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Price ll. lis. 6d. Boards. 

Cnteten at ^tationertT i^u. 

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i * 

1 . t .1 

ti. Sidney, Prtutet, Noubanibei iaiid-sirect, Straiid. 

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IN WHICH, ^ ^. 

Not only the Meaning of eveiy word is cl^^ly ex|^ined« and the Sound of eveiy Syllable distinctly shown^ but, where Words 

are sobjecC to different Pronunciatiom, the Authorities of our best Pronouncing Dictionaries are fully exliibited^ the 

Reasons for each are at large displajed, and the preferable Pronunciation is pointed out. 


Principles of English Pronunciation : 


The Sounds of Letters^ Syllables, and Words« are critically inyestigated, and systematically arranged ; the Influence of the Greek 

and Latin Accent and Quantity, on the Accent and Quantity of the English, is thoroughly examined^ and clearly defined ^ 

aod the Analogies of the Langnage are so fully shown as to lay the Foundation of a consistent and rational Pronunciation. 


Rules to be observed by the Natives of Scotland, Ireland, and London, 
for avoiding their respective Peculiarities ; 







Author of Elements of Elocution^ Rhyming Dictionary, Wc, kSfc, 
Qmrcyti fieri pocei^et vcf^ omnia, et vox, huj as aiumnum urbts olcant: ut oratioRomana plane vtdeatur,ix>n civitaic Honata.— ^/V/i/ztfi. 


With considerable Improvements^ and large Additions. 




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Jr EW subjects have of late years more employed the pens of every class of critics, than the im- 
provement of the English Language. The greatest abilities in the nation have been exerted in 
cultivating and'reforming it ; nor have a thousand minor critics been wanting to add their mite 
of amendment to their native tongue. Johnscm, whose large mind and just taste made him capable 
of enriching and adorning the Language with oiiginal compositbn, has condescended to the drudgery 
of disentangling, explainingy and arranging it, and left a lasting monument of his ability, labour, 
and patience ; and Dr. Lowth, the poKtest sdiolar of the age, has veiled his superiority in his short 
Introduction to English Grammar. The ponderous folio has gravely vindicated the rights of analogy ; 
and the light ephemeral sheet of news has corrected errors in Grammar^ as well as in Politics, by 
jdyly marking them in italics* 

Nor has the improvement stopped here. While «lohnson and Lowth have been insensibly 
operating pn the orthography and construction of our Language, its pronunciation has not been 
neglected. The importanoe of a C9nsistent »ad fegullar pronunciation was too obvious to be over- 
looked ; and the want of this consistency and regularity has induced several ingenious men to , 
endeavour at a reformation ; who, by exhibiting the regularities of pronundation, and pointing 
out itSr analogies, have reclaimed some words that were not irrecoverably fixed in>a wrong sound, 
and {H^vented others from bdng perverted by ignorance or caprice. 

Among those writers who deserve the first praise on this subject, is Mr. Elphinston ; who, in 
his Principles of the English Language^ has reduced the chaos to a system ; and, by a deep 
investigation of the analogies of our tongue, has laid the foundation of a just and regular 

After him. Dr. Kenrick contributed a portion of improvement by his Rhetorical IXctionary ; in 
which the words are divided into syllables as they are pronounced, and figures placed over the vowels, 
to indicate their different sounds. But this gentleman has rendered his Dictionary extrraiiely 
imperfect^ by entirely omitting a great number of words of doubtful and difficult pronunciation — 
those very words for which a Dictionary of ^this kind would be most consulted. 

To him succeeded Mr. Sheridan, who not only divided the words into syllables, and placed 
figures over the vowels as Dr. Kenrick had done, but, by spelling these syllables as they are pro- 
nounced, seemed to complete the idea of a Pronouncing Dictionary, and to leave but little expec- 
tation of future improvement. It must, indeed, be confessed, that Mr. Sheridan^s Dictionary is 
greatly superior to every other that preceded it ; and his method of conveying the %ound of words, 
by spelling them as they are fHX>nounced, is highly rational and useful. — But here sincerity obliges 
i^e to stop, llie numerous instances I have given of impropriety, inconsistency, and want of 

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acquaintance with the analogies of the Language, sufficiently show how imperfect* I think his 
Dictionary is upon the whole, and what ample room was left for attempting another that might 
better answer the purpose of a Guide to Prouuneiatien. 

The last writer on this subject is Mr. Nares^ who, in his Elements of Orthoepy, hai shewn a 
clearness of method and an extent of observation which deserve the highest encomiums. His 
Preface alone proves him an elegant writer, as well as a philosophical observer of Language ; and his 
Alphabetical Index, referring near five thousand words to the rules for pronouncing them, is a new 
and useful method of treating the subject; but he seems, on many occasions, to have mistaken the 
best usagei and to have paid too little attention to the first principles of pronunciation. 

Thus I have ventured to give my opinion of my rivals^ and competitors, and I hope without envy 
or self-conceit- Perhaps it would have be6n policy in me to have been silent on this head, for fear 
of putting the Public in mind that others have written on the subject as well as myself: but this 
is a narrow policy, which, under the colour of tenderness to others, is calculated to raise ourselves 
at their expence. A writer who is conscious he deserves the attention of the Public, (and unless 
he is thus conscious he ought not to write) must not only wish to be compared with those who 
have gone before him, but will promote the comparison, by informing his readers what others have 
done, and on what he founds his pretensions to a preference ; and if this be done witd fairness and 
without acrimony, it can be no more inconsistent with modesty, than it is with honesty and plain 
dealing. . * 

Tlie work I have offered on the subject has, I hope, added something to the public stock : it not 
only exhibits the principles of pronunciation on a more extensive plan than others have done, divides 
the words into syllables, and marks the sounds of the vowels like Dr. Kenrick, spells the words as 
they are pronounced like Mr. Sheridan, and directs the inspector to th6 rule by the word like 
Mr. Nares ; but, where words are subject to different pronunciations, it shows the reasons from 
analogy for. each, produces authorities for one side and the other, and points out the pronunciation 
which IS preferable. In short, I have endeavoured to unite the science of Mr. Elphinston, the method 
of Mr. Nares, and the general utility of Mr. Sheridan ; and, to add to these advantages, have given 
critical observations on such words as are subject to a diversity of pronunciation, and have invited the 
inspector to decide according to analogy and the best usage. 

But to all works of this kind there lies a fonnidalDle objection ; which is, that the pronunciation 
of a Language is necessarily indefinite and fugitive, and that all endeavours to delineate or settle 
it are in vain. Dr. Johnson, in his Grammar, prefixed to his Dictionaiy, says : " Most of the 
*• writeis of English Grammar have given long ^tables of words pronounced otherwise than they 
" arc written ; and seem not sufficiently to have considered, that, of English, as of all living 

" See Principles, No. 124, 126,129,386,454,462, 479, 480, 530 5 and the words Assumb, Collect, Covetous,, 
Donative, Ephemeha, Satiety, kc. and the inseparable preposition Dis. 

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" tongues^ there is a douWe pronunciation ; one, cursory and coHoquial ; the other, regular and 
« solemn. The cursory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain, being made diflerent, in 
** different mouths, by negligence, unskilfulness> or affectation. Tbe solemn pronunciation, though 
« by no means immutable and* permanent, i^ yet always less, remote from the orthography, and less 
*^ liable to, capricious innovation* They have, lioweverj generally formed their tables according to 
<< the euTSory speech of those with whom they happened to converse, smdy concluding that the 
'< whole natbn cOQiMnes. to vitiate language in one manner, have often established the jac^n of the 
^ lowest of the peopfeas the model of speech. For pronunciation the best general lu}^- is, to 
^ ocmsider those as the most elegant spei^ers who deviate least from the written words."' 

Without any derogation from the character of Dr. Johnson, it may be asserted,, that in these 
observations we do not perceive that justness and accuracy of thinking for which heis so remarkable. 
h would be doing great injustice to him, to suppose that 'he meant to exclude all possibility of 
conveying the actual* pronunciation of many words that depart manifestly from their orthqgmpby, or 
of those that are written alike^ and pronounced diflfenently, and inversely. He has marked these 
difierencea with great propriety himself) in many places of his Dictionary; and it is to toe regretted 
that be did not extend these remarks farther. It is impossible, therefore,: he could suppose that, 
because the almost imperceptible glances of colloquial pronunciation were not to be caught and 
describext by the pen> that the very perceptible difference between the initial accented syllables of 
wmey andmtmf^or, or the final unaccented syllables of ^m7e and itifinhe, could not be sufficiently 
marked upon pap^; Cannot we show that cellar yZ, vault, and seller y one who sells, have exactly the 
same sound ; or that the monosylbble Jull^ and. the first Syllable of Jidminate, are sounded 
diffcr^idy, because there are some words in which solemnity will authorize a different shade of 
prouunciatibn from- &imiliarity ? Besides, that colloquial pronunciation which^ is* perfect, is so 
much the language of sofemn speaking, that, perhaps, there is no more difference than between 
the same picture painted' to- be viewed near and at a distance. The symmetry in both is exactly 
the same r.aod the distinction lies only in the colouring. The English Language, in this respect, 
K<ans to have a great superiority oyer the French, which pronounces many letters in the poetic 
and sdemn style, that are wholly silent in the prosaic apd familiar. But if a solemn and familiar 
prommciatioii really exists in^our language, is it not the business of a grammarian to mark both ? 
And if be catinot point out the precise sound of unaccented syllables, (for these only are liable to 
obscurity) he may, at least, give those sounds which approach the nearest, and by this means 
become a^little more useful than those who so liberally leave every thing to the ear and taste of the 

T&etruth is^ Dr. Johnson ^e&ats to have had a confused idea of the distinctness and indistinctness 
with whicfa, on sc^emn or &miliar oecasions, we sometimes pronounce the unaccented vowels ; and 
with respect to these, it must be owned, that hk remarks are hot entirely without foundation. The 

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English Language^ with respect to its pronunciation^ is evidently divisible into acceated and 
unaccented sounds. The accented syllables, by being pronounced with greater force. th«n the 
unaccented, have their vowels as clearly and distinctly funded as any given note in music i white 
the unaccented vowels, for want of the stress, arp apt to slide into an obscurity of sound, which, 
though sufficiently distinguishable to the ear, cannot be 00 definitely marked out to the eye by other 
sounds as those vowels that are under the accent. Thus jSoi|ie of the vowds^ when neither under 
the accent, nor closed by a consonant, have a longer or a shorter, an opeoer or a closer aOund, 
according to the solemnity or familiarity, the dehberatioa or rapidity of our deliy^. This will, be 
perceived in the sound of the e in emotion^* of the o in obedience^ and of the u in monumenU In the 
hasty pronunciation of common speaking, die e in emotion is often diortened^ as if spelt im-tM^ion ; 
the Q in oA^cEimce shortened and obocured, as if written ub-be-^-enco i and the u in mmiment 
changed into e« as if written mw-ne-ment ; while the deliberate and elegant sound of these vowels 
is the long open sound Aity have, when the accent is on them in eqtial, over, apd unit : but a, when 
unaccented,. seems to have no such diversity ; it has generally ashort obscure sounds whether ending 
a syllable, or closed by a consonant. Thus the a in able has its definite and distinct sound ; but the 
aame letter in tolerablef g^es into an obscure indefinite sound approaching the short u ; nor can any 
solemnity or deliberation give it the long open $ound it has in the first word. Thus, by distinguishing 
vowels into their accented and unaccented sounds, we are enabled to see clearly what Dr* Johnson saw 
but obscurely •; and by this distinction entirely to answer the objectioni. 

Egually indefinite and uncertain is his general rule, that those are to be considered as the moat degant 
speakers who deviate least from the writtien words. It is certain, where custom is equals thisr ought 
to take place ; and if the whole body of respectable ^Bnglis^ speakers were equally divided in their 
pronunciation of the word btisy, one half pronouncing it bew-ze,^ and the other half biz-ze, that 
the former ought to be accounted the most elegant s|)eakQr6; but ttll. thi^ is the cmci the latter 
pronunciation, though a gross deviation from co-thography^ will still be. f^c^med the most ek^nt; 
Dr. Johnson's geneml rule, therefore, can only take place where^cUstom has notpbinly decided; 
but, unfortunately for the English Language, its orthography and pronunciationt are so wiMy 
di^rent, that. Dr. Watts and Dr.. Jones lay it down as a maxim in th4ir Treatises oa Spetting^ tfait 
all words which can be sounded different ways, must be written according to tllat sound wMch isi immi| 
distant from the true pronunciation ; and consequently, in such a Langu4ge, a Pronouncing DIctioiUK^ 
must be of essential use. 

But still it may be objected to such an undertaking, that tlie fluctuatioii of ptfoomciatioft is •ao 
great as to render all attempts to settle it useless. What will it avail us, it may be said, to know the 
prfamnciation di the present day, if» in a ;few years, it ViU be altcMd? AnA h&wLvt .we to know 

* Sec tbe wi^dft Ci>i4i,ic9t, ClaiiyAM^^ B49r4ff»i Doi^i^Ki/OK* E^^ 

t Principles^ No. SS, 545, t Principles^ No. 178. 

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even what the present pronunciation is, when the same words are often difFerently .pronounced by 
different speakers, and those, perhaps, of equal numbers and reputation ? To this it vmy be answered, 
that the fluctuation of our ' Language, witJi respect to its pronunciation, seems to have been greatly 
exaggerated..* 'Except a very few single words, wliich arc generally noticed in the following Dictionary, 
and the words where e comes before r, followed by another consonant, as* merchant^ service, &c. the 
pronunciation of the Language is probably in the same state in which it Vas a century ago ; and had" 
the same attention been then paid' to it as now, it is not likely even that change would have happened. 
The same' may beObsei'^ed of those' words which are differently pronounced by different speakers : 
if the analogies of the Ijinguage htid been' better understood, it is scarcely conceivable that so many 
words in poiitie usage would have a diversity of pronunciation, which is at once so ridiculous and 
embarrassing ; nay, pcriiaps'it may be with confidence asserted, that if the analogies of the 'Language 
were suificiently known, and srr near at hand as to be applicable, on inspection, to every word, thai 
not only m^ny words which are wavering betw^ecii contrary usages would be' settled in their true 
sound, but that many words,' which are fixed by custom to an improper pronunciation, would by' 
degrees grow regular and analogical ; and those which are so already would be secured in their purity, 
by a knowledge of- their regularity and analog)'. 

* TTieold and new'-Arfe, wMi all the rarious dialects, must have occasioned infinite irregularity in tlie pronunciation of tlie 
Greek toogue ; ^^djif iVe (nay jti|lge^pf tbe^atia proriunciation by tlie apcient inscriptions, it was little less various and irregu- 
lar than the preek. Aulus Gelliu§ tells us, tliat Nigidius, a grammarian who lived a little more tlian a century before him, 
seated the tetsyllablfe of ^i(^^ii butj safys he, " si quis nunc A^Zmwm appellans in casu vocandi secundum id pracceptuni 
Nigidii acQent.prioQan> non.aberit qum rideatur.*' Whoever now should place the accent on the first syllable of Falirius, when 
a vocative case, according to the precept of Nigidius, would set every body a laughing. FA^en that highly polished language the 
Frencb, if we may believe a Writer in the Encyclopedic,' is little less irregular in this respect than our own. 

" 11 estarriv6,'* says he, " par les alterations qui se succedent rapldement dans la mani^re de prononcer, and les corrections qui 
s'iatroduiscnt Wntement^dansla naaniere d*ecrire,que la prononciation & Tccriture ne marchent point ensemble, Sc queqiioiquily 
ait chez les peuples les plus polices de TEurope, des societes dliommes de lettres charges des les moderer, des les accorder, & de 
ies rapprocher dela m^me ligne, elles sc trouvent enfin k une distance inconcevable -, ensorte que de deux choses dont Tune n'a 
ct6, imaginee dans son origine, que pour rdpresenter fidelletnent Tautre, celle-ci ne diftere gucre moins de celle-1^, que la portrait 
it la mtme peraonne peinte dans deux ages tjes-^loign^** Enfin T inconvenient s'est accru i un tel eKcesqu'on n'ose plus y remedier. 
On proQonce une langue, on ecrit une autre : & Ton s'accoutume tellement pendant Ic reste de la vie ^ cette bisarrerie qui a fait 
Terser tant de larmes dans Tenfance, que si Ton renongoit k sa mauvaise orthographe pour une plus voisine de la prononciation, on 
TJt reconnoitrolt pfus la langue parlee sous sette nouvelFe combinaison de characteres. S'il y en a qui ne pourroient se succeder 
'sosime gjandefatigvr paiir I'arg^, oii^ils ne 'se' rencontreotpoicit, .ou ils ne dureiit pas.- Hs sont echapp6s de la langue par 
'.taphonie, cette loi puissante, qui agit continyellement Sc^univeu^Upment sans egard pour retymologie & ses defenseurs, et-qui 
ttr.d^ans intermission ^ amener des 6tres qui out les mcmes organes, le meme idiome, les m^mes mouvemens prescrits,£l-peu-pres 
- ia meroe prononciation. . Les causes dont )'{i6tiM h'est ^oint interrompue, <IeYiennent tojouf s les pjus fortes aveo les tems,quelque 
:'jibles qu*elles soi^nt en ^los-ra§raes^&; U a*y ^ ^resqtn^ p^ une «cule voyelie, une seule dlphthonguCi une senle cu-isoune dont 
-: valeur soit tellement constante, que I'eu^honie n'en puisse disposer, soit en alterant le son, soit en le supprimaiit.'* 

I shall not decide upon the justness of these complaints, but must observe, that a worse picture could scarcely be ^rawn of 
tbe£i^lishy-9r the most baibarous language of Europe.. Inde«J a degree of versatility seems involved in the ver^ natme of 
iacgoage, and is one of those evils lefl by Providence for map to correct : a love of order, and tlie utility ot regularity, will 
sl^'aj's incline him to confine' tins reraatilHy Avithiu as narrow bounds as possible. 

B ' 

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But the utility of a work of this kiod is pot confined to those parts of language where the 
impropriety is gross and palpable ; besides such imperfections in pronunciation as disgust every 
ear not accustomed to them^ there are a thousand insensible deviations^ in thp more minute parts of 
language, as the unaccented syllable may be called, ^hich do not strike the ear so forcibly as to mark 
any dirfect impropriety in particular words, but occasion only such a general imperfection as gives a bad 
, impression upon the whole. . Speakers with these imperfections pass very well in common conver- 
sation ; but when they are required to pronounce with emphasis, and for that purpose to be more 
distinct and definite in their utterance, here their ear fails them ; they have been accustomed only to 
loose cursory speaking, and, for want of firmness of pronunciation, are like those painters who draw 
the muscular exertions o^ the human body without any knowledge of anatomy. This, is one reason, 
perhaps, why we find the elocution of so few people agreeable when they resid or speak, to an assembly, 
while so few <^nd us by their utterance in common conversation. A thousand faults lie concealed 
in a miniature, which a microscope brings to view ; and it is only by pronouncing on a larger scale> 
< as publick speaking may be called, that we prove the propriety of our elocution. As, therefore^ 
there are certain deviations from analogy which are not at any rate tolerable, there are others which, 
only, as it were, tarnish the pronunciation, and make it l^ss briUiant and agreeable. There are few 
who have turned their thoughts on this subject, without observing that they sometinoes pronoiince 
the same word or syllable in a different manner ; and as neither of these manners offend the ear, 
they are at a loss to which they shall give the preference : but as one must pece3sarilyber morp agree- 
able to the analogy of the language than the other, a display of these analogies, in a Dictionary of 
this kind, will immediately remove this uncertainty : and in. this vie^y of the variety we shall discover, 
a fitness in one mode of speaking, which will give a firmness and security to our pronunciation^ from 
a copfidence that it is founded on reason, and the general tendency of the language* See ^rinciplesy 
No. 530, 547, 55I5 &c. 

9ut, alas! reasoning on language, however well founded^ may be all overturned by a single 
quotation from Horace: 


'' Quem pen^s arbitrium est> k job Be aonna loqueodi/* 

This, it must be owned, is a succinct way of ending the controversy ; and, by virtue of thi^ 
argument, we may become critics in language, without the trouble of stuping it : not that! would 
be thought, in the most distant manner, to deny that Custom is the sovereign arbiter of language i 
far from U. I .acknowledge its authority, and know there 13 no appeal fipom it. I wiah . only to 
dispute, where this arbiter has not dedded ; (ovy if once Custom speak out, however absurdly, I 
sincerely acquiesce in its sentence. 

But what is this custom to which we must so implicitly submit ? Is it the usage of the xnukittide of 
speakers, whether good or bad ? This has never been asserted by the. n\os|; . sanguinp a|pettors,of its 

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PRE^AtE. ti 

aathority. Is it the usage of the studious in kho6ls and colleges, with those of the learned pro* 
fessions, or that of those who, frond theif elevated birth or station, give laws to the refinements and 
elegancies of a court ? To confine propriety to the latter, which is too often the case, seetiis ah injury 
to the former ; ^ho, from their very profession, ap^ar to have a natural right to a share, at least, in 
the l^sUtiori of language, if not' to an absolute sovereignty. The polished attendants on a throne 
are as apt t6 depart from simplicity in language as in dress and mannbrs } an(l novelty, instead of 
custom, is too oftert the jus & norma loquendi of a court. 

Perhap^ ah attetltive observation will lead us to conclude, that the usage, which ought to direct' 
us, IS neither of these *^e have been enumerating, taken singly, bdt a sort of compound ratio of alt 
three. Neidier a finical pronunciation of the court, nor a pedantic Graecism of the scdiools, will be 
denominated respectable usage, till a certain number of the geiieral mass of speakers have "acknow- 
ledged them } nor will a multitude of common speakers authorise any pronunciation wHidh is repro- 
bated by the learned And politd. 

As those sounds, therefore, which are the most generally received among the ' fearned 
and polite, as well as the bulk of speakers, are the most legitimate, we may conclude tliat a 
majority of two of these states 6ught always to cioncur. In order to constitute what is called good 

But thdugh custom, when general, is commonly well understood, there are several states and 
degrees of it which are exceedingly obscure and equivocal ; and the only rhethod of knowing the 
extent of custom in these cases, seems to be an inspection of those I^ctionaries which professedly 
treat of pronunciation. We have now so many works of this kind, that the general current of 
custom, with respect to the sound of words, may be collected from them with almost as much 
certainty as the general sense of words from Johnson. An exhibition of the opinions of 
orthoepists about the sound of words always appeared to me st very rational method of determining 
what is called custom. This method I have adopted in the following work ; and if I have sometimes 
dissented from the majority, it has been either from a persuasion of being better informed 
of what was the actual custom of speaking, or from a partiaTity to the evident analogies* of the 

And here I mustintreat the caridid reader to make every reasonable allowance for the freedom with 
which I have critidsed other Mirriters on this subject, and particularly Mr. Sheridan. As a man, a 
gentleman^ and a scholar, I knew Mr. Sheridan, and respected him ; and think every lover of 
elocution owes him a tribute of thanks for his unwearied addresses to the Public, to rouse them to tlie 
study of the delivery of their native tongue. But this tribute, however just, does not exempt him 
from eiamiiMttioiu His credit with the world necessarily subjects him to animadversion, because tiie 
errors of sodi a writor are dangerous in proportion to his reputation : this has made me zealous to 
remark bU inaocaracies, but not without giving my reasons ; nor have I ever taken advantage of surh 


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12 ' PREFACE. 

faults as may be called inadvertencies.* On the sarae prindples I have ventured to criticise 
Dr. Johnson,-|- whose friendship and advice I was honoured with, whose memory I love, and whose 
intellectual powers impress me with something like religious veneration and awe. I do not pretend 
to be exempt from faults myself; in a work like the present, .it would be a miracle to escape them ; 
nor have I the least idea of deciding as judge, in a case of so much delicacy and in>portance as the 
pronunciatfon of a whole people ; I have only assumed the part of an advocate to plead the cause of 
consistency and analogy, and, where custom is either silent or dubious, to tempt the lovers ; of., their 
language to incline to the side of propriety: so that niy design is principally to give a kind of 
history pf pronunciation, and a register of its present state ; and, where therauthorities of IXctionaries 
or Speakers are found to differ, to give such a display of the> analogies of the language as may enable 
every inspector to decide for himself. . : . , .-^ , » . 

With respegt to the explanation of words, except in very- few instancy, I have scrupulously^ 
followed Dr. Johnson. His Dictionary has been deemed lawful plunder by every subsequent 
lexicographer ; and so servilely has it been copied, that such. words aj5 he must have omitted me»ely 
by mistake^ as Predilection, Respectable, Descriptive, Sulki/^ Jnimical, Interference, and mauy others,, 
are neither in Mr. Sheridan's, Dr. Kenrick's, nor several other Dictionaries. 

* The inspector will be pleased to take notice, that ray observations on Mr. Sbw idan's Dicdoaary T.t}^tfi to the first. editi^n^ 
pobHshed in bis Kfe-trme, smd tbe second, sometime after "his death : whatever alterations may have been made by his subsequent: 
editors, 1 am totally unacquainted with. / .! . : :;= j .. 

f See Sceptic, S.ciRjRttus, Coi)ljr,» Fcjrthbr^ &c. . . , - ^ , , , 

f. ' 


r * 

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1 HE rapid sak of the Third Edition of this Dictionary called upon me for a Poi>rth, at a time of life, and in ar 
sute of health, little compatible with the drudgery and attention necessary for the execution of it r but as I expected 
such a Call^I was not unnundful of- whatever might tend to render it «till more worthy of the acceptance of the 
PubHc, and therefore collected many words, which, though not found in Dictionaries, .were constantly to be met 
with in polite and literary conversation, and which were well deserving of a place in the language, as soon as written 
authorities could be produced for them. Some of these authorities I .have produced,, and have left others to the. 
auentionof those who have more leisiyeaml better heaUh^ In the midst of the impression of tlve present woik, I 
met with Mason's, Supplement to Johnson, and found several words worthy of insertion, bub have carefully acknow-r 
ledged the obligation > and take this opportunity of thanking that gentleman for the benefit I have derived from his« 
Supplcment^which I tlunk, if continued, admirabljr calculated for tjie improvement and stability of the language. 

But as the great object of the present Dictionary was pronunciation, I wa» very solicitous to be as accurate as 
possible on this point, and therefore neglected no opportunity of informing myself where I was in the least doubtful,, 
and of correcting myself where there was the least shadow of* an error. These occa«ions,. however,, were not very 
numerous. To'a maaborn, as I was, within a few miles of the Capital, living in the Capital almost my whole life, 
and exercising myself there iapublick speaking for many years ; to such a person, if to any one, the true pronun- 
ciation of the language must be very familiar : and to this familiarity I am indebted for the security I have felt in 
deciding upon. tlie sounds of several syllables, which nothing but an infantine pronunciation- could determine. If I 
may borrow an allusion from music, I might observe, that there is a certain tune in every language to ^hich the ear 
of a native is sef, aiid which often decides on. the preferable pronunciation,, though entirely ignerant of the reasons 
for it- 

But this vernacular instinct, as it may be called, has been seconded by a careful investigation of the analogies of 
the language. Accent and Quantity, the great efficients of pronunciation, are seldom mistaken by people of education 
in the Capital ; but the great bulk of the nation, and those who form the most important part in it, are without these 
advantages, and therefore want such a guide to direct them as is here offered. Even polite and literary people, who 
speak only from the ear, will find that this organ willy in a thousand instances, prove but a very uncertain guide,^ 
without a knowledge of tht>se principles by which the ear itself is insensibly directed, and which, having their origiii 
in the nature of language, operate with steadiness and regularity in the midst of the tcklest affectation and caprice. 
Ii can scarcely be supposed that the most experienced speaker has heard every word in the language, and the whole 
circle of sciences pronounced exactly as it ought to be ; and if this be the case,. he must sometimes have recourse to- 
the principles of pronunciation when his ear is either uninfqrmed or unfaithful. These principles are those general 
laws of articulation which determine the character, and fix the boundaries of every language ; as in every system of 
speaking, how'ever irregular,, the organs must necessarily fall into some common mode of enunciation, or the purpose 
of Providence in the gift of speech would be absolutely defeated. These laws, like every other object of philo- 
sophical inquiry, are only to be traced by an attentive observation and enumeration of particulars ; and when these 
particiriars are sufficiently numerous to form a general rule, an axiom in pronunciation is acquired. By an accu- 
mulation of these axipms, and an analogical comparison of them with each other, we discover the deviations of 
language where custom has varied, arid ihe only clew to guide us where custom is either indeterminate or obscure. 

Thus, by a view of the words ending in ity or ety^ I find the accent invariably placed on the preceding syllable, 
as in diver* sity, congru* ifyyScc. On a closer inspection, I find every vowel in this antepenultimate syllable, when 
no consonant intervenes, pronounced long, as peUty^ pi'^^y^ &c. a nearer observation shows me, that if a consonant 
intervene, every vowel in this syllable but u contraas itself, and is pronounced short, as sever' if y, curiosh'fy^' 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 


impu^nhyy &c. and therefore that chastity and ohsenity ought to be pronounced with the penultimate vowel short, and 
^l a /' "^ 9is in chaste and obsene, as we frequently here them. I find too, that even u contracts itself before two consonants, 
as cur'vity, tacitur'nity^ &c. and that scarcity and rarity {(or whose irregularity good reasons may be given) are the 
only exceptions to this rule throughout the language. And thus we have a series of near seven hundred words, the 
accentuation of which, as well as the quantity of the accented vowel, arc reduced to two or three simple rules. 

The same uniformity of accentuation and quantity may be observed in the first syllable of those words which 
have the accent on the third, as </^m.«»-j/rfl'//V;», rf/OT-/-n«'//tf»,/ii-ftt-^rfl'//tf»,* &c. we evidently perceive a 

stress on the first syllable shortening every vowel but t/, and this in every word throughout the language, except 
where two consonants follow the i/, as in cur-vi-iin* c-ar ; or where two vowels follow the consonant that succeeds any 
other vowel in the first syllable, as de-vi-a'tion; or, lastly, where the word is evidently of our own composition, 
as re-con-vey^ : but as u in tlie first syllable of a word, having the accent on the third, has the same tendency to length 
and openness as was observable when it preceded the termination i/y, I find it necessary to separate it from the con- 
sonant in hu^ty-rJ ce9us^ which I have never heard pronounced, as well as in lu-cu^bra^ ti^n^ which I have ; and this 
from no pretended agreement with the quantity of the Latin words these are derived from ; for, in the former, word^ 
the u is doubtful : but, from the general system of quantity I see adopted^in English pronunciation ; this only will 
direct an English ear with certainty : for, though we may sometimes place the accent on words we borrow from the 
Greek or Latin on the same syllable as in those languages, as acu^men^ e/cgi'ac, &c. nay, though we sometimes adopt 
the accent of the original with every word of the same termination we derive from it, sls assiJu* ity^ vi-du^ity, &c. 
yet the quantity of the accented vowel is so often contrary to that of the Latin and Greek, that not a sliadow of i rule 
cran be drawn, in this poitn, from these languages to ours.t Thus, in the letter in question, in the Latin accumuh^ 
dubious^ tumor J ice. the first t/ is every where short ; but in the English words accumulate, dtthVus^ /«/«#i/r, every 
where long. Nuptialis^ murmur^ turbulentus^ &c. where the u in the first syllable in Latin is long, we as constantly 
pronounce it short in nuptial ^ murmur, turbulent, 8cc. Nor indeed can we wonder that a different o^conomy of quantity 
is observable in the ancient and modern languages, as in the former, two consonants almost always lengthen the pre* 
ceding vowel, and in the latter as constantly shorten it; Thiis, without arguing in a vicious circle, we fin(j, that as a 
division of the generality of words, as they are actually pronounced, gives us the general laws of syllabicaubn, so 
these laws, once understood, direct us in the division of such words as we have never heard actually pronounced, and 
consequently to the true pronunciation of them. For these operations, like cause and effect, reflect mutually a light 
on each other, and prove, that by nicely observing th^ path which custom in language has once taken, we can more^ 
thaa guess at the line she must keep in a similar case, where'her footsteps are not quite so discernible. So true is the 
observation of Scaliger : Ita omnibus in rebus certissifna rati one sibi ipsa respondet naturd. De catisis Lin^. JLat, 


i ■ r-! ' . . ■ ■ ■ ■■ I 

* Sec Principles, No. ^34, 5A7, 530. + S« Piiiibtplet> No. £44, ^^ 

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RULES to be observed by the NATIVES of IRELAND in order to obtain a 

just Pronunciation of English. 

As Mr. Sheridan was a native of Ireland, and had the 
best opportunities of understanding those peculiarities of 
pronunciation which obtain there, I shall extract his obser- 
vations on that subject as the best general direction, and 
add a few of my own, by way of supplement, which I hope 
wiil render this article of instruction still more complete 

The reader will be pleased to take notice) that as I have 
made a different arrangement of the vowels, and I have 
adopted a notfttion diSerent from Mr. Sheridan, I am 
obliged to make use of different figures to mark the vowels, 
but still such as perfectly correspond to his. 

^ The chief mistakes made by the Irish in pronouncing 
" English, lie for the most part in the sounds of the two 
** fint vowels, a and e ; the former being generally sounded 
" i by the Irish, as in the word bir, in most words where 
'' it is pronounced a, as in dayy by the English. Thus the 
" Irish say, patron, matron, the vowel i having the same 
"sound as in the word father ; while the English pro- 
" nounce them as if written pay iron ^ may iron. The fol- 
" lowing rule, strictly attended to, will rectify this mistake 
*' through the whole language. 

" When the vowel a finishes a syllable, and has the ac- 
** cent on it, it is invariably pronounced i [^ay] by the 
*^ English. To this rule there are but three exceptions in 
"• the whole language to be found in the words fither, 
" papl, maml. The Irish may think also the word rather 
"an exception, as well z% father \ and so it would appear 
" to^beiiit thpimaanDer of pronouncing it ri*tber, laying 
''tbcaccentoiir the vowel tf ; but in the English pronun- 
'^tiation the cpnsonant th is takjsn into the first syllable, 
" 2&rtttb\erj which ma^es the diff?reni:e, 

'' \if^iii;vcra cptfisona9t;fQ)Jpwsthe vowel ^,in4hesame 
*''syllabl^,aLod the accent iS' on the consonant, the vowel a 
'^'has alwa3's its fourth. sound, as hit, man; as also the 
" same^ound len^h^ped when it precedes the letter r, as 
'' fi^ bir^ thfingh^h^ accent he.oA' the vow^l ; as likewise- 
" when it precedes /m, asb&lm, psHlm. The Irish, igno- 
"'Tant of this latter exceptioif,,pronounce all wordff of that 
" structure, as if they were written hawniy psawniy q^a^m^ 
" ^^mktl^* Intibe third SQ^jji^of >l».^Mtt'k^d'by:di^fcre^lt' 
' combiDfliifiins 4ȣ vowels^, or.eonsonantsv such-as auj in 
" Paul ; awy in law j all^ in call; ald^ in bald; alky in 
" talk, &ۥ the Irish make no mistake, except in that of 

/hi, as before mentioned.. 

" The second vowel, e, is for the most part sounded ee 
" bv the English, When the accent is upon it ; whilst the 

** Irish in nH>st words give it the sound of slender i, as in 

hate. This sound of k [eel is marked by difiTerent com- 

" binations of vowels, such as ea, eJ^ e fnal mute, ee^ and 

** />• In the two last combinations of ee and /^, the Irish 

never mistake ; such as in meet^ seem, fields ielieve, &c. 

but in all the others, they almost universally change the 

sound of e into L Thus in the combination ea, they 

** pronounce the Vfords tea ^ sea y please, as if they were spelt 

'* tay^say, plays i instead of///, see^ pleese. The English 

constantly give this sound to ea whenever the accent is 

on the vowel /, except in the following words, great, a 

pear, a iear, to tear, to forbear, to swear, to tear, to wear. 

" In all which the/ has tlie sound of i in hite. For want 

*^ of knowing these exceptions, the gentlemen of Ireland, 

'^ after some time of residence in London, are apt to fall 

^' into the general rule, and pronounce these words as if 

" spelt greet, beer, sweer, &c. 

*' Ei is also sounded // by the English, and as K by the 

' Irish ; thus the words deceit, receive , are pronounced l%r 

them as if written dcsa/e, resave. Ei is always sounded 

^* //, except when a g follows it, as in the words reigfty 

* ffig^9 deign, &c, as also in the words, rein, (of a bridle} 

** r//«-deer, vein, Jrein, veil^ heir, which arc pronounced 

** like rain, vain^ drain, vail, air. 

' The final mute / makes the preceding / in the same* 
*^ syllable, wheii accented, have the sound of //, as in the 
** words suprime^ sincere, repl&e. This rule is almost. 
^ universally broken through by the Iriah»wha pronounce 
f^ all such words as if vritten supr&me,sincire,replSte,&c. 
^* There are but two. exceptions to this rule in the Englishi 
^^ pronuociatiop, which are the w,ord$ there, where. 
\ * In the way of marking this sounds by » double e^ s^« 
!' thus //, as the Irish never make any mistakes, the best 
** methodibr ail who want to acquirethe right pronunciation 
^' of these several combinations is, to suppose that ea,ei^ndf' 
'* #1, att«o4od by a SmI iQutie./, aoe aUiiffdt wiiiirra.doubhr 
e^ or #/r 

^^ Ey \^ always sounded like II by the English; >vhen the 
'^ accent is upfii it.; as. in. the vtwiMtprey^ convey^ pr9^. 
t^ n9ima«dr^ri7/f ^<itji'«> To^htSitfiCBiaEeJHit two jezcep-* 
t' tions, in tht wonk kiy and 1 jy^ aotiiid<irf'4i0^, Jeie.' The 

* Irish irt attempting to pronounce like the Englilh, often 

* give the same sound to /y,a» usually belongs to // ; thus. 

* f&r prey, convey,, they say^ pree,. convee. 

'^ A strict observation of these few rules, with a due at* 
^ tentiontothe vei:y£BW exceptions enumeratedabove, wilt 

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" enable the wcll-cjucated natives of Ireland to pro- 
*^ nouncc their words exactly in the same way as the more 
*' polished part of the inhabitants of Elngland do, so far 
^' as the vowels are con<:erned. The diphthongs they com- 
'* mit no fault in, except in the sound of i, which has been 
'* already taken Aotice of in the Grammar :* where, like- 
*^ wise, the only difference in pronouncing any of thecon- 
** sonants has been pointed out j which is, the thickening 
'^ the sound of </and /, in certain situations ; and an easy 
" method proposed of correcting this habit.t 

" In order to complete the wholc> I shall now give a 
" list of such.detached words, that do not come underany 
** of the above rules, as arc pronounced differently in 
** Ireland from what they arc in England : 

Irish pron 






ghh! tT [gather) 






kitch {catch) 

(hoarse {coarse) 

course {course) 




i^xA^h {quash) ' 

\tzh! \xr {leisure) 



dr&th {droughr) drout 

sarch {search) serch 

source {source) scree 

cushion cfishipn 


English pron, 

fitful ^ 
. flore 



coarse • 





Irish pr-jn, 

lenth {length) 
struv {strove) 
druv {drove) 



ten 'able 


wrSth {wroth) 


rode . 



shism {schism) 



breth {breadth) 

cowld {cold) ' 

bowld {bold) 



ffit {foot) 


In^ ion {onian) 


retsh" {reach) 


zaa' lous 


Eng. pron. 









r&d . 













un nyun 





'^ These, after the closest attention, are all the words, 
" not included in^he rules before laid down, that I have 
been able to collect, in which the well-educated natives 
* of Ireland differ from those of England." 

I shall make no observ*:tions on the accuracy of this list, 
but desire my reader to observe, that the strongest cha- 
racteristics of the pronunciation of Ireland ii the rough 
jarring pronunciation of the letter R, ^nd the aspiration 
or rough breaching before all the accented vowels. (Foi;. 
the true sound of Ry see that letter in tbe Principles, 
No. 419.) And for the rough breathing or aspiration of 
the vowels, the pupil should be told not to bring the voice, 
suddenly from the breast, but to speak, as it were, from 
the mouth only. 

It may be observed to, that the natives of Ireland pro- 
nounce rm at the end of a word so distinctlj' as to fofm* 
two separate syllables. Thus stormzndfarm seem sounded' 
by them as if written staw-rum^ fa-rum ; while the Eng-' 
lish sound the r so soft and so close to the m, that it seems 
pronounced nearly as if written stawm^ faam. 

Nearly the same observations arc applicable to Im. 
When these.lettersenda word, they arc, in Ireland, pro- 
nounced at such a distance, that helm and realm sound as if 
written hel-um and reLum ; but in England the / and m 
are pronounced as close as possible, and so as to form but 
one syllable- To remedy this, it will be necessary for the 
pupil to make a collection of words terminating with 
these consonants, and to practise them over till a true pro- 
nunciation is acquired. 

• )? Vid^ page It, where the tree manner of 'pronouncing the diphthong 
** i is pointed out ; the Irish pronouncing it much in the same manner as 
•* die French. 

+ '* The le\tcr</ has always the same sound by those who pronounce 
*•" English well 5 but the Provincials, particularly the Irish, Scotch, and 
**• Welsh, in many wonUthifikenthesoiMd b/a mixture of breath. Thus, 
" though th^ Kwnd the i/ right in the positive /om/ and.^npo^, in the 
** compar^ve degree they ihtckea it by an aspiiatioo, and sound it as if it 

" were written loudber^ iroaiiher, Thisviscious pronunciation is produced 
f by pushing the tongue forward so as to touch (he teeth in forming that 
" sound : and the way to cure it is easy ; for as they can pronounce the d 
" properly in the word loud, let th?m rest a little upon that syllable, keep- 
** ing the tongue in the position of forming </, and then le^t them separate 
'* it from the upper gum without pushing it forward, and the sound der 
*' will be produced of course : for the organ being the position of 
*' sounding d at the end of the syllable loud» is necessnrily in the position of 
" forming the same d in uttering the last syllable^ unless it makes a new 
" movement, as in the case of protruding it so as to touch the teeth. Thii 
** letter is sometimes, though not ofcen> quiescent, as in the words band- 
•* kerchief, handsome, handsel. 

'* In prononncing the letter / the Irish and other Provincials thicken the 
'* sound, as was before mentioned with, regard to the d ; for better, they 
*' say betther ; for utter, uttber ; and so on in all words of that siruQurc. 
'* This faulty manner arises from the same cause that was mentioned as 
" aBectingtl^e loundof </; I snean.the protudrog of the tongue so as 10 
*' touch the teeth, and it curable only io the same way.*' 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 

MULES to fe 9herwShy the MATIFES if SCOTLAND fw attaining a 
* Just Praaundviion fif English 

T«f AT ]»r<mtinci9(ioii^1iidi <)t6(irigutshes 'die iiiliabkanu 
of Scotland u of a -very dyfiaront kind from diiA of Itfc 
UnA^ and vnay he divided kito the quaotky^ quiAky, wui 
wrcentuatioii of Ae vow^. With reftptctto qtiantiiiy^ it J 
nay be observed, that the Scotth pronounce aknost ai* 
ifaetracceoted' vow^ teng- Thu«, iff I am not ^nistakcii, 
they wouMpro«ouf»ce*«W,^A«y-i/f; /i^V, tee^pki:4inmr^\ 
tee-ntr ; €6mfcUus^ tone^^s ; and subject, so^b-jeci ^ itfsi 
iwc pretended, however, that'cvery aecemed vowel i» ao 
prtmounced, butthatt sudi a pronunciation is Mery general,: 
ind parttculafly of tlie'i. -Thia vowel i««hoit in Engliah; 
proDuaciahon, where the ether vowels aiie longt thuSf 
tfHnhn^ aefhfsifH, tmQthny ctnfttfjon, have the « , ^, ^, and «, } 
bng; and in^theae instances the Scotch would prcuioiince^ 
tfaemlike dnlKngliah : but in wsi^^ dfciiiott^-Scc. where' 
the Engttah pvonounoe -the 4 short, the Scotch lengtbeifti 
Ibis letter by proROimeing it tike eei as if /the words were 
wriuieR v€t-sknj'4iiC9t'-si6ni fee. and this peculiarity is 
oniversai. . The best way, therefore,* to coriseet thk, will 
be^BUKkeacelieolioA of the most uaual words which* have 
the vowel short, and to pronooncetfaem -daily 4ill a habit 
islomied. "See Priiiciplefi, No. 507. 

'With Ktpoct tothe^oMiay of Hie vowetsiiumay bedb^ 
iervfd. that €be iivbAiteiiita of !Seotland are apt 40 pre- 
tioanoeshe^ tikeant;^ WhevetheEnjflirfi give itche ^tender • 
sound: IhiiSiSii/aviispTonbunced S^hJUtafffiiJidfatai^fifwfdL' 
It may be remarked too, that the Scotch give this sound to 
the a preceded by w, apcordiRg to (he genera] rule, with- 
out attending to the exceptions. Principles, No. 88 ; and 
thus, instead of making wax, waft, and twan^j rhyme with* 
taxy ihaft^ and Afl«^,*thcy pronourice them so as to rhyme! 

-* Tiw ibii is tbe geaerll moi^ol^pfMioiiiidfig <hMe wcMds in SeOiland, 
isiadii^nbiUet a«id iiw ^igbly^re^hicilNt'lke AcQtch 'bawe pit served' 
tfaeold£Qglisb^ODUQciaiiQn,^fkaa) .whiob ,ihc English, themselves have, 
iaeoubly ileported. Dr. tiicks observed Ibog ago, that the Scotch ^ojr- 
ms9d ifk their laugosge mueh more than thc'£ngtisb ; and it is scarccTyt 
«> k det^Me44lilt a«Q|iifoa'iiBaMr 4otfaaContiMDt, and « gieaier com-i 
aKsdil.iiH«opgiier«ri#i;^Uicr iipti^pis,j|itdeibe English. admit of nimbaH 
^ cbsqges libtdb i)«ver cxteodtd xq Scotland. About the reign of Queen' 
Bizabeibt when the Greek and Latin laogpages were cultivated, and the 
pcdadoy df khewing an acquaintance with ibem became fashionable, it \$ 
aocimprgbaMe that -an akemion ia die i^uamiiy of miny wc^ds took 
|>bcc; for as in Latin almost every vowel before, a siogic coni9i»9ci4 
sboit, so in Eogltsh almost cvciy vowel in the same situation was supposecf 
10 be long, or our aocestan* would not -have ^doubled the consonant in thd 
panjcipks- of verfi^^io jvtveik A^it pregfdiBg wiwel fiom lengthening; 
Bat wWb once this afieci«tion of Latinity ^was adapted, it is no wonder if 
ibould extend beyond its princi^es, and ^rten several vowels in English, 
kfta n t ifccy wef t tih o it in the original Latin ; and in this mmuwr, perhaps j 
Biabt4iie.dittcii9.heliiMm«heJ9Mmiiy4>£4he English and 4fac .Scotch 
promnciaMo arise. (54a) (^ '»|iie«P«^aiA*- 

wijtb hxy i^fi^ and sfu^f The short e in beJ, Jed, r^/,&.c. 
JK^rdicrS \(0Q jPR^h upon^t^ Cziglish sound of a in bad^ Jad^ 
mfid^fkCf ftnd*lie sborj i in i/V, ////, r/V, too much on the 
¥tfd^isHiSQ\mAof Jm ^dylrd^ red. To correct this error, it 
would be useful t^cpHeot the lopg and short sounds of tliesc 
^v^iWek^atodtp pfOnoy^ce UKjong-oncj) first, and to shorten 
dieoft by degrees till they are perfectly shoit ; at the samtf^sdrvii^g the m^i^al sound of the vowel, in both. 
T|ju«4he correspondent long sounds to the- ^ in bed ^ Jed ^ 
red^^^cc b^de^fade^ r/^dc \ and that of the short / in bid, //</, 
;ti4,3mAbipd,ieadf Ufd^y find the former of these classes • 
•W.ill naturally \e^^ t^ ear to the trye sound of the hitter, 
-ij^^nly di^ereoce \^%\%!k the fjufintity. The short in - 
0#/^ lod&f^ $>iy Sec, is apt to slidcinto tlie short &, as if the 
•iAK>r^w«f« written ftut, Jlidge^ guff &c. To reaify this, it 
#bpuld i»e feoaoipbere^i tfa^t this is the short sound of 
^fitf 'M)d ought to hav^ 4\ke radical «pund of tlie deep a in 
ball. Thus -the radical #ound corresponding to the iii 
m/y^tj J0(,,if ib^nd in Jtsi^gl^, eaagbi^ sought. Sec. zni 
the$e loing ^ojii^da, lijbe the /anncr^ sBpuId be abbreviated 
nitp ^,iho>t.^»^. 3ut wh^ will tend greatly to clea^ 
ihf diiSculty m]l he, ^p .re|Deio)>er that only those word^ 
whi<?hMr-e Qfill9pie4ii^Ac?r4n<;jplcs» No. i65t/b^veth« 
'^^^ofiffkkd liW.>boH# when the ^cept is upon it: and 
su^ith^re^pupct to 1/ in i^ll^JiUI^puil^ 3u:. it may he observed., 
that the prPnui|i:iation peculiar to the Enj^lish is only founc) 
in the- words enttme^aitefi^. Principles, No. 174* 

In addition to what has been.said> it may -be observed^ 
x))at«0in fifodj mocdf m$Gny soifin^ &c« which ought always 
ip have a long. ^]i;nd> ia generally shortened b Scotland to 
tb^t i^iddjfc sound of tbej/ in bull : and it must be^remem- 
bored, that wc^l ^ woody goad^ b^d^ Uoodyfaotf ;^rc the only 
words wh^re -this sound of -oo oi^ht to. take place* 

The accentuation, both in Scotland and Ireland^ (if by 
accentuation \yc iviean the^tress, and notthe.kjnd of stress) 
is ^o muoh the same as that .of England, tiiat I cannot re* 
collect iQanyiWords in which they difier. Indeed, if it 
were not so, the versification of eacb^ country ^would be dif- 
fere/it : for as English verse is formed byac<sent or stress, 
if this accentor stress were upon diflerent syllables in dif- 
ferent countries, wl^at is yerse in {4)f land would not be 
verse in Scotland or Ireland ; and this su(Eciently s^ows 
how very indefinitely the word accent is generally used. 

Mr. £iphin^ton,.whqmuw>e allowed to be a competent 
judge in this case, tells us^that in Scotland they pronounce 
silence, bids^ canvas, sentence, triumph, comfort, soldce^^on* 
strQe, rescue, respite, govern, harass, ransack, cancil, with 
the accent on the last syllivble instead of <he first. To thU 
list may be added the wqi]4.jmim<#> which (hey pronounoe 


Digitized by 



as if written menass ; and though tliey place the accent on 
the last Syllable of canal^ like the English, they broaden 
the a in the last syllable, as if the word were spelt canatvU 
It may be farther observed, that they place an accent on 
the comparative adverb as^ in the phrases as much^ as little^ 
as manyy as greats &c, while the English, except in some 
very particular iemphatical cases, lay no stress on this word, 
but pronounce these phrases like words of two or three 
syllables without any accent on the first. 

But besides the mispronunciation of single words, there 
!s a tone of voice with which these words are accompanied, 
that distinguishes a native of Ireland or Scotland as much 
as an improper sound of the letters. This is vulgarly, and, 
if it does not mean stress only, but the kind of stress, I 
think ,^ not improperly called the accent.* For though 
there is an asperity in the Irish dialect, and a drawl in the 
Scotch/independent of the slides or inflexions they make 
use of, yet it may with confidence be affirmed, that much 
of the peculiarity which distinguishes these dialects may be 
reduced to a predominant use of one of these slides. 
any one who has efficiently studied the speaking voice to 
distinguish the slides, observe the pronunciation of an 
Irishman and a Scotchman, who have much of the dialect 
of their country, and he will find that the former abounds 
with the falling, and the latter with the rising inflection ;t 
and if ttus is the case, a teacher, if be undersunds these 
slides, ought to direct bis instruction so as to remedy the 
imperfedtion. But as avoiding the wrong, and seizing the 
right at the same instant, is perhaps too great a task for 
human powers, I would advise a native of Ireland, who 
has much of the accent, to pronounce almost all his words, 
and end alt his sentences, with the rising slide ; and a 
Scotchflian m the same manner,to use the falling inflexion : 
thi$ will/in some measure, counteract the natural propen- 
sity» tod bids £airer for bringing the pupil to that nearly 
^dbl mixture of both slides which distinguishes the Eng- 
lish speaker, than endeavouring at first to catch the agree, 
able variety. For thir purpose the teacher ought to pro- 
nounce all the single words in the lesson with the falling 
inflexion to a Scotchman, and with the rising to an Irish- 
man; and should frequently give the pauses in a sentence 
the same inflexions to each of these pupils, where he 
would vary them tp a native of England. But while the 
human voice remains unstudied, there is little expectation 
that this distinctioii of the slides should be applied to these 
' useful purposes. 

Besides a peculiarity of inflexion, which I take to be a 
falling circumflex, directly Opposite to that of the Scotch, 

* See tiiis more fully exemplified io Elemepts of Elocution, vo^ II. 
page 13. 

f Or raiher the rising circumfiex. Foranexplaoacionof thisioflcxion, 
lee Rhetorical Gnrnmsr, thiid editioOr page 79. 

the Welsh pronounce the sharp consonanU and aspirations 
instead of the flat. (Sec Principles, No. 29, 41,) Thus 
for big they say pick ; for bloody phot ; and for gooJj coot. 
Instead of virtue and vice^ they say firtuedXiA fice ; instead 
of zeal aiid praise^ they say seat and prace^ instead of these 
and tbuse'y they say thece and thoce ; and instead of azure 
and^/iVr, they say aysber dJiA osber; and iorjail, chail^ 
Thus there are nine distinct consonant sounds which, to 
the Welsh, are entirely useless. To speak with propriety, 
therefore, the Welsh ought for sometime to pronounce 
the flat consonants and aspirations only ; that is, they 
ought not only to' pronounce them where the letters re« 
quire the flat sounds but even where they require the 
sharp soiuid ; this will be the best way to acquire a habit ; 
and when this is once dohe, a distinction will be easily 
made, and a just pronunciation more readily acquired. 

There is scarcely any part ot England, remote from the 
.capital, where a difierent system of pronunciation does not 
prevail. As in Wales they pronounce the sharp conso- 
nants for the flat, so in Somersetshire they pnmounce many 
of the flat instead of the sharp : thus for Somersetshire^ they 
saLY Zomersetsbire ; ior father , vat her; f<H' /i&ink^ THink 5 
and for sure, zbure* 

There are dialects peculiar to Cornwall, Lancashire, 
Yorkshire, and every distant county in England; but as a 
consideration of these would lead to a detail too minute for 
the present occasion, I shall conclude these remarks with a 
few observations on the peculiarities of my countrymen^ 
the Cocknies ; who, as they are the models of pronun- 
ciation to the distant provinces, ought to be the more 
scrupulously correct. 

First Fault of thb Londoners. 

Pronouncing s indistinctly after st. 
The letter s after st, from the very difficulty of its pro- 
nunciation, is often sounded inarticulately. Theinhabi- 
tanu of London, of the lower order, cut the knot, and pro* 
nounce it in a distinct syllable, as if r were before it > but 
this is to be avoided as the greatest blemish in speaking : 
the three last letters in posts, fists ^ mists j &c. must all be 
distinctly heard in one syllable,and without permitting the 
leuers to coalesce. For the acquiring of this sounds it 
will be propef to select nouns that end in //, or ste; to 
form them into plurals, and pronounce them forcibly and 
distinctly every day. The same may be observed of the 
third person of verbs ending in sts or x/r/, as persists, 
wastes^ hastes, &c . 

Second Fault. 
Pronouncings for y, and inversely » 
The pronunciation of v for tc;, and'more frequently of 
w for V, among the inhabitants of London, and those nftf, 

*'See the wordCuAKCs* 

Digitized by 



always of the lower order^ is a blemish of the first magni- 
tude. The difficulty of remedying this defect is the greater, 
as the cure of one of these mistakes has a tendency to 
promote the other. 

Thus, if you arc very careful to mAc a pupil pronounce 
Vial and vinegar^ not as if written weal and winegar^ you 
will find him very apt to pronounce wine and wind^ as if 
written vine and vind. The only method of rectifying 
this habit seems to be this : Let the pupil select from a 
Dictionary, not only all the words that begin with v^ but as 
many as he can of those that have this letter in any other 
pait. Let him be told to bite his under lip while he is 
sounding tl^ v in those words/ and to practise this every 
day till tie pronounces the v properly at first sight: then, 
and noi till then, let him pursue the same method with the 
w; which he must be directed to^ronounce by a pouting 
out of the lips without suffering them to touch the teeth. 
Thus by giving all the attention to only one of these let- 
ters at a time, and fixing by habit the true sound of that, 
we shall at last find both of them reduced to their proper 
pronunciation, in a shorter time than by endeavouring to 
rectify them both at once. 

Third Fault. 

Nof sounding h after w. 

The aspirate h is often sunk, particularly in the capital, 
where we do not find the least distinction of sound be- 
tween while and wile, whety and wet^ where , and wersy &c. 
The best method to rectify this, is to collect all the words 
of this description from a Dictionary, and write them 
down ; and, instead of the wh^ to begin them with hoo in 
a distinct syllable, and so to pronounce them. Thus let 
while be written and sounded hoo^ile; whet, hoo-et ; where^ 
hoo-are ; whip, hoo-ip, &c. This is no more, as Dr.Lowth 
observes, than placing the aspirate in its true position be- 
fore the ty, as it is in the Saxon, which the words come 
from ; where we may observe, that though we have altered 
the orthography of our ancestors, we have still preserved 
their pronunciation. 

Fourth Fault. 
Noismnding h where it oughi to be sounded ^ and inversely. 

A stUl worse habit than the last prevails, chiefly among 
the people of London, that of sinking the h at the begin- 
ning of w(Mrds where it ought to-be sounded, and of sound- 
ing it, either where it is not seen, or where it ought to be 
sunk. Thus we not unfrequently hear, especially among 
children, heart pronounced art, and urm, harm. This is 
a vice perfectly similar to that of pronouncing the t; for 
the Ws and the w for the v, and requires a similar method 
to correct it. 

As there are so very few words in the language where 

the initial i^ls sunk, we may select these from the rest, and, 
without setting the pupil right when he mispronounces 
these, or when he prefixes ^ improperly to other words, 
we may make him pronounce all the words where h is 
sounded, till he has almost forgot there are any words pro- 
nounced otherwise: then he may go over those words to 
which he improperly prefixes the i&, and those where the k 
is seen but not sounded, without any danger of an inter- 
change. As these latter words are but few, I shall subjoin 
a catalogue of them for the use of the learner: Heir^ 
heiress^ herb, herbage, honest, honesty, honestly, honour^ 
honourable, honourably f hospital, hostler, hour, hourly ^hum- 
ble^ humbly y humbles , humour, humourist, humourous, hu- 
morously, humourscme : where we may observe, that 
humour and its comjpounds not only sink the h, but sound 
the u like the pronoun you, or the noun yew, as if written 
yewmour, yewmorous, &c. 

Thus I have endeavoured to correct some of the more 
glaring errors ^of my country m'en, who, with all their 
faults, are still upon the whole the best pronouncers of the 
English language : for though the pronunciation of Lon- 
don is certainly erroneous in many words, yet, upon being 
compared with that of any other place, it is undoubtedly 
the best ; that is, not only the best by courtesy, and be- 
cause it happens to be the pronunciation of the capital, 
but the best by a better title— that of bein^ more generally 
received ; or, in other words, though the people of Lon- 
don are erroneous in the pronunciation of many words, the 
inhabitants of every other place are erroneous in many 
more. Nay, harsh as the sentence may seem, those at a 
considerable distance from the capital do not only mispro- 
nounce many words taken separately, but they scarcely 
pronounce^ with purity, a single word, syllable, or letter. 
Thus, if the short sound of the tetter u in trunk, sunk, &c. 
diifer from the sound of that letter in the northern parts 
of England, where they sound it like the u in bull, and 
nearly as if the words were written troonk, soonk, &c. it 
necessarily follows that every word where the second 
sound of that letter occurs must by those provincials b^ 

But though the inhabitants of London have this mani- 
fest advantage over all the other inhabitants of the island, 
they have the disadvantage of being more disgraced by 
their peculiarities than any Other people. The grand dif- 
ference between the metropolis and the provinces is, thfit 
pebpleof education in London are generally free fromtlio 
vices of the vylgar ; but the best educated people in the 
provinces, if constantly resident there, are sure to be 
suongly tinctured with the dialect of the country in which 
they live. Hence it is, that the vulgar pronunciation of 
London, though tiot half so erroneous as that of Scotland, 
Ireland, or any of the provinces, is, to a person of correct 
taste, a thousand times more offensive and disgusting. 


Digitized by 


mntcTioNs TO PonmuNEss, 

Jn^n-der to attain <z Knotvledge of the Marks in this Dictionary, and to acquire a 
ri^ht Pronimciatim of evtry Wo^rd in the EngUsk Language. 

^s lh6 sounds of tKe vowels arci diflFer^n't irf diffefeni 
languages, it would be Endless to bring' parallel souhds 
from the Various fanguagei of Europe ; but, as the iPrencb 
IS so generally understood iipon tK^ fcontincilt, if tve d2fi1 
reduce the sounds of the English Ifttt^f* to those of the 
l^rencli, we shall render the pfdhurtciaiiorr<rf oiir iatigaage 
very generally attainable .and* tilis. It is pfes*urtied, wilt be 
pretty accurately aCcoriipHshed by observing ttle following 


ei hi ci di i ef dgi eich tttJje qite eH efn tH o ft kiau arr 

ess ti ietL vi dohlhu ex oudi xedd, 

. The French have all o«r vowel sounds, and will there* 
fore find th€ pronunciation of them very .easy. The only 
difficulty they will meet with seems to be /', which, though 
demonstrably composed of two successive sounds, has 
passed for ar simple vowel with a very competent judge of 
English pronunciation.^ The reason is,thesetwo sounds 
are pronounced so closely together as to require some at- 
tention to discover their component parts : this attention 
Mr. Sheridant never gave, or he vfOuM not have told us, 
that this diphthong is a compound of our fullest and slen- 
derest pounds iatid e; the frrst made by the largest, and 
the last by the smallest aperture of the mouth. Now 
nothing is more certain than the inaccuracy of this defini- 
tion. The third sound of a^ which is perfectly equivalent 
to the third sound of ^, when combined with the first 
sound of e^ must inevitably form, the diphthong in boy , joy ^ 
&c. and not the diphthongal sound qf the vowel i in idJey 
or the personal pronoun /; this double sound will, u];>on 
a close examination, be found to be composed of the Italian 
a in the la,st syllable of papa^ and the first sound of e, pro- 
nounced as cfosely together as possible ;t and for the ex- 
actness of this definition, I appeal to every just English 
ear in the kingdom. 

Th« otlier diphthongal vowel, «, i» composed of the 
French /, pronounced as closely a6 posttibte to their dipiu 
thong dtf, or the English ii and &, perfectly eqaivaleittta 
the sound the French would give to the leeeens >«2/, tad 
wliidh is exactly the sound the English give to the plural 
of the second personal pronoun* 

The diphthong 9/ or 9y is comp0#6i of the French #and 
/ ; thus toy and boy would be exacti Jf eStpresscfd to a Ft endi- 
man bv wming them taiy Hi. 

The diphthongs ou and ^tc;^ when sounded like m^ixe, 
composed of the French S sind the diphthong eu ; azrd the 
Englisli sounds of fh^a and no^ may be expressed to 9 
' Frenchman by spelling them thdffu and ;»l0». 

ff^ is' no more than the French diphthong cu i thus 
^ff^est is equivalent to Ouesfy and wall io oualL 

T\s perfectly equivalent to the French letter of that 
name, and may be supplied by 1 ; thus yokfj you, &c. is 
expressed by iokfi iou^ &c. 

Ji or / consonant, must be pronounced by prefixing d 
to the French/; thu57tfy,jV» &c* sound to a Frenchman 
as if spelled dji, djai/Scc, If ^y difficulty be found in 
forming this combination of sounds, it will be removed 
by pronouncing the d^ed, and spelling these words /<^V, 
edjd/, &G. 

Ch, in English words not derived from the Greek, 
Latin or French, is pronounced as if / were prefixed ; 
thus the sound of chair^ cheese^ chain^ &c. would be under- 
stood by a Frenchman if the words were written tshere, 
tshize^ ichene, 

Sh in English is expressed by ch in French; thus shame y 
share ^ &c. would be spelled by a Frenchman cheme^ chire^ 

The ringing sound ng in l^g^ song, &c. may be per- 
fectly Conceived by a pupil who c^n pronounce the French 
word Encore^ as the first syllable of this word is exactly 
co-respondent to the sound in those English words ; and 
for the formation of it, see Principles," No. 57 ; also the 
word Encore. 

• Nares, Elements of Onh6epy, pa^ s. 

•^ See Section III. of his Prosodial Grammar prefixed to his J!)Ic* 

X Hoida, the most philosophical aixl accurate investigator 6f the Ibr^ 
roaiion and powers of the leuers, says : ** Our vulgar f^ as in mVc, leaiis 
*' M> be such a diphthong, (or rather syllable, or part of a sylhble) 

*' toniposed of a, i, or r, i, and not z simple original voweU** Eknen^ 
of Speech, page 95.^ 

Or.' Waltii spe^bg of the lOn'g English /, says il is sounded ^ eodem 
*' fere modo quo Gallorum at in vocibus maim^ manus ; f^in, pa^i^t &c» 
** Neaape soauHi hibetoompoattiim ex Gallorom h £oeBiiaaQt.& f ^vcl j." 
Grammatica Linguae Anglicans, pag, 48. 

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But the grfafest difficulty every foreigner finds in pro- 
DoaDciag EngKsb^ f» the l»ptn$ eonsofioitt /nk This, k 
may be observed, has, like the other consonants^ a sharp 
and a flat &ound ; sharp as in thin, bath ; flat as in thaty 
with. To acquire the true yrosunciatioo of this dif&cuk 
cambioation» it may b^. proper to begin with Hm^ wocds 
.where it U initisrf: and first, let the pvtpH protftule his 
tongue a little way beyond the teeth, and press it between 
tkem as if going to bite the tip of it; * wht!e this is doing, 
if he wishes to pronounce tbin^ltt him hiss as if to sound 
tLe letter x/ an4 after the hiss, la him di^w back bia 
toogue within his teeth, and^ pronounce^he preposition /if, 
and thus will the word thin be perfectly pronouiyred. If 
he would pronounce that^ let him place die tongue between 
the teeth as before ; and while he is hissing as to sound 
the letter z, let him withdraw his tongue imo his mouth, 
and immediately pronounce the preposition at> To pr^- 
nounce this c<Mid>ination when fiodl io iath^ let him pro- 
nounce ia^ and protrude the tongue beyond the teeth, 
preying the tongue with them, and hissing as if to sound 
I ; if he w<wld pronounce w/VA, let him first form wi, put 
the tongue in the same position as before, and hiss as if to 
sound 2. It will be prppcrto make the pupil dwell some 
time with the tongue beyond the teeth in order to form a 
babit, and to pronounce daily some, words out of a Dic- 
tionary beginning and ending with these letters. 

These directions, it is presumed, if properly attended to, 
will be sufficient to give such Foreigners as understand 
French, and haVe not access to a master, a competent 
knowledge of English pronunciation ; but to render the 
sounds of the vowels marked by figuresin this Diaionary 
ttill more easily to be comprehended — with those English 
words which exemplify the sounds of the vowels, I have 
associated such French words as have vowels exactly cor- 
responding to them, and which immediately convey the 
tnie English pronunciation. These should be committed 
to memory, or written down and held in his hand while 
the pupil is inspecting the Dictionary. 

Perhaps the greatest advantage to foreigners and pro- 
vincials will be derived from the classiRcation of words of 
a similar sounds and drawing the line between the general 
rale and the exception. This has been an arduous task ; 
but it is hoped the benefit arising from it will amply repay 
it. When the numerous varieties of sounds annexed to 
Tovels, diphthoK^9 ^^ consonants, lie scattered without 
bounds, a leaniPr is bewildered and discouraged from at- 
tempting to distinguish them ; but when they are all 
classed, arranged; and enpmerated, the variety .seems less^ 
the number smaller, and the distinction easier. What an 

inextricable labyrinth dp the dipthongs ^tf and su form as 
they" lie iaose in riie language ! but €lass«<> and airasged 
as we find them, No. 220, &c. and 313, &c. the confusion 
vanishes, they become much. less formidable^ and a learner 
[lias it in his power, by repeating them daily, to become 
'master of them all in a very little time. 

The English accent is often an insurmountable obstacle 
to foreigners, as the rules for it are so vaiious, and the ex;^ 
ccptious so numerous ; but let the inspector consult the 
article Accent in the Principles, particularly No. ^92^505^ 
sot), &c. and he will soon perceive how much of our lan- 
guage is regularly accented, and how mtth that which is 
irregular is facilitated by »a enum.eratioa of the greater 
number of exceptions. 

But scarcely any method will be so useful for gaining 
the English accent as the reading of verse. This will natu- 
rally lead the ear to the right accentuation ; and tliough 2^ 
diflerent position of the accent is frequently to be met with 
in the beginning of averse, there is a sufficient regularity 
to render the pronouncing of vprse a powerful mean^ of 
obtaining such a distinction of force and feebleness as is 
commonly called the accent : for it may be observed, that. 
a foreigner is no less distinguishable by placing an accent 
upon certain words to which the English give no stress, 
than by placing the stress upon a wrong syllable. Thus 
if a foreigner, when he calls fSr brekd at table, by saying,. 
give me seme breads lays an equal stress upon every word, 
though every word should be pronounced with its exact 
sound, we immediately perceive he is not a native An 
Englishman would pronounce these four words like two, 
with the accent on the first syllable of the first, and on the 
last syllable of the last, as if written gtvemf somebred \ or 
rzi\\QT givme sumbrid\ or more commonly, though vul- 
garly, gtmme sumbreJ. Verse may sometimes induce a 
foreigner, as it does sometimes injudicious natives, to lay 
the accent on a syllable in long words which ought tohav^ 
none, as in a couplet of Pope|s Essay on Criticism : 

** False eloquence, like the prismatic gla«t, 
•< Its gaudy colours spreads on every place." 

Here a foreigner would be apt to place an accent on the 
last syllable of eloqmnce as well as the first, which would, 
be certainly wrong ; but this fault is so trifling, whew 
compared with that of laying the accent on the second? 
syllable,, that it almost vanishes from observation; and 
this misaccentuation, verse will generally guard him from». 
The reading of verse> therefore, will, if I am not mis^ 
taken, be found ^ powerful reg]i2l?itor,.both gi accent amd 
emphasis. - 

Digitized by 



A,V?KK^ZT. . . V , No. 1 

Definition of vowels and consonants, , '. 5 

jinalogical fable of the vowels v 16 

Diphthongs and triphthongs enumerated 17 

Consonants distinguished into classes 18 

Analogical table of the consonants 29 

Organic formation of the tetters 31 

Of the (juandty and quality of the vowels (52 

Of the ti\fluence of accent on the sounds of the letters. ... Gg 

The letter^ A and its different sounds 72 

The letter E and its different sounds 93 

The letter I and its different sounds 105 

The letter O and its different sounds 1^1 

The letter U and its different sounds I7I 

The vowel Y and its different sounds 1 80 

The vowel W and its different sounds 1 8p 

Of the diphthongs called semi-consonants jgij 

Of the diphthongs AE, AI, AO, and all the rest in their 

alphabeUcal order 199 

Of the sounds of the consonants 347 

B, when mute ibid 

C its different sounds 343 

D, its different sounds 358 

Improperly changed intoT, Dr. Lowth's opinion of this 

change in certain verbs, considered, and corrected, ... 169 

F, its different sounds 377 

G, its different sounds 377 

O always mute before N in the same syllable at the end of 

a word, exemplified in the words impugn^ oppugn, pro- 
pugn> expugn, impreffn, tsfc, with the authorities of the 

most respectable ortkoepists * 386' 

H, when sounded, -and when mute 394 

J, its uniform sound 398 

Kj when sounded, and when mute, , 699 

L, when sounded, and when mute 401 

M> when sounded, -and when mute 407 

T^, when it has its naso-'guttural sound 408 

If^ien it has its ringing sound in the participial termi^ 

nation iog* 410 

P^ when sounded, and when mute 412 

PH, its ujtfform sound ibid 

Q, its different sounds, when combined with u 414 

11, when its sound is transposed. 4t6 

Jf^hen it is to be pronounced rough, and when smooth, , 419 

S, its different sounds ibid 

fPlien it is to be pronounced like z 432 

WTien it is to be pronounced like sh and zh 430 

Mr. Sheridan's error in this point detected. ......... 454 

T its different sounds 459 

How it slides into sh in the numerous termination tion. . ibid 
JFhy it slides into this sound beforen, preceded by the accent 46l 

Mr. Sheridan's error in this point detected 462 

TH, its different sounds 465 

inen the h is silent in this combination 47 1 

T, when silent , 472 

V, its uniform sound .^ 473 

W, wlien silent, and when sounded 474 » 475 

X, is exactly similar to ks,and liable to the same alterations 

of sound 479 

Mr. Sheridan's error in this point detected 4 80 

Y 05 a consonanlj and its^ different sounds » . . 482 

Z> improperly resolved by Dr. Johnson into 8 hard 

Itstruename Izzard. . . . ! . .;..,. No. 483 

Its differen^SQunds 484 

Of the Nature of Accent. 

The only true definition of accent 488 

The different position of the J^nglisk accent 489 

Accent on dissyllables 49I 

Dissyllable nouns and verbs differently accented ' 492 

Accent o^ trisgyllables :...... 501 

Partial dependence of the English accent on that of the 

Greek and Latin '. 533 

Accent on Poly syllables. .,., \ i 504 

Enclitical accent exemplified in the termination logy, 

y -graphy, tsfc '. ; 513, 518 

The tendency of compounds to contract the sound of the 

simple I .^ 515 

Secondary accent ,. ^22 

The shortening power of this accent 527 

On Quantity. 

The shortening p^wer of the secondary accent exemplified in 
the uncertainty and inconsistency of Mr. Sheridan and 
Dr, Kenrick in their division of words into syllables. . . . 530 

On Syllabication. 

Syllabication different according to the different ends to be 
attained by it ^ 538 

Syllabication exhibiting the sound of a word, depending, in 
some measure, on the nature of the letters prior to actual 
pronunciation 542 

The ahnost total independence of the English quantity on 
that of the Greek and Latin, exemplified by an enumera' 
tion of most of the tJ&ssyllailes in our language derived 
from the Latin and Greek « ... 544 

The only possible case in which we can argue from the 
Latin qtmntity to the English ^ ibid 

Dissyllables from the Saxon and French languages enu' 
merated ibid 

Causes of the prevalence of shortening the first syllable of 
f&ssyllables from these languages ibid 

Of the quantity of unaccented syUahles ending with a vowel 547 . 

Uncertainty and inconsistency of Dr. Kenrick in his nota^ 
tion of the quantity of tliese vowels ibid 

Uncertainty and ' inconsistency of Air. Sheridan^ and Dr. 
Kenrick in marking the quantity of tliese' vowels 551 

Exception to the general rule of pronouncing these syllables 
when e is followed by r 558 

Uncertainty of our best ortkoepists in tlieir syUahication of 
such words, exemplified by a list from Sheridan, Kenrick, 
Scott, and Perry 554 

Peculiar delicacy qjfthe sound of these syllables 555 

Tendency ofo before r to ^0 into the same obscurity as e, 
exemplified in the diversity and intonsistency of our best 
ortkoepists in marking these syllables 557 

Table of the simple and diphthongal vowels, referred to as 
a key to the figures over the letters in the-Sktumary. . . . 559 

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I. JL HE First Prhaciples or Elemems of Pronunciation 
ire Letters: 

The Letter^ of the English Language am 






a > 



















HH ' 





tor eye 



J consonant^ or^jr 

































Us or yeu 

, Vt 


V consonant^ortw 









. wy- 



zed, or szzarJ. (its) 

3. To these tna; be added certain combinations of let- 
ten sometimes used»in printtng^S as A, ft, fl,.(I, ib^.fb, ik^ 
ST, ff, fi, ffi, fi) ifi^ Sly and &, or and per se and^ or rather et 
perse and; a,Jl.Jl,Ji,AJbJh,Ji,j:j,fJl,Jl,jfi,kf. 

3. . Our letters, says Dr. Johnson, are commonly reck- 
oned twenty-four, because; anciently / and' j, as well as u 
and Vy were expressed by the same character } but as these 
letters, which had always different powers, have now dif- 
ferent forms, our alphabet tx^ be properly said to consist 
of twenty .six letters. 

4«. In co]isidering4he sound)! of these first princtplbs of 
language, we find that some are so simple and unmixed;, 
that there is nothing^reqnired but the opening of the mouth 
to make them understood, and to form different sounds* 
Whence they have the names of vozvels^ or vciees, or vocal 
eeundi. On the contrary, we find that there are others^ 
whose pronunciation depends oa the particular application! 
and use- of every part of the mouth, as the teeth, the lipSj^, 
the tongue, the palate, &c. which yet cannot make any 
one perfect sound but by their union with those vocal 
sounds \ and these ate Qa\]£A.c6menanlSy or letters sounding, 
with other letters. 

Definition of Pmels^andConsiniante. 

4L Vbwels are generally reckoned to be'five in numBei^ 
namely, ay Cyi^ Oyu; y and ti; are called vowels when they, 
end a syllable or word,, and consonants when they begin* 

(7% The diefinition of a vowel,,aslittle liaUe to exception- 
as any, seems to be the following ; A vowel is a* simple 
soimd formed by a continued effusion of the breath, and ai 
certain' conformation oF the mouth, without any alteration' 
in the position^ or any motion of the oi^aps of speech,, 
from the moment the vocal sound conunences till it ends. 

%• A consonant may be defined to be,.an> interruption' 
of the effusion of vocal sound, arising from the appHcatiom 
of the Organs of speech to each other. 

8. Agreeably to this definition, voweh may be divided 
into two kinds, the simple and" compound.. The simple 
a, e^ 9,are'those which are formed by one conformation of 
the organs only ; that is, the organs remain exactly in.the 
same position a the end. as at the beginning o(» the letter ; 
whereas in the rompound vowels i and.^ ,. the organs ahar 
their position before the letwsr is completely sounded : nay,, 
these letters, when commencing a syllable,. do not only 
require a different position of the organs in order to form 
them perfectly, but demand such an application of the 
tongue to the roof of the mouth, as is inconsistent with the 
nature of a pure vowel ; for the first of these letters,. /, 
when sounded alone, or ending a syllable with the accent 
upon it, is a real diphthong, composed of the sounds of a 
in father^ ^d of e in the, exadly correspondent to the 

Digitized teyVnOOQlC 



tound o( i\ie noun eye ; and when this letter commenced a 
syllable, as in min-ion^pin^ion^ &c. the sound of i with 
whieh it terminates is squeezed into a c«ms«iiant s«>«nil9t 
like the double ^ heard in queen^ different from tlte^intpte 
•ound of that letter in quean, and this squeezed sound in 
the commencing / makes it exactly similar toy In the^ 
same situation ; which, by all grammarians^ is acknow- 
ledged to be a consonant:* T<kit lattterof those ebmpoftnid 
vowels, w, when initial, and not ^h(5rt?^^rt by a consbnam^ 
commences with this squeezed sound of e equivalent to 
the)', and ends with a sound given to oo in woo and coV^ 
which makes its name in the alphabet exactly similar to 
the pronoun y^u,\ if, therefore, the common definition 
of a vowel be josty these two letters are «o far from being 
simple vowels, that they may be more properly called 
sMii-contonant diphthongs* 

* How so accurate a gnmmarian as Dr.l/iwth could pronsonce so dcfi- 
ikitfvely on the nature ofy, tod insist on iu being always a vowel, can only 
be'tecOOHtea ht"^ cdnsfdering the soiill attbniion %hi«h is generally paid 
to this paft df ^r^tnar. His Nvbrds are kllese : 

** ^FhbsiideSsiind ««Meli Nier€xpi«as1iy tke inknl jr, eur -Saxon Mccs- 
tors in many instances expiesied by the vowel e ; as -ttn^tr, Jf>^» aad^hy 
the vowel i; as hv^ye^w ; I'oiigi young. In the word yev) the initial jp 
has precisely the i iHi cltf aftd*Wftfa^f fanfac wtawts ^oknv, Ueu, adieu \ the 
/ is acknowledged io be a vowel in'these Janer ; how then can the^,- which 
has the very same sound* possibly, be* ftxonsonant in the former ? Its initial 
sound is generally like that of i in sbirej or ee nearly; it is formed by the 
Itpenirtg bf (he ttibUth wiAioiit ^tiy motion dr contact of the parts : in a 
word, it has every property of a vowel, and not one of a coosotunt.** 
tair^&£ll»i lb Bi%lish 'GfiitaMtf,^ 1^ 

That h[ die lamed biAop ; ^rho has too fixal a fame to siAr any 
difeMDUtiDn by i mittake i» so trlfegf apart ^Uieiatiife as this t but it miy 
be asked, if j^ has every property of a vowei and not one of arcoosonaOtywhy, 
when it begins a word, does k not admit the euphonic article an before 
lit ^ 

f AnsgMMnoeof ibe ita>e<Mi]iMilldn%r », Md «%»Mt4»f'luiowing 
Aacitfartook'of themhne^'a-coAsanabt, has occasioned ftgteat diver- 
sity and uncertainty in prefixif^ tfafc indefinite^aiticle itn beftiDe it. Oor to- ' 
•estorsi judging of \t» nature from its name, neversuspccted that it was not 
a pure vowel, and constantly prefixed the article an before noons beginning 
wilh this letter; as^n unhn^ an useful book* They were confirmed io^ 
this 0{)imon'by fiiidirfg'fbetsA always adapted to the short Uyuan uinffre, 
'Sn'tMtittHai^&Mat eter dtetmitlg that the short m is a ^re^ixwel, and 
eftehthdly different fmte ih^ loig one. Bat the tnodenn, not fasting hi 
the oame of-a letter, md consuktog A«ir tan tather than their eyes, have 
fiequenfly placed the -a itis^ad of «t>r V^^ ^be longsi, and we have seeto- 
m-umion, a wmerjity, a uteful bdbkp from some of the most retpcciable 
pens of the present age. Nor can we doubt- a moment of the propriety of 
this orthogQphy, when we reflect that these words actually begin to the ear 
ivithj, and might be S[)c\\c6 ytfumonjyouni'venujtyouse/ul, and can there- 
fore no tnoK admit of an Mott \hem \hznjeajr zm&yomb. See Remarks 
on the void A n ifl this DictiodMy . 

9. That y and c; are Consonants when they begin a 
word, and vowels when they end one, is generally ac- 
>kiK>wWctd-by the best grammarians ; and yet Dr. Lowth 
llal ysXA ils,thdlw is equivalent to 00 ; but if this were the 
case, it would always admit of the particle an before 
it : for though we have no word in the language which 
commences with these letters, we plainly perceive, that tf 
wc had such a-woTil, it w^ohi'veadily admit of an before 
it,attd-tonse<fuentJytfi»fthtte letters are not equivalent 
to w. Thus we find, that the common opinion, with rc- 
'sp^aio the double capacity of these letters, is perfectly just. 

10. Besides the vowels already mentioned, there is 
another simple vowel sound found under the 09 in tlie 
words woo and coo ; these letters have, in these two words, 
every propeity of a pure vowel, but when fouud in food^ 
mood^ &c. and in the word. /^, pnonounced like the adjec- 
tive /w^; here the 09 has a squeezed sound, occasioned by 
contracting the mouth, so as to make the lips nearly touch 
each other ; and this mates it, like the / and «, not so 
much a double vowel, as a sound between a vowel and a 
consonant. . ^ 

Classification of Vowels and Consonants. 

11. Vowels and conionants being thus defined, it will 
be necessary, in the next place, to«mnge themrinto such 
classes as their similitudes and specific. diSerences seem to 

12. Letters, ther6f(Mr9,iare naturally divisible into vowels 
and consonants. 

13. The vowels are, a, f, /, <?, a; and y and ti; when 
ending a syllable. x . 

14. The consonants are, i, c,d^f,:g, hj,k, Z, jm, w,/r, 
^, r, X, /, v, jf, z; and y a^d w whenbe^ginninga syllable. 

15. The vowels may be subdivided into such as arc 
simple and pure, and into such as are compound and im- 
pure. ' The simple or pure vowels are^Auch as require only 
one conformation of the organs to *form them, and no 
motion in the organs wbiie forming. 

16. The coropoundor impure vowels au:e such as require 
more than one^onSorniaUon of theoi^ans to'formthem, 
and a motion inthe^organs while forming. Tbese^bserr 
vations premised, we m«y call the following scheme 

An Analogitat TabJe of the Voweh* 


>siml)I& orpiure <vo%v€ls« 



I 'I tittle 

tf fhTci? >«onVOTnd or impAire vow*, 
wj'pow-cr J 

Digitized by 




Dipbihcngs and friphhcngs mumiraUd. 
17. Two vowels fonning bot ope syllable are geno^Ily 
called a diphthongs and three a triphthong : these are the 
ibllowrng : 

.M Caesar ei ceiling 0a coat ui languid 

ei aim €0 people ^e oecoiiomy uy buy 

go gaol fu. feud ci voice tf>^ (for ever) 

au uught 4W}ewt\ co moon rai/ beauty 

tfwlaw ey they 9u found t^u plenteous 

ey say la^poaiard qw now iiu adieu 

ta clean ie friend oy boy uw view 

tt reed /tf \ assion «/ mansuetude 9^« manceuvre. 

CQnt9nants gnumerBiei and diuinguUhidinto Qasses, 

IS. The consonants are divisible into mutes> semi- 
vowels, and liquids. 

ig. The mutes are such as emit no sound without a 
vowel, as t\ p9 ty df iy and c and^ hard. 

10, The semi-vbwels are such as emit a sound without 
the concurrence of a vowel, as /, v, j, z, *, g soft or/ 

21 • The liquids are such as. flow into, or. unite easily 
with the mutes, as /, i», », r. 

22. But, besides these, there is another classification of 
the consonants, of great importance to a just idea of the 
nature of the letters, and that is, into such as are sharp or 
flat,aiid simple or aspirated. 

23. The sharp consonants arc, p,/,/, j, J, r hard. 

24. The flat consonants are, j, v, d^ z^-g hard. 

25. Tlie simple consonants are tliose which have always 
the sound of one letter unmixed with others, as ^, ^,/, v^ 
k, i hard, and g soft, or jU 

26. The mixed or aspirated consonants are those which 
have sometimes a hiss or aspiration joined with them, 
which mingles with the letter, and alters its sound, as / in 
mttionj d in sMUr, s in missicn, ijid z in azure. 

27. There is another distinction of consonants arising 
either from the scat of their formation, or from those or- 
gans which are chiefly employed in forming them. The 
best distinction of this kind seems to be that which divides 
them into labials, dentals, gutturals, and nasals. 

28. The labials are> *, ^, v,/. The dentals are, /, d, x, 
z, and soft g ovj. The gutturals are, ^, q^ c hard, and g 
hard. The nasals are, nty Ni^ and ng. 

29. Thesfc several properties of the consonants may be 
exhibited at one view in the following table, which may 
Ifl called 

Mute dentals 

^Sharp, / 
?Flat, d 



Lisping dentals 

{Sharp, ^/A, ^-p/tM 
Flat, thi^sythe ^ .. 

Gutturals (1^^^**^*'? 

IFlat, ^hard;^^^ 

JDento«>guttural or hasal< jtg^ hangi 

liquid r^ 

An Anahgical Table of the Consonants^ 

Mate labials, 

/ Sharp, Pi pomp 
\ Flat, b, bomb 

j labio- 
I liquid 191 

30. Vowels and consonants being thus defined ?Lnd ar- 
ranged, we are the letter enabled to enter upon an enquiry 
into their different powers, as they are differently com- 
bined with each other. But previous to this, that nothing 
may be wanting to form a just idea of the first principled 
of pronunciation, it may not be improper to sliow ilie 
organic formation of each letter.' 

Organic formaihn of the Letters. 

3 1 ; Though I think every mechanical account of the 
organic formation of the letters rather curious than useful, 
yet, that nothing which can be presented to the eye may 
be wanting to inform the ear, I shall in this follow those 
who have been at the pains to trace every letter to its seat, 
and make us, as it were, to touch the sounds we articulate. 

Organic formation of the Vowels . 

32. It will be necessary to observe, that there are three 
long sounds of the letter ^ , which are formed by a greater 
or less expansion of the internal parts of the mouth. 

33. TTie German j, heard in balJ^ wall, &c. is formed 
by a strong and grave expression of the breath through the 
mouth, which is open nearly in a circular form, while the 
tongue, contracting itself to the root, as if to make way for 
the Sound, almost rests upon the under jaw. 

34. The Italian a, heard in father^ closes the mouth a 
little more than the German a ; and by raising the lower 
jaw, widening the toygue, and advancing it a little nearer 
to the lips, renders its sound less hollow and deep. 

35. The slender tf, or that heard in lane, is formed in 
the mouth still higher than the last ; and in pronouncing 
it, the lips, as if to give it a slender sound, dilate their 
aperture horizontally ; while the tongue, to assist this nar- 
row emission of breath, widens itself to the cheeks, raises 
itself nearer the palate, and by these means a less hollow 
sound than either of the former is produced. 

35. The e in e-qual is formed by dilating the tongue a 
little more, and advancing it nearer to the palate and the 
lips, which produces the slenderest vowel in the language j. 
for the tongue is, in the formation of this letter, as close t6 
the palate as possible, without touching it i as the momeift 

Digitized by 




the totigue touches the palate, tjie squeezed sound of ee in 
thti and mtet is formed, whrcb, by its description, must 
partake of the sound of the consonant y^ 

37. The / in udol is formed by uniting the sound of the 
Italian a in father y and the e in e-qual, and pronouncing 
them as closely together as possible. See Directions to 
Foreigners at the beginning of this book, page 20. 

38* The in o-pfn is formed by nearly the same position 
of the organs as the a in wa-Ur ; but the tongue is ad- 
vance a little more into the middle of the mouth, the 
lips arc protuded, and form a round aperture like the 
form of the letter, and die voice is not so deep in the 
mouth as when a is formed, but advances to the middle or 
hollow of the mouth. 

39. TUe u in u-nlt is formed by uniting the squeezed 
sound ee to a simple vowel sound, heard in woo and coo ; 
the oa in these words is formed by protruding thclips a lit- 
tle more than in 0; forming a smaller aperture with them, 
and, instead of swelling the voice in the middle of the 
mouth, bringing it as forward as possible to the lip«« 

40. Iffinal, in Iry^ is formed like / : and w final in now, 
like the 00 ^ which has ju3t been described. 

* In tT>is view of the organic formation of the vowels we 
find that a, e, and Oy are the only simple or pure vowels 
that / is a diphthong, and that f^ is a semi -consonant. If 
we were inclined to contrive a scale for measuring the 
breadth or narrowness, or, as others term it, the openness 
or closeness of the vowel,' we might begin with e open, as 
.Mr. Elphinston calls its, and which he announces to be the 
closest of all the vocal powers. In the pronunciation of 
tliis letter we find the aperturie of the mouth extended on 
each side; the lips almost closed, and the sound issuing 
horizontally. The slender a in waste opens the mouth a 
little wider. The a in father opens t^e mouth still more, 
without contracting the corners*. The German a^ heard 
in wall, not only opens the mouth wider tlian the former 
IT, but contracts the corners of the mouth so as to make the 
aperture approach nearer to a circle, while the opens the 
mouth still more, and contracts the corners so as to make 
it the OS rotundum^ 9 picture of the letter it sounds. If 
therefore the other vowels were, like o^ to take their forms 
from the aperture of the mouth in pronouncing them, the 
German a ought necessarily to have a figure as nearly 
approaching the in form as it docs in-sound ; that is, it 
ought to have that elliptical form which approaches nearest 
to the circle; as the a of the Italians, and that of the 
Eiiglish in father^ ought to form ovals, in exact proportion 
to the breadth of their sounds; the English a in wasle 
ought to have a narrower oval ; the ^ in the ought to have 
thccurve of a parabola, and the squeezed sound of ee in 
seeriy 2l right line : or to reduce the lines to solids, the 
would be a perfect globe, the German a an oblate spheroid 
like the figure of the earth, the Italian a like an egg, the 

English slender a a Dutch skittle, the / a rolling pin, and 
the double e a cylinder. 

Organic Formation of the Consonants. 

41. The best method of sliewing the organic formation- 
of the consonants will be to class them into such pairs as 
they naturally fall into, and then, by describing one, we 
shall nearly describe its fellow ; by which means the la» 
hour will be lessened, and the nature of the consonanu 
better perceived. The consonants that fall into pairs are 
the following : 

p f t s sh th k ch chair 
b <u d z zh dh g j jail 

42. Holder, who wrote the most elaborately and philo- 
sophically upon this subject, tells us. In his Elements of 
Speech, that when we only whisper we cannot distinguish 
the first rank of these letters from the second. It is cer- 
tain the diflference between them is very nice; the tipper 
letters seeming to have only a smarter, brisker appulse of 
the organs than the lower ; which may not improperly be 
distinguished by sharp and flat. ' The most marking dis- 
tinction between them will be found to be a sort of gut- 
tural murmur, which precedes the latter letters when we 
wish to pronounce them forcibly, but not the former. 
Thus if we close the lips, and put the finger on them to 
keep them shut, and strive to pronounce the p, no sound 
at all will be heard ; but in striving to pronounce the i 
we shall find a murmuring sound from the throat, which 
seems the commencement of the letter ; and if \ve do but 
stop the breath by the appulse of the organs, in order to 
pronounce with greater force, the same may be observed 
of the rest of the letters. 

43. This difference in the formation of these conso- 
nants may be more distinctly perceived in the s and 2 than 
in any other of the letters ; the former is sounded by the 
simple issue of the breath between the teeth, without any 
vibration of it in the thrpat, and may be called a hissing 
sound J while the latter cannot be formed without gene- 
rating a sound in the throat, which may be called a vocal 
sound. The upper rank of letters, therefore, may be 
called breathing consonants ; and the lower, vocal ones. 

44. These observations premised, we may proceed to 
describe the organic formation of each letter. 

45. Pand S are formed by closing the lips till the 
breath is collected, and then letting it issue by forming the 
vowel e, * 

46. -Fand f^are formed by pressing the upper teeth 
upon the under lip, and sounding the vowel e- before the 
former and after tlie latter of these letters. 

47. y and Z) are formed by pressing the tip of the- 
tongue to the gums of the u>per teeth, and then separating 
them, by pronouncings the vowel e. 

Digitized by 




'43, S and Z are formed by placing the tongue in the 
tame poution as in 7* and D, but not so close to tlie gums 
as to stop the breath : a sf)aec is left between the tongue 
and the palate for the breath to issue, which forms tlie 
hissing and buzzing sound of these letters^ 

49. S H lizard in mission^ and %h in evasion, are formed 
in the same seat of sound as s and % ; but in the former, 
die tongue is drawn a little inwaids, and at a somewhat 
greater distance from the palate, which occasions a fuller 
effusion of breath from the hollow of the mouth, than in 
the latter, which are formed nearer to the teeth. 

50. TH \n think, qnd the same letters in thafi are 
formed by protruding the tongue between the fore teeth, 
prcs:»ing it against the upper teeth ^ and at the same time 
endeavouring to sound the i or z ; the former letter to 
sou nil th in ihinky and the latter to sound /A in that. 

' 61, K and G hard are formed by pressing the middle of 
the tongue to the roof of the mouthy near the throat, and 
seyaratiBg them a little smartly to form the 6rst, and more 
gemly to form the last of these letters. 

52. CH in rhairi and J^ in /W/,- are formed by pressing 
/ to lit, and ^ to zh, 

53. Af is formed by closing the lips, as in P and i?^and 
letting the voice issue by the nose. 

54. TV^is formed by resting the tongue in the same po- 
rtion as in T OT D, and breathing through the nose, with 
the mouth open. 

W. L is formed by nearly the same position of the or* 
gans as / and d, but more with the tip of the tongue, which 
is brought a little forwarder to the teeth^ while the breath 
issues from the mouth. 

56. R is formed by^ placing the tongue nearly in the 
position of /, but at such a distance from the palate as suf- 
fers it to jar against it» when the breath is propelled from 
the throat to the mouth. 

57- NG in ringysing^Scc^ is formed in the same seat of 
tound as g hard ; but while the middle of the tongue 
presses the roof of the mouth, as in G^ the voice passes 
priticipally through the nose, as in N* 

5B, Inconsonant is formed. by placing the organs in the 
position of /, and squeezing the tongue against the roof of 
the mouth, which produces ee^ which is equivalent to 
initial >. (36) 

^y. fF consonant is formed by placing the organs in the 
position of op^ described under 1/, and closing the lips a lit- 
lie more, in order to propel the breath upon the succeeding 
vowel which it articulates. 

60. In this, sketch of the formation and distribution of 
(he consonanu, it is curious to observe on how fe^ radical 
principles the almost infinite variety of com^iination in lan- 
guage depends* It is with some degree of wonder we per- 
ceive that the slightest aspiration, the almost insensible 
inflexion of nearly similar sounds^ often generate the most 

different and opposite meanings. In tl:is vic*w cf jutiiu, 
as in every other, we fijid uniforni'fy uti 1 vari^'ty v(!i r 
conspicuous. The single Jiaf, at tir«r. i]:)pu*Nsc-.l «)n the 
chaos, seems to operate on langiMi;c*; \vhii*.h. fmiii tl-o 
simplicity and paucity of tlieir principles, and ihc exicut 
and powtr of their combinations, prove die gomlncssj wis- 
dom, and omnipotence of their origin. ' 

6\, This analogical association of sounds is not on) y]^ 
curious, but useful : it gives u3 a comprehensive view ot 
the powers of the letters; and, frorh the small numbei tliat 
are radically different, enables us to see the rules on which 
their varieties depend : it discovers to us the genius and 
propensities of several languages and dialects,- and^ 
when authorhy is silent, enables us to decide agreeably to 

62. The vowels, diphthongs, and consonants, thus enu- 
merated and defined, before we proceed to ascertain their 
different powers, as they are differently associated with 
each other, it may be necessary to give some account of 
those distinctions of sound in the same vowels which ex« 
press their quantity as long or shorty or their quality as 
open or close, or slender and broad. This will appear the 
more necessary, as these distinctions so frequently occur 
in describing the sounds of the vowels, and as they are not 
unfrequently used with too little precision by most writers 
on the subject. 

Of the Quantity and duality of Vowels^ 

63. The first distinction of sound that seems toobtruder 
itself lipon us when we utter the vowels, is a long and a 
short sound according to the greater or less duration of time 
taken tip in pronouncing them. This distinction is to oh- 
vious as to have been adopted in all languages, and is that 
to which we annex clearer ideas than to any othei*; and 
though the short Sounds of some vowels have not in our 
language been classed, with sufficient accuracy, with their 
parent long ones, yet this has bred but little confusion, a< 
vowels long and short are always sufficiently distinguish- 
able;^ and the nice appropriation of short sounds to their 
specific long ones is not necessary to our conveying what 
sound we mean, when the letter to which we apply these 
sounds is known, and its power agreed upon. 

64. The next distinction of vowels into their specific 
sounds, which seems to be the most generally adopted, is 
that which arises from the different apertures of the mouth 
informing them. It is certainly very natural, when we 
have so many more simple sounds than we have eharactersr 
by which to express them, to distinguish them by that 
which seems their organic definition; and we accordingly 
find vowels denominated by the French, ouvcrt andfernfe; 
by the Italians, aperto^ and chiuso ; and by the English, 
open and shut. 


Digitized by 

Google — 



65^ But whatever propriety there may be in the use of 
these terras in other languages^ it. is certain they must be 
used with caution in English^ for fear of confounding them 
with long and jsbort. Dr. Johnson and other grammarians 
call the a in father the open a : which may, indeed, dis- 
tinguish it from the slender a in paper ; butitot from the 
broad a in wafer, which is still more open. Each of these 
letters has a short sound, which may be called a shut 
sound ; but the long iound cannot be so properly deno- 
minated open, as more or less broad ; that is, the a in 
papery the slender spund ; the a in father^ the broadish or 
middle sound ; and the a in wafer ^ the broad sound. The 
same may be observed of the o. This letter has three long 
sounds, hearc( in move^ mfe^ nor ; which graduate from 
slender to broadish,^and broad, like the a. The / also in 
minej may be called the broad /, and that in machine the 
slender /; though each of them is equally long; and 
tholigh these vowels that are long may be said to be more 
ofmss open^, according to the difierent apertures of the 
otbtith in forming them, yet the short vowels cannot be 
said to be more or less shut : for as short always implies 
shut, (except in verse) though long does not always imply 
open, we must <be careful not to confound long and open, 
«nd close and shut, when we speak of the quantity and 
4}uality of the vowels. The triKh of it is, all vowels 
either terminate a syllable, or are united with a consonant. 
In the first case, if the accent be on the syllable, the vowel 
is long, though it may not be open : lA the second case, 
where a syllable i^ terminated by a consonant, except that 
consonant be r, whether the accent been the syllable or 
not, the vowel has its short sound, which, compared with 
its long one, may be called shut : but as tio vowel can be 
said to be shut that is not joined to a consonant, all vowels 
that end syllables may be said to be open, whether the ac- 
cent be on them or not. (550) (55 1 ) 

66. But though the terms long and short, as applied to 
vowels, are pretty generally understood, an accurate ear 
will easily perceive that these terms do not always mean the 
Jong and short sounds of the respective vowels to which 
they are applied ; for if we choose to be directed by the 
ear in denominating vowels, long or short, we must cer- 
tainly give these appellatioos to those sounds ^nly which 
have exactly the^ame radical tone, and differ only in the 
long or short emission of that tone. Thus measuring the 
sounds of the vowels by this scale, we shall find that the 
long i and y have properly no short sounds but such as 
seem essentially distinct from their long ones ; and that the 
shott sound of these vowels is no other than the short 
sound of /, which is the latter letter in the composition of 
the dipht>>ngs. (37) 

Q7. The same want of correspondence in classing the 
long and short vowels we find in<7, e^e, and u ; for as the 
t in fbeme does not find its short sound in the same letter in 

fhenty but in the / in him ; so.the e in them must descend a 
step lower into the province of a for its long sound in tame; 
The a in carry is DOt the short sound of the a in eare^ but 
of. that in car , father^ &c. as the short broad sound of the 
a in wanff is the true abbreviation of that in wait. The 
sound of in don^ gone, &'c. is exactly correspondent to the 
a in swarty and finds its long sound in the ix. in wally or the 
diphthong aw in dawn, lawn, &c. while the short sound 
of the in fone^ is nearly that of the same letter in ton^ (a 
weight) and corresponding with what is generally called 
the short sound of u in tun^ gun, &c. as the long sound of 
u in pule, must find its short sound in the u in pully bully 
&c. for this vowel, like the / and yy being a diphthong, 
its short sound is formed from the latter part of the letter 
equivalent to double ; as the word pule, if spelled accord- 
ing to the sound, might be written peoale. 

68. Another observation preparatory to a consideration 
pf the various sounds of the vowels and consonants seems 
to be the influence of the accen^; as the accent or stress 
which is laid upon certain syllables has so obvious an effect 
upon the souyis of the letters, that unless we take accent 
into the account, it wiU be impossible to reason rightly 
upon tlie proper pronunciation of the Elements of Speech. 

Of the Influence of Accent >on the sounds of the Letters ^ 

69. It may be first observed, that the exertion of the 
organs of speech necessary to produce theaccent or stress, 
has an obvious tendency to preserve the letters in their 
pure and uniform sound, while the relaxation o(r feeble- 
ness which succeeds the accent as naturally, suflers the let- 
ters to slide into a somewhat different sound a little easier 
to the organs of pronunciation. Thus the first a in cab- 
bage is pronounced distinctly with the true sound of that 
letter, while the second a goes into an obscure sound borw 
dering on the / short, the slenderest of all sounds j so that 
euhhage and village have the a 'in the last syllable scarcely 
distinguishable from the e and / in the last syllables pf 
college and vestige^ 

70. In the same manner the «, >, i\ Oy and y coming- 
before r, in a final unaccented syllabi?^ gointoan obscure 
sound so nearly approaching to the sliort », that if the 
accent wer-e cafbfully kept upon the first syllables of liary 
liery elixir y mayor, martyr, &c. these words, without any 
perceptible change in the sound of their* last syllables, 
might all be written and pronounced lieur, lieury elixur, 
mayury martury &c. 

71. The consonants also are no less altered in their 
sound by the position of the accent than the vowels. The 
k and s in the composition of Xy when the accent is on 
them, mexerciseyexecutcy &c. preserve thejr strong pure 
sound; but when the accent is on the second syllable, in 
exacty exoneratey &c. these letters slide into the duller and 
weaker sounds of g and x, which are easiet to the organs of 

Digitized by 




proBuaciauon. Henc6 not only the soft r^and the $ go im6 
xi,buteve|i (he /, before a dipbtliong, slides into the, same 
tetters when the stress is on the preceding syllable. Thus 
in t^i€ty and satiety the c and / preserve tbeir^pure sounds 
because the syllables ci and // have, the accent q%x them ; 
bat in socUimd satiate these syllables come after the stress^ 
and from the feebleness of -their situation naturally fall into 
the shorter and easier sound, as if written soshial^ and 
sas^te^ See the vord Satiety. 


72. A has three long sounds and two short ones. 

73. The first sound of the first L*tter in our alphabet is 
thai which among the English is its name. (See the letter 
J at the beginning of tt\e Dictionary) This is what is 
called, by most grammarians, its slender sound (35) {65) ; 
we find it in the words loi/e^ spade y trade ^ &c. In the diph- 
thong ai we have exactly the same sound of this letter, as 
io jMii«« gain^ stain, &c. and sometimes in the diphthong 
M, as fo«r, swear ^ pear>^ &c. nay, twice we find it, con- 
trary to evknry rule of pronunciation, in the words where 
and there^ and once in the anomalous diphthong ao in gaoL 
It exactly corresponds to the sound of the French e in the 
beginning of the words iire and ^ie. 

74. The long sknder a is generally produced by a silent 
rat the end of a syllable; which e not only keeps one 
single intervening consonant from shortening the preced- 
ing vowel, but sometimes two : thus we find the mute e 
makes of ragy rage^znA very improperly keep^ cfce tf open 
even in range^ change^ &c. (See Change) hat^ with the 
mute r, becomes bate^ and the a coiuinues open, and, per- 
haps, somewhat longer in bast^e^ waste, paste^ &c. chough^ 
it must be confessed this seems the privilege only of a ; 
for the other vowels contract before the opnsonants tig in 
revenge^ crsuge^ plunge i and the ste in our language is 
preceded by no other vowel but this. Every consonant 
but n shortens every vowel but «^ when soft ^ and e silent 
succeed; as, bilgty badge, binge, spunge, &c. 

75. Hence we may establish this general rule : A has 
the long, open, slender sound, when followed by a single 
consonant, and e mute, as lade, made^fade, &c. The only 
exceptions seem to be, have, are^ g^P^t and bade, the past 
time of to bid^ 

76. A has the same sound, when ending an accented 
syllabic, as pa-per^ ta-per, spec-ta-tor. The only excep- 
tioQS 9Xtf farther, master, tua^ter. 

77' As the short sound of the long slender a is not 
(ound under the same character, but in the shbrt e (as may 
ke perceived by comparing mate and ?net), (67) we proceed 
\fy delineate the second sound of this vowel, which is that 
beard in fatbet, and is called by some the open sound ; (34) 
but this can never distbguish it from the deeper sound of 
the tf in all, balh &c*which is still more open : by some it is 

styled the middle sound of ^, as between the ^ in pale, and 
that in wall : it answers nearly to the Italten a in To scan^% 
Rqmana^ &c. or to the final ^ in 6e natumlieed Greek 
words, papa, and mamma ; and in baa } the word adopted 
in almost all languages to express tlie cry of. sheep. Wf 
seldom find the long sound of this letter in our languagd^ 
except in monosyllables ending with r, as far,tar, mar,8cc. 
and in the word father. There are certain words from 
the Latin, Italian, and Spanish languages, such as lumbago, 
bravado, tornado, camisado^ farrago, &c. which are some- 
times heard with this sound of a j but except in bravo, 
hear^ chiefly at the theatres, the English sound of a is pre- 
ferable in all these words. 

78. The long sound of the middle or Itolian a is always 
found befoce r inmoi^osyllables, as car, far, mar, &c. be- 
fore the liquids Im ; whether the latter only be pronounced, 
as in psalm, or both, as in psalmiit : sometimes' before If 
and /u/jj^as calf half calve, halve, salve, &c. and, lastly, 
before the sharp aspirated dental th in bath, path, lath,&.c^ 
and in the woid father: this sound of the a was formerly 
more than at present found before the nasal liquid n, es- 
pecially when succeeded by c, /, or d, as dance, glance, 
lance, France,chance, pranc^,grant, plant, slant, slander, 8cc . 

79. The hissing consonants was likewise a sign of this 
sound of the ^i,whether doubled, as in glass, grass, lass,8cc. 
or accompanied by /, as in last, fast, vast, &c. but this 
pronunciation of a seems to have been for. some years ad- 
vancing to the short sound of this letter, as heard in hand, 
land, grand, 8lc, and pronouncing the a in after, answer, 
basket, plant, mast, &c. as long as in half calf &c. borders 
very closely on vulgarity : it must be observed, however, 
that the a before n in monosyllables, and at the end of 
words, was anciently written with u after it, and so pro- 
bably prbilbunced as broad as the German a ; for Dr. 
Johnson observes, ^ many words pronounced with^a broad 
** were anciently written with au, as fault, mau,lt \ and we 
** still write fault, vault. This was probably the Saxon 

* sound, for it is yet retained in the northern dialects, and 
'* in the rustic pronunciation, as maun for man, baund for 
'' hand.^* But since the u has vanished, th^ a has been 
gradually pronounced slenderer and sliorter, till now almost 
every vestige of the ^cient orthography seems lost ; 
though the terminaton ,m^;}^/ in command, demand, &c» 
formerly written commaund, demaund, still retains the long 
sound inviolably.* 

* Since the first publication of thi^ Dictionajy the Publick ha?e been 
favoured with lome very elaborate and judicious observations on English 
pronUDciaiion by Mr. Smith, in a Scheme of a French and English Dic- 
tionary. In this Work he departs frequently from my judgement, and par- 
ticularly in the pronunciation of the letter a, when succeeded by ss, ft, or 
n, and another consonant, as past, last, chance, &c. to which he annexei 
the long sound of a in father. That this was the sound formecly, is highly 
probable from iu being still the sound givql it by the vulgar, who are 

Digitized by 



Different sounds op the letter a. 

80. As the mute / in calm, psalm^ calf^ half, &c. seems 
to lengthen the sound of this letter, so the abbreviation of 
some words by apostrophe seems to have tlie same effect. 
Thus when, by impatience, that grand corrupter of man- 
ners as well as language, the m h cut out of the word 
cannot^dXiA thelwo syllables reduced to one, we hnd the a 
lengthened to the Italian or middle Oj as cannot, carit \ 
have not ^ hunt; shall not ^ shanty &c. This is no more than 
what the Latin language is subject to ; it being a known 
rule in that tongue, that when, by composition or other- 
wise, two short syllables become one, that syllable is almost 
always long, as alius has thepenultimate tong because it 
comes from aliinsy and the two 5;hort vowels in coago be- 
come one long vowel in cogo^ &c. 

81. The short sound of the middle or Italian «,• which 
is generally confounded with theshoit sound of the slender 
tf, is the sound of this vowel in man, pan^ tan, maty hat^'&.c. 
we generaljy find this sound before any two successive 
consonants (those excepted in the foregoing remark's) and 
even when it comes before an r, if a vowel follow, or the 
r be doubled; for if this consonant be doubled, in order 
to produce another syllable, the long sound becomes short, 
as mar, marry ; car, carry , &c. where we find the mono- 
syllable has the long, and the dissyllable the short sound ; 
but if a come before r, followed by another consonant, it 
has its long sound, as in party partial, &c. 

82. The only exception to this rule is in adjectives de- 
rived from substantives ending in r ; for in this case the a 
continues long, as in the primitive. Thus the a In starry^ 
or full of stars^ is as long as in star; and the a in the ad- 
jective tarry, or besmeared with tar, is as long as in the 
substantive tar, though short in the word tarry, (to stay.) 

83. The third long sound of a is that which we more 
immediately derive from our maternal language the Saxon, 
but which at present we use less than any oth^lr : this is 
the a in fall, ball j gall : (33) we find a correspondent sound 
to this a in the diphthongs au and axv, as laudy lawy sawy 
&c. though it must here be noted, that we have improved 
upon our German parent, by giving a broader sound to 
this letter, in these words, than the Germans themselves 
would do, were they to pronounce them. 

84. The long sound of the deep broad German a is pro- 
duced by //after it, as in al', wall, call ; or, indeed, by one 

generally the last to titer the common pronunciation ; but that the short a 
ia these words is now the general pronunciation of the polite and learned 
world, seems to be candidly acknowledged by Mr. Smith himself; and as 
every correct ear would be disgusted at giving ilie a in these words the full 
sound of the a \t\ father^ any middle sound ought to be discountenanced, 
as tending to render tbe ^onunctation of a Tangoage obscure and indefinite. 


Ben Jonson, in his Grammar, classes saht malf. Mm, and calmy as 
^ving the same vound of a ; and aurtf, as having the same deep sound, as 
mtdknee% autlwy ta*w, satv, dravf, &c. 

/,and any other consonant, except-the mute labials^, 5,/^ 
and Vy as salt, baldy false, falshion,' falcon, &c. The excep- 
tions to this rule are generally words from tlie Arabic and 
Latin languages, as AipSy Albion, asphaltic, falcated, sahue^ 
calculati,amalgamatey /Jlcoran, and Alfred, &c. the two last 
of which may be considered as ancient proper names which 
have been frequently latinized, and by this means have 
acquired a slenderer sound of a. This rule, however, 
must be understood of such syllables only as have the ac- 
cent on them : for when al, followed by a consonant, is in 
the first syllable of a word^ liaving the accent on the se- 
cond, it is then pronounced as in the first syllables of al-ley, 
val-ley, &c. as altemu^, balsamic, falcade, fal cation, ^c. 
Our modern orthography, which has done its utmost to 
perplex pronunciation, has made it necessary to observe, 
that every word compounded of a monosyllable with //,as 
albeit, also, almost, dnvnfall, &c. must be pronounced as if 
the two liquids were still remaining, notwithstanding our 
>vord-menders have wisely taken one away, to the destruc-' 
tion both of sound and etymology ; for, as Mr. Elphinston 
shrewdly observes, ** Every reader, young and old, must 

now be so sagacious an analyst as to discern at once not 
** only what are compounds and what are their simples, but 
^^ that al in coifSV^^i^ion is equal to all out of it ; or in 

other words, that it is both what it is, and what it is not.'* 
Prin.Eng. Language, vol. I. page 60, See No. 406* 

85. The w has a peculiar quality of broadening this 
letter, even when prepowtive : this is always the effect, ex- 
cept when the vowel is closed by the sharp or flat guttural 
k or g, X, ng, nk, or the sharp labial /, as wax, tvaft^ 
thwack, twang, twank : thus we pronounce the' a broad, 
though short in wad, wan, want, was, what, &c« and 
though other letters suffer the a to alter its sound before 
//, when one of these letters goes to the formation of the 
latter syllable, as tall,taUlow : hall, haNow; call, caUlow, 
&c. yet we see %v preserve the sound of this vowel before 
a single consonant, as wal-low, swahl9w, &c. 

86. The (/including the sound of Wiew, and being t\o 
more than this letter preceded by k, ought, according to 
an^^Iogy, to broaden every a it goes before like the w ; thus 
quantity ought to be pronounced as if vtritien iwontity, And 
quality should rhyme Y/kh Jollity ; instead of which we fre- 
quently hear the w robbed of its rights in its proxy ; and 
quality so pronounced as to rhyme with legality ; wlule to 
rhyme quantity, according to this aflPected mode of pro- 
nouncing it, we must, coin such words as piantity, and 
consonanity. The a in Quaver and Equater is an exception 
to this rule, from the preponderancy of another which re- 
quires a, ending a syllable under the accent, to have the 
slender sound of that letter ; to which rule, father, master^ 
and water, and, perhaps, quadrant^aje the only exceptions^ 

87. The short sound of this broad a is heard when it is 
preceded by %v, and succeeded by a single consonant in 

, Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



Ae same syllable^ as t&aUlow^ suhiUow^ &c. ct by .two 
consonants in the same syllable, as want^ wast^ wasp^ &c. 
but when I ox r is one of the soasonanu, the a becomes 
iongj as walk^ swurm^ &c. 

Irregular ami unaccented Sounds. 
88. But besides the long and short sounds common to 
all the vowels, there is a certain transient indistinct pro- 
nunciation of some of them, when they are not accented, 
that cannot be so easily settled : when the accent is not 
upon it, no vowel is more apt to run into this imperfect 
sound than the a ; thus the particle a before participles, in 
the phrases a* going, a- walking, a-shooting, &c. seems, says 
Dr. Lowth, to be the true and genuine preposition on^ a 
little disguised by familiar use and quick pronunciation: 
the same indistinctness, from rapidity and coincidence of 
sound, has confounded the pronunciation of this mutilated 
preposition to the ear, in the different questions whai^s 
c'c/ffci, when we would know the hour, and wljafs a cloche 
when wc would have the description of that horary ma- 
chine; aiid if the accent be kept strongly on the first syl- 
lableof the word tolerable^ as it always ought to be,we find 
scarcely any distinguishable difference to the ear, if we 
substitute u ox o instead of a in the penultimate syllable. 
Thus tolerabUy tolereble^ Ulerubte, are exactly the same 
word to the ear, if pronounced without premeditation or 
transposing the accent, for the real purpose of distinction; 
and inwards, outwards^ &c. might, with respect to sound, 
be spelt inwurdsyOutwurds^ &c. Thus the word mtf«,when 
not under the accent, might be written mun in nobleman^ 
huihandmanj woman 5 and tertian and quartan y tertian and 
quartunj &c. The same observation will hold good in al- 
most every final syllable where a is not accented, as medaly 
dialjgiant, bias,8cc. defiance, temperance, &c. but when the 
final syllable ends in age, ate, or ace, the a goes . into a 
somewhat different sound. See 90 and 91* 

89. There is a corrupt, but a received pronunciation of 
this letter in the words any, m'anyy Thames ^ where the a 
sounds like short /, as if written enny^ menny^ Terns. Catch, 
among Londoners, seems to have degenerated into KetcT) ; 
and says, the third person of the verb to say, has, among 
all ranks of people, and in every part of the united king- 
doms, degenerated into sez, rhyming with Fez. 

90. The a goes Into a sound approaching the short f, 
in the numerous termination in age, when the accent is not 
on It; as cabbage, village, courage, 8cq, and are pronounced 
nearly as if written cabblge, village, coUrige, &c. The ex- 
ceptions to this rule are chiefly among words of three Syl- 
lables, with the accent on the first 5 these seem to be the 
following: -^^g^^ p^^^^gh scutage, hemorhage, vassalage, 

-carcSage, gutdage, pucilage, mucilage^ cartilage, pupilage, q/y 
pbanage, vtUanage,appariage, concubinage, baronage, pat renage, 
parsau^e,persondge, equipage, ossifrage, saxifrage, umpirage, 
mbassage^ bermhage^ heritage^ parentage, messuage. 

91. The ^7 in the numerous termination ate, when the 
accent is on it, is pronounced somewhat differently in 

different words. If the word be a substantive, or an ad^ 
jective, the a seems to be shorter than when it is a verb : 
thus a good ear will discover a difi*erence in the quantity of 
this letter, in delicate, and dedicate ; in climate, primate,^nd 
ultimate; and the vowels to calculate,to regulate, amd to spe^ 
culate, where we find the nouns and adjectives have the a 
considerably shorter than the verbs. Innate, hovj ewer, pre- 
serves the a as long as if the accent were on it : but the 
unaccented terminations in ace, whether nouns or verb^, 
have the a so short and obscure as to be nearly similar to 
the u in us i thus palace, solace, mencue, pinnace, p pulace, 
might, without any great departure from their common 
sound, be written pallus, sollus, &c. \i\ii\e furnace d]mo$X 
changes the a into 1, and might be written fumiss. 

92. Whenthe a is preceded by the gutturals, hard ^ or 
c, it is, in polite pronunciation, softened by the intervention 
of a sound like ^, so that card, cart, guard, regard, are pro- 
nounced lilce he-ard,ghe-ard, re^ghe^ard. When the a is 
pronounced short, as in the first syllable of rizifi///,gi7/t^/r, 
&c. the interposition of the e is very perceptible, and in- 
deed unavoidable : for though we can pronounce guard 
and cart without interpositig.the^, it is impossible to pro- 
nounce ^arm^w and fflrr/^7<f^ in the same manner. This 
sound of the a is taken notice of in Steele's Gramniar, page 
49. Nay, Ben Jonson remarks the same sound of this let- 
ter ; which proves that it is not' the ofl^spring of the pre- 
sent day ; (1 60) and I have the satisfaction to find Mr. 
Smith, a very accurate inquirer into the subject, entirely of 
my opinion. But the sound of the /7,whtch I have found the 
most difficult to appreciate, is that where it ends the syllable, 
either immediately before dr afterthe accent . We cannot 
give it* any of its three open sounds without hurting the 
ear : thus in pronouncing the words abound and diadem, 
ay 'b'ound,ab -bound, zxid aw- bound; di'ay-dem,di'ah'dem,zrid 
di-aW'dem, are all improper ; but giving the a the second 
or Italian sound, as ah-bound anddi-^ah-dem, seems the least 
so. For which reason I have, like Mr. Sheridan, adopted 
the short sound of this letter to mark this unaccented a : 
but if the unaccented a be final, which is not the case in 
any word purely English, it then seems to approach still 
nearer to the Italian a in the last syllable of papa, and to 
the a in father ; as may be heard in the deliberate pronun- 
cicationof the words idea, Africa, Delta, &c. (ss) See the 
letter A at the beginning of the Dictionary. 


93. The first sound of e is that which it has when length- 
ened by the mute^ final, as \n glebe, theme, &c. or when it 
ends a syllable with the accent upon it, as se-cre-tion, ad- 
he-sion^Scc. (36) 

94. The exceptions to this_ rule are, the words ti;)i/r^ 
and there ; in which the first e is pronounced like a, as if 

Digitized by 




written whan, t^are ; and the auxiliary verb ufiti, wliere 
the ^has its short sound, as if written win, rhyming with 
the last syllable of pre-fft and ere, (before) which sounds 
like air. When there is in composition in the word tSere- 
fori, the e is generally shortened, as in were, but in my 
opinion improperly. 

95. The short sound of e is that»heard in hed^feJ^ red, 
wedy &c. this sound before r is apt to slide into short u ; 
and we sometimes hear wrrr;/ sounded as if written murcy: 
but thisj though very near, is not the exact souxhI, 

Irregular and unaccented Sounds, ^ ^ 

96. Tlie e at tlie end of the monosy 1 lables ie, he, w/, w*, 
is pronounced ee^ as if written l^ee, hee-, &.c. It is silent 
at the end of words purely English* but is pronounced 
distinctly at the end of some words froox the learned lan« 
guages^as epitome, simile , catastrophe, apostrophe^ Sec. 

97. The first e in the poetic contcactions, e'er and ne*ir, 
is pronounced like a, as if written air and nair, 

98. The e in A^ri$pronounced nearly like sliort u ; and as 
<.c hear it in the unaccented terminatioaisof tvr/Vrr, reader ^ 
&c. pronounced as if written writur, r^^i^i/r, where we may 
observe that the r being only a jar, and not a definite and 
distinct articulation like the other consonants,-- instead of 
stopping the vocal e0kix of voice, lets it imperfectly pass, 
and so'corrupts and alters the true sound of the voweK 
The same may be observed of the final e after r in words 
ending in Vr^, gre^ /r^,where the e is sounded as if it were 
fjaceii before the r, lucrc^ maugre^ theatre, 8cc. pro- 
t\o\Jw:ediukur,maugury theatur^Scc. SeeNo.4 18.. It may he 
remarked, that tliough we ought cautiously to avoid pro- 
nouncing th>! / like u when under the accent, it would be 
nimis if///rr,and border too much on aflfecution of accuracy 
to. preserve this sound of e in unaccented syllables before 
r ; and though terribley where e has the accent^ should 
never be. pronounced as if written turriiU^ it is impossible 
without pedantry 5 to make any difference in the sobnd of 
the last syllable of splendour znd tender, sulphur zwA^ujSer, 
or martyr and garter. But there is a small deviation from 
rule when this letter begins a word, slnd is followed by a 
double consonant with the accent on the second syllable : 
tn this case we find the vowel lengthen as if the consonant 
were single. See Efface, Despatch, Embalm. 

99* This vowel, in a final unaccented syllable, is apt to 
ilide into the short /; \\\uz faces, ranges, praises, are pro- 
nounced as if vtxiiXJcnfacs7^,rangiz,praiziz;^p9et^covet,Unen, 
duel, Sec, as if written poit, covit^ linin, duii,8cc . Where we 
may observe, that though the e goes into the short sound of 
, . ii is ex?ictly that sound which corresponds (o the long 
sjund of ^. See Port Royal Qrammaire, Latitf, p. 143. 

100. There is a remarkable exception to the common 
sound of this leti.T in the words cleri^ serJeant, and a few 
.others, where we find the e pronounced like the a in dark 

and margin. But this exception. I ivnagine, was, till wkhin 
these few years, tlie general rule of pounding this letter be* 
iotc r, followed by another consonant. See Merchant, 
Thirty years ago every one pronounced the first syllable of 
merchant like the monosyllable tnareh, and at it was anci* 
ently written marchant. Service and servant are still heard 
among the lower order of speakers, as if written sarvia 
and sarvant ; and even among the better sort, we some* 
times hear the salutation ,.4f/>, your servant! though this 
pronunciation of the word singly would be looked upon as 
a mark of the lowest vulgarity. The proper names, Derby, 
and Berkeley, still retainthe old sound, as if written Darby 
and Barkeley ; but even these, in polite usage, are getting 
into the common sound, nearly as if written Durby and 
Burkeley, As this modern pronunciation of the i has a 
tendency to simplify the language by lessening the number 
of exceptions, it ought certainly to be indulged. 

101. This letter falls into an irregular 40und^ but still a 
sound which is its nearest relation, in the words, England^ 
yes, and pretty, where the e is heard like short 1. Vulgar 
speakers are guilty of the same irregularity in engine, as if 
written ingine\ but this cannot be too carefully avoided* 

10:1.. The vowel e before / and n in the final unaccented 
syllable, by its being sometimes suppressed and sometimes 
not, forms one of the most puzzling difficulties in pronun"^ 
ciation. When any of the liquids precede these letters, 
the e is heard distinctly, as woollen, flannel, women, syren ; 
but when any of the other consonants come before these 
letters, the e is sometimes heard, as in novel, sudden ; and 
sometimes not, as in swivel, raven, &c. As no other rule 
can be given for this variety of pronunciation, perhaps the 
best way will be to draw the line between those words where 
e is pronounced, and tho^ where it is not j and this, by 
the help of the Rhyming Dictionary,. I am luckily enabled 
to do. In the first place, then, it may be observed, the e 
before /, in a final unaccented syllable, must always be pro- 
nounced distinctly, except in the following words : Shekel, 
weasel, ousel^ musel, (better written nuzzle) navel, ravel, 
snivel, rivel, driysl, shrivel, shovel, grovel, hazel ^ drazeU 
nozeh The words are pronounced as if the ^ were omitted 
by an apostrophe, as shek'l, weasl, ousl, &c. or rather as if 
written sheckle, weasle, ousle, &c. but as these are.the only 
words of this termination that are ^^o pronounced, great 
care must be taken that we do not pronounce travel ^ gravel, 
rebely (the substantive) parcel, chapel, and vessel^ in the 
same manner; a fault to which many are very prone. 

103. E before if in a final unaccented syllable^ and not 
preceded by a liquid,, inust always be suppressed in the 
verbal terminations in en, as to loosen, to hearken^ and in 
other words.exceptthe following : Sudden,mynchin,kitchen^ 
hyphen, chicken, tickertjibetter vfnixtnticking)jirken,aspen^ 
platen, paten, marten^ latten, patten, leaven or leven^ sloven^ 
mittens. ' In these words the e is heard distinctly > conuCry 

Digitized by 




to the general rule which suppresses the i in these sylla- 
bles, when preceded by a mute, as hardeUy he0then ^heaven ^ 
as if written bartTn^ beafFn, heav'rij &c. nay, even when 
preceded by a liquid in the words fallen s^nd stolen, where 
the e is suppressed, as if they were written fallen and sioWn: 
garden and burden^ therefore, are very analogically pro- 
nounced garden and burden ; and this pronunciation ought 
the rather to be indulged, as we always hear the i sup- 
pressed in gardener and burdensome, as if written gard'ner 
and burdensome. See No. 472. 

104. This diversity in the pronunciation of these ter- 
minations ought the more carefully to be attended to, as 
nothing is ^ vulgar and childish as to hear swivel ^nd 
}ieaven pronounced with the /distinctly, or »tft;// and chicken 
with the e suppressed. But the most general suppression 
of tliis letter is in the preterits of verbs and in participles 
ending i^ ed\ here, when the e is not preceded'by d or /, 
the e is almost universally sunk, (362) and the two final 
consonants are pronounced in one syllable: thus lovedy 
livedo barred^ marred^ are pronounced as if written /;W, 
Ihdy bardymard. The same may be observed of this letter 
when silent in the singulars of nouns, or the first persons of 
verbs, ^s tbeme\maie, &c. which form themes in the plural, 
2nd makes in the third person, &c. where the last /is silent, 
and the words are pronounced in one syllable. When the 
noun or first person of the verb ends in y, with the accent 
on it, the e is likewise suppressed, as a reply ^ tivo replies ^ he 
replies^ &c. When words of this form have the accent on 
ihe preceding syllables, the / is suppressed, and the y pro- 
nounced like short-/, as cherries ^ marries ^ carries^ &c, pro- 
nounced cA/rr/z, marrizfcarriz, &c. In the same manner, 
cdrriedymarried,emb9died^8cc,9ie pronounced as if written 
earrld, marrid, embodid,&c. (282) Bift it must be carefully 
noted, that there is a remarkable exception to many of 
tbev contraaions when we are pronouncing the language 
of scripture : here every participial /</ ought to make a dis- 
tinct Syllable, where it is not preceded by a vowel : thus. 
Who hath believed our report, and to whom is the arm 
of die Lord revealed ?*' Here the participles are both 
pronounced in three syllables ; but in the following pa^- 
wge,"Whom he did predestinate, them he also called; and 
wliom he called, them be z\so justified \ 'and whom he 
jujifiedy them he also glorified.'' Called preiiet%*c$ the /, 
and is pronounced in two syllables j ^nd J ustified^nd gh^ 
-ri/fri suppress the /, and are pronounced in three. 


JOJ. This letter IS a perfect diphthong, composed of the 
•dunds of a in father ^ and / in */, pronounced as closely 
together as possible. (37) When these sounds are openly 
pronounced, they produce the familiar assent ay: which 
bf the old English dramatic writers, was often expressed 
by /.- hence we may observe, that unless our ancestors 

pronounced the vowel /like the 6 in ciV, the present pro- 
nunciation of the word ay in the House of Commons, in 
the phrase the Ayes have it, is contrary to ancient as well as 
to present usage : such a pronunciation of this word is 
now coarse and rustic. The sound of this letter is heard 
when it is lengthened by final /, as time, thine^ or ending a^ 
syllable with the accent upon it, as //-///, di-al; in mono- 
syllables ending with ndy as bind, find j windy &c. in three 
words ending with Id, as child, mild, wild; and in one very 
irregularly ending with nt, as pint. (37) 

106. There is one instance where this letter, though 
succeeded by final /, does not gq into the broad English 
sound like the noun eye, but into the slender foreign sound 
like/. This is, in the word j)&/V/,pronounced as if written 
sheer, both when single, as a knight of tie shire 5 or in com- 
position, as in NoftinghamshireyLeicestershire, &c. This is 
the sound Dr. Lowth gives it in . bis Grammar, page 4 : 
and it is highly probable that the simple shire acquired this 
slender sound from its tendency to become slender in the 
compounds, where it is at a distance from the accent, and 
where all the vowels have a natural tendency to become 
short and obscure. See Sll irb. 

107* The short sound of this letter is heard in bifky thin, 
&c. and wh^n ending an unaccented syllable, as van-i-ty^ 
qual'i^tyy &c. where, though it cannot be properly said to 
be short, as it is not closed by a consonant, yet it has but 
half its diphthongal sound. This sound is the sound of/, 
the last letter of the diphthong that forms the long / ; and 
it is not a littjer surprising that Dr. Johnson should say 
that the short / was a sound wholly difierent from the long 
one. (551) 

108. When this letter is succeeded by r, and another 
consonant not in a final syllable, it has exactly the sound 
of / in verminyVcrnaly &c. as virtue y virgin y &c. which ap- 
proaches to the sound of short u ; but wlien it comes be- 
fore r, followed by another consonant in a final syllable, it 
acquires the sound of u exactly, as birdy dirty shirty squirt^ 
&c. Mirthy birth y gird, ^irt, skirt ^ girl, whirls and firm, 
arc the only exceptions to this rule, where /is pronounced 
like /, and as if the words were written, merth, ^/r/A,ahd 

109. The letter r, in this case, seems to have the same 
influence on this vowel, «s it evidently has on a and a 
Whfn these vowels come before double r, or single r, fol- 
lowed by a vowel, as in arable y carry y marry y oratory r^orndy 
foragCyScc, they are considerably shorter ilian when the r 
is the final letter of the word, or when it is succeeded by 
another consonant, as in arbour, car, mary or, nor y for. In 
the same manner, the /, coming before either double r, or 
single r, followedby a vowel, preserves its pure,short sound, 
as in irritate,spirit, conspiracy, ftchut when r is followed 
by another consonant,or is the finalletterof a word with the 
accent upon it, the i goes into a deeper and broader sgund, 


Digitized by 




equivalent to short/, as heard mvirgin. virtue ^8lz, Sojir, 
a tree, is perfectly similar to the first syllable of ferment^ 
though often corruptly pronounced like /«r, a skin. Sir 
and j//> are exactly pronounced as if written Surzndsiur. 
It seertis; says Mr. Nares, that our ancestors distinguished 
these sounds more correctly. Bishop Gardiner, in his first 
letter to Cheke, mentions a witticism of Nicholas Rowley, 
a fellow Cantab with him, to this ^effect : ** Let handsome 
girls be called virgins ; plain ones vitrgins** 

' * Si pulchra est, ifirgOt uo turpif, nmrg9 vocctur.** ^ 

Which, says Mr, Elphinston, may be modernised by the 
aid of a far more celebrated line : 

" Sweet 'Virgin can alone the fair express, 

'• Fifie fy degrees t and beamifully less : 

" But let the hoyden, homely, rough-hewn nmrgin, 

*' EfigroM the homage of a Majwr Sturgeon.*^ 

110. The sound of /, in this situation, ought to be the 
more carefully attended to, as letting it fall into the sound 
of Uf where it should have the sound of e^ has a grossness 
in it approaching tavulgarity. Perhapsthe only exception 
to this rule is, when the succeeding, vowel is u ; for this 
letter being a semi*consonant, has some influence on the 
preceding i, though not so much as a perfect consonant 
would have. This makes Mr. Sheridan's pronuncmion of 
the I in virulent ^ and its compounds, like that in virgin ^ 
less exceptionable than I at first thought it; but since we 
cannot give a semi-sound of short / to correspond to the 
semi-consonant soundof i/,I have preferred the pure sound, 
which I think the most agreeable to polite usage* See Mr. 
Garrick*s Epigram upon the sound of this letter, under the 
word Virtue. 

Irregular and unaccented Sounds, 

111. There is an irregular pronunciation of this letter, 
which has greatly multiplied within these few years, and 
that is, the slender sound heard in ee. This sound is chiefly 
found in words derived from the French and Italian lan- 
guages; and we think we show our breeding by a know- 
ledge of those tongues, and an ignorance of our own : 

** Report of fashions in proud Italy, 
" Whose manners still our tardy apish nation 
" Limps after, in base awkward imitation." 

Sbakespeatv, Richard II. 

When Lord Chesterfield wrote* his letters to his son, the 

word oblige was, by many polite speakers, pronounced as if 

written obleege^ to give a hint of their knowledge of the 

French language; nay, Pope has rhymed it to this sound : 

" Dreading ev'n fools, by flatterers 5//iV^V, 
" And so obliging, that he near oblif^d.** 

But it v/as so far from having generally obtained, that Lord 
Chesterfield strictly enjoins his son to avoid this pronunci- 
ation as afG^cted* In a few years, however, it became so 
general, that none but the lowest vulgar ever pronounced 
it in the English manner ; but upon the publication of this 

noblemaji*s letters, which was about twenty years after he 
wrote them, his authority has had so much influence with 
the polite world as to bid fair for restoring the /, in this 
word, to its original rights ; and we not unfrequently hear 
it now pronounced with the broad English /, in those cir- 
cles where, a few years ago, it would have been an infalli^ 
*ble mark of vulgarity. Mr. Sheridan, W.Johnston, and 
Mr. Barclay, give both soupds, bpt place the sound of 
obt'ige first. Mr, Scott gives both, but places obleege first. 
Dr. Kenrick and Buchanan give only obltge; and Mr. El- 
phinston, Mr. Perry, and Fenning, give only obleege ; but 
though this sound has lost ground so much, yet Mr. Nares, 
who wrote about eighteen years ago, says, ** dbiige still, I 
^ think, retains the sound of long ^, notwithstanding the 
*' proscription' of that pronunciation by the late Lord 
" Chesterfield." 

112. The words that have preserved the foreign sound 
of / like^^, 5ire the following : Ambergris^ verdegrJs^ an* 
tique^ becajicoy bombasin^ brasil^ capivij capuchin ^colbertine^ 
Moppine^ or cbapin, caprice fChagriniChevaux-de-Jrise^cri- 
tique,{f OT crmcism) festucine^frizejgabardfne^ haberdine^ 
sordine^rugine^rephine^quarantine^routine^ fascine J'atigue, 
intrigue^ glacis y invalid, machine, magaxine^marine^palan- 
quin^pique^police, profile ^ recitative^ mandarine , tabcurine^ 
tambourine, tontine, transmarine, ultramarine. In all these 
words, if for the last / we substitute ee, we shall have the 
truepronunciation. In signior the first i is thus pronounced. 
Mr. Sheridan pronounces vertigo and serpigo with the ac- 
cent on the second syllable, and the ilong, as in tie znA pic. 
Dr. Kenrick gives these words the same accent, but sounds 
the I as e in tea and pea. The latter is, in my opinion, the 
general pronunciation ; though Mr.Sheridan's is supported 
by a very general rule, which is, that all words adopted 
whole from the Latin preserve the Latin accent. (503, b) 
But if the English ear were unbiassed by the long / in 
Latin, which fixes the accent on the second syllable, and 
could free itself from the slavish imitation of the French 
and Italians, there is little doubt but these words would 
have the accent on the first syllabic, and that the i would 
be pronounced regularly like the short r, as in Indigo and 
Portico. See Vertigo. 

113. There is a remarkable alteration in the soundof this 
vowel, in certain sittiations, where it changes to a sound 
equivalent to initial y. The situation that occasions this 
change is, when the / precedes another vowel in an unac 
cented syllable, and is not preceded by any of the dentals ; 
thus we hear iary in »w7-//iry,W/-iflr>,&c. pronounced as if 
written mil^yary, bil-yary, &c. Min-ion, znA pin-ion ^ as if 
written min-yon and pin-yon. In these words the / is so to- 
tally altered to y, that pronouncing the ia and to in separate 
syllables would be an error the most palpable ; but where 
the other liquids or mutes precede the / in this situation, 
the coalition is not so necessary ; for though the two lai- 

Digitized by 




ter syllables of convivial^ participial^ &c. are extremely 
prone to unite into one, they may, however, be separated, 
provided the separation be not too distant. The same obser- 
vaiigns bold good of <,as malUabUy pronounced mal-yaMe. 

1 14. But the sound of the /, the most difficult to reduce 
to rule is when it ends a syllable immediately before the ac- 
cent. When either the primary or secondary accent is on 
this letter, it is invariably pronounced either as the long / 
in f////, the short i in //////, or the French / in magazine ; 
and when it ends a syllable after the accent, it is always 
sounded like e^ as sen-si-ble^ T^-ti-fy^ &c. But when it ends 
a syilabk) immediately before the accent, it is sometimes 
pronoxmced long,as in v/'-Z^-Zi-Zyy where the first syllable is 
exactly like the first of vi-al ; and sometimes short, as in 
</;.^<//,where the i is pronounced as if the word were written 
ii'gt\t. The sound of the /, in this^ situation, is so little re- 
ducible to rule, that none of our writers on the subject have 
attempted it ; and the only method to give some idea of it, 
teens to be the very laborious one of classing such words 
together as have the / pronounced in the same manner, and 
observing the different combinations of other letters that 
may possibly be the cause of the different sounds of this. 

\U. In the first place, where the j is tlie only letftr in the 
fint syllable, and the accent is on the second, beginning 
with a consonant, the vowpl has its long diphthongal sound, 
as in iVm, identity^ ido 'atryyidoneous^ irascible^ ironical, isos- 
cdesjitinerantjiimrary. Imaginary audits compounds seem 
theonly exceptions. But to givethe inspector some idea of 
general usage, I have subjoined examples of these words as 
they stand in our different pronouncing Dictionaries : 
'dea, Sheridan,Scott,Buchanan,W.Johnston,Kenrick. 
"idea. Perrj. 

'identity. Sheridan,Scott,Buchanan,W.Johnston,Kcnrick. 
identity ^ Perry. 

'tddatry. Sheridan,Scott,Bucbanan,W.Johnston,Kenrick. 
idolatry. Perry. 
idoneaus. Sheridan, Kenrick. 
hasciite. Sheridan, Scott, W. Johnston, Kenrick. 
irascible. Perry. 

tsoueUs, Sheridan, Scott, Perry. 
'//ufTiiry.Sheridan, Scott, W. Johnston, Kenrick. 

i/iff/ra0/«Sheridan, Scott, W. Johnston, Nares, 
>/iWa7r/.Buchanan, Perry. 

116. When /ends the first syllable, and the accent is on 
the second, commencing with a vowel, it generally pre- 
serves its long open diphthongal sound. Thus in di^ameter, 
di^umalyiLC. the first syllable is equivalent to the verb to 
die. A corrupt, foreign manner of pronouncing these words 
may sometimes mince the i into <,as if the words were writ- 
ten de^ametur^de-urnalj &c. but this is disgusting to every 
just English ear, and contrary to the whole current of ana- 
logy. Besides, the vowel that ends and the vo.wel that be- 

gins'a syllable are, by pronouncing the /long, kept more 
distinct, and not suffered to coalesce, as they are apt to do 
if /has its slender sound. This proneness of the e^ which is 
exactly the slender sound of /, to coalesce with the suc- 
ceeding vowel, has produced such monsters in pronun- 
ciation as joggraphy and jommetry for geography and geo-^ 
metry^ znAjorgics ior georgics. The latter of these words 
is fixed in this absurd pronunciation witbp.ut remedy ; biu 
the two former seem recovering their right to four syllables; 
though Mr. Sheridan has endeavoured to deprive them of 
it, by spelling them with three. Hence we may observe, 
that those who wish to pronounce correctly, and according 
to .analogy, ought to pronounce the first sylldble of 
biography^ as the verb to buy, and not as if written be- 

1 17.- When / ends an initial syllable without the accent, 
and the succeeding syllable begins with a consonant, the 1 
is generally slender, as if written ^. But the exceptions 
to this rule are so numerous, that nothing but a catalogue 
will give a tolerable idea of the state of pronunciation in 
this point. 

118. When the prepositive biy derived from i/x,(twice) 
ends a syllable immediately before the accent, the i is long 
and broad, in order to convey more precisely the specific 
meaning of the syllable. Thus bi-capsular^ bi-cipitaU bi^ 
cipitous, bi'CornouSjbicorporalybi-dentaly bi-farious^bi-furm 
catedy bi'lingous,bi'nocular,bi-pennatedybi'petalouSfbirqu(i^ 
dratej have the / long. But the first syllable of the words 
Bitumen^^nd Bitun\enous having no such signification,ought 
to be pronounced with the / short. This is the sound 
Buchanan has given it ; but Sheridan, Kenrick, and W. 
Johnston, make the / long, as in Bible. 

lig. The same may be observed of words beginning 
with /r/, having the accent on the second syllable. Thus 
tri'bunalj fri^corporal^ tri-chotomy, tri-gintals^ have the i 
ending the first syllable long, as in tri-al. To this class 
ought to be added, di^petalous and di'lemma, though the / 
in the first syllable of the last word is pronounced like e^ 
and as if written de-lemma^ by Mr. Scott and Mr. Perry, 
but long by Mr. Sheridan, Dr. Kenrick, and Buchanan ; 
and both ways by W.Johnston, but placing the short first. 
And hence we may conclude, that the verb to biased, and 
the noun bisection, ought to have the / at the end of the 
first syllable pronounced like buy^ as Mr. Scott and Dr. 
Kenrick have marked it, though otherwise marked by 
Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Perry, and Buchanan. 

120. When the first syllable is chi, with the accent on 
the second, the / is generally long, as chi-ragrical, chi^rur- 
Chi-mera and chi^merical have the / most frequently short, 
as pronounced by Buchanan and Perry ; though otherwise 
marked by Sheridan, Scott. W. Johnston, and Kenrick ; 
and, indeed, the short sound seems now established. 

Digitized by 




Chicane and chicanery, from the French, have the / always 
short ; or nlore properly slender. 

121. a before the accent has the / generally short, as 
ci-viUan^ ci'Viii/y, ^nd, I think, ci-licious zni ci-n^erulent^ 
though otherwise marked by Mr. Sheridan. Ci-barious 
and ci'tation have the i long. 

132. Cli before ihc accentlias the i l<5ng, as cli^macter ; 
but when tlie accent is on the third syllable, as ill eUmac- 
ieric, the lis shortened by the secondary accent. See 530. 

123. Cri before the accent has the / generally long, as 
cri-nigenus, cri-terion ; though wc sometimes hear the lat- 
ter as if written create rion^hut I think improperly. 

124. D/ before the accented syllable, beginning with a- 
consonant, lias the / almost always short ; 2iS digest, diges^ 
tioHy digress, digression, dilute, dilution, diluvianf dimension, 
elimensive, dimidiation, diminish, ditninulive, diploma, direct, 
£rection, diversify, J&verstfication, -diversion, diversity, divert, 
divertisement, divertive, tSvest^ divesture, divide, dividaile, 
dividant^ divine, divinity, divisible, divisibility, divorce, divulge. 
To these, I think, may be added, didacity, didactic, dilace* 
rate, dilaceration, dilaniate, dilapidation, dilate, dilatable, dila^ 
tabUity, dileetion, dilucid, dilucidate, dilucidation, dinetical, di^ 
numeration, diverge, divergent, divan-, thongh Mr. Sheridan 
has marked the first /, in all these words, long; some of 
them may undoubtedly be pronounced either way ; but 
why he should make the / in diploma long, and W. John- 
ston should give it both ways, is unaccountable ;*as Mr. 
Scott, Buchanan, Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Perry, and the general 
usage is against them. Diaresis and dioptsics have the / 
long, according to the general rule, (l l6) though the last is 
absurdly made short by Dr. Kenrick, and the diphthong 
is made long in the first by Mr. Sheridan, contrary to one 
of the BQost prevailing idioms in pronuncication ; which is, 
the shortening. power of the antepenultimate accent. (503) 
Liet it not be said that the diphthong must be always long, 
since Casarea and Dadalus have the! a always short. 

125. The long/, in words of this form, seems confined 
to the following : Digladiation, dijudication, dinumeration, 
divaricate,direption,diruption. Both Johnson and Sheridan, 
h\ my opinion, place the accent of the word didascalic, im- 
properly upon the second syllable : it should seem more 
agreeable to analogy to plass it with the numerous termi- 
jiations in ic, and place the accent on the penultimate syl- 
lable ; (509) and, in this case, the / in the first will be 
shortened by the secondary accent, and the syllable pro- 
nounred like did. (527) The first i in dimissory^ marked 
long by Mr. Sheridan, and with the accent on the second 
syllabic, contrary to Dr. Johnson, are equally erroneous. 
The accent ought to be on the first syllable, and the / 
short, as on the adjective dim. See Possessory. 

126. Fi, before the accent, ought always to be short: 
•this is the sound we generally give to the / in the first syl- 
lable oi fi'delity ; and why w^e should give the long sound 

to the i in fiducial znAfiduciary^ as marked fey Mr. Sheri'> 
dan, I know not : he is certainly erroneous in marking the 
first / itt frigidity long, and equally so in placing the ac- 
cent upon the last syllable of finite. Finance has the i 
short universally. 

127. Gigantichas the / in the first syllable always long-. 

128. Li has the 1 generally \oug,is li-iationyli-brarian, 
li'bration, li-centions, li-pothfmy, liquescent, li-tbography, li^tbo^ 
tomy. Litigious has the / in the first syllable always short. 
The same may be observed of libidinous, though other- 
wise itiarked by Mr. Sheridan. 

1 29. Mi has the / generally short, as in minority ^militia^ 
mimographer, minacious, minacity, miraculous ^ though the 
four last are marked with the long i by Mr. Sheridan ;. 
and what is still more strange, he marks the /, which has 
the accent on it, long in /ninatory ; though the same word, 
in the compound comminaiory, where the / is always shorty 
might have shewn hi;n his error. The word mimetic, 
which, though in very good use, is neither in Johnson nor 
Sheridan, ought to be pronounced with the first / short, as 
if written mim-et-ic. The / is generally long in micro^ 
meter, micrography, and migration* 

1 30. Ni has the / long in nigrescent. The first / in «/- 
grification, though marked long by Mr. Sheridan, is short- 
ened by the secondary accent, (527) and ought to be pro- 
nounced as if divided into nig-ri-fi-cation. 

131. Phi has the / generally shon, a$ in philanthropy^ 
philippic, philosopher, philosophy, philosophize; to which 
we may certainly add, philojog^r, philologist, phihgy,phi^ 
loiogical, notwithstanding Mr. Sheridan has marked the i 
in these last words long. 

132. Pi and />//, have the * generally short, as pilaster^ 
pituitous, pilosity, plication. Piaster and piazrza, bein^ 
lulian words, have the / short before the vowel, contrary 
to the analogy of words of ihis form, (l 16) where the / is 
long, as in pi-acular, pri-ority, &c. Piratical has the / 
marked long by Mf. Sheridan, and short by Dr. Kenrick. 
The former is, in my opinion, more agreeable both to cus- 
tom and analogy, as the sound of the 1 before the accent is 
often determined by the sound of that letter in the pri- 
mitive word. 

133. Pri has the 1 generally long, as in primeval,prime^ 
vous, primitial, primero, primordial, privado, privation, priffo^ 
live, but always short in primitive and primer. 

134. Ri has the / short, as in ridiculous. Rigidity is 
marked with the / long by Mr. >Sheridan, and short by 
Dr. Kenrick : the latter i; undoubtedly right. Rivality 
has the / lon^ in the first syllable, in compliment to rivals 
as piratical has the / long, because derived from pirate. 
Rhinoceros has the / long in Sheridan, Scott, Kenrickj'W. 
Johnston, and Buchanan ; and short in Perry. 

13^. ^/ has the 1 generally short, as similitude, siriasis, 
and ought certainly to be short in silicious, (better written 

Digitized by 




fUkims) though marked long by Mr. Sheridan. Simtdlta' 
mwj having the secondary accent on the first syllable^ does 
not come under this head, but retains the i long, notwith- 
standing theshortening power of the accent it iiunder^527) 

1 36. Tt has the r short, as in timidity, 
. 137. Trt has the i long« for the same reason as ^/, which 
see (118) (119). 

138. Ft has the i so unsettled as to puzzle the correctest 
speakers. The i is generally long in ^icariotts^ notwith- 
standing the short i in wear. * It is long in v/h-ation, from 
its relation to vikrate. Vitality has the f long, like vitaL 
1b viv^Sd, vivt/icatej and viviparatiSi the first i is long, to 
avoid too great a sameness with the second. Vivacious and 
urood^^have the i almost as often long as short; Mr. Sheri- 
dan, Mr. Scott, and Dr. Kenrick, make the i in vivacious 
long, and Mr. Perry and Buchanan short ; MV. Sheridan, 
Mr. Scott, and W. Johnston, make the i in the first of vi- 
vacity long, and Perry and Buchanan short i hut the shoi^t 
soimd seems less formal and most agreeable to polite usage. 
Vicinity^ vidnal, vicissitude^ vituperate^ vimineousy and virago, 
seem to prefer the short f, though Mr. Sheridan has marked 
the three last words with the first vowel long. But the 
diversity will be best seen by giving the authorities for'all 
Fldm/y. Dr. Kenrick. 
Ficimty. Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott^ Buchanan, W. John- 

ston, and Perry. 
FldnaL Mr. Sheridan. 

FforxRteiifr. Mr. Sheridan, Dr. "Kenrick, W.Johnston, Bu- 
chanan, and Perry. 
Vituperate. Mr. Shert^an^Dr. Kenrick, W. Johnston. 
Fltuperate. Mr. Perry. 
Ftmituous. Mr. Sheridan. 
Flri^o, Mr. Sheridan and W. Johnston. 
Vhi^. Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Scott, Buchanan, and Perry. 

I have classed vicinal Eere as a word with the accent on 
the second syllal^le, as it stands in Sheridan's Dictionary, 
but dunk it ought to have the accent on the first. See 

139. The same diversity and uncertamty in the sound of 
this letter, seem to reign in those final unaccented syllables 
which are terminated with the mute e. Perhaps the best 
vray to giv^ some tolerable idea of the analogy of the lan- 
guage in this point, will be, t6 show the general rule, and 
mark the exceptions ; though these are sometimes so nu- 
meroos as to make us doubt of the rule itself: therefore 
the best iray will be to give a catalogue of both. > 

140. There is one rule of very great extent, in virords of 
this terminatidni which have the accent on the penultimate 
syllable, and that is, that the i in the final syllable of these 
words is short: thus servile^ hMiUj respite^ dipesite, ada^ 
mantine^ a^hetiystiwi &c. are pronounced as if written ser-^ 
Wy iasti/p respite deposit^ &Ct The only exceptions in this 

numerous class of words^ seem to be the following : Eftilef 
senile^ edi/e, empire, umpire, rampire, fimte, feline^ ferine, 
archives-^ and the substantives, cortfine and supiue: while the 
adjectives sa/ine and contrite h^ve sometimes the accent on 
the first, and sometimes on the last syllable -, but in either 
case the / is long. Quagmire and pismire have the i long 
also ; /ike^uise has the i long, but otherwise has it more fre- 
quently, though very improperly, short. Myrrhine, vuU 
pine, and gentile, though marked with the i long by Mr- 
Sheridan, ought, in my opinion, to conform to the general 
rule, and be pronoimced with the f short. Vulpine, with 
the i long, is" adopted by Mr. Scott ; and W. Johnston 
Mr. Scott, and Buclianan, agree with Mr. Sheridan in the 
last syllable of gentile \ and this seems agreeable to general 
usage, though not to analogy. See the word. 

That the reader may have a distinct view of the subject, 
I have been at the pains of colleaing all our dissyllables 
of this termination, with tlie Latin words from which they 
are derived, by which we may see the correspondence be- 
tween the English and Latin quantity in these words : 
flabile, JlabVis scissile scissVis gentQe gentilis 
debile, detVis missile missVis xd3e ^dilis 

mobile mobVis tactile tactVis senile senilis 

sorbfle saritlis &ctile fctilis {ehrWe fdrilis 

nubile nubVis ductile ducfilir virile virtlis 

facYle faciUs .reptile repftlis subtile subt'tlis 

gracHe gracilis sculptile sculptilis coctile coctUis 
docHe docVis fertile fertilis quintile quinttlis 

aglfle agVis fvtile Jiittlis hostile bostlHs 

{mgde JragilLr utile utilis servile servllis 

pensile pensVis textile, texttlis, sextile sextVis. 
tertHe torHlis 

In this list of Latinf adjectives, we find only ten of then^ 
with the penultimate i long ; and four of them with the 
f in the last syllable long, in the English words* genHle, 
adile, senile, and vir'tle. It is highly probable that this short 
f, in the Latin adjectives, was the cause of adopting this i 
in the English words derived from them ; and tlus tendency 
is a sufiicient reason for pronouncing the words projectile^ 
tractile, and insecttle with the i short, though we have no 
classical Latin words to appeal to, from which they vet 

141. But when the accent is on the last, syllable but two^ 
in virords of this termination, the length of the vowel is 
not so easily ascertained. 

142. Those ending in tee, have the i short, except uicrp' 
fice and cockatrice. 

143. Those ending in ide have the i long, notwithstand- 
ing we sometimes hear suicide absurdly pronounced, as if 
written suiddf 

144. Those ending in ife, have the Hong, except houses 
wife^ pronounced huzziff, according to the general rule> 
notwithstanding the i in wife is -always long* Midwife is 

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sometimes shortened in the same .manner by the vulgar; 
and s/fwighi for sevemugki is gone irrecoverably into the 
snme analogy j t)^o\^^^ fortnight ior fourteenthntght is more 
frequently pronounced with the i long. 

1 45. Those ending in He have the / short,except reconcile, 
^h.vnomiU^ estipile, JuvenUe^ mercantile ^ 2XiA. puerile y have the 
if long in Sheridan's Dictionary, and short in Kenrick's. 
In my opinion the latter is the much more prevalent and 
polite pronunciation \ but injfantile, thoagh pronouncable 
both ways, seems inclinable to lengthen the i in the last 
syllable. See Juvenile. 

146. In the termination /Vwtf, pantomitne hzs the i long, 
rhyming with time • and marititne has tlie i short, as if 
written maritim. 

1 47. Words in ine, that have the accent higher than the 
penultimate, have the quantity of / so uncertain, that the 
only method to give an idea of it will be to exhibit a cata- 
logue of words where it is pronounced differently* 

• 148. But first it may not be improper to see the different 
sounds given to this letter in some of the same words by 
dlffel*ent orthbepists : 

Columbine, Sheridan, Nares, W. Johnston. 

Columbine. Kenrick, Perry. 

Saccharine, Sheridan, Nares. 

Sitccharwe, Kenrick, Perry. 

Saturnine. Sheridan, Nares, Buchanan. 

Saturnine. Kenrick, Perry, 

Metalline. Kenrick. 

Metalline. Sheridan, W. Johnston, Perry. 

Crystalline. Kenrick. 

Cry//tf//i«^. Sheridan, Perry. 

Uterine. Sheridan, Buchanan, W. Johnston. 

Uterine. Kenrick, Scott, Perry. 

1 49. In these words I do not hesitate to pronounce, that 
the general rule inclines evidently to the long /, which, in 
doubtful cases, ought always to be followed ; and for which 
reason I shall enumerate those words first where I judge 
the f ought to be pronounced long : Cannabmey carabine^ 
columbine J bizantine, gelatifte, legating, Myrrbediney concubine, 
muscadine, tncama£n£,xeladine, almandine,.seaindim, amyg- 
Mine, crystallkie, vituline, calamine, asinim, saturnine, sac- 
chorine, adulterine, viper ine, uterine, lament ine, armentine, /rr- 
pentine, turpentine, vespertine, beUuine, porcupine, countermine, 
leonine, sapphirine, and metalline* 

150. The words of tl^is termination, where the i is short, 
are the. following ; Jacobine, medicine, discipline, masculine, 
jessamine, feminine,heroine, nectarine, libertine, genuine, hyaline, 
palatine. To these, I think, oaghttobeadded,a/ia/i>ir,ii^f<i- 
line, coralline, hrigintine, ^lantine : to this pronnnciation 
of the I, the proper names, Falentine and Constantine, seem 
strongly to incline ; and on the stage, Cymielinehis entilrely 
adopted it. Thus we see how little influence the Latin Ian- 
-guage has on the quantity of the i, in the final syllable of 

these words. It is a rule in that langunge, that adjectives 
ending in //// or inus, derived from animated beings or 
proper names, to the exception of very few, have this i 
pronounced long. It were to be wished this distinction 
could be adopted in English words from the Latin^ as in 
that case we might be able, in "time, to regularize this very 
irregular part of our tongue ; but this alteration would be 
almost impossible in adjectives ending in ive, as relative, 
vocative J^ugitive, &c, have the i unformly short in EngUsh, 
and long in the Latin relaiivus, vocativus,fugitivus, &c. 

151. The only word ending in ire, with the accent on 
the antepenultimate syllable, is acrospire, with the / long, 
the last syllable sounding like the spire of a church. 

152. Words ending in ise have the i short, when th^ 
accent is on the last syllable but one, 2& franchise, except the 
compounds ending in wise, as likewise, lengthwise, &c. as 
marked by Mr. Scott, Mr. Perry, and Buchanan ; but even 
among these words we sometimes hear otherwise pronounced 
otherwiz, as marked by Mr. Sheridan and W. Johnston -, 
but, I think, improperly. 

153. When the>iiccent is on the last syllable but two in 
these words, they are invariably pronounced v with the i 
long, as criticise, equalise, 

154. In the termination ite^ when the accent is on it, the 
/ is always long, as requite. When the accent in on the last 
syllable but one, it is always short, as respite, (140) pro- 
nounced as if vn-itten respit, except contrite and crinite ; but 
when the accent is on the last syllable but two, the i is 
generally long : the exceptions, however, are so many, that 
a catalogue of both will be the best rule* 

155. The «'is long in expedite, recondite, incondite, berma^' 
phrodite, Carmelite, theodolite, cosmopplite, chrysolite, eremite, 
aconite, margarite, marcasite, parasite, appetite, bipartite, tri- 
partite, quadripartite,^ convertHe, anchorite, pituite, satellite. 
As the word stands in Kenrick's Dictionary sa^elUt, hav- 
ing the i short, and the accent on the second syllable, it is 
doubly wtong. The i in the last syllable is shortened also 
by W. Johnston .and Perry, but made long, as it ought to 
be, by Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, and Mr. Nares. See 

156. The I is short in cucurbite, ingenite, definite, indtfU 
nite, infinite, hypocrite, favourite, requisite, pre^requisite, per-- 
quisite, exquisite, apposite, and opposite. Heteroclite has the i 
loBg in Sheridan, but short in Kenrick. The former is, in 
my opinion, the best pronunciation, (see the wcM-d in the 
Dictionary) but ite, in what may be called a gentile ter- 
mination, has the i always long, as in Hivite, Samnite, cos* 
mcpolite, bedlamite, &c. 

157. The termiiiatioQ ive, when the accost is on it, is 
always long, as in hive, except in the two verbs, give, live^ 
al&d their compounds, giyingy living, &c« for the adjective . 
live, as a live animal,hzs the i long> and rhymes with strive^ 
80 have the adjec||Ve and adverb, lively and livehly : the 

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ttoan Fiv^Rhood follows the same analogy \ but the adjective 
live^ngi as the livelong day^ has the/ shorty as in the verb. 
When the accent is not on the i in this teonination, it is 
always shorty as sportive^ plainttvii &c'. rhyming with gtve^ 
(150) except the word be a gentile, as in jirglve. 

158. All the other adjectives and substantives of this 
termination, when the accent is not on it, have the i inva- 
riably short, as affensivey defimivey &c. The i in salique is 
short, as if written fallkk^ but long in oblique^ rhyming with 
fihy strihf &c. while antique has the i long and slender, 
arid rhymes with speak. Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Elphinston, Mr. 
Perry, Bachanan, and Barclay, have ob/eek for oiJiqi4e ; Mr. 
Scott has it both ways, but gives the slender sound first ; 
and Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Nares, and W. Johnston, obitke. 
The latter is, in my opinion, more agreeable to polite usage, 
but the former more analogical ; for as it comes from the 
French oblique ^ we cannot write it Mike^ as Mr. Nares 
wishes, any more than antique^ antike, for fear of departing 
too far from the Latin antiquus and obilquus. Opaque, Mr. 
Nares observes, has become opake \ but then it must be re- 
membered, that the Latin is opacusy and not opacuus. 
' 159. All the terminations in rzr have the f long, except 
to tndemxe > which, having the accent on the second sylla- 
ble,foUows the general nile,and has the i short, pronounced 
as the rerb is. (140) To these observations we may add, 
that though twl and devil suppress the i, as if written ev^l 
and deifl^ yet that cavil and pencil preserve its sound dis- 
tinctly \ and that Latin ought never to be pronounced as 
it is generally «t schools, as if written Lat£n. Cousin and 
eozefty both drop the last Towels, as if spelled cozn, and are 
only distinguishable to the eye. 

Thus we see how little regularity there is in the sound 
of this letter, when it is not under the accent, and, when 
custom wiU permit, how careful we ought to be to preserve 
the least trace of analogy, that ^' confusion may not be 
worse confounded.'^ . The sketch that has been just given 
may, perhaps, afford something like a clew to direct us in 
this labyrinth, and it is hoped it will enable the judicious 
speaker to pronounce with more certainty and decision. 

160* It was remarked under the vowel A, that when a 
hard ^ or r preceded that vowel, a sound hUiie interposed, 
the better to unite the letters, and soften the sound of the 
consonant. The same may be observed of the letter /. 
•When thisvowel-is preceded by g hard or i, which is but 
Another form for hard r, it is pronounced as if an ^ were 
inserted between the consonant and the vowel : thus sky, 
kind, gyide, guise, disguise, catechise, guiU, beguile, mankind, 
•are pronounced as if written ske-^, ke^ind, gue-4sc, dis-^gue^ise, 
cat'iwchise, gue^ile, begue^le, fnanke-ind, J^t first sight we are 
surprised that two such different letters as a and i should 
be affected in the same manner by the hard gutturals, g,e, 
and k ; but uriien we reflect that / is really composed of a 
and e, (87) our surprise ceases -, and ^e are pleased to find 

the ear perfectly uniform in its procedure, and entirely un- 
biassed by the eye. From this view of the analogy we may 
see how great t»y mistaken is a very solid and ingenious 
writer on this subject, who says, that " ky^ind. for kind is a- 
" monster of. promuriation, heard only on our stage." 
Nares's English Orthoepy, pag. 28. Dr. Beattie, in his. 
Theory of Language^ takes notice of this union of vowel 
sounds, page 266. See No. 92. 

It may not, perhaps, seem unworthy of notice,*that when 
this letter is unaccented in the numerous terminations ity, 
tble, &Cr it is frequently pronounced like short u, as if the 
words sensible, visible, &c. were written sensubble, visubble^ 
&c. and charity, chastity, &k, like charutiy, chastutty, ^c. 
but it maybe observed, that the pure sound of / like e in 
these words, is as much the mark of an elegant speaker as- 
that of the u in singular, educate, &c* See No. 179* 

161. Grammarians have generally allowed this letter but 
three sounds. Mr. Sheridan instances them in not, note, 
prove. F«r a fourth, I have added the o in love, dove, &c. 
for the fifth, that in or, nor, for -, and a sixth, that in 
woman, nvolf, &x. 

162. The first and only peculiar sound of thb letter is 
that by which it is named in the alphabet : it requires the 
inouth to be formed, in some degree, like the letter, in 
order to pronounce it. This may be called its long open, 
sound, as the o in prove may be called its long slender sound., 
{^5) This sound we find in words ending with silent e^ 
^tone, hone, alone \ or when ending a syllable with the ac- 
cent upon it, as motion, po-tent, &c. likewise in the mono- 
syllables, goy^ so, no. This sotmd is found under several 
combinations of other vowels with this letter, as in mdan,^ 
groan, bow, {to shoot with) low, (riot high) and before st in. 
the words host, ghost, post, most, and before // in gross. 

16S. The second sound of this letter is called its short 
sound, and is found, in not, got, lot, &c. though this, as in 
the other short vowels, is by no means the short sound of 
the former long one, but corresponds exactly to that of «, 
in what, with which the words not, got, lot, are perfecc 
rhymes. The long sound, to which the o in not and sot are 
short ones, is found under the diphthong oc/.in naught, and 
the ou in sought ; corresponding exaAly to the a an tall, 
ball, &c. The short sound of this letter, like the short 
sound of a in father, (78) (79) is frequently, by inaccurate 
speakers, and chiefly those among the vulgar, lengthened to 
a middle sound ^approaching to its long sound, the ^ in or^ 
This sound is generally heard, as in the case of ^i when it 
is succeeded by two consonants: thus Mn Smith pro- 
nounces broth, froth, and nioth,z& if written brawtb,frawth^ 
and mawth. Of the propriety or impropriety of this, a 
well-educated ear is the best judge ; but, as was observed 
under the article A, (79) if this be not the sound, heard 

Digitized by 




among the best speakers, no middle sound ought to be ad- 
mittedj at good orators will ever incline to definite and 
absolute sounds, rather than such as may be called /p/r- 
descripu in language. 

16'lf. The third sound of this letter, as was marked in 
the nrst observation, may be called its long slender sound> 
corresponding to the double o. The words where this sound 
of occin-s are so few, that it wil 1 be easy to give a catalogue 
of them : Provey move^ behove^ and their compounds, lose^ 
do^ adoi Rom€y poltron^ ponton^ spontoriy wioy nvbom, wombf 
tomb. Sponton is not in Johnston ; and this and the two 
preceding words ought rather to be written with oo in the 
last syllable. Gold is pronounced like goold in familiar con- 
versation \ but in verse and solemn language, especially 
that of the Scripture, ought always to rhyme with M, 
fildy &c. Se^ Encore, Gold, and Wind. 

165. The fourth sound of this vowel is that which is 
found in Icfve^ dove^ &c. and the long sound, which seems 
the nearest relation to it, is the first sound of o in note^ 
tone, rove, &c. This sound of o is generally heard when 
it is shortened by the succeeding liquids n, m, r, and 
the se;ni-Towf Is v, z, th : and as Mr. Nares has given a 
catalogue of those words, I shall avail myself of his labour. 
Above, affront, allonge, among, amongst, attorney, bomb, bom- 
bard, borage, borough, brother, cochineal, odour, come, comely, 
comfit, comafhrt, company, compass, comrade, combat, conduit, 
coney, conjure, constable, covenant, cover, covert, covet, covey, 
cozen, discomfit, done, doth, dost, dove, dozen, dromedary, front, 
glove, govern, honey, hover, love, Monday, money, mongrel, 
monk, monkey, month, mother, none, nothing, one, onion, other, 
oven,plover, pomegranate, pommel, pother, romage, shove,shovel, 
ihven, smother, some, Somerset, son, sovereign, spotfge, stomach, 
thorough^ ton, tongue, Hvord, work, ivonier, nvorld, worry, 
worse, worship, wort, worth : to which we may add, rhomb, 
once, convey, and colander, 

1 66. In these words the accent is on the o in every word, 
except pomegranate ; but with very few exceptions, this 
letter has the same sound in the unaccented terminations, 
oe, ock, od, ol, om, on, op, or, ot, and some, as mammock, cassock, 
method, carol, kingdom, union, amazon, ga/lofi, tutor, turbot, 
troublesome, &c. all which are pronounced as if written 
manumtck, cassuck, metbud, &c. The o in the adjunA monger, 
as cheesemonger, &c. has always this sound. The expptions 
to this rule are technical terms from the Greek or Latin, 
as Achor, a species of the herpes -, and proper names, as 
Cahr, a river in Italy. 

167. The fifth sound of o, is the long sound produced 
by r final, or followed by another consonant, ^Jhr,fi}rfner. 
This sound is perfeAly equivalent to the diphthong au ', 
andyj^r aild former might, on account of sound only, be 
written^wr ^xAfaurmer. There are many exceptions to 
tliis rule, as borne, corps, corse, force, forge, form, (a sezt)fort, 
horde, porch, port, sport, &c. which have the first sound of 
this letted i 

168. 0, like A, is lengthened before r, when termina* 
ting a monosyllable, or followed by another consonant -, 
and, like a too, b shortened by a duplication of the liquid, 
as WO' may hear by comparing the conjunction or with the 
same letters in torrid, fiorid, &c. for though the r is not 
doubled to the eye, in fiorid, jet as the accent is on it, it is 
as effectually doubled to the ear as if written fiorrid ; so if 
a consonant of another kind succeed the r in this situation, 
we find the o as long as in a monosyllable : thus the o in 
orchard, is as long as in the conjunction or, and that infirm 
tnal, as in the word for ; but in crifice and forage, where 
the r is followed by a vowel, the o is- as short as if the r were 
double, and the words written orrifice and forrage. Seie 
No. 81. 

169. There is a sixth sound of ^ exa£kly corresponding 
to the u in btdl,full, pull, &c. which, from its existing only 
in the following words, may be called its irregular sound* 
These words are, woman, bosom, worsted, wolf, and the pro* 
per names, Wolsey, Worcester, and Wolverhampton* 

Irregular and unaccented Sounds* 

170. What was observed of the a, when followed by a 
liquid and a mute, may be observed of the o with equal 
justness. This letter, like a, has a tendency to lengthen, 
when followed by a liquid and another consonant, or by /, 
ss, are and a mute. But this length of o, in fhis situation, 
seems every day growing more and more vulgar : and, as it 
would be gross, to a degree, to sound the a in castle, mask, 
and plant, like the a in palm, psalm, &c. so it would be 
equally exceptionable to pronounce the o in moss, dross, and 
^0//, as if written m<7tftc;/^, drawse, znd frawst. (78) (79) 
The in the compounds of solve, as dissolve, absolve, resoive, 
seem the only words where a somewhat longer sound of the 
is agreeable to polite pronunciation : on the contrary, 
when the.^endsa syllable, immediately before or after the 
accent, as in polite, im^po^tent, &€.- there is an elegance in 
giving it the open sound nearly as long as in po-Jar, and 
potent, &c. See Domestick, Collect, and Command. It 
may likewise be observed, that the o^ like the e, (lOli) is 
suppressed in a final unaccented syllable when preceded by 
c or k, and fcAowed by n, as bacofi, beacon, deac4h, betkoa, 
reckon, pronounced, baVn, beaHn, deaVn, beeKn, recVn^ and 
when c is preceded by anodier consonant, as falcon, pro^- 
noMnzedfawKn. The e is likewise mute in the same situ- 
ation, when preceded by d in pardon, pronoupced parePn^ 
but not in Guerdon t it is mute when preceded by p in 
weapon, capon, &c. pronounced weafn, cafin, &c. and when 
preceded by / in reason, season, treason, oraison, benison, deni^^ 
son, unison, fiison, poison, prison, damson, crimson, advowson^ 
pronounced reaz*n, treaz^n, &c. and mason, bason, garrison^ 
lesson, caparison, cotnparison, disinherison, parson, and person^ 
pronounced mas^n, bas^n, &c. Unison, diapason, and carga^- 
jon, seem, particularly in'solemo speaking, to preserve the 

Digitized by 




sound of like u^ as if written unhung £apazuft, &c. The 
saaie letter is suppressed m z final unaccented sySaUe be- 
ginning with t, SIS Seiottf cotton^ btUionj mutton^ glutton^ pro- 
nounced as if written &//i, cotfn^ &c. When m precedes 
the /, the^ is pronoimced distinctly^ as in itMton. When 
/ is the preceding letter^ the o is generally suppressed as 
in the proper names StUtou cheese^ WUtpn carpetty and 
Mehon^ MovAraj^ &c* Accurate speakers sometimes strug-'' 
gle to preserve it in the name of oui* great epic poet Milton \ 
but the fin-mer examples sufficiently shew the tendency of 
the language \ an{l this tendency cannot be easily counter^ 
acted. This letter is likewise suppressed in the last syl- 
lable of blazon^ pronounced hlas^n \ but is always to be pre- 
served in the same syllable oi horizon. This suppression of 
the must not be ranked among those careless abbrevia- 
tions found only among the vulgar^ but must be considered 
as one of those devious tendencies to brevity> which has 
worn itself a currency in the language, and has at last be- 
come a part of it. To pronounce the o in those cases where 
it is suppressed, would give a singularity to the speaker 
bordering nearly on the pedandic ; and the attention given 
to this singularity by the hearer would necessarily diminish 
his attention to the subject, and consequently deprive the 
speaker of something much more desirable. 


171. The first sound of u^ heard in tute^ or ending an 
accented syllable, as in riz-^r, is a diphthongal sound, as 
if e were prefixed, and these words were . spelt tevAe and 
luvobic. The letter u is exactly the pronoun jon. 

172. The second sound of </ is the short sound, which 
tallies exactly with the o in done^ son^ &c. which every ear 
perceives might, as well; for the sound'^ sake,, be spelt dun^ 
siaij &c. . See all the words where the ^ has this sound. 
No. 1^5. 

173. The third sound of this letter, and that in which 
the English more particularly depart from analogy, is the 
uxn huU^fuU^ ptdl^ &c. The first or diphthongal u in iuhe^ 
seems almost as peculiar to the English as the long sound 
of the I in thine^ rmm^ &c. but here, as if they chose to 
imitate^the Latin, Italian, and French </, they leave out the 
€ before the u^ which is heard in tubiytnuley &c. and do not 
pronounce the latter part of u quite so long as the 00 mpool^ 
nor so short as the t/ in dutt^ but with a middle sound be- 
tween both, which is, the true short soimd of the #0 in ^v^ 
and two, as may be heard by compar^ig woo and loool \ the 
latter of which is a per&ct rhyme tobulL 

174. Thb middle sound of uy so unlike thl5 general 
sofond of that letter, exists only in the following words: 
huOyJuUypuU^ words compounded o( fully as wonderful^ 
dreadfuly &c. hdlocky iulfyy bullet ^ bulwarlyfiilkryfulling'-milly 
pulkfy puUetyfushy buib^ bushel, jfwlpit, puss, bullion,Jiutcher, 
cushiony cookooy puddingy sugary hussar, huxzay and put when 

a verb: but few as they are, except^/, which is a ver^' 
copious termination, they are sufficient to puazle English-* 
men who reside at any distance from the capital, and to 
make the inhabitants of Scotland and Ireland, (who, it is 
highlyprobable,receivedamuchmore regular pronunciatioii 
from our ancestors) not unfrequently the jest of fook. 

1 75. But vague and desultory as this sound of the u may 
at first seem, on a closer view we find it chiedy ccmfined to 
words which begin with the mute labials, by py fy and end 
with the liquid labial /, or the dentak /, /, and J, as in bully 
fully pully busby pushy puddingy puss, puty &c* Whatever, 
therefore, was the cause of this whimsical deviation, we 
see its primitives are confined to a very narrow compass ; 
put has ttkis sound only when it is a verb j for putty y a paste 
for glass, has the common sound of u, and rhymes exactly 
with nuttyy (having the qualities-of a nut) soputy the gsime 
at cards, and the vulgar appellation of cowUty ptsty ioMovr 
the same analogy. All BulPs compounds regularly foUow 
their primitive. But though fullery a whitener of clothe 
and Fulhamy a proper name, are not compounded oi filly 
they are SQunded as if they were; while Pi^;;^ follows the 
general rule, and has its first syllable pronounced like the 
noun put. Pulpit and pullet comply with th6^peculiarity, 
on account of their resemblance to pull, though nothing re* 
lated to it ; and butcher and puss adopt this sound of u for 
no other reason but the nearness of their form to the other 
words ; and when to these we have added cushiony sugar, 
cuckooy hussar y2iid, the interjection buzzayvre. have every word 
in the whole language where the u is thus pronounced. 

176. Some speakers, indeed, have attempted to give 
bulk and punisby tliis obtuse sound of t/, but luckily have 
not been followed. The words which have already adopted 
it are sufficiently numerous; and we cannot be toocare&il 
to chisck the growth of so unmeaning an irregularity. 
When this vowel is preceded by r in the same syllable, it 
has a sound somewhat longer than this middle sound, and 
exa&ly as if written 00 1 thus rucy true, &c. are pronounced 
nearly as if written rooy trooy &c. (339) 

177. It must be remarked, that this sound of Uy except 
in the wordfuller, never extends to words from the learned 
languages; for fulminanty fulminationy ebullitiony repulsiony 
sepulchrcy &c. sound the Uy as in dully gully &c« and the u in 
pus 9Xkd pustule is exaAly like the same letter in thus. So the 
pure English words^fulsomey bussy bulgcy bustlcy bustardy buz* 
zardy preserve the u in its second sound, a$ usy butiy and a«/- 
twrd. It may likewise not be unworthy of remark, that the 
letter u is never subject to the shortening power of either 
the primary or secondary accent; but when accented, is 
always long, unless shortened by a double consonant. See 
the words' DramjI and Muculent, and No. ^03^^34% • 

Irregular and Unaccented Sounds- 

178. But the strangest deviation of this letter from iis 

Digitized by 




regular sound is in die words busy, business^ and burj^ We 
laugh at the Scotch for pronouncing these words^ as if 
written irwjj, bewsiness^ bewry \ but we ought rather to 
blush for ourselves in departing so wantonly from the ge- 
neral rule as to pronounce them btzzy^ bizness^ and berry, 

179» There is an incorrect pronunciation of this letter 
when it ends a syllable not under the accent, Vhich pre- 
vails not only among the vulgar, but is sometimes found 
in better company ; and that is, giving the u an obsciire 
sound, which confounds it with vowels of a very different 
kind : thus we not unfrequently hear %fi«|[w&r, regular^ and 
particular, pronounced as if written sing'^ar, reg-^^ar, and 
par-^ici^ari but nothing tends more to tarnish and vul« 
garize the pronunciation than this short and obscure sound 
of the unaccented u* It may, indeed, be observed, that 
there is scarcely any thing more distinguishes a person of 
mean and good education than the pronunciation of the 
unaccented vowels. (547} (558) When vowels are imder 
the accent, the prince, and the lowestof the people in the 
metropolis, with very few exceptions, pronounce them in 
the same maimer; but thio unaccented vowels in the mouth 
of the former have a distinct,open, and specific sonnd,while 
the latter often totally sink them, or change them into 
some other sound. Those, therefore, who wish to pro- 
nounce elegantly, must be particularly attentive to the un- 
accented vowels ; as a neat pronunciation of these forms 
one of the greatest beauties of speaking. 

T Jinal. 

J80» T final, either in a word or syllable, is a pure 
vowel, and has exactly the same sound as i would have in 
the same situation. For this reason, printers, who have 
been the great correctors of our orthography, have substi- 
tuted the i in its stead, on account of the too great fre- 
quency of this letter in the English language. That ^ final 
is a vow'd, is universally acknowledged •, nor need we any 
other proof of it than its long sound, when followed by 
€ mute, as in tbyme^ rhyme, &c. or ending a syllable with the 
accent upon it, as buying, cyder, &c. this may be called its 
first vow^l sound. 

181. The second sound of the vowel y is its short sound, 
heard in system, syfrtax, &c. 

Irregular and Unaccented Sounds. 

182. The unaccented soi^id of this letter at the end of 
a syllable, like that of i in the same situation, is always 
like the first sound of / : thus vanity, pleurisy, 8cc. and if 
ear alone were consulted, might be written vanitee, 
pleurisee, &c. 

183. The exception to this rule is, when/ precedes the 
y^in a. final syllable^ the y is then pronounced as long and 

sound continues when they is changed into /, in justifiAUi, 
fualifiable, &c. The same may be observed of multiply and 
mkltiplicabU, 8cc,^ccupy^xtdoccupiable,8cc. (512) 

1 84. There is an irregular sound of this letter when the 
accent is on it in panegyrie,xf\xe!xx it is frequently pronounced 
like the second sound of e; which would be mtxt correct 
if its true sound were preserved, and it^ were to rhyme 
with Pyrrhic ; or as Swift does with Sat'rric : 

" Qn me when Ounces arc tatiric, 
•• I take it for a panegyric." 

Thns wfc see the same irregularity attends this letter before 
double r, or before single r, followed by a vowel, as we find 
attends the vowel i in the same situation. So the word 
Syrinx onght to preserve the y like i pure, and the word 
Syrtis should sound the y like e short, though the first is 
often heard improperly like the last. 

185. But the most uncertain sound of this letter is, 
when it ends a s]r)lable immediately preceding the accent. 
In this case it is subject to the same variety as the letter i 
in the same situation, and notliing but a catalogue will give 
us an idea of the analogy of the language in this point. 

186. The y is long in chylaceous, but shortened by the 
secondary accent in chylifartion and chylifactive,{S^O)t)xo\x^, 
without the least reason from analogy, Mr. Sheridan has 
marked them both lohg. 

187. Words composed of hydro, {vom th^ Greek v^v^, 
'water, have the y before the accent generally long, as hy. 
drography, hydrographer,hydrometry, hydropic ; all which have 
the^long in Mr. Sheridan but hydrography, which must be 
a mistake of the press ; and this long sound of y continues 
in hydrostatic^ in spate of the shortening power of the se- 
condary accent. (530) The same sound of y prevails in 
hydraulics and hydatides. Hygrometer and hygrometry seem 
to follow the same analogy, as well as hyperbola and hyperbole', 
which are generally heard with the y long ; though Ken- 
rick has marked the latter short. Hypostasis and hypotenuse 
ought to have the y long likewise. In hypotj^esis the y is 
more frequently short than long 5 and in hypothetical it is 
more frequently long than short ; but hypocrisy has the 
first y always short. Myrabofan and myropolist may have the 
y either long or short. Mythology has the first y generally 
short, and mythological, from the shortening, power pf the 
secondary accent, (560^ alp^ost always. Phytivorous, phy^ 
tography, phyiology, have the first y alway long. In ^phylac'- 
tery the first y is generally short, and in physician always. 
Pylorus has the y long in Mr- Sheridan, but, I think, im- 
properly. Inpyramidal he marks the y long, though, in my 
opinion, it is generally heard short, as in pyramid. In py- 
rites, with the accent on the second syllable, he marks the 
y short, much more correctly than Kenrick, who places the 
accent on the first syllable, and makes the y long. (See the 

open as if the accent were on it : thus justify, qualify, &c. I word.) Synodic, synodical, synonima, and synopsis, have the y 
have the last syllable sounded like that in dejy. This long I always short : synechdoche ought likewise to have the same 

Digitized by 




letter shorty as ive find it in Penys and Kemick't Dio 
Dooaries} thoogli in^l^eridan'swe&idit long. Typography 
mi typographer ought to have the first jrlongj as we find it 
in Sheridaa, Scott, Buchanan^ W. Johnston, Kenrick, and 
Perry, though frequently heard short ^ and though tyran^ 
meal has the y marked short by Mr. Perry, it ought rather 
to iia:ve the Idng sound, as we see it marked by Mr. Sheri- 
dan, Mr. Scott, Buchanan, W* Johnston, and Kenrick. 

188. From the view that has been taken of the. sound 
of the f and y immediately before the accent, it may justly 
be called the most uncertain part of pronunciation* Scarcely 
my.reasoD can he given why custom prefers one sound to 
the other in some words ) apjd why, in others, we may use 
either one or the other indiscriminately. It is strongly to 
be presumed that the i and j^, in tliis situation, particularly 
the last, was generally pronounced long by our ancestors, 
but that custom has gradually inclined to the shorter sound 
as more readily pronounced,. and as more like the sound of 
these letteris when they end a syllabi e after the accent ; and, 
perhaps, we^ shpuld cpntribpte to the regularity of the Ian* 
guage, if, when -we are in doubt, we should rather incline 
tothe short tbau the long sounds of these letters. 

Jf^Jirtal. * ~ 

189. That w final is a vowel, is not disputed ; (9) when 
k is in ^is situation, it is equivalent to ooi as may be per- 
ceived in the sound of vav}^ tovh-et, &c. where it forms a 
real diphthong, composed of the a in wa-ter^ and the oo in 
vfso 2ndcfio. . It is often joined to oat the end of a syllable, 
without affecting the sound of that vowel ; and in this situ- 
ation it may be called servile, as in bcw, to shoot with;, 
crow, hnvj (not high) &c. 


196/ A diphthong is a double vowel, or the union or 
mfarture of two vowels pronounced together, so as only to 
onake one syllable ; as the Latin ae or a^ ae ox ce, the 
Greek ti, the English aiy auy &c. 

191. TTiisis the general definition of a diphthong; but 
if we examine it closely, we shall find in it a want of pre- 
cision and aecuracy.* If a diphthong be two vowel sounds 
fix succession, they must necessarily form two syllables, and 
therefore, by its very definition, cannot be a diphthong ; if 
it be such a mixture of two vowels as to form but one sim- 
ple sound, it b very improperly called a diphthong; nor 
caniuiy such simple mixture exist. 

192. The only way to reconcile this seeming contradic- 
tion, is to suppose that two vocal sounds in succession 
were sometimes pronounced so closely together as to form 

only the time of one syllable in Greek and Latin verse* 
Some of these diphthongal syllables we have iii ouiwown 
language, which only pass for monosylhbles in poetry ^ 
thus Aire, (wages) is no more than one syllable in verse, 
though perfectly equivalent to higher^ (more high) which 
generally passes for a dissyllables the same may be observed 
of i£r^ or dygr^ hour TOii. power, &c. This is not uniting 
two vocal sounds into one sitQple' sound, which is impossi- 
ble, but pronouncing two vocal sounds in sitdtessioh so ra- 
pidly and so closely as to go fo|* only one syllable in poetry. 
1 9S. Thus the best definition I havefound of a diphthong 
is that given us by Mr. Smith, in his Sc'heme for a French 
and English Dictionary. <^ A diphthong (says this gentleman) 
*' I would define to be two simple vocal sounds uttered by 
<^\one and the same eo^tssion of breath, and joined in such 
^^ a manner that each loses a portion of its natural length ; 
^^ but from the jondlion produceth a compound somid,eqoai 
^< in the time of pronouncing to either of them taken se« 
<^ parately, and so making still but one syllable. 

194. << Now if we apply thtsdefinition (says' Mr. Smith) 
y^ to the several combinations that may have been laid 
^' down and denominated diphthcxigs by former ortho- 
^' epists, I believe we shall find only a small number of 
^* them meriting this name.'* As a proof of the truth of 
this observation, we find, that most of those vocal assem- 
blages that go under the name of diphthongs, emit but a 
simple sound, and that not compounded of thetwo vbtrels^ 
but one of them only, sounded long : thus pain and pane, 
pail and pale, hear and here, are perfedUy the same sounds. 

195. These observations natimiUy lead us to a distinc- 
tion of diphthongs into proper and improper : the proper 
are such as have two distinA vocal sounds, and the im- 
proper such as have but one* 

196. The proper diphthongs^ are, 
to question 
^x voice 
ou pound 

^ Wewe how nwny disputes the simple and ambiguous nature of 
^fowebcteated aaoog grammarians, and how it has begot the misuke 
CDDcenungdiphthongs^all that are properly so ai« syllables, and not 
Aphtboii^ at intended to be signified by that word. Hdikr* 

$y boy 
ua assuage 
ue mansuetude: 
ui languid 

*a ocean 

eu feud 

ew jewel 

ia poniard 

ie spaniel . ' 

In this assemblage it is impossible not to se^a maniifestclis- 
tin£bion between those which begin with e or i, and the rest. 
In those beginning with either of these vowels we find a 
squeezed sound like the commencing or consonant y inter- 
pose, as it were, to articulate the latter vowel, and that the 
words where these diphthongs are found, might, agreeably 
to the sound, be ^elt osbe'-yan,fyude,j'yewel,pon-yard, span-^ 
yel,pash'yon, &c. and as these diphthongs (which, from their 
commencing with the sound of y consonant, may not impro- 
perly be called semi-consonant diphthongs)hepn in that part of 
themouthwhere/,rsoft,and/,are formed, we find that 
coalescense ensue which forms the aspirated hiss in the nu- 
merous terminations sion, iion, tial, &c. and by dire£l conse* 
quence in those ending in ure, une, ta future, fortune, &c. for 

Digitized by 




(Uphtbongs; (8) and oonang immediately after the accent 
it coalesces wkh the preceding x»^>4ir/> sold draws them into 
the aspirated hiss of /i()Or^/A:(459} Those found in (^eter- 
mination hus may be t:aUed semi-consonant diphthongs also> 
as the and u ha^e but the sound of one V9vrel. It may tie 
observed too^m passing*, that die reason why in mansurtnde 
the s does not fp into \shi is^ because when u is followed by 
another vowel in the same ^Qable, it drops its consonant 
soundat die beginnings and becomes merely doubles. 

197. The improper diphthongs are^ 
Of Ctesar ea clean ie fHend 
4f aim ee reed oa coat 
-00 gaol ei ceiling $e oeconomy 
«i» taught «9 people ^ moon 
tf«;]aw iy they owCroW 

198. The tripthongs having but two sounds are merely 
ocular^ and^nust the^ore be classed with the proper diph- 
thongs : 

' ay (for ever) ttu plenteous kw view 

eatt beauty' . iett adieu em manoeuvre 

Of idl these combinations of vowels we shall treat in their 
alphabetical order. 


199. At or If is a diphthongs says Dr. Jdinstons of very 
frequent izse in the Latin language>which seems not pro- 
perly to have any phce in the English % since the a of the 
tjaxons has i>een long out of use^ being changed to e sim- 
ple ; to wfaichs in words fre<{uently occurring, the a of the 
Romans ts, in the same manner, altered, as in equator, eqid^ 
mctialy and even in Eneas. 

1200. But diough the diphthong a is perfeAly useless in 
our language, and the substitution'of ^ in its stead, in Cesar 
and Eneas, is recG«nmended by Dr. Johnson, we do not find 
his authority has totally annihilated it, especially in proper 
names and technical terms derived from the learned lan- 
guages. C^sar, JEneas, JEsop,pitan, diher, athiops wxaenX, 
amphisb^tna, anacephaUosis, apbaresis, itgUops, osutna. Sic. seem 
to preserve the diphthong, as well as certain words which 
2te either plurab or genitives, in Latin words not natu- 
ralised, as <vrfHir^i^«,«ir«n;i4f, aqua Vita, minutU, strut, &€• 

201. This diphthong, when not imder the accent, in 
AfnriiMidSvMi/,and when accented in LUtdalcus, is prquounced 
likeshort ei it iSflike ^jsnligeft totheshort soundwhen under 
the secondary accent, as in JEtiebarhus, where itn, in the 
first syllable, is pronounced exafUy like the letter n. (5S0) 


^02. The sound of this diphthong is exaAly like the long 
slendc^r soimd of a ; thus pail, a vessel, and pale, a colour, 
are perfeAly the same sound. The exceptions are but few., 

203. When said is the third person ' preterimperfeA 
tense of the verb to say, at has the sound of short e, zadsaid 
rhymes with i^ii the same sound of ai may be observed 

the Ietterc/,whenk>ng,is exafily one irf'these semi-consont^tf in the third person <>f the present tense saitb, and the par- 
ticiple said: but Wh^n this word is an adje£tive^ as the said 
mm, k isTegular, and rhymes with trade. 

004. Pkfid, a striped garment, rhymes with mad. 

305. RaHfery is a perfeft rhyme to salary ; and raisin, a 
fruft, is pronounced exa^ly like reason, the distindive fa- 
culty of man. See both these words in the DiAionary. 

206. Again and against sound as if written agen and agenst. 

207^ The aisle of a church is pronunced exa£% like 
isk, an island ; and is sometimes written He. 

208. When this diphthong is in a final unaccented syl- 
lable, the a is sunk, and th^ i pronounced short: thus 
mountain, Jiuntain, captain, curtain, villain, are all pronoun- 
ced as if written moumin, fountin, captin, curtin, villin \ but 
when the last word takes an additional syllable, the i is 
dropped, and the ii has* its short sound, as vUlanous, vil- 
lany. . See the words in the Dictionary. 

209. The ai in Britain has the short sound approaching 
to u, so common with all the vowels in final unaccented 
syllables, and is pronounced exactly like Briton^ 

210. Plait, a fold of cloth, is regular, and aught to be 
pronounced like plate, a dish ; pronouncing it so as to 
rhyme with meat is a vulgarism, and ought to be avoided. 

211. Plaister belongs no longer to thisjclass of words, be- 
ing now more properly written plaster, rhyming with caster. 


212. Thb combination of vowels in a diphthong is only 
to be met with in the word gaol, how more praperiy writ- 
ten, as it is pronounced, //ia/. 

^ AU. 

213. The general sound of this diphthong is that of the 
noun awe, as taught, caught, &c. or of the a in ball, ball, &c. 

214. When these letters are followed by n and another 
consonant, they change to the second sound of a, heard in 

far,farther, &c. thus auni, haunt, askaunce, askaunt, Jlaunt, 
haunt, gauntlet, jaunt, haunch, launch, craunch, jaundice, laun^ 
dress, laundry,hxve the Italian sound of the a m the last 
syllable of papa and mamma. To these I think ought to 
be added, daUnt,paunch, gaunt, and saunter, as Dr. Kenrick 
has marked them with the Italian a, and not as if written 
dawnt, pavfnch, &c. as Mr. Sheridan sounds them. Mound, 
a basket, is always pronounced with the Italian a, and 
nearly as if written marnd ; for which reason Maundy 
Thursday, which is derived fixmi it, oug^t, with Mr. 
Nares, to be ptonounced in the same maimer, though ge- 
nerally heard with the sound of aw. To maunder, to 
grumble, though generally heard as if written mawhder, 
ought certainly to be pronounced as Mr. Nares has classed 
it, with the Italian a. The same may be observed of taunt, 
which ought to rhyme with aunt, thou^ sonnd^ tawnt 
by Mr. Sheridan •, and being left out of the abovQ list, 
supposed to be so pronoimced by Mr. Nares. 

Digitized by 


DIFF^tfill* SOUMI^ idf rm I>li«lTHOMCS AU, AW, AT, At£,BA. 


215. LMtgiiOkddrm^fyrhiAnnreryprQpeA^ 

hf Mr* Nves among tho a e words which haye the long 
Italian « in fatter, are marked by Mr. Sheridan with his 
first sounded ainimt, lengAenedinto thesoond of c in 
father J by jdadng the accent on it. Siamtch is spelled with- 
out the tf by lohnson^ and therefore improperly classed by 
Mr. Nares in the above list* 

216. Faufftdoadavaeffateem to be the only real excep- 
tions to this sound of a in the whole list ; and as these 
words are chiefly confined to tragedy) they may be allowed 
to ^ fret and strut their hoar upon the stage** in the old 
traditionary sound of awe^ 

217. This diphthong 4s pronounced like long o, in haul" 
hy,2S}£ writfte bo^ ; and like o short in cauliflower ^ laurel^ 
and laudanum ; as if written coff^hwer, hrrel^ and lodJanum. 
In guage, au has the sound of slender a, and rhymes wjth 

21 8. There b a corrupt prommciation of this diphthong 
among the T^lgaT} iriiich is^ giving the au in daughter, 
saucey saucer, and saucy, the sound of the Italian a, and 
nearly as if written darter, sarce, sarcer, and sarcy ; but this 
pronunciation cannot be too carefully avoided. Au in 
umsap alao» is sounded by the vulgar with short a, as if 
written io///^ i "but in this^ as in the other words^tfv ought 
to soifiid aufc^ See the words in the Dictionary. 


219. Has the long broad sound of ^x in hall, with iiiiich 
the word howl b perfectly identical. It is always regular. 


220. This diphtbongy like its near relation at, has the 
sound of slender a in paj^ day, &c. and is pronou^ped like 
long e in the word quay, which is now sometimes seen writ- 
ten key\ for if we cannot bring the pronunciation to the 
spelling, it is looked upon as some improvement to bring 
the spelling to the pronunciatbn ; a most pernicious prac- 
tice in language. See Bowl. 

22 1 . To^ay, to strip off the skin, also, is corruptly pro- 
nounced jfe»; but the diphthong in this word seems to be 
recovering its rights. 

222. There b a wanton departure from analogy in or- 
thogra[&y, by changing the yin this diphthong to i in the 
vords faid, said, laid, far payed, sayed, and layed. Why 
these words should be written with i and thus contracted, 
and played, prayed,2nA delayed, repain at large, let our wise 
corre£tors of orthography determine. Stayed also, a partici- 
pial adjeAive,signifying steady, is almost always written staid, 

223. When aye comes immediately after the accent in 
a final syllable, like ai, it drops the former yowel, in the 
colloquial pronunciation of the days of the week. Thus 
as we pronounce captain, curtain, &c. as if written captin, 
cttrtin, Sec. so we hear Sunday, Monday, &c. as if written 

Sundy, Mmndy, &c: A more disdnft pronundAtiM of day^ 
in these words, is a mark of the northern di3de&.\208) 

224. Theianuliarassem«jrferyri, isa combinationflof 
the long Italian a in the last syllable of^papa, and the first 
sound of e. If we give the a the sound of that letter in 
hall, the word degenerates into a coarse rustic proniinti- 
ation. Though in the House of Commons, where this 
word b made a noun, we fr^uently, but not correAlyt 
hear it so pronounced, in the phrase the Ayes have'H. 


225. This triphthong b a combination of the slender 
sound of Uy heard in pamper, and the e in me^re. The word 
which it composes, signifying ever, b almost obsolete. 


226. The regular sound of thb diphthong b that of the 
first sound of ^ in bere\ but its irregular sound of short / b 
so frequent,as to make a catalogue of both necessary % espe* 
ciall]^ for those who are unsettled in the pronunciation of 
the capital, and wish to practise in order to form a habit. 

227. The first sound of ea is like open e, vad b heard- 
in the following words : Afeard, afftar, anneal, appeal, ap-^ 
pear, appease, aread, arrear, heaeon, beadle, headroU,' heads, 
headsman, beadle, beat, beaber, beam, bean, beard, bearded, beast, 
beat, beeU^,beaver, bekaguer,beneatb, beq$featb,ber9ave,hesmear, 
bespeai,hleacb, Ueak, blear, hleat,bobea, hreaci,hream,to breathe, 
cease, cheap,cheat, clean, cleanly,{2Aveeb)clear, clearance,cleove, 
cochineal, colleague, conceal, congeal, cream, creak, crease, crea- 
ture, deacon, deal, dean, deanery, dear, decease, defeasance, de^ 
fieeuihle, defeat, de$nean,demeanor,decrease,dream, drear, dreary, 
each, eager, eagle, eagre, ear, east, caster, easy, to eat, eaten, 
eaves, entreat, endear, escheat,fear,feafful, feasible, feasibility, 
feast, f eat, feature,flea,fleam,freak,gear,gleam^glean,to grease, 
grease, greaves, heal, heap, hear, heat, heath, heathen, heave, 
impeach, increase, inseam\ interleave, knead, lea, to lead, leaf, 
league, leak, lean, lease, leash, leasing, least, leave, leaves, mead, 
meagre, meal,mean, meat, measles, meathe, neat, neap, near, neat, 
pea, peace, peak, peal, pease, peat, pka, plead, please, reach, to 
read, ream, reap, rear, rearward, reason, recheat, redstreak, 
release, repeal, repeat, retreat, reveal, screak, scream, seal, sea, 
seam, seamy, sear, searclath, season, seat, shear, shears, sheath, 
sheathe, sheaf, sknzy, sneak, sneaker, sneakup, speak, spear, 
-steal, steam, streak, streamer, streamy,surcease, tea, teach, tead, 
teague, teal, team, tear, tease, teat, treacle, treason, treat, trea» 
tise, treatment, treaty, tweag, tweak, tweague, veal, undcr^ 
/leath, uneasy, unreave, uprear, weak, weaken, weal, weald, 
wean, weanling, weariness, wearisome, weary, weasand, 
weasel 9 weave, wheal, wheaf, wheaten,wreak,wreath, wreathe, 
wreathy, yea, year, yeanling, yearling, yearly, zeal. 

228. In this catalogue we find heard and bearded some- 
times pronounced as if written herd and herded, but this 
corruption of the diphthong, which Mr. Sheridan has 
adopted, seems confined to the Stage. See the word. 

Digitized by 




229. The pretermipa^eAt^nse fXt^t i» sometimes writ- 
ten ati^ particularly by Lord Bolinbrokei and frequently, 
and, perhaps, more correctly, pronounced ^, especially in 
Ireland j but eaten always preserves the ea long. 

230. Ea m fearful is long when it signifies timorous,2nd 
Aon when it signifies terribUy as if writtenferfu/. See the 

231. To read, is long in the present tense, and short in 
the past and participle, which are sometimes ^vritten red. 

232. Teatf 2l dug, is marked by Dr. Kenrick, Mr. El- 
phinston, and Mr. Nares^ with short e like tit ; but more 
properly by Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scott, W. Johnston, Mr. 
Perry,and Mr. Smith,with the long <*, rhyming with meat. 

233. Beaty the preter imperfect tense, and the participle 
of to beat, is frequently pronounced in Ireland like Set (a 
wager) and if utility were the only object of language, this 
would certainly be the preferable pronunciation, as nothing 
tends more to obscurity than words which have no differ- 
ent forms for their present and past times.' but fashion in 
this, as in many other cases, triumphs over use and pro- 
priety ; and iet, for the., past time and participle of beat, 
must be religiously avoided. 

234. £a is pronounced lik^ the short e in the following 
words : Abreast i ahead^ already, bedstead, behead, bespread, bes^ 
stead, bread, breadth, breakfast, breast, breath, cleanse, cleanly, 
(adjefUve) eleanlilj, dead, deadly, deaf, deafen, dearth, death, 
earl, earldom, early, earn, earnest, earth, earthen, earthly, en» 
deavour, feather, head, heady, health, heard, hearse, heaven, 
heavy, jealotts, impearl, instead, lead, leaden, leant, (the past 
time and participle of to lean J learn, learning, leather, leaven, 
meadow, meant, measure, pearl, peasant, pheasant, pleasant, 
pleasantry, pleasure, read, (past time and participle) readily, 
readiness, ready^ realm, rehearsal, rehearse, research, seamstress, 
scarce, sedrch, spread, stead, steadfast, steady, stealth, stealthy, 
sweat, sweaty, thread, threaden, threat, threaten, (rcachery^ 
tread, treadle, treasure, uncleanly, wealth, wealthy, weapon, 
'weather, yearn, zealot, zealous, zealously* 

235. I have given the last three words, compounded of 
zeal, as instances of the short sound of the diphthong, be- 
cause it is certamly the more usual sound ; but some at- 
tempts have lately been made in the House of Commons, 
to- pronounce them long, as in the noiin. It is a commend- 
able zeal to endeavour to reform the language as well as the 
constitution} but whether, if these words were altered, it 
would bea real reformation,may admit of some dispute. See 
Enclitical Termination, No. 5 15, and the word Zealot. 

236. Heard, the past time and participle of hear, is some- 
times corruptly pronoimced with the diphthong long, so as 
to rhyme with reared ; but this is supposing the verb to be 
regular; which, from the spelling, is evidently not the case. 

237. It is, perhaps, worth observation, than when this 
diphthong comes before r, it is apt to slide into the short u. 

exaftly i thus pronouncing cmI, earth, deanrth, as If writtea 
url, urth, durtb, is a sUg^ deviation from the Uue sottudf 
which is exaftiy that of .i before r^ followed by another 
conspnant, in virtue, virgin ; and tl^at is tl^e.true sound of 
short e in vermin, vernal, &c. (108) 

238. Leant, the past tim^s^ and participle of to lean, \$ 
'grown vulgar; the r^^/or form i^^i/i«/ is .preferable. 

239. Tlie past time and participle, of the verb to leap, 
seems to prefer the irregular form i therefore, though we 
almost always hear to leap, rhyming witbr</i/,W€ generally 
hear leaped written and pronounced leapt^hymvng w^lktuipt. 

24-0. Ea is pronounced like long slender a in bare, in the 
following words ; Beary bearer, i/eak, forbear, forswear, 
great, pear, steak, swear, to tear^ wear. 

24 1 . The word great is sometimes pronounced as if writ-, 
ten greets generally by people of education, ^nd almost uni- 
versally in Ireland; but this is contrary to the fixed and 
settled praftice in Enjgland. That this is an afteded pro- 
nunciation, will be perceived in a monientbj; pronouncing, 
this word in the ^v7&^,AleKanderthe Great \ fqr thpse who. 
pronounce the word greet, in other crises iviU gene;^lly in 
this rhyme it with fate. It is true, thf? «?,;.is the r^igialar 
sound of this diphthong ; but (his blender sopnd of e k^. 
in all probability, given way to th^t- of d,^ ^ deeper and 
more expressive of the epithet great. . , * 

21'2. The same observations are applicable to the word 
break ; which is much more expressive of the adlion when 
pronounced brnke tbzn breei, as it is- sometimes affeftedly 
pronounced. •, . 

243. Eais pronounced like the long Italian a in^/i^,in 
the following words : Heart, hearty ^htarten,hearthj3earken. 

24iit.Ea, unaccented, has an obscure sound, approaching 
to short u in vengeance, serjeant, pageant, 2nd pageantry • 


245. This is a French rather than an Engliish triphthong, ' 
being found only in wo^ds derived from that language. 
Its sound is that of long open o, as beau, bureau, fiambeau\ 
portmanteau. In beauty, and itscompounds, it has the first 
sound of tf, as if written bexmiy* 

. EE. 

246. This diphthong, in all words except those that end 
in r, has a squeezed sound of long open e formed by a closer 
application of the tongue to the roof of the mouth, than in 
that vowel singly, which is distinguishable to a nice ear, in 
the different sounds of the verbs to fee and to meet, and 
the nouns^M and meat. This has always been my opinion : 
but, upon consulting some good speakers on the occasion, 
and in particular Mr. Garrick, who could find no difference 
in the sounds of these words, I am less confident in giving 

which i$ undoubtedly very near the tme sounds but not jit to the Public. At any rate the difference is but very 

Digitized by 




lrifling> and I shall therefore connder ee)^s equivalent to 
the long open e. 

24T.irhisdijihthong!sih^gHlar onlyintheword hreeehes^ 
pronomiced as if written britches. Cheesecake^ sometimes 
pronounced chizcaie^ and hreechy brifchy I look upon as'vul- 
garisms. Beelzebub^ indeed^ in prose, has generally the 
short soundof ^ in bell: and when these two letters form 
but one syllable, in the poetical contraction ofier and n/ery 
kit ever znA nevery they are pronounced as if written air 
and nair, 


€48. The general sound of this diphthong .seems to be 
tEe same as ef, when under the accent, which is like long 
slender a } but the other sounds are so numerous as to re- 
quire a catalogue of them all. 

249. El has the sound of long slender Oy in deigiiy veiny 
reiHyreignyfiignyfeinty veily heinous yheiry heiress y inveighy vteighy 
eeigiyskeiny reins, theiry theirsy eighty freighty nveigbtyneighboury 
ind their compounds. When gh comes after this diphthong, 
though there is not the least renmant of the Saxon guttural 
sound) yet it has not exactly the simple vowel sound as 
when followed by other consonants; eiy foUowedby gh, 
sounds both vowels like ae\ or if we could interpose the y 
consonant between the a and / in eighty weighty &c. it might 
perhaps, convey the sound better. The difference, however, 
is so del]cat;e'as:to ttoderthis<listinctionof no great impor- 
tance. The^ervations are applicable to the words 
siraigbty straighten, ftc. See the word Eight. 

250. 'Ei has the sound of long open ey in hercym the fol- 
lowing words aiid their compounds : To ceil, ceiling, conceit, 
dfceipiy receipty conceivCy perceive, deceive, receive, inveigle, 
stizCy seisin, seignior, seigniory, seine, plebeian* Obeisance 
ought to be in the' pi^eKrig class. See the word. 

251. Leisure is sometimes pronounced as rhyming with 
pleasure ; butj in my 4Dif}nion,T«ry improperly % for if it be 
allowed that custom is equally divided, we ought, in this 
casej4D(pi(^pfMi^un^the^ii>)|Aoing)lb^ as more expressive 
of the idea annexed to it. (241). * 

252. Ei^jir^m^bMltk^^TAe^^o often pronounced eye4her 
and mgh~tber, t&tt iv\i hard to say to which class they be- 
long. Analogy, however, without hesitation, gives the 
diphthong the sound of long ojpen'tf, rathe; than that of i, 
and rhymes them with breather, one who breathes. This 
is the pronunciation Mr. Garrick always gave to these 
words ; but the true analogical sonnd of the diphthong in 
thes€ words is that of the slender ay as if written ay-ther and 
myiher. This pronunciation is adopted in Ireland, but is 
not favoured by one of our orthoepists ; for Mr. Sheridan, 
Mr. Scott, Mr. Elphinston, Mr, Perry, Mr. Smith, Steele's 
Grammar, and Dr« Jones, all pronounce these words with 
the diphthong like long e. W, Johnston alone adopts th^ 
sound of long i exclusively \ Dr. Kenrick gives both ether 
^i^'ithr, but prefers the £rst> but gives neither the spund of 

long e exclusively ; Mr. Coote says these words artJ'gtoe- 
rally pronounced with the « like die i in mine, Mr. Barclay 
giv^ no description of the sonnd of ei m either , but says 
neither is sometimes pronounced nsfher,2nd by others nether j 
and Mr. Nares says, ** eithemnd neither are spoken by some 
'* with the soimd of long / ; I have heard even that of long 
" a given to them ; but as the regular way is also in use, I 
" think it is preferable. These diflFerences seem to have 
" arisen from ignoraitco^of the regular sound o( ei" If by 
the regular way and the regular sound of this diphthong 
Mr. Nares mean the long sound of e, we need only inspect 
No. 24-9 and 250 to see that the sound of a is the more 
general soimd, and therefore dtight to be called the regular ; 
but where there are so many instances of words where this 
diphthong has the long sound of e, and custom is so uni- 
form in these words, there can be no doubt which it is the 
safest to follow. 

253. Ei has the sound of long opeii i, in height and sleight, 
rhyming with white and right. Height is, indeed, often 
heard rhyming with eight and weight, and that among very 
respectable speakers ; but custom seems to decide in favour 
of the other pronunciation, that it may better tally with 
the adjective A/^A, of which it is the abstract. 

254. Ei has the sound of short e, in the two words 
heifer and nonpareil, pronounced Ag^r and nonpareil. 

255. This diphthong, when unaccented, like ai, (208) 
drops the former vowel, and is pronounced like short i, in 
foreign, foreigner, forfeit, forfeiture, sovereign, sovereignty, sur» 
fit, counterfeit.. 

E(X ^iL 

256. This diphthong is pronounced like e long fn people, 
as if written /f^/(P ; and like^ short, in leopard ^nd jeopardy, 
as if written leppard and jeppardy \ and in the law terms 
fi'ff'^^ifi^*^^* ^nd feoffment, as if written feffee, feffer, and 

251. We frequently hear these vowels contracted into 
short in geography and geometry, as if writtenycg^^jpi^j? and 
jommetry ; but this gross pronunciation seems daily wearing 
away, and giving place to that which separates the vowels 
into two distinct syllables, as it is always heard in geogra^^ 
phicaJ, geometer, geometrical, and geometrician. Georgic is 
always heard as if written yorg^/V, and must be* given up as 
incorrigible, (116) 

258. Eo is heard like u in feod,feodal,feodatory, which 
are sometimes written as they are ^roxiouncQd, feud, fiuJal, 


259. Eo, when unaccented, has the sound of u short in 
surgeon, St urgeony dudgeon, gudgeon, bludgeon, curmudgi:on^dun-' 
geon, luncheony puncheonytrunchectiy burgeony habergeon 2 but in 
scutcheony escutcheon, pigeon, and widgeon, the eo sounds like 
short i. 

2^0. Eo sounds like long in yeoman and yeomanry -, the 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 


first syllable of whick words rhyine with go^ no^ so. See 
the words. 

26L Eo in gaUeoHi a Spanish ship, sounds as if written 
g^lhofh rhyming with moon, 


262. This assemblage of vowels, for they cannot be pro- 
perly called a triphthong, is often contracted into one sylla- 
ble in prose, and poets never make it go for two* In az/a- 
neour and vitreous, two syllables are palpable ; but in gorgeous 
and outrageous, the soft g coalescing with e, seems to drop a 
syIlable,though polite pronunciation will always preserve it. 

263. This assemblage is never found but in an unac- 
cented ^syllable, and generally a final one $ and when it is 
immediately preceded by the dentals d or /, it melts them 
into the sound of y and tcb : thus hideous 2iidj>iteous are pro- 
nounced as if written hijeous zad pitcbeous. The same may 
be observed of righteous, p/enteous, bounteous, courteous, ieau- 
teous, iad duteous. (293) (294) 


^ 264. This diphthong is always sounded like long » or 
ew, and is scarcely ever irregular : thus feud, deuce, &c. are 
pronounced as if written^i^rf, dewse, &c. 


265. This diphthong is pronounced like long u, and is 
almost always regular. There is a corrupt pronunciation of 
it like 00, chiefly in London, where we som^imes hear 
dew and new pronounced as if written doo and noo ; but 
^hen r precedes this diphthong, as in brew, crewy drew, 
&c. pronouncing it like oo, is scarcely improper. See 176, 

266. Shew and strew have almost left this class, and, by 
Johnson's recommendation, are become show and strow, as 
they are pronounced. The proper name Shrewsbury, how- 

^ ever, still retains the e, though always pronounced Shrows- 
bury. Sew, with a needle, always rhymes with no ; and 
sewer, signifying a drain, is generally pronounced shore : 
but sewer, an officer, rhymes yrixhfewer. See Sewer. 

267. Ew is sometimes pronounced like aw in the verb 
to chew \ but this is gross and Vulgar. To chew ought 
always to rhyme with new, view, &c. 


268. This triphthoiKg exists only in the word enve, a 
female sheep ; which is pronounced exactly like yew, a 

• tree, or the plural personal pronoun yoi/. There is a vulgar 
pronunciation of this word, as if written yoe, rhyming with 
doe, which must be carefully avoided. See the word. 


269. When the accent is on this diphthong, it is always 
pronounced like ay, or like its kindred diphthong ei, in 

vei/$xreigH, Uc. tkis bey^dey, gr^tprey, th^, trey, whey, ohet^ 
convey, purvey, survey, bey, eyre, and eyrey, are always heard 
as if written bay, day, &c. Key and ley are the only.fvc^p- 
tions> which alway rhyme with sea. (220) 

270. jSy, when unaccented, is pronounced like ee: thus 
galley, valley, alley, barley, &C. are pronpunced as if written 
gallife, vcJlee, &c. The noun survey, theref6re» if we place 
the. accent on the first syllable, is anomalous. See the 


271. This triphthong is only found in the word eye, 
which is always pronounced like the letter /. 


272. This diphthong, in the terminations tan, iai, iard, 
and iate, forms but one syllable, though the /, in this situ- 
ation, having the squeezed sound oi ee perfectly similar to 
y, gives the syllable a double sound, very distinguishable 
in its nature frooi a syllable formed without the i : thus 
Christian, filial, poniardy conciliate, sound as if written Crista 
yan,fil'-yal,pon'yard,conciUyate^za!dL have. in the last' syllable 
an evident mixture of the sound of y consonant. (113) 

273. hi diamond, these vowels are properiy no diphthong; 
and in prose the word ought to have three distinct syU 
lables ; but we frequently hear it so prcHitninced as to drop 
the a entirely, and as if written dimoad^ This, howler, 
is a corruption that ought to be avoided. 

274. In carnage, marriagei partiameni, znd miniature, the 
a is dropped, and the / has its short sound, as if written 
carridge, marridge, farliment, n^miure. (90) 


275. Th« regular soutui of this diphthong is that 9f te^ 
as in grieve, thieve, fiend, lief, liege,' thief, kerchief, handker^ 
chief, auctioneers grenadier^ &€.. a^ 4f wrjjuten greeve, tieeve, 
feend,8cc. ' i ' . ^l I 4 . ? . 

276. It has the sound of lot^ i^ !in difiJtii$^lie^ ^f^jf^K, w^, 
zs i£ vrritten dy, by, 8cQ* ) .U . ■ ' :. »i ,*' • 

277. The short sound of fi^hekxA.iA^fisiend,, tierce, and 
the long sound of the same letter ill ti€r,Jrkzc* 

278. In variegate the best pronunciation is to sound both 
vowels distinct!)' like e,QA\£ written vary-^ate. 

279. In the ifumeral terminations in ietb, as twentieth, 
thirtieth. Sec. the vowels ought always to be kept distinct ; 
the first like open e, as heard in the y in twenty, thirty, &c. 
and the second like short e, heard ia.breath, death, &c« 

280. In fiery too, the vowels are heard distinctly. 

281 . In orient and spaniel, where these letters come after 
a liquid, they are pronounced distinctly ; and great care* 
shouldbe taken not to let the last word degenerate into 
spannel. (113) 

282. When these letters meet, in c<»isequence of form- 
ing the plurals of nouns, they retain either the long qr shcM 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



.sound di^badin the singular} without increasing the 
number of syllables : thus zfly makes ^ies, a lid makes &/> 
tofftpany makes cwtpanu/j an4 dignity, dignities. The same 
may be observed of the third persons and past participles 
of verbs, as IJly, hefliei^ I deny^ be denies^ he denied^ I sully, 
he sullied, &c. which may be pronounced as if writtad de- 
ttfze, dfmde^ suHidf 8cc, (104) 

283. When if is in a termination without the accent, it 
is pronounced like e only, in the same situation : thus tra-^ 
tier,grasier, zadglasier, have the last syllable sounded as if 
written hrazhur, grazbur,9Ddglazkur,omxher ^irazeyur, 
ff^aze-ytdr^ &c. (98) (418) 


284. These vowels occur in adieu,lieu,purlieu, where they 
bave the sound of long //, as if written adeu, leu,purleu. 

285. In one vroTA,lietitenant, these letters are pronounced 
like short e, as if written lev^enanU See the word. 

2%S. These letters occur only in the word t/iVw, wljere 
they sound like ee, rhyming with^/&w, ne^u. • 


287. When the accent is upon the first of these vowels, 
they form two distinct -syUables, as violent, violet \ the last 
of which is sometimes corruptly pronounced vi-let. 

288. In marchioness, the i is entirely sunk, and the un- 
accented pronounced, as ittisually is in this situation, like 
short u, as if written wi/ir/Ai/ziw/. (S52) 

289. In cushion, th^ o is sunk, and the word pronounced 
cusbin. See the word. 

290. In the very numerous termination ion, these vowels 
are pronounced in one syllable like short u \ but when they 
are preceded by a liquid) as in million, minion, clarion, &c. 
(113) the two vowels, though they make but one syllable, 
are heard distinctly : the same may be observed when they 
arc preceded by any of the other consonants, except / and 
/, as champion, scorpioti, &c, where the vowels are heard 
separately: but the terminations tionznA sion are pro- 
nounced in one sylbtbTe, like the verb shun. 

291. The 0tAf exception to this fule is, when the / is 
preceded by j : fay fhis case the / goes into tch, and the i is 
in a small degree audible like short e. This may be heard 
in question, ntintioa, digestkn, combustion, and what is an 
instance of the same kind in Christian, as if written ques^ 
Uhun, mix^bun, &c. or quest^n, nuxt-yun, &c. (461 ) (462) 


292. This triphth(^ng, when preceded by a liquid, or 
any mute but a denul, is heard distinctly in two syllables, 
u in biltcus, various, glorious, abstetnious, ingenious, copious i 
fcut when preceded, by the dentals /, soft c and /, these 

vowels coalesce into one syllable, pronounced like shtis : 
thus precious, factious, noxious, anxious, are sounded as if 
written presh~us,fac'shus, noch^hus, ang^hus* (459) 

293. The same tendency of these vowels to coalesce 
after a dental, and draw it to aspiration, makes us hear 
tedious, odious, and insidiotds, pronounced as if written ie-je- 
ous, O'jee-ous, and in^^id-je-us ; for as d is but flat /, it is no 
wonder it should be subject to the same aspiration, when ■ 
the same vowels follow : nay, it may be affirmed, that so 
agreeable is this sound of the d to the analogy of English 
pronunciation, that, unless we are upon our guard, the 
organs naturally slide into it. It is not, however, pretended 
that this is the politest pronunciation ; for the sake of 
analogy it were to be wished it were : but an ignorance of 
the real powers of the letters, joined with a laudable desire 
of keeping as near as possible toth^ orthography, is apt to 
prevent the d ft*om going into j, and to make us hear 
G-'de^s, te^-ous, 8cc. On the other hand, the vulgar, who, 
in this case, are right by instinct, not only indulge the 
aspiration of the d, which the language is so prone to, but 
are apt to unite the succeeding syllables too closely, and to 
say O'jus and te^jus, instead of o^je-us and te-je-us, or rather 
ode-yus apd tede-yus. 

294. If the y be distinctly pronounced, it sufliciently 
expresses the aspiration of the d, and is, in my opinion, 
the preferable mode of delineating the sound, as it keeps 
the two last syllables from uniting too closely. Where 
analogy, therefore, is so clear, and custom so dubious, we 
ought not to hesitate a moment at pronouncing odious, teft-^ 
ous, perfidious, fastidious, insidious, invidious, compendious, 
melodious, commodious, preludious, and studious, as if written 
o-je^us, te-je-ous, &c or rather, ode-yus, tede-yus, &c. nor 
should we forget that Indian cofnes under the same ana- 
logy, and ought, though contrary to respectable usage, to 
be pronounced as if written Indyan, and nearly as Li-je-an. 


295. This diphthong is regularly pronounced as , the 
long open sound of 0, as in boat, coat, ootfcoal, loaf, &c. The 
only exceptions are, broad, abroad, groat, which soond as if 
written, brawd, abrawd, gra^t. Oatmeal is sometimes pro* 
nounced ot^meal, but seems to be recovering the long sound 
of 0, as in oat, 


296. Whether it be proper to retain the in this diph- 
thong, or to banish it from our orthography, as Dr. John- 
son advises, certain it is, that in words from the learned 
languages it is always pronounced like single e, and comes 
entirely under the same laws as that vowel : thus, when it 
ends a syllable, with the accent upon it, it is long, as In 
An^toe-ci, Peri-oe-ci : when under the secondary accent, in 
oec^umenical, oec^onomics, it is like e short : it is long e ia 

Digitized by 




foi'tus^ and short e in fat^d and assafoet'^ida : in doe, fie^ 
jloe, toey throe, hee, (to dig) and bilboes, it is sounded exactly 
lilce long open o : in canoe and shoe, like oo, as if writtwl 
camo and shoo ; and in the verb does, like short u, as if 
written duz. 


297. There is hut one word where this triphthong oc- 
curs, and that is in Shakespeare's King Lear, in the word 
oeiltads, (glances) and, in my opinion, it ought to be sounded 
as if written e^tl^ads^ 


298. This diphthong is from the French, ih the word 
fhaffoeuvrei a word, within these few years, of very gene- 
ral use in our language. It is not in Johnson, and the oeu 
is generally pronoimced^ by those who can pronounce 
French, in the French manner ; but this is such a sound of 
the u as does not exist in English, and therefore it cannot 
be described. The nearest sound is oo',^ with which, if 
this word is pronounced by and English Speaker, as if 
written tnanoovrei it may, except with very nice French 
ears, escape criticism. 


299; The general and almost universal sound of this, 
diphthong, is that of tf in water, and the £rst e in me'4re. 
This double sound is very distinguishable in boU^ toil, spoU,- 
joiat, point, anoint, &c. which sound ought to be carefully, 
preserved, as there is a very prevalent practice among the 
vulgar of dropping the o, and pronouncing these words as 
if written bile, tile, spile, &c. 

300. The only instance which admits of a doiid)t in the 
sound of this diphthong, when under the accent, is in the 
word eboir \ but this word is now so much more frequently, 
written quire, that uniformity strongly inclines us to pro- 
nounce the Of xa choir, like long i, and which, by the com- 
mon orthography, seems fixed beyond recovery. But it 
may be observed, that either the spelling or the in*onan- 
ciation of Chorister, commonly pronounced Quirister, ought 
to be altered. See the words. 

SOI . When this diphthong is not under the accent, it is 
variously pronounced. Dr. Kenrick places the accent on 
the first syllable of turcois, and, for I know not what reason, 
pronounces it as if written turhiz ; and turkms, with the oi\ 
faroad,.as in boys* Mr. Sheridan places the accent on^ the; 
second syUable, and gives the diphthong the French sound 
as if the word was written turiaze. In my opinion the 
best orthography is turquoise, and the best pronunciation 
with the accent on the last syllable, and the oi sounded like 
long ^, as if written turkees ; as we prcMiounce tortoise, with 
the accent on the first syllable^ and the oi like short i, as if 
written tortiz. 

S02* In awirdi^ise, the first diphthong is pronounced 
likei short /, as if written at/erih/(>oise. 

90S. In connoisseur, the sagie sound of e is substituted, 
zz iS'wxitXtn conmsseur, 

504. In shamois, or chamois, a species of leather, the oi 
is pronounced like long e, as if written shammee, 

505. Adroit and devoir, two scarcely naturalized Fr^ich 
words, have the oi regular, though the latter word, in po- 
lite pronunciation, retains its French sound, as if written 


30(3. The sound of this diphthong is regular, except in 
a few words : it is pronounced long in moon, soon, fool, rood, 
food, mood, &c. This is its regular sound. 

307. It has a shorter sound corresponding to the u in 
bull, in the words vsool, wood, good, hood, foot, stood, under" 
stood, withstood; and these are the only words where this 
diphthong has this middle sound. 

308. It has the sound of sh<»*t u, in the two words blood 
mdjlood, rhyming with mad* 

309. Soot is vulgarly pronounced so as to r^yme with 
but, hut, &c. but ought to have its long, regular sound, 
rhyming with boot, as we always hear it in the compound 
sooty. See the word. 

310. Door znA floor are universally pronounced by the 
English as if written dore and Jlore ; but in Ireland tbey 
preserve the regular sound of os. See the word Door. 

811. Moor, a black man, is regular in polite pronunci- 
ation, and like more in vulgar. Moor, a marsh, • is some- 
times heard rhyming with store \ but more correct speakers 
pronounce it regularly, rhyming with /opt. 


312. This is the most irregular assemblage of vowels in 
our language: its most common sound is that heard in 
bound,found,ground, &c* and this may be called its prcyxer 
sound ; but its deviations are so many and so various, that 
the best idea of it will be conveyed by giving the umples 
of all its difierent sounds. 

313. The first or proper sound of this diphthong is 
cooiposedof the a in hJl, voA then^^^ ^«#% or rather the 
u in hull, and is^oivalent to the oiujia^i^uyr, frown, &c* ' 
This sound is heard in abound, about, accountj acoustics, 
aground, aloud, amount, around, arouse, astound, avouch, 
bot^hy bounce, bound, bounty, hounteous, bout, carouse, 
chouse, cloud, chufgh, clout, clouitrly, ^compund, eoucb^ 
couchant^ crouch, grouse, deflour, devour, devout, doubt, 
doubtful, drought, doughty, douse, encounter, espouse, ex- 
pound, flout, foul, flounder, found, foundling, fountain, 
frousy^ glout, gout, (a disease) (round, grout, hounds hour, 
house, impound, loud, lounge^ louse^ lout, mound, mountain, 
mountetank, mouje^moutb, noun^ ounce, our, oust, mst, outer, 

Digitized by 




9ut9rm»stj paramount^ phugh^ p^uch^ pounce^ p9und^ pout^ 
prj%und^ promuny pronounce, propound, proud, rebound^ 
recount, redoubt, r^douhttd, redound, rencounUr, r^mnd, 
roundelay f rousts rout^ scoundrel, scour, scouts shout ^ shr/fud, 
sl0UchjSpoufe,spoutySproutyS/out,surround, south, thou fthou- 
sand,touseytrounce, tro use rs,t rout ^ wound, {did wind)sIoughi, 
(i mirf place) vouch ,. vouchsafe ^ without, scaramouch. 

314. The second sound is that of short u in tud,3iid is 
heard in the following words and their compounds : 
Adjourn^journey, journal,bourgton, country, cousins couple, 
eccouph^ dauile, trouUr, courteous, courtesy^ courage, en- 
courage Joust, gournet, hous£WJfe, flourish, mounc6,nourish, 
enough, chough, rough, tough, slough, (a cast skin) scourge^ 
southerly, southern, southernwood^ southward, touch, touchy, 
young, younhr, and youngster ; but southern, southerly, 
and southward, are sometimes pronounced reguburly like 
south ; this, however, is far froqi the picevailing pronuncia- 
tion. This i$ th^ sound this diphthong always has when 
the accent is not on it, unless in very few instances, where 
the compound r^ains the sound of the simple, as in j>ro^ 
noun; but in ly'ourn and sojourner, with the accent on the 
first syllable, and in every unaccented termination in our 
and ousy this diphthong has exa£Uy the sound of short u : 
xkas favour, honour, odonr^ zjBkdfatnous, are pronounced as if 
written^^HM^r, bomsr, odur^ 2uadfamuu 

315. The third sound given to these vowels is that o£oo 
in coo aiad woo, (39) and. is found in the following words ; 
Bottge,crotdp, gr^ufit aggroupp atnofdr^, paramour^ bouse, boujy, 
kiOefeu^ a^aucb, casrtofichy foicriet gout, (t^ste) and ragout, 
pronponced goo and ragoo) restdezm^s^ ^^uge, jou^ sous, 
(pronounced soo) surtout, tbrougfx, ibrou^lji^ toupee or toupet, 
youy your, youth, tour, contour, tourney, tournay, tournament, 
pour, aad route, (a road) accoutre, biilet-^ux, agouti, uncouth, 
vjound, (a hurt) and routine (a beaten road). See Tournet. 

316. The verb to pour is sometimes pronounced to pore, 
and sometimes to poor ; in each case it interferes with a 
word of a different signification^and the hest pronunciation, 
whi(di is that simi -ar to pav^r, is as little liable to th^t ex« 
ception as eitl:^ of the others. See the i^ford. 

317. To wovniis sometimes pronpunced so as to rhyme 
"mtii fouuJj^ but this is dire£tty conorary to the best nsage^ 
but route, (a road, as txi. take a ^efferent route) is often pro- 
nounced so ^ ^ rhyn^ i^ith eloubtppsj respe£bible speakers. 

318. Tl)i9 fi»uth>sound of this diphthong is that of long 
^penq, ^pd is he^i^d in th^ follqwioj;. words : Though, 
olthqugb, coaler, court, accourt, gourd, courtier, course, dis'- 
course, source, ^ecoursiy resourceypouretp d^u^, ^g^f f9^y 
mould, mouldy, moultp mourn, shoulder, smoulder, sotjj^ poultice, 
poult, poulterer, poultry, trouf, (tp roll smoothly, marlced by 
Mr. ^eridan ^ r^ifi^i^g mxhf d^^ but more properly by 
Dr. Kenrick with r(Ji) and borou^, thorough, furlough, four- 
tun, concourse, and intercourJd preserve the diphthong in 
the spund of long o, thpugh npt under the accent. 

S19. The fifth sound of «» is like tlie noun awe, and is 
heard only in ought, bought, brought, sought, besought, fougfit, 
nought,thougfit, methought,, wrought. 

320. The sixth sound is that of short oo, or the u in 
bull^ and is heard only in the auxiliary verbs would, could, 
should, rhyming with good, hood, stood, &c. 

S21. The seventh sound is that of short o, and heard 
only in cough and trough, rhyming with of and scoff/, afid 
in lough and shough, pronounced lock and shock. 

3S2. The demeatary sound of this diphthong is the 
same as the first sound of ^, and is heard in how, now,8ec. 
but the sound of long o obtains in sp many instances, that it 
will be necessary to give a catalogue of both* 

523. The general sound, as the elementary sound may 
be called, is heard in now, how, bow, (a mark of respect) 
MOW, (a heap of barley, &c.) cow, brow, brown% browse, 
plow, sowx vow, avow, allow, disallow, endow, down, clown, 
frowfh town, crown, drown, gown, renown, dowager, dowdy, 
dower, dowre, dowry, dowery^ dowlas, drowse, drowsy, fiower, 
bower, lower, (to look gloomy) power, powder, prowess,prow, 
prowl, yowel, towel f bower, rowel, cowl, scowl, crowd, shower, 
tower, sow, (a swine) sowins, sowl, thowl, hw, (to bellow aa a 
cow). This word is generally pronounced as low, n6t bi^ \ 
but if cusfpm, ip this case, has not absolutely decided, it 
ought, in my opinion, to have the first sound of tins diph- 
thong, rhyming with how, as much more expressive of the 
noise it signifies ; which, where sounds spre the ideas to be 
expressed, ought to have great weight in pronunciation. 
(241) {251) See the word. 

924. The second sound of this diphthong is heard in 
bhw, slow, crow, flowy glow, ^i;,. (to shoot with) know, 
low, (not high) mow, (to cut grass) row, show, sow, (to scat- 
ter grain) strow, snow, trow, below, bestow, owe, ovm, owner, 
flown, grown^ growth, knowr, known, sown, lower, (to bring 

low) throw, thrown g in all these words the o^o sounds like 
long in go, no, so, &c. 

925. The noun prow, signifying the forepart of a ship, 
rhymes with go in Mr. Sheridan, and with no%v in Dr. Ken- - 
rick. The latter is, in my opinion, the preferiAle sound ; 
while the verb to pro^vl {to seek for prey) rhymes with o%ol, 
according to Mr*. Sheridan, ai|d with soul, according to 
Dr. Kenrick : the latter has th^ old spelling pr^e- to plea4, 
bi^t the former has, in my opipjon, both analogy and the 
best usage ouiu side. Both|^hese writers unife in giving 
the first sound pf tliis. diphthong to prowess \ which is un- 
questipiiably the true pronunciatiw. See to Prowl. 

3^6* The pa^pper nanijes How, Howcl, and Howard, and 
Powd, gene^;]^^^' are heard with the first sound of Uils 
diphthong, as in howi, now, Scc^ but Howes and Siow (the 
histQrian)commonly rhyme with knows and bunu. Howard, 
among people of rank, is generally pronounced with the 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



second sound> rhyming W\t\i f reward \ and Grosvenort as if 
written Grave/ior, Suowdon is frequently pronounced 
with the first sound of 0^ ; but the second sound seems 
preferable \ as it is not improbable that these mountains had 
their name^ like the Alps, from the snow on their tops. 

327. Wlien this diphthong is in a final unaccented 
syllable, it has always the second sound, like long 0, in bor' 
row, sorrow, fi//oWf willow, &c. The vulgar shorten this 
sound, and pronounce the obscurely, and sometimes as if 
followed by r, as winder 2.iiA feller, for window ^vAfello^v, 
but this is almost too despicable for notice. Good speakers 
preserve the diphthong in this situation, and give it the 
full sound of open 0, rhyming with no, so, &c« though it 
should seem in Ben Jonson's time, the e in this situation 
was almost suppressed. See his Grammar, page 149. 

528. This diphthong, in the word knowledge, has of late 
years uhdergone a considerable revolution. Some speak-* 
ers, who had the regularity of their language at. heart, 
were grieved to see the compound depart so hr firom the 
sound of the simple, and with heroic fortitude have opposed 
the multitude by pronotmcing the first syllable of this word 
as it is heard in the verb to know. The Pulpit and the 
Bar have for some years given a sanation to this pronun- 
ciation ; but the Senate and the Stage hold out inflexibly 
against it ^ and the Nation at large jseem insensible of the 
improvement. They still C(Hitinue to pronounce, as in the 
old ludicrous rhymes — 

*' Among the mighty men of knowledge^ 
*' That are profiessors at Gresbam College." 

But if ever this word should have the* good fortune to be 
restored to its rights, it would be but charity to endeavour 
the restoration of a great number of words in a similar 
situation, such as breakfast, vineyard, bewilder, meadow, 
hearken, pleasure, whitster, shepherd, windward, and a long 
catalogue of fellow sufferers. (515) But, before we en- 
deavour this restoration, we should consider, that contra£l- 
ing the sound of th^ simple, when it acquires an additional 
syllable, is an idiom of pronunciation to which our lan- 
guage is extremely prone ; nor is it certain that crossing 
this tendency would produce any real advantage $ at least, 
not sufficient to counterbalance the diversity of pronun- 
ciation which must for a long time prevail, and which must 
necessarily call off* our attention from things to words* See 
Enclitical Termination. (No. 514) 


529. This diphthong is but another form for oi, and is 
pronounced exaAly like it. When alloy is written with 
this diphthong, it ou^t never to be pronounced allay. 
Custom seems to have appropriated the former word to the 
noun, and the latter to the verb -, for the sake of consistency, 
it were to be wished it were always written allay ; but it 
is not to be expeAed that poets will give up so good a 
rhyme to jo^, cloy, and destroy. 

330. The only word in which this diphthong is not 
under the accent, is the proper .name Savoy % for savoy, a 
plant, has the accent on the second syllable ; but the diph* 
thong in both is pronounced in the same Qianner. 


331. When the a in this diphthong is pronounced, the 
u has the power of w, which unites both into one syllable : 
thus antiquate, antiquary, assuage, persuade, equal, language^ 
&c. are pronounced antikwate, antikwary, asjtvage, &c. 

332. The u in this diphthong is silent, in guard, guardian, 
guarantee, and piquant ; pronounced ^j^^, gardiofi, garantee, 
mdpickant. (92) 

333. In Mantua, the town of Italy, both vowels are 
heard distin^y. The same may be observed of the habit 
so called : but in mantuamaier, vulgarity has sunk the a, 
and made it mantumaker. The same vulgarity at first, but 
now sanAioned by universal custom, has sunk both letters 
in victuals, and its compounds victualling and victualler, pro- 
nounced vittles, vittUng, and vittler. See Mantua* 


334. This diphthobg, like ua, when it forms only one 
syllable, and both letters are pronounced, has the u sounded 
like w \ as consuetude, desuetude, and mansuetude, which are 
pronounced conswetude, deswetude, and mansnvetude. Thus 
conquest is pronounced according to the general rule, as if 
written conkwest ', but the verb to conquer has unaccount- 
ably deviated into conker, particularly upon the stage* This 
error, however, seems not to be so rooted in the general 
ear as to be above correction ; and analogy undoubtedly 
demands conkwer. 

335. This diphthong, when in a final syUable, sinks the 
e, as clue, cuf, due, blue, glue, hue ^ flue, rue, sue, true, mue, 
accrue, ensue, endue, imbue, imbrue, pursue, subdue, perdue, 
argue^ residue, avenUe, revenue, continue, retinue ^ construe, 
statue^ tissue, issue, Virtue, value, ague ; in all these words, 
whether the accent be on the diphthong ue or not, it is 
pronounced like long open u, except in words where the 
r comes before u ; in this case it is sounded like oo^ When 
the accent is not on this diphthong as in the latter portion 
of these Words from eurgue, it b apt to be feebly and indis- 
tinctly pronounced, and therefore care ought to be taken 
to sound it as if these words were written argew^ residew, 
&c* In Tuesday, ue, the diphthong, is pronounced in the 
same manner* 

336. In some words the u is silent, and the e pronounced 
short, as in guess, guest, guerkin, guerdon, where the u afls 
as a servile to preserve the; hard. 

337* In some words both the vowels are sunk, as in 
antique, oblique, league, feague, teaguc, colleague, plague, 
vague, intrigue, fatigue, harangue, tongue, disembogue, eel* 
logue, rogue, prorogue, brogue, fugue ; in all which the ue 


Digitized by 



issilentjandthe ^, pronounced hard. The; in antique and 
dSquty is pronounced like 1^ as if the words were written 
anteek and obKke. ( 1 58) 

S58. The terminations in ogue, firom the Greek, are 
pronounced in the same manner. Thus pedagogue^ dema" 
digue, ptysmagcgue, nunagogue, emmenagogue^ synagogue^ 
mystagcgue^ decalogue, dialogue^ trialog^ue, catalogue^ theo- 
hguty eclogue^ monohgue, prologue, artd epilogue^ are all 
pronoonced as if written pedagog, demagog, &c« with the o 

339* This diph^iong, after r, becomes op : thus Irue is 
pronounced troo. (176) 


340. The u in thi»^ diphthong, as in imt and ue, when both 
Towek are pronounced without forming two syllables, is 
pronounced like w : thus languid,- anguish, /anguish, extin- 
gttub, dLrtingulfi,.relinquijb, vanquish, iinguisty penguin, pitr- 
suhant, guiacum, are pronounced as if written iangwid, 
angwisb, &c. and cuiss and cuisses, as i£ written kwss and 
hwsses, and cuirass, as if written twirass, 

341. Hie u is silent, and the i pronounced long, in 
guide^ disguise, guile^ and beguile; but the u is silent, and 
the / short, in guilds builds i^H^y guinea, guitar, Guildj in 
GuiUbalI,is, by the lower people of London, pronounced 
so as to rhyme with child j but this is dire£Uy opposite to 
the best usage, and contrary to its etymology, as it b a 
compound of guild (a corporation, always pronounced like 
the verb to gild) and ball. Dr. Jones, who wrote in Queen 
Anne's time, tells us it was then pronounced as if written 
GiUball, In circuit and biscuit the u is merely servile } in 
both the r is hard, and the i short, as if written surkit, and 
iijift. Conduit is pronounced cundit. 

342. hijuice, sluice, suit, and pursuit^ the / is silent, and 
the tf has its diphthongal sotmd, as if preceded by e, and 
the words were written slewse,jewse, sewt, pursevtt, 

343. When this diphthong is preceded by r, it is pro^ 
nonnced like oo ; thus bruise, cruise, fruit, bruit, recruit, are 
pronounced as if written broose, croose, broot* (SS9) 


344. The u in this diphthong is pronounced like w, in 
q^iUe^ quota, quotation, qu^ient, quotidian, quorum, quondam, 
siliquTse, quoth, as if written kwote, kwota^ knvotation, &c. 
Cmfj and coit, conunonly pronounced kwmf and hwoit, do 
iK)t come under this class. See the words. 


345. This diphthong, with the accent on it, sinks the u, 
and pronounces the y like long i : thus buy, the only word 
where &j has the accent^ rhymes with^?^, dry, &c. when 
the accent is not on this diphthong it is sounded like long 
h ^plaguy roguy^ gluy, pronounced /Ai-^^^ 'v^^^ (with the 

g hard, as- in get) glu^e. The same may be observed of 
obloquy, ambiloquy, pauciloquy, soliloquy, ventriloquy, alloquy, col^ 
loquy, pronounced obkhquee, ambilo^ee, &c. 


S46. This diphthong is found only in the word buoy, 
pronounced as if written bwoy, but too often exactly like 
boy. But this ought to be avoided by correct speakers. 


S4e7. When b follows m in the same syllable, it is gene- 
rally silent, as in lamb, kemb, limb, comb, dumb, &c. except 
accumb and succumb : it is silent also before / in the same 
syllablOf as in debt, doubt, redoubt, redoubted, and their com- 
pounds : it is silent before /, when not in the same sylla- 
ble, in the word subtle, (cunning) often inaccurately used 
for subtile, (fine) where the bis always pronounced; In the 
mathematical term rhomb, the b is always heard, and the 
word pronounced as if written rhumb. Ambs-ace is pro- 
nounced Aims'Oce, See Rhomb. 


S4?8. C is always hard like k before a, o, and u ; as card, 
cord, curd; and soft, like s, before e, i, and y ; as cement, 
city, cynic, 

349. When c ends a word, or syUable, it is always 
hard, as in music, Jlaccid, siccity, pronounced musick,flac^d, 
sick'Sity. See EXAGGERATE. 

350. In the word sceptic, where the first c, according to 
analogy, ought to be pronounced like s. Dr. Johnson has 
not only given his approbation to the sound of*, but has, 
contrary to general practice, spelt the word skeptic. It may 
be observed, perhaps, in this, as on other occasions, of that 
truly great man, that he is but seldom ivrong; but when he 
is so, that he is generally wrongs to absurdity. What a 
monster does this word skeptic appear to an eye the least 
classical or correct ! And if this alteration be right, why 
.should we hesitate to write and pronounce scene, sceptre, and 
Laceddmon, skene, skeptre, and Laked^mon, as there is the 
same reason for i in all ? It is not, however, my intention 
to cross the general current of polite and classical pronun- 
ciation, which I know is that of sounding the c like i ^ my 
objection is only to writing it witl^ the hi and in this I think 
I am supported by the best authorities since the publication 
of Johnson's Dictionary. 

35 1 ; C is mute in Czar, Czarina, victuals, indict, arbuscle, 
corpuscle, and muscle ', it sounds like tch in the Italian words 
vermicelli and violoncello ; and like z in st^ce, sacrifice, sice, 
(the number six at dife) and discern. 

352. This letter,^ when connected with h, has two 

Digitized by 




sounds/, the one like Ubt in chi/d, chair, rich, ivtui, &c. 
pronounced as if written uiildf Uhair, ritcb, wbiifb, &c. 
the other like /A, after / or «, as in Mcbf bcfKh^ fikb^ &c. 
pronounced belsh^ he/uby f/jb, &c. This latter sound is 
generally given to words from the French, as cbaiscy cba- 
grin, cbamade^ cJjampagmy cbampignorty chandelier y cbaperofiy 
charlatan^ chevalitry cbevran^ chicane^ capucbin^ cartoucby ma" 
chine ytnacbimsU cbancre^nxarcbioness^ 

353. Cb in words from the learned languages, are ge- 
nerally pronounced like k^ as chalcography^ cbalybcatey cbama^ 
leon^ chamormUy cbaos^ character j charts cbasnty chely^ chefntsty 
(if derived from the Arabic, and chymisty if from the Greek) 
chersonescy cbimeray chirographyy chiromancy y chlorosisy cholery 
chorusy chords chirographyy chyle and its compounds ; cmchvry 
auchorety cachepcyy caiechismy catecbisty catecheticoly catechumeny 
echoy echinusy epochy epochay ichwy machinationy machinal, me- 
cianicf mechanicaly crchestray orchesir^y technicaly atmrchy 
anarchyy conchy cocblearyy distich, hemistichy momstichy eunuehy 
mouarchy monarchicaly bm-a^rby heresiarchypentateucby stomachy 
siomachicy schemcy schooly scholar, schesis, mastichy senescbaly 
and in all words where \t is followed by r, as Christ, Chris* 
tian, cbrooologyy cbronkUy &c. To these may be added the 
Celtic '^otA loch (a lake). The exceptions are, charityy 
archer, and archery. 

354. When arch, signifying chiefj begins a word from 
the Greek language^ and is followed b]|r a vowel, it is always 
pronounced ark, as in archangel, archipelagoy architect y ar- 
chives, archetype, archaism, archiepiscopal, archidiaconal, archie 
trave, arehaudogy. But W}ien we prefix arch to a word of 
our own> and this word begins widi a consonant, we pro- 
nounce it so as to rhyme with march, as archduke, arch* 
deacon, archbishop \ and sometimes> when the following 
word begins with a vowel, if it is a composition of our own, 
and the word does not come to us compounded from the 
the Greek or Latin* as arch-enemy. 

355. The word ache, (a pain) pronouncsfl akcy comes from 
the Greek, and was by Shakespeare extended to two syl- 
lables, aches with ch, as ip HVatches\ but this is obsolete. 
It is now. almost universally written akc and akes, except 
where it is compounded with another word, as head-achy 
heart-ach, 8cc. and by thus absurdly retaining the ch in the 
compound^ we are puzzled how to form the plural, with- 
out pronouncing aches in two syllables. 

356. In choir and chorister, the ch is aknost universally 
pronounced like ^:.(300) in ostrich, like dgey as if spelled 
cstridge* It is silent in schedulcy schism, and yacht ; pro- 
nounced seddule, sizm, and yot. k is sunk in drachm, but 
heard in drachma ; pronounced dram and drackma, 

357. When c comes after the accent^ either primary 
or secondary^ and is followed by ea, lay io, or eousy it takes 
the sound of sh : thus ocean, social, Phociofty saponaceous, are 
pronounced as if written osbean, soshial, Phoshian, sapona- 
sbeouSy fasciatioa, ncgpciaiion,- &c. (196jk Financier has the 

accent aftw the c, which on tkali aeeowt iom oot ga^ 
into sh 


,358. In orddf to haive a just idea .of th« akenittoiis of 
sound this letter undergoes, it wiU be necessary to cpo^er 
its near relation to T. (41) These consonants, like p, and 
b,f, and v, k, and hard g, and/> and z, are letters o£ the 
same organ; they diffisr by the nicest shades of sound, 
and are easily convertible into each other \ t, p, f, k, and ~ 
/, may, for the sake of diitindkion, be called sharp, and d, 
by Vy gy and z, may be called flat. Fpr this reason, when a 
singular ends in a sharp consonant, the s, which form^ the 
plural, preserves its sharp sounds as in ctsffs, packs, lips, hats, 
deaths ; and when the singular ends with a flat consonant, 
the plural s, has the sound of z, as drabs, bags, beads, lives, 
&c. are pronounced drabz, bagz, &c. 

359. In the same manner, when a verb ends with a 
shaip consonant, the d, in the termination///, assumed by 
the preterit and participle, becomes sharp, and is sounded 
like / \ thus stuffed, tripped, crackedy passedy vouched, faced, 
(where the e is suppressed, as it always ought to be, except 
when we are pronouncing the language of Scripture) ( 1()4>) 
change the d into /, as if written stuft, tripty crack, past, 
voucht,faste. So when die verb ends in a flat consonant, 
the d preserves its true flat sound> as drubbed, pegged, lived, 
hizzed, where the e Is suppressed, and the words pro- 
nounced in one syllable, as if written drubVd, peg^d, Md, 
bwBz*d* It may be observed too, that ^tn the verb ends 
in- a liquid, or a liquid and mute e, the participle d always 
pres.erves its pure sound ; as blamedy joinedy filed, barredy 
pronounced HanfdyjMdyfird barred. This contraflion of 
the participial edy and the verbal eny (103) is so fixed an 
idiom of our pronunciation, that to alter it, would be to 
alter the sound of the whole language. It must, how- 
ever, be regretted, that it subjects our tongue to some of 
the most hissiQg snapping, clashing, grinding sounds, that 
ever grated the ears of. a Vandal : thus raspedy scratchedy 
wrenched, bridUd, fangUdi bircbeny hardened, strengthened, 
auickened, 8cc. aUnost frighten us when written as they are 
adually pronouficed, as raspt, scracht, nifrencbty bridPd, 
fang^d, bircVn, strength n^d, quicl^r^d, &c. they become still 
^ore formidable when used contraSedly in the sole^;nn 
style, which never ought to be the case ; for here, .instead 
of th^u strengtF^st or strength* n*fPst, thou quickest or 
quicMr^tPst, we ought to pronounce, thou strength* nest or 
strength* nedst, thou quick* nest or quick* nedst, which are suf- 
f ciently harsh . of all consqeqce. (See No. ^dS) But to 
compensate for the^e Gpthic soujids, which, howeverj, are 
^ot without their use, oyr language is full of the sinoothest 
and most sonorous terchipations of the Greeks and Romans. 
360. By the foregoing rule of tontra{tion, arising from 
tj^e very nature of the letters^ we see the absurdity of sub- 

Digitized by 




ititittingthe/ forji/, when Ike Terb ends in a sharp con- 
. soMuat; fpr, when the pronunciation cannot be mistaken, 
it is folly to alter the orthography: thus the Dutressed 
.Mpiber^ the title of a tragedy, needs not to be written 
Distrest Moibirf as we generally find it) because, though we 
•write it in, the firmer znonner, it must necess^oily be pro- 
noonced in the latter. 

361. By this rule, too> we may see the impropriety of 
writing blest for blessed^ when a participle. 

" Blest in thy geoius, in iby love too blest." — Pope. 
But when the word blessed is an adjcAivej it ought always 
to be pronounced, even in the most fiuniliar conversation, 
in two syllaUes, as this is a blessed dsLjt the ^/r//f</ thistle, &c. 
S$S. This word, with learned^ cursedySOid wingedy are the 
only participal adjeAives which are constantly pronounced 
in two syllaMes,. where the participles are pr(»iounced m 
one : thus a learned tnan^ a cursed things a pinged borse, pre- 
serve the a/ in a distind syllable } while the same words, 
when verbs, as he learned to write^ he cursed The day, they 
waged their Jlight, are heard in one syllable, as if written 
Jtamd, curst, and wingd\ the d in cursed changing to /, 
from its following the sharp consonant x. (358) 

363. Poetry, however, (which has been one great cause 
of improper orthography) assumes the privilege of using 
these words, when^adjeftives, either as monosyllables or 
dissyllables ; but correA prose rigidly exafb the pronun- 
ciation of ed in these words, When adjeAives, as a distinA 
syllable. Th&ed in aged and winged, always make a dis-' 
tin£t,syllable, as an aged man \ the winged courser : but 
when this word is compounded with another, the ed does 
not form a syllable, as a fuU^^d horse, a sheatlnwn^d 

364. It is, perhaps, worthy of notice, that when adjec- 
tives are changed into adverbs by- the addition of the ter- 
mination ly^ we often find the particifnal termination ed, 
.preserved lopg and distinA, even in those very words where 
it wMContradad when used ad^ectively x thus though we 
always heaur eonfes/d, professed, desigfid, &c. we as con- 
stantly hear an^ss^^edJy, frojfess-^dJy, de^ign^edJy, &c. 
The fame may be observed of the following list of words, 
wfaicfa, by tbe^osistance of the Rhyniixig Dictionary, I am 
enabled te give, as, perhaps, the only words inthelmguage 
Jn wiiich the ed is pronounced as a distinct syllsAle in the 
adverb, wimv it is contracted in the participial adjective: 
FtneJfy, mfircedty, unveiledly, deformedly^feignedly, «».; 
feignedfy, disemmdly^ resignedly, refinedly, restrainedly , 
eememedhi^ncmeernedly, ditcernedly, undiscemedty, pre-' 
Par4dly,nssurediy, adviueHy, dispersedly, diffusedlf, c^n 
fuswdfy, unpiruivedly^ rer&hudly^ deservedly, undeservedly,'^ 
nservedly^ unreservedly, avwoedly, perplexedly, fixedly, 

distinct syllable in the former^ though tiot in itit latter : thus 
numbedness,blearedneiSjpreparcdnesStassuredness, diseased' 
nesSy advisedness, reposedness, composedness, indisp^sedness, 
dijffusedness, conjusedness, distressedmss, resolvedness, re- 
servedness, perplexedness, fixedness, amazedness, have r^ 
pronounced distinctly* 

366. The adje<^ives naked, wicked, pieked, (pointed) 
hooked, crooked, forked, tusked, tressed, and wretched, are not 
derived from verbs, and are therefore pronounced in two 
syllables. The ^ame may be observed of scathed, crahbed, 
chubbed,stubbed, shagged, snagged, ragged, scrubbed, dogged, 
rugged, scragged, hawked, jagged \ to which we may add, 
the solemn pronunciation of st\ffhecked\ and these, when 
fordied into nouns by the addition of ness, preserve the ed 
in a distinct syllable, as wkkedness, scabbedmss, raggedness, 

367. Passed, in the sense of beyond, becomes a prepo- 
sition, and may allowably be written past, as post twelve 
o^ clock \ but when an adjective, though it is pronounc^ in 
one syllable, it ought to be written with two, ^Apau^dplea^ 
tures are present pain: this I know is contrary to. Qsage ; 
but usage is, in this case, c^itrary to good sense, and the 
settled analogy of the language. 

368. It needs scarcely be observed, that when the verb 
ends in ^ or J", the ed in the past ti^^e and participle has the 
^pronounced with its own sound* and always forms ah 
additional syllable, as landed, matted, &c« otherwise the 
final d oould not be pronounced at ailL 

369. And here, perhaps, it may not be usdess to take 
notice of the very imperfea andconfiised idea that is given 
in Lowth's gt*ammar, of what are called contracted verbs, 
such as snatcht, checkt, snapt, mixt, dwelt, and past^ {or 
snatched, checked, snapped, mixed, dwelled, and passed. To 
these are added, those that end in /, m, and n, orp, after 
adipbthouf^; which either shorten the diphthong, or 
chtoge it into a single vowel ; and instead of ed, take / 
only ifor the preterit, as dealt, dreamt, meant, felt, slept, crept \ 
and these are said to be considered not as irregular, but 
contracted only. Now nothing can be clearer than that 
verbs of a very di&rent kind are here fuddled together 
as of the same. Snatihed, checked, snipped, nuked, and passed, 
are not irregular at all | if they are ever written snatcht, 
checkt, snapt ^ mixty and past, it is fi-om pure ignorance of 
analogy, and not considering that if they were written with 
ed, unless we were to pronounce it as a distinct syllable, 
contrary totbe most settled usage of the language, the 
pronunciatioa, from the very nature of the letters, must be 
the same. It is very difierent with dwelled; here, as a 
liquid, and not a sharp Bonte, ends 4be Terb, d might be 
pronounced without goii^ into /, just as well as mfelPJ, 
the participle of to fill {to cut down taiees). Here then. 

8«. T\Dthiseat^oguemay beadded several abstract sub-;| we find custom has determined an irregularity, which can- 
Attttives Imaed firom .participles in ed: whichctfnadcesa |not be altered, withoat violence to dbe langus^^ d/well 

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may be truly called an irregular verb, and dwelt the pr«- 
terit and participle. 

370. The same^may be observed o£ deal, dreamy mean^ 
feely weepy sleeps and creep. It is certain we can pronounce 
d after the four first of these words> as well as in sealed^ 
screamed^ clmmd^ and reeled \ but custom has not only an- 
nexed / to the preterit of these verbs, but has changed the 
long diphthongal sound into a short one \ they are there- 
fore ddubly irregular. Weepy *sL'epy and creeps would not 
have required / to form their preta-its, any more than 
speepfd^Liid steeped i but custom, which has shortened the 
diphthong in the former words, very naturally annexed / 
as the simplest method of conveying the sound. 

S71. The only two words which occasion some doubt 
about classing them are, to learn^ and to spell. The vulgar 
(who are no contemptible guides on this occasion) pro- 
nounce them in the preterit learnt and spelt i but as » and 
/ will readily' admit of d after tl^em, it seems more correct 
to favour a tendency to regularity, both in writing and 
speaking, which the literary world has given into, by spel- 
ling them learned znd spelledtznd pronouncing them learned 
and speird: thus earned^ the preterit of to earn, has been 
recovered from the vulgar earnt, and made a perfect rhyme 
to discerned. 

372. To these observations may be added, that, in such 
irregular verbs as have the present, the preterit and par- 
ticiple the same, as cast^ cost^ cut, &c. the second person sin- 
gular of the preterit of these verbs takes ed before the est, 
as / cast, or did cast ; Thou castedstf or didst cast^ &c. fcM* if 
this were not the case, the second person of the preterit 
might be mistaken for the second person of the present 

373. I have been led insensibly to these observations by 
their connexion with pronunciation ; and if the reader 
should think them too remote from the subject, I must 
beg his pardon, and resume my remarks on the sound of 
the letter </. 

374. The vulgar drop this letter in ordinary^ and extra- 
ordinary f and make them or'nary and extr^or^nary : but this 
is a gross abbreviation ; the best pronunciation is suffi- 
ciently short, ndiich is ^ord'etary and extrordnary ; the first 
in three, and the last in four syllables : but solemn speak- 
ing preserves the i, and makes the latter word consist of 
five syllables, as if written extraordinary. 

375. Our ancestors, feelingthe necessity of showing the 
quantity of a vowel followed by ge, wl^en it was to be short, 
inserted d^ as wedge^ ridge, badge, &c. The same reason 
induced them to write colUdge and alledge, with the d\ but 
modem reformers, to the great injury of the language, 
have expelled the d, and left the vowel to shift for itself; 
because there is no J in the Latin words from which these 
are derived. 

S76. D like /, to which it is so nearly related, when it 

comes after the accent, either prixhary or secondary, (523) 
and is followed by the diphthong ie, to, ia, or eou, sUdes into 
g^, or the consonant j\ thus soldier is universally imd 
justly pronounced as if written sol-jer ; grandeur, grandeur \ 
and verdure, (where it must be remembered that « is a 
diphthong) wr^jurey and, for the same reason, edncatim is 
elegantly pronounced ed-jucation. But duke and reduce, 
pronounced y&i^ and rejuce, where the accent is after the d, 
cannot be too much reprobated. 


377. i^has its pure sound in often, tff, &c. but in the 
preposition of, slides into its near relation v, as if written 
^. But when this preposition is in composition at the 
end of a word, the/ becomes pure \ thus, though we sound 
of, singly, ov, we pronounce it as if the f were clouble in 

378. There is a strong tendency to change the f into v. 
In some words, which confounds tlie plural number and 
the genitive case : thus we often hear of a wlv^s jointure, 
a calves head, and houze rent, for wifis jointure, a calfs head, 
and house rent. 


379. G, like C, has two sounds, a hard and a soft One : 
it is hard before a, o, «, /, and r, as gatne, gone, gull, glory, 
grandeur.. Gaol is the only exception j now more com- 
monly written yW. (212) ' 

380. G, before e and i, is sometimes hard and sometimes 
soft : it is generally soft before words of Greek,. Latin, or 
French original, and hard before words from the Saxon. 
These latter, forming by far the smaller number, may be 
considered as exceptions. , 

381. G is hard before e, in gear, gech, geese, geld, gelt, 
gelding, get, gewgaw, shagged, snagged, ragged, craggeJ, 
scragged, dogged, rugged, dagger, swagger, stagger, trigger, 
dogger, peAtyfogg^, tiger, auger, eager, meager, anger, finger, 
linger, conger, longer, stronger, yoimger, longest, strongest, 
youngest. The last six of these words are generally pro- 
nounced in Ireland, so as to let the g remain in its nasal 
sound, without articulating the succeeding . vowel, thus 
longer, (more long) is so pronounced as to sound exactly 
like the noun a Iong*er\ (one who longs or wishes for a 
thing) the same may be observed of the rest. That the 
pronunciation of Ireland is analogical, appears from the 
same pronunciation of ^ in string^-y, spring-y, full of strings 
and springs } and wronger and wrongest, for more and most 
wrong. But though resting the g in the nasal sounds 
without articulating the succeeding vowel, i) absolutely 
necessary in verbal nouns derived fr6m verbs ending in 
ing, as singer, bringer, elinger, &c. pronounced sing-er, 
bring'er,srmg'er, &c. and not sing-ger, bring-ger, sting-gtr, 
&c. yet in longer, stronger, and younger ; longest, strongest, 
znd youngest, the; ought always to articulate the et thus 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



punger ought always to rhyme with the termmation monger ^ 
M'hich has always the ^ hard> and articulating the vowel ; 
and this pronunciation is approved by Mr. Nares. Forget^ 
target, and Ugetier, fall into this class. See No. 409. 

382. G is hard before /, in giibe, g'hcat, gibber ^ gibber- 
ish, gibbous, giddy, gifi^ gig, giggle, giglet, (proper! y gigg- 
gizzard, begin, giie, forgive, biggin, piggin, noggin : also 
derivatives from nouns or verbs ending in hard g^ as drug- 
list, waggish, riggish, hoggish, doggish, sluggish, rigging, 
diggingi &c. 

88S. G before y is generally soft, as in elegy, apology, &xr. 
and almost in all words from the learned languages \ but 
hard in words from the Saxon, which' are formed from 
nouns or verbs ending in g hard, as shaggy, jaggy, knaggy, 
snagFJ, craggy, scraggy, quaggy, swaggy, dreggy, spriggy, 
twiggy, boggy, foggy, cloggy, buggy, muggy. Gyve, from 
its Celtic original, ought to have the^ hard^ but has de- 
cidedly adopted the soft g. 

ON in the same Syllable at the beginning of a Word. 
384. The g in this situation is always silent, as gnaw, 
gnash, gngt^ gnarl, gnomon^ gnomonics \ pronounced ttatv^ 
nash, not, narl, mmon, nomonics. 

GN in the same Syllable at the end of a Word, 
885. No combination of letters has more puzzled the 
critics than this. Two actresses of distinguished merit, in 
Portia, in the Merchant of Venice, pronounced the word 
im^tt^n differently, and each found her advocate in the 
newspapers. One critic affirmed, that Miss Young^ by 
preserving the sound of ^, pronounced the word properly; 
and the other contended, that Mrs. Yates was more judi- 
cious in leaving it out. The former was charged with 
harshness; {he latter, with mutilating the word, and 
weakening its sound ; but if analogy may decide, it is 
clearly in favour of the latter ; for there is no axiom in 
our pronunciation more indisputable than that which makes 
g silent before n in the same syllable. This is constantly 
ilie case in sign, and all its compounds, as resign, design, 
consign, assign \ 2Xtd in indign, condign, malign, benign; all 
pronounced as if written sine, fezine, &c. In which words 
we find the vowel / long and open, to compensate, as it 
were, for the suppression of ^, as every other word ending 
in gn, when the accent is on the syllable, has a diphthong 
pronounced like a long open vowel, as arraign, campaign, 
feign, reign, deign ; and consequently, unless the vowel u 
can produce some special privilege which the other vowels 
have not, we must, if we pronounce according to analogy, 
make the u in this situation long, and soxmd impugn as if 
written isnpune. 

386. The same analogy will oblige us to pronounce im- 
frtgn, oppugn, expugn,propugn, as if written impreru, oppune, 
eitfune, propane^ not only when these verbs are in the in- 

finitive mood, but in the preterits, participles, and verbal 
nouns formed from them, as impugned, impugning, and 
impugner, must be pronounced impuned, impuning, and im- 
puner. The same may be observed of the rest. Perhaps 
it will gratify a curious obser^'er of pronunciation to see 
the diversity and uncertainty of our orthocpists in their 
notation of the words before us : 
impune. Sheridan, Scott, Nares, Murray. Barclay says 

the^ in this word and its derivatives is mute, 

but takes no notice of the quantity of the u, 
impun. Buchanan, Kenrick, Perry. 
impung. W. Johnston. 
oppune^ Sheridan, Scott, Nares, Murray. 
oppun* Kenrick, Perry, Barclay. 
oppung. "W. Johnston. 
propufte. Sheridan, Scott, Perry, Nares. 
propung.x Barclay. 
imprene Nares, Murray. 
impreti. Sheridan, Kenrick, Perry. Barclay* says the ^ is 

mute, but says nothing of the quantity of 

the e, 
expitne. Sheridan, Scott, Nares. 
exptin, V^TTYi Barclay. 
impuner. Sheridan. 
impuned. Murray. 
impHnner, Perry, Barclay. 
opptigner Sheridan. 
propHgner, Sheridan* 
propltner. Scott. 

prop&nner. Perry. ^ 

Nothing is clearer than that all these words ought to fol1ot7 
the same fortune, and should be pronounced alike. How 
then shall be reconciled Mr. Sheridan's pronouncing /Vw- 
pugn, oppugn, expugn, and propugn, with the u long, and 
impregn with the e short ? Kenrick, who has not the word 
propugn, is consistent in pronouncing the rest with the vowel 
short. The same may be observed of Scott, who adopts 
the long sound, but has not the word impregn. Mr. Perry 
gives the short sound to all but propugn, where he makes 
the // long, but absurdly makes the verbal noun propunner ; 
and W. Johnston, who has only impugn and oppugn, pro- 
nounces the vowel short, and spells them impung and op^ 
pung. Barclay, under the word impung, says the g in this - 
word and its derivatives is mute, without noticing the 
quantity of the vowels, but spells oppugn, oppun \ and of 
impregn, only says the g is mute ; but writes propugn^ pro- 
pung, in the manner that W. Johnston does \mpugn and 
oppugn : but Mr. Nares observes, that analogy see^is to re- 
quire a similar pronunciation in all these words, and that 
the vowel should be long. The same inconsistency is ob- 
servable in Mr. Sheridan's pronunciation of the verbal 
nouns ; for he expunges the g in impugner, and writes it 
impuner^ but preserves it in oppugner and propugmr. Mr. 

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Scott has only the ^ord propugner^ which he very prqip^ly 
gs well as consistently, spells p-optmer, Mr. Perry has 
propunner and impunncr^ and Barclay impunner only.— -The 
inconsistency here remarked arises from not attending to 
the analogy- of pronunciation, which requires every verbal 
noun to be pronounced exaftly like the verb, with the 
mere'addition of the termination: thus j/«g^r is only ad- 
ding er to the verb sing^ without suffering the g to articu- 
late the e as it does \n finger and tinger^ &c. The same may 
be observed of a signer^ one who signs : and as a corrobo- 
t^tion of this doArine, we may take notice that the addi- 
tional er and esty in the comparatives and superlative^ of 
adjectives, make no alteration in the sound of the radical 
word ; this is obvious in the words knigner, bemgnesty &c. 
except younger i longer ^ and stronger. See No. 38 1 . 

387. But in every other compound where these letters 
occur, the n articulates the latter syllable, and g is heard 
distinctly in the former, as sig-nify, malig-nity^ assig-nation^ ' 
&c. Some affe£led speakers, either ignorant of the rules 
for pronouncing English^or over-complaisant to the French, 
pronounce physiognomy^ cognizance^ and recognizance^ without 
the g \ but this is a gross violation of the first principles of 
spelling. The only words to keep these speakers in coun-> 
lenance are, poignant and champignon^ not long ago im- 
ported from France, and pronounced poinianty champinion. 
The first of these words will probably be hereafter written 
without the g \ while the latter, confined to the kitchen, 
may be looked upon as technical, and allowed an exclu- 
sive privilege. See Cognizance. 

388. Bagnio, seignior, seraglio, intaglio, and oglio, pro- 
nounced ban-yo, seen-yar, seraUyo, iutal-^o, and ole-yo, may be 
considered as foreign coxcombs, and treated with civility, 
by omitting the g, while they do not pervert the pronun- 
ciation pf Qur native English words. 

GM in the same SyilaUe. 

389. What has been said of gn is applicable to^;». We 
have but one word in the language where these letters end 
a word with the accent on it, and that is phlegm ; in this 
the g is always mute, and the e, according tp analogy, 
ought to be pronounced long, as if the word were written 

Jleme j but a short pronunciation of the e has generally ob- 
tained, and we commonl]^ hear itflem : it is highly probable 
Pope pronounced it properly, where he says, 

" Our Critics take a contrary extreme ; 

** They judge with fury, but they write with phlegm.^* 

Essay on Criticism. 

Perhaps it would not be difiicult to reduce this word to 
analogy, a« some speakers still pronounce the e long : but 
in the compounds of this word, as in those wKere gn occur, 
the vowel is shortened, and the g pronounced as in phleg- 
mon, phleg'mottoifs, phleg-matic, tluA phleg-magogues \ though 
Mr. Sheridan, for no reason I can conceive, sinks the j in I 

the last word. Wbe^ these lettens end a syllable not under 
the accent, the g is silent, but th« preceding vowel is 
shortened : t\ij^s paradigm, parc^egm, diupbragmyftpophhegm^ 
are pronounced ^ra^/;/2j parapem^ diaphram, apothem. 


390. This combination, at tlie beginning of a word, 
drops the h, as in ghost, ghastly, aghast, gherkin, pronounced 
gost, rhyming with mosl -, ghastly, agast, guerhin : but when 
these letters come at the end of a word, they form some 
of the greatest anomalies in our language ; gh, at the end 
of words, is generally silent, and consequently the preced- 
ing vowel or diphthong is long, as Bgh\ nigh, thigh, neigh, 
weigh, inveigh, eugh, ^the obsolete way of spelling je^ju, a 
tree) bough, dough, though, although, dough, (a cliS) plough, 
furlough, slough, (a miry place) through, throughout, thorough, 
borough, usquebaugh, pugh / 

391. Gb is ifr^quently pronounced like yi as lnHgl, 
laughter, cough, chough, dough, (an allowance in weight) 
slough, (the cast skin of a snake or sore) enough, rottgh, tough, 

3^. OhiB «o«i6times changed into ek, as hough, shough, 
iougiy ytenoKOkced hock, shock, l$ck ; sometimes we hear only 
the g sounded, as in burgh, burgher, and burgher ship. 


393. Gh, in this termination, is always stltnt, z% fight, 
flight, bpught,fougbt, &c. The only exception is draught 5 
whichj in poetry, is most frequently rhymed with caught, 
taught, &c. but, in prose, is so universally pronounced as 
if written draft, that the poetical sound of it grows un- 
couth, and is becoming obsolete. Draughts, the game, is 
also pconpunced drafts. Drought (dryness) is vulgarly 
pronounced drowth : it is even written so by Milton 5 but 
in tills he is not to be imitated, having mistaken the ana- 
logy of this word, as well as that of height, which he spells 
heighth, and which is frequently so pronounced by the vul- 
gar. See the words Height and Drought. 


394. This letter is no more than breathing forcibly be- 
fore the succeeding vowel is pronounced. At the begin- 
ning of words, it is always sounded, except in heir, heiress, 
honest, honesty, honour, honourable, herb, herbage, hospital, host- 
ler, hour, humble, humour, humourous, humoursome. Ben Jon- 
son leaves out the h in host, and classes it in this respeft 
with honest. 

S95. H is always silent after r, as rhetoric, rhapsody, 
rheum, rheumatism,rhinoceros, rhomb, rhubarb, myrrh, catarrh, 
and their compounds. 

396. H final, preceded by a vowel, is always silent, as 
ah ! hah / oh ! foh I sirrah, hallelujah, Messiah. 

397. This letter is often sunk after w, particularly in 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 

pAonunciation of the ccwsonants y, K, z. 


the Oipkal, where we do not find the feast dtstm^on of 
^und between fvlnle aad wiky whet and tvet^ where and 
i0Mr. Trifting as this difference may appear at first sight, 
It tends greanhf to weaken and impoverish the pronunci* 
ttion, as well as sometimes to confound words of a very 
different meaning. The Saxons, as Dr. Lo\?th observes, 
pbced the b before the w, as hwaf\ and this is certainly 
its true place : for, in the pronunciation of all words be< 
ginning with wA, we ought to breathe forcibly before we 
pronounce the w> as if the words were written hoo-at^ 
too^Ui See. and then we shall avoid that feeble, cockney 
pronunciation, which is sa disagreeable to a correal ear. 

398. y is pronounced eraAly like soft g, and is per- 
fectly uniform in its sound, except in the word haUelujahy 
where it is pronounced like y. 


599. K has exactly the sound of hard ^: it is always 
sHenr before n in the same syllable, as hiee^ kneels htack, 
knighty hwwy inuci/e, inab^ ^^^gy hnapy inare, hnave^ ifiit, 
bociy iffotf inoff. 

400. If has been a custom within these twenty years to 
omit the t at the end of words when preceded by c. Tliis 
has introduced a novelty into the language, which is that 
of ending a word with an unusual letter, and is not only 
a blemish in the face of it, but may possibly produce some 
irregnlarity in future formatives ; for mimiciing must be 
written with the h^ though to mimic is without it.. If we 
use colic as a verb, which is not uncommon, we must write 
aJickhtg and coliched\ and though physicking afnd physicked 
afe not the most elegant words, they are not quite Out of 
the line of formation. This omission of i is, however, 
too general to be counteracted, even by the authority of 
Johnson : but it is to be hoped if will be confined to words 
from the learned languages : and indeed, as there is not 
the same vanity of appearing learned in the Saxon, as in 
tic Latin and Greek, there Ts no great fear that thick and 
sdci will lose their i, though they never had it in the 

♦5h Ben Jhomon says L melteth m the sounding, and 
15 tittCBibre called. » li({iiid. This, however, cannot be 
tke reanm that r rs catted a liquid ; for no tt^o* letters can, 
in this respect, be more opposite. See No. 21. 

L \sr mute in akmndy ealf^ haify cal^y hahe, chatdrotty 
fdcmyfoli^ fMy (bwtcr written yelk with the / sounded) 
fus'dyhaUer^ matmseyy salmorfy sahcy ialht (a species of dog). 
See S«.ve. 

402* L is*flfule abo between a and k in the same syl- 
lable, as balky chalky talk, stalk, walk. . 

403. L is silent likewise between a and m in the same 
syllable, as alms, balm, calm, palm, psalm, qualm, shalm ; 
but \<4ien the m is detached from the / by commencing 
another syllable, the / becomes audible. Thus, though the 
/ is mut6 in psalmy it is always heard in psal-mist, psal-mody, 
and paUmistry ; but in balmy and palmy, where the y is an 
adjective termination of our own, no alteration is made in 
the sound of the substantive which sinks the /. (386) 
Calmer and calmest ought to have the / mute, as they are 
only degrees of comparison 5 and palmer and palmerworm 
(except in the language of scripture, where the / in palmer^ 
worm ought to be heard) are only a sort of verbal nouns, 
which never alter the sound of the original word, and 
therefore ought to have the / mute. But though / is some- 
times mute in the noun salve, and in the verb to salve, it is 
always heard in salver (a kind of plate). See Salve. 

404. L ought always to be suppressed in the auxiliary 
verbs would, could, should : it is sometimes suppressed in 
fault ; but this suppression is become vulgar, (see the word). 
In soldier, likewise, the / is sometimes suppressed, and the 
word pronounced /^Vr ; but this is far from being the 
most correct pronunciation: / ought always to be heard in 
this.word, and its compounds soldierly, soldiership, &c. 

405. L, preceded by a mute, and followed by ^, in a 
final syllable, has an imperfect sound, which does not do 
much honour to our language. The /, in this situation, is 
neither sounded like el nor le, but the e final is suppressed, 
and the preceding mute articulates the /, without either a 
preceding or a Succeeding vowel; so that this sound may 
be called a monster in Grammar — a syllable without a 
vowe! ! This will easily be perceived in the words able, 
table, circle, &cl which are pronounced as if written abl, 
tabl, etrcl, 5tc. and in those still more Gothick and un- 
coKifh abbreviated participial terminations, peopled, bridled, 
saddled, trifles, gafflcsy &c. pronounced pee-pFd, bri-dPd, 
^ad-dl'd, tri^fz, gaf-Jlz, &c. (359) (472) 

406. This letter has not only, like/ and j^ th^ privilege 
of doubling itself at the end of a word, but it has an ex- 
clusive privilege of being double where they remain single ; 
though by what right cannot conceived. Thus, 
according to the general rule, wlien a verb ends in a single 
consonant, preceded by a single vowel, and the accent is 
on the last syllable, the consonant is doubled when a par- 
ticipial termination is added, as abet, abettingy beg, beggingy 
begin, l^gfmtT^, &c. but when the accent is not on the last 
syflabie of the verb, the consonant remains single, as suf- 
fered, spjfiriftg, benefitifjgy &c. but the /is doubled, whether 
the acQ^m be on the law syllable or not, as duelling, levelling, 
victualling, travelli^ig, traveller, &c. This gross irregu- 
larity, however, would not have been taken notice of in 
this^placfiy if it had not suggested an absurdity in pronun- 
ciationy occasioned by the omission of /. Though the lat- 
ter / is useless in traveller, victualler, &c. it is not so in 


Digitized by 




controller : for as // is a mark of the deep broad sound of a 
in bally tally ally &c. (84) so the same letters are the sign of 
the long open sound of in boll, (a round stalk of a plant) 
to jolly nolly (the head) knolly (a little hill) /a//, clodpolly roily 
scrolly drolly trolly strolly toll : for which reason^ leaving out 
one / in bethraly catcaly mhcaly overfalyforestaly reinstaly down- 
faly withaly controly and unroly as we find them in Johnson's 
Diftionary, is an omission of the utmost importance to the 
sound of the words; for as the prounciation sometimes 
alters the spelling, so the spelling sometimes alters the 
pronunciation.* Accordingly we find some speakers, 
chiefly the natives of Ireland, inclined to give the a its 
middle sound, to words commencing with aly followed by 
another consonant, because they do not see the U in the 
all with which these words are compounded : thus we 
sometimes hear Almightyy albeity so pronounced as to make 
tlieir first syllable rhyme with the first of al-leyy val-ky'y 
and extol is pronounced by the Scotch so as to rhyme with 
coal'y and with just as much reason as we pronounce con" 
trol in the same manner. For though compounds may, 
in some cases, be allowed to drop such letters of their 
simples, as either are not necessary to the sound, as in 
Christinas ; or might possibly lead to a wrong one, as in 
Reconcileahle '^ (which see). yet where, by omitting a letter, 
the sound may be altered, the omission is pernicious and 
absurd. (84) The same observations might be extended 
to the numerous termination y«//, where, in compounds, 
one / is omitted, though nothing can be more certain, than 
that July with a single /, has not the same sound as when 
this letter is doubled \ for who could suppose, without being 
used to the absurdity, thzt fulfil should stand for fullfill: 
but this abbreviation is k>o inveterate and extensive to 
afiTord any hope, that the great arbiters of orthography, 
the printers, will ever submit to the additional trouble of 
putting another A 


407. M preserves its sound in every word, except 
comptroller \ compt and accompt are now universally written 
as they are pronounced, count and account \ and though m 
and p are preserved to the eye in the ofiicer called a cwnp- 
trottiTy the word is pronounced exactly like the noun am" 
trolkry one who controls. 


408. JVhas two sounds; the one simple and pure, as 
in many nety &c. the other compounded and mixed, as in 
hfif»8i *^^^f ^c* '^^ latter sound is heard when it is 
followed by the sharp or flat guttural mutes, g hard, or k ; 

* This omission of tlic letter Z, I tee, hat been rectified in the last 
quarto edition of Johnson's Difkionaiy ; and it would have been well if the 
Editors had acknowledged their ob)igationi and extended their cmcndationt 
to ihc word CodlCi and Kveral others. 

or its representatives, e hard, qu or 9( : but it may^ be ob» 
served, that so prone is our language to the fiat mutes, th^t 
when n is followed by iy or its representatives, the fiat 
mute g seems interposed between them : thus tbanky ban-''^ 
quety anxicusy are pronounced as if written^ not tban-^y ban-* 
quety an^xiousy but tbangky bangkquety angksbus. But this 
coalition of the sound of n and g, or hard Cy is only when 
the accent is on them ; for when the g or hard c articu- 
lates the accented syllable, the n becomes pure : thus, 
though congress za6. congregatCy are pronounced as if written 
cong-gress and cong-gregatey yet the first syllable of congra^ 
tulate and congressivcy ought to be pronounced without the^ 
ringing sound of /f, and exaAly like the same syllable in 
contrary. The same difference may be observed in the 
words concourse and coticur ; the first word, which has the 
accent on the first syllable, is pronounced as if written 
cong'course ; and the last, which has the accent on the se- 
cond syllable, with n pure. It must, however, be carefully 
■observed, that the secondary accent has the same power of 
melting the n into the succeeding hard g or Cy as the {M-i- 
mary : (522) thus congregation and concrenmtian have the 
first syllable pronounced as if written cong, 

409. It may, perhaps, be worthy of notice, that when 
/r IS followed by ky the k has a finished or complete sound, 
as in linky tbinky &c. but when n is followed by hard ^, the 
g has an unfinished or imperfeA sound, as in hangy bangy 
&c. where we may observe the tongue to rest upon the 
palate in the sound of g \ but when this letter is carried 
o£F to articulate another syllable, its soimd is completed, 
as in anger and Bangory (the name of a town) where the 
sound of g may be perceived to be very different firom 
the noun bangery (a sword) and banger (one who beats or 
bangs. )^ This perfeA ^ound of g is heard in all simples, as 
anger, angle, finger, linger, conger, anguish, languish, distin-- 
gulf by extinguishy unguent : but in words derived fi-om verbs 
or adjeAives, ending in ngy the g continues imperfect, as 
it was in the theme. Thus a singery (one who sings) does 
not finish the g like finger, but is merely er added to sing : 
the same may be observed of sing-ingy bring-ingy and bang^ 
ing. So adjeftives, formed by the addition of yy have the 
imperfect sound of gy as in the original word : thus springy , 
stringyy dungyy and wingyy are only the sound of e added 
to springy stringy dungy and wing ; but the comparative and 
superlative adjedtives, long/try stronger, tad younger ; longest, 
strongest y and youngesty have the g hard and perfeffly 
sounded, as if written long-ger, strong-ger, young-ger, &Cr 
where the g is hard, as in finger y lingery &c. And it may 
be looked upon as a general rule, that nouns, adjeAives, 
or verbs, do not alter their original sound upon taking 
an additional syllable. In these three wdrds, therefore, 
the Irish pronounce more agreeably to analogy than the 
English ; for^ if I mistake notj they do not articulate the ' 
g. (381) 

Digitized by 




prompt i accompt. In receipt it is mute between i and f, and \a 
the military corps (a body of troops) both p and / are mute^ 
as custom has acquiesced in the French' pronunciation of 
most * military terms. 

♦10. Hitherto we have considered these letters as they 
are heard under the accent ; but when they are unaccented 
in the participial termination ingj they are frequently a 
cause of embarrassment to speakers who desire to pro- 
nounce correftly. We are told, even by teachers of Eng- 
lish, that ingy\n the words^ singings hrlngingy and swiftgrngy 
mpst be pronounced with the ringing sound, which is heard 
when the accent is on these letters, in king y sing, and wingy 
and not as if written without the g, as singin, Hnginy 
smttgin. No one can be a greater advocate than I am for 
tliestriAest adherence to orthography, as^ong as the pub- 
lic pronunciation pays the least attention to it ; but^when 
I fidd letters given up by the Public, with respect to sound, 
I then consider them a^ cyphers ; and, if my observation 
does not greatly fail me, I can assert, that our best speak- 
ers do not invariably pronounce the participial ing, so as 
to rhymft with singy king, and ring. Indeed, a very ob- 
vious exception seeins to offer itself in those verbs that 
end in these letters, as a repetition of the ringing sound in 
successive syllables would produce a Tautophonyy (see the 
word) aad have a very bad efieA on the ear ; and there- 
fore, instead of singingy bringing y zuA Jlingingy our best 
speakers are heard to pronounce sing-in^ hing-iny and 
fling-in ; and for the very same reason that we exclude the 
ringing sound in these words, we ought to admit it when 
the verb ends with in ; for if, instead of sinning, pinningy 
and bepnningy we should pronounce sin-^in, pin^nin, and 
begifh^iny we should fall into the same disgusting repetition 
as in the former case. The participial ingy therefore, ought 
always to have its ringing sound, except in those words 
formed from verbs in this termination \ for writing, read- 
ingy and speakingy are certainly preferable to writin, readin, 
and speaUny ipdierever the pronunciation has the least de- 
gree of precision or solemnity. 

411. ^ is mute when it ends a syllable, and is preceded 
by /or m, as Uin, ijmny limny solemn^ column^ autumn, condemn, 
contemn. In bym^ningy and Rm-ningy the n is generally pro- 
nounced, and sometimes, in very solemn speaking, in con^ 
iem^ning and cofstem-ning \ but, in boiU cases, contrary to 
analogy, which forbid; any sound in the participle that was 
not in the verb. (S81) ^ 

V p. 

412. This letter is mute before / and / at the beginning 
of words, psalm, psalmist, psalmody, psalmography, psalter, 
psabry'y the ^t&xpseudo, signifying false, 2S pseudograpbyy 
pseudoiogy, and the interjeAion psiawl To these we may 
2dd ptisan, ptyalism, ptysmagogue. It is mute in the middle 
of words between m and /, in empty, sempstress, peremptory, 
sumptuous, presumptuous, redemption, exemption, and raspberry. 
In cupboard it coalesces with and falls into its flat sound by 
as if written cubboard. It is mute in a final syllable be- 
tween the same letters^ as tempt, attempt, contempt, exempt, 


^ 413. Ph is generally pronounced like/, as in philosophyr 
phantom^ &c. In nephew and Stephenii has the sound of v. 
In diphthong and triphthong the sound of p only is heard ; , 
and the h is mute likewise in naphthay opbthalmichy &c. In 
iat/e/A/Ag'/w both letters are dropped. The same may be 
observed of pbthisisy phthisicy and phthisical. In sapphire the 
firsts slides wto ph, by an accentual coalition of similar 
letters, very agreeable to analogy. See Exaggerate* 

414. Q 1^2S always the sound of i : it is constantly fol- 
lowed by Uy pronounced like w : and its general sound is 
heard in quacky quilly queeny &c. pronounced hwack, twill, 
kween, &c. That the u subjoined to this letter has really 
the power of w, may be observed in the generality of v 
words where a succeeds $ for we find the vowel go into the 
broad sound in quart, quarrel, quantityy 8cc. as much as in 
war, warrant, want, &c. (85) But it must be carefully 
noted, that this broad sound is only heard under the ac- 
cent; when the a preceded by qu, is not accented, it has 
the sound of every other accented a in the language. (92) 
Thus the a in quarter, quarrel, quadrant, &c. because it has 
the accent, is broad : the same may be observed when the 
accent is secondary only, (522) (527) as in quadragesimal, 
quadrisyllable, &c. but when the accent is on the succeeding 
syllable, as in qua^ratici, qua-Jrangular, &c. the a goes into 
the obscure sound approachipg to the Italian a« (92) 

41 5. Aft a great number of words, derived from the' 
French, have these letters in them, according to our usual 
complaisance for that language, we adopt the French pro- 
nunciation : thus in coquet, doquet^ eHquette, masqueradcy 
harlequin^ oblique^ antiqucy opaque, pique, piquant^ piquets 
burlesque^ grotesque^ casque, mosque, quadrilUy quater- 
cousin, the qu is pronounced like k, Quoi/znd quoit ought to 
be written and pronounced coj/i r^/V. Paquetjaquey,<hequer, 
and risque, have been very properly spelled by Johnson as 
they are pronounced ^arte, lackey, checker, and risk. Quoth 
ought to be pronounced with the 2/, as if written kwuth, 
and therefore is not irregular. Liquor zxid harlequin always* 
lose the u, and conquer, conqtserable^znd conqueror, sometimesy. 
particularly on the Stage. This deviation, however, seems 
not to have gone beyond recovery ; and conquest is stilt 
regularly pronounced conkwest. Quote and quotation are 
perfeAly regular, and ought never to be pronounced as 
some do, cote and cotation. Cirque, contraAed from circus^- 
and cinque, cinquefril, cinque-ports, cinque->spotted, are pro* 
nounced sirk and sink ; and critique, when we mean st 

Digitized by 




criticism/ to didttnguish it from crttickf is pronounced 
criteekf rhyming with speak. SeeQuoiTand Quotation. 


416. This letter is never silent, but its sound is some- 
times transposed. In a final unaccented syllable, termi- 
nating with rv the r is pronounced after the e, as acre, 
lucre, sabre, fibre, ochre, eagre^ maugre, sepulchre, theatre, 
spectre, fnetre,petre, mitre, nitre ^ antre, lustre, accoutre, maS" 
setcre \ to which we may add, cefttre and sceptre \ sometimes 
written center and scepter ; but, in my opinion, very im- 
properly, as this peculiarity is fixed, and easily understood ; 
while reducing meagre to meager disturbs the rule, and adds 
another anomaly to our pronunciation^ by making the g 
hard before <?. (98) 

417. The same transposition of r is always perceived in 
the pronunciation of apron and irm \ and often in that of 
cHron and saffron, as if written apurny turn, churn, saffum : 
nor do I think the two first, can be pronounced otherwise 
without a disagreeable stiffiiess; but the two last may pre- 
serve the r before the vowel with great propriety^ Chil- 
(^-en and hundred have ^lid into this analogy, when used 
colloquially, but preserve the r before the e in solemn 

418. As tills letter is but a jar of the tcmgue, sometimies 
airainst the roof of the mouth, and si»netimes at the orifice 
of the throat, it is the most imperfect of "all the con- 
sonants ; and, as its formation is so indefinite,, no wonder, 
when it is not under the accent, that the vowels v^icb pre^ 
cede it, should be so indefinite in their sounds^ as* we may 
perceivein the words /Hflr> Her, elixir, nadir, mayor, mar* 
tyr, which^ with respeft to sound, might be written friur, 
Hur, elixur, nadur, mayur, martyr, (98) These inaccuracies 
* in prqnunciaticHi,* says a» ingenious writer, * we seem to 
' have derived from our Saxon ancestors. Dr. Hicks olv 
' serves in the first chapter of kis Saxon GranBinar, that 
<^ ^ Comparativa apud eos (Anglo^axonas) indiifferen«er 
«* * exeunt in ar, ar^ er, ir, or, ur^ ;r ; et Superkitiva in ast, 
** * £st, est, ist, ost, ust,yst', participia prsBsentie temporis in 
*< * and, snd, end, ind, ond, und, yndi pp»teriti verd in ad, 
" < ad, idy od, ud, yd •, pro vario scilicet vel avi vel loci 
<< < dtaleAo.' Upon various o^ev occasions also they 
« used two OS mpre vowels and diphthoDfi iudiflfepently \ 
*< and this not always from difiierence of age or pkice> 
*^ because tl^ese variations are fireqaendy found in the 
'^ same page. Thb will account for the difference between 
« ^e spelling and pronunciatioA of such anonialous words 
*< as busy and bwry,ixcm proaounced aft if written bisy and 
<^ beryy (the i and e having their common short sound) and 
*^ fotmerly spelt ittdifferenriy with e, u, or y Essay on ^ 
Harmony of LangaagB* Robson, 1774. 

4^9. There is a disdndion in. the sound of this letter, 
searcely ever uodoed bf Any o£ our writers o» the subject, 

which is, in my opinion, of no small importance ; and that 
is, the rough and smooth r. Ben Jonson, in his Grammar^ 
says it is sounded firm in the beginning of words, and more 
liquid in the middle and ends, as in rarer, riper ; and so in 
the Latin. The rough, r is formed by jarring the tip of 
the tongue against the roof of tile mouth near the fore 
teeth : the smooth r is a vibration of the lower part of the 
tongue, near the root, against the inward region of the pa- 
late, near the entrance of the throat. Thb latter r is that 
which marks the pronunciation of England, and the former 
that of Ireland. In England, and particaiarly in London, 
the r in lard, bard^ card, regard, &c. is pronounced so muclx 
in the throat as to be little more than the middle or Italian 
a, lengthened into /aad, baad, caad, regaad; while in Ire<* 
land the r, in these words, is pronounced with so strong » 
jar of the tongue against the fore-part of the palate, and 
accompanied with such an aspiration, or strong breathing, 
at the beginning of the letter, as to produce that harshness 
we call the Irish accent. But if this letter is too forcibly 
pronounced in Ireland, it is often too feebly sounded in 
England, and particularly in London, where it is some- 
times entirely sunk ; and it may, perhaps, be worthy oi 
observation, that, provided we avoid a too forcible pro- 
nunciation of the r, when it ends a word, or is- folfoved 
by a consonant in the same syUaUe, we may give as mucK 
force as we please to this letter, at the beginning of a word, 
without producing any harshness to the ear : thus Rom^, 
river, rage, may have the r as forcible as in Ireland; but 
bar, bardy card, hardy ^c. must have it nearly a6( id 

42Q. As the fornier letter was a jar, this is a Iftss ; but 
a hiss which forms a much aoore definite and complete 
consonant than the other. This consonant, like the other 
mutes, has a dbarp-and* a fiat soivid j the sharp sound b 
heard in the name of the letter, ask} in the words same, stity 
this ; the fiat sound is that of 2, beard ix¥ /'/, hit, nuets : smd 
these Vm> sou&ds, accompanied by the aspirate, or h, form 
all the varieties found uncfer this letter. (41) 

421. S has always its sharp hissing sound at the begin- 
ning of words, as soon, sin, &c. and when it immediately 
follows any of the sharp mutes,yi k,p, t, as scoffs ,,blocksyhips, 
pUs, or wften it is added' to the mute e after any of these 

^ letters^ as strtfer, flakes, pipes, mkes. 

422. S is sharp and hissing at the end of the monosyl- 
lables yes, this, us, thus, gas -, and at the end of words of 
two or more syllables, if it be preceded by" any of the 
vowels but e, and forms a distinct syllable : thus es in pipes 
and mites do not form a distinct syllable ; and as they are 
preceded by a sharp mute, the / is sharp likewise; bat in 
/rrrcw these letters form a syllable, and the / is pronoimced 
like z, according to the general rule. 

Digitized by 




4W. The only ex<?eptions to this rule are, the words as, 
nohertas^ has, hUy was 5 for btasy dowlasy Atlas, metropolis, 
basis, chaos, tripos, pus, chorus, Cyprus, &c. have the final / 
pronounced sharp and hissing. ^ 

•124. Agreeably to thb rule, the numerous terminations 
mous, ^ pious, superfluous, &c. have the s sharp, and are 
pronounced exaftly like the pronouns; and every double 
/ in the language is pronounced in the same manner, ex- 
cept in the words dissolve, possess, and their compounds j 
scissors, hussy, and hussar* 

425. 5 in the inseparable preposition dis, when either 
the primary or secondary accent is on it, (522,) is alvrays 
pronounced sharp and hissing : the word dismal, which 
seems to be an exception, is not so in reality j for, in this 
word dis is not a preposition : thus dissolute, dissonant, &c. 
with the primary accent on <C/ } and disability, disagree, &c. 
with the aecondsuy accent on the same letters, hav^ the / 
sharp and hissing 5 but when the accent is on the second 
syllable, the / is either sharp or flat, as it i^ followed either 
by a vowel, or a sharp or flat consonant : thus disable, diS" 
oHer, disease, disinierested, dishonest, disorder, disuse, have all 
of them the / in dis flat lik z, because the accent is not on 
it, and a vowel begins the next syllaWe 5 but £scredit, 
disfavour, difiittdmss, dispense, distate, have the / sharp and 
hissing, because a sharp consonant begins the succeeding 
accented syllable 5 and disband, disdain, disgrace, dispm, dis-- 
value, have the s flat like z, because they arc succeeded by 
a fiat consonant in the same situation. (435) 

426. S, in the inseparable preposition mis, is always sharp 
and histtng, whether the accent be on it or not \ or 
whether it be follovired either by a vowel, or a sharp or flat 
consonant, as miscreant, mlsaim, misapply, misorder, misuse, 
misbegat, misdeem, misgovern, &c. See the prefix Miss. 

427. S,ibllow;ed by e in the final syllable of adjeftives, 
is always sharp and hissing, tls base, obese, precise, concisk, 
globose, verbose^ morbose, pulicose, tenebricose, corticose, jocose, 
cleosey rugose, desidiose, close, siliculose, calculose, tmnulose, 
ammose, venenose, arenose, siliginose, crinose, loose, operose, 
morose, edemaiose, comatose, acetose, aquose, siliquose, actuose, 
diffuse, pri^iiS£, ocduse, recluse^ abstruse, obtuse *, except wise 
and otberguise, and die pronominal adjectives these and 

426. £,in the adjeftive termination sive, is always sharp 
and fats»iag, as suusive, persuasive, assuasive, dissuasive, 
adhesive, cohesive, decisive, precisive, incisive^ derisive, 
ficafrisive, visive, plausive^ ahusive, diffusive^ infusibe^ 
iitclusive, conclusive, exclusive^ elusive, delusive, prelusive, 
al!:*sive, illusive^ collusive^ amusive^ obtrusive, &c. 

429. &, in the adjeAives ending in sory^ is always sharp 
and hissing, as suasory, persuasory, decisory, derisory, delu^ 
sory, &c. 

4S0. The some may be obstrved of / in the adjeAives 

ending in some, as troublesome, &c. and substantives in osiiy^ 
generosity, &c. 

431. Se, preceded by the liquids /, n, or r, has the / 
sharp and hissing, as pulse, afpulse, dense, tense, intense, 
sense, verse, adverse, &c. except cleanse. 

S pronounced Hie Z. 

432. S has always its fiat buzzing sOund, as it may b^ 
called, when it immediately follows any of the flat mutes 
b, d,g hard, or v, as ribs, heads, ra^s, sieves. (24) 

4S3. S is pr^iounced like z, when it forms an add!-* 
tional syllable with ^before it, in the plurals of nouns, and 
the third person singular of verbs ', even though the singu- 
lars and first persons end in sharp hissing sounds, 9s asses, 
riches, cages, boxes, &c. th|is prices and prizes have both the 
final / flat, though the preceding mute in the first word is 
sharp. (422) 

434. As J is hissing, when preceded by a liquid, and 
followed by ^ mute, as transe, tense, &c. so when it follows 
any of the liquids without the e, it is pronounced like z, 
as morals, means, seems, hers. In the same analogy, when 
/ comes before any of the liquids, it has the soimd of 2, as 
cosmetic, dismal, pismire, chasm, prism, theism, schism, and 
all polysyllables ending in asm, ism, osm, or ysm, ?s enthu^ 
siasm, Judaism, microcosm, paroxysm, &c. 

435. S, in the preposition dis, is either sharp or flat, as 
it is accented or unaccented, as explained above ; but it 
ought always to be pronounced like z, when it is not un- 
der the accent;^ and is followed by a flat mute, a liquid, or 
a vowel, as disable, disease, disorder, disuse, disband, disdain, 
disgrace, disvalue, disjoin, dislike, dislodge, dismay ^ dismember, 
dismount, dismiss, disnatured, disrani, disrelish, disrobe, (425) 
Mr. Sheridan, and those orthbepists who have copied him, 
seem to have totally overlooked this tendency in the 
liquids to convert the j to z when this letter ends the first 
syllable without the accent, and the liquids begin the se- 
cond sylla^ble with it. , 

436. Mispronounced likez, in the monosyllables a/, is, 
his, was, these, those, and in all plurals whose singulars end 
in a vowel, or a vowel followed by e mute, as commas, 
operas, shoes, aloes, dues, and consequently when it follows 
the w or y, in the plurals of nouns, or the third person 
singular of verbs, as ways, betrays, news, vinw^ Sec. 

437. Some verbs ending in se have the / like z, to ^is* 
tinguish them from nouns or adjectives of the same form. 

Nouns. Verbs. Nouns. Verbs. 

grease to grease excuse to excuse 

close to chse refuse to refuse 

house ^ to house diffuse to diffuse 

mouse to mouse uso to use 

louse to louse rise to fise 

abuse to abuse premise to premise. 

Digitized by 




43S, Syand //y, at the end of words, have the / pro- 
nounced like z, if it has a vowel before it, with the accent 
en it, as easy, greasy, queasy, cheesy, daisy, misy, rosy, cattsy, 
noisy \ but if th^ accent is on the antepenultimate syllable, 
the / is sharp, as heresy, poesy, &c. if a sliarp mute precede, 
the s is sh^rp, as trihy, tipsy ; if a liquid precede, and the 
accent is on the penultimate syllable, the / is flat, as palsy, 
fiitnsy, clumsy, pansy, tansy, phrensy, quinsy, tolsey, nvhimscy, 
malmsey, jersey, kersey. Purseyhzs the / sharp and hissing 
firom its relation to pui%se, and minsirelsey and controversy 
have the antepenultimate and preantepenultimate accent : 
thus we see why husy,^ bousy, lousy, and drowsy,^ have the 
/ like z, znd jealousy, the sharp liissing /. 

439. S, in the termination sihle, when preceded by a 
'rowel, is pronounced like z, as persuasible, risible, visible, 
divisible, infusible, conclusible -, but if a liquid consonant 
precede the s, the / then becomes sharp and hbsing, as 
sensible, responsible, tensible, reversible, &c. 
. 440. S, in the terminations sary and sory^ is sharp and 
hissing, as dispensary^ adversary, sUasory^ penuasory, de- 
cisory, incisory% derisory, depulsory, compulsory, incensory, 
compensory, suspensory, sensory, responsory, cursory, discur. 
sory, lusory, elusory, delusory, illusory, collusory. Rosary 
and misery, which have the s like z, are the only 

441. S, in the termination ise, is pronouced like z, 
except in the adjeftives before mentioned, and a few sub- 
stantives. sxxdcL 3^ paradise J anise, rise, £rise,verdigrise, nwr^ 
tise, travise. 

442. S, in the termination Wand /^^Z, when preceded 
by a vowel, is pronounced like z, as nasal, ousal, housed, 
musal^ reprisal, proposal, refusal, and sharp and hissing when 
preceded by a consonant, as mensal, universal, &c. 

443 S, in the termination son, sen, and sin, is pronounced 
like z, as reason, season, trfason, cargason, diapason, orison, 
benlsou, venison, demson, foison, poison, prison, damson, critnson, 
chosen, resin, rosin, raisin, cousin. But the s in mason ^ bason, 
garrison, caparison, comparison^ parson, and persoti is sharp 
and hissing. (170) 

444. S, after the inseparable prepositions pre and pro, 
is sharp, as in presage, preside, presidial, preseance, presen^ 
sifin, pr^secute^ prosecution, prosody, prosopopeia, but flat 
like z m presence, president, presidency, presume, presump- 
iiiue, presumption, but where the pre is prefixed to a word 
which is significant when alone, the s is always sharp, as 
presuppose, pre-surmise, &c. 

445. S, after the inseparable preposition re, is almost 
always pronounced like z, as resemble, reseat, resenttnent, re- 
serve, rjservatiin, reservoir^ residue, resident, resi/lentiary, 
rcshie, resign, r^signment, resignatj n, resilience, resiliency, 
resiliticn, resin, resist, resistance, resolve, resolution^ reso- 
lute, result, resume^ resumption, resurrection, 

446. S is sharp after re in resuscitation, resupination, &c. 

and when the ,word added to it is significant by itself, as 
research, resiege, reseat, resurveyi Thus to resign, with the 
/ like z, signifies to yield up ; but to resign, to sign again, 
has the / sharp, as in sign : so to resound, to reverberate, 
has the / like z ; but to re-sound^ to sound again, has the x 
sharp and hissing. 

447. Thus w^ see, after pursuing this letter through all 
its combinations, howdiflicult it often is to decide by ana- 
logy, when we are to pronounce it sharp and hissing, and 
when flat like z. In many cases it is of no great import- 
ance : in others, it is the distinftive mark of a vulgar or a 
polite pronunciation. Thus design is never heard with 
the / like z, but among the lowest order of tibe people -, 
and yet there is not the least reason fVom analogy why we 
should not pronounce it in this manner, as well as in resign -. 
the same may be observed of preside and desist, which have 
the / sharp and hissing ; and reside and resist, where the 
same letter is pronounced like z. It may,, however, be re- 
marked, that r^has the / like z after it more regidarly than 
any other of the prefixes. 

448. It may, perhaps, be worthy of observation, that 
though / becomes sharp or flat, as it is followed bv a sharp 
or flat consonant, or a liquid, as cosmetic, dismal, disband, ' 
disturb, &c. yet if it follows a liquid or a flat consonant, 
except in the same syllable, it is generally sharp. Thus 
the / in tubs, suds, &c. is like z ; but in subserve, subside, 
subsist, it is sharp and hissing : and though it is flat in 
absolve, it is sharp in absolute and absolution i but if a sharp 
consonant precede, the / is always sharp and hissing, as 
tipsy, tricksy : thus in the pronunciation of the word Glas- 
gow, as the s is always sharp and hissing, we find the g in- 
variably slide into its sharp sound k ', and this word is 
always heard as if written Glasiow* We see, therefore, 
that a preceding sharp consonant makes the succeeding / 
sharp, but not inversely. 

449. S is always sharp and hissing when followed by c, 
except in the word discern. 

S aspirated, or sounding tike sh or zh. 

450. S, like its fellow dental /, becomes aspirated, and 
goes either into the sharp soimd sh, or tlie flat sound zh, 
when the accent is on the preceding -vowel, and it is fol- 
lowed by a semi-consonant diphthong, as- nauseate, or a 
diphthongal vowel, as pleasure, pronounced nausheaie and 
plezhure. (195) 

451. S, in the termination sion, preceded by a vowel, 
goes into the flat aspiration z^, as evasion, cohesion, decisicn, 
confusion, pronounced evazhion, &c. but when it is preceded 
by a liquid or another /, it has the sharp aspiration sh, as 
expulsion, dimension, reversion, pronounced eftpulshion, &c. 

452^ The same may be observed of j before u ; when a 
vowel precedes the /, with the accent on it, the / goes into 
the flat aspiration, as pleasure^ measu re^ treasure, rasure, 

Digitized by 




pronounced pkzhure^ &c. but when preceded hy a liquid> or 
another J, it is sounded x6, as unsualy ctfuure, /c^wwiv, pris^ 
surty pronounced senshualy cetukurey &c. 

463. From the clearness of this analogy, we may per- 
ceive the impropriety of pronouncing Asia with the sharp 
asfMratton, as if written Ash'ta / when, by the foregoing 
rule, it oug^t, undoubtedly to be pronounced Azhiay 
rhyming with Arpfcla^tuthanusioy &c. with the flat aspira- 
tion of z, lliis is the Slrotoh pronunciation of this word, 
and, tmquestiooabl^, the true one : but if I mistake not, 
ftrna ii pronouncM in ikotland with the same aspiration 
i& /,.and as if written Perzhia \ which is as contrary to 
analogy as the other is agreeable to it. 

♦5*. The tendency of the s to aspiration before a diph- 
thongal sound, has produced several anomalies in the lan- 
goagei which can only be detected by recurring to first 
principles: for which purpose it may be necessary to 
observe, that the accent or stress naturally preserves the 
letters in their true sound \ afid as feebleness naturally 
succeeds force, so the letters, immediately after the stress, 
have a tendency to slide into different sounds, which re- 
quire less exertion of the organs. Hence the omission of 
one of the vowels in the pronunciation of the last syllable 
oSfittntainy ntount^iriy captain^ &c. (208) hence the short 
' sound of / in respite, servile, &c. hence the / pronounced 
like % \n disable f where the accent is on the second sylla- 
ble ; and like s sharp and hissing in disability, where there 
is a secondary stress on the first syllable $ and hence the 
difference between the x in exercise, and that in exert ; the 
former having the accent on it, being pronounced cks, as 
if the word were written ecksercise ; and the latter without 
the accent, pronounced ^, as if the word were virritten 
f^ert. This analogy leads us itnmediately to discover the 
irregularity of sure, sugar, and their compounds, which are 
pronounced sbure and shugar, though the accent is on the 
first syllable, and ought to preserve the s without aspira- 
tion-, and a want of attending to this analogy has betrayed 
Mr. Sheridan into a series of mistakes iia the sound of s in 
the words suicide, presume, resume, &c. as if written shoo^ 
iciJi, pre-zhoom, re-zboom, &c. but if this is the true pro- 
nunciation of these words, it may be asked, why is not 
suiiy suitable, pursue, &c. to be pronounced shoot, shoot^ble, 
fur-sboo? dec. If it be answered, Custom $ I own this 
decides the question at once. ' Let us onlyt)e assured, that 
the best speakers pronounce a like o, and that is the true 
pronunciation : but those who see. analogy so openly vio- 
lated, ought to be assured of the certainty of the custom 
beiore they break through all the laws of language to con- 
form to it. (69) (71) See SupERiBLE. 

i5$. We have seen, in a great' variety of instances, the 
versatility of /, how frequently it slides into the sound of 
z: but mv observation greatly fails me if it ever takes the 
aspiration, unless Jt immediately follows the accent, except 

in the words sure, sugar, and their compounds j an 1 t^Lcse 
irregularities are sufTicient, without adding to the numerous 
catalogue we have already seen under this letter. 

^56, The analogy we have just been observing, directs 
us in the pronunciation of usury, usurer, and usurious. The 
first two have the accent on the first syllable, which per- 
mits the / to go into aspiration, as if this words were writ- 
ten uzhury and uzhurer : but the accent being on the second 
u in the last word, the s is prevented from going into aspi- 
ration, and is pronounced uzurious, (4*79) (4^80) 

457. Though the // in passion, mission, &c. belpng to 
separate syllables, as if spelt passio/t, mis^sion, &c., yet, the 
accent presses the first into the same aspiration as the last, 
and they are both pronounced v^ith the sharp aspirated 
hiss, as if they were but. one x. See £xAGGEtLAT£* 

458. S is silent in isle, island, aisle, demesne, puisne, w* 
count, and at the end of some words from the French, a$ 
pas, sous, vis^'Vis ; and in corps the two last letters are 
silent, and the word pronounced core. (412) 

459. ri$ the sharp sound of D ; (41) but though Bid 
latter is often changed into the former, the former never 
goes into the latter.. The sound to which this letter is 
extremely prone, is that of /. This sound of / has greatly, 
multiplied the hissing in our own language^ and has no|: 
a little promoted it in most modern tongues. That.^ and 
i, t and d, k and g hard, s and z, should slide into each 
other, is not surprising, as they are distinguished only by 
a nice shade of sound j but that / should alter to /, seema 
a most violent transition, till we consider the organic for- 
mation of these letters, and of those vowels which always 
occasion it. If we attend to the formation of /, we shall 
find that it is a stoppage of the breath by the application 
of the upper part of the tongue, near the end, to the cor- 
respondent part of the palate ; and that if we just detach 
the tongue from the palate, sufficiently to let the breath 
pass, a hiss is produced which forms the letter /. Now 
the vowel that occasions this transition of / to s, is the 
squeezed sound of e, as heard in y consonant : (8) which 
squeezed sound is a species of hiss ; and this hiss, from 
the absence of accent, easily slides into the /, and / as 
easily into sh : thus mechanically is generated that hissinj? 
termination tion, which forms but one syllable, as if written 
shun. (195) 

460. But it must be carefully remarked, that this hiss- 
sing sound, contracted by the / before certam diphthongs,, 
is never heard but after the accent : when the accent falls 
on tlxe vowel immediately after the t, this letter, like s or 
c in the same situation, preserves its simple sound : thua 
the c in social, goes into sh, because the accent is on the 
preceding vowel ; but it preserves the simple sound of / 
in society, because the accent is on the succeeding vowel. 

Digitized by 




The sam^ analogy i) obvious ih satiate aod satUty ; and is 
perfectly agreeabi^^ to that difference made by accent in 
the sound of other letters. (71) See Satiett, 

461. As the diphthongs /a^ ie, m, or w, when ccMning 
after the accent^ hare th^ power of drawing the t iata ib, 
so tlie diphthongal vowel ir> in the same sitoaitioDt has a 
simitar pdwer. If we analyse the w^ we sjiall find k €0C»- 
tnence with the squeezed sound of 0^ equivalent to the coo* 
sonant y. (39) This letter pro4uce8 the small hiss before 
taken notice of, (459) and which may be observed in the 
pronunciation of nattn-ey and borders so closely on naisiur, 
that it is no wander Mr. Sheridan adopted this latter mode 
of spelling the word to express its sound* The only £iolt 
of Mr, Sheridan in depicting the sound of this word» 
seems to be that of making the « shorty as in Air, cmr, &c. 
as every correct ear must perceive an elegance in lengtfaen- 
uigthesoundof the m, and a vulgarity in shorteniag it. 
The true pronunciation seems to lie between both. 

AGS. But Mr. Sheridan's greatest £uilt seems to lie in 
not attending to the nature and influence d the accent : 
and because nature^ creature, feattire, fortune^ misfortune f. 
fcc. have the / pronounced like eb, ortsi, mi£ written 
crea>^dmreyfBa4shure, &c. he has extended this change of 
t into tchy or tsh, to the word tune, and its compounds, 
tutor^ tutoress, tutorage, tutelage, tutelar, tutelary, &c« /»• 
mult, tumour, &c. which he spells tshoon, tshoon^ble, &c. 
tsboo^ur, tsboo-trlss, tshoo-tur^'idzh, tshoo^eUd^i, tshofhtet"^, 
ishothtel^er^y, &c. tshoo-mult, tshoo^mur, &c. Tliough it 
is evident, from the foregoing observati<ms, that as the «# 
is under the accent, the preceding / is preserved pure> and 
diat the words ought to be pronounced as if written tewtor, 
tenvmuh, tewmour. Sic. and neither tthootur, tshoomult, tshoo^ 
mour, as Mr. Sheridan writes them, nor tootor, toomub, 
toomour, as they are often pronounced by vulgar speakers. 


46S. Here, then, the line is drawn by analogy. When-> 
ever / comes before these vowels, and the accent imme- 
diately follows it, the t preserves its simple sound, as in 
MUtiades, elephantiasis, satiety, &c. but when the accent 
precedes the /, it then goes into sh, tch, or tsh, as na^ 
tsbure or natthure, na^hion, vir-4shue or virtchue, patient. 
Ice. or nashion, pashent. Sec. (464) In similar circumstances, 
the same may be observed of J, as arduous, hideous, &c. 
(293) (294) (S76) Nor is this tendency of i befi)re long 
u found only when the accent immediately precedes ; 
for we hear the same aspiration of this letter in spiritual^ 
spirituous, signatt^e, ligature, forfeiture, as if written spi^- 
fitshual, spiritshuous, signatsbure, Rgatsbure, foTfeitibure,Scc. 
where the accent is two syllables before these letters ; and 
the only termination which seems to refiise this tendency 
ef the / to aspiration, is that in tude, as latitude, hngjfuJe, 
Multitude, &c. 

464% This pPQUunciation of / extends to erery word 

where the diphthong or diphthongal sound 
with i or e, except in the terminattons of verbs and aci^eo-^ 
tives, which preserve the simple in the augment, witbovl 
suffering the f to go into the hissing sounds as I pitf, Aott 
pitiest, he pities, or pitied \ migiiier, worthier, t wentiet h, litfu? 
tietb, tec* Tills is agreeable to the general role^ whfck 
forbids the ac^ectives or vtML terminatioim to alter tho 
sound of the primitive verb or noun. See No. SU» 
But in the words testial, edietial^^^fimtier, netmintim, Bu^ 
where the /| «,ori» precedes the/, this lectarispniiioiiiMeft 
Mketch or tsb^ insttad of A ^1> as Aef.iUU< i^-tdia^ 
fron^teheer^ admi9t-4ction, Stc. as also when tke f is fbUoweA 
hyeou, whatever letter precede, as rigiteous, pitmte,f/h^ 
teens, ftc. pronounced rrgb^ckems, pet^deeout, pl emid S$$ n s^ 
ftc. The same may be observed of t jnbnn succeeded hpi i 
nou, as unctuous, presftmptnmt, &c. preoooiiced 9pg4dmoett^ 
premmp4clmus, &c. See the vocds. 

465. This lisping soundj'^s it ma j be called, Is aAoMWt 
peculiar to the English. (41 > (50) (469) The Greek 9 
was certainly not the sound we give it : like its prindpal 
letter, it has a sharp and a flat sound ; but these are ^o 
little subject to rule, that a catalogue wilt, perhaps^ be the 
best guide. 

466. Th, at the begiiming of words, is sharp, as in 
thank, think, &c. except in the following words : This, tbat^ 
than, the, thee, their, them, then, thence, there, these, they, 
thine, thither, those, thou, though, thus, thy, and their com- 

467. Tb, at the end of words, is sharp^ as death, breath, 
&c. except in beneath, booth, %vitb ; and the verbs to wreath, 
to loath, to uncloath, to seetb, to smooth, to sooth, to mouth : 
all which ought to be written with the e final ; not only to 
distinguish some of them ftx>m the nouns, but to show that 
th is soft ; for though tb, when final, is sometimes pro- 
nounced soft, as in to loath, to mouth, &c. yet the at the end 
of words is never pronotmced hard. There is as obvious 
an analogy for this sound of the th in these verbs, as for 
the z. sound of s in verbs ending in se\ (437) and why 
we should write some verbs with e, and others without it, 
is inconceivable. The best way to shew the absurdity of 
our orthography in this particular, will be to draw out the 
nouns and verbs as they stand in Johnson's DiAionary. 

Adje£tives and Nouns. 





to wreath, to inwreathe. 


to loathe A 


to doatbe, to unckati.. 


to bathe. 


to smooth. 


to mou^. 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



4Vtathf to swathe. 

a^^h (to sheath. 

^*^^^ \to sheathe. 

sooth f to sooth. 

SQreljrnodiing can be more evident than the analogy of 
the language in diis case. Is h not absurd to hesitate a 
moment at writing all the verbs with the e final ? This is 
a depaiture from our gteat lexicographer, Which he him- 
self would- approve; as nothing but inadvertency could 
iiave led him into this unmeaning irregularity. — It may 
not be improper to observe herej that those substantives 
wl^ch in die singular end with th sharps adopt the th flat 
intibe pkiral, as path^ paTHs; bath^ taTHs, &c. Such a 
propensity is there to sUde mto the flat sound of /, that we 
ifrequently liear thisiBOund in the genitive case, as My 
vnv^s portion'^ for my "wf^s portion, tn the same manner 
we hear, of paying so much for houze rent and taxes ^ instead 
of house rent and taxes % and shopkeepers tell us they have 
^oods of aUprizis^ instead of idl prices. Nay, some go so 
far as to prcmounce the plural of truths truTBs ; but this 
must be carefully avoided. ^ 

46S* Ih is hard in die middle of words, either when 
it precedes or follows a consonant, as panther ^ nepenthe^ 
orthodox, orthography^ orthoepy, thvarty athwart^ ethnic, mis'- 
antbrope, philanthropy f Sec. except brethren, farthing, farther,' 
northern, nuorihy, burthen, mmtber, where the th is flat • but 
the two last words are better written burden and murder. 

469. JS, between two vowels, is generally soft in words 
purely English, zs father, feather, heathen, hither, thither^ 
whither, whether, either, neither, weather, wether, wither, 
gather, together, pother, mother. 

470. Th, between two vowels, particularly in words from 
the gained languages, is generally hard, as opathy^ sympathy, 
antipathy^j/tbens, atheist, authentic, author, authority, athirst, ca-- 
-tbtuiic, cathedral, catholic, catheter, ether, ethics, lethargy ,Lethe, 
lewatban, litharge, lithotomy, mathesis, mathematics, method, 
pathetic, plethora, polymatby, prothonotary, anathem0f amethyst, 
theatre, amphitheatre, apothecary, apotheosis. 

471. Th is sometimes pionounced like simple /, as 
Jhmas, thyme, Thames, asthma, phthisis ^ phthisic, phthisical, 
and is sDent in twelftbtide, pronounced twelftide. 

T silent^ ^ 

472. T is silent when preceded by /, and followed by 
^e abbreviated terminations en and le, as hasten, chasten, 
fasten, listen, glisten, christen, moisten, which are pronounced 
uif wricten hac^n,ehace*n, &c. in hersten the / is heard : 
80 castle, nestle, trestle, wrestle, thistle, whistle, epistle, bristle, 
gristle, jostle^ apostle^ throstle, bustle, justle, rustle, are pro- 
nounced as if written eassk, nessle,. Scc^ in pestle the / is 
pronounced ', in often, fasten, and soften, the / is silent, and 
at th^ end of several words from the French, as trait,gout, 
(taste) eclat. In the first of these words the t begins to 

be pronounced ; in the last, it ^a& been sometimes heard ^ 
but in the second, never. Tcupet is more frequcmly writ- 
ten toupee J and b therefore not irregulrx. In billet^oux the 
/ is silent, as well as in hautboy. The same silence of / may 
oe observed in the English words, Christmas, cl?estnut,mort^ 
gage, ostler, bankruptcy^ and in the second s»y liable of tmstU-^ 
toe. In currant and currants, the / is always mute. Sef 
No. 102, 103, 405. 

473. risflat/, and bears the same relation to it as* 
does to p, d to /, hard g to k, and % to /. (4 1.) It is neve^ 
irregular i and if ever silent, it is in the word tw.lvemonth^ 
where both that letter and the e are, in colloquial.pr6min* 
ciation, generally dropped, as if written tweVvwith* 

• W initiaL 

474. That w at the beginning of a word is a consonant^ 
has been proved already. (9) (59) It is always :$ilent bef^zif 
r,2smwraci, wrangle, wrap, wrath, wreai, %uveath, wreei^ 
wren, wrench, wrest, ^vrestle, wretch, wri^le, wrjght^ 
wring, wrinkle, wrist, write, writhe, wrongs wrought, wry^ 
awry, bewray \ and before h^ and the vowel o, when lon^ 
as whole, who, &c. pronounced hole, hoo, &c. 

475. TF, before h, is pronounced as^ if it were after the 
h, as hoo^, why, hoo-^en, when, &c. but in whole, whoops &c« 
the single and double o coalescing with the same, sound 
in w, this last letter is scarcely perceptible^ In swoo^ 
however, this letter is always heard ; and pronouncin|E it 
soon, is vulgar. In sword and answer it is always silent. 
In two it mingles with its kindred sound, and the number 
two is pronounced like the adverb /00. In the prepositions 
toward wad towards, the w is dropped, as if written toard 
and toardfy rhyming with hoard and hoards -, but in the 
adjedtives and adverbs toward and towardly, Jroward miX 

frowardly the w is t^eard distinctly. It is sometimes 
dropped in the last syllable of awkward, as if writteil 
awkard\ but this pronunciation is vulg<u. 

476. Xis a letter composed of those which have been 
already considered, and therefore will need but little dis- 
cussion. (48) (51) It is flat or sharp like its component 
letters, and is subject to the same laws. 

477. .«rbas a sharp sound like hs, when it ends a syU 
lable with the accent. upon it, as exercise',^xcellence, &c. or 
when the accent is on the next syllable, if it begin with a 
consonant, as excuse, expense, &c. (71) 

i 478. X has its flat sound like gsh ^|ben the accent is not 
<m it, and the iftxtlowingfyU^ble having- the accent begins 
with a vowel, as exert^ example, exist, &c. pronounced 
egzert, igzample, egvUst, &c. The same seiAid may be ob- 
served if h folloVj as in exhibit, exhale, &c. pronounced 


Digitized by 




egzhiiitf egzhalcy but if the secondary accen^ be on the iCy 
in the polysyllable exhiHtion, exhalation^ &c. this letter is 
then sharp, asm exerciser (71) but in compound words, 
where the^ primitive ends in *, this letter retains its 
primitive sound, as fixation^ taxation^ vexation, vexatious, 
relaxation, &c. to which we may add tliQ simples in our 
language, and proximity ; $a that this propensity 
of X to become egz, seems confined to the inseparable 

479. X, like /, is aspirated, or takes the sound of h after 
It, only when the accent is before it : hence the difference 
been luxury and luxurious', anxious and anxiety: in the 
true pronunciation of which w;ords, nothing will direct us 
but recurring to first principles. It was observed that s is 
never aspirated, or pronounced like sh, but when the 
:accent is on the preceding syllable ', (450) and that when 
the accent is on the succeeding vowel, though the / fre- 
quently is pronounced like z, it is never sounded zh-i from 
which premises we may conclude, that luxury and luxurious 
ought to be pronounced It^ckshury and lugzurious, and not 
lug'^zho^ryus, as Mr. Sheridan spells it. The same error 
runs through his pronunciation of all the compounds, 
ttixuriance, luxuriant, luxuriate, &c. which unquestionably 
ought to be pronounced lug'ZU'ri^nce,lug''ZU»ri''ant, lug-xu^ 
ri-ate, &c. in four syllables, and not in three only, as they 
are divided in his Diftionary. 

480. The same principUs will lead us to decide in the 
words anxious and anxiety : as the accent is before the x in 
tlie first word, it is naturally divisible into anh^hious, and 
as naturally pronounced ank-shus ; but as the accent is after 
the X in the second word, and the.hissing sound cannot be 
aspirated, (456) it must necessarily be pronounced ang- 
zi^y- But Mr. Sheridan, without any regard to the com- 
ponent letters of these words, or the different position of 
the accent, has not only spelled them without aspiration, 
but without letting the s, in the composition of the last 
word, go into z > for thus they stand in his Diftionary : 
ani'Syus, ank-si-e^ty. (456) 

481. The letter x, at the beginning of wordsj goes into 
7,^as Xerxes, Xenophon, &c. pronounced Zerxses, Zetiophon, 

'&c. it is silent at the end of the French hillet-^ux, and 
pronounced like j* in beaux ; often and better written beaus. 

T initial. 

482. /*, as a consonant, has always the same sound -, 
and this has been sufiiciently described in ascertaining its 
real character ; (40) whei^ it is a vowel at the end of a 
word or syllaUe with the accent upon it, it is soumled 
exactly like the first sound of i, as cy^er, tyrant, re^ly,8cc. 
but at the e;Qd of a word or ^Uable> without the accent^ it 

. is proaounced like the first sound of e, liberty^ fury, ten-- 
dtrly, &c. 

483. Z is the fiat /, and bears the same relation to it as 
b does to p, d to /, hard g to I, and vtof. Its common 
name is izzard, which Dr. Johnson explains into / hard^ 
if, however, this be the meaning, it is a gross misnomer : 
for the z is not the hard, but the soft / :* but as it has a 
less sharp, and therefore not so audible a sounds it is txnt 
impossible but it may mean / surd. Zed, borrowed from 
the French, is the more fashionable name of this letter \ 
but, in my opinion, not to be admitted, because the names 
of the letters ought to have no diversity. 

484. Z, like /, goes into aspiration before a diphthongi 
or a diphthongal vowel after the accent,^ as is heard in 
vizier, glazier, grazier, &c. pronounced vizh^-er, glazt-i-^, 
grazb^i-er, &c« The same may be observed of azure, ra^ 
zure, Sec. 

^ 485. Zis silent in the French word rendezvous', and i^ 
pronounced in the Italian manner, as if / were before it, in 
mezzotinto, as if written metzotinto. 

Thus having endeavoured to exhibit a Just idea of the 
principles of pronunciation, both with respect to single let- 
ters^ and their various combinations into syllables and 
words. The attentive reader must have observed how 
much the sounds of the letters vary, as they are differently 
associated, and how much the pronunciation of these asso- 
ciations d_epends upon the position of the accent. This is 
a point of the utmost importance, and a want of attending 
to it has betrayed several ingenious men into the grossest 
absurdities* This will more fully appear in the observa- 
tions on accent^ which is the next point to be considered. 


486. The accent of the ancients is the opprobrium of 
modem criticism. Nothing can show more evidently the 
faUibility of the human faculties than the total ignorance 
we are in at present of the nature of the Latin and Greek 
accent. f This would be still more surprising if a "pheno- 
menon of a similar kind did not daily present itself to our 
view. The accent of the English language, which is con- 
stantly sounding in our ears, and every moment open to 
investigation, seems as much a mystery as that accent which 

* Professor Ward, speaking of the reason for doubling the / at the end 
ot words, says, *' /doubled retains its proper force, which, when tingle at 
** the end of words, is nftenedinto s, as bU^ bu*.** And Dr. WalUs telli tiS| 
that it is almost certain when a noun has s hard in the last syllable, and'be- 
comes a verb ; that in the latter case the s becomes soft, at a biiue is pro- 
nounced with the h^rd *, and to boa*t with the s soft. 

f See Observations on the Greek and Latin Accent and Quantity, at 
the end of the Key to the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, LatiO; and 
Scripture Proper Name«» 

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is removed almost two thousand years from our view. 
Obscurity! perplexity, and confusion^ run througbi every 
treatise on the subject, and nothbg could be so hc^eless 
as an attempt to explain it, did not a circumstance present 
itself, which at once accounts for the confusion, and affords 
a clew to lead us out of it. 

487. Not one writer on accent has given us such, a de- 
finition of the voice as acquaints us with its essential pro- 
perties : they speak of high and low, loud and soft, quick 
and slow ; but they never once mention that striking pro- 
perty which distinguishes speaking from singing sounds, 
and which^ from its sliding fh>m high to low, and fironv 
low to high, may not improperly be called the inflection 
of the voice. No wonder, when vnriters left this out of 
the account, thatitjbey should blunder about the nature of 
accent: it was impossible they should do otherwise; so 
partial an idea tif the speaking voice must necessarily lead 
them into error. But let us once divide the voice into its 
rising and falling inflexions, the obscurity vanishes, and 
accent becomes a9 intelligible as any other part of language. 

488. Keeping this distinction in view, let us compare 
the accented syllabled with others, and we shall £nd this 
general conclusion may be drawn : ** The accented syllable 
*^ is always louder than the rest ; but when it has the 
*^ rising inflection, it is higher than the preceding, and 
'' lower than the succeeding syllable: and when it has the 
^ falling inflection, it is pronounced higher as well as 
^ louder than the other syllables, either preceding or 
^ succeeding." The only exception to this rule is, ** when 
*' the accent is on tlie last syllable of a word which has no 
*^ emphasis, and which is the concluding word of a dis- 
^ coiurse." Thos^ who vrish to see this clearly demons 
strated may consult Elements of Elocution, second edition, 
page 181. On the present occasion it will be sufficient to 
observe, that the stresa wecail accent is as well understood 
as is necessary for the prommdation of single words, which 
is the object of this treatise; and therefore, considering 
accent merely as stress, we shall proceed to make some re- 
marks on its proper position in a word, and endeavour to 
deteft ^me errors in the use and application of it. 

Tit different Positions of the English Accent. 

489. Accent, in its very nature, implies a comparison 
withiother sylbbles less forcible ; hence we may conclude 
that monosyllables, properly speakings have no accent: 
vhen theyare combined with other monosyllables and form 
a plurase, the fUXfiss which is laid upon one, in preference 
to others, i& called emphasis. As emphasis evidently points 
out the most significant word in- a sentence, so, where other 
leasons do not forbid, the accent alwap dwells with greatest 
force on that part of the word which, from its importance, 
the hearer has always the greatest occasion to observe \ and 
dus is necesssirily the root, Ox body of the word. But as^ 

harmony of termination frequently attracts the accent from 
the root to the branches of words^ so the first and most 
natural law of accentuation seems to operate less in fixing 
the stress than any of the other. Our own Saxon termina- 
tions, indeed, with perfeft iwiiformity, leave the principal 
part of the word in quiet possession of what seems its ^w- 
fiil property i (501) but Latin and Greek terminations, of 
which our laj^guage is'full, assume a right (^ preserving 
their original accent, and subjecting many of the words 
they beistow upon us, to their own classical laws. 

490. Accent, therefore, seems to be regulated, in a gtrot 
measure, by etymology. In words fironi the Saxon, the , 
accent is generally on the root i in words from the learned 
languages, is is generally on the termination; and if. to 
these vpe add the different accent we lay on some words, 

to distinguish them from others, we seem to have tlie thr^e 
great principles of accentuation ; namely, the radical, the 
tenninational, and the distinAive. 

Accent on Dissyllables. 

491. Every word of two syllables has necessarily on^ of 
them accented, and but one. It is true, for the sake of 
emphasis, we sometimes lay an equal stress upon two suc- 
cessive syllables, as di-recty some-times ; but when these 
words are pronounced alone, they have never more than 
one accent. For want of attending to this distinction, 
some writers have roundly asserted, that many dissyllables 
have two accents, such as convoy^ concourjey discord^ ship» 
wreck : in which, and similar instances, they confound the 
distinctness, vrith which the latter syllaMes are necessarily 
pronounced, vrith accentual force ; though nothing 
more different* Let us pronounce the last syllable of the 
noun torment as disf inftly as we please, it wilt still be very 
different with respeft to force, from the same syllable in 
the verb to tormenty where the accent is on it ; and if wc 
do but carefully watch our pronunciation, the same differ- 
ence will appear in every word of two syllables throughout 
the language. The word Amen is the only word which is 
pronounced with two consecutive accents when alone. 

492. There is a peculiarity of accentuation in certain 
words of two syllables, which are both nouns and verbs, 
that is iiot unworthy of notice \ the nouns having the 
accent on the first sylla6le,and the verbs on the last. This 
seems an instinctive effort in the language (if the expres- 
sion will be allowed me) to compensate in some measure for 
the want of different terminations for these different parts, 
of speech.* 

* It 18 not iiii|>robable that the verb, by receiving a participial termioa* 
tioa. has 'iticUB^d us ta pranounce that part of speech with an- accent 
nearer the end than we do the noun: for though we can without any dif- 
ficulty pronounce the verb with the accent on the nonU) we cannot to 
eaiily proamiMC t^ fMrtictplc and th« adrtfb ItnMd frqyi k wklkthar 

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The words which admit of this diversity of aocent are 
the following ; 






to eJject 


to desc&nt 


to absifd 


to digest 


to abstract 


to essay 


to accent 


to export 




to etetrict 


to assfgn 


Vf^ exile 


to augment 



to bombard 




to cement 


to impoi^ 


to colleague 


to incinse 


to adlect 


to msib 


to contact 


to objeet 


to compound 


to perfume 


"to compress 


to permit 


to concert 


to prefix 


to concrete 


to premise 


to conduct 


to presage 


to confine 


to present 


to conflict 




to conserve 


to project 


to con^trt 


'to protest 


to contest 


to rebel 


to contract 


to rec9rd 


to contrast 


ttr^te ' 


to convent 


to subject 


to converse 


to survey ^ 


tD convert 


to torment 


to convtct 


to tn^ct * ' 


to convoy 


to transfer 


to */rrf 


to transport 

discount ' 

to discount 


to attribute 

493. To the analogy, some speakers are endeavouring' 
to reduce the word r^/i/^/i// ; which^ when it signifies the' 
matter contained in a book, is often heard with the accent ; 
on the first syllable ; but though this pronunciation serves 
to distinguish words which are different in signification^and 
to give, in some measure^ a difference of form to the noun 
and verb, in which our tongue is remarkably 'eficient, still 
ft is doubtful whether this distinction be of any real ad- 
vantage to the languajge. See Bowl. This diversity of 
accentuation seems to have place in scHne compound verbs. 
See CouNTEKBALANCEand the subsequent words. 

494'. Sometimes words have a different ac^uent, as they 
are adjectives or substantives. 

accent : thw we can proaoiwoe t&ipm^crt wifh the Mrocttt «a tiic 4int 
syHilble; butsot to euily iri»tf>mrtbig «id f'Sntfntmih- ^^ » » Mlid 
rtasoa for the ^iMJnctioa, Md ought to indlice ui, wiere me ctn, to ob- 
icCTftit./ jLH^Mn^oA Uki^pMn secii lo t«q«iii»ift. .ate the^KKtl. 

august, the month 

champaign^ wine 
exile^ banishment 
gallant, a lover 

Levimty a place 
minute of time 
siptne, in grammar 

august, npbte 

cbatnpa^n, open 
rxik, small 
gillant^ bold 

levant, easte^^n 
minite, smatt 
supine, indolent. 

4i05. Sometimes the same parts of speecL have a different 
accent to mark a difference of signification, 
to r%'Mr/?, to praAise magic; to ^s00/ltfr^ to imreat 
^/^ff, a wilderness desrrt^msAt 

buffet, a^low i^ti A cupboard 

sinister, insidious sinister, the ieft side. 

4d6. In this analogfy some ^fCiketg pronounee the wor4 
Concordance with the acceilt on die &^. syllable, wb^n k 
signifies a dictionary of tbe fiiUe -, and with fhe accent oa 
the second, when it signifies Agreement : iivft besides that, 
there is not the samereasem^for dtstittgeiriikig nouns fmtxi 
each other, -as there is nouns fcomi v«rbs \ the aocent on 
the first sY.'Mible of the word C^^»nitfM» gives -a harslmess 
and poverty to its feocmd, which o^t lo he avoided. 

497. But though the di%rent acceittnation of noons and 
verbs of the same form does not extend so far as might be 
edcpefted, it is certain, that in wo^ <^ f wo ^lables,wher^ 
the noun and verb are of diffierettt forms, fhfttis is aa tevv- 
dent tendency in the kmguage to place die^iccentttponthe 
first ^Uable of the noun, and on the k^ of the verb. 
Hence the nouns outrage, ispstart, and tjpsfoar, htfve the 
accent on the first syllable) And the verte to 0/^j to 
upboU, and to outstrip, on the last. 

498. This analogy will appear still 'more eMettt if we 
attend to the accent of tlioiie M«n$ and vette wfaieh are 
compounded of two words. Every dissyUaUetompouaded 
of words which, taken separatdy, iMKte a meaning, may be 
deemed a qu^ified Substantive } and that w«rd wfiich qua^ 
lifies or describes the other, is i&at wliiffti roost distingui^ies 
it, and consequently is that which ought to have the accent: 
according^ we find Xhstinkhom, oatrage, ^Amrman, free» 
hoU^sand-ioxt Mhmsc, fethitnfe, haaie the accent on the 
firstsyUable, which is the specifying part of the >nsed; 
Vf}sSt»ged»say, foresee, overlook, undersell, have the accent oa 
the last sylliftle, which is the least distingoiriiii^ port of 
the word. This rule, however, is other by the caprice of 
custom, or the love of harmony, frequently viriited, but 
is sufficieatly extensive to mark the geoenil tendency of 
the lai^age. Akenside brings the veri> to tomment under 
this analogy:' 

** ^ 'riicwbcrzcal 

*' Of 9gt, commenting ou prodigious filings.^ 

Bleasunety the ioutffnmhn* 

Digitized by 




And lClfc(»>.im the same maioierj tli« iterb fo foma it ai : 

^ And itooki fiiMwwtfiiy wiOt Uwt thiti> ^ / 

^ Thj r»|^ loul siuii^ i» thkM ey e». 

499. Somethings very analogous tothi&wefind in^th^ 
nouns we verbalize^ by changing^the /sharp of the noun 
into the s flat^ or z of the verbj (4<97) as a uset, and to usf i 
where we may remark^ that when the word in both parts 
cf ^>eech is a monosyllahlei and so not under the laws of 
accent^ the verb^ however^ claims the privilege of length- 
ening the sound, of the consonant^ when it can^ as well as. 
when it cannotf proloiig^ the accentuation : thus we not 
onif find grasj altered to grazef, trau to ^ra%e^ ^ast to 
g£izfi pnc€ to frize^ breath to hnethi^ &€• but the ^ or / 
sharp altered to the / flat in advice to Mdvhf, excuse Ip ex^ 
cuUi devke to deviu, &c. The noun adopting the sharp 
hissing soundiftnd the verb the soft buzzing onei without 
transfeiriog the accent from one syUable to another. The 
vulgar extend this analogy to the noun practice and the 
rabt^prwtiief pronouhcing tne first with the i shorty and 
therlikeiharp /» as if written /r9cfi«f, and the last with 
the i lougi and the/ like x» as if written frvethsei but cor- 
reSt speakers pronoimoe the verb like the noun i that is, 
as if written practisi. The noun pnjpheey, and the verb to 
pr^beijfo\km this analogy^ only by writing die noun with 
the o andtfae verb with the /, and without any difference 
of sound, except pronouncing the j in. the first Uk^ e^ and 
in the last like / long ; where we oay still discover % trace 
of the tendency to the baryt^e pronunciation in the noun^ 
and ihRoKjtme in the verb. (467; See the words. 

5Q0. This seems to be the favourite tendency of 
Eng^sh verbs ; and where we find it crossed, it is gene- 
rally in those formed from nouns, rather thap the contrary : 
agreeably to this. Dr. Johnson has observed, that though 
nouns have often the accent on the latter, yet verbs have 
it s^dom on the former syllable \ those nouns which, in 
the coipmon order of language, must have preceded the 
verbs> often transmit this accent to the verbs they form, 
and inversely : thus the noMH water must have preceded 
the verb to vxtter^ as the verb to correspond must have pre- 
ceded the noun correspondent j and to pursue must claim 
priorily to/£/r»i/. So that we may conclude, whenever 
verbs deviate from this rule, it is seldom by chance, and 
generally ^in those' words onlj where a superior law of 
accent takes placets 

Accent OH' TrisylfaMer. 

501* A% words increase in syllables, the more easily 
is thenr accent known. Nouns sometimes acquire ^ syllable 
1^ becofsing plural; adjectives increase a syllable by being 
compared } and verbs by altering their tense, or becoming 
participles : adye£tives becomes adverbs, by adding fy to. 
them; and peeposititions precede nouns (mt verbs without 

altering the accent of the word to which they are prefixed r 
so that when^ncethe accent of dissyllables is known ,those^ 
polysylhaUes, whose terminations ai-e perfectly English, 
bauve likewise their accent invariably settled. Thus lion,- 
becomes tio'ness ; poet^ pretest ; polite becomes politer, or 
pJitelyj oteyenpoiiteiier ; mUckieJ^ mischievous ; happy^ 
hsppinett: mayfli ness becomes Ussmssos ; miuhiefy mis* 
cbieviwsness ; and service ^ servieeaiie^ serviceai/euesi^^ i^- 
weeabfy, and wnstrvieuify, wkhoiit dntnrbis^ the acoont^ 
either ea accowit of tbe preposttive tmp «r thee sulgan&r 
tives able J aHy^ «>d eUemeu 

5021 Hence we B»jr perceive dke l^ansK^ absitfdily 
which prevails even in the first csrdBi \ that of pronoutK 
aii^ dke plural of pnmass^ and even iiie aingobr^ with the* 
accent os the second ayyable> )Skitssscsin vAemcetmi \ £otr 
we a^gbt just at welt aay> iuubisiy aad duici£ms, m, prists 
oeuzodprifuesmt^ nor Wttild a coriee^ear faa leas trntk 
with the latter than the fbrmer. 

SOS. Saiew verbs of three sjdkibiefr &lb«r the amdogfr 
ofaiervahle in those of two, that of protracting the accei* 
totbe kst sjAable, duit this ccoaomy seems peculia? tt^ 
dissyllables : many verbs> tadked^ of three S|^Mates» are* 
compoaaded of a. {repoaitieB of two sylldiles : ani thM», 
accordiug lo the primary law of ^mation, and not the 
secondary of distioctioo, we may esteem them ra^iKcal^ aod 
not distinctive : such are contradtce^ imterado^ supercede, eon^ 
traksttdf dramucrUe, ss^scribe^ &c. while the generality? 
of words.ending in the verbal termimtions ise and /z/, lei- 
tain the accent of the simple, as criticise, tyranesise,modemie^ 
ftc. and tlM whole tribe of trisyllable verbs to oiEtf, very 
few excepted, refuse the accent on the last syllable : but 
words of three syllables often take their accent from the 
learned langu^es from which they are derived; and this 
makes it necessary to in<jutpe how far English accttit is» 
regulated by that of the Greek and Latin.. 

On the h^heme of ih^ Greet and' Latin Acdent^ on. £Sr J^$0tr^ 
of Engfish BolysyllaUei. 

(^aJP As our language borrows so largely from the learned) 

languages^ it is not wonderful that its pronunciation- s)kould* 

be in some measure influenced by them. The rule for 

placing the Greek accent wa^, indeed, 'essentially different 

front l^at of the Latin v but words firom. the Greek,ooming 

to us throng the Latin^ are often- so much la&iized as tO' 

lose their original accent,, and to* fall into that of the^ 

Latin ; and it ia the Latia accent which we must chiefly^ 

j regard, as that which influences our own«. 

I (i) The first genecaFmle that may be laid down h, that 

. when words come to us whole from the Greek, or Latin,. 

the same accent ought to be preserved a* in thr original t: 

thus horiton, sonorous, diforum, dictator, gladiator, mediator, 

delator, spectator^ adulator^ ftc jgreserve the penultimate 

Digitized by 




accent of the original j and yet the antepfenultxmate ten- 
dency of our language has placed the accent on the first 
syllable of orator^ senator ^ auditor ^ ministery cicatrix^ plethora^ 
&c. in opposition to the Latin pronunciation of these 
words, and would have infallibly done the same by ahdomenf 
bitumen, and acumen^ if the learned had not stepped in to 
rescue these classical words from the invasion of the Gothic 
accent, and to preserve the stress inviolably on the second 
syllable : nor has even the interposition of two consonants 
been always able to keep the accent from' mounting up to 
the antepenultimate syllable, as we may see in minister, 
jinister, character, tnagistna'e, &c. and this may be said to be 
. the favourite accent of our language. See Miscellany. 
• (c) But notwithstanding this prevalence of the antepe- 
nultimate accent, the general rule still holds good; and 
more particularly in words a little removed from common 
tsage, such as terms in the arts and sciences : these are 
generally of Greek original 5 but coming to us through the 
.liatih, most coitoionly contract the Latin accent, when 
adopted into our language. This will appear plainly by 
the following lists: and first, let us select som^ where the 
Greek and Latin accents coincide : 

' ^mphHsis, 






( d) Another list will show us where the accents of these 
languages differ 










' diaphoresis, 

In this list we perceive the peculiar tendency of the 
Latin language to accent the long penultimate vowel, and 
that of the Greek, to pay no regard to it if the last vowel 
is short, but to place the accent on the antepenultimate. 
It will, however, be easily perceived, that in this case we 
follow the Latin analogy : this analogy will appear more 
evident by a list of words ending iiic///, where, though the 
in the penultimate syllable is the omega, the Greek ac- 
cent is on the antepenuhim^te : 

a-TToOaWw, fAMTa^^i^uai^, ^wa^^w^K* <nwix«'«<n^. 

This analogy has led us to accent certain words, formed 
from the Greek, where the omega was not in the penul- 
timate of the original, in the same manner as those words 

where this Icmg vowel was found : such ' as Exostcsis, 
formed from *eK and oVtm*, Synneurosis from <"?» and nv^oi,, 
&c. Tliis tendency therefore has sufficiently formed an 
analogy -, and since rules, hgwever absurdly formed at 
first, are better than no rules at all, it would, in my opinion, 
be advisable to consider every word of this form as subject 
to the penultimate accent, and to look upon apotheosis and 
metamorphosis, as exception^. 

(e) The next rule we may venture to lay down as a 
pretty general one, is, that if the words derived from the 
learned languages, though 'anglicised by altering the ter- 
mination, contain the same number of syllables as in the 
original languages, they are generally to be pronounced 
with the same accent : that is, with the same accent as 
the first person present of tte indicative mood active 
voice, or as the present participle of the same verb. Tlie 
reality of this rule will best appear by a selection of such 
classes of words as have an equal number of syllables in 
both languages. 

(f) Words which have a in the penultimate syllable : 
prevalent, prxvulens, infamous, iufamis, 
equivalent, aquivHlens, propagate, propago, 
adjacent, adjUcens, ikidagate, • indago, 
ligament, * ligamen, suffira'gan, suffragans* 
In this small class of words we find all but the first jwo 

have a different accent in English from that of the Latin. 
The rule for placing the accent in that language being the. 
simplest in the world : if the penultimate syllable is long, 
the accent is on it ; if short, the accent is on the antepe- 

(g) Words which have e in the penultimate syllable : 





















In this class we find the penultimate e accented in Eng- 
lish as in Latin, except in the three last words. The word • 
alienate departs from the Latin accentuation, by placing the 
stress on the first syllable, as if derived from the English 
noun alien. The e in penetro is either long or short in . 
Latin, and in this case we generally prefer the short sound 
to the long one. 

(h) Words which have i in the penultimate syllable : 




































* JbStlnQ, 

Digitized by 






















, investigate. 








• extricate. 














In the foregoing list ^f words we find a very general 
coincidence of the English and Latin accent, except in the 
last eleven "svords, where we depart from the Latin accent 
on the penultimate, and place it on our own favourite syl- 
lable the antepenultimate. These last words must there- 
fore be ranked as exceptions. 

(I) Words which have o in the penultimate syllable : 

interrogate, interrifgo, omnipotent, omnip^iens^ 
arrogant, arr^gans, innocent, inh^cens^ 

dissonant, dUs^nans^ renovatQ, renSvoy 

























In this list the difference of the English and Latin ac- 
cent is considerable. The last six words desert the Latin 
penultimate for the English antepenultimate accent, and 
€-mMtncebiX% into an accentuation diametrically opposite. 

(\) Words which have u in the penultimate syllable : 


































pullulo^ , 



Here we find the general rule obtain, with, perhaps, feWer 
exceptions than in any other class. Adjuvate y peculate ^ and 
tnduratey are the only absolute deviations } for obdurate has 
the accent frequently on the second syllable. See the word. 
(I) To these lists, perhaps, might be added the English 
words ending in tumy stony and ity : for though tion and sion 
are really pronounced in one syllable, they are by almost 
all oar orthoepist^ generally divided into two ; and conse- 
quently ftationy pronunciaticny occasioHy evasiotiy &c. contain 
(tie same number of syllables as natioy pronunciatioy occasioy 
ryfoshy &c. and have the accent, in both English and Latin, 
cm the antepenultimate syllable. Th/s same mav be ob- 

served of words ending in ifyj as diversityy varietyy &c. from 
diversitaSy varietaSy &c.' 

{m) By this selection (which, though not an exact enu- 
meration of every particular, is yet a sufiicient specimen 
of the correspondence of Latin and English accent) we 
may perceive that there is a general rule running through 
both languages, respecting the accent of polysyllables, 
which is, that when a single" vowel in the penultimate is 
followed by a single consonant, the accent is on the ante- 
penultimate. This is so agreeable to English analogy, that 
in words derived from the Latin, where the penultimate 
vowel, followed by a single consonant, is long, and conse- 
quently has the accent, we almost always neglect this ex- 
ception, as it may be called, in the Latin language, and fall 
into our own general rule of accenting the antepenultimate. 
Nor is it unworthy of being remarked, that when we 
neglect the accent of the original, it is almost always to 
place it at least a syllable higher; vls adjacent and condolence 
are the only words in the whole selection, where the accent 
of the English word is placedjower than in the Latin- 

(«) There is, indeed, a remarkabfe coincidence of ac- 
cent between Latin verbs of three syllables, conmiencing 
with a prepositipn, and the English words of two syllables, 
derived from them, by dropping a syllable,* as excelky rc^ 
belloy inqulroy conflnoy confutoy consumoy deuroy exploroy prc^ 
c'edoy proclathoy have the accent in Latin on the second syl- 
lable ; and the English verbs excely rebely inquiriy confitiey 
confutey consumcy desircy explorcyproceedy proclaimy have the 
accent on the same syllable. This propensity of following 
the Latin accent in thes<j words, perhaps, in this, as well 
as in other cases, formed a general rule, which at last ne- 
glected the Latin accent, in words of this kind; as we find 
prefery confety defery desert, compare^ compleat, congeal, dividcy 
disputeyprepareyhzY^ the accent on the second syllable, 
though /r<5/^fv, deferoy confgroy deseroy comp^roy compleoy 
congeloy divtdoy dispHtOypraparoy have the accent on tlie first : 
and this propensity, perhaps, laid the foundation of that 
distinction of accent which' is so remarkable between dis- 
syllable nouns and verbs of the same form. (492) 

(o) But when English polysyUables are derived from 
the Latin by dropping a syllable, scarcely any analogy is 
more apparent than the coincidence of the principal accent 
of the English word, and the secondary accent, (522) we 
give to the Latin word, in the English pronunciation of it. 
Thmparsimonyyceremonyy matrimonyy tnelancbolyy &c. have 

♦ Bea Jonson seemt to havt had a faint idea of this coincidence, tvhcre 
he »ays,«all verbs coming from the Latin, either of the tupine or other- 
*« wi6e,hoIdthe accent as it is found in the first person present of those Latin 
"verbs, as intma, immaU, cehhny ceUratt\ except words Compounded of 
"/»f&, as riqu^^fach, liquefy', and of ttutuo, as sonstituto, wnitUuter EiigUsh 
Grammar. Of the extent and JHStness of these obscrvationj, the critical 
reader will be the best judge. 


Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



the accent on the first dyllable^ because, in pronouncing the 
Latin wordsyparsimonia^ cdrhtumia^ matrimonial melancholia, 
&c. we are permitted, and prone,^ in our English pronun- 
ciation of these words, to place a secondary accent on that 
syllable. See Academy, Ihrefarable, &c. 

(p) With respect to the quantity of the antepenultimate 
syllable in polysyllables, it may be observed, that, regard- 
less of the quantity of the original, we almost, without 
exception, follow the analogy of our own language. This 
analogy uniformly shortens the vowel, unless it be i/, fol- 
lowed by a single consonant, or any other vowel followed 
by a single consonant, succeeded by a semi-consonant 
diphthong : thus the first u in dubious \s pronounced long, 
though short in the Latin word dUbtus : the same may be 
observed of the / and o in medium and emporium ; and the 
first i in deliriumy and the first *in delicaiey are pronounced 
short in English^ according to our own analogy,(507)though 
these letters are long in the Latin deliriumy and del'tcatus. 
For the quoMtity of English dissyllables derived from the 
Greek and Latin,see Syllabication, No. 54S, S4i4i^ &c. 

Termineiional Accent. 

504. We have seen that the Saxon terminations, re- 
gardless of harmony, always leave the accent where they 
found it, let the adventitious syllables be ever so numerous. 
The Saxons, attentive chiefly to sense, preserved tlie same 
simplicity in the accentuation, as in the composition of their 
words 5 and, if sense were the only object of language, it 
must be cc^nfessed, that our ancestors were, in this respect, 
superior to the Greeks and Romans. . What method could 
so rigidly preserve, and so strongly convey, the sense of 
words, as that which always left the accent on the root, 
where the principal meaning of the word undoubtedly lies.? 
But the necessities of human nature require that our 
thoughts should not only be conveyed with force, but with 
ease ; to give language its due effect, it must be agreeable 
as well as forceful \ and the ear must be addressed while 
we are informing the mind. Here, then, terminational 
accent, the music of language, interposes ; corrects t^e 
discordant, and strengthens the feeble sounds; removes 
the diflSiculty of pronunciation which arises from placing 
the accent on initial syllables, an3 brings the force gently 
down to the latter part of the word, where a cadence is 
formed, on the principles of harmony and proportion. 

505. To form an idea of the influence of termination 
upon accent, it will be sufllicient to observe, that words 
which have «', w, icy w, euy eouy in their termination, always 
have the accent on the preceding syllable : thus athcisty 
Qlieny regcdiayambr^siay caduceusy &c. the numerous termina- 
tions in wn, iany &c. as gradationy promationy confusiorty logi- 
cian, physiciany &c. those in iousy as harmofiious^ abstemious y 
&c. those in eousy as outrageous, advantageous, &c. These 
vowels may not improperly be styled semi-consonant diph^ 
thongs. (196) 

506< Tho only exceptions to this rul^ are one word in 
iacy zs elegiac, which has the accent on the /, and the fol- 
lowing words in iacal, as prossdiacdJ, cardiacaly heliacal^ 
genethUacaly maniacal, demoniacal^ ammoniacal, theriacal, 
paradisiacal^ aphrodisiacal^ and hypochondriacal: all 
which have the accent on the antepenultimate i, and that 
long and open^ as in idle, title, &c. 

507. Nothing can be more uniform than the position 
of the accent in words of tliese terminations $ and, with 
very few exceptions, the quantity of the accented vowel is 
as regular as the accent ; for when these terminations are 
preceded by a single consonant, every accented vowel is 
long, except i ; which, in this situation, is as uniformly 
short : thus occasion, adhesion, erosion^ and confusion, have 
the a, e, o, and u, long ; while virion and decision have the 
I short. The same may be observed of probation, concretion^ 
devotion, ablution, and exhibition. The exceptions are, im^ 
petuous, especial, perpetual, discretion, and battalion, which last 
ought to be spelt with double /, as in the French, from 
which it is derived, and then it would follow the general 
rule. National and rational form two more exceptions ; 
and these are almost the only irregularities to which >hese 
numerous classes of words are subject. 

508. Nearly the same uniformity, both of accent and 
quantity, we find in words ending in iV. The accent im- 
mediately precedes this termination, and every vowel under 
this accent, but u, is short : thus Satanicy patheticy eliptic, 
harmonic, &c. have the accent on the penultimate, and the 
vowel short : while tunic, runic, md^ubic, have the accented 
vowel long. ^ . 

609. The same may be observed of words ending in 
ical, as fanatical, poetical, levitical, canonical, &c. which have 
the accent on the antepenultimate syllable, and the vowels 
e, i, and o, short ; but cubical and musical, with the accent 
on the same syllable, have the u long. 

510. The only exceptions to this rule are, arsenic, cho^ 
lericy ephemeric, turmeric, empiricy rheioricy bishopricy (better 
written bishoprichy see No. 400) lunatic, arithmetic, splenetic, 
heretic, poliiic, and, perhaps, phlegmatic \ which, though 
more frequently heard with the accent on (he antepenul- 
timate syllable, ought, if possible, to be reduced to regu- 
larity. Words ending in scence have uniformly the accent 
on the penultimate syllable, as quiescence, reminiscence, &c. 
concupiscence, which has the accent on the antepenultimate, 
is the only exception. 

511. In the same manner, if we take a view of the 
words ending in ityy we find the accent invariably placed 
on the preceding syllable, as in diversityy congruityy &c. On 
a closer inspection we find every "vowel in this antepenul- 
timate syllable, when no consonant intervenes, pronounced 
long, as deity, piety, &c. A nearer inspection shows us, 

I .hat, if a consonant precede this termination, the preceding 
accented vowel is short, except it be u, as severity, curiosity. 

Digitized by 




iapuAiiy^ &c. we find too, that even & contrails itself before 
two consonants, as in curvityy taciturnity^ &c. and that scar-* 
ckj and rarity (signifying uncommonness ; for rarit^^ thin- 
ness, has the a short) are the only exceptions to this rule 
throughout the language. The same observations are ap- 
plicable to words ending in ify^ ^ justify y clarify y &c. The 
only words where the antepenultimate accent, in words of 
this termination, does not shorten the vowel, are glorify and 
flrfj^. The j^ in these wor(}s is always long, like the firsf 
soand of i \ and both accent and quantity are the same 
when these words take the additional syllable ahle^ as yW^ 
^^ty rarefiahUy &c. ( 1 83) 

512. To these may be added the numerous class of 
vords ending in anms^ erous^ and orousy as barbarous ^ vocife- 
ms, and humorous ; all which have the accent on the ante- 
penaltimate syllable, except canorous and sonorous ; which 
lome unlucky scholar happening to pronoimce with the 
2£cent on the penultimate syllable, in order to show their 
derivation from the Latin adjectives, canorus and sonorus, 
they stand like strangers amidst a crowd of similar words, 
and are sore to betray a mere English scholar into a wrong 

To polysyllables in these terminations might be added 
those in atiw^ iaory, ^ive, &c. Words ending in ative can 
never have the accent on the penultimate syllable, if there 
ba higher syllable to {dace on it, except in the word crea^ 
tiw\ and when this b the case, as it 'is seldom otherwise, 
the accent seems to rest on the root of the word 5 or on that 
syllable which has the accent on the noun, adjective, or 
nA, with which the word in ative correqx)ikls : thus coj^u- 
W«r, estimative; alterative^ &c. follow the verbs to coftdate^ 
to estimate^ to alter, &c. When derivation does not operate 
to fix the accent, a douUe consonant will attraA it to the 
antepenultimate syllable, -is appeUafive \ and two consonants 
love sometimes this powet, in of^esition to derivation, as 
aiwrjotive and argumentative, from adverse and argument. 
Indicative zad interrogative zre likewise exceptions, as they 
do not follow the verbs to indicate and interrogate: but as 
they are grammatical terms, they seem to have taken their 
accent from the secondary accent we sometimes give to 
the Latin words indicativuj and interrogative, (see the word 
Academy.) Words ending in ary, ery, or ory, have g^e- 
rally the accent on the root of the word ; which, if it con- 
sists of three syllables, must necessarily be accented on the 
first, as cotttrary, treachery, factory, &c, if of four or five, 
the accent is generally on that syllable which has the ac-* 
cent in the related or kindred words ; thus expostulatory has 
the accent on the same radical syllables as expostulate : and 
congratulatory, as congratulate : interrogatory and derogatory 
2re exceptions here, as in the termination ative ; and if /a- 
cljicatory^ ia crificafory * significatory , vesicatory ^ &c, haye 

* Thdc words ooght ccrtaioly to be accented alike ; and accordingly we 
fcsd Dr. Johnson, Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Barclay, and Mr. Smith, place ihe 

not the accent on the first syllable, it seems to* arise from 
the aversion we seem to have at placing even the secondary 
accent on the antepenultimate a, (which we should be very 
apt to do if the principal accent were on the first syllable) 
and the difficulty there would be in pronouncing such long 
words with so many unaccented syllables at the end, if we 
were to lay the accent on the first. Words ending in ctive 
have the accent regularly on the penultimate syllable, ex- 
cept adjective, which, hke indicative, being a grammatical 
word, seems to have taken its accent from the secondary 
stress of the Latin adjectivus, (see Academy) and every 
word ending in tive, preceded by a consonant, has the ac- 
cent on the penultimate syDable likewise, except suhstan^ 
tive ; and perhaps, for the reason just given. After all, it 
must be owned, that words ending in' ative and atory are 
th^ most irregular and desultory of any in the language \ 
as they are generally accented very far from the end, they 
are the most difficult to pronounce ; and therefore, when- 
ever usage wHl permit, we should incline the stress as much 
as possible to the btter sy llaUes : thus refractory ought never 
to have the accent on the first syllable ; but refectdry, with 
the accent on the first, is a school term, and, like substan-- 
tive, adjective, indicative, and int&rogafive, must be left in 
quiet poseessioa of their Latin secondary accent. 

Enclitical Accent. 

513. 1 have ventured to give the name of enclitical io the 
accent of certain words, whose terminations are formed of 
such words as seem to lose their own accent, and throw it 
back on the last syllable of the word with which they 
coalesce, such as theology, orthography, &c. The readiness 
with which these words take the antepenultimate accent, 
the agreeable flow of sound to the ear, and the unity it pre- 
serves in the sense, are sufficient proo6 of the propriety of 
placing the' accent on this syllable, if custom were ambi- 
guous. I do not remember to have heard the accent dis- 
puted in any word ending in ology } but orthography is not 
unfrequehtly pronounced with the accent on the first sylla- 
ble, like orthodoxy. The temptation we are under to dis- 
cover our knowledge of the comipohent parts of words, is 
very apt to draw us into this pronunciation; but as those 
words which are derived from the Greek, and are com- 
pounded of ^oyosj have universally given into this enclitical 
accentuation, no good reason appears for preventing a 
similar pronunciation in those compounded of yf»^, as 
by placing the accent on the antepenultimate 1 syllable, the 
word is much more fluent and agreeable to the ear. It is 

accent on the second syllable ; but though Fenning zcccnit sigmJScafoiy in 
in the same manner, he places the accent on Uk antepeimltimat/c oipactjica^ 
iory ; and Kcnrick likewise accents the second syllable of signiJScatory, but 
the first of pacificatory : the other onhojpisu who have not got these words 
have avoided these incon$i»icncics. 

Digitized by 




' certain, however, that at first sight the most plausible rea- 
soning in the world seems to lie against this accentuation. 
When we place the accent on the first syllable, say our 
opponents, we give a kind of subordinate stress to the 
third syWMe graph : by which means the word is divided 
into its primitives c^&cs and 7^«f«, and those distinct ideas 
it contains, are preserved, which must necessarily be con- 
founded by the contrary mode ; and that pronunciation of 
compounds, say they, must certainly be the best which best 
preserves the import of the simples. 

514-. Nothing can be more specious than this reasoning, 
till we look a little higher than language, and consider its 
object ; we shall then discover, that in uniting two words 
under one accent, so as to form one compound term, we do 
but imitate the superior operations of the mind, which, in 
order to collect and convey knowledge, unite several sim- 
ple ideas into one complex one. ** The end of language," 
says Mr. Locke, ** is by short sounds to signify, with ease 
*^ and dispatch, general conceptions, wherein not only 
*^ abundance of particulars are contained, but also a great 
*' variety of independent ideas are collected into one com- 
** plex one, and that which holds these different parts to- 
** gether in the unity of one complex idea, is the word we 
" annex to it." " For," as Mr. Locke continues, "nien, 
*^ in framing ideas, seek more the convenience of language 
** and quick dispatch by short and comprehensive signs, 
" than the true and precise nature of things ; 'and there- 
** fore, he who has made a complex idea of a body with 
'* life, sense, and motion, with a faculty of reason joined to 
** it, need but use the short monosyllable, matif to express 
** all particulars that correspond to that complex idea.* 
So it may be subjoined, that, in firaming words for the pur- 
pose of immediate communication, the end of this com- 
munication is best answered by such a pronunciation as 
unites simples into one compound, and at the same time 
renders the compound as much a simple as possible : but 
it is evident that this is done by no mode of accentuation, so 
well as that which places the accent op the antepenultimate 
syllable of the words theology ^ orthography \ and therefore 
that tliis accentuation, without insisting on its superior har- 
mony, must best answer the great end of language. (328) 
S\5. Tliis tendency in our language to simplify com- 
pounds, is sufficiently evident in that numerous catalogue 
of words, where we find the long vowel of the simple 
changed into a short one in the compound, and by this 
means losing much of its original import to the ear : thus 
breakfast.^ shepherd^ vineyard^ meadow^ shadow^ zeahus^ 
hearken ^imlley^ cleanse ^cleanly ^ (neat) forehead^wildernessj 
bewilder, kindred^ hinder^ knowledge, darlings fearful, 
pleasant, p easure,wh:tster; whitleather, seamstress, stealthy 
wealth, health, wisdom, wizard, parentage, lineage, child- 
ren^ pasty, gosling, collier, hliday, Christmas, Michaelmas, 
windlass i cripple, hinder, stripling^ starling^, housewife^ 

husband, primer, peascod, fieldfare, birth from htat^ 
dearth from dear, weary from wear, and many others, 
entirely lose the sound of the simple in their compound or 

516. The long i in white, v^hen a simple, is almost uni- 
versally changed into a short one in proper names, as 
Whitchurch, lFhit€fieldJVhitbread,Whithcky IVhitaktr, 
&c. for compendiousness^ and dispatch being neit in im- 
portance to perspicuity, when there is no danger of mistake, 
it is no wonder that the organs should fall into the shortest 
and easiest sounds. 

517. It must, however, be observed, that this tendency 
to unite simples into a compound, by placing an accent ex- 
aftly where the two words coalesce, is still subservient to^ 
the laws of harmony. The Greek word ^oxia;, which sign!* 
fies to opine, and from which the last syllables, of orthodoxy 
are derived, was never a general subjunctive word like 
Aoyof and Tfwf « ; and even if it had been so, t6e assem- 
blage of consonants in the letter pc would have prevented 
the ear from admitting an accent on the syllable immedi- 
ately preceding, as the x would, by this means, become 
difiicult to pronounce. Placing the accent, therefore, on 
the first syllable of orthodoxy, gives the organs an opportu- 
nity of laying a secondary stress upon, the. third, which 
enables them to pronounce the whole with distinctness and 
fluency : thus Galaxy and Cachexy, having the accent on the 
first syllable, are very difficult to pronounce 5 but this dif- 
ficulty is removed by placing the accent a syllable higher 
in the words apoplexy^ ataraxyy and anorexy. 

518. But the numerous classes of words that so readily 
adopt this enclitical accent, sufficiently prove it to be agree- 
able to the genius of our pronunciation. This will more 
evidently appear by adducing examples. "W^ords in the 
foUoviring terminations have always the accent on that syl- 
lable where the two parts unite, that is, on the antepenul- 
timate syllable : 

In logy, as apology, ambtlogy, genealogy, &c- 

In graphy, as geography, orthography, historiography, &ic. 

In phagus^ as sarcophagus, ichthy9phagus,androphagus,8LC. 

In loquy,2iS obloquy, soliloquy, ventriloquy, ^c. 

In strophe, as catastrophe, apostrophe, anastrcphi, &c. 

In meter, zs geometer, barometer, thermometer, &c. 

In gonal, as diagonal, octagonal^ polygonal, &c. 

In vorous, as carnivorous, granivorous, piscivorous, Sec. 

In ferotis, as bacciferous, cocciferous, somniferous, &c. 

In fiuous, as superfluous, mellifiuous, fellifluous, &c. 

Influent, as mellifluent, circunifluentyinterfiuent, &c. 

In vomous, as ignivomous,flammsvomous, &c. 

In parous, as viviparous, oviparous, deiparaus, &c. 

In cracy, as theocracy, aristocracy, democracy. Sec. 

In gony, zstheogony, cosmogony, hexagony, &c. 

In ph:tly,2LS symphony, cacophony, colophony, &c. , 

In machy, as theomachy, logomachy, sciomacby, &c. 

Digitized by 




In nmy, as ceeonomyr-^stronomyy Deuteronomy , &c. 
In iomy^ as anatomy, lithotomy y arteriotomy, &c. 
In scopyy as metopascopy^deuterosccpy^ aeroscopy^ &ۥ 
In pathy, as apathy , antipathy j idiopathy, &c. 
In ma/Ay, as opsimathy^polymathy, &c. &c, &c. 

519. Some of these Greek compounds seem to refuse 
the antepenult iMate accent, for the same reason as orthodoxy^ 
such as necromancy y chiromancy ^ hydromancy \ and those ter- 
minating in archyy as hierarchy^ oligarchy^ patriarchy : all of 
which have the accent on the first syllable, which gives 
the organs time to recover their force upon the third, and 
to pronounce the two consonants with much more ease than 
if the accent immediately preceded them , but periphrasis 
and aniiphrasisy besides their claim to the accent of their 
originals, readily admit of the accent on the second sylla- 
ble, because the consonants in the two last syllables do not 
come together, and are therefore easily pronounced after 
die accent. Words of more than two syllables, ending in 
o^usy 2& pedagogue J dialogue ^ &c. have the accent on the an- 
tepenultimate. Orthoepy having no consonant in the ante- 
penultimate syllable, naturally throws its accent on the 
fint. See Monomacht, 

520. By this view of the enclitical terminations we may 
easily perceive how readily our language falls into the an- 
tepenultimate accent in these compounded polysyllables; 
and that those terminations which seem to refuse this ac- 
cent, do it rather from a regard to etymology than ana- 
logy : thus words ending in asisy as periphrasis, apophasis, 
hypostasis, ^antiperistasisy &c. have thc^antepenultimate ac- 
cent of their originab*- The same may be observed of those 
ending in esis, as hypothesis, antithesis, parenthesis-, &c, but 
exegesis^ mathesis, auxesis, catachresis, paracentesis, apo- 
siopesir, have the accent on the penultimate syllable, because 
the vowel in this sylbble b long in Greek and Latin. But 
all words ending in osis have the accent on the penultimate, 
except metaphorphosis and apotheosis, which desert the ac- 
cent of their Latin originals, while those in ysis are ac- 
cented regularly on the antepenultimate in Greek, Latin, 
and English, as analysis, paralysis, &c. We may note too, 
that everj / in all these terminations is sharp and hissing. 
See the words Exostosis and Apotheosis. 

521. Words of three syllables ending in ator, have tlie 
accent on the penultimate, as spectator, collator, delator, &c. 
except orator, senator, legator, and barrator. But words in 
this termination, of more than three syllables, though they 
have generally the accent on the penultin^ate, are subject 
to a diversity not easily reduced to the rule : thus naviga- 
tor, propagatory dedicator, &c. are sometimes pronounced 
with the accent on the first syllable, and sometimes on the 
third : but as these words may be pronounced with an ac- 
cent on both these syllables, it is of less consequence on 
which syllable we place the accent, when we use only one. 
(528) The general rule certainly inclines to the penulti- 

mate accent 5 but as all these words arc verbal nouns, and, 
though generally derived from Latin words of the same 
terminations, have verbs corresponding to them in our own 
language, it is very natural to preserve the accent of the verb 
in these words, as it gives an emphasis to the most signifi- 
cant part of them •• tlxasequivocator, prevaricator y dedicator,'' 
might be regularly formed from the verbs to equtvocate, to 
prevaricate, and to dedicate', and, agreeably to analogy, 
would have been written equivocater,prevaricatery znd dedi^ 
cater ; but an affectation of preferring every analogy to 
our own, has given these words a Latin termination, which 
answers no purpose but to involve our language in absur- 
dities j but the ear, in this case, iynot quite so servile as 
the eye : and though we are obliged to write these words 
with or, and not er, we generally hear them pronounced 
as if they were formed from our own verbs, and not from 
Latin nouns m ator. But when the word has no^vcrb in 
our own language to correspond to it, the accent is then 
placed with great propriety upon the a, as in Latin :, thus 
violator, instigator, navigator, &c. ought to haVe the accent 
on the first syllable -, hut emendatory gladiator, adulator, &c« 
on the last but one. 


522. Hitherto we have considered that accent only, 
which necessarily distinguishes one syllable in a word from 
the rest ; and which, with very little diversity, is adopted 
by all who speak the English language. 
. 523. The secondary accent is that stress we may. occa- 
sionally place upon another syUable, besides that which 
has the principal accent, in order to pronounce every part 
of the word more distindtly, f<»*cibly, and harmoniously* 
Thus this accent may be placed on the first syllable of con^ 
versation, commendationy &c. 

524. There are few authors who have not taken notice 
of two accents upon some of the longer polysyllables, but 
none have once hinted that one of these is not essential to 
the sound of the word :. they seem to have supposed both 
accents equally necessary, and without any other difference 
than that one was pronounced more forcibly than the 
other. This mistake arose from a want of studying the 
speaking voice. A knowledge of this would have told 
them, that one accent only was essential to every word of 
more than one syllable, arid that the secondary stress might, 
or might not, be adopted, as distinctness, force, or har- 
mony should require, thus, complaisant^ contraband, cara-* 
van; and violin, partisan, artisan, courtesan, metapbysici, 
have frequently an accent on the first, as well as on the 
third syllable, though a somewhat less forcible one* The 
same may be observed of repartee, referee, privateer, dowi-- 
fteer, &c. but it must still be observed, that though an 

Digitized by 




nccent be allowable on the first syllable of these words^ it 
is by no means necessary ; they may all be pronoimced 
vltli one accent, and that on the last syllable, without the 
least deviation from propriety. 

- 525. In order to give some idea of the nature of the 
^ secondary accent, let us suppose, that, in giving our opinion 
of an astronomical argument, we say, 

** It is a dir6ci demonstrition of the Copemican system." 
In this sentence, as an accent is necessarily upon the last 
syllable of directy we. seldom lay a stress on the first sylla- 
*ble of demofutrationy unless we mean to be uncommonly 
emphatical ; but in the following sentence, 

" It ii a demonstration of the Copemican system.*' 
Here, as no accented word precedes demonstratum, the voice 
finds a rest, and the ear a force, in placing an accent on 
the first, as well as on the third syllable. 

526* But though we may, or may not, use the secondary 
accent at pleasure, it is by no means a matter of iAdifFer<^ 
ence on what syllable we place it : this is fixed with as 
much certainty as the place of the principal accent itself) 
and a wrong position of one would as much derange the 
sound of the word, as a wrong position of the other : and 
it must be carefully noted, that though we lay ho stress 
upon the syllable which may have the secondary accent, 
4he consonants and vowels have exactly the same sound as 
if the doubtful syllable (as it may be called) were accented. 
Thus, though I lay no stress upon the second syllable of 
negpciationypfonunciationy tccUsiatticy &c. the c and/ go into 
the sound of sh and z^, as if the secondary accent were on 
the preceding syllable. (S57) (451) (459) 

• 5^7. It may be observed, in the first place, that the 
secondary accent is always two syllables, at least, distant 
fisom the principal accent' : thus in demonstratlmy iamenta* 
tatwif provoeatiany &c. the secondary accent is on the first 
syllable, and the principal on the third ; and in arteriotomy^ 
nuttorohgyy and hypochondriacaly the secondary accent is on 
the first, and the principal on the fourth syllable; and in 
the Wiord in^ivisiii/ity we may place two secondary accents, 
one upon the first, and the other on the third. 

S28. In the next place it may be observed, that though 
the syllable on which the principal accent is placed, is fixed 
and certain, yet we may, and do frequently miake the 
secondary principal, and the principal secondary : thus 
caravan, ctmplaisanty violin^ rtparteey reftreey privaPtery domi- 
neerycoufiezany artizany cbarlatafty m^y all have (he greatest 
stress on the first, and the least on the last syllable, with- 
out any violent oflTence to the ear : nay, it may be asserted, 
that the principal accent on the first syllable of these words, 
and none at all on the last, though certainly improper, has 
nothing in it grating <»* discordant ; but placing an accent 
on the second syllable of these words would entirely de- 
range them, and produce an intolerable harshness and dis- 
sonance. The same observations may be applied to demon-' 

stratiofiy lamentationy prof)ocatiofty navigator j propagator, allt^ 
gatoTy and every similar word in the language. But, as we 
have observed. No. 526, the consonants /, d, Cy and /, after 
the secondary accent, are exadly under the same predica- 
ment as after the primary ; that is, if they are fcJlowed by a 
diphthong or diphthongal vowel, these consonants are pro- 
nounced like sby tshy zb, or J, as s^ntent'toiityy partialityy &c. 
(526) . 


529. In treating this part of pronunciation, it will not 
be necessary to enter into the nature of that quantity which 
constitutes poetry j the quantity here considered will be 
that which relates to words taken singly ; and this is 
nothing more than the length or shortness of the vowels, 
either as they stand alone, or as they are differently com- 
bined with vowels or consonants. (63) 

530. Quantity, in tliis point of view, has already been 
fully considered under every vowel and diphthong in the 
language. What remains to be said on this subject is, the 
quantity of vowels under the secoridary accent. We have 
seen thaf vowels, under the principal accent, before the 
diphthongs sa, iV> rouy iotiy are all lohg except r. (507} 
That all vowels are long before the terminations rV^and /-/j, 
zs deityy pistyy &c. (511) that if one or more consonants 
precede these terminations, every preceding accented 
vowel, except the a in scarcity and rarity y signifying un- 
commonness, is short but u: and that the same analogy of 
quantity is found before the terminations ic and icaly and 
the numerous enclitical terminations we have jUst been 
pointing out. Here we find custom conformable to ana- 
logy ; and that the rules for the accent and quantity of these 
words admit of scarcely any exceptions. In other parts of 
the language, where custom is nrore capricious, we can still 
discover general rules j and there are but very few words 
in which the quantity of the vowel under the principal 
accent is not ascertained. Thosewlio have but a" common 
share of education, and are conversant with the pronunci- 
ation of the Capital, are seldom at a loss for the quantity of 
the vovrel under that accent which may be called principal ; 
but the secondary accent in the longer polysyllables does 
not seem to decide the quantity of th€ vowels so invari- 
ably. Mr. Sheridan divides the words degttttittotiy dcprava^ 
tioity degradatitmy dereHctiorty and democraticaly into de-glu-^t^ 
tioriy de'^ra-va^tion^ de^gra^^ony de^re-Ju'thn^ and ds-mc^ 
crat-i^al i while Dr.- ICettrick more accurately divides them 
into degJu'ti^iofJj drp-ra-va-tiorty dug-ra^da-iiony and dem^o^ 
crat-j-coi ; but makes not any distinftion between the first 
in profanation and profancy prodigality and prodigiousy pro^ 
rogation void prorogufy though he distinguishes this letter in 
the first syllable of progress and that in progression : and 
though Mr. ShcriJan divides retrograde into ret^ro-grade. 

. Digitized by 




he divides retrqgradatmtf retn^etiiont retrospect^ retrospect 
tioTiy and retrospective^ into re-4ro^a^^ionf re-^ro^es-sion, 
re-tro^pectf re^ro-Jpec-^iorf, and re-tro-spec^'tive. At the first 
sight of these words we are tempted to prefer the prepo- 
sition in a disttnd syllable, as supposing that mode to con- 
vey more distinftty each part of the word ; but custom^t 
large, the best interpreter of nature, soon lets us see that 
these prepositions coalesce with the word they are prefixed 
to, for reasons greatly superior to those which present 
themselves at first, (514) If we observe the tendency of 
prouunciationt "with respeft to inseparable prepositions, we 
shall find) that those compound words which we adopt 
whole from other languages, we consider as simple^ and 
pronounce them without any respect to their component 
parts ; but those compounds which we form ourselves, re- 
tain the traces of their formation, in the distinction which 
is obsenrad)le between the prepositive and radical part of 
the word : thus retrograde^ retrogrestiony retrospect, and retro^ 
spective, coming compounded to us from the Latin, ought, 
vrhen the accent is on the preposition, to shorten the vowel, 
and anhe it to the root, as in ret^ur'-rec'tion, rec^l4cc'4umi 
frep^O'^U-'iottf &c. while recommit, re-convey^ &c. being com- 
pounds of our own, must preserve it separate. 

63 1, From what has been observed, arises this general 
rule : where the compound retains the primary sense of the 
sinapks, and the parts of the word are the same in every 
reipeA, both in and out of composition, then the prepo- 
sition is pronounced in a distinA syllable; but when the 
compound departs ever so little from the literal sense of the 
simples, the same departure is observable in the pronunci- 
ation; hence the different syllabication and pronunciation 
of re-com-^mence and rec^wn-mend ; the former signifies a re- 
petition of a commencement, but the latter does not imply 
a repetition of a commendation:^ thus re-petiiion would 
signify to petition again ; while fc^-^/r/t^/i signifies only an 
iteration of the sam^ a£b, be it what it will. The same may 
be observed of the words re-create znArec-reate, rt-formation 
and ref-ormation* 

5S2. That this is perfeftly agreeable to the nature of 
the language, appears from the short pronunciation of the 
w)wel in the first syllable of preface y prelatCy prelude y pro- 
Icj^y &c, as if divided into preface, prel-atCj preUude^ proU 
ogue^Jkc. It is much to be regretted, however, riiat this 
short sound of the penultimate vowel has so much ob- 
tained in our language, which abounds too much in these 
sounds ; nor can etymology be always pleaded for this pro- 
nunciation : for in the foregoing words, the first vorwcl is 
Krag in the Latin prrfatioy prteiatuSf prtelitdium^ though 
short mpr^logus : for though in wonhfrom the Gredk: the 
preposition v^o was short, in Latin it was generally long ; 
and why we should shorten it \n progress , project, &c. where 
it is long in Latm, can only be accounted for by the super- 

ficial application of a general rule, to the prejudice of the 
sound of our language. (54S} ' 

533. It will be necessary, however, to observe, that in 
forming a judgement of the propriety of these observations, 
the nicest care must be taken not to confoimd those prepo- 
sitions which are under the primary and secondary accent, 
with those which immediately precede the stress ; for pre^ 
chide, pretend, &c. are under a very different predicament 
from prologue, preposition, &c. and the very same law that 
obliges us to pronounce the vowel short in the first syllable 
of prfiV'i'-dence, prov-o-cation, and prof-d-nation, obliges us 
to pronounce the vowel open, and with some degree of 
length, in pro-vide, pro^voke, and pro-fane. The same may 
be observed of the e in re-pair and rep^a^ration, re-ply and 
rep-Ii-cation, re-peat, and rep-e-4ition, the accent making the 
whole difference between the quantity of the vowel in one 
word and the other. 

634. The only exception to the shortening power of the 
secondary accent, is 'the same as that which prevents the 
shortening power of the primary accent, (508) namely, the 
vowel u, as in lucubration, or when any other of the vowels 
are succeeded by a semi-consonant diphthong: (196) thus 
mediator and medintorial have the e in the first syllable as 
long as in mediate % deviation has the e in the first syllable as 
long as in deviate, notwithstanding the secondary accent is 
on it, and which wouKf infallibly have shortened it, if it 
had not been for the succeeding diphthong ia ; and evert 
this diphthong, in gladiator, has pGt the power of preserving 
the first syllable long, though Mr. Sheridan, by his mark-* 
ing it, has made it So. 

535. From what has been seen of accent and quantity^ 
it is easy to perceive how prone our language is to an ante- 
penultimate accent, and how naturally this accent shortens 
the vowel it falls upon : nay, so great a propensity hav^ 
vowels to shrink under this accent,|that the diphthong it- 
self, in somis words, and analogy in others, are not sufScient 
to prevent it, as valiant, retdliate. Thus, by the subjoining 
I only of al to nation, with the a long, it becomes national^ 
with the a short, though contrary to its relation with occa-' 
sion arid congregation, which do not shorten the a upon* 
being made occasional and congregational : in like manner the 
acquisition of the same termination to the word nature, 
makes it nat-u-ral ; but this, it may be presumed, is derived 
from the Latin naturalis, and hot from adding al to the 
English word, as in the foregoing instances \ and thus it 
comes under the shortening power of the antepenultimate 
accent, notwithstanding the semi-consonant diphthong u. 

6%^. The same shortening power in the antepenultimate 
accent may be observed in, rational and ratiocinate, where 
the first a in the first word, and the o in the second, are 
short. The first a in the second word is short also by the 
power of the secondary accent ; though Mr. Sheridan has* 

Digitized by 



in my opmioni very erroneously divided raUocinatUn into 

ra^sho-sy^ia'skun \ that is, into a syllable less than it ought 
to have, with the o long instead of short. 

o37. The accent on the Latin antepenultimate seemed 
to have something of a similar tendency : for though the 
great diilorcuce in the nature of the Latin and English ac- 
cent will allow us to argue from one to the other, but in 
very few circumstances^ (503) yet we may perceive in that 
accent, so different from ours in general, a great coinci- 
dence in this particular ; namely, its - tendency to shorten 
an antepenultimate syllable. Bishop Hare tells us, that 
** Qux acuunter in tertiaab extrema, interdum acuta cor- 
" ripiunt, si positione sola longa sunt, ut optime^ servitus^ 
** pervelim, PamphiluSj et pauca alia, quo Cretici mutantur, 
'* in Anapestos. Idem fadhim est in neutiquamy licet in- 
** cipiat diphthongo.". De Metr.Comic^ pag, 62. Those 
words which have the accute accent on the antepenultimate 
syllable, have sometimes that syllable shortened, if it y[7^ 
only long by position, as optime, scrvitus, fervelim, Pam- 
phi/tUi and a few others, which by this means are changed 
from Cretic to Anapestic feet : nay, neutiquam undergoes 
the same fate, though it begins with a diphthong. 


538. Dividing words into syllables is a very different 
operation, according to the different ends proposed by it. 
The objcAof syllabication may be, either to enable child- 
ren to discover the sound of words they are unacquainted 
with, or to shew the etymology of a ,^ord, or to exhibit 
the exact pronunciation of it. 

539. When a child has made certain advances in read- 
ing, but is ignorant of the sound of many of the longer 
words, it may not be improper to lay down the common 
general rule to him, that a consonant between two vowels 
must go to the latter : and that two c(»isonants coming 
together must be divided. Farther than this, it would be- 
absurd to go with a child ; for telling him that compounds 
must be divided into their simples, and that such conso- 
nants as may begin a word may begin a syllable, requires a 
previous knowledge of words, which children cannot be 
supposed to have ; and which, if they have, makes the 
division of words into syllables unnecessary. Children, 
tlierefore;, may be very usefully taught the general rule 
above mentioned, as, in many cases, it will lead them to 
the exaA sound jo£ the word, as in pnhw^ded : and in 
others, it will enable them to give a good guess at it, as in 
de-Ji'cate ; and this is all that ran be expected : for, when 
we are to form an unknown compound sound,out of several 
known simple sounds, (which is Jthe case with children, 
when we wish them-to find out the sound of a word by 
9pelling it) this, I say, is the only method that can be taken. 

5d 0* But an etymological division of words is a different 

operation : it is the division of a person acquainted with 
the whole word, and who wishes to convey, by this divi- 
sion, a knowledge of its constituent parts, as ortho-graphy^ 
the^-logj^ &c. 

54p1. In the same manner, a person, who is pre-ac- 
q^iainted with the whole compound sound of a word, and 
wants to convey the sound of each part to one unacquainted 
with It, must divide it into such partial sounds as, when 
put together again, will exaftly form the whole, as or-thog^ 
ra-^phy^ the^ol^o^yy &c. This is the method adopted by those 
who would convey the whole sound, by giving distinftly 
every part ; and, when this is the objeA of syllabication. 
Dr. Lowth's rule is certainly to be followed. ** The best 
" and easiest rule,'' says the learned bishop, " for dividing 
" the syllables in spelling, is, to divide them as they are 
^^ naturally divided in a right pronunciation, without re- 
^^ gard to the derivation of words, of the possible combi- 
^' nation of consonants, at the be^nning of a syllable." 
Inthduction to Eng. Gram, page 7. 

542. In this view of syllabication we consider it only 
as the picture of actual pronunciation ; but may we not 
consider it as directed likewise by some laws of its own ? 
Laws which arise out of the very nature of enunciation,and 
the specific qualities of the letters ? These laws certainly 
direct us to separate double consonants, and such as are 
uncombinable from the incoalescence of their sounds : and 
if such a separation will not paint the true sound of the 
word, we may be certain that such sound is unnatural, and 
has arisen from caprice i thus th« words Chamber^ Cam^ 
bridgeyzad Cambrukf must be divided at the letter m, and 
as this letter, by terminating the syllable according to the 
settled rules of pronunciation, shortens the vowel — the ge- 
neral pronunciation given to these words must be absurd, 
and contrary to the first principles of the language. Angei^'^ 
ancient^ danger , manger ^ and ranger^ are under the same pre- 
dicament ; but the paucity of words of this kind, so far 
from weakening the general rule, strengthen it. See 

543. By an induction which demonstrates the shorten- 
ing power of the antepenultimate accent, has been shown 
the propriety of uniting the consonant to the vowel in the 
first syllable of demotutratienf lamentationy propagation^ &c. 
we thus decide upon the quantity of these vowek, which 
are so uncertain in our best dictionaries ; and may we not 
hope, by a similar induction, and with the first principles 
of language in view, to decide the true, genuine, and ana- 
logical sound of some words of another kind which waver 
between different pronunciations ? The antepenultimate 
accent has unquestionably asfaorteningpower \ and I have 

* It is highly probable that, *m Ben Jonsop's time, the a in this word was 
pronounced as in arii since be classes it to show the short sound of a with 
an, act, and afpU* Graminaf . 

Digitized by 



M the smallest dcfnbt that the pottuklfeate accent has a 
lengthening power : that Ls, if our own words, and nirords 
borrowed from other languages, of twx> syllables, with but 
one consonant in the middle, had been left to the general 
ear, the acc^ent on the first syllable would hafye infallibly 
lengthened the first vowel. A strong presumption of this 
arises fi'om our pronunciation of all Latin dissyllables iii 
thb manner, without any regard to the quantity of the 
original, (see Drama) and the ancient practice of doubling 
the consonant when preceded by a single vowel in the par- 
ddpial terminations, as to l^egin, biginningj to regret ^ regret- 
id: and I believe it may be confidently aflirmed, that 
words of two syllables from the Latin, with but one con- 
sonant in the middle, would always have had the first 
Towel long, if a pedantic imitation of Latin quantity had 
not prevented it. (see Drama) Let kn Englishmdn, with 
only an English education, be put to pronounce zephyr^ ana 
hewill, without hesitation, pronounce the e long, as id 
zmitb : if you tell him the e is pronounced short in the 
Latin zephjrus^ which makes it sholt in English, and hd 
should happen to ask yt)u the Latin quantity of the first 
syllable of comic^ mimic, solace^ &c. your answer would be a 
COTtradiftion to ypur rule. — ^What irrefragably proves this 
to be the genuine analogy of Englbh quantity, is d&e dif- 
ferent quantity we give a Latin word of t^o syllabled wherf 
in die nominativej aiki when in an oUique case : thus in 
the first syllable of sidus and nomcny which ought to be 
long; and of miser and onus, which ought to be short, we 
equally use the conunon long sound of the vowels : but in 
the oblique cases, siJeris, naminisy miseri, prteris, Sec* we .use 
quite another sound, and that a short on^ : and this ^a-i 
logy runs through the n^hole English pronunciation of <he 
learned languages. (533) (535) 

544. But the small dependance of thfe English quantity' 
on diat of the Latin, will be best seeh by a sel^&iod of 
words of two syllables, with the actent on the first, and 
but one consonant in the middle, and comparing them. 
vith the Latin words from which they are deriv^. 

English dissyllabUs ivhich have but one consonant, or a muie and 
liquid in the midtlfe, and have the first syllable accented, con^ 
trasted with the hatin 'words from which they are- derived, 
viarked with their respective quantities. 

Words in which the first vowel in both languages is long : 












labra, Idbra, 















frigrance, frigro* 
licence, liC9fttia, 
























legal, ♦ 








metrum, mctrum* 
ilbratusi • 
vtbro, vibron 
levlta, " 

Kptck, crtsiSm 
' egrrssus. 
(rctrrisstts. « 

tyg^ess, ftgris, ttgris. 

bolus, bolus, 














riflexuJ, rtfiexus. 
syrietx, w^*^. 






idol I 





























• cog^xDty 
digest, sub. 
















ai^g siphon* 

xZkofi colon* 








tlgris, tigris* 


' crebitr. 


- sfimu 



Words in which the same vowel 



is short In both languagjesi 

sabine, ' sdblnL 
famine, fdmeu 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 









* pWdt, 








^ tacit. 

ticitus. - 









lyric, . 










- refuse, ^ 














, placid. 


senate, . 




patent, sut 

u' pateo. 






. scholaris. 



















. gelid. 












liquor, ' 
















Words in which the same vowel is lon$: in Enjtlish, and 





short in 

Latin : 

























nitid, . 








. second. 






































vapour, ' 













* cavate. 
































local, . 







. reUllo. 






dMIis. . 







• Sgile, 

































































dioMuj. " 




. a-xitrtSf schesis. 








^is.thhis. , 















patent, adj. 

















pHtens. ' 

























« IXtm, 





scdber. ^ 















cpact, • 

. WdxTrnt. 



Digitized by VnOOQ IC 


























yfords in which the same vowel is short in English, and 
long in Latin : 


primer, . 


mproy lepra, 
. projero. 
rlvus. ' 

spirit us. » 
trajectus, . 


ecbo^ ix^" 
splrltus. ' 

latter ; for though the Latin accent is frequently a rule for 
placing the English accent, as in words derived whole from 
that language, as abdomeny acumen^ &c. (503) or preserving 
the same number of syllables^ as in impudent^ elegant^ from 
impudens, elegansy &c. (503) yet the quantity of the Latin 
seems to have no influence on that ojf the English. In words 
of two syllables, where one consonant comes between two 
vowels, as ficus^ basis, locals &c. though the vowel in the 
first sylbble is short in Latin, it is long in English ; and 
inversely, Jlorid, frigid, livid, &c. have the vowels in the 
first syllable short, though these vowels are long injloruius, 
fiigidus, lividuSf &c. so that if any thing like a rule can 
be formed, it is, that when a word of three syllables in 
Latin, with the two first short, is anglicised by dropping 
the l^t syllable ; we shorten the first syllable of the Eng- 
lish dissyllable, unless it ends with the vowel u. (535) 
Thus we see the shortening power of our English ante- 
penultimate accent, which shortens every antepenultimate 
vowel but u in our pronunciation of Latin words ; as in 
mimicus, vividus, &c. and continues its shortening power 
in the penultimate accent of these words when anglicised 
into mimick and vivid \ and hence it is that the short quan- 
tity of the first vowel in dissyllables isbecome so prevalent 
in our language, to the great detriment of its sound, and 
the disturbance of its simplicity. 

It may be necessary, in the next place, to take a view of 
such words as are either of Saxon or French original, or 
not so immediately derived firom the Latin, as to be in- 
fluenced by its quantity. 

Dissyllables with but one consonant in the middle, having 
the first syllable pronounced long : 

545. In this view of the Latin and English quantity, we 
see how uncertain it is to argue from the former to the 


hazel, * 
' acorn, 
































































Digitized by VnOOQ IC 



Djssyllabks vnth but one coascmant in the middle^ having 
the first syllable pronounced shoh : 

borough, driveli flagon, genet, 

seraph, swivel, wagon, cUret, 

relish, hovel, talon, clqset, 

blemish, grovel, tenon, civet, 

banish, shovel, heron, trivet, 

damask, drazel, baron, rivet, 

frolick, manage, sirup, covet, 

medal, borage, lecher, fagot, 

shekel, visage, wether^ bigot, 

amel, ravage, 'gather, .-j^got, 

chisel, savage, lather, spigot, 

gavel, rivage, rather, pivot, 

ephod, travise, nether, desart, 

hazard, traverse, hither, covert, 

hagard, refuse, wither, copist, 

dizard, frigate, thither, provost, 

lizard, sheriff, tither, . gamot. 

Vizard, travail, other, shadow^ 

wizard, peril, mother, widow, 

bodice, venom, smother, honey, 

balance, woman, pother, comely, 

vSlance, riven, sTker, many^ 

damage, ' sloven, clever, cony, 

homage, oven, never, bury, 

grSvel, satin, quiver, busy, 

bcvil,' bavin, cover, bevy, 

leveU ravin, hover, levy, 

revel, , spavin, manor, tivy, 

snivel, plevin, caract, privy, 

rivel, covin, valet, pay. 

From the perusal of this seleftion we see a great majo- 
rity of wordi where the first vowel is sounded short, and 
therefore, to somp inspeftors it may seem improbable that 
t^e original tendency of our Saxon language was to the 
long quantity of the penultimate vowel. But as Mr. Nares 
very judiciously observes, " the rule is sufliciently general 
" to be adtnitted, and is undoubtedly founded in the na- 
'* ture of our pronunciation :'* for which he quotes Dr. 
Wallis, who says, *^ Hxc videtur genuina linguae nostra 
** ratio antiqua." Elements of Ortib'epyy page 225. 

546. Those who have made the progress of languages 
their 9tudy, will observe, it is presumed, that the broad 
sounds of vowels change to the slender,* the difficult con- 
sonants to the easier, and the long vowels to short ones. 
This, it b imagined, will be found to be true in all lan- 

* Alioqul, pro usu, abusn>et inveteratuseiTor nobis obtrudcretur. Oltm 
fnim pro mutatione sonorum muubanturet lil|er« : et st quando consuetu- 
do aliquid inuta9se>, scribendi quoquc modus starim varlabatur. Undequum 
apud Ennium ct Plautum S9nt et Strvos diccrctur et scribeiemr, posted 

guages, as well as our own ; and such alteration seems 
founded in the nature of man and of society. The next 
objeft to understanding a language being dispatch, it is no 
wonder that short sounds have been encroaching on us, 
and depriving us of the t|me of our words for the sake of 
gaining time. Thi^ is apparent in the abbreviation of sim^ 
pies when compounded, as in kmnvledgty shepherd^ &c. (518) 
but as it is the business of art to corred and reguUte the 
eccentricities of nature and the excesses of custom, it should 
be the care of every philosophic grammarian to keep his 
eye upon the original genius and general scope of his lan- 
guage, and to suffer custom to depart as little from them as 
possible. . But although no in<5onsistcncy or want of analogy 
can alter any pronunciation which is once acknowledged 
and settled, yet, when a pronunciation is wavering, consis- 
tency, analogy, and general principles, ought to decide 
against a great majority of mere fashion and caprice. 

Thus have I endeavoured to give a distin<5l view of the 
correspondence between the accent and quantity of the 
learned languages and our own ; and to rescue a plain 
Englishman (who, as Ben Jonson says of Shajcespeare, has 
little Latin and less Greek) from the supercilious criticism 
of those Greeklings and Latinitasters, who>re often re- 
markably ignorant of their own language, and yet fre- 
quently decide upon its accent and quantity, because they 
have a smattering of Greek and La^in. If the question 
turns upon the accent of an English word, the Latin word 
it is derived from is immediately produced, and sentence 
passed without appeal ; and yet if the Englishman were to 
ask the rule on which this. decision is founded, the scholar 
would, in all probability, be at a loss to tell him. Has 
every English word, he might say, the same accent as the 
Latin word from which it is derived ? This the scholar 
could not ansyer in the afiirmative, as the least recollection 
would teirhim th^it parsinwny, acrimony , &c. cannot be ac« 
cented after the ladXinparsimonia^ acrimoniay &c. as the 
Latin is never accented higher than the antepenultimate.. 
But perhaps the English word is adopted whole from the. 
Latin. Here is undoubtedly a fair pretence for proiu}un- 
cing it with the Latin accent ; and yet we see how many 
exceptions there are to this rule. (See No. 503, b,) Or per- 
haps the English word, though anglicised, retains the same- 
number of syllables. This, indeed, niay. be said to be »» 
getjeral rule for preserving. the Latin accent, but so general 
as to be neglected in a thousand instances. (Sec No. 503,/,, 
g» bj /, k.) But if the scholar, as is often the case, huddles 
quantity and accent together, and infers the English (^v/i/i- 
iiiyixoca the Latin ; the English scholar needs only to re-^ 

multis aurium delicijs o vocali rcjccta> quod vastus illtus ridcremr soous // 
littcra substiiutaest, ct sonoexprrssa; ita ut coium loco Sunt et Servus 
prolatutn cc Kriptura sit. Adolphi MckcrchL SrugentU Dc Vet* ct llcct« 
Pronua. Lingux Gixcac Commcotarius. 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 


jerhiin to .the selections heregiven, (No. 544, 54:6) to 
show the inanity of such a plea. Upon the whole, there- 
fore, I flatter myself that men of learning will be gratified 
to see the subject in a clearer point of view than 'any in 
which it has ever been exhibited ; and the plain English 
scholar wiU be indebted to me forgiving him as clear and 
distinct an idea of the connexion between the Creek and 
Latin accent and quantity, and the accent and quantity of 
his native tongue, as if he had Homer and Horace by 
heart; and for placing him out of the reach of those pert 
minor critics, who are constantly insulting him with their 
knowledge of the dead languages. 

(^ the Qmntiiy rf the UnaecenUi Vowels not in the same 
Syllable with Consonants. 

547. Accented syllables, as we have before observed, 
(179) are so strongly marked as to be easily cdmprehended 
when they are once settled by custom or analogy ; but those 
iiamediately before or aft'er the accent are in a state of un- 
certainty, which some of our best judges find themselves 
unable to remove. Some grammarians have called all the 
open voweh before or after the accent short, though the 
ear so evidently dictates the contrary in the «/ in utility ^ the 
6 m obfdiefsce, &c. Some have saved themselves the trouble 
of farther search by comprehending'these vowels under the 
epithet obscure ; nay, so unfixed do the sounds of these 
▼owels seem, that Dr. Kcnrick, whose Rhetorical Dictionary 
shows he was possessed of very great philological abilities, 
seems as much at a loss about them as the meanest gram- 
marian in the kingdom ; for when he comes to mark the 
sound of the vowel o in the first syllable of a series of words 
with the accent on the second, he makes the o in prcmulge, 
pnpil, and prolix, long, as they ought to be ; and the same 
letter in prohscts, proceed, and procedure, short. Dominion, 
ijmestic^ deflation, and domain, are marked as if pronounced 
ii»-im5fl, dom-esticj dentation, and dom-ain, with the o short ; 
vhile the first of docility, potential, and monotony, have the o 
oarked long, as in donor, potent, and modish ; though it is 
certain to a demonstration, that the etymology, accent, and 
letters, beiog the same, the same sound must be produced, 
inless where custom has precisely marked a difference •, 
and that the first syllables of promulge, propel, and prolix, 
Mid those of proboscis, proceed^ and procedure, have no such 
difference, ^eems too evident to need proof.* 

I am aware that this ifigcmocw writer seems- to avoid this ioceosistency, 
V p-cmising, in hii Rhetorical Grammar, page 43, that h« has sometimes 
Ka-ked the in Mrcrds beginning with a prcpositioti with the oraiorial, and 
wocrrmcs with the coUoqaial pronunciation : thus, meommune, comTftuni- 
f«f,&c. the oraiorial sound is given as in the first syllable ofcommtm, while 
«i5colloqajal sound changes the into », as if the words were wriiien cttm- 
"tw, cummunkatey &c. but the distinction in examples docs not 
tt«b the point : here there is a change only of oiic short sound for another, 
^ t»tany pfomiscuoui uk of a long a;id jbort, or open and sJjut joundof 

548. I know it may be demanded, with great plausibility, ' 
how do I know that therms not this very inconsistency in' 
custom itself ? What right have I to suppose that custom 
is not as vague and capricious in these syllables as in those 
under the accent i To which I answer : if custom has 
determined the sound of these vowels, the dispute is at an 
end. I implicitly acquiesce in the decision' ; but if pro- 
fessors of the art disagree in their opinions, it is a shrewd 
sign that custom is not altogether so clear in its sentence ; 
and I must insist on recurring to principles till custom has^ 
unequivocally decided. 

649. Eveiy vowel that is neither shortened by the ac- 
cent, nor succeeded by a double consonant, naturally ter- 
minates a syllable; and tliis terminating vowel, thougk 
uot so properly long as if the accent were on it, would be 
very improperly termed short, if by short, as is often the 
case, be meant shut. {65) According to this idea of sylla- 
bication, it is presumed that the word opinion would fall 
into three distinft parts, and every part be terminated by a 
consonant but* the first, thus, o-pin-ikn, 

550. But it may be demanded, what reason is there in 
tlie nature of the thing for dividing the word in this maiv» 
ner, rather than into op-in-^ion, where a consonant epds every 
syllable ? In this, as in many other cases, of delicacy, we ' 
may be allowed to prove what is right, by first proving 
what 16 wrong. Every ear would be hurt, if the first syl- 
lable of opinion and opulence were pronounced exactly alilize, 
op-irdion would be as diflFerent firom o-pin^ion, as o^u^lenci. 
from op-u-lence, and consequently a di&rent syllabication 
ought to be adopted ; but as opulence is rightly divided into 
op-'u4ence, opinion must be divided into o-pin-^icn ; that is, the 

tf must be necessarily separated frotn the/, as in o^peny for, 
as was before observed, every vow^l pn^ounced alone has 
its open sound, as nothing but its jun£tion with a conso- 
nant can shut it, and consequently unaccented vowels not 
necessarily joined to a consonant are always open : there- 
fore, without violating the fundamental laws of pronunci- 
ation, opinion must necessarily be divided into o-pin^-ion, and 
not op^in-ion, and the ^'pronounced as in the word <^«7, and 
not as in opulence i which was the thing to be proved. 

551. If these reasons are valid with respeft to the vowel 
in question, they have the same force with respeft to every 
other vowel, not shut by a consonant, throughout the lan- 
guage. That the vowels in this situation are aftually open, 
we may easily perceive by observing ^&i/ vowel, which, from 
its diphthongal and semi-consonant sound, is less liable to 
sufier by obscure pronunciation than any other. The letter 
u, in this situation, always preserves itself full and open, as 

the same letter. l>r. Keorick himself, when he marks the in proioias, 
proceed, and procedure, docs not adopt the short v, as be docs in ccmmune, 
commufiicate, &c. nor is be aware of the essential difference with rc»peci 
to the quantity of the vowel, in the double cofttonani in ooe set of woida, 
.aixl the ling^c one ia the othei. 

Digitized by 



we may observe in utility, lucubration^ &c. The o, the most 
open of all the simple vowels, has tlie same tendency in 
obedience^ opake, position, &c, the e in the first syllable of 
event, in the second of delegate, the first and third of 
evangelist, in the second of gaiety, nicety, &c. the a in the 
first of abate, and the second of probable, &c. and the i in 
nullity. This unaccented letter being no more than e, and 
this sound, when long, corresponding exactly with its short 
sound, (which is not the case with any of the other vowels, 
65, 66) the difference between the long and short, or open 
and shut sound of this letter, is less perceptible than 
in any other : yet we may easily perceive that a delicate 
pronunciation evidently leaves it open when unaccented in 
indivisibility, as this word would not be justly pronounced 
if the i in every syllable were closed by a consonant, as if 
divided into //fw//v-//-/A-/7-jV-j? ;. the first, third, and fifth 
syllables would, indeed, be justly pronounced according to 
this divi^on,as these have all accentual force, which shuts 
this vowel, and joins it to the succeeding consonant ; but 
in the second, fourth, and sixth syllables, there is no such 
force, and consequently it nmst remain open and uncon* 
nected with the consonant : though, as was. before ob- 
served, the long and short sound of this vowel are so near 
csjch other, that the difference is less perceived than in the 
rest. Every ear would be displeased at such a pronuncia- 
tion as is indicated by ut'-iil-lit-y, luc-cub^ratian, ep^in^ion, 
p$S'-ition, ev'vent, ev^an-^el^list, ablate, prob^ab-^ble, &c. 
byt for exadUy the same reasons that the vowels ou^ of the 
stress ought to be kept open in these words, the slender i 
must be kept open in the same situation in the word in- 
di^is'i-bil'i^y, an every similar word in the language.* 

552. From all this it will necessarily follow, that the 
custom adopted by the ancients and moderns of joining the 
single consonant to the latter vowel in syllabication, when 
investigating the unknown sound of a word, has its foun- 
dation in reason and good sense : that the only reason 
why vowels are short and shut, is their junction with a 
consonant ; so those that are not joined to consonants. 

when we are not speaking metrically, cannot be said to be fire-jer-y. 

either short or shut : and that as all accented vowels, when 
final or pronounced alone, have th^ir open sound, so those 
vowels that are alone or final in a syllable must necessarily 
retain their open sound likewise, as nothing but uniting 
instantaneously with the succeeding consonant can shut 
them : and ;though nothing but a delicate ear will direct us 

* It 11 plain that Mr.Sberidan coiaidcred the unaccented vowel r, whether 
ending a tyllable, or joined to the succeeding contonant, as sunding for the 
same sound; for we see him sometimes making use of one. division, and 
sometimes of another : thus he divides the word di-'ver-si'ty with the i fine^ir^, 
terminating the penultimate syllable, and «-if)Mi;^r-x/V^ with the same/ 
united to the consonant. The same variety takes phce in the words di- 
njiUAMA'ty and in'di-^iS'iM'ii'j, while Dr, Kcniick divides all words 
'of this termioatioo regularly m the former manner. 

to the degree of openness with which we must pronounce 
the first unaccented o in docility, domestic, potential^ proceed, 
monastic, monotony, &c. we may be assured that it is exactly 
under the same predicament, with respect to. sound, in all 
these words : and as they cai^ never; be pronounced short 
and shut, as if written dossility, dommestic, &c. without 
hurting the dullest ear \ so the e in event, evangelist, &c. 
and the i in the third syllable of utility, and in the second, 
fourth, and sixth of indivisibility, can never be sounded as 
if joined to the consonant without offending every delicate 
ear, and overturning the first principles of pronunciation. 

553. The only considerable exception to this general 
rule of syllabication, which determines the sound of the 
unaccented vowels, is when^ succeeds the accent, and is 
followed by r, as in literal, general, misery, &c. which can 
never be pr'5nounced lit*e*ral, gen^e^al, mis^^ry, &c. with- 
out the appearance of affectation. In thb situation we find 
the r comigt the sound of the e, as it does that of every 
other vowel when in a final unaccented syllable. For this 
consonant being nothing more than a jar, it unavoidably 
mixes with the e in this situation, ahd reduces it to the 
obscure sound of short u, (418) a sound to which the 
other unaccented vowels before r have sometimes so evi- 
xlent a tendency. 

554*. An obscure idea of the principles of syllabication 
just laid down, and the contradiction to them perceived in 
this exception, has made most of our orthoepists extremely 
wavering and uncertain in their division of words into syl- 
lables, when the unaccented e has preceded r, where we 
not only find them differing firom each, othefj but some- 
times even from themselves : 

































Digitized by 




iOM'niffer-us, som'nif'e'rous, som-mf-er-ous , som-nif-e'rous. 


551. Something like the corruption of the sound of 
unaccented e before r we may perceive in the colloquial 
pronunciation of the vowel o in the same situation 5 and 
accordingly we find our best orthoepists differ in their no- 
tation of this letter : thus memory^ memorabley immemorable^ 
memorably y memorize^ have the pronounced like short u by 
Mr. Sheridan ^and Mr. Scott 5 and memorandum^ with the 0^ 
as in open ; while Dr. Kenrick gives the in all these words 
555. I have been the more copious in my collection of j ^j^^ ^^^^ j^ ^^^ -^^ ^1^^ conjunction or. Mr. Sheridan 
these varieties,.that I might not appear to have taken the i ^^^ ^j^^ unaccented in corpora/, corporate, 2nd corpora^ 


in-nu-mur-us, • 



' un-ut'ter^l'l, - 

nU'Tne-rous, nu-me'rous, 
in-nu-me-rous, in-nU'Tne-rous, 
proS'per-ous, pros-per^ous, 
ut'ter-a-lle^ ut'ter-a-bic, 
un-ul'ter-a-lle, un-ui-'ter'a-ble. 

advantage of any oversight or ipistake of the press : nor 
is it any wonder when the principles of syllabication so 
strongly incline us to leave thft vowel e, likef the other 
vowels, open before a single consonant J and the ear so de- 
cidedly tells us, that this letter is not always open when 
preceded by the accent, and followed by r, it is no wonder, 
I say, that a writer should be perplexed, and that he' should 
sometimes incline to one side, and sometimes to the other. 
I am conscious I have not always been free from this incon- 
sistency myself* The examples therefore which I have 
selected, will^ I hope, fully justify me' in the syllabication I 
have adopted; which is^ that of sometimes separating^ the 
e from the r in this situation, and sometimes not.. When 
solemn and deliberate speaking has seemed to admit of 
lengthening the e, I have sometimes fnade it end the syl- 
lable;, when this was not the case, I haver sothetimes joined 
it to the r : thus, as ^ in the penultimate syllable pf ;^jr- 
ceraie, reverberate, &c. seems, in solemn speaking, to admit 
of a small degree of length and distinctness, it ends a syl- 
lable *, but as no solenmity of pronunciation seems to ad- 
mit of the same length and openness of the e in tolerate, 
df liberate, &c. it is united with r, and sounded in the no- 
ta^on by short i/. It ought, however, to be carefully ob- 
served, that though the e in this situation is sometimes 
separated from the r, there is no speaking, however delibe- 
rate and solemn, that will hot admit of uniting It to r, and 
pronouncing it like short u, trithout offending the -nicest 
and most critical ear* 

556. It must also be noted) that this alteration of the 
sound of ? before r is only when it follows the accent^either 
primary or secondary ; {522) (5S0) for when it is in the 
first syllable of a word,, though unaccented, it keeps its 
triie sound ; thus, though the e is pronounced like u in alter^ 
^ifratm, &c yet in perfection, terrific, &c. this letter is as 
pwre as when the accent is on it in peffect^ terrible, &c. 

tion, like the in open ; but Mr. Scott pronounces this in 
corporal, corporate, and corporation, like short u, and the 
same letter In incorporate and incorporation like Mr. Sheri- 
dan ; and Dr. Kenrick, like the o'm the former instances. 
Mr. Sheridan and Mr. Scott are uniform in thei^ pronun- 
ciation of the same vowel like short u in armour, armorer^ 
armory, pi. lory ^ suasory, persuasory^ allegory, compulsory^ 
cursory i ^nd predatory ; while Dr. Kenrick pronounces the 
in armour and armory like the in open, and the same 
letter in pillory, allegory, and cursory, like the in or^ nor, &c. 
This diversity, among good judges, can arise from nothing 
but the same uncertainty of the sound of this letter that 
we have just observed of the e \ but if we narrowly watch 
our pronunciation, we shall find that the unaccented may 
be opened and lengthened, in deliberate speaking, without 
hurting the ear, which is not always the case with es and 
this has induced me generally to separate the from the 
succeeding r, when immediately following the accent $ 
though I am sensible that the rapidity of colloquial sneaking 
often reduces it to short u without offending the ear : but 
when the is removed more than one syllable from the 
accent, the most deliberate speaking generally lets it slide 
into the other vowel ; for which reason I have commonly 
marked it in this manner. See Command. 

S5S. It may, perhaps, appear to some of my readers, 
that too much time has been spent upon these nice dis- 
tinctions of sound, in which judges themselves are found 
to disagree ; but when we consider how many syllables in 
the language are unaccented, and that these syllables are 
those in which the peculiar delicacy of the pronunciation 
of natives consists \ when we reflect on the necessity of 
having as distinct and permanient sounds as possible, ta 
which we may refer these fleeting and evanescent ones, live 
shall not look upon an attempt to arrest and investigate 
them as a useless part of philology. 

Digitized by 


ssg. A TABLE of the SIMPLE and DIPHTHONGAL VOfFELS referred to 
by the Figures wer the Letters in (his Dictionart/. 


, 1 . J. The long slender English a^ as in fite, pSper, &c. (73) - - - - ^ infee^ epee. 

2. I. The long Italian tf, as in far, fa-ther, pa-pa, mam-ml^ (7/) - - - a in faile, table. 

3. a. The broad Germans, as in fall, wall, wi-ter, (ss) ------tfin age^ Chdhns. 

4. a. The short sound of the Italian a, as in fat, mat, mar-ry, (si) - - - « infat^ matin. 

1 . h. The long ^, as in mi, hire, mi-tre, me-diura, (93) ------/ in mitre, epitre. 

2. e. The short e^ as in met, let, get, {95)--^-------^ in mette, nette. 

1. I. The long diphthongal /, as in pine, tl-tle, (105) - - ----«/ in leique, naif. 

2. 1. The short simple /, as in pin, t!t-tle, (107) - - - - - -- -lin inne, titri. 

1. 0, The long open o^ as in no, nAte, ni-ticc, (162) - - - - - -'-din globe^ lobe. 

2. 6. The long closer, as in mJve, prive, (164} - - - - - - --^ttin meuvoir, pmvoir^ 

3- i. The long broad ^, as in nir, fir, or; like the broac^l, (167) - - - ^ in or^foVy eneor. 

4. &. The short broad tf, as in not, hot, git, {163) - - - - - -- -din httte^ cotte. 

1. u. The long diphthongal a, as intibe, cfi-pid, (i7l)« - - - - - iou in Ciautat, ehi^urme. 

2. u. The ^hort simple tt, as in tfib, cup, sup, (172) ------ ' eu inneuf, veuf. 

3. u. The middle or obtuse «, as inbull, full, pull, (173) ------ a« in boule^foult, poule. . 

ii. The long broad i, and the short 1, as in iil, (299) ------ o7 in cyclolde, beniqui. 

iu'. The long broad 6, and the middle obtuse u, as in tbiu, piund, (sisj aou in Acute* 

^ Th, The acut« or sharp /A, as in /Aink, /Ain, (466) 

Th. The grave or flat th, as in THis, THat, (41) (50) (469) 

560, 'WiBen.'C^is.prkited in the Roman character, it has its hard sound in get^ goney 5cc. as go, give, geese, &cl 
when it has its soft souzkI, it is spelled in the notation by the consonant ^, 2s giant, ginger, ji*ant,jin'ger. The s^m^ 
may he observe of S •* the Rom^n diaracter denotes its hard sound in sin, sun, &c« as so^ sit, sense, &c. its soft soun^ 
iv spelled by %, as rose, raise, &c. roze, raze, &c. 

iW . r- 


' . In the course isf a critical investigation of the powers of the letters in the foregoing principles, there is scarcely a 
wovd of any Affieuky or diversity of sound which has not been noticed, and the true pronunciation) with the reasons 
' and smthotities for it, pointed out -, so that if the inspector should not meet with sufficient information in the 
Diftionary under the W5ord,lethim consult the Principles under the vowel, diphthongs or conspnant, he wishes to be 
explained) and it is highly probable he will m^et with the satisfaction he requires. Thus to know something mora, 
concerning the g^ in the word impugn, which some speakers pronounce and others suppress, let him look into the 
Principles under the letter G, No. 386, and he will find additional observations to those in the Dictionary under the 
word. It is true that most of these doubtful, as well as other words, are referred to the Principles } but if this 
reference diould by chance be omitted, it is hoped that this Adxertisement will supply the deficiency. 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 




The Jigures between the parentheses refer to the numbers in the Principles of Pronunciation prefixed tc 
this Dictionary, where tlie different sounds of the letters are explained at large. Thus (73) refers to 
the^rst sound of the letter A ; (93) to the first sound of the letter E ; and so oftlie rest. 

The figures over the letters refer to the vowels in the words at the top of the page ; and the index (pr 
hefore tlvese words, refers to the table of simple and diphthongal sounds, where the different sounds of 
the vozvels are exhibited at one view. Thus |fr (559) rtf^'^ to the table in the opposite page » 

car (559). Fate (73), fir (77), fall (83), fat (si) 5 mi (93) , mk (gs) ; pine (105), pin (107); no (162) 
nAr (167), nJt (163); lube (171)1 tub C172), bull (173); 4!l(299); pound (313); /*in (466), thi 

A The first letter of the alphabet 
^ (73). A, an article set before nouos of 
the singular number; a man, a tree. 

Before a word beginning with a vowel, it is 
written an, as an ox ; A is sometimes a noun, 
as great A ; A is placed before a participle, or 
participial noon ; gone a hunting, come a beg- 
f^ng : A has a sienification denoting propor- 
tion ; the landlord hath a hundred a year. 
f^ The change of the letter a into an before a 
vowel or mute b for the sake of sound, seems 
to deserve more attention than has generally 
been £[iven to it by any of our grammarians, 
and will therefore be considered under the 
article vfn ; which see. 

Of the J^lphabeiical Pronundatlw tf the 
Letter A» 

So nanv profound and ingenious observations 
have Dcen-madc upon this first step to Hicra- 
fore, that volumes mio^t be filled with the 
erudition that has lieen lavished oo this letter 
alpne* Toe priority of place it claims, in all 
alf^bets, has made it so much the obje£l of 
attention, that philologhts suppose the found- 
ation of learning but weakly bid till the oa- 
taral and civil hutoxy of the fiistktter be fully 

Bot» however deep bftve been their researches into 
the origin of this letter, we find no author in' 
our language has hitherto attempted to settle 
tk^ disputes that have arisen between the na- 
tives 01 Soglandy Ireland, and Scotland, about 
the true stend of it, when called by its name. 
Instead, therefore, of tracing this cbara£ler 
thfoogh-tbe drcks of Gomer, the Egyptian 
Hieiorlyphics, the mysterious Abraxas, or th^ 
Iliib |O^Qi| I shall endeavour to obviate a dif- 

ficulty that frequentlv arises when it is pro- 
nounced in the riomDook : or, in other words, 
to enquire what is the true name of the first 
letter of the English alphabet— whether we are 
to say Aye^ B, C ; Ahj B^C; or AyUf B, C, 
And first, it will be necessary to consider the na- 
ture of a vowel ; which grammarians are gene- 
rally agreed in defining to be *' a simple arti- 
" culatc sound, formed by the impulse of the 
** voice by the opening only of the mouth in 
" a particular manner." Now, as every vowel 
by iLself is .^aouiidcd long, as nothing but its 
jun£lion with a consonant can make it other- 
wise, it is natural, when pronouncing this 
vowel alone, to give it the long open sound ; 
but as this long open sound is threefold, as 
heard mface, father, and 'water, a question 
arises, which of these long sounds shall we adopt 
as a common name to the whole species of this 
letter ? The English make choice of the a in 
facet the Irish oT that xu father, and the Scotch 
of that in luater. Each party produces words 
where the letter a is sounded in the manner 
they contend for; but when we demand why 
one should have, the preference, the contro- 
versy is commonly at an end ; any tatther reasons 
are either too remote or too insigtiificant to be 
produced : and indeed, if a divcnity of names 
to vowels did not confound us in our spelling, 
or declaring to each other the component letters 
of a word, it would be entirely needless to enter 
into so trifling a question as the mere name of 
a letter ; but when we find ourAelves unable to 
convey signs to each other on account of this 
diversity of names, and that words themselves 
are endangered by an improper utterance uf 
their component paru, it seems highly incum- 
bent on us to attempt an uniformity in this 
point, which, insignificant as it may sccAn, is 



THIS (469). 

undoubtedly the foundationof a just.aod regu- 
lar pronunciation. 

The farst rule for naming a letter, when pro- 
nounced alone, seems to be this : Whatever 
sound we give to a letter when terminating a 
syllable, the same sound ought to be given to 
it when pronounced alone ; because, in both 
cases, they have their primary, simple sound, 
uninfluenced by a succeeding vowel or con- 
ronant ; and therefore, when we pronourure a 
letter alone, it ought to have such a sound as 
does not suppose the existeiKe of any oiher 
letter. But wherev4:r a terminates a syllable?, 
with the accent upon it, (the only state in 
which it can be said to be pure) it has always 
the English sound of that letter. The only>cx> 
cepfions to this rule are, the words fa-ther, 
tna-ster^ and ttM-ter; and that these are merely 
exceptions, appears from the uniformity witli 
which the a is pronounced otherwise \ii parrnt, 
papal, taper^ fatal, &c. The other vowels 
have their names exa£lly similar to the sound 
they have in a similar situation, as the r like 
that in tne-grim, tlic / like the / in //-//r, the 9 
as the in fftf hie, and the u like thc» in tu-tcr. 
Thusj as it appcais from the cencral analogy 
of pronunciation, that the soundof the a, which 
the English adopt, is the only one that docs 
not necessarily suppose the existence of any 
other sound, it inevitably follows that theirs 
only is the proper appellation of that letter. 

But there is another analogy by which we mav 
determine the true sound of the vowels when 
pronounced singly ; and that is, the sound they 
have wheii preserved long and open by the 
final e. Thus we call the ktter e by the fpund 
it has in theme, the letter i as it sounds in time, 
the letter o as heard in tom, and the « as in 
time ', and why the letter a should aot bcpio- 


Digitized by 




9^ (559). Fitc(73), fir (77), fill(B3>,'fat (Ai) ; mc (93), met (95} ; plije (1(^5), p!n (107); n6(l62), mJvc(l64), 

nounced as heard in faee^ cannot be conceived, 
as each of the other vowels has, like a, a va- 
riety of other sounds, as they are united with 
letters which, in some measure, alter their 

In consequence of entertaining a different idea of 
the a, when pronounced in the alphabet, we 
see the natives of Ireland very prone to a dif- 
ferent pronunciation of the words where this 
letter occurs ; and, indeed, it is quite consistent 
with their doE^rine of the sound of a, that the 
yfordi parent^ papal, taper, ind fatal, should 
be pronounced pah-rent, pah-pal, tah-per, 
Btid/ah-tal. We find the Scotch likewise in- 
clinable to the same pronunciation of a, when 
in loords, as when alone. Thus we hear 
Sanvtan for Satan, sanucred for sacred, and 
lo'W-ity for Jahy i and this is perfectly con- 
sistent with the manner in which they pro- 
.nouncc the letter a, when aloge : there is no 
medium. If this be not the true pronunciation 
of these words, the a is certainly to be sounded 
as the Knslish do : for, whenever the English 
give the Italian sound, as it may be called, to 
the a, except in the word^fatbtr znd master, 
it is always in consequence of iis junction with 
.some copsonant, which determines it to that, 
sound ; as in monosyllables terminating in r, 
as har, car, far: but where it is not affected 
by a succeeding consonant, as in the words 
fitrent, papal, natal, fatal, we then hear it 
pronounced as the slender English a, both in 
and out of composition. 

It will, perha('«, be objected, that the most fre- 
quent short sound of a, as heard in cat, rat, 
mat, carry, marry, parry, is the short sound 
of the Italian a \n father, car, mar, par, and 
not the short sound of the a in care, mare, and 
. pare ; but it may be answered, that this want of 
correspondence between the name of the letter, 
and the roost frequent short souod, is common 
to the rest of the vowels : for the 0, as hearcT 
in aa, nor, rot, is not the short soimd of the 
in coat, note, wrote^ but of the a in ivater, 
«r of the dtphthoi^s m caught, naught, and 
ivrwght; and if we ought to call the a, ah, 
because its short sound corresponds to ah, for 
the very same reason we ought to call the 0, au ; 
and a similar alteration must take place with the 
rest of the vowels. As therefore, from the va- 
riety of sounds the vowels have, it is tmpos- 
lible to avoid the inconvenience of somctnnes 
sounding the letter one way in a sylbble, and 
another way in a word, we must either adopt 
the simple long sound when we would pro- 
nounce the letter alone, or invent new names 
for every different sound in a different word, in 
order to obviate the difficulty. 

Tt must not be dissembled, however, that the 
sound of a, when terminating a syllable not 
otider the accent, seems more inclined to the 
Irish than the English a, and that the ear is 
less disgusted with the sound of Ab-mer-i-cab 
than o\ Ay-mer-i'cay : but to this it may be 
answered, that letters not under the accent, in 
a thousand instances, deviate from their true 
sounds that the vowel a, like several other 
iFowels in a final syllable not accented, has an 
obscure sound, bordering on u ; but if the a, 
in this situation, were pronounced ever so dis- 
tinctly, and thai this pronunciation were clearly 
the a in father, it would be nothing to the 
parpose : when the a is pronounced alone, it 
may be said not only to be a letter, but a dis- 
tinct character, and a noun substantive ; and, as 
such, has the same force as the letters in an ac- 
cented syllable. The letter a, therefore, a» 
' the liVst character In the alphabet, may always 
be said to have the accent,, arul ought to have 
the same long,- open sound, an is given to that 
letter when bccemed in a syllable, and not in- 
fluenced in its sound by any preceding or sue- 
'Cecding consooafit* 

We may therefore cbntludc, that ff all v6wcb, 
when pronounced alone, are accented and long, 
if speUing be the pronunciation of letters alone, 
(as it would be aosurd to suppose ourselves ac- 

Suaintcd with the. different consonants that 
etermine the sound of the vowels before they 
are pronounced,) it follows, that in spelling, 
or rei)eating the component parts of a word, 
we ought to give those parts their simple and 
uncombined sound : but there is no uncom- 
bined sound of the vowel a, except the slender 
sound contended for, unless in the wovdsfather 
and master; and therefore, when we repeat 
letters singly, in order to declare the sound of 
a word, we must undoubtedly give the first 
letter of the alphabet the sound .we ever give it 
in the first syllabic of the numerous class la-dy, 
forgan^ ma-:Son, ba-son, &c. 
Thus, after placing eveiy objection in its strongest : 
light, and deduciiig !our arguments from the 
simplest and clearest principles, this iinp6rtant. 
question seems at last decided in favour of the 
English ; who, independent of the arguments 
in their favour, may be presumed to have a 
natural right to determine . the name oC the 
letter in question, though it has b^n'so often: 
litigated by their- formidable and IcanicJ, 
though hinior, .relations. For though, in ^omc 
jcascs, tne natives of Ireland and Scotland ad- 
here rather moiie closely to analogy than the 
English themselves, yet in this wc find the 
English pronounce perfe£lly agreeable to rule ; 
and that the slender pronunciation of the letter 
a, as they pronounce it iii the alphabet, is no 
> more than giving it that simple sound, it ever 
has, when unconnected with vowels or conso- 
nants that alter its power. 
An appeal to the vulgar for the analogy of lan- 
guage is perhaps as proper as an appeal to the 
learned and polite, for the best usa^e. In an 
old ballad, where the last syllable is made the 
accented syllable of America, we find it 
rhymed with the first sound of a, or what may 
be called its alphabetical sound. 

Oh may AmerUa 

Yield to our Monarch's sway, 
And no more contend *. 

May they their interest see. 

With England to agree, , 

And from oppression free, 
All that amend. 

Abacus, ab'a-kus. s. [Latin]. 
A counting table : the uppermost member of 
a column. 

Abaft^ a-baft'. ad. {545). 
From the fore part of the ship, towards the 

To Abandon, a-ban'dun. v. a. 
To give up. resign, or quit ; to desert ; to for- 
sake. (166). 

Abandoned, a-ban'dund. par. (362) 

Given up; forsaken ; corrupted in the highest 

Abandonment, a-ban'dun-ment. sf 

I'he act of abandonirig. 
Ab ARTICULATION, ab-ar-tik-u-la'- 
sh.un. s. (290) ; 

That species of articulation that has manifest 

To Abase, a-bise'. v. a. 
To cast down, to depress, to bring low. 

Abasement, a-b4«ve'm^nt. s. 

The state of being brought low ; depression. 

To Abash, a-bash'. v. a. 
To make ashamed. 

To Abate, a-bate'. v. a, (545) 

To lessen, to diminish. 

To Abate, a-batc'. v, n. 

To grow less. 

Abatement, a-bafe'mlnt. y. 

The a£l of abating ; the sum or quantity taken 
away by the aR of abating. 

Abater, a-ba'tur. s. (os) 
The agent or cause by which an abatement ts 

Abb, ab. s. 
The yarn on a weaver's warp. 

Abbacy, ab'ba-si. s. (452) 

The rights,, possessions, or privilege of an 
Abbess, ab'bess. s. 

The superior of a nunnery. 
ABBEY,or Abby, ab be. s. (270) 
A monastery of religious persons, whether 
men or women. 

Abbot, ab'bfit. s. (lO'S) 

The chief of a convent of men. 

To Abbreviate, ab-bre'vS-ite. v. a. 

1k> shorten, to iput jshori. (505) 
The aft of shortening. 

ABBREViATOR,ab-bre-ve-a'tiir. s. 
One who abridges, (5s 1) 

Abbreviature, ab-bre've-a-tcbure. 

s. (461} A mark used for shortening. 
To Abdic.\te, ab'de-kate. v, a. 

To give up right, to resign. f503) 
Abdication, ab-de-ka'shun. s. 

The acl of abdicating, resignation. 

Abdicative, ab'de-ca-tive. a. (512) 
That which causes or implies an abdication. 

(J:^* Dr. Johnson places tne' accent on the first 
syllable of this word, and Mr. Sheridan and 
Mr. PciTy on the second. The former is, in 
my opinion, the most correct. 

ABDOMFj»i,ab-do'men. s. {503) 
A cavity commonly called the lower venter or 
belly, Cs^i) ^ 4 , , 4 

Abdominal, ab-dom'me-nal. 1 

Abdominous* ab-dom'nii-nus. J ^' 
. Relating to the abdomen. 

To Abduce, ab-duse'. v.a. 
To draw to a different part, to' withdraw one 
part from another. 

Abducent, ab-di'slnt. a. 

Muscles abducent serve to open or pall back 
divers pans of the body. 

Abductor, ab-duk'tir. s. (166) 
The muscles, which draw back the several 


Abed, a-bed'. ad. 
Inbcd. - 

Aberrance, Sb-er'ran;se. s. 
A deviation ^om the right way, an errour. 

Aberrancy, ab-er ran-se. 

THe same with Aberrance. 

Aberrant, ab-er' rant, a.- 

Wandering from the right or known way. 

Aberration,'i'shuii. s. • 

The a£l of deviating from the common track* 

Aberring,'nng. part. (410} 
Going astray. 

To ABEkUNCATE, Jb-c-run'kitc. V.a* 
To pull up 1^ the roots. (91 j 

To Abet, a-bet'. v.a. 

To push forward another, to support him in 
his design^by connivance, encourageipent, or 

Abetment, a-b&'m^nt. s. 

The aa of abetting. 

Abetter, orAsETTOR, a-bot^tuF. $. 

He that abets ; the supporter or encouia^ o£ 
another. (166) (418) 

Digitized by 



r6r(lC7),n&t(l03); tibe(l7i),t5b (172). bill (173); i!l(299)} paind(3l3) j /Ain (4'66), thu (4<SJ)) 


Abeyakce, a-ba anse. s. ^ 
The riglK of fee simple licih in abc)-ancc, 
when it is all only in the rcmeinbrancc, inicnd- 
mem, and coosiaeraiton of ihc law. 

ToAbhor, ab-hii', v.a. (iGa) 
To haic with acrimony ; to loathe. 

Abhorrence, ab-hir'rense. 1 
Abhorrency, ab-hor'rcn-se. J 

The a£l of abhorring, detestation. 
Abhorrent, ab-h&r'rcnt. a. (168) 

Struck wiih ahhorrcnce ; contrary lo, fo.eign, 

inconsistent with. 
Abhorrer, ab-hor'rur. s. (28) 

A hater, detcster. 
To Abidk, a-biHe'. v. n. 

To dwdi in a place, not to remove ; to bear 

or support the consequences of a thing : it ts 

used with the particle *wub before a person, 

and at or in before a place. . 
Abider, a-bi'dur* $. (qs) . 

The person that abides or dwells m a place. 

Abiding, a-b^dlng. s. (4jo) 


Abject, ab'jekt. a. (492) 

Mean or worthless ; copi^inpiiblc, or of no 

Abject, ab'jekt. s. 

A man without hope^ 

To Abject, ab-jekt'. v. a. (492) 

To throw away. 
Abiectedness, ab-jck'ied-ncss. s. 
The state qf w abject. 

Abjection, ab-jek'shun. s. 

\lcanness of *iind ; servility ; baseness. 
Abjectly, ab'jSkt-le. ad. (452) 

In an abject manner, meanly. 

Abjectness, ab'jckt-ncss. s. 

Servility, meanness. 

Ability, a-bil'c-tc.s. (482) 

Tho power to do any thing ; capacity, qualih- 
cation : when it has the plural number, abili- 
ties, it /rcquently signifies the faculties, 6r 
powenof tbemiod 
To Abjure, abjure', v. a. 
To swear not to do something ; to retract, or 
rccam a position uix)o oath . 
Abjuration, ab*ju-ra'sbun. s. 
Ibead of abjuring ; the oath taken for that 
end. , 4 / T 

To Ablactate. ab-lak tate. v. a. 
To wean from the breast. (91 ) 

Ablactation, ab-lak-ta'sbun. s. 

Oocofthemtthodsof^rafiing, ^ ^^ ^ 

Ablaoueation, ab'la-kwe-a shun. 
. s. The practice of opening the ground about 
the roots of trees. (.584) 

Ablation, ab-la'shun. s. 

• Thcaaofukingaway. 
' Ablative, abMa-tlv. a. (i/5S) 

That wb'ch tak^ away ; th« sijcih case of the 
Latin o^uns. 

Able, a'bl. a. (405) 

Having strong fjcultics, or great strengm or 
knowledge, nchcs, or any other power of 
sniad^, body, <>t fortune; havingi pywer sul- 

Able-bodied, i-bl-bod did. a. 

Strong of body. (90) 
To Ablegate, ab'le-gate, v. a. 

To send abroad upon some employment. 
Ablegation, ab-le-gi'shun. s. 

A saiding abrodd. 
Ableness, a'bl-ness. s. 

Ability of body, vigour, force. 

ABLEPSY,abMep-sJ. s. (482) 
Want of sight. 

Abluent, abMu-ent. a. 

That which has the ix)wer of cleaning. 

Ablution, ab-lfi'shun. s. 

The aft of cleansing. 

To Abnegate, ab'ne-gate. v. a. 

Todeny. {91) ^ 

Abnegation, ab-ne-ga shun. s. 

Denial, renunciation. 

Aboard, a-bArd'. ad. (295) 

In a ship. 

Abode, a- bode', s. 

Habitatioij,dwelling, place of residence i stay, 

continuation in a place. 
Abodement» a-bode'ment. s. 

a secret anticipation of something future. 
To Abolish, a-bol'isb. v. a. 

To annul ; to put an end to ; to destroy. 
Abolishable, a-bol'lish-a-bl. a. 

That which may be abolished. 
Abolisuer, a-bolMish-ur. s. (91) 

He that abolishes. ^ 

ABOLISHMENT; a-bol'llsh-nicnt. s. 

The aft of abolishing. ^ 

Abolition, ab-o-lish'un. s. (544) 

The a6l of abolishing. ' ^ 

Abominable, a-bom'e-na-bl. a. 

Hateful, detestable. ^ 

Abominableness, a-bom e'-na-bl- 

ness. s. (501) . .,, ^ _ , 

The quality of being abominable; haicful- 
ness, odiousness. • mi i 

Abominably, a-bom e-na-ble. ad. 

Most hatefully, odiously. ^ 

To Abominate, a-bom e-naie. v. a. 

To abhor, detest, h»tc utterly.^ 1 / 2 ' 
Abomination, a-bom-e-na shun, s. 

Hatred, detesption. 

Aborigines, ab-o-ridge'e-nez. s. 

The earliest inhabitants of a country. 

Abortion, a-bir'sbun. s. 

The aft of bringing forth untimely ; the pro- 
duce of an untimely binh. 

Abortive, a-b^r^t!v. s. (157) 

That which is born before the due time. 

Abortive, a-b&r'tiv. a. 

Brought, forih before the due time of birth ; 
that which brings forth nothing. 

Abortively, a-b6r't!v-le. ad. 

Bom without the due time ; immaiurcly, un- 

Abortiveness, a-bor'tiv-ness. s. 
The state of abortion. . 

Abortment, a-birt'mcnt. s. 
The th'mg brought forth out of lime ; an un- 
timely birth. 

Above, a-buv'. prep. (1 55) 

Higher in place ; higher in rank, power, or 
excellence ; beyond, more than ; too proud 
for, too high for. 

Above, a-buv'. ad. 

Over-head ; in the regions of heaven. 

Above-all, a-buv-dll'. 
In the first place ; chieflv. 

Above-board, a-buy'bord. 

In open sight ; without artifice or trick. 

Above-cited, a-buv'sl-ted. 

Cited before. 

Above-ground, a-buv' ground. . 

An expression used to signify, that a man is 
alive ; not in the grave. 
B 2 

Above-mentioned, a-buv' meo- 


Sec Ab'OV£-cite'i>. • 
To Abound, a-biund'. v. n.(5l5) 

To have in great plehty ; to be in great plciiijf . 

About, a-biut'. pnrep. (545) 

Round, surrounding, cnc.irclinj» ; near It); 
concerning, wiih rci;ard jo, relatmc lo; en- 
gaged in, employed u|x>n ; ajipendant to the 
person, as clothes, &c. relating to the person, 
as a servant. . . 

About, a-b&ut': ad. 

Circularly; in circuit; nearly; the longest 
way, in opiK>sition to the short straight way • 
to bring about, to brine to the point or siaic 
desired, as, he has brought about his purposes ; 
to come about, to come lo some certain ^tatc 
or point; to go about a thing, to prepare t0 
doit. - 4 '« 

Abracadabra, ab-ra-ka-dab'ra. 

A superstijious charm againsf agues. 

To Abrade, a^bridfe'l v. jl. ' 
To rub oif, to wear away fnom the other partt- 

Abrasion, a-bfa'zhun. s. 

The act of rubbing, a rubbing off. ' ' ' 

Abreast, a-bre&t^ . ad, (545) \ 

Side by side. 

To Abridge, a-bridje'. v. a. 
To make shorter iq words, keeping still the 
same substance; to contract^ to diminith, !• 
cut short; to deprive of. ^ 

Abridged of, a:biidjd' ov. 

Deprived of, deb,^rrcdfrom. ^59) 
An Abridger, a-bild'jur. s. 
He that abridges, a shortencr ; a~wrifcrof cora- 
pendiums or abridgments- 

Abridgment, a-br!dje'ment. $•• 
The contraciiofi pi a larger work into a small 
compass ; a diminution id general. 

Abroach, a-brotsb'. ad. (295) • 
In al posture to run out; ia a state of being 
diffused or propagated. , .' 

Abroad, a-brawd'. ad. (295-) ■> 
Out of the house ; in another country; with- 
out, not wiihiii. • 

To Abrogate, Sb'ro-gSte. v. a. , 

To take away from a law in force, to repeal, 
to annul. (91) 

Abrogation, ab-ro-sa'sbun. s. 

The act of abrogating, the repeal of a law. 
Abrupt, ab-rupt. a. 
Broken, craggy ; sudden, without the custom* 
ary or proper preparatives. 

Abruption, ab-rup'shun. s* 

Violent and sudden separation. 

Abruptly, ab^upt^lc. ad. 

Hastily, without the due forms of preparation. 
Abruptness, ab-rupt' ness. sa 
An abmpt manner, haste, suddenness. 

Abscess, ab'scss. s. 

A morbia cavity in the body. 

To Abscind, ab-sind'. v. a. 
To cut off. 

Abscission, ab-sizb'im. s. 
The act of cutting off; the slate of being 
cut off. 

(j;:^ I have differed from Mr. Sh;Tidan in mark- 
ing the ss in this word, and, I think, with the 
best usage on my side. I'hough double j is 
almost always pronounced sharp and hissing, 
yet when a sharp s precedes, it seems more 
agreeable to I he ear to pronounce the succeed- 
ing s flat. Thus, though the termination itian 
is always sharp, yet because the / in transtfiM 
is nccessaiily sharp, the t ffpcs into the flat 
sound, as if written transizbion, which fee. 

Digitized by 





.«* (559). Fate (73), far (77), fall (as), fat (si) ; me (93), met (95) ; pine (105), p!n (107) J n6 (162), mive (164), 

To Abscond, ab-skond', v. a. 

To ftidc oBC*s self. 

Ahsconder, ab-sc&n'dur. s. 
The person that absconds. 

. Absence, ab' sense, s. 

The state of being absent, opposed to pre- 
sence ; inattention, heedlessness, neglect of the 
present object. 

Absent, aB'slnt. a, (402) 

Not present ; absent in mind, inattentive. 

To Absent, ab-sent' . v. a/ 
To withdraw, to forbear to come into presence. 

Absentee, ab-sen-te'. s. 

A word used commonly with regard to Irish- 
men living out of their country. 

AbsinthiaTed, ab-sin'/Ae-a-ted." p. 
Impregnated with wormwood. 

To Absist, ab-sist'. v. n. 
To stand off, ta leave off. 

To- AasoLVE, ab-zolv' . v. a. (448) , 
To clear, to acquit of a crime in a judicial 
sense ; to set free from an engagemeiit or pro- 
mise ; to pronounce a sin remitted, in the ec- 
clesiastical seme. 

Absolute, ab'«6-lute. a. (448) 

Complete, applied as well to persons as things; 
unconditional, as an absolute promise ; not re- 
lative, as absolute space ; not limited, as abso- 
lute power,— Sec Domestic* 
Absolutely, ab's6..lAte-le. ad. 

Completely, without restriction ; without con- 
dition ; peremptory, positively. 

Absoluteness, ab'so-lutc-niss. s. 

Completeness ; freedom from dependeiKe, or 
limits; despotism. 

Absolution, ab-so-lu'shSn. s. 
Acquittal ; the remission of sins, or of pe- 

Absolutory, ab-s6l'i-tur-re. a. 

That which absolves. 
^^ In the first edition of this Dictionary I fol- 
lowed the accentuation of Johnson and Ash 
in this word, and placed the stress upon the 
first syllabic, contrary to what I had done some 
years before in the Rhyming Dictionary, where 
-X had placed the accent on the second, and 
which was the accctiiuation adopted by Mr. 
Sheridan. Upon a nearer inspection of the 
analogies of the language, I find this the pre- 
ferable mode of marking it, as words in this 
termination, though very irregular, generally 
follow the stress of the corresponding noun or 
verb ; ainl. consequently this word ought to 
have the same accent as a6sol<ve, which is the 
more immediate relation of the word in ques- 
tion, and not the accent of absolute^ which is 
the most distan t (512). Kenrick^ W. Johnston^ 
Enticky and Nares^ have not insertcdthis word ; 
and Mr, Perry very improperly accents it upon 
the third syllable. 

Absonant, ab'so-nant. a. (544) 

Contrary to rf json. 

Absonous, ab'so-nus. a. 

Absurd, contrary to reason. 
To Absorb, ab.s6rb'; v. a. 

To swallow up ; to suck up. 
Absorbent; ab-s6r'bent. s. 

A medicine that sucks up humours. 
Absorpt, ab-sorpt'. p. 

Swallowed up. 

Absorption, ab-s6rp shun. s. 
The act of swallowing up. 

To Abstain, ab-stine'. v. n. 
To forbear, to deny one's self any gratification. 

Abstemious, ab-ste'me-us. a. 
Temperate, sober, abstinent. 

Abstemiously, ab-sti'nii-us-li. ad. 

Temperately, soberly, without indulgence. 


^* (534) The quality of being abstemious. 

Abstention, ab-sten'shun. s. 
The aa of holding olF 

To Absterge, ab-stlrje'. v. a. 

To cleanse, by wiping. 

Abstergent^ ab-stir'jint. a. 

Cleansing; havmg a cleansing quality. 

To Absterse, ab-sterse' . v. a. 
To cleanse, to purify. 

Abstertion, ab-ster'shun. s. 
The afl of cleansing. 

Ab"stersive, ab-stir'siv. a. (42S) 
That has the quali^ of absterging or cleansing. 

Abstinence, ab'sti-nense. s. 
Focbcarance of any thing ; &sttng, or forbear- 
ance of necessary 6od. 

Abstinent, ab'sti-nent. ^. 

That uses abstinence. 
To Abstract, ab-strakt'. v. a. 

To take one thing from afK>ther ; to separate 

ideas ; to reduce to an epitome. 

Abstract, ab-strakt'. a. 
Separated from something else, generally used 
with relation to mental perceptions. 

Abstract, ab'strakt. s. (492) 

A smaller quantity, containing the virtue or 
power of a greater; an epitome made by 
taking out the pirincipal parts. 

Abstracted, ab-strak't^d. p. a. 

Separated ; refined, abstruse ; absent of mind. 

Abstractedly, ab-strik'tcd-le. ad. 

With abstraSiion, simply, separate from all 
contingent circumstances. 

Abstraction, ab-strak'sh3n. s. 

The ad of abstra£ling ; the state of being ab- 
Abstractive, ab-strak'tiv. a. 

Having the power or quality of abstrafling. 

Abstractly, ab-strakt'le. ad. 
In an abstract manner. 

Abstruse, ab-struse'. a. (42?) , 
Hidden ; difficult, remote firom conception or 

Abstrusely, ab-strfise'le. ad. 

Obscurely, not plainly, or obviously. 

Abstruseness, ab-struse'ness. s. 
Difficulty, obscurity. 

Abstrusity, ab-stru'se-tc. s. (511) 

Abstruseness ; that which is abstruse. 
To Absume, ab-sume'. v. a. 

To bring to an end by gradual waste* 
Absurd, ab-surd'. a. 

Inconsistent ; contrary to reason. 

Absurdity, ab-sur'de-tL s. (511) 

The quality of being absurd ; that which is 

Absurdly, ab-siVd'le. ad. 

Improperly, unreasonably. 

Absurdness. ab-surd'ness. s. 
The quality of be'mg absurd i injudiciousness, 

Abundance, a-bun'danse, s. 

Plenty; great numbers; a great quantity ; ex- 
uberance, more than enouRfi. 

Abundant, a-bun'dant. a. 

PientifijI ; exuberant ; fiilly stored. 

Abundantly, i-bun'dant-Ip. ad. 
In plenty) amply^ liberally, more than suf- 

To Abuse, a-buze . v. a. {437) 

To make an ill use of; to deceive, to impose 

upon; to treat with rudeness. 
Abuse, a-bfise'. s. (437) 

The ill use of any thing; a corrapt praQjcc, 

bad custom ; seducement ; unjust censore, 

rude reproach. 
Abu^eRj a-bu'zur. s. 

He that makes an ill use; he that deceives ; 

be that reproaches with rudeness. 

Abusive, a-bu'siv. a. (428) 
Pradising abuse : containing abuse ; deceitful. 

Abusively, a-bu'siv-le. ad. 

Improperly^ by a wrong use^ reproachfully. 
To Abut, a-but'. v. n. obsolete. 
To end at, io border upon; to meet, or ap- 
proach to. 

Abutment, a-but'ment. s. 

That which abuts, or borden upon another. 
Abyss, a-biss'. $. 

A depth without bottom ; a great depth, a 


Acacia, a-k4'she-a. s. (505) 

A dnig brought firqm Egypt. 

ACADEMIAL, at-a-de mi-al. a. 
Relating to an academy. 

AcADEMiAN, ak-a-de'me-an. s. 
A scholar of an acackmy or imiversity. 

Academical, ak-a-dlm'me-kal. a. 

fielonging to an universitA*. 

AcademiCk, alc-a-dem'ik. s. (508) 
A student of an university. 

AcADEMiCK, ak-ka-d^m'ik. a. 
Relating to an university. 

Academician, ak-ka-de-mish'an. s. 

The member of an academy. 

(a -cad' de-mist,) 
ACADEMIST, ^ or, >s. 

^ak'a-dem-ist. ) 
. Tht member of an academy. 

Academy, < or, /►s. 


IT, < or, 


m-c, } 
An assembly or society of men, uniting for 
the promotion of some art ; the place where 
sciences are taught ; a place of education, in 
contradistinction to the universities or public 
. schools. 

(J:S^ Dr. Johnson tells us, that this word v» 
anciently and properly accented on the first 
syllable, thougn now frequently on the second- 
That it was accented on the nnt syllabic lill 
within these few years, is pretty generally re- 
membered ; and if Shakespeare did noi. by 
jxxtical license, violate the accentuation of his 
time, it. was certainly proiKHinccd so two cen- 
turies ago, as appears by Dr. Johnston's qao* 
<« Our court shall be a little academy^ 
« Still and contempladve in living arts." 
Lvvts Laimirt l^it. 
And in Ben Johnson*s NetM Inn we find die 
same accentuation : 

** Every house became 

** An academy of honour, and those parts 

« We sec departed." 

Btit the accentuation of this word fonnerlf , oa 
the first syllabic, is so generally ackDOwlcdgcd, 
as not to stand in need of poetic auibonty. 
The question is, whether this accentuation, or 
that which places the stress on the second s)'I- j 
lablc, is the most proper ? Te wave, therefore, 
the authority of custom, which precludes all 
reasoning on language, and reduces the dispute 
to a mere matter of net, it may be presumed, 
that whatever is ag^recable to the most geneial 

Digitized by 





nir (167), n8t (1G3); tibe (171), t&b (172), bull (173)5 ^ (299); p6dnd (313); thin (466), Tflis (469). 

usage of the language in similar words, is the 
most proper in this ; and if it appears that 
genenl usage, in similar words, is m favour 

. o[ (be old prommciation, it must certainly, for 
that icasoQ, be allowed lo be the best. And 
fir>t it may be observed, that as our language 
is almost as averse to the accent on the last syl- 
bble as 'Jie Latin, it is a general custom with 
OS, wh?nwe adopt a word from the Latin, and 
abridge it of one or two of its ^llables, to re- 
move ihe accent at least a syllable higher than 
it was in the original language, that ;he accent, 
wh.-ntbc word is natu-aloed, may not rest on 
the bst. Thus , of Homems we make Homer \ 
of rirpBuSy yirgii i and of Hordtius, Horace : 
Bfonntbust aUcred \o Wacintby removes the 
accent two sylbbles higher; and c^remonta^ 
become ciremimy^ does ihe same ; and no law, 
that 1 know of, forbids us to icczntacademiat 
or if yott will Axa^nyJaty when turned into 
acadn^, on the first syllable, as it was con- 
sanijy accented by our ancestors, who, receiv- 
ing Greek through the mediam of Latin, ge- 
ncntly pronounced Greek words according to 
the Latm analogy, and therefore necessarily 
placed die accent of acaderma on the third 
sjrllabk, which, when reduced to academy, 
leaaired the accent to be removed higher. 

But bow, it will be said, does this account for 
placing the accent on the first syllable of the 
Erigliu) word academy,mhcr than the second ? 
lo this it may be answered, that the number- 
less instances of preference given by the accent 
to rhs first syllable in siinuar words, such as 
melarubofyf parsimony^ diiatory, &c. might be 
a sufficient aathoricy without any other reason, 
fiat, perhaps, it wift be pardoned me if I go 
&tbcr, and hazard a supposition that seems to 
account for r he very common practice of placi ng 
the accent of so many of the longer poly2»yl ta- 
bles from the Latin on the first or second sylla- 
ble. 1 bough in the Latin there never was more 
than one accent upon a word, yet, in our pro- 
mtncianon o^ l»atin, we commonly pbce an 
accent on alternate syllables, as in our own 
words ; and when the Laun word, by being 
aD^iicised,bea>tiics shoner, the alternate accent 
becomes the principal. Thus, in pronouncing 
the Latin word academia, the £nglish naiu- 
rally place an Kcent on the first and third 
dvliable, as if divided into dc-a-de-mi-a ; so 
tnat when the word becomes anglicised into 
Qc-a-de-my^ the first syllable retams the accent 
it had when the wora was Latin. On the 
other band, it may be conjectured with some 
probability,that a (ondness for pronouncing like 
the Frencn has been the occasion of the altera- 
tioQ. As the Englbh ever suppose the French 
place die accent on the last syllable, in endea- 
vouring to pronounce this word after their 
manner, the stress must naturally fall on the 
second and bst sylbbles, as if divided into 
a-cdd-a-mie ; andfrom an immitation of this, 
it is probable, the present pronunciation of the 
word was produced^ Thus we have a very 
probable reason why so many of our longer 
vordsfrom the Latm are accented so near the 
beginning ; as, in this mode of nronouncmg 
them, tMy seem to retain one of the accents 
of die original . Hence the long train of words, 
'uobmtajy, comparahley dispufablcy admira- 
hie, &c. nave the accent on the first syllable ; 
because,in pronoancing the words ntoluntariuSf 
ctm^rabtUs^ disftaaiiiis, admirahiis,Bv:» we 
commonly lay a stress upon the first, as well as 
the third syUable. As to the analogy, as Mr. 
Sheridan pretends, of pronouncing; this word 
with die accent on t^ second syllable, becatise 
words ending in my have the accent on the 
anaepennltimate,- nothing can be more ill- 
£ottoded. True it is, that words pf this termi- 
oation never hare the accent on the penulti- 
Bttte \ but that, for this reason, they must ne- 

cessarily have the accent on the antepenultimate, 
I cannot well comprehend. It polygamy % 
ceconomyy astronomy^ &c. (513) have their 
accent on the antepenultimate, it arises from 
the nature of the terminations ; which bcin^,as 
it were, a species, and applicable to a thousand 
other words, have, like logy and grapfyt the 
accent always on the preceding syllable; which 
seems best to unite the compound into one 
word : but academy hcinf; a simple, is fubiect 
to no such rule, aiid seems naturally to incline 
to a different analogy of pronunciation. Thus 
Dr. Johnson seems to have decided iustly in 
saying the word academv ought to have the 
accent on the first syllaole ; though present 
usage, it must be coiifessed, seems to lead to 
the contrary pronunciation. 

Acanthus, d-kan'/Aus. s. (470). 

The herb bears-foot. 
AcATALECTic, i-kat-a-lek'tik. s. 
A verse which has the complete number of 
syllables. * 

To Accede, ak-sede'. v. n. 

To be added to, to come to. 
To Accelerate, ak-sSl'lur-ite. v.a. 

To make quick, to hasten,to quicken motion. 
AcCELERATiON,Sk-8el-lur-a'shuH. s. 

The act of quickening motion; the state of 

the body accelerated. J555). 

To AccEND, ak-send'. v. a. . 

To kindle, to set on fire. 
AccENSiON, ak-sen'shun. s. 

The act of kindling, or the state of being 

Accent, ak-sJnt'. s. (486). ^ 

The manner of speaking or pronouncing ; the 
. marks made upon syllables to regulate their 
pronunciation; a modification of the voice, 
expressive of the passions or sentiments. 

To Accent, dk-sJnt', v. a. (492). 

To pronounce, to speak words with particular 
regard to the grammatical marks or rules ; to 
write or note the accents. 
Accentual, ak-sen'tshu-al. a. 

Relating to accents. (463) 
(J:^ This word is in no English Dictionary I 
have met with ; but, conceiving its formation 
to be perfectly agreeable to the analogy of 
English adjectives, and finding it used by seve- 
ral very respectable authors, I nave ventured to 
insert 11. Mr. Foster, in his Essay on Accent 
and Quantity, says, " When a high note suc- 
" ceeds a low one, or rises above the grave 
" tone of voice, the perception of it is sudden 
" and instantaneous, before the continuance of 
" the note is determined one way or the other 
" for long or short. This I more clearly 
" conceive, than I can perhaps express. I can 
" however engage to make it perceptible to a 
" common English ear in any Greek word, 
" according to its present accentual mark." 
And Dr. Galley, in his Dissertation against 
Greek Accents, makes use of the same word, 
where he says, " for if nOZOI means, ac- 
•• cording to Mr. Foster, that oratorical or 
" common discourse differs from music only 
*^ in the number of sounds, r. e. that the 
•* former has only four or five notes, but that 
** the btter has many more, then the accentual 
" pronunciation of a Greek sentence will not 
" differ from the singing of the same sentence, 
" when set to four or five corresponding notes 
*< in music, i. e. it will, in both cases, be a 
«« song." 

To Accentuate, ak-sen'tshu-ite. 

V. a. (461J To place the accent properly. 

Accentuation, ak-s^n-tshu-i'shun. 
s. The act of placing the accent in pronun- 
ciatioo, or wriung. 

To Accept, ak-sept'.v.a. 

To take with pleasure, to receive kindly. 

Acceptability, ak-sep-ta-bil'le-te. 

s. The quality of being acceptable. 

Acceptable, Sk'sep-ia-bl, a. 

Grateful, pleasing. 

fj;^ Within these twenty years this word has 
shifted its accent from the second to the first 
syllable. ' There are now few poliie speakers 
who do not pronounce it ac'ceptakle ; and it is 
much to be regretted that this pronunciation is 
become so general ; for where consonants of so 
different an organ as p and / are near the end 
of a word, the word is pronounced with much 
more difficulty when the accent is removed 
higher than when it is arrested by these let- 
ters: for, in this case, the force which accorn- 
panies the accent facilitates the organs in their 
transition from the formation of the one letter 
to the other. As: nature, therefore, directs us 
to place the accent upon these consonants irj all 
words ending in a^'tve^ e6ii*vey i6H«vey oR't*ve^ 
and u^mei aSlible, edible, oil'ibU, and 
uii'ible ; so we ought to listen to the same 
v ice in pronouncing acceptable^ susceptihle^ 
corruptible, with the accent on the second 
syllable. — Sec Commendable* 

s. Thcquality of being acceptable. 

Acceptably, ak'sep-ta-ble. ad. 

In an acceptable manner. 

Acceptance, ak-sei>'tanse. s. 

Reception with approbation. 

Acceptation, ak-sep-ta'shun. s. 

Reception, whether good or bad; the meaning 
of a word. 

Accepter, ak-sep'tur. s. (98). 

The person thai-accepts. 

Acception, ak-sep'shun. s. 
The received sense of a word ; the meaning. 

Access, ak-sess'. s. 

The way by which any thing may be ap- 
proached; the means, or liberty, of approach- 
ing cither to things or men ; incrt^ase, en- 
largement, addition ; the returns or fits of a 
(J:^ This word is sometimes heard with the 
accent on ihf first syllable : 

** Hail, water-gruel, healing power, 

« Of easy accuf to the poor !' 
But this pronunciation ought to be avoided, as 
contrary to analogy, and the general usage of 
the language ; as may be seen in Johnson, 
under the word. 

Access arin ESS, ak'ses-sa-re-Tiess. s. 

The state of being accessary. 

Accessary, ak'ses-sa-ri. s. 
He that, not being the chief agent in a crime, 
contributes to it. 

Accessary, ak'ses-sa-re. a. 

Joined to, additional, helping forward. 

Accessible, ak-ses'4-bl. a. 

That which may be approached. 

Accession, ak-slsh'tm. s. 

Increase by something added ; the act of co(n- 
ing to, or joining one's self to, as, accession to 
a confederacy; the act of arriving at, as, the 
king's accession to the throne. 
AcCESSORiLY,ak'ses-s6-rc-le. ad. 
In the manner of an accessory. 

Accessory, ak'ses-so-ie. a. (557) 

Joined to another thing, so as to increase it ; 

Accidence, ak'se-dt nse. s. 

The little book containing the first rudiments 
of grammar, and explaining the properties of 
the eight paru of speech. 

Digitized by 





ftir (559).:Pite (7a).,;far inh'^viHssh fat'Cai.); me (93), met (95.); pme.(l05)^pin.(lQ7); no(l62^., inivc (ie4y, 

Accident, ak'se-dent.s. 

The property or quality of any beiog which 
may be separated from it, at least in thought ; 
in grammar, the properly of a Wordj that 
which happens unforeseen ; casualty, chance. 

Accidental, ^k-se-dew'tal. s. 

A property non-csseniial. 

Accidental, ak*se-(icn'tal. a. 

Having the quality of an accident ; non-essen- 
tial ; casual, fortuitous, happening ^^ chance. 

AcciDENTALLY,ak-sc-<len'tal-le. ad. 
Casually, fortuitously. ^ 

s. The. quality of being accidental. 

Accipient, ak-sip'pe-ent. s. 

A receiver. 
To Accite, ak-site'. V. a. 

To call ; to summon. 
AccLAiMvak-klamc'. s. 

A shout ot praise ; acclamation. 

Acclamation,'sbQn. s.. 
Shouts' of applause. 

Acclivity, ak-kliv've-tc. a. (511) 
The steepness or slope of a hnc mclining 10 
the horizon, reckoned upwajds; as, the ascent 
of an hill is the acclivity, the descent is the 
declivity. ' 

Acclivous, ak-kli'vus. a. (503, h) 

Rising with a slojx. 
To AccLOY^ ak-k]^)^'-. v. a. (329) ! 

To fill up, in an ill sense ; to fill to satiety." ; 
To AccoiLj ak-k6il'. v. n. (229) • 

To crowd, to keep a coil about, to bustle, tp 

be in a hurry. ^ / \ i 

AccoLENT,ak'k6-lent. S. (544) J 

A borderer. . . , 4 , 


That which may be fitted. ^ t 1 j\ 

To AccoMMODATE,ak-kom mp-datje 

V. a. {91) To supply with convemcncics ^t 
' any kind. 4 / i t ^ 

Accommodate, ak-kom mo-date, f . 

Suitable, fit. (91) ^ 4 » r i 

AcooMMO0ATELY,ak-kom mo-date- (91) 
Suitably, fitly. ^ 111 

Accommodation, ak-kom-mo-da - 
8hun. s. . . . , , I 

Provision of conveniencies ; in the plural, 
conveniencics, things requisite to case or re- 
freshment ; composition of a d.ffercnce, rc- 
concillaiioii, adjustment. 

Accompanable, ak-kum'pa-na-bl. 

a. Sociable. 
Accompanier, ak-kum'pa-ne-ur. s. 

The person that makes part of the company ; 

companion. ^ 2 / 4 t 

Accompaniment, ak-kum i^-ne- 

ment, s. , , . r 

The adding of one thing to another by way ot 
ornament ; the instrumental ihat accompanies 
I he vocal \tdn in music. M. 
To Accompan Y,ak-kum'pa-ne. v. a. 
To be with another as a companion; to join 
wi.h. (16.3) , ^ , . , 

Accomplice, ak-kom phs. s. ^i42.; 

An associate, a partaker, usually in an ill sense ; 
a partner, or co-operator. 
To Accomplish, ak-kom phsh. v.a. 

To complete, to cxente fully, as, to accom- 
plifth a design; to fulfil, as a prophecy; to 
adorn, or furnish, either mind or body.^ 

Accomplished, ak-cono'pj^sh-ed. 

p. a. Complete in some qualification ; elegant, 
finished in respect of embellishments. 

.AccoMPLiSHER,ak-kom'plish-ur. s. 
The person that accomplishes. 

Accomplishment, ak-kom'pl!sh- 

nient. s. 

Completion, full pcrfomrjance, perfection i 
completion, as of a prophecy ; embcllishmcot,j 
elegance, ornament of mind or body. 

Accompt, ak-kount'. s. (407) 

An account, a reckoning. 
AccoMPTANT, ak-k^un'tant. s. 

A reckoner, computer. (412) 
To Accord, ak-k6rd'. v. a. 

To n?ake agree, to adjust one thing to another. 

To Accord, ak-k6rd'. v. n. 
To agree, to suit one with another. 

Accord, ak-k&rd'. s. 

A compact, an agreement ; concurrencc,union 
of mind ; harmony, symmetry. 
Accordance, ak-k6r'dansc. s. 
Agreement with a person; conformity to 

Accordant, ak-k6/dant. a. 

Willing, in gpod humour. 

According, ak-kor ding. p. 

In a manner suiable to, ^ecablc to ; in pro- 
portion; with regard to. j 

Accordingly, ak-k&r'ding-li. ad. j 

AgreeaJ)ly, suitably, conforinably. 

To Accost, ak-kost' .v.a. ; 

To speak to first, to address, to salute. 
Accostable, ak-kos'ta-bl. a. (405) 

Easy of access, familiar. 

Account^ ak-k&unt'. s..(407) 

A comiHitation of debts orcxpeoces ; the stai e 
or result of a computation.; value or cstim i- 
lion ; a narrative, relation ; the relation ar d 
reasons of a transaction given to a per^n tn 
. authority ; explanation, assignment of causes* 
To AccoUNTj ak-kount'. v. a. 
To esteem, to think, to hold in opinion ; \o 
reckon,, to comixitc ; to give an account, |o 
as$ign the causes ; to make up the reckoning, 
t9 answer for practice ; to hold in esteem. 

Accountable, ak-k&uii'ta-bl. a. 

Of whom an account may be required ; who 
must answer for. 

Accountant, ak-k&un'tant. a. 

Accountable to, responsible for. 

Accountant, ak-koun'tant. s. 

A.coraputor, a man skilled or employed Sn 

Account-Book, ak-kount'.book. s, 

A book containing accounts 

To AccouPLE, ak-kup'pl. v.a. 
To join, to link together. (314) 

To Accourt, ak-kon'. v. a. 


To entertain with courtship 0/ courtesy 

To Accoutre, akrkoi'tui* v. a. 

To dress, to equip. (31.5) ^ • 

Accoutrement, ak-k6o tur-ment. 

s. Dress, cquipage.^irappings, omamertls. 

Accredited, ak-kred'it-^d. a. 

Of alk)wcd reputation, confidential. Mas$n. 

Accretion, ak-kre's,bun. s. . 

The act of growing to another, so as to jn- 

crcajc it. 
Accretive, ak-kre'tiy. a. (i58) ; 

Growing, that which by growth is added. 

To Accroach, ak-krotsh'. v. a. 

To draw to one as with a hook. (295) 

To Accrue, ak-kro&'.v.n. (sag) 

To accede to, to be added to ; to be added, as 
an advantage or improvement ; in a commercial 
sense, to be produced, or arise, as profits. 

AccyBATlON, ak-ki-ba'$hun.s. 
The ancient posture of leaning at mcaU. 

To AccuMB, ak-kumb'. v. a. (347 
To lie at the table, according to the ancient 
manner. ' 

To Accumulate, ak-ki'mu-jatc. 

V. a. To pile up, to heap together. (91) 

Accumulation, ak-ku-mu-la'shun. 

s The act of accumulating ; the state of being 
AccuMULATiVE,ak-ku'mu-la.t!v. a. 
That which accumulates; that which is ac- 
cumulated. (157) ^ I, , ,» 2 

Accumulator, ak-ku ipu-la-tur. s. 

He that accumulates, a gatherer or hcapcr to- 
gether. (521) ^ ^ ^ 
Accuracy, ak'ku-ra-se. s. 

Exactness, nicety. - 

Accurate, ak'ku-rate. a. (qi) 

Exact, as opposed to neglij»enccor ignorance ; 
exact, without defect or failure; 

Accurately, ak'ku-ratc-le. ad. 

Exactly, without errour, nicely. 

AccuRATENESS>ak'ki-rate-ness. s. 

Exactness, nicety. 
To AccuRSE, ak-kurse'. v.a. 

To doom to misery. ' 

Accursed, ak-kur'sed. part. a. (362) 

That which is cursed or doomed 'to misery; 
execrable, hateful, del iestablc. ' 

AccusABLE, ak-ku'za-bl. a. (405) 
That which may be censured; bUmcoblc; 

Accusation, ak-ku-za'shun. s. 

Th6 act of accusing; the charge brought 

• against any one. 

Accusative, ak-ku'za-tiv. a. 

A term of grammar, the fourth case of a noun. 

Accusatory, ak-kufza^torie. a. 

That which produccth or cotiubeth an accu- 
sation. (512) ^ 

To Accuse, ak-kuze . v. a. 
To charge with a crime ; to blame or censure. 

Accuser^ ak-ku'zur. s. (gs)' ' 

He that brings a charge a^ihst another. 

To Accustom, ak-kus'tum. v. a. 

To habituate, to inure. 
Accustomable> ak-k'is'tutn-ma-b]. 

a. Done by long custom or habit. 
Accustomably, ak-kus'tum-a-ble. 

ad. According to custom. 

s. Custom, habit, use. ' 

Accustom arily, ak-kus'tum-ma- 

le-le. ad. 

In a customary manr^er. 
AccUstomary, ak-kus'tum-roa-re. 
a. Usual, practised. (512) 

Accustomed, ak-kus'tSm-ed. a. 

According tocustocn,fi'eqoeiit, usual. (362) 

Ace, ase. s. 
An unit, a single point on cards or dice ; a 
small quantity^ 

Acerbity, a-ser'bc-te. s. {511) 
A rough sour taste ; applied to men, sharpnc* 

• of temper. 

To Acervate, a-ser'vate. v. a. (91} 

To heat up. " ' 
AcERVATiON,as-3r-va'shun. s,{527) 

Heaping together. 

Acescent, a-scs'sent. a. 
That whith ba« a tendency to souruess or 

Digitized by 





n«r (16?), nSt (1^3); tibe (17O, l^b (172), bdU (l73) 6!! (2$$) i pidnd (313) ; /Ain (366), TKis (469). 

ACETOSE. as-i-tose'. a. (427) 

That whicn has in it acids. 
AcETOSiTY, as-^i-tos'e-te. s. (51l) 
The state of bein^ acctose. 

Acetous, a-se tds. s. (314) 


Ache, ike. s. (355) 

A continued pain. 

To Ache, ake. v. n. 
To be in pain. 

To Achieve, at-tslieve', v. a. 

To perform, to finish. (257 J 
An Achiever, at-tshe'vur. s. 
He that performs what he endeavours. 

An Achievement, at-tshive'ment. 

s. The performance of an action ; the cscui- 
cheoQy or ensigns armorial. 

Achor, a'kor. s. (iGS) 
A species of the herpes. 

Acid, as'sid. a. 

Sour, &harp. 

Acidity, i-sid'de-te.s. (511) 

Sharpness, sourness. 
Acidn:£SS, as'sid-nSss.s. 

The quality of being acid. 
AciDULiE, a-sid Mu.le. s. (109) 

Mctlicinal springs impregnated with sharp par- 


To Acidulate, a-sid'du-Iate. v. a. 

To tinge with acids in a slight degree. (91) 

To AcKNOWLEDGE^ak-nJl'ildj. v. a. 
To own the knowledge of, to own any thing 
or person in a particular character ; to confess, 
as, a £mlt ; to own, as, a benefit (328) 

Acknowledging, ak-nol'ledj-ing. 

a. Grateful. 

Acknowledgment, ak-no/iedje- 
ment. s. (228) See Knowledge. 

Concession of the truth of any position ; con- 
fession of a fault; confession t>t a benefit re 
ccived. , 
Acme, ak'm^. s, . , ^ 

The height of any thing ; more especially used 
to denote the height .of a distemper. 

AcoLOTHisT, a-koi'lo-thUt. s. 

One of the lowest order in the Roman church 

Acolyte, ak'o-ilte. s. (544) 

I1)e same as Acolothist. 

Aconite, ak'ko-nite. s. (i55) 

The herb wolfs-bane. In poetical language, 
poison in general.. 

Acorn, a'kirn. s. 
The iced or fi uit borne by the oak. 

Acousticks, a-k&u'sdks. s. (sis)^ « 
The doctrine orihcory of sounds ; medicines 
to help the hearing. 

To Acquaint, ak-kwant.' v. a. 

To make familiar with ; to inform, (eos) 

Acquaintance^ ak-kwan'tanse. s. ' 

The state of being acquainted with,lamiharity, 
knowledge ; familiar knowledge ; a slight or 
initial knowledge, short of friendship ; the 
person with whom we are acquainted, without 
tfacintimfcy of friendship. 

Acquainted, ak-kwan'ted. 
Pimiliar, welUkoown. 

Acquest, ak-kwest'. s. 

AcqtMiidn ; the thing gained. 

To Acquiesce, ak-kwe-Jss'. v. n. 

To rest in, or remain satisfied. 

Acquiescence, ak-kwe-ess'cnse. s. 
A silept. appvarapcc of cootcot, taus&ciioD, 
'^iCoateot} submission* 


Attaiuablc. (405; 

To Acquire, ak-kwire'. v. a. 

To gam by one's labour or power. 

Acquired, 5k-kwi'red. particip. a. 

Gamed by one's self. (362) 

An Acquirer, ak-kwi'rur. s. (gs) 

The person that acquires ; a gainer. 

An Acquirement, ak-kwire'm3nt. 

s. That which is acquired, gain, attainment. 

Acquisition, ak-kwe-zish'shun> s. 

The act of acquiring ; the thing gained, ac- 

Acquisitive, ak-kwiz'i:e-tiv. a. 

That which is acquired. (157) 
AcQUiST, ak-kwist'. s. 
Acquirement, attainment. 

To Ac<2Uif, ak-kwit'. v, a. (415), 
To fct free ; to clear from a charge of guilt, 
to absolve ; to clear from any obligation ; the 
man hath acquitted himself well, he discharged 
his duly. 

Acquitment, ak-kwit'mlnt. s. 

^ The Slate of being acquitted, or act of ac- 

Acquittal, ak-kwit'ial. s. (157) 

Is a deliverance from an ofience. 
To Ac^juiTTANCE, ak-kwit'tanse. 
V. n. 1 o procure an acquittance, to acquit. 

Acquittance, ak-kwit'ianse. s. 

The act of discharging from a debt ; a writing 
testifying the receipt of a debt. 

x^CRE,a'kur. s. (tjs) U16) 

A quantity of land, containing in length forty 
perchrs, and four inbrcadth, or four thousand 
eight hundred and forty square yards. 

Acrid, ak'krid. a. 

Of a hot biting taste. 

Acrimonious, ak-kre-mo'nc-us. a. 

Sh.irp, corrosive. (31O 

Acrimony, ak/kre-nio-ne s. {557) 
Sharpness, corrosivcncss ; sharpness of temper, 
severity —See Domestic 

AcRiTUDE, ak'kre-iude, s. 
An acrid taste, a biting heat on the palate. 

AcROAMATiCAL, ak'kroa-mat'te- 

ka!. a. (509J 

Of or pertaining to deep learning. 
AcROSPiRE, ak'kr6-spire. s. (l5l) 
A shoot or sprout from the end of seeds. 

AcROSPiRED, ak'kio-spI-rJd. part. a. 

Having sprouts (365) 

Across, a-kross'. ad.^ 
Athwart, laid over somethiog «o as to cross it. 

An AcRosTiCK, a-krSssMk. s. 
A poem, in which the first letter of every line 
being taken, makes up the name of the person 
or thmg on which the poem is written. 

To Act, akt. v. n. 
To be in action, not to rest. 

To Act, Skt. v. a. 

To perform a borrowed character, as a stage- 
pla^er; to. produce effects io some passive 

Act, akt. s. 
Something done, a deed, an exploit, whether 
good or ilT ; a part of a play, during which the 
action proceeds without hiterrupiioa ; a decree 
of pairiiament. 

Action, ak'shun. s. (290) 

The quality or state of actingi^ opposite to rest ; 
an act or thiiig done, a deed ) agency, opera* 
tion ; the sencs of events represented in a 
fable i gesticulation, the accordance of the 

motions of the body with die woids spoken ; 
a term in law. 

Actionable, ak'shun-a-bl. a. . 

That which admits an action inlaw, punish- 
able. (405) 

Action-taking, ak'shun-ta'king. a.. 


Active, ak'tfv. a. (i5i) 

That which has the power or qjialuy of act- 
ing ; that which aetSj opposed to passive ; 
busy, engaging in action, opposed to idle or 
sedentary; nimble, agile, quick ; in grammar, 
a verb active is that which signifies action, as, 
I teach. 

Actively, ak'tiv-le, ad. 

Busily, nimbly. 
AcTiVENESS, ak'tiv-ness. s./ 
Quickness, nimbleness. , 

Activity, ak-tiv'e-te.s. {sis) 

The quality of being active. 

Actor, ak'tur. s. (93) (418) 

He that acts, or performs any thing ; he that 
personates a character, a stage player. 

Actress, ak'tress. s. 
She that performs any thing ; a woman that 
pbys on the stag^. 

Actual, ak'tshi-al. a. (461) 
Really in act, not merely potential ; in aa, not 
purely in speculation. 

Actuality, ak-tshu-alMe-ti. $. 

The state of being actual. 

Actually, ak' 

In act, in effect, really. 
Actu ALNESS, ak'tshi-il-nlss. s. 
The quality of being actual. 

Actuary, ak'tshu-a-re. s. 
The register or officer who compiles the 
minutes of the proceedings of the court. 

To Actuate, ak'tshu-ate. v. a. 

To put into action. 
.\CTUO$E,ak-tu-Ase'. a. 

Having the power of action. Ash, 

|}:|r Sec the Appendix. 
To AcuATE, ak'u.Jte. v. a. (91) 

To sharpen. 

Aculeate, a-ki'le-ate. a. (oi) 

Prickly, that which terminates in a sharp point. 

Acumen, a-ku' men. s. (503, h) 
A :»harp point ; figuratively, quickness of in- 

Acuminated, a-kii'me-na-ted. p, a. 
Ending in a point, sharp pointed. 

Acute, a-kute .a. 

Sharp, opposed to blunt ; ingenious, opposed 
to stupid ; acute disease, ary disease which is 
attended with an increased velocity of blood, 
and terminates in a few days ; acute accent, 
that which raises or sharpens the voice. 

Acutely, a-k6te'le. ad. 

After an acute manner, sharply. - 
Acuteness, a-kute'ness. s. 

Sharpness ; force of intellects ; violence and 

speedy crisis of a malady ; sharpness of sound. 
Adacted, a-dak't^d. part, a. 

Driven by force. 

Adage, ad'ije. s, (90) 
A maxim, a proterb. 

Adagio, a-da'je-o. s. 

A term used by musicians, lo mark a slow 

Adamant, ad'i-mant. s. 

A stone of impenetrable hardness ; the dia- 
mond ; the load-stone. 
Adamantean, ad-a-man-te'an. a. 
Hard as adamant. 

Digitized by 





6T (559). Fitc(73),far(77).f^lU83),fSt(8l); me(p3),niit (95); pine (l05),pm (107); no(i62),ni&vc(iC4), 

Adamantine, ad-a-man'tin. a. 

Made of adamant ; having the qaalicies of 
adamaot, as, hardness, indissolubility. 
0^ Mr. Sberidan» Dr. Kenrick, and Mr. Perry, 
uniformly pronounce the last syllable of this 
word as it is here marked, and W. Johnston 
only so as to rhyme with line. (140) 

Adam's- APPLE, ad'amz-ap'pl. $• 
A prominent part of the throat. 

To Adapt, a-dapt'. v. a. 

To fit, to suit, to proportion. 

Adaptation, ad-ap-tJ'shun. s. 

The act of fitting one tning to another, the 
fitness of one thing to another. (527) 

Adaption, a-dap'shun. s. 
' The act of fittiog. 

To Add, ad. v. a. 

To join soiAething to that which was before. 
To Addecimate, ad-des'se-mate. 

v.a. To take or ascertain tithes. (91) 
To Addeem, ad-()i^m'.v.a. 

To esteem, to account. 

Adder, ad'dur. s. (98) (418) 

A serpent, a viper, a poisonous reptile. 

Adder*s-grass^ ad'durz-grass. s. 
A plane. 

Adder's-tongue, ad'durz-tung. s. 

Aq herb. 

AdderVwort, ad'dSrz-wurt. s. 

An herb. 

Addible, Sd'de-bl. a. (405} 
Possible 10 be added. 

ADDiBiLiTY,Sd-de-bil']e-te. s. 
The possibility of being added. (511) 

AdDICE, ad'dis. s. (142) 

A kind of ax, corruptly pronounced ad** 

To Addict, ad-d!kt'. v. a. 
To devote, to dedicate ; it is commdnly taken 
in a bad sense, as, he addicted himself to vice. 

Addictedness, ad-dik'ted-ness. s. 
The state of being addicted. 

Addiction, ad-dik'shun. s. 
The act of devoting ; the state of being de- 

An Additament, ad.dit'a-inent. s. 
Addition, the thing added. 

Addition, ad-dish'shqn. s. (459) 

The act of adding one thing to another -, the 
thing added ; in arithmetic, addition is the re- 
duction of two or more numbers pf like kind 
together into one sum or total. 

Additional, addfsh'shun-al. a. 
That which is added. 

ApDiTORY,ad'de-to-rc. a. (5 12) 
That which has the power of adding. 

Addle, ad'dl. a. (405) 

Originally applied to e^s, and signifyingtuch 
as produce nothing,thcnce transferred to Drains 
that produce nothing. 

Addle PATKD^ad'dl-pa-tcd. a. 

Having barren brains. 

To Address, ad-dress', v.a. 
To prepare onc*s self to enter upon any aQion ; 
to apply to another by words. 

Address,'. s. 

Verbal apijlication to any one; courtship; 
manlier of addressing another, as, a man of 
pleasing aHdrcss ; skill, dexterity ; manner of 
dirediii^ a Itrter. 

Addresser, ad-drcs'sur. s. (ys) 

The person ihat addresses. 
To Adduck, aii-duse\ 

To bring .no:i, ih ng forwiird in addition to 
M>incfhing already piodaced. 

^;$r This word, though constantly arising in 
conversation, has not yet found us way mto 
any of our Didionaries. It is, however, 
legitimately formed, and has a distin£l and 
specific signification, which distinguishes it 
from conduce, induce, froduce, and reduce, 
and has therefore a just title to become a part 
of the language. The propriety of it u a suf- 
ficient authority. 

Adducent, ad-du'slnt.a. 

A word applied to those muscles that draw 

together tne parts of the body- 
To Addulse, ad-dulse . v.a. 

To sweeten. 
Addenography, ad-de-nSg'gra-fe. 

s. A treatise of the glands. (518) 

Ademption, a-dlm'shun. s. (412) 


Adept, a-dept'. s. 
He that is completely skilled in all the secrets 
of his art. 

Adequate, ad'i-kwate. a. (91) 

Equal to, proportionate. 

Adequately, ad'^-kwate-le. a. 
In an adequate manner; with exadness of 

Adequateness, ad'e-kwate-ness. s. 
The state of being adequate, exadness of pro- 

To Adhere, ad-hcre'. v.n. 
To stick to ; to remain firmly fixed to a party, 
or opinion. 

Adherence, ad-he'rcnsc. s. 

The quality of adhering, tenacity ; fixedness 
of mind, attachment, steadiness. 

Adherency, ad-he'rln-se. s. (182) 
The same with adherence. 

Adherent, ad-he'rent. a. 

Sticking to ; united >Krith. 

Adherent, 5d-he'rent. s. 

A follower, a partisan. 

Adherer, ad-he'rur. s. (98) 

He that adheres. 

Adhesion, ad-he/zhun. s. (45l) 
The act or state of sticking to something. 

Adhesive, ad-hi'siv. s. (i58) (428) 

Sticking, tenacious. 

To Adhibit, ad-hib'btt. v. a. 

To apply, to make use of. 

Adhibition, ad-hc-bish'shun. s. 
Application, use. (507) 

Adjacency, ad-iasen-se.s. (182) 
The state of lying close to another thing. 

Adjacent, ail -ja' sent. a. 
Lying close, bordering upon something. 

AdjacenTj, ad-ja'senti s. 
That which lies next another. 

Adiaphorus, a-dc-af'fo-rus. a. 

ADiAPHORY,'fp-ri. s. (534) 

Neutrality, indjlfercncc. 

To Adject, ad-jtct'. v. a. 

To ada to ; to put to- 
ADjECTTON,ad-jek'sbufi. $. 
The act of adjecting, or adding ; the' thing 
adjected, or added. 

Adjectitious, ad-jek-tish'us. a. 
Added, thrown in. 

Adjective. a3'ji!k-tiv. s. {512) • ( 

A word add:.d to a noun, to -dignify the addi- 
tion or separation of some quality, circnin- 
stance, or manner of being ; as, good, bad. 
Adtlctively, ad'jek-t!v-le. ad, 
Aucr the manner of an adjective. 

ADiEU,a-du'. ad. (284) 

To Adjoin, ad-join', v. a. (299) 

To join to, to unite to, to pat to. 
To Adjoin, ad-j6!n'. y. n. 
To be contiguous to. 

To Adjourn, ad-jurn'. v. 3.(314) 
To jpui off to another <uy, naming the time. 

Adjournment, ad-jurn'ment. s, 

A putting off till another day. 

Adipous, ad'd^.pus. a. (314) 

Adit, ad'it. s. 

A passage under ground. 

Adition, ad-ish'shun. s. (439) 
The act of going to another. 

To Adjudge, ad-judje'. v. a. 

To give the thing controverted to one of the 
parties ; to sentence to a punishment ; simply, 
to judge, to decree. 

Adjudication, ad-ju-dJ-kS'shun.s. 

The act of granting something to a litigant. 

To ADjUDiCATE,ad-ju'de-k4te. v. a. 

To adjudge. 
To ADjUGATE,ad'ju-gJte. v,a. (91) 

To yoke to. 

Adjument, ad'jfi-ment. s. 

Adjunct, Id'junkt. s. . . 
Something adherent or united to another. 

Adjunct, ad'junkt. a. 
Immediately joint*!. 

ADiUNCTiONjad.junk'shun. s. 
I'he act of adjoining ; the thing adjoined. 

Adjunctive, ad-junk'tiy. s. (i58) 

He that joins t that wnicfi is joined. 

Adjuration, ad-ji-rS'shun.s. 

The act of prop()sing an oath to another; the 
form of oatn proposed to another. 

To Adjure, ad-j&re'. v. a. 
To impose an oath upon another, prescribing 
the form. 

To Adjust, 5d-just'. v. a. 
To regulate, to put in order; to make con- 

Adjustment, ad-just' mJnt. s. 

Regulation, the act of putting in method ; the 
state of being put in method. 

Adjutancy, ad'ju-tariTsc. $. 

. The military office of an adjutant, skilful 
arrangement. Mason. 

Adjutant, ad'ju-tant. s. (s03, k) 
A petty officer, whose duty is to assist ifae 
major, by distributing pay, and overseeing 

To Adjute, ad-jiite\ v. a. 
To help, to concur. 

Adjutor, ad-ju'tur, s. (gs) (166) 
A. helper. 

ADjUTORY,ad'ju-t5r-fi. a. (5 12) 

That which helps. {$57) 
Adjuvant, ad'ju-vant. a. 

Helpful, usefbl. 

To Adjuvate, ad'jA-vate, v. a. 
To help, to turtner. (503, k) 

Admeasurement, ad-mczh'urc- 

ment. s., • 

The act. or practice of measuring according 

xo rule. 
Admensuration, ad-mcn-shu-ja'- 

shurt. s. (4-52) 
The act of measuring to each fait pan. 

Digitized by 





nor(i67),n&t(l63);libe (171), tub (172), bull (173)5^11(299); p&und (sis); /*in (466), T His (469). 

Adminicle, ad-rain'e-kl. s. (405) 

Help, support. ^ I J ,1 4 

Adminicular, ad-me-mk'u-lir, a. 

That which gives help. (418) 

To Administer, ad-min'uis-tfir.v.a. 

To give, 10 affordi to uipply ; to a£^ as the 
miaisier or agent in any employment or office; 
to pcribrm the office of ao administrator.'nIs-trate. 
t. a. (gi). The same as administer. 

Administration, ad'niin-nis-tra'- 

suun. s, 


ThiiQ. of administering or conducting any 
cmpioymem ^ the active or^ executive jiart of 
govcrement; those to whom the care of 
public aSairs is committed. 

Adkhnistrative, ad-min'nfs-ira- 

tiv. a. (157). . 
That which administers. 

Administrat -r. ad'nnn-nls-tra'tur 
J. (98) (527). He that has the uoods of a 
man d)'ing intestate committed to nis chacgc, 
and is accountable for the same ; he that offi- 
ciates in divioe rites ; he that conducts the 

Administratrix, ad'min-n!s-tra' 
trlks. s. (527) 

She who administers la cotisequence of a will. 

Administratorship, acl'min-nis- 

tri'tur-sKfp. 5. 

Tbc ofiicc of an administrator. 
ADMlRABLE,atl'n e-ra-bl. a. (4Cf5) 

To br admired, of power to excite wonder. 

Admirableness, ad'me-ra-bl-T 

Admirability, ad'me-ra-bil'- I *' 

lc.te.(5ii)(627) . , .\. J ■ 
The quality or state of beii>g ^Biirable. 

Admirably, ad', 

lo » admirable manner. 

Admiral, ad'me-ral. s. 

An c^cr or m?;;i5itratc that has the govern- 
mcnt of the kind's navy ; the chief commander 
ofafieet ; the ship which carries the admiral. 
Admiralship, ad'me-raUship. s. 

7 he o&c of admiral. 

Admiralty, ad'ni^-rSl-t^. s. 

1 h? power, or officers. apiX)inted for the ad-' 
miniAirdtion of naval affairs. 
f^ 'i'hif word is fTC([uencly pronounced as^ if ^ 
wrrricn aJmira/try, wiih an r in the la&t syl- 
lable ; oor is this mispronunciation, however 
improper, confined to the lowest order of the 
people. The same may be observed of 

Admiratio:^, ad-tne-ra'shun. s. 
Wonder, the ad of admiring or wonderklg. 

T ' ADSrfrRE, ad-Tnirc'. v. a. 
To regard with wonder; to regard with love. 

Admirer, ad-rri'rur. s. [gs) 
The person that wonders, or regards with ad- 
miration; a lover. 

Admiringly, ad-mi' nng-Ie. ad. 

With adminuimi. 

Admissible, ad.miK'se-bl.a. (405) 

Thsc which may be admitted. 

AoMissroN, 5d-mish'sh5n. s. 
Thf act or practice of admitting ; the state of 
beiog admitted ; admittance^ the power of en- 
lering ; the allowaike of an argument. 

To Admit, ad-itiit*. v. a. 

'Jo suffer o eiuer ; to suffer to enter upon an 
oSce; 10 allow an ar^iunuint or position; 10 
alkmr, or grant in general • 

Admittable, ad-mit'ta-bU a. 

Which may be admitted. 

ADMiTTANCE,ad-mit'tanse. s. 
The act of admitting, permission to enter; <he 
|X)wer or right of entering ; custom ; conces- 
sion of a position. 

To AiJMix, ad-miks'. v. a. 
To mingle with something else. 

A D M I X T I o N , ad- niik s ' tslmn, s. 
The union of one body with another. 

Admixture, ad-miks'tshure^ s, 
(461) The body mingled with another. 

To Admonish, ad-mon'n!sh. v. a. 

To wai u of a fault, to reprove gently. 

Admonisher, ad-mon'nish-ur. s. 
The person ihat puts another in mind of hrs 
faults or duty. 

Admonishment, ad-mon'n?sh-m§m 

* s. Admonition, notice of faults or duties. 

Admonition, ad-mo-nish'un. s. 

The hint of a fault or duty, counsel, gentle 

Admonition er, ad-mo-nlsh'un-ur, 

s. A gencial adviser. A ludicrous term. 

Admonitory, ad-moti'ne-iur-re. a/ 
That which admonishes. — Sec Domestic. 

To Admove, ad-m&>ve'. v. a. 

To bring one tfiing to another. 

Admu-rmuration, ad-tnur-mu-ra'- 

shun. s. 
The a£t of murrfluring to another. 

Ado, a-d6&'. s. 

Trouble, ddficulty ; bustle, tumult, business ; 
more tumult and show of business than the 
affair is worth. 

Adolescence, ad-o-Ies'sense. 1 
ADOLESCENCY,ad-o-les'sen-se. J ** 

The age succeeding childhood^ and succeeded 

by|iul>criy. (510) 

To Adopt, a-dopi*. v. a. 

To take a son by choice, to 'naake htm « sen 
who is not «o by birth ; to place any person or 
thing in a nearer relation co something eke, 
Adoptrdly, a-dop'tcd-l^, 
Afiej- the manner of something adopted. 

Adopter, a-dop'tur. s. (ps) 
He thut gives some one by choice the rights of 
a son. 

Aj>optiok, a-dop'sli^rk s. (45q) 
The act of adopting 7 the state o( being 
ad(^ied. . 

Adoptive, a-dop'tiv. a. (157) 
He that is adopted by another; he that adopts 

Adorable, a-do'ra-bl. a. (405) 

That which ought 10 be adored. 

Adorab.leness, a-doSa-bl-ness. s. 
Worthiness of divine honours. 

Adorably, a-do'ra-ble. ad. 

In a manper worthy of adoration. 

x^DORATiofi, ad-o-ra/sliun. s. 
The external homage paid to the Divinity; 
homage paid to j)&rsons in bigb place or 

To Adore, a-dore'. v. a. 

To worship with external homage. 
Adorer, a-doSdr. 9. (gs) 
He that adores ; a worshipper. 

To Adorn, a-d6ni'. v. a., {167) 
To dress; to deck (he person with ornaments; 
to set out any place or thing with decorations. 

Adornment, a*doFii inent. s. 
Ornament, embellishment. 


Adown, a-dodn'. ad. (323) 
Down, on the ground. 

ADOWN,a-ddua'. prep. 
Down towards the ground. 

Adread, a-dred\, ad. (234) 
In a state of fear. 

ADRiFT,a.dnft'. ad. 
Floating at random. 

Adroit, a-driit'. a. (305) 
Active, skilful. 

Adroitness, a-driit'ness. s.. 

Dexterity, readiness, activi^. 

Adry, a-dri', ad. 
Athirst, thirsty. 

Adscititious, ad-se-t?sh'as. a. 
That which is taken in to complete something 
else. (J14) 

Adstriction, ad-strik'shun. s. 
The act of binding together. 

To Advance, ad-vanse'. v. a. (7s) 
To brii^ forward, in the local sense ; to raise 
to preferment, to aggrandize ; to improve ; to 
forward, lo accelerate ; to propose, to offer 10 

To Advance, ad-vanse'. v. n. 
To come forward ; to make improvement. 

Advance, ad-yanse' ,8 (79) 
l^c act of coming forward ; a tendency t<i 
come forward to meet a lover; pit)gression, 
rise from one point to another; improvement, 
progress towards perre£lion. 

Advancement, ad-vanse' mJnt.s. 

The act of coming forward; the -state «of being' 
advanced, preferment ; improvement. 

Advancer, ?.d-vah'sur. s.igs) 

A promoter, forwarder. 

Advantage, ad-van'tadje. s. 

Soperiority ; |upcriorfty gained by stratagem ; 
gain, profit ; (reponderaiion on one side of the 

To Advantage, ad-van'tadje. v. a. 

To benefit ; to promote, to bring forward. 

Advantaged, ad-van'ta-jid. a. 
Possessed of advantages. (362) 

Advantage-ground, ad-van'taje- 
jB^ridnd. s. 

Grouiittlnat gives superiority, and opportuni- 
ties of annoyance or resistance. 

Advantageous, ad-van-ta'jus. a. 

Profitable, useful, opportune. 

Advantageously, ad-vJn-ta'jus-le 

ad. Conveniently, opportunely, profitably. 

Advantageousness, ad-van-ta'- 

jus-ness. s, 
. Profiuhlencss, usefnlness, convenience. 
To Advene, ad-yene'. v. n. 

To accede to something, to be superadded. 

Advenient, ?'ne-cnt. a. 
Advening, superadded. 

Advent, ad'vlnt. s. ^ 

The name of one of the holy seasons, signify- 
ing the coming; that is, the coming 5 our 
Saviour ; wtticti is made the subject o? our de- 
votion during the four weeks betoreChristmas. 

Adventine. ad-ven'tm. a. (i4o) 
Adventitious, that which is ejttrinsically added. 

Adventitious, ad-vln-tish'uj.a. 
That which advenes, extrtnsically added.'tiv. s. (157) 
The thing or person that comes from Wltfaout^ 

Adventual, ad-vlrt'tshi-Jl. a. 
(46]) Relating to the season of Advent. 

Digitized by 





i^ (559). Fate (73), fJr (77), fall (83), fat(8l) ; mi (93), met (95); pine (!05), pin (107); no (i62),inivc(l(54). 

Adventure, ad-ven'tshure. s.(4-6i) 

An accident, a chancci a hazard ; an cntcrprize 
in which something must be left to hazard. 

ToAdventure, ad-vcn'tshire. v.n. 
To tiy the chance, to dare. 

Adventurer, ad-ven'tshur-ur. s. 

He thjt seeks occasions of hazard, he that puts 
himself in the hands of chance ^8) 

Adventurous, ad-vcn'tshiir-us. a. 

He that is inclined to adventures, daring, cou- 
rageous ; full of hazard, dangerous. 

Adventurously, ad-ven'tshur-us- 
ie. ad. 
Boldly, daringly. 

Adventuresome, ad- ven'tshur-sum 

a. The same with adventurous. 

Adventuresomeness-, ad-ven'- 
tsliur-sum-ness. s. (46 1) 
The quality of being advcnturcsoi#c. 

Adverb, ad\^erb. s. 

A word joined to a verb or adjective, and 

, solely applied to the use of qualifying and re- 
straining the latitude of their sif^nificdiion. 

Adverbial, ad-ver'be-al. a. 
That which has the quality or structure of an 

Adverbially, ad-ver'be-al-le, ad. 

In the manix:r of an adverb. 

Adversable, ad'ver-sa-bl. a. (405) 
Contrary to. 

Adversary, Sd'ver-sa-rc.s. (512) 

An opponent, antagonist, enemy. 

Adversative, ad-ver'sa-tiy. a. 

A word which makes some opposition orva- 
ric»f;(5i2) ^ 

Adverse, ad verse, a. 

Acting With contrary directions ; calamitous, 
afflictive^ opposed to prosperous. 

Adversity,^ ad-ver'sc-ie. s. (511) 

Affliction, calamiiy ; ihc cause of our sorrow, 
misfortune ; the state of unhappiness, misery. * 

Adversely, ad'verse-le. a. 

Oppositely, unfortunately. 
To Advert, ad-vert', v. n. 

To attend to, 10 regard, to observe. 
Advertence, ad-ver'tense. s. 

' Attention to, rti;ard lo. 

Advertency, ad-vcr'tcn-sc. s.^ 

The same with advertence. 

To Advertise, ad-ver-tize'. v. a. 

To inform another, to give intelligence ; to 
give notice of any thing m public j>rn»ts. 

Advertise- J ad-ver'tiz-mem. 1 
ment, \ ad-ver-tize'mcnt. J * 
}ntel)igence, information; notice ot any thing- 
published in a paper of intelligence. 

(t|r As nouns endmg in ment alwavs follow the 
ncccntuaiipn of the veibs from which ihcy ate 
formed, we frequently hear adn^iniiement 
taxed with the grossest irreeulariiy for 
the accent on a diScreni syllabic from ad'ver- 
tise. The origin of this irregularity seems to 
have arisen from ^ chaoge whi/ch has taken 
place in ihepronunciauon of the verb since the 
^un has been formed : advertiu and cbastisif 
were, in Shakespeare's time, boili accented on 
the penultimate, and therefore ad'vertheniait 
and cbastiumfrtt were formed regularly from 
•< Whcn^ be did the king his lord a^^rthe. 

/ , ... ^^ ^J^^* 

* Mt ericf Cri^s louder than AdvertUemmi** 

« Oh,then how qnicklyshouldthisarmof minci 
*.Now ptift'ner to the palsy, ebaaue th^c." 


**And ihoiH/tmaif doth therefore hide its head." 

JttL Cittar, 
But since that time the verbs advertise and 
chastise have fallen into an analogy more 
agreeable to verbs of the same form — for the 
verbs lo promise ^ practise, franchise , mortise ^ 
and di'vertise, are the oiily words where the 
termination ise has not the accent either pri- 
mary or secondary ; and if an alteration must 
be made to reconcile the pronunciation of the 
simple with that of the compound, we should 
find it much easier to change ad*v€'rttsement 
and chastisement into adfuertisement and cbas' 
tisement than ad*vertis£ and chastise into ad- 
nfirtise and chastise ; but the irregularity seems 
too inveterate to admit of any alteration. 

Advertiser, ad-vcr-tl'zQr. s. (98) ; 

He that gives intelligence or information ; the' 
paper in which advertisements are published. 

Advertising, Sd-ver-tl'zing. a. 

Active in giving mtelligence, monitor}'. 

To Advesperate, ad-ves'pe-rate. 
V. n. To draw towards evening. (91) 

Advice, ad-vice', s. (4C(9) 

Counsel, instruction, notice ; intelligence. 

Advice-boat, ad-vice'bote. s. 

A vessel employed to bring intelligence. 

Adviseable, ad-yi'za-bl. a. (405) 
Prudent, fit to ^e advised. 

Ad^iseableness, ad-vi'za-bl-ncss 
s. The quality of being adviseable. 

To Advise, ad-vlze'. v. a. (437) 
To counsel : to inform, to make acquainted. 

To Advise, ad-vize'. v.n', (499) 

To consult, as, he advised with his compa-' 
nions ; to consider, to deliberate. 

Advised, ad-yl'zed, part. a. (362) 

Acting with delibcraiion and desigti, prudent, 
wise \ performed with deliberation, acted with 

Advisedly, ad-vi'zed-le. ad. {364) 

Deliberately, purposely, by design, prudently. 

Advisedness, ad-vi'zed-ness. (365) 
s. Deliberation, cool and prudent procedure. 

Advisement, ad-vize'roent. s. 
CoiUiisel, information i prudence, circum- 

Adviser, ad-vi'zur.s. {98) 
The pcnon that advises, a counsellor. 

Adulation, ad-ju-la'shun. s, (294) 

Flattery, high compliment. 

Adulator, ad-ju-la tur. s. (521) 

A ilaiterer. 

Adulatory, ad'ju-lA-tur-re. a. 
Flattering. (512) Sec D o M e s t i c . 

Aivult, a-dfilt'.a. 
Grown up, past the age of infancy. 

Adult, a-dult'.s. 

A person above the age of infancy, or grown 

to some degree of strength. 
Adultness, a-d^lt'ness. s. 

The stae of being adult. 
To Adulter, a-dui'tur.v. a. (98) 

(556) To commit adaltery with another. 
Adulterant, a-dul'tur-ant, s. 

The person or thing which adulterates. 

To Adulterate, a-dal'tur-ate. v. a. 

To commit adultery ; to corrupt by fcomc 
foreign admixture (91) 

Adulterate, a-dul'tur-ate. a. (91) 

Taintrd with the guilt of adultery ; cornipted 
with some foreign admixture. 
AouLTERATEhJESs, a-dul'tur-atc- ' 

ncs"^. «9ij (98) {^5iS) 
The quality or sutc of being aduUerate. 

Adulteration, a-dul-iur-i'sh£n. s. 

The act of corrupting by foreign mixture ; 
the state of being contaminated. 

Adulterer, a-dul'tur-ur. s. (98) 

The person guilty of adultery. 

Adulteress, adSl'tur-ess. s. 

A woman \hat commits adultery. 

Adulterine, a-dul'tur-lne. s. {\A^) 

A child born of an adulteress. 

Adulterous, a-dul'tur-us. a, (314) 

Guilty of adultery. 

Adultery, a-dul'tur-e. s. [5s€) 

'i^he act of violating the bed of a married 
■ person. 

Adumbrant, ad-um'brant. a. 
That which gives a slight resemblance. 

To Adumbrate, ad-um'brate. v. a. 
To shadow out, to (^ive a slight likeness, to 
exhibit a faint resemblance* (91) 

Adumbration, ad-um-brS'shun. s. 

1'heact of giving a slight and impei feet repre- 
sentation ; a faint sketch. 

Adu NATION, ad-u-na'shun. s. 
The state of bemg united, union. 

Aduncity, a-duii'se-te. s. (511) 
Crookedness, hookedncss. 

Adunque, a-dunk'. a. (415) 


Advocacy, ad'vo-ka-se. s. (546) 

Vindication, defence, apology. 

Advocate, ad'vo-kate. s. 
Jlc that pleads the cause of another in^a court 
of judicature; he that pleads any cause,in what- 
ever manner, as a conirovertist or vindicator. 

The office of pleading, plea, apology. 

Advolation, ad-vo-li^'shun. s. 
The ad of flying to something. 

Advolution^ ad-vo-lu'shun. s. 
The ad of rolling to something. 

AdvoutrY, ad-v&u tre. s. (313) 

Advowee, ad-v&d-ee'. s. 

He that has the right of advowson. 

Advowson, ad-v&u'zun. s. (170) 
A right to present to a benefice. 

To A DURE, i-d6re'. v. n. . 

To bum up. 

Adust, a-dust'. a. 

Burnt up, scorched ; it is generally now ap- 
plied to tlie humours of the body. 

Adusted, a-dust'^d. a. 

Burnt, dried wiih fire. 

Adustible> a-diis'te-bl. 3.(179) 
1 hat which may be adusted, or burnt up. 

Adustion, a-dus'tshun. s. (464) 
The a£i of burning up, or drying. 

iEDILE. SceEoiLE. 

iEcYPTiACUM, i-jip-ti'a-cum. (460) 
s. An ointment consisting of honey, verdigris, 
and vinegar. 

iEoLiPiLE, e-ol'i-pile. s. 
(From iEolus) A hollow ball made of metal, 
with a small tube or neck^ from which, after 
the ball has been parily tilled with water and 
heated on the fire, a blast of air issues with 
great vio'cncc. Aih, 

Aerial, 4-e're-al. a. 
Bcloi^ging to the air, as consisting of it ; iii- 
habiiiti^ the air ; .plKed in the air \ hi^b, ele« 
vated m situation. 

Aerie, e're. s, 
A ncit of hawks and other birds of prey. 

Digitized by 





nor {167), not (l63) ; tube (171), tub [172), bull (17s) ; oil (299) 5 pound (313) j thin (406), this {46()). 

Aerology, i-uroi'lo-jc. s. {556) 

The do£lnne of the air. 

Aeromancy, a'ur-o-maa-se. 5.(319) 
The art of (iivining by the air. 

Aerometry, a-ur-om'me-trc. (5I8) • 
s. The an of measuring the air. 

Aeronaut, a'ur-6-n4wt. s. 

' O&e who saiU through ,thc air. Mason, 

Aeroscop.y, a-ur-ps ko-pe. s. (518) 
The ob>*:eivdiion of the air. 

/Ethiops-mineral, e'/' 
ur-ral. s, 

A medicine so called, from its dark colour, 
made of quicksilver and sulphur ground toge- 
ther in a marble mortar. 

itriTES, e-ti'tez. s. 

Afar, i-fiir'. a. 
Ata great distaoce ; to a great distance. 

Afeard, a-fird'. part. a. 

Frightened, terrified, afraid. 

Afer, a'fur. s. (99) 
The south-west wind. 

Affability, af-fa-bij'le-te. s. 

Eisiness of manners ; courteousness, civility, 
condescension. * 

Affable, af'fa-bl. a. (405) 

Easy of manners, courteous, complaisant. 

AFFABLENEss,af'fa-bl.ness'. s. 
Couttesy, affability 

Affably, 5f'fa-ble. ad. 

Courteously, civiHy. 

Affabrous, af'fa-brus. a. 

Skilfully made, complete. 

Affair, at-fare'. s. 
Busincsi, som<j(hing to be managed or trans-, 

ToAffear, af-f^re'. v. n. (227) 
To confirm, to establish: 

Affect, 5f-f^-kt'.$.. 

AffcUioiI, passion, sensation. 

To Affect, af-fekt'. v. a. . 
To ad upon, to produce effe£^s in any other 
^"•''g ; lo'move the passions ; to aim a', ta as- 
pire to ; to be fond of, to be pleased \vith| 10 
loyc; to pra£^ise the appearance of any thing, 
with ioine degree of hypocrisy ; to imitate in 
an unnatural and constramed manner. 

Affectation, af-flk-ta'sbfin. $. 

i he ad of making an artificial appearance, 

awkward imitation. 
Affected, af-fek'.ted. part. a. 

Moved, touched wnih affeftion ; studied with 

over-much rare ; in a personal aensC) full of 

aff':aaiioo,iis,.anafieaed lady. 

Afiectedly, af-tek'ted-le. ad. 
la anaffecUrd manner, Jiypocritically. 

Affectedness, af-fek'ted-ness. s. 
The quality of be'ing affe&ed. 

Afff.ction, af-fek'shun. s. 

. The state of bein^ affected by any cause, or 

agent; passion ot any kind; love, kindness, 

good-Will to somc.penon. 

Affectionate, af-fek'shfin-ite. a. 

Full of aiteOion, warm, zealous ; fond, tender. 

Affectionately, ai-tek'shun-ate^ (91) 
Fondly, tenderly. 

Affectionateness, af-fek'sbun- 
ate-ness. s. * 

FondncM, teodemess, good-will. 

AmcTioNED, af.f?k'sbfind. a. 
Atfcdcd, conccxicd ; ittclined, mcnully dis- 
^^^ (369) 

Affectiously, af-fek'shus-le. ad. 

lo an afiefling manner. 

Affective, af-fek'tiv, a. 

That which affctb, which strongly touches. 

Affectuosity, af-fek-tshu-os'si-tc. 

s. Fassionateness. 

Affectuous, af-fek'tshu-us. a. 

Full of passion. (464) 

To Affere, af-t(^re'. v. a. 

A law term, signifying to confirm. 

Affiance, at'-fi'anse. s. 

A marriage contract ; trust in general, confi- 
dence ; trust in the divine promises and pro- 

To AFFIANCE, af-fi'anse. V. a. 
To betroth, to bind any one by pro.mi^ to, 
marriage i to give confiaence. 

Affiancer, af-fi'an-sur. s. 
He that makes a contraQ of marriage between 
two parties. 

AffidaTion, af-fe-da'shun. 1 ^ 

Affidature, af-fe-da'tshire. / 
Mutual contrail, mutual oath of fidelity. 

Affidavit, af.fe-da'vit. s, 

A declaration upon oath. 
Affied, af-fi'ed. part. a. 
Joined by contrail, affianced. (362) 

Affiliation, af-fil-ie-a'shun. s. 

Affinage, af'fe-naie. s. (90) 
The aft of refining metals by the cupel. 

Affinkd, af-fVned. a. (362) 
Related to another. 

Affinity, af-f!n'ne-te. s. (511) 
Relation by marriage ; relation to, connexion 

To Affirm, af-fcrm'. V. n. (job) 

To declare, to assert confidently, opposed to 
the word deny. 
Affirm, af-icrm'. v. a. 
To ratify or approve a former law, or judge- 
ment. . 

Affirmable, ?if-fcr'ma-bl. a. 
That which may be affirmed 

Affirmance, af-fcr' manse, s. 

Confirmation, op}x>scd 10 repeal. 

AFFIRMANT, af-fer'mant. s. 
The person that affirms. 

Affirmation, af-fer-ma'sbun. s. 

The act of affirming or declaring, opiX)sed to 
negation ; the position affirmed ; conhrmation, 
opposed to repeal. 

Affirmative, af-fcr'rr.a-tiv. {i5s) 

a. That which aflirms, oppo^.cd to negative ; 
that which can or may be affirmed. 

Affirmatively^ af-fer'ma-i!v-Ic, 

ad. On the positive side, not negatively. 
Affirmer. af-fer'mur. s. (9s) 

The person tnat aflirms. 

To Affix, af-fiks'. v. a. 
To unite to the end, to subjoin. 

Affix, af'fiks, s. (402} 

A panicle united to the end of a word. 

Affix ION, af-fik'shun- s. 
The act of affixing ; the state of being affixed. 

Afflation, af-fla'sbun. s. 
The act of breathing upon any thing. 

Affl.\tus, af-fla'tus. s. 
Communication of the power of prophecy. 

To Afflict, af-fl.ikt'. v.a. 

To put to pain, to grieve, to torment. 

AFyLiCTEDNESS,af.flik'ted*ness. s. 
Sorrowfulness, grief. 


Affcicter, 3f-(]ik'tur. s. (ys) 

'I'hc person that afllicrs. 

Affliction, af-flik'sbuti. s. 

The cause of pain or sorrow, calamity ; the 
state of sorrowfulness, misery. 

Afflictive, al'-fl!k'tiv. a. (i58) 

Painful, tormenting. 

Affluence, af'flii-ense. s. 
The act of flowing to any place, concourse ; 
exuberance of riches, plenty. 

Affluency, Sf'flu-en-se. s. 
The same with affluence. 

Affluent, af^fla-ent. a. 
. Flowing to any part; abundant, exuberant, 

AFFLUENTNESSjafflu-ent-ness. s. 

The quality of being affluent* 

Afflux, af'fluks. s. 

The act of flowing to some place, affluence » 
that which flows to any place. 
Affluxion, af-fldk'sbun. s. 
Tlie act of flowing to a particular place ; that 
which flows from one place to anouier. 

To Afford, af-ford'. v.a. 

To yield or produce ; to grant, or confer any 

thing ; to be able to sell ; to be able to bear 

To A ffor EST, af- for' rest. v. a. (109) 

(i-G8j To turn ground into forest. 

To Affranchise, af-fran'tsbiz. v.a. 

(140) To make free. 

To Affray, af-fra'. v. a. 

To fright, 10 terrify. 

Affray, af-fia'. s. 

A tumultuous assault of one ^r more persons 

Affriction, af-frik'shun. s. 

Th(! act of rubbing one ihing upon another. 

To Affright, af-irlte'. v. a. 

Toair«jct with fcr, to terrify. 

Affright, at-fii:e'. s. (3()3) 

.'IVrror, fear. 

Affrightful, af-f:Ite'lu!. a. 

Full of atfright or terror, terrible. 

Aifrightment, af-fiire'mcnt. s. 

The impression of fear, terror] the state of 
fearful nc:>s. 

To Affront, af-frunt'. v.a. {)65) 

Toir.ettfaqc to face, to enrounicr ; to pio- 
voke by anopt-n insult, to offi;nd avowedly. 

Affront, al'-friini'. s. 

Insult oifcred lo the face; outrage, act of 

Affrontf^r, af-frun'tur. s. (os) 

I'hc |)crson "that ;4lfroms. 

Affronting, af-iVun'rm». part. a. 

That which has t!ie quality of affronting. 

To Affuse, af-luzc', v. a. 
To pour one ihmg upon another. 

Affusion, af-fu'zhun. s. 

The act of aifuiing. 

To Affy, af-tl'. v. a. 
To hetroih in order to marriage. 

To AFFY,af-fi'. v.n. 

To put confidence in, to put trust in* 

Afield, a-fMld'. ad. (275) 
To the field. ^ 

Aflat, a-flat'. ad. 
Level with the ground. 

AFLOAT,a.il6te'. ad. (295) 


Afoot, a. fit', ad. (30?) 
On fiXH, not on horseback; in action, v, a 

design is afoot. 

Digitized by 





6^(559). Fate (73), far (77)> fall (83), fat (81 ); me (93), mit (95); piiie(l05), pin(l07)5 d6(i62), in5ve(ia4)^ 

Afoue, a -fore . prep. 
Before, nearer in place to any thing ; sooner 
in time. 

Afore, a-fore'. ad. 

In time foregone or past ; fi:st in the way; in 
front, in the lore part. 

Aforegoing, a-fore'go-ing. part. a. 

Going before. 
AFfjREiiAN D, a-fore'hand. ad". 

By a previous provision i provided, prepared ; 

previousty fitted. 

AFOREMiNTiONED, a-Torefmeii- 

slimKl. a. (36'i) 
Mentioned before. 

Aforenamed, a-fore'na'*mcd. a^ 

Named before. (362) 

Aforesaid, a-fore'sade. a. 

Said before. 

Aforetime, a-fore'time. ad^ 

In time past. 

Afrald, a-fradc' . part, a.. 
Struck with fear, terribed, feartikl.. 

AFRESHy a-fresh'. ad. 

Aoew, again. 
AFRONt,a.frunt'. ad. (165). 

In front, in iiirect opposition. 

After, afftur. prep. (98) 

Following in place; in pursuit of; behind;. 
])ostertor in time ; according to ; in imita- 
tion of. 

After, af'tur. ad* 
111 succeeding time ; following another. 

Afteragks, af'tur-a'jcz. s. 
Succeeding times, posterity. 

Afterall, if'tur-all'. ad. 
At last, in fine, in conclusioa. 

Afterbirth,. af'tur-bcr/A. s. 

The secundine. 
Afterclap, af'tur-k]ap.-s. 

Unexpected event happening after an afiair is 

supposed to be at an end. 
Aftercost, af'tfir-kJst. s. 

The expence incurred after the original plan is 

Aftercrop, af'tur-krop. s. 

Second harvest. 

AFTEkCAME, af'tfir-game. s. 
Methods taken after the first turn of affairs* 

Aftermath, af'tur-ma//'. s. 

Second crop of grass mown in Autumn. 

Afternoon, af'tur.n6t»n'. s. 

The time from the meridian to the evening. 
Afterpains, a£'tur-panz. s. 

Bains after birtl& 

Aftertaste, af'iuF-taste. s. ' 

Taste remaining upon the tongue after the 

Afterthought, af-'tur-zAiv^t. s. 

Reflections after the act, expedients formed 
too late. 
Aftertimes, af'tur-timz. s. 

Succeedit'.g times. 

Afterward, af'tur- wdrd.. ad.. (bs) 

In succeeding time. 

Afterwit, af'tur-wjt. s.. 
ContrivaiKe of expedients after the occasion of 
using them is pa^t. 

Again, a-gen'. ad. (206) 

A second time, once more ; back, in restitu* 
lion ; bc&ides, in any oihex time or place ; 
twice as much, marking the same quantity 
•ncc repeated ; agaiD and again, with frequcut 

Q:^ We find this word written according to the 
l^enei-al pronunciation in the Duke of Bu(-k- 
H:^liam*s verses to Mr. Pope : 
** I little thought of launching forth ffgtn, 
«'Axnid«t advent Vous rovers of the pea.** 

Against, a-genst'. prep. ('iOd) 

Contrary, opposite, in general ; wiih contrary 
motion or tendency, usedof material action; 
opposite to,, in place; in expectation of. 

Agape, a-gape'. ad. (75) 
Staring with cage rneii.— Sec Gape. 

AgarICK. iif'a-iik. s. 
A dnigoi use in physic, and the dying trade. 

Agast, a-gast'. a. 

Agate, ag'at. s. (pi) 

A precious stone of the lowest clas?* 
AcATY", ag'a-te. a. 

Partaking of the nature of ai^iae. -' 

To Agaze, a-gaze'. v. a. 
Tostrike with amazement. 

Agr, aje. s. 
Any period of time attributed to somcthinf» as- 
the wnole» or part of its duration ; a succrwon 
or generation of men ; the time in which .iny 
particular man, er race of men, lived, as, the 
age of heroes ; the space of a hundred years ;. 
the latter part of liFej old age ; in law, in a 
man the age of twenty-one years is the full* 
age, a woman at twenty-one is>able to alienate 
her lands. 

Aged, a'jid, a. (363) 

Old, stricken m years. 

Agedly, i'jed-le. ad. 
After the manner of an aged peTK>n- 

Agen, J-gJn'. ad. (206) 
Again, in return. 

Agency, a'jen-si: s. 
The quality of actirig, the state of being in 
action ; business performed by an agent. 

Agent, i'jent. a. 
Acting upon, active. 

Agent, a.'jcni.. s. 
A substitute, a deputy, a Cactor ; that which 
has the power of operating. 

Aggeneration, ad-j6n-nur-i'sh5n. 

s. The state of growmg to another body. 

To Aggerate, ad'jur-ate. v. a. 

> To heap up.— Sec £x AGGER ATE. 

V. a. To gather up in a ball, as thread. 

Aggluti-nants. ag-glu'ti-nants. s. 
Those medicines- which have the power of 
uniting parts together. 

To Agglutinate, ag-glu't4-n4te. 

V. n. To unite one part 10 another. 

s- Union, cohesion. 

AcGLUTiKATiVE, ag-glu'te-nJ-tiv. 
a. That which has the power of procuring ag« 
glutination. (512) , 

To Aggrandize, ag eran-dizc. v. a. 

{159J To make great, to enlarge, to exalt. 

Aggrandizement, ag'gran-dize- 
ment. See Academy; • 

1 he state of being aggrandized* 
Aggrandizer, ag'gran-dize-dr. s. 
The penon thai makes another great. 

To Aggravate, ag'gra-vate. v. a. 

(91) To make heavy, in a metaphorical sense, 
as, to aggravate an accusatioir; to make any 
thing worse. 

Aggravation, ag-gra-vi'shSn. s. 
The act of aggravating ; the ciicttimwices 
which hcighicH guilt or calamity. 

Aggregate, ag'gre-gite. a. fpi) 

Framed by the collection of particular pirts- 

into one mass. 

Aggregate, ag'gre-gate. s. 

The rcsuk of the conjunction of many parti* 


To Aggregate, ag'gre-gJte. v. a. 

To collect together, to heap many particulars- 

into one mass. 

Aggregation, ag^gri-ga shun. s. 

The act of colleciina many particulars info- 
one whole ; the whole competed by the col- 
lection of many particulars ; state of being 
To Aggress, ag-gress'.y. n. 

To commit the first act of violence. 

Aggression, ag-grcsh'un. s. 
Commencement of a quarrel by some act of- 


Aggressor, ag-gres'sur. s. (98) 
The assaulter or invader,- opposed to the de^ 
fendant. (418) 

Aggrievance, ag-gri'vanse. s. 

Injury, wrong. ^ 

To Aggrieve, ag-grcve'. v. a. 

To give sorrow, to vex ; to impose, to hart in 
one's right. (275) 

To Aggroup, ag-griip''. v. a; 
To bring together into one ngure. 

Agwast, a ga>t'. a. 
Struck with horror, as at the sight of a spectre • 

Agile, aj'ir. a. {i40) 

Nimble, ready, active. 
Agileness, aj'il.nes^. $. 

Nimblencss, quickness, activity. 

Agility, a-jiJ'e^t4. s. (511) 

Nimbleness, quickness, activity. 

To AGiST,.a-jtst'. v.a. 
To take in and feed the cattle of strange n in 
the king's forest, and to gather- the money. 

Agistment, a-jist'm4nt. s.. 

Composition, or mean rate. 

Agitable, aj'e-ta-bl. s*. 

That which may be put in motion. . 

To Agitate, aj'c-titc. V.a. (91) 

To put in motion; to actuate, to move ^ to 
aficct with perturbation ; to bandy, to diacuss, 
to controvert. 

Agitation, aj-i-ta'shiun. s. 

The act ef moving any thing ; the staiie of 
being moved ; discussion, controversial ex*- 
amination; oerturbation, disturbance of ike 
thoughts ; delibeiation, the state of being cos* 
suited upon. 

Agitator, aj'i-ta-tdr. s..(520 

He who manages affairs* 

Aglet, agMet. s. 

A tagx>f a point carved into some representation 
of an animal ; the pendants at the cxKis of the 
chieves of flowers. 

Agminal, ag'me-nal. a. 

. Belonging to a troop. ■ 

Agnail, ag'hile. s. 
A whitlow. 

Agnation, ag-na'shfin. s* 

Descent fi'ora the same father, in a direct male- 

Agnition, ag-nlsh'un. s- 

To Agnize. Ig-nlze'. v.a. 

To acknowledge ;. to own. 

Agnomination, ag-ncm-mi-ni'^ 

shun. J. 
Allusion of one vord to aoother. 

Digitized by 





nSr (r67). not (163) 5 tibc (171)^ tub (172), bull (l73) j61l (»99) J P&ind (313) j /*in (40(i), thIs (46q). 




Agnus Castus, ag'nus-cas'tus. s- 

The chaste tree. 

Ago, a-gA'. ad. 
Past, as, long ago ; tliat is, loog time has 
pasKd since- 

Agog, a-gog'. ad. 

In t state of desire. 

Agoing, a-gi'ing, a 

In action. 

Agone, a-gSn'. ad. 
Ago, past. 

Agonism, ag'o-nfzm, s. (548) 
Comemion for a prize. 

Agonistes, ag-6-nis'tez. s. 
A pnze-6ghter, one that contends at a public 
solemnity tor a prize. 

To Agonize, ig'o-nize. v. n. 

To be in excessive pain. 

Agony, ag'o-ne. s. (548) 

1 be pangs of death ; any violent pain of body 
or mind 

Agood, a-gud^ ad. 

In eviiesc. 
To Agrace, a-gricc' 

To tyrant Uvours to. 

Agrarian, a-gri're-an 
Relating to fields or grounds. 

ToAgrease, a-gr^zcVa* 

To dawb, to grease. 

To*A*CREE,.a-grJe'. v. n.- 
To be in concord ; to vield to ; to settle terms 
by itlpalation ; to settle a price between buyer 
ind seller ; to be of the same mind or opinioo ; 
to suit with. 

Agreeable, a-grce a-bl. a.^ 

Suiiable to, coosiatem with i pleasing. 

Agreeableness, a-gree'a-bl-n£ss. 
>^ Consistency with, suitaSkness 10 ;- the qua- 
lit]^ of [leasing. 

Agjieeably, S-grie'l-bli. ad". 
Cor4istendy with, m a manner suitable to; 

Agreed, i-griid'. part. ^. 

Scuied by consent. 

AGR££iNGMESS«a-gr^^'!ag-ness. s. 

Consistence, suitableness. 

Agreement, t-grhemlnt. s. 
Concord ; resemblance of one thing to another ; 
compaa, bargain. 

Agrestic, a-grls't!k. a. 

(From the Latin *agfesti») Belonging to the 

field, rude, unpolished. Ash* * 

Agriculture, Jg'ri-cfil-tchire. s. 

(46s) Tilbge, husbandry. 

Agrimony, ae'ri-mun-ni. s. {557) 

The name of a plant. 

Aground, a-griund'. ad. (313) 
Stranded, hindered by the ground trom fusing 
^ber; hindered in the progress of afi&irs. 

Ague, Sgfic. s. (335 j 

An imermitting fever, with cold fits succeeded • 
by hot. 

AcuED, i'gi-^d. a. (362). (359) 
^(nKk with the ague, shivering.- 

ACUE.FIT, S'gSe-flt. S. 

< ne paroxysm or the ague. 
^^TREE, 4'gic.trc*, 9.: 

^SJ'ISH, i'gi.!sh. a, 
naviog tiie qualities of an agoe. 

SPiSHNESS, &'gu4'sh.nes9. s. 

- ^t^tif of jttembling an ague. 

Ah, a. interjeciion, 
A word noiiiij; sometimes dislike md ceiisare 
most frequently, compassion and complaint. 

Aha! Aha! a-hi'. intcrjeftion. 

A word intimating triumph and contempt. 

Ahead, a-hed'. ad. 
Fiinhcr onward than another. 

Ahight, a-hW. ad. 
Aloft, on high. 

To Aid, Idc. v. a. (202) 
To htip, to support, to succour. 

Aid, ade- s. 

Help, support; in law, a subsidy. 
AiDANCE, ide'anse. s. 

Help, support. 

AiDANTi ade'ant. a. 
Helping, helpfiil. i . / 

AlD-DE-(jAMP, ade-de-kawnff . s. 
An ofiicer who attends the general that has the 
chief command of the army, to carry his orders 
t«i the inferior officers. Jsh. 

^ This word, like most other military terms 
from the French, is universally adopted, but 
the poliic pronunciation of the nasal vowel in 
the fast syllable is not to be attained by a mere 
Englishman. ScefiNCOREf 

Aider, lide'ur. s.. 

A helper, an ally. 

Aidless, adcless. a. 

Helpless, unsupported. 
To AiL^ale. V. n. ' ^ 
To pain, to trouble^to give pain ; to aScct in 
any manner. 

Ail, ile, s. (202)- , 
A disease. 

Ailment, ilcWnt. s; 

Pain,, disease. 

Ailing, iic'tng, part, a*- 

Sickly. \ 
To Aim, ame. v. a. (202) 

To endeavour to strike with a missHe weapon ; 

to point the view, or dire^ the steps towards 

any thing,- to endeavour ta reach' or obtain*; to 


Aim, amc, s." 
The dire^lioiyof a missile weapon ; ifcc point 
ta which the thing thrown is oireQcd ; an in- 
tendron, a design; the obje£l of a design; 
conjtf6lure, guess. 

Air, 4re. s. (202) 
The element encompassing the earth ; a 
gentle gale ; music, wnfciher light or serious ; 
tne mien, or manner* of the person ; an af- 
fe£^cd Of laboured manner or gaturej ap- 

To Ajr, ire, v. a. 
To expose to the air; to take the air;: to 
warm by the fire. 

AlRBLADDER, ipe^blad^uf. S. ^ 
A bladder filled with air. 

AiRBULLT,ire'bil*t, a. 

Buih in the air. 
,Aiiu-DRAWN,Wdriwn. a. 

Painted in air. 

AlR'ER, are'ur. s. (98). 
He that exposes to the air. 

AlRHOL'E, Sre'hole. s. 
A hole to admit air. 

Airiness, iire'e-n^s.^. & 

Exposure to the air ;. lightness, gaiety, levity. 
Airing^ arcing. >. (410) 

A short jaunt. 

Airless, Jre'lisg. a. 
Without cemmuoication with the free air. 

AiRLiNG, ire'ling. s. (4io) 
A young gay peison. 

AiRPUMP, ire'pump. «-. ^ ^ . . 

A machine by means of which the air t$ ex* 

hausted out of proper vessels. 
Airshaft, are shaft, s. 

A passage for the air into mines. 

AiRY,are'e. a. ,....• 

Composed of air ; relating to the air ; high m 
air,; light as air, unsubstantial ; without re* 
ality, vain, trifling; gay, sprightly, full of 
mirth, lively, light of heart. 

ArsLE, lie. s. (207) 

The walk in a church. 

AiT, Ste. s. (202) 

A small i&land in a river. 
To Are, ike. v.n. (355) 

To feel a lasting pain. 
AKiN,a-k!n'.r a. 

Relateo to, allied to by blood. 

Alabaster, a^'a-bas-tur. s. (98) 

A kind of soft nrarble,- easier to cut, and less 
durable, than the other kinds. 

Alabaster, al'a-bas-tur. a. (418) 

Made of alabaster. 
Alack, a-lak'. interjeflion. 

Alas, an expression of sorrow. 
ALACKADAY,a-lak'a.da'. interjeft. 

A word noiing sorrow and melancholy. 
Alacriously, a-lakVWs-le. ad. 

Cheerfuily, without dcjeaion. 
Alacrity, a-lak'kre-ie. s. (511) 

Cheerfulness, sprichtlmess, gaiety. 
Alamode, al-a-mode'. ad. 
Accordinjt to the fashion. 

Aland, aland', ad. 

At land, landed. 

Alarm, a-lirm'. s. , . . 

A cry by Which men are summoned to their 
arm»; notice of any danger approaching j a 
species of clock; any tumult or oisiuibance. 

To Alarm, a-lJrm". v. a. 

To call to arms ; to surprise with the appre- 
hension of any <bnger ; to disturb. 
Alarmbell, a-iann'bell. s. 
The bell that is rung to give the abrm. 

Alarming, a-llrmlng part. a. 

Terrifying, awakening, surprising. 
Alarmpost, a-larm'pAst. s. 

The post appointed to each body of men to 

appear at. 
Ala«, a-lass'. intcrjeftion. 

A word expressing lamentation ; a word of pity. 

A LATE, a-late'- ad. 

TAlb, alb. s. 

A surplice. 

Albeit, ll-be'ft. ad. (84) 

Althuugo, notwithstanding. 
Albugineous, al-bA-j!n'e-us. a. 
Resembling an albugo. 

Albugo, al-bu'gA. s. (34) 

A disease in the eye, by which tbe cornea eon- 
irafts a whiteness. 
Alcahest, al'ka-hcst. s. (84) 
An universal dissolvent. 

Alcaid, al-cidc'. s. (sl) 
The government of a casde ; m Spain, the 
judge of a city. 

Alcanna, aUkan'na. s. (84) 

An Egyptian plant used in dying. 

Alchymic^l, al-kim'mA-kal. 
Relating to alchymy. 


Digitized by 





0^ (559). Fate (73}, far (77), fdll(83),fat(8l); me (93), met (95); pineCi03l, pm(l07); no(l62},in6ve(l64). 

Alc'hymccally, al-kWmc-kat-li 

ad. In the manner of an alchymisc. 

Ai.cHYMiST, al'ke-mist. s. ("84) 
One who pursues or professes the science of 

^ Alchymy, al/ke-me. s. (84) 

The more sublime chymistry, which proposes 
the rrniismutation of metals; a kind of mixed 
metal used for spoons. 

Alcohol, arko-hol. s. (84) 
A high re£ljfic*d spirit of wine. 

Alcoholization, arko-hol-c-za'- 

slidn. s. . . . . » 

The aft of alcoholizing or rcflifyin;; spirits. 

To ALCOHpLizE, al ko-ho-lize, v. a. 
To rectify spirits till ihcy are wholly dephleg- 

Alcoran, al'ko-ran. s. (84) 
The book of the Mahometan precepts, and 
credenda; now more properly called the 
Koran. \ 

Alcove, al-kove'. s. 

A recess, or pan of a chamber, separated by an 
estrade, in which is placed a bed of state. 

Alder, ai'dur. s. (64) 
A tree having leaves resembling those of the 

Alderman. ^iMSr-man. s. 

Tiic same as senator, a governor or tnagrstratc. 

Alderman LY, al'dur-man-Ie. ad. 

Like an alderman. 1 

Aldern, alMurn. a. (84) {555) 
Made of alder. 

Ale, ale. s. 

A licjuor made by infusing malt in hot water, 
and tnen'fermenting the liquor. 

ALEBERRY,'ile'ber-re. s. 
A beverage made by boiling ale with spice and 
sugar, and sops of bread. 

ALEBREWER,ale'bf6S.ur, s. 
One that professes to brew ale. 

Aleconner, ale'kon-nur. s. 

An officer in the city of London to inspe£l the 

iTieasures of public hoases. 
Alecost, ale'kost. 5. 

An herb. 

s. Divination by acock. (519) 

s. Cockfighting. (518) 

Alegar, al'le-gur. s. (98) (4J8) 
Sour ale. 

Alehoofi alc'hi&f. s. 

. Ground ivy. 

Alehouse, ale'house. s. " 

A lippling-home. 

Alehousekeeper, ale'h4us^-ke-pur 
s. He chat keeps ale publicly to sell. 

Aleknight, Ale'nite. s. 
A pot companion, a tippler. Obsolete. 

ALEMBiGK,a-lem'bik. s. 
A vessel used in distilling. 

A LENGTH, a-leng/^^ ad. 
At full length. 

Alert, a-lert'. a. 
Watchtul, vigilant ; brisk, pert, petulant. 

Alertness, a-lert'ness. s. 

The quality of beiog alert, pertness. 

Alewashed, JleVosht. a. (359) 
Soaked in ale. 

ALEWIFE,aIe\vife. s. 
A woman that keeps an alefaoose. 

Alexanders, al'legz-an'dur 2. s. 
The name of a plant. 

Alexander's Foot, al'legz-an'- 

durz-fut'. s. (478) 
The name of an herb. 

Alexandrine, al-lcgz-an'drin. s. 
0,50) A kind of verse borrowed fiom the 
French, first used in a poem called Alexander. 
This verse consists of twelve syllables. 

Alexipharmick, a-lek-^e-fa/mik. 

a. Thatwh'.ch drives aw»y poison, antidotal. 

Alexiterical, a-lek-sc-tei're-1 

kdl. (509) ^ >a. 

Alexiterick,!k. J 

That which drives away poison. 

Algates, ^i^ga-es. ad. 
On any terms ; aithougl). Obsolete. 

Algebra, alje-bra. s. (84) 

A peculiar kind of arithmetic. 

Algebraical, al-je-bra'e-kal 



ALGEBftAiCKp al-je-braik 
Relating to algebra. 

Algebraist, a] -je-briist. .v 
A person that understands or praBises the sci- 
ence of algebra. 

Algid, al'jid, a. (84) 
Cold, chill. 

Algidity, al-jid'de-t^. s. (511) 

Chilness, cold. 
Algific, al-jif'f1k. a. (509) 

That which produces cold. 

Algor, al'gor. s. 

Extreme cold, chilness. 
jj:::|r The in the last syllable of this word 
escaj^s being pronounced like u from its being 
Latin, and seldom used. (418) 

ALGORiSMral'ffO-rizm. {557) 1 

Algorithm, aj'go-ri/Am. S^* 
Arabic words used to imply the science of 

Alias, cVli-as. ad., 
A Latin word, signifying otherwise. 

Alible, al e-bl. a, (405) 

Nutritive, nourishing. 

Alien, ale'yen. a. (505) 
Foreign, or not of the same hmWy or land ; 
estranged from, not allied to. 

Alien, ale'y en. s. (113) (283) 
A Ibrcij^r, not a denison, a stcanger ; in law, 
an alien is one born in a strange country, and 
uevcr enfranchised. 

Alien ABLE>alc' a. 
That of which the property may be transfened. 

To Alienate, ale yen-ate. v. a. 

To transfer the property of any thing to an- 
other ; to withdraw the Heart or ai&Aions. 
(j^ There i^ a- strong propensity in undisci- 
plined speakers to pronounce this word with 
the accent on c in the penultimate; but this 
cannot be too carefully avoided, as all the com- 1 
pounds of alim have invariably the accenr on 
the first syllable. But whetlier the a in this 
syllable be long or short, is a dispute among 
our best Onhoepists. Mr. Perry, Mr. fiu-' 
chanan, W. Johnston, Dr. Kcnnck, and Mr.i 
Elphinstone, join it with the consonant, and! 
make it short ; but Mr. Sheridan separates it 
from the /, and makes it long and slender : and! 
though Mr. Elphinstone's opinion hasereat' 
weight with me, yet I here join with Mr.. 
Sheridan against fhem all ; /lot only becaujie I j 
judge his pronunciation of this word the most 
agreeable to the best usage, but because it is 
agreeable to an evident rule which lengthens; 
every vowel with the accent on it, except /! 

: when followed by a single consonant and a 
diphthong. Sec Principfes^ No. (505) (534) 
*« O ! ali'enaU from Heav'n, O spir't accurst V* 
Milton s Pur, Zojt, b. v. 877. 

Alienate, a!e'yen-ate. a. 

Withdrawn from, stranger to. 

Alienation, ale-yen-.a'shun. 9. 
The a6i of transferring property; the state of 
being alienated ; change of affection. 

To Alight, a-lW. v. a. 

To come down ; to fall upon. 
Alike, a-like'. ad. 
With resemblance, in the saciie maoner. 

Alimenti al'li-ment. s. 

Nourishment, nutriment, food. 

ALiMENTAL,al-l^-men'tal. a. 
That which has the quality <^ aliment, that 

Alimentariness, al-l^-mln'ta-re- 
ftess. s. 

The quality of beine alimentary. 

Alimentary, aUle-men'ta-re. a. 
That which belongs 10 aliment; that which 
has the power of nourishing. 

Alimentation, al-li-men-ti'shun. 

s. Tt^e quality of nourishing. 

AlimonIous, al-le-nnfoue-fis, a. 

That which nourishes*. 

Alimony; zYXh-rnhn^nl. s. (556) 

Lcgnl proportion of the husband's estate, which, 
bv the sentence of the ecclesiastical court, is 
allowed to the wife, u)X>n the account of sepo- 
nition.«-*See Do m e s t 1 c. 

Aliquant, ai'ie-qwSnt. a» . 

Piirtsof a number, which will never make up 
the number exactly ; as, 3 is an alicjuant of 10, 
thrice 3 being g, four timet 3 making is. 

Aliquot, al'ic-qwAt. a. 
Aliquot parts of any numbcl or quantify, such 
as will exactly measure it without any re- 
mainder : as, 3 is an aliquot part of is. 

Alish, aieish. a. 

Resembling ale. 

Alive, a-live'. a. 
In ih^ state of life ; not dead ; unextinguished^ 
undestroyed,^ active ; cheerful, sprightfy : it is 
used to add emphasis ; as, the best man alive. 

Alkahest, al'kS-hest. s. (s4) 

All universal dissolvent, a liquor. 

Alkalescent, al-ka-ils^sent. a. 
That which has a tendency to the properties 
of an alkali. 

Alkali, al'ka.le. s. (84) 
Any substance, which, when mingled Mk-ith 
acicf, produces fermentation. 

Alkaline, tl'ka-lin. a. (i5o} 

That which pas the qualities of alkali. 

To Alkalizate, al-kal'lc-zate. v.a. 
To make alkaline. 

Alkalizate, al-kal'le-zate. a. 

That which has the qualities of alkaM. 

Alkaliz.\tion, al-ka-Ie-za'^hun. s. 
Theactof alkalizaiing. * 

Alkanet, al'ka-net. s. 
The name of a plant. 

Alkekengi, aUke-kenji. ^ 
The wintcc cherry, a genus of plants. 

Alkermes, al-kcr'mez. s. 
A confection whereof the kermes berries are 
the basis. • 

All, ill. a. {77) 
The whole numher, every one; the whole 
quantity, every part. 

Digitized by 





nir (167), nil (163)5 t4be{l7l},t4b (172), bdll (173)5 ffll (299)5 p&und (313)5 thin (466), this {469. 

All, In. s. 

The whole; every thing. , 

All, ill. ad. 
Quite, complciely ; altoectber, wholly. 

ALL-B£ARlMG,ilil-baV!l1g. a. 


All-cheer I NO, all-tshe'r!ng. a. 
That whicti gives gaiety to all. 

All-conquering, ail-cink'k?r-!ng 

a. (334) Toat which subdues every thing. 

AiL-DEVCURiNGjill-di-viuring. a. 

lint which cits up every thing. 
ALL-roDRS, ^Il-forz'. s. 

A low game at cards, pla)'ed by two. 

All-hail, SlI-hAle'. s. 

AU health. 

All-hallown, lU-hal'lun. s. 

Tbe time about All-saints day. 

All-hallowtide, all-hal'lA-tide. s. 
The term near AH-saints, or the first of No- 

All-heaLj dll'hele. s, 
A species oF iron-wort . 

All-judging, all-jud'jing. a. 

That which has the sovereign right of judge- 

ALL-XKOWiNG^'ing. a. 

Omoiscient, all-wise. 
All-seeing, all-seclng. a. 

That beboMs every thiiuc- 
All Souls Day, ali-solz-da'. s. 

The d-jy on which supplicattoos are made for 
all souls by the««hurch of Rome, the second 
of November. 

All-sufficient, all-suf-fish'cnt. a. 

Sufficient to any thing- 

All-wise, dll-wize'. a. 

Possest of infinite wisdom. 

To Allay, al-lJ'. y. a. 

To mix one metal with another, to make it 
fitter for coinage ; to join any thing 10 another, 
io as to ab^te its qualities ; to quiet, to pacify, 
to repfesB. 

Allay, al-li'. s. (320) 
The metal of a baser kind mixed in coins, to 
bardoi tfacm» that they may wear less ; any 
thinf; which, being added, abates the pre- 
dominant qualities of that with which it is 

Allayer, al-la'ur. s. 

The person or thing which has the power or 
qiaiity of albying. . 

Allayment, al-la'ment. s. 
That which has the power of allaying. 

Allegation, aUle-ga'shfin. s. 

AiBmiaiioD, declaration ; the thing alleged or 

sffirmed ; an excuse, a plea. 
To Allege, al-ledjc^ y,a. 

ToafiBrm,io declare^ to maintain; to plead as 

ao excuse or argument. 
Allegeable^ al-ledje'a-bL a. 

That which may be alleged. 
Allegement. al-Icdje^in^nt. s. 

The ame with allegation . 

Alleger, aUledje^ur. s. 
He that alleges. 

Allegiance, al-le'janse. s. 
Tbe doty of suhie£is to the govenunent. 

AlleGIANT, M\-W}t\\i, a. 
Loyal, cooformable to the duty of allegiance. .' 

ALLEGORiCK,ar->e-gir'rik. a. 
Not real, not literal. 

Allegorical, al-le-go/re-kal. a. . 
lo ihc form of an allegory, not literal . 

Allegorically, al-lc-gor\e.kal-l^. 

ad. After an allegorical manner. 

To Allegorize, al'le-go-rize. v. a. 

To turn into allegory, to form an allegory. 

Allegory, alle-gor-r^. s. (557) 

A figurative discourse, iit which something is 
intended that is not contained in the words 
literally taken. 

Allegro, Sl-le'gro- s* 

A word denoting in music a spriehtly motion. 
It originally means gay, as in Mi Hon. 

Allelu jAH,al.l€-li'ya. s. 
A word of spiritual exultation ; Praise God. 

To Alleviate, al-le'v^-iie. v. a. 

To make light, toease, to soften. (91) 
Alleviation, al-le-ve-a'shun. 
The act of making light ; that by which any 
pain is eased, or fault extenuated. 

Alley, al-li. s. (270) 

A walk in a garden ; a passage in tov^ns, nar- 
rower than a street. 

Alliance, al-ll'anse. s. 

. The state of connetlion with another by con- 
federacy, a league ; relation by marriage ; re- 
lation oy any form of kindred ; the persons 
allied to each other. 

Alliciency, al-lish'yin-se. s. (lis) 

The power of attracting. 
To Alligatb, al'ie-gate. v. a. 

To tie one thing to another. (91) 

Alligation, al-le-ga'shun. s. 

The act of tying together ; the arithmetical 
rule that teaches to adjust the price of corn- 
pounds, formed of several ingredients of dif- 
ferent value < 

Alligator, al-le-g4't5r. s. (521) 

The crocodile. This name is chiefly used for 
the crocodile of America. 

Allision, a,l-lizh'un. s. 
The ad of striking one thing against anot|}er. 

Alliteration, aUlit-cr-a'shun. s. 

The beginning two or more words with the 
same letter to give them a sort of rhyming 
consonance somewhat similar to the^ termina- 
tion of the adjedive and. substantive in tatin; 
and used by the best writers. 
«« The bookful blockhead ignorantly read, 
<' With loads of karned lumber in his head." 

Allocation, al-lo-ki'shun, s. 

The a£l of putting one thing to another ; the 
admission of an article in reckoning, and addi- 
tion of it to the account. 

Allocution, al-lo-ki'shun. s. 

The a£l of speaking to another. 
Allodial, al-lo'de-al. a. 

Not feudal, independent. 

Allodium, al-Jo'di-um. s. 

Possession held 'in absolute independence, 
without any acknowledgement of a lord pa- 
ramount. There are no allodial lands in 

Allonge, aUlundje', s. (165) 

A pass or thrust with a rapier. 

To Alloo, al-lii'. V. a. 

To set on, to incite. 
ALLOQUY,al'lo-kwc. s. 

The afct of speaking to another. 

To Allot, al-lot'. v. a. 

To distribute by lot ; to grant } to distribute, 
togiveeach his share. 

Allotment* al-lot'ment. s. 

The part, the share. 
A L lottery, al-lot'tur-e. s. {555)^ 
That which is granted to any in a distribation« 

To Allow, al-lid'. v. a. 
To admit ; to grant, to yield ; to permit ; te 
give to ; to pay to ; to make abatement. 

ALLOWABLE,al-l6ua-bl. a. 
That which may be admitted without contra- 
diction, lawful, not forbidden. 

Allowableness, al-l6u'a-bl-ness. 
s. Lawfulness, exemption from prohibiiion. 

Allowance, al-lid'anse. s. 

Sandion, licence; uermi&Mon; an appoint- 
incnt for any use, anatement from the strift 
rigour ; a sum granted weekly, or yearly, as a 

Alloy, aUlie'. s. (32) 

Baser metal mixed in coinage ; abatement, di- 

To Allude, al-lude'. v. n. 

To have some reference to a thing, without 
the dfrcft meniion. 

Alluminor, al-lu'm^-nur. f?. 
One who colours or paints upon paper or parch- 

To Allure, al-lure'. v. a. 

To entice to any thing. 

Allurement, al-lure'ment. s. 

Enticement, temptation. 
Allurer, ai-lu'rfir. s. (98) 

. Enticer, inveigler. 

Alluringly, al-lu'ring-le. ad. 

In an alluring manner, enticingly. 

AlluriNgness, al-lA/ing-nes, s. 
Enticement, temptation by proposing pleasure. 

Allusion; al-lu'zhun. s. 

A hint, an implication. 

Allusive, al-lu'siv. a. {i5s) (428) 

Hinting at something. 

Allusively, aUlu'siv-le. ad. 

In an allusive maimer. 
AllusivenF/SS, ai-lu'siv-nes. s. 

The quality of being allusive. 

Alluvion, al-lu'ye-un.s. 

The carrying of any thing to something else by 
the motion of the water ; the thing carried by 

ToALLY,'. v.a. 
To unite by kindred, friendship, or confede- 
racy i to make a relation between two things. 

Ally, al-li'. s. See Survey. 

One united to some other by marriage, friend- 
ship, or confederacy. 

Q^ A few years ago there was an aflfeftation of 
pronotmcing this word, when a, noun, with the 
accent on toe first syllable ; and this bad an 
appearance of precision from the general, cus- 
tom of accenting nouns in this manner, 'when 
the same word, as a verb, had the accent on 
the last (492): but a closer inspection into the 
analogies of the language shewed this pronun- 
ciation to be improper, as it interfered with an . 
tiniversal rule, whicn was, to pronoimce the jr 
like / in a anal unactented syllable. But 
whatever was the reason of this novelty, it 
now seems to have subsided ; and this word is 
now generally pronounced with the accent on 
the second syllable, as it is uniformly marked 
by all tbe Orthoepbts in ot:^r language. 

Almacanter, aUma-kantfir. s. 
A circle drawn parallel to the horizon. 

Almacanter's Staff, al-inaTkan'- 

An instrument used to take observations of 
the sun', about the time of its rising and set- 

Almanack, 4l'inu-nak« ^. (84) . 
A calendar. 

Digitized by 





frr (559). Fate (73), far (77); till (^3), fat (si); me (95), met (95); pine (105), pin (107); no (162), m4vc (1O4), 

Almakdine, al'man-dine. s. (149) 
A ruby, coarser and lighter ihan the oriental. 

Almigiitiness, al-ml'te-nls. s. 
Oniiii^x>tcnce, one of the attributes of God. 

Ai-MICHTY, al-mlii. a. (84) <400) 
Ok uulimiicd power, omnipotent. 

Almond, amund. s. (-101) 

'I he nut of the almond tree. 
Almond Tree, amund-tiee. s. 
It has leaves and flowers very like those of the 
pejch tree. 

Almonds, a'inundz. s. 

1 he two glands of ihc throaC the tonsils. 

Almoner, ai'mo-nur. s. (s4) 

I'he officer of a prince, employed in the dis- 
tribution of charity. 

Almonry* al'mun-re. s. 

The place where alms arc distributed. 

Almost, il'most. ad. (84) 

Nearly, well nigh. 

ALMS,amz. s. (403) 

What 15 given in relief of the poor. 

Almsbasket, amz'bas.kit. s. 
The basket in which provisions arc put to be 
given away. 

Almsdeed, Jmz'deed. s. 

A charitable ^ih, 

Almsgiver, 4mz'giv-ur.. s. 
He that supports others by bis daarity. 

Almshouse, imz^house. s- 

Aii hoipital for the poor. 

Almsman, dimzman. s. 

A roan who lives upon alms. 
Almug-tree, aimug-trie. s. 
A tree mentioned in scripture. 

Alnager, al'na-jdr. s. (es) 
A measurer by the eU ; a sworn olBecr, whose 
bu>iness formerly was to irupcct ihc assize of 
woollen cloth. 

ALNACE,al'naje. s. (90) 

Alnight, dl'nite. s. 

A I night is a great cake of wax, ^ith the wick 
in the midst. 

Aloes^ al^oze. s. 

A precious wood used in the east for perfumes, 
of which the best sort is of higher pficc ^han 
gold ; a tree which grows in hot eotmtries ; 
a medicinal juice extraaed from the common 
aloes tree. 

J:|- Thif word is divided into three syllables by 
Mr. Sheridan, and but into two by Pr. Ken- 
rick, Mr. Pcrr)', Mr. Scoit, and W. Johnston. 
The latter^ is^ in my opinion, preferable. 
My reason is, that though ihis plural word is 
pcrfeflly Latin, and in ib »t Iangua;;c is p o- 
nounced in three syllables ; yet as we have the 
singular aJoc in two syllables,, we ought 10 
form the plural according to our own analogy, 
and pronounce it in two syllables likewise-^ 
Sec Antipodes. 

Aloetical, al-o ct <j-kal. a. 
Consisting chicDy of aloes. - 

Aloft, a-lift. ad. 
On hign, in the air. 

Aloft, a-lift^ prep. 

A4i/I .T 
LOGY, al o-je. s. 
Unreasonableness; absurdity. 

Alone, a-lAne'. a. {545) . 

Single ; without company, solitary. 

Along, a-long'. ad. 

At length; through any space measured 
Icngihwise; fbtward, onward; in company 

ALOOF,a.l8if. ad. 

At a distance. 

Aloud, a-liud'. ad. 

Loudly, with a great noise. 
Alow,- a-Io . ad. 

In a low place, not aloft. 

Alpha, alia. s. (84) {545) 

The first letter in ihe Greek alphabet, an- 
swering to our A ; theiefoie used to signify 
the first. 

Alphabet, arfa-bet. s. 

The letters, or elements of &peecii. 
Alphabetical, al-fa-btn'te-kal. a. 

According to ihe series of leKcrs. 

Alphabetically, al-fa-bett4-kal- 
le. ad. 
According to the order of the letters. 

Alpine, al'pin. a. (i4o) 

Belonging lo the Alps. Asb. 

Already, al-rldde. ad. (84) 

A< this present time ; before the present. 

Also, ^I' (84) 

In < he same manner, likewise. 

Altar, i\ tur. s. (84) (os) 

I'hc place where offerings 10 ncaveo are laid ; 
the table in christian churches where the com-' 
munion is administered. 

Altarage, ll'tur-iie. s. (90) 

An emolument froin oblations at the altar. 

Altar-cloth, al'tur-cloth. s. 

The cloth thrown over the altar in churches. 
To ALTEK.aKtur.y. a. (418) 

To change, to make otherwise than it is. 
To Alter, al'tiir. V, ri. 

To become otherwise than it -was, to be 

changed, to suffer change.. 

Alterable, dl'tur-a-W. a. 

That which may be altered or changed. 
Alterablenkss, al tdr-a-bl-ness.. s. 

The quality of being alterable. 

Alterably, al'tur-a-blc. ad. 

In such a manner as may be altered. 

ALTERANT,dl'tui-am. a. {555) 

T'hat which has the power of producing 

Alteration, dl-tur-a'shun. .s. 

I'be a£l of xilicdng or changing ; the change 

Alterative,, il'tur-a-t!v. a. 

McdicinesxalJcd alterative, are such as have no 
immediate sensible o^ration, but gradually 
gain upon the ccvistitution. 

Altercation, al-tur-ka'shun. s. 

Debate, controversy. (84) 
({:$■ The first syllable of this word, and of the 
sixteen that follow it, except although, are' 
subjcti to a double pronunciation, bctvveen 
which it is not very easy to decide. There is 
a general rule in the language, that /, foliowcd 
by another consonam, gins the preceding a 
its broad sound, as in saif» This rule is sub- 
ject to several otccpiions (84); and^tf wc take 
in these words into the exceptions^ tbefc is 
some doubt of the exception's becoming the 
general rule. But the a in question is now so 
generally pronounced, as in the first syllable of 
alley f valley t &c. that we should risK the im- 
putation of inaccuracy to sound it otherwise. 
Mr. Sheridan^ Dr. Kenrick, »nd Mr. Seott^ 
arc uniformly for this fourth souiul of is. Mr. 
Perry marks all with the same sound, encept 
altercate and altercation ; and W> Johnston 
has ooly the words altercation aud filurnaihr^ 

which he pronounces with the third sound. It 
is certain that this sound ota was the true Anglo« 
Baton sound, ard it is hi|$hly probable that 
fhe fourth sound has onlyr obtained within these 
few years, in words obviously derived from the 
Latin as these are ; but there seems to be 1 
grossness in one sound, and a neatness in the 
other, which has so decidedly given one of 
them the preference. 

Altern, al-tern'. a. f84) {gs) 

Atiing by turns. . 

Alternacy, al-ter'na-se. s. (84) 
Action performed by turns. 

Alternate, aUlr'nate. a. (91) 

Being by turns, reciprocal. 
ToALTtRNATE,ai-ier'nate. v.a. (01) 
To perform alternately; to change one- thing 
for another reciprocally. 

Alternately, al-ter'nite-le. ad. 

In reciprocal succession. 

Altern ateness, al-ter'natc-nes. s. 
The quality of being aitemaie. $. 
The reciprocal succession of things. (s55) 

Altern ATI VE,al-terna.tiv..s. <158) 

The choice given of two things, so that if one 
be rejected, the other must be taken. 

Alternatively, al-tcrwa-tiv-lc. 

ad. By turns, reciprocally. 

Alter NATiVENE«6, al-tc/na-ilvi 

nh. s. See Altercation. 
The quality or «tate of hcmg aiicrnattve. 

Altern iTY, al-tc/nc-te. «. (g&) 
Reciprocal succession, vicissitude. 

Although, a'-THo' conj. (84) 

Notwithstanding, however. 

Altiloouence, al-til'io-kwens(e. s. 
PompoQsIanguage. (98) 

Altimetry, aUtimW-tre. s. (sis) 
The art of taking or measuring altitudes or 

Altisonant, al-tls'so-n^nt. a. (sis) 

High sounding, pompous in sound. 

Altitude, al't!:-ifide. s. 

Height of place, spare measured upward ; the 
elevation of any ot the heavenly bodies above 
the horizon ; situation with re^rd to lower 
things; height of excellence; highest poiut. 

Altogether, al-to-geth ur. ad. 

Completely, without restriction, without ex- 
Aludel, al'u-flel. s. 
Aludels are subliming pots used in chi!misiiy, 
fitted into one another without luting. 

ALUM.Sriuin. S. 
A kind of mineral salt, of an acid taste. 

Alum-stone, ailfim-stcne^ s. 

A stone or calx used in surgery. 

Aluminous, al-lu'mc-nfis. a. " • 

Relating to alum, or consisting of alum. 

Always, al'waze. ad. (84) 
Perpetually, throughout ^11 time ; constantly, 
without variation. 

Am, am. 
The first person of the verb To be. . 

Amability, am-a-hji'e-ti. 8.(511) 

Loveliness (547) 

Amadetto, am-a-det'ti. s. 

A sor-ti>f jpear. 

Amadot, am'a-dqt. s. (503) 
A sorr of pear. 

Amain, a-ir^ane', ad. 
With vcbcmence, with vigour. 

Digitized by 





nir (l67), nJt (163); ifibc (i;i), tub (172), bill (173); oil (299) j p&dnd (si3) ; thin (466), this {469)^ 

Amalgam, a-mal'gSm. 1 

Am.\lgama» a-raal'ga-ma. / 
The mixtare of octaU procured by amalga- 
nutioo. (84} 

Amalgamation, a-mal-ga-mi'shun 
I. (8^)* See A LT E R AT I o N ,— Thc a£l or 
pndiceof amalgamating meuU. 

To Amalgamate, a-raal'pJ-mitc. 

T.n. To unite metals with quicksilver. 

Amandation, am-an-da'shfin; s. 

The a£i of tending on a mesuse. (527) 

Amanuensis,, a-man-ii-cn'sis. s. 

A person who writes what another didates« 

Amaranth, am'a-ran/A. s. 

The name of a plant ; in^ixxrtiy, an imaginary 
flower un£kliDg. 

Amaranthine, Jm4-ran'/J&!n. a. 

Consitting of amaranths. (S50) 
ff^ Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Scotr, and Mr. Perry. 
pronounce the i in thc last syMable of this word 
short, as it is here marked. 

Amaritude^ a-mar'rA-t&de. s. (dl) 

Amasment, a-mas'tnlnt. $• 

A bea|>, an accumulation. 
|3* This word is spelled with one j by Dr. 

lobnson, but undoubtedly ought to have 

oouble i as well as cessment^ embossmem^ and 


To Amass, i-mas' . v. a. 
To collect together into one heap or man ; to 
add one thing to another. 

To Am ATE, a-matc'. v.n. 
To terrify, to strike with honor. 

Amateur, am-l-tare'. s. 
A bver of any particular art or science ; not a 

|3r As this is a French word tt will be expeded 
that every polite speaker should give the last 
sjrtbble the Frencn sound ; that which I have 
given, thoiigh not the exad pronunciation, 
approaches nearest to it. 

Amatorial^ am-a-ti'r^-al. a. 

Cooceimqg lovis. Masmt, 
Amatory, ara'a-tur-ri. s. (312) 

Relating to love. (355) 

Amaurosis, am-iu-ro'sfs. s. (520) 

A dimness of sight, not from any visible de- 
led in the eye, but from some distemperature 
in the inner parts, occasioning the representa- 
tions of flies and dust floating before the eyes. 

To Amaze, a-maze'. v. a. 
To codKne with tenor ; to put into confusion 
widi wonder } to put into perplexity. 

Amaze, a-Inilze^ s. 
Aftonishment, confusion, either of fear or 


Amazedly, S-raa'z^d-le. ad. (364) 

Confusedly, with amazement. 
Amazedness, a-ma'z^d^n^s. s. (365) 

The state of being amazed, wonder, contusion. 

Amazement, a-in4zc'mint. s. 

Confused ai>prenension, extreme fear, horror ; 
extreme dejection ; height of admiration ; 
wonder at an unexpected event. 

Amazing, a-ma'zfng. part. a. 
Wonderful, astonishing. 

Amazingly, a-nii' z!nj^-le. ad. 
To a degtee that may excite astontshment* 

Amazon, am'a-zdrr. s. (i65) 
The Amazons were a race of women famous 
^ valour ; a virago. 

tr This word has thi. accent on the first syll^ 
Ue, coDtiary to the L&tin original, which has it 
M the second; while the following word 

Ambages has the same penultimate accent as 
ill Latm. 
Ambages, am-bi'jlz. s. (503) 

A circuit of words, a multiplicity of words. 

AViBASSADE,<le^ a. 
£mbassy. Not in use. 

Ambassador, am-bas'sa-dur. s. 

A person sent in a public manner from one 
sovereign power to another. (418).— —See 
Ambassadress, am-bas'sa-dres. s. 

The lady of an ambassador ', a woman sent on 
a message. 

Ambassage, atn'bas-saje. s. (90) 
An embauy. 

Amber, am'bur. s. (98) 

A vellow transparent substance of a gummous 
' or bituminous consistence. 
Amber^ am'buri a. 

Cgnsistmg of amber. 
Amber-drink, am'bur-drink, s. . 

Drink of the colour of amber. 

Ambergris, Jm'bdr-ffrise. s. (1 12) 

A fragrant drug that melts almost like wax, 
used both as a perfume and a cordial. 

Amber-seed, Wbur-s^ed. s. 
Resembles millet. 

Amber-tree, Wbur-trie. s.. 
A shrub whose beauty is in its small evergreen 

Ambidexter, am-be-dex'tcr. s. 

A niifi who has equally the use of both his 
hands ; a roan who is equally ready to ad on 
either side in party disputes. 

Ambid* xter'ity, am-bi-dex-ter'ri- 

ti. s. 

The quality of bein^ able equally to use both 

hands ; double deahi^g. 
Ambidextrous, am-be-dex'trus. a. 

Having, with equal facility, the use of either 
hand ; double dealing, pradising on both sides. 

Ambidextrousness, am-b£-dlx'- 
trfis*nls. s. 
The quality of being ambidextrouAi ^ 

Ambient, Wbe-?nt. a. 

. Surrounding, encompa.vsing. 
Ambigu, am'be-gu. s. 
An entertainment consisting of a medley of 

Ambiguity, am-be-gfi'l-te. s. 

Doubtfulness of meaning ; uiKeruinty of sig- 

Ambiguous, am-bfg'fi.$s. a. 

Doubtful, having too meanings ; using doubt- 
ful expressions. 

Ambiguously, Sm-blg'i-us-le. ad. » 

In an ambiguous manner, doubtfully. 

Ambiguousniss, am-b!g'u-us-Tils. 
s. Uncertainty of meaning ; duplicity of sig- 

Ambilogy, am-bil'lo-ge. s. (ais) 
Talk of ambiguous signification. 

Ambiloouous, am-bilMA-kwus. a. 

Using ambigaous expressions. Xst^) 

Ambiloquy, am-bil'A-kwe. s. (518) 
Ambiguitv of expression. Asb, 

Ambit, am'bfc. s, • 

The compass or circuit of any thing. 

Ambition, am-bfsh'un. s. (507) 

The desire of preferment or honour ; the de- 
sire of any rhing great or excellent. 

Ambitious, am-b!$h'us. a. (459) 
Seized or touched with ambition, desirous of 
advancement, aspiring; 


AmbitiouslYj Jra-bish'&s-lJ. ad. 

With eagerness of advancement or preference. 
Ambitiousness, am-bish'us-nes^ ** 

The quality of being ambitious. 
Ambitude, am'be.t&de. s. (463) 

Compass, circuit. 
To A'mble, ara'bl. v. n. (405) 

To move upon aii ainble, to pace ; tamove 

easily ; to walk daintily. 

^MBLE, ani'bl. s. (405) 

An «asy pace. 

Ambler, am'blur. s. (98) • 
A pacer. 

Amblingly, am'bllng-li. ad. 
With an ambling movement. 

Ambrosia, am-bro'zh^a. s. (505) 
The tmaginaiy food of the gods ; the name oT 
a plant. 

f^ Mr. Sheridan has pronounced this and the 
following word am-bro-sba- uidam-brrhsbaK 
Dr. Kenrick has divided them into the same 
number of syllables, but has given the s thc 
flat aspiration, like mb» Thai this is the true 
sound, see letter S. No. a^ ; and that these 
words ought to be divided into four syllables, 
see Syllabication, No. 542, 543. 

AMBR9SIAL, am-bro' zh£.al. a» 
Partaking of the nature or quality of ambrosia i 

Ambry, am'bri. s. 
The place where alms are distributed; the 
place where pl^te, and utensils for house-keep- 
ing, are kept. 

Ambs-acEj ImZ'lst'. s. (347) 
A double ace, aces. 

Ambulation, ain-b&-Ia'sbun. s. 
The aa of walking. 

Ambulatory, am'b&-lli.t&r-re. a. 

That which has the power or iacui^ of walk* 

>ng. (5«a) ^ , , , 
Ambury, am'bu-re. s. 

A bloody wart on a horse's body. 

Ambuscade, am-b&s.kade\ s. 
A private station in which men lie to surprise 

AMBUSCAbo^ Jin-bu$.kJ'dA. s. (77) 
A private post, in order to surprise. 

Ambush, am'bfish. ». (175) 
The post where soldien or assassins are placed 
in oraer to fall unexpectedly upon an enemy ; 
the act of surprising another, by lying in wait) 
the state of lying in waiu 

Ambushed, ain'bush4d. a. (359) 

Placed in ambush. 

Ambushment, am'bush-mlnt. s. 
Ambush, surprise. 

Ambustion* am-bus'tshdn. -s. (464} 

A bum, a scald. 
Amel, am'mcl. «. 
The mancr with which the variefpted workt 
arc overlaid, which we call emmeJied. 

Amen, a' men', ad. 

A term used in devotions, by which, 84the end 

of a prayer, we mean, so be it ; at the end of 

a creed, so it is. 
(^ This is the only word in the language that 

has necc&sarily two consecottve acccuts.^^ee 

Principles, X^o. 491. 

Amenable, a-mi'nJ-bl. a. (405) 
Responsible, subject to as to be lii^le to ac- 

Amenance, a-m^'nanse. s. 
Conduct, behaviour- s 

To Amend^ a-mind'. v. a. 
To correct, to change any thing t)iat is wvoii^) 

Digitized by 





d^ (559). Fitc (73), f4r (77), fin(93),(at(8l)s roe (93), met (95); pine (103), p!n(l07); n6(i62),ro&vc(iff4). 

to reform the life ; to restore passages in writers 
which the copiers are supposed to have de- 

To Amend, J-mend'. v. n. 

To grow better. 

Amendment, a-mJnd'ment. s. 

A change from bad for the better reformation 
of life ; rccoveiy of health ; in law, the cor- 
rection of an error committed in a process. 

A MENDER, a-m^n'dur. s. {gs) 
The person that amends any thing. 

Amends, a-mends'. s.^ 
Recompense, compensation. 

Amenity, a-mei>' ne-te, s. (511) 
Agreeableness of situation. 

To Amerce, a-raerse'. v. a. 

To punish with a Bne or penalty. 
Amercer, 5-mer'sur. s. (98) 

* He that sets a fine upon any misdemeanor* 

Amercement, a-roerse'ment. s. 

The pecur^iary ponishment of an offender* 

Ames-ace, aniz4ce'. s. 

Two aces^rown at the same time on two dice. 
Amethodical, arme-zAod'e-kal- a. 
Out of method, irregolar. 

Amethyst, am'e-/Aifit. s. 

A precious stone of a violet colour, bordering 
on purple. ^ 
Resembling an amethyst. 

Amiable, i'm^-a-bl. a. (405) 

Lovely, pleasing, worthy to be loved ; pre- 
tending loye, shewing love. 

AMiABLENESS,a me-a-bl-nSs, s. 
Loveliness, power of raising love. 

Amiably, a'me-a-ble. ad. 
Such a manner as 10 excite love. 

Amicable, am'me-ki-bl. a. (40s) 

Friendly, kind. - ' 

Amic.\blene83, Sm'iwJ-ka-bl-nes. s. 
Friendliness, good- will. 

Amicably, am'e-ika-ble. ad. 

In a friendly way. 

Amice, am'mfs. s. (i42) 

The first or undermost panof a priest's habit. 

Amid, a-ro!d'. ].nreo* 

Amidst, a-mid3t'. /*; ^' 

' . jb the midst, middle ; mii^led ^with, snr- 

, rounded by ; arooDg. 

Amiss, a-mis'. ad. 
Faultily, ejiminally ; wrott^, not according to 
the pcncctiooof the thing; impaired in health. 

AMi3SlftN^ a-mish'un* s. 

To A MIT, a-mit'. v. a, 

.To fosc. . 
Amity, am' mi- 1 J. s. (511) 


Ammoniac, ain-mo'nc4k, s. (505) 

A gum ; a salt. 

AmmoniacAL. aTn-mo-m'a-kal. a. 
Having the tiaturfe of ammoniac salt. (506) 

Ammunition, Sm-mi-nish'fin. s. 

Military scooes. 

AiyiMUN iTibN-fiW^Ajt), ani-nifi-nish 
fin-bred, s. . i 

Bread ibr the supply of jirmics. 

Amnesty, am- nes,te^.&. 

An act of oblivion. 

Amnion, am' niton. 

Amnios, am' nc-Ss. (1(^6]! . . . , 

The innermost nien]bfiiBe..withi which the 
I ioik: womb iaimiDcdsaitly coveied. 


Amoebean, am-e-be'an. a. 
Verses alternatively responsive. Muson* 

Amomum, a-mu'mum..8« .. 

A sort of fruit. 

Among, Lmfin^'. • \ rep. (165) 
Amongst, a-mungst'.l*^ ^ ^ ' 

Mingled with ; conjomed with others, so at to 

make part of the number. 

Amorist, am'o-rist. s. 

An inamorato, a gallant. 

Amorous, am'6-rus. a. (544) 
£namoured ; nadi»lly inclined to love, fond ; 
belonging to love. 

Amorously, am 6-rds-li. ad. 

Fondly, lovingly. 

! Amorousness, am'o-rus-n4s. s. 

Fondness, lovingness. 
Amort, a«rnort'. ad. 

Depressed, spiritless. • 

Amort^:&atioNj a-m&r-ti-zi' 
shun. ^ vi 

Amortizement, a-mSr'tiz 

The right or act of transferring lands to mort< 

To Amortise, a-mir'tiz. v.t^; (i4p) 

To alien lands or teoeiDems to any corpo- 
ration. ^ f 

(j;^ I have made the last syllable of thii ^vqrd 
short, contrary to Mr. Sheridan's pronunciaiiop 
of it, not only because it is so pronounced by 
Mr. Scott and Dr. Kenrick, but because it is 
agreeable to the general rule^ 

To Amove, a-mo&ve'. v. a. 
To remove from a post or^tatkAi-; to remove, 
to move, to alter. 

To Amount, a-mJunt'. v. n; 

To rise 10 in the accumulative quality. 

Amount, a-ni6uru'. s. 
The sum total. " . ^ 

Amour, a-n.ior'. s. , . 
An affair of gallantry, an intrigue. 

Amphibious, am-ftb'^-us. a. 
That which can live in two elemciUs. 

Amphibiousness, am-f!b'e-us-Ties. 
s. The quality of being able to live in dif- 
ferent elements. 

Amphibological, am-fc-bi-lod'je- 

kal. a. (509) 
A^4PH^BOLOGY, am fe-bol'o-je. s. 
Discourse; of uncertain meaning. 

Amphibolous, am-fib'bo-lus. a. ■ 

Tossed from one^ to another. 

Amphibrach, any iQ-brack. ^ 1 
AMPHrBRACHYS,am'te-brack-ez J ' 
A foot, consisting of three wllables, having 
one i^yllable lotig in the miiadle, and a shon 
one on each side- 

Amphisb/ENA, am-fls-be'na. s. (92) 
A serpent supposed to have two heads. 

Amphitheatre, am-fe-//^i'a-tur. s. 

(.516) A building in a circular or oval form, 
havine its area encompassed with rows of seats 
one above another. 

Ample, am'pi. a. (405) 
Lar^e, wide, extended ; great in bulk ; un- 
limited, without restriction ; liberal, large, 
without parsimony ; diffusive, not cooOacted. 

AMPLENESS,am'pl-nes. s. 
Largeness, liberality. 

To Am FILIATE, am'.ple-Jic. v. a. 

To enlarge, to extend. 

Ampliation, am-pli-i'shSn. s. 

. Enlargenienti exaggeration ; diffuseness. 

To Amplificate, am-plif'e-kate. 
1 V. a. To enlarge, to amplify. 

Amplification, ain-ple-fe-ka'&hSn. 

s. Enlar^ment, extension ; exaggerated re- 

Amplifier, am' pli-fi-ur. s. (gs) 

One that exaggerates. 

To Amplify, am^ple-fi. v. a. (183) 

To enlarge ; to exaggerate any thing ; to im- 
prove by new additions. 
'To.Amplify, am'ple-fi. v. n. 

To lay one's self out in diffusion « to form 
pompous representations. 

Amplitude, am' pie-tide. s. 

Largepess, greatness \ copiousness, abundancre* 
Amply, ani'pfe. ad. 

Li^gely, liherailV ; copiously. 
To Amputate, am' pu-tate. v.a. 

Tocutdf a limb. 

'Amputation, am-p4-ta'sh8n; s. 

The operation of cutting off a limb, tst other 
part of the body. 

!AMULET,am'i.let. s. 

A charm ; a thin^ hung about the Ofick, for 

pre%'cnting or cunng a disease. 
To Amuse, a-mftze'. v^a. 

To entertain the mind, with harmless triflinjry 

to engage the attention^ ta deceive by art&l 


Amusement, a-muze'ment. s. 

That which 2rmufes, emerrainoient* 
Amuser, a-mi'zfir. s; 

He that amuses. . • - 

Amusive, a-mi's!v. ad. (l58) (428) 
That which has the power of amusing. 

■ Amyodalate, a-mig' da-lite, a. 

Made of almonds. 


Resembling almonds. 

An, an. ankle. 
One, but with less emphasis ; any, or some. 

fj^ This indeiinitc, and^ as it may be called, 
euphonic article, is said by all our Gramina- . 
rians to be used before a vowel or h mute i but 
no notice is tal^en of using a instead of it be- 
fore what is called a vowel, as a usefitlhoak:^ a 
usual ce^rmony, a usurer^ &c.; nor is any 
mention made of its constant usage before b 
when it is not mute, if the accent of the word 
be on the second syllable, as, an herotc action ^ 
an hhtorical account y 8cc, This want of accu- 
racy arises from a want of analyzing the vowels, 
ana not attending sufficiently to the influence 
of accent on pronunciation. A proper investi- 
gation of the power of the vowels would have 
informed -our Grammarians, that ih'e letter m, 
when loi^g, is not- so properly a vowel as a 
semi-consonant, and perfectly equivalent to 
commencing ^ (8) ; ai»d that a feeling of thw 
has iusensibly influenced the best speakers to 
prefix a to it in their conversation, while a 
Confused idea of the general rule arising from 
an igiiorance of the nature of the letters bas 
generally induced (hem to 'pre6x an to it in 
writing. The same observations are applicable 
to the*. The car aloue tells us, thatbefore 
heroic, bistfricaly &c'. iht an ought iiivariably 
to beatsed; bat by not discovering that ir is 
the ahaence of accent on the b that makes an 
admissible in these words, we are apt to prefix 
an to words where the i^ is sounded, as an 
borse^ an house^ &c. and thus set our spoken 
and .writt<;n languaee at variance. This seesis 
better tp. jiccount. f^r^ tl^ want of accuracy in 
this' arucle tiun. a conjecture } once hcai^ 

Digitized by 


from Dr. Johnaon, that our ancestors, parti- 
cularly in the time of the Spedator, where ihw 
miaf^ication of the article fircquenily occurs, 
did DOC pronounce the A^ at the beginning of 
words so often as we do. However this majj 
be, it seems necessary to a correctness of .hn-* 
guige to make our orthography and prononci* 
ation as consistent as possible : for which p6r* 
pose it may not be useless to attend to the fol- 
lowing general rules. The aniclc A roust be 
used Ixfore aM words beginning with a conso- 
nant, and before the vowel u when long : and 
the article An must be used before alT worda 
begimung with a vowel, except long ir? before" , 
wools beginning wiih h mutCr is anbrnt^t an 
i)eiry Sue. or before words whese-tlle b is dot 
muie, if the accent be on the second syllable,, 
as an heroic acihn^ an bistmcal account, &c. 
For the few' words in our language, where the 
b is mule, see this letter in the Pnnciplesi No.» 
394 : and for a just idea of the letter ii, and the 
losoa why it admits of an before it when long,, 
see Principles, No. 8; and the Notes upon it. ' 

AfTACAMPTiCK, an-a-kam'tik, a. ' * 
Rcfieaiug, or reflc£led. 1 

Anacaw^ticks, Sn-S-cam'tika. i. \ 
The dodrinc of iefeacd^ligbt, or ca«»tncks. 

Ahacathartick, an-a-ka-/Mr'tik^ 
s. Any roedicme that works upwards^ . \ 

Anacitorite, an-ak'A-ritc. s. {\55) 
A monk, who leaves the convent for a nlore 
solitaiy life. 

Anachronism^ an-ak'kro-n&m. s* 

An error in computing time. 
AnaclatickSv an-i-klit'lks. ». 

The doctrine of iefract)cd light ; dioptncM.' 
Anadiplosis, an.a-di-plA's!s. s. 

Reduplicatioo: a figure inihetofick* (580J 

Anagram, an'a-gram. 8* 

A conceit ansiog from the letters- of a- name 
uaaipofed so as 10 form some other woid or 
seoteoce. 44 

Anagramm^tism^ an-a-gtaxn'ma- 

tfsm. s, (434.) 
Ihc art or practice of making anagrams. 

Anagrammati&t, anXgrim'jna- 

tist. I. 

A maker of anagrams. 

ToAnag-rammatizb, an-S-gram'-; 

roa-tize. v. n. (159) 
To make anagrams. 

Analeptick, an.a-l2p'tik. a. 
ComlMting,. corroborati rig. 

Analogical, an-a-lo<Ije'e-kal. a. 

Analogically, an-a-lodje'e-ka-le. 

ad. In an analogical ihanoer j iu an analogous 


nSr (167), nJt (163); tibe (171), tdb (172), b&ll (173) 5 «I (299) 5 P&&nd (313) ; tVm (466), this (469). 

Analytically, an-a-lit'ti-kal-li. 

ad. The manner of resolving compounds ,mto 
the simple constitiiem or component parts. 

To Analyze, an'a-lize. y. a. 

To* resolve a compound into its first pnnciples. 
Analyzer, an'a-li-zur. s. (98) 

That which has the power of analyzinj^. 
Anamorphosis, an-a-mirjo'sis. s. 

Deformation ; pcrspcftive projetHon, so that 

at one point of view it shall appear deformed, 

m anoMier an cxa6l representation. 
J^ I have accented' this word on the penulti- 
mate, as Dr. Johnson and Mr. Sheridan have 

done ;. as it is a technical word, and not na- 
• turaliscd like metamorpbosis.'-Scfi Principles, 

No.5^i*- 4 -, 4 
Ananas, a-na'nas. s. 

The pine apple. 

ANAPiEST, an'a-pest. 
A foot consisting of three syllables ; two short 
and one long ; the reverse of the da£lyl. Ash, 

An AP^STic, an-a-pls'tik. a. 
Belonging to an anapsrst. 

Anaphora, a-naffo-ra. s. (92) 
A figure when several clauses of a sentefKC 
are began with the same word. 

AnaUch, an'irk. s. (353) 

An author of confusion. ^ 
Anarchial, a-nir'ki-al. a,. 

Confiisrd, wid^outfule. 
Anarchic, a-n3r'kik. a. 

The same as Anarchial. Matm> 

Anarchy, Sn' s. 

Want of govemment, a state without magta- 

Anasarca, anXsir'kS.s. (92) 
. A son of d]x>psy, where the whole substance 

is stuffed with {Mtuitous humours. 
Anastrophe, a-nas'trA-fc. 8. (5 18) 

A figure whereby words, which should have 

been precedent, are postponed. 

Anathemja, a-ira/A'i-mJ.s. ('92) 

A curse pronounced by ecclesiastical authority. 
Anathematical, an-a-zAc-mat'e- 

kJl. a. (509) . ■ 

That which ha» the properties of an anathema. 

^-kaUle. a<fr 
In an anathematical manner. . 

To Anathematize, an-a/A'i-ma- 

tlze. V. a. (159) ^ ^ , . . ■ 
To pronounce accursed by ecclesiastical au- 
Anatiferous, an-a-tif fe-rus. a. 
(5 18) Producing ducks. 

Anatocism, a-nat'to-sizm. s. 
The accumulation of interest upon interest. • 

Anatomical, an-a-tom'e-kil. a. 

Relating or belonging to anatomy; pVoceeding 
upon principles taught in anatomy. 

Anatomically, an-a-t$m'i-kal-le. 

ad. In an anatomical manner. 

Anatomist, a-nat'o-mist. s. 

He that stadies the structure of animal bodies, 
by means of dissedion. 

To Anatomize, a-nat'to-mize.v.a. 

To dissefi an animal ; to lay any thing open 
distin611y, and 1^ minute parts. 

Anatomy, a-nat'o-rai. s. (518) 

The art of disse£ling the body ; the do6lrine 
of the strudure.of the body; the ad of di- 
viding any thing \ a skeleton } a thin meagre 


Analogicalness, an-a-lodje'e-fcal-i 

nis. ». - ' r 

The quality of being analogical. 

To Analogize, a-nal'lo-jize. v. a. 

To explain by wav of analogy. 
Analogous, a-nal'io-gus. a. (314) 

Having analogy, having something parallel. 

Analogy, a-nalM6^je. a. (ais) 
Reiemblaace between things with regard to 
some cscuipjtanccs or cffetU. . 

Analyse, a-nllMi-sis. s. (520) 

A separation of any con[ip)und into its several 
parts) a station of anything, whether corpo> 
i^lcrnencal, to its fim elements. 

Analytical, an-a-lit'te-kSl.a. 

That which resolvtsany thing into first princi** 
I^^ that which proceeds by analysil; 

Ancestor, an'^es-tur. s. (os) 

One from wnom a person descends.. 
Ancestrel, an'ses-trel. a. 

Claimed from ancestors. 

Ancestry, an' s^s-tri. s. 

Lineage, a series of ancestors ; the honour ox 

descent, birth. 
Anchentry. ine'tsh?n-tri. s. 

Antiqiiityof a ramily, properly ancientry. 

Anchor^ ank^ur. s. (353) (41.8) 

A heavy iron, to hold the ship, by being fixed 
to the ground ; any thing which confeia sta- 

To Anchor, ank'^t. V. h. (i(56) 

To cast anchor, to lie at anchor ; to stop at, 
to rest on. 
Anchorage, 4nk'4r-4dje. s. (90) 

Ground to cast anchor upon; the anchors of 
a ship ; a duty paid for anchoring in a port. 

Anchor-hold, ank'ur'hold. s. 
The hold or &stness of the anchor. 

Anchored, ank'ur-rid. part.a.(353) 
Held by the anchor. 

Anchoret, ank'A-rct. \^^ ^ 

Anchorite, ank'o-rlte. (155) j 

A recluse, a hermit. 

Anchovy, Sn-tsbo've. s. 

A little sea-fish, much used by way of sauce». 

or seasoning. 
Ancient, ine'tshlnt. a. (542) 

Old, not modem; old, that has been of long. 

duration; past, former. 

Ancient, ane'tshcnt. s. 
The flag or streamer of a ship* 

Ancient, ine'tsh^nt. s. 

The bearer of a fl%, now ensign. 

Anciently, ine'tsh^nt-le. ad. 

In old times. 
ANCiENTNESS,atie'tshfnt-ii?s. s*^ 


Ancientry, ane'tshen-tri. s. 

The honour ot ancient lineage; 

AncillatRY, an's!l-a-re. a. 
Subservient aa a handmaid* Mason; 
See Maxillary and Papillakt. 

And, and. conjunction. 
The narticle by which sentences or terms aic 

ANDiRON,and'r-urn. s. (417) ^ ^^ 
Itons at the end of a fire-grate, in which^the 
spit turns. 

Androgynal, an-drSdje'i-nal. a* 
Hermaphroditical ; partaking of both sesoes. 

ad. With two 9c%t^* 

ANDROGYNUS,an-drodje'e-nus. s. 
An hermaphrodite. (482) 

Androphagus, an-drofa-gSj. s. 
(518) A cannibal, a man eater. V\iQnXyAndr0* 

Anecdote, Sn'ek-dote. s. 

Something yet unpublished; secret history. • 

Anecdotical, an-ik-d&t'e-kaU a. 
Relative to anecdotes. Mason, 

Anemogkaphy, an-e-mSg'jErra-ff. r. 

The description of the winds. (51^0. 
A N EMOM ETER, an-^i-m Jnr me-t&.s. 
(.518) An instrument contrived to mcasuic tha 

Anemone, a.nein'o*n^. s. 
The wind flower. 


Digitized by 





(^ (sip). Fate {73), fir {77), fall (83), fSt (ei); me (93), met (95); ^In#(iOi),pm (107); no(i(52), roivc (104), 

Anemoscope, a-nlm'o-skope. s 

A machine invented to fi>retel the changes of 
the wind. 

Anent, a-nent'. prep. A Scotticism. 
Concerning, ^bout ; over against, opposite to. 

Aneurism, an'u-mm. s. (503} 

A disease of the ^rteries, in which they be- 
come excessively dilated* 

Over again, another time ; newly, in a new 

Anfuactuousness, an-frak'tshu- 
us-nds. s. .(46 1 ) 
Fullness of .windings and (umings> 

Angel. «Wjll. s. (542) See Chancre. 
Originally a messenger;, a spirit em plo^'cd by 
God in human affaii^i angel is sometimes 
used in a bad sense, as, angels of darkness : in. 
the style of love, a b<;a(itiful person : a piece 
•«f ancient money. 

An GEL SHOT, WjcUsbot. S. 
Chain shot. 

Angelica, an-jel'i-ka. s. (92)^ 

The name of^ a plant . 

Angelical, an-jel'e-kal. a. (509) 

Resembling angels ;"' partaking of the (iaiure 
of angels ; belonging to angels. 

ANGELiCALNESS,an-3el'le-kal-nes. s. 
Excellence more than haman.'lik.a. (50s) 
Angelical; above htiTran. 

Angelot, an'jc-lot. s. 

A musical m&trument .somewhat resembling a 

Anger, ang'gur. s. (40()) (98) « 

Anger is uneasiness upon the receipt of any 
injury ; smart of a sorr. 

To Anger, ang'gur. v. a. 

To provoke, to enrage. 

Angerly, ang'gur-le. ad. 
In an angry manner. 

Angiography, an-je-og'gra-fe. s. 
A description of vessels in (he human body. 

Angle, ang'g). s. (405) 
The space intercepted between two lines in- 
tersc^tmg each other. 

Angle, ang'gl. s. . • 

An instrument to take fish, Consisting of a rod, 
a line, and a hook. 

To Angle, ang'gl. v. a. 

To 6sh with a rod aiid hook ; to try to gain by 
some insinuating artiikes. 

Angle-rod, ang'^l-rod. s. 

7*hc stick to which the fisher's line and hook 
arc hutig. 

AxGLRR, ang'ghV. s. (9^) 
Hr that fishes with an angle. 


iSM,ang'gli-Mzm. s.. 
ish idiom. "A mode of spe 

All Englis 

liar to the £n|;li$h. 

Angober, apg' go-bur. s. 

A kind of pear. 
Angrily, ang'gre-lef ad. 

In an an^rv manner. 

speech pecu- 

a. (409) 
Touched witH anger ; having the appearance 
of angef \ p^ujiful, inflamed. 

ANGUiSH,ang'gwish..s. "(340) 
Excessive pain either of mind or body. 

Anguished, ang'gw)sh-ed. a. 

K«icessivciy pained. (359) 

ANGULAR, ang'gA-Iur. a, (98) 
tiAving angles or corners* 

Angry, anggre 


Angularity, ang-gfi-lar'«-ti, s. 

The quality of being angular. 

Angularly, ang'gu-lur-lc, ad. 

With angles. 

ANGULAjRitiK.sS; ang'gu-ldr-^aes. fli* 
l*ht quality of being angular. • 

Angulated, ang'gu-l4.tcd/. 
Formed with anglei. 

ANGULOUs,aag'jsu.Ius. a. (314) 
Hooked, angular. 

Angust, an-gdst'. a. (409) (98) 

Narrow, straiu 

Ax GUSTATION, an-gui-ti'shiHi. «.' 
'V\\t a^l of making narrow ; the state of toeing 

ANHELATiON,an.he-la'shfin. i.' 
The a£l of panting. 

Anhelose, an-hc-losc'. a. 
Out of breath. 

Aniented^ an'e-ln-ted. a. 


Anights, a-nits'. ad. 

In the night time. * " 

Anfl, Sn'll. S. ' ' 

The shrub from whose leaves and stalks IfiiSxgo 
is prepared. 

Anileness, a-nllc'nes. '\* V^V^x ' 
Anility, S^nilM^-t^. /«- V530) 

1 he old age of woman. 

An IM ABLE, an'e-ma-bl. a. (465) . ! 
I'hat which may be put into life. 

Animadversion, aii-e-mad-ver/- 
$bun. s. 
Repruof; severe censure ; observation. 

a. That has ihe power of Judging. (428) 

To Animadvert, an-e-mad-veiV, 
v . a. 1 o consider ; lu observe ; 4a pass cen«- 
sures upon. 

Animadverter, an-e-mad-ver'tiur. 
s. He that passes censures, or observes upon* 

Animal, an'e-mal. s. 
A living creature, corporeal ; by way of con- 
tempt, we say a&iupid man is an animal. 

Animal, an'^-mal. a. 
l'hat< which belongs or relates to animals: 
animal is usi d in opposition to spiritual. 

Animalcule, an-c-mal'kuJe. s. 

A small animal. j 

(j;^ This word is derived firom the French, ana 
forms its plural by adding s ; but this plural is 
sometimes expressed by the Latin word am» 
mitUuia] which being mistaken for a singular 
by (hose who have but a faint memory of their 
accidence, is Mimetimes made plural by ihe 
change of a into ^ diphthong t but it ou^ht to 
be reuienibcrcd that timmaUuU in the singu- 
lar, makes atiimakulff in the plural, without 
aiiy additionahlc syllable ; and tnat theungular 
of animalcula is animalculum, 

Animality, an-e-mal'e-te. s. 
The state of animal existence. 

To Animate, an'e-mate.y. a. 

To quicken, to make alive ; to give powers to ; 
- to encourage, to incite. 

Animate, an'i-mate. a. 

Alive, possessing aaimal life. (91) 

Animated, an'e-nij-ted. part. a. 

Lively, vigorous. 

Animation, an-e-mi' shun, s. 
The dtX of animating or enlivening ; that 
which animates ; the state of beihg enlivened. 

ANiMATiVE,an'cjnia-tiv. a. {157) 
Thai has the power oi giving life. 

Animator, an'i-mi-tdr. s. (fiii) 

That which gives life. 

Animose, an-e-mose'. a. (427) 
' Full of spirit, hot. 

Animosity, an-i-mos'se-ti. s. 

Vehemence of hatred ; passionate malignity* 

Anise, an'nis. s. (l40) 
A species pf apium or parsley, with large sweet- 
scented seeds. 

Anicer. ank'ur. s. (98) (409) 
A liquid measure the fourth part of the awm. 

Ankle, ank'kl.^. (405) 
Thejoint which joins^he foot to the leg. 

Ankle-bone, ank'kUbinc.s. 

The bone of the ankle. 

Annalist, an'na-ltst. u 

. . ^ A Vf jt(cr of annals. 

Annals, aii'nalz. s. 

Histories digested in the eaa£k order of time. 
Anrats, an'nats. s. 

Tint fniits. 

To Anneal, an-ncle'.v. a. 

To heat ghss that the colours laid on it may 
pierce jhrougb ; u> beat any thing in «kh a 
otanncr at to give it the true temper. 

To Annex, an-neks'. v. a. 

To unite to at the end; to unite a smaller 
thing to a greater. 

Annexation^ an-nek-sa'shffn. s. 
^CoDJun8ion,. addition; union, coalition. 

Annexion, an-nek'shun.s. 
Thp a£l of annexing. 

Annex MENT,an-neks'menr. $. 
The a6l of annexir.g ; the thing annexed. 

AN"Nmif.ABLE, an-m'heJa-bl. a. 
That which may be put oat of existence. 

To Annihilate, an-ni'h^-lire. v. a. 

To rc^duce to nothing ; to destroy ; to annul. 
Q^ j£nglishnien who have been bred in foreign 
seininanes, where they pranbtmce the i m 
Latin like ^, generallv pronounce this word a» 
if written an-ne-kf-isu, because they pro- 
nounce the Latin word from which it is de- 
rived in the same manner: but Englishmen, 
educated in their own country, pronounce the 
i, when it ends a syllable, with the accent cm 
jt, both in . Ii^tin and £nglish, as it is here 

Annihilation, an-ni-be-la'^bun. s. 

The ad of reducing to nothing, the state qf 
being reduced to nothing. 

Anniversary, an-ne-vlr'sa-re. s. 

A day celebrated as it returns in the course of 
the year ;, the a^ of celebration of the aimi* 

Anniversary, an-ne-v?r'sa-re. a. 
, . $.cturning with the revolution of the year; 

Anno Domini, Sn'no-dom'e-ni, 

In the year of our Lord. 

Annolis, an'no-lis. s. 
An American animal like a lizard. 

Annotation, an-no-tA*thfin: s. 

Explication ; note. 

ANNOTATOR,an-nA-ta'tur. s, (521} 
A writer of notes, a commentator. 

To Announce, an-n&unsc', v. a. 
To publish, to proclaim; to dbclare'by a }«" 
dicial sentence. 

To Annoy, an-nic\ v. a. "{329) 

To incommode* to vex. 

Annoy, an-nii'."s. 
Injury, molcsution. 

Digitized by 





nir (i6;), nSt (103); tibe (171), tdb (172), bill (J73); 6II (299); P^i i'<^^^h thm (406), this (469). 

Annoyance, an-nie'anse. s. 

That which annoys; the aQof annoving, 
Annoyer, an-nii'fir. b. (98; 

The persoo that annojri* 
Annual, an'ni-al. a. 

That which comca yearly; that which is 

reckoned by the year f that which bats only a 


Annually, an'ni4l-l4. ad. 

Yearly, cveiy year. 
Annuitant, an-nfi'c-tant. s. 
He that poisesaes or receives an annuity. 

Annuity, Sn-nu'c-ti. s, 

A yearly rent to be paid tor a term of life or 

years; a yearly allowance. 
To An n u l, an-nul' ."v. a. 

To make void, to nullify ; to reduce to nothing* 
Annular, an'ni-lar, a. (98) 

Having the form of a ring. 
Ann-uLtARY, an'tti-la-tiri, a. 

Having theibrra of rines, 

ANNUL£T,aQ'nJk^let^ s. 

A iitile ring. 
To An NUMERATE, Sn-nA' mc-ritc. 

V. a. Toaddtoaformef number. (91) 

t. Addition to a foraaep' numbcf • 
To Annunciate, an-nup'shi-ite- 

v.a. To bringtidiags. (91) (3^7) (i^ 

Annunciation-pay, an-nun-riic- 

Vshun-di. s. ' r 

The day celebfatcd by the church, fn fnemory 
of the Angers salutation of the Blessc^ Virgin, 
solemnized on the twenty-fifth of M^fch* 

Anodyne, an'o-dlne. a. 

That which has the p«wcr of mitigating pain. 

To Anoint, a-nMnt'. v. a. 

To rub over with un^uous matter; to coosc* 

crate ty un6lion. 
Anoimter, a-n&m'tur. s. 

The person that anoints. 
Anomalism, a-n^ra'i-lizm, f. 

Aoomaly, irregukrity. 

**(5<^) Irregular. 

Anomalous, a-niim'a.lfis. a. 

Irregular, deviating from the general method 
or analogy of things. 

Anomalously, a-nim'a-I&s-li. ad. 


Anomaly, a-iiJm'a-li. s. 

Inegularitv, deviation fitom rule. 

Anomv, Jn'o-mi. s. 

Bftach of law. 
A>30m. a•nSn^ ad. 

Q^iduy, soon ; now and then. 

Anonymous, a-n$n'i-mAs. a. 

Wanting a naige. 

Anonymously, X-non'i-mfis-le. ad, 

Wihoui a name. ^ ^ 

Anorexy, an'ni-rek^J. s. (517) 


Another, an-fiTH'Sr. a.(g8) 
^M the same; one more; any other; not 

OQc'iirJf} widely different. 

A>j«ATED, an'si^iJd. a. 
™»ng haodka. 

To ANswER,.an'sur. v. n. (475) (08) 
^oipnk in return to a question; to speak in 
^Ppotidon ; to be accountable for | to give an 
*xount ; to correspond to, to suit with ; . to be 
^"valent to ; to satisfy any claim or petition ; 
^ itard as oppotitc or cotrelative to some- 

thing else ; to bear proportion to; to succeed, 
to produce the wished event: to appear to any 
call, or authoritative summons. 
Answer, an'sur. s. (475) 
That which is said in return to a question, or 
position ; a confuution of a charge. 

Answerable, an'sur-a-bl. a. (475) 
That to which a reply may be made ; obliged 
to give an account ; correspondent to ; pro- 
portionate to ; equal to. 

Answerably, an'sur-a-bli. ad. 
Indue ^loportion; with proper correspond* 
ence; suitably. 

Answerableness, an'sfir-a-bl-nes. 
s. The quality of being answerable. 

Answerer, Jn'sur-ur.s. (554) 
He that answers ; he that manages the contro- 
versy against one that has written first. 

Ant, ant. s. 
^n emmet, a pismire. 

Antbear, ant'bire. s. 
An animal that feedg on ants. 

Anthill, ant'hill. s. 

The small protuberance pf earth m which ants 
make &ci^nesu. 

Antagonist, an.-tag'6-n!st. s. 
Oae who contends with another, an opponent; 
contrary to. 

To contend against another. « 

Antanaclasis. ant-a-na-kli'sfs. s. 
A figure in rbctorick, when the same word is 
fepeated io a different manner, if not in ajpon- 
-trtuy signification ; it is also a returning to the 
ipattrr at the end of along parenthesis. 

AfiTAPHRODiTiCK, ant-a-ffi-dft'lk. 
%, Efficacious against the venere^ disease. 

Antapoplectick, ant-ap-p6.plek'- 
t?k. a. 

Good against an apoplexy. 

Antarctick, an-tJrk'tik. a. 

Relating to the southern pole. 
ANTARTMRiTiGK,ant-ir-/Mt'ik. a. 

Good against the gout. 

Antasthmatick, ant-ast-mat'ik. a. 

Good against the asthma. 
Anteact, an'ti-akt. s. 
A former aa. 

Anteambulation, an-ti-am-bi. 

la' shun. 8. 
A walking before. 

To Antecede, an-tc-side'. v. a. 

To precede ; to go before. 
Antecedence, an-te-le' dense, s. 

The a£l or sure of going before. 
Antecedent, an^ti-s^'dint, a. 

Going before, preceding. 

Antecedent, an-'ti-'si'dent. s. 

That which goes before ; in grammar, the 
noun to which the relative is subjoined. 

Antecedently, an-t^-se'dlnt-l4. 

ad. Previously. 

Antecessor, an-tJ-s^s'rfr. s. 
One who goes before, or leads another. 

Antechamber, an'ti-tshSm-bir. s. 

The chamber that leads to the chief aportment. 

To Antedate, an'ti-date, v. a. 
To date earlier than the real time; to date 
something before the proper time. 

Antediluvian, an-te-de-lu'vJ-an. 

a. £xisting before the deluge; relating to 
things existing before the deluge. 

Antelope, an'te-lope. s. 

A goat with curled or wreathed horns. 

a- (294) (376) (507) Being before noon. 
ANTEMETlCK.,ant-4-roet'ik-. a. 

That has the power of preventing or stopping 


Antemundane, an-te-mfin dane.a. 

That which was before the world. 
Antepast, an'te-past. s. 

A fbrc^taste. 

Antepenult, an-ti-pi-nult'. s. 

The last syllable but two. ^ ^ 

Antepilepticr, anN^p-4-lcp'uk. a. 

A medicine against convulsions. 

To Antepone, an'te-pone. V. a. 

To pre£er onething to another. 

a-ment. s. 

Something previous to the doQrine of the pre- 

Anteriority, in-ti-re-or'e-te. s. 

Pnority ; the state pf being before. 

Anteriour, an-te'ri-ur. a. 

Going before. 
(O* Now more commonly and better writtca 


Antes, an'tiz. s. 

Pillars of large dimensions that support the 

from of a building. 
Antestomach, an'ti-stum'uk. s. 

A cavity that leads into the stomach. (166) 

Anthelminthick, an-/Ael-m!n'- 

thXk. a. 
That which kills worms. 

Anthem, an'/^em.s. 

A holy song. 4 , , , , . 

Anthology, an-zAoro-ie. s. (518) 

A colledion of flowers ; a coliedion of devo- 
tions ; a coUeclion of poems. 

Anthony's Fire, Wto-nJz-flre'.s. 

A kind of erysipebs. 

Anthrax, an'/Araks. s, 
A scab or blotch which bums the skin. 

ANTHROPOLOGY,in'/ArO-p5l'A j^. S. 
The dodrice of anatomy. 

Anthropophagi. an'/Aro-pof'J-ji. 

s. Man-eaters, cannibals. 

4 .1 /I 4 ^ 

a-jin e-an. s. 

A ludicrous word, formed by Shakespeare fiPOfQ 

Anthropophagy, In'/Ari-pJf'a-ji* 

s. The quality of eating human flesh. 

Anthroposophy, an'/&r&-pSs'i.fl. 
8. The knowledge of the namre of man. 

Anthypnotick, Snt'hlp-nSt'lk. a. . 
That which has the power of pre\'cniing sleep. 

Anthypophora, an-/Ae-pof 6-ra. 
The refutation of an objection by the appo* 
sitioo of a contrary sentence. 

Antiacid, an'te-as'id. s. 

Antichamber, an'ti-tsbam-bSr. s. 
Corruptly written for antechamber.— >See 


Opposite tc| Christianity. 

tKhun-ism. s. 
Opposition or contrariety to chnitianity. 

Digitized by 





»r {559). Fitc (73), fir(77).f&ll(83), fit (81); mi (93), mk (95); pinc (105), p!n (107); 110(162), roSvc(ifl4, 


an'i-ti. s. 

Contrariety to Christianity. 
To Anticipate, an-tis'e-patc. v. a. 

To take something sooner than another, so as 
to prevent him ; to take up before the time ; 
to foretaste, or take an impression of some- 
thing which is not yet, as if it really was ; to 

Anticipation, an'tis-se-pa'shun. s. 
The aH of taking up something before its 
time; forc-tasre. 

Antick, an'tik. a. ' 

Odd ; ridiculously wild. 

Antick, Sn'tik. s. 

He that plays anticks, or uses odd gesticulation; 
a buffoon. 

Antickly, an'tik-le. ad. 
With odd postures. 

Anticlimax, an-tc-kli'maks. s. 

A sentence in which the last part is lower than 
the first; opposite to a climax. 

Anticonvulsive, iu-t^-con-vSl'- 
siv. a. 

' Good against convulsions. 

Anticor, an'ti-k6r. s. (166) 
A preternatural swelling in a horse's breast, 
opposite to his heart. 

Anticourtier, an-t4-core'tshur. s. 
One that opposes the court. 

Antidotal, an-ti-do'taK a. 

Having the power or quality of countcra^Ung 

Antidote, an'tJ-dotc. s. 

A medicine given to expel poison» 

Antifebrile, an-ti-tlb'nl. a. (i4o) 
Good against fevers. 

Antilooarithm, an-tl-lJg'a-ri/Am 
s. The complement of the logaritmn of a sine, 
.tangent,^ or secant. 

ke-kaL a. 
Against gomemodCDt by a single person. 

Antimonial, in-ti-ma'ni-al. a. 
Made of antimony. 

Antimony, an'ic-mun-i. s. (556) 
Antimony is a mineral sabstance, of a metal- 
.line nature^ 

'Good against diseases of the reins and kidneys. 

Aktinomv, an.tin'6-ni£. s. (518) 
A contradif^on between two laws. 

Antiparalytick, an'tJ-par-a-lit'ik 
- a. EflBcacious against the palsy. 

Having a natural contrariety to any thing. 

Antipathy, an.t!p'a-/Ae. s. (5 is) 

A natural contrariety to any thing, so as to sliun 
it involuntarily } opposed to sympathy. 

Antiperistasis, Wte-pLris'^-sis. 

8. (5€o). The opposition of a contrary qua- 
lit]^, by which the quality it opposes becomes 

Antipestilential, an'ti-pis-te- 

l^n's)ial, a. 
£fficacious against the plague. 

Antiphon-, an'te-fjn. 
Alternate singing. Mason* 

ANTIPHONY, \ 4 .2r/ X 1 . 

Antiphone, ^an-t»fo-n6,s. 
An echo. The method of singing by way of 
K^nse. Ashvod Mas9ft* 

Antiphrasis, an-tif fra-sfs. s.(5ip) 
The use of words in a sense opposite to their 

Antipodal, an-tip'o-dal. a. (518) 

Kelatmgto the antipodes. 

Antipodes, an-tip'o^dez. s. 

Those people who, living on the other side of 
the globe, have their feet dirc£lly opposite to 
t^ We frequently hear disputes whether thi« 
word should be orooounced in four syllables, as 
It IS here, with the accent on the second, or in 
three, as if divided into an-li'fodest with the 
accent on the first syllabic, and the Ian rhym- 
ing with abodfs. To solve the difficulty it 
mmi be observed, that the word is pure Latin i 
and that when we adopt such words into our' 
own language, we seldom alter the accent. If, 
indeed, the singular of this woid were in use 
like satellite (1.55), then we ought to form 
the plural regularly, and pronounce it in tfircc 
syllables only ; but as it is always used in the 
plural, and is perfe£l Latin, we ought to pro- 
nounce it in four. 

*' To counterpoise this hero of the mode^ 
<* Sonve for renown are sitigular and odd ; 
" What other men dislike is sure to fdease^ 
«* Of all mankind, these dear atftifodts : 
** Thro*pride,not malice,they nm counter still,. 
**And birth-days ai-e their days of dreasingill.*'. 
TouHg* Lwt^f Fame, 

ANTlPOPE,an'te-pipe. 5. 

He that usurps the popedom. 
ANTiPTpsis, an-tip*ti/sis. s. [520) 

A figure in grammar by which one case is put 

tor another. 

Antiquary, an't^-kwa-i^. s. 

A man studious of antiquity. 

To Antiquate, an'te-kwate. v. a. 
To make obsolete. 

Antiquatedness, an'te-kwa-ted- 

nls. s. 

The sute of being obsolete. 
Antique, an-t4ek'. a. (1 12) 

Ancient, not modem ;. of genuine antiquity j 

of old fashion. ^ ^ 

Antitypical, an-te-tip'i-kal. a. 

That which exi^ainrthe type, 

Anti venereal, an'te^yi-ne're-aU 
a. Good against the venereal diseasQ. 

Antler, ant'lur. 8. 

Branch ot a stag's .hom« 

ANTOECijSin.tli'si. s. (296) 
Those inhabitants of the earth who live under 
the same meridian, at the tame distance from 
the equator ; the one towards the north, and 
the other to the south. 

Antonomasia, an-ti-no-ma^zhe-a, 
*• (453)* A form of speech, in which» for a 
oropcr name, is put the name of some digni^'. 
. We say the Orator for Cicero, (paj 

Antique, an-tc^k'.V (112) 

An antiquity, a remain of ancient timei» 
Antiqueness^ an-ttek'nes. s. 

The quality of beiQg antique. 

Antiquity, an-tik'kwe-te. $• 
Old times i the anciena ; remaina of old times; 
old age. 

Antiscorbutical, ah'tl-sk6r-bu'. 
Good against the scurvy. 

Antispa^is, an-tis'pa-sis; s. 
, The revulsion of any humour. 


ik. a. 
; That which has- die power of relieving the 


Antispasticic, an-ti-spas'tik. a. 
Medicines which cause a revulsion. 

Antisplenetick, an'te-splen'i-t!k, 
a. £fficacious in diseases of the spleen.. 

Antistrophe, an.t!s'trp.fe. s. 
In an ode sung in parts i the second ttana of 
every three. 5 

a. Good against the king's evil. 

Antithesis, anAii*'i.s!s. s» 

Opposition; contrast. 
AntitypEjj an'tc-tipe. s. 
That which u resembled or shadd^mioutby 
the type. A term, of theology. 

Antre, an'tSr, s. (41(5) 
A cavern, a den. 

Anvil, an'viL s. 
The iron block on which the smith lays hit 
metal to be forged ; any thing on which blows 
are laid. 

Anxiety, ang-zi'e-te. $. (479) (480} 
TnouMe of mindnbout some fiiture event, $o« 
licicude ; depressibn, lowness of spirits. 

Anxious, ank'^hus. a. (48o) 
Disturbed about some uncetuin event 2 care-^ 
ful, full of inquietude. 

An X lousLY, ank'shfis-li. ad. 

Solicitously, unquietly. 

An xiousNESS, ank'shus-nis, s. 

The quality of being anxious. 

ANY^'en'ne. a, (sp) 
Eveiy, whoever, wtiatever. 

Aon fan , a-o' ni-an. a, 

Belonging to the hill Parnassus ; the tuppoaed 

residence of the muses, w^/^. 
AoRisT,a'o-nst. «. 

Indefinite. A tense in the Greek langti^ge. 
Aorta, a-6r'ta. s, (92) 

The great artery which rises immediate^ out 

of the left ventricle of the hearts 
Apace, a-pise'. ad. 

Quick, speedily; hastily* 
Apart, a-pirt'. ad. 

Separately from the resttn place ; in a state of 

distin^on; at a distance,, retired from the 

other company. 

Apartment, a-part^ment. 5^ 
A room, a set of rooms. 

Apathy, ap'a-/Ae. s.. 

Exemption trott. passion. 
Ape, ipe. s. 

A kind of monkey ; an imitator. 
To Ape, ape. V. a. 

To imitate, as anape imitates human af^ifmi. 
Apeak, a-pike'. ad. 

In a posture to pierce the ground.. 
Apepsy, ap'ep-sc. s. (503) 

A loss of natural concodion. 

Aperient, a-pc'ri-int. a,. 

Gentle puigative. 

Aperitive, a-plr'i.tiv. a. 
That which has the quality of openlhi^ 

Apert, a.plrt'.a. 

Apertion, a-per'shSir, s. f 
An opening, a passage, a gap; the aQ«f 0Den«^ 
ing. ■'^ 

Apertly, a.pcrt?li. ad. 
: Openly. 

Apertness^ a-p^rt'nes.. t^ 

Aperture.. ap'Sr-tshire. s.. (460) 
'• (46a) The a^ of opening f aaopen place 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 




nar(l(J7),nSt(l63)} ttbe(j7i), tibdra), b&U (173); 411(299)5 pi&nd(313); /*in(460), THis (469). 


Apetalous, a-p^t'a-lus. a. (314) 

VViibout flowcr-lcavci. 
APEX^a'plks. s. 

ApHiERESis, a-f2r'e-sis. s. 124) 
A lizure ia gninmar that takes away a ietter or 
sylbbie from the beginning of a word* 

Aphelion, a-f4 le-un. s. 

That part of cfce orbh of a planet in which it 
is at (he point remotest from the lutl*. 

Aphilantrropy, af e-lan'/Ar6-p4. 
s. V/tDi of love to maokind. ; 

Aphorism, af'o-rizm. s. (503) 

A ouum, an unconne£ied position. 

Aphoristical, af-o-ris'te-kal. a. 
Written in separate unconne^d seniles. 

Aphoristically, af-i-ris'te-kal-li, 
ad. In ihc form of an aphorism. 

Aphrodisiacal, af'fro-de-zi' 


Aphrodisiack, af fr6-dizh'4- 

ak. (451) 

Relating to the venereal disease. 

Apiary, a'pc-a-fe. s. (534) 

Tbc place where bees are kept. 
Apiece, a-peese'. ad. 

To the UBR or share of each. 

Apish, a' pish. a. 
Havioeihe atialiiiesof an ape, imrtative ; fop- 
pish, &fibea ; silly, trifling -, waiuon, playful. 

Apishly, a'pish-lc. ad. 
In an apish manner. 

ApiSHNESSy 4'pish-nes. s. 

Mimickry, foppetv. 

Apitpat, a-pJt'plt. ad. 

With quick palpitation. 

Apocalypse, a-pSk'a-lip^. s. 
Revelation, a word tised only df the sacred 


Apocalyptical, a-pok-JJtp'ti-kil. 

a. Comainine reveUtion. 

Apocope, a-pok'i-p4. s. 
A fi^ore, when the last letter or syllable is 

taken away. 

Apocrustick, ap-o-krus'tik. a. 

Repelling aiMi astringcnu 

Apocrypha, a-p&k're.fa. s. (02) 

Books added to the sacred writings, of doubt- 

Apocryphal, a-pok're-fal. a. 

Xot canonical, of ancertatn authority ; con- 

uioed in the apocrypha. 
Apocryphally, a-pok're-faUle. ad. 

ApocRYPKALNESS, a-pik're-fal-ncs. 

t. Uoceruimy. 
Apodictical, ap-i-dik'te-kal. a. 

Apodixis, ap-o-d!k'sis. s. (527) 

ApoGiEON,ap-o-ji'oii. (527) y 
Apogee, ap'^je. J 

cavens, in which the sui 

greatest distance possibli 
vDole revolution. 

\L,ap-pil-6-j^t'i-kaJ \ 
t, a-pSl-o-jet'ik. . / 

A point in the heavens, in which the sun, or a 
pianct, is at the greatest distance possible from 
(be eaith in its wnole revolution. 

Ahologetick, ^ 

a. That which is said in defence of any thing. 

Apologist, a-pol'o-jist. s. 

One who makes an apology. 

To Apologize, a-pol'o-jize. v. n. 

To plead in favoOr. 

Apologue, ap'^log. s. (338) (503) 

Fable, stoiy contrived to teach some moral 

Apology, a-pol'o-jc. s. (5 is) 

Defense, excuse. 
Apomecometry, ip'6-mi-kJm' me- 
tre, s. (527) 
The art of measuring things at a distance. 

Aponeurosis, a-pon-nu-ro'sis. s. 

An expansion oJt a nerve into ^ membrane. 
Apophasis, a-pifa-sis. s. (520) 

A figure by which the orator seems to wave 

what he would plainly insinuate. 

Apophlegmatick, ap-o-fleg'ma-tik 

a. (510) Drawing away phlegm. 

Apophlegmatism,, ap-6-fl^g'mS- 

ttzm. s. 
A medicine to draw phlegm. 

Apophthegm, ap'o-/Aem. s. (503) 

A remarkable saying. 

Apophyge, a-pof'e-je. s. 
That part of a column where it begins to spring 
out of iu base ; the spring of a column. 

Apophysis, avpif'e-sis. s. (520) 
The prominent paruof some bones ; tho same 
as process. 
Apoplectical. ap-6-pIek'ti-kal.7 
Apoplectick, ap-o-plek'iik.. 5 
a. Relating to an apoplexy. 

Apoplexy, ap'A-plek-s4. s. (517) 

A sudden deprivation of all sensation. 
Aporia, a-pi're-a. s. (505) (92) 
A figure by which the speaker doubts where 
to begin. 

ApoRRHOfeA, ap-pir-ri'a. s. (92) 

£ffluvium, emanation. 
Aposiopesis, a-p&zh-4-o.pi's!s. s. 

(cdo) A form of speech, by whicn the speaker, 

through some affe£lion or vchemency, breaks 

off his speech. (596) 
Apostacy, a-pJs'ta-si. s. 

Departure from what a inan has professed ; it 

is generally applied to religion. 

Apostate, a-pJs'tJte. s. (91) 

One that has forsaken his religion. 

Apostatical, ap.pJs-tat'e-kal. a. 

After the manner of an aposmte. 

To Apostatize, a-pSs'ta-tize. v. n. 

To forsake one's religion. 
To Apostemate, a-pcyte-roate. v.n. 

(91) To swell and corrupt into matter. 
Apostemation, i-pos-te-m4'shun. 
s. The gathering of a hollow purulent tumour. 

Aposteme, ap'A-steme. s. (503) 
A hollow swelliiig, an abscess. 

Apostle, a-pos'sL s. (472) (405) 

A person sent with mandates, particularly ap- 
plied to them whom our Saviour deputed to 
prearh the gospel. 

((^ This word is sometimes heard tn the pul- 
pit, as if divided into a-fo-stie ; the second syU 
Lble 1 ike the first of fo-€t If rhe long qtiant 1 ty 
of the 0, in the Latin aposiolus, \^ urged for 
a similar length of the English iipostie^^ct us 
only turn to No. ,'',37 of the Principles, and^'e 
shall see the futility of arguing from the Latin 
Quantity to ours. If these reasons are not sati»- 
hiCtory, ii is hoped .that those who are abettors 
of thissirl^ular pronunciation will alter e-fip-tle 
into e-fi'Silct the second syllable like pte^ and 
then their reasoning and pra^iice will be uni- 

Apostleship, a-pos'sl-ship. s. 
The office or dignity of an apostle. 

Apostolical, ip-pos-tol^c-kal. a. 

Delivered by the apostles'. 
ApostoliCally, ap-Js-til'e-kal-lc. 
ad. In the manner oi the apostles. 

AposTOLiCK, ap-8s-tol'ik. a. (509) 
Taught by the apostles. 

Apostrophe, a-pSs'tro-fe. s. (518) 

In rhctorick, a diversion of speech to another 
pereon than the speech appointed did intend or 
require ; in grammar, trie contraction of a 
word by the use of a comma, as tho' for 
though. J 

To Apostrophize, a-pos'tri-fize. 

v. a. To address by an apostrophe. 

Apostume, ap'6-stume. s. f503) ^ 

A hollow tumour filled with purulent matter. 

Apothecary, a-po/^'e-ka-re, s. 
A man whose empfoyment n to keep medi- 
cines for ale. (470) 

(t3^ There is a corrupt pronunciation of this 
word, not confined to the vulgar, as ii it wera 
written Apotecary. 

Apothegm, ap'o-/Alm. s. (503) 

A remarkable saying. 

Apotheosis, ap-o-/M'i-sis. s. 

83^ This word, like Metamorphosis, has de- 
serted its Latin accentuation on the penultimate 
syllable, and returned to its original Greek ac- 
cent on the antepaiultimate. oec PriiKiples, 
No. 503, page 49. The (xhcr words of thia 
termination, as AnadiplosiSt Antiptosis, &c. 
retain the Latin accent, ^though all these word* 
in Greek have the accent on the antepenulti- 
mate. This accentuation on the antepenulti- 
mate is 80 agreeable to the genius of oar own 
tongue, that it is no wonder it is so prevalent. 
Johnson, Sheridan, Kenrick, Ash, Scott, 
Buchanan, Sailey, and Perry, have adopted it 
as I have done ; and only Smiih, Barclay^ and 
Entick, accent the penultimate. So eminent 
a poet as Garth approves of the choice 1 have 
made, where he says, 
* Allots the prince of his celestial line 
'< An apothnsu, and rites divine.** 

Apotome, a-pSt'o-me, s. 
The remainder or difference of two incom* 
mensurable quantities. 

Apozem, ap'o-aem. s. (503) 
A deco£iion. 

To Appal, ap-p4ll'. v. a. (406) 

To fright, to depress. 
^1^ Dr. Johnson tells us, that this word might 
more properly have been writte:i AppaU ; and 
we find Bacon, in his History of Henrv VII. 
a£lually writes the compound Appalement, 
Whetner Johnson founds his opinion upon 
the paU colour which fear generally prodoces, 
or upon the derivation of ilie word from the 
French Appattr, it cannot be certainly known ; 
but this is certain, that this word has beeii so 
often rhymed with ail, hall, fall, &£. that 
such a change as Dr. Johnspn recommends 
would be attended with no small inconvenieiKC. 
It may be observed too, that spelling this word 
with single / as he has done, is at vanance with 
its general pronunciation: for one /, when 
finaL does not broaden the a like that in all, 
but leaves it in the sound of that vowel in 
fal4onAf, tal'loiv, &c. Considering theirfore 
that the pronunciation of this word is so irre- 
vocably fixed, it is but borrowing an / from 
the Latin Palleo to make the sound and the 
spelling exactly correspond* We are often 
fond of negle£ting the French for the I^tin 
etymology when tnrrc is no necessity, — in the 
present case such a preference would be cdm- 

Digitized by 





t^{559). Fate (73), far C7?), fall (ss), fat {91)5 mh (o3),inlt {gs); piiic{l05), pin (lO;); ni (162), mive (164), 

Appalement, ap-pill'ment. s. 
Depression, impression of fear. 

Appanage, ap'pa-naje, s. (90) (503) 
Lands set apart for the maintenance ot younger 

Apparatus, ap-pa-ra'tus. s. 
Those things which are provided for the ad* 
complishmeot of any purpose ; as the tools of 
a trade, the furniture of a house ; equipage, 

Apparel, ap-par'li. s. 

Dress, vesture ; external habiliments. 

To Apparel, ap-par'^l. v. a. 

To diess, to cloche ; to cover, or deck. 
Apparent, ap-pa'rlnt. a. 

Plain, indubitable ; seeming, not real ; visible; 
open, discoverable ; certain, not presumptive. 

. Apparently, ap-pi'rent.l4. ad. 

Evidently, openly. 

Apparition, ap-pa-r!sh'un. s. 

Appearance, vtsibilitv : a vistbie obJe6l ; a 
spectre, a walking spirit ; something only ap- 
parent, not real ; tne visibility of some lu- 

Apparitor, ap.par'e-tur. s. (ps) 
The lowest officer oT the ecclesiastical court. 

To Appay, ap-pa'. v. a. 
.. To satisfy. « 

To Appeach, ap-pitsh'. v. a. 
To accuse ; to censure, to reproach. 

Appeachment, ap-pctsh'mlnt. s. 
Charge exhibited against any man. 

To Appeal, ap-pele'. v. n. 
To transfer a cause from one to another ; to 
call another as witness. 

Appeal, ap-pele'. s. 
A removal of^a cause from an inferior to a 
superior court ; in the common law, an accu- 
sation ; a call upon any as witness. 

Appealant, ap-pli'lant. s. 
He that appeals. 

To Appear, ap-pere'. v». n. 
To be in sight, tobc visible ; to become visible 
as a spirit ; to exhibit one's self before a court ; 
to seem, in opposition to reality ; to be plain 
beyond dispute. 

Appearance, ap-pe'ranse* s.^ 
The a£i of coming mto sight ; the thing teen ; 
semblance, not reality ; outside show } entry 
into a place or company; exhibition of the 
person to a court ; presence, mien ; probabi- 
lity, likelihood. 

Appearer,'rur. s. (98) 
The peison that aopears. 

Appeasable, ap-pi'za-bl. a. (405) 

Appeasableness, ap-p4' 

s. Reconcileableness. 

To Appease, ap-pize'. v. a. 
To quiet, to put in a state of peace ; to pacify, 
to reconcile. 

Appeasement, ap-plze'mlnt. s. 

Appeaser, ap-pi'zur. s. (ps) 

He thai pacifies, he that quiets disturbances. 
AppELLANT^ap-pel'lant. s. 

A challenger ; one that appeals from a lower 

to a higher pew jt. 

Appellate, ap-p4lMite, s. (91) 

The person appeaico against. 

Appellation, ap-piUi'shun. s. 


Appellative, ap-pel'la-tiv. s. (157) 

A name common to all of the iame kind or 
species; as, man, h^rsc. 

Appellatively, ap.pel'la-tlv-le. 

ad. According to the maimer of nouns appel- 

Appellatory, ap-pelMa-tur-re. a. 
That which contains an appeal. (5 12) 

Apellee, ap-pel-li'. s. 
One wh6 u accused. 

To Append, ap-pcud'. v. a. 

To haiig any thmg upon anotlier; to add to 
something as an accessory. 

Appendage, ap-plh'dSje. s. (90) 

Something added to another things without 
being necessary to its essence. 

Appendant, ap-pin'dant. a. 
Hanging to something else; annexed, con- 

Appendant, ap-pen'dant. s. 

Ac accidental or adventitious part. 

To Appendicate, ap-pen'd^-kite, 
v. a. (91) To add to anotber thing. 


«• (459) Annexion. 
Appendix, ap-pen'd!ks. s. 

Something appended or added ; an adjun£l or 


To App-ertain, ap.plr-tSne'. v. n. 
To bel ' ^ 


To belong to as of right ; to belong to by 


Appertainment, ap-plr-tane'inent 
s. That which belonn to any rank or dignity. 

AppERTENANCE,ap-per'ti-nanse. s. 
That which belongs to another thing. 

Appertinent, ap-per'tie-nent. a. 
Belonging, relating to. 

Appetence, ap' pc-tense. 1 
Appetency, ap'pc-tln-s^. J ' 

Carnal desire. 

ApPETiBiLiTY,ap-pct.te.bil'i-ti. s. 
The quah'ty of being desirable. 

Appetible, ap'pe-te-bl. a. (405) 

Appetite, ap'pc-tltc. s. (155) 

The natural desire of good ; the desire of sen- 
sual pleasure ; violent longing ; keenness of 
stomach, hunger. 

Appetition, ap-pi-iish'un. s. (507) 

Appetitive, ap'pe-te-tiv, a. 

That which desires. 

To Applaud, ap-pUwd'. v.a. . 

To praise by clapping the hands ; to praise in 
Applauder, ap-pliw'dur. s. (98) 
He that praises or commends. 

Applause, ap-pliwz'. s. 

Approbation loudly expressed* 

Applausive, ap-pliw'siv. a. (428) 

Applauding. Mason, 

Apple, ap'pl. 5. (405) 

The fruit of the apple-tree ; the pupil of the 

Applewoman. ap'pl-wim-uti. s. 

A woman that sells applet. 
Appliable, ap-pli'a-bl. a. (405) 

That which may be applied. 

Appliance, ap-ph'anse. s. 

The ad of applying, the thing applied. 

Applicability, ap'pli-ka-bil'e-ti, 

1. The quality of being fit to be applied. 

Applicable, ap'pli-ka-bl. a. 

That which may be applied. 
Applicableness, ap'ple-ka-bi»nes. 

I. Fitness to be applied. 

Applicably, ap'pli-ka-bli. ad. 
It) such manner as that it may be property aj^ 

Applicate, Jp'plc-kStc. s. (91) 
A right line drawn across a curve, so as to 
bisect the diameter. 

Application, Sp-plc-ka'sbun, s. 

The a£l of applying any thing to another; the 
thing applied ; the ad of appiving to any per- 
son as a petitioner; the empioymcni of any 
means for a certain aid ; intenscness of thought, 
dose study ; attention to some paiticulara&ir. 

Applicative. ap'pl4-kS-iiv, a. 

Belonging to application. (5 1 s) 

AppLiCATORV,ap'pli-ka-tur-e, a. 
Belonging to the a£l ofapplyiag. (5 1 2) 

To Apply, a-pli'. v. a. 
To put one thing to arK)ther ; to lay medica- 
ments upon a wound ; to make use of as rela- 
tive or suitable ; to put to a certain use ; to fix 
the mifld upon,, to study ; to have recourse to, 
as a petitioner ; to ply, to keep at work. 

To Appoint^ ap-p6int'. v. a. 

To fix any thing ; to establish any thing by 
decree; to fumiso in all poinu, to equip. 

Appointer, ap-pom'tur* s. (98) 
He that settles or fixes. 

Appointment, ap-pilnt'mlnt. s. 

Stipulation -^ decree, estrolishmem ; dire£lion, 
order ; eauipment, furniture ; an allovaoce 
paid to any man. 

To Apportion, ap-p6re'shun. v. a. 
To s«c ocu in just proportions. 

Apportionment, ap-p6re'shun- 
m^nt. s. 

A dividing into portions. 
To Appose^ ap-poze'« v.a. 

To put qtsestions to. 

Apposite, ap'piizit. a. (156) 
Pro^r, fit, well adapted. 

Appositely, Sp'^o-zit-lc. ad. 

Properly, filly, suitably. 

Ap!»ositeness, ap'po-zit-ncs. s. 
Fitness, propriety, suitableness. 

Apposition, ap-po-zish'un. s. 

The addition of new matter ; in grammar, the 
putting of two nouns in the same case. 

To Appraise, ap-prizc'. v. a. 

To set a price upon any thing. 

Appraisement, ap-praze'm2nt. $. 
The a£i of appraising ; a valuation. Ash^ 

Appraiser, ap-pra'zur. s. (ps) "" 

A person appomted to set a price upon thiogt 
to be sold. 

To Appreciate, ap-pre'sb^-ate.v.a. 

(^ This word is not in Johnson ; and ftiiley, 
who has it, seems not to nave given iu pmcnc 
signification, for he explains it, '' to seta high 
value or esteem upon any thing ;" for my re> 
colle6lion failsme, if it has not been generally 
used in the sense of the French woid it comes 
fromfjppredfr, to appraise, to rate, to value, 
to declare the just priccof any thing, as nearly 
synonimous to the English word to es/imau. 

Appreciable, ap-prS'sbi-a-bi. a. 

fdr '^bis word is the jgenuine offspring of the 
former : and if we~ acfmit the pairnt, we can- 
not refuse the child, especially as the latter 
seems of more use than the former; for though 
we may pretty wen supply the place of appre' 
date by estimate, we have not so good a word 
as amenable to exi>rcss the capability of beii^ 

To Apprehend, ap-pri-hind'. v.a. 
To lay hold on ; to seize, in order for trial or 

Digitized by 



nir f 167), n&t (163); tibe(l7l), tSb (172), bfill (173); 6il (299); pAfind (31^); thin (466), xnis (469. 

panishmrot; to conceive by the mind; to 
think on with terroari to fear. 

Apprehendbr, ap-pie-hcn'dur. s. 
Oae who apprehends. 

(.6:) That which may be apprehended or con- 

Apprehension-, ap-pri-hcn'shun, s. 

The lucre contemplation of things; opinion, 
scmimcnf, conception ; the faculty by wHich 
wc conceive new ideas; fear; suspicion of 
someihing; seizure. 

Apprehensive, ap-pri-hen's!v. a. 

Quick 10 understand ; fearful. (158) 

Apprehensively, ap-pri-hen'siv-lc 

ad. In an apprehensive manner. 


nes. s. 

The quality of being apprchemivc. 
Apprentice, ap-pr6n'tis. s. (i4o) 

Ooethat is bound by covenant to serve another 
nun of trade, upon condition that the cradcs- 
i!»a shall, m the* mean time, endeavour to in- 
smitt him io his art. (14ft) 

To Apprentice, ap-pren'tls. v. a. 

To pu: out to a master as an apprentice. 

Apprenticehood, ap-pren'ils-hud, 
I. The years of an apprenticed servitude. 

The years which an apprentice is to puss under 
a miMcr. 

To Apprize, ap-prize'. v. a. 

To inform. 

To Approach, ap-prAsh'. v. n. 

To draw near locally ; to draw near, as litne ; 
«> make a progress towards, mentally. 
To Approach, ap-pritsh'. v. a. 

To bring near to. 
Appi^oach, ap-protsh'. s. 
The aft of drawing near; access; means of 

Approacher, ap-pro'tshur. s. (98) 
The pcnon that approaches. 

Approachment, ap-protsh'ment. s. 
The ad of coming near. 

Approbation, ap-pro-ba'shun. s. 
The^t of approving, or expressing- himself 
pfcacd J the liking of any thing ; attestation, 

Ap?RooF,ap-prSof'. s, 
CcaicBcndation. Obsolete. 

To AppRopiNQUE»ap-pr6-pink'. v.n. 
10 Craw near to. Not in u»e. 

Appropriable, ap-pro'pre-a-bl. a. 
_ 1 iii which may be appropriated. 

To Appropriate, ap-pio'pre-Jte. 
'• * (9*) To consign to some particular use 
•rprr>on; to claim or exercise an exclusive 
^hi ; 10 make peculiar, to annex ; in law, to 
*»>«ate a benefice. 

Appropriate, ap-pro'prc-ate. 3.(91 j 

rcca.ur, consigned to some p^irticular. 

*• * he application of something to a panrcular 
JJJT«e ; the ckiim of any thing as peculiar ; 
Sa? hxing of a particular signification to a 
«*jrd; in law, a severing of a benefice ecclc 
»«esxical 10 the proper and perpetual use of 
jwne rrligious house, or dean and chapter, 
^^ick, or college. 

Ap^ROPRiATOR- jj).pro-pre.A't5r. s. 
^tfcfi ^poBejaedofan appropriated bene- 

^tt^oyABLE,3p-prS5'v3.bL a. (405) 
1 Bai wbicb xocriu igpprubation. 

Approval, ap-prSi'vaK s. 


Approvance, ap-pr&i' vanse. s. • 
Approbation. Not in use. 

To Approve, ap-pro&v'. V. a. 

To like, to be pleased with ; to express liking; 
to prove, to snow ; to experience; to make 
worthy of approbation. 

Approvement, ap-pro5v'ment. s. 

Approbation, liking. 

Approver, ap-pioS'vur. s. (98) 

He that approves; lie that makes trial ; tn law, 
one that, confessing felony of himself, accuses 

To Approximate, ap-proks'e-mSte. 

V. n. (gi) To approach, to draw near to. 
Q^ T'His word, as a verb, is not in Johnson ; 
but its vciy frequent use among good writers 
and sjieakcR is a sufficient authority for its in- 
sertion here, without the trouble of searching 
for a precedent. 

Approximate, ap-proks'i.mlte. a. 

Near to. 

Approximation, ap-prok-se-ma'- 

shun. s. 

Approach to any thing ; continual approach 

nearer still, and nearer to the quantity sought. 
Appulse, ap'pulse. s. 

The ad of striking against any thing. 

Appurtenance, ap-pur'te-nanse. s. 

Thai which belongs to something else, which 
is considered as the principal. Asb. 

Apricot, or ApRicocK,4'pri.kot, s. 

A kind of wall fruit, 
(t^ The latter manner of writing this word is 

grown vulgar. 
April, 4'pril.s. 

The fourth month of the year, January counted 


Apron, a'pum. s. (417J 

A cloth hung before, to keep the other dress 
clean, or for ornament. 

Apron, a'pum. s. (417) 
A piece of lead which covers the touch-hole 
of a great gun. 

ApRONED,a'purncl. a. (362) 

Wearing an apron. 

Apsis, ap'sfs.s. 

The higher apsis is denominated aphelion, or 
apogee J the lower, perihelion, or perigee. 
Apt, apt. a. 
Fit ; having a tendency to ; inclined to. led to; 
ready, quick, as an apt wit ; qualified tor. 

To ApTATE, ap'tate.v.a. (91) 
To make fit. 

Aptitude, ap'te-tude. s. 

Fitness; tendency; disposition. 

Aptly, aprMe. acj. 

Properly, fiily ; justly, pertinently; readily, 
acutely, as he learned his business very aptly. 
Aptness, apt'nes. s. 

Fitness, suitableness ; disposition to any thing ; 
quickness of apprehension ; tendency. 
Aptote, ap'tote. s. 
A noun whicn is not declined with cases. 

AouAji'kwa.V (92) 


Aqua-fortis, ak.kwS-for'tis. s. 
A corrosive liquor made by distilling purified 
nitre with calcined vitriol. 

Aqua-marina, ak-kwa-ma.ri'na. s. 

The Beryl. 

AQUA-viTi6,ak-kwa-vi'ie. s. 


Aquatick, a-kwy !k. a. 

That which inhabits the water ; that which 
grows ii> the water. 

AoUATiLE, ak'kwa-t!l. a.(i45) 
That which inhabits the water. (503) 

Aqueduct, ak'kwe-duct. s. 

A conveyance made for carrying Water. 
AouEous,a'kwi-us. a. (534) 

AQUEOUSNESS,4'kwe^s-nes. s. 


AouiCiNE, ak'we-lin.a. (us) 
Resembling an eagle ; when applied to the, 
nose, hooked. 

AouosE,a-kwose'. a. 
Waiery.—See Appendix. 

AQUOSJTY,a-kwos'e-ti. s,(5ll) 

Arabic, ar'a-bik. a. 

Of Arabia, written in its language. Mason, 

Arable, ar'a-bl. a. (405). 

Fit for tillage. 
(t:9r The a in the first syllable of this word haa 
the short sound as much as if the r wero 
double. The same may be observed of every 
accented a before r. followed by a vowel. (81) 

Araneous, a-ra'ne-us» a* 
Resembling a cobweb. 

The a£^ or practice of plowing. 

Aratory, ar'a-tur-re. a. (512) 
That which contributes to tillage. 

Arbalist, Ir'ba-list. s. (aoj) 
A cross-bow. 

Arbiter, ar'be-tur. s. (98) 
A judge appointed by the panies, to whose de« 
termination they voluntarily submit; a judge. 

Arbitrable, Sr'bi-tra-bl. a. 
Arbitrary, depending upon the will. 

Arbitrament, ir-bjt'tra-ment. s. 

^'Will, determination, choice. 

Arbitrarily, Sr'be-tra-re-le. ad. 

With no other rule than the will; despoti- 
cally, absolutely. 

Arbitrariness, ar'be-tra-rJ-nes. s. 

ARBiTRARious,Sr-bi-trS're-us. a. 
Arbitrary, depending on the will. 

ad. According to mere will and pleasure. 

Arbitrary, 5r'be-tra-re. a. 
Despotick, absolute; depending on no rule, 

To Arbitrate, ar'be-trate. v.a.fpi) 
To decide, to determine ; to judge of. 

Arbitration, ar-b^-tii'shun.s. 

The determination of a cause by a judge mutu- 
ally agreed on by the parties. 

Arbitrator, ar'be-tra-tur. s. (521) 

An extraordinary J^udge between pany and 
party, chosen by their mutual consent ; a go- 
vernor ; a ptesiaent ; he that has the power of 
acting by his own choice ; the determiuer. 

Arbitrement, ir-bit'lr^-ment. s. 
Decision, determination; compromise. 

Arbitress, Sr'be-tresS. s, 

A female arbiter. jJsh. 

Arbor ARY, ii*bi-ra-r^. a. (512) 

Of or belonging 10 a ciee. 

Arboret, Ir'bo-ret. s. 
A small tree or &hrub. 

Digitized by 





C^ {559). Fite (73), f^r {77); fill (83),fSt (ei); in^ (qs), rak(()5); pine (l05), pm (lO?); ni (162), ni&ve (164), 

Arborist, ar'bA-rist. s. 

A n^taraJUt who raaU.^ trcos hit study. 

Arborous, dr'bo-rus. a. (3H) 

Belonging to trees. 

Arbour, ar'bur. s. (314) 
A bower. 

Arbusci.e, ar'bus-sl. s. (35l)(405) 


Arbute, ar-b&tc', s. 
Strawberry tree. 

Arc, hk. s. 

A segment, a part of a circle ; an arch. 
Arcade, ar-kade'. s. 

A continued arch. 

Arcanum, ar-ka'nam. s. (503) 

(Plural Arcana). A sucrtt. 

Arch, artsh. s. 

Part of a circle, not more than the half ; a 
- huildin£ in form of a segment of a circle, uicti 
for bridges ; vault of heaven j a chief. 

To Arch, artsh. v. a. 
To build arches ; to cover with arches. 

Arch, irtsh. a. 

Chief, of the first class ; wa|ysish, mirthful. 

Archangel, ark-ane'jcl. s. (354) 

One of the highest order of aogels. 
(Jrf*- The accent is sometimes on the first sylla- 
bici though tiot so pro(ierIy. 

Archangel, ftrk-ine'jel. s. 

A plant, dead nettle. 

Archangelick, irk-Sn-jel'lik. a. 

Belonging to archangels. 
Archbeacox^ irtsh-bc^kn- s. (170) 
The chief place of prospcft, or of signal. 

Archbishop, artsh-b?sh'dp. s. (354) 

A bishop of che first class, ^^'ho supei intends 
the conciud of other bishops his sufirai^ans. 

Archbishoprxck, irtsh-bish'up-nk. 
s. The state, province, or jurisdiction of an 

Archchanter, Sitjh-tshan'tur. s.. 
The chief chanter. 

Archdeacon, artsh-cle'kn. s. (170) 

One that .«>u}i{)lics the bishop's place and dffice. 

Archdeaconry, aits!i-dc'kn-ic'. s. 
The office or jurisdit\ion of an archdeacon. 

$. Theofficc of an archdeacon. 

Archduke, irtsli-duke'. s. ^ 

A title given to princes of Austria and Tus* 

Archduchess, artsh-dutsh'es. s. 

7'he sister or daughter of the archduke of 

Archphilosopher, artsh-fc-los'o- 

fdr. s. 
Chief philosopher. 

ARCHPRELATE,artsh.prll'late. s.Cpi) 
Chief pielate. 

Archpresbyter, irtsh-prcs'be-t^r. 
s. Chief presbyter. 

ARCHAiOLOGY,ar-ki'-ol'6-je- s.(5l8) 

A diM:ouzM: of antiquity. 

Archaiologick, ar-ka-o-lod'jik. a. 

Kelaiing to a discourse on antiquity. 

Archaism, ar'ka-lsm. s. (353) 

An ancient phrase. 

Arched, ar'tshcd. part, a* 

Bent in the form of an arch. 
^^ Words of this form are colloquially nr(>- 
nouncfcd in one syllable ; and this sellable is 
one of the harshest that can be imagincdj for 
it sounds as if written artiht* (359) 

Archer, iitsh'ur. s. 

He that shoots with a bow. 

Arch£rv, Srtsh'ur-e. r. 
The use of the bow ; tlie aft of shooting with 
the bow ; the art of an archer. 

Arches-court, artsh' cz-cort. s. 

The chief and roost ancient consistory that be- 
longs to the archbishop of Canterburj', for the 
debaing of spiritual causes. 

Archetype, ar'ke-tipe. s. (354) 
The original of which any resemblance is 

Archetypal, ar-kc-ti'pa!. a. 

Archeus, ar-ke'ds. s. (353) ^ 
A power uiat presides over the animal occo- 

Archidiaconal, ar-kc-di-ak'o-nal. 
a. ficbnging to^n archdeacon. 

^* (354) Belonging to an archbishop. 

Architect, ar'ke-tekt. s. (354) 
A pi%»fessor of the art of buiidiifg ; a builder ; 
the contriver of any thing. 

Architective, ir-ki-ick'tiv. a. 
That performs the work of architecture. 

a- (5cp} That which has the power or skill of 
an arcniie£l. 

Architectural, ar-ke-tek'tshu-ral 

a. Belonging to aichiie^iure. Alason 

Architecture,. iir'ki-tck-tshure. s. 

(461) The art or science of building ; the cf- 
fc£l or performance of the science ot^building. 

Architrave, ^r'ke-trave. s. 

That part of a column wbkh lies immediately 
upon the capital, and is the lowest loember olT 
the entablature. 

Archives, ar^klvz. s. ('354) 

The places where records or aiKicnt vnritings 
are kept. 

Archwise, artsh'wlze. a. (354) 

In the form of an arch. 

Arctation, aik-ia'shun. s. 

Arctick, ark'tik. a. 


Arcuate, Ar'kfi-ate. a. (91) 

Bent in the form of an arch. 

Arcuation, ar-ku-a'shun. s. 
I'he act of bending any thing, incurvation ; 
the state of being bent, curvity, or crookedness. 

Arcubalister, ar-ku-bal'is-tur. s. 
A cross-bow man. 

Ardency, ar'dcn-se, s. 

Ardour, eagerness. 

Ardent, ar'deiit. a. 
Hoi, burning, fiery; fierce, vehement; pas- 
sionate, affedionate. 

ARDENTLY,^r'dciit-le. ad. 
Eagerly, alfeaionately. 

Ardour, ar'dur. s. (314) 
Heat i iieat of alfeflion, as love, desire, cou-^ 

Arduity, ar-di'c-te.j. 
Height, difficulty. 

Arduous, dr'ju-us.a. (2()3) (376) 
Lofty, hard to climb ; difficult.* 

ARDUOUSNEss,jlr'ju-us-nes. s. (293)' 
(376) Height, diihculiy. 

Are, ir. (75) 
The plural of the present tense of the verb 
To be. 

AreAi i'ri-a. s. (70) (545) (534) 
The surface contained between any lues tr 
boundaries; amp open surface. 

To Are AD, a-re^d', v, a. 

To advise, to dire£^. Little used. 
AREFACTlON,ar-Te-fak'shSn. «. ^ 
The state of growing dry, the a6t of drying. 

To Are FY, ai're-fi. v. a. 

To dry. 
ARENAC£OUS,ar-i-ni'shus. a. (527) 


A R EN OSE, ar-i-nose' , a. 
Sandy.— -See Ap p e n D i x. 

Arenulous, a-rla'&-lus. a. 

Full of small sand, gravelly. 

Areopagite,'a-jitc. 8. f I5d) 
A judge of the court of Areopagus in Atheni. 

Areotick, a-rc-ot'ik. a. (534) 
Such medicmes as open the pores. 

Argent, ir'jent. a. 

Having the white colour used in the annonal 
coats S gentlemen, knights, and baraocu • 
silver, bright like silver. 

Argil, ar'jil. s. 

Potters clay. 

Argillaceous, ar-jil-la'shus. a. 

Clayey, comisiing of argil, or potters clay. 

ARGiLLOUS,ar-jil'lus. a. (314) 
Consisting of day, clayi:>h. 

Argosy, Sr'go-si. s. (503) 
. A large vesselTbr merchandise, a carrack. 

To Argue, ar^gi. v. n. (355} 
To reason, to offer reasoi» j to pcnuadc b/ 
argument ; to dispute. 

Arguer, ar'gu-ur. s. (98^ 
A rcasoner, a disputer. 

Argument, dr'gu-mtat. », 

A reason alleged for or agai:ist an^ thing ; tkc 
subjecl of any discourse or writing : the con« 
tents of any work summed up 1^ jway of ab* 
stra£l; controversy. 

Argumental, ar-gi-meii'.tal.a. 

Belonging to argument. 

Argumentation, 3r-gfi.meii-ta'- 
shun. s. 

a. (512) 

Reasoning, the a£l of reasoning. 

Consisting of argument, contatcing 

Argute, ar-gute'. a. 

Subule, witty, sharp, shrill. 

Arid, arMd. a. (til) 
Diy, p,irchcd up. — ^Sce Arable. 

Aridity, a-rid'de-ie. s. (511) 
Dryness, siccity ; a ktnd of insensibility in de* 

Aries, a're-ez. s. 
'i1ie ram ; one of the twelve signs of the 


To Arietate, a-ri'e-tite. v. n. (91) 
To but like a ram. 

4:^ I have, m this woni, followed Dr. John- 
son, in placing the accent on the second ^- 
lable, ai^ not on the first, acooi^ng to Mr. 
Sheridan, and Dr. Aikh ; but I do not very 
well kiiow for what reason, unlesa it be that 
words of this, termination derived from the 
l^.itin, gcnerallv preserve the accent of the 
original. See rrmciples, No. 51 3, 6. 

Arietation, a-ii-e-i4'«hun. s. 
The a£t of butting like a ram : the aiil of faot- 
tering with an engine called a ram. 

Arietta, a-re-et'ra. s. (534) 

' A shon air^ song, or tune* 

Digitized by 





nor (167), nit (ito) ; lube (jrO, t&b (172), bull (173) ; ill (299) ; pound (313) ; thin (46(5), thIs (469). 

Aright, a-ntc'. ad. (393) 

Rightly, viihout errour; rightly, without 
Clime; ngbtifi without biling of the end 

ARiOLATiON,a-r4.o-li'$hun. s.(534) 

To Arise, a-rizc'. v. n- pret. arose, 
pvt. snscn. To mount upward as the sun ; to 
Ki upas from siccpi or from rest ; to revive 
iromdcatb; totter upon a newstatioo; to 
omiinencc iwsdlity. 

Aristocracy, ar-is-tik'kra-se. 9. 
That form of ^'eminent which places the 
suprtnie power 10 the ooblcs. 

Aristocratk, ar-is-to-crSt'. s. 
A ijvouicr of aristocracy. Maso n . 

tl' Id ibe fury of iht French rcvolutioQ we 
took up this word and its opposite Democraie \ 
bat if we could ba>*e waited til! they had been 
formed b)r our own analogy, they would have 
bcco Arutocrasisi and Democratist* 

Aristocratic AL, ar-ris-io-krit' ic- 
kSj,a. (544) 
RcUiog 10 aiiktocracy. 

Aristocraticalness, ar-ns4ol 
An arijtocraiical state. 

Arithmancy. a-n/A'man-se. s. 
A IbictcHing of iutore events by numbert. 

Arithmetical, ar-i/A-met't^-kal. a. 

Aaoidine to the rules or methods of arithme-' 

In 20 arithmetical manner. 

AxiTHa^ETicxAN, a-ri/i-mc-tish'an. 
s- A tnaMer of the art of numbers. 

Arithmetick, a-ri/A'mi-tik. 5. 
'rif science of mimben; the arc of compu- 

t^ There is a sman, but a very general dcvi- 
aiioQ from accuracy in pronouncing this word, 
which lies in giving the first t the sound of 
shon e, » if written aretbmetkk. As this in- 
«rcfaqr is but trifling, so it may be rcftiticd 
witbait any great singubrity. 

Ark, ark. s.—Sec Art. {77) 

A vti&scl 10 swim upon the Wiier, usually ap- 
piicd to that in which Noah utw prcsci-vcd 
fcora the universal deluge ; the repository of 
the covenant of God with the Jews. s.— See Art. 
The i:fflb which reaches from the hand to the 
shoulder ; the large bough of a tree ; an inlet 
ti^ »aicr firom the sea ; power, mij;hi, as the 

ToArm arm. V. a. — See Art. 
fofttniish with armour of defence, or weapons 
«f ofoice ; 10 plate with anv thing that may 
«^ urength ; to furnisb, to fit up. 

To Arm, itm. v. n.— See Art. 
To lake arms, to provide against. 

AiiMXDA,'da. s. See Lumhago. 
Aa aroiamem for sea. 

Armadillo, ar-ma-dil'lo. s, 

A four-footed animal of Brasil. 

Armament, ar'ma-mcnt. s. (503) 
A navai force. 

Ahmature, ir'ma-tshire. s. (461) 


Armental, Sr-men'tal. \ 

ARMENTiNE^r'm^n-tine. (149)/*' 
«k«ging to a drove or herd of cattle. ^ 

Armgaunt, arm'gSnt.a. (214) 
Slender as the arm ; or rather, slender with 

Arm-hole, arm'hole.s. 

The cavity under the shoulder. 

Armigerous, ar-mid'jur-rus.a. 

Bearing arms. 
Armillary. ar'mil-la-r^. a. 

Resembling a oracelet. Sec Maxillary. 

Armjllated, ar'mil-la-ied. a. 
Wearing bracelets. 

Armings, Srm'ingz. s.. 

The same with waste clothes. 

Armi?otence, 5r-mip'o-t^nse. s. 
Power in war. (518) 

Armipotjj:nt, Jr-mip'o-tent. a. 
Mighty in war. 

Armistice, ^r'me-st!s, &. (503) 

A short truce. (142) 

Armlet, irm'let. «. 
A little arm ; a piece of armour for the arm ; 
a bracelet for the arm. 

Armoniak, 5r-mo'ni-ak. s. (505) 
The name of a salt. 

Armorer, ir'mur-ur. s. (557) 

He that makes armour, or weapons; he that 
dresses another in armour. 

Armorial, Ir-mo'ri-aL a. 
Belonging to die arms or escutcheon of a fa- 

Armory, Sr'ip6r-i. s. {557) 

The place in which arms are deposited for use; 
armour, anns of defence ; ensigns armorial. 

Armour, Ir'mur, s. (314) 

Defensive arms. 

Armour-bearer, ar'mur-bare'ur.s. 

He that carries the armour of another. • 

Armpit, arm'pft. s. 
The hollow place under the shoulder. 

Arms, ^rm^. s. {77) 
Weapons of offence, or armour of defence ; a 
state of hostility ; war in general ; action, the 
a£l of taking arms ; the ensigns armorial of a 

Army, Sr'me. s. f482) 

A collection of armed men, obliged to obey 
their generals ; a great number. 

Aromatical, ar-o-mat'^-kal. \ 

Aromatick, ar-o-mat'ik. (527)'' ^* 
Spicy ; fragrant, strong scented. 

Aromaticks, ar-o-mat'iks. s. (527) 

Aromatization, ar-o-mai-i-zS'- 
sbdn. s. 
The act of scenting with spices. 

To Aromatize, ar'To-ma-tize. v. a. 

• To scent with spices, to impregnate with 
spices ; to scent, to perfume. 

Arose, a-roze'. (554) 

The pieieritc of the verb Arise. 

Around, ii-riund'. ad. 

In a circle, on every side. 

Around, a-round'. prep. (545) 

To Arouse, a-rouze'. v. a. 

To wake from sleep; to raise up, to excite. 
Arow, a-ro'. ad. (545) 

In a row. 

Aroynt, a-riint'. ad. 
Be gone* away. 

Arouebuse, ar'kwc-bus. s. 
A hand gun. 


ARQUEBUSlER,ar-kwJ-bu.s-eir'. s. 
A soldier armed with an arquebus^. (275) 

Arrack, ir-rak'.s. 

A spirituous liquor. 
To Arraign, ar-rSne'. v. a. 
To set a thing in order, in its place ; a prisoner 
is said to be arraigned, when he is brought 
forth 10 his triijl ; to accuse, to charge with 
faults in general, as in controversy or in satire* 

Arraignment, ar-iane'ment. s. 
The act of arraigning, a cham. 

To Arrange, ar-ranjc . v. a. 

To put in the proper order for any purpose. 
Arra-ngement, ar-ranje'ment. s. 

l^hc act of putting in proper order, the state of 

being put in order. 

Arrant, ar'rant. a. (si) (S2) 
Bad in a high degree. 

Arrantly, ar'rant-le. a. 
Corruptly, shamefully. 

Arras, ar'ras. s. (si) (82) 

Arraught, ar-rawt'. ad. 
Seized by violence. Out of use. 

Aruay, ar-ra'. s. 
Dress ;^ order of battle ; in law, the ranking or 
setting in order. 

To Array, ar-ra'. v. a. 

To put in order ; to deck, to dress. 

Array ERS, ar-ra'urs. s. 

OfEcersj.who anciently had the care of seeing 

the -soldiers duly appointed in their armour. 
Arrear, ar-reer'. s. 

That 'which remaiiu behind unpaid, though 


Arrearage, ar-ree'raje, s. (90) 
Tht remainder of an account. 

Arrentation, ar-ren-ta'shun. s. 
The licensing an owner of lands in the forest 
to inclose. 

Arreptitious, ar-rep-tish'us. a. 
Snatched away ; crept in pnvily. 

Arrest, ar-iest'. s. 
In law, a stop or stay ; an arrest is a restraint of 
a man*s person ; any caption. 

To Arrest, ar-rest'. v. a. 
To seize by a mandate from a court ; to seize 
any thing bv law ; to seize, to lay hands on ; 
to with hole, to hinder ; 10 stop inotion. 

Arriere, ar-reer'. s. 
The last body of an army. 

ARRisiON,ar-rizh'un. s. (45l) 
A smiling upon. 

Arrival, ar-ri'val. s. 

The act of^ coming to any place 3 the attain- 
ment of any pur}x»e. 

Arrivance, ar-ri'vanse. s. 

Company comiiig. 

To Arrive, ar-rive'. v. n. 
To come to anv place by water ; to reach any 
place by travefling ; to' reach any point ; to 
gain any thing ; to happen. 

To Arrode, ir-rode'. v. a^ 
To gnaw or nibt>l(.. 

Arrogancy, ^. 

The a6l or quality of taking much upon one's 

Arrogant, ar'io-gant. a. (si) (82) 

Haughty, proud. 

Arrogantly, ar'ro gant-le. ad. 
In an arrogant roantier. 

Arrogantness, ar'ro-gant-nes. s. 


E, ar'ro-ffinse. \ 

Digitized by 





^ (559). FAte (ra), fir (S7), f4ll (83), fSt (31); mi(93), rn^t (95); pine (lOj), p!n (107} ; n4 { 162), mive (164), 

To Arrogate, ar'ro-gSte. v. a. (91) 

To claim vainly ; to exhibit unjust claims. 

Arrogation, ar-ro ga'shun. s.. 

A claiming in a proud maimer. 

ARRosiON,ar-i6^zhun. s. (45 ij 
A gnawing. 

Arrow, ar'ro. s. (32/) 
The pointed wcajwn which is shot from a bow. 

Arrowhead, ar'io-hed. s. 
A water plani. * 

Arrowy, ar'ro-e. a. 

G}iisistin|; of arrows. 

Arse. arse. s. 

The outtocks. 

Arse-foot, ars'fut. s. 

A kind of water fowl. 

Arse-smart, irs'smait. s. 

A plant. 

Arsenal, ar'sc-nal. s. 

A repository of things rcquij>iie to war, a ma- 

Arsen ICAL, ar-scn'e-kal. 


Containing arsenick. 

Arsenick, arse'mk. s. 
A mineral substance; a violent corrosive 

Art, art. s. (77) 
The power of domg something not tau&ht by 
nature and instin61; a science, as the liberal 
arts ; a trade ; artfulness, skill, dexterity ; 

J:^ As a before r, followed by a vowel, has the 
short or fourth sound, so when it is followed 
by a consonant it has the long or second sound. 
See Arable, (81) (i58) 

Arterial, ir-te're-al. a. 

That which relates to the artciy, that which is 
contained in the artery. 

Arteriotomy, ar-t^-re-ot't6-inl» s. 
The operation of letting blood from the ar- 
tery; itie -cutting of an artery. (518} 

Artery, Jr'tur-e. s. (555) 

An artery is a conical canal, conveying the 
blood from the heart to all parts of the body. 

Artful, art'ful. a. (174) 

Performed with art ; artificial, not natural ; 
cunning, skilful, dexterous. 

Artfully, art'ful-le. ad. 

With art, ikilfully. 

Artfulness; 4rt'ful-nes. s. 

kfkill, cunning. 

Arthritick, ir-/Arit'!k. (509) 1 
Arthritical, Ir-/Ai?t'e.kal. J ^' 

Gouty, relating to the gout ; relating to joints. 

Artichoke, Jr'<i.tshoke. s. 

This plant is vcff like the thistle, but hath 
large scaly heads shaped like the cone of the 
pine tree. 

Artick, Ar'iik. a. properly Arctic. 

Article, ar't,i-kl. s. (40,5) 
A part of speech, as the, an ; a single clause 
of an account, a particular (jm of any complex 
thing; tenti, stipulation.; point of time, exa£l 

To Article, Ir'tl-kl. v..n. (405) 

To stipulate, to make terms. 

Articular, ir-tik'u-lar. a. 

Belonging to the joints. 

Articulate, ar-tik'u-late. a. (91) 
Distin6^ ; branched out into articles. 

To Articulate, ir-t!k'i-late. v. a. 

(qi) To form words, to speak as a man ; to 
iraw up in articles ; to make terms^ 

Articulately, Sr-tik'i-lite-li, ad. 

In an articulate voice. 
Articulateness, ar-tik'u-late-nls. 
s. The quality of being articulate. 

Articulation, ar-tik-u-i6'shuh. s. 

The junfclurc, or joint of bones ; the a£^ of 
forming words ; in botany, the joints in plants* 

Artifice, ar'te-fis. s. (142) 

Trick, fraud, stratagem ; art, trade. 

Artificer, ar-i!f'fe-sur. s. (98) 

An artisi,"" a manufa^urcr ; a forger, a con- 
triver ; a dexterous or artful fellow. 

Artificial, Ir-te-fish'al. a. 

Made by art, not natural ; fi£Vtiious, not ge- 
nuine ; aitful, contrived with skill. 

Artificially, ar-te-fish'aUle. ad. 

Artfully, with skill, with good contrivance; 
by art, not naturally. 

Artifici ALNESS, iir-te-fifli'al-ncs. 
s. Artfulness. 

Artillery, ar-til'iur-re. s. {555) 

Weapons of war ; cannon, great ordnance. 

Artisan, ar-tJ-zan'. s. (528) 
Artist, ^I'ofcssor of an art ; manufacturer, low 

Artist, art'fst. s. 
The professor of an art ; a skilful man, not a 

Artlessly, art'Jes-le. ad. 

In an artless manner, naturally, sincerely. 

Artless, art'les. a. 

Unskilful, without fraud, as an artless maid ; 
contrived without skill, as an artless tale. 

To ARTUATE,ar'tsbu-ate. v. a. (91) 
(461) To tear limb fiom limb. 

Arundinacious. a-run-de-na'shus. 
a. Ofor like reeds. (292) 

Arundineous, ar-un-din'e-Qs. a. 
Abounding with reeds. 

As, az. conjunft. (423) 
In the same manner with something else ; like, 
of the satpc kind with ; in the same degree 
with ; as if, in the same manner ; as it were, 
in some son; while, at the same time that; 
equally; how, in what manner; with, answer- 
ing to like or same ; in a reciprocal sense, an- 
wcring to As ; answerinj)^ to ouch ; having so 
to answer it, in the conditional si-nsc ; answer- 
ing to So conditionally : As for, with respect 
to ; As to, with respect to ; As well as, equally 
with ; At though, as if. 

Asafoetida. as-sa-fet'e-da, s. 
A gum or resin Drought from the East Indies, 
of a shsirp taste and a strong offensive smell. 

Asarabacca, as-sa-ra-bak'ka. s. 
The name of a plant. 

Asbestine, az-bes'tin. a. (i4o) 

Something incombustible. 

Asbestos, iz-bes'tus. s> (166) 

A sort of native fossile stone, which may be 
split into threads and filaments, from one inch 
to ten inches in length, very fine, brittle, yet 
sotnewhat tractable. lo is endued with the 
wonderful property of remaining unconsumed 
in the fire, which only whitens it. 

Ascarides, as-kar'e-d^z. s. 
Little worms in the rectum. 

To Ascend, as-send'. v. n. 
To mount upwards ; to proceed from one de- 
gree of knowledge to another ; to suud higher 
m genealogy. 

To Ascend, as-send'. v. a. 

To climb up any thing. 

Ascendant, as-sen'dant, s. 
The part of the ocliptick at any particular time 

above the horizon, which is supposed by a«re- 
logers to have great influeuce ; height, eleva- 
tion ; superiority, influence; one of the degrees 
of kindred reckoned upwards, 

Ascen DANT, as-sen'dSnt. a. 

Superior, predominant, overpowering ; ia an 
astrological sense, above the horizon. 

Ascendency, as-sen'den-se. s. 

Influence, jwwcr. 

Ascension, as-scn'shnn. s. (451) 

The act of ascending or rising ; the visible 
elevation of our Saviour to Heaven j the tljing 
rising or mountitig. • 

Ascension Day, as-sen'shun-da'.s. 

The day on which the ascei^sion of our Suviotir 
is commemorated, commonly callrd IL'.y 
Thursday, the Thursday but one bcfoicW'hu- 

AscENSiVE, as-scn'siv. a. (i58) 

In a state of accent. 

Ascent, as-sent', s. 

Rise, the act of rising ; the way by which one 
ascends ; an eminence, or hi^h place. 

To Ascertain, as-ser-<apc'. v. a. 

To make certain, to fix, loestablijJi ; to trjkc 

Ascertain ER, as-ser-ta'nur. s. 

The person thai proves or establishes. 

Ascertainment, as.ser-tane'mem. 
SL A settled rule ; a standard. 

AscfiTiCK, as-sct'ik. a. (^op) 
Employed wholly in exercises of icvoiion and 

AscETiCK^ as-set'ik. s. 

He that rcures to devotion, a hermit. 

Ascites, as-si'tez. s. 

A particuUr species of dropsy, a swelling of 
the lower belly and df pending parts, from aa 
extravasation of water. 

Ascitical, as.sit'e-kal. 1 , 
AsciTiCK, as.sft'ik. /* 

Dropsical, hydroptcal. 

AsciTiTioos, as-se-tlsh'us. a. 

Supplemental, additional. 

AscRiBABLE, as-skri'ba-bl. a ,('105) 
Tiiat which may be ascribed. 

To Ascribe, as-kribe'. v. a. 
To attribute to as a cause; to attribute to ass 

Ascription, as-krif>'shun. s. 

'I he act of aKnbing. 

AsCRiPTiTious, as-kr?p.tish'us. a. 
• 1 hat which is ascribed. 

Ash, ash. s. 
A tree. 

AsH-coi.oURED, ash'kul-urd. a. 
Coloured between brown and grey. (362) 

Ashamed, a-sha'med. a. (359, (362) 
Touched with shame. 

Ashen, ash'shei^. a. ''103) (339)" 
Made of ash wood. 

Ashes, ash'fz. s. (pp) 
The remains of any tliing burnt ; the remains 
of the body. 

Ash-wednesday, ash-wenz'da. s. 
The first day of Lent, so called from the an- 
cient custom of sprinkling ashes on the bead. 

Ashlar, ash'Iar. s. 
Free stones as they come out of the quarry. 

Ashlering, ash'lur-fng. s. (553) 

Quartering in garrets. A term in buildlr.g. 

Ashore, a.sbore'. ad. 
On shore, on the land ; to the shore, to tlie ' 


Digitized by VnOOQ IC 




j\lt{i67),nk{l63); tube(l7i), tub (172), bdll (173); 6fl(299); poimd (313); /Aln (466), thIs (469). 

AsHWEED, ash'weJd. s. 

An herb. 

Ashy, ash'e. a. • 

A^h<oloured, pJc, inclined 10 a whitish grey. 

Aside, i-side'. ad. 
To ODC side ; to anoth/sr part $ from the com- 

AsiNARY', as'se-na-re, a. 

BcJongtog to an ass. 

AiiNiNE, as's;4-nine, a. (l4.^) 
Belonging to an as. <i 

To Ask., ask. v. a. (79) 

To petition, to bcf? ; to demand, to claim ; to 
enquire, to question ; to require. 

Askance, }s.sUnse'.|ad. (214) 

AsKAUNCEi -> I ^ ^ 

Sidci**ays, obliquely. 

AsKAUNT,a-skant'. ad. (2 14) 
Obliquely, on one side. 

AsKER, ask'ur. s. (98) 
Peiitioncr; enquirer. 

AsKER, ask'ur. s. 
A wdternewt. 

Askew, a-sku'. ad. 
Aside, with contempt, contemptuously. 

To Aslake, a-slake'. v. a. 
To remit, to slacken. 

AsLANt»a-slant'. ad. (78) 

Obliquely, on one side. 
Asleep, a^s'eep'. ad. 

Sleeping ; inro steep. 

Aslope, a-slApe'. ad. 

With declivity, obliquely. 

Asp, or AspiCK, asp, oras'pfk. s. 
A kind of serpent, ^ whose poison is so dan- 
gerous and quick in its operation, that - it kills 
without a possibility of applying any remedy. 
Those (hat are bitten by it, die by sleep aod 

Asp, hp. s. 

A tree. 

AsPALATHUS, as-p^il'a-/Aus. s. 
A plant called the wood of Jerusalem ; the 
wood of a certain tree. 

Asparagus, as-par'a-gus. s. 

The name of a plant. 

J^This word is vuljijarly pronounced Sparronxh 
grass. It may be observed, that such words as 
the vulgar do not know how to spelF, and 
vhich convey no definite idea of the thing, arc 
freaaemly changed by the m into such words 
as ihey do kix>w how to spell, and which do 
convey some definite idea. The word in ques- 
tion ii an instance of it : and thf* corruption of 
this word into Sparrawgrass is so general, that 
osfaragus has an air o^ stiifness and pedantry- 
See Lantern. 

Aspect^ as'pekt. s. 

iook, air, appearance ; countenance ; glance, 
view, act of beholding ; direction towards any 
point, position; disposiiioo of any thing to 
something else, relation ; disposition 3i a 
plaort to other planeu. 

t^ This word, as a noun, was universally pro- 
oouQced with the accent on the last syllable till 
about the middle of the seventeentn century. 
It grew antiquated in Milton's time, and is 
BOW eniircly obwlete. Dr. Farmer's observ- 
ations on this word, in his no less solid than in- 
l^nious EsKiy on lie Learning of Shakespeare^ 
are so curious, as well as just, that the reader 
will, I doubt not, be obliged to me for quoting 

" Wctiroes a very Httle matter detects a for- 
** gerv. You may remember a play called the 
**XW»le falKhfiod, which Mr.' Theobald 

*' was desirous of palming upon the world for a 

* * posthumous one of Shakespeare : and I see 
" It is classed as such in the last edition of the 
'•Bodleian catalogue. Mr. Pope himself, 
** after all ihc .sirictuicsof Scriblerus, in a letter 
** to Aaron Hill, supposes it of ihat age ; but 
" a mistaken accent determines it to have 
** been written singe the middle of the last 
** century : 

r-" This late example 

«« Of base Henriquez, bleeding iu me now, 
** From each good aspect takes away my 

«* trust" 
' And in another place, 

« You have an «jr/rrf, Sir, of wondrous 

V wisdom," 

" The word aspect^ you perceive, is here ac- 
' •* cented on the first syllable, which, I am 
" confident, in any sense of it, was never the 
•* Case in the time of Shakespeare ; though it 
** may sometimes appear to be so, when we do 
** not observe a prtrcedin^ Elision. 

** Some of the professed imitators of oar old 
•* poets have not attended to this and many 

* other minutiae : I could point 041 to yoii 
" several performances in the respective styles 
** of Chaucer, Spenser, and Shijkcs|xare, 
** which the /OT/W//f<^ bands could not possibly 
"T^ave either read or construed. 

" This very accent bath troubled Hhc aniiotators 

' •* bn Milton. Dr. Bmtlcy observes it to be 

** a tone different from tlie present use." Mr. 

** Manwaring, inhisTreatiseof Harmony and 

" Numbers, very solemnly informs us,, that 

■ •* this verse is difcaivc both in accent and 

•' quantity. 

« His words here ended; but his meek aspect j 

" Silent, yet spake," 

•* Here, says he, a syllable is acutcd and hng^ 

'* whereas it should be short and grooved!" 
*' And a still more extraordinary gentleman, one 
'* Gitea, who published a specimen of a neut) 
** version of the Paradise Lost, into blank 
" verse, *' by which that amazing work is 
** brought somewhat _ nearer the summit of 
** perfection," be^',ins with correcting a blun- 
•* dcr in the fourth book, 
— — *< The setting sun 
•• Slowly descended, and with right aspect'-' 
*« Lcvell'd his cvemng rays.** 
" Not so in the ne*w 'version : 

<' Meanwhile the setting sun descending- 


«* Lcvell'd with aspect right his cv'ning imys.** 

" Enough of such commentators. — The ccle- 

" brated .Dr. Dee had a spirit, who would 

" sometimes condescend to correct him, when 

" peccant in quantity : and it had been kind 

, *' of him to have a little ^'sisted the Tvrghts 

** alK>ve-mentioned. — Milton affected the an^ 

** tique't but it may seem more extraordinary, 

"that the old accent should be adopted in 

" Hudibras." 

To Aspect, as-pekt'. v. a. (492) 

To behold. 

Aspect ABLE, as-pek'ta-bl. a. (405) 


Aspection, as-plk'shun. s. 

Beholding, view. 

Aspen, "as'pen. s. (>03) 
A tree, the leaves of which alwap tremble. 

Aspen, as'perv. a. 
Belonging to the asp-tre^ ; made of aspen wood. 

AspER,as'pur. a. (98) 
Rough, rugged. 

To Asperate, as' pe-r4te. v. a. (91) 

To make rough. 
^^ This word, and those that succeed it of th^ 

same family, seem to ibllow the general rule ip 

the sound of the e before r when after the ae* 
cent ; that is, to preserver it pure, and in a 
separate syllable. — See Principles, No. 555. 

Asperation. as^pc-ra'shun. s. 
A making rougn. 

AspERiF0LioU8,as-plr-e-fo'le-us. a. 
Plants, so called from the roughness of ihcM' 

Asperity, as-per'i-te. s. 
Unevcnness, roughness of surface ; rotighness 
of sound ; roughness, or ruggednessof temper. 

AspERNATiON, as-pcr-na'shun. s. 

"Neglect, disregard- 

AsPEROUS, as'pe-rus. a. 

Rough, uneven. 
To Asperse, as-perse'. V. a. 

To bespatter with censure or calumny. 

Aspersion, as-per'shun. s. 

> A sprinkling calumny, censure. 

AsPHALTiCK, as-fal't!k. a. (84) 
Gummy, bituminous. 

AsPH ALTOS, as-fal'tus. $• 
A Kiiuminous, inflanaroablc substance, resem- 
bling pitch, and chiefly found swimming on 
the surface ol the Lacas' Asphaltites, or Dead 
Sea, where anciently s^ood the cities of Sodooi 
and Gomorrah. 

AspHALTUM, as-fal'tum. s. 
A bituminous stone found near the ancient 

Asphodel, as'fo-del. s. 


AspiCK, a:} pik. »• 
The name of a serpent. 

To Aspirate, as'pe-r^te. v.. a. 
To pronounce with full breath, as hope, noC 
ope. (91) 

Aspirate, as'pe-rate. a. (91) (394) 

Pronounced with full breath. 

Aspiration, as-p^-ra'shun. s. 

A breathing after* an ardent wish ; the act of 
aspiring, or desiring something high ; the pro- 
nunciation of a vowel with full breath. .^ 

To Aspire, as-pire'. v. n. 
To desire with eagerness, to pant after some- s 
thing higher; to rise higher. 

Asportation, as-p6r-ta'shun. s. 

A carrying away. 

Asquint, a-skwint'. ad. 

Obliquely, not in the straight line of visio»» 

Ass, ass. s. . 

An animal of burden ; a stupid^ heavy, dulf 
fellow, a dolt. 

To Assail, as-sJle'. v. a. 

7*0 attack ill a hostile manner, to assault, to Fall 
upon ; to attack with argument or censure. 

Assailable, a^-s4Ma-bl. a. (405) 

That which may be attacked. 

Assailant, as-s^'lant. s. 

He that attacks. 

Assailant, is-sA'lant. a. 

Attacking, invading. 

AssAiLER, as-si'lur. s. (98) 
One who auacks aooiher. 

Assapanick., as-sa-pan'nik. s. 

The flying suuirrel. 

Assassin, as-sas's!n. s. 

A murderer, one that kills by sudden violence. 
To AssASSi NATE, as-sas' si-rate. v. a. 

{91) To murder by violence ; .to way-by, to 

take by treachery. 

Assassination, as-sas>se-na'shuB. 

s. The a6t of assassinating. 

Digitized by 





iT (559). Fite(73), far (77), fill (83). fat (31) ; me (93), m^t (95) ; pine (105), pm (107) ; no(l(52), mive {164), 

Assassinator, as-sas'e-na-tur. s. 

Murderer, mankillcr. 

AssATiON, as-sa'shun. s. 

Assault, as-salt', s. 

SiofTD, opposed 10 sap or siege ; violence ; in- 
va«on, hostility, attack ; in law, a violent kind 
of injury offered to a man's person. 

To Assault, as-salt', v. a. 

To attack, to invade. 

Assaulter, as-sali'ur. s. 
One who violently assaolu another. 

Assay, as-sa'. s. • . r 

Examination; in law, the cxammauon of 
measures and weights used by the clerk of the 
market ; the first entrance upon any thmg ; 
attack, trouble. 

To Assay, as-sa'. v. a. 

To make trial of ; to apply to, as the touch- 
stone in assaying metals ; to try, to endeavour. 

AssAYER, as-4'ur. s. (98) . 

An officer of ihc mint, for the due trial of 

AssECTATiON, as-sck-ta'shun. s. 


AssECUTiON, as-se-ku'sbun. s. 


Assemblage, as-scm'bhulje. s. (90) 
A collccUon ; a number of individuals brought 

To Assemble, as-sem'bl. v. a. (405) 

To bring together into one place. 

To Assemble, as-sem'bl. v. n. 

To meet together. 

Assembly, as-slm'ble. s. 

A cQmpany met together* 
Assent, as-sent'. s. 

The a6l of agreeing to any thing ; consent, 

To Assent, as-sent', v. n. 
To concede^ to yield to. 

Assentation, as-sln-ta'shSn. s. 
Comj>iiancc with the opinion of another out of 

AssENTMENT, as-seiit'ment. s. 

To Assert, as-seiV. v. a. 

To maintain, to defend either by words or 
a£lions; to affirm ; to chiro, to' vindicate a 
title to. 

Assertion, as-scr'shun. s. 

The a^ of asserting. 

Assertive, as-s^r'tiv. a. (i5s) 

Positive, dogmatical. 

Assertor, as-ser'tur. s. (98) 
Maintainer, vindicator, affirmcr. 

To AssERVE, a$-scrv'. v. a. 
To serve, help, or second. 

To Assess, as-ses'. y. a. 

To charge with any certain $um. 

AssESSiON, as-sesh'un. s. 
A sitting down by one. 

Assessment, as-sis' mint. s. 

The sum levied on certain property ; the a3 of 

Assessor, as-ses'sur. s. (98) 

The person that sits by the jtidge ; he that tits 
by another as next in dignity i he that lays 

Assets, as'slts. s. 
Goods sufficient to discharge that burden 
\cbif h is cast uj^n the executor 01 heir. 

ER,as-sev'er. (98)1 
rERATE, as-sev'e- Vv. j 
l) {555} J 


To AssEV 

rate, (91) , 

To affirm with great solemnity, as upon oath< 

Asseveration, as-sev-i-ra'shun. s. 

Solemn affirmation, as upon Odih. 

Asshead, as'hed. s. 
A blockhead. 

Assiduity, as-scdu'e-ti. s. 


Assiduous, as-sid'ju-us. a. (294) 

(376) Constant in application. 

Assiduously, as-sid'ji-us-l^. ad, 

Diligendy, coniinu;ilK'. 

AssiENTO, as-se-cn'to. s. 
A contraft or convention between the kings of 
S^iain and other jwwcrs, for furnishing the 
Spanish dominions to America wiih slaves. 

To Assign, as-sine'. V. a. 

To mark out, lo appoint ; to fix with regard to 
quantity or value j to give a reason for; in 
law, to appoint a deputy, or make over a right 
to another. 

Assignable, as-slne'a-bl. a. 

That which may be assijjned. 

Assignation, as-sig-na'sbun. s. 

An appointment to meet, used generally of 
love appointments ; a making over a ihing to 

Assignee, as-sc-ne'. s. 

He that is appointed or deputed by another to 
do any ad, cm- perform any business, or cnjo)' 
any commoditv. 

AssiGNER,as-si'n5r. s. (98) 
He that assigns. 

Assignment, as-sine'ment. s. 
Ap|x>iniment of one thing with iccard to 
another thing or person ; in law, the deed by 
which any thing is transferred from one to 

Assigns, as-slnz'. s. 
Those persons to whom any trust is assigned. 
This is a Law term, and always used in the 
plural. As a legacy is left to a person's heirs, 
administrators, or assigns. 

Assimilable, as-sim'e-la-bl. a. 
That which may be converted to the same 
nature with something else. 

To Assimilate, as-sim'e-late. v. a. 
(91) To convert to the same nature with 
another thing ; to bring to a likciH;ss, or re* 

Assi m I L.\T£ N £ss,as-sifn' me-late-nes 
s. Li)^cness. 

Assimilation, as-sfm-me-la'shun. 

s. The aB. of converting any thing to the 
nature or substance of another; the state of 
' being as^iimilatcd i the a£l of growing like 
some other being. 

To Assist, as-sfst'*. v. a. 

To help. 

Assistance, as-sis'tanse. s. 

Help, furtherance. 

Assistant, as-sis'tant. a. 

Helping, lending aid. 

Assistant, as-sis'tant* s. 

A perscm engaged in an affair, not as principal, 
but as auxiliary or ministerial. 

Assize, ^s-sizc'. s. 
A court of judicature held twice a year in 
every county, in which causes are tried by a 
judge and jury ; an ordinance or statute to de- 
termine the weight of bread. 

To Assize, as-size'. v. a. 
To fix the rate of any thing. 

Assizer, as-si'zur. s. 
An officer that has the care of weights and 

AssociABLE, as-so'shc-a-bl. a. 
That which mi.y be Joimd to another. 

To Associate, as- 6'sbe-aie. v. a. 

(91) To unite with another as a confcdciaie ; 
to adopt as a friend upon e4]ual terms ; to ac« 

Associate, as-so' she-ate. a. (91) 

Associ.vte, as-so'she-Jite. s. 
A partner, a confederate, a companion. 

Association, as-so-sbc-a'shun. s. 

Union, conjunftlon, society ; confederacy ; 
panncrship ; connc^Uon- — &e Pronunci- 

A^onance, as'so-nanse. s. 

' Reference of one sound to another resem- 
bling it. 

Assonant, as'so-nant. a. 

Re:>en.bltng another sound. 

To ASSORT, as-s6it'. v.a. 
To range in classes. 

To AssoT, as-sot'. v.a. 

To infatuate. 

To AssuAGX, as-swaje'. v.a. (331) 
I'o mitigate, to soften ; to appease, to pacify; 
to ease. 

Assuagement, as.swaje'ment. s. 

What mitigates or softens. » 
Assuageh, as-swa'jur. s. (96) 
One who paciBcs or appeases. 

Assu ASi VEj as-&wa' siv.a. ( 158) (42S) 

Softening, mitigating. 
ToAssuBjUGATE, as-sub'ji-gatc. 

Vk a. To sut)je£i to. (91) 
AssuEFACTiON, as-swe-fak'shfin. s. 

The state of being accustomed. 

AssuETUDE, as'swe-tude. s. (334) 
Accustomance, custom. 

To Assume, as-sume', v. a. (454) 
To take ; to take upon one's self ; to arrogate, 
to claim or seize unjustly ; to suppose some- 
thing without proof; to appropriate. 

(fij^ Why Mr. Sheiidan should pronounce this 
word and the word cotsuf/te witnoutthc^, and 
fresumt and resume, as if written prexhoom 
and rezhoom^ is not easily conceived ; the { 
ought to be atuinited in all or none.— See 
Principles, (4.54) (478) {479) 

AssUMER, as-su'mur. s. (98) 
An arrogant man. 

Assuming,' mfng. pait^ a. 

Arrogant, haughty. 

Assumpsit, as-sdm'.sir. s. 

A voluntary promise made by word, whereby 
a man taketh upon him to perform or pay any 
thing to ar.other. 

Assumption, as-sum'sbun. s. 
The ad of taking any thing to one's self; the 
suppoNitioo of any thing without faither proof; 
the thing stjpposed, a postulate ; the taking up 
any person into heaven. 

Assumptive, as-sum'tiv. a. (157) 

I'hat which is assumed. 

Assurance, ash-sbu'ranse. s. 

Certain expectation ; secure conhdence, trust ; 
freedom from doubt, certain knowledge ; firm- 
ness, undoubiing steadiness ; confidence, want 
of modesty ; {ground of conBdence, security 
given ; spirit, intrepidity ; testimony of credit ; 
conviction; ituurance. 
Xo Assure, ash-sbure'. v.a. (175) 
^ To give confidence by a firm premise ; to 30^ 

Digitized by 





Ti5r [i5r),n&t (l63) ; tube (171), tub (172), bull (173) ; Ml (299) ; P^und (313)3 thin (466), this <469). 

car? another ; to tnaVc confident, to cxcinpi 
from doubt or fear i to make secure. 
Assured, ash-shu' rhd, or asb-sburd' .. 

' ' '^ ' ' iubiiabic i ccr- 
viciou&Iy con- 

pirticip. a.' (359} Certain, indubiiablc ; cer- 
uin, vot dottbu/jg ; iminodcstf 


Certainly, indubitably. 
ASSUREDNESS, asb-shu'rcd-ncs. s. 

(36,5) The Kate of bcinj^ assured, certainty. 

ASSURER, ash-shu^rur. s. 
He that gives assurance ; he thai gives security 
to make good any loss. 

Asterisk, as'tc-risk. s. 

A mark in printing, as *. 

AsTERis.M, as'te-rism. s. 

A comtclbtion. 
AsTERiTES, as-ter-i'tez. s. 

A prectoui stone. A kind of opal spaikling 

Ilk a star. Asb, 

Asthma, ast' ml. s. (471) 
A frcqtiem, difficult, and short respiration, 
joined with a hl^^ing sound and a cCmgh. 

AsthmatiCal, ast-mat'e-kal. > ^ 
AsTHM.\TiCK, ast-mat'ik. (509) / 
I'roublcd with an asthnia. 

Astern, a-stern'. ad. 
In the hinder pan of the ship, behind ibesbip. 

To AsTERT> a-stert'. V. a. 
To terriij', to siarik, to fright. 

AsTONiED, i-stin'i-^d. part. a. 
A word used for astormhcd. 

To Astonish, as-tin'nish. v. a. 

To coQfound wi:h fear Or wonder, to amaze* 

AsTONisHiNGNESS, as-tifi'itlsh-fng- 

nJs. $. 
Quality to excite astonishment. 

AsTONisuxiENTj as-toti'jsb-inciU. 9. 
Amazement, confasioti of mind. 

To Astound, as-t&urid'. v. a. 

To asronisb, to confound with fear or wonder. 

Astraddle, a-strad'dl. ad. (405J 
With one's legs across any thing. 

Astragal, aji'tra-gal. s. (503) 

A htiie round member, in the form of a ring, 
at the tops and bottoms of columns. 

Astral, as^iral. a. 

Surr)-, rdating to the stars. 

•Astray, a-stra'. ad. 

Our of the right way. 

ToAstrict, as-tiikt'. v. a. 

To coQtnct by application. 
AsTRiCTiQN, as-trik'shun. s. 

The act or power of contraccmg tlie parti of 

the body. 
AbTKicTiVE, a$-trik'tiv. a. (i58) 

^^-piick, binding. 

AsTRicroRY, is-tnk'tur-rc. a. 


AsTRiDR, a-stride'. ad. 
With ibe legs opciu 

AsTRiFERous, as-trif'4-rus. a. 
faring, or having stars* 

Tn AsTRiNGE, as-trinjc'. v. a. 
To nuke a ccniraction, to makecbt parts draw 

Anfringency, as*trln'jlii-$i, s. 

The power of.contnicting the parts of the body. 
ASTRINGENT, as-trin'jent. a. 

Auidmj*, contracting. 

AiTRooRAPHY, as*trog'ra-fe. «• 
^18) The science of describing the start. 

Astrolabe, as'tro-lJbc. s. 

An instrument chiefly used for taking the alti- 
tude of the pole, the sun, or stars, at sea. 

Astrologer, as-trol'o-jur. s. 

One thclt, suppO'^ing the influence of the ^tan 
to have d casual power, professes to forctdl or 
discover c\'cnis. 
AsTROLOGiAN, as-tro-ii'jcan. s. 

Astrological, as-tro-l^'jc-"^ 

kal. (509) Va. 

AsTROLOGiCK, as.tro-lod'jfk. J 
Relating to astrology, professing astrology. 

Astrologically, as-iro-lSd'je-kal- 
le. ad. 
In an astrological manner. 

To AsTROLpGiZE, Is-tril'A-jize. 

V. n. To practise astrology. 

Astrology, as-trftrii-jei s. {5\s) 

The pratiice of forefclUng things by the know- 
ledge of die stars. 

Astronomer, as-trftn'no-niSr. s. 

He that studies the celestial motions. 

Astronomical, ^s-tro-nim'i-*^ 

kal. {309) >a. 

AsTRONOMiCK, as-tro-noni'ik. J 
Belonging to astronomy. 

Astronomically, as-tro-non/c^ 

kal-he. a. 
In an astronomical manner. 

Astronomy, is-tron'no-me. s. 

A mixed mathematical science, teaching the 
knowledge of the celestial bodies, their mag- 
nitudes, motions, distances, periods, eclipses, 
and order. (518) 

s. Divinity founded on the observation of the 
celestial bodies. 

Asunder, a-sun'dur. ad. (ps) 

Apart, separately, not toj^ether. 
Asylum, a-slMum. s. 

A santtuary, a refuge. 
(f3^ Nothing can shew more plainly the ten- 
dency of our language to an antepenultimate 
accent ihati the vulgar pronunciation of this 
word, which generally places the accent on the 
finfi syllable. This is however an uni^ardon- 
able oifenCe to a Latin ear, which insists on 
preserving the accent of the original whenever 
we adopt a Latin word into our own language 
without alteration. — See Principles, No. 503. 

AssYMETRY, a-sim'me-tri, s. 
Contrariety to symmetry, disproportion. 

Asymptote, as'sim-tote. s. 

Asymptotes are right lines which approach 

nearer and nearer 10 some curve, but which 

would never meet. 
^1^ 1 have preferred Dr. Johnson's accentuation 

on the hrst syllable, to Mr. Sheridan's and Dr. 

Ash's on the second. 
Asyndeton, a-^ih' de-ton. s. 

A fi|;ure in gran.mar, when a conjun£Uon 
copulative is omitted. 
At, at. prep. 
At before a place notes the nearness of the 
place, as a man is al the house before he is in 
It ; At before a word signifying time, notes 
the co-existcncc of the time with the event ; 
At before a super laive adjcdive implies in the 
suie, as at most, in the state of most perfec- 
tion, &c. At signifies the particular condition 
of the person, as aipeacc ; At sometimes marks 
employment or attention, as he is at work ; Ac 
sometimes the shii;c with furnished with, as a alarms; At sometimes notes the place 
where any thing is^ as he is at home ; At 

sometimes is nearly the same as In, footing si- 
tuation ; At sometimes seems to signify -in the 
power of, or obedient to, at at your service ', 
At all, in any manner. 

Atabal. at'a-bal. s. 
A kind 01 tabour used by the Moors. 

Ataraxy, at'ia-rak-se. s. (517) 
Exemption from vexation, tranquillity. 

Athanor, a/^'a-u&r. s. {166) 
A digesting ftmiace (o keep heat for some time. 

Atheism, a'/Ae-isra. s. (505) 
1 he disbelief of God. 

Atheist. a'/*i-ist. s. 

One that aenies the existence of God. 

Atheistical, J./Ae-is'i^-kal. a. 

Given to atheism, impious. 
Atheistic ALLY, J-Z^-ls'te-kal-lc. 

ad. In an atheistical maimer. 
ATHEistiCA-LN ESS, a-Mc-is'te-kil- ' 
nis. s. 
The quality of being aiheistkal. 

Atheistick, a-/'tik.a. 
Given to atheism. 

ATHEOus,a'/Ae-us.a. (505) 
Atheistick, godless. 

Atheroma, a/A-i-ro'ina* s. (527) 
A species of wen. 

Atheromatous, 8fA-c-rftm'a-tfls. 

a. Having the qualities of an ttheromt or 
curdy weiu 

Athirst, a-/Aurst'.ad. (1O8) 

Thirsty, in want of drink* 

Athletick, a/A-let'fk. a. (500) ^ 
Belotiging to wrestling ; strong of body, vigo- 
rous, lusty, robust. 

Athwart, a-/AwSrt'. prep. 
Across, transverse to any thitig ; through. 

Atilt, a-tilt'.ad* 
With die a£lion of a man aiakii^ a thmst 2 
in the posture of a barrel raised or lilted be* 
. hind. 

Atlas, at' las. s. 

A collection of maps ; a large square folio ; 
sometimes the supporter of ahuildiog; a rick 
kind of silk. 

Atmosphere, at'mo-sfere. s. 
The air that encompasses the solid earth onalL 

Atmospherical, at-mA-sfer'e-kaU 

a. Beloiiging to the atmosphere. 

Atom, at' turn. s. (166) 
Such a small particle as cannot be physicaUjr 
divided; any thing extremely small. 

Atomical, a-tom'i-kal. a« 
Coiuisting of atoms ; relating to atoi^. 

ATOMiST,at'tA-m!st. s. 
One that holds theatomical philosophy. 

Atomy, at'o-mi. s. 

An atom. 

To Atone, a-tone'. v. n. 
To agree, to accord ; to stand as an equivalent 
for something : to answer for. 

To Atone, a-t^ne'. v. a. 

To expiate. 

Atonement, a-tAne'mcnt. s. 
Agreement, concord; expiation, exptatoiy> 

Atop, a-top'. ad. 
On the top, at the top. 

Atrabilarian, at-tra-bc-li'rc.Jri. 
a. Melancholy. (507) ^ 

Atrabilarious, at-tra-be-la reus, 
a. Melancholick. 

Digitized by 





frr (559), Fate (73), fir {77)i fall (83), f?it(8l) ; wk (93), m^t (95); pine (105), pin (107); no (l62),mive(i64), 

to be consequent 

Atrabilariousness, at-tra-bi-la'- 
re-us-nes, s. 
The state of being melancholy. 

Atramental, at-iil-raSn'tal. a. 

Inky, black. 
Atramentous, at-tra-men'tus. a. 

Inky, black. 

Atrocious, a-tro'shus. a. (292) 

Wicked in a high degree, enormous. 

Atrociously, a-tro'shus-lc. ad, 

in an atrocious 'manner. 

Atrociousness, a-tro'shus-nes. s. 
The quality of being enormously criminal. 

Atrocity, a-tros',sc-te, s. (311) 

Horrible wicKedne:is. 

Atrophy, at/tro-fe. 8. 

Want of nourishment, a disease. 

To Attach, at-tatsh' . v. a. 

To arrest, to take or apprehend ; to seize ; to 
lay hold on ; lo win ; to gain over, to ena- 
mour; to fix to one's interest. 

Attachment, at-titsh'mlnt. s. 

Adherence, regard. 

To Attack, at-tak', v. a. # 

To assault an enemy ; to begin a contest. 

Attack* auuk'. s. 

An assault. 

Attacker, at-tak'ur. s. (98) 

The persoQ that atucks. 

To Attaii<i, at-t5ne'. v. a. 
To gain, to procure; to overtake i to come 
to ; to reach ; to equal. 

To Attain., at-i4ne'. v. n. 
To come to a certain state ; to arrive at. 

Attainable, Jt-tane'a-bl. a. 

That which may be obtained, procurable. 

Attain ABLEN ESS, at-tine'a-bl-nes. 
s. The quality of being attainable. 

Attainder, at-tine'dur. s. (98} 

The act of attainting in law ; taint. 

Attainment, at-tSne'tnent. s. 

That which is attained, acquisition ; the act or 
power of atraininff. 

To Attaint, at-tant'. v. a. 

To attaint is particularly used for such as arc 
found guilty of some crime or offence ; to 
taint, to corrum. 

Attaint, ai-tint'. s. 

Any thing injurious, as illness, weariness; 

f'.Jn, spot, taint. 
Attainture, at-tine'tshure. s. 

(461) Reproach, imputation. 

To Attamin ATE,ai-tam'c-nite, v. a. 
Tocorrupr. Not used. 

To Attemper, at-tem'pir. v. a. 

To mingle, to weaken by the mixture of some- 
thing else ; to regulate, to soften ; to mix in 
j^st proportions ; to fit to someihing else. 

To Attemperate, at.tlm'pi-iate. 

V. a. To proportion to something. (555) 

To Attempt, at-temt'. v. a. (412) 

To attack, to vemure upon; to try, to en* 

Attempt, at-i^mt', s. {412) 

All attack, an essay, an endeavour. 
Attemptable, at-temt'ta-bh a. 

Liable to attempts or attacks. 

Attempter, at-tlmt'tur. s. 
The person that attempts ; an endcavourcr. 

To Atten d. at-tind' . v. a. 
To regard, to nx the mind upon ; to watt on ; 
to accompany ; to be present with, upoo a sum- 

mons ; to be appendant to 
to ; to stay for. 
To Attend, at-tend'. v. n. 

To yield attention ; to stay, to delay. 

Attendance, at-t^n'danse, s. 

I'he a6l of waiting on another ; service ; the 
persons waiting, a train ; attention, regard. 

Attendant, at-tcn'dant. s. 

One that attends; one that belongs to the 
train ; one that waits as a suitor or agent ; one 
that is present at any thing ; a concomitant, a 

Atten'dur. s, (98) 
Companion, associate. 

Attent, at -tent', a. 

Intent, attentive. 

Attentatjbs, at-ten'tates.s. 
' Proceedings in a court after an inhibition is 

Attention, at-ten'sbun. s. 

The aAof attending or heeding. 

Attentive, at-tcn'tiv. a. (l58) 

Heedful, ji-gardful. 

Attentively, at-ten'iiv-le. ad. 
Hcedfully, carefully. 

Attentiveness, at-tSn'tlv-nes. s. 

licedfulness, attention. 

Atjenuant, at-tcn'u-5nf. a. 

£nducd with the power of making thin or 

Attenuate, at-ten'u-ate. a. (91) 

Made thin or slender. 

Attenuation, at-t^n-fi-a'sh5n. s. 

The a£i of making any thing thin'or slender. 
Atter, at'tur. s. (98) 

Corrupt matter. 

To Attest, at-test'. v. a. 
To bear witness of, to witness ; to call to wit- 

Attestation, at-tes-ta'shun. s« 

Testimony, evidence. 

Attic, at'iik. a. 

fii'longing to Attica, belonging to Athens. 
fjn philology J Delicate, poignant, jusi, up- 
right. (In arrA;/rr/«rt) belonging to the upper 
]>art ot a building ; belonging to an upper 
story, flat, having the roof concealed; De- 
longing to a peculiar kind of base somt times 
used in the Ionic and Doric orders. A^If. 

ToAtticise, at'te-size. V. n. 
To make use of atticisms. Jtsb. 

Atticism, at't€;-sizm. <j. 

An imitation of the Attic style ; a concise and 
elegant mode of expression. Jsb* 

Attiguous, at-iig'u-us. a. 
Hard by. 

To Attinge, at-tlnje'. v. a. 

To touch slrghtly. 

To Attire, Jt-tire*. v.'a. 

, To dress, to habit, to array. 

Attire, at tiie'. s. 

Clothes, dress; in hunting, the horns of a 
buck or stag ; in botany, the flower of a plant 
is divided into three parts, the imj)alcmeiit, the 
foliation, and the attire. 

Attirer, at-ti'rur. s. that attires another, a dresser. 

Attitude, at'tc-tude. s. 
A po&turc, the posture or a£iion io which a 
statue or painted figure is placed. 

Attollent, at-tolMent. a. 

That which raises or lifts up. 

Attorney, Jt.tur'ne, s. (165) 

Such a p/rson as by consent, commandment, 
or request, ukes heed to, sc-es, and takes upon 

hini the charge of other men's business, ia 
their absence; one who is appointed or rc.^ 
tained to prosecute or defend an afiion at law ; 
a lawyer. 

Attorneyship, at-tur'ne-ship, s- 

The office of an attorney. ^ 

Attornment, at-turn'mint. s. 
A yielding of the tenement to a new lord* 

To Attract, at-trakt\ v. a. 

To draw to something ; to allure, to invite. 

Attractical, at-trik'ie-kal. a. 
Having the power to draw. 

Attraction, at-tiak' shun. s. 

I'he power of drawing any thing ; the power 
of alluring or enticing. 

Attractive, at-trak'tlv. a. (i58) 
Having the power to draw any thing ; invitingi 
allurmg, enticing. 

Attractive, at-trak'tiv. s. 

1 hat which draws or incites. 

Attractively, at-trak'tiv-le. ad. 

With (he power oi attra^hVig. 

Attractiveness, at-trak'tiv-nes.s. 

The quality of being at tractive. 

Attr actor, at-tiak^tdr. s. (98) 

I'he agent that attracts. 

Attr ACT ATI ON, at-trak-tS'shun. s. 

Frequent handling. 

Attrahent, at'ira-hent. s. (503,/) 
Thai which draws. 

Attributable, at-tiib'i-ta-bl. a. 

That which may be ascribed or attributed. 

To Attribute, at-tiib'ute.v. a. 
UV^) To ascribe, to yield 5 to impute, as to a 

Attribute, at'tre-bute. s. (492) 

The thing attributed to another ; quality ad* 
herent ; a thing belonging to another, an ap« 
pendant; reputation, nonour. p 

Attribution, ai-tre-bu'shfin. s. 


Attrite, at-trite'. a. 

Ground, worn by rubbing. 

Attriteness, at-trite' h?s, s. 
The being much worn. 

Attrition, autnsh'un. s. (507) 

The a£i of wearing things by rubbing; grief 
for sin, arising only from the fi»r ot punish- 
ment ; the lowest degree of repemaoce* 

To Attune, at-tune' .v. a. 

To make any thing musical ; to tune one thing 
to another.*^See Tune. 

Atween, a-tween'. ad. or prep. 

Betwixt, between. 

Atwixt, a-twikst'. prep. 

In the miadlc of two things. 
To Avail, a-vale'.v. a. 

To profit, to turn to profit; to promote, to 

prosper, to assist. 

Avail, a-vAie'. s. 

Profit, advantage, benefit. 

Available, a-va'la-bl. a. (405) 

Profitable, advantageous; powerfiil, having 

Availableness, a-vaMa-bl-nes. s. 
Power of promoting the end for which it is usid. 

Availably, a-va'ia-bli. ad. 

Powerfully, profitably. 

AvAiLMENT, a-v4le'mcnt. s. 

Usefulness, advantage. 

To AvALE, a-vale'. v. a. 

To let fall, to depress. 

AvAi^TiCUARD, a-vani'ffai4« »• - 

The van. 

Digitized by 





nir (i(>rj, not (163); tube (l?!)',*^^ (172), bull (j;3); otl (299); piund (sis); thin {460), this (46g). 

^usAi. ad. 

Avarice, av' J-A. «. (142) 


Covetous. ^ 



Avar iciousN ESS, av-a-nsh'us-nes. 

I. The <]ii^liqr of being avarkioos. 
Avaunt, a-vint'. interject. (21^) 

A word of abhorrence by which any one is 

drivfB away. 

Auburn E, Iw'burn. a. 

BfowD, of a tan colour. 

Auction, Iwk 'shun. s. 

A manner of sale in which one penon bids after 
another; the thing sold by aa£iion. 

Alctionary, 4\yk'shun-a-ri. a. 
Belooging to an au&ion. 

Auctioneer, awk-shun-iir'. $. 
The penon chat manages an aa6tion. (875) 

AucTiVE,awk'tfv. a. (i58) 
Of an increasing quality. Not used. 

AucupATiON, ^w-ku-pa'shun. s. 
Fowling, bifd-catching. 

Audacious, iw-da'shSs. a. (292) 

Bold, impudent. 

Aldaciously, iw-da'shds-lc. ad. 
Boldly, impudently. 

Audaciousness, ^w-di'shfis-nes. s. 


Audacity, aw-das'e-tJ. s. (511) 

Sptrii, boldness. 

Audible, aw'de-bl. a. (405) 
Thai which may be ncireived by hearings 
kud enough to be h'eard. 

Audibleness, iw'de-bl-nis. s. 

Capibieness of being heard. 

4^DiBLY, 4\v'de-blc. ad. 
fosich a manner as 10 be heard. 

The a^ of hearing ; the libcfty of speaking 
panted, a bearing ; an auditory, persons coi- 
ned to hear ; the reception of any man who 
delivers a solemn message. 

Audit, aw'dit. s. 

A final account. 

To Audit, aw'dit. v. a. 

To take an account finallv. 

Audition, aw-dish un.s. (507) 


Auditor, aw'de-tur. s. {gs){503, b) 

A hearer ; a person employed to take an ac- 
count ultimately ; a king's officer, who, yearly 
eismtning the accounts of all under omccrs 
acrountaSle, makes up a general book. 

Auditory, ^w'de-tur-re, a. {557) 

1 bat which has the power of hearing. 

Auditory, aw'de-tur-re. s. 

At audience, a col left 1 0:1 of persons assembled 
tohe-r; a place where Itt^urc* arc to be heard. 

Aur .REss,5w'de-tres. s. 

^ b- ^inan that hears. 

To A EL, S-vcl'. v.a. 
To pull away. 

AvEMARY,'re. s, 
A form of worship in honour of the Virgin 
Mary. • • 

AvENAGE, av'^n-idje. s. (pi) 

A cenain quality of oats paid to a landlord. 

To Avenge, a-venje'. v. a. 

lo revenge; to punish. 

Avenge ANCE,a-ven'janse. s. (244) 

AvENGEMKNT.a-venje'meiit. s. 
Vci^eaucc revenge. 

Avenger, a-ven'jur. s. 
Punisher ; revenger, ukcr of vengeance. 

AvENS, av'ens. s. 
Herb tiennct. 

AvENTURE, S-vin'tshire. s. (461) 
A mischance, causing a man's death, without 

Avenue, ay'^-nfi. s. (335) (503) 

A way by which any place may be entered ; an 
alley, or waUc of trees before a bouse.— See 
To Aver, a-vlr'.v. a. 
To declare positively. 

Average, av'ur-idie. s. (90) {555) 
That duty or service which the tenant is to 
py to the king ; a medium, a mean propor- 

Averment, a-ver'm^nt. s. 
Establishment of any thing by evidence. 

Avernat, a-vcr'nat. s. 
A sort of gnpe. 

To AvERUNCATE, Jv-^r-rung'kitc. 
V. a. To root up. (91) (408) 

AvERSATiON, av-er-sa'shun. s. 
Hatred, abhorrence. 

Averse, a-verse'. a. 
Mulign, not favourable i not pleased with, un- 
willing to. 

Aversely, a-verse' li. ad. 
Unwilhngly ; backwardly. 

AvERSENESS, a-verse'nis. s. 
Unwillingness ; backwardness. 

Aversion, a-v^r'shun. s. 
Hiiircd, dislike, deiesution ; the cause of aver- 

To Avert, a-vert' . v. a. 

To turn aside, to turn olF, to put by. 

Auger, aw'gur. s. (98) (i6'()) 
A carpenter's tool to bort: holes with. 

Aught, awt. pronoun. (393) 

Any thing. 
fjf^ This word is not a pronoun as Dr. John- 
son has marked it, but a substantive. 

To Augment* awg-ment'. v. a. 
To increase, to make bigger or more. 

To Augment, awg-ment'. v. n. 

To increase, to grow bigger. 

Augment, awg'ment. s. (492) 

Increase ; state of mcrease. 

AucMENTATiok, awg-men-ta'shun. 
s. 7'he ad of increasing or making bigger ; 
the state of being made bigger ; the thing 
added, by which another is made bigger. 

Augur, aw'gdr. s. (98) (lOti) 
One who pretends to predict 1^ the flightof . 
birds. ' 

To Augur, aw'gur. v. n. 

To guess, to conjecture by signs. 
To Augurate, aw'gi-rate. v. n, 

(9O lo judge by augury. 
A ugu RATION, aw-gu-ra'shun. s. 

The practice of augury. 

AuGURER, aw'gOr-ur. s. {bbb) 
The same with augur. 

AuGURiAL, aw-gu're-al. a. 

Relating to augury. 

Augury, aw'.giVie. s. (179) 
'I'he a6k of prognosiicating by omens ; the 
rules observed by augurs;- an omen or prc- 

August, aw-gust'. a. (494) 

Great, grand, royal, loagnifii-cnt. 

August, ^w'gust. s. 

The name of the eighth month £rom January 

Augustness, aw-gust'nes.». 

Elevation of look, dignity. 
AviARY^ i've-a-re, s. (505) 

A place inclosed to keep biids in. 

Avidity, .a-v!d'e-te. s. 

Greediness, eagernoss. 
Avitous, av'i-tus. a. (503) (314) 

Left by a man's ancestors. Not tised. 
To A V 1 z E, a-vize' . v . a. 

To counsel ; to betbiuk himself, to consider. 

AuLD, awld. a. 
Old. Not used. 

AuLETiCK, iw-let'!k. a. (509) 

Belonging to pipes. 

AuLicK, iw'l!k. a. 
Belongirig to the court. 

AuLN, awn. s. 

* A French measure of length, an ell. 

To AuMAiL, iw-male'. v. a. 

To variegate. 
Aunt, ant. s. (214) 

A father or mother's sister. 

Avocado, av-o-ka'do. s. 
A plant. — See Luna ago. 

To AvoCATE, av'vo-katc. v. a. (91) 
To call away. ' 

AvQCATiQN,, av-vo-ka'shun. s. 
The ad of calling aside ; the business that calls. 

To Avoid, a-vixd'. v< a. (299) 
To shun, to escape ; to endeavour to shoo ; to 
evacuate, to quit. 

To Avoid, a-v6!d'. y. n. 

To retire ; to bteome void or vacant. 

Avoidable, a-v6id'a-bl. a. 

That which may be avoided or escaped. 
Avoidance, a-y6id'anse. s. 

The 861 of avoiding ; the courK by which 
any thing is carried off. 

AvoiDER, a-v6id'^. 8. (98) 
The person that 5huns any thing ; the person 
that carries any thing away} the vessel ia 
which things are carried away. 

AvoiDLEss, a-v6!d'les. a. 

Avoirdupois, Jv-er-du.p^iz'.a. 

(309). A kind of weight, of which a pound 
contains sixteen Ounces, and is in proportion to 
a pound Troy as 17 to 14 

AyoLATiON,av-o-la'shun. s. 

The flying away. 

To Avouch, a-v&utsh'. v. a. . 
To affirm, to maintain ; to produce io favoar 
of another; to vindicate, to justify. 

Avouch, a-v6utsh'. s. (313) 

Declaration, evidence. 

AvoucHABLE, a-v6utsh'a-bl. a. 
That may be avouched. 

AvoucHER, a-.v&uish'er. s. 
He that avouches. 

To Avow, a-viu'. V. ;?. 

To justify, to declare openly. , 

Avow ABLE, a-v6u'a-M. a. 

I'hat which may be openly dccbred. 
Avowal, a-v6u'al. s. 

Justificatory declaration. 

Avowedly, a-vAiV^d-le. ad. (36<) 

In an avowed manner. 

Avowee, av-6u-e'. s. 
' He to whom the ri^^ht of advowsoQ of anjr 
church belongs. 

Digitized by 





tiT {559). Fate (73), far (77), fall (ss), fat (81)5 mi (93), met (95) 5 pine (105), p!n (107) 5 no (162), raive {i6i\ 

AvowER, a-v&u'ur. s, (93) 

He that avov^'s or justifies. 

Avowry, a-v6u're. s. 

Where one lakes a distress, the taker shall Jus- 
tify for what cause he took it ; which is called 
his avowiy. 

AvowsAL, a-vou'zal.s. (442) 
A confession. 

Avowtry, a-v&u'tre. s. 


Aurate, 4w'rate, s. 
A sort of pear. 

AuRELiA, aw-re'le-a. s. (92) 
A term used for the first apparent change of 
the eruca, or maggot of any species of iiuc6U, 
the chrysalis. 

AuRrcLE, aw're-kl. s. (405) 
The external ear ; two appendages of the heart, 
being two muscular caps covering the two ven- 
tricles thereof. 

Auricula, aw-rik'u-li. s. (92) 

Bear's ear, a flOwer. 

Auricular, iw-rtk'fi-l3r. a. 

Within the sense or reach of hearing ; secret, 
told in the car. 
AuRicuL^RLY, aw-rik'i-lar-le. ad. 
In a secret manner. 

Auriferous, aw-r!f'fe-rus. a. (518) 

That which produces gold. 

AuRiGATiON, aw-r4-ga'shun. s. . 
The zSi of driving carriages. Not used. 

AuRiST, aw'rist. s. * 
One who professes to cure disorders of the 
car. Jtsb* 

Aurora, Sw-ro'ra. s. {545) 
A species of crow-foot ; the godd^ that opens 
the gates of day, poetically the morning. 

Auscultation, 4vrs-kul-ta'shun. s. 

A hearkening or listening to. 

Auspice, dw'spis. s. (i4o) (i42) 

The omens of any future undertaiking drawn 
from birds ; protection, favour shewn ;^ influ- 
ence, good derived to others from the piety of 
their patron.' 

AuspiciAL, aw-splsh'al. a. (292) 
Relating to prqgnosticks. 

Auspicious, iw-spish'us. a. (292) 

With omens of success ; prosperous, fortu- 
nate; favourable, kind, propitious; lucky, 
happy, applied to things. 

Auspiciously, dw-spish'us-le. ad. 

Happily, prosperously. 

Prosperity, happiness. 

Austere, Aw-stire'. a. 
Severe, harsh, rigid ; sour of taste, hatih. 

Austerely, aw-stere'li. ad. 

Severely, rigidSy. 

Austereness, aw-stere nes. s. 
Severity, strictness, rigour ; roughness in taste. 

Austerity, Sw-sr^r'e-ti. s. (511) 

Severity, roonifi^d life, stri£iness; cruelty, 
harsh discipline. 

Austral, dws'tral. a. Southern. 
AusTRiNE, dws'trin. a. (l4o) 


AuTHENTiCAL, iw-/A^n'te-kal. a. 
Authentick. (509) 

ad. With circumstances requisite to procure 


• nes. s. 
The quality of being authentick, genuineness. 

v.a. To establish any thmgby authority. (91 J 

f^ I have inserted tliis word without any pre- 
cedent from our other didionaries ; but it is, 
in my opinion, sufiiciently established by good 
usage to give it a place in all of them. 

Authenticity, aw-//>en-tis'sc-ie.s. 

Authority, genuineiress. 

Authentick, aw-/Aen't!k. a. 

That which has every thing requisite to give it 

AuTHENTiCKLY,iw-/Aen'iik-l^. ad. 

After an authentick manner. 
AuTHENTiCKN ESS, iw-/iln'tik-nls. 

s. Authenticity. 

Author, Iw'/Aur. s. (98) (418) 

The first beginner or mover of any thing ; the 
efficient, Jbc that tSc€is or produces any thing ; 
the first writer of any thing ; a writer iu ge* 

Authoress, aw'/Aur-lss. s. 

A female writer. 

Authoritative, dw-/Aor'e-ta-tiv. 

a. Having due authority; having an air of 

Authoritatively, Sw-/Aor'e-ta- 
tiv.l^. ad. 

In an authoritative manner ; with a shew of 
authority ; wifh due authority. 

tiv-nes. s. 
Authoritative appearance. 

VAUTHORITY^ kw'thoT^G-ti. S. 

Legal power ; influence, credit ; power, rule ; 
support, countenance; testimony; credibility. 

((3r This word is sometimes pronounced as if 
written austrhy- This aife6ted pronunciation 
is traced to a gentleman who was one of the 
greatest ornaments of the law, as well as one 
of the politest scholars of the age, and whose 
authority has been sufficient to sway the bench 
and the bar, though author^ authentic^ theatre^ 
tbeety^ &c. and a thousand similar words 
where the tb is heard, are constantly staring 
them in the face. 

The public ear, however^ is not so far vitiated as 
to acknowledge this mnovaiion ; for though 
it may with security, and even approbation, be 
pronounced in Westminster Hall, it would 
not be quite to safe for an a£ior to adopt it on 
the stage. 

I know it will be said, that autontas is b^uer 
Latin, that the purer Latin never had the b ; 
and that our word, which is derived from it, 
ought, on that account, to omit it. But it 
may be observed, that, according to the best 
Latin critics, the word ou^ht to be written 
auSoritaSi and that, accordmg to this reason- 
ing, we ought to write and pronounce au^o- 
rity and auilwr : but this, I presume, is farther 
than these innovators would choose to go. 
The truth is, such singularities of pronunci- 
ation should be left to the lower order of 
critics ; who, like coxcombs in dress, would 
be utteriy unnoticed if they were not distin- 
guished by petty deviations from the rest of the 

s. Establishment by authority. 

To Authorize, aw'/AA-rize. v. a. 
To give authority to any person ; to make any 
thing le^l; to establish anything by autho- 
rity ; to justify, to prove a thing to be right ; 
to give credit to any person or thing. 

AuTOCRASY, av^-tok'ra-se^ s. (518) 
Independent power. 

AUTOCRATRiCE, iw-iok'ra-tT?s. s. 
A female absolute sovereign. Masvn. 

Autograph, 4w't6-graf. s. 

A particular person's own writing, the original. 

Autograph iCAL, ^w-to-grafe-kal. 

a. Of one's own writmg. 

Automatical, iw-to-mJit'e-kal. a. 

Having the power of moving itself. 

Automaton, dw-tom'a-ton. s. 

A machine that hath the power of motion 
within itself. 

AuTpMATOUS. iw-tJm'a-tus. a. 
Having in itself tnc power of motion. 

AUTONOMY,4w-tin'n6-me. s. (518) 
The living according to one's ovm miod and 
prescription. Not in use. 

Autopsy, aw' top-se. s. 

Ocular demonstration. 

Autoptical, aw-top'ti-kal. a. 

Perceived by one's own eyes. 

AuTOPTiCALLY, aw-top'tc-kal-lc. 
ad. By means of one's own eyes. 

Autumn, aw'tum. s. (411) 

The season of the year between summer and 

Autumnal, aw-tum'nal. a. 

Belonging to autumn. 

Avulsion, a-vul'shSn. s. 

Thea£l of pulling one thing from another. 

AuxEsis, ivi^g-ze'sis. s, (478) (520) 

AuxiLiAR, Iwg-zil'yar. 8.(4/8) 
Helper, assistant. 

Auxiliary, 4wg-zil'ya-re. a. 

Helping, assistmg. 

Aux ILLATION, awg-ziUe-a'shun. $. 
Help, aid. 

To Await, a-wate'. v. a. 
To expect, to wait for ; to attend, to be in store 

Await, J-\iite\ s. 


To Awake, a-wSke'. v. a. 
To rouse out of sleep ; to raise from any state 
resembling sleep ; to put into new aclion. 

To Awake, a-wike'. v. n. 

To break from sleep, to cease to sleep. 

Awake, a-wake'- a. 
Without sleep, not sleeping. 

To Awaken, a-wa'kn. (los) 
Sec Awake. 

To Award, a-wSrd'. v, a. 

To adjudge, to give anv thing by a judicial 
sentence t to judge, to determine. 

Award, a-wird'. s. 
Judgment, sentence, determination* 

Aware, a-ware'. a. 
Vigilant, attentive. 

To Aware, a-wirc'. v. n. 
To beware, to be cautions. 

Away, a->vi'.ad. 
Absent from any place or person ; let us go; 
begone; out of one's own power. 

Awe, Sw. s. 

"Reveicntial fear, rcTerence. 
To Awe, iw. v. a. 
To strike with reverence or fear. 

Awebakd, aw'band. s. 
A check. 

Awful, Sw'ful. a. (173) (406) 

That which strikes with awe, or fills with re- 
verence; worshipful, invested with dignit}; 
struck with awe, timorous. 

Awfully, 4w'fdl-lA. ad. 

In a reverential manner* 

Digitized by 





T^ii67)f nJt (163); tube C171), tub (172), bull (173} 5 «1 Uss) ; pound {313) ; thin (466), this (469). 

AwruLNESS, 4w ful-nes. s. 

The quaiitv of striking with zvfCt solemnity ; 
tiie state oT being struck with awe. 

Awhile, a-while'. ad. (397) 

Some lime* 

Awkward, iwk'wfird. a. (475) 
laciegant, unpolite, untaught; unready, un- 
landy, clumsy ; perverse, untoward. 

Awkwardly, awk'wurd-le. ad. 

ChuDsily, unreadily, inelegantly. 
AwKWARDNESS,iwk;wurd-nls. s. 

loekigance, want of gebtility^ clumsiness. 

A pointed instrument to here holes. 

AwLESS,Sw'lls, a. 
Without reverence ; without the powef of 
I ausiiig reverence. 

k AwME, awm. s. 

I A Dutch measure answering to what in £ng- 
f laid is called a tierce, or one-seventh of an 
Eoglisb ton. 

Awning, iw'ning. s. (410) 
A cover spread over a Doat or vessel to keep off 
ibe weather. 

Awoke, a- woke'. 

The preterite of Awake. 

AwoRK, a-wfirk'. ad. (165) 
On work, in a state of labour. 

AwoRKlNG.a-wurk'ing. ad. 
In the state of^ working. 

Awry, a-ri'. ad. (474) 
Not in a straight dire£iion. obliquely ; asquint, 
with oblique vision ; not level, unevenly : not 
equally between two points; not in a right 
state, perversely. 

AXE^ tks. 8. 

An instrument consisting of a metal hnd,with 

a sharp edge. 

AxiLLAR, aks'zfl-lar. (478) 1 

Axillary, aks'zil-la-ri, J ^• 
Belongifig to the arm-pit.-~-See Maxil- 

Axiom, ak'shSm.s. (479) 

A proposition evident at first sight. 

Axis, ak's!s. s. 

The fine, real or imaginary, that passei through 
any thing on may revolve. 


Axle, ak'sl. (405) 
Axle-tree, ak'sl-trii. 

The pin which passes through the midst of tho 
wheel, on which the cirdumvoludo^ of the 
wheel are performed. 

Ay, li. ad. (105) Yes. 
Q^ See diredions to Foreigners prefixed to4hit 
di£lionary, page xiv. 

Always, to eteniity, for ever. 

AYGREEN,ie'green. s. 
The same with houseleek. t 

Ayry, 4' re. a. See Airy.. 
Azimuth, az'i-mu/A. 5. 

The azimuth of the sun, or of a star, is aa 
arch between the meridian of the place andr 
any given vertical line ; magnetical azimuth, 
is an arch of the horizon contained between the 
sun's azimuth circle and the magnetical me* 
ridian; azimuth compass, is an inscrumem 
used at sea for finding the sun's magoetical 
azimuth. > 

Azure, a'zhire. a. (484) (461) 
Blue, faint blue. 

BAA,b5.s. (77) 
The cry of a sheep. 

ToBaa, bl. v.n. 
To cry like A sheep. » 

To Babble, bab'bl. v. n. (405) 
To prattle like a child ; to ulk idly ; to tell 
Koeu ; to talk much. 

Babbie, bab'bl. s. 
Idle talk, senseless prattle. 

Babblement, bab'bl-ment. s. 

Senseless prate. 

I Babbler, bab'blur. s. (93) 
' Ao idle talker ; a teller of secrets. 
Babe, babe. s. 
An infant. 

Babery, by bur-r^. s. (555) 
Fmeiy to please a babe or child. 

Babish, ba'bish. a. 

Baboon, ba-boon'. s. 

A nuMikevof tbe largest kind. 
Baby, ba'be. s. vulgarly bab'be. 

A child, an in&nt ; a small image in imitation 

of a child, which girls play with. 

Baccated, bak'kS-ted. a. 
Beset widi pcarb. Having maiiy berries. 

Bacchanalian^ bak-ka-na'Ie4n. s. 


Bacchanals^ bak'ka-nalz. s. 
The drodken feasts of Bacchus. 

Bacchantes, bak-kan'tiz. s. 
The mad priests of Bacchus. Asb. 

Bacchus Bole, bak'kus-bole. s. 

A flower, not ull, but very full and broad 


Bacciferous, bak-sff ^.rus. a. {555) 


B.\CHELORt batsh'i-lur. s. 
A miQ unmarried ; a man who takes his first 
<^gi^s« a knight of the lowest order. 


Bachelor's Button, batsh'e-lurz- 
but'in. s. ()7o) 
Campion, an herb. 

Bachelorship, batsh'^-lur-shlp. s. 
The condition of a batchelor. 

Back, bak. s. 

The hinder {lart of the body ; the outer part of 
the hand when it is shut ; the rear ; the place 
behind ; the part of any thing out of sight ; the 
thick part of any tool, opposed to the rage. 

Back. bak. ad. 
To the place whence one came; backward 
from the present station ; behind, not coming 
forward ; toward things past ; again, in return ; 
again, a second time. 

To Back, bak. v. a. 
To mount a, horse ; to break a horse ; to place 
upon the back ; to maintain, to strengthen ; 
to justify, to support ; to second. ^ 

To Backbite, bak'bite. v.'a. 

To censure or reproach the absent. 

Backbiter, bak'bl-tSr. f . 

A privy calumniator, censurer of the absent. 

Backdoor, bak'dore. s. 
The door behind the house. 

Backed, bakt. a. (359) 

Having a back. 

Backfriend, bJk'frcnd. s. 

An enemy in secret. 

Backgammon^ bak-gatn'mun. s. 

A play or game with dice and tables. (166) 

Backhouse, bak'li6use. s. 
The buildings behind the chief put of the 

Back PIECE, bak'peese. s. 
The piece of armour which covers the back. 

Backroom, bak'r6&m. s. 

A room behind. 

Backside, bak' side. s. 

The hinder part of any thing ; the hind part 

of an animal; the yard or ground behind x 

To BACKSLiDE,bal^-slide'. V.n. (497) 
To fall off. ^ 

(:f* I have in this word preferred Dr. Johnson's 
accentuation on the second sy Ibbic, to Mr. 
Sheridan's on the first: for the reasons see^ 
Principles, under the number marked^ Dr. 
Ash, £ntick, Scott, and Peny, are on the side 
of Mr. Sheridan ; and Dr. Johnson and W. 
Johnston only on that which I have chosen ; 
but Mr. Sheridan and Dr. Ash, by marking 
the noun backslider with the accent on the 
second syllable, as it is always heard, have be- 
trayed their prqiiunctation ot the verb ; fbrlone 
of > these modes must be wrong, as the verbal 
noun must unquestionably have the same ac« 
cent as tbe verb. 

Backslider, bak-sli'dur. s. (§8) 

An apostate. 
Backstaff, bak'staf. s. 
An instrument useful in taking the stin*s alti- 
tude at sea. 

Backstairs, bak'starz. s. 

The private siairs in the house. 

Backstays, bak'staze. s. 
Ropes which keep the mast from pitching 

Backsword, bak'sord. s. 

A sword with one sharp edge. 
Backwards, bak'wurdz. ad. fss) 

With the back forwards ; towards the back ; 
on the back ; from the present station to ihc 
place behind : rrgressively ; towards something 
past ; out of the progressive state ; from a 
better to a worse state ; past, in time past. 

Backward, bak'wurd. a. 

Unwilling, averse ; hesitating ; sluggish, dila* 
tory 5 dull, not quick, or apprchensiivc. 

Backward, bak'wuid. ad. 
The things past. 

Backwardly, bak'wurd-I^. ad. 
Unwillingly, aversely. 

Digitized by 





0^ {559). Fate (73), fir (7;), flU(83), (at (si) ^ mi (93;, met (95); pine (ia5),p!n (107)5 no(i62),mive(i64), 

Backwardness, bak'wurd-ne^. s. 

Dulncss, sluggishness. 

Bacon, ba'kn. s. (176) 
Tbcfle h of a hog salted and dried. 

Bad, bad. a. 
II), noc good ; vicioos, corrupt ; nnlbrtunate, 
unhappy ; burtftil, unwholesome ; »iLk. 

Bade, bad. {75) 

The pretcrire of Bid. 

Badge, badje. s. (74) 
A mark or cognizance tirom ; a loien by which 
one is known ; the mark of any thing. 

To Badge, badje. v. a. 
To mark. 

BadG£R9 bad'jur. s. (98) 
A brock, an animal. 

Badger, bdd'jur. s. 

One that buys com and victuali in one place, 
* and carries it into another. 

pADLY. bad'le. ad. 
Not well. 

BadSiess? bad'nes, s. 

Want of good qualities. 

To Baffle, baf'fl. v. a. (405) 
To elude ; to confound ; to cru^h. 

Baffler, baf'flur. s. (98J 

He that bdffllcs. 

Bag, bag. s. 

A sack, or pouch ; that pan of animals in 
which some particular juices arc contained, as 
the poisons of vipers ; an ornamental purse of 
silk tied to men's hair ; a term used to signify 
quantities, as a bag of pepper. 

To Bag, bag. v. a. 

To put into a hag ; to load with a bag. 
To Bag, b^. v.n. 

To swell like a full bae. 

Bagatelle, baff-a-tel' 

A u-iflc. Not En^ish. 
Baggage, bag'gidje. s. (90) 

The fumittirc of an army ; a worthless woman. 

Bagnio, ban'yo. s. (388) 
A house tor bathms and sweating. 

Bagpipe, bag' pipe. s. 

A musical instrument, consisting of a leathern 
bag, and pipes. 

Bagpiper, bag'pl-pur. s. (ys) 
One that plays on a bagpipe. 

BaiL; bale. s. / ^ 
Bail IS the freeing or setting at liberty one ar- 
rested or imprisoned upon action either civil 
or' criminal, under security taken for his ap- 

1 o Bail, hk\e. v. a. 

To give bail for another ; to admit to bail. 

Bailable, ba'la-bl. a. (405) 

7'hat may be set at liberty by bail. 

Bailiff, ba'lif. s. 

A subordir.aie officer ; an officer whose busi- 
ness it Is to execute arrests ; an under-sceward 
of a manor. 

Bailiwick, ba'le-wjk. s. 

The place of the jurisdi£lion of a bailiff. 

To Bait, bate. v. a. 
To put meat to tempt animals. 

To Bait, bate. v. a. 

To set dogs upon. 

To Bait, bate. v.n. 

To stop at any place for refreshment ; to clap 

the win^s, to flutter. 
Bait, bate. s. 

Meat set to allure animals to a snare ; a temp- 
tation, an enticement ; a rciiresbment on a 

. S. 

Baize, baze. s. 

A kind of coarse open cloth. 
To Bake, bake. y. a. 
To heat any thing in a close place ; to dress 
in an oven ; to harden in the fire ; to harden 
with heat. 

To Bake, bake. v. n. 

To do the work of baking. 

Bakehouse, bake'h&ise. $. 

A place for baking bread. 

Baker, ba'kur. s. (98) 
He whose trade is to bake. 

Balance, balManse. s« 

A pair of scales ; the act of comparing two 
things; ihe.oferpkis of weight ;'ihat- which 
ts wanting to make two parts of an account 
even ; equipoise ; the beatiug pact of a waich ; 
in astronomy, one of the signs, Libra. 

To Balance, bal'lause. v. a. 
To weigh sn a balance ; to counterpoise ; to 
regulate an account; to pay that which is 

To Balance, bal'lanse. v. n. 

To hesitate, to flu6luate. 
Balancer, bal'lan-sur. s. 

The person tnat weighs. 

Balass Ruby, bal'as-ru'be. s. 
A kind of ruby. 

Balcony, baUko'ne. s. 
A frpme of wood, or stone, before the window 
of a room. 

Bald, biwld. a. 

Without hair ; without natural covering ; un- 
adorned, inelegant ; stripped, without dignity. 
Balderd.\sh, bawl'dur-dasli. s. 
Rude mixtopc. 

Baldly, bawld'le. ad. 

Nakedly, meanly, inelegantly. 
Baldmony, bawld mdn-ne. s. 
.Gentian, a plant. 

Baldness, bawld'nes. s. 

•The want of hair i the loss of hair ; meanness 
of writing. 

BaldricK, bawt'drik.^. 
A girdle ; the zodiack. 

Bale, bale. s. 

A bundle of goods. 
Baleful, baleTuLa. 

Sorrowful, sad ; full of mischief. 

Balefully, bale'ful-ie. ad. 
Sorrowfully, mischievously. 

B>iLK, bawk, s. (402) (84) 
A great beum. 

Balk, bawk. s. 

A ridge of land left uoploughed* 

Balk, biwic. s. 

Disappointment N^hcij^lcast cxpe£led. 

To Balk, bawk. v. a. (402J 

To disappoint, to frustrate ; to miss anything. 

Balkers, baw'kurz. s. (98) 
Men who give a sign which way the shoal of 
herrings ijf>v 

Ball, ba\W. s. (33) {77) 

Any thine; made m a round form ; a round 
thing to play with ; a globe ; a globe borne as 
an ensign ot sovereignty ; any part of the body 
that approaches to roundness. 
Ball, bawl. s. 
An entertainment of dancing. 

Ballad, bal'lad. s. 

A song. 

Ballad-singer, bal'lad-sing-ur. s. 

One whose employment ss to stng ballads in 
the strceu. 

Ballast, bal last. s. (ss) 
SoBcihing put at the bottom of the ship to 
keep it steadjr. 

Ballette, bal'Iet.s. 

A dance. 

Balloon, baM^'.s, 

A laige foand shon-neckcd vessel used in 
chymistiy ; a ball placed 00 a pilhr ; a ball of 
pasteboard, stuficd with combusublc matter, 
which is shot up into die air, and then bursts ; 
a large hollow ball of silk filled with gas, 
wbicn makes it rise into the air. ^ 

Ballot, bal'lqt. s.{i66) 

A little bail or ticket used in 'giving votes; 
the afl of voting by ballot. 

To Ballot, bal'lut. v. n. 

To choose by hallot. 

Ballotation, baUlo-ta'shun. s. 
The ad of voting by ballot. 

Balm, bam. s. (403) 

The sap or juice of a shrub, remarkably odo- 
riferous; any valuable or ^grani oimir.criu ; 
any thing that soothes or mitigates paiu. See 
No. 79 HI the Note. 

Balm, bam. s. 
The name of a plant. 

Balm of Gilead, bamof gil'yad. 
s. The juice drawn irom the halsm tree j i 
plant having a strong balsamick scent. 

Balmy, bam'e. a. (403) 

Having the qualities of balm ; producing 
balin ; soothing, soft ; fragrant, cdoiiferouit; 
mitigating, assuasive. 

Balneary, bal''ne-a-re. s. 

A bathing-room. 

Bai NEATiON, bal-ne-a'shun. s. 
The a6l of bathing. 

Balneatory, bal'n^-a-tur-re. a. 
Belonging to a bath. (51a) (557) 

Balsam, bawl'sdm, s. (ss) 
Ointment, unguent. 

Balsam Apple, bawl'suin-ap-pl. s. 

An Indian plant. 
Balsamical, bal-sam'e-kal. (84) "I 
Balsamick, bal-samlk. (509J / 

a. UnRuous, mitigating. 

Balustrade, baUus-trade'. s. 

Kows^ of little pillars called balusters. 

(j;^ This word is often corrupted into baciMcr^} 
as the banisters of a staircase. 

Balustrade means the row of small pillars sup- 
porting the guard of a staircase, taken ccllcc- 
tively ; as a colonnade means a collcctioQ of 
columns in regular order ; but, besides this 
colledive term, there is the distributive Bahu- 
ters ; meaning cither the whole of ih*.' b^luv- 
trade, or any part of it ; as each of the small 
pillars that coinpose it may bccalledabal*J4cr> 

An Indian plant of the reed kind. 

To Bamboozle, bam-bS&'zl.v.a. 

To deceive, to impose upon. A low word. 
Bamboozler, bam-bM' zlur. s. 

A cheat. 
Ban, ban. s. 
Public notice given of any thine ; acursr; 
excommunication ; iotcrdi6tion ; Ban of «hc 
Empire, a public censure by which the privi- 
leges of any German {vinecare suspended. 

Banana Tree, ba-na'na-trce. s. 


Band, band. s. 

A tyc, a bandage, a chain by which any animsl 
is^kcpi in restraint ; any union or con»exi('n v 
any thing bound round another ; a conj|>»uy of 

Digitized by 





flirfl6;),not{i63); t6be(i;i),tu^ (172), bull (173); 6il(2(>9); pound (3 Is) ;. /Ain (46(7), this (469^ • 

prrsons ioined together ; a particular kind of 
©cckclocn worn chiefly by ihc clcrey ; in af- 
chfte£bre, any flat low moulding, facia, facc> 
or plioth. 

To Band, band. v. a. 

To onite roj^ther into one body or troop ; to 
biod over wiih a band. 

Bandage^ ban'didje. s. (go) 
Something boood over another ; the fillet or 
roller wrapped over a wounded member. 

B.AN'Daox,baiid^boks. s. 
A slight box used ior baruis «id other things 
of smalt weight. 

Bandelet, ban'de-llt. ft. 

Aiiv fljc moulding or fikiet. 

Basdit, ban' die. 1 

Banditti), ban-dit'to. J ^' 
Aa oodjwed robber. 

Banditti, ban-dit'tc. s. 
A company of outlawed robbers. 

Bandog, ban' dog. s. 
A rodstiff*. 

Basdoleers, ban-dA-leerz'. s. 
Sinili wooden cases covered with leather, each 
of them coniainioj; powder that is a sufficient 
charge for a masket. 

Bandrol, band' roll. s. 

A liiiic flag or streamer. 

Bandy, ban'de. s. 
Aclub turned roundat bottom for striking aball. 

To Bandy, ban' de. v. a. 
To beat to and fro, or from one to another ; 
to give and take reciprocally ; to agitate, to 
(OSS about. 

Bandyleg, ban'd^-leg. s. 
A crooked leg. 

Bandylegged, ban^de-legd. a. 

Having crooked legs. (3^ej 
Bane, bine. s. 
Poiioa ; mischief, ruin. 

To Bane, bine. v. a. 

To poison. 

Baneful, bine'ful.a. 

Poisonous ; desirudive. 

Baneeulness, bane'ful-ncs. s. 
PoitonousDCss, destrudiveness. 

Banewort, bane'wurt. s. (ss) 

Deadly nighl&nadc. 

To Banc, bang. V. a. Uoy) 
To beat, to' thump ; to handle^ roughly. 

Bang, bang. s. 
A blow, a thump. ^ 

To Banish, ban'nfsh. v. a. 
To condemn to leave bis own country ; to 
(iri?c )way. 

Banisher, ban'n!sh-ur. s. 
He that forces another from his own countiy. 

Banishment, ban'nish-ment. s. 
The ad of banishing another; the state of 
being banished, exile. 

Bank, bank. s. (409) ^ 
1 he earth rising on each side of a water ; any 
heap of earth piled up ; a bench of rowers ; a 
place where money is laid up to be called for 
occasionally ; the company of persons con- 
cerned in managing a bank. 

To Bank, bank. v. a. 
To lay op money in a bank ; to itxlose with 

Bank-bill, bank'bfll.-s. 

A note for money laid up in a bank j at the 
sight of which the money ia paid. 

Banker, bank'fir.s. (os) 
0<ie that trafficks io money. 


Bankruptcy, bank'rup-se. s. (472) 

The state of a man broken, or bankrupt; the 
a6t of declaring one's self bankrupt. 

Bankrupt, bank'rupt. a. 
In debt beyond the power oi payment* 

Banner, ban'nur. s. (98} 
A fla£, a standard ; a streamer bocoe at the 
end ota lance. 

Banneret, ban'nur-ct,. s. 
A knight made in the field. 

Bannerol, ban'nur-roll. s. (555) 
A little flag or streamer. 

Bannian, ban-van', s. 
A man's undress, or morning gowii. 

Bannock, ban'nuk. s. (166) 
A kind of oaten or pease-meal cake. 

Banquet, bank'kwet. s. (408) 

A feast. 

To Banquet, bank'kwet. v. n. 
(409 J To feast, to fare daintily. 

Banqueter, bank'kwet-ur. s. 
A feaster ; one that hves dcJiciously ; he that 
makes feasts. 

Ban^uet-houSe, bank'kwet 

Ban^ueting-house, bank' 

k wet -!ng- house. 
A house where banquets are kept. 

Banquette, bank-ket'. s. 
A small bank at the foot of the parapet. 

Bansticle, ban'stik-kl. s. (405) 
A small fish, a stickleback. 

To Banter, ban'tur. v. a. (93) 
To play upon, to rally. 

Banter, ban'tur. s. 
Ridicule, rdillcry. 

Banterer, ban^ur-ur. s* 
One that bauters. 

Bantling, bant'ling. s, 

A little child. 

Baptism, bap'tfzm. s. 

Baptism is given by water, and that prescript 
form of words which the church of Chnst 
doth use i baptism is often ukeu in Scripture 
for sufferings. 

Baptismal, bap-tiz'mah a. 
Of or pertaining to baptism. 

Baptist, bap'tist. s. 

He that administers baptism. 

Baptistery, bap'tis-tur-c. s. (555) 

The place where the sacrament of baptism is 

To Baptize, bap-tize'. v. a. 

To christen, to administer the sacrament of 

Baptizer, bap-ii'zur. s. (98) 
One that christens, one that administers bap- 

Bar, bar. s. hj) 

A piece of wood laid cross a passage ro hinder 
entrance; a bolt to fasten a door; any ob- 
stacle ; a rock or bank at the entrance of a har- 
bour ; any thing used for prevention ; the 
place where causes of law are tried; an in- 
closed place in a tavern where the housekeeper 
sits ; in law, a peremptory exception against a 
demand or plea ; any thing by which the struc- 
ture is held together ; bars ia music, are strokes 
drawn perpeiidicularly across the lines of a 
piece of music, used to regulate the beating or 
measure of musical time. 

To Bar, bir. v. a. 

To fasten or shut anv thing with a holt or bar; 
to hinder, to obstruct ; to (ircvcnt ; to &hut out 

from ; to exclude from a claim ; to prohibit 

to except ; to hinder a suit. 
Barb, birb. s. 

Any thing that grows in the place of the 

beard ; the points that sund backward in an 

arrow ; the armour for horses. 
Barb, barb. s. 

A Barbary horses 

To Barb, barb. v. a. 
To shave, to dress out the beard ; to (umjsb 
the hor&e with armour ; to ja^ arrows wifh 

Barbacan, bar'ba-kan. s^ 
A fortification plaOed before the walls of a 
town ; an o^iening in the wall throMgh which 
the guns are levelled. 

Barbadoes Cherry, bar-ba'duz 

tsher'r*. s.f 1 66) 

A pleasant rart nruit in the West Indies* 

Barbarian^ bar-ba're-ln. s. 
A man uncivilized, a savage; a foreigner) a 
man without pity. 

Barbarick, bSr-bar'ik. a. 
Fcffcign, far-fetched. 

Barbarism^ bar'ba-nzm. s. 

A form of speech contrary to the purity •€ 
langi^ge ; ignorance of arts, want of learning ; 
brutality, savageness of manners, incivility ; 
cruelty, hardnfess of heart. 

Barbarity, b4r-bar'e-te, j. 
Savageness, incivility; cruelty, inhumanity, 
impurity or speech. 

To Barbarize, bir'ba-rize. v. a.\ 

To make barbarous. Mason. 

Barbarou's, bir'bS-rus. a. (314) 

Stranger to civility, savage, uncivilized ; unac- 
quainted with arts ; cruel, inhuman. 

Barbarously, bar'ba-rus-le. ad. 

Without knowledge of arts ; in a manner 
contrary to the rules of speech : cruelly, inhu-- 

Barbarousness, bir'ba-rus-nes. s. 
Jiiiivility of manners ; impurity of language i 


To Barbecue, bar'be-ku, v. a. 

A tcrm-for dressing a hog whole. 

Barbec^je, bar'be-kfi. s. 
A hog dressed whole. 

Barbed, bar'bed, or blrb'd. (362) 

Furnishecl with armour; bearded, jagged with 
' hooks. 

Barbel, bSr'bl. s.. (102) (405) 
A kind of fish found in rivers. 

Barber, bar'bur. s. (os) 
A man who shaves the beanl. 

Barberry, bar'blr-re. s. 
Pippcridge buih. 

Bard, bard. s. {77) 
A poet. 

Bare, bare. a. 
Naked, without covering; uncovered in re- 
spcH; unadorned, plain, simple; deie£led, 
without concealment ; poor, without plenty ; 
mere; threadbare, inuch.woru; iM>i united 
with any thing else. 

To Bare, bate. v. a. 

\ To strip. 

Bare, bare. 
Preterite of To Bear. Almost obsolete. 

Barebone, bare'bone. s. 
A very lean person. 

Barefaced, bare-faste'. a. (339) 

Wiih the face naked, not masked; shameless, 
• unrc&cived. 

Digitized by 





C^ (559). Fate(73),fir(77)J^ll(83),fat(8i); me(()3),met {95)] pine (lOs), pin (107); no(l(52),mive(i64), 

Barefacedly, bare-faste'l^. ad. 

Qpenly, shameiessly, without disgui&c. (364) 

B.AREFACEDNESS, barc-faste'nes. s. 
Effrontery, assurance, audaciousness. (365) 

Barefoot, bare'fut. a. 
Without shoes. 

Barefooted, bare'fut-ed. a. 
Without shoes. 

BareheAded, bare'h^d-ded. a. 
Uncovered in raped. 

Barely, bire'li. ad. 
Nakedly, merely, only. 

Bareness, bare'nes. s. 
Nakedness ; leanness ; poverty ; meanness of 

Bargain, bar'gfn. s. (2O8) 

A contraQ or agreenient concerning sale ; the 
thing bought or sold ; stipulation. / 

To Bargain, bSr'gfn. v. n. 

To make a contrafk for sale< 

Bargainee, bir-gin-nW. s. 
He or she that accepts a bargain' 

Bargainer, bar'gin-nur. s. (98) 
The person who proffers or makes a bargun. 

Barge, barje. s. 
A boat for pleasure i a boat for burden. 

Barger, bir'jur. s. (9s) 
The manager of a barge. 

BarK; bark. s. 

The nnd or covering of a taee ; a small sbipu 
To Bark, bark. v. a. 

To strip trees of their baflu 

To Bark, bark. v. li. 

To make the noise which a dog maflces ; to 

clamour at. 
Barker, bir'kur. s. fgs) 

One that barks or cbmours ; one employed in 
stripping trees. 

Barky, bar'k^. a. 
Consisting of bark. 

Barley, bar'li. s. (270) 

A grain, of which malt is made. 

Barleybrake, bar'le-brake. s. 
A kind of rural play. 

Barleycorn, bir'le-kom. s. 

A grain of barley. 
Barm, birm. s. 
Yeast, the ferment put into drink to make it 

Barmy, hir'mi. a. 

Containmg barm. 

Barn, barn. s. 
A place or house for laying up any sort of 
grain, hay^ or straw. 

Barnacle, bar'na-kl. s. (405) 
A bird like a goose, fiibulously supposed to 
grow on trees ; a species of shell fish. 

Barometer, ba-rom'mi-tur. s. 
(^r8) A machine for measuring the weight 
of the atmosphere, and the variations in ir, in 
order chiefly to determine the changes of the 
weather. . 

Barometrical, bar-i-met'tre-kal. 

a. Relating to the barometer. (5C9) (515) 

Baron, bar'run. s. (166)^ 
A degree of nobility next to a viscount ; baron 
is one of the judges in the court of exchequer ; 
there arc also barons of the cinque ports, that 
have places in the lower house of parliament ; 
baron is used in bw for the husband in relation 
to bis wife. 

Baronage, bSr'run-adje. s. {90) 
The dignity of a baron. , 

Baroness, bar'run-es. s. {557) 

A baron's laay. 

Baronet, bar'run-ct. s. {557) 

The lowrst dej;rce of honour that is heredi- 
tary ; it is beiow a baron, aod above a knight. 

Barony, bar' run-e.s. (557) 
That honour or lordiihip that gives title to a 

Baroscope, bar'ro skope. s. 

An instrument to shew the weight of the at- 

Barracan, bar'ra-kan. s. 

A strong thicK kind of camelot. 

Barrack, bar^rak. s. 
Building to lodge soldiers. 

Barrator, bar'ia-tur. s. 
A wrangler, and encourager of lawsuits. 

Barratry, bar' la-ire. s. 

Foul pradicc inlaw. 

Barrel, bar'ril. s. (99) 
A rpund wooden vessel to be stopped close ; a 
vessel containing liquor ; any thing hollow, as 
the barrel of a gun ; a cylinder. 

To Barrel, bar'iil. v. a. 

To put any thing in a barrel. 

Barren, bar'ren. a. 
Not prolinck ; unfruitful, not fertile*, sterile ; 
not copious, scanty ; unmeaning, uninvcniive, 

Barren LY5 bar'rin-li. ad. 


Barrenness^ bar'ren-n^s. s. 

Want of the power of procreation ; unfruit- 
fulness, sterility ; want of invcntiori ; want of 
matter; in theology, wane of sensibility. 

Barrenwort, bar'rin-wurt. s. 
A plant. 

Barrful, bar' full. a. 
Full of obstrudions — properly B A R F u L • 

Barricade, ba-re-kade'. s. 

A fortification made to keep off* an attack j 

any stop, bar, o^trudion. 
To Barricade, bar-re-kade'. v. a« 

To stop up a passage. 

Barricado, bar-re-ka'do. s. 
A fortification, a bar. — See Lumbago. 

To Barricado, bar-re-ka'do. v. a. 

To fortify, to bar. 
Barrier, bar're-ur. s. {9s) 

A barricade, an entrenchment ; a fortification, 
or strong place ; a stop, an obstruBion ; a bar 
to mark the limits of any place ; a boundary. 

gr^* Pope, hy the licence of his art, pronounced 
this word in two syllables, with the accent on 
the last, as if wntten bar-reer. 

** Twizt that and reason what a nice harrier I 
" For ever sep'rate, yet for ever near." 

Ejsay on Man^ Ep. 1. v. *2\5. 

And yet in another part of his works he places 
the accent on the nrst syllable, as we always 
hear it in prose. 

** Safe in the love of Heav*n an ocean flows 
** Around our realm, a harrier from the foes.** 

Barrister, bar'ris-tur. S. 

A ^json qualified to plead the causes of cli- 
ents in the courts of justice* 

Barrow, bar'ro. s. 

Any carriage moved by the hand, as a hand- 
' barrow. 

Earshot, bar' shot. s. 

Tvo bullets or half-bullets joined by a bar, and 
ui^ed chiefly at sea to cut down ibc masts and 
rigging of ships. 

To Barter, bar'tiV. v. n, (.qs) 
To traffick by exchanging one coiamodity for 

To Barter, bar'tur. v. a. 
To give any thing in exchange. 

Barter, bir'tur. s. 

The a£i or pra6^ice of trafikking by exckaD{^ 
Barter ER, bar'tur-ur. s. 

He that trafficks by exchange. 

Bartery, bar'tur-ri. s. {555) 
Exchange of commodities. 

Bartram, bir'train. s. 
A plant, pellitory. 

Barytone, bar'e-tone. s. 

ff^ A word with the grave accent on the hot 
syllable. If the inspe^or does not know what 
is meant by the grdvc accent, it may be neces- 
sary to inform him, that writeri on the Greek 
accent tell us that every syllable which has not . 
the acute accent has the grave • and as there- 
could be but one syllable acuted in that lan- 
guage, the rest must necessarily be grave. 
What these accents are has puzzled the learned 
so much that they seem neither to undertund 
each other nor themselves; but it were to be 
wished they had kept this distin^ion into acute 
and grave out of our own language, as it is im- 
possible to annex any clear ideas to it, except 
we consider the grave accent merely as the 
absence of the acute, which reduces it to no 
accent at all. If we divide the voice into its 
two leading inflexions, the rising and falling, 
aid call the former the acute and the lauer 
the grave, we can annex distin£l ideas to these 
words : and perhaps it is an ignorance of this 
distin6lion of speaking sounds, and confounding 
them wich high and low, or loud and soft, 
that occasions the conRision we meet with ia 
writers on this subjeQ. — See Elemtmts of Elo- 
cution, pa^c 60. Also Observations 00 the 
Greek and Latin Accent and Quantity, It the 
end of the Kry to the C/asskai Pfnunciativi 
of Greek and Latin Proper Names. 

Basaltes, ba-sal'tez. s. 

A kind of marble, never found in layers, but 

standing upright. Ash, 
Base, base. a. 

Mean, vile, worthless ; disingenuous, illibenl, 

ungenerous ; of low sution, of mean account ; 

base-born, born out of wedlock; applied 10 

meuils, without value ; applied to sounds, 

deep, grave. 

Base-born, base'birn. a. 
Born out of wedlock. 

Base-court, base'kort. s. 

Lower court. 

Base-minded, base-mind' ed. a. 
Mean spirited. 

Base-viol, basc-vi'uK s. (166) 

An instrument used in concerts for the baie' 

Base, base. s. 
The bottom of any thing ; the pedestal of a 
statue ; the bottom of a cone ; stockings; the 
pkice from which racers or tilters run; the 
string that gives a base sound ; an old rustick 

Basely, base'le. ad. 
Meanly, dishonourably ; in bastardy, as basely 

Baseness, base'nJs. s. 

Meanness, vilcncss ; vileness of metal; bas- 
tardy ; deepness of sound. 

Bashaw, bash-aw' . s, 

^mong the Turks, the viceroy of a proviiK»« 
Bashful, bashMul. a. 

Modest, shamefaced, shy. * 

Digitized by 





JiSr (167), not (163); tibc (171), tub (172), bdll (173); 4il (299) j pMnd (sis) ; th\n (466). this (469). 

Bashfully, bash'fil-le. ad. 

Timorously, modestly., bash'ful-n?s. s. 

Modesty ; foolish or rustic shame. 
Basil, bazil. s. 

The name of a plant. 

Basilica, ba-zil'e-ka, $. 

The middle vein of the arm. 

Basilica, hS-zii'e-ka. s- 

The basilick vein. 

Basilick, ba-z1l'l!k. a, (494) 

Belongiog to the basilica. 

Basilick, baz'il-Hk.s. 

The hastlick vein ; a large hall. 

BASiLiKON,ba-z!l'e-kon. s. 
An ointmem, called also tetrapharmacon. 

^ASILISR, biz'i-Iisk. s. 

A kind of serpent, a cockatrice, said to kill by 
Jookjog. He is called Basilisk, or little king, 
from a comb or crest od his head ; a species of 

Basin, b5'sn. s. (405) 
A small vessel to hold water for washing, or 
other uses ; a small pond ; a part of the sea 
inclosed in rocks ; any hollow place capacious 
of liquids ; a dock for repairing and building 
ships ^ Iksins of a Balance, the same with the 

Basis, bi'sfs. s. 

The foundation of any thing ; the loweac of 
the three principal parts of a column ; that on 
which any thing is raised ; the pedesul j the 

To Bask, bask* v. a. hg) 
To warm by laying out in the heat. 

Bask, bask. v. n. 

To lie in a place to receive heat. 

Basket, bas'kit. s» (90) 

A vessel made of twigs, rushes, or splinters. 

Basket-hilt, bas'k!t-hilt. s. (09) 

A bilt of a weapon so made as to conAn the 
wbole hand, 

iM) A woman that plies at maiket with a 

' Bass, base, a. properly Base. 
In musick, grave, deep. 

Bass-viol, bise-vi'fir. s. (166) 

Bass, bas. s. 

A mat used in churches. 

Bass-relief, bas-ri-leif . s. 

Sculpture, the fisures of which do not stand out 
irom the grounarn their full propoctioD. 

Basset, bas'sft. s. {qq) 
A game at cards. 

Bassoon, bIs-sASn'. $. 

A musical instrumeniof the wind kind, blown 
with a reed. 

Bastard, bas'tard. s. (88) 
A person bom of a woman out of wedlock ; 
any thing spurious. 

Bastard, bas'tard. a. 
Begouen out of wedlock ; spurious, supposi- 
tnious, adulterate. 

To Bastardize, bas'tar-dize. v,a. 
To cooviE of being a bastard ; to beget a bas- 

Bastardly, bas'tard-lc. ad. 
in the manner of a bastard. 

Bastardy, bas'tar-di. s. 
An rtilawful state of birth, which disables a 
child ftom sucGcediag to an iDheriiaace* 

To Baste, baste, v. a. 
I'o beat with a stick ; to drip butter upon meat 
on the spit ; to sew slightly. 

Bastinade, bas-te-nade'. \ 
Bastinado, bas-te-na'do. J^' 

The a£l of beating with a cudgel ; a Turkish 
punishment of beating an offender on his feet. 

To BASTiNADE,bas-te-nade'.l 

ToBASTiNADO,bas-te-na'd6.j ^*^' 
To beat. — See Lumaago. 

Bastion, bas'tshSn. s. (291) 

A hiige mass of earth, usually faced with sods, 
standing out from a rampait ; a bulwark. 

Bat, bat. s. 

A heavy stick. 

Bat, bat. s. 
An animal having the body of a mouse, and 
the wings of a bird, not with feathers, but 
with a sort of skin which is extended. It 
brings forth itt young as mice do, and suckles 

Bat-fowling, bat'fiu-Iing. s. 

Bird-catching in the night-time. 
Batable, b4'ta-bl. a. (405) 
Disputable. Batable ground seems to be the 

{ground heretofore in question, whether it be- 
onged to £nglandor Scotland. 

Batch, batsh. s. 
The quantity of bread baked at a lime; any 
quantity made at once. 

Bate, bite. s. 

Strife, contention. 
To Bate, bate. v. a. 
To lessen any thing, to retrench ; to sink the 
price ; to lessen a demand % to cut di. 

Bateful, bite'f&l, a. 


Batement, bate'incnt. s.. 

Bath, bl/A. s. (78) 

A bath is either hot or coM, either of art orna- 
ture ; a vessel of hot water, in which another 
is placed that requires a softer heat than the 
naked fire ; a sort of Hebrew measure, con- 
tairithg seven gallons and four pints. 

To Bathe, baTHe. v. a. {467) 
To wash in a bath ; to supple or soften by the 
outward application of warm liquors ; to wash 
with any thing. 

To Bathe, baTHe. v.n. 

To be in ihe water. , 

Bating, ba'ting. prep. (410) 

Batlet, batMet. «. 

A square piece of wood used in beating linen. 
Batoon, ba-t^n'. s. 

A staff or club ; a truncheon or inarshal's staff. 

Battailous, bat'ta-lus. a» 

Warlike, with military appearance. 

Battalia, bat-tale' y a. s. (272) 
Tfaeorder of battle. 

Battalion, bat-tal'yfin. s. (272) 

(.w) A division of an army, a troop, a body 
of forces; an army. 

To Batten, bat'tn. v. a. (i03)- 

To fatten, to make fat ; to fertilize. 
To Batten, bat'tn. v. n, (103) 

To grow fat. 

To Batter, bat'tur. v. a, (93) 

To beat, to beat down ; to wear with beating; 

to wear out with service. 
Batter, bat'tur. s. 

A mixture of several ingredients beaten to- 


Batterer, bat'tur-rSr. s. 

He that batters. 

Battery, bat'tur-ri. s.. {5^) 

The ad of battering ; the instruments with 
which a town is battered ; the frame upon 
which cannons are mounted ; in bw, a violent 
striking of any man. v 

Battle, bat'tl. s. (405) 

A fight; an encounter between opposite 
armies; a body of forces ; the main body of 
an army. 

To Battle, bat'tl. v. n. 
To contend in fight. 

Battle-array, bat'tl-ar-ra'. s. 

Array, or order of battle. 

Battle-ax, bat'tUaks. «.(405) 

A weapon, a bill. 

Battle-door, bat'tl-dAre. s. 

An instrument with a round handle and a flat 
blade, to strike a ball or shuttlecock. 

Battlement, bat' tl-m^nt, s, 

A wall with open place* to look through or 
annoy an enemy. 

Batty, bat'ti. a. 

Belonging to a bat. 

Bavaroy, bav-a-roS'. ». 
A kind of cloke» 

BAUBEEjblw-bW. S. 
la Scotkind,a halfpenny. 

Bavin, bav'ln. s. 

A stick like those bound up in faggots. 

Bawble, biw'bl. s. (405) 
A gew-gaw, a trifling piece of finery. 

BAWBLiNG,b4w'bling. a. (410) ' 
Trifling, contemptible. 

Bawcogk, bJw'k&k, s. 
A fine fellow. 

Bawd, biwd. s. 
A procurer or procuress. 

To Bawd, bIwd. v. n. 

To procure. 

Bawdily, bSw'di-li, ad. 

Bawdiness, bSw'de-nes. s. 

Bawdrick, biw'drik. s» 
A belt. 

Bawdry, baw'dri. s. 

A wicked praBice of bringing whores and 

rogues together; obscenity. 
Bawdy, bdw'di. a. 

Obscene, unchaste. 

Bawdy-house, bJw'de-h&use. s. 

•A house where txafiick is made by wickedness 
and debauch^iy. 

To Bawl, b4ll. v. n. 

To hoot, to cry out with great vehemence ; to 
cry as a froward child. 

To Bawl, bill. v. a. 

To proclaim as a crier. 

Bawrel, bJw'ril. s. {gg) 
A kind of hawk. 

Bawsin, biw'sin. s. 
A badger. 

Bay. ba. a. (220) 

A colour. 

Bay, b5. s. 
An opening in the land. 

Bay, b4. s. 

The state of any thing surrounded by enemies. 
Bay, ba. s. 
In archil aure, a term used to signify the 6\' 
visiom of ii or other buildings. Bays aie 
from fourteen to twenty feet long. 

Digitized by 





C^ (559). Fate (73), fdr (77), fJlUss), fat (si); me (c)S),niet(95); p!ne(l05),pm (107); 110(162), m^vc{i64\ 

Bay, ba. s: A tree. 


An honorary crown or garland. 

"To Bay, h!\. V. n. 

. T.o bark as a do^ in a thief; to shutln. 

Bay Salt, ba' salt. s. 

Salt made of sea water, ivhich receives ill con- 
siste|K« fiom the heat of the sun, and is so 
called ^m its brown colour. 

Bay Window, ba'win'Ho. s. 

A window jutting outward. 'Sec Bow- 

\V- I NM) o w . • 

B.\YARD, bi'yard. s. 
A bay horse. 

Bayonet, ha'yun-net. s. 

A .short sword fixed at the end of a mosket. 
((irf This word is very frequently pronounced 

bagonet^ but chiefly by the vulgar. 

Bdellium, del'vum, s. 

An aroinaiick gum (wrought firom the Levant. 
See Pneimatick, 

To Be, bee. v.n. 

To have some certain st^itc, condition, quality, 
as the man is wise; it is the auxiliary vcib by 
which the verl} passive is formed ; to exist, to 
have existence. 

Beach, bcctsh. s. (227) 

The shore, the strand. 

Beached, bcetsl/ed. a. 
Exposed to the waves. 

Be ACHY, bcetsl/e. a. 

.Slaving bcschcs. 

Beacon, be'kn. s. drp) 

Something i^iscd on an eminence to be fired 
on the approach of an enemy ; marks crctlcd 
to dire£k navigators. - 

Bead, bede. s. (227). * 
Small globes or balls strunp; upon a threaid, and 
used by the Roman Catholicks to count their 
prayer*; little bfi^ls wora al>oui the iieck for 
ornament; any globular bodies. 

Bead-tree, bede'irce. s.. 

The nut of this tree is, by religions persons, 
bored through, and strung' as beads, jwrncDCC it' 
takes its name. 

Beadle, be'dl. s. (227) (.405) 

A messenger or servitor belonging to a court ; 

a petty ofhccrin paiishes. 
B.EADROtL, bede' roll. s. 

A catalogue of those who are to be jpentioned 

at prayers. 
BEADSMAN,beedz'iT)an.6. ' 

A man cWploved in praying for another. 

Beagle, be'gl.s. (227) (405) 

A small hound with which bares are hunted. 

Beak, beke. s. (227) 
The bill or hornv mouth of a b>rd ; a piece of 
brass like a beak, fixed at the head of the 
ancient sallies ; any thing ending In a point 
like a beak. 

Beaked, bc'kcd, or bekt. a. (362) 
Having a beak. 

Beaker, be^kur, s. (ob) 

Acupwirhfispout in the formof abird^sbeak. 

Beal, bele. s. (227) 
A wholkor pimple. 

Beam, beme. s. (227) 
The main piece of timber that supports the 
lofrs of a hou^e ; any lar^c and long piece of 
timber ; that part of a balance to the ends of 
ivhich the scales are suspended ; a cylindrical 
piece of wood belonging to the loom, on which 
the web \% gradual iy rolled as it is wove; 
the ray of ligtit emitted ffom some luminous 

Be AM. TREE, bime'tree. s. 


Beamy, be'ir.e. a. 
Radiant, shining; emitting beams; having 
horns or antlers- 

6e AN, bene. (227) 
The common garden bean, the horse bean. ' 

Bean-caper, bene' ka-pdr. s, 

A plant. 

To Bear, bare. v. a. (240) 

To carry' as a burden ; to convey or carry ; to 
carry as a mark of authority ; to caiTy as a 
marK of distindion ; to support, to keep from 
falling; to carry in the mind, as love, bate; 
to endure, as pam, without sinking ; to suffer, 
to undergo ; to produce, as fruit ; to brine 
forth, as a child ; to support any thing good 
or bad; to behave; to impel, to urge, to 
push; to press; to bear in hand, to amuse 
with false pretences, to deceive ; to bear olf, 
to arcxy away by force ; to bear out, to support, 
to maintain. 

To Bear, bare. v. n. (7.1) 
To suffi T pain ; to be patient ; to be fruitful 
or prolifick ; to tend, to be direftcd to any 
point ; u» behave ; to be situated with rrspeci 
to other places ; to bear up, to stand tirm with- 
out falling ; to bear with, to endure an uu- 
plcasing thing. 

BEA«,'bare. &• (73) 
A rough savage animal ; the name of two 
constellations, called the Greater ami Leaser 
Bear j in the tail of die Lesser Bear is the Pule 
sjar. * 

Be AR-BIN D, bare'bind. s. 
A ipecics of bindrwecd. 

Bear-fly, barc'fli.s. 

An insect. 

Bear-garden, bare*gar-dn. s. 

A place in which bears are kept for sport; any 
place of tumult or misrule. • 

BEAR's-Bjir.ECH, barzlbrfisb. s. 
The name of a plant. 

Bear's-ear, barz'eer. s. 
The name of a plant. The Auricula. 

Bear*s-foot, barz'fut. s. 
A species of hellcbote.* 

B'ea'r*s-wort, barz'wuTt. s. (lf)5) 

An tierb. 

Bfard^ beerd. s. (2.89) 
The hair that* groWs- on the lips and chin; 
sharp prickles growing upon the raVs of cotn ; 
a barb on an arrow. 

(t^ This word, as Dr. Kenrick observes, ts fre- 
quently pronounced^ as to rhy me wiib /*#/'</!' 

. MIC I am of his opinion that thisproiyunciation 
is improper. Mr. Scott and Mr. Pcrr^ give 
it both ways. Buchanan sounds it short, like 
Mr. Sheridan. W, Johnston makes it rhyme 
with laird, a Scotch lord : but Mr. Elphin- 
ston, who is the most accurate observer of 

Jnouunciation I ever met with, gives it as I 
javc done. The stage has, in my opinion, 
ackmted the short sound of the diphthong 
without good reason, and in this instance ought 
not to be followed ; as the long sound is not 
only more agreeable to analogy, but to gencrdi 
usage. I am ^lad to 6nd my opinbn confirmed 
by so good ajudgeaf Mr. Smith ; and though 
the poets so often sacrifice pronuncianon to 
rhyme, that their authority, in these cases, is 
not always decisive, yet, as Shakespeare says on 
another occasion, 

« They itill may help to thicken other proofs 
"That do demonstrate thinly.*'— 0//i//&. 
"Rail'd at their eo\nenant. andjcerM 
** Their reverend persons to my ^ar^f." 


<* Some thin remains of chastityra^ipearM iv ' 
«' Ev'n under Jove, but Jove without a htarJ^' \ 

Dry Jem. \ 

The impropriety of pronouncing this word as it ^- 
is htard on the si age, will perhaps appear more \ * 
perceptible by cair)'iiig this pronunciation into '^ 
the compounds, as the f.ilse sound of guat 
may be dete^d by the phrase Alexander ttt 
Great, (24 1 ) 

" Old prophecies foretel our fall at hand, 
*« When bsardfd men in floating castles land. 
<' And as young striplings whip the top ifu 

" sport, 
«* On the smooth pATement of an empty conrt, 
<* The wooden engine flies and whirls aoout, 
^ Admir'd with cuunours of the iomOsri rout.** 


To Beard, bccrd. v. a. 
To take or pluck by the beard ; to oppose i* 
the face. 

Bearded, beord'ed. a. 
Having a beard ; having sharp prickles, as 
corn ; oarbcd or jagged. 

Beardless, beerd'les. a. 

Without a be and; youthful. 

Bearer, bare'Cr. s. (ps) 
A earner of any thing ; oiic employed in car- 
rying burdens ; one \^ ho wears any thiMg ; one 
who carries the body to ihc grave j one who 
supix>rts (he pall at a funeral ; a tree thdt 
yiel'ls itspnxiure; in arehi^cQurei a poster 
orick wall nfied up bciweoa the ends of a 
piece of timber. 

Bearherd, bareMiurd. s. 

A man that tends bears. 

Bearing, baie'ing. s.(4io) 

The site 6r place of any thing with respcR t* 
something else ; gesture, mien, beblvioisr. 

BearwarD, bare'w'Ard. s* 
A keeper of bears. 

Bea^T, bcest. $. (227) 
An animal distinguished from birds, insoCb. 
fishes, and man ; an irrational animal, opposed 
to man ; a brutal savage man. 

Beastliness, beest'le-ncs. s. 


Beastly, bcestMe. a. 

Brutal, contran' to the nature and dignity di 
man ; having the nature or form of beasts. 

To Beat, berc. v. a. (227) (2:^3) 

To strike, to knock ; to punish with stripes ; 
to mark the time in music ; to give Fcpe<iird 
blows ; to.^tiike ground ; to rouse game ; to 
mix things by long and frequent agitation ; to 
baiter with engines of war ; to maKc a path by 
. treading it ; to conquer, 10 subdue, to van- 
quish J to harass, to over-labour ; to depress ; 
to deprive by violence : to move with flutter* 
ing agitation; to beat down; to Ic5!»en the 
price demand (fd ; to beat up, to attack snd- 
diMily ; to beat • the hoof, to walk, to go on 
(|4r y^^ past time of this verb is by the Englivh 
uniformly pton6unced like the present. Nav, 
except in solemn langun^c, the present. preterit 
and |)aniciple arc exactly the same; while the 
Irish, mnrc agreeably lo analogy, as well ^ 
utility, pronounce the preterit as the noun bet^ 
a wager; and this pronunciation, thoujih con- 
trary to Eyglish usMge, is quite conformable 10 
tb|t general tendency observable tu the pret 01 1 s 
of^irregular yerbs,' which is to shorten ihe 
vowel that is long in the present, asro/, arr, 
(often pronounced et);, hear^ htard ; tit al^ 
dealt ; nuan^ meant ; dream^ dreamt ; ice . 

To Beat, b^te. v. n. 
To move in a pulsatory manner ; to d^sh « as a 

flood or storm ; to knock at a door ; to ih rOb, 
to be in agitation ; fo fl'utluaie, to be la kic- 


Digitized by 





DiSr fl(5;), hit (163); tibe(l7l), tub (172), bdll (173); Sil (299); pidnd (313)j thin (46(5), this (469). 

tkn ; to tiy in difTerent ways^ to search ; to 
lA upon with violence ; to enforce by repeti- 

Beat, bite. s. 

A uroke, or a striking. 

Beaten, be'm. particip. (103) 
From Beat, 

BfiATER, bi'tur. s. (08) 
An instrunieni with which any thing is beaten; 
a person much given to blows. 

Beatifical, be-a-tif e-kal. 

Beatifick, be-a-tif'ik. (500) 
Blissful. It is used only of heaveiily fiuition 
afccr death. 

Beatifically, be-a-t!t'e-kal-lc. ad. 
In such a manner as to complete happiness. 

Beatification, be-at-c-fc-ka'shun. 

i. Beatification is an acknowledgment made 
by the Pope, that the person beatified is in 
heaven, and therefore may be reverenced as 


To Beatify, bc-at'e-fi. v. a. (i83) 

To bless with the completion of celestial en- 

Beating, bete'ing. s. (410) 

Corredion by blows. 

Beatitude, be-at'i-tude. s. 

BiessedDess, felicity, happiness; a declaration 
of blessedness maoe by oor Saviour to parti- 
cular virtues. 

Beau, bo, s. {245) (48 1) 

A man of dress. 

Beaver, bee vur. s. (227) (98) 
An animal, otherwise named the castor, am- 
i^ibious, and remarkable fur his art in building 
us habiution ; a hat of the best kind ; the 
part of a helmet that covers the face. 

Beavered, bee'vurd. a. (362) 
CoN'cred with a beaver. 

Beauish, bo'ish. a. (245) 
Bcfiuing a beau, foppish. 

Beaumonde, bo-mond'. s. 
The £ashioi»b)e worlds Mason, 

Beauteous, bu'tshe-us. a. (263) 

Fiir, elegant in fbrm. 

Beauteously, bu'tsbJ-us-le. ad. 
in a beauteous manner. 

Beauteousness, bu'tshe-us-nes. s. 
The suie of being beauteous. 

Beautiful, bi'tc-lul. a. 

Beautifully, bu^e-ful-le. ad. 

in a beautiful manner. 

BEAUTiFULNESSjbu'te-ful-nes. s. 
The quality of being bcauuful. 

To Beautify, bu^e-fi. v. a. (183) 

To adorn, to embellish. 

Beauty, bu^e. s. 

1 hat assemblage of graces which pleases the 
c>'e ; aporticoUr grace ; a beautiful person. 

Beauty-spot, bu'te-spor. s. 
A spot placed to heighten some beauty. 

Btc AFico, bek-a-fe' ko. s. ( 1 1 2) 
A btfd like a nightingale, a fig pecker. 

To BECALM;be-kam'.. v. a. (493) 
To Hill the elements ; to keep a . ship from 
motioQ ; to'auiet the mind. 

Became, be-kame'. . 
1 be pfcterii of Become. 

Bkcausf>, btk-awz'. conjunct; 
For this reason ; for ; on this account* 

To Bechance, b^-tshame' . v, n« 
THcfal, 10 fatppco to. (34^0 

To Beck, bek. v. a. 
To make a sign with the head. 

Beck., bek. s. 

A sign with the head, a nod ; a tied of com- 

To Beckon, bek'kn. v. n. (170) 

To make a sign. 

To Beclip, bS-klip'. v. a. 
To embrace. 

To Become, be-kum', v. n. 
To enter into some state or condition ; to be- 
come of, to be the fate of, to be the cud of. 

To Become, b^-kum'. v. a. 

To appear in a manner suitable to something ; 
to be suitable to the person ; to befit. 

Becoming, b^-kum'imng. part. a. 
Thai which pleases by an elegant propriety, 
graceful. (410) 

Becomingly, be-kum'ming-le. ad. 

After a becoming manner. 
Becomingness, bi-kum'ming-nes. 
s. Elegant congruity, propriety. 

Bed, bed. s. 
Something made to sleep on ; lodging ; mar- 
riage ; bank of earth raised in a garocn ; the 
channel of a river, or any hollow ; the place 
where any thing is generated ; a layer, a stra- 
tum ; To bringtoBKD, to deliver* of a child; 
to make the Bed, to put the bed in order 
afler it has been used. 

To Bed, bed. y. a. 
To go to bed with ; to be placed in bed ; to 
be made partaker of the bed; to sow or plant 
in earth ; to lay in a place of rest^ to lay in 
order, in strata. 

To Bed, bed. v. n. 
To co-habit. 

To Bedabble, be-dab'bl. v. av 

To wet, to besprinkle. 

To Bedaggle, b^-dag'gl. v. a. 
To bemire. 

To Bedash, b4-dash'. v. a. 

To bespatter. 

To BEDAWB,be-dawb'. v. a. 
To besmear. 

To Bedazzle, be-daz'zl. v. a. 
To make the sight dim by too much lustre. 

Bedchamber, bid'tshame-bdr. s. 

The chamber appropriated to rest. 

Bedcloaths, bcd'cloze. s. 
Coverlets spread over a bed. 

Bedding, bed'dtng. s. (l4o). 

The materials of a bed. 

To Bedeck, be-dek'. v. a. 
To deck, to adorn. ^ 

To Bedew, be-du'. v. a. 

To moisten geinly, as with fall of dew. 

Bedfellow, bed'fei-lo.s. 

Onq (hat lies in the same bed. 

To Bedix^ht, bc-dite'. v. a. 

To adorn, to dress. 
To BEDiM,be-diin'. v.a. 
To obscure,. to cloud, to darken. 

To Bedizen, be-di'zn. v. a. (103) 
To dress out. A low term. 

Bedlam, bed'lum. s. (ss)* 

A madhouse ; a madman. 

Bedlamite, bed'lum-Ite. s. (l55) 

, A madman. 

Bedmaker, bed'ma-kur. s. 

A person in the univentities wLo.e ofiit:e it is 

to make the beds. - 

Bedmate, bJd'mite.s. 
A bedfeUow. 


Bedmoulding, bed'niAld-ing.s. 

A particular mouldmg. 

Bedpost, bed'post. s. 

The postal the corner of the bed, which sup* 
ports the fanopy. 

Bedpresser, bed'pres-sdr. s. 
A heavy bzy fellow. 

To Bedraggle, be-drag'gl. v. a. 
To soil the clothes. (405) 

To Bedrench, be-drensh'. v. a. 
To drench, to soak. 

Bedrid, bed'rtd. a. 
Confined to the bed by age or sickness. 

BEDRiTE,bed'nte. s. 
The privilege of the marriage bed. 

To Bedrop, be-drop'. v. a. 
To besprinkle, to mark with drops. 

Bedstead, bed'sted. s. 

The frame on which the bed is placed. 
Bedstraw, bed'striw. s. 

The straw laid under a bed to make it sofc^ . 

Bedswerver, bed'swer-vur. s.. 
One that is false to the bed. 

Bedtime, bed'time. s. 
The hour of rest. 

To BEDUNG,be-dung'.v. a.. 
To cover with dung. 

To BEpusT,b^-dust'. V. a* 
To sprinkle with dust. 

Bedward, bed' ward. ad. 
Toward bed. 

To Bedwarf, be-dwirf-. v. at» 
To make little, to stunt. 

Bedwork, bed'wurk. s. 

Work performed wi thout toi 1 of the faandi.> 
Bee, bee. s. 

The animal that makes honey ; an industrious 

and careful person. 

Bee-eater, bee'i-tur. s. 
A bird ti^at feeds upon bees. 

Bee- FLOWER, bee'fldu-ur. s- 

A species of fool-stones. 

Bee-garden, Lee'>;Sr-dn. s. (103) 

A place to set hives of bees in. 

Bee-hive, be^'hive. s. 
1 he case, or box, in which bees are kepw 

Bee-master, bee' mas-tut.- «. 

One that kerps bees. 

. A tree. 

Beechen, bee'tshn. a. fl03) 
Consisting of the wood of the beech. 

Beef, beef. s. 
The fle^h of black cattle prepared for food ; an 
ox, bull, or cow. It has the plural beeves. 

Beef-eater, beef e-tur. s. 
A yeoman of the guard. — Piobablya corrup- 
tion of the French word BeaufetJer, one wIk> • 
attends at the side-board, which was ancieoily 
[Adccd in A Beaufet. 

Been, bin.. 

1 hr participle preterit of To Be. 

({^ This woid, in the solemn, as well as the 
rarailiar style, h^is shared the fate' of most of 
those words, which, from their nature, arc in 
I he most Ircquent u^e. It is scarcely ever 
hc^.d otherwise than as the noun bin, a repo- 
sitory for corn or wine, and m(Ktt be' pl&ced 
among those deviations which lanpiia^ is 
alw,iys liable to in such words as are auxiliary 
or subordi' aie to others ; for, asthcii>e pans of 
boJiCN which are ihe most frequently n-mdlcd 
grow the sootiest smooth by constant friilion, 
so such words as are in continual use seem to « 

Digitized by 





C^r (559}. Fate (73}, fai; [77). fall (83), fat(8l); me (93), mit {qs) ; pine {105), pin (lO/)'; no (162), mSve (164)1 

wear off their articulations, and become more 
irregular than oihcrs. So low^ as the a|»e of 
James ihc First, I have seen this word spelled 
Byn, N 

Beer, b^er. s. 

Liquor made of malt and hops. 

Beet, beet. s. 

The name of a plant. 
Beetle, bee'tl. s. (405) 

An inscft distinguished by having hard cases or 
sheaths, under which he folds bis wings; a 
heavy mallet. 

Beetlebrowed, bcct'tl.br6ud. a. 

Having prominent brows. (362) 
Beetleheaded^ bcc'tl-lied-ed. a. 

Logger-headed, having a stupid head. 
Beetlestock, bee'tl-stok. s. 

The handle of a beetle. 

BeetkzWE, beet'rSve. 'X^ 
Beet-radish, beet' rad-ish J 


ISeeves, beevz. s. ' 

Black cattle, oxen. 
To Befall, be-fawl'.v.n. 

To happen to ; to come to pass.^fit'. v.a. 

To suit, to DC suitable to. 

To Befool, bi-f66l'. v. a. 

To infatuate, to fool. 

Before, be-fore', prep. 
Further onward in place; in the front of, not 
behind; in the presence of ; iinder the cogni- 
zance of ; preceaing in time ; in preference to; 
prior to ; superior to. 

Before, be-fore', ad. 

Sooner t4ian ; earlier in time ; in time past ; 
in some time lately past; pieviously to ; to 
this time, hitherto; further onward in place. 

Beforehand, b^-fore'hand. ad. 

In a state of anticipation or pre-occupation ; 
previously, hy way of preparation ; in a state 
of accumulation, or so as that more has been 
received than expended ; at first, before any 
thing is done. 

Beforetime, be-fore'time. ad. 


To Befortune, be-for'tshune. V. n. 
(461) To betide. 

To Befoul, be-f&ul'. v. a. 
To make foul, to soil. 

To Befriend, be-frend'. v. a. 
To favour ; to be kind to. 

To Befringe^ be-frinje'. v. a. 

To decorate as with fringes. 
To Beg, beg. v. n. 

To live upon alms. 
To Beg, beg. v. a. 

To ask, to seek by petition ; to take any thing 

for granted. 

To Beget, be-get'. v. a. 
To generate, to procreate; to produce, as 
effc^s ; to produce, as accidents. 

Begetter, bA-get'tur.s, (98) 
He that procreates or begets. 

Beggar, big'gur. s. (418), , 

One who lives upon alms ; a petitioner ; one 
who assumes what he does not prove. 

To Beggar, beg'gur. v. a. 

To reduce 10 beggary, to impoverish ; to de- 
prive; to exhaust. 

Beggarx^iness, blg'gur-le-ncs. s. 
The state oi" being beggarly. 

Beggarly^ beg'gur-le. a. 
Mean, poor^ indigpm. 


Beggary, beg'gur-c. s 


ToBegin^ bJ-gin'. v. n. 
I'o enter upon something new ; to commence 
any a8ion or state ; to enter upon existence ; 
to have its original; to take rise; to come 
into a6l. 

To Begin, be-gin'. v. a. 
To do the first a£l of any thing ; to trace from 
any thing as the first ground ; to begin with, to 
enter upon. 

Beginner, b^-gin'nur. (95) 

He that gives the first cause, or original, to 
any thing ; an unexperienced attempter. 

Beginning, be-gin'ning. s. (4io) 

The first original or cause ; the entrance into 
a6l or being ; the sute in which any thing 
first is ; the rudinaents, or first grounds ; the 
first part of any thing. 

To Begird, be-gerd'. v. a. (160) 

To bind with a girdle ; to surround, to encir- 
cle ; to shut in with a siege, to beleaguer. 

Beglerbeg, bcg'ler-beg. s. 
The chief governor of a province among the 

To Begn AW, be-ndw'. v. a. 

To bite, to eat away. 
Begone, be-gSn'. interject. 

Go away, hence, away. 

Begot, be-got'. 
Begotten, be-eot'tn. (103) 

The part, passive of the verb Beget. 

To Begrease, be-greze'. v. a. 

To soil or dawb with fat matter. 
To Begrime, be-grime'. v. a. 

To soil with dirt deep impressed. 

To Beguile, b^-guile'. v. a. (160) 

To impose upon, to delude; to deceive, to 
evade ; to deceive pleasingly, to amuse. 
Begun, be-gun'. 

The part, passive of Begin. 

Behalf, be-haf, s. (78) (403) 

Favour, cause ; vindication, support. 

To Behave, be-have'. v. a. 
To carry, to condu6l. 

To Behave, be-have'. v, n. 
To afi, to condu£l onc*s self. 

Behaviour, be-have' yur.s. (294) 
Manner of behaving one's self, whether good 
or bad ; external appearance ; gesture, roanuer 
of action ; elegance of manners, gracefulness ; 
condud, general pra6lice, course of life ; To 
be upon one's behaviour, a familiar phrase, 
noting such a state as requires great caution.— 

To Behead, bl-hed'. v. -a. 

To kill by cuttmg off the head. 

Beheld, bc-held'. 

Farticip. passive from Behold. 

Behemoth, be'he-mvth. s. 

The hippopotamus, or river horse. 

Behest, bi-hest'. s. 


At the back of another ; on the back part ; 
towards the back ; following another ; remain- 
ingafier the departure of something else ; re- 
maining after the death of those to whom it 
belonged ; at a distance from fomeihing going 
before; inferior to another. 

Behind, be-hind*. ad. 

Behindhand, be-hmd'hand. ad. 

In a state in which rents or profits are antici- 
pted ; noC upon equal tf rms with regard 10 

To Behold, be-hold'.v. a. 

To view, to see. 

Behold, bc-hold'. interject. 
See, lo. 

Beholden, bJ-hol'dn. part. a. {103) 

Bound in graiirude. 
Beholder, b^-hol'dur. s. 


Beholding, be-hol'ding. a. (410) 


Beholding, be-hol'd!ng. 
Part, from the verb Behold. Seeing, kx>king 

Behoof, be-boof. s. 

Profit, advantage. 

To Behoove, bi-hiSv'. v. n. 
To be fit, to be meet. Used only impenon- 
ally with //, as It behooves. ' 

gr^* This word is sometimes improperly written 
behoove, and corruptly pronounced as rhyming 
with rtrue ; but this is contrary to the analogy 
of words of this form ; which preserve the 
same sound of the vowel, both m the noun 
and verb ; as j^rooft prove ; nvifej *whfe ; 
tbir/f tbie-ve \ «c. 

Behooveful, be-hoSve'ful. a. 
Useful, profitable. 

Behoovefully, be-h6ive'ful-le. 

ad. Profitably, usefullv. 

To Behowl, bc-houl'. v. a. ' 

To howl at. 

Being, be'ing. s. (410). 
Existence, op}x)scd to non-entity ; a particular 
state or condition ; the person existing. 

Being, be'ing. conjunct. 

Be it so, be'tt-s&. 
A phrase, suppose it to be so ; let it be so. 

To Belabour, be-la'bur. v. a. 
To beat, to thump. 

BELAMiE,bcl'a-me. s. 
A friend, an intimate. 

Belamour, bel'a-mMr. s. 
A gallant, consort. 

Belated, be-la'ted. a. 
Benighted. ^ * 

To Belay, be-la'. v. a. 
To block tip, to stop the passage ; to place M 


To Belch, belsh. v. n. 
To eje£l the wind from the stomach ; to issue 
out by eru£btion. 

Belch, belsh. s. (352) 

The aaion of eruQation; a cant-teim for 

Beldam, bel'dam. s. (88) 

An old woman ; a hag. 

To Beleaguer, bi-le'gur. v. a. 
To besiege, to block up a place. 

BELEAGUERER,be-le'gUr-Ur. 5. 
One that besieges a place. .- ' 

Belflower, bei'flSur. s. 
A plant. 

Belfounder, b^l'foijn-dur. s. 

He ^hose trade it is to found or cast bells. 

Belfry, bel'fre. s. 
The place where the bells are rung. 

To Bllie, be-li'..v. a, _ 
To counierteit, to feign, tomimick; to give 
the lie to, to charge with falsehood; to ca- 
lumniate ;. to give a false representation of any 

Belief, be-leef. s. . 

' Credit given to something which we know not 

Digitized by 





iA-(i67), ngt (163) 5 tfibe (171). tdb (172). bill (173) j ifKagp) j piind (313)} /AIn(466), Tuis (469). 

ofoancWcs ; ehc theological virtue of hith, 
or firm confidence of the truths of religion ; 
religion, the body of tenets held ; peniusion, 
opinion ; ihe thing believed j creed, a form 
coDtuoing the articles of iaiih. 

Believable, bc-lee'va-bl. a. 


To Believe, be4eev'. v. a. 

To credit upon ihe ailthority of another ; to 
pot confidence in the veracity of any one. 
To Believe, be-leev\ v. n. 

To have a firm persuasion of any thing ; to 
exercise the theological virtue of faith. 
Believer, bi-lee'vur. s. (9s) 
He that believes or gives credit; a professor 
of Christianity. 

Believingly, b^-lie'v!ng-le. ad. 
After a believing tnanner. 

Belike, be-hke'. ad. 
Probably, likely, perhaps; sometimes in a 
use of irony. 

Bell, bell. s. 
A veisel, or hollow body of cast metal, formed 
to make a noise by the a£l of some instrument 
striking a^ramst it ^ it is used for any thing in 
the form of a bell, as the cups of flowers. 

Belle, bill. s. 

A gay young lady. 
Belles Lettres, bel-li'tur. 

Polite Itieratore. ^ 

Belligeroos, bll-lidje'e-rus. a. 
(3M) (518) Waging war. 

Belligerant, beUlidje'e-rant. a. 
(S^9) Waging war. 

Bellipotent, bel-lip'po-tent. a. 
(518) Mighty m war. 

To Bellow, bllMo. v. n. (327) 
To xnake a noise as a bull ; to make any vio- 
lent outcry ; to vociferate, to clamour; to roar 
as the sea or the wind. 

Bellows, bel'lus. s. 

The instrument used to blow the fire. 
CSt" The last syllable of this word, like that of 
Gallovs. is comipced beyond recovery into the 
souDdot /«/. 

Belluine, belMu-ine. a. (149) 
Beastly, bmtal. 

Bzlly, bll'le. S. (l82) 
That pan of the human body which reaches 
from the breast to the thighs, containing the 
bowels ; the womb ; that part of a man which 
requires £9od ; that part of any thing that 
swells out into a larger capacity ; any pSce in 
which something is inclosed. 

To Belly, bel'l^. v. n. 

To hang out, to bulge out. 

Bellyache, bel'le-ake. s. {355) 

Bellybound, bel'le-bound. a. 


Bellyful, birie-f&l. $. 

As much (bod as (ilia the belly. 

BiLLYGOD, bcl' le-god. s. ' * 

A glutton. 

Belman, bell'man. s. (ss) 
He whose business it is to pnxlaim any thing 
m towns, and to gain attention by ringing his 

Belmetal, bell'met-tl. s. (405) 
The metal ot which bells are made. 

TdBELOCK,be-lSk'. v.a. 

To Belong, be-lSng'. v. n. 

To be die pnopeitv of ; to be the province or 
*««>aiof; tt> adhere, or be appeodam to;. 

to have relation to ; toi>e the quality or attri- 
bute of. 

Beloved, bi-Iuv'ed. a. 

a^ This word, when an adje^ive, is usually 
pronounced in three syllables, as a beioveti son; 
and when a participle in two, as he was much 
beloved. — See Principles, No. 361. 

Below, be-Io'. prep. 

Under in place, not so high; inferior indig- 
nity; inferior in excellence; unworthy ot, 

Below, be-li'. ad. 
In the lower place ; on earth, in opposition to 
heaven; in hell, in the regions of the dead. 

To Belowt, be-l6ut'. v. a. 
To treat with opprobrious language. 

Belswagger, bll-swag'gfir. s. 

A whoremaster. 
Belt, belt. s. 

Agirdle, a cindure. 
Belwether, bell'wIxH-ur. £. 

A sheep which leads the flock with a bell on 

its neck ; hence, To bear the bell. 

To Bemad, b4-mad'. v.a. 

To make mad# 

To Bemire, be-mire'. v.a. 
To drag, or incumber in the mire. 

To Bemoan, be^mone'. v. a. 
To lament, to bewail. 

Bemoan ER, bi-mo'nur.s. (ps) 
A bmenter. 

To Bemoil, be-m6!l'. v. a. 
To bedrabble, to bemire. 

To BEMONSTER,be-mons'tdr. v. a. 
To make monstrous. 

Bemused, be-muzd'.a. (359) 

Overcome with musing. 

Bench, binsh. s. (352) 
A seat; a seat of justice; the persons sitting 
upon a bench. 

Bencher, bln'shur. s. (98) 
The senior members of the socKty of the inns 
of court. 

To Bend, bend. v. a. 

To make crooked, to crook ; to dire£i to a cer- 
tain point ; to incline ; to subdue, to make 

To Bend, bend. v. n. 
To be incurvated ; to lean or jut over ; to be 
submissive, to bow. 

Bend, bend. s. 

Flexure, incurvation; the crooked timbers 
which make the ribs or sides of a ship. 

Ben DAB le, ben'da-bl. a. (405) 
That may be bent. 

BENDER,i>c'n'dur. s. (98) 
The person who bends; the instrument with 
which any thing is bent. 

Ben DWiTH, bend' wi/A. s. 
An herb. 

Bene APED, be-nept'. a. (352) 
A ship is said to be beneapcd, when the water 
does not (low high enough to bring bcrofi* the 

Beneath, be-nixHe'. prep. 
Under, lower in place ; lower in rank, excel- 
lence, or dignity ; unworthy of. 

Beneath, be-nexHe'. ad. (467) 
In a lower place, under ; below, as opposed to 

Benedict, ben'^-dlkt. a. 
Having mild and salubrious qualitiei. 

Benediction, ben-n^-dfk'sh5n. s.. 

Blessing, a decretory pronunciation of happi- 
ness ; the advantage conferred by blessing ; ac- 
. knowledgements tor blessings itceivcd ; the 
form of instituting an abbot. 

Benefaction, bcn-e-fak'shun. s. 

The aft of conferring a benefit; the benefit 

Benefactor, ben-i-fak'tur. s. 

(166} He that confers a benefit. 

Benefactress, b^n-^-fak'tres. s. 
A woman who confers a benefit. 

Benefice, ben'e-fls. s. (142) 

Advantage conferred on another. This word 
is generally used for all ecclesiastical livings. 

Beneficed, ben'^-fist. a. (352) 

Possessed of a benefice. 

Beneficence, bi-nef e-sensc. s. 

A£live goodness. 
Beneficent, be-nef'e-scnt. a. 

Kind, doing good. 

Beneficial, bln-i-fish'al. a. 

Advantageous, conferring benefits, profitable ; 
helpful, medicinal. 

Beneficially, b?n-e-flsh' ad. 
Advantageously, helpfully. * 

Beneficialness, b&i-i-fish'al-nls. 

s. Usefulness, profit. 

Benb-ficiary, ben-e-fish'ya-rc. a. 
(113) Holding something in subordination to 

Beneficiary, ben-e-fish'ya-re. s. 
(1 13} He that is in possession of a benefice. 

Benefit, ben'c-fft. s. 

A kindness, a &vour confened ; advantage, 
profit, use. 
ft:^ Benefit of Clergy in law is a privilege for- 
mcrly alk)wed, by virtue of which a man con- 
vitted of fcloov or manslaughter was put to 
read in a Latin book of a Goihick black cha- 
rafter ; and if the Ordinary of Newgate said 
Legit ut ClericuSy i. e. he reads like a clerk, 
he was only burnt in the hand and set free> 
othcr>vise he suffered dcaih for his crime.— 

To Benefit, ben'e-flt. v.a. 
To do good to. 

To Benefit, ben'e-flt. v. n. 

To gain advantage* 

To Benet, be-net'. v.a. 
To ensnare, 

Be>4EVOLENCE, be.nev'vo-lense. s. 

Disposition to do good, kindness; the good 
done, the charity given ; a kind of tax. 

Benevolent, be-nev'vo-l^nt. a. 

Kind, having good-will. 
Benevolentness, bi-nlv'vo-lent- 
nes. s. 

The same as benevolence. 
Bengal, ben-gall', s. 

A sort of thin slight stuff. 

Benjamin, ben'ja-min. s. 

The name of a tree. 

To Benight, bl-nite'. v.a. 

To surprise with the coming on of night ; to 
involve in darkness, to embarrass by want of 

Benign, bi-nW. a. (385) 
Kind, generous, liberal ; wholesome, not ma* 

Benignity, be-nig'jie-te. s. 
Graciousncss, aftual kindness: salubrity, whole* 
tome quality. 

Benignly, b^-nine'l^. ad. 
Favourably, kindly. 

Digitized by 





C^(559). F4te(73),f5r(77).fin(83),fit(8l); me(93).,met (95);pine (l05),p!n (lO?); n6(i62),mive(l^). 

Benison, ben'nc-2^"-«- (^7^) (443) 
Blessing, benedi6lion. 

ENNET, b^n'n^t. s. (99) 


An herb 

Bent, bent. s. 
The state of being bent ; degree of flexure; 
decliviiy ; utmost power ; application of the 
mind ; inclination, dispoiiiion towards some- 
thing ; determinaiion, fixed purpose; turn of 
the temjicc or di>posiiiou ; tendency, flexion; 
a stalk or. grass, called the Bent-grass. 

BENT,bent. paif. o^ the verb To bend. 
M.idc crooked ; dire£led to a certain point; 

• determined uix;n. 

B.ENTING Time, ben'ting-time. s. 

The lirae when pigeons feed on bents before 

peas arc rli>c. 
To Benum, bc-num'. v. a. 

To make torpid, to stupify. — See To Numb. 

Benzoin, ben-zoin/. s. 

A medicinal kind of resin, impojted from the 
East Indies, aiid vulgarly called Beijamin. 

To Bepaint, be-pant'. v. a. 

To cover with paint. 

To Bepinch, be-pinsh'. v. a. 

To mark with pinches. 

To Bequeath, be-kweTue'. v. a. 

(467) To leave by will to another. 

Bequest, be-kvest'. s. (334) (414) 

Something left by wHl. 

To Berattle, be-rat'tl. v, a. 

To rattle ofl;'. 
Berberry, bar'ber-re. s. {555) 

A berry of a sharp ta«tc. used for pickles. 
To Bereave, be-reve'. v. a. 

To strip of, to deprive of; to take away from. 

Bereft, be-reft'. 

Part. pass, of Bereave. 

Bergamot, ber'ga-mot. s. 

A sort of pear, commonly called Burgamot, 
and vulgarly called Burgamee, a sort of essence 
or perfume, drawn from a fruit pixxluced by 
ingrafting a lemon tree on a bcrgamot p<?ar 
Slock ; a sort of snuff. 

To Berhyme, be-rime'. v. a. 

To celebrate in rhyme or verses. 

Berlin, ber-lin'. s. 

A coach of a particular form. 

Berry, ber're. s. 

Any small fruit with many seeds. 

To Berry, ber're. v. n. 

To bear berries. 
Bertram, ber'tram 

Bastard pclliiory. 

Beryl, berMl. s. 
A precious stone. 

To Bescreen, be-skreen' 

To shelter, ta conceal. 
To Beseech, be-seetsb'. v 

To entreat, to supplicate, to implore ; to beg, 

to ask. 

To Beseem, be-seem^, v. n. 
To become, to be fit. 

To Beset, be-set'. v. a. 

To besiege, to hem in ; to crobarrasj, to per- 
plex ; to waylay, to surround ; to fall upon, 
to harass. 

To Beshrew, be-shr&6' . y . a. 
To wish .1 ciuse to ; to happen ill to. 

Beside, be-slde'. Y 
Besides, be-sldes'. J^^ ^' 

At the side of another, near ; over and above ; 
not according to, though not CQDtrary s out of, 
in a state of deviation from. 




Beside, b^-side'. 1 ^ 

Besides, be-sldes'. J ' 
Over and above ; not in thii number, beyond 
this class. 

To Besiege, be-seeje', v. a. 
To beleaguer, to lay sicgc to, to beset with 
armed forces. 

Besieger, be-see'jur. s. (98) 

One cniployed in a siege. 

To Beslubber, be-slSb'bur, v. a. 

To dawb, to smear. 
To Besmear, be-smeer'. v. a. 

To bedawb ; to soil, to foul. 
To Besmirch, be-smertsh'. v. a. 

To soil, to discolour. 

To Besmoke,. be-smoke'. v. a. 

To foul with smoke; to harden or diy in 

To Besmut^ be-smut'. v.a. 

To blacken with smoke or soot. 

Besom, bc'zum. s. 
An instrument to sweep with. 

To Besort, be-s6rt'. v. a. 
To suit, to fit. 

Besort, b^-s&rt'. s. ^ 

Company, attendance, train- 

To Besot, be-sot'. v.a. 
To infatuate, to stupify ; to make to doat. 

Besought, be-sawt'. ^ 

Part. pass, of Beseech ; which see. 
To Bespangle, bi-spang'gl. v.a. 

To adorn with spangles, to besprinkle with 
something shining. 
To Bespatter, be-spat'tur. v. a, 
To spot or sprinkle with dirt or water. 

To Bespawl, be-spawl'. v.a. 

To dawb with spittle. 
To Bespeak, be-speek'. v.a. 

To order or inireat any thing before hand ; to 
make way by a previous apology ; to forebode ; 
to speak to, to addi-ess ; to betoken, to shew. 
Bespeaker, be-spce'kur. s. 

He that bespeaks any thing. 

To Bespeckle, be-spek'kl. v. a. 

To mark with speckles or spots. 
To Bespew, be-spiV. v.a. 

To dawb with spew or vomit 

To Bespice. 



To season with spices 

To Bespit, bc-spit'. v. a. 

To dawb with spittte. 

ToBespot, be-spot', v.a. 
To mark with spots. 

To Bespread, be-spred'. v. a. 
To spread over. 

To Besp/RINKLE, be-sprink'kl. v. a. 

To sprinkle over. 
To BESPUTTER,be-sp3t'tur. v. a. 

To sputter over something, to dawb any thing 

by sputtering. 

Best, best, a- 
Most good. 

Best, best. ad. 
In the highest degree of goodness ; fittest. 

To Bestain, be-stane'. v. a. 
To mark with stains, to spot. 

To Bestead, b^-st^d' . v. a. 
To profit ; to treat, to accommodate. 

Bestial, bcs'tshe-al. a. (461) 

Belonging 10 a beast; brutal, carnal, 
d^ This word is sometimes improperly pro- 
nounced with the e long, as if written heauialt 
wbercas it comes dir©aiy from the Fjench ^j- 


tial't and ought to be pronounced as if written 

best-yal (272). 
A hare, who in a civil way. 
Complied with ev'ry thiDg, like (Hj, 
Was known to all the Uttial train 
That haunt the woods or scour the pki«. 


Bestiality, b?s^t«hi-al'c-te. s. 

The quality of beasts. 

Bestially, bes'tsbi-al-le. ad. 

To Bestick, be-stik'. v.a. 
To stick over with any thing. 

To Bestir, be-stur'. y. 

To put into vigorous a6hon. 

To Bestow, be-ito'. v. a. 

To give, to confer upon ; to give as chanty : 
to give in marriage ; to give as a prescn: ; 10 
-apply ; to lay out upon ; to lay up, to flow, to 
Bestower, be-sto'ur, s. (96) 

Giver, disposer. 

Bestr AUGHT, be-strawt'. particip. 

Distra61cd, mad. 

To Bestrew, be-stro'.V. a. 
. To sprinkle over. — Sec S t r t \v . 

To Bestride, be-stride'. v. a. 

To stride over any thing ; to have any thing 
between one's legs ; to step over. 
To Bestud, be-stud\ v. a. 
To adorn with studc. 

Bet, bit. s. 

A wager. 

To Bet, bet. v. a. 

To wager, stake at a wager. 

To Betake, be-takc', v. a. 

To t^e, to seize ; to have recoune to. 
To Bethink, bie-zAink'. v.a. 

To recal to reflexion. 

To Bethral, bc-/Arill'. v. a. (406) 
To enslave, to conquer. 

To Bethump, be-/Aump'. v.a. 

To bear. 
To Betide, be-tide'*. v. n. 

To happen to, to bcfal ; to come to pass, to 

fall out. 
Betime, be-time'. \ , 

Betimes, bc-timz . J 
Seasonably; early ; soon, before long time has 
passed ; early in the day. 

To Betoken, be-toM;n. v. a. . 

To signify, to maik, to represent; to fore* 
shew, to presignify. 

Betony, bet'to-ne. s. 
A plant. 

Betook, be-to6k'. 

Irreg. pret. from Betake. 

To Betoss, be-tos'. v.a. 

To disturb, to agitate. 

To Betray, be-tra'. v, a. 

To give into the hands of enemies ; to dis- 
cover that which has bepn entrusted to secrecy ; 
to make liable to something inconvenient ; to 
shew, to discover. 

Betrayer, be-tra'ur. s. 

He that betrays, a traitor. 

To Betrim, be-tnm'. v. a. 
To deck, to dress, icgrace. 

To Betroth, be-tri/A'. v. a. 

To contra^ to any one, to afiiaiice; to nomi- 
nate to a bisboprick. 

To Betrust, bi-trust'. v. a. 
To entrust, to put into the power of anotlMr. 

Digitized by 





nir {167), nk (163) 3 tibe (lyi), tdb (172), bull (-173) ; 6il (299)5 P^^nd (313) ; thin {466), xms (469),, 

Better, bit'tur. a» (98) 
Hsving gcxxl qualities Id a'jgreater degree than 
somethiog eUe. 

Better, bet'tflr. ad. 
Well in a greater degree. 

To Better, bct'tur. v. a. 
To improve, to tneliorate ; to surpass, to ex- 
ceed, to advance. 

Better, bet'tur. s. 

Superior in goodness. ,3 

Bettor, Mt'tur. s. (166) 

One that lavsliets or wagers. 

Betty, bet'te. s. 
An ioscruroent to break open doors. 

Between, be-tween'. prep. 
In the intermediate space; from one to an- 
other ; belonging to two in partnership ; bear- 
ing relation to two ; in separation of one from 
the other. 

Betwixt, be-twikst'. prep. 

I"ft'}«v'il. {s. M 

In masonry and joinery, a kind of square, one 
leg of which is trequentiy crooked. 

Beverage, blv^ur-!dje. s. (90) (555) 

Drink, liauor to be drunk. 

Bevy, bev'i. s. 

A flock of birds ; a company, an assembly. 
To Bewail, be-wale'. v. a. 

To bemoan, to lament. 

To Beware, be- wire', v. n. 

To regard with caution, to be suspicious of 
danger from. 

To Beweep, b^-weep'. v. a. 

To weep over or upon. 
To Bewet, be-wet'. v. a. 

To wet, to moisten.'dur. v. a. 

To lose in pathless places, to pu2zle. (515} 

To Bewitch, be-witsh'. v. a. 

To injure by witchcraft; to charm, to please. 
Bewitchery, bi-witsb'ur-re. s. 
Fascination, charm. (5,^^ 

Bewitchment, be-witsh'ment. s. 


To Bewray, be-ra'. v. a. (427) 
To betray, to discover perfidiously ; to shew, 
to make visible. 

Bewray ER, be-ri'ur. s. 

Betrayer, discoverer. 
Bey, bi. s. (from the Turkish) 

A governor of a province, a viceroy. jSsb, 

Beyond, bi-yond'. prep. 
Before, at a distance not reached ; on the far- 
ther side of ; farther onward than ; past, out 
of the reach of; above, exceeding to a greater 
degree than ; above in excellence ; remote 
from, not withiq the sphere of; To go be- 
yond, is to deceive. 

t^ There is a pronunciation of this word so 
obviously wrong- as scarcely to deserve notice ; 
and thai IS sounding the liice a, as if the word 
were written be^and. Absurd and corrupt as 
this pronunciation is, too many of the people 
of London, and those not entirely uneducated, 
«w guilty of it. 

Bezoar, bc'zore. s. 
A medicinal stone, formerly in high esteem as 
ananiidott, brought from the East Indies. 

Bezoardick^ bez-o-ar'dik. a. 
Compounded with bezoar. 

BiAN<jULATED,bi-ang'gu-la-ted. \ 

i< Having two corners 01 angles. 

t\ colour lor painting. 

Bicipital, bi.sfp'i-tal. (ii8)l 
licipiTous, bl-sip'c-tus. S^' 

Bias, bi'as. s. (88) 
The weight lodged on one side of a bowl, 
which tunis it from the straight line ; any thing 
which turns a man to a particular course ; pro- 
pension, inclination. 

To Bias, bl'as. v. a. 

To incline to sogie side. 

Bib, b!b. s. 

A small piece of linen put upon the bieasts of 
children, over their clothes. 

BiBACious, bi-ba'shus. a. (lis) 

Much addicted to drinking. 
Qrjr Perhaps the first syllable of this word may 

be considered as an exception to the general 

rule. (117) 

Bibber, bib'bur. s. (.Qs) 
A tippler. 

Bible, bi'bl.s. (403) _ 

The sacred volume, in which arc contained 
the revelations of God. 

Bibliographer, bib-li-og'gra-fur. 

s. A transcriber. 

Bibliothecal, b!b-le-o/A'^-kal. a. 
Belonging to a library. 

Bibulous, bib'u-lus. a. (311) 

That which nas the quality of drinking mois- 

ibb'^) A plant whose seed-pouch is divided 
into two parts. 

Bice, bise. s. 

A colour for painting. 

B ■ " 


Hdving (wo hedds ; it is applied to one of the 
muscles of the arm. 

To Bicker, bik'kur. V. n. (98) 

To skirmish, to fight off and on; to quiver, 
to play backward and forward. 

Bickerer, bik'ur-ur. s. {555) 

A skirmisher. , 

BlCR£RN,bik'kurn. s. (98) (418) 
An iron ending in a pome, 

BicoRNE, brkorn. (lis) \ 

BiCQRNOUS, bI-kor'n3s. / 

Having t¥ro horns. 

BicoRPORAL. bi-kor'po-ral. a. (118) 
i^Iaving two booies. 

To Bid, bid. v. a. 
To desire, to ask ; to command, to order ; to 
offer, to propose ; to pronounce, to declare ; 
to denounce. 

Bidden, bidMn. part. pass. (l03) 

Invited; commanded. 

Bidder, bid'dur.-s. (98) 

One who o&rs or proposes a price. 

Bidding, bid' ding. s. (4io) 

Command, order. 

To Bide, bide. v. a. 

To endure, to sufler. 
To Bide, bide, v.n. 

To dwell, to live, to inhabit ; to remain in a 


Bi DENTAL, bi-dcn'tal. a. (ll8) 
Having two teeth. 

Biding, bl'ding.s. (4io) 

Residence, habitation. 

Biennial, bi-cn'ne-al. a. (116) 
Of the cotitinuaoce of two years. 

Bier, bc<*r. s. (275) 
A carriage on which the dead are carried to 
the grave. 

BiKSTiNGS. becs'tingz. s. (275) 
The first milk given by a cow after calvi 


BiFARious, bi-fi'ri-us. a. 

BiFEROus, blf'fe-rus. a. (503) 

^ Bearing fruit twicer year. 

.C^, We see that the antepenultimate accent ok 
this word, as well as on Bigamy, and some 
others, has the power of shortening the vowel 
in the first syllable. (535) 

Bifid, bi'fid. (lis) 1 

BiFIDATED. bft'fe-da-t^d. /^* 

(503) (533) opening with a cleft. 
BibOLD, brfold. a. 

Twofold, double* 

Bi FORMED, bi'fSrmd. a, (362) 
Compounded of two forms. 

Bifurcated, bi-fur'ki-ted. a. (lis) 

Shooting out into two heads. 

Bifurcation, bl-fur-ka'shun. s. 

Division into two. 

Big, big. a. 

Great in bulk, large ; teeming, pregnant ; full 
of something; disiended, swohi ; greut in air 
and mien, proud ; great in spiiit, brave. 

Bigamist, big'ga-mist. s. 

One that has committed bigamy. 
Bigamy, big'ga-me. s. (535) (503) 
The crime of having two wives ai once. 

BiGBELLiED, big'bcl-lid. a. (282) 


BiGGIN, blg'gill. S. 
A child's cap. ' ' 

BiGLy,b!gMe. ad. 

Tumidly, haughtily. 

Bigness, big'ne"^. s. 
Greatness of quantity ; size, whether greater 
or smaller. 

Bigot, blg'gut. s. (166) 

A man devoted to a certain party. 

Bigoted, big'gLit-cd. a. 

Blindly prepossessed in favour of something. 
(j:f" From what oddity I know not, thts word 
IS frequently pronounced as if accented on the 
last syllable put one, and is generally found 
written as if it ought to be so pronounced, the 
/ being doubled, as is usual when a participle is 
formed from a vcib that has its accent on the 
last syllable. Dr. Johnson", indeed, has very 
jijdiciuusly set both orihogriphy and pronun- 
ciation to rights, and spells the word with one 
tj though he finds it with two in the quota* 
tions he gives us from Garth and Swift. That 
tiie former thought it might be pronounced 
with the accent on the second syllable, ishit;hly 
presumable from the use he makes of it, where 
he sii)'s : 

" Bigotted fo this idol, we disclaim 

<*Rest, health, and ease, for nothing but a 

For if wfe do not lay the accent on the second 
syllable, here the verse will be unpardonably 
rijggcd. This mistake must certainly take its 
rise from supposing a verb which does not 
exist, namely, as higot; bat as this word is 
derived from a suMtaiitive, it ought to have 
the same accent ; thus though the words OaliTt 
and hiliet are verbs as well as nouns, vet as 
they have the accent on the first syllable, the 
participial adjcQives derived from them hwe 
only one /, and both arc pronounced with the 
accent on the first syllable, as balloted^ bil" 
leted. Bigoted therefore ought to have bat 
one /, and to preserve the accent on the first 

Bigotry, big'gut-tre. s. (553) 

Blind zeal, prejudice \ the prafiice of a bigot. 

BiGSWOLN, big'swoJn. a. . 


Digitized by 





C^ issg). Fate (73), fir (77); fall (83), fat (si); me (93), met (95); pine (105), pm (107); ni (162), mive (164), 

BiLANDER, bil'an-ddr. s. (sos) 
A sm4.ll vessel used for the carriage of goods. 

Bilberry, bil'ber-re. s. 
. Whonlcbcrry. 

Bilbo, bfl'bo. s. 

' A rapier, a swoixl. 

Bilboes, bil'b&ze. 5.(296) 

A soi^t of stocks. 

Bile, bile. s. 

A thick, yellow, bitter liquor, separated in the 
liver, colleded in the gall bladder, and dis- 
charged by the common duct. 

BlL^, bile. s. 
A sore angry swelling. Improperly Boil. 

To Bilge, bilje. v. n. (74) 

To spring a leak. 

Biliary, b5l'ya-re. a. (113) 
Belonging to the bile. 

BiLiNGSGATE,b!l'lingz-gate. s. 
Ribaldry, foul language. 

BiLiNGUOUSjbi-ling'gwus. a. (lis) 
Having two tongues. 

Bilious, bil'yus. a. (113} 
Consisting of bile. 

To Bilk, bilk, v, a. 
To cheat, to defraud. 

BlLL> bflLs. 
The beak of a fowl. 

Bill, bill. s. 

A kind of hatchet with a hooked point. 

Bill, bill. s. 

A written paper of any kind ; an account of 
money ; a law presented to the parliament ; a 
' physician's prescription ; an advertisement. 

To Bill, bill. v. n._ 

To caress, as doves by joining bills. 

To Bill, bill. v. a. 
To publish by an advertisement. 

BlLLfifl-. bll'lit. S. (09) (472) (48l) 
A small paper, a note ; Billet-doux, or a soft 
Billet ; a love letter. 

Billet, bil'llt. s. (90) 
A small log of wood for the chimney. 

To Billet, bll'ltt. v. a. 

To d'lTcB. a soldier where be is to lodge ; to 
' quarter soldiers. 

Billiards, bil'yurdz. s. (113) 

A kind of play. 

]r Mr. Nareshas very judiciously corrcfled a 
.alse etymology of Dr. Johnson in this word, 
which might eventually lead to a false pronun- 
ciation. Dr. Johnson derives it from 6all and 
yard, orstick,*io push it with- So Spenser — 
* With dice, with cards,with halliards far unfit, 
•« With shuttle-cock$,un$eeming manly wit." 
Spenser, says Mr. NarcfS, was probably misled, as 
well as the Lexicographer, by a false notion of 
the etymology. The word, as well as the 
game, is French, hiliiard ;and made by the 
addition of a common termination, from 6ilUf 
the term for the ball used in playing. 

Billow, btl'lo.s. 

A wave swollen. 
Billowy, bil'lo-e. a. 

Swelling, turgid. 

Bin, bin. s. 

A place where bread or wine is leposited* 
Binnacle, bln'a-kl. s. (405) 

A sea term, meaning the compass box. 
(|4r This word is not in Johnson ; and Dr. Ash 

and Mr. Smith, who have it, pronounce the i 

io the first syllable short. It is probably only 

a corruptioD of the word BittacU* 


Binary, bi'na-re. (lis) 

To double. 

To Bind, bind. v. a. 
To confine with bonds, to enchain ; to gird, 
to enwrap ; to fasten to any thin^ ; to fasten 
together; to co\'er a wound with dressings; to 
compel, to constrain ; tooblige by stipulation ; 
to confine, to^hinder ; to maCe costive ; to re- 
strain : To bind to, to oblige to serve some 
one ; To bind over, to oblige to make ap- 

To Bind, bind. V. n. 
To contrafct, to grow stiff ; to be obligatory. 

Binder, binder, s. (98) 
A man whose trade it is to bind books ; a man 
that binds sheaves : a fillet, a shred cut to bind 

Binding, bind'ing. s. (410) 

A bandage. 

Bindweed, bind' weed. s. 

A plant. 

Binocle, bin'no-kl. s. (405) 
A telescope fitted so with two tubes, as that a 
distant objecl may he seen with both eyes. 

0:^ The same reason appears for pronouncing 
the / in the first syllable of this word short as 
m Bigamy. (535J 

Binocular, bi-nok'u-lur. a. (il8) 

Having two eyes. (88) (98) 

Biographer, bl-og'gra-fur. s. (116) 

A writer of lives. 

Biography, bi-Sg'gra-fe. s. (116) 

An historical account ot the lives of particular 
men. (518) 

Biparous, b!p'pa-ru$. a. (503) 

Bringing fonh two at a birth. 

Hf^T This word and Bipedal have the i loiig in 
Dr. Ash and Mr. Sheridan ; but Mr. Perry 
makes the / in the first long, and in the last 
short : analogy, however, seenis to decide in 
-favour of the sound I have given it. For 
though the penultimate accent has a tendency 
to lengthen the vowel when followed by a 
single consonant, as in bif>ed^ iripodt &c. the 
antepenultimate accent has a greater tendency 

to shorten the vowel it falls upon. See 

Bigamy and Tripod. (503) 

Bipartite, bip'par-tite. a. (155) 

Having two correspondent parts. 

f^ Every orthoepist has the accent on the first 
syllable of this word but Entick, who places it 
on the second ; but a considerable difference 
is found in the quantity of the first and last i. 
Sheridan and Scott have them both long. 
Narcs the last lone. Perry both short, and 
Buchanan and W. Johnston as I have marked 
them. The varieties of quantity on this word 
are the more surprising, as all these writers that 
give the sound of the vowels make the first / 
in tripartite shoit, and the last lon^ ; and this 
unifonnitvin the pronunciation of one word 
ought to nave led them to the same pronunci- 
ation of the other, io perfeSly simihr. The 
shortening power of the antepenultimate ac- 
cent is evident in both. (503) 

Bi PARTITION, bi-par-tish'un."*. 
The a£i of dividing into two. 

Biped, bi'ped. s. (lis) 

An animal with two feet. 

Bipedal, bip'pi-dal. a. (503) 
Two feet in length.— See Biparous. 

BiPENNATEp,bi-pen'na-t^d. a.(ll8) 

Having two wings. 

BiPETALOUS,bi-pet'ta-lus. a. (lie) 
Consisting of two flower-lcavcs. 

BiQUADRATiCK, bJ-qwI-drat'lk-' ^' 

The fourth power arising from .the multipli-. 

cation of a square by itself. 

Birch, burtsh. s. (los) 

A tree. 

Birchen, bur'tshn. a. (i03)(405) 
Made of birch. 

fj^ An Englishman may blush at this cluster 
of consonants for a syllaole ; anil yet this is un- 
questionably the exa& pronunciation of the 
word ; and that our langudige it fuU of these 
syllables without vowels.— See Principles^ 
No. 103, 405. 

Bird, burd. s. (los) 

A general term for the feather kind, a fgwU 
To Bird, burd. v. n. 

To catch birds. 

BiRDBOLT, burd^bolt. s. 
A small arrow. 

One that makes it his cmpbyment to take 

Birder, burd'ur. s. (93) 

A birdcatcher. 

BiRDiNGPiECE, burd'ing-peese, s. 
A gun 10 shoot birds with. 

Birdlime, biird'lime. s. 
A ^^lutinous substance spread upon twigs, by 
which the birds that light upon them are en- 

Birdman, burd' man. s. (ss) 
A birdcatcher. 

BiRDSEYE, burdz'i. s. 

A plant. 
BiRDSFOOT, burdz'fit. s. 

A plant. * 

BiRDSNEST,"burdz'nest. s. 
An herb. , 

BiRDSNEST, burdzSiest. s. 
The place where a bird lays her eggs and 
batches her young. 

BiRDSTONGUE, bufdz'tung. S. 
An herb. 

BiRGANDER, bei'gan-dur. s. 
A fowl of the goose kind. 

Birth, ber/A. s. (los) 

The aa of coming into life; extraction, line- 
age ; rank which is inherited by descent; the 
condition in which any man 'is born ; thing 
born ; the 2B, of bringing forth. 

Birthday, hhth^dk. s. 

The day on which any one is born* 

Birth DOM, ber/A'dSm. s. 
Privilege of birth. 

Birthnight, beryA'nite. s. 
The night in which any one is born. 

Birthplace, ber//^'pl4se. s. 

Place where any one is bom. 

Birthright, ber/A'riie. s. 

The rights and privileges to which a man is 

born ; the right of the first born. 

a. Strangled in being bom. (359) 
0^* See Birchen. 

BiRTHWORT, ber/A'wurt. s. {166) 
The name of a plant. 

Biscuit, bis'kit. s. (341) 

A kind of hard dry bread, made to be carried 
to sea ; a composition of fine flour, almonds, 
and sugar. 

To Bisect, bi-slkt'. v. a. (lJ8)0 19) 
To divide into two paru. 

Digitized by 





n5r (i67), nSt (i(33) ; tibe (171), t2b (172). bull (l73) ; oil (299) ; p&ind (313) • thin U66), this (4O9). 

Bisection, bi-sek'shun. s. (us) 

A geometrical term, si^iiVing the division of 
any (|uantity into two equal parts. 

Bishop, bish'up. s. (166) 
Ox of the bead order of the clergy. 

Bishop, bish'up. s. 

A cant word for a mixture of wine, oranges, 

and sugar. 
BiSHOPRiCK, bish'up-rik. s. 

The diocese of a bishop. 
BiSHOPWEED, bish'up-wecd. s. 

A plant. 

Bisk, b!sk. s. 

Soup, broth. 

Bismuth, biz'mu/A. s. 

Marcasitc, a hard, white, brinlc, mineral sub- 
taocc, of a metalline nature, found at Misnia. 

Bissextile, bfs-scks'tii. s. (i4o) 

Leap year. 

^ Mr. Scott places the accent on the ftrst syl- 
lablsiof this word ; Dr. Kcnrick on the hrit 
ardlast; Mr. Sheridan, Dr. fohnson, W. 
Johnston, Dr. Ash, Buchanan, t*cfr>', Eniick, 
and Baylcy, on the second ; Mr. Scott, Dr. 
Kwrick, and W. Johnston, pronounce the 
bit/ long, ^^ in tiU. But as the accent is on 
uhe second s^'llable by so great a majority, ana- 
logy deterroines the last z to be shofc. 

Bisson, bis'sun. a. (l66j 

Blind. Obsolete. . 

Bistort, bis 't&rt. s. 
A plant called snake-weed. 

Bistoury, bis'tur-e. s. (314) 
Asargeoo*s instrument used in niaking in- 


Bit, bit. 8. 
The iron part of the bridle which if put into 
ihe bone's mouth. 

Bit, bit. s. 
As much meat as is put into the mouth at 
ftxe; a small piece ot any thing : a Spanish 
Wctt India silver coin, valued at seven-pence 

To Bit, bit. v. a. 

To put the bridle opon a horse. 
Bitch, bitsh. s. 

The iennle of the dog kiix) ; a vulgar name 

of reproach for a woman. 
To Bite, bite. v. a. 

To crush or pierce with the teeth ; to give 

pUQ by cold ; to hurt or pain with reproach ; 

10 cut, to wound; to make the mouth smart 

viih an acrid taste ; to cheat, to trick. 

BiTEjbite. S. 

The seizure of any thine by the teeth ; the a£l ' 

ot a fish that takes the bait ; a cheat, a trick ; 

BlT^R, bi'tur. s. Cps) 

He that bites ; a fish apt to take the bait ; a 

^^kJ^, a deceive: r 

BiTTACLE, b!t'ta-kl. s. (405) 
<A firame of timber in the steerage, where the 
co-npiss is placed. More commonly BiN- 


Bitter, bVtur. a. (ps) 

rU-ing a hot, acrid, biting taste, like worm- 
*9od; sharp, cruel, severe; calamitous, 
miserable; reproachful, satirical; unpleasing 


Bitterground, bit'rur-griund. s. 

A pUitt. 

^^ '-ha bitter taste ; in a biting manner, sor- 
»owiully, calamitously ; sharplvt severely. 

BiTTKRM, bit' turn. s. (98) 
A bird wtth long legs, which feeds upon fish. 

Bitterness, bit tur-nlj?. s. 

A bitter taste ; malice, grudge, hatred, impla- 
cability ; sharpness, severity of temper ; satire, 
piquancy, keenness of reproach ; sorrow, vex- 
ation, aiiii£lion. 

Bittersweet, bit'tur-sweet. s. 

An apple which has a compounded taste. 

Bitumen, be-tu'm^n. s. (lis) (503) 
A fat untluous matter dug out of the earth, or 
scummed off lakes. 

({3- This word, from the propensity of our lan- 
guage to the antepenultimate accent, is often 
profiouDCcd with the stress on the first syllabic, 
as if written bit'u-men ; and this last mode of 
sounding the word may be considered as the 

^ most common, ihougn not the most learned 

"" pronunciation. For Dr. Ash is the only 
orthucpist who places the accent on the first 
syllable ; but every one who gives the sound 
of the unaccented vowels, except Buchanan, 
very improperly makes the / long, as in idle ; 
but if this sound be long, it ought 10 be slen- 
der, as in the. second syllable of visibU, ter- 

Bituminous, be-tu'me-ni*s. a. (lis) 

Compounded of bitumen. 

Bivalve, bi'valv. a. (lis) 

Having two valves or shutters, used of those 
fish that have two shells, as oysten. 
BiVALVULAR, bi-val'vu-lar. a. 

Having two valves. 

BixwoRT, biks'vvurt. s. 
An herb. 

BiZANTiNE, biz'an-tine. s. (149) 
A piece of gold valued at fifteen pounds, 
which the king offers upon high festival days. 

(j^ Perr)' is the only onhoepist who pronounces 
the last / in this word short : and Dr. Johnson 
remarks, that the first sylhble ought to be 
spelled with jr, as the worn arises from the ctis- 
tom established among the Emperon of Con- 
stantinople, anciently called Byzantium. 

To Blab, blab. v. a. 
To tell what ought to be kept secret. 

To Blab, blab. V. n. 
To telltales. 

Blab. blab. s. 

A telltale. 

Blabber, blab'bdr. s. 
A uttler. 

Black, blak. a. 
Of the colour of night; dark ; cloudy of 
countenance; sullen; horrible, wicked; dis- 
mal, mournful. 

Black-bryony, blak-bri'o-ne. s. 

The name of a plant. 

Black-cattle, blak'kat-tl. s. 

Oxen, bulls, and cows. 

Black-guard, blag-gard'. s. (448) 

A dirty fellow. A low term. 

Black-lead, blak-led'. s. 

A mineral founa in the lead mines much used 
for pencils. 

Black-pudding, blak-pdd'ding.s. 

A kind of food made of blood and grain. 

Black-rod, blak-rid'. s. 
The usher belonging to the order of the gar- 
ter ; so called from the black rod he carries in 
his hand. He is usher of the parliament. 

Black, blak. s. 

A black colour; mourning; a blackamoor; 

that part of the ^e which is black. 
To Black, blak. v. a. 

To make black, to blacken. 

Blackamoor, blak'a-m6re«8. 

A negro. 

Blackberry, bhak'ber-ie. s. 

A species oi bramble ; the fruit of it. 

Blackbird, blak'burd. s. 

The name of a bird. 

To Blacken, blak'kn.v, a. (l03) 
To make of a black colour ; to darken, 10 de« 

To Blacken, blak'kn. v. n. 

To grow black. 

Blackish, biak'ish. a. 

Somewhat black. 

Blackmoor, blak'mire. s. 

A negro. 

Blackness, blak'n?s. s. 

Black colour; darkness. 

Blacksmith, blak'smf/A. s. 
A smith that works in iron, so called from 
being very smutty. 

Blacktail, blak'tile. s. 
The rough or pope. A small fish. 

Blackthorn, blak'/Mrn. s. 

The sloe. 

Bladder, blad'diV. s. (gfi) 
That vessel in the body which contains the 
urine ; a blister, a pustule. 

Bladder-nut, blad'dur-nut. s. 

A plant, 

Bladder Senna, blad'dur-sin' a. •. 

A plant. 

Blade, blade, s. 
The spire of grass, the green shoota of com. 

Blade> blade, s. 
The sharp or striking part of a weapon or in« 
strument ; a brisk man, either fierce or gay. 

Bladebone, blide'bone. s. 

The scapula, or scapular bone, 
(f:^ Probably corrupted from Platchone: Greek'ded. a. 

Having blades or jpircs. 
Blain, blane. s. 

A pustule, a blister. 

Blame ABLE, bl4'ina-bl. a. (405) 

Culpable, fiiulty. 

Blameableness, bla'ma-bUnes. s. 

Blame ably, bl^'ma-bli. ad. . 

To Blame, blJme. y. a. 

To censure, to charge with a fault. 

Blame, blJme. s. 
Imputation of a fault; crime, hurt. 

Blameful, blame'ful. a. 

Criminal, guilty. 

Blameless, blame' Ics. a. 
Guilt less, innocent. 

Blamelesly, bl4me'les-le!ad. 

Blamelesness, blameMes-nes. s. 

Blamer, bla'mur. s. (98) 

A censurer. 

Blameworthy, blSme'wur-THe. a. 

Culpable, blameablc. 

To Blanch, blansli. v.a. 

To whiten ; to strip or peel such things as 
have husks ; to obliterate, to pass over. 

Blancher, blan'shdr, s. (98) 
A whitcner. 

Bland« bland, a. 
. Soft, mild, gende. 

To Blandish, blan'dish. v. a* 
To smooth, to so&en. 

Digitized by 





Cir (559). Fate (73), far (77), fill (83), fat (si) 5 me (93), met (95); pine (105), pin (107); no{l62),mive(i64 

Blandishm.ENT, blan'dish-ment. s 

A61 of fondness, expression of tenderness by 
gesture ; «>ft words, kind speeches i kind ircat- 

Blank, blank, a. 
White ; unwritten ; confused ; without rhyme. 

Blank, blank, s. 
A void space ; a lot by which nothing is 
gained ; a paper unwritten ; the point to 
which an arrow or shot is dircftcd. 

Blanket, blank'it. s. (99) 

A woollen cover, soft, and loosely woven ; a 
kind of pear. 

To Blanket, blank'it. v. a. 

To cover with a blanket ; to toss in a blanket. 

Blankly, blank'le. a. 
Ill a blank maancr, with paleness, with con- 

To Blaspheme, bias-feme', v. a. 
To speak in terms of impious irreverence of 
God ; to speak evil of. 

To Blaspheme, bias-feme', v. n 
To speak blasphemy. 

Blasphemer, blas-fe'mSr. s. 

A wretch that speaks of God in impious and 
irreverent terms. 
Blasphemous, blas'fe-mSs. a. 

Indpiously irreverent with regard to God. 
(f3^ We sometimes hear this word pronounced 
with the accent on the second syllabic like 
blaspheme; ^nd as the word blaspbemus in 
Latin has the second syllable long, and the 
EngiiiHi word has the same number of syllables, 
it has as good a right to the accent 00 the se- 
cond syllabic, as Sonorous , Bitumen^ Acunun, 
&c. ; but placing the accent on the fiist syl- 
lable of blasphemous is by much the most 
polite ; as, uofonunately for the other pronun- 
ciation, though the learned one, it has been 
adopted by the vulgar. (503) 

Blasphemously, bias' fe-mus-le. ad. 

Impiously, with wicked irreverence. 

Blasphemy, blas'fe-mi. s. 

Blasphemy is an o&rtng of some indignity 
unio God bimself. 

Blast, blast, s. ' 

A gust, Of pufiF of wind ; the sound made by 
any instrument of wind music ; the stroke of a 
malignant planet. 
To Blast, blast, v. a. 

To strike with some sudden plague j to make 
to wither; to injure, to invalidate; to con- 
found, to strike with terror. 

Blastment, blast' ment. s. 

Sudden stroke of infe£iion. 

Blatant, bla'tant, a. 

Bellowing as a calf. 

To Blatter, blat'tur. v. n. , 

To roar. 

Blay, bla. s. 

A small whitish river fish ; a bleak. 

Blaze, blaze, s. ,. . 

A flame, the light of the flame ; publicaiion ; 

a white mark upon a horse. 
To Blaze, blaze, v. n. 

To flame, to be conspicuous. 
To Blaze, blaze, v. a. 

To publish, to make known; to blazon; to 

inflame; to fire. 

Blazer, bla'zir. s. (98) 

One that spreads reports. 

To Blazon, bla'zn. v. a, (i7o) 

To explain, in proper terms, the figtires on 
ensigns armorial ; to deck, to embellish ; to 
display, to set to show ; tocelebcatfl, to ict 
out; to blaze about, to. loake.publifik* 

Blazonry, b1a'«n-r4. s. 

The art of blazoning. 

To Bleach, ble^tsh. v. a. 

To whiten. 

Bleak, bleke. a. 

Pale; cold, chill. 

Bleak, bleke. s. 
A small river fish. 

Bleakness, bleke' ncs. $• 

Coldness, chilness. 

Bleaky, ble'ke. a. 
Bleak, cold, chilL 

Blear, bleer. a. . i_ • 

Dim with rheum or water; dim, obscure in 

BLEAREDNESS^.blee'red-nes. s. (365)' 
The state ot being dimmed with rheum. 

To Bleat, blete. v. n. 

To cry asastieep. 
Bleat, blete. s. 

The cry of a sheep or lamb. 
Bleb, bleb, s.^^ A blister. 
To Bleed, bleed, v. n. 

To lose blood, to run with blood ; to drop as 

To Bleed, Weed. v. a. 

To let blood. 
To Blemish, blem'ish. v. a. 

To mark with any deformity ; to defame, to 

tarnish, with respcft to reputation. 

Blemish, blem'ish. s. 
A mark of deformity, a scar ; reproach, dis- 

To Blench, blensh. v. n. (352 j 

To shrink, to start back. 

To Bt-END, blend, v. a. 
To mingle together; to confound ; to pollute, 
to spoil. 

Blent, blent. 
The obsolete participle of Blend. 

To Bless, bles. v. a. ., ^ , 

To make happy, to prosper, to wish happiness 
toaiiothcr; to praise; to glorify for benefits 

Blessed, blJs'sefd. part. a. (361) 
Happy, enjoying heavenly felicity. • . 

Blessedly, bles'sed-le. ad. 


Blessedness, bles'sed-nes. s. 

Happiness, felicity, sanaity; heavenly felicity ; 
Divine favour. 

B LESSER, bles'sur, s. (98) 
He that blesses. 

Blessing, blcs'sing. s. (410) 

Bencdiaion; the means of happincas^ DiVine 
favour. . 

Blest, blest, part. a. (361) 


Blew, blfi. 

The preterit of Blow. 
Blight, blite. s. (393) 
Mildew, any thine nipping or blasting. 

To Blight, blite. v. a. 

To blast, to hinder from fertility. 

Blind, blind, a. 

' Without sight, dark ; inielleftually dark ; un- 
seen, private ; dark, obscure. 

To Blind, blind, v. a. 

To make blind, \f> darken ; to obscure to the 
eye ; to obscure to the understanding. 

Blind, blind, s. 
Something io hinder the light ; tometluBg to. 

To Blindfold, blind'fold. v.a. 

To hinder from seeing by blinding the C)'es. 

Blindfold, blind'fold. a. 

Having the eyes covered. 

Blindly, blind'le. ad. 
Without sight ; implicitly, without examine 
tion ; without judgment or direaion. 

s. A play in which some one is to have hi& 
eyes covered, and hunt out the rest of the 

Blindness, blind' nes. s. 
Want of sight; ignorance, intelkaual dark- 

Blindside, blind-side'. s. 
Weakness, foible. 

Blindworm, blind'wurm. s. 
A small viper, venomous. 

To Blink, blink, v. n. 
To sawV ; to see obscurely. 

ftij^ This word has been used for some years, 
chitfly in Parliament, as a verb active; as 
when a speaker has omitted to .i<)ke notice of 
some material point in question, he is said to 
blink the nuc^^tion. It were to be wished that 
every word which finds its way into that houic 
had as good a title to remain there as the pre- 
sent word. It combines in its signification an 
omission and an artful intention to otnit ; and 
as this cannot be so handsomely or so compre- 
hensively expressed by any other word, this 
word, in this sense, ought to be received. 

Blinkard, blink'urd. s. (99) 
One that has bad eyes.; something twinkling. 

Bliss, blis. s. 

The highest degree of happiness ; the happt: 
ness of blessed souls ; felicity in general. 

Blissful, blis'ful. a. 

Happy in the highest degree. 

Blissfully, blis'ful4e, ad. 

Happily. ^ 

Blissfulness, blis'ful-nes. s. 

Blister, blis'tur. s. (98) . 

A pustule formed by raising the cuticle nom 
the cutis; any swelling ma& by thesepoiauoa 
of a film or SKin from the other parts. 

To Blister, blis'tur. v.n.. 
Tofise in Misters. 

To Blister, blis'tur. v. a. 

To raise blisters by some hurt.. 

Blithe,. bliTHe. a. (40?) 

, Gay. airy. ^ ^ 

BLITHLY,bllTH'lc. ad. 
In a blithe manner. 

^ These compounds of the word bittbe oudit 
to be written with the final ^, as bHtbefy, Wj/W"- 
some, &c. for as thev stand in Johnson, the t 
might be pronounced short.r— See Introdofiion 
to the Rhyming Diaionary, Orthographical 
Aphorism the oth% 

Blitheness, bliTH'nfe. ^ \ 

Blithsomeness, bliTH'sum-ncs. i 

s. The quality of being blithe. 
Blithsome, bliTH'sura. a. 

Gay, cheerful. 
To Blo.\t, bloie. v. a. 

To swell. 

To Bloat, blote. v. n. 

To grow turgid. 

Bloatedness, blo'ted-nis. «• 
Tyrgidncss; sweiltng;. 

Blobber, blob'bur. k- (98^ 
A bubbles 

Digitized by 





ilir (167), not (163)5 tibe(l7l),tib (172), bull (173); oil (299); pound (313); thin (466), this {469). 

^LOBBERLiP, blob'bfir-lip. s. 
A thick lip. 

Blobberlipped, blob'bSr-lipt, 1 

Bloblipped, blob'ltpt. J *' 

Having swelled or thick, lips. 

Block, blok. s. 
A short heavy piece of timber ;" a rough piece 
of marble ; the wood on which nats are 
formed ; the wood on which criminals are be- 
headed ; an obstrudion, a stop ; a sea term for 
apully; a blockhead. 

To Block, blok. v. a. 

To shut up, to enclose. 

Block-house, blok'h&use. s. 

A fortress built to obsiru^ or block up a pass. 

Block-tin^ blok-tin'. s. 

Tin pure or mixed. 

Blockade, blok-kade'. s. 

A siege carried on by shutting up the place. 

To Blockade, bluk-kade'. v. a. 

To shut up. 

Blockhead, blJk'hed. s. 

A stupid {iellov» a dolt, a man without parts. 
Blockheaded, blok-hed'ed. a. 

Stupid, dull. 

Blockish, blok'ish. a. 

Stupid, dull. 

Blockishly, blJk'ish-lc. ad. 
In a stupid manner. 

BL0CKisHN£SS,'blok'ish-nes. s. 


Blood, blud. s. (308) 

The red liquor that circulates in the bodies of 
auimals ; child ; progeny ; family, kindred ; 
descent, lineage ; birth, nigh CKtradion ; mur- 
der, violent ocaih ; temper of mind, state of 
the passions ; hot spark ; man of fire. 

To Blood, blud. v. a. 
To stain witn blood ; to enure to blood, as a 
houid; to heat, lo exasperate. 

Blood-boltered, blud'boUturd. a. 

Blood sprinkled. 

Bloodstone, blud'stone. s. 

The bloodstone is green, spotted with a bright 

BL09D-THIRSTY, blud'/Aurs-t4, a. 

Desirous to shed blood. 
Blood-plower, blud'flour. s. 

A plant. 

Bloodguiltiness, blud-g!lt'e-nes. 
>• Murder. 

Blood-hound, blud'hound. s. 

A hoaod that follows by the scent. 

Bloodily, blud'i-le. ad. 


Bloodiness, blud'c-nes. s. 

The state of bcmg bloody. 

Bloodless, blud'les. a. 

Without blood, dead ; without slaughter. 

Bloodshed, blud' shed. s. 

The crime of blood, or murder ; slaughter. ^ 
Bloodshedder, biud'shed-dur. s. 


Bloodshot, blud'shut. 1 

BL90DSHOTTEN, blud'shot-tn. / ' 

Filled with blood Dursting firom its proper 

vessels. (103) 
Bloodsuci^er, blud'suk-ur. s. 

A leech, a fly, any thing that sucks blood ; a 


Bloody, blud'i. a. 
Siaiaed with blood ; cruel, murderous. 

Bloom, biiim. s. 

A blossom ; the srate of immaturity. 
To Bloom, bliom. v. n. 

To bring or yield blossoms; to produce, as 
blossoms ; to be in a state of youth. 

Bloomy, bliom'me. a. 
Full of blooms, flowery. 

Blossom, blos'sfim. s. (166) 

The flower that grows on any plant. 

To Blossom, blos'sum. v. n. 

To put forth blossoms. 

To Blot, blot. V. a. 

To obliterate, to make writing invisible ; to 
efface, to erase ; to blur ; to disgrace, to dis- 
figure i to darken. •» 

Blot, blot. s. 

An obliteration of something written ; a blur, 
a spot ; a spot in reputation. 

Blotch, blotsh. s. 

A spot or pustule upon the skin. 

To Blote, blote. v. a. 

To smoke, or diy by the smoke. 
Blow, bio. s. (324) 

A stroke ; the faul stroke ; a single a8ion, a 
sudden event ; the ad of a fly, by which she 
lodges eggs in flesh. 

To Blow, bio. v. n. 

To move with a current of air : This word is 
used sometimes impersonally with It ; to pant, 
to puff"; to breathe hard ; to sound by being 
' blown ; to play musically by wind ; to bloom -, 
to blossom ; To blow over, to {ass away with- 
out effc6i ; To blow up, to fly into the air by 
the force of gunpowder. 

To Blow, bio. v. a. 
To drive by the force of the wind ; to inflame 
with wind ; to swell, to puff into size ; to 
sound an instrument ot wind musick ; to warm 
with the breath ; to spread by report ; to in- 
fed wiih the eggs ot flies ; To blow out, to 
ej^tinguish bv wind ; To blow up, to raise or 
swell with breath ; To blow up, to destroy 
with gunpowder; To blow U(x>D, to make 

Blowze, bl6uze. s. (323) 
A ruddy fat-faced wench ; a female whose hair 
is in disorder. 

Blowzy, bl&u'ze. a. 

Sun-burnt, high-coloured. 

Blubber, blub'bur. s. 

The part ot a whale that contains the oil. 
To Blubber, blub'bur. v. n. 

To weep in such a manner as to swell the 


Bludgeon, blud'jun. s. (259) 

A short stick, with one end loaded. 

Blue, blu. a. (335) 

One of the seven original colours. 

Bluebottle, bl6'bit-tl. s. 

A flower of the bell shape i a fly with a large 
blue belly. 
Blu ELY, blu'le. ad. 
With a blue colour. 

(^ There is an inconsistency in spelling this 
and similar words with the silent e, and leaving 
it out in duiy and truly ^ which shews how 
much our orthography still wants regulating, 
notwithstanding the labour and attention of 
Dr. Johnson. My opinion is, that the servile 
t ought to be omitted in these words ; for my 
reasons, I must icfer the inspector lo the Intro- 
du6Hon to the Rhyming Didtiooary, Aphorism 
the 8ih. 

Blueness, blu'nes. s. 
The quality of being blue. 


Bluff, bluf. a. 

Big, surly, blustering. 

Bluish, biu'ish. a. 

Blue in a small degree. 

To Blunder, blun'dur. v. n.. fps) 

To mistake gra<(s1y ; to err vciy widely i to 
flounder, to stumble. 
To Blunder, blun'dur. v. a. 
To mix foolishly, or blindly. 

Blunder, blun'dur. s. 

A gross or shameful mistake. 

Blunderbuss, blun'dur-bus. s. 

A gun that is discharged with many bullets. 

Blunderer, blun'dur-ur. s. 

A blockhead. 
Blunderhead, blun'dur-hed. s. 

A stupid fellow. 

BlOnt, blunt, a. 
Dull on the edge or point, not sharp ; dull in 
understanding, not quick; rough, not delicate ; 
abrupt, not elegant. 

To Blunt, blSnt. v. a. 

To dull the ed^e or point ; to repress or 

weaken any appetite. 
Bluntly, biuntMe. ad. 

Without sharpness ; coarsely, plainly. 

Bluntness, blunt'nls. s. 
Want of edge or point, coarseness, roughness 
of manners. 

Blur, blur. s. 

A blot, a stain. 

To Blur, blur. v. a. 
To blot, to effljce ; to stain. 

To Blurt, blurt, v. a. 
To let fly without thinking. 

To Blush, blush., v. n. 

To betray shame or confusion, by a red coloof 
in the cheek ; to carry a red colour. 

Blush, blush, s. 

The colour in the checks ; a. red or purple- 
colour; sudden appearance. 

Blushy, blush'e. a. 
Having the colour of a blush. , 

To Bluster, blus'tur. v. n. 

To roar, as a storm ; to bully, to pufi*. 

Bluster, blus'tur. s. 

Roar, noise, tumult ; boast, boisterousocss. 

Blusterer, blus'tur-ur. s. 

A swaggerer, a bully* 
Blustrous, blus'trus. a. 

Tumultuous, noisy. 
Bo, bo. interject. 

A word of terrour. 

BoAR^bore. s. (295) 
The male swine. 

Board, bord. s. 

A piece of wood of more length and breadth 
than thickness ; a table, at which a council or 
court is held ; a court of jurisdidion ; the deck 
orfloorof aship. 

To Board, bord, v. a. 

To enter a ship by force ; to attack, or make 
the first attempt ; to lay or pave with boards. 

To Board, bord. v. n. 
To live in a kouse where a certain nte is paid 
for eating. 

Board-wages, bord-wS'jiz. s. (99) 

Wages allowed to servants to keep themsclvei 
in victuals. 

Boarder, bir'dur. s. 
One who diets with another at a certain rate. 

B0ARISH5 bore'ish. a. 
Swinish, brutal, cruel. 

Digitized by 





(Wr (559). Fite (73), far (77)>fall (83), fat (si) ; me(93), inlt {95) ; pine (105), pin (107) ; no(l62), m&ve {164), 

To Boast, bost. v. n. 

1 o dispby one's own worih or a£lioii5. 

To Boast, bost. v. a. 
To brag of; to xnagnifyi to exalt. 

Boast, bost. s. 

A proud speech ; cause of boasting. 

Boaster, bost'ur. s. 

Boastful, bost'ful. a. 

BoASTiNGLY, bosi'ing-U. ad. 

Boat, bote. s. {'igs) 

A vessel to pass the water in. 
BoATiON, bo-a'shfin. s. 
Roar, noise. 

Boatman, bote' man. \^ 
1. J 


BoATSMAN, botes'man 
He that manages a-boat. 

Boatswain, bo'sn. s. 

An o£Bcer on board a ship, who has charge of 
■all her rigging, ropeS) cables, and anchors. 
J:^ This word is universally pronounced in 
common conversation as it is here marke3 ; 
but in reading it would savour somewhat of 
vulgarity to contrail it to a sound so veiy un- 
like the orthography. It would be advisable, 
therefore, in those who arc not of the naval 
profession, where it is technical, to pronounce 
this word, when they read it, dbtinalyas it is 

To Bob, bib. v. a. 
To beat, to drub ; to cheat, to gain by fraud. 

To Bob. bob. v. n. 
To play backward and forward. 

Bob, bob. s. 

« Something that hangs so as to play loose ; the 
words repealed at the end of a stanza ; a blow; 
a short wig. 

Bobbin, bob'bin. s.* 

A small pin of wood with a notch. 

Bobcherry, bcb'tsher-rc. s. 
A play amons children, in which the chcny is 
liong so as to nob against the mouth. 

Bobtail, bSb' tale. s. 

Cut tail. 

BoBTAiLED^bib'talM. a. issg) 
Having a tail cut. 

BoBWiG, bob'wig. S, 
A short wig. , 

To BoDE, bAde. V. a. 

To portend, to be the omen of. 
Bodement, bide' mem. s. 

Portent, omen. 

To Bodge, bSdje. v. n. 

To boggle. 

Bodice, bod' dis.s. (i42) 

Stays, a 'waistcoat <}uihed with whalebone. 

'Bodiless, bod'de-les. a. 

Incorporeal, without a body. 

Bodily, bod'de-le. a. 

'Corporeal, containing body; relating to the 
body, not ihe mind ; real, adual. 

Bodily, baa'de-Ie. ad. 

BoDKlN^bod'kin. s. 

An instruii(^r^t wfih a small • blade jHid sharp 
Doint ; an instrument to draw a thread or rib- 
{>on through a loop ; an instrument to dress 
the hair. 

Body, bSd'de. s. 

The material substance of an animal ; matter, 
tpposed to spirit ; a person ; a human being ; 
reality, opposed to rcprcsenuiion ; a collc£tive 

mass ; the main army, the battle ; a corpora- 
tion; the outward CGodition i the main part; 
a pandc;6>, a general colle£tion ; streQgtb, as 
wine of a good body. 
Body-cloaths, bod'dc;cloze, s. 
Cloaihing for horses that are dieted. 

BoG,'bog. s. 
A marsh, a fcn« a morass. 

Bog-trotter, bog'trSt-tur. s. 

One that lives in a boggy coiuiry. 

To Boggle, bog'gl. v. n. (405) 
To Stan, to fly back ; to hesitate. 

BOGGLER, bog'glOr. S. 
A doubter, a timorous man. 

Boggy, bog'ge. a. (283) 
Marshy, swampy. 

Boghouse, big'hiuse. s, 
A house of office. 

Bohea, bo-he', s. 
A species of tea. 

To Boil, boil. v. n. (209) 
To be agitated by heat ; to be hot, to be fer- 
vent ; to move like boiling water ; to be in 
hot liquor. 

To Boil, b&il. v. a. 

To seeth ; to heat hy putting into boiling 
water ; to dress in boiling water. 

Boiler, biil'Or. s. 
The person that boils anv thing ; the vessel in 
which any thittg is boilea. 

Boisterous, biis't^r-us. a. 

Violent, loud, roaring, stormy ; turbulent, fu« 
rious; unweildy. 

Boisterously, bits' ter-us-li. ad. 

Violently, tumuliuously. 

/ /' 49I49 9 

BoiSTEROUSNESS, bois tcf-us-nes. s. 
Tumuliuousness, turbulence. 

BoLARY, bo' la-re. a. 
Partaking of the nature of bole. 

Bold, b6ld. a. 

Daringf brave, stout ; executed with spirit ; 
confident, not tcrupulous ; impudent, rude ; 
licentious ; sundSng out to the view ; To make 
bold, to take freedoms. 

To BoLDEN,bold'dn. v. n. (l03) 
To make bold. 

Boldface, bild'fise. s. 

Impudecure, sauciness. 

Boldfaced, bold'iaste. a. 


Boldly, bild'Ie. ad. 

In a bold manner. 

Boldness, bold' nes. s. 

Courage, bravery ; exemption from caution ; 
assurance, impudence. 

Bole, bole. s. 

The body or trunk of a tree ; a kind of earth; 
a measure of corn containing six bushels. 

BoLis^ bo'lis. s. 
Bolis i^ a great fieiy ball, swiftly hurried 
through the air, and generally drawing a tail 
afi^ it. 

Boll, bole. s. (406) 

A round stalk or stem. 
Bolster, bole'stur. s. 

Something laid in the bed, to support the 
head ; a pad, or quilt ; compress for a wound* 

To Bolster, bole'stur v. a. 
To support tlTe head with a bolster ; to afford 
a bed to ; to hold wounds together with a 
compress ; to support, to maintain. 

Bolt, bolt. s. 

An aru'W, a dart; a thunderbolt; Bolt up- 
right, that ia, upright as an arrow , the bar of 

a door ; an iron to Gatea the leg^; a spot or 

To Bolt, bolt. v. a. 

To shut or £isten with a bolt ; to hluit out ; 
to fetter, to shackle ; to sift, or separate widi 
a sieve ; to examine, to try out ; to purify, or 

To Bolt, bolt. v. n. 
To spring out with speed and suddenness* 

Bolter, bolt'ur. s. 
A sieve to separate meal from bran. 

BoLTHEAD, bilt'bed. s. 
A lon^ strait-necked glass vessel ; a matnu, , 
or receiver. 

BoLTiNG-HOUSE, bolt'lng-biuse. s. 

The place where meal is sifted. 

BoLTSPRiT, or Bowsprit, bo' sprit. 

s. A mast running out at the head of a ship, 
not standing upright, but aslope. 

Bolus, bo'lfis. s. 

A medicine made up into a soft mass, larger 
than pilh. 

Bomb, bum. s. (165), 
A loud noise ; a hollow iron ball, or shell, 
filled with gunpowder, and furnished with a 
vent for a fusee» or wooden tidx, filled with 
combustible matter; . to be thrown out from a 

((^ I do not hesitate to follow Br. Kcnnck 
and Mr. Nares in this word, and all itscom> 1 
pounds, in giving the its fourth sound, 
equivalent to the second sound of », though , 
contrary to Mr. Sheridan's proounciarion, 
which makes it rhyme with T^jk, /rvm, &c. 
Dr. Johnson's derivation of the word to humf, 
from the same origin as bomS, makes lae 
pronunciation I have given more ^reeable to 

Bomb-chest, bum'tshcst. s. 

A kind of chest filled with bombs, placed uoder 
ground to blow up in the air. 

Bomb-ketch, bum'ketsh. 7 ^ 
Bomb-vessel, b&m'vls^s^l. S ' 

A kind of ship, strongly built, to bear the 
shock of a mortar. 

Bombard, bum'blrd. s. 

A great gun; a barrel of wine. 

To Bombard, bum-bard', v. a. 
To attack with bombs. 

Bombardier, bum-b^r-deer' . s. . 

(275) The engineer, whose eroplo>incot it ii 
to shoot bombs. 
Bombardment, buin-bard'ment. s. 

An attack made by throwing bombs. 

Bombasin, bum-ba-zeen'. s. 
A slight silken stuff. 

Bombast, bum' bast. s. 

Fustian, big words. 

Bombast, bum -bast', a. 


Bombastick, bJm-bas'iik. a. 
High-sounding, pompous. 

fjf$^ Dr. Ash is the only lexicographer who ha) 
inserted this word; bat I thiik its gcneial 
usdge entitles it to a place in the iaiigu^e, 
especially as it has the true adjctli« tcmuna- 
tion, ana relieves us from the inconvenience lo 
which our language is so iwbjcct, thai of hav- 
ing the substantive and adjective of the wtnc 
furm ; and (houxh, as bombast stands in Dr- | 
Johnson, ihe subsianiivt: has the accent on ihc 
last syllable, and the adjt fetivc on the first, con- | 
traiy', I think, to iho analogy of acccniuaucni , 
(^^'4)j y«i this is but a bungling way of sup- 
^.iying the waisi ol differeiit words for diffcjcnl 
pans of speech,— Sec Bo w l. 

Digitized by 





nir (167)9 nJt (163)5 tube (171), tub (172), bdll (173); ill (299) ; p&dnd (3I3) ; thin (466), Tifts (4(59>. 

BoMftULATioN, bum-bi-la'shun. s. 

Sound, noise. 

Bon aroba, bof na-ro'ba, ^ 

A whoic. 
BoNASUS, b4-na'sus. s. 
A kind of ba£FAlo. 

BoNCHRETiEN, bon-krct'tshiin, s. 
A species of pear. 

Bond, bond. s. 

Cords, or chains, with which any one is bound; 
ligament that, holds any thing toother ; union, 
connexion ; imprisonment, captivity ; cement 
oi anion, cause of union ; a writing of obliga- 
tion ; law by which any one is obliged. 

Bondage, bon'dage. s. (90) 

Captivity, imprisonment. 

Bondmaid, bond'm&de. s. 
A woman slave. 

Bondman, bond'man. s. (88) 
A man slave. 

Bondservant, bJnd'sir-vant. s, 

A slave. 

Bondservice^ bJnd'scr-vis. s. 


Bondslave, bSnd' slave, s. 

A man ID slavciy. 
Bondsman* b&ndz'man.s. (38) 

One bound for another. 

Bondwoman^ bond'wdm-&n. s. 

A woman slave. 

Bone, bone. s. 
The solid pans of the body of an animal ; a 
firagmem oif meat, a bone with as much flesh 
as adheres to it ; To make no bones, to make 
DO scrapie; dice. 

To Bone, bAne. v. a. 
To take out the bones from the flesh. 

BoNELACE, bone-lase' • s, * 

Flaxen lace. 

Boneless, bone'les. a. 

Without booes. 
To BoNESET, bAne'sit. v. n. 

To restore a bone out of joint, or join a bone 

BONESETTER, bonc'slt-tuf. S. 

One who makes a pra8ice of setting bones. 

Bonfire, bon'fire. s. 

A fire made for triumph. 

O* Mr Sheridan pronounces this word io/ie' 
fire; Dr. Kenrick, Mr. Scott, Mr. Perry, and 
W. Johnston, make the first yllabic rhyme 
with//wi; and though in the nrst edition of 
this Diflionary I made it rhyme with tun, I 
i»w prefer the sound rhyming with don* 

BoNGRACE, bun'gras. s. 
A coveriag for the forehead. 

Bonnet, bSn'nit. s. (99) 

A hat, a cap. 

Bonnets, bon'nits. s. 

Small sails set on the courses of the mizzen, 
mainsail, atxl foresail, 

BoNNiLY. bon'ne-le. ad. 
Gaily, hancbomely. 

Bonn IN ESS, bon'ne-nls. s, 
Guety, baodsomeness. 

Bonny, bon'ne. a. 
H^uhoiney beautiful; gav, merry. 

Bonny-clabber, bon-ne-klab'bur. 

s. Sour buttermilk. 

BoNUM Magnum, bo'num-mag'- 


A great plum. 

Bony, bo'ni. a. 
Coosistiogof bones; full of bones. 

Booby, bSi'bi. s.' 

A dull, heavy, stupid Eellow. 

Book, b&&k. s. 
A volume in which we read or write ; a par- 
ticular part of a work ; the register in which a 
trader keeps an account ; In books, in kind 
remembrance ; Without book, by memory. 

To Book, biok. v. a. 

To register in a book. 

Book-keeping, b&ik'keep-ing. s. 

The art of keeping accounts* 

Bookbinder, b&ik^bin-dur. s. 
A man whose profession it is to bind books. 

Bookful^ biik'ful. a. 
Crowded with undigested knowledge. 

Bookish, bi&k'ish. a. 

Given to books. 

BooKiSHNESS, b3ik'ish-n^s. s. 

BoOKLEARNED,T>iikMern-ed, a. 
Versed in books. 

BooK-LEARNiNG, bJok'lem-fnjg. s. 
Skill in literature ; acquainted widi books. 

Bookman, b&6k'man. s. (88) 

A man whose profession is the study of books. 

BooKMATE, b6&k'mite. s. 

Bookseller, b&ik'seMur. s. 

A man whose profession it is to sell books. 
Bookworm, biik'wunn. s. 
A mite that eats holes in books ; a student too 
closely fixed upon books. 

BOOM^ b66m. s. 
In sea language, a pole used to spread out 
the clue of i& stu<iding sail ; a pole with 
bushes or baskets, set up as a mark to shew the 
sailors how to steer; a bar laid across a har- 
bour to keep out the enemy. 

To BooM; b6im. v.n. 
To rush with violence. 

Boon, b&on. s. 

A gift, a grant. 

BooN,bo&n. a. 

Gay, merry. 

Boor, b&r. s* 

A lout, a clown. 

Boorish, b&ir'ish. a. 

Clownish, rustick. 

Boorishly, b^r'ish-l£. ad. 

After a clownish manner. 
BooRiSHNESS,bMr'!sh-nes. s. 
Coarseness of manners* 

To Boot, b84t. v. a. 

To profit; to advantage ; to enrich, to benefit. 

Boot, b6&. s. 

Profit, gain, advantage ; To boot, with ad- 
vantage, over and above ; booty, or plunder. 
BooT,bMt. S. 
A covering for the leg, u%d by horsemen. 

Boot of k Coach, bo&t. s. 

The place under the coach box. 

Boot-hose, biit'hAzc.'s. 

Stockings to serve for boots. 
Boot-tree, bi&t'trie. s. 

Wood shaped like a leg, to be di iven into boots 

for stretchmg them. 
Boot-catcher, biit'ketsh-ur, g. 

The person whose business at an inn is to pull 

off the boots of passengers. 

Booted, bi&'ld. a. 

In boots. 

Booth, b6STH. s. 
A house built of boards or bougbi. 

Bootless, bSit'lls. a. 

Useless, unavailing ; without success. 

Booty, bAi'ti. s. 

Plunder, pillage ; things gotten by robbery ; 
To play booty, to lose by design. 

BoPEEP,bo-pCcp'. S. 
To play Bopeep, is to look outi and draw back 
as if frighted. 

Borachio, bo-rit'tshi. $• 

A drunkard. 

BoRABLE, bo'ra-bl. a. 
That may be bored. 

Borage, bur'idjc. a. (90) (165) 

A plant. 

Borax, bo'raks. s. 
An artincial salt, prepared from sal ammoniac, 
nitre, calcined tartar, sea salt, and alum, dis- 
solved in wine. 

BORDEL. bir'dJl. s. 
A brothel, a bawdy-house. 

Border, bAr'dur. s. (98) 
The outer part or edge of any thifig i the edge 
of a country ; the outer part oT a ^uinent 
adorned with needle-work ; a bank raised 
round a garden, and set with ftoweis. 

To Border, b&r'dur. v. n. 
To confine upon ; to approach nearly to. 

To Border, bir'dSr. v. a. 
To adorn with a border ; to reach, to touch. 

Borderer, bor'dur-ur. s. (555) 

He that dwells on the borders. 
To Bore, bAre. v. a. 

To pierce in a hole. 
To Bore, bore. v. n. 

To make a hole ; to push forwards to a certain 


Bore, bire. s. 

The hole made by borine ; the instrument 
with which a hole is bored ; the size of any 

Bore, bore. 

The preterit of Bear. 

Borbal, b£'re-aL a. 

Boreas, b&'re-as. s. 
The north wind. 

BoREE, bA-ree'. s. 
A step in dancing. 

Born, birn. 

Come into life. 

Borne, borne. 
Carried, supported. 

(^ Dr. Johnson has made no distiaciioa in the 
spelling of the participle of to hear, to bring 
Jorth^ and of to bear^ to support :, They un. 
doubtedly both come from the same common 
stock, but the necessities of men are naturally 
urging them to make distin£Uons in language, 
when there is a difiRerence of idea, and this nas 
produced the universally adopted difference be* 
tween these two words; the former rhyming 
with scorn, and the latter with mourn. The 
same necessity which urged the ear to the dis- 
tinflion of sound, induced the eye to adopt a 
differeiKC in the spelling, and to admit of the 
final e in the latter participle, and this proce- 
dure of custom arose from an instin^ivc sense 
of utility : for without this distinfiion in the 
spelling, nothing can be more puzzling and dis- 
graceful than tne bungling method of dis- 
tinguishing the same word by different sounds, 
according to iu different meaning. Therefore, 
though tne final e in borne does not necessa- 
rily give the the first sound of that letter 
heard in iporn^^yct there is something analo- 
gical in making the c a distin61ive mark of that 

Digitized by 





(fT (559). Fate (73), far (77). fill(83), fat(8l) J me(93)j met (95); pipe (l05),pln (107); no(i62),m6ve(i64), 

sound : and as such a mark docs not in the 
Icusi endanger etymology, but prevents con- 
fusion in the pronunciation, it certainly ought 
to be adopted. To reduce the sound of bom, 
supported, to benty brought forth, wipuld be 
iinpra61icable and detrimental to precision ; to 
lei these d.fferent sounds be both signified by 
the same letters, would be to perpetuate per- 
plexity; no better way, therefore, remains 
than to spell them differently.— See the words 
Bowl and Form. 

Borough, bur'ro. s^ 

A town with a corporation. 

To Borrow, bor'ro. v. a. 

To take something from another upon credit ; 
to ask of another the use of something for a 
time $ to use as one's own, though not belong- 
ing to one. 
Borrower, bor'ro-ur. s. 
He that borrows ; he that takes what is an- 

Boscage, bos'kJje, s. (90) 

Wood, or woodlands. 

Bosky, bos'ki, a. 
■ Woody. 

Bosom, biA'zum. s. , 

The breast, the heart ; the innermost part of 
an incl6sure ; the folds of the dress that cover 
the breast; the tender affections ; inclination, 
desire ; in composition, implies iiitimacy, con- 
fidence, fondness, as my bosom friend. 
fjr This word is pronounced four ways, Bozum, 
Buzzum^ and Soozum, the 00 like « in bull; 
and boozom, as o« in bouse. Sheridan and 
Scott adopt the third sound ; Perry seems to 
mark the tourih ; Dr. Kenrick has the second 
and fourth, but seems to prefer the former ; 
and W. Johnston has the second ; and that is, 
in 'Hiy opinion, the roost general : but the 
sta^e seems to have adopted the fourth sound, 
which has given it a currency amon^ polite 
speakers, and makes it the most fashionable. 
Mr. Elphinston, a nice observer, as well as a 
deep investigator, announcrs the second, but 
tells us that the third was the original pronim- 

To Bosom, biS'zum. v. a. 

To inclose in the bosom j to conceal in privacy. 

Boson, bo'sn. s. (170) (103) 
Corrupted from Boatswain, which see. 

Boss, bos. s. ., ^ 

A stud ; the part risiiig in the midst of any 
thing ; a thick body ofany kind. 

BosSAGE,bos'saje. s. (90) 
Any stone that has a proje£lure. 

BosVEL,'b6z'vel. s. (448) 
A species of crowfoot. 

Botanical, bo-tan' e-kal, 1 

BoTANiCK, bo-tan' nik. J 

Relating to herbs, skilled in herbs. 

Botanist, bSt'a-nist. s. (503, b) 

(543) 0"c skilled in plants. 
Botanology, bot-an-ol'6-je. s. 
A discourse upon plants. (518) 

Botch, bitsh. s. (352)* 

A swelling, or eruptive discoloration of the 
skin ; a part in any work ill finished ; an ad- 
ventitious part clumsily added. 

To Botch, bStsh. v.a. 

To mend or patch clothes clumsily ; to put 
together unsuitably, or unskilfully ; to mark 
with botches. 

BoTCHY, bcVtshe. a. 

Marked with botches. 

Both, bo/A. a. (467) 
The two. 

Both, both. conj. 

As well. 

BoTS, bots. s. 
Small worms in the entrails of horses. 

Bottle, but'tl. s. (405) 

A small vessel of glass, or other matter pa 
quantity of wine usually put into a bottle, a 
quart ; a quantity of hay or grass bundled up. 

To Bottle, bot'tl. v. a. 

To inclose in bottles. 

Bottleflower, bot'tl-flou-Sr. s. 

A plant. 

Bottlescrew, bot'tl-skrSi. s. 
A screw to pull out the cork. 

Bottom, bot'tum. s. (166) 

The lowest part of any thing ; the ground 
under the water ; the foundation, the ground- 
work ; a dale, a valley ; the deepest part ; 
bound, limit ; the utmost of any man's capa- 
city ; the last resort ; a vessel for navigation ; 
a chance, or security ; a ball of thread wound 
up together. 

To Bottom, bot'tum. v. a. 

To build up, to fix upon as a support ; to wind 
upon something. 

To Bottom, bot'tum. v. n. 

To rest upon as its support. 

Bottomed, bot^tumd. a. (359) 

Having a bottom. 

Bottomless, bot'tum-les. a. 

Without a bottom, fathomless. 

Bottomry, bot'tSm-ri. s. 

The a3 of borrowing money on a ship's 
BoUD, b6ud. s. 
An inse£l which breeds in malt. 

ToBoUGE, biodje. v. n. (315) 
To swell out. 

Bough, b&u. s. (313) 

■ An arm or a large shoot of a tfce. 

Bought, biv^t. (319) 

Preter. of To biiy. 

To Bounce, b6unse. v. n. 

To fall or fly against any thing with great 
force ; to make a sudden leap : to boast, to 

Bounce, biunse. s. 

A strong sudden blow; a sudden crack or 
noise ; a boast, a threat. 

Bouncer, biun'sur. s. 
A boaster, a bully, an empty threatener ; a 

Bound, b6und. s. (313) 

A limit, a boundary ; a limit by which any 
excursion is restrained ; a leap, a jump, a 
spring; a rebound. 

To Bound, biund. v. a. 
To limit, to terminate; to restrain, to con- 
fine ; to make to beund. 

To Bound, biund. v. n. 

To jump, to spring ; to rebound, to fly back. 
Bound, b&iind. 

Participle passive of Bind. 
Bound. bMnd. a. 
Destinea, intending to come to any place* 

Boundary, b&un'da-re. s. 
Limit, bound. 

Bo UN DEN, bSun'den. 
Participle passive of Bind. 

Bounding-stone, b6&n'dlng-l 

stone. >s. 

Bound-stone, bSund' stone. J 

A stone to play with* 

Boundlessness, b6und'les-ncs. s. 

Exemption from limits. 

Boundless, bound'lJs. a. 

Unlimited, unconfined. 

Bounteous, b6dn'tchJ-us. a. (263) 

Liberal, kind, generous. 

Bounteously, b6un'tche-us-le. ad. 

Liberally, generously. 

Bounteousness, biun'tche-us-nes. 
s. Munificence, liberality. 

Bountiful, boun'ie-ful. a, 

liberal, generous, munificent. 

Bountifully, b6un'te-fuUe. ad. 


The quality of being bountiful, generosity. 

Bountihead, b6un'te.hed. 1 

B0UNTYH90D, biun'te-bud. J*' 
Goodness, virtue. 

Bounty, b6un'ti. s. 

Generosity, liberality, munificence. 

To Bourgeon, bSr'jun. v.n.fais) 

(259) To sprout, to shoot into branches. 
Bourn, borne, s. 

A bound, a limit ; a brook, a torrent. 
(frSr I have difliered from Mr. Sheridan and Dr. 
Kenrick in the pronunciation of this word. 
They make it sound as if written ^oom; t)ut 
if my memory fail me not, it is a rhyme to 
mourn upon the stage ; and Mr. Gdrrick so 
pronounced it. 

*< That undiscovered countvy, from whose 

•* No traveller returns.'* 

^ Sbahspearci Haadd. 

I am fonified in this pronunciation by the suf- 
fra^s of Mr. £lpbin8ton, Mr. Nares, and Mr. 
To Bouse, bSize. v. n. 

To drink lavishly. I 

BousY, b6i'ze. a. | 


Bout, bSut. s. | 

A turn, as much of an a6lion as is perfbnncd 
at one time. 

To Bow, b&u. v. a. 
To bend, or infleft ; to bend the body in token 
of respcfi or submission ; to bend, or incline, 
in condescension ; to depress, to crush. 

To Bow, b6u. V. n. 
To bend, to suifer flexure ; to make 1 reve- 
rence; to stoop; to sink underpressure. 

Bow, b6u. S. 
An ad of reverence or submission. 

Bow, bo. S. 
An instrument of war ; a rainbow ; the iruini- 
ment with which string instniroents arc played 
upon ; the doubling of a string in a slip Ki^t ; 
Bow of a ship, that part of her which begins 
at the loof, and ends at the stcrnmost part of 
the forecastle. 

To Bow, bo. V. a. 
To bend sideways. 

(J:^ While some words are narrowing and cotr- 
trading their original si|^ificatioD, others arc 
dividing and subdividing into a thousand diffe- 
rent acceptations. The verb to bvw rhytnicg 
with anju might originally signify flexure every 
way, and so serve for that aStion which made 
any thing crooked, let its diredion be what it 
would ; but it appears certain, that at present it 
only means that flexure which is vertical, and 
which may be called a bonding dvwn, but is 
by no means so applicable to that flexure which 
is sideways or horizontal, and for which, ne- 
cessity seems insenctbly to bavp brought the 

Digitized by 





nir(i(57).not(i(>3); tube(j7i), tub (172), bull (173); 6il(299); p6und(3l3); /*in (46O), thIs (469). 

verb I have inserted into use. Thii verb 
seems accompanied by (be word out as the other 
.is by douurtf and we may say such a thing 
houur ^nu», but another thing i9-ws out, or 
swells stdeways: the first verb is pronounced 
so as 10 rhyme with cvw^ ttoiVt &c. and the 
last with gOf noy &c. Mihon seems to have 
uvcd the word with this soundi where in his 
Penseroso he says— 

*' And love the high emhvwei roof, 
" With antique pillars' massy proof." 
But as nothing can tend more to the ambiguity 
of language tl^n to have words spelled in the 
samp manner sounded diflPerently in order to 
distinguish their meaning by their pronunci- 
ation, I would humbly advise to spell the word 
hvu} (to shoot with), and the verb to bmjj (to 
bend sideways), with the finals; this slight 
addition will relieve a reader from the embar- 
rassment he is under at first sight, where he is 
DOC. thoroughly acquainted with the ^circum- 
stances of a relation, and does not know how 
to pionounce the word till he has read the con- 
text. For the proprietv of this additional e^ 
sec the words Bowl, Bo r n e , and Fo R m. 

I cannot refrain from quoting Mr. Nares on this 
word, as bis opinion has great authority :-- 
•* A bow for arrows, and to bow, when it sicni- 
•* fics merely to bend any thing, have oix;Tike 
•• o long. Thr$ distinaion I believe to be 
*' righi, thoQgh our great Lexicographer has 
" not noticed it. He gives to bvw^ in every 
•* sense, the regular sound of o-iij, (that is 
" rhyming with root;). But of this mstance 
" the first and foutth ap^iear to be erroneous ; 
^ the third is doubtful ; and in the second, the 
'* word is used to express an inclination of the 
** body, but metaphorically applied to trees. 
" See the fouir instances from Shakespeare, 
•* Dryden, and Locke, under To boiv, v. a. 

A wani of attending to the different ideas the 
word BoTV conveys, as it b differently sounded, 
has occasioned the inconsistent sea terms ; the 
6onjo of a ship rhyming with co-tv / and an 
anchor, called the best hoiver, rhyming with 
btur ; and boruj^ in the word bo^wsfrit^ rhym- 
ing with go J nOt &c. 

Bow-bent, bo'bent. a. 


Bow-hand, bo'hand. $. 

The hand that draws the bow. 

Bow-legged- bo'legd. a. (359) 

Having crooked legs. 

Bowels, biu'els. s. 

Intestines, the vessels and organs within the 
body ; the inner paru of any thing ; tender- 
ness, compassion. 

Bower 9 bou'ur. s; (98) 
An arbour : it seems to signify, in Spenser, a 
blow, a strdie. 

Bower, b&u'ur. s. 

Anchor so called. 

Bowery, biu'ur-rc. a. 
Full of bowers. 

Bowl, bole. s. 
A vessel to hold liquids ; the hollow fart of 
any thing ; a basin, a fountain.— See the next 
wofd. ^ 

Bowl. bole. s. 
Round mass rolled along 0ie ground* 

t^ Many rcspefbble speakers pronounce this 
word so as to rhvme with boivi^ the noise 
inade by a dog. iDr. Johnson. Mr. Elphin- 
stOD, and Mr. Pen)*, declare tor it ; but Mr. 
Sheridan, Mr. Scott, Dr. Kenrick, and Mr. 
Smith, pronounce it as the vessel to hold 
|iquor, rnyming with bofe. I remember hav- 
>Bfi been cofTC&d \y Mr. Garrick for pro- 

nouncing it like bo^vl ; and am upon the whole 
of opinion, that pronouncing it as I have 
marked it is the preferable mode, though the 
least analogical. But as the vessel has indis- 
puubly this sound, it is rendering the language 
still jnore irregular to give the ball a dilicrcnt 
one. The inconvenience of this irregularity 
is often perceived in the word bo'w ; to have 
the sanir word signify different things, is the 
fete of all languages ; but pronouncing the 
same word differently to signify different things, 
is multiplying difficulties without necessity; 
for though it may be alleged that a different 
pronunciation of the same word to signify a 
different thing is in some measure remedying 
the poverty and ambiguity of language, it may 
be answered, that it is in r&iliiy increasing the 
ambiguity by setting the eye and car at vari- 
ance, ana obliging the reader to understand the 
context before be can pronounce the word. 
It may be urged, that the Greek and Latin 
languages had these ambiguities in words 
which were only distinguishable by their quan- 
tity or accent. But it i& highly probable that 
the Greek language had a written accent to 
distinguish such words as were pronounced 
differently to signify different things, and this 
is equivalent to a different spelling ; and 
though the I^tin word Ugo signified either 
to read or to send^ according to the quantity 
with which the first syllable was pronounced, 
it was certahily an imperfe6lion in that lan- 
guage which ought not to be imitated. Ideas 
and combinations of ideas will always be more 
numeious than words ; and therefore the same 
word will often sund for very different ideas : 
but altering the souud of a word without alter- 
ing the spelling, is forming an uuwriucn lan- 

To Bowl. bole. v. a. 
To play at bowls ; to throw bowls at any thing. 

Bowler, boMur. s. 

He that plays at bowls. 

Bowline, biu'Iin. s. 

A rope fastened to the middle part of the out- 
side of a sail. 

Bowling-green, boMing-gre^n. s. 

^A level piece of ground, kept smooth for 

Bowman, bo' man. s. (88) 

An archer. 

Bowsprit, bo'sprlt. s. 

Boltsprit; which see. 

Bowstring, bo' string, s. 

The string by which the bow is kept bent. 

Bow-window, bo'win'do. s. 

(J^ Dr. Johnson derives this word, and^ per- 
haps, justly, from Bay-'windo^u, or a window 
forming a bay in the mtemal part of the room ; 
but present custom has universally agreed to 
call these windows bo-w^ivindouDS^ from the 
curve, like a borvo^ which ihev form by jutting 
outwards. However original and juM, there- 
fore. Dr. Johnson's derivation may be, there 
is littie hope of a conformity to it, eiihcr in 
writing or pronunciation, while there is ap- 
parently so g<x>d an etymology, both for sense 
and sound, to support the present praclicc. — 
See To Bow. 

Bowyer, bo'yur. s. (98) 
An archer ; one whose trade is to make bows. 

Box, boks. s. 
A tree ; the wood of it. 

Box, boks. s. 
A case made of wood, or other matter, to hold 
any thing ; the case of the mariner's compass ; 
the chest into which money given is put ) scat 
in the play-house. 

To Box, boks. v.a. 

To inclose in a box. 
Box, boks. s. 

A blow on the head given with the hand.. 

To Box,' boks. V. n. 
To fight with the fist. 

Boxen, bok'sn. a. (103) 
Made of box, resembli ng box . ^ 

Boxer, boks'ur. s. 

A man who fights with his fists. 
Buy, hhk. s. (48a) 

A male child, not a girl ; one in the state of 

adolescence, older than an infanr ; a word of 

contempt for young men. 

Boyhood, bie'lidd. s. 

The state ot a boy. 
Boyish, b6e'ish. a. 

Belonging to a boy ; childish, trifiing. 

Boyishly, bii'ish-l^. ad. 

Childishly, triflinglv. 

Boyishness, boe'ish-nes. s. 
Childishness, tnflingness. 

BOYlSM,b^'izm. S. 
Puerility, childishness. 

Brabble, brab'bl. s. (405) 
A clamorous contest. 

To Brabble, brab'bl. v. n. 

To contest noisily. 

Brabbler, brab'lur. s.. 
A clamorous noisy fellow. 

To Brace, brase. v. a.. 
To bind, to tie close with bandages ; (o strain 

Brace, brase. s. 

Cindure, bandage ; that which holds any thing 
tight ; Braces ofa coach, thick straps of leather 
on Mrhich it hangs ; Braces in printing, a 
crooked line inclosing a passage, as in a triplet ; 
tension, tightness. 

Brace, brase. s.. 

A pair, a couple. 

Bracelet, brWiet. s.. 
An ornament for the arms. 

^^ I have, in the pronunciation of th» word, 
made the a long and slender, as in brtKe^ as 
I find it in Dr. Kenrick, W. Johnston, Mr. 
Perry, and Mr. Scott; and not short as in 
brasst as Mr. Sheridan has marked it ; and 
which, I Delieve, is the prevailing pronunci- 
ation in Ireland : for though many compounds 
shorten Uie vowel in the simple, as is shewn 
at large in the Principles ot Pronunciation, 
(30^.) {5^5)* yet I think such words are ex- 
ceptions as are only diminutives, plurals and 
feminines. — Sec Patroness. 

Bracer, bri'sur. s. (98) 

A cindure, a bandage. 

Brach, bratsh. s. (252] 
A bitch hound. 

Brachial, brak'yal. a. (353) 
Belonging to the arm. 

Brachygraphy, bra-kig'gra-fe. s. 
I'he art or praciice of writingan a short com- 
pass. (353) ^ 

Brack, brak. s.. 

A breach. 

Bracket, brak'kft. s. (gp) 
A piece of wood fixed for tiie support of 

soni ihuig. 

Brackish, brak'ish. a. 

Salt, something salt. 

Brackish NESS, brak'ish-nes, s, 


Brad, biad. s. 
A sort of uail to Uoor rooms with. 

Digitized by 





tr (559). Fite (73), far {77), fill(83), fat (si); inH93),in4t (95); pinc(l05), pin (107); no(l62), rnive (164). 

To B RAO, brjff. v.n. 
To boast, to dispTay ostentatious!/. 

Brag, brag. s. 

A boast ; a proud expression ; the thing boasted. 

Braggadocio, brag-ga-do'shc-6. s. 

A puffing, boasting fellow. 

Braggart, brag'gart. a. (88) 
Boastful, vainly ostentatious. 

BRAGGARTf brag'gart. s. 
A boaster. 

Bragger, brJg'gir. s. (98) 
A boaster. 

Bragless, brag'les. a. 
Without a boast. 

Bragly, brae'li. ad. Finely • 
To Braid, bradc. v. a. 

To weave together. 
Braid, brade. s. 
. A texture, a knot. 

Brails, br^lz. s. 

Small ropes reeved through blocks. 
Brain, brine, s. 

That coUe£lion of vessels and organs in the 
head, from which sense and motion arise ; the 

To Brain, brane. v. a. 
To kill by beatine out the brain. 

Brain ISH, brane'fsh. a. 
Hot-headed, furious. 

Brainless, brine'lls. a. 


Brainpan, brane'pan. s. 
The skull containing the brains. 

Brainsick, brane'slk. a. 

Addleheaded, giddy. 

Brainsickly, brine' s!k-Ie. ad. 

Weakly, headily. 

Brainsickness, brane's!k-nes. s. 
Indiscretion, giddiness. 

Brake, brike. 

The preterit of Break. 

Brake, br&ke. s. 
Fern, brambles. 

Brake, brake, s. 

An instrument for dressing hemp or flax ; the 
handle of a ship's pump ; a baler's kneading 

Braky, bra'ke. a. 
Thorny, prickly, rough. 

Bramble, bram'bl. s. (405) 

Blackberry bush, dewberry bush, raspberry 
bush ; any rough prickly shrub. 
Brambling, bram'blmg. s. 
A bird; called also a mountain chaffinch. 

Bran, bran. s. 

The husks of com ground. 

Branch, bransh. s, (352) (78) 
The shoot of a tree from one of the main 
boughs; any distant article; any part that 
•shoots out from the rest; a smaUer river 
ninnipg into a larger ; any part of a family de- 
scending in a collateral line ; the of&pring, the 
deacen(uot ; the antlers or shoots of a sug's 

To Branch, bransh. v. n. 

To spread in branches; to spread into separate 

paru; to speak diffusively; to have boms 

shooting out. 
To Branch^ bransh. v. a. 

To divide as into branches; to adora widi 

Brancher, bran'shur. s. .j- 

One that shoou out into branches ; infidconiy, 

a young hawk* 

Branchiness, bran'sbi-nes. s. 

Fullness of branches. 

Branchless, bransh' lis. a. 

Without shoots orbouehs ; naked. 

Branchy, bran'she. a. 
Full of branches spreading. 

Brand, brand, s. 
A stick liehied, or fit to be lishtcd ; a sword ; 
a thunderbolt ; a mark made oy burning with 
a hot iron. 

To Brand, brand, v. a. 
To mark with a note of infamy. 

Brandgoose* brand' g&os. s. 
A kind of wild fowl. 

To Brandish, bran'dish. v. a. 
To wave or shake ; to play with, to flourish. 

Brandling, brand'lmg. s. 

A particular worm. 

Brandy, bran'de.s. 
A strong liquor distilled from wine. 

Brangle, brang'gl. s. (405) 
Squabble, wrangle. 

To Brangle, brang'gl. v. n. (405) 
To wrangle, to squabble. 

Brank, brank. s. 

Branny, bran'ne. a. 

Having the appeararKC of bran. 
Brasier, bra'zhur. s. (283) 

A inanuta^hirer that works in brass ; a pan to 

hold coals. 

Brasil, or Brazil, bra-zeel'. s. 

An American wood, commonly supposed to 

have been thus denominated, because iitat 

brought from Braiil. 
Brass, bras. s. 

A yellow metal, made by mixing copper with 

lapis calaminaris; impudeiKe. 

Brassiness, bras'.s^-nes. s. 
An appearance like brass. 

BrassV, bras'se. a. 

Partaking of brass; hard as brass ; impudent. 
Brat, brat. s. 

A child, so called in contempt ; the progeny, 

the offspring. 

Bravado, bra-va' do. s. 

A boast, a bng. — See Lumbaco. 
Brave, brave, a. 

Courageous, daring, bold ; gallant, having a 

noble mien; magnificent, grand; excellent. 


Brave, brave, s. 

A he£)or, a man daring beyond prudence or 
fitness ; a boastj a challenge. 

To Brave, brave, v. a. 
To defy, to challenge ; to carry a boasting ap- 

Bravely, brive'le. ad. 
In a brave manner, courageously} gallantly. 

Bravery, brVyur-re. s. {555) 
Courage, magnanimity; splendour, magnifi- 
cence ; shew, ostentation; bravado, boast. 

Bravo, bra'vo. s. Spanish. 
A man who murders for hire. 

To Brawl, brlwl. v. n. 
To quarrel noisily and indecently ; to speak 
loud and indecently ; lo make a noise. 

Brawl, brlwl.s. 

Quarrel, noise, scurrility. 

Brawler, biaw'lur. s. 

A wrangler. 

Brawn, brawn, s. 
The flesny or musculous part of the body ; the 
arm, so called from its being musculous ; 

bulk, muscular strength ; the flesh of a boir ; 
a boar. 

Brawn ER, briw'nur. s, 
A boar killed for the table. 

Brawn IN ESS, br4w'ni.iies. s. 

Strength, hardness. 

Brawny, briw'ne^. 

Musculous, fleshy, bulky. 

To Bray, bra. v. a. 

'To pound, or grind small. 

To Bray, brS. v. n. 
To make a noise as an ass ; to make an offen- 
sive noise. 

Bray, brLs. 
Noise, sound. 

Brayer, bra'ur. s. 
One that brays like an ass ; with printers, an 
' instrument to temper the ink. 

To Braze, braze, v. a. 
To solder with brass ; to harden to impudence. 

Brazen, bri'zn. a. (103) 
Made of brass; proceeding from brass; im- 

To Brazen, bra'zn. v. n. 

To be impudent, to bully. 

Brazen FACE, brJ'zn-fase.s. 

An impudent wretch. 

BRAZENFACED.brVzh-faste. a.(359) 

Impudent, shameless. 
Brazen NESS, bra'zn-nls. s. 
Appearing like brass ; impudence. 

Brazier, braze'yir. s. (283) 
See Brasier. 

Breach, bre&sh. s. 
The a£i of breaking any thing; the state* of 
being broken; a gap in a fortification made by 
a battery ; the violation of a law or contra£i; 
difference, quarrel ; infraftion, injury. 

Bread, bred. s. 
Food made of ground com ; food in genexal ; 
support of life at large. 

Bread-chipper, bied'tship-iur. s. 

A baker's servant. 

Bread-corn, brId'kSm.s. 

Girn of which bread is made. 

Breadth, bred/A. s. 
The measure of any plain superficies from side 
to side. 

To Break, brake, v. a. (249) (242) 

To burst, or open by force ; to divide ; to dii> 
stroy by violence ; to overcome, to sumxount; 
to batter, to make breaches or gaps in ; to crash 
or destroy the strength of the body ; to sink 
or appal the spirit; to subdue; to crush, to 
disable, to incapacitate ; to weaken the mind ; 
to tame, to train to obedience; to make 
bankrupt ; to crack the skin ; to violate a 
contract or promise ; to iolrin^e a law ; to in- 
tercept, to hinder the effc6l of; to interrupt ; 
to separate company ; to dissolve any union ; 
to open something new ; To break the hack, 
to disable one's fortune ; To break ground, to 
open trenches ; To break the heart, to de- 
stroy with grief; To break the neck, to lux, 
or put out the neck joints ; To. break off, to 
put a sudden stop ; 1 o break off, to dissolve ; 
To break up, to separate or disband ; To break 
U|X}n the wheel) to puni&h bv stretching < a 
criminal upon the wheel, ana breaking his 
bones with bats ; To break wind, to give vent 
to wind in the body. 
To Break, brake, v. n. 
To part in two ; to burst by dashing, as waves 
on a rock ; to open and cfischarae matter ; to 
open as the morning ; to burst fonh, to ex- 
claim ; to become oiankrupt ; to decline in 
hcalih and strength ; to make way with some 

Digitized by 





nir (167}, not (163)5 tibe (l7l), tit (172), bull (J73)j iil (299); p&Jnd (31$); /Ain (406), this (469). 

kind of suddenness, to come to an explana* 
lion ; to fall oat, to be friend no longer ; to 
discard ; to break from, to separate from with 
some vehemence ; to break, in, to enter un- 
expedcdiy ; to break loose, to escape from 
captivity ; to break off, to desist suddenly ; 
To break offfrom, to part froin with violence; 
To break out, to discover itself in sudden 
effeds ; To break out, lo-hswe eruptions from 
.the body ; To break-out, to become dissolute ; 
To break up, to cease, to intermit; To break 
up; to dissolve itself ; To break ap, to begin 
holidays; To break with, to part frieodsnip 
with any. 

Break, brike. s. 
State of being broken, opening ; a patne, an 
imcmiption; a line drawn, noting that the 
sense is suspended. 

Breaker, br4'kur.s. 

He that breaks any thing ; a wave broken by 

rocks or sand banks. 
To Breakfast, brek'fa^t. v. n. 

(*34) (5*5) To eat the first meal in th^- day. 

Breakfast, brek' fast. s. (sb) 

The first meal in the day ; the thing eaten at 
the first ni,eal ; a meal in general. 

Breakneck, bFakc'nek. s. 

A steep place endangering the neck. 
Breakpromise, brike'pr&m-ts. s. 
One that makes a pradice of breaking his 

Bream, breme. s. 
The name of a fish. 

Breast, brest. s. 
The middle part of the human body, between 
the neck ana the belly ; the dugs or teats of 
women which contain the milk ; the part of a 
beast that is under the neck, between the fore- 
legs; the heart; the conscience ; the passions. 

To Breast, brest. v. a. 

To meet in front. 

Breastbone, brest'bone. s. 

The bone of the breast, the sternum. 
Breasthigh, brest'hi. a. 

Up to the breast. 
Breasthooks, brest' hiiks. s. 

With shinwrights, the compassing timbers be- 

fore, that nelp to strengthen the stem and all 

the forepart of the ship. 
BREASTKNOT,br?St'not. S. 

A knot or bunch of ribbands worn by the 

women on the breast. 
Breastplate, brist'plite. s# 

Armour for the breast. 

Breastplough, brist'pliu. s. 

A pkugh used for paring turf, driven by the 

Breastwork, brest' wurk. «. 
Works thrown up as high as the breast of the 

Breath, bre/A. s. (437) 

The air drawn in and eje£led out of the body ; 
life; respiration; respite, pause, relaxation; 
breeze, moving air ; a single afl, an instant. 
To Breathe, breTHe. v. n. (437) 
To draw in and throw out the air by the lungs; 
to live ; to rest ; to take breath ; to injeft i)y 
breathing ; to ejcQ by breathing; to exercise ; 
to move or afiuaie by breath; to utter pri- 
vately ; to give air or vent to. 

Breathkr, bre'THur. s. 

One that breathes, or lives. 

Breathing, bre'THing. s. 
Aspiration, secret prayer; breathing place, 


BRFATaLES8,brc/A'lls. a. • 
Out of breath, spent with labour } dead. 

Bred, bred. 

Part. pass, from To Breed. 

Brede, brede. s. — See Braid. 

Breech, bjietsh. s. (247) 
The lower part of the body ; breeches ; the 
hinder part of a piece of ordnance- 

To Breech, bre^tsh. v. a. (247) 

To put into breeches ; to fit any thing with a 
breech, as to breech a gim. 

Breeches, brttch'fz.s. (247) (pp) 
The garment worn by men over the lower 
part of the body ; to wear the breeches, is, 
in a wife, to usurp the authority of the hus- 

To Breed, breed. V. a. 
To procreate, to generate; to occasion, to 
cause, to produce ; to contrive, to hatch, ^ to 
plot; to produce from one's self; to ^ive 
birth to ; to educate, to qualify by education ; 
to bring up, to take care of. 

To Breed, breed. V. n. 
To bring young ; to increase by new produc- 
tion ; to be pr^uced, to have birth ; to raise 
a breed. 

Breed, breed, s. 
A cast, a kind,<4a subdivision of species ; pro- 
geny, offspring ; a number produced at once, 
a hatch. 

Breedbate« bried'bate. s. 
One that breens quarrels. 

Breeder, brie'dur. s. (98) 
That whicn produces any thing; the person 
which brings up another ; a female that ispro- 
lifick ; one that takes care to raise a breed. 

Breeding, breeding, s. 

Education* instru6lion; qualifications; man- 
ners, knowledge of ceremony ; nurture. 

Breeze, breez. s. , 

A stinging fly. 

Breeze, breez. s. 
A gentle gale. 

Breezy, bree'ze. ad. 
Fanned with gales. 

Bret, bret. s. 
A fish of the turbot kind. 

Brethren, brlTn'ren. s. 

The plural of Brother. 

Breviary, breve'yS-ri. s. (507) 

An abridgment, an epitome; the book con- 
taining the daily service of the church of 
(^ All ourortboepisubut Mr.Perry pronounce 
the first syllable of this word lone ; but if au- 
thority were silent, analogy would decide for 
the pronunciation I have given. (334) 

Breviat, breve'yat. s. (113) 
A short compendium. 

Breviature, breve' va-tshure. s. 

An abbreviation. (465) (1 13) 

Brevity, brev'e-te. s'. (511) 
Conciseness, shortness. 

To Brew, br&S. v. a. (339) 
To make liquors by mixing several mgredients; 
to prepare by mixing things together ; to con- 
trive, to plot. 

To Brew, brSi. v. n. 
To perform the office of a brewer. 

Brew AGE, bro&'idje. s. {90) 

Mixture of various things. 

Brewer, broo'ur. s. 

A man whose profession it is to make beer. 
BREWHOUS£,i)roi'h&(3s. S. 

A house appropriated to brewing. 

Brewing. br^'iii|r. s. (410) 

Quantity of liquor brewed. 

Brewis, br6& IS. s. 
A piece of bread soaked in boiling fat pottage, 
made of salted meat. 

Bribe, bribe, s. 
A reward given to pervert the judgment. 

To Bribe, bribe, v. a. 

To give bribes. 

Briber, bri'bur. s. (98) 
One that pays for corrupt pra£lices. 

Bribery, bri'bur-re. s. (555) 
The crime of taking rewards for bad practices. 

Brick, biik. s. 

A mass of burnt clay; a loaf shaped like a brick. 

To Brick, brik. v. a. 

To lay with bricks. 

Brickbat, brik'bai.s. 

A piece of brick. 

Brickclay, brik'kla. s. 
Clay used for making bricks. 

Brickdust, brik'dust. s. 
Dust made by pounding bricks. 

Brick-kiln, brik'kil. s. 

A kiln, a place to burn bricks in. 

Bricklayer, brik'la-ur. s. 

A brick mason. 
Brickmaker, brik'ni4-k&r. s. 
One whose trade it is to make bricks. 

Bridal, bri'dal.a. 

Belonging to a wedding, nuptial. 
Bride, bride, s. 
A woman new married. 

Bridebed, bride'bed, s. 
Marriage, bed. 

Bridecake, bnde'k^ke. s. 
A cake distributed to the guests at the wedding. 

Bridegroom, bride'gri&in. s. 

A new-manricd man. 

Bridemen, bride'men. 

The attendants on the bride and bridegroom. 

Bridestake, bride'stike. s. 
A post set in the ground to dance round.. 

Bridewell, bride' wel.s. 

A house of corre£Uon. 

Bridge, bridje. s. 

A building raised over water for the conveni- 
ence of passage ; the upper part of the hose ; 
the supporter of the strings in stringed insiru-^ 
meots of musick. 

To Bridge, bridje. v. a. 

To raise a bridge over any place. 
Bridle, bri'dl. s. (405) 

The headstall and reins by which a horse is 
restrained and governed ; a restraint, a curb, a 

To Bridle, bri'dl. v. a. 

To guide, by a bridle ; to restrain, to govern. 

To Bridle, brt'dl. v. n. 

To hold up the bead. 

Bridlehand, bri'dl-hand. s. 

The hand which holds the bridle in riding. 
Brief, breef. a. 

Short, concise ; contra£lcd, narrow. 

Brief, breef. s. 
A short extra£l, or epitome ; the writing given 
the pleaders, containing the case ; leiiers pS" 
tent, giving licence to a charitable collc-cLon ; 
in musick, a measure of quantity, which con- 
tains two strokes down in beatmg time, and as 
many up. 

Br IE I LY, breifli. ad. 
Concisely, in a few words. 

Briefness, brcef'nes. s. 

Conciseness, shortness. 


Digitized by 





iT {559). Fite (73), far {77)y fill(93),ftt (si) 5 m^ (93;, met (95) ; pine (105), pin (107) ; nod62),inJvc(l(54), 
Brier, bri'ur, s. (98) (418) 

A plant. 
Briery, brl'ur-rc. a. {sso) 

Rough, full of briers. 

Brigade, bre-gade'.s. (117) 

A division of forces, a body of men. 

Brigadier GENERAL,bng-a-deer'- 

geii'u-ral. s. 
An officer next in order below a major-general. 

(275) , . 

Brigandine, brig'an-dine. (l50n 
Brigantine, brig'an-tine. J 

s. A light vessel, such as has been formerly 

used by corsairs or pirates ; a coat of mail. 
(^ All our orihocpists sound the last / in this 

word long ; and yet my memory fails me if 

the sta^c docs not pronounce it short : a pro- 
nunciation to which I he stage is veiy prone, 

as Falentmet CymUIinf, &c. are heard on the 

stage as if written Falentiriy Cymbelin^ &c. 

" You may remember, scarce three years are 

*• When in vour brifrantine you saiPd to sec 
" The Adriatic wedded by our Duke, 
"And I was with you."— f^«i« Praerotd. 

Bright, brite. a. 

Shining, glittering, full of light; clear, evi- 
dent ; illustrious, as a bright rcign ; witty, 
acute, as a bright genius. 

To Brighten, brl'tn. v. a. ,(i03) 

To make bright, to make to shine 5 to make 
luminous by light from without ; to make gay, 
or alert ; to make illustrious ; to make acute. 

To Brighten, bri'tn. v. n. 
To grow bright, to dear up- 

Brightly, brite'le. ad. 

Splendidly, with lustre. 

Brightness, brite'nes. s. 

Lustre, splebdour ; acuteness. 

Brilliancy, br!l'yan-se. s. 

Lustre, splendour. 

Brilliant, >nryant. a. (113) 

Shining, sparkling. 

Brilliant, bril'yant. s. 

A diamond of the finest cut. 
Brilliantness, bril'yant-nes. s. 

Splendour, lustre. 
Brim, brfm. s. 

The edge of any thing ; the upper edge of any 
vessel ; the top of any liquor ; the bank of a 

To Brim, brim. v. a. 

To fill to the top. 
To Brim, bifm. v.a. 

To be full to the brim. 

Brimful, brim'fuK a. 

Full to the top. « . ., 2 

Brimfulness, brlm'ful-ues. s. 
Fulness to the top. 

Brimmer, bnm'mur. s. 

A bowl full to- the top. 
Brimstone, brim'stone. s. 

Sulphur. 2/11 

Brimstony, bnm'sto-ne. a. 

Full of brimstone. 
Brinded, brin'dcd. a. 

Streaked, tabby. 
Brindle, brin'dl. s. (405) (359) 

The state of being brmded. 

Brindled, brin'dld. a. (405) 

Brinded, sirraked. 

Brine, brine, s. ., , . 
Water impregnated with salt, the $ca ; tcan. 

Brinepit, brine'pit. s. 

Pit of salt water. 

To Bring, bring, v.a. (408) (409) 

To fetch from anoiher place ; to convey in 
one's own hand, not to send ; to cause to 
come ; to attract, to draw along ; to put into 
any ^lanicular sratc ; to condu6l ; to induce, to 
prevail upon ; To bring about,' to brin^ to 
pass, to cffe6i ; To bring forth, to give birth 
to, to produce ; To bring in, to reclaim ; To 
bring m, to afford gain ; To bring off, to clear, 
to procure to be acquitted ; To bring on, to 
enj>aj;c in a61ion ; To bring over, to draw to a 
new party ; To bring out, to exhibit, to shew ; 
To bring under, to subdue, to repress ; To 
bring up, to educate, to instru6i ; To bring 
up, to bring into pra£Hce. 
Bringer, bring' ur. s. (409) 

The person that brings any thing. 

Brinish, bri'nish. a. 

Having the taste of brine, salt. 

Brinishness, bri'nish-nes. s. 

Brink, brink, s. 
The cd^ic of any place, as of a precipice or a 
river. • 

Briny, bn'ne. a. 


Brisk, brisk, a. 

Lively, vivacious, ga^ ; powerful, spirituous ; 
vivid, bright. 

Brisket, bris'kit. s. (99) 

The breast of an animal. 

Briskly, briskMe. ad. 

Aflively, vigorously. 

Briskness, brisk'nes. s. 

Liveliness, vigour, quickness ; gaiety. 

Bristle, bris'sl. s. (405) (472) 

The stiff hair of swine. 

To Bristle, bris'sl. v. a. - 

To ereft in bristles. 

To Bristle, brls^l. v, n. 

To stand ereft as bristles. 

Bristly, bris'le. a. 

Thick set wiih bristles. 

Bristol Stone, bris'tol -stone, s. 

A kind of soft diamqpd found in a rock near 
the city of Bristol. 

Brit, brit, s. 

The name of a fish. 

Brittle, brit'tl. a. (403) 

Fragile, apt to break. 

Br;ttleness, brit'tl-nes. $. 

Aptness to breiik. 

Brize, brize. s. 
The gadfly. ^ 

Broach, biotsh. s. (295) 

A spit. 

To Broach, brotsh. v. a. 
To spit, to pierce as wifh a spit ; to pierce a 
vessel in order to draw the liquor ; to open any 
store; to give out, to utter any thing. 

Broach ER, brotsh' ur. s. 

• A spit ; an opener, or uitcrcr of any thing. 

Broad, brawd. a.^(295) 
Wide, extended in breadth ; large ; clear, 
open ; jgross, coarse ; obscene, fulsome ; bold, 
not delicate, not reserved. 

Broad Cloth, brawd'clo/A. s. 

A fine kind of cloth. 

To Broaden, braw'dn. v.n. (103) 

To grow broad. 

Broadly^ brawi'le. ad. 
Id a broad maDoer* , 

Broadness, brJwd'nJs. s. 

Brcadrh; extent from side to side; coarseoeit, 


Broadside, brawd-.'iide^ s. 

Th6 side of a ship; the volley of shot fired at 
once from the side of a ship. . 
Broadsword, brawd'sord. s. 
A cutting swoiti, MFkh a broad blade. 

Broadwise, brlwd'wize. ad. (l4o) 

According to the dire£lion of the breadth. 
Brocade, bro-kade'.s. 

A silken stuff variegated. 

Brocaded, bro-k4'ded. a. 
Drest in brocade ; wovcD in the xnanocr of ' 

Brocage, br6'kidje..s. (90) 

I'hc {^ain cot ten by promoting bargaioi ; the 
hire given lor any unlawful office ; the trade 
of dealing in old things. 

Broccoli, brok'ko-le. s. 

A species of cabbage. 
Broch, bjok. S. 

A badger. . 
Brocket, brSk'kit. s. (99) 

A red deer, two years old. 

Brogue, brog. s. (337) 

A kind of shoe : a corn^jx diale£^. 
To Bro.ider, br&e'dur. v. a. 
To adorn with figures of needle-work. 

Broidery, s. XsssX 
Embroidery, flower- work. 

Broil, broil, s. 

A tumult, a quarrel. 

To Broil, br6il. v.a. 

To dress or cook by laying on the coals. 

To Broil, broil, v. n. 

To be in the heat. 

Broke, broke. 

Preterimperfcft tense of the verb To break. 
To B^oke. broke, v. n. 
To coniraft business for others. 

Broken, bro'kn. (los) 
Part. pass, of Break. 

Broken-hearted, bro'kn-har'tcd. 

a. Having the spirits crushed by grief or fear. 
Brokenly, bro'kn-le. ad. 
Without any regular series. 

Broker, bro'kflr. s. 

A faflor, one that docs business for arnxher \ 
one who deals in old household goods , a pimp, 
a match-maker. 

Brokerage, broM;ur-idje. s. (90) 

The pay or reward of a broker. 

Bronchocele, bron'ko-sele. s. 
A tumour of that part of the aspen arteria 
called the Bronchos.—SeeHYDROCELK. 

Bronchial, bron'ke-al. 

Bronchick, bron'kik. 
Belonging to the throat. 

Bronchotomy, bron-lot'to-mi. s. 
The operation which opens the windpipe by 
incision, to prevent suffocation. (518) 

Bronse, bronze, s. 
Brass ; a medal. 

Brooch, briotsb. s. 

A jewel, an ornament of jewels. 

To Brood, brSod. v. n. 
To sit on eggs, to hatch them; to cover 
chickens under the wing ; to waich, or con- 
sider any thing anxiously ; to mature any tbiiig 
by care. 

To Brood, briid. v. a. 
To .cherish by care, to haick. 

Digitized by 





nir (167)5 nJt (163); tube (171), tSb (i;2), bull (173) ; ill (299) j-pSund (3>3) i thin (40^ Triis (4^}. 

Brood, bri&d. s. 

OSsonnec, progeny ; generation : a batch, the 
DuitiDcr Daich<3.^ once ; the a6t of covering 
the eggs. 

BROOi)Y, brii'de. a. 
lu a state of sitting 00 the cggu 

BjiooK^ brdik. s. 
A running W4ier, a rivulet. 

To Brook, brMk.. v, a. 

To bear, to endure. 

To Brook, br^k. v. n. 

To endure, to be content, 

Brooklime, br&ik'llrae. s. 
A sort of water ; an herb. 

Broom, brjim. s. 
A shrub, a besom so called from the matter of 
which it is made. 

Broomland, br&6m'larid. s. 
Land that bears broom. 

Broomstaff, briim'staf. s. 
The staff to which the broom is bound. 

Broom Y, brM'mc. a. 

Full of broom. 

Broth, bro/A. s. 
Liquor m which flesh is boiled. 

Brothel, broTn'^l. 1 

Brothel-house, broTn'cl-h&use J 

s. A bawdy-house. 

BROTHERybruTH'ur. s. (98) 
One bom of the same father or mother ; any 
one closely united; any one resembling an- 
other in manner, form, or profession ; Brother 
is used in thcqipgical language, fior num in 

BROTHW.Hpp«D,>rATHf urTbud. >ai. 
The state or quality of beiog a brother ; an 
association of men for any purpo>$e, a fnuer- 
nity ; a class of men of the same kind.' 

Brotherly, brSTH'urJe. a. 

Natural to brothers, such as becomes or be- 
seems a brother. 

Brought, brdwt. (393) 

Part, passive of Bring. 

The arch of hair over the, eye ; forehead ; the 
general air of the coimtenance ; the edge of 
any high place. * ' • 

To Browbeat, briu'bctc. y. a. 

To depress with stem looks. 

BRowBOUNDybr^'b&und. a. 

Browsick, br6&'s!k. a, 


Brown, br6un. a. 
The name of a colour. 

Brownbill, brpun'btl. s. 
The ancient weapon of the English foot, 

Brownnkss, briin'ols. s. 

A brown coldur.' 

Brownstudy, briuu-stud'de. s. 

Gloomy ipciiitations. • 
To Browse, brSuze. v. a. 

To eat branches or shrubs. 

ToBruise, b*r&5ze..v*a. (343) 
To crush or mangle wit^ a he»\^blow. 

Bruise, brSSze. s. 
A hurt wiih sometbing blaot abd heavy. 

BRuisEWORTgbrMize'wuit. s. 

Bruit, "briit. s. (343) 

Rnmour, oojse* nporu 
Brumal, broS'mSK a. 

^loopsgU) the winter. 

Brunett, brii-n&'. s. 

A woman with a brown complexion. 
Brunt, brunt, s. 

Shock, violence ; blow, stroVe. 

Brush, brush, s. 
An instrument for rubbina; a rude assault, a 

To Brush, brush, v. a. 
. Tq sweep or rub with a brush ; to strike with 
quickness; to paint wiih a brush. 

To Bj^USH, brush. V. n. 
To move with haste; to fly over, to skim 

JBrusher, brush'ur. s. 

He that uses a brush. 

Brushwood, brush' wo(Sd.s. 

Rough, shrubby thickets. 
Brushy, brush'e. a. . 

Rough or shaggy > like a brush. 

To Brustle, brus'sl. v. n. (-I72) 
To crackle 

Brutal, brio'tal. a. (34.^) 
That which belongs to a brute ; savage, cruel, 

Brutality. bi66-tal'c-ti. s. 

Savagcncss, churlishncsj. 

To Brutalize, buxVta-llze. v. n. 

To grow brutal or savage. 

Brutally, bi66'tal-Ie. ad. 
. Churlishly, inhumanly.. 

Brut?:, brMt. a. (339) 

Senseless, unconscious ; savage, irrational ; 
rough, ferocious. 

bRUTE, bri&t.s. 

, A creature without reason. 

Bruteness^ brMt'nes. s. 


To Brutify, bri&t'ti-fi. V. a. 
To make a ipan a bra^e. 

Brutish* br&6't!sh. a. 

Bestial, resembling a beast ; rough, sat'age, 
ferocious ; gross, carnal ; ignorant, untaught. 

Brutish LY, brii'tlsh-le. ad. 

' In ^e manner of a brure. 

^rutishness, bri&'tish-nls. s. 
Brutality, savaeeness. 

Pryony, bn'o-ne. s. 
A plant. 

Pub, bub. s. 

Strong mjdt liquor. A low word. 
pUBBLE, bub'bl. s. (403) 
A small bladder of water ; any thing which 
wants solidity and firmness ; a cheat, a false 
show ; the penon cheated. 

To Bubble, bdb'bl. v. n. ^ 
To rise id bubbles ; to run with a gentle 

To Bubble, bub'bl. v. a. . 

To cheat. ' 

BuBBLERj;b5b'blur. s. (403) 
A cheat. 

BuBBY, bub'be. s. 
* A woman's breast. -A low word. 

Bubo, bA'bo. s. 

The groin from the bending of the thigh to 
the scrotum : all tumours in tliat pait arc called 

Bubonocele, bu-bon'o-scle..s. 

A rupture, in which some part of the intes- 
tines b;ceak. down into the gioia«'-7See Hy« 


Bug An iers. buk-a-nierz' . s. 
A cant word lor the privateers, or pirMes, of 


Buck. buk. s. 

The liquor in which clothes are washed ; tl^e 
clothes washed in the liquor.' 

Buck, buk. s. 

The male of the fallow deer, the male of rab- . 
bits and other animals. 

To Buck. buk. v. a. 

To wash clothes. 

ToBucK, buk. V. n. 
To copulate as bucks and does. 

BucKBASKET, buk'bas-ket. s. 
The basket in which clothes are carried to the 

BucKBEAN,buk'beiie. s. 
A plant, a sort of trefoil. 

Bucket, buk'kft. 8.(99) 

The vessel in which water is drawn out' of ft 
well ; the vessel in which water is carried, par- 
ticularly to quench a fire. 

Buckle, buk'kl. s. (405) 

A link of metal, with a tongue or catch made 
to fasten one thing to another ; ^e sute of 
the hair crisped and curled. 
To Buckle, buk'kl. v. a. 
To fasten with a buckle ; to confine. 

To Buckle, buk'kl. v. n. 

To bend, to bow ; To buckle to, to apply to ; 
To buckle with, to engage with. 
Buckler, buk'lur.s. 

A shield. 

BucKMAST, buk'mast. $. 
' The fruit or msist of 4he beech tree. 

Bi>CKRAi)d, buk^fjum. s. 
A sort of strong iihen cloth, stifieaod with 
gum. ' 


plan'tin. s. 
A plaiH. 

Buckthorn, buk'/Mrn. s. 

A tree. 

BucoLiCK, bi-kil'!k. $. 

A pastoral. 

^ From the tendency w& have 10 re»<»re the 
accent to the beginning of such Latin words as 
we Anglicize by dropping (he last syllable^ we 
sometimes hear this word improperly accent^ 
on the first $y llable.-i-Scc Academy. ' The 
authorities (or the accent on thesecond syllabic 
are, Mr. Shci^dan, Dr. fohtison, W. John- 
ston, Mr. Perry, Dr. Kenrick, Bailey, Dr. 
Ash, and Entick ; Buchanan stands alone for 
the accent on the first. 

Bud, bud. s. 
The first shoot of a plant, a germ* 

To Bud, bud. v. n. 

To put forth young shoou, or germs ;. to be io 
the bloom. 

To Bud, bSd. v. a. 

To inoci^late. 

To Budge, budje. v. n. 
To stir. 

Budge, budje. a. 

Stiff, formal. 

BU0GER,bud'jdf. S. 
One that stirs. 

Budget, bud 'jet. s. 

A bag, such as. may be easily carried ; a stqre. 
or stock. 

Buff, buf. s. 

l^cather prepared from tiie skia of ilie buffalo, 
used for wajst belts, pouches, fa. a military 
coat. • 

to Buff, buf. V. a. ' 

: To strike. A low word* 

Digitized by 





C^ (ssq). Fite(73),fir(77),f4n(83),ftt(8l); me(93),mlt (95); pine (ms), pin (107); no(l62),mJve(l64), 

Buffalo, bSf'fa-!6.s, 

A kindcrf' vriid biiH or cow. 

BUFFKT, buf'tlt. S. (99) 
A blow with the fist. 

BUFFKT, buf-fet'. S. 
A kind of cupboard. 

To Buffet, buf'fft. v.n. (99) 

To box, to beat. 

ToBuFFET; bSf'fit. V.n. 
To play a boxing match. 

BuFFETER, buf'fit-tur. S. 

A boxer. 

BUFFLE, bjf'fl. S. (403) 
The same with buffalo. 

BuFFLEHEADED, buf'fl-hed'ed. a. 
?Dal!,-Mupidi • ^ 

Buffoon, buf-f6on'. s. 

A man whose profc:>sion is to make sport by 
low jests and aniick postures, a jackpudding ; 
d man that pra£iises indecent raillery. 

Buffoonery, buf-fo&n'ur-re. s. 

The pra6lice of a buffoon ; low jests, scurrile 

Bug. bu^. s. 

A Slinking '\nx&, hrc6 in old heusehold stuff. 

Bugbear, bug' bare. s. 

A frightful objeS, a false tcrrour. 

BuGGiNESS, bug^ge-nes. s. 
The State of being inlc^ed wi|h bugs. 

Buggy, bu^j'^e. a. (283) 

Abounding with bugs. . 

Bugle, bi'gl. (405) 1 ,. 

Buglehorn, bu'gl-h6rn'. J ' ' 

A buhtinj; horn. 
Bugle, bu'gl. s. 

A shining bead of black glass. 

Bugle, btj'gi. 5. . : 
A plant. 

BuGLOss, bu'glos. s. ■ 

The herb ox-tongue. 

To B iMrfcD-jr bild . v . a. 434 1 ) 
To make a fabrick, or ao edifice ; to raise any 
thing on a support or foandation. 

To Build, btld. v. n. 

To depend on, to rest on. 

B.uildeR; bild'ur. s. (98) 
He that builds, an architect. 

Building, bild'ing. s. (410) 

A fibrick, an edifice. 

Built, bilt. s. 

The form, the slnifturc. 

Bulb, bulb. s. 

A round body, or root. 
Bulbaceous, bul-ba'shus. a. 

The s:imc with Bulbous. 

BuLBpus, bul'bus. a. (314) • 
Containing bulbs. 

To Bulge, bulje. v. n. 

To take in water, to founder, to jut out. 

Bulk, bulk. s. 

Magnitude, size, <quafitiiy ; the gross, the ma- 
jority ; nviin fabrick. 

Bulk, l>ulk. s. 

A part of a building jutting oat. 

Bulkhead, bulk-hid', s. 

A partition made across a ship with boards. 

BulKINeVs', bul'ke-nes.' s. 
Grreatiicss of stature or size. 

Bulky, bul'ke.a. i 

Of great size or stature. . • 

Bull, bul. 55. (173) 

The male of black cattle; in the scriptural 
sense, an enemy powerful, and violent ; one of 
the twelve signs of the zodiack ; a letter pub- 
, lished by the Pope ; a blunder. 

3uLLBAiTiNG, bdl'ba-ting. s. 
The sport of baiting bulls with dogs. 

Bull-beggar, bul'beg-ur. s. 

Something terrible to fright children wi\h*- 

BuLL-DOG,bul'dog. S. 
A dog of a particular mrm, remarkable for his 

Bull-head, bul'hed. s. 

A stupid fellow, the name of a fish. 

Bull-weed, bul'wced. s. 


BuLL-woRT, bul'wurt. S. 

Bull ACE, bdl'lis. s. (9s) 

A wild sour plum. 

Bullet, biil'lit. s. (99) 

A round ball of metal. 

Bullion, bul'yun.s. (lis) 
Gold or silver in the lump unwrought. 

Bullition, b61-!ish'un. s. (177) 
The a6l or state of boiling. 

Bullock, bul'l&k. s. (166), 

A young bull. 

Bully, bul' le. s. 

A noisy, blustering, quarrelling fellow. 

Bulrush, bui'rush. s. 

A large rush. 

Bulwark, bul/wurk. s.' 

A fortification, a citadel ; security. 

Bum, bum. s. * "^ [ 

The part on which We sit ; it is used in com- 
position, for any thing mean or low, as buni- 
bailiff. • ' '. 

Bumbailiff, bum-ba'lif. s. 

A bailiff of the meanest kind, one that is en)" 
ployed in arrests. 

BuMBARD,bum'bard. s. 
See Bombard. 

BuMBAST, bum-bast'. s. * 

A cloth made of patches; patchwork; monf 
properly written Bombast^ as derived by Mr. 
Stevens from Bombycinus^ made of silk.- 

BUMP, bump. s. 
A swelling, a (irotuberance. 

To Bump, bump. v. a. — See Bomb. 

To make a loud noise. 

Bumper, bum'pur, s. (98) 
A cup filled. 

(frf" There is a plausible derivation of this M'ord 
from the French Bon Pete^ which, say the 

' anti-clerical critics, was the loast whico the 
Monks gave to the Pope in a full glass. . The 
fanher a derivation is traced, the better it is 
liked by th: common crowd of critics ; but 
Mr. Elphinston, who saw farther into Encllsli 
and French etymology than anyauibor l^ave 
met with, contents himself with deriving this 
word from the word Bump, which, as a verb, ' 
signifies the a£lion of some heavy body that 

• makes a dense noise, and, as a noun, implies 
' the general effeft of such an aftionon the aoi- 
. mal frame, which is a protuberance or swcllingj 

and the swellif.g out of ihc liquor when agldos 
is full, seems the natural • offspring of the sub- 
' staniive Bump. " 
Or. Ash, whose ctymolo^cal knowledge seems 

♦ very d(f^n5ive,''gtves this vrord tKe sartic dcri»- 
vation, but te^ls us that the word Bumpkin is 

, of uncertain. etymology f a little aiteiuion, 

I however^ would,. J thtnk^ h»ve kd him so tlic 

same origin of this word as the fbrjoer % £^ 

th& heavy and protuberantform of the nisticks, 
to whom this word is geoerally applied, might 
very naturally generate thcappeilaiion. 
Bumpkin, bum'kin. s. 
An awkward heavy rustick. — See Bump £ R . 

Bumpkin LY,bum'kin-!e. a. 
Having the maimer or appearance of .a clown. 

Bunch, bunch, s. (:i52) 
A hard lump, a kPQb ; a clpMcr \. a number of 
things tied together ; any thing bound into a 

Bunchbacked, bunsh'bakt, a. 

* Having bunches on the back. 

Punchy, bun'she.a\ 

.' Growing mro bunches. 

Bundle, bun'dl. s. (405) 
A number of things bound together ; any 

thi g rolled up cylindrically. 

To Bundle, bun'dl. v. a. 

To tie in a bundle. 

Bung, bung. s. 

A sioppcl foi a barrel. 

To Bung, bung. v. a. 

To stop up. 

Bunghole, bflng'liole. s. 

I'he hole at which the barrel is filled. 

To Bungle, bSiig'gl 

To perform clumsily 

V. n. (405) 

jTo Bungle, bung'gl. v. a. 
} To botch, to manage dumsily. 

Bungle, bung'gl. s. 

A botch, an awkwardness. 

Bungler, bung'glur. s. • 

A bad workman 

Bunglingly, buDg^gling-U. ad. . 

Clumsily, awkwardly. 

BuNN,bfin. s. 

A kind of sweet bread. 
Bunt, bfint.s. 
" An increasing eavity. 

BuNTER,bun'tur. s. (98) 

Any low vulgar woman. 

Bunting, bun'ting. s. 

* The name of a bird. . • . ■ . 

Buoy, bu6e. s. (346) 

A piece ol cork or wood floating, tied to a 

To Buoy, bdoe. v.a^ 

To keep afloat. 
BuoYANtY.buSe'an-s^. s. 

The quality of floating. 

Buoyant, bu6i' int. a. 

.Which will not siuk. 
Bur, bur. s. 
A rough head of a plant. 

BuRB9T,bfir'b8t,s. (166) 
I A fiih full of prickles. 

Burdelais, b&r-de-li'. s, 
' A sort of grape. 

Purden, bur'dn. s. (103) 
, A load; something grievous j a birth; .the 
verse repeated 'in a song. 

To Burden, bur'dn. v. a. 
To load, to incumber. t 

Burdener, bur'dn-ur. s. (98) 
I A loader, an oppressor. • . • 

PuRDE-NOUS, bur'dn-3i. a. * 

\ Grievous, oppressive ; u&dess^ 

Burdensome, bur'dn-sum. a. 

' Grievous, troubletom& ' ' " * . r 


is. Weight, uneasinessJ » >; 
URDOCK, bur'dSk: s.'—SeeDocK. 

Digitized by 





nSr {i67)y ntt (163) ; tube (171), tSb^Cira)., Imll (.173) j Ail.('i99) ; po^nd (313)5 thin (466), this (^).: 

Bureau, bu-ro'. s. 
A chest of dnwcrs* 

Burg, burg. s. — See Burrow. 
Burgage, bur' gidje. s. (90) 

A tenure proper to cities aiuT towns. 

Burgamot, bur-ga-mot'. s. 

A species of pear. « 

Burgas ET, or Burgonet, bur' go- 
net, s. 
A kind of helmet. 

BuRGEOis,bur-j6!ce', s. 
A citizen, a burgess ; a type of a particular 

Burgess, bur^jes. s. 

Acuiarn, a frccmati of a city ; a rcprcscD- 
ttiivc of -A town corporate. 

Burgh, burg. s. (392) 

A corporate town or borough. 

Burgher, bur'gur. s. 
One who has a rijgot to certain privileges in 

ihis or that place. 
BuRGHERSHlP,bur'gur-ship. S. 
The privilege of a bui^her. 

Burglary, bur!gla-re, ?• 
Robbiog a bouse by night, or breaking in 
uith intent to rob. 

Burgomaster, bur'go-mas-tur.s. 

One employed in tfcle government of ^ city. 

Burial, ber're-al. s. (178) 
The aft of burying, sepulture, interment; the 
ari of piacine any thing uxukr earth ; the 
church scrviccibr funerals. 

Burier, ber're-ur. s. 

He that buries. 

BuRiNE, bu'rin.s. 

A graving tool. 
Burlace, bur'lAse. s. 
A sort of grape. 

To Burl, burl. v. a. 
To dress cloth as fullers do. 

Burlesque, bdr-lesk'. a. (415) 

Jocular, lending to raise laughter. 

Burlesque, bur-lesk'. 8» 

Ludicrous language. 

To Burlesque, bur-lcsk', v. a. 

To turn to ridicule. 

Burliness, bdr'le-nes.s. 
Bulk, bluster. 

BuRLY,burMe. a. > 

Big of stature. 

To RuRN, bum. V. a. 
To consume wiih (ire ; to wound with fire. 

To Burn, burn. V. n. 
To be on fire ; to be inflamed with passion ; 
to aft as fire. 

Burn, burn. s. 
A hurt caused by fire. 

Burner, bur'nur. s. 
A person that burns any thing. 

Burnet, bSr'nit. s. {gy) 

A plant. 

Burning, bur'ning. s. (410) 

Slate of inftammation. 

Burning-glass, bur'mn^-ela^. s. 

A glass which cdlleds the rays of the sun into 
a aarrow compass,* and sir increases f heir force. 

To Burnish, bur'nish. v. a. 
To polbb. 

To Burnish, bur'nish. v. n. 

To gioiir brigdt or glossy. • 

J part. 

Burnisher, bur'n?sh-ur. s. 
The person that btmu&hcs or jX)lL»hcs; the 
tool with which bookbinders give a gloss to 
the leaves of books ; it is commonly a dog's 
tooth set in a stick. 

Burnt, burnt. 

Part. pass, of Burn. 
Burr, bur. s. 
The lobe or lap of tlic ear. 

Burr EL, bur'ril. s. (99) 

A iort of pear. 

Burrow, bur^ro. s. 

A corporate town, that is, not a city, but such 
asanas burgesses to the parliament ; a place 
fenced or fortified; the holes made in th« 
ground by conies 

To Burrow, bur'ro. v. n. 

To mine as comes or rabbits. 

Bursar, bur'sur. s. (ss) 

The treasurer of a college. 

Burse, burse, s. 
An exchange where merchaou meet. 

To Burst, burst, v. n. 
To break, or fly open ; to fly asunder ; to break 
away, to spring ; to come suddenly ; to begiu 
an a6iionviolen.Iy. 

To Burst, burst, v. a. 
' To break suddenly, to make a (^uick and violent 

Burst, burst, s. 

A sudden disposition. 

Burst, burst. 
BuRSTEN,bur'stn. (472) 

Diseased with a hernia or rupture. (405) 
BuRSTN ESS, burst'' nes.s. 

A rupture. 
BuR.ST\yoRT, burst' wurt. s. 

An herb good against rupturos. 

Burt, hurt. s. 

A flat fish of the turbot kind. 

Burthen, bur'THn. s. (468) 


To BuRY,ber're. V. a. (178) 
To inter, to put into a grave ; to inter with 
rites and ceremonies ; to conceal, to hide. 

Bush, bush. s. (173) 

A thick shrub ; a bough of a tree fixed up at 
a door, to shew that liquors are sold there. 

Bushel, busb'i). %. (173) 

A measure containing ^tght gallons, a strike* 

BusHiNESS, bush'e-nes. s. 
The quality of being bushy. 

BusHMENTjbdsh'ment. s. 
A thicket. 

BuiHY, bush'e. a. 

Thick, full of small branches ; full of bushes. 
Bu SI LESS, biz'zi-lcs. a. (178) 

At leisure. ' 

Busily, b!z'zi-li. ad. 

With hurry, aflively. t . 

Business, biz'nes.s. (178) 

Employment, multiplicity of affairs ; an ^air, 
the sum eft of aft ion ; serious engagement ; 
right ofaftion ; a matter of question ; To do 
one's busine«s, to kill, to destroy, or rain him. 

Busk, busk. s. 
A piece of steel, or whaIebone,wom by women 
to strengthen thctr stays. 

Buskin; bus''k!n.*s^ ..i 

A kind of half boot, a shoe which comes to the 
mid-leg ; a kind of high shoe worn by the an- 
cient aftorsof tragedy. 

Buskin EJ), bus' kind. a. (369) 
pressed in buskins. 




Buss, bus. s. 

A kiss, a salute wiih lips ; a boat for fi&hjog. 
To Buss, bus. V. a. 

To kiss. A low word. 
Bust, bust.s. 

A iitatue representing a nan •tQ<his'hiOBiU >< 

Bustard, bus'tdrd. s. (88) 
A wild turkey. 

To Bustle, bus' si. v. n. (ir^)* 

To be busy, to siir. 

Bustle, bus's!, s. 

A tumult, a liurry. 

Bustler, bus'lur. s. (98) 

Au aftive stirring man. 

BusY,biz'ze. a. (178) 
Employed with earnestness; bustlings aftive, 

To Busy, bfz'ze. v. a. 
To employ, to engage. 

Busybody, bfz'ze-bjd-di. s. 

A vain, meddling, fantastical person. 

But, but. conjunct. 
Exceot ; yet, neveitheldn;flbe^ particle* which 
introauces the. minor of a syllogiun, now; 
only, nothing more than, than ; not oiher^vise 
than ( by no other means thau ; it* it were not 
for this ; however, howbeit ; otherwise than ; 
even, not longer ago than ; yet it may be ob 
jc6ied; but for, had not this been. 

BuT-END, but'end'. s. 
The blunt end of any thing. 

Butcher^ but'tshur. s. (175) 
One that ktUs animals to sell il^eir Ucsh ; one 
that is delighted with blood. 

To Butcher, but'tshur, v. a. 

Tokill, to murdcT. 

Butcher LI NESS, bdt'tshir-li-nes. s, 
A butcherly manner. 

Butcherly, bdt'tshur-li. a. 

Bloody, barbarous. 

Butchery, but'tsbur-re. s. 
The trade of a butcher; murder, cnidty ; the 
place where blood is shed. 

Butler, but'lur. s. (gs) 

A servant employed in furnishing the table. 

Butment. but'ment. s. 
That part of^the arch which joirts it to the up- 
right pier. 

Butt, but. «. "'> 

The place on which the mirk -to be shot at.*!! 
placed; the point at which ^heftnikavour is 
dircftcd ; a man upon whom the company 
break their jests. ' 

Butt, bit. s. 

A vessel, a barrel containic^g one hundred and 
twenty-six gallons of wine. 

To Butt, but. V. a. 

To strike with \ht head. * 

Butter, but'tur. s. (98) 

An un6luo^ substance, made by agitating the 
cream of milk till the oil separates froui the 

To Butter, but't&r. v. a. 

To smear, or oil with butter ; to increase the 
stakes every throw. 

Butter-bump, but'tur-b^mp. s. 

^ A fowl, the bittern. -> 

Butterbur, but' tur-bur.s. ^ , 

A plant. ^ ^ 

BUTTERFLOWER, but'luf-flou'ur. S., 
A yellow flower of May. 

Digitized by 





C^ (559). Fitc (73), fir ill), flll (83), dit (81) ; ml (93), mit (95)1 pine (l05), p!n (107) ; ni (162) , m&ve (164), 

Butterfly, but' tir-fli. s. 

A beautiful iiatBi. 

BuTTERis, but'tSr-ris. ?•.,.. 

An imtnimcnt of steel used in panng the foot 

of ahorse. 
ButterAlk, but'tur-milk. s. 

The whey that is separated from the cream 

wbdftimitev is made* 
BuTTERpRiNT, but'tur.print. s. 

A piece oiF carved wood, used to mark hulter. 
BUTTE^TOPTH, bfit'tur-tii/A. S. 

The great broad foretooth. 
BuTTERWOMAN, but'tur-wum-un. s. 

A woman that sells butter. 
BuTTERWpRT, bSt'tur-wurt. 8. 

A plant, finicle. 

Buttery, but'tur-re. a. . 

Having the appearance or qualities of butter. 
'Buttery, buF'tur-re. s. 

The room where provisions are laid up. 

Buttock, but'tuk. s. (i6()) 

The rump, the part near the tail. 

Button, but'tn.s. (i03) (170) 

Any knob or ball; the bud of a plaot. 

To BuTTOfiJ, bit'tn. v, a. (405) 
To dreas, to clothe ; to fasten with buttons. 

Buttonhole, bfit'tn-hile. s. 

The loop in which the button of the clothes is 

Buttress, but'tiis. s. (99) 

A prop, a wall built to support another ; a 
prop, a support. 

ToBuTTjiESS, bdt'tris. v. a. 
To prop. 

BuxoM, bfik'sim. a. (166) 
^ Obedient, obsequious 2* gay, lively, brisk; 
* wanton^ }o\\y. 

BuxoMLY, buk'sum-le. ad« 

. W^DtQOlyt amorously. 

BuxoMNESS, buk'sum-nes. s. 
Wantonness, amorousness. 

ToBuY, bi. V. a. 

To purchase, to acquire by paying t price ; to 
manage by money. 

To Buy, bi. v.n. 
To treat about a purchase. 

Buyer, bi'ur. s. , 

He that buys, a purchaser. 

To Buzz, buz. v.n. 
To hum, to make a noise like bees ; to whisper, 
to prate. 

Buzzard, buz'zurd.^s. (ss) 
A degenerate or mean species of hawk; a 
blockhead, a dunce. 

Buzzer, buz'zur. s. (99) 
A secret whisperer. 

It notes the agent ; it notes tTic instrument ; it 
notes the cause ; it notes the means by which 
any thing is performed; at, or in, iKxing 
place ; it notes the sum of the diCFercnce be- 
tween two things compared ; not later than, 
noting time ; beside, noting passage ; near to, ' 
in presence, noting proximity ; before Him* 
self, it notes the absence of all others ; it is the 
solemn form of swearing ; at hand ; it is used 
in forms of obtesting; by proxy of, noting 
03* The general sound of this word is like the 
verb to buy \ but we not unfrcqucntly bear it 
pomounced like the verb to be. This latter 
sound, however, is only tolerable in colloquial 
pronunciation, and then only when used as a 
pfcposition ; as when we say, Do you travel 
%l land or ^ water ? Thus in reading these lines 
of Pope: 

<* B» land, iy water, they renew the charge, 
<* They stop the chariot, and they board 
** the barge.** 
Here we ought to give the word by the sound 
of the verb to buy ; so that proiiotmcing this 
word like be^ is, if the word will be parSoned 
me, a colloqtaalUm. 

By. bi. ad. 

Near, at a small distance ;, beade» passing ; in 

By and by, bi'and-bi'. ad. 

In a short time. 

BY,bl. 8. 

Something not the dtrcd and immediate ob- 

jeft of regard, as by the by. 
By-concernment^ bl'kJn-sern'- 

ment. s. 

Not the main business. 
By-end, bi' end', s. 
Private interest, secret advaAta^se. 

By-gone, bl'gon'. a. Past. 
By-law, bl'Iaw'^s. 

By-laws are orders made for the good of those 
that make tbein , farther than the public lawbiuds. 

By-name, bi'namc'. s. 
A nickname. 

By-p.^th, bi'pa/A'. s. 
A ^vate or obscure rath. 

By-respect, bi're-spekt'. s. 

Private end or view. 

By-room, bi'riJin'. s. 
A private room within. 

By-speech, bi'spiitsh'. s. 

An incidental or casual speech. 

By-stander, bi'stan'dur. s. • 
A looker on, one unconcerned. 

By-street, bi'str^t'. s. 

An obscure street. 

By- VIEW. bi'vA'. s. 

Private self-interested purpose. 

By-walk, bi'wiwk*. s. 
Private walk, not the main road. 

By-way, bi'wa'. s. 

A private and obscure way. 

By-west, bi-west'. a. 
Westward, to the west of. 

By-word, bl'wurd'. s. 

A saying, a proverb ; a term of reproach* 

OaB, kSb. 8. 

A Hebrew measure, containing about three 
pints English. 

Cabal, ka-bal'. s. 

The secret science of the Hebrew rabbins ; a 
body of men united in some close design ; in- 
Q:^* The political .signification of this word owes 
its original to the five Cabinet Miuisteis in 
Charles the Secood'sreign ; Clifford* Asble^f, 
BMckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale : this 
Junto were known by the name of the Cabal ; 
a word which the imtial lettcn of their names 
happened to compose. 

To Cabal, ka-bJl'.v.n. 

To firm dose inti-igaes. 
CABALiST,^kab'a-list. s. 

One skilled in the traditions of the Hebrews. 
Caballistick, kab-aWfs'tik. 5 

a. Something that h^san occult meaning. 
Caballerv ka-bai'Iur. s. 

He that engages in ilose designs, an intriguer. 

Cabbage, kab'bldje. s. (90) 

A plant. 

To Cabbage, kab'bidje. v. a. 

To steal in cutting clothes. 

Cabbace-tree, kskb'bfdje-tree. s. 
A species of palm-tree. 

CABBAGE«WORM,kab'bidje.wfirn]. s 
An insed. 

Cabin, kab'bfn. s. 
A sinall room ; a small chamber in a ship ; a • 
cottagC) or small house. 

To Cabin, kab'bin, v.n. 

To live in a cabin. 

To Cabin^ kab'bln. v. a. 
To confine m a cabin. 

Cabined, kab'btnd. a. (362) 

Belonging to a cabin. 
Cabinet, kab'fn.2t. s. 

A set of boxes or drawers for curiosities ; any 
place ia which things of value are hidden ; a 
private room in which consultations are held. 

Cabinet-council, kab'fn-et-kSun' 

sii. s. 

A council held in a private manner. 

Cabinet-maker, kab'in-et-rna'kur. 

s. One that makes smal^nicc work in wood. 

Cable, LVbl. s. (405) 

The great rope of a ship to which ibe anchor 
is fastened. 

Cachectical, ka-kJk'ti-kal. "I 

Cachectick, ka-k^k'iik. J *' 

Having an ill habit* of body. 

Cachexy, kJk'k&k-se. s. (517) 

Such a distemperature of the hamonn as hin- 
ders nutrition, and weakens the vital and ani- 
mal fun6lions. 
fffr Mr* Sheridan is the only orrhoepist who 
accents this word'On the firtf syUablc'as I have 
done ; and yet every other lexicographer, who 
has the *word, accents Anorexv^ -^toxyy and 
Ataraxy^ on the first fylUble, except Mr. 
Sheridan, who aCcenu Afior^^y, and Bailev 
Ataxy ^ on the penult i mate. "Whence this 
variety and inconsistency should arise, it is sot 

Digitized by 





nftr (167), n8t (i63)j tibe (171), tSb (172), bdll (173)5 «1 (299); pAdnd (313); ib'm(4f66), this (469). 

eacv CO determine. Orthodoxy and Jpcflexy 
hai sufficiently chalked out tfaie Analoigf of ac- 
ceotuaiion in these words. The teiminations 
io axy and exy do not form a species of words 
which may be called enditical, like hgy and 
graffy (.517), bat aeem to be exaftly under 
Uie predicament of those Latin and Greek 
worclSi which, when adopted into English by 
dropping their last syllable, remove the accent 
at loBC two syllables higher. — Sdt Academy. 
Cachinnation, kak-km-n&'sh&n.s. 
Abadlaughwr. (^3) 

CACKEREL.'kik'ur-il. $. {SS5) (99) 

To Cackle, kak'kl. v.n. (405) 

To make a noise as a goose ; sometimes it is 
used (or the noise of a hen; to Uugb, to 
giggle* - - 

Cackle, kak'k^ s. 
The voice of a goose or ibwl. 

Cackler, kakMur. s 
A fowl that cackles ; a telltale, a tattler. 

It^e. a tattler. 

^'!k. r 

Cacochymical, kak- 

Cacochymick, kak-k6-kim'!k 

(353) (509) 
Hiving the humours corrupted'. 

Cacochymy, kak'ki-klm-me. s. 
A depravation of the humours from a sound 

((Jr Johnson and Bail^ accent this word Caco- 
cfym^y Sheridan ana Buehanan Cacocb^jmyf 
and Dr. Ash Cac^ocfymy; and this last accen- 
tuation I have adopted for reasons given under 
the word Cacbex^h^v/hxch see. 

CaCodamon, kak-o-de'mSn. s. 
An evil spirit ; the Devil. . ^sb. Sec Prin- 
ciples, No. 502 fh). 

Cacophony, ka-k4f'i-n4. s. (5 18) 

A bad sound of words^ 

ToCacuminatei kt-kfi'mi-nate. 

V. ju To make sharp or pvramidal. 

Cadaverous, ka-day/^-rAs. a, 

I&ving the appearance of a dead carcase. ' 

Caddis, kad'dfs. s. 
A kind of tape or ribbon ; a kind of worm or 

Cade, kide. a. 
Tame, soft, as a cade Iamb. 

Cade, kade. s. 

A barrel. 

Cadence, fca' dense. Jl 
Cadency, ka'den-se. J 

Fall, sute of sinking, decline; the fall of the 
voice ; the slow of verses, or j^riods Tthe tone 
CADENT^'ki'dent. a, 

Fallii^ dorwo. 

Cadet, ki-det'. s. 
The jrottngef brother ; the yoongest brother ; 
a volunteer in the army, who serves in expec- 
tation of a commission. ' 

Cadger, kcd'jur. s. 
A huckster. . 

tT This word is only used bv the vulgaf in 
Luodon, where it is not applied to any oarticu- 
hr piofessien or entpiovmcot, but tuektfy io the 
ame seme as cnrmuc^eon, and isconuptly 
prooouoced as if written Codger* 

Cadi, H'AL s. 

A magist^ie among the Turks. 

Cadillack, ka-dil'lak. s. 

Caduceus« kl-da'Bhe-&s« s. 
The md or wand witb -whkh Msicary »»de- 
t»aed. Ash. (605) 

Caducity, ka-dfi's4-ti. s. (511) 

Tendency to fall. Mason, 

CiESURA, se-zi'ra. s. (479) (480) 
^^. figure m poetry, by which a short syllable 
after a complete foot is made long ; a pause in 

Caftan, kaftan, s. 

A Persian vest or garment. 

Gag, kag. s. 
A barrel or wooden vessel, containing foor #r 
five gallons. 

Cage, kaje. s. 

An inclofiure of twigs or wire, in which birds 
are kept ; a place for wild beasts ; a prison for 
petty malefa6lors. 

To Cage, kaje. v. n. 
To inclose in a caffe. 

Caiman, ka'man. s. (ss) ^ 
The Aitierican name of a crocodile* 

To Cajole, ka-jAle'. v. a. 
To flatter, to soothe. 

Cajoller, ka-j6'l3r. s.. 
A flatterer, awheedler. 

Cajollery, ka-jA'lur-re. s. (555) 

Caitiff, ka'tff. s.^ 
A mean villain, a despicable knave. 

Cake, kike. s. 
A kind of delicate bread; any thing of a form 
nther flat than high. 

To Cake, kike. v. n. 
To harden as dough in the oven. 

Calabash, kal'a-bash. s. 

A species of a lasge gourd. 

Calabash Tree, kal'a-bash-trii, s. 
A tree, of which the shells are used by the 
negroes for cups, as also for instruments of 

A kind of vwolkn smff . 

Calamine, kal'a-mine. s. (i4q) 
A kind of fossile bituminous earth, which be- 
ii:^ mijced with eopper^ changes it into brass. 

Calamint, kal'a-mfnt. s. 
Theinme of a plant. 

Calamitous, ka-lam'^-tus. a. 

Miserable, involved in distress, unhappy, 

Calam-itousness, ka-Jain'i-tus-nes 

s. Misery, distress. 

Calamity, ka-lam'e-ti. s. 

Misfortune, cause of misery. 

Calamus, kal'a-mus. s. 

A sort of reed or sweet-Kcnted wood, mei^ 
tioned in Scripture. 

Calash, ka-lash'. s. 

A small carriage of pleasure. 

Calcarious, kaUki're-us. a. 
Partaking of the nature of calx. 

Calceated, kal'she-i-t4d« a. (450) 
Shod, fitted with shoes. 

Calcedonius, kaUs4-di'ne-us. s. 
A kind of precious stone. 

Calcination, kal-s^-na'shun. s. 

Such a management of bodies by fire as ren- 
ders them reducible to powder ; cbymical 

C A LfciN'iVTOR Y, kal-3in' a-tOT-e. s. 
A vessel used in calcination. 

Q:3* Mr. Sheridan accents this word on the first 
syllabie, and Dr. Johnson and Mr. Perry on 
.the second. 1 preknthe wbmwoua as «d the 
verb To calcine. (5i£j 


To Calcine, kSl-sine' . v. a. 

To burn in the fire to a calx or sobitance easily 
reduced 10 powders 10 bum up. 

To Calcine. kil-sW. v, n. 
To become a calx by heat. 

To Calculate, kal'ku-litc. v. a. 

To compote, to reckon ; to adjoat, to prcjeH 

Calculation, kaUki-li'shSn. s. 

A praOice or manner of reckoning; the art 
of numbering ; the result of arithmetical ope* 

Calculator, kil'ku-li-tur. s. (521) 

A computer. 
CALCULATORY,kal'ku-li.t4r-J. a. 

Belonging to calculation. (51a} 

Calcule, kil'kilc. s. 
Reckoning, compute. 

Calculose,\ 1 

Calculous, kal'ki-lSs. /*' 

Stony, gritty. 
Calculus, kal'ki-lSs, s. 

The stone in the bladder. 

Caldron, klwl'drun. s. (166) 

A pot, a boiler, a kettle. 

Calef ACTION, kal4-fak'shfin. s. 
The 2i&. of heating any thing ; the sute of be- 
ing heated. 

Calefactive, kal-4.fak'tjv. a. 
Thjt which makes any thing hot, heating. 

Calefactory, kaUe-fak'tur-i. a. 

That which heats. 

To Calefy, kal'i-fi. v. n. (i83) 
To grow hot, to be heated. 

Calendar, kal'In-dur. s. (88) 

A roister of the year, in which the months, 
and stated times, are marked, asfiestivalson 

To Calender, kal'ln-dur. v. a. 
To dress cloth. 

Calender, kal'en-dur. s. (ps) 
A hot press, a press in which cloUuers smooth 
their cloth. 

Calenderer, kal'In-dur-ur. 5. 
The person who calenders.* 

Calends, kal'endz. s. 
Th<; first day of the month amqng the Ro- 

Calenture, kai'ln-tshure. s. (461) 

A distemper in hot climates, wherein" they 
imagine the sea to be green fields. 

Calf, kif. s. (401) (78) 

The young of a cow i the thick, plump, bul- 
bous jjart of the leg* 

Caliber, kal'i-bur.s. 
The bore, the diameter oJFthe barrel of a gun. 

(|:f" Mr. Sheridan accents this word on the 
second syllable, and gives the i the sound of 
double'^ like the French ; but Johnson, Ken- 
rick, Ash, Buchanan, Perry, and Endck, con- 
sider the word as perfcftly anglicised, and place 
the accent on the first syllabic as I have done. 

Calice, kal'is. s. 
A cup, a chalice. 

Calico, kal'4-ko. s. 

An Indian stuff made of cotton. 

Calid, kal'id. a. 
Hot, burning. 

CAtiDiTY,.kltlid'de-te. s. (511) 


A thle assumed by the successors of Mahomet 
among the Saraccqa. 

Digitized by 





tfS'{55g): Fate (73),far(77), fill (33), fat (8l)j 111^(93), met (95;);pine(l05),p!n(l07); no(i62),mive(l64). 


Caligation, kfil-le-gi'shun. s, 

t Darkness, cloudiness- . . 

C A LI G I SOUS, ki-l]dje'c-nus. a. . 

0'jscurc,dim. . 

s. Darkness. 

'Caliver, kal'e-vur. s. 

A handgun, a h:.r|uebuse, an old musket. 
To Calk, kawk. v. a. 

To stop the leaks of a ship,. 
Calker, k^w'knr. s. 

The workman ihai $104)$ ihc leaks of a ihtp. 

To Call, kiwi. v. a. (7?} 

To name ; to j^ummon or invite ; to convoke ; 
to summon jmlicia'ly ;' iiwhc theological s^ nse, 
toiiisoire with ardcuis of piety ; lo invoke, to 
apjxral to ; to procla.m, to publish ; lo.roake a 
short visit ; lo excite, to pui in attion, to brinj; 
inio view ; to siigmaii/.c with some oppro-» 
brious denomination ; Tocall back, to revoke ; 
To call in, lo resume money at interest ; To 
call over, to re;id aloud a lisLor mustcr*roll ; 
To call out, 10 challenge. 

Call, kawl. s. 

A voca) address ; requisition ; divine vocation ; 
summons to true religion ; an impulse ; au- 
thority, command ; a demand, a claims an 
instrument to call birds : callingi vocation, 
employment ; a Qomination. 


Callet, J 

A trull. 

Calling, kawlMin^. s. 

Vocation, profession, trade; proper station, or 
emplo>'meni ; class ot inrrsons united by the 
same employment or prof jssi on; divine voca- 
tion, tnviiation 10 ihc true religion. 
Callipers, kal'le-jmrz. s. (98) 

Compasses with bowed shanks. 

Callosity, kal-los'se-tc. s. 

A kind of swelling withoQt pain. 

Callous, kalMus. a. 

Hardened, insensible. 

•Callousness, kJlMus-nis.s. 

Induration of the fibres ; insensibility. 
CallcTw, kal'l6. a. ' 

Unfledged, naked, wantinjg. feathers. 

Callus, kal'Ius. s. • 

An induration of the fibres ; the hard substance 
by wliich broken bones are united. ^ 

Calm, kim. a. tso) ' 

Quiet, serene ; undisiurl>cd, unruffled. — See 
No. 79, in the Note. 

Calm, kam. s. 
Serenity, stillness; quiet, repose. 

To Calm, kam. v. a. 
To still, to i,uict ; to pacify, to appcasd. 

Calmer, kam'ur.s. (403) 
The person or thing w^ich has the power of 
giving quiet. 

Calmly, kam' le. ad. 
Without sti rms, or violence ; with6ut pas- 
sions, quietly. 

Calmness, kam'nes, s. 
Tranquillicy, serenity ; mildness, Freedom from 

Calomel, kal'o-rnel. s. 

Mercury six timts sublimed. 

Calorifick, kai-o-iif^k. a. 
That which b^s'the qualityjof. producing beat.. 

Calottl, kai-lii'. s. 

A cjpor loif. 

Cali KO}»s, kal'tTop^. s. ^ 

An mfuumci)(ro<|ie with three ;sp|kes. jio that 
VhicK way soever it falls to the, grou^d«;One of 

them points uprighe; a plnnt mentioned in 
Vif gtl*» Gcorpirk, under ihc name of Tribulus. 

To Calve, kav. v. n. (78) 
To bring forth a calf, spoken of a cow. 

To Calumniate, ka-luin'ne-ate. 

v. a. To slander. (91) 

C ALU M N 1 ATION , ka-lum-iic-a'shrin. 
s. A m<^licious and false rcprusentatioo of 
wordb or actions. 

Calumniator, ka-lum'nc-a-tur. s. 

(521) A forger of accjsation, a slanderer. 

Calumnious, ka-lum'ne-us.a. 

Sidiidccous, falicly reproachful. 

Calumny, kal'uni-ne. s. 

Slander, false charge. 

Calx, kalks. s. • 
Arty thing rendered powder by 

Calycle, kal'e-kl. s. (405) 
A small bud of a plant. 

Camaieu. ka-ma'vM. s. . • . ! 
A stone witn various figures and representatioDs 
of landscapes, formed by nature. 

Camber, kam'bdr. s. 

A piece of timber cut arch-wise. 

Cambist, kam'bist. s. • • • - 1 ' 

A person who deals in bills of exchange, or 
who is skilled in the bu^Niness of exchange. 

Cambrick, kanie'brik, s. (542) 
A kind of fine linen.— Sec Chamber. 

Came, kame. 

The preterit of To come 
Camel, Icam'el. s. (99) 

A beast of burdcaj. , ., , , 
Camelopard, ka-mel'lo-pard. s. 

An animal taller thap an elephant, but not so 


A kind of stuff originally made by a .mixtiire 
of &ilk and camel's hair ;'it is now made with 
wool and silk. 

Camera OescuRAi kim'i-ra-ob- 
sku'ia. 8-. 

An optical machine used'in » darkened cham- 
ber, so that the light coming only through a 
dduble convex glass, objc6is opposite arc re- 
presented inverted. 

Sec Comrade. 

Camerated, kam'er-a-ted. a. 

Arched. * -• . -^ 

Cameration, kam-lr-a'shun. a. 

A vaulting or arching. 

Camisado. kam-e-sa'do. 5.(7/) 
An attack made in the dark, on which occa- 
sion (hey put their shirts outward. 

Camisated, kam'e-s4-tcd. a. 
Diessedwith (be i»hin outward. 

Camlet, kamMct. s. 
.Sbe Came LOT. ' * 

Cammock, kam'muk. .s. (166) 
An herb) Uvtty whin, or rcstharrow. 

Camp, kanip. s^ ; ■ ' 

The order of tents placed by armies w)ien they 
keep the field. 

To Camp, kamp. v. n. 

To lodge in tents. 

Campaign* lcam-pane'.s».'(385) t ' > 

A large open, level tra£l of ground ; the lime 
Hot which any army keeps the field* 

CAMPANiFOKM,kam.pan'ne-f&rm^ a. 
A Iff rra used of iloweis vihicb are-in the shape 
of a bell. > ' 

Campanulate, kam-pai/u-Jite.a. 


Campestral, kam-pes'tiaJ. a. 

Glowing in fields. 

CamphirE, kaiTi'fir. s. (l40) 

A kind of resin pstxluced by a chymical pro- 
cess from the carophiie tree. 

Camphire-tree, kani'f!r-iree. s. 
T-he tree from which camphire is extracted. 

Camphorate, karn'fotraic. s. (91 )j 

Impregnated with camphire. 

Campion, kam'pe-un. s.,(i6(j^ 

A plant. 

Can> kan. s. . 
A cup. 

To Can, kan. v. n. 
To be able, to have power; it expresses' the 
potential mood, ^a I cau do ii. 

CANAiLLE,'ka-nale'. s. 
The luwei^ people. 

Canakinv kan'a-km. s. '. . ♦ 
4^ can; a small -cup. Jsh,.. 

CAnal, ka-iial'. s. 
A b4!»in df water in a garden ; any course of 
vrater made by art ; a passage througli which 
aiiy of ihejuicc»of ihc body flow. .• * < 

Can.\l-coAl. This worcf is cgr- 
rijpted into ken'nil-kole. s. 
A fine kind of coal. 


a. Made like a pipe or gutter. 

Canary, ka-ni're. s. 
Wine brought from ihe Canaries, sack. 

CANARY-Bikb^ka-na're-bdrd. s. 
An excellent singing bird. 

To Cancel, kan'vsiJ. v. a. (90) 
I'o cross a writing ; to efface, to .obliterate m 

Cancellated* kja'sej-la-ted.. a. 


Cancellation, kan-scl-lJ'sliun, s. 

An txpunging or wiping out of an instiumcnt* 

Cancer, kan'sur. s. (98) 
A crab-fish ; the sign «jf the summer solstice ; 
a virulent swelliiq; or fore. * 

To Cancerate, kan'sur-rate. v. n/ 
(91) To becomes cancer. 

Cance RATION, kan-sur-ra'sliun/s. 
A growing cancerous. 

Cancerous, kaii'sur-rfis. a. 

Having the vidiilencc of a cancer.* ' ^'•^' ' 

Cancerousness, kiin'sQr-rus-nes. s» 

The state of being cancerous. 
Cancrine, kang'kr?!!. a. (l4o) 

Having the qualities o£ a crab. (408) 

Canuent, kan'dent. a. 

CanDicant, kan'de-kant. a. 

Growing wbite. . 

Candid, kan'did. a. ' 

White ; fair, open, inget-uottS, 

Candidate, kan'dc-datc: J. 
A competitor, o'neT that solfciis idt'aficement. 

CAN.cilDLY,4s^n'didtle.'a4* •. 
. Fairly* ingenuously.. • , 

Candidn^ss, kan'did.rie.<;. s. 

Ingenuousness, openness of t^t^p^.i^ 

To CANDiFY,'kan'de.fL v. a. 
To make white. 

Candle, kan'.dl. s. (105). 
A light ixRp4e of Vw^r tsAWw^ mnrn^'m^^ 

Digitized by 





!iir(l67), not{l03)^ tibe (irx), tib (172), bull (173) ; ill (299); p6und(3l3) ; thin (466), this {469). 


tree. s. 

Cakdleholder, kan'dl-hold-ur. s. 

He thai holds the candle. 

I Candlelight, kan'dl-liie. s. 

The light of a candle. 

Caxdlemas, kaii'dl-mus. s. (ss) 
The feast of the purifii-ation of the BIcjscd 
I Virgin, which was formerly celebrated with 
I nanr lights in churches. 

Candlestick, kan'dl-st!k. s." 

Tb: irutrumeiit that holds candles. 

Candlestuff, kan'dl-stSf. s/ ^ 

Grease, tallow. 

Candlfwaster, kan'dl-was-tur. s. 

A spendthnfi. 

Candock, kan'dok. s. 
A weed that grows in rivers. 

Candour, kan'dur. s. (314) * 
S»-ectnc» ot temper, purity of mind, iAgenu- 


ToCandy, kan'de. V. a. . 
Tocomcive with sugar; to form into conge- 

Ixions. * 

To Candy, kan'd^. v.n 

To grow congealed. 

Cane, kancs* 

A kind of strong reed; the plant whith yields 

tbe sugar; a iance ; a reed. 
To Cane, kane. v. a. 

Tobeat with a cane or stick. 

Canicular, ka-n!k'u-lar. a, 

fic!angiog to the dog-star. 

Canine, ka-nine'. a. 

Having the properties pf a dcg. 
I Casister, kan' is-tur. s. (pe) ^ 

I A mull basket ; a tmaU vessel m > ^bich ^y 

ihing is laid up. ^ ] 

j Canker, kang'kur'.'s. (409) 

A worm thjt preys upon, a^d destroys fruits j 
1 J fly tbt preys xi\xm fruits ; any *tmng th^t 
j (onupts or consumes ; an eating or corroding 

^"noar; corrosion^ virulence; a disease in 

I Utcs. * ' . ' 

ToCanker, kang'kur. V.n.- ' 

To grow corrupt. » • ' 

I Tn Canker, kang'kur^v. a. 

Tocornipi, to corrode ; to infeft, to pollute. 

Caskerbit, king'kur-bit. part. ad. 
Bitten wiUiaa envenomed tooth. 

Cannabine, kan'na-bine.a. (149) 


CfN'iBAL, kin'he-bal.s. 

A man-eater. 

Cannibalizm, kai/ne-bSUizm. s. 
i ce manners of a cannibal . Mason. 

Cannibally, kan'ne-baUl^. ad. 
ia the manner of a cannibal. 

Cannipers, kaii'ne.purz.s. 


4^N0N, kan'non. s. (166) 
A gUB larger than can be managed by the hand. 

^annon-ball, kan-nun-bawl' . \ 

Camnon-shot, kan-nun-shJt'. J '^•. 

I arc shoe from great guns. 

\DE, kan-nun-nade'. 

"n^balU which 

To Cannon ad^, .._.. ^ . 

* n. To pby ihe great guns; to attack or 
J^'iefwwh cannon. ' . , , 
Cannonier, kan-iiun-ncer'. s. 

loe engineer thai manages the cannon. (475) 

Cannot kan' nSt. v. n. pf Can and 
^«. Tobeunabic 

CANOEj -^ J 

A boat madebycuuing the trunk of a tree into 
a hollow vessel. 

Canon, kan' un. s. (166) 

A role, a law; law made by ecclesiastical 
councils ; the books of Holy Scripture, or the 
great rule ; a di^itary 19 cathedral churches ; 
a large sort of printing letter. 

Canon ESS, kan'un-nes, s. 
In Catholic countries, women living after tbe 
example 'of secular canons . 

Canonical, ka-non'e-kal. a. 

According to the canon ;* consrituting the 

canon ; regular, stated, hxed by ecclesiastical 

laws; spiritual, ecclesiastical. 
Canonically, ka-non'e-kal-le. ad. 

ill a manner agreeable to the canon. 
Canon icaln ess, ka-non'e-kal-nes. 

s. The quality of being canonical. 

Canonist, kan'nun-nlst. s. (166) 

A profe&sor of the canon law. 
s. The iO. of declaririg a saint. 

To Canonize, kan'nA-nlze. v. a. 

To dcchre any one a saint. 
Canonry, kati'un-re. 1 
Canonship, kan'un-ship. / '* . 

An ecclesiastical benefice in some cathedral or 

collegiate church. 

Canopied. kan'o-p!d. a. (2S2) 

Covered witn a canopy. 

Canopy, kan'i-pe. s. 

A covering spread over the head. 

To CANOPYVkaii^-'pe. v. a. ' ' * 

To cover with a canopy. 

CAN9ROUS, ka-np'rus. a. (512). 
, Musical, tuneful. 

pANT,kant. s. 

t A corrupt diale£l txed by beggars and 'vaga- 

• bonds ; a form of speaking pccuHht to some 
certain class or body of men ; a whining pii- 
tension to goodness; barbarous Jargon ; auctiou. 

0:^ It is scarcely' to be credited, that the writer 

' in the Sjiedator, signed T. should adopt a de- 

' rivation of this word from one Jlndr^uoCant^ 

a Scotch' Presbyterian Ministejry when the 

• Latin cantuSj $0 expressive of the sin^in)^ or 

• whining tone of certain prcacheri' is so obvious 
an ctyhiology. The Cant of particular' pro- 
fessions is an easy derivation from'' the same 
origin, as it means the set phrases, the rou- 
tine of professional language, resembling the 
chime of a song, ^^uaint^ from which some 
derive this word, is a much less, probable ety- 

To Cant, kant. v. n. 

To talk in the jargon of pan icular professions; 
to speak with a particular tone. 

To Cant, kant. v. a. 

To toss or fling away, ' 

Cantata, kan-ta'ia. s. lialiait,, 

A song, (77) * 4 ,, / 
Cantation, kan-ta'shun. s. 

The a^ of singing. 

Canter, kan'tur. s. ff)8) 

A hypocrite ; a short gallop. 

Cantharioes, kan-zAir'^-dcz. s^^. . 
Spanish flies, used to raise blisters. 

Canthus, kan'/Ads.s. 
The comer of the eye. 

Canticle, kJn'ii-k), s. {403) 

: A song ; the song uf Solomon. 
Cantle, kJn'tl. s. ('405) 
■ A piece with comers.. 

CANTLET,.kant'l^. s. (99) 

A piece, a fragment. 

Canto, kan'tA. s. 
A book or se6Uon of a poem. 

Canton, kan'tfin. s. (166) 

A small parcel or division of land; a small 
community, or clan. 
To Canton, kan'tSn. v. a. 

To divide into little pans- 
To Canton iZE,kan'tun-ize. v. a^ 
To parcel out into small divisions. 

Canvass, kan'vas. s. 
A kind of cloth woven for several uses ; soli- 
citation upon an election. 

To Canvass, kan'vas. v. a. 
To sift, to<xamine ; to debate, to controvert. 

To Canvass, kan'vas, v. n. 

To solicit. 

Cany, ka'ne. a. 

Full of canes, consisting of canes. 

Canzonet, kan-z6-n^t'.s> 
A little song ^ 

Cap, kap. s. 
The garment that covers the head ; the ensign 
of ihecardinalaie; the topmost, the highest; 
a reverence made by uncovering the head. 

To Cap, kap. v.a. 

• To cover on the top ; to snatch off the cap ; 

To cap verses, to iiame alternately verses be- 
ginning with a particular letter. 

Cap-a-pie, kap-a-pc'.a.. 

From head to foot. v 

Cap-paper, kap'pa-pur. s. 

A sort of coarse brownish papcr. 

Capability, ka-pa-bii'e-te. s. 

Capacity.. . • * 
Capable, ka^psLbl. a.. See Incapable. 
Endued wiih powers equal to j^ny particulas. 
things; intelligent, ablcf to Understand; capi 
Cioui, able to receive; susceptible ; qualihed; 
for; holloW. 

Capableness, ka'pa-bl-nes. s. 

• The*quality or-vtat«i of bei ng capable.- 

Capacious, ka-pa'shus. a. 

Wide, large, able to hold much; extensive^, 
equal to great dc'iign. 

Capaciousness, ka-pa'shus-nes. s. 

. The power of holding* largeness. 

^o Cafacitate, ka-pas'c-iate. v.a. 

To enable, to qualify. 

Capacity^ ha^pas'^^te, s. (511) 

The power of rontatnin^ ; the force or power 
of the mind ; power, ability; roooiy space;. 
«aie, conduion, rharader. 

Caparison, 1 a-par'e^sun. s. (170) 
A sort of cover for a horjie '(443) 

To Caparison, ka-par'^-sun. v. a. 

To dress 111 caparisons ; ,to dress pompously. . 
Cape, kape. s. 
. Headlong, promoototy ; the neck-piece of a^ 

cloak or coat. 

CAPER^la'pur. s. {9s) 
A leap, or j limp. 

Caper, ki'pur. .s, 
} A.I acid pickle. 

Caper-bush, ka'pur-bush. s. 
This plant ciows in the South* of France, the 
budtare i>ic-k1eci for eating. 

To Caper, ka' pur. v. n. 
To dance frolicksomely ; to skip for merri- 

Caperer, ka'pur-rur. s. {b^b) 
A dancer. 

Digitized by 





tr {55<i). Fate (73), fJr {77). fill (83).fat (8l)i me (93), met (95) ; pine (105), pin (107); no 052), mive (164)1 

Capias, ki'pe-us* s. (88) 

A writ of exccation. 
Capillaceous, kap.piUla'shus. a* 
,The same with capillary. 

Capillaire, kap-pil-larc'. s. 
Syrup of Maidenhair. 

CAPiLLAMENT,ka-pil'la-m6nt. s. 
Small threads or hairs which grow up in the 
middle of a flower. 

Capillary, kap'pil-la-re. a. 
Resembling hairs, small, minute. See Pa- 


Capillation, kap-pil-la'sliun. 

A small ramification of vessels^ 

Capital, kap'^-tal. a. (ss) 

Relating to the head ; criminal lb the highest 
degree ; that which alFefts life ; chief, pnnci 

: principal or original 
trading company. 

Capital, kap'e-tll. s. 

The upper part of a pillar ; the chief city of a 

Capitally, kap'e-taUle. ad. 
In a caintal manner, so as to alfe6l life, as capi- 
tally €onvi8ed. 

Capitation, kap-e-ta'shun. s. 
Ku^ration by heads. 

Capitular, ka-pitsh'i-lur. s. (ss) 

The body of the statutes of a chapter ; a mem- 
ber of a chapter. (463) 

To Capitulate, ka-pitsh'u-Iatc. 

V. n. (91) To draw up any thing in heads or 
anicles; to yield or surrender on cettain siipu- 

Capitulation, ka-p!tsh-i-li'sh4n. ^ 

s. SctpulatioD, tcfikis, conditions. 
Capivi Tree, ki-pe'vS-tr^e. s. 

A balsam iree. 

Capo^j, ka'pn. s. (405) (170) 

A castrated cock. ' 
Caponnier€, kap^i3pn-neer'. s.. 

A covered lodgment,- encompassed with a little 

parapet- ^ 
Capot, ka-pot'.R, 

Is when one parw wins all the tricks of cards 

at the game of Piquet* 

Caprice, ka-preese', or kap'rcese. 

s. Freak, fancy, whim. 
J}:^ The first manner of pronouncing this word 
is the most established; but the second does 
not want its patrons. Thus Dr. Young, in his 
Love 0/ Fame: 
**TiB true great fortunes some great men 

** confer ; 
«*^But often, ev'n in doing ri{^ht they err : 
«* Tvomeafrke^ not from choice, their favours 

** come ; 
<• They givle, but. think it toil to know to 


Capricious, ka-pri$h'us. a. 

Whimsical, fanciful. 

Capriciously, ka-prish'us-li. ad. 

Humour, whimsicalness. 

Capricorn^ kap'pri-kJrn. s. 

One of the signs of tne zodiack, the winter 
Capriole, kap-re-ole'. s. 

Caprioles are leaps, such as horses make in one 
and the same place, without advancing |or- 

Capstan, kap'stan. s. 
A cylinder with levers to wind up any great 

Capsular, kap'shi-lir. (452) 1 
Capsulary, kap'shu-lar-e. S 

Hollow Kke a chest. 
Capsulate, kap'shu-late. 1 
Capsulated, kap'shu-la-tld. J 

Inclosed, or in a box. 

Captain, kap'tin. s. (208)^ 

A chief commander; the commander of a 
company in a regiment ; the chief commander 
of a ship; Captain General, the general or 
commander in chief of an anny. 
Captainry, kap'iin-re. s. 
The power over a certain district ; the chief- 
tainship. ' 

Captainship, kap'tin-ship. s. 

The rank or post of a captain \ the condition 
or post of a chief commander. 

'Captation, kap-ta'shun. s. 

The praflice of catching favour. 

Caption, kap'shun. s. 
The abi of taking any person. 

^Captious, kap'shfis. a. (314) 

Given to cavils, eager to obje£l, insidious, 

Captiously, kap'sh» 

With an inclination to objeQ. 

'Captiousness, kap'shus-nls. s. 

Inclination to objeel ; oeevishness. 
To Captivate, kap'te-vJte. v. a. 

To take prisoner, ho bring into bondage ; to, 

charm, to subdue. 

C APTiVATiON, kap-ti-va'shfin, s. . 
The a& of taking one captive. 

Captive, kap'tlv. s. (i4o) 
One taken in war ; one charmed by beauty. 

:Captive, kap'tlv. a. 
Made prisoner m war. 

!Captivity, kap-t!v'e-te. s. 

Subjcdion by the fate of war, bondage ; sla- 
very, servitude. 

Captor, kap'tur. s. (166) 

He that takes a prisoner, or a prize. 

Capture, kap'tshure.s. (461) 

The^el Or pra£lice of taking any thing; a prize. 

Capuchin, kap-A-shecn' . s. (112) 

I A female earment, consisting of a cloak and 
hood, made in imiution of the dress of capu- 
chin monks. 

Car, kar. s. (78) 
A small carriage of burden ; chariot of war. 

Carabine, or Carbin E, kir-blne' . 

s. A small sort of fire-arms. 

(yr Dr. Ash, Bailey, W.. Johnston, Entick, 
and Buchanan, accent Carabine on the last 
svllable, and Dr. Johnson and Mr. Periy on 
the first; while Mr. Sherid<in, Dr. A^h, Bu- 
chanan, Dr. Johnson, and Bailey, accent Car- 
bine on the first ; but Mr. &ott, Entick, 
Periyj «nd Kenrick, more properly omhe la^t. 
The reason is, that if we accent (Carbine on the 
first syllable, the last ought, according to ana- 
logy, to have the / short : but as the / is al- 
ways long, the accent ought to be on the last 

^ syllable. (140) 

Carbinier, kar-be-neer'. s. 

' A sort of light.horscman. ' 
Carack, kar'ak. s. 
A bfge ship of burden, galleon. ^ 

Carat, \ *4 /v \ 

. A weight of four grains ; a manner of expres- 
sing the fineness 61 gold. 

C aravan^ kar-a-van' . s. (524) 
A troop or body of merchanis or pilgrims. 

Caravansary, kar-a^vaii'sa-re. s. 

A house built for the reception of travdlcri. 

Caraway, kar'a-wa. 5. 

. A plant. 

Carbonado, kSr-bi-nVdo. s. (92) 

Meat cut across, to be broiled. (77) 

To Carbonado, kdr-bo-ni'do. v. a. 
To cut or hack. — Sec Lumbago. 

Carbuncle, kar'bunk-kl. s. (405) 

A jewel shining in the dark ; red spot or 

Carbuncled, kar'bunk-kH. a. i 

Set with carbuncles ; spotted, deformed w-ili 
pimples. (362) 

Carbuncular, kar-bung'ku-lur. a. 
Red like a caibuucle. 

Carbunculation, kir-buiig-kurla' 

shun. s. 

The blasting of youqg buds by hcax or cold. 
Carc.\ne,t, kar'ka-net* s. 

A chain or collar of jewels. 

Carcass, kir'kas. s. (92) 

A dead body <^an animal ; the decayed part^ 
of any thing ; the main parts. Without con.- 
pletion or ornament ; in gunuery, a kind ut 

CARCBLAGE,k5r'si4-lJcfje. s. (90) 
Prison fees. 

Card, kird. s. (02) 
A paper painted with figures, used in g^cs ; 
the popcr on which the several naipts of the 
compass arc marked under the mariner'* 
neecQe ; the instrument with «^:faich wool is 
combed. • . » 

To Card, kIrd. v. a. 
' To comb wool. 

Cardamomom. This word is com- 

. monly pronoMnced kSr'da-mum. «. 
' A medicinal seed. 

Carder, klr'dur* s. (pa) 

One that cards wool ; one that plays much-at 
cards. . ' 

CARDiACAL,kir-di'a-kal. \ 
Cardiack, fcar'di-Sk. J^' 
; Cordial, havmg the quality of invigoratii^- 

Cardinal, k4r'de-nal. a. (8s) 
Pfincipal, chief* 

CAKDiNAL..kar!de-nal. s. 
One of the chief governors ofthe church. 

Cardinalate, klr'di-ija-latc. \ 

1 he office and rank of a cardinal. 

CARDMATCji, Jcard(matsh. s. 
A. match made oy fdipptng a piice of a card in 
melted sulphur ; a party at caAls. 

CARE;kare. s. 

Solicitude, anxiety, oooccm > caution ; regard, 

charge, heed in order to preservation ; thceb- 

jcft of care, or of love. 
t'oCAREj kare, V. n. 

To be anxious or solicitous ; to be iiKlined, to 
. be disposed ; to be affeacd with. 

CA.RECRAZED, kare'krazd. a. {z^^) 
Broken with care and soltcitode. 

To Careen,. ka-rcen'. v. a. 

To calk, to stop up leaks. 

Career, ka-i^er'. s. 

The ground 00 which a race is run ; a c<^u^$e, 
a race 5 full speed, swift motion ; course of 

To Career, kS-r^ei^'. v.ti. 
To run with a swift motion. 

Digitized by 





nSf(l<57), nSt (1Q3) ; tibc (171), tfib (172), bull (173) j ill (299) ; piind (313); /*In(466), xnis (469). 

Careful, kire'ful. a. 

Anxious, solicitous, full of concern | prpvi- 
deot, diligent, cautious; watchful. 

Carifully, kare'ful-le. ad. 

In a manner ihdt shews care ; heediully, watch- 
fully. • 

Carefulness, kare'ful-nes. s, . 

Vigiboce, caution. 
Carelesly, kare'lcs-le* ad. 
Negligently, hccdleily. 

Carei.esness, kare'lcs-nes. s. 

Hcedlesncss, inaiu*ntion. 

Careless, kare'le*. a. 

WitJKJut care, wirhout solicitude, unconcer- 
ned, negligent, hecdihss, uninindiul) cheerful, 
andisturbed, uitniovtd by, unconcerned at. 

To Caress, ka-rcs'. v. a. 

To endear, to fondle. 

Caress, ka-r€s'. s. 

An aft of cndcarmcni. 

Caret, ka'rer. s. . 

A note which &hew5 where something inter- 
lined should he rcraJ, as a. 

Cargo, kar'co. s. 

Th: lading of a ship. 

Cari ATipps. ka-rc-at'i-dez. s. 
Tac Cariatides in archiietlurc are an order of 
piiiars resembling women. 

Caricature, kar-ik-a-tshure'. (46 1; 

{$• This word, though not in Johnson, I have 
DOC scrupled to insert, from its frequent and 
legitimate us.-'gc. Bjrctti tells us, that the 
literal sense of this word is certa quatwta di 
rmim'aoneche si metteeneW arcbiSuso oaltro, 
which, in Englishi signiBes the charge of a 
gun: but its metaphorical signification, and 
the only one in which the English use ii, is, 
as he tells us, dichesl anchf di ritratio ridico/o 
in em sensi grandemente accr^sciute i dif- 
fetti, when applied to paintings, chiefly por- 
tiaits, that bctghceninir of some features and 
lowering others, which we call in English 
oyeitharging, and which will make a very ugly 
pifiurc, not unlike a handsome jicrson : whence 
any exaggerated chara£ler, which is redundant 
in some of its parts, attd defective in others, is 
called a Caricature. 

Caries, ka'rc-!z. s. (99) 


Cariosity, ka-re-os'e-te. s. 

Carious, ka're-us. a. (314) 

Cark, kark. s. 
Care, anxiety. 

To C ARK, kirk. V. n. 
To be careful, to be anxious. 

Carle, karl. s. 
A rode, brutal man, chari. 

Carline TrfiSTLE, kar-line./Ms'sI. 
s- A plant. 

Carlings, klr'lin^z. s. 
In a ship, timbers lying fore and aft. 

Carman, kdr'man. s. (ss) 
A man whose employment it is to drive cars. 

Carmelite, kar'mi-llte. s. (156) 
A sort of pear ; one of the order of White 

Carminative, kar-min/a-tfv. s. 

Cvminaiives are such things as dispel wind, 
and promote insensible perspiraiion. 

Carminative, kar-mfn'a-iiv. a. 
Belonging 10 carminatives. (157J 

Carmine, kir-mine'. s. 
A powder of a bright red or crimson colour. 

({^ Dr. Johnson, Sheridan, Ash, and Smith, 
accent tliis word oti the first syllabic ; but Mr. 
Nares, Dr. Ken rick, Mr Scott, Perry, Bu- 
chanan, and Entick, more properly pn the lUsii 
— for the reason, see C a r B i N E . 

Carnage, kar'nldje. s. (co) 

Slaughter, havock ; heaps ot flesh. 

Carnal, kar'nal. a. (ss) ^ 

Fleshy, not spiritual; lustful, lecherous. 

Carnality, kar-nal'e-ie. s. 

Fleshy lust ; grossness of mind. 

Carnally, kar'nal-le. ad. 

According to the flesh, nrn spiritually. 
Carnalness, kar'nal-nes, s. 

Carnal iiy. 

Carnation, kar-nVs!um. s. 

The name of the natural flcih colour. 
Carnelion, kai-nele'yun. .s. (113) 
A precifHis stone, more commonly written and 
pronounced Cornelian. 

Cahneous, kar'ne-us. a. 

To Carnify, kar'ne-fl. v. n. 

To breed flesh. 
Carnival, kar'ne-val. s. 

The feast held in Roman Caiholick countries 

before Lent. 

Carnivorous, kar-niv'vo-rus. a. 

Flcsh-cating. (518) 
Carnosity, k^r-nos'sc-tc. s. 

Fleshy excrescence. 

Carnous, kar'nus. a. (314) 

Carob, ka'rJb. s. 

A plant. 

Carol, kar'rul. s. (166) 
A song of joy and exultation ; a song of de- 
. votion. 

To Carol, kar'rul. v. n. 
To sing, to warWc. 

To Carol, kar'rul. v. a. 
To praise, to celebrate. 

Carotid, ka-rot'ifl. s. 
Two aneries which arise otit of the ascending 
trunk of the aorta. 

Carousal, ka-r&u'zal. s. (88) 

A fi:stival. 

To Carouse, ka-r6uz'. v. n. 
To drink, to quaff. 

To Carouse, ka-r6uz'. v. a. 

To drink. 

Carouser, ka-r&u^zur. s. (98) 
A drinker, a toper. 

Carp, k4rp. s. 

A pond fish. 

To Carp, kirp. v. n. 
To censure, to cavil. ^ 

Carpenter, kar'pen-tur. s. (98) 

An artificer in wood. 

Carpentry, kar'pen-tre. s. 
1 he trade of a carpenter. 

Carper, k^r'pur. s. (98) 

A caviller. 

Carpet, kar'pft. s. (90) • 

A covering of various colours ; ground varie- 
gated with flowers ; to be on the carpet, is to 
be the subjefl of consideration. 

To Carpet, kir'pit. v. a. 

To spread wiin carpets. 

Carping, kar/pJng. part. a. (410) 

Captious, censorious. 

Carpingly, kar'p!ng-le. ad. 
Captiously, censoriously. 


Carriage, kar'ndjtf. s. {90) 

The a£^ of carrying or transport ing ; yeniclc ; 
the frame upon which c^non is carried ; be<f 

faaviour, conduQ, management. 

Carrier, kar'ri-ur. s. 
One who csnies something ; cnc whose trade 
is to carry pigeons ; a messenger ; a species of 

Carrion, kar're-un. s. (166) 
The carcass of something not proper for food ; 
a name of reproach for a worthless woman ; aof 
flesh so corrupted as not co be fit for food. 

Carrion, kar'rc-fin. a. 

Relating to carcases. 

Carrot, kar' rut. s. (l60) 

Garden root. 
CARROTiNESS,ka.r'rut-e-nes. s. 

Redness of hair. 
Carroty, kar'rut-^. a. 

S|>okenoF red hair. 

To Carry, kar'rt-. v. a. 

To convey from a place ; to bear, ♦» have 
about one I to convey by force; to effect any 
thing ; to behave, to conduct j to bring for- 
ward; to imply, to import ; to fetch and 
bring, as dogs ; Tocarr)' cff, to kill ; To carry 
on, to promote, to help forwaid ; To carry 
through, to suj^rt to the last. 

To Carry, kar're. v. n. 

A horse is said to carry well, when his neck it 
arched, aWl he holds his head high. 

Cart, kart. s. (92) 

A wheel-carriage, ilsed commonly forhif^age ; 
the vehicle in which criminals are earned to 

To Cart, kart. v. a. 

To expose in a cart. 

To Cart, k^rt. v. n. 

To use carts for carriage. 

Cart-horse, kart'hirse. s. 

A coarse unwieldy horse. 

Cart-load, kirt-lode'. s. 

A quantity of any thing piled on a cart ; a 
quantity sufficient to load a cart. 

Cartway, kart'wa. s. 
A way through which a carriage may conve- 
niently travel. 

Cart-blanche, kart-bl?.nKh'. s. 
A blank paix'r, a paper to be filled up with 
such conditions as the person to whom it is • 
sent thinks proper. • 

Cartel, kar-tel'. s. 

A writing containing stipulations. 

Carter, kart'ur. s. (98) 
The man who drives a cart. 

Cartilage, kar'te-lidje. s. (90) 
A smooth and solid body, softer than a bone| 
but harder than a ligameiit. 

C arti lagi n eou s, kar'ti-la- 

jin'yus. (lis) 
Cartilaginous, kar-te-ladje'- 

c-nus. (314) 

Consisting of cartilages. 

Cartoon, kar-toon'. s. 
A ))aintingoi dnwing upon large paper. 

Cartouch, kar-tootsh'. s. 
A case of wood three inches thick at the hot** 
torn, holding balls. It is fired.out of a hobit 
or small mortar. 

Cartrage, \, ? /, 2,. / ^\ 

Cartridge,/'''^ "■'''^^•''•^^^^ 

A case of p^pcr or parchment filled with gan- 
powHer, used for the greater expedition in 
charging guns. 


Digitized by 





t^ {559). File (73), far (77); fall (ss), fat (si); mi (93), met (95); pine (l05}, pm (107); no (162), m&ve (164), 

Cartrut, kirt'rut. s. 
The track made by a cart wheel. 

Cartulary, kar'tshu-Ia-re. s. {461) 

A place where papers arc kept. 

Cartwright, kart'riie. s. 
A maker of carts. 

To Carve, karv. v. a. 
To cut wood,, or stone ; to cut meat at the 
table ; to engrave ; to choose one's own part. 

To Carve', karv. v.n. 

To exercise the trade of a sculptor ; to per- 
form at table the ofiicc of supplying the com- 

Carver, kar'vur. s. (98) 
A sculptor ; he that curs up the meat at the 
table ; he that chooses for himself. 

Carving, kar'ving. s. (410) 

Sculpture, figures carved. 

Caruncle, kar'unk-kl. s. (405) 

A small protuberance of flesh. (81) 

Cascade, kas-kade'. s. 

A cataraO, a water-fall. 

Case, kase. s. 

A covering, a box, a sheath ; the outer part of 
8 house; a building unfurnuhed. 

Case-knife, kase'nife. s. 

A large kitchen knife. 

Case-shot, kJse'shot. s. 

BuUeu inclosed in a case. 
Case, kise. s. 

Condition with regard to outward circum- 
stances ; state of thmgs; in physick, state of 
the body ; condition with regard to leanness, 
or health ; contingence ; question relating to 
particular persons or things ; representation of 
atiy question or state of the body, mind, or af- 
fairs ; the variattoa of nouns ; In case, if it 
should happen. 

To Case, kise. v. a. 
To put in a case or cover ; to cover as *a case ; 
to strip oif the covering. 

To Caseharden, kase'har-dn. v. a. 
To harden on the outside. 

Casemate, kase'mite. s. 
A kind of vault or arch of stone-work. 

Casement, kAze'mem. s. 

A window opening upon hinges. 

Caseworm, kase'wuini. s. 

A grub that makes itself a case. 
Cash, kash. s. 

Moiie}', ready money. 

Cash-keeper, kash'keep-ur. s. 

A man entrusted with the money. 

Cashewnut, ka-shio'n&t. «. 

A tree. 

Cashier, ka-sheer'. s, (275) 

He that has charge of the money. 

To Cashier, ka-sheer'. v. a. 
To discard, to dismiss from .a post. 

Cask, kask. s. 

A barrel. 

Casque, kask. s. (415) 

A helmet, armour for the head. 

Casket, kJs'kit. s. (pp) 

A small box or chest for Jewels. 
To Cassate, kas'sate. v. a. (91) 

To vacate, to invalidate. 

Cassation* kas-si'shun. s. 

A making null or void. 

Cassavi, kas'sa-ve. 1 

Cassada, kas'sa-da. -» ^" 
An American plant. 

Cassia, kash'she-a. s. 

A sweet spice mentioned by Moses. 
Cassiowary, kash'she-o-wa-re. s. 

A large bird of prey. 

Cassock, kas'suk. s. (166) 
A dose garment. 

Cassweed, kas'weed. s. 
Shepherd's pouch. 

To Cast, kast. v. a. (/g) 

I'o throw with the hand ; to throw away, as 
useless or noxious ; to throw dice, or lots ; to 
throw in wrestling; to throw a net or snare ; 
to drive by violence of weather ; to leave be- 
hind in a race ; to shed, to let fall, to moult ; 
to lay aside, as fit to be worn no longer ; to 
overweigh, to make to preponderate, to decide 
by oveibalancing ; to compute, to reckon, to 
calculate ; to contrive, to plan out ; to fix the 
parts in a play ; to diretl the eye ; to form a 
mould ; to model, to form ; To cast away, to 
shipwreck ; to waste^ in profusion ; to ruin ; 
To cast down, to dejeft, to depress the mind ; 
To cast off, to discard, to disburden ouc's self; 
to leave behind; To cast out, to turn out of 
doors ; to vent, to speak ; To cast up, to com- 
pute, to calculate ; to vomit. 

Jo Cast, kast. v. ri. (92) 

To contrive, to turn the thoughts ta; to ad- 
mit of a form by casting or melting ; to warp, 
to grow out of form. 

Cast, kast. s. 

Thea£tof casting or throwing, a throw ; state 
of any thine cast or thrown ; a stroke, a touch; 
motion of ine eye ; the throw of dice ; chance 
from the cast of dice ; a mould, a form ; a 
shade, or tendency to any colour ; exterior ap- 
pearance; manner, air, mien; a flight of 

Castanet, kas'ta-nlt. s. 

Small shells of ivory, or bard wood, which 
dancers rattle in their hands. 

Castaway, kast'a-wa.s. 

Aperson lost, or abandoned by Providence. 

Castellin, kas-telMln. 

Castellain, kas'tel-line. 
Constable of a castle. 

Caster, kas/tur. s. 

A thrower, he that casts ; a calculator, a man 
that calcubtcs fortunes. 

To Castigate, kas't^-gate. v. a. 

(91} To chastise, to chasten, to punish. 

Castigation, kas-te-ga'shfin. s. 
Penance, discipline ; punishment, corrcdion; 

Castigatory, kas'terga-iur-i. a. 

Punitive. (51ft) 

Castile Soap, kas'teiUsope. s. 

A kind of soap. 

Casting-net, kas'tjng-net. s. 
A net to be thrown into the water by hand to 
catch fish. 

Castle, kas'sl. s. (472) 

A house fortified : Castles in the air, projeBs 
without reality. 

Castled, kas'sld. a. (405) (472) 

Furnished with castles. 

Castling, kast'ling. s. 

An abortive. 

Castor, kas'tur. s. (gs) 

A beaver. 

CASTOREUM,kas-to' re-urn. s. 
In pharmacy, a liquid matter inclosed in bags 
or purses, near the anus of the castor, falsely 
taken for his testicles. 


Castrametation, kas-tra-mW- 
shun. s. . 
The art orpradice of encamping. 

To Castrate, kas'tritc. v. a. 
To geld ; 10 take away the obscene parts of a 

Castration, kas-tra'shun. s. 

The a£l of gelding. 

A mean or degenerate kind of hawk. 

Castrensian, kas-trcn'shi-an.a. 
Belonging to a camp. 

Casual, kazh'6-al. a. (451) (453) 

Accidental, arising from chance. 

Casually, kazh'i-al-le. ad. 
Accidentally, without design. 

Casu ALNESS, kazh'i-al-nes. s. 

Casualty, karfi'u-al-te. s. 

Accident, a thing happening by chance. 

Casuist, kazh'u-ist. s. 

One that studies and settles cases cf conscience. 

Casuistical, kazh-ii-is'te-kal. a. 

Relating 10 cases of conscience. 

Casuistry, kazh'i-is-ui. s. 

The science of a casuist. 

Cat, kat.j!. 
A domestick animal that catches mice. 

Cat, kat. s. 
A son of ship. 

Cat-o'-nine-tails, kat-a-nine'- 
tSlz. s. (ss) 
A whip with nine lashes. 

Catachresis, kat-a-kre'&Is. (520) 
The abuse of a trope, when the words are too 
far wrested from their native signification ; as 
a voice beautiful to the ear. 

Cat achrestic AL,kat-a-kres'te-kal. 

a. Forced, far-fetched. 

Cataclysm, kat'a-klizm. s, 

A deluge, an inundation. 

Catacombs, kat'a-komz. s. 

Subterraneous cavities for the burial of the 
dead. 4*4, 

Catale^tick, 1^-a-lek'tik. a. 
if In Poetry) wanting a syllable. Asb, 

Catalepsis, kat-a-lep'sls. s. 
A disease wherein the patient is without scnsct 
and remains in the same pasture in which the 
disease seized him. 

Catalogue, kat'a-log. s. (338) 

An enumeration of particulars, a list. 
Catamountain, kat-a-miun'tin.s. 

A fierce anilnal resembling a cat. 
Cataphract, kat'a-frakt. s. 

A horseman in complete armour. 

Cataplasm, kat'a-plazm. s. 

A poultice. 

Catapult, kat(a-pfi!t. s* (489) 

An engine used anciently to throw stones. 

Cataract, kat'a-rakt. s. 

A fall of water from on high, a cascade. 

Cataract, kJt'a-raki. s. 

An inspissation of the ciystalline humotir of 
the eye ; sometimes a pellicle that hinders the 
Catarrh, ka-tar'. s. 
A deflut^ion of a sharp senim from the glands 
about the head and throat. 

Digitized by 





nir (16;), nSt (163); t4be {l7l)t tfib (172), bull (173) ; i!l (299) ; Pound (313) ; th\n [466), thIs (469). 

Catarrhal, ka-tar'ral. "I ^ 
Catarrhous, ka-tJr'rSs. J ' 

Relating to the catarrh^ proceeding from a 


Catastrophe, ka-tas'tro-fe. s. 

The change or revolution which produces the 
conclusion or final event of a draroaiick piece \ 
a final event, generally unhappy. 

Catcal, kat' kill. (406). 
A squeaking instrument, used in the playhouse 
to condemn plays. 

^ This word ought undoubtedly to be written 
with double /. — See Principles of Pronuncia- 
tion, letter X.. and IntroduQion to Rhvming 
Didiooaiy, Orthographical Aphorism XII. 

To C-ATCH, katsh. v. a. (so) 
To lay hold on with the hand ; to stop any 
thing wyinjj t w «cize any thing by pursuit ; 
to stopi to mterrupt falling ; to ensnare, to enr 
tsnglc in a snare ; to recci\*e suddenly ; to 
festen suddenly upon, to seize ; to please, to 
seize the affcdions,. to •harm ; to receive any 
contagion or disease. 

^ This word is almost universally pronounced 
in the capital like the noun hetcb : but this de- 
viation from the true sound of a is only tole- 
rable in colloquial pr«auiiciaiion, and ought, 
by €orre0 speakers, to be avoided even in that. 

To Catch, katsh. v, n. 
To be contagious, to spread in(c£lion. 

Catch, katsh. s. , « ^ , . 

Sciiure, the ad of seizing; the aft of takmg 
caickij ; a song sui^ in succession ; watch ; 
the pmiure of seizing j an advantage taken, 
hoUlaidon; the thing caught^ probe; a short 
interval of aclion ; a taint, a slight contagion ; 
any thing that catches, as a hook ; a small swifi- 
sauing ship. 

Catcher, katsh'ur. s. 

He that catches; that in which any thing is 

Catchfly, kaish'fli. s. 

a plant, Campion. 

Catchpoll, katsh' pile. s. 

A Serjeant, a bunibailiflf. 

Catchword, katsh' wurd. s. 

The word at the corner of the page under the 
last line, which is repeated at the top of the 
next page. 

Catechetical, kat-e-ket' J-kal. a. 

Consisting of questions and answers. 

ad. In die way of questions and answers. 

To Catechise, kat'e-keize, v, a. 
Toinstru£lby asking questions ; to question; 
to interrogate, to examine. ( 160) 

Catechiser, kat'e-kei-zdr- s. (160) 
Ooe who catechisea. 

Catechism, kat'e-kizm. s. 

A form of iostnidion by ineans of questions 
aod amwers concerning religion, 

Catechist, kat'i-kist. s; 
Ooe whose charge is to question the uoin- 
Rnif^ concerning religion. 

Catechumen, kat-e-ku'nien. s. 

One wIk) is yet in the first ludimenis of Chris- 
tianity. t503) 4 11 2 fi 
C atecu u MEN ic A L9 kat-e-ku-mcn 6- 

kal. a. (50q) 

Bekmging to tlie catechumens. 

Categorical, kat-e-gor'c-kal.a. 
Absolute, adequate,' positive. 

Categorically, kat4-gor'^e-kal-e, 
ad. Positively, expressly. 

Category, kat'c-gir-i. s. 

A class, a rank, an order of ideas, predica* 
Catenarian, kat-e-na'ri-aiu a. 
Relating to a chain. 

To Catenate, kat'c-nate. v. a. 

To chain. 

Catenation, kat.e-na'shun. s. 

Link, regular connexion. 
To Cater, ka'tfir. v. n. (.gs) 
To provide food, to buy in viduals* 

Cater, ka'tur. s. 
The four of cards and dice. 

Cater-cousin, ka'tur-kuz-zn. s. 

A petty favourite, one related by blood or 

Caterer, ka'tur-ur. s. 

A ijurveyor. 

Cateress, ka'tSr-res. s. 
A woman emplo>'ed to provide vi£luals. 

Caterpillar, kat'tur-piMur. s. 
A worm sustained by leaves and fruiu; a 

To Caterwaul, kat'tur-wawl. v. n. 

To make a noise as cats in rutting time ; to 
make an offensive or odious noise* 
Cates, kates. s. 
Viands, food, dish of meat. 

Catfish, kat'fish. s. 

A sea fish in the West Indies. 

Catgut, kat'gut. s. 

A kind of cord or gut of which fiddle strings 

are made ; a kind <? canvas for ladies' work. 

^f^ £tther I have been misinformed, or fiddle 

strings are made in lulyof the guts of goats. 

and therefore ought properly to be called 

C athartical, ka-zMr'ti-kaki ^ 
Cathartick, ka-/Aar't!k. J 

Cathartick, ka-/*4r'tik. s. (509) 

A medicine to purge downward. 
Catharticalness, ka-/Aar'te-kal- 

nes. s. 

Purging quality. 

Cathead, kat'hed. s. 

In a fhip, a piece of timber wtth two shivers 
at one end, having a rope and a block ; a 'kiiKl 
of fossile. 

Cathedral, ka-zAe'dral. a. (ss) 

Episcopal, containing the see of a bishop ; be- 
longing to an episcopal church. 

Cathedral, ka-//^e'dral.s. (88) 

The head church of a diocese. 

s. An inferior kind of pear. 
(l:|r This proper name ought to be written with 

an a in the second syllable instead of ^, as it 

comes from the Greek KaOa^s, signifying 


Catheter. ka/A'e-tur. s. (qs) 

A hollow and somewhat crooked instrument 
to thrust into the bladder, tt) assist in bringing 
away the urine when the passage is stopped. 

Catholes, kat'holz, s. 
In a ship, two little holes astern above the gun* 
room purts. 

Catholicism, ka-/;?>oI'e-sizm. s. 
Adherence to the Catholick church. 

Catholick, ka/A'o-lik. a. 

Universal or general 

Catholicon, ka-/Aol'e-kon. s. 

An universal medicine. 

Cati^ins, kat'kinz. s. 
ImperfcB flowers hangmg firom trees, in man- 
ner of a rope orcac*s tail. 

Catling, kat'ling. s. 

A dismembering knife, used by surgeon*; cat- 
gut, fiddle strings. 

Catmint, kat'mint. s. 

A plant. 

Catoptrical, kat-op'trc-kal. a. 
Relating to the caioptricks, or vision by reflec- 

Catoptricks^ kat-op'triks. s. 
That part of optitks which treats of vision bf 

Catpipe, kat'plpe.s. 

Catcal. ^ 

Cat's-eye, kats'i. s. 
A stone. 

Cat's-foot, kais'fut. s. 

Cat's-head. kats'hed. s. 
A kind of apple. 

Catsilver, kat'sil-vur. s. (93) 
A kind of fossile. 

Cat's-tail, kats'tale. s. 
A long round substance that grows upon nut- 
trees ; a kind of reed. 

Catsup, universally pronounced 
k5tsh'&p. s.^ 
A kind of pickle. 

Cattle, kat'tl. s. (405) 

Beasts of pasture, not wild nordomestick. 

Cavalcade, kav'al-kade'. 5.(524) 

A procession on horseback. 

Cavalier, kav-a-leer'. s. {275) 

A faprseman, a knicht ; a gay, sprightly mili- 
taiy man ; the appellaiion m the party en King 
Charles the First. 

Cavalier, kav-S-leer'. a. 

Gay, sprightly, warlike; generous, brave; 
disdainful, haughty. 

Cavalierly, kav-a-lcer'le. ad. 

Haughtily, arrogantly, disdainfully. 

Cavalry, kav'al-re. s. 
Horse troops. 

To Cavate, ka' vate. v. a. 
To hollow. 

Cavazion, ka-va'zhSn. s. 
The hollowing of the earth for cellarage. 

Caudle, kaw'dl. s. (195) 

A mixture of wine and other ingredients, gives 
to women in childbed. 

Cave, kavc. s. 
A cavern, a den ; a hollow, any hollow place. 

Caveat, ki'ye-at. s. 

A caveat is an intimation given to some ordi* 
nary or ecclesiastical judge, notifying to him, 
that he ought to be\\*aTe how he acU. 

Cavern, kav'urn.s. (555) 

A hollow place in the groutid. 
Cavern ED, kav'urnd. a. (jC2) 

Full of caverns, hollow, excavated ; inhabiting 

a cavern. 
Cavernous, kav'ur.nus. a. (5/57) 

Full of caverns. 

Cavesson, kav'es-sun. 8.(99) 
A sort of noseband for a horse. 

CAUF,kawf. s. 
A chest with holes, to keep fish alive in tb^ 

Caught, kawt. (213) (393) 

Parr. pass, from Tb catch. 

Digitized by 





pr (559). Fate (73), fSr(77),'f^ll(83),fat(8l); me (93), mlt(p5); pme (i05% pfnfio;); no{ie2),ni&ve{i64), 

Caviare, ka-veer'.s; 

The cjrgs of a siur«;con salted. 

5:3^ Eithvr the spelling or the pronunciation of 
this word should be altered: we have no in- 
stance in the language of sounding <iri?, ^r^ ; 
the ancient spelling seems to have been Ca- 
nfiare ; though Buchanan and Bailey, in com- 
pliance wirh ihc pronunciation, socll it Cwveer^ 
and W. Johnston Ca*vear ; and Ash, as a less 
usual sj>clhng, Cefvier', but the Diftionaiy 
Dc hj Crusca spells it Cavia/e, 

To Cavil, kav'il. y. n. (i5q) 

To raise ceptious-and frivolous obje^ions. 

To Cavil, kav'fl.'v. a. 

To receive or treat with objeftions. 

Cavil, kJy'fl. s. , 

A false or frivolous obieftion. 

Cavili.vtion, kav.ll-la^shun. s. 
The disposition to make captious objc£lions. 

Caviller, kav'vil-ur. s. *^ 

An unfair adversary, t captious disputant. 

Cavillingly, kav'iUling-le. ad. 

In a cavilling manner. 

Cavillous, kav'vil-Ius, a. 
Full of objethons. 

Cavity, kav'i-t^, s. (311) 

Hollowness, hollow. 

Cauk, klwk. s, 
A coarse tulky spar. * 

Caul, kawl.s. 

The net in which women inclose their hair, 
the binder part of a woman's cap ; any kind of 
tmall net ; the integument in which the gius 
are inclosed ; a thin membrane inclosing the 
head of some childre/i when bom. 

Cauliferous, kaw-lif'fe-rus. a. 
A term for such plants as have a true sulk. 

Cauliflower, kol'l^-flc>u-ur. s. 

A spucies of Cabbage. 

Causable, kaw'za-bl. a. (405) 
That which may be caused. 

Causal, kaw'zal. a. 
Relating to causes. 

Causality, kaw-zal'e-t^. s. 

The agency of a cause, the quality of causing. 

Causation, kaw-za'shun. s. 

The atl or power of causing. 

Causative, kuw'za-tlv. a. (157) 

That expresses a cause or reason. 

CaUSATOR, kavv-za'tur. s. (521) 
A causer, an au'.hor. (98) 

C-AUSr:, kawz. s. 
That wnlch prochircs or clfrAs any thinrj, the 
efficient; the reason, niorivc to any ihin<^; 
3ubjc£l of litigation ; party. 

To Cause, kawz. v. a. 

• Toeffcti as an agtnr. 

Causelessly, kdwzMes 

Without cii:>e, without reason. 

Causeless. kr1wz''lcs. a.^ 

Original to itself; without just ground or 

Causer, k^.v'zur. s. {gs^ 

He ihu causes, the agent by which an clf^ft is 

Causey, kiWze. 1 

Causeway, kawz'wa. J ' 

-A way raised and paved above the rest of the 
f:^ Dr« Johnson tells us, that this word, by a 
false notion of its etymology, has been lately 
written tausffway. It is derived from the 
jFrench cbaussee. lu the scripture wc find it 
writieu causey » 




** To Scuppim the lot came forth westward 
*<by the cawey** — I Chron. xxvi. I^. 

But Milton, Dryden and Pope, write it cause- 
nvi^ ; and these authorities seem to have fixed 
the pronunciation. 7'his word fiom its mis- 
taken etymology, may rank with Lantern^-^ 
which see." 

Caustical, kaws'tc-kal. 

Caustick, kaws'tik. 
Belonging to medicaments which, by their 
violent a6livity, and lieat, destroy the texture 
of the part to which they are applied, and 
burn it into an eschar. 

Caustick, kaws'tik. s. 

A caustick or burning ai>plicatioa< 

Cautel, kaw'tel, s. 
Caution, scruj le. 

Cautelous, kaw'te-lus. a. 

Cautious, wary ; wily, cunning. 

Cautelously, kaw'ie-lus-le. ad. 
Cunningly, slily, cautiously, warily. 

Cauterization, kaw-tur-re-zi'- 
shun. s. 

The a£l of burning with hot irons. 
To Cauterize, kaw'tur-lze. v. a. 

To burn wuh the cauiery. 

Cautery, kaw'tur-re. s. [h5b) 

Cautery is either a£iual or potential; the fi«t 
is burning by a hot iron, and the latter with 
caustick medicines. 

Caution, k4w'shun. s. 

Prudence, foresight, wariness ; provisionary 
precept; warning. 

To Caution, kaw'shun. v. a* 

To warn, to give notice of a danger. 

Cautionary, kav^r'shun-a-re. a. 
Given as a pledge, or in security. 

Cautious, kaw'shus. a. (292) 

Wary, watchful. 

Cautiously, kaw'shus-le. ad. 

In a Wary manner. 

Cautiousness, kiw'shus-nls. s. 

Watchfulness, vigilance, circumspc£iion. 

To C.AW, kaw. V. n. 
To (uy as the rook, or crow. 

Cayman, ka'man. s. (88) 

American alligator or crocodile. 

To Cease, sese. v. n. 
To leave off, to stop, to give over ; to fail, to 
be extinct ; to be at an end. 

To Cease, scjc. v. a. 
To put a stop to* 

Cease, scsc, s. 

Kxtii.^tion, failure. Obsolete. 
Ceaseless, s^se'lls. a. 

IiiCcsMnt, perpetual, continual. . 

Cecity, ses/e-ii. s. (503 j 

Blindness, privation of sight. 
(Jrlr I have given the e in the first syllabic of 
this word the short sound, notwithstanding the 
diphthong in thd original cacUas \ being con- 
vificcd ot the shortening power of the antepe- 
nultimate accent of these words f 124) (,51 1), 
and of the pre>antepenultimate accent of Cenw 
tory rind Prcfat^ty, 

Cecutiensy, se-ku'she-en-se. s. 

Cloudiness of sight. 

Cedar, seMur. s. (ss) 
A tree ;' the wood of the cedar tree. 

To Cede, sede. v. a. 
To yield ; to resign ; to give up to another. 

Cedrine, sc^drine. a. (i40) . 
Of or belonging to the cedar tree. 

To Ceil, scle. v. a. 

To cover the inner roof of a buUdiqg. 

Ceiling, se'ixng, s. 

The inner roof. 

Celandine, sel'anJlnc. 8. (149) 

A plant. . 

Celature, sel'a-tshure. 8. (461) 
The art of engraving. • 

To Celebrate, sclMe-brSte.v.a. 

To praise, to commend ; lo distingtiish by 
solemn rites ; to mention in a set or soletr.n 
manner. (91) 

Celebration, sel-e-bra'shSn. s. 

Solemn performance, solemn remembiaiKc, 
praise, renown, memorial. 

CelebriDus, se-le'bri-us. a. (505) 
Famous, renowned. 

Celeb R 10 u SLY, s^-le' 
In a famous manner. 

Ce;lebriousness, se-le'brt-is-Des. 

s. Keuown, fame. 

Celebrity, se-leb'bre-te. s. (511) 
Celebration, fame. 

Celeri ACK, s^-l^'rc-ak. s, 

Turnep-rootcd celery. 

Celerity, se-lcr'^r^-te.'^. 

• Swiftness, speed, velocity. 

Celery, ser^-r^.s. 
A species of ^larslcy : corruptly pronooiKcd 

Celestial. sc-les'tshSi. a. (272) 

Heavenly, relating to the superior regions 5 
heavenly, related to ibe blessed state ;hcavenl)', 
with respcft to excellence. 

Celestial, sc-les'tshal. s. (464) 

An inhabitant of heaven. 

Celestially, se-l5s'tshal-le. ad. \ 
^n a heavenly manner. 

To Celestify, si-Ies'ie-fi. v. a. 
To give something of a heavqnly nature iq 
any thing. 

Celiack, se'le-ak. a. 
Relating to the lower belly. 

Celibacy, sel'e^-ba-se. s. 

Single life. 

Celibate, sel'c-bat. s. (()i) 

Single life. 

Cell, sill. s. 

A small cavity or hollow pbce ; thef?vfd 
little habitation of a religious pciscn; a ^•n^| 
and close apartment in a prison ; any S1R..J 
place or residence. 

Cellar, sel'iur. s. (ss) 

A place under groun<l, whcie stores arc w^ 
sited, where liquors are kept. 

Cellarage, s6l'lur-idje. s. (00) 

'I'he part of the building which wakes ih 

Cellarist, sel'lur-ist. s. (555) 
The butler in a religious house. 

Cellular, sei'li-}ar. a. 

Consisting of little ccHs or cavities. 

Celsitude, sel'se-tude. s. 

Cement, s^m'ment. s, (4.02) 

The mat<er with which two. bodies arc rr«id| 
to cohere; bond of union vet friendship. 

To Cement, se-mcnt'. v. a. 
To unite by means of something interposed. 

To Cement, se-ment'. v. n. 
To come into conjiinfiion, to cohere. 

Cementation, sem-en-ti'shdn. s. 
The a£l of ccmeDting* 

Digitized by 





n4r(lfl7),n4t(l63); tibe(iyi),t&b(i;2). bill (173); Aij(299}5 poind (3I3); Min(46e>, this (469). 

Cemetery, scrn'mLtir-L s. 
A place where the dead are reposhed. 

Cenatory, sen'nJ-tur-e. s. (^05) 
Relating to supper.— See Cecity. (512) 

Cenobitical, sen-no-bit'e-kal. a. 
Living in community. (503) 

Cenotaph, sin'o-taf. s. 

A monument for one elsewhere buried. 

Cense, sense, s. 
PublicK rates. > 

To Cense, sense, v. a. 

To perfume with odours. 
Censer, sen'sSr. s. (ps) 

The pan in which incense is burned* 

Censor, s^n'sor. s.(i66) 
An officer of Rome who had the power of 
cofTcding manners ; one who is given to cen- 

Censorian, sen-s6're-an. a. 

Relating to the censor. 

Censorious, sen-so're-us. a, 

Addi£kd to censure, severe. 

Censoriously, s4n-si're-us-li. ad. 

In a severe refleding manner. 
Censoriousness, sen-so're.'US.nes. 
s. Disposition to reproach. 

Censorship, sen'soF-ship. s. (166) 

The office of a censor. 

Censurable, ser>'shfi-ra-bl. a. 

• Worthy of censure, culpable. 

s. Blameableii' ss. 

Censure, sen' shure. s. (452) 
Blame, r^'primand, reproach ; judgment, opi- 
nion : judicial sentence ; spiritual punishment. 

To Censure, sen'shure. v. a. 
To bbme, to brand publickly ; to condemn. 

Censurer^ s^n'shdr-ur. s. 
He that blames. 

Cent, sint. s. 
A hundred, as five per cent. ; jhat is, five in 
the hundred. 

Centaur, scn'dwr. s. 

A poetical being, supposed to be compounded 
of a man and a horse ; the archer in the zo- 
diack. - 

Centaury, sSn'taw-ri.s. 

A pbot. 
Centenary* sen' te-na-re. 8. 

The number ot a hundred. 

Centennial, sen-ten' ni-al. a. 

Consisting of a hundred years. Mason, 

Centesimal, sen-tes^e-tnal. s. 

Handredth. (88) 

Centifolious, sen-te-foM^-us. a. 
Having an hundred leaves. 

Centipede, sen'ti-ped. s. 

A poisonous inse6l, so called from iu being 
supposed to have a hundred feet. 

0:^ Biftd and Sfuadruped arc spelled in John- 
son widiout the tinal e ; while Solipede, Pal- 
mifedey Piumipe^y Multipeds, and Centipede, 
retain it. The onhpgraphy in these words is 

- of importance to the pronunciation, and there- 
fore, as ihey are of perfe£lly similar original, 
their spelling and pronunciatio*n ought certainly 
to be alike. Biped and ^adruped are the 
words most in use ; and ai ihey have omitted 
the final e^ which there docs not seem to be 
any reason to retain, we may infer (hat the 
tilcnt and insensible operation of custom di- 
rcds us to do the same by the other words, and 
^ pronounce the last syllable of all of them 

«borl,~ScC Ml LLt P £ D£S. 

Cento, sin'tA. s. 

A composition formed by joining Kraps from 
different autbon. 

Central, sen'tral.a. (88) 

Relating to the centre. 

Centre, sen'tdr. s. (4i6) 

The middle. 

To Centre, sen'tur. v. a. 

To place on a centre, to fix as on a centre. 
To Centre, sen'tur. v. n. 
To rest on^ to repose on ; to be placed in the 
midsi or centre, 

Centrick, s^n'trik. a. 

Placed in the centre. 

Centrical, sen'trik-al. a. 

Placed in the centre, 
ftry* This word, though in constant usage, is not 
in anv of our Didionaries.^ It seems to be 
perfetlly equivalent to Centrick-, but custom, 
in time, generally cither finds or makci a dif- 
ferent sh.idc of meaning between words where 
no such dificrcnce was perceived at first. 

Centrifugal, sen-trit'ii-gai. a. 
Having the qijaiity acquired by bodies in mo- 
tion, of receding tioin the centre. 

Centripetal, sen-trip'e-tal. a. 
Having a tendency to the centre. 

Centry, sen'trc. s. 
See Sentixei.. 

Centuple, s^n'tu-pl. a. (405; 

A hundred luld. 

To Centuplicate, scn-tu'plc-kate. 

V. a. To make a Imndrcafold. 

To CENTURiATE,scn-tiVic-ite. v.a. 
To divide into hundrctls. 

Centuriator, scn-tu-re-a'tur. s. 
(,'','21) A name given to hi^iohaoS; who distin- 
guish (imeb by centuries. 

Centurion, sen-tu'ic-un. s. 

A military officer, who commanded a handled 
men among the Romans. 

Century, sen'tshu^rc. s. (46i) 
An hundred, usually employed to specify time, 
as the second centut^. 

Cephalalgy, stif'a-lal-je. .s. 
1 he liead-«chc, 

Cephalick, sc-fal'lik. a. Cooa) 
That which is medicinal to the head. 

Cerastes, ^e-ras^ez. ^. 

A serpent having horns. 

Cerate, sc^rat. s. (91) 

A medicine made of wax. 

Cerated, .se'ra-tcd. a. 


To Cere, sere. v.a. 
To wax. 

Cerebel, ser'e-bel. s. (503) 
Part ofthe braui. 

Cerecloth, scre'cloth. s. 

Cloth smeared over with glutinous matter. 

Cerement, sere'm^nt. s. 

Clothes dipped in melted wax, with which 
dead bodies wece infolded. 

Ceremonial, scr-i-.iTi6'ne-aI. a. 
Relating to ceremony, or outward rite } for- 
mal, ob«ervant of old forms. 

Ceremonial, ser-i-mA'nI-al. s. 

Outward form, external rite; the order for 
rites and forms in the Roman church. 

Ceremonialne^s^ s&r-^-mo'ne-al- 
nis. s. 
The quality of being cervmoniah 

Ceremonious, s4r-i-mo'ni-3s. a. 
Cjtisisiing of outward riles ; full of ceremony i 

attentive to the outward rites of religion ; civi] 
and formal to a fault. 

Ceremoniously, s2r-l-Tno'ne-fis-ll 

ad. In a ceremonious manner, formally. 
nes. s. 

Fondness of ceremonv. 
Ceremony, scr'e-mo-n^. s. (4S0) 

Outward lite, external form ii. religion ; lormt 
of civility ; outward fomis of state. 

Certain, ser'tin. a. (208) 

Sure, indubitable ; determined ; in an indefi- 
nite sense, some, as a certain man told mc this ; 
undoubiing, put past doubt. 

Certainly, ser'tin-le, ad. 

Indobiiahly, without question j without fail. 

Certainty, ser'ttn-te. s. 

Exemptioti from doubt ; tha: which is real and ' 

Ckrtes, scr'tez. ad. 

Certainly, m truih. 

Cf.utificatf, ser-tirc-kct. s. Qu) 

A writinj^ made m any court, to give notice to 
another court of any thing done therein ; any 

To Certify, s?r'te-fi. v. a. 

To give ccrtiiti inforination of; to give cer- 
tain assurance of. • 

Certiorari, ser-dic-o-raM. s. 

A writ issuing out of the Chancciy, :<.» cj!1 up 
the records 01 a c.msc therein dcixirding. 

Certitude, su'ti^-iude. s. 

Cciiainty, freedom from doubt. 

Cervical, sci've-kal. a. 

Belon;;ing to the ne(k. 

Ceruli:an> se-iuMc-an.1 
Ceruleous, se-riVle-Ms. J ^' 
Blue, sky<oloured. — Sic Eu hop ban. 

Cerulifick, ser-u-lit'ik. a. 
Having the power to produce a blue coioar. 

Cerumen, se-ru'men. s. 
The wax of the ear. — See B i t u M L n . 

Ceruse, se'ruse. s« • 

White lead. 

0:3" I pref.T Bu Kenrick's, Mr. Vcuy^s, and, 
as far as I can guess by their jicccniuation, Dr. 
Ash's and Bailey's pronunciation of this word, 
who make the hrst syllable long, to Mr. She ri- 
dun's, Scott's, and Eniick's, whomakcitshoit. 
— Sec Principles, y^. 

CF.SARiAN,sc-za're-an. a. 
The Cesatian se6lion is cuHiug a child out of 
the womb. 

Cess, ses. s. 

A levy made upon tlie inhabitants of a place, 
rated according to their property ; an a&^es^ 
Ui^'nt ; the a£i of laying rates. 
ToCess^ ses. v.a. 

1 o lay charge on, to assess. 

Cessation, ses-sa'shun. .'j. 

A stop, a rest, a vacation ; a ^rnise of hostility, 
wuhout peace. 

Cessavit, ses-sa'v!t. s. 

A writ. 
Cessibility,'i-tc. s. 

The quality of receding, or giving way. 

Cessible, ses'se-bl. a. (405) 
Easy to give way. 

Cession^ sesh'shfin. %. 

Retreat, tne a£l of giving way ; resignation. 

Cessionary, Rcsh'^he-o-na-ic, a. 

Implying a resignation. 

Cessment, s^'v'mcnt. s. 
An assessment or ux. 

Digitized by 





C^ (559). F5te (7a), fir (77), fill (83), fat(8l) j me (93), met (95);p!nc (l05),p!n (107); no(i62),mive(l64>, 

Crssor, ses'sur. s. (qs) (166) 
He that ceascth or neglcfteih so long to per- 
form a duty belonging to him, as that he in- 
curreth the danger of law, 

Cestus, ses'tus. S. 
The girdle of Venus. 

Cetaceous, se-ta'shus. a. (357) 

Of die whale kind. 

Chad, shad. s. 

A sortof fbh. 
To Chafe, tshafe. v. a. 

To warm with rubbing ; to heat j to perfume ; 
to make angry. 

To Chafe, tsbafe. v. n. 

To rage, to fret, to funic ; to fret against any 

Chafe, tshafe. s. 

A heat, a rage, a fury. 

Chafe Wax, tshafeVaks. s. 

An officer belonging to the lord high chancel- 
lor, who 6ts the wax for the sealing of writs. 

Chafer, tshafe'ur. s. (qs) 
An insed; a sort of yellow beetle. 

Chaff, tshal'. s. 
The husks of corn that are separated hy thresh- 
ing and winnowing ; it is used for any thing 

To Chaffer, tshaf'fur. v. n. 

To haggle, to bargain. 

Chafferer, tshaffur-rur. s. 
A buyer, bargainer. 

Chaffinch, ishaf'finsh. s. 

A bird so called, because it delighu in chaff. 
Chaffless, tsliaf'les. a. 

Without chaff. 

Chaffweed, tshaf'weed. s. 

Chaffy, tshaf'fc. a, 

Like chaff, full of chaff. 
Chafingdish, tsha'fing-d!sh. s. 
A vcs!icl to make any thing hoc in ; a portable 
grate for coals. 

Chagrin, sha-gre^n'.s. 

Ill humour, vexation. 

To Chagrin, sha-grein'. v, a. 
To vex, to put out of temper. 

Chain, tshine. s. 

A scries of links fastened one within another ; 
a bond, a manacle; a fetter; aline of links 
with which land is measured : a series linked 
To Chain, tshane. v. a. 

To fasten or link with a chain ; to bring into 
ftlaveiy ; to put on a chain ; to unite. 
Chainpump, tshane'pump. s, 
A tAimp used in large £nglisb vessels, which 
is double, so that one rises as the other falls. 

Chainshot, tshine'shot.^. 

Two bullets or half bullets fastened together 

by a chain, which, when they fly open, cut 

away whatever is before them. 
Chainwohk, tshane' wurk. s. 

Work with open spaces. 

Chair, tshare. s. (52) 

A moveable seat ; a seat of justice, or of au- 
thority ; a vehicle borne by men ; a sedan. 

Chairman, tshare' man. s. (ss) 
l*he pnrsident of an assembly ; one whose 
trade it is to carry a chair. 

Chaise, shaze. s. 
A carriage either of pleasure or expedition. 

0^ The Vulgar, who are unacquainted with 
the spelling of. this word, and ignorant of its 
French denvatioo, are apt to suppose it a plu* 

rat, and call a single carriage a sbaj ; and the 
Polite seem somen mes at a loss whether thry 
should nor consider it as both singular and plu- 
ral ; but the best usagcT seems to have deter* 
mined it to be, in this rcspe6), regular, and to 
make the plural chaises. 

Chalcographer, kal-kog'gra-fur. 
»• (35'^.) An engraver in brass. 

Chalcography, kaUkJg'gra-fJ. s. 

Engraving in brass. 

Chaldron, \, , 2/ , 2 /-,*,\ 

A dry hnglibh measure of coals, consisting of 
thirty-six bushels heaped up. The chaldroit 
should weigh two thousand ix>unds. 

Chalice, tshal'is. s. (142) 

A cup, a bowl, the communion cup, a cup 
used m a£)s of worship. 

Chaliced, tshal'list. a. (359) 
Having a cell or cup. 

Chalk, tshawk. s.(402) 

A white fossile, usually reckoned a stone, but 
by some ranked among' the boles. 

To Chalk, tshawk. v. a. 

To rub with chalk ; to manure with chalk; to 
mark or trace out, as with chaik. 

Chalk-cutter, tshawk' kQt-tur. s. 

A man thdt digs chalk. 

Chalky, ishawk'kc. a. 
Consisting of chalk ; white with chalk ; im- 
pregnated with chalk. 

To Challenge, tshal'lenje. v. a. 

To call another to answer for an offence by 
combat ; to call to a contest ; to accuse ; ii) 
law, to obje6l to the impartiality of any one ; 
to claim as due ; to call one to the performance 
,of conditioiu. 

Challenge, tshal'lcnje. s. 

A summons to combat $ a demand of some- 
thing as due; in law, an exception taken 
either agaiiut persons or things. 

Challenger, tshal'len-jur, s. 

One that desires or summons another to com- 
bat ; one thai claims superiority ; a claimant. 

Chalybeate, ka-iib'bc-lt. a. (91) 

Impregnated with iron or steel. 

Chamade, sha-made'. s. 
The beat oi the drum which declares a sur- 

Chamber, tshame'bur, s. (542) 

An apartment in a bouse, {generally used for 
thoae appropriated to lodging ; any retired 
room ; any cavity or hollow ; a court of jus- 
tice; the hollow part of a ^ui\ where the 
charge is lodged ; the cavity where the powder 
is lodged in a mine. 
fj;^ I have in this word departed from Mr. Sheri- 
dan and Dr. Kenrick, because I think the best 
usage has entirely departed from ihcm. About 
thirty years ago the first syllable of Chamber 
was universally pronounced so as to. rhyme 
with Palm, Psalm, &c. but since that tirne it 
has been gradually narrowing to the slender 
sound of a in came ^ fame, &c. and seems now 
to be fully establishfcd in this sound. This, 
however, is to be regretted, as it miliutcs with 
the laws of syllabication : there are few words 
in the language which we cannot so divide into 
parts as to show by this division the quantity of 
the vowels ; this word forms an exception ; 
for mb, being uncombinable consonants, we 
cannot end the first syllable with a ; and if we 
join m to it, the a becomes short, and requires 
another sound. But if two such words as Cam 
and Bridge could not resist (he blind force of 
custom, which has for so many years reduced 
them to Camebridge, why should we wonder 
that Chamber and Cambrick, Tinmoutb and 

Tarmeutb, should yield to (he same unrelent- 
ing tyrant ? 

To Chamber, tshJme'bui^ v. n. 

To be wanton, to intrigue ; to reside as in a 
chamber. " 

Chamberer, tshame'bur-fir. s. 

A man of intrigue. 

s. One that lies in the same chamber. 

Chamberlain, tshame'bur-lin. s. 

(eo8j Lord great chamberlain of England is 
the sixth officer of the crown ; lord chamber- 
lain of the hoiisehold has the oversight of all 
officers belonj^ing to the king's chambers, ex- 
cept the preempt of the bedchamber ; a ser- 
vant who has the care of the chambers. 

Chamberlainship, tshaine'bur-lin- 
ship. s. 
The office of a chamberlain. 

Chambermaid, tshime'bur-made.s. 

A maid whose business is to dress a l^y. 
Cambrel of a horse, kam'bril. 5r. 
The joint or bending of the upper part of the 
hinder leg. 

Chameleon, ka-rri'le-fin. s. 
A kind of lizard, said to live oiiair« 

C HAMLET, kam'iet. s. 
Sec Camelot. 

Chamois, sha-mie', s. 

An animal of the goat kind, the skin of which 
made into leather is called Shammy. 

Chamomile, kaTn'omlle. s. (353} 

1 he name of an odoriferous plant* 

To Champ, tshamp. v. a. 
1 o bite with a firqueoi a£lion of the teeth ; to 

To Champ, tshamp. v. n. 
To perform frequently the adiooof biting. 

Champaign, shani-panc'. s. 

A kind of wine. 
Champaign, tsham'panc. s. 

A fiat open country. 

Champignon, sham-pin'yun. s. 

A kind of mushroom. 

Champion, tsh3m'pe-un. s. 

A man who undenakes a cause in single com- 
bat ; a heio, a stout warrior. 

To Champion, tshani'pi-un. v^ a. 

To challenge. 

Chance, tshanse. s. (79) {jg) 

Fortune, the cause of fortuitous events; the 
ad of fortune ; accident ; casual occurrence, 
fortuitous event, whether good or bad j potei- 
bility of any bccurrence. 

To Chance, tshanse. v. n. 

To happen, to fall out. 

Chance-medley, tshanse-tncdMe. s. 

Ill law, the casual slaughter of a man, not alto- 
gether without the fault of a slayer. 

Changeable, tshan'sa-bl. a. 


Chance L.tshan'sel. s. 

The eastern part of the church, id which the 
altar is placed. 

Chancellor, tshan'seUur. s. 

An officer of ilie highest power aod digtuty in 
the court where he presides. 

s. The office of chancellor. 

Chancery, tshan'sur-c. s. 

The court of equity and conscience. 

Chancre, shank' fir. s. (416) 
An ulcer usually arising firom venereal mala- 

Digitized by 





n&r f 167), n^ (l63); tube (171), tub (172), bull (173); ill (299); piund (3 Is); tKn (466), xHis {469}, 

Chancrous, shank' rus. a. 

Chandeleer, shan-d5-leer'. s. 
A branch for candles. 

Chandler, tshand'iSr. s. 
An anizan whose trade is to make candles. 

To Change, tshin5e. v. a. (74) 

To put one thing in the place of another ; U> 
resign any thing for the sake of another ; to 
discount a larger piece of money into several 
smaller i to eive and take reciprocally; to 
alter ; to mend the disposition or mind, 
ft* Thb word, with others of the same formi 
such as rofigej strange, mange t &c. are, in the 
west of £ngland, pronounced with the short 
sound of a m ran, man, &c. The same may 
be observed of the a in the first syllable of 
angelf ancient, &c. which, in that part of the 
kingdom, sounds like the article an ; and this, 
though disagreeable to a London ear, and con- 
trary to the best usage, which forms the only 
rale, is more analogical than pronouncing them 
as if written cbainge, strainge, aincient, ain- 
gel, &c. for we find every other vowel in this 
situation short, as revenge, binge, sfunge, &c. 

To Change, tshinje. v. n. 
To undergo change, to suffer alteration. 

Change, tshinje. s. 

An alteration of the state of any thing; a suc- 
cession of one thing in the place of another ; 
the time of the moon in which it begins a 
new monthly revolution ; novelty ; an alte- 
ration of the order in which a set of bells is 
sounded ; that which makes a variety ; small 

Changeable, tshanje'a-bl. a. 

Subjcd to change, fickle, inconstant ; possible 
to bic changed ; having the quality of exhibit- 
ing different appearances. 

Changeableness, tshSnje'S-bUnls. 
s. Susceptibility of change; inconstancy, 


Changeably, tsh^nje'a-bl£. ad. 

Changeful, tshanje'ful. a. 

Inconstant, uncertain, mutable. 

Changeling, tshiinjc'ltng. s. 

A child left or taken in the place of another ; 
ao idiot, a natural ; one apt to change. 

Changer, tshane'jur. s. 
One that is employed m changing or discount- 
ing money. 

Channel, tshan'n^l. s. (.99) 
The hollow bed of runiiing waters ; any cavity 
drawn longways ; a strait or narrow sea; a gut 
or furrow of a pillar. 

To Channel, tshan'nel. v. a. 

To cut any thing in channels. 

To Chant, tshant. v. a. 
To sing ; to celebrate by song ; to sing in the 
cathedral service. 

To Chant, tshant. v. n. (78) 

To sing. 

Chant, tshant. s* (79) 

Soog, melody. 

Chamter, tshan'tSr. s. 

A singer, a songster. 

Chanticleer, tshan'ie-klJir. s. 

The cock, from bis crow. 

Chantress, tshai/tres. s. 
A woman singer. 

Chantry, tshan'tr^. s. 
Chamiy is a church endowed with revenue 
7' F>csts, to sing mass for the souls of the 

Chaos, ka'os. s. (353) 

The mass of matter supposed to be in confu> 
sion before it was divided by the creation into 
its proper classes and elements ; confusion, ir- 
regUbr mixture ; any thing where the parts are 

Chaotick, ka-Jt'tik. a. 
Resembling chaos, confused ^ 

To Chap, tshop. v. a. 

To divide the surface of the ground by exces- 
sive heat; to divide the skin of the face or 
hands by excessive cold. 
fjf^ f^tz ctyniology of this word will not suffer 
us fo write it chop ; and universal usage will 
not permit us to pronotmce it cbaf : so that it 
must be classed among those incorrigible words, 
the pronunciatioQ and orthography of which 
must ever be at variance. 

Chap, tshop. s. 

A cleft, a gaping, a chink. 

Chap, tshop. s. 

The upper or under part of a beast's mouth. 
Chape, tshape. s. 

The catch of any thing by which it is held in 

its place. 

Chapel, tshap'll. s. 

A chapel is either adjoining to a church, as a 
parcel of the same, or separate, called a chapel 
of ease. 

Chapeless, tsh&pe'lls. a. 

Without a cliape. 

Chapellany, tshap'pll-len-ni. s. 
A chapellany is founded within some other 

Chapelry, tshap'pel-ri. s. 
Thejurisdiflion or bounds of a chapel. 

Chaperon, shap-ur-iin'. s. 
A kind of hood or cap worn by the knights of 
the garter in the habit of their order. 

((^ For the pronunciation of the last sylbble, 
see the word Encore. 

CHAPFALN,tship'faln. a. 
Having the mouth snrunk. — ^See Catcal. 

Chaplain, tshap'lln. s. (208) 

He that attends the king, or other great person, 
to perform divine service. 

Chaplainship, tshapMin.shfp. $• 
The office or business of a chaplain ; the pos* 
session or revenue of a chapel. 

CHAPLESS,tsh&p'les. a. 
Without any flesh about the mouth. 

Chaplet, tshap'let. s. 
A garland or wreath to be worn about the head; 
a string of beads used in the Roman church ; 
in architcQure, a little moulding carved into 
rour.d beads. 

Chapman, tshap'man. s. (ss) 

A cheapiier, one that offers as a purchaser. 

Chaps, tshops. s. 

The mouth ot a beast of prey ; the entrance 
into a channel. 

Chapt, 1 , , 4 , 
Cracked, cleft. 

Chapter, tshap'tur. s. 

A division of a booK ; an assembly of the clergy 
of the cathedral ; the place in which assemblies 
of the clergy arc held. 

Chaptrel, tshap'trel. s. 
The capitals of pillan, or pilasters, which 
support arcbcs. 

Char, tshar