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Full text of "Acta Victoriana, October 1904- June 1905"

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ACTA VICTORIANA 

Published Monthly during the College Year by the Union Literary 
Society of Victoria University, Toronto. 

Vol. XXVIII. TORONTO, OCTOBER, 1904. No. i. 




NIGHT 

BY EDWARD WILSON WALLACE, B.A., '04. 

"' he last faint gleams die out along the West ; 

Fades now the lingering radiance from the sky ; 
The flame'tongued \A/aters hushed to stillness he 
In silent calm, with gently stirring breast. 

But soft! a glowing globe with ardent rays 
Rekindles in the East day s dying flame; 
And light returns again, yet not the same. 

The tremulous ghost of mid'day's garish blaze. 

With wistful memories of departed day 

Returned to haunt the slumber of the deep. 

Then as the moon mounts higher, pale, serene. 

She bends from heaven to kiss the well'loved scene. 

While, like a child aweary of its play. 
The silent bay lies smiling in its sleep. 



Acta Victoriana. 



British Columbia Lumbering 

BV COTT L. NORTH. 

ACCORDING to a man's nature is formed his opinion of the 
worth of any country, or section of country. The man of 
small mould, small bone, small eyes and small mind sees British 
Columbia, its forests and mountains, its lakes and its streams, 

its roads, its towns and its people, and 
then turns up his lips with a sneer. " It's 
just a sea of rock," grunts he, and passes 
on. But the small man is not the only 
person who visits Canada's extreme West 
— the half-way house to the Orient. Cap- 
tains of industry, with broad experience 
and still broader minds ; engineering 
experts, fresh from the halls of science or 
tanned by the sunlight of a healthy out- 
door struggle with the gnarls spread by 
nature's teasing hand in the pathway of 
modern progress, and bushy-browed, keen- 
eyed globe-trotters make their way to the 
Canadian Pacific coast, each one in turn 
seeing something that he thinks can be 
equalled nowhere else in the world. 

The captain of industry sees oppor- 
tunities offered on every hand for the 
construction of railways^ the inauguration 
of steamboat lines, the opening of new 
avenues of trade with Japan, China, Australia, Mexico, and . South 
America. His eyes fall on the mineral belts, and he is pleased. 
They are attracted to the swarming halibut and cod banks, the 
salmon runs and the oolachan schools, and he straightway knows 
where a mint of money can be made. The engineer understands 
that in a land of tangled rock and hill and stream the tracks of 
the captain of industry are sure to be strewn with problems for the 
solving of which he will be given alluring remuneration. So he rolls 
up his sleeves and prepares to work. The globe-trotter glances up at 
the snow-covered peaks that flash and tremble in the sunlight until 
the impressionable eye gives ihem billowing motion and they become 
the " sea of mountains " for which the West is famous. When he 




DADDY FREEMAN. 




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Ada Victoriana. 



writes home he tells his friends he has found the tourist's paradise- 
Each sees in British Columbia something the other has not noticed. 

All of which goes to prove that the Pacific seacoast province is so 
richly dowered by nature that for each who comes to visit it can 
provide a tempting fijld of enterprise from which it is difficult to turn 
away. Even the pessimist will find pleasure in thj rocks, the tough 
stumps and the dis«ial rain. 

But be he what he may, a financier or a tramp, a parson or a card 
sharper, a scholar or an ignoramus, there is one thing in British 
Columbia which must impress everyone who travels through the 
province. This is its wealth of timber. The fame of the Douglas fir 



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has been spread broadcast, and to the big mills of Chemainus and 
Vancouver come sailing craft from Cape Town, Brisbane, Callao, 
Yokohama, Liverpool, Honolulu, Mexico and the Indies, seeking 
loads of lumber for their home ports. In spite of the salmon, the 
gold, the mountains and the fruit of the province, the one thing for 
which British Columbia is known above all others throughout the 
world is its timber. As a matter of fact, not one acre in a thousand 
in the seacoast province is covered with merchantable trees, but 
where the forest monsters do grow they attain such a size and gather 
so thickly together that but a comparatively small " limit " will yield 
a bounteous harvest of " board feet." Mr. Patterson, of the Port 
Moody mills, which were so disastrously vis"ted by fire this summer, is 




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6 Ada Victoriana. 

responsible for the estimated proportion of timbered and untimbered 
land throughout British Columbia quoted above. 

Naturally, as one of the most convenient shipping centres both for 
rail and vessel, Vancouver is vitally interested in the success of the 
lumber trade. Her mills are large, their cut extensive and the 
number of men employed well up in the thousands. Even before 
Vancouver commenced to be a town, the B.C. Mills Timber and 
Trading Company and the Port Moody Lumber Company were busy 
reducing timber to commercial lumber, and were bidding vigorously 




"^ of iKe D ominion ' 



for foreign trade. But with the advent of the C.P.R. and the 
founding of Vancouver, a new market was opened in Manitoba and 
the North-West. This market has steadily grown, and with its growth 
has come a rapid multiplication of the concerns competing for its 
custom. At the present time the coast mills, of which those in Van- 
couver, New Westminster and Chemainus form the most important 
part, number twenty-one and have a yearly lumber capacity of 350,- 
000,000 feet. In addition, there are twenty-eight shingle mills, with a 
capacity of 600,000,000 shingles. Both of these outputs could be 
doubled in an emergency by running night as well as day shifts. 



Ada Victoriana. 7 

Although the Territories and Manitoba take the larger portion of 
the B.C. lumber and shingle cut, trade has been pushed on into 
Ontario. The manager of the Brunette saw-mills- in New West 
minster said a short time ago that he found it profitable to ship as far 
east as Montreal and there to compete with the mills of the Ottawa 
Valley. One explanation of this rather remarkable fact, he says, is that 
the B.C. shingles have won such favor with Ontario builders that 
even at a much higher price they prefer them to all others, hence the 
demand. 

In the early days of the industry the rougher grades of lumber 




A SALMON CATCH ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 



were shut out from the market by the high transportation rates. All 
profits had to be made out of the better grades. During the past 
four years, however, through the extension of the North-West and 
Eastern markets, and the increased demand from the local and foreign 
markets, conditions have been materially improved. Lower freight 
rates have obtained and better prices have prevailed. The rush to 
the Canadian wheat fields has proved a veritable gold mine for the 
lumbermen of the Pacific coast. To-day the outlook is bright, for the 
lumber barometer (to wit, the North-West) continues to indicate " fair 
weather." 



8 Ada Victoriana. 

Amongst the "sights " shown every tourist when he visits Van- 
couver is one or other of the big lumber plants — those of the 
Hastings, Royal City or Pacific Coast mills. The latter is the most 
recently erected and the most thoroughly equipped. It is an inter- 
esting sight to watch a big fir log, measuring anything from four to six 
feet in diameter, as it is hauled up out of the water by chains, clamped 
on a travelling support, and then run against the rough, rapidly 
whirling teeth of an immense band saw. First slabs, then boards are 
torn off as the huge car swings back and forth until each of the four 
sides has been trimmed down and a "stick" about three feet square 
is left. Then this "B.C. toothpick" is ready for shipment or to be 
sawn into heavy planks, according to the expressed wishes of the 
purchaser. To the mill it makes little difference. Only a few 
moments, and the largest of the felled forest monsters passes under 
the operating blades and emerges in piles of neatly cut dimension 
timber, boards or planks. 

Unfortunately for the West, the majority of those employed in these 
big mills are Orientals — either Japs or Chinamen. Both work well, 
although neither one can get through nearly as much in a day as a 
good, sturdy white man who uses his brains and his hands at one and 
the same time. But the Orientals work for smaller wages, and so, in 
the eyes of the operators, are preferable. Out of their Japs and 
Chinamen the mills make money — and help to curse the country by 
refusing employment to honest Canadians who would make desirable 
citizens of the West. Of course, the millmen cry '• hard times " and say 
that if they had to pay white men's wages they would soon close 
down. This whimper once was raised on the other side of the Inter- 
national Boundary line, but over there it is heard no more. The 
employers were forced to do without this cheap labor, and when they 
had to, they soon found that they could. 

It is some consolation to know that since last January, when the 
$500 head tax imposed on incoming Chinamen by the Laurier 
government went into force, not a single Celestial has entered the 
country save such as formerly were resident in Canada and had re- 
turned to their far Eastern homes simply for a visit. Thus is removed 
one (and the most serious) phase of the threatened Chinese invasion 
of Western Canada. Wherever the Mongol has settled in British 
Columbia in numbers he has built up a colony which forms the 
nucleus of the most undesirable, filthy and immoral section of the 
community in which he lives. As he seldom or never brought 
over with him his wife or child the increase of the pure breed is 



Acfa Viclortana. g 

effectually checked, but the half-breed, the worst breed of all, is 
only too common. 

While this may seem irrelevant to the subject in hand, it must be 




BIG TREES IN STANLEY PARK, VANCOUVER. 

remembered that, as the mills of the'province offered employment for 
large numbers of the migrating Chinamen, they are responsible to a 
certain extent for the presence in the country of many Orientals. In 



lO 



Ada Victoriana. 



this way (a minor point, it is true, wlien compared with the vast 
profits accumulated through them by Canadians) the B.C. mills 
have proven a curse to the province. 

But while the mills have cursed with one hand, they have blessed 
with another. Hundreds o\ now prosperous citizens of B.C. owe 
their start in the West to early employment given by the lumbermen. 
When a new arrival is down in his luck he straightway goes to one of 
the lumber yards, and there, if he is not afraid of hard toil and sore 
hands, he can secure work at a wage which will at least provide him 
with means on which to subsist. Thus he can keep himself alive and 
well fed while looking around for an opening, and if he is econo- 
mical he can even lay by a few odd dollars as a nest egg. 

To day Vancouver's lumber mills are working steadily and yielding 
a golden tribute. As population increases and the local demand 
provides an avenue through which much of the now wasted lower 
grades can be disposed of, the lot of the millmen will be brightened 
and the lumber traffic of Canada's gateway to the Orient will grow 
with leaps and bounds. British Columbia has the timber ; her sons 
are ready to cut it. All that is needed to set in motion a fresh 
avalanche of trade is "the world as a market." 

Ere closing it might be well to correct a certain popular mistake. 
When Canadians of the East speak of the famous Douglas fir, ihey 
think too frequently of huge trunks measuring fifty, sixty or even a 
hundred feet in circumference. This is wrong. There are, of course, 
unusually large trees whose trunks are even as much as thirty feet in 
diameter five feet from the ground ; but these are not ordinary 
specimens. The average size on the stump of the Douglas fir, cedar,, 
spruce and hemlock will not exceed four feet. 




MEN OF THE WOOD.S. 



Acta Victoriana 1 1 

In the 'Dormitories 

BY E. ED.VA DINGWALL, '03 

THE most momentous question which comes to the average man 
or woman to decide is the choice of life work. Whether he 
knows it or not, it is most often in this decision that the final 
touch is given to the making or marring of character, and the man who 
has chosen wrongly has hung a millstone round his neck, whose fall 
must, sooner or later, crush both itself and him. 

Old as it is true is the saying that work is valuable only through the 
spirit that permeates it, yet none the less should it be recognized that 
a clear understanding of one's strongest powers and a definite use of 
them is permissible — -indeed, imperative — for the highest develop- 
ment -of the individual ; and that the man who, intellectually or physi- 
cally, does lower work than that of which he is capable is hardly less 
in error than he who allows too keen a perception of his own talents 
to crowd out the more rudimentary truths of life. A man must live 
up to himself, not below, nor yet beyond ; and, above all, he must 
live to his level in the spirit of consecration. Rare cases there must 
be when the sacrifice of self-suppression is necessary; but of the 
average man or woman it is seldom such surrender is permanently 
demanded. 

In no work is this truth and the need of adaptability and harmony 
between talents and requirements more obvious, and in few is it less 
recognized, than in the role of boarding-school teacher. The idea 
appears popularly to exist that, among women especially, one who has 
received a college training, if she can do nothing else, can, as a last 
resort, always teach ; providing only an obliging " agency " and a flat- 
tering photographer combine in her favor. 

If teach she must and will, let her avoid boarding-schools as she 
would the pulpit. Firmly should each girl realize that none but a 
born educator should set foot in a residence school. 

In the first place, look at the class of girls enrolled in almost all 
boarding-schools as residence pupils. With few exceptions you will 
find them either girls without homes or girls whose homes are so situ- 
ated that more advantages are to be obtained from leaving than from 
remaining in them. What, then, is the boarding-school forced to under- 
take ? Truly a stupendous task ; none less than to take charge of the 
character-training as well as the intellectual supervision of its pupils. 
Whether it attains even partial success depends entirely upon the 



12 Ada Victoriana. 

character of those in authority, who have hour by hour more to do in 
moulding the young Uves than have the very parents of the children. 

Leaving out of discussion the question of the unconscious influence, 
what qualities are most necessary in the work of a residence teacher to 
produce that conscious influence, quite as unavoidable in her case as 
the unconscious ? First and foremost, self-control. Self-control rather 
than sympathy ? Emphatically, yes. 

To educate the pupils we must, in the nature of things, control 
them ; and control without the background of superior strength of 
character is worse than useless ; it is positively harmful to the child. 
The teacher who has to resort to brute force to win the victory, or who 
is forced to bolster herself with varieties galore of purely external pun- 
ishments, be she never so excellent a teacher, has not the capacity to be 
a child educator, and her place is as far as possible removed from the 
boarding-school. Let the teacher once lose control of herself, let her 
once allow her sympathies or passions to gain the upper hand, and her 
influence has decreased in the exact proportion in which she has 
departed from the line of justice. More than any other quality do 
children demand justice from those above them ; and justice, above 
all, demands self-control. The ordinary school teacher has this 
demand made of her in the school-room for a certain number of hours 
each day ; the teacher in a residence school must respond unceasingly, 
not only in the school-room, where she is more or less on guard, but in 
the hours of " duty," also, when she is called upon as a sort of domestic 
referee on all occasions, and where weariness of body is often the 
keenest of her personal sensations. If her self-control fails her under 
even so great provocation, she feels the results speedily, and will have a 
hard struggle to regain her lost ground in the minds of those most 
exacting of unconscious critics, the children. 

Next to self-control and the accompanying sense of power is there 
keen necessity for sympathy, but sympathy, be it noticed, well ordered 
and controlled. A sympathy rampant can do more to distort the vision 
and hinder the usefulness of a residence teacher than can almost any 
other four unseasonable qualities. But, on the other hand, the teacher 
who cannot win the confidence of those with whom she comes in con- 
tact daily will by no means fulfil the demands of a true child-educator. 
Too little sympathy, like too much, hinders her from obtaining the 
true perspective, and will give rise to actions not on the strict lines of 
justice ; and the teacher who does not represent to her pupils the 
incarnation of justice is already on shaky ground. 



Ada V2ctoria7ia. 



13 



She who is impersonal that they may realize her power, and personal 
that they may learn her sympathy, such a woman it is whom the resi- 
dence schools need, and whose hold over the pupils will not cease with 
their school days. 

Control, sympathy and — humor. " A sense of humor will often 
save a woman when religion, training and home influences fail." 
And in a large sense is this true of the boarding school teacher. It is 
the constancy of the life that is wearing. Every day and all day long 
goes on the drain on the teacher's energies, and woe unto her who 
misses the opportunities of occasional flippancy ! The future holds 
for her sure retribution in the shape of brain fag and large hospital 
bills, or else a gradual self-isolation from the good young life around 
her. To be filled with a sense of humor so keen that one can even 
see the funny side of a study-rnom joke which has fatally upset the 
gravity of a situation meant to be serious, this is to save oneself from 
the rack and one's pupils from the results of a too intense teacher's 
overstrung nerves. Truly, one is almost tempted to say, " And the 
greatest of these is humor." 

Other qualities there are, volumes of them, but they cannot be 
touched on now. For the woman who combines them in the highest 
degree what possibilities lie in the life-work of a boarding-school 
teacher? The possibilities are as varied as the teachers. For the 
woman who combines everything everything is possible. Day after 
day she has with her more than a score of young souls in training. 
What she makes of them they will make of others, and the chain is 
never-ending. 

Is it worth while ? Is life worth while, or men, or women ? The 
boarding-school teacher need never look for wealth, for her monthly 
cheques will at best afford only a competence ; but if she be a true 
educator she will find in the lives her hands have helped to fashion 
compensation for her many sacrifices, her unceasing toil, her unfalter- 
ing zeal ; and her reward will be the dearer to her because she must 
have earned it through the purifying of her own character in the educa- 
tion and uplifting of others. 

Rothesay, N.B., Sept. 30th, 1904. 




14 Ada Victoriana. 

Our Palace Beautiful 

COLLEGE is the pilgrim's stay in the Palace Beautiful, one of the 
early stages of his life journey. The sojourner here must 
enter the narrow passage and pass some lions, as Christian did, before 
he teaches the Porter. If he has slept in fhe Arbor of Indobnce 
that stands on the hillside he arrives late. 

The grave and beautiful damsel in control is lenient, and, at the 
Porter's request, takes the pilgrim into the Palace built for the refresh- 
ment and equipment of such travellers. The fresh young visitor's 
mind is occupied with himseU and his pilgrimage as he talks with 
the inmates and the other guests about his experiences. Later his 
thought and conversation are broadened as his interest extends to the 
Palace builders, the why and wherefore of its building. Now he is 
more ready to abide in the chamber whose windows open to the 
sunrising. 

He is shown the rarities of the place. He examines the volumes 
and records of the acts of the builders and his own predecessors. He 
peruses other histories of many famous things, " both ancient and 
modern, together with prophecies and predictions of things that have 
certain accomplishment, both to the dread and amazement of 
enemies and the comfort and solace of pilgrims." 

Attention turns next to the armory wherein is all manner of furniture 
provided for pilgrims. There is here enough to hatness out as many 
for service as there be stars in the heaven for multitude. Also are 
shown to him engines with which have been done wonderful things 
by earlier pilgrims. 

In due time he is taken to the top of the house to view the 
Delectable Mountains of life duty which are common to all pilgrims, 
and he thinks of setting forward immediately for them. He is not 
yet ready, however. He must be panoplied from head to foot with 
what is of proof, lest he meet with assaults by the way. With his 
mind set upon the Delectable Mountains, he knows not of the 
Valley of Humiliation and of Apollyon so near him, but his wise 
helpers know of them and prepare him. 

Well accoutred, he walks with friends to the gate and to the 

dwellers in the palace he says with Christian, "The Lord be with 

thee and add to thy blessings much increase for the kindness thou 

hast showed me." 

A. G. 



Ada Victoriana. 



15 



William Morris and the Roycrofters 

BY ETHEL HUME PATTERSON, '05. 

WE have been told very often that we are living in a commercial 
age, in an age whose ideal seems to be a grasping after 
what Hawthorne calls " the big unrealities — money, notoriety, 
power." Our teachers, our editors, our preachers, have so often cried 
out against "the curse of our generation — the greed for gain," that we 
have at last come to believe that there is a maelstrom underneath 




THE SHOP. 



the foaming mist of bubbles towards which we are whirling. 
We believe it is there, but the bubbles are very beautiful, and the 
current is very strong, and so we yield to the flow of the river, 
and whirl onward and downward. Sometimes we meet a man who is 
swimming against the tide, his eyes are fixed on the beautiful City of 



i6 



Acta Victoriana. 



our Ideal away from which we have turned, and he shouts to us 
" Back ! back ! " But we say, " No, the tide is too powerful. You are 
strong, but we are weak, and the bubbles are so very beautiful ! " And 
away we whirl ! 

Exaggerated ? Perhaps. Nevertheless the plain fact remains that 
the danger exists, that many of us are deliberately choosing it, and 
that the great strong spirits of the day are the men who are urging us 
to turn. All honor then and reverence to these men who, in this age 
crammed full of commercial and industrial activity, are holding up 




THE RECEPTION ROOM. 



the Beautiful before us ,; bidding us open our eyes to beautiful sights, 
our ears to beautiful sounds, and our hearts to beautiful thoughts. 
We believe in such men, and it will do us good to think about them. 
In William Morris and Elbert Hubbard we haye two such standard- 
bearers of Beauty, for, just because we are a busy world and must 
always be a busy work-a-day world, they have endeavored and are 
endeavoring to bring the Ideal into our work, and so make it sincere, 
beautiful and joyful. 

William Morris devoted his life to the worship of Beauty and to 
true Art — "the uplifting of the Beautiful that all may see and enjoy." 



Ada Victoriana. 



17 



He was a man of complex and varied activities — a poet, an artist, a 
craftsman, a social reformer, and he blended these gifts into a splendid 
personality, so that the poet was never at war with the craftsman, nor 
the artist with the social constructor. For, while with pen and brush 
he drew beautiful dream-world pictures of primitive and mediaeval 
times, he also strove to bring this same beauty into everyday 




WILLIAM HUBBARD AND HIS SONS. 

life — to give character, and fitness, and grace, to chair, and table, and 
cupboard. And to this part of his work he applied the principle of 
sincerity which animated that remarkable group of painters to which 
he belonged— "The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood," and which included 
Madox, Brown, Burne-Jones and Rossetti. 

Morris' practical craftsmanship brought him into close touch with 
present economic conditions from the point of view of both employer 



1 8 Acta Victor iana. 

and employee, and, unlike Ruskin, who, though he bitterly denounced 
the modern system, would take no part in a revolution, his protests 
were active and he joined in heartily with the new Socialist party. His 
ideas as to social reform he embodied in the Utopian romance, "News 
from Nowhere," a picture of social revolution the outcome of which 
will be " a new state of society where work is not divorced from joy 
and where the tyranny of machinery is abolished." He gives voice 
again to this gospel in " The Commonweal " — 

"Then a man shall work and bethink him, and rejoice in the deeds of his 

hand, 
Nor yet come home in the even too faint and weary to stand. 

" O strange new wonderful justice ! But for whom shall we gather the gain .'' 
For ourselves and each of our fellows — no hand shall labor in vain. 

" Then all mine and all thine shall be ours, and no more shall any man crave 
For riches that serve for nothing but to fetter the friend for a slave." 

And we believe that the promulgating of this doctrine was the 
permanent part of William Morris' life work. The fashions will 
change, no doubt, and our beautiful Morris windows and papers, books 
and hangings^, chairs and cupboards, will pass away, but the impulse 
the man gave to the love of the sincere and the beautiful, and to joy- 
ful, as opposed to joyless, work, will never die. 

Towards the close of the nineteenth century Elbert Hubbard met 
William Morris and, to use his own words, "caught it." Being a 
man of action, he at once began to put his ideas to a practical test, 
and began his social and industrial experiment, which has for its scene 
of action the ordinary little town of East Aurora, N.Y. This experi- 
ment ought to interest us because its great success has proved it 
practicable. 

Mr. Hubbard, or Fra Elbertus, as he is called by the faithful, was 
one of a large family in an Illinois country doctor's home. He left 
school at the age of fifteen, worked on a farm, went West, became a 
cowboy, worked in a Chicago printing ofifice, then worked as a sales- 
man, then in a soap factory, taught school, went to Harvard, wrote for 
the newspapers, tramped through Europe (where he met Morris), came 
to East Aurora, where he raised horses and started Chautauqua circles. 
No wonder he says of himself, " I am a graduate of the University of 
Hard Knocks, and I have taken several post graduate courses." 

By means of this educational preparation Elbert Hubbard had be- 
come a man of the people, and could understand economic and 
industrial problems as an aristocrat like William Morris never could 



Ada Victoriana. 



19 



do. He began to formulate 'deas concerning the nature of man's 
work and his place in society which were to be realized later on. He 
writes thus : "To think, to see, to feel, to know, to deal justly, to 
bear patiently, to act quietly, to speak cheerfully, to moderate one's 
voice — these things will bring you the highest good. And, further 
than this, it is the best way you can serve humanity — live your life." 
And this the Fra hangs up as part of his creed : 

" I believe in salvation through economic, social and spiritual 
freedom. 

" I believe there is no better preparation for a life to come than 
this : Do your work as well as you can, and be kind. 




THE LIBRARY. 

"I believe in sunshine, fresh air, friendship, calm sleep, beautiful 
thoughts." 

When Mr. Hubbard settled down in East Aurora he began to 
write his Little Journeys^ and not being able to find a publisher, 
had the first one printed at the local printing office. This led to the 
printing of a pamphlet "about things in general and publishers and 
magazine editors in particular." Then the Fra procured the printer's 
outfit and decided to make the pamphlet a monthly magazine to run 
one year. He called it The Philistine because he intended to go after 
the chosen people in literature. The success of the little brown 



20 Acta l^ictoriana. 

pamphlet was enormous: its unique appearance and character 
doubtless having much to do with its first popularity. 

The avowed intention of The Philistine, as expressed somewhere in 
its pages, is "to make men think," and this is accomplished some- 
times by ordinary, but often by extraordinary means. The language 
is strong and terse, full of energy and fire, and indeed the Fra has a 
habit of seizing upon one's most cherished opinions and shaking 
them, sometimes roughly and rudely and even without reason, so that 
they return in a scarcely recognizable condition. But probably they 
are all the better and stronger for this kind of treatment, being, 
perhaps, like the well-brought up, nursery-bred boy, in need of a few 
hard fights and knocks before he can become a man. 

People rather liked getting a new point of view — they rather liked 
getting shaken up a bit, so The Philistine grew popular. The 
work grew apace and subscriptions poured in. Workers and a place 
to work in were needed. Here was a chance for the Fra to practice 
what he preached. 

" It may be proved with much certainty that God intends no man 
to live in this world without working, but it seems no less evident 
that he intends every man to be happy in his work. It was written, 
* In the sweat of thy brow,' but it was never written, ' In the breaking 
of thy heart.'" The Fra took this cry of Ruskin for a text and 
preached a sermon, and the sermon took the form of a low, irregular, 
grey stone building, like a quaint English chapel. And in the rooms 
he put pianos, and books, and curtains, and pictures, and statuary — 
all the beautiful things he could — and this was to be the workshop. 

The workers for whose needs this building was designed were right 
at hand. Before the coming of Fra Elbertus, East Aurora was an 
ordinary, plain, humdrum village, with the usual country store, black- 
smith shop, sawmill and tavern. The consequence was that, as in 
hundreds of other villages, the cramped energies and ambitions of the 
boys and girls could find an outlet only in getting away to the big 
cities, where doubtless some of them did become shining lights, but 
some did not. Now not only is the appearance of the town 
greatly changed, but it has become a home place for its boys and 
girls — a home where they earn their living in a congenial, healthful 
way, and receive a broad, liberal education at the same time. 

For it is as natural for boys and girls to want to make beautiful 
things with their hands as it is for birds to sing, and, when to the 
skill of the hand they can add joy of heart and guidance of brain, 
they grow, develop, are being educated. Not only the young people 



Ada Victoria7ia. 



21 



but the young old people find work which is suited to them, and the 
interest which these veterans of agriculture and of housework take in 
art is amazing to those who do not know the barrenness of some of 
these busy rural lives, and the innate love in every breast for that 
which is beautiful and true. 

These workers have been organized into a corporation, " The 
Roycrofters." In choosing this name, Mr. Hubbard says they had in 
mind Samuel and Thomas Roycroft, who made and printed very 
beautiful books in the middle of the 17th century; but "beyond this 
the word has a special significance, meaning King's craft — King's 



C^i 






1 




^^^^^^ 


'l^^^^l 


1^ ^k^H 




^^I^Hk^l^ 


* ^w X '"*jj 





" FRA ELBERTUS." 



craftsmen being a term used in the guilds of the olden time for men 
who had achieved a high degree of skill — men who made things for 
the King. So a Roycrofter is a person who makes beautiful things, 
and makes them as well as he can.' The shares of the corporation 
are held by the workers and by no one else, and this has been found 
to call forth the highest degree of diligence, interest, and intelligence. 
Anyone who is the fortunate possessor of a piece of Roycroft ware 
will certainly admit that the Roycrofters have justified their name. 
Fra Elbertus has made a financial success of his experiment because 
he began to satisfy the innate love of man for beautiful things. Cheap 



22 



Acta Victoriana. 



books had served their turn, but the art of making beautiful books 
seemed dead in America. However, to-day hundreds of book-lovers 
are treasuring the hand-made, illuminated, quaintly printed volumes 
with the Roycroft mark upon them. They are treasures, for there 
clings to each an individuality and a sentiment which could never 
come with an article shot out of a machine and like unto hundreds of 
others. And the joy that goes into the making of these works of art 
comes out again in the joy of the appreciative possessor. Truly joy 
is infinite and eternal ! 

Besides the making of books, the Roycrofters print the two maga- 
zines, The Philistine^ and Little /onrneys, and lately, as need 
has arisen, have begun such industries as carpentering, terra cotta 
work and weaving. And joyful work does not make up the whole of 
the Roycroft idea. There are healthful recreations of all kinds, and 
in the evenings, concerts, lectures, educational classes. Music is a 
very prominent feature, there being over one hundred pupils in 
instrumental music. Everything is done that can be done for the 
culture and development of the workers. 

No, East Aurora is not the millennial dawn, nor yet Utopia ! 
Patience, kindness, "bear and forbear," are just as necessary there as 
elsewhere. Some days, we doubt not, things go crookedwise, and 
there are frowns instead of smiles, — as the Fra himself expresses it, 
" We are travelling to the Beautiful City of our Ideal. We are aware 
we shall never reach it — but the suburbs are very pleasant." 

And yet. East Aurora is a Dawn — possibly it will be a long, long, 
weary time before the Sun rises in full splendor — but the Dawn has 
come ! From the humble little village we can lift our eyes to the 
Land of our Dream 

" Where only the Master shall praise, and only the Master shall blame, 
And no one shall work for money, and no one shall work for fame, 
But each for ih& joy of the working, and each in his separate star. 
Shall draw the thing as he sees it for the God of things as they are.'' 




Acia Victoriana. 23, 

Ji Double Victory 

KATHERINE E. CULLEN, 'o6. 

IT was one of those rare evenings of Indian summer when the air 
is balmy and fragrant and the sun seems to hnger above the 
horizon in a clear blaze of golden glory. The beams of fading light 
seemed imprisoned and entangled in the jagged crests of the moun- 
tains, changing their dull blue, whence the Blue Ridge Mountains derive 
their name, to a bright rosy halo. Farther down the mountain sides, 
untouched by the rays of the settmg sun, the characteristic blue haze 
softened and broke their bold, rugged outlines. 

Against this sombre background arose a large and stately stone 
mansion, whose weather-beaten walls were surrounded by the broad 
verandahs and lofty columns of the colonial period. On a terraced 
lawn in front stood a young woman, whose face, though beautiful, 
revealed traces of patient suffering. With clouded brow she eagerly 
scanned the crests of the neighboring mountains for some sign of life. 
Word had just reached her that, earlier in the day, the Confederate 
army had been deleated and that the victorious Northern troops were 
scouring the country in search of fugitives. The news came to her 
like a thunderbolt and, half beside herself with terror, she repeatedly 
murmured, "Oh! if only he would not come to-night." And she 
clasped her hands appealingly and gazed wildly about. " If the 
soldiers come to night he will be lost ; he does not know that the 
battle has been raging near us. Oh, I must send him word not to 
come ! " 

Running into the kitchen Mrs. Mills asked excitedly for Sam. " Sam 
aint routr yere jes dis minnit. Miss Virginny," explained Esther, an 
old servant, who had nursed Mrs. Mills when a baby. " Sam's down 
at de stables lockin' up de bosses fer de night. He done heerd dat 
some ob dese yere free actin' niggahsgwine ter escapade on us to-night 
and so he's fixin' up fer to fool 'em." 

" Esther," said Mrs Mills, imperiously, " tell Sam I want him at 
once. I will be in the library." 

" Yes'm," and old Esther in spite of her weight of years almost ran 
down the path leading to the stables. 

" Miss Virginny, I heah you done want me an' I come jes as fas' as 
I could. Is anything happen to Marse John ? " he asked, becoming 
suddenly anxious. "You look like you'd heerd bad news." 



24 Acta Victoriana. 

" Sam, your master sent word he would be here between nine and 
ten this even ng to see us all before he leaves for New Orleans," and 
here Mrs. Mills tried determinedly to control her anxiety, in order not 
to arouse the excitable negro. Now Sam, there has been a skirmish 
over the mountains and your master may not have known that it was 
likely to take place. The soldiers are coming this way, and if he should 
come while they are passing through here what can we do ? " Here 
Mrs. Mills could control herself no longer and wept like a child. 

" Don't cry, fer de Lawd's sake, Miss Virginny. P'raps Marse John 
done heerd ob de battle already an' he aint comin' home. But if he 
was, Miss Virginny, we couldn't do nothin', 'cause we don't know 
zacktly whar he's gwine ter come from." 

" You are right, Sam ; we could not possibly let him know," and 
Mrs. Mills relapsed into tears. 

Sambo slipped quietly from the room and went to the kitchen, where 
the servants were sitting beside the great old-fashioned hearth. Before 
the war the Mills' establishment had been the largest and most res- 
pected in the neighborhood, but when the war broke out hard times 
had come and only the old family servants were retained. And now 
as Sambo, the oldest member of the household, entered the room he 
found only two old women whispering in awed tones about " de war" 
and " pore Miss Virginny." 

" Wat you two niggahs doin' yere, settin' by the fiah wastin' yoah 
time ? You bettah get to work and fix up fer to hab a big supper ready, 
lor shure as youse bawn dose confounded Northern white trash is gwine 
ter come heah and demand some suppah. Dinah," addressing his wife, 
" You cook all de meat and potatoes in de place, an' Esther, you make 
up de pies and cakes, for shure as youse bawn dose soldiers '11 be yere 
dis very night." These orders were all given in the tones of the Sambo 
of the old palmy day>^, when he was the pompous footman, and with- 
out hesitation the two old negro women set briskly to work. 

Meanwhile in the library Mrs. Mills was sitting back in the depths 
of a great leather-covered chair, holding on her knee a pretty flaxen- 
haired child about six years of age. whose clear blue eyes were at once 
trusting and persuasive. "Mamma, won't I ever see papa again?" 
she asked. " Won't he ever come home again ? " 

" Why yes, darling ; I hope so. What makes you ask such strange 
•questions ? " 

" Because you are crying so hard. I thought perhaps he'd never, 
never come back again and let me ride with him like he did last sum- 
mer on my own little Dixie." So in her childish way little Alice 



Acta Victoriana. 25 

prattled on till the sun had long since sunk behind the mountains. 
The night had become very dark, with only an occasional star peep- 
ing out now and then from behind the clouds. 

Suddenly old Sambo rushed in and whispered- excitedly to Mrs. 
Mills, who paled and grasped the arm of her chair to steady herself. 
A moment of agitation, then, with a great effort, she quietly told Alice 
to run up to the nursery and play until she could come to put her to 
sleep. Then, as the wondering child ran upstairs, the faithful black 
explained that a company of Northerners under General McLellan had 
come and demanded food. Orders were at once given to obey the 
request, and soon the house was filled with soldiers, who stared rudely 
around at the costly mahogany and rare old paintings. 

Up in the nursery Alice, child-like, had forgotten the mystery down- 
stairs and was playing with her dolls, unconscious of the intruders, 
but after a time a strange voice below the nursery window attracted 
her attention. Her childish curiosity was aroused, and, as she listened, 
the words became distinct and she could hear two of the soldiers 
talking. 

" Say, wasn't that great grub we had ? Major Mills has great cooks." 

"Yes and they say that he had a fine lot of horses, and that some, 
if not all of them, are left here at home." 

" By Jove ! " broke in the other voice, " won't that be a great haul ? " 

" Yes, and as soon as the rest of the fellows have all the grub they 
want we'll go to the stables, and then leave by the north gate. Why 
there they go now. Hurrah ! " 

All this conversation was overheard by two very alert little ears, and 
it took but a short time for Alice to realize that her own little Dixie, a 
present from her father, would soon be taken from her. All her pas- 
sionate Southern blood mounted up in rebellion, and in her anxiety 
for Dixie's safety she forgot her fear of those dreadful Northern soldiers, 
whose very name she had grown to hate because they were fighting 
against her father. With a sudden resolve she sped out of the nursery, 
down the broad old-fashioned staircase, and out into the night, heed- 
less of the cold damp air. Her golden curls dancing about her 
delicately moulded cheeks, she hurried to the stables, fearing she 
might be too late to save Dixie. 

What a sight met her eyes as she neared the lighted stables. There 
were all the soldiers with their torches peering about and leading out 
from their stalls the horses that had been her father's pride. Just as 
the fairy figure of the child appeared in the doorway one of the rough 
soldiers was leading out little Dixie, who whinnied with delight at sight 
3 



2 6 Acta Victor imia. 

of her little mistress. Instantly all was silence, broken only by the 
child's cry, " What are you doing to my Dixie ? This is my own 
pony and you can't have her." Then, burying her face in the silky 
black mane she sobbed as though her little heart would break, "Oh ! 
Dixie, those cruel soldiers want to take you away, but I won't let them 
— no, I won't let them." 

On the outskirts of the company of soldiers stood the general, a 
witness to the whole scene. At sight of the child his soldier heart was 
touched, as his thoughts turned to another little flaxen-haired child in 
the North, whom he might never see again. As the child raised her 
head and looked around appealingly, he hurriedly wrote something on 
the leaf of his notebook and stepped quickly toward her. Stooping 
down he folded her in his arms, and said in a husky voice, " You 
shall keep your Dixie just as as long as you please and no more cruel 
soldiers will come to take her away. If they do, just show them this 
slip of paper and they will not touch your pet." The child's eyes filled 
with tears, and impulsively she threw her arms around the general's 
neck, and, kissing him fervently, she said, "You're almost as nice as 
my own papa."' A last embrace and the general put the child down 
gently, and then quietly gave orders to march on. 

Meanwhile in the blackness of night one could scarcely have dis- 
cerned the dark figure of a man crouching behind the stable and 
listening with strained ears to the footsteps of the soldiers. He knew 
they would soon be marching past him, and must surely spy him as 
they passed, yet saw no means of escape, for retreat or advance would 
alike expose him. Anxiously he noted the delay at the stables and 
listened to their noisy shouts as one by one the beautiful steeds were 
led forth, but still the way seemed blocked for his escape. Suddenly 
silence prevails, and as he peers through a crack he sees the soldiers 
spellbound in the presence of a child. This is his chance. Now or 
never he must creep away. Slowly and noiselessly he crawls along till 
he reaches a dark and secluded path, when he darts up and runs for 
his life. He is safe. Little Alice, quivering with excitement, hastened 
back to the house, and rushing into the library was amazed to see 
her father talking excitedly to his wife, whose eyes shone with tears of 
joy. " Oh, papa ! " she cried, delightedly ; and as her father lifted 
her up in his arms and her mother smothered her with kisses, she said, 
" I saved Dixie ; those bad soldiers were going to take her away." 

Tenderly her father replied, " Yes, darling, and you have saved me, 
too." 



A eta Victo riana . 2 7 

First Things in College Life 

THERE was a time when the popular conception of a college man 
was a near-sighted and spindle-shanked individual, wearing a 
brow " sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought," and carrying in 
his hand some volume of the classics or of philosophy. Tetiipota 
mutan/ur and to-day the mental picture most readily called up by the 
mention of the great universities is, perhaps, that of a husky fellow in 
a padded suit with a rugby ball under his arm. As our conception of 
education has broadened out, the athletic and social phases of college 
life have obtained a prominence that threatens to quite overshadow 
the scholastic side. We have come to insist strongly upon the value 
of the physical training upon the campus and of the education to be 
found in the association with other men in the college societies and in 
the different relationships of college life, and the mere bookish 
recluse we pity or dispise according to our charity. 

While we freely admit the wholesome tendency and the educational 
value of those elements of the college life to be found outside the 
study or lecture room, may we not also confess that in our anxiety 
to avoid Scylla there is a danger of falling into Charybdis, and 
that by a too zealous devotion to athletics and the work of the 
college societies we may indeed escape the imputation of bookishness 
but fail of acquiring the culture which ought to be looked for in the 
college graduate ? It is scarcely necessary to remark that there is no 
cause-and-effect or any other relation between cramming and culture, 
or that the passing of examinations is not necessarily a proof of the 
possession of a cultured mind. 

There are moral qualities that are cultivated to better advantage on 
the campus than elsewhere. There is an alertness that may best be 
gained in the college society. But there are also elements of culture 
which cannot be otherwise obtained than bycontinuous hard study. The 
power of application and of intense thinking, the formation of proper 
habits of study for after life — for the college graduate will presumably 
always be more or less of a student — the passion for truth, the satura- 
tion of the mind with the living and vivifying thoughts that have 
inspired men in all ages, the pleasures that come from the power of 
appreciating what is fair and noble in all art and the increased sense 
of the dignity and responsibility of life that comes from the wider 
outlook— to all these, books and study most efficiently contribute. 
Let us recognize, then, that, while athletic and college societies occupy 
an important, it is yet a secondary place and that the all-round college 



28 



A da J ^ictoriana. 



man is not the man who occupies prominent positions in all college 
organizations and crams for his examinations on borrowed lecture 
notes, but the man who, while he takes his part in these and perhaps 
specializes in one of them, finds time also to become acquainted with 
his text-books and indulge as well in some supplementary or general 
reading. 

Let us cultivate a college spirit that shall not only demand our 
attendance at the games in which college teams struggle for champion- 
ship honors, but shall also require that we reflect honor on our college 

by winning creditable places on the class-list. 

Senior. 




Ada Victoriana. 



29, 




A Segment of ^lature 



BY PROF. JAS. H. BOWMAN, LONDON. 

rHE members of our little Home Circle are in the habit of going 
into the fields and woods on Saturday afternoons and there 
observing, collecting and carrying home whatever Dame Nature, 
in her varying moods and seasons, may provide. The London 
district, in which we live, is unusually prolific because of the topo- 
graphy of the country and its rich loamy soil. It is at the junction of 
the two branches of the Thames whose valleys, with their wooded 
ravines, furnish the differences in soil, moisture and situation needed 
to produce variety. 

As the river drains a large section of the northern country, we have 
borne to us, on its spring tides, seeds and spores of flov/er and fern 
not indigenous to the soil. 

Besides this there is another feature of our local geography which 
adds wonderfully to the value of this field to the naturalist. This is 
the frequently occuring peat-bogs, giving us a strangely interesting 
flora with its fly-catchers and other plant specializations. They seem 
almost like small patches of a much more north .rn country, dropped 
down among our smiling hills. In extent they are from fifty to one 
one hundred acres each, and upon entering them we hear and see 
birds and collect flower-blooms quite boreal. 

With such alluring iRducements to research, it is not strange that 
nature-lovers make frtquent rambles and that their naturalist's 
instincts find ample reward. 

One of our trips, taken in September of last year, was along the south 
branch of the river, two or three miles from the city, where heavy 
woods cover the river valley and fringe several ravines long distances 
inland. 

One of our lads saw something unusual in the fork of a tree about 
twenty feet from the ground. It looked like a sponge, was of the 
same color and outline and about the size of a cocoanut. Now as 



30 Ada l^icto7'iana. 

sponges do not climb, and the " weary Willies " who might have 
made their spring-time ablutions here would hardly know the use of 
such a toilet article, I proposed that someone climb the tree and 
bring down the curiosity. No sooner was he under the tree branches 
than he started back crying out " why it's raining there " ! As the 
sky was cloudless, I said " nonsense, it can't be : try it again ". But 
it was so ; there was a steady downpour which had soaked the ground 
and be-dewed the grass. The connection between this phenomena 
and the sponge was not apparent, but that two such singular things 
should be found together and be without relation to each other 
seemed unlikely. 

Soon the brownish yellow growth was in our hands and we began 
our investigation. The resemblance to a sponge, we found, upon 
tearing it open, ceased with the outer covering. Within it was like a 
close-packed mass of sphagnum moss. This made it no less remark- 
able as no growth of this kind is found within several miles of the 
place. The memory of another ramble taken through this part of the 
country in mid-winter, when the snow was deep, drifted back to me. 
Then I had found a black mass attached to the branch of a beech tree. 
In appearance it was like a sponge that had been charred with fire 
and reduced almost to a cinder. Inside there was this same moss-like 
appearance. After much puzzling over the specimen the conclusion 
was reached, that campers, troubled by mosquitoes, had made a ball 
of moss, and saturated it with coal oil to produce a smudge. This 
explanation was not very satisfactory but was accepted for want of a 
better. Now it flashed upon me that the sponge and the smudge- 
ball were but different stages of development of the same thing. 

When the lad came down from the tree he reported the upper 
branches covered with a white wool, and declared that it was this that 
occasioned the rain. Investigation showed that a mass of the woolly 
aphis literally covered the limbs and leaves, their snowy tufts moving 
rythmically backwards and forwards and giving the appearance of 
wave ripples. These little creatures are provided with sucking tubes, 
which they insert into the bark and so sip out the sap. The dropping 
of this constituted the ^' rain " which we had noticed. On other occa- 
sions I had noticed this spiecies of aphis on tree branches but never 
dropping such a shower. 

Under the tree there was an ant colony, having the largest ant-hill I 
had ever seen. It consisted of a mound of sandy earth, four to five 



Acta Victoriana. 31 

feet long, two to three feet wide and one and a half feet high, made of 
ant holes, if anything can be said to be made of holes. 

Now we had been reading a series of interesting articles running 
through an Entomological Journal on the aphis as the ants' cow, de- 
scribing how the ants herd these little creatures, milking them at will 
of their sweet fluid which they consider a most delectable dainty. 

The previous fail, when digging my dahlia roots, I found them 
shrivelled and worthless. They were infested with milk-white aphis. 
In talking it over with an Entomologist, I was told : " If you want to 
get rid of the aphis, kill the ants." At first blush this seemed extra- 
ordinary advice, yet experience proves its wisdom, for the multiplying 
of this insect is greatly promoted by the friendly offices of the ant. 

The small rain shower beneath the tree was undoubtedly produced 
by the milking operations of the ants from the colony below. One is 
inclined to think that they must waste more than they drink, else their 
capacity must be enormous. Ants are notorious for having a " sweet- 
tooth." They love sweets as a drunkard loves his glass. Having no 
sucking-tubes of their own or other means of drawing the sugar-laden 
sap from the beech tree, these industrious little creatures tie up to 
another species provided with what they lack and so attain their desire. 
The gentle rubbing movement involved in the milking stimulates the 
aphis in his sucking operations and is apparently very pleasing to 
him. The presence of these aphides was likely the cause for which 
the ants choose this spot as their camping ground. 

But the "sponge"? We had almost forgotten it in tracing the 
other phenomena on this beech tree, the home of so many curious 
manifestations. The "sponge," which was saturated with the "rain," 
was carefully carried and sections of it were examined under the 
microscope. Unable to determine its place in nature, we searched the 
neighborhood, and, having found some other specimens, watched 
their development during the next couple of months. The outer 
layer turned gradually darker, till it finally resembled a coal black 
cinder. It was discovered to be covered with minute flask-like bodies 
(asci) containing spores, so that we knew it was a fungus and of the 
ascomycetes group. Its characters were so marked that there could 
be no mistake as to its identity. It was what Mycologists call 
Scorias, named from their resemblance to the cinder thrown from the 
crater of a volcano. The text books give several American species 
but no British ones, and this was our introduction to it. Its 
lodgment in the fork of this tree may be accounted for in this way : 



32 A eta Vic to via n a . 

The spores of this fungus, floating in the air, came into contact with 
the branches of this tree, wet with the viscous fluid from the aphis 
and were held there and fed by the nutriment thus supplied. 

This incident is the arc of a small circle of life. The beech tree 
produced the sap. The aphis drew it from the tree but would have 
died of their gluttony but for the ants who formed the third sector in 
the arc ; while incidentally the fungus used the superabundance and 
waste of the other two. 



Notes. 

SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY, who, though but fifty-two years of 
age, has already immortalized himself by discovering five new 
elements, is now in America in connection with the annual 
convention of the Society of Chemical Industry, of which he was last 
year president. His presidential address, which was delivered at the 
end of his term of office, deals with the college education of chemists, 
and is well worth the attention of all Science students. Sir William 
is a wonderfully expert chemist, as is well shown by his recent demon- 
stration that radium changes to helium, for in that experiment he 
worked for months with a bit of gas considerably smaller than a pin's 
head. But there is a still stronger proof of his dexterity, and this not 
a chemical one. He can dress for evening dinner in four minutes ! 

The well-known " kick " of a fire-hose is used for a very peculiar 
purpose on some boats recently sent out to Egypt from England for 
work on canals. On the boats are fire-engines which throw powerful 
streams of water into the air behind them, and the push of the streams 
on the air sends the boats forward. 

This summer M. Rigolly smashed the " flying kilometre " record 
for automobiles by covering five-eights of a mile in 2135 seconds. 
This is equivalent to a speed of 102,12 miles an hour. 

It is the delight of our southern neighbors to boast that they have, 
within their borders, the superlatively best of everything on earth. 
Among other things they claim the fastest and best train service in 
the world. The Scientific American, in a recent number, gives 
the following interesting facts : — 

In the United States there are but two daily regular trains that 
maintain an average speed of fifty miles an hour or more, including 
stops, over the whole of their run. In France there are thirty-five 
trains that make an average speed of fifty-five miles an hour over 



Ac'hi Victoriana. 



Zl> 



long distances. In England fifty-three daily trains, making runs 
averaging one hundred and one miles each, maintain this speed or 
better. Score, John Bull ! 

Prof. Rigge, of Creighton University Observatory, Omaha, gives 
a striking instance of the wonderful exactness of astronomical science 
by solving an apparently impossible problem ; one that a Pinkerton 
detective might despair of. Required — to find in what year, on what 
day, at what minute a certain photo of the Observatory building was 
taken. By measuring on the photograph the shadow cast by the 
eaves of the building on the brick wall an answer was obtained correct 
to a couple of minutes. The photo was taken on May 2nd, 1893, at 
3.06 p.m. Prof. Rigge adds that he is surer of the time than the 
photographer himself could be ! 

The weight of the latest Pullman car is so great that there is actu- 
ally two tons of wood and metal per passenger. This is a striking 
contrast to the economy of weight shown in the bicycle. It is'well 
remarked that such ponderous cars are mechanically absurd. 

Fogs are not in this country the menace and nuisance they are in 
England. Instead of fog-horns and bells, Sir Oliver Lodge proposes a 
new remedy for fog— destroy it ! He has proved that with an apparatus 
almost the same as now used for wireless telegraphy, small spaces, the 
mouth of a river, for instance, may be completely cleared of the 
densest fog. 








xxviu. c/lda ^idoriana. no. x. 



EDITORIAL STAFF, 1 904- J 905. 

H. H, Cragg, '05, - - - . Editor-in-Chief. 

Miss A. E. Wilson. '05 Uj^prarv ^^^^^s E. M. Keys. '06. »t„„i_ 

A. E. Elliott. '05 |iviterary. D. A. Hewitt. '06. |ivOcals. 

J. S. Bennett. '05, Personals and Exchanges. 

\V. A. GiFFORD, B.A.. Missionary and Religious. 
F. C. Bowman, '06. Scientific. "* :m. C. Lane. '06, Athletics. 



BOARD OF management: 

E. W. Morgan, '05, - . . . Business Manager. 

J. N. TRIBBLE.'O", _ H. F. WOODSWORTH, '07, 

Assistant Business Manager. Secretary. 

Advisory Committee; 
Prof. h. E. Horning, M.A., Ph.D. C. C. James, M.A.. 

Deputy Minister of Agriculture. 



TERMS : $1.00 A YEAR; SINGLE COPIES, 15 CENTS. 

Contributions and exchanges should be sent to H. H. Cragg. Editor- 
in-Chief. Acta Victoriana ; business communications to E. W. Morgan, 
Business Manager Acta Victoriana. Victoria University, Toronto. 



£bitonal 



To all our readers — to graduates, undergraduates 
GREETING. and theological students — greeting ! A new staff, 
full of hope and expectancy, a new year filled with 
glowing ideals and bright prospects ! Inspired by the traditions of 
a past, rich with ever-enlarging visions and fulfilled prophecies, we 
venture to raise the standard one notch higher. Diflicult of attain- 
ment ? Yes, perhaps ; yet with Lowell we believe 

" Not failure but low aim is crime."' 

If success in any measure crown our efforts, we fully realize that it 
will not be because of any superior ability on the part of the present 
staff, but because those who have gone before us have laid well the 
foundations of success. " They have nobly done their duty " ; and 
as they have in turn stepped down and out, each has left some con- 
tribution to the inheritance of their successors, not the least part 
of which is 

'• The banner with the strange device— Excelsior." 



Acta Vicioriana. 35 

Vacations are past, and another year is before us 

FACING THE With all its possibilities — possibilities measured only 

YEAR. by our application and receptivity. There may be a 

great difference of opinion regarding the length of 

the University vacation, but so long as the lengthy vacation sends us 

back with renewed interest in and courage to face our work and with 

keen enthusiasm to be and become the best we can by making the 

most of every opportunity to improve ourselves and serve the 

interests of others, we dare not say it has been too long. But if it 

has taken from us the power of application to our work, which we 

can regain only as the approach of examinations compels us to work, 

and has taught us to be content with trifling away our time on minor 

things, it is to us a bane, and the clamor might well be raised for a 

shorter vacation. 

However that may be, it seems certain that some men come back 
to college with the determination to make academic work subservient 
to every other interest in college life, and to having a jolly time ; or, 
at any rate, without the fixed determination to make it supreme 
throughout the year. A hard "cram "at the end may land such a 
man well up in examination lists, and on that result he may presume 
for another year. But it is not mere speculation to say that he is 
making a tremendous mistake not only in depriving himself of the 
fruits of diligent study — fruits obtainable in no other way — but also 
training himself to careless and loose habits of life which in the end 
must militate strongly against true success in the great university of life. 



COLLEGE Many complain that we have too many functions 

SOCIETIES. in Victoria — too many claims upon the time of 
the students ; and that one who enters extensively 
into college life, cannot attend to the duties thus involved, and at 
the same time be a diligent student. This is a severe indictment, and 
in some cases, only too true. But is it not possible for a man to 
enter this arena, without too great a sacrifice, and capture from it 
trophies which will be of the most signal service to him throughout 
his life ? Let us cite, in illustration, the power of concentration — the 
power to deal with one matter at a time, and, having finished it, to 
drop it entirely from one's thoughts and give himself to the considera- 
tion of other problems. We all recognize the need of such power in 
the successful business man who is connected with a great many 



36 Acta Victo7'iana. 

interests, each demanding a share of his time and thought, for without 
it, dire confusion and failure must speedily result. If our multiplied 
societies can teach us to develop this power, they will be to us a 
blessing — otherwise they must prove a curse. 

Nothing alienates the sympathies of men more 
BE HONEST, quickly than to realize that a man is not honest 
either with others or with himself. The latter is the 
greater danger, perhaps, to the college man, and more particularly to 
the Freshman. Many a young man comes in from the country 
where, as preacher, teacher, or student, he has been the idol of the 
community. The result often is a "swelled head,"— an acquisition 
entirely out of place anywhere, and particularly so in college. The 
deplorable feature stems to be that the victim is often entirely 
unconscious of his affliction, and so makes no effort to conceal it, 
thus becoming a source, sometimes of amusement, oftener of annoy- 
ance and disgust to his fellow-students. Moreover, unfortunately for 
him, it not unfrequently requires a good many hard and humiliating 
lessons to assure him that there are others who know very nearly as 
much as he does, and that, however much his abilities may have been 
in demand in rural entertainments, the various societies in college 
can, as a rule, at least exist without his aid. And college men are not 
slow to teach such lessons, simply because they realize that no man 
can do his best, either for himself or others, until he places a proper 
estimate upon himself and his abilities, " not thinking more highly of 
himself than he ought to think " ; in other words, until he is strictly 
honest with himself. If these ne^v associations do no more for 
such a man than this, his academic life will have been of the greatest 
value to hin), for it will save him from many harsh criticisms — de- 
livered in a far different spirit — when he is pushed out into life to 
fight his way through the world shoulder to shoulder with his fellow- 
men. 

V? 

The presence of our Chancellor amongst us again 
OUR CHANCELLOR in apparent health is indeed a cause for thanksgiving 
for all who have learned to love and revere him. 
For it was no slight shock to most of us when we read the first brief 
despatch which conveyed the news that during his western tour he 
had met with an accident which seemed not unlikely to be very^ 



Acta Victoriana. 2)1 

serious in its consequences. It assured us again of the place he holds 
in our hearts, and, consequently, the frequent messages assuring us of 
his continued improvement in health were glad tidings indeed. 

We congratulate him on his providential escape, and pray that he 
may long be spared to serve the interests of our beloved Alma Mater, 
and the cause of higher education in general. 

It is with the sincerest regret that we announce 
A VACANcv. a vacancy on Acta board, owing to the inability of 
our associate literary editor, Miss A. E. Wilson, '05, 
to return to college this year. Combining, as she did, an inexhaust- 
able fund of practical suggestions with consummate tact and judg- 
ment. Miss Wilson has ever been a tower of strength in every depart- 
ment of college life she has entered, and, consequently, our hopes had 
been raised very high as we reflected on the services she would render 
to Acta. But as she had been in poor health for some time, the 
recent death of her father completely prostrated her, rendering her 
condition very serious. In her bereavement and illness we extend to. 
her our fullest sympathy. 

We again draw the attention of the students to 
essay contest, to the annual oration contest conducted by Acta 
under the auspices of the Union Literary Society. 
All competitors must be bona fide members of either the Union or 
Woman's " Lit," paid-up subscribers to Acta, or members of the 
board. All essays are to be written solely for Acta, become its 
property, and must be in the hands of the editor-in-chief by November 
30th, 1904. They must bear no name, and contain not less than 
1,500 nor more than 2,500 words. 

The Advisory Board of Acta and the Professor of English in 
Victoria will be the judges with power to set a standard of excellence. 
For the best essay reaching that standard, a prize of $15.00 will be 
awarded, but no award will be made unless there be competition. 

A suggested topic is "Canadian Citizenship: its honors, powers^ 
obligations and hopes " ; but any subject suitable for publication in 
the literary, missionary, scientific or athletic departments may be 
selected. 



38 



Acta Vtctoriana. 




EBSONALS 

EXCHANGES 



THE editor of this department invites the readers of Acta outside 
of college to co-operate with him in making the columns as 
newsy as possible by contributing any items of interest that 
may come under their notice concerning any of our graduates or 
ex-students. These may easily escape the editor, and both he and 
our readers among the graduate body will appreciate such a service. 

Congratulations are due Miss Edith Campbell, '03, who headed 
the honor list in the examination for specialists in Moderns and 
English at the Ontario Normal College last spring. Miss Campbell 
will teach the subjects of this department in the Ladies' College at 
Pickering. 

Thos. Jayne Ivey, '95, has resigned his position in the Sarnia 
High School to accept an appointment as Science Master in Jarvis 
Street Collegiate Institute, this city. 

N. R. Wilson, B.A., '99, M.A., '02, Assistant Professor of Mathe- 
matics in Wesley College, Winnipeg, has obtained a fellowship in 
Chicago University, where he has gone with a year's leave of absence 
to prosecute his studies for the Ph.D. degree. 

Geo. E. Porter, '01, received his B.D. degree this year at the 
commencement exercises of Yale University. 

Friends of Rev. E. A. Wicher, B.A., '95, M.A., '96, who has 
for some years had charge of the English Presbyterian Church at 
Kobe, Japan — not a mission church, by the way — will regret to learn 
that Mrs. Wicher is in very poor health. Mr. and Mrs. Wicher are 
returning to Canada this fall. 

F. W. H. Jacombe, '96, until recently on the staff of the Guelph 
Mercury, has left for Yale University, where he intends to take a 
course in forestry in the forest school connected with that institution. 

