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IN placing this book before the public, I am conscious of its 
short-comings as a narrative having an unbroken interest 
for the general reader. As a fact, I never contemplated writ- 
ing a book of travel, but merely undertook the journey under 
the circumstances detailed in Chapter I. 

To have introduced and enlarged upon personal events, sport, 
the sayings and doings of my followers, etc., would have in- 
creased the size of this work to an alarming degree; for it 
must be remembered that the period dealt with extends over 
three years and five months. Nearly the whole of that time 
I was on the tramp ; and it has been my object to make this a 
guide by which my footsteps may be traced by those interested 
in the exploration of Africa, rather than a personal narrative of 
adventure and travel. 

With this purpose I have principally confined myself to de- 
tailing the particulars of my route ; the peculiarities of the 
country ; the manners and customs of the natives ; the meth- 
ods under which the detestable trafiic in slaves is conducted, 
and the desolation and destruction that follow in its train ; and 
to showing the prospects of opening up and civilizing Africa. 

My. time has also been much occupied in many ways ; and 
had I not received cordial assistance from willing hands, it is 
possible this attempt would never have seen the light. 

The accompanying map, too, has been most carefully pre- 


pared from my numerous notes, observations, and sketcli-maps, 
by Mr, Turner, of the Koyal Geograpbieal Society, and I feel 
every confidence in putting it forward as a thorouglily relia- 
ble guide to my journey from the East to the West Coast of 




The Livingstone Search Expedition. — Motives for Volunteering. — Abandonment of 1873. 

the Search. — A New Expedition decided upon. — Selected for the Command. — De- 

parture from England. — Arrival at Aden. — Zanzibar. — Fitting Out. — Disadvan- 
tages of having arrived with Sir B. Frere's Mission. — Difficulties in obtaining Men. 
— Ordered to push on. — Ill-advised Haste. — The Start from Zanzibar. — Bagamoyo. 
— The French Mission. — A Belooch Commander-in-chief. — Kaoli. — A Banquet. — 
A Fire. — Paying Pagazi. — An Arab Festival Page 17 


Parting Visit to Zanzibar. — Completing Equipment. — French Charlie's Store. — Fare- 
well Dinners. — Our First Campaign. — A Fracas. — Upholding our Dignity. — The 
Father pleads for his Son. — Shamba Gonera. — Visit from Dr. Kirk. — Our First 
Touch of Fever. — A New Volunteer. — Start for Kikoka. — The March. — Alligator- 
shooting. — Deserters 31 


Leaving Kikoka. — Form of Camp. — Mode of Hut-building. — Foraging for Provis- 
ions. — A " Short Cut." — Bombay as a Guide. — A Luckless Cruise. — A Needless 
Scare. — Levy of Mhongo. — Msuwah. — Fortified Villages. — An Artful Dodger. — An 
Arab Caravan. — Offerings to Spirits. — Baobab-trees. — Kisemo. — The Lugerengeri. 
— The Kungwa Hills. — Simbaweni. — Its Queen. — Rumored Terrors of the Makata 
Swamp. — Lazy Porters. — Honor among Deserters 41 

The Makata Swamp. — Mud Traps. — The Makata River. — A Native Bridge. — Trans- 
porting Donkeys. — Rehenneko. — Laid up. — A Strike among the Men. — Routine in 
Camp. — Visitors. — A Swaggering Half-caste. — News from Murphy. — His Arrival. 
— Death of Moffat. — Organizing the Fresh Arrivals. — The Strength of the Expedi- 
tion. — Women and Slaves. — Losses by Death and Desertion. — Armament. — Our 
Dogs and Donkeys. — Ready 56 


Our Porter's Vanity. — A Rocky Gorge. — Camping on a Slope. — An Impudent Beg- 
gar. — Mirambo. — Monster Trees. — Wife -beating. — Its Remedy. — A Blunder and 
its Consequences. — Fortune-seekers. — Several Caravans join us. — An Elephant- 


hunter. — A Distressing Sight. — A Terekesa. — A Dry Country. — Death from Ex- 
haustion. — Water once again. — Strange Doctrine of a " True Behever." — Tembe 
Huts. — The Wadirigo. — A Warlike Race. — Their Arms. — Harvesting. — Bitter 
Waters. — The Marenga MkaH. — Sharp-eyed Wagogo Page 65 


Entry into Ugogo. — Character of the Wagogo. — Defeat of an Arab Expedition. — 
Ugogo. — Water Supply. — A Wake. — Wanyamwezi, and their Ingratitude. — The 
Wagogo. — Extraordinary Ear-rings. — Fantastic Coiffures. — Personal Adornment. 
— A Struggle for Precedence. — Curiously-formed Trees and Excrescences. — As- 
tonishing the Natives. — Adopted Fathers. — A Thieving Tribe. — Bombay in a Fog. 
— A Chilly Morning. — Manufacture of Salt. — Small-pox 76 


Kanyenye. — A Veritable Methuselah. — Harsh-tongued People.— A Drunken Official. 
— Laziness of our Pagazi. — A Fancy for Goggles. — A Little Visitor. — Sambo shot. 
— A Thick Head. — Retributive Justice. — Fines for shedding Blood. — Hyenas. — A 
Rain Spirit. — Pigeon-shooting. — Witchcraft. — The Penalty of Failure. — Wizards 
roasted alive. — Usekhe. — Obsequies of a Chief. — The Wahumba. — Cost of Pro- 
visions. — Admiring Spectators. — Immense Tusks. — A Distressed British Subject. 
— Expenditure in Mhongo 86 


The Mgunda Mkali. — A Serious Misunderstanding. — Restoration of Peace. — Rejoi- 
cing in the Village. — The Mabunguru Nullah. — An Unexpected Chase. — Native 
Farming. — An Intelligent and Industrious People. — Jiwe la Singa. — Compli- 
mentary Beggars. — Moon-struck Askari. — Hatred of Snakes. — Pitfalls. — A Dry 
March. — Burned-up Country. — A Hunter's Paradise. — A Well-fortified Village and 
Well-dressed Chief. — Discovery of a Den of Thieves. — A Haunted Well. — An At- 
tack by Ruga-ruga 99 


Unyanyembe. — Morning Calls. — Excessive Hospitality. — The Fighting Mirambo. — 
The Origin of the Struggle. — The Garrison of Unyanyembe. — Atrocities. — Kidnap- 
ing our Pagazi. — A Letter from Sir S. Baker. — Communication with Mtesa. — A 
Difficulty in his Conversion to Mohammedanism. — Gross Outrage upon a Pagazi. — 
Mutiny among the Askari. — The Unpleasantness of the Situation. — Our Troubles 
and Worries. — Fever and Blindness. — Desertion of Pagazi. — Consequent Expense. 
— Kindness of the Arabs. — An Auction. — Public Sale of Slaves. — The Death of 
Livingstone 112 


Arrival and Reception of Livingstone's Body. — Some Particulars of his Death. — The 
Future of the Expedition. — Its Partial Abandonment. — Murphy resigns. — Dillon 
compelled to turn back. — The Personnel of my Expedition. — Parting from Dillon. 
— I go forward Alone.-;-Troubles of Transport. — I throw away Preserved Provis- 
ions.— A Native Plea for Slavery.— The Death of Dr. Dillon.— A Sad Blow.— Ka- 
s6kerah. — Offended Dignity of Askari. — Shirking their AVork. — Determined Dc- 


serters. — A Pleasant March. — Village Clubs. — A Visit to Murphy. — The Mann^er i874. 

of transporting Livingstone's Body. — Capture of a Thief. — I reduce my Kit. — A 

Dirty and Drunken Chief. — Muscat Donkeys. — The Road blocked Page 125 


Driven back to Hisinene. — A Miserable Christmas. — Superstitions regarding Snakes. 
— Customs of the People. — Dancing, — Cooking Arrangements. — Storing Corn. — 
Their Huts. — Food. — Curing. — Provisions. — Cloth - making. — Grinding Corn. — 
Tribal Marks. — Hair-dressing. — Warned against Mirambo. — A Spy shot. — On the 
Road again. — A Hospitable Old Lady. — Missing the Way. — Sack -making. — An 
Elopement. — Disordered State of the Country. — The South Ngombe. — A Day's 
Shooting. — A Hunter's Story 138 


Ugara. — ^A Ludicrous Sight. — Mirambo's Head-quarters. — Destruction and Desola- 
tion. — The Havoc of the Slave-trade. — A Field for England's Labors. — Leo sur- 
prises the Natives. — Leg Ornaments. — Liowa. — My Pets. — A Lawless Set of Ruf- 
fians. — Heavy Rains. — Bee-nesting. — A Stampede. — Lost in Jungle. — A Panic. — 
Rocky Residences. — An Attempt at Extortion. — I give a Lecture on Hospitality. — 
Its Good Effect. — Nothing to Eat. — " Jasmin " Dtes. — Tameness of my Goat. — 
Unfriendly Villages. — A Buffalo-charge 150 


Floating Islands. — Their Origin and Growth. — Crossing the Sindi. — TJvinza. — A 
Cordial Reception. — Strange Economy. — A Boy Chief. — Curious Visitors. — Cere- 
monious Salutation. — Tattooing. — TJgaga. — Approach of Mirambo, — On our De- 
fense. — Destruction of Several Villages. — Ferry Charges. — A Host of Claimants. — 
The Malagarazi Ferry. — Sambo's Cookery. — Salt-making, — A Considerable Trade. 
— Liquid Snuff. — A Droll Sight. — My Faithful Leo dies. — A Wild Beast in Camp. 
— Sighting Tanganyika. — Arrival at Kawele 161 


Recovery of Livingstone's Papers. — Robbery of my Stores. — Punishment of a Thief. 
— Difficulty in sending the Journals to the East Coast. — The Traders of Kawele. — 
The Native Dress and Ornaments. — Their Markets. — Warundi Body-coloring. — 
Products of the District. — Their Currency. — Hiring Boats. — Curious Mode of Pay- 
ment. — Fitting-out. — I am thought "Unlucky," — My Guides desert Me. — "Negro 
Melodists." — Sailing away on the Tanganyika.— Devils' Dwellings. — Propitiating 
the Spirits. — Slave-hunters 173 


Profitable Slave - buying. — Street Acrobats. — War-paint. — A Bad Night. — Cowardly 
Boat's Crews. — Kabogo. — A Public Entertainment. — Stealing Men's Brains. — 
Coal. — A Honey Demon. — A Plague of Frogs. — Enlargement of the Lake. — Massi 
Kambi. — An Optical Illusion. — Many Devils. — One of my Men shoots Himself. — 
Doctors differ. — Curious Hair-oil. — The Chief of Makukira. — His Dress. — Wives. 
— Dolls. — Infantine Taste for Drink. — Cotton Manufacture. — Spread of the Slave- 
trade. — The Watuta. — Customs and Dress. — Twins 184 




The Art of Pottery. — My Men grow Bolder. — Akalunga. — The Chief. — A Native 
Notion of Portugal. — Granaries. — Strange Mutilation by Women. — Ornaments. — 
The Luwaziwa. — Gorillas. — Hill-side Cultivation. — Spiders. — Mosquitoes, Boils, and 
Sore Feet. — A Strike. — Hot -water Spring. — Waguhha Hair - dressing. — Idols. — 
The Lukuga. — Return to Ujiji. — Letters from Home. — My Men indulge Freely. — 
Arab Opinion of the Lualaba. — Fear of Opposition Traders. — Bombay's Jealousy. 
— Cost of Cutting the Sod in the Lukuga. — I give Readings. — Arson. — Domestic 
Jars. — More Orgies. — Off again Page 204 


Hopeful Prospects. — Ruanda. — Copper. — Bombay's Ingenuity. — An Accident. — Last 
View of Tanganyika. — Dishonest Fellow - travelers. — Meketo. — A Brutal Slave- 
dealer. — Dress and Ornaments. — Weapons. — Fish-dealers. — River-side Scenery. — 
Game. — Skulking Carriers. — Bowl -making. — India-rubber. — A Trying March. — 
Fetich Huts. — A Good Samaritan. — My Men want to turn back. — "Making Broth- 
ers." — An Artist in Oils. — Fearful Imprecations. — Musical Instruments. — Mrs. 
Pakwanywa. — Perforation of Upper Lips. — Dress. — Tattooing. — Charms. — ^A Hot 
Stream. — A Mixed Caravan.'. 223 


Pakhundi. — Foundries. — Dust and Ashes. — Slave-gagging. — Freedmen the Harshest 
Masters. — Salutations. — Disobliging People. — Hair, Dress, Tattooing. — Naked 
People. — Natural Stomachers. — Building Operations. — No Ventilation. — Uvinza. 
— Clay Idols. — Carving. — Arms. — The Arab's Kirangosi. — His Impertinence. — 
Climbing Oil-palms. — My Showman. — The Bambarre Mountains. — Magnificent 
Trees. — A Dark Ravine. — Manyuema. — Dress and Arms. — The Women. — Econo- 
my in Clothing. — Livingstone's Influence. — An Enhghtened Chief. — Dwarfs. — 
Musical Instruments. — Fearful Cannibals. — Dancing. — No Shooting allowed.. 237 


The Luama. — Fisherwomen. — Shooting Hippopotami.-^Open-air Granaries. — Iron. — 
A Burning Country. — Shameful Behavior of Traders. — A Suspension-bridge. — The 
Natives turn upon the Traders. — Contemplated Attack on the Caravan. — Two 
Chiefs treacherously shot. — Villages burned. — Women and Children captured. — 
I plead for Peace. — Influence as an Englishman. — A Palaver. — The Captives arc 
liberated. — My Views are not appreciated. — Foundries. — Smithies. — Manyara 
Dress. — A Drum-major. — The Slaving System. — The Mighty Lualaba. — Going with 
the Stream. — Nyangw6 is reached 251 


Nyangwe. — The Head-man's Harem. — Syde Mezrui is a Fraud. — A Slow Set. — The 
Markets. — The Weaker Sex. — Their Lordly Masters. — Difficulty in obtaining 
Canoes. — Native Opinion of the White Man. — As Others see Us. — An Antislavery 

• Lecture. — A Clear-headed Man of Business. — An Old Impostor. — No Guides. — 
Fighting on the Road. — Ulegga. — The Lualaba and the Nile. — Lake Sankorra. — 
Tipo-tipo. — Crossing the Lualaba. — A Fever Den. — Bad Quarters. — Fishing-weir 


Bridges. — Russuna. — A Brush with the Natives. — Blood-money. — A Check upon 1874, 1875. 

Looting. — Russuna's Wives. — Not Bashful, but Inquisitive. — A State Visit. — Rus- 

suna's Private Village. — The Cares of a Mother-in-law Page 263 


Tipo-tipo's Camp. — Kasongo Visits us in State. — The Ceremony. — Kasongo's Ready 
Assistance. — I become a Gun-smith, Bone-setter, and Soap-boiler. — Kasongo at 
Home. — Sankorra Traders. — Am forbidden to proceed. — Reasons for not using 
Force. — I take Another Route. — Warua Guides. — Export of Slaves from Man- 
yuema. — Their Disposal. — Cause of Increase of Slave-holding. — Ants as a Deli- 
cacy. — Mode of trapping Them. — A Lazy Leader. — Kifuma HospitaUty. — A De- 
sirable Residence. — Carved Door-posts. — A Rifle is stolen. — Fear of Conse- 
quences. — Thankfulness and Gratitude. — Leaving my " Guide " to his own De- 
vices. — Attack on the Caravan. — Fists versus Archery. — Peace 276 


My Goat is stolen. — The Natives become Hostile. — We are fired upon. — Preparing 
for the Worst. — An Exchange of Shots. — Wounding an Important Personage. — A 
Parley. — Negotiations broken oif. — Renewal of the Fighting. — Allowed to depart 
in Peace. — More Treachery. — At it again. — Storming a Village. — The Inhabitants 
bolt. — My Brave Army. — Fort Dinah. — Barricades. — Prisoners of War. — We capt- 
ure an Angel of Peace. — She makes it. — Leaving Fort Dinah. — An Explanation of 
my Intentions. — The Cause of the Attack. — Convivial Mourning. — Green Water as 
Refreshment. — My Guide meets his Mother, and forsakes Me. — Another Queer 
Guide 288 


Jumah Merikani. — Coal. — A Portuguese Trader. — His Followers. — Kasongo's Chief 
Wife. — Jose Antonio Alvez. — His History. — Warned against Muta Yafa. — Lake 
Mohrya. — An Inquisitive Lady. — Peculiarity respecting Names. — Alvez's Habita- 
tion. — Consuming your own "Smoke. — Taking Bilal down a Peg. — Well-fortified 
Villages. — View of Lake Mohrya. — Huts on Piles. — An Amphibious Race. — No 
Visitors allowed. — A Spiritualistic Medium. — Skulls of Old Enemies. — Urua. — 
Kasongo's Dominion. — Its Government. — The Social Scale among Warua. — Muti- 
lation for Small Offenses. — Kasongo professes to be a God. — His Morals. — His 
Family Harem. — Unfaithful Wives. — Kasongo's Bedroom Furniture. — Rule as to 
Fires and Cooking. — Devil-huts and Idols . . . -."t 298 


A Fair Deceiver. — Marriage Ceremony. — The Youthful but Unblushing Bride. — A 
Mountain Gap. — Grand Thunder-storm. — Lake Kassali. — Not allowed to visit It. — 
Return of a Chief. — Medicine-men. — Their Dress. — Ventriloquism. — They impose 
upon the Public. — Am Suspected of possessing Power to dry up the Lake. — Nar- 
row Escape of my Messengers. — Manufacture of Floating Islands. — Jumah Meri- 
kani's Kindness. — Strange Tales. — Lion -tamers. — Deadly Shade. — Sculpture. — 
Cave-dwellings. — Poisonous Water. — A Tribe of Lepers. — My Occupations. — Ka-. 
songo's Wives. — Their Shocking Behavior. — A Performer of Tricks. — Kasongo 
returns. — His Band play me Home. — Their Excruciating Performance 31 



A Horde of Ruffians. — A Thorough Blackguard. — A King among Beggars. — Wives 
and Families visit Me. — Mutilated Men. — Kasongo's Vanity. — His Message to her 
Majesty. — He takes me for a Ghost. — Xo Guides or Escort Obtainable. — Abandon- 
ment of my Fondest Hope. — Honest Alvez. — He lies like Truth. — Plotting. — The 
Levee. — Warned and armed. — The Ceremony. — Salaams of the Chiefs. — Biting 
the Dust. — Speeches. — Deceit. — Sleeping with Deceased Wives. — Obliged to build 
Kasongo's House. — Cruelty of Portuguese Slave-traders. — Delays. — Desertion. — 
Jumah Merikani sends Deserters a Warning. — Funeral Rites of a Chief. — Wives 
buried Alive with Hira. — Blood shed over his Grave. — Kasongo's Harsh Rule. — 
His Demoniacal Frenzies. — Fire in Camp Page 324 


Making " Medicine " against Fire. — An Elaborate Operation. — Kasongo's Importu- 
nate Begging. — Disgraceful Conduct of Alvez's People. — No Alercy for the Weak. 
— Cringing to the Strong. — Jumah Merikani's Generosity. — The "Fiend Stream." 
— Strange Trees. — My Men mistake Pombe for Water. — Swamps and Bogs. — 
Many Slips. — " Sloughs of Despond." — Enormous Ant-hills. — A Monarch dreaded 
by his People. — Surpassing his Predecessors in Cruelty. — The Biter bit. — A Wel- 
come Present. — Playing with Fire-arms. — I frighten a Chief out of his Village. — 
Alvez's Tactics. — A New Arrival. — Endeavors to obtain Allies 338 


Another Fire. — " Medicine " a Delu.sion. — Havoc and Desolation. — Coimbra's Capt- 
ures. — Unmerciful Treatment of Women. — He calls Himself a Christian. — Mis- 
ery and Loss of Life. — Abuse of the Portuguese Flag. — Alvez shares the Flesh 
and Blood. — The Lovol. — Limit of Oil -palms. — Composition of the Caravan. — 
Fire again. — Fortification of Msoa. — Mshiri. — "A very Bad Man." — His Power. — 
His Followers. — Trade in Slaves increasing. — Its Result. — Fate of the Women- 
slaves. — Probable Export. — Gods of War. — Excessive Heat. — Our Coldest Night. 
— Alvez loses Slaves. — His Lamentations. — Am taken for a Devil. — Mournful Pro- 
cession of Slaves. — Vivisection practiced on a Woman. — Bee-keeping 349 


Ulunda. — Bom in Slavery. — Elephant Ragout. — Alvez dodges Me. — Compelled to 
follow Him. — The Walunda. — A Dirty Race. — Curious Fare. — Returning Thanks. 
— Remarkably Small Huts. — I drop into a Pitfall. — My Rifle gives Satisfaction. — 
■Zebra. — A Cold Dip. — Ice in August. — Lovale People pushing eastward. — Coward- 
ly Demeanor of Bihe Men. — Kafundango. — Escape of a Slave-gang. — Their Cruel 
Treatment. — Maternal Affection. — Savage Manners of Lovale Men. — Extortion. — 
Rudeness of Dress. — Clever Tron - workers. — Arrow-heads and Hatchets. — Beef 
once again, but not for Me. — Numerous Fetiches 361 


Joao, the White Trader. — Putrid Fish.— Dishonesty of the Noble Savage. — Festive 
Natives. — Scanty Apparel. — Elal)orate Hair-dressing. — Cataracts. — Sha Kelemb6. 
— Alvez proves Fickle. — Exchanging a Wife for a Cow. — An Attempted Bur- 


glary. — Baffled. — The Thief's Comphiint. — Unparalleled Audacity. — Revengeful 1875. 

Threats. — Smelting-furnace. — High-flavored Provisions. — Sambo chaffs a Chief. — 

Forest. — A Well-dressed Caravan. — Wanted a Dairy-maid. — Friendliness of Mona 
Peho. — A Well-ventilated Suit of Clothes. — " Sham Devils." — Blacksmiths. — Am 
believed to be a Lunatic. — Alvez's Reputation among Traders. — I sell my Shirts 
for Food. — A Village eaten up by a Serpent. — An Eclipse Page 375 


The Kwanza. — Its Navigation. — Neat Villages. — Convivial Gathering. — A Head of 
Hair. — Cattle-plague. — The Kokema. — Filthy Villages. — A Lively Chase. — Recep- 
tion of Alvez. — Payment of his Porters. — Soap and Onions. — My Ragged Crew. — 
Alvez cheats Me at parting. — A Man in Tears. — An Archery-meeting. — A Torna- 
do. — The Town of Kagnombe. — Its Size. — Kagnombe's Officials. — A Secretary un- 
able to write. — Mshiri's Men. — Their Journeys from Coast to Coast. — Kagnombe's 
Levee. — ^My Seat of Honor. — His Full Style and Title. — His Guards. — His Hat. — 
Senhor Gon9alves. — The Influence of Men of his Type 389 


Joao's Settlement. — His Official Position. — Openly trading in Slaves. — Bad Speci- 
men of the White Man. — A Fetich-man. — Fortune-telling. — Charms. — Infallible 
Cures. — Arms for Kasongo. — Probable Result. — Belmont. — Miserable Work. — 
Buffalo Herd. — Opposition by Bihe People. — Civility of the Chiefs. — The Kutato. 
— An Extraordinary River. — Dangerous Crossing. — Subterranean Streams. — Run- 
gi. — Suspected of the Evil Eye. — A Fetich-man declares Me free. — Untrustworthy 
Postmen. — Making and mending Clothes. — A Portuguese in Pawn. — A Festival. 
— Drink and Debauchery. — A Superior Chief. — Rheumatism. — A Glimpse of Para- 
dise. — Visit to King Kongo. — Housed and fed by the Prime Minister's Wife. — 
The King's own Hut. — His Dress 402 


My Dispirited Crew. — Native Bridges. — Bad Weather. — Secure Dwellings. — Break- 
down of my Men. — A Man missing. — Fallen out by the Roadside. — A Fearful 
Night. — Searching for the Straggler. — Delay Dangerous. — The Straggler arrives. — 
Past Recovery. — His Death and Burial. — Locusts. — The Slave-trade on the Coast. 
— Mode of Embarkation. — Failing Strength of my Carriers. — I throw away Tent, 
Boat, Bed, etc. — A Rush for the Coast. — Our Highest Camp. — Gay Umljrellas. — 
A Mulatto Settlement. — Cascades. — Numerous- L'p Caravans. — Their Trade. — No 
Food left. — Search for a Camp. — Djad-beat. — A Tedious March. — Skeletons of 
Slavers' Victims. — Starvation and Exhaustion. — The Sea. — Leaving the Worn-out 
Men behind.— The Final Effort. — Scurvj' attacks Me.— Help 417 


Peace and Plenty. — Katorabela. — My Illness increases. — Carried to Benguela. — Med- 
ical Advice and Good Nursing. — My Recovery. — Arrival of my Stragglers. — Death 
of Another Man. — Bombay's Objectionable Behavior. — An Original Character. — 
Benguela. — Its Tumble-down Fort. — Convict Soldiers. — Their Loyalty. — My Men 
indulge too freely. — Arrival at Loanda. — Reception by the Consul. — Courtesy of 
the Governor. — An Amusing Incident. — My Men object to their Quarters. — Prepar- 


ing to send them Home. — Purchase of a Schooner. — 'Fitting her out. — Visit to 
Kinsembo. — \o Charts Obtainable. — A Windfall. — Homeward bound. — Safe at 
Home Page 433 


Formation of the Continent. — River Basins. — Deserts. — The Water-sheds. — Zambesi. 
— Kongo. — Physical Geography. — Useghara Mountains. — Fertile Soil. — The Lu- 
gerengeri Valley. — The Kungwa Hills. — Gum -copal. — Timber-trees. — ^Fauna. — 
Snakes. — The Mukondokwa Valley. — Lake Ugombo. — Mpwapwa. — Barren Soil. — 
The Marenga Mkali. — Ugogo. — A Dried-up Country. — Ziwas. — Kanyeuye. — Use- 
khe.— Granite.— Khoko.— The Vale of Mdaburu.— The " Fiery Field " 444 


The Lake System of Central Africa. — A Flaw in some Ancient Upheaval. — Correct 
Position of the Tanganyika. — Kawele. — Ras Kungwe. — Kabogo Island. — Ruguvu. 
— Coal. — Rapid Encroachment of the Lake upon its Shores. — Formation of Cliffs. 
— Remains of an Inland Sea. — Makakomo Islands. — Gradual Disappearance. — 
Constant Additions from Main-land. — Ras Musungi. — Loose Masses of Granite. — 
Weather-worn Cliffs. — Fantastic Forms. — Xumerous Land-slips. — Black Beaches. 
— The West of Tanganyika. — A New Geographical Region. — The Rugumba. — 
Black Speculum Ore. — The Kilimachio Hills. — Affluents of the Lualaba. — Under- 
ground Dwellings. — The Lualaba and Kongo. — Changes in River Channels. — Bee- 
culture. — A Barren Waste. — A Fertile Flat 458 


Africa's Future. — Slaves and Other Articles of Commerce. — Trade Routes. — E.xport 
of India-rubber increasing. — Internal Slave-trade. — Ivory Supply. — Products. — 
Sugar - canes. — Cotton. — Oil Palm. — Coffee. — Tobacco. — Sesamum. — Castor - oil. — 
The Mpafu-tree. — Nutmegs. — Pepper. — Timber. — Rice. — Wheat. — KaflSr Corn. — 
Indian Corn. — India-rubber. — Copal. — Hemp. — Ivory. — Hides. — Bees-wax. — Iron. 
— Coal. — Copper. — Gold. — Silver. — Cinnabar. — Mission Work. — Commercial En- 
terprise. — Establishment of Depots. — Scheme for advancing into the Interior. — 
Light Railways. — Steamers on Rivers. — Probable Results. — Shall Slavery con- 
tinue ? — How to stamp it out, and make .tVfrica Free 470 

Appendix 1 483 

Appendix II 489 

Index 499 


Large Map, suo\vi>g Autuok's Route. 

[/?i Pocket at Beginning of Book. 


Looking back over Makata Swamp 

Papep. op Recommendation issued by Khedive {foe-simile) To, 

Camp at Msuvvau 


Letter from Jacob Wainweigut reporting Deatu of Dr. Livingstone 

SoKO at Kawele 

Village of Kitata, Tanganyika Lake 

Rawlinson Mountains 

Camp at Meketo 

Crossing tub Lugungwa River 

Village in Man yuema 


Crossing tub Luama River 

Waiting for Canoes 


Crossing tub Rovubu River .' 

Crossing the Lukazi River 

Fort Dinah 

Scene in Alvez's Boma 

Lake Mohrya, or Realmah 

Warua Wag anga 


Kasongo's Mussumba 

SoESE IN Camp 

Camp at Lui^anda 

Page of Journal when Paper was running Short {facsimile)... 

Crossing the Lukoji 

Village of Sona Bazii 

The Hospitable Settlement of Senhoe Gonoalves, Bihe 

Mountains between Bailunda and Coast 

Hill and Village of Humbi .r^ 

Maison C auohoix 

Part of a Bill of Lading for Slaves from Loanda {facsimile). 

. Frontispiece, 
face page 20 

' 40 

' 112 

' 123 

' 176 

' 195 

' 204 

' 227 

' 230 

' 245 

' 248 

' 252 

' 260 

' 262 

' 271 


' 2S5 

' 291 

' 301 

' 303 

' 315 

' 31T 

' 322 

' 331 

' 356 

' 360 

' 305 

' 366 

' 399 

' 411 

' 418 

' 433 

' 472 


Steamer Point, Aden 21 

Dhows 29 

View iu Bagamoyo 33 

Camp at Shamba Gout-ra 36 

Loaded Donkey and Pagazi 40 

Bombay and Two Cluiins 43 

Return of the Deserter 55 

Camp 5S 

Riding Donkeys 63 

African Fire-place 64 

Tembe 73 

Earthen Pot, Ugo.KO 75 

Arms and Ornaments 79 

Ziwa, near Mpanga Sanga S3 

View in Ugogo 84 

Heads 85 



Rocky Hills iu Vs^okhe 90 

Camp, Usekhe 91 

Rocks, Ust-khe 93 

Enormous Sycamores 95 

Haltiug-place uesr a Poud 101 

Village in Unyauyembe .... 110 

Plan of House at Kwiharah 1 13 

A Good Cook. Price Two Hundred Dol- 
lars 123 

Manner of fettering: Slaves 124 

Plan of Dr. Dillon's Route 130 

Drums 130 

Zebra 139 

Ants' Nest 14S 

Buffalo charging Caravan ICO 

Crossing Malagarazi 160 

Crossing Rusugi 169 

Arms 171 

Ujiji Pottery 182 

Camp on Spit 190 

An Inhabitant of Massi Kambi 192 

Brother Rocks 194 

Tanganyika Fishes 201 

Watuta Woman 202 

" Tembo, Bwana !" 206 

King Miriro and his Granarj- 207 

Heads of Waguhha and other Lake Tribes. 214 
Entrance to Lukuga, or Marie Alexandrov- 

na 215 

Bay in Kivira Island 217 

Bow-stands of Waguhha 221 

Head of Uguhha W" omau 224 

A "Hauda" 225 

Whistle, Pillow, and Hatchet 227 

Dress and Tattooing of Woman of Uguh- 
ha 22S 

Mrna Fish-monger 229 

Drum and Idol 231 

Idols 231 

Women of Ubudj wa 235 

Charms 236 

Huts in Uhiya 241 

Carved Stick 242 

Heads of Men of Manyuenia 246 

People of Many nema 247 

Women going Fishing 249 

Sambo 250 

Karuugu 254 

Hills on Road to Mauyara 257 

Coming to Market 200 

Nyangwe from the River 261 

Pottery .■ 265 

Market Women, Nyangwe 205 

Russiina and a Wife 272 

Russuua's Shield and Drum 273 

Sub-chief. 274 

KiugKasougo 277 


W'arua Guides 2S0 

Hut at Kifuma 283 

African Adjutants at Kasenge 286 

Village Forge 287 

A Native of Mpanga Sauga 293 

Salt-making 296 

Birds 297 

Hut iu Mohrya 304 

AVarua Slave-driver and Slave 809 

Wedding Dance 311 

Chief of Kow^edi 313 

Kasongo's Band 322 

Coimbra 325 

Bird 333 

Jumah 335 

Kasongo's House 336 

Hair-dressing 337 

Njivi Marsh 344 

Heads 345 

Lunga Mandi's Son 347 

Pottery 348 

Sceue on the Road 351 

Village of Kawala 355 

Slave-gang 357 

Hut in Uliinda 360 

Village in Ulunda 363 

Bow, Spears, Hatchets, and Arrow-heads. 368 

Head-dress 369 

Head-dress and Hatchet 370 

Village in Lovale 371 

Fetich Hut 372 

Game Traps 373 

Hair-dressing 374 

Arms and Ornaments 377 

Crossing a Stream 380 

Sham Devil at Mona Peho's 384 

Sham Devil 385 

Kimbandi's Head-dress. 387 

Sham Devils 388 

Head of Hair at Kepeka 391 

Alvez's Settlement 393 

Village iu Bihe 395 

Knives 397 

Trap for Game 401 

Porters from Bihe 407 

Kambala 412 

Visit to King Kongo 413 

Pounding Corn at Kambala 414 

Temba Lui (the " Devil's Finger ") 415 

People of Kisanji 428 

Scene on Road 432 

Custom-house at Benguela 436 

Sierra Leone 442 

Victor Emmanuel Mountains, Lake Tan- 
ganyika 456 

A Group of Pagazi 468 

Color Party 4S1 



The Livingstone Search Expedition. — Motives for Volunteering. — Abandonment of 
the Search. — A New Expedition decided upon. — Selected for the Command. — De- 
parture from England. — Arrival at Aden. — Zanzibar. — Fitting Out. — Disadvan- 
tages of having arrived with Sir B. Frere's Mission. — Difficulties in obtaining Men. 
— Ordered to push on. — Ill-advised Haste. — The Start from Zanzil^ar. — Bagamoyo. 
— The French Mission. — A Belooch Commander-in-chief. — Kaoli. — A Banquet. — 
A Fire. — Paying Pagazi. — An Arab Festival. 

Long ago, when serving as senior lieutenant of H.M.S. Star, 1872. 
on the East Coast of Africa, I had full opportunity of seeing 
some of the cruelties and atrocities connected with the slave- 
trade ; and the sufferings which I witnessed on board the dhows 
— such as have been so graphically described by Captain G. L. 
Sulivan, K.K., in "Dhow Chasing in Zanzibar Waters" — awoke 
in me a strong desire to take some further part in the suppres- 
sion of the inhuman traffic. 

I soon became convinced that unless it could be attacked at 
its source in the interior of the continent, all attempts at its 
suppression on the coast M'ould be but a poor palliation of the 
fearful evil. 

I am, however, far from laying claim to having been actuated 
solely by purely philanthropic motives, as some time previous- 
ly my aspirations for travel and discovery had been excited 
by reading papers descriptive of the expedition of Burton and 
Speke in Somali land. And I became still more anxious to 
undertake some exjjloration in Africa on hearing that Arab 
merchants from Zanzibar had reached the West Coast ; for I 
felt convinced that what had been accomplished by an Arab 
trader was equally possible to an English naval officer. 


1872. After the Star was put out of commission, I ^vas appointed 

to the Steam Reserve at Slieerness; and my efforts to obtain 
more active emi^loyment being ineffectual, I volunteered my 
services to the Royal Geographical Society to go in search of 
Dr. Livingstone, and render him any assistance possible, it be- 
ing supposed at that moment that the expedition under Mr. 
Stanley had failed. 

Soon after this, subscriptions were opened for the "Living- 
stone Search Expedition ;" but it was not my fortune to be se- 
lected by the Royal Geographical Society, the command being 
given' to Lieutenant L. S. Dawson, R.N., an officer eminently 
fitted for the post both by his scientific attainments and i^hys- 
ical powers. 

L'nfortunately, when this exjDedition was about to start from 
Bagamoyo, it was deterred from proceeding farther by the news 
brought to the coast by Mr. Stanley, of the New York Herald. 
This was to the effect that Livingstone had already been re- 
lieved, and objected to any "slave expedition'' being sent to 
him. In consequence of this unfortunate misapprehension of 
Dr. Livingstone's dispatches. Lieutenant Dawson, suj)posing 
that his expedition would no longer be required, resigned the 

Lieutenant Henn, R.]^., then took charge, with the full in- 
tention of proceeding, but was also persuaded to throw it up, 
though much against his wish. 

UlDon Oswell Livingstone, a son of the doctor, the leadership 
then devolved. But after a time he renounced the idea of pro- 
ceeding up country to join his father; and thus a most care- 
fully organized exj^edition, which possessed most, if not all, the 
requisites for a complete success, was abandoned. 

Mr. New, another member, withdrew with Lieutenant Daw- 
son, and the services of a gentleman well versed in African 
character, having a competent knowledge of Kisuahili, and ac- 
customed to African travel, were thus lost. I may here men- 
tion how great was my regret, soon after arriving at Loanda, to 
hear of the death of Mr. New. lie was a single-minded, brave, 
and honest man, who devoted himself to the task of bettering 
the condition of the natives of Africa, and in so doing sacrificed 

a valuable life. 


Althougli disaj)pointed at my failing to obtain the command 1872. 
of this expedition, I still entertained some hope of leading an- 
other, and carrying ont the project which I had so much at 
heart, and therefore determined to further prepare myself for 
the undertaking by studying the Suahili language. 

Of the difficulties entailed by such a service I had gained 
some knowledge from eight months passed in the Eed Sea dur- 
ing the Abyssinian war, and nearly three years on the East 
Coast of Africa, much of which period was s]5ent in open boats. 
With this experience of work in a hot climate, added to my 
having suffered severely from fever at Zanzibar, it was not 
without counting the cost that, as soon as Dawson's expedition 
was reported to have been broken up, I volunteered to j^roceed 
to join Dr. Livingstone, taking with me such instruments and 
stores as he might require, and offering to place my services 
unreservedly at his disposal. 

This was in June, 1872, but no intention of sending out an- 
other expedition to assist our great traveler appeared then to 
be entertained. 

I next drew up a scheme for the exploration of the route to 
Victoria Nyanza via Mounts Kilima Njaro and Kenia and the 
volcano reported to lie to the north of them — thus passing 
close to the water-shed between the coast rivers and the feeders 
of the Victoria Nyanza — and, after surveying that lake, to work 
my way to the Albert l^yanza or Mwuta Nzige, and thence 
through Ulegga to Nyangwe and down the Kongo to the West 

The latter part of this route is now being attempted by Mr. 
Stanley, one of the most successful and energetic of African 
travelers, under the auspices of ihe^New York Herald and the 
Daily Telegraph. 

In this I was encouraged and assisted by Mr. Clements Mark- 
ham, C.B. ; and to his counsel and kindly help in many mat- 
ters intimately connected with my African travels I am deeply 

The Council of the Geographical Society were, however, of 
opinion that this scheme, thongh meeting with the approval 
of some of its most eminent members, could not be carried out 
with the funds at their disposal. 


It was afterward decided to utilize tlie surplus remaining 
from the subscriptions to the first Livingstone Search Expe- 
dition in fitting out another. This was intended to be placed 
entirely under the orders of Dr. Livingstone for the purpose 
of supplementing his great discoveries, in the prosecution of 
which he had on that last journey — extending over a period of 
nearly seven years, and brought to a close only by the national 
misfortune of his death — patiently and unremittingly toiled, 
besides having previously devoted twenty years of his life to 
the cause of the regeneration and civilization of Africa. 

For the new command I had the hapj^iness of being selected, 
and the Council kindly allowed Mr. W. E. Dillon, assistant sur- 
geon — one of my dearest friends and an old messmate — to ac- 
company me, for wdiich purpose he resigned an appointment he 
then held. 

lie was admirably adapted for the work, and, had his life 
been spared to cross the continent with me, would have been 
of incalculable assistance and comfort in my various difficulties 
and troubles. His unvarying kindness and tact, in his inter- 
course with the men of the expedition, was the greatest help to 
me during our journey to Unyanyembc, and, indeed, I can not 
pay a sufficient testimony of gratitude and honor to his memory. 

Dr. Dillon and I left England on the 30th of ^November, 
1872 — the same day on which. Lieutenant Grandy and his 
brother left Liverpool for the West Coast — in order to join Sir 
Bartle Frere at Brindisi, hoping to get a passage on board the 
Enchantress with his mission to Zanzibar. But her accommo- 
dation was too limited to allow of our being received on board. 

Thus we lost the advantage we had anticipated of obtaining 
some instruction in Arabic and Kisuahili kindly promised by 
the secretary of the legation, the Rev. Percy Badger. Kemain- 
ing at Brindisi until Sir Bartle Frere's arrival, we then took 
passage in the P. and O. steamer Malta to Alexandria. We ac- 
companied Sir Bartle Frere to Cairo, where he procured a let- 
ter from II. 11. the Khedive commending us to the care of the 
Egyptian officials in the Soudan, and ordering them to give us 
every assistance. 

This document proved of service with Aral)s in the interior, 
who had all heard both of the Khedive and the Sultan of Tur- 

f^^'-f ^,^.?'^ ^'>Jl ^ Ur/^Cj>, ^<j c/./b'cr: O.ji^'^ ^^' r^U' ^' 

Tbinsi.atton.1 jaOTICE. 

To time in Command under the Authority of Egypt in the to''' »/ Soudan 

To those ,n Conmand under '"'^f"'"'"f YJJe li.l. Ha^and Dr. Dillon, esteemed in the service of the said Government, are 
H hcreas Lient. Cameron, an Ojf,ecr of lU Boyal mu J' i/.rse parts to explore the mkno,rn rcgwns. 

.d,n,,oCentralAfr^^^^ -'* "«-.'"«' '" ^- '^^ proteet.n ^ all s,Ue, to 

All Oflicrrs ot Eyypt. and Kuiris. and Shnkhs, are rcqntuu 

a >- 


' Oflicrrs of Eyypt, 
assist and help them on their journey as may he required. 
This is Our putjlic order to that end issued accordingly. 

Dated 28th Hty, 1289. 

True Tramlalion— ./0//A' KlItK. 


key, although we never came across any of those for whom it December, 
was particularly intended. ^^'^2- 

After a short stay at Cairo we went to Suez, and thence by 
the Australia to Aden, where we were very kindly received by 
the resident, Brigadier-general Schneider, Colonel Penn (" steel 
pen " of Abyssinian fame), and the rest of the garrison ; and 
from Dr. Shepheard, P.M.O., we received a most valuable sup- 
ply of quinine, a sine qua noii in Afi'ican travel. 


While here. Dr. Badger obtained for us from a Santon, named 
Alowy ibn Zain et Aldus, a letter recommending us to the care 
and consideration of all good Moslems in Africa, and this we 
found the most useful of all our papers. 

Lieutenant Cecil Murphy, R.A., acting commissary of ord- 
nance, here volunteered to accompany the expedition, provided 
the Government of India would consent to continue his Indian 
pay and allowances ; and this being granted after our depart- 
ure, he joined us at Zanzibar by the next mail. 

Our anticipations that H.M.S. Briton would have taken us 
to Zanzibar were doomed to disappointment, for she had al- 
ready sailed. "VVe had therefore to await the departure of the 
mail-steamer Punjab, Captain Hansard, in which we j)roceeded. 
Colonel Lewis Belly, political agent at Muscat, and Kazi Shah 


January, Budin, a gentleman appointed by H.H. tlie Kao of Kutch to 
^^'^'^- accompany Sir Bartle Frere to Zanzibar, and to use his infln- 
ence with the subjects of the Rao in support of the objects of 
the mission, were our fellow-passengers. 

When I arrived at Zanzibar, I was laid up with fever, which 
had attacked me a day or two previously ; and as Dr. Kirk's 
house was fully occupied by those who had already gone ashore 
from the Enchantress, Dillon and myself took up our abode 
in the hitherto untenanted English jail. There was plenty of 
room for our stores, and with native bedsteads, chairs, etc., we 
were soon comfortably housed. However, some old messmates 
of mine. Lieutenants Fellowes and Stringer, kindly took me off 
to the Briton, and looked after me on board until I was tolera- 
bly well again. 

AVhen sufficiently recovered to go ashore, I rejoined Dillon, 
who had already laid in some stores, and we at once began to 
look out for men and donkeys. We also secured the services 
of Bombay (Mbarak Mombee), the chief of Speke's faithfuls, 
which at the time we thought of great importance on account 
of his previous experience. 

But he rather presumed on our ignorance, and we soon learned 
that, however useful he might have been in days gone by, he 
was not the best man to consult in fitting out an expedition, 
not having sufficient readiness and knowledge to advise us as 
to the most serviceable things with wdiich to supply ourselves. 
He had, besides, lost much of the energy he displayed in his 
journeys with our predecessors in African travel, and was much 
inclined to trade upon his previous reputation ; but the high 
opinion we had formed of him at first blinded us to his many 

The fact of our having arrived on the scene with Sir Bartle 
Frere caused us to be inseparably connected by the Arabs, Wa- 
suahili and Wamerima, with the mission upon which he was 
engaged, and this occasioned us numerous vexatious troubles 
and enormous expense, besides being ])rejudicial to the inter- 
ests of the expedition. 

In the first place, they naturally supposed that we were in 
the employ of the English Government, and therefore ought to 
pay twice or three times the ordinary price for men and stores. 


All "svlio thus defrauded us considered themselves perfectly February, 
justified in cheating a government so rich and liberal as ours ^^''^■ 
has the reputation of being, although they would have had far 
greater scruples about swindling private individuals. 

In the second place, owing to the avowed intention of the 
mission to abolish the slave-trade, we were thwarted and im- 
posed upon in various underhand ways by the lower classes of 
the Wasuahili and Wamerima. 

In addition to this, our orders being to push on with all dis- 
patch and at all hazards, we were obliged to accept the riii-raff 
and outscourings of the bazaars of Zanzibar and Bagamoyo, in- 
stead of waiting for regular porters, and also had to pay them 
double the hire of better men. 

This scarcity of porters was owing to the season of the year, 
as the usual time for the up caravans had long passed, and no 
down caravans had yet arrived. 

We had, therefore, to march through the worst part of the 
rainy season with a number of men of whom not more than a 
tenth had ever before traveled any distance into the interior, 
and who, not being accustomed to carrying loads, gave trouble 
at almost every step by straggling and laziness. 

Nor did the evil end here, for the majority of the men were 
thieves, and pilfered unceasingly from their loads. Indeed, the 
effects of this ill-advised haste in starting pursued me through- 
out my journey across the continent. 

Bombay was commissioned to find us thirty good men and 
true, to be our soldiers, servants, and donkey - drivers. He 
promised all diligence and obedience, and while within ken of 
the English consulate exerted himself apparently to the best of 
his power. I afterward learned that he picked up his men any- 
where in the bazaar, and a motley crew they proved. 

Besides these thirty askari, we engaged a few men as porters, 
and bought twelve or thirteen donkeys at an average price of 
eighteen dollars a head. 

We then embarked with our stores, men, and beasts, in two 
hired dhows, and left Zanzibar early on Sunday morning, Feb- 
ruary 2d, 1873, and passing through the ships of the scpiadron 
with the union-jack and white ensign flying, made our way with 
a fair wind to Bagamoyo, arriving there the same afternoon. 


February, Bagamojo, the principa,! point of departure for caravans 

1873. bound to Unyanyembe and the countries beyond, is a town on 

the main -land directly opposite Zanzibar. It is hidden from 

the sea by sand-hills, but marked by the tall cocoa-nut palms 

which always indicate the habitationfe of man on this coast. 

It consists of one long straggling street wdth a few stone 
houses, the rest being mere huts of wattle and dab, having huge 
sloping roofs thatched with the plaited fronds of the cocoa-nut 
palm ; and it boasts of two or three mosques, frequented only 
on high -days and holidays. A varied assemblage of Indian 
merchants, Arabs, Wasuahili, and Wamerima, slaves and "Wan- 
yamwezi pagazi, compose its population. 

Taking wath us only a few necessaries, we went on shore to 
look for lodgings, and were met, on landing, by a messenger 
from the French mission, shortly followed by Pere Horner and 
one of the lay brothers, who came to offer their assistance. 

After a great deal of chaffering and bargaining, we hired for 
ourselves the upper rooms of a stone house, the owner, Abdul- 
lah Dina (a Koja), taking twenty-five dollars instead of the for- 
ty-five he had at first asked. For our men and stores we se- 
cured a house which belonged to Jemidar Issa, the comman- 
dant of the Balooch garrison of H.H. Syd Burghash. 

Early the next morning we superintended landing cargo, go- 
ing backward and forward the whole time between head-qiTar- 
ters, barracks, and beach. Yet, notwithstanding all our care, a 
bag of salt, a case of parafiine, one of preserved meats, and, of 
still greater importance, our large cooking-lamp, were missing 
when the debarkation was completed. 

At first we were disposed to blame a Hindi whom we had 
engaged at Zanzibar to look after the transport of our stores; 
l)ut I l)elieve carelessness, and not dishonesty, was his failing in 
this instance. 

Jemidar Issa readily gave us permission to fly the colors and 
post sentries at head -quarters and barracks, and returned our 
call in the forenoon, offering us all the courtesies and assistance 
in his powei". 

We told him of our losses, and he promised redress. But as 
this consisted only in the offer of putting the unfortunate Hin- 
di in irons, and sending him over to the sultan for further pun- 


isliment, we declined this friendly proposal, and made np our February, 
minds to bear our losses philosophically. ^^'^'^• 

At the conclnsion of our morning's work, we paid a visit to 
the French mission, to which we had been invited, meeting on 
our way two donkeys with European saddles and bridles kindly 
sent for our use. After luncheon we went over the well-culti- 
vated grounds and plantations, where bread-fruit-trees and veg- 
etables, including asparagus and French beans, grew in abun- 
dance, and then visited the buildings, nearly the whole of which 
were greatly damaged in the hurricane of 1872. 

About three hundred children were being trained here to 
different trades and useful callings, and a school for girls was 
placed under the control of the Sisters belonging to the mis- 
sion. In the boys' dormitories the arrangements were very 
simple, the beds consisting merely of a couple of planks. on 
iron sujjports, with a few yards of merikani to serve as mattress 
and bedclothes, and in each room was a small screened space 
for the brother in charge. 

A new chapel was being erected outside the former building, 
portions of which were removed as the other progressed ; and 
though this was rather slow work, owing to the scarcity of la- 
bor and the laziness of the natives, yet by this arrangement the 
religious services were never interrupted. 

The foundation of a new stone (pucka) building had also 
been laid, and, when completed, was to be used as a dwelling- 
house and school. 

The fathers seem to be laboring hard, and doing a good 
work both by precept and examples-find amidst their many dif- 
ficulties are cheerful and confident ; and I have no doubt their 
efforts will tend much toward the civilization of this part of 

Nothing could exceed the kindness and attention shown to 
us by these estimable men during our stay at Bagamoyo. They 
frequently sent us vegetables and bundles of palmiste for salad, 
and on one occasion a quarter of wild boar, which, in the in 
efficient state of our cooking appliances, was not a trifle tanta 
lizing, as we could devise no means of dressing it ourselves, a;nd 
our followers — Mohammedan in nothing but their prejudices- 
declined to touch it. 


February, Our Koja landlord, Abdullah Dina, was so jealous of tlie fe- 
^^"^^^ male portion of liis domestic circle, that he padlocked the door 
leading to the stairs outside the house, and put up a most in- 
convenient ladder instead. His object was to keep us from 
passing through the small portion of the yard into which our 
stairs led, although it was already divided from the other part 
by a railing filled up with reeds, and quite sufficient to prevent 
our infidel eyes from spying out the secrets of his harem. 

A few days after our arrival, Jemidar Sabr, commanding all 
the sultan's troops on this portion of the coast, called on us 
with a following like a Highland chieftain. They were all red- 
olent with dirt and grease, and covered with bucklers, j^istols, 
swords, spears, and matchlocks, as though they had ransacked 
the stores of some transpontine theatre. 

The leader of this imposing retinue was not- above begging 
for a dustoori of a few dollars ; nor was Jemidar Issa one whit 
behind him in this respect, besides always asking for a little 
brandy as medicine. 

Jemidar Issa promised to accompany us the next morning to 
Kaoli to return the call of Jemidar Sabr ; but as he did not put 
in an aj)pearance at the apj)ointed hour, we went down to his 
house, and found him in his usual dirty shirt. 

He immediately proceeded to array himself by putting on a 
gorgeous turban and a scarf, into which he thrust his dagger, an 
elaborately gilt French breech -loading revolver, for which he 
had no cartridges, and a single -barreled flint-lock pistol. He 
then hung his sword and shield over his shoulder, gave his san- 
dals to his henchman, and was ready to start. 

The retainer was dressed in an old Kaniki loin-cloth and fez 
cap, and carried an ancient fire-arm that could not be induced 
to go off when the salute was fired on our entrance to Kaoli. 

We took as an escort, in order to appear in due state, four of 
our askari, in their uniform and armed with rifles, commanded 
by Bilal, whom we had rated second to Bombay. And, after 
some persuasion, they actually marched two and two, carrying 
their rifles at the trail or an approach to the slope, until the 
paths grew so narrow^ that it was necessary to walk in single 

After passing through the main street of Bagamoyo and 

I.] KAOLI. 27 

some straggling huts, we reached the sea -beach, and here the February, 
Jemidar informed us that we must take the more inland path, ^^'^^^ 
as the tide was high. Two of the jemidar's train now joined 
us, one being a good-looking young fellow with the color show- 
ing through his skin, although as nearly black as a man could 
be. His shield, sword, and dagger were very handsome. 

^¥e now struck farther inland, and found the path more 
winding than the labyrinth of Crete ; but it led us through a 
fertile country. For some time our road lay along a large tract 
planted with yams, manioc, etc., and the jemidar pointed to the 
fields of rice, and told us that oranges, mangoes, and other fruits 
grew iu the adjacent woods. The cultivated ground was sur- 
rounded by a thorn hedge wnth which no "bullfinch" in En- 
gland could be compared, for it was from twelve to fifteen feet 
high, and about ten thick. Through this we went by an arched 
opening, and came to an uncultivated part of the country, wdiere 
the grass grew in large thick tufts, often so high that it flapped 
in our faces and hindered our progress. 

At last, after a two hours' w\alk, we again reached the beach 
close to Kaoli, when the jemidar and his friends began firing 
into the air to apprise the people of our arrival. The old 
matchlock and flint pistol did their work well, making reports 
like young cannon ; but one of the jemidar's personal attend- 
ants could not manage to make his fossil weapon produce any 
sound whatever. And the other, who was armed with a worn- 
out French fowling-piece, was little better, as there was at least 
a second between the explosion of the cap and that of the 
charge, which rather detracted from-the effect. Together they 
might possibly have been heard, but separately their efforts 
were drowned by the rippling of the sea upon the beach. 

On our arrival, we were most warmly welcomed by Soorghi, 
as well as by Jemidar Sabr and his retinue. 

We first visited Soorghi, the chief of the customs on the 
main-land — to whom we had letters of introduction from Lakh- 
midass, who farms all the sultan's revenue — and made inquiries 
about pagazi. He advised us to send to Saadani to beat up for 
them, promising letters and soldiers to assist in this work. 

After a time, during which Jemidar Sabr had been absent, 
we received a message from him inviting us to his residence, 


February, where Tve found a repast already prepared. It consisted of 
1873. three spatch-cocks, three sorts of Aral) pastry in nine different 
dishes, and two plates of vermicelli swamped in sugar, and, of 
course, the inevitable sherbet was served to us on entry. 

I tried the wing of a fowl, and, knives and forks being un- 
provided, had to use my lingers ; then tea was brought, not bad 
in flavor, but sweetened to cloying ; and lastly coffee, happily 
guiltless of sugar, but nevertheless it failed to rid our mouths 
of the overplus of saccharine matter, and a good draught of 
fresh water was most palatable. 

On our leaving the room, Jemidar Sabr invited our escort to 
enter and linisli the remainder of the feast, and while they were 
thus engaged we sat in state under the veranda with the jemi- 
dar and his notables. Our interpreter was meanwhile doing his 
best to assist our askari, and consequently the conversation was 
very limited. 

The eating being at last concluded, we formed order of march 
for Bagamoyo, and bid good-bye to our friends of Kaoli. Our 
host and some of his sons, however, accomjDanied us a short dis- 
tance on our way. 

We were rejoiced to find the tide ebbing, so that we M-ere 
able to return to Bagamoyo by the shore on the hard sand just 
uncovered by the water. Directly we got back, we arranged 
for starting Bilal for Saadani the next morning. He was ac- 
companied on this expedition by an intelligent native, named 
Saadi, to act as interpreter and recruiting-sergeant, by two of 
Jemidar Issa's soldiers, and three of our own men, to whom we 
served out arms and ammunition. 

In the evening, by way of diversion, there was a fire in the 
town, and some eight huts were burned to the ground. We 
went to the barracks, where our ammunition was stored, to 
make preparations in case of the fire spreading that way, and 
then visited the scene of action. The natives we found look- 
ing on in hopeless apathy, excepting a few Avho were arguing 
and vociferating at a great rate. Foi'tunately, there was no 
wind, and the fire soon burned itself out. 

The greater portion of a day was frequently occupied in pay- 
ing pagazi, and a most tedious and wearying work it proved, 
owing to the peculiarities of the men, and the difficult}' they 




seemed to experience in making np tlieir minds, and saying 
what they wanted. 

A man's name being called out, he answers "Ay -wallah," 
but makes no attemjDt at moving. When, at last, it pleases him 
to come to the front, and he is asked -how he wishes to receive 
his advance, he will probably stand, even for ten minutes, con- 
sidering before giving an answer. Then he says, " So many 
dollars, and so many doti ; so many of the doti must be meri- 
kani, and so many kaniki." When paid, he often wants to 
change a gold dollar for pice, and all the filthy copper coins 
have to be counted ; then, perhaps, he wishes to have one doti 
merikani changed for one of kaniki, or vice versa, or begs for 
another doti : and thus a vast amount of time is wasted. 

In the evening we occasionally took some men to the beach 
for target-practice, first making them fire a round of blank and 
then three rounds of ball at an empty case at one hundred 
yards, and, althougli there were no hits, the firing was fairly 


"We found it necessary to muster our forces every morning, 
the honor of bearing colors on these occasions being conferred 
upon Ferradi and Umbari, two of Speke's followers. 

The uniform we established for our askari consisted of a red 
patrol jacket, red fez, white shirt, and cummer-bund. Bombay 
and the leading men were distinguished by wearing non-com- 
missioned ofticers' stripes. 


February, The Stli of February was a great festival of the Arabs, and 
1873. q]i q^y ]\Xoslem askari honored us "with a special salaam, and 
asked, for something as a " tip," upon which we presented them 
with a shilling each to have an extra feed, it being explained to 
us by Bombay that this was the " Mohammedan Christmas." 
We also received visits from Jemidars Issa and Sabr, the for- 
mer having actually put on a clean new shirt. 

We were now anxious to return to Zanzibar to take up our 
remaining stores, due by the Punjab, and to make final prepa- 
rations for starting for the interior, but the difficulties in ob- 
taining a dhow seemed insuperable. 

There was, however, plenty to do in collecting and hiring 
pagazi and making saddles for our donkeys. The stirrups and 
bits were a puzzle, but we contrived to solve it with the assist- 
ance of a native smith, and, though his work was of the rough- 
est description, we hoped that it would answer our purpose. 



Parting Visit to Zanzibar. — Completing Equipment. — French Charlie's Store. — Fare- 
well Dinners. — Our First Campaign. — A Fracas. — Upholding our Dignity. — The 
Father pleads for his Son. — Shamba Gon^ra. — Visit from Dr. Kirk. — Our First 
Touch of Fever. — A New Volunteer. — Start for Kikoka. — The March. — Alligator- 
shooting. — Deserters. 

It was not until tlie lltli of February that we succeeded in February, 
getting a dhow to take us across to Zanzibar, for which we ^^'^^• 
sailed early that morning, accompanied by Pere Horner of the 
French mission, who was en route for France for a short and 
sorely needed holiday. 

The wind fell light when we, in company with some other 
dhows, were half-way across, and two of the Daphne's boats, 
looking out for slavers, came among us and visited our dhow, 
and shortly afterward boarded another, which, I believe, proved 
a prize. Having now drifted far to the south, it was decided 
to anchor ; but just before sunset a fresh breeze sprung uj), and, 
thus favored, we reached the town of Zanzibar. 

Here we found the Punjab, and Captain Hansard kindly in- 
sisted on our taking up our quarters on board during his stay — 
an arrangement which was far more comfortable than living in 
the English jail. 

All the stores that we had ordered in England were on board, 
as also an extra supply of ammunition, two Abyssinian tents 
supplied by the Indian Government, and a portable India-rub- 
ber boat by Mathews, of Cockspur Street — for which we were 
indebted to the thoughtful kindness of Major Euan C. Smith, 
C.S.L, Secretary to Sir Bartle Frere, who telegraphed for them 
while we were at Cairo — and thoroughly good and useful they 
proved. Murphy, having been granted leave by the Indian Gov- 
ernment, also came by the Punjab. 

At Zanzibar we took the opportunity of completing our out- 
fit, as far as possible, at the stores kept by Tarya Topan, French 



February, Charlie, Eosaii, and tlie various Portuguese Joes, gatlieriiig to- 
isid. gether those little odds and ends so necessary in rough travel. 
For a caravan should be as thoroughly independent as a ship, 
or even more so, since after having started from the coast no 
opportunities occur of purchasing such small items as needles, 
thread, buttons, etc., etc., on which much comfort in a great 
measure depends. 

Tarya Topan was one of the most influential of the Indian 
traders, and was also more inclined to assist us than any other. 

French Charlie was an oddity who required to be known to 
be appreciated, and, from being cook at the English consulate, 
had now arrived at an important position in society at Zanzibar. 
All H.M. ships arriving there he supplied with fresh beef and 
bread, and he was proprietor of the only approach to a hotel 
in the island. He had a miscellaneous collection of stores of 
all sorts and descriptions, and, being utterly unable to read or 
write, had a most imperfect knowledge of what he possessed, 
'and was content to ask a would-be purchaser to overhaul his 
stores, and if he succeeded in finding what he required, to give 
a fair price for it. 

Without learning English, he had partially forgotten French, 
an amusing mixture of the two being the result. It is need- 
less to say his affairs are rather in disorder ; but nevertheless he 
thrives and is prosperous, one reason for this jjrobably being 
his great generosity, for I believe few could find it in them to 
cheat him. 

Eosan was an American, who kept a miscellaneous store; and 
the Portuguese Joes are Goanese doing business as tailors, hair- 
cutters, grog-sellers, and, in fact, turning their hand to any thing 
and every thing. 

Dr. Kirk obtained for us letters of recommendation from the 
sultan, and, what was perhaps still more important, from the 
Indian merchant who farms the customs, to whom nearly every 
trader in the interior owes money, so that his injunctions could 
not lightly be disregarded. 

We were entertained at farewell dinners at the consulate and 
on board the flag-ship Glasgow, jmd again took our departure 
for Bagamoyo in a dhow well laden with our belongings. On 
arrival, we had the satisfaction of being effusively and noisily 




welcomed by our men, who had, wonderful to relate, kept out 
of mischief during our absence. 

Without delay we settled down to work, and re-entered with 
unflagging zeal into the task of engaging pagazi, the rapid ap- 
proach of the rainy season, or Masika, which would render trav- 
eling more difficult, making every day's delay an important 
matter. I numbered the rifles which had been supplied to the 
expedition by the War Office, and served them out to the men, 
who were exceedingly proud of being armed with European 
guns ; and I may add that during the whole expedition they 
kept their arms, under very trying circumstances^ in a condi- 
tion that would be a credit to any soldier. 



Finding that pagazi came forward very slowly, and that those 
actually engaged could never be collected together, I resolved 
to form a camp a short distance out in the country to prove 
that we intended to start immediately, and that therefore noth- 
ing would be gained by men holding back with the hope that 
higher rates of pay might be offered. By this means I also 
hoped to introduce some form of discipline into the heteroge- 
neous mass of which our party was composed. With this object, 
Dillon and I went out prospecting, and fixed on a lovely spot, 

34 ACKOSS AFRICA. [Ch.\p. 

March, some four miles from the town, near a plantation called Sharaba 
18*73. Gonera. 

Just before making this move, rather an unpleasant fracas 
occurred one morning when inspecting arms and seeing the 
donkeys watered. It originated in a dispute between a slave- 
girl and one of our boys who had charge of the riding-don- 
keys, as to which should first draw water at the well. An Arab 
rushed at the boy and commenced thrashing him, upon which 
one of the askari flew at the Arab and hit him over the head 
with a big stick, knocking him down and nearly stunning him ; 
but as I could not approve of such summary justice, I had the 
askari arrested. 

No sooner had the Arab recovered from the effects of the 
blow than he made off, vowing vengeance, and in less than five 
minutes was back, foaming at the mouth, brandishing liis sword, 
^nd swearing that he would " kill a dog of a ISTazarene, and 
then die happy !" He was followed by a crowd of yelling and 
infuriated friends, w^ho were, however, wise enough to prevent 
him from carrying out his murderous intention. I ordered our 
men to return their arms and remain perfectly passive, as there 
seemed every prospect of a serious row. And it would have 
been impossible to prevent one had a rifle been fired. 

Dillon, Murphy, and myself were altogether unarmed, but 
had to walk up and dowm between our men and the crowd and 
appear perfectly cool, though once or tw^ice the madman — for 
by this time he had worked himself into a state of fury which 
could not be distinguished from madness — broke loose and, 
before his friends could seize him again, came close enough to 
make it unpleasant. Once he approached me so nearly that I 
was calculating the chances of being able to catch his wrist to 
prevent his cutting me down. 

After a time Jemidar Issa appeared with the Balooches form- 
ing the garrison, and scattered the crowd, and I informed him 
that, having made a prisoner of the man who struck the blow, 
I expected him to secure the Arab, with which request he prom- 
ised compliance, and we returned to our lodgings. 

Shortly afterward in came our landlord in much alarm, tell- 
ing us that the Arab and his friends had broken into his shop, 
turned every thing topsy-turvy, and threatened to kill him if he 


refused to show the way to our rooms, but that the Balooches March, 
had dispersed them. I again sent for Jemidar Issa, acquainting ^^'^^- 
him that the British flag had been insulted by the attack on the 
house over which it was ilying, and unless he arrested the cul- 
prit at once, I should refer the matter to the admiral at Zan- 
zibar. At the same time I dispatched messengers to Jemidar 
Sabr, requesting his immediate presence to restore order. 

A lull now took place, and a passing thunder-storm having 
afforded us a large supply of water, we thought it a capital op- 
portunity for washing our dogs. And while engaged in this 
interesting operation in a light costume, consisting only of py- 
jamas and soapsuds, the turban of Jemidar Sabr appeared at 
the top of the ladder, and we had to bolt incontinently, and 
dress sufficiently to receive him with due respect. 

At first he professed his inability to do any thing ; but we 
upheld our rights as Englishmen, and still insisted that the 
man who had threatened and insulted us should be secured, or 
we would report the case to Zanzibar, adding that he well knew 
that if we adopted such a course neither his nor Jemidar Issa's 
place would be worth five minutes' purchase. 

Both the jemidars still attempted to run with the hare and 
hunt with the hounds; but seeing that we were determined 
not to withdraw from the position we had assumed, promised 
compliance with our demands, and in the evening reported that 
the man was in prison. 

Two days' palaver about the matter then followed. We 
wished the man to acknowledge his offense, or to be sent to 
Zanzibar to be dealt with by the sultan ; while the two jemi- 
dars and the principal inhabitants desired that no further ac- 
tion might be taken in the affair. 

On the third day the father of the offender, a fine, dignified, 
gray -bearded old Arab called on us, and made me feel almost 
ashamed of myself by kneeling down and kissing my hands. 
His son was very ill, he said, and promised that himself and 
some of the principal inhabitants would be responsible for his 
actions. This old man's humiliation was more than I could 
bear, and I readily agreed to the immediate release of his son, 
but added that in future we should all carry pistols, and told 
him to caution his son that if he again attempted to draw 





his sword near any of us, we should immediately shoot him 

Thus this disagreeable business was concluded, and, I believe, 
did us no injury, but rather good; as it proved that although 
we would not allow ourselves to be insulted with impunity ^^ we 
were not at all vindictive. 

Yery shortly afterward we moved to Shamba Gonera, and 
pitched our tents under a clump of large mango-trees on an 
open grassy slope, at the bottom of which was a stream run- 
ning to the Kingani. The donkeys, numbering twenty -four, 
were picketed at night in two lines, and in the day-time were 
tethered in such places as afforded good grass and shade, the 
riding donkeys having, in addition, a feed of corn. 


Much opposition to our obtaining porters being still offered 
at Bagamoyo, and the people, taking advantage of our desire to 
start, becoming more extortionate, I wrote to Dr. Kirk, asking if 
he would pay us a visit, in order to show that we were still un- 
der the aegis of the British Government. Although very busy, 
he came almost innnediately in the Daphne^ and used his in- 
fluence, which is greater than that of any one else at Zanzibar, 
to assist us. 


Accompanied by Captain Bateman, of the Daphne^ and some March, 
of the officers of that ship, Dr. Kirk visited our camp, and told ^^'^^• 
us that he was delighted with all he saw, at which remark from 
so experienced a traveler we were much gratified. 

The result was that affairs went more smoothly for a time, 
but in a few days returned into the old groove. There was 
no doubt that Abdullah Dina, whom we employed as a sort 
of agent, and Jemidar Issa, notwithstanding profuse assevera- 
tions that they were doing their utmost to help us, were really 
thwarting us in every way. They argued tliat the longer we 
were detained, the more money they would make out of us. 

The establishment of the camp at Shamba Gonera proved of 
no service as far as keeping the men together was concerned, 
for the moment they received their rations they disappeared 
again into the town. I thought at one time of sending Dillon 
and Murphy with the men we had engaged to Rehenneko or 
Mbumi, to the other side of the Makata swamp, there to await 
my arrival with such additional pagazi as I could collect ; but I 
found this impracticable, as Murphy, having exposed himself 
too much to the sun and dew, was unable to travel. 

I then compromised matters by sending, under the charge of 
Dillon, all the men we could muster and most of the donkeys 
to Kikoka, the outpost station of H.H. Syd Burghash, on the 
other side of the Kingani. 

Soon after his departure, both Murphy and myself had a 
sharp attack of fever ; but while I w^as fortunate in shaking it 
off in three days, it seemed inclined to keep a hold upon Mur- 
phy, and I therefore asked Dillon .to return and give him the 
benefit of medical treatment. 

The same day a letter arrived from Dr. Kirk, stating that 
Sir Bartle Frere and staff were coming to Bagamoyo in the 
Daphne^ and requesting me to inform the French mission of 
the same. I at once rode over to deliver this message, and also 
mentioned Murphy's illness, when Pere Germain insisted on 
proceeding to our camp, and taking him on a litter to the mis- 
sion, that he might be nursed in the infirmary. 

^\iQ Daphie arrived the next day, and Sir Bartle, on landing, 
was welcomed by all the Hindis in the place, a set of cringing 
sycophants who had done all that lay in their power to hinder 


March, US during the whole time we had been at Bagamoyo, but now 
^^"^^^ came to make their salaams to the big man, and assure him of 
their loyalty and non-participation in the slave-trade. Sir Bar- 
tie remained the entire day at Bagamoyo, but his staff went to 
the Kingani to try their hands at the hippopotami, with which 
the river swarmed. 

Another volunteer came to us in the Daj}k7ie, Kobert Moffat 
— a grandson of Dr. Moffat, and nephew of Dr. Livingstone — 
who, hearing of the expedition, had sold a sugar plantation at 
Natal, which formed his sole inheritance, and hastened to Zan- 
zibar, prepared to devote all his energies and every penny he 
possessed to the cause of African exploration. 

It may perhaps be well to mention that Zanzibar is not alone 
the town or even the island commonly so called, but is the cor- 
rect term for the whole of the sultan's dominions, meaning 
" the coast of the blacks." Unguja is the native name for the 
town of Zanzibar. 

I took advantage of Moffat's having joined to proceed at 
once with Dillon to Kehenneko, leaving Moffat and Murphy to 
bring up the rear division of the caravan, as this course would 
allow the latter time to recover, and give the former a chance 
of completing his kit. And having — with the assistance of 
Moffat, who proved M'illing and hard-working — mustered all 
the men I possibly could, we loaded them and the donkeys, and 
started for Kikoka. 

From having unwisely worn slippers while walking in the 
long grass near our camp, my feet had been cut and poisoned, 
and were now covered with small sores which prevented my 
putting on boots or moving about with any degree of comfort ; 
so I mounted a donkey, and led the way. 

At the outset we marched over grassy country, and all went 
merry as a marriage - bell until we reached Stanley's famous 
bridge across a muddy creek. 

This my donkey, " Jenny Lind," refused to face, and, on my 
getting off to lead her, broke away and bolted back to Shamba 
Gonera, leaving me to wade across this place with bare feet, 
and to struggle along through black and sticky mud for the re- 
mainder of the journey to tlie Kingani, This caused the sore 
places on my feet to become so much inflamed that I could not 


even wear slippers on arriving at the river. Here we and our March, 
stores were ferried over without delay, but it was too late to i^*^^- 
get the donkeys across that night. 

Neither our tent nor cook had arrived, so we had no alterna- 
tive but to sleep out on the river-bank, and make our supper 
off roasted Indian corn which we obtained from the garden of 
a Belooch who was supposed to guard the ferry. Luckily the 
night was fine, and we slept comfortably along-side a large fire. 

We were astir by break of day, and, before the ferry-man was 
ready to tow the donkeys across, amused ourselves by popping 
at the numerous hippopotami. A huge crocodile floating down 
stream toward the ferry varied our sport, and I succeeded in 
lodging a bullet and a shell in the middle of his back. He gave 
a convulsive plunge, throwing his whole length at least six feet 
into the air, and then sunk to be no more seen. 

The donkeys being landed on the northern bank without ac- 
cident, and the tent and cook having turned up, we started for 
Kikoka, arriving there at eleven o'clock. 

Moffat, who had accompanied me thus far, I now sent back 
to Bagamoyo with my parting orders to Murphy, and then with 
Dillon endeavored to collect our men for the road. This was 
not an easy matter, for notwithstanding our distance from Ba- 
gamoyo, its Circean charms proved so strong that there were 
always thirty or forty absentees at the morning muster. 

I offered the guard at the ferry a reward if they would not 
allow any of my men to cross without a pass from me ; but this 
proving ineffectual, I sent Bombay with a party of askari back 
to Bagamoyo, to hunt up the absentees, and bring them out 
loaded with food. 

At the end of four days — which I afterward heard he had 
spent loafing about Abdullah Dina's — he returned without 
bringing in any of the deserters. 

"While Bombay was away, a Comoro man, called Issa, who 
had acted as interpreter on board the Glasgoio, and held very 
good certificates, volunteered to join the expedition ; and, as I 
required a native leader for Murphy's portion of the caravan, I 
engaged him. His duties were eventually to be those of store- 
keeper and interpreter of the main body, being the only man 
who could read and write, and, on account of his having trav- 





eled in Manyuema and other countries rarely visited by cara- 
vans, I trusted that his experience would stand me in good 

During our stay at Kikoka two caravans of Wanyamwesi, 
bringing down their own ivory, passed us ; but I could not 
tempt any of their number to join us as porters for the up jour- 
ney, as they wanted to have their spree at Bagamoyo before re- 
turning to their own homes. 




Leaving Kikoka. — Form of Camp. — Mode of Hut-building. — Foraging for Provis- 
ions. — A "Short Cut." — Bombay as a Guide. — A Luckless Cruise. — A Xeedless 
Scare. — Levy of Mhongo. — Msuwah. — Fortified Villages. — An Artful Dodger. — An 
Arab Caravan. — Offerings to Spirits. — Baobab-trees. — Kisemo. — The Lugerengeri. 
— The Kungwa Hills. — Simbaweni. — Its Queen. — Rumored Terrors of the Makata 
Swamp. — Lazy Porters. — Honor among Deserters. 

Tired of the innumerable delays, we decided to start from March, 
Kikoka on tlie 28tli of Marcli with whatever men we might ^^^^• 
have m camp, leaving such loads as we were unable to get car- 
ried in charge of the Belooch guard, to be afterward sent for by 

I turned the hands up at 5.30 a.m., and found that seven 
more pagazi had deserted during the night. This raised the 
total number of absentees to twenty-five, and so many more 
were skulking about the village and in the grass and jungle 
that it was ten o'clock before we made a move. 

It was altogether impossible to make the askari load the don- 
keys properly. In fact, to tell the truth, we were obliged to do 
the work ourselves while our men looked on in idleness. If 
left to themselves, they tried to tie the crupper round the don- • 
key's neck, and placed the pad so that it afforded no protection 
whatever to the animal's back. 

For two hours and a half we marched across a lovely country 
of rolling grass-land interspersed with belts of timber, and ev- 
ery here and there small knolls crowned with clumps of trees 
and shrubs. Away on our right lay the chain of small hills 
where Rosako and its neighboring robber villages were situated, 
along the route which Stanley followed on his journey for the 
relief of Dr. Livingstone. 

We camped on the top of a small knoll, the huts of the men 
being so arranged as to form a fence, while in the centre the 


March, teiits were pitched and a large lint erected for stores and guard- 
1813. room. Before sunset tlie donkeys were picketed inside the 
boma, and the entrance closed as a defense both against wild 
beasts and robbers. 

The men divided themselves into small kambis or messes, 
numbering from three to seven each, for the purposes of cook- 
ing and building their huts. 

Each kambi selects one man for duty as cook, while the re- 
mainder busy themselves in building, and by this subdivision 
of labor a camp is formed in a wonderfully short space of time 
wherever grass and suitable wood are plentiful. 

One man cuts the ridge-pole and undertakes the general su- 
perintendence, while others prepare forked uprights and small 
sticks for rafters, provide bark to bind tlie structure together, 
and grass for thatch and bedding. 

Every bit of grass is carefully rooted out from the inside 
to prevent tlie stubs injuring the mats. A thick layer of cut 
grass is also spread on the ground to form a sort of mattress, 
and on this the mats are laid. 

Some of the more luxurious build small kitandas, or bed- 
places, to raise them above the damp ground. 

Within a couple of hours after arrival all is completed ; and 
as soon as the men have been fed, they dispose themselves 
to sleep until the time for their sunset meal, after which they 
smoke and yarn till eight or nine o'clock, when most of them 
turn in for the night. 

Occasionally, however, the silence is broken by some fellow 
who, thinking he has something important to tell a chum at the 
other side of the camp, makes no scruple of howling out at the 
top of his voice, and continuing to shout until he obtains an an- 
swer. Probably he will then have forgotten what he wished to 
say, and has thus disturbed the whole camp for nothing. 

After two more days of marching through similar country, 
the guides advised a halt to procure supplies, and I accordingly 
set out in the afternoon witli Bombay and a party of men for a 
village said to be near, leaving Dillon to look after the camp. 

I had taken oH my traxeling kit, and, in order to appear in 
due form before the eyes of the natives, had dressed in white 
shirt and trousers and put a green veil round my topee, Dillon 




remarking that I looked like a stage peasant got up as a bride- 
groom. Certainly I was not suitably equipped for a rainy aft- 
ernoon, and so I found an hour later, when it rained in such 
torrents that in a few moments I was thoroughly drenched. 
The footpaths were ankle -deep in water, and a nullah which 
was perfectly dry when we passed it during our morning's 
march had now become a considerable stream. 



As the village was reported to be nearer than the camp, 1 
lield on my way, and after a seven miles' walk arrived at a 
small group of round huts which formed the residence of the 
chief of the district. He happened to be away, and his son, 
apparently a great dandy in his own estimation, would not sell 
any thing during his father's absence. 

After much bargaining and bothering, I managed to obtain a 
goat and a few eggs from another source ; but no food for the 
askari and pagazi was forthcoming. 

"We therefore went foraging about, and, crossing an affluent 


March, of the Kingaiii wliicli was up to our armjjits, discovered a few 
18V3. miserable huts ; but from the inhabitants my men could get 
nothing more than a root or two of cassava. 

It was now getting late, and we turned our footsteps camp- 
ward, allowing Bombay to lead, as he declared there was a short 
cut. So away we went plowing our way through long wet 
grass ; and, as the darkness closed around, without a single star 
to guide us, we lost our road comj)letely. 

I was confident that Bombay was wrong, but he and all the 
men persisted that he was right. I trusted them, not then hav- 
ing practical exj)erience of the inability of an African to strike 
out a new road, although he will remember every turn and step 
of those he has once traveled over. 

About nine o'clock we found ourselves in a swampy wood, 
and, hearing no answer to the guns I had ordered to be fired to 
apprise the people in camp of our whereabouts, I thought it 
best to select some dry spot where we could kindle a fire, cook 
the goat, and make ourselves as comfortable as possible under 
the circumstances. 

I squatted down close to the fire, with my back against a 
tree, and tried to eat some of the goat, but was too completely 
done up to get even a morsel down my throat. The men, how- 
ever, made short work of it. 

As soon as the first gleams of light heralded the approach of 
day, I arose from my " wretched lair" and set off to look for the 
camp, and shortly met some peojjle who had been disj^atched 
by Dillon to come in search of us. In another hour I reached 
my tent, though barely able to crawl into it, the night's expos- 
ure having brought on a violent attack of fever. I was only 
fit to turn into bed, and get Dillon to doctor me. 

To add to my annoyance, I found that, had we taken the di- 
rection I wished the evening before, we should have got into 
camp all right. 

I w^as a very different -looking object on my arrival from 
what I had been on my departure on this luckless cruise. 
Shirt and trousers wet, torn, and mud-stained ; the color of the 
veil washed out, and hat, face, and shoulders all rejoicing in a 
pea-green tint. 

Three more days were we delayed at this camp, and then the 


men sent to the south of the Kingani returned with only a suf- April, 
ficient quantity of cassava for immediate use. i^*^^- 

During our stay Moffat came out on foot with letters from 
Dr. Kirk and other friends at Zanzibar, together with the mail 
that had arrived since we left Kikoka. He also brought the 
news that Murphy had almost recovered, and had broken up 
the camp at Shaniba Gonera, and made his head - quarters in 

Moffat being rather knocked up by this walk, we gave him 
a donkey for the return journey to Bagamoyo, and started off 
again ourselves, marching for three days without interruption. 

The country consisted principally of prairies, with clumps of 
trees and occasional small ponds or water-holes, in which beau- 
tiful large blue and white water-lilies grew, and here and there 
magnificent white lilies showed among the grass. 

On this march I was suffering very much from fever, and 
was delirious when in camp. Yet I managed to pull myself 
together while on the road, and was able to ride my donkey, 
though the moment the excitement of the march had passed I 
was hardly able to stand. 

Upon Dillon during this time devolved the work of driving 
the caravan along, and, owing to his unremitting attention, all 
went smoothly. 

On the third day we heard that a village was close in front, 
and sent messengers to acquaint the chief of our approach. As- 
tounding rumors were brought back to the effect that the chief 
would not allow us to pass ; but as every man who made any 
report differed from his fellows, we decided that all were false. 

We remained camped, however, for one day to await a defi- 
nite answer, as there had lately been great difliculties between 
the chief and filibustering parties from Whinde, a village on the 
coast which owes a divided allegiance to H.H. Syd Burghash. 

The hoped-for answer not having been received on the 7th 
of April, we started early in the morning, and at noon arrived 
at the outskirts of the district of Msuwah. There was much 
cultivation all around us — pumpkins, Indian-corn, sweet-pota- 
toes, etc. — but the only signs of any habitations were tiny spi- 
rals of blue smoke curling up from the midst of clumps of the 
densest jungle. 


April, Our people were driven nearly wild with fright on this 

18V3. march, owing to a few who were rather in advance of the 
main body rushing back, with fear dejDicted on every feature, 
declaring they had seen some aTined men (as though every 
one in Africa did not go armed), and that Ave had better re- 
turn to Bagamoyo at once, as it would be madness to proceed 
any farther. After a time we somewhat allayed their agita- 
tion, and persuaded one or two of the bravest — or rather least 
cowardly — to talk to these much-dreaded armed men, one of 
whom, with spear, bow, arrows, and all, returned with them, 
and agreed to guide us to the chief's village. 

We camped early that afternoon, and I was still so ill from 
fever and fatigue that I turned in at once. 

The following day the chief paid us a visit, and gave per- 
mission to move close to his village, but informed us that, ow- 
ing to a treaty he had concluded with the people of Whinde, 
we should be expected to pay mhongo before leaving. 

Under this treaty, entered into between the chief of Msuwali 
and the people of Whinde, the former was to pay the latter a 
certain number of slaves, and in compensation he was allowed 
to tax all caravans passing through his district, provided that 
they started from any point on the coast excepting Whinde. 

This agreement was arrived at after war had been carried on 
between both parties for some years without either side being 
able to gain a decided advantage, and we were doomed to be 
the first sufferers. 

This incident shows how little real influence the Sultan of 
Zanzibar has over his subjects on the main-land, and how little 
he can do personally, even with the best intentions, to put down 
the slave-trade in his continental dominions. 

Dillon returned the visit of the chief, who was very civil, and 
arranged our mhongo at thirty doti. 

The village of Msuwah consisted of six or eight large, well- 
built huts, kept clean and in good order ; but another in the 
middle of a dense patch of jungle we were not allowed to see. 

These villages are built in the midst of jungle for the pur- 
pose of providing protection against attack, being only ap- 
proachable by very narrow, tortuous paths, capable of being 
completely blocked and rendered perfectly impregnaljle against 


native warfare. Owing to these strong positions, tlie people April, 
are able to liarrj their neighbors with a certainty of safety from ^^'^^- 
reprisals, and make slaves, for whom they are always sure of 
finding a ready market in the towns on the sea-board. 

Here we heard that the country to the front was " hungry," 
and we should therefore be obliged to buy food for the road 
before starting. And our civil and smiling friend, the chief, 
assuring us that it would be dangerous for our men to go in 
search of food, offered to send his own people to procure it — 
provided we paid in advance. 

When he had received the cloth, he made numerous excuses 
for not fullilling his promises ; and, after five days' halt, we 
had to start with only two days' supplies. 

Some neighboring chiefs, hearing of our proximity, took ad- 
vantage of this delay to personally demand mhongo. To one, 
named Mtonga, I was foolish enough to pay thirty doti of meri- 
kani and kaniki and seven colored cloths, upon Bombay per- 
, «uading me that his village lay on our road, and there would 
be trouble if we did not satisfy these claims. But I afterward 
found that the scoundrel had been cheating us, as his village 
was situated to the northward of us, and, if any thing, to our 
rear. Another, called Kasuwa, demanded two whole bales ; but 
as I happily discovered that we had already passed him, he got 

On the fourth day of our halt we were visited by the leaders 
of a large Arab caravan which had left the coast some time 
before us, but had been detained by troubles along Stanley's 
route. They mustered over seven hundred men, of whom 
about a half were armed with muskets. 

The halt was not altogether wasted, as it enabled us to im- 
j^rove our donkeys' saddles, and gave me a chance of shaking 
off the fever; but during our stay we had the misfortune to 
lose one of our pagazi, who died suddenly without any previous 
illness, and some half a dozen others deserted. 

On the 14th of April we made another move, after a great 
deal of trouble with the men, who, if allowed to halt a day or 
two, always made more fuss about starting than if they had 
been kept on the road altogether. 

We passed through the Arab camp, in which there were sev- 


April, en tents belonging to the proprietors of different divisions, eacli 
^^'^^- being inclosed in a compound made of cloth screens or grass 
fences which served to keep the profane eyes of outsiders from 
penetrating the mysteries of the harem. They were in great 
tribulation, owing to many of their hired pagazi having bolted ; 
and I found I had reason to congratulate myself on only hav- 
ing lost half a dozen while at Msuwah, as it is a favorite place 
for coast people to desert, and the jungle and villages afford so 
many lurking and hiding places that it is almost impossible to 
find them again. 

The Arabs professed to be very anxious to join us, and I 
should not have objected but for rumors of scarcity of food and 
anticij^ations of difficulty in rationing so large a party. 

I determined to j)ress forward as quickly as possible toward 
the Makata swamp, every day's delay now increasing the chances 
of its being in bad condition for crossing. And we covered a 
good ten miles, halting only for half an hour — passing over a 
level table-land about four hundred or five hundred feet higheTi 
than Msuwah — and descried right before us a glorious cloud- 
capped range of mountainous hills. 

The country throngh which we had come was well cultivated, 
and dotted with numerous hamlets peeping out of woods and 
bosquets. Where the ground was not cultivated or covered 
with jungle, the grass was excellent. 

I was much astonished at the total absence of cattle, as we 
noticed no tsetse, and the country seemed admirably adapted 
for grazing, being well watered, and provided with trees to af- 
ford shade during the heat of the day. 

Every plot under cultivation had in it a miniature hut, under 
which offerings were placed to propitiate the evil spirits lest 
they should injure the growing crops. 

Several graves of chiefs bestrewed with broken earthenware 
were pointed out to me. They also had huts erected over 
them with a small tree, usually of the cactus species, serving 
the purpose of a centre-post. 

On this march we first met with baobab-trees, which may be 
termed the elephants or hippopotami of the vegetable kingdom, 
their smallest twigs being two or three inches in circumference, 
and their forms of the most grotesque ugliness. This is, how- 


ever, toned down by their beautiful white flowers and the ten- April, 
der green of their foliage. ^^'^^• 

At Kisemo the chief brought a goat to our camp and asked 
for fifty doti as mliongo ; but as he was " a small thief," this re- 
quest was not comjDlied with. We gave him four doti as the 
price of the goat and four more as a present, and he professed 
himself perfectly satisfied, although it was so great a reduction 
from his attempt at extortion. 

Our road, at starting, led up a steep ascent and across a table- 
land, gradually sloping toward the west with occasional slight 
undulations, until we came to the steep and almost clifE-like de- 
scent into the valley of the Lugerengeri. Frequent outcrops 
of sandstone and quartz were noticeable, and crystalline peb- 
bles were plentiful; and the soil, which was in some places 
of a reddish hue, was at- other points a pure white silver sand, 
both being covered with a considerable layer of vegetable 

Many beautiful flowers gladdened our eyes on the march, 
among which were tiger -lilies, convolvuli, primulas of a rich 
deep yellow, and another having somewhat the a]3pearance of 
a fox-glove opened back. In the valley of the Lugerengeri I 
saw some thorn-bushes of osier-like growth bearing large, pur- 
ple, bell-shaped flowers. From the coast thus far, we had fre- 
quently met with white primulas, a large yellow daisy, and 
small red-and-blue flowers, very similar to forget-me-nots. 

The Lugerengeri here lies at the bottom of a valley with a 
broad and very nearly level sole, which it floods when swollen 
by exceptional storms, carrying destruction far and wide. 

The year before we passed, one of these inundations — caused 
by the rains accompanying the hurricane which did so much 
damage at Zanzibar — swept away about twenty villages, with 
great loss of life, though no reliable account of the numbers 
who perished could be obtained. The inhabitants, like verita- 
ble fatalists, had re-occupied many of the old sites, only a few 
being sufficiently wise to guard against the recurrence of a sim- 
ilar disaster by building on small eminences. 

We camped near a village built by some of the wiser ones, 
and were well received by the chief, who placed a couple of 
neighboring huts at our disposal for our stores. 


April, Before iis, on the opposite side of the Lugerengeri, were the 

1873. }jj}|g ^yg i^Q^^ sighted tM'o days previous! j. 

Bombay, on an-ival, said, " Master, Lugerengeri live close by, 
jump him to-morrow ;" but when to-morrow came there arose 
the same old cry of " Master, country very hungry in front ;" 
and we were compelled to spend a day looking for provisions, 
being rewarded by obtaining sufficient for three or four days. 

About noon a division of the Arab caravan passed us, and 
camped on the opposite bank of the Lugerengeri, the remain- 
der of the Arabs being bound for the country of the Warori 
and Wabena. 

By five o'clock the next morning we were on the move, and 
Hamees ibn Salim, the owner of the Arab caravan, hearing us 
astir, sent his drummer to play us past his camp. Crossing by 
the ford just as the day was beginning to dawn, we found the 
Arabs not yet packed up, but Hamees turned out to salute us 
as we passed. When we forded the Lugerengeri, it was only 
about thirty yards wide and knee-deep, but it must be impass- 
able whenever a freshet comes down. The channel exceeds 
two hundred and fifty yards in width, with banks on each side 
twenty-five feet high ; and many old plantations in the vicinity 
were covered with sand brought down in the floods of 1872. 
The bed consisted of white sand, with quartz and granite peb- 
bles, and large bowlders of granite much water-worn were strew- 
ed about in considerable numbers. 

After traversing seven miles of thickly wooded country with- 
out any inhabitants, Hamees's caravan overtook us. I had been 
walking in front, and was obliged to sit down and rest, being 
still weak from fever, on seeing which, Hamees kindly offered 
me his donkey, and, upon my refusing, sat down to keep me 
company until my own arrived. 

After this, we had some rough marching over very steep 
hills, through patches of tiger grass, and across ravines forty 
and fifty feet deep, with almost precipitous sides, at each of 
which we were obliged to unload the donkeys and carry the 
baggage up and down by the help of the drivers. 

Notwithstanding the extra work of superintending this, be- 
sides dragging one's weary legs along, the scenery was so de- 
lightful that we scarcely thought of fatigue. 


All the hills were exceedingly rocky — being composed most- April, 
ly of granite, but in some instances of nearly pure quartz — but ^^'^^• 
they were thickly clothed with trees "Wherever the inequalities 
of the surface allowed sufficient soil to accumulate. The great- 
er number of the trees being acacias in full bloom, their red, 
white, and yellow blossoms, and those of other flowering trees, 
stood out in masses of gorgeous color. 

Late in the afternoon we arrived at the camping - place, a 
rocky pass having at the bottom pools of water in granite ba- 
sins. Out of these two streams issued, one running west and 
the other east, but both ultimately falling into the Kingani. 

This was the direct road through the range of hills that had 
been in sight since leaving Kisemo, and I now ascertained they 
were named Kungwa, though by Burton and Speke they are 
grouped with others as the Duthumi Hills. 

The tail of the caravan, owing to the long and tiring march, 
was all over the country, and many of the stragglers were not 
up till after sunset. 

Next morning saw us off betimes, our path, with a water- 
course beside it, leading us through a regular pass. Along this 
route we had trouble in forcing our way through sword -grass 
and bamboo — the first we had seen — which was covered with a 
creeper very like the English sweet-pea, bearing many twin and 
a few double flowers. 

Five miles of this work brought us into a valley inclosed b}^ 
the Kungwa Hills, and full of conical knolls, many of which 
were crowned by villages. The Arabs camped in one called 
Kongassa, while we halted at anothe^named Kungwa, from the 
mountains, the highest peak of which overhung us. 

The sides of the knolls were planted with Indian and Kaffir corn 
and sweet-potatoes, while the damp bottoms served to produce 
rice, and in the village ebony or blackwood trees were growing. 

A large, unfinished house — the building of which had been 
commenced by an Arab with a view of settling here, but now 
falling into decay — afforded good shelter for our stores and 
many of our men. Those who were unable to get quarters in 
it shared the huts of the natives in order to escape the rain, 
which fell almost continuously, and prevented us from starting 
till late the following day. 


April, Our next resting-place was a deserted village five miles dis- 

^^''^- tant. Here we had to remain a day to obtain supplies ; for, as 
usual, the men were lazy, and wanted an excuse for delay ; and 
this place, which had been the " hungry country " three days 
before, was now represented as a land of Goshen, while all in 
front was said to be a barren waste. 

Dillon and I enlisted the services of two of the aborigines as 
guides while we went out shooting. Although we saw tracks 
of pig and antelope, the beasts themselves kept out of sight; 
and, after having been out an hour, our worthy guides started 
off in pursuit of a honey-bird which they heard calling, and in 
their excitement created such a row as to entirely upset any 
chances of sport. 

The soil in the bottoms was black and heavy, and had be- 
come converted by the rains iuto sticky and slippery mud ; but 
the knolls, being sand, remained comparatively dry during the 
heaviest rain. 

The Arabs who had halted at Ivongassa again appeared, and 
camped close to us, and we went up the valley in company. 

The hills closed in on either side, and the path was so blocked 
with bamboo cane-grass as to render it a matter of great diffi- 
culty to fight one's way along. The thick growth also shut 
out the view of the hills which, when we were privileged with 
an occasional peep, was delightful ; so, to the physical labor of 
driving our way through the tough grass was added the tantali- 
zation of knowing that we were surrounded by charming scen- 
ery without being able to enjoy it. 

Our camp on this day (April 20th) was by the small village 
of Kiroka, which the Arabs, having the start of us, had appro- 
priated, and we were obliged to form our boma outside. Ha- 
mees's tent was already pitched when I arrived, and, pitying 
my hot and thirsty condition, he kindly took me inside to have 
a glass of sherbet. Owing to its sweetness, this unfortunately 
only increased my thirst ; still, I fully appreciated the good in- 

From Kiroka the valley continued to close in, and at the 
western end we left by a pass situated at some height. 

By the side of our path was a torrent-bed more than twenty 
feet deep, with nearly perpendicular sides, and into this fell a 


baggage donkey carrying about one bimdred and forty pounds April, 
of ammunition — a quantity of which consisted of percussion ^*^'^^- 
shell — but, luckily, without causing injury either to himself or 
his load, although he pitched straight on his head. A little 
hair rubbed off his forehead was the only visible result of his 

The latter part of the pass was very slippery sandstone and 
quartz ; and at its highest point, the hills, clothed to their sum- 
mits with trees, rose some three hundred feet above us. A 
steep descent of greasy red clay brought us into the broad val- 
ley of the Lugereiigeri, bounded on the south by the Kigam- 
bwe Mountains, from which many torrents come down to the 
river, and on the north by a range of detached conical hills. 

The valley of Lugerengeri is very fertile, with pleasing al- 
ternations of open wood, jungle, grass, and cultivation ; but the 
torrents from the Kigarnbwe hills are very serious drawbacks 
to the safety of the inhabitants. The Moliale must be over a 
mile wide in spates ; and even when we crossed, several streams 
knee -deep were flowing between thickets of bamboo, which 
seamed the bed. We rested for the night in the village of Mo- 
hale, and in the morning passed the famous town of Simbawe- 
ni, "the stronghold of the lion," once the habitation of Kisa- 
bengo, a notorious freebooter, and the terror of all surrounding 

But its glories have now faded, and we marched past with 
colors flying, and altogether disregarding the demands of its 
present ruler. She is a daughter of Kisabengo, and possesses 
the will, but lacks the power, of rendering herself as obnoxious 
as was her robber sire. 

Crossing the Mwere torrent, we proceeded to the Lugerenge- 
ri, over which we passed by a rough bridge composed of fallen 
trees, and camped by its banks. It occupied more than two 
hours getting loads and donkeys across, as the river was twenty 
yards wide and four to six feet deep, with steep banks rising 
fourteen feet above the water. 

Hamees unwisely pitched his camp by the side of the Mwere, 
and, in consequence, had to pay seventeen doti mhongo to Sim- 
baweni, a tax which we escaped. Our men were also anxious 
to remain on the Simbaweni side, and did not work willingly. 


April, But we got across without accident, except to one pagazi, who 

1873. preferred trying to wade the river to trusting himself to the 

slippery bridge, and was swept away by the current. He was 

rescued with no further damage than wetting his load, though 

such an escape was scarcely to be expected. 

An Arab caravan for the coast passing us here, we availed 
ourselves of the opportunity of dispatching a mail for Zanzibar. 

Buying provisions for crossing the Makata swamp occupied 
the next day. There was no trouble in obtaining the supplies 
we required, as the natives crowded into camp with beans, 
pumpkins, vegetable marrows, honey, eggs, and corn for sale. 
Concerning the difficulties of this passage, there were rumors 
almost sufficient to deter the stoutest from attempting it, if al- 
lowance had not been made for the tendency of the negro to 
exaggeration. Ilamees came over to see us in the afternoon, 
which was miserably wet, and Dillon endeavored to amuse and 
astonish him with some card tricks. But great was his surprise 
on finding that Plamees could outdo him. 

A branch of a tree falling upon my three-pole tent, made a 
rent six feet long; and if I had not taken the precaution of 
having an inner lining fitted at Kikoka, I should have been com- 
pelled to seek fresh quarters with Dillon in his Abyssinian tent. 

An enormous amount of bother fell to our lot in the morn- 
ing, for the men had gorged themselves to such an extent that 
they were very much disinclined to march, and would fain have 
remained a few days more in this veritable land of plenty. We 
had to drive them out of camp one by one, and no sooner were 
our backs turned than they would dodge in again, or hide with 
their loads among the bushes and long grass. 

By dint of perseverance, we at length got them away, and 
marching close under the end of the Kihondo mountain range 
— which rises sheer out of the plain to a height of seven or 
eight hundred feet — arrived at Simbo, the last camp before en- 
tering upon the toils and labors of the Makata swamp. 

I may mention that Simbo is more a generic than a particular 
term, and, unless a more definite name can be borrowed from 
some neighboring village, is frequently applied to places where 
water is found in holes or by digging — that being the meaning 
of the word. 




The range of Kihondo inosculates with Kigambwe, and in 
the angle formed by their junction are the sources of the Lu- 
gerengeri River. 

On mustering in camp at Simbo, we found one of the pagazi, 
Uledi by name, had disapj)eared with his load. I instantly dis- 
patched live askari in search of him, and in the evening they 
returned in triumph, having recovered him at Simbaweni, 
where he had gone, thinking to find a hearty welcome, owing 
to our having refused to pay mhongo. The queen, Miss Kisa- 
bengo, however, handed him and his baggage over to the man 
in charge of the search-party, upon his paying seven doti as 
a fee. 

I ordered him to be flogged as an example, and the men 
agreed that the punishment was well deserved, for, on this part 
of the road, although it was not thought any disgrace to desert, 
yet it was considered a point of honor that a man should never 
run away with his load. 





The Makata Swamp. — Mud Traps. — The Makata River. — A Native Bridge. — Trans- 
porting Donkeys. — Rehenneko. — Laid up. — A Strike among the Men. — Routine in 
Camp. — Visitors. — A Swaggering Hahf-caste. — News from Murphy. — His Arrival. 
— Death of Moffat. — Organizing the Fresh Arrivals. — The Strength of the Expedi- 
tion. — Women and Slaves. — Losses by Death and Desertion. — Armament. — Our 
Dogs and Donkeys. — Ready. 

April, On the 26tli of April we started from Sinibo for tlie dreaded 

1873. Makata swamp, a large, level plain lying between the Usagara 
Mountains and those near Simbaweni, offering no particular 
difficulties of passage in the dry season, but becoming convert- 
ed by the rains into a vast expanse of mud, with two or three 
troublesome morasses on the western side. 

Two hours' marching through pleasant wooded country, with 
red sandy soil, gave us our first introduction to the Makata, 
which then appeared in its worst form. 

The foot-prints of elephants, giraffes, and buffaloes had form- 
ed numerous holes in the clayey mud, some being at least knee- 
deep and full of water, and many of our donkeys were trapped 
in them. But they managed to bring their loads into camp in 
safety, although one had nearly been strangled by its driver, 
who made a running noose round its neck and attempted to 
drag it out of a hole by main force. 

Five hours in heavy rain were occupied in getting over five 
miles of this road, and during that time we had often to lend a 
hand in loading and unloading the poor donkeys, besides pre- 
venting the men from straggling, since they all wished to halt 
in the middle of the mud. 

This would have been a fatal mistake, there being no bushes 
with which to build huts, or to provide fuel for the camp-fires ; 
and a night's exposure to the rain and cold, with no dry sleep- 
ing-place, must have crippled most of them. So I continued on 
the march until 3 p.m., when we arrived at the site of an old 


camp, a comparatively dry spot, wliere we found fuel and ma- April, 
terials for liut-building. 1873. 

It rained hard all the night, but began to clear shortly after 
day-break ; and at eight o'clock we commenced our march over 
a level plain, sparsely wooded, and with a few fan-palms, and 
the mud not nearly so troublesome as on the previous day. 

One hour's distance from camp we crossed a swift little 
stream, fed by small drains in the soil, which falls into the Ma- 
kata River, and then came upon another too deep to ford. 

To my vexation, on ordering the india-rubber boat to be 
made ready to ferry the loads across, I found that a part of the 
caravan had taken a different road, in order to ford the stream 
where it was shallower, and, unfortunately, the man carrying 
the boat had gone with those who did not require his services. 

"We sent after him, but in the mean time decided to cross by 
swimming, Dillon and myself going backward and forward to 
tow over those who were unable to swim ; and after most of 
the men were safely landed on the opposite bank, the boat ap- 
peared upon the scene, and we used it to transport the bales. 

Finding one of my boxes among the baggage, I took the op- 
portunity of changing my wet clothes, but could not persuade 
Dillon to follow my example, and he remained in the water un- 
til he became thoroughly chilled. 

I observed wrack of grass and twigs in the branches of small 
trees on the banks of these streams about ten feet above water, 
showing how high the floods over the country must be at times. 

Another half-hour brought us to the Makata River, a swift, 
swirling stream, about forty yards wide by eight or nine feet 
in depth. At this point was a rough bridge, composed of 
trunks and branches of trees lashed together with creepers and 
supported by large branches, and in one or two places near the 
banks by a rough form of trestle. 

According to African ideas, this construction, which was then 
almost under water, answered very well for bipeds ; but the un- 
fortunate donkeys were obliged to be hauled across at a clear 
place farther up the stream, in a manner they did not at ^11 

Each one was brought up in turn and bundled into the river 
from a high bank, while a dozen men on the opposite side ran 





away with a rope made fast round the neck of the beast, which 
never appeared after tlie first phmge until his feet struck ground 
at the opposite bank. 

"We camped a few hundred yards from the river, and, the 
afternoon being fine, occupied ourselves in drying such of our 
stores as had been damaged by the wet. But during the night 
the rain came down again in torrents ; our camping-ground be- 
came a swamp, and the river rose until the bridge over which 
we had passed was quite under water. 

We congratulated ourselves on our good fortune in not be- 
ing delayed another day before crossing, otherwise we might 
have been compelled to wait a week for the waters to subside, 
the current being far too swift to admit of our using the boat. 

A portion of the plain rather raised above the general level 
now afforded us dry and good marching, and a striking feature 
on the route was presented by the number of fan-palms {Bo- 
rassus fldhelUforonu), the swelling in the middle of their tall 
trunks having a very peculiar appearance to eyes unaccus- 
tomed to such an apparent deformity. 

The numerous runs of game with which the country was in- 
tersected were also noticeable. One was so worn that, having 
separated from the main body of the caravan just before reach- 
ing camp, I followed it instead of the proper path for about 
half a mile, without discovering my mistake. 


We halted close to a village called Mkonibenga, and Dillon April, 
became very ill with fever, his first attack, which was doubtless ^^'^^- 
brought on by remaining so long in the water on our crossing 
the Makata Eiver ; and my right foot and ankle were so swollen 
and painful that I was perfectly unable to move. 

Neither of us was better for a day's rest ; but we thought it 
advisable to endeavor to reach Eehenneko, the descriptions we 
had heard of it leading us to believe that it was very healthy. 

It was distant one long march, but we decided on proceed- 
ing by easy stages. I w^as suffering such pain that I could nei- 
ther walk nor ride, but was carried in a hammock, while Dillon 
managed to get along on his staid old donkey, named " Philos- 
opher" on account of the equanimity with which he endured 
the vicissitudes of travel. We rested at a small hamlet belong- 
ing to a chief named Kombehina ; but the next morning Dil- 
lon was too ill to mount his donkey. Having only one ham- 
mock, we decided that Dillon should remain here and nurse 
himself, while I pushed on to Eehenneko, which was reported 
as being near at hand, sending the hammock back for Dillon as 
soon as I arrived there. Several large villages were passed on 
the way, and the country was very thickly cultivated, excepting 
in places where it was too marshy, or flooded, such as we met 
with on two occasions. Each of these flooded tracts was three- 
quarters of a mile across, with water varying from one to three 
feet in depth. 

