r&n^ tfuni &c. The fame m^y 
be obferved of the a in the firft fylfable of 
aMgUy MHcimU &c. which, in that part of the 
kingdnra, fonnds like the article an t and 
th& though difagreeable to a X.ondon car, 
and contrary to thebeft ulage, which forms 
the only rule, is more analogical than pro- 
nouncing them as if written cbaitigtyflraingey 
otMcicfit^ aitt^ely &c. for we find every otlir 
vowel in this Qtuation fkQ!rty9,% revenge ^binge^ 
JPunge, &c 

To Change, tfhunje. v. n. To under* 

go change, to fufTer alteration. 
Change, tlh^nje s. An alteration of 

the ftate of any thing ; a fucceilion of one 

thing in the place of another ; the time of 

the moon in which it begins a new mbntlily 

revolutiota ; novelty ; an alteration of the 

order in which a ict of bells is founded ; 

that which makes a variety ; fmaU money. 
Ch an G E AB L F . tlhinje'd-bl a Shbjedl 
■ to change, fickle, inconftant ; paflible to be 

changed ; having ^e quality of exhibiting 

different appearances. 
CHANGBABLfeNE^s tfhinje'i* bl-n^s. s. 

SufccptibiUty ofchange;iocoiiftancy, fickle- 

Changeably, tfliinje'i-blift. ad. Iti- 

Changeful, tfhinje'f&l. a. I&con- 

ftane, uncertain, mntmble* 
CKAKGELiNC'tlhinjc'llng. s. A rfiild 

left or taken in the place of another i an 

idiot, a natural ; one apt to change. 
Chakoer, tflidnfc'jt'ir. s. One t^iai 

is employed 19 c]uui|png or idtfcounting 


Ohannel, tlhin'nM. s, (99). The 
hollow bed of running waters; any cavity 
drawn longways ; a ftrait or narrow fea. ; 
a got or fiirro^ of a pillair. 

To Channel, tfhdn'n^L v. a« To 
cut any thing in channels. 

To Chant, tihint. v. a. To fingi: 
to celebrate, by fong ; to fing in the car 
thedral fervice. 

To Chant, tfhinu v. n. CyS), To 

Chant, tMnt. 8. (99). Soo^, 

Chanter, tHian'til^r. s. A finger, a 

Chanticleer, tfh4n't^l^r. ft. Tbe 
oocic, xTnfcn his crow* 

CHANTRE$s,tfhdn'trds^ s. A woman 

Ch antrv, tfliSn^rA. s. Chantry is a - 
church endowed wish revenue kr ^HiAi^ 
DO fifig toa& for the fools of the donor*. 

Chaos, k&'6s. s. ($53). Tht mafs 
of matter fuppofed to be in enofiifioci be* 
fore it was divided by rbe tceatton into its 
proper dafies aod ekmeiits; confaifioOa ir- 
regular miiture ; any tbkig where the parts 
are nndiftingiiifiied. 

Chaotick, kA-6t^tlk. a. ftefembltag 
chaos, confufed. 

To CwAP, t(h6p. V. a: To dirid* the 

^ forface of the ground by czceffive heat ; to 
divide the (kin of the face or hands fay ex- 
ceffive cold. 

0^ The etymology of this word will not fnf- 
fier us to write it cb»p: and univerfal ufage 
will not permit us to pronounce it ebaf: fo 
that it mud be clafled among rhofc incorri- 
gible words, the pronunciation and ortho- 
graphy of which muil ever be at variance. 

JhaPs i(hSp. s. A cleft^ a gapiag, a 

CHAPytftiip $. The upp«nr or under 
part of a bcoft's rnoutli. 

Chape tih4pe. s. 71ie catch of any- 
thing by which it is held in its j^ce. 

C H A.P K L, tfhdp'^l s. A ch;4 pel is either 
adjoining to a church, as a parcel of the 
fame, or feparate, called 1 Chotpel of £afe. 

Ch apkl&ss, tihape'l^s. a. Without « 

Cw A ^-1 L LAN 7, tfil&p'p^ l&t«n^. «*^ A 

chapellany is foood widiUi IbiAe Mher 
church. / ■ 

Chapitlry tftVP^'-**^- *• Thejoitf- 

dtdioa or bounds of « ehapeL 
Chapfalm. tfhi^p'fUn. a. Harh&g 

die RMttth lhnuik.--jke Catca£« 

6 HA 


C H A 

— s&, nidvtf ii^r, n&t ;— tAbc, tflb, bill ;—- All ;• 

CuAVLAtVy tfliiplln. s, (208). He 
that attends the kiag, or. other great per- 

fie, to perform diTine ferylcte. 
Chiplaimship, t{hip1lTi»Chlp. 5. The 

office or haRndh of a chaplaio ; the pofief- 

fion or rereniie of a chapel. 
CHAFL£ss/t(h6p'Us. a. Without any 

Adh aboat the mouth. 
Chaplet, tftiip'l^. s. A garland 

or -vnath to he worn aWnt tlie bead ; a 

flribg of heads tifcd m tke Roman church ; 

in anhitedflire, a Bttle moolding carved 

into ro«Dd heada. 
Chapman, tihlbp'nidn. s. (88). A 

dieatpner, ooe that ofTen as a purcha^r. 
C»APS, tQi6p9. s. The month of a 

beaft of prey ; the entrance into a channel. 

Cracked, defr. 
Cff AprcA, efhip^cdr. $. A divifion of 

B book ; 3A aflemblf of the clergy of the 

cathednl ; the place in which afiemblierof 

the clergy are hehl. 
Chattaki., tMp'tr^l. s. The capi 

tab of pillars, or pihkfters, which fupport 

Chaav tfhkr. s. A fifli fooad only in 

IX^aao^er-oieer, in Lancaihife. 
To Chaa, tffair. ▼. a. To burn wood 

to a black dnder. 
Ch A A,t{h&rc. $. Work done by,the day. 
To Char, t(h4rc. v. n. To work at 

QCh<T*s honlcf by the day. 
f:^ ** As the maid that milks, . '- 

** And does the meaneft dws,** 


in Ireland they fecra to have retained the 

geniuDe pronnncntion of this, as well as 

. suany other old Esglilh words', I iheail that 

wfaidi is ;^:T«eabie to the orthography, and 

rhyming with tar. In Engliih it is general- 
ly heard like (h»r to fit on, and its copa* 

pomsd cbarv^m^Mf like chair-%nman» Skin- 

ner, 1 know, admits that the word may be 

derived from the Dutch i«rrM, to fweep ; 

aUtd Jonios l^eOs the word e£aret and tells 

115 the Sazoos have the toot word fpelled 

cyppe, fipnil^ing bufioeis or charge, but 

be Its dcriva^Ekm what it will, either the 

cfthograpky, or the pronunciation, ought 
' to be altered ; for, as it ftands at prcfent, 

it is a fingnlar and difgracefal anoittaly* 
Chaa-womam, tfliire'w{im-(in. s. A 
. woQun hired acctdentaUy for odd work. 
Cmaaactbv kir'ak-tftr. $, (353). A 

math, a ftaop, a reprefentationt a letter 

itfed in YRtingr or printing *, the hand or 

jnaittcr of writing i a rcprdcntation of any 

•p6And $*-Mini thsi . ^ 

msn a to his pex'fonal qaalities ; an accoun 
of any thing as good or bad ; the perfoD 
with his afiemblage of qualities. 

To Character, kar'ak-tAr, v. a« To 
infcribe, to engrave. 

Characteristical, kar4k-t6. 

CharacteristicK) k&r-&k 
nsVik. (509). 

ConiUtuting or pointing out the trne ch>* 

Characteristicalnsis, kir4k^*' 
rls't^-kdl-nis, s. The quality of be- 
in^ peculiar to a chancer. 

Charactbristick, k4r.4k-t*.ris'llt 
0. That which conftitutes the charader. 

To Characterize, k^'Ak-t^-r)ze. 

, V. a. To give a chsra^fcer or an account 
of the perfonal qoalities of any man ; to 
engrave or imprint i to mark with a parti- 
cukir ftamp or token. 

Characterless, Vir^kk-tiiT'lit. a. 
Without a charadier. 

Charactery, kir'dk t&r-rd. s. Im« 

Charcoal, tfhir'k&le. s. Coal made 
by burning wood. 

Chard, tth&rd. s« Chards of arti- 
chokes are the leaves of fair artichoke plants 
tied and wrapped op all over but the top^ 
in flraw; Chards of beet are pbnu of 
whiu beet trailfplanted. 

To ChaHGb, lihirje. v. a. To en- 
truft, to commiffion for a certain purpofe } 
to impute as a debt } to impute; to impofo 
as a talk ; to accufe, to c^ure ; to com- 
mand.; to fall upon, to athick; to buiden» 
to load ; to fill ; to load a gun. 

Charge, t(li4rje. $. Care, truft, cnf- 
tody ; precept, mandate, command ; com- 
miliion, truu conferred, office ; accufation, 
imputation ; the thing entruftcd to care or 
management ; expenfe, coft ; osfet, attack ; 
the fieiial to fall upon enemies ; the quan- 
tity of powder and ball pot into a gun ; a. 
preparation or a fort of omtment applied to 
the flioulder-fplaits and iprains of horfes. 

CttARGCABLE, tf1k&r'j4-bl. a. Expen- 
five^^ coftly ; imputable, as a debt or crime ; 
fobjfeift to charge, accuiable. 

Chargearleness, tihir^i^bt-n^d. s. 
Bzpenfe,coft» codlinefs. 

Chargeablit, t(hlr'j&-bl£. ad. £x- 

CHARGfcR, tftiir'jAr. 8* (98). A large 
diflt ; un o{icet*s horfe. 

Charily, tflii'r^^. ad. Warily, fru* 


C H E 


C H Ji 

O (559).— F4tc, fir, ail, fit J— m^, m^t;— pine, p'm;— 

erthdepiftt feem to adopt the latter j>roiitta' 
ciation ; and W. Johnftoo, Dr. Ketrrick, and 
Mr. Perry, the former; and as this is amca* 
ble to the orthography, and, it may be ad- 
^d, to the etymology (which indicates that 
ftate of mind which arifes from being full 
of good cheer;, it ought, nnlcis the ocbcr 
has an eridcnt preference in cuftom, to be 
looked upon as the moft accurate (241) 

Chs£RFULLY,tfln§*r'fM.U. ad. With- 
out dejedion, with gayety. 

CHEERFuLNtss,t{hWr'fM n&. s. Free- 
dom from dcjedion, alacrity ; freedom from 

Chebrls&s, tlh^^rl^s. 9* Without 
gayety, comfort, or gladiiefr. , 

Cmeerly, tfbiir'U, a. Gay, cheerful, 
not gloomy. 

Cheerly, tfli^r'U. ad Cheerfully. 

Cheery, tfli^^'r*. a. Gay, fprightly. 

Cheese, t(h£^ze s. A kiod of food 
made by preffing the curd.of milk. 

Cheesecake, tfb^ze'kdke. s. (247). 
.A cake made of foft cttrds, fugar and butter. 

CHESsEMONGER,tih^^ze'mfing-gi!ir. s. 
One who deals in cheefe. . 

Cheesevat, tfliMze'vdt. r. The wood- 
en caie in which the ^rds are prefled into 

Cheesy, tlhi^'zi, a. Having the na- 
ture, or form of cheefe. 

CflEiY^Wa^.s. (353). The claw of 

To Cherish, tft^r'rlfh.v. a. To fup- 
port, to Ihelter, to nurfe np. 

Cherisher, tflidr'rifh-i^r. s. An en* 
courag«r, a fupporter. 

CHBRisHM£NT,t(hdr'r}ff)-m^t.s. £a- 
cxmragementyfopport, comfort. 

Chbrrt, t(b&r'r6. > ^ 

Cherry-tree, tfhir'rA-trid. 5 ^\ ^ 
tree and fruit. 

Cherry, tih^r'r^. a. Kefembling a 
cherry in colour. 

CHERRyBAY,t{hir'r^:bi. s. Laurel. 

Cherrycheeked, t(hdr'r&^fh^kd. a. 
Haring ruddy cheeks. 

Cher HYP IT, t!h^r'r^plt. s. A child's 
play, in which they throw dieny-ftiines 
mto a (mall hol^ 

Chersones, kSrY6-n£s. s. (353)* * A 

Cherub, tfh£r'db. s. A cdieftial fpirit, 
which in the hierarchy, u placed {icxt in or- 
der to the Seranhim, 

Chbroei CK, tlhi^i^'blk. a. Angelick, 
rcMpg to Um Chervbim^ 

Cherubim, tfh^'u-blin. s. l%e Hc- 
bre>¥' plural of Cherub. 

fy Thofe who underftaadiio bnguage bitt 
their owl), are apt to commit an unpardon- 
able fault with critics, by miftaking thb 
word for a fingular, and writing the plural 
Cberubims, Others are apt to commit a much 
greater fault in fpeaking, which is that of 
forming an adjedivc from this word, a^ if 
written Cberuhimical^ or Cbcnthimuai, inAcad 
of Cberuhici. How hard is the fate 6f 'an 
Engliihman, who,to write and fp€ak his oti n 
language properly, muft not oniyuaderiland 
French, Latin, and Greck^but Hebrew alio! 

Cherubim, t(h^r'6-bin. a. Angelical. 

Ch^ervil, tihdr'v!}. s. An* umbelVifer* 

ons plant- 
To Ch£ruf, tfhir'iip. v.n. To chirp, 
to ufe a cheoful Toice. 

Chess, tfli^s. s. A nic& and intricate 
game io imitation of a battle between two 

CHESs-APPtB, tdi^s'dp-pl. 8. Wild 
lenricew ^ 

CH£8S«B0ARD,tfh^s-b6rd.s. Theboaid 
or table on which the game of chela is 

Chbss-man, tlQi&s'min, s. (88), A 
puppet for chdfe. 

Chessom, tfhds'sAm. $• (i66)* Mel« 
low earth. ; 

Chest, tflidft. s. A box of wood or 
other materials. 

Chested, tOi^ft'^d. a. Having a ched. ^ 

Chestnut, tflifis'niit. 1 

Chrsnut-tree, tflj^s'ni'it»trd^. J *' 
A tree vthe fruit of the cheinut*trce ; the 
name of a brown colour. 

Chevalier, (hdvd-l^^r'. s. (352)- A 

Chevaux-de-frisB, (b^y-A-d^-fr^zc\ 
s. (.35 a). A piece of timber travcrf- 
ed with wooden fpikes, pointed with iron, 
five or fix feet long ; tded in'defending a 
pafTage, a turnpike, or tourniquet. 

Cheven, tOr^v'vn. s. (103). A river 
fiih, the fame with chub. 

Cheteril, tih^v'^r-lL s. Akid, kid- 

Chevron, tfli^Y'dh). In heraldry it. 
reprefents two rafters of R houfe as thcj 
ought to ftand. 

To Chew, 


with the teeth, to maftkate ; to meditate, 
or ruminate in the thodghta ; to tafte with- 
out fwaUowing* 
f^r The btterprofiunciatifiatsgrownmdlgsr. 




«- ad, wdvCf o6r» n&t;— >tubei tAb« 
To Chew, tlhiO. ▼• n. To champ 

spoD, to mminacc. 
Chicawe, fhe-kdne'. s,. (35*;) TJ^e 
2it of protrading a concept by artifice ; ar- 
tifice in gcncraL 
To Chicah e. ih^-kdne'. v. n. To 

prolong a conteft by tricks- 
Chicami:*, fh^ kA'nar. s. A petty 

ik^ifter, a wrangler. 
Chicani^ry, fli^-k^'ndir-^. s. Sophif. 

try, wrangle. 
Chick, tflbik. 7 rp, 

Chickeh, liWk'ln. (104). J*- ^"^ 
youn]^ of a bird, particularly of a hen, or 
fioaU bird ; a word of tcDdemefs; a term 

foe a young girl. 
ChiCkrvhearteDi tihik^in-hir-t^cl. a. 

Cowardly, fearful. 
Chicicenp<3X, tlhlklnpuks. s« A puf- 

. tuioat djfiemper. 
Chickling, tftiik'Iing. s. Afmall 

Chickpeas, t/liik'pizc. s. An herb. 
CiiiCKWEED, tfhik'w^d. s. A plant. 
To Ch IDE, iftiidc. V. a. To reprove ; 

to drive sway with reproof ; to blame, to 

To Chide, tfhlde. y. n. To clamour, 

to fcold; to quarrel with; to make a noife. 
Chider, tihi'dir. s. (98^ Arebukcr, 

a Jtprorer. 
Chief, ifli^^f. a. Principal, moQ 

cfniocnt; eminent, extraordinary ; capital, 

of the firft order. 
Chief, ifli^tf. s. (275). A com- 

mander, a leader. 
Chiefless, tlhc^fl^j. a. Without 

Chietly, llhttfl^. ad. Principally, 

emioently, more than common. 
Cui^FSitEj tft^^r^ s. A fmall rent 

paid to the lord paramount. 
CHtEFTAiv, tflii^ftln. s. (208). A 

leader s a commander ; the head of a clan. 
^ ThU word ought undoubtedly to follow 

eaftahtf emrtaiii, vtUaiMy &c. in the pronun- 

ciatioB of the hft fyllable ; though, from its 

being leh in vSc, we are. not fo well rccoii- 

liled Ct>iC 
Chfbvahce, tib^'vinfc. s. Traffick, 

In whidli bwaef is extorted, as difcount. 
Chilblaim, tmirbUiie. s.* Sores made 

Byiroft. . 
CHii.b» tihild. s. Att infant, or very 

y«wig perioB ; one in the line of filiation, 

QppoCcd tathe patent s any ibing the pro- 

<laft or cffe^ol another 1 To be with child, 

to be ptcgDant. 

bill ; — 611 ;— p66nd :— /^lO, this. 

To Child, tihild. v. n..To brin^ 
children. Little ufed. 

Childbearint,, tlhild'bi-rlng. parti - 
cip. The a^ of bearing childrci]. 

CHiL«^BfeD, tfiiild'b^d. s. Theflatcof 
a woman bringing a child. 

Childbirth, tlLild'bdrM. s. Travail^ 

Ch iLDtD, tftiil'd^d. a. Furnifhcd witli 
a child. Little ufed. • 

Ch I LDKR MASS-DAY, tflill'ddr fHaf-dA'. 
s. "i'hc day of the week, throughout the 
year, anfwcring to the day on which the 
fcaft of the Holy Innocents is folemoizcd. 

Childhood, tfliildliud. s. The (late 
of infants, the time in which we are chil- 
dren ; the time of life between infancy and 
puberty ; the properties of a child. 

Childish, tihild'ilh. a. Trifling; 
becoming only children, trivial, puerile. 

CHiLDrsHLY, tlhild'ifh l^i. ad. Ii^ a 
childiih trifling way. 

Childishness, tlhild^ifh-n^s. s. Pue- 
rility, triflingnefs ; harmleflnefs. 

Childless, tfliild'Ws. a. Without 

Childlike, tfhild'Uke. a. Becoming 
or bcfceming a child. 

Chiliaedron, kil 6-a-i'dr6n. s. (553}» 
A figure of a thoufand (ides. 

^ This word ouaht to have the accented e 
long ; not on account of the quantity in the- 
Greek word, but becaufe, where no rule 
forbids, we ought to make the vowel ac- 
cented on the penultimate, long (54 a)- 

Chi LI FACTORY, kil-^-tuk't6-rc. ad. 
Making chyle. — Sec Cuvli factor v. 

Chilifactive, kil etaktiv. ad. Mak- 
ing Chyle-— Rce CllYLlFACTIVB. 

Chilification, kil-c-f<^-kiV'lhun. s.- 
The a«ft of making Chyle. — Sec CarLiri- 


Chill, tfhil. a. Cold, lliat which is 
cold to the touch ; having the fenfation of 
cold ; dcpreffcd, dcjcded, difcouragcd. 

Chill, tlhil. v a. Chilnefs, cold. 

To CHIX.L, tlhil. V. a.: To make cold; 
to deprefsj todejedl ; to blafk with cold. 

Chilliness, tlhiri^-nc^s. s. A fenfa- 
tion of divcf ing cold. 

Chilly, tll»iri^. a. Somewhat cold, 

Chilness, tfliirnds. s. Coldnefs, want 
of warmth. 

Chimb, tlhime. s. The confonant or 
harmonick found of many correfpondent 
inftruments ; the correfpondcnce of found ; 
the found of bella (track with hammers; the 
correfpondcnce of proportion or relatiop« 

C H I 


C tt I 


To Chime, tlhlme. v. n. The found 

in harmony; to cantfpond in relation or 

proportion ; to agree ; to fuit with ; to jio- 

gic. . 

ToChiiMb, tfliime. V. a. To irtaketo 
move or ftrik^, or found harmonically ; to 
ftrike a bell with a hamnicr. 

CHiMk.RA*k^-iiiAri. s. (353) (120) 
A Tain and wild fancy. 

CHiMERiCAL, k6-m6i'r6.kil. a. Ima- 

giiury, fantaftjck. 
Chimeric ALLY, k4 mfir'n&-kll-6. ad 
Vainly, wildly. 

Chimmey, KhiTn'n*. s. Thepadge 
through which the (moke afccnds from the 
fire in thehoofe; the fireplace. 

Chimney* CO RkBR, tlhim'n^-k6r'nflr. 
a. The firefidc, the place of idlers. 

Chimn» Y'piECE, dhlm'n^«p^^ic. s. 
The ornamental piece round the fireplace, 

Ch f M N E Ys w E E p E R9 tlhim'n^-fw^c-p^r. 
8. One whofe trade it is to clean foul chim> 
nies of foot. 

Chin, tfhin. s. The part of the face 
beneath the under Up* 

China, tflii'iKJ, or tflii'nd. s. China 
ware, porcelain, a fpecies of veiTeh made 
in China, dimly tranfparent. 

f^ What could induce us to fo irregular a 
pronunciation of this word is fcarccly to be 
conceived. One would be apt to fuppofe 
that the French firft imported this porcelain, 
and that when we porchafed it of them we 
called it by their pronuttciation of China 
(SbeaiJ s but beiBff unwillmg to drop the a, 
and defirotts of preferving the French found 
of i, we awkwardly tranfpofedthefe founds, 
and turned Cbima into Cbakue, This abfurd 
pronunciation feems only tolerable when we 
apply it to the porcelain of China, or the 
Oranges, which are improperly called China 
Oranges ; but even in thefe cafes it feems a 
pardonable ^edaiury to redace the word to 
its true fojEuid. 

Chin A -ORANGE, tfli^'ad-ftrlnje. s. 
The fweet orange. 

China-root, tfhi'na-r66t. s. A me- 
dicinal root hrougbt originidly from China. 

CHTircouGHy tihln'kM'. s. A violent 
and convnlfive cough. 

Chine, tlhine. s. The part of the 
back, in which the backbone is found; a 
piece of the back of aa animal. 

To Chine, tfhlne. v. a. To cut into 

Chink, tflilnk. s. A fmall aperture 

To Chink, tOiliSk. ▼. a. To (hake fo 
at to make a firand. 

FAtc, ftr, fldl> fit ;--jn^, tndt ;--t>ine, pin ;— 

To Chink, tflihik. t, tx. To foun4 

by firlking each other. 
Chivky, tlhink'^. a. Full of holes, 

Chi NTS, tfhints. s. Cloth of cotton 

made in India. . 
CHIo^PINE,tfh6pptoe^ s. (112), A 

high flioe foriherly worn by ladies. 
To Chip, tfliip. v. a. To cut into 

fmall pieces. 
Chi?« tihlp. s. A fmall piece taken 

off by a cutting inflniment. 
Chipping, tfliip'ping. s . A fragment 

cut off. 

(353)* Having the gout in the hand. 
CHiROGRAPHER,ki-r6g'gri-far. s. He 

that ezercifes writing. 
Chirograph 1ST, kir6g'gri-fift. i. 

Chirography, ki*rog'gr&*f^* s. Thp 

art of writing (518). 
Chiromancbr, klr'^-man-s^^r. s. One 

that foretells future events by infpeding the 

CHiROMANCY,klr'r&-min-s& s. (353) 

(5I9>, The art of foretelling the tvenu 

of liJFe, by infpeding the hand. 
To Chirp, tih6rp. v. n. To make a 

cheerful noife, as birds. 
Chirp, tih^rp. t. 1 he voice ef binls 

or infeds. 
Chirp CR, tfli&-'p5r. s. (89}. One 

that chirps. 
Chiruroeon, kl-ri'ir^^to. &. ($5$"^' 

One that curea ailmentl, not by intenul 

medicines, but outward appUcadooa, n«w 

written Surgnni a fui^on. 
Chiruroery, kl-rdr-j^-rA. s. The 

art of curing by extenial applications, now 

written Smrgery, 
Chirurgical, ki-rdr'j£-kfll. 
Chirurgick, ki-rftr'jlk. (353). 

Belonging to furgery. 
Chisel, tlhlz'ziLs. (102) (99). An 

inf^nimem with which wood or ftone is 

pared away. 
To Chisel, tlhlz'zH. v^a. (102). To 

cut with a chifel. 
Chit, tlhlt. s. A child, ^ baby ; the 

(hoot of com from the end of the grain. 
To Chit, tlhlt. v. n. To fprout. 
Chitchat, tihk'tfliat* . s. Tratde^ 

idle pratf. 
CHiTTk-RLiNOs^tfhit'tdr-lhigz. &. The 

ftotsofan eataUe animal; the fiiU at ckfc 

Eofom af a flurt {SSSh 



2 07 

C H O 

-«- nd^ ni6ve» n^r, n&t ; — tube, ti^b, 
GHiTrr, tOiit't^. a. Childifti, like a 

Chjtalrous, tfhiv'ul-riis. a. Relating 

to chivalry, knightly, warlike. 
€>iivALHY, tftitv'il-r^. $. Knjglithood, 

a miliary dignity ; the qualifications of a 

knight, as valour ; the general fyilem of 

Chivi s, tflilvz. s. The threads or fila- 
ments rifing In flowerf, with feed* at the 

end ; a fpecies of fnnall ooion. 
Chlokosis, kl6-r6'sls. s. (353)- The 

grccs Hckneis. 
To Choak, llh6ke. v. a. See Choke. 
CHocoi.ATi,t(h6k'W4te. s. (91), The 

nut of the cocoa-tree ; the mafs made by 

f^mding the kernel of the cocoa-nut, to be 

difTolved in hot water *, the liquor made by 

a folution of chocolate. 

«• A hou/e For drinking chocolate. 
Chode, tOiodc. The old preterit from 

Chide. Obfoletc* 
Choice, t(h6ll*e. s. The a^ of choofing, 

clc6tiflo ; the power of chooibg ; care in 

choofing, curiodty of diiUndion ; the thing 

chofen; the bcft part of any thing ; feveral 

things propofed atobjedc of cledion. 
Choice, t(h6tfe. a. Seledl, of extraor- 

<tiBary vaJae ; chary, frngsd, carefnl. 
£hoicble5S9 tft6lfe'Us. a. Wkhout 

the power of choofing. 
Choicbly, tfhdlfc'l^. ad. Curioiifly, 

with exzA choice; valuably, excellently. 
Choiceme&s, tih6ife^nSs. $. Nicety, 

particular -valve. 
Choir, kwirc. s. (5CX3) (356). An af- 

£cn\bly or band of fingers ; the fingers in 

divine worihip ; the part of the church 

where the iingen are placed. 
To Chojc£» tlhokc, V. a. To fufFocate ; 

to Hop up,eo block up k palTage ; to hinder, 

by obftru^ion ; to fuppreff ; to overpower. 
Choke, tihoke. s. The filamentous or 

capillary part of an artichoke. 
CHORE'TfcAa, tfhokc'pdre. s. A rough, 

iarlh, nnpalatable pear ; any farcafm that 

fiops the mouth. 
Choker, tiho'kiir. s. One that chokes. 
Choky, tfh6'k^. a. That which has the 

power of fufibcation. 
Chola GOG Ofs,kol'd-g6gz. s. Medt- 

ooea halving the power of purging bile. 
Cholhi, kuHiir. s. The bile ; the hu- 

«Mwur fappofed to produce irafcibility ; an- 

CHOL-aicK, k61'Wr-rik. a. Abound- 

i^ whfa Mer ; aagry, iralcibfe. . 

bAll ;— 6il ; — p6&nd ;— ^^in, this. 

Cholfricknfss, kol I'lr nk-ni's. a. 
Anger, irafcibility, pccvifhnefi. 

Cholick — iiee Ccjlick. 

To Chcosk, i[\v')67.e. v. a. I chofe, 
1 have cho^n. To take by way of prefer- 
ence of fcveral things offered; to ftie<i^ to 
pick out of a number ; to cicd fur eternal 
happincCi ; a term of theologians. 

.JjT This word is fonictimcs improperly writ- 
ten {I'u/ey w hich is a needids departure from 
its French etymology in cLoiftry as well as' 
from our own analogy in the preterit clx^e. 

To Choose, tlh66/.e. ▼. n. To have 
the power of choice. 

CHouiER, tlhoO'zur. s. He tliat has 
the power of chooCng, cleAor. 

ToChop, tlhop. V. n. To cut with a 
quick blow ; to devour eagerly ; to me- 
nace, to cut into inuill pieces ; to break into 

To Chop, tfliop. v. n. To do any 
thing with a quick motion ; to light or hap- 
pen upon a thing. 

To Ch(^p, tfhop. V. a. To purchafe, 
generally by way of truck ; to put one thing 
in the place of another ; to bandy, to alter- 

Chop, tfhop. s. A piece chopped off; 
a linall piece of meat ; a crack, or cleft. 

Chop-house, tIl«6p'l>oiife. s. A mean 
houfe of entertainment. 

(pr Di. Johnfon, in this definition, feems to 
have rated a chop- houfe too low, and to have 
had a Cook^t Shop or an Eating- Houfe in his- 
mind. Since cuffee^houfcs are become eat- 
ing-houies and taverns, chop houfes are,, 
perhaps, a little depreciated ; but this was. 
not the cafe till long after Dr. Johnfon** 
Didionary waspubliftcd ; and 1 think they 
may ftill, without any impropriety , be callcdf 
Reputable boiifa of ready EntertMnttteiU* 

Chopin, tlho-pe^n'. s. (112). A 
French liquid meafure, containing nearly a 
pint of Winchefter ; a term ufcd in Scothindt 
Ua a quart of wine meafure. 

Chopping? tlh^p'ping. a. An epithet 
frequently applied to infants, by way of 
commendation ; meaning large or well 

CwoppiNG-KNiFP, tfli6p'ping-nlfc. s» 
A knife ufed in chopping. 

Choppy, tihop'p^. a. Full of holes or 


Chops, tftiops. s. The month of a 
bead ; the mouth of any thing in familiar 

Choral, ko'ral. a. (353). Sung by a 

choir ; finging in a choir. 
.Chord, kord. s. The thing of a mjufi- 

C H R 


C H U 

C3^ (S59).— PAte, fir, fill, 

• cad inftrttnient ; a right Imc, which join» 
the two ends of any arch of a circle. 

To Chord, k^rd. v. a. {353).Tofur- 
niih with firings. 

Chordek, kOT d66'. s. A contradlion 
of the fhtnum. 

Chorion, k6'r*.6n. s. The outward 
membrane that enwraps the foetus. 

Chorister. kwlrVifti^r. s. (300). A 
finger in the cathedrals, a finging boy ;. a 
iujgcr in a concert (356 ^ 

Chor GRAPH FR. U) fig'gra-f iV. s. 
He that dcfcribcs particular regions of coun 

Chor graphical, kur rA-grdfi-kal. 
a. Dcfcript!vc of particular regions. 

I^. ad. In a chorographical manner. 

Chorographv, kc-rog'gri-fi^. s. The 
art of (leH^ibing particular regions. 

Chorus, k6'ras. s (353). .\ number 
of fingers, a concert ; the perfons who are 
fuppofed to hehpld what pafics in the ads 
of tiie ancient tragedy ; the fong between 
the ads of tragedy ; verfcn of a firag in 
which the company join the finger. 

Chosu, tlhofe. The preier ten fe, from 
To choofe. 

Choseh. tfto'zn. (103). The partici- 
ple pafiive, from To choofe. 

Chough* tlKCif. $.(301) A bird which 
freqneots the rocks by the fii^a* 

To Chouse, tlhAiile. v. a. To cheat, 
to trick. 
' Chouse, tl}i6fife. s. A bubble ; a tool ; 
4 uick or fliam. 

Chrism, krizm. 8.(353). Unguent, or 
. undion. 

To Christen, kris'sn. v. a (472). To 

. baptize, to initiate into Chriflianity by wa- 
ter ; to name, to denominate. 

pHnicTENDOM, kris'sn-diim. s. The 
coUedive body of Chriftianity. 

Christening, kris'sn-inij. s. The ce- 
remony of the &T& initiation into Chriftia- 

Christian, krlll'yiin. s. (291). A pro- 

fcfibr of the religion of Chrift* 
Christian, krilt'yi^n. a. (113). Pro- 

fefling the religion of Chrift. 
Christian-name, krift'yiin-nAme. s. 

The name giveA at the font, diftinft fr»m 

the fur^ame. 
Christian I SM,lcrlft'yfln-lzm. 9. The 

OiriCbian religion ; the aation« profeifiag 

Chjlistianitv, krif.tffiWa'i-t^» s, 

'fhe rdigioB of ChrtlUant. 

fit ; — m^', rtih ; — pine, pin ;— 

ToChristianixe, krlft'yftn-ke* v. a 

To make Chriftian. 
Christianly, krlft'j-^n-I^. ad. Like a 

Christmas, krVmds. s. (88) (472)- 

The day on which the nativity of our bleff- 

ed Saviour is celebrated. 
Christmas-aox, kris'm^boks. s. A 

box in which little prefents are coUeded 

at Chriftmas. The money fo colleded. 
Chromatick, kr6-m&t'ik. a. Relating 

to colour ; relating to a certain fpedes ot 

ancient mufick. 
Chronical, kr6a^£-kdl.) t tfr^\ 

CHRONicK,kr6Ti1k, 5 a- V509J- 

Relating to time ; a chronical diftempcr i.'^ 

of long duration. 
Chronicle, kr6n'6-kl. s. ($S5)*- ^ 

regifter. or aQconnt of events in order o£ 

time ; a hillory (40.0- 
To Chronicle, krua'^Tcl. v. ^ C405V 

To record in chronicle, or history ; to regi^ 

ter, to record. 
Chronicilr, kr&n'^-klAr. s. (98). A 

writer of chronicles ; an hiftorian. 
Chronogram, kron'^-gx&m. s. Anin- 

fcription including the date of ^y adioo. 
CHRONOGRAMMATkCAL,kr6n-n6 gr^m- 

mit'^-kdl. a. BeloDging to a cltfo- 

Chronogrammatist, kron-D^-grim' 

*n4-tlfl. s. A writer of chrono- 
grams* • ■ • * ' 
CHRONOLOGBRt kr6-nM16]Ar. s. He 

that fttidics or explains the ilieiice of cocn- 

puting psdb time. 
Chronological, kr6n-n646dje'^4Eil. 

a. Relating to the dodriiie of time. 
Chronologically, kron-no-lSdjc'^- 

k^W^. ad. In a chronological man- 
ner, according to the etad ferics of time. 
CHRONOLOGisr, krinSl'i-jift. s. One 

that ftudics or explains time. 
Chroholocv, kr6-n<>r6-)fe. s. The 

fcience of cooipnting aod adjufting the pe- 
riods of time. 
Chronometer, kr&«n6in'xn^-t&r. s. 

An inftrvmcst for the ezaft meniuratioo of 

Chrysalis, krls's&Jls. s. (s^^)* Au- 

relia, or the firfl apparent chaii^ o£ the 

maggot of any fpecics of infe^ 
CHRriOLiTE, krls'si-litc, s. (iSSV A. 

precious ftonc of a dnlky green, with a caft 

of yellow. 
Chub, tOiib. s. A river filt. The 


C H U 


C H Y 

— n6, mAve, n6r, not; — tube, lAb, btjll ; — 611; — p66nd : — tFin, this. 

Chubbed, tfhi'ib'bid. a. (99). Big 
beaded tike a chub. 

To Chuck, tiliuk. ▼. n. To make a 
ooife like a hen. 

To Chuck tihi^k. v. a. To call as a 
hen calls her young ; to give a gentle blow 
under the chin. 

Chuck, tfb'ik. s. TIic voiccof a hen ; 
a word of endearment. 

Chuck-far fhino, t(buk'ftr-THln^. s. 
A play, at which the money falls with a 
chnek into the hole beneach^ 

To Chuckle, tlhak'kl. v. n. (405). 
To laugh vchememly. 

To CHvjcKLE,i'.hiik'kl. V. a. To call 
as a hen; to cocker, to fondle. 

Chukt ttliio'it. *. (99 j. Forced meat. 

Chuff, tfhif. s. A b^unt clown. 

Chvffily, tlbi^ff^'l^. ad, Stomach- 

Chuff/mess, tfh^rfd-nds. s, Clownifh 

CHUFfY.tfhfiffc. a. Surly, fat. 

Chum, tfh&m. s. A chamber fellow. 

Chum?, tlhimp. s. A thick heavy 
pitfceof wood. 

CiJURCH,tfhMfli.s. The collcftive bo- 
dy 0/ Chriftiaos ; the body of Chriftians 
adhering to one particular form of worfliip 5 
the place which Chriftians confecrate Co the 
worihip of God. 

To Church, tfliiVtfii. v. a. Toper- 
form with any one the office of returning 
thanks after any iigiial deliverance, as child- 

Church-ale, tfhflrtfh-ile'.s A wake, 

or feaft, con:mcmoratory" of the dedication 

of the church. 
Chvrch-attirr, tfh^rtfh-at-tlre'. s. 

The habit in which men officiate at divine 

Churchman, tfliArtih'm^. s. (88). 

An ecdeiiaftic, a clergyman ; ao adherent 

tp the Cborch of Englajid. 
CHURCHWARDEM8,tihfirt(h-war'dnz. ». 

(zoj). Officers yearly chofen*, to look to the 

chordx, chnrcltyardB, and fac^ thiiigs as be- 
long to hocfa. 
Churchvahd, tflitirtfh'yird. s. The 

ginud adfoimng to the ^itfch, in which 

the dead are karied ; a cefnetry. 
Churl, t(h'iri. s. A ru^kk, a coun- 

trymap • a mtfe, furly , ill-bred man ; a mi- 

fer, a niggard. 
Churlish, tfti^rlifli. a. Rude^bnitaU 

harih; iel^, avp.rlcioTts. 

Churlishly, tfhib'Tilh.l^. ad. Rude- 
ly, brutally. 
Churlishness, ifhijrlifh-ncs. s. Bru- 
tality, ruggedncfs of manner. 
Churme, till linn s. A confufcd 

found, a noifc. Obfolete. 
Chi RN, t'ljurn. s The v. /Tel in which 
the butter is, by agitation, coagulated. 

To Churn tlliurn. v a. I o a imitate 
or fhalcc any thing by a violent morion ; to 
make butter by agitating the milk. 

Churrworm, tliii'ir'wurii. s. An in- 
fed that turns about nimbly, called alfo a 

Chylaceous, kila'fhus, a. (186). Be- 
longing to chyle. 

Chylp, kile. s. (353). The white 
juice formed in the (lomach by digcftion of 
the aliment. 

Chylifaction. kil-K'-fak'ni m. s. The 
a^ or proccfs of making chyle in the body. 

Chylifactive kil k'-fAk'tiv. a. Hav- 
ing the power of making chyle. 

Chvlification. kil-^ fdr-kA'fhi'n. The 
ad of making chyle. 

C H Y L I F I c A I u R Y, kil-«i f(&-ki't6-r^ . adj . 
Making chyle- 

Chylous, ki'lils. a. (160). Confifting 
of chyle. 

Chymical* klm'6 kil. 7 ,-. , , 

CHVM.cK.k.m'm.k. S * ^''^^^y 

chymiftry ; relating to chymiftry. 

Chymically, kim'm6-ku.l-16. ad. In 
a chymical manner. 

Chymist, kim'mift. s. A profeiTor of 

^ Scholars have lately difcovered,that all the 
nations of Europe, have, for many centuries 
paft, been erroneous in fpclling this word 
with a y inftead of an e ; that is Chymiji in« 
{lead of Cbemift: and if we crave their rca- 
fons, they very gravely tell us, that inftead 
of dcrivmg the word from xw/«»«, juice, 
or from x*». z»vuu, ©r "xy't to melt, it is 
more juftly derived from the Arabic kema^ 
black. But Dr. Johnfon, who very well 
underdood every thing that could be urged 
in favour of the new orthography, has very 
judiciouily continued the old ; and indeed, 
till we fee better reafons than have yet ap- 
peared, it fccms rather to favour of an af- 
fedation of Oriental learning, than a libe- 
ral defire to redify and improve our lan- 
guage. But let the word originate in the 
Haft or Weft, among the Greeks or Ara- 
bians, we certainly received it from our 
common Lingmadudisy (if the word will be 
pardoned me,) the JLatio and French, 

C I D 



c3" (559)— ^^te, fir, f^> fat;— m^, m^t ;— pine, pin;— 

Hrhich ftill retain cither the ^, or its fubfti- 
tute i. 
Befidct, the alteration preduced a change in 
the pronunciation, which, from its being 
but flight, is ihc Ids likdy to be attended toj 
and therefore the probability i»,tbat, let us 
write the word as wc will, we fliall ft ill 
continue tO' pronounce the old way ; for in 
no EnglKh word throughout the language 
does rbe e found like ^, on* ihort, when the 
accent is on it. 
This improvement, therefore, in our fpelling, 
would, in all probability, add a new irregu- 
larity to our pronunciation, already incum- 
bered with too many. Warburton, in his 
Edition of Pope's Works, feems to have 
been the firft writer of note who adopted 
this mode of fpelling from Boerhaave, and 
the German critics ; and he feems to have 
been followed by all the inforiptions on the 
chymifts (hops in the kingdom. But till 
the voice of the people has more decidedly, 
declared itfelf, it is certainly themoft eligi- 
ble to follow Dr. Johnfon and our eftablifli- 
' cd writers in the old orthography.^ — See 
Mr. Narcs*s Englifli Orthoepy, page 285, 
where the reader will fee judiciouJQycxpof- 
ed the folly of alterine fettled modes of 
fpelling for the fake of far-fetched and fan- 
ciful etymologies. 
Chymistry, klm'mif-tr^. s. The art 
or procefs by which the different fubftances 
found in mixt bodies are feparated from 
each other by means of fire. 
CiBARious,si-b4'r^-^s.a. (iii). Re- 
lating to food. 
Cicatrice, or Cicatrtx, sik'S-irls. s. 
(14X). The fear remaining after a wound; 
a mark, an impreiTure* 
CiCATRtsAWT, su-A-tri'z&nt. s. An 

iDplication chat induces a cicatrice. 
CiCATRisivE, slk-^-trlVlv. a. (158) 
(428). Having the qualities proper to in- 
duce a cicatrice. 
Cicatrization, slk-4-tr^-zd.'fhftn. s 
The a& of healing the wound ; the ftate of 
being healed, or Scinned over* 
To Cicatrize, sik'i-trizc. v. a. To 
apply fuch medicines to wounds, or ulcers, 
as &in them. 
Cicely, sis'l^. s. A fort of herb. 
To CicuRATB, sik'i-rdte. v. a. (91). 
To tame, to reclaim from wildnels (503)* 
CicuEATiOK, slk-ti-rA'fhiin. s.The aft 

of tanking or reclaiming from wildnefs. 
Cider, si'dAr. s. The juice 6f apples 

exprelfed and fermented* 
C1DER18T, sl'd^r-lft, s. (98). A mak- 
er of cider* 

CiDERRiN, sKd&r-k!n. s. Thcliquair 

made of the grofs matter of applet, after the- 

cider is prciTed out. 
Ciliary, siryA-r^. a* (113). Belong- 
ing to the eyelids. 
CiLicious, s^-liih'ds. a. (314}. Made 

of hair. 
CiMETBR, slm'^-tAr. s* (98), A fort 

of fword, Ihort and recurvated. 
Cincture, slnk'tlhtlirc. s. (461). 

Something worn round the body; anincio* 

furc ; a ring or lift at the top or bottom of 

the ihaft of a column* 
Cinder, slnMAr. s. (98). Amafs'of 

any thing burnt in the fire, but not reduc* 

ed to aihes *, a hot coal that has ceafed t» 

Cinder-woman, sWdi!ir-wi^m-un. \ 
CiNDER-WBNCH, sln'diV-winfti. 5 

A woman whofc trade is to rake in heapt. 

of aihes for cinders. 
CiNERATiON, sln-fi-ri'diftn. s. The re- 

du&ion of anything by fire or albes. 
CiNERiTious, sin-^-rifti'ils. a. Having 

the form or ftate of aflies* 
ClNKRULENT, S^-Il^'d-ltet. a. (l2l). 

Full of aihes. 
Cinglb, slng'gl. s. (405). A girth 

for a horfe. 
Cinnabar, sln'na-bir. s. (166). Ver- 
milion, a mineral confifting of mercory and 

CiNNAM0N»sln'na-m4n s* (166). The 

fragrant bark of a low tree in the iflandof 

Cinque, sink. s. (415). A five- 
CiNQUE-FOiL, sink't6il. s. A kind of 

five -leaved clover. 
CiNQUK-PACE, slnk'pife. &. A kind of 

grave dance* 
Cinque-ports, sbk'p6rts. s. Thofc 

havens that lie towards France 
CiNcyjE-spoTTED, slnk'fp6t-tM. a* 

Having five fpois. 
CiON, si'ftn. s. (166). Afprout, a 

ftioot from a plant ; the ftoot engrafted oik 

Cipher, sl'fAr. s. (98). An arithme- 

ticaldiarader, by which fomc nmnbcr u 

noted, a figure; an arithmetical mark, which 
ftanding for nothing itfelf , incretfcs the va- 
lue of the other figures; an inteftexmrc of 
letters ; a chara Aer ta general ; a fecret or 
occult manner of writing, or the key to it. 
To Cipher, si'ftr. v. a. To praftife 

To Cipher, si'fAr. v. a. To write or 
I occvlt charaders* 

C I R 

^ K. ft:: ■ . A ClRCU^tAMUfKH^ 

fn beeut. 


To Ct»T L, 

nrur .: 


T. a, To move 

, to hnound ; 

Ill ;;iu 

To C»4^Li, 



, ii- To move cir- 
>). Having 

. A litde circle. 

3»ti any ihtng ; tKc 
rdc I (pac«. Client* 

M of the juclgtt for 

n* To mo^e 

^ . i£f^t-t€r« s. One that 

C ku-UV£kn.». The aa 

^» ' . L^Mupaft, maze 


vTilied by si t'lr- 

Ci T, $^Vf-Mr.lA nd. In 

r^ular m^ltiflt^ 
lot], ;ri|p. 

To Ct ^ *e/ku liltc r. a. To 


V * *. a. Be- 
st i)' 

To Ciit* uadAMDULATT,, fdr-' 
itm'M.mtc. V. n, (9ijv To ■ .. 

round 4)bout» 

To CiRC4/n4CJii| iir'lftm'iljfc v. a* 
To CM the prqTiicc, Accurdtti^ to the li« 

gkreii tn the Jcwu 
CtJtCOMCisiOx, sr , «. 

Th£ du ot ikd gI cv. ikirt. 

To Ciricu !vinu€ r, •^ij kum-diikt . v* a. 

CiACUMlffci ENCI:, ,C* 4. 

The periphery, the I i!fur- 

rnundifi^ itny thiiig ; th« ipj*.., tiuiolVd in j 
cirdc I the ettcnul p3it of ui orbiLLUi 
htdf ; at! tirb» 21 dtch. 
!^. (16$). An iiiUntmrnc uSed iii Cutcvci-ing, 
f(*r me«ruri(ij: ♦in!;^^'^** 

ttni \ikd I CI r<?gulate ite prcnundsikn of 

^ AHtjur profo<iifti tclUui^iltAe thcCircum* 

flrX JiCCClIt k^ .-..murJijM.n ^if rli,- -.rr i^jp ,n,4 

the icutc; RF ' 
of ;hc vokc 11 j' 
»rc«kfircd lui 
nuncbtion^ w. 

Mfsly pjy U&WUlluuid.. ; 
fore, in the aiKtriit an t.%. 

utiVfry* I he ' = 

ClKUmJli^Jl ili Vt.,ti,.];,.-j-f.L L. , I.. ..-. iijuj 

pri^fiiiitdjttcjn of it, to ntrAU tintlutvff marc 
than 1 mi g q tia n c i t y . — He c H a h v t ok i; » — I f 
iht infpifdor wtiuld wilh tu fte n rtttumal 
atcoiiM fjif f Jiii accentual wcU«» r.f T>ir . fm ♦ 
and tnaiff Itl liim cpnfult a wit ' 
liihcd by ih< Autiiof of thh Di ■ 
Jed A HimUrimt Cr^narf;irtihc ihitdi^iiiU'jU ; 
or, ^ K^fy in lift Chtjkitl Frittiuft*iitUon */ 
GffiJ jjhu/ /.^fJ^ FrapFT Nitmrt^ 

An mdorurc of witcr** 
CmctiJvirn^FKT, s4r*k6m'flfi^'^nt< a. 

flowing round any tMne- 
CiRiLuwtFt.uotrs, s^T'lc^ra'fl'*i-us* a. 
Edv ironing with watCTs. 

CiJicuMFORAKhouii, s^r-kftm-fd-rdW* 
tis- :u (3i4)/Waf\d,-ringfiromhoarp 

t(i houfc* 

To CiiicvMf ysBf s^r-kdm-fiV/e'. v. «. 
To pour tmnd^ 

e I R 


C 1 s 

^ (559).— Fitc, fir, fill, 

CiRCUMFusiLB, s^r-k'm-fj'sil. a. 

(427 '. That which may be poured round 

any thing. 
CiRCUMFusioN, s<5r-ki'im-fu'zh*'in. s. 

The i€t of fprcading round. 
To CiRCUMGiRATR, s^r-ki'm'j^-rAtc. 

.V. n. To roll round. 
CiKCUMGiRATioN.siir kAm-ji-ri'flii\n. 

s« The ad of running round. 
CiRCUMjAciNi, s^r-kuni-ji'sSnt. a. 

Lying round any thing. 
CiRCUMiTioN, s^r-kiim-i{h'lj[n. s. The 

i6t of going round. 
CiRCUMLiGATioN, s^r-kiSm-U-g^'- 

lhi"ln. s The aa of binding round ; 

the bond with which any thing u encom 
Circumlocution, s^r.ktoi-16 VA!- 

fh n. s; A circuit or compafs of 

words, periphraiis ; the life of indircA cx- 

CiRCUMMURED, s^r-kim-inird . a 

Walied round ,359 • ... ^ ,. 

gk'hl a. That which may be faikd 

To Circumnavigate, »^\ni-n4v'^- 

gite. V. a To fail round. 
Circumnavigation, sdr kum-nlvV: 

g^'lliftn. s. Theadt of failing round. 
CiRCUMPLicAT^'N, s^/ -kiim-pie-ki'- 

ihfln ^ The aft of enwrapping on 

every fide ; the ftatc of bcteg enwrapped. 
CiRcuMPOLAH, sfcj k'lm-pollr. a 

(418), Round the pole. ^ 

CiRCUMP 5iri.N sCr ki'im-p6 zifb'Qn. 

». The aA of placing any thing circularly. 
CiRCUMBA^iON, ser-k\in-r«i'zhiin. s. 

The aa of fbasring or paring round. 
Cjrcu liirROTAT ION, b^r kuni.r6.ti'- 

(Miti s The aa of v^iirling round 

liie awheel/* 
To Circumscribe, s^r-kim-ikiibe', 

V. a. To enclofe in certain lines or bounda* 

rie»| to bound) to limit, to confine. 
CiRCUMSCRiPTi N, ser kfim-fkrip'. 

fti:^in. fi. Deterraination of pMrticular 

form or magnitude ; limitation, confinement. 
CiRCUMSi RiPTiv^.ser-iim-ikrip'ilve 

a- Enclofing the fnpcrficics. 
Circumspect, ser'- I'lm-lp^kt. a. Cau- 

iiouAt attentive, watchful. 
CiRCUMSpiCTiov, ser-kAm-fp^k'/ht5n 

8. Watchfuloefs on every fide, caution, 

general attention. 
Circumspective, s^r kflm-fjpdk'tiv. 

R. Atteotrve, vigilant, cautious. 

fit ;•— m^, mix ;— pine, pin ;-^ 
CiRcuM8PECTivfcLY,s6r kftro-fptt-'dv. 

16. ad Cautioufly, vigilantly. 

Watchfully, vi^tantly. 
Ci R c u M s p E c T N E s s ,sir 'k Arti-l^jfekt-nds . 

8. Caution, vigilance. 

Circumstance^ s^rTcfim-ftanre. s. 
Something appendant or rdativcto a fad; 
accident, fofnething adventitious ; incident, 
event ; condition » ftatc of aifairg. 

To Circumstance sdrkiim ftsln/e. v. 
a. To place in particular fituatioo, or rela- 
tion to the things. 

Circumstant, sdr'kAm-ll«nt. a. Sur- 

Circumstantial, s^r-kftw-ftan'lhal. 
a. Accidental, not clTcntial ; incidental, 
cafual ; full of froall events, detailed, minute. 

Circumstantiality, s^r ki3fm-ftun- 
fti^-ul'^-t^. s. The flatc of any thing 
as modified by its feveral circumftances. 

Circumjtantiallv, s^r-kijin-ftln'* 
fhal 16, ad. According to circuin- 
ftances,not e^pntialiy ; minutely, cxaAly. 

To Circumstantiate, s6r.k5m-ftln' 
M'kit. V. a. (91). To place in par- 
ticular circumlkances ; to place in a partxcn- 
' br condition. 

V. a. (91). To encloie round with trendies 
or fortifications. 

CiRCUMVALLATioN, s6r-ki\ni vdl-li'- 
(hv'in 8 The art or aft of cafting up 
foitificatioM round a phce ; the fortific^iUon 
thrown up round a place befieged. 

CiRCUMVECTiON, serkfim-vek'fli^n.s. 
The aft of carrying round ; the ftatc ol be- 
ing carried round. 

To CiRcuMVPNT, s£t k&m-v^nt'. v. a. 
To deceive, to cheat. ^ 

CiRCuMVENrioK, sdr-killm-vdn'lhi(in.s. 

Fraud, inipoflurc, cheat, deluCon. 
ro (JiRcuMVPST. sSr-kAm-v&ft'. v. a. 
To cover round with a garment ; to fur- 

s. The ad of flying round. 

Circumvolve, s^r-kilin-v61v'. v. a. 
To roll round. 

Circumvolution, . s^^r-kflm-vA-W- 
fti^n. s. The aft of rolling round; 
the thing rolled round another' 

CIRC03, sir'kas. Is. (41s). An 

open ^pace or irea for fpons. 
Cist, sift. s. A cafe, a tegQ»enE> 
commonly the e&ciofure of a tsmour. 


j.iji4^>ita ill* < 

fiain fi 

U— P' 

. riii«« 

'^\ M ^'u;!!^^.*!!^ «)r n City t 
f Tt^hmcnt i Turn* 

i nmon tD 
i c*ll upon 

. ■ . * r , 

A ctif womnTi. 
. (i;S) A kind 

* (roj). A free- 

*- ^lurr, clear, «T)rf 


A lirge 


rcit dlccm* 


n-\vi'|t^l'. S, 


riL rind nfdtr*Tn$* 


L S* A pumpioii* 


A T --- -■ 'leaf-mof 

-lit! o4 a dty. 


g to ihe city* 
.. \yy,. A perfume 

a KdJtUDg to civrl 
n '. Rclatin;j: '- ~' ■mm- 

CKi Wr^<raa» ; well 

, ^ Qfil hw, 

ii^*.*^mt >v . , ,. lu 4v ( I ij). One 

, , .^ ., .. , - c,./l|i m, i, 

llic Half r«r Wf>^cirilti(-%lt Uif urt nf avi- 

ToCivaiji, slv'il t/c V a. To re- 
daitn frflm favi f p^f* and bnt£a)iry, 

ClTUTZ^B r f He thtii 

rccUJmi «i(Ih: , v M uad farvgir life, 

C»v»Liv, jiiv'ti 1^ .id In J manner 

^203\ 1*f> 

m til, pofTclUfm 

Cbckof amiiUa h 

corn li required lu be ptit ut. 
To(^rA€K« Ulii *r, n To maStc a 

chinking: noiu ; co frt the ton^e run* 
Cla!5, U'd putt^ prct. iiOJTi Clnthe. 

Ct(*tJicJ» in vt: fled J iforhcd. 
(komflil ill fiKlu, to ttq\r 

Claim, lUoic* «* A 
iTiing: ai due ; i title t*> .ir 
IrlTicjti in iht. lufiJ* ijf .. 
demand of mf f libg ib^t ^ 
t)f aitoLhtr. 

wlikb m^y be dcmiindtd d» due* 
Claimant, klS'mAiit s. He tlitit pie- 
man d* my thing a» unjiOly dcubcd hy 
Ci.AiaikR, tcU'muf, i. 49^)* He that 

miiket u dcn\3od* 
To Clamui'.iu ktli^'bi^r. 

cUmb *vith iliffirultf. 

To Clamm, kilni. r. n 
Mvlth any gtutinriwi miinfj* 

^ Thi^ word irtijrht to bi* writtcti with finale 
jw , byth friiin It* lE - -- V -^ '^ i*ti 4 rule 
rb at Ic cm 1 tt> h 1 vc • < j:^igp^ 

finfii^l^i th^t motiuij ' **irh 

3 cnJifotJ^int donot dftubk any ,,t 

the ^ud, cjtccpty; y, »Md i. 1 i. vc 

litiH, and the tctb ti> Mmmmt Jccm tbc otdf 

coiityi vlkklity. 
Clammy, kUm'in^v a, Vlkouu glu- 

CLAMiTfcouii, lt]4m'mar-fis. a, Voci- 

ftrou^ no*fy f J5J)» 
CtAMOUK, kiJni nn'tnt* (41^}^ Out- 

07, ooife, c%<ihm*iion^ vociferation- 
To C V A M o u n , k *4 IT* ' hj it r . V n * To 

mpike wtcrici, to ejw:LiAni, to vockfttat*. 

V, o. 

To cirig 



C L A 

CjT (559).— FAtc, flr, fill, fit ;— m^, mit ;— pine, pin ; — 

Clamp, kl4mp. s. A piece of wood 
joined to another to ftrengthen it ; a piece 
of iron ufcd to join ftones together ; a quan- 
tity of bricks. 

To Clamp, klimp, v. a. To ftrength- 
cn by means of, a damp« 

Clan, kl4n. s. A family, a race ; a 
body or fed of peribns. 

Clancular, kldng'kft-Wr. a. (88). 
Ciandeftine; fedret. 

Clandestine, kl^n-dds'tln. a. (140). 
Secret, hidden. 

Clandestinely, klin-d^s'tln<ld, ad. 
Secretly, privately. 

Clang, kling. s. A (harp, (hrill noife. 

To Clang, kldng. v. n. To clatter, 
to make a lond ihrill noife* 

Clangour, kling'gdr. s. (3i4)« A 
load ihrill foond. 

CLANGOus«kling'gi&s. a. Making a 

Clank, kl4nk. s. A loud, fhrill, 
iharp noife. 

To Clap, klip. v. a. To ftrike toee- 
ther with a quick motion ; to put one thing 
to another fuddenly ; to do any thing with 
a fudden hafty motion ; to celebrate or praife 
1>y cla]>ping the hands, to appkud ; to infe A 
with a Tcnereal poifon ; To clap up, to com- 
l^ete fttddcnly. 

To Clap, klip. v. n. To move nim- 
bly, with a noife ; to enter with alacrity 
and briiknefs upon any think ; to ftrike the 
hands together in appiaufc* 

Clap, klip. s. A load noife made by 
fudden coUxfion ; a fudden or unezpeded ad 
cr motion ; an ezplofion of thunder ; an ad 
of applanfe ; a venereal infedion; the ne- 
ther part of the beak of a hawk. 

Clapper, klip'p^r. s. (98). One 
who claps with his hands ; the tongue of 
a bell. 

To Clapperclaw, klip'pdr-kliw. 
▼. a. To tongue-beat, to fcold. A low 

Clarenceux, orCLAft£Ncisux,klir'- 
£n-(h&. s. The fecond king at arms : 
fo named from the dutchy of Clarence. 

Clare*obscure, kU^e^b-fkll^e^ s. 
light and ihade in painting* 

Claret, klir'<&t. s. French wine. 
Claricord, klir^d-k^rd. s. A mufi- 
cal inftrument in form of a fpinet. 

Clarification, klir-d ft-ki'Mn. s. 
The ad of making any thing dear from 
ToCvARiFY, klir'tfl. v. a 

to purify or clear; to brighten, to Illumi- 

Clarion, klire'yftn. s. {113) (534)^ 
A trumpet. 

Clarity, klir^d-td. s. (5U>. Bright- 
nefs, fplendour. 

Clary, kl4'r^. s. An herb. 

To Clash, kliQi. v. n. ^To make a 
noife by mutual collifion ; to ad with op« 
pofite power, or contrary diredion ; to con* 
tradid, oppofe. 

To Clash, klifh. v. a. To ftrike one 
thmg agaxnft another. 

Clas h, klaili. s . A noify colllGon of 
two bodies ; oppofition, contradidion. 

Clasp, klafp. s. A hook toholdany 
thing dofc ; an embrace. 

To Clasp, klifp. v a. To (hut with 
a clafp ; to catch hold by twining ; to indole 
between the hands; to embrace ; to indofe. 

Claspp.r. klas'pijr. s. The tendrils 
or threads of creeping plants. ^, • 

Clasp knife, klifp'nife. 8. A kntfe 
which folds into the handle. 

Class, klis. s. A rank or «rder of 
perfons; a number of boys learning the 
fame leflbn ; a fet of beingtor things. 

To Class, klis. y a. To range ac- 
cording to fome ftated method of alftribu- 

Classical, klis's^-kil. 

Classick, klis'slk. 


of the 

a. Relating, 
firft order or 

An author of 

s. Order, fort. 

to antique authors; 

Classick, klis'slk. 

the firft rank. 
Classis, klis'sls. 

To Clatter, klit'tir. t. n. To 

make a noife by knocking two fooorous 

bodies frequently together ; to utter a noife 

by being ftiuck together ; to talk faft and 

To Clatter, klit'tiV.v. a. To ftrike 

any thing fo as to tnake it found ; to dxfpote, 

jar, or clamour. 
Clatter^ klit'tAr. s. A rattling 

noife made by frequent colli£ioa of fonoroos 

bodies ; any tumultuous and coofufedooife. 
Clavatbd, kliv'i-tdd. a. Knobbed. 
Clavdent, klaw'ddnt. a. Shotting, 

To Claudicatb, kl&w'd^kite. ▼. n. 

To halt. 
Claudication, kliw-d^-ki'fliAn. s. 

I The habit of halting. 
Clave, klive. The preterit of Cleaye. 


«*lli,m^vct fi^r, nil; tAbe, tfib, Wll i^H ;^pd4od i-^ttn, Tliti. 

Ci U&w'trM. a. Uclatlng 


^ L *^ foot of a l»eaii 

^T ^ a>it«; A hand* in 

^To €law» V\Vw. t. a. To tear wiih 

tfStU or * " ^ • .^-^ ~ *' -rdi ingtftierah 
^^Ci. • ^ ' , ..^ ... --«™. -* A flatterer, 

^BCl.i '^ ^ ' Tfj)^ Fumlfhed 

^PCla,, r,.^. ,. ^.„.,».ous and tctiacl- 

■ To Ci.4Y, kU* V, a. To cover vnth 

■ Ct.* v.rr„ „ it^Tr^li a. Cold ^ the 

" C* -jius, A pit vrhere 

Cu^, Ji* 1. ConGfllisg of^by* 

Ct.4riiAiit, kfi^mM. s« A chalky 

HA?!, y^oe^ a. (Ji")* Free from 


.-,.u T. a* To fiec horn 
lUn'i^M, ad. (3J4)* 

To u:,, 

Ct f . , . . Kii>fi'W-o*4. »• Free 

Cli ^mls, IIX.T1I4 a. (134)* Frc<: 


i'Tt^n-k pare ill Uie peffoti; that 

PK r, 




?)* To 

iffi fuilt ; 

1 ^ ' ^ ^ou» humavri I to free b^pev 

C KiLn'fviV. i, (9M). That 

C, . - - ' — ■■ »'-v^^- pd- 


tree iram pnikcittiotti or tmputei) gmlt, 
IfuiltJrS ; Jrtrc itxjtn dcdu^mtttt tar iacum- 
br^iicr^ -. out of debt ; utiinnuglccj i ml a 

it)g diftiiiiflJy. 

Cliiar, klttc, ad* Clean, qtikti com- 


To CLifAii) kl^c, V* a* To utukc 

bright, to brigluen ; to fiti: from obfcmrity ; 
to purge from tlic impiiL.^rioii of guik, t^ 

juOify J to dcinfc ; to '- ^ * - Tj^ove 

any ill L umbra nee * to Mn^ 

ofTcnfiVL* i til cUrify, ;-i _ -_.. .. ^_-x- , ta 
giiu withtut dcUudioti. 

ToCLhAK, kUrc, V. n. To grow 
bfight* to recover tranfparenqf \ to be dlf- 
eugfigtid from mcumbrancc^ m ei)i4ngle- 

CLVAitAitcE, kl^'rinfe. s, A ceitiE* 
cate tli2t 1 (tiijp lia« bccti dritrtd ai tlieeu- 

CLEAttEK, ktcrc'ftr* &. Bnghiener, 
puri£tr, cnUgbtncr* 

Clicarlv^ kii^rc'16. ad, T iu* 

iiimoully; pUmlj, evidefiti) cru- 

i|i«m,acutf1y I without cntaii^LmE:ijt ; wtth^ 
otit d<:dui5tiimi!r co!i| wttiuiiit f^rYf, with- 
out fubterfugc* 

CtT.AfLHi^s, kl^rc*o^4. i* Tmnfpa- 

rcticy^ brightiie£i ; fjilcodour* kilre | dif- 
tKuSocfi, p^rfpiaiity. 

Clearsighted, kl^rC'si't^d* a. Dtt 

cerEUDgf judicictus. 
To CLtAKsTARCK, kl&re^il4rt!h* v,a. 

To ftiffcn with ftarck* 
Clearstarch lit, kMre'ftirtih4r. 5. 

Doe w|i«i WiLflif » ^tie litien* 
To Cleave, kj^ve- v. lu {227). To 

adbc!re,tn O-icki to hold to; to unkt aptl|r, 

Ig fit ', to imitc in concord ; to be coQ<:oiniC' 

ToCt-EAVKt WiJve. V* a. To divide 

with violence, to fpUt ; to divide* 

To Cllaife, kl^vc. V. n. To pait 

af under ^ cu CufFer diviliOEi* 
CtEAV£R» kl^^Vtes. {98). Abuteher'B 

inflrumeiit to cut ariitn^ti uito jointi. 
Cli^f, klLL s. A miitk at the beginning 

of the iindi of a fong, whkh ihewithc ton^t 

trkey in whith ih? pice; ii t«b<Tjiii* 

G L I 


C L I 

*3r It is the comniMi fault of Profcmotrs, li 
bcral aa well as mcchacica!, to vitiate their 
technical terms. ITius, «▼«« without the 
plea of brevity, cUf is changed by muficians 
into tUff, 

Cleft, Jcl^ft. part. pafs. from Cleave. 

Clbft kl^ft s. A fpace made by the 
feptration of parts, a cracli ; in farriery, 
clefts are cracks in the heels of a hoife. 

To CLbFTGRAFT, k^^tt'grAft. V. 3. To 
engraft by cleaving the (lock of a tree. 

Clemf.ncy, kUm'men-s^ s. Mercy, 
rcmiffion of fcvcrity. 

Cl! MhNT, klto'md^nt. a. Mild, gen- 
tle, merciful. 

To C\« PF, kUpe. V. a. To call, to 
name. Sec Yclbped. Obfoletc. 

Clrroy, k.^r'j6. P. The body of men 
let apart by due ordination for the fervicc 
of God. 

Clergyman. kliir'j^-raAn. s. (88). A 

man in holy orders, not a laick. 
Clrrical, kl^r'^k^l. a. Relating to 

tht clergy. 
Clerk, kllrk. s. < lOo). A clergyman ; 


^ (559).— Fite, f&r, f^U, fAt ;— m^, m^t ;--pine, pin ;— 

Cmmacter, kli-m^k'tiV. $. (122J. A 
certain progrefllon of ycan,fiippofed to end 
in a dangerous time of life. 
Climacterick, krim-ik-t^rVik. 

CLfMACTERiCAL, kllm4k.tfir'r^ | 


Containing ^ certain number of ycara, at 
the end of which fome great change is fup- 
pofcd to befal the body. 
Climate, kli'mAte. s (91). A fpacc 
upon the furface of the earth, meafured from 
the e<iuator to the polar circles ; in each of 
which fpaces the longeft day i^ half an hour 
longer. From the polar circles to the poles 
climates are meafured by the incrcafe of % 
month 5 a region or trad of land diifering 
from another by the temperature of the air. 
CbiMATURfc, kli'mi-tlhire. s. (4^3> 

The fame with Climate. 
Climax, kli'maks. s. Gradation, 
afcent, a figure in rhctorick, by which the 
fentence rifcs gradually. 
To Climb, klime. v. n. To afccttd to 

any place. 
To Climb, klime. v. a. To afcend. 
Climber, kli'miir. s. Ontf tiiAtmounts 
or fcales any place, a mounter, a rifer ; a 
pUnt that creep* upon other fupports ; the 
name of a particular herb. 
Clime, klime. fi. Climate, region ; 

tratft of earth. 

To Clinch kllntti. v. a. To hold in 

hand with the fingers bent ; to contrad or 

double the fingers ; to bend the point of a 

nail in the other fide ; to confirm, to fix, as 

To clinch an argument. 

Clinch, kllnlh. s. A pun, an ambi- 

guity. f. 

Clincher, kllnfti'fir. s. (98). A 

cramp, a holdfaft. 
To Cling, kllng. v. n. To hanj» npon 

by twining round ; to 4ry up, to confumc. 
Clingy, kUng'4. a. Clinging, adhe- 

Climical, krin'^-k&l ? ^ K^.ping Uic 
CuNicK, klin'ik. > 

bed through ficknefe. 
ToClisk, klingk. v. n. (405). ^o 

utter a (inall interrupted noife. 
CLiNK,kl.ngk. 5.(405). Afliarpfuc- 

ccflive noife. . 

CLiNQi7Ai.T, kUngk'ant. a. Shmmg, 
glittering. ,1 

To Clip, klip. ▼. a. To embrace, hy 
throwing the arms round; to cut with 
ihcan ; it is particuUrly \ifcd of tliofe who 

t fcholar, a man of letters ; a man employed 
under another as a writer ; a petty writer 
in public offices ; the layman who reads the 
refponfcs to the congregation in the church, 
to dired the reft. 

Clerkship, klark'fliip. s. Scholarfhip; 
the offce of a dcrk of any kind. 

Clkver, kl^vCir.a. (9ii). Dexterous, 
ikilfttl ; juft, fit, proper, commodious ; well- 
fiiiaped, handfome. 

Cleverly, U6v', Dextcroufly, 
fitly, handfomely. 

CLEvBRNEss,kl^:v'Tir.n^s. s. Dexterity, 

Clew, klCi. s. Thread wound upon a 
bottom ; a guide, a dircaion. 

To Clew, klu. ▼. a. To cleu- the 
fails, is to raife them in order to be furled. 

To Click, klik. v. n. To make a 
fliarp, fucceflivc noifc. 

Client, kli'^nt. s. One who applies 
to an advocate for counfcl and defence ; a 
dependant. . « t j 

CLifeNTF.D,kU'^n-tW. part. a.Supplied 
with clients. 

Clientele, kli-en-t^le'.s.Thc condi- 
tion or office of a client. 

Clientship, kli'^nt-lhip. s. The con- 
ditiou of a client. 

Cliff, kllf. s. A fteep rock, a rock. 

Clift, Hift. s. The faaic with Qiff. 

F^A, m^Tc* n^, aAt;— tibc, tAb, b^,U ;— 611 ;— p6^il ^ 


h refill ; tr> ^ItrUil, In cut ^m, 
"; to Md 

- '^nc tiKit drba* 

^4j[i jj"^]t3,> ^' The ptut mit 
*^ivc outer gai'nietit ; 

■ oon< 
To CtuA k^ kI6kt:, v.*. To cover witli 

t icd 

f . Anar- 

^k* s. Move- 

lJiki*s. -' ' or cby; 

U(iW, »l I lull. 

To gather uito 
_, — _, .. i To pdt with 

. 1. ziiu*.! iili" 

[ C* . .^J. a* Doltish, 

1 : 

C**"-.---* ^,^.* Aihicksculh 

T" Ci oo, W>^ * ^* Tr> I.. ..1 nit! J 
^hbip tliAt . lo 

r. Irt otiii , i It'll. 

cc hung 
e, an ti|j- 
>iiiii,l shoe w«rii 
ij fruiji we I ; ii 

u'Uits.s, Thc&uti 

ICi T^S n, (283). That 

T^ :. V- ft. Tti 

n iii.9t KiiNS (dStl'Pfll^i. Soli* 

. iniTi, i;(i ijinit iric- 

MlV Ttllf. 
un ' ' - ' iH«i» li«t£KwkHp«- 

CLot . i . i'tr^- II, A Bua. 

f. LOMm L L. of To rtiml). 

I'tj CtooM. f i ^fTti V, a. To ^liuf, 

with ¥itcoi« mutter. 
ToC ■ 

tiirt * 

To C'lohEv klAzc. V. n* To rrir-^-*- ■ - »i^ j 
join ii» own parti tojfHhtr ( I 
tMi^ to ugTvr t»prm i Tij tloM' \. , 
close hi vritlu to c^me to tfi Agrccmrn 
witli^ lo unite with. 

C LtimK, kliVsc. 3- A stTi;] i 

CLuSK^kli^£e. s. ThtMii 
up J SI grjjpyilc \n vtTvuXimg i i^ pwi*c < 
i:c3i!nlioii ; a viir»cln»k.»n or ctnL 

CtoaK, M^K. a. (dar) (409). Shu 
fast ; without vtnt, m ithnnt liiliii ; cunfin^ 

withimt ahv in ' f*f unr p or «parc ; 

joined Oil .: 

illcy ; U' ' 

^iraeercejt ti-naty ; 

c U>utl y * \v i ti I n ut w . ^ , 

hill to tlic |K>ml, home ; reiirt'di scilitMr)^ i 
se rinded fhJm conirnunicution j dnrk, 
dotidy, not rlcar. 

CrosiEBODtt^D, kl(^!;c-hAd'?fL a. (99), 
M*dc to f»t the- biji ! 

Closeuandko, kli .^4 n* Cc 

vcimj« J more c^jmnioiily i^i^oiRrit t fc| 

Closicly, klAst'l^. ad. \V ithout jnlctc 
otitkl ; wilUdtit mnrh sjmrr inti^nctiing 
mmtly \ stcrctly, ulUy j wlilioutdcvijition 

C LOftki N V, ii^, kliV&c'n4:s. s# 11 le bt^tte of 
inking diiit ! ni*nw>vvn«-«tt, ntrahncsB t wjint 
of air, nv vi^ntd&tion , compsictncitii^ Ni»li* 
dily ; irecluAeutsSpSohiudc, retirryricnti 
BccrKcy, privicy ; rtivt'tonsncss, siy tm 
picc J comiexion, dcptodance. 

Ctosfcii, kWx.ur^ a. A finbhcr, a cc 

r s . o !i L s T o t J L, kl 6sc 'm66K » . A cha 
bcT imptemcr.t 

i;Lost:TT klA^'iL s. {99)< A small n^om^ 

of privacy tind rciir*? mem t a privAtc n-^ 
IHjiiilor\ of curloshk*- 

fo Closet, khjK'^tU Vi a» To ihtittTp« 
or cnnceid in a clrtari ; lo lak^ Imo m cId* 
set fijr m secret interview- 

*"j.'tHUBi ttr- «- (452), The 

flit -•'' ■; tljMt by wTih-h any 

(!u i ►>! ^hu\ I The pits inclos' 

ill- . tom-Iiision, end. 

C L O 


C L O 

it?* (559).— Fite, far, f4ll, fdt;— mfi, mdtj-^b^ pln;~ 

To Clot, kl6t v. n. To form clots, to 
hang together ; to concrete, to coagulate. 

Cloth, kldrA. s. (467). Any thing 
woven for dress or covering ; the piece 
of linen spread upon a table ; the canvass 
on which pictures are delineated ; in tiie 
•plural, dress, habit, garment, vesture. 
Pronounced Kloze. 

To Clothe, kl6THe. v. a. (467). To 
invest with garments, to cover with 
clress ; to adorn with dress ; to furnish 

^ or provide with clothes. 

Clothes, kl6ze. s. Gann<snt, raiment ; 
those coverings of the body that are 
made of cloth. 

CCT This word is not in Johnson's Vocabu- 
lary, though he has taken notice of it un- 
der the word Cloth, and says it is the plu- 
ral of that word. With great deference to 
his authority, 1 think it is rather derived 
from the x-erb to clothe, than from the noun 
cloth, as this word has its regular plural 
cloths, which plural regularly sounds the 
th as in thU (469), and not aszt which is 
a corruption that, in my opinion, is not in- 
curable. I see no reason why we may not 
as easily pronounce the th in this Mrord as 
in the third person of the verb To clothe. 

Clothier, kliTHe'yir. s. (113). A 
maker of cloth. 

Clothing, kliTHe'ing. s. (410). 
Dress, vesture, g^arments. 

Clothshearer, kl6M'sh6cr-iir. s. 
One who trims the cloth. 

Clotpoll, kl6t'p6le. s. Thickscull, 

To Clotter, kl6t'tfir. v. n. To con- 
crete, to coagulate. 

Clotty, kloVti. a. Full of clots, con- 

Cloud, k\6<id. s. The dark collection 
of i-apours in the air *, tlie veins or stains 
in stones, or other bodies ; any state of 
obscurity or darkness. 

To Cloud, kl6£id. v. a; To darken 
with clouds ; to obscure, to make less 
evident j to variegate with dark reins. 

ToCLOUD,kl6iid.v.n. To grow cloudy. 

CLOUDBERRy,kl6{idVr-r6.s. Aplant, 
called also Knotbeny. 

Cloudcapt, kl6tid'k4pt. a. Topped 
with clouds. 

Cloudcompelling, kl6Wk6m-p^l- 
llng. a. (410). An epithet of Jupiter, 
by whom clouds were supposed to be col- 
lected. '' 

Cloudilt, kl^&d'dM^. ad. With 
clouds, darkly ; obscurely, npt pecspicu- 

Cloudiness, kl6&'d^-n^« s. 'Ci\e 
state of being covered with cloyd»» dark- 
ness i want of brightness. 

Cloubless, kl6^1dab a. Cleafy un« 
clouded, liimin&us« 

Cloudy, kI6(id'd^. av Obscured with 
clouds ; dark, obscure, not intelligible ; 
gloomy of look, not open, not cheerful ; 
marked with spots or veins. 

Clough, or Clo^f, kl6ff. The cleft 
of a hill, a diiF; an allowance in weight. 

Clove, kl&ve. Preterit of Cleave. 

Clove, kl^re. s. A Taiuable spice 
brought from Temate ; tlie irfiit or seed 
of a veiy large tree; some of the patts. 
into which girlie separates. 

Clove-gilliflower, kl6ve-jin^- 
fi6&r.s. A flower smelling like cloves. 

Cloven, klA'vn. (103). Part. pret. 
from Cleave. 

Cloven-footed, klA'vn-fiit-^d. ? 

Cloven-hoofed, k]6Vn-h6dft. 3 *' 
Having the foot divided into two parts. 

Clover, kli'vtir. s. A species of 
trefoil J To live in clwcr, is to live lux- 

Clovered, kli'vArd.a.(359). Cover- 
ed with clover. 

Clout, kl6i£lts. A cloth for any mean 
use ; a patch on a shoe or coat ; ancdent- 
ly the mark of white cloth at which arch. 
crs shot; an iron place to an asle-trce. 

To Clout, kl6&t. v. a. To patch, to 
mend coarsely ; to cover with a cloth ; 
to join awkwardly together.* 

Clouted, kidd'tid. part a. Con- 
gealed, coagulated. 

Cloutehly, kl6ti'ti^4^. a. Clumsy, 

Clown, kldtm. s. A rustick, a churl ; 
a coarse ill4ired man. '' 

Clownery, klMn'flr-r6. s. Ill breed- 
ing, churlishness. 

Clownish, kl6(in'lsh. a. Consisting of 
nisUcks or clowns ; uncivil, ill-bred j 
clumsy, ungfainly. 

CL0WNi8HLY,kld&n'lsh-l^. ad. Coarse- 
ly, rudely. 

CLowNi8HNESs,kl&{in'lsh-n6s.s. Rus- 
ticity, coarseness ; incivility, brutality. 

CLbwN's^MusTARD, k]6(Uiz-mAs't{ird. 
s. An herb. 

To Cloy, kl6^. v. a. To satiate, to 
sate, to surfeit ; to naU up guns, by stxjk* 
ing a spike into the touch-hole. 

Cloy LESS, kld^l^s. a. That which 
cnnnat ^ause satiety. . 

C O A 


C O A 

— dA, mdve, nAr, not ;«— tube, tftb, b^dl ;— All ;■ 

Clotji BNT, klA^^mAnt. s. Satiety, re- 

Club, klAb. s.. A heavy stick ; the name 
of one of the suits of cards ; the shot or 
diyidend of a reckoning*; an aasemblv of 
good fellows ; coucurrencet contribution, 
joint charge. 

To Clu b, il^h. ▼. n. To contribute to 
common expense t to join to one effect. 

To Club, kl^bu v. a. To pay a com 
mon reckoning. 

Clubueadkd, kl^b'hM-^.a. Having 
a thick head. 

Cl\}bl\w, kl6b'14w. s, 

Clubroom, klCib'r66m. 8. The roohi 
in which a club or company assembles. 

To Cluck, kliik. v. n. To call chick 
ensy as A ben. 

Clump, kli^p. s. A shapeless piece 
of wood; a sroall duster of trees. 

Clumps, kldmps. s. A numbscull, 

Clumsily, kldm'z^-W. ad. Awk- 

Clumsiiskss, klftm'z^-n^s. s. Awk- 
wardness, ongainliness, want of dexterity. 

Clumsy, kldm'z^, a. Awkward, hea- 
ry, unhandy. 

Clung, kJiing. The preterit and par- 
ticiple of cling*. 

Cluster, klAs'tfir. s. (98). A bunch; 
a number of things of the same kind 
growing or joined together ; a number 
of animals gathered together ; a body of 
people collected. 
To Cluster, klis'tflr. V. n. To grow 
in bunches. 

To Clustkr, klib'tdr. v. a. To col- 
lect any thing into bodies. 

Clusieb-obape, ki^s^t&r«gr4pe. s. 
The small bUck grape, called the ouirant. 

Clustebt, klds"tdr-ii. a. Growing in 

To Clutch, kl^tsh. v. a. To hold in 
the hand; to gripe, to grasp; to con- 
tract, to double the hand. 

Clutch, kl&tsh. s. The gripe, grasp, 
seizure ; the paws, the talons. 

Clutter, kldt'tfip. s. (98). A poise, 
a bustle, a huny. 

To Clutter, Uiit'tAr. v. n. To make 
a noise or bustle. 

Cluster, kils't^. s. An injection into 
the anus, 

fo Coacervate, li6-i-s^r'vAte. v, a. 
(91) (503, b.) To heap up together. 

a:^£Tery dictionary but Entick's baa the ac- 
cent oo the penultimicte syllable of this 

-p6^nd ;— //iin, this. 

word ; and that this is the true accentua- 
tion we may gather from tlie tendency of 
the accent to rest on the same syllable as 
in the Latin word it is derived from, when 
the same number of syllables are in both ; 
as in coacervo and coacervate. — See Arie- 


CoACERVATioN, k6-as-s^r-vi'shAn. s. 
Tlie act of heaping. 

Coach, kitsh. s. A carriage of plea- 
sure or state. 

To Coach, k6tsh. v. a. To carry in a 
The law of Coach-box, kotsh^b^ks. s. The seat 
on which the driver of the coach sits. 

CoACH-HiR£, kotsh'hlre. s. Money 
paid for the use of a hired coach, 

CoACH-MAN, k6tsh'min. s. (88). The 
driver of a coach. 

To CoACT, ko-akt'. v. n. To act toge- 
ther in concert 

Co ACTION, k6-ik'shCin. s. Compulsion, 

CoACTivE, k6-4k'tlv. a. (157). Having 
the force of restraining or impelling, 
compulsory ; actings in concurrence. 

CoADJUMENT, ko-sid'ju-ment. s. Mu- 
tual assistance. 

CoADjuTANT, k6-ad'jiLi-tdnt. a. Help- 
ing, co-operation. 

Coadjutor, ko-dd-jA'tAr. s. (166). A 
fellow-helper, an assistant, an associate ; 
in the canon law, one who is empowered 
to perform the duties of another. 

CoADJUVANCY, k6-dd'j(i-vAn-s6. s. 

Help, concurrent help. 
CoADUNiTioN, kA-3.d-u-nlsh'An. s. 

The conjunction of different substances 

into one mass. 
To Co acme NT, kA-dg-m^nt'. ▼. a. 

To congregate. 


g. Coacer\'ation into one mass, union. 

Co AG UL ABLE, k6-ag'iMi-bI. a. That 
which Is capable of concretion. 

To Coagulate, korag'u-lite. v. a. 
(91). To force into concretions. 

To Coagulate, k6-ig'(i-lite, v. n, 
To run into concretions. 

Coagulation, k6-4g-ft-sli'shiin. s. 
Concretion, conjg^lation j the body form- 
ed by coagulation. 

Coagulative, kd-dg'i'i-ld-tiv. a. That 
which has the power of causing concre- 

Coagulator, k6-ig'ii-14-ttir. s.(521). 
That which causes coagulation. 

Coal, k6le. s. (295), The commp^ 

C O A 


€ OC 

tD* (559),— F4te, far, fill,' fSt ;— mi, taa;— pbe^ pin?-*- 

fojisW fewcl ; the cinder of burnt vrood, 
charcoal. ' 

To Coal, k61e. v. n. To bum wood to 
charcoal j to delineate with a coal, 

CoAL-BLACK> k6le'blik. a* Black in 
the highest degree. 

Coal-mine, koleWne* s. A mine in 
which coals are dug. 

Coal-pit, kAle'pit. s. A pit for dig- 
ging^ coals. 

CoAL^TONE, kile'stAne^ s., A sort of 
cannel coal. 

CoAL-woRK, k&leVJkrk. s* Acoalerj, 
a place where coals are found. 

CoALERT, kil^r-^. s. A place where 
coals are dug. 

To Coalesce, k6-i-l^s'« v. n. To 
unite in masses ; to grow together, to join. 

CoAL&scENCB, kopi4^s^S^nse. s. Con- 
cretion, union. 

CoALiTioiT, k6«'d-lish'!!^n* s. Union in 
one mass or body. 

Coaly, k6'i^9 a. Containing coal. 

Coaptation, k6-ip-td'sh(in. s. The 
adjustment of parts to each other. 

To CoABCT, k6-irkt'« y. a- To strait- 
en, to confine j to contract power. 

Coarctation, k6-lTk-t&'8hAn.s. Con- 
finement, restraint to a narrow space; con- 
traction of any spape j restraint of liberty. 

Coarse, k&rse. a« Not refined; rude, 
uncivil ; gross ; inelegant ; luiaccomplish- 
ed by education ; jnean, vile. 

Coarsely, kirse' Without fine- 
ness, meanly, not eleg^antly } rudely, not 
civilly; ineleg^^mtly. 

Coarseness, k6|*se'n^8« s. Impurity* 
unrefined state i roughness, want of fine- 
ness ; grossness, want of delicacy ; rude- 
ness of mourners; meanness, wiint of nicety. 

Coast, k6ste. s. The edge or margin 
of the land ne^ the sea, the sliore ; The 
coast is clear, the danger is over. 

To Coasj, k6ste« t. n, To sail by the 

To Coast, k^ste. v. ^, To sail by, or 
near a place. 

Coaster, k6s'tiir. &• He that sails ti- 
morouslv near the shore. 

Coat, kotc. s« The uppep garment ; 
petticoat, the habit of a boy in his infan- 
cy, the lower part of a woman^s dress ; 
vesture, as demonstrative of the office ; 
the covering of any aninud{ any tegu- 
ment I that on which the ensigns armo* 
rial at« portrayed. 

To Coat, k6te. v. a. To cover, to ip- 

To CoAX^k6k8. V. a« To wheedle, to 

' flatter. 

CoAXER, k^ks'£^r« s. A wfaeedier^ a 


Cob, k6b. s. The head of a top. 

Cob, k6b. s. A sort off sea-fowl: 

Cobalt, kob'&lt. s. A marcasite plen- 
tifully impregnated with arsemck. 

To Cobble, k6b'bl. v.>a. (405). To 
mend any thing coarsely ; to do or make 
any thing clumsily. 

Cobbler, k&bl^r. s. (98). A mender 
of old shoes ; a clumsy workman in ge- 
neral ; any mean person. 

C.obirons, k6b'i-imz. s. Irons vith a 
knob at the upper end. 

Cobishop, k6-blsh'Ap. s. A coadjutant 

Cobnut, k6b'ni5t. s. A boy's game. 

Cobswak, k6b'sw6n. s. The head or 
leading swan. 

Cobweb, kib'wtb. s. The web or n<^ 
of a spider; any snare or trap. 

CocciFBRous, k^k-sif'f^r-riis. a- 
Plants are so called that have bemes. 

CociiiKEAL, kCltch'in-e^l. s. (165). An 
insect fixim which a red colour is ex- 

CocHLEAHY, k6k'lM-re. a. (355). 

CocHL^ATED, k6k'l^^A-t£d. a. Of a 
screwed or turbinated form. 

CocK, kok. s. The male to the hSi; 
the male of any small birds ; the weather- 
cock tliat shows the direction ofthe vnnd i 
a spout to let out wateror any other liquor 
at wiU ; the notch of an arrow ; the part 
ofthe loek of » gun that strikes with flint ; 
a cockboat, a small boat ; a small heap of 
hay ; the form of a hat; the style of a 
dial ; the needle of a balance ; Cock-a- 

^ >oop, triumphant, exulting. 

To Cock, kok. y. a. To set erect, to 
hold bojt upright » to set \q> the hat with 
an air of petulance ; to mould the form of 
the hat ; to fix the cock of a gun for a. 
discharge ; to raise hay in small heaps. 

To Cock, k6k, v. n. To strut, to hold 

up th^ head; to tr^ or use flghtlng* 

Cockade^ k6k-k4de^ s/ A ribband 

worn in the hat. 
Cockatrice, k6k'4-trise. s. (H3). A. 

serpent supposed to fise from a cockfs 

Cockboat, k&k'b^te4 s. A small boat. 

belonging to a ship. 
CocKBRoTHjkok^rirA.s. Broth madtr 

bv boiling a cock. 




C0CKCROWIXO9 k6kfkr6-lng. a. The 
time at which cocks crow. 

To CocK&B, k6k'kik. v. a. To fon- 
dle, to indulge. 

CocKBRt kdk^k^r. s. (98). One who 
follows the sport of cockfightui^. 

Cf>CKER£L, k6k'k6r4i, s. (555). A 
yoon^ cock. 

CocKET, kokltk. s, (99). A seal be- 
kinging'to the king's custom-house ; like- 
wise a scroll of parchment delivered by 
the ofBcers of the custom-house to mer- 
chants as a warrant tliat tlieii* merchan- 
dize is entered. 

CocKTiGHT, k&kTite. s. A match of 

Co c K H OB SE, kftk'h^rse. a. On horse- 
back, triumphant 

Coc&LE, kokiLL s. (405). A small 

Co€KZ.£STAiR5, k6k^l-stire8. 8. 
Winding*, or spiral stairs. 

Coc KLK, kok'kl. 8. A weed that grows 
in corn, com-rose. 

To CocBLB, kok^. V. a. To contract 
into wrinkles. 

Cockled, kok'kW. a. (359). Shelled, 
or turbinated. 

Cockloft, koklofL s. The room 
orer the garret. 

CocKMASTEB, k6k'mas-t^r. 8. One 
that breeds g^ame cocks. 

CoGKMATCH, k6k^matsh. s. Cock- 
fight for a prize. 

CocKXBT,k6k'n^. s. (270). A native 
of London ; any effeminate, low citizen. 

Cockpit, kok'plt. s. The area where 
eocks fight ; a place on the lower deck of 
« man of war. 

CocK's-coxB, k6ks'k6me. s. A plant, 
loose wort. 

Coc rVrbad, k6ks^b^d. s. A plant, 

CocKSPVE, k&k'spdr. s. Virginian 
hawthorn. A species of medlar. 

CocKscRK, kSk-fthddr'. a. Confident- 
ly certain. 

CocKSWAiK, k6k^sn. s. The officer 
that has the command of the cockboat 
Comiptly C^Aya.— See Boatswain. 

CocBWEED, k6kV6W. s. A plant, 
(UUander or pcpperwort. 

Cocoa, k6^k6. s. A specie of palm- 

CocTii.a,k6k'tU. a. (140). Made by 

Coc Tion, k6Vshto. «, The act of 

s. A sea fish. 

b^l ; — 6il ; — p6imd ; — thin^ this. 

Cod, kod. > 

Codfish, k6d'flsh. 3 

Cod, kod, s. Any case or husk in 
whicli seeds arc lodged. 

To Cod, kod. v. a. ToinckMeinacod. 

Code, k6de. s. A book; a book of 
the civil law. 

Codicil, kod'c-sil. s. An appendage 
to a will. 

Codille, kA-dll'. s. A term at om- 
bre and quadrille. 

To Codle, kud'dl. v. a. (405). To 

G^ How Dr. Johnson could be guilty of so 
groBH an o\ersip;^lit bm to spell this woiti 
and its compounds with one d is incon- 
ceivable. By the general rule of English 
pronunciation, as the word stands here. 
It ought to be pronounced with the o long, 
tlie first syllable rhyming with go^ no, aiia 
to. False and absurd, however, as this 
spelling is, the veneration I liave for Dr. 
Johnson's authority forbids me to alter it 
in this Dictionary, though I shall never 
follow it in practice. Perhaps the same 
veneration induced Mr. Sheridan to let 
this word stand as he found it in John.son. 
Dr. Kcnrick has ventured to insert ano- 
ther d in the verb ; but in the substantive, 
derived irom the present participle Cod- 
lihgf lets it stand with one d. Some will 
be apt to think that when a ends a sylla- 
ble, and a consonant follows the dy wliich. 
begins another, that the business is done, 
and that the quantity of the vowel is suf- 
ficiently secui*ed : but this is a mistake ; 
for unless we previously understand the 
simple, tlie in the compound, by the 
general rule, must be long. Now the first 
principle of orthography is, that, if 
Die, the letters should of themselves point 
out the sound of the word, without the 
necessity of recurring to etymology to find 
out tlie soimd of the letters ; and that wc 
should never liave recourse to etymology, 
but where fixing the sound would unset- 
tle the sense. Thus Coddlingy a kind of 
apple, ought to be wTitten with double d, 
both because it determines the sound of 
the 0, and shows its derivation ftx)m thft 
verb to Coddle. And Codling, a small cod 
fish, ought to have but one </, because 
putting two, in order to fix tlie sour.d of 
o, would conibund it with another word. 
'I'o write Saddler, therefore, with one d, 
as we frequently see it on shops, is an 
error against tlie first principles of spel- 
ling; as, without necessity, it obliges us 
to understand the derivation of the word 
before we arc sure of its sound. The 
word Stablhg and Stabler, for stable- 
keeper in Scotland, with the word Fabltd 

C O E 



07* (559)— Fdte, fir, fill, filt;— m^, m^t;— pme, pin;— 

in Milton, all present their true sound to 
the eye without knowingtheir primitives ; 
and this essential rule has generated the 
double ccmsonant in the participles and 
verbal nouns, beginning, regretted^ compiot- 
ter, 8tc. But this rule, rational and useful 
' as it is, is a thousand times violated by an 
affectation of a knowledge of the learned 
languages, and an ignorant prejudice 
against clusters of consonants, as they are 
called. Thus emipie, trouble^ doubie, treblcj 
and triple, have single consonants, because 
their originals in Latin and French have 
no more, though double consonants would 
fix the sound of the preceding vowels, 
and be merely double to llie eye. 

Codling, k6d1ing. s. A,n apple gene- 
rally codled ; a small codfish. 

CoEFFrcACY, k6-^Pf(fe-ki-s^. s. The 
power of several things acting together. 

CoEFFicisNCY, k^-if-fish'ln-sA. s. 
Co-operation, the state of acting together 
to some single end. • 

Coefficient, k6-df-flsh'int. s. That 
which unites its action with the action of 
another.>-See Efface. 

Coemption, kA-^m'shiin. s. (412). 
The act of buying up the whole quantity 
of any thing. 

Coequal, k6-d'qu&l. a. Equal. 

CoEquALiTY, kA-^-qu&l'^-t^. s. The 
state of being equal. 

ToCoEiiCE,k64i'8e'.v,a. To restrain, 
to keep in order by force. 

Coercible, k6-^r'd^bl. a. That may 
be restrained ; thatougbttobe restruned. 

Coercion, k6-^r'sh^n. s. Penal re- 
straint, check. 

Coercive, kA-fir'siv. a. That which 
has the power of laying restraint ; that 
which has the autliDrity of restraining by 

CoESSENTiAL, kA-^s-sdn'shul. a. Par- 
ticipating of the same essence. 

COESSEKTIALITY, kA-&S-sin-Bh6*&l'6- 

t£. 8. Participation of the same es- 

CoETANEous, kA-^-td'ni-ds, a, Of 

the same ag^ with another. 
CoETERNAL, kA-fi-tfir'nil. a. Equally 

eternal with anbther. 
CoETERK ALLY, k6-^-t^r'nal-l^. ad. In 

a state of equal eternity with another. 
CoETERNiTY, kA-^-tdr'n^-tA. s. Hav- 
ing existence from eternity equal with 

another eternal being. 
Coeval, k6-^'ydl. a. Of the same age. 
CoE V A L, k6-^'v4l . §. A contemporary. 
CoEvousjkA-^'vfta.^. Ofthesamcage. 

To Coexist, k&^-zlst'. v. n, (4rB). 
At the same time with another. 

Coexistence, k&-^g-zls't£iii6« 8. Ex- 
istence at the same tim« with aaothex. 

CoEX 1ST ENT, k6-^g-'zi8'te&t.a* Having 
existence at the same time with aootber. 

To CoEXTEND, ko-^ks-tend'. v. a. 
(477). To extend to the same apace or 
duration with another. 

CoEXTBNsiON, k4-^ks-t^n'sh4n. s. 
The state of extending to the same apace 
with another. 

Coffee, kof'fe. s. The coflfee tree ; 
the berries of the coffee-tree » a dxmk: 
made by the infusion of those bcrriet in 
hot water. 

Coffee-house, k6ff«^-h6Ase. s. A 
house where coffee ia sold. 

CoFFEK.MAN,k6rf6-mdn.s. (88). One 
that keeps a coffee-house. 

CoFFEE-FOT, k6fft-p6t. 8. The QO- 
vered pot in which coffee is boiled.. 

Coffer, k6f filir, s. A chest generally 
for keeping moneys in fofUfication* a 
hollow lodgement across a dry moat. 

03* I have in this word followed the gene- 
ral pronunciation, which I see is confimv 
ed by Dr. Kenrick, W. Johnston, Messrs. 
Perry, Scott, and Buchanan; for as it 
stands in Mr. Sheridan with the o long^, 
though not without respfectaWe u«age on 
its side, it is a eross irregUla^ty, wfaick 
ought, if pos8ible» to be reduced to rale. 

To Coffer, k6f flir. v. a. To trcasttre 

up in chests. 
Cofferer, k6f£iiir-flr. s. (555). A 

principal officer of his majesty's court, 

next under the comptroller. 
Coffin, kdffin. s. The chest in which 

dead bodies are put into the gromid; a 

mould of paste for a pye \ Coffin of a horse, 

is the whole hoof of the foot above the 

coronet, ixKluding the coffin-bone. v 

To Coffin, k6rfm. v. a. To inclose 

in a coffin. 
To Cog, kog. v. a. To flatter, to 

wheedle ; toobtrude by falsclvxHi j To cor 
. a die, to secure it, so as to direct its fall 
To Coo, k6g. v.n. To lie; to wheedle. 
Coo, kog. s. The tooth of a wheel, 

by which it acts upon another wheel. 
To'CoG, k6g. v. a. To fix cogs in a 

Cogency, k6'jeni»s6, s. ,, Strength, 

Cogent, k&^j^nt. a. Forcible, re^tr 

less, convincing. 
Cogently, k6'j^nt-16. ad. Withre<» 

sistless force, fbrcibly. 



C O I 

Cogger, k&^tr. s. A flatterer, a 

CoGOLESToxB, k6g'gl<4t6ne. s. A 
little sume. 

Cogitable, k6dje'^-ti-bl. a. (405). 
Whet may be the subiect of thought. 

ToCooiTATS, k6dje'6-tAtc. V. n. (91). 
To think. 

CoGiTATKOK, kodje-^^i'shiln. a. 
Thoo^t, the act of thinking ; purpose, 
reflection previooe to action ; meditation. 

CoGiTATiYi;, k6djc'i-tA-t!v. a. Hav- 
ing' the power of thought i given to me- 
CoGKATioK,k6g-ni'shAn. s. Kindred, 
TclBLtion, panicipation of the same nature. 

CooKisEK, k.!>gHi^-z^6', orkon-^-z^c'. 
8.— See CoGKizAncE. He to whom a 
fine in lands or tenements is acknowledg- 

CoGxisouA, k^g-n^-z^r', or kin-^-zor'. 
s. (314). la he that passeth or acknow- 
ledgeth a fine. 

CoGMKTKOK, k6g-Dish'dn. 8. Know- 
ledge, comiplete conviction. 

CoGniTivE,k6g'n*tlv. a. Having the 
power of knowing. 

Cognizable, kog'n^-za-bl, or k6n'd- 
za-b2. a. (405). That Ms under ju- 
dicial notice ; proper to be tried, judged, 
or examined. 

CoojfizAjicE, k^g'n^-zdnse, or k6n'^- 
ztoae. s. Judicial notice, trial; a 
badge, by which any one is Imown. 

OCT' 1 ^ve in this word and its relatives given 
the forensic pronunciation; but cannot 
help obseivine, that it is so gross a de- 
parture from me most obvious rules of the 
language, that it is highly incumbent on 
the gentlemen of the law to renounce it, 
and tvinstste Ae excluded g in its un- 
doobced rights.— See Avtrosxty and 

CoGxoMXHAL, k&g-n6m^£-nul. a. 
Having ^le same name. 

CooivoviN ATioN, k6g-n6iR<4Hi;&'shAn. 
8. A surname, the name of a family ; a 
name added from any accident or quality. 

CoGNoscExcE, k6g-n6s^s£n8e. 8. 

.CocvosciBLK, k6g-n6s^sd-bl a. That 

may be known. 
To Cohabit, ki-hiblt. y. n. To 

dwell with another in the same place ; to 

Uve together as husband and wife. 
Cob ABIT AisT, kA-h^'^-tdnt. s. An 

iohabitantof the same place. 
Cohabitation, ko-hab-^-ti'shAn. s. 

The atau of inluibhing the «ame place 

bull ;— ^il ;— p6{ind ;— /Ain, thi*. 

with another; the state of living together 
as married persons. 

Coheir, k6-Are'. s. One of several 
among whom an inheritance is divided. 

Coheiress, kA-d'ris. s. (99). A wo- 
man who has an equal state of an inherit^ 

To Cohere, k6-hire'. v. n. To stick 
together ; to be well connected ; to suit, 
to fit; to agree. 

Coherence, ko-heV^nse. > «,, 

Coherenct, k6-h6V6n-s6. 5 *' ^'^^ 
sUte of bodies in which their parts are 
joined together, so that they resist sepa- 
ration ; connexion, dependency, the rela- 
tion of parts or tilings one to another; the 
texture of a discourse; consistency in 
^ reasoning, or relating. 

Coherent, k6-h^'r^nt. a. Sticking 
together; suitable to something else, re- 
gularly adopted ; consistent, not contr^ 

Cohesion, ki-h^'zh{in. s. The actof 
sticking together; the state of union; 
connexion, dependence. 

Cohesive, k6-hd'siv. a. (158) (428). 
That has the power of sticking together. 

Cohesiveness, ko-hd-'slv-n^s. s. The 
quality of being cohesive. 

ToCoHiDiT, kA-hib'lt. v. a. To re- 
strain, to hinder. 

ToCohobate, k6'h6-bAtc. v.n. (91). 
To pour the distilled liquor upon the re- 
maining matter, and distil it again. 

CoHOBATioN, kA-hi-b^'shiin. s. A 
returning of any distilled liquor again 
upon what it was withdrawn trom. 

Cohort, kA'h6rt. s. A troop of sol- 
diers, containing about five hundred foot ; 
a body of warriors. 

CoHORTATiOK, k6-h6r-ti'shCin. 8. In- 

CoiF,k6if. 8. (344) (415). The head- 
dress, a cap. — See Quoir. 

Coifed, k6ift. a. (359), Wearing a 

To Coil, k611. v. a. To gather into 
a narrow compass. 

Coil, k6il. s. Tumult, turmoil, bus- 
tle ; a rope wound into a ring. 

Coin, k6in. s. A comer, called often 

Coin, k61n. s. Money stamped with a 
legal impression ; payment of any kind. 

To Coin, koin. v. a. To mint or stamp 
metals for money; to forge any tiling, in 
an ill sense. 

Coinage, k6ln'Aje. s.'(91). Theact 
or practice of coining money ; coin, joio- 





jt?* (559) ^Fite, ar, fall, fkt'r^mhjtnit'r^^hKdj pb;-«- 

ney; the ch argues of coining^ in<mey; for- 
gery, invention. 

To ( ' oi N c I D s, k64n^ide^ v. n. To 
fall upon tlie same point ; to concur. 

CoiNciDENCfc,k6-in'sd»-clense. a. The 
state of several bodies or lines falling upon 
the same point; concurrence, temleDcy 
of thing's to the same end. 

CoiNc I DEKTt k6-ln's^-dent. a. Falling 
upon the same point; concurrent, con- 
sistent, equivalent. 

CoiNDrcATioN, k6-in-d^-k4'sh'in. s. 
Many symptoms, betokening the same 

CoiKER, k6m'dr. s. (98). A maker of 
money, a minter ; a counterfeiter of the 
legal stomp f an inventor. 

To Co J GIN, k6-j6m'. v. n. To join 
-with another. 

CoisTREL, k6is'trij, s. A coward 

CoiT, k6it. a (344) (415). Anything 
tlm)\vn at a certain mark. — See Quoit. 

Coition, k6-lsh'An. s. Copulation, 
the act of generation ; the act by which 
two bodies come together. 

Coke, k6ke. s. Fewel made by burn- 
ing pit-coal under cartli, and quenching 
the cinders. 

Colander, kiiKUb-dAr. s. (165). A 
seive Uirough whicli a mixture is poitfed, 
* and which retains the thicker parts. 

CoLATioN, k6-14'shdn. s. The ait of 
filtering or straining. 

Colature, k6-la'tshiLire. s. (461). 
The art of straihing, filtration ; the mat- 
ter sti-ained. 

CoLBERTiNE, kAl-b^f-ttt^n'. s. (112). 
A kind of lacc worn by women. 

Cold, k6ld. a. Chill, having the sense 
of c6ld ; having cold qualities, not vola- 
tile ; frigid, without passion ; unaffecting, 
unable to move the passions ; reserved, 
coy, not affectionate, not cordial j chaste ; 
not welcome. 

Cold, k6ld. s. The cause of the sen- 
sation of cold, the privation of heat» t\ui 
sensation of cold, chilincss; a disease 
paused by cold, the obstruction of per- 

Coldly, k6ld'l*. ad. Without heat; 
without concern, indifferently, negligent- 

Coldness, k6ld'n^». s. Want of heat ; 
unconcern ; frigidity of temper ; coyness, 
wabt of kindness ; chastity. 
J Cole, k6le. s. Cabbage. 

Cole WORT, k6le'wArt. s. (165). Cab- 

Colic K, k6l'ik« 9* It strictly is a dis 

order of the colon s but loosely, tuay iliaor* 
der of the stonMch or bowets that m at- 
tended with pnii. 

Colic K, k6Kik. a* ACEectingthebour' 

To Collapse, k6l44ps'. v. n. To 
close so as that one side tpiiches the 
other ; to fjedl too^ether. 

CoLLAPSioN, kol-ldp'shAii* s. The 
state of vesseLi closed ; the act of closing^ 
or collapsing. 

Collar, koftdr. s. (418) (88). A riDg 
of metal put round tlie neck; the hamess 
fastened about the horse's neck; To slip 
the coUar, to disentangle himself from 
any engagement or difficulty ; A collar, of 
brawn, is the quantity bound up in one 

CoLLAR-DONE,k6ntir-b6ne. s. The cla- 
vicle, the bones on each side of the neck. 

To Collar, k6l'li\r. v. a* To seize by 
the collar, to take by the throat r To collar 
beef or odicr meat, to roil it up and bind 
it hard and close with a string or collar. 

To Collate, k6riite'. v. a* To com- 
pare one thing of the same kind witli ajio- 
thcr ; to collate books, to examine if Clo- 
thing be wanting ; to place in an ecclesi- 
astical benefice. 

Collateral, kol-ldt't^r-ftl. a. Side to 
side ; ruraiinff' parallel ; diifused on cither 
side ; those mat stand In equal relation to 
some ancestor ; not direct, not inuucdi* 
ate ; conciu*rent 

Collaterally, k6l-lat't^r-al-lc. ad. 
Side by side ; iiKlirectly ; in coUaterai re- 

CoLLATioN,^k6l4AMi(ui. s« The act 
of confemng or bestowing*, gift; compa- 
rison of one thing of the same kind with 
another; in law, collation is the bestow* 
ing of a benefice ; a repast. 

CoLLATiTious, k^-^i-^ish'ds. a* 
Done by the contribution of many. 

Collator, k6M4't&r. s. (166). One 
that compares copies, or manuscripts; 
one who presents to an ecclesiastical be- 

CoLLAUD, k6l-liwd^ v« a. To joId 
in praising. 

Colleague, k6ri^£g. s. (492). A 
partner in oiBk^ or employment. 

To Colleague, koH^g^. v. a. To 
unite with. 

To Collect, k&l-l^t'. v. a. To ga- 
ther togetlier ; to draw many units into 
one sum; to gun -from observation; to 
infer from premises ; To c<^eet tunselft 
to recover from surprise. 

J2j" In scarcely anv part of the laoguaKe does 
the influence ofaccent on the sound of th^ 




•«-iiAy mdfCj vAtf nAt;— 4Aibe> tAIn b&ll;«-*611;— *p6{ind; MID) this. 

Collectible, k&M£k't^-bL a. That 
which may be gathered from the prcmi ses . 

Collection, k^M^k'shi^. 8. The act 
of gsdiering tog>etlier ; the tliin^i^ father- 
ed to|pether ; a contectary, deduced from 

CoLL£CTiTiot?s, kol-l^^tlsh'fis. a. 
Gathered together. 

Collective, k6l-lik'tlv. a. Gathered 
into one mass, accumulative ; employed in 
deducing consecpietices; a collective noiui 
ezpresaes a multitude, tligugh itself be 
singula^, aa a company. 

Collectively, k6l-l^k'tiv-W. ad. In 
a general mass, in a body, not singly. 

Collector, k^H^k'tOr. a. (166). A 
gatherer ; a tax gatherer. 

CoLLEOATARTf k6M^g^4-t&-r^« 8. A 
person to whom is Xeii a legacy in com- 
mon with one or more. 

College, k^Fl^dje. 8. (9 1 ). A commu* 
nity ; a society of men set apart for learn- 
ing or religfion ; the house in which the 
collegians reside.^Sce To Collect. 

CoLLEoiAL, k6Mi'j^-il. a. Relating 
to a college. 

Collegian, ktl-Wj^-in. s. An inh;v- 
bitant of a college. 

Collegiate, kol-)^^j6-ite. (91). Con- 
taining a college, instituted afler tlie man- 
ner ofa college ; a collegiate church, yras 
such as was built at a distance from the 
cathedral, wherein a number of Presby- 
ters lived together. 

Collegiate, k6l-li'ji-4te. s. A mem« 
ber of a college, a university man. 

Collet, k6rilt. 8. (99)*. Something 
that went about the neck ; that part of a 
ring m which Uie stone is set. 

To Collide, ki^l-lide'. v. a. To beat, 
to dash, to knock together. 

Collier, k6ry^r. s. (113). A digger 
of coals ; a dealer in coals ; a ship that 
carries coals. 

Colliery, k61'y(ir.^. 8. (113). The 
place where coals are dug ; the coal trade. 

Colli FLOWER, k^l'l^-floi-iir. s. A 
kind of cabbage. 

Colligation, k61-k-g4'8hAn. s. . A 
binding together. 


CoLLiNEATios, k6l-lin-^-A'shAn. a. 
The act ofaiming. 

CoLLiQUABLE, k^MikVi-bl. a. Easily 

CoLuquAMENT, kM-lik'wi-mto. 8. 
The substance to which any thing U re- 
duced by being melted. 

note perceptibly than in 
(be prepontional «yllaUcs, CW, £SMn, Cbn, 
mdC^. When the accent is on theaesyl 
JsUes, in Chiiege^ Comnustarr, Condone^ 
CamgibU, hue. &c. the q has distinctly its 
short sound. The sane maybe observed 
of this o, when the principid accent is on 
the third ayllable, and the secondary ac- 
oeat on the first {S23f) ; as in Coiormade, 
Sx. &c. : (or in this case there is a secon- 
dly accent on the first syllable, which 
preserves the in its tree sound (^23) » 
out when the accent is on the second svl- 
lahle, this vowel stides into a sound like 
abort Uy and the words To MUctf To 
Commit, To ONinicce, To Carmpt, &c. &c. 
are heard as iS written Cutteety Cummit, 
Oamnee^ Cmmft, &c. &e. It is true, that 
when these words are pronounced alone 
with deliberation* energy^ and precision, 
the o in the first syilahle preserves nearly 
its tme sooad; hat this seems to slide in- 
senmUj into dlwrt u the moment we unite 
^these wofds with others, and pronounce 
"them without premeditation. The delibe- 
rate and solemn sound is that which I have 
given in tins Dictionary : nor have I made 
any difference between words where the 
accent is en the second syllable ; snd why 
Mr. Shi*riifan, and those who have follow- 
ed him, should in CemSiutf Oomnuite, 
Comfietef See. Sic. give the sound of short 
oinfrfmt'MidmComfmandfCpfnniit, Cotn- 
matetf &C. &c. give the same letter the 
sound of short u in drum, I cannot con- 
ceive; they are all succeptible of tJiis 
soDiidcr none* ^nd therefore should all be 
marked alike. If custom be pleaded for 
this djstinction, it may be observed that 
thia flea is the best in the world when it 
is evident, and the worst when obscui-e. 
Kojuch custom ever fell under my obser- 
vation ; I h«re always heard the first sylla^ 
hie cfetmfiansaid compti, of commatee and 
CMi^^0«r,prDiioanccd alike, and have there- 
fore made no distinction between them 
in titts dictiosiazy. I have given them all 
the Bound of the o in Comatia ; though I am 
sensible that, in colloquial pionunciation, 
they an approach ncarerto the short a, and 
are similar to the same syllables in Com- 
f€rt,Coinbat,hc. And it may be laid down 
as a general rute, without an exception, 
" that o m an initial s^^ilable, immediately 
''be&re the accent,^ and •succeeded by 
^'twouncombinahle coosooanU, may, in 
^faliliar cOiBrersi^on« be pronounced 
"like the same letter in e&me, ilone,*' &c. 
Collect, kollda-s. (492). Any short 

CoLLBCTA«Kaw> IsAM^k-ti'n^-iHa. i 




iT (559).^F4te, ftr, ftll, fdt;— m^^ m^t;*— pine, pin;— » 

CoLLiquANT, k6n^-kwdlit. s. That ToCoLOKiSE,k6rAHiize.v.a. Topl^oit 
which has the power of melting. 

To CoLLiquATE, k6l'i6-kwite, v. a. 

(91). To melt, to di ssol ve . 
CoLLiquATioN, kol-l^-kwi'shfln. s. 

The act of meltinp ; a lax or diluted state 

of the fluids in animal bodies. 
toLLiquATivE, k6i-lik'wi-tlv. a. 

Melting, dissolvent. 
CoLLiquEFACTiON, kol-lik-wtJ-fSk' 

shftn. s. The act of melting together. 
Collision, k6l-lizh'in. s. The act of 

striking two bodies together ;, the state 

of being struck together, a clash. 
ToCoLLocATE,kAll6-kite. v. a. (91). 

To place» to station. 
Collocation, k61*l6-ki'8hi!bi. s. The 

Act of placing; the state of being placed. 
CoLiocuTioN, k61-l6-kti'shAn. s. Con- 

ferience, conversation. 
To Collogue, k61-lAg'. v. n. (337). 

To wheedle, to flatter. 
CoLLOP, k6l'li\p. s. (166). A small 

slice of meat; a piece of an animal. 
Colloquial, koUlo'kw^-dl. ad. Relat- 

lating to conversation or talking. 
CoLLoquY, k6l'i6-kw6. s. Conference^ 

conversation, talk. 
CoLLucTANCY, k A-Idk'tsbi-sd . 8. Op- 
position of nature. 
CoLLucTATiON, k6l-Wk-t4'shfin. s. 

Contest, contrariety, opposition. 
To Collude, kol-lude'. v. n. To con- 
spire in a fraud. 
CoLLusiONjkol-lu'zhdn. s. A deceitful 

ag^emeat or compact between two or 

Collusive, kol-lvi'slv. a. (158) (428). 

Fraudulently concerted. 
CoLLUsivELY, kol-lu'slv-l^. ad. Iti a 

manner fraudulently concerted. 
CoLLUsoRY, kol-lu'sAr-^. a. (557). 

Carrying on a fraud by secret concert. 
" Colly, kol'l^. s. The smut of coal. 
CoLLYRiuM, k6Mlr'r^-dm. s. (113). 

An ointment for the eyes. 
Co I. M AH, kol'mir* s. A sort of peal\ 

CoLox, k^^ldn. s. A point [:] used to 
mark a pause gteater than that of a com- 
ma, and less than that of a period ; the 
greatest and widest of all the intestines. 

Colonel, kir'n^l. a. The chief com- 
mander of a regiment. 

(fj* This word is among those gross irre- 
gularities which must be given up as in- 

CoLONELSHip, ktkr'ndl-shlp, s. The of* 
jlc« or chiff actcr 9f coioneL 

with inhabitants. 

CoLONN ADE,k6l-i6^4de'.s« Aperistile 
of a circular figure, or a aerieaof columns 
disposed in a circle ; any series or range 
of pillars.— See To Collect. 

Colony, k61'6-n6. 8. Abodyofpeople 
drawn from the mother country to inhabit 
some distant place ; the country planted, 
a plantation. 

CoLoqui^TEDA, k61-16-kwln't^-d&, s. 

The firuit of a plant of the same name, cal- 

I led bitter apple. It is a violent purgative. 

CoLORATE,k6l'6*r&te.a. (91). Colour* 
ed, dyed. 

Coloration, k6l-6-r4'shdn* & The 
art or practice of colouring; the state of 
being coloured. 

CoLORtFicR,k6l4&-ririk. a. Thathai 
the power of producing colours. 

CoLossE, k6-16s'. 7 ^ r 

Colossus, k6-l6s'sils. S 
enormous magnitude^ 

CoLossEAN, koi-los-s^'&i; a. Giant-* 
like.-^ee Europkav. 

CoLotjR, k^mr. 8. (165) (314). The 
appearance of bodies to the eye, hue, dyt ; 
the appearance of blood in the face ; the 
tint of the painter; the repnesentatioo of 
any thing superficially examined ; pallia- 
tion ; appearance, fidse show ; in the plu- 
ral, a standard, an ensign of war. 

To (Colour, kiiKl^r. v. a« To mark 
with some hue or dye ; to palliate, to eit- 
cuse ; to make plausible. 

Colourable, k{il'iAr-4-b!. a. Specious, 

CoLouRABLt, kfiriflr4*ble* ad. Spe- 
ciously, plausibly. 

Coloured, kAHiird. part. a. (359). 
Streaked, diversified witJ^ hues. 

CoLouRiNG,k^ll^-ing»a. (410). The 
part of the painter's art that teaches to 
lay on his colours. 

CoLoVRisT, kiM'15r-l8t. s. A painter 
who excels in giving the proper cokmrs ts 
his designs. 

Colourless, kiiJ1ib''4^. a* Without 
colour, transparent. 

Colt, kolt. s. A young horse ; a youngs 
foolish fellow. 

To Volt, k6lt. v. a. To befool. Ob- 

Colts-foot, k&lts'fdu s, A plant. 

Colts-tooth, k6lts-t66r^*B» Anhn- 
perfecftooth in young horses i a lo^e of 
youthfiil pleasure. 

Colter, k6rtA|-« u The sharpirom <tf 
a plough, 



e o M 

— «6f mdve, n6r, q6t ; — t6he, ttib, 
Coltish, kAlt'^ish. a. Wanton. 

.CoLui€BAHT,k6-ldm1>4-r^. s. A dove 
cot, pigeonhouse. 

Columbine, k6rAni-bine. s. (148). A 
jdant with leaves like the meadow-rue ; the 
name of a female character in apantomine. 

Column, kol'l^lm. &. (411). A rounc 
piUar; any body pressings vertically upon 
its base ; the long file or row of troop« ; 
half a pa^, when divided into two equal 
paru by a line passinj^ througii the middle. 

Columnar, k^lAm'nar. > 

CoLCMNABiAN, k6l-dm-ni'r^-im. J * 
Formed in columns. 

CoLUKEs, ko-lurz'. s- Two great'cir- 
cles supposed to pass through the poles of 
the world. 

CoMATE, k6-mite'. s. Companion. 

CoMBy k^nie. s. (347). .\n instrument 
to separate and adjust the hair ; the top 
or crest of a cock; the cavities in which 
the bees lodee their honey. 

To Comb, kome. v. a. To divide and 
adjust the hair ; to lay any thing consisting 
of tiiaments smooth, as to cgmb wool. 

Comb-brush, Kome'brttsh. s. Abrusli 
to clean combs. 

CoMB-MAKER, k6me'mi-kAr. s. On. 
whose trade is to make combs. 

To Combat, kOmliit. v.n. (165). To 

To Combat, kiiml^at. v. a. To oppose. 
—See To Collect. 

Combat, kiim'bat. s. (88). Contest, 
battle, duel. 

Combatant, kiim'b^-tant. s. He that 
fights with another,; a champion. 

CoMBKR^ko'mAr. s. He whose trade is 
to disentangle wool, and lay it smooth for 
the spinner. 

CoMBiNATE, k^mlD^-nite a. (91). Be- 
trothed, promised. 

Combination, kom'b^-nA'ah^n. s. 
Union for some certain purpose, associa- 
tion, league ; union of bodies, commixture, 
conjunction ; copulation of ideas. 

To CoMsiKEj kom-bine'. v. a. To join 
together ; to link in union ; to agree, to ac- 
eoipd ; tojom together, opposed to Analyse. 

To Combine, kom-bine^ v. n. To coa- 
lesce, to unite each with otlier; to imite 
in friendahipor design, often in a bad sense. 

CombI-ess, k6m^ies« a* Wanting a 
comb or crest. 

Combust, k<!rm-b^8t^ a. A planet not 
above ^ degrees finom the sun, is said Xfl 
be Corabost— See To Collect. 

Combustible, k6m-bds't^'bL a* Sus- 
ceptible of fir^. 

bAll ;— ^n ; — ^pdimd ;— Min, this* 

s. Aptness to take fire, 
.0MnusTi0N,k6m-biis'tshi'in.s (291). 
Conflagration, burning, consumption by 
fire ; tumult, huny, hubbub. 
To Come, kilm. v. a. To remove from 
a di.stant to a nearer place, opposed to Go j 
to cb'aw neai", to a(h'ance towards ; to move 
in any manner towards another ; to attain 
any conditicm ; to hapjxin, to fall out; To 
come about, to come to pass, to fall out, to 
change, to come round ; To come again, to 
return ; To come at, to reach, to obtain, to 
gain ; To come by, to obtain, to gain, to re- 
quire ; To come in, to enter, to comply, to 
yield, to become modish ; To come in for, 
to be early enough to obtain ; To come in 
to, to join with, to bring help ; To comply, 
with, to agree to ; To come near, to ap- 
proach in excellence ; To come of, to pro- 
ceed as a descendant from ancestors ; To 
proceed, as effects from their causes.;. To 
come oflT, to deviate, to depart from :i nile, 
to escape ; to come ofifrom, to leave, to for- • 
bear ; To come on, to advance, to make pro- 
gress ; to advance to combat ; to thrive, to 
grow big ; To come over, to repeat an act, 
to revolt : To copic out, to be mude pubiick, 
to appear upon trial, to be discovered ; To 
come out witJi, to give vent to ; To come 
to, to consent or yield ; to amount to ; To 
come to liimsc'lf, to recover his senses ; To 
come to pass, to be efiected, to fallout ; To 
come up, to grow out of the ground j to 
make appearance ; to come into use ; To 
come up to, to amount to, to rise to ; To 
come up with, to overtake ; To come upon, 
to invade, to attack ; To come, in futurity. 

Come, k6m. interj. Be quick, malie nq 

Come, kAm. A particle of reconcilia- 
tion. ** Come, come, at all I laugh he 
laughs nodouljt." — Pope. 

Comedian, k6-m^'d^-an. s. (293) 
(376). A player or actor of comick parts j 
a player in general, an actress or actor. 

Comedy, kom'm^-d^. s. Adramatick 
representation of the lighter faults of man- 

CoMELiNEsss, kiLimld-ndss. s. Grace, 
beauty, dignity. 

Comely, kilm'16. a. (165). Graceful, 

C omeb, klim'miir. s, (98). One that 

Comet, k6m1t. s. (99). A heavenly 
body in the planetary region appearing 
suddenly, and again disappearing. 

CoMETARY,k6m'm^-tar-^. (5 12). > 

Comktick, k6-m^t'ik. (509). ^ *'' 
Relating to a comet. 




it?* (559).^F4te, far, fill, fat;— mc, met;— pine, pin;- 

Comfit, ktei'fit. s. (165). A kind of 

CoMFiTURE, kilm'fc-tshure. s. (461). 

Sweetmcfit. : 
To r6MFORT, kCim'fCirt. V. a.( 1 65).To 
ytrenethen, to enliven, to invigorate ; to 
console, to streti^en the mind under 
Comfort, kilm'fArt. s. (98). Support, 
assistance ; countenance ; consolation, sup- 
port under calamity, that which gives con- 
solation or support. See To Collect. 
Comfortable, kftm'filr-ta-bl. a. Re 
ceiving- comfort, susceptible of comfort, 
dispensing" comfort. 
Comfortably, krlm'fir-ta-ble. ad. 

With comfort, without despair. 
"Comforter, k^m'fAr-tAr. s. One that 
administers consoLition in misfortunes; the 
title of the third peraon of the Holy Trini- 
, ty ; the paraclete. 

Coi^fFORTLEss, kflm'fiJirt-l^s, a. With- 
out comfort 
Comical, k6m'm<^-kal. a. Ralsihg 
mirth, merry, diverting ; relating to come- 
. dy, befitting comedy. 
Comically, k6m^m6rkal-lc. ad. In 
such a mahner as raises mirth ; in a man- 
ner befitting comedy. 
CoMi c A LNEss, k6m'm6-kill-nes. s. The 

quality of being comical. 
CeMtcK, k6m'mik. a. Relfitin^ to co- 
medy, raising mirth. 
Coming, kiirn'ming, s. (410). The act 
of coming, approach ; state of being come, 
Coming-in, kiim'mipg-in, s. Revenue, 

Coming, kCim'mlng, a^. Forward, rea- 
dy to come ; future, to come. 
Coming, kAm'ming. part. a. Moving 
from some other to this place ; ready to 
CoMiTiALi ko-mish'dl. a. Relating to 

the assemblies of the people. 
C oMi T V, kom'^-t^. s. Courtesy, civility. 
Comma, kom'ma. s. (92). The point 
vrhieb denotes the distinction of clausesi 
marked thus [,]. 
To Command, kira-mind'. v. a. (79). 
To govern, to g^ve orders to ; to order, to 
direct to be done ; to overlook ; to have sq 
subject as that it may be seen. 
To Command, kum-mind'. v. n. To 

have the supreme authority. 

Comm AN D, k6m-mind'. s. The right pf 

commanding, power, supreme authority j 

. cogent authority, despotism ; the act of 

commanding, order. — See To Collect. 

:jf* The propensity of the unaccented o to fail 
into the sound of short v is no where moie 
perceptible than in the first syllables, of 
words .beginning with col, cam, etm^ or a>rp 
when the accent is on the second sellable. 
Thus the o in to coilect and cMege ; m com^ 
mend and eommant; in Connect and cmuul: 
in correct and comer ; cannot be considered 
aa exactly the same in ail : the oin the first 
word of each oftbese pairs has certainly a 
diiierent sound from the same letter in the 
second ; and if we appreciate this sound, 
we Shan find it ccnncide with that whidi is 
the roost nearly related to it, namely the 
short «. I have not however ventured to 
substitute this «, not that I think it inoon- 
patible with the roost correct and solemn 
pronunciation, but because where there is 
a possibility of reducing letters to their ra- 
dical sound without hurting the ear, thi« 
radical sound ought to be the model ; and 
the greaterorlesser departure from it, left 
to the sc^emnityor familiarity of the occa- 
sion. To foreigners, however, it mny not 
be improper to remark, that it would &c 
always better for them to adopt the u in- 
stead of ,• this will secure them irom the 
smallest impropriety, for natives only caa 
seize such nice distinctioi^s as sometimes 
divide even judges tliemselves. Mr. She- 
ridan was certainly of opinion that this un- 
accented o might be pronounced like v, as 
he has so marked it in Commcmd, commence, 
committiony and com/mendi tfiddgh not iu 
com/m^nder s and in comtare, though not in 
comparatroe; but in almost every other 
word where this o occurs, he has given it 
the sound it has in eotutant. Mr. Scott has 
exactly followed Mr. Sheridan in these 
words, and Dr. Kenrick has yniformly 
marked them all with the short sound of a. 
Why Mr. Sheridan and Mr. Scott should 
make any differe nee in the first syllfi Wes of 
these w0^ds, where the letters and accents 
are exactly the same, I cannot conceive : 
these sj-llables may be called a roecies. ; 
and, if the occasion were not too trifling for 
.such a comparison, it miglit be observed, 
that as nature varies in individuals, but is 
uniform in the species, so custom is some- 
times tarious in accented syllablea, which 
are definitely and strongly marked, but 
conmaonly roore regular in unaccented syi - 
lables, by being left, as it were, to the com- 
mon operation of Uie organs of pronuncia- 
tion. — See the words Collect and Do- 
CoMMANDER,kum*inWdi&r-s. He that 
has the supreirie authority, a chief ; a pav- 
ing beetle, or a very great wooden msdkt 
CoHMAKDERT^ ^6Wm^n'd^-ri. s. A 
body of the knights of Malta, belonging to 
the same nation. 

O 1^ 



xn^ye, nor, not ;-^ibe» tiib, bull ;— AH ;— pddnd ;— //rin, this.- 

CoiCMAHOJfSHTt k&m-inj^'ni^t. s. 
Mudste, ctannMdf ordcTf precept, au- 
thoriiXj power j by way of eminence, the 

• jiwcepte of tke decidogue given by God 
to Moses. 

CoMMANDREss, kom-iTi&n'dr^s. s. A 
vroman rested -wnth iupfeme sutfaority. 

CoMMATERiAL, k6in-ina-t^'r6-4l. a. 
Cooaktin^ of the same matter with ano- 

COMKATEKIALITY, kom-tni-t^rrd'-il'- 

£-td. ». Resemblance to something 

initsmaUer. ^ 


a. B«servw|^%obe mentioQed with honour, 
To CoMSTEMosATE^ k6ni-m£m^m6- 

rite. v. a. (91}. To preserve the 

memory by fbmejjgibBck act 
Com M K M B A T 1 8K7^k6m-ni^ 

Recommendation, favourable repreienta- 
tion ; praise, declaration of eiteem.— See 
To Collect. 

Commendatory, k6m-m£nMft^tAr*r6. 
a. (512). Favourably representative ; con- 
taining' praise. 

CoMMEif DER, k6m«tn^^ddr. s. Praiser. 

Commensality, kom-m^n-sAl'^-td. s. 
Fellowship of table. 

CoMMENSURABiLiTY, kAm^m^H-sh^k- 
ri-bir^-t^. s. Capacity of being com- 
pared with another as to the measure, or 
of l^iiig measured by another. 

CoMMENSURABL E,k6m-m^n'8h A-r«L-bL 
a. (452). Reducible to some common mea- 
sure, as a yard and foot are messured by 
an inch. 

CoMMENSURABLENEss, k6m-m^n'- 
8h(i-r4-bl-n£s. s. Commensurability, 

sh^. s. An act of publicly celebration. 
Cou^EMon^rivK^ k^m-m^mmATa- Trc^MENsnKATK, k&m.mto'8h6. 

rite. V. a. (91.) To reduce to some 


tiv. a. (157). Tending to preserve 
memory of any thing. 

To CoMMEircE, k6m-mensc'. v, n. 
To begin, to make a beginning ; to take 
a new character.— See To Collect. 

To Commence, k6m-mense'. v. a. 
To begin, to make a beginning of, as to 
commence a suit 

Commea'cemewt, k6m-m^n9c'mdnt. 
8. Beginnings date ; the time t^en de- 
greea are taken in a university. 

To CoMaf£ii]>» kom-m^nd^ v. a* To 
represent as worthy of notice, to recom* 
mead 5 to metrtion with approbation; to 
recommend to Temcmbrance. 

CoMMEiiDA- Ck6m'men-d4-bL > 
ai^E^ I kum-mto'di-bl. J 
Laudable, worthy of praise. 

CI7* This word, like Jcceftahte, has, since 
Johnson wrote his Dictionary, shifted its 
accent from the second to the first syllable. 
The sound of tile langviage certainly suffers 
by these transitions of accent However, 
when custom has once decided, we may 
complain, but must still acqiuesce. The 
accent on the second syllable of this word 
ia- groim vulgar, and there needs no 
other reason for banisliihg it from polite 

CoMMENDABLY, k6m'm^n-d4-bl6. ad. 
Laudably^ bn a manner worthy of com- 

CoKy«KnAX> k6m-m&>'d4m. s. Com 

mendam is a benefice, which being void, 
is commended to the charce of some suf- 
ficient ckik to be suppHed. 
Commendatart, k6m-mto'da-t'i-rd, 
s. C^12). On^ who holds a living m com - 

common measure. 

Commensurate, k6m-min'ah6-r4te. 
a. (91). Reducible to some common mea- 
sure ; equal, proportionable to each other. 

Commensurately, k6m-m^n'sh6- 
rAte-li. ad. With the capacity of 
measuring, or being measured by some 
other thing. 

Co M M EN s u R ATI on, kom-m^-sh^i-ri'- 
shvin. s. Re<luction of some* things to 
some common measure. ^ * 

To Comment, kom'mdnt.r.n. Tpan- 
noute, to write notes, to expound. 

Comment, k&m'm^nt. s. (498). An- 
notations on an author, notes, exposition. 

CoBiMENTARY, k6m'm^n-t4-r^, s. An 
exposition, annotation, remark ; a me- 
moir ; narrative in familiar manner. 

Commentator, kom-mdn-ti'tir. s. 
(521). Expositor, annoUtor. 

Commenter, k6m-m^n'tir.s. An ex* 
plainer, an anhotator. 

CcMMENTiTiotJS, k6m-mdn-tish'fis. a. 
Invented, imarinar3% 

Commerce, kom'm^rsc. s. Exchange 
of one thing for anotlier, trade, traffick. 
ToCoMMERcE, k6m-m^rse'. v.n. To 
hold intercourse. 

Milton has, by tlie license of his art, 
accented this verb according to the ana- 
logy of dissyllable nouns and verbs of the 
same form. (492). 
'^And looks commercing witli the skies, 
" Thy wiapt soul sitting in thy eyes. 

But this verb, like To Comr.tcnt, would, ill 



Co M 

t?^ (559).— FAte, ftr, Fill, fat;~m*, m€t;— pine, pin;—. 

• prose, require the accent on the first syl 

-. table as in the noun. Though Akenslde 
has taken the same liberty with this word 
as Milton had done with that — 

«« ■ the sober zeal 

*' Of age camm^Bting on prodig-ious things. 
PUm. oflmag. 

Commercial, k6m-in^r'shdJ, a. Re- 
lating to commerce or traffiek. 

CoMMERE, k6m-m4re'. s. French. 
A common mother. Not used. 

ToCoMMiGRATE, k6m'm^-grAte. v. n. 
To remove by consent^ from one country* 
to another. 

CoMMiGRATioN, k6m-m6-gri'shiin . s. 
A removal of a people from one counti'}' 
to another. 

CoMMiNATioN, k6m-ni<^-nA'shiin. s. / 
threat, ^denunciation of punishment ; the 
recital of God's threaten! ngs on stated 

CoMMiNATOHY, kom-min'nl-tvir-i. a< 
Denunciatory, threatening (512). 

To Commingle, k6m-niing'gl. v. a. 
To mix into one mass, to mix, to blend. 

To Commingle, kom-ming'gL v. n. 
To unite with another tiling. 

CoMMiNuiBLE, koiTi-min'ii-^^-bl. a. 
Frangible, reducible to powder. 

To Comminute, k6m-m6-n(ite'. v. a. 
To grind, to pulverise. 

Comminution, k6ni-m^-nu'shi^n. s. 
The act of grinding into small parts, pul- 

CoMMisERABLE, kom-mlz'^r-u-bl. a. 
Worthy of compassion, pitiable. 

To Commiserate, kom-miz'^r-Ate. 
V. a. (91). To pity, to compassionate. 

Commiseration, k6m-mi2>^r-i'shftn. 
s. Pity, compassion, tenderness. 

Commissary, k6m'mis-sar-^. s. An 
officer made occasionally, a delegate, a de- 
puty; such as exercise spiritual /iiirisdiction 
in places of the diocese far distant from 
the chief city; an officer who draws up 
lists of an army, and regulates the procu- 
ration of provision. — See To Collect. 

8. The office of a commissary. 

Commission, kom-mish'dn.s. Theact 
of entnisting any thing* ; a trust, a war- 
rant bv which any trust is held j a warrant 
by which a military office is constituted ; 
a charge, a mandate, office ; act of com- 
mitting a crime ; sins of commission are 
distinguished from sins of omission ; a 
number of people joined in a trust or offiif c ; 
the state of that which is ert usted to- a 
number of joint officers, a» the broad seal 
was put into commiEsion ; the ordeif by 

which a factor trades <br another perMQ. 
To CoMMissiov, k6m^Dish'dm. v. a. 

to empower, to appoint. 

Commissioner, k6m-misli'An.dr. s/ 
(98). One included in a warrant of au- 

CoMM issuRE, k6m-Tni8h'Are. 8. Joint, a 
place virhere one part is joined to another. 

To Commit, k6m-mit'. v. a. To en- 
trust , to give in trust ; to. put in any place, 
to be kept safe ; to send to prison, to 
imprison ; to pcrpretrate, to do ft faults— 
Sec To Collect. 

:0* This word was iirst used in Juniua^i Let- 
ters m a sense unknown to our former 
English writers.; namely, to cxpote» to 
<ocnture, to hazard. This* sense is borrviw- 
ed from the French, s^nd lias been gene- 
rally adopted by subsequent writers. 

Commitment, k6n)-niit'in^nt. s. Act 
of sending to prison, an order for seBd- 
ing to prison.