J. W. Baird, B.A. '97, Ph.D., has been appointed to lecture in 
Philosophy in the John Hopkins University. 



Ada Victoria7ia. 



39 



W. F. Kerr, B.A., '84, LL.B., of Cobourg, recently appointed 
County Crown Attorney for Durham and Northumberland by the 
Ontario Government, is one of Victoria's most energetic and success- 
ful sons. He is the eldest son 
of Senator Wm. Kerr, also a 
Victoria graduate, and was born 
in Cobourg, where he was also 
educated, entering old Vic. after 
the usual preparatory training. 
In due course he graduated 
with first-class honors in modern 
languages, capturing the medal. 
He then studied law in his 
father's office, and when he was 
called to the bar in 1887, headed 
the list. Though his legal 
practise since then has been 
extensive, Mr. Kerr has found 
time to take an active part in 
politics, and might ere this, had 
he so desired, been the Liberal 
standard-tearer in his own rid- 
ing. A year ago he was ap- 
pointed /r^ tern to the position 
to which he has just received 
the permanent appointment. Mr. Kerr stands for the ideal of the 
college man in politics — vigorous, clean and useful citizenship. 

We are quite accustomed to seeing Victoria graduates rise to 
positions of prominence wherever they may be. A recent issue of 
the "Leaves of Healing," published by Rev. John Alexander Dowie, 
relates that the first, present and only Mayor Zion City has ever had 
was recently introduced at a public meeting there as " the man who 
had captured the gold medal offered by a person in Great Britain to 
the one having the highest rank in scholarship in one of the great 
universities of Canada." The great university so referred to was, of 
course, Victoria ; the person in Great Britain was the then Prince of 
Wales, now Edward VH., and the winner of the medal was Richard 
H. Harper. The Honorable Richard Harper graduated in '67, and 
is now not only Mayor of Zion City but a deacon in Zion and General 
Manager of the Zion Building and Manufacturing Association. 




W. F. KERR, B.A., LL.B. 



40 Acta / ^ictoriana. 

Rev. J. H. Fowler, '02, has transferred his allegiance from the 
Methodist to the Anglican body. He has taken holy orders in the 
latter Church, and gone to a western field of labor. 

How.\RD Neville, '02, has also left his early love and, after a year's 
mission work in the North-West, returned to this city, where he will 
go into business. 

Students of the college will regret to learn that the exigencies of 
the work have compelled the London Conference to take Fred. Lang- 
ford, '05, out of college to take charge of the Dresden circuit. Fred's 
absence from college leaves vacant the presidency both of our college 
Y.M.C.A. and of the Toronto University Y.M.C.A., positions which 
it will not be easy to fill so well. 



Weddings 

" God the best maker of all marriages. 
Combine your hearts in one." — Hefiry ]'. 

Hymen must have been exceedingly busy this past summer if he 
had anything to do with the unusually large number of weddings in 
which ex-students of Victoria bore leading parts. It is to be feared 
that our list, though long, is not yet quite complete, but we hope to 
fill in any omissions next month. To all the newly-wedded couples 
mentioned below Act.\ tenders its heartiest good wishes for their 
happiness, prosperity and usefulness. 

On May i6th, in New York City, Thos. Willoughby Walker, B.A., 
'99, M.D., was married to Miss Jean M. Newsom, of New York. 

H. E. Ford, '95, Professor of Romance Languages in Washington 
and Jefferson College, Washington, Pa., and Miss E. P. Baker, of 
that city, were united in marriage on June 21st. 

Rev. D. Bruce Kennedy, '03, of Rouleau, Assa., has found that 
it is not good for man to be alone, and on June 7th, at Winnipeg. 
Man., took unto himself a help-meet in the person of Miss Maria 
Lynch, daughter of the late Rev. John Lynch. The ceremony was per- 
formed by Rev. O. Darwin, President of the Manitoba and North- 
West Conference, who was assisted in his pleasant duty by Rev. T. E. 
Holling, B.A., and Rev. John W. Saunby, '87. 

A very pleasant event took place at the home of Mrs. D. Almas, 
of Brantford, when her niece, Miss Emily Shaver, became the wife of 
Rev. WiUiam Kinnear Allen, B.A., '00, M.A., '04, B.D. Amid a 



A eta I ^ictoria na. 41 

profusion of flowers, and in the presence of many guests, the cere- 
mony was performed by Rev. J. G. Foote, of Delhi, Miss Lena 
Broadway, of Seneca Falls, N.Y., assisting the bride, while Mr. Joseph 
Seymour, of Hagarsville, and Rev. A. N. St. John, '00, performed 
a like service for the groom. The bride is an honor graduate of the 
Bayonne Hospital Training School for Nurses, in New Jersey. After 
a trip to the St. Louis Exposition, Mr. and Mrs. Allen departed for 
Swift Current, Assa., where Mr. Allen is now stationed. 

On May 25th, Rev. George W. W. Rivers, '00, and Miss Lottie 
Rolley, of Wyoming, were united in marriage at the home of the 
bride's aunt, Mrs. R. S. Pritchard. Rev. John Mahan was assisted 
in the performance of the ceremony by Rev. J. E. Ford, Rev. G. W. 
Andrews, '75, and Rev. G. N. Hazen, '95. Numerous presents 
attested the popularity of bride and groom. Mr. and Mrs. Rivers 
are living at Morpeth, Kent Co. 

On June 29th, Claude. Laing Fisher, '04, and Miss Bessie H. 
Pickard, youngest daughter of the late T. C Pickard, of Holmesville, 
were united in marriage by Rev. A. E. M. Thomson, M.A., B.D., of 
Merlin. It is quite evident that Claude made good use of the time 
allowed him by dispensation from lectures. He and his bride are 
ensconced in a cosy home in Goderich. 

The marriage of Miss Grace Swanzey, '98, to Dr. W. D. Ferrie, of 
Edmonton, Alberta, took place on August 24th at the home of the 
bride's parents, 353 Euclid Avenue, this city. Rev. T. M. Campbell 
officiating. Miss Tess Swanzey, sister of the bride, performed 
bridesmaid's duties, and Dr. Fred Cawthorpe, of Hensall, acted as 
groomsman. Dr. and Mrs. Ferrie have taken up their residence in 
Edmonton. 

On September ist, at Vernon, P.E.L, Miss Mabel Gertrude, eldest 
daughter of Rev. S. H. Rice, became the bride of Rev. Alfred S. 
Rogers, B.A., B.D., of Hillsburg, N.S. The groom's father, Rev. D. 
Rogers, officiated, assisted by the bride's brother. Rev. H. C Rice, 
B.A. Mr. Rogers is a graduate in Arts of Mount Allison, but took 
his Theological degree in Vic. last year, and proved himself an all- 
round college man. 

The home of Mr. Miles Hartley, Norwich, was the scene of a plea- 
sant event on September 7th, when his sister, Miss Mary Annie Hart- 
ley was married to Rev. C. P. Holmes, of Shallow Lake. Rev. A. J. 
Irwin, B.A., '90, B.D., performed the pleasant duty of making the 

4 



42 Acta Victoriana. 

worthy couple man and wife. Charlie has been up to this year a 
member of the class of '05, but has been called out of college by the 
exigencies of the work of the conference, and very sensibly has 
decided that a preacher's efificiency is increased by marrying. The 
good wishes of his former classmates and fellow-students generally 
follow him and his bride. 

Rev. R. S. Baker, B.A., who was in the B.D. class of '02, and is 
now at Walton, and Miss Sara Alice, daughter of Dr. Harvey, of 
Wyoming, were married in the Presbyterian church of that place on 
August 17th, by Rev. Richard Hobbs, assisted by Rev. G. Gilmore 
and Rev. G. W. Andrews, B.A. 

Rev. W. S. Smart, of last year's C T. class, and Miss Mabel A. 
May, of Oshawa, were married in that place on August 24th, by Rev. 
R. Burns, Ph.B. The bride was an active church worker and will be 
much missed in her home church. Mr. and Mrs. Smart will reside at 
Blairton. 

Rev. a. W. Crawford, B.A., '95, M.A., '98, Ph.D., Prof, of 
English and Philosophy, and Dean of Beaver College, Beaver, Pa., 
and Miss Nettie Nixon, youngest daughter of Chas. Nixon, of St, 
George, Ont., and sister of Mrs. L. E. Horning, were married in Chi- 
cago on August loth, by the Rev. Dr. Herben, Editor of Epi^'orth 
Herald. Dr. Crawford obtained his Ph.D. at Cornell, where he spent 
three years in post-graduate study. Miss Nixon has been pursuing 
her art studies in Chicago, and has attained considerable distinction 
as an artist. The honeymoon was unfortunately saddened by the sud- 
den death of the bride's father, which took place in St. George on 
August 1 6th, the very day set for the reception to his daughter. Some 
guests arrived only to find that an unbidden guest had come before 
them, and called away the host. Mr. Nixon was eighty-three years 
old, and a prominent official in St. George Methodist Church. 

At 26S EUice Avenue, Winnipeg, Man., on August iSth. at the 
home of Mr. and Mrs. G. E. Wrigley, Miss Adeline Rook, of New- 
burg, Ont., was united in marriage to Rev. A. H. Hore, '97, of Was- 
kada, Man. Rev. R. P. Bowles, '85, of Grace Methodist Church, 
was the officiating minister, assisted by Rev. J. W. Coone, of Ross- 
burn, Man. Miss Bessie Holmes, of Albany, N.Y., was bridesmaid, 
and Rev. R. E. Spence, '97, of Winnipeg, groomsman. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hore are residing at the parsonage at Waskada. 

On Wednesday, August 24th, Rev. T. A. Steadman, of the C T. 



Acta Victoriana. 43 

class of '01, now stationed at Point Edward, was married to Miss 
Edith Hunter, of that place, the ceremony being performed by Rev. 
D. N. McCamus, of Sarnia. 

On June 22nd, at " Idylwild," Sandhill, the home of the bride, Rev. 
C. Langford, ol Corbetton, united in marriage Rev. J. J. Coulter, of 
the C. T. class of '04, now of Chapleau, and Miss Jennie J. Gray, 
daughter of Henry Gray, Esq. Rev. H. T. Ferguson, B.A., '90, B.D., 
of Mono Road, and Rev. G. N. Gray, of Gore Bay, assisted. 

The wedding of one of the most popular students who ever left 
Victoria's halls took place at Stouffville on July 6th, when Rev. A. J. 
Brace, of the C. T. class of '04, formerly trooper chaplain with the 
C.M.R. in South Africa, took to wife Cora Blanche, daughter of Mr. 
James O'Brien. The mystic words that made two one were pro- 
nounced by the groom's father. Rev. A. H. Brace, of Peterboro', who 
was assisted by Rev. A. P. Brace, B.D., brother of the groom, and 
Rev. J. R. Aiwenhead, of Stouffville. Miss Manning, of Brampton, 
attended the bride, and Mr. E. G. Brace supported the groom. 
Numerous friends were present to tender their congratulations and 
good wishes to the popular and worthy couple. Mr. and Mrs. Brace left 
for Jackson's Point, accompanied by quantities of rice, marguerites, 
old shoes, cow-bells and other tokens, contributed by too-zealous 
friends, and in August departed for New Westminster, B.C., where 
Bert has charge of the West End church. The sterling qualities that 
made Trooper Brace so successful in South Africa and so popular in 
college, will no doubt bring him equal success in his chosen field of 
labor in British Columbia. Acta speaks for all in college, and a 
host of others outside of college, when it wishes him and his bride all 
the happiness that health, prosperity, and good work, well done, can 
bring. 

The home of Mr. James Brandon, 199 Beverley Street, this city, 
was the scene of a pretty wedding on August 2nd, when his eldest 
daughter. Miss Amy Margaret, was united in marriage to Matthew D. 
McKichan, B.A., '98, M.D., of Broadview Avenue. Miss Mary 
Hollinrake, of Milton, cousin of the bride, and Miss Marion Brandon, 
sister of the bride, attended her, while Edgar T. Brandon gave coun- 
tenance to the groom. Rev. J. C. Speer, D.D., who officiated, was 
assisted by Rev. W. Gilroy, '97, of Broadview Congregational Church, 
and Rev. J. T. Morris, of Clinton Street Methodist Church. The 
young couple spent the honeymoon in points East. 



44 Acta Victoriana. 

Rev. R. J. McIntvre, who spent a couple of years with the century 
class, and who is now stationed at Victoria West;, B.C., was married on 
September yth, at Sandon, in the same province, to Miss Ada L. 
Pound. Rev. Jos. Calvert and Rev. Frank Hardy, '04, performed the 
ceremony. 

At the residence of the bride's father, 334 McLeod Street, Ottawa, 
on June 29th, Miss Lily M. Fawcett was united in marriage to Carl 
Engler, '01, of the Government Geographical Survey. The ceremony 
was performed by Rev. F. G. Lett, of McLeod Street Methodist 
Church. The bride was attended by her sister, Miss Mattie Fawcett, 
while Chas. Douglas, B.A., assisted the groom. After the usual 
festivities, the young couple left on a trip down the St. Lawrence. Mr. 
and Mrs. Engler have taken up their residence at 213 Patterson Ave., 
Ottawa. 

At the residence of Mrs. L. Corkill, Sydenham, on July 13th, her 
only daughter, Margaret E., was united in marriage to Rev. Jacob J. 
Hughes, '03, of Osnabruck Centre. The necessary words were pro- 
nounced by Rev. T. C. Brown, of Sydenham, who was assisted by the 
bride's uncle, Rev. S. E. Snowdon, of Plessis, N.Y. After the wed- 
ding breakfast, Mr. and Mrs. Hughes left for Toronto and points 
west on their honeymoon tour. 

On the evening of July 6th, the home of Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Carr, 
Czar Street, was a scene of festivity, the occasion being the marriage 
of their daughter, Maude B., to Rev. F. Albert Magee, of the C. T. 
class of '02. Rev. J. A. Rankin officiated, Miss Mabel Carr assisting 
the bride, and Mr. J. P. Carr supporting the groom. The bride was 
a popular member of the choir of Central Methodist Church. Mr 
Magee has returned to British Columbia with his bride, and assumed 
the duties of his pastorate at Duncans. 

The residence of Mr. John Jickling, near St. Mary's, was the scene 
of a very interesting event on June i6th, upon the occasion of the 
marriage of his daughter. Miss Amanda Jickling, and Rev. Wm. Con- 
way, B.A., '03, B.D. Friends, flowers, feasting, added to the joyous- 
ness of the occasion, and Mr. and Mrs. Conway were launched upon the 
matrimonial sea under the fairest auspices. The bride is a sister of 
Miss Carrie Jickling, '05, and not unknown to Victoria students, hav- 
ing spent last year in the city in attendance at the Deaconess Training 
School, while the groom, during his years of attendance at Vic, won 
the hearty respect of his fellow-students. They now reside at Port 
Lambton, of which circuit Mr. Conway has charge. 



Acta Victoriaita. 45 

Rev. a. p. Stanley, of last year's C T. class, was married, in 
Napanee, on June i8th, to Miss Edith Sharp, daughter of the late 
Luke Sharp, of Morven, at the residence of John Sharp, Esq., J. P., 
the bride's grandfather. Rev. C O. Johnston, of this city, cousin of 
the bride, tied the knot with the assistance of Rev. Mr. Boyce, B.A.,, 
B.D., of Morven. The bride is a graduate of Albert College, an 
accomplished musician, and exceedingly popular. They will live. at 
Echo Bay, Mr. Stanley's field of labor. 

On September 7th, at the home of the bride's parents, Bethany, 
Ont., Rev. James S. Woodsworth, B.A., B.D., and Miss Lucy L. 
Staples, 'or, were united in marriage by the groom's father, Rev. J. 
Woodsworth, D.D., assisted by Rev. H. V. Mounteer. The duties of 
bridesmaid were performed by Miss Clara M. Woodsworth, '01, while 
C. B. Sissons, '01, of Chatham, supported the groom. Mr. Woods- 
worth is a graduate in Arts of Wesley College, but obtained his 
theological degree at Victoria. His bride was a valued member of 
the staff of Lindsay Collegiate Institute. The young couple, after 
visiting Muskoka, left for Winnipeg, where Mr. Woodsworth is 
assistant pastor of Grace Methodist Church. 

Mi?s Mabel Catherine Light, daughter of Mr. W. J. Light, 
Sault Ste. Marie, and George W. Goodwin, '97, of Osgoode Hall, were 
married on September 20th at the home of the bride's parents. Mr. 
and Mrs. Goodwin have taken up their residence in this city. 



We regret that we are not able to give in this issue the present 
locations and occupations of the members of the class of '04. It was 
found impossible to secure the necessary information owing to the 
fact that some members of the class had neglected to send in their 
addresses to the Secretary of the class. However, we hope to present 
in our next issue a full list both of '04 and '03. 

The Secretary of the Bible Study Class, Mr. W. A. Walden, '05, 
requests us to announce to the graduates of Victoria that the course 
of study to be followed this year is that mapped out by Professor 
Bosworth, of Oberlin College. The book is entitled " Studies in the 
Life of Christ," and may be had on application to the Secretary. The 
prices post and duty paid will be 75c. for the paper cover, and $1.05 
for the cloth binding. Professor McLaughlin, our leader, is hoping 
that many of our graduates will pursue this course in conjunction with 
the students. 



46 



Ada Vidoriana. 



Obituaries 

Senator James Cox Aikens, whose death occurred at his residence 
in this city on August 6th, was one of the oldest ex-students and 
friends of Victoria. Born in the County of Peel in 1823, he received 
his education in the local schools and in Victoria University. After 
leaving college he returned to his native county, where for a number 
of years he engaged in farming. His political career, which was to 



*®»»i\^ 




the late senator aikens. 

prove so long and creditable, began in 1854, when he was elected as 
the representative of Peel Co. in the Legislative Assembly of Canada. 
In 1862, he was appointed to the Legislative Council, and continued 
to occupy his seat therein until Confederation, when his worth and 
prominence were recognized by an appointment to the Senate of the 
newly-formed Dominion. From 1869 to 1873 he was a member of 



Acfa Victoriana. 47 

Sir John A. Macdonald's administration, occupying the post of Secre- 
tary of State and Registrar General. During his term of office he 
framed and carried through ParHament the PubUc Lands Act, and 
organized the Dominion Lands Bureau, which subsequently became 
the Department of the Literior. On the return of the Macdonald 
Government to power in 1878, Senator Aikens again entered the 
administration as Secretary of State, afterwards becoming Minister of 
Inland Revenue. In 1882 he retired from the Senate to accept the 
post of Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba, but was recalled to the 
Senate in 1896, where he continued to serve his country till his death. 
In early youth Mr. Aikens identified himself with the Methodist 
Church, and throughout his life continued a faithful and consistent 
member of that body. While occupying posts of the highest 
political and social prominence, he preserved the simplicity of his 
Christian character, and his whole career was marked by a conscienti- 
ous fidelity to duty and the strictest honesty of purpose. His sound 
business judgment was placed at the disposal of the Church, and for 
a number of years he filled the position of Lay-Treasurer of the Mis- 
sionary Society, displaying the most scrupulous care in discharging 
the duties of his office. He was also a strong supporter of the 
temperance movement, and was for some time Vice-President of the 
Dominion Alliance. In 1892 Victoria conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of LL.D. 

Charles Walter Chafee, M.D., '84, died of an affection of the 
heart at his home, 614 Spadina Avenue, on May 25th. He is sur- 
vived by a sister, Miss Chafee, and a brother, Rev. A. B. Chafee, of 
Coboconk. 

The sympathy of all the students of Victoria will go out to Miss 
Alice Wilson, '05, in her recent bereavement by the death of her 
father, Mr. Richard Wilson, of Cobourg. Mr. Wilson, who was also 
an old student of Victoria, was a man of independent spirit and 
unimpeachable probity, a strong supporter of the cause of temperance, 
and prominent in both church and civic affairs. The respect with 
which he was regarded by his fellow-townsmen is shown by the fact 
that for three years he occupied the position of Mayor of Cobourg. 
He passed to his reward on August 24th, at the age of 62 years. 
N. R. Wilson, '99, is a son. The class of '05 also regrets to learn 
that Miss Wilson is compelled by ill-health to abandon, for the time 
being, her college course. 



48 



Ada Victoriana. 





5^^ 

RELIGIOUS 



The Lakeside Conference 

IN the changeful hurry of our College life we fail to grasp its full 
significance. Like the fleeting visions which start and fade as the 
tourist skirts the mountain or winds along the river's bank, we 
" see or seem to see " visions of a larger life and a truer beauty ; but 
lacking the hours of reflection, we fail to print upon our lives the 
lasting image of those clearer revelations. It is only as we are lifted 
up above the blinding atmosphere of the busy world to linger awhile 
in the solitude of our own and God's presence that we can interpret 
the clear outline of the heavenly vision, and catch the accents of the 
still voice. 

Such a season was our visit to the Lakeside Summer Conference. 
There on the wooded shore of Lake Erie, for ten days waiting for 
another Pentecost, two or three hundred men sat " together in 
heavenly places in Christ Jesus." Gathered from the colleges of the 
Central States and Ontario, having caught the same vision of life's 
service and humanity's need, and animated by the same high purpose 
of the noblest living, mustered for a far-reaching campaign, we waited 
the marching orders of our Divine Lord. In the early morning hour, 
with Bible in hand, we scattered by ones and twos along the shore, 
till a hundred quiet nooks became secret meeting-places with God. 
And whether in the forenoon's discussion of the practical needs at 
home and abroad, or in the afternoon hours of recreation, the very 
atmosphere spoke of God's presence, and the conversation echoed His 
Spirit throughout. In the still evening hour we sat together upon 
the lake shore and faced the question of our life's work, and with the 
purposes newly formed in our hearts we concluded the day under 
training for personal work. 

Those were indeed blessed days, a green spot forever in the memory 
of those who were privileged to attend. Their fruitage must be seen, 
in the certain testimony of the future, 

" That tasks, in hours of insight willed, 
May be through days of gloom fulfilled." 

F. W. Langford, '05. 



Ada Vicioriaua. 



49 



The Victoria Sand 

THOSE who were with us in "Vic" last year will remember the 
awakened spiritual life that marked the latter half of the academic 
year. The awakening is associated in our minds with the con- 
ference of the College Missionary Society, in January, and the visit 
later of Sherwood Eddy, on furlough from India, and of Willis R. 
Hotchkiss, from Africa. One mark of this awakening was the evan- 
gelistic services conducted in neighboring churches by men from the 
College Y.M.C.A. Another was the large increase in the number of 
those who purpose to serve as mission.iries in the Foreign Field. 
Still a third was the formation of the Victoria Band by a committee 




THE VICTORIA BAND. 

representing the Faculty and the volunteers of the College. Its 
permanent members were: W. A. Gifford, B. A., (Leader), E. VV. 
Wallace, B.A., J. H. Wallace, B.A., F. W. Langford, A. E. Elliott, 
(Secretary), E. W. Morgan. Besides these, A. E. and C. J. Moor- 
house, F. H. Langford and J. S. Bennett each assisted for two weeks. 
With credentials from Chancellor Burwash, the Executive Com- 
mittee of the General Board of Missions and the Editor of the 
Guardian^ the Band made its announcement in the columns of the 
Church organ, and awaited invitations. More than could be accepted 
were soon tendered, and after visiting several Toronto churches on 
th- remaining Sundays of the academic year, an all-summer campaign 



50 Acta Vicloriana. 

was begun in London, June 12, and during the vacation services were 
conducted in London, Woodstock, St. Thomas, Chatham, Sarnia, St. 
Mary's, CHnton, Goderich and Brampton. 

The Summer Schools at Morpeth, Port Stanley and Victoria College 
were also visited, and gave an opportunity for combined work and 
rest. One week in July was spent under canvas at Port Stanley, and 
a jolly week it was, with boating, fishing and enjoying the entertain- 
ment of kind people. 

The fun, however, lasted but one short week, and the work was 
serious enough. One week was spent in each church. For some 
time the first services of each week were given to evangelistic work, 
and men and women were converted. Later, the conditions incident 
to the summer season made it necessary either to lengthen the time 
spent in each church or to make the campaign more distinctively 
missionary. The Band adopted the latter course, for everywhere 
their own position as volunteers seemed to make their missionary 
message peculiarly acceptable. 

Each week opened with a statement of God's claims upon a human 
life, of the privilege and power of Christian service, and of the 
immeasurable possibilities of a consecrated church. This was followed 
by a presentation, with the aid of maps, of the mission fields. The 
week closed with an appeal to the individual to determine his life- 
work in the fear of God, and to take as the dominating purpose of 
his life, whether at home or abroad, the bringing in of the Kingdom. 

Missionary literature was sold. The Epworth Leagues were met in 
consultation. Meetings of the whole officiary of the Church were 
held to consider the necessity of an immediate forward missionary 
movement. At these meetings the churches were urged to choose 
and support their own missionary. 

Several results are noted. People have been converted. Indi- 
viduals and churches have been led to recognize their stewardship 
and to increase largely their support of missionary work. The Gen- 
eral Board of Missions has granted a request for individual represen- 
tation of the individual church, and has thus initiated a new policy. 
Several young men and women have determined to enter missionary 
work. Classes are being formed for Bible study and prayer and for 
evangelistic work at home, while many are observing the morning 
watch. The reflex influence upon the Volunteer Band has greatly 
increased its activity and devotion. It is confidently believed that it 
will speedily become impossible for the Church to experience again 
her recent dearth of workers for the foreign field. 



Acta J^icioriana. 5 1 

Silver Bay 

THE Student Conference at Silver Bay, June 24th to July 3rd, was 
attended by twenty-eight Canadians, nine of whom were from 
Victoria. The strongest point of the Conference was its Bible 
Study, conducted by Drs. White, Johnson and Stone. 

As at every previous Conference the question of Missions was made 
very prominent. Mrs. Pearson, of Japan ; Mr. Carter and Mrs. 
Eddy, of India ; Mr. Hotchkiss, of Africa, spoke for their respective 
fields, while Mr. Mott represented The Student Volunteer Movement. 

During " Association Hour" each day the undergraduates discussed 
plans for the coming year's work, while the graduates, in an "Alumnae 
Conference," planned to keep in touch with and help the Alma Mater. 

Three verses quoted by Mr. Speer at the closing Alumnje Meeting 

may well be taken as a motto for the coming year : Rev. iii., 8, 

■"Behold, I have set before thee an open door"; 2 Sam. iii., 18, 

" Now then do it " ; i Cor. xvi., 9, " For a great door and effectual 

is opened unto me, and there are many adversaries." 

G. P., '04. 



Tleligion in the College 

IN speaking of religion in the college we presuppose, without argu- 
ment, that its right to some place or other is recognized. Religion 
in the college is not an alien. We presuppose that college men 
and women believe in God and in a moral law with rightful impera- 
tives, in the fact of religion and its uses. Why such a presupposition ? 
Because, in the main, college men and women are neither superficial 
nor intellectually or morally deformed. 

The number unquestionably grows less of such as would write over 
the door of their model university the legend : " All knowledge 
acquired here except religious " ; or, to elaborate : " Here we investi- 
gate physical laws, but it is beyond our province to look into the 
relation of the law to God or of man to God. We revel here in 
literature, Latin satirists, Greek dramatists, French novelists, but not 
in the buried books of Moses and Isaiah, or the sayings of the Naza- 
rene. Hume we know, Voltaire, Rousseau and Paine; but who is 
Paul ? who John ? and when did Butler live ? Music we love and 
cherish, but not for hymns nor for the services of God." This would 
be both folly and hypocrisy, the true expression of neither mind nor 



5? Acta Victoriana. 

heart. Religion has its place with us. We all think so, and if we do 
not ^^Z so we will not confess it. 

But if religion has a place at all it should be clear and unmistakable, 
without suggestion of needed apology or defence, without cant or 
cringing. A religion unasserted and merely tolerated, occupying an 
ambiguous position, is a farce. The motto of Harvard has not too 
little of compromise : '■''Pro Chrisio et Ecclesin." 

The man at college stands at the parting of the ways. These are 
the days when, from the Temple-cave of his own self, the Nameless 
urges him to make his choice. What life is worth the choosing? or 
is any ? What life rightfully claims him ? or does any ? It is religion 
that ought to illuminate and strengthen here. Mathematics has its 
certainties, but not those which give peace to the soul. Literature 
and science little move the depths of the heart whence are the issues 
of life. Philosophy does not speak to the conscience, nor furnish 
motives, nor fashion character, as religion is competent to do. It is 
faith in truth and God and Christ which alone can find real worth in 
life, and give it noble ends. 

And so by every worthy allurement we will commend religion to 
the college man We will aim for every man that " whatsoever things 
are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, 
whatsoever things are pure," he may during his years with us think 
on these things ; and as for the sphere in which through life he will 
exercise the virtues here acquired, we will aim that it be determined 
in the fear of God. 



The Fall Conference of the University of Toronto Y.M.C.A., was 
held in University College, Y.M.C.A. Hall, Sept. 28th and 29th. 
The attendance was not large, but the men were representative 
and deeply interested. "Vic" was well represented on the printed 
program, the names of E. VV. Wallace, B.A., W. A. Gifford, B.A., E. 
S. Bishop, F. W. Langford, A D. Miller appearing. Because of the 
necessary absence of Messrs. Miller, Bishop and Langford, the services 
of J. S. Bennett were sought and given. 

C. M. Copeland, Y.M.C.A. Secretary for Ontario and Quebec, gave 
very efficient aid. The Association officers are preparing for a cam- 
paign to be conducted soon in Toronto University, by J. R. Mott. 




a 

P 

> 

Di5 
W 
a 

a 



54 



Acta Victoriana. 




QCAL 




HURRAH ! 
" How are you,, old chap ? " — " Glad to see you ! Where did 
you get all that tan ? " — " What have you been doing all summer ? " — 
" \Vhere do you room ? '"' — " Have you seen the Freshettes? " These 
are a few sample remarks of the kind that were flying about the 
corridors on the ist of October, and subsequent days, when Alma 
Mater received her straying brood under her wings once more. The 
rugged endearments of the men, the gentler tokens of the women, 
the bright eyes, the hearty hand-clasps and the gay jests— these will 
return as pleasant memories while the Octobers come and go and 
Latin and Calculus are forgotten. 

We met a college grad. away out on the "bald-headed " prairie, as 
the Westerner terms it — a man with wife and family and home ties; 
but the cycle of the year never brings October's golden days — so he 
told us — without a tugging at his heart-strings to return to Alma 
Mater. 

Freshman to Miss Barker — " Where do the Freshmen register ? " 

It is rumored that a Freshette strayed down to the men's reading 
room, where she was apprehended by Jimmie Hunter and escorted 
back to neutral territory. Later she expressed herself confident that 
J. H. was a Freshman. Intuition ? 

Freshman (in search of lodging) to A. D. Miller — " Where is the 
bureau of rooms ? " 

"Fools walk in where angels fear to tread," was the remark of a 
Freshman who attempted to enter Dr. I^dgar's class-room where a 
number of Freshettes were sitting. The implication is doubtful. 

Robert informs us that on October ist, while in the Registrar's 
office attired in blue overalls and armed with a broom, a Freshman 
entered and without a moment's hesitation put the question : " Are 
you Mr. Bain?" Robert says he could not suppress a baneful smile^ 



Ada Vidoriana. 55 

" I THINK I'll take this book, Mr. Aydie." This to A. D. Miller at 
the bureau. 

Miss J-m-son, '08 (meekly) — " So the girls take turns in waiting at 
the table." 

Miss Chaple, '08 (specialist), Monday a.m., October 3rd — " It's 
perfectly horrid down stairs — there's nothing but men." 

Miss P. B. F., '07— " I did nothing but get fat." 

Hamilton Adams, '06, has been suffering from a wart on the sole 
of his foot, which will probably hinder him from taking part in the 
sports on field day. This is his sole trouble, however. 

Naturally, to a Freshman, registering is a novel experience. 
Having learned how, he perpetrates the deed whenever an oppor- 
tunity presents itself. The out-of-date address book, prepared by 
the Alma Mater Society and kept in the men's reading room, tempted 
one unsuspecting victim, and he signed. 

Junior to first year theolog — " I suppose you will hold your class- 
meeting soon ? " Spec. — Yes, I suppose so. Will it be in the 
chapel ? " 

Miss Annie Allen, '02, assures us that she will sometimes climb 
the back fence of the Deaconess Home to try our ice. 

Miss J-kl-g, '05 (dazed)—" What church do I attend ? " " Why, 
I don't attend any." Oh, the passion for classics ! 

RuDDELL, '05, informs us that he will not take astronomy. There 
are plenty of stars in his course already, he says. 

Bennett, '05, on hearing that a Freshette will room in same house 
— " Won't that be jolly. I'll take her under my wing." 

Teddy, M., '06, reports that two theologs. came into the city on 
his train accompanied by two young ladies to the great scandalization 
of a friend of Ted's, who was a Med. 

To.MMiE Green, '02, lately returned from his field of labor in B.C. 
reports that he is just aching for the first reception. In the meantime 
he has begun the B.D. course. 

Bunch of juniors assembled — " Well, girls, what did you do ? " 
Chorus — " I kept house." " I cooked." " I entertained my relatives," 
etc., ad infi?iitu>ii. 

Grad.— " Annesley Hall filled Robert ? " Robert—" Yes, sirree ! 
If it had been twice as big it would have been full. It's just like the 
bicycle craze some time ago." 



56 Ac^a Victoriana. 

Miss Cullen — "And then the wedding ! Why, I shouldn't have 
felt worse if it had been myself 1 " 

The Sophomores thought they had struck pay-dirt sure on dis- 
covering a trunk in the upper hall. But it was Dr. Homing's. 

James, '05, was observed at the Union by those who arrived on the 
same train to phy the gallant very solicitously. He carried her guitar 
case and a sweet smile. 

Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson, parents of the '07 brother and sister, 
have just moved into Toronto. We congratulate George and Miss S. 
on the double privilege of being at home and at college at the same 
time, a pleasure which we cannot all enjoy. 

Clyo to Senior — "You're as unreliable as a Freshette ! " 

We are pleased to note the handsome fence about the Hall and 
other local improvements. We are glad, however, that 

'■ Stone walls do not a prison make, 
Nor iron bars a cage," etc. 

Charlie Ward, '04, wandered over from the Technical School 
where he has, for three weeks, restrained the natural passions of a 
class of fifty by his persuasive eloquence k la francjais. Charlie wore 
a red petunia and a cane. He has secured a tutorship in the Univer- 
sity of Chicago (nos compliments !), but is uncertain whether to 
accept it or not. 

You can get that book at the bureau. 

Prior to the opening of college, George Earnest Trueman, '06, 
entered into solemn compact by letter with the local editor (Masc.) 
to refrain from shaving the upper lip, each to appear in college, and 
the party of the second part to make no mention of former's appen- 
dage in these columns. Faithfulness on the part of the local editor 
was rewarded by jibes and jeers. Know all men by these presents 
the perfidy of George Earnest Trueman. 

Apropos of the above we congratulate Copeland and Lamb of '06. 

Prof. Laxgford, to Pearl Blanche F., who is registering witfi him 
— " This is Miss Faint ? " " Yes." " Miss P. B. ? " " How did jw^ 
know ? " 

Sophomore query — " Tell us — surely we could not have been so 
green when we were Freshies ? " 

" Oh wad some power the giftie gie us 
To see oursel's as ithers see us." 

Miss Van Ast-ne, '05 — " I've nothing in my head but a cold." 



Acta Victor iana. 57 

Knight, '05, could furnish locals for half a dozen college journals 
by his manifold experiences of the past summer. He was at the 
St. Louis Fair. While doing " The Pike '' he called to see a certain 
Philippine lady. Now Jack is a trifle tanned. While conversing with 
the wonder from the antipodes, their heads only being visible to out- 
siders, one was heard to inquire : " Which is the Philippino lady ? " 

On another occasion while dining in a " rice restaurant," where the 
Chinese staple took the place of all cereals and vegetables, Jack 
called a waitress (they were alone) and complained that a chicken, 
which was his meat order, was so muscular and tough that he sus- 
pected that it had walked all the way from the rice plantation to the 
Fair. This so incensed the lady of the white apron that she had him 
put out, after extorting 85c. for the meal which he had not eaten. 
Jack said he never felt so put out in his life. 

It is with deep regret that we insert herewith an obituary notice of 
the late Prince, the noble St. Bernard, who was spoken of as the best 
behaved Freshman who came in with '07. Deceased was formerly 
the property of Mr. Dunbar, the Sculptor, by whom he was presented 
to Robert. Doubtless many have missed him from the side entrance 
and the lawn where he patrolled the walks — a vigilant sentry. On 
July 1 2th he passed away to the paradise of good dogs (if such there 
is), and at midnight of the same day, by the light of a torch, Robert 
actmg for the clergy and William as sexton, they laid his great, 
shaggy, yellow coat in its last resting place beneath the pines on the 
eastern lawn by the side of the lamented terrior Bobs, late of Dr. 
Edgar's class-room. Robert loved Prince dearly, and shed tears at 
the burial; but William, according to Robert's version, "when the 
cock wept thrice, went out and crowed bitterly." 

Echoes of the tour of the Victoria University Male Quartette are 
still heard. Elmer tells how Lane, at Kingston, took the unsuspecting 
Jolliffe and Walden off the boat and introduced them to a couple of 
lady cousins whom he had picked up on the wharf five minutes before 

Voice from the hall, to bunch of Canadians in room 119, Silver 
Bay Hotel — " Girls, you're disturbing the whole corridor." Miss 
Beatty, '03 (excitedly) — " Oh ! we are just discussing original sin and 
a personal devil." 

Prof. Lang, entering suddenly, in the midst of a Y. W. C. A. 
Executive meeting — none present but Seniors — " Oh, I beg your 
pardon. Is this the Bob Committee? " 



58 Acta Victoriana. 

Harold Woodsworth, '07, wears that expression which alternates 
between exaltation and depression of spirit. Someone told us that 
Hal was showing a couple of Freshettes through the building, but we 
were relieved to observe upon investigation that they were his sisters> 
who will take special work at Vic. and reside in Annesley Hall. 

During the summer the fairy wand of the furniture dealer has 
been at work in Annesley Hall, with a result which should be gratify- 
ing to the committee. The rooms on the ground floor, which last 
year were a barren waste, present an appearance of simple elegance 
and quiet dignity, which must add greatly to the comfort and pleasure 
of the occupants. Many details in the furnishings, which were o\er- 
looked in the first plans, have been re-arranged and completed, so 
that, in so far as a pretty, comfortable home is conducive to felicity> 
the Hall should be a very happy place. Of Victoria students regis- 
tered in Arts, there are in residence two Seniors, three Juniors, six- 
teen Sophomores and seventeen members of the first year. 

Miss Gr-h-m, '08 — " Miss Proctor, please may I dust your room 
now ?" Such humility has been seen, no, not among freshmen. 

Miss M-s-n, '08 — " Is this the place where you come to get thin ? " 
Miss P-rl-w, '08 — "Yes, I hope so ; that's why I came here." 

On the afternoon of Tuesday, October 4th, an informal reception 
was given by the Executive of the Y. W. C. A. to the girls of the 
incoming class, when, under the genial influence of the hostesses, not 
to mention apples and fudge, the Freshettes began to feel a little more 
at home. 

The notice of the student body is called to the book bureau, now 
under the able management of Mr. A. D. Miller, '05. After investi- 
gation, we can assure everyone of careful attention and prices which 
cannot be bettered in the city. Patronize home institutions and 
Acta's advertisers ! 

Harold Kenneth Smith is a handsome, manly freshman, and, 
though only seventeen years of age, one who bids fair to make his mark 
in college circles. Born in Kent county, he matriculated from Essex 
High School. He has registered in Biology and Physics, with a view 
to the medical profession. The class of '08 are to be congratulated 
upon such a musical acquisition as Mr. Smith, who plays the piano, 
the violin and the cornet. While blest with but two incisors in either 
jaw he can eat an apple in two bites and expects to cut his wisdom 
teeth in the near luture. Smith is a distant cousin of Dr. Horning. 



Acta Victoriana. 59 

Among the new faces we notice these : Miss Lewis, who comes 
with two scholarships, will, judging from her intellectual face, be a 
shining light in her two courses of Moderns and Classics. Miss Ada 
Wallace impresses one as a girl who might be jolly, and her friends 
describe her by a word that doesn't rhyme with angel. Miss Hyland 
is registered in English and History. She promises to shine in the 
social life of the College. Miss Gowanlock is registered in Mathe- 
matics, and seems a thoughtful girl who will be a mainstay in her 
class along academic lines. Of the large class of '08, twenty two are 
registered in Moderns. How happy Dr. Horning will be ! 

Remarks of American cousins at Silver Bay : — 

" Where is Canada College ? " 

" We knew you were Canadians by your French accent and your 
rosy complexions " (the sun had done its best during cur trip down 
the St. Lawrence). 

" You play hockey all year, don't you ? " 

" No, I've never heard of Ottawa." 

The members of the Victoria Band have some amusing tales to 
tell. Having a week off at Port Stanley, the minister furnished a 
tent, and they camped beside the church. The first night, while 
Alex. Elliott was at his devotions, Ed. Wallace, who, with the other 
boys, was already under the covers, inquired in graveyard accents : 
" Who ever thought we'd be lying in the church-yard so soon ? " 
Alex, may be pardoned if he broke off his petitions abruptly to give 
vent to his feelings in a cheerful way. 

Echo No. 2. What's in a name ? A good deal when it will induce 
a rational being to mistake Edward and Jimmie for brothers. 

Park Street Church, Chatham — Rev. Cobbledick, addressing Dr. 
F. and turning to Edward: "May I introduce Mr. Wallace?' 
Turning to Jimmie : " Another Mr. Wallace — a younger brother." " I 
do not exactly recall your mother, but if my memory serves me right 
her complexion was very different from the Doctor's. You must take 
after your mother'' Jimmie blushed and took after Rev. Cobbledick. 

Speaking confidentially, the men of the class of '08, in point of 
numbers, looks and reputed intellectuality, do credit to Victoria. 
Among those who have come under our notice is Mr. Alex. McLean, 
who enters holding the first scholarship in Mathematics and Science. 
His home is in Middlesex county where, for three years, he fostered 
the " young idea " in a country school house. He will be a favorite 
with the ladies. 



6o Acta Victoriana. 




Tips 



IT is hardly necessary to discuss the value of systematic exercise in 
the fresh air as a factor in the normal development of a healthy 
mind. This question has been threshed out by medical men 
and scientists; and results have been of so practical a nature that,, at 
the present time, the " daily constitutional " is almost co-essential 
with eating and sleeping. The " constitutional " assumes many 
different forms, and for the edification of new students, and the 
awakening of those more familiar with college " ways and means," it 
may be well to point out the manner in which our universities have 
taken hold of the question. 

The department of physical training is now recognized to so great 
an extent by many of our colleges that courses of instruction have 
been prescribed and awards made for special merit in the pursuance 
of them. Nor has this been brought about through hygienic princi- 
ples alone. There are other motives — the natural desire for glory and 
the still more natural desire for gain (not Joe). In American and in 
many Old Country institutions the athletic team has proven itself the 
most satisfactory medium of advertisement, bringing glory to the man 
and to the college. As a body, Victoria students do not fully realize 
just how much the name of a university or college depends on a 
championship in some one line, at least. The spirit of competition is 
keen, and is equally legitimate in mental and physical effort. This 
statement may seem to have a barbaric ring, but it is undeniable that 
Anglo-Saxon history has always savored strongly of muscle, and in all 
likelihood will continue to do so. In recognizing the importance of 
the department of athletics we can do no better than emulate the good 
example of others, and effect for Victoria a more perfect issue. 

We are rather limited as to numbers in comparison with rival 
institutions, and the desire to enter the whole field of sport has 
occasioned our downfall. The necessity of specialization is an up-to- 
date fact, and only by adopting it can we hope to cope with other and 
larger colleges. That outsiders may credit us with some little spark 



Acta Vicioriana. 6t 

of pride, let us " get together" and do something. Victoria is not 
backward in mental products of a high order — she may even have 
harbored abnormalities or monstrosities — but in the athletic world 
she is known as the " Ladies' College." There is not necessarily any 
scorn in this appellation, just truth, for, verily, the dear girls on the 
tennis court and in the ladies' hockey team alone seem capable of 
achieving success. Our valiant football teams have marched out 
every year under the acclaim of the fairest of patronage ; and notwith 
standing this have been whipped like presumptious children. The 
position of the Victoria girl might be likened to that of a young 
woman dining out with her half-witted brother — horribly mortified but 
necessarily apologetic. 

In the past we have been justly proud of our religious societies, of 
our literary societies, and especially proud of Acta — a publication 
pie-eminent in past years in collegiate journalism. When our athletic 
teams can compete with those of other institutions as well as our 
college organ (not the vocalian) has competed with her rivals, then the 
existence of our stomachs will be as irrefutable as the existence of our 
brains, and we shall be Wren — men, I mean — in body, soul and 
spirit, and as such, worthy of the name. It is necessary for every 
student to take part in some out-of door work. Why not assume an 
active course in that which shall redound most to the glory of the 
ribbon he wears so conspicuously in his hat. Victoria does not beg 
her students to assist in this ; she demands their hearty co-operation, 
and absolutely no one is exempt. 

The question of specialization has been treated of during the past 
two years by members of the Athletic Union ; and the rays of opinion 
have converged to the one point — rugby. The game commends 
itself to UP, first, because it is the child of the university, and secondly, 
because it seems to be our only hope. We have no available men 
for the Association League, and it would be a senseless thing to train 
for, certain deftat. On the other hand we have many of our old 
rugby fiends still with us, and also plenty of promising, though raw, 
material. With this combination of experience and new blood we 
ought to achieve wonders. Why not throw the association balls into 
the fire, and thus prevent that diversion from the main issue? It 
might not be safe to advise the demolition of the alley board, but we 
would suggest incidentally that it be used more as a windbreak than 
anything else. Who thinks of attaining fame by this means, anyway ? 
What knightly pleasure is there in slapping small rubber balls into the* 
Chancellor's back yard, or in like manner raising bumps on the ear of 



62 



Ada Vidoriana. 



the man in front? Of course these remarks are not made in an 
absolute sense, but rather to accentuate the need of a concentration 
of purpose and effort. We cannot boom rugby too much this year, 
as our chances are good and results important. Captain Robertson 
expects every preacher to doff his white tie and swallow-tail, every 
layman his fancy vest and embroidered hose, and, clad in ferocious 
grin and coagulate foot-ball armor, join in the march, not to death 
but Victory. 

We would urge new men to "enlist" immediately. There are 
vacant places on the first team and, mayhap, changes to be made. 
College students should understand that success depends to a great 
extent on the sacrifice, not of time but of personal comfort, and 
sometimes a little pride. We cannot all capture a place, but every 
man who attends practices gives invaluable service to the " regulars." 
There ought to be thirty men on the field every practice night, each 
one determined to do his best; thus two teams may be formed, and 
the knowledge gained by the players in occasional contests is practical 
and necessary. 

For the honor of Victoria, let the men in her halls respond to this 
call and prove that the name of their Alma Mater is not a sarcasm on 
herself. 




(\. 




EUGENIA FALLS. 




ACTA VICTORIANA 

Published Monthly during the College Year by the Union Literary 
Society of Victoria University, Toronto. 

Vol. XXVIII. TORONTO, NOVEMBER, 1904. No. 2. 







November. 



BY H. ISABEL GRAHAM. 

/^ dreary days and rugged ways, 

And bitter winds so fiercely blowing; 
O fallen leaves and shiv'ring trees, 

And bare, brown fields with nothing growing! 

O empty plains and sweeping rains, 
O lonely w^ood, a requiem sighing 

O'er summer dead and songsters fled, 
And flowers in their dark graves lying! 

O early night and laggard light, 
O glittering frost with fairy fingers; 

O glad surprise of sunset skies 

Where Heaven's brightest glory lingers! 

O changeful time of gloom and shine, 

Thy charms my heart will long remember; 

In all the year I hold most dear 
The cold and colorless November. 



64 Ada Victoriana. 

The Scotch Church Case. 

FRANCIS HUSTON WALLACE, M.A., D.D , 

Dean 0/ the Faculty of Theology. 

FREE Churches in Great Britain seem to have fallen on troublous 
times. Questions of liberty and justice which were thought 
finally settled long ago are up once more and clamoring for decision. 
First we had the unrighteous English Education Act, which, while it 
delighted the Roman Catholics and Anglicans, outraged the Noncon- 
formists and drove half England and practically all Wales into "passive " 
rebellion. Now we have the decision of the House of Lords on the 
Scotch Free Church Union, practically confiscating the property of 
a great Christian body and handing it over to an insignificant recalci- 
trant minority, on grounds which virtually deny the spiritual 
autonomy of the Christian Church. 

The ultimate issue will probably be the quickening of the life of 
Free Churches both in England and Scotland. In the meantime 
there is great hardship. 

The history of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland was for many 
generations one of dissension and disruption. From the main body, 
the Church of Scotland established by law, various secessions took 
place on various principles, and the seceding bodies often subdivided. 
Even in these sometimes apparently absurd subdivisions there was a 
soul of goodness, a noble love of truth, a loyal adherence to principle. 
Take, as the highest example, the origin of the great Free Church. 
The issue was that of " patronage," the right of lay patrons to appoint 
ministers to churches without the consent of congregations or presby- 
teries. For ten years a keen controversy raged, the issue being really 
that of the spiritual independence of the Church, or, as it was put, 
" the headship of Christ." Finally, in 1843, in obedience to their 
consciences and in heroic vindication of their principles, 474 ministers 
of the Church of Scotland walked out of the Assembly, abandoned 
their churches and their manses, gave up their legal incomes, and, 
like Abraham, "went out not knowing whither they went." This was 
the more remarkable as these men were not, as the earlier seceders, 
" voluntaries." They held the principle of the union of Church and 
State, and would have welcomed such an establishment and endow- 
ment of the Church as would have left the Church free in spiritual 
things. 



Ada Victoriana. 



65 



Their success, under the splendid leadership of Chalmers, was equal 
to their heroism, both at home and abroad. They raised, without 
State aid, magnificent churches, colleges, mission premises, and en- 
dowments. Their relations with the seceders who had preceded them 
gradually became more cordial and intimate as they felt more and 
more the impracticability of their own ideal of an establishment which 
should not infringe upon the spiritual liberty of the Church. Soon 
after the " Disruption " of 1843, the centrifugal forces in the religious 
life of Scotland began to lo<:e their vitality and the centripetal to 




DR. ROBERT RAINY. 
Leader of the United Free Church of Scotland. 



assert themselves. In 1847 ^he United Presbyterian Church was formed 
by the union of the " Secession " Church with the " Relief" body. 

Not, however, until 1867 did the idea of the union of the Free 
Church with the U. P. Church find expression in the Free Church 
Assembly. But a committee on union deemed the question of estab- 
lishment to be an insuperable barrier between the Free Church and 
the "voluntaries" of the U. P. Church. The movement, neverthe- 
less, went quietly on. 



66 Acta Victoriana. 

In 1874 "patronage" in the Church of Scotland was abolished by 
Act of Parliament. But no tendency developed in the Free Church 
to return to the bosom of the old Church. The ministers and people 
of the Free Church not only had become attached to their own ways 
and their own work, but also had weakened in their devotion to the prin- 
ciple of establishment. Indeed, gradually, under the sagacious leader- 
ship of Dr. Robert Rainy, the majority of the Free Church came to 
favor the disestablishment of the Church of Scotland. 

This, of course, meant a rapprochement with the U. P. Church. 
From 1874 to 1900 negotiations went quietly and carefully on for the 
union of the two bodies, and at last, in 1900, they happily issued in 
the almost unanimous union of the Free Church and the U. P. Church 
in the United Free Church, a body at once as large and as powerful 
as the Established Church of Scotland. Of the more than i,ioa 
ministers of the Free Church, only twenty-eight held out against this 
union, honestly, no doubi, thinking themselves alone true to the 
principles of the " Disruption," but probably with " more scruples in 
their conscience than conscience in their scruples." They rejected 
what the majority claim to have been reasonable offers of compromise 
and accommodation as to the property, and attempted to hold certain 
churches and manses by force. This little minority, located almost 
entirely in the Highlands, called themselves the Free Church of Scot- 
land, organized presbyteries and an assembly, appointed a Moderator, 
and claimed the whole property of the late Free Church on the ground 
that they alone were true to the original principles of that body in 
reference to predestination and establishment. The property, so they 
claimed, had been given for the propagation of the doctrine of pre- 
destination and the principle of Church establishment, and should 
now go to those only and wholly who were true to their trust in this 
regard. 

There is evidently this much truth in this claim of the minority, 
that the Free Church has been a living Church, and not a mere trust 
corporation, and has therefore inevitably made progress in the con- 
ception and expression of truth. The spirit of the Free Church in 
1843 w^s doubtless intensely Calvinistic. The Free Church keenly 
sympathized with the Secession Church in its expulsion of the able and 
learned Dr. James Morison for his doctrine of the Universality of the 
Atonement. But "the thoughts of men are widened with the process 
of the suns." In 1879 the United Presbyterian Church passed a 
Declaratory Act, declaring the sense in which it understood the West- 
minster Confession of faith on the matter of predestination, practically 



Acta Victoriaiia. 67 

accepting the Morisonian or Arminian view. In 1892 the Free 
Church passed a similar Declaratory Act. In the present United 
Free Church, therefore, the questions of predestination and free will 
are open questions. We honor this noble spirit of liberty and com- 
prehensiveness. 

The minority appealed to law. The Scotch Courts of Session 
unanimously sustained the right of the majority. The case was 
appealed to the House of Lords, the supreme tribunal of the Empire. 
A committee of the House of Lords tried the case. But for the death 
of Lord Shand, as is now known, the committee would have been 
equally divided, the appeal would have failed, and the property would 
have remained with the United Church. The Lord Chancellor Halsbury, 
however, on the death of Lord Shand, so constituted the Committee 
as to make the success of the minority practically inevitable, as too 
soon appeared. Professor Kennedy, of the chair of law in Aberdeen 
University, does not hesitate to publicly charge Lord Chancellor Hals- 
bury with turning the House of Lords Scotch Appeal into an English 
Court ot Law, by ignoring Scotch lords qualified to sit and calling in 
Lord Alverstone and Lord James, Englishmen like himself and ignor- 
ant of Scotch law and history, instead of following the sound principle 
and practice of Lord Eldon, who, as he himself has recorded, feeling 
the difificulty of mastering Scotch law, when he had a unanimous 
judgment of the Scotch judges to deal with was accustomed to send 
the case back to their full court for further enlightenment and fuller 
information. A leading Scotch paper bluntly reiterates the charge of 
" the packing of the Court by the exclusion of the Scottish judges 
competent to sit in it, and the selection by the Lord Chancellor in 
their place of English judges as ignorant as himself of the Scottish 
conception of a church, if not of the law of Scotland." Only one 
Scotch judge sat on the Committee, Lord Macnaghten, and he 
declared for the United Free Church, and with him one English 
judge. Lord Lindley. Indeed, of the twelve judges who from first to 
last have given judgment in the case, all the Scotch judges, seven in 
number, have been in favor of the majority of the Free Church. It 
is a clear case of Scotch judges against English. 

The point of law on which the minority relied, and on which the 
Court decided in their favor, is this, that if property was given in trust 
to a certain body of men for certain religious purposes, and if the 
original legal documents of that body provided for the disposal of the 
property in the event of a schism, then the property should be dis- 
posed of according to that provision ; but, failing such provision, the 



68 Acta Victoriana. 

property must belong to the party adhering to the opinions and prin- 
ciples on which the body was originally formed. In conformity with 
this general principle of law the American Presbyterian Church has in 
its constitution a provision for the amendment of doctrinal statements 
by a constitutional process. It would be wise for all churches to have 
such provision. The contention in the case of the Free Church was 
that there was no such provision for a schism and the disposal of the 
property, and that therefore the whole property must be handed over 
to the insignificant minority as alone adhering to the opinions of the 
Church at its origin. On that principle, blindly applied, one dissident 
might block all change, progress, reform in any church. This, surely, 
is logic making itself absurd. This is law of a sort that the lay mind 
can hardly respect. 

What was the answer of the defendants? First, that the original 
Free Church documents did not make the principle of establishment 
a fundamental question, and that the Church had in various ways 
long since made it evident that it did not so regard it. Secondly, 
with respect to doctrine, that the property had been given to be held 
at the disposition of the Assembly, and that the Assembly had exclu- 
sive jurisdiction over the formulation of doctrines — given to the 
Church for the purposes of the Church, and subject to the whole 
powers of the Church. This was felt to be the most important point, 
this claim to spiritual autonomy of the Church, and the Court went very 
fully into the history of the progress of thought in the Free Church to 
ascertain whether the historical continuity had been strictly main- 
tained. 

At this point emerged the grave difficulty that English judges, 
brought up under the English Church Establishment, seemed incapable 
of any adequate conception of the Christian Church in its autonomy 
and inherent right of development. By reaction from the supremacy 
of the pope, supremacy has been given to King and Parliament over 
the Church of England, and men have learned to look upon the 
Church as if a mere creature of Parliament, and upon " Free '' Churches 
as strictly analogous to mere trust corporations. The Scotch (and 
New Testament) conception of the Church as no creature of parlia- 
ment, as possessing inalienable spiritual independence, as clothed with 
inherent prerogative over its own formulation of doctrine in loyalty to 
Christ as its Head, was simply caviare to the English judges. In the 
report of the trial we read of sneers and sarcasms, and impatient ques 
tions, and suppressed laughter on the part of the Lord Chancellor, as 
the Scotch counsel developed the claim to spiritual independence of 



Acta Victoriajia. 69 

the Church. The Chancellor directly denied the claim of spiritual 
independence, defined as the " power within the Church to do any- 
thing that affects spiritual matters." Let the Church depart in the 
least from the original basis and it forfeits its property ! Behind that 
principle the court sheltered itself throughout from all appeals to 
Scotch Church history and theology. It seemed to those learned 
lords a horrible idea that a Church could change its creed without the 
sanction of Parliament ! So Scotch religious liberty, as in the old 
days, was at the mercy of Anglo-Erastianism. What a premium this 
puts upon the hypocrisy which will mumble insincere assent to outworn 
formulae for the sake of property, what a stab to the heart of all vital 
Christian thought striving to keep abreast with truth ! 

The decision of August ist, 1904, endorsing in every point the 
claims of the minority, and handing over the property of 1,100 minis- 
ters and 300,000 communicants to 28 ministers and a handful of peo- 
ple, precipitates a momentous crisis in the history of Scotland. 
Ninety-seven per cent, of the Free Church lose all their church pro- 
perty to three per cent. The property involved includes over $5,000,000 
in invested funds, nearly 1,000 church buildings, manses to correspond, 
three theological colleges, in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Aberdeen, a 
magnificent Assembly Hall in Edinburgh, and most valuable premises 
in the foreign mission fields, especially India. It would take fully 
$50,000,000 to replace the property swept away from the Free Church 
by this startling decision. One of the most iniquitous features of the 
case is the fact that the Widows' and Orphans' Fund, created by the 
annual payments of the ministers, is taken and handed over to the 
twenty-eight ministers of the minority, and the widows and orphans for 
whom it was accumulated, are cast upon the charity of the world. In 
Edinburgh one congregation remained out of the union of 1900, fifty- 
five entered ; the property goes from the fifty-five to the one, 23,000 
people are left without churches to worship in, and fifty-five ministers 
without manses. In Glasgow the property of 103 congregations and 
70,000 people is handed over to two congregations. How can the 
twenty-eight ministers of the " Wee Free " man all the churches handed 
over to them, to say nothing of the three theological colleges with 
their fifteen professors and two hundred students? On the foreign 
fields 304 missionaries and 344 native helpers are stripped of churches, 
colleges, and homes. 