When I arrived at Eehenneko, I located myself comfortably 
under the veranda of the chief's hut, and immediately sent the 
hammock for Dillon. >— 

Eehenneko proved to be a large and populous village, and I 
was soon surrounded by a wondering crowd, the people being 
all well-dressed, after the fashion of the slaves at Zanzibar. 
They wore also a very peculiar necklace, consisting of a disk of 
coiled brass wire projecting horizontally from the neck, and 
sometimes as much as two feet in diameter, having an effect 
which forcibly reminded me of a painting of John the Baptist's 
head in a charger. . 

These curious and uncomfortable ornaments I only saw in 
Eehenneko, but I heard that they were worn throughout the 
surrounding; district. 


May, The village was situated at the entrance to a rocky gorge 

^^'^- leading into the mountains of Usagara, and I at once saw it 
would not prove a suitable place for a j)ermanent camp, on ac- 
count of its low-lying position. I therefore selected the sum- 
mit of a small hill for the site, and was carried there, and had 
my tent pitched. 

Only half a dozen men hutted themselves that night, owing 
to their very great fear of wild beasts. Indeed, they were so 
timid that, when I wanted water to drink after sunset, I could 
not persuade any man to fetch some from a stream some four 
hundred yards oif. 

Dillon arrived the next day very ill, and I had the camp 
properly laid out for a long halt if necessary. 

The men's huts formed a large outer circle, and in the centre 
a plot was fenced in for our tents, the guard-room, and store- 
house; the space between the men's huts and our own com- 
pound was used for picketing the donkeys at night. During 
the day they were allowed to roam about and graze, under the 
charge of a couple of men detailed for this duty. In addition 
to fever, Dillon had an attack of dysentery, and was confined 
to his bed until the 20th of May, having arrived on the 2d ; 
and I continued very lame, the swelling of my foot proving to 
have been caused by a large abscess which formed on my instep. 

To add to our troubles, a strike occurred among the men di- 
rectly after our arrival, as they wanted extravagant amounts of 
cloth in lieu of rations. I was obliged to be firm, even at the 
risk of losing many by desertion ; for had I yielded to their re- 
quest, the whole stock of cloth of which we were possessed 
would very soon have been exhausted. I could purchase eight- 
een days' rations for one man for two yards ; yet each man 
wanted two yards for every five days, and the smallest conces- 
sion on my part would only have induced them to increase 
their demands. 

My usual daily routine during Dillon's illness was to hobble 
round the camp after morning cocoa and visit the donkeys be- 
fore seeing them turned out to graze, dressing with carbolized 
oil any that had sores. Then I mustered the men, inspected 
arms, and heard any complaints ; after which the camp was 
cleared up, rations served out, and parties sent to the surround- 


ing villages to buy the following day's provisions. Breakfast May, 
came next, and then writing, saddle-making, and different small '^^'^^• 
employments occupied the time until evening, when a meal — 
dinner and supper combined — was served. I then took sights, 
and smoked a pipe by the camp-fire until it w^as time for bed. 

Occasionally the day was diversified by the arrival of a visit- 
or ; Ferhan, chief of a large village, and slave of Syd Suliman 
— who was minister both to Syd Said and Syd Majid, and 
is now one of the councilors of Syd Burghash — having thus 
come to pay his respects and make us a present of a goat and 
some fowls. And another day the son of an Oman Arab set- 
tled at Mbumi, Syde ibn Omar, brought a present from his fa- 
ther, and excuses for his not appearing in person on account of 

These two visits were very pleasant; but a third proved 
rather the contrary, when a bumptious, overbearing half-caste 
came sw^aggering into camp to demand that we should give up 
to him one of our pagazi on the plea of a debt contracted two 
or three years before. 

I investigated the case, and the pagazi declaring that he owed 
nothing to the Arab, I refused to let him be taken away ; upon 
which our friend bounced out of the camp without deigning to 
respond to my " kwa-heri," or good-bye. 

"While remaining here, I succeeded in getting all the don- 
keys' saddles into good working order, and designed a pad of a 
most useful pattern, which w^ould have enabled us to w^ork with 
donkeys the whole journey across Africa, had it been made of 
more lasting materials than those at our disposal. The saddles 
were fitted with two girths, breast-straps, breechings, and crup- 
pers, and at the top there w^ere toggels and loops, so that the 
loads could be put on or taken off almost instantaneously when 
they had to be passed across any of the numerous obstructions 
on the road. 

Seven donkeys carried panniers for ammunition and gun- 
gear, which would have answered admirably had they been 
stronger, but we put more weight into them than they were 
intended to bear; and that, together with constant banging 
against the trees, so shortened their natural span of life that 
none of them reached farther than Ujiji. 



May, Beginning to grow anxious respecting Murphy, I sent back 

^^'^^- several small parties to try and obtain news of him, and at 
length, on the 20th of May, I received a letter from him dated 
at Mohali, on the 16th. He there stated that both he and Mof- 
fat had suffered from several attacks of fever, and Moffat was 
very ill indeed. 

Some days elapsing without hearing any thing further, I 
again endeavored to communicate with him, and then received 
a report from an up caravan that he was about to cross the 

On the 26th, a caravan hove in siglit, headed by a white man 

riding a donkey ; but only that one white man could be seen 

among the crowd of dusky figures by which he was surrounded. 

" Where is the other ?" was the simultaneous ejaculation of 

Dillon and myself, and " Who is the missing one V 

As the party approached nearer, we became still more anx- 
ious ; and at last, unable longer to bear the suspense, I limped 
down the hill to meet it. 

I then recognized Murphy, and to my question, "Where is 
Moffat *" the answer was, " Dead !" 

"How? when? where?" was quickly asked, and then the sad 
tale was told of his having fallen a victim to the climate at a 
camp about a couple of hours' march from Simbo. 

His remains rest beneath a tall palm-tree at the commence- 
ment of the Makata plain. His name is added to that glorious 
roll of those who have sacrificed their lives in the cause of 
African discovery. Mackenzie, Tinne, Mungo Park, Yan der 
Decken, Thornton, are a few of that noble company in which, 
too — though we did not know it at that time — the name of his 
uncle, Livingstone, holds a most distinguished place. 

Poor boy ! He came to Bagamoyo so full of hope and as- 
pirations for the future, and had told me that the day he re- 
ceived permission to join the expedition was the happiest of 
his life. 

Murphy's entire party did not come up until the following 
day, when they arrived in charge of Issa. Immediately tliey 
were settled in camp, I numbered and served out the loads, 
making a list of the contents of each, so that it might be possi- 
ble to find at once any thing that was required. 




One great difficulty was providing carriers for Murphy, who 
was still ill from fever, owing, in a great measure, to his having 
neglected the use of quinine. 

Being no light weight, he required three relays of four men 
each, thus making a serious drag on our means of carriage, and 
the six donkeys he had brought up were so knocked about that 
they were unfit for work. It taxed all the ingenuity of myself 
and Issa to put matters straight. 

The total strength of the expedition at this time consisted of 
Dillon, Murphy, and myself, Issa (our store-keeper), thirty-five 
askari (including Bombay, who was supposed to command them), 
one hundred and ninety -two pagazi, six servants, cooks, and 
gun-bearers, and three boys. We had also twenty -two donkeys 
and three dogs, and several of the men had with them women 
and slaves, so that, numerically, we were an imposing force. 




Our total losses up to this time among our men had been — 
one askari and one pagazi by death, and thirty-eight pagazi by 
desertion : one donkey had died at Shamba Gonera ; and anoth- 
er, having been lamed by a kick from one of his companions, 
was left by Murphy at Bagamoj'O. 

As regards our arms, Dillon and I each possessed, besides re- 
volvers, a double-barreled No. 12 rifle, and a fowling-piece of the 
same bore, all by Lang ; and right good weapons they proved. 





Murphy had a double-barreled No. 10 fowling-piece and a No. 
12 of Lang's, which poor Moffat bought at Zanzibar. 

Our men were provided with six navy and thirty-two artil- 
lery Sniders; and Issa, Bombay, and Bilal carried revolvers. 
Many of our pagazi also had flint-lock. Tower, or French trade- 
muskets, and every man not otherwise armed a spear or bow 
and arrows. 

The donkeys had all been elaborately named at Bagamoyo ; 
but the only two that retained them were Dillon's and my rid- 
ing donkeys, the Philosopher and Jenny Lind. 

The three dogs, which were a great delight to us, were Leo, a 
large, rough nondescript, bought at Zanzibar, my special friend, 
and a great wonder among all the natives on account of his 
size and appearance ; Mabel or May, Dillon's dog, a bull-terrier 
given him by Mr. Schultze, the German consul at Zanzibar ; and 
Rixie, a very pretty brindled fox-terrier, brought by Murphy 
from Aden. 

On the 29th of May every thing was ready, and we hoped to 
make a fair start on the following morning. Murphy was only 
partially recovered from fever, and I was still lame ; but Dillon 
was perfectly well, and we were all full of hope for the future. 




Our Porter's Vanity. — A Rocky Gorge. — Camping on a Slope. — An Impudent Beg- 
gar. — Mirambo. — Monster Trees. — Wife -beating. — Its Remedy. — A Blunder and 
its Consequences. — Fortune-seekers. — Several Caravans join us. — An Elephant- 
hunter. — A Distressing Sight. — A Terekesa. — A Dry Country. — Death from Ex- 
haustion. — Water once again. — Strange Doctrine of a "True Believer." — Tembe 
Huts. — The Wadirigo. — A Warlike Race. — Their Arms. — Harvesting. — Bitter 
Waters. — The Marenga Mkali. — Sharp-eyed Wagogo. 

On tlie morning of the 30tli of May, several hands were ab- May, 
sent, and five had deserted. Among the latter was the man i^YS. 
whom I had refused to surrender to the bumptious Arab who 
demanded him for debt. 

It was annoying beyond measure to find that, after feeding 
men in idleness for a month, they bolted the moment they were- 
required for work, and had received their rations for the road. 

And another trouble was, that, notwithstanding" my having 
taken the pains to see each man told off to his own particular 
load, yet they made a rush and struggled for the favorite ones. 
This was not so much from any desire to shirk a heavy load 
as to carry one which entitled the bearer to a more dignified 
position in the caravan, the order being — tents first and fore- 
most, then wire, cloth, and beads, the miscellaneous gear, such as 
boxes and cooking utensils, bringing up the rear. By dint of 
perseverance, we adjusted all our difficulties, and started at ten 

Our road wound through a rocky gorge and up the steep side 
of the mountain, rendered more difficult by numerous torrent 
beds channeled in the solid granite, and which were worn quite 
smooth and polished, and made slippery by the draining-down 
of water. Before some of our donkeys would cross the worst 
of these, it was necessary to blindfold them. 

Xone of the men appeared fit for work, being out of train- 
ing, from a long stay in camp ; so, after a short march, we en- 


May, camped on a slope almost as steep as tlie roof of a house, that 
1873. being the most level spot we could iind. 

Consequently we were obliged to chock up our " rolling 
stock," to jjrevent their starting for the Makata plain, some 
eight hundred feet below. 

Several men complaining of illness and weakness, we re-ar- 
ranged loads. This employed us until late in the evening, 
when the askari whom I had sent in search of deserters re- 
turned w^ithout having obtained any news of them. 

Leaving here the next morning, without difficulty we made a 
long and fatiguing march over very mountainous country to a 
camp on the left bank of the Mukondokwa — the principal af- 
fluent of the Makata — meeting on our way a large Arab cara- 
van taking ivory to the coast. 

The leader, a very miserable-looking wretch, unhesitatingly 
asked us for a bale of cloth ; but when that modest request was 
politely refused, lowered his demands and begged for a single 

From him we heard that Mirambo, a chief to the west of Un- 
yanyembe, who had been fighting the Arabs for some three or 
four years, was still unconquered ; for, although all the Arabs 
at Taborah, aided by numerous native allies, had taken the Held 
against him, they had been unable to drive him from the vicin- 
ity of their settlements. Traveling round about Taborah was 
therefore considered dangerous. The road was a succession of 
very steep ascents and descents, worn in many places into steps 
composed of quartz and granite, either in slippery sheets or 
loose blocks, that rendered walking very difficult indeed ; and 
it was almost a marvel that the pagazi and donkeys, with their 
loads, avoided coming to grief. 

Our camp was on an uncomfortable slope, even steeper than 
that of the previous night, and every thing seemed inclined to 
follow the universal law of gravity. 

Just below flowed the Mukondokwa, a broad and shallow 
but swift stream ; and the hills, covered to their summits with 
acacias, looked, as Burton justly observes, much like umbrellas 
in a crowd ; and in the dips and valleys, where water was plen- 
tiful, the mparamusi reared its lofty head. 

The mparamusi is one of the noblest specimens of arboreal 


beauty in the world, having a towering shaft, sometimes fifteen June, 
feet in diameter and a hundred and forty feet high, with bark i^"^^- 
of a tender yellowish green, crowned by a spreading head of 
dark foliage. Unfortunately, these magnificent trees are often 
sacrificed to serve no more important purpoae than the making 
of a single door, the wood being soft and easily fashioned ; and 
since it rots rapidly unless well seasoned, the work of destruc- 
tion is constantly proceeding. 

As the last men left camp for our next marcli, a leopard, 
having a monkey in its clutches, fell from an overhanging tree 
within fifteen yards of where our tents had been pitched. 

For two hours we followed the left bank of the Mukondok- 
wa, and then crossed the river below a sharp bend in its course, 
whence a level path through plantations of enormous matama, 
with stalks over twenty feet high, brought us to camp close to 
the village of Muinyi Useghara. 

The stream at the point where we forded it was fifty yards 
wide and mid-thigh deep, running two knots an hour, the ford 
being marked by the finest mparamusi I ever saw. It had two 
stems springing from the same root, and running at least one 
hundred and seventy feet in height before spreading into a 
magnificent head. 

Near this was the former village of Ivadetamare. It had 
been much damaged by the late floods and hurricane, and was 
now inhabited by some of his slaves, under the orders of a 
head-man in charge of the provision-grounds. 

Ivadetamare, profiting by experience, had built a new village 
for himself on the summit of a small knoll. 

Soon after our arrival at Muinyi Useghara's, we witnessed a 
curious custom, said to be universal in Oriental Africa. A 
woman rushed into camp and tied a knot in Issa's turban, there- 
by placing herself under his protection, in order to be revenged 
upon her husband, who had beaten her for not cooking some 
fish properly. The husband came and claimed her ; but before 
she was restored to him he was compelled to pay a ransom of a 
bullock and three goats, and to promise, in the presence of his 
chief, that he would never again ill-treat her. 

A slave can also obtain a change of masters by breaking a 
bow or spear belonging to the man whom he selects as his new 


June. owner, or by tying a knot in any portion of liis clothing ; and 
i^*^^- the original owner can not redeem liim except by paying his 
full value, and he is invariably obliged to promise not to use 
him harshly. 

From this place , we dispatched a party of forty men to 
Mbumi, for food to take us to Mpwapwa ; but some of them 
returned a day later with a woful story of disaster and death. 

When sifted to the bottom, the affair proved much less than 
they represented, though bad enough in all conscience. 

It appeared that the party arrived safely at Mbumi, and com- 
pleted the purchase of the corn we required, when a false alarm 
w^as raised that some of the wilder tribes living in the hills 
were coming to attack the villagers. There was, naturally, 
very much excitement, in the midst of which one of our men's 
rifles was discharged by accident, and shot a native through 
the body, killing him on the spot. 

The people then turned u2:>on our party, and those who did 
not escape by running were seized and put in chowkie, and the 
corn that had been collected was lost. 

Syde ibn Omar, the Arab whose son visited us at Kehenneko, 
lived near Mbumi, and wrote to acquaint us of the occurrence, 
and afterward came in person, and was of the greatest possible 
assistance in arranging the affair. Still, this unlucky business 
delayed us, and cost three loads of cloth. But we were fortu- 
nate in getting off so easily, for many caravans have lost very 
heavily in conflicts with natives of the Useghara Mountains, 
arising from far more trivial circumstances than the death of a 

By a caravan passing down from TJnyanyembe, we sent let- 
ters and also Moffat's Bil)le, watch, and an old rifle that had 
belonged to his grandfather. Dr. Moffat, to be forwarded from 
Zanzibar to his mother at Durban. 

Three up caravans also arrived, and attached themselves to 
us in order to benefit by the j^rotection of numbers in jjassing 
through Ugogo. 

One was composed of Wanyamwezi taking home the pro- 
ceeds of the ivory they had sold at the coast. But on passing 
Eehenneko, two or three days after we left, they were attacked 
and dispersed by the chief and people of that place ; and, ac- 


cording to their account — which I believe was greatly exagger- June, 
ated — they had lost fifty or sixty loads, and eight or ten men. ^^'''^• 

Another was a party of about twenty, belonging to a black- 
smith who indulged in the hope of making a fortune at Unyan- 
yembe by repairing muskets during the war with Mirambo. 

The last and largest was a heterogeneous assemblage, joined 
together for mutual protection. It consisted of small parties 
under the charge of Arabs' slaves, and poor freemen who could 
only muster two or three loads, and slaves to carry them ; but, 
full of hope, were bound for lands of fabulous riches, where 
ivory was reported to be used for fencing pig-sties and making 

When we marched on the lltli of June, we were altogether 
over five hundred strong. 

The track was rough and broken ; and in some places over- 
hanging the river there were holes so nearly hidden by scrub, 
that very wary walking was recpiisite, a false step being suf- 
ficient to send one tumbling, through scrub and thorns, into the 

Fording this stream again, and then following up its valley, 
we crossed it for the third and last time, close to a small village 
called Madete, where we camped. 

Here w^e met an elephant-hunter from Mombasa awaiting the 
return of men he had dispatched to the coast with ivory. He 
was armed with bow and arrows, the latter so strongly poisoned 
that one deep or two slight wounds proved sufficient to kill an 
elephant. The arrow-heads were neatly covered with banana- 
leaves to prevent accidents, and a stock of the poison was car- 
ried in a gourd. 

A short distance below the place where we last crossed the 
Mukondokwa, the Ugombo joins it ; and, following the valley 
of that river, on both sides of which the mountains are very 
bold and precipitous — some peaks, aj)parently formed of solid 
masses of syenite, being excellent landmarks — we arrived the 
next day at Lake Ugombo. 

This sheet of water varies from three miles long by one 
wide, to one mile long by half a mile wide, according to the 
season, being mainly dependent on the rains for its supply. 

It affords a home for a number of hippopotami, and its sur- 


June, face is usually dotted with various kinds of water-fowl, while 
1873. Q^ ^jjg neighboring hills guinea-fowl were abundant. 

Although I had been assured that all our donkeys were prop- 
erly tethered in camp, I heard during the night the screams of 
one evidently in great pain or fear, at some distance from us. 
It was impossible to jDroceed to its assistance, owing to the dark- 
ness; and, when day dawned, the poor animal was found to 
have been so dreadfully torn and mangled, most probably by a 
hyena, that we were obliged to shoot it. 

A distressing sight was witnessed on the day of our depart- 
ure, when a mixed multitude of men, women, and children, driv- 
ing cattle and goats, and hurrying along with a few of their 
household belongings, passed by our camp. They proved to be 
the homeless population of some villages near Mpwapwa which 
had been plundered by the AVadirigo, a predatory highland 
tribe, of whom more anon. 

From Ugombo to Mpwapwa, two long marches distant, the 
country was reported to be waterless ; and for the first time we 
underwent a ierekesa, or afternoon march — one of the most try- 
ing experiences of African travel. 

A terekesa is so arranged that, by starting in the afternoon 
from a place where water is found, and marching until some 
time after dark, leaving again as early as possible on the follow- 
ing morning for the watering-place in front, a caravan is only 
about twenty hours without water, instead of over thirty, as 
would be the case if the start were in the morning. And as 
the men cook their food before moving from the first camp and 
after arrival at the second, no water need be carried for that 

The tents and loads were in this instance seized upon and 
packed by the carriers at 11 a.m., leaving us exposed to the sun's 
rays, without a particle of shelter, till we started at one o'clock. 

From that hour until after sunset we toiled along a i)arched 
and dusty country, with outcroj^s of granite and quartz all 
bleached and weathered by the scorching sun and pouring rains 
of the torrid zone. The vegetation was sparse and dry, con- 
sisting of a few baobab-trees and kolqualls, and some thin wirv 
grass, much of which had been burned down by sparks from 
the pipes of passing caravans. 


Our halting - place was at Matamondo, wliere the river-bed June, 
was perfectly dry, and not so much as a drop of water was to i^*^^- 
be seen. 

Issa, however, had heard at Ugombo that some was to be 
found near this place ; and, after a long and tiresome search in 
the dark, a pool was discovered about two miles distant. To 
this the men immediately went to quench their thirst ; but the 
state of the road rendered it imjDossible to send the unfortunate 
donkeys there at night. 

In order to escape the heat of the sun as far as possible, we 
started again at 5 a.m. ; and, after dragging along through dusty 
scrub, up and down steep hills, and in and out of rocky nullahs, 
we approached the foot of the hills on the slopes of which 
Mpwapwa lies, about two in the afternoon. 

The sight of fresh green trees and fields of maize, matama 
and sweet-potatoes, and streams of beautiful crystal water run- 
ning in threads through a broad, sandy course, then gladdened 
our eyes. 

Those only who have traversed a barren, scorching road such 
as we had gone over, can imagine how great was the delight 
and refreshment to our weary eyes and aching limbs when this 
scene first burst ujDon our view. 

Directly I reached the water, I sent some of the least fa- 
tigued with a supply for those who had lagged behind, faint 
with heat and thirst ; but, notwithstanding this precaution, one 
pagazi and a donkey never lived to taste of the fountains of 

Proceeding up this water-course, bounded on both sides by 
very large trees, we found water becoming more plentiful, and 
pitched our three tents under an enormous acacia, one half of 
which afforded us ample shelter. 

We were soon favored by a visit from an Arab who was 
working his way down to the coast in company with a caravan 
under charge of a slave of a large merchant of Unyanyembe, 
having failed to make his fortune in the interior. lie seemed 
half-witted, and certainly was the coolest fellow I ever met ; for 
he did not hesitate to take the pipe out of my mouth, and, after 
a whiff or two, to pass it on to a circle of greasy, dirty natives 
who were squatting round us staring as only a negro can stare. 


June, After a while our eccentric friend retired, and soon afterward a 
^^'^^' tremendous noise occurred in the camp of the Wanyamwezi. 

On going to ascertain the cause of the excitement, I found 
the Arab, followed by some slaves from his caravan, driving 
the Wanyamwezi out of their camp on the plea that heathens 
had no right to possess any goods, and, therefore, the remnant 
of stores they had saved from the rapacious clutches of the 
chief of Rehenneko ought by right to belong to a true believer. 

He was now attempting to carry this doctrine to its logical 
conclusion ; but I sent the lunatic back to his master, and, 
seeing cpiiet restored, the Wanyamwezi returned to their oc- 
cupations, Avhich had been so suddenly and unexpectedly in- 

The chief, a dirty, greasy old fellow, with a moist and liquor- 
ish eye, and a nose which denoted his devotion to pombe, came 
afterward with the leader of the Arab caravan to thank me for 
having prevented a serious disturbance. 

In order to recruit after the fatigues of the trying march from 
Lake Ugombo, and to prepare for crossing the Marenga Mkali, 
another waterless track of more than thirty miles, we remained 
here two days. 

And having now experienced the disagreeable consequences 
of the lack of water, I resolved to take a supply by filling four 
india -rubber air pillows, each holding three gallons. It re- 
quired some little ingenuity to fill them ; but by taking out the 
screw -plugs of the nozzles by which they were inflated, and 
using the tube of a pocket-filter as a siphon, the difficulty was 

At Mpwapwa the tewihe was first met with, and continued 
thence throughout UffOffo the sole habitation of the natives. 

The tembe is formed simply of two walls running parallel, 
subdivided by partitions and having a roof nearly flat, sloping 
only slightly to the front. It is usually built to form a square, 
inside which the cattle are penned at night. It is about the 
most comfortless form of habitation that the brain of man ever 
devised ; and as the huts are shared by the fowls and goats, 
they are filthy in the extreme, and swarm with insect life. 

The people are armed with bows and arrows, and knob-sticks 
for throwing or using as a club, and also have long, narrow, 




oval-shaped shields of bull's hide. Their ornaments are brass- 
wire ear-rings and necklaces ; and, having been so much in com- 
munication with people of the coast, they dress like the Arabs' 

A great contrast to the Mpwapwa people were some of the 
Wadirigo who came over to look at us. They stalked about 
among the timid villagers, openly telling them that, whenever 
they thought fit, they would plunder them. 




The Wadirigo are a tall, manly race, despising all such re- 
finements of civilization as clothing — the men, and many of the 
women, being stark-naked, with the exception, perhaps, of a sin- 
gle string of beads round the neck or wrist. 

They carry enormous shields of hide, five feet high by three 
wide, stiffened by a piece of wood bowed to form a handle down 
the centre, and having a small withe round the edge to keep it 
in shape. On the right-hand side of the centre-piece are two 
beckets. In these are kept a heavy sjjear for close quarters, 
and a bundle of six or eight slender, beautifully finished assa- 
gais — ornamented with brass wire, and balanced by a small knob 
of the same metal at the butt — which they throw upward of 
fifty yards with force and precision. 

Such is their reputation for courage and skill in the use of 


June, their weapons, tliat none of the tribes on whom they habitually 
i^*^^- make their raids ever dare to resist them. 

After resting three days, on we went again, marching first 
to a village called Kisokweh, and meeting on onr way many 
women of Mpwapwa bringing in the harvest in large baskets 
carried on their heads. 

Several had babies slung in a goat-skin on their backs, and 
wore an apron made of innumerable thongs of hide, having a 
charm dangling from each to preserve the infant from the evil 
eye and other forms of witchcraft. 

Kisokweh was occupied by the Wadirigo, who were well 
enough disposed toward us, and, as is usually the case with peo- 
ple of their description, it was " light come, light go ;" so that 
we were al)le to purchase from them a couple of bullocks, half 
a dozen goats, and some ghee, for a very small amount of beads 
and brass wire. 

A sliort march from this brought us to Chunyo (" bitter "), 
so called from its undesirable reputation of having bitter wa- 
ter, which poisons beasts should they drink it. As we found it 
fairly good on tasting, we allowed ours to drink, arguing that, 
if good enough for man, it could not harm a donkey, and the 
result proved we were right. The water in the pillows we re- 
served for the Marenga Mkali, for which we started on the 20th 
of June. 

The walking was good, over a level, sandy plain, with numer- 
ous small granite hills in different directions ; and although 
there was not much vegetation for the first part of the road, 
l)ut only a little thin grass and some thorn-scrub, this seemed 
to afford suflBcient sustenance for large herds of antelope and 

One herd Dillon and I stalked for some distance, but could 
not get within effective range, owing to the paucity of cover. 

On this occasion we marched almost without intermission 
from 9 A.M. to 9 p.m., when we camped in a grove of stunted 
acacias. The men scarcely appreciated this long stretch, and 
were desirous of halting with a down caravan which we passed 
at sunset ; but knowing that the next morning would be the 
most trying part of the march, we pressed forward, wishing to 
sh(jrten it as much as possible. The scene in camp was very 


striking ; for no tents being pitched or huts built, we all biv- June, 
ouacked in the open. 1873. 

Overhead was the sky, of a deep velvety blackness, studded 
with innumerable silver and golden stars ; while the dusky fig- 
ures, moving about among the tires, formed a weird and effect- 
ive foreground, the smoke hanging like frosted silver among 
the tree-tops. 

Ugogo was reached the next day, after a very tiresome march 
of five hours across a country intersected by many nullahs, 
which in the rainy season are temporary streams. 

When we arrived within the limits of cultivation, our men, 
unable any longer to withstand the pangs of thirst, commenced 
gathering water-melons of a very inferior and bitter sort ; but 
some sharp-eyed Wagogo detected them, and demanded about 
twenty times the value of what had been picked; and upon 
camping at noon, our beasts were not allowed to be watered 
until we had obtained leave by payment. 




Entry into Ugogo. — Chai-acter of the Wagogo. — Defeat of an Arab Expedition. — 
Ugogo. — Water Supply. — A Walie. — Wanyamwezi, and their Ingratitude. — The 
Wagogo. — Extraordinary Ear-rings. — Fantastic Coiffures. — Personal Adornment. 
— A Struggle for Precedence. — Curiously-formed Trees and Excrescences. — As- 
tonishing the Natives. — Adopted Fathers. — A Thieving Tribe. — Bombay in a Fog. 
— A Chilly Morning. — Manufacture of Salt. — Small-pox. 

June, We had now fairly entered Ugogo, and, having heard many 

__]___ wonderful stories of the extortions practiced by the Wagogo, 
anticipated some difficulty in passing through their country. 

They were reputed to be great thieves, and so overbearing 
that any insult they inflicted was to be borne without resist- 
ance. But should a AVagogo be struck, or receive some imagi- 
nary injury, a fine was exacted ; and, if not immediately paid, 
the Wagogo, being a brave and warlike race, would attack and 
plunder the caravan. 

Such was the character we received of them ; and though we 
found them disposed to be rude and extortionate, they were, in 
truth, the veriest cowards and poltroons it is possible to con- 
ceive. Arabs, Wanyamwezi, and others with whom they are 
jjrincipally brought in contact, approach Ugogo in fear and 
trembling, apprehensive of being fleeced of half their stores 
in passing through ; for they are completely dependent on the 
Wagogo for their supplies of food and water from day to day ; 
and they, like true cowards, bully and oppress those who are at 
their mercy, knowing they can offer no resistance. 

The tribute which is levied is not, however, altogether un- 
just, and would, indeed, be perfectly fair, if conducted on any 
fixed principles ; for if the Wagogo did not live in the country 
and keep the watering-places in repair, the paths would be im- 
passable in the dry season, Mdiicli is always preferred for trav- 

Some years ago an Arab, braver, but not wiser, than his fel- 


lows, as subsequent events proved, determined to light his way June, 
through Ugogo without paying tribute, and with this view col- ^^'^^- 
lected about nine hundred people, and openly declared his in- 

The Wagogo never even waited for his approach, but filled 
up the pools, burned their houses and such stores as they could 
not carry, and retreated into the jungle with their wives, chil- 
dren, cattle, and all their movables. The Arab and his men, 
though quite prepared to contend with human foes, were beat- 
en by hunger and thirst ; and while some returned to Unyan- 
yembe, whence they had started, many more died of starvation, 
and only eight or ten reached Mpwapwa in safety. It is said 
that six or seven hundred men perished in this attempt. 

Ugogo is about one hundred miles square, but is divided into 
numerous independent chieftainships, in each of which mliongo 
has to be paid, and delay experienced. 

The country is arid and parched during the dry season, but 
in the rains, which last from November to May, is well watered, 
and large crops of matama, which ripens in June, are easily 
raised. It is upon the stalks of this that the cattle are princi- 
pally fed in the drought ; and they appear in good condition, 
notwithstanding its seeming lack of nutriment. Every tribe pos- 
sesses a herd of cattle, which is attended to by all the grown-up 
males in rotation, the chiefs even taking their turn at this duty. 

Numerous water-courses are met with, and in their beds wa- 
ter may frequently be obtained by digging. There are also a 
few small natural ponds ; but, where both these resources fail, 
the inhabitants dig pits to contain sufficient rain to last them 
until the season again arrives. After a time the water in these 
holes becomes indescribably nauseous, and is very often ren- 
dered brackish by the large amount of salt in the soil. 

On the 22d of June we moved to Mvumi, the village of the 
chief of the first division of Ugogo, and were thoroughly ini- 
tiated into the vexations of paying mhongo, and the manner in 
which negotiations respecting the amount are conducted. 

At the moment of our arrival, the chief and his people were 
celebrating the obsequies of one of his sisters, who had de- 
parted this life a week j^reviously, and, consequently, every 
one was drunk. 



June, This circumstance detained iis three days, during which a 

^^^^" gang of Wanyamwezi, engaged by Murphy at Bagamoyo, bolt- 
ed en masse. He had intrusted their payment to Abdullali 
Dina; and that worthy gave them such villainous cloth that 
they considered themselves cheated when they saw the " supe- 
rior material " which our other people had received. Not con- 
tented with deserting only, they stole a load of cloth from one 
of the small parties accompanying us, which we felt bound to 
replace, being responsible for the acts of our servants. 

They joined the Wanyamwezi whom we had protected at 
Mpwapwa, and who thus commenced to show their ingratitude 
by aiding their countrymen to desert and rob us. 

As the chief had given orders that none of the inhabitants 
should enter the camp, on account of trouble having arisen on 
several occasions between them and passers-by, with loss of life 
on both sides, we were obliged to send about the country to 
procure food during our halt here. 

The Wagogo are easily distinguished from other tribes by 
the custom of piercing their ears and enlarging the lobes to a 
monstrous extent, wearing in them pieces of wood, ear-rings of 
brass wire, gourd snuff-boxes, and a variety of miscellaneous ar- 
ticles ; in fact, the ear to a Mgogo answers much the same pur- 
pose as a pocket to people indulging in wearing apparel. The 
lobes are often so enormous as to descend to the shoulders, and 
in old age frequently become broken or torn. In this case the 
indispensable ear-rings are either suspended by a string ac]'oss 
the top of the head, or a fresh hole is made in one of the hang- 
ing ends, wliich ultimately becomes as large as the former one. 

Their arms are double-edged knives, spears, bows and arrows, 
and knob-sticks. A few also carry hide shields similar in shape 
to those of Mpwapwa, but with the hair scraped off, and pat- 
terns painted on them in red, yellow, black, and white. 

Small copper and brass bracelets, worked at Zanzibar, are 
much worn, as M'ell as I'itlndi of iron and brass wire, which 
are also placed round the upper arm, and above and below the 
knee ; and a peculiar ornament carved in horn, shaped like a 
double chevron, with spikes projecting from tlie upper angles 
covered with wire and tipped with small knobs of brass, is 
worn on the upper part of the left arm. 




But it is in tlie adornment (?) of their heads that the Wagogo 
principally exercise their inventive powers, and nothing is too 
absurd or hideous to please them. 

Some twist their wool into innumerable small strings, artifi- 
cially lengthened by w^orking in fibres of the baobab-tree, and 
either make them project wildly in all directions, or allow them 



to fall more naturally, cutting them level with the eyebrows, 
but letting them lie in a mass on the back of the neck. On 
the ends of these strings there are often little brass balls and 
different-colored beads. 

Others cover their heads with copper pice brightly polished, 
or shave the greater part of the crown, training from the un- 
shorn portions a varying number of stiff tails frequently wound 


June, round with copper or brass wire, while their brows are bound 
1873. with a strip of white cowhide. 

From the traders they obtain white cloth, which thej dye a 
dirty yellow with clay, and they smear themselves with red 
earth, sometimes in patches and spots, but at others uniformly 
over the whole body. 

Adding to this the circumstance that the Wagogo are usually 
dripping with rancid ghee or castor-oil, and never wash, some 
slight idea of their objectionable appearance and smell may be 

Having concluded the payment of mhongo at Mvumi, we 
left on the 25th of June, arriving the same afternoon at a pret- 
ty little ziwa, or pond, snrrounded by fine trees, and with short, 
turf-like sward stretching back from the water's edge, forming 
a complete oasis in the midst of the sterile country through 
which we had journeyed. It was about four hundred yards 
long and two hundred wide, and was the chosen haunt of nu- 
merous water-fowl. 

Dillon and Murphy took the boat, and managed to bag a few 
birds somewhat like teal; but I was unable to move about, ow- 
ing to my boot having chafed the place on which I had an ab- 
scess when at Rehenneko, and rendered me again quite lame. 

Our march had been almost devoid of incident, excepting 
that the caravan was brought to a stand-still on one occasion by 
some of the cloth- carriers attempting to take precedence of the 
more aristocratic wire-carriers. 

And a second time, some Wagogo refused to allow us to 
pass their tembe without mhongo. But having already paid 
at Mvumi, to which district these people belonged, this was a 
barefaced imposition. I told the Wagogo they might take 
payment in lead from our rifles, although our timid men want- 
ed to persuade me to allow myself to be cheated ; and seeing 
three white men with rifles who evidently did not intend to 
submit to any extortion, they thought it most prudent to draw 
in their horns, and let the caravan pass without further oppo- 

The country was only partially cultivated, and some places 
were so sterile as to produce nothing but stunted acacias and a 
thorn which I called the "anji^ular" tree. Everv bend was at 


a sharp angle, and there was not a curve in any portion of its June, 
branches. ^ 

Under the acacias were strewed numerous natural caltrops, 
formed by a sort of excrescence on the trees, from which pro- 
truded four sharp, stiff thorns, each three inches long. When 
dry, these fall to the ground, and offer a serious impediment to 
barefooted men. 

In one portion of our road there w^ere many narrow rifts, 
seemingly occasioned by a recent earthquake, but I failed to 
make any one understand my inquiries as to their cause. 

On reaching the tembe of the chief of this district, which 
was called Mapalatta, we were again compelled to pay mhongo ; 
but, owing to the head-man being drunk, this matter could not 
be arranged on the day of our arrival. The chief was very civil, 
and gave us permission to take any matama stalks we might 
require for building huts and feeding the donkeys, during the 
time we w^ere detained waiting for the head-man to become 

Many visitors came to inspect our wonderful belongings — 
watches, guns, pistols, compasses, etc. ; and one old man, who 
was the chiefs uncle and adopted father, after staring for a 
long time in mute admiration, said, " Oh, these white men ! they 
make all these wonderful things, and know how to use them ! 
Surely men who know so much ought never to die ; they must 
be clever enough to make a medicine to keep them always 
young and strong, so that they need never die." 

I believe the old gentleman had some idea that we were a 
few thousand years old, and had evolved guns, watches, and all, 
out of our inner consciousness. 

He was very communicative, telling us that six circlets of 
skin on his left wrist were of elephant hides, and denoted the 
number he had killed. This induced me to inquire whether 
the yellow ones on his right wrist were trophies of lions he had 
killed ; but he replied, " Oh, no ! goat's skin — worn as a fetich." 

Honey was plentiful here; but as a party of Wadirigo were 
reported to be lurking about in the jungle, no one could be per- 
suaded to go out to collect any for us. 

On the day following, mhongo was settled satisfactorily to 
the chief, in particular, and relatively to us, for he was greatly 


.Fune, pleased with wliat we gave liiin, and we rejoiced at having paid 
^^'^^- less than we had expected. A timely present to his adopted 
father on the day of our arrival had probahlj something to do 
with the moderation of his demands. 

Perhaps a word may be necessary in explanation of the term 
"adopted father." It arises from the custom observed on the 
death of a chief, when the son is supposed to look upon his fa- 
ther's eldest surviving brother as his new or adopted father; 
but only in private, and not in public, matters. 

"When preparing for the road on the 29th of June, the re- 
maining goats of those purchased from our friendly thieves, the 
Wadirigo, were missing ; so Issa and a few askari were left to 
look after them, while we proceeded with the caravan to Mpan- 
ga Sanga. This was a clearing in the jungle three miles in di- 
ameter, with half a dozen tembes, and the residence of yet an- 
other independent chief. 

On the road a little cultivation was passed, with some tembes 
dependent upon it, and our camp was pitched near the chief^s 
hut, on the edge of a partially dried-up lake. 

In the absence of Issa, the payment of mhongo was intrusted 
to Bombay ; but the old man got in a fearful fog about it, and 
it ended in a dispute between the chief and myself. I consid- 
ered his demands unreasonable, and directed Bombay not to un- 
fasten any bales in the open camp, but in my tent, to prevent 
the prying eyes of the natives from seeing my good cloth ; be- 
cause I knew they would most assuredly report to the chief 
what I possessed, and he would base his demands on this infor- 
mation, instead of on the number of bales. 

Bombay, however, became confused and frightened, and 
opened several loads in the presence of a number of AVagogo. 
They instantly told their chief they had seen a coujjle of ex- 
pensive Indian cloths, intended by me for presents to Arabs or 
important chiefs ; but which, of course, were now demanded. 

I naturally upbraided Bombay for having acted in this man- 
ner, and desired him to inform the chief that he could not have 
the cloths. He then became still more foolish, and, while away 
on this errand, left a bale of common cloth exposed. This 
dangerous proceeding, in a place where every man's fingers 
are fish-hooks, resulted in two whole pieces of merikani being 


stolen ; and, in tlie end, I was obliged to part with one of the June, 
Indian cloths, besides losing the merikani. ^^'^- 

"When Issa arrived, he brought one only of the six stolen 
goats, although the chief at Mapalatta had given him every as- 
sistance in looking for them. The others had been carried off 
by a party of Wadirigo — supjDOsed to be attached to those of 
whom we had bought them — so that our encouragement of dis- 
honesty brought its own reward. 

It was not, perhaps, a very correct thing, according to a high 
code of morality, to become a receiver of stolen goods ; but I 
thought we might as well accept tlie offer, especially as the 
original owners, the fugitives whom we met near Lake Ugom- 
bo, could not have benefited in the slightest degree by our ab- 
staining from purchasing from the Wadirigo. 


Leaving Mpanga Sanga on the 1st of July, we marched for 
some hours through jungle with open spaces and ziwas, at the 
last of which we 'made a midday halt. It was of considerable 
size, with a goodly number of water-fowl about ; so we launched 
the boat, -and succeeded in bagging four or five ducks. 

This was a favorite camping-place, and various passing cara- 
vans had ornamented it with trophies of horns and skulls of 
buffaloes and antelopes which had been shot when coming to 

In the afternoon we marched on, with scarcely any inter- 
mission, through a rough country, covered with jungle and for- 







est, until, owing to the lateness of the hour and the men being 
tired, it was hopeless to attempt to reach the next watering- 
place that evening. But the next morning we started before 
sunrise, and for the first time in Africa felt cold, the air being 
very chilly. 

Arriving at a camping-place near a partially dried-up ziwa, 
we found a down caravan on the point of leaving, and, in an- 
swer to our inquiries, ascertained that Mirambo was still to the 
fore. They had heard that Livingstone was all right ; but their 
knowledge of his whereabouts was so vague that we placed no 
trust in their reports. 

At this camp, which was on the outskirts of Kanyenye, the 
largest and most ancient of all the districts in Ugogo, we were 
visited by a grandson of Magomba, the head chief, who brought 
us a liberal present of milk and honey. He said they had long 
heard of us, and his grandfather had ordered him to advise us 
to follow the direct road to liis tembe ; otherwise a son of the 
old chief would endeavor to persuade us to pass by his place 
with the view of extorting presents, which he had no authority 
for doing. And, truly enough, emissaries arrived from this son 
in the afternoon trying to induce us to pay him a visit. We 
politely declined. 



Kanyenye is a broad depression in tlie centre of Ugogo, prin- 
cipally remarkable for the inannfacture of salt, large quantities 
of which are exported to their neighbors. It is scraped from 
the surface of the earth where patches of salt efflorescence are 
found, mixed with water and boiled down, and made into cones 
like sugar-loaves about eighteen inches high. 

From this we moved to great Kanyeny^, crossing a plain 
studded with baobab-trees, and at a ziwa we noticed a line herd 
of cattle being watered. The country was almost wholly under 
cultivation, and numerous tembes were passed on this march. 
At the entrance to one we noticed many peoj^le suffering from 
small-pox — the first instance, since leaving the coast, we had 
seen of this fell disease, which at times sweeps like a devouring 
fire throughout large portions of Africa. 





Kanyenye. — A Veritable Methuselah. — Harsh-tongued People. — A Drunken Official. 
— Laziness of our Pagazi. — A Fancy for Goggles. — A Little Visitor. — Sambo shot. 
— A Thick Head. — Retributive Justice. — Fines for shedding Blood. — Hyenas. — A 
Rain Spirit. — Pigeon-shooting. — Witchcraft. — The Penalty of Failure. — Wizards 
roasted alive. — Usekhe.— Obsequies of a Chief.— The Wahumba. — Cost of Pro- 
visions. — Admiring Spectators. — Immense Tusks. — A Distressed British Subject. 
— Expenditure in Mhongo. 

July, Our camp at Kanyenye was one of a gronp of some half- 

^^''^- dozen built by various passing caravans, and, on arriving, there 

was a tremendous rush bj our pagazi to secure tlie best huts. 

It was a regular case of " each for himself, and the devil take 

the hindmost." 

Meanwhile we were left to shift for ourselves without assist- 
ance, and had much trouble in getting a place cleared for our 
tents, for the pagazi considered their work w^as over directly 
they were in camp and had deposited their loads. 

Afterward, when traveling with Arabs, I found that we had 
treated our men with too much consideration, and they, in con- 
sequence, tried to impose on us, and were constantly grumbling 
and growling. Our loads were ten pounds lighter than the 
average of those carried for the Arab traders. And since they 
do not employ askari, their pagazi, besides carrying loads, pitch 
tents and build screens and huts required for the women and 
■ cooking ; so that they are frequently two or three hours in 
camp before having a chance of looking after themselves. 
With us the work of our porters was finished when they 
reached camp ; for the askari pitched our tents, and the task 
of placing beds and boxes inside was left to our servants and 

Bombay, whom we trusted to keep order among the askari, 
was jealous of Issa, and allowed tlie men to abuse him as they 
liked ; and they were often so impertinent and insubordinate 


that Bombay himself was afraid to give an order. For in- July, 
stance, when directed to have a certain thing done, such as i^'^^- 
gathering wood for our camp-fire, and after a time being asked 
why it had not been brought in, he would reply, " Oh, no man 
want go !" On inquiring who had refused, and desiring that 
the offenders should be brought to me for punishment, his next 
answer would be, " Tell all man, all man say no go." Of course, 
as no individual had been singled out for the duty, they consid- 
ered that what was every man's business was no man's business, 
and it usually resulted in my having to give the order myself. 

Magomba, who was chief of Kanyenye when Burton passed 
in 1857, was still in power, being reported by his subjects to be 
over three hundred years of age, and to be cutting his fourth 
set of teeth, the third set having, according to our informant, 
worked out about seven years before our visit. From that time 
he had subsisted on pombe, being unable to eat meat, the only 
other food which one occupying his rank and position could 
deign to touch. I have no doubt that this ancient chieftain 
was considerably over a century, for his grandchildren were 
gray and grizzled. 

Another instance of the extraordinary longevity of the Afri- 
can races was noticed by Dr. Livingstone at Ma Kazembe's. 
He found there, in 1871 or 1872, a man named Pembereh, who 
had children upward of thirty years of age when Dr. Lacerda e 
Almeida visited that place in 1796. And this Pembereh was 
still living, according to the Arabs, in 1874, and must then have 
been at least a hundred and thirty years old. 

No restrictions were placed upon --the intercourse between 
the natives and ourselves ; and throughout the day the camp 
was crowded with them, staring, yelling, and gesticulating. 
They were a cowardly but merry set of thieves, laughing and 
joking among themselves at every new and strange sight. 
Their voices were particularly nnpleasant and jarring, their 
tones resembling snapping and snarling, even in ordinary con- 
versation; and, when excited, the noise reminded one of a hun- 
dred pariah dogs fighting over their food. 

Magomba's chancellor of the exchequer, chief of the customs, 
or whatever the title of the ofiicial deputed to arrange mhongo 
may be, was busily engaged repairing his tenibe, and we were 


July, told to wait until he had completed his architectural labors. 
^^'^' "When these were ended, he celebrated the event bj a debauch 
on pombe, and remained in a drunken state for three days. 

After he had recovered sufficiently to resume his official du- 
ties, he made the extravagant demand of one hundred doti ; 
but, luckily, his notice was attracted by a pair of worthless blue 
goggles, which so took his fancy that he insisted on having 
them. Of course we declared they were of priceless value, and 
our apparent anxiety to keep them so whetted his desire that 
he consented to settle the mhongo at twenty doti if the goggles 
were included, a bargain which we gladly accejDted. 

It was simply a caprice on his part, for had we offered to dis- 
pose of the goggles we should have been laughed to scorn. I 
should not advise any future travelers to lay in a stock of these 
articles w^ith a view to trading in them, as the investment would 
most likely prove as profitless as Moses' gross of green specta- 
cles. But it is generally so with uncivilized men when some- 
thing new catches their eye ; they must have it, eoiUe qui coiite. 
Yet, a few days later, just like children tired of a new toy, they 
are ready to throw or give it away. 

Some caravans from Unyanyembe arrived during our stay 
here. From the owner of one I heard that Livingstone had 
returned to that place after having started with the men sent 
up by Stanley, finding that he had not a sufficient number of 
carriers for all his stores, but had again left, about five months 
sipce. I could discover no foundation for this story ; and I 
fancy my informant had only passed through Unyanyembe on 
his way down from Karagwe, and had not obtained very relia- 
ble news. 

A great-grandson of Magomba paid us a visit the day after 
our arrival. He was the heir presumptive, and was better 
dressed and cleaner than the commonalty, and the nails of his 
left hand had been allowed to grow to an enormous length, as a 
sign of high rank, proving as it did that he was never recpiired 
to do any manual labor. It also provided him with the means 
of tearing the meat which formed his usual diet, though poorer 
people could only occasionally indulge in a snuill piece, as a 
"kitchen" to their ugali, or porridge. 

In consequence of this Nebuchadnezzar-like growth of nail. 


he was nnable to use his left hand for any ordinary purpose, July, 
and it was much smaller than his right. As soon as he with- i^'^- 
drew, I had a little visitor, about seven years old— a small Arab 
boy whose mother was taking him to the coast to be educated, 
his father having been killed in one of the fights with Miram- 
bo. The boy was a perfect little gentleman, and behaved admi- 
rably, and was much delighted with the pictures in some old il- 
lustrated papers and a book on natural history Mdiich I showed 
him. I heard afterward that he was very grieved at the thought 
that such good people as the English must go to perdition for 
drawing pictures of men. 

As he was leaving my tent, I heard the report of fire-arms in 
the camp, and, running out, found that Sambo had been acci- 
dentally shot in the head by my servant, Mohammed Malim, 
with one of my Derringer pistols, which he had been cleaning 
in his hut, and had reloaded. 

It appeared that, on returning with them to my tent, he was 
caught hold of by Sambo, who was rather a " character," and 
always skylarking, and a struggle ensued, in which one of the 
pistols went off, and the bullet struck Sambo just outside the 
eye. His skull proved so thick that the ball did no damage, 
but only traveled along between the scalp and the bone, and 
could be felt standing out in a lump at the back of his head. 
It was soon cut out, and a little patching with diachylon plas- 
ter mended his pate most satisfactorily. 

I put my servant under arrest, pending the investigation of 
the case ; but some insolent ruffians came to me, demanding that 
he should be put in chains, or otherwise they would shoot him. 
This gross piece of impertinence annoyed me very much, so I 
gratified their desire for seeing some one in chains by clapping 
them in themselves. 

This affair delayed us another day, as I had to inquire thor- 
oughly into the whole matter ; and so much lying and false tes- 
timony was, I suppose and hope, never before heard in so short 
a time. The chief, or rather lii^ advisers, also demanded four 
doti as a fine for blood having been shed on his soil ; and al- 
though I felt much inclined to refuse, I unwillingly paid, fear- 
ing complications and delays. 

Hyenas came prowling and howling around our camp night- 


July, Ij ; and, being anxious for a shot at one, we used the carcass of 
^^'^•^' a donkey which had died of a low fever as bait. This attract- 
ed a large spotted brute, with a jaw strong enough to break the 
bone of a horse's hind leg, and he was shot by Dillon. 

The yells of the hyenas excited our dogs to such an extent 
that we were obliged to fasten them up at night to prevent 
their bolting out of camp and getting killed. 

I took a few lunars here, and found that they and my dead- 
reckoning agreed well, and, though a little different from 
Speke's longitude, his latitudes coincided exactly with mine. 

Having pardoned the offenders whom I had put in chains, 
and received promises of better conduct in future, we left here 
on the 9th of July, and, after two hours across level country, ar- 
rived at a steep and rocky ascent which gave us an hour's hard 
climbing. The summit was table-land, well-wooded and grassy, 
with numerous pools, some partially dried up ; and in all direc- 
tions there were fresh tracks of elephants and other large game. 

When evening came, having fitted paper night-sights to our 
rifles, we sallied out to one of the jjools, and, ensconcing our- 
selves behind some bushes, spent about three hours vainly hop- 
ing that game worthy of our lead might come to drink ; but we 
saw only a few skulking hyenas, at which we would not fire, for 
fear of frightening a possible elephant. 

Our next march was to Usekhe, the village of another inde- 
pendent chief, and, consequently, the place for another demand 
for mliongo. But I need not recaj^itulate the vexatious delays 
which occurred at the villages of each of these petty tyrants, 
through the drunkenness of themselves and their advisers. 

On this march, jungle gradually gave way to large granite 
bowlders scattered among the trees, and afterward there ap- 
peared a range of hills composed of masses of granite of most 




fantastic shapes and forms piled together in grotesque confu- 
sion. Passing through a gap in this range, we came upon an 
open and partially cultivated plain, bestrewed with piles of 
rock, and some enormous solitary blocks of very striking ap- 

A short distance from camp, there arose abruptly a grand 
mass of rocks, having on the top a small pool with smooth, steep 
sides ; and, according to report, an elephant which had endeav- 
ored to drink there had fallen in and been drowned. But the 



drawback to this story was the absolute impossibility of any 
elephant reaching the pool ; for the rocks were so slippery and 
difficult to climb that, to visit the scene of the reported tragedy, I 
was obliged to take off my boots and clamber up in my stockings. 

Eeturning thence to camp, we visited a place where the peo- 
ple were accustomed to perform incantations for obtaining rain 
in drought ; and a charred post and heap of ashes marked the 
spot where some wretched wizard had paid with his life for 
failure to procure the much-wished-for rains. 

Witchcraft is one of the curses and banes of the whole coun- 
try, every illness being attributed to sorcery or evil spirits ; and. 
of course, the wizard is resorted to in the hope of obtaining de- 
liverance from the malign influence supposed to be exerted. 


July, By means of playing alternately on the hopes and fears of 

18'73. their credulous dupes, the workers of magic for a time realize a 
comfortable livelihood ; but at last a day of retribution arrives. 
The magician is suspected or denounced by a rival of having 
caused the illness of some great person ; and unless he can save 
himself by flight, or turn the tide of jjopular opinion against 
his accuser, he is seized and lashed to a stout post, round which 
a circle of fire is kindled. The unfortunate wretch is then 
slowly roasted until he confesses, when the tire is heaped upon 
him, and his life and agony quickly terminated. 

Often, while suffering these tortures, the magicians seem pos- 
sessed by a sort of mania to uphold their reputation, and boast 
of crimes they pretend to have caused, saying, " I have killed 
such a one ;" " I have prevented rain falling ;" " I caused the 
Wahumba to carry off so-and-so's cattle." In many cases also 
they have faith, to a great extent, in their own powers, and cer- 
tainly are thoroughly believed in and feared by their dupes. 

White magic, such as divination, curing fevers, boils, etc., by 
means of charms and incantations, finds many professors, and 
is considered harmless. A large proportion of those working 
white magic are women, but nearly all professors of the black 
art are men. 

The son often succeeds to his father's profession ; but where 
a magician has been suspected of practicing against the welfare 
of a chief, his whole family is sometimes destroyed with him, 
to prevent any of them harboring ideas of revenge against the 
chief or his successor. 

While at Usekhe, we amused ourselves with shooting pig- 
eons, which came in flocks just before sunset to drink at a wa- 
tering - place near our camp ; and at these shooting - matches, 
which provided a little variety for our evening meal, the losers 
had, as a penalty, to fill a number of cartridges. We also found 
in the crevices of the rocks some coneys, which were very good 
eating, being to the taste much like rabbits. Owing to a pe- 
culiar formation of their feet, these coneys can cling to the face 
of the rocks like flies to a wall. 

Usekhe was at one time the richest and most prosj^erous sec- 
tion of Ugogo. But many of the Arab caravan, previously 
mentioned as attempting to pass without paying mhongo, died 




near here, and no rain fell for two years afterward. This cir- 
cumstance was attributed by the superstitious Wagogo to a 
curse ; and numbers of the inhabitants therefore emigrated, and 
those who remained were forced to kill the greater part of their 
cattle, in consequence of the failure of their crops. The wave 
of population is now returning, and they are fairly j^rosperous ; 
but their flocks and herds have not increased to their former 

During my rambles about here, I again chafed my unlucky 
foot, and had to give up walking for a few days ; and Murphy 
complained of a slight attack of fever. Dillon said, however, 
that he had never felt better, and that he could go on with a 
wild life for an unlimited number of years. 



Mhongo being settled, we moved again, passing through a 
strip of jungle to the large settlement of Khoko, ruled over by 
Miguu Mifupi (or short shanks), who bears the worst reputation 
of all the potentates of Ugogo. But he is growing old, and un- 
able to personally enforce his demands, and mhongo was easily 

Khoko was the most populous place we had yet seen, and 
was principally formed of an aggregation of tembes, with pas- 
But at one end there were many houses 

sages between them 


July, inhabited bj AV^anierinica merchants from Bagamoyo who had 
J^^_ made this their head-(iuarters, and the huge thatched roofs of 
these dwellings lent to the settlement an air of semi-civiliza- 

Three enormous sjcamore-trees (a species of fig) growing just 
outside the town formed a prominent mark for miles around. 
Under the spreading branches of one of this group our own 
party and a down caravan camped, as it afforded ample shelter 
for over five hundred people. 

One of the Wamerima brought a large musical-box into my 
tent, asking me to become the purchaser of it, and assuring me 
it would prove a most valuable investment. When, however, 
it had been set going, and had played a few bars of a waltz to 
the time of a funeral march, the music suddenly terminated in 
a grand crash, which proved a permanent finale, the sj)indle of 
the fly-wheel having broken. 

Here we learned some particulars of the manner in which 
the obsequies of a chief are performed. In the first instance, 
he is washed, and one is almost inclined to wonder that so un- 
wonted a proceeding does not restore him to life. The body is 
then placed in an upright position in a hollow tree, and the 
people come daily to mourn and pour pombe and ashes on the 
corpse, indulging themselves meanwhile in a sort of wake. 

This ceremony is continued until the body is thoroughly de- 
• composed, when it is placed on a platform, and exposed to the 
effects of sun, rain, and dew, until nothing remains but the 
bones. And tliese are tlien buried. In former days a number 
of slaves were sacrificed on such occasions, but I was assured 
that this practice had ceased for many years. The bodies of 
commoners are simply thrown into the nearest jungle, to be 
devoured by beasts of the field and fowls of the air. 

Large numbers of Wahumba who have partially forsaken the 
wandering habits of their tribe are settled in the neighborhood, 
and act as herdsmen to the "Wagogo, who occupy themselves 
more particularly with agriculture. Tliey are a branch of the 
great Masai nation, and inhabit the country just to the north of 
Ugogo, where they possess large herds, but do not cultivate the 
ground or maintain permanent habitations. Their diet consists 
entirely of milk mixed with blood and meat, M'hicli they de- 




voiir almost raw. They move from place to place in searcli of 
pastm-e, sheltering themselves at night under a frame-work of 
small branches covered with one or two dressed hides. Their 
arms are short, heavy spears unfit for throwing, .and double- 
edged swords similar to those worn by the Eoman Legionary, 
and they also carry a huge shield like that of the Wadirigo. 

As might be expected from the nature of their arms, they 
are more courageous than their neighbors, and, being great rob- 
bers, are much feared. None but themselves and other mem- 
bers of the Masai family have, they assert, any right to possess 
cattle, and they therefore consider themselves perfectly justified 
in " lifting " any they meet with. 



The last station in Ugogo is Mdaburu, distant one march 
from Khoko, the limits of the two clearings being only a cou- 
ple of miles apart. The fields were divided from each other 
and the road by rough fences, and the ground seemed much 
more carefully cultivated than usual. 

Mdaburu is intersected by a wide and deep nullah bearing 
the same name. Even in the driest weather it contains large 
pools of good water, while in the rainy season it becomes an 
impetuous river, rushing down to the Lutiji, of which it is one 
of the principal affluents. I questioned one of the natives, who 
seemed more intelligent than his fellows, and ascertained that 


July, he liad been to the junction of the Mdabiiru M'ith the Rnaha, 
^^'^^- as the iij^per portion of the Lufiji is called, and that the Rnaha 
was also merely a chain of pools in the dry season, but a great 
river during the rains. 
• On the march, a pagazi deserted with his load, which was a 
very serious matter, since our stores of cloth were melting away, 
owing to the high price of provisions and the large tribute we 
had so constantly been compelled to pay. I ordered Bihil, with 
half a dozen askari, back to Khoko to look for the deserter, and 
also sent to the chief of Mdaburn, telling him of the occurrence, 
and requesting him to give directions for the return of the man 
and his load ; but all our endeavors to trace him proved futile, 
and the scoundrel got clear away. 

Times had evidently changed since Burton passed through 
Ugogo; for, while he was able to buy sixty -four rations for 
a doti, we could never get more than twenty, and rarely more 
than ten ! Eggs were unattainable luxuries, and milk and hon- 
ey were exorbitantly dear. Reckoning the doti at its Zanzibar 
value only, eggs, butter, and milk were more expensive than in 
England, and it was consequently necessary to exercise the most 
rigid econom}'- in our living. 

In the afternoon a head-man and his retinue called upon us, 
and squatted in my tent for a couple of hours, which was the 
reverse of pleasant, all of them being anointed with rancid 

The head-man informed me that, having been to Zanzibar, he 
had already seen something of white men and their ways ; but, 
now they had entered his own country, he wanted to see ever}- 
thing they possessed, and we were obliged to satisfy his curios- 
ity. Any thing he had previously seen he scarcely noticed, but 
examined minutely each novelty. 

lie recognized some pictures of animals which we showed 
him, but invariably looked at the back of the paper to see what 
was there, and remarked that he did not consider them finished, 
since they did not give the likeness of the other side of the 
animal. Still, he was evidently .pleased with the entertainment, 
and decided to detain us for three or four days for tlie benefit 
of the people, who had never yet seen a white man, and were 
anxious to have a look at us. 


Charming as the idea might have been to the native mind, July, 
we scarcely appreciated being looked npon as a sort of Womb- i^*^^- 
well's menagerie, traveling for the amusement of the natives. 
Admission, too, was not only free, but we were actually obliged 
to pay for permission to come into the country to be stared at. 

On the day of our arrival, a caravan belonging to Said ibn 
Salim al Lamki, the Arab governor at Unyanyembe, came in 
from that place, bound for the coast, with a large quantity of 
ivory, intended for the purchase of powder for carrying on the 
lighting against Mirambo, who was still unconquered. But the 
Arabs were determined, as soon as further supplies of ammuni- 
tion and re-enforcements arrived, to strike such a blow as should 
finish him completely. 

Some of the tusks were so immense that they required two 
men to carry them ; and an idea of their weight may be formed 
when it is remembered that a Mnyamwezi porter will bear one 
hundred and twenty pounds of ivory as a load. Although con- 
tent with single hire, the carriers of these enormous weights re- 
quire double and treble rations, and, whenever they feel so in- 
clined, compel the leaders of caravans to halt. 

Among the hangers-on of this caravan was Abdul Kader, 
Stanley's Hindoo tailor, who was going to the coast in the en- 
deavor to return to his native land. According to his account, 
he had been constantly ill since leaving Mr, Stanley, and was 
now only just sufficiently recovered to be able to march. He 
had subsisted during his sickness on the charity of the leading 
Ai'abs at Unyanyembe ; and as he was a British subject, repre- 
senting himself to be destitute and unable to work, I gave him 
four doti of cloth to assist him on his journey. 

The Wagogo informed us that the Wanyamwezi who with- 
drew from us at Mvumi, and aided and abetted deserters from 
our camp after having been under our protection, had been de- 
claring that we had robbed them, and were trying to raise the 
country against us ; thus proving, on a second occasion, that 
they had no idea of gratitude. One of their head-men, how- 
ever, had the impertinence afterward to come to our house at 
Unyanyembe and ask for a present, on the plea of old acquaint- 

The Wagogo did not at first entertain a very high opinion of 


July, our fire-arms, telling us that we trusted in guns which would be 
18Y3. useless after the first discharge, when men with spears could 
fall upon us and annihilate us. But upon initiating them into 
the mysteries of breech-loaders and fixed bayonets, they altered 
their tone, and came to the conclusion that our fighting power 
was very considerable, and that it would be dangerous to attack 
us except in large numbers. 

Having settled mhongo, and written some letters which we 
intrusted to the charge of the leader of Said ibn Salim's cara- 
van, we left Mdaburu, on the 18th of July, for the Mgunda 
Mkali, or hot field, which lay between us and Unyanyembe. 

In passing through Ugogo, we had altogether paid as tribute 
seventy - seven colored cloths, more than two hundred doti of 
common cloth, a coil of wire, and three pounds of beads. 

This at Zanzibar prices would amount to five hundred dol- 
lars, and in Ugogo represented nearly double that amount ; but, 
happily, we were now leaving the mhongo-paying district. 



The Mgunda Mkali. — A Serious Misunderstanding. — Restoration of Peace. — Rejoi- 
cing in tlie Village. — Tlie Mabunguru Nullali. — An Unexpected Cliase. — Native 
Farming. — An Intelligent and Industrious People. — Jiwe la Singa. — Compli- 
mentary Beggars. — Moon-struck Askari. — Hatred of Snakes. — Pitfalls. — A Dry 
March. — Burned-up Country. — A Hunter's Paradise. — A Well-fortified Village and 
Well-dressed Chief. — Discovery of a Den of Thieves. — A Haunted Well. — An At- 
tack by Ruga-ruga. 

The Mgunda Mkali, on which we were now entering, was Jui.v, 
only just beginning to be cleared when Burton and Speke were __^^ 
in the country. Few watering-places were then known, and 
provisions were obtainable in one locality alone between Mda- 
buru and Unyanyembe. Consequently, travelers were obliged 
to cross by forced marches, and no caravan succeeded in passing 
it without losing a considerable number of porters on the road. 

N'ow, however, things are much changed for the better, the 
Wakimbu, a tribe of Wanyamwezi driven by wars from their 
former homes, having attacked the jungle. Water has been 
found in many places, large spaces have been cleared and 
brought into cultivation, and, under the dominion of man, some 
of the most fertile and peaceful spots in Africa are now scat- 
tered in the midst of what was formerly virgin forest aifording 
shelter only to wild beasts. 

After passing one or two clearings and a few pools covered 
with yellow water-lilies, we camped near two villages situated 
amidst jungle at a height of 3938 feet above the sea — the coun- 
try still rising rapidly. 

The following day we arrived at Pururu, a village of Wa- 
kimbu, situated in a very picturesque valley, where w^e intended 
to halt for a few hours to purchase food, before making an aft- 
ernoon march to the next camping-place. But we had scarcely 
settled down, when a great disturbance arose among our men, 
who seized and loaded their guns, exclaiming that there was a 
row with the natives. 

100 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, Taking our rifles, we went toward the village, whicli we 

^^^^- found prepared to resist attack, the gates closed, and guns and 
spears protruding through the stockade by which it was sur- 

A single accidental shot would now have been sufficient to 
originate a fight which might have had disastrous consequences, 
for the natives were all well under cover ; and had any of our 
men been killed or wounded, it would have resulted in the re- 
mainder bolting. 

At this critical moment, we decided to drive our men back 
to the halting -place, and then directed Issa to inquire of the 
chief the cause of the hostile attitude assumed by the village, 
our men being in such a state of mingled fright and excitement 
that no reliable explanation could be obtained from them. 

The chief's statement was that our second kirangosi, who had 
come from Bagamoyo with Murphy, had taken ivory from this 
village on the understanding that he would exchange it for 
powder at Zanzibar ; but, being a Mnyamwezi, he had failed 
to procure any ammunition for the village, orders having been 
issued that no Mnyamwezi should be allowed to take powder 
from the coast while the war continued between the Arabs and 
Mirambo. To make amends, he had offered the chief some 
cloth; but its value was not considered equal to that of the 
ivory with which he had been intrusted. 

In order to arrive at an understanding, the chief and some of 
the head-men w^anted to talk the matter over quietly with him. 
To this he objected, and his chums commenced hustling the 
chief, saying, " Don't you treat our kirangosi like that," and 
then the row began. On our promising to investigate the case 
and see justice done, peace was instantly restored. 

We then accepted the invitation of the chief to enter the vil- 
lage, which was clean and tidy. The huts were flat-roofed and 
built in the form of long parallelograms, the whole being sur- 
rounded by a heavy stockade with only two entrances. Over 
each of these was a sort of crow's nest, where the defenders of 
the gate took up their position, and were furnished with a sup- 
ply of large stones, to be used on the attacking party coming to 
close quarters. 

After sitting and talking for some time, we were offered 




pombe if we would remain a little longer ; but we preferred 
going to our tents, which had been pitched, since it was too late 
to contemplate going farther. Shortly after we returned to 
our quarters, this hospitable chief and half a dozen men ap- 
peared with huge pots of pombe, which they handed to us, after 
tasting the liquor themselves, to prove that it .was not poisoned. 
I discovered that the kirangosi who had caused the trouble 
and delay possessed sufficient cloth to satisfy the demands of 
the village ; and I therefore ordered him to pay, as he acknowl- 
edged the debt, though he had attempted to plead poverty to 



avoid paying the amount in full. Upon this decision, the villa- 
gers gave themselves up to rejoicing, and were drumming, sing- 
ing, dancing, and drinking until four o'clock in the morning. 

"VVe made a move at seven o'clock, and marched through 
wooded country, with numerous large outcrops of granite, both 
in sheets and bowlders, and small rocky hills on the sides of the 
larger slopes, and arrived at a pretty little pond in convenient 
time to halt for breakfast and a rest during the noonday heat. 

Butterflies — which I always found in a dry country a sure 
sign that water was near — were very numerous by this pond, 
and I noticed at least ten different varieties. 

102 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, Marching again tlirougli similar country, we reached the Ma- 

1873. bunguru niiUah, the westernmost affluent of the Euaha, about 
sunset. Even at this period of the dry season it was almost a 
river, stretches of its channel a mile or two in leno-th beinw full 
of water, and sejiarated from each other only by sand-bauks and 
bars of rock from fifty to a hundred yards wide. 

These creeks were now thirty yards across, and there were 
signs of the water in flood spreading two hundred yards on 
either side. I do not suppose it to be a permanent stream dur- 
ing the rainy season, but more probably it goes off in freshets, 
the whole country being very rocky, and therefore able to ab- 
sorb but little water. 

On the road we interchanged greetings with an Arab cara- 
van, and ascertained that an account of Dr. Livingstone having 
returned to Unyanyembe was untrue ; but doubtless the man 
who told us had been misinformed, and did not intentionally 
deceive us. Numberless tracks of large game were passed, as 
also bones of animals, one skull being that of a rhinoceros, fre- 
quently met with in these districts. 

Our next day's march, also a double one, was through much 
cultivated land, and, according to report, the country had once 
been much more thickly populated ; but two or three years pre- 
viously a party of wild Wanyamwezi had looted it, and destroyed 
many villages. 

The men seemed delighted at getting toward the end of the 
first portion of our journey, and during the latter part of this 
day the kirangosis kept up a sort of recitative, the whole cara- 
van joining in chorus with pleasing effect. Dillon and I start- 
ed ahead of the caravan in search of sport ; but people from 
villages a short distance in front had been about, and every 
thing was scared, though fresh marks of antelope and buffalo 
were abundant. 

We pitched our camp on the banks of a little ziwa imbos- 
omed in grass, and covered with red, white, and yellow water- 
lilies. Cattle being cheap, we purchased a bullock for our men ; 
but the brute broke away and galloped off at a furious rate 
when being driven into camp, and we had to give chase and 
shoot him down. 

Jiwe la Singa (the rock of sofi grass) was the point to be 

VIII.] JIW:fi LA SINGA. 103 

aimed at on our next journey. The road was across a clearing, July, 
extending as far as the eye could reach, and which boasted of ^^'^^• 
many herds of cattle, populous, stockaded villages, and much 

The fields were divided by ditches and banks, and in one 
place we saw some rude attempts at irrigation. To cultivate 
these fields must require a considerable amount of perseverance 
and industry, the ground being neatly hoed into large ridges ; 
and each year, when preparing for a new crop, these are turned 
completely over, so that the ridge of one year becomes the 
trench of the next. 

The villages I visited were remarkably clean, and the huts 
wonderfully well built, considering the means and materials at 
disposal. Indeed, except in the matter of " book - learning," 
these people can not be considered as occui^ying a low place in 
the scale of civilization. 

We were now crossing the water-shed between the basin of 
the Rufiji and that of the Nile and of the Kongo. 

Having been mmecessarily delayed, owing to our stupid ki- 
rangosi leading us round two sides of a triangle, we did not 
reach Jiwe la Singa until two in the afternoon, whereas many 
of our people who followed the direct route arrived in camp at 
noon. It is a prosperous place, and some Wamerima from Ba- 
gamoyo have settled there as traders. 

They welcomed us with expressions of the highest esteem, 
even asserting that they regarded us much in the same light as 
their own ruler, Syd Burghash. Therefore they suggested that 
we could not well refuse them some paper, powder, needles, 
thread, and such small articles, thinking no doubt they had paid 
handsomely for them by their compliments. One who had 
been to Katanga told me that the Portuguese had estabhshed 
there a regular trade in ivory, copper, and salt. 

Here we were detained two days by the necessity of laying 
in provisions that we hoped might last us to Unyanyembe, and 
the appearance of a new moon during this halt caused us some 

To celebrate the event according to Mohammedan custom, 
our askari commenced tiring their rifles, and would not desist 
when desired to do so. One man to whom I had individually 

104 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

.July, spoken discharged his rifle in despite of my orders, upon which 

^^'''^- I liad him disarmed, and promised punishment on the morrow. 

Anothei' then suggested that I had better punish them all, as 

it was their custom, and they intended to follow it ; and him I 

also disarmed. 

This custom of tiring on the occasion of a new moon was not 
only a waste of ammunition, but was also very dangerous, as 
the men never looked in what direction their rifles were point- 
ing, but sent the bullets whizzing about the camp. I therefore 
determined to put a check upon the practice. 

When about to proceed, on Jul}^ 20th, I found that some pa- 
gazi, as well as the askari who had been disarmed for disobedi- 
ence of orders when " moon- struck," had deserted; but one of 
these pagazi was exceptionally honorable, for, though personal- 
ly breaking his engagement, he had been thoughtful enough to 
hire another man to carry his load as far as Unyanyembe. 

Crossing two small ranges of rocky hills, and then through 
forest and jungle with many palmyras, we halted for breakfast ; 
and, resuming our march, continued on the move until sunset, 
when we were obliged to camji without reaching water. On 
the way, several antelopes and a lemur were seen, and Bombay 
and Issa reported having passed a herd of twelve elephants. 

Suddenly there was great excitement among the men, and a 
cry was raised that a venomous snake was in camp. They im- 
mediately rushed upon it with their sticks, and, when I arrived, 
it was so mangled and crushed that it was impossible to discov- 
er the species, whether venomous or not. The men declared 
that its bite was deadly, for the notion usual among uneducated 
people that every snake is poisonous prevailed here. 

Kipireh, the point we had hoped to reach the night before, 
so as to enjoy the advantage of its fresh spring-water, was ar- 
rived at two hours after leaving camp ; and here a dispute arose 
between ourselves and our men. 

The day being still young, and the inhabitants assuring us 
that water was to be found a short way in front, we thought it 
best to push forward, although our kirangosi declared that Ave 
could not arrive at any watering-place till the next day. Sus- 
pecting the kirangosi of laziness, and the natives appearing un- 
friendly, we forqed our men forward ; but, after marching an- 


other mile, were obliged to allow them to halt. This I thought Jul-y, 
a favorable opportunity for calling all the askari before me, i^*^^- 
and giving them a lecture as to their duties, in the vain hope 
of making them behave better for the future. 

The halt being long, I went, with my dog Leo as a compan- 
ion, to look around, and noticed some well-constructed fences 
and pitfalls for game. One of these pitfalls had been cleverly 
placed in a slight gap in a fence, which I thought was mei'ely a 
weak spot, and made straight for it. Fortunately for me, Leo 
jumped on the covering just as I was about to step on it, and 
exposed the trap by falling through, thus saving me from a 
very nasty tumble. The pit was so deep that it was with diflS- 
culty I managed, single-handed, to pull the unfortunate dog 
out ; but, on succeeding, I was delighted to find him unhurt. 

After our rest, we toiled on through alternating tracts of 
jungle and prairie, and, to add to our troubles, the grass had 
been burned in many places, leaving miles of country black- 
ened and charred, while the gritty ashes filled our mouths, ears, 
and throats, aggravating a thousand-fold the suffering of thirst. 

Sunset came upon us, and yet we had found no water ; and 
not until nearly 8 p.m. did we discover a pool of liquid mud, 
with which we were obliged to be content. From this it was 
plain that the natives at Kipireh had wantonly deceived us, and 
we were compelled to admit that our kirangosi was right in ad- 
vising a halt near that village. 

Shortly after moving onward the next morning, some tolera- 
bly clear water lying in a cavity in a bed of granite gladdened 
our eyes. Directly we sighted it the men threw down their 
loads, and in a moment a mingled mass of men, dogs, and don- 
keys were all slaking their thirst at one and the same time. 

A fair idea of our daily life and routine may be gathered 
from the introduction here of a few pages of my journal : 

'•'•July '2iSth. — Off at 7 for Ki Sara-Sara, which we reached at 
11.15. The country just the same — large rocks scattered about, 
soil sandy, or a black loam lying on the granite ; open woods, 
with occasional small mbugas, or plains ; lots of tracks, but no 
game to be seen. Just after leaving camp, we found a pool of 
water in a hole in a sheet of granite. It would have been a 
blessing had we known of it before, as the water we had been 

106 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

July, using was so thick that the ' pags ' had been calling it pombe in 
^^'^^- derision. Nearly all the grass has been burned in the woods, 
and all the Kambi we have passed have shared the same fate, 
as the fires are left burning, and any breeze scatters the sparks, 
and away flashes the grass. One passes tracts of miles at a 
time as black as a coal : I can't say my hat or my boots, as the 
first is white, and the second are brown. One donkey died to- 
day of a sort of low fever which seems to attack the coast don- 
keys. The Wanyamwezi thriving wonderfully. "Water sup- 
posed to be scarce at the camp, but we found some by digging 
about two feet close to the tents. I fancy water must lie all 
about here on the top of the granite, which is everywhere close 
to the surface, as the whole rain-fall is either absorbed or evap- 
orated, there being no drainage. 

"Another pagazi ran last night ; it is very considerate of 
them now, as it will save their pay at Unyanyembe. Some 
men came in from tliere to-day, and say that there are numer- 
ous robbers about the road in front, and we must look out, or 
we shall lose some loads. They talk of a road to Ujiji of twen- 
ty-five marches, but fourteen of these are without food ; so the 
bother would be to carry it, otherwise it would be grand to get 
there in five weeks from Unyanyembe. I think I shall try and 
get some more donkeys at Unyanyembe, as where there are 
grass and water they are all right. 

'■^Jiihj 2dt/i. — Got away in the morning. On account of an- 
other pagazi having run, were delayed till past eight. About 
twelve, we arrived at some puddles of water, which in the rainy 
season form part of a river, according to the natives ; but as the 
whole country shows signs of being a swamp in the rains, and 
there is no river-bed, I expect they only form a long, narrow 
pond. Game very plentiful ; and one of the pagazi got a zebra 
after a very long stalk. Dillon and I M-ent out ; we saw sev- 
eral antelopes and a herd of mimba or gnu, at which we got a 
long shot ; and I think both hit on our first barrels, as the 
shells burst, and did not send up any dust; but they (the gnu) 
were off 'like a flash of greased lightning through a gooseberry- 
bush.' There were tracks and droppings of all sorts of four- 
footed animals ; and if one only had time to devote a few days 
to shooting, this would be a perfect hunter's paradise. 


" On our return to camp, we found a caravan we had heard July, 
of at Ki Sara-Sara passing through. The mtongi was a hand- ^^'^^• 
some old Arab, with a beard perfectly white, but he was as live- 
ly on his pins as a kitten. He says all the Arabs have left Un- 
yanyembe to go after Mirambo, who has now lost his last vil- 
lage, and is being hunted in the bush. The only Arab now in 
Taborah is a cripple, so we shall find the place cpiite deserted. 
Course N.W. seven miles. 

^^July SQth. — Got off a little after seven. I went off to one 
side in the busli with Issa, and tried for game ; but, having to 
work down wind, saw nothing but two antelopes, which were 
out of range, and some monkeys. I thought thi-ee and a half 
hours enough of this, and began to work in toward the road, and 
took my fowling-piece instead of the heavy rifle, and had two or 
three shots at birds. Soon after, I was met by some excited 
askari, who thought the firing must have been caused by meet- 
ing with Watuta (a wild tribe, and much feared), or Ruga-ruga 
(bands of brigands of any tribe). I got back to the road as 
soon as possible, and found all the caravan halted, and in a great 
funk. I got them on again, and we arrived at the first village 
in Urguru at one o'clock, where we formed our camp. Soon 
after the tents were pitched, a messenger came in from the 
chief of the district of Urguru, saying that the Arabs of Tabo- 
rah had sent to ask him to look out for us, and wanted to know 
(this being the case) why we had stopped just short of his capi- 
tal, which was only half an hour in front. I sent, and said we 
were too tired and hot to strike camp again then ; but that, as 
I found we wanted provisions, we would halt there (at his vil- 
lage) the next day to get some. The country seems very fer- 
tile, and water underlies the surface soil everywhere — at least 
digging three or four feet in the depressions always gave a 

''Juli/ 315^5.— Marched at 7.30 a.m., and arrived at 8. The 
village was large and clean, and surrounded by a stockade, or 
the outer walls of houses. The part where the chief lived was 
divided off from the rest of the village, as also was the gate- 
way. The gates were heavy slabs of wood hewed out of the 
solid trunk, and people could only go up to the principal ones 
one at a time, a wing of palisading projecting on either side 

108 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

August, in the form of a long U, with holes to use spears and arrows 
■^^'^^- through, so that it would be dangerous for an enemy to attempt 
to force the gate. There were some other door -ways in the 
outer walls of the houses, forming part of the enceinte, which 
closed in a sort of portcullis fashion. A number of heavy logs 
had holes in their upper ends, and the wall -plate was rove 
through them. When the door -way is open, these logs are 
triced up, inward, out of the way ; when closed, the outer sides 
of the lower ends butt against a strong fixed log, and are se- 
cured ])y a movable log inside. 

'•' The chief was the best-dressed man I had seen among: the 


natives. He wore a handsome double Indian deole and a Mus- 
cat soliari, masses of sambo on his legs, heavy bangle and wire, 
and ivory bracelets on his arms, and a necklace of elephant's 
hair neatly bound round with wire, from which hung an orna- 
ment made out of the bottom of a shell brought from the coast, 
and ground down till quite white and smooth, called a kiongwa. 
He was apparently lighter in color than most of his subjects. 

" The people kept a large number of pigeons, and a few 
fowls and sheep. Provisions about the average price, i. e., ten 
kibabah to a shukkah. "We had visitors in our tents all day, 
and at night found that they had left evidences of their pres- 
ence behind them." 

On the 1st of August we left our friends at Urguru, and 
made a long march through a forest with great quantities of 
game, and reached Simbo. During this march. Murphy saw a 
giraffe, but seemed so occupied with staring at it that he forgot 
to use his rifle until the animal was out of range. 

Passing through an open grassy strip, Dillon and I went aft- 
er some buffalo ; but they winded the caravan, and were off be- 
fore we could get within range. We then came to more forest, 
and each took one side of the road, and saw many antelopes. 
I shot one, but was disappointed of my prize, through being un- 
able to extricate it from a tangled mass of thorns into M'liich it 
had run to die. Partridges and jungle fowl were plentiful, and 
in one place I flushed a flock of guinea-fowl that quite dark- 
ened the sky, but, unfortunately, I was only provided with shell 
and ball cartridge. 

During this solitary ramble, when in some jungle of thick 


growth, I suddenly came upon a heavy stockade partially cov- August, 
ered over. It struck me at once that this might be a halt- i*^*^-^- 
ing- place of the dreaded Ruga -ruga, then hovering about in 
the neighborhood, and against whom we had been warned. I 
therefore approached most cautiously, and, seeing no signs of 
its being tenanted, ventured to the entrance. On looking in, I 
saw many pots and cooking utensils lying near the still smol- 
dering hre (which proved that it must have been occupied but 
a short time previously), as also skins, and well-picked bones of 
animals, which had doubtless provided the morning meal. 

My suspicions being thus coniirmed, I left as stealthily as I 
had approached ; and I need hardly say that I did not continue 
my attempt at making a bag, fearing that the report of tire- 
arras might have attracted attention, and ended in my being 
bagged myself. 

I afterward found that this was beyond doubt the den of 
some Ruga-ruga ; and, had they been at home at the time of 
my visit, nothing could have saved me from capture, as their in- 
tentions were decidedly hostile. Indeed, the cause of absence 
from their domicile was their having gone to the front to lie in 
wait for the caravan. 

I soon rejoined the caravan, and "we camped at Marwa, 
respecting which there are some curious superstitions. The 
camping-place is in the midst of a group of enormous rocks, 
and water can only be obtained by digging at the base of one 
of the largest of them. This is supposed to cover the site of a 
village upon which it fell, destroying every one of the inhabit- 
ants, and the ghosts of the dead villagers are believed to haunt 
the place. 

Should the spring be disrespectfully spoken of as " maji " 
merely — the ordinary word for water — instead of as " marwa," 
which in different dialects signifies pombe, palm wine, and oth- 
er kinds of drink ; or should any one w^earing boots pass the 
spot, or fire a gun in the immediate vicinity, the ghosts at once 
stop the supply. Upon drawing water, a small present of beads 
or cloth is customarily thrown in, to propitiate the guardian 
spirits of the well ; and as I declined to conform to this rule, 
Bombay, fearing some terrible disaster if the full ceremonies 
were not complied with, made the offering himself. 





As a long march lay before us, I roused the carap at 3 a.m., 
but could not get away before five o'clock, owing to the pagazi 
hiding in the jungle, to endeavor to escape carrying their loads 
in the darkness. 

When fairly started, Dillon and I left the road in the hope 
of shooting something for the pot ; but a few antelope out of 
range, and two lions six hundred yards away, quietly strolling 
home after their night's ramble, were all the game we saw. 
Unable to get any sport, we rejoined the main body, and halted 
for breakfast at a small pond, in which some water still re- 
mained, although it had been reported as dried up. 


Some Wanyamwezi — taking ivory and honey to TJnyanyembe 
— who joined us the night before, now went on by themselves, 
and, nnich to our astonishment, we shortly met them returning 
in haste and disorder. They reported that they had been at- 
tacked by Ruga-ruga, losing two women slaves, their ivory and 
honey; and one of their men had been wounded. They also 
said the Ruga -ruga were on the lookout for our party, and 
therefore it behooved us to be careful. 

Hearing this, we closed up the caravan, distributed the guns 
along the line at erpial intervals, and prepared to resist any at- 
tack that might be made on us ; and on arriving, in tlie aft- 
ernoon, at a ziwa of some size, we decided to camp and build 
around us a strong boma, or fence, with one flank resting on the 


water, so tliat our supply of that necessary article should not be August, 
cut off. Soon after sunset a few arrows were shot into camp ; ^^'^^• 
and this hostile act being responded to by us with a few shots 
at some dim and dusky objects outside, seemingly with good 
effect, we were not again disturbed ; but we kept strict watch 
and ward all night. 

By daylight we were away again, and crossed a dry river-bed, 
the nominal boundary between Urguru and Unyanyembe, and 
immediately afterward came upon clearings and villages sur- 
rounded with heavy stockades, outside which w^ere ditches and 
banks planted with the milk bush. 

We camped at Ituru — being now at last in Unyanyembe, 
with the first stage of our journey across Africa nearly com- 
pleted — and sent messengers to the Arab governor to inform 
him of our arrival, etiquette requiring this formal notice before 
entering an Arab settlement. 

112 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 


Unyanyembe. — Morning Calls. — Excessive Hospitality. — The Fighting Mirambo. — 
The Origin of the Struggle. — The Garrison of Unyanyembe. — Atrocities. — Kidnap- 
ing our Pagazi. — A Letter from Sir S.Baker. — Communication with Mtesa. — A 
Difficulty in his Conversion to Mohammedanism. — Gross Outrage upon a Pagazi. — 
Mutiny among the Askari. — The Unpleasantness of the Situation. — Our Troubles 
and Worries. — Fever and Blindness. — Desertion of Pagazi. — Consequent Expense. 
— Kindness of the Arabs. — An Auction. — Public Sale of Slaves. — The Death of 

August, In answer to our formal announcement of arrival, we re- 

1873. ceived a letter the following morning from Said ibn Salim, the 
governor, inviting us to breakfast with him, and stating that he 
had placed a house at our disposal during our stay at Unyan- 
yembe. We at once proceeded to his residence at Kwikunih, 
and were welcomed most warmly, and found prepared for us a 
capital breakfast of curried fowl, wheat-cakes, butter, milk, cof- 
fee, and tea. To this meal we did such ample justice that I 
fancy we must have rather astonished our host. 

Our appetites being appeased, the governor, accomj)anied by 
many other Arabs, who had gathered together to welcome us, 
conducted us to the house in Kwiharah, and, when we had been 
shown over the premises, left us to make ourselves comfortably 
at home. The house — which had previously been lent to Liv- 
ingstone and Stanley — was a large and substantial building of 
mud bricks, with a flat roof. The interior arrangements will 
be understood by reference to the plan on the following page. 

Our first business was to pay and discharge the pagazi whom 
we had engaged to accompany us thus far, after which only 
thirteen bales of cloth remained. 

In the afternoon Said ibn Salim called to acquaint us that on 
the morrow we should pay visits to the principal Arabs, and 
that the most convenient arrangement would be for us to com- 
mence the day by breakfasting with him. 




He liad formerly been detailed by Syd Majid to accompany 
Burton and Speke on their famous journey when 'they discov- 
ered the Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza, and had also been 
sent with Speke and Grant on their journey, but did not go far- 
ther than this place on account of illness. He cherished an af- 
fectionate memory for his former masters, and was very kind to 
us for their sakes ; not only lending the house, but giving us 
a supply of milk morning and evening, and constantly sending 
presents of fowls, eggs, and goats. 

cook's J/ 










^ N^ 

^ / 













A harder day's work than we anticipated was in store for us ; 
and had we known what making calls upon all the Arabs in- 
volved, we should not so readily have undertaken it, although 
the customs of a country must be observed. 

We began with a sumptuous breakfast with Said ibn Salim, 
after which he conducted us, with much state and ceremony, to 
pay the promised round of visits to the local magnates. Ac- 
cording to usage, we were expected to eat and drink at every 
house we entered ; but though doing our utmost to show ap- 


114 ACROSS AFKICA. [Chap. 

August, preciation of the kind intentions of our hosts, our capacities 
1873. were but limited, and I am afraid we were scarcely equal to 
partaking of the proffered hospitality to the extent they would 
have wished. 

The Arabs at Unyanyembe live in great comfort, having 
large and well-built houses, w^ith gardens and fields, in which 
they cultivate wheat, onions, cucumbers, and fruits introduced 
from the coast. They maintain constant communication with 
Zanzibar in peaceful times, and thus obtain supplies of coffee, 
tea, sugar, soap, candles, curry -powder, and various luxuries. 
But at this time they were much harassed by Mirambo, with 
w^hom they had waged war for years without seeing any pros- 
pect of a speedy and successful termination to the hostilities. 

The whole truth of the cause of this war I did not ascertain 
while at Unyanyembe ; but I learned some particulars after- 
ward. It appeared tliat Mirambo was originally the chief of a 
small district of Unyamwezi, and for a number of years evinced 
a strong friendship toward the Arabs, and even yet maintained 
friendly relations with many of them. Several had houses sit- 
uated close to his village, and he had frequently given fifty cat- 
tle at a time as a present to any one whom he esteemed. 

But some unprincipled fellow took advantage of this good 
nature to obtain a large quantity of ivory on credit, and, when 
payment became due, laughed at Mirambo for having trusted 
him. Mirambo then applied to the Arabs at Unyanyembe to 
assist him in bringing the matter to a just settlement; but as 
they turned a deaf ear to his complaints, he determined to ar- 
range affairs according to his own wishes. 

Shortly afterward, a caravan, commanded by a partner of the 
man who had cheated Mirambo, arrived on the borders of his 
territory, and he refused to allow it to pass unless the outstand- 
ing debt were paid. The Arab, yielding to adverse circum- 
stances, consented to meet a portion, but not the whole, of the 
debt ; but Mirambo, being in no humor for half-measures, took 
the laAv into his own hands, and the caravan was worsted in the 

Since that time an irregular, desultory warfare has been car- 
ried on, greatly to the detriment of trade, and causing an im- 
mense amount of misery ; for Mirambo is always on the move. 


and brings destruction wherever the people decline to join him. August, 
On more than one occasion he has invaded the settlements of ^^'^^• 
the Arabs in Unyanjembe, and carried off their cattle from 
under their eyes, while they have simply barricaded themselves 
in their houses, being afraid to offer any resistance. 

A thousand Belooches in the pay of Syd Burghash were 
quartered at Unyanyembe, and during our stay the force was 
strengthened by the arrival of two thousand coast-people. Be- 
sides this little army, the Arabs have native allies; and had 
they any union among themselves, Mirambo might easily have 
been defeated, and his power altogether broken long since. 
There were, however, many different cliques jealous of each 
other, and no settled plan of campaign was ever followed out. 

On both sides the war was prosecuted with the most revolt- 
ing barbarity and cruelty. They had no idea of fair fighting, 
but considered that the greatest glory was won by burning vil- 
lages inhabited by unoffending people, and surprising and mur- 
dering small parties and individuals by stratagem. This bar- 
barous system was fostered by the Arabs, who rewarded any 
man bringing in a trophy of a fallen foe by presenting him 
with a slave and a concubine. Such a course naturally pro- 
voked retaliation on the part of Mirambo's men, and so the 
struggle became more and more imbittered. For my own part, 
I can not but admire the pluck and determination shown by 

Two days after our round of visiting and entertainment, I 
was attacked by fever, Dillon and Murphy quickly following 
suit. Indeed, during our stay here we passed the greater part 
of our time down with fever. 

The pagazi engaged for the journey to Unyanyembe having 
taken their departure after payment, those whom we had hired 
by the month apparently thought this a favorable opportuni- 
ty for going on strike, and demanding two months' pay in ad- 
vance. As long as possible I resisted, but ultimately agreed 
to advance one month's wages. They would have deserted en 
masse had I not yielded to some extent, and some fifty or sixty 
deserted after obtaining this partial compliance with -their de- 

Although the more respectable Arabs showed us great kind- 

116 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

August, ness and rendered much assistance, I am compelled to add that 
i^*^'^- many of the smaller traders threw every possible obstacle in 
our way, tempting our men to desert, and even carrying them 
off in some cases against their will. 

One case was especially galling, some of our pagazi, while 
drunk, being enticed a\yay by a man on the point of starting 
for the coast, although he well knew they belonged to us. On 
hearing of this proceeding, I sent to remonstrate, and in reply 
received a message to the effect that he should retain the pa- 
gazi unless I agreed to pay him three doti a man, which he 
averred he had advanced to them. 

Not feeling inclined to submit to this extortion, I represented 
• the matter to the governor, who investigated the case, and oi'- 
dered the men to be given up. Before the conclusion of the 
affair, another attack of fever laid me low, and Dillon, not 
knowing the full particulars of the case, yielded to the man's 
demand. When I recovered, I found, to my chagrin, that not 
only had the cloth gone, but the men had also disappeared, hav- 
ing been marched out of Unyanyembe in chains. 

While remaining here, a caravan belonging to Mtesa, Chief 
of Uganda, ari-ived, bringing a letter from Sir Samuel Baker 
addressed to Dr. Livingstone. I thought it advisable to open 
the letter, to ascertain whether it contained any news of Liv- 
ingstone. It was dated from Fort Fatiko, and in it Sir Samuel 
mentioned having had some trouble with Kabba liegga (Kam- 
rasi). Chief of Unyoro, by which he had lost many followers, 
but that, Mtesa having sent men to assist him, he had passed 
through the difficulty. 

As these people said tliey should at once return to Mtesa s, I 
intrusted them with a letter for Sir Samuel, and also two for 
]y;tesa — one in English, wdiich was, of course, only a matter of 
form ; the other in Arabic, the contents of which would, I 
knew, be explained by a Mohammedan missionary who had 
resided w^itli him for some years. I also forwarded two good 
cloths as a present, for at that time there appeared some possi- 
bility of receiving directions from Dr. Livingstone to proceed 
to the Victoria Nyanza. 

We heard that the only obstacle in converting Mtesa to the 
Mohannnedan religion was the difficulty experienced in find- 

IX.] A MUTINY. 11 V 

ing any one sufficiently bold to perform the rite of circumcis- August, 
ion, for it was feared that death would be meted out to one i^'^^- 
who caused him pain. 

At the end of August, Shaykh ibn ISTassib and Abdallah ibn 
ISTassib, two brothers in connnand of the Sultan's troops, came 
in from the scene of the latest fighting with Mirambo. They 
were fine specimens of Arab gentlemen, and we speedily be- 
came great friends ; and as their settlement was only a few 
hundred yards from our house, visits were constantly inter- 
changed. They also proved of great service on one occasion 
when our askari mutinied, and the expedition narrowly escaped 
being altogether broken up. 

The mutiny arose through one of the askari taking the law 
into his own hands on discovering that a doti of cloth had been 
stolen from him by a pagazi. Instead of reporting the man to 
me for punishment, he proceeded to wreak vengeance on the 
thief, and, with the assistance of three comrades, triced up the 
culprit by the heels, and left him hanging. 

Issa, passing that way, fortunately saw the poor wretch, and 
immediately came to me, exclaiming that four of the askari 
were killing a man. On running to the rescue, I found the 
miserable creature with his heels in the air, and blood pouring 
from his nose, mouth, and ears, leaving no doubt that all would 
soon have been over with him. I then ordered Bombay to put 
in chains the four ruffians who had committed this outrage; 
but he instantly returned with the startling intelligence that 
the askari refused to obey orders. 

As I was still attending to the pagazi, who began to show 
symptoms of recovery, I told Bombay to give the askari notice 
that, if they would not obey orders, they should no longer be 
soldiers of Englishmen; but that they should be stripped of 
their red coats, made to lay down their arms, and be dismissed. 
He then left me ; but instead of making any attempt at en- 
forcing the order to put the four men in chains, he merely said, 
"Master no want you ; put down coats and guns, and go." Of 
course, the wliole number, with the exception of our servants 
and a few who were sick, immediately went, and the four origi- 
nal offenders escaped. 

In this difficulty I appealed to Shaykh and Abdallah ibn 

118 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

August, Nassib, who promised tlieir assistance, and sent to acquaint the 
^^'^•^- governor of the occurrence, and to obtain his permission to act. 
This resulted in the four men who commenced the trouble be- 
ing captured and brought in the following morning in chains, 
while the others made their humble submission. 

On the intercession of the ibn Nassibs, I reinstated the as- 
kari, but punished the ringleaders by keeping them a fortnight 
in chains. Bombay had acted most stupidly, and, indeed, dur- 
ing our stay at Unyanyembe was generally drunk and useless ; 
but he now promised reformation ; and as I hoped that he 
really intended to do well, I did not punish him. 

Several attempts were made at starting from Unyanyembe, 
but were unsuccessful, owing to the pagazi I engaged so con- 
stantly deserting. They are always paid in advance, on being 
engaged, according to custom, and at last it almost amounted to 
pajdng a man, feeding him for a few days, and then seeing his 
face no more. 

The unpleasantness of our situation may be judged by the 
following extracts from letters sent home by Dillon and my- 
self at this time. Writing on the 23d of August, Dillon, who 
was usually blessed with buoyant spirits, commenced his letter : 

"Now for a dismal tale of woe! On or about (none of us 
know the date correctly) August 13th, Cameron felt seedy. I 
never felt better, ditto Murphy. In the evening we felt seedy. 
I felt determined not to be sick. ' I will eat dinner ; I'll not 
go to bed.' Murphy was between the blankets already. I did 
manage some dinner; but shakes enough to bring an ordinary 
house down came on, and I had to turn in. For the next four 
or five days our diet was water or milk. Not a soul to look 
after us. The servants knew not what to do, We got up 
when we liked, and walked out. We knew that we felt giddy ; 
that our legs would scarcely support us. I used to pay a visit 
to Cameron, and he used to come in to me to make complaints. 
One day he said, ' Tlie fellows have regularly blocked me in ; I 
have no room to stir. The worst of it is, one of the legs of the 
grand piano is always on my head, and people are strumming 
away all day. It's all drawing-room furniture that they liave 
blocked me in with.' I was under the impression that my bed 
was on the top of a lot of ammunition panniers, and I told 


Murpliy I was sorry I could not get away sooner to call on September, 
him ; but I had the King of Uganda stopping with me, and I ^^'^^' 
must be civil to him, as we should shortly be in his country. 
Murphy pretty well dozed his fever off, but I never went to 
sleep from beginning to end. We all got well on the same 
day, about, I suppose, the fifth (of the fever), and laughed heart- 
ily at each other's confidences. The Arabs sent every day to 
know how we were, or called themselves, bringing sweet limes, 
pomegranates, or custard apples 

" September Sth. — We have had a second dose of the beastly 
(excuse the word) fever. On the morning of the third day of 
our attack (about the seventh of Cameron's), I saw Murphy get 
up and steer for the open end of the room, staggering as he 
went, and endeavoring to get clear of a lot of ammunition 
which had been emptied from the panniers, but he failed to 
keep in the right line. Apparently seeing that he must go on 
to the ' rocks ahead,' he staggered slower and slower, taking 
very short steps, till, coming in contact with the edge of a heap 
of empty cartridges, he gradually subsided on the top of them, 
with a groan, on his hands and knees. The sight appeared to 
me to be so ludicrous — a big, powerful fellow not being able 
to get out of a room without a door or fourth wall — that I 
laughed as loud as my prostrate condition would admit of. 
This had the effect of bringing him to his senses, and he strug- 
gled to his feet, and balanced himself out. The whole thing 
must have been seen to have been appreciated, and by one in a 
similar state of helplessness as the victim. You can't imagine 
how this fever prostrates one. A slight headache is felt ; one 
feels that one must lie down, though one does not feel ill. The 
next morning one walks, or tries to walk, across the room ; one 
finds one must allow one's body to go wherever one's foot 
chooses to place itself, and a very eccentric course the poor 
body has to take sometimes in consequence. Drink ! drink ! 
drink! cold water, milk, tea — any thing. Bail it out of a 
bucket, or drink it out of the spout of the tea-pot." 

Writing, myself, on the 20th of September, with my troubles 
uppermost in my mind, I said : 

" I am very savage just at this moment, as I have been try- 
ing for two days to get enough men together to form a camp 

120 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

September, a sliort waj out, in order to see all right for marching ; and all 
is'^^- the pagazi declare they are afraid, I think I am past the fever 
here now, as, although I have had it six times, the last attacks 
have been getting lighter; and the only thing bothering me 
now is my right eye, which is a good deal inflamed, but I think 
is getting better. I think it was caused by the constant glare 
and dust round the house. 

'''■September dOth. — Here I am still, trying to make a prelimi- 
nary start, but not one of my pagazi will come in ; at least I 
can't get more than a dozen together out of one hundred and 
thirty I have engaged, and I can't manage much with them. 
I am still greatly bothered with my eye, as, if I use the other 
much, it brings on pain. 

" October \Mli. — Just able to try and write again, but I have 
been quite blind, and very bad with fever since my last words. 
I have been more pulled down by the latter than by any I have 
had before, and was feeling very much as if I should like to be 
with you all for a day or two I am in great hopes of get- 
ting out of here soon now. Dillon is more alive, and growling 

at not getting away I am writing this bit by bit, as my 

eyes allow me, so don't expect much coherence or sense in the 
epistle " 

In a letter to Mr. Clements Markham, I wrote : 

^''September Ihth. — We have all been down with fever since 
we have been here, but are now pulling round again. It is a 
great nuisance, as the fever makes me lose my lunars. I tried, 
directly I was able, to think to get some, but was so shaky and 
dazed it was utterly impossible. 

" Since I wrote the foregoing, I have been down with fever, 
but am now, thank God, clear of it. We are waiting for a few 
pagazi, and putting our donkeys' saddle-bags to rights prior to 
starting for Ujiji, which I find can be reached in twenty-two 
marches, or about thirty days. I am afraid Dillon nnist go 
back, as he is getting quite blind — in fact, the last day or two 
he has been quite unable to read or write. One eye was affect- 
ed first ; and, now the other is going, he ought decidedly, in my 
opinion, to go back, and I have strongly advised him so to do. 

^^Septemher 20th. — It is something dreadful this waiting here. 
Here is the 20th of September, and I am bothered still by the 


lack of pagazi. If I had been well, we should have been away October, 
weeks ago ; but out of forty-five days, I have had one fever of i^"^^- 
eight days, one of seven, one of five, one of four, and now just 
getting well of a violent attack of headache, which lasted for 
five days (and of course do not feel particularly bright), so I 
have only had sixteen days. Dillon is much better, and has de- 
cided to go on ; he is not all right yet, though 

^'- Sej)tember '2Qth and ^Ith. — Still detained by lack of pagazi; 
but I hope to be off in about ten days or so. I have just had 
another attack of fever, and tliis is the first day I have been 
able to do any thing. Dillon seems to have fever every other 
day nearly, but not very violently ; but what I am most afraid 
of is his sight. He has quite lost the use of his left eye, and 
has occasional symptoms in his right. It is atony of the optic 
nerve. If he gets quite blind farther on, I do not see my way 
to sending him back ; in fact, it would be impossible for the 
greater portion of our route ; and he himself says getting back 
to a temperate climate would be the only thing to do him 

^^SeptemJjer 29th. — Yesterday, by dint of great labor, I got 
sixteen pagazi together at about 2 p.m., and to-day I hear they 
are all collected at Taborah, and afraid to go on ; and I am 
here, with my tent cleared out, and not a soul to move a thing. 
I shall go mad soon, if this state of affairs continue. I am 
thinking of going on by myself as light as I can, if I can get 
enough of the pagazi I have engaged, and making a drive some- 

" I have sent over to Taborah to try and get the pagazi to 
come over and go on, but it is dreadful. Oh, for a chance to 
get out of this fever -stricken place7 and to feel one is doing 
something ! I should feel as happy as a king— ay, and far hap- 
pier too— if I only heard I could go on, even if I had to walk 
barefoot the whole way. If I go on by myself, I should take 
nine askari, and arm six of the best pagazi with spare rifles, 
which, with my servant, would give me sixteen well-armed men, 
besides myself ; and if I can only get them to stick together, I 
should feel perfectly confident. Coute qui coute, I must go 
somehow or another, as I don't feel justified in stopping here 
anv longer. 

122 • ACEOSS AFRICA. [Cil^p. 

October, ^^ Octoher ISt/i. — Since I wrote the last, I have been quite 
1873. blind of both eyes, and very bad indeed with fever ; so I have 
been helpless. 

" These horrible fevers and my blindness have quite prevent- 
ed my doing any thing since I last wrote, and my eyes now are 
any thing but perfect in work or feeling ; however, they are 
now getting better rapidly ; but, of course, the moon has passed, 
and I have got no lunars." 

Tlie above is sufhcient to show how constantly we were 
ill; and of this the men took advantage to absent themselves. 
They also worried us into allowing them extra provisions and 
cloth, which they well knew would have been refused but for 
our illness. I managed to hold out against their importuni- 
ties ; but while I was delirious they asked Dillon and Murjjhy 
to allow their rations to be doubled, and, by dint of persisting, 
obtained compliance. 

In consequence of the great losses we sustained by the deser- 
tion of pagazi, I was obliged to buy cloth at a price four times as 
high as at Zanzibar, or we should have been regularly stranded. 

The Arabs were perfectly right in charging this price, since 
no caravans from the coast had ai-rived for some time, and 
stores had become very scarce. In fact, I can not speak too 
highly of the behavior of the upper classes of Arabs toward us 
during our stay at Unyanyembe. 

When we were ill, they called or sent daily to inquire for us ; 
and limes, tamarinds, and other fruits, as also dishes of well- 
cooked curry, far beyond the attainments of our own cordon 
bleu, were constantly sent to us, besides such presents as a bul- 
lock, a goat, a dozen fowls, or a basket of eggs. In our inter- 
vals of convalescence we used to return their calls, and were al- 
ways most warmly welcomed. 

Hearing that a great auction was to be held at Taborah for 
the sale of the effects of some Arabs who had been killed while 
lighting with the Warori — a savage tribe whose territory lies 
in the route to the southern end of the Tanganyika — I went to 
see their manner of conducting it. 

In two large rooms were assembled nearly a hundred and fif- 
ty traders — Arabs, Wasuahili, and Wamerima — and three men 
acted as auctioneers. 

> I'll 1 ^ v-*l 


■1 Ix^V 








The first part of the sale consisted of household utensils, ket- 
tles, coffee-pots, bedding, and a small quantity of trading stores ; 
and the auctioneers carried each article round the assemblao;e, 
gesticulating violently, and insisting that it was the best thing 
of its sort that had ever been brought to Unyanyembe, and 
asking each and every one what amount he would bid for it. 
After two or three rounds, the article was knocked down to the 
highest bidder, whose name, and the price given, were entered 
in the inventory, which had been previously prepared. 

The second part was devoted to the sale of slaves. They 
were led round, made to show their teeth, to cough, run, and 
lift weights, and in some instances to ex- 
hibit their dexterity in handling a musket. 
All these slaves were semi-domestic, and 
fetched high prices ; one woman, who was 
reputed a good cook, going for two hun- 
dred dollars, and many of the men reached 
eighty dollars, while in no instance was the 
price under forty. 

A sad and eventful day now arrived. It 
was on the 20th of October, as I lay on 
my bed prostrate, listless, and enfeebled 
from repeated attacks of fever ; my mind 
dazed and confused with whirling thoughts 
and fancies of home and those dear ones 
far away, that my servant, Mohammed 
Malim, came running into my tent witli a 
letter in his hand. I snatched it from him, asking at the same 
moment where it came from. His only reply was, " Some man 
bring him." Tearing it open, I found Jacob Wainwright's let- 
ter — a fac-simile of which is here given. 

Being half blind, it was with some difficulty that I deci- 
phered the writing, and then, failing to attach any definite 
meaning to it, I went to Dillon. His brain was in much the 
same state of confusion from fever as mine, and we read it 
again together, each having the same vague idea — " Could it be 
our own father who was dead ?" 

It was not until the bearer of the letter — ^Chuma, Living- 
stone's faithful follower — was brought to us that we fully com- 








preliended what we had been reading. The writer had natu- 
rally supposed that " the doctor's son was the leader of the Re- 
lief Expedition. We immediately sent supplies for the press- 
ing needs of the caravan, and dispatched a messenger to the 
coast announcing Dr. Livingstone's death. 




Arrival and Reception of Livingstone's Body. — Some Particulars of his Death. — The 
Future of the Expedition. — Its Partial Abandonment. — Murphy resigns. — Dillon 
compelled to turn back. — The Personnel of my Expedition. — Parting from Dillon. 
I o-o forward Alone. — Troubles of Transport. — I throw away Preserved Provis- 
ions. — A Native Plea for Slavery. — The Death of Dr. Dillon. — A Sad Blow. — Ka- 
sekerah.— Offended Dignity of Askari. — Shirking their Work. — Determined De- 
serters.— A Pleasant March. — Village Clubs. — A Visit to Murphy. — The Manner 
of transporting Livingstone's Body. — Capture of a Thief. — I reduce my Kit. — A 
Dirty and Drunken Chief. — Muscat Donkeys. — The Road blocked. 

On the arrival of the body a few days later, Said ibn Salim, October, 
Shaykh ibn Nassib, Abdallah ibn Nassib, and the principal Ar- ^^'^^- 
abs without exception, showed their respect to Livingstone's 
memory by attending the reception of the corpse, which we 
arranged with such honors as we were able. The askari were 
drawn up in front of the house in two lines, between which the 
men bearing the body passed ; and as the body entered, the col- 
ors which, contrary to our usual custom, had not been hoisted 
that morning, were shown half-mast high, 

Susi, on whom the command had devolved on the death of 
Livingstone, brought a couple of boxes belonging to him, and 
his guns and instruments. He also stated that a box contain- 
ing books had been left at Ujiji, and that shortly before his 
death the doctor had particularly desired that they should be 
fetched and conveyed to the coast. " 

Dr. Livingstone's death, as far as I could ascertain from the 
description given by his men, occurred rather to the westward 
of the place marked in the map published in "Livingstone's 
Last Journals." He had been suffering from acute dysentery 
for some time, but his active mind did not permit him to re- 
main still and rest. Had he done so for a week or two after 
the first attack, it was the opinion of Dr. Dillou, upon reading 
the last few pages of his journal, that he would most probably 
have recovered. 

126 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Ciiap. 

October, It is iiot foi* me here to speak of Livingstone, his life and 
^^'^'^- death. The appreciation of a whole nation, nay, more, of the 
whole civilized world, will testify to succeeding generations that 
he was one of the world's heroes. And that title was never 
won by greater patience, self-denial, and true courage than that 
shown by David Livingstone. 

It was now necessary to consider what course we had better 
pursue, since he to whom we were to have looked for guidance 
was taken from us. 

Murphy resigned his position, and announced his intention of 
returning to the coast, on the ground that the work of the ex- 
pedition was completed, and that nothing further remained for 
us to do. 

Dillon and I decided upon proceeding to Ujiji and securing 
that box to which Livingstone had referred with almost his last 
breath, and, after having safely dispatched it to the coast, to 
push on toward IS^yangwe to endeavor to follow up the doctor's 

We now redoubled our exertions to get away, and equipped 
Susi and his companions for the march to Bagamoyo. But, un- 
happily, Dillon and I were not destined to go forward together ; 
for, a few days prior to the date fixed for our departure, he was 
attacked with inflammation of the bowels, and, much against his 
wish, felt constrained to return to the coast, as that seemed the 
only course which gave hope of recovery. 

I also was unfortunate, and had a serious fall when riding a 
new donkey, received in exchange for some of those we brouglit 
from Zanzibar. I pitched exactly on the small of my back upon 
a pointed block of granite, and was so shaken and hurt that I 
was unable to walk even the few hundred yards to the house, 
and was confined to my bed for some days. 

Wlien Dillon decided on returning to the coast. Murphy 
handsomely volunteered to continue with me. But I did not 
accept his offer on account of the great difficulty in obtaining 
pagazi, and I was also convinced that the only chance of the 
expedition moving forward lay in reducing it to the smallest 
possible limits. 

Issa and Bombay quarreled to such an extent as to render it 
impossible to retain both in the caravan ; and the former hav- 

X.] "WESTWAED HO!" 127 

ing heard that his brother — an interpreter on board one of her November, 
majesty's cruisers — had been killed at Kilwa, was desirous of ^8'^^- 
returning, for the sake of his mother, who had now no son at 

I much regretted losing Issa, for he was very useful, and kept 
correct accounts of all stores expended, besides being most me- 
thodical, and possessing considerable influence among the men. 

Bombay was certainly faithful and firm in attachment ; in 
fact, he reminded me of the old Scottish servant who, when his 
master said they must part, replied " Na, na ; I'm no' gangin'. 
If ye dinna ken whan ye've a gude servant, I ken whan I've a 
gude place." Sometimes he would work well, and prove real- 
ly serviceable ; but he was usually afraid of the men, and drink 
was his bane. 

The personnel of my expedition now consisted of Bombay, 
head-man; Bilal Wadi Asmani, second in command — Asmani 
who had been with Stanley and Livingstone as guide, and now 
filled that post with me — accompanied by his inseparable friend, 
Mabruki ; Mohammed Malim, my servant, a good interpreter 
and tailor ; Hamees, gun-bearer, engaged at TJnyanyembe ; boy 
Jacko, freed by Said ibn Salim to accompany me ; Sambo, cook 
— his claims to that ofiice rating on the fact of his having been 
cook's mate in an English merchant ship ; Kombo, cook's mate, 
and a body of askari and pagazi, amounting in all to about one 
hundred men, desertions and engagements causing the total to 
vary daily. 

On the 9tli of November, Livingstone's caravan, accompa- 
nied by Dillon and Murphy, started for the coast, while my cry 
was " Westward ho !" I was the first to start, although I was 
obliged to leave a quantity of stoi-fes behind under charge of 
Bombay, owing to the non-appearance of pagazi. Consequent- 
ly, I had to halt at Mkwemkwe, only a short distance from 

The evening before we parted was a solemn time both for 
Dillon and myself. We talked of our homes, and of meet- 
ing in England ; but whether we really cherished that hope of 
meeting again, I scarcely know. We must both have had grave 
misgivings. I know that many such disquieted my mind at 
that moment, for I felt my health had failed, and before me all 

128 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chat. 

November, was uncertainty. Yet though the wrench and pain of j)arting 
isvs. ^gg great, neither would express in words any doubts or fears 
as to the future. 

At this time I was nearly blind from ophthalmia, and almost 
unable to walk from the j^ain in my back ; while fever, which 
was still hanging about me, had reduced me to a skeleton, my 
weight being only seven stone four on leaving Kwiharah. 

I must own that the likelihood of Dillon's reaching home 
appeared to me greater than of my ever again seeing England. 
Still, I was determined to go on, trusting in the good mercy of 
God to enable me to accomplish the labor I had undertaken ; 
and Dillon spoke cheerfully of the liojDed-for benefit, from 
change of climate, of regaining health and, it might be, sight. 
Little did. I foresee that our separation forever in this world 
was then so near. 

From Mkwemkwe the men still deserted at every opportuni- 
ty, going either to Taborali or Kwiharah ; so I again asked the 
assistance of Said ibn Salim and the ibn Nassibs, who promised, 
to drive the men back to me whenever it was possible. I also 
ordered Bombay out to Mkwemkwe, as personal supervision 
was needed to keep him up to the mark, replacing him at Kwi- 
harah by Bilal. 

On returning from this visit to Said ibn Salim, I was sur- 
prised to find Murphy in my tent. He had come to procure 
some medicine for poor Dillon, who, in addition to his previous 
illness, was now attacked by dysentery. Murphy said, how- 
ever, that they intended to start without delay, arrangements 
having been made to carry Dillon on a litter. 

I begged I might be sent for immediately should he become 
any worse, so that I might go to him. But, the next day, some 
of Livingstone's men came to me with the gratifying news that 
Dillon was better, and they intended to march the following 

Having, by dint of perseverance, managed to get my stores 
from Kwiharah, I broke up camp at Mkwemkwe and went to 
Itumvi, a large village lying on the direct road to Ujiji ; but 
having only sufilcient carriers for half my stores, I experienced 
much the same trouble and delay here as at Mkwemkwe. 

On paper and by rations, there were about twenty men in 


excess of loads ; yet whenever we started on the march, many November, 
were absent ; and when Bilal was. sent to look after absentees, ^^'^^• 
and was fortunate enongh to recover half a dozen, twenty more 
were found to be missing when he returned. 

By this wearying and worrying behavior of the men, I was 
detained at Itumvi till the 20th of November, when I reduced 
the number of loads by restowage, and throwing away the pre- 
served j)rovisions for my own use, and naturally left behind 
considerably less than had been the case at Mkwemkwe. 

I endeavored to obtain some assistance from the chief of 
Itumvi, and tried to enlist his sympathies by assuring him that 
England was the black man's friend, and wished to see all men 
free, and was doing her utmost to stop the slave-trade on the coast. 

" What, then, are the poor Arabs to do for slaves, if you stop 
the trade f said he ; and though admitting that slavery was a 
very bad thing, and saying he never sold a slave, yet he own6d 
that he sometimes bought one. 

As we were starting from Itumvi, a messenger from Murphy 
brought the dreadful news of poor Dillon's death on the 18th 
of November, caused by the terrible effects of African fever. 
By some unhappy chance, fire-arms had been left within reach ; 
and in the delirium of fever, and the misery of the complica- 
tion of diseases under which he was suffering, he had shot him- 
self in the head. 

And, agonizing though it is to dwell on this subject, I think 
it only right to point out that none but those who have experi- 
enced this fever can realize the extraordinary fancies that take 
possession of the mind. At times I have imagined, although 
not entirely losing my consciousness, that I had a second head, 
and that I could not live in this state. The weight has been so 
great, and the impression so marked, that I have felt tempted 
to take any means to rid myself of it, but without experiencing 
the slightest .desire to put an end to my existence. 

The day on which I received this news was the saddest of 
my life. I had lost one of the best and truest of my old mess 
mates and friends ; one whose companionship, during the many 
weary hours of travel and suffering, had helped to cheer, and 
lessen the difficulties and vexations by which we were so fre- 
quently beset. 





And the shock so stunned me, in my 'enfeebled condition, 
that for some few days I appear to have existed ahnost in a 
dream, remembering scarcely any thing of the march to Ko- 
nongo, and leaving my journal a blank. Perhaps it may not 
readily be understood how it arose, after having parted with 
Dillon and Murphy for several days, and, while moving toward 
opposite coasts, that our parties should at this time still have 
been near each other. I have therefore given the accompany- 
ing sketch of the routes followed. 

~ , ^ \,'>QBibora^,,,.,„,, 

U N Y a\ N Y E M B E 

_..--^ Marwai, 

€# \iKaifekerah 


The absence of pagazi continued to cause delay, and 1 had 
finally to abandon the idea of marching to Ujiji by the direct 
road, finding that not a soul would follow me if I persisted in 
the attempt. I accordingly decided to go round by Ugunda, 
and try for a route between the recognized one and that taken 
by Stanley. 

All the remaining preserved provisions excepting a tin of 
soup, one of fish, and two plum-puddings — which I kept for a 
possible Christmas — were now thrown away to further lighten 
the loads ; for, improvident as this almost seemed, and reluctant 
as I was to leave behind that which might hereafter prove of 
such vital importance to us, it was evident that our only hope 
of reaching port in safety lay in lightening the ship as much as 
possible. There were also some large villages close by, so that 
starvation did not stare us in the face. 

On the 27th of November I mustered a hundred pagazi for 


a hundred and ten loads, and niarclied to Teme, a large village November, 
four miles distant, leaving Bombay to bring on the remaining i^''-^- 
loads with men hired for the day. 

We passed two large villages, showing our colors and strik- 
ing up with a drum, which I had j^rocured in the ho2)e of in- 
spiriting the men by a little noise. The whole population had, 
however, turned out, and were busily employed in preparing 
the ground for the next crop, the rains having now commenced, 
so that this attempt at display fell a trifle flat. 

Bombay kept me waiting at Teme the next day, in conse- 
quence of which a number of men bolted back to Kwiharah, 
and, when Bombay did make his appearance, we were in a 
worse plight than before. 

I was astonished to find a Turk serving as a soldier under 
Abdallah ibn Nassib, who was stationed here for the purpose 
of buying provisions for the Belooches at Kwiharah. 

He was born at Constantinople, enlisted in the Turkish army, 
and was present at the opening of the Suez Canal. He de- 
serted in Egypt, and, apparently without exactly knowing how 
he managed it, arrived at Zanzibar. Being in a destitute con- 
dition, he then enlisted among the Belooches of Syd Burghash. 
He seemed very contented with his position, but still had a 
hankering after Constantinople, and told me that he intended 
returning there some day. 

More pagazi having offered themselves, I indulged in the 
faint hope that there was a possibility of a fair start in the 
morning ; but more than twenty absconded during the night, 
and it was not without much delay that I succeeded in making 
a move again. 

Three hours' march through a rolling country, having vil- 
lages and clearings interspersed in the jungle, brought us to 
Kasekerah, the scene of poor Dillon's death. From the na- 
tives I unsuccessfully endeavored to ascertain where my old 
messmate was buried, in order that I might visit his last rest- 
ing-place, and place some mark over the sj^ot where he lay. 
No one could tell me any thing about it. 

On meeting Murphy, I found he had buried him in the jun- 
gle, having a fear (though a needless one) of the natives des- 
ecrating his grave. I learned also that just before his death 

132 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

December, the poor fellow bad destroyed those letters which I had given 
1873. }jjj^ fQp conveyance to the coast ; so I immediately commenced 
wi-iting another account of the history and prospects of the ex- 

Some of MurjDhy's men arrived with the information that he 
had halted two days' march in front, and, having had some 
cloth stolen from his tent, was sending to Said ibn Salim for a 
further supply, to enable him to continue his journey to the 

Kasekerah was a large and neat village of fiat -topped huts, 
surrounded by an outer stockade, and within an inner one was 
an enormous circular hut, the residence of the chief, who was a 
daughter of Mkasiwah, chief of all Unyanyembe. There were 
deep verandas in front of many huts, several of which were 
plastered with different colored earths, forming patterns. 

Again I had to wait for Bombay, and the day after his ar- 
rival it rained too heavily for us to proceed. But on the 2d of 
December we started, after the usual amount of bother, nine 
men having disappeared directly rations had been served out. 

The askari, too, were inclined to give some trouble by set- 
ting forward as a grievance that carrying flags and a drum was 
not soldiers' work, but the duty of pagazi. Bombay caused me 
much vexation by abetting the askari in their ridiculous pre- 
tensions; and not until after four hours' hard work could I 
start the caravan — minus the drum. 

Others made up their sleeping -mats, clothes, and personal 
baggage to represent bales of cloth, and put them among the 
loads ; and from their being much lighter than cloth or beads, 
the pagazi singled them out, and displayed much anxiety to 
carry them instead of their proper burdens. A short walk 
through wooded country brought us tp Kigandah, the last vil- 
lage in Unyanyembe ; and between it and Ugunda — the next 
division of Unyamwezi — lay a march of six hours through vir- 
gin forest. 

To guard against further desertions, I posted sentries at ev- 
ery entrance to the village; but this precaution proved una- 
vailing, and twenty -five men escaped, fragments of their scanty 
clothing on the top of the palisades being sufficient, at the 
dawn of day, to show the road they had taken. 


To wait for the fugitives would have occasioned much delay, December, 
and most probably the loss of many more. So, putting the i^'^^- 
best face I could on the matter, I hired sufficient men to carry 
the deserters' loads to the first village in Ugunda, where it was 
stated pagazi were usually to be obtained. I also dispatched a 
messenger to the Arabs at Kwiharah and Taborah reporting 
the numbers that had deserted, most of whom were known as 
being men belonging to the coast. 

Marching through wooded country with beautiful open 
glades, the trees bursting into fresh leaf, and the young grass 
clothing with a tender green the patches which had been 
burned in the dry season, and every thing looking fresh and 
spring-like, I felt better than at any time since leaving Kwiha- 
rah ; and, to my astonishment, I found myself able to follow 
the shady path without suffering fatigue. 

We rested at some pools of clear, fresh water ; and a bag- 
gage-donkey, appreciating the comfort of a bath, went into one, 
and, lying down, commenced to roll. Pleasant as this might 
have been for the beast, it tended much to the detriment of a load 
composed of miscellaneous odds and ends, botanical paper, etc. 

Resuming our march, we reached, in a few hours, a large vil- 
lage in the centre of much cultivation. This was the residence 
of Mrima Ngombe, chief of Ugunda, and, as such, was called 
Kwikuruh, that name being invariably given to the village at 
which the chief of a district in Unyamwezi dwells. 

The men carrying my tent and cooking-gear having lagged 
behind, I took refuge from the sun's rays in the village pub- 
lic-house, where I became the centre of a wondering crowd. 

There are two of these public-houses — or perhaps they may 
be more properly termed " clubs "i— in nearly every village 
in Unyamwezi, one for each sex. That appropriated to the 
women is not open to strangers ; but at the one frequented by 
the men, all travelers of distinction are welcomed by the chiefs 
and elders. As soon as a boy attains the age of seven or eight 
years, he throws off the authority of his mother, and passes 
most of his time at the club, usually eating and often sleep- 
ing there. They are generally larger and better built than the 
other huts, and a standing bed -place occupies a considerable 
portion of the interior. 

134 ACEOSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

December, The following day I visited Mnrpliy, who was camped about 
i^*^'^- a mile and a half to the eastward of me, and found him very 
comfortable, and seeming much better than he had been since 
his arrival at Bagamoyo. He showed me much kindness on 
this occasion of meeting, giving me his water-proof coat and in- 
dia-rubber sheet, which proved of great value to me afterward. 

Acting on Issa's advice, Livingstone's men liad packed the 
corpse in bark, and so lashed it up as to have the appearance of 
a bale of cloth, in order to smuggle it past the eyes of the pry- 
ing Wagogo. Had they suspected what the package really con- 
tained, they would never have allowed the caravan with its bur- 
den to pass through their country. 

A rumor now reached me that Asmani, whom I had dis- 
patched in search of pagazi, was in the jungle unable to come, 
in having been stripped naked by some Ruga-ruga. I sent a 
piece of cloth to this unfortunate individual by some men, but, 
instead of Asmani, they brought back a deserter, who confess- 
ed that it was he who was guilty of stealing the cloth which 
Murphy had lost. He had been instigated to commit the theft 
by a half-caste Arab resident, who threw physic to the dogs to 
prevent their making a noise when the thief entered Murphy's 
tent. For providing this magical medicine, the Arab had re- 
ceived the greater part of the stolen goods, while the poor tool, 
in trying to skulk back to Taborah, had been robbed of every 

On inquiring into the case, and after patient investigation 
and hearing much cross-swearing, I considered that the weight 
of the evidence was against the Arab, who had connived at the 
theft and received the goods. I therefore ordered him to make 
good Murphy's loss, under penalty of being sent in chains to 
Said ibn Salim for punishment. 

After some little resistance and arguing, he preferred paying 
to being delivered over to Said ibn Salim, who would probably 
either have shot him, or forwarded him to the coast to be dealt 
with by the Sultan at Zanzibar. 

He greatly feared being sent to Said ibn Salim ; for the 
news had spread — although I was not aware of it till afterward 
— that he and Abdallah ibn Nassib had on several occasions 
very nearly resorted to force to prevent the more disreputable 

X.] ' I EEDUCE MY KIT. 135 

people at Taborali from enticing our men away from us. Tliey December, 
would undoubtedly have adopted strong measures, Lad they not ^873. 
been afraid of creating divisions while Mirambo was still un- 

Mrima Ngombe, the chief of Ugunda, developed a strong 
friendsliip for me, and constantly visited me, bringing pombe, 
and insisting on my hobnobbing with him ; but, notwithstand- 
ing his efforts, it was impossible to obtain any pagazi among 
his people, as they would not leave home during the sowing- 

I therefore reduced my personal kit to a minimum, making 
all my clothes, boots, etc., into one load ; yet even then there 
were not sufficient carriers, neither was there any chance of ob- 
taining men on hire from day to day. So I left behind twelve 
loads of the cheapest beads, and wrote to Said ibn Salim to for- 
ward them if an opportunity offered. 

Having wished Murphy "godspeed," I again made a start 
from Kwikuruh on December 8th, and, after a long march, 
reached Mapalatta. When first the caravan arrived, the people 
closed the doors of the village, for they had lately been harried 
by some slave-traders, and had learned to view all strangers 
with suspicion. But after a time they professed themselves 
satisfied with our peaceful intentions, and allowed us to enter. 

According to Asmani, who had rejoined us at Mrima Ngom- 
be's, no other villages would be met with for some days, and con- 
sequently it was necessary to lay in a stock of provisions. Al- 
though, according to previous experience, this statement was 
probably incorrect, it was not advisable to risk a jungle march 
without food, and I ordered a day's halt to buy and clean the 
necessary corn. .- 

The chief of the village was a disgustingly dirty old man, 
suffering from delirium tremens — the only instance of this dis- 
order which I saw in Africa, though drunkenness was by no 
means uncommon. The purchase of five days' food was, how- 
ever, satisfactorily arranged with his wives, and we again pro- 
ceeded on the 10th of December. 

Tlie country was perfectly charming, the trees delicately 
green and fresh, the open, grassy glades enameled with various 
wild flowers. Indeed, it would have required no great stretch 




December, of imagination to fancy one's self in the wooded part of a well- 
^^'^^' kept English park, except that gazelles bounding away in the 
distance, and the skulls of a lion and an elephant, kept promi- 
nently in mind the fact that one was still in African juno-le. 

After marching eight miles, a clearing was reached, and in 
the centre there stood a large new village, named Hisinene. 
Asmaui, with his eternal grin, pointed it out with apparent de- 
light, seeming to think that it would be a pleasant surprise. 
On the contrary, I was disgusted ; as it now appeared that the 
halt of the day before had been altogether unnecessary, and 
each village was certain to tempt some of my men to remain 
behind. When leaving the place the next morning, I was grat- 
ified to find that only one man had run during the night. 

After every one had started, I brought up the rear on Jas- 
min, the white Muscat donkey I had obtained at Unyanyembe, 
which by this time had learned to attach itself to me almost 
with the fidelity of a dog. These Muscat donkeys are much 
valued, being highly bred, and possessing good staying powers ; 
but they require better care and feeding than the ordinary na- 
tive animal. They stand about twelve to thirteen hands high, 
and their paces are equal to those of a horse ; and they are very 
pleasant to ride, owing to their easy amble. 

Suddenly the caravan came to a halt, and a most unwelcome 
sight presented itself, the men having grounded their loads, while 
Asmani and others were engaged in a violent altercation with 
some natives. 


These proved to be an embassy from Taka, cliief of Eastern December, 
Ugara, proceeding to Unyanyembe to hold a palaver respecting i^*^^- 
a misunderstanding which had arisen owing to the head-man of 
a village having been shot by an Arab in a sqnabble. Taka was 
now sending to Said ibn Salim and Abdallah ibn Nassib to ar- 
range this matter, and meanwhile the road through Ugara was 

Every effort to persuade this embassy to turn back and ac- 
company me to Taka's village was unavailing, and we were 
compelled to return to Ilisinene. All the bright hopes of the 
morning were thus dashed to the ground, and a lengthened de- 
lay appeared inevitable. 

138 ACEOSS AFEICA. [Chap. 


Driven back to Hisinene. — A Miserable Christmas. — Superstitions regarding Snakes. 
— Customs of the People. — Dancing. — Cooking Arrangements. — Storing Corn. — 
Their Huts. — Food. — Curing. — Provisions. — Cloth - making. — Grinding Corn. — 
Tribal Marks. — Ilair-dressing. — Warned against Mirambo. — A Spy shot. — On the 
Road again. — A Hospitable Old Lady. — Missing the Way. — Sack -making. — An 
Elopement. — Disordered State of the Country. — The South Ngombe. — A Day's 
Shooting. — A Hunter's Story. 

December, HisiNENE being again reached, I consulted Bombay and As- 
18'72. mani as to the best course to pursue in this unexpected diffi- 
culty. To attempt to avoid Ugara would have lengthened the 
journey by three weeks or a month, while the country through 
which we should have been obliged to pass was reported to 
afford no supplies of provisions. 

The embassadors had assured me that the moment an ar- 
rangement had been arrived at the road would be opened, and 
they would conduct me to Taka's village, knowing that he 
would welcome me warmly. I thei-efore decided to send As- 
mani with them to LTnyan^^embe, to urgQ upon the Arabs the 
desirability of settling the matter as quickly as possible. 

The chief of Hisinene was allied with the Arabs in the cam- 
paign against Mirambo, and a few days after our arrival the 
fighting-men were mustered and dispatched to the scene of ac- 

Hearing nothing from or of Asmani for ten days, I grew 
anxious, and sent Mohammed Malim, with half a dozen men 
and my two riding donkeys, to travel as fast as possible, and as- 
certain what the news really was. 

Now followed much dreary waiting and anxiety, which, to- 
gether with the unhealthincss of the place, knocked me up, 
and I was attacked by fever and a sharp touch of dysentery. 
My back, too, was so exceedingly painful that I had no rest, 
night or day, for more than a week. 




Some good sport was to be had here, and when I rallied a 
little I frequently took my gun into a rice swamp about iifty 
yards outside the village, and bagged some snipe. The men 
also constantly went shooting, bringing in on one occasion a 
zebra, and on another a couple of gazelles. The zebra is the 
best meat in Africa, and is eaten by all the Arabs and their 
people, though not one of them would touch horse or donkey 
to save his life. 

Christmas-day passed very miserablj. A heavy rain-storm 
commenced with the day, and flooded the whole village. The 


I§^-- m^§M, 

ditch and bank round ni}'- tent were washed away, and I had 
over six inches of water inside it. Every thing was wet, 
damp, and muggy. ^ 

Then my dinner, for which I had kept a tin of soup and one 
of fisli, besides one of the plum-puddings, was a failure. A vil- 
lage dog stole the fish. Sambo upset the soup, and the pudding 
was not boiled ; and I had to content myself with a scraggy 
fowl and a bit of matama damper. 

A very curious superstition on the part of the natives was 
noticeable here. One of my men came to me, shouting that 
there was a large snake in a hut. I, of course, took my gun, in- 
tending to shoot it ; but when I arrived, the natives would not 


140 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

December, allow the reptile — a boa about ten feet long — to be injured, 
1873. ^\JY^l contented themselves with quietly turning it out of the 
village with long sticks. I asked the reason of this gentle 
treatment, and was told that it was a "peppo" (a spirit or 
ghost), and, if injured, some disaster would befall the village 
or its inhabitants. 

During my long stay I had also many opportunities of ob- 
serving the customs of the people. Every morning, as soon 
as it was light, they came out of their huts, and sat round fires 
smoking their matutinal 'baccy. This finished, all, excepting 
old women and young children, the chief and two or three 
elders, sallied forth to work in the plantations. Those whose 
fields were close to the village returned at noon to eat ugali or 
porridge ; while others, who worked farther away, cooked and 
eat their midday meal at the scene of their labors. Shortly be- 
fore sunset they returned, and in the evening there were dan- 
cing, smoking, and singing, and drinking too, when corn for 
making pombe is plentiful. Drums are brought out and beat- 
en vigorously by the hands, while men go circling round and 
round for hours at a time, yelling and shouting. 

The women never mingle with the men on these occasions, 
but sometimes engage in a dance by themselves, when the gest- 
ures and actions are often even more immoral and indecent 
than those of the men ; though they are bad enough, in all con- 
science. Neither men nor women have any objection to be 
gazed on by the opposite sex while going through these antics ; 
but, as in most other tribes, they never mix or dance together. 

The huts in which they live are usually built of stout j)osts 
planted in the ground, and the interstices filled with clay. The 
roof is flat, with a slight slope to the front, and the rafters are 
covered either with sheets of bark, or with bushes and grass, 
over which is spread a thick coating of earth. 

Sweet-potatoes cut in slices, pumpkins, and gourds, are often 
laid on the roofs to dry for the winter provisions. In the in- 
terior of these huts there are generally two, and sometimes 
three, divisions. 

The first contains small bed-places covered with hides, and 
here also is the universal African fire-place, consisting of the 
three cones of clay, which, in a few instances, are hollow, and 


form an oven. The only cooking utensils are earthen pots, December, 
nearly every thing being prepared for eating by boiling. ^^'^^^ 

In the next division kids and lambs are kept, and the inner- 
most one is used as a granary, where corn is stored in " lindo " 
or bark bandboxes, with the lids carefully luted on with clay. 
These lindo are often of enormous size, some being sufficiently 
large to contain a dozen sacks. Smaller lindo are frequently 
used as trunks for traveling. 

Light is admitted only through the door, which also provides 
the sole means for the escape of smoke, and, as a consequence, 
the rafters and walls are black and shiny, and the cobwebs with 
which they are festooned are loaded with soot. Among the 
rafters, walking-sticks, bows, spears, knobsticks, and arrows are 
stored, to become seasoned by the smoke. 

As may be expected, these dwellings are infested with ver- 
min, the worst being enormous ticks, the bite of which is so an- 
noying that the Arabs believe them to be venomous, and often 
to cause fevers. 

The main staple of food here — as indeed throughout Africa 
—is ugali, a sort of porridge. It is made by boiling water, and 
then mixing in flour and stirring until the mixture becomes a 
stiff and heavy mass. It is then turned out, and the superflu- 
ous moisture is allowed to drain away. 

Meat is so rarely obtained that it is most voraciously de- 
voured. AVhen game is plentiful, however, they sometimes 
exercise a little forethought, and smoke the flesh for keeping. 
This process consists of cutting it into strij^s and placing these 
on branches over a fire of green wood. 

The clothing of the Wanyamwezi is usually of cloth obtained 
in trade ; but the poorer people have to^content themselves with 
native cloth made from the inner bark of a species of fig-tree. 

The outer covering of this tree is stripped off in the rainy 
season, and the trunk swathed with banana-leaves until the in- 
ner bark becomes sufficiently soft and tender for manufacture. 
It is then removed and steeped in water, after which it is laid 
on a plank and tapped gently with mallets, usually made of 
rhinoceros horn grooved on the face. At each tap the piece 
of bark grows larger and larger, and, when finished, has some- 
thing the appearance of a felted corduroy. 

142 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

December, Kaffir corii, on being first gatliered, is threshed on floors of 

1873. trodden clay with long, curved sticks, sometimes having a small 

piece of board like the blade of an oar at the striking end, and, 

when separated from the rougher part of the chaff, is stowed 

away in the lindo. 

On being required for use, it is beaten in a mortar to remove 
any chaff that may still remain, and then ground into flour be- 
tween two stones. The larger of these is fixed in the earth, 
and a woman, kneeling down, w^orks the small one upon it. Al- 
together, it is a rough operation, resulting in a large proportion 
of the flour being composed of sand and grit. 

While employed in this labor, women often have babies 
lashed on their backs, and their pendulous and flaccid breasts 
may frequently be seen swinging to and fro, with each motion 
of the body, among the slowly accumulating heap of flour. 

The distinguishing tribal marks of the Wanyamwezi are a 
tattooed line clown the centre of the forehead and on each tem- 
ple, the two upper front teeth chij^ped so as to show a chevron- 
shaped gap, and a small triangular piece of hippopotamus ivory 
or of shell, ground down white and polished, hung round the 
neck. Their ornaments consist principally of beads and brass 
and iron wire. 

Chiefs and head-men wear enormous cylindrical bracelets of 
ivory extending from wrist to elbow, which are also used as sig- 
nals in w^arfare. The noise occasioned by striking them togeth- 
er is heard at a long distance, and is used by chiefs as a call for 
their men to rally round them. 

The men usually shave the crown of the head, and wear their 
hair twisted into innumerable small strings, lengthened artifi- 
cially by plaiting long fibres of bark cloth with the hair. This 
is often carried to such an extent as to make it hang down to 
the small of the back, and when on the road this mixture of 
bark and hair is usually tied into a sort of club-tail. Others, 
wdio only want to apjjear smart on occasions, have wigs of 
string, and keep their wool shaved or clipped close. 

The women follow no particular fashion in dressing their 
hair. Sometimes they allow it to remain in its native frizzi- 
ness, often using it to stick a knife, pipe, or other small arti- 
cle into. Others have their hair dressed in innumerable small 


plaits, lying close to the head, and having something the appear- December, 
ance of the ridges of a iield ; and occasionally they make it into ^^'^- 
large, cushion - like masses, padded out with bark -fibres. The 
two latter methods of hair-dressing occupy two or three days ; 
but when the work of art is finished, it remains undisturbed 
for six months, or even longer. 

Mrima IS'gombe, being engaged in making a royal progress 
through his dominions, called on me here. He was dressed in 
a scarlet burnose trimmed with gold embroidery, which looked 
rather odd over his greasy waistcloth, his only other garment. 
He was much displeased with the head-man of Hisinene, and 
reprimanded him for not having paid me sufficient attention or 
supplied me with pombe. 

On the 28th of December, Asmani arrived with the welcome 
news that a settlement of the misunderstanding had been ac- 
complished, and that we could now pass through Ugara with- 
out let or hinderance. But, since the embassy had remained 
behind on a spree, we were advised to make a detour to avoid 
their village, otherwise we might be suspected of having mur- 
dered them. 

With Asmani came some of Said ibn Salim's men, bringing 
a few of my deserters and a hint to beware of Mirambo, as one 
of the Watosi — a tribe of herdsmen, of whom many are settled 
at Unj-anyembe — had been detected conveying to him infor- 
mation of the route we proposed to follow. 

They expressed the hope that I should be pleased on hearing 
that the unfortunate Mtosi had been shot for carrying the news 
to Mirambo. This act was doubtless intended as a piece of ci- 
vility, but it was one with which I could well have dispensed. 
Nothing further had been done towai-d perfecting a plan for 
the campaign against Mirambo, owing to a difference of opin- 
ion as to the selection of a leader. 

The ofiicer who had brought the re-enforcements from the 
coast wished to take chief command, civil and military; but 
this Said ibn Salim and Abdallah ibn Nassib refused to allow, 
as they were both senior to him in the Sultan's service. The 
new troops stood by their own commanding officer, while the 
Belooches and others, who had been serving under Said ibn Sa- 
lim and Abdallah ibn Nassib, refused to recognize the new- 

144 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

December, comer. And while divided councils prevailed at the Arab 
1873. head-cjuarters, their native allies were daily leaving them, and 
Mirambo was increasing in power and strength. 

Asmani had neither seen nor heard of my servant Moham- 
med Malim ; but believing I could trust him to follow me, I 
made ready for starting at once. The men refused to march, 
and Bombay, instead of assisting me, supjDorted them by assert- 
ing that it was necessary to wait to enable them to clean their 
corn. This was nothing less than a gratuitous falsehood and 
idle excuse. On the 30th of December, after a deal of trouble, 
I marched, through a pelting rain, to another Kwikuruh, a 
large and populous place, ruled over by the mother of Mrima 

The old lady was remarkably civil, sending me eggs and 
pombe, and declining to receive any thing in return, saying she 
had been requested by her son to look after me, as I was his 
friend, and that every thing she possessed was at my disposal. 

Upon starting the next morning, Asmani tried a short cut he 
had heard of, and managed to miss it, and led us north-east, 
south-west, east, west, south, and north, in rapid succession. 

A sore heel prevented my getting to the head of the caravan 
to put matters right ; for my riding donkeys were away with 
Mohammed Malim, and the old steed, Jenny Lind, which I had 
ridden from the coast, was left behind at Hisinene on account 
of illness. To add to our miseries, it was raining the greater 
part of the time, the mud in many places being knee - deep. 
Right glad was I when we sighted the clearing surrounding a 
village, and soon I was seated under a veranda of the chief's 

All my clothing, except that required for decency, I at once 
hung up to dry ; for a box containing a change of clothes was, 
as usual, behind. But a fire and a cup of hot coffee provided 
by Sambo soon pulled me together somewhat. In the evening 
I tried for lunars and latitudes, but bad sight prevented my ob- 
taining any. 

Here I decided to wait for Mohammed to overtake us, which 
he did the following evening, bringing in Jasmin with a sore 
back, caused by his villainous riding. 

From some men who accompanied him from Said ibn Salim 


I learned that Murphy was well away on his return journey, January, 
having been heard of past Jiwe la Singa. ^^'^^• 

During the day I had an opportunity of watching a man en- 
gaged in the peculiar process of making a sack for carrying 
corn. Taking a pole about fourteen feet long, the outer thick 
bark, which had been previously loosened by soaking in water 
for some days, was removed by tapping with a small mallet. 
He next put a strong seizing round the pole at about three feet 
from one end, and began at the other to turn the inner tough 
bark inside out, using for this purpose an instrument made of a 
bent branch cut to an edge at one end, and forming a kind of adze. 

The man then cut the pole short off above the lashing, and 
turning the bark back again, increased its size by beating it out 
with a hammer very like that used in making native cloth, 
which also rendered it soft and more pliant. He afterward put 
corn into this bark sack, ramming it well in, and, when it was 
perfectly full, tied up the open end and wound wide strips of 
bark around the pa6kage. It now resembled a hard bolster 
about six or seven feet long — the lateral expansion having 
shortened the bag — with a short pole projecting at one end. 
This serves to keep the contents from becoming wet when the 
baggage is stacked against a tree. Larger packages of this 
kind are used as granaries, being carefully thatched, and then 
planted by the projecting pole in an open place in the village. 

On the 2d of January, 1874, we broke up from Shikuriih 
(which, by-the-way, is the village called Kwikuruh by Stanley), 
after being detained by some men going out for the carcass of 
a buffalo they had shot. 

I here ascertained that a donkey which was supposed to have 
strayed at Unyanyembe had actually4)een' sold by Umbari and 
one of Livingstone's men, named Manua Sera, whom I had sent 
for it. Upon this discovery, I turned Umbari out of the cara- 
van, as, in addition to being a rogue, he was a grumbling, trou- 
blesome fellow, who was constantly stirring up a spirit of dis- 
satisfaction among the men. 

Asmani seemed doubtful about the road for the next day's 
journey, so I steered a course by compass, and, after five hours 
through trackless jungle full of game, camped by some pools in 
an open space. 

146 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

January, I went out with iiiy gun, and saw numerous tracks of giraffe, 

^^^^' and stalked one large antelope for a considerable distance ; but 

before getting within range, Leo, who had been left in camp, 

found me, and testified his delight so noisily that the antelope 

was frightened and my chance of a shot was spoiled. 

On returning, I found a party of Said ibn Salira's men had 
arrived in search of three women slaves, rejDorted to have ac- 
companied the men sent by me to Unyanj'embe with Moham- 
med Malim, and, on their being discovered, I ordered them to 
be immediately handed over. 

During the night two more jDagazi ran away, but a hunter 
whom w^e found in the woods fortunately volunteered his serv- 
ices. Guided by comj)ass, we continued our march through 
jungle, where Leo startled a herd of antelope, and the caravan 
found a sounder of pig, of which I bagged one little squeaker ; 
and, following this course for some hours, came among a num- 
ber of barked trees, which denoted our approach to a village. 

Shortly afterward, we struck a path leading through freshly 
cleared plantations, where the stumps of trees which had been 
felled were left about four feet high, having a most curious 
ap23earance. This brought us to the last village in Ugunda, 
and, although it was still early, I decided to halt, as three long 
marches lay between us and the first village we should arrive at 
in Ugala. 

Food was plentiful ; and enough corn for four days being 
purchased, I directed that it should be cleaned at once, instead 
of allowing the men to take a whole day about the business. 
The village was large and strongly built, and additions had ev- 
idently been made at various times. The oldest portion, in 
which the head-man lived, was almost entirely under the shade 
of one enormous banyan-tree. 

In addition to the usual stockade, this one was surrounded 
with a ditch, and embankment loop-holed for musketry on the 
inside ; and the entrances consisted of narrow passages, with two 
or three doors in each. 

The different state of the country from that which prevailed 
when Burton was here was particularly noticeable. In his 
time, a musket was an heir-loom for a chief, and the happy pos- 
sessors were few and far between ; but when I passed, neai-ly 


every village could turn out at least half of its men armed with January, 
muskets. i^"^*- 

In consequence of the disturbances between Mirambo and 
the Arabs, trade had suffered much, and the whole country was 
very unsettled. The lawless inhabitants of villages took advan- 
tage of the disorder which existed, and formed parties, from 
forty to fifty strong, to loot and destroy their w^eaker neigh- 
bors. These they attacked indiscriminately, calling themselves 
friends of Mirambo or of the Arabs, according to which party 
they were at the time intent on plundering. 

As water was reported to be scarce, and there was some dan- 
ger of not finding any if steering by compass, we took the road 
pointed out by Asmani. Soon we were clear of jungle, and en- 
tered an apparently illimitable plain covered with long grass, 
and having numerous small mounds crowned with wood, as 
also solitary trees scattered over its surface. We halted near a 
pool of muddy water, and camped on one of the little w^ooded 

Game was wonderfully plentiful. We saw quail and secre- 
tary birds, startled a large herd of antelope, and crossed a buffa- 
lo-track — about twenty yards w^ide, and trampled into the sem- 
blance of a plowed field — running in a dead straight line from" 
north to south. 

Soon after starting from here for the South Ngombe nullah, 
we passed some shallow, swampy pools, surrounded by trees and 
thick jungle. 

I was in front, and happened, unfortunately, to be without 
my gun, when a huge white rhinoceros waddled past me, grunt- 
ing. He failed to notice me as I quietly slipped behind a tree, 
but the shouts of the porters, who now sighted him, warned 
him off, and he turned into the jungle. I follow^ed directly, my 
rifle having arrived, and tracked him for some way, but was 
brought to a standstill by a bed of swamp. 

The remainder of our road to the South Ngombe was swamj), 
followed by a piece of the most beautiful plain that it is possi- 
ble to imagine. 

Clumps of magnificent trees were grouped M'ith an effect 
which could not have been surpassed had they been arranged 
by the art of the landscape gardener ; while wooded knolls and 





stretches of green grass, and a background of heavy timber 
along the banks of the nullah, completed the scene. 

The South ]S"gombe— not to be confounded with the North- 
ern Ngombe, which drains the country to the north of Taborah 
— is one of the southern affluents of the Malagarazi Kiver, and 
is joined by the Wale nullah, which rises a few miles west of 
Itumvi. IS'ear the point at which we crossed, it lay in long 
reaches of four or five miles in length, divided from each other 
only by sand-bars about fifty yards wide. Its waters afford a 
home to numerous hippopotami and crocodiles, and are covered 
with a profusion of immense water-lilies. In times of flood, 
it spreads about three miles on either side, and pours a vast 


quantity of water into the Malagarazi. Our camp was pitched 
on its western bank, in a clear space of grassy turf surrounded 
by gigantic trees, festooned to their topmost branches by enor- 
mous creepers. 

The men being tired, after our two long marches, I decided 
on a day's halt, and gave them leave to go out shooting. The 
surrounding country was full of game ; but I found it very 
wild, and so frightened by the number of my own people, as 
well as hunting-parties of Wagara, who were about, that I only 
shot a boar, which, being an unclean animal, none of my men 
would bring in. 

During my ramble I noticed the remains of a lion, buffalo, 
and crocodile, lying together in a heap, and was told a curious 


story to account for this strange sight. It was said that when January, 
the buffalo came to drink, a lion sprung upon him, and both ^^'^^- 
rolling into the water together, they were seized by a crocodile. 
He, in his turn, was dragged about twenty yards from the bank 
by the struggles of the two beasts, and there the trio perished 
in an inextricable entanglement. 

I also saw an enormous crane of a bluish-gray color, looking 
a king among birds, being by far the lai'gest I had ever seen, 
with the exception of the ostrich. 

150 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 


Ugara.— 'A Ludicrous Sight. — Mirambo's Head-quarters. — Destruction and Desola- 
tion. — The Havoc of the Slave-trade. — A Field for England's Labors. — Leo sur- 
prises the Natives. — Leg Ornaments. — Liowa. — My Pets. — A Lawless Set of Ruf- 
fians. — Heavy Rains. — Bee-nesting. — A Stampede. — Lost in Jungle. — A Panic. — 
Rocky Residences. — An Attempt at Extortion. — I give a Lecture on Hospitality. — 
Its Good Effect. — Nothing to Eat. — " Jasmin " Dies. — Tameness of my Goat. — 
Unfriendly Villages. — A Buffalo-charge. 

January, Ugara, in wliicli we were now, is not recognized as being 
i^*^*- part of Unyamwezi proper, although, owing to the people hav- 
ing the same manners and tribal marks, and their language be- 
ing nearly identical, they are not to be easily distinguished 
from tlieir neighbors. 

On the 8th of January we moved from the banks of the 
South Ngombe toward Tewere, but were shortly met by about 
twenty people sent by Taka — chief of the easternmost of the 
three portions into which Ugara is divided — to inquire our rea- 
sons for having entered his territory without sending to apjjrise 
him of our approach. Matters being soon explained, they re- 
turned with us, and showed us where to halt ; but we were not 
allowed to camp in Tewere. 

This village was a perfect mass of vegetation, the trees with- 
in it growing so thickly and closely together that nothing could 
be seen of the huts ; and even the palisades, constructed of 
poles of the bark-cloth tree, had taken root and sprouted, and 
had thus become like the fortifications of Robinson Crusoe. 
Taka's own village was some seven miles to the northward of 
us, and would have lain on our route had we been allowed to 
follow the road taken by us on making our first journey from 

We had scarcely camped, when emissaries arrived from Taka. 
^nd demanded twenty doti and two guns as mhongo. The 
guns I could not spare, and would not give ; so compromised 


the matter by paying twenty-two doti. A present was then January, 
asked for Taka's mother ; bnt I refused to give any thing, ex- ^^'^^- 
pressing my opinion that he was fully able to take care of his 
own mother. 

Tlie messengers informed me that if I visited Taka he would 
give me some provisions ; but as this would have entailed a 
delay of two or three days, I declined the invitation. Guides 
were placed at our disposal, and we marched across a j)erfectly 
level country until just at the close of the day's journey, when 
we breasted a small hill close to a village named Kwatosi, and 
camped on its summit. 

I was greatly amused by one of the guides, who displayed 
much pride at possessing an umbrella. He kept it open the 
whole day, continually spinning it round and round in a most 
ludicrous fashion ; and when we came to some jungle he added 
to the absurdity of his appearance by taking off his only article 
of clothing — his loin-cloth — and placing it on his head after 
having carefully folded it. The sight of a perfectly naked ne- 
gro walking under an umbrella was too much for my gravity, 
and I fairly exploded with laughter. 

Nothing but boundless plain covered with jungle was to be 
seen from the camp, the only break on the horizon being two 
small hills far away to the north-north-west. These were said 
to be Mirambo's head-cpiarters, which the Arabs had never at- 
tacked, the strength of the position being so great that it was 
felt that to make the attempt would be to court defeat. 

We passed the sites of many deserted villages which had 
been destroyed quite lately in the war, and, after camping one 
night in the jungle, arrived at the capital of ITtende, the cen- 
tral district of Ugara. The chief was^noderate in his demands 
for mhongo, and would have been satisfied "svith six doti, had 
not a son of Taka, who unfortunately arrived at that moment, 
said to him, " Don't be a fool ! my father got twenty-two. You 
ask the same." This caused much haggling and arguing, as I 
was greatly averse to complying with his increased claim. Still, 
he managed to get the twenty-two doti in the end, by prohibit- 
ing his people from selling food to us until he was paid. 

In the village there were many of Mirambo's men, who gra- 
ciously informed us that they would certainly have attacked 

152 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

January, US, had we beeii Arabs ; but, being English, we were allowed to 
1874. 25ass, because they knew we had not come for slaves. I have 
a strong suspicion that this was "buncombe," for Mirambo is 
as much a slave-dealer as any Arab in the country. But I sup- 
pose these men had heard something of the English from my 
people, and, not being strong enough to rob us, considered it 
advisable to appear friendly. 

The chief proved a curious sort of fellow, frequently with- 
drawing permission for us to buy food, and then restoring it. 
By taking advantage of the permission when granted, we pro- 
cured enough in two days, and w^ent on our way. 

The rains were now exceedingly heavy, and at times came 
down witli a roar that made sleep almost impossible. The fol- 
lowing note in my journal was evidently entered on one of 
these occasions : " Thunder and lightning ; lying awake listen- 
ing to the rain. If the blessed old Tanganyika gets all this, it 
must burst out somewhere." 

Our next halt was at the village of Liowa, chief of Western 
Ugara. The country before this had been dead level, but now 
began to get rather broken, and the road was across undulating 
country. The valleys were swamps, with deep and stiff black 
mud, that, in every thing but extent, put the stories of the 
dreaded Makata altogether into the shade. 

Passing through the ruins of so many deserted villages, once 
the homes of happy and contented people, was indescribably 
saddening. Where now were those who built them and culti- 
vated the surrounding fields? Where? Driven off as slaves, 
massacred by villains engaged in a war in which these poor 
wretches had no interest, or dead of starvation and disease in 
the jungle. 

Africa is bleeding out her life-blood at every pore. A rich 
country, requiring labor only to render it one of the greatest 
producers in the world, is having its population — already far 
too scanty for its needs — daily depleted by the slave-trade and 
internecine war. 

Should the present state of affairs be allowed to continue, the 
country will gradually relapse into jungles and wilds, and will 
become more and more impenetrable to the merchant and trav- 
eler. That this should be a possibility is a blot on the boasted 


civilization of the nineteenth century. And should England, January, 
with her mills working half-time, and with distress in the man- ^^'^^- 
nfacturing districts, neglect the opportunity of opening a mar- 
ket which would give employment to thousands of the work- 
ing classes, it will ever remain an inexplicable enigma. 

Let us hope that the Anglo-Saxon race will allow no other 
nation to outstrip it in the efforts to rescue thousands — nay, 
millions — of fellow-creatures from the misery and degradation 
which must otherwise infallibly fall to their lot. 

At Liowa's village the whole population turned out to stare 
at us, and their astonishment at beholding a Euroj^ean was far 
less than that displayed at the sight of old Leo. This was in 
no way diminished by the wonderful stories related of him by 
my men, who declared that, single-handed, he was a match for 
any two lions in Africa. 

These people were a fine, manly, warlike race, well armed with 
guns and spears, the blades of the latter being sometimes two 
feet in length, and more than four inches wide in their broad- 
est part. 

Two ornaments which I had hitherto rarely seen now be- 
came common. One, the sambo, consisting of a quantity of 
small circles of elephant's hair or hide, neatly bound round with 
very fine wire, was worn on the legs. Natives of high degree 
frequently wore such a mass of these as to give them the ap- 
pearance of being afflicted with elephantiasis ; and though I 
had no means of ascertaining the exact number on each leg, I 
may safely affirm that in some instances three hundred would 
■be under leather than over the mark. 

The other ornament to which I allude was composed of 
fringes of long goat's hair, also worn-round the leg, commen- 
cing just above the swell of the calf and reaching well-nigh to 
the ground. To both these ornaments there were often ap- 
pended small bells and pieces of tin and other metal, and the 
happy possessor of such extra decorations was never inclined to 
let them pass unnoticed, but would stamp and strut about like 
a lunatic, in order to make them jingle and herald his approach. 

While we were at Liowa's, a party belonging to Mrima 
Ngombe arrived en route to Simba, a chief of the Warori, who, 
having lately been successful in looting a quantity of ivory 

154 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

January, from liis neighbors, had sent out circulars stating that he had 
^^'^'*- on hand a very large stock of a superior article, which must be 
sold at a ruinous sacrifice, to effect a clearance before removing 
from the jDremises. 

Liowa's father, who bore the same name, was chief of all 
Ugara, and, having had a tiff with some Arabs, set out with the 
intention of destroying Bagamoyo ; but his vaulting ambition 
o'erleaped itself, and he and most of his followers perished on 
the road. 

The feudatory chiefs of the two other divisions of Ugara, 
taking advantage of the youth of the present Liowa on his suc- 
ceeding his father, declared themselves independent, and thus 
robbed him of more than two-thirds of his patrimony. 

Liowa presented me with a small goat, which became so 
greatly attached to me that I had not the heart to kill her, but 
decided on keeping her as a pet, and she soon knew me, and 
learned to answer to her name, " Dinah." She and Leo were 
inseparable, and both used to follow close uj^on my heels on the 

ISTews now reached me that the direct road to the Malagarazi 
ferry was blocked by large bodies of escaped Arab slaves, who 
were well armed, and had turned their hand against every body. 
They had been armed by their masters to fight against Miram- 
bo, but had deserted, and joined a number of runaways, who 
infested the vicinity of Unyanyembe. And now they were do- 
ing their utmost to harm their former masters. 

Many of the atrocities ascribed to Mirambo should properly 
be placed to the account of these ruflfians, who, bound by no 
laws, human or divine, placed no limits upon the brutalities in 
which they indulged. 

Liowa's was left on the 17th of January, and,.soon after start- 
ing, we met Mrima Ngombe's men, who had gone on the day 
before, and had turned back to place themselves under our pro- 
tection, being afraid to proceed alone. 

Three miles down hill, and half a mile through swamp, was 
all we managed before being fairly stopped by the rain, which 
came down like a water-fall ; and the difficulty in getting the 
men and donkeys to face it and cross the swamp to a dry place 
for camping, was very great. The rain approached us like a 


moving wall of water, and some time before the storm reached January, 
us the sound resembled the roar of a cataract. I'^H. 

Fortunately, the tents were quickly pitched, and the stores 
were kept fairly dry. I fully appreciated Murphy's water- 
proof coat ; but the men were drenched, and most of them 
adopted the costume of Adam in the early days of the Garden 
of Eden. 

When the rain ceased, some of the men took a bees' -nest, 
which had been discovered in a tree overhanging the camp. I 
watched their proceedings with interest, for it seemed marvel- 
ous that the naked fellows up in the tree should be able to 
hack away at the hole where the nest was, watli infuriated bees 
swarming around them. Yet they only stopped occasionally to 
brush them away from their faces, or to pull out a sting. The 
fellows' skins must have been somewhat like that of the honey- 
guide, impervious to the sting of the bee ; but, after all their la- 
bor, no honey was forthcoming, dead and rotten combs only be- 
ing found. 

On resuming our march, we passed through an oj^en forest 
of tine trees, with little or no undergrowth, where I succeeded 
in rolling over a large antelope. We then came to a precipi- 
tous ravine, with numerous streams gushing down its rocky 
sides, sometimes hidden by bushes, and at others forming min- 
iature water-falls. 

We rounded the southern end of this dip, and reached the 
river Mtambo, flowing at the bottom of a rocky valley. It was 
two or three feet deep, with many cascades, the bed l)eing so full 
of rocks that we found an easy path of stepping-stones across it, 
the only difficulty being the work of getting the donkeys over. 

The next day's attempt at a journey ''was a failure. After a 
couple of hours on the move, some buffalo were seen, and down 
went every load immediately, some men running away, and oth- 
ers going in pursuit of the beasts. The runaways sooil recov- 
ered their lost nerve, and returned ; but as the hunters did not 
put in an appearance, there was no option but to camp. I Avas 
crippled by a painful wound in my leg, caused, I think, by the 
bite of a centipede, and was quite unable to do any shooting. 

The sporting-men found their way back during the evening, 
excepting a few who remained in charge of a rhinoceros and an 


156 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

January, eland wliicli Asmaiii had shot ; and the next day they refused 
1874. to move before the meat was brought in and divided, for which 
purpose a halt became necessary. To add to the annoyance of 
this delay, the road was lost on setting out, and my leg had 
meanwhile become so troublesome that I was unable to take the 
lead of the caravan and steer by compass. 

For three days we wandered round and round, going along 
a track perhaps for half an hour, only to find it end abruptly, 
while the scouts sent forward to discover the right road declared 
that impassable swamps and "muds" lay in the direction I 
wanted to travel. 

During all this time we were toiling through jungle, and 
passed several streams, two of which were so deep that it was 
necessary to use the india-rubber boat and to haul some of the 
donkeys over, until one, bolder than his fellows, jumped in and 
swam across, and was followed by the rest. 

Soon after we camped on the evening of the third day, I was 
startled by the report of iire-arms in all directions. Hobbling 
out of my tent, I met a man with his hair standing as straight 
on end as its woolly nature would allow, and with fright depict- 
ed on every feature, crying out, " Master ! master ! Euga-ruga ! 
Shika bunduki " (Master, master ! Kobbers ! Get your gun). 
Only about twenty of my men could I find, their first impulse 
having been, as usual, to look to their own safety by taking to 
their heels ; and where the enemy was, none could tell me. At 
last I ascertained that one of my followers, on meeting an old 
native in the jungle, had fired his gun as a signal that we were 
near a village. The other men being thoroughly intimidated 
by the stories of Mirambo, Euga-ruga, and escaped slaves, had 
immediately imagined that we were attacked. Hence the 
fright and general stampede. 

Upon the native being brought to me, I learned from him 
that the village of Man Komo, chief of part of Kawendi, could 
easily be reached the following day. He further volunteered 
to conduct some of my men there at once, in order that they 
might return the next morning and show us the road. 

This old man had been engaged in cutting bark to make 
clothing for himself and his wife ; and, judging from appear- 
ances, he had not undertaken the task before it was needed. 1 


rewarded liiin with a shukkah for his civility, and he departed January, 
perfectly delighted. ^^'^^- 

The men whom I sent to the village did not return till after 
midday. Others, then absent on a hunting expedition, after- 
ward brought in a zebra ; and the consequent feasting extin- 
guished all hope of marching until the following day, when 
we passed through a marsh, and crossed the river flowing by 
the village of Man Komo. 

Man Komo is protected in front by this river, which was 
twenty-five feet wide and eight deep, and at the rear by a pre- 
cipitous rocky hill, on the side of which the principal portion 
of the place is built. 

Many of the people have appropriated holes and caves in the 
rocks as residences ; and so difhcult of access and easily defend- . 
ed is the village, that even Mirambo has been beaten off by the 
inhabitants, on his attempting to plunder them. 

Representatives from Man Komo, whose errand was to de- 
mand a mhongo of fifty doti, soon waited upon me, he having 
heard from Mrima N^gombe's men that similar payments had 
been made in Ugara. Knowing full well that this demand was 
an attempt at extortion, Man Komo having never before been 
given mhongo, I refused to pay any thing, and lectured his 
messengers on hospitality. 

I told them that since they were well aware that we had been 
wandering for a considerable time in the jungle, they should 
properly have brought us a present of food. Had they done 
so, I should have made Man Komo a handsome present; but 
now I assured them he would not receive from me even an 
inch of cloth. 

Two villagers offered for a small |3ayment to direct me to 
the capital of Uvinza, our next stage, on the road to which they 
said we should have no difficulty in obtaining supplies. I 
therefore decided on going forward, and early in the morning 
when the guides came, faithful to their promise, we started at 
once. My leg had become so much worse that I was utterly 
unable to move, and poor Jasmin was so weakened by the want 
of proper food that he could not bear my weight ; so I slung 
my iron chair to a pole, and was carried by askari. 

The lecture given to Man Komo, coupled with my speedy 

158 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

January, departure from his place, seemed to have had some effect ; for, 

^^'^*- soon after leaving, we were overtaken by one of his sons, who 

promised that, if I would return, I should receive a present of 

a goat, some corn, and pombe. But, being fairly under way, I 

refused to turn back. 

Following the road along a small flat lying between the 
stream and the foot of the hill — the northern end of which we 
rounded — brought us to another mountain with so sharp an as- 
cent that the men were unable to carry me, and I had literally 
to be dragged up by my arms. From the summit there was a 
most extensive view of meadows, woods, and valleys spreading 
at our feet, surrounded by mountains presenting every variety 
of outline and size. The most distant, I was told, overhung 
the Tanganyika. 

We had ascended this hill at the only accessible point in the 
direction from which we approached it, and the sides in many 
places went down so sheer that huge stones, rolled over the 
edge, crashed through the branches of projecting trees without 
touching earth till they landed in the valley below. 

A blinding rain now set in, and drenched every body and 
every thing, and covered the hill -sides wdtli running water, 
much to our discomfort ; and in the afternoon we were glad to 
camp near a small assemblage of huts with about a dozen in- 
habitants. Ko provisions were obtainable here ; and the men, 
instead of pushing on at once, started away on a foraging expe- 
dition, which detained us for three days. They then returned, 
without having met with any success. 

During these days I was so seedy from the drenching on the 
hills and the pain my leg gave me, that it quite prevented my 
feeling any hunger. And this was rather fortunate, for there 
was nothing to eat excepting one plum - pudding, which I 
kept thus far on the chance of seeing another Christmas in 

Poor Jasmin was thoroughly broken down from want of 
corn. His last effort was to drag himself to my tent door, 
where he lay down exhausted and utterly unable to move. 
Having no food whatever to give the poor beast, I thought it 
a merciful act to put a bullet through his brain, for I could 
not bear to witness his sufferings any longer. The only riding 


donkey noV remaining was a half-bred one, which also showed January, 
symptoms of being beaten by starvation. ^^'^*- 

My goat had become extraordinarily tame, and would persist 
in sleeping on the foot of my bed. If she were tied up else- 
where, she disturbed the camp by continual bleating until al- 
lowed to come back to me. 

The men managed to tind roots and mushrooms for them- 
selves, and I believe a certain amount of corn and flour ; but I 
did not get any thing until the evening of the third day. 

On the 31st of January we gladly left this inhospitable 
place, and made our way down a steep descent and along a nar- 
row valley, througli which there ran a winding stream, with nu- 
merous fenced-in patches of cultivation on each side. The vil- 
lages were perched among the rocks, and the inhabitants refused 
to have any intercourse with us. 

The cause of this unfriendly behavior was that they mistrust- 
ed our honesty of purpose, having suffered much from the slave- 
trade by being preyed upon by neighboring tribes, who sell 
them to the Arabs. This they are enabled to do in consequence 
of there being no friendship among the villages, each little 
hamlet of perhaps only half a dozen families asserting its inde- 

Emerging from this valley, we passed through an open for- 
est along the slope of a hill. Suddenly I found m3'self most un- 
ceremoniously dropped by my carriers, who bolted right away, 
and immediately afterward a general stampede took place all 
along the line, the men, in their panic, throwing down guns, 
loads, and every thing, while scampering off to ensconce them- 
selves behind the nearest trees. 

" What is it ? thieves, wild beasts, or what ? Bring me my 
gun !" shouted I, as I lay on my side, jammed in the chair by 
the pole to which it was slung, and perfectly unable to move. 
The only answer I received was a personal explanation from 
the cause of all this terror — a solitary buffalo — which came 
charging along with head down. A black, vicious "varmint" 
he looked, as he passed within twenty yards of me ; but, luckily, 
he did not see me, or in all probability he would have sent me 
flying into the air, chair and all. 

That evening we camped in a wide ravine in the hill-side. 





wliicli proved rather an unhappy selection, for a heavy down- 
pour of rain in the middle of the night converted our quarters 
into a stream two feet deep, by which boxes of books, cartridges, 
and stores in general were flooded. 

We arrived the following day on the banks of the Sindi, a 
large afliuent of the Malagarazi, having passed on the march a 
wide stretch of country under water varying from one to three 
feet in depth. Across the deeper places the dog and goat swam, 
in loving company, close along-side my chair. 




Floating Islands. — Their Origin and Growth. — Crossing the Sindi. — Uvinza. — A 
Cordial Reception. — Strange Economy. — A Boy Chief. — Curious Visitors. — Cere- 
monious Salutation. — Tattooing. — Ugaga. — Approach of Mirambo. — On our De- 
fense. — Destruction of Several Villages. — Ferry Charges. — A Host of Claimants. — 
The Malagarazi Ferry. — Sambo's Cookery. — Salt-making. — A Considerable Trade. 
— Liquid Snuff. — A Droll Sight. — My Faithful Leo dies. — A Wild Beast in Camp. 
— Sighting Tanganyika. — Arrival at Kawele. 

The Sindi was crossed on the 2d of February, on a mass of February, 
floating vegetation, one of the peculiarities of intertropical Af- ^^'^*- 
rica. Many rivers for a great portion of their courses are 
studded with these islands, which, when in good condition, are 
frequently used both by man and beast as natural floating' 

At the point where we crossed, there was only a clear chan- 
nel about two feet wide on each side, the remaining hundred 
yards of the river's width being covered with this vegetable 
growth, which extended about three-quarters of a inile down 
the stream. 

Stepping on these islands is accompanied M-itli much the 
same sensation as walking on a quaking bog overgrown with 
rushes and grass. On boring with a pole through about three 
feet of closely-matted vegetation mixed with soil, the river is 
found, and the hippopotami pass underneath. 

These masses vary in thickness and stability from year to 
year. They owe their origin to the rushes growing in the bed 
of the river, imjjeding the course of floating debris, and causing 
it to accumulate and form soil for vegetation. Plants quickly 
spring up and flourish, and, interlacing their roots, a compact 
mass is the result. This continues to increase for about six 
years, when the limit is reached. Tlien the island begins to 
decay, and disappears altogether in about four years. 

Caravans sometimes pass over them when the stage of decay 

162 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

February, lias already set in, and several have been lost in the attempt. 
1^'^^- Consequently, it was not without many prophecies of disaster 
befalling us that the men ventured to trust themselves on this 
floating vegetation. However, we found ourselves across it 
without any accident having happened, and, passing through 
cultivated grounds and habitations, soon reached the village of 
Itambara, the head-quarters of the chief of Uvinza. 

Looking back toward the hills we had traversed, their like- 
ness to an archipelago could not fail to occur to me, the islands 
being represented by numerous hills detached from each other 
by narrow gorges, with bluffs, promontories, and cliffs. Many 
of them had such precipitous sides as to appear, from this dis- 
tance, quite inaccessible ; but the curling, faint, blue smoke be- 
tokened the presence of villages nestling under the rocky crags. 
Taking it all in all, the scene was one of marvelous beauty. 

In Uvinza food of different kinds was plentiful, and we saw 
many plantations of Indian corn, matama, sweet-potatoes, beans 
growing on a sort of bush, and tobacco. 

At Itambara we were cordially welcomed by the head-man, 
who offered us the use of some huts, and, remarking that we 
must be hungry, brought a goat and some fowls for myself, and 
flour for my men. Mhongo was paid here for permission to 
cross the Malagarazi. The amount was very heavy, but I was 
assured it would clear us with the mutwale at Ugaga — where 
the ferry is — and that I should only have to reward the canoe- 
men. Mutwale is the title given throughout Uvinza and some 
of the neighboring districts to the chief of a single village. 

A day was consumed in arranging this matter, and drying 
clothing and stores, which had suffered much from the rains 
we had experienced, and another was lost- by the obstinacy of 
Bombay, who would not get the men together. 

My lameness prevented my moving about among the men 
and forcing them to start, and Bombay, as an excuse for his fol- 
ly, continually reiterated, "Food cheap here, master; better 
stop another day." And stop we did, though, for the life of me, 
I could not understand the economy of remaining an extra day 
in a place doing nothing, simply to save about one-sixth of our 
ordinary daily expenses. 

The head-man brought the chief, a boy about eight years of 


age, to visit me. He was in a terrible fright, and cried bitterly February, 
at tlie lirst sight of a white man. But I soon pacified him, and i^*^^- 
amnsed him Mith pictures in Dallas's " [Natural History," and 
finally sent him away perfectly happy with some pages of the 
Illustrated London News which had been used in packing. 

TJgaga was reached on the 5th of February, by a road lead- 
ing through jungle, and past many villages and plantations, and 
then descending diagonally the face of a cliff which divided 
the uplands from the plain of the Malagarazi. Far and wide 
stretched the green plain, and in the distance in the north were 
the blue hills of Uliha, while close to the foot of the cliff was 
Ugaga, in which we halted. 

The mutwale, to my disgust, demanded a heavy toll for our 
passage over the Malagarazi. The mhongo already exacted at 
Itambara would, we had been assured, free us from all further 
demands. Yet the mutwale declared that we had paid only for 
permission to cross the river, and that he, as lord of the ferry, 
besides the chief of the canoe-men and various other ofiicials, 
all expected their fees. Otherwise no canoes whatever would 
be forthcoming for our service. 

The mutwale was a good-looking young fellow of five-and- 
twenty, and very civil, though he would do no business on the 
day of our arrival, and was politely firm on the mhongo ques- 
tion. When he called on me, I was lying on my bed without 
boots or stockings, waiting for my bath. I showed him my 
guns, books, and other curiosities, to occupy his attention ; but 
in the midst of his examination of these things he suddenly 
caught hold of my toes and looked at them most carefully, re- 
marking that my feet were much too white and soft for walk- 
ing. Then he transferred his attention to my hands, which 
certainly could not be called white, having been tanned to the 
color of a dirty dog-skin glove ; but after inspection he arrived 
at the conclusion that I had done very little work, and there- 
fore must be an important personage in my own country. 

The mode of salutation here is very ceremonious, and varies 
according to the ranks of the performers. When two "gran- 
dees" meet, the junior leans forward, bends his knees, and 
places the palms of his hands on the ground on each side of his 
feet, while the senior claps his hands six or seven times. They 

164 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

February, tlien change round, and the junior slaps himself first under the 
1874. igf t armpit and then under the right. But when a " swell "* 
meets an inferior, the superior only claps his hands, and does 
not fully return the salutation by following the motions of the 
one who first salutes. On two commoners meeting, they pat 
their stomachs, then clap hands at each other, and finally shake 
hands. These greetings are observed to an unlimited extent, 
and the sound of patting and clapping is almost unceasing. 

The people are most extensively tattooed w^ith small cuts, 
forming spirals, circles, and straight lines, and they wear their 
hair shaved in patches or clipped close. Their ornaments are 
wire bracelets, sambo, beads, and little iron bells. A very small 
amount of trade-cloth is worn, most of the people being dressed 
in bark-cloth and skins. 

In the afternoon some fugitives brought the news that the 
village to which they belonged had been destroyed by Miram- 
bo, who was then only eight miles distant, and that five people 
had been killed, and many more, with some cattle, driven oft". 

This so fully occupied the mutwale's attention that we did 
not commence the palaver about payment for crossing the Ma- 
lagarazi until late in the afternoon. And almost immediately 
afterward an alarm was raised that Mirambo was coming to at- 
tack the place : the bearer of this disquieting intelligence as- 
serted that he was sole survivor of a large village about five 
miles distant. 

Of course we cut short our conference, and prepared to con- 
front our redoubtable foe. On going outside the village, I saw 
several columns of smoke rising to the east and south-east of 
us, and more fugitives came running in, stating that Mirambo 
had jDarties in all directions looting and destroying. 

Every thing was arranged for meeting the anticipated attack, 
and, as we were enjoying the hospitality of ITgaga, I told the 
mutwale we were ready to assist him to the utmost. lie 
smiled, and said that as Mirambo had been beaten oif with the 
loss of many people, including his son and brother, when he 
attacked the village some four years before, it was probable he 
would not try it again. The mutwale was right, for IVfirambo 
left the neighborhood during the night, after having destroyed 
and looted seven or eight villages. 


The excitement having subsided, we again turned our atten- February, 
tion to the knotty question of the amount to be paid for cross- ^^'^^• 
ing the river. And knotty it was, for no sooner had I settled 
one demand than others were brought forward. 

The people must have exercised their ingenuity to the ut- 
most, for I received claims from the following officials, their 
wives, and relations : first, the mutwale ; second, his wife ; 
third, head mteko or councilor ; fourth, his wife ; fifth, mwari, 
or head canoe -man; sixth, his wife; seventh, mut wale's re- 
lations ; eighth, people who make the palaver ; ninth, to buy 
rope ; tenth, canoe-paddlers. 

I objected strongly to the charge for rope, as it had been 
specially mentioned and paid for at Itambara ; although when 
or why it was required I could not ascertain. I also made a 
stand against many other items, especially wives and relatives. 
At last, being thoroughly tired of argument, I rose and said, 
" If we go on like this, we shall remain here till the end of the 
world ;" and went away, leaving them in a state best described 
by the last word of the marriage-service. 

My action brought the claimants to their senses, and the 
mutwale and mteko soon followed me, offering to settle the 
whole business for less than I had already consented to pay, 
and promising that canoes should be at the ferry early the next 

At the appointed time I went down to the river, a swift, 
swirling, brown stream, running between four and five knots, 
and about thirty yards wide. But not a canoe was there. 
Summoning my patience, already sorely tried, I sat down a 
short distance from the stream, when presently a head and 
shoulders appeared gliding along just above the grassy river- 
bank, and then another, and another. 

These were the all-important canoes, six in all. Four were 
the roughest specimens of naval architecture I ever came across, 
being merely hollow logs about eighteen feet long by two 
wide ; the others were constnicted of a single strip of bark 
sewed up at the ends, and were rather narrower and longer than 
the logs. They were each manned by two men, one of whom 
squatted down and used a paddle, while the other stood up and 
punted along with a pole. 






When the whole of the men and loads had been ferried over, 
an altercation arose about the donkeys, the canoe-men refus- 
ing to tow them across until a fetish man had made medicine. 
This, of course, entailed an extra fee. But it was inadvisable 
to refuse, especially as Bombay swore that it was owing to the 
neglect of this precaution that Stanley lost a donkey on cross- 
in o- this river. 


So much time was occupied here that we were compelled to 
halt at Mpeta, the village of the other chief of the ferry, who 
fleeces travelers from Ujiji in the same way as his confrere 
does those from Unyanyembe. The mutwale here, a small boy, 
was unwell, and I therefore escaped a visit from him, which I 
did not regret, since it would have obliged me to make him a 

At Mpeta I got sights for latitude, which agreed to within 
fifteen seconds with those taken by Captain Speke at the same 
place — a difference caused possibly by our position not being 
exactly the same, and which may therefore be regarded as prac- 
tically giving the same result. 

Leaving Mpeta, we traversed a level country, just above the 
heads of many valleys and ravines running down to the Mala- 
garazi, which lay some little distance to the southward, and 
much below us, on account of the rapid descent of its bed. 


Beyond the valley of the Malagarazi were high and rocky hills P'ebruary, 
similar to those we had passed before crossing the river. i^"^*- 

At Itaga we halted a day to buy food, and j^artly because I 
was ill with fever, and was also suffering from the effects of 
Sambo having mixed the dough for my breakfast cakes with 

While here, two more villages were reported to have been 
destroyed by Mirambo, yet by all accounts he had no more than 
a hundred and lifty tighting-men with him. Had the people 
banded together, they could easily have thrashed him ; but they 
were perpetually squabbling among themselves, and could there- 
fore be attacked and destroyed piecemeal. 

Our next station was Lugowa, to reach which we had to pass 
several villages and some muddy swamps, whence salt is pro- 
cured in the following manner : A quantity of mud is placed 
in a trough having at the bottom a square hole partially stop- 
ped with shreds of bark, beneath which about half a dozen sim- 
ilar vessels are placed, the upper one only containing mud. 
Hot water is then poured into this topmost trough to dissolve 
the salt with which the mud is impregnated, and the liquid, 
being filtered by passing through the bark in the holes of the 
lower troughs, runs out of the bottom one nearly clear. It is 
then boiled and evaporated, leaving as a sediment a very good 
white salt, the best of any I have seen in Africa. If the first 
boiling does not produce a sufliciently pure salt, it is again dis- 
solved and filtered, until the requisite purity is attained. 

This salt is carried far and wide. The whole district from 
Lake Victoria Xyanza, round the south of Tanganjnka, much 
of Manyuema, and south to the Euaha, is supplied by the pans 
of Uvinza. There are some other-^)laces in these districts 
where salt is produced, but that of Uvinza is so superior that it 
always finds a ready sale. At parting, the old chief presented 
me with a load of salt, which I acknowledged by a gift in re- 

At Lugowa I witnessed for the first time a curious method 
of using tobacco, which prevails to a great extent at Ujiji. In- 
stead of taking dry powdered snuif, according to the ordinary 
custom, the people carry tobacco in a small gourd, and when 
they wish to indulge in a " sneeshin," fill it with water, and. 

168 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

after allowing the leaf to soak for a few moments, tliey press 
out the juice and sniff it up their nostrils. 

The pungent liquid snuft" is retained in the nostrils for many 
minutes, being prevented from escaping either by holding the 
nose with the lingers, or ^vith a small pair of metal nippers. 
The after - performance will not bear description. It is inde- 
scribably droll to see half a dozen men sitting gravely round a 
fire trying to talk with nippers on their noses. 

Another touch of fever came ujDon me at Lugowa, but I man- 
aged to continue the journey the next morning, although still 
very lame and scarcely able to walk, wliich was a terrible hin- 
derance in every w^ay. 

After marching four miles, a man named Siingoro declared 
he was too ill to proceed any farther, so I determined to leave 
him in charge of a coast negro who had settled in a village of 
salt-makers. I paid the negro to attend to the wants of the in- 
valid, and to forward him to Ujiji by caravan when he became 

Rain coming on heavily, made it advisable to camp earlier 
than I had intended, and, on looking round for Leo, I missed 
him. I immediately sent men to search for him, and they 
quickly returned, carrying the poor animal. To my sorrow, I 
found he was nearly dead, and had only strength left to lick my 
hand and try to wag his tail, when he lay down and died at my 
feet. I believe he must have been bitten by a snake, for he 
was running about near me, well and full of life, only a short 
time before I lost sight of him. Few can imagine how great 
was the loss of my faithful dog to me in my solitude, the sad 
blank which his death made in my every-day life. 

One of the Mnyannvezi donkeys gave birth to a foal here, 
and the little creature was carried for a few days, until it grew 
strong enough to march with the caravan. 

Five hours from this brought us to the Eusugi, which flows 
into the Malagarazi along a valley flanked by rocky hills on ei- 
ther side ; and it was remarkable that, though flowing through 
a soil impregnated with salt, the water tasted perfectly fresh. 
On both banks of the Rusugi there were temporary villages, 
now quite deserted, innumerable broken pots, stone fire-places, 
and small pits where people make salt in the season. 




During the night we were disturbed by a great noise among 
the donkeys, and found that one had been pinned by the nose 
by some wild beast, but hickily without doing mnch damage, 
the donkey being more frightened than hurt. 

The next three marches were through a mixture of jungle, 
long grass, and occasional outcrops of granite. On the lirst, we 
passed ten small streams besides the Paiguvu, which was twen- 
ty feet wide and four feet six inches deep ; on the second, one 
more ; and on the third, the Masungwe. There were many 
tracks of buffalo and elephants, and we several times heard the 
latter trumpeting in the jungle. In some places the grass was 


of great length, far above our heads, and the pouring rain made 
the^work of forcing our way through this wet and heavy grass 
most laborious and unpleasant. 

After arriving in camp on the third day, I had a general in- 
spection of the men's private loads, and found that ten had been 
guilty of stealing my beads. This I had long suspected, but 
Bombay always persisted that nothing of the sort was going on. 
I firmly believe the whole caravan had been systematically rob- 
bing me, and that those I detected with the stolen goods were 
not really more guilty, but only more unfortunate, than the 
rest. I took possession of the beads thus recovered, and made 
prisoners of the thieves. 

170 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

From this I sent forward two men to Ujiji to deliver letters 
of introduction which had been given me by Said ibn Salim at 
Unyanjembe ; also to request that boats might be provided at 
the mouth of the Ruche River to convey us to Kawele, the 
chief town of Ujiji. 

Near the camp I noticed several nutmeg-trees, and picked up 
some very good nutmegs. The country about here was much 
broken up, and there were many small streams and rivulets, 
and brakes of bamboo. 

The next morning I moved to Niamtaga, in Ukaranga, a 
good -sized palisaded village, with many skulls bleaching on 
poles close to the entrance, and surrounded by helds neatly 
fenced in with bamboo. The people proved an inhospitable 
set, and would not allow us inside the village ; so we camped 
by a large brake of bamboo, which afforded admirable material 
for huts. 

Anxious as I was to push forward to Ujiji, now so near at 
hand, I found it impossible to get the men on, by hook or 
crook. Every thing I tried, even to pulling down their huts ; 
but it was altogether useless, and Bombay and the askari were 
quite as troublesome as the pagazi. However, on the 18th of 
February, fifteen years and five days from the time Burton dis- 
covered it, my eyes rested on the vast Tanganyika. 

At first I could barely realize it. Lying at the bottom of a 
steep descent was a bright-blue patch about a mile long, then 
some trees, and beyond them a great gray expanse, having the 
appearance of sky with floating clouds. " That the lake ?" said 
I in disdain, looking at the small blue patch below me. " Non- 
sense !" " It is the lake, master," persisted my men. 

It then dawned on me that the vast gray expanse was the 
Tanganyika, and that which I had supposed to be clouds were 
the distant mountains of Ugoma, while the blue patch was only 
an inlet lighted up by a })assing ray of sun. 

Hurrying down the descent and across the flat at the bottom 
— which was covered with cane-grass and bamboo, intersected 
by paths made by hippopotami — we reached the shore, and 
found two large canoes, sent for us by the Arabs at Ujiji. Both 
were (juickly filled with stores and men, and, after an hour's 
pull, Kawele Avas reached. 




Tlie scenery was grand. To the west were the gigantic 
mountains of Ugoma, while on the eastern shore was a dense 
growth of cane-grass of a bright green. Occasional open spaces 
disclosed yellow sandy beaches and bright-red miniature cliffs, 
with palm-trees and villages close to the water's edge, l^umer- 
ous canoes moving about, and gulls, divers, and darters, gave 
life to the scene ; and distant floating islands of grass had very 
much the appearance of boats under sail. 

At Ivawele I was most warmly welcomed by the traders, who 
turned out to meet me, and with them I sat in state until the 
house placed at my disposal was ready to receive me. 


This ceremonious sitting took place under the veranda of 
Mohammed ibn Salib, who, with his compatriots, was full of 
anxiety to hear any news from Ilnyanyembe and the coast, as 
none had been received at Ujiji for a long time previous to my 
coming. Especially anxious were they to learn particulars of 
Mirambo's proceedings, and were greatly annoyed and disgust- 
ed to hear of his continued activity. The prevailing feeling 
among them did not seem to be one of fear that they might be 
robbed by him on the road to Ilnyanyembe, but rather that they 
should be compelled by Said ibn Salim to remain there instead 
of going on to Zanzibar, so as to increase the numerical strength 
at his disposal. However, they were rejoiced to hear that the 
journey had been accomplished, and be2:an almost immediately 


1'72 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

FLbruarv, to disciiss meaiis of sending to Unyanyembe. I found this long 
1874. waiting and conversation rather purgatorial ; for, having had 
nothing to eat that day, I was very hungry, besides being thor- 
oughly tired, and wet from wading through a swamp just be- 
fore reaching the boats. My patience ^vas rewarded, however, 
for, after enjoying a comfortable wash and shift into dry clothes, 
I found prepared for me such a meal as I had not seen since 
partaking of Said ibn Salim's hospitality. 



Recovery of Livingstone's Papers.— Robbery of my Stores.— Punishment of a Thief. 
—Difficulty in sending the Journals to the East Coast.— The Traders of Kawele.— 
The Native Dress and Ornaments.— Their Markets.— Warundi Body-coloring.— 
Products of the District.— Their Currency.— Hiring Boats.— Curious Mode of Pay- 
ment.— Fitting-out.— I am thought " Unlucky."— My Guides desert Me.— "Xegro 
Melodists."— Sailing away on the Tanganyika.— Devils' DweUiugs.- Propitiating 
the Spirits. — Slave-hunters. 

I FOUND it impossible to remain in the house which the Arabs February, 
had lent me at Kawele. It was very wretched, and the only 1874. 
place where I could stand my bed was under a veranda open to 
the market-place and exposed to the gaze of the whole popula- 
tion. I therefore moved into another, which I rented for two 
doti a month. This house, though not so large as the one I oc- 
cupied at Unyanyembe, was much more comfortable, and a ta- 
ble placed under the veranda enabled one to work at ease. 

My first inquiries were for Dr. Livingstone's papers, and I was 
greatly rejoiced to find them safe in the charge of Mohammed 
ibn Salib, who— although holding no authority from Syd Bur- 
ghash— was looked upon by the traders here as their practical 
head, to whom they always referred in any matter of dispute. 

I now took the opportunity of overhauling my loads to dis- 
cover what I 'had lost by theft, ^d found that no fewer than 
thirty-two frasilah of beads, weighing thirty-five pounds each, 
and equal to sixteen loads, had been stolen. Only one load re- 
mained intact, and that had been carried the whole way by a 
pagazi named Suliman, wlio was a very good, honest fellow. 

Owing to the frequent desertions and my many illnesses, I 
had been unable to keep the men to the same loads throughout 
the journey, and therefore could not detect the thieves unless I 
actually found the stolen property in their possession. But I 
had little or no doubt that there were barely half a dozen men 
in the caravan who had not robbed me at one time or another. 

174 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

February, I discharged tliosG wlioui I had caught thieviug, and gave notice 
18'^'t- that I would flog the next offender; and scarcely had I said 
the words, when I detected a man coming out of the store-room 
— which had been left open by Bombay, with his usual careless- 
ness — having several strings of my most valuable beads and 
three colored cloths partially hidden under his loin-cloth. In- 
stantly I ordered him to be seized and given the flogging I 
had promised, and discharged him on the spot, with a warning 
that if he or any other detected thief came near my house, he 
should receive similar treatment. 

The result of inquiries as to the prospects of continuing my 
journey on the other side of the lake, and the best method of 
sending Livingstone's papers safely to the coast, was not en- 
couraging. I was assured that no traveling would be possible 
to the west of Tanganyika for at least three months, and that it 
would be most unsafe for a small party carrying the box of pa- 
pers to leave Ujiji for the East Coast on account of the disturb- 
ances on the road to Unyanyembe. It therefore appeared bet- 
ter to wait until the convoy of a caravan could be obtained. 
I then turned my thoughts to the sul)ject of a cruise round 
the Tanganyika, and immediately set about making prepara- 

Before proceeding with my narrative, I will endeavor to de- 
scribe Kawele and its residents, both native and foreign. 

Giving precedence to the traders, there was flrst Mohammed 
ibn Salib, a flne, portly old half-caste Arab, with a very good 
presence, who had not been to the east of Ujiji since the year 
1S42. Trading at that time in Ma Kasembe's country, he had 
l)een detained prisoner for more than twenty J'ears, most of 
which he passed either in chains, or with a slave-fork round his 
neck. He had now settled permanently at Fjiji. The next in 
importance were Muinyi Heri, a rich Mrima trader, who mar- 
ried the daughter of the chief of ITjiji during my stay ; Mo- 
hammed ibn Gharib, a great friend of Livingstone, whom he 
had often assisted, and who, as a token of friendship, had pre- 
sented him with a gun ; and his brother Ilassani. 

These were the ])rincipal traders; but there were also Syde 
Mezrui, a half-caste, and, as it afterward turned out, a bank- 
rupt ; Abdallah ibn ILibib, a Mrima trader, and several men 


who acted as agents for large merchants, besides blacksmiths, February, 
carpenters, and sandal-makers. 1874- 

The natives are rather a fine-looking race, but have the repu- 
tation of being a very drunken and thieving lot ; yet I scarcely 
think they are as bad in either respect as the lower orders of 
the coast natives. They are good smiths and porters, and ex- 
pert fishermen and canoe-men. 

Their dress usually consists of a single piece of bark-cloth, 
with two corners tied in a knot over one shoulder and passing 
under the opposite armpit. It is often dyed in strij)es and 
spots of black and yellow, and cut to imitate the shape of a 
leopard's skin. It leaves one side of the body perfectly naked, 
and in a breeze flaps about in such a manner that it barely sat- 
isfies the commonest recpiirements of decency. 

Their special ornaments are made of beautifully white and 
wonderfully polished hippopotamus ivory. In shape and size 
they represent the blade of a sickle, and are worn hung round 
the neck. They also wear a profusion of sambo, small bells, 
and wire bracelets. The men usually carry a spear. 

Their hair is clipped and shaved into most peculiar patterns, 
such as spirals, zigzags, tufts left on a bare scalp, or round 
patches shaven in the centre of the crown of the head, and, in 
short, every conceivable vagary in shaving in fancy devices. 

The chiefs among them may be distinguished by their wear- 
ing colored trade-cloths, after the same fashion as their poorer 
countrymen wear their bark-cloth, and by having heavy pen- 
annular bracelets, with a projection at the back. 

The head chief, or mteme, of Ujiji lives in a village in the 
mountains some distance from ^le lake ; bnt every small dis- 
trict is ruled over by a nnitwale, or head-man, whose office is 
often hereditary, assisted by three or four wateko, or elders. 
These people arrange disputes, collect all tributes, and remit 
the proceeds to the mteme after deducting a certain amount 
for their trouble. 

One of the sights at Kawele is the market, held daily between 
half -past seven and ten in the morning, and again in the after- 
noon, in an open space in the town close to the shore. The 
more important is that in the morning, which presents an in- 
teresting and lively scene. It is attended by the jjeople of 


February, Uguhha, Uvira, Uriiiidi, and many tribes dwelling on the shores 
i8'^4. of the lake. 

Tlie AVagnhha are easily distinguished by the elaborate man- 
ner in which both sexes dress their hair, and the fanciful and 
extensive tattooing of the women ; while the "Warundi may be 
known by their being smeared with red earth and oil, giving 
their bodies a bright bronze color. They are called by the 
Arab traders a " red people," meaning light-colored. 

"Women of Kawele and surrounding hamlets bring baskets of 
flour, sweet-potatoes, yams, fruit of the oil palm — which is here 
seen for the first time — bananas, tobacco, tomatoes, encumbers, 
and a great variety of vegetable products, besides pottery, and 
huge gourds of pombe and 2:)alm-wine. The men sell fish — 
both dried and fresh — meat, goats, sugar-canes, nets, baskets, 
spear and bow staves, and bark-cloth. 

The AVarundi principally deal in corn and canoe-paddles, and 
from the island of Ubwari is brought a species of hemp used by 
the Wagogo in making their nets; while Uvira furnishes pot- 
tery and iron-work ; Uvinza, salt ; and various other places, large 
gourds of palm-oil. Each vender takes up the same position 
daily, and many build small arbors of palm fronds to shelter 
them from the burning rays of the sun. 

Among the crowd of buyers and sellers there circulate parties 
who have traveled, from a distance to this central mart to en- 
deavor to dispose of their slaves and ivory ; and the whole of 
the bargaining being carried on at the top of the voice, the 
noise is almost deafening. 

A curious currency is in vogue here, every thing being priced 
in beads called sofi, something in appearance like small pieces 
of broken pipe-stem. At the commencement of the market, 
"men with wallets full of these beads deal them out in exchange 
for others to people desirous of makijig purchases ; and, when 
the mart is closed, they receive them again from the market- 
people, and make a profit on both transactions, after the manner 
usual among money-changers. 

To obtain boats to proceed on my Tanganyika cruise was my 
first consideration ; but the owners of two promised me by Said 
ibn Salim at Unyanyembe \verc away, and tlierefore I could 
not procure them. I discovered a good one, hoM-ever, belong- 


ing to Syde ibn Habib — wbo bad met Livingstone botb in February, 
Sekeletu's country and in Manyuema — and managed to hire it 1874. 
from bis agent, tbongb at an extortionate rate. 

Tlie arrangement at tbe biring was ratlier amnsing. Syde's 
agent wislied to be paid in ivory, of wbicli I bad none ; but I 
found tbat Mobammed ibn Sabb bad ivory, and wanted clotb. 
Still, as I bad no clotb, tbis did not assist me greatly until I 
heard tbat Mobammed ibn Gharib had cloth, and wanted wire. 
Tbis I fortunately possessed. So I gave Mohammed ibn Gha- 
rib the requisite amount in wire, upon which he handed over 
cloth to Mohammed ibn Salib, who, in his turn, gave Syde ibn 
Habib's agent the wished-for ivory. Then he allowed me to 
have the boat. The agreement was that she should be handed 
over to me tit for sea, and, having been a long time hauled up, 
she required calking, which was a tedious business. 

A sail was supposed to be forthcoming ; but all that ap- 
peared were a few tattered rags of cloth, which they informed 
me would be quite sulhcient for all sailing purposes. I could 
get nothing better out of this agent, who, not contented with 
having received as hire quite enough to buy two or three ca- 
noes in honest trade, now wanted to cheat me in every petty 

In addition to his impudence in calling these rags a sail, he 
stated that the oars were not included in the bargain, and I 
must give a further amount for them. But I appealed to Mo- 
hammed ibn Salib in tliis matter, and he decided tbat I was to 
have the oars without payment. Tbe question of the sail he 
gave against me. I therefore set to work cutting out and mak- 
ing a lateen-sail, which frighten ed~nearly every one in the place 
out of his senses, owing to what was considered its enormous 
size; but the boat was a great lumbering craft, and needed a 
large sail, so I held to my own ideas. 

While these matters were progressing, I learned that a small 
party were going to Unyanyembe in company with a caravan 
of AVagubba, intending to travel by night through the unset- 
tled districts. I determined to seize this opportunity to dis- 
patch three men to Said ibn Salim with letters for the coast, 
and to urge on him the immediate necessity of forwarding at 
the earliest opportunity the beads I had left at Mrima l^gom- 


L-hruan-, i^^'g^ J (jj^| j^q^ venture to trust Dr. Livingstone's papers to 
' ' such a poor chance of arriving at Unyanyembe. 

My lirst trij) was to Bangwe, a small island which is the 
northernmost land on the eastern shore visible from Kawele, 
though, owing to the lay of the lake, it only bears north-west 
by west, three-quarters west from that j)lace. Here I got a set 
of bearings ; and, having carefully calculated the distance from 
another point of observation at Kawele, I was able, by cross- 
bearings, to plot in the principal parts visible from both points 
with considerable accuracy, so as to serve as a base for my sur- 
vey of the lake. 

Just before starting on a surveying cruise, I heard by chance 
that the wife of one of those men who, according to Said ibn 
Salim, would readily lend me a boat, was at Ujiji ; and, on mak- 
ing my request known to her, she immediately comjDlied, giv- 
ing me one in good order, but without a sail. The first boat 
I named Betsy ; and the second, which was to be the tender, 

It now became necessary to engage men from whom I might 
learn the names of the different places round the lake, and to 
point out the nightly camps and act as interpreters. 

Two who had gone to the north end with Livingstone and 
Stanley were brought to me. But in the weighty matter of 
engaging them, the mutwale and wateko of course had a finger, 
and charged more for their fees than the men received as hire. 

In consequence of my being attacked with fever, which last- 
ed two or three days, these fellows, in the belief that I was un- 
lucky, threw up their engagement, and refused to accompany 
me. Their pay and the eldei's' fees were returned, on the prin- 
ciple of " no work, no pay ;" and three days afterward I ob- 
tained the services of two very decent men, Parla and Regwe, 
of whom the last named was the jDrincipal, bnt by no means the 
better. The amount they were to receive for the journey was 
seventeen and a half dollars each, M'hile the fees to the elders 
amounted to thirty -four. It was rather a long price to pay 
two naked fellows for al)out a couple of mouths ; but it must 
be remembered that uncivilized countries are always the most 
expensive for the traveler, though they may not be for the 


While at Ujiji, I met with great civility from the traders, March, 
who frequently sent me cooked food, and Mohammed ibn Salib ^^''■*- 
gave me a bullock and half a dozen sheep. I naturally made 
them presents in return, and was the more inclined to do so 
from having heard that they had befriended Livingstone. 

Syde Mezrui was expecting a caravan from Unyanyembe 
with stores exchanged for ivory, but was good enough to say 
that, whether it had arrived or not when I returned, he would 
be ready to show me the way to Nyangwe. 

I should mention that I was visited here by three mounte- 
banks or minstrels, wlio were walking about the country much 
after the fashion of Italian organ-grinders in England, seeking 
whom they might render miserable with their noise. They 
were furnished with enormous rattles made of gourds filled 
with pebbles, and with these they accented their songs and 
dances. The noise was something deafening when all three 
rattled away at once; for these instruments were far more 
powerful and effective than the " Bones " of Chi-isty Minstrels. 
They treated me to break-downs and walk-rounds which might 
well be the original of our music-hall style; while the songs 
(solos with chorus) had the " yah-yah " accompaniment precise- 
ly as given by the stage nigger. 

At last, on the 13th of March, I managed to get away with 
Bombay and thirty-seven men, leaving Bilal in charge of the 
remainder and some stores. But, having served out beads to 
enable the crews to buy five days' rations in advance, all hands 
took the opportunity of getting drunk early in the morning, 
and it was afternoon before I could collect them, or they could 
collect their senses. ^ 

I selected the Betsij for my flag-ship, and over a sort of poop 
of which she boasted fitted np a wagon-roof awning, hoiking it 
would serve for me to live under altogether ; but it proved any 
thing but weather-proof, and it was fortunate I had taken my 
tent on board. 

A light fair wind enabled us to make sail, and that evening 
we ran down past the settlement of Jumah Merikani — of whom 
I shall have to speak hereafter — in Ukaranga, and camped at 
Point Mfbmdo. 

After i^roceeding a short distance the next day, passing love- 

180 ■ ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

March, ly country witli small clifts and hanging woods, reminding me 
1874. very much of Mount Edgcumbe, I made for the shore for the 
purpose of beaching the Betsy, as water was leaking through a 
considerably hole in her stern, and damaging the cargo. Defects 
having been made good, we again got under way, and cami^ed 
near Ugxinya. 

Tiie beauty of the scenery along the shores of the lake re- 
quires to be seen to be believed. The vivid greens of various 
shades among the foliage of the trees, the bright-red sandstone 
eliifs and blue water, formed a combination of color seeming 
gaudy in description, but which was in reality harmonious in 
the extreme. 

Birds of various species — white gulls with gray backs and 
red legs and beaks, long-necked black darters, divers, gray and 
white kingfishers, and chocolate-colored lish-hawks with white 
heads and necks, were most numerous; while the occasional 
snort of a hippopotamus, the sight of the long back of a croco- 
dile, looking like a half-tide rock, and the jumping of fish, re- 
minded one that the water as well as the air was thickly pop- 

During the night I was knocked over by a severe attack of 
fever, but tried to go on the next day. However, I soon found 
my head and compass spinning in opposite directions, so was 
compelled to give in, and camped at Kabongo, a short way south 
of the Malagarazi, where I remained two days before I was snf- 
ficiently recovered to take a bearing. 

Some very curious sensations were experienced by me while 
laid up with this attack. One night I thought I was at least 
twenty peo})le, all of whom were in j)ain, and that each one had 
the same feeling as all the rest. Another night the fancies 
were more distinct, and I experienced a complete sense of dual- 
ity. I iiliagined that another person, a second self, was lying 
on the opposite side of the boat, and I was perfectly conscious 
of every shake of ague and pang of hcai^lache that he suffered. 
I thought, too, that the tea-pot full of cold tea which had been 
l^laced on that side of the boat was for his sole benefit ; and 
when, in my tossing-al)out, T rolled over to that side, I seized 
the tea-pot and drank like; a whale, and chuckled at the idea of 
the other thirsty moi'tal having been done out of some of his 


tipple. Notwithstanding, being so incoherent in my ideas while March, 
alone, yet whenever my servant came to me I managed to pull 1874. 
myself together and talk to him somewhat sensibly, although 
feeling decidedly dazed. When I began to recover, we moved 
again, and camped at Kas Kebwe. 

My boats' crews were not a plucky order of men, for a thun- 
der-storm and a little squall so frightened them in the morning 
that they refused to stir till it had passed off, when an hour's 
j)ulling brought us to Machachezi, a deep inlet. 

The pilots now showed the white feather, and made me camp 
Ijecause they would not pass Kas Kabogo — where a devil and 
his wife were supposed to reside — until the next day ; and the 
men, being equally superstitious, believed every word of this 

Here three small canoes of "Wajiji going south to exchange 
goats for slaves joined us ; and when I found that Regwe's fa- 
ther was of the party, I arrived at the conclusion that family 
affection, as w^ell as superstition, might have had something to 
do with our stopping. 

Ras Kabogo was passed on the following day, without either 
the he or she devil being visible ; but the pilots stood together 
in the bow of the canoe to make an offering to these evil spirits. 
One held out a paddle, on the blade of wliich a few common 
beads had been placed, and both said together, as nearly as it 
can be translated, " You big man, you big devil, you great king, 
you take all men, you kill all men, you now let us go all right ;" 
and, after a little bowing and gesticulation, the beads were 
dropped into the water, and the dreaded devil propitiated. 

There is a kind of double cape at this place, one being the 
supposed residence of the male devil, and the other that of his 
wife, and the spot is therefore believed to be doubly dangerous. 

Having rounded Ras Kabogo, we skirted a large bay lying 
between it and Ras Kungw^, the southernmost point visible 
from Kawele, then passed along the base of fine bold hills slop- 
ing down to the water, and put up for the night in a splendid 
little harbor into which two rivers fell. 

I now began to regain my appetite, and directed Sambo to 
kill and cook a fowl, when, to my astonishment, I found there 
was not one in the boat, although I had given him beads and 





cloth to lay in a stock. To save himself trouble, he bought a 
couple of goats instead, as they could easily be procured in the 
market, while fowls could only be obtained by a house-to-house 

One would scarcely have thought that his stupidity would 
have led him into still further errors. But he explained that 
one goat was killed the day fever attacked me, and that, on the 
meat turning bad, he killed the other, in order to have some- 
thing ready for me if I got better. That having also become 
too " high " to eat, it was plain that of the two goats not a sin- 
gle mouthful would fall to my share. Happily the Wajiji were 
persuaded to sell me a good milch-goat ; and her milk was as 
nourishing and good for me at that time as meat would have 


The next two days saw us nearly round the bay. On the 
first night we camped at the mouth of a river close to the spot 
where Stanley landed when he came south from Ujiji with 
Livingstone, on his return to Unyanyembe. Here we met a 
few wretched natives, who declared themselves to be in great 
fear of a party of Wanyamwezi slave-hunters who had built 
a village on the shore, from which they used to sally forth and 
harass the whole surrounding country. 

On the second day I received a visit from the chief of these 
slave-traders, and he seemed quite annoyed at my not having 
brouirht corn and «:oats to trade for slaves. The natives then 


at my camp ran away, in abject terror, directly they saw liis March, 
canoes approaching, although I assured them that they should i^*^*- 
not be harmed while I was there. 

I have not mentioned the numerous rivers we passed on this 
cruise, for a glance at the map will suffice to show that to do so 
would render this account monotonous in the extreme. They 
bring an enormous quantity of water into the lake, and many 
floating islands, principally composed of vegetation like that by 
which we crossed the Sindi ; but a few had bushes, and even 
trees, upon them. Their appearance is most peculiar, as many 
as fifty or sixty being sometimes in sight ; and at a distance 
they bear a striking resemblance to vessels under sail. 

On the 23d of March we rounded Ras Kungwe, and entered 
upon that part of the lake which had hitherto been unexplored, 
and indeed unseen, by any white man. 

184 ACROSS AFRICA. -[Chap. 


Profitable Slave -buying. — Street Acrobats. — War-paint. — A Bad Night. — Cowardly 
Boat's Crews. — Kabogo. — A Public Entertainment. — Stealing Men's Brains. — 
Coal. — A Honey Demon. — A Plague of Frogs. — Enlargement of the Lake. — Massi 
Kambi. — An Optical Illusion. — Many Devils. — One of my Men shoots Himself. — 
Doctors differ. — Curious Hair-oil. — The Chief of Makukira. — His Dress. — Wives. 
— Dolls. — Infantine Taste for Drink. — Cotton Manufacture. — Spread of the Slave- 
trade. — The Watuta. — Customs and Dress. — Twins. 

March, Ras Kungwe is situatecl near tlie narrowest part of tlie lake, 

1874. -where it is not more tlian fifteen miles across; and, after round- 
ing that point, we passed under enormous hills clothed witli 
trees, and having crystal torrents and water-falls flashing down 
their sides. 

At the bottom of these hills, especially near the mouth of the 
torrents, were many small beaches, some of fine sand, and others 
of coarse, angular shingle of granite, quartz, and iron ore. 

Patches of corn among the jungle denoted the haunts of 
wretched fugitives from the slave - hunters. These poor creat- 
ures were doomed to a miserable existence, owing to the few 
strong villages hunting down their weaker neighbors, to ex- 
change them with traders from Ujiji for food which they are 
too lazy to produce themselves. 

For the night we remained in the river Luuluga, near the 
village Kinyari, where the Wajiji, who coasted down with us, 
sold their corn, oil, and goats for slaves — the only product of 
the place — and then turned homeward. 

The pri(;e of a slave was from four to six doti, or two goats ; 
and as a goat could be bought for a shukkah at Ujiji, where 
slaves "^vere worth twenty doti, the profits of the Wajiji must 
have been enormous. 

I took occasion to visit the village, and found it of moderate 
size, composed of conical huts, surrounded by a heavy palisade 
and a ditch, a single slippery plank across wdiich led to the 

XV.] WAR-PAINT. 185 

only entrance. Above the entrance, and at each corner of the March, 
palisade, were heavy crows' -nests, well supplied with large ^*^'^^- 
stones in readiness to hurl at an enemy ; while the palisade 
was lined with horizontal logs to a height of seven feet above 
the ground, rendering it nearly musket-proof. 

Tobacco was grown in small quantities, that being the only 
attempt at cultivation ; and the men sometimes went fishing 
if the fancy took them ; but for trade and support the place 
depended upon nothing but the traffic in dams. 

At the moment of my entering the village, a dance was 
being performed by two men, with a variety of pantomimic 
action, jumping, and somersault-turning ; but their efforts, as a 
whole, were very tame, and lacked spirit and energy. 

When they considered they had exercised themselves suffi- 
ciently for the amusement of the by-standers, they dragged 
themselves along the ground, as if uttei-ly exhausted, and, pre- 
tending to be dying of hunger, threw themselves at the feet of 
some person who was expected to give them a handful or two of 
corn. Having received their reward, they then continued their 
performance. They were accompanied by half a dozen men beat- 
ing drums, and another who droned through a sort of recitative. 

One native obligingly turned out in war-paint for me to ad- 
mire him. He wore a cap and a particularly hideous mask of 
zebra-skin, and carried two spears and a shield. The latter was 
five feet six inches long and ten inches wide, with a cane handle 
in the centre, and was made of the wood of a jjalm-tree ; and, 
though he declared it was strong enough to resist any thing, he 
declined to submit it to the test of a rifle-bullet. 

In the night there were such heavy squalls, with thunder and 
lightning, that I turned out to make certain that my boat was 
properly secured. All the men except Bombay were quartered 
on shore, and had utilized the oars for the frame-work of their 
huts, and I did not fancy going for a cruise on such a night 
without either men or oars. While thus engaged, the rain fell 
fast and furious, half filling the boats with water ; so I roused 
up the men to bail them out, and then returned to my crib in 
the stern of the Betsy. But what a sorry sight met my view ! 
My awning had been nearly blown away, and bed, charts, books, 
and guns were all soaking wet. 


186 ACROSS AFRICA. [Cil\p. 

March, After sui'veyiug for a moment these dismal ruins, I gathered 

18(4. together what I could under my water-proof, and, putting my 
head between my knees, sat like a hen on a brood of chickens. 

The liglitning and thunder were almost appalling. One 
flash struck the water close to the boat, and was so quickly fol- 
lowed by the thunder-clap that they seemed simultaneous. I 
was quite stunned by the crash, and at first thought I had been 
struck, being so dazzled by the glare that my sight did not 
properly return for more than half an hour. 

The morning was very uncomfortable, as may be supposed, 
and the men, being rather unnerved, refused to move, because 
of a little sea being on ; but late in the afternoon we got away, 
and, passing close under the hills — from which many torrents 
were falling into the lake — camped in the river Lubugwe, 

On the SOth we were under way early, and passed the small 
island Ivililo, the river Lufungu, and Has Katimba, where we 
camped, intending to move again in the afternoon if the weath- 
er cleared. But a slight swell frightened my brave Jack-tars. 
They said, " Lake bad, and canoes break again ;" and persuade 
them to go on I could not. Even the Wajiji, who had lived all 
their lives by the lake, were quite as bad, for they brought their 
hire to me, saying, " Let us go back. "We don't want to die." 

What would I not have given for a man-of-war's whaler and 
crew for six weeks ! I should then have been able to have 
done something thoroughly satisfactory, instead of creeping in 
and out of the bays and getting no cross-bearings. 

All the danger we ran arose from the habit of going along 
almost touching the rocks. They will persist in following this 
course, and if there is a sudden squall, on shore they go. 
Their extreme timidity actually brings them into danger, 
though they can not see it. But it is often noticeable that 
cowards really run more risks, and come oftener to grief, than 
those who face things manfully. 

The hills were now getting lower, and running farther back 
from the lake ; and on the 2Sth we ran between the island of 
Kabogo and the main-land. 

The strait is about two and a half miles long, and three hun- 
dred yards wide at the entrance — where there are sand-bars — 
and widens to a mile and a half in the middle. 

XV.] A SAND -SPIT. 187 

We landed on the island, and obtained some fish from the in- March, 
habitants in exchange for palm-oil, of which they are very fond. i^'^*- 
It is very thickly j^opnlated, fertile and well cultivated, and the 
huts, standing alone in their own provision-grounds, and shaded 
by a sycamore or some otlier giant of the forest, gave a look 
of peaceful security which had been wanting since leaving Ka- 
wele. Opposite on the main-land there was only the village of 
the chief ; but on both the island and the main the fan-palm 
was very plentiful. 

Birds of many knids were numerous, and a handsome pen- 
ciled brown lily - trotter, with white head and neck, walked 
about on the floating leaves of the lilies — with which much of 
the surface of the water was covered — looking among the blos- 
soms for its meal of insects. 

At the end of the strait a sand-spit almost joins the island 
to the main, and here among a mass of reeds was the landing- 
place. Several narrow passages admitted tlie small canoes of 
the natives, numbers of which were flitting about from point 
to point. Our large boats, however, could only reach the shore 
by dint of shoving and hauling, and breaking down the reeds 
on either side ; and so thickly did they grow that the men were 
able to get out and shove the boat along while standing on the 
broken-down reeds. 

Ponda was the name of the chief, and Karyan Gwina that of 
the village. Ponda was one of two sons of a chief who for- 
merly ruled, or claimed to rule, over the whole of Kawendi ; 
but, on the old man's death, it was divided into many factions, 
and the sons contented themselves with settling on the shores 
of the lake. After a time they qii9,rreled, and Ponda, being the 
weaker, left his brother in possession, and founded this village, 
which was large, and strongly fortified with ditches and pali- 

Tlie people were very jealous about allowing strangers inside. 
Indeed, a party of Wanyamwezi sent by Mkasiwah, chief of 
Unyanyembe, with a present of cattle for his daughter, who had 
married Ponda, were obliged to camp outside. Perhaps this 
was partly owing to the Wanj^amwezi having, unfortunately, 
had the present stolen from them on the road by the Warori. 

Having obtained permission to enter, I went to the village. 

188 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

March, and foiiiid it well kept, and divided into several sections by in- 
^^'^'^- terior palisades radiating from an open space in the centre. On 
each side of the gate leading to the chief's qnarters a couple of 
logs were placed as seats, for the convenience of persons waiting 
an audience, and above them were about forty skulls of men 
and half a dozen of wild beasts. 

A crowd was assembled in the village, looking at two hid- 
eously ugly old hags dancing to the sound of large drums beat- 
en by men. This performance was very disgusting, the prin- 
cipal feature being a sort of convulsive trembling and twitch- 
ing of the body and limbs, while the shriveled and wrinkled 
breasts of the dancers shook about like a couple of empty leath- 
er bottles. They howled a song, and at any ^particularly hard 
shake the women standing round joined in the chorus. Their 
dress consisted of most scanty waistcloths of bark, bunches of 
long hair (zebra's tails) tied to their knees and elbows, and rings 
of bells round their ankles. 

The chief sent me a little sour milk and some flour, and I 
made him a small return, while expressing a hoije that he Mould 
either visit me or that I might call upon him. But he refused 
any intercourse, because, as I afterward heard, he believed me to 
be a magician capable of stealing his little mind, and leaving him 
a complete idiot, if given the opportunity of looking upon him. 

Here I met a young Wasuahili whose acquaintance I had 
made at Unyanyembe. He had come to trade, ivory being 
very cheap. A frasilah could ordinarily be bought for twelve 
doti, but by hard bargaining he had obtained two frasilah for 
eighteen doti. Bitterly did he complain of the high price of 
slaves, twelve doti for a young girl, and five or six for a child 
being, to his mind, an exorbitant price. 

Being unwilling to remain here until he had disposed of all 
his goods, he wanted me to buy his cloth and other stores, and 
give him a passage to TJjiji, his men being afraid of the road 
to Unyanyembe — by which he had come — on account of its be- 
ing infested by robbers. I did not require his cloth, but told 
him he was welcome to a passage in my boat ; but when we 
got away the next day we left the Wasnahili ])eliind, for his 
Wanyamwezi porters were more afraid of the perils of the lake 
than the danger of being attacked by banditti on shore. 


After clearing the reeds, we skirted along a beach under March, 
Karyan Gwina, crowded with people bathing, tilling water-pots, ■^^'^*- 
looking after their iishing-gear, or staring at the passing boats. 
We then came to low cliffs formed of granite, porphyry, 
sandstone, and rotten clay — with many land -slips and caves, 
caused by the beating of the waves — and ran into the Luguvu 
under more cliffs, formed by a line of large hills. 

My men's dread of facing a little wind and sea detained us 
here a whole day ; for, if forced to go on, they were just in the 
humor to have done their utmost to make difficulties, in order 
to prove that they were right in objecting to start. 

Hippopotami, crocodiles, and monkeys were here in abun- 
dance, and but for my lameness this halt would not have been 
so tiresome. My feet and legs were, however, covered with 
boils that prevented my going out shooting, or even leaving the 
boat. Getting away from here, we passed close under nearly 
vertical cliffs of sandstone and black marble streaked with white, 
and after a time a great patch of what, from the appearance of 
the cleavage, I believe to have been coal. 

When the East -coast men saw it, they called out '"''Makaa 
maril'ehu^'' — ship -coal. The thickness of the principal seam, 
which lay on the top of synclinal curves of rock of which the 
anticlinal curves had been worn away, was between fifteen and 
eighteen feet. Although unable to obtain a specimen of coal 
from this particular spot, some was afterward given me which 
came from Itawa, in the same latitude, and a short distance to 
the westward of the lake. This was undoubtedly a light bitu- 
minous coal. 

Passing several streams and toiTcnts, we came to the termi- 
nation of the cliffs at river Makanyazi. Here the guides said 
there were large quantities of honey ; but as it was under the 
protection of an evil spirit, none was to be collected, lest he 
should do us some injury, and not one of the men could be per- 
suaded to gather any. 

Just as we landed, I noticed the scaly back of a crocodile 
among the grass, and, seizing my rifle, put two bullets into him, 
killing him at once. On clearing away the grass round him, 
he turned out to be only a small one about four feet long. 

Hippopotami, blowing and snoi'ting, kept us awake all night, 





but our fires prevented their venturing into the camp. Judg- 
ing from the number of their foot-marks, we must have pitched 
upon a favorite landing-place, whence their tracks led straight 
up a steep hill which one would have thought it impossible for 
such unwieldy beasts to scale. 

Besides the disturbance caused by river-horses, there was 
quite a plague of frogs incessautly croaking the live-long night. 
The noise of some resembled that made by calkers or riveters, 
while others, larger or neai-er, sounded more like smiths for- 
ging, and a few made a croak like a ratchet-drill ; so that, with 
a little imagination, it was not difiicult to fancy one's self in a 
ship-building yard. 


We passed the village of Fonda's brother the following morn- 
ing, and upon a heavy squall coming up behind, ran inside a 
small sandy spit with half a dozen huts on it. The inhabitants 
bolted, with their goods and chattels, when they saw us coming; 
for although a very heavy palisade was built across the spit as a 
protection on the land side, it was perfectly open to the water. 

After the squall, a steady, soaking rain set in, and we lay up 
for the night. Some of the men went to a neighboring village 
in search of food, and found there the people who had been 
friglitened at our approach, believing that we were Arabs' slaves 
employed to hunt for slaves. Food M'as not obtained here, nor, 
indeed, for some days afterward ; and the stock of corn laid in 



at Uiiii beiiiff spoiled by the continuous rams, we began to feel Apni, 

•' •' ° 1874. 

Imngry. _ 

At the mouth of the river Musamwira, which drains the 
Likwa into the Tanganyika, we next halted among a group of 
sandy, grass - covered islands. Some people engaged here in 
fishing made an attempt to run away on seeing us ; for on this 
occasion we were thought to be followers of Mirambo, whose 
dreaded name had reached this remote spot. 

A few years previously these islands had been part of a large, 
cultivated, and inhabited plain ; and during the day we pulled 
through stumps of trees and over sites of many old villages. 
According to the accounts given me by the guides, the lake is 
constantly encroaching upon its shores and increasing in size. 
And at Kawele I remarked that, since Burton was there, a 
strip more than six hundred yards wide appeared to have been 
washed away for a distance of three or four miles. 

Although there were many large fishing-traps lying about, we 
could get nothing to eat, the few fishermen telling us that all 
the people had gone elsewhere, owing to the constant washing- 
away of the shores of the lake. Indeed, the ei-rand which had 
now brought them to the island was merely to collect fish- 
ing -2-ear which had been left behind when the flitting took 


Another devil's habitation was passed on the next day's 
cruise. The guides made the usual offering and oration, with 
the addition of putting salt on their heads, besides throwing 
some into the water. The name of the demon was Musamwira ; 
and on inquiring why he did not haunt the river of that name, 
I w-as told he sometimes went there, but his usual dwelling- 
place was just behind a hill where the offering was made. 

We made sail the next morning, to run down to Massi Kam- 
bi, where we hoped to be able to get some food. But it being 
rather squally, my men became so nervous that I had to allow 
the sail to be lowered. They then persisted in going close in- 
shore, and in the end had to pull head to wind, instead of run- 
ning right across with a fair breeze. 

All the entrances of Massi Kambi were closed, and the crows'- 
nests manned, on our drawing near; so we camped on a small 
sand -bank, having on it a few fishermen's huts built on piles. 





The wind and sea increased to such an extent that we were 

subsequently obliged to move to the main-land. 

Here we remained a day to procure food, but a few sweet-po- 
tatoes and beans were our only reward. 
In the afternoon I shot a large Lepido- 
siren, called by the natives Singa; but 
it was so loathsome to look at that no 
one would touch it, and the peoj^le de- 
clared it was poisonous. 

Leaving this place, we rounded Has 
Mpimbwe, a promontory formed of enor- 
mous masses of granite piled on each 
other in the wildest confusion, and look- 
ing as though some race of Titans had 
commenced building a breakwater. 

In the early morning, just after we 
started, there was a most curious optical 
illusion. The summits of the mount- 
ains on the west of the lake had the 
exact appearance of being covered with 
snow; and while I was wondering and 
looking at them steadily through the 
glasses, the white began to disappear, 
and then I discovered the cause of the 
.K M.sBT KAMm. -|ii,^gio„_ ^pj^^ ^|^^^^g^ horizoutal rays of 

the rising sun had been reflected by the lower sides of the 
clouds down on the tops of the mountains, which consequently 
looked quite wliite, in contrast to the lower parts, which were 
still in deep shadow. It is just possible that many reports of 
snow-capped mountains might be ascribed to this cause. 

Off Eas Mpimbwe there were very many rocks in all di- 
rections just half awash, and dangerous work it was passing 
through them. 

About noon we camped on the north side of Ras Kambemba, 
off which lies a small island of the same name ; and shortly 
after settling down I heard a cry that some game was in camp. 
On going out with my rifle, I found that some l)uffalo had been 
near, but had been completely scared by the noise. 

In returning my rifle to its place against the tent-pole, my 



fowling-piece, which was also strapped to the pole, was accident- April, 
ally discharged. My head being close to the muzzle, the fire ^^^■*- 
and report naturally made me spring backward, when I tumbled 
right over my bed, cut my head severely, and half stunned 
myself. I confess I rather thought I was shot ; but on hearing 
my servant sing out, " Bwana amepigwa " (Master is shot), I 
roused myself, and found only a scalp-wound, resulting from 
my fall. My servant, on seeing me lying in a heap, wath my 
head bleeding, made certain I was killed ; but the only damage 
done was a hole through the top of the tent where the charge 
of shot made its exit. 

The counti-y here was composed of great masses of granite 
and hardened sandstone, chiefly imbedded in very soft red 
sandstone, which, being easily washed away, leaves the hard 
rocks standing out by themselves. 

Tanganyika seems to have more than its proper share of 
devils, for at Kamasanga we arrived at the dwelling of another. 
The Wajiji, as usual, paid their respects, saying, " Oh, devil ! 
give us good lake, little wind, little rain ; let canoes go well, 
go quick." 

There were many islands brought down by the rivers, more 
like those of the Mississippi than the ordinary masses of float- 
ing vegetation ; and one, about a quarter of a mile in diame- 
ter, had some small trees on it. Signs of recent cultivation and 
marks where a few huts had stood were noticeable at our camp- 
ing-place. I inquired where the jjeople were. " Killed, slaves 
or runaways," was, as usual, the answer. 

Ras Katanki, with small rocky points inside it, and the village 
of Massanga being passed, the east^and west of the lake closes 
in. And this, I expect, is the narrowing of Livingstone's Lake 
Liemba. A cowardly panic arose among all hands because I 
made sail to the breeze before a thunder-storm, in order to 
reach Camp Chakuola before rain came on. 

Two canoes of natives were in a horrid fright at our arrival ; 
and while a few stopped and prepared for action, the nmjority 
l)olted ofl: into the jungle; but we soon restored confidence, and 
bought some fish of them. 

The Wajiji guides now asked for wdiat they termed a cus- 
tomary present of cloth to dress in ; and, althoucrh thcv were 





already well paid, I complied with their request, for they were 
very good and useful men. 

Passing Has Chakuola on the Oth of April — the rocks near 
which were composed of a sort of pudding-stone, looking as 
though it had originally been liquid clay, and had become 
mixed with small stones— we came to the river Chakuola and 
Makakomo islands, which the guides informed me had been a 
portion of the main-land within their remembrance. Kapoopia, 
the Sultan of the islands, was a chief of some importance. 


At Ras Makurungwe the rocks consisted of masses of granite 
seventy or eighty feet high, with perpendicular sides ; and at 
Kowenga Island there were huge blocks strewed about in the 
utmost confusion. When we landed, the women and children 
ran into the jungle, and the men cleared for action, each having 
his bow and half a dozen arrows ready, and about twenty more 
arrows in his quiver. 

Squalls and rain. during the night and a wild-looking morn- 
ing delayed our start ; and, on beginning to pack up, one of the 
askari accidentally shot himself in getting into the boat. The 
bullet entered under tlie right arm, and, passing either close in 
front of or behind the shoulder-blade, came out at the lower 
inner aiiijle. lie was so fat that it was difficult to (let(M'miue 


which course it had taken ; but the hmg was not injured, and April, 
there was no escape of air. I made a couple of pads of a cam- ^*^^'^- 
brie handkerchief, and bound him uj), lashing his arm so that 
he could not move it; and though he lost much blood, it was 
all venous, and soon stopped. 

After I had given him some morphia to induce sleep, his 
chums differed from my treatment, and gave him hot water 
to drink, in order, as they said, to remove any bad blood in 
his stomach. He consequently retched most violently, and 
the bleeding burst out again. I constantly cautioned the men 
against keeping their guns loaded, yet this fool used his rifle as 
a boat-hook, holding it by the muzzle and clawing at the gun- 
wale of the boat with the hammer ! 

No imported cloth was to be seen at the village of Kitata, 
tlie people wearing skins, bark-cloth, or cotton of their own 
manufacture. The natives suspend their clothing round the 
waist by rope as thick as the little finger, bound neatly with 
brass wire. Their wool is sometimes anointed with oil in which 
red earth has been mixed, giving them the appearance of hav- 
ing dipped their heads in blood. 

We next camped at Makukira, on a river of the same name, 
as I was suffering from a severe pain in my eyes, and was too 
ill to take bearings. Makukira was a large place, with a ditch 
and stockade banked up on the outside. 

The chief was profusely greased, had a patch of lamp-black 
on his chest and forehead, and wore a tiara of leopard-claws 
with the roots dyed red, and behind it a tuft of coarse, whitish 
hair. A pair of leopard - skin aprons, a few circles of yelloAv 
grass below his knees, a ring of sofi on each ankle, and a fly- 
flapper, with the handle covered with beads, completed his at- 
tire — if we except the lamp-black which was rubbed into all 
his tattoo -marks. His wives, one of whom was very good- 
looking, were busy getting pombe ready for him ; and, having 
poured some into a calabash and filled it up with hot water, 
one of them sat on a stool along-side him. Then, taking the 
calabash on her lap, she held it while he sucked the contents 
through a reed. He kindly sent me some of this beverage, but 
I was much too unwell to taste it. 

Girls without children often make dolls of a calabash onia- 

196 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

April, mented with beads, and lash it to the back in the same manner 
^^''^- as infants are usually carried in their country. Children are 
reared at the breast until two or three years of age, and I saw 
one alternately sucking at nature's fount and a pombe reed ; so 
that they may literally be said to imbibe the taste for poml)c 
with their mother's milk. 

Long knobbed walking-sticks were used by the chief and his 
wives, and beads and wire were common. 

We went on to Kirumbu on the Mivito, where cotton is man- 
ufactured, nearly a third of the jDopulation wearing clothes of 
native make. It is coarse stuff, something like superior gunny- 
bag, and the patterns are checks, after the style of large shep- 
herd's plaid with black stripes near the border, all having fringe. 
As I sighted land at the end of the lake, I hoped another 
day's pulling would be all that was necessary before turning. 
But we wanted food, the small villages not supj^lying enough, 
and even Makukira being drawn almost blank. Camping that 
night near a village in the river Kisungi, we were again disap- 
pointed at finding food scarce and expensive. Yet when Dr. 
Livingstone was here on his last journey, only about fifteen or 
sixteen months previously, I am told provisions were plentiful, 
and the people had many goats. Parties of Wanyamwezi and 
others had, however, carried off not only the goats, but many 
people also. 

The slave-trade is spreading in the interior, and will continue 
to do so until it is either put down with a strong hand, or dies 
a natural death from tlie total destruction of the population. 
At present events are tending toward depopulation ; for the 
Arabs, who had only jjcnetrated Manyuema a few years, already 
had a settlement close to Nyangwd, from which parties are able 
to ffo slave-huntiiii!; still farther afield. The head chief of this 
place lives four days' journey inland ; but at Mikisungi there 
was a chief named Mpara Gwina, whom I called u})()n. He 
was old, and perfectly white-haired, and his office did not seem 
profitable, for he was certainly the worst dressed of the people. 
His forehead and hair were daubed with vermilion, yellow, and 
white powder, the pollen of flowers. A tribal mark of raised 
cuts formed a blotch on each temple, and he wore a frontlet of 


When I called, lie was busy spinning cotton with another April, 
man, while their wives and daugliters sat near picking the seeds i^'^'*- 
out of freshly gathered pods. The fibre was laid in heaps by 
the side of the chief and his friend, who — spindles in hand — 
were making it into yarn. Their wooden spindles were about 
fourteen inches long and half an inch in diameter, with a piece 
of curved wood as a weight, half an inch from the top, where 
a small wire hook was fixed. The cotton was first worked be- 
tween the forefinger and thumb into a sort of rough tape about 
half a yard long, and then hooked to the spindle, which was 
rolled along the right thigh, to give it a rapid spinning motion. 
The yarn was held in the left hand, the spindle hanging from 
it ; and the right forefinger and thumb were used to prevent 
any irregularities in the size of the thread. As soon as a length 
was spun, it was unhooked and wound round the spindle, and 
more cotton was prepared, hooked on, and spun in the same 
manner. The yarn turned out by these means, though coarse, 
is fairly strong, and wonderfully regular in size. It is after- 
ward wound on sticks, about four feet long, used as shuttles in 

The profile of the people was good, their noses being Eo- 
man ; but all have the spreading alee nasi. The heads of some 
were completely covered with sofi or pipe -stem beads, each 
strung on a separate tuft of hair, an arrangement which must 
be very uncomfortable, and is not at all prepossessing, having 
too much the appearance of scales. 

Those who can not afford beads imitate the fashion by mak- 
ing their wool into blobs, and greasing it until one can not de- 
tect the separate fibres. Grass leglets and bracelets made from 
the upindha (brab), very neatly twisted or plaited, were very 
commonly worn. Their bows were provided with a fi-inge of 
long hair at one or both ends, and were sewed over, besides 
having the spare string wound round them. Arrows were of 
various lengths, not feathered or poisoned, and all knives were 
shaped like spear-heads. 

The people had at one time grown a considerable amount of 
corn, but the Watuta killed most of the men, and a few of that 
tribe, who still remained in the jungle hereabouts — neither cul- 
tivating nor building huts — subsisted entirely by the chase and 

198 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap- 

April, plunder. The lioes I saw were very large, exceeding the size 
i^'^'*- of an ordinary garden spade. I may mention that here the pre- 
fix " Ba " is used instead of " Wa " by the different tribes, such 
as Bafipa, Batuta. 

Arabs occasionally pass inland, but no large boats had been 
here for years, and the j^eople never saw a sail before the Betsy 

Leaving early on the morning of the 15th of April, and pass- 
ing the rivers Mundewli and Muomeesa, and the villages of Ka- 
sangalowa and Mambema, we began to lose sight of the land 
of rocks. 

On the outside of Polungo Island were enormous masses, scat- 
tered and piled in the most fantastic manner — vast overhanging 
blocks, rocking-stones, obelisks, pyramids, and every form imag- 
inable. The whole was overgrown with trees jutting out from 
every crevice or spot where soil had lodged, and from them 
hung creepers fifty or sixty feet long, while through this fringe 
there were occasional glimpses of hollows and caves. 

The glorious lake, with its heaving bosom, lay bathed in trop- 
ical sunshine, and one could scarcely imagine the scene to be a 
reality. It seemed as if designed for some grand transforma- 
tion in a pantomime, and one almost expected the rocks to open, 
and sprites and fairies to appear. 

As I paused to gaze at the wondrous sight, all being still, with- 
out a sign of life, suddenly the long creepers began to move as 
some brown object, quickly followed by another and another, 
was seen. This was a party of monkeys, swinging themselves 
along, and outdoing Leotard on the flying trapeze ; and then, 
stopping and hanging by one paw, they chattered and gibbered 
at the strange sight of a boat. A shout, and they were gone 
more rapidly than they came, while the rolling echo almost 
equaled thunder in its intensity. 

In places the slightest shock of earthquake would cause mass- 
es of thousands of tons to topple down from their lofty sites, 
and carry ruin and destruction before them. 

Large cotton-plants were apparently growing wild at the 
camping-place, but possibly this had formerly been a cleai'ing. 
The cliffs were of chalk, or very white limestone, split vertical- 
ly, the lines as sharp as though cut with a knife. 


I found it extremely difficult to keep my map correctly, as April, 
the guides changed the names most perplexingly, and called an i^^*- 
island a cape, and a cape an island ; while my ideas were not the 
clearest after so much fever and quinine. 

We now came to the debatable ground between Ufipa and 

On starting on the 16th, we rounded a low point with cliffs 
looking exactly as though built by man. It was only at the 
point that this peculiarity existed ; inside, the cliffs were quite 
different. The courses, too, were as regular as possible, and, 
where bared at top, they were in a perfectly level, unbroken 
surface ; so I suppose they are innumerable small strata. There 
was a deserted village here, and I saw several others which had 
been abandoned, owing to deaths having occurred in them. 

Industrial settlements after the pattern of the French mission 
at Bagamoyo, to teach trades and cultivation, would seem to be 
the proper line for missionary work in this country. 

In the afternoon the eclipse commenced, while we were 
camped at Lungu. The sun was hidden in clouds; and when 
it became clear again rain was falling, and two very perfect rain- 
bows were formed. These faded away for three minutes from 
the eclipse, and occurred again for a few minutes before sunset. 
The diminution of light was very perceptible, and some of my 
men took this opportunity of stealing seven goats belonging to 
people living near. 

There were too' many concerned in the theft to discover the 
real offenders ; but I sent the goats back, with a present of beads 
for the owner. If one only had been stolen, it would probably 
have been killed and eaten outside the camp. I should have 
known nothing of it, and no very flattering opinion of white 
men would have been left on the minds of the people. 

Land now lay right across on the west side, and we were ap- 
parently at the end of the lake. But there was a narrow arm 
running up about twenty miles, ending in a mass of grass, 
through which boats can not pass, and a river, called Kirumbwe, 
here falls into the lake. 

On sighting a village, all hands immediately wanted to halt 
for food, although a week's provisions had been laid in two days 
before. We were only two days out, and the boats were regu- 


200 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

April, larlj lumbered up with bags of corn, sweet-potatoes and bana- 
^S''-*. lias; so I would not yield to this laziness and idle excuse. 

We passed Ras Yamini, with high clili's having the appear- 
ance of ruined ramparts. There is no doubt they are natural 
formations, as enormous, irregular blocks occasionally showed 
out ; but the ruined cities of Central America have much the 
same appearance, as they are not of any great extent, and are 
succeeded by masses of rocks. 

A large village in front ought to have been reached on this 
day ; but the men persisted in jmlling so badly that I could no 
longer remain in the boat, but camped. 

Small worries add immensel}^ to the hardships of traveling. 
Real troubles and difficulties one faces, as a matter of course. 
But lazy men wanting to stop when there is every thing in fa- 
vor of a good day's work, a cook who sa^^s that there is no din- 
ner when one is hungry, and being constantly thwarted, annoy 
one, and try the temper more than enough. My pipe was, how- 
ever, a great consolation, and I told my servant to bring it to 
me whenever he heard me pitching into any one. 

Since leaving Ujiji, the work had been very wearying, ow- 
ing to the constant, never-ceasing attention required to prevent 
mistakes between the different points, and to make people un- 
derstand my questions ; and I was obliged to prove every thing, 
after all, by my own observation — being so frequently told that 
islands were points, and points islands. 

As an instance of the haziness of these people's ideas, I may 
mention that, on first seeing high land at the south end, I was 
informed it was a large island named Kahapiongo, and I tried 
to fix it by bearings. On nearing the islands of that name, I 
found them quite small, with about half a dozen people on 

The guides were never able to name a place until close to it, 
, and had very little conception of tlie lay of the land they had 
coasted along many times. Their local knowledge is wonder- 
fully good, but they seem incapable of grasjjing any thing like 
a general idea. 

They stared at my map, and thought it a most wonderful 
performance ; and when I said that people in England would 
know the shape and size of Tanganyika, and the names and sit- 




uation of rivers and villages by means of it, I am inclined to 
fancy they thonght me a magician. My telling tbeni of the 
eclipse before it happened impressed them greatly. 

The supposed " long arm " I found to be a myth ; but I be- 
lieve a river of considerable size, "with a very grassy mouth, 
flows into the lake at the bottom. 

Tingi-tingi is the name given to grassy places at the mouths 
of rivers and elsewhere, if the grass is too thick for boats to 
pass through, but not thick enough for men to walk on ; sindi 
is the name given when it will bear a man's weight. From 
this cause the river near Ugaga is called Sindi ; but they also 
talk of other rivers as sindi, e. g., the Kirumbwe is said to be 
tingi-tingi, with a little sindi. 



Shortly after starting again, we came to Kasangalowa, in the 
Kowa — Kongono being the name of the sultan — and here saw 
michikichi, or palm - oil - trees, for the flrst time since leaving 
Ujiji. The village was in the possession of the Watuta, the 
lawful inhabitants having fled to the hills. 

All the Watuta men carry bows and arrows, short spears, ei- 
ther for throwing or close quarters, a knob-stick, small axe, and 
an oval shield of skin four feet by two feet six inches. Even 





the little boys carry a heavy knob-stick. They turned out in 
great numbers, very black and naked, to see what our busi- 
ness mio-ht be, and seemed verv friendlv to us, notwithstanding 
their character is that of universal robbers. They enlarge the 
lobes of the ears, like the Wagogo, carrying in them pieces of 
gourd and wood, sometimes ornamented with beads. 

The women wear a small skin apron, and disjiose anotlier 
skin behind in a manner more fanciful than decorous; for, 
while covering the upper part of their 
legs, it leaves another portion of their 
body most fully exposed. These stern- 
aprons are cut so as to turn down a flap 
— occasionally decorated with beads — to 
allow of a full and open rear view. It 
must, therefore, be the fashion to show 
that part. Perhaps their object is to 
prove they have no tails. 

Those who can afford it wear a broad 
band of party-colored beads round the 
head, and another round the waist. 

In some cases the hair is shaved away 
underneath the band of beads worn round 
the head, while allowed to grow bushy 
above, having exactly the appearance of 
a fur cap or Kilmarnock bonnet. 

Tlie people universally chip the two 
upper front incisors, and some chip the 
whole of them, and extract the two cen- 
tre ones in the lower jaw. The tribal 
mark seemed to be a line down the centre of the forehead and 
two on the temples, sometimes continued to the chin. 

Some of the men had enormously heavy spears, generally 
used in elephant-hunting. The butt was larger than the rest 
of the haft, and was made of black wood or ebony, to give 

Wapimbwe and Watongwe live in Ufipa, mixed with Bafipa. 
Watuta and Wapimbwe live in Ulungu as a wild people, with 
different chiefs, Watuta. 

The Watuta obtain their livelihood by the chase, and settle 


XV.] TWINS. 203 

down in any village, as they had in this one, until all their vie- Apvii, 
tinis' food is consumed, and the huts are burned as fuel. They ^^^"^^ 
then make a foray on another, and repeat this little game. 
None of the regular inhabitants attempt resistance, but seek 
safety in flight, for Watuta fighting means indiscriminate 

Here, for the first time in Africa, I saw a woman with twins. 

204 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 


The Art of Pottery. — My Men grow Bolder. — Akalunga. — The Chief. — A Native 
Notion of Portugal. — Granaries. — Strange Mutilation by Women. — Ornaments. — 
The Luwaziwa. — Gorillas. — Hill-side Cultivation. — Spiders. — Mosquitoes, Boils, and 
Sore Feet. — A Strike. — Hot -water Spring. — Waguhha Hair- dressing. — Idols. — 
The Lukuga. — Return to Ujiji. — Letters from Home. — My Men indulge Freely. — 
Arab Opinion of the Lualaba. — Fear of Opposition Traders. — Bombay's Jealousy. 
— Cost of Cutting the Sod in the Lukuga. — I give Readings. — Arson. — Domestic 
Jars. — More Orgies. — Off again. 

April, It was with pleasure that I learned, on leaving Kasangalowa, 

1874. QY^ ^}^Q XQth of April— for the purpose of crossing the lake and 
working northward along the other shore — that there was no 
camping-place within an easy distance. The men would there- 
fore be obliged to do a good day's pulling, whether they wished 
it or not. 

There was trouble in getting away, on account of tingi-tingi, 
the boats being jammed one hundred yards from land, and the 
water deep. We had to go backward and forward in small 
canoes — several of which were capsized, causing more amuse- 
ment than harm — and then to pole out for some distance. 

The mountains on the south-west were so precipitous as 
almost to be cliffs ; and many gorges formed by land-slips and 
water-falls were among the hills. 

We camped on very rough ground, evidently overflowed by 
streams when in flood ; but a place where, hippopotami had 
been rolling afforded a smooth spot for my tent. The cliffs 
were red sandstone on the top, and light-colored granite toward 
the base. The rains now appeared to be passing, although I 
still saw showers among the hills and heard occasional thunder, 
and the nights were cloudy for sights. 

I was much interested at Kisungi by watching a potter at 
her work. She first pounded with a pestle, such as they use in 
beating corn, enough earth and water for making one pot, until 
it formed a perfectly homogeneous mass. Then, putting it on 








a flat stone, she gave it a blow with her fist, to form a hollow in April, 
the middle, and Avorked it roughly into a shape with her hands, ^^'^^- 
keeping them constantly wet. She then smoothed out the fin- 
ger-marks with a corn-cob, and i:)olished the pot with pieces of 
gourd and wood — the gourd giving it the proper curves — finally 
ornamenting it with a sharp-pointed stick. 

I went to examine this work, wondering how it would be 
taken off the stone and the bottom shaped, and found that no 
bottom had yet been formed. But after the vessel had been 
drying four or five hours in a shady place, it was sufficiently 
stiff to be handled carefully, and a bottom was then worked in. 

From beginning to pound the clay till the pot — holding 
about three, gallons — was put aside to dry occupied thirty-five 
minutes, and providing it with a bottom might take ten min- 
utes more. The shapes are very graceful, and wonderfully 
truly formed, many being like the amphora in Villa Diomed 
at Pompeii. 

Soon after leaving camp, we passed the mouth of the Lu- 
guvu, a considerable stream with a good current, discoloring 
the water a great distance from its mouth ; and there were 
numerous small land-slips, and water oozing from the sides of 
the hills. 

This exceptional day's work had, according to the men's 
statement, quite exhausted them ; so I camped early at a spot 
evidently much resorted to by elephants, some of the trees 
being quite polished, from their rubbing themselves against 
them after bathing. And while running along under sail close 
to the shore, we sighted an elephant on the beach, having evi- 
dently come down to bathe. I loaded my rifle with hardened 
bullets, and ordered all the men to get below the gunwale and 
keep silence, leaving a man asleep on the forecastle, because I 
was afraid he would make some noise if aroused. But before 
we got within range, this fellow most provokingly awoke, and, 
catching sight of the elephant, yelled out, at the top of his 
voice, " Tembo, bwana !" (Elephant, master !), and away went the 
tembo into the jungle, flapping his big ears like a rabbit bolt- 
ing into his burrow. 

There was very heavy thunder during the night, and the 
echoes exceeded any thing I have ever heard. 





I managed to make a move for Kipimbwe, although there 
were a heavier sea and surf than I had previously seen, for it 
blew hard right on the shore — an open beacli, with no grass. 
Happily the men no longer heeded that which would have 
given them a terrific fright at starting. 

On visiting Akalunga, I found it one of the largest villages . 
I had seen in Africa, The cliief, Miriro, was a very old man, 
with a large white beard, but whiskers and mustache shaved. 
A number of Arab slaves and Wangwana were here for trade ; 
also one Mrima man, who left Bagamoyo soon after us, and Un- 
yanyembe at the same time. lie came direct here by crossing 
the lake at Makakomo's, and had arrived about a month. 



Many of the women dressed in the same fashion as at Kasan- 
galowa, but the traders import a quantity of cloth. Some of 
the people wore small skull-caps made of beads. 

Old Miriro paid me a visit, putting on a fez cap instead of 
the greasy handkerchief he usually wore, and a robe of red and 
black Joho. He was much astonished at the breech-loaders and 
revolvers, and wanted me to present him with a gun, and to re- 
main to mend a musical-box. 

Although a king, he did not act royally, and made no return 
present for a very good cloth I had sent him. However, he 
seemed friendly, and assured me that the year in which the first 




white mau had come there would always be remembered as a 
great year. Food for the men was plentiful, but I could obtain 
no eggs, fowls, milk, or ripe bananas, the latter being cooked and 
eaten when green. 

One of the Wanyamwezi began talking of the Portuguese, 
saying they were a people like the Wazungu, and lived on the 
coast, and had two kings. The chief one was a woman called 
"Maria" — evidently the Blessed Virgin — and they had houses 
with her figure in them. The other king was Moeneputo, the 
African name for the King of Portugal. 

The granaries of these parts deserve notice. They are built 
on posts, raising the floors about three feet from the ground, 
and are from four to twelve feet in diameter, while some of the 
larger may be twenty feet high, exclusive of the conical roof. 
Those for old corn are plastered, and have under the eaves a 
small hole for access, reached by a notched trunk used as a lad- 
der. Those for fresh corn are made of canes about eleven feet 
long and two inches apart, with hoops of the same material at 



208 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

April, every two or three feet, thus allowing the air to pass through 
1874. freely and prevent heating. 

Many of the women here and at Kasaugalowa had not even 
the usual negro apology for a nipple to their breasts, but only 
a hole. I was rather astonished, and was told that they scar 
themselves thus for ornament. I should have thought it too 
painful to willingly nmtilate themselves in this mannei', and 
had supposed that it might be a punishment, and still have my 
doubts on the subject. I may remark that it was usually the 
best-looking that were thus deformed. 

Pretty little ivory combs are made here for the small price 
of four strings of beads, and, when not in use, are worn in the 
hair as an ornament, and look rather well. Solid bracelets, and 
anklets of iron and brass, like the Indian bangle, are common, 
besides the ordinary beads and sambo ; and the majority band 
the leg below the knee with small circles of plaited grass, which 
take the place of wire and other ornaments with those who can 
not afford the latter. The ropes for suspending the loin-cloth 
are often covered with beads of various colors instead of wire, 
and many men wear broad leather belts. 

As a fair wind favored us the next day, we made sail, the 
PlcMe using a mat and loin-cloths. I went into the stream of 
the Luwaziwa to determine its course, and found that it Howed 
into the lake. It is said to have its source in the country of 
Manbembe, aud to wind very much, caravans from Kasenge 
having to cross it three times on their way to Akalunga. I at 
first thought that it ran out of the lake, it looked so like a clear 
entrance ; but when we opened it properly, thei'e was the regu- 
lar grass mouth and sand-banks. 

I believe the lake to be fed by springs in its bed, in addition 
to the numerous rivers and torrents ; as in several places where 
land-slips had occurred the M^ater was bursting out between the 
stones, and trickling down into the lake. The country was like 
a huge sponge full of water. 

Game was very plentiful ; but I was so lame as to be obliged 
to be carried to and from the boat, and consequently could not 
iro out shootin<2:. The boil which lamed me on the road to 
Ujiji had formed a large sluggish sore, and, in addition, I had 
prickly heat rather badly. 


JSTiimeroiis small streams and torrents were to be seen as we April, 
came along, and the liills were bold, but not very high — from 1^74. 
four hundred to six hundred feet. ]^o villages were in sight, 
as all the people lived inland behind the hills ; but some canoes 
were hauled up in one or two places, and their owners could 
not have been far off. 

On the 24th of April a good breeze again helped us along, 
though it was rather puffy in the vicinity of the hills. An 
hour was lost, through the men stopping to land, when they 
looted a fisherman's hut, and I had the greatest trouble to get 
the things returned. Bombay was among them, eating the 
stolen fish. 

Passed Runangwa Eas and river of the same name — much 
smaller than the Malagarazi — flowing into the lake ; very rocky, 
high hills, a thousand feet and more, covered with trees to their 
summits. The rocks were granite, and light-colored soft sand- 

Here I saw some gorillas (soko), black fellows, looking larger 
than men. Before I could get a shot, the boat slipped round a 
point which covered them ; and on putting back to have another 
look at them, they had vanished. They are said by the natives 
to build a fresh house every day. 

For three hours we were searching for a camping-place ; but 
with a multiplicity of rocks, and no beach or place where it was 
possible to lay up the boats, we met with constant disappoint- 
ments. I was greatly consoled at knowing that we were get- 
ting over the ground more quickly than if camps were easily 
found, although an hour's daylight would have been valuable 
to me for working at my map after lying up for the night. 

The next day we camped at Katupi village, where ivory was 
ten doti a f rasilah, and good slaves five doti each. A Wangwa- 
na trading there told me that from Chakuola they get to Unyan- 
yembe in about twenty days. 

From this place we passed many small villages and shambas, 
with cultivation on the sides of hills as steep as Swiss terraces ; 
only, instead of being regularly terraced, there were irregular 
retaining -walls of loose stones at intervals, and the soil was 
left nearly at its natural slope. The people working there 
looked like flies on a wall. 

210 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

April, Five large canoes from Ujiji were reported to be in front, 

1874. and the people seemed less afraid than formerly to hold inter- 
course with us. A large and crowded canoe came off to look 
at ns ; and some man of importance going the other way in a 
canoe with twelve paddlers was also brave enough to venture 
a few hundred yards from the shore in order to have a stare. 
Much cultivation, and small villages without stockades and huts 
being seen in all directions, I inferred that we were entering a 
more peaceful country. 

As we slij)ped along before a good south-easterly breeze, I 
took in a reef by twisting the tack of the sail into a rope for a 
couple of feet and lashing it, and a second reef by a lashing 
round the yard-arm. With a good sea running, and the wind 
aft, the boat rolled about like a porj)oise, and prevented my 
getting bearings. 

Indeed, I became rather anxious to find a good camping- 
place ; for, with such a breeze and sea, the boats would have 
come to grief at once had they touched the rocks. We there- 
fore pulled in close to Kanenda, and settled down for the night 
near the village Mona Kalumwe. 

A great disturbance was caused during the night by some 
natives quarreling with my men about a stolen cloth, which was 
now claimed by the rightful owner. On being found, it was 
returned, but the thief had bolted into the jungle. Still that 
did not save him, for I had j)uuishment parade in the morning, 
and gave him a thrashing ; and young Bilal, who was mixed up 
with the affair, received the same. I was unable to make any 
reparation to the man from whom the cloth had been stolen for 
the trouble and annoyance he had suffered, as he did not wait 
for the small present I intended to have made him, but disa])- 
peared from the camp immediately he had recovered his prop- 

The breeze now seemed inclined to fall light, although there 
was a considerable sea ; but we rounded Eas Mirrumbi, and 
passed several torrents and villages. I here noticed enormous 
spiders' webs on some of the trees, a few being almost covered 
with them. 

The Piclde did not come up with us that evening, and I be- 
came rather anxious about her safety ; and, on nothing being 


seen of her the next morning (28th April), began to think of April, 
turning back in search of her. But in the afternoon she hove ^^'^*- 
in siglit, and it appeared that her crew, being frightened at the 
sea, had camped before Kapoppo. 

In a deep inlet near the mouth of Lovuma River I found 
the remains of a large Arab camp, and also two very large 
boats — one pulling twenty and the other eighteen oars, and fit- 
ted with masts — hauled up under a shed. They were the prop- 
erty of Jumah Merikani, who had gone into Msama's country 
to trade. 

Jumah Merikani first began trading past here when Burton 
was at Ujiji, and had now been fifteen years at it. He is said 
to keep a jDcrmanent gang of Wanyamwezi porters, and only to 
stay at Ujiji long enough to sell and dispatch his ivory, and lay 
in a fresh stock of trade goods. 

The people seemed very friendly, and one jolly-looking old 
fellow, who was doing duty as chief wdiile the latter was away 
on a tour of inspection, came and salaamed most profoundly to 
me and rubbed dust on his chest and arms, that being the cus- 
tomary way of paying homage. Heads and tails were adorned 
here much the same as before. 

Large mosquitoes were constantly biting in the day-time, and 
my back was covered with boils. I could neither sit nor lie 
down in comfort, and the soreness of my feet prevented my 
making much use of them. My stay was not altogether en- 
joyable. I should mention that I met wild grapes here for the 
first time on my journey. 

The night of the 29th of April promised to be so fine that I 
decided to sleejD in the boat, in a little land-locked bay, instead 
of under canvas, and the men lay out in the open air, without 
building any huts, A sudden change to rain consequently 
brought with it some hours of discomfort and miseiy. The 
Ijoats were half filled with water, and the men's spare gear was 
all swamped, 

I gave them two hours to dry their clothing and do their 
cooking; and seeing no signs of a move at the expiration of 
that time, I sung out, " Paka, paka " (pack up). The reply I 
received was, " Kesho " (to-morrow). On looking for Bombay 
to ascertain what this meant, I found him quietly sitting in the 

212 ACKOSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

April, otlier boat under an awning doing nothing. He excused him- 

^^'^'^- self by saying, " What can I do ? The men say they won't go ; 

they are afraid." I rejDlied, " Bring me one who says no, and 

I'll punish him;" but his answer was, "I can't — they all say 

they won't." 

This was too much to bear ; so, bad legs or not, I was quickly 
out of the boat, and, picking up the first bit of wood I saw, told 
the men to pack. They began while I stood by them, but, im- 
mediately I went to others, stopped again. It was evidently 
time for action ; so I struck out right and left, and soon made 
them clear out. Bombay was of no more service than a log of 
wood — indeed, not half so useful as the persuasive piece I had 
just fisted. 

After getting away, the men seemed in a very good humor and 
much more jolly than usual ; and I began to think they enjoyed 
their thrashing, although one or two got some shrewd knocks. 

Later in the day I ascertained the reason of the men not 
wishing to move. They had heard of a trading-party on the 
otlier side of the neck of land between Has Tembwe and the 
main, and wanted to exchange visits. We saw the canoe of the 
traders, and also a small party who had been away from Ujiji 
for about six months to shoot elephants. 

The land about here was low, and the bearings I took were 
not of much value. My expectations and hopes were now 
greatly raised by the guides promising to show me the outlet 
of the lake on the following day. It appears that Speke did 
not get rpiite far enough down ; and Livingstone, coming from 
Ma Kazembe's town, passed its mouth in a canoe without no- 
ticing it, and, on going to Manyuema, did not come sufiiciently 
far south. 

]No Arab at Ujiji seemed to have any knowledge of this out- 
let, which appears to lie just between two of their routes, and 
out of both. I thought, however, that the Wajiji had made no 
mistake about iny questions, for they had noticed how particu- 
lar I was in ascertaining the direction in which a stream fiowed 
whenever there was any doubt on the matter. 

We now passed Kas Kalomwe, and the River Kavagwe, two 
hundred yards wide and two fathoms deep in the middle, hav- 
ing an almost imperceptible outward current. 


May-day broke upon. us. most gloriously. The surrounding May, 
country was also very beautiful, with small cliffs, and some i^*^^- 
open park-like spaces with clumps of fine trees. 

On rounding Has Niongo, we shortened sail, and went on 
shore to look at a reported hot -water spring. After half an 
hour's tramp through very long, thick grass — which to me was 
pain and grief — we arrived at the swampy edge of the lake, 
where a few bubbles were rising. The thermometer showed 
the same temperature in this water as in the shade — 96° — and 
I arrived at the conclusion that the hot spring had only a slight 
foundation in fact. But I afterward heard from others w^ho 
had visited it, that when in full activity the spring has been 
sufficiently hot to scald one. It had, perhaps, a slight flavor as 
of soda-water. 

The man who conducted us to this bubbling water asked for 
some beads, that he might make an offering to the spirit of the 
place. He evidently thought the spirit was easily satisfied, for 
he only threw a bead or two into the water, and retained the 
remainder as his own reward. 

No reliance whatever could be placed in the guides ; for hav- 
ing heard from the people that a large river called Lukuga 
flows into the lake near Kasenge, they at once said the same, 
though they had hitherto declared that it was an outflow. The 
chief, Luliki — wdio, by-the-way, was so excessively fat that at 
the first glance I thought he was of the other sex, owing to his 
pendent breasts — cheered me on my visiting him, by asserting 
that the Lukuga ran out from the lake. 

The Waguhha dress their heads very elaborately, dividing 
their hair into four parts, drawing it over pads, and making the 
ends into four plaits, with the assistance of false hair when 
necessary. These plaits are disposed in a cross, and numerous 
skewers or pins of polished iron are thrust into the hair, and 
some wear a double row of cowries. 

They also carry in their hair the knives used for tattooing, 
and wear polished iron strips, crossed to form an arch as in 
a royal crown. Little extinguisher -shaj^ed ornaments are at- 
tached to the ends of the plaits ; and flat - headed iron, ivory, 
and shell -headed pins are used. The plaits are plastered and 
smoothed with red earth and oil, and, although the effect is 






striking, the fashion is dirtj. Some twist their hair into the 
form of four ram's iiorns, the one in front being turned back- 

This was the first place where I had seen any likeness to 
idols. And liere several men wore round their necks a little 
figure with a carved head — the body being a sort of cone w^ith 
rings and two or three feet — and a hole through the neck for 
the string by which it was hung. 


On the 3d of May there was a slashing breeze freshening uj) 
from the eastward, and I made sail with many a hope that I 
might in a few hours find myself in the outflowing Lukuga. 
Shortly before noon I arrived at its entrance, more than a mile 
across, but closed by a grass-grown sand-bank, with the excep- 
tion of a channel three or four hundred yards wide. Across 
this there is a sill where the surf breaks heavily at times, al- 
though there is more than a fathom of water at its most shal- 
low part. 

The chief visited me, and informed me that the river was 
well known to his people, who often traveled for more than a 
month along its banks, until it fell into a larger river, the Lua- 


laba, and that in its course it received the Luhimbiji and many May, 
small streams. No Arab, the chief said, had been down the ^^'^^- 
river, and traders did not visit this place, all beads and cloth 
required being obtained by sending to Ujiji. 

It rained very hard in the morning ; but, in company with 
the chief, I went four or iive miles down the river until navi- 
gation was rendered impossible, owing to the masses of floating 
vegetation. It might be possible, however, to cut passages for 
canoes. Here the depth was three fathoms ; breadth, six hun- 
dred yards ; current, one knot and a half, and sufficiently strong 
to drive us well into the edge of the vegetation. 


This first block was said to continue for four or five miles, 
when an open channel of about the same length would be 
found, and that for a very great distance alternate choked and 
clear portions existed. I noticed that the embouchures of 
some small streams flowing into the river were unmistakably 
turned from the lake, and that the weed set in the same direc- 
tion. Wild date palms grew thickly down the river. 

Early the following day I continued my observations of the 
entrance to the river. Inside the bar or sill already mentioned, 
there were three, four, and five fathoms obtained, and three 
fathoms close along-side the grass which barred our progress. 

I wanted the chief to commence cutting a passage through 
the grass, offering to leave beads to pay the men. He did not 
wish to have any thing left with him, for he remarked his peo- 
ple would say, " You take all these things from the white man. 

216 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

May, and only give us a little, and make ns work for it." His pro- 

1874. posal was tliat when I returned I should pay the peoj)le who 

worked daily, and then they would understand. He said he 

wished a trade-road passed by his village, to bring traders there. 

After pulling an hour and a half, the breeze freshened up 
almost in our teeth; so I put into a convenient little inlet, 
which I discovered to be part of the other river. It was all 
swamp, marsh, or low, flat plains inside a long bank, with some 
small openings ; deep water in places, shoals, sand-banks, long- 
grass, etc. 

I suppose the drift matter of the lake, W'hich gravitates to- 
ward this outlet, forms the banks and morass, owing to the 
want of a passage for it. A fair instance of this was given dur- 
ing the seven or eight hours we were here, a large quantity of 
drift-wood having come in and worked away into the grass, 
without leaving any sign of its passage. The inlet in which we 
lay was only a break in the bank, and the water works through 
the grass into the Lukuga. 

I entertained strong hopes of being enabled to undertake the 
work I so much desired, of tracing the course of the Lukuga. 
But at Ujiji not a guide or interpreter could be obtained for 
that route, and not a man would follow me alone. And w^hen 
I began to estimate the cost of cutting a channel through the 
> grass and of buying canoes, I found the necessary expenditure 

*so heavy that I confess I did not feel myself justified in incur- 
ring it. For I firmly believed that the stream was too consid- 
erable to be lost in marshes, or be merely a backwater. I had 
also the word of the chief, who accompanied me on entering the 
river, that his people had traveled for months along its banks. 

The entrance is situated in the only break in the hills that 
surround the lake, the mountains of Ugoma ending abruptly 
ten or twelve miles north of Kasenge, while those that en- 
circle the southern end trend away to the Avestward from Has 
Mirrumbi, leaving a large undulating valley between the t\vo 

When passing doAvn south on the eastern shore of the lake, 
near Kas Kungwe, the guides pointed to this gap in the mount- 
ains, and asserted that there the outlet of the lake was to be 
found. At various points on my journey afterward I obtained 




corroborative evidence — to which I shall make further allusion 
— of the river joining the Lualaba from people who asserted 
they had traveled great distances along its banks. 

Leaving the inlet, we made for Ras Mulango, and camped 
there, touching the following day at Kasenge, on the main-land. 
We tlien went on to a deep inlet in the eastern side of Kivira 
Island, to prepare for crossing the lake, which we did the next 
day, and arrived at Machachezi, where we found a large party 
bound for Manyuema, under charge of Muinyi Hassani, a Mri- 
ma, and a slave of Syde ibn Habib's. Another day took us be- 
yond Jumah Merikani's settlement, and the next, May 9th, to 



On arrival, I was gladdened by the receipt of letters from 
home nearly a year old ; and the packet having been opened by 
Murphy at Mpanga Sanga on January 12th, he inclosed a mes- 
sage that he was getting on well. 

These letters had a curious escape. The caravan by which 
they were forwarded from Unyanyembe by Said ibn Salim was 
dispersed by a party of robbers, who afterward attacked another 
and stronger caravan, and were beaten off with the loss of some 
of their numbers. On the body of one of the killed this packet 
of letters was found, and brought on to me at Ujiji. 

All hands managed to get drunk on their return, and a com- 
plaint reached me that they entered a woman's house, and ap- 
propriated her pombe. Bilal the younger made himself par- 

218 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

May, ticularlj offensive outside my veranda. And when I sent for 

1874. Bombay in tlie morning, lie replied that he was sick ; the truth 

being that he had a terribly bad head from overindulgence in 

pombe. How they made themselves drunk on that liquor I 

could never understand. 

Among the news which reached me was that the men I had 
sent to Unyanyembe were in the vicinity of Uvinza, in com- 
pany with an Arab caravan. They had been attacked by Mi- 
rambo's men (or heard of them) on their way to Unyanyembe, 
and went round by Kawendi, instead of taking the direct route. 
The donkeys had reduced themselves to four during my ab- 
sence, my riding donkey being, unfortunately, among the de- 
funct ones. 

I had many long yarns with the Arabs who knew these parts 
— Mohammed ibn Salib, Mohammed ibn Gharib, Syde Mezrui, 
Abdallah ibn Ilabib, and Hassan ibn Gharib — and learned that 
in their opinion the Lualaba is the Kongo, though whence they 
got this idea I could not ascertain. 

One man said he went due north (!) fifty-five marches, and 
came to where the water was salt and shi^^s came from the sea, 
and white men lived there who traded much in palm-oil and 
had large houses. Fifty-five marches, say five hundred miles 
-f three hundred to Nyangwe = eight hundred, gives about the 
distance to the Yellala Cataracts. This looks something like 
the Kongo and West -coast merchants, although the direction is 
evidently wrong. 

Abdallah ibn Habib and Syde Mezrui said jjalm oil and cow- 
ries were mentioned as being among the trade articles, with 
ivory, brass-wire, and beads. I tried to get a map drawn among 
them ; but north and south, east and west, and all distances, were 
irretrievably lost in a couple of minutes. 

The Lukuga tastes the same as the Tanganyika; not salt, 
but peculiar, and not sweet and light, like the other rivers ; but 
the further I inquired, the more contradictory the answers be- 

I expect that in the dry season, or when the lake is at its 
lowest level, very little water leaves by the Lukuga. Some 
Arabs said it joined the Lualaba between Moero and Kamalon- 
do. Below Nyangwe the Lualaba is called Ugarowwa, and is 


said to be in places " as wide as the Tanganyika," and full of May, 
islands, some having five hundred or six hundred men living on ^^'^'^■ 
them, together with their wives and families. 

They said they did not wish to give any information about 
it here, and that which I had received was wrong, and intended 
to mislead ; for, finding I had some defined ideas on the sub- 
ject, they were anxious I should not know too much. They 
promised to tell every thing when on the road, but they are 
afraid of opposition traders making an appearance. Already 
it is getting too crowded, and they know not where to make 
fresh openings. The Egyptians to the north, or, as they call 
them, Toorkis, are known to them, and they wish to avoid 
clashing with them. 

Hassan ibn Gharib said he had offered to take Livingstone 
from Nyangwe to the place where shijis come — as he was about 
to make the journey — for one thousand dollars, but he had re- 
fused. They also told me that a large canoe might be obtained 
near Nyangwe to go the whole way from there by water. It 
was enough to puzzle the clearest mind. 

As Bombay and my servant could never agree, the latter 
now wanted to leave me on that account. Bombay was very 
well in his peculiar way, but neither the "Angel " of Colonel 
Grant nor the " Devil " of Mr. Stanley. I generally found, 
after yielding to him, that I should have done far better to 
have adhered to my first intention. He did not like any one 
to have my ear but himself, and was as jealous as the green- 
eyed monster itself. He slandered Issa, and made accusations 
against Mohammed Malim, which I found to be false. How- 
ever, I was compelled to put up with his failings, for I should 
have lost a number of men if I had sent him away. 

In that part of the lake explored by me, I found ninety-six 
rivers flowing in, besides torrents and springs, and one, the Lu- 
kuga, going out. The more I inquired into the matter, the 
more laborious and costly the work of cutting away the vege- 
tation on the Lukuga was represented to be ; for in some parts 
the floating sod is said to be six feet thick, and no sooner is the 
surface cut away, than a further quantity floats up from under- 
neath the adjoining grass. 

I was now only waiting for the men from Unyanyembe; 

220 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Ciiap. 

May, and eacli evening I spent some honrs reading " Suahili Tales " 
i^*^*- to the Arabs — having shown the book to Syde Mezrui in a 
thoughtless moment. A large audience always awaited me; 
and as they enjoyed it thoroughly, I felt it repaid them some- 
what for the kindness they had shown me, and I was therefore 
pleased to do it, though it was very tiring work. 

On the 15th of May, some people — by way of amusement, or 
more probably with the object of thieving in the confusion 
caused — set fire to Bilal's house during the night. Worse still, 
the door was fastened outside ; but, fortunately, the men who 
usually slept in the house were not there on this occasion. I 
was not able to discover the perpetrators of this outrage. 

The next day I held a sale of my Joho and large cloths, and 
the commoner kinds went very well. To provide my men M'ith 
some clothes, I then purchased fifteen pieces of other cloth of 
nine doti each, at twenty -eight dollars apiece. And to pre- 
vent the certainty of starving, and to pay Wajiji for bringing 
back canoes from the other side, I bought twenty frasilah of 
beads, at fifty dollars a frasilah — a large price — but it was a 
case of " give it, or give up the work." 

If I had not been robbed, these purchases might have been 
avoided ; but theft, and the non-arrival of stores left behind, 
compelled me to make them. 

"When on the other side, I intended, metaphorically speaking, 
to "burn my boats," so that there should be no retreating or 
looking back. Several men pretended to be too ill to start, the 
fact being that they were afraid ; so I gave these timid ones 
their discharge. 

All my men seemed inclined to celebrate their last days at 
Ujiji by a series of drunken orgies ; and Bombay, being an- 
noyed, on returning home one night from some festivities, at 
finding that Mrs. Boml)ay had only just arrived from a tea- 
party, tried to " reorganize her," but with much the same result 
as befell Artemus Ward. 

During the domestic struggle, they upset a box of singo- 
mazzi beads — made of opal-glass, and the size of pigeons' eggs — 
and rendered the greater portion of them worthless by cracks 
and stars. 

Some other drunken rascals ripped all the calking out of 




the canoes, to occasion delay, and four days were wasted in re- 
calking them, although the work might have been completed in 
a day ; and when the canoes were ready, the Wajiji, who were 
to bring them back from Kasenge, were not forthcoming. 

Thus^it was the 22d of May before we made a move. Even 
then I was obliged to put in behind the first point, and send 
back for several missing men and rifles, and to collect the re- 
turn crew of Wajiji. 



My servant Mohammed Malim and Bombay were so perpet^ 
ually fighting that, for the sake of peace, I gave Mohammed 
charge of the box containing Livingstone's and my own jour- 
nals, selecting Jumali wadi Nassib for the otiice of valet and fac- 
totum. And most invaluable he proved. 

The men were so fearfully lazy and shaky, in consequence of 
their debauch at Ujiji, that four days were occupied in getting 


222 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

May, to Kas Kabogo. They then complained that the suu was too 
1874. ' powerful for the long pull across the lake in the day-time, and 
I had to wait until after sunset. , 

When day dawned, we were a long way to leeward of the Ka- 
benge Islands, and it was blowing strong from the south-east, 
with a heavy sea running ; but we reached Kivira in the BeUy 
during the forenoon. The PleMe, however, was not in sight, 
so I camped on the main-land the following morning to await 
her arrival. 

There the Wajiji crews deserted with the Betsy and Syde's 
boat, and when the Pickle arrived, on the evening of the 29th, 
her return crew had also bolted, and I was obliged to engage a 
crew of Waguhha to take her back. 

Absentees, and making arrangements for serving out loads, 
etc., detained me here until Sunday, the 31st of May. 



Hopeful Prospects. — Ruanda. — Copper. — Bombay's Ingenuity. — An Accident. — Last 
View of Tanganyika. — Dishonest Fellow - travelers. — Meketo. — A Brutal Slave- 
dealer. — Dress and Ornaments. — Weapons. — Fish-dealers. — River-side Scenery. — 
Game. — Skulking Carriers. — Bowl -making. — India - rulaber. — A Trying March. — 
Fetich Huts. — A Good Samaritan. — My Men want to turn back. — "Making Broth- 
ers." — An Artist in Oils. — Fearful Imprecations. — Musical Instruments. — Mrs. 
Pakwanywa. — Perforation of Upper Lips. — Dress. — Tattooing. — Charms. — A Hot 
Stream. — A Mixed Caravan. 

The cheering hope of getting boats at Nyangwe, and of May, 
floating down the unknown waters of the Kongo to the West i^'^*- 
Coast in two or three months, rallied my spirits to the highest 
pitch, as I started on my first journey west of Tanganyika. 

Syde Mezrui had assured me that he could procure canoes al- 
most immediately on my arrival at ISTyangwe, as he was friend- 
ly with chiefs who possessed many. This was, I considered, 
a great point in his favor when I engaged him as a guide, be- 
cause none of my men would have followed me west unless ac- 
companied by some person well acquainted with the road. 

Passing over very steep hills — the last spurs of the mountains 
of Ugoma, which end abruptly over the lakeland across some 
small torrents, we reached Puanda, the capital of Waguhha. It 
is a considerable town, situated on a very fertile, flat, alluvial 
plain extending from the mountain's of Ugoma to the river Lu- 
kuga, and intersected by the Lugumba and smaller streams, flow- 
ing into the lake. 

The populace turned out to stare at me, the crowd forming 
quite a lane as I passed through the place ; and an unfortunate 
sheep, getting hemmed in just before me, heralded my approach 
by a frantic baaing, which gave rather a ludicrous aspect to the 

On leaving the town, I sat down to allow the caravan to over- 
take me, and then, continuing the march for a short distance, 




May, went into camp after crossing a stream which must be of a con- 

^^'^•*- siderable size in the rains. 

In the afternoon a messenger informed me that the chief 
would call on me. But, soon afterward, I heard with some re- 
gret that he and S.P.Q.R. were so greatly under the influence 
of the rosy god that any attempt at reaching my camp would 
be attended with very serious difhculty. The visit was there- 
fore abandoned. 

My efforts at obtaining copper in exchange for singo-mazzi 
were somewhat hampered by the discovery that in the free 





fight arising between Mr. and Mrs. Bombay, on the attempted 
reorganization of the lady, most of them had been rendered un- 
marketable. But four or five pieces of copj^er and some goats 
were given for those that remained undamaged. 

This copper comes from Urua, in pieces called " lianda," vary- 
ing in weight from two and a half to three pounds. They are 
cast in the rough shape of a St. Andrew's cross, and the diag- 
onal measurement is from fifteen to sixteen inches, while the 
arms are about two inches wide and half an inch thick. Many 
of them have a raised rib along the centre of the arms. These 
were said to be in great demand in Manyuema, and singo-mazzi 
were useless beyond Waguhha. 




To avoid the necessity of employing extra men to assist fur- 
ther in carrying our stores, as on the road from Kasenge, I dis- 
tributed a load of beads, as a month's rations in advance, and 
opened and issued a box of cartridges. 

What the men did with their ammunition it was difficult to 
understand. At Bagamoyo I served out a hundred and thirty 
rounds of ball-cartridge, and at Unyanyembe twenty-five per 
gun, besides blank ; yet now many had not even a single car- 
tridge. They seemed to think themselves remarkably clever 
in getting rid of them, and came with a grin on their faces, say- 
ing, " Hapana, bwana (there are none, master)." 


A '■ UANDA." 

By this reduction of loads, I thought it would be possible to 
get along without further trouble ; but Bombay exercised an 
almost fiendish ingenuity in making work, and upsetting my 
plans. Out of loads which I had broken up and distributed 
among the askari, and of shot, wads, and cartridges belonging 
to my own guns which I had put into the lighter loads, in order 
to equalize the weight of all, he made extra ones ; and when I 
ordered the start in the morning, -he reported that four loads 
were unprovided with carriers ! 

Re-arranging matters delayed our moving, and our next camp 
was not reached until nearly two o'clock, after a heavy march 
under a most powerful sun. The thermometer, in partial shade 
under a tree, registered 131°. It was all the more trying, from 
our having to walk through stinking, fetid mud at some marshy 

At noon we forded the Lugumba, forty yards wide and mid- 
thigh deep, running two and a half knots, with the water glit- 

226 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

June, tering in the sun from the number of particles of quartz held 
1874. ]j^ suspension. Thus far we had skirted the base of the land- 
ward spurs of the southern end of the mountains of Ugoma ; 
but now they were left, and a small independent line of hills 
was before us, forming the water-shed between the Lugumba 
and Lukuga. 

A painful accident occurred to one of the pagazi, when cross- 
ing a deep but narrow nullah. He unfortunately stumbled, 
and, in falling forward, one of the sticks forming the cradle of 
his load ran into his eye, completely destroying the eyeball and 
lacerating the lid. I wished to apply a cold-water dressing, but 
he said he wanted "stronger medicine" than water; so I hand- 
ed him over to the care of a native doctor in a village near the 
camp. His treatment consisted of a plaster of mud and dirt, 
and his fee was forty strings of beads. 

As this poor fellow was totally incapacitated from carrying a 
load, and some other men were suffering from the effects of ex- 
cesses at Ujiji, I tried to procure the services of some Waguhha 
as carriers to Meketo, where our next halt was to be. Some 
volunteered, to go, but afterward hauled off ; so I served out 
more beads as rations, making an advance till the end of Jnly, 
and redistributed, loads, giving the sick men light weights, ac- 
cording to their powers. A sharp touch of fever, brought on 
by exposure to the sun on the march from Ruanda, added great- 
ly to the worry and trouble I experienced in managing matters. 

From this place we moved, on the 5th of June, for Meketo. 
On our two days' journey we passed over many hills, and 
crossed rivulets flowing into the Lugumba and Lukuga, the val- 
ley of which could be plainly seen running away to the west- 
south-west. From the highest of these hills — the day before 
reaching Meketo — I had a last view of the Tanganyika, a patch 
of bright blue, backed by sombre masses of mountains near Has 
Kungwe. We saw many tracks of big game ; and where a large 
herd of elephants had passed, the scene of destruction was 

A small Init dishonest party of Warua, carrying oil to the 
lake to exchange for the salt of Uvinza, camped near us; and 
in the morning all my goats, excepting Dinah and one given 
me at Ujiji, were missing. The Warua had also departed. 

XVII.] • M£k£TO. 22Y 

Mek^to lies in a broad, deep valley, drained by the Kaca, an June, 
affluent of the Lukiiga, and, viewed from the hill which forms ^^'^•*- 
its eastern side, is almost perfect in its rural beauty. Many 
fields of green matama and cassava, contrasting with the already 
sun-dried yellow grass ; tiny hamlets of thatched huts cluster- 
ing at the foot of groves of fine trees, with wreaths of pale-blue 
smoke curling up from the fires ; and in the foreground a line 
of heavy vegetation along the Kaga, which here and there re- 
fiected a ray of the sun as from a surface of burnished silver — 
combined in making a most beautiful scene. 


Here we remained three days, to obtain supplies and carriers 
for the journey to Kwamrora Kasea, five marches off, as a num- 
ber of the men pleaded illness, to avoid carrying their loads. 
During the stay the chief sent civil messages, with excuses for 
not coming to see me on account of the distance. I also re- 
ceived from him a fat goat, for which I, of course, sent a pres- 
ent in return, and paid his messengers. He did me further 
good service in providing carriers. 

A native slave-dealer brought into camp a little boy of ten 
or eleven with his neck in a slave-fork, and wanted to sell him. 
The poor child had evidently been brutally nsed, and was cry- 
ing so bitterly, that my first impulse was to set him free and 
give his master a sound thrashing. Yet, knowing that directly 
my back was turned any punishment would be repaid to the 
child with interest, I had to content myself with ordering oft' 
the brutal dealer. 

People thronged the camp, bringing ground-nuts, corn, sweet- 






potatoes, and other articles of food for sale. They were chiefly 
women, the men being away on jom*neys ; for, like the Warua, 
of whom they are a branch, they are a traveling and trading 

The women wore their hair after the fashion of those at the 
entrance of the Lnknga, already described. Their ornaments 
consisted of coiled bracelets of brass wire, bangles of iron, brass, 
and copper round tlicir ankles, strings of large singo-ma/.zi 
round their necks and waists, and a band of cowries, or small 
beads, bound around their heads. 

The upper part of the forehead was often painted in stripes 
of vermilion and black, which had not 
such an unpleasing effect as might be sup- 
posed. Round the waist was a piece of 
fringed grass-cloth, about eighteen inches 
deep, and open in front ; but in the hia- 
tus they wore a narrow apron reaching to 
the knees, and frequently ornamented by 
lines of cowries or beads down the centre. 
The hoes used in this district are large 
and heavy, but their hatchets are the 
smallest and most useless I ever saw, the 
blade being only an inch and a half wide. 
Their arrows are, however, broad -head- 
ed, deeply barbed, and poisoned. All the 
men carry whistles, with which they sig- 
nal to each other on the road. 
Some "VVarua arrived while we were here, having dried fish 
and the scented oil of the mpafu-tree for sale ; and it occurred 
to me as curious that, although the Tanganyika abounds in fish, 
the people dry only the small minnow-like " dagga," and are 
always ready to buy that brought a distance of a hundred and 
fifty miles or more by the Warua. 

After leaving Mekcto, we did not make another halt until 
the 16th of J line, when we reached the village of Fakwany wa, 
chief of Ubudjwa, one long march beyond Kwamrora Kasea. 

Streams without number were passed during this march. 
The principal, the Rubiimba — one of the most im})ortant afflu- 
ents of Luama, and often confused with the Lugumba — we 






crossed twice, and found it so wide and deep that it was neces- 
sary to throw a rope of creepers across for the men to liold on 
bj to prevent their being swept away. 

Many of the streams were particularly beautiful, especially 
the Lugungwa, a short way below the ford, where it had cut a 
channel fully fifty feet deep in the soft sandstone, and not more 




than eight feet wide at the top. On tlie projections of its cliff- 
like sides most lovely ferns and mosses grew, and large trees on 
both banks mingled their branches, and formed a perfect arch 
of verdure over the river. The hills along which we had been 
marching now joined the Ugoma Mountains, having hitherto 
been separated by the valley of the Lugumba. 

Tracks of all kinds of large game — except giraffes, which do 
not exist much to the westward of Unyanyembe — were very 

230 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

June, numerous ; and on a sandy island the tracks of buffalo were so 
1874. thick as to give the appearance of a large herd having been pen- 
ned tliere. The grass on each side of the path was almost too 
thick and heavy to penetrate in search of sport. And it was 
also needful for nic to keep in rear of the caravan, in order to 
prevent my men from straggling. With all my care, they often 
eluded me, and lay hidden in the jungle till I had passed, in or- 
der to indulge in skulking. The men carrying my tent and 
bath were especially prone to this habit, although their loads 
were light, and I frequently waited long after camp was reached 
for these necessary appliances to come to the front. 

On this march I lirst saw the mpafu, from which the scented 
oil is obtained. It is a magnificent tree, often thirty feet and 
more in circumference, and rising to eighty or a hundred feet 
before spreading and forming a head, the branches of which are 
immense. The oil is obtained by soaking the fruit, which has 
some resemblance to an olive, for a few days in large pits of 
water ; and when the oil collects on the surface, it is skimmed 
off. It is usually of a reddish color, very pure and clear, with 
an agreeable smell. Under the bark are great masses of scented 
gum, used by the natives in fumigating themselves. 

Besides the mpafu, there were several other trees jierfectly 
new to me, one having a soft, dense wood, out of which the na- 
tives make beautifully finished bowls. 

A man whom I watched at this work had felled two or three 
trees, and cut them into logs of about the same length as the 
diameter of the trunk, i. e.^ from one to two feet. These he 
split into halves, and with a very sharp and small single-handed 
adze made them into bowls as truly formed as though he had 
been a master turner. 

At this stage of their manufacture they are rubbed with a 
rough leaf, which answers the purpose of sand -paper, until the 
marks of the adze are perfectly smoothed down. In many in- 
stances lips are hollowed out with a knife, and patterns are also 
occasionally carved on them. 

Staining the outside a dark red is the finishing touch, and, 
when new, this effectively contrasts with the white of the in- 
side ; but with use they become perfectly black from dirt and 
grease. I also saw a peculiarly shaped wooden drum hollowed 




out from a solid block of wood, the outside being modeled with 
adzes like those used in bowl-making, and the inside by chisel- 
shaped pieces of iron, with wooden handles three feet long. 


"We passed through many strips of thick and intricate tangled 
jungle. The creepers were principally india-rnbber vines, with 
stems the thickness of a man's thigh ; and in cutting them 
away, iu order to clear a passage, we were well bedaubed with 
the sap, which was very plentiful. Indeed, sufficient india-rub- 
ber to supply the wants of the civilized world might easily be 
collected here. 



All the villages possessed fetich huts, with little carved idols, 
under whose protection they were supposed to be ; and in fields 
rougher idols were placed, to watch over the crops. Offerings 
of pombe and corn were often made to these images, and on oc- 
casions of harvesting or sowing, a goat or a fowl was sometimes 
lavished upon them. 

232 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

June, The last march before arriving at Pakwanywa's village was 

1874. Qjjg Qf ^]^Q most exhausting and trying I had nj) to that time 
experienced. The road led us over a succession of small hills, 
and the sun beat down upon us from a cloudless sky. The heat 
of the parched ground scorched my feet through thick boots, 
knitted stockings, and socks. Drawing a breath was like inhal- 
ing the fumes of a heated furnace. 

On entering the village, I was thoroughly beaten by heat and 
thirst, and the agony was increased by the people crowding 
round to stare at me. Water seemed to be unattainable. But 
at last a kind-hearted old man pushed through the crowd, and 
handed me a large calabash full ; and if ever I blessed a man, it 
was that one. With a continuous draught, I drained the cala- 
bash, large as it was, and the friendly old native sent for more ; 
and when I offered him a small present of beads for his thought- 
fulness and trouble, he declined to accejDt any reward whatever. 

At Pakwanywa's I heard that a large caravan, under the 
leadership of Muinyi Hassani, was waiting for us a few days in 
front ; and although I had no desire to join them, it was better 
to yield, and avoid opposition on their part. 

The men engaged at Meketo declined to go any farther with 
us, nor would other natives volunteer to assist ; so I issued two 
more loads of beads as rations, instead of abandoning them for 
lack of carriers. Others of my followers were malingering; 
and Bombay and Bihil, instead of assisting me in the slightest, 
were ever ready to throw difficulties in my way, in the vain 
hope of inducing me to turn back and abandon the expedition. 

Syde Mezrui " made brothers" with Pakwanywa, and I went 
into the village to witness the interesting ceremony. Pakwa- 
nywa I found sitting out in the open, superintending the paint- 
ing of his wife's forehead, and a serious matter it seemed to be. 
Tlie 'artist, having the different colors prepared with oil — each 
in a separate leaf — plastered them on with a knife, and then 
carefully scraped the edges of the various tints till they were 
exactly true, and formed the required pattern. 

Tliis being finished, Pakwanywa invited me into his hut, 
which was about twenty feet square, and smoothly plastered on 
the inside to the height of four feet. The walls M-ere orna- 
mented with squares of red, white, and yellow, bordered with 


black and white stripes, some left plain, and others profusely June, 
dotted with white finger-marks. On two sides of the building, i^''^- 
a raised earthen bench three feet wide, and covered with mats, 
served as a divan, 

A pile of large logs, out of which the wooden bowls are 
made, was placed in one corner to season ; and in another was 
a sunken fire-place, for use at night or in rainy weather. The 
sole means of obtaining light, air, and ventilation was by the 
door-way ; consequently the inside of the roof, where bows and 
spear staves were seasoning, was black and shiny with soot. 
The floor was of clay, and was perfectly smooth. 

On entering, it was with difficulty I could distinguish any 
thing; but, as my eyes became accustomed to the absence of 
light, I noticed gourds and cooking-pots hanging up, and every 
thing appeared to be in its place, showing Mrs. Pakwanywa to 
be a " notable housewife." 

After a certain amount of palaver, Syde and Pakwanywa ex- 
changed presents, much to the adv^antage of the former — more 
especially as he borrowed the beads from me, and afterward 
forgot to repay me. Pakwanywa then played a tune on his 
harmonium, or whatever the instrument might be called, and 
the business of fraternizing was proceeded with. Pakwanywa's 
head-man acted as his sponsor, and one of my askari assumed 
the like office for Syde. 

The first operation consisted of making an incision on each 
of their right wrists just sufficient to draw blood, a little of 
which was scraped off and smeared on the other's cut, after 
which gunpoM'der was rubbed in. The concluding part of the 
ceremony was performed by Pakwanywa's sponsor holding a 
sword resting on his (Pakwanyw'a's) shoulder, while he who 
acted for Syde went through the motions of sharpening a knife 
on it. Both sponsors meanwhile made a speech, calling down 
imprecations on Pakwanywa and all his relations, past, pres- 
ent, and future, and praying that their graves might be defiled 
by pigs if he broke the brotherhood in word, thought, or deed. 
The same form having been gone through with respect to Syde, 
the sponsors changing duties, the brother-making was complete. 

This custom of " making brothers " I believe to be really of 
Semitic origin, and to have been introduced into Africa by the 

234 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

June, heathen Arabs trading there before the time of Mohammed ; 
^^'^- and this idea is strengthened by the fact tliat when the first 
. traders from Zanzibar crossed the Tanganyika, the ceremony 
was nnknown to the westward of that lake. 

Tliat which I have termed Pakwanywa's harmonium, for 
want of a better name, was composed of a board, to which were 
attached a number of springy iron keys, of different lengtlis 
and breadths, to give variety to their tone, and a gourd was 
placed behind to act as a sounding-board. The keys are played 
on by the thumbs, and a fair amount of music can be extracted 
from this instrument by a clever performer. They are called 
kinanda by the natives, but kinanda is a generic term for al- 
most all musical instruments. 

The following is the description of Mrs. Pakwanywa as I 
wrote it at the time of my visit : 

" She is a merry sort of person, and really lady-like in her 
manners. It was great fun showing her a looking-glass. She 
had never seen one before, and was half afraid of it, and 
ashamed to show she was afraid. She is a very dressy body, 
double row of cowries round her head, besides copper, iron, and 
ivory ornaments stuck in her hair, and just above and in front 
of each ear a little tassel of red and white beads. A large neck- 
lace of shells (viongwa) round her neck, and round her waist 
a string of opal-colored singo-mazzi, and a roll (or rope) made 
of strings of a dull, red-colored bead. Her front apron was a 
leopard - skin, and the rear one of colored grass -cloth, with its 
fringe strung with beads "and cowries sewed on it in a pattern ; 
bright iron rings round her ankles, and copper and ivory brace- 
lets on her arms. Her hair was shaved a little back from her 
forehead, and three lines, each about a quarter of an inch wide, 
painted below it. The one nearest the hair was red, the next 
black, and the next white, and, to crown all, she was freshly 
anointed with inpafu oil, and looked sleek and shiuy." 

The upper classes of Ubudjwa wear similar dresses, orna- 
ments, and tattoo-marks to those of the Waguhha and Warua, 
and are apparently of the same race. 

The lower orders, whom I believe to be the aborigines, are 
quite different in features and dress. Their women perforate 
their upper lips, and insert a piece of stone or wood, which is 


gradually increased in size until the lip frequently protrudes an June, 
inch and a half or two inches, giving a particularly hideous ex- i^'^'*- 
pression, and making their articulation very indistinct. 


Their clothing consists of from one to three leather cushions, 
very much like buffaloes' horns in shape, the thickest parts be- 
ing placed behind and the tapering points in front. A small 
piece of bark-cloth, about six inches wide by eight or ten deep, 
is' tucked into the front part to serve as an apron. Skin a23rons 
are worn by the men, wdio smear the undipped wool with red 
clay and grease. They also tattoo their faces, and rub in lamp- 
black after a fashion that gives them the appearance of having 
been badly scratched by a cat, black blood having been drawn 
instead of red. 

Both sexes of all classes carry little carved images round 
their necks, or tied to the upjjer part of their arms, as a charm 
against evil spirits. They are usually hollow, and filled with 
filth by the fetich man. 

We left Pakwanywa's, on the 19th of June, for Pakhundi ; 
and, directly after starting, pass6d a stream rising in a hot 
spring, the water wdiere we crossed being 107° Fahrenheit, 
wdiile the air was only 70°. At the spring the water bubbled 
up in a sort of fountain, and there the heat must have been 
much greater; but it was impossible to reach it on account of 
mud and weeds. Notwithstanding, the temperature of the wa- 
ter, trees, plants, and frogs flourished in it. 

To Pakhundi the road lay across fairly level country, partly 
jungle and partly clearing, and one sandy plain, wnth many 
palms. There were several small streams, all flowing toward 






the Rubumba, excepting the last — the Katamba — which ran 
south, toward tlie valley of the Luknga. 

Near some villages were small iron-foundries, and in danger- 
ous proximity to the path there were many pits, from which 
the ore, a kind of red hematite, is obtained. 

The caravan awaiting us at Pakhundi consisted of Muinyi 
Ilassani and his people ; a party under charge of a slave of 
Syde ibn Habib ; and two small traders, Muinyi Brahim and 
Muinyi Bokhari. The two latter had each only about a dozen 
men, while the remainder, about two hundred and fifty in num- 
ber, were equally divided between Muinyi Hassani and Syde 
ibn Ilabib's slave. There were also a few freedmen, smiths 
and carpenters, traveling on their own account with one or 
two slaves. 


XVIIL] KWAS^Rfi. 237 


Pakhiindl. — Foundries. — Dust and Ashes. — Slave-gagging. — Freedmen the Harshest 
Masters. — Salutations. — Disobliging People. — Hair, Dress, Tattooing. — Naked 
People. — Natural Stomachers. — Building Operations. — No Ventilation. — Uvinza. 
— Clay Idols. — Carving. — Anns. — The Arab's Kirangosi. — His Impertinence. — 
Climbing Oil-palms. — My Showman. — The Bambarre Mountains. — Magnificeut 
Trees. — A Dark Ravine. — Manyuema. — Dress and Arms. — The Women. — Econo- 
my in Clothing. — Livingstone's Influence. — An Enlightened Chief. — Dwarfs. — 
Musical Instruments. — Fearful Cannibals. — Dancing. — No Shooting allowed. 

Ok joining tlie caravan, we were welcomed with all outward June, 
civility, but little else. The traders were naturally glad that a ^s'^^- 
well-armed party should accompany them across Manyuema, as 
they had barely sixty guns among them, many of those being 
useless Tower and other flint-guns, while the best were merely 
French trade percussion single-barrels. 

Of course we could not expect to start from Pakhundi with- 
out wasting a day for the men of the two caravans to enjoy 
their gossip ; but on the 22d of June we marched, and, pass- 
ing through a hilly and diversified country, watered by a few 
streams — some working to the Rubumba, now about twenty 
miles north of us, and others flowing away to the Lukuga — ar- 
rived at Kwasere. 

Here a prosperous village once stood, but it had evidently 
been destroyed in some recent fight, together with others lying 
near. Stools, pots, mortars, and other articles of household fur- 
niture were lying about in confusion, instead of being removed, 
as would have been the case had the flittuig been premeditated, 
and growing crops were left standing. 

I firmly believe the traders had something to do with this 
work of destruction, for they now took the precaution of build- 
ing a very strong fence round their camp, although they had 
not previously done so since leaving the Tanganyika ; but, in 
answer to my inquiries, they asserted that no disturbance what- 
ever had occurred here. 

238 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

June, In Kwasere there were two or three small foundries, about 

^^''^- twelve feet square, with a raised bank round tlie sides, the cen- 
tre of the floor sloping toward a deep trough, which was placed 
to receive the molten metal. The remains of a furnace lay in 
one corner, and clay nozzles for the wooden bellows were scat- 
tered about in all directions. The whole of the floors of these 
foundries M'ere well plastered with smooth and polished clay, 
burned quite red in many places. 

This day the thermometer at half-past one registered 100° in 
complete shade, and 142° in the sun. 

The grass through which we forced our way had grown to 
such an extent as to be almost inq^enetrable. In many places 
it was upward of twelve feet in height, and so dense that lean- 
ing against it scarcely made any impression, the stalks of the 
main stems being often thicker than my thumb. Even where 
the grass had been burned down, these stems remained four or 
Ave feet high, and scratched one's face and hands in a most 
horrid manner ; and, in addition to this, the ashes, blown about 
by the slightest breeze, filled eyes, nose, mouth, hair, and ears. 
After marching an hour or two through a strip of burned coun- 
try, one had much the appearance and feeling of having been 
in a coal-pit. 

For some days we marched, in company with the Arabs, 
through well-watered, fertile, and fairly populated country, with 
crops of matama growing in luxuriance. But along the whole 
route a very hollow peace seemed to reign, the traders owing 
their security to the fear insj^ired by their guns. Yet the in- 
habitants constantly came into camp with slaves and ivory for 
sale, as well as flour and other provisions. 

Slaves were usually gagged by having a piece of wood, like a 
snaffle, tied into their mouths. Heavy slave-forks were placed 
round their necks, and their hands were fastened behind their 
backs. They were then attached by a cord to the vender's 

I believe that, as a general rule, they were much better treat- 
ed when bought by the traders than while they remained in 
the hands of their native owners. They were mostly captives, 
surprised when in the woods a short way from their own vil- 
lages, and had, of course, to be kej^t in chains by their masters 


to prevent their escaping ; otherwise they were not really bad- June, 
ly used, being fairly fed, and not orerloaded. In the few cases i^*^*- 
of bad treatment which came nnder my notice, the owners were 
either slaves themselves, or freedmen who, on beginning to taste 
the delights of freedom, seemed anxious to prevent any one low- 
er in the scale from rising to a like state of happiness. 

Many of the villages through which we passed had their 
" public jiarks " — large open spaces preserved in their centres, 
and shaded by fine trees. Large trunks of the fan palm were 
laid upon the ground, and on these we usually found the male 
population seated for a stare when we M'ent by, while the wom- 
en and children, though kept in the background, rivaled them 
in curiosity. 

The men saluted the principal people of the caravan as they 
passed by, singing " Maji muko " in chorus, and clapping their 
hands ; and on being answered in the same manner, they vocif- 
erated " Eh ban." 

Notwithstanding this apparent desire to be civil, they were 
churlish and disobliging. If asked for a drink of water or a 
light for a pipe, they would rejjly that the river would be found 
near, or that the fire was their own ; although, had they been 
more obliging, they would have received a small j^resent of 
beads, or a pinch of salt, of which they are inordinately covet- 
ous, having none in their own country. 

We were now passing through Uhiya, and the people differ- 
ed materially from their neighbors in dress and habits. Many 
adopted the horrid practice of chipping all their teeth to points, 
giving them the appearance of wild beasts ; and their head-dress- 
es were both hideous and curious. 

Some wore a huge bowl -shaped leather chignon, having a 
hole in the centre out of which hung a kind of leather tongue. 
Others plastered their hair with mud and oil, and so frizzed and 
trained it as to present a certain resemblance to a judge's wig, 
and others divided it into crests and ridges. 

Tattooing was common among both sexes ; but there was no 
beauty or design in the patterns, as among the Waguhha ; in- 
deed, the appearance of the ghastly scars left by some of the 
gashes was most abhorrent. Among the most favorite marks 
were rude attempts at crescents, Maltese crosses, and a trel- 

240 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

June, lis -work formed of deej) cuts disposed irregularly over the 
1874. body. 

The clothing of the men usually consisted of a short kilt of 
skins or bark-cloth. The women wore leather belts, divided into 
two or three strips, which supported a small square of cloth be- 
hind and a very minute aj^ron in front. Some were even more 
scantily attired, having only a string round the waist with a 
small leather apron, about three inches wide and four or live 
deep, cut into strips no wider than a boot-lace. 

I heard that a short distance farther west the peoj^le were 
perfectly nude ; but that they managed by constant manijjula- 
tion, when the children wei'e very young, to cause the fatty cov- 
ering of tlie lower part of their bellies to hang down like an 
apron almost to the middle of the thigh ; and this was allowed 
to answer the purpose of dress. 

On mentioning this to His Excellency the Governor-general 
of Angola, Admiral Andrade, on my arrival at Loanda, he in- 
formed me that he had witnessed a similar peculiarity among 
tribes in the interior near Mozambique. 

Instead of pounding their corn in mortars, the people here 
made use of trunks of trees let flush into floors of hardened 
earth ; and, in consequence of their having small holes in them, 
the flour they made was even more gritty than that prepared in 
wooden mortars. 

Close to the western end of Uliiya we crossed the Luwika, a 
considerable stream falling into the Lukuga, according to the 
evidence of a traveled Waguhha, who had settled in Uliiya as 
chief of a village. The latter river he said he had traced to its 
confluence wnth the Lualaba. 

Just before leaving Uhiya, we camped in a deserted village, 
the whilom inhabitants of which had, in accordance with a very 
common custom, flitted, on account of the death of their chief, 
and were now busily engaged in building a new village not far 
from their former habitation. They had planted young bark- 
cloth trees round the site of their new home, and had erected 
the frame-work of their huts and granaries. These they were 
now plastering with red clay obtained from the large ant-hills. 
This clay is also used for making pottery. 

The huts were square, and were constructed of stakes four 




feet in height planted in the ground, and kept secure by a 
couple of binders wattled in. To the head of each of these 
stakes, which were about eight inches apart, a long, tapering, 
flexible wand was tied. These were bound together at the top, 
and horizontal rings of small sticks were fastened to them at 
every three feet. In this stage the huts looked exactly like 
huge bird-cages. The walls were then filled in with mud, and 
the roof thatched with long grass, the eaves reaching nearly to 
the ground. A couple of stout logs were planted on each side 
of the door-way, and, with some extra sticks worked in and the 
thatch trimmed, formed a sort of porch. 



In the interior, the floor, walls, and lower part of the roof 
were plastered over smoothly with clay, while the remainder of 
the roof was lined with a spiral wisp of grass, something after 
the manner of a straw bee-hive. 

The only aperture by which smoke could escape or light en- 
ter was the door, and at night this was most jealously kept shut, 
and a whole family of six or eight people, together with fowls, 
goats, dogs, and sheep, with a fire burning in their midst, remain 
hermetically closed in until the morning. How they manage 
to exist without a better supply of oxygen is a mystery to me. 

The granaries are circular, of hurdle-work daubed with clay, 






and stand eight feet high and four in diameter, being placed on 
small platforms two feet from the ground. Thej have mova- 
ble, conical, thatched roofs. 

In the deserted village there were many very line bark-clotli 
trees, and the late inhabitants sent people over to prevent our 
injuring them when making our camp. 

From this place we crossed a level plain, along whicli the 
Luwika ran, lying between two almost cliff-like ranges of hills; 
but on arriving at a village, our road suddenly turned to the 
right, and we had to clamber up the face of so steep a cliff that 
hands and knees were used almost more than feet. At the 
summit we had about ten yards of level walking, and then an 
equally steep descent into a rich and fertile valley full of villages. 
This was the cominencement of a second Uvinza, which must 
^ not be confounded with the Uvinza through which vre 
had passed to the east of the Tanganyika. Outside 
some of the villages there were large clay idols in dif- 
ferent attitudes — sitting, standing erect, and recum- 
bent — all being placed under small sheds, with pots of 
jiombe and heads of corn lying round them. 

We camped on the banks of the Lulumbije, which, 
after breaking through the narrow ridge we had just 
crossed, joins the Luwika. The united streams are 
known indifferently as the Lulumbije or Luwika, until 
the junction with the Lukuga. This exactly coincides 
with the information given me by the chief at the en- 
trance of the Lukuga, of a stream falling into that river 
at a place one month's journey from the lake. 

The Uvinza people displayed more skill in carving 
than any I had hitherto met, and many of -their walk- 
ing-sticks were very creditable specimens of the carver's 
art. Several of both sexes wore pieces of cane or rings 
of beads through the centre cartilage of the nose, and 
their hair Avas tastefully worked into- cones and ridges, 
finished off by plaits. 

The Lulumbije was crossed the next day, and after a 
heavy and hilly march, during which several affluents 
of that river were met with, we arrived at the village 
of Kolomamba, situated on the top of a high range of- 


hills, whence we obtained a distant view of a large grove of oil- June, 
palms surrounding Roliombo, the first village in Manyuema. i^*^*- 

At Kolonuunba the people were on the point of moving, hav- 
ing lately been worsted in one of those innumerable squabbles 
which are perpetually going on. 

The arms of the people of Uhiya are light spears and large 
bows, strung with strips of cane, throwing heavy arrows. Those 
of Manyuema consist only of heavy spears and large wooden 

An harangue was now given by the kirangosi of the Arab 
caravan, to the effect that we were about to enter the dangerous 
country of Manyuema, the natives of which were more cruel 
and treacherous than any with whom we had yet met. Conse- 
(piently stragglers would most certainly be cut off, killed, and 
probably eaten. I consoled myself with the idea that I was so 
very thin that they would not consider me worth the trouble 
of eating, for there was hardly a meal for one man on my bones. 

Although Roliombo could be seen from Kolomamba, some 
hours' weary tramping were necessary to reach it. Open grassy 
glades, interspersed with thickets of jungle, were on either side 
of us ; and, as we drew near, crowds of people lined the road, 
eager to have a stare at the caravan. 

I arrived with the leading part, and being shown the camp- 
ing-place — an open space, with three small stockaded villages — 
ordered my tent to be pitched under a large tree standing on 
one side. 

Soon afterward I found it moved into the full blaze of the 
sun ; and, on inquiring the cause, was told that the Arabs' ki- 
rangosi had directed it, as he wanted the place under the tree 
for himself. I, of course, would not stand this treatment, and 
had my tent put back again. Upon which the kirangosi de- 
clared he would not camp here unless he had the j^lace he want- 
ed ; so, to end the dispute, I told him he could go to the devil 
if he liked. He then moved on a mile farther with his people, 
while I remained with mine ; and later the Arabs apologized 
for his impertinence. 

These kirangosis give themselves airs, and do much as they 
please with their own masters ; and I suppose this fellow 
thouo^ht I should submit to the same. 

244 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

June, The people liere were rough and dirty-looking, and wore their 

1874. mnd-plastered hair in irregular masses. Food was fairly plen- 
tiful — bananas, fowls, eggs, flour, and palm-wine being obtained. 

The oil-palms are climbed by means of a piece of the midril) 
of the palm frond flattened and softened, and a rope of creepers, 
the midrib being passed round the tree, and the rope behind 
the man's back, and tied together. The tree is then climbed in 
the same manner as cocoa-nut palms frequently are in the East 

During our two days' stay, one of the natives constituted 
himself my showman. To each visitor to the camp he would 
point out my books, boxes, etc., and, on my meals being brought, 
would raise a shout that instantly caused a large crowd to as- 
semble to witness my feeding. And I may add that the per- 
formance seemed to give general satisfaction. 

The tameness of the goat excited an intense amount of won- 
der here, as indeed it usually did elsewhere, the people evident- 
ly thinking me a great magician to inake the animal come to 
me when called. 

Leaving this, we passed through a large and well-watered val- 
ley, with streams rnnning into Lake Lanji, and connnenced the 
ascent of the mountains of Bambarre. 

Hour after hour we toiled up their steep sides, having often 
to assist our feet by clutching at the trees and creepers grow- 
ing on their well - wooded slopes ; and in the evening we 
camped at the village Koana Mina, now deserted for another 
erected rather more tlian a mile farther on. 

Resuming our ascent in the early morning, we followed for 
im hour the winding path, and then turned into a dense mass 
of forest, and immediately began to descend. 

The northern side of the Bambarre Mountains differs greatly 
from the southern; for, instead of being a simple slope, they 
are seamed into enormous gullies and ravines. Sometimes our 
path was at the very bottom of them, then again at the top, 
and at another time along their precipitous sides. 

No sunlight or breeze ever penetrates into these dark depths, 
for a mass of monster trees, with spreading heads, shuts out the 
slightest glimpse of sky. And w^hat trees they were ! Stand- 
ing on the edge of a ravine a hundred and fifty feet deep, these 



giants of the sylvan world were seen springing from its depths; June, 
and, looking upward, their trunks were lost among their dense 1^74. 
foliage at an equal height above our heads. ~ 

Magnificent creepers festooned the trees ; and every here and 
there some dead monarch of the wood was prevented from fall- 
ing by the clinging embraces of these parasites, which linked 
him to some of his surviving brothers. 

The ground was damp and cool, and mosses and ferns grew 
luxuriantly. Still, notwithstanding the coolness of the tem- 
perature, the lack of circulation of the air caused a deadly op- 
pressiveness ; and it was with feelings of relief that I again 
saw blue sky and sunlight streaming between the tree-trunks, 
as they grew fewer and smaller toward the bottom of the 

Emerging from this truly primeval forest, we entered upon a 
fair country, with green plains, running streams, wooded knolls, 
much cultivation, and many villages. The tirst we reached was 
half an hour\s march from the jungle. And here we seemed 
to be in an entirely new country ; for though Eohombo may 
be, conventionally, the commencement of Manyuema, there is 
no doubt that its proper boundary, both ethnologically and geo- 
graphically, is the mountain range of Bombarre. 

The huts were ranged in long streets, sometimes parallel, and 
at others radiating from a large central space ; their bright-red 
walls and sloping roofs differing from those hitherto met with. 
And in the middle of the street were palaver huts, palm-trees, 
and granaries. In their dress the people were different from 
any I had previously seen. The men wore aprons of dressed 
deer-skin about eight inches wide, and reaching to their knees. 
They carried a single heavy spear, 'and a small knife with which 
to eat their food. 

Chiefs were armed with short two-edged swords with broad- 
ened, crescent -shaped ends, the scabbards being ornamented 
with iron and copper bells; and, instead of leather aprons, they 
wore large kilts of gayly colored grass cloth. 

The heads of the males were generally plastered with clay, 
so worked in with the hair as to form cones and plates. Oc- 
casionally long flakes, both flat and round, hung down on the 
neck, and in these holes were punched for the insertion of iron 






and copper rings. Between the clay patches the scalp was 
shaven perfectly bare. 

The women, who were prevented by the men from crowd- 
ing round us on our arrival, had better figures and were better- 
looking — with the exception of a hanging lower lijD — than any 
I had seen for some time. In many instances their hair was 
worked into the shape of an old-fashioned bonnet, deeply shad- 
ing the face, while long ringlets flowed down their backs ; but 
some, despising the bonnet, or more confident of their charms, 
drew their hair off their foreheads and tied it together at the 
nape of the neck, letting it fall behind in tresses. 


Their dress was particularlj^ simple ; it consisted only of a 
cord round the waist — on which beads were strung by the richer 
ones — and two small grass-cloth aprons. The front one was 
about the size of a half-sheet of ordinary note-paper, and that 
behind just a trifle larger. Notwithstanding their small di- 
mensions, these aprons were often elal)orately stitched and or- 
namented witli beads and cowries ; and when the M'omen went 
working in the fields or fishing in the streams, they took off 
these gay clothes for fear of spoiling them, and replaced them 
with a small bunch of leaves. 

The goats and sheep, as well as the people, differed from those 




on the other side of the mountains, being precisely similar to 
those described by Dr. Schweinfurth in the Dinka country, and 
this breed also extends all through Manyuema and Urua. The 
sheep when well fed put on fat, and the caponized goats are 
particularly large and good. The she -goats are wonderfully 
prolific, constantly producing three at a birth. I have heard of 
instances in which five and six have been born at one time, and 
have w^itnessed several cases of four at a birth. 

We soon came to a larger village, where we camped ; and 
the people came in from the surrounding country to gaze at a 



white man, although they had seen Livingstone, who staid for 
some months with a neighboring chief, Moene Kussu. He had 
died, and had been succeeded by his sons, Moene Bugga and 
Moene Gohe. The latter visited us, and offered, on the part of 
himself and brother, all hospitality to a countryman of Living- 
stone, whose peaceful and unoffending progress through this land 
had tended to make an Englishman respected by the natives. 

We were delayed here by the illness of Muinyi Bokhari, one 
of the small traders of the caravan, who, thinking himself too 
poor to afford proper food, had actually been endeavoring to 
subsist on grass and earth. Consequently, and veiy naturally, 
something had gone wrong in his interior. 

248 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, Marching again on July 1st through a populous and well- 

1874. cultivated country, with many streams of bright water all flow- 
ing to the Luama, we reached the village of Moene Bugga, and 
were warmly welcomed by the chief, who is held in respect 
by the surrounding villages. There is not that incessant petty 
warring in this part of Manyuema as in other districts, where 
every village is constantly at variance with its neighbors. 

Moene Bugga follows his father's policy of maintaining cor- 
dial relations with traders, and, indeed, wishes them to establish 
a regular settlement at his village. He spoke very warmly of 
Livingstone, who was evidently much liked while here. 

Many chiefs, accompanied by their musicians and arm-bear- 
ers, called on us, and two of them each brought a dwarf, who 
carried a rattle, and shouted his master's name after this style, 
" Ohe Moene Boote, Ohe Oh^ !" and rattled the while. Moene 
Boote's dwarf was covered with blotches and had a deformed 
knee, and was altogether a repulsive-looking object. 

Tlie musicians played an instrument called "marimba," 
formed of two rows of gourds of different sizes fitted into a 
frame -work. Over each pair of gourds was a clef made of 
hard wood, which gave a metallic sound when struck with sticks 
having india-rubber heads. Gf these sticks there were differ- 
ent sizes, the player dexterously changing one for another, as a 
sharper or a duller sound was required. 

Moene Boote came shuffling up to me with a sort of slid- 
ing, half-dancing step, which did not get him ahead much more 
than a yard a minute ; and every two or three minutes he halt- 
ed while his marimba player and dwarf extolled his greatness. 

The people here seemed very affectionate among themselves, 
and decidedly more prolific than any other race I had seen in 
Africa ; but though endowed with many good qualities, it can 
not be denied that they are cannibals, and most filthy cannibals. 
Not only do they eat the bodies of enemies killed in battle, but 
also of people who die of disease. They prepare the corpses 
by leaving them in running water until they are nearly joutrid, 
and then devour them without any further cooking. They 
also eat all sorts of carrion, and their odor is very foul and re- 

I was entertained with a song setting forth the delights of 




cannibalism, in wliicli the flesli of men was said to be good, but 
that of women was bad, and only to be eaten in time of scarci- 
ty ; nevertheless, it was not to be despised when man-meat was 

Dancing in Manyuema is the prerogative of the chiefs. 
When they feel inclined for a Terpsichorean performance they 
single out a good-looking woman from the crowd, and the two 
go through much wriggling and curious gesticulation opposite 
each other. The village drums are brought out, and vigorously 




beaten, the drummers meanwhile shouting " Gamello ! Gamel- 
lo !" If the woman is unmarried, the fact of a chief asking her 
to dance is ecpiivalent to an offei* of marriage, and many com- 
plications often occur in consequence. 

At this place Muinyi Hassani thought himself unwell, and 
detained us two days. Poor old Muinyi Bokhari was very ill, 
and was informed that he would be left behind unless he con- 
sented to part with some of his dearly hoarded cowries and 
beads to pay men to carry him. I tried to cure the old man, 
but my doctoring did not prove very successful. 

Leaving Moene Bugga's, we passed villages and cultivated 
land, and then through a gap in a low range of hills full of 





enormous mees like : 

Herein : „: 
along qnietlv in : 
well to Take 

le of iL 
-lirr of 
vras 5. -^ 

err . - -i TO'srsrvi me ^ 

«jniring me reas»: 
marebi in ^tfinviit 
the caraTas -w^rs 
given the _ i. 

^ Afr - ^ 

ene 2 : 

rbene two dars e. 

- slopes of the Bam- 

_^. I w&s walking 

/^. and thought it as 

_ somedung for mr- 

^ ^s hullabaloa. and ev- 

. the fpoct Mid rear, i?*- 

red. savy _ 

Tise Muinri 



The Luama. — Fisherwomen. — Shooting Hippopotami. — Open-air Graiiario?. — Iron. — 
A Burning Country. — Shameful Behavior of Traders. — A Suspension-bridge. — The 
Natives turn upon the Traders. — Contemplated Attaek on the Caravan. — Two 
Chiefs treacherously shot. — Villages burned. — Women and Children captured. — 
I plead for Peace. — Influence as an Englishman. — A Palaver. — The Captives are 
liberated. — My Views are not appreciated. — Foundries. — Smithies. — Manyara 
Dress. — A Drum-major. — The Slaving System. — The Mighty Lualaba. — Going with 
the Stream. — ^Xyangw4 is reached. 

The Luama is a large and important affluent of the Lnalaba, July, 
and rises in the mountains of Ugoma, a short distance from the 1S74. 
Tanganyika, and not far from the sources of the Lngumba " 

and Lnbumba. The hitter, after a considerable detour, nnites 
with the Lnama about thirty miles above the point at which we 
crossed. The river has a very meandering course, with many 
affluents and backwaters, in which large numbei's of fish are 
caught by the women. At this time — in the middle of the dry 
season — it was perfectly navigable for large steam launches. 

Across each small stream or backwater dams ai-e built of hur- 
dle-work, with conical openings at intervals, something like the 
entrance to a wire rat-trap. "When the waters begin to subside, 
the "fish endeavor to pass through these dams to the perennial 

The women then go fishing in the following manner : Doff- 
ing their grass -cloth aprons, and replacing them with leaves, 
they take enormous baskets — some seven feet long, two feet six 
inches deep, and two feet wide in the middle — made of close 
mat-like work of spht cane. These they set under the openings 
in the dams, which are then unfastened, while some of the dark 
sportswomen go into the stream and drive the terrified fish to- 
ward the dam. The fish, seeing no chance of escape save by 
these holes, jump through into the baskets ready for their re- 
ception. The fisherwomen seemed to think it great fun, and 

252 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, enjoyed themselves immensely, shrieking, screaming, and laugh- 

1874. jng tj^g whole while. 

Leaving the banks of the Lnama, we forded an affluent — 
the Lulwii, thirty yards in width and four feet in depth — and, 
marching two miles farther, reached the bend of the Luama, 
where we had arranged to cross it. Canoes were here in readi- 
ness ; but as there were only three, the work of getting the car- 
avan over occupied some time, for the river was fully a hundred 
yards in width and eight to ten feet deep in the middle, and had 
steep banks. 

While we w^ere thus engaged, at 9h. 10m. local mean time, 
there was a slight shock of earthquake ; a low, rumbling sound 
and a faint though distinctly percejitible tremor of the ground 
passing from east-north-east to west-south-west. 

A large number of hippopotami were blowing in mid-stream, 
on our reaching the river, so I occupied myself by firing at 
them. One, getting a bullet and shell in his head in rapid suc- 
cession, sunk, and the rest cleared out, M'hich was a very desira- 
ble result, since they often hog up underneath a canoe in deep 
water, and heave it right out, capsizing all the occupants. The 
canoes bore marks of the tusks of these brutes, which look wpon 
them as intruders, and often attack them wantonly. 

By the time the caravan had been ferried over, the sun was 
very powerful, and it was too late to proceed farther ; so we 
camped in a small scattered village about a mile from the river. 

Although they afterward became common, I here saw for the 
first time large platforms, on which were stored huge birndles 
of grass ready for thatching the huts on the approach of the 
rainy season. The two centre -poles of the platform, which 
were about twenty feet higher than the others, were connected 
with a square-meshed net made of strips of bark. At each in- 
tersection of these strips bunches of niatama and Indian corn 
were tied, the grain by these means being stored without a pos- 
sibility of its heating, as it sometimes does if placed in close 
granaries before it is perfectly ripe. But, en revanche^ the birds 
carry off immense quantities from these open-air stores. 

Our next camp was at Ivisimbika, the road to this j)lace being 
along the right bank of the Luama, and across many dry beds 
of water - courses with sides and bottoms formed of verv thin 


strata of a sort of shale, with occasional outcrops of iron-stone July, 
(hematite). ^^'^^- 

All the country around was either already burned or burning, 
and at night the roar of the immense grass fires could be heard 
for a distance of three or four miles, and the whole sky was 
lighted up by the blaze. These huge fires often occasion slight 
partial showers of rain, the enormous updraught causing the 
warm air to rush to a cooler level, where the moisture is con- 
densed and falls in the form of rain. 

From Kisimbika we went forward until the 17th of July 
without any long halts. We camped nightly in the villages, 
much to the disgust of the natives, who were treated in an over- 
bearing manner by the traders and their men. Relying on 
their gunpowder-strength, the traders gave their men nothing 
with which to purchase food, but told them to steal what they 
wanted themselves, and also to bring in provisions for their 
masters. The natives stood aloof, or looked on sullenly while 
these blackguards robbed their granaries, and their mortars, 
and other articles of household furniture, to make fires for cook- 
ing the stolen food. The only ajoproach they made toward com- 
municating with us was to propose that the caravan should join 
them in attacking other villages in order to obtain slaves. 

I gave my men extra rations to prevent their thieving, and in 
two or three cases paid natives who complained of them, and I 
treated the offenders to a sound flogging to show that I, as an 
Englishman, had no intention of making my way through the 
country by means of looting and force. Yet I fear when my 
back was turned they were fully as bad as the others. Bombay 
always persisted that they never stole any thing whatever ; but 
I sometimes heard from Jumah that Bombay himself was not 
entirely guiltless. 

On July the 18th, we crossed the Lulindi, a broad stream, 
which must be unfordable in flood. At a height of twenty feet 
above the water there hung a very cleverly constructed suspen- 
sion-bridge. Four large cables of creepers were fastened to the 
trunks of trees, one pair about four feet higher than the other, 
and to these cables were secured other creepers from tlie tops 
of the loftiest trees on each side of the stream, while horizontal 
guys prevented the bridge from swaying about. Across the 





lower pair of cables sticks were laid to form a roadway. These 
were lashed in their places and wattled in with creepers, while 
a large net-work of the same connected the upper and lower ca- 
bles on each side of the bridge. Altogether it was a very in- 
genious and eifective strnctnre, and rather astonished me, more 
especially as I had never seen any similar construction in Afri- 
ca, nor indeed did I meet with another. 

Karungu, at which we camped, was a large town, or, more 
properly, group of villages, lying on the slojje of a hill, and it 
was arranged that we should halt here for a day before starting 
straight away for Kwakasongo, an Arab settlement on the road 
to Nyangwe. 


As I was sitting the next morning rpiietly reading and writ- 
ing, I heard muskctry-hre and a great disturbance in the Arab 
camp, and saw the natives flying in every direction, pursued by 
the traders' men. Matters had evidently come to a crisis, and I 
therefore collected all my men, and ordered them, under pain 
of instant and severe j)unishment, neither to leave the camp nor 
to fire at the natives, unless driven to do so in self-defense. I 
then went over to Muinyi Ilassani, to inquire the cause of the 
row, and found him all excitement and in a great fright. The 
story was this : 


The natives of villages at which we had camped since leav- July, 
ing the Luama had been following us, with the hope of having i^"^*- 
an opportunity of attacking us in return for the injuries they 
had experienced at the hands of the caravan. In order to turn 
the tables, and bring matters to a head, two chiefs had ordered 
something to be stolen from the Arabs, knowing that they 
would not hesitate to demand its restoration, and that a palaver 
would then take place. 

As anticipated, the Arabs sent some messages respecting the 
theft, whereupon the chiefs came to the camp, and, confident in 
the numbers of natives lurking in ambush in the neighboring 
woods, refused to restore the stolen property — a small bark 
box full of beads — unless payment were made for every thing 
that had been stolen and destroyed in their villages. Muinyi 
Hassan i refused to accede to this, and demanded that the box 
should be returned unconditionally. The chiefs replied that if 
Muinyi Hassani and his people wanted it, they had better try 
to get it back by force. Then, rising to go away, they were 
treacherously shot down by some armed Wanyamwezi. 

I told Muinyi Hassani I should defend myself if attacked; 
but, since he was so entirely in the wrong, I would not allow a 
single man to put his foot outside my camp to assist in any ag- 
gression against the natives. 

By this time many surrounding villages were in flames, and 
the pagazi were returning from the work of destruction, driv- 
ing herds of goats and sheep before them, and bringing in un- 
fortunate women and children as captives ; for the natives, not- 
withstanding their over\Yhelming numbers, would not face the 
Arabs' muskets. 

In the afternoon, however, they began to assemble in great- 
er numbers, and I tried to persuade Muinyi Hassani to make 
peace ; but the attempt only ended in another row. During the 
day, Kamwassa, son of Manyara, a chief who was friendly with 
the Arabs, came into our camp, and I endeavored to enlist 
his influence in inducing the natives to listen to overtures of 
peace. Still, nothing could then be done to attain so desirable 
a result. 

Many alarms were raised in the night, and some guns were 
flred, but no fighting took place; and in the morning, when 

256 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, crowds of people bad gathered round the camp, shouting and 
1874. yelling, Kamwassa urged them to listen to terms. 

I believe the Arabs would have continued fighting had I not 
been there ; but they said, " We have an Englishman in the 
camp ; he will give us a bad name to his consul at Zanzibar ;" 
and as they all entertain a great respect for our consul — look- 
ing upon him as superior to every one but their own sultan, 
with whom they deem him almost on an equality — my pres- 
ence had some weight in checking further outrage and hostil- 

The palaver was opened by deputies from the natives and 
traders going to the opposite banks of a small stream near the 
camp, and then meeting in the middle, and washing each other's 
faces. Then the natives came over to our side of the stream, 
and some of the chiefs " made brothers " with people selected 
from among the caravan. The brotherhood business having 
been completed, some pen-and-ink marks were made on a piece 
of paper, which, together with a charge of powder, was put into 
a kettleful of water. All hands then drank of the decoction, 
the natives being told that it was a very great medicine. 

Peace having been concluded, my next efforts were directed 
toward obtaining the release of the prisoners. To this there 
was a very strong opposition ; but I insisted on it, and in the 
end it was arranged that ransom should be paid for them. Oth- 
erwise the natives might have thought we were afraid of them, 
and would have attacked ns farther on the road. 

On leaving here, we had a long and tiring march through 
many villages, and the caravan was much hampered by the 
goats received as ransom for the unfortunate captives constantly 
running oft' into the jungle. When we camped, I found some 
slaves captured at Karungu still in the caravan, upon M'liieh I 
demanded that they should be set at liberty. This led to a 
stormy discussion with Muinyi Ilassani, who was not so anxious 
about the presence of my men, now we had passed through 
the worst of Manyuuma ; but I threatened him with all the 
terrors of the sultan and the English consul, and finally said I 
should set the captives free by force, if necessary. I told him 
plainly that I did not and could not interfere with the buying 
and selling of slaves by him and his friends, or with their seiz- 


ing them by the strong arm when alone ; but I was determined July, 
that the English colors, which had brought freedom to so many ^^'^^- 
on both coasts of Africa, should not be disgraced in the centre 
of the continent. 

In the end the slaves were set at liberty, and a hollow peace 
was patched up between us ; but I decided to have nothing fur- 
ther to do with Muinyi Hassani on reaching Nyangwd. 

The following day we arrived at the village of Manyara, 
standing among many others over which he was really, though 
not nominally, the chief. All had two or three foundries in 
them, upward of thirty feet long by twenty wide, with low 
walls and an enormously high roof. In the centre was a pit, 
six feet wide, four deep, and twenty long, rather shallower at 


one end than the other. Across this, about six feet from the 
shallow end, was built a' clay furnace four feet wide. The 
smaller of the two divisions of the pit was used as a stoke-hole, 
while the ore and slag ran into the other, and round the sides 
were small divisions containing charcoal and iron ore. 

They sometimes use as many as a dozen pair of bellows at 
one time in order to make a sufficient blast. Their bellows are 
formed of two upright and parallel shallow wooden cylinders, 
with vents leading into one nozzle, which is protected by clay 
from the effects of the fire. These cylinders are covered with 
grass -cloth having a stick three feet long fastened into the 
centre, and are worked by holding one stick in each hand, and 

258 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, moving them up and down alternately as fast as possible. By 
J^^^_ this means a good and continuous blast is produced. 

After smelting, the iron is worked by smiths into small pieces 
weighing about two pounds, and shaped like two cones joined 
together at the base, and a piece or rod the size of a large knit- 
ting-needle projects from both ends. In this form the metal is 
hawked about for sale. 

Small open sheds are used as smithies, and the anvils and 
larger hammers are made of stone ; but small hammers are of 
iron. Those of stone are provided with two loops of rope to 
serve as handles, while the iron hammers are simply grasped in 
the hand and are without handles. 

The dress of the people had now changed somewhat, the men 
mostly wearing kilts. Heads were still plastered with clay, but 
not so elaborately as among the first people I saw in Manyu^- 
ma. The women wore round their waists a small strip of leath- 
er ornamented with iron and copper beads, and through this 
and between their legs a piece of rough bark-cloth was passed, 
the ends being allowed to hang down before and behind. They 
shaved the tops of their heads, leaving only a sort of trellis pat- 
tern of very short hair, and a bunch of ringlets hung down the 
backs of their necks. 

A friend of Syde's and some native chiefs met us here, and 
they treated us to so many extraordinary stories that it was 
impossible to rely upon any thing they said. One of the chiefs 
was very elaborately adorned with kilt, cap, and scarf of varie- 
gated grass-cloth, and was followed by men carrying shields and 
spears, while two others brought uj) the rear with an enormous 
drum slung on a pole. The hindmost one performed vigorous- 
ly upon this instrument when approaching a village. 

Two days' marching from Manyara brought us to Kwaka- 
songo. On our way we passed a hill composed almost entirely 
of black speculum iron ore ; and a curious mount with precipi- 
tous cliffs, which formed one side of it, rose sheer out of the 

At Kwakasongo there is an Arab settlement of some size, 
three white Arabs, besides many half-castes and Wamerima, be- 
ing there. They have good houses and live comfortably, while 
they send out their caravans, composed of slaves and Wanyam- 


wezi pagazi. One man alone employed six hundred Wanyam- August, 
wezi, all armed with guns. These fellows get little or no pay, ^^'^*- 
but are allowed to loot the country all round in search of sub- 
sistence and slaves. Some of the slaves they keep for them- 
selves, giving their employers a sufficient number in return for 
the powder supplied to enable them to oppress the natives. 

The Arab who had six hundred Wanyamwezi possessed up- 
ward of fifteen tons of good ivory in his store-houses, and was 
waiting for the road between Ujiji and Unyanyembe to be re- 
ported clear before sending it to the coast. Some others also 
had a good amount, but I found my friend Q) Syde was a needy 
beggar, and his stories about possessing great influence here 
were myths. 

As usual, the Arabs were very civil and kind, and we could 
not tear ourselves away from their hospitalities under a week. 

Muinyi Hassani, meanwhile, remained camped in a neighbor- 
ing village, nursing himself through a bad attack of fever. I 
felt bound to doctor him, notwithstanding our row about the 
slaves, and went two miles out and two back every morning and 
evening to look after him ; but I never received so much as a 
word of thanks for my trouble, and I imagine my patient had 
neither forgotten nor forgiven my interference in the slave 

We left Kwakasongo on the 1st of August, and after two 
marches came in sight of the mighty Lualaba. From a bluff 
overhanging the river I obtained my first view of the stream — 
a strong and sweeping current of turbid yellow water fully a 
mile wide, and flowing al; the rate of three or four knots an 
hour, with many islands, inuch like the eyots on the Thames, 
lying in its course. The larger ones were well wooded, and in- 
habited by the Wagenya, a tribe holding all the islands and a 
long strip on the left bank, and, as the sole proprietors of ca- 
noes, having the whole carrying trade of the river in their hands. 

Canoes were numerous, and the flocks of water-fowl, wing- 
ing their way from sand-bank to sand-bank in search of food, 
gave life to the scene. To remind us of the dangers of the 
stream, there were enormous herds of hippopotami blowing and 
snorting, and here and there the long scaly back of a crocodile 
floating ahnost flush with the water. 






Just before coming upon the river, we passed villages in 
which the huts had reverted to the shape of those in Waguhha 
and Ubudjwa. Near them were regularly jDlanted groves of oil- 
palms, surrounded by hedges of prickly cactus, and at the en- 
trance on each side huts were built for the guardians of the 
plantation. These groves were also protected from the attacks 
of elephants and other wild beasts by innumerable large pit- 
falls dug round about them, which rendered it necessary for the 
passer-by to be very wary in his walking. 

On the evening of my arrival I entered into an agreement 
with some natives to convey me, with a portion of my stores and 
men, to Nyangwe by boat, while the remainder went by land. 


Muinyi Bokhari, the poor grass-eating old man, died during 
the night, and was at once buried by fire-light with very little 

When I went to the brink of the river, early in the morning, 
not a canoe was to be seen. Shortly afterward they began to 
pass from one island to another, and to haul up and set fishing- 
traps. But not one came near us until about ten o'clock, when, 
by dint of beckoning and shouting, some men were induced to 
come across from an island in the middle of the stream, and, 
after a long palaver, bi-ought three canoes. These I hired and 
paid for on the spot, and started at once for Nyangwe. 


The passage down the river was rapid and pleasant, owing August, 
to the swift current and the beauty of the scenery. On the is*?-*. 
left bank the shore rose gradually till it culminated in a range 
of wooded hills ten or twelve miles distant ; while the right 
bank rose abruptly in small cliffs crowned by hanging woods, 
and here and there broken by the embouchure of one of the 
numerous affluents of the giant stream. Islands, populous and 
wooded, were passed in constant succession. 

From flocks of duck feeding on the numerous sand-banks I 
managed to bag two or three couple, and found them almost 
precisely like an English wild duck, except in color. The body 
was white, speckled with brown ; wings, head, and tail, black, 
shot with greenish blue. 


In the afternoon the canoe-men put in at a fishing village on 
the right bank, and declared their intention of halting. I told 
them they might stop if they pleased, but I and the canoes 
were going on to Nyangwe ; for I well knew that if we camped 
neither canoes nor men would be forthcoming next mornino-. 
Seeing that I was determined, the men consented to go on. 

At sunset I noticed some large huts on a bluff over the 
river. This was the commencement of the Arab settlement 
of N'yangwe, and a landing-place was just below. Jumping 
ashore, I went into the settlement, and my appearance rather 
astonished the people ; for they had heard nothing of our ap- 

262 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

August, proacli, and could not imagine where a solitary white man 
i^"^*- came from. 

The news of my arrival was at once communicated to Habed 
ibn Salim, a line white-headed old Arab, commonly known as 
Tanganyika, and he came running out of his house, where he 
had been performing his evening devotions, to ascertain what 
it could mean. A few words explained matters, and we very 
shortly became great friends. 

My tent was pitched close to his house, and the veranda of 
a large new building was placed at my service, and stowage for 
my stores and house-room for my followers were 8up23lied with- 
out delay. A mess of smoking-hot curry was also soon put be- 
fore me ; and very acceptable it was, for I had taken nothing 
that day, excepting a cup of corn coffee before starting in the 

At last, then, I was at Nyangwe ! And now the question be- 
fore me was. What success would attend the attemj^t at tracing 
the river to the sea ? 

XX.] NYANGWfl. 263 


Nyangwe. — The Head-man's Harem. — Syde Mezrui is a Fraud. — A Slow Set. — The 
Markets. — The Weaker Sex. — Their Lordly Masters. — Difficulty in obtaining 
Canoes. — Native Opinion of the White Man. — As Others see Us. — An Antislavery 
Lecture. — A Clear-headed Man of Business. — An Old Impostor. — No Guides. — 
Fighting on the Road. — Ulegga. — The Lualaba and the Nile. — Lake Sankorra. — 
Tipo-tipo. — Crossing the Lualaba. — A Fever Den. — Bad Quarters. — Fishing-vreir 
Bridges. — Russuna. — A Brush with the Natives. — Blood-money. — A Check upon 
Looting. — Russuna's Wives. — Not Bashful, but Inquisitive. — A State Visit. — Rus- 
suna's Private Village. — The Cares of a Mother-in-law. 

ISTyangwe has been well chosen by the Zanzibar traders as a August, 
permanent settlement on the Lualaba. It takes the form of i^'^*- 
two villages, each set on an eminence above the river, divided 
by a small valley watered by a little marshy stream, and afford- 
ing admirable rice grounds. 

The right bank of the river, on which Nyangwe is situated, 
being well raised, is free from malaria and fever, while the left 
bank is low, and overflowed by the annual floods, which leave 
festering, stagnant backwaters. It is about as pestilential a 
place as it is possible to imagine, notwithstanding which the 
Wagenya live and flourish there, apparently feeling no ill ef- 
fects from the miasma. 

Of the two settlements, th,e western one is occupied entirely 
by Wamerima from Bagamoyo and its neighboring district. 
The head-man among them is Muinyi Dugumbi, who, finding 
himself a far greater personage here than he could ever hope 
to be in his native place, gave up all idea of returning to the 
coast, and devoted his attention and energies to establishing a 
harem. He had collected round him over three hundred slave 
women, and the ill effects of this arrangement, and his indul- 
gence in bhang and pombe, were plainly noticeable in his rapid 
decline into idiotcy. 

The eastern part, where I staid, is the abode of the Wasuahili 
and Arabs, but Tanganyika was the only one then there ; the 


264 ACEOSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

August, factories of Syde ibn Habib and others being under the charge 
1874. Qf confidential slaves. 

Tanganyika showed me the house he had lent to Living- 
stone. It belonged to, and was occupied at that time by, one 
of his wives, whom he turned out of her home for the conven- 
ience of the doctor. 

That part of my caravan which journeyed by land arrived 
two days after me, and I instantly made endeavors to collect 
canoes for the attempt at floating down the river to the sea. 

Syde Mezrui, notwithstanding his boasted acquaintance with 
the chiefs, proved to be of very small consequence, and con- 
tented himself with constantly asking for beads. When re- 
fused by me, Bombay and Bilal, in sj)ite of my positive orders 
to the contrary, gave him what he wanted, until I detected the 
little game, and locked my beads up in Tanganyika's ivory- 

Tanganyika offered to assist me in every thing in his power, 
but said that Muinyi Dugumbi was regarded as head-man by 
the natives, and therefore nmst be consulted. That individual 
altogether failed to understand the object of being in a hurry ; 
and, as I had only arrived a few days, thought that surely a 
month or so hence would be time enough to think about ca- 
noes. I would not leave him till he promised that he would 
try to persuade the natives to sell me some canoes on the 
first market-day. Others made some show of affording aid, 
but they always said, " Slowly, slowly ; don't be in a hurry ; 
to-morrow will d<^ as well as to-day ;" and so the matter dragged 

Every fourth day large markets were held in each part of 
the settlement ; and as the neighboring chiefs and canoe-own- 
ers came to them, I had great hopes of getting what I required. 
At the first that occurred after my arrival, I found cowries, 
goats, and slaves were the only currency available in large pur- 
chases ; and being without these, I could do no trade. Tangan- 
yika induced some men to promise they would think about sell- 
ing their canoes if I obtained cowries, and also arranged to take 
Bombay across the river, and through the strip inhabited by the 
Wagenya to the woods Avliere canoes were made. 

Early in the morning of market-day canoes appeared on the 




river in every direction, bringing people with pottery, palm-oil, 
fish, fowls, flour, salt, grass-cloth, slaves, and every thing pro- 
duced in the country. They were crowded and laden to such 
an extent as to render the presence of a black Mr. Plimsoll 
highly advantageous to passengers and cargo ; but as the crew 
were oftentimes the owners, perhaps they would have objected 
to his watchful eye. 


At the landing-places the canoes were hauled ashore, when 
the men shouldered the paddles, and sauntered slowly to the 
market-place, leaving the women to bring up the merchandise. 
This they carried in large baskets slung on their backs by a strap 
across the forehead, like the creels of the Scottish fish-wives. 

The men moved about the market-place doing nothing, un- 


266 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

August, less soinetliing important — siieli as the sale of a slave — occurred 
1874. to attract their attention. The women, on the contrary, ad- 
dressed all their energies to the momentous work of bargaining 
and chaffering ; and as soon as they had selected the spot where 
they intended to locate themselves, down went the baskets, and 
the articles for sale were arranged on the ground. The sales- 
women then, sitting in the baskets, squatted on the ground, and 
looked like some extraordinary specimens of shell-hsh ; the bas- 
kets doing duty as shells, and preserving their delicate persons 
from contact with the damp earth. 

The whole of the purchasers and venders jammed themselves 
in a compact mass, none standing a yard from the main body, 
although there was plenty of room for them to have moved 
about in comfort. But they seemed determined to squeeze to- 
gether for three or four hours in a screaming, sweating, and, I 
may add, stinking crowd, the savor of which ascended on high. 
Suddenly a move w^ould be made by some person, and in 
another twenty minutes the two thousand that had been as- 
sembled were dispersed. 

Every day these markets take place on some neutral ground, 
and the feuds in which the j^eople are constantly engaged cease 
for the time the market is being held, as also during the pas- 
sage of buyers and sellers to and from their villages. 

Except at Nyangwe, the market-places are in uninhabited 
spots; and here there were only the houses of traders and the 
huts of their slaves and porters, who had settled there princi- 
pally on account of the market. The neighboring chiefs are 
always to be seen on these occasions, and at Nyangwe they 
lounged about the Arabs' verandas, talking of the price of ivo- 
ry, goats, and slaves. 

I tried every means to persuade the people to sell me canoes, 
but without avail. One hoary-headed old fellow said that no 
good to the Wagenya had ever resulted from the advent of 
strangers, and he should advise each and all of his countrymen 
to refuse to sell or hire a single canoe to the wdiite man ; for if 
he acted like the strangers w^ho had gone before him, he would 
only prove a fresh oppressor to the natives, or open a new road 
for robbers and slave - dealers. Others said they would bring 
canoes if I paid for them in slaves ; but I replied that, as an 


Englishman, I could not deal in slaves. Englishmen did not August, 
recognize the status of slavery, and in our opinion all men 1874. 
should be free. I added, that, of course, I was powerless to 
make alterations in the customs or laws of a country where 
slavery was allowed; but that if ray sovereign heard of my 
being engaged in the slightest degree in any transaction that 
might savor of trading in slaves, I should get into great trou- 
ble on my return to my own country, as the whole idea of our 
Government was opposed to any form of slavery whatever. 

Some of the chiefs then agreed to accept an equivalent for 
slaves, taking their current price in cowries, but only one ever 
came again about his bargain. When I counted out before ' 

him the correct number of cowries, which I had purchased at 
about threepence or fourpence apiece, he quietly looked them 
over and then returned them, remarking that if he took home 
such a quantity of cowries they would only be ajDpropriated by 
his wives as ornaments, and he would be poorer by a canoe ; 
and his wives, w^earing numbers of cowries, would not provide 
him with better food or clothing. 

So anxious was I to close this bargain, that I offered double 
the value of his canoe in cowries, saying that surely his wives • 
could not possibly wear such an amount. But he had a won- 
derfully keen idea of trading, and replied that the cowries 
would be lying idle and bringing him in nothing till he man- 
aged to buy slaves with them, whereas, if he received slaves in 
payment, he could set them at work at once to paddle canoes 
between the markets, to catch fish, to make pottery, or to culti- 
vate his fields ; in fact, he did not want his capital to lie idle. 

Muinyi Dugumbi used to " sell " me when I went to ask his 
assistance on a market-day. His reply was always, " Stop in the 
veranda. I will go and see if there are any people who have 
canoes to sell ;" and he would leave me apparently on this er- 
rand. But I afterward found that he used to slip into one of 
the houses of his harem by a back way, and remain there until 
the market-people had gone. 

Tanganyika tried his utmost to find men willing to part with 
canoes, but builders even would not dispose of their craft. Two 
or three promised to do so, and received part payment in ad- 
vance, but they afterward returned the cowries. 

268 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

August, What further to do Tanganyika did not know, Ijut he as- 

1874. sured me I was welcome to tlie only one he possessed ; and he 
held out, as some encouragement, the j^ossibility of my obtain- 
ing canoes on the return of a large party then making war on 
the natives on the other bank. They had canoes, and it was 
likely that when the natives saw I had some, they would not 
object to my getting more. 

Waiting M'as weary work, but I lived in hope, and spent 
many tedious hours in talking with Tanganyika about his dif- 
ferent journeys. From him I heard that the river flowed west- 
south-west from Nyangwe, and fell into a great lake to which 
men, bringing cowries and cloth for sale, came in large vessels 
capable of containing two hundred peoj)le. 

Some distance west of ]N'yangwe was Meginna, and to that 
place people owning boats traded, according to statements 
made to me by Arabs who had been there. I tried to engage 
guides and men to escort me to Meginna by land, our party be- 
ing far too small, in the eyes of my people, to make the jour- 
ney by itself, as the high-handed manner in which large armed 
parties of traders traveled had set all the natives against them. 
But the settlers at Nyangwe declared themselves to be too 
short of powder and guns to sj^are a sufficient force to accom- 
pany me and return safely by themselves, so no volunteers were 
forthcoming. In addition to this, they were very mucli afraid 
to travel by the roads north of the Lualaba ; for se\eral strong 
and well-armed ])arties had been severely handled by the na- 
tives in that direction, and had returned to Nyangwe with the 
loss of more than lialf their numbers. 

One party, wlio had been a long way to north -north -east, 
and reached Ulegga, had especially suffered, having lost over 
two hundred out of their total strength of three hundred. 
They described the natives as being very fierce and warlike, 
and using })oisoned arrows, a mere scratch from which proved 
fatal in four or five minutes, unless an antidote, known only to 
the natives, was immediately applied. Ulegga was, they said, a 
country of large mountains wooded to the summits, and valleys 
filled with such dense forest that they traveled four and five 
days in succession without seeing the sun. From the natives 
they had heard that people wearing long white clothes and us- 


ing beasts of burden came to trade far to the north of the far- August, 
thest point they had reached. These, no doubt, were the Egyp- 1874. 
tian traders in the Soudan. 

All the streams seen by them on these journeys flowed to- 
ward the Lualaba, which, west of Nyangwe, received three large 
rivers from the northward — the Lilwa, Lindi, and Lowa. This 
last, which I believe to be the Uelle of Dr. Schweinfurth, was 
reported to be as large as the Lualaba (the Ugarowwa of the 
Arabs) at Xyangwe, and to be fed by two ijnportant afiluents, 
both called Lulu, one from the east, the other from the west. 

The levels I obtained at Nyangwe conclusively proved that the 
Lualaba could have no connection whatever with the Nile sys- 
tem, the river at Nyangwe being lower than the Nile at Gon- 
dokoro, below the point at which it has received all its affluents. 

The volume of water also passing Nyangwe is 123,000 cubic 
feet per second in the dry season, or more than five times great- 
er than that of the Nile at Gondokoro, which is 21,500 feet per 
second. This great stream must be one of the head-waters of 
the Kongo, for where else could that giant among rivers, second 
only to the Amazon in its volume, obtain the two million cubic 
feet of water which it unceasingly pours each second into the 
Atlantic ? The large affluents from the north would explain 
the comparatively small rise of the Kongo at the coast; for 
since its enormous basin extends to both sides of the equator, 
some portion of it is always under the zone of rains, and there- 
fore the supply to the main stream is nearly the same at all 
times, instead of varying, as is the case with tropical rivers 
whose basins lie completely on one side of the equator. 

After I had remained at'Nyangwd rather more than a fort- 
night, one of the expeditions that had been looting slaves, goats, 
and every thing they could lay their hands on to the south of 
the river, returned, and with it the men who owned canoes. I 
offered any thing in reason for a few canoes, but they would 
not part with one even, and my hopes were rapidly falling to 
zero. But on the ITth of August I heard the sound of fire- 
arms drawing near, and was told that another party of maraud- 
ers were returning. This proved, however, to be the advanced 
guard of Tipo-tipo (Hamed ibn Hamed). He was coming to 
Nyangwe from his permanent camp about ten marches off, in 

270 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

August, order to settle a difference between the plunderers and a friend 
18'74. Qf ijjg^ a chief called Russuna, who had begged him to interfere 
when the Njangwe people attacked him. 

In conversation with the leader of this guard, I ascertained 
that Tipo-tipo's camp Avas close to the banks of the Lomami, 
an important southern affluent of the Lualaba, and that the lake 
into which that river flowed was within fourteen or fffteen 
marches of the camp ; and he said that there were people with 
Tipo-tipo who had been to this lake, the Sankorra, and had met 
traders there with large boats. 

Two days afterward Tipo-tipo arrived, and came to see me. 
He was a good-looking man, and the greatest dandy I had seen 
among the traders; and, notwithstanding his being perfectly 
black, he was a thorough Arab, for, curiously enough, the ad- 
mixture of negro blood had not rendered him less of an Arab 
in his ideas and manners. He marched to his present camp 
from Katanga, and, although he had been settled there for near- 
ly two years, had no idea of the proximity of the settlement at 
Nyangwe. He advised me that to reach Lake Sankorra the 
best method would be to return with him to his camp, and then, 
procuring guides and crossing the Lomami, to march straight 
for the lake. Natives were constantly passing backward and 
forward in small parties, and he did not think the journey 
would prove difficult. With him were two natives of the coun- 
try west of the Lomami, who confirmed his views, and also gave 
me some particulars of a lake named Iki, situated on the Lu- 
wembi, an affluent of the Lomami, and which is probably the 
Lake Lincoln of Livingstone. 

Tipo-tipo was accompanied by some of Russuna's head-men, 
and the palave'r concerning the attempted raid on that chief 
was quickly settled by the declaration of Tipo-tipo that he 
would side with Russuna if he were again attacked. As his 
caravan, and those of five or six traders who recognized him as 
their head, could have brought more gims into the field than 
the Nyangwo people, and as the traders at Kwakasongo were 
also likely to have sided with Tipo-tipo, he and his father be- 
ing two of the richest and most influential of the traveling Zan- 
zibar merchants, it was thought wise to promise to leave Rus- 
suna alone in future. 





On the 26tli of August, having bid farewell to Muinyi Du- August, 
gumbi, I set about getting my men across the river in readiness i^'^^. 
for starting with Tipo-tipo early the following day, Tangan- 
yika provided canoes, and assisted me much ; but in the after- 
noon a bad attack of fever laid him up, and I was thrown upon 
my own resources. I saw nearly every man away from the 
l^yangwe side, and then, being very tired, left Bombay with a 
canoe containing a portion of my kit, to bring the remaining 
men across after me. 

On landing on the other side, I found the village where we 
had to camp situated on the bank of a stagnant, muddy back- 
water, reeking under the sun's rays. The place was inhabited 
only in the dry season by the fever-proof Wagenya, owing to 
its being flooded for four or five months of the year. 

In vain that night did I look for Bombay and the remainder 
of the stores and men ; and when he joined me at noon the 
next day, Asmani, his chum Mabruki, and another pagazi had 
deserted, taking with them guns and ammunition, I heard that, 
the moment I was out of sight, Bombay unloaded the canoe, 
and coolly returned to the settlement to indulge in a big drink. 
My bed, cooking gear, provisions, and medicine-chest were all in 
that canoe, and to the want of them may, in a great measure, be 
attributed the heavy attack of fever I had after sleeping on the 
low left bank of the river. 

Fever or no fever, I determined to go on ; and at one o'clock 
started to meet Tipo-tipo, who had crossed the river rather low- 
er down. Our road led through many villages, the inhabitants 
of which were employed either in catching fish in the backwa- 
ters, or making large egg-shaped pots used for storing palm-oil. 
JS^early every hut had a pig tied to the door-post, and its odor, 
combined with that of mud, rotten fish, etc, made a houquet 
cFAfrique not to be imagined. 

Soon after joining Tipo-tipo we left the river, and began to 
ascend a gentle slope ; and, passing a market in full swing, ar- 
rived, after four hours' marching, at the river Kovubu, a large 
stream, which we crossed on a gigantic fishing -weir bridge. 
The weir was composed of poles, in many instances over forty 
feet in length, and from the number used it was evident that a 
great amount of patient and well-directed labor must have been 





required in its construction. Here we halted, and most of tlie 
people took the opportunity to have a bathe ; but I was obliged 
to lie down and rest, being completely exhausted by fever. 
After a time we moved on, passing many deserted villages, with 
their crops destroyed by the late marauders from Nyangwe, and 
camped about nine in the evening. 


During the last part of the march, the fever so increased that 
I reeled like a drunken man, and was scarcely able to drag one 
foot after the other. To my fevered vision and ideas the large, 
white, pyramidal ant-hills, which were plentiful, often seemed 
to be my tent ; and when I found myself mistaken, the hope 
that each in succession might really prove to be it kept me 
moving, although I was thoroughly beaten. I was somewhat 
better the next day, and managed to get along ; but it was weary 




work, and my feet were so blistered that I was obliged to slit 
open my boots, 

Russuna's was reached on the 29th of August, the country 
passed through being very fertile, with many fine trees, mpafu, 
gum-copal, African oak, teak, and others. In one place there 
was a large grove of nutmeg-trees, and for forty or fifty yards 
the ground was literally covered with nutmegs. 

During this march a very unpleasant fracas occurred, owing 
to some ^yangwe people, who were accompanying us to Tipo- 
tipo's to buy copper, being recognized as old enemies by the 
natives, who let fly a volley of arrows in the midst of them. 


bussOna's suield and dbum. 

In an instant all was confusion, and two or three natives were 
shot down before a parley could be begun ; but Tipo-tipo ap- 
pearing on the spot, they recognized him, and were re-assured. 
Some, however, did not recover from their fright until I had 
induced them to sit round me, and guaranteed their safety 
until matters were settled. 

Tipo-tipo compelled the ISTyangwe people to pay blood-money 
for those natives who had been killed, as he argued that it 
was owing to their folly in going in front of his men — who 
were well known to the natives as friends — that the trouble 
had arisen. I was delighted to see his leading men serve out 





sound and well-deserved thrashings to some AYanyamwezi por- 
ters from Nyangwe, who had taken advantage of the row to 
commence looting a village. 

We camped about two miles from Russuna's village, yet he, 
together with his brother and half a dozen wives, came to stay 
with us during our two days' halt. He visited me very often, 
bringing a different wife each time. They were the hand- 
somest women I had seen in Africa, and, in addition to their 
kilts of grass -cloth, w^ore scarfs of the same material across 
their breasts. 


On the second day all fear of me and bashfulness had van- 
ished, and they came in a body to see me. I soon had them all 
sitting around me looking at pictures and other curiosities ; and 
after a time they began to wax so much more familiar that they 
turned up the legs and sleeves of my sleeping suit, which I al- 
ways wore in camp, to discover whether it was my face alone 
that was white. Indeed, they ultimately became so inquisitive 


that I began to fear they would undress me altogether; to September, 
avoid which I sent for some beads and cowries and gave them i^"^^- 
a scramble, and thus withdrew their attention from my per- 
sonal peculiarities. 

When Russuna came to see me, he brought a large and hand- 
somely carved stool upon which he sat, while he used the lap 
of one of his wives, who was seated on the ground, as his foot- 
stool. "While he remained here a sub-chief visited him in state, 
accompanied by people carrying shields ornamented with cow- 
ries and beads, and fringed with black monkey - skins, and a 
woman bearing on a spear the skin of a tippet-monkey as a 
standard. Russima, in equal state, went a short distance from 
the camp to meet and welcome him. This chief and Russuna 
then had a palaver with Tipo-tipo and the Nyangwe Arabs, and, 
after swearing eternal friendship, the caravan was free to pro- 
ceed on its way to Tipo-tipo's camp, which was reached, without 
any further adventure, on the 3d of September. 

Russiina's private village, inhabited only by himself and his 
wives, had been passed on the road. It consisted of about forty 
comfortable square huts in two rows, with a large one in the 
centre for himself. Each hut contained about four wives, and 
Russiina's mother had the pleasant task of keeping them all in 

276 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 


Tipo-tipo's Camp. — Kasongo Visits us in State. — The Ceremoii}-. — Kasongo's Ready 
Assistance. — I become a Gun-smith, Bone-setter, and Soap-boiler. — Kasongo at 
Home. — Sankorra Traders. — Am forbidden to proceed. — Reasons for not using 
Force. — I take Another Route. — Warua Guides. — Export of Slaves from Man- 
yuema. — Their Disposal. — Cause of Increase of Slave-holding. — Ants as a Deli- 
cacy. — Mode of trapping Them. — ^A Lazy Leader. — Kifuma Hospitality. — ^A De- 
sirable Residence. — Carved Door-posts. — A Rifle is stolen. — Fear of Conse- 
quences. — Thankfulness and Gratitude. — Leaving my " Guide " to his own De- 
vices. — I strike out a New Course. — My Men will not follow. — I will not re- 
turn. — Their Scruples are overcome. — Attack on the Caravan. — Fists versus 
Archery. — Peace. — Kasenge. — Hundreds fliock to see me feed. — Kwarumba. 

September, Tipo-Tipo's camp was well arranged, and sitnated on a slight 
1874. eminence ; but not being a really permanent settlement, no 
large houses had been built, although Tipo-tipo and the other 
traders had good huts. They provided me with a very com- 
fortable one, having two small apartments and a bath-room, be- 
sides sheds for my servants, and cooking arrangements. 

Before making preparations for crossing the Lomami, we had 
to receive a visit from Kasongo, the chief of the district, which 
took place two days after our arrival. At eight o'clock on that 
morning, Tipo-tipo, myself, and every leading man of his and 
the Nyangwe parties, arra3'ed ourselves in our best — although I 
confess mine was not much of a turn-out — and assembled in an 
open shed, which was the general meeting-place of the settle- 
ment during the day, and often far into the night. 

An individual authorized by the chief to do duty as master 
of the ceremonies then arrived, carrying a long carved walking- 
stick as a badge of office, his advent being the signal for all 
porters and slaves in camp and people from surrounding vil- 
lages to crowd round to witness the spectacle. The master of 
ceremonies drove the anxious sight-seers back, and formed a 
space near the reception-room — as the hut may be termed — and 
then different sub-chiefs arrived, each followed by spearmen 




and shield-bearers, varying in number according to rank, a few September, 
of the more important being followed also by drummers. Each 1874. 
new-comer was brought to the entrance, where the Arabs and 
myself had taken our seats, and his name and rank proclaimed 
by the master of the ceremonies, who further informed him of 
the position he was to occupy in order to be ready to. welcome 

After some time spent in this manner, some drumming and 
shouting heralded the approach of the great man himself. 


First in the procession were half a dozen drummers, then thirty 
or forty spearmen, followed by six women carrying shields, and 
next Kasongo, accompanied by his brothers, eldest son, two of 
his daughters, and a few officials, the rear being brought up by 
spearmen, drummers, and marimba-players. On his" reaching 
the entrance to the hut, a ring was formed, and Kasongo— 
dressed in a jacket and kilt of red -and -yellow woolen cloth 
trimmed with long-haired monkey - skins, and with a greasy 


278 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

September, handkerchief tied round his head — performed a jigging dance 
1874. with his two daughters. 

The Terpsicliorean performance being conchided in about a 
quarter of an hour, lie tlien entered the hut, and we had a long 
conversation. I acquainted him with my wish to cross the 
Lomami and proceed to Lake Sankorra, and found that the 
country and road presented no great difliculties, and that we 
should be almost certain of meeting people who owned large 
boats on the lake ; but it would be necessary to obtain per- 
mission from the chief on the opposite bank of the Lomami, 
before passing through his territory. 

Kasongo kindly offered, in the iirst instance, to confer per- 
sonally with this chief on the matter ; but afterward, coming to 
the conclusion that he was too old for the journey, decided to 
dispatch some of his people with a party belonging to Tipo-tipo 
and myself to obtain the necessary permission. He made many 
inquiries as to my nationality and business, and I informed him 
that it was from my country that cloth and other articles used 
in trading in Africa were sent ; and my object was to visit the 
people who purchased these things and to see their countries, 
so that I might be enabled to tell my sultan what they wanted, 
and increase the trade for the benefit of both sides. 

When Kasongo had taken his departure, which was conduct- 
ed with much the same ceremony as that observed on arrival, I 
asked Tipo-tipo to lend me a few men, and detailed an equal 
number of my own, to accompany Kasongo's jDcople to the 

Next morning the party started, and I settled down for two 
or three days' rest. I was, however, occupied with doing many 
things for the benefit of the camp. All broken locks of mus- 
kets were brought to me for repairs ; I was asked to doctor 
peoj^le for fever and dysentery ; and in one instance to perform 
a surgical operation upon a man who had been shooting with 
copper slugs, and had lodged the charge in his hand. I cut the 
slugs out, put splints on the broken fingers, and dressed the 
whole with carbolized oil, and, l)efore I left, had the satisfaction 
of seeing the unfortunate fellow on the high-road to recovery. 
I could not make him hold his hand steady while extracting 
the slugs, so had to adopt rather a rough-and-ready course, and 


lashed Lis wrist firmly to an upright post during the opera- September, 
tion. '^ 1874. 

ISTot content with making me gunsmith and surgeon, they 
begged me to try my hand at the manufacture of soap from 
palm-oil, having heard that the English used it for that jjurpose. 
Not being sanguine as to the result, I did not care to make the 
attempt ; but they pressed it so upon me that I consented, and 
after much trouble succeeded in manufacturing a sort of soft 
soap — which would wash clothes — of palm-oil and lye made 
from ashes of the stalks of Indian corn. 

Two days after Kasongo's visit, I returned his call, and found 
him sitting on an open grassy space in the middle of his village, 
which was composed of good-sized, comfortable huts. He was 
dressed only in native grass-cloth, but looked far cleaner and 
more respectable than wdien tricked out in his tawdry finery. 
Some people then with him had just returned from Lake San- 
korra, and said that traders had been there very recently ; and, 
to prove the truth of their statements, showed me new cloth 
and beads they had bought there, quite different in kind and 
quality from any coming from Zanzibar. ' Another proof, and 
an unwelcome one, was that the cowi'ies I had purchased at Ny- 
angwe had fallen from the abnormal price they obtained there 
to considerably below par, when compared with beads. This 
was owing to the large quantities brought into the country by 
traders to the lake, who w^ere described to me as wearing hats 
and trousers, and having boats with, two trees (masts) in them. 

All my hopes of an easy journey to this mysterious lake were 
dashed to the ground on re(geiving the answer from the chief 
whose territory I desired to cross. "No strangers wdtli guns 
had," he said, " ever passed through his country, and none 
should, without fighting their way." 

Although I could have obtained suflftcient men from Nyangwe 
and Tipo-tipo to have easily fought my way through, I recog- 
nized it as my duty not to risk a single life unnecessarily ; for 
I felt that the merit of any geographical discovery would be 
irretrievabl}^ marred by shedding a drop of native blood except 
in self-defense. 

My direct road to the lake being thus closed, I inquired if it 
were possible to get there by some circuitous route. 





Tipo-tijjo had heard of Portuguese having been close to 
the chief of Urua's capital, wliich lay about a month's journey 
south-south-west from us, and showed me a Portuguese sol- 
dier's coat bought from a native, who stated that he received it 
from a white man who w^as with the chief of Warua. After 
consultation with Tij'to-tipo, and carefully weighing the 2)ros 
and i'ons^ I decided on proceeding to the chief of Warua in 
search of the white traders — who had, I thought, most probably 
come from the lake — and thence to work back to Sankorra by 
a road to the westward of the country through which I was for- 
bidden to pass. 

When I decided on taking this course, Tipo-tipo offered me 
the services of three Warua guides who had come from the 


south with him. They were Mona Kasanga, head-man, and son 
of a chief on Lake Kowamba ; M'Nchkkulla, one of the head- 
men of a village called Mukalombo ; and Kongwe, of no par- 
ticular rank or status. Wages and rations for the three were 
arranged, and, according to custom, paid in advance to Mona 
Kasanga. From them I gathered information about Lake Iki ; 
another called Mohrya, re])orted to have hiits on it built on 
piles ; and yet another, named Kassali, on which there M'ere 
floating islands. 

At lirst I was unable to make much use of this information, 
owing to their imperfect knowledge of Kisuahili ; but after- 
ward, when I had obtained the key, it proved most valuable. 
Besides these, Tipo-tipo also sent one of his leading men to 
journey ten days with me on the road. 

The only drawback I experienced to the comfort of Tii)o- 


tipo's camp was the number of slaves in chains who met my September, 
eyes at every turn ; but, except being deprived of their free- i^"^*- 
dom, and confined in order to prevent their running away, they 
had a tolerably easy life, and were well fed. 

Tipo-tipo and many Arab traders asserted that they would be 
glad to find other means of transport for their goods, instead of 
trusting to slaves ; but, not regarding slave-dealing as a sin in 
the abstract, they availed themselves of the means at their dis- 

Yery few slaves are exported from Manyuema by the Arabs 
for profit, but are obtained to fill their harems, to cultivate the 
farms which always surround the permanent camps, and to act 
as porters. 

By the time a caravan arrives at Tanganyika from the west- 
ward, nearly fifty per cent, have made their escape, and the ma- 
jority of those remaining are disposed of at Ujiji and Unyan- 
yembe, frequently as hire for free porters, so that comparative- 
ly few reach the coast. Slavery, nevertheless, is increasing, ow- 
ing to the number of coast people settling in the interior, who 
fancy that it adds to their dignity to possess large numbers of 

We left the camp on the 12th of September, with the usual 
amount of trouble caused by meii skulking, and pretending to 
be unable to carry any thing ; and on halting after a very short 
march, I had to send for men and loads remaining behind. In 
the night two men deserted ; but I went on without them, not 
finding out until afterward that they had stolen a quantity of 
Snider cartridges. To this they had been incited bv Syde Mez- 
rui, who also left at N^yangwe, by " accident," a rifle I had lent 
him during the journey from Ujiji. 

For some days we journeyed through a fairly populated 
country, with large villages of well-built and clean huts dis- 
posed in long streets, with bark-cloth trees planted on each side. 
All the streets ran east and west, but the reason for this cus- 
tom I was unable to discover. The people seemed friendly, and 
the chiefs usually brought small presents of corn or dried white 
ants — which are eaten here with porridge as a relish on account 
of the scarcity of animal food — and they were perfectly satis- 
fied with very small presents in return. 

282 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

September, The aiits are caught in rather an ingenious manner. A light 
^^'^^- frame-work of cane or twigs is built over a large ant-hill, and 
covered with leaves cleverly fastened together by sticking the 
midrib of each into the one above it. A very small entrance 
is left open at the bottom, and under this is dug a round hole 
a foot in diameter and two feet deep. When the winged ants- 
come out of the hill ready to migrate, they all make for this 
entrance and hustle each other into the hole, where they lose 
their wings, and are unable to get out. In the morning they 
are collected by the natives, who smoke them over slow lires to 
preserve them. 

Tlie country was wonderfully full of oil -palms, which in 
some places grew in extraordinary abundance. 

After two or three hours' marching each day, Tipo-tipo's 
man declared tliat the next camping-place was too far away to 
be reached until late, and therefore we had better stay \vhere 
we were. His orders were merely to accomj)auy me for ten 
days, and not to any specified place ; and it was, of course, to 
his advantage to make a day's march as short as possible. 

Each of the affluents of the Lomami with which the country 
was intersected had liollowed out for itself a small deej) valley 
in the nearly level plateau we were traversing, and, shaded by 
fine timber, their dark depths were rich in the most beautiful 
mosses and ferns it is possible to imagine. Sometimes one side 
of a valley was steep and cliff-like, exposing the various strata ; 
at the top, a shallow layer of vegetable mold, then about four- 
teen feet of sand and from fifty to seventy feet of water-worn 
pebbles of granite and quartz resting on the solid granite. 
The pebbles were occasionally divided into two parts by a stra- 
tum of soft yellowish sandstone of ten or twelve feet ; but all 
lay level except the granite, whicli was very irregular. 

Two days after Tipo-tipo's man left us, we arrived at a vil- 
lage named Kifuma, from which the people bolted on our ap- 
proach; but, on the peacefulness of our intentions becoming 
apparent, the chief came to me, and even offered his hut — a de- 
lightfully clean place — for my use. It was ten feet square, and 
a large portion of the space was occupied by a bed-place made 
of split midribs of the raphia palm. 

The two doors — but especially the front one — were wonder- 




fully good specimens of carpentering, each having two leaves 
working on pivots fitting into holes in the lintel and threshold. 
Where the leaves met they overlapped, and were halved into 
each other. The front door was also carved on the outside, 
with the pattern traced in red, white, and black, and on each 
side were three carved pillars. 



The floor was of clay, raised eighteen inches from the ground, 
and polished until quite slippery. The walls were seven feet 
in height, and built of poles about a foot apart, with stout slabs 
adzed out of logs between them, and kept in place by battens. 
The roof ran up in the form of a dome twenty feet high on the 
inside, and was made of slender rods fitting at the apex into a 
round piece of wood carved in concentric circles and painted 
black and white, wdiile two or three horizontal rows of rods gave 
strength and rigidity to tlie structure. This frame-work was 
covered with fine long grass, laid quite smoothly in horizon- 
tal lengths, and over this was a heavy thatch about two feet 
thick, coming down to the ground and evenly trimmed, the 

284 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

September, tliatcli over the doors being so cut and arranged as to form 
1874. porclies. 

During the night a rifle and cartridge-pouch being stolen, I 
spoke to the chief respecting the theft. He declared he knew 
nothing about it, and begged and prayed me not to destroy liis 
village on account of it. 

Of course I had no intention of doing this, and so I told him ; 
but he could hardly believe such forbearance on my part pos- 
sible. And when he saw us depart without having done any 
harm, his delight knew no bounds, and, to show his gratitude for 
what he evidently considered my unwonted lenity, he brought 
some goats to our next camp as a gift. I only accepted one, and 
gave him a present in return, on which he knelt down and fair- 
ly covered himself with mud in token of thankfulness. I told 
him Englishmen did not punish indiscriminately for theft, and 
that even if I had caught the thief 1 should only have compelled 
him to return the stolen rifle, and have given him a sound 
flogging. He had never before heard of such merciful treat- 
ment, and said the inhabitants of villages fled on the approach 
of the caravan because the only strangers they had any pre- 
vious knowledge of were those who came slave - hunting, and 
seized the slightest pretext to make war and destroy villages for 
the sake of obtaining slaves and plunder. 

For another few days we marched along by the Lomami, and 
then my guides became doubtful about the road, and endeavored 
to work east. One day, after the road had been declared lost 
and found again three times in an hour, my patience was so 
tried that I decided to walk on in the direction I wanted to 
go, whether the guides were satisfied or not. For some time 
not a man followed me; still I went forward by myself, and 
then sat down and smoked a pipe, quietly waiting to see the 
turn events would take. 

Soon four men came running after me without their loads, 
saying I was going the wrong way, I replied that the only 
right way was the road I wanted to travel, and that was in the 
direction I was then walking. 

On hearing this, and seeing my determination, they left me. 
and I continued on my way. Bombay then followed, and en- 
deavored to frighten me by declaring that every man would 


run away if I persisted in going by this road ; but I only an- September, 
swered, " Where will they run, you old fool ?" i^'^^- 

He tried by every means in his power to induce me to return, 
but I obstinately refused ; and after a time the whole party fol- 
lowed me, and in the evening we arrived safely at a village on 
the banks of the Lukazi, a branch of the Lomami. 

The guides now insisted that we were in a cul-de-sac formed 
by the winding of the river, and should have to retrace our 
steps; and on my sending them forward to discover whether 
the path did not lead to a bridge, they reported that it was only 
the way to a watering-place. This statement was so apparently 
false that I declined to put any faith in my " guides," and, after 
walking twenty minutes along the path, came upon a fishing- 
weir bridge. The day following we crossed this, and had not 
proceeded far before I perceived natives moving about among 
the long grass ; but all attempts at inducing them to come near 

Very soon afterward, when I was in front, accompanied by 
two or three men, looking for the road, I was unpleasantly sur- 
prised by some arrows being shot at us through a narrow strip 
of jungle. One of them glanced off my shoulder, and, catching 
sight of the fellow who had shot at me lurking behind a tree, 
I dropped my rifle and started in chase. Fortune favored me, 
for my enemy tripped and fell, and before he could regain his 
feet I was down on him, and, after giving him as sound a thrash- 
ing as ever he had had in his life, smashed his bow and arrows. 
This finished, I pointed to some of his friends who were now in 
view, and considerably assisted him to join them by means of 
stern propulsion, the kick being a hearty one. 

A large party of natives occupying the path in front seemed 
inclined to attack us ; but I made signs and overtures of peace, 
and offered them a few strings of beads, and after some hesita- 
tion they came forward in a most friendly spirit, and escorted 
us to Kasenge, the village of their chief, before whom they per- 
formed a kind of war-dance on bringing me into his presence. 

On inquiry, I learned that we were on an island formed by a 
bifurcation of the Lomami, having crossed the Lukazi — one of 
the two branches — which rejoined the Lomami a little farther 




The village of Kwarumba, a sub-chief of the great King of 
TJrua, which had been named as one of our stations, was very 
near here, so, had I taken Mona Kasanga's advice resj)ecting 
the route, I should certainly have been misled. 

That intelligent being, not satisiied with liaving given trou- 
ble on the road, now commenced to assume airs of authority, 
and declined to march the following day, on account of himself 
and wife being fatigued and requiring rest. I objected to this, 
upon which he asserted that, being the son of a chief, he was 
accustomed to act as he pleased, and that, when traveling with 
Arabs, they always halted if he wished it. Being mainly de- 
pendent upon him for connnunication with the natives, I was 
obliged to submit to his demands ; and when the next day came 
I was not soi-ry to be quiet, as I had a touch of fever. 


On the 27th of September we again moved, and, crossing the 
Lukazi l)y another fishing-weir bridge, made a long march to a 
large and po})ulous village. 

The people had never before seen a white man, and gathered 
round me in crowds, staring and indulging freely in remarks 
on my appearance, manner of eating, etc. While I was having 
my evening meal there must have been upward of live hundred 
standing round in a dense ring ; and some of their observations 
were no doubt the reverse of complimentary ; but being unable 
to understand them, I was not embarrassed by this free criticism. 




We passed througli Kwariimba's own village the next day, 
and, as no strangers were allowed to sleep near the chief, 
camped in a wooded dell jnst beyond. 

In the afternoon he called on me, and seemed to be a dirty, 
drunken old man without much sense. He could give me lit- 
tle or no information, but from some of his followers I heard 
that people who carried guns and umbrellas, and, though not 
white, were known as Wasungu, had been fighting near here 
two months previously, and had now returned to the town of 
the 'great chief of Urua, into wdiich country we had now fairly 

On leaving Kwarumba's I found Mona Kasanga still unac- 
countably trying to work away to the eastward. So I took my 
own line again, and, camping in the jungle one night, arrived 
at a large village called Kamwawi. Here the people were 
dressed, tattooed, and wore their hair exactly like the Waguhha. 

Although we were obliged to camp a short distance from the 
village, women and children selling food were in and out all 
day long. The men, too, came and talked to us, and one volun- 
teered to show the road to the capital of Urua, which he said 
was only three or four days distant. 

Every thing seemed couleur de rose, and I turned in happily, 
sincerely hoping to make a good march on the morrow on the 
direct road. But all these hopes were destined to be frustrated. 


S#^ -^- 


288 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 


My Goat is stolen. — The Xatives heeome Hostile. — We are fired upon. — Preparing 
for the Worst. — An Exchange of Shots. — Wounding an Important Personage. — A 
Parley. — Negotiations broken ofif. — Renewal of the Fighting. — Allowed to depart 
in Peace. — More Treachery. — At it again. — Storming a Village. — The Inhabitants 
bolt. — My Brave Army. — Fort Dinah. — Barricades. — Prisoners of War. — ^We capt- 
ure an Angel of Peace. — She makes it. — Leaving Fort Dinah. — An Explanation of 
my Intentions. — The Cause of the Attack. — Convivial Mourning. — Painted Faces. — 
My Guide's Craftiness. — Dried up. — Green Water as Refreshment. — My Guide 
meets his Mother, and forsakes Me. — Reception of a Head-man. — Another Queer 
Guide. — He also bolts. — Salt-making. — A March in a Marsh. 

October, As we were preparing to start, I missed my goat, which 

IS""*- usually slept at my feet, or was the first to pay her respects in 

the morning ; and, on inquiring where she was, found that she 

had been seen between the village and the camp late in the 


I thereupon went to the village with two men and a guide 
to look for her ; and so confident did I feel of the friendliness 
of the natives toward us, that we were unarmed. Some men 
whom we saw I told of my loss, and stated my willingness to 
pay a reward if she were brought back ; but I could get no an- 
swer whatever from them. 

It soon became evident that we were in for a row, for all the 
women had disappeared, and there were far more armed men 
about than the size of the village would account for. 

Those with whom I had been trying to have some conversa- 
tion bolted from us suddenly, and immediately others at a short 
distance commenced shooting their arrows at us. At that mo- 
ment some of my men with rifles fortunately arrived, and Ju- 
mah, coming behind me, put my trusty twelve-bore rifle into 
my hand. 

None of my people were hit in this preliminary skirmish, 
but I sent orders for the remainder to join me at once with 


the stores, so as to form one body ; and no sooner had they October, 
quitted the camp than the natives set fire to it. 1874. 

The greater number of my people I placed under shelter of 
huts, and posted others as pickets to prevent our being taken 
in rear or flank, and then, with the guides, went into the centre 
space of the village to declare our peaceable intentions, and to 
inquire the cause of our being attacked ; but the only reply 
vouchsafed was a dropping fire of arrows. I was much aston- 
ished that none of us were hit, for at least half a dozen arrows 
fell within a yard of me in a couple of minutes. 

Being unable to obtain any satisfactory answer, I returned to 
the caravan, and at that moment a body of about five hundred 
men, who had been posted in ambush on the road we were to 
have taken, joined the natives. 

Encouraged by this re-enforcement and our pacific attitude, 
the natives closed in and commenced hurling spears at us ; and 
as matters were now becoming rather serious, I reluctantly al- 
lowed a few shots to be fired. 

One of these fortunately took effect in the leg of a native, 
who happened to be a person of consideration, and was standing 
in what he imagined was a position of safety. This circum- 
stance made such an impression that a parley was proposed by 
the chief of the village, and I gladly acceded. 

After some talk, the following agreement was entered into, 
namely: The goat should be found and returned; I should 
'make a present to the chief of a piece of scarlet cloth ; 
Bombay or Bilal should make brothers with him; and we 
were to be furnished with guides and permitted to depart in 

I at once proceeded to carry out my part of the agreement, 
and, having fetched the cloth, was returning with it to the chief 
of Kamwawi, when another arrived with more armed men, and 
said to him, " Don't be such a fool as to make peace with these 
people for the sake of one piece of cloth. We are strong 
enough to eat them, and can easily get every bit of cloth and 
every bead belonging to them, and themselves we can kill or 
make slaves of. How many tens are they ? Tou can count 
their tens on one hand ; while our tens would take more hands 
to count than we could number afterward." The councils of 

290 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

October, the iiewlj arrived chief miliappilj prevailed ; negotiations were 
1874. broken off, and arrows again began to fly about. 

I now determined to make some show of retaliation, so 
burned down one hut, threatening at the same moment that 
if not allowed to leave peaceably I would set fire to the entire 
place, and let them know what bullets really were. This de- 
cided action resulted in permission being given for our depart- 
ure, but only by a road leading in an opi)osite direction to that 
we proposed going. 

My guides said that a village under a separate chieftainship, 
where we should be hospitably received, was situated on the 
road we were oixlered to follow ; so I decided to go there to 
avoid any further argument or trouble with these treacherous 
people, and gave orders to march. 

The road was through tangled grass, scrub, belts of thick 
jungle, and open plains ; and as we marched along we were sur- 
rounded by crowds of yelling savages, who kept clear out of 
range of our guns in the open, but closed in and shot at us 
whenever there was cover. 

The whit ! whit ! of the long arrows going through the trees 
created a very unpleasant sensation, but, notwithstanding the 
number flying about, none of us were wounded. I therefore 
would not allow a gun to be fired, being determined not to 
shed any blood unless driven to do so in self-defense. 

About five o'clock the natives drew off; and at sunset we 
arrived at a strip of jungle with a stream running through it, 
and on the opposite bank was the village that we hoped would 
prove a haven of peace and rest. 

With the guides I went to hail the village, and inquire wheth- 
er we could be received. And here again our only answer was 
a volley of arrows. I then called upon my men to follow me, 
a summons to which Jumah, Sambo, and one or two others re- 
sponded ; and, firing our guns, we dashed through the jungle, 
across the river, and entered the village at one side, M'liile the 
natives disappeared at the other. The rest of my brave army, 
excepting four or five who remained with Bombay in charge 
of the stores, bolted ; and for thus turning their backs on the 
enemy retributive justice furnished two of them with artificial 
tails looking remarkably like arrows. 


I knew that not a moment was to be lost in preparing for October, 
the return of the hostile natives, so ordered the loads to be i^*^"*- 
brought into the village immediately. My runaways speedi- 
ly followed, and now, Falstaff-like, began to boast of their great 
deeds, and of the still greater performances they intended in 
future. But it was no time for talking, and I set cowards as 
well as heroes to work in fortifying our position. 

Four huts in the centre of the village forming an imperfect 
square I had loop-holed as block -houses, and between them 
built a barricade of doors and poles from the remaining huts, 
which were either torn down or burned to prevent their af- 
fording cover for our enemies. The barricade being formed, a 
trench was dug inside and roofed over, and, notwithstanding our 
being disturbed by several volleys of arrows, the morning saw 
ns fairly protected. 

It was plain that matters were serious, and that to get away 
from our j)resent situation we should be obliged to return the 
fire of the natives. 

During the next two days we were constantly shot at, and 
some half-dozen of my men were wounded while fetching wa- 
ter from the stream ; but the natives grew afraid of our guns, 
as two or three had been killed and a few wounded, and did 
not come near the fort, which I had named Fort Dinah, in 
memory of my poor goat. 

I next sent out reconnoitring parties, and they soon returned, 
after having destroyed some barricades erected by the natives 
across the paths, but which were not manned when my people 
found them. 

On the third day, a party going farther afield captured two 
men and a woman, and brought them into camp. The woman 
proved to be a relation of Mona Kasanga, and we gladly dis- 
patched her with one of the men to tell the natives that we 
wanted peace, not war, while we detained the other man as a 
hostage. She returned the following morning with a neighbor- 
ing chief, who was also a relation of Mona Kasanga, and peace 
was soon concluded. 

Fort Dinah was left on the 6th of October, and in villages 
which we passed many temporary huts built to accommodate 
the fighting-men who had assembled in order to share in plun- 

292 ACKOSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

October, dering us were still remaining. These men had now returned 
^®'^*- to their homes, and the villages had resumed their normal state, 
and women and children ran along-side the caravan, chattering 
and laughing. 

When we camped, the chief of the district brought me a 
large bundle of grass-cloth and some goats, as payment for hav- 
ing attacked us without provocation. I accepted one goat, and 
gave him some beads as a token of friendship, remarking that, 
unlike some other travelei*s, we were not looking for slaves and 
endeavoring to pick quarrels, but only desired to see the coun- 
try, and be friendly with the people. But I took the opportu- 
nity of informing him that we should always defend ourselves 
if attacked, and, as they had already learned, we wei'e quite 
strong enough to take care of ourselves. 

I afterward found that Mona Kasanga, although acting as in- 
terpreter during this palaver, and hearing my remarks, tried to 
extract something from the chief on his own account. Fort- 
unately I discovered his little game, or the chief would have 
come to the conclusion that the white man was given to talk- 
ing about friendship and pretending to be generous, and yet al- 
lowed his men to take the offering in a roundabout manner. 

The actual reason of our being attacked was, that a party 
from a Portuguese caravan had been within five miles of Kam- 
wawi, destroying villages, murdering men, and carrying off 
women and children as slaves. The natives naturally connect- 
ed me with the slave- hunters, more especially as I had made 
particular inquiries res2>ecting them and whence they came ; 
and no doubt they were supposed to be friends whom we 
wished to join in carrying on these barbarities. 

We now marched through the disti'icts of Munkullah and 
Mpanga Sanga, over a plain country with occasional valleys, 
through the Kilimachio range — a semicircular sweep of gran- 
ite hills of every shape and form — and crossed several consid- 
erable streams, which flowed eastward to the Lualaba— not to 
that branch of the river seen by Dr. Livingstone quitting Lake 
Moero, but the one of which the sources were passed by the 
Pombeiros on their journey to Tete from Kassanci in the be- 
ginning of this century. 

At the principal village of Mpanga Sanga I met a very intel- 




ligent fellow, who offered to conduct me in two or three days' 
journey to the principal place of Kasongo, the chief of all 
Warua. For some private reasons Mona Kasanga dissuaded him 
from fulfilling his promise, and assured 
me he was not speaking the truth, for in 
the direction pointed out by him the peo- 
ple were very troublesome, and taking 
that road would lead to more fighting. 

We therefore continued our journey 
under Mona Kasanga's guidance, and ar- 
rived the next day at a village, the head- 
man of which — M']S"chkkulla — was a 
friend of Mona Kasanga. Here we halt- 
ed, and remained while these worthies 
and their friends got drunk in honor of 
some mutual acquaintance who had de- 
parted this life about three months pre- 

The head-man visited me in a very 
maudlin state, and insisted on shaking 
hands with me times without number. 
From him I ascertained that the camp 
we were occupying had been built by 
the plundering party we had heard of near Kamwawi, and that 
Kasongo's capital Avas only three or four days distant. 

When their convivial manner of mourning for their dead 
friend was completed, and Mona Kasanga was ready to march, 
he again refused to take the direct road, but led us in an east- 
south-east direction, and we camped by a village situated on the 
banks of the Luvijo, a large stream running to the Lualaba. 

Kear tlie source of this river is found a large quantity of cin- 
nabar, used by the natives for painting themselves. Tlieir faces 
they color in the most ludicrous manner. A red dot on the tip 
of the nose is a favorite embellishment ; and some, who also use 
a kind of pipe-clay as white paint, give their faces a very close 
resemblance to that of a circus - clown. Their ornaments are 
principally beads, worn in great numbers round the arms and 
legs, and in two ropes of several strands, disposed across the 
breast and back like cross-belts, and also a few copper and iron 



294 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

October, bracelets and anklets. The fashion of dressing the hair was 
^^'^^- rather different from that outside Urua, but it was still worked 
elaborately, and decorated with iron ornaments. 

Another march in the wrong direction, along the northern 
base of the Nyoka hills, had to be undergone the day following ; 
and, all the water-holes being dry, we were compelled to con- 
tinue our walk until late in the afternoon, suffering from the 
pangs of thirst. "We had become so accustomed to constant 
streams of running water since leaving the Tanganyika, that we 
had failed to take the precaution of carrying a supply with us. 

At last we reached Ilanyoka, a village where the only obtain- 
able water was of a dark-green color and as thick as pea-soup ; 
but, notwithstanding its objectionable appearance and still more 
nauseous taste, we were glad to drink it, for 

" The way was long, the day was hot, 
The pilgrims were a thirsty lot." 

The mystery of Mona Kasanga's behavior in dragging us east- 
ward was now revealed. lie had doubtless heard of his father 
having neglected to pay tribute to Kasongo, and that he, accord- 
ing to his custom on such occasions, had looted the village, and 
killed most of the inhabitants. Mona Kasanga's father and 
brothers were among those killed ; but his mother, who had es- 
caped, met her son at this village soon after we arrived. 

Mona Kasanga refused to go any farther, and M'Nchkkulla, 
being a head-man of Mukalombo, said he must first visit that vil- 
lage, which was three or four miles from Hanyoka. On our ar- 
riving on its outskirts, the whole of the inhabitants turned out, 
and some hoisted M'iSrchkkulla on their shoulders and chaired 
him round the place, yelling and shouting, while he looked very 
foolish and uncomfortable. This performance being ended, we 
were conducted to a camping-place destitute of all shade, near 
a pool of muddy water, and we gladly shifted to a more suita- 
ble spot the following day. 

Mona Kasanga hurried off with his mother and wife, being 
anxious to put as great a distance as possible between himself 
and Kasongo. 

The duty of guiding us to Kasongo's now devolved on 
M'Nchkkulla, who, in company with the chief of the village. 


made demands for increased payment. They stated that Mona October, 
Kasanga, as head-man, received the lion's share of that given by 1^74. 
me at Tipo-tipo^s, and as M'Nchkkulla had now succeeded to 
the position of principal guide, he should properly receive the 
same amount as his predecessor. It was further maintained, 
that as this new engagement was entered into at the village of 
his chief, that personage was entitled to a fee ; besides which, 
M'Nchkkulla refused to proceed without half a dozen of his 
fellow-villagers, who also expected payment for their services. 

Kongwe would willingly have taken upon himself to show 
the road, but feared his countrymen ; for, being of lower rank 
than M'Nchkkulla, he would have been punished had he dared 
to supersede him. 

No sooner were arrangements made to M'Nchkkulla's satisfac- 
tion, than he returned to the village, and made merry on pombe. 
The next day he also devoted to the worship of the African 
Bacchus ; and he proved a very poor specimen of a guide when 
brought into camp on the third day, being so drunk at starting 
that two friends were obliged to help him along. 

We reached the village of Munza on the 21st of October, 
passing on our way over the rocky Kilwala hills, and through 
plains, partly forest, with other portions more park - like, with 
open meadows and many streams. There were also small hills 
of gneiss and granite, much weather-worn, the effects of sun 
and rain having split large blocks into fragments, which lay 
more as though they had been piled together instead of being 
originally part of one shattered mass. 

Charcoal-burners' fires were frequently seen, and some vil- 
lages had foundries, the hematite ore being obtained by digging 
pits sometimes twenty and thirty feet deep. 

At Munza we found a party belonging to Jumah Merikani, 
.who had a large permanent camp at Kasongo's head-quarters, 
and they said that a Portuguese trader from the West Coast 
was also there. They had heard nothing of our approach, and 
were much astonished at seeing us. 

This meeting was fortunate, since M'Nchkkulla and his friends 
had taken the opportunity of bolting ; but Jumah's people 
promised me a guide to his camp, for which I started, after re- 
maining a day to obtain provisions, as Kasongo's place, Kwin- 





hata, was reported to be hungry. The guide was a Warua named 
Xgooni, who had been lent to Juniah by Kasongo during his 
stay, and who had learned to talk Kisuahili very fairly. 

We made two marches through fertile and open country, with 
many villages, lately destroyed by parties reported to belong to 
Kasongo and the Portuguese. The people had been carried off 
as slaves, the country laid waste, and banana-trees and oil-palms 
cut down. 

Situated in the middle of an extensive plain, we saw a few 
huts occupied by people employed in the manufacture of salt. 
This plain, I was informed, was Kasongo's own especial prop- 
erty, and worked by his own slaves and retainers. There were 
many others in the surrounding country, which were the prop- 
erty of a chief who paid heavy tribute to Kasongo for the right 
of manufacturing salt. There is scarcely any vegetation in 
these 23lains, the soil, springs, oozes, and pools being all salt. 

In one instance a small 
running stream is also salt, 
but it soon falls into a 
fresh-water river. 

The manner in which 
salt is manufactured here 
differs somewhat from 
that already described. 
A frame shaped like an 
inverted cone, made of 
sticks joined together by 
hoops at short intervals, 
is fastened to four or live 
stout stakes planted in the 
ground. The inside of 
this cone being carefully 
lined with large leaves, 
and grass being put into 
the apex to act as a lilter, 
it is filled with the soil. Boiling water is then poured into it, 
and the salt, being dissolved, oozes through the grass, and drips 
out at the apex of the cone into a gourd or earthen pot. The 
water is then evaporated, and the salt, which is im|)ure and 



dirty, and usually contains much saltpetre, is formed into small October, 
cones averaging three pounds in weight. This salt is carried i^'^*. 
long distances for purposes of trade, and is greedily sought after 
by tribes who have none in their country. 

After a hot afternoon march through an extensive marsh, 
with water and mud waist-deep in the only practicable passage 
through the dense vegetation by which it was overgrown, we 
arrived on the banks of a small stream shaded by fine trees, and 
on the other side was Kilemba, Jumah Merikani's settlement. 

We halted until a messenger had been sent to apprise Jumah 
Merikani of our arrival, according to Arab etiquette ; and when 
he had returned, we crossed the stream. As I reached the other 
bank, my hand was warmly grasped and shaken by a fine portly 
Arab with a slight dash of the tar-brush, who gave me the ben- 
efit of the only two English words he knew — " Good morning." 
This was Jumah Merikani, who proved to be the kindest and 
most hospitable of the many friends I found among the Arab 
traders in Africa. 

He conducted me to his large and substantially built house, 
situated in the midst of a village surrounded by large planta- 
tions of rice and corn, and did every thing in his power to make 
me feel thoroughly at home and comfortable. 

298 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 


Jiiniah Merikani. — Coal. — A Portuguese Trader. — His Followers. — Kasongo's Chief 
Wife. — Jose Antonio Alvez. — His History. — Warned against Mata Yafa. — Lake 
Mohrya. — An Inquisitive Lady. — Peculiarity respecting Names. — Alvez's Habita- 
tion. — Consuming your own Smoke. — Taking Bilal down a Peg. — Well-fortified 
Villages. — View of Lake Mohrya. — Huts on Piles. — An Amphibious Race. — Xo 
Visitors allowed. — A Spiritualistic Medium. — Skulls of Old Enemies. — Urua. — 
Kasongo's Dominion. — Its Government. — The Social Scale among Warua. — Muti- 
lation for Small Offenses. — Kasongo professes to be a God. — His Morals. — His 
Family Harem. — Unfaithful Wives. — Kasongo's Bedroom Furniture. — Rule as to 
Fires and Cooking. — Devil-huts and Idols. — The Great Idol Priests. — The Idol's 
Wife. — Dress and Tattoo Marks. 

October, JuMAH Merikani had been here nearly two years, trading 
1874. chiefly in ivory, which was fairly plentiful and cheap. Being 
an intelligent man, and having traveled much since leaving Tan- 
ganyika, he and some of his men were able to give me a vast 
amount of geographical information, and the key to what Mona 
Kasanga and others had told me while traveling from Tipo- 
tipo's camp. He had been to the gold and copper mines at 
Katanga ; to Msama's country, where he found coal, of which 
he gave me a small specimen ; had taken the road between 
Lakes Moero and Tanganyika, crossing the Lukuga ; and had 
formed a permanent camp at Kirna, on Lake Lanji — the lake 
Ulenge or Kamorondo of Livingstone — whence he had come to 
this place. 

The Portuguese, who had been up here rather less than a 
year, and were principally engaged in the slave-trade, were ac- 
quainted with my arrival, and sent a messenger to say that the 
leader of tlie caravan would call upon me the following day. 

A number of his ])et)ple came over, and were a wild, rough- 
looking set of nearly nuked savages, carrying old Portuguese 
flint-lock guns, with inordinately long barrels ornamented M'ith 
an immense number of brass rings. They were very inquisi- 
tive, and wanted to see every thing I possessed, and expressed 


much delight on recognizing any object similar to what they October, 
had seen near the West Coast, such as cups, books, or any thing 1874. 
European. These they pointed out to. the Warua, who had 
joined them in staring at me and my belongings, as being quite 
common in their country, and claimed superiority on that ac- 

Kasongo, accompanied by many people both from Jumah 
Merikani's and the Portuguese caravan, was absent, being en- 
gaged in traveling about his kingdom, collecting tribute and 
punishing such villages as did not pay. During his absence he 
was represented by his chief wife, who lived in a quadrangle 
of considerable size, containing a large hut for Kasongo, an- 
other for herself, and many smaller ones for members of the 

Jumah Merikani, when he heard of an Englishman being 
near, thought that he must be Livingstone, whom he had once 
met, having heard nothing of his death or of Stanley's journey 
to relieve him. He also met Speke and Burton at Ujiji, and 
they gave him some percussion-caps (Eley & Joyce's), which 
were still perfectly good ; though the French caps he had re- 
ceived from Zanzibar within the last live years were entirely 
useless from the effects of climate. 

Kendele, as the Portuguese trader was called by the natives, 
though his true name was Jos^ Antonio Alvez, visited me the 
next day. He came in state, being carried in a hammock with 
an awning by two bearers, with belts covered with brass bells 
round their waists, and followed by men with flint-Jock muskets 
and a boy carrying his gun— a worthless Birmingham double- 
barrel — and his stool. 

I had almost taken it for granted, from the manner in which 
he came, and as I had hitherto only heard him spoken of as a 
msuugu, that he was a white man who might possibly give me 
some information. Great was my disappointment, however, 
when an old and ugly negro turned out of the hammock. Cer- 
tainly he was dressed in European fashion, and spoke Portu- 
guese ; but no further civilization could he boast of, notwith- 
standing his repeated asseverations that he was thoroughly civ- 
ilized, and the same as an Englishman or any other white man. 
One point upon which he specially insisted was that he never 

300 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

October, lied, his word being as good as his bond ; and, indeed, that he 
1874. ^.j^g altogether the most honest man on the face of the earth. 

When we had exchanged greetings, and I had informed him 
of my name, nationality, and the object of my journey, I in- 
quired into his history, and learned that Dondo, on the river 
Kwanza, in the province of Angola, was his native place. He 
left there more than twenty years ago, and had spent the great- 
er portion of that period in traveling and trading in the in- 
terior, formerly as agent for white mercliants, but latterly on 
his own account. He gave me to understand that his head- 
quarters were at Kassanci, and he intended to start on his 
homeward journey on the return of his men, who were away 
with Kasongo, as his stores were nearly expended. 

I asked whether he knew any thing of Lake Sankorra, but 
he had only heard of it, and informed me that people trading 
there followed a very dangerous route through Mata Yafa's 
country. Mata Yafa is the native pronunciation of the title of 
the chief generally called Muata Yanvo by writers on Central 

I felt much inclined to attempt a visit to Mata Yafa's capital, 
respecting which some strange accounts have been written, but 
was told that, the rains having set in, the roads would be well- 
nigh impassable. Even if I reached the capital, I was warned 
that I should never return, as the last white man known to have 
visited his sable majesty was forcibly detained to instruct the 
people in the art of European warfare, and, after four years of 
dreary captivity, died there, having had no opportunity of es- 

On inquiring whether a more direct route to the lake existed, 
I heard that men belonging to Jumah Merikani and Alvez had 
been within a few days of its shores, but, finding no ivory, tliey 
had turned back. The road they traversed was only practicable 
in the dry season, as it led across vast treeless plains intersected 
by many rivers, and in the rainy season they M'ere converted 
into swamps. 

Alvez offered to conduct me to Loanda or Benguela, for, in 
liis opinion, my party was far too small to travel alone through 
the intervening countries in safety, and it was agreed that on 
arrival at the coast I could nuike him a present proportionate 


to the value of his services. As it was improbable, according October, 
to his statement, that he would move for at least a month, I de- ^^'^*- 
cided to explore such portion of the neighborhood as might be 
possible in that time, going, in the first place, to Lake Mohrya 
to see its lake-dwellings. 

Before starting on this cruise it behooved jne to call on Fume 
a Kenna, and to return the visit of Alvez, and on this errand I 
went the next day with Jumah Merikani and some of our men. 
We first proceeded to Kasongo's settlement, or mussumba, which 
was six hundred yards long by two hundred wide, and surround- 
ed by a neat fence of sticks five feet high, lined with grass, and 
having only one door. 

On entry, we found a large clear space, in the centre of 
which, about a hundred yards from the door-way, stood Kason- 
go's dwelling ; and a little farther along were three small com- 
pounds inclosing huts, in which Fume a Kenna and some other 
principal wives lived. On each side of the quadrangle ran a 
triple row of smaller huts, the residences of m iroWaL of the 

When we were ushered into Fume a Kenna's compound, her 
ladies in waiting entered her hut to announce our arrival, and 
spread a fine lion's skin on the ground for her to sit upon. She 
soon appeared, dressed in a smart tartan shawl, and, seating her- 
self on the skin, at once began the conversation. She inquired 
whence I had come, where I was going, and put a variety of 
questions to me, and then became curious as to whether I was 
white all over. 

With much laughter, she insisted on my boots and stockings 
being taken off in order that she might examine my feet, and, 
when satisfied with this inspection, looked at my gun and pis- 
tols, and had them explained to her. After some time I asked 
her name, being unaware that I was thereby transgressing the 
rules of etiquette. She replied, " Mke Kasongo," which may 
be translated, Mrs. Kasongo, as no Warua dare tell their own 
names. They are also extremely shy about giving those of any 
person who may be present, though they have not the slightest 
objection with respect to people who are absent. But, unlike 
some tribes in South America, they do not object to be accosted 
by name. 

302 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

October, I requested her to provide me with guides to different places 
l^*^*- in the neighborhood which J wished to visit, but she said I 
ought to remain until Kasongo returned, for, although she was 
vested with supreme power during his absence, yet he might be 
displeased if I went away before seeing him. Finally I overcame 
her scruples, and she promised to give me a guide to Mohrya. 

I afterward called on Alvez, and found his camp a wretched- 
ly dirty place. His own was the only hut more substantially 
built than those temporarily erected day by day when trav- 
eling. It had puddled walls and a high-thatched roof, being 
thus made more secure against lire than the ordinary grass hut. 
Inside it was dirty and close, the only light and air being ad- 
mitted through the door; and, with a lire burning in the centre 
while the thermometer ranged from ninety to one hundred de- 
grees in the shade, the temjjerature of this dwelling may be im- 

Alvez was profuse in his offers of assistance, and assured 
me he desired to get as quickly as possible to Kassanci, which 
would be a march of about two months, and thence Loanda 
might be reached in thirty days, or less if a passage in a Kwan- 
za steamer were obtained. 

On the 30th of October, I started with a small party for Lake 
Mohrya. The guide given me by Fume a Kenna had one arm 
amputated at the elbow, and he was very careful to inform me 
that this operation had been performed on account of a wound 
from a poisoned arrow, and not as a punishment. 

Although I required only eight or ten men altogether, I had 
much trouble in getting them. Bombay certainly assisted some- 
what ; but Bilal was strutting about on a pair of high clog-like 
sandals, doing nothing, and, when spoken to, even laughed at 
me. So I had to take him down a peg by knocking him off his 
clogs and throwing them at his head. 

Bombay asserted that the men wanted to break up the cara- 
van and go no farther, and the trouble on this occasion was a 
tentative attempt at forcing me to abandon going to Mohrya. 
Had they succeeded, they would then have endeavored to pre- 
vent my making any other excursions while waiting for Alvez, 
and also to compel me to altogether give up the idea of travel- 
ing to the West Coast. 


We marched over hilly and well-wooded country, with sev- November, 
eral large villages situated in patches of dense jungle, and only i^'^'*- 
approachable by narrow and tortuous paths closed by gate-ways 
constructed of a series of logs planted like inverted Vs. These 
formed a tunnel so low that it was almost necessary to creep 
along on hands and knees to enter them, and in case of attack 
they could be barred by falling logs arranged at the inner end 
like a portcullis, and no enemy could well liojje to get inside. 
Yet these villages are frequently surprised by some neighbor- 
ing people during the absence of the men ; for although the 
whole of Urua and its dependencies are under the nominal rule 
of Kasongo, there are often internal dissensions and fights be- 
tween villages and districts. 

Lake Mohrya, situated in a small basin surrounded by low 
and woody hills, was sighted on the 1st of November, and in 
the lake were three villages built on piles, and also a few de- 
tached huts scattered over its surface. 

My guide gave trouble here, having a notion that his belong- 
ing to the court entitled him to take whatever he pleased from 
the country people. I gave him beads to purchase food, so as 
to prevent his thieving while with me ; but upon the appear- 
ance of a small party of men carrying large baskets of pro- 
visions, he at once commenced plundering them, and would not 
restore what he had stolen until I paid him for it. He declared 
it was the custom of the country for Kasongo and his immedi- 
ate retainers to take whatever they required from the villagers, 
and he would not forego his rights when with me. After ar- 
ranging this matter, I proceeded to a large village near the 
western end of the lake, and camped. 

I asked the chief to supply me with canoes for the purpose 
of visiting the lake villages, and he promised to try to obtain 
some from the inhabitants, as neither he nor any of his people 
who lived on shore j^ossessed canoes. He said there would 
probably be great difficulty, as the lake villagers were very 
chary of allowing strangers to visit their houses. 

He was right in his conjecture, for no canoes were forthcom- 
ing the following day, and I had to content myself with taking 
a good survey through my field-glasses, and making a sketch. 

The lake was small, the open surface of the water being an 




November, oval of two miles long by one wide, the longer axis lying east- 
1874. nortli-east and west-soiitli-west, and around the margin was a 
belt of floating vegetation. I could easily distinguish the huts, 
and noticed that they were built on platforms, raised about six 
feet above the surface of the water, supported on stout piles 
driven into the bed of the lake. Some were oblong, and others 
round, the former usually having a projecting roof over the 
door. Their roofs and walls appeared to be constructed in a 
manner precisely similar to that of the huts on shore. Under- 
neath the platforms canoes were moored, and nets hung to dry. 


Men were swimming from hut to hut, notwithstanding re- 
ports I had heard of enormous snakes, w^hose bite w^as fatal, in- 
habiting the lake. The people live entirely in these huts, with 
their fowls and goats, and only come ashore to cultivate pro- 
vision-grounds and bring goats to graze. Their canoes were 
simple " dug-outs," twenty or twenty-five feet in length, and 
their paddles were like large, circular, shallow spoons with long, 
straight handles. 

No chance of obtaining canoes offering, we started the next 
morning on the return march to Kilemba, and, seeing some lake 
villagers working in a field, I attempted to talk with them, but 


they scampered off to their canoes near at hand, and paddled November, 
away. We followed them across a rotten piece of tingi-tingi ^^^^- 
to the very edge of the lake, where their canoes had been 
moored, slipping through holes in the treacherous vegetation 
more than once, owing to our not knowing the right path. 
But hailing the people, and holding up cloth and beads to en- 
tice them to come to us, was of no avail, and I had reluctant- 
ly to abandon all idea of making myself more intimately ac- 
quainted with their manners and habits. 

Kilemba was again reached after two marches, the second be- 
ing through pouring rain, which commenced ten minutes after 
we started, and did not cease for a moment until after we ar- 

The previous night we camped at what had formerly been 
the head-quarters of Bambarre, Kasongo's father. In the old 
inclosure devoted to his harem his chief wife still lived, and 
was not permitted to receive any visitors, except one of Kason- 
go's magicians, who consulted her on all important occasions. 
She was supposed to be a spiritualistic medium, holding com- 
munication with her deceased husband, and, consequently, in- 
spired with prophetic powers. Fowls and goats roamed un- 
molested near her habitation, for he would indeed have been a 
bold man among the Warua who dared to touch any thing sup- 
posed to belong to her. The few people living near were slaves 
of her late husband, who nightly placed provisions for her use, 
and then retired. 

On the road we passed a peculiar little hut, very well built 
and finished, and having sheets of grass-cloth hanging over the 
roof to hide its contents from prying eyes. I was determined 
to discover what this hut contained, as it was said to be a great 
" medicine ;" so lifted the cloth and looked in, when a quantity 
of skulls, decorated with beads and ranged in circles, met my 
view. Afterward I heard that these skulls were those of broth- 
ers and chiefs of Bambarre, who, having rebelled against him, 
were conquered and killed. 

Kasongo was still away when I returned, and no one knew 
his exact whereabouts ; so I asked Fume a Kenna for guides to 
Kassali, a large lake on the Lualaba, and also to Kowamba, the 
first of a chain of small lakes on the Kamorondo or true Luala- 


November, ba — that seen bj Dr. Livingstone to the north of Moero being 
1874. really called the Luvwa, although the Arabs and others from 
the East Coast commonly call both branches Lualaba. 

Before proceeding farther, it will be well to give a descrip- 
tion of the extent of Urua, and some of the cnstoms of its in- 

Urua proper commences just sonth of Tipo-tipo's camp, and 
extends to nine degrees south latitude. It is bounded on the 
west by the Lomami, and on the east by the tribes fringing the 
shores of the Tanganyika. In the centre of this country lies 
the territory of Ma Kazembe, who is tributary to Mata Yafa. 
the chief of Ulunda. 

Kasongo also claims dominion over some tribes on the Tan 
ganyika, including the Waguhha, the northernmost of his sub- 
jects settled on that lake. Miriro and Msama, chiefs of Itawa. 
are tributary to him, as also are the Kasongo at Tipo-tipo's carajj 
and Russuna. Ussambi, lying to the west of the Lomami, is 
likewise part of the dominions of Kasongo ; but many of the 
Wassambi pay tribute to Mata Yafa as well ; for, being close to 
his dominions, they are subject to the raids of his people if 
they refuse to comply with his demands. 

The vast territory claimed by Kasongo is divided into many 
districts, each (mis-) governed by a kilolo, or captain. Some of 
these are hereditary governors, and others are appointed by 
Kasongo for a term of four years. At the expiration of that 
time they may either be re-appointed or transferred to another 
district, if they have given satisfaction, or be relegated to ]>ri 
vate life; but if Kasongo is displeased with them, he orders 
them to be deprived of noses, ears, or hands. 

The ranks of the Warua are M^ell defined, and great deference 
is exacted by superiors from those below them in the social scale. 
An instance of this which came to my notice specially im- 
pressed itself on my memory. A pei-son of some rank himself 
ventured to sit down when in conversation with me, forgetful 
that one of his superiors was standing by. . Instantly he was 
called aside and lectured on the enormity of his offense, and I 
afterward heard that, had it not been for my presence, this 
would probably have cost him his ears. 

The punishments inflicted by Kasongo, and those high in au- 


thority among his chiefs, are death and mutilation. A nose, November, 
finger, lip, half or the whole of an ear, are cut off for mere pec- i^*^*- 
cadilloes ; while for serious offenses, hands, toes, ears, nose, and 
all are taken. 

Kasongo, or the chief for the time being, arrogates to himself 
divine honors and power, and pretends to abstain from food 
for days without feeling its necessity ; and, indeed, declares that 
as a god he is altogether above requiring food, and only eats, 
drinks, and smokes for the pleasure it affords him. 

In addition to his chief wife, and the harem mantained in his 
private inclosure, he boasts that he exercises a right to any 
woman who may please his fancy when on his journeys about 
the country ; and if any become enceinte, he gives them a mon- 
key-skin for the child to wear, if a male, as this confers a right 
to live by taking provisions, cloth, etc. , from any one not of 
royal blood. 

Into the inclosure of his harem no male but himself is al- 
lowed between sunset and sunrise on pain of death or mutila- 
tion ; and even if one of the harem should give birth to a male 
child during the night, the mother and infant are bundled out 

His principal wife and the four or five ranking next to her 
are all of royal blood, being either his sisters or first cousins ; 
and among his harem are to be found his step-mothers, aunts, 
sisters, nieces, cousins, and, still more horrible, his own chil- 

As might be exj^ected from such an example, morals are very 
lax throughout the country, and wives are not thought badly of 
for being unfaithful, the worst they may expect being severe 
chastisement from the injured husband. But he never uses ex- 
cessive violence, for fear of injuring a valuable piece of house- 
hold furniture. 

When Kasongo sleeps at home, his bedroom furniture consists 
of members of his harem. Some, on hands and knees, form a 
couch with their _backs; and others, lying flat on the ground, 
provide a soft carpet. 

It is the rule for all Warua to light their fires themselves, 
and cook their own food, Kasongo being the only one exempt 
from its observance ; but should either of the men appointed to 

308 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

November, do this service for him bj any chance be absent, he then per- 
1874. forms these duties for himself. 

No Warua allow others to witness their eating or drinking, 
being doubly particular with regard to members of the oppo- 
site sex ; and on pombe being offered, I have frequently seen 
them request that a cloth might be held up to hide them while 

Their religion is principally a mixture of fetichism and idola- 
try. All villages have devil-huts and idols, before which offer- 
ings of pombe, grain, and meat are placed, and nearly every 
man wears a small figure round his neck or arm. Many ma- 
gicians also move about with idols which they pretend to con- 
sult for the benefit of their clients ; and some, being clever ven- 
triloquists, manage to drive a flourishing business. 

But the great centre of their religion is an idol named Kun- 
gwe a Banza, which is supposed to represent the founder of 
Kasongo's family, and to be all-powerful for good and evil. 
This idol is kept in a hut situated in a cleai-ing amidst dense 
jungle, and always has a sister of the reigning chief as a wife, 
who is known by the title of Mwali a Panga. 

Kound the jungle live a number of priests, who guard the sa- 
cred grove from profane intruders, and receive offerings for the 
idol, and also a large portion of the tribute paid to Kasongo. 
But, although they hold this official jjosition, and are thus inti- 
mately connected with all the rites and ceremonies pertaining 
to the deity, they are not j)ermitted to set eyes upon the idol 
itself, that privilege being reserved for its wife and the reigning 
sovereign, who consults it on momentous occasions, and makes 
offerings to it upon his accession, and after gaining any great 
victory over his adversaries. 

Notwithstanding my efforts, I could not discover the exact 
position of this idol's habitation, but am perfectly convinced of 
its existence, as all the accounts I received were precisely simi- 
lar on all material points. As a means of testing its truthful- 
ness, more than once I tried the experiment of saying "Kungwe 
a Banza" close behind a man, Avhen he would jump as if he 
were shot, and look round with every outward sign of terror, 
as though afraid that the dreaded deity were close at his lieels 
ready to carry hiai off. From the nature of the natives, it Avas 




an impossibility for them to turn pale, or for their wool to stand 
on end with fright ; but they made the attempt ; and there can 
be no doubt that they hold this great idol in such awe that they 
dare not breathe the name of Kungwe a Banza without fear 
and trembling. 

The people dress like the Waguhha, and tattoo themselves in 
the same fashion, but wear their hair differently, the majority 
drawing it back from the face and tying and binding it together 
behind, so that it projects in a most curious fashion, reminding 
one much of a saucepan handle. 

The men wear plumes, frequently made from the red tail- 
feathers of the gray parrot, varying in size and shape according 
to rank. They also have aprons made of a single skin, and it 
is worthy of remark that each clan or family has a distinguish- 
ing skin, which it is customary to wear in the presence of the 




310 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 


A Fair Deceiver. — Marriage Ceremony. — The Youthful but Unblushing Bride. — A 
Mountain Gap. — Grand Thunder-storm. — Lake Kassali. — Not allowed to visit It. — 
Return of a Chief. — Medicine-men. — Their Dress. — Ventriloquism. — They impose 
upon the Public. — Am Suspected of possessing Power to dry up the Lake. — Nar- 
row Escape of my Messengers. — Manufacture of Floating Islands. — Jumah Meri- 
kani's Kindness. — Strange Tales. — Lion -tamers. — Deadly Shade. — Sculpture. — 
Cave-dwellings. — Poisonous Water. — A Tribe of Lepers. — My Occupations.— Ka- 
songo's Wives. — Their Shocking Behavior. — A Performer of Tricks. — Kasongo 
returns. — An Afternoon Call. — His Appearance. — His Band plays me Home. — 
Their Excruciating Performance. — They will not "move on." — My Anxiety to 
do so. 

November, As there appeared no prospect of Kasongo's return, and no 
1874. intelligence of his whereabouts could be procured, I anxiously 
' asked his wife from day to day for guides to the lake of which 

I had heard. 

She continually made fair promises, but never kept her word : 
and at last, tired of the delay and disappointment, I induced Ju- 
mah Merikani to provide me with men who knew the road, and 
started on the 14th of November for Lake Kassali. 

Marching across the salt plain a little south of the route by 
which we had previously traversed it, we arrived the next day 
at Kibaiyeli, a village of fair proportions, having in it numerous 
oil-palms, and intersected by a stream of clear water. 

Unfortunately for my repose and comfort, the ceremonies at- 
tendant on a native wedding were at their height when I ar- 
rived. As the bride was a niece of the chief, and the bride- 
groom a head-man, it was an unusually grand affair, and the 
shouts and yells with vrhich it was celebrated continued both 
day and night, and rendered sleep impossible. 

A dozen men were constantly eugaged in wheeling around 
and about two others i)laying drums. The dancers Avere pro- 
vided with rude pan-pipes producing most discordant sounds, 
and an admiring crowd assisted with y.ells and clapping of 




hands. And tins was continued without cessation, for no 
sooner was one man tired than another took his place. 

On the afternoon of the second day the bridegroom made his 
appearance, and executed a pas seul which lasted about half an 
hour ; and, on its termination, the bride — a girl of nine or ten 
years of age, and dressed in all the finery the village could pro- 
duce — was brought on the shoulders of one woman and sup- 
ported by another, to the place where the dancers were as- 



A circle was now formed, and the women carrying the bride 
took up their position in the centre, and jumped her up and 
down most vigorously, while she allowed her body and arms to 
sway about uncontrolled. 

The bridegroom gave her fragments of tobacco -leaves and 
small quantities of beads, which she, keeping her eyes shut, 
scattered indiscriminately among the dancers, who scrambled 
eagerly for them, as they were supposed to bring good luck to 
those who obtained them. After this ceremonial was con- 
cluded, the bride was set down, and danced with the bride- 
groom, going through most obscene gestures for about ten min- 
utes, when he picked her up, and, tucking her under his arm, 
walked her off to his hut. 

312 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chai-. 

Xovembcr, The dancing, yelling, and drumming were still continued, and, 

^^'^^- indeed, had not ceased when we left on the following day. The 

woman who carried the bride must have worked very hard, for 

I noticed that the skin was actually rubbed off her back and 


Leaving here, we crossed a plain with a fair amount of cul- 
tivation, and the river Chankoji, a considerable stream flowing 
south to the Lovoi, and came upon some rocky hills covered 
with trees and creepers. 

Through this range we passed by a gap about four hundred 
yards wide, its precipitous sides composed of enormous masses 
of gneiss looking like giant walls. In the numerous cracks and 
crevices creepers and shrubs had taken root, and clothed the 
massive rocks with a net-work of veixlure. On the other side 
was some broken country, and then a steep range which joins 
the Kilwala hills. 

We camped at Mwehu, where the few surviving inhabitants 
of some destroyed villages were beginning to clear the ground 
and build temporary huts. 

Soon after our arrival, a thunder-storm, accompanied by vio- 
lent squalls and torrents of rain, presented a grand sight. Al- 
though midday, there was little light except that afforded by 
the vivid and almost continuous streams of electric lire, blue 
and red, and often forked into three or four branches. Some 
ffashes lasted an appreciable time, being wide, and having an 
appearance of rippling like a running stream. The thunder 
crashed and roared without intermission, and the trees bent to 
the blast, which threatened every moment to uproot tliem, 
while the rain was driven before the wind in sheets of water. 
When this war of the elements had lasted two hours, it sud- 
denly ceased, the clouds cleared, and the western sun shone 
brightly on the dripping trees and grass, making them gHsten 
as though studded witli brilliants. 

Our next iialt was at Kisima, a partially deserted village, and 
here a violent paroxysm of fever attacked me without warning, 
but liap])ily departed almost as suddenly as it had come, thanks 
to liberal doses of Epsom salts and (juinine. It so reduced ray 
strength, however, that it was with much difficulty I dragged on 
for a short march the following day — the thermometer at one 


liimdred degrees in the shade — and reached a new settlement November, 

formed by the chief and the larger portion of the inhabitants 
of Kisima. 

Turning sharp to the southward on leaving this, and camping 
one day in the jungle, and another in Yasuki, we arrived on the 
22d of November at Kowedi, on the banks of the Lovoi, hav- 
ing crossed several affluents of that river, and passed over some 
hills of granite with particles of mica sparkling in the sun like 



From some rising ground close to this village I could discern 
Lake Kassali — often spoken of as Kikonja, from the name of 
its chief — lying east - south - east about twenty miles distant. 
Another portion of the lake was within eight miles, but was 
separated from Kowedi by the Lovoi and a range of hills. 

I very much desired to visit the lake the following day ; but 
these sanguine anticipations were frustrated, and I was fated 
not to stand upon its shores, or see the floating islands inhab- 
ited by its people. 

The chief of Kowedi was with Kasongo, who was reported 
to be encamped on a large hill some sixteen miles west-south- 

314 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

November, west, having gone there to endeavor to capture his brother Dai- 
^^'^^- yi, who had taken refuge witli Kikonja after an unsuccessful 
attempt on the throne. 

Of several of Kasongo's brothers who laid claim to the king- 
dom on the death of their father, Daiyi alone continued in open 
opposition. Some had been conquered and put to death, and 
two had been received into favor on tendering their submission 
to Kasongo. 

In the absence of her husband, the chiefs wife at Kowedi de- 
clared she had no power to permit me to pass, and therefore 
I could proceed no farther. I instantly sent both to Kasongo 
and Fume a Kenna, requesting them to give permission for me 
to cross the Lovoi and proceed to the lake, assuring them that 
I would give no assistance to Daiyi. 

Nothing now remained but to wait patiently for the return 
of my messengers, and in a few days they brought me the un- 
satisfactory intelligence that Kasongo had broken up his camp, 
and was moving to Kwinhata, his own settlement. I then dis- 
patched other messengers, urging Jumah Merikani to press Ka- 
songo to provide me with men for the journey to Kassali. 

Kwinhata, in Urua, signifies the residence of the chief, and 
is the term always applied to his principal dwelling ; but any 
place at which he or his head wife may chance to stay, though 
but for a single night, becomes de facto Kwinhata during that 

On observing much excitement among the people, many 
smearing themselves with mud and ashes, and rushing along the 
road leading in the direction of Kasongo's camp, I inquired the 
cause, and found that the chief of the village was coming, and 
shortly afterward he appeared, heralded by shouts and yells 
from all the villagers. 

I used my utmost endeavors to persuade him to grant per- 
mission for me to cross the Lovoi and proceed to the lake ; but 
he replied that Kasongo had given him strict orders not to al- 
low any person to go there on account of Daiyi's presence. If 
he disobeyed, his village would be destroyed, and all the peo])le 
killed. It was, therefore, evident that there was no chance of 
assistance in this quarter. 

My attention was attracted one morning by a tinkling, simi- 


lar to that of a number of cracked slieep-bells, and, looking out, November, 
I saw a niganga, or medicine-man, ambling round the village, i^'^^- 
followed by his train. He was dressed in a large kilt of grass- 
cloth, and suspended round his neck was a huge necklace com- 
posed of pieces of gourd, skulls of birds, and imitations of them 
roughly carved in wood. His head-dress was a broad band of 
party-colored beads surmounted by a large plume of feathers ; 
and his face, arms, and legs were whitened with pipe-clay. On 
his back he carried a large bunch of rough, conical iron bells, 
which jingled as he paraded the village with jigging and pran- 
cing steps. He was followed by a woman carrying his idol in a 
large gourd, another with a mat for him to sit upon, and two 
small boys who bore his miscellaneous properties. When he 
appeared, all the women turned out of their dwellings, and 
many collected around the village devil-hut, and appeared to go 
through some devotions, bending down, clapping their hands, 
and making curious inarticulate moanings. 

Other Waganga soon followed, until five, similarly dressed 
and attended, were assembled together. They then performed 
a general walk -round, and, selecting an open space in the vil- 
lage, seated themselves in a row, spread their mats, and brought 
out their idols and other instruments of imposture. 

The principal mganga, observing me sitting on my chair as a 
spectator, evidently thought that his dignity was compi-omised, 
and resolved that he also would have a high seat of honor ; so, 
sending for a mortar used for pounding corn, he placed it on 
the ground upside down, and seated himself thereon. But it 
proved very rickety, and after two or three tumbles he pre- 
ferred safety to dignity, and again squatted on the ground. 

The consultation was opened by the chief's wife, who gave 
them half a dozen fowls as an offering. She soon went away 
quite happy, the chief mganga having honored her by spitting 
in her face, and giving her a ball of beastliness as a charm. 
This she hastened to place in safety in her hut. 

The Waganga were now open to hear and answer questions 
put by the public, some of which were quickly disposed of, 
while others evidently raised knotty points, resulting iil much 
gesticulation and oratory. 

When the Waganga pretended they could not find an an- 


316 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

December, swer, the idols were consulted, and one of tlie feticli-men, who 
i8'^4- was a clever ventriloquist, made the necessary reply, the poor 
dupes believing it to be spoken by the idol. 

I noticed that large fees usually insured favorable replies, 
and the result of their day's divining must have been highly 
satisfactory to the Waganga. Two of them were so pleased 
that they came again the next day ; but business was slack, for 
the people evidently could not afford to indulge any further in 
the luxury of having their fortunes told. 

Day after day I remained here, waiting for messengers from 
Kasongo or Fume a Kenna ; but as none returned, I sent a few 
men to the lake, the chief consenting to this, though not allow- 
ing me to go. Directly after they started, a message arrived 
from Kikonja, to the effect that he was very anxious to see me ; 
but almost immediately other messengers arrived with the in- 
telligence that Kikonja could not receive me, his diviners hav- 
ing warned him that if I looked upon the lake its waters would 
dry up. On tins I pointed to the lake, telling them I had al- 
ready seen it, without producing any evil effect on its waters. 
But I was assured that if I approached close to its shores, either 
the lake would become dry or tlie fish would die, thereby de- 
priving Kikonja and his people of a large portion of their food 
and much of their wealth, as the fish, which are very plentiful, 
are dried and sold to people living at a distance from the lake. 

Rumors reached me that the men whom I had sent to Kikon- 
ja had been detained by him and Daiyi ; but my fears for their 
safety were shortly relieved by their arrival. They told me, 
however, that they had been warned by a woman that Daiyi in- 
tended to kill them, and they had escaped this fate by taking a 
canoe at night when the people were asleep, and making their 
way from the floating island on which Daiyi and Kikonja were 
• then living to the main-land, and thence by unfrequented paths 
back to Kowedi. 

They had seen Kikonja only for a few moments on their ar- 
rival, for during their stay he remained in his hut in a drunken 
condition. Daiyi, with whom they had more intercourse, was a 
tall, line-looking man, elaborately dressed in beads and colored 
cloths, and seemed to have complete control over Kikonja's 



The floating islands on wliicli the people live are formed of December, 
large pieces of tingi-tingi cut from the masses with which the 1874. 
shores are lined. On these, logs and brush-wood are laid and 
covered with earth. Huts are then built, and bananas planted, 
and goats and poultry are reared upon the islands. They were 
usually moored to stakes planted in the bed of the lake ; but 
when their inhabitants desire to shift their position, these are 
pulled up, and the islands warped along by lines laid out to 
other stakes. 

The tingi-tingi between the shore and the islands which lay 
along its edge is invariably intersected by small channels, so as 
to be perfectly impassable on foot, and only accessible by canoes. 
The main plantations were necessarily on shore ; and while the 
women were engaged in cultivating them, the greater portion 
of the men were stationed as pickets to give notice of the ap- 
proach of any enemies. 

During my stay at Kowedi I suffered severely from dysen- 
tery, but doctored myself successfully, notwithstanding one or 
two relapses caused by Sambo's predilection for cooking with 
castor-oil ; and when my men returned I was thoroughly tired 
of the place. 

There was still no prospect whatever of guides coming either 
from Kasongo or Fume a Kenna, so I determined to start for 
Jumah Merikani's on the 11th of December, 

At Kibaiyeli, on the return march, there were a number of 
Warua, who stated that they belonged to Kasongo, who was 
then at Munza, having again left Kwinhata ; and, when within 
ten minutes' walk of Jumah Merikani's house, I was met by 
the messengers I had sent to Fume a Kenna. They were ac- 
companied by a guide whom she had that morning ordered to 
go with them ; but this was only an apparent civility on her 
part, for when I wanted to avail myself of his services on the 
following morning, he was not forthcoming. I then heard that 
Kasongo had given directions that if I returned during his ab- 
sence I was not to be allowed to leave, and he was to be in- 
formed immediately of my arrival. 

Jumah Merikani, with the greatest consideration, was sending 
me rice and tobacco by these men, knowing that the former 
was not attainable except from his plantations, and the latter 

318 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

December, grown from Ujiji seed, which has the well-deserved reputation 
1874. Qf being the best in Africa. 

Immediately on arrival, I visited Alvez to ascertain our 
chances of making a move. He informed me all was ready, 
ivory packed and slaves collected, and that he was most anxious 
to start, his stores being exhausted ; therefore, directly Ivasongo 
returned, and our adieux were made, which might require two 
or three days, we should take the road. He assured me further 
that sixty days after starting we should reach Bihe — to which 
place, instead of Kassanci, I now found he was going — and a 
fortnight or three weeks from that j^lace would take me either 
to Benguela or Loanda. 

But I was again destined to experience grievous disappoint- 
ment. Kasongo did not return until the end of January, 1875 ; 
and even then delays innumerable occurred, chiefly owing to 
ithe unparalleled falsehoods and cowardliness of Alvez. 

During the many tedious hours w^hicli elapsed before Ka- 
songo arrived, I frequently questioned Jumah Merikani and 
•his men about their various travels ; and among his six hun- 
dred pagazi, besides slaves, there were very many representa- 
tives of different tribes, some being from the shores of Lake 
Sankorra. I was therefore able to gather a fair idea of the 
positions of the various lakes and rivers of Central Africa, 
and their relations to each other. From them I also heard 
many curious stories, which, although they may seem to be 
"traveler's tales," were vouched for by independent witness- 
es, and, I am convinced, thoroughly believed in by those who 
recounted them. 

Among these narratives the palm may perhaps be given to 
one related by a native of Ukaranga. He asserted that in the 
village next to that in which he lived the people were on most 
friendly terms with the lions, which used to walk in and about 
the village without attempting to injure any one. On great 
occasions they were treated to honey, goats, sheep, and ugali, 
and sometimes at these afternoon drums as many as two hun- 
dred lions assembled. Each lion w\as known to the people by 
name, and to these they responded when called ; and when one 
died, the inhabitants of the village mourned for him as for one 
of themselves. 


This village was reported to be situated on the shores of December, 
Lake Tanganyika, not very distant from Jnniah Merikani's i^'^*- 
house ; and he also told me that this friendshij) between the 
natives and lions was commonly spoken of, but he had never 
been present at one of the gatherings. The Mkaranga, how- 
ever, asserted that he had often witnessed this friendly inter- 
course between man and beast, and brought several of his tribes- 
men to testify to the truth of his statement. Certainly, if this 
be true, our most famous lion -tamers have yet something to 
learn from the natives of Africa. 

Another story had a curious resemblance to that of the upas- 
tree. At a certain place in Urguru, a division of Unyamwezi, 
are three large trees with dark-green foliage, the leaves being 
broad and smooth. A traveling party of Warori, on seeing 
them, thought how excellent a shelter they would afford, and 
camped under them ; but the next morning all were dead, and 
to this day their skeletons and the ivory they were carrying are 
said to remain there to attest their sad fate. 

Juniah assured me he had seen these trees, and that no birds 
ever roosted on their branches, neither does any grass grow un- 
der their deadly shade; and some men who were with him 
when he passed them corroborated his statement in every par- 
ticular. He also told me that in the vicinity of Mfuto, a town 
near Taborah, figures of a man seated on a stool, with his drum, 
dog, and goat, Avere carved in the solid rock ; and Arabs had 
informed him that in the TJvinza, to the east of Tanganyika, 
there was a large well with carved and perfect arches. This 
work was ascribed by the natives to a former race of Wasungu, 
but the Arabs supposed it to have been executed by Suliman 
ibn Daood and the genii. For the absolute truth of these 
stories I, of course, do not vouch, but simply relate them as I 
received them. 

The following account of under-ground dwellings at Mkanna 
by the banks of the Lufira I obtained from Jumah. He had 
not actually entered them himself, being afraid of the devil re- 
ported to haunt the caves ; but an Arab who accompanied him 
was more bold. He reported them to be lofty and dry, with 
small rivulets flowing through them, and some were actually 
under the bed of a river in a place where there was a cataract. 

320 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

December, The inhabitants built huts, and kept their goats and other stock 
1874. inside these caves. 

Numerous openings afforded outlet for the smoke from their 
fires, and there were seyeral passages communicating with the 
interior ; and upon being attacked, the inhabitants frequently 
sent out parties by different points of egress, to surprise and 
assail their enemies in rear, and place them between two fires. 

There are also under-ground dwellings at Mkwamba, a short 
distance farther up the Lufira ; but the principal caves are at 

During one of his cruises on the Tanganyika, Jumah passed 
a high rocky island named jSTgomanza, situated north of the isl- 
ands of Kasenge and separated from the main-land by a very 
narrow channel, into which falls the river Ngomanza, and to 
drink its waters for a week or ten days is supposed to be sufii- 
cient to produce leprosy. The inhabitants are certainly lep- 
rous, the greater number having lost a hand or foot, while 
nearly all are deprived of the sight of one eye, and many of 
both, it being quite a rarity to meet a person not suffering from 
blindness in some degree. None of the neighboring tribes in- 
termarry with these people ; and when obliged by business to 
travel through their dreaded country, they hurry along as fast 
as possible. The unfortunate lepers are actually forbidden to 
emigrate. It may possibly be a contagious leprosy with which 
they are afilicted, and that the contagion requires some little 
time to affect a healtliy person. 

Besides listening to these accounts of travel, I employed my- 
self in completing my maps and journals, making a pair of slip- 
pers, and re-binding my map port-folio. I also constructed a 
new double-fly tent of grass-cloth, rendered water-proof by being 
soaked in palm-oil, my old one being completely worn out ; and 
manufactured a new pair of colors for the march to the coast, 
those used hitherto being so tattered and stained as to be well- 
nigh indistinguishable. 

Another important piece of work was darning my stockings ; 
and as all my darning-needles had been stolen on account of 
their having such conveniently large eyes, I was obliged to use 
a sail-needle, which rendered the process even more tedious than 


Occasionally we enlivened the evenings by shooting at the January, 
innumerable fly-catchers and goat-suckers which came swooj)- ^^'^^• 
ing round after a hot day, and the uncertainty and swiftness of 
their flight afforded very good practice. 

I also paid constant visits to Fume a Kenna, urging her to 
dispatch messengers to Kasongo to hasten his return ; and to 
Alvez, begging him to be perfectly ready to start immediately 
Kasongo came. 

Parties of Kasongo's wives frequently came to see us; and 
as they had usually been imbibing freely, their manners and 
conversation were the reverse of moral and instructive. Some- 
times they would dance, and their looseness of gesture and ex- 
traordinary throwing - about of their limbs certainly exceeded 
any thing I had ever seen. 

One of Jumah's slaves amused us sometimes by exhibiting 
extraordinary tricks. His particular performance was with a 
piece of heavy, hard wood, shaped like an hour-glass, and two 
sticks each a foot in length. Taking a stick in each hand, he 
would make the wood rotate rapidly, and run backward and for- 
ward in the most extraordinary manner between the sticks, on 
a piece of string attached to their ends ; then, by a peculiar jerk, 
he would send the wood flying up into the air, higher than a 
cricket -ball could be thrown, and, catching it on the string, 
would again set it rolling. 

Notwithstanding my occupations, the Christmas of 1874 and 
New-year's-day of 1875 passed drearily indeed, and right glad 
was I when I heard, in the middle of January, that Kasongo 
was, really returning in answer to my numerous messages ; and 
on the 21st of January he actually arrived, heralded by much 
drumming and shouting. 

In the afternoon I went with Jumali Merikani to call on 
him, and, on entering the inclosure appropriated to his harem, 
looked in vain for any one having the appearance of so great a 
chief as Kasongo was reported to be. But when the assembled 
crowd opened to allow me to pass, I saw in front of the princi- 
pal hut a young man, taller by nearly a head than any standing 

This was the famous Kasongo ; and behind him were some 
women carrying his shields, while he held a spear in one hand. 





Every care was taken that no uninvited person or objectiona- 
ble intruder should find it possible to be present unobserved. 
The entrance to the niussumba, or inclosure, was now carefully 
guarded by sentries ; and a porter, clad in a huge leopard-skin 
apron, with an enormous crooked stick in his hand, examined 
every comer with the closest scrutiny before admitting him to 
the royal presence. 

We were conducted by Kasmigo into his hut, accompanied 
by his fetich-men and a few of his wives, when we made him a 
small present and took our departure, this being merely a form- 
al meeting ; but Kasongo ordered his band to play me home as 
a mark of honor. 


The band consisted of wooden drums, marimba, and globular 
gourds played as wind instruments, and producing a sound re- 
sembling that of a bugle. 

Kasongo's attention in directing so great a mark of respect 
as being marched home to the strains of his own band was, of 
course, most flattering, but the tapage infernal was well-nigh 
unbearable. I sent them a few beads, in the hope that, like the 
organ-grinder of the civilized world, they would take the hint 
and move on. But the unsophisticated natives accepted this 

nil I, I 

A^V^T? p 


action as a mark of my appreciation, or else imagined that I had January, 
hired them for the rest of the day, for they continued until after i^vs. 
sunset to play in front of Jnmah's veranda, the only place I had 
in which to spend my days. 

I now believed the time of starting to be near, and sent to 
Alvez, suggesting that he should bid farewell to Kasongo, and 
make a move as soon as possible, since every day's delay was 
diminishing the stock of beads with which I had to make my 
journey to the coast. 

324 ACROSS AFRICA. . [Chap. 


A Horde of Euffians. — A Thorough Blackguard. — A King among Beggars. — Wives 
and Families visit Me. — Mutilated Men. — Kasongo's Vanity. — His Message to her 
Majesty. — He takes me for a Ghost. — Xo Guides or Escort Obtainable. — Abandon- 
ment of my Fondest Hope. — Honest Alvez. — He lies like Truth. — Plotting. — The 
Levee. — Warned and armed. — The Ceremony. — Salaams of the Chiefs. — Biting 
the Dust. — Speeches. — Deceit. — Sleeping with Deceased Wives. — Obliged to build 
Kasongo's House. — Cruelty of Portuguese Slave-traders. — Delays. — Desertion. — 
Jumah Merikani sends Deserters a Warning. — Funeral Rites of a Chief. — Wives 
buried Alive with Him. — Blood shed over his Grave. — Kasongo's Harsh Rule. — 
His Demoniacal Frenzies. — Fire in Camp. — My Servant's Good Conduct. — Delicate 
Attention of Mrs. Kasongo. 

January, WiTii Kasongo returned tlie liorde of ruffians who had ac- 
1875. companied him on his phmdering raids, and to Lourenco da 
Souza Coimbra, a son of Major Coinibra, of Bihe, must be 
awarded the pahn for having reached the highest grade in ruf- 
fianism among them alL 

He lost no time in coming to see me, in the endeavor to 
swindle me out of something, and commenced by advancing a 
claim to be paid as a guide, on the plea that he had shown 
Alvez the road by which we intended to reach the coast ; and 
hearing that I had promised Alvez a gun when we had fairly 
started, he declared he was equally entitled to one. 

To this request I most decidedly refused to accede; and 
then Coimbra — who was known by the natives as Kwarumba 
— continually worried me with his importunate demands for 
cartridge-paper, powder, beads, and, in fact, any thing he imag- 
ined he might extract from me. 

His attire and general appearance were worthy of his char- 
acter. A dirty, greasy, and tattered wide-awake hat, battered 
shapeless, and so far gone that a cJuffonnier would have passed 
it by as worthless, crowned this distinguished person. His shirt 
was equally dirty, and a piece of grass-cloth bound round his 
waist trailed its end upon the ground. His hair was short and 




kinky, and his almost beardless face, where not covered with 
tilth, was of a dirty yellow color. Even had he not been always 
in a half-drunken state, his blood-shot eye would have told the 
tale of debauchery. In short, he was, true to his appearance, an 
unmitigated ruffian. 

Alvez, his employer, was not behind in begging for small 
things, besides the promised rifle, which he said he particularly 


wanted to get possession of at once, in order to j)rove the ex- 
istence of the agreement between ns. After constant appeals 
made on this ground, I allowed him to have it, hoping that he 
might be induced to settle quickly with Kasongo, and start 
away without further delay when he saw I was inclined to treat 
him generously. 

Kasongo's arrival was not the signal for our speedy depart- 
ure, as I had hoped. After seeing me and my wonders, he be- 
gan Ijegging for all I possessed — my own guns, hat, boots, pis- 
tols, books — in fact, every thing new to him he fancied and 
asked for, and was so very persistent and difficult a beggar to 

326 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

January, get rid of that he would even have bothered the agent of a 
isYo. mendicity society. 

On returning my call, he brought a crowd of wives and fol- 
lowers, and sat for nearly three hours under Jumah Merikani's 
veranda. Many of the women had babies of tender age with 
them ; and nursery kits being very limited in Urua, some jDor- 
tion of the scene had perhaps better remain undescribed. 

I was astonished to see Kasongo accompanied by a large 
number of mutilated men, and was still more so on finding that 
many had been thus mutilated simply for caprice, or as an in- 
stance of his power. His jidus Achates had lost hands, nose, 
ears, and lips, in consequence of fits of temper on Kasongo's 
part ; but notwithstanding having experienced such cruel treat- 
ment at his master's hands, he seemed to worship the ground 
he stood upon. Several others equally badly maimed were 
scarcely less remarkable for their devotion. 

Kasongo was inflated with pride, and asserted that he was 
the greatest chief in the whole world. The only one, in his 
opinion, who could in any way compare with him was Mata 
Yafa, the chief of Ulunda, who was also a mrua, and belonged 
to the same family as Kasongo. He graciously informed me 
that but for the obstacle offered by the great lake Tanganyika 
lying in the way, he would visit England to see what the coun- 
try was like. 

I thought it possible his vanity might suffer a shock when I 
told him that the Tanganyika was nothing in comparison M'ith 
the seas that lay between Africa and my home. But he mere- 
ly remarked that he would defer his visit for the present, and 
directed me to tell my chief to pay him tribute, and to send me 
back with rifles, cannon (of which he had heard from the Por- 
tuguese), boats to navigate his rivers, and people to teach him 
and his subjects the manner of using them, 

I then informed this self-important chief that those who un- 
derstood how to make the things he required were not likely 
people to pay him tribute, and that my chief was far greater 
than he, and, indeed, that he could have no idea of the magni- 
tude of her power. 

I asked him how many fighting -men he could muster, and 
the number that could be put into the largest of his canoes. 


He said lie was unable to count his fighting-men, but that five February, 
or six was a very good number for one canoe. I replied, laugh- 1^75. 
ing, that I had formed a good idea of the strength of his army, ~~ 

and that a very small chief in my country often commanded 
more men armed with rifles ; while, instead of six men being as 
many as could go in one canoe, we had ships the size of isl- 
ands, and, although carrying more than a thousand men each, 
they could remain away from land for many months. 

Even after this conversation, although he admitted that what 
I had said might be true, yet he adhered to the opinion that he 
was a very great man, and I was still to convey his messages to 
my chief. 

After this talk, however, the marvelous reports spread by 
my people concerning the power of the English reached his 
ears, and I heard that he came to the conclusion I was a ghost 
that had come from the spirit-land to visit him. 

I pressed him to permit Alvez to leave, telling him I had 
long been away from my home, and wished to return ; and that, 
as I had a great distance to travel, I was anxious to start as 
quickly as possible. He promised that directly he had held a 
levee of his chiefs, at which he desired me to be present, in or- 
der that I might be impressed with his greatness, we should 
not only be free to depart, but he would also furnish guides to 
the boundary of his dominions. 

My endeavors to induce him to provide me with guides to 
Sankorra were unsuccessful, for he always excused himself by 
saying that my jDcople were too few to travel alone, and that 
my only chance was either to go with Alvez, or to remain with 
Jumah Merikani until he returned to the Tanganyika. 

Both from Alvez and Jumah Merikani I tried to obtain escort 
to the lake ; but they said they were not sufficiently strong 
to spare any of their followers. Thus, most reluctantly, was I 
compelled to surrender my long-cherished idea of tracing the 
Kongo to its mouth. 

The levee which I believed would at length bring my long 
period of inaction to a termination was postponed from day to 
day, and did not take place till the 10th of February. Before 
this, Alvez had demanded an agreement in writing as to the 
amount to be paid him for showing me the road to the coast. 


328 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

February, The negotiations were carried on through the medium of 
1875. Q^e of jjjy men, who, having been employed on board a Por- 
tuguese merchant - ship, spoke tlie language well, but unfortu- 
nately understood nothing as to the money. Alvez unhesita- 
tingly took advantage of this ignorance, and fleeced me out- 

Wlien once the agreement was signed, he changed his tone of 
almost cringing civility for one of impertinence, and it required 
considerable self-control on my part to avoid numerous rows 
with him. He had promised not to wait for the levee, but to 
start two days after signing our agreement. Yet as soon as he 
considered I was in his power, he declared, notwithstanding my 
remonstrances, that he would not start until after the levee. 

At last the momentous day arrived, and a messenger from 
Kasongo came to Jumah and myself at seven o'clock in the 
morning, saying that he hoped we would attend without delay, 
as Alvez was already at his mussumba. 

Jumah warned me to be prepared for treachery, having 
heard that Kasongo had proposed to Alvez that he should join 
in attacking and looting us ; and that although Alvez had re- 
fused, a large number of his people, headed by Coimbra, had 
agreed to assist in this plot. 

" Once warned, twice armed ;" so we posted fifty of Jumah's 
men with guns in different parts of his settlement, and, taking 
sixty more, and my own askari, proceeded to the mussumba. 

There we found Kasongo and Fume a Kenna almost alone 
in their glory, although large numbers of chiefs and their fol- 
lowers were collected outside. At first the entry of our armed 
party was objected to, but I overcame this by the assertion that 
they were brought merely in honor of Kasongo, as it would be 
disrespectful to visit so powerful a chief on a state occasion 
without a suitable escort. 

I did not carry my rifle, contenting myself with keeping my 
revolver ready for action if necessary ; but Jumah Merikani, 
contrary to his usual habit, dispensed with the services of a gun- 
bearer, and took the precaution of carrying his gun himself. 

Soon after our arrival, the jingling of bells announced the 
approach of Alvez in his hammock, and we then proceeded to 


Alvez and liis men, all of whom carried guns, were formed February, 
in line along one side of the open sjjace near the entrance to 1875. 
the ranssumba, and Jumah Merikani and myself, with our fol- 
lowers, sat opposite. Midway between these two lines, and to- 
ward one end, stood Kasongo. Facing him was a man support- 
ing a curiously shaped axe, and immediately behind him were 
four women, one of whom also carried an axe similar in form 
to that of the man in front. Then followed two Waganga and 
women bearing Kasongo's shields, and behind them a party 
of men with all Kasongo's guns, standing in line, and flanked 
on either side by executioners and other officials. In rear of 
all were his wives and children. Opposite to Kasongo, and 
close to the entrance of the mussumba, were the chiefs who had 
been summoned to attend with their followers, all arrayed in 
their best. 

The next stage of the proceedings consisted of a monotonous 
droning through a list of Kasongo's titles and a description of 
his greatness by the women immediately behind him, assisted 
occasionally by the people joining in chorus. 

This long preamble being finished, the chiefs, commencing 
with the lowest in rank, came forward in turns and made their 
salaams. Each one was accompanied by a boy carrying a bag of 
powdered pipe-clay or cinnabar, and when fairly in front of Ka- 
songo, at about twenty yards' distance, the bag was taken from 
the boy by tlie chief, who rubbed its contents upon his arms 
and chest. Meanwhile he swayed about from one foot to the 
other, shouting at the top of his voice Kasongo's titles — Ka- 
lunga Kasongo, Kalunga, Moene Munza, Moene Banza, Moene 
Tanda, and many others. 

When sufficiently bedaubed, the chief returned the bag to 
his boy, and, drawing his sword, rushed at Kasongo, seemingly 
intent upon cutting him down ; but just before reaching him, 
lie suddenly fell on his knees, driving the sword into the 
ground, and rubbing his forehead in tlie dust. 

Kasongo having acknowledged this salute with a few words, 
the chief arose, and, passing to the rear, was rejoined by his re- 

After all the chiefs had saluted, Kasongo delivered a long 
speech about himself, his divine rights, greatness, and powers, 

330 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

February, declaring that the only person who could be compared to him 
1875. ^y^^ }jjg relative Mata Yafa. 

This was followed by an address from Coimbra, and another 
from a man on our side wdio spoke Kirna. In these speeches 
there were much recrimination and self-laudation, and once or 
twice matters became threatening, but it passed away without 
any disturbance. 

At the conclusion Kasongo formally confided me to the care 
of Alvez, telling him that, should any thing happen to me on 
the journey to the coast, he would be certain to receive intel- 
ligence of it, and consequently Alvez had better look well after 
my interest, or never again show his face in Urua. 

Notwithstanding these parting instructions, Alvez deter- 
mined not to start until the mourning for one of Kasongo^s 
wives, who had just died, was concluded. That occupied a 
week, at the end of which time I saw Kasongo looking very 
seedy and dirty, as well he might, for, according to custom, he 
had been sleeping nightly with his deceased wife. 

I expressed a hope that we might now leave, but he replied 
that Alvez had promised to build him a house, and that I must 
follow his example and do likewise ; but I excused myself on 
the impossibility of obtaining building materials suitable for a 
European house. 

Alvez denied point-blank having made any such promise; 
but in a few days I ascertained that he had volunteered to do 
this service ; and when I remonstrated with him on his breach 
of faith, he declared that the house would be erected in four 
or five days, and that Coimbra had already set about it with a 
party of men. 

Coimbra returned soon after, and I discovered that he knew 
nothing concerning the house, but had been engaged on some 
plundering or murdering expedition in company with a party 
of Kasongo's people. 

Now I was told the whole caravan must move to Totela, 
where the building operations were to be carried on, and which 
was two or three marches on our route to the coast. We were 
then obliged to wait until Kasongo was ready to select and clear 
the ground, and prepare the necessary trees for building. 

Day after day was wasted ; puerile excuses of every kind 


were made ; the fetich-men, wives of Kungwe a Banza, and the March, 
deceased Banibarre were consulted, and gave answers as ambig- ^^'^^• 
nous as those of the Delphic oracle. Kasongo could or would 
not decide upon starting until, at last, I promised him the rifle 
— which he had been begging for almost daily — as soon as a 
move was made, and, thus persuaded, he left for Totela on the 
21st of February. 

It was equally difiicult to get Alvez under way ; but on the 
25th we actually moved off, and, after six dawdling marches 
and three days' halt, arrived at Totela, where we found Kasongo 
with a number of Warua, but nothing done toward commencing 
the building operations. 

On this march with Alvez, I was disgusted beyond measure 
with what I saw of the manner in which the unfortunate slaves 
were treated, and have no hesitation in asserting that the worst 
of the Arabs are in this respect angels of light in comparison 
with the Portuguese and those who travel with them. Had it 
not come under my personal notice, I should scarcely have be- 
lieved that any men could be so wantonly and brutally cruel. 

The whole organization of Alvez's caravan was bad from be- 
ginning to end. The nucleus consisted of a small number of 
his own slaves and porters hired by him in Bihe ; but the 
greater portion was composed of independent parties from 
Bihe, and there were also a few people from Lovale and Ki- 
bokwd, who had joined en route in order to come to Urua to 
steal slaves. 

These outsiders, who were all provided with guns, had been 
encouraged to join us, to add to the ajjparent strength of the 
party. There was no discipline or authority over them, and 
they constantly hindered the caravan, as many as a hundred 
sometimes being present at a palaver about marching or halting. 

At starting, the whole caravan may have numbered seven 
hundred, and before leaving Urua they had collected over fif- 
teen hundred slaves, principally by force and robbery. 

Just before marching from Kilemba, I heard, quite by chance, 
that a party had left for Kanyoka, on the borders of Ulunda, 
and that we should be delayed until they returned. I strongly 
urged the dispatch of messengers to recall them at once ; but 
this was not done until after our arrival at Totela. 

332 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

April, When leaving Jumah Merikani's house, where I had experi- 

1875. enced the greatest hospitality during my long stay, he gave me 
a present of beads, two goat-skin bags of good flour, and one of 
rice, thus adding to the many benefits he had bestowed on me ; 
and while at Totela, he constantly sent rice to me ; so much, 
indeed, that it lasted me to Bihe. 

It soon became evident that if the building operations were 
left to Alvez and his motley crowd, years would elapse before 
the house would be finished ; so I set my men to work and 
completed it in three weeks, excepting plastering and decora- 
ting the walls, which was done by Kasongo's women under the 
direction of Fume a Kenna. In the l)eginning of April the 
house was finished, but nothing was known of the Kanyoka 
. party. I therefore sent a few of my people with some of Al- 
vez's men to endeavor to ascertain what had become of them. 

Kasongo soon grew tired of remaining in one place, and on 
several occasions went away on plundering expeditions, accom- 
panied by Coimbra, and ruffians belonging to Alvez's caravan, 
who hoped by this means to pick up slaves. 

I tried my hardest to persuade him to give me canoes, that I 
might go down the Lorn ami, and thus get back to the Kongo. 
But it was no avail, and I had to remain inactive day after day. 
Thus April passed without any signs of the return of the Kan- 
yoka party, or any events worth recording. 

Some of my men, dreading the road in front, deserted, and 
made their escape to Jumah Merikani's camp. Hearing of this, 
he sent them back to me with a message for the guidance of 
others similarly chicken-hearted, that all deserters would be im- 
mediately returned to me, if possible, or be kept in chains un- 
til he arrived at Zanzibar, where he would hand them over to 
the English consul for punishment. But for this threat, I be- 
lieve very many would have deserted. 

The time passed most heavily during this long delay, and I 
found it necessary to make employment, to prevent becoming 
desperate through vexation and ennui. Alany otherwise tedi- 
ous hours were occupied in writing, drawing, taking lunars and 
working them out, and in copying itineraries and meteorolog- 
ical observations for my journals. In the evenings I frequent- 
ly went out with my gun, and the guinea-fowl and wood-pig- 




which are probably iineqiialed in 

eons I brought in were a 
welcome addition to my 
larder ; and an occasional 
visit from Fume a Kenna 
also somewhat varied the 

I also busied myself in 
collecting a vocabulary of 
Kirua, and in inquiring 
into the manners and cus- 
toms of the people, and 
by this means became ac- 
quainted with the cere- 
monies observed at the 
burial of a chief of Urua 
their savagery. 

The iirst proceeding is to divert the course of a stream, and 
in its bed to dig an enormous pit, the bottom of which is then 
covered with living women. At one end a woman is placed on 
her hands and knees, and upon her back the dead chief, covered 
with his beads and other treasures, is seated, being supported 
on either side by one of his wives, while his second wife sits at 
his feet. The earth is then shoveled in on them, and all the 
women are buried alive with the exception of the second wife. 
To her, custom is more merciful than to her companions, and 
grants her the privilege of being killed before the huge grave 
is tilled in. This being completed, a number of male slaves 
— sometimes forty or fifty — are slaughtered and their blood 
poured over the grave ; after which the river is allowed to re- 
sume its course. 

Stories were rife that no fewer than a hundred women were 
buried alive with Bambarre, Kasongo's father ; but let us hope 
that this may be an exaggeration. 

Smaller chiefs are buried with two or three wives, and a few 
slaves only are killed that their blood may be shed on the grave ; 
while one of the common herd has to be content with solitary 
burial, l)eing placed in a sitting posture, with the right forefin- 
ger pointing heavenward, just level with the top of the mound 
over his grave. 


334 ACROSS 4FKICA. [Chap. 

May, In the beginning of May, I sent another search party two or 

1875. three days' march along the Kauyoka road, to seek some intel- 
ligence of the people for whom we were waiting ; but they 
returned unsuccessful, and reported that all the country they 
passed through had been desolated by Kasongo, Coimbra, and 
those with them. 

Xo village is secure against destruction under Kasongo's rule, 
as the following instance will j^rove : A chief having presented 
himself and paid the customary tribute, Kasongo professed to 
be perfectly satisfied, and told him that he would return with 
him and visit his village ; but scarcely had they approached the 
place when it was surrounded by a cordon. The chief was 
seized, and compelled by a party of armed men to set lire to 
the village with his own hands when darkness closed in, after 
which he was cruelly put to death. 

The wretched fugitives, rushing from the flames into the 
jungle in the hope of finding safety, were captured by people 
lying in ambush. The men were slaughtered, and the women 
sent to recruit the ranks of Kasongo's harem. 

Under the combined infiuence of immoderate drinking and 
smoking bhang, Kasongo acts like a demon, ordering death and 
mutilation indiscriminately, and behaving in the most barba- 
rous manner to any who may be near him. 

Soon after my search party returned, some people of Lovale, 
who had been engaged in robbing provision-grounds on the 
road to Kanyoka, arrived in camp with the information that 
those men I first sent to that place had reached it, and were 
staying there instead of setting out on the homeward journey. 
This first party had already been absent more than two months, 
and the second over a month, and I was daily becoming more 
impatient to be moving. 

I dared not make any excursions from the camp into the sur- 
rounding country, for had I left my stores for one moment I 
should have been robbed ; and even now there was barely 
enough for the journey to Bih^, and Alvez, I knew, trusted al- 
most entirely to theft and selling slaves as a means of provision- 
ing his men on the road. 

At last I persuaded him to send Moenooti, tlio principal of 
his own immediate followers, to bring in the fellows who were 




detaining us ; and this time our messages were attended to, and 
on the 26th of May the first party made its appearance. 

Coimbra, who had been backward and forward with Kasongo, 
now left the caravan, to phmder and obtain a batch of slaves to 
take to Bihe. I protested against this ; but Alvez declared that 
if he had not returned in time, we should start without him, 
and with this reply I had to be content. 



Before we started, however, a terrible misfortune occurred, 
owing to one of my men having lighted a fire inside his hut, 
and smoked himself stupid with bhang. It was in the evening 
of the 28th of May that I heard an alarm of fire, and found this 
man's hut in a blaze, and, being right to windward of our camp, 
the wave of fire seemed to roll along like lightning. 

All the huts had been heavily thatched during the rains, and, 
as usual when remaining any time in camp, the men had built 
cooking and smoking places, which were all as dry as tinder, 
now the rains had ceased, and added intensity to the fiames. 

Jumah, my servant, who was standing by me when the cry 
was raised, ran to his own hut, which was already burning, be- 






ing only a few yards from the one where the conflagration 
originated. He first seized his rifle and cartridges, and then, 
seeing the rapidly spreading flames, left every thing he pos- 
sessed to be destroyed, and rushed to my tent, to endeavor to 
save as much as possible. 

The books were bundled into my blankets, and although the 
tent had ignited before we were all out, its contents were saved. 
The tent itself was burned, but my precious journals, books, 
and instruments were rescued, thanks to the presence of mind 
and exertions of Jumah, Hamees Ferhan, and one or two oth- 
ers. While we were clearing out the tent I asked Jumah if his 
kit was safe. He replied, '■'-Potelea mhali; yonya mabooku^'' 
(let it be d — d ; save the books). 

In twenty minutes the whole affair was over, and then Bom- 
bay turned up with a piteous story of having his rifle and pis- 
tol burned. The old sinner only looked after his own kit, and 
really did nothing himself, but actually appropriated men to 
his service who should have been assisting at rescuing my tent 
and its contents. 

Alvez's people took advantage of the confusion to commit 
many robberies, for which no redress was ever offered or re- 
ceived, while for the destruction of a few of their huts I had a 





tremendous bill to pay, and doubtless many things alleged to 
have been burned in them never had any existence. 

Fume a Kenna sent the next morning to condole with me; 
and as a number of my men had lost their clothes, she kindly 
presented me with a bale of grass-cloth for them. 

Kasongo, hearing of the return of the Kanyoka party, came 
back to renew his begging before we started ; and Alvez sold 
him the Snider he received from me, and also, as I afterward 
heard, a quantity of cartridges which were stolen during the 
fire. He had done nothing for me, although I had made him 
presents and built his house ; so I refused to give him any 
thing further. 

This fire delayed us considerably, as the consequent claims 
against me had to be settled ; but at last the start was made on 
the 10th of June. 



338 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 


Making " Medicine " against Fire. — An Elaborate Operation. — Kasongo's Importu- 
nate Begging. — Disgraceful Conduct of Alvez's People. — No Mercy for the Weak. 
— Cringing to the Strong. — Jumah Merikani's Generosity. — The "Fiend Stream." 
— Strange Trees. — My Men mistake Pombe for Water. — Swamps and Bogs. — 
Many Slips. — " Sloughs of Despond." — Enormous Ant-hills. — A Monarch dreaded 
by his People. — Surpassing his Predecessors in Cruelty. — The Biter bit. — A Wel- 
come Present. — Playing with Fire-arms. — I frighten a Chief out of his Village. — 
Alvez's Tactics. — A New Arrival. — Endeavors to ol tain Allies. — Driven to Des- 
peration. — I determine to march Alone. — Result of Firmness. 

June, Before Alvez and his people would consent to marcli they 

1875. declared that " medicine " must be made as a precaution against 
lire, since it was now the dry season, and the danger from this 
cause was great, as we had good reason to remember. 

Alvez, though nominally a Christian, appeared to be a iirm 
believer in divination and incantation, and had engaged a fe- 
tich-man at Bihe to do this service for the whole journey at 
the same rate of pay as a porter, with additional perquisites and 
fees. The ceremony was commenced just before sunset, and I 
carefully watched the proceedings and noted them as they oc- 

I was much amused, in the first instance, by hearing orders 
given for the purchase of the cheapest and smallest goat that 
was to be found, that animal and a fowl being necessary for the 

The place chosen was as near as possible to the spot where 
the late fire broke out. The mganga and his boy then arrived 
on the scene with their materials, which consisted of the goat 
and fowl, a large j)ot of water, a bark trough with a stick fast- 
ened across the middle, a basket containing clay, a ball made of 
shreds of bark, mud, and filth, a wooden bowl, some roots and 
small pieces of stick, a leafless branch, a hoe, knives, an axe, and 
some Warua pipe-clay. 


The boy was adorned with a streak of pipe -clay down his June, 
nose and the middle of his chest, and across his npper lip. He i^'^^. 
took his seat on the trough, turning his back to the north, the 
man sitting opposite to him: they then rubbed each other's 
arms up and down while the man mumbled some mystic w^ords, 
after which the boy arose and laid the leafless branch upon the 
trough. Scraping the bark off the roots and sticks, they placed 
it in the w^ooden bowl and reduced it to powder, and chopped 
the sticks into very small fragments. 

A cross, with one arm pointing to the setting sun, was made 
on the ground by the man with his foot, and then he took up a 
handful of the powdered bark, and blew some toward the sun 
and the remainder in the opposite direction. Where the cross 
had been drawn, a hole was now made, into which the troup-h 
w^as put, and a small quantity of water poured into it, A few 
drops were also sprinkled on the ground, first to the north and 
then to the south. 

The mganga next took two of the scraped roots, and, spitting 
on them, placed one at each end of the trough, and, standing to 
the south of it, picked up some of the fragments of sticks "and 
dropped them in. In this operation he so crossed his hands 
that those fragments in his left should fall to the eastward of 
the stick fastened across the centre of the trough, and those in 
his right on the other side. These motions were strictly fol- 
lowed by the boy, who stood at the north end of the trough. • 
Both again sat down, the man this time at the east end, and 
the boy facing him. The fowl was then seized, the boy hold- 
ing it by the wangs and legs, while the man grasped its head 
with his left hand and cut its throat, having first rubbed it with 
pipe-clay, and being careful that the blood should fall into the 
trough and on the stick across it. When dead, the fowl was 
laid upon the spot on the south side of the trough, where water 
had been poured, with its head to the east. 

The same performance was then gone through M^ith the goat, 
a couple of by-standers assisting in holding it during its strug- 
gles, and its carcass was placed on the opposite side of the 
trough, with its head to the west. 

After washing his face with the blood and water, the man 
took a little of it in his mouth, and blew some first toward the 

340 ACEOSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

June, sun, and then to the eastward. He afterward took some of the 
1875. powdered bark from the bowl and rubbed his chest and hands 
with it and the blood and water, the boy again following his 

More water being poured into the trough, Alvez and many 
of his men washed their faces in it, and rubbed their hands with 
the powdered bark ; and a few of my people, although reputed 
Mohammedans, followed their example. Some of the water 
was then thrown into the bowl, and the remainder, together 
with the balls of filthy clay and pieces of stick, into the hole in 
which the trough had been, which was finally covered by the 
trough, while the branch was planted at its east end. 

The mganga completed the performance by taking the bowl 
of water round and sprinkling the huts; and he received the 
remains of the goat and fowl as his perquisites. 

Throughout the whole ceremony an idea evidently prevailed 
that the sun was to be propitiated, possibly on account of its 
being recognized as the source of light and heat. 

I flattered myself that I had quite rid myself of Kasongo by 
my refusal to listen to his begging ; but in the middle of the 
night I was aroused, and found him in camp trading with Alvez, 
who sold him the rifle he had obtained from me for two tusks 
of ivory. When he saw me, he asked for cartridges ; but, tak- 
ing no notice of his request, I re-entered my hut and turned in. 

Soon I heard him outside exclaiming, '-'•Bwana Cameroni, 
vissonghi^ vissonghi P^ (Mr. Cameron, cartridges, cartridges !). 

I laughed at him, and rej^lied, " Kasongo, Kasongo, mssonghi, 
mssonghi ;''"' but he continued begging until he even asked for 
one only. 

We were off betimes on the morning of tlie 10th, and made 
for the direction of the village of Lunga Mandi, a Kilolo or 
governor of Kasongo's, reported to be ten marches distant, and 
close to the western boundary of Urua, where supplies of food 
for crossing Ussambi were to be procured. 

For the first four days we passed over hilly and wooded 
country with a large number of villages, chiefly fortified. Many 
of them we were not allowed to enter, as the people were 
friendly with Daiyi, and feared we had come from Kasongo to 
attack them. 


The conduct of Alvez's people on the road was disgraceful. June, 
They attacked any small parties of natives whom they chanced i^*^^- 
to meet, and plundered their loads, though these consisted chiefly 
of dried fish and corn, which were being carried as tribute to 

Any cultivated spot they at once fell on like a swarm of lo- 
custs, and, throwing down their loads, rooted up ground-nuts 
and sweet-potatoes, and laid waste fields of unripe corn, out of 
sheer wantonness. In the villages where they camped they 
cut down bananas and stripped oil -palms of their fronds for 
building their huts, thus doing irreparable injury to the unfort- 
unate inhabitants. 

On remonstrating, I was informed that they had permission 
from Kasongo to take whatever they required. But had they 
not been armed with guns, they would never have dared to act 
thus, for on entering countries where the people carried fire- 
arms these truculent ruffians became mild as sucking doves, and 
yielded to any demands made upon them by the natives. 

The consequences of this system of living upon the country 
were to be seen in the entire absence of women and children, 
goats, pigs, and fowls from the open villages. Only a few men 
remained in them, in the hope of guarding their huts against 
being plundered ; but their presence was of little avail. 

While this plundering and looting was carried on in the open, 
none ventured to separate themselves from the caravan when 
passing through the jungle, for it was reported to be full of 
armed men, who would cut off stragglers, and, according to 
rumor, kill and eat them. 

I kept my men in hand as much as possible, and prevented 
them from following the bad example set by the rest of the 
caravan. Yet this only resulted in their being obliged to pur- 
chase food from Alvez's thieves ; and I should have suffered 
hunger times without number, had it not been for the rice and 
flour so generously given me by Jumah Merikaui. Even to 
the very moment of my leaving Totela he kept me supplied, 
four men arriving with bags of rice and flour and a bundle of 
tobacco as we were actually starting. 

A number of rivers were crossed during these four days, and 
for some distance we marched by the banks of the Kiluilui, or 


342 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap- 

June, "fiend stream," a name it well merited. It rushed along the 
1875. bottom of a deep chasm in the sandstone rocks only about 
twenty yards wide, from which light was excluded by the inter- 
laced branches of the trees growing on both banks, forming a 
canopy impenetrable to the rays of the sun. Peering down 
from above, all seemed dark as Erebus. For the first few feet 
the sides were covered with ferns, and then they went sheer 
down for some fifty feet to the dark and roaring torrent, 
marked by flashing foam where rocks checked its impetuous 
course toward the Lovoi. 

In the forests there were numerous very fine trees, among 
which the mpafu stood pre-eminent in its great size and beaut3^ 
Some trees had four or five large buttress - like projections, 
measuring about six feet at the base, and gradually tapering off 
to about twenty feet from the ground, above which the trunk 
ran up in a clean cylindrical form to the height of seventy or 
eighty feet before branching out. 

Owing to our lengthy halt, my men were entirely unfit for 
much marching. Ten soon became unable to bear their loads, 
and one was so ill that he was obliged to be carried. They as- 
cribed their illness to the impure water at Totela. I imagine, 
however, that very little water was drunk by them while there ; 
for pombe and palm-wine were plentiful, and nearly every one 
had friends among the natives who gave them any amount of 
liquor. Curiously enough, the wdiole of those I had sent to 
Kanyoka were among the sick. 

Leaving the hill country, we came to a succession of level 
"plains, which must be almost impassable swamj)s in the rainy 
season, and were still damp and oozy, and marked with large 
pits caused by the passage of elephants. In some places their 
tracks were quite fresh, and, to judge from the amount of dam- 
age done to trees and shrubs, and the manner in which the 
country was trampled about — all footpaths being obliterated — 
the herds must sometimes have numbered over five hundred 

We had to cross many streams flowing through small un- 
dulations between the plains, often bordered by swamps a mile 
wide. Of these the N jivi was especially difiicult. Wood grew 
on each side, and the river banks were lined with fallen trunks 


of trees, between which we waded through mud often waist- June, 
deep. It was useless to trust to the delusive help of the slip- i^'^^- 
pery footing these trunks afforded ; for on attempting to bal- 
ance one's self on one of them it would turn slowly round, and 
precipitate the unfortunate individual into stagnant water full 
of rotting vegetation. 

One or two such awkward experiences taught us that it was 
wiser to wade along the swampy ground, with the penalty of 
being wet to the waist, rather than to purchase a temporary im- 
munity at the risk of a ducking from head to foot. 

Beyond this was a fairly dry tract of grass, and then the mo- 
rass itself. The path was knee-deep in sticky mud, and quak- 
ing bog lay on either side. 

Some endeavored to avoid the muddy path by springing from 
tuft to tuft of long wiry grass, which grew abundantly. But 
they soon came to grief, for the tufts were merely floating on 
the mixture of slime and mud, and capsized directly they were 
stepped upon, throwing the wretched being who had been de- 
ceived by their apparent stability into the treacherous bog, from 
which he had to be extricated by more prudent companions, 
who patiently toiled along the path, instead of seeking ease at 
the risk of safety. Many men were rej)orted to have been lost 
in similar bogs. 

Through the centre of the morass was a stream of beautifully 
clear water, ten feet wide and six deep, with an apparently firm 
bed of yellow sand. But the sand was only a few inches deep, 
and beneath was quaking mud. 

At intervals in the expanse of swamp there were island-like 
clumps of tall, slender trees, growing as closely together as pos- 
sible, and rising from the green surface without any fringe of 
scrub or undergrowth. They formed a dense mass, owing to 
the luxurious growth of various creepers netting them together 
into an impenetrable thicket. 

Viewed at a short distance, these swamps had the appearance 
of verdant meadows, the clumps of trees greatly enhancing their 
beauty ; and not until arriving at them did sad experience of these 
veritable "sloughs of despond" dispel the pleasant deception. 
The scene, as one looked across them, with the caravan in Indian 
file winding along like some huge black snake, was most striking. 







About fifteen miles before reacliing Lunga Mandi's village, 
I was shown the place where the first white trader from Bihe 
who penetrated Urua had pitched his camp. From the account 
given by the natives, he conducted his caravan on the same 
principles as Alvez, and I believe the peoj^le did not appre- 
ciate his visit. 

As we journeyed onward, my invalids began to recruit their 
health, and all had recovered on arrival at Lunga Mandi's. 

This village was situated in a valley among flat-topjjed hills 
of sandstone, well wooded, and with many, bright streams ; and 
here, for the first time, I saw ant-hills similar to those in South 

I had previously met with many ten feet in height, but now 
suddenly came upon some of gigantic size, measuring from for- 
ty to fifty feet ; and, comparing means with results, these ant- 
hills are more wonderful than the Pyramids. It is as though a 
nation had set to work and built Mount Everest. 

Camping a short distance from Lunga Mandi's, we were soon 
surrounded by natives ; some coming to stare, and some to sell 
their wares, while others were looking out for any small pick- 
ings they might find. Our first visitors were men only, the 
women and live stock having been sent across the Lovoi on a 
rumor reaching them that Kasongo and Coimbra were with us. 
The people evidently viewed a visit from their sovereign as the 
greatest disaster that could befall them. 




At the mention of Kasongo's name there was immediatelj 
much lively pantomimic action as of cutting off ears, noses, and 
hands, and all declared that on his approach they would secrete 


themselves in the jungle. Lunga Mandi or a deputy takes the 
customary tribute to him periodically, to avoid the catastrophe 
of a visit, and returning in safety is looked upon as especial 

Soon after we had settled down in camp, Lunga Mandi called 
on us. He was very old, but, except being half blind from age, 
he showed no signs of decay, but walked with a step as light 
and springy as any of the young men by whom he was sur- 
rounded. In the time of Kasongo's grandfather he was chief 
of this district, and said that Kasongo surpassed all his prede- 
cessors in cruelty and barbarism. He remarked that lie was 
certain I was a very good man, for he had heard that I allowed 
my people neither to steal nor to make slaves, but made them 
pay for their provisions. 

Alvez now experienced the unpleasant situation of " the biter 
bit," for he discovered that a nephew whom he had left at this 
place in charge of three bags of beads, intended to purchase 
food on the return journey, had appropriated most of them. 
Loud and bitter were his lamentations, and deep his curses, 
about these ^'•Tre saccos — j9tfr gustare cominhor But I was 
rather rejoiced on hearing that, in consequence of this most im- 

346 ACEOSS AFKICA. [Chap. 

June, proper conduct of Lis kinsman, we should be obliged to liurry 
1875- along on our road. 

The day after camping here, great was my astonishment at 
the arrival of some of Jumah Merikani's people, bringing me 
a grass-cloth tent, sent off by him directly on receiving intelli- 
gence of mine being burned, thus adding to the debt of grati- 
tude I already owed him for his many and great kindnesses. 
The men said their orders were to follow until they found me, 
as it was not to be heard of that an Englishman should travel 
without a tent, 

Lunga Mandi seemed inclined to be very friendly, and pre- 
sented me with one good sheep, and sold me another, and in re- 
turn I made him presents with which he professed himself well 

After a time he begged to be allowed to see the effects of 
fire-arms, and I fired at a target, to give him an idea of the ac- 
curacy of the rifle, at which he was much astonished. Unfort- 
unately some one told him about the wonderfully destructive 
properties of the shell, and he would not be satisfied until I 
fired one into a tree, when the result so frightened him that he 
hastily left the camp, and nothing could persuade him to return. 
I heard afterward that he hid himself in the jungle, under the 
firm impression that I had been commissioned by Kasongo to 
take his life. 

Alvez and his people encouraged him in this notion, being 
rather jealous at his previous friendliness toward me, and I 
never saw him again, although his sons often came into my hut. 
They said that, owing to their father's age, he was easily fright- 
ened ; but assured me that, when the caravan was gone, they 
would persuade him that I had not the slightest intention of 
harming him. 

On the eve of the intended start, I heard that some people 
who had been left behind would not arrive until the following 
day, when another day was to be allowed for buying food. At 
the expiration of this time, Alvez told me all was ready for 
starting, and that we should leave at day - break ; but wlien 
morning came, a large number declined to move without Coim- 
bra, who was still engaged in slave-hunting in conjunction with 




111 vain did I represent to Alvez that when Coimbra left To- 
tela on this errand, he had been warned that the caravan would 
not be detained for him ; yet the only explanation or excuse he 
offered for breaking faith with me by these continued delays 
was, that he did not wait for Coimbra, but for the men with 
him, as their friends refused to march without them. If he per- 
sisted in going on, he declared they would rob him of his ivory 
and slaves. 



Hearing that a small party which had just arrived was inde- 
pendent of Alvez, I endeavored to induce the leader to go for- 
ward with me. I found that he was the slave of a Portuguese 
trader, named Francisco Cimada Rosa, living at Mandonga, not 
far from Dondo, on the river Kwanza. His name was Bastian 
Jose Perez, and he spoke Portuguese. He had been away from 
home three years, having started with some Lovale men to hunt 
for ivory, and had worked his way by degrees to Urua. When 
he reached there, not being sufficiently strong to return alone. 

348 ACROSS AFRICA. [Ciiap. 

July, he had been obliged to wait for Alvez's caravan before attempt- 
1875. ing iQ pagg through Ussambi and Ulunda. He said that the 
threats of Alvez, who feared I should take him for a guide, 
had deterred him from coming to me before, and he assured me 
of his willingness to go with me; but as Alvez would surely 
march almost immediately, he thought it better to cross Ussam- 
bi in his company. I pressed him to wait not a moment long- 
er ; but he adhered to his view of the matter, and nothing re- 
mained but to try further persuasion with Alvez. 

In the caravan there was, I knew, a large party altogether 
weary of waiting, but afraid to start by themselves, and these I 
incited to complain. Palaver after palaver resulted from this, 
and days passed away, but still no move was made. 

I then determined to march by myself, at all hazards ; on hear- 
ing which, Bastian and the discontented part of Alvez's men 
promised to follow me. This gave rise to much stormy discus- 
sion, for Alvez was furious at the idea of my slipping through 
his fingers. He temporized by declaring that if I would only 
remain three days longer he would positively start, whether the 
people behind arrived or not; again asserting that it was not 
Coimbra, but the natives of Bihe, for whom he detained the 
caravan, since their relatives at that place would seize his ivory 
if he returned without these men. 

However, I stood firm, and marched on the Tth of July, true 
to my decision, Alvez and Bastian accompanying me. 



Another Fire. — "Medicine" a Delusion. — Havoc and Desolation. — Coimbra's Capt- 
ures. — Unmerciful Treatment of Women. — He calls Himself a Christian. — Mis- 
ery and Loss of Life. — Abuse of the Portuguese Flag. — Alvez shares the Flesh 
and Blood. — The Lovol. — Limit of Oil -palms. — Composition of the Caravan. — 
Fire again. — Fortification of Msoa. — Mshiri. — "A very Bad Man." — His Power. — 
His Followers. — Trade in Slaves increasing. — Its Result. — Fate of the Women- 
slaves. — Probable Export. — Gods of War. — Excessive Heat. — Our Coldest Night. 
— Alvez loses Slaves. — His Lamentations. — Am taken for a Devil. — Mournful Pro- 
cession of Slaves. — A Weird Grove. — Mata Yafa. — Vivisection practiced on a 
Woman. — Rebellion of his Sister-wife. — Marshes. — A Sumptuous Meal. — Burning 
a Roadway. — Lagoons. — Bee-keeping. 

At the termination of our first march we camped by a chimp July, 
of trees near a village; but scarcely were the huts built and ^^'^5- 
tents pitched before the country near us was fired, and it taxed 
all our vigilance and energy to prevent our camp being burned. 
The elaborate ceremonial observed in "making medicine" 
against fire would, therefore, have been of little value, had we 
not taken effective measures to prevent the flames from reach- 
ing us. 

The march had been a pleasant one, as far as the country was 
concerned; but it was exasperating to witness the havoc and 
desolation caused by the thieving and destructive scoundrels 
belonging to the caravan. 

When I was ready to pack up the next morning, I was in- 
formed that no move would be made, a number of slaves hav- 
ing run during the night — small blame to them! — and their 
owners having started in pursuit. This annoyed me much, and 
I was delighted to hear that none were recaptured, and no fur- 
ther search was to be made. 

During the night some others attempted to bolt, but their 
masters, rendered more watchful by their previous losses, were 
awake, and detected them before they could effect their escape. 
For some hours the camp was ringing with the distressing yells 

350 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, of these poor creatures, whose savage masters were cruelly mal- 
1875. treating them. 

In the morning I received from Alvez an impertinent mes- 
sage that I was to come to him, and although this rather ruffled 
my temper, I thought it better to go at once and ascertain the 
meaning of this strange conduct. On meeting, he complacent- 
ly told me that he had received news of Coimbra being in the 
vicinity, and that therefore we should wait for him. 

My remonstrance and objection on the ground that we had 
already wasted too much time, and that so small a party could 
easily overtake us, j^assed unheeded. Alvez merely turned on 
his heel, saying he was master of the caravan, and not my serv- 
ant, and should travel or stop as he pleased. 

I felt a strong inclination to shake the filthy old rascal out 
of his rags, but considered it better not to soil my fingers by 
touching him. 

Coimbra arrived in the afternoon with a gang of ffty-tioo 
women, tied together in lots of seventeen or eighteen. Some 
had children in arms, others were far advanced in pregnancy, 
and all were laden with huge bundles of grass-cloth and other 
plunder. These poor, weary, and foot-sore creatures were cov- 
ered with weals and scars, showing how unmercifully cruel had 
been the treatment received at the hands of the savage who 
called himself their owner. 

Besides these unfortunate women, the party — which had been 
escorted from Totela by some of Kasongo's people — consisted 
only of two men belonging to Coimbra ; two wives, given him 
by Kasongo, who proved quite equal to looking after the slaves ; 
and three children, one of whom carried an idol presented by 
Kasongo to Coimbra, which worthy thought it as good a god as 
any other, though he professed to be a Christian. 

His Christianity, like that of the majority of the half-breeds 
of Bihe, consisted in having been baptized by some rogue call- 
ing himself a priest, but who, being far too bad to be endured 
either at Loanda or Benguela, had retired into the interior, and 
managed to subsist on fees given him for going through the 
form of baptizing any children that might be brought to him. 

The misery and loss of life entailed by the capture of these 
women are far greater than can be imagined except by those 




wlio have witnessed some such heart-rending scenes. Indeed, 
the cruelties perpetrated in the heart of Africa by men calling 
themselves Christians, and carrying the Portuguese flag, c»n 
scarcely be credited by those living in a civilized land ; and the 
Government of Portugal can not be cognizant of the atrocities 
committed by men claiming to be her subjects. To obtain these 
fifty-two women, at least ten villages had been destroyed, each 
having a population of from one to two hundred, or about fif- 
teen hundred in all. Some may, perchance, have escaped to 
neighboring villages ; but the greater portion were undoubtedly 
burned when their villages were surprised, shot while attempt- 




ino" to save their wives and families, or doomed to die of star- 
vation in the jungle unless some wild beast put a more speedy 
end to their miseries. 

When Coimbra arrived with so rich a harvest, Alvez was 
equal to the occasion, and demanded a number of the slaves to 
meet the expenses incurred in having detained him. 

With this additional amount of misery imported into the 
caravan, we marched the next day, and crossed the Lovoi, some 
by a fishing-weir bridge, and others by wading where it was 
mid-thigh deep and a hundred and twenty feet wide. The riv- 

352 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, er had evidently fallen considerably since tlie cessation of the 
1875. rains, as there were signs of its having been treble its present 
width, and fully twelve feet in depth. The banks were fringed 
with the beautiful feathery date-palm growing on a grassy 
strip, while a background of fine timber gave a charming effect 
to the whole. 

The Lovoi here forms the boundary between Urua and Us- 
sambi. Beyond it I observed no oil-palms, the height above 
the sea now being over two thousand six hundred feet, which 
appears to be the general limit of their growth. In a few in- 
stances they may be met with at two thousand eight hundred 
feet, and, according to Dr. Livingstone, at Ma Kazembe's they 
grow at three thousand feet above the sea, that being undoubt- 
edly a very exceptional case. 

Three miles of a steep ascent from the river brought us to 
camp near the heavily stockaded village of Msoa. 

The different parties of which the caravan consisted were as 
follows : my own party foi'med one camp ; Alvez and his peo- 
ple, with their slaves, formed another ; Coimbra, his wives and 
slave gang, a third ; and Bastian a fourth ; besides which there 
were two camps of independent parties from Bihe ; another of 
Kibokwe people ; and yet one more of Lovale men, or, as they 
were usually called, Kinyama men, after a chief of that country. 

Fire again came upon us shortly after we arrived, one of these 
small camps being burned ; and the whole country, which was 
covered with long grass, was soon in flames. The other camps 
were fortunately pitched where the grass was short, and thus 
escaped. Some slaves wisely took advantage of the excitement, 
and regained their liberty. 

Around Msoa, the country was pretty and prosperous, the 
districts being populous, and the villages protected by stockades 
and large dry ditches encircling them. The trenches were ten 
or twelve feet deep and of the same width, and the excavated 
earth was used to form a bank on the outside of the stockade, 
so as to render it perfectly musket-proof. These unusual forti- 
fications were intended as a protection against the raids of Mshi- 
ri, the chief of Katanga. 

Of Mshiri I had before heard, and he was reputed to be " a 
very bad man " {intu mhaya sana) ; but I had no idea that he 


extended his depredations as far as Ussambi. He is one of the July, 
Wakalaganza, the principal tribe among the Wanyamwezi ; and i^'^^- 
many years ago he penetrated with a strong party as far as Ka- 
tanga in search of ivory. When there, he saw that his party, 
having the advantage of possessing guns, could easily conquer 
the native ruler. And this he forthwith proceeded to do, and 
established himself as an independent chief, thongli Katanga is 
properly in the dominions of Kasongo. 

As snch, Kasongo and his father, Bambarre, had frequently 
sent parties to demand tribute from Mshiri; but they had al- 
ways returned from their mission with any thing but success, 
and neither Kasongo nor his father thought it advisable to risk 
his prestige by proceeding against him in person. 

Mshiri has collected around him large numbers of Wanyam- 
wezi and malcontents from among the lower order of traders 
from the East Coast, and obtains supplies of powder and guns 
by trading both to Benguela and Unyanyembe. Caravans, com- 
manded by half-caste Portuguese, and slaves of Portuguese 
traders, have visited him for over twenty years, and furnish 
numerous recruits to his ranks. Ivory being scarce, his princi- 
pal trade is in slaves and copper. The latter is procured on the 
spot from the mines at Katanga ; but for slaves he has to send 
far and wide. In consideration of a small payment, he allows 
parties of his adherents to accompany slave-trading caravans on 
their raids, and, on returning to his head-quarters, the slaves are 
divided between the traders and himself, in projDortion to the 
number of guns furnished by his people. His trade with Bihe 
and the West Coast is rapidly increasing, and large tracts of 
country are being depopulated in consequence. 

Only a small proportion of the slaves taken by the caravans 
from Bihe and the West Coast reach Benguela, the greater 
part, more especially the women, being forwarded to Sekeletu's 
country in exchange for ivory ; and it is hot improbable that 
some of these eventually find their way to the diamond fields, 
among the gangs of laborers taken there by the Kaflirs. 

^Nevertheless, I am convinced that more are taken to the 
coast near Benguela than can be absorbed there, and that an 
outlet for them must exist. I am strongly of opinion that, in 
spite of the unremitting vigilance of the commanders of our 

354 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

July, men-of-war, and of the lives and treasure that England lias ex- 
1875. pended in the suppression of this inhuman traffic, many slaves 
are still smuggled away, possibly to South America or the West 

Outside the stockaded village, large collections of horns and 
jaw-bones of wild beasts were placed in front of small fetich 
huts, as offerings to induce the African gods of war and hunt- 
ing to continue favorable to their votaries. 

From these villages the road led through woods and open sa- 
vannas, and across a wide swamp drained by the Luvwa, run- 
ning in several small channels to the southward, and ultimately 
falling into the Luburi, an affluent of the Lufupa. 

"We camped on a large open plain, destitute of trees or shade, 
and where the grass had lately been burned. The excessive 
heat of the baked ground, combined with that of the rays of 
the unclouded sun, was almost unbearable; and this burning 
day was followed by the coldest night we had yet experienced 
in Africa, owing to the clearness of the sky and the consequent 
excessive radiation, the thermometer only marking 46.5° Fah- 
renheit in my tent in the morning. 

At this camp the nephew of Alvez, and the slaves who had 
appropriated the beads at Lunga Mandi's, took the opportunity 
of running away. They had all been flogged, and kept in chains 
until the caravan started, when they were released and given 
loads to carry, with the utterance of many dire threats as to 
what should happen to them at Bihe ; so, finding themselves 
unwatched, they evidently thought it wise to decamp. 

Alvez, thus baffled, halted to search for the objects of his 
wrath ; but as Coimbra was going foraging for provisions at a 
village which was to be our next station, I took the opportunity 
of accompanying him, and looking for better quarters than the 
roasting spot we were then occupying. 

On the road we met with several streams and small swampy 
places — " bad steps," as Paddy would call them — but at the end 
of our march were rewarded by finding a delightful camping- 
ground close to Kawala. This was another intrenched village ; 
and Poporla, the chief, said that some of Mshiri's people had 
lately j^assed, leaving him unmolested, owing to the strength of 
his fortifications. 




Excepting a little corn, no food was procurable ; but the peo- 
ple were so delighted with the extraordinary circumstance of a 
caravan being ready to pay for what was required, that they al- 
lowed us to buy at most moderate prices. 

From Poporla's wife, who had accompanied her husband to 
the camp, I managed to obtain half a dozen eggs, which were a 
great treat. But Poporla was horrified at the idea of a " great 
man " being reduced to eating eggs, and brought me a basket 
of beans and a piece of charred meat. It was, I believe, the 
only flesh they had in the village, and, on close examination, it 
proved to be the windpipe of some wild animal. With some 




difficulty I avoided being almost compelled to eat this in the 
chiefs presence, he was so anxious that I should begin and not 
mind his being there. But, under the pretense of extreme po- 
liteness, I escaped the delicious morsel. After he had left, my 
servant exchanged it with one of Coimbra's people for a head 
of Indian-corn. 

Alvez arrived the following day, not only having failed to 
find the runaways, but having lost two or three more slaves. 
With many lamentations over the hardness of his fate, he came 
to me, expressing a hope that I should remember him and his 
losses. This I could, with a clear conscience, promise to do ; 
for, to my dying day, he will ever be present to my mind as 

356 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, one of the most loathsome productions of a spurious civili- 
18'^5- zation. 

It pleased me to hear that, in his opinion, the slaves had run, 
owing to the opportunities offered by short marches and nu- 
merous halts, and therefore he should press on to the utmost. 
I was selfish enough to hope that in consequence of this we 
might go forward without any more vexatious halts. 

From Kawala we marched by Angolo, and the inhabitants 
came to us eager to sell flour and corn for beads. 

I now found that Alvez and his people had, in a great meas- 
ure, made arrangements for providing themselves with stores 
for the downward journey by obtaining a particular sort of 
bead. It is not imported from the West Coast, but they had 
stolen large cpiantities from the Warua, who are particularly 
fond of them, and buy them from the Arabs. 

Camping for that night in the jungle, we next marched to 
Lupanda, three days being occupied on the road. The route 
was well watered, and the villages were embanked and stock- 
aded; and although the inhabitants of some would have no 
communication whatever with the caravan, others came freely 
into camp with corn for sale. The matama harvest had just 
been gathered, and it w^as cheap and plentiful. 

Just outside a village I saw a dead python thirteen feet eight 
inches in length, but not of great girth. 

At none of these villages were w^e allowed to enter; but 
while I was waiting near one for the caravan to come up, two 
of my men managed to get inside with the intention of trying 
to buy the rarity of a fowl or goat for me. Directly they 
were discovered, a shout was raised, and all the peoj^le retreated 
into an inner palisade, and closed the entrances. 

The inhabitants then began threatening my men with sj^ears 
from this inner fortification, and they judged it advisable to 
withdraw. But after a time the people gained confidence, and, 
seeing only myself and three followers, ventured out to satisfy 
their curiosity by staring at us from a distance. 

At last I induced one of the natives to come near me ; but, 
after having a good look, he covered his face with his hands 
and rushed away with a yell. He had never before seen a 
white man, and I really believe he thought I was a devil. 




A boy about ten years of age tlien approacbed me, and I gave 
bim a few beads and a little tobacco ; and on observing tbat no 
injury befell tbe youngster, otber people surrounded me with 
mucb laugbing and staring, and a good-natured old woman even 
consented to sell me a fowl. 

While we were engaged in a lively conversation — by signs — 
Alvez's caravan ajjpeared, and tbe natives immediately bolted 
into tbe village and closed tbe entrances. 




The place I had chosen for my camp was near the path, and 
the whole of the caravan passed on in front, the mournful pro- 
cession lasting for more than two hours. Women and children, 
foot -sore and overburdened, were urged on unremittingly by 
their barbarous masters ; and even when they reached their 
camp, it was no haven of rest for the poor creatures. They 
were compelled to fetch water, cook, build huts, and collect fire- 
wood for those who owned them, and were comparatively fa- 
vored if they had contrived some sort of shelter for themselves 
before night set in. 

The loss of labor entailed by working gangs of slaves tied to- 
gether is monstrous ; for if one pot of water is wanted, twenty 
people are obliged to fetch it from the stream, and for one 
bundle of grass to thatch a hut the whole string must be em- 
ployed. On the road, too, if one of a gang requires to halt, the 

358 ACEOSS AFKICA. [Chap. 

July, whole must follow motions ; and when one falls, five or six are 
1875. dragged down. 

The whole conntry was well wooded, and the streams were 
almost innumerable. Groves of gigantic trees sprung up with- 
out undergrowth, and a weird feeling of awe stole over me as I 
wandered in my loneliness among their huge trunks and looked 
up at their towering heads, whose outspreading branches ob- 
scured the light of the midday sun. 

At Lupanda, the chief brought a tusk of ivory for sale, and 
the caravan was halted a day, that Alvez might bargain about 
the price ; and even then he did not purchase it. 

I had some conversation with these people, and also with a 
chief named Mazonda, whose village we had passed the day be- 
fore. They told me that Mata Yafa, who had been deposed by 
his sister, was stealing through the country about eight miles 
north of us, being on his way to solicit the assistance of his 
friend and kinsman, Kasongo, to reinstate him in his govern- 

In addition to cutting off noses, lips, and ears, the morbid cu- 
riosity of this wretched creature led him, on one occasion, to 
extend his studies in vivisection even to sacrificing an unfortu- 
nate woman who was about to become a mother. To this, 
his sister — who was also his principal wife — objected, being 
prompted by the instinct of self-preservation; for she urged 
that, being herself a woman, she might some day be chosen as a 
subject by Mata Yafa in his search for knowledge. So, gather- 
ing together a strong party, she attempted to surprise and kill 
him in his hut at night. 

Rumor of tliese intentions having reached him, he escaped 
with a mere handful of men, and his sister proclaimed a brother 
the ruler in his stead. 

A quantity of copper — principally obtained from mines 
about fifty miles south of this place — was brought into camp 
here as an exchange for slaves. It was cast in pieces shaped 
like St. Andrew's cross, as before described, and was carried in 
loads of nine or ten slung at each end of a pole, weighing alto- 
gether from fifty to sixty pounds. 

Upon my picking up a half-load, consisting of ten pieces, and 
holding it out at arms -length, the people were greatly aston- 


ished, and declared I had made a " great medicine " to be en- July, 
abled to do this. Some of the villagers and several of Alvez's ^^''^■ 
and my own people put their powers to the test, and one of my 
men managed to hold out six pieces, but the average was four 
or five. 

It must be remembered that none of these people had ever 
before attempted this, and many of them could, doubtless, have 
far excelled me in other trials of strength ; but I am of opinion 
that the average muscular power of the native is decidedly less 
than that of the white man. 

On leaving Lupanda, an entire day was occupied in crossing 
a marsh of deep mud and frequent streams covered with tingi- 
tingi, over which we struggled from island to island, and ulti- 
mately camped on one covered with fine timber. 

At this marsh both the Lomami and Luwembi have their 
source, and unite after the Luwembi has passed through Lake 

On the march I saw a herd of small antelope, and succeeded 
in shooting one after much patient stalking. I directed my 
men to skin and cut it up, while I went after the remainder of 
the herd, in the hope of getting another shot. 

When I returned, a squabble had arisen between my men 
and some of the Bihe people, as the latter asserted a claim to 
half the buck because the herd had first been noticed by one of 
them. I settled the dispute by saying that he who first saw 
the herd should receive a small portion of meat ; but as for the 
rest, they might go and be hanged. 

To Alvez I sent some as a present, and the ungrateful old 
rascal immediately demanded more, on the plea that the cara- 
van was his, and therefore all game shot ought to be brought to 
him for distribution. It is probable that the message I sent in 
reply was not entirely satisfactory, nor altogether polite ; but I 
proceeded at once to appropriate the haunch and the kidneys 
for myseK, and divided the rest among my own men. 

Besides the buck, I bagged some doves, and consequently 
had quite a sumptuous meal, consisting of roast haunch of veni- 
son, broiled dove, and the tender shoots of young ferns boiled 
for asparagus. 

The next march was through country once very fertile, but 





now deserted, and after seven miles we were completely stop- 
ped by long grass. We were consequently obliged to return to 
the opposite bank of a stream we had just crossed, and lire the 
grass in front in order to clear a road. When the flames had 
traveled a short distance, I followed in the expectation of shoot- 
ing some game, but only saw small birds and numerous hawks 
and kites, which swooped into the smoke and flame in pursuit 
of their prey, and sometimes fell victims themselves. 

We now appeared to be exactly on the water-shed between 
the rivers running to the Lualaba below Nyangwe and those 
falling into it above that and Kassali. We passed grass-grown 
lagoons, giving rise to many streams, near one of which we 

The chief of a neighboring village visited us, and from him 
I ascertained the names of rivers we had crossed ; but when I 
inquired the name of himself and his village, he at once went 
away without answering, fearing that I should work magic 
against him. From this place we marched to the village of 
Fundalanga, nearly the last in Ussambi, and halted there three 
days to purchase provisions. On the road there were enormous 
bamboo brakes extending for a distance of about eight miles. 

At Fundalanga bees were kept in hives, and bees -wax was 
collected for trading purposes, as caravans returning from Ka- 
tanga usually passed this place, and bought large amounts of 
wax with the copper they had obtained at Katanga. 

One march farther brought us to the Lubiranzi, which we 
crossed, and entered Ulunda on the 2Tth of July, 1875. 


- i 



Ulunda. — Born in Slavery. — Elephant Ragout. — Alvez dodges Me. — Compelled to 
follow Him. — The Walunda. — A Dirty Race. — Curious Fare. — Returning Thanks. 
— Remarkably Small Huts. — I drop into a Pitfall. — My Rifle gives Satisfaction. — 
Zebra. — A Cold Dip. — Ice in August. — Lovale People pushing eastward. — Coward- 
ly Demeanor of Bihe Men. — Kafundango. — Escape of a Slave-gang. — Their Cruel 
Treatment. — Maternal Affection. — Savage Manners of Lovale Men. — Extortion. — 
Rudeness of Dress. — Clever Iron -workers. — Arrow-heads and Hatchets. — Beef 
once again, but not for Me. — Numerous Fetiches. — The Zambesi and Kassabe. — 
Interlocking of their Systems. — Available for Traffic. — Mode of fishing. — Katende 
in State. — Recollection of Livingstone. — The Legend of Lake Dilolo. 

Ulunda is a long and narrow strip of country — about a liun- July, 
dred miles wide at the point where we entered it, lying between 18'?5- 
the fifth and twelfth degrees of south latitude. The principal 
portion of the inhabitants are Walunda, but Mata Yafa, his im- 
mediate retainers and some of the governors of districts, are 
Warua. The villages are small and few and far between, and 
the greater part of the country is still primeval forest. 

After one march we halted for the sake of some women, who 
gave promise of an immediate addition to the numbers of the 

I went out with my gun all day, but returned unsuccessful, 
not having seen either hoof or feather. Some of Alvez's peo- 
ple were more fortunate, and shot two small elephants, on which 
account we remained anotlier day, that the meat might be di- 

I procured a piece of the trunk, for, knowing it was consid- 
ered a great delicacy, I had rather a curiosity to taste it ; but 
whether Sambo's cookery did not do justice to this choice mor- 
sel, or it required some one better versed in gastronomy than 
I to appreciate its peculiar flavor, certain it was that I never 
again ventured on another mouthful of elephant ragout. 

The process of cutting up the elephants' carcasses was a scene 

362' ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, of disgusting confusion. All Alvez's people were upon and 
1875. about them, hacking and tearing them to pieces, and liglit- 
ing and squabbling among themselves like a pack of pariah 

Encouraged by the sight of this big game, I went out the 
next day for about six hours, and beat up every bit of cover I 
came across, and just before returning a large eland bounded 
out of a thicket. I knocked him over with a shell, but he re- 
gained his feet, and I then sent a bullet into him from my sec- 
ond barrel. I found that the bullet had gone through heart 
and lungs ; but the shell, striking the thicker part of the bone 
of the shoulder, had burst without penetrating far. The base 
of the shell was flattened out like a wafer. 

One of my men also brought in an eland, and my party was 
then as well provided with meat as Alvez's people, who kept 
the elephants entirely to themselves. They would not give us 
any, though I had endeavored to buy some portion for my men ; 
and even the small piece of trunk which I obtained to gratify 
my curiosity I paid highly for. 

The meat having been packed, we continued our journey, and, 
after only two hours' marching through jungle, came upon some 
villages, from which the inhabitants had fled. 

Alvez's people instantly stopped, and declared they would 
camp there, as any amount of food was to be obtained for 

Thoroughly disgusted, I went on in the proper direction with 
a few of my followers, leaving orders for Bombay to come 
after me with the remaining men and their loads. After walk- 
ing an hour, I sat under a tree to wait for Bombay. He shortly 
appeared with half a dozen men and no loads, for Alvez having 
taken another road, my people had followed him. It Avas use- 
less to send after him, so nothing remained but to return and 
follow him up. 

Passing through & village which had been pillaged, I flushed 
a large flock of guinea-fowl feeding on corn scattered about by 
the plunderers, and bagged one flne fellow, which put me in 
better humor before I reached camp. 

• For some considerable time before overtaking Alvez, the 
stench arising from the loads of putrid elephant, which, having 




been hastily prepared, had already turned bad, afforded us ample 
proof that we were in the track of his caravan. 

I spoke to him concerning the direction of his road, and 
asked his object for marching south-south-east, when Bihe was 
about west-south-west. He replied that it was a very good 
road, and the only one he knew. 

My men were too frightened about the country in front to 
follow me alone, and said that not one among them knew where 
to find provisions or water, or could speak the languages of the 
people we should meet. There was certainly much truth in 
this, and knowing that, if I left Alvez, the greater part of my 
men would desert me and follow him, I was driven to submit 
to his guidance. 



The few people w^ho visited our camp were the first TValunda 
I had seen, and a dirty, wild-looking race they appeared. 

The clothing of the men consisted of skin aprons, while the 
women contented themselves with wearing a few shreds of 

Their wool was not worked up into any fashion, but simply 
matted with dirt and grease, and they were remarkable for the 
entire absence of ornament. 

There was nothing to show that they ever had dealings with 

364 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

July, caravans, for not one person possessed a bead or piece of cloth. 
1875. I gave a few beads to a man from whom I tried, unsuccessfully, 
to extract a little information, and he was greatly delighted 
with the present. 

Our next march was most tiresome and troublesome, for the 
paths being all " gone dead," as the people said, and the only 
huts we saw being deserted, we frequently missed our way. 
But late in the afternoon we reached the place we were mak- 
ing for, when I had the doubtful satisfaction of learning that 
the road I wished to follow the day before would have brought 
us here direct. 

"We were now close to the village of Moene Kula, a sub-chief 
of Ulunda, and on the main road between Mata Yafa's capital 
and the copper-mines and salt-pans near Kwijila. 

These were passed by the Pombieros, Pedro Joao Baptista 
and Anastacio Jose, when they journeyed from Mata Yafa's 
capital to Ma Kazembe ; the forty days' desert which they were 
informed lay between the two places evidently being the coun- 
try of the predecessor of Kasongo. No doubt, Mata Yafa was 
jealous of him, and consequently sent the travelers round, in- 
stead of through, his dominions. No parties had, however, been 
past for some time, on account of the disturbed state of affairs 
at head-quarters. 

From the people here I heard that a former Mata Yafa died 
about a year previously, and he of whom we heard in Ussambi 
had succeeded him ; but, being even more cruel than the gener- 
ality, he had been supplanted by one of his brothers, aided by 
the sister of whom we had been told. 

Some people from Moene Kula brought Alvez and myself a 
small pot of pombe, some cliarred buffalo's flesh, and a hind leg 
of a buffalo approaching a state of putrefaction ; and although 
it was impossible to eat this meat, we found it useful to ex- 
change for corn. 

On giving them beads in return, the head-man rubbed earth 
on his chest and arms, and then the entire party knelt down 
and clapped their hands together three times, commencing very 
loudly and then growing fainter. This was repeated three 

Early the next morning we passed near Moene Kula's vil- 


lage, an irregularly built collection of small hamlets, some be- August, 
ing inclosed by rougli fences of thorny bushes, and others open. ^^'^^- 
The huts were neatly built, but remarkably small, the walls not 
being above three feet high. 

Beyond the village were provision-grounds, supposed to be 
protected by fetiches, consisting of small inclosures in which 
was planted a dead tree, with numerous gourds and earthen 
pots hanging on its branches. 

During this march, I had the misfortune to sprain my ankle 
so badly that I was obliged to rig up a hammock and be carried 
for some days. 

The winding road passed many small hamlets, consisting only 
of a few huts in the centre of a patch of cleared and cultivated 
ground. They were surrounded by fences about four feet high, 
constructed of tree-trunks piled one upon the other, and kept 
in position by stakes planted at intervals. The huts were all 
small; and while some were circular, with conical roofs and 
walls of stakes, with the interstices filled in with grass, others 
were oblong, with sloping roofs, and were lined with mats. 

A few open plains in the intervals among the forest, of which 
the country was chiefly composed, were even now muddy, al- 
though the dry season had so far advanced. In the rains they 
must be swamps. 

On the 5th of August we crossed the Lukoji — the principal 
eastern affluent of the Lulua — a large river receiving most of 
the smaller streams we had lately passed. A few miles from 
this place was the village of a Kazembe, the second ruler of 
Ulunda ; but he was absent, having gone to pay his respects to 
the new Mata Yafa. 

Two days later we reached a village of about twenty huts in 
the middle of a large inclosure ; and while climbing over the 
fence at what appeared to be a proper entrance, I heard people 
call out, " Take care, there's a hole l'' I looked at the ground 
most carefully, and, avoiding a small hole, placed my foot on 
what seemed a remarkably sound spot. Immediately the sur- 
face gave way, and I made a rapid descent into a pitfall for 
game, but saved myself from reaching the bottom by spreading 
out my arms as I fell, and thus escaped without any more seri- 
ous injury than a severe shaking. 

366 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

August, Kisenga, situated just between the sources of the Lulua and 

i^*^^- Lianibai, or Zambesi, was arrived at the next day, and, being the 

last station in Ulunda, we remained here a few days to procure 

corn and make flour for a reported march of five days between 

this and Lovale. 

The moon served well for taking lunars, and in three nights 
I managed to get a hundred and eighty -seven distances, and 
thus fixed this important position accurately. 

Here we met a small party of Lovale people looking for ivo- 
ry and bees-wax. They were armed with guns, and, as was al- 
ways the case with those possessing them, were far more curi- 
ous with regard to mine than people who had never before 
seen any fire-arms. My heavy rifle was examined with much 
admiration, but they did not consider it sufiieiently long, their 
own weapons being lengthy Portuguese flint-locks ; but when 
one of them consented to shoot at a tree distant about fifty 
yards, I followed with shell, putting the one from the second 
barrel into the hole made by that from the first. They were 
then quite satisfied as to the power and accuracy of my fire- 

After leaving Kisenga, three days' marching through alter- 
nate jungle and large plains brought us to the village of Sona 
Bazh, lately built by some Lovale people. On the road we saw 
many tracks of large game and also a herd of zebra. The pret- 
ty beasts were playing and feeding, wholly unconscious of our 
being so near, and I took a long look at them through my field- 

From Sona Bazh could be seen the heavy timber fringing the 
banks of the Zambesi, about ten or twelve miles south of us, the 
river at this point running west-south-west. We were now on 
the water-shed between that river and the Kassab6, constantly 
crossing streams running either toward one or toward the other 

The road first led into a dip tlirough wliich the river Luvua 
;lrained to the Zambesi. In my tent the minimum thermome- 
ter had stood at 38° Fahrenheit ; but on descending into the dip, 
the ground was frozen and the pools covered with ice. 

To me it was quite delightful to feel the crisp ground crunch- 
ing under my feet ; but possibly my unshod and half-naked f ol- 



! / 



lowers did not regard the change in temperature with the same August, 
pleasure. ^^"^4. 

Until the 18th of August we continued marching through 
many swamps, and crossing, rivers, chiefly flowing to the Zam- 
besi. The few villages on the way had been recently estab- 
lished by Lovale people, who are rapidly pushing farther east. 

The inhabitants carried guns ; and the Bihe men, so brave and 
bold among the natives of Urua, who had no better weapons 
than bows and arrows and spears, were here extremely mild, 
and frightened to say or do any thing which might offend, and 
submitted to the most unreasonable demands without a murmur. 

The escape of a gang of slaves detained us, much to my an- 
noyance, within one march of Kafundango, the first district in 
Lovale proper. 

I had nothing but rice and beans to eat, and I was told that 
at Kafundango food was most plentiful, which was a trifle tan- 
talizing to a hungry man. 

We arrived there the following day, and found it a district 
with numerous small villages. The huts were well built and 
of various shapes, the strips of bark tying the bundles of grass 
which formed the walls being so disposed as to form patterns. 

For a piece of salt I obtained one fowl; but the people 
would not even look at my remaining beads, being very eager 
for cloth, of which I had none for trading. My only stoi'es 
were a few beads and seven or eight viongwa, or shell orna- 
ments, from the East Coast. But these I was obliged to retain 
for the purpose of buying fish with which to pay our way to 

During this halt, another string of twenty slaves belonging 
to Coimbra ran away, and a day was lost in waiting while he 
looked for them ; but the search, I am happy to say, was fruit- 

I had noticed the bad condition of this gang several times on 
the road, the poor wretches being travel-worn and half starved, 
and having large sores caused by their loads and the blows and 
cuts they received. The ropes that confined them were also, 
in some instances, eating into their flesh. And I saw one wom- 
an still carrying the infant that had died in her arms of star- 






How keenly, in the midst of these heart-rending scenes, I felt 
my utter powerlessness to assist these poor suffering creatures 
in the smallest degree may well be imagined. 

That so many had escaped was a relief to me ; although there 
was reason to fear that numbers of them died of starvation, in 
their endeavors to reach home, or fell into the hands of Lovale 
men, who are reputed to be harsh task-masters. 


The people of Lovale are very savage in their manners and 
habits, and, being armed with guns, are much feared by passing 

No tribute is demanded, as in Ugogo, except by one or two 
chiefs ; but they invent many claims as a means of extorting 
goods from those passhig through their villages. 

Every thing in their mode of living is regulated by the ma- 
gicians, or fetich-men, and they cleverly lay traps for the unwa- 
ry traveler. Thus, should a stranger chance to rest his gun or 
spear against a hut in their villages, it is instantly seized, and 




not returned unless a heavy fine is paid, tlie excuse being that 
it is an act of magic intended to cause tlie death of the owner 
of the hut. If a tree which has been marked with fire should 
be cut down for building in camp, similar demands are made ; 
and so on through an unlimited category. 

Their dress is rude in the extreme, the men wearing leather 
aprons, and the women a few small thongs like the Nubian 
dress, or a tiny scrap of cloth. Their 
hair is plaited into a kind of pat- 
tern and plastered with mud and 
oil, and looks almost as though 
their head-dress were carved out of 

They import iron in large quan- 
tities from Kibokwe, and work it 
cunningly into arrow-heads of va- 
rious fantastic forms and very pret- 
tily ornamented hatchets. The 
hatchets are also very ingeniously 
contrived, the upper part of the 
blade or tang being round, and it may be placed in the handle 
to serve either as an adze or axe. 

At the moment of starting from Kafundango, I heard from 
Bastian that he intended leaving the caravan and marching to- 
ward Kassangi. 

By this time we were so far south, that to have accompanied 
him would have added greatly to the distance, and, being short 
of stores, I dared not risk making my journey longer than was 
absolutely necessary. I therefore contented myself with giving 
him letters addressed to the English consul at Loanda, with par- 
ticulars of my movements, in the event of Bastian being able to 
send them there. These letters were never delivered, and Bas- 
tian either failed to reach his master, or the master thought it 
advisable to suppress an Englishman's communication from the 

On this march we once again had the satisfaction of seeing 
some cows, the first specimens of the bovine race that we had 
met since leaving Ujiji. But my men and myself frequently 
suffered severely from hunger, the people only consenting to 








sell provisions for slaves, cloth, and gunpowder, none of which 
I could give them. 

Throughout the first part of Lovale, the country consisted of 
a continuation of large open plains, patches of forest and jun- 
gle, and many neatly built villages. The huts were square, 
round, and oval, having high roofs, in some instances running 
into two and three points. 

Our manner of marching was free from any variety. Some- 
times we were delayed by runaway slaves ; at others by the 
chiefs desiring Alvez to halt 
for a day, which he most obe- 
diently did, although it usual- 
ly cost him some slaves ; and 
he even supplied the require- 
ments of one chief by a draft 
from his own harem. 

Innumerable old camps 
along the road bore testimony 
to the large traffic, principally 
in slaves, which now exists be- 
tween Bihe and the centre of 
the continent. 

Fetiches were numerous in 
all the villages. They w^ere 
usually clay figures spotted 
with red and white, and in- 
tended to represent leopards 
and other wild beasts, or rude wooden figures of men and 

Some of the plains we crossed are flooded to a depth of two 
or three feet during the rainy season, when the water extends 
completely across the water-shed between the Zambesi and the 

Indeed, the systems of the Kongo and Zambesi lock into each 
other in such a manner that, by some improvement in the ex- 
isting condition of the rivers, and by cutting a canal of about 
twenty miles through level country, they might be connected, 
and internal navigation be established from the West to the 
East Coast. It would, of course, be necessary to arrange for 






passing some of the more important rapids by easy portages, or, 
hereafter, by locks. 

When flooded, these plains are overspread by numerous fish, 
consisting principally of a sort of mud -fish and a small min- 
now-like fry. 

The natives, taking advantage of small inequalities of sur- 
face, dam in large expanses, which become shallow ponds when 
the floods subside. Holes are then made in the dams, and the 
water is drained off through wicker-work placed in the gaps, 
when the surface of the ground which formed the bottom of 




the pond is found to be covered with fish. They are roughly 
dried, and exported to the neighboring countries, or sold to pass- 
ing caravans. 

On the 28th 'of August, we arrived at the village of Katende, 
the principal chief of a large portion of Lovale, which now con- 
sists of two or three divisions, although it was formerly under 
one ruler. 

Dried fish was reported to be plentiful here, and especially 
on the Zambesi, about fourteen miles south of our camp, "We 
therefore decided on halting while men were dispatched to pro- 
cure a sufiicient quantity of fish to pay our way through Ki- 
bokwe. I sent a party on this errand with all my long-hoarded 





vioiigwa but two. And tliey were now the only remaining 
stores I had to depend upon after the fish shoukl be expended. 

Together with Alvez, I visited Katende, and found him sit- 
ting in state under a large tree, surrounded by his councilors. 

On either side was a fetich hut — one, containing two nonde- 
script figures of animals ; and the other, caricatures of the hu- 
man form divine ; w^hile from a branch of the tree a goat's horn 
was suspended by a rope of creepers as a charm, and dangled 
within a few feet of the sable potentate's nose. 


He was dressed for the occasion in a colored shirt, felt hat, 
and a long petticoat made of colored pocket-handkerchiefs, and 
he smoked unremittingly the whole time, for he was an ardent 
votary of the soothing weed. 

As it happened that his stock of tobacco was nearly exhaust- 
ed, I gained his esteem by making him a present of a little, in 
return for which I received a fowl and some eggs. 

I questioned him about Livingstone, whom he remembered 
as having passed by his village ; but there was very little in- 
formation to be obtained respecting the great traveler, except 
that he rode an ox, a circumstance which seemed to have im- 
printed itself indelibly on Katende's memory. Since Living- 
stone's time, he had changed the position of his village twice. 

In the afternoon a number of natives came into camp, iuul 




from one of tliem I lieard tlie following story or legend of 
Lake Dilolo, whicli well merits being related here as I re- 
ceived it : 

" Once upon a time, where Lake Dilolo now is, stood a large 
and prosperous village. The inhabitants were all rich and well- 
to-do, possessing large flocks of goats, many fowls and pigs, and 
plantations of corn and cassava far exceeding any thing that 
is now granted to mortals. They passed th^ir time merrily in 
eating and drinking, and never thought of the morrow. 



" One day an old and decrepit man came into this happy vil- 
lage, and asked the inhabitants to take pity on him, as he was 
tired and hungry, and had a long journey to travel. 

" ]^o one took any notice of his requests ; but he was, instead, 
pursued with scoffs and jeers, and the children were encouraged 
to throw dirt and mud at the unfortunate beggar, and drive him 
out of the place. 

"Hungry and foot -sore, he was going on his way, when a 
man, more charitable than his neighbors, accosted him and 
asked what he wanted. He said all he wanted was a drink of 
water, a little food, and somewhere to rest his weary head. The 
man took him into his hut, gave him water to drink, killed a 
goat, and soon set a plentiful mess of meat and porridge be- 





fore him, and, when lie was satisfied, gave him his own hut to 
sleep in. 

" In the middle of the night, the poor beggar got up and 
aroused the charitable man, saying, ' You have done me a good 
turn, and now I will do the same for you; but what I tell you 
none of your neighbors must know.' 

" The charitable man promised to be as secret as the grave ; 
on which the old *nan told him that in a few nights he would 
hear a great storm of wind and rain, and that when it com- 
menced he must arise and fly with all his belongings. 

" Having uttered this warning, the beggar departed. 

" Two days afterward the charitable man heard rain and 
wind such as he had never before heard, and said, ' The words 
that the old man spoke are true.' He got up in haste, and 
with his wives, goats, slaves, fowls, and all his property, left 
the doomed jDlace safely. 

" Next morning where the village had stood was Lake Dilolo ; 
and to the present day people camping on its banks, or crossing 
in canoes on still nights, can hear the sound of pounding corn, 
the songs of women, the crowing of cocks, and the bleating of 

Such is the true and veracious leg-end of Lake Dilolo. 





Joao, the White Trader. — Putrid Fish. — Dishonesty of the Noble Savage. — Festive 
Natives. — Scanty Apparel. — Elaborate Hair-dressing. — Cataracts. — Sha Kelembe. 
— Alvez proves Fickle. — Exchanging a Wife for a Cow. — An Attempted Bur- 
glary. — Baffled. — The Thief's Complaint. — Unparalleled Audacity. — Revengeful 
Threats. — Smelting-furnace. — High-flavored Provisions. — Sambo chaffs a Chief. — 
Forest. — A Well-dressed Caravan. — Wanted a Dairy-maid. — Friendliness of Mona 
Peho. — A Well-ventilated Suit of Clothes. — "Sham Devils." — Blacksmiths. — Am 
believed to be a Lunatic. — Alvez's Reputation among Traders. — I sell my Shirts 
for Food. — A Village eaten up by a Serpent. — An Eclipse. — Kanyumba's Civility. 
— Alvez tries to rob the Starving. — Natural Hats. — False Rumors of Fighting on 
the Road. 

DuKiNG our stay at Katende, Alvez received information tliat 
Joao, the white trader who had been to Urua, had lately re- 
turned from Jenje, and was now at JBihe, fitting out a new 
expedition, and we might therefore expect to meet him. 

Jenje, as far as I could learn, is the country of the Kaffirs, 
over whom Sekeletu was king when Livingstone passed in that 

The men whom we sent to procure fish returned with only a 
few basketfuls, and we had to continue our march with this 
small supply, trusting to the chance of obtaining more as we 
proceeded. Happily, we were not disappointed, but were en- 
abled to buy as much as we required. 

The means of paying my way now consisted of two viongwa 
and about a dozen baskets of fish. 

That these fish should be used as an article of diet is most 
remarkable ; for, being only partially sun-dried, and then packed 
in baskets weighing about forty or fifty pounds, they soon be- 
come a mass of putrefaction. There can be no difference of 
opinion as to their unfitness for human food, yet the people 
seem to thrive on them. 

The art of cheating is very well understood by the native 
fish-mongers ; for in the centre of some of the baskets I found 



376 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

September, ■ earth, stoiies, broken pottery, and gourds, so stowed as to make 
1875. ^p ii^Q proper weight and bulk. Indeed, as far as my experi- 
ence goes, the noble savage is not one w^hit behind his civilized 
brethren in adulterating food and giving short measure, the 
only difference being in the clumsiness of his method. 

We were spared any further halts until the 7th of Sejitem- 
ber, when we arrived at the village of Sha Kelembe, chief of 
the last district in Lovale. 

Our road lay across enormous plains — which are flooded in 
the rains — intersected by streams having trees growing along 
their banks ; but on the last two days of the march we entered 
a country more thickly wooded, and broken into small hills. 

Here we had our first view of the Lumeji, a noble stream 
over fifty yards wide and more than ten feet deep, with a swift 
current running in a very tortuous course through a broad val- 
ley bounded on either side by wooded hills. 

On this portion of the route the people came into camp free- 
ly, and continued dancing, drumming, and singing all night 
long, thus effectually banishing sleep ; and in the morning they 
added insult to injury by expecting payment for their unwel- 
come serenading. Their demands, however, were not exorbi- 
tant, as they were well satisfied with a handful of fish. 

Fishing -baskets exactly similar to those in Manyuema were 
used here, and the women carried their loads in the same man- 
ner as those at Nyangwe, viz., in a basket secured on the back 
with a band across the forehead. 

The women were so scantily dressed that a stick of tape 
would have clothed the female population of half a dozen vil- 
lages. But though they neglected to dress themselves, they 
devoted much time to their hair, which was evidently consid- 
ered the most important part of their toilet. It was arranged 
most elaborately, and, when finished, was plastered with grease 
and clay, and made smooth and shiny. 

Some formed it into a number of small lumps, like berries ; 
others into twisted loops, which were differently disposed, being 
sometimes separate from each other, and occasionally intermin- 
gled in apparently inextricable confusion. In some instances, 
the hair was twisted into a mass of stout strings, projecting an 
inch or two beyond the poll, the ends being worked into a kind 




of raised pattern. As a rule, the hair was brought down to the September, 
eyebrows and round to the nape of the neck, so as to entirely ^^''^■ 
conceal the ears. 

Many further adorned their heads with a piece of sheet tin 
or copper, punched and cut into fanciful patterns, and some 
wore a couj)le of small locks hanging down on each side of the 
face. There were numerous varieties, in working out these 
fashions according to individual taste, but all had a certain 
likeness to those here described. 


On approaching Sha Kelembe's, the roaring of some cataracts 
of the Lumeji was heard; but I had no opportunity of seeing 
them, as the road led us away from the banks of the river. 

To reach the village we passed what might well have been 
mistaken in England for an ornamental shrubbery, with bushes 
like laurels and laurestines, while jasmine and other sweet- 
scented plants and creepers rendered the air heavy with their 
odor. I thought I distinguished the smell of vanilla, but could 
not discover from what plant it proceeded. 

Alvez was evidently on good terms with Sha Kelembe, and 
managed to make excuses to delay us till the 12th of Septem- 
ber ; but, notwithstanding this friendship, Sha Kelembe mulct- 
ed him heavily during his stay, and compelled him to pay two 
slaves and a gun to Mata Yafa — the paramount chief of the 
western portion of Lovale, and not to be confounded with the 
Mata Yafa in Ulunda. One of the slaves thus sent away was 
a woman who, I had reason to suppose, was the favorite concu- 
bine of Alvez ; and another of his harem was bartered away for 

378 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

September, a bullock, SO fickle ill liis attachments and utterly heartless and 
1875. unfeeling was he. 

Among other excuses for stopping here, Alvez expressed his 
opinion that Joao's caravan was just in front, and by starting 
we should miss meeting him. 

While we were thus detained, a plot to rob me came to light, 
and, had it not been frustrated, I should have been altogether 
deprived of the means of buying the fish upon which we had 
now to depend as an exchange for food. 

It appeared that Coimbra and some other men, including two 
of Alvez's slaves, having heard that I possessed some viongwa, 
determined to make an attempt at stealing them. They in- 
duced one of my people to enter into the plot, and rewarded 
him for his complicity by paying him about one-third of their 
value in beads, on the understanding that he would commit 
the theft. But, fortunately, my faithful Jumah, well knowing 
how valuable the viongwa were, had locked them up securely 
in a box w^ith my books, and thus prevented their being stolen. 

Coimbra and his limited company now heard that I had only 
two left, and when they saw one of these expended in the pur- 
chase of a goat, it awakened them to the rottenness of their 
speculation, and convinced them that there was little prospect 
of getting any return for the beads they had expended in brib- 
ing my man. 

Feeling no shame whatever in declaring themselves thieves, 
and being abetted by Alvez, they brought a claim not only for 
the value of the beads used to encourage my man to rob me, 
but also, with an effrontery almost past belief, for the value of 
the fish they would have purchased with the viongwa had the 
intended robbery been completed. Of course, I objected to 
this preposterous claim with indignation ; but Coimbra and the 
others openly declared that they would seize as a slave the man 
who had been bribed, if their demand were not settled. 

I told Alvez, in unmistakable language, my opinion of those 
making this unheard-of claim, as also of others supporting them, 
and thus aiding and abetting barefaced thieving. He replied 
that if it were not settled, he would probably be robbed, and 
impressed upon me that we were not in a civilized country. 
Coimbra and the rest were, he said, '"'•Qcntes hravos,'^ and M'ould 


either kill or steal the man if deprived of their anticipated September, 
plunder. ' ^^'^^• 

In order to save this man, who, though he had proved him- 
self a most shameless thief, was otherwise worth half a dozen of 
the ruck of the caravan, I consented to satisfy the demand ; but, 
having no means of paying the scoundrels myself, was obliged 
to ask Alvez to settle the matter on the promise of recouping 
him at some future time. 

Perhaps some who do not weigh the whole circumstances 
and surroundings of this affair may possibly think that I erred 
in yielding ; but I could not fail to see, much as it annoyed me, 
that this course was absolutely necessary to prevent the wreck 
of the expedition. 

The idea of having to pay men because they had failed in 
their attempt to plunder me was so entirely novel that I con- 
fess there appeared to me something about it almost ludicrous. 
I should imagine that these are about the only people in the 
world who would put forward, and seriously maintain, such a 
claim without expressing shame in the slightest degree. 

Near the camp was a small and peculiarly shaped furnace for 
smelting iron, and I was told that the greater portion of the 
iron worked in Lovale was smelted at this place. The ore is 
found in the form of large nodules in the river-beds, whence it 
is dredged up at the termination of the dry season. 

Sha Kelembe's was left on the 12th of September, a large 
proportion of fish having been expended during the halt ; and 
as it was impossible to keep such high -flavored stores in my 
tent on account of the effluvia, some of the remainder were 
stolen, leaving me with only one viongwa to cover expenses on 
the journey to Bihe. 

The prospect was extremely disheartening, and already I had 
commenced to tear up and disj^ose of such clothes as I could 
J30ssibly spare from my scanty kit. 

Marching up the valley of the Lumeji, we turned to the 
right by the advice of Alvez, to avoid Mona Peho, chief of one 
of the three districts into which Kibokwe is divided. We 
passed many villages, and camped at the head of a valley 
drained by one of the numerous affluents of the Lumeji. 

A number of natives came to my camp, which was an hour 




September, in advance of tliat of Alvez, and I had just succeeded in open- 

1875. ij^g ^ conversation, when I heard a disturbance suddenly arise, 

and found that Sambo, who was always skylarking and in some 

sort of innocent mischief, had caused it by chaffing an old chief, 

who averred that he had been grievously insulted. 

I inquired into the matter at once with due gravity, although 
it was difficult to avoid laughing outright at Sambo's comical 
account of the affair. But the old man could not see the joke, 
and was so deeply offended that before his pacification could be 
accomplished I had to part with my viongwa as a present. I 
owned a small private stock of flour — only sufficient for three 
or four days — and rice enough for two moi'e, and the men were 
just as well, or badly, off as myself, and it therefore seemed ex- 
tremely probable that we should pass some hungry hours before 
reaching Bihe. 

The marching of the next day was through forest intersect- 
ed by long glades with streams running through them, those 




passed on the latter part of the inarch falling into the Kassabe. September, 
The forests were very line, with a scanty undergrowth of jas- i^'^^- 
mine and other sweet-scented and flowering shrubs, while the 
ferns and mosses were exceedingly beautiful. 

On camping, we were soon surrounded by the people of a 
caravan from Bihe which had halted here. They seemed to 
look with disdain upon us, who were travel -worn, thin, and 
mostly clothed in rags of grass-cloth, while they were fat and 
sleek, and decked out in print shirts, jackets, and red night-caj)s 
or felt hats. 

This caravan was out buying bees-wax, so I borrowed some 
from Alvez to exchange with them for cloth. Joao, they said, 
was at Bihe preparing for another journey to Kasongo's coun- 
try, having been down to Jenje while Alvez had been away. 

I endeavored to gather some items of news of the outside 
world from these people ; but they knew nothing of it, rarely 
going to the sea-coast. The porters for the track between Bihe 
and Benguela are Bailunda, who never go east of Bihe, and the 
people of that place only engage for the interior. 

Three more marches, tlie latter part being in a hilly country, 
brought us to the valley of the Lumeji. We crossed the river 
where it was fourteen feet wide and six deep, on a rickety 
bridge, and camped at the village of Chikumbi, a sub-chief of 
Mona Peho's. Here we remained one day, that Alvez's car- 
avan might procure provisions for themselves ; but for my 
men and myself it entailed the endurance of a little extra star- 

There were many cattle about, principally black and white, 
without humps, and of moderate size ; and although the people 
had long possessed them, the art of milking had been allowed 
to remain a mystery. Goats and fowls were plentiful ; but be- 
ing far too poor to buy any, I contented myself with honey and 
farinha, the meal made of cassava. 

Chikumbi gave us a most astounding account of the road be- 
tween Bihe and the coast. He declared it was closed, as also 
was that to Loanda. Six thousand people, under four traders, 
were reported to have banded together to attempt to break 
through, but had been unsuccessful. 

Alvez asserted that he had heard the same story from the 

382 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

September, Bihe caravan we had met, and said it was j^erfectlj true. He 

1875. T^as so very positive in this statement that I at once conchided 

it must be false ; especially as there is a considerable trade in 

bees-wax between Bihe and Benguela, and where there is traffic 

there must be roads. 

Mona Peho's was near here, but Alvez decided not to visit 
him, as he would surely detain us for two or three days. There 
were also some Bihe people there as prisoners, and if it were 
known that Alvez visited Peho without procuring their liber- 
ation, their friends would, he said, plunder his settlement in 
revenge. Yet, after this declaration, we marched straight for 
Mona Peho's. 

When we had been two hours on the road, we were stopped 
at a large village governed by a chief named Mona Lamba, who 
informed us that we must halt there, and not proceed until he 
had apprised his suzerain, Mona Peho, of our approach. 

Mona Lamba was a good-looking young fellow, dressed in a 
blue jean coat with corporal's stripes on the arm, and a petti- 
coat of red broadcloth ; and although interfering with our prog- 
ress, he was very civil, and invited me and a few others into his 
hut to have some refreshment. When we had seated ourselves, 
he produced a huge gourd of mead, and filled a pint mug for 
me. Being very thirsty, I emptied it at one draught, not know- 
ing its strength ; and I heard that Mona Lamba entertained a 
great admiration for me on account of my feeling no ill effects, 
as a pint is usually sufficient to make the natives intoxicated. 

This mead is a mixture of honey and water made to ferment 
by malted grain. It is quite clear, and has the taste of strong 
sweet beer. 

Mona Lamba brought a further supply of this liquor into our 
camp in the afternoon, but I refused his pressing invitation to 
drink, not wishing to forfeit the high opinion he held of my 

He very much wanted my Austrian blanket, but I named 
five bullocks as its price, for I could not possibly spare it. 
Then he wished to exchange coats as a token of friendship, and 
thouirh I should have been the sjainer, I had no inclination to 
assume corporal's stripes, so made him some small present to 
satisfy him that I reciprocated his friendly feeling. 


Before we started on the following clay, lie was again in camp September, 
witli more mead, which he warmed over the fire, and, the morn- ^^''^■ 
ing being chilly, I found this stirrnp-cnp very comforting. 

A short march brought ns to a valley through which a small 
stream ran. On one side was Mona Polio's village, hidden 
among the trees, and on the other we made our camp, having 
to exercise the greatest care, in felling trees for building, not to 
touch any with bee-hives on them. 

A very large party from Bilie was here engaged in collecting 
bees-wax, and I found that the account given by Alvez of their 
being forcibly detained was a gratuitous and uncalled-for false- 

Alvez bought cloth from these peoj)le, and I endeavored to 
obtain some from him. He promised to give it me on my note 
of hand, and then only supplied me with about a dozen yards, 
instead of the forty or fifty agreed upon. 

In the afternoon Mona Peho called on us, being escorted by 
about twenty men, firing guns, and shouting and yelling as they 
drew near. He was dressed in an old uniform coat, a kilt of 
print, and a greasy cotton night -cap, and immediately behind 
him were some men bearing huge calabashes of mead. He in- 
sisted on my hobnobbing with him over this liquor ; but as my 
men were around us and joined in draining the flowing bowl, 
it was all consumed without any disastrous results. 

As a present he brought me a little flour, and a pig which 
was in an expiring condition, and died a natural death immedi- 
ately it reached the camj) ; and, apologizing for having such a 
small supply of food, gave me cloth to buy something for my 

Having to make him a return present, I was sorel}^ puzzled, 
but managed to satisfy him with a flannel sleej)ing-suit. With 
this cloth, in addition to what I had screwed out of Alvez, I 
was enabled to serve out sufficient to provide my men with 
some rations, but it left me destitute. 

From Alvez, Mona Peho wanted a slave with whom the lat- 
ter was very loath to part, as he averred he could obtain fifty or 
sixty dollars for him in Benguela. The dispute thus arising 
delayed us a day, although it ended in the slave being given. 

While we were here, a man came into camp dressed in a suit 





September, of net-work of native manufacture, covering every part of his 
1875. body except his head, over which he wore a carved and painted 
mask. The net suit was striped horizontally with black and 
white, the gloves and feet pieces being laced to the sleeves and 
legs, and the join between the body and drawers being concealed 
by a kilt of grass. 

The mask was painted to resemble an old man's face with 

enormous spectacles, and some 
gray fur covered the back part. 
In one hand he held a long staff, 
and in the other a bell which he 
constantly tinkled. He was fol- 
lowed by a little boy with a bag, 
to receive such alms as might be 
bestowed upon him. 

I inquired what this strange 
individual was supposed to be, 
and was informed he was a 
"sham devil," and afterward as- 
certained that his functions were 
to frighten away the devils who 
haunted the woods. 

Those haunting the woods of 
Kibokwe are rejjuted to be both 
numerous and powerful, and each 
possesses its own particular district. They are supposed to be 
very jealous of each other, and should one meet an opposition 
demon in its district, its annoyance is so great that it goes away 
to seek some place over which it may hold undisputed sway. 
"Sham devils" are supposed to closely resemble real devils, 
and, by showing themselves in their reported haunts, make 
them move to some other locality. In consequence, they are 
well paid by the inhabitants ; and, being also the fetich-men of 
the tribe, they enjoy a comfortable income. 

On the 21st of September we left Mona Peho's ; and, before 
starting, I was informed that we should meet a European trader 
on the road, but who he was nobody knew. I was, of course, 
very anxious to see this strange trader or traveler, and solve the 





We passed throiigli jungle with many villages — in one of 
which smiths were nsing hammers with handles, the first I 
had seen in Africa, except those for making bark-cloth — and 
then proceeded along a valley by the source of the Lumeji, 
which wells up in a circular basin about sixty feet in diameter, 
and is at its birth a stream fully six feet wide and four deep. 

Climbing a steep hill, we found ourselves on a large plain, 
and shortly afterward saw a caravan 
approaching, I pressed on, anxious 
to ascertain whether this was the 
party of the reported white trader; 
but found that it was a caravan jour- 
neying to Katanga under charge of 
a slave of Silva Porto, a merchant at 
Benguela, who is known to geogra- 
phers by his travels in company with 
Syde ibn Habib in 1852-'54. • 

The slave in charge spoke Portu- 
guese, but could give me no news. 
He was greatly astonished at seeing 
me, and asked where I had come 
from, when some of Alvez's people "^ 
replied that they had discovered me 
" walking about in Warua." 

He then inquired what I was do- 
ing. " Did I trade in ivory f "No." 
"In slaves?" "No." "In wax?" "No?" " In india-nibber ?" 
" No." " Then what the devil did I do ?" " Collect informa- 
tion about the country." He looked at me a moment as if 
fully convinced that I was a lunatic, and then went on his way 
in amazement. 

From the next camp Alvez dispatched people to his settle- 
ment at Bihe, to fetch cloth to pay the ferry across the Kwanza, 
and I took the opportunity to forward maps and letters, hoping 
they might reach the coast before me. 

We had five very stiff marches before reaching the village of 
Kanyumba, the chief of Kimbandi, a small country lying be- 
tween Kibokwe and Bihe. On our journey we met many small 
parties of Bih^ people buying bees-wax, and a large caravan, 



386 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

September, commanded by two more slaves of Silva Porto, on its way to 
18*73. Katanga to purchase slaves. 

The principal of the two was a stout old negro about fifty 
years of age, dressed in a long blue frock-coat with brass but- 
tons, blue trousers, and broad-brimmed straw hat. He and his 
companion voluntarily informed me that I could not have trav- 
eled with a worse caravan than that of Alvez, an opinion in 
which I fully concurred. 

On seeing the respectable appearance of the leader of this 
caravan, I hoped that I might obtain some tea or biscuits from 
him ; but not a thing could I get, and I had to sell my shirts 
in order to keep us from actual starvation, and also to tear up 
my great-coat and dispose of it in small pieces. 

During these five days' marching we entered the basin of the 
Kwanza, and crossed two of its principal affluents, the Vindika 
and Kwiba, both considerable streams. 

I noticed a most curious hole in the side of a hill close to the 
source of a small stream, and thinking I saw a clear space in 
the jungle, I left the path to go toward it. After walking a 
few yards, I was greatly surprised to find myself standing on 
the edge of a cliff thirty feet high, overlooking a sunken space 
about forty acres in extent, the whole, except for about twenty 
yards, being surrounded by these cliff-like sides. 

The bottom of the hollow was level and of red soil, with dry 
water-courses full of white sand, and numerous curious-looking 
hillocks of red clay wwe scattered over its surface. It seemed 
as though this cavity had been cut in the hill, and numerous 
model mountains placed there. Some natives told me that a 
village had once stood there, but the people were very wicked, 
and a great snake came one night and destroyed them all as a 
punishment, and left the place as I had seen it. And this they 
evidently believed. 

At Kanyumba's I took the opportunity of observing an 
eclipse of the sun to determine longitude. I fitted the dark 
eye-23iece of my sextant to one tube of my field-glasses, and put 
• a handkerchief in the other, and managed to time all four con- 
tacts. The only notice taken of the eclipse by the people was 
that they ran to their huts. There were no groups of awe- 
stricken natives expecting to see a snake eating the sun, or sup- 




posing that the end of the world was come, though the diminn- 
tion of light was very considerable. 

Kanyuniba was very civil, and sent me a calf as a free gift, 
for I had nothing whatever to present him with in return. 
This was the first meat I had tasted, with the exception of a 
dove I had shot, since leaving Sha Kelembe's. 

When the old man heard I had walked from the other side 
of the continent and intended to go home by sea, he earnestly 
tried to dissuade me, promising that if I returned his way he 
would do every thing he could to assist me. If I went by wa- 
ter, he said I should be certain to lose my way, as there would 
be no marks whatever to guide me. 

Alvez, ever ready for any dishonest action, tried to cheat me 
out of the calf Kanyumba had given me, asserting that he had 
paid for it ; but from some of his followers, who were on any 
thing but good terms with him, I learned that this was entirely 
false, and therefore refused to surrender the veal. 

The people ofKimbandi dress their hair very tastefully, 
sometimes wearing it on one side of the 
head, in the form of a small cocked hat 
trimmed with cowries, while the hair on 
the other side hano-s down in lono- rino-- 
lets. Others make their hair resemble 
a low -crowned hat, the brim being 
trimmed with beads or cowries. 

We left our hospitable friend Kan- 
yumba on the 30th of September, and 
camped close to the banks of the Kwan- 
za, where we were rejoined by men who 
had been to Alvez's settlement to obtain 
cloth to pay our passage across the river. 

From them I heard that Joao — Joao Baptista Ferreira, as I 
now found he was called — was still at Bihe with another white 
man, Guilherme Gongalves, who had lately arrived from Eu- 
rope. I was also informed that the letter sent by me had been 
dispatched to Joao for forwarding to the coast. My endeavors 
to gain any news of European affairs were unsuccessful, for no 
one had any ideas of any thing beyond Bihe and Benguela. 
They were entirely wrapped up in the affairs of their own little 


i..LMiiAM,l b UiAD-DEibb. 




September, world, though, to judge from the sensational and untrue stories 
1875. Qf dangers on the road so frequently circulated, there was evi- 
dently a demand for news of some sort. 

The following day we crossed the Kwanza, and were then 
only one march from Alvez's settlement. It was, therefore, 
plain that the accounts given of lighting on the road were ut- 
terly unfounded. 

These stories as they traveled from mouth to mouth had been 
greatly magnified, and it was said that no fewer than six thou- 
sand men, on their way to Bihe from the coast, had been driven 
back after four days' hard fighting. One leader of a caravan 
was reported to have lost all his stores and about two hundred 
men in the struggle. 

This and similar canards had been recounted to me with 
every detail, the narrators evidently being blessed with the 
most fertile imaginations, and it was impossible to arrive at any 
certainty as to their truth or otherwise. I need hardly remark 
that they were fully believed by my people, who had become 
very gloomy at the prospect of a lengthened delay at Bihe. 
But now they were proportionately rejoiced, and all were in 
excellent sjjirits. 





The Kwanza.— Its Navigation.— Neat Villages.— Convivial Gathering.— A Head of 
Hair.— Cattle-plague.— The Kokema.— Filthy Villages.— A Lively Chase.— Recep- 
tion of Alvez. — Payment of his Porters. — Soap and Onions. — My Ragged Crew. — 
Alvez cheats Me at parting.— A Man in Tears.— An Archery-meeting. — A Torna- 
do. The Town of Kagnombe. — Its Size. — Kagnombe's Officials. — A Secretary un- 
able to write. — Mshiri's Men. — Their Journeys from Coast to Coast. — Kagnombe's 

Levee. My Seat of Honor. — Kagnombe's Best Clothes. — His Full Style and Title. 

—Strong Drink.— Fetich Place.— Skulls.— Graves.— His Guards.— His Hat.— Sen- 
hor Gon9alves.— His House.— Breakfast.— He tells Me his History.— His Kindness 
and Hospitality.— The Influence of Men of his Type. 

Early on the 2d of October we broke up our camp, and, de- October, 
scending a bank twenty-five feet in lieiglit, came upon a dead ^^"i^- 
level a mile and a half across. On the farther side of this 
flowed the Kwanza, which floods the whole of this plain in the 
rainy season. ' 

Before reaching the river we passed several small pools and 
swampy places, where numerous water -fowl were disporting 
themselves, and I shot a small but very pretty snow-white her- 
on. The river was sixty yards wide, and more than three fath- 
oms deep in the middle, with a current of barely three-cpiarters 
of a knot. 

On the opposite side were two villages situated on a bank 
similar to that near our last camp. They were inhabited by 
the ferry people, who owned numerous canoes ; but they were 
very miserable, rickety constructions, from sixteen to eighteen 
feet long, with only eighteen inches beam. 

Instead of intrusting my box of journals and instruments to 
them, I put my india-rubber boat into working order, and fer- 
ried my people and stores across in her, much to the astonish- 
ment of the natives. It was fortunate I adopted this course, 
for several canoes capsized, and some slaves narrowly escaped 
drowning. Two who were tied together, and were unable to 

390 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

October, swim, would Undoubtedly have been drowned, bad not some of 
1875. jjjy men been with me sufficiently near at band to render as- 

Tbe Kwanza, so far as I could learn, is navigable for some 
distance above tbe point at wbicb we crossed. And since tbe 
vessels of tbe Kwanza Steamsbip Company trade regularly to 
tbe falls just above Dondo, it would appear tbat a moderate ex- 
penditure of capital and labor would enable small steamers to 
be put on its upper waters, thus to intercept the greater portion 
of tbe trade between Benguela and tbe interior, and assist ma- 
terially in opening up tbe country to European enteriDrise. 

Leaving tbe river, we soon entered a wooded and billy coun- 
try witb many villages situated in large groves, in some in- 
stances surrounded by stockades. The huts were large and well 
built, being usually square, witli walls about eigbt feet liigb, 
and tbatcbed pointed roofs. Tbe walls were plastered with 
white or light-red mud, and often decorated with rough sketch- 
es of men carrying hammocks, pigs, horses, etc. 

There were also numerous granaries built on jDlatfonns raised 
about three feet from the ground. They stood eight to ten 
feet high, were circular in form, with a diameter of six or seven 
feet, and were covered by a movable conical roof of grass, the 
only means of access being by its removal. 

Pigs and fowls were in great plenty ; but the people being 
satiated with cloth, owing to their constant intercourse with 
the coast, would sell us nothing, or asked higher prices than we 
could afford. 

After some hours' marching, we arrived at a village which 
seemed far more prosperous and civilized than the rest, and, on 
entering, were accosted by two very respectable-looking mulat- 
toes who were tbe proprietors. They invited me to stay and 
drink with them ; but, bearing that tbe Kokema was close in 
front, I pressed onward, and arrived early in the afternoon at a 
village named Kapeka, near the river. 

Here I halted under some large trees to await Alvez's arrival ; 
but he did not make his appearance until nearly sunset. He 
was then accompanied by the two mulattoes and a number of 
their wives, all dressed in their best, and some carrying small 
kegs of pombe. 


^ The chief of Kapeka also came with a large pot of pombe as October, 
his share of the debauch, and a general drink round then com- 1875. ' 


The hair of the chief wife of the principal mulatto was frizzed 
to such an enormous extent that her head would scarcely have 
gone into a bushel-basket. She, as well as her husband, Fran- 
cisco Domingo Camoen, was a light mulatto. 

At the village there was a herd of about forty cattle belong- 
ing to the chief; but although they were imported from the 
Kaffir countries where they are commonly milked, no milk 
was obtained from them here, as the natives declared that they 
were much too fierce to allow of any attempt being made. For- 
merly the herds about Bihe were more numerous; but, some 
years since, a cattle plague, or murrain, swept them entirely 
away, and those in the country at this time had been brought 
from Jenje. 

Nearly two hours were occupied the following morning in 
ferrying the caravan across the Kokema, about forty yards wide 
and two fathoms deep at this point. 

Shortly afterward, a disturbance arose between some of my 
people and the natives, owing to one of my men who retired 
into a patch of cultivated ground having been discovered there 
by the owner. He demanded compensation for his land having 
been defiled, and had to be appeased by a present of cloth. 

392 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

October, If tliey were only half as particular about their dwellings as 
^^^^- their fields, it would be a good thing, for their villages are filthy 
in the extreme, and would be even worse but for the presence 
of large numbers of pigs, which act as scavengers. 

Our road led through very charming country with steep 
hills, with scars and landslips exposing the red sandstone in 
vivid contrast to the bright greens of the grass and foliage. 

Some of Alvez's porters here attempted to bolt with their 
loads of ivory, and this gave rise to a lively chase, terminating 
in their capture after a hard run. 

Alvez, having friends at several villages, accordingly stopped 
to drink with them, much to the delay of our march ; but in 
the afternoon we arrived near his settlement, and halted for 
stragglers to close up, so that we might make our entry in due 
form ; and powder was served out, that a salute might be fired 
when we marched in. 

We then entered the village, and were immediately sur- 
rounded by a horde of yelling women and children, Avho had 
assembled fi'om far and near to welcome the return of the 

In front of Alvez's house half a dozen men were keeping 
up a rapid fire in response to the guns of our party. Among 
them were two of Alvez's assistants, one a civilized black man 
named Manoel, who, like his master, was a native of Dondo; 
the other a white man comn)only known as Chiko, who had es- 
caped from a penal settlement on the coast. Manoel at once 
came forward and conducted me to a very decent hut, which, 
he informed me, was to be my quarters during my stay. 

On Alvez making his entry, he was mobbed by women, who 
shrieked and yelled in honor of the event, and pelted him with 
flour ; and we learned that his long absence had almost per- 
suaded his people to believe him to be lost ; and could they 
have mustered sufficient men and stores, they would have dis- 
patched a party in search of him. 

Unlimited pombe was served out; and when comparative 
quiet had been restored, those who carried ivory gave up their 
loads, and others in charge of slaves delivered them over to the 
care of the women. 

The porters were then paid from eight to twelve yards of 




cloth each, and a few charges of powder. This, together with 
the twelve yards every man had received before starting, made 
in all about twenty yards of cloth as pay, and a few charges of 
powder as a gift, for upward of two years' service. Of course 
men would not engage for such ridiculous rates of pay, were it 
not that they profited by rapine and robbery in passing through 
countries where the people did not possess gnus. 

However, they were well satisfied with the result of their 
journey, and announced their intention of starting, when the 
approaching rains were over, with as many of their friends as 
they could muster, to revisit Kasongo, for the purpose of ob- 
tainingf more slaves from that enlio-htened ruler. 




This to me was a day of luxuries, as Alvez, for a considera- 
tion, supplied me with some coffee, onions, and soap. This last 
commodity I had been without for nearly a year, with the ex- 
ception of a piece about a couple of inches square which Ju- 
mah Merikani had given me, and I now thoroughly enjoyed 
its unsparing application. 

Alvez's settlement differed only from Komanante, a native 
village adjoining it, in the larger dimensions of some of his 
huts ; and although he had, according to his own account, been 
settled in Bihe for more than thirty years, he had made no at- 
tempt at cultivation or rendering himself comfortable. 

394 ACKOSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

October, Here I was delayed for a week, witli scarcely any thing to 
1875. occupy my time. My first care was to enlist guides for my 
journey to tlie coast, and to obtain stores for buying provisions 
on the road, and also some extra cloth with which to clothe my 
people somewhat respectably for their entry into the Portu- 
guese settlements. 

Every stitch of European cloth had disappeared from the 
persons of my followers, and they were now dressed in rags of 
"Warua grass-cloth. Indeed, some were so nearly naked that 
they could not possibly have appeared in any place having pre- 
tensions to civilization. 

In order to procure this clothing, it was necessary to buy 
ivory and bees-wax from Alvez to exchange, as he assured me 
it was utterly imjDossible for me to get any credit. But I after- 
ward found that he had misled me in order to seize another op- 
portunity of fleecing me by charging a high price for the wax 
and ivory ; for on meeting Senhor Goncalves, he told me he 
would readily liave sold cloth to me at Benguela prices, adding 
only the cost of porterage. 

Further delay also arose through waiting for a guide. Alvez 
wished to send Chiko ; but he refused, fearing he might be 
recognized, and Manoel was told off for the duty. 

I had also to await the arrival of some Bailunda — who act as 
porters between Bilie and the coast — who were to carry thither 
some wax for Alvez, to be exchanged for stores which would 
enable him to proceed to Jenje with the view of selling his 

At last, on the lOtli of October, I started. I selected a small 
number to accompany me on a visit to Kagnombe, the chief of 
Bihe, and Senhor Goncalves, leaving the remainder to follow 
and rejoin me at the settlement of Joao Baptista Ferreira. 

At the moment of marching, one of those whom I had di- 
rected to come on afterward commenced crying because his 
chum was going with me. He declared I had sold him to 
Alvez for a slave, and altogether made such a hullabaloo over 
the matter that I felt obliged to allow him to join my little 
party. This man was a sjDecimen of some whom Bombay en- 
gaged at Zanzibar, and I had to drag across Africa. 

We then marched tlirouo-h fertile and well-wooded country 




intersected by many streams. Tlie villages were surrounded 
by plantations, tobacco being grown in small inclosed plots 
close to every lint, and I also noticed a very seedy-looking Eu- 
ropean cabbage. In the woods I frequently detected a scent 
like vanilla, but was unable to find the plant that emitted it. 
Guavas grew wild in great profusion. 

In a clear space outside one of the villages some men were 
instructing the young idea how to shoot. The target was made 
of a root found in the jungle, and cut- into circular form, about 
one foot in diameter. It was rolled slowly across the open 
space at about forty yards from the marksmen, and on an aver- 
age one arrow in ten struck it. This was the only occasion on 
which I saw shooting practiced as an amusement in Africa. 

\ILL\(.f IS unit 

After losing our way three or four times, we arrived at a vil- 
lage of considerable size, belonging to Senhor Goncalves, and 
I was lodged in the large hut used by him on his visits. The 
whole population were his slaves, but the greater number were 
now absent on a journey to Jenje, under the command of one 
of his sons. He possesses some half-dozen of these villages, 
the population of each forming the nucleus of a caravan, the 
remainder being composed of hired natives of the neighborhood. 

"We were fortunate in gaining the village when we did, for 
almost directly we had obtained shelter a heavy tornado came 


396 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

October, on, accompanied bj torrents of rain. It had been preceded bj 
1875. a peculiar lurid light, which, as the sun had set some little time, 
must have been electrical. 

Three hours' march from here was the town of Kagnombe, 
the largest I came across during my whole journey, being more 
than three miles in circumference. It contained a number of 
separate inclosures belonging to different chiefs, who used them 
when visiting the place to pay their respects to Kagnombe. 
Much space was occupied by cattle and pig-pens and tobacco- 
gardens, besides which there were three large gullies — the 
sources of streams flowing to the Kokema — so that the popula- 
tion, though large, was not nearly so numerous as the size of 
the town had led me to expect. 

On arrival, I was met by Kagnombe's secretary, chamberlain, 
and captain of the guard, who wore red waistcoats as sign of 
their dignity. The secretary was more ornamental than useful, 
being unable to write ; but a subordinate, a black man and na- 
tive of Dondo, was better educated, and conducted the trade of 
Kagnombe with the coast. 

These officials conducted me Ijo a hut which had been pre- 
pared for my reception, and immediately, without allowing me 
any time for refreshments, commenced bothering me with ques- 
tions as to what I intended to offer their chief as a present. 

A Snider rifle and a little cloth Avhich I obtained for the 
purpose while at Komanante were all I could well give. But 
with these they assured me he would be any thing but satisfied, 
and I was obliged to part with a large leopard-skin presented 
to me by Jumali Merikani, and which had been most useful as 
a rug. 

Throughout the day crowds came to stare at me ; and when 
driven by heavy showers to take refuge in my hut, the people 
did not scruple to follow me uninvited, and it was needful to 
keep a sharp lookout for pilferers. 

Among the crowd were some men attached to a caravan 
belonging to Mshiri, on the return journey from Benguela. 
They all had the TJnyamwezi tribal marks, and the majority 
could speak Kinyamwezi. One asserted that he was a Mnyam- 
wezi, but on cross-examination I found he was really a native 
of Katanga, but had once been to Unyanyembe. 




I have no doubt that many of Mshiri's men liave visited hoth 
coasts, and that a message might be sent by means of these peo- 
ple from Benguela to Zanzibar. 

Mshiri has issued an edict compelling all his subjects to adopt 
the tribal marks of the Wanyamwezi, and many natives of Bilic 
visiting Katanga have also complied with this order to curry 
favor with him. 

About nine o'clock the next morning, a messenger informed 
me that Kagnombe was ready to receive me. Making myself 
as tidy and presentable as the scantiness of my kit would allow 
and taking with me half a dozen of my men, I went to one of the 
gullies on the side of which Kagnombe's private compound was 

The gate was guarded by men wearing red waistcoats, and 
carrying spears and knives ; and, on entry, I found a double row 
of small stools placed for the accommodation of the audience, 
while at the far end was the large arm-chair of the great man 
himself, standing on my leopard -skin. 

Seeing no particular place assigned to me, and not feeling 
disposed to occupy a stool on a level with my men, I sent for 
my chair. This proceeding was at first most warmly resisted 
by the othcials, on the ground that no person was ever allowed 
to sit on a chair in the presence of Kagnombe : I therefore 
should not be permitted to introduce such a fashion. In reply 
I assured them that it did not matter, for I should simply with- 
draw from the levee, and not wait to see Kagnombe, upon which 
my chair was admitted, and I took my seat. 

398 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

October, When all was ready, the door of an inner inclosure was. 
18Y5. opened, and tlie chief appeared. He wore an ancient suit of 
black, bundled on anyhow, and a large gray plaid thrown over 
his shoulders, the ends being held up behind by a naked little 
boy. On his head was a dirty old wide-awake hat, and, not- 
withstanding tlie earliness of the hour, he was already about 
three parts drunk. 

No sooner was he seated than he commenced informing us 
of his power, saying that he was a greater man than any other 
king in Africa ; for, besides his African name, he had a Euro- 
pean one. His full style and title was King Antonio Kag- 
nombe, and his picture, the picture of Antonio Kagnombe, had 
been sent to Lisbon. 

Further, he informed us that we were not to judge of his 
mightiness by the seedy appearance of his present attire, as 
very grand clothes had been given him by the Portuguese au- 
thorities when he was at Loanda. 

He had passed some years at that place, and was supposed 
to have been educated ; but the sole effect of this education 
seemed to have been the blending of the vices of semi-civili- 
zation with those proper to the savage. 

Having heard that I had been a long time on the road, he 
was graciously pleased to express his satisfaction at the pres- 
ents I had made him, but desired me to remember that if ever 
I passed liis town again, I nnist bring gifts more suitable to his 

The oration being concluded, we moved into the inner com- 
pound, overshadowed by an enormous banyan-tree, and where 
some huge female bananas, producing seed, but no fruit, were 
growing. When the seats were re-arranged, Kagnomb6 entered 
one of the huts within the inclosure, and shortly re-appeared 
with a bottle of aguardiente and a tin pannikin. 

He served out a " nip " all round, and then, putting the bot- 
tle to his lips, took such a deep draught that I expected to see 
liim fall down insensible. But the only effect was an increase 
in his liveliness, and he commenced swaggering and dancing 
a])out in the most extraordinary manner, occupying intervals in 
his performance by further pulls at the bottle. When it was 
tinished, we were free to take our departure. 


I rambled about the town and neighborhood, and visited the October, 
great fetich place. Here the skulls of all the chiefs whom 1875. 
Kagnombe had conquered were kept spiked on poles, surround- 
ed by the heads of leopards, dogs, and jackals. 

Not far from this was the burial-ground of his family, the 
graves in which all lay east and west. Broken pots and crock- 
ery were scattered on each, and in the centre was a fetich hut, 
where offerings of food and drink were placed for the manes of 
the departed. 

Outside Kagnombe's compound a large tree was pointed out 
to me as being the usual reception-place for the Portuguese, 
Here his chair is brought and put nj)on the summit of a small 
mound, the visitors having to sit on stones or roots at its foot. 
I was assured that my being allowed to enter his jDrivate in- 
closures was a mark of high honor, no white man having ever 
before been admitted. 

Of the two inclosures, the outer one is really his main guard, 
and all night long men are stationed there on sentry. These 
guards are also employed to lead the van when Kagnombe en- 
gages in war, tlie duty of carrying his hat, which plays an im- 
portant part in action, devolving upon the captain of the guard. 

When a village which it is intended to capture is approached, 
the hat is thrown over the palisades, and a tremendous rush is 
made to recover it ; for he who is fortunate in the attempt, and 
brings it back, is considered the hero of the day, and is reward- 
ed with gifts of concubines and liquor. 

The following morning, after having dispatched Manoel with 
farewell messages to Kagnombe, I started for the settlement of 
Senhor Goncalves, and arrived there after a pleasant walk of a 
few hours. 

Drawing near to the settlement, I was much impressed by its 
appearance of neatness and good order, and, on entering, found 
myself in a well-kept court-yard. In this there were a large 
store-house and two small dwellings, while a palisade in front 
divided them from the principal house, which was flanked on 
one side by a magnificent grove of orange-trees covered with 

A Spanish mulatto met me, and led the way into the sitting- 
room, where Senhor Gongalves's two sons and a white man, who 

400 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

October, had formerly been boatswain of a Portuguese man-of-war, were 
18'75- at breakfast. 

This room quite astonished me. The floor was planked, the 
windows had green jalousies, the ceiling was of white cloth, and 
the walls were plastered and painted in a neat pattern; and 
upon the table, which was covered with a clean white cloth, all 
manner of good things were spread. 

Senlior Gongalves, an old gentleman of charming manners, 
welcomed me warmly, and, telling me not to stand on ceremony, 
bid me fall to. This I was nothing loath to do, and thorough- 
ly enjoyed the best meal I had tasted for many a long day. 
Every thing was well cooked, and good biscuits, butter, and oth- 
er "canned delicacies" helped to form the solids, which were 
washed down by vinho Unto, followed by coffee. 

After breakfast, Senhor Gonial ves told me of himself and his 
doings here, and conducted me round his establishment. He 
had at one time been master of a ship, but, tiring of the sea, 
settled at Bihd thirty -three years ago. When he had been 
thirty years in Africa, he returned to Lisbon with the idea of 
ending his days there in peace ; but his friends of former 
times being dead, and he being too old to make new ones, he 
never felt comfortable there, and after three years' absence de- 
termined to return to Bihe. He had only arrived about three 
weeks when I paid him this visit. 

Before leaving for Lisbon he had a capital garden with Euro- 
pean vegetables, and grew vines and wheat, which flourished 
marvelously. But during his absence every thing was neg- 
lected, and the only things remainilig were his oranges — which 
were finer than any I had ever seen — and a hedge of roses thir- 
ty feet high, now in full bloom. 

His principal trading was with Jenje for ivory, and Kibokwe 
for bees-wax, and, altogether, trade was fairly profitable. Twice 
he was burned out and lost every thing, and was obliged to re- 
commence business on borrowed capital, the high interest on 
which had nearly swallowed all his profits for a time ; but now 
he was free and unembarrassed. 

Each of the six villages he owned supplied a caravan. One 
was now traveling under the charge of a son, and another under 
a servant ; and two more were about to start. 




His sons had lately returned from Jenje, and said they had 
met English traders there with bullock-wagons, and had been 
most friendly w^ith them. 

We sat a long time, yarning and smoking good English bird's- 
eye after dinner, and then I was given a comfortable bedroom, 
and, for the first time since sj^ending a night on board the Pun- 
jab, I experienced the pleasure of sleeping between sheets. 

Tempting as the hospitality and many comforts of this place 
were, I could not allow myself to think of lingering, but de- 
cided to start the next morning for Joao Ferreira's, where I had 
arranged to meet the main body of my men. 

Senhor Gon§alves gave me a bottle of brandy and a few 
tins of meat for the road, and we parted, after an acquaintance 
of four-and-twenty hours, as though we had been old friends. 

I firmly believe that if more men such as Senhor Goncalves 
were to take advantage of the Portuguese dominions on the 
coast, and settle in the healthy uplands of Bihd, much might be 
done toward opening up and civilizing Africa. 



402 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 


Joao's Settlement. — His Official Position. — Openly trading in Slaves. — Bad Speci- 
men of the White Man. — A Fetich-man. — Fortune-telling. — Charms. — Infallible 
Cures. — Arms for Kasongo. — Probable Result. — Belmont. — Miserable Work. — 
Buffalo Herd. — Opposition by Bihe People. — Civility of the Chiefs. — The Kutato. 
— An Extraordinary River. — Dangerous Crossing. — Subterranean Streams. — Run- 
gi. — Suspected of the Evil Eye. — A Fetich-man declares Me free. — Untrustworthy 
Postmen. — Making and mending Clothes. — A Portuguese in Pawn. — A Festival. 
— Drink and Debauchery. — A Superior Chief. — Rheumatism. — A. Glimpse of Para- 
dise. — Visit to King Kongo. — Housed and fed by the Prime Minister's Wife. — 
The King's own Hut. — His Dress. — Strongly Guarded. — A Drunken Conference. — 
Pounding Corn. — My Beard excites Curiosity. — Hungry Times. — Caterpillars a 

October, BiDDiNG adieu to Senlior Gongalves, who expressed many 
1875. kindly wishes for my success, we crossed some open prairie 
country, aj)parently admirably adapted for growing wheat, and 
reached the settlement of Joao Baptista Ferreira. 

It was a complete contrast to the one we had just left, being 
only a shade better than that of Alvez ; but Joao accorded me 
a thoroughly hearty welcome, and I was not slow to appreciate 
his kindness. The men whom I had left at Komanante were 
here awaiting my arrival, and I immediately gave them some 
of the cloth I had obtained, so that they might clothe them- 
selves for entry into Benguela, and the remainder I served out 
to procure rations for the journey to the coast. 

Joao was the white trader of whom I had heard as having 
been to Kasongo's country, and he was preparing for another 
journey thither, for since his return from Urua he had paid a 
visit to Jenje, and exclianged the slaves he obtained from Ka- 
songo for ivory. 

At Jenj6 he met an Englishman whom he called George, and 
became most friendly with him. He had received from him a 
rifle and compass as tokens of amity. 

From Jenje he brought a riding-bullock, and from Benguela 


a donkey, both of which knew him well, and would follow him October, 
like dogs, which I accepted as a proof that thete must have ^^'^^• 
been some good in Joao's nature. Indeed, I must acknowledge 
that to me and mine he showed great kindness, and I wish I 
were not compelled, in the interests of Africa, to make any al- 
lusion to the dark side of his character. But '■''Fais ee que dois, 
advienne que pourra.''^ I am constrained to declare that he 
was any thing but the right kind of man to create a good im- 
pression by trading in Africa. He was openly engaged in the 
slave -traffic, notwithstanding his holding a commission from 
the Portuguese Government as a district judge, and slaves in 
chains were to be seen in his settlement. 

With my experience of the manner in which slaves are ob- 
tained, I could not but feel pained that white men who could 
thus disregard the feelings of fellow-creatures should be among 
the first specimens of Europeans seen by the untutored people 
of the interior. He told me, as rather a good story, how Ka-* 
songo had ordered hands and ears of slaves to be cut off in hon- 
or of his visit, and expressed his intention of taking about a 
hundred flint-lock muskets to that chief to exchange for slaves, 
and quite scouted the idea of going there for ivory. That, he 
said, could be obtained much more easily at Jenj^, to which 
place the road was comparatively easy and healthy. 

A fetich-man visited Joao's while I was there, his errand be- 
ing to tell the fortunes of the people about to journey to Ka- 
songo's, and he also professed to cure diseases and expel evil 
spirits. He was followed by some friends, who carried iron 
bells, which they occasionally struck with small pieces of iron. 

On arrival he seated himself on the ground, surrounded by 
his friends, and then commenced a monotonous recitative. In 
this he accompanied himself by shaking a rattle made of bas- 
ket-work and shaped like a dumb-bell, while the circle of at- 
tendants joined in chorus, sometimes striking their bells, and at 
others varying the performance by laying them down and clap- 
ping their hands in a kind of rhythmic cadence. This being 
finished, the soothsayer was ready to be consulted, provided 
those coming to him were prepared to pay in advance for his 

The principal instrument for reading the decrees of fate con- 

404 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

October, sisted of a basket trimmed with small skins, the bottom being 
1875. formed of a piece of gourd. This was filled with shells, small 
figures of men, tiny baskets, and packets containing amulets, 
and a heterogeneous collection of rubbish. 

The method of divining was something after the manner 
adopted by ancient dames in more civilized parts of the globe, 
who imagine they can look into the future by gazing intently 
at the dregs in the bottom of a tea-cup. 

On being consulted, the basket was emptied of its contents ; 
and as the queries to which answers were desired were put to 
the magician, he selected such things to be returned to the bas- 
ket as he considered appropriatCo He then gave it a dexterous 
twist, and, after carefully inspecting the manner in which its 
contents had arranged themselves, delivered the all-important 
answer to the anxious dupe. 

Besides telling fortunes, he also did a lively amount of trade 
in charms and amulets, without which no African would con- 
sider himself safe on a journey. One charm I noticed was in 
very large demand, as it was suj^posed to prevent slaves from 
running away. It was composed of a large horn filled with 
mud and bark, and having three very small horns projecting 
from its lower end. 

I had often seen these charms in the possession of Alvez's 
people, who placed them in the ground close to the owner's 
quarters in camp, and constantly anointed them with red earth 
and oil, in order to propitiate the spirit believed to exist within 
them. Alvez had one of these horns lashed to his flag-staff ; 
but I believe he used the anointing oil more for his own pur- 
poses than those of the devil's. 

When the fetich-man found no more buyers of charms, he 
offered to cure any disease with which any person present 
might be afflicted. To some he gave charms as a remedy, but 
to the majority he administered draughts made from various 
roots and herbs. He also showed himself an adept at sham- 

Joao's principal stock for trading with Kasongo consisted of 
flint-lock muskets and powder; and when possessed of a suffi- 
cient number of fire-arms, I have no doubt he will try his hand 
at robbing caravans ; for when I passed through his country he 


had every inclination to take to highway robbery, but lacked October, 
the necessary power. 1875. 

After a day's halt at Joao's, we started for the coast, aceom- 
panied by a gang of Bailunda carrying gear belonging to Alvez, 
and intended for sale at Benguela. It Avas arranged that the 
head-man of this party should act as my guide, Manoel being 
interpreter between him and me. 

"We passed Belmont — somewhat inappropriately named, be- 
ing situated in a hollow — and then over large down-like hills 
with very little wood, excepting around the villages, which were 
all shaded by groves of fine trees. 

Belmont is the settlement of Silva Porto — a name well 
known to African geographers — which had once equaled, if 
not surpassed, that of Senlior GouQalves ; but its owner having 
discontinued traveling and settled at Benguela, it was placed 
under the care of slaves, and had consequently greatly deterio- 
rated. Its orange-trees had run wild and were unpruned, and 
that which had formerly been a carefully kept garden was no 
better than a tangled waste. 

The rains were now beginning to set in regularly, and at our 
first camp we passed a most miserable night. There was scarce- 
ly any grass or brush-wood with which the men could hut them- 
selves, and they were consequently exposed to one continued 
downpour of cold rain. 

I fared equally badly, for my grass -cloth tent was so thor- 
oughly worn out and full of holes that the water came through 
it freely. There was not a dry corner where I could sleep, so I 
coiled myself up in a space about two feet square, with a piece 
of mackintosh over my head. 

As day broke, the rain ceased, and we managed to light a fire, 
and I then gave each man a small nip of the brandy which had 
been given me by Gongalves. After this we started, and, 
though wet and miserable -looking, my men were fairly light- 

Gradually we entered more broken and wooded country, with 
stony hills showing out here and there. On these, villages 
were built and encircled by stone -walls and palisades, while 
others on the bare hills were surrounded by heavy groves of 
trees, and reminded me much of farms on the Wiltshire doAvns. 

406 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

While crossing a level table-land, I saw enormous flocks of 
birds, and what was supposed to be an extraordinarily large one 
in rapid inotion was pointed out to me. Tlie object had so 
curious an appearance that I used my field-glasses to obtain a 
better view, and then discovered that the dark cloud was caused 
by the dust and steam rising from a large herd of buffalo gal- 
loping madly to the eastward. 

On the road we met many up-parties of Bihe people who had 
been trading with the Bailunda. They were usually rather 
drunk and abusive, and in some instances attempted to rob my 
stragglers, so that it required great forbearance and some tact 
to avoid getting into serious collision with them. They assert- 
ed that we had no right to be traveling in their country, as we 
should be the means of opening up the road to other strangers 
and traders, and so deprive themselves of their monopoly. 

Although these people were thus unfriendly toward us, the 
chiefs of the villages were kind and civil, and invariably brought 
us pots of pombe. To have refused this proffered hospitality 
would have been a dangerous policy, and have lessened the good 
feeling which existed; but much time was sometimes wasted 
owing to these halts for refreshment. 

The nights were now constantly rainy, and we had some 
wretched experiences ; but, being near the end of my journey, 
I felt inclined to make light of every trouble. And, in addi- 
tion to being continually wet, we were badly provided with 
food ; for the people, owing to their constant intercourse with 
the coast, were overwhelmed with cloth, and wanted only pow- 
der or aguardiente in exchange for provisions. We had nei- 
ther of these articles of commerce, and consequently were fre- 
quently compelled to go hungry. 

On the 18th of October we passed the Kutato, a most ex- 
traordinary river, forming the boundary between Bailunda and 

We crossed by a bridge then under water, the strength of 
the current being so great that some men were washed olf , and 
only saved themselves by catching at bushes on the bank. On 
reaching the other side we found ourselves upon an island, sit- 
uated among numerous rapids and cascades breaking out from 
a rocky hill - side. The difficulty of getting across seemed, at 




first sight, almost insuperable ; but after a time we discovered 
that there were, however, places where it was possible to jump 
from rock to rock, and then to wade through the rapids them- 
selves on narrow shelves, holding on, meanwhile, by ropes of 
creepers stretched from side to side for that purpose. A single 
false step or the snapping of the creeper-rope at these points 
would have been fatal, for nothing could have saved one from 
being dashed to pieces among the rocks beneath. 



The stream below this was about sixty yards wide, very 
deep, and running like a sluice. I afterward heard that we 
were considered most fortunate in grossing without mishap; 
for at that season of the year people had frequently been lost 
in making the attempt, and it was often necessary to wait a 
week or fortnight before the passage was practicable. 

Looking back from the other side, a most striking sight was 
presented by this mass of water bursting out of the precipitous 
hill-side, and broken by the rocks and little bushy islands into 
foamins: cascades. 

408 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

Many small streams were passed, which occasionally flowed 
for some distance in subterranean channels. They worked in 
among loose stones which were covered with soil and vegeta- 
tion, the under-ground portion of their course being sometimes 
only some forty yards in length ; but in other instances they 
seemed to have disappeared altogether, and no doubt helped to 
supply the water which formed the " burst of the Kutato." 

The following day we arrived at the village of Lungi, the 
dwelling-place of the head of the Bailunda who were accom- 
panying me, and halted to enable them to prepare food for 
the road to Benguela. I was told this would occupy three 
days, so I decided to have a hut built, instead of remaining that 
time in my leaky tent. The men also managed to make them- 
selves comfortable, wood and grass for building a camp being 

The wife of the head-man was now taken ill, and he, with 
an amount of marital affection which was very creditable, would 
not hear of leaving her until she recovered. 

This arrangement being particularly inconvenient, I tried to 
reason with him against adhering to his resolve, and, to my sur- 
prise, I afterward found I was suspected of the evil eye, and 
was accused of having bewitched the woman by looking at her 

Although this would seem rather an indirect method of 
bringing about so dire a calamity, yet it was thoroughly be- 
lieved in, and a fetich-man was brought to give his opinion of 
my optics. Fortunately, he declared that there was nothing 
evil about my eye-sight, and informed the head-man that it be- 
hooved him to assist me in every thing, and that on arriving at 
Benguela he would And I possessed an open hand. 

This covert appeal to my generosity was not to be resisted, 
and I could not feel otherwise than grateful for his favorable 
opinion of me when under suspicion ; so I gave him a piece of 
cloth out of my scanty stock, bringing my store down to four 

The brother of the guide who had expressed his determina- 
tion to remain behind to nurse his wife now volunteered to 
conduct us to Benguela, but had to prepare his food before 


The chief of Lnngi, Menyi Hombo by name, had been a October, 
pombeiro of Senhor Gonial ves; and although he was well i^'^^- 
aware of my inability to make any return for kindness shown, 
was very hospitable, bringing us pombe daily, and presenting 
a goat to me, besides one to my men. 

Here I received the unwelcome intelligence that the letters 
and map I forwarded before reaching Bihd were barely ahead 
of me now. It appeared that when they arrived at Komanante, 
Manoel at once sent them to Joao, who intrusted them to two 
runners to take to the coast. These worthies arrived at a vil- 
lage close to Lungi about a fortnight before me, but, meeting 
some chums just returned from Benguela with a large stock of 
aguardiente, remained there with them. In their opinion such 
an opportunity was not to be neglected, and from the moment 
of their arrival they had spent their time in one continued state 
of drunkenness. I immediately sent for the lettei^s, and was 
fortunate in getting them ; and, after this experience, I con- 
cluded it would be better to become my own postman. 

Little worthy of record occurred during the stay at Lungi. 
The jDrincipal employment of the men was making clothes of 
a somewhat uniform pattern for entry into Benguela ; and I 
had to look sharply after them, for they were much inclined to 
shirk their work, and expend the material I had given them in 

While writing in my hut one day, I was astonished at hear- 
ing that a white man had come to the camp and desired to see 
me. Who it might be I could not imagine, having been told 
that no white traders were in the country, excepting Joao and 

I found that my visitor was a young Portuguese, who, to- 
gether with two companions, had come here to trade, having 
obtained a few stores on credit at Benguela. 

His partners, however, quarreled so grievously that words 
came to blows, and one, after knifing and killing the other, ran 
off with all the goods, and left this young fellow destitute. 

He was now in pawn to the chief of the village where he 
was staying, and was prevented from leaving, as the merchant 
who advanced the stores for the first venture refused to supply 
him with any thing further until he was paid. This forced de- 

410 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

October, tention did not trouble him greatly, for he was very comfort- 
less, able, and well looked after by the natives, and did not appear 
~~" to have any desire to be taken out of pledge. 

At last the Bailunda had their food ready, but the chief of 
Lungi having told them that the following day was an im- 
portant festival, they refused to start, being anxious to share in 
the customary bout of pombe-driuking. 

I went to witness the performance, and, under a huge banyan- 
tree in the outer portion of the village, found singing, dancing, 
and drinking proceeding in great force. The men and women 
danced together, their suggestive motions being accompanied 
by ribald songs, and the scene was one of licentiousness almost 
be^^ond belief. 

The chief, who was comparatively sober, remained in an in- 
ner compound shaded by large trees and barren bananas, like 
those at Kagnombe's, One part of this compound reached to 
the summit of an almost precipitous ascent, from which a 
charming view was obtained. 

He informed me that, in consequence of having been in the 
service of Gongalves, he had no desire to join in orgies such as 
the one I had witnessed ; but added that he was powerless to 
prevent them, for if the people were deprived of their drink 
and dancing, they would rebel, and murder their rulers. 

I had much trouble on leaving here, owing to many of my 
people having rheumatism and swollen limbs, caused by the wet 
and cold. Poor little Jacko, and a man named Yacooti, were 
unable to walk, and it was necessary to contrive litters for car- 
rying them. 

Almost directly after starting, we came upon rocky hills, 
with brawling burns rushing along their rugged courses, and 
here and there falls from twenty to thirty feet in height, the 
crystal water sparkling in the sunlight as it dashed from crag 
to crag. Large tree-ferns grew on the banks, and among the 
bushes were myrtle, jasmine, and other flowering shrubs, while 
a variety of beautiful ferns simiUir to maiden-hair, and other 
delicate kinds, flourished in the damp crevices of the rocks. 

As we went forward tlie scenery increased in beauty, and at 
last I was constrained to halt, and surrender myself to the en- 
joyment of the view which lay before me. 


I will content myself with asserting that nothing could be November, 
more lovely than this entrancing scene, this glimpse of Para- ^^'^^• 
dise. To describe it would be imjwssible. Neither poet, with 
all the wealth of word-imagery, nor painter, with almost super- 
natural genius, could by pen or pencil do full justice to the 
country of Bailunda. 

In the foreground were glades in the woodland, varied with 
knolls crowned by groves of large, English-looking trees, shel- 
tering villages with yellow thatched roofs; shambas, or jjlan- 
tations, with the fresh green of young crops and bright red of 
newly hoed ground in vivid contrast, and running streams flash- 
ing in the sunlight ; while in the far distance were mountains 
of endless and j)leasing variety of form, gradually fading away 
until they blended with the blue of the sky. Overhead there 
drifted fleecy white clouds ; and the hum of bees, the bleating 
of goats, and crowing of cocks broke the stillness of the air. 

As I lay beneath a tree in indolent contemplation of the 
beauties of nature in this most favored spot, all thought of the 
work still before me vanished from my mind ; but I was rudely 
awakened from my pleasant reverie by the appearance of the 
loaded caravan, with the men grunting, yelling, and laboring 
under their burdens. Thus the dream of fairy-land was dis- 
pelled, and the realities of my work, with its toil and trouble, 

That evening we camped in a wood, a clear space having lit- 
erally to be cut out of the masses of sweet-scented creepers 
which festooned the trees. 

Here I again divided the caravan into two parts, as it was 
necessary for me to visit Kongo, the chief of the Bailunda, at 
Kambala, and I had been informed that it would be impolitic 
to be accompanied by all my men on the occasion. 

I therefore selected four of my own people, including Ju- 
mah, Manoel, and the chief of the Bailunda porters, and three 
of their immediate followers, leaving the remainder of the par- 
ty to proceed by the direct road to the next camp, thus giving 
the invalids, who were steadily increasing in number, two short 
marches and a good rest. 

Kambala is situated on a rocky hill in the centre of a wooded 
plain surrounded by ranges of hills. The entrance to the vil- 






lage was over a sinootli sheet of granite, and then, passing 
through two or three palisades, we were conducted into a small 
division containing four huts, which we were invited to make 
use of. 

The huts clustered about the rocks in a most extraordinary 
manner, advantage being taken of every shelf and projection 
capable of being built upon. Thus a next-door neighbor was 
generally either almost above your head or below youi* feet. 
Trees of fair proportions grew out of the crevices, tobacco was 
planted close to the huts, and the palisades were covered witli 
flowering creepers. 


Some of Kongo's principal counselors welcomed us on arriv- 
al, but the task of entertaining us fell chiefly upon the shoul- 
ders of the wife of the prime minister, he being absent on im- 
portant duty. Our hostess brought a large supply of porridge 
and dried locusts for my people, and several inhabitants paid us 
visits, each bringing with him a pot of pombe. 

My anxiety was to gain an early audience with King Kongo, 
and also to settle upon a suitable present. I had brought a rifle 
for him, but his people wisely preferred an old flint-lock carried 
by Manoel, for which I gave him the Snider. It was arranged 
by the court oflicials that I should see the king the following 
day, but I managed to overrule this delay, and our interview 
was then appointed to take place in the afternoon. 

XXXI. ] 



The hour for our reception having arrived, we were taken to November, 
the very sunnuit of the hill, where the king's hut and that of is'?^- 
his principal wife were situated on a small level surface. This 
position was inaccessible on all sides save the one by which we 
approached, and was surrounded by a heavy palisade. On our 
way to it, no fewer than thirteen separate lines of stockading 
were passed, while the path was in some places so steep that we 
were obliged to use our hands to clamber up. 




Just before reaching the royal compound, we halted by an 
open hut containing a large bell, which was tolled by men sta- 
tioned on guard to give notice of our arrival, and there we 
waited until permission to proceed was obtained from Kongo. 
)Vatch and ward was kept at this post both day and night, to 
prevent any one approaching without due warning being giv- 
en ; and this also was the chosen scene of executions which, I 
heard, were rather frequent, though the barbarous practice of 
mutilation was unknown. 

After a time we received permission to enter the royal pre- 
cincts, and found a few stools placed round an antiquated arm- 




Kongo's throne. 



chair which served as King 
group my seat was j)laced. 

Kongo then entered, dressed in a much faded and dilapidated 
uniform, with a huge battered cocked hat on his head ; and be- 
ing very aged, and much under the influence of drink, he had 
to be helped along and placed upon his throne. I advanced 
and shook hands with him, but doubt very much whether he 
had a clear conception of who his visitor might be. 

Some officials commenced a conversation with me, remarking 
that every thing they said was to be understood as the king's 
own words ; but he had really very little voice in the matter. 
As usual, they asserted that Kongo was the greatest chief in 
the world. Taking me to a gap in the palisade, they pointed 
to the surrounding country as being under his rule, and showed 
me the position of several villages scattered about in the plain 
that lay at our feet, as being those that supplied the inhabitants 
of Kambala with food. The gun was then presented in due 
form, and we took our leave. 

On returning to my hut, I passed a party of women j)oundiug 
corn. They did not use pestles and mortars, as elsewhere, but 
pounded the grain on the polished surface of a granite rock, 
kneeling to their work, and using small mallets formed of a 
piece of hard curved wood. 

When we reached our quarters, the prime minister's wife 





was there with more porridge and locusts for my men, and a Xovember, 
fowl for myself. After sunset we were left to our own devices, 1875. 
and, notwithstanding heavy rain, passed a comfortable night, as 
the huts proved quite weather-tight. 

In the morning our hostess again waited upon us with our 
breakfast, and wished us all farewell. In return for her hospi- 
tality she asked me to send her a small brass bell from Ben- 
guela, a modest request w^hich I gratified by forwarding half a 
dozen, together with a piece of good cloth sufficient to make 
her happy for a long time. From her features and appearance, 
which were decidedly prepossessing, I believe she had some 


amount of white blood in her veins, being, too, as light as a 

Much curiosity was excited here respecting my beard, and 
some strange stories were circulated by people who had seen 
me, and considered this appendage a noteworthy peculiarity. 

We left Kambala by the same gate -way as we entered — 
which I believe to be the only means of getting in or out of 
the place, so jealously guarded is the rocky fortress of King 
Kongo — and soon afterward sighted an extraordinary peak 
standing up among the hills, more inaccessible than Pieter Bot's 
mountain at the Mauritius, It took tlie form of an enormous 

416 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

November, prism of granite, and its native name Teinba Lui^ meaning 
1875. " devil's finger," was in keeping with its appearance. 

Several villages on the road had cattle feeding near them, and 
the people looked in comfortable circumstances. Drink was 
offered to ns at all, but flour was not forthcoming except for 
barter, and the want of this necessary food compelled me to 
begin to tighten up my belt. 

In the afternoon we fell in with the rest of our party, and 
found Jacko and Yacooti able to walk again, though several 
other men were ill. According to Bombay, Yacooti died while 
on the march, and was thrown into the jungle by way of burial, 
upon which he came to life again, and was immediately able to 

At this camp we were joined by many Bailunda bound for 
Benguela with flour to exchange for aguardiente. One of 
them I noticed with a number of large cocoons in a basket, and, 
on inquiring what they were for, he cut one open, show^ed the 
caterpillar still moving inside, and, putting it into his mouth, 
swallowed it, smacking his lips with great gusto. CaterjDillars 
in this particular stage w'ere, I was told, considered a great del- 

The whole caravan being now assembled, I trusted we might 
reach the coast without further delays ; for, in consequence of 
our halt at Lungi, the men had already expended much of their 
cloth, and unless we pushed onward it was probable we should 
have a hungry time on the road. I hoped, under these circum- 
stances, that the men would see the necessity for marching, if 
only for their own sakes ; but I was doomed to disappointment. 



My Dispirited Crew.— Native Bridges.— Bad Weather.— Secure Dwelling.s.— Breaiv- 
dowu of my Men. — A Man missing. — Fallen out by the Roadside. — A Fearful 
Night.— Searching for the Straggler.- Delay Dangerous.— The Straggler arrives.— 
Past Recovery.— His Death and Burial— Locusts.— The Slave-trade on the Coast. 
— Mode of Embarkation. — Failing Strength of my Carriers.— I throw away Tent, 
Boat, Bed, etc.— A Rush for the Coast.— Our Highest Camp.— Gay Umbrellas.— 

A Mulatto Settlement. — Cascades. — Numerous Up Caravans. — Their Trade. No 

Food left.— Search for a Camp.— Dead-beat.— A Tedious March.— Skeletons of 
Slavers' Victims. — Starvation and Exhaustion. — The Sea.— Leaving the Worn-out 
Men behind.— The Final Effort.- Scurvy attacks Me.— Help.— A Good Samaritan. 
— A Haven of Rest. 

Another wretchedly wet and rainy night seemed to deprive 
my people of the little energy they possessed, and the drag of 
the march was indeed painfnl. Instead of being as men who 
had nearly accomplished a difficult task, they looked and moved 
more like a funeral procession. The distance was not great, 
but the time occupied was dreadfully long, and on arriving at 
our camping -place the men were too dispirited to hut them- 
selves properly, though rain was threatening. Others, who had 
lagged behind, did not reach camp till after dark. 

On the road we passed the Kukewi, a large stream falling 
into the sea at Nova Don do, and also one of its affluents, the 
Kuleli, besides numerous rills and streams. 

Both these rivers were crossed on bridges constructed of 
poles planted in the bed of the stream ; and upon others, lashed 
at the top, ^mailer poles and branches were laid to form the 
footway. When first laid down, these were secured to the cross- 
pieces by lashings ; but they had rotted away, and consequently 
the bridges afforded a very precarious footing. That over the 
Kukewi was more than a hundred feet long and twelve feet 
wide, and was a most creditable specimen of construction by 
uneducated natives. 

The threatenings of the weather were not belied by the 

418 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

night, and in the morning more men professed themselves un- 
able to bear their loads. One man ^ya& too unwell to walk, and 
it was with great difficultj I managed to find carriers for him. 

Much of this illness was undoubtedly caused by want of shel- 
ter, so I resolved to remain in the rear of the caravan, to pre- 
vent any straggling and staying-about on the road, instead of 
hastening into camp ; and a wearisome time I had on this march, 
occupying nine hours and a half, for more than four hours 
were wasted in driving the men along. 

We passed through a break in a range of wooded mountains, 
with villages perched on their summits or nestled among the 
trees on the steepest slopes, so as to be easily defended, while in 
the valleys there were large plantations of cassava and Indian- 

The natives seemed very industrious, and put more energy 
into their work than I had seen for some time. Men and 
women were busy preparing their fields for new crops, and 
others, in couples, w^ere carrying up to the villages at a smart 
trot enormous baskets of cassava slung upon jioles. Among 
them was a man who spoke Portuguese. He came to inquire 
who we were, and gave the men some roots of sweet cassava. 

Other hills, in every variety of shape and form imaginable, 
were now seen directly in front of us, while on the right of our 
road a portion of the range we had passed ended abruptly. Its 
appearance reminded me of the north front of the Rock of Gi- 
braltar ; and on the summit was tlie village of the chief of the 
district, to which no stranger had ever been admitted. 

At the foot of this hill, named Humbi, the carriers of the 
sick man came to a dead stop, and declared themselves alto- 
gether incapable of taking him any farther, although I had de- 
tailed seven men for this duty, in order that they might con- 
stantly relieve each other. The camp was fortunately near at 
hand ; so I allowed the carriers and their burden to remain 
here, and, pressing forward myself, sent other and fresher men 
to assist them. 

Notwithstanding my care in bringing up the rear of the 
caravan, a man named Majuto was missing. It appeared that 
he proposed to another that they should leave the road and 
hide in the jungle, in order to rest and sleep, remarking that if 


I saw them lying down on the road, I shonld compel them to November 
move forward. The other fellow refused, but let Majuto go, 1875. 
without telling any one about it imtil camp was reached. 

When I heard of his absence it was becoming dark, and heavy 
rain had set in, rendering it useless to think of sending people 
to seek for him; but I determined to halt the next day Ctud 
send out a search-party, if he did not jnit in an appearance by 
the morning. 

Of all the wretched nights I have j^assed, this was the worst. 
It rained so heavily that the ground was converted into semi- 
liquid mud, and my tent seemed to have given up all idea of 
keeping out tlie wet. I was also very anxious about the un- 
fortunate Majuto ; for, knowing him to be ill, I much feared 
that such a night, without food, fire, or shelter, would kill him. 

As soon as day dawned I persuaded some of the Bailunda 
and the freshest of my men to go in search of the poor fellow, 
while others went foraffinij; for food. 

My experiences of the night made me resolve that, if- possible, 
more comfort should be provided for all of us before turning 
in again, and accordingly built a hut for myself, and saw that 
the men sheltered themselves pro})erly. The appearance of 
the sun also gave us an opportunity of drying our limited be- 
longings, and before long we managed to give the camp a some- 
what habitable appearance. 

Several swarms of locusts passed during the day, some so 
thick as to obscure the sun, and my men gladly seized the op- 
portunity of securing a number of them for food. 

Both parties sent out in the morning returned during the aft- 
ernoon. The foragers had obtained a small quantity of food, 
including a fowl, for which two yards of cloth out of the four 
I possessed had been given ; but those who had been searching 
for Majuto came in without having seen or heard any thing of 
him, though they had been back to the place where he quitted 
the road, and had made inquiries of every native they met. 

It was then four o'clock, and heavy rain had again set in, and 
no further search could be made that day. But I decided that, 
if nothing were heard of him meanwhile, I would myself have a 
thorough hunt the next day with men who had been resting in 
camp. If that should prove unsuccessful, T intended to make 

420 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

November, arrangements with tlie chief of a neighboring village to forward 
1875. Majuto to the coast, should he be found. 

Further delay in marching threatened to end in disaster, for 
every day the men became more feeble, and I was afraid of los- 
ing many if I lingered on the road. 

All anxiety as to the fate of the straggler was put at rest at 
seven o'clock by his arrival, wet and wretched, and more dead 
than alive, having eaten nothing since leaving the caravan. I 
placed him under the charge of some of his chums, and saw him 
dried and shampooed, and made as comfortable as the circum- 
stances of our case allowed ; but the poor fellow was past recov- 
ery, and died a few hours later. 

Manoel told me that if the Bailunda, who fortunately were 
in another camp, heard of the death of Majuto, we should be 
required to pay a heavy fine to the chiefs near before burying 
him. AVe therefore set to work cautiously and quietly by fire- 
light, and, digging a grave in one of the huts, scattered the earth 
about by the handful. 

Then we buried the poor fellow according to Mohammedan 
rites, prayers being said by one of his co-religionists, and piled 
the earth over the grave so as to represent a sleeping-place cov- 
ered with grass ; and one of the carriers lay upon it for an hour 
or two to give it the appearance of having been used. 

It was well that we took these precautions, for visitors came 
to our camp before we started ; and had there been any visible 
signs of a grave, we should have had some trouble. 

Soon after leaving camp, we found a swarm of locusts which 
had settled the night before, and were now so torpid from the 
cold that they could be shaken from the trees and gathered up 
in any quantity. Of this circumstance my hungry people were 
not slow to take advantage. 

The manner in which the locusts covered the trees was most 
extraordinary, every twig and branch, and the trunk a short dis- 
tance above the ground, being entirely enveloped by them. In 
many places they were two and even three deep. As the sun 
became more powerful, they began to work their wings without 
leaving the trees, making a noise like rushing water. Then the 
stronger ones commenced to move, and in less than half an hour 
they all had flown. 


Many natives were busily engaged in collecting them, and November 
actually cut down trees of fair size which were thickly covered, 1875. 
in order to secure this delicacy. 

Only two hours and a half were spent on the march this day, 
although we were six hours on the road ; and one man, heedless 
of the sad fate of Majuto, straggled away and hid himself, and 
remained absent until the evenino'. 

Up caravans were now rather frequently met, but being prin- 
cipally composed of and owned by natives, no news could be 
gathered from them. 

A small party of Senhor Gongalves's men also met us in the 
morning, and stated that slaves were no longer allowed to be 
taken into Benguela, and that all brought there lately had been 
liberated, and the importers punished. This was unexpected 
and unwelcome news for Manoel and the Bailunda accompany- 
ing me, whose faces at once lengthened considerably. 

Manoel had informed me, only the day previous, that slaves 
were still exported from the coast, especially from Massomedes. 
He said they were held in readiness for embarkation, although 
scattered about the to-\vn in small parties, instead of being kept 
in barracoons as formerly ; and a steamer came in for an hour 
or two, shipped the slaves, and was off again immediately. I 
inquired their destination, but he could give me no information 
on that point, and, indeed, was too ignorant to know much of 
the outside world. 

After this day's exhibition, I saw that the marching powers 
of my men had gone from bad to worse, and that some decisive 
steps must be taken, or the caravan would never reach the coast, 
now only one hundred and twenty-six geographical miles distant. 

Upward of twenty men complained of being unable to walk 
far or to carry any thing ; swelled legs, stiff necks, aching backs, 
and empty stomachs being the universal cry. 

Taking my pipe to my assistance, I sat down for half an 
hour's reflection, and then resolved on the action to be taken. 
It came to this : throw away tent, boat, bed, and every thing 
but instruments, journals, and books ; and then, taking a few 
picked men, make a forced march to the coast, sending thence 
assistance to the main body. And this was no sooner decided 
than acted upon, for no time was to be lost. 

422 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

November, Maiioel appropriated my abandoned tent, bed, and boat, and 

1875. lodged them with a friend in a village near by ; and early on 

the following morning I started — with five of my own men, 

Manoel and two of his, and the Bailunda, who said they could 

. go at any pace — to make a rush for the coast, leaving three of 

JVIanoel's people to act as guides to the caravan. 

Jumah, Sambo, Hamees Ferlian, Marijani, All ibn Mshanga- 
ma, were the men who volunteered to accomjDany me. 

My kit consisted of what I stood up in, and a spare shirt, a 
pair of slippers, a blanket, frying-pan, tin cup, sextant, artificial 
horizon, and writing materials ; making in all a load of about 
twenty jDounds, which was shifted from man to man on the 

My personal stock of food and stores for the road was com- 
posed of half the fowl obtained at Lungi, a little flour, and my 
last two yards of cloth. 

The men were rather better off, as the cloth I had given 
them on leaving Bihe w^as not expended, and Marijani, who, be- 
ing able to speak Portuguese, had acted as interpreter, had been 
presented with three pieces of cloth. Two of these I bought, 
to leave with Bombay for the use of the caravan. 

We set out at a good sjDeed across rough and broken country ; 
but about noon the Bailunda, who had boasted about their pace, 
gave in, saying that they did not calculate upon going at such a 

About three o'clock we halted at a small camp situated upon 
a large open up-land, made ourselves as comfortable as might 
be, and took advantage of the stream running at the foot of 
the hills to enjoy a bathe. I felt rather stiff after the sharp 
march ; but Jumah was an adept at shampooing, and took some 
of the kinks out of my muscles. 

This camp was the highest point throughout the whole jour- 
ney, being five thousand eight hundred feet above the sea, and 
the adjoining hills might have been eight hundred feet higher. 

A large up caravan of Bailunda passed us here. Many of 
them had umbrellas whicli might have rivaled Joseph's coat 
for variety of color, each gore being a different tint. Red, 
pink, green, yellow, blue, violet, and white were sometimes to 
be found in one umbrella. Empty paraffine tins were carried 



by a number of porters, and I was nuicli puzzled as to their November, 

The next day we rose with the Lark, and I was so Imngry 
that I could not resist finishing the remains of my fowl, al- 
though well aware I could scarcely hope for another taste of 
flesh between this and the coast. 

Leaving camp, we made a gradual ascent, and, passing through 
a gap, found before us a steep and almost precipitous descent, 
down which we went like goats, jumping from stone to stone. 

Hamees Ferhan, my gun-bearer, now began to complain of 
fatigue, and I had to relieve him of my heavy rifle and car- 
tridges, giving him my fowling-piece in exchange. 

Another caravan with gay umbrellas and empty paraffine tins 
met us at the bottom of this descent, and the leaders expressed 
great astonishment at finding a white man with so few follow- 
ers, and on foot. Their wonderment was still greater M-hen 
told whence we had started the day before, and they declared 
they had never before heard of people getting over so nuich 
ground in a day. But harder marches were yet in store for us. 

No sooner had v:e reached this valley than we had to com- 
mence the ascent of other hills, and on arriving at their summit 
found ourselves overlooking other ranges in front of us, their 
crests piercing the clouds which hung at our feet. 

Away to the south was a village situated on a small conical 
mount, and this was the settlement of a colony of mulattoes 
springing from the intercourse between whites and natives. 

These mulattoes generally possessed some small property ; but 
being unable to hold any position among whites at the coast, 
and being too proud to mix freely with pure blacks, they had 
settled here. I was told they lived in peace and comfort, and, 
having large numbers of slaves, occasionally dispatched trading 

Descending again, we went through a deep gorge Avith its 
sides clothed with trees, the graceful form and light foliage of 
the wild date-palm contrasting well with the darker and heavier 
shades of the acacias. 

From amidst this mass of tangled wood a cascade burst forth, 
and fell in an unbroken sheet into a rocky basin seventy or 
eighty feet below, whence clouds of spray were scattered over 

424 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

November, the trees and ferns around. And then the waters, by a series 
ISYS. of smaller leaps, joined a stream rushing through the centre of 
the gorge. 

We were now upon a level plain covered with open forest ; 
and, as we were about to enter the wood, I noticed a grave com- 
posed of a pile of loose blocks of granite, with a rough and 
massive wooden cross reared at its head. This, I was told, was 
the grave of a daughter of Major Coimbra (Coimbra's father), 
who married Syde ibn Habib, and died here in childbirth. 
After her death, Syde ibn Habib returned to her father's settle- 
ment at Boa Yista, and married her sister, evidently determined 
to have a better-half with some European blood in her veins. 
This second wife he took with him to Zanzibar. 

On this march we met no fewer than ten up-caravans, num- 
bering seventy to eighty men each. They were principally la- 
den with small bags of salt, and bottles and kegs of aguardiente 
which they had purchased at Benguela. 

A stream running through a muddy swamp, which we 
reached about noon, affording an oj)portunity for bathing, we 
halted to enjoy a dip and rest, and a bit of damper to appease 
our hunger. On resuming our march, we entered well-wooded 
but broken ground, with numerous torrents and rills, and out- 
crops and vast sheets of granite. 

From a high hill we descried ranges of mountains still lying 
in front, while at our feet there was a decent camping-place, 
where we decided to halt. Before us was the river Balomba, 
eighty feet wide and waist-deep, flowing fast toward the north- 
west, and ultimately falling into the sea as an independent 
stream some little distance north of Benguela. 

Caravans continued to pass us, bound up country; and nearly 
the whole number seen by us during the day traded only be- 
tween Bailunda and the coast. They carry thither the flour of 
Indian corn and cassava, on which the slaves at Benguela are 
fed, and receive in exchange salt, aguardiente, and sometimes 
cloth. Their loads are light, and they travel fast, being no more 
than about three weeks absent from their homes in Bailunda. 

During these journeys the men live almost entirely on drink, 
never eating more than a handful or two of porridge daily. 
Yet they seem to work well and thrive wonderfully. No 


women travel with these caravans, for, owing to the short time November, 
they are on the road, it is possible to manage domestic affairs ^^'<''- 
without their aid. 

This day we had eleven hours' hard walking, and were very 
glad indeed to camp. The height of the camp was three thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy feet above the sea, nearly two 
thousand feet lower than our halting - place of the previous 
night, and considerably more than two thousand below the 
highest level we had crossed on this day's march. 

After a good shampooing from Jumali (" Man Friday," as I 
called him, Jumah being the KisuahiH for Friday), I turned in 
to enjoy my well-earned sleep. 

Five o'clock the next morning saw us on the move again. 
Crossing the Balomba, we passed some cultivated ground and 
villages perched upon small rocky hills, the huts correspond- 
ing so exactly with the color of the red sandstone rocks that I 
should not have noticed them but for curls of smoke rising into 
the morning air. On through jungle, across torrent-beds and 
streams, up and down we went, until we reached a level lying 
between two mountains. 

Here there was much cultivation, the bottom being very fer- 
tile ; and sugar-cane, Indian corn, and tobacco grew in profusion. 
We endeavored to persuade some people working in the fields 
to supply us with food, but they refused to enter into any com- 
mercial transactions with us. 

Going empty away from these unsociable natives, we soon 
afterward met a large caravan carrying two apologies for flags, 
and bringing up the rear were some men wearing hats and 

They had a large stock of aguardiente ; and some had evi- 
dently been engaged in lightening their loads that morning, be- 
ing very overbearing and cpiarrelsome. First they attempted 
to hustle us out of the road, and then behaved toward us gen- 
erally in a very objectionable manner. One fellow knocked up 
against me purposely, upon which I tripped just as purposely, 
though seemingly by accident, and sent him sprawling with his 
load, by way of a hint that he could not expect to have his own 
way in every thing. 

We continued on the march until about two o'clock, when 


426 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

November, Manoel asserted that as we were close by the village of a chief 
1875. whom he knew, we must stop to obtain flour, our stock being 
~ well-nigh exhausted. The exact locality of this village being 
unknown, I was thinking of dispatching scouring parties in ev- 
ery direction to search for it, when a child was heard crying 
about a hundred yards away, and on approaching the sound the 
village was discovered. Although immediately beside ns, it 
was entirely hidden from the path by trees and rocks. 

"We succeeded in getting a small quantity of flour, and the 
chief brought me as a present a little Indian corn and a gourd 
of the sourest pom be possible. He expressed regret at not hav- 
ing heard of my intended visit, as he would then have given me 
something respectable, but now he had nothing prepared. 

Marching on again, and passing some huge blocks of granite, 
we reached more level ground, well wooded and watered. We 
overtook two down-caravans, and even managed to pass them 
after a considerable amount of racing, for they did not at all 
appreciate being beaten by a white man upon their own 

Just before sunset we found ourselves amidst a swarm of 
locusts on the point of settling, and my people were anxious to 
collect them ; but camp was still some distance ahead, and I 
knew we were much too tired and weary to make another start 
that night if once we halted. The camp we had decided to oc- 
cupy was situated on a large open plain broken by occasional 
blocks of granite, named Kutwu-ya-Ombwa (the dog's head) ; 
but when we arrived, we found it already occupied by a cara- 
van. Thus we were compelled to search for another in the 

After a while we stumbled upon a wretched little place, with 
which we were inclined to be satisfied, being thoroughly tired 
out; but it happened that one of the men engaged in picking 
sticks for our fire discovered a larger and better spot, to which 
we immediately removed. 

I was almost dead-beat by this day's work ; for, including all 
halts, we had been traveling for thirteen hours over rough and 
difficult country. But I knew that the first signs of fatigue be- 
trayed by me would be the signal for the break-down of the 
whole party, so I struggled to keep up appearances. I managed 




ly stars, and boiled my thermometer to ascertain our height Nove.bc. 
aoove tne sea. ° 

When day had dawned, I saw on the other side of the plain -i 
range of sterile-looking mountains, which we reached after two 
hours marching across the broken level. 

On the right of the entrance to a pass there was a precipitous 
bluff, with great masses of rock - balanced like the Cornish 
rocking-stones— perched upon its summit. On the left on the 
opposite side of a deep ravine, with a rapid stream flowing 
through It, were enormous dome-like mounts apparently formed 
of single masses of smooth granite. Their surface was washed 
clean by the rains, and they were devoid of vegetation, except- 
ing a few cacti which had taken root in slight fissures near the 
summit. Farther down the pass were other masses, many of 
which had the appearance of bastions of some Titan forts. 

Our path was along the northern side of this pass, over sheets 
of steep and slippery granite divided from each other by patch- 
es of thorny scrub, with rills draining down to join the stream 
we heard murmuring in the deptlis of the gorge hundreds of 
feet below us. 

At times we were obliged to clamber over huge masses of 
stone on our hands and knees ; at others to descend into the 
gorge to avoid some giant block jutting out beyond the path ; 
and then to clamber again to our old level with the assistance 
of the creepers which grew in the crevices. 

Graves and numerous skeletons testified to the numbers 
whose lives had been sacrificed on this trying march, while 
slave clogs and forks, still attached to some bleached bones or 
lying by their sides, gave only too convincing a proof that the 
demon of the slave-trade still exerted his influence in this part 
of Africa. 

Clogs and forks were also hanging on trees, some being so 
slightly affected by the weather that it was evident they had 
not been there longer than a month or two. Doubtless they 
had been removed from some flagging wretches in the belief 
that weakness of body had extinguished all idea of escape, and 
in the hope that the strength Avhich was insufticient to bear the 
weight of the clog might still prove enough to drag tlie unfort- 
unate human chattel to the coast. 





We halted here to bathe in the stream, and gather fresh en- 
ergy for the afternoon. 

Fearfully hard work was now beginning seriously to tell on 
me, but I was wonderfully buoyed up by the knowledge that 
every step was taking me nearer to the coast and to rest. My 
head and legs, more especially the ankle I had sprained in Ulun- 
•da, gave me much pain. 


After more hours of wearying clambering, we entered upon 
an open plain, and, to my sorrow, I noticed that it was sur- 
rounded by mountains which gave promise of hard labor on the 

Shortly before sunset, we were near a village in the small dis- 
trict of Kisanji, and here made our arrangements for sleeping 
under some baobabs of which we had seen the first in the pass. 
I was so exhausted that when the men took tlie opportunity of 
having another bathe it was impossible for me to do the same, 
being only fit t-o lie under the shade of a baobab-tree. 

Soon after settling down, a few men and women gathered 
around to stare at us, and I was surprised at their small prcten- 


sions to any thing approaching civilized appearance, although November, 
they were not far from the coast. 1876. 

A small and greasy cloth round their waists, and a mass of 
strings of beads — almost looking like a bolster — around their 
necks, constituted their dress. One woman wore, in addition, a 
small square of cloth, intended to hide her breasts ; but it was a 

I tried to persuade the women to give me some milk for the 
cloth I had carefully hoarded up to this time; but they set a 
light value on my little store, and I had to borrow more from 
Marijani before I could procure about a quart ; and very sour 
stuff it was, fresh milk being altogether unattainable. 

We were off by half-past four the following morning, and 
soon came upon a number of up caravans just starting on their 
march. Now the mystery of the empty paraffine tins was ex- 
plained, for a terribly noisy reveille was being beaten on them, 
and they certainly served the purpose of kettle-drums admi- 

Scrambling along a steep and rocky ridge of hills intersected 
by several water-courses and ravines with almost perpendicular 
sides, and then up a path not unlike a broken-down flight of 
steep steps, we reached the summit of the range. 

What was that distant line upon the sky? We all gazed at 
it with a strange mingling of hope and fear, scarcely daring to 
believe it was tlie sea. But looking more intently at that streak 
happily left no room for doubt. 

It was the sea ; and Xenophon and his ten thousand could 
not have welcomed its view more heartily wlien tliey exclaimed 
QiAaTTu ! 9aXfir-o ! than did I and my handful of wayworn 

There was little "go" left in me now. I was very nearly 
broken down ; for, though my head and legs liad ceased to ache 
so acutely, I was suffering excruciating pain in my back. 

At almost every step I feared I should be compelled to lie 
down and wait for some assistance from the coast ; but I tliought 
of the poor exhausted fellows behind who were trusting to me 
to send them aid, and, being sustained by the near approach of 
the end of my journey, I still managed to keep on my legs. 

The remainder of this day was spent in crawling over rocks 

430 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

November, and dragging througli pools, waist-deep, dammed up in liollows 
1875. since the last rains, and now slimy and stagnant. I confess that 
it was a relief when, about four o'clock, I heard some of mj 
men declare they could march no farther ; for, though I was 
fully aware of the vital importance of pushing on, and should 
have hesitated to suggest a halt, yet I was very weak, and glad 
indeed to rest. 

One of my people and another of Manoel's being still able 
and ready to march, we dispatched them with the letters I had 
recovered at Lungi, and a note begging any charitably disposed 
person to send a little food to meet us on the road. I then eat 
my last morsel of damper, and turned in, intending the next 
day to make the final effort. 

Somewhat refreshed by the night's rest, we continued our 
way through the pass until noon — the rays of the sun reverber- 
ating from the rocks making one feel as though in a furnace — 
and on emergmg from it, made our midday halt at an angle of 
the Supa, which drains the pass and falls into the sea at Ka- 

On going to this stream to bathe, I was greatly surprised at 
my curious appearance, being covered with purple spots ; and I. 
noticed that a slight bruise on my ankle had developed into a 
large and angry-looking place. 

I was still more astonished on lighting my pipe by way of 
brealvfast — for my pipe was now my only food — to find my 
mouth bleeding. Of the cause I was ignorant, for I did not 
then know that I was attacked with scurvy. 

From some passing caravans, we heard that our two messen- 
gers had been seen that morning, and wauld by this time have 
arrived at Katombela. 

On again, across a rough and waterless plain lying between 
us and the hills behind Katombela and Benguela, and then over 
precipitous hills formed of limestone, with many huge ammon- 
ites and other fossils, and having the appearance of cliffs which 
might once have faced a sea. They were intersected by ravines 
and dry water - courses, uj) and down the sides of which we 
clambered in the dark, slipping about and bruising ourselves. 

But what did it rhatter ^ The next morning would see us at 


At the bottom of a ravine we found water, wliieli was a god- Xovembt-r, 
send to me, for my mouth was still bleeding, and I had ah-eady 1875. 
used that brought by us from oar midday halting-place. 

Another steej) climb brought us almost to the summit of the 
last ridge, where it was somewhat level ; and numerous iires 
dotted about denoted the camps of caravans that had started 
that evening from Katombela, and were halted here, ready to 
commence their march early in the morning, without being de- 
layed by the attractions of the grog-shops. One of my men, a 
short way in advance of me, now shouted, " Here's our camp- 
master !" and, hastening on, I saw Manoel's messenger. 

He had with him a basket containing wine, bread, tins of 
sardines, and a sausage; and although my mouth would not 
admit of my eating without pain, I managed to take some sup- 
per, for I had tasted nothing since the previous evening. From 
a note, in English, from Mr. Seruia, a trader at Katombela, who 
had kindly sent out these provisions, I learned that my letters 
had been forwarded to Benguela. My messenger, it appeared, 
was too tired to return, so Mr. Seruia had sent one of his own 
people back with Manoel's man. 

This was my last night outside the pale of civilization ; and, 
though thoroughly tired, I was much too excited to sleep. 

Long before the rising of the sun, we were all on the move, 
and, quickly finishing the remains of the supper, started on our 
last march. Twenty minutes brought us within sight of the 
sea, and I then noticed the position of Katombela and Benguela 
with regard to each other. I had been puzzled on hearing that 
the former was passed before reaching Benguela, and could not 
understand the course of the last march ; but now I found Ka- 
tombela situated on the sea-shore, instead of ten or twelve miles 
inland, as I had inuigined from the description given me. 

A man engaged in searching for runaway slaves told me that 
rumors respecting an Englishman coming from the interior had 
been rife for some time, but no one had believed them. 

I ran down the slope toward Katombela, swinging my rifle 
round my head, which I believe was almost " turned " for very 
joy ; and the men, carried away with the same sense of relief, 
joined in the running till we approached nearer the town. 
Then I unfurled my colors, and went forward more quietly. 

432 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

November, Coming toward us I saw a couple of hammocks with awn- 
1876. ings, followed by three men carrying baskets; and on meeting 
this party, a jolly-looking little Frenchman jumped out, seized 
the baskets, and instantly opened a bottle to drink " to the hon- 
or of the first European who had ever succeeded in crossing 
tropical Africa from east to west." 

For this hearty welcome I found I was indebted to M. Cau- 
choix, an old officer of the French navy, who had settled as 
a mei'chant at Benguela. Hearing of my approach between ten 
and eleven o'clock the night before, he had immediately started 
off to meet me. 

His other baskets were- also full of provisions, which he dis- 
tributed to my men, throwing loaves of bread at the hungry 
mortals ; after which we moved on, and in a few minutes ar- 
rived at a house which he owned in Katombela. 

I need not say how greatly I have been grieved at receiving 
the sad intelligence of the death of this kind-hearted French- 
man while on his passage home to Europe. He had intended 
to visit England, and I had been looking forward to the pleas- 
ure of renewing the acquaintance of one who had so readily 
shown me the greatest kindness and attention when I was sore- 
ly in need of succor. 


80ENB ON KOAl). 



Peace and Plenty. — Katombela. — My Illness increases. — Carried to Benguela. — Med- 
ical Advice and Good Nursing. — My Recovery. — Arrival of my Stragglers. — Death 
of Another Man. — Bombay's Objectionable Behavior. — An Original Character — 
Benguela. — Its Tumble-down Fort. — Convict Soldiers. — Their Loyalty. — My Men 
indulge too freely. — Arrival at Loanda. — Reception by the Consul. — Courtesy of 
the Governor. — An Amusing Incident. — My Men object to their Quarters. — Prepar- 
ing to send them Home. — Liberal Offers. — Purchase of a Schooner. — Fitting her 
out. — Visit to Kinsembo. — No Charts Obtainable. — A Windfall. — Departure of my 
Crew in the Frances Cameron. — Leaving my Loanda Friends. — Homeward bound. 
— Meeting Old Faces.— ^Safe at Home. 

At tlie house of M. Cauclioix my men were provided with November, 
quarters and an unlimited supply of food, while I was conducted 1875. 
to a comfortable bedroom, and some new clothing was given 
me. And it was well that I obtained this fresh kit, for my old 
Hannel shirt was so rotten that, in pulling it off rather hurried- 
ly, my head went through the back of it. 

Having batlied and dressed, feeling the most thorough enjoy- 
ment at being once more restored to civilization, I received vis- 
its from Dr. Aguia, the judge at Benguela ; M. Leroux, the Ka- 
tombela agent of my host ; Mr. Seruia, and others. 

I lost no time in requesting that arrangements might be made 
for sending men and food to the assistance of my people who 
remained behind, and Cauchoix kindly undertook to manage 
every thing for them. He consulted with the chefe — as the 
Portuguese ofiicer in charge of a small settlement is called — 
and the native chief ; and that evening twenty men with ham- 
mocks, vegetables and other food, and cloth with which to buy 
a bullock at Kisanji, were started off to meet my worn-out 

The great soreness of my mouth had now increased ; and on 
looking at it, Cauchoix at once saw that I was attacked with scur- 
vy, but assured me that, with good diet, I should soon get well. 

434 ACROSS AFEICA. [Cuap. 

My men were tlioronghly enjoying themselves, and there was 
certainly some excuse for their indulging rather freely ; but I 
was not prepared to find all, except Jumah, drunk within an 
hour after their arrival. 

In the afternoon I went round Katombela. It is a small 
place, consisting of about a dozen houses belonging to Benguela 
merchants, a square fort with a few honey-combed guns propped 
upon stones, a market-place, and some smaller buildings, such as 

The only stone house was that in which I was being enter- 
tained, and during a recent rising of the natives all the Euro- 
peans had taken refuge there. The other buildings were of 
adobes^ and whitewashed. 

Although Cauchoix applied carbolic acid to my mouth while 
we were visiting the chefe, I found it impossible to eat any 
thing when we returned to our quarters. 

From this time I rapidly grew worse. My tongue became 
sb swollen as to project beyond my teeth, and blood ran from 
my mouth. About two o'clock in the morning, Cauchoix, who 
was sleeping in the same room, seeing how ill I was, and that 
no time was to be lost in applying proper remedies, roused his 
men, and, laying me in a hammock, hurried me away to Ben- 
guela to obtain the advice of the medical officer there. 

When we arrived, I was unable to speak or swallow, and my 
body was covered with blotches, with a variety of shades of 
purple, blue, black, and green, the rest of my skin being a dead- 
ly white. Dr. Calasso, in charge of the hospital, came imme- 
diately to see me, and ordered poultices to be placed on my 
throat and some solution to be injected into my mouth every 
ten minutes, while the clotted blood, which threatened to choke 
me, was extracted by means of pinchers. 

My kind host, M. Cauchoix, and the doctor watched by me, 
never leaving me alone, for eight-and-fort}^ hours. At the end 
of that time, thanks to those who treated me with such skill 
and care, I was able to swallow a little milk, and the disease 
had been conquered. Had it attacked me a day or two earlier, 
when out of the reach of medical advice, nothing could have 
saved my life. 

Now that I could swallow, I began to pick up, and progressed 


SO rapidly toward convalescence that on the fourth day I was Novembci 
able to take an airing in a maxella, and called on the governor, 1875. 
Major Brito, who had constantly been to see me. 

He had also most kindly furnished my people with quarters 
in a government building, and had directed the commissariat 
department to supply them with rations. 

The next day, the 11th of November, the remainder of the 
men arrived, excepting Ferhan Mhehe, who died after I parted 
from them. A few had been robbed of their clothes by the 
natives while straggling behind the caravan. 

Bombay celebrated his return to civilization by getting ex- 
ceptionally drunk, and behaving in a most insolent and abusive 
manner to several people, including the kind-hearted M. Cau- 
choix, when he was engaged in seeing the men properly lodged 
and the sick sent to hospital. I would have punished him for 
his blackguardism, had not those against whom he offended 
begged that it might be overlooked. 

In the employ of Cauchoix there was rather an original 
character, w^ho amused me much. He was an American, and 
had served in an English brig, but, having taken upon himself 
to give the captain and mate a severe thrashing, he was landed 
here and sent to prison. He was curious to know whether I 
had " been on my own hook," or had been " working for a com- 
pany," and remarked that he should have liked being with me, 
except that " he didn't care about the darned walking." Among 
other callings, he had been master of an American bark, and 
traded in snakes, which he obtained up some African river. 
He was so pleased with this line of business that he inquired 
whether I could tell him of any big snakes, as, if so, he would 
be off in search of them at once. 

Benguela is second in importance among the Portuguese 
towns on the West Coast, and carries on a considerable trade 
with the interior in bees-wax and ivory, and some of the mer- 
chants possess jfishing stations along the coast. The town is 
laid out in wide streets, and the houses, being whitewashed, and 
the doors and windows painted in bright colors, had a very 
clean appearance. In a central position in the town is a taste- 
fully arranged public garden, where a band performs on Sun- 
day evenings. The only public buildings are a well-constructed 




November, custom-liouse, a very good hospital, the house of the governor, 
•«75. a court-house, and a church, which is never opened except for 
baptisms and burials. 

There is also a large fort constructed in the form of a paral- 
lelogram, and having a sufficiently imposing appearance from 
the sea; but its armament consists only of honey-combed old 
guns of various calibres, either mounted on rotten, broken- 
down wooden carriages, or propped np on piles of stones so as 
to sliow their muzzles above the parapets. 


The garrison numbers about tliirty white soldiers, chiefly 
convicts, and two companies of blacks. Discipline is not rig- 
idly enforced, for I found the sentry posted outside the gov- 
ernor's house sitting in the middle of the road, smoking a pipe 
and taking off his boots. 

Besides the convicts serving as soldiers, there arc others em- 
l)loyed on public works ; and they were then engaged in con- 
structing a causeway across a portion of the plain lying between 
Bengucla and Katombcla, which is flooded in the rainv season. 


The loyalty of the soldiers to their flag I did not expect to November, 
find very marked ; but I was scarcely prepared for the proposal ^^"^^^ 
made to me by a white non-commissioned officer, that, if I de- 
sired to take the town, he would place himself and his com- 
rades at my disposal, and would give up the fort to me, on con- 
dition that I should give them meat three times a week instead 
of only once, which was the allowance they received from the 

The inhabitants of Benguela were all ready to show every 
kindness to me, and I was frequently invited to the houses of 
Dr. Aguia, Mr. Ben Chimol, and Dr. Calasso. 

There are many good gardens, where European vegetables 
and fruits are grown, the light and sandy soil only requiring 
water to make it fertile; and that is always obtainable with- 
in six feet of the surface, though near the sea it is slightly 

A few horses are also kept there, and the place boasts of one 
carriage ; but the usual means of locomotion — as no white man 
ever walked during the day-time — is the maxella, which is slung 
from long poles, over which awnings are spread, and carried 
by two men. The bearers walk with a peculiar step, and avoid 
jolting, and altogether it is a very comfortable mode of moving 

My men, I regret to say, did not behave very well, owing to 
the cheapness of vile spirits ; and it was necessary to deprive 
them of their arms to prevent bloodshed in their drunken 
squabbles. One fellow hacked another over the head with a 
sword-bayonet, for which offense I had him confined in the 
cells in the fort, and kept on bread and water, for the remain- 
der of our stay. 

On the return of the mail steamer from Mossamedes, the 
southernmost Portuguese settlement, the governor ordered a 
passage for me and my men to San Paul de Loanda. Nearly 
all the town came to see us off ; and as it was night before we 
sailed, there were fire-works in honor of the occasion. 

The steamer was the Bengo, of Hull, but sailed by Portu- 
guese oflacers under the Portuguese flag, the only Englishman 
on board being the chief-engineer, Mr. Lindsay. 

On the morning of the 21st of November, a fortnight after 

438 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap., my arrival at Katombela, we anchored in the harbor of Loanda. 
1875. I ^y.|g puzzled at first how to get on shore, as none but private 
boats came along-side ; but hearing English spoken by a gentle- 
man who had come on board, I introduced myself to him, and 
he immediately offered me the use of his boat ; and added that 
a maxella, waiting at the landing - place, was at my service to 
convey me to the consulate. For these friendly offices I was 
indebted to Mr. Ed^vard Warberg. 

Arriving at the consulate, my knock was answei'ed by a lit- 
tle mulatto servant, who ran away on seeing me, and left me 
standing at the door in some astonishment ; but another en- 
trance on my right was soon opened, and the consul himself ap- 

lie looked rather hard at me, as though wondering who the 
seedy - looking individual before him might be. I then said, 
" I have come to report myself from Zanzibar— overland." 

At the mention of ''Zanzibar" he began to stare, but at the 
word '' overland " he stepped back a pace, and then, coming for- 
ward, placed both his hands on my shoulders, and said, " Cam- 
eron ! My God !" The tone in which these words were ut- 
tered made me feel that in David Hopkins, the consul, I had 
found a true friend. 

Bringing me some letters a year old which had been waiting 
here for me, he said, that on that very morning he had been 
looking at them with Carnegie, the vice-consul, remarking that 
I should never turn up to get them ; and a few hours later I 
stood at his door ! He lost no time in making me comfortable 
at the consulate. 

On calling upon the Governor -general of Angola, Admiral 
Andrade, I Avas most warmly received, and to him I am greatly 
indebted for kindness and courtesy shown toward me during 
my stay. We inquired whether quarters for my followers 
could be provided in any of the Government barracks, and 
by his directions Lieutenant Mello, of the Portuguese navy, his 
aid-de-camp, made the necessary arrangements, and relieved me 
of all tr()ul)le, for which I was grateful, being still very weak. 
This officer had served for some years on board one of her 
majesty's ships, and was considered one of the English commu- 
nity at Loanda. 


Rather an amusing incident occurred in the afternoon, on December, 
the arrival of her majesty's ship Cygnet. The commanding offi- ^^'5- 
cer, Lieutenant Hammick, being unwell, he deputed Sublieuten- ~ 

ant Thomas to make an official call upon the consul, and it so 
happened that he landed at the same moment as my men. The 
populace of Loanda, imaginiug that this smart -looking officer 
had walked across from Zanzibar, followed him with great curi- 
osity and many remarks, as he came up with my men, who were 
marching in a body with colors flying. 

On arriving at the fort, where quarters had been provided, 
the men objected to enter, saying they did not understand why 
they should be put in prison after having followed me across 
Africa — for to the Zanzibar mind fort, and prison are the same : 
in their language they are synonymous ; but after some per- 
suasion, and an assurance that the gates should remain open, 
they settled down. 

A few days afterward, the Spiteful arrived, on her way to 
join Commodore Sir W. I^. W. Hewett, and Captain Medly- 
cott took a letter to him from me, asking for any assistance he 
might be able to render toward sending my men to Zanzibar. 

However, as it was by no means certain that any of the ships 
at the disposal of the commodore could be spared to help me, 
I made every effort to find immediate means of sending them 

M.M. Papd and Pasteur, the heads of the Dutch West Afri- 
can trading company, and consul and vice-consul for His Majes- 
ty the King of the Netherlands, offered to lend me a steamer to 
take m.y followers to St, Helena — whence there was communi- 
cation to the Cape and Zanzibar — on the condition that I should 
pay for coals, stores, and harbor dues, they giving the use of 
ship and crew gratuitously. 

Although this was most kind and liberal, I was obliged to de- 
cline, for, on calculating the expense, I found that it would cost 
more than buying and fitting out a vessel; so I determined 
either to charter or purchase some small craft that would do 
for the work. 

The first offer I received was the charter of a schooner for 
one thousand seven hundred pounds, and I was to refit and 
provision her for the voyage. This I thought too much, and 


440 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

.Fanuary, shoi'tl)^ afterward lier sister-ship, the 8do Jodo de Ulloa, being 
1876." for sale, the consul and myself bought her for one thousand 
pounds, and fitted her out for the cruise. 

There then seemed no prospect of finding any one to navi- 
gate her round the Cape, and I therefore made up my mind to 

do it myself. 

Fortunately I was relieved from the necessity of this duty by 
Captain Carl Alexanderson, F.R.G.S.— well known to the Eoyal 
Geographical Society for his survey of the lower waters of the 
river Kwanza — volunteering to take the command. Knowing 
him to be a thoroughly good sailor, I intrusted him with the 
connnand, feeling perfectly confident that the navigation of the 
schooner — which, on transfer to the English flag, I had renamed 
the Frances Cameron, after my mother — could not be in better 

In refitting tlie schooner, we were assisted by men kindly lent 
from the Portuguese guard-ship by Admiral Andrade, and I 
also received help from the Cygnet when she was in harbor. 

Some little trouble arose on a few occasions between my 
men and the native police, and it was amusing to see my fel- 
lows bringing a policeman's cap or sword to the consulate, to 
complain of the conduct of the man to whom either of these 
belonged. They rightly judged that the owner must reclaim his 
property, and then they would be able to identify him and state 
their grievance. Owing to the great consideration and kindness 
of the governor-general and Lieutenant Mello, nothing serious 
came of these squabbles. 

As the schooner could not be ready to leave Loanda for some 
time, I went up to Kinsembo with Mr. Tait, a merchant who 
had a house there, that I might have an insight of a trader's 
life when away from any settlement. AYe had a tedious and 
disagreeable passage in a sailing-boat generally used for cargo, 
the bilges not being as clean as they might have been. 

Kinsembo consists of half a dozen establishments belonging 
to difl^erent firms, and, being north of the Portuguese boundary, 
trade is carried on without any formalities as to custom-house, 
etc. I wished much to visit a famous rock called the Column 
of Kinsembo, on which there are reported to be inscriptions by 
Vasco de Gama and other early Portuguese discoverers ; but 


when I had called on the chief, whose fetich would not allow February, 
him to behold the sea, it was time to leave for the south-going ^876. 
Portuguese mail at Ambriz, in order to return to Loanda. 

Ambriz is about twelve miles south of Kinsembo, and just 
north of it is a stream which the natives will not allow the 
Portuguese to cross, although other Europeans can pass freely. 
This river may be considered the real northern boundary of the 
province of Angola, although our Government only recognizes 
the power of the Portuguese up to 8° south, while this river 
is in about 7° 48' south. At Ambriz, the Portuguese have a 
custom-house and other Government buildings, and a small 

On returning to Loanda, I found every thing progressing 
satisfactorily. We were, however, at our wits' end for charts 
and sailing directions for the schooner; for, notwithstanding 
that Mello had given me all that could be found in the Gov- 
ernment stores, I could get none for the Mozambique. But 
fortune favored us most unexpectedly by the arrival of a fine 
schooner flying the R.Y.S. burgee and white ensign. This 
proved to be the Linda., owned by Mr. F. Lee, a Royal Acade- 
mician, who was returning to England from the Cape. He had 
visited Zanzibar the year before, and was supplied with the lat- 
est local charts and directions, which he very kindly gave to us. 

At last, on the 8th of February, all was ready, and Captain 
Alexanderson set sail with a crew of four besides my Zanzi- 
bar men, accompanied some little distance by the boats of the 
English residents and those of the Cygnet.^ which was then in 

The next day the Sirius arrived, having been ordered by the 
commodore to give me every assistance, and, if necessary, to 
take me and my people to the Cape, from whence they could 
be sent to Zanzibar by the mail steamer. As the men had al- 
ready sailed, I had nothing to request except that, in case of 
falling in with the schooner, she might be given a tow. 

My thanks are due to Messrs. Kewton and Carnegie, and to 
Mr. George Essex, as well as to the consul, for their hospital- 
ity and great assistance rendered in fitting out and provisioning 
the vessel. 

Soon after the schooner sailed, tlie steamship Congo, Captain 

442 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chai', 

March, King, arrived, and in her I took a passage for Liverpool. Our 
1876. voyage home was long and tedious, owning to the number of 
ports at which we called, numbering nearly seventy. 

At every place we touched I was most warmly welcomed. 
At Loango, Dr. Loesche Pechel, of the German expedition, per- 
sisted in coming off to see me, although it was a perilous un- 
dertaking, causing him to be capsized six times in the surf. 

At the Gaboon, the French authorities were most kind and 
courteous. Admiral Rebourt, commanding the South Atlantic 
squadron, was there in his flag-ship, and sent his barge to take 
me on board to breakfast with him, and his officers vied with 
each otlier in offering kindnesses of every description. 


At Lagos, where we staid thtee days, I was the guest of the 
lieutenant-governor, Caj)tain Cameron Lees, and, before leav- 
ing, had the good fortune to meet the commodore on board the 

At Cape Coast I found Captain Strachan, C.M.G., as govern- 
or, who, until we met, had no idea that I was the same Cameron 
whom he had known as a small midshipman on board the Vic- 
tor Emmamiel, when he was aid-de-camp to Sir Henry Storks 
at Corfu. 

Wliile I was at Sierra Leone the Encounter came in, and I 
had a joyful meeting with Captain Bradshaw, my old captain 
in the Star during the Abj'ssinian campaign. 

Again, at Madeira, 1 met the Channel squadron and many old 


friends — Admirals Beaucliainp Seymour and Phillimore (an- April, 
other of my old captains), and Commander Fellowes among the ^^'^'^• 

And on the 2d of April M^e arrived in the Mersey, and it was 
with a heart full of gratitude to God for his goodness in pro- 
tecting me through so many dangers, that I recognized ray 
mother among those waiting to welcome me on my return to 
England, after an absence of three years and four months. 

444 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap, 


Formation of the Continent. — River Basins. — Deserts. — The Water-sheds. — Zamb6si. 
^— Kongo. — Physical Geography. — Useghara Mountains. — Fertile Soil. — The Lu- 
gerengeri Valley. — The Kungwa Hills. — Gum -copal. — Timber - trees. — Fauna. — 
Snakes. — The Mukondokwa Valley. — Lake Ugombo. — Mpwapwa. — Barren Soil. — 
The Marenga Mkali. — Ugogo. — A Dried-up Country. — Ziwas. — Kanyenye. — Us6- 
khe.— Granite.— Khoko.— The Vale of Mdaburu.— The " Fiery Field."— The Ma- 
bunguru. — Jiwc la Singa. — Urguru. — Unyanyembe. — A Cultivated Country. — 
Ugunda. — Ugra. — The Kawendi Mountains. — Uvinza. 

The object of this and tlie following chapters is to discuss 
briefly the geography of that portion of Africa traversed by 
me, and its future prospects, both with regard to commerce and 
tlie abolition of the slave-trade. 

Speaking roughly, tropical Africa consists of a central plateau 
— the lowest portion of which is the valley of the Kongo — sep- 
arated from low tracts fringing the coast by lines of hills and 
mountains. These lines of mountains in some places approach 
closely to the coast, and at others recede from it, and also vary 
greatly in height ; yet the ranges are perfectly easy to trace. 

In consequence of this formation of the continent, it may be 
l)roadly described as forming three divisions — the low-lying and 
unhealthy littoral, the mountain ranges, and the central plateau. 
It is not necessary here to remind the reader that this plateau 
consists of almost every sort of country, presenting great natu- 
ral diversities. Independent groups and ranges of mountains, 
great lakes and noble rivers, abound in the heart of the " Dark 

Another way of forming the continent into geographical di- 
visions would be by considering each great river -basin to be 
one, and the water-sheds to be natural lines of demarkation. 

Taking this as a starting-point with our present knowledge 
of Africa, the great basins would be those of the Nile, Kongo, 
Zambesi, Niger, Ogowai, and the rivers draining into Lake 
Tchad. The minor rivers draining the littoral and adjacent 


mountains, which do not fall into any one of the main basins, 
and as a rule only receive the rain-fall of a small portion of the 
country, need not, in a sketch like the present, be classed inde- 

Besides these basins, there are also the great deserts of the 
Sahara and the Kalahari, which separate fertile tropical Africa 
from fertile temperate Africa. 

Of these, the Sahara is by far the largest and most sterile ; the 
Kalahari during the rainy season being covered with vegetation 
which affords sustenance to innumerable wild animals, while the 
Sahara, except in an oasis around an occasional spring, always 
presents the same sandy and parched appearance. 

Having as yet such scanty data for our geographical knowl- 
edge of Africa, it is difficult to trace the precise water-shed be- 
tween any two systems, and therefore my observations on the 
subject must necessarily be liable to great modifications as ex- 
ploration gradually opens out regions now unknown. 

The basin of the Nile is probably bounded on the south-west 
by the water-shed i-eached by Dr. Schweinf urth ; on the south 
of the Albert Nyanza, by the highlands between that lake and 
Tanganyika, whence the water-shed pursues a tortuous course 
to Unyanyembe (where, I believe, the basins of the Nile, 
Kongo, and Lufiji approach each other), and then follows a 
wave of high land running east till it turns up northward along 
the landward slopes of the mountains dividing the littoral from 
the interior. Passing by Kilima ISTjaro and Keuia, it extends 
to the mountains of Abyssinia, where the sources of the Blue 
Mle were discovered by Bruce, and so on to the parched 
plains bordering the Red Sea, where no rains ever fall. The 
western boundary of the Nile basin is, of course, the eastern 
portion of the desert. 

The basins of the Niger and the Ogowai can not yet be de- 
fined with any degree of exactitude, and the northern boundary 
of the basin of the Kongo has still to be traced. 

The Zambesi drains that portion of the continent south of 
the Kongo system, and north of the Kalahari desert and the 
Limpopo, the northern boundary of the Transvaal Republic ; 
some of its affluents reaching to within two hundred and fifty 
miles of the West Coast. 

446 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chai-. 

The mighty Kongo, king of all African rivers, and second 
only to the Amazon (and perhaps to the Yang-tse-Kiang) in the 
volume of its waters, occupies a belt of tlie continent lying on 
both sides of the equator, but most probably the larger area be- 
longs to the southern hemisphere. Many of its affluents fork 
into those of the Zambesi on a level table-land, where the water- 
shed is so tortuous that it is hard to trace it, and where, during 
the rainy season, floods extend right across between the head- 
waters of the two streams. 

The " Uelle," discovered by Dr. Schweinfurth, may possibly 
prove to be the Lowa, reported to me as a large affluent of the 
Lualaba, to the west of Nyangwe ; or, if not an affluent of the 
Lualaba, it most probably flows either to the Ogowai or the 
Tchadda, an affluent of the Niger. 

In the above sketch of the water-sheds, I but simply give my 
own opinion, liable to alteration, as every day may bring more 
accui'ate knowledge of the interior of Africa. 

I will now endeavor to give an idea of the physical geography 
of the different regions on my route from coast to coast, and 
also to point out to what system the streams passed may be con- 
sidered to belong. 

On leaving Bagamoyo, the first portion of the journey was 
across the littoral region lying between the Useghara Mount- 
ains, the dividing range between the lowlands and the interior ; 
but, before reaching them, I passed a range of hills, which are 
offshoots of their soutliern part. 

The hills are drained principally by the Kingani and its afflu 
ents, the chief of which is the Lugerengeri, wliich falls into the 
sea close to Bagamoyo. 

Between these and the main range is the Makata plain or 
swamp, drained by the Makata Eiver — known higher on its 
course as the Mukondokwa, and as the Wami where it falls into 
the sea. 

The first portion of this section of the route was composed 
principally of rolling grassy plains, with occasional small hills 
and strips and patches of jungle. It was but sparsely inhabited, 
and the villages lay concealed in the jungle on the summits of 
the hills. 

The soil was composed of reddish sand and water-worn peb- 


hies covered with dark vegetable humus, and seemed to be of 
inexhaustible fertility. The country was intersected b}^ numer- 
ous nullahs, or temporary water -courses, which all drained to 
the Kingani. 

Manioc iJatrophd) of the sweet sort, Indian corn {Holcus 
sorghum) — the Kaffir corn of Natal, and dourra of Egypt — 
ground-nuts, sem-sem, and castor-oil were grown by the inhab- 
itants. Their only live stock were goats and a few wretched 
sheep and fowls. 

Toward Msuw\ali the country began to rise decidedly, and out- 
crops of granite and quartz sometimes showed through the soft 
red sandstone which formed the upper stratum. 

From Msuwah we continued on a fairly high level till we de- 
scended into the valley of the Lugerengeri, which is one of 
great beauty and fertility, and where sugar-cane was cultivated 
in addition to the crops previously mentioned. 

Directly after crossing the Lugerengeri, the Kungwa hills 
were entered — part of the range mentioned by Burton as the 
Duthumi hills — a mass of mountainous granite and quartz ele- 
vations of very confused shapes and forms, surrounding a fertile 
and populous tract full of small conical hills. Their summits 
were crowned by villages, the slopes covered with Indian and 
Kaffir corn, and rice was cultivated in the small valleys. 

Where not under tillage, the lower levels were masses of cane- 
grass and bamboo, growing high above the head of the traveler, 
and only allowing occasional glimpses of the beautiful scenery 

Emerging from this basin by a pass in the hills, the tortuous 
valley of the Lugerengeri was again reached, and the path led 
along between the stream and a range of hills to the soutli, the 
sides of which were scored by numerous torrents, which in ex- 
ceptionally rainy seasons bear desolation to the villages in their 

The town of Simbaw^ni having been passed, the Lugerengeri 
was again crossed, and then the- road lay close under a promon- 
tory-like hill of granite with cliff-like sides, to the Makata plain, 
a wide and open expanse of very slightly undulating ground 
with numerous fan-palms in some places, and on the drier spots 
clumps of forest-trees. The wet parts are sticky, clayey mud, 

448 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

occasionally varied in the rainy season by stretches of mingled 
marsh and water from one to two feet in depth. 

The mountains of Useghara rise abruptly in a mass of granite 
peaks on the western side of this plain. Here a few villages 
are to be seen, but the eastern part is entirely wild, and the fa- 
vorite haunt of herds of giraffe, zebra, and buffalo. 

Close to the coast in this district the semi-fossil gum-copal is 
found by digging from five to seven feet below the surface, and 
the copal-tree still grows in some parts. 

The trees are principally acacias, of which there are many 
varieties, covered with masses of different-colored blossoms. 
There are also several kinds of valuable timber-trees and a few 
fruit-trees. Near the sea the cocoa-palm, the mango, the mfuv 
— producing a sort of damson-like fruit — jack-fruit-tree, oranges, 
sweet lemons, limes, the custard -apple, the papaw, guava, and 
tamarind, also mzambarau — another plum-tree — are cultivated. 
African teak, black wood, Ugnum-vitce, the mparamusi, india- 
rubber trees and vines, the wild date, the Boi^assusflaheUiformis, 
the raphia (mwale), and many kinds of thorns and creepers, 
grow luxuriantly in the woods ; while bamboos and cane-grass 
fill the swampy bottoms, and the plains are covered wnth a va- 
riety of grasses, w4iich attain a height of six or eight feet in the 
rainy season. 

The inhabitants vary greatly in their manners. ]S[ear the 
coast they have mostly adopted the habits of the Wamerima ; 
but the grass kilt, like that of the Papuans, is still to be seen 
near Simbaweni, and people smear their heads with red-ochreish 
earths and oil. In the villages at the foot of the mountains are 
seen extraordinary necklaces made of brass wire coiled horizon- 
tally — flemished, in nautical language — and extending some- 
times a foot or more from the neck. 

The rivers of these districts abound in hippopotami and croco- 
diles. Buffaloes, giraffes, zebras, antelopes of various sorts, ant- 
eaters, ocelots, occasiorial elephants, hyenas, leopards, wild cats, 
monkeys, wild pigs, beautiful little squirrels, jackals, the buku, a 
huge rat often larger than a rabbit, mongoose, the carrion crow, 
guinea and jungle fowl, a sort of francolin, numerous hawks, 
goat-suckers, orioles, and sun-birds, wild pigeons and doves, form 
a portion of the fauna. But though numerous in species, in- 


dividuals are rare, owing to the quantities destroyed every 
year in the annual burnings of the grass, when every man and 
boy sallies forth intent on destruction. 

To these people all flesh is meat, and vast quantities of beasts 
and birds are therefore destroyed by their human foes, while 
others perish in the flames. 

Every pool and swamp swarms with frogs ; and the insect 
world so teems with new and wonderful forms of life, that 
here the entomologist — as in tropical Africa generally — may 
find extensive fields for study and discovery. 

Snakes are not numerous, and the greater portion are not 
venomous, though the cobra de capello exists and is much 
dreaded. There is also a snake which is said to be able to 
project its saliva to a distance of two or three feet ; and when 
that saliva falls on man or beast, a lingering and painful 
wound results. Arachuidse are common, and of several vari- 
eties, scorpions being by no means rare in the native huts; 
while the webs of gigantic spiders festoon the poles forming 
the roof, and are sometimes seen covering whole trees in the 

The next portion of the route was the passage of the Use- 
ghara Mountains by the road leading from Rehenneko. The 
mountains are principally composed of granite and quartz, 
sheets of polished, wet, and slippery stone in the torrent-beds 
often making footing insecure. In some places red sandstone 
overlies the skeleton of granite, and acacias grow wherever 
soil is lodged, rising above each other " like umbrellas in a 
crowd;" and in the low-lying, moist hollows the mparamusi 
towers high above all its companions. 

After crossing the first part of these mountains, we followed 
for some distance the valley of the Mukondokwa, of which 
Burton has aptly remarked that " the mountains seem rather 
formed for the drain than the drain for the mountains." I can 
not do better than refer the reader who requires a more de- 
tailed description of the valley of the Mukondokwa than the 
nature of this book allows me to give, to the "• Lake Regions of 
Central Africa," by Captain Burton, a work which, for minute- 
ness of detail, must ever stand foremost among books of de- 
scriptive geography. The route he followed soon after pass- 

450 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

ing the village of Muinyi Useghara diverged from ours, which 
a short distance beyond the village left the Mukondokwa, and 
followed the valley of one of its affluents, the Ugombo, to the 
lake of the same name, in. which it takes its rise. 

Tlie path on both sides was bordered by lofty hills, often sur- 
mounted by peaks and blocks of granite and gneiss, and show- 
ing in many places great seams of red sandstone half grown 
over with brush-wood. 

Lake Ugpmbo is a sort of natural reservoir dammed up by 
small hills, and receives the drainage of a portion of the l)arren 
tract between it and Mpwapwa, w^hich lies in the basin of the 
Mukondokwa, and in the rainy season is a very considerable 
sheet of water. Late in the dry season it is merely a pool suffi- 
ciently large to shelter the small number of hippopotami which 
remain, for, as the waters decrease, the greater number go down 
the river Ugombo to find a refuge in the deeper reaches of the 

From Lake Ugombo there is a gradual, but considerable, rise 
toward the water-shed between the Mukondowa basin and that 
of the Lufiji, the one lying immediately beyond it. 

This jjortion of the route is barren and sterile, the soil com- 
posed of sand and gravel of quartz and granite overlying clay, 
with numerous and much-weathered bowlders of granite crop- 
ping out. The only vegetation consisted of wiry grasses, thorny 
shrubs, baobab-trees and kolquals, and other members of the 
family of Euphorlna. A few dry nullahs marked the spot 
where, in the rainy season, torrents fiowed to Lake Ugombo. 

The Avater-shed being crossed, a tangled net-work of nullahs, 
small rocky ridges, and patches of thorny jungle, extended as 
far as the slopes below Mpwapwa, and then, ascending a broad 
water-course, streams and pools of water were found flowing 
down the hills, and gradually losing themselves in the sands. 
Near these streams was nnich cultivation, and the people had 
herds of cattle. 

A spur of hills stretches out to the westward from the range 
of the Useghara Mountains. Mpwapwa and its neighboring 
villages are situated on a terrace -like ridge half-way up the 
slopes of these hills, which are almost entirely of granite, and, 
as usual, clothed to their summits with acacias. The road lies 


along this terrace from Mpwapwa to Cliimyo, and there de- 
scends into the Marenga Mkali, which may be fairly considered 
as the commencement of the central plateau as well as of the 
large country of Ugogo, though nominally Ugogo is not en- 
tered till the Marenga Mkali is passed. 

The Marenga Mkali is an open level tract for the first fif- 
teen miles, with numerous small hills, chiefly composed of 
blocks of granite, often of a conical form, scattered about — 
there being only a scanty vegetation of thin gras§ and thorns — 
and intersected by numerous water-courses, which drain to "the 
river of Maroro " in the rainy season. Afterward it becomes 
more broken, and there is a good deal of thorny jungle. 

ISTotwithstanding the want of water experienced in crossing 
the Marenga Mkali, most probably it might easily be obtained 
there at any time by sinking wells, especially those of the Ab- 
yssinian pattern, as the rain-fall during the season is very great. 

Leaving the Marenga Mkali, the aspect of Ugogo is that of 
a brown, dried-up country, with occasional huge masses of gran- 
ite, and the stiff Eupliorhia clinging to their sides. There are 
no vivid greens or freshness of color, the only trees to be seen 
being the gigantic and grotesque baobab and a few patches of 
thorny scrub. 

The formation is sandstone, in some places overlaid with a 
stratum of clay. The water is bad, and only to be obtained 
from pits made by the natives to store some of the superabun- 
dant rain-fall, or by digging in the beds of the water-courses. 

But in the rainy season all is different ; the whole country is 
then green and verdant, and large expanses are covered with 
matama, pumpkins, and tobacco, which form almost the only 
crops cultivated by the inhabitants. 

To the north of the route a wave of higher land forms the 
water-shed between the basin of the Kile and that of the Rwaha 
(the upper course of the Lufiji), across the latter of which it 

A peculiar feature of Ugogo is the small ziwas, or ponds, 
surrounded by verdure and acacias, as refreshing to the weary 
traveler as an oasis in the Sahara. Numerous water -fowl — 
duck, teal, and others ^ — frequent these ponds all the year round. 
These ziwas are scattered about Ugogo in many places, and 

452 ACKOSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

often during exceptionally dry seasons afford the only supply 
of water the inhabitants can obtain, both for themselves and 
the large herds of cattle they possess. Sometimes even this 
last resource fails them, and then desolation and death reign 

From this chain of ponds a jungle march across broken coun- 
try leads to the district of Kanyenye, a flat plain lying between 
two parallel ranges of hills running north and south. A few 
of the welcome ziwas are to be found in Kanyenyd, but gener- 
ally the country is parched and arid. 

Nitrous particles glisten in the water-courses and in the beds 
of dried-up pools, and these the natives collect and make into 
cones like sugar-loaves, and export to their neighbors. 

Ascending to the summit of the range of hills on the west of 
Kanyenye, another level plateau with flne forest and grass land 
meets the eye ; and through a chain of rocky hills, formed of 
the most fantastic masses and bowlders of granite of every shape, 
the road leads on to Usekhe. 

A species of hyrax, or rock-coney, abounds in tlie crevices and 
holes of these rocks. 

These bowlders remind one of logans, churches, and the 
Druidic monuments of Stonehenge and elsewhere; but their 
enormous size precludes the possibility of their having been 
erected by human hands. 

A narrow strip of jungle Useklie from Ivhoko. This 
district, though inhabited by Wagogo, may be considered, as 
indeed might Us6khe, as belonging to a geographical division 
separate from that containing the Marenga Mkali and eastern 
Ilgogo, which ends at Kanyenye. Khoko is a fertile undulating 
plain, with many trees, and a few of those bowlders which form 
such a conspicuous feature in Usekhe. 

Khoko is also remarkable for a species of sycamore, or fig, 
closely allied to the banyan-tree, which grows to an enormous 
size, spreading out its branches over a large area. Three of 
these trees near the village of the chief sheltered the camping- 
ground, and under one side of a single tree our caravan of over 
three hundred found ample room and shade. 

When Burton went from Khoko to the next sultanate of 
Mdaburu, there was a long tract of jungle to be passed. This 


has now nearly disappeared, and the ground has ahnost entirely 
been brought under cultivation. 

Mdaburu is another large fertile district, extending as far as 
the eye can reach, with a large population owning great herds 
of cattle, and is drained by the Mdaburu nullah — a line of 
creeks and pools where plenty of good water is to be found 
even in the driest seasons — becoming in the rains an impetuous 
stream running to the Rwaha, which was here within fifty miles 
of our route. 

The soil of the vale of Mdaburu is a rich red loam, and the 
people are able to cultivate sweet-potatoes and various pulses, 
in addition to the matama, which formed the main cro]3 of their 
eastern relatives. 

Between Mdaburu and Unyanyembe lies a tract of country 
which is known as the Mgunda Mkali, or " Fiery Field," and 
in former days was considered one of the worst pieces of trav- 
eling between Unyanyembe and the coast. It was once nearly 
an unlu'oken mass of forests with few w^atering-places, and no- 
where could provisions be procured. But now all is changed; 
and although there are still many long and weary marches to 
be endured, and caravans constantly suffer from scarcity of wa- 
ter, much of tlie forest has been cleared by the Wakimbu, a 
branch of the Wanyamwezi driven from their former homes by 

At many of the settlements they have formed, provisions 
can now be obtained, and water-holes have been dug, and natural 
watering-places discovered, so that the dreaded Mgunda Mkali 
of yore, where every caravan expected to leave the bodies of 
a considerable percentage of its numbers, is now faced without 
fear, and traversed without nmch difficulty. 

The countr}' immediately after leaving Mdaburu is broken 
and hilly, the granite showing in sheets and patches on the hill- 
sides. After three marches the Mabunguru nullah is crossed, 
very similar in its character to the Mdaburu, the easternmost 
affluent of the Rwaha passed on the road to Unyanyembe. 

After the Mabunguru, the country rises considerably, and 
soon the highest levels before reaching Unyanyembe are at- 
tained. Many pools, mostly dried up, lay on this small portion 
of the route, and several small water-courses ; but the direction 

454 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

thej took was so tortuous, that it was impossible to trace wheth- 
er thej belonged to the area of drainage supplying the Nile, 
the Tanganyika, or the Ewaha. 

Where the land is cultivated around settlements, as at Jiwe 
la Singa, it everywhere presents a scene of wondrous fertility, 
and the whole of this level might hereafter be made a wheat- 
producing country. 

From Jiwe la Singa onward the drainage decidedly belonged 
to the Nile area. 

Just beyond that settlement is a small range of rocky hills, 
where the road leads over an arete about fifty yards in length, 
which blocks the pass between two of the hills. Few villages 
are to be seen in the country beyond, w^hich is mostly covered 
with jungle. Water is scarce, though, no doubt, it lay in the 
hollows of the granite rock which in places showed out in great 
sheets, and probably is to be found everywhere within thirty 
feet of the surface. 

The most cultivated portion of this district is near the village 
of the chief of Urguru, four long marches from Unyanyembe ; 
and there, for the first time since leaving the coast mountains, 
rice cultivation was seen in the damp hollows. The country 
between Urguru and Unyanyembe is tolerably level, and almost 
entirely jungle. At Marvva, half-way on the road, numerous 
bowlders and granite hills stand out from the plain, and many 
fan-palms grow near them. 

At the outskirts of Unyanyembe is a small dry water-course, 
an affluent of the Tura nullah, which in the rainy season spreads 
out a short way to the north-north-west into a lagoon or swamp, 
called the Nya Kuv, which drains ultimately into the Victoria 
ISTyanza. This is according to Ai-ab information, and, I think, 
wortliy of credence. 

It may be worth remarking the presence of the root nya in 
Nya-nza, Nya-ssa, Ma-nya-ra, and Nya Kuv. In Kisuahili, hu- 
nya means "to rain," and the "^;?^" being only the prefix of 
the infinitive mood, nya is the enclitic form of the verb. 

This " dry stream " is the boundary of Unyanyembe proper, 
which is mostly cleared of jungle, and has long been pre-eminent 
for the large number of its population and the extent of their 


Indeed, the name Unyanyembe points to tlie extensive culti- 
vation, U^ country ; nya^ a form of the preposition ya^ signi- 
fying " of," the n being introduced for the sake of euphony, 
and yemhe, hoes : the whole meaning " country of the hoes," or 
" cultivated country." 

This country is dotted with innumerable villages surrounded 
by impenetrable hedges of the "milk-bush." The juice of this 
plant is so acrid that if a small portion gets into the eye, it gives 
almost intolerable anguish, and frequently causes blindness. 
Wheat, onions, and different sorts of herbs and vegetables, as 
well as fruit-trees, imported from the coast, are cultivated by 
the Arabs round their settlement. 

The southern part of Unyanyembe is intersected with numer- 
ous small rocky hills ; but to the north it is more level, running 
into the plains of the Masai in one direction, and to those bor- 
dering the mid-course of the Malagarazi on the other. 

Large herds of cattle are possessed both by Arabs and na- 
tives ; but their numbers have of late years been much dimin- 
ished by constant petty wars. 

South-west of Unyanyembe the rocky hills cease, and the 
broad alluvial plain is partly occupied by jungle, and partly by 
the plantations of the people of Ugunda. Ugunda also means 
a cultivated country, Mgunda being synonymous with the Ki- 
suahili Sltamha, meaning a farm or plantation, and Ugunda a 
country of farms. 

The drainage here is very partial, large tracts being in the 
rainy season only fit for growing rice. The main drain of the 
country is the Wale nullah, which afterward joins the Southern 
ISTgombe, and forms part of the system of the Malagarazi. 

Beyond the farthest settlements of the Wagunda lies a broad 
plain, bounded on the west by the Southern Kgombe. This 
plain is swampy in places, and it is well wooded in many parts, 
but there is littlp or no tangled undergrowth. Open and park- 
like stretches form the feeding-grounds of innumerable herds 
of game, among others the rhinoceros, lion, and buffalo. 

The Southern l^gombe, in the dry season and at the com- 
mencement of the rains, consists of long reaches of open water 
separated from each other by sand-bars — what our Australian 
brothers would call creeks — but which unite toward the end of 

456 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

the rainy season and form a noble stream flowing to the Mala- 
garazi, and often spreading three and four miles over the adja- 
cent country. 

Ugara, lying beyond Southern ISTgombe, is a flat plain covered 
with forest and jungle, except in places where the natives have 
made a clearance and formed a settlement. 

From the summit of some small hills an unbroken horizon of 
tree -tops was seen in every direction save north - north - west, 
where two or three small conical hills appeared. 

To the westward the country becomes more undulating; a 
series of hills of wave-like form rising gradually on their east- 
ern sides, and on the west falling precipitously to the level of 
the plain, whence many streams flowed toward the Malagarazi. 



The Kawendi Mountains, on the west of Ugara, rise some- 
times to the height of seven thousand feet above the sea-level, 
and are principally of granite formation ; but jjatches of sand- 
stone and a sort of immature clay-slate are also seen. The cliff- 
like sides and jutting promontories of this range suggest the 
idea of it having once been an archipelago. 

The fli'st part of Uvinza is very similar to Ivawendi until the 
plain of the Malagarazi is reached at Ugaga ; the river then 


works along the northern face of the mountains of Kawendi. 
This plain is intersected by the valleys of the Luviji, Rusugi, 
and other affluents of the Malagarazi, the waters of which, cu- 
rious to relate, are perfectly fresh, though the soil is in many 
places impregnated with salt. 

Drawing nearer to the Tanganj'ika, the country becomes 
more broken and hilly, forming a link between the mountains 
of TJjiji and Urundi and those of Kawendi. 

In a jungle in Ukaranga — "the country of ground-nuts" — I 
picked up some nutmegs, well flavored and of good size, and 
various kinds of india-rubber plants abounded. 

458 ACROSS AFRICA. [Cilvp. 


The Lake System of Central Africa. — A Flaw in some Ancient Upheaval. — Correct 
Position of the Tanganyika. — Kawele'. — Ras Kuugwe. — Kabogo Island. — Ruguvu. 
— Coal. — Rapid Encroachment of the Lake upon its Shores. — Formation of Cliffs. 
— Remains of an Inland Sea. — Makakomo Islands. — Gradual Disappearance. — 
Constant Additions from Main-land. — Ras Musungi. — Loose Masses of Granite. — 
Weather-worn Cliffs. — Fantastic Forms. — Numerous Land-slips. — Black Beaches. 
— The West of Tanganyika. — A New Geographical Region. — The Rugumba. — 
Black Speculum Ore. — The Kilimachio Hills. — Affluents of the Lualaba. — Under- 
ground Dwellings. — The Lualaba and Kongo. — Changes in River Channels. — Bee- 
culture. — A Barren Waste. — A Fertile Flat. 

The existence of a wonderful lake system in Central Africa, 
of which Tanganyika forms part, seems to have been known to 
the ancients, and if not actually ascertained was at all events 
conjectured, by the earlier European explorers in Africa. Lat- 
terly this lake system has been replaced in the ideas of geogra- 
phers by expanses of desert. 

The suppositions of the first Portuguese travelers and mis- 
sionaries are wonderfully near the truth, and maps of Africa 
of two hundred years ago gave a far more accurate idea of the 
interior of the continent than those of this century, before the 
eyes of the world were opened by the discussion of old travels, 
the theories of Mr. Cooley, and the discoveries of Burton and 

The Tanganyika, Nyassa, and Albert Nyanza, in my opinion 
— though of course this is only advanced as a theory — are in 
tlie line of a great flaw in some ancient u]3heaval. 

Until I found the variation on Tanganyika to be 17° westerly, 
that lake was laid down on the maps as running due north and 
south ; and I believe that, when variation is allowed for, Lake 
Nyassa will also be found to have a simihir inclination to the 
meridian, both being parallel to the lines of upheaval of the 
mountains of the coast range and of Madagascar. 


The Albert is parallel to the curve the coast mountains take 
to the eastward of north in running out to form the highland 
extending up to Cape Guardafui, and of which Socotra Abd- 
al-Kuri and the neighboring islets and rocks are the outlying 

These three lakes, therefore, seem to lie in an interrupted 
tissure on the outside of one in a series of concentric upheavals. 

In support of my behef that Lake ISTjassa lies at an angle to 
the meridian like the Tanganyika, 1 am inclined to refer the 
reader to Mr. Cooley's " Geography of the Nyassa,'" a paper in 
which, notwithstanding the disadvantages of having to work 
with defective and, in many cases, erroneous data, the scientific 
writer made an immense advance toward breaking through the 
darkness which for so long had shrouded the interior of Africa. 

Lake Victoria Nyanza owes its existence to some other cause, 
while of the many lakes to the westward of this line some are 
apparently formed by rivers dammed back by ranges of hills at 
the edges of table-lands, wdiile others are simply lacustrine ex- 
pansions of varying size of the rivers tliemselves. 

The name of Tanganyika means " the mixing-place," being 
derived from ku-tanganya — in some dialects changanya — "to 
mix or slmfiie." 

The fact that I found no fewer than ninety-six rivers, besides 
torrents and springs; flowing into the portion of the lake which 
I surveyed, proves this name to be well deserved. 

Behind Kawele towered lofty hills, which could be seen long 
after the low land on which the town was built had disappeared 
below the horizon. 

Proceeding southward from Kawele, the shore of the lake at 
first consisted of dwarf cliffs of red sandstone, broken by land- 
slips and fringed at their base by matele, or cane grass, while 
l)ehind were wooded hills rising higher and higher as they re- 
ceded from the lake. 

A level marshy plain extends at the mouth of the Ruche, 
whence the coast rises gradually until it culminates in the 
double promontory of Kabogo. This section is broken into 
deep inlets and bays by the mouths of the Malagarazi and other 
rivers ; the Malagarazi running into the lake by the side of a 
long red quoin which can be seen from LTjiji, The cape at 

460 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

Kabogo is not very striking, but it is well known as the point 
of departure of canoes bound to the islands of Kisenga on the 

South of Eas Kabogo the lake forms a deep bay, into which 
many streams flow. The shores are low and marshy, though a 
short way back from the coast large mountains rise abruptly; 
and it was from one of these, Mount Massowah, that Living- 
stone and Stanley took their last look of the lake. 

The southern limit of this bay is defined by Ras Kungwe, 
formed by a groin of the mountains of Tongwe. The first 
steps are seen rising almost precipitously out of the lake as 
soon as the cape is rounded, and down their faces rushing tor- 
rents are here and there visible through the tangled verdure 
which clothes the cliffs. 

Grand masses of mountains rise behind, but, being hidden 
by those near the coast, are only visible from the western side 
of the lake, whence they present a magnificent cou^ d?ml. 

The mountains continue to overhang the lake for some way 
to the south, then, receding from the shore, allow secondary 
lines of smaller grassy and wooded hills to rise between them 
and it. 

At Ras Kiscra Miaga the main ridge seems to turn back to 
the eastward, and after a time to meet another range, which 
again overhangs the lake from the mouth of the Ruguvu to 
Ras Makanyazi. 

In the angle between these two ranges lies a low country 
with small rounded hills, where many fan-palms and timber- 
trees flourish. Off this land lies the large level and fertile isl- 
and of Kabogo. It is separated from the main by a channel 
in places nearly a mile wide, but narrows at both ends where 
there are sand-bars. 

The hills overhanging the lake beyond the Ruguvu often 
take the form of cliffs, and on the face of one of these I saw 
a patch of what I believe to be coal lying in a great synclinal 
curve of other strata. The lake was so rough when we passed 
that it was impossible to land to get a specimen ; but a piece 
of coal from Itawa was given me, and is probably of the same 
sort. It is a light, bright, splintery coal, very slightly bitumi- 


The other strata showing close to the coal, which was lying 
on granite, were limestone and red sandstone, marble and slaty 
rocks, some patches of soft-looking gray chalk, and a reddish 
soil like that of the Wealden area, with lumps of stone looking 
like Kentish rag. 

All the faces of the cliffs were so much torn and seamed by 
torrents and rains, that it is almost imjDossible, from merely a 
passing glance, to give a reliable description. 

Jnst beyond Ras Makanyazi a sharp line seemed to divide 
the granite overlaid with sandstone from limestone cliffs, and 
shortly afterward the cliffs came to an end, and the mountains 
trended back a long way from the coast, the intervening coun- 
try being formed of low and rounded hills and level plains. 

The lake here is rapidly encroaching on the shores, and the 
contour is constantly changing. IS^ear the mouth of the Mu- 
samwira — the drain of the Likwa Lagoon — where large vil- 
lages stood a year or two ago, sand-banks only are now seen, 
and these are hourly decreasing in size. 

After passing the Musamwira, the hills again approached the 
lake; but I observed a few inlets which might be utilized as 
boat harbors. At Ras Kamatete the hills run back again some- 
thing in the same manner as near the island of Kabogo, form- 
ing a deep bay with low-lying level land around it. The south- 
ern horn of this bay is Ras Mpimbwe, a promontory consisting 
of enormous blocks of granite piled on each other in the wild- 
est confusion. 

The land is composed of a hght-red sandstone, though it is 
hardly stone at all, with large masses of granite and harder 
sandstone imbedded: .the water washes away the soft sand- 
stone, and leaves the harder rocks either in piles or half -sunken 

I believe that exactly the same process is going on here 
which in earlier ages formed the hills and mountains we came 
across between Liowa's and Ugogo, the rocky hills of TJn- 
yanyembe, and deposited the rocks in Ugogo about Usekhe 
and elsewhere. The whole country was apparently at one time 
an enormous lake, with a soft sandstone bottom overlying gran- 
ite ; and as it contracted, either through a general elevation of 
the bottom or from some other cause, the surf on the shores 

462 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

cut away the sandstone, and left the harder rocks standing out 
in their present forms. Of this sea, most probably a fresh- 
water one, Tanganyika, the Nyanzas, and the Livingstone lakes 
are probably the remains. 

It may have been salt — witness salt soil of Uvinza and Ugo- 
go — and freshened by the continued rain-fall of thousands of 
years. The country, except for a gradual elevation of the 
whole mass, was most probably left unvisited by any great 
geological convulsion after the days when subterranean fires 
formed the granite which constitutes the great mass of the 

The hills now again overhang the lake, and navigation is 
rendered dangerous by the number of sunken pinnacle and 
other rocks, some being only a foot or two below the surface 
of the water. 

The Makakomo islands, which were next passed, had, accord- 
ing to the guides, once been part of the main-land — some with- 
in their own remembrance — and the outer island, which a few 
years back was populated and fertile, is now a mere barren 
iieap of rocks, half submerged by the waters of the lake, prov- 
ing that the wasting action is rapidly progressing. 

A short way beyond the Makakomo islands some remarka- 
ble masses of granite were seen, two in particular towering up 
above the rest to a height of seventy or eighty feet, like a pair 
of giant brothers. Wooded hills now again formed the bound- 
aries of the Tanganyika, but every here and there land-slips ex- 
posed the stony nature of their formation. The line of hills 
continued for some time nearly parallel to the shore. 

At Has Masungi, near the island of Polungo, the hills consist 
of loose masses of granite, looking as if they would slide down 
into the lake beneath at the slightest jar of an earthquake ; in- 
deed, they appeared so insecure that it seemed scarcely safe to 
camp at their base. Soon afterward, white limestone cliffs, ris- 
ing up like columns and pillars, were seen from the lake. 

At Kas Yamini the cliffs were very high, and composed of 
innumerable thin strata of a red stone about the thickness of a 
Roman brick. These cliffs were worn and broken by the ac- 
tion of weather and waves into fantastic forms bearing much 
resemblance to ruins of castles and fortresses, arches being lion- 


ey- combed in their bases, and turret -like projections standing 
out in advance of the main portion. In some places two or 
three of the small strata projected slightly beyond the rest, 
forming a sort of band or string course, which added greatly to 
the resemblance of masonry. 

The southern end of the lake had now" been nearly reached. 
It lies niched into the edge of a table-land which overhangs it 
some four or five hundred feet. These cliffs are some of the 
grandest in the world. 

The lake is still extending its sway in this direction as w^ell 
as on the eastern shore, as testified by the numerous land-slips 
which form picturesque groins to the upright cliffs. Several 
grand water-falls pour down the face of these cliffs, the streams 
which supply them running tranquilly on the table -land till 
they take the sudden plunge which precipitates them into the 

Westward of the lake, this table-land runs into a fine range of 
mountains, and another range running up northward from them 
forms the western boundary of the trough into which the Tan- 
ganyika lies. 

This range of mountains continues w^ithout any great change 
right up to Has Mulango — the southern of that name — where 
they turn off to the westward, and most probably join the range 
damming back the waters of Moero. 

Thence northward to the southern end of the mountains of 
Ugoma, also called Eas Mulango, all the country is low, consist- 
ing principally of small flat-topped hills of soft sandstone of a 
dark -red color covered with grass and trees. In one or two 
places the beaches were perfectly black ; but as the surf was 
much too heavy for me to attempt to land, I could not ascertain 
the cause. 

Mulango or M'lango signifies a door ; and it is worthy of re- 
mark that the two Eas Mulango are situated at the northern 
and southern extremities of the low -lying land which here 
makes a break in the continuous fringe of mountains surround- 
ing the lake, the two capes standing, as it were, at the door- 
way, or opening, through which the Lukuga flows. 

Northward of Kasenge the mountains of Ugoma rise abrupt- 
ly from the lake to a height of two or three thousand feet. 

464 ACROSS AFEICA. [Chap. 

To the west of Tanganyika a new geographical, ethnological, 
zoological, entomological, and botanical region is entered. Close 
to the lake the road leads over the southern spurs of the Ugo- 
raa, the habitat of the mvuli, a tree very valuable to the na- 
tives, as the large " dug-out " canoes which they use in naviga- 
ting the Tanganyika are made of the trunk. 

The Kugumba tlows into the lake just to the west of the 
south extremity of the Ugoma Mountains, through the northern 
edge of the flat plain near the entrance into the Lukuga ; while 
the Rubumba, which takes its rise close to the source of the 
Rugumba, is found at a very short distance from the lake, flow- 
ing away from it. The country is hilly, with occasional plains 
until Ubudjwa is passed, when it becomes mountainous in char- 

Uhiya and Uvinza, the two next countries, are a series of 
ridges running in different directions from the Bambarre 
Mountains, which are the most important range in this part 
of Africa. Beyond them is another lesser ridge divided from 
them by a well-watered and fertile plain, and beyond this the 
country is practically level, with the exception of a few rocky 
hills, till the Lualaba is reached. 

The mountains and hills are, as usual, composed of granite, 
gneiss, and quartz, with here and there a few patches of por- 

The lower levels consist of strata of sand and water -worn 
pebbles, and present the appearance of having been once the 
bottom of some great sea. These beds of sand and pebbles 
vary much in thickness and extent. 

Between the Bambarre Mountains and the Tanganyika a red 
hematite ore is worked, but not in very large quantities. 

After the mountains are passed, the soil on the surface in the 
plains is a rich red sandy loam, but in some of the water-courses 
a dark -gray shaly sandstone. Round Manyara and its neigh- 
boring villages this red soil is wanting; but whole hills are 
composed of a black speculum ore. The iron obtained from it 
being of excellent quality, accounts in great measure for the 
goodness of the sniith's work. 

The country near the Lualaba is again composed of sand and 
water-worn pebbles ; but the river is clearly working down the 


dip of the strata, for the country on the left bank stretches back 
for miles, and rises very gradually, while the right side is in 
many places bordered by cliffs. On the face of these cliffs are 
often to be seen numerous small strata of shaly sandstone, and 
in some places are curious round marks exactly like those caused 
by a round-shot striking brick-work too solid for it to breach. 

Beyond the Lualaba and all along near the Lomami the coun- 
try is generally level, with deep gulches grooved out by the in- 
numerable streams, the sides showing more water-worn pebbles, 
sand, and a light yellow sandstone resting on the granite. 

The Kilimachio hills are the commencement of a system of 
rocky hills composed of granite, gneiss, and a pecuhar sort of 
vesicular rock, with occasional small pieces of granite imbed- 
ded in it, which had the appearance of being the granite re- 
ally melted, and not simply metamorphosed by heat. It did 
not look like lava or slag, though no doubt somewhat' of this 

These hills are the western extremity of the " Mountains of 
Rua," which Livingstone mentions as damming in the northern 
part of Lake Moero, and are also the same range tliat turns back 
from Lake Tanganyika, at Eas Mulango, to the south of the 


It will be well here to trace the affluents of the Lualaba. 
The one that extends farthest west, and which, except for rap- 
ids, might be navigable to within one hundred and fifty miles 
of the Nyassa, is the Chambezi, the principal feeder of Lake 
Bangweolo. From this lake it issues as the Luapula, and, flow- 
ing past the town of Ma Kazembe, is the chief supply of Lake 
Moero. From Moero it bursts through the mountains of Eua, 
and is then known by the natives as the Luvwa, though the 
Arabs call it Lualaba, and Dr. Livingstone adopted that name 
from them. Between the lakes Moero and Lanjl it joins with 
the Lualaba proper, which is the central and lowest line of 

The Lualaba rises near the salt marshes of Kwijila, and, flow- 
ing through Lake Lohemba, makes a considerable drop before 
entering Lake Kassali or Kikonja. Into Lake Kassali also flows 
the Lufira, beneath which river are the under-ground dwellings 
at Mkanna and Mkwamba. 

466 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

According to the accounts I received, these caves pass right 
underneath the bed of the river, and are high and lofty. There 
are several openings on both sides of the river, and stories are 
told of strangers who had come to attack these troglodytes be- 
ing hotly engaged at one entrance, and then suddenly finding 
themselves attacked in rear by a party which had sallied out 
from another. The inside of these dwellings is described 
as being of great beauty, with columns and arches of white 

The people here are greatly afflicted with goitre ; and stran- 
gers residing among them are said to feel symptoms of that 
disease after drinking the water for a few days. Tliis no doubt 
points to the existence of a limestone formation. 

Other aflSuents of the Lualaba are the Luama and Lomami 
— both navigable streams — and the Lowa, described as coming 
from the north, and it is said to be as large as the Lualaba some 
distance to the west of Nyangwe. The Uelle of Dr. Schwein- 
furtli may be an affluent, or pei'haps the head-waters, of this 
great stream, which must receive the drainage of a very large 
portion of the continent. 

The Lualaba, if it be the Kongo, of which I think there can 
be no doubt, must also receive the drainage of all the country 
north of the Zambesi basin, until that of the Kwanza is reached. 

The volume of the Kongo was roughly estimated by Tuckey 
at two millions of cubic feet per second ; and even if this esti- 
mate be too large, there can be no doubt that the mighty river, 
over a thousand feet deep at its mouth, must receive the drain- 
age of an enormous area. 

The Kongo also rises very slightly when compared with other 
tropical rivers, and its rising takes place twice a year. This 
may be accounted for hj the fact that its basin extends on both 
sides of the equator, and that, therefore, some of its affluents are 
in flood when others are low. 

Beyond the ranges of Kilimachio and Nyoka are broad and 
well-watered plains extending to Kilemba, east of which is a 
shallow basin about flve or six miles across, where the soil is 
salt and there are some salt-springs. Several of these basins 
were said to be near, but this was the only one visited. 

From Kilemba to Lunga Mandi's the country consisted of 


wooded liills, flat-topped table-lands of sand, and broad marshes 
bordering the streams. 

The channel of the riv^er is continually changing, and in a 
year or two no trace remains of its former course. This is 
owing to the growth of the semi -aquatic vegetation, which 
quickly chokes up every space where the water does not flow 
rapidly ; and this accounts for the fact that toward the end of 
the dry season the actual channel is much smaller than in the 

If these swamps prove to be the modern representatives of 
the old coal measures, we should find ferns, papyrus (especially 
its roots) trees (some fallen on their sides and half rotten, others 
still standing), and stumps and grasses, among the vegetable 
fossils ; while those of the animal kingdom should include 
skeletons of mud-fish and frogs, and also of an occasional croc- 
odile, buffalo, or hippopotamus. Small thin sheets of sand 
might perhaps indicate where the different channels had once 

The country in Ussambi consisted mostly of flat-topped sand- 
stone hills. Strata of red and yellow sandstone alternated, and 
between them and the granite were usually masses of water- 
worn pebbles. 

Uliinda is a thickly wooded country, with gentle undulations, 
and occasional savannas or meadows watered by numberless 
streams, most of them running northward to the Kongo. 

At its western side broad plains stretch right across Lovale. 
They are light and sandy in the dry season, with belts of trees 
along the different water-courses intersecting them, but during 
the rains Ijecome quagmires and morasses. The water-shed be- 
tween the Zambesi and Kongo basins lies along the centre of 
these plains, which in the annual rainy season are waist-deep 
in water, and the two basins then actually join. 

West of Lovale is the country of Kibokwe, where the rise out 
of the central depression becomes very marked, and the country 
is nearly all covered with forests. 

Bee-culture is here the chief occupation of the natives. The 
large trees are utilized to support their bee-hives, the produce 
of which forms a considerable and profitable item of barter. 
They exchange the wax for all the foreign-trade goods they re- 




quire, and from the honey make a sort of mead, wbicli is strong 
and by no means unpalatable. 

The people work iron tastefully and well. They obtain the 
ore from nodules found in the beds of the streams. 

The basins of the Kongo and Zambesi terminate in the west- 
ern portion of Kibokwe, where that of the Kwanza commences. 
The country of Bihe is entered after the Kwanza is crossed, the 
eastern portion being formed of wooded hills of red sandstone 
with many running brooks and rills, while in the western part 
are w^ide jDrairies and bare downs with a few patches of wood. 


A peculiar feature is the number of streams which flow un- 
der-ground for a portion of their course ; the most remarkable 
instance of this being the " Burst of the Kutato," the boundary 
between Bihe and Bailunda. 

The eastern portion of Bailunda is moderately level, with 
rocky hills, on the summits of which are situated the villages of 


the chiefs ; but as the western portion is reached, the country 
breaks into mountains of every shape and form, among which 
are needles and cones of granite. In the foreground the hills 
are of red sandstone crowned with groves of magnificent trees, 
festooned with jasmine and other sweet-scented creepers. 

At the western side of Bailunda the caravan reached the cul- 
minating point of the section across the continent. 

A mountainous and rocky tract lies between this and the 
West Coast. In some of the passes the solid granite hills are 
cupola and dome-shaped, like the Puy-de-D6nie, in Auvergne. 
But even among this mass of rocky, sterile mountains lie fer- 
tile valleys, where the people cultivate large quantities of corn, 
which they carry down to the coast to exchange for aguardiente 
and cloth. 

After passing Kisanji, forty miles from the sea, no more hu- 
man habitations are seen till Katombela is reached. Nearly 
thirty miles of this part of the road is through one continuous 
pass of bare granite rocks, with only the occasional shelter of a 
baobab-tree or a giant euphorbia. 

To this pass succeeds a barren waste of sand and gravel, sepa- 
rated from the sea by limestone hills fringed by a low flat strip 
of land on the seaward side ; and here the towns of Katombela 
and Benguela are situated. This strip only needs irrigation to 
make it yield all tropical productions ; and, as water is obtained 
everywhere close to the surface, large and productive gardens 
are easily cultivated. 

470 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 


Africa's Future. — Slaves and Other Articles of Commerce. — Trade Routes. — Export 
of ludia- rubber increasing. — Internal Slave-trade. — Ivory Supply. — Products. — 
Sugar - canes. — Cotton. — Oil Palm. — Coffee. — Tobacco. — Sesamum. — Castor - oil. — 
The Mpafu-tree. — Nutmegs. — Pepper. — Timber. — Rice. — Wheat. — Kaffir Corn. — 
Indian Corn. — India-rubber. — Copal. — Hemp. — Ivory. — Hides. — Bees-wax. — Iron. 
— Coal. — Copper. — Gold. — Silver. — Cinnabar. — Mission Work. — Commercial En- 
terprise. — Establishment of Depot's. — Scheme for advancing into the Interior. — 
Light Railways. — Steamers on Rivers. — Probable Results. — Shall Slavery con- 
tinue ? — How to stamp it out, and make Africa Free. 

It now only remains to discuss the present state of trade and 
communication in Africa, and the future of this vast continent. 
To speak of the regions of the Sahara, the Cape, the Niger ba- 
sin, and Somali land is, of course, out of my province. 

I only desire to show the present condition of the large and 
fertile country I have traversed, the different routes by which 
it may be approached, and in what manner they may be util- 
ized ; and, above all, how the utilization of these routes may 
best serve to develop the vast latent resources of the country, 
and remove that blot on the boasted civilization of the nine- 
teenth century, " the cursed slave-trade." 

Slaves, ivory, bees-wax and india-rubber are now the only ar- 
ticles exported from either coast, with the exception of a small 
and local trade from the eastern littoral in gum-copal and grain. 

Of these, ivory and slaves occupy such a prominent position, 
that it would be hardly worth while to mention the others, were 
it not that the existing trade in them proves that commerce in 
other articles besides slaves and ivory may be made profitable. 

The trade routes at present are : Firstl}^, from the East-coast 
ports by land, which is in the hands of the subjects of the Sul- 
tan of Zanzibar from Brava to Cape Delgado, and in those of 
Portugal from that point to Delagoa Bay. 

Secondly, the Kile route, on which the advance of traders has 


been accompanied by so mucli aggression and cruelty that, in 
the words of Colonel Gordon, " it is impossible for an explorer 
to push his way except by force, as the natives are suspicious 
of the intentions of all strangers." Indeed, Mr. Lucas, after a 
considerable expenditure of time and money, has been obliged 
reluctantly to yield, and abandon all idea of proceeding to Ny- 
angwe from the Nile basin. 

Thirdly, the routes from the West Coast ; of which those 
only at present used by Europeans or their agents are via Bihe 
and Kassanji. But here the Kongo would seem to offer a high- 
way to the remotest parts of the continent. 

Lastly, a route from Xatal through the Transvaal by the Dra- 
kensberg to the tropical highlands, which has the advantage of 
possessing a terminus in British territory, and of avoiding the 
unhealthy coast districts ; two facts which point to it as likely 
to prove hereafter one of the great highways into the interior. 

The export of india-rubber to the value of forty thousand 
pounds from the Zanzibar ports, and the stoppage of the export 
of slaves from the East Coast — in which we have been so loyal- 
ly aided, by the sultan — are circumstances the significance of 
which it is impossible to overrate, showing that a brighter fut- 
ure is already dawning upon Africa. The fact that a new ar- 
ticle of export has thus been profitably worked at a time when 
the depression of trade at Zanzibar is very great — owing to the 
suppression of the traffic in slaves — proves incontestably that a 
portion of the capital hitherto employed in that detestable traf- 
fic has been diverted into a more legitimate channel. 

The whole trade of tropical Africa is at present dependent 
on human beings as beasts of burden ; and valuable labor, which 
might be profitably employed in cultivating the ground or col- 
lecting products for exportation, is thus lost. 

Besides this, in the countries where ivory is cheapest and 
most plentiful, none of the inhabitants willingly engage them- 
selves as carriers, and traders are obliged to buy slaves to ena- 
ble them to transport their ivory to a profitable market. 

When the export slave-trade was fiou]-ishing, the carriers 
who brought the ivory to the coast were sold, and added to the 
gain of the trader. And it is to be feared, now that there is no 
market for tliese people, that they will be even more reckless- 



\y expended than hitherto by the lower classes of East-coast 

Many of the larger merchants are wise enongli to see that 
slave carriage is the most precarious and costly of all means of 
transport, and they would be glad to avail themselves of any 
other method that might be introduced. 

On the lines occupied by the Portuguese, especially that from 
Bihe to Urua and Katangu, there is a vast amount of internal 
slave-trade ; but the greater portion of those captured — for they 
are nearly all obtained by rapine and violence — are not taken 
to the coast, but to Kaffir countries, where they are exchanged 
for ivory. I should not be at all surprised to hear that much 
of "the labor" taken to the diamond-fields by the Kaffirs is 
obtained from this source. 

The traders are not a whit behind their forefathers — who 
invoiced their slaves as bales of goods, and had a hundred bap- 
tized in a batch by the Bishop of Loanda, by aspersion, in order 
to save a small export duty — in their bad treatment of slaves, 
or their recklessness as to the means by which they are ol> 

The internal trade is principally carried on by slaves of mer- 
chants residing at the coast, and — as is always the case with 
those equally low in the scale of civilization — they are the most 
cruel oppressors of all who fall into their clutches. 

Ivory is not likely to last forever (or for long) as the main 
f-xport from Africa ; indeed, the ruthless manner in which the 
elephants are destroyed and harassed has already begun to show 
its effects. In places where elephants were by no means un- 
common a few years ago, their wanton destruction has had its 
natural effect, and they are now rarely encountered. 

Having this probable extinction of the ivory trade in view, 
and allowing, as all sensible people must, that legitimate com- 
merce is the proper way to open up and civilize a country, we 
must see what other lucrative sources of trade may hereafter 
replace that in ivory. 

Fortunately we have not far to go ; for the vegetable and 
mineral products of this marvelous land are equal in variety, 
value, and quantity to those of the most favored portions of the 
globe ; and if the inhabitants can be employed in their exploi- 



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I'AUT OK A HILL <)V i.ahi.m- vol! sr,A\r.s iuom i.<)ANr>.\. 


tation, vast fortunes will reward those who may be the pioneers 
of commerce ; but the first stej) necessary toward, this is the es- 
tablishment of proper means of communication. 

Africa for some time to come will lack a sufficiency of labor 
to carry on the necessary mining and agricultural operations, 
and to supply men for making roads. But this will prove by 
no means an unmixed evil ; for when the chiefs find it more 
profitable to employ their subjects in their own country than 
to sell them as slaves, they will lose the most powerful incentive 
toward complying with the demands of the slave-dealer, 
■ An enumeration of some of the products which may form val- 
uable articles of trade, and the localities in which they are found, 
will assist in giving an idea of the great wealth of the country. 

The vegetable products are — 

Sugar-canes, which flourish wherever there is sufficient moist- 

Cotton, cultivated almost everywhere, and grows wild in 
Ufipa and some other countries. 

OU-palm flourishes in marvelous profusion to a height of 
two thousand six hundred feet above the sea, all along the broad 
valley of the Lualaba, and in some places to a height of three 
thousand feet. This palm also grows on the island of Pemba. 
and might doubtless be cultivated with advantage on the East 

Coffee grows wild in Karagweh and to the west of ISTyan 
gwe. The berry of Karagweh coffee is said to be small ; but 
that of the plant near Nyangwe is as large as the Mocha bean, 
which it greatly resembles in appearance. 

Tobacco is grown almost throughout the continent, and in 
some places is of very excellent cjuality. Ujiji excels in this 
respect ; the leaf being smooth and silky, like that of the best 
Cuban plants. 

Sesamum flourishes on the East Coast, near Zanzibar, from 
which place large quantities are exported to France, " the finest 
olive-oil" being made from it at Marseilles. It also grows in 
Unyamwezi, near the Tanganyika, and in Urua, and its culti- 
vation might be indefinitely extended. 

The Castor - oil ])lant. — Two varieties are met with every- 
where, sometimes cultivated and sometimes growing wild. 

474 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

The lljxifu. — A large and handsome timber-tree, with a fruit 
something like an olive, from which a sweet-scented oil is ex- 
tracted, and under the bark an aromatic gum is found. Is 
common from the western side of the Tanganyika to the com- 
mencement of Lovale. 

Niitmegs were found close to the eastern shore of Tangan- 
yika, near the town of Russuna, and at Munza. The fruit 
was very strong and pungent. 

Pepper. — The common black pepper was common at ISTyan- 
gwe. Chillies, large and small, are found everywhere ; and in 
Manyuema and Urua there grows a pepper so excessively hot, 
that Arabs wdio would eat bird's-eye chillies by handfuis were 
unable to touch it. It is a small, round, red fruit about the size 
of a marble. 

Timher-trees. — There are trees available for every purpose — 
some hard and others soft — and sufficiently numerous to supply 
all the wants of the country, and, no doubt, to form profitable 
articles of export. 

nice is profitably cultivated by the Arabs wherever they 
have settled, and in Urua is said to yield a hundred-fold. In 
Ufipa it grows wild. 

Wheat. — Abundant crops of wheat are raised by the Arabs 
at Unyanyembe and Ujiji, and they were trying, apparently 
with success, to introduce it at Nyangwe. On the high lands 
round Unyanyembe, and in those of Bihe and Bailunda, it 
might undoubtedly be made profitable. 

HoIgus sorghum., better known as matama, or Kaffir corn, is 
grown throughout tlie country, both in dry and wet situations. 
In the latter, it is not planted till the end of the rainy season, 
but in both its yield is enormous. 

Indian corn is grown everywhere ; and where there is a 
long rainy season, three crops are often produced by the same 
patch of ground in eight months. Each crop yields from a 
hundred and fifty to two hundred fold- 

India-rubber. — Vines, trees, or small shrubs producing this 
valuable article of commerce are to be met with nearly every- 

Copal may be considered as a vegetable, though now a 
semi -fossil. It is principally obtained near the Lufiji River, 


though some is found near Mbuamaji, Laadani, and other 
places. The tree still grows near the coast, and in the very 
centre of the continent is again met with ; and Arabs have as- 
sured me that they have found the semi-fossil gum when dig- 
ging pits. 

Hemp. — A very long-stapled hemp is found on the island of 
Ubwari, in the Tanganyika; and the fibrous barks of many 
trees are made into such excellent cordage that the place of 
hemps is quite supplied by them. 

The animal products are — 

Ivory ^ of elephants and hippopotami, their hides, and those 
of other wild animals. 

Hides of cattle might also be obtained in great quantities 
from the countries of the Masai, the Gallas, the Wasukuma, 
the Wagogo, Waganda, Wahumba, and others. 

Bees-wax forms an important article of export from Kibokwe 
and Lovale ; and as bees are common throughout Africa, and 
in many places are hived iii order to obtain the honey easily, a 
very large trade might soon be established in wax, which at 
present is often thrown away as useless. 

Among minerals — 

Iron takes the first place. It is worked in the north-west 
portion of Unyanyembe, whence it is carried in all directions. 
Hoes made there are even exported to the coast by down cara- 
vans. Hematite ore is common all about the country of Un- 
yamwezi, and is found in Ubudjwa and Uhiya, as also at and 
about Munza, in Urua. In Manyuema there is a beautiful 
black speculum ore in great quantities, and the iron produced 
from it is much valued. Dr. Livingstone also discovered nmch 
iron to the westward of Lake Nyassa. In Kibokwe nodules of 
ore are dredged uj) from the streams. 

Coal has been for some time known on the Zambesi, and I 
heard of it near Munza, in Itawa, from which place I obtained 
a specimen, and I believe that I saw it on Lake Tanganyika. 

Copper is found in large quantities at Katanga, and for a 
considerable distance to the westward. 

Gold is also found at Katanga; and when I was with Ilamed 
ibn Hamed he showed me a calabash, holding about a quart, 
full of nuggets, varying in size from the top of my little finger 


to a swan-sliot. I asked whence they came, and he said that 
some of his slaves at Katanga found them while clearing ont 
a water-hole, and brought them to him, thinking that they 
might do for shot. He said he had not looked for more, as 
he did not know such little bits were of any use. 

The natives, too, know of the gold ; but it is so soft they do 
not value it, preferring " the red coj)per to the white." 

I heard, when at Benguela, that gold had been found in cop- 
per brought from Katanga, and that a company was buying all 
the Katanga copj^er it could obtain, in order to extract the 

Silver. — From a man in Urua I bought a silver bracelet pro- 
duced in or near this district. 

Cinnabar is found in large quantities in Urua, near the cap- 
ital of Kasongo. 

Salt, which forms an important article in internal trade, is 
produced in Ugogo, Uvinza, Urua, near Nyangwe, and in Us- 
sambi, near Kanyoka. 

Enough has been said to prove the existence of incalculable 
wealth in tropical Africa. 

Already the rind of the continent has been pierced, and the 
Scotch missionaries on Lake Nyassa have demonstrated the 
feasibility of transporting a steamer past rapids, and have es- 
tablished a settlement on the shores of that lake. Mr. Cotterill 
is now engaged in tentative trade in the same direction, and I 
have no doubt that his efforts will be crowned with success. 
Bullocks have been driven from the coast to Mpwapwa by Mr. 
Price, of the London Missionary Society, and the church and 
university missions are pushing their way forward. 

Missionary efforts, however, will not avail to stop the slave- 
trade, and open the country to civilization, unless supplemented 
by commerce. Commercial enterprise and missionary effort, in- 
stead of acting in opposition, as is too often the case, should 
do their best to assist each other. Wherever commerce finds 
its way, there missionaries will follow ; and wherever mission- 
aries prove that white men can live and travel, there trade is 
certain to be established. 

The philantln-opic efforts of His Majesty the King of the 
Belgians, if they meet with the support they deserve, although 


not either of a missionary or commercial character, must also 
materially assist in opening np the country. 

The establishment of depots or stations on a trunk route 
across the continent, where the tired and weary explorer may 
iind a resting-place, and fresh stores and men to carry on his 
task, can not fail to do much toward systematizing the work of 
discovery, instead of leaving every man to hunt for his own 
needle in his own bundle of hay. 

The establishment of these stations would necessitate the 
maintenance of regular means of communication between 
them, and therefore each new explorer would be able to travel 
direct to the one which is to serve as the base of his operations, 
without wasting time, money, and energy in getting into a new 
country. These stations might either be commanded by Euro- 
|3eans, or by men of character among the Arab merchants, who 
(night be thoroughly relied on to do their duty in an upright 
and honorable manner. 

By commencing from both coasts, a chain of stations some 
two hundred miles apart might be established in a compara- 
tively short space of time ; but money is needed. 

There are many men well fitted to take charge of these ex- 
peditions whose means do not allow them to travel on their 
own account, but who would volunteer in hundreds if they 
could see their way to aiding in the work without endanger- 
ing their scanty fortunes. 

The promoters of the ISTyassa mission are already talking of 
establishing stations between the coast, the north end of Nyas- 
sa, and the south of Tanganyika, and then, by placing steamers 
on that lake, to draw a cordon between the East Coast and the 
countries from which the greater portion of the slaves are de- 
rived. This is a practical and feasible plan; but whether it 
would not be a line of action that comes more under the scope 
of Government in suppressing the slave-trade, is a question that 
may well be asked. 

I would recommend the acquirement of a port — Mom- 
basah, for instance — from the Sultan of Zanzibar, by treaty 
or purchase, and thence to run a light line of railway to 
the Tanganyika, via Unyanyembe, with branches to the Vic- 
toria IN'yanza, and to the southward througli Ugogo. Such 

478 ACEOSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

a line may be constructed for about one thousand pounds a 

I allude here to the " Pioneer" form of railway, which seems 
to be best adapted to a new country. 

Such a railway advancing into the country would at once 
begin to make a return, for the present ivory trade to Zanzibar 
should be sufficient to i)ay working expenses and leave a mar- 
gin for ])rofit, without making any allowance for the increased 
trade. Numbers of Indian merchants at Zanzibar would at 
once push into the interior, if they could do so without phys- 
ical exertion. 

On the Zambesi, Kongo, and Kwanza there should at once be 
placed steamers of light draught, good speed, and caj^able of 
being taken to pieces and transported past rapids that might be 
encountered. A steamer should be stationed on each section 
of a river, depots should be formed at the rapids for provisions 
and merchandise, and the goods should be carried past them by 
men stationed there for the purpose, or by bullock-carts, or small 
lines of tram-ways. 

The affluents of the Kongo would enal)le our traders and mis- 
sionaries to penetrate into the greater portion of the, at present, 
unknown regions of Africa. 

The Kongo, at its mouth, is not under the dominion of any 
European power, and the principal merchants there are the 
Dutch. They would be delighted to see the trade of the inte- 
rior in the hands of Europeans, instead of being dependent on 
the caprice of some of the most depraved of the West -coast 
tribes, who, ever since the Kongo has been discovered, have 
been engaged — in company with Europeans even more vile 
than they — in slave-trade and piracy. 

A hundred and ten miles from the coast are the Yellala rap- 
ids {Yellala really means "rapids"), the farthest point hitherto 
reached by any European since the unfortunate expedition of 
Captain Tuckey, R.N., in 1816. 

A portage of by no means a difficult character, and past which 
a tram-way might be constructed, would conduct an exjjedition 
to the npper waters of the river described by the gallant Tuckey 
" as a noble, placid stream from three to four miles in width." 

We may well ask ourselves why we allow such a noble high- 


way into regions of untold richness to lie neglected and useless. 
Why are not steamers flying the British colors carrying the 
overglut of our manufactured goods to the naked African, and 
receiving from him in exchange those choicest gifts of nature 
by which he is surrounded, and of the value of which he is at 
jDresent ignorant ? 

The Portuguese hold the keys of the land route from Loanda 
and Benguela, and keep out foreign capital and enterprise, and 
are morally accomplices of slave-traders and kidnapers. If 
they threw open their ports, and encouraged the employment 
of capital and the advent of enei-getic men of husiness, their 
provinces of Angola and Mozambicpie might rival the richest 
and most prosperous of the dependencies of the British crown. 
But a blind system of protection, carried on by under-paid ofli- 
cials, stifles trade, and renders these places hot-beds of corrup- 

Many of the Portuguese are aware of this and lament it, but 
say they are powei'less. The Marquis Sa de Bandeira — now, 
alas ! dead — was, and M. le Vicomte Duprat is, wiser than the 
majority of their countrymen. If their suggestions and advice, 
and those of men like Admiral Andrade, lately Governor-general 
of Angola, were followed, we might soon see a vast stride made 
toward the civilization of Africa. 

A charter has lately been granted by the Portuguese Govern- 
ment to a company to place steamers on the Zambesi ; and if 
the project be carried out vigorously, some results may soon be 
heard of from that quarter. 

Many people may say that the rights of native chiefs to 
govern their countries must not be interfered with. I doubt 
whether there is a country in Central Africa where the people 
would not soon welcome and rally round a settled form of gov- 
ernment. The rule of the chiefs over their subjects is capri- 
cious and barbarous, and death or mutilation is ordered and car- 
ried out at the nod of a drunken despot. 

The negroes always seem prone to collect round any place 
where they may be comparatively safe from the constant raids of 
their enemies, and thus the settlements of both East and West 
Coast traders frequently become nuclei of considerable native 
populations. These people, throwing off the yoke of their own 

480 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

rulers, soon fall under the sway of the strangers ; and in any 
scheme for forming stations in Central Africa — be they for mis- 
sionary, scientific, or trading purposes — the fact that those in 
charge would soon have to exercise magisterial powers must not 
be lost sight of. 

If the great river systems of the Kongo and Zambesi are to 
be utilized for commercial purposes, they ought either to be un- 
der the control of a great company like the II. E. I. C, able to 
appoint civil and military servants ; or consular officers should 
be appointed for each district as it is opened up, to insure both 
the native and the new-comer having fair play. 

By a glance at the map, the extraordinary ramifications of the 
twin systems of the Kougo and Zambesi will be seen ; and it is 
plain that the distance which the products of the interior would 
have to be carried before being placed on shipboard would be 
materially lessened if the rivers had flotillas on them, instead 
of having to provide transport over the three or four thousand 
miles of the Nile valley. 

The advance of trade and civilization into the interior from 
the southward may be left to take care of itself. Every year 
the ivory - traders push farther north, and now they meet the 
Portuguese from Bihe in the country of Jenje; and we shall 
not have to wait long ere the fertile and healthy lands round 
the Zambesi are colonized by the Anglo-Saxon race. 

The question now before the civilized world is, Whether the 
slave-trade in Africa, which causes, at the lowest estimate, an 
annual loss of over half a million lives, is to be permitted to 
continue ? Every one worth}^ of the name of a man will say 
No ! Let us, then, hope that England, which has hitherto oc- 
cupied the proud position of being foremost among the friends 
of the unfortunate slave, may still hold that place. 

Let those who seek to employ money now lying idle join 
together to open the trade of Africa. 

Let those interested in scientific research come forward and 
support the King of the Belgians in his noble scheme for 
united and. systematic exploration. 

Let those who desire to stamp out the traffic in slaves put their 
shoulders to the wheel in earnest, and by their voice, money, 
and enei'gy aid those to whom the task may be intrusted. 




Let those interested in missionary efforts aid to tlieir ntmost 
.tliose who are hiboring in Africa, and send them worthy assist- 
ants, prepared to devote their lives to the task. 

It is not by talking and writing that Africa is to be regener- 
ated, bnt by action. Let each one who thinks he can lend a 
helping hand do so. All can not travel, or become missionaries 


or traders; bnt they can give their cordial assistance to those 
whose dnty leads them to the as yet untrodden places of the 

But I would impress upon all who approach this question 
the necessity for not being too sanguine. Many a name must be 
added to the roll of those who have fallen in the cause of Africa, 
much patient and enduring labor must be gone through without 
flinching or repining, before Ave see Africa truly free and happy. 

482 ACROSS AFRICA. [Chap. 

I firmly believe that opening up proper lines of communica- 
tion will do much to check the cursed traffic in human fl.esh, 
and that the extension of legitimate commere will ultimately 
put an end to it altogether. 

But I am by no means so certain of the rapid extinction of 
slavery as a domestic institution. The custom is so deeply in- 
grained in the mind of the African, that I fear we must be con- 
tent simply to commence the task, leaving its completion to our 

And with regard to education and civilization : we must be 
satisfied to work gradually, and not attempt to force our Euro- 
pean customs and manners upon people who are at present un- 
fitted for them. Our own civilization, it must be remembered, 
is the growth of many centuries, and to exj^ect that of Africa 
to become equal to it in a decade or two is an absurdity. The 
forcing system, so often essayed with so-called savages, merely 
puts on a veneer of spurious civilization ; in the majority of 
cases the subject having, in addition to the vices of his native 
state, acquired those belonging to the lowest dregs of civiliza- 

Let us, therefore, work soberly and steadily, never being 
driven back or disheartened by any apparent failure or rebuff ; 
but should such be met with, search for the remedy, and then 
press on all the more eagerly. And so in time, with God's 
blessing on the work, Africa may be free and haj^py. 




[The following notes comprise an enumeration of the species coiit lined in a small Appendix I. 

parcel of plants received at Kew in February, 1875, and which had been collected 

by me in the southern Ijasin of Lake Tanganyika. The flora of the region round 
the lake may be taken as belonging to the basin of the Kongo. The enumeration 
has been drawn up by Professor Oliver ; the descriptions of new species are by 
him and by Messrs. Baker and Spencer Moore, assistants in the herbarium.] 

The new species described below are marked *. 

Clematis Kirtii, Oliv. 

Cleome hh-ta, Oliv. 

Courbonia dccmnbens, Brongn. 

Abutilon'i sp. 

Hibisciis cannahhiHS, L. 

Gossypium barbadeiise, L. 

Bombei/aspedabilis, Boj. (M. T. M. in Trop. 

Afr. Flora, p. 227). 
WaUheria americana, L. 
Triumfetta sanitriloba^ L., or 
T. rhomboidea, Jacq. 
Ochna macrocalyx^ Oliv. 
FiiYw, sp. nov. ? 
V. serpem, Hochst., var. ? ? 
Polycaipcea cofy>nbosa, Lam. 
Crotalaria laburnifolia, L. 
Pueraria ? 
Indigofera (§ Trkhopodie) cuneata, J. G. 

/. (§ Dissiti force) dmiiijiora, J. G. B.* 
/. hirsuta, L. 

/. .• an /. tondosa, J. G. B. ? 
I. (§ Tinctorue) Cameroni, J. G. B.* 
Phaseohos, sp. 
Erythrina tomentosa^ R. Br. 

Efiosema 7-hynchosioidcs, J. G. B.* 

Doliochos ? sp. 

Cassia, sp. 

Ccesalpineacea, allied to the ^^Kobbo" of 

Dr. Schw^einfurth, referred by him to 

Dichrostachys nutans, Benth. 
Rhiis insignis, Del., var. ? 

Leafy specimen only. 
Kalanchoe platysepala ? Welw. 
Jussicea villosa ? var. 
Cephalandral sp. 

Vet'nonia obconica, Oliv. & Hiern, ined. 
V. paucijlora^ Less. 
Conyza cegyptiaca. Ait. 
Spliceranthus. Perhaps a new species 

allied to S. pedimodans. 
GutenbergiapoIycep/taJa, Oliv. and Hiern.* 
Leptadinia heinsioidcs, Hiern, sp. nov. 

Oldeidandia. Near 0. parvifiora'i 
Kraussia congesta, Oliv.* 
Jasmimim auricidatum, var. /3. zamiba- 

rense ? (/ tettense, Kl.). 
Strychnos ? sp. Leafy specimen only (per- 


haps the same from Batoka country, 
Dr. Kirk). 

Strychnos ? sp. Leafy aculeate specimen. 

Asclepiadacea {RapJdonaane ?). 

Convolvulus {Breweria malvacea'i KL). 

Ipmnma. AlHed to / simplex and allies. 

Convolvulus ? sp. 

Tfichodesma zeylanicum, R. Br. 

Heliophytnm indicum, DC. 

Leonotvi nepetcefolia, R. Br. 

Ocymum canum, Sims., var. ? 

Ocymum. Near 0. obovattim, E. Mey. 

Ocymum, sp. ? 

Sesamum. Not in a state to describe, 
with very narrow leaves. 

Sesamum. Perhaps the same species. 
Similar to a specimen collected by Dr. 
Kirk in South-eastern Africa, but not 
in fruit. 

Sfriga elegam, Benth. 

Rhamphicarpa tubulosa, Benth. 

Rhampkkarpa. Perhaps R. tubulosa, with 
oblique rostrate included capsule. 

RhampJiicarpa Cameroniana, Oliv.* 

Rhamphicarpa^ Too imperfect for de- 

Cycnium adonense ? E. Mey. 

Thunhergia near T. oblongifolia, Oliv. 

Nelsonia tomentosa, Willd. 

Barlcria limnogeion, Spencer Moore.* 

Hypo'estes, sp. Insufficient for description. 

Lantaim^ sp. 

Lantana near L. salvicefolia. 

Vitex'i Leaves simple. Not in state to 

Vitex. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets oblan- 
ceolate, obtuse, or broadly pointed, en- 
tire, glabrescent, more or less tomen- 

tose toward the base of the midrib be- 
neath. Not in flower. 

Cyclonenm spinescens, Oliv.* 

Plumbago zeylanica, L. 

P. ampjlexicaulis, Oliv.* 

Arthrosolen glaucescens, Oliv.* 

Amarantacea, dub. Perhaps Achyranthes. 
Too decayed to describe. 

EuphorUacea an Phyllanthus "i sp. Not in 

Acalypha, sp. ? 

Habenaria ? ? 

Lissochilus, sp. 

Walleria Maclcemii, Kirk. 

Gloriosa virescens, Lindl. The typical 
plant, and also a form with very broad 
subopposite leaves. 

Asparagus racemosus. Willd. 

A. asiaticus, L. 

A. JPatili-Grulielmi, Solms. 

Anthericum Cameroni, J. G. B.* 

Chlorophytum macrophyllum, A. Rich. 

Cienkowskia ? sp. 

Hcemanthus, sp. 

Gladiohis near G. nafaleiisis^ 

Aneilema longifolia, Hook. 

Comnielyna, two species. 

Nerine, sp. 

Fuirena pubexcens, Kunth. 

Cyperus rotundas, L. 

C. coloraius, V. 

Setaria glauca, Beauv. 

Trichohena rosea, Nees. 

Stipa, sp. 

Eragrostis poceoides, Beauv. 
E. Chapelieri, Nees. 
Eragrostis, sp. 
Hymenophyllum jiolyanthos, Sw. 

IxDiGOFERA cuNEATA, Baker. Suffruticosa, ramulis gracillimis dense pubescentibus, 
foliis perparvis subsessilibus simplicibus vel ternato-digitatis, foliolis minutis obo- 
vato-cuneatis crassis pilosis complicatis, floribus solitariis raro geminis, pedunculis 
gracillimis folio multo longioribus, calyce minuto dense setoso dentibus linearibus, 
petalis minutis rubellis, legumine cylindrico glabrescente atro-brunneo, seminibus 

Belongs to the section Trichopodfe, and closely resembles I. frichopoda in the 
flowers and their arrangement, but differs entirely in the leaves. 

Stems very slender, suffruticose, terete, copiously branched, with ascending branch- 
lets densely clothed with fine, variously directed, white, pellucid hairs, as long as, 
or longer than, their diameter. Stipules minute, setaceous. Leaves very minute, 
nearly sessile, simple and trifoliolate intermixed ; leaflets obovate, cuneate in the 


lower half, usually not more than a line long, comphcate, digitate, subacute, clothed Appendix I. 

with hairs similar to those of the branches, but shorter. Flowers copious, solitary, 

or rarely geminate on a thread-like, nearly naked, ascending peduncle 3-4 lines 
long. Calyx | line deep, densely firmly pilose ; teeth deep, linear. Corolla red- 
dish, three times as long as the calyx, externally pilose. Stamiual sheath ^ inch 
long. Pod cylindrical, sessile, |-| inch long, at first obscurely hispid, finally gla- 
brescent, dark-brown, straight, many-seeded, not at all torulose. 

I. dissitiflora; Bakei: Suffruticosa, ramulis gracillimis teretibus obscure pilosis, 
stipuHs setaceis, fohis petiolatis pinnatis, foliolis 1-4-jugis lineari-subulatis oppo- 
sitis pallide viridibus setis paucis adpressis, racemis laxe 3-5-floris pedunculatis, 
calyce minuto dense griseo-hispido dentibus lanceolatis, petalis parvis purpureis, 
ovario cylindrico raultiovulato. 

Belongs to section Bissitijlorce, next I. pentaphylla, Linn., which it closely resem- 
bles in the flowers, but differs entirely in its leaflets and shrubby habit. 

Stem erect, suffruticose, with copious, very slender erecto - patent branches clothed 
only with a few scattered, adpressed, bristly hairs. Stipules minute, setaceous, 
persistent. Leaves of main stem an inch long, distinctly stalked, with 3-4 distant 
pairs of opposite, linear - subulate leaflets, which are \ inch long, gray -green, 
pointed, narrowed at the base, rather thick in texture, clothed only with a few 
obscure adpressed hairs like those of the branches. Leaves of branches often 
with only 3-5 leaflets. Eacemes about as long as the leaves, laxly 3-5-flowered, 
distinctly stalked. Bracts minute, subulate. Pedicels nearly or quite as long as 
the calyx. Calyx ^ a line deep, densely bristly ; teeth lanceolate, as long as the 
broadly funnel-shaped tube. Corolla purplish, three times as long as the calyx, 
shortly bristly. Ovary cylindrical, multiovulate. Ripe pod not seen. 

L Cameroxi, Baker. Fruticosa, ramulis gracillimis teretibus obscure pilosis, stipulis 
minutis setaceis, foliis pinnatis breviter petiolatis foliolis 2-3-jugis oblongis sub- 
coriaceis utrinque tenuiter pilosis, racemis densis brevibus conicis sessilibus folio 
brevioribus, calyce, minuto oblique campanulato argenteo-sericeo dentibus deltoi- 
deis, petalis angustis elongatis extus brunneo-sericeis, ovario cylindrico multiovu- 

Belongs to section Tmctoriw, next /. tondosa, Baker, from which it differs by its 
pilose leaves and branchlets, argenteous calyx, etc. 

Habit quite shrubby. Branches slender, terete, thinly clothed with minute, adpressed, 
white hairs. Stipules and stipellae setaceous. Leaves short-stalked, 1^2 inches 
long ; leaflets 2-3-jugate, oblong, subcoriaceous, mucronate, i-f inch long, rounded 
at the base to a short petiolule ; side ones opposite; both surfaces, especially the 
lower, clothed with short, minute white hairs. Flowers in dense racemes, an inch 
long, which are sessile in the axils of the leaves. Bracts lanceolate-navicular, 
minute, argenteous, caducous. Pedicels very short. Calyx obliquely campanulate, 
scarcely h a line deep, densely argenteo-sericeous ; teeth deltoid. Corolla ^ inch 
long, densely brown-silky. Ovary cylindrical, multiovulate. Ripe pod not seen. 

Erioseiia rhynchosioides. Baker. Yolubilis, dense griseo-pubescens, stipulis parvis 
lanceolatis persistentibus, foliis longe petiolatis ternato - pinnatifidis subcoriaceis 
conspicue venulosis, foliolo terminali oblongo distincte petiolulato obtuso minute 
mucronato, floribus 4-8 in racemum capitatum densum longe pedunculatum dispo- 
sitis, pedicellis brevissimis, calyce campanulato dentibus magnis lanceolatis, petalis 


Appendix I. purpureis extus pilosis, leguniine oblongo applanato piloso inter semina baud con- 

Of the Tropical-African species this will have to be placed next E. parvifiorum, 
E. Meyer ; but it is very different in leaf and calyx, and has entirely the general 
habit of a Rhynchosia — so much so that it would be inevitably referred to that 
genus if the seeds were not examined. 

A voluble herb, with long internodes. Branches densely clothed with short, rather 
spreading, gray hairs. Stipules small, lanceolate, persistent. Petioles J-1 inch 
long, spreading, densely pilose. Leaflets 3 subcoriaceous, oblong, 1-2 inches long, 
both sides thinly pilose, the lower with its veins and veinlets raised ; the point 
bluntish, with a minute mucro, the end one largest, distinctly stalked, the side 
ones shorter and rather oblique. Flowers 4-8, crowded at the top of an axillary 
peduncle which much exceeds the leaf. Pedicels very short. Calyx 2 lines deep, 
densely clothed with short, spreading, gray hairs, the lanceolate teeth much exceed- 
ing the tube. Corolla twice as long as the calyx, much recurved, densely silky on 
the outside. Pod oblong, flat, h inch long, \ inch broad, densely pilose, two-seeded, 
abruptly rounded at the base, not constricted between the seeds. Flattened funic- 
ulus attached obliquely to the extremity of the hilura. 

GuTENBERGiA POLYCEPHALA, Oliv. ct Hiem^ Fl. Tvop. Afv. hi. ined. Herba plus minus 
incano-tomentella ; ramis teretibus striatis ; foliis superioribus sessilibus lanceola- 
tis V. ovato-lanceolatis acutiusculis basi obtusis cordatisve amplexicaulibus integris 
V. subintegris, supra glabratis v. scabriusculis, subtus albido-tomentosis ; capitulis 
parvis numerosis in paniculas cymosas dispositis, squamis involucralibus paucise- 
riatis, exterioribus liueari-lanceolatis, interioribus 8-12 subsequalibus ovali-oblongis 
3-nerviis, achsenio obovoideo 10-12-costato glabro v. parce breviter pilosulo. 

We have the same from Kilwa (Dr. Kirk). 

Kraussia congesta, Oliv.^ sp. nov. Glabra, foliis eUipticis tenuiter coriaceis breviter 
obtuse acuminatis basi in petiolum brevissimum angustatis, floribus in cymis bre- 
vibus paucifloris axillaribus sessilibus v. subsessilibus congestis, pedicellis bracteo- 
latis brevissimis subnullisve, calycis lobis I'otundatis tubo obovoideo requilongis, 
corollse lobis tubo fcquilongis fauce hirsuta, antheris apice appendicula gracili ter- 
minatis, stylo bifido glabro, ovulis in loculis paucis (cire. 4). 

Folia 3-3i poll, longa. 

Rhamphicarpa Cameroniana, OUv.^ sp. nov. Herba verisimiliter 1-2-pedalis, caule 
ramoso tetragono 4-suleato parce pilosulo v. glabrato, foliis sessilibus v. subsessili- 
bus lineari-lanceolatis linearibusve basin versus sajpe utrinque grosse 1-2-dentatis 
V. pinnatifido-dentatis, floribus racemosis breviter pedicellatis, pedicello calyce bre- 
vioribus, calyce tubuloso-carapanulato 10-costato, lobis lanceolatis acutis tubo sub- 
cBquilongis, corolla; hypocrateriformis tubo (f-1 poll, longo) .gracili limbo amplo 
(\^ poll, lato) paulo longiore, labio superiore breviter et obtuse 2-lobato, labio infe- 
riore profunde 3-fido lobis subajqualibus late obovato-rotundatis, filamentis apice 
piloso-barbatis, capsula calycem paulo superante subtruncata v. obcordata vix aut 
leviter obliqua, valvis coriaceis retusis. 

Remarkable in the refuse fruit, which is neither beaked (except the persisting 
style-base) nor distinctly oblique. 

Barleria Limnogeton, Spencer Moore, sp. nov. Caule subtereti, leviter tomentoso ; 
foliis petiolatis, oblanceolatis, acutis, integris, primo tomentosis demum supra pu- 


bescentibus ; floribus spicatis spicis terminalibus ; bracteis strobilaceis, inermibus, Appendix L 

late ovatis, obtusis, sericeo-tomentosis ; bracteolis linearibus, acutis ; calycis laci- 

niis lexterioribus late lanceolatis, interioribus subulatis ; corolla hypocraterimor- 
pha, glabra, tubo quam calyx duplo longiore, segmentis limbi patentis obovatis; 
staminibus fertilibus 2 exsertis, sterilibus 3 ; capsula ignota. 

Caulis erectus. Folia matura 3-3j unc. longa ; petiolus i unc. longus. Bractefe J 
unc. longae, nervosse. Calycis laciniae pubescentes, exteriores ^ unc, interiores ^ 
unc. longa. Corolla 1 unc. longa. Ovarium compressum, villosum ; stylus cras- 
sus, glabrescens. 

A very distinct species of the genus, with the habit of a Crossandra. Indica- 
tions in some of the leaf-axils would lead to the presumption that the inflores- 
cence may be axillary as well as terminal. 

Cyclonema spixescens, Oliv.^ sp. nov. Piloso-pubescens, ramulis teretibus interdum 
spinis rectis recurvisve supra-axillaribus oppositis folio brevioribus armatis, fohis 
late ellipticis rotundatisve obtusis v. mucronatis brevissime petiolatis v. subsessili- 
bus, utrinque piloso-pubescentibus, pedunculis 1-floris axillaribus patentibus folio 
sequilongis v. eod. longioribus supra medium 2-bracteatis, bracteis auguste lineari- 
bus, calycis villosi tubo campanulato, limbo 5-lobo, lobls ovato-lanceolatis acutis, 
corollae tubo cylindrico calycem superante, limbo 5-partito lobis obovatis iniegris 
apice obtuse rotundatis v. late acutatis venuloso-reticulatis, staminibus longe ex- 
sertis glabris, ovario glabro. 

Foha f-l| poll, longa. BractejB 3-4 lin. longge. Flores l-l^^ poll. diam. 

Plumbago amplexicaulis, OUv.^ sp. nov. Ramis glabratis v. puberulis, in sicco longi- 
tudinaliter sulcatis, foliis obovato-ellipticis late acutatis integris v. undulatis gla- 
bris reticulatis subtus nervo medio venisque secundariis prominulis, lamina in pe- 
tiolum late alatum contiuua basi conspicue rotundato-auriculata, auriculis amplex- 
icaulibus, floribus caeruleis spicatis, spicis paniculatis glandulosis, bracteis ovatis 
breviter apiculatis, calyce anguste tubuloso costato puberulo parce glanduloso, 
corollffi hypocrateriformis tubo gracili poll, longo, limbi lobis obovatis obtusis ner. 
vo medio gracillimo-excurrente mucronatis, antheris exsertis. 

Folia 2-5 poll, longa, 1^3 poll. lata. Calyx ^-k poll, longus. 

Aktheosolex glaucescess, Oliv., sp. nov. Glabra, glaucescens, ramulis foliiferis 
(circ. l^-pedalibus) teretibus Isevibus, foliis alternis adscendentibus linearibus planis 
utrinque leviter angustatis acutiusculis, floribus tetrameris capitatis, capituhs soli- 
tariis terminalibus multifloris, foliis involucralibus ovatis acuminatis glabris flori- 
bus brevioribus, receptaculo dense hirsuto-piloso, floribus puberulis, tubo perianthii 
gracili, lobis limbi patentibus ovato-lanceolatis acutis, antheris subsessilibus line- 
ari-oblongis lanceolatisve plus minus apiculatis, squamulis hypog}Tiis nuUis. 

Foha |-| poll, longa, l-H lin. lata. Perianthium tubo ^ poll, longo. 

Anthericum (Dilasthes) Cameroxi, Baker. Caule pedali, foliis caulinis 4 anguste 
linearibus duris glabris persistentibus, racemo simphci laxifloro rachi insigniter 
flexuosa, bracteis parvis deltoideis, floribus semper geminis, pedicellis brevibus 
prope basin articulatis, perianthii segmentis lanceolatis dorso nervis 5 laxis pur- 
pureis vittatis margine angusto albido, staminibus perianthio vix brevioribus, an- 
theris magnis papillosis, ovulis in loculo pluribus crebris. 

This comes nearest the common Cape Anthericum tr'iflorum. Ait., wrongly 
placed by Kunth in CMoroplujtum ; but it may easily be known from that and all 
other species by the nervation of the perianth-segments. 



Appendix I. Root not seen. Stem a foot high, with 3-4 leaves, which vary in length from 6 to 
15 inches, narrow, linear, firm, persistent, acuminate, 3-4 lines broad, quite gla- 
brous, with a thickened keel, and about 20 close distinct ribs on each side of it, 
the uppermost one rising from half-way up the stem, and reaching as high as the 
• top of the raceme. Raceme simple, half a foot long, with a slender, very flexuose 
rachis. Bracts minute, deltoid. Flowers laxly placed, all up to the tip in pairs. 
Pedicels unequal, ascending or spreading, 1-3 hnes long, articulated just above the 
base, and the flowers easily falling away by this articulation. Perianth J inch 
long; segments lanceolate, I5— 2 lines broad at the middle, rather reflexed when 
fully expanded, with five distinct purple ribs in the centre, leaving only a narrow 
white border on each side. Stamens nearly as long as the perianth ; anther lin- 
ear, papillose, as long as the rather flattened filament. Ovary minute, oblong, with 
a large number of horizontal ovules in each cell. Style ^ inch long, filiform, dec- 



The system of spelling native names and words has been adopted from Bishop 
Steere's " Hand-book of Kisuahili." The accent is, almost without exception, on 
the penultimate syllable. Vowels are broad, and the letter g always hard. The 
verbs marked with an asterisk are not in the infinitive. 


1 Kamo. 

2 Tuwih. 

3 Tusatu. 

4 '. ..Tuna. 

5 Tutano. 

6 Tusamba. 

V Tusambalawili. 

8 Mwanda. 

9 Kitema. 

10 Di kumi or kikwi. 

11 Di kumi na kamo. 

12 Di kumi na tuwili. 

20 Vikwi viwili. 

30 Vikwi visatu. 

100 Katwa. 

200 Tutwa tuwili. 

I Amiwa. 

Thou Avk 

He Aye. 

We Atw5. 

You Aw^. 

They Acha. 

Mine or our Mina. 

Thine or your A.\h. 

His, hers, its, or theirs. Ay^. 

These Longangenge. 

Who Naimboka. 

Bad (thing) Chi-vipi. 

Good (thing) Chi-ampi. 

Full Ki-sanku. 

Much Chi-kwavo. 

Perhaps Sika kasangava. 

Close to Pepi-pepi. 

Not yet KulingiviU. 

After Chansuma. 

Above Kulo. 

Under Anshi. 

Again Wushia. 

Now Wino-wino. 

Before Likomeso. 

Across Kavukita. 

God Vidie. 

Father Tata. 

Mother Lolo. 

Brother Tula. 

Sister Kaka. 

Child Mwana. 

gon Mwana malume. 

Daughter Mwana m'kazi. 

j Kalukek5 (young 

( person). 

Person Mukalumbfe. 

Man Mukalumb^ malume. 

Woman Mukalumb^ m'kazi. 

All men Angola kwambu. 

European Msungu. 

Europeans Wasungu. 

Friend Mlunda. 

A great person, Kj^^^j^^^.^.^ 
high in rank . . . ) 

Master Mfumwami. 

Guide Kina meshinda. 




Appendix Slave Mahika. 

II. Fool Kin^ma-iiema. 

(He has no wits) . . . .Kadi mauango. 

A carpenter, a man )j^g^j^g^_ 
that adzes ) 

An iron-worker Mvisendi. 

Wizard Mganga. 

Witch Mfwishi. 

Idol Kavita. 

Ghost Kilui. 

Soul MiUwa. 

Body ViU vili. 

Heart Mula. 

Leg Mienga. 

Foot Uswaya. 

Arm Kuwoko. 

Fingers Miuwe. 

Finger-nail Mala. 

Head Kutwe. 

Mouth Makanu. 

Tongue Luvimi. 

Teeth Neno. 

Nose Miona. 

Eyes Masa. 

Eyebrow Mazigl. 

Eyelash Kofio. 

Ears Matwi, 

Hair Mwen^. 

Beard .* Mwevu. 

Stomach Mumunda. 

Breasts Mavele. 

Bone Chikupa. 

Flesh Mwita. 

Blood Mashi. 

Skin of a man Kova-kova. 

Skin of a beast Kiseva. 

Sun.. . Minyia. 

Moon Kwesi. 

Star Kanycnya. 

Day Mfuko. 

Night Cholwa. 

To-day Lelo. 

To-morrow Usikwa. 

Yesterday Kesha. 

Cold Masika. 

Wind Luvula. 

Clouds Mal5. 

Heat Changa. 

Fire Miriro. 

Hunger Njali. 

Thirst Nafwa kilaka. 

Food Wulio or Viliwa. 

Water Mema. 

Rain Mvula. 

Fear Ulimoyo. 

Anger Bomana. 

War Luana. 

Sweat Changa. 

Dirt Visha. 

Strong Mumi. 

Long Mulampi. 

Short .Mwipi. 

Large Mkata. 

Small Kishesh^. 

Slim Mshu. 

Heavy Chalema. 

Light Chaperla. 

Good Viyarnpi. 

Bad Chawola. 

Old Munuuu. 

Slowly Vishi-vishi. 

Quickly Bukiti-bukiti. 

Raw Muvichi. 

Cooked Kukenda. 

Bare Vitupu. 

Bitter Kisuku. 

HahE Kipongo. 

Sick Uvela. 

Black Afita. 

White Sitoka. 

Red Ushila. 

Other Wangi. 

Ants Manyo and rapazi. 

" white M'swa. 

Antelope Kashia. 

" small sort . Kabruka. 

Ape Buya. 

Bees Nyuki. 

Bird Ngooni. 

Buffalo Mboo. 

Cat, jungle Paka. 

Crocodile Nandu. 

Dog Mbwa. 

Duck Kisulolo. 

Eggs Maji. 

Elephant Holo. 

Fish Mwita wa luwi. 

Fly Lanji. 

Fowl Zolo. 

Frog Nyunda. 

Goat Mbuzi. 

Guinea-fowl Kanga. 

Hippopotamus Chobu. 

Hornets Matembo. 



Hyena Kumungu. 

Leopard ^^ge. 

Lion Tambu. 

Lizard Sambatu. 

Monkey Kima. 

Ox Ngombe. 

Pig) jungle Nguruwe. 

" tame " a mbuzi. 

Rat Mkoswe. 

Scorpion Kaminie. 

Sheep Mkoko. 

Snake Nvoko. 

Bananas Makonde. 

Bamboo Sununo. 

Beans Kunde. 

" small red Atandawala. 

Castor-oil Mono. 

Flour Ukula. 

Flower Kulongo. 

Fruit Kuha. 

Ground-nuts Nyumu. 

(Yoiaudzeia Konkota.) 

India-rubber Kudimbo. 

Indian corn Mavele a wahemba. 

Matama Mavele a lua. 

Oil ... Mani. 

Oil-palm NgazL 

Pepper Lungito. 

Pumpkins Mani. 

Rice Mwele a mpunga. 

Semsem Ulongo. 

Sugar-cane Mionge. 

Tobacco Fanga. 

(Pipe Mtonga.) 

Yam Kulungu. 

Fever Pachesi. 

Hole M'kina. 

Salt Mwepu, 

Thing Kintu. 

The game of Bao . . . Kisolo. 

The seeds they ) -.r , 
, . . , ■' }■ Masoko. 
play it with. . . . ) 

Country NshL 

Earth Vilowa. 

Sand Vilowa a vitanda. 

Mud Vilowa a mema. 

Stone Uive. 

HiU M'kuna. 

River Luwi. 

Opposite bank Ushiga. 

Pond Liziwa. 

Road ^ . . .Mishmda. 

Tree Chiti. • 

Fork of tree Kihanda. 

Bough Mikamba. 

Bush Tusondfe. 

Thorn Miba. 

House Mzuo. 

Roof Mukalo. 

Wall Bilu. 

Chair Kipona. 

Bedstead Mtangi. 

A wooden head-rest . Msama. 
Spoon to scoop up. .Lutuwa. 

To stir with Mpanzi. ■ 

Farm Kurimi. 

Boma Kihaugo. 

Load Miselo. 

Earthen pot. Kisuku. 

Bowl Luvu. 

Basket Kisaku. 

Oourd Mungu. 

Mat Chata. 

Cloth Mbwisha. 

" grass Kissandi. 

Cowries Mbela. 

Beads Malungo. 

Bag Mkolo. 

Box Kipowu. 

Net Wanda. 

String Sonde. 

Fire-wood M'kuni. 

Coals Makaa. 

Medicine Wanga. 

Honey Buk^. 

Gunpowder Bwanda. 

Cartridge Vissongho. 

Bow Uta. 

Bowstring Kiremba. 

Arrow Miketu. 

Quiver Chibungo. 

Spear Mkove. 

Club Kavombogoni. 

Shield Ngao. 

Sword Lupete luwando. 

Knife Lupet^. 

Axe Kasolo. 

Adze Chongo. 

Hoe Lukaso. 

Iron Kilonda. 

Copper Mwambo. 

Canoe Watu. 

Paddle .... Kwuho. 




Appendix To be able Ku misashani. 

n. " ache " fimpa. 

" alter " shintaui. 

" amuse " shikuta kipona. 

Annoy Ulilukampo.* 

Answer Wavinga.* 

To arrive Ku fika. 

Assemble Mulwi.* 

To bake Ku sbia. 

" bathe " vamema. 

" bear fruit " vutala. 

" beat " kupila. 

" beg " lomba. 

Behave Ndi kuva.* 

To believe Ku mambo. 

(To say it is well. . . .Meiyampi.) 
To bend Ku teraa. 

" bite " musum^ meno. 

" blaze " wanka. 

" bleed " tamba. 

" boil " vila. 

" break " kata. 

" build " waka. 

" burst " wala jika. 

" buy " ota. 

Call Mwite (call him).* 

To carry Ku ela. 

" chew " sakao. 

Clean Kiampi.* 

To clothe Ku vala. 

" come " henga. 

" cook " ipika. 

" cross " chalakata. 

" cry " malilo. 

" cut " tela. 

Delay Kafia. * 

To die Ku taha. 

" dig " kola. 

Draw water Kaseka. 

To drink Ku toma. 

" eat " shia. 

" enter " twela. 

" excel " pita. 

" fall " fiona 

" fasten. " tei'. 

" fatten " nuni. 

" fear " china. 

" feed " awana. 

" fight " puhva. 

" " " Inana. 

Fill Chintz.* 

Fly Chatambaka. 

Forget Xailuwa.* 

To follow Ku mionda. 

" get " sambangauyo. 

" give " mavire. 

" go " enda. 

" heal " watuha. 

" hear " omvana. 

" hoe " udima. 

" kill " taha. 

" know " wonwa. 

" " " juka. 

" laugh " seka. 

" leave " vika. 

" lie " uwerla. 

" like " swacho. 

" love " zimina. 

Make Kanguvile.* 

" Kivela kove.* 

Measure Wiku viku.* 

To meet Ku sambaganya. 

" order " wambana. 

" open " shita lamo. 

" pay " f uta. 

" pick up " woya. 

" plaster a house . . " bua. 

" play " wakaiya. 

" pull " koka. 

" put " vika. 

" put down " tula. 

" run " enda uviro. 

" run away " wanyema. 

" say " n^na. 

" see - . " tala. 

" sew " fuma. 

" be sick " vela. 

" sing " vemba. 

" sit " shikata. 

" shave " tenda. 

" show " lambola. 

" shut (the door), j " ^^f^^ ('^"^^^^^- 

" sleep " lala. 

" smear over " isinga. 

" smell " muka. 

" smoke (tobacco) . " toma (fanga). 

" spoil " chavola. 

" suck " f wama. 

Swim Koya.* 

Take Kamutvalite.* 

To take away Ku fundula. 

" tell " sapwila. 

" throw " sumbu. 



To thunder Ku ngalu. 

" wait " nga. 

" wake " taluka. 

" want " sakacho. 

To walk Ku kananga. Appendix 

" wash " kenda. n. 

Work Weila mingela.* 

Ya lelo Mlohhe wachiwa matwi na mulu. 

I will beat you Nsaka niku kupile. 

When a sultan dies, what do the Wa- ) Lufa a Mlohhe tulouga na mini la lelo 

ruado? j Warua? 

Give me water to drink Navila mema nitom5. 

He is very drunk Wakolweho katoraa vibi. 

Is there a big dance to-day? Wazia an-ngoma ikata lelo' 

No, yesterday Vituu kesha. 

Where do you get iron ? Waboya hi kilonda ? 

Does Kasongo pay tribute to Mata Yanfo ? Kasongo ulambulakwe Mwata Yanfo ? 

No, he does not Vituu, kalumbulaho. 

Kasongo is afraid of Daiyi a Kejera Kasongo alino move na Baiyi a Kejera. 

How many children has Kasongo ? Kasongo wana wangavo a watula ? 

Kasongo goes to war to steal food and ) Mlohhe renda kuli luana wakeva udio ni 

people's children: he has nothing. . . ) wana waneni: kali luheto. 

Where has Kasongo gone ? Kasongo (Mlohhe) aendi hi ? 

Kasongo has been cutting off ears and 

noses to-day 

Do the Warua eat men ? Walua nawo waha wantui" 

No, they don't Vituu, viso. 

Who make the knives of the Warua ?. . , .Walongo lupeto Warua ? 

People near Munza work iron Wantu walipepi a Munza wafula kilonda. 

Where do they get copper ? Wawe ahi mwanibo ? 

Do they make knives of stones? Walongo lupete uive? 

No Vituu. 

Warua pray to God, and He gives them ) ,„ . , ,, ^ .^r. ,. .... , 

, ^ y \V alua sakalese v idie, angavile chonsaka. 

•what they want ) ° 

Have the Warua any songs ? Walua ne nimbo? 

Can you get a man to tell me one? Wasamba kania muntu unena mkwao? 

Have the Warua any tales ? Walua ne vishima ? 

, ( Nsaka kunyukisha wami wawili mimbo na 

I want to hear both songs and tales . . . i vishima ? 

Warua shave their heads Walua watenda mevu. 

Women tattoo their bellies Wakazi wataa an tappo chali. 

When the Warua want fire, what do 

they do? . 

They rub sticks Mufio wavie mihlo. 

Is that a heavy load ? Kisaka chaleraa ? 

No, it is a light one Vituu, chaperla. 

What have you in it ? Mulichika ukisaka ? 

Sugar-canes and bananas Mionge na makondfe. 

Put your load down Sela kisaka chove. 

Carry the box - .Usele kitundu. 

Catch hold of the rope Tambula mionzi. 

The cloth is spoiled Mbwisha yavola. 

The axe cuts Kasolo kawiti. 

Give me your bow and arrows Gawil^ uta na miketu yov^. 

The bowstring is broken Kilemba wachivika. 

Walua wasoka mililo walangukka ? 


What have you to sell ? Wasela ka a kuota ? 

What do you want ? Usakaka ? 

Tell a man to bring some grass-cloth Sowili muutu a kalete kissandi. 

Where do they get the stuff to make [ Kiaviloha ya afiti ha vissandi ushiti kwe- 

grass-cloth black ? j hi ? 

I want some fat goats Nsaka mbuzi munume. 

Bring goats and six fowls Lete mbuzi na wazolo tusambi. 

He has some beans Muntu waiane kunde. 

Give my slave an earthen pot Gavile mahika mwavile a kisuku. 

Bring me some ivory (a tusk), and I will ) ,,< ,. 

„• „ „„, „ 1 „• „, r Letele Imo, nikwavile lupeto. 

give you some knives ) ' ' 

Go and cut some fire-wood, and I will ) -r, , , . y , . 

,, y Lnda katiave kuni na mkwavile mwepu. 

give you salt ) ^ 

Have you any potatoes to sell ? Din^ wambala sakate note ? 

I want eggs and bananas Nsaka mayi a zolo na makonde. 

There are none Hatupu. 

Sell me the skin Niota kiseva. 

He does not want to sell it ; he will ) ^. , , , ., 

y Kiswe kuota, usaka kungavua. 
give it you ) ° 

I will drink palm-wine Nitoma malovu. 

He shot two guinea-fowl Natalia wakanga tuwili. 

Let the sheep go Mkutuhila mkoko. 

They eat frogs Walia vyula. 

The pot is full Kisuku chayala. 

The water has flies in it Mema mabi. 

He is eating Ulia. 

Monkeys eat fruit Mpuyfe walfe matungulo. 

Birds drink water Ngooni utoma mema. 

Bamboos grow near water .Sunumu ili papa na mema. 

Ask if pigs (tame) are good 'Nge wakwata nguruwe a mbuzi. 

The cat stole a fowl Paka wawata zolo. 

Rats (large jungle rats) are very large. . . .Senzi a kuno vakata. 

Rats eat ivory Wampuku walia meno. 

The meat stinks Mivita lina vinio. 

What is the name of that animal ? Mwita la lisua mwitaka ? 

He has told people to kill a goat Wanena wantu wakatahe mbuzi. 

Pound this corn Utwe matava. 

Make a fire Wanza mililo. 

Go and draw water Wende kateka mema. 

Does he drink pombe ? Walintoma malwa ? 

He does not, but he smokes bhang Kashwe malwa, liloraa lianiba. 

How many fowls have you there ? Zolo wanga wo waia navo V 

Does the water boil ? Mema avila ? 

I am very hungry; I want to eat Nafanzala; usaka kulia. 

Give me food ■. . .Ngavilti wulio. 

Is this a river, or what ? Keki luwi ikika ? 

He has hidden Wafia. 

He is clever Kalima langa. 

He is a bad man Tambula mionzi. 

Do all the people carry shields, or only ) „^ , , , . i i i ^ ., 

^, , . J. . • y Wanzololo wangerla ngao e mlohhe .•* 

the chiefs ? ) ° " 

All the chiefs carry them Wanzerla mlohhe wonzolo. 


He knows the road Wayuka ushinda. Appendix 

The caravan has crossed the river Walwendo wawukakala luwi. II. 

How many days till he comes back ? Maf uka wanga wahingili ? 

What is he doing ? Wakalangaka ? 

Will you show the road ? Unombole mishinda ? 

Follow this road Enda dih la mishinda. 

Take him to the river Mutwate ku luwi. 

Tell me what your name is Lise yove lisina wiani. 

I have come f rom Kiremba Narya wa Kiremba. 

Have you seen my men ? Uwaono watu wami ? 

I have not seen them ; that man yonder ) ,^. . , , , , 

, /• Vitupu chamwenevo; wamkona ava. 

Tell my men to go back Tunene tu hingi wakwetu. 

I want a boat and guide Nisaka. watu na kilima nashinda. 

Where are the paddles '? Wavile masuki ? 

Go quickly and tell him I am waiting. . . .Enda ukate ukumkugila kogo. 

Are you ready ? Uliwa kiti '? 

Let us be going Twende wosololo. 

That man is telling a lie Muntu awa anena ovela. 

Some one has stolen a gun Muntu waiva utawa mputa. 

It is very hot Awalen^ ulovu. 

The sun has come out Mwina amkata. 

There are many clouds above Makumbi avangevila kelu. 

The rain is very heavy now Mvula unoko ulovu. 

Is to-day's camp far, or close to reach?.. .Makumbi a lelo kuteka palarabi a pep»? 

Where do you come from to-day ? Wataluka hiiya lelo ? 

Where are you going ? Windapi shangah ? 

Have you any news ? Tala ipo ? 

„,.„,,.,, ( Wataha tula yani (tula, big brother — mka- 

He killed his brother i ,. ,; , \ . 

( sandi, small brother). 

He has lost his axe Kasola kasimina. 

He laughed, he cried Useha, ulila. 

He dreams bad dreams Nalota nvibi. 

Is that a magician or a witch ? U kile niganga e mf wishi ? 

What will that idol do ? Kishi kilongoka ? 

Antelopes' horns are a great medicine. . . .Kisengo tambuluku wanza mkatampe. 

He is a poor man Mulanda. 

He has no wealth Kalilo pato. 

He is a good man (he speaks well) Ayo muntu miyampi. 

He has bad anger Uli nesungu ibi. 

He beat his people, and they all ran ( Wakupila wantu wanti, wanyuema wano- 

away ( lolo. 

The men only make war Wantu waluu luana. 

The women do all the work Wanawakaza wasaka mingilo wosolola. 

Truly she has no children Uine vine uU wanawo a watula. 

She is pregnant Uline hmi. 

To-day I have seen a woman who has ( Lelo tuamono malwa mnakazi avutula 

borne eight children { wana mwanda. 

They love their children Usaka wana wandi. 

Little children are mischievous Walewakaiya numo wana wachfe. 

That man is dead M'ntu wafu. 

Where do you bury people? Kwzika m'ntu kwehi? 


Appendix He has killed an elephant Wataha holo. 

II. A crocodile has caught a man Nandu kikwata m'ntu. 

Shut the door Shita kutiwelo. 

Go and bathe Enda koye raema. 

This is dirty Ulina uko. 

Make it clean Katoke si viyampi. 

Wait a bit Kungila kashi. 

Don't be in a hurry Lik<\ kulonga ukili. 

Don't make a noise Kisotuuwa. 

Go away Talaka nano. 

He is here Ulipano. 

He is not here Patapunge. 

He is yonder Akwanaka kutupwiye. 

He is not yonder Uliakwa kulampe. 

This is a tall tree Munti mulampi. 

That is a big house Mzuo kata. 

How are you ? U lina mini ? 

I am not well; sickness has seized me )„.,.. . , , , 

> Hill viyampi, luva luanka meua. 

I am quite well Pikomo. 

He is blind Fofa. 

He has lost an eye Kisongo. 

He is deaf Mbulu. 

He is thin Wanyany^. 

He ie getting fat Mwita munune. 

He has long hair Visuki mulampi. 

To chip the teeth Kuku la neno. 

That is a short man Muntu mweka mwipi. 

He is a strong and brave man Mwiyampi kayukile uzenzanyi. 

He is a bad man Aw^ mubi. 

He is a thief Ngivi. 

He threw a stone Waela uiwh. 

The stone hit me Wantahe uiw^. 

He rejoiced much Washalmi or shelengami. 

I cut my finger Makeka ch^la chi\mi. 

Dig a big hole Kola kina mkata. 

Let go Ulek^. 

Build a house quickly Wakanzu nozuo ukiti. 

A very large dog Albwa ukata kata. 

A lion is fierce Tambu mukali. 

The leopard has torn the goat Nge wakwat^ mbuzi. 

Dogs like men Mbwa uli viyampi wantu. 

The goat has borne two kids Mbuzi yavutula wana tuwili. 

Good-bye Enda ku lala. 


Mkonzo Means fleet of foot. 

Kirenga " killer of men. 

Kowimbi " " " 

Moena Tanda " king of all countries — of the whole world. 

Mweu^ Munza " chief over all other men. 

Vidie " God — he claims divine power. 



Kungwe Banza is the name of the great devil of the Warua, and is appHed to Ka- 
songo, as he is supposed to be descended from or related to him. 

Mlua, or Mrua, means that he is the great Mrua. 

Mlunda means that he is the great Mlunda ; it also means friend. 

A man or woman uses as a second name the name of his or her mother. For in- 
stance, Kasongo is called Kasongo Kalombo, Kalombo being his mother's name. 

Mweufe and Mona are titles. 


There is no distinction between male and female names. 




Mza Kulla. 



Lunga Maudi. 















Kim5 Kinda. 


Ngoi Mani. 




Nione Oote. 













Fuma Juerla. 

Kirunga Sungu. 


Pupundu Langu. 

Fuma Mwana. 




Fum^ a Kina. 



Sanga Tambi. 



Mona Kaiyi. 




Mona Kasanga. 

Senga Wana. 


Koma Swinzi. 


Shek^ Sheke. 










Kopa Kopa. 


Toote. • 


Kowemba wemba. 



Kali b\h. 



Ukwa Kanuno. 

Kalu Kulako. 



Wana Mpunga. 



Mwen^ Kasovo. 

Wana Xgao. 




Wapana Visiwe. 







Abdallah ibn Habib, 218. 

Abdallah ibn Xassib, 117, 143. 

Abdul Kader, 9Y. 

Abdullah Dina, 24, 26, 78. 

Acacias, 51, 66, 71, 74, 80, 448. 

Accident, an, 226. 

Aden, arrival at, 21. 

Africa, formation of continent of, 444. 

Akalunga, 206. 

Alexanderson, Captain Carl, 440. 

Alowy ibn Zain el-Aidus, letter of recom- 
mendation from, 21. 

Alvez, Jose Antonio (Kendele), 299, 318, 
338, 341, 350, 390 ; his settlement, 392. 

Ambriz, 441. 

American, an, 435. 

Ammunition, 225. 

Andrade, Admiral, Governor - general of 
Angola, 438. 

Ants, a delicacy, 281 ; hills, 344. 

Antelopes, 52, 74, 102, 104, 106, 107, 108, 
146, 147, 155, 359. 

Apple, custard, 448. 

Arabs, extortions of, 22 ; defeat of an 
Arab expedition, 77 ; caravan, 101 ; 
kindness of, 122; slaves of, 154; old 
camp, 211; kirangosi, 243 ; settlement, 

Arms, carried by expedition, 63 ; by ele- 
phant-hunter, 69 ; native, at Mpwapwa, 
73 ; Wadirigo, 73 ; Wagogo, 79 ; Wa- 
humba, 95 ; at Hisinene, 141 ; Wagara, 
154; at Mikisungi, 197; Watuta, 201; 
Warua, 228 ; Wahiya, 243 ; Manyuema, 
245 ; Lovale, 368. 

Arrows, poisoned, 69, 268. 

Askari, 30, 86, 117, 132. 

Asmani, Bilal Wadi, 127, 134, 143, 271. 

Asparagus, 25. 

Atlantic, first sight of the, 429. 

Attacks, 110, 285, 288. 

Auction, an, 122. 

Badger, Dr., 21. 
Bagamoyo, arrival at, 23 ; tire, 28 ; return 

to, 32. 
Bailunda, country of, 406, 468. 
Baker, letter from Sir Samuel, 116. 
Balomba River, 424. 
Bambarre (Kasongo's father), chief wife 

of, 305. 
Bambarre Mountains, 244. 
Bamboo, 51, 170, 360