Three-fourths of the property in question has been given to the 
Church since 1874, when the Free Church Assembly declared that 
there was " no objection on principle to union with the United Pres- 



yo Acta Victoriana. 

byterian Church." Money given after that is handed over to those 
who object to such union. A large proportion of the donors of the 
property are aHve, and have gone into the United Church, and yet 
their wishes are not to be considered. Is this justice ? Is this faith- 
fulness in the administration of a trust ? For instance, out of $685,000 
raised in the Free Church during the last ten years for church extension 
in Glasgow, all but $75 was subscribed by men who not only approved 
but entered the union. Their wishes are ignored. This money is 
snatched from them and handed over to a handful of dissidents. 

According to the judges the whole matter is one of the administra- 
tion of a great pecuniary trust. Yet these same judges did not stop 
to inquire what effect their decision would have upon the actual 
carrying out of the trust They did not think it worth while to ascertain 
whether the twenty-eight ministers ot the minority and their insignificant 
handful of adherents would be able to really carry on the great and 
vast work which for so many years of splendid success the Free Church 
has carried on, but in their haste to express their scorn of the principle 
of the spiritual independence of the Church, they risked the ruin of 
the whole work which the property had been accumulated to carry on. 
The "Wee Free" Church, if it takes possession of this great property 
at home and abroad, will do so not to admmister it, but to wreck it. 

Scotland remains comparatively quiet under this outrage, because 
it cannot yet believe that such a monstrous injustice can be actually 
perpetrated. The Scotch courts have yet to give the orders for actual 
dispossession. Who can tell what we may see in Scotland if the 
attempt be made to actually turn out congregations from the churches 
which they built with their own money, and their ministers from the 
manses which they provided for them ? It is most tragic that the very 
Church, the Free Church, which once suffered the loss of all for con- 
science sake, left all to vindicate its spiritual independence, should 
still find itself in bondage and peril at the hand of the state. Of 
course, this would have been avoided if there had been an explicit 
statement of a provision for a schism or a change of creed in the 
original constitution of the Church. But surely even law and lawyers 
might take some things for granted, and have some regard to justice. 

Under the circumstances, compromise on the basis of arbitration 
having been offered by the majority and declined by the victorious 
minority. Parliament must be invoked to redress the injustice of law. 
There is an interesting precedent of the year 1844. The Presby- 
terian churches of England had long become Unitarian. The property 
was claimed by those who remained properly Presbyterian. The Law 



Acta Victoriana. 7 1 

Committee of the House of Lords decided for the Presbyterians. But 
the very Presbyterians declared they wished no confiscation, and the 
very Lords who had decided on strict legahty against the Unitarians 
introduced a remedial Act into Parliament providing for an equitable 
division of the property. It was then held in Parliament that to 
follow pedantic legality in the matter would be practical confiscation 
of money contributed for generations by Unitarians for Unitarian 
purposes. Men like Sir Robert Peel and Lord Macaulay warmly 
espoused the cause of justice and religious liberty, and the Act was 
passed. Such, we hope, may be the outcome of the present crisis. 

To the honor of Presbyterianism and Scotland be it said that the 
great question which is stirring men's souls is not that of the property 
but that of the spiritual autonomy of the Church. Robertson Nicoll, 
in the British Weekly, makes the issue one between " the living 
Church and the dead hand," and declares "a church constituted 
according to the judgment of the Lord Cliancellor has parted with 
essential liberty." In the discourses of the Free Church ministers on 
the Sunday after the decision there was a new passion for the old 
Church liberty, a plea for the inherent right of the Church to free 
development of creed and polity and work. One happy issue of the 
crisis will be a passionate earnestness in proclaiming a broad, free 
Gospel, in spite of Lord Halsbury's contention that that is inconsistent 
with the Confession of Faith and forfeits the property. The " Wee 
Free " Church may be bound by the decision to a strict Calvinism 
and to all the dead past. The great, progressive majority will abide 
by the Union, assert their liberty, preach a universal Gospel, and take 
joyfully the spoiling of their goods, rather than suffer the Word of God 
and the Church of Christ to be Ijound. 

No one has put the issue better than that leader of High Anglican- 
ism, Bishop Gore. He writes to the Times as follows : " That 
' Churches ' should be tied by a law of trusts never to vary their con- 
victions as expressed in formulas or constitutional methods, except at 
the risk of losing;; legal continuity and the corporate property which 
goes with such continuity, seems to me to be a state of things which 
every lover of truth or freedom ought to shrink from. ... I am 
writing simply from the point of view of a citizen of a great nation, 
who desires that the nation should be on the side of religious reality 
and freedom of spiritual movement. And, though I do not agree in 
many important respects with the United Free Church of Scotland, I 
cannot but think it is a grave moral disaster that our law should be 
such as to lay a dead hand upon a process of normal intellectual and 
spiritual growth in an important and noble religious community." 

lA 



72 Acta Victoriana. 

Jimong the J^eal Irish* 

BY E. W. STAPLEFORD, '05. 

WHEN one strolls down St. Patrick Street in Cork he need not 
be told that he is in Ireland. Almost every man he meets 
has the map of his native land plainly stamped upon his face, and 
" begorrah," "by faith," and " by the howly Mary," are heard on all 
sides. The signs over the store fronts show that the MacCarthys, the 
O'Donoghues, the Murphys, the O'Sullivans, the Caseys, and many 
others of suggestive names, are doing their share in the commercial 
life of the town. The most Irish place in the world is Cork. The 
most Irish place in Cork is Paddy's Market, just off St. Patrick's 
Street. Paddy's Market is carried on partly in the open air and 
partly in a massive stone building. Most of the merchants, especially 
those who transact business in the open air, are women. The street 
is literally covered with wares of every description. The women 
squat before their goods and drive hard bargains, filling the intervals 
between sales with knitting. Almost everything which the poorer 
class of the people require can be purchased here. Cheap meat and 
vegetables, fish, eggs and cheese, all of uncertain age, and second 
hand rubbish of every kind, abound. If Mike and Biddy determine 
to emigrate to "Greater Ireland," as America is called, they bring all 
their household effects to Paddy's Market, and sit there until they sell 
out, Mike breaking the monotony of business life by frequent visits 
to the neighboring public house, and Biddy seeking the same end by 
her knitting needles, with an occasional sly visit to the " Pub " herself. 
From Paddy's Market we took a walk to the hill which is crowned 
by the church made famous by the author of 

"The bells of Shandon, which sound so grand on 
The pleasant waters of the River Lee." 

After visiting the church, which is a very modest structure, we wandered 
through the lanes and courts of the parish, for Shandon is in the very 
heart of the poor section of Cork. Naples is said to be the home of 
the most abject poverty on the continent, but in Naples there is no 
such poverty as in Cork. I knocked at the doors of several houses, 
presumably to ask direction, but really to get a glance into the houses 
themselves. The dirt and squalor is appalling. Meeting a typical 
Irishman I asked him the cause of all this poverty and degradation, 

* Several of the cuts in this article are used by permission from "Here and There in the 
Home Land." 



Acta Victoriana. 



7Z 



rather expecting him to lay the blame at the door of the British 
Government. He asked me, however, if I had been in any of the 
public houses, and suggested that I call at some of them. I visited 
several of the saloons, or "pubs," as they are called, and in every case 
they were filled with men and women, and in many instances the 
women had babes in their arms. Though for the most part clothed 
in rags, still they had money enough and time enough to waste in 
drink. The British Government is not altogether to blame for the 
distress in Ireland, about which we have heard so much. 

The tourist does not tarry very long at Cork. While it is pleasantly 
situated on the River I.ee, it cannot be said to be a beautiful city, 




AN IRISH COTTAGE. 



and its attractions are not numerous. Commercially it is not in a 
flourishing condition. Its trade has declined and its population has 
decreased. Its quays are lined with unemployed men, who make a 
living by earning an occasional sixpence or shilling. If Mr. John 
Redmond would expend his eloquence and energy in inducing Irish- 
American capitalists to invest their money in establishing industries 
in the south of Ireland, he would be a real benefactor, not only to his 
own beloved land, but also to the entire British Empire. 

With such thoughts as these in mind, I started for Blarney Castle, 
which is only five miles distant. The Irish question was forgotten as 
soon as the open country was reached. Nature has been very kind 
to Ireland and never made a more beautiful spot. England is 



74 



Acta Victor iana. 



beautiful, but her beauty is conventional. Scotland is beautiful, but 
her beauty consists in her ruggedness. But Irish scenery, especially 
in Munster, is of that quiet kind so restful to the nerves, and yet so 
free and unconventional ; for Paddy, unlike the Saxon, has been 
content to allow Nature alone to do her perfect work. 

About half-way to the castle I left the railway, in order to better 
enjoy the scenery. It was a delightful May morn. Erin had donned 




KILLARNEY — THE OLD WEIR RRIDOE. 



her richest green. The rambling hedges were in flower and the orange 
bloom afforded a suggestive contrast to the green. The country seemed 
but sparsely settled. Occasionally a maiden passed, carrying on her 
broad shoulders a bunch of brushwood, or a woman with her ill-fed 
donkey and lumbering cart on the way to Paddy's Market, or a man, 
with pipe in mouth and hands in pockets, whose business would be 
hard to surmise. I called at several cottages, presumably to inquire the 
way to Blarney Castle. Kindly greetings always awaited me. "It's a 



Acta Victoriaiia. 



/:> 



foine day, sorr, and may God bless ye, sorr," was the usual salutation. 
(Later an Irish friend of mine told me that the usual greeting of a 
visitor to a cottage is, " May God bless all here, barrin' the cat.") It 
is interesting to peep into these little stone cottages with thatched 
roofs. They are usually of two rooms. The main room suffices for 
drawing room, dining room, kitchen and i)edroom lor the children. 
The chickens also have a claim upon this room, but the proverbial 




KILLARNEV — COLLEEN BaWN PARK. 



"pig in the parlor" has, I am told, become a matter of history. 
" The gintleman who pays the rint," as the pig is respectfully called, 
lives in a sty built against the rear wall of the cottage. The floor of 
the cottage is of cobble stones and is usually clean, though the feeding 
trough of the chickens occupies a place in the centre of the room. 
The peasants were most polite and wished me all the good luck which 
usually follows a pilgrimage to Blarney Castle. Some were quite free 
in imparting domestic history. One man told that he had " a son 
who is doin' foine in Ameriky," while a good old woman mentioned 



76 



Acta Vicioriana. 



\S\dX her daughter Katie was just "killin' hersilf wor-r-kin' in Boston," 
and intended to return home as soon as she could save enough money. 
When approaching the castle I met a man walking with a hurried, 
nervous step. His features were of the Irish caste, his walk distinc- 
tively American. "I've kissed the Blarney Stone," said he, in a tone of 
exultation. " Good luck to you," was the rejoinder, as we shook 
hands. " You live in America," I continued. " Yes," he said, " I 








b^ifc!^/ 



ENTRANCE TO THE (;aP OF DUNLOK. 



left Ireland fifteen years ago. You are an American ? " " No, 
better than that," I replied. " I am a Canadian." " Oh, well, it's 
just about the same thing," he answered. (Personally, I think there 
is a great difference.) We fell to discussing the Irish question. 
" What is the cause of the poverty in Ireland?" was asked. " It's the 
Government, the wretched British Government," he replied with great 
emphasis. It is too true that the Ireland of to-day is sufifering from 
the oppressive rule of the last three centuries. The curse of Cromwell 



Acta Vzctoriana. 



77 



is still upon the land. The iron heel of the conqueror has, to a 
certain extent, crushed out the fiery spirit of the Celt, and carelessness 
and indolence have displaced thrift and ambition. But it is also true 
that the British Government, within the last quarter of a century, has 
done all in its power to redeem the past, and to-day, under Wynd- 
ham's Land Bill, Ireland is granted privileges which no other people 
ever enjoyed. It is to be regretted that more of the people are not 




VIEW IN THE GAP OF DUNLOE. 



availing themselves of the advantages of this Land Bill. If Irish 
agitators, instead of wasting their energies in hurling invectives at the 
British Government, would use their influence to induce the Irish 
people to take advantage of their privileges, they would be true patriots 
and a real help to the great masses of the poor. Further, if the fearful 
waste of resources through the drink evil could be stayed, and the 
capital thus conserved devoted to the establishing of industries, Ireland 
would again bloom and blossom as the rose, and the Gem of the 



78 Acta Victoriana, 

Ocean would once more occupy her rightful place among the countries 
of the world. 

But are we not standing before that shrine of Irish wit — Blarney 
Castle ? A massive donjon tower, one hundred and twenty feet in 
height, is all that remains for our inspection. An interesting old lady 
was in charge of the castle and told that it was built in 1446 by Cormack 
MacCarthy, a descendant of the ancient kings of Munster. During 
the days of Queen Elizabeth, it was the strongest fortress in Munster, 
often repelling the attacks of besieging armies. It fell before Crom- 
well's men in 1646. Later the Lord of Blarney was exiled for Jacobite 
sympathies, and the troops of King William destroyed all but this 
single tower. The fair keeper of the castle also told us of the virtues 
of the famous stone, which is placed high up on the battlements. 

" There is a stone there, whoever kisses 
Oh I he never misses to grow eloquint, 
'Tis he may climb to a lady's chamber, 

Or become a mimber of sweet Parliament.' 

She pointed out the stone, telling, not showing, how it is to be 
kissed, and closed her tale by mentioning that she had been "in 
charge of the castle for over thirty years." I remarked that I could 
scarcely understand how one so young could have been living here so 
long. " I can see, sorr, that the stone is beginning to wor-r-k on ye 
already, sorr," she replied. It's impossible to get ahead of the Irish. 

After obtaining a magnificent view of the country from the top of 
the tower, I went below and explored the dungeons where old-time 
prisoners waited in gloom and misery for something to happen. It 
was delightful to regain the sunlight and wander among the groves of 
Blarney. 

The little village of Blarney was close at hand, and the boys and 
girls were just coming Irom school. Stopping a bunch of the boys, I 
asked them to show me their text-books. They were very polite, far 
more so than the average school-boy in the Western Hemisphere. 
" What do you know about Canada ? " I asked. 

" Canada, sir, is very hot in summer and very cold in winter. Corn, 
lumber and apples come from Canada. It's a good place to go to, 
for they give away farms free." 

Not bad for a Blarney boy of about twelve, is it ? I was very glad 
to notice throughout the British Isles that the ignorance which has 
so long existed regarding Canada is rapidly disappearing, and the 
British school-boy is almost as well informed regarding Canada as the 
Canadian school-boy is regarding Great Britain. 



Acta Victoriana. 



79 



But Blarney, wrapped in beauty and mystery, had to be left behind, 
for the evening train soon started for Killarney. The compartment of 
the car I entered was empty, but soon a guard escorted two ladies to 
the door. I withdrew to a corner and hid myself behind a Cork 
newspaper, but could not help noticing that one of the ladies had the 
English cast of features, while the other was decidedly Irish — a fine- 
looking woman, richly dressed, evidently of the " better sort." We 




BLARNEY CASTLE. 



had travelled but a few miles when the Irish lady, looking over to the 
form behind the Cork journal, said : " Excuse me, sir, but would you 
object if I should have a smoke ? " 

Coming from so fair a petitioner the boon was readily granted. 
A beautiful silver cigarette case was produced, and the lady very 
kindly asked me to join in the smoke. I was compelled to say that 
as yet I had not acquired that accomplishment. But smoking has 



8o Acta Victoriana. 

some advantages from a social standpoint, and the lady ventured to 
remark : " You are from America, I believe ?" 

" From Canada," I said. 

" Toronto ? " 

" Yes, from Toronto." 

" Oh, I think Toronto is the loveliest city in America," she said. 
" We visited many cities when there, but we thought Toronto the 
finest of them all, though we liked Montreal, too." 

Cards were exchanged, and I learned that my newly-acquired Irish 

acquaintance was the wife of the squire of , while her companion 

was the wife of the vicar of the same place. In true Irish fashion I 
was invited to pay them a visit, one stating that her husband had 
business interests in Canada and would be glad to meet a Canadian. 
I was greatly disappointed that my plans were such as to prevent my 
accepting the invitation. 

It was dark when the town of Killarney was reached, but the next 
morning revealed the fact that the town itself possesses few charms. It 
consists of a few winding streets, lined with low, squalid-looking 
houses. On market-days the town is full of all sorts of interesting 
people from the surrounding country, men in long-tailed coats and 
knee-breeches, strutting through the crowd and swinging their shil- 
lalahs in a dangerous manner ; women enveloped in shawls, carrying 
great baskets of produce on their shoulders, or standing beside their 
faithful donkeys ; and laughing barefooted colleens, whose black eyes 
flash bewitchingly. 

Tourists visit Killarney not to see the town but the lakes which 
have made the name famous. At breakfast in the morning I had the 
good fortune to meet a gentleman from Philadelphia. We arranged to 
make the trip of the lakes together. At ten o'clock a typical Irish 
jaunting-car was in waiting. We had a beautiful drive alongside a 
magnificent demesne, which had recently been bought from its original 
owner by a prominent brewer, and is now used merely as a game 
preserve. Another cause of Ireland's poverty is here suggested. 
How many prosperous homes could be supported if that great game 
preserve of thousands of acres were cut up into fifty-acre lots? After 
a nine-mile drive through a wild, rugged country we arrive at Kate 
Kearney's cottage ; 

" O did ye ne'er hear tell of Kate Kearney ? 
She lives by the banks of Killarney ; 

One glance from her eye. 

Shun danger and fly, 
For fatal's the looks of Kate Kearney." 



Ada Victoriana. 



8i 



Here we made a stop, for souvenirs and mountain dew are dis- 
pensed by the noisy descendants of the bewitching Kate. We also 
left our car here, as the road through the Gap of Dunloe can be 
travelled only on foot or by pony. It is a four-mile trip. We elected 
to walk. It is an interesting trail through the wild narrow pass 
between Macgillicuddy's Reeks and Purple Mountain, reminding one 
of some parts of the Kootenay country in British Columbia. A small 




GLENA I'.AY, KILLARNEY. 

Stream called the Lor goes leaping the craggy cliffs and adds beauty 
to this rugged scene. We passed a small lake known as Black Lough, 
where, our guide told us, " St. Patrick, God rest his sowl, banished 
the last shnake in Ireland." Along the trail the traveller is besieged 
by natives selling trinkets or begging. Oat from behind bushes and 
rocks step pretty colleens selling goat's milk and poteen. Upon being 
asked the price, one of them replied, " To foine gintlemen loike ye, 
just whatever ye loike." After such blarney we had not the heart to 
offer anything less than a shilling. 



82 



Ada Victoriana. 



After a good stiff walk of nearlyan hour the Lakes of Killarney 
burst upon our view. It might be mentioned that there are three 
lakes — the Upper, the Middle (or Muckross), and the Lower. The 
Upper Lake is the smallest of the three, being only two and a half 
miles long by one mile wide, but it is the most beautiful and is 
magnificently situated amid wild and lofty mountains. Here a boat 
in charge of two men was awaiting us. A lunch which had been 
prepared was greatly enjoyed as the boat glided by the many little 




IN A JAUNTING-CAR. 

islands of the lake. The scene before us was one of surpassing beauty. 
In the distance could be seen the lofty peak of the Carrantus, the 
highest mountain in Ireland. On the right frowned the craggy sides 
of Cumaglan. Soon we entered Long Range, the channel connecting 
the Upper and Middle Lakes. 

After a fine row among islands, beautiful in every shade of green, 
we reached the " Meeting of the Waters." We shot the rapids under 
the old Weir bridge, and, as we passtd its massive stone arches, one 



Ac/a Victoriana. 83 

of the boatmen said, ■' Now, gintlemen, this is the owldest bridge in 
Ireland, it was built when Adam was a little bowy." 

At the head of the Lower Lake is Ross Castle. This ivy-clad ruin 
was formerly the stronghold of the great O'Donoghue family and dates 
from the fourteenth century. It is celebrated in history as being the 
last fortress in Munster to hold out against the Parliamentary army. 
It is an interesting old ruin and from the top of the tower a magnificent 
view of the lakes can be obtained. 

A trip to Killarney would be incomplete without a visit to Muckross 
Abbey. It is situated about three miles from the town near the 
village of Cloghereen. So next day I strolled out along a beautiful 
country road with the abbey as my destination. The monks of old 
evidently had a love for the beautiful, for well did they select the site 
for the sacred pile. The abbey is built on a hill commanding a fine 
view of the Lower Lake. The hill reaches the edge of the lake by a 
series of beautiful terraces. It is said that a church, which was 
destroyed by fire in 1190, stood upon the site of the present abbey. 
The abbey itself was founded by Teige MacCarthy for the Franciscan 
monks. In the centre of the choir is the vault of the MacCarthys, 
and here also sleep the stormy chiefs of the O'Sullivans, and the 
O'Donpghues. The best remaining portion of the abbey is the cloister, 
in the centre of which grows a magnificent yew tree which seems to 
be as old as the abbey itself. 

Strange feelings creep over one as he wanders about these monu- 
ments of the past. I thought of the brave Celts who sleep amid these 
ruins. Noble men they were. When the now proud Saxon was but 
a sea-pirate, the sons of Erin were enjoying a comparatively high state 
of civilization. Schools and colleges flourished throughout the land. 
If Ireland had been left alone to develop along her own lines, would 
the later pages of her history have been brighter? This is a question 
hard to solve. Erin has had her dark days, but to-day her prospects 
are brighter than they have been for four centuries. 

Musing over these things I strolled down to the shores of the lake. 
What a picture the Great Artist has thrown upon Nature's canvas ! 
Standing there, an incident of the previous day is recalled. When 
rowing down the Middle Lake we asked our boatmen for a song. One 
of them laid down his oar and began to sing : 

" Ireland is the most distressful country 
That ever you have seen, 
For they're hanging men and women, too. 
For the wearing of the green." 



84 Acta Vicfonana. 

I shall never forget that song. The boatman was a big, broad- 
shouldered, deep-chested Irishman. He began to sing in a low 
tone. Gradually the song took possession of the Celt, his eyes flashed 
fire, his great chest heaved with passion, and the song became the 
defiant cry of an oppressed but unconquered people. I felt that the 
fiery soul of the native Irish is still alive, and that the persecution of 
centuries has been unable to quench its flame. These words still 
echo and re-echo amid the vales of Killarney, 

"They're hanging men and women, too. 
For the wearing of the green. ' 



Funditores Imperiorum. 

O SPIRITS tremendous, titanic, austere. 
Who founded the empires of earth, 
Your fabrics of glory were builded on fear, 
The music of swords was your mirth. 

Defiant, undaunted, you travelled the path 

Where Destiny beaconed success. 
And peoples opposing succumbed to your wrath. 

And Liberty shrieked in distress. 

Like lamps at a feast ye all flamed in your pride, 
The pomp of great kings was your prize. 

And Lust, your elusive and beautiful bride. 
Flashed views of far fields in your eyes. 

O Founders of Empire, how massive your tread ; 

How crimson the flower of your fame ; 
What visions of glory, invincible dead, 

Arise at each magical name ! 

The young Alexander, the gallant, the fair. 

With star so refulgent, so brief; 
On Indus' far banks Glory weeps for him there. 

And Youth still admires his fond grief. 

The legions of Caesar advance into Gaul, 

And patient is resolute Rome ; 
To mightiest Julius the Celts are in thrall, 

His ships cleave the westermost foam. 



Acta Victoriaria. 8' 

Rome withers : her grandeur declines, and her sons 

Are nerveless, supine, helpless prey 
To Attila, terrible King of the Huns, 

The scourge of the world for a day. 

The sword of Mahomet in Araby gleams, 

The Crescent invades every clime. 
But Caliphs and Sultans deterred not with dreams 

The dusty siroccos of Time. 

As brilliant, as baneful as any of eld 

Who founded great empires and fell, 
Napoleon's grim star its ascendancy held 

Till Europe had tasted of hell. 

Yet, Masters of Men, notwithstanding your power, 
Death sought you and vanquished you quite ; 

Fate suffered you, each for his one little hour, 
Then plunged you in nethermost night. 

— Williaf?i Talbot Allison. 



Ji Plea for the High School. 

SELF-DEPRECIATION in matters educational cannot be said to 
be one of our national defects. It is true that there are those 
in Ontario who urge various minor changes in the course of study, 
but in general it is safe to say that even with them any improvement 
would partake of the nature of a refinement on perfection rather than 
of a step taken to keep pace with the times. Without venturing to 
call in question this assumed superiority in school matters, might it 
not be safely asked whether on general principles such self-satisfaction 
is to our own best interests, especially at a time when Mosely Com- 
missions, and Committees of Nines, and Tens, and Fifteens, taking 
nothing for granted, are seeking to " formulate improved educational 
doctrine " along all lines ? 

The all-satisfying proof given by us in support of our claim to 
superiority is that the graduate of our primary schoo', high school or 
college outshines the graduate of the school of like standing in the 
United States. Although this has never been put to a fair or final 
test, yet, in view of the severe uniformity of requirement in Canadian 
schools and the great diversity of standard of schools in the United 
States, it is probably true or, at any rate, quite as true as any state- 



86 Acta Vicloriana. 

ment so sweeping in character could well be. Indeed the educators 
of the United States themselves as a rule quite freely concede our 
superiority in this respect, and it is a matter of comment sometimes 
with us that they do not pay more attention to our system of 
education, with a view to getting a leaf out of our book. 

It is rather startling, therefore, for a Canadian to learn that, far 
from regarding this as something inviting imitation of our system, 
they are more inclined to regard it as a danger signal. The reason 
for this is not hard to discover. The travelled "American" — even 
the one who has only been across the bridge at Niagara Falls — likes 
to demonstrate the keenness of his powers of observation by noting all 
the particulars in which we resemble the " English." It is not hard, 
therefore, for him to associate our severe examination requirements 
with all he has ever heard or read of the cramming methods formerly 
in vogue at Oxford and Cambridge, with the life-crushing rigidity of 
the German system and thence with empty mediaeval Scholasticism, 
Chinese government examinations and all the rest of the unsavory 
things connected with rigid intellectual tests. 

Nor can this peculiar prejudice to our system be attributed entirely 
to their native disdain for all things un-American. A United States 
schoolman, in estimating the value of the work of a school, will not 
take as the main point the proficiency of individual graduates in the 
subjects studied. He is sure to inquire also into the ability of the 
graduate to make ready use of the knowledge acquired, and, above 
all, he will take into account the number of students entered, the 
number of students graduated in proportion to the number entered, 
and the degree of proficiency of each before entering and after leaving, 
thus judging the school by the cumulative rather than the individual 
good accomplished. Their highest aim is to place as good an 
education as possible within reach of the many ; the greatest good to 
the greatest number is the motto. 

Viewed from their standpoint, it is not hard to see which branch of 
our system is not doing as much good as it ought to do. There is a 
distinct national loss in our aggregate educational attainment from 
the fact that our Canadian High School course, except as a prepara- 
tion for college or for teaching, has not a more widely recognized 
value as a final preparation in itself for entering upon the ordinary 
occupations of life. There is something wrong here, even though we 
grant that a college education is the ideal equipment for citizenship. 
Surely there are grades of advancement short of this, yet in advance 
of the public school, desirable of attainment ! It is true that some do 



Ada Victoriaiia. 87 

attend the High School who afterwards neither teach nor attend 
college, but these are mostly those who are counted out before com- 
pleting the course — dropped in silence because they could not pass 
the examinations. The fact remains that there is no considerable 
body of students attending High School for a definite length oi time 
for the sake of the education alone. 

The. fact of the matter is that we pay so much attention to the 
single aim of " keeping up the standard " that we lose sight of other 
aims and come well nigh to creating an intellectual aristocracy, thus 
denying the benefits of a higher education to many for the sake oi the 
few. In the United States the High School is commonly called the 
People's College, and in this there is no disparagement of the college 
proper, for it gains rather than loses by the popularity of the High 
School They graduate from the High School with all the ceremony 
of a college graduation. They have their class day, commencement 
and baccalaureate sermon, while the nomenclature, freshman, sopho- 
more, junior and senior, is quite familiar to every citizen. All of this, 
of course, would be quite ridiculous in itself if it did not carry with 
it the substantial fact that a very large proportion of their primary 
school graduates enter the High School, and then remain there until 
they have completed an organized three or four years' course. 

Our High School course is not framed with a view to making it an 
independent unit in our system, attractive and desirable in itself. In 
the choice of subjects, and especially in the prescribing of work within 
each subject, too exclusive attention is paid to college entrance 
requirements. Not enough attention is paid to giving the course in 
any subject aim and purpose. The student is not brought soon 
enough to see the practical and therefore interesting side, and too 
little attempt is made at giving the student some idea of the scope of 
the subject as a whole. We prescribe enough drill in the subject to 
enable the student to pursue the subject with ease after he enters 
college, tnere to learn the use and beauty of the subject. 

We grind away at Latin composition, and then take one book of 
Caesar's masterly commentaries and part of one book of Virgil's great 
epic, chosen arbitrarily without reference to the poems as a whole, as 
exercise for drill on translation, so that after the student enters 
college he may read the poem and find out what it was all about. 
The practical side to the study of Latin, a dead language, is the 
ability to read Latin ; and this, after all, comes mainly by much 
practice, and may indeed \>^: acquired without a thorough knowledge 
of grammar. This is not a plea for the discontinuance of the study of 



88 Ada Victoriana. 

Latin grammar, but it is a plea for the reduction of the existing dispro- 
portion between the amount of dreary mechanical work and the amount 
of Latin literature read in the High School. This should be done 
by increasing the amount of translation to at least four books of 
Cassar and six books of A'irgil. We might then expect to make 
Latin what it may be, but is not now, in the High School, a popular 
subject. 

Our course in English is open to much the same criticism. We 
study scraps and fragments of an author or a poem. The practical 
result of a course in literature is not merely the ability to understand 
difficult passages of literature, but rather the kindling of a desire for 
good literature. A sense of the personality of the author is necessary 
to the intelligent comprehension of even detached passages or poems. 
It is, furthermore, necessary to the discovering within the pupil of 
taste in literature, a predilection for a certain author or a certain type 
of literature. This can only be acquired by comparative reading of 
an author's works, and by comparison with works of the same type 
by other authors. We leave the study of types and periods of litera- 
ture over to the college. We too often expect the mature appre- 
ciation of a gem of literature in a fifteen-year-old student, and by too 
much drilling render forever distasteful what might have been "a 
thing of beauty " if some of the " shades of meaning " had been left 
to grow upon the student. But, worst of all, we ignore our own 
Canadian literature ! 

Our methods of teaching do not tend to enable the student to make 
use of his knowledge. We do not develop sufficiently in the pupil 
the power of fluent expression, since the student's ability to recite in 
class is not taken into account in estimating his fitness for promotion. 
There is not enough independent work required of the student day by 
day. The teaching is too well done, and the pupil relies upon that 
too much, thus destroying his feeling of self-help. 

Too many subjects are studied concurrently, and the interest which 
should be concentrated is dissipated over too wide a field. The 
pupil who recites geometry twice a week and has seven other studies, 
is more likely to hate the subject than if he recited it every day and 
had only three other studies. 

In spite of the best school machinery the educational standard 
must still depend upon the attitude of the people toward education. 
Indifference and apathy will defeat the most intelligent efforts. The 
efficiency of any school should be its own best drawing card, but any 



Ada Victoriana. 89 

feature which tends to make it attractive to a greater number of stu- 
dents is worthy of attention. 

Canadian people are, as a rule, skeptical about " American " 
methods. We are probably quite justified in not desiring any closer 
union with the United States. We should not, on that account, be 
narrow and superficial in our judgment of them. We say they are 
over-hasty for visible results ; too practical, and inclined, therefore, to 
be crude and immature in their attainments. In all justice let it be 
said that any crudity or immaturity in things educational is due to 
the rapid changes taking place to satisfy the demand for education, 
and that the sin of being practical or over-hasty about visible results 
is not unpardonable when it has for its aim, not the cultivation of an 
ethereal ideal of education for the few, but the education and uplifting 
of the masses. C. E. Auger, '02. 



Grunt the First. 



Pulpiteers. 



CHURCH-GOERS sometimes ask themselves, after listening to a 
new, young minister, " How did he manage to wriggle through 
his course?" the question arising because the new, young man 
mumbles and hesitates and drops his voice, besides making what, by 
courtesy, is called his " discourse " not only otherwise uninteresting, 
but positively painful to his hearers. 

Unfortunately, too, there are examples of new, young men becoming 
old, old ones, and clinging meanwhile to all their mannerisms; and 
now and again it seems a case of "the older the worse." 

Why should a minister have a pulpit voice as distinguished from 
his ordinary tones? Some have even a pulpit pronunciation! A 
well known D.D., who has no difficulty in saying "Lord," "God," 
"salvation," "power," and some other words, just as they ought to be 
spoken, the moment he enters the pulpit, pronounces these as 
" Lorda," "Goda," "salivation," "pawoer." This is an extreme 
case, but we all know of others equally disagreeable and distracting. 
Besides, there are people of quick ear who profess their ability to 
distinguish Episcopalian, Methodist and Presbyterian ministers simply 
by the quality of tone in common conversation. 

Was there ever an example known of a young man being refused 
ordination on account of his (let us put it mildly and say) "awkward 
ness and the insignificance of his personality ? " Observer. 



go 



Ac/ a Victoriana. 



Grunt the Second. 



One Species of Humbug. 

PERHAPS the medical profession provides more room and there- 
fore offers greater temptations than any other to practice 
popular humbug. Not long since a gentleman fearing sciatica con- 
sulted a well-known physician, who, after a long and apparently 
careful examination of his patient's left hip, said, "Well, of course 
you know sciatica is possible, but, in the meantime, I can find nothing 
but an acute affection of the seventh nerve." At another time a lady 
from a distance called upon " His Sapiency " for advice respecting a 
pain in her shoulder, neck, and the side of her head, when she, too, 
was informed that she had " Just caught a cold, and the seventh 
nerve was somewhat affected." During the past month two other 
cases have occurred in which the trouble came from the seventh 
nerve, one being in the right sole, the other in the right fore-arm. 

Akin to those who believe in palmistry, astrology, osteopathy, 
absent treatment and the like, are those who feel a certain amount of 
satisfaction not only in being able to inform their friends that the 
doctor says, "All the trouble is with the nerves," but to add, "and 
it's mostly in the seventh nerve." Seven has always been regarded as 
a sacred number, and in some inexplicable manner this bugaboo 
gives them pleasure. How long shall these things be ? 

Observer. 




PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, TORONTO. 



Acta Victoriana. 



91 




Jilchemy. 

ALCHEMY has a rather doubtful claim on us on the ground of 
its scientific value, but its annals are so crammed with human 
interest that a peep into its gloomy and mystical past is, for such as 
were formerly called " ingenious persons," really fascinating. 

The general aims and objects of the so-called " sacred art " of 
alchemy are probably vaguely known to even the profane — which word 
must be taken in its ancient sense— but a short statement of them is 
necessary. It was thought that there existed or could be made three 
things of the highest value and most wonderful properties — a philoso- 
pher's stone, which would change quicksilver to gold ; an elixir of life, 
which would give eternal youth and health, and an alkahest or universal 
solvent. The elixir and the philosopher's stone were somewhat con- 
fused with each other. For these objects many men in the Middle 
Ages spent their health and money, and even their lives, and the bane- 
ful delusion lived even to times quite modern. 

It is a puzzle how such peculiar ideas were ever thought of, much 
less believed. There is good reason to credit them originally to the 
arm-chair philosophy of the Greeks. Socrates, though so shrewd and 
deep a thinker, said that the true nature of external objt;cts could be 
discovered by thought without observation, and most Greek philoso- 
phers were at one with him in his scorn of investigation. By this 
delightfully unscientific method they evolved and elaborated the 
doctrine that all things are formed of four elements ; indeed, many 
philosophers reduced this number to one. Granted these premises, 
the alchemists' deduction, that one element could be changed to 
another, was simple and logical. 

The alchemists had, however, far difierent theories of the origin of 
their art. To them it was clear that Adam must have known of the 
elixir of life, else how did he live so long ? Of course he would also 
know of the philosopher's stone. And where could he learn these 
secrets but from the devil ? Others, more moderate in their claims, 
did not trace their art to his Satanic Majesty, but ascribed its beginning 



92 



Acta Victoriana. 



to Tubal Cain, or to Abraham, or to Moses. The most popular and 
most credited account named Hermes Trismegistus as the father of 
alchemy. He is said to have lived about 2000 B.C., and to have had 
the mighty secret of transmutation engraved on a tablet of emerald and 
buried with him. Sarah, the wife of Abraham, explored his grave, for 
motives unrecorded, and found the tablet and transmitted the inscrip- 
tion to us. It consists of thirteen propositions, and we quote a couple : 

"Separate the earth from the fire, the subtle from the gross, 
prudently and with judgment." 

"Ascend with the greatest sagacity from the earth to heaven, and 
then descend again to the earth, and unite the powers of things 




superior and things inferior. Thus will you obtain the glory of the 
whole world and obscurity will fly far from you." 

Unfortunately, this lucid statement does not cause obscurity to fly, 
for many patient investigators through hundreds of years spent their 
lives in trying to read its riddle. It is sad, but necessary, to add that 
this legend cannot even claim great antiquity, for it is probably the 
ingenious fabrication of monks who had more leisure than was good, 
and is an example of that old saw about Satan's ability to find em- 
ployment for the idle. 

It may be mentioned in passing that to this mythological Hermes 
no less than thirty-six thousand books have been ascribed, so that he 
must have been a more prolific author than Dumas, as one writer sar- 
castically remarks. A memory of him lingers in our common word, her- 
metic, for to hermetically seal wa.s originally to seal with Hermes his seal-. 



Acta Victoriarm, 93 

It would be impossible or useless to select for description any parti- 
cular member of the multitude of follawers of Hermes, or to attempt 
any connected relation of the fortunes of his art, for all alchemical 
history is in chaos, and most of what we do know is not true. A 
short description of a typical alchemist by Paracelsus, himself a past 
grand master of the cult, would be better : " They are not given to 
idleness, nor go in a proud habit or plush and velvet garments, often 
showing their rings upon their fingers, or wearing swords with silver 
hilts by their sides, or fine and gay gloves upon their hands, but dili- 
gently follow their labors, sweating whole days and nights by their 
furnaces. They do not spend their time abroad for recreation, but 
take delight in their laboratory. They wear leather garments with a 
pouch and an apron whereon they wipe their hands. They put their 
fingers amongst coals, into clay and filth, not into gold rings. They 
are sooty and black like smiths and colliers, and do not pride them- 
selves upon clean and beautiful faces." In short, they were plugs. 

While Paracelsus is under mention, a word about the death of this 
sixteenth century enthusiast. Tradition has it that he fancied he had 
discovered the elixir of life, and drank a cupful of the magical liquid. 
It was alcohol and, of course, proved fatal. 

The peculiar literature of alchemy may be illustrated by an extract 
from Paracelsus' works. " The life of all metals is a secret fatness ; 
of salts, the spirit of aqua fortis ; of pearls, their splendor. 
The life of all men is an astral balsam, a balsamic impression and a 
celestial invisible fire, an included air and a tinging spirit of salt. I 
cannot name it more plainly." We are forced to admit that even 
Browning is crystal clear in comparison with this author. 

Such a system of mystification ruled alchemy from first to last. The 
simplest facts were hidden in a mist of allegory, lest the uninitiated 
should catch their meaning and steal the secrets of the art. The 
mysterious dragon that appears on page ninety-four is nothing less than 
an allegorical recipe for the preparation of the philosopher's stone. 
The dragon (nitric acid) must be obtained from the earth (the ball), 
and caused to eat the sun (gold) and the moon (silver) The sun thus 
digested gives the red stone, for use in transmuting baser metals to 
gold, and the moon gives the white stone, used in making silver. 

It is to be hoped that another alchemical recipe will not seriously 
strain the reader's patience. We give a method of purifying gold by 
fusing it with antimony. The other illustration of our article refers 
to this, "The king's (gold) diadem is made of pure gold and a chaste 
bride must be married unto him ; wherefore, if ye will work on our 



94 



Acta Victoriaiia. 



bodies,"take the most ravenous gray wolf (antimony), which by reason 
of his^name is subject unto valorous Mars (iron), but by the genesis of 
his nativity he is the son of old Saturn (lead), found in mountains and 
valleys of the world. He is very hungry ; cast unto him the king's 
body that^^he may be nourished by it ; and when he hath devoured the 
king, make a great fire, into which cast the wolf, that he be quite 
burned. Then will the king be at liberty again." 

If admirable in nothing else, the alchemists deserve respect for their 
ability in lying. Our friend Baron Munchausen would be reduced to 
envious^despair could he but hear their modest statements of fact. 
Lully said he made by projection — the technical term for a transmu- 
tation — about thirty million dollars' worth of gold. Nicholas Flammel 
claimed to have built and endowed in Paris three chapels, seven 
churches and fourteen hospitals with' the gold he made. Dr. Dee, of 
later date, said he found a large quantity of elixir of a power 272, 330, 
that is able to change that number of times its weight of baser metals 




into gold. The exact detail of the last statement makes it a triumph 
in the art of prevarication. 

More remarkable than these flights of imagination is the credulous- 
ness of the people, who believed them all. In 1404 the English Parlia- 
ment forbade the making of gold and silver, probably because of the 
economic ditificulties that would arise from its manufacture. Henry VI. 
granted several patents for the manufacture of gold and appointed a 
commission to investigate the subject. Ornaments and coins of 
alchemical gold were for sale in the various countries of Europe. For 
the benefit of any who may be inspired with the desire to experiment, 
let us say that the law of 1404 was repealed in 1689 and transmutation 
is now legal. Also all the patents have expired. 

Amongst all these seers of visions that were not and dreamers of 
dreams that never came true was a friar, Roger Bacon, born in 1214, 



Acta Victoriana. 95 

who, though subject to the great delusion of transmutation, has left 
on record perhaps the most remarkable prophecy ever made without 
divine assistance. In this prediction he saw what was not to be ful- 
filled for nearly seven hundred years. " Bridges unsupported by 
arches can be made to span the foaming current ; man shall descend 
to the bottom of the ocean, safely breathing and treading with firm 
step on the golden sands nevei brightened by the light of day. Call 
but the sacred powers of Sol (heat) and Luna (cold) into action, and 
behold a single steersman sitting at the helm, guiding the vessel, which 
divides the waves with greater rapidity than if she had been filled with 
a crew of mariners toiling at the oars. And the loaded chariot, no 
longer encumbered with the panting steeds, darts on its course with 
relentless force and rapidity. Let the pure and simple elements (fire, 
water, fuel and air) do their labors ; bind the eternal elements and 
yoke them to the same plough." 



Science Gossip. 

THERE is on exhibition at Honolulu the largest photograph ever 
made. This mammoth picture is a panoramic view of San 
Francisco and measures forty-one inches by thirty feet ! It was 
taken from an automobile by a special camera not much larger than 
ordinary instruments. While the picture was being taken, the eye of 
the camera swung slowly around the horizon' as a person might turn 
about in viewing the landscape from a hill top. Within the camera a 
strip of celluloid film moved rapidly and on it picture after picture was 
taken, each beginning Just where the preceding one ended. 

The film was developed as usual and from it an enlargement was 
made on sensitive paper by an apparatus designed for the purpose. 
A huge tray was built for developing this print and five men were 
necessary to rock it. Five gallons of developer, a barrel of hypo 
and other chemicals in corresponding quantities were used in develop- 
ing. A single print cost two hundred dollars. 

Recently a new "long distance" record for typewriting was made 
in New Jersey by Mrs. Cunningham, court stenographer, who wrote 
21,089 words in six and a half hours without an error. The 
speed is remarkable, but to those who know the fallibility of steno- 
graphers, the absence of errors is even more so. 

In New South Wales there has been found the body of a shark 
three and a half feet long changed to opal. This unique fossil is 
attracting much attention. It is strange that of all creatures an 
unworthy shark should attain such glorious immortality. 



\ 



cAda ^idoriana. 



Vol. 

XXVIII. CyiLLd. X^lLLUTldTltL* No. 



EDITORIAL STAFF, I904-I905. 

H. H, Cragg. '05, - - - - Editor-in-Chief. 

Miss E. H. Patterson, '^5\j ■. Miss E. M. Keys, '06. Ir^^oic 

A. E. Elliott, '05 j -^"erary. j^ ^ Hewitt, '06. | i-ocais. 

J. S. Bennett, '05, Personals and Exchanges. 

W. A. GiFFORD, B.A., Missionary and Religious. 
F. C. Bowman, '06, Scientific. M. C. Lane. '06, Athletics. 



BOARD OF management: 

E. W. Morgan, '05, . . . . Business Manager. 

J. N. TRIBBLE, '07, H. F. WOODSWORTH, '07, 

Assistant Business Manager. Secretary. 

Advisory Committee: 
Prof. L. E. Horning, M.A., Ph.D. C. C. James, M.A.. 

Deputy Minister of Agriculture. 



TERMS: $1.00 A YEAR; SINGLE COPIES, 15 CENTS. 

Contributions and exchanges should be sent to H. H. Cragg. Editor- 
in-Chief. Acta Victori.'\na : business communications to E. W. Morgan, 
Business Manager Acta Victoriana, Victoria University, Toronto. 



EbitoriaL 



Elsewhere in this issue will be found a circular 
XMAS ACTA, from our Business Manager urging our readers to 
order at once any extra copies of our Xmas number 
they may require. This is necessary that there may be a sufficient 
number printed to meet the demand without leaving a large number 
undisposed of. Acta's finances have never warranted enthusiastic 
speculation. From the partial list of contributors presented, it must 
be clear to everyone that a treat is in store for the readers of our 
special holiday number. The Board is making every effort to have 
the issue published very early in December, and is trusting to our 
friends, and especially to the student body, to give it a large circula- 
tion. Nothing could be more suitable for a Xmas gift from a Victoria 
student than a copy of his college magazine. 

Mark the date — Dec. 2nd ! Don't make any other 

THE engagement, and don't forget to be there ! Let 

CONVERSAT. every student remember that this is our function, 

and that we, and not the Faculty or the Senate, are 

responsible for its success or failure. We are glad to think that 

Victoria has so many friends deeply interested in her welfare in every 

particular, and glad to avail themselves of any opportunity of display- 



A eta Vic to liana. 97 

ing that interest. They come to this, the greatest event of our 
academic year, to be entertained ; shall we not show that we have 
some ability in the art of entertainment ? An able and enthusiastic 
committee is in charge ; let an equally enthusiastic student body — 
and not merely a section of it — hold up their hands ! 

^' 

With the passing away of the inevitable restraint 
one's place due to the approach of the " Bob," " The Honorable 

IN COLLEGE. Gentlemen of the Class of '08 " will be feeling around 
for their place in the life of the college ; in which 
effort, doubtless, they will be largely influenced by the advice of 
those of the upper years with whom they chiefly associate. And it is 
well, perhaps, that they should thus seek advice, but it should be 
from more than one class of students, that all ideals may be examined, 
in order the better to exercise the judgment in raising a standard. 
For one class will be able to see little room for anything but athletics; 
another for literary pursuits ; still another for rehgious work ; while a 
fourth will say, by word and deed, " We are here for study only, and 
nothing else is worth the powder." 

No sane man will deny that one who neglects study is making a 
fatal error ; but at the same time every student ought to recognize 
that there is a place for him in college life which he ought to fill in 
justice both to himself and his fellow-students. A man who spends 
four years and the required capital to attain a degree positively cannot 
afford to content himself with securing only half of what is in store 
for him. It is a poor type of economy which will lead a man, while 
making an annual outlay of from two to three hundred dollars or 
more, to refuse to spend a few dollars extra in order to obtain the 
benefits accruing from intercourse with one's fellows. Moreover it is 
surely the acme of selfishness to be willing to enjoy the invigorating 
tone of our college life, while allowing others — who are perhaps in 
even more straightened circumstances — to bear the burden of sus- 
taining it. Yet that is just what a good many do, not realizing, 
perhaps, that they not only do not assist but even retard the progress 
of the college. In corroboration of this remark let us quote The 
Outlook of a few weeks ago : 

" No man lives or works alone ; the modern world is a vast work- 
shop in which men and women are thrown into the closest relations ; 
and every man is related not only to his own work but to the work of 
others. It is a man's duty not only to hold himself responsible for 
the kind of reward his work brings him, but to work cheerfully and 
courageously. The atmosphere of the work-room is the effluence of 



98 Ada Victortana. 

the spirits of those who hve and breathe in it, and the workman must 
not only attend skilfully to the matter in hand, but he must put 
hope and courage into the air of the room." 

These words are peculiarly applicable to college life, for here, too, 

the words of the Great Teacher are true, " No man liveth unto 

himself." Therefore let every man find his place and fill it to the 

best of his ability. 

COLLEGE The following letter requires no editorial com- 

DECORUM. ment. It will appeal to many as conveying a timely 
warning : 

" Dear Acta, — Permit me through your columns to draw the 
attention of the students to the necessity of maintaining a certain 
amount of decorum in our college life. Times have changed, 'tis 
true, and lew Freshmen in these degenerate days ever deem it neces- 
sary to touch their hats to their seniors in recognition of their superior 
dignity. Such was the custom of antiquity. Eut there surely is some 
degree of respect to be shown them even yet. For instance, one can 
scarcely excuse the thoughtlessness displayed by the Sophomores at 
the last reception in their unseemly haste to be first in giving their 
class-yell. 1 do not wonder that the Seniors did not care to give 
their yell afterwards, and am only suprised that the Juniors did not 
follow their example. . One naturally expects that at its own recep- 
tion a class should lead the farewell demonstrations, but in other 
cases seniority should be respected. This may seem to some a 
trifling matter, but these little amenities of life greatly enhance the 
spirit of the college. 

"Moreover it is becoming a subject of remark among some of the 
ex-students that there is sometimes too great freedom displayed by 
the men to their lady friends in college halls. In the jollity of recep- 
tions a few forget at times that friendliness is not to be confused with 
familiarity. And in this connection it might not be amiss to note 
the childish frivolity displayed by a few — not all Freshmen — on the 
tennis courts, even to the extent of young men and women chasing 
one another around with rakes, etc., while the boys demonstrate to 
their admiring lady friends that they have not forgotten their public 
school antics and can even yet leap through the flames of a bonfire. 

" Let us have at least some dignity. 

" Yours sincerely, 

" Decorum." 

Our readers will be pleased to know that the vacancy on Acta 
Board has been filled by the election of Miss E. H. Patterson, '05, to 
the position of Associate Literary Editor. No words of introduction 
are required for one who has in the past so ably contributed to our 
columns. 



Acta Victor iana. 



99 




ERSONALS 
EXCHANGES 



A DESPATCH from Chicago announces that the Executive Com- 
mittee of the trustees of the North- Western University have 
elected Thomas F. Holgate, M.A., to be acting President. Prof. 
Holgate is a native of Ontario, graduated from Victoria with the class 
of '84, and received his M.A. degree in '89. He has been a member 
of the professorial staff of the North-Western University since 1893, 
latterly in the capacity of Dean. 

We are in receipt of an interesting letter from Wm. Elliott, '84, 
who is at the head of a Normal School in Hiroshima, Japan. He 
undoubtedly reflects the sentiments of all Europeans in Japan when 
he expresses both the hope and the belief that Japan will win out in 
the present war. Mr. Elliott takes occasion to rtmark on the high 
degree of excellence Acta has reached, and sends along, by way of 
contrast, a copy of the first number ever issued. "Those," he says, 
" were the days of small things, even with Clifford Sifton and Prof. 
Coleman connected with the institution." 

Miss Grace Scott, of Ottawa, who v/as for two years a member 
of the class of '03, graduated last spring from Seney Hospital, Brook- 
lyn, with highest honors. 

D. H. Trimble, '99, is preaching at Marathon, Iowa. 

LiSGAR R. EcKARDT, 'o2, is attending the School of Theology, 
Boston, Mass. 

W. A. Potter, '00, who was recently operated upon for appendicitis, 
is, we are glad to know, steadily improving. 

Horace Davison, who was with the class of '02, has just returned 
from London, Eng., and received an appointment as assistant actuary 
with the Manufacturers' Life Assurance Company of this city. 

Gen. J. G. C. Lee, who was introduced to the students of the 
.college and delivered a short address in the chapel a few days ago, is 
one of the many sons of Victoria who have risen to positions of pro- 
minence and influence on the other side of the Great Lakes. Gen. 
Lee is a native of Saltfleet Township, in the County of Welland, and 



loo Ada Victoriana. 

was a student at Victoria in the early fifties. On leaving college he 
went to Ohio to follow his chosen profession, civil engineering, and 
was there engaged in railway construction when the Civil War broke 
out. He joined the Northern army and fought in a number of im- 
portant engagements in the war-swept States of Tennessee, Kentucky 
and Georgia. When peace was secured by the triumph of the 
Northern armies, he was transferred to the regular army and rapidly 
advanced to the rank of General. As Quartermaster-General he 
administered the Commissariat Department until his retirement, about 
three years ago, with full rank and a general's allowance. Gen. Lee 
is the author of several works on military subjects. He is now 
visiting his old home in the Niagara peninsula. Victoria students are 
proud to see in our halls the soldierly figure of so distinguished an 
ex-student, and hope that the General xnay long live to refiect honor 
on his Alma Mater. 



Weddings. 

Some of the weddings crowded out of our last number are chron- 
icled below. Acta's best wishes follow all the happy participants. 

Just as the sun rose on the morning of September 28th, Professor 
Misener, in the college chapel, pronounced the words that made E. A. 
Miller, '04, and Miss Deborah Thorp, of Aurora, man and wife. The 
newly-wedded couple left immediately for Mr. Miller's chosen field of 
labor in Iowa, U.S.A. Mr. Miller made a splendid record in Vic- 
toria, winning the Prince of Wales gold medal in general proficiency 
on graduation. We predict for Mr. Miller the success usually met with 
by our Canadian students across the line. 

The marriage of Rev. H. B, Christie, Port Elgin, who was for some 
time a member of the class of '97, and Miss Ethel Preston, daughter of 
Mr. T. H. Preston, M.P.P., of Braatford, took place at " Hedgedyn," 
the residence of the bride's parents, on August 3rd, Rev. Dr. Campbell, 
of Midland, brother-in-law of the groom, officiating. The bride was 
attended by her sister. Miss Lilian Preston, and the groom by Rev. 
G. J. A. Reaney. The bridal pair spent the honeymoon at Ocean 
Grove, N.J. 

On Aug. 31st Miss Eertha Morris, of Bowmanville, was united in 
marriage to Rev. J. V. Chapman, '03, by Rev. D. O. Crossley. Mr. 
and Mrs. Chapman now occupy the parsonage at Minden, in the Bay 
of Quinte Conference, where, as elsewhere. Chappie's oratory and 
serene smile will doubtless win him friends. 



Acta Victoriana. loi 

A QUIET wedding was celebrated in the Presbyterian church at 
Bervie on June 15th, when Miss Belle Henderson, daughter of Wrn- 
Henderson, general merchant, and Rev. Chas. J. Wilson, B.A. '03, 
M.A. '04, were married by the Presbyterian minister. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wilson left immediately for Lloydminster, Sask., where Charlie's work 
lies for the present Conference year. 



''The Old Familiar Faces." 

The Class of '03. 

Miss Rose Beatty is plunged in church work at her home in 
Parry Sound. She is President of the Epworth League, a member 
of the Quarterly Board, a teacher in the Sabbath School, and organist 
in the prayer-meeting. 

Miss S. Bristol is in Vancouver, B.C. 

Miss E. Campbell is teaching moderns in Pickering College. 

Miss R. Cullen pursues the pedagogic art at Whitby Ladies' 
College. 

Miss E. Dingwall is experiencing the sorrows of the boarding- 
school teacher in the Ladies' College at Rothesay, N.B. 

Miss F. M. Eby is on the staff of the Glencoe High School. 

Miss S. Jackson is engaged in teaching the young idea at Union, 
Ontario. 

Miss R. Jolliffe is Associate Professor of English at Walla Walla 
University, Washington, D.C. 

Miss O. Lindsay finds Y.W.C.A. work does not provide enough 
mental exercise, and is now at the Ontario Normal College, Hamilton. 

Miss Smith is teaching in the Midland High School. 

Miss Alice Will is engaged with the Morang Publishing Com- 
pany, this city. 

R. C. Armstrong is at Shidzuoka, Japan, engaged in missionary 
work. 

N. E. Bowles is preaching at Hilliardtown, New Ontario. 

J. F. Chapman is stationed at Minden. 

J. H. Chown is engaged in the offices of the Methodist Book 
Room. 

W. Conway occupies the parsonage at Port Lambton. 



I02 Ada Victoriana. 

R. G. DiNGMAN is with the Toronto Carpet Factory Co. 

E. FoRSTER is assistant in the Chemical Laboratory of the Univer- 
sity. 

A. R. Ford is on the staff of The Financial Inquirer^ New York 

city. 

R. S. Glass is in the Auditor- General's Department at Ottawa. 

G H. Grey is dipping into legal lore at Osgoode Hall. 

E. C. IrvIxNE is instructing in the Mathematical Department of 
Stanstead College. 

E H. JoUiffe is assisting in the Chemical Laboratory of Toronto 
University. 

D. B. Kennedy is preaching at Rouleau, Assa. 

P. M. Kerr is classical professor in Columbia College, New 
Westminster, B.C. 

John McKenzie is pursuing his theological studies at Knox 
College. 

Percy Near is attending the S. P. S. 

D. P. Rees is travelling for an advertising agency, with headquar- 
ters in the city. 

D. A. Walker is preaching in the Paisley Street Church in Guelph. 

J. H. Wallace has entered upon commercial pursuits, but expects 
to come back next year for B.D. work. 

C. W. Webb is studying theology at Queen's University. 

C. J. Wilson is in charge of the Methodist church at Lloydminster, 

Sask. 

T. E. Wilson is at Osgoode Hall. 

Amos Thomas is stationed at Kinglake, in the London Conference. 
R. O. Jolliffe has left for China, to engage in mission work, 
accompanying Dr. and Mrs. Smith on their return to that land. 

F. L. Barber, after a year in Europe, has returned for B.D. work. 

The secretary of the class, Mr. A. R. Ford, care of Financial In- 
quirer, 115 Nassau St., New York City, would like all members of the 
class to notify him upon changing their addresses. 

The Class of '04. 

Miss H. A. Grange and Miss M. E. Allen represent Victoria 
this year at the Ontario Normal College. Neither of them was able 



Acta Victoriana. 103 

to resist the temptation of .stealing away from the city by the mountain 
to attend Vic's first receptions. 

Miss S. M. Baxter, we understand^ is taking a postgraduate course 
in domestic science at her home in this city. 

Miss A. L. O. Fife is rounding off her university course by doing 
the grand tour of the continent of Europe. 

Miss B. A. Lixgham is engaged in Y.W.C.A. work in Montreal, 
where she is Assistant Secretary of the Association. 

Miss J. C Potter now wears the dignified title of Assistant Pre- 
ceptress at Albert College. Moderns is her department of instruction. 
Miss G. Peterson is in Y.W.C.A. work in this city. 

Miss F. E. Watts has joined the noble army of martyrs, being 
engaged in the teaching profession at Bruce Mines. 

Miss L. E. V. Lloyd is doing postgraduate work in the Univer- 
sity of California. 

Miss E. A. Weekes is in training at the Deaconess' Home for 
foreign missionary work, upon which she expects to enter in the 
course of a year. 

Miss M. L. A. Jeffery is spending the winter in New York City. 
Miss E. V. Danard is teaching at Pakan, Alta. 

H. N. Baker is prying into the mysteries of the law at Osgoode 
Hall. 

J. H. Holmes has embarked upon a journalistic career, and will 
help to mould Western opinion through the columns of the Saskatoon 
Phcenix, of which he is the Managing Editor. 

D. H. Marshall and F. W. K. Harris, keeping manse and kirk in 
their mind's eye, are pursuing their theological studies at Knox 
College. 

E. A. Miller, whose wedding we chronicle elsewhere, has been 
stationed by the Iowa Conference at Thompson, la. 

W. H. Spence is comfortably located at Lake Mills, Iowa, a town 
of some 1,500 inhabitants. We understand that Will will very soon 

furnish us with another item for this column. 

A. B. Rankin and E. E. Cleaves are now registered in the Faculty 
of Medicine. 

W. G. Gates is a member of the staff of the Ottawa Journat. We 
are informed that Bill is making a great social and musical hit in the 
3 



I04 Acta Victoriana. 

Capital, regaling those present at the functions he is delegated to 
write up with college songs, rendered in his own inimitable style. 

J. Wilfrid Cantelon has accepted a Fellowship in the University, 
and is now Demonstrator of Physics. He is said to be especially 
popular with the ladies of his classes. 

C. L. Fisher holds a general agency for one of the life insurance 
companies, with headquarters at Goderich. 

H. W. Brownlee has secured the principalship of one of Ottawa's 
public schools. Hugh will now overlook the political situation from 
the vantage-ground of the Capital. 

F.'W. Hardy is preaching to the miners at Sandon, B.C. 

Chas. J. JoLUFFE is Stationed at Port Robinson, in the Hamilton 
Conference. 

D. M. Perley is baching it and subsisting on crackers and canned 
salmon at Phoenix, B.C., where he is preaching. 

C. B. Parker is putting in a year at commercial work before pro- 
ceeding with his medical course. 

J. W. Miller is stationed at Salt Spring Island, between Vancouver 
and the mainland. 

RoBT. Pearson is pastor of the church at Banff, the membership 
of which is two. There will be more when Bob leaves. 

W. G. McElhanney is in the Auditor-General's Department at 
Ottawa, and in very good graces, so 'tis said, with the powers that be. 

C F. Ward has secured a Fellowship at Chicago University, where 
he is now pursuing his studies. 

H. S. Warren is at Queensville, in the Toronto Conference. 

A. J. B^LSON is the junior pastor on the Otterville Circuit, in the 
Hamilton Conference. 

F. S. Carr is attending Normal at Regina, figuring prominently in 
the " Lit." and on the Rugby team of that institution. 

S. W. Eakins is engaged with the Dominion Securities Co., this 
city. 

D. A. Walker is in New York City, where he is utilizing his 
mathematical training as an actuary. 

D. R. Grey is preaching at Nairn Centre, near Copper Cliff. 

C. W. Bishop, A. H. Booth, G. K. Bradshaw, D. R. Clare, W. A. 
Gifford, and E. W. Wallace are still with us and putting on the grand- 
fatherly airs appropriate to members of the B.D. class. 



Acta Victoriana. 105 

Obituaries 

In the sketch of the "old boys" of Upper Canada Academy that 
appeared in Acta last June, there was omitted the name of an early 
student who has just passed away in his 84th year. George R. Van 
Norman, K.C., was born at Canandaigua, N.Y., on March 12th, 1821. 
In that year his father came to Upper Canada, and became a pioneer 
iron-founder at Normandale, Norfolk Co. In 1840 Caroline Van 
Norman was a student at Upper Canada Academy, as Victoria was 
called before the Act granting her university powers, and in 1841 we 
find her brother George enrolled as a student. Immediately after 
leaving the Academy he began the study of law, completing his course 
in the office of Hon. R. B. Sullivan. After practising in Toronto and 
Simcoe he settled in Brantford, where, in 1859, he was appointed 
Crown Attorney. This office he held for over forty years. He was 
an active worker in Church affairs, having been the first Superinten- 
dent of the Brant Avenue Methodist Sunday School. 

The sympathy of all the students of Victoria is extended to E. W. 
Stapleford, '05, who has been called upon to suffer the loss of his 
father. Mr. Stapleford, who was a prominent contractor of St. 
Catharines, died very suddenly, and was discovered lying across the 
bench in his workshop by his family, who had become alarmed at his 
failure to return home at his usual hour. He was very active in 
church work, and had long been Superintendent ol the Sunday 
School. The respect in which he was held by his fellow-citizens is 
shown in the fact that his funeral was one of the largest seen in St. 
Catharines for many years. 

Chas. H. Gooderham, who died at his residence in this city on 
Oct. i8th, was, until recently, a member of the Board of Regents of 
Victoria University. Mr. Gooderham was born in Toronto in 1844, 
but at the age of eighteen removed from the city to take charge of the 
milling interests of his firm at Alpha Mills and Meadowvale. Twenty 
years ago he returned to the city, where he has been identified with 
various financial institutions. Mr. Gooderham was a member of the 
Central Methodist Church. 

The sudden death on July 22nd of Rev. John Philp, B.A., '61, 
M.A., '73, D.D., '93, removed one of the foremost and best known 
ministers of Canadian Methodism. A manly and robust type of 
Christian character, a scholarly and cultured address, and a logical 
method of presenting the truth, combined to make him a powerful 



io6 Acta Victoriana. 

preacher; whilst his gentleness, attractive personaHty and social 
qualities endeared him to hosts of friends. His death, which was due 
to cerebral hemorrhage, occurred while he and his daughter were 
holidaying at Grimsby Park. 



Exchanges. 

We are glad to greet once more the first numbers of our college 
exchanges. The large number of these is an indication of the 
important place which college journalism now takes in academic life. 
Every educational institution with any ambition to be known now 
publishes some sort of college paper, in most cases of no mean 
quality. To each and all of these college contemporaries we wish 
another year of unqualified success. 

The Exchange Editor of the University of Oliatva Review an- 
nounces his intention of meting out judicial praise and blame to the 
publications that come within his ken. We hasten to anticipate him, 
and get in the first blow, though we have only friendly words to say 
of the Review. Ottawa University has risen like a phoenix from the 
ashes, and we are pleased to note that the authorities have made room 
in the building for an office for the college journal, whereof other 
college authorities might well take note. The articles dealing with 
the relations between France and t^he Vatican, and the growth of 
Catholicity in Japan, are of current interest, especially to Review 
readers. It may be unknown to some that Christianity was first 
preached in Japan in 1549 by St. Francis Xavier. If we may venture 
to criticize we would suggest that some of the material appearing in 
the Review is more appropriate to the lecture-room than to the pages 
of a literary magazine. We fancy, too, that to the students of most 
universities the copious use of Latin phrases indulged in by the 
editors would be disconcerting. The Review is, however, a well 
edited and well-printed journal. 

We are grown so accustomed to commend the industry and perse- 
verance of the student who works his way through college and wins 
an education and a degree in spite of all obstacles, that we forget that 
there may be another, not so assuring, side to the question. An 
article in The Harvard Monlhly, entitled, " Working One's Way 
through College," raises the question whether such a student ordin- 
arily secures, in reality, the culture which is the aim of a university 
training. The large proportion of time he must devote to earning 



A eta Vic to via na . 



107 



money, the temptation to pursue methods of money-making which in 
strict ethics are scarcely defensible, the necessity of cramming for 
examinations owing to time restrictions, are cited as factors that 
militate against the self-supporting student's acquirement of real 
culture. The standards by which that culture is to be measured, as 
laid down by President Eliot in a recent address, may well become 
the criteria by which all students, whether self-supporting or not, may 
measure their real success. They are " sound health, the power of 
prolonged, concentrated attention, the habit of intense thinking, the 
critical discernment of excellence, the judicial faculty for the wise 
enjoyment of liberty, the passion for truth, and the development of a 
dominating idea." We fancy that, judged by these standards, the 
elect are few, and that whatever the disadvantages of the self-support- 
ing students, quite as many, in proportion, of those who come up to 
the requirements are drawn from their number as from their moneyed 
fellow-students. For the man who works his way has certain counter- 
balancing advantages not possessed by others. 




A ROCKY PASSAGE. 



o8 



Acta Victoriana. 





155 

RELIGIOUS 

T/ie Higher Life. 

BY REV. A. H. REYNAR, M.A. LL.D. 



SO much of the mystical and magical has been thrown around this 
subject that the very title may be to some readers the signal to 
turn the page and pass on. Many good people there are to whom 
zeal, with or without knowledge, is the principal thing, but the 
number is steadily increasing of those who want light as well as heat, 
and knowledge as well as zeal. The modern mind is dominated by 
the idea of law in the spiritual as in the natural world — it holds that 
God is not a god of confusion, but that a spiritual cosmos is the "far- 
off divine event to which the whole creation moves." According to an 
old conception the physical world came to its present order through a 
series of catastrophes. According to the modern conception, it has 
grown by the steady evolution .of the forces in matter springing from 
the infinite and eternal Energy from which all things proceed. The 
same difference obtains as to the conception of spiritual life and 
growth. Let it not be supposed, however, that all mystery disappears 
with evolution, or that a knowledge of the law by which a power 
works explains the origin of the power. 

In applying these principles to the higher life, we note that the 
origin of the life principle or energy is under the new conception as 
under the old ascribed to God alone, the only Infinite and Eternal. 
In the physical realm all things were made by the Divine Word ; so, 
in the spiritual realm, " In Him was life, and the life was the light of 
men." 

There is in the physical life itself a higher and a lower, and living 
things range up from what seems but an animated sack or stomach to 
the most perfect and beautiful of human forms with its multiplicity 
and variety of functions. In the intellectual life also, there is a lower 
and a higher. It may be traced in the seemingly blind instincts and 
sensations of the lowest animals, up through the cunning of beasts 



Ada Victoriana. 109 

and savage men, to the sublimest reasonings and discoveries of the 
human mind. And, in like manner, there is a lower and a higher in 
the moral life. Its first motions may be seen in the simplest law that 
curbs the selfishness of brutish men, whilst its latest and sweetest fruit 
may be seen in the love that leads a man to live and die for his 
fellow-men. Again, of these three stages or planes of life, there is a 
lower and a higher, or rather a lowest and a highest. 

In so far as a man's life is habitually and characteristically on one 
or another of these planes, it is a high life or a low life. All who live 
for the physical or animal are on the lowest plane, though their tastes 
may differ and be called gross or refined. One man may gorge on 
bacon and beans and wash his meal down with rum, and another may 
fare daintily on canvas-back and champagne, but they are both living 
the lowest life — the physical, animal life. 

When the man passes from the animal to the intellectual exercises 
and pleasures, he rises in the scale of life. Animal life he must 
sustain, and animal enjoyments he may take by the way, but the aim 
and purpose of his life is higher, and he will submit to plain living for 
the sake of high thinking. Yet he may be selfish and criminal— a bad 
man, notwithstanding his knowledge and cleverness. 

It is o ily when the man lives for love and truth and duty that he 
passes into the highest life. And, by whatever name a man maybe 
named, when he passes into that life, he enters upon the Higher Life. 
"God is no respecter of persons, but in every nation he that feareth 
God and worketh righteousness is accepted with him." 

What, then, is the advantage of the Christian ? Two chief advan- 
tages are his. In the first place, he has the sublime, the supreme 
example of the Highest Life in the person of Jesus Christ, who left us 
an example that we should follow in His steps. In the second place, 
there has come into th^ world through His person and work an 
inspiration — an uplifting power by which the souls of men rise from 
a sense of guilt and bondage to spiritual peace and to the glorious 
liberty of the Son of God. The experience of an innumerable com. 
pany of the purest and loftiest souls is that by the grace of God 
through Jesus Christ, they have passed as from death into life, and 
they have found His Word a true Word : " I am come that they might 
have life and that they might have it more abundantly." 



I lo Acta Victoriana. 

The University of Toronto Young Men's 
Christian J^ssociation. 

BY J. L. M'PHERSON, M.A., SECRETARY U. OF T. Y.M.C.A. 

FOR some years certain members of the faculty and students in 
the different colleges and faculties of the University, who have 
been interested in the work of the Y.M.C.A. have felt that if a closer 
union were effected between the Associations in these colleges and 
faculties it would be helpful to the work in all. The time did not 
seem ripe for consummating this union until last spring when repre- 
sentatives appointed by these Associations came together to confer in 
regard to a basis of union. Local autonomy was necessary in order 
that the work in any one college or faculty should receive proper 
attention. At the same time there were and are certain questions 
affecting the moral and religious life of the whole student body, that 
might be more easily cared for by a central organization for the whole 
University. This conference resulted in recommendations being 
made to the Associations in University College, Victoria College, the 
University Medical Faculty and the Dental College, which, being 
adopted and acted upon by these Associations severally, resulted in 
the University of Toronto Y.M.C.A. being organized. It was agreed 
that matters of purely local interest should be dealt with, as formerly, 
by the college organization, while questions affecting more than one 
college or faculty should come under the jurisdiction of the University 
of Toronto Association. 

Already one of these matters of supreme importance has come to the 
front and is being handled by the committee of the University of Toronto 
Association in conjunction with the local committees. Mr. John R. 
Mott, of New York, the General Secretary of the World's Student 
Christian Federation, has consented to give a series of addresses to our 
students this month. This is a time of vast importance in the history 
of the religious life of the whole institution. Mr. Mott is well known 
among students not only in America, but also throughout the world, 
and much success has attended campaigns which he has conducted in 
other student centres. This fact is so well known to us that there is 
a danger against which we must be careful to guard. We may think 
that Mr. Mott will accomplish everything desired and that there is 
nothing for us to do. The work, we believe, is of God and its success 
depends upon divine power. However, human agency must be 
brought into exercise, and the important agent in this undertaking is 



Acta Victoriana. 1 1 1 

not so much Mr. Mott, who will be here but for a short time, as the 
Christian man in the University, who, day after day, is associating with 
some other man into whose life it is most desirable that the richest 
blessing should enter. We should not be satisfied with forming an 
outward union merely, but we must unite in prayerful and unremitting 
personal cultivation of the field, so that when Mr. Mott comes to us 
toward the end of the month the harvest will be ready for the reapers. 
If we do faithful sowing and faithful cultivating now, we may with all 
confidence expect an abundant harvest. 



The Call from the North. 

BY G. S. FAIRCLOTH, B.A., B.D. 

NO man need hesitate or fear to leave the settled conventionalities 
of his home and seek new fields in the North or in the West, 
in which to live and labor for his country and his God — for after he 
has spent soaie years in such a service he will find the result is full of 
satisfaction. The need is great, and Canada, with her fast-increasing 
population, cannot prosper as she ought unless the upbuilding in- 
fluences are sufficient for the ne.ed. We have a magnificent country, 
and if the forces of our land are directed aright, we see the picture of 
a magnificent destiny. The eyes of all the world are upon Canada. 
Men everywhere are learning of the vastness of our wealth and resources. 
It is difficult to put a limit upon our possibilities. No wonder, then, 
that we are witnessing a mighty " trek. " into our land, bringing men 
and women by thousands from beyond the seas and from across the 
49th parallel. 

The great question that confronts us is. What shall be the moral 
and religious character of these new citizens o( Canada, so heterogene- 
ous in their nature? The problem rests with us Canadians. If we 
fail it means that these great masses of men and women shall fall 
away from those influences which hold in check human passion, and 
make good citizens. In the great rush into the United States, it 
happened so that it became a common saying that there were no com- 
mandments beyond the Mississippi River; in Canada we do not want 
it to be said that there are no commandments beyond even our most 
distant mountains and rivers. Good men are crowding in upon us 
from the United States, but the hosts that come from across the seas 
are ignorant of the simple Gospel truths, ignorant often of the prin- 
ciples of civil and religious liberty, and devoid of any notion of the 



112 Acta Victoriana. 

merits of education. The man, then, who with love for God and for 
his native land, forsakes his peaceful home to face the difficulties of 
unsettled regions, becomes what the Ethological Association calls 
"one of the makers of Canada." 'Tis true, a nation is made up of 
all its people, nevertheless in every land there is a small number of 
influential, right-spirited, strong- hearted citizens, who control in very 
large measure their country's destiny, and make its history. Upon the 
proper distribution of such uplifting forces depends the moral 
supremacy of Canada. 

No better training school for the development of rounded manhood 
exists in all the world than such a field of labor. ; contact with a host 
of varied peoples from different lands, rich and poor, cultured and 
illiterate, refined and base, will smooth all rough edges from the life 
of any careful, thoughtful man ; and the knowledge of human nature, 
and of men, derived from such contact is of incalculable worth as a 
preparation for life's duties. The thought of being separated from 
one's friends and buried in the wilds among strange people is often 
like a black cloud upon the horizon to many men, and yet no man 
has greater privileges and opportunities in life than has that man, who 
with clear head and strong purpose enters into the new life of his 
country, and aims to mould and guide men's wills to what is noblest 
and best. It is his hand that lays foundations, to him men look for 
precept and example. The very foundations of empire are in his 
hands, the education of the young, the cultivation of the home, the 
moulding of opinion, and the exaltation of ideals, which shall beautify 
the nation. In no other place does a man get so near to his fellows, 
the very difficulties in the way creating ties that bind. The divergent 
natures and views of his cosmopolitan fellow-citizens of necessity will 
broaden his whole conception of mankind and of God, so that he 
cannot live there and be narrow ; and thrown upon his own resources 
he develops naturally that manly independence and self-reliance which 
shall fit him for the heaviest responsibilities of life. And what is more 
glorious for any good man than to carry the Gospel message to a 
group of men who toil in separation among the hills or fields or in the 
forest's heart. None love to sing the hymns of early days more than 
these frontier settlers ; no nien appreciate more dearly the message of 
hope and peace. The Master often left the glitter and bustle of the 
city streets to bear the good news to some lone wayfarer or humble 
water-carrier. 

In days gone by the tireless backwoods preacher, unmoved by any 
thought of gain or temporal reward, traversed the wilderness of Upper 



Ada Victoriana. 113 

Canada, often guided only by a blaze upon the trees or the sound of 
some solitary woodman's axe ; in schoolhouses, frontier cabins, or 
underneath the shady trees, he proclaimed the message of mercy, 
bringing peace and joy to troubled hearts. We have reaped the 
benefits of the pioneer's self-sacrifice, and we honor him. In the 
records of Canada, the historian who analyzes the forces that have made 
us the most contented, moral, and prosperous people under the sun, 
must give full meed of praise to the pioneer who made his way into 
the unsettled places of our provinces to educate the people in that 
reverence for the Word of God, which is alike the foundation of good 
morals and the safeguard of human freedom. 

The mission of the early pioneer in days gone by for our develop- 
ment is, then, our mission to the undeveloped regions of fair Canada 
beyond. Our Prime Minister said just recently, "This is the century 
of Canada." But where shall be the glory of our country if Canada 
be known only for her broad extent of many acres, or loved only for 
the possession of unbounded natural wealth and resources, or revered 
only for the number of her peoples ? Rather let us be known from 
East to West for virtue and honor, and fidelity to the will of God. 
The call echoes across the hills and plains of North and West, let us 
hear it, and in loyalty to our native land and to our God go do for 
others what our fathers did for us. 



** Ji Great Door and Effectual." 

ONE does not require the vision of the seer in order to know 
that there are great movements — almost world movements — 
setting toward Christianity. The time is upon us when Christians 
must cease to wait in comfortable inaction for an answer to their age- 
long prayer, that the insurmcuntable obstacles in the way of the 
Truth may be removed. These have been removed. Greater doors 
and more effectual than before are opened to the Church and there 
are fewer adversaries. Sadly, enough, she hesitates to enter in. Why? 
Because the lives to bear her message are too few, and her revenues 
too scant. And why this double dearth ? To face the facts is to 
know the truth — the dearth has its root in a defect of spirit ; her 
" pillars " are built on rock but not of rock ; her sons and daughters 
are found wanting. 

What do we seek ? Is it an opportunity to spend our lives in 
a great work with great rewards } The opportunity is ours. A 



114 



Acta Victoriana. 



leading educator of the West closes a recent letter to the writer of this 
article with the words : " My soul cries out to the living God to send 
us men." The spirit of this cry is the spirit of many lands, and seems 
to be especially so of the fields entered by the Methodist Church of 
Canada. 

We marvel that our youth hold back in face of an opportunity 
whose magnitude might well have rejoiced the prophets and apostles 
of any day. Is the Church no longer giving us such men as have 
love to see, and grace to seize, so great an opportunity? Are we 
waiting for a vision in the night to convince us of an opportunity, that 
is revealed by simple business sense to the materialists of the mart ? 
Or have our pastors and Quarterly Boards no eye for our noble 
heritage, no heart for its needs, that they are not with prayerful per- 
sistency separating our youth unto the work of the ministry ? Can it 
be that that " big unreality," legal tender, looms so largely in our 
vision field as to really justify the latent logic in the recent assertion— 
"The applicants for the Christian ministry are in direct proportion to 
the depression in the circles of commercial enterprise"? 

These are serious questions for the Christian student. Are we wise 
in these things ? There are signs that man is keyed to some purpose 
higher than matter, that he is conscious of a Being who made him. 
And the abiding joy of men is to find their place in creation ; and 
finding it, to know themselves thereby embosomed in God and one 
with Him. When we feel this truth we will, now and forever, place 
over against self-love, as a motive, with this world as its field of opera- 
tion, and the present as its opportunity, that which God commends 
— unselfish love as the motive, with the whole human race as its 
field of operation, and with all eternity its harvest-time. 

One word more : " But if thou forbear to deliver them that are 
drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be slain, doth not he 
that pondereth the heart consider it ? And he that keepeth the soul 
doth he not know it ? And shall he not render to every man accord- 
ing to his works ? " 




iiiililPi^^^ 






Acfa Victoriana. 



115 





aCAL 

The ''Bob." 

T^O adequately describe a " Bob " is impossible. 
^ Being properly classed among the seven 
wonders, like the Falls of Niagara, it requires to 
be seen. The Thirty-Second Annual perform- 
ance has passed into history, and will long live 
in the memory — of the Freshmen, at least. 

Every " Bob " has its distinctive features ; the 

caldron scene of '04's " Bob," the trial scene of 

'05, and par excellence the wax works of '06. 

Perhaps the scene entitled " Freshman," being a 

modification of "ye morale playe, Everyman," is best characterized as 

the distinctive feature of the " Bob " of '07. The acting was excellent, 

the theme sustained, and the finale suggestive. 




BOB. 




dt The 
r. "BOB" 


0k 




^ rn.g^<.^>hOni. 


^y 



The registration scene was highly amusing, though the main action 
was shifted from the Freshmen. The other numbers were all good, 
especially the scene at Annesley Hall and the faculty burlesque. In 
the former the organist deserves honorable mention, and the render- 
ing of the parody "Blest be," etc., was among the most ludicrous 



ii6 Ada Victoriana. 

incidents of the programme. The personating in the faculty scene 
was clever, especially that of the Chancellor, Dr. Bain, Dr. Badgley 
and Professor Lang. Of course Ned was incomparable. The class- 
meeting was not so good, lacking outstanding features. The " Bob '' 
song was long, but well received. Robert's typewritten speech did 
not sound right. He is one of Nature's artists, and we prefer the 
natural style. 

The Freshmen's songs were fair and helped to fill in the inter- 
missions which were intolerably long. The staging of the " Bob " is, 
considering the unprofessional character of the performance, as a rule 
creditable. There is one very serious fault. The platform is too low 
by a foot at least. Only those who sit in the front rows can see with- 
out contracting stiff neck from craning over picture hats or Parisian 
coiffures. 

Echoes : 

" But to return to my idea." 

" Little specs of powder, little flecks of paint, 

Make a woman's freckles seem as if they aint." 
" If their names are not recorded when the trump the dead shall jar ; 
Then they will not be rewarded, which sometimes is better far." 



Now that Acta has appeared in new costume, it might be well to 
explain some of the trimmings, with a view to greater appreciation of 
details. The cut on the cover, of course, represents the primeval forest 
known as Queen's Park — the scene of Acta Victoriana. Turning 
to the cut which heads the Scientific column, the interpretation is 
more difficult. Bringing higher criticism to bear upon the problem 
it becomes apparent that the Professor is none other than Dr John 
Burwash, who is known to be a close student of science ; and, 
despite the riddle of the Sphinx, we can trace the disguised features of 
Mr. F.' C. Bowman, the editor of this column. 

The cut which introduces Personal and Exchanges is somewhat 
puzzling, but becomes transparent when we point out Professor 
Misener approaching the desk, from which rises the editor, Mr. J. S. 
Bennett, shouting "Copy! Copy!" The MSS. labelled "Poems," 
which protrudes from the waste basket is a superfluous sheet — the 
local editor's basket being already filled to repletion. 

The idea which adorns Missionary and Religious Notices is of 
course patent. 

Turning to Locals we find a work of art. On the extreme left is 
Mr. W. E. Galloway ; next comes F. J. Rutherford. In the back- 





H. V. WOODSU'OKIH, rresnUnt. 



W. B. AL1!1:RT.>u.\, S,uyl„n 





J. L. RUTLEDGE, Treasuyer. 



DAW \VREN. 



Acidi, Victoriana. 1 1 7 

ground stands G. C. Raymer, as is obvious from his smile. On the 
right is a Freshette, for the identification of whom th£ local editors 
will offer their congratulations. 

The figures in Athletics are somewhat uncertain, except that Mr. 
M. C. Lane, the editor, is up in the air. 

Dr. Wallace (at prayers) — " — bless us in oiir study of literature, 
and philosophy, and theology, and — ." 

Stan. Mills (fervently )—" B. and P. S." 

Booth (on being solicited to join Glee Club) — " Yes, they say at 
home I have a sweet voice — just like a cow's." 

Robertson (at 'phone) — " Why, I thought you were a cousin. 
Wont you ? " 

Henderson (on seeing '08 fair one of magnificent proportions) — 
"Is that one Freshette or two?" 

Overheard while promenading : Gus. Shaver (referring to relics) 
— " Have you learned the names of these curios ? " 

Miss Burgess — " Why no ; I have met only one or two Freshmen 
to-night." 

At prayers, on the morning after the joint C A. reception, a smile 
overspread Ned Burwash's face, reaching a climax at the second stanza 
of hymn 402, which begins, " I want a sober mind." 

Souvenir blotters may be had from Miss Barker in the library. 
Also, on application to the same source, the Freshman who lost the 
nursery appliance on the front lawn will receive it upon identification. 

Robert (viewing the tennis courts) — "Fine outlook of young 
ladies ! " 

Miss D-ft-n, '07 (after the scrap at Annesley) — "There's 
where she bit me." Chorus — " But they were good and wet." 

At the regular meeting of the Woman's Literary Society on October 
1 2th, Miss Switzer, '05, was elected critic to fill the vacancy caused 
by Miss Patterson's resignation. 

Flvnn,'o8, C.T.(reciting Hebrew alphabet to Prof.Price)— " Aleph, 
Beth, Gimmel, Dammit " — (substituting a German preposition by 
mistake). 

Knox, '08 (in debate) — " Some say that Chinese cooks are better 
than our girls. Let Canadian girls make our pies ! " (Hear ! hear ! — 
Ed.). 

Coulter, '08 — " The Chinaman has no religion : he's a Moham- 
medan." 



ii8 Acta Vicioriana. 

At the restaurant — " There's a pietty girl : who is she ? " 

Price — " Oh, she looms at our place — thinks I'm all right — going 
to sit on my knee all next Sunday afternoon." 

Well and rightly did Dr. John say: " I shall try to give the B.D.'s 
all the discipline possible." 

TuRNBULL, '08 — " What offices do those fellows hold who wear 
cloaks ? " 

At a lecture—" Name, please ? '' " Green." " What's that ? " 
" Green." "Oh yes, now I see you." 

Dr. Reynar (reading in English class) — 

" Where they did spend a sad and bloody hour, 
As by discharge of their distillery" (for artillery). 

" Theism has stood at that hour ever since the flood." 

J. E. Hunter—" And it's still dry ! " 

Rumors are afloat that there are some very practical chemists 
among the girls of '08. They evidently have discovered the marginal 
utility of carbon bisulphide. Ask the Sophettes about it. 

'08 POLICY (worked out at Annesley) — " 'Tis ours by craft and by 
surprise to gain." 

The first meeting of the Union Literary Society was well attended 
and of very special interest. Certainly this society is par excellence 
the greatest social medium which the men students have. The 
speech from the throne, brought down by His Excellency Lord Robt. 
Beare, was good ; but Robert's after-luncheon efi"ort was pronounced, 
by those who have heard him oftenest, an oratorical triumph. There 
is not a man who listened to it who would not give a good deal for 
a verbatim copy. 

Echoes (Victoria Quartette) — " Thsre was a young man in Havana, 
who stepped on an empty banana ; the words that he said when he 
lit on his head are not fit for the Sunday-School Banner." 

W. A. Gifford, N.M.C.B.G. (No moral compromise, by gum). 
^pr^E. W. Morgan, T.E.C (The evangelical cherub). 

Leader of the Opposition (G. E. Trueman) — "This ship pf state 
has barnacles on her keel, lobsters on the bridge, and dark (K)night 
has settled on the prow." 

Robert — "Yes, sir, the Chancellor is one of the finest men on 
earth — him and Dr. Potts." " At the hend of the year it will pay you 
to work 'ard." " Yes, you've been preaching the gospel and — ." 
" Stand by the Lit. ; it will do more for you than you will ever do 
for it." " When you take a fancy to a young lady don't be afraid to 
tell her. Some of the happiest men I hever knew were engaged. It's 
a great thing to have your mind made up." 



Ada Victoriana. 



119 





L. L. LAWRENCE. 



E. J. JENKINS. 





M. D. MADDEN. 



E. S. BISHOP. 



1 20 Acta Vict07'iana. 

Bradshaw, '04 (at the Woman's Lit. reception, to Miss Grange, '04, 
who was present from Hamilton)—" Are you coming back to Vic. ?" 
She—" What could I take ? " He—" Take B.D." She (bowing her 
acknowledgments) — " No, thank you ; I leave that for some other 
young lady." 

Junior (to Miss W — k — r, '05, who has sat for photo)—" Well, 
Edna, did you smile or just look natural ? " 

Miss D — f — e, '07 — " I'm looking for a man, yes, a particular 
man." But it's the good old Bobbing time. 

We are glad to have Miss Peterson, B.A., '04, Back Again. 

Miss Graham, '08 (to Mahood, '06)— "You're in Philosophy? I 
feel like falling down on my knees before you." 

Miss W — l — e, '05 — "You know, Jim, the warning rings for gym, 
and then the bell rings for gym, and then the bell rings after gym." 

Jimmie — " How funny." 

Critic's Report (Woman's Lit.) — "The pedal still squeaks. I 
should suggest that some oil be procured for it. Probably there is a 
little left at Annesley from last year." 

Certain Juniors looked very uneasy. 

The annual reception of the Woman's Literary Society was held 
on Friday evening, October 21st. Miss Spence and Mrs. Rowell, 
our honorary president, received and proved themselves very charm- 
ing hostesses to over two hundred guests. The programme was brief 
but entertaining. As we watched the gay throng there came to us a 
line from somewhere which seemed to fit — 

" Beauty and youth. 
And sprightly hope and short-enduring joy." 

The walking was good. 

Every dog has his day, and Paddie his reception nights. 

Freshman — ''Miss Williams, '06, is the biggest toad in the Bob 
puddle." 

It is hereby announced to the readers of locals that certain re- 
nowned travellers and explorers of the third year have discovered the 
shortest, cheapest and most interesting route to Niagara. Take the 
boat at Toronto and the ordinary route to Lewi- ton. Peculiar charm 
will be added if a rough morning is chosen. At Lewiston become so 
absorbed in a cup of tea that you forget to disembark until the 
steamer is under way for Queenston again. At Queenston find a true 
descendant of Old Charon of Stygian fame, equally grim and silent 
but not unresponsive to jollying, who will row you over the river to 
catch a trolley, an hour late for Niagara. For particulars apply to 





X. iRir.r.i.K. 



c. r.. KF.I.I.V. 





H. \V. BAKKR. 



\V. T. IM^OWN. 



Acta Vidoriana. 121 

Misses K. R — c — and Th — p — n, '06, who sometimes like to hear 
the song of "The Absent-Minded Beggar." 

Lamb (in trouble) — •" There are only two girls on this promenade 
card whose faces I remember." 

At the first reception Miss Hurlburt, '08, had the names of ten '07 
men on her card. 

William plays to the gallery. On Saturday morning, Oct. 15th, 
those who happened to be in the library were treated to a rare Babel 
of tongues. William was dumping ashes just beneath the window 
when he was visited by a former tenant of his house — a little man, 
decidedly Irish both in accent and appearance. They wasted no 
time in preliminaries, but went at it hammer and tongs. It was not 
long till the windows were open and books forgotten while the wordy 
strife rent the air. A considerable disparity in age alone prevented 
mortal combat, and William's assailant finally withdrew, leaving the 
contest a draw. 

The Victoria Whitby tennis tournament proved very interesting 
this year, as always. Our girls played hard and well, and who can 
do more ? After several successes, defeat may be a little hard to 
bear, but it will stimulate to greater effort next year — but why 
anticipate ? 

Echoes. 

Miss Landen burst a paper bag at a critical moment, causing Dr. 
Hare to start visibly. 

Overheard — " Yes, she has it down patsy " {re one of the Whitby 
players). 

Freshman — "Where is this Whitby school? " 

During the doubles, Charlie Bishop's ejaculations alternated between^ 
" Hard luck ! " and " Good play ! " 

When the new arrivals from Whitby were duly kissed, all the menj 
turned their heads except the Bob Committee. 

Perhaps we can blame it on that organ-grinder. 

Spenclev (at Alma Mater mass-meeting) — " Why have we not 
Punch downstairs ; is it too costly ? " Who can count the cost 1 

Editorial Rights Vindicated. — The Local Editor (Masc.) desires 
to state that having been taken unawares by those unscrupulous tres- 
passers upon the prerogatives of the press, George Ernest Trueman 
and Charles Douglas Henderson, he suffered violence at their hands 
at the tap. Thereupon Acta Board, having undertaken the prosecu- 
tion of the offenders, tapped the former with water and the latter with 
wood, to the moral edification of both. Ita pereant omnes sceleraii! 



122 



Acta Victor tana. 




-A-'ii-- 



VARSITY suffered a well merited rout at the hands and feet of 
Queen's rugby aggregation, on Oct. 29th. The score stood 
20 to 10 and even at that was hardly an indication of the pla)ing. 
The local University team has evidently not recovered from the loss of 
her two star men, Baldwin and Beatty, and unless her new material is 
promptly whipped into shape there is little hope of success. The 
half-line seems utterly demoralized, and Toronto's scrim, has never 
been her strong card. It is to be hoped that this " scrimmage game " 
will soon be a thing of the past. How any sane man, after watching 
both the old and new methods, can prefer to see a disordered fight to 
a scientific struggle, is a mystery. The ball is for the most part 
hidden under a writhing mass of human beings — occasionally this 
breaks up and fifteen individual "scraps" occur, or once in a great 
while a player is kicked or punched loose from the general melee and 
makes a short run ; this constitutes the spectacular open play vaunted 
of by a few infatuated cranks. 



Owing to a "sick foot " Adams, '06, was unable to play his usual 
winning part at the university athletic meet. Victoria was, however, 
well represented by Archibald, a '08 specialist, who gave a rather 
startling exhibition of his prowess by dividing first place honors in 
the pole-vault and by making a splendid throw with the hammer. 



The Athletic Union is in a very flourishing condition ; much is 
being accomplished and gigantic plans are being laid for the future. 
We had hoped for a report from the committee re the proposed gym- 
nasium, but for some unknown reason it has been delayed. 

The boys are rejoicing in the possession of new combination locks 
in the dressing-room. Besides being of material benefit we believe 
that they are providing much amusement for the seniors. Report 



Acta Victor! ana. 123 

tells us that vast sums of money have been won and lost m trials of 
ability to manipulate the combination. 



Generally speaking, the weather conditions of this last month have 
been very depressing, especially during the first two weeks, and no 
one has been more affected than our tennis enthusiasts. Notwith- 
standing this fact, the fall tournament has been carried on satisfac- 
torily, and interest in the pleasant and somewhat picturesque pastime 
does not seem to lag. Owing to the infinite variety of interests during 
the fall term, and to the large number of contestants, the tournament 
must necessarily be rather long-drawn-out. This fact, however, has 
not seemed to worry our players, particularly while engaged in the 
mixed doubles, and as the game affords excellent exercise both phy- 
sical and social, no room is left for complaint. We regret that results 
have not yet been handed in for publication ; a full report is expected 
for the December number. ^ 

October 17th was a gala day in tennis circles. Surely the 
Fates must have convened and, and under the pressure of many 
earnest supplications, snapped with their shears the chain of boister- 
ous winds and chilling rains ; for a more perfect day could hardly lift 
the veil of night, infusing, as it did, the autumnal coloring with sum- 
mer warmth. Under such favorable circumstances the courts proved 
a most attractive spot and a goodly number of spectators thronged 
the side-lines, evincing much interest throughout the various contests. 
The representation from Whitby, chaperoned by the genial Dr. Hare, 
— he of conversat fame,— seemed eminently fitted to fulfil all expecta- 
tions. A hearty welcome was accorded them, not only by the fair 
ones at " The Hall," but also, if one might judge from their promiscu- 
ous wearing of colors — probably inter-college etiquette, — and from 
their unusual breadth of smile, by the brethren themselves. 

The tournament was well balanced ; each event was closely con- 
tested, and the evidence of equality kept the interest of those looking 
on at a high point. The singles between Miss Graham and Miss 
Campazzi afforded the most excitement. 

The much prized shield, though gallantly defended, will adorn the 
halls of the W^hitby College until next spring, when we confidently 
expect " our girls " to recapture it just as a tonic for examinations. 

Following is a list of results : 

Miss Graham (Vic.) defeated Miss Campazzi (O. L.C.), 6-0, 6-8, 6-1. 
Miss Ogden (O.L.C.) defeated Miss Paul (Vic), 4-6, 6-2, 6-3. 



124 Acta Victoriana. 

Miss Cauldwell (O.L.C.) defeated Miss Maclaren (Vic), 6-4, 3-6, 6-2. 

Miss Harrison (Vic.) defeated Miss Smith (O.L.C), 6-4, 6-4. 

Misses Campazzi and Smith (O.L.C.) defeated Misses Graham and 

Harrison (Vic), 6-4, 8-6. 
Misses Ogden and Cauldwell (O.L.C.) defeated Misses Paul and Maclaren 

(Vic), 6-3, 6-4. 



There is a runtior rampant in the corridors these days to the effect 
that a new source of amusement has been conjured up in the fertile 
atmosphere permeating the "residence." By earnest solicitation we 
learn that the new game — new for Victoria, at least — is to thrive 
under the dignified cognomen of " Field-hockey." The co-eds. seem 
to be the only source of information regarding rules and explanations 
in general, but from the few hints dropped the game appears to be a 
revised version of shinny, that diversion immortalized by Ralph 
Connor, and in which our grandfathers were wont to indulge. Our 
only prayer is that the revision has been a radical one. The Athletic 
Union has generously donated one dollar and twenty-five cents in 
support of the scheme; this is to procure the "object of contention " 
— a ball. Would it not be wise for the Union to provide coats of 
mail, also — armor, understand — and an up-to-date vocabulary ? 



" Listen to the Hum." 

Victoria, 12; St. Michaels, i. Victoria, 18; Y.M.C.A., i. A 
better day is dawning I 

For the little practice the Rugby team has had, it is in rather fair 
shape and Vic's chances are rosier than ever before. The two 
practice-matches have been regular walkovers, and the boys intend to 
keep on walking. Archibald, '06, is not on hand this year, but his 
little brother is a regular whirlwind and is a much needed addition to 
the ranks. Davidson, '08, is developing into a fast wing man, his 
speed is supposed to have resulted from an infatuation for horse- 
racing. The line men have nerve and weight enough for O. R. F. U. 
company, and their protection is much appreciated by the back 
division. " Bill " Walden can tackle as well as he can sing ; the 
beauty of his playing lies in the fact that when kicked in the head he 
never says anything worse than, " Oh, Martha ! " " Boots " Campbell 
has been inconsiderate enough to injure his knee; his loss will be 
serious, as a first-class full-back is not easy to find. November 2nd 
will tell the tale. 




m-^i^'"' 










OUATCHOUAN FALLS, QUEBEC 






■jVICTORlAE' 



"JNIVERSITA5' 




ACTA VICTORIANA 

Published Monthly during the College Year by the Union Literary 
Society of Victoria University, Toronto. 

Vol. XXVIII. TORONTO, DECEMBER, 1904. No. 3. 









dtristmas 



E. S. SMcLeod 



I N G out, oh bells of Christmastide 
Across the pure white snow ; 
Ring out to every listening ear 
The tale of long ago. 

Peal forth, ye b'lls of Christmastide ! 

The sweet and glad refrain 
Of that new song which stirred the 
heavens 

And woke Judea's plain. 

Ring out, oh bells of Christmastide! 

Till home on every breeze 
The fragrance of your incense floats 

O'er nigh and far-off seas. 

Peal forth, ye bells of Christmastide 
Till scenes of starless night 

Shine radiant 'neath the glory-beams 
Of clear, celestial light. 

Ring out, oh bells of Christmastide ! 

Till woe and war shall cease ; 
And voices of a ransomed world 

Peal forth the psalm of peace. 



126 



Ada Victor iana. 



Schiller in Weimar 

BY PROFESSOR G. H. XEEDLER^ B.A., PH.D. 

GOETHE had been four years at Weimar when, at the close 
of the year 1779, in company with the young Duke Karl 
August, he passed through Stuttgart. The visitors were present 
at the distribution of prizes in the Military Academy. Prominent 
among the prize-winners was Schiller, then a youth of twenty; 




LUST uF SCHILLER. 



and we may imagine the feelings that filled his breast as he saw 
Goethe in person for the first time — Goethe, who had not only 
as author kindled his enthusiasm, but whom he saw happy in 
the friendship of an enUghtened prince, so gloriously different 
from the duke of his own native Wuerttemberg, under whose 
tvrannv he had himself suffered. 



Acta Victoriana. 



1 27 



The real beginning of Schiller's relations with Weimar date 
from five years later. In the interval he had fled from the 
Military Academy and beyond the borders of Wuerttemberg, 
had written three successful dramas, and Avas engaged in 
Mannheim upon a fourth, " Don Carlos," in which he was por- 




SCHILLER. 



traying, in the characters of the young prince and ]\Iarquis 
Posa, a friendship analogous to that existing between Karl 
August and Goethe, when the Weimar duke paid a visit to the 
court of the neighboring Darmstadt. Schiller sought an inter- 
view with Karl August, before whom and the court circle he 



128 



Acta Viclonana. 



read the opening act of " Don Carlos." His income as a play- 
wright had up to this time not been enough to keep the creditor 
from the door; while his worthy father was neither able nor, 
under the circumstances, willing to assist him. It was thus with 
unspeakable joy that his prospects for the future were at this 
point brightened, not by money, but by what was to him of even 
greater value, a proof of admiration from Karl August ; for he 



■ 


■■ 


1 


■ ^ f^l^B 


w\ 




Km 




^J 


I^H 



CHARLOnE. 



immediately received a note conferring upon Dr. Schiller " with 
much pleasure," and as a " token of my esteem " the title of 
Saxe-Weimar Councillor. 

Less than four years after his meeting with Karl August in 
Darmstadt we find him setting out on a journey, which he had 
doubtless ever since had his heart upon — to Weimar. The pil- 
grim to Weimar to-day finds a quiet little city of 30,000 inhabi- 
tants. Though the economic progress of the past hundred years 



Ada Victoriana. 



129 



has considerably enlarged it, yet the general change is not so 
great as in the case of most German towns of its size. It is 
still first of all a residence town, and its atmosphere is not black- 
ened by many factories. The old central portion of it preserves 
in a large measure the original outlines and general aspect, 
while its limits have been extended chiefly by new streets built 
up with the stereotyped stucco-covered residence flats, while on 




GOETHE. 

the outskirts are to be seen a considerable number of detached 
homes for the more wealthy. When Schiller first entered Weimar 
on the 21 St of July, 1787, and put up at the still flourishing 
Hrhprinz, it was a town of some six thousand people. Herder 
spoke of it as " dreary Weimar, a miserable cross between vil- 
lage and Court Residence." It is situated near the southern 
edge of the undulating country that forms the gradual transition 



I30 



Acta Victor iana. 



from the great northern Prussian and Saxon plain to the pictur- 
esque hill-country of Thuringia. The town itself lies in a valley 
some three miles wide and stretching with fairly regular out- 
line indefinitely to east and west. The country round about, 
which is fairly fertile, is now pretty thoroughly denuded of its 
original wood. Still there is foliage enough in the summer 
landscape to contrast picturesquely with the varied patchwork 




KARL AUGUST. 



of fields cultivated with a careful minuteness tmknown to our 
Western land, and make a green setting for the frequent red tile- 
roofed villages that dot the gently sloping hill-sides or nestle 
by the stream. The highest elevation in the neighborhood is 
the Ettersberg, four or five miles away, with its w^ooded crest 
skirting the horizon and beckoning the pedestrian rambler to the 
domain of pine and linden and beechwood surrounding the ducal 
hunting-seat of Ettersburg beyond. Overlooking the town from 



Ada Victonana 



131 



a wooded eminence a couple of miles to the south is the chateau 
of Belvedere, still a favorite residence of the ducal family, with 
a charmingly beautiful park, in the laying ovit of which Goethe 
had a prominent part, and in the still carefully preserved open-air 
theatre of which, with its side-scenes and enclosing walls of na- 
tural hedge, he frequently trod the grassy stage with other mem- 
bers of that gifted court circle in characters of his own creation. 
Rising in the mountains to the southwest, the little river Ilm has 
at Weimar become a fair-sized stream, though still fordable at 
any point and navigable only here and there by the row-boat. 
It makes its way in pleasing windings through the beautiful park. 




SCHILLER S HOUSE IN WEI.MAR. 



which is Weimar's chief external attraction, past the town and 
on to join the Saale. In a bend of the stream by the village of 
Tiefurt, two miles below Weimar, is the park and little chateau, 
originally a farm-house, the favorite summer residence of the 
Dowager Duchess Anna Amalia, niece of Frederick the Great 
and mother of Karl August. To this gifted little woman of 
undaunted heart Weimar owes the foundation of its greatness. 
Alarried at seventeen and left two years later a widow and the 
mother of two children, she resolutely set to work to meet the 
hopes of her people by bringing up her eldest-born to be a fit ruler 
for the little State whose affairs she, meanwhile, as regent, con- 



132 



Ac/a Vicioriaiia. 



ducted with consummate skill. Wieland was chosen as tutor 
for Karl August, and he became the first link in the chain that 
led to Weimar's literary renown. In the park at Tiefurt, which 
was created under her directions ; in the little chateavi there, 
still kept as when she lived in it and packed with endless 
souvenirs of her ; and in the Wittumspalais, the residence in 
Weimar occupied by her after her son's accession to the duchy, 
and preserved with a like pious reverence for her memory, one 
hears, I think, more plainly than amid any of the rest of the 
Weimar surroundings the voice of the native genius of the 




SCHILLER S ARBEITS UND STERBEZIMMER. 



place. In those days Weimar was still a walled town. Round 
about the main part of it still ran the line of the original wall 
fortified by round towers at short intervals. Along nearly its 
whole extent outside was the water-filled moat, and entrance to 
the inner town lay through guarded arched gates. As a sort of 
separate fort within the fortification stood the moat-encircled 
castle, which, however, as Schiller first saw it, was a desolate 
ruin from the fire of a few years before. 

For nearly two years Schiller is in Weimar or its neighbor- 
hood when, as the result of his historical studies and largely 
through Goethe's mediation, he is appointed to lecture on history 



A eta I ictoviana. 



^12> 



at Jena, the university town of the Thuringian duchies. His 
appointment in Jena was at first purely honorary ; later, Karl 
August gave him a yearly allowance of about $150. Back in 
Jena once more after travels necessitated by ill-health, he founds 
a magazine, in which he invites Goethe's collaboration. The two 
greatest men of German literature, who had so long held aloof 
from each other, at length come to an understanding of each 
other's mind and character, and that close union is formed which 
was to bear such magnificent fruit for both. The years 1794 
to 1799 show a gradual gravitation of Schiller toward Weimar. 




WITTEMSPAL.\IS. 



His marriage on February 22nd, 1790, to Charlotte von 
Lengefeld had been the iDeginning of years of purest domestic 
happiness. His tragedy of " Wallenstein," performed with great 
success in Weimar, placed him in the front rank of German 
dramatists. Hoping to devote himself more effectively to the 
theatre, and also feeling on his own part that he had something to 
give to A\'eimar, he turns once more to Duke Karl August for 
an increase of his allowance. Expenses also, as he calculates, 
will be greater in Weimar than in Jena. The duke responds by 
an additional $150 a year, also a supply of wood for the winter. 
In December, 1799, Schiller moves with his wife and three chil- 



1 34 Acta Victoriana. 

dren to Weimar. At this time his total yearly income is hardty 
$i,ooo, including his own allowance, Lotte's portion, and the 
five or six hundred that his publications bring him. ' In spite, 
however, of his occasional lamentations over the expenses of 
living, and his first impression that there is " not much Geist 
in circulation " at Weimar, he soon feels firmly anchored there. 
Things go so well that after three years he ventures to buy a 
house for himself. This is the " Schillerhaus " of present-day 
pilgrimage, situated on what was then the Esplanade, and is now 
Schillerstrasse, the leading street of Weimar. In this house he 
spent the last three years of his life. It is a plain structure, with 
the prevailing stucco facing. Up one flight of stairs dwelt 
the family ; the upper story contained a little ante-room, a recep- 
tion-room, Schiller's study, and a diminutive bedroom. In these 
apartments of a homely simplicity are still to be seen, along 
with many other silent witnesses of his daily life, his plain work- 
table and the still plainer bedstead of unpolished wood in which 
the great poet drew his last breath. Few, I imagine, have in 
later days looked upon them and joined them involuntarily with 
the noble thoughts that there first found utterance without 
thinking more nobly of humanity. 

Goethe's house on the Goethe-Platz (then Frauenplan) is 
only some five minutes' walk distant, and the theatre where they 
so often met is still nearer. During the six years of Schiller's 
residence in W'eimar the companionship between him and Goethe 
was the most important part of their existence. At the home now 
of one, now of the other, their new productions are read together 
and discussed. If either is confined to the house, as Schiller so 
frequently was by illness, or if a journey takes one of them out 
of town, there is a steady exchange of missives. 

Schiller's relations to the court were never intimate. He 
practically did not enter at all the inner circle into which Goethe 
had been taken from the first. This intimacy, however, Schiller 
himself rather avoided than sought. He joins in the literary 
circle of Anna Amalia, but rather in the capacity of poet than 
as intimate friend after the manner of Goethe, Wieland, and 
Herder. At a tea in the palace he finds it wearisome to have to 
listen for three-quarters of an hour to the recital of French 
verses. Writing to Charlotte von Stein, he says he has been 
two years in Weimar without an invitation to court ; and would 



Achi Victoriana. 



JD 



like, indeed, to be omitted altogether; adding, that he seeks no 
mark of distinction that is not personal. Schiller's wife was by 
birth of aristocratic rank, and had before her marriage been 
received with favor at the Weimar Court. For her sake, accord- 
ingly, the title of nobility conferred on him in 1802, through 
Karl August's mediation at the Imperial Court, is not unwel- 
come, as it restores her to social privileges which she had sacri- 
ficed on becoming his wife. 

As we read in Schiller's letters the record of his daily life, we 
are struck most forcibly with his intense activity and the per- 




GOETHES HOUSE IN WEIMAR. 



sistence with which he kept before him the higher interests of 
the soul. "Work," he says, "is the chief thing; for it gives 
not only the means of living, but the whole value of life." When 
at work on a drama he is " in a sort of fever." " When I am 
busy I am well." Impatient over a slow convalescence that pre- 
cludes creative work, he translates from other languages in order 
to keep in practice. Knowing the necessity of conserving his 
energy, he is impatient of the distractions of society. In the 
midst of his work on "Tell," the vivacious Mme. de Stael makes 
an extended visit in Weimar, and is the cause of much loss of 



1 36 Acfa Victoriana. 

time. " The disturbance was quite intolerable." After she 
departs he feels as if he " had passed through a severe illness." 
On one occasion he takes a temporary lodging in the neighbor- 
ing village of Oberweimar, in order to have quiet for his work : 
his disgust is great when on the first night there he can get no 
sleep owing to a crowd of villagers noisely serenading a newly- 
wedded couple across the way. \\'ith kindly considerateness, at 
another time, Karl August places at his disposal the quietude 
of the Ettersburg, where Schiller and his servant live in seques- 
tered state during the last weeks of his work on the drama of 
" 2^1ary Stuart." 

At Christmas in 1804 — exactly a century ago — Schiller was 
rejoicing over a case of Malaga wine, presented by his friend, 
Cotta, which, after having tried with ill success " all possible 
sorts, sweet and sour, white and red, German, French and Span- 
ish," he finds to his taste and beneficial. Looking back on the 
long illness of the past year, feeling recovery all too slow, he 
says in the spring of 1805 : " However, I will be quite satisfied 
if life and passable health hold out until fifty." \\"ithin a few 
days of this — on May 9th, 1805 — his life had ended at four years 
short of this stoic wish. 

As was then the custom with those not having a family burial- 
place in Weimar. Schiller's remains were laid to rest in a subter- 
ranean vault in the churchyard of St. Jacob. At long intervals, 
when this vault became full, it was emptied of its contents, which 
were then consigned pell-mell, it would appear, to a common 
grave. Thus it happened that, twenty-one years after his death, 
a like fate w'as to overtake Schiller's bones. At this juncture 
the burgomaster of Weimar, feeling that it would be a national 
dishonor if this indiscriminate, even though time-honored, treat- 
ment should be the lot of the nation's greatest dramatist, suc- 
ceeded by persevering scientific methods, v.ith which Goethe 
assisted, in establishing beyond doubt the identity of Schiller's 
bones. A couple of years later they were, at the wish of Karl 
August, placed in the newly-built Fiicrstciigniff, or Grand Ducal 
Family Vault. In the same dim chamber rests now also the body 
of Goethe, not far from that of Karl August himself — fit con- 
tinuation in death of a life-long companionship of prince and 
poet-friends. 



Ada Victoriana. 137 

The HULman's Lass 

OVER the field where the grass is cool, 
Follow the road who must ! 
With a song for the beech an' the brown pool 

An' the noiseless tread in the dust ; 
With a laugh for the lazy hours that go 

An' the folk who pass us by. 
The trees they grow so broad, so lozv, 
They ihut me from the sky. 

Here be strawberries wild and sweet, 

Folloiv the road who may ! 
An' here's a rest for a bairn's feet 

An' a kiss at the dose o' day ; 
An' here's a cloud from the shining seai 

Like a white moth in the night. 
On the edge o" the barley-field, fnaybe, 

The stars would shoiv more bright. 

Cut me a flute where the reeds are brown, 

Follow the road who will I 
O, I'll dress you fair in a green gown 

An' a cloak that is finer still ; 
Your sleeves shall be o' the fairies' lawn, 

Your shoon as red as the rose. 
Do you think that the wind which ivakes at dawn 

Will bring us a breath & the snozvs f 



-f> 



O, the world's wide an' the world is long. 

Follow the road zvho may I 
An' here's a lilt o' the wild song 

The Romany pipers play : 
An' "Mine," it sings, "is the moon's shield, 

An' the cloak o' the cloud is mine," — 
Do you think that the lowland clover field 

Is s'ivect as the upland pine ? 



f^atj(yue.^.(9'^ck/^a^j^ 



138 Acfa Victoriana. 



My Friend the Curate 

BY J. C. ROBERTSON^ M.A. 

YOU would be charmed, I am sure, with my friend the curate. 
Our acquaintance goes back to our undergraduate days, 
when he chose to forfeit his more than excellent chance for the 
highest honors of his year by indulgence in his one dissipation, 
the reading of English literature, and especially of English 
verse. A certain unpractical strain has always distinguished 
him. a touch of unworldliness ; and to-day he is laboring in the 
most contentedly unambitious way in a poverty-stricken parish 
of a great city, doing good and making good, but laying up for 
himself no treasure — upon earth. Literature and history chiefly 
appealed to him at college ; for mathematics and the meagre 
natural science of those days he had no love and little aptitude. 
Naturally, therefore, he was delighted one day to come across, 
in a work b\- Cardinal Newman, a retort to the common 
taunt that the study of literature deals with mere words, 
science with things ; nay, argued Newman, the truer oppo- 
sition is between thoughts and things. And I remember, too, how 
he came one night to my room with a new " find " of his. Dr. 
John Brown's sketch of Marjorie Fleming, the eight-year-old 
child whose conversation and writings so delighted Sir Walter 
Scott, and with what gusto he read me good bits here and there, 
and how he sympathized with Pet Ivlarjorie's tirade against the 
multiplication table : " the most Devilish thing is 8 times 8 and 7 
times 7 it is what nature itselfe cant endure." His reading fol- 
lowed no beaten track ; he browsed where chance and fancy led 
him, having no patience with the idea that certain monumental 
works must needs be read by any who would make the acquain- 
tance of our English writers. The immortal " Alice " was in 
those days not widely known in Canada, and when one day we 
were given some stanzas of " The A\'alrus and the Carpenter '' 
to turn into Greek (with all the purple patches of Platonic or 
Aristophanic idiom we could affix like peacock feathers to our 
jackdaw prose) he was the only one of the class in whose eyes 
shone the gleam of recognition. 



Acta Victoriana. 1 39 

It is now many years since he first conceived his curious pas- 
sion for England. His wide reading of prose and verse had 
filled his mind with pictures of a land whose scenery and whose 
history alike drew him with irresistible force. Our psycho- 
physicists of to-day might suggest, perhaps, that some impulse of 
heredity influenced him, at the insistent call of transmitted cell- 
life, which, having for generations developed under one set of 
influences, now in an alien environment turned again home. 
But as a matter of fact, while, like so many Canadians, he is of 
extremely variegated ancestry, there is, I believe, no genuinelv 
English blood in his veins. No, it was the call of the spirit, not 
of cell tissues. In that chief glory of England, her poetry, which 
is not more instinct with moral elevation than with the sense of 
Nature's felicities, in histories which spread before him the 
pageant and the panorama of a thousand years, and in romances 
and novels which depicted for him the very life and habit of 
thought of so many epochs, localities and grades of society — in 
these he found something which charmed him alike by its beauty 
and its human interest. 

It was the English country scenery and country life which most 
attracted him. True, he is far from irresponsive to the impres- 
sions gathered from books or pictures of the wonderful beauty 
and soaring sublimity of the English cathedrals, with their long- 
drawn aisles and fretted vaults, their storied windows richly 
dight, the grandeur of the feudal castles and the stateliness of 
lordly halls and manor-houses, the picturesqueness of the old 
timbered houses of Coventry or of Chester, the romantic beauty 
of ruined monastery or ivy-mantled tower, the impressive vast- 
ness of mighty London, the appeal to the imagination made by 
Westminster Abbey. He has read and re-read the copy I sent 
him of Goldwin Smith's delightful essay, " A Trip to Eng- 
land " ; but I am quite sure he has dwelt with the deepest pleasure, 
not on the masterly pages in which England is view^ed with the 
historian's eye, but on those passages which tell of English country 
life and country scenery, such as : " The characteristic beauty 
of England, the beauty in which she has no rival, is the beauty of 
a land which combines the highest cultivation with sylvan green- 
ness, of an ancient land and a land of lovely homes. The coun- 
try is rolling and from every rising ground the eye ranges over 
a landscape of extraordinary richness and extraordinary finish. 



1 40 Acta Victoriana. 

Gray church towers, hamlets, mansions, homesteads, cottages, 
showing themselves everywhere, fill the landscape with human 
interest. There is many a more picturesque, there is no lovelier, 
land than Old England, and a great body of essentially English 
poetry attests at once the unique character and the potency of 
the charm. The sweetest season is spring, when the landscape 
is most intensely green, when the ^Nlay is in bloom in all the 
hedges, and the air is full of its fragrance, when the meadows are 
full of cowslips, the banks of primroses and violets, the woods of 
the wild hyacinth. Then you feel the joyous spirit that breathes 
through certain idyllic passages of Shakespeare." 

Without sharing all my friend's enthusiasm, I can easily under- 
stand it. having heard him talk so feelingly of that of which his 
heart was full — ^betraying the source of his infatuation by the 
constant interweaving in his conversation of lines or phrases 
from the English poets from Chaucer to Tennyson. Not that he 
obtruded his enthusiasm upon even his intimate friends ; but 
when once you did move him to speech, then, like the dying Fal- 
stafif. he " babbled o' green fields." With kindling eye he would 
talk of the Forest of Arden, of the copsewoods and the lanes, 
of the tangled hedgerows, little lines of sportive wood run wild, 
and all alive with birds ; of the blithe matins of the lark, the 
cuckoo's wandering voice, the nightingale's eternal passion and 
eternal pain ; of woody theatres of stateliest view, of immemorial 
elms, of churchyard yews, and monarch oaks, those green-robed 
senators of mighty woods ; of the soft music of village bells or 
the far-off curfew sounding over some wide-watered shore ; of 
the springtime when daisies pied and violets blue and lady- 
smocks all silver-white, and cuckoo-buds of yellow hue. do paint 
the meadows with delight, of fields of dancing daffodils, or of 
that delightful season when the broom along the copses runs in 
veins of gold ; of waters rolling from their mountain springs with 
a soft inland murmur, or of the quiet beauty of lakes and river- 
vales, round which meek loveliness is spread, a softness still and 
holy. With what evident appreciation he would repeat Brown- 
ing's " Oh ! to be in England now that April's there," or the 
lines Shakespeare puts into old Gaunt's mouth, " This other 
Eden, demi-paradise, this precious stone set in the silver sea," 
and the rest of that famous passage ; while he forgave ]\Irs. 
Browning much for her description of England in " Aurora 



A eta Vic to riana. 141 

Leigh," as " The ground's most gentle dimplement (as if God's 
finger touched, but did not press, in making England), such an 
up and down of verdure, a ripple of land." 

Yet during all these years he has never visited England. He 
has given himself to his parish, and the slender income thence 
derived would scarce with a decade's saving enable him to go 
abroad ; and saving there could be none to a man with his warm 
heart in a neighborhood so needy. It has been no case, however, 
of chill penury freezing the genial current of the soul. The single- 
hearted devotion, the ready sympathy, the ardent enthusiasm of 
his early manhood, still abide with him. At times I have scolded 
him for so completely sacrificing himself to people who were 
often impostors and for the most part critical and ungrateful ; 
or, again, I have offered to condole with him on his hard lot and 
his deprivations. But at such times he has always met me with 
a whimsical smile and a ready retort. In fact he can marshal a 
whole battalion of arguments in favor of not visiting the land of 
his aft'ection ; feathering his darts, as is his wont, with tags of 
verse from his beloved poets. 

He will, for instance, remind me of the wonderful power of the 
fancy and the imagination to body forth, even out of airy noth- 
ing, that which gives to the heart its deepest satisfaction. " Heard 
melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter.'' In such 
pictures as Rossetti's " Sea Spell," or Watts's " Hope," he would 
say, the listening ear of the player stoops to echoes from some 
far-off realm of the spirit, and hears music far surpassing that 
caught by the senses alone. And, after all, when one finds beauty 
in the world about him, does he not half create it, and only half 
perceive it? Or, again, quoting Longfellow's lines on Chaucer, 
" As I read I hear the crowing cock, I hear the note of lark and 
linnet, and from every page rise odors of ploughed fields or 
flowery mead," he would ask why the poet's art should not have 
the same magic power as the song of the thrush at the corner of 
Wood Street to raise amid squalid city streets a vision of trees 
and mountains, of green pastures and flowing river. Where, 
again, could be fovmd more stirring poems on the sea or on the 
joys of Bacchus than those of Barry Cornwall, who yet in all his 
life could never muster courage to cross the Channel, and who 
was the most temperate of valetudinarians ? Or even more to t'ne 
purpose, what writer has given a more perfect picture of the 



142 Acta Victoriana. 

scenery and atmosphere of Greece than Walter Pater, who }et 
never in the flesh visited that land? And, then, he will rally 
me on my inconsistency and lack of faith in that, lover of Plato 
as I am, I 3-et fail to see that the visions of the spirit are fairer 
and more satisfying far than any perceived by the sensual eye. 

Or taking another line, he will point out the advantage he 
possesses over any actual visitor to England, in being free from 
all limitations of space and time. No unseasonable weather can 
hamper his movements or circumscribe his enjoyment. Does 
he wish to pass from Surrey to the Lakes, or from Kent to 
Devon, he can in a moment travel thither. The seasons change 
as he desires, nor has any Lapland witch such power over the 
moon as he. " The sunrise wakes the lark to sing, the moonrise 
wakes the nightingale," but he can listen to their song at any 
hour of the day, a great comfort, he adds, to such a slug-a-bed 
as he, and one who must be so careful about exposure to morning 
or evening dews. All periods, too, are present to the mind's eye ; 
nothing he may long to see has passed away from the England 
of his vision : the inns and stage-coaches of the time of Dickens, 
the spreading sails of Nelson's line-of-battle ships, the mediaeval 
castles thronged with knights returned from Chevy Chase, from 
Agincourt or the Crusades ; pilgrims such as Chaucer saw wend- 
ing their way to Canterbury, or Roman legionaries in their 
camps ; the train bands of Old London, the Devon of Drake and 
Grenville, the mid-England of George Eliot, the Belford Regis 
of ]\Iiss Mitford, the Bow Bells of- Dick Whittington's day, or 
the Fleet Street beloved of Dr. Johnson. Moreover, he has no 
need to exclaim how rare are the perfect days, or to lament " bare 
ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang '' ; rather to the 
England of his fancy he might say, " While every fair from fair 
sometimes declines, yet chy eternal summer shall not fade " ; 
unless, indeed, he choose to have it so, and in a moment, presto, 
turns the summer back into the joyous springtime. Browning 
complains, " Never the time and the place and the loved one all 
together " ; but he has absolute power to make such combinations 
as he will, in defiance of space and time or the dull preciseness 
of unimaginative science. Your dry-as-dust commentator, for 
instance, will remark on the impossibility of finding in simul- 
taneous bloom the flowers which ^lilton strews on the laureat 
hearse of Lycidas, and object that Shakespeare could not " know 



Acta Victoriana. 143 

a bank where the wild thyme blows, where oxlips and the nod- 
ding violet grows, quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine, 
with sweet muskroses and with eglantine." Such people, in his 
eyes, are but blind leaders of the blind, and in proof thereof he 
will quote me from Keats the poem on " The Realm of Fancy," 
which he avers makes with " L'Allegro " a better guide-book to 
England than a score of Baedekers or Murrays. 

And at yet other times he will speak of the disenchantment that 
so often awaits eager expectation, of the violent contrasts between 
aspiration and realization, quoting Shakespeare's words, " All 
(things that are, are with more pleasure chased than enjoyed." 
No doubt, he would confess, his England is largely that of the 
poets, upon which has been shed the light that never was on sea 
or land. If so, would not actual vision compel the cry, " Whither 
is fled the visionary gleam ? Where is it now, the glory and the 
dream?" If waking means disillusionment, who would care to 
wake from dreams so sweet, dreams which give zest to life, and 
do not in the least interfere with doing noble things? He told 
me on one occasion that he dreaded Wordsworth's experience 
on visiting Yarrow : '' And is this — Yarrow ? This the stream 
of which my fancy cherished, so faithfully, a waking dream, an 
image that hath perished?" They are on safer ground, he 
held, who say with Wordsworth in his earlier poem, " \\'e have 
a vision of our own ; ah ! why should we undo it ? . . . Enough 
if in our hearts we know there's such a place as Yarrow." 

Then he has often reminded me how a visitor cannot but be 
distracted by the exigencies of travel, and harassed by the 
annoyances of the road or of the inn, petty doubtless, but suffi- 
cient to banish the frame of mind in which one would fain see 
England. How could one properlv enjoy the most charming 
scenery if he were worried about catching his train or losing his 
luggage, or if he were in discomfort because of cheerless lodgings 
or improper food or uncongenial travelling companions? The 
poet who writes immortal verse on some scene of beauty or of 
grandeur, does so only when in the proper mood, when every- 
thing has conspired to set the object described in its noblest or 
most alluring aspect, and simultaneously so to prepare the poet's 
mind that he may add the consecration and the gleam. But the 
traveller, willy nilly, must see that same bit of scenery just when 
it happens to come in his itinerary, perhaps under quite different 



144 Acta Vicioriana. 

circumstances of sunshine or of moonlight or of weather, quite 
possibly at the wrong season of the year, and almost certainly in 
more or less bodily discomfort and without the needful prepara- 
tion of the spirit. 

One day I found him in his tiny back-garden, looking mourn- 
fully at the meagre results of his labor. " I am going to give up 
gardening altogether," he said. " The shock of disappointment 
is too great. When I look through the descriptions and the 
pictures of flowers and vegetables in the seedsman's catalogue, 
my soul is set on fire, and I wish my garden were a hundred 
times as large. But see what comes up. Xo wonder a garden 
is associated with the fall of man. the corruption of human 
nature and the debut of the devil. Your Plato must be right 
when he argues that the seal of imperfection and distortion is 
set upon all attempts to realize thought in action, and that what- 
ever is material fights against perfection. Now if I can only let 
the garden go, I am sure I can henceforth get undiluted satisfac- 
tion from the catalogues alone, with all their alluring pictures of 
symmetrical tomatoes and luxuriant clusters of early peas, and 
their inspiring descriptions of the rainbow coloring of irises, and 
the velvety perfection of pansy or of rose. There, my friend, I 
have another ground for resembling England to a garden : I must 
keep away from each in order perfectly to enjoy it, and must 
comfort myself as Keats did the ineffectual lover on the Grecian 
urn : ' Vet do not grieve ; she cannot fade, though thou hast not 
thy bliss ; forever shalt thou love and she be fair.' " 

Yet in all these arguments of his against visiting England 
there has been no discoverable trace of sour grapes. If there 
has been disappointment, he gives no sign ; and if on Sundays he 
speaks to his flock of compensation, of cheerful resignation, and 
of faithful attention to the duty next them, that teaching he cer- 
tainly has first followed himself. Only once in all these years 
have I heard him express anything resembling discontent, or the 
wish that things might be otherwise, and then it was only the 
mock-disconsolate repetition of Gammer Gurton's doggerel 
lines — 

" O that I was where 1 would be I 

Then I would be where I am not ; 
But where I am I still must be, 
And where I would be I cannot." 



Ada Victoriana. 



145 




T 



GOLDWIN SMITH. 



The Proper Materials of the Novelist 

'HE materials of the novelist 
must be real ; they must 
be gathered from the field 
of humanity by his actual 
observation. But they must 
pass through the crucible of 
the imagination ; they must be 
idealized. The artist is not a 
photographer, but a painter. 
He must depict not persons but 
humanity, otherwise he forfeits 
the artist's name, and the power 
of doing the artist's work in our 
hearts. When we s-e a novelist 
bring out a novel with one or two good characters, and then go on 
manufacturing his yearly volume, and giving us the same character or 
the same few characters over and over again, we may be sure that he 
is without the power of idealization. He has merely photographed 
what he has seen, and his stock is exhausted. Of course, this power 
of idealization is the great gift of genius. It is that which distinguishes 
Homer, Sh ikespeare and Walter Scott from ordinary men. But there 
is also a moral effort in rising above the easy work of mere description 
to the height of art. Need it be said that Scott is thoroughly ideal 
as well as thoroughly real .^ There are vague traditions that this mm 
and the other was the original of some character in Scott. But who can 
I oint out the man of whom a character in Scott is a mere portrait ? 
It would be as hard as to point out a case of servile delineation in 
Sh ikespeare. 

Scott's characters are never monsters or caric itures. They are full of 
nature ; but it is universal nature. Therefore they have their place in 
the universal heart, and will keep that place for ever. And mark that 
even in his historical novels he is still ideal. Historical romnace is a 
perilous thing. The fiction is apt to spoil the fact, and the fact the 
fiction : the history to be perverted and the romance to be shackled ; 
daylight to kill dreamlight, and dreamlight to kill daylight. But 
Scott takes few liberties with historical facts and characters ; he treats 
them with the costume and the manner of the period as the background 
of the picture. The personages with whom he deals freely are the 
Peverils and Nigels ; and these are his lawful property, the offspring of 
his own imagination, and belong to the ideal. 



146 



Ada Victoriana. 




The Slumber Jingel 



BY VIRXA SHEARD. 



WHEN day is ended, and grey twilight flies 
On silent wings across the tired land, 
The slumber angel cometh from the skies, — 
The slumber angel of the peaceful eyes, 
.\nd with the scarlet poppies in his hand. 

His robes are dappled like the moonlit seas, 

His hair in waves of silver floats afar; 
He weareth lotus-bloom and sweet heartsease, 
With tassels of the rustling green fir trees, 
As down the dusk he steps from star to star. 

Above the world he swings his curfew bell, 

And sleep falls soft on golden heads and white ; 

The daisies curl their leaves beneath his spell, 

The prisoner who wearies in his cell 

Forgets awhile, and dreams throughout the night. 

Even so, in peace, comes that great Lord of rest 
Who crowneth men with amaranthine flowers; 
Who telleth them the truths they have but guessed, 
W^ho giveth them the things they love the best. 
Beyond this restless, rocking world of ours. 



Acta Victoriana. 147 

The Stormberg l^everse 

BY DECIMAL SEVEN. 

LAST December I was filled with an indescribable desire to 
visit the old folks in the dear land across the sea. They 
are getting old now, and, wdth one exception, their children have 
taken their departure to various parts of the world. J\lary, the 
vounsrest sfirl, is with them, and is the jov of their autumnal davs 
and the sunshine of the old manor house. 

The sight of a big display of Christmas cards, as I passed to 
,my business in New York, attracted my attention. One in par- 
ticular ; it contained a picture of an old farm-house which seemed 
to me to be an exact representation of home. The robin sitting 
on the hedge bordering the long front garden walk, and the 
broad glebe facing the house, with the horse-pond in the corner, 
fixed my resolve to see the old sweet spot again as soon as pos- 
sible. On reaching my office I at once telephoned the White 
Star Co., asking for accommodation on the Majestic, which 
sailed that week. They offered me the only first cabin berth 
that was vacant, which, though in a double room, I promptly 
accepted. 

Having made the necessary business arrangements which a 
month's absence involved, and purchased presents for the old 
folks and I\Iary, I went aboard the liner, which was now under 
a full head of steam, and only needed her supplementary mails 
to allow departure. Early in the afternoon we passed down the 
river, and dropped our pilot just before the bugle sounded for 
dinner in the evening. 

I w^as agreeably surprised to find that the gentleman with 
whom I was sharing a stateroom was sitting next to me at the 
table, and after exchanging cards we became very friendly ; both 
of us had travelled considerably, therefore conversation was 
easy and interesting. Until quite a late hour we sat in the com- 
fortable library relating our experiences, and then taking a few 
turns round the promenade deck, we retired for the night. The 
next few days passed very pleasantly. The weather was bright 
and invigorating, and walking on the long spacious decks 
afforded excellent exercise. Nothing is more exhilarating than 



148 Acta Victor iatia. 

walking down the weather side deck of a hner when a fresh 
morning wind is playing with the long Atlantic waves, and cut- 
ting up the spray which the sun seems to dust with gold, and to 
feel the occasional lift of the mighty vessel as Father Neptune 
disputes the passage with modern science. 

J\Iy companion grew less communicative as we drew near 
Oueenstown, but on the night before we reached that port, after 
the usual concert was over, he suggested a game of chess in the 
smoke-room, to which I readily assented. " We shall soon 
be at home enjoying the Christmas festivities," I exclaimed, as 
1 settled myself for the game. "■ Don't remind me of that, Mr. 
Seven," he replied, and putting his head in his hands, he said : 
" If you will please excuse me. I would rather talk than play, my 
thoughts are too far off for chess. I fear." " If it is not too per- 
sonal or painful a subject to introduce, I think you have suf- 
fered a severe loss, have you not, friend?" I ventured, as I 
returned the chess-men to the box. " If it will relieve your mind 
at all. let me hear about it." "" Why do you ask that," he re- 
turned, looking u]), "have I been talking in my sleep?" " No; 
but your general manner of late has suggested that you are 
carrying too big a load, old man," I said. " ^Ir. Seven," he 
said, lowering his voice, " you are right, thanks for your sym- 
pathy ; we shall not be overheard in this corner." He steadied 
himself by the tables as he changed his seat, for the vessel was 
heaving considerably under a shore swell ofif the Irish coast, and 
leaning back in a lounge chair, he began his sad story: 

" When the South African War opened I had 1)cen in that 
cotmtry several years, travelling up and down the colony, but 
generally making ni}" headqviarters at Cape Town. I was at this 
time engaged to a beautiful English girl, Annie Foster, who 
was living with an uncle on a farm near Stormberg. The old 
man was an Englishman by birth, but had lived so long among 
the Boers that he was quite one with them in his sympathies, and 
always declared that if war broke out he would fight against 
the British. I had promised Annie that if a resort was made to 
arms I would take her to Cape Town out of the way. Accord- 
ingly, in September of i8(Xj. when there was a suspicious move- 
ment of troops up country. I at once sought permission from her 
burly old guardian to find her safe quarters in the English capi- 
tal. In fact, I suggested that we should marry at once, but he 



Acta Victoriana. 1 49 

would not hear of it, and after indulging in language none too 
complimentary, told me that in twelve months' time she would 
be free to do as she wished, until which time he was her legal 
guardian, and when the property left by her mother came into 
her possession his responsibility would end. In answer to my 
vain attempt to point out the danger to which he was exposing 
his charge, he boastfully replied: 'Young man, the English 
troops will never get this way, mark my words !' 

" With a heavy heart I returned to Cape Town and found 
that the local volunteer regiment to which I belonged had orders 
to be in readiness to proceed up country at short notice. At 
the end of October we were drafted into the regulars, and hur- 
ried to the front. Our regiment bore a large part of the nerce 
fighting with which the war opened, and in the middle of Decem- 
ber we camped near Molteno, expecting to meet the Boers in 
considerable force at Stormberg. You can quite imagine my 
feelings, Mr. Seven, wdien I heard that the place where one 
so dear to me was living was likely to be the next object of our 
attack. 

" We left Putter's Kraal about 2,500 strong, and were follow- 
ing guides who knew the exact location of the enemy. Our 
Major-General intended to effect a night surprise, and shortly 
before dusk we descended a deep ravine flanked on either side 
by steep and rocky banks. I knew now that we were but a short 
distance from Annie's home, McGregor's Farm, as it was called. 

"It had been a very hot day, and the cool evening air was 
very refreshing. We halted in this long narrow passage, but 
were suddenly disturbed by the advance guards, who came 
galloping down the other end of the gully with the information 
that the guides had bolted forward with all possible speed. We 
were at once ordered out of our dangerous position, but before 
that order could be obeyed machine guns commenced a shower 
of bullets from both ends of the gully, in which we had been 
cleverly trapped by the treacherous guides?" He here passed 
his hand over his forehead and paused. 

" I don't really know just what happened, to tell you the 
truth ; it was an awful mix-up. The horses became unmanage- 
able, and the rear road became blocked with ammunition 
waggons, many of the mules being killed. But we made a 



150 Ada Victoriana. 

desperate dash, some forward, and some up the right bank ; the 
left was utterly impossible. Just as I was scaling the ridge my 
horse went down, and with a bullet in the shoulder, and one 
above the ankle — the results of which remain to this day — I 
rolled to the bottom, and lay helpless behind a huge boulder, 
where I very soon lost consciousness. 

" VVhen I awoke I was terribly cold, and felt dying of thirst. 
The day was breaking, and the noise of someone approach- 
ing caused me involuntarily to attempt to sit up and seek aid, but 
I fell back with a cry of pain. I'he steps quickened and in a 
moment, to my utter bewilderment, Annie Foster was bending 
over me with eager questions as to my condition. ' Oh, Jack ! 
she said, with her brown eyes full of tears, ' I feared you were 
dead ; the British troops reached the farm last night with 700 
missing. An officer told me you were not among the wounded, so 
he concluded that you had been taken prisoner ; the stretcher-bear- 
ers evidently did not see you behind these boulders. I couldn't 
rest, Jack, without riding down to the gully to look for you. 
I'll go back as fast as I can for help?' As she bent over to kiss 
me I asked her to fetch me some water, if any was near at hand. 
Snatching up my helmet that was lying near, she ran down the 
road. At that moment I saw a head half raised above the op- 
posite bank, then the barrel of a rifle was exposed, and the rising 
sun glinted it with light ; it was pointed down the ravine. 

" I cannot tell you what I felt, j\Ir. Seven, at that awfuL 
moment. I shouted as loud as I could, but as I did so there was 
a crack, followed by a puff of white smoke. ' Curse the 
cowards,' I moaned — ' shoot a defenceless woman !' — and for an 
hour I endured a mental torture that cannot be described ; she 
might be lying mortally wounded and I unable to help her. 
Imagine my joy when I heard her voice, although very weak, 
calling to me, ' I'm coming with the water, Jack, but I can't 
walk !' A few minutes after she crawled up to me with about a 
spoonful of water in the helmet. When I looked at her dear face 
I knew the w^orst. ' I'm dying, dear Jack,' she whispered, as 
she lay across my left arm, and her frame trembled in pain. 
' Someone has made a horrible mistake,' I said, as I wiped the 
moisture from her brow ; ' keep a brave heart, Annie, help will 
soon come.' She turned her face up to me, and before our lips 
could meet her precious life ebbed away." 



Ac hi I'icioriana. 



I ^i 



It was some minutes before he was able to resume the nar- 
rative. 

" There is but Httle more to tell," he continued; "a company 
of scouts found us, and we were taken to the farm. It seems 
that an outpost stationed near the gully thought that some of 
the enemy were pillaging the dead, and seeing the girl running 
with the helmet in her hand, fired at her with fatal effect. How 
she managed to reach the \vater and return with it, mortally 
wounded. God alone knows. A few days before Christmas, four 
years ago, she was buried in the little Dutch Church cemetery 
with military honors, and I attended, borne upon a stretcher. 
Every year abotit this time, Mr. Seven, I live over again the 
Stormberg Reverse, and see that noble little face, \\ ith the sweet 
brown eyes, struck with the haze of death, bidding me a silent 
farewell." 

The throbbing of the screws ceased, the pilot was evidently 
coming aboard, and my companion rose to go. I grasped his 
hand, my heart too full for speech, and we parted wdthout a 
word. A few hours later he left the ship at Queenstown. and 
as he limped across the gangway I felt an intense longing for 
the day when the principles of Peace and Good-will toward men, 
practically applied, will make the horrors of war an impos- 
sibilitv. 




ON THE MARCH TO THE FRONT. 



152 



Acta Victoriana. 



Reminiscences of Old College Professors 
and Old Times 

BY HIS HONOR JUDGE DEAN, M.A., LL.D. 

WHEN I went to Victoria in June, 1846, Rev. Alexander 
McNabb, M.A., was "Acting Principal." The Academic 
year in those days was divided into two sessions : the summer session 
of sixteen weeks, beginning on the second or third Thursday in June, 
followed by a vacation of three weeks, and the winter session, begin- 
ning in the last week in Octo- 
ber and continuing for twenty- 
six weeks, with a few holidays 
at Christmas. The winter 
session wound up by an oral 
examination of all the classes, 
held in the College Chapel in 
the presence of all comers for 
throe days, beginning on 
Monday morning at 9 o'clock. 
A lecture by some magnate 
from abroad was usually given 
on Tuesday evening, and the 
function was completed with 
great eclat by the exhibition 
on Wednesday evening. This 
consisted of orations of from 
five to fifteen minutes' length 
by eight to a dozen students, 
winding up with the conferring of prizes and degrees (when there 
were any to confer), usually followed by a brilliant illumination of the 
College building. An announcement of the date and particulars of 
the examination 'vas made in the two or three preceding issues of the 
Guardian. In the Wednesday's issue next before the examination for 
46, a note appeared over the name of the Acting Principal, saying 
that, owing to the frequent interruptions of the 'classes from sickness 
during the session, it had been determined not to hold an examina- 
tion. The paper reached Cobourg on Thursday night. There was 
no daily paper in Canada in those days ; the telegraph between 
Toronto and Montreal was not put up until 1847, so there was no 
means of reaching the public with a contradiction. The effect upon 
the attendance, and the demoralization in College circles generally, 
are more easily imagined than described. 




REV. ALEXANDER .M'NABB. 



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The letter bore the Cobourg post-mark, and was an excellent imita- 
tion of the remarkable handwriting of the Acting Principal ; but it 
goes without saying that it was a forgery. Whether it was intended 
merely as a practical joke, or was a scheme of some students of more 
enterprise than industry to let themselves down easy on examination 
day was never explained, for the perpetrator was never discovered. 

Rev. Mathew Richey, M.A., was the first Principal of Upper 
Canada Academy. Able man as he was, he seems not to have had a 
vocation for that sort of thing, and resigned a year or two before the 
College charter came into force. Rev. Jesse B. Hurlburt, M.A., of 

Yale, and Professor of Latin 
and Greek in the Academy, 
took Dr. Richey's place and 
continued at the head of the 
institution until it merged in 
Victoria College, when Dr. 
Ryerson became Principal. 

Mr. Hurlburt, who con- 
tinued as Professor of Classics 
until the spring of 1847, was 
a younger brother of a re- 
markable family of Methodist 
preachers, no less than five of 
them being in orders. His 
brother. Rev. Sylvester Hurl- 
burt, was for a year, 1847-48, 
Steward of the College Resi- 
dence. A good many years 
before that he was a mission- 
ary among the Ojibways. 
Stationed in the same village was a young missionary of the Church 
of England who afterwards became a Canon in his Church, and was 
all his life remarkable for his evangelistic views. Mr. Hurlburt and 
he were excellent friends, and were each possessed of logical ability 
and powers of argument above the average of their brethren. Enter- 
taining Mr. and Mrs. Hurlburt at tea one winter evening, the future 
Canon and he fell into argument upon apostolic succession and 
kindred themes, each standing to his guns unflinchingly, but without 
much show of personal feeling. When the evening was now far 
spent the host passed the Bible to his guest, and said, " Though I 
can't ask you to read and pray with us as a fellow-minister, I can as a 




REV. MATHEW RICHEV, M.A. 



154 



Ac^a Victoriana. 



fellow-Christian." " If I cannot pray with you as a minister of the 
(iospel. I cannot pray with you at all," was the reply, and exhorting 
his wife to get on her wraps he departed. I have never been quite 
able to determine which of these missionaries had, up to that time, 
succeeded in escaping more effectually that " meekness " which the 
great missionary Apostle so much coveted ; but I have reason to believe 
that it caught up to them both later on. 

Mr. VanNorman, M.A., 
also from Yale, as I remem- 
ber, was Professor of Nat- 
ural Sciences in the Acad- 
emy ; he, too, remained 
through Dr. Ryerson's 
regime. 

Mr. Jesse Hurlburt and 
Mr. VanNorman each 
established a ladies' 
school in Cobourg, and 
shared in the exodus of 
the girls from the Acad- 
emy. Mr. VanNorman 
left the College when Dr. 
Ryerson did in 1844, and 
founded the Burlington 
Ladies' Academy in Ham- 
ilton, which institution 
flourished under him until 
he went to New York to 
take charge of a famous 
ladies' institute there, over 
which he presided with distinguished success during the rest of his 
active life. Prof Hurlburt retired in the spring of 1847, ^"d for 
some_years had a ladies' school in Toronto. 

Wm. Kingston, M.A., who was Professor of Mathematics in the 
Academy for some years, occupied that chair in the College until the 
fall of 1847, when he resigned, owing to friction in the Faculty, and 
established the Provincialist, a weekly Liberal newspaper, which he 
removed to Hamilton the following year. He was succeeded by 
Prof. Paddock, a graduate of Union College, who remained from the 
fall of 1847 to the fall of 1849, when he returned to the States. 
Prof. Paddock was a son of Rev. Dr. Paddock, who was a man of 




EGERTOX RYERSON. D.D. 



Ac/a Victoriana. 



155 



mark in the American Church half a century ago. I have pleasant 
■recollections of this professor, but have been unable to learn anything 
of his subsequent career. 

At that time, and for a good while after, there were few grammar 
schools in the Province, and their work, with some exceptions, was 
done in a perfunctory way. The College was much resorted to 
by boys and young men who would now be studying at collegiate 
institutes. The studies taken up were largely elective, and, as 

I remember, there were 
then less than half a 
dozen who were going in 
regular course for gradua- 
tion. Up to that time 
only one B.A. degree had 
been taken, and it was 
the first that had been 
conferred by any institu- 
tion in the Province. 

Mr. Cameron, who 
afterwards took B.A., 
studied medicine and 
practised for a time in 
Port Hope, and after- 
wards in Rochester, was 
English Master. 

Mr. Wm. Ormiston was 
tutor in classics, and 
was reading hard for his 
degree ; he was a man of 
abounding health, great 
physical and mental 
strength, and a wonderful talker, but without the faintest idea that 
there was any limit to his powers of endurance until he had over- 
taxed them'and made himself a life-long invalid. He was haunted for 
many years by the terrible spectre, insomnia. He graduated in May, 
1848, and was for a year Professor of Mental Philosophy, etc. 

John Beatty, M.D., was for some years Professor of Natural 
Sciences, and rendered good service as measured by the scientific 
standards of the day. 

Dr. McNabb, 'who had meanwhile become principal, resigned at 
the same time that Prof. Paddock left. 




SAMLKl- >. NELL», i).i)., 1.1,.D. 



156 Acta Vuioriana. 

Prof. Wilson, B.A., T.C.D., who had taken the chair vacated by 
Prof. Hurlburt in the spring of 1847, became Acting Principal. 
Those who remember Prof. Wilson fifteen or twenty years later — and 
in that time he had grown no less active or executive— will readily 
understand that he was designed by nature to adorn the classic shades 
of Parnassus, rather than to shine as the guide and governor of a body 
of tempestuous youths. However, things did not go badly ; as larger 
democracies have done before and since, the boys resolved themselves 
into a committee of safety. They were at heart very loyal to " Old 
Trinity " ;* besides disciplining other unruly ones, they formally 
expelled one boy and sent him home. 

There was no summer session in 1850. Prof. Wilson accepted the 
mastership of a private classical school, and it seemed for a time that 
the doors of the dear old house would never more open. 

That was just the middle of the Nineteenth Century, the greatest so 
far of all the centuries. Let us pause for a moment at that point and 
look before and after. What disaster would such an event have meant 
to the hundreds who have since passed through those halls, some of 
whom have passed beyond, and some are still in active life ! What to 
the thousands who are to follow after ! What would it have meant to 
the Church ! 

Happily it was not to be. That matter-of-fact age witnessed a drama 
of actual life which had come to be regarded as a fable. They saw 
the Phoenix rise into new life from its ashes. 

Dr. Nelles who, as an undergraduate, had left Victoria when Dr. 
Ryerson resigned to become Chief Superintendent of Education, and 
had taken his degree at Wesleyan University, leaving a career as a 
preacher, which was then regarded as phenomenal, consented to lead 
the forlorn hope. Wesley Wright, who had graduated in 1848, came 
with him for classics, and Prof. Kingston, whose department had in 
his former incumbency been one of the sheet anchors of the institution, 
had had his fill of the newspaper business, and took up his old work 
with his old vigor and thoroughness. 

Dr. Beatty resumed his work in the Natural Sciences. After two 
years' service. Prof. Wright was called to a position in the American 
West, and Prof. Wilson came to his own again. All the world knows 
the modern history of Victoria, but no one can fully appreciate what 
the rare genius, the pathetic patience, the unselfish devotion of Dr. 
Nelles and his coadjutors meant to her, unless he knows by heart her 
mediceval history. 

* Prof. John Wilson, formerly of Trinity College, Dublin. 



Acta Victoriana. 157 

The Ballad of the True Lover 



BY VERNON NOTT. 



A 



MAIDEN framed in a casement wide — 

Her beauty match'd the morn. 
" When he comes again I shall be his bride- 
But now he fares to the war,"' she cried, 

" And leaves me here forlorn." 
She heard the trumpets' flaunted pride ; 
And watch'd the knights in couples ride 
With tarnish'd banners torn. 

The maiden leant o'er the casement ledge 

Above the motley street; 
And her white glove flung for a true-love i)lfdge, 

That dropp'd at her true-love's feet. 

She mark'd him wave his courtly hand. 

She heard his voice of cheer — 
Then plume and lance and warrior hand 

Blurr'd in a crystal tear. 



II. 



He whistled a little lilting tune, 

For his heart was blithe and gay ; 
Full many a catch would he lightly croon — 
For he craved of Fortune no dearer boon 

Than to ride to the wars away : 
By forest land and o'er naked dune, 
Thro' foul and fair, "neath sun and moon, 
He rode and trill'd his lay : 

Ho '. Youth and strength and love are good, 

And fond are maiden eyes ; 
All these are mine — yet now I would 

J I 'in me a braver prize l 



I :;8 Acta Victoriana. 

Aly szvord is keen, and stout my steed, 

Worthy of ivarrior foi : 
Oh ! Fame shall cro7V7i 7tiy every deed. 

And Death my every bloiv ! 

III. 

The maiden watch'd from the casement wide, 
Her face grown pearly white : 

" Will he come this morn ? "' she wistfully sigh'd 

" Will he come to make me then his bride- 
Will he come thro" dark of night ? 

Oh, none so gallant as he ! " she cried ; 

" God truard him that no harm betide 1 — 
Will he come with morning's light ? " 

Beneath her window, happy and loud, 

The careless throng goes by — 
She heeds it not, nor sun nor cloud 

That tease the April sky : 

From dawn till shadows gather dim, 

She will but watch and pray ; 
Her eyes have si^ht for only him — 

Who comes, perchance, to-day. 

IV. 

A quiver spreads thro' the quicken'd air — 

A word of victory cried I 
Forth flames the calling trumpet's blare : 
The people run, and the burghers there 

W^ith pillion'd good-wives ride — 
i-'or a trooper has won to the market-square 
And proudly doles his tidings fair 

The market cross beside. 

" O m:)ther ! an horseman knocks without — 
He hath borne great news of fame ! 
For my galliard knight do the people shout ? 
Ff)r him rings the glad acclaim ? . . • 

^' Oh, tell me ! tell me, mother dear, 
What said he of him I love ? " 
" God touch thee, child ! I bring thee here 
A blood-bespatter'd glove." 



Acta Victonaiia. 



•59 



V. 

The summer days are long and blight, 

The winter days are bleak — 
^^"hat difiers a cloud from the warm sunlight, 
Or the haunted day from the haunted night, 

When youth must pine and peak ? 
The casement wide is blinded tight 
That she may watch close hid from sight. 

And his name may softly speak. 

Beneath her window wends the throng- 
That knows no moie her face ; 

She heeds not jest, nor laugh, nor song — 
O Mary, yield her grace ! 

For eyes with searching soon grow dim — 

Can stricken heai ts be gay ? — 
And ever she waits and looks for him 

That rode to the wars away. 




i6o 



Acta Victoriana. 



William Morris, Poet, Artist, and Socialist 



BV PROFESSOR PELHAM EDGAR, PH.D. 



A GREAT worker, rather than a great thinker, Morris has suc- 
ceeded more practically and therefore more profoundly 
than his master, Ruskin, in modifying the artistic conscience 
of his age. His poetry, rare though its merits are, is read only by 
the curious few. His socialism, although not of the vulgar type, 
enjoyed the transient popularity that the merest demagoguism can 

command, and is now forgotten. 
His views on art, if pressed to their 
somewhat extravagant limits, would 
involve the cancellation of almost 
everything that has been produced 
in the last four centuries in order 
that a regenerated society might 
lead back the "Golden Age"; but 
his theories, shorn of their bizarre 
excess, have in their practical appli- 
cation effected a revolution in the 
taste of a nation. He reached 
maturity at a time when ugliness 
was rampant in the houses of the 
rich and in the houses of the poor : 
but before he died he had taught 
his countrymen a new code of 
beauty, or one which appeared to 
be new because it had been so long forgotten. 

Of most poets it may be said that their verse incorporates merely 
an imaginative ideal of beauty. There is something essentially trans 
cendent about their visions. To Morris this power was not denied of 
rising into a world of dreams, and the spirit of pure reverie is not the 
least beautiful phase of his many-sided genius ; but it is not the 
characteristic phase. While other poets have surpassed him in the 
radiance of their visions, to no poet of his century was it given to see 
so clearly the beauty of the natural world, and that beauty wrought 
by human hands which he no less intimately loved. So that, if we 
would realize the nature of Morris's influence upon his time, we must 




PROF. PELHAM EDGAR, PH.D. 



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Acta Victoriana. i6i 

seek it in his exquisite appreciation of beauty and in his no less 
scornful impatience of the needless profusion of ugliness which has 
followed in the wake of civilization. To extend the sway of beauty 
and to press back the encroachments of ugliness were the tasks in 
which were concentrated the energies of his genius. 

In the formative period of his life Morris was subjected to no extra- 
ordinary influences, but the circumstances of his career happily per- 
mitted the natural unfolding of his intellectual powers. His school 
years were passed at Marlborough during the ineffective head-master- 
ship of Dr. Wilkinson. For Morris the slack discipline of the school 
was not an unmixed evil, for it enabled him to roam about the sur- 
rounding country at will, absorbing in most unboylike fashion its 
natural and architectural beauties. The pre-Celtic, C&lticand Roman 
remains of the neighborhood interested him profoundly, and he used 
to say that he left Marlborough "a good archaeologist, and knowing 
most of what there was to be known about English Gothic." 

From Marlborough, after a year's private tuition, Morris went up to 
Exeter College, Oxford, intending at that time to proceed to holy 
orders. About the gray towers of Oxford something still clung of the 
enchantment of the Middle Ages, and in a passage of deep feeling 
Morris has told us of the charm which the place exercised upon his 
mind. Scholastically speaking he might, with as much profit, have 
been buried with a few books in Central Africa. It was the past 
which breathed in the present that alone was eloquent to him. In 
this state of confused disappointment and delight he found a kindred 
spirit in Burne-Jones, who had come up from Birmingham with 
smouldering artistic ambitions that were ready to catch the flame. 
Like Morris, Burne-Jones was destined for the Church, but with him, 
as with his friend, the passion for art was not slow to assert itself as 
the paramount aim of life. A journey which they made together in 
Northern France sealed their mutual decision. No country, not even 
Iceland, which he came to love so passionately in after years, could 
move Morris so profoundly as this land where the quiet beauty of 
nature was enriched by the harmonizing beauty of art, and here, 
beneath the shadows of those gray old churches, the two friends 
resolved to shape their lives as their instincts prompted them. 
Shortly after their return Burne-Jones devoted himself ardently to the 
study of painting, and Morris, more diffident of his technical ability, 
articled himself to Street, the well-known Oxford architect. 

Already his facility in verse had proclaimed itself. Canon Dixon 
tells the story of how he went to visit Burne-Jones in his rooms 



1 62 . Acta Victoriana. 

at Exeter. He was greeted on the threshold by the latter in 
a state of unsuppressed excitement. "Why, he's a great poet!" 
cried Burne-Jones. "Who is?" "Why, Topsy " — the name by 
which Morris went among his friends. They then listened to some 
lines that Morris had thrown off during the day. Genuine admira- 
tion resulted from the reading, but the poet took the praise with 
becoming modesty, saying simply, " Well, if this is poetry, it is very 
easy to write." Scarcely a day passed, while the poetic mood was on 
him, without its tale of verses which, for all their facility, showed no 
signs of careless haste, and bore few evidences of immaturity. The 
discovery of his poetic ability Morris made in 1854, when he was in 
his twenty-first year. In the following year he was instrumental in 
founding the Oxford and Cambridge Magazine^ launched, like all 
the enterprises of youth, for immortality, and as short-lived as they. 
To its funds Morris liberally contributed, and for its pages he wrote a 
series of imaginative prose romances, which no less than his poetry 
gave evidence of rich creative power. 

Immediately upon taking his degree in 1856, Morris, as I have 
said, devoted himself to the technical study of architecture. But he 
had not been long engaged in Street's office when he made the 
acquaintance of the poet-painter Rossetti, upon whose advice, which 
he received in the true spirit of discipleship, he determined to devote 
himself exclusively to painting. 

Mr. Val Prinsep, R.A., has revived many amusing memories of this 
young group which hailed Rossetti as leader. It was at this time 
that the decorative panels of the Oxford Union were entrusted to 
Rossetti and the artists of his choice. The story of the fiasco is fairly 
well known, but Mr. Prinsep has for the first time given us the fun of 
the enterprise. It was during a casual call upon Rossetti that Val 
Prinsep was informed by that masterful man that he expected him to 
do one of the panels in the Union. The young man protested vainly 
that he could not paint, nor even draw. He was told in answer : 
" That makes no difference ; there's one of my friends going to join 
us who has never painted anything, but you'll see he'll do a stunning 
thing." 'Ihis friend, it is needless to say, was Morris. After a hurried 
effort in London to gain the first principles of drawing, Val Prinsep 
returned to Oxford to find all his associates hard at work. With his 
help we can picture the scene, and revive its confused atmosphere of 
paint, medicevalism, and banter. Enter, with. some ladies, a grave 
Oxford Don, the head of a college, to see how the work progressed. 
Morris was at this time painting the roof, and with his faculty, as 



Acta Victoriana. 163 

Rossetti expressed it, " of creating and annexing dirt," we may arrive 
at an idea of the figure he presented in his daubed smock-frock and 
tempera-splashed spectacles. To him the Don in suave tones, — 
" My good man, can you tell me the subjects of these pictures ? " 
" Morte d'Arthur," roared Morris, and vanished by a ladder into the 
chaos of scaffolding. The next day Rossetti received an irate letter 
complaining of the excessive rudeness of his workmen. 

The sight of Morris standing with legs apart, gazing up at his 
roof — his clothes and face yellow and black and green with paint — 
inspired Burne-Jones to a highly comic caricature, under which was 
written, " O Tempera ! O Morris ! " 

Morris endured endless chaff from Rossetti on the subject of his 
painting, or rather on his method of treating his subject, which was 
Tristram and Isolde kissing among the flowers, while Sir Palomides 
jealously looks on. "The drawing of the faces and hands," Val 
Prinsep writes, " was what you would expect from a man who had 
never paid any attention to drawing. The figures, had you seen 
them, would have been fourteen feet high ; but, happily, he covered up 
all but the upper part with sun-flowers. What was seen was comic 
enough." 

"Top," said Rossetti, after gazing at his picture some time, "you 
must do that woman's head again." 

' Why, Gabriel?" answered poor Morris in an aggrieved tone. 

"It's not human; you must get some nature. Now," added 
Rossetti, in his most persuasive tones, " like a good chap, you get 
your sketch-book and go down and make a sketch of Stunner Lips- 
combe, and you'll get it alright." 

Stunner Lipscombe (all pretty girls were "stunners ") was a charming 
maiden at the neighboring inn, jealously watched over by her mother. 
Morris's reception was accordingly most uncordial, and he returned, 
Val Prinsep says, " sadly crestfallen," to find tacked up over his 
bedroom door a placard, on which was written : 

" Poor Topsy has gone to make a sketch of Miss Lipscombe, 

But he can't draw the head, and don't know where the hips come.' 

In London, during these years, Morris and Burne-Jones occupied 
Rossetti's old rooms in Red Lion Square. The problem of furnishing 
these lodgings at once presented itself, and to this simple circum- 
stance, and to the necessity a few years later of furnishing his own 
house after his marriage, we owe Morris's future career as designer, 
decorator and manufacturer. The exacting taste of the two friends 
could not tolerate the ugliness which then prevailed in all that 



1 64 Acta Victoriana. 

pertained to domestic art ; so Morris supplied designs for even the 
simplest articles of furniture — the chairs, tables and sofas — " tables and 
chairs," as Rossetti, with amiable chaff described them, " intensely 
medijeval, like incubi and succubi " — tables " as firm and as heavy as 
a rock,'' and chairs "such as Barbarossa might have sat in." There 
was a settle, too, of enormous proportions. " There were many 
scenes with the carpenter," Burne-Jones writes. " Especially I remem- 
ber the night when the settle came home. We were out when it 
reached the house ; but when we came in all the passages and the 
staircase were choked with vast blocks of timber, and there was a 
scene. I think the measurements had perhaps been given a little 
wrongly, and that it was bigger altogether than he had ever meant ; 
but set up it was finally, and our studio was one-third less in size. 
Rossetti came. This was always a terrifying moment to the very 
last. He laughed, but approved." 

Having gained all the advantage that he could derive from the 
study and practice of painting, Morris gave his whole energy now to 
poetry and to various handicrafts, more especially to stained glass 
designing and embroidery. The first tangible result in poetry was 
the publication, in 1858, of " The Defence of Guenevere," which met 
with but a cold reception. His efforts in the lesser arts resulted in 
the formation, in 1861, of the firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & 
Co., which became, fourteen years later, what it always had been in 
all but name, the firm of Morris e\: Company. 

Morris had, meanwhile, married Miss Jane Burden, and had moved 
into a new house at Upton — the famous Red House — to the designing 
and decorating of which he gave the most loving attention. The 
growth of his London business made it necessary for him to abandon 
the Red House in 1865. He had spent there five of the happiest 
years of his life, and there his two daughters were born. 

It is not possible to follow in detail the stages of Morris's subsequent 
progress. As poet, craftsman, and socialist he displayed a truly 
astonishing versatility, and we may safely say that in the range of his 
intellectual activities he is surpassed by none of his contemporaries. 
Yet, various as his interests might appear to be, a thorough survey of 
his career would reveal a fundamental unity of purpose and ideas 
binding together acts and impulses apparently the most divergent. 
Leaving his poetry aside, I shall turn, in conclusion, to the 
political and artistic aspects of his work and show, if possible, the 
logical sequence of ideas which led Morris inevitably through art to 
socialism. From the most aristocratic to the most democratic of 



Ada Victoriana. 165 

the forms of thought, the traHsition would appear to be abrupt to 
the verge of absurdity. A glance at Morris's opinions will prove that 
this is not the case. 

His initial protest is against the constitution of modern society 
which has driven art from its true refuge in the minds and hearts of 
the people, and has made the natural birthright of the many the 
exclusive privilege of the few. " The cause of art is the cause of the 
people," and firm in that conviction, Morris would have rejoiced to 
see society shaken to its foundations, and modern art swept utterly 
away, if at that price we might revive the shaping sense of beauty by 
which the hands of the common people reared the great cathedrals of 
the Middle Ages, and secure therewith the spirit ot justice which the 
Middle Ages never knew. Morris's love of the Middle Ages was not 
a blind infatuation. Its cruelty, rapine, and vice he never denied, but 
in the midst of it all he saw the individual workman free to follow his 
native impulse of beauty. In this modern age of commerce and competi- 
tive greed beauty, to the workman, is a word that has no meaning. He 
is twice a slave — a slave of the labor-market and a slave of the 
machine at which he grinds out the soulless monotony of his work. 

Morris was once asked what possible bearing socialism could have 
upon art. He replied : " I specially wished to point out in my 
lecture that the question of popular art was a social question, involving 
the happiness or misery of the greater part of the community. The 
absence of popular art from modern times is more disquieting and 
grievous to bear for this reason than for any other, that it betokens 
that fatal division of men into the cultivated and the degraded c'asses 
which competitive commerce has bred and fosters. Popular art has 
no chance of a healthy life, or, indeed, of a life at all, till we are on 
the way to fill up this terrible gulf between riches and poverty. 
Doubtless, many things will go to filling it up, and if art must be one 
of these things, let it go. What business have we with art at all 
unless we all can share it ? I am not afraid but that art will rise from 
the dead, whatever else lies there." 

Keen as was Morris's hatred of oppression, his socialism, with all 
its unbeautiful accessories rested rather on his love of beauty than 
upon his unquestioned desire that justice might prevail. 

No single interest ever sufficed to absorb the whole of Morris's 
energies, and his vigilant supervision of the artistic side of his business 
scarcely relaxed during the years when socialism made such inroads 
upon his time. It was his poetry that suffered, for even Morris could 
not achieve the impossible feat of preaching a revolutionary propa- 
.4 



i66 



Acta Victoriana. 



ganda upon dismal street corners, attending to the artistic detail of a 
rapidly increasing business, while at the same time preserving the 
freshness of mind which the exercise of the poetic faculty demands. 
It is a sufficient tribute to the native strength of his intellect that, when 
finally released from the onerous and thankless task of spreading " the 
gospel of discontent," his joyous appreciation of the beautiful things 
of life was able to find an original and brilliant medium of expression. 
The prose romances of his last years are, without doubt, his most 
unique if not his finest contribution to letters. Exquisite in their 
freshness, buoyant in their joyous vigor, and of striking originality in 
conception and execution, they hold a place apart in his own 
writings and in his country's literature. 

Eight years have passed since Morris died, a sufficient time, there- 
fore, to permit us to view his work in just proportion. His immediate 
influence was unquestionably most profound in the sphere of the 
lesser arts, upon which his genius conferred a quite novel distinction. 
So long as he was following his instinct of beauty he made no dis 
crimination between the lesser and the greater, and a day's work 
spent at his loom, or in executing some original carpet or wall-paper 
design, was probably no less satisfactory to himself than a day which 
saw some noble poem begun or brought to its conclusion. But his 
carpets and chintzes will fade, and though the impulse which he gave 
to honest craftsmanship can never wholly vanish, his title to remem- 
brance must rest most securely upon his literary achievement. Has 
the poetry of William Morris modified in any sensible degree the 
course of English poetry, and has it so impressed itself upon the 
minds of thoughtful readers that we can predict for it a living immor- 
tality, and not that spurious immortality merely which the philologians 
and curious antiquarians of the future will confer? The question may 
have sufficient interest to merit a careful answer. 




Ada Aictoriana. 167 

'Brother Jlnthony 

BY MARK GUY PEARSE. 

Scene : A Motiasfery Garden, May, 1632. 

HOW fair a dawn, all things so sweet and calm ; 
The gentle dews refresh the flowering earth ; 
Each glistening leaf as if with diamonds hung, 
And pearls bedeck the grass. From out the elm 
The blackbird bravely sings — S. Chrysostom, 
As Brother Simon calls the golden-bill ; 
The rapturous lark soars high to greet the sun. 
But on mv fevered heart there falls no balm ; 




REV. MARK GUY PEARSE. 

The garden of my soul, where happy birds 
Sang in the fulness of their joy, and bloomed 
The flowers bright, finds only winter now ; 
And bleak winds moan about the leafless trees, 
And chiil rains btat to earth the rotting stalks. 
Hope, Faith, and God, alike are gone, all gone- 
If it be so, as this Galileo saith, 
" The earth is round and moves about the sun ; 
The sun," he saith, ''is still, the axle fixed 
Of nature' s wheel, centre of all the worlds^'' 
Galileo is an honest soul, God knows — 



1 68 Acta Victor iana. 

No end has he to serve but only truth, 

By that which he declares, daring to risk 

Position, liberty, and even life itself. He knows. 

And yet the ages have believed it not. 

Have they not meditated, watched and prayed — 

Greit souls with vision purged and purified? 

Had God no messenger until arose 

Galileo 1 Long years the Cnurch has prayed. 

Seeking His grace who guideth into truth. 

And weary eyes have watched the sun and stars, 

And heird the many voices that proclaim 

God's hidden ways, — did they believe a lie? 

The Church's Holy Fathers, were they wrong ? 

Yet speaks Galileo as one who knows. 

Shrinks all my soul from breathing any word 

That dares to question God's most holy Book, 

As men beneath an avalanche pass dumb 

For fear a sound should bring destruction down. 

If but a jot or tittle of the Word 

Do pass away then is all lost. And yet 

If \vhat Galileo maintains be true ! — 

" The sun itself moves not." The Scripture tells 

At Joshua's command the sun stood still. 

Doth Scripture lie? The bless^'d Lord Himself, 

Spake He not of the sun that rose and .set ! 

So cracks and cleaves the ground beneath my feet. 

The sun that fills and floods the world with light 

My darkness and confusion hath become I 

Oh God, as here about the old grey walls 

The ivy clings and twines its arms, and finds 

A strength by which it rises irom the eaith 

And mounts toward heaven, then gladly flings 

Its grateful crown of greenery round the height, 

So by Thy word my all uncertain soul 

Hath mounted toward Thy heaven, and brought 

Its love, its all, wherc^with to crown my Lord. 

Alas, the wall is fallen. Beneath it crushed 

The clinging ivy lies ; its stronghold once 

Is now the prison house, the cruel grave. 

There sounds the bell that summons me to prayer. 



Acta Victor iana 169 

The Theory of Thinking 

BY AI.BERT H. ABBOTT, B.A., PH.D. 

1"* HOUGH everyone speaks about " thought "' or " think- 
ing," very few have taken the trouble to ask themselves 
exactly what it is that is designated by these terms. The 
purpose of the few remarks which I shall make on the subject 
is simply to indicate as w^ell as I can the direction in which 
present-day psychology is apparently solving the problem — at 
least, facts are being discovered which make it possible to make 
certain statements regarding the process of thinking which 
point toward a solution of the problem, even if they do not 
contain it. 

The problem of thought for the modern world arose in a 
definite form when Descartes said that thinking was the very 
essence or characteristic attribute of the soul or mind. Descartes, 
however, went farther than this, and taught that thinking was 
the occurrence of ideas, clearly and distinctly perceived, and. go- 
ing still farther, even suggested that this was the stamp or mark 
of the Creator set upon man, and that by virtue of this faculty of 
clear and distinct perception it could with right be said that man 
was created in the image of God. When, however, he held that the 
animals were nothing but machines — mere automata — ^he pre- 
pared the way for a keen criticism of his theory that thought, 
" the Natural Light," in man was at bottom supernatural ; for, 
is it not evident that, if the animals can do all they do, and be 
as intelligent as they are as mere machines, the same principle 
can be used to account for at least a good deal in man's psychi- 
cal processes? Even Locke held that animals must be allowed 
to be conscious, thinking creatures, while he held that man and 
man's thought were in a peculiar sense spiritual. 

Out of Locke's work grew the so-called " Association " 
school of British psychologists, and all of these men, from 
Hartley to Bain, teach alike that no " soul " which directs and 
guides the thoughts and volitions of men is discoverable. All 
occurrence of ideas is regarded by them as regulated by law. 
even by purely physical law ; hence one often finds the repre- 
sentatives of this school classed with the materialists. In some 



1 70 Acta Victor iana. 

human mind "* which they advocated, but from the purely meta- 
physical aspect many of these philosophers still believed in the 
soul — they had only taken away its occupation, so to say. 

The problem of thinking has had, then, just about the same 
history as its twin sister, the problem of freedom, but with one 
rather essential difference: the so-called laws of thought, 
logic and the necessary conclusions of science seem to point 
directly to a more than mechanical principle in thought, but 
neither they nor the alleged absolute laws of morals could be 
applied directly to the solution of the problem of the freedom of 
the will. 

Out of speculations regarding the occurrences in nature, and 
in later times regarding thought and volition, there developed the 
two views which are commonly called " mechanism " and 
" teleology." These terms thus refer most broadly to meta- 
physical standpoints from which the problem of the actual hap- 
penings or events in the universe is attacked and solutions pro- 
posed, but for the purpose of our present discussion we may 
regard the problem in its narrower aspect and thus confine the 
theories expressed in the terms " mechanism " and " teleology " 
to the problem of the nature of the happenings in consciousness 
or, briefly, in thinking. 

If we were to formulate this problem of thought in a very 
general way we might say that the question is. Do the events of 
consciousness — ideas — occur according to merely mechanical laws 
or does man strive toivard some goal or ideal in his thinking? 

The problem thus formulated is discussed in the metaphysics 
and ethics of T. H. Green, and a teleological solution is in the 
main strongly advocated by him. But in an essentially specula- 
tive solution, such as Green proposed, one may very well find 
grave difficulties, and hence it may be of interest to know what 
experimental research has brought to light in the direction of a 
solution for the problem of thinking. 

In the first place, the standpoint of experimental psychology is 
very significant ; there is but one question here, viz.. What are 
the facts? If they occur in consciousness they can be discovered, 
maybe not this year or the next, but if w^e are conscious of that 
stream of ideas, which is often called " thinking," we have the 
main facts, and the problem which has to be solved is simply : 

* €/. Hartley, " Observations on Man, Vol. I., for the terminologj'. 



Acta Victoriana. 171 

Under what conditions do ideas arise and combine (both simul- 
taneously and successively) with each other? There is no reason, 
so far as the general principle is concerned, why the facts thus 
sought cannot be discovered ; the only difificulty lies in the dis- 
covery of a suitable method. 

Two experimental investigations along the line here proposed 
have come directly under my notice, and as the results of these 
have a possible significance far beyond the particular questions 
investigated, it seems in place to give them a wider publicity 
than the purely scientific journals ofifer. 

The first series of experiments was conducted by Professor 
Kuelpe, of Wuerzburg, for the purpose of discovering something 
about the selection, or abstraction from certain factors, which is 
found in the actual facts of sense-perception. The results were 
made public at the Congress for Experimental Psychology, in 
Giessen, in April, 1904. For the purpose of the investigation 
a series of lantern-slides was prepared, on which, at equal dis- 
tances from the centre, certain nonsense-syllables were written, 
such as " lix," duj," " boq," " maf." It is hardly necessary to 
say that every point in connection with such a series of syllables 
was considered with the greatest care, so that duplication, too 
great uniformity, etc., should be avoided. Each word was written 
in a special color, e.g., red, green, blue, black, etc., and the colors 
o arranged that no two syllables on any slide should be of the 
■same color. These were then exposed to the observer on a 
screen by means of a projection lantern and photographic shutter, 
for a definite time, e.g., one-eighth of a second. It is evident that 
several questions could then be asked the observer: (i) What 
colors did you see? (2) What general arrangement (square, 
rhomboid, triangle, etc.) did the colored syllables have — in other 
words, what figure did they suggest? (3) How many elements 
(letters) were there? (4) What letters did you see? Now, it is 
evident that it would be, in general, easy to answer some of these 
questions, and more difficult to answer others, and hence that, 
were the experiments tried without giving the observer any 
suggestion as to what he should expect or try to perceive, it 
would be expected that, in general, questions i and 2 would be 
answered, while questions 3 and 4 could not be. This expecta- 
tion the results fully justified. But this was not the special aspect 
investigated. Professor Kuelpe wanted rather to discover how 
much this normal condition could be changed or influenced by 



[72 A eta I ^ictoria na, 

definite suggestions, and so the same series was shown to the ob- 
server on different occasions. The first time he was asked to 
concentrate his attention on the determination of the colors— 
that is, he was given that particular task, or ""Aufgabe" ; the next 
time on the determination of the general figure formed ; the third 
time he was asked to tell the exact number of elements (letters) ; 
the fourth time he had to distinguish as many of the letters as 
possible, and a fifth time he was shown the series without being 
given anv special task at all. On each occasion answers to the 
whole four questions were asked, and hence the results ought to 
show the influence which the task, or " Aufgabe "' set, had on the 
perception of the observer.- That is, each time a particular slide 
was used he was asked to abstract from certain factors as equally 
present and possible as the one singled out for emphasis. 

The result of the investigation showed definitely : ( i ) That 
the perception was strongly influenced by the task set, e.g., when 
the determination of color was the task, this could be done with 
considerable accuracy, but for the three other questions the 
answers were very indefinite or could not be given at all : and 
the same result was obtained when the task was the distin- 
guishing of the letters — this could then be done to a certain 
extent, but often even the color of the letters could not be 
given. (2) Some of the tasks set were found to be easier than 
the others, though even in this considerable individual differ- 
ences were discovered, which were characteristic for the 
general trend of the mental habits of the person concerned. For 
example, one found it easier to determine the colors and the 
letters seen, while another found the more abstract tasks, as one 
might call them, of determining the figure and the number of the 
letters easier — in this latter case it was often possible to give the 
exact number of letters seen without being able to tell a single 
letter. (3) When no task was set only the questions which the 
person found easiest could be answered. (4) In most cases the 
observers found it more agreeable, even if it demanded more 
effort, to work when a task was set. To work absolutely with- 
out a task was found to be well-nigh impossible — at least, more 
difficult than might be supposed would be the case. 

Before discussing these results in relation to the theory of 
thinking it will be well to outline the second investigation. These 
experiments were carried out by Dr. H. J. \\''att, of Aberdeen, 
Scotland, under Professor Kuelpe's direction, at Wuerzburg, and 



Ada Vicioriana. 173 

the results are published in the " Archirfuer die gesamte 
Psychologie," Vol. I\'. The problem here investigated was that 
of the association of ideas. It is clear that if a word, e.g., 
" horse," be shown to a person another word may be in some way 
called up, or, to speak exactly, reproduced in consciousness — this 
word may then be spoken or called out and the time between 
the showing (or seeing) of the first word (the stimulus) and the 
calling out of the associated or reproduced word can be. by ap- 
propriate means, measured. There is also a possibility of carrying 
out such an investigation with or without definite tasks or 
" Aufgaben," e.g., the observer may be asked simply to call out 
the first word that occurs to him, and this was the method fol- 
lowed by Muensterberg and others, or he may be asked (i) to 
give a word of broader or more general significance than the one 
used as stimulus, e.g., for "horse" such a word as "animal" 
would suit; (2) to give a word of narrower or less generrl 
significance, e.g., for " horse," " carriage horse," " Clydes- 
dale," would suit; (3) to give the name of a whole of which the 
stimulus-word is the name of apart — i'."., for " leg." " horse," 
" man," etc., would be suitable; (4) to give the name of a part 
when the stimulus-word designates the whole — e.g., for 
"house, "roof," would be correct; (5) to give a word. of co- 
ordinate significance to the stimulus — e.g., for "cat," "dog,"; 
(6) to give the name of a co-ordinated part to that 
designated by the stimulus, e.g., for " hand," " foot." 
" head," etc., would be correct. Dr. W^it carried out 
the investigation of association with these six tasks or 
"Aufgaben." The time required for the reaction, or the 
lapse of time between the showing of the stimulus and the call- 
ing out of the reproduced word was measured and all other 
details regarding his experience during the interval which the 
observer could give were noted. The investigation gave a great 
many interesting results, but one aspect only of these can be 
noticed here : ( i ) The influence of the task set on the character 
of the association was decidedly evident in the fact that but very 
few wrong answers were given during thousands of experi- 
ments ; (2) the task w^as found to considerably shorten the re- 
action time, i.e., a word could be called out sooner after seeing 
the stimulus-word when a definite task was set than it could be 
without any such limitation of the possible scope of reproduction ; 
(3) so far as the observers could determine, the task operated 



174 Acta l^ictoriana. 

in a perfectly " mechanical " way to determine the nature of 
the reproduction, i.e., it happened but seldom that the observer 
had to choose between several words which were reproduced, 
the first being almost always a correct or suitable fulfilment of 
the task set. 

Now just a word should be said as to the significance or mean- 
ing of the results reached in these two investigations, and others 
of a similar nature, and which show similar results, by Dr. Ach, 
of jMarburg, Prof. Schumann, of Berlin, and others, are here of 
necessity omitted. 

The first general conclusion which I should draw from these 
results is that the theory that thinking is the result of purely 
physical, mechanical laws can not be substantiated from this 
research. It seems well-nigh impossible, no matter how fanciful 
a brain or nerve physiology one may construct, to find a con- 
sistent or satisfactory mode of expressing the facts above 
stated. How a general mental preparation of the nature which 
these tasks demanded is at all possible is not yet clear from 
any point of view, but it is doubly difficult to conceive of such 
in terms of physiological processes. 

The second conclusion which these results seem to me to war- 
rant is : if the teleological view of the thought process really 
demand that some definite end be represented in consciousness, 
these investigations show it to be a false theory, for in no case 
was the observer conscious of anything which could possibly be 
called a definite end. In Prof. Kuelpe's experiments the only 
preparation which could be discovered was at times a tension of 
certain muscles of the head and chest, i.e., certain muscular sen- 
sations, the stoppage of the movements of breathing, and some- 
times the repetition (generally acoustically) of the word, e.g., 
" color," " figure," " number," " letters " — according as the task 
set was one or other of these. Dr. Watt's experiments gave the 
same kind of result on this point. When the stimulus-word was 
not known even approximately, how could an observer prepare in 
any definite way to reproduce or call up the word designating, let 
us say, a part or a whole of the object designated by the word 
shown ! Teleology in this sense is an impossible theory. If, on 
the other hand, the teleological view be so interpreted that it 
emphasize only the fact that what is in consciousness, whether 
as idea or a more indefinite condition of consciousness for which 
Prof. Marbe has suggested the name " Bewusstseinslage," in- 



^Acta Victoriana. 175 

fluences the succeeding reproductions by other than merely 
mechanical means, these investigations seem to offer some sup- 
port to the theory. Nevertheless, in possibly an entirely different 
sense than that usually understood, the " task " seems to operate 
purely mechanically. In one word, these investigations make it 
more and more difficult to make any sharp line of demarcation 
"between that which occurs " mechanically " and that which occurs 
■" teleologically," or under the influence of an end or task pro- 
posed. The whole question of mechanism and teleology, if it 
is to have a place any longer in the discussions of thinking and 
volition, must be more critically analyzed and the terms more 
accurately defined than has generally been the case. And per- 
haps, even more important than all this, it will now be neces- 
sary to show that the facts of consciousness support the position 
taken by either side. The problem of mechanism and teleology 
as applied to the facts of nature has become exceedingly nebu- 
lous through the discussions of Driesch * and others. If the 
standpoint proposed by these writers be adopted and conscious- 
ness (in, e.g., animals) be taken to be the source of teleological 
actions, and vice versa, the occurrence of actions suited to ends 
to imply at once a consciousness or an adaptive being, an entirely 
new aspect will be given to the question. It will then be neces- 
sary, as Kuelpet has shown, to re-examine many widely 
accepted views regarding the causal relation, the condition of 
there being values — which the strict causal relation can never 
explain, the question of purposiveness in general, and many 
others. 

This brief discussion shows, then, that a purely mechanical 
view of thinking is not satisfactory, and that a teleological theory 
of thought is the only possible one if the old lines be followed. 
If the old lines be not followed afid the old strife between mechan- 
ism and teleology be regarded as settled in favor of the latter, 
the spirit of truth and honesty must, however, at once protest tnat 
it is not the old teleolog}- which has conquered. It is rather an 
entirely new body of fact which has been drawn into the discus- 
sion and which solves the old problem only to hold within itself, 
as has been suggested, a new view of both mechanism and teleol- 
ogy. This, however, is rather stimulating than depressing, and 
is in reality nothing but still another illustration of the old say- 
ing that every advance brings with it a corresponding duty. 

*" Die Seele als Naturfactor " (1903). 

t " Einleitung in die_Philosophie," p. 2i6ff. (1903). 



176 



Acta V id nana. 



FLoradora Wllloughby 

Ji Tale of Physical Culture 

BY J. \V. BENGC U(;H 



.C^^- 





M 



ISS Floradora Willcughby was very s'ror 
and fat, 

With a figure which, quite truthfully, 
might be described £s squat ; 
And though her face was pretty, it was marred 

by discontent, 
Fcr her thoughts were alv/ays cweliing on her — 
well — " embodiment." 



When she saw tall girls around, her it made her 

almost wi'd, 
Nor to her dumpy figure could she be reconciled ; 
" Oh ! ■' cried she, " I'd: grudge no sacrifice if I 

could only be 
Tall, and slight, and supple, and slim and 

willowy I " 

in. 

And then she wailed and sorrowed, and in her 

plight so sad, 
She took to special dieting, en food as well as 

fad; 
But 'twas in vain, apparently, the problem thus 

to solve, 
He "too, too solid fiesh " refused to "thaw, 

melt or dissolve." 




IV. 

Not even all her grieving o'er her figure made 

her thinner. 
Nor did she lose an ounce of weight by goirg 

minus dinner ; 
So she at length was on the verge of sheer ard 

blank despair. 
When by a happy chance she read an article 

somewhere. 



Ada Victoriana. 



177 



V. 

It told of Physical Culture and the marvels it can do 
For cases such as hers ; oh joy ! she read it through 

and through ; 
And digested all it said of calisthenics and Delsarte, 
Until from end to end she knew the w'nole thing off by 

heart. 



VI. 

As they sometimes say in dramas — you'll please to 

understand ^^ 

An interval elapses here ; 1 cannot take in hand i^C^; 

To tell the weary story of Miss Willoughby"s long course 

Of dumb-bel's, weights, and swinging clubs and other 
forms of Force. 



VII. 

Let it suffice to say, in brief, her faith and enterprise, 
Her persevering efforts, and her strenuous exercise 
Were splendidly rewarded ; her triumph was complete. 
She was tall, and thin, and wiry, and most active on 
her feet. 



VIII. 

Alas ! few earthly blessings are pure without alloy ; 
Miss Floradora Willoughby was now brimful of joy ; 
But the calisthenic habit and the system of Delsarte 
Had become a second nature, from which she couldn't 
part. 






IX. 

And when, at length, she married a meek, bald-headed 

man, 
'Tis safe to say that trusting person's testing time 

began ; 
For, though a worthy character, he was not overfine. 
And high aesthetic culture was scarcely in his line. 




1/8 



Ada Victoriana. 




Yet, while they sat at breakfast and chatted tete- 
a-tete, 

She'd pass the butter to him in a scientific way ; 

That is— she'd take the platter, and, with fine com- 
mand of nerve, 

Deliver 't when she had described a graceful, sweeping; 
curve. 

XI. 

When she walked into the drawing-room it was indeed 

a sight 
That filled all casual visitors with rapture and delight. 
Such poetry of motion, such a sylph-like, fairy air — 
They'd never seen such picturesque cake-walking 

anywhere I 

XII. 

And then her fetching attitudes ! She'd do a pose 
plastiqiie , 

Artistic, though unconscious, whenever she would 
speak ; 

With " Susan, bring the dinner in ! " she, with an out- 
stretched hand, 

Would be a Grecian statue that personified command. 




XIII. 

With " Post this letter, Samuel," — in a spesch quite: 

commonplace — 
She'd do the pose that meant beseech with most 

pathetic grace ; 
Or when, perchance, the door-bell rang, she'd sternly 

wave her comb 
(If she were doing up her hair), and say, " I'm not 

at home ! " 



Acta Victoriana. 



179 



XIV. 

But oh ! the way she'd say it, and the gesture she 

would make, 
It knocked poor Susan every time, and made her 

fairly quake, 
Till at length the creature had to leave her well-paid 

situation, 
A hopeless case of heart disease mixed up with nerve 

prostration. 




XV. 

When Mrs. Floradora walked out upon the street 
With her unassuming husband, 'twas esteemed a public 

treat. 
As a lesson in deportment, free — "pro bono 

publico," 
And the general population turned out to see the 

show. 

XVI. 

But not to lengthen out the tale, I only need to tell 

How a strange — and p'r'aps instructive — "denoue- 
ment " befell|; 

The lady, by excess of curves, quite wore her system 
out, 

And then, for want of exercise, once more grew mon- 
strous stout ! ! 

XVII. 

And contemplating with despair her doubly cruel fate. 
In rage and piqued abandonment, she ate, and ate, 

and ate. 
Till, 'mongst fat woman freaks, she was a prodigy so 

rare. 
That her husband " showed " her in a tent at every 

County Fair, 






I So 



Ada Virloriana. 



The Hon. James Cox ^ikins, LL.iy. 

BY REV. NATHANAEL BURWASH, M.A., S.T.D., LL.D. 

URING last vacation our country lost one of its 
most useful and honored citizens, and our 
College one of her oldest and most eminent 
sons by the decease of the late Senator Aikins. 
Mr. Aikins was descended from that North 
of Ireland people which has taken so promin- 
ent a part in the building of Canada. His 
father emigrated from Monaghan in the year 
t8i6 and after a brief sojourn in the city of Philadelphia settled 





CH.ANCELLOR BURWASH. 



in the Township of Toronto, about thirteen miles west of the 
town of York in the year 1820. 

Mr. Aikins. sen., had been educated in the Presbyterian faith, 
but in that early day the itinerant Methodist preachers were the 
only evangelists of the country, and as they visited his neighbor- 



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Ada Vic tori ana. i8i 

hood he opened both his heart and home to them, and his house 
became a centre of rehgious Hfe and influence. Here, in 1823 
was born his eldest son, James Cox Aikins. He grew up in 
the midst of the simple strenuous life of the farm, shared in all 
the toil and hardship of those early days, was blessed with the 
moral discipline and fervent religious influence of his Presby- 
terian-Methodist Christian home, and himself became at a very 
early age a decided Christian, rejoicing in the clear consciousness 
of spiritual life. After this spiritual birth God gave him nearly 
seventy years of life, during which his religious spirit was not 
suffered to decline, and his simple, unassuming, Christian pro- 
fession was consistently maintained. 

At the same time other foundations for future usefulness were 
being laid. The people from whom he came were an intellectual 
people who valued education, and from reformation times hac 
built their schools on the same lines as their Presbyterian breth- 
ren across the Irish Channel. The schools of Upper Canada, 
in the thirties of the last century, were still very rudimentary, 
but of these he availed himself to the fullest extent. When he 
was yet but thirteen vears of age, Methodism opened to her 
sons and daughters the doors of the Upper Canada Academy. 
Here a liberal curriculum of more advanced studies was offered, 
the services of able and thoroughly qualified teachers, most of 
them university men. others trained in the classical schools of 
the Old Land, were secured, and the most modern and effective 
methods of instruction were introduced. The new^ institution 
at this time divided with Upper Canada College the honor of 
furnishing the best education then available in the Province. 
Here, in 1840. ]\Ir. Aikins joined the scores of young Cana- 
dians who then filled its classes, and pursued a most successful 
course of studies for the next five years. 

At the end of Mr. Aikins' first year in college the Upper Can- 
ada Academy had emerged from its lower stage of academic 
work, as it had been endowed by Act of Parliament with univer- 
sity powers, and at its head was placed Dr. Egerton Ryerson, 
already famous for his labors on behalf of civil and religious 
liberty, and soon to be equally widely known in the work of 
education. To the young college and its new president were 
gathering the strongest young liberal spirits of the country ; and 
Mr. Aikins found himself in company with, as fellow-students. 



1 82 Acia Victor iana. 

such men as Xelles, Ormiston, Springer, Hodgins, MacDougall, 
Brouse, Biggar, and Dennis, who have all borne a prominent 
part in the subsequent history of our country, and many of 
whom were afterwards his associates in the halls of legislature. 
As a student he was fully their peer, carrying ofif from year to 
year some of the highest honors of his class. 

But while college life had inspired many of his fellow students 
with ambition for professional or public life, his love of the quiet 
country home remained unchanged, and on coming of age he 
returned to the farm in the County of Peel which was to become 
the beautiful homestead of after days, and which was to be his 
home for the next twenty-five years. Thither he brought, in 
1845, his young bride, Miss ^lary Elizabeth Jane Somerset, a 
lady whose beauty of person and of Christian character, and 
whose refinement and intelligence fitted her to be the companion 
of an educated man, and to grace the high stations to which in 
after years they were to be called. 

The next ten years were given to the quiet life and the duties 
of home, neighborhood, and church, to which he gave his ener- 
gies as class-leader, Sabbath School superintendent, and trustee. 
But even then premonition of his future duties were 
not wanting in municipal honors, and a nomination for par- 
liamentary honors, which he at first declined. In 1854 he was 
elected in the Reform interest as representative of the County 
of Peel in the Legislative Assembly, and for the next seven years 
devoted his attention to the important questions then before the 
country, such as the settlement of the clergy reserves, the estab- 
lishment of the municipal system, and the improvement of edu- 
cation. In 1861 he was defeated on a local issue by the Hon. 
John Hillyard Cameron, but the following year was elected to 
the Legislative Council for the Home District, including the 
Counties of Peel and Halton, from which he was called at Con- 
federation to the Senate of the Dominion of Canada. 

The political life of a member of Parliament, whether in the 
Upper or Lower House, from 1862 onward was a stormy one, 
and when the "double majority" failed and a deadlock of par- 
ties was imminent, the leaders of both parties consented to unite 
their forces to carry into efifect the great national measure of 
Confederation, as promising relief from their present political 
difficulties, as well as a nobler destiny for their country in the 
future. In the ministry which was thus formed the Hon. 



Acta Vicfofiana. i 83 

George Brown, the leader of the party with which Mr. Aikins 
had thus far acted, the Hon. Wm. MacDougall, his former 
fellow-student, and the Hon. Oliver Mowat, were members on 
the Reform side for Upper Canada, with the Hon. John A. Mac- 
donald, James Cockburn, and Alexander Campbell, Conserva- 
tives. This coalition government ended with the completion of 
Confederation, and the entrance of the old provinces into the 
new Dominion. It was the desire of Sir John A. Macdonald 
that the union of parties should be continued, but Mr. Brown 
and Mr. Mowat declined and the Upper Canada Reformers 
were represented in the first Dominion Cabinet by Messrs. How- 
land, Fergusson-Blair, and MacDougall. During the autumn 
several changes took place and on the 9th of December Mr. 
Aikins was called to the Cabinet as Secretary of State. In the 
same month Mr. Fergusson-Blair died and henceforward 
Messrs. Aikins, MacDougall, and Howland continued to act in 
Parliament with Sir John A. Macdonald. He held office for the 
next five years, until the fall of the Macdonald government, in 
1873, on the Pacific Railway charter. During this time among 
the important measures carried into effect in his department 
were the organization of the Dominion Lands Bureau in the 
North- West, and the passing of the Public Lands Act in 1872 
In the preparation of this Act he was largely assisted by his 
friend and former fellow-student. Colonel J. Stoughton Dennis, 
then Surveyor-General. When the Macdonald administration 
returned to power in 1878, Mr. Aikins was again included in the 
Cabinet, and continued in office until 1882, when he resigned his 
place in the Senate and was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of 
Manitoba. At the close of his term in 1887, he returned to On- 
tario, and in 1896, was once more appointed to the Senate, in 
which he continued to discharge his duties to the end of his life. 
Throughout his whole life, he not only maintained his char- 
acter as a consistent Christian man, but also found time find 
opportunity for Christian work, and took a prominent part in 
all the interests of the Methodist Church. For many years he 
was lay treasurer of the Missionary Society of our Church ; and 
his influence, experience, and ability in public affairs were al- 
ways at its command for service. He closed a long and useful 
life in the quiet of his own home and in the peace of the Chris- 
tian faith on the 6th of August, 1904, in the eighty-second year 
of his age. 



184 



Acta V^tctoria7ia. 




^,-...#^^%^ 
^^;,^^^?.<^^ 



T 



The Eternal Path 

IME whips us on along the eternal way, 

And as we strain towards the unknown goal, 
We hail with joy or grief the new-born day : 
We bless or curse the seasons as thev roll. 



But this our Earth is doomed as well as we ; 

She holds her course unwearied round the sun, 
She spins along the path, unwitting she. 

If ever her long journey will be run. 

And he, our central foice, our life, our light, 

Sun of our suburb of the universe ; 
He plunges on into the infinite, 

Unknowing what far fields he must traverse. 

And other suns, a million suns beside, 

With frightful, unimaginable force, 
Are whirling through aerial deserts wide 

To unknown goals on the eternal course. 

Secret the way, far-off, unknown the goal. 
And yet the Father holds us in His care ; 

He guides His worlds. He li'ts the weary soul ; 
He knows the way, He hears thy feeblest prayer. 



Acta Victoriana. 



i8^ 




The Barricade 

BY S. FRANCES HARRISON ("SERANUS"). 

ERBERT LORING was a young barrister of promise and 

Han intimate friend of the family. He possessed a spon- 
taneity and fertility of humor, and a vein of inconseqence 
and generosity which, while delightful to share in, con- 
tributed chiefly to his suddenly renouncing his home and 
profession and taking to mining. In other words, the 
Klondike fever caught him — held him fast. 

For six months he was absent— none knew whether he 
had been successful ornot— when, as suddenly as he had 
gone, he returned. That return was dramatic. It was 
New Year's Eve and the hour seven, with the gas lighted and a plenti- 
ful table laid for five. The meal being " high tea," both white and brown 
bread were on the trencher, and a good-natured quarrel reigning 
be'iween two boys as to the relative merits of the loaves. From sport 
they proceeded, as youth will, to earnest. The loaves were snatched, 
held on high, grabbed, thrown down, caught again. Next they 
changed hands, and in the midst of calls to order, rapping, laughter, 
shouting, the brown loaf crumbled in two, and the white being a twist, 
resolved itself into a long yellow shining braid lying across the table. 
" Children, children, this is going too far ! Leave the bread alone 
at once !— do you hear ? It is a sin to waste it so." 

Like an echo came from behind my chair the words, " It is indeed 
a sin to waste it so ! " 

I started and looked around. Herbert Loring stood at the door, 
the very ghost, as we say, of his former self. His dress had sufifered , 
his features were sharpened ; his eyes sunken. His gay, confident 
manner had vanished and, more like a suppliant than a friend, he 
held up one hand as if in protest or invocation. For a moment this 
strange impression affected us, then we crowded around him, and he 
grew more natural. Apologizing for the broken bread, I was sending 
for a fresh loaf when he put his hand earnestly on mine and begged 
me to do nothing of the kind. 

" I heard you say that it was a sin to waste the bread, and I repeated 
your words. Did you hear me ? " 
I told him I had. 

"But you could not understand why I — I — Herbert Loring, re- 
peated them. And I do not wonder. There was a time I, too, might 
have wasted good food ; but not now — not now ! " 



I 86 Ada Victoriana. 

This transpontine speech amazed us, but we forbore to question 
him just then. When the meal was over we asked as to his success. 
For answer he drew a canvas bag from a small hand valise and put it 
on the table. It appeared to be full, and we were naturally delighted. 

" You reappear after a respectable interval," I said, " like the regula- 
tion miner of fiction, in shabby clothes, but with dust and nuggets in 
the regulation bag. Your friends will envy you." 

Herbert smiled rather sadly. " I hope not, though I have not done 
so badly. I have no nuggets, as you call them, but I have cleared 
$i,ooo in dust and two bars valued at $500 apiece." 

" Are you going back ? " 

" Never ! I would pave roads sooner." 

"But think of what you have done already! If you went again 
knowing the ground better — " 

Herbert struck his hand fiercely on the table. 

" Never, I tell you ! Heavens ! You sit here and — and — waste the 
bread, the daily bread of peace and work and plenty together, and 
yonder there are men starving — stairving — do you know, can you 
tell what that means? " 

We were silent. 

" I left here," Herbert resumed, " late in June, as you know. We 
got up without any accidents. The trail was an old and frequented 
one ; we had summer on our side, and our provisions were well 
chosen and plentiful. The air was so invigorating that all our por- 
taging and walking failed to fatigue us, and we were among the first to 
try our luck near Dawson City. In fact, our success was extraordin- 
arily simple. We just took pans and shovels, dug and washed, and 
washed and dug, and cleared any amount of stuff. But the scenery 
was monotonous, and the life rough and drear. Scurgis, a surveyor, 
whom I had taken a fancy to, and an American named Dyce, were 
my only companions, and by the middle of November we had enough 
of it ; so wi started for home. Sturgis wished very much to try the 
other side of Plymouth Pass than the one we had come by, as at a 
place called Fort Mellon, we had heard there was a small settlement 
working a richer and newer claim, and Dyce and I, eager lor adventure, 
arranged that we would accompany him. We were warned against 
proceeding by a trail so little known so late in the year, but with bags 
full of money, two canoes, fair weather, and plenty of provisions, we 
started without a misgiving. 

" At our first Portage, the Portage de la Mauvaise Musique — and a 
bad music it turned out for us — a dreadful thing happened. We lost 



Acta Victoriaiia. 187 

Dyce. I was on ahead with tools and provisions. Sturgis followed 
with one canoe, while Dyce was some distance behind with the other. 
The river ran here in a wild rapid, too furious to freeze — a most 
dangerous channel, even for the skilful Indians of the district; but 
Dyce, lake-bred (he belonged to Ohio), could never be brought to 
understand the peril of seething waters. As we paused a moment, 
the devil seemed to enter into him. He ran to the shore, launched the 
canoe, and was off and away towards the centre of that turbulent 
stream before we knew what he was doing — with a smile upon his 
face — poor old Dyce ! Sturgis and I dropped canoe and burdens » 
shouted and swore. He only shook his head and pointed to the 
opposite bank. 

" ' He'll not reach it ! ' cried Sturgis. ' And, by God, there he goes 
now ! It's all up with him ! ' 

" The canoe was caught on the tip of icy, sparkling waters, hoisted 
high on a crest of silver as a ball on a spout, was overturned, and sent 
spinning into the rapid. We heard a cry, caught a glimpse of some- 
thing being torn and tossed on the half-submerged rocks, and that was 
the last of Dyce. You can understand how this incident aflfected us, 
as, in addition to the loss of companion and canoe, we lost our chart, 
which Dyce had upon him. It was impossible to reach him, and the 
already too cold nights precluded all ideas of waiting till the body 
floated out into the stream. 

" We proceeded next day by water, and soon found that the less of 
the chart was indeed very serious. Between the Portage du Rocher 
and the Portage du Chien we were to make land at a spot opposite a 
large blazed tree hanging over the water ; but whether we went too 
far or whether some storm had uprooted the landmark I do not 
know ; we never saw it. On the second afternoon the current was 
rapidly increasing and Sturgis moodily reviewing our position, when 
under our bow a long cascade of rapids revealed itself, and in a 
moment we were drawn into the deadly threads of glittering surge. 
Sturgis threw out the heavier packages. We knelt close, and felt the 
canoe oscillate, quiver, strive, scratch — then fly straight as an arrow 
over and through the seething crests to smooth water. We got safely 
to shore, but the canoe was good for nothing ! " 

" Did you turn back ? "' 

"Turn back? You never knew Sturgis, it is plain. No; we went 
on without a chart, with food for only a fortnight, calculating, however, 
that we would reach Fort Melton in about three days, keeping due 
south by the stars at night, and in the day-time watching the crests of 



io8 Acta ]^ictoriana. 

the Rockies on our left. On the third evening Sturgis stumbled 
against a stout rope, twined many times around a still stouter tree, 
knotted and tied in a profusion of twists and convolutions that would 
have baffled us long had we thought of undoing them. Sturgis, 
always intensely alive, alert and curious, was for following the rope: T 
preferred to let it alone." 

"' Don't you see,' he said, ' it's not loose, lying along the ground, 
but taut, strained, and evidently leading somewhere. I wwi-/ follow it.' 

" For a quarter of an hour we followed the rope where it led, ovtr 
branches, around boulders, and between trees, when Sturgis suddenl\ 
grasped my arm. 

" ' Listen ! ' he said. ' I hear voices.' 

" In a moment I heard them too — a strange sound in the wilderness — 
that of hymn singing, and not by one or two voices, but by a multitude. 
The sounds came nearer and nearer, till without any warning — it was 
dark by this time, and painfully cold^we toppled over a treacherous 
sandy bank into a vale or plain below, still following the rope. Above 
us rose some kind of white, uneven wall or 1 arricade through whose 
interstices we saw by the glare of several rude camp fires a hundred 
or more pilgrims of the Klondike. 

"Our feelings were those of extreme bewilderment and consternation. 
An hour before we had deemed ourselves the only human beings in 
that remote and inclement region ; now we were face to face with a 
hundred of our species, among whom we might even find old friends 
and acquaintances. But we hesitated to enter the strange enclosure. 
Sturgis particularly — and this was unusual — hung back. 

" ' I don't understand it in the least,' he said, peering through the 
apertures formed by the angles in the barricade at motley groups 
around the camp-fires. ' I never saw anything like it. What are 
these people doing here ? ' 

" I had no explanation to offer. As yet we were too far off to note 
the expression or attire of those who sat clasping their knees and 
raising a doleful song by the ruddy and orange fires. 

"'And what in heaven's name is this wall built of? It looks 
uncommonly like — bones.' 

" Groping about in the half light, the cold moon on one side, 
and bonfires on the other, we at last discovered that the barri- 
cade was constructed out of the bleached skeletons of many 
horses, presumably fallen by the way, in shape an irregular oval. 
The people inside it were grouped near the centre ; and now, 
as we looked more closely, we could perceive that many of them 



Ada Victoriana. \ 89 

were lying on the ground covered with cloaks and coats, while those 
who were chanting scraps of hymns and psalms were horribly 
emaciated. One or two, stronger than the rest, rose from time to 
time and plied the fares, but in a listless and peculiar manner. 

"'It's a case of giving up," muttered Sturgis, 'caused, I suppose, 
in the first instance by famine. Look at their poor hands and fingers! 
Herbert, what are we to do ? ' 

" It happened that, just as he asked me that question, a portion of 
the barricade on which we were standing fell in, and we were imme- 
diately revealed to the people round the fires, being precipitated 
almost into their midst. 

" In an instant and with one accord the demeanor of the pilgrims 
altered. Those who were awake lost their languor and took on fresh 
and awful strength. Those who had been sleeping awoke, dazed and 
frenzied, although many of the forms stiffly outlined beneath cover- 
ings never moved at all. These were they who, alas ! had already 
succumbed to cold and hunger. Sturgis and I were surrounded, 
beaten to the ground and stripped of our packs and bundles. We 
saw only one woman, but of all that demented throng I thought her 
eye the sanest, although it held, too, a torturing fear. The rest were 
men and boys of all ages, and mostly of the artisan class, with a 
sprinkling of a rougher element. Sturgis and I fought for our lives. 
We had food for a fortnight at least, and in that time we might 
accomplish our return. What were they after ? The attack was 
puzzling at first, and we both felt for our gold. But it was not gold 
they sought. Finding it, they threw it aside and would have stamped 
upon it. 

" ' Gold ! gold ! ' they ciied ; ' what have we to do with gold ? We 
had gold; we have it yet, but we want what gold cannot give us — -at 
least here — we want food.' 

" Then it broke upon us that it must be for our provisions that these 
poor demented people had assaulted us, and, indeed, on rising from 
the ground where we had struggled for breath and liberty, we found 
our bags in possession of the strongest of the rabble. The disorder 
was so great that in ten minutes or less nothing remained, and half 
the food had been wasted by being spilled or otherwise destroyed. 
Much of it was not in a condition to be eaten, requiring preparation 
and cooking, and when this was the case it was flung away in mad 
derision. 

"Oaths resounded on all sides, and in the glare of the bonfires the 
seekers after gold and fortune resembled some savage tribe engaged 



190 Acia Victor iana. 

in fearful and unnatural rites. Consumed with wonder and pity, we 
were thinking of our future movements and how we should maintain 
life for the next few days, when the woman I had noticed touched me 
timidly on the arm. I turned and met her eyes, melting with con- 
flicting emotions. 

" ' Can we do anything for you ? ' I said. ' I am afraid these 
cowards have left scarcely any food. See! they have taken everything.' 

" "^ Don't call them that, sir,' she replied, 'or at least not till they 
have proved themselves so.' 

" ' What do you mean ? ' I asked, for there was a hurried change in 
her manner. 

" ' Besides, I am not so badly off as the others,' she answered, 
irrelevantly as I thought. 'See! I am not at all reduced, not thin 
and worn like the men are.' 

" It was true. She had managed to preserve more of the appearance 
of health than any of the singular camp, and was by nature a pretty 
and plump woman of about twenty-five. 

" Sturgis was the first to perceive her meaning. 

" ' My God ! you don't fear that they will — ah, I can't name the 
thought ! ' 

" Like a flash I saw her meaning, too, and recoiled. ' Oh, not that; 
not that ! ' I cried. ' Anything but that. They might sink low, 
become desperate; but these are Englishmen — Americans — civilized 
— even religious men. They are not savages — brutes — cannibals.' 

"Why do you not try to escape?' said Sturgis. 'Once at Fort 
Melton you will be safe.' 

The woman smiled grimly. 

" ' This is Fort Melton,' she said, and for the first time I felt 
genuine fear — ' least, what there is left of it. My — my husband, 
Jack .\Iacy, was the first to come here. That's why I stand it so well. 
I know the climate, and I can go without food better than most people. 
But Jack's dead. This cold spell finished him ; he had a weak chest, 
and so I'm alone. And, sir, I've done my best to make a cheerful 
camp. I've brought in food for them, and I've shown them where to 
look for it ; and the wall there was my idea, to keep off wolves and 
wildcats, and I've even tried to lead the nightly singing round the fire, 
but I can't keep it up much longer.' 

" She coughed to hide a dry, choking sob. 

" ' I should think not ! ' exclaimed Sturgis. ' Why don't your people 
make some effort to move on down, if possible, nearer civilization ?" 

" ' They're too far gone, sir. They can do nothing till they get food. 



Acta Victoriana. 191 

Everything's been against us. In September last the bush fires spread 
and destroyed twenty-five shacks — all there were. We've had scurvy 
since then, and many, many deaths, yet you can't move them. When 
things are a little better then it is all 'rose' with them, and they 
think of the gold. But I'm afraid, sir, at last — and for myself." 

" Sturgis and I were silent a moment, contemplating the men. 

'■■' I might speak to them, I think,' said he. ' It can do no harm 
to tell them how we are situated ourselves, and as we are the fresher 
we might propose to start at once for Cariboo, the nearest station, and 
send back help.' 

" ' Be careful, sir ! ' said the woman. 

" ' Are they armed ? ' 

"'No guns or powder to speak of; it's all used up. But they have 
a few knives, sir.' 

"'That's all right,' said Sturgis, heartily. ' Look after Mrs. Macy, 
Herbert, while I interview these chaps.' 

"'You had best call me Ellen,' said she, trembling and panting a 
little, ' there's a real Mrs. Macy somewhere in the town, and she 
might be uneasy if she heard about me.' 

"You may be certain that neither Sturgis nor myself cared a button 
about the social standing of this heroine of the Klondyke. A braver, 
better woman, never breathed. 

" Sturgis stepped into the circle of unknown men, and Ellen Macy 
and 1 withdrew where it was easier for her to tell me more of her 
story. We had been talking only a few minutes when a commotion 
arose around my comrade, and I judged it my duty to go forward. 

"I rushed across the ground, stumbling over three or four prostrate 
bodies as I ran, just in time to see a long arm raised holding a knife, 
and the next moment to see that knife plunged into Sturgis. Yes; 
they killed him — murdered him — then and there. I have suffered 
enough, G^d knows ! Then the men closed round me, and I saw, 
and neve shall forget, their wizened, sharpened countenances ; their 
long claw-like fingers ; their voracious expressions; their glittering, yet 
dull, eyes. 

"'What are you going to do next?' I cried. 'You'll gain nothing 
by killing me. I've no more food left.' 

" I might as well have talked to the rocks and the ground. Across 
the red glare I caught Ellen Macy's eye, and it widened with new 
terror. 

"There seemed to be some conferring among the crowd. A few 
burst into hysterical tears, others called wildly for food, swore, and 



192 Acta Vidoriana. 

babbled in half delirious accents, and before I could elude their con- 
certed action, they caught me up and tossed me over the ugly 
barricade. 

" But, although bruised and stunned, I still retained sufificient 
consciousness to think of Ellen Macy — of the probable terrors of her 
position. I could only hope that aid might still come, if not by me, 
then through someone or something else. During my conscious 
intervals that night, I heard groans and shrieks, mingled with oaths 
and snatches of hymns, but I could detect nothing definite. So I 
deserted her, if it can be called desertion, and crawling from boulder 
to boulder, from crag to crag, faint, bleeding and in pain, I at length 
reached, on the third day, a straggling camp or settlement, known as 
Paradise Alley. In warm weather this was a beautiful spot by the 
shores of the Pelly River, but now it was looked on as the last outpost of 
civilization, numbering about twenty Indians and a dozen rough miners. 

" I knocked at the door of the chief shack, and when it was opened 
fell on the floor without a word. That was the beginning of a low 
fever, through which I was nursed by the miners for six weeks. 
When I could speak coherently, I told them of the barricade, of the 
lonely woman, of my fears for her, of the end of my friend Sturgis. 

"For some time they would not believe me. Then, in spite of the 
severe weather, seven of the men started north. They found the spot, 
and many, many corpses, but no trace of the woman Ellen Macy." 

Herbert stopped for a moment, drawing his hand over his eyes 
then went on again. 

"You see the wreck I am. You can imagine, perhaps, the effect 
all this has had on my mind and my sympathies. I have lost two 
companions; I have starved; I have seen murder done and dreamt far 
worse, and you ask me if I'm going back. Never ! " 

We had one question to ask : " What do you suppose became of 
Ellen Macy ? " 

" I do not know," said our friend, but with a tremor in his voice 
and a great awe upon his face. Outside the bells were jangling 
merrily in the crisp wmter air, but around the table our faces grew 
grave. " I have not told this story before, but when I entered and 
saw you all so merry, and also — forgive me — so heedless and extrava- 
gant, everything came up again in my mind. 

" Bread or gold, which do you choose? " 

And Herbert, with a tinge of his old manner, held up in one hand 
his canvas bag, and in the other a loaf which had just been placed 
upon the table. 



Acta Victoriana. 



193 



Manual Training 




BY CEPHAS GUILLET, B.A., PH.D. 

NY thorough course in manual training must involve a 

/jL study both of nature and of human history. It cannot 

^ ^ ignore the past and it must draw new inspiration from 

nature, the perennial source of beauty. The goal never 

to be lost sight of is the marriage of beauty and utiluy. 

In my own school, in which I had an opportunity of 
applying, unhampered by outside interference, the best 
methods I could discover or devise, I at first adopted a 
modification of the sloyd system. I taught my boys to 
use the knife and the tools of the carpenter in making 
various sim[ le objects connected with their interests ; as a marble- 
stick and other playthings, a pen-holder, a moth-drier, a bird-house, a 





set of shelves for specimens, and the like, most of this work fitting in 
well with their work in nature study.* Realizing, however, that this, 
while good as far as it went, was very elementary work of limited 
educational value, I supplemented it with work involving higher 
faculties and appealing to more permanent interests. This was in 
large part the method of J. Liberty Tadd, as outlined in his "New 
Methods in Education." 

* For an account of the work of my school in the study of their environment, see The Peda- 
gogical Seminary for March. 1904, " A (llimpse at a Nature School." 



194 



Ada Victo7'ia7ia 



I shall briefly describe a year's work of my school in this higher 
manual training. First we worked with the traditional units of design, 
as they have been created by the finest artistic minds — the scroll and 
anthemion, the shell, the leaf and bud and rosette. We learned to 
draw these with facility with both hands and then studied how to 
arrange them in beautiful patterns. 

The illustration on page 193 shows the designs invented during 
the Fall term by nine boys from eight to fourteen years of age) 
except three of the designs which are by myself. They are variously 
executed in crayon, common ink, India ink and water colors. The 
boys invented from three to six patterns each, mainly head pieces, 
centre pieces and borders. 




The boys were also taught to model both conventional and natural 
forms in clay. Clay has been used by man from time immemorial as 
a means of expression, and nothing is so suitable for the expression of 
the child's artistic conceptions as this wonderfully plastic material. 
The illustration on page 194 shows clay models made by nine boys in 
the winter term. 

Frequently the boys were taken to the Zoological Museum and 
trained to draw some of the animals from memory. One was first 
allowed to scrutinize the animal selected until he thought he had a 
good mental image of it. He then went into another room and drew 
it. This proved to be an excellent means of training the powers of 
observation and memory. The same animal form was sometimes 



Ada Victoj'iana. 



195 



also modelled as well as drawn from memory at the school the next 
day or several days later. It thus became fixed in the mind. 

In March we sometimes took advantage of the thaws to model out- 
doors in snow from memory the animal forms we had learned to draw 
and model in clay. On page 195 are several groups of boys model- 
ling in snow on Cartier Square. I one day took them to Parliament 
Hill and had them model in snow a large lion's head on each side of 
the great steps leading up to the Parliament Buildings. 

As soon as a boy can model a good scroll he is taught to carve it in 
quartered oak (see illustration page 196). He is then encouraged 
to carve an original design for some article of furniture. As a means 
of at once arousing and giving a beautiful direction to energy, carving 




in the tough oak is a splendid exercise, both physical and intellectual. 
It gives grip and grasp. 

In the illustration on page 197 are the designs of carving for furni- 
ture, many of them (nearly all the more elaborate) original, carved in 
oak and other hard woods during five months by nine boys. There 
are panels for a coffer, a mirror-frame, the top of a plant stand, the 
ends of table book-racks, and several picture and photo frames. Some 
of the work there was not time to finish, but the pupils are both able 
and willing to finish it without further oversight. Such work gives 
boys confidence in themselves, the true confidence that comes from 
knowing that one can do things worth doing. All too much time is 
spent by our youth in mere sport. 



196 



Acta Vicforiana. 



In the spring, in connection with the work in nature study, the boys 
are taught to draw and paint our native plants. I have found that 
this work reveals to them beauty ihey had never observed before. 
'■ Why I never knew the wild ginger was such a beautiful fiower ! " 
was the exclamation of one of the boys after studying it in this way; 
and the others echoed his opinion. In the illustration on page 198 
they are painting plants on the Gatineau River at the beautiful Chelsea 
Rapids. 

Several of the plants are conventionalized and used in designs. 
The boys spent the last day of school at Rockliffe, by the Ottawa 
River (where they may be seen in the illustration on page 199), painting 
designs from the beautiful wild ginger and the graceful little twin- 
flower vine. 




'I'he manual training I have tried to picture develops something 
more than mechanical accuracy. It develops taste and inventiveness, 
qualities that are of the highest importance to society and which are 
yet hardly thought of in our ordinary systems of education; for these 
inculcate both the conservative and the critical at itude of mind, but 
rarely the constructive. What would not our manufacturers give for 
young men who had been trained in this way for a number of years 
to turn out work of high quality and finish? If we are to compete 
with the nations of the world as a manufacturing country, our educa- 
tional systems will have to be revised. 

Again, in all the exercises I have described of drawing, modelling and 
carving (and, indeed, of writing also), the pupils are trained to use both 



A eta Victoriana . 



197 



hands with equal facility. Consider the advantage that a race trained 
to be two-handed and symmetrically developed in brain and body 
would have in all the arts both of peace and war. 

But these more or less utilitarian results are not the only ones. 
The boys' eyes are opened to beauty of form and color wherever it is 
to be found in nature and art, as their parents have testified. Their 
minds are enriched, their experience broadened, their higher interests 
aroused, their capacity for happiness enhanced. The child can be 
truly educated not through books alone, nor even through nature 
study by mere observation and talk, but through the incorporation of 
the environment by the participation of the whole organism of the 
child in its apprehension and appreciation. 




The utilitarian test, however, is not to be despised. For, in the last 
analysis the products of a people, whether the immediate work of 
artists or of artisans, or indeed of any class of workers, are the 
resultant, not alone of the skill and frugality, but also of the 
wisdom, the culture and the character of that people. And in this 
lies our truest ground for optimism in the struggle of races. On 
these terms the honest man will only welcome the competition of other 
races, whether they be white or yellow, 

A great deal is being said these days about the importance of manual 
training, but in general all too narrow an idea prevails of what manual 
training is or might be, and often the nature and needs of the child, 
body and mind, are quite overlooked. The strong point of the sloyd 
system is its appeal to the simple interests of the child, in that it has 
6 



198 



Acta Victoriana. 



him make a finished object in which he takes a real interest. Its 
weak points are its narrow interpretation of the child's interests, and its 
insistence upon a logical system based on a study of tools, rather than 
upon a psychological system based upon a study of the child. I may 
illustrate the latter point by pointing to the first object that the child 
is taught to make. It is a tiny wedge about three inches long and 
about an inch wide, and one-quarter of an inch thick at the thick end. 
This tiny object is to be made by a knife in the child's clumsy hands. 
It recalls the mistakes of the kindergartners. Now it is a well-known 
fact of child growth, as of racial growth, that the large muscles of trunk 
and limbs develop first, the finer muscles of the hand last. The child, 
therefore, should at first be set to make large objects roughly with 
such tools as the saw and the hammer. 




The sloyd system's narrow interpretation of the child's interests, to 
which reference is made above, is seen in its exclusion of the instinct 
for beauty, for ornamentation, an instinct possessed by the child in 
common with primitive man and his present representative, the 
savage. This instinct Mr. Tadd's system exploits in a very beautiful, 
but possibly too highly developed way. 

The Japanese exercise their decorative skill upon the common 
objects of daily use. The Persians used to do the same; and to this 
day the Persian artisans make their own designs. Every true manual 
training teacher will strive to encourage and guide his pupils in hke- 
wise ornamenting with ever increasing art the things they like to make. 

The excellence of Mr. Tadd's system lies in its insistence upon 
freehand drawing and designing as the base and centre of the work. 



Acta Victoriana. 



199 



The ability to design is the key to all the minor arts, to clay-mode ling 
wood-carving, the work of the goldsmith and silversmith, embroidery, 
repousse work, and many other beautiful arts to which our Canadian 
youth are unfortunately strangers. Here is a field well worth the 
attention of our manual training teachers and our technical schools. 

It is not another system we want ; it is men. There is too much of 
"system" in all our educational effort, and too little of man, of 
the live, enthusiastic, courageous, original teacher. For all true 
educational work, whether manual training, or nature study, or 
history, or any other culture material employed to inform and develop 
the body-soul of the growing child, we need not departmental regula- 
tions or curricula, but men — men of insight and enthusiasm, men of 




culture and special training. Here we »^ouch the weak spot in our 
public system of education — the dearth of men thoroughly trained 
for their work. For all other skilled work based on science a long and 
severe special training is essential. Of the physician, dentist, lawyer, 
minister, engineer, years of direct preparation for their work is required, 
while we in Canada require of the teachers only a few months' crude 
training. What we need is a College of Educators, or, rather^ several 
such, in affiliation with our universities. Until we have these and 
require our teachers to attend them, grading them and paying them 
according to the number of successful years there spent, teaching will 
not be a profession and the public will, in the main, continue to be 
badly served by those who should be the most important and valued 
servants of the state. 



200 



Ada Victoriana. 



The Wreck of the ''Little Lion" 



BY AGNES C. I.AUT. 



EACH fisher hamlet on the north shore of Newfoundland and that 
part of the north known as "The Labrador " has its village bard 
to-day as two hundred years ago, who goes from house to house 




AGNES C. LAUT ON HER OWN ESTATE. 



-on winter nights chanting in rude minstrelsy the adventures of the 
fishermen's perilous life. This episode was told to me off Labrador in 
1898 and done into verse to the sing-song of the endless croon which 

* Written off St. Battle Harbor, Labrador, October, 1898. 



Ada Vicioriana. 201 

that wild northern sea always chants. This sing-song, four part 
measure, by the way, is the almost uniform measure of the hamlet 
minstrel's verse, with the exception that nearly all songs begin with the 
words, "Come all ye Newfoundlanders"; hence the^name, "Come 
all ye's," by which fisher folk songs are known. 

The crimson sun shone red as wine 

'Mid golden glory of the west ; 
The milk-white spray's swift wavering line 

Tossed up in sheets from waterjj crest. 

The angry sea was gilded bright 

In one long endless amber trail ; 
The billows rose in thund'rous might 

And broke their strength with mournful wail. 

Newfoundland's cold gray rampart shore 

Of lofty rock was lined in ice — 
A coat of steel the island wore. 

The glittering mail of winter's vise. 

The coastal ship skimmed past the edge 

Of ice-fields vast and grim and hoar ; 
She forced her prow, a narrow wedge, 

Through crystal gaps of splintering floor. 

At times she rode the billows' swell. 

Or reeled away from curling tide, 
Or felt the breakers as they fell 

To freeze upon her shivering side. 

'"Tis twenty years, come Christmas Eve,'' 

The old mate mused and gazed to sea, 
" The Litt/e Lion was booked to leave 

Saint John's Harbor for Trinity. 

" That night the sky was studded bris^ht 

With countless stars and full round moon — 

Beneath, the land lay glistning w'hite — 
'Twas clear as day at cloudless noon. 

" The cheer of Christmas Eve flowed free, 

Friends lingered round the Lion's pier ; 
But out, at last, she rode to sea — 

Ho-ho ! The crew they scoffed at fear. 



202 Acta Victoriana 

" No ripple ruffled the harbor breast — 
The shadowy narrows lay quiet and still, 

A sea asleep in glassy rest, 

With pencil lines of snow-clad hill. 

" The lights a-bubbled in foamy glass, 

But a beacon glinted from yonder place " — 

The old mate waved toward a jagged mass 
Of sharp-toothed reefs as white as lace, 

Whose breakers tossed their seething spray 
With cry, or moan, or long, low wail ; 

Whose white wolf-packs ran down their prey 
Where weird ghost-arms flung back the gale. 

" That night,'" the mate resumed his ;ale, 
" Yon treacherous ridge lay calm as death \ 

The light-house beacon did not iail — 

But wine-fumes tainted the sailor's breath. 



" The hours dragged leaden at Trinity, 

Men watched pale dawn turn deep-dyed red — 

Tired eyes strained hard for ship at sea. — 
The welcomes home remained unsaid. 

" At Christmas noon poor women came 

And thronged the wharf and scanned the sea ; 

At eve, the Little Lion's name 

Was breathed in prayers at Trinity. 

" Untouched the ready banquet fare. 

The coast was searched for sign of wreck ; 

Unfilled the hamlet cotter's chair — 
The watchers spied nor spar nor speck. 

" Though twenty years have passed away. 
The fisher-folk with gruesome awe 

See wraiths amid the jagged reef's spray, 
And tell in whispers what they saw. 

" When winds wail doleful there in storm. 
And waves moan low beneath yon cross, 

You can almost fancy some ghostly form 
Bemoaning in sobs the Lions loss." 



Acta Victoriana. 



203 



Jimhrosia beetles 

P.Y REV. CHAS. J. S. BETHUNE, 
Editor of The Canadian Entomologist. 

THE lives of God's creatures, even the most obscure and humble, 
are full of interest to anyone who takes pleasure in observing 
the world of nature about him. Patient watching of any particular 
species of animal life will usually reveal habits and instincts that seem 
to us marvellous, because they are so unexpected and so different from 
what we had learned about others. This is especially true in the case 
of insects, whether living in solitude or in communities, though we 
find most to interest us, no doubt, among the social kinds, which have 




GALLERY OF WOOD-ENGRAVING BEETLES. 



a highly organized mode of life, and where the work of the individual 
is subservient to the welfare of the community. 

Many insects live in societies during their larval, or caterpillar, stage, 
but without any apparent organization, merely feeding and taking 
shelter together, like a flock of sheep or herd of cattle ; these usually 
separate when about to enter the chrysalis state, and fly about inde- 
pendently when they have arrived at their perfect condition ; they can 
hardly be included among social insects, though they perform some 
actions which are for the common weal. As a rule the species that 
form organized societies belong to the great order Hymenopteray 
which includes the ants, bees and wasps ; it is therefore somewhat of 



204 Acta Victoriana. 

a surprise to find anything of the kind among the members of any 
other order. The Termites, or white ants, however, belong to the 
Neuroptera. I propose now to give some account of a curious family 
of beetles (order Coieoptera), whose life-history was revealed to us a 
few years ago by the late Mr. H. G. Hubbard, an able and most 
painstaking entomologist. 

When the bark is removed from the trunk or larger limbs of a dead 
tree, the surface of the wood is often found to be marked with 
singular patterns, such as those shown in the accompanying figures. 
These are the work of the Wood-engraving beetles, tiny species of the 
family Scolytida, who often do an immense deal of damage to forest 
trees by causing the bark to dry up and separate from the wood, 
stopping the flow of sap and gradually killing the tree. Some kinds 




§1 

GALLERY OF WOOD-ENGRAVING BEETLES. 

also injure the timber by sinking their burrows into it and opening 
the way for fungous diseases and rot. To this family belong the 
Ambrosia beetles, who may be included in the latter class, as they do 
not engrave the surface of the wood, but bore deeply into it. 

In Canada there are four genera of Ambrosia beetles recorded in 
our lists, and to these belong fourteen species ; but no doubt many 
more remain undiscovered, as owing to their habits and their minute- 
ness they are seldom collected. Our species vary in size from two to 
five mm. — one-sixteenth to less than one-quarter of an inch in length. 
They are elongate, cylindrical, compact creatures, with very short 
legs, in color of a dull brown ; in many of them the end of the body 
is sloping and armed with thorn-like teeth. This armature is appar- 
ently intended to protect the insects when in their burrows from any 
attack in the rear. 




Acta Victoriana. 205 

The members of the different genera vary somewhat in their habits 

as well as in their structure and appearance. We may, however, take 

the genus Xyleborus as typical of the family. A solitary 

female starts the colony by boring through the bark of the 

tree she has selected into the solid wood, leaving a small 

round opening usually termed a " shot-hole," from its 

resemblance to the perforation made by a small shot. The 

boring goes deeply into the wood for some distance and 

A scoLYTiD then branches are formed in different directions which 

BEETLE. ggj.yg ag brood gallerics, and in each are deposited five or 

(Ijreatly mag- ° '^ 

nified.) gjx tiny eggs. The young hatch out in a week, and at 
once begin to feed upon the ambrosia provided by the action of 
the mother-beetle. 

The Ambrosia (so called by a German naturalist many years ago) is 
a minute fungus which is grown and cultivated in special galleries. 
The mother-beetle starts the growth on a carefully prepared bed of 
fine chips, which is afterwards manured by the excreta of the larvae. 
The beginning of the grov/th is entirely controlled by the insect, but 
it requires a certain amount of sap in the wood, and this in a state of 
fermentation. Consequently the conditions are somewhat precarious 
owing to the drying up of the wood, and the life of a colony of these 
beetles in a particular tree is often restricted to a single generation. 

There are two kinds of ambrosia — one, the stylate, grows erect and 
has at the tip swollen cells (conidia); the other, the moniliform. 
forms tangled chains of cells like the beads of a broken necklace. 
The fungus is succulent and tender and glistens like pearls or drops 
of dew ; it is produced in great abundance and causes the walls of the 
galleries to look as if covered with hoar frost. The young larvae eat 
the tips only, but the older ones and the adults devour the whole 
growth, which soon springs up again like asparagus. It requires to be 
constantly cropped in order to remam succulent and edible. If 
allowed to ripen the cells burst and discharge their granules and the 
plant disappears, to be succeeded by a dense growth that soon would 
choke up the galleries and cause the suffocation of the inmates. 
There is thus a danger to the colony, for if its numbers do not 
increase with sufficient rapidity it may be overwhelmed in the super- 
abundance of its food supply. If the galleries are disturbed and 
opened to the light the beetles fall to eating the ambrosia as rapidly 
as possible in order to save as much as they can of their precious 
possession, just as bees when alarmed fill themselves with honey. 
Indeed, this food-fungus is just as important to the ambrosia beetle 



2o6 Acta Victoriana. 

as honey to the hive, and is the object of its greatest care and solici- 
tude. Its work in arranging for its production, when we consider the 
size of the creature, is enormous, and the difficulties and dangers 
attending upon its growth require constant toil and supervision. 
One can imagine that the mother beetle must have a very anxious 
life ! 

In some species the larv.^e move about and procure their own food; 
in this case it is the erect, stylate fungus which is grown for them. 
In others the larvae are kept in small chambers, excavated at right 
angles to the main galleries ; these are fed by the mother, who packs 
the entrance with the bead-like growth of the moniliform fungus. 
The supply is renewed from time to time, and the refuse in the cells 
is carefully cleaned out and employed for enriching the fungus beds. 
In populous colonies the dead inmates are laid away in deep recesses 
and carefully covered in with a mass of chips. After about a month 
from their hatching, the larvre change to the pupa state and shortly 
after to perfect beetles : the colony will then contain about a score of 
adults, all females but one or two. By this time the drying of the 
wood, and the consequent failure of the food supply, causes the young 
females to migrate and start fresh burrows and colonies. The males 
are left behind, and being wingless are unable to join in the migra- 
tion to ano'iher and fresher tree ; when left alone they are usually too 
few in number to keep down the rapid growth of the ambrosia and so 
perish from suffocation. Sometimes, however, they assemble from 
the different colonies in a tree and form bachelor communities in a 
selected gallery, as many as fifty and sixty having been occasionally 
found, and thus by their united efforts they are able to prolong their 
existence by devouring the rapid growing ambrosia. Their fate is a 
melancholy one, as they are either overpowered at length by the over 
supply of food, or perish of starvation from the failure of the crop, 
which must sooner or later take place. 

The Xvleborus affects many trees — the maple, ash, oak, etc. — and in 
the West Indies injures the sugar cane. Healthy, living trees are 
seldom attacked by these beetles, as they do not provide the neces- 
sary conditions of fermentation for the growth of ambrosia, but those 
that are already dying from other causes are selected. They do not, 
therefore, kill trees, but they do much injury to timber. The growth 
of the fungus causes a deep black stain to penetrate the wood for 
some distance around the galleries, and the borings when numerous 
weaken the timber to such an extent as to render it useless for 
structural purposes. Staves for barrels and casks, and shingles for 



Acta Victoriana. 



207 



roofing, are often badly perforated and spoiled. In the Southern 
States, where the climate is moist and warm, casks of wine have been 
attacked and serious leakages caused by these minute beetles. 

In the Eastern States the genus Corthylus is very injurious, as some 
of the species kill shrubs and young trees by running their galleries 
entirely round the stem beneath the bark and causing death by 
girdling. They attack healthy plants and destroy young maples, 
sassafras, dogwood, etc., and smaller growths such as the huckleberry. 

Some species of the genus Xyloterus are abundant in this country, 
and attack coniferous trees from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; others 
the aspen or poplar. These are more sociable in their habits, several 
pairs of the beetles forming a colony with a single entrance, but each 
family occupies its own " flat," as we may term it, which consists of 
one or two branch galleries. Each female attends to her own brood, 
which are reared in cells at right angles to the main passage way, and 
feeds them with ambrosia grown near by. The entrance to each cell 
is kept constantly supplied with a mass of this food. 

From the foregoing outline it will be seen that the lives of even the 
most minute and obscure insects are well worth studying. Each one 
has its own duties to fulfil and its place in the great economy of 
nature. While these ambrosia beetles are sinking their burrows, 
growing the food-fungus and feeding their young, they are helping on 
the work of disintegrating dead and dying trees and hastening their 
removal and decay. But for the unconscious labors of these and 
other tiny creatures the forests would become blocked with fallen 
timber, and the growth of young trees and other plants would become 
impossible. The borings of the beetles admit the rain and moisture 
into the heart of the wood ; fungous diseases then find a suitable con- 
dition for their spread ; rot sets in, and by degrees the fallen tree 
crumbles into dust. An obstruction is thus removed and the useless 
material is converted into a fertilizing substance for the living mem- 
bers of the forest. 

Surely we may say, "O Lord, how manifold are Thy works: in 
wisdom hast Thou made them all." 




2o8 Acta Victoriana. 



Saint Ignace and the Vision 

BY H. ISABEL GRAHAM. 

t 

THERE dwelt a monk in cloistered solitude. 
His reverent gaze fixed on the sacred rood. 
His attitude devout, his soul aflame 
With noble impulse and a god-like aim. 
A great ambition — to be purged from dross 
And changed into the likeness of the Cross — 
Had led him from the world's gay haunts away 
Where he could read and meditate and pray ; 
His highest hope the blessed Christ to see 
And touch the hem of His Divinity. 
Morning and evening, passing, found him there. 
The midnight hours were spent in secret prayer. 
His days in penance, fasting ; low he bowed 
Before the crucifix, for he had vowed, 
His prayer unanswered, none should see the face 
Or listen to the words of Saint Ignace. 
Bright butterflies peered through the grated pane, 
The birds sang sweetly down the linden lane, 
And children touched the monastery bell, 
Then started at its melancholy knell. 
But Saint Ignace oblivious was to earth, 
He counted ail its joys of little worth, 
For higher things the heart within him pined, 
No mortal dreams disturbed his holy mind. 
And as he wept and his misdeeds confessed, 
A benediction breathed within his breast ; 
From the unseen some spirit seemed to say, 
"Thy prayer is heard, thy wish fulfilled to-day." 
His gaunt eyes glowed with new, unnatural fire, 
High heaven had deigned to grant the monk's desire. 
He rose, prepared the Eucharist with care 
Lest glorious guest should greet him unaware ; 
Then hurried for the Pontiffs robes of state 
And thus attired sat down to watch and wait 
There came a gentle tap upon the door, 
A child's voice broke the stillness heretofore, 



Ada Victoriana. 



2C9 



And pleaded to be fed and taken in. 

Her feet were cold, her clothing scant and thin, 

But Saint Ignace was busy with his beads, 

He had no time for others or their needs. 

The heavenly vision would appear to him 

With early matins or the vespers dim, 

But as the dreary hours dragged by, the place 

Grew more deserted, light forsook his face. 

The tapers lower burned, he was dismayed — 

Why was the vision thus so long delayed } 

L'Envoi. 

Unhappy monk, thou mayest pray for aye. 
The answer to thy prayer was sent that day, 
It lingered long, then sobbed and turned away. 




2 lO 



Acta Victoriana. 



Across ^lew Brunswick in a Canoe 



CY DR. C. U. HAY, ST. JOHN. 



ET US make our next trip the 
best of all!" was the burden of 
my friend G.'s letters all the win- 
ter from his home in Massa- 
chusetts. 

Thus, when the forests of 
New Brunswick were clad with 
snow and its rivers and lakes 
locked in ice, did we delight to 
recall the memories of bygone 
canoe trips and plan new ones, 
with the prospect of making 
our way without guides through 
the wilderness, paddling on the 
quiet waters of woodland lake, 
or dashing down long series of 
rapids. 

The glint of our camp-fires 
had shot athwart the noble 
stretches of the St. John, from 
the highlands of Maine to the Bay of Fundy. We had listened 
to the music of purling rivulets on the Madawaska, with their 
promise of cooling draughts and their wooing to delicious slum- 
ber. The Restigouche, with its evergreen borders, its hundreds 
of sinuous curves, and the impetuous current gliding swiftly over 
the pebbly bed, had been our delight for a whole fortnight. We 
had raced down the Tobique Rapids when swollen by a summer 
freshet. The wondering eyes of moose and deer had followed 
us as we toiled, weary, but delighted, to the remote sources of 
the branches of that sportsman's river — the Gulquac, the Mamo- 
zekel, the Serpentine. We had heard the loon's weird cry awak- 
ing the echoes of the forest near the sources of the Miramichi. 
In imagination we had pictured the exhilaration of riding on the 
" bore's " back as its crested tidal wave is borne along the 
Petitcodiac River from the Bav of Fundv. 




Acta Victoriaiia. 



21 I 



But for this particular season that I speak of, my friend G. 
wanted a " bang-up " trip as he expressed it, and we decided 
to enter the Nipisiguit River on the eastern side of New Bruns- 
wick, make our way to its source, cross a portage, and come 
down the Tobique to its mouth, where it unites with the St. John. 
This would lead us through a wilderness over a hundred miles in 
extent, up a river eighty miles long, true to its Indian meaning 
of " rough waters," and falling a thousand feet from its source 
to its mouth. 




HORSES PULLING THE "DUG-OUT" AND SUPPLIES. 



On Monday, the 8th of August, we started from Bathurst 
with a canoe, camping outfit, some scientific instruments, and 
a four weeks' supply of provisions. We were driven as far as 
Grand Falls, twenty-one miles along the roughest part of the 
river. The names of " Rough Water," " Chain of Rocks," 
'■ Round Rocks," " Pabineau Falls," are suggestive of some of 
the perils of navigation in a frail canoe on the lower Nipisiguit. 
The Pabineau Falls, about twelve miles from Bathurst, is a wild 
and beautiful spot, the river tumbling over a granite ledge into 
a deep pool beneath — a chosen spot for the anglers of salmon. 




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A eta Vi'cto j'iana . 213 

At the Grand Falls the river, after a drop of seventy-five feet, 
pours swiftly through a narrow gorge, three-fourths of a mile 
in length, with opposing walls of rock, the space between which, 
in times of freshet, becomes a seething tumultuous rapid, obliter- 
ating the falls for the time being. 

Two rough-looking guides, who proved to be as rough as 
they looked, were on hand to convey us from Grand Falls to 
Indian Falls, thirty miles farther up the river. We began the 
ascent in a large " dug-out," a familiar craft on northern waters. 
In this we were placed with our baggage ; our birch canoe was 
towed alongside ; a horse furnished the motive power, with one 
guide on his back, and the other in the " dug-out " to fend us 
and our valuable possessions off the rocks and shoals. For an 
hour or two the chief interest lay in watching the horse flounder- 
ing over the rough bed of the stream, or, where it was too deep, 
picking his way among boulders along shore. Then we con- 
cluded that sitting in cramped quarters in a dirty dug-out, and 
being hauled up a picturesque stream w^as a very uninteresting 
proceeding. We longed for more action. It soon came. 

A few miles up stream w-as a bit of dangerous water, where the 
river was confined within the " narrows," a gorge formed of 
nearly precipitous walls of rock. The current foamed among 
boulders. The horse and dug-out mode of travel was exchanged 
for another more congenial, perhaps, for us — certainly so for the 
horse. Our lighter baggage was portaged across a woodland 
path to a point farther up river ; the remainder was entrusted to 
the guides who undertook to pole the half-loaded dug-out 
through the rapids. Loud shouts, mingled with a large share 
of profanity, rising above the roar of the waters, quickly brought 
us to the edge of the cliff to see two very excited men endea- 
voring to right the upturned dug-out, which lay firmly wedged 
between tw^o huge boulders, defying every effort to dislodge it. 
The heavier portion of its cargo had gone to the bottom, while 
the lighter articles danced merrily on the turbid stream amid 
tantalizing breakers. Fortunately our birch canoe had not been 
carried across the portage, and wnth it we rescued ham, butter, 
pork, fishing tackle, etc. But there were some things dear to 
our hearts that the greedy waters would not yield up. and these 
were baked beans and the aluminum outfit containing cooking 
utensils and dishes. 




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Ac/ a Victoriana 215 

Guides are an encumbrance, if not of the right kind, and we 
decided to dispense with ours. We took counsel after we had 
gathered the remnants of our suppHes together. Our greatest 
loss was tlie supply of canned beans and our cooking outfit and 
dishes. The beans, in spite of a long and anxious search, were 
not destined to grace our wilderness banquets, and for aught 
we know still lie buried in some pool at the bottom of the 
Nipisiguit — sincerely mourned. The bright sunlight of the next 
morning revealed our aluminum outfit in a pool about a mile or 
so from the scene of the wreck. In the meantime a weary tramp 
to the fishing lodge below Grand Falls, seven miles distant, 
secured for us a small cooking outfit and some dishes, generously 
placed at our disposal by a sympathetic sportsman. 

Fortune seemed to smile on us after our gruff and careless 
guides — a sort rarely met with in New Brunswick — had taken 
their departure. Left to our own resources we pictured the 
delights of making our way unaided through the wilderness 
ahead of us, taking our own time, and examining whatever we 
chose, with a prospect of abundance of physical exercise and 
ingenuity in overcoming the obstacles that undoubtedly lay before 
us. 

On Saturday afternoon, the sixth day after leaving Bathurst, 
we reached Indian Falls, nearly fifty miles from the mouth of 
the river, having poled our canoe for three days without any 
mishap through twenty miles of very bad water. But we 
rejoiced in the prospect of a Sunday's rest in one of the wildest 
and most picturesque spots on the river, and the opportunity to 
review the events of the past week, estimate our resources of 
strength and provisions, and form plans to reach the second 
haven of rest — the Nipisiguit lakes — more than thirty miles be- 
yond Indian Falls. We had devoted ourselves almost entirely 
during the past three days to the task of getting our canoe up 
through the rapids and among boulders that strewed our path- 
way, " thick as autumn leaves in Vallambrosa." 

But the delights of this wilderness journey far outweighed 
its trials. We seemed to plunge deeper and deeper into the 
solitudes. The hills became higher, and gradually closed in upon 
us as we ascended the river. Cool springs and gurgling rivulets 
of ice-cold water were refreshingly near us ; in their cool, mossy 
retreats Droseras and Utricularias were busy capturing their 




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Acta I'lctoruma. 217 

insect prey ; purple and white-fringed Habenarias peeped out 
from many a shady retreat ; Mrgin's Bower and Joe-Pye weed 
crowded all the vacant spots in a tangle of white and purple. 

And what a charm there was about that camping-ground at 
Indian I'alls, with the light of the full moon coming to us over 
the dark hills of spruce and pine! There was no sound except 
the rushing of waters, which fell continually on our ears. A 
spirit of contentment was in the air. The coffee never gave out 
a more delightful aroma. The flapjacks, as they were sent with 
a dexterous turn in the air, turned and came down in the right 
place in the frying-pan, sizzling musically, with a well-browned 
surface good to look upon. W^e enjoyed with all the high spirits 
of boyhood the charm of outdoor life in the woods. A\'e talked 
of everything under the sun. There was no clash of opinions 
except on the point. How many should compose a camping 
party? Pour and three were suggested, but these numbers were 
rejected as introducing too great a variety of interests which 
would possibly clash; there might even be an objection to tivo. 
This suggestion rose from experience of the past week ; the 
rivalry might become too keen in the deftness of turning a flap- 
jack or in producing its richest brown. Again, if one of the two 
should tumble from the canoe and go sprawling upon the flood. 
should the other laugh or maintain a proper gravity under such 
trying curcumstances. Thus we whiled away the hours until 
the fragrance of fir boughs and the mnrmur of the waters grow- 
ing fainter and fainter lulled us to sleep. 

On Monday morning we made a portage of about half a mile 
to get round the rapids, of which Indian Falls forms the lower 
end. These portages are among the delightful troubles of a 
journey through the wilderness. One wished at such a time that 
the camping party consisted of four instead of two. But we 
took it as a pleasure, over that pretty woodland path, well 
tramped for centuries past by voyageurs — aborigines, a motley 
host of hunters with their guides, and wavfarers like ourselves. 
First, we took the canoe, binding our coats on the benches near- 
est the bow and stern to prevent chafing our shoulders, then 
raising and turning it dexterously so that it was carried bottom 
upwards over our heads. Indian style. Xext the baggage was 
taken as far as we could at once ; then we put it down and rested 
as we walked back for more, after the fashion of Klondikers. 




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Acta Victoriana. 219 

Next day we climbed Bald Mountain, one of the highest peaks 
on the river, from the summit of which a beautiful panorama 
was presented to the view. The outline of the river could 
be traced from our place of starting to its source in the Nipi- 
siguit lakes. The scenery was picturesque, even grand in many 
of its features. Lofty mountains — some covered with foliage to 
the summit, others bare and rocky — were in sight, rising in height 
towards the source of the river, with innumerable valleys and 
ravi<ies between, through which glistened the silvery threads of 
their winding streams. 

Several Alpine plants rewarded us for the toilsome ascent of 
Bald Mountain, and the air was bleak and cold, reminding us 
of past glacial conditions. The temperature in the valley below, 
we found on our return, was grateful, even sultry. 

At the end of another week we reached the second haven of 
rest — the Nipisiguit lakes, four in number, and connected with 
each other by navigable thoroughfares. After a fortnight's 
vigorous striving against the waters of a rough stream, we 
could enjoy the rare luxury of sitting down and paddling our 
canoe. The sun never shone on a fairer picture of mountain- 
embosomed lakes. In the clear, cold streams that found their 
way here and there amid quiet nooks and bays, the trout rose 
in fierce eagerness to seize the fly ; the moose swam lazily out 
of our way or floundered along the oozy bottoms near the shore ; 
and the deer watched us with indifference from a distant point 
of land, but resented our nearer approach. Two days after we 
" carried " across the portage, which separated the Nipisiguit 
and chain of lakes from Tobique Lakes. The largest of the 
latter is Lake Nictor, four miles in length, from which rises 
Sagamook Mountain, 2,700 feet, the highest in New Brunswick. 
The scene from the top is strikingly wild and beautiful, with 
virgin forests as far as one can see, the abode of moose, caribou 
and deer. 

After a week's mountain climbing, fishing, and exploring, we 
began the descent of the Tobique with its hundred miles of rapids 
and quiet meadow-skirt stretches, rendered all the more enjoy- 
able from our toilsome ascent of the Nipisiguit. 



2 20 Ada Victoriana. 

In Jircadie 

BY HELEN M. MERRILL. 

THE sea is green, the sea is grey, 
The tide winds blow, and shallows chime ; 
Where eanh is rife with bloom of May 
The throstle sings of lovers' time, 
Of violet stars in lovers' clime. 
Love fares to-day by land and sea — 
On the horizon's utmost hill 
The mystic blue-flower beckons still 
Beneath the stars of Arcadie — 

Love fares to-day, and deftly builds 
To melodies of wind and leaves ; 

Castles in Spain yet brightly gilds, 

And song of star and wood bird weaves, 
And flowers, and pearl and purple eves. 

With roofs of ever-changing 5-kies, 
And fretted walls with time begun, 
Its portals open to the sun. 

On dream-held hills a castle lies. 

No proud armorial bearings now, 
But God's white seal on every leaf ; 

No sapphires gleaming on my brow, 
Deep in my heart a dear belief; 
No grey unrest, no pain, no grief. 

By day a forest green, and fair. 

Where veeries sing in secret bowers, 
And lindens blow, and little flowers, 

And bluebirds cleave the shining air. 

By night a quiet wayside grove 

Where Aldebaran lights the gloom^ 

And silent breezes idly rove 
About a shadow-painted room 
Builded of many a bough and bloom — 

A wafted air of myrrh and musk. 
The music of slow-falling streams, 
A whitethroat singing in its dreams, 

And thou beside me in the dusk. 



Acta Victoi'iana. 221 



The Christmas Message 

FROM out the Eastern country, so runs the story, where by day 
princes shone in the busy splendor of their gold and purple 
and precious stones, and by night sages won from the quiet skies the 
secrets of the stars, there came, some nineteen hundred years ago, three 
philosopher kings, bearing in their hands rich and royal gifts and in 
their bosoms wise and reverent hearts. Through the smiling plains of 
fertile provinces, over mighty rivers laden with the commerce of the ■ 
nations, past the marts of merchantmen, the schools of the wise 
and the palaces of princes, steadily they journeyed on until they 
came to an obscure provincial town among a despised and conquered 
people, and the star that guided them paused over the place where a 
young child lay. Then royalty and riches bowed the knee to poverty 
and the wisdom ot many studious years did reverence to the helpless 
ignorance of infancy. For the child, though very poor, was a great 
king, and the worship of the wise men was but a symbol of what he 
should bring to pass in aftertime. For when the child grew his 
people received him not and for long years he was buffeted with dis- 
tress and poverty ; his garments were coarse^ his fare was scant, his 
friends were few, and of his own he had not where to lay his head. 
But at the last he was seated upon his Father's throne, and because he 
had been poor and evilly dealt with, he made proclamation that his repre- 
sentatives in especial in all places should be the needy, the sick, the 
ignorant, the outcast, the sorrowful, and the oppressed. And he made 
a decree that the rich should succor the poor, the wise teach the 
ignorant, the powerful relieve the oppressed, the lighthearted cheer 
the sorrowful, those in honor and in health visit the outcast and the 
sick, the strong bear the burdens of the weak, and if any should do 
service to these his representatives, it should be as if they had done it to 
the king. And the king's people did so. And though very many years 
have passed the king still reigns, and when he hears of any who delight 
to do the biddings of his decree he prepares for them mansions 
in his own house, and when he has summoned them to come to l^m he 
says : " Inasmuch as ye have done it to the least of these my breth- 
ren, ye have done it unto me. Enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." 
And these are always with him. J. B. 




22 2 Ada Victoriana. 

Upper Canada Jicademy 

r.Y C. C. JAMES, M.A. 
]. 

T is probably known to all the readers of this journal 
T that during the first five years of its career, 1836 

*■ to 1 84 1, Victoria College was known as Upper 

Canada Acadeni}'. The story resolves itself into 
two parts : first, the causes that led up to the or- 
ganization of the college or academy ; and, secondly, 
the account of the institution in its struggle into life. 
The story of one of the pioneer educational institu- 
tutions of this province should appeal to a much 
wider circle than the students and graduates of 
Victoria College, and it has a bearing much broader than merely 
an educational sketch, for it forms an important part of the great 
struggle of 1830 to 1840 that changed most radically the politi- 
cal, religious, and social life of our people. While writers on the 
events leading up to the troubles of 1837 do not, as a rule, 
enlarge upon the organization and early working of this academy 
or college as a necessary part of the study of that question, I 
am firmly convinced that a thorough acquaintance with the early 
history of the institution would greatly assist in a proper under- 
standing of the struggle for civil and religious equality. 

Half a century had elapsed since, in 1784, the first bands of 
Loyalists had crossed the rivers and lakes and settled down to 
make their homes in the primeval forests of Upper Canada. 
The passing of this half century had carried off the majority of 
the sturdy veterans who had left their comfortable homes in 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina to 
support the royal standard. Here and there remained one to 
counsel and encourage, but the men of the time must, of neces- 
sity, have been of the second generation. Some had been car- 
ried into Upper Canada in the arms of their fathers and mothers, 
some had dim recollections of the privations of the early clear- 
ings, the hungry years, and the increasing struggle with the 
forest and its unfriendly denizens. Properly to approach our sub- 
ject, therefore, we should make a study of the conditions of 





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Acta Victoriana. 223 

these fifty years that we may know how the people w^ere trained, 
what advantages they had, and what were the defects that they 
endeavored to remedy. 

From the summer of 1784 to the end of 1788 the httle groups 
of colonists were wholly engrossed- in the clearing of patches 
from the forest and the erection of log-houses, under the leader- 
ship of their old military officers and the direction of the com- 
manders of the several military posts. They were dependent 
for their supplies upon the distribution of military stores. The 
only government that they knew was that which was centred in 
the military commanders at Forts Cataraqui, Niagara, and De- 
troit. Education must have been of secondary importance, if 
it received any consideration at all. The military Chaplains may 
have endeavored to conduct schools, but these would be limited 
in their influence. Early in 1789 the four districts were formed, 
land boards were appointed for the settlement of disputes and the 
location of later arrivals, and courts of law were constituted. In 
this same year we find the first trace of a movement for schools. 
A petition for educational help was sent to Lord Dorchester, the 
Governor at Quebec. He ordered that portions of land be set 
aside for endowing schools in the new townships, but we do not 
find that this brought any benefit before the new Province of Up- 
per Canada was set apart on the 26th of December, 1791. Eight 
years had passed when Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe arrived. 
The children were growing up, assisting their parents in the stern 
struggle, with no opportunities for schooling outside of the 
limited assistance that they might receive from their fathers 
and mothers. There were few books saved from the wreckage 
of their southern homes, there was little leisure, there was a 
daily demand upon the full energies of all, young and old, in the 
strenuous struggle for existence. That the rising generation 
did not degenerate may appear a marvel, but the sterling quali- 
ties that came by inheritance and the education acquired from the 
active development of hand and eye and ear compensated, to a 
certain extent, for the lack of that education that comes from the 
ordinary school-house. An examination of such records of those 
early days as are available shows that the settlers of a century 
ago wrote with an uncertain hand, spelled words with quaint- 
ness and originality, and took liberties with the King's Eng- 
lish that would not be tolerated at the present day ; but they 



2 24 Acta Victoriana. 

maintained virtues and displayed mental activity that are not 
surpassed in this later age. When we consider that the majority 
of the people of this province were, for the first forty or fifty 
years of its history, to a large extent deprived of the advantages 
of common school education, our admiration for their progress 
must be aroused and our interest in their history greatly quick- 
ened. 

Simcoe's coming into the new province must have infused 
new life and hope into the isolated settlements. He came to 
introduce a new form of government, and he came with his mind 
fully made up as to lines along which that government w^as to 
be administered. Two questions were very dear to his heart — 
the education of the people and the building up of a Church. As 
far as possible he proposed to reproduce Old England in Upper 
Canada. To him the State Church of England was funda- 
mental ; it must be continued or reproduced here. The univer- 
sity was the right arm of the State Church of England ; Upper 
Canada must have a university. Several months before leaving 
England he wrote as follow^s to Sir Joseph Banks about his new 
field of work : " Schools have been shamefully neglected — a col- 
lege of a higher class would be eminently useful and would give 
a tone of principle and manners that would be of infinite support 
to government." Later, waiting from Quebec to the Secretary 
of State, he said : *' But the question of higher education is of 
still more importance ; lower education, being less expensive, may 
in the meantime be provided by relatives and, more remotely, by 
school lands." Simcoe's dream was for a University at York 
under Church direction, but he got no' encouragement from Lon- 
don. In June, 1796, the Duke of Portland (Secretary of State) 
suggested that his ideas of the schoolmaster best adapted to the 
needs of L^pper Canada w^ere " such as are thoroughly com- 
petent to teach reading, writing, accounts, and mensuration." 
Simcoe in his reply reiterates his desire for a university, " from 
which, more than any other source or circumstances whatever, a 
grateful attachment to His ^Majesty, morality, and religion, wall 
be fostered and take root throughout the whole province." 

Simcoe returned to England in 1797, no doubt deeply disap- 
pointed that some of his most cherished plans had not been 
matured. Nothing of importance had been done in promoting 
a general scheme of popular education. The people were left to- 



Acta Victoriana. 225 

their own resources. Here and there vohintary schools had 
been started, but they must have been rather crude and Hmited 
in their influence. Schools, that might be dignified as classical, 
had been started as follows : At Kingston, by Rev. John Stuart 
(1785), and at Newark, by Rev. Mr. Addison (1792), Rev. Mr. 
Burns (1794) and Richard Cockerel. Mr. Cockerel soon trans- 
ferred his school to Ancaster. There was also a school of some 
sort at Fort Niagara, which up to 1796 remained a British post. 
Just as Simcoe was leaving the plan of district schools was 
taking shape. He sent forward the recommendation in 1787 to 
the Duke of Portland, who returned a favorable reply, addressed 
to Simcoe's successor, Hon. Peter Russell. The chief civil 
officers of the Crown (the judges, law officers and executive 
councillors) prepared a report that recommended the setting 
apart of 500,000 acres of land, also $12,000 for each district. 
Schools were to be started at once at Kingston and Newark, 
later at Cornwall and Sandwich ; York w'as to be the seat of the 
university. This was in 1798. On 31st of December, 1799, Mr. 
John Strachan arrived at Kingston to assume the presidency of 
the new university. But, meanwdiile, the plan had been aban- 
doned, and, after a couple of years teaching at Kingston, Mr. 
Strachan opened his famous classical school at Cornwall. Tust 
before this Dr. Baldwin opened his classical school at York. 

Down to 1807 no progress was made in establishing schools for 
the people. The young people were growing up with the limited 
schooling supplied at home or in the voluntary schools. Again 
we ask. Why did not the province degenerate? 

In 1807 a fresh start was made. On the loth of March there 
was passed An Act to establish public schools in each and every 
district of this Province. This provided for one school in each 
of the eight districts; iioo was to be paid to each school. The 
Lieutenant-Governor was given power to appoint a board of not 
less than five trustees for each district. It is noteworthy that this 
bill originated in the Assembly. In the previous year an educa- 
tional bill had passed the Assembly, but was lost in the Legisla- 
tive Council. 

Some of these grammar schools were fairly successful, but 
others were limited in their influence, owing to their location. 
Disputes and jealousies arose, and various attempts were made 
in the Legislature to have them transferred to more favorable 



2 26 Acta Victor 7 ana. 

locations. That they suppHed only in part the demands for edu- 
cation is evident from the starting of other private schools, the 
most noted of which was the Ernestown Academy at Bath, 
under the care of the talented and distinguished Barnabas Bid- 
well, a man as learned as his more distinguislfed son, Marshall 
Spring Bidwell. The War of 1812-14 closed effectively the few 
grammar schools in the country for these three years. Education 
was still having a most discouraging time in Upper Canada. 
It required a year or more for the people to resettle themselves 
after the close of the war. This brings us down to 18 16. 

The year 1816 is one of the divisional years in Upper Canadian 
history; with it opens a new chapter in our career, for then 
began the rapid settling of our vacant lands by the home-seek- 
ers from over the sea. It opens a new chapter also in our edu- 
cational story, for then, for the first time, provision was made 
by the Legislature for the general education of the common 
people — $24,000 was granted annually for four years for common 
schools. The people were to erect the school-houses and to elect 
trustees, who had the power of appointing teachers and super- 
vising the work. Thus it will be seen that now for the first 
time the control of the common schools was entrusted to the 
people. That the new plan was not a brilliant success may be 
surmised from the fact that on the expiration of the four years 
the grant was cut down to $10,000. Judging from contem- 
porary reports the people were somewhat dissatisfied with the 
provision made for the education of their children. The popu- 
lation continued to increase very rapidly by the yearly additions 
of settlers from England, Scotland, and Ireland, who brought 
with them new ideas from the Old Land as to the necessity of 
schools. It should be remembered, as bearing upon the second 
part of this paper, that the grammar schools of this period were, 
as a rule, in charge of men closely associated with the Church of 
England. Several of them were clergymen. Dr. Hodgins, in 
one of his works on the history of our educational system, 
entitles one of his chapters as follows : " Fitful Progress from 
1 822- 1 836," and this describes the state of affairs in a terse and 
suggestive manner. 

Time and space do not permit a detailed survey of this period 
that immediately precedes the founding of Upper Canada Acad- 
emy. Let me refer to a few things that contributed to the 



Acta Victoriana. 227 

unrest and contentions that so deeply stirred the people at this 
time. The Executive Council applied to the Home Government 
for permission to introduce the national, or Church of Eng- 
land, system of schools. Mr. Thomas Appleton was the com- 
mon school teacher at York. His supplies were cut off, his 
school closed, and, at a large increase of expenditure, a national 
school was established at York. For eight years (1820 to 1828) 
this was a source of contention between the Assembly, on the 
one hand, and the Executive on the other. 

In 1827 the charter for King's College was obtained, and 
though the college was not opened, the Assembly and the Execu- 
tive kept up a continuous sti^uggle over the conditions of that 
charter limiting its control to members of the Church of Eng- 
land. Sir John Colborne, of his own motion, or rather without 
consulting the Assembly, obtained a grant of land and started 
the college, known at first as Minor College, later as Upper 
Canada College. This also was a cause of contention between 
the people's representatives, on the one hand, and the Executive 
on the other. 

Year after year the struggle was kept up and the cause of the 
education of the common people suffered. The ten years, 1827- 
^'^Z7i were the most momentous in the history of this province. 
The question was being worked out as to who were to control 
this province, the representatives of the people or the Executive 
appointed by the Home Government. Working along one line 
through one set of men, it resulted in the rebellion of 1837; 
working along another line, it solved the Clergy Reserve question ; 
along another line, it produced Upper Canada Academy, Queen's 
College, and other independent educational institutions. But the 
great question that concerned all classes was, Who are the 
government of this province? Having thus briefly referred to 
the struggles and contentions that disturbed our people for the 
' first fifty years of our existence, I purpose in the succeeding paper 
to follow up its sequence in the story of Upper Canada 
Academv. 



228 



Acta Victoria7ta. 




The Garden of Peace 

BY BERTHA JEAN THOIMPSON. 

/^1f), tbc oav^cn of peace! tbe cool of its sba&e 
Spreads out to tbc passionate beart tbat bas 
pra^cD ; 
BuD wben wc bavc Kariic& to breatbe witb tbc blest 
5t comes witb tbe promise of infinite rest. 

®b, tbe Garden ot peace ! 5 bave sat in its sba&e, 
Hn& learne^ ot tbe prater in Getbsemane prape^ ; 
/IDy> beart up to Calvary's cross bas been prest 
Hn& calmeb witb tbe knowlc^QC ot infinite rest. 



\ -^ 




Acta Victoriana. 



229 



Ji Greek Christmas Service 

Micosia, Cyprus. 

Decoitber 2j/h, i8gb, O.S. = January 6th, iSgy, N.S. 

BY REV. H. T. F. DUCKWORTH, M.A,, DEAN OE THE FACULTY 
OF ARTS, TRINITY UNIVERSITY. 

IT was only three hours and a half past midnight, but the bells 
of the Metropolitan Church of St. John the Divine, in 
Nicosia, were already summoning the Orthodox to assemble for 
the celebration of the Liturgy.* 

Dark it was at that hour, of course, but not nearly so cold as 
it would have been in this country. By four o'clock I was in the 




FAMAGUSTA, LOOKING EASTWARD OVER THE SEA. 

cathedral, and found a place in the stalls on the south side of the 
building. 

These stalls run along both sides of the church, -as far as the 
" Iconostasion " or " Templos," i.e., the screen which separates 
the sanctuary from the part where the congregation stand. In 

* The Greeks always speak of the Order of the Communion as "the Liturgy." They have 
two " Liturgies " now in regular use. viz., (i) ihe " Liturgy of St. Basil,' used on the vigils of 
Christmas and Epiphany, on the ist of J an Mary, the first five Sundays in Lent. Thursday before 
Easter and Easier Eve ; (2) the " Liturgy of St. Chrysostom," used at all other times. 

8 



230 Acta Victoriana. 

the cathedral at Nicosia, as in almost every Greek church I have 
ever seen (except one in Manchester, England) the sitting 
accommodation is scanty. Yet the congregations will stand 
quite contentedly for two or three hours at a time while the 
Liturgy is in progress. The stasidia — as the stalls in Greek 
churches are called — might, in the case of the cathedral church 
in Nicosia, accommodate some sixty persons. They were all 
occupied that morning, but besides their occupants there was a 
multitude that thronged the whole building. The only other ' 
seats to be found were in the " gynseconitis," or women's gallery, 
at the west end, but not a few women preferred to stand on the 
floor of the nave, in company with the men-folk. 

The name stasidia indicates that the stalls are meant for stand- 
ing in, rather than for sitting. In each one there was a seat, 
moving up and down on a hinge. But the niost convenient way 
of using the stasidion was to rest one's arms on the sides, if one 
felt tired of standing. 

On the south side there was a special stasidion for the Arch- 
bishop, distinguished by its gilded canopy. Opposite, on the 
north side, there was a less conspicuous stall, appointed for the 
ecclesiastic next in dignity to the Archbishop. It was occupied 
on that Christmas morning by the Hegoumenos (Abbot) of 
Kykkos, the most important monastery in Cyprus. The principle 
on which the rest of the stasidia were occupied appeared to be 
that they were the proper places for persons of distinction, in 
which class the Orthodox were good enough to reckon the writer 
of this paper. The stasidion to which I found my way was 
indeed voluntarily given up to me by a Greek, who did not wait to 
be told to "give this man place." I should have been just as 
much pleased had he kept his stasidion, b«t it was evident that 
he wanted me to take one of the " first seats in the synagogue," 
so I did as " the Romans " would have me do.* 

The " metropolis," as the Orthodox call the cathedral, is not 
by any means a large or* magnificent church, but it is solidly 
constructed, the material being a kind of sandstone, which is 
quarried close to Nicosia. It was built during the primacy of 
Archbishop Nikiforos (A.D. 1660-1672), the date of its com- 
pletion, according to an inscription over the western door, being 

* In the Middle Ages the Greeks spoke of themselves as " Romaioi" and the Turks in Cyprus 
still give this name to their Christian fellow-islanders. " Roumi, in Egypt and Palestine, means 
a ( ireek. 



Acta Victoriana. 



231 



A.D. 1662. In the course of the last century (though whether 
before or after the British occupation began, I do not know) a 
campanile was added at the south-east corner. 

The church stands in a large courtyard, the buildings occu- 
pied by the Archbishop and his attendant clergy and lay monastic 
brethren flanking it on the north, west, and south. Behind these 
buildings is the " perivoli " (;r£pzy5oAz, from nepiftoXoz) oi the 




ST. NICHOLAS CATHEDRAL, NOW A MOSQUE, BUILT 
A.D. 1311, FAMAGUSTA. 

archbishopric, planted with palms, olives, and orange-trees. The 
architectural features of the cathedral are simple, the ground plan 
being an oblong, with an apse at the east end and a porch 
(narthex) at the west. There are no aisles. The outer roof, of 
red tiles imported from Marseilles, is new ; the inner roof is a 
waggon-vault of stone, ribbed at intervals with transverse arches. 
The vault and the side-walls are covered with frescoes, which 



232 Acta Vicloriana. 

date from the primacy of Silvestros (1718-1732) and Philotheos 
(1734-1759) ; the first series, viz., those in the Bema or Sanctu- 
ary, was painted in the time of Silvestros (1731), the rest in the 
days of his successor. The effect they produce is sombre, but not 
without a certain degree of gorgeousness. Alanv of them repre- 
sent scenes from sacred history, and there is a series which por- 
trays the Seven CEcumenical Councils, whose authority is 
recognized by the Orthodox Communion. 

On that Christmas morning, as it was yet dark, a great while 
before the day, the " metropolis " was irradiated with the mystic 
glow of a multitude of lamps and candles, an illumination very 
different from the blaze of gas or electric light familiar to us in 
our churches. Most of the radiance came from the great brass 
candelabra, and the hanging lamps, some of brass, some of silver, 
in front of the Iconostasion. Each of these hanging lamps held 
a small vessel filled with olive oil, in which was a floating 
wick. The effect of these lamps and candles would probably 
have been greater, but for the sombre tints prevailing in the 
frescoes upon the walls and roof, in which a considerable propor- 
tion of the light was absorbed, instead of being reflected. 

The Iconostasion is a screen or partition of wood, covered with 
icons or sacred pictures, which form an indispensable part of the 
equipment of every Orthodox church — Greek, Russian, Servian, 
or Bulgarian — from Archangel to jMelbourne, from Trebizond 
to San Francisco. 

Originally adopted by the Eastern Churches " for example of 
life and instruction of manners," as " the books of the un- 
learned," they have unhappily become associated with a vast 
amount of superstition, which, it is much to be hoped, the 
progress of education will remove. It is also much to be hoped 
that the same progress will not result in the uprooting of good 
wheat along with the tares. 

On every iconostasion you will find representations of the fol- 
lowing subjects: (i) The Virgin ]\Iary with the Christ-child; 

(2) Christ robed as a High Priest, enthroned as a King, and 
holding a book (representing either the Scriptures as a whole, or 
the Gospel) in token of His office as Prophet and Teacher; 

(3) St. John the Baptist (the Prodromos, or Fore-runner, as the 
Greeks generally call him), and in most cases, if not all, you will 
also find St. George and St. Nicholas in prominent positions. 



Ada Victoriana. 



233 



In the screen are two (sometimes three) doors, the one in the 
middle being called the " Holy Door." 

The " Divine Liturgy " of the Orthodox Church falls into the 
following main divisions : 

1. The preparation of the ministers, including the mystic 
washing of hands and the vesting. 

2. The preparation of the bread and the cup for the holy 
table. This is called the Prothesis. These preliminarv rites are 
performed out of sight of the congregation, behind the screen. 
The preparation of the elements takes place in a specially- 
appointed part of the Bema or Sanctuary,* called the Prothesis. 




CYPRIOTES. 



3. The Enarxis (preliminary office), with the Antiphons, led 
by the deacon standing outside the Iconostasion. 

4. The "Little Entrance'' or "Entrance of the Gospel;' in. 
which the Gospel-book is brought forth from the Holy Table 
into the nave, to be read by the deacon. In this part of the ser- 
vice, which answers to the western " Missa Catechumenorum/' 
comes the reading of the Epistle and Gospel for the day. 

5. The Disiiiissal of the Catechumens — a mere formality 
nowadays, when adult baptism occurs so seldom. 

* Bema : a platform. The floor on which the iconostasion and the altar siand is raised above 
the floor of the nave by one or more step^. .\nother name for the B^ma is " Thysiasterion." 



2 34 Ada Victoriana. 

6. The " Great Entrance/' in which the deacon, carrying the 
bread, and the priest carrying the chalice, come out from the 
north door of the Iconostasion, and walk round the church, 
entering the sanctuary again by the middle, or " Holy Door." 
This is accompanied by censing, and the singing of the " Hymn 
of the Cherubim," by the Psaltai or choristers. 

7. The Creed. 

8. The Anaphora, or offering and consecration of the bread 
and the cup on the Holy Table,* including, inter alia, the recital 
(by the bishop or priest officiating) of the Words of Institution, 
as in the Prayer of Consecration in the Anglican Office, and the 
Invocation, i.e., the prayer that the Holy Spirit may descend and 
make the Bread the Body of Christ and the Cup the Blood of 
Christ. Then follow the Intercessions for the living and the dead, 
the Paternoster, the breaking of the bread and the Communion, 
first of the clergy, then of the people. In the Orthodox Church 
the communicants receive the Sacrament standing. The clergy 
receive the elements separately. For the people, the bread is 
placed in the chalice and given to the communicant in a spoon. 

9. The Thanksgiving. 

10. The Dismissal. " Let us depart in peace in the name of the 
Lord." 

To which must be added, though it can hardly be a primitive 
feature of the liturgical order, 

11. The Antidoron. This is bread blessed, but not conse- 
crated upon the Holy Table. The bread offered upon the Holy 
Table has been cut out of a loaf which, having been broken up, 
is distributed afterwards to the people. According to Nicolas 
Bulgaris, the relation of the Antidoron to the bread consecrated 
upon the Holy Table is the exact analogue of the relation of the 
Virgin Mary's body to the body of her Son. This practically 
makes of the Antidoron a secondary sacrament, which indeed 
is rather the signification of its name. 

The Psalmody of the Greek Church is not melodious to a 
Western ear.f It is quite evident that there was a conception of 
music prevalent in the ancient world which differed widely from 

* The Greeks always call it the Holy Table. The name Thysiasterion denotes the space 
within the screen, i.e., the Bema. At the same timf , the Greeks regard this Holy T..ble as an altar. 

t This does not apply to the psalmody of the Ru-sian Church. 



Ada Vicloriana. 



235 



ours. On the other hand, the intoning of the Gospel had a pleas- 
ing effect. The deacon entrusted with this function had a good 
voice, and used it well. The portion of Scripture appointed 
for the Gospel on Christmas Day in the Greek Church is the 
same as the Epiphany Gospel in the Anglican Church, viz. : St. 
Matthew ii. 1-12. In the Orthodox Church, Christmas com- 
bines the feature of the two Western festivals of Christmas and 
Epiphany, and before 1900 the Greek festival of the Nativity 




MOSQUE OF ST. CATHERINA. 

coincided with the Western Epiphany, the difference between the 
old style and the new being just twelve days.* 

The Gospel was read from the pulpit, which stood high up 
against the wall on the north side of the church, and was reached 
by a long ladder. 

The celebrant on that Christmas Day was the Archbishop 
himself. During the earlier part of the Liturgy he was in his 

' The ye.-ir 1900, old style, wa^ .1 leap year. This increased the difference to thirteen days. 



236 Acta Victoriana. 

'■ throne " — the specially-adorned stasidion mentioned above, 
and it was in the nave that he was solemnly robed before enter- 
ing the Bema for the Anaphora. The prevailing color in his 
robes was a kind of " dead gold." Several vestments had to be 
put on and adjusted. These were (i) the stldxarion, a long 
robe reaching to the feet; (2) the stole or cpltrachelion, a broad 
strip of silk, with an opening at one end for the head and neck 
to pass through, worn hanging in front; (3) the zone or girdle, 
confining the stole and the sticharion ; (4) the sakkos, a loose- 
sleeved coat; (5) the epimanikia, or cufifs ; (6) the omophorion 
or pallimn, a long scarf marked with crosses; (7) the crozvn, 
answering to the mitre of a western prelate. 

The crown worn by the Archbishop of Cyprus is of silver, in 
shape like that of the Russian Emperor. The original of both 
crowns is the tiara worn by the East-Roman or Byzantine 
emperors in the Middle Ages. The spaces between the hoops 
are filled in with red velvet, which serves as a backing for medal- 
lions bearing miniature pictures of saints. A cross surmounts 
the whole. 

Finally, there is the Archiepiscopal stafif, which is quite dif- 
ferent in form from the ordinary Episcopal staff. As a mark of 
special favor and esteem, the Emperor Zeno (A.D. 474-491) 
authorized the Archbishop of Cyprus to carry a staff fashioned 
in the same manner as the imperial sceptre. Thus it is that the 
Cyprian primate's staff or sceptre is surmounted with a ball 
instead of the usual serpents' heads. 

The part taken in the service by the congregation generally 
was not a large one — little, if any, more than joining in the Creed 
and the Lord's Prayer, and repeating, " Remember me, O Lord, 
in Thy kingdom," as the priest and the deacon passed through 
the church in the " Great Entrance." Yet, if they were mainly 
spectators and listeners, and even if there was a degree of move- 
ment and unrest, and an amount of talking, that we should con- 
sider scandalous, I do not think they ought to be accused of 
deliberate irreverence, or of insensibility to the fact that they 
were present at a great and solemn ceremony. Very few com- 
municated. For communion the Greeks are given to substituting 
regular attendance at the Liturgy, and reception of the Antidoron. 
The Orthodox Church allows the communion of infants (on the 
strength of St. Tvlark x. 14) and there must be many 



Ada Victoriana. 



^2>T 



Orthodox who have hardly ever communicated since the days 
when they were brought to church in their mothers' arms. 

The celebration of the Liturgy lasted altogether about three 
hours. It was after y. a.m. and a lovely spring-like day had 
dawned, when the Dismissal was pronounced, " Let us depart 
in peace." While the service was in progress the impression 
grew upon one that /zco services were being performed — one by 




VICTORIA ROAD, KICOSIA. 

the clergy within the Iconostasion and the veil drawn across the 
Holy Door, the other by the psaltai or choristers without, in the 
nave. The psaltai might be regarded as the congregation's 
deputies or delegates, participating in the service on their behalf. 
They certainly did participate, and that with vigor, but their 
doing so was due to a knowledge of the liturgical books not 
possessed by the people in general. The number of separate 
books employed in the performance of the Liturgy (and other 



238 Acta Victoriana. 

services as well) is a serious obstacle in the way of anything 
that might answer to our idea of congregational worship. 

The power and influence exerted in the past, if not in the 
present, by monasticism in the Eastern Orthodox Church shows 
itself in two ways : ( i ) In the reservation of bishoprics and all 
posts of dignity for monks; and (2) in the monastic character 
of the whole system of worship. The services are such as pre- 
suppose a monastic community in connection with, or in charge 
of, the churches where they are to be performed, and this con- 
dition is far from being everywhere fulfilled. An episcopal resi- 
dence is practically a monastery or coenobium, and a " college " 
of priests and deacons may be maintained in charge of a parish 
church, if the endowments be adequate. But this, again, is far 
from being the case everywhere. 

Such being the character of the services, to be present at their 
performance is to be brought face to face with the life of ages 
and generations of men whose ways and customs Western Chris- 
tendom has left far behind. The Eastern Orthodox Church has 
not undergone a Reformation, and in this respect it stands 
separated by a wide chasm, not only from Protestant Christen- 
dom, but from the Roman Church as well. We are, perhaps, in- 
clined to think of the Roman Church as pervaded by " mediaeval- 
ism," but Roman mediaevalism seems as modernity in comparison 
with that of the churches of Greece and Russia. Rome, equally 
with Protestantism, is condemned by the Orthodox as guilty of 
heretical " innovation," both in doctrine and in ritual. 

It is an old world, indeed, that one enters into contact with on 
such occasions. The language of the prayers and antiphons is 
the language familiar, in ages long past, to Chrysostom and 
Basil, to Cyril and Athanasius. The passages taken from the 
New Testament are read in the very language, if not in the 
very words, in which they were first penned,* and those which 
are derived from the Old Testament are recited in the language 
of the oldest known version, the Septuagint. In the Eastern 
Orthodox Church, the Byzantine Empire may be said still to 
survive. Of this survival one had several reminders in the 
course of that Christmas morning. The very shape of the archi- 
episcopal mitre was that of the tiara worn by the Byzantine 
emperors. The pastoral staff reproduced the imperial sceptre. 

•Textual critics will perhaps refuse to allow the ipshsima Z'erba. 



Ada Victoriana. 



239 



The dragon-headed brackets on the Iconostasion, from which hung 
the brazen and silver lamps, and the double-headed eagle carved 
on the Holy Door, were insignia of the Empire. In the person 
of the Archbishop one saw the successor of Epiphanius, of 
Rheginus, whose independence of the x\ntiochene throne was 
solemnly recognized by the Council of Ephesus in A.D. 431 ; of 
Germanos, who chose exile rather than submission to the Latin 
prelate to whom Papal aggression subjected the hitherto self- 
governing Church of Cyprus (A.D. 1220- 1250). The Arch- 
bishop, indeed, might be regarded as the representative of an 




MONASTERY OF THE PANAGHIA, KYKKOS, FROM THE EAST. 

order of things yet more ancient than the Byzantine Empire, for 
did he not claim St. Barnabas as the first of his line, the founder 
•of his spiritual dynasty ? 

The stubborn conservatism of the Orthodox Church finds, in 
part, at least, its explanation in the sense of historical continuity, 
of an age-long corporate life, of permanent connection between 
the present and the past, the living and the departed, by which 
it rightly enough sets great store. Anything that serves as a 
reminder and a testimony whereby this sense may be main- 
tained and quickened is valued and venerated. Again, it must be 



240 Ada Victoriana. 

remembered that the rites and ceremonies of the Greek Orthodox 
Church are endeared to her people by the remembrance that they 
have been preserved through the stress and strain of persecu- 
tion and misgovernment. " This is the Lord's doing, and it is 
marvellous in our eyes '' might well be the thought of every 
Orthodox Greek who calls to mind the conflict sustained by his 
forefathers and predecessors down into modern times. The 
rites and ceremonies upon which the unaccustomed or unreflect- 
ing spectator is too ready to look with aversion or contempt are 
to the present generation of Greeks things venerable, if only be- 
cause they were practised and retained by those who fought for 
Hellenic Independence against the barbarous Osmanli, by those 
who stood up against Roman aggression in the terrible age of 
the Crusades, by those who flung back the Saracen from the 
walls of Constantinople, and by those who won victories even 
more glorious by making Scythian and Greek actually, as well as 
ideally, one in Christ.* 

With the Greeks — and the same thing has come to pass, in vir- 
tue of similar causes, with the Russians — those forms of Christian 
belief and ceremonial which may be conveniently summed up as 
" Orthodoxy " (just as another system is denominated " Cath- 
olicism ") have become, for the immense majority of the people, 
the very pillar and ground of nationality. Into such a mental 
atmosphere it is difficult for us to enter, even in imagination. 
But neither we nor our forefathers ever knew what a Moham- 
medan conquest meant. Having been spared that calamity, let 
us be tolerant in judging our fellow-Christians in the East. 

But — manum de tabula! These reminiscences and reflections 
must close. Let their conclusion be made with a citation from 
the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, with one of the constant prayers 
of the Orthodox Churches — 

TtTSP Tt/5 sipT]VT]Z TOV GV fJ-TiaVTOZ HOffJUOV, 

ev()Tadsia> Tc^v ayiaov rov QeoZ SHuXt/ffK^v, 
uai Tfjs T(^y TravToiv svojffsoj^, rov xvpiov 

*Colossians iii 11. Tha kusslan Orlhodox Church is the offspring of the Church of 
Constantinople. 



A eta Vic to nana. 



241 







The Tiecluse 

BY ISABEL E. MACKAY. 

THE world's broad highway runs not by my door. 
Long since I turned my weary steps aside, 
Seeking some refuge where I might abide 
All undisturbed by noise and dust and glare, 
See with clear vision thro' a purer air, 
And struggle onward with the throng no more. 

Here will I dwell, I cried, and breathe content 

And think high thoughts and utter words wnose flame 
Forever shall enshrine a noble fame ; 
And they who still the hurrying highway choose, 
Hearing, shall ease their feverish haste, and muse 

"Are these things good for which our souls are spent?" 

So dwelled I many years. And so I thought 
To serve humanity, yet dwell apart ; 
Till one came by, fresh from the busy mart. 
And, wond'ring, said, "Fair sir, the distant plain 
Hears not your message. You are wise in vain ; 

On the far highway, travellers heed you not ! " 



242 



Ada Victoriana. 



Classical By-ways' 



BY PRINCIPAL AUDKN, OF UPPER CANADA COLLEGE. 




I WANT to discuss the question, Does not a classical training, 
more than any other, lead on a man to intellectual interests ? 
Has not a classical man more than any other man a chance 

of being stimulated to other 
branches of learning, of follow- 
ing up those intellectual paths 
which may lead him to that 
happy position where he can say : 
" My mind to me a kingdom 
is. I have interests which I can 
follow up in my leisure time ; I 
have resources in myself of which 
' the slings and arrows of out- 
rageous fortune ' cannot rob me. 
I have a hobby and I am happy 
in it." 

The only true view of educa- 
tion is that it is a training, as the 
Greeks said, " the askesis of the 
mind," a practising or exercis- 
ing ; something which will train 
and discipline the mental faculties and secure a synoptic view 
and a standpoint from which we can estimate impartially the 
relative importance of the details of existence in this world. 
Education is a thing for life, not for livelihood. A liberal edu- 
cation in the proper sense is that which furnishes the mind, 
equips it, expands and stimulates, and helps man to lead a fuller, 
richer, more interesting, and more useful life. Now the classics 
are not useful in the ordinary and lowest sense of the term ; they 
are not an utilitarian study, and anyone who judges them by the 
standard of the return he shall get in dollars and cents will 
be disappointed. Classics must be judged from their merit, not 
their market. As John ]\lorley said the other day, Greek will not 
directly stimulate the manufactures of a country. 

*Part cf an address delivered before the Classical Association of Victoria College. 



PRINCIPAL AUDF.N. 



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a 



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Ada Victoriana. 243 

But to come back to my subject, education is a training for 
life, and life we are glad to believe is not made up entirely of 
working days ; there are also holidays and days of leisure, when 
a man has time to look around him and to consider what his own 
resources are. Now I want to try to show that it is for these 
times of comparative leisure that a classical training is of sur- 
passing value. There are many men who simply do not know 
what to do with their leisure ; they have no interests, intellectual 
or otherwise, and many a man, when he comes to the time when 
he is able to retire from work, whether it be professional or 
commercial — a time to which he looks forward for many a 
tedious year — has no interest in life. His heart is still in his 
office. He wanders aimlessly hither and thither, because as a 
young man he has not followed any of the side-paths of interest 
which ought to have been pointed out to him in his early educa- 
tion, and he has thus laid up for himself in a great many cases a 
miserable old age. The man with intellectual interests is the 
happy man. And among ordinary professional and business 
men those with a classical training usually are far better equipped 
in this respect than those trained on any other system ; it is 
undoubtedly the case in England and in Germany. A man who 
has been brought up on Greek and Latin is usvially a man of 
resources, provided, of course, that he has not regarded classics 
as merely a means of obtaining a high position for himself in the 
examination list. 

The man of intellectual resources is usually the man who 
reads, and Bacon's dictum, " Reading makes a full man, confer- 
ence a ready man, and writing an exact man," is true for all 
time. Moreover, reading is to the mind what exercise is to 
the body; and without reading mental development is impos- 
sible. Bacon's phrase, " a full man," is not very far off from the 
definition of the man whose training we are discussing now — I 
mean the man of wide intellectual interests. Such a man has a 
more satisfying life, he has obtained for himself wide fields of 
meditation and reflection, fresh and inviting to him, whilst to 
others they seem brown and barren. He is a man who will find 
himself the least alone when quite alone. He is a man to whom 
a good book and " his ain fireside " are a haven of happiness 
from the storms of this modern hustling life. I believe most 
firmly that classical training does help to equip a man with 



244 ' Acia Vic dorian a. 

these intellectual interests— interests moreover that are often 
easily pursued, by-ways which a man can follow without heavy 
impedimenta, going light, we might say, and without long 
portages. Science often equips a man with splendid intellectual 
interests, but so often they can be pursued only with elaborate 
apparatus and at rare opportunities. It is not every man who 
has a private laboratory at his own fireside. 

I think we may consider this question of classical training as 
producing intellectual interests under two headings — firstly, the 
general habit of mind produced by good classical training, which 
may make a man receptive of intellectual influences ; secondly, 
the specific branches of the classics in detail which may lead on 
to the study of larger subjects. 

Firstly, the general habit of mind : 

With regard to the comparative value of studies as making a 
" full man " in after life, I think that the habit of mind, the 
attitude which should ideally be produced and often is produced 
"by classical training is admirably summed up in the comment by 
the Spectator on Mr. Balfour's speech last spring on the occasion 
of Professor Butcher's giving up the chair of Greek at Edin- 
burgh. Mr. Balfour had modestly stated that he had learnt 
comparatively little classics, meaning that he had never attained 
such high honors as Professor Butcher at Oxford or Cambridge, 
but, as his reviewer says : " What would ]\Ir. Balfour be if he 
had not been familiarized in early life with the spirit of the 
classical literatures? Would his books have shown their large 
and tolerant judgment and their grace of form, and his argu- 
ments their remarkable dialectical power if he had been nourished 
solely, let us say, on German philosophy and modern science? 
His mind, as Professor Butcher said, is of the true Hellenic 
order, and it is in this formative influence and not in the 
acquisition of technical learning that the value of classical litera- 
ture is to be found. Order, lucidity, and balance are qualities 
with so great a practical value that, however low our view of 
the end of education, we must acquiesce in the system — the 
classical system — which labors to create them. And there ii 
another side: to a man who has once felt the charm of the 
Greek world, a new possession has been created, a whole world 
to which he can turn for refreshment without fear of satiety." 

^^^hatever educational agent has been used in giving a man 



Acta Victoriana. 245 

his mental training, when he has been for some time at his 
hfe work (whether he be a lawyer, a minister, a business man or 
what not), he usually forgets the educational agent, but the train- 
ing remains. Speaking generally, I think that in ordinary life 
the man trained on classical lines is more interesting, more easy 
to get on with, than a man whose main training has been given 
by science or mathematics. I am talking, as you will readily 
understand, of a comparativelly extensive course of classics, not 
of a boy who spends a year or two on the Latin Grammar and 
snippets of Caesar, and then, with the connivance of his mother, 
deserts the classics for the comparative ease and quiet of the 
modern side. We know that the classics are full of good things, 
of beautiful ideas exquisitely expressed. But we know that 
not ten per cent, of boys ever get, as hoys, within three fields of 
the ideas or three miles of recognizing the beauty of style and 
expression of the ancient writers ; though I do believe that by 
teaching the classics in a more natural and humane way a good 
deal can be done to make boys more appreciative of the Greek 
and Roman spirit. But to more mature students the spirit of 
Greece, as Professor Butcher once said, stands for the things 
of the mind above all material possessions, for fearless inquiry, 
for wisdom, which is the union of intellect and heart. It is the 
sense of proportion, adjustment and organic unity. In action it 
is the foe of all fanaticism, and at the same time it stands for 
public spirit, citizenship, devotion to the common good. It is 
the preservative against all intellectual narrowness and con- 
tracted sympathies ; yet Greek is but one-half of classical cul- 
ture, and the Roman world has many lessons for a nation of 
wanderers and State-builders like our own. Rome shows us the 
value of practical achievement, and the strenuous and patient 
up-building of the Empire, and the austere citizenship of the 
great Romans are noble examples for the world to-day. 

It is worth remembering, too, the vast scope there is for per- 
sonal enthusiasm in the classics. In the classical department 
of a university, no research worthy of the name has ever been 
done except by men who did it because they loved it, and none 
has ever been done except for its own sake. As Professor Burnet 
puts it : "A man is led by some feeling of kinship for what is 
greater than himself to devote his life to the interpretation of 
poet, philosopher, historian, to the elucidating of language on 
9 



246 Acta Victoriana. 

its purely linguistic side, or to that of the art or institutions of 
antiquity, and such a man will freely give himself up to the most 
arid and laborious investigations." It is this research for some- 
thing more which makes the real scholar. The importance, too, 
of personal interpretation in classical training is sometimes 
under-estimated. Classical education is concerned with the 
interpretation of the highest products of the human mind ; pro- 
ducts of which the significance is inexhaustible. The classics 
are htiman. Each fresh soul has to understand the masterpieces 
for itself, as if no one had ever understood them before, and 
the most our teaching can do is to give our pupils the key by 
W'hich they can unlock for themselves the great treasure house 
of mankind. People talk about the classics being dry and unin- 
teresting ; they talk about a classical education as a valley of dry 
bones — but at least they are human bones. 

The habit of mind, then, the attitude which is or can be pro- 
duced by a good classical course intelligently pursued, may, I 
think, be stated to be the contemplative and receptive attitude, 
one of interest in every branch of knowledge, in every sphere of 
human activity. A classical man has a fair chance of deserv- 
ing in later life the title, " A well-read and well-informed man." 

To pass on now to some of the special by-paths which often 
lead a classical man to take interest in other studies. Dr. John- 
son used to say, " I hate by-ways in education," but he meant 
that he objected to an education which was superficial. Our 
motto is, I think, rather that saying of Thoreau, " I like a broad 
margin to my life." 

The first by-path is that of art. A classical student is bound 
in his course to come into more or less intimate contact with the 
spirit of classical antiquity by studying its manifestations in 
art. Again, take the case of language. A man may branch off 
from the elementary knowledge of the science of language, to 
which he was introduced in his work on Greek and Latin, into 
the wider realms of comparative philology. Language study 
may become his hobby, and it is an intensely fascinating study. 
Another side-path is that of anthropology, ethnology, and the 
study of comparative customs, and I have found very frequently 
that classical men are very interested in ethnology and anthropol- 
ogy, especially if they have first been interested in the history 
of language. The history of language leads to the history of 



Ada Victoriana. 247 

the races that spoke the various forms of it. Such questions as 
the origin of our Aryan ancestors, their civiUzation, their distri- 
bution, afford fields of endless interest. Or, again, the study of 
the religious customs of Rome, or of the mythology of Greece, 
may make our classical student a disciple of Andrew Lang, whose 
charming book, " M}th, Ritual, and Religion," is the outcome of 
the scholarly mind applying itself to comparative mythology. 

There is not much room for archaeology in this continent. 
Necessarily, as regards local work, it is confined to Europe. In 
England you will almost always find that the best archaeologists, 
whether interested in Roman ruins or ecclesiastical architec- 
ture, in prehistoric remains or matters of more local interest, 
have usually been stimulated in taking up these studies by the 
interest given them in classical archaeology. A by-path rarely 
followed, but which, when followed, seems always to prove of 
enthralling interest, is that of palaeography and the study of 
manuscripts. A man may make his first acquaintance with the 
subject in dealing with some question of various reading, but 
he may be led on to more detailed study of, or the search for, 
original manuscripts. Two friends of mine, for instance, spend 
almost all their summer holidays burrowing in the musty 
libraries of various Greek monasteries north of the ^gean Sea. 
Or our student may become interested in mediaeval documents, 
charters and roll-books ; may take up what Germans call 
diplomatik, and help to decipher some of the original records 
which are every day throwing light on the sources of English 
history and causing us in several cases to alter our views and to 
modify our prejudices. Or it may happen that a man devotes 
his time to the more mechanical branches of palaeography — for 
instance, the deciphering of papyri by photography and by the 
use of chemical reagents. Splendid work in these departments 
has been done by two Oxford men, Grenfell and Hunt, to 
whose painstaking industry we owe such discoveries as the 
Logia, the Sayings of Jesus, together with many interesting 
documents included in their volume of " Oxyrrhyncus Papyri." 

In the realm of history the possible divergencies on lines of 
interest are very various and hardly need to be enumerated. I 
think that perhaps the two most attractive periods of history 
to which a classical man is likely to be attracted are, firstly, Alex- 
ander's times, his campaign in India, his methods of strategy 



248 Acta ]^ictoriana. 

(which no less a general than Napoleon thought extremely up- 
to-date\ and his influence on European civilization. The second 
division, which is peculiarly interesting because so many people 
know very little of it, is the period of the fall of the Roman 
Empire, the time of the Huns and Goths, and the vast movements 
of civilization over Europe and Asia. The topography, too, of 
Greece and Rome finds a place here. The classical man cannot 
but be anxious to know something of the environment of the 
authors he reads, and the surroundings of the great actors in 
world history whose exploits he studies. 

In philosophy there are difficulties for everyone who has not 
had a classical training. Aristotle is still a text-book and a 
philosopher who has to read Plato in a translation is very 
seriously to be pitied. It is pleasant to think that Toronto 
University has taken a prominent part in emphasizing the study 
of the subject matter of the philosophical classics. As to 
theology I need say nothing. Not only is nearly every good 
theologian a classical man, but in nine cases out of ten his 
interest in the " study of studies " has first been stirred by his 
knowledge of the Greek language. It would be hard to imagine 
a Lightfoot, a Westcott, or a Wellhausen who had not received 
a good training in classical scholarship. I have known men, too, 
who are now authorities on the Italian Renaissance and the 
progress of the revival of learning, whose interest in it was due 
to the work that they had done in a brief set of lectures on the 
history of scholarship. 

These few instances that I have taken are, as you will see, 
drawn mostly from the study of the subject matter of the 
classics. There remain the side-paths to which the study of 
their form may lead. Here is opened up the vast field of com- 
parative literature and the study of literary form, such as the 
history of Epic and its various manifestations among different 
nations, from the Mahabharata of ancient India to the epics of 
our Teutonic ancestors. The ancient drama, again, looked at 
from the point of view of its literary form, often proves of the 
greatest interest, and a man who reads the " Electra " and 
studies it will read " Macbeth " with all the greater appreciation. 

These, then, are a few of the by-paths which a student may 
follow after his classical course. The list is, you will see, very 
incomplete, and I have only indicated very cursorily their possi- 



Acta lictoriana. '^49 

ble developments. A good deal depends on how he follows his 
course. The attitude that I think he should adopt and the point 
of view which should be taken by teachers should be that of 
the comparative and historic method. Everything in classics is 
interesting if viewed, not as isolated and detached, but as part 
of development. 

Method in classics suggest the choice of matter, and in the 
selection of authors I should like to emphasize the importance 
of Homer. Nearly all the side-paths that I have mentioned may 
start from Homer if he is thoroughly and intelligently studied. 
There is some truth in the Duke of Buckingham's lines — 

" Read Homer once and you can read no more, 
For all books else appear so mean and poor ; 
Verse will seem prose, but still persist to read. 
And Homer will be all the books you need." 

May I venture to give you some advice on the methods of study- 
ing classics ? The first piece of advice is contained in the maxim, 
" Collect and compare." When you are beginning to read any 
author, or the part of any author, consider before you begin 
what are the points of interest running through the book ; what 
are you likely to come across that is specially worth study ; be 
purposeful in your readings, do not wander aimlessly through a 
classical author. If you go a walk into the country it makes 
a great difference in the enjoyment of your walk if you are pre- 
pared to keep your eyes open as you go along ; if you expect 
to be interested and know what to look for ; and the same applies 
to classical reading. 

My second piece of advice is this, never read zvithoiit a pencil 
in your hand. I do not mean that you should scribble on the 
margin of books that are not yours ; this I always consider to be 
a kind of mild lunacy (if you remember. King David, when he 
wished to play the part of a madman, scribbled on the wall).; 
but I mean this, that if you wish to appreciate the subject. matter 
of anything that you are reading, a judicious mark here and 
there, or a note taken in your own note-book, will make a great 
deal of dift'erence, because it helps you to cultivate the habit of 
mind of summarizing and really appreciating the content matteii. 
I think that there is a great deal to be said for the old custom of 
keeping a commonplace book in which were copied from any 



250 Ada Victoriana. 

author who was being read those passages which seemed worthy 
of preservation. 

The conclusion of the whole matter seems to be this : any 
mature student who is in doubt as to what course to choose, who 
stands " this way and that dividing the swift mind," uncertain 
as to whether he should follow the classics or decide for a course 
in political economy, history or what not, will, I think, with con- 
fidence choose the classics ; if, that this, he looks forward and 
asks himself the question, What wnll give me the best mental 
training? What will give me an aptitude for intellectual in- 
terests? What will develop my literary sense and make me a 
*' full man " ? In everyone's life there may come the cudden 
awakening of this literary sense, a flash of revelation, the growth 
of a literary soul ; and how many a man can date that awakening 
from the day (an epoch-making day in his literary education) 
when first he really appreciated some line from Homer, or from 
Virgil, or when he first grasped the full significance of some 
clear-cut, crystal phrase of Horace, one of those 

"Jewels five words long 
Which on the stretched fore-finger of all Time 
Sparkle for ever." 

Lastly, we cannot put from us the classical spirit, even if we 
would ; it is within us. The hidden bonds which connect us 
with the Grseco-Roman civilization are so deep-seated, so univer- 
sal, that they are part of our nature. We Anglo-Saxons are, 
though we are often unaware of it, intellectually the direct 
descendants of the Greeks and Roman:. Ot:f taales, our ideas, 
all the hidden inainsprings of modern thought and art, all the 
moulds of our expression of thought in speeech, are Greek or 
Roman ; the Teutonic element is but an overgrowth. We cannot 
be unclassical even if we will. The civilization of the Greeks 
and Romans has made us what we are in thought and feeling. 
It is a heritage which we ought thankfully to acknowledge, a 
gift which we should foster and develop, for to it, I believe, we 
owe that heaven-born instinct in our heart of hearts which makes 
us believe that after all there is something in the Intellectual 
Life, something worth living for, perhaps worth dying for. 



Acta Victoriana. 



251 



Nance Pat hern's Votu 



BY JOANNA E. WOOD. 




RETTY NANCE PATHERN lived with her 
two sisters in a tiny cottage just beyond the 
northern limit of a Scotch mining village. 
She was a tall, slight girl, with a firm-lipped 
mouth and soft Scotch eyes. She and her 
two sisttrs were stay makers ; they made a 
very comfortable living, for the farmers' 
wives and daughters were very particular 
over the " set " and fit of their " bodies." 
Nance was of a shy, reticent nature, and 
when the farmer of The Bloom asked her to marry him she kept htr 
own counsel, but said him " Yea," and went about, her firm lips 
softened into sweetness, her grey eyes tenderly thoi ghtful, her deft 
hands more skillful and tireless than ever in helping with the stay- 
making. 

Nance saw her lover very seldom, for he had a mother noted far 
and near for her masterful ways, and her desire to get her son a well- 
to-do-wife. But Nance was patient with the patience born of secret 
happiness. 

One spring night, when the sun was down and the soft Scotch gloam- 
ing brooded over the village Nance came walking through the street. 
Her steps were light, her color came and went. As she passed the 
women knitting or nursing their babies in the doorways, the men 
sitting in characteristic miner fashion, their knees drawn up, their 
backs against the cottage walls, she gave them the modest salutation 
of a country lass. More than one young man locked after her wist- 
fully, she was so fresh and fair skinned. That night she told her 
sisters of her lover, and they were glad in her joy. She had tcken 
home a pair of stays that day, and coming back she had encountered 
her lover. They had had a long talk whilst his horse cropped the 
grass and first blue-bells by the wayside. He was great in inches this 
lover of hers ; but even one poorly skilled in the reading of faces 
would have judged him sadly lacking in stability. But to Nance he 
seemed all perfection. 

"She's sore on me to take Weaver's Maggie," he said, speaking of 
tiis mother's ambitions for him, " but I have other thoughts." 



252 Ada Victoriana. 

Nance smiled shyly at him in blind security. Was not she his 
choice ? What more could mortal woman desire ? '1 hen he had told 
her something so much more important than anything else. At 
Martinmas his mother was going to live with his sister at Dolar. 

" And then, Nance," he said. " Then — ! ' 

" Then," she assented sweetly ; her soft eyes filled with happy tears, 
and her lips were tremulous as he pressed them. They parted. No word 
was said of their next meeting — so far chance had served them well. 

The summer came, but Nance had never seen her lover alone since 
that spring night. She was content in the fulness of her failh, though 
sometimes returning from her errands she felt a sore disappointment 
that chance had not been kind to her ; but she stayed her heart, saying 
to herself, "At Martinmas ! ' But JVIartmmas was as yet afar. 

One day when Nance was absent upon an errand her sisters, white- 
faced, discussed something which evidently they had often canvassed. 

"Is Nance much taken up with him ?" asked Bess in the tone of 
one who knows the answer to her query, but hopes against hcpe for 
contradiction. 

" Is she ! " echoed Mary, " I should think she was ! '' 

'"Deed I think she is," said Bess, answering her own proposition. 
" You must tell her, then ! " 

" Me ! Not for worlds ! " ejaculated Mary. 

" Maybe she'll have found it out to-day ? " hazaidcd Bess. 

" I doubt it," said Mary dubiously. 

"Why not ? Everybody knows it ! ' said Bess almost fretfully. 

" I've a feeling that she'll not hear it," said Mary ; then, with a 
vicious tightening of the lips, a vicious twist ot the stout stay she was 
making, "I wish I had the combing of his head!" And just then 
Nance entered, fresh, young, blooming, evidently unconscious of any 
impending change in her world. 

" Bess," said Mary, returning that same evening from an excursion 
down the village street, " Where's Nance ? " 

" Outside with Jeanie Campbell," said Mary. " What is 't ? " 

" It's not the day after to-morrow — it's to morrow ! " 

" God guide us ! She must be told ! " 

" I can't tell her. You do it ! '•' 

" I daren't ! " 

Nance reentered the little dwelling, the two elder sisters cast 
appealing looks one at the other, but the heart of each failed her ; 
and soon the lights were out and the three sisters sought sleep, but 
only Nance, found it. 



Ada Victoriana. 253 

It was ten o'clock next morning when ihe bells in the grey old 
tower rang out with what was their nearest approach to gaiet)'. 

" Who's married to day ? " queried Nance looking up from her sew- 
ing. " I didn't hear of a marriage." Hei sisters sat silent. " Don't 
you know ? " she went on. " But there's Jeanie Campbell. I'll ask 
her." She went to the door with her work gathered in her apron, 
and stood waiting whilst Jeanie filled her pails at the village hydrant. 
Nance Pathern remembered all her life how the street looked as she 
saw it that day. 

A tame starling stalked gravely in the middle of the road, two boys 
played marbles, themselves almost of a color with the dust in which 
they " knuckled down " ; far away she saw the ,tops of green trees, 
and a hawker's cart was disappearing up the hill. 

"Ay, Jeanie," called Nance, as her friend, laden with her water pails, 
came within hail, '• who's the bells for to day ? " 

"My certes ! " said Jeanie, "you're not up with the times ! Don't 
you know it's Weaver's Maggie gotten the farmer at The Bloom ? 
There's a dinner at her father's and a supper at The Bloom to-night." 
With the last words Jeanie disappeared sideways with her pails into 
the cottage which was her home. 

The bells rang on, the starling cocked its head from side to side, 
and aired its one accomplishment by crying, "Jock! Jock! Jock!" 
The boys came to blows over their marbles, the sun shone goldenly 
in at the door, but Nance still stood. Her sisters reached out and 
caught each other's hands. Minute after minute passed, audibly 
mourned by the old clock which had ticked away three generations 
of Patherns, yet Nance stood — shading her eyes with one hand, hold- 
ing her work with the other — her form casting a long black shadow 
on the sunshiny floor. Still the bells rang intermittently — then came 
silence. Her sisters watched her with dilated eyes. The bells had 
ceased. Xance turned from the sunshine and went to the little bed- 
room which she had occupied alone. Upon the threshold she paused, 
looked back, and said to her sisters : "That's his wedding bells ! I'll 
never cross this door till these same bells toll for his corpse." 

She passed in, closed the door upon her youth and kept her word. 

She lay down a young, strong woman ; lay there through long 
winters, sweet summers, budding springs and heathery autumns, deaf 
to all remonstrances, indifferent to all events save those chronicled by 
the bells, working at her trade with a skill never equalled by any stay- 
maker in the country, in her odd moments carving out a spinning- 
wheel with a horn-handled jack-knife. 



2 54- Ada J 'icUi ria ii a . 

"I have taken a vow upon my head before the Lord," she said to 
her sisters, and they dared not gainsay her. The minister got word 
of it, came to see her, and left discomfited. He came periodically 
before the fast days, year in and year out, to point out the error of 
her way ; when he died his successor took a like course, and he 
passed ; and another assumed his charge and performed the yearly 
visit to Nance Pathern's bedside. 

The ministers changed, the churchyard wall was rebuilt, the church 
reseated, but the bells remained unchanged ; and Nance kept her vow. 

Mary married. Bess was left alone with Nance. Their thrift and 
industry had earned them a competency. Mary's son was sweetheart 
length, and Bess was an old, old woman, though hale and strong, when 
one day there came across the village the tolling of death bells. Bess 
came up the street from the flesher's, her old face working. 

The farmer of The Bloom was dead, and was even then being laid 
in his grave. 

Bess entered the living room of the cottage ; framed in the lintels 
of her bedroom door stood Nance, looking out upon the world in 
greeting as she had looked forth upon it in farewell thirty years before. 

" I know ! ' she said, " / know I ! " 

" Who told you ? ' demanded Bess. 

" Nobody. I knew," replied Nance — and so it was. 

No mortal tongue had told her the tidings, for long she had known 
every secret of the bells, and she knew when they rang out her vow. 
Nance was a young woman when she lay down, an old one when she 
rose. During all that time no human eye had seen her save on her 
couch. Did she ever in quiet midnights steal to the window to watch 
the far-off glare of the blast furnaces against the sky? Did she ever 
softly swing her window wide to breathe the sweet spring savor of new 
leaves ? Did she ever stretch forth her hand that the rain might beat 
upon it, or gaze upon the mindful stars which shone above the bells, 
and cry " How long? How long?" No one knows. 

So she made her vow ; so she kept it ; so she rose and went upon 
her way. Upon her face there was ever a strange hushed look, as of 
one whose experiences had been arrested though her years went on ; or 
rather, perhaps, of one who had lived through such an experience that 
it erased the traces of all others from her face forever, as acid eats 
away the traceries on metal. 

In fulness of time Bess died ; Nance lived on alone. To such a 
woman the day held no dreariness, the night no dread ; sometimes, 
too, the bells rang out, and then she felt least of all alone. 



A eta Victoriana. 255 

UigUia Media 

ABOUT the middle silence of the night 
Out of the spaces something as a flame 
Through my cosed casement came. 
And filled my chamber with no earth.y light 
Of fire or flower or snow, 

But colored like the smoulder at the heart 
Of b ood-dark rubies cut with antique art. 
Throbbing and flushing till the morning glow. 

There passed a pale procession of the dead. 

Bearing down sunless and memorial ways 

Forsaken dreams and days, 
And many memories disinn rited. 
And obscure ghosts of gloom, 

In sacrificial silence, sombre-eyed ; 

And in the fervor of the flame they died, 
Leaving a phantasm of frail perfume. 

The giant vault above loomed inky-black. 

Where daring dreams that struggle and rebel 
Smite on its iron shell 

That gives but dull and deathlike echoes back, 

And one by one they die. 

But in its deep, inexorable grace 

The splendid symbol flamed b-fore my face, 

And asked no confirmation from the sky. 

It was not granted by the lords of fate ; 

But my own longing in that midway hour 

By some divine, strange power 
Had drawn her spirit through the Ivory Gate, 
Her dark-winged, subtle soul, 

That I shall never know by night or day. 

That dwells in mystic music far away, 
And called it through the dark to my control. 

The vision faded as the night grew less ; 

I saw upon the untransfigured skies 

A rainy dawn arise ; 
The city woke again to weariness. 
But all day long to me 

Life's discords sounded vague and strangely far. 

Like echoes of waste waves that wail and war 
Moon-whitened on some unimagined sea. 



uc.^^ jr /ii^c^ 




256 



Acta Victoriana. 



Sable Island and Its Inhabitants 



BY \V. F. SAUNDERS. 




HE majority of people who have any 
idea at all about Sable Island think 
of it as a desert sandbar, over which 
shaggy ponies glean a scanty sub- 
sistence from the tough native 
grasses, and on whose shores many 
lives have been sacrificed by ship- 
wreck during the past three hundred 
years. But I viewed it from an 
ornithological standpoint, and, as 
usual, the point of view made all 
the difference in the world. It had 
for several years been known to me 
as the only breeding ground in the 
world of the Ipswich sparrow, and, 
SD far as I knew, only one ornithol- 
ogist had enjoyed the privilege of 
seeing this bird at home. When an 
ornithologist has an opportunity of 
visiting a bird whose home is so little known, there is small wonder 
that he should forget all about the reputation of the island as a desert, 
and think only of the rare treasure it contains for him. Consequently 
I very gladly accepted the invitation to be one of a party that was to 
reach Sable Island on May i6th, 1901, and remain until the 23rd, to 
plant it with hardy evergreen trees in order that it might become a 
more conspicuous mark to storm-tossed mariners. 

The island lies about one hundred and fifty miles a little south east 
of Halifax, at the junction of the two ocean currents from Baffin's Bay 
and the Gulf of Mexico, which are constantly throwing up huge and 
dangerous sandbars, extending scores of miles into the ocean. It is 
in the form of an elongated crescent, with its concave side to the 
nonh, and is nearly twenty-five. miles long, and only about a mile wide 
in most places. Each end tapers down to a point, which is entirely 
devoid of vegetation, as the sea sweeps over it at every high tide, and 
with every stormy wind. All along the north side are bare cliffs of white 
sand_, varying from forty to nearly one hundred feet in height, broken 



Acta J'lctoriittia. 



257 



occasionally by gullies which the wind has made. In one of these we 
landed, and found near the west side of it a conical pyranaid of sand. 
Apparently the gulley had been made in two parts, and when the 
second one had been excavated this pyramid was left standing between 
the two, a perfect cone of about thirty or forty feet in height. This 
gives one a good idea of the power of Sable Island winds, which, 
according to the records, often reach a velocity of forty, sixty, and, at 
times, even eighty miles an hour. Often, we were told, they scoop 
out holes of considerable depth around the telephone poles and fence 
posts ; or, if in a building mood, they pile up the sand around the 
poles, so that once the line had to be moved to prevent the wires 




LANDING. 



from being buried. Some of the i)oles we saw had only about six feet 
left projecting out of an original height of twenty-five or thirty feet. 

Our first sight of the interior of the island at once dissipated the 
idea of its being a desert. From the hill-tops on the north the land 
sloped away southward in an undulating manner until it almost 
reached the level of the ocean, and while the higher hills were but 
thinly covered by a long creeping grass, there was a variety of plant 
growth on the lower ground which was as green as it would have 
been in any other part of the world, before the new spring shoots 
become conspicuous. The front yard of the house of the super- 
intendent of the island consisted of an acr^ or two of timothy 



258 



Acta Victorian a. 



and clover, which was as green as an Ontario field. From east to- 
west the island is of the same general character, except that, towards 
the east, there are many large patches of cranberry and crowberry, the 
former of which is gathered in q lantities for the market. 

The vegetation on Sable Island is strongly modified by the fierce 
winds, which blow the particles of sand with great force and in such 
quantity that there seems to be a stratum of mist just above the 
beach. The effect of this assault on soft-leaved plants can readily be 
guessed. The superintendent told us that his willow tree, which is 
planted in a fence corner and grows three feet above the fence each 
year, is killed back in the winter to the level of the protection, as the 




THE SUPERINTENDENTS HOUSE. 



exposed leaves turn black and die after these strong winds. Another 
result is seen in the dwarfed growth of all the plants of the island- 
The common juniper curls and twists its trunk around on the ground,, 
while the little branchlets grow more or less upright to the height of 
a foot or two. Even the blackberry creeps along the surface, and 
the blueberries, which are large and numerous, are quite frequently 
lifted completely free of the sand in which their mother plant is grow- 
ing, but very often the sand has to be blown or washed off before 
eating. The meadow rue, which had its first leaves unfolded at the 
time of our visit, showed no sign of any intention of leaving the eartb 
any farther beneath it than was absolutely necessary. 



Ada Victoriana. 



259 



Yet it would be unfair to condemn the vegetation of the island by 
its appearance at that period of the year, when the maximum day 
temperature had barely reached 60° ; for the residents told us that 
the grasses, golden-rods, etc., are "waist-high" in the late summer, 
and Prof. John Macoun is reported to have found over 190 species 
of flowering plants there. With all this variety present it will be 
readily understood that in the lower and more fertile parts of the 
interior the upper layer of soil has become turfy and black, and could 
doubtless be used to grow fine crops were it not for the reason that 
ii it were turned under and cultivated the wind would probably blow 
a great deal of it into the Atlantic during the succeeding winter. 




A PYRAMID. 



The temperature, while not high, is extremely stable. Our visit 
lasted seven days, during which time the thermometer varied only 21 
degrees, namely, from 38^ to 59°, the variation for each day being 
only about 12°, and the greatest daily variation we experienced was 
only 17"^, from 42'^ to 59°. Fogs are of almost daily occurrence, and, 
while we had the good fortune to have sunshine on three days of our 
seven, there was only one on which we did not have fog, and on 
some we had nothing else. There is a record of nine consecutive 
weeks of fog at about that time of the year, but we were told that 
later on in the summer, during August and September, the weather 



2 6o 



Acta Victoriana. 



is all that one could wish, and the bright, warm days are exceedingly 
enjoyable. 

More than forty persons have their constant residence on Sable 
Island, the men being employed in the work of the life-saving stations 
and the two lighthouses. Every morning and evening the ent re shore 
is inspected from end to end. In bright weather this inspection is 
made from the look-out by means of field glasses, but when a fog lies 
over the land the inspection is made on horseback ; so that no person 
could, when wrecked upon the island, remain undiscovered for more 
than about twelve hours. Immediately after the completion of each 




A GULLEY. 



inspection a telephone message is sent to t:.e main station, reporting 
the result. 

The superintendent, Mr. Robt J- Boutilier, has now been in ofifice 
for about seventeen years, during which time he has brought the life- 
saving work up to a high standard of excellence, and he is certainly 
entitled to the highest credit for the present efficient state, which is 
in marked contrast to the condition of affairs before his mcunitency. 
^'hen he went th re he had the landsman's dislike of drinking surface 
water, and, instead of settling down to use the rain water from the 
roof, he sank a well to some depth m order to get pure water. What 
was his surprise to ^ind that the fresh surface water was merely floating 



Acta Vict ori ana. 



261 



upon the salt water beneath, and no matter how deep the well was 
sunk only salt water was obtained. 

As the inhabitants are all government employees, there is no com- 
merce on the island. All supplies have to be brought from the 
mainland, and most of these are provided by the government, which 
sends a vessel twice a year to supply the needs. Sometimes these 
visits are postponed, as was the case in October, 1900, when it was 
found impossible to send supplies at allj and the boat which should 
have reached the island at that time landed its cargo, after two attempts, 
in the month of March. This delay caused a waste of one hundred 
barrels of cranberries, which had been picked for the market, and 
which are about the only agricultural export the island yields. 

( To be continued. ) 




THE LIGHTHOUSE. 



10 



262 



Ada Victoriana. 



Landmarks of 1857 

BY E. E. BALL, 'o6. 



V 



THE district between Toronto and Richmond Hill is par- 
ticularly rich in landmarks of that memorable struggle, 
which, though at the time unsuccessful and fraught with such 
disastrous consequences to the leaders of the revolt, has never- 
theless had a great and permanent influence upon the govern- 
ment of our country. The people living along this part of 
Yonge Street were almost entirely in sympathy with ]\Iackenzie's 
cause. Some of his most active supporters had their farms in 




GOLDEN LION HOTEL — LANSING. 

the vicinity of tTie present villages of Lansing and Willowdale, 
and here some of their children and grandchildren still reside. 
One of the earliest settlers in the neighborhood of Newtonbrook 
was Alexander Montgomery, and on this account the village 
was formerly called jMontgomeryville. His son, John, w^ho 
owned a tavern at Eglinton, acted a very prominent part in the 
rebellion. This tavern was a rendezvous for the patriots in 
1837, ^"<J became famous as the scene of the only serious 
skirmish of the revolt in the vicinity of Toronto. 



Acta Victoriana. 



263 



The building stood on the west side of Yonge Street, only a 
few feet south of where the hotel known as the Oulcott House 
now stands. It was a large, low, wooden structure, with a broad 
verandah in front ; and, if the .pictures of it which still exist are 
reliable, it must have been very similar to the buildings one may 
often see now used as hotels in little, old-fashioned, country 
villages. Smith Avenue, Eglinton, now runs west from Yonge 
Street, over the identical spot where the tavern stood, and the 
country in the immediate neighborhood, which was then chiefly 
covered with forest, has become a pretty residential suburb of 
Toronto. 




If 




THE CASTLE AT LANSING. 



Here .the insurgents assembled to prepare for their contem- 
plated attack on Toronto. Col. Lount, and the greater number of 
those intending to participate in the action, reached here on 
December 4th, 1837, but Mackenzie determined to wait until 
the following Thursday, as he expected reinforcements. His 
vacillating nature, however, induced him to make an expedition 
into the city on Tuesday night. This attack was repulsed by a 
small body of troops, and Mackenzie withdrew to Montgomery's. 
The insurgents remained here until Thursday, the day originally 
planned for the attack, when their designs were brought to a 
sudden termination. 

During this time the authorities had not been idle, and on 
Thursday morning, more than one thousand troops set out on 



264 



Acta Victoriand. 



the march for ]\Iontgomery's. Towards noon they came upon 
the rebels to the number of two hundred, stationed in the woods 
on either side of the road a short distance south of the hotel. 
The result is well known. The rebels were scattered, their 
leaders captured or forced to leave the country, and the rebellion 
was ended so far as Toronto was concerned. By order of the 
Governor, Sir Francis Bond Head, the tavern was set on fire, 
and as darkness came on its red glare announced to the people of 
Toronto the success of the Government forces. 

IMontSfomcrv did not live in the hotel himself at that time, but 




THE SHEPARD HOUSE BUILT IX l8l2. 



had rented it to a Mr. Linfoot, and was living on his farm about 
half a mile to the west. The house on this farm is still standing, 
having escaped the fiery vengeance which Sir Francis took upon 
others of his opponents. 

The tavern, known as the Golden Lion Inn, situated about 
three and a half miles north of Montgomery's, had been built 
some ten years before the rebellion, and in 1837 was occupied 
by the builder, a man named Sheppard. This man was no rela- 
tion to the Shepard family mentioned later, and but little is 
known of him except that he was an eccentric individual and 



Acta Vicioriana. 265 

was an expert wood-carver. The hotel still stands at Lansing, 
and a magnificent wooden representation of a Hon, which has 
done duty as a sign-board for three-quarters of a century, bears 
testimony to Mr. Sheppard's skill. 

A short distance to the west of the hotel is a peculiar struc- 
ture, known as the " Castle," which bears out the popular idea 
regarding the eccentricity of this man. He built the wails 
entirely of huge blocks of dried mud, and the barn near bv is 
constructed of the same material. The general form of the 
building reminds one of pictures he has seen of Chinese temples, 
and as it is now partly in ruins, it presents a very picturesque 
appearance. 

A little north of the '"' Castle " there still stands the frame 
house which, at the time of the rebellion, was occupied by I\Irs. 
Shepard and her three stalwart sons — Thomas, Michael, and 
Joseph. They were all staunch patriots, and thoroughly in 
sympathy with jNIackenzie and his cause. After the battle at 
Montgomery's Tavern ]\Iackenzie and the aged Col. Van 
Egmond took refuge here, but were not long left undisturbed by 
the Government forces. \\^hen the soldiers appeared, Mrs. 
Shepard managed to keep them engaged in conversation until 
Mackenzie escaped, but Van Egmond was too exhausted to get 
away, and was taken as a prisoner to Toronto, where he died a 
few days later. 

■Mackenzie hastened to the vicinity of Shepard's mill on the 
River Don, about a mile to the west of the Shepard house. Here 
he remained concealed in the branches of a huge elm tree for 
two days or more, while the soldiers were searching for him. 
At one time, indeed, they passed immediately under him without 
seeing him. While here he was supplied with food by Mrs. 
Shepard's youngest son, Joseph, who lived on the farm initil 
the time of his death in 1899. Of late years his tall stalwart 
figure, betraying the ravages of time onl\- by his snow-white 
hair and beard, was quite familiar around the village, and al- 
though he was too old to perform manual labor, his spirit had 
lost none of that fire that had characterized his youth. Shepard's 
mill was a frame structure, and was a rendezvous of the patriot 
leaders. The spot is still marked by a few decayed timbers and 
by the embankment and sluice of the old dam. Here the rebels 
stored their arms and ammunition and held their councils of war. 



266 



Acta Victoriana. 



After Mackenzie's escape Sir Francis Bond Head sent troops 
to set fire to Shepard's house, but although they applied the torch 
in a score of different places the flames were always extin- 
guished by the dauntless Mrs. Shepard, who followed the men 
with a pail of water. Although she succeeded in saving her 
house, this adventure had the eft'ect of lessening her ardor for 
Mackenzie considerably, as he discovered when he returned to 
the house after his forced sojourn in the tree. He found Mrs. 
Shepard busy in the kitchen, but although he stood at the door 
for some time she paid no attention to him. At last he said, 
"Don't you know me, ]Mrs. Shepard?"" "Know you," she 




PRESENT GIBSON RESIDENCE, WI LLOWDALE. 

retorted, " I know too much about you " ; and Mackenzie must 
have felt that his welcome there was worn out. 

The second farm north of that belonging to the Shepard's 
was, in 1837, owned and occupied by the patriot, David Gibson. 
He was a pronounced Reformer, and his house was a rendezvous 
for party caucuses. The historian, John Charles Dent, in his 
" Story of the Upper Canadian Rebelion," says of ]Mr. Gibson : 
" He was an honorable and high-minded man. much esteemed 
by his neighbors, and in high favor with his party." 

At the beginning of active hostilities Mr. Gibson first learned 
of the meditated attack on Toronto from a message sent to him 
by Dr, Rolph for transmission to Mackenzie. Not knowing 



Acta Victoriana. 267 

where Mackenzie was at that time, he forwarded the message 
to Col. Lount at Holland Landing, and hastened himself to 
Shepard's mill. There he found a number of patriots busy cast- 
ing bullets in preparation for the attack. At Montgomery's 
Tavern he was placed in charge of some fifty or sixty prisoners 
that had been taken by the insurgents and so was not directly 
engaged in the skirmish. As soon as the fight was over he 
allowed the prisoners to escape and then made the best of his 
way to the home of a friend near Oshawa. He remained con- 
cealed there for a few days and then escaped across the lake 
in a small boat. 

But although he had escaped with his life, he was not so 
fortunate with regard to his property. At the same time that 
the attempt was made to burn Shepard's house, the Government 
forces succeeded in burning down Mr. Gibson's house and barn 
and in capturing a large quantity of provisions. Mrs. Gibson, 
with four small children, was forced to take refuge in the 
Willowdale parsonage near by, a building which is. still standing 
and still used for the same purpose. j\Ir. Peter S. Gibson, son 
of David Gibson, and the present owner and occupant of the 
farm, who was then a small child, is very fond of relating how 
his mother, being unable to climb the parsonage fence with him 
in her arms, threw him over into a soft snowbank, and then 
got over herself. 

She remained here for a short time and then went to join 
her husband at Lockport, N.Y., where they resided for some 
years. In 1843 the exiles were pardoned and Mr. Gibson 
returned to his farm at Willowdale. His son, as we have noted, 
is now in possession of this farm, and occupies a handsome 
brick residence on the exact site of the one that was burned. 
Mr. Gibson died in 1864, and a white marble monument in the 
south-west corner of the Willowdale churchyard marks his last 
resting place. 

Just north of the Willowdale Church stands a frame cottage 
which in 1837 was occupied by a Mr. Poole, also a staunch 
Reformer. He allowed Mackenzie to place his printing press 
in this house, but only one issue of the paper was printed here. 
When the Government offered amnesty to the rebels who would 
give themselves up, Poole surrendered, but was imprisoned. He 
escaped, however, and went to the United States. When he 



268 



Acta Victoriana. 



uas gone, for fear that Mrs. Poole should get into trouble 
through having the press in her possession, her brother, Wx. 
Johnson, who lived directly across the road, put the machine 
in an old well, from which it has never been recovered. The 
Johnson farm is now occupied by Mr. Johnson's son, whose wife 
is a daughter of the Joseph Shepard mentioned above. Quite 
recently some of the type belonging to ^Mackenzie's press has 
been found in their house and they have a butcher-knife made 
from a piece of his sword. Another portion of this weapon was 
recently rescued by them from its perilous position as brush- 
wiper in a whitewash pail. 




OLD POOLE RESIDENCE. 



At the north end of the village of Richmond Hill there is a 
frame house, a\ hich was formerly the residence of the loyalist, 
Col. Moodie. He noticed the patriot vounteers passing down 
Yonge Street about the ist of December, 1837, ^'i'^ ^^'^s not 
long in guessing the cause of their movement. He set out at 
midnight on the. 4th with a small party of loyalists to interview 
the Governor personally. As they journeyed down Yonge Street 
in the darkness they were stopped by a guard placed across the 
road about two hundred yards north of 3iIontgomery's. They 
broke through these only to encounter a second line immediately 
in front of the hotel. These they also broke through, but the 
insurgents in the hotel were aroused by this time, an<l when they 



Acta Victoriana. 269 

came to the third guard, about two hundred yards further south, 
the opposition had become quite formidable. ^loodie and his 
companion, Stewart, tried to force a passage, but Moodie w-as 
shot, and Stewart was captured. The colonel was carried into 
the tavern, where he lived only a short time. His grave is at the 
north-west corner of the English Church at Richmond Hill, and 
is covered by a single flat stone, from W'hich the inscription is 
almost effaced. It is a peculiar example of the irony of fate that 
this man, who had passed safely through the Peninsula \\"ar in 
Spain and the War of 1812 in America, should at last end his 
career in a paltry uprising in the forests of Upper Canada. 

A strong element of pathos lingers abovit the story of Col. 
Lount and his friend, Capt. Matthews. The latter took refuge 
in the Duncan house, near Newtonbrook, but in the night, as 
he slept, overcome with the troubles and fatigues he had passed 
through, the foe stole upon him. Before he was roused from 
his slumber the bayonet of a soldier was pointed at his breast, 
and he awoke to find himself a prisoner. In anger he seized 
the man who stood over him, and with his mighty strength 
hurled him across the room, but he was soon overpowered by 
numbers and taken as a prisoner to Toronto. The rest of the 
story is well known. On the 12th of April. 1838, Matthews and 
Lount died as martyrs to a cause in which they conscientiously 
believed, and for which thev bravelv fought. 

Their bodies lie in one grave in the Necropolis Cemetery, 
Toronto, where for many years a simple white stone inscribed — 

Samuel Lount, 

Peter Matthews, 

1838. 

recalled to the passer-by the story of their tragic end. In 1893, 
however, a magnificent monument was " erected by their friends 
and sympathizers " beside the little tombstone. This bears, to- 
gether with their names and date of death, a short sketch of 
the life of each, and forms a fitting tribute to the memory of these 
brave men. 



'.JO 



A eta Victoriana. 



Little Wild Breeze 

BV ANXIE CAMPBELL HUESTIS. 

O LITTLE wild breeze, wait for me, wait for me, 
Catch me up, toss me up, fling me up high ! 
The tree boughs, they sway about, drearily, wearily. 
But never a one is so weary as L 

Strange little wild breeze, here you are, there you are. 

Your voice it is sweet and your arms they are strong. 
I call to you, come to me, lift me up, bear me far, 

No fear shall I feel as you whirl me along. 

Little wild breeze, when you sing to me, sing to me 
( How many a mortal your voice has beguiled !), 

I tremble and burn with the thoughts that you bring to me. 
Thoughts that are restless and wistful and wild. 

O little breeze, is it wrong of me, wrong of me? 

I know I have life, and to earth I belong. 
But the spirit of change and unrest it is strong in me, 

And I hear all my wishing cried out in your song. 

Little wild breeze, won't you wait for me, wait for me? 

I have never a wish for a heart or a soul. 
But it's O to be you, flying airily, merrily, 

High, high, where the thunder clouds mutter and roll, 

Or far where your voice waileth bitterly, bitterly, 
. O'er plains which no human foot ever hath trod. 
And out in the stillness where space is supposed to be, 
And voice never comes, save the strange voice of God. 

Halifax, Canada. 




o 




Acta Vidoriana. 



271 



Book Reviews 

The Prisoner of Mademoiselle. A Love Story, by Charles G. 1). 
Roberts. Toronto: The Copp Clark Co. 1904. 265 pp. 

ROBERTS knows Acadie and its history thoroughly, and makes it 
the scene of his latest novel. We are introduced to the 
"Bastonnais," Lieut. Zachary Cowles, who had left his ship, God's 
Providence, in search of adventure in the Bay of Fundy, and who, 
because of the turn of the tide and the dense fog, found himself alone 




CHARLES G. D. ROBERTS. 

in the enemy's country. He is cleverly trapped by Mademoiselle de 
Biencourt, the niece of the gouty governor, and surrenders his sword 
to her. There follows a rush of hairbreadth escapes from discovery 
and hanging, of rescue from a hated marriage to Monsieur de Viron, 
arranged for Mademoiselle by her uncle, and an equally rapid course 
of love at first sight between the Mademoiselle and her prisoner, in 
which she is abetted by the kindly old priest, Father Labillois, with 



2/2 Acta Victorimta. 

the maid, Lisette, and her lover, Gil Beaudy, as most efficient aides-de- 
camp. Of course, the lovers triumph, but do so only by running 
away in the night under the guidance of Gil, who is the hunter of all 
Acadie most skilled in woodcraft. In all, it is a very pleasant story, 
told in beautiful language, and will help while away an evening very 
agreeably by the grate-fire ; but of modern life or of character-drawing 
there is nothing. 

The Watchers of the Trails. A Book of Animal Life. By Charles 
G. D. Roberts. Toronto: The Copp Clark Co. 1904. 361 pp. 

This collection of stories is a fine companion volume to " The 
Kindred of the Wild," and is distinguished by the same sanity and 
reserve, by the same painstaking observation of the habits and actions 
of the wild, and the same great love for field and wood, as we find in 
all of Roberts' work in this particular field. Simply, beautifully, and 
directly told, they appeal strongly to all real lovers of animal life, and 
will be a very valuable addition to this kind of literature. Roberts is 
a poet who at times givcs us good work, and writes a fairly interesting 
novel, but he is decidedly at his best in the modern animal story, of 
which he is one of the truest and best writers. In this collection the 
best stories, to my mind, are " The Freedom of the Black-faced 
Ram," "The Alien of the Wild," "The Rivals of Ringwaak," and 
"The Passing of the Black Whelps." The witchery and uncanniness 
of the forest at night is splendidly brought out in "The Laugh in the 
Dark." 

Steps of Hoitor. By Basil King. Boston : H. B. Turner tS: Co. 
1904. 286 pp. 

This is a story of Harvard University circles and contains some 
very striking likenesses. Anthony Muir, Assistant-Professor of Eng- 
lish, the betrothed husband of the perfect New England girl, Agatha 
Royal, is making a name as a lecturer, and fame as the author of the 
fast selling book, " Conscience and Society." His rival, Paul Dunster, 
has found out that this work has plagiarised one of 183 1 by an old 
Scotch Professor Love, a friend of Muir's father. So has Christopher 
Campbell Love, grandson of the old man, and Professor of Greek in 
the University of Detroit. Muir denies all knowledge of the older 
book and will not answer the charges of plagiarism published in The 
National, Boston's literary paper. He has even gone so far as to give 
" his sacred word of honor " to Agatha that he knows nothing of it. 
Because of his reticence, he finds his friends all turning their backs 



Acfa Victoriana. 273 

upon him. Johnny Charterhouse, a poor student who has been 
guilty of the embezzlement of some $2,000, is put under Muii's 
guidance, and it is while setting this boy on the right track that Muir 
himself is brought to a conscioui^ness of his own guilt. He confesses 
to Agatha in the house of his older friend, Professor Wollaston, the 
guardian of Agatha. The only one who does not openly desert him 
is Persis Wollaston. Aluir takes refuge in Roxbury, in the house of 
Mrs. Brooks, whither Charterhouse has also retired, and begins to 
make expiation by devoting his great gifts as teacher to Charterhouse, 
now a clerk in a business house in Boston, and the many other ambi- 
tious, but poor and handicapped, students. He is loyally aided by 
Persis Wollaston and secretly by her uncle, Professor Wollaston. His 
students succeed, and he himself is getting remunerative work to do. 
While the winter thus passes for him, bringing gray hairs and ill- 
health, the Busy Bees of Harvard Society are trying to bring about a 
match between Dunster and Agatha. But Paul and Persis become 
engaged, and poor Agatha is left alone in her misery. Charterhouse 
comes to her for help and becomes the medium of a meeting between 
her and Muir. She finally determines to go down the steps of honor, 
as a true woman, to help Muir up again, but he will none of it. 
However, she is not to be denied when Muir falls very ill, — and the 
end is the union of the two lovers. 

The story is well told, the character-drawing clever, and the quiet 
humor of the descriptions of the foibles of professors and professors' 
wives, and of the Busy Bees, is delightful. What a fine old splutterer 
Professor Wollaston is, and yet what an immense amount of sage 
wisdom is to be found in his speeches ! 

Basil King is Canadian born and educated, though he has lived for 
a number of years in Boston and Cambridge. He makes one more 
good writer to our credit, and should not be overlooked. We shall 
look forward to his next with pleasant anticipation. 

Gabriel Fraed's Castle. By Alice Jones. Boston : H. B. Turner & 
Co. 1904. 380 pp. 

Miss Jones, the daughter of Lieut. -Governor Jones, of Halifax, is 
the Author of "The Night-Hawk " and "Bubbles We Buy." which 
latter book I reviewed in the Acta for June, 1904. The promise of 
that work is fully lived up to in her latest novel, and she now takes a 
front rank in the rapidly increasing list of talented Canadian authors. 
The scene of this story is Paris and Brittany. Gabriel Praed, a 
British Columbia multi millionaire has gone to Paris with his "divine" 



274 



Acta Victoriana, 



daughter, Julia, and has there fallen among thieves. Madame 
Mallock, Britski, a dealer in paintings and antiquities and a 
thoroughpaced rascal, and his wife, Madame Marcelle, a fashionable 
dressmaker, and others, take advantage of the ignorant monied man 
to palm off upon him antiquities — old, but mostly new — and they are 
ably seconded by Virginie Lapierre, a model from the Latin quarter. 
The good angel of the story is Alexander Garvie, a successful artist, 
who, by Herculean efforts, unmasks all the rogues, and saves Praed 
from a most fatal step. His reward was Julia, upon whom Praed 
settles the castle (chateau) in Brittany. The happiness of Rupert 
Thorpe, an unsuccessful artist friend of Garvie's, and of the brave 
Sylvia Dorr is also made complete by Garvie's efforts. 

While we read of so much fraud and deceit we are conscious of the 
truth of the story, and owe our thanks to the clever writer. She is 
one of our best. 

Brave Hearts. By W. A. Fr.aser. 
Toronto: Morang & Co. 1904. 

307 pp. $1.50. 

The title of this book is the plural- 
ized form of the equine hero of the 
first story. Most of the stories are 
from East Indian racecourses, one 
from Saratoga, one from Toronto, and 
one, " The Remittance Man," from 
our North-West. In my review, some 
years ago, of " The Eye of a God," 
I said that Eraser should stick to 
just such stories, for here he is a 
master of no mean order. This col- 
lection will further enhance his fame 

in this direction. However, his horses must not talk, but let their 
owners do that for them. 

T}ie Mianac ; or. The Ribboned Way. By S. C.'\RLET0N. New York : 
Henry Holt & Co. 1904. 234 pp. 
"S. Carleton" is the sister-in law of Alice Jones, and, if I mistake 
not, the sister of Mrs. Pasque, who as " Helen Milecete " takes her 
name from the other great tribe of Nova Scotia Indians. " The 
Micmac " is the enlargement of a story that appeared in Ainslies 
Magazine, and the scene is Nova Scotia. Billy Moulton is camping 
for the summer on Little Lake Team. Four miles away, across an all 




W. A. FRASER, 



Acta Vidoriana, 275 

but impassable swamp, is Big Lake Team, on which are summering 
James Kilgore, a wealthy American lumberman, and his daughter 
Molly, whom he is anxious to have " break into society." He, there- 
fore, looks with favor upon Lygon's suit for Molly's hand, and she, to 
escape the hateful suiter, explores the swamp, and blazes her way with 
red ribbons. In doing this she stumbles upon Moulton's camp, and 
saves him from death in the treacherous swamp. Mrs. Marescaux, 
also a guest at Kilgore's, hears of the death of Moulton's friend, Lane, 
and, for reasons which the story sets forth, is anxious to get possession 
of a bundle of letters consigned to Moulton's care. She asks Molly 
to get them for her, and the girl undertakes the dangerous journey. 
Lygon has followed her and taken away the ribbons, so that Molly on 
her return loses her way, and is only saved by the heroic efforts cf 
Moulton. The result one can guess. Mrs. Marescaux gives up her 
slight claim on Moulton, and solaces herself with the wealthy 
lumberman. 

The story is uneven but is very interesting, and we are glad to add 
"S. Carleton " to our list of Canadian authors. 

The Hound from the JSorth. By Ridgwell Cullum. Toronto: 
The Copp Clark Co. 1904. 344 pp. 

This book, by the author of "The Story of Foss River Ranch," is 
like its predecessor in having its scene laid in Canada, and also like 
its predecessor in being a travesty and a slander on our country and 
our Western life. Sensational stories they are both, reeking with 
fraud, and deceit, and blood, having few redeeming features of out. 
line and little probability of truth in the sketching of character. This 
second book is more sensational and thinner in plot than the first. 
What is dignified by the name of hound is but a revengeful husky, 
which becomes the instrument in the hands of fate to carry off the 
big criminal. Heavy Mailing, alias Zachary Smith, who stops not at 
bloodshed to accomplish his nefarious designs. We are not let into 
the secret of how such a rascal can be own brother to the sweet 
heroine of the story. We are hurried from the Yukon to Manitoba, 
to Toronto, to California, at a moment's notice. Such books do a 
great deal of good if they are not read. Trash they are of the most 
wretched kind. 

Dr. Luke of The Labrador. By Norman Duncan. Toronto : 
Fleming H. Revell. 1904. 327 pp. 

Those who have read " The Way of the Sea " know how familiar 
Duncan is with the fisher folk of Labrador and Newfoundland, and 
know, too, how narrow the horizon, how circumscribed the outlook, 



2^6 



Acta Victoriana. 



how leaden the skies, how hard the life to be found there ; and yet 
there the flowers bloom, though sparse ; and no matter how merciless 
the sea, love and hate, tragedy and comedy are to be found. " And 
the glory of the coast — and the glory of the whole world — is mother- 
love, which began in the beginning and has continued unchanged to 
this present time — the conspicuous beauty of the fabric of life ; the 
great constant of the problem." These words from the preface of 
Duncan's latest book are the keynote of his first novel. 'Twas 
love that bound Davy Roth and his mother so strongly together ; 




NORMAN DUNCAN. 

love that caused Dr. Luke to live a grand life in The Labrador in 
expiation of his former wickedness ; love that united Bessie Roth to 
him, and love for the people of the Harbour that made the lad Davy, 
later the " Dr. Davy," beloved. 

As a novel, pure and simple, judged from the standpoint of tech- 
nique, this work cannot compare with a great number of other works 
of the same kind, but as a picture of the life of a small people it is a 
work of the highest art, running all the notes in the gamut of the 
circumscribed life found there. 



Ada Victoriana. 



277 



By the Queen's Grace. By Virna Sheard. Toronto : Wm. Briggs. 
1904. 274 pp. 

This is Mrs. Sheard's longest story, set in the same times as her 
dainty little " Maid of Many Moods." Davenport, an arch-criminal, 
was justly condemned to death for his many crimes, but was pardoned 
"by the Queen's Grace " on the accession of the young Queen Eliza- 
beth, and made toll-keeper. His very pretty daughter^ Joyce, had 
received from the Queen a thumb-ring, with the admonition to present 




MRS. VIRNA SHEARD, 



herself at the palace if in distress. Davenport was an illegitimate son 
of Lord Richard Caverden, and finally meets his death when attempt- 
ing to rob the palace, but before he dies he is pardoned and knighted 
by the Queen. Joyce, to escape an odious marriage, had recourse to 
the Queen and is made lady-in waiting. Before this, however, she 
had attempted to drown herself in the Thames because of unhappy 
love for Lord Yelverton, who had first attracted her attention 
as a juggler. He had received a large fortune on the death of one 
11 



■■^I 



2/8 Ac^a Victoriana. 

Fraser, on condition that he should marry Fraser's ward, which he 
does. However, death frees him of his unsuitable wife, after which 
he woos and wins Joyce, and the two " live happy ever after." The 
story is slight but well told. Indeed it is very much on a par with 
the latest novels of Sir Gilbert Parker and C G. D. Roberts. 

A Chicago Princess. By Robert Barr. New York : Fred. A. 
Stokes Co. 1904. 306 pp. 
Robert Barr writes frankly to entertain, and succeeds always by the 
aid of some astounding adventures. " The Chicago Princess " is Ger- 
trude Hemster, the daughter of a wealthy Chicagoan, Silas K. 
Hemster. They have an immense yacht, in which they are sailing 
Eastern seas, and reach Nagasaki in Jap in. Here Rupert Trem.orne 
comes aboard. He had been in diplomatic service, resigned because 

he had fallen heir to a large fortune, out 
of which he was swindled by John C. 
Cammerford, and was looking for a posi- 
tion in consequence. He became private 
secretary to Hemster, and was able to 
* '/ help the spoiled daughter in her "king- 

quest " by introducing her to the Corean 
Court. The Corean King aimed to make 
her the " White Star " of his harem, and to 
do so had the yacht attacked by an old 
hulk, with the purpose of sinking it and 
saving Miss Hemster from the wreck. 
The timely aid of a passing tug prevented 

ROBERT BARR. , . ^^ , ^ \l- 

this. However, the Corean Kmg soon 
hid enough of the "White Star's" temper, and was glad to be rid of 
he-. Cammerford, in the meantime, had been trying to get Hemster 
into a trust he had projected, but Hemster laid down the condition 
that he should refund to Tremorne what he had swindled him out of. 
Then Tremorne was enabled to marry Hilda Stretton, Miss Hemster's 
companion, the daughter of an old friend of the Hemsters, who had 
been a poor Episcopalian clergyman. The story is like so many of 
Barr's, very thin, but well told and very entertaining for the time. 

A Ladder of Swords. By Gilbert Parker. Toronto : The Copp 
Clark Co. 1904% 291 pp. 

This last work of Gilbert Parker is an enlargement of a story in 
Harpers' s Magazine some four years ago, called " Angele and Michel." 
\Phe happiness attairied by the two lovers in the troublous times of 




Acta Vidoriana. 



279 



Queen Elizabeth was in truth by a ladder of szvords, and in this 
extended form it does seem a pity that the last chapter should tell 
of such a brief compensation for such 
weary waiting and watching. The second- 
ary figures — the Fool, Lampriere, Seigneur 
de Rozel and the pirate, Buonespoir — 
are cleverly sketched, and " the Duke's 
daughter," a mysterious personage, new to 
the story, serves to carry the added interest. 
It goes without saying that the story runs 
well, but it is without that absorbing life- 
interest which is found on every page of 
"The Right of Way." I had hoped that 
Parker's late work would maintain the level 
of that, by far his best work, and I am sorry 
to see him wasting his time with these so- 
called historical romances. He ought to 
give us better work. 




GILBERT PARKER. 



How Hartman Won. A Story of Old Ontario. By Eric Bohn. 
Toronto : Morang & Co. 1903. 269 pp. 

The village of Linbrook, the River Powan, the pine forests of 
Muskoka and North Dakota, furnish the scenery of this wholesome 
Canadian story by a doctor for that he must be from his clean cut 
descriptions of surgery and fever cases. Robert Thornton and his 
bosom friend. Dr. Hartman, are both in love with the fine little 
school teacher, Winifred Finlayson, and while Thornton is away in 
Dakota and in Muskoka trying to retrieve the shattered fortunes of 
his family — partly due to a miserable Uriah Heap, Pettigrew — Hartman 
keeps faith with him and never allowed himself to take advantage of 
his absence to push his own advantage with Winifred. And he 
had plenty of opportunities during the long and severe illness of her 
mother, who alone knew how hard a battle Thornton was waging with 
himself. He won the fight, was groomsman at the wedding, and 
then went off to Europe to prepare for his first year as college profes- 
sor — a fine character. The author is to be congratulated heartily on 
his clean, wholesome story, a success for a first. 

Songs of the West. By Marion E. Moodie. 

Rhyme Thoicghts for a Canadian Year. By Annie L. Jack. 

4 Song^ of f)ec€mber, and Other Poems, By H. Isabel Graham. 



28o 



Ada Victoriana. 



Between the Lights. By Isabel Ecclestone Mackay. 
Poems. By James A. Tucker. 

These three booklets and two small books are published by the 
good fairy of many a budding Canadian singer, Wm. Briggs. The 
first and second show some graceful and slight work. In the third 
there is some stronger work, especially are the Scotch pieces, " Love 
Lightens the Creel," "There's a Something," quite promising. " Be- 
tween the Lights " has some graceful lyrics, such as " Dream," " A 




JAMES A. TUCKER. 

Woodland Streamlet," ''A Sea Song," "Pansies," " Love and Loss,' 
and the children's poem, " Compensations." Here is the concluding 
verse of " Love is like a Rose " : 

" Love is like a rose, 
Tend'rest flower that blows, — 
Waking with the morning sun, 
Fading ere the day is done, — 
Love is like a rose." 



Acta Victoriana. 281 

Graceful, musical lyrics many, of them in the sixty-five pages. It was 
to the last-named volume, " Poems," by James A. Tucker, that I 
turned with greatest interest, for I had known him slightly as a 
student at Toronto University, when he was editor of Varsity, 
Afterwards he was rusticated for conflict with the authorities, and 
finished his course at Leland Stanford. True Canadian, he returned 
to take up journalistic work, and at the time of his death Was assistant 
editor oi Saturday Night. He was "agin' the Government," so to 
speak, but no one who knows of his last game fight with disease and 
death, can fail to find the heroic in his make-up. These poems are 
edited by his literary executors, J. T. Clarke and R. Butchart, and 
prefaced by a memoir from the pen of Arthur Stringer. From the 
manuscript work he left these poems have been selected, and they 
show work of high quality and great promise. It was a pity to have 
to part with such a man of thirty-one years. The shorter poems are 
real gems. For instance, " Shower and Song " : 

The summer showers are falling 

Out on the furrow'd main ; 
But ocean's fields are barren, — 

The showers fall in vain. 

A dreamer's songs fell fruitless. 

The world brought forth no grain ; 
It was the field was barren, 

The songs were potent rain. 

From these reviews it will be seen that the Canadian novelist is 
becoming an important person in our literature, but that poetry^for 
the most part has fallen on evil days, as it has the world over. Miss 
Jones, Arthur Stringer, Basil King, and Miss Dougal, are in our 
front rank along with Fraser, Barr, Roberts, and Gilbert Parker. We 
cannot afford to be ignorant of these writers, and our Canadian 
librarians will do well to take note of them. Several books by Carman, 
Seton and others must needs be reserved for notice later. 




282 Acta Vic to ria na. 

Victoria College Library Publications 

BY A. E. LAXG, M..\. 

THE library of Mctoria College has made a good beginning 
in a special field with the publication of two valuable 
contributions to the study of Canadian literature. The 
first number, entitled, " A Bibliography of Canadian Poetry," by 
C. C. James, ]M.A., was issued a few years ago, and was imme- 
diately recognized as the only comprehensive work of the kind 
in existence. To this has now been added a second volume, en- 
titled, " A Bibliography of Canadian Fiction," by Professor 
L. E. Horning, of \'ictoria College, and Vlx. Lawrence J. Burpee, 
of the Department of Justice at Ottawa. It forms a handsome 
octavo of 82 pages, and follows the lines that were adopted in 
the earlier work. It represents a vast amount of patient research 
and arduous labor, how arduous is best known to the authors 
themselves. It covers the whole field of English-Canadian 
fiction, from the appearance of the first volume printed in Upper 
Canada in 1824 to the present day. The authors are to be con- 
gratulated on the completeness and general accuracy of the in- 
formation they have given us. 

That there is room for works of this kind, and that they are 
appreciated at their proper value by competent judges, is shown 
by the flattering words that have reached the library, both through 
personal communication and through the press. A large public 
library in the United States, to which a copy of the second 
number was recently sent in the ordinary course of exchange, 
immediately ordered three more for use in its branches. Besides 
having a great practical utility to students of the present day, 
such works are of inestimable value to the future historian, and 
form an important document of our intellectual development and 
progress. 

The Library Committee, which is responsible for the project, 
has several other bibliographies in contemplation. There is in 
the college library a great body of Canadian Methodist litera- 
ture, some of it of great historical value, which could probably 
not be duplicated anywhere. A descriptive catalogue is urgjently 
needed to make it accessible. It is to be hoped that the committee 
will receive sufficient encouragement to go on with the work. 



V- O -r ^ 



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Vol. 
XXVIII. 



c/lda ^idoriana* 



No. 



J8bitorial6 

" O blessed day which giv'st the eternal lie 
To self, and sense, and all the brute within ; 
Oh ! come to us amid this war of life ; 
To hall and hovel come I to all who toil 
In senate, shop, or study ! and to those 
111 warned and sorely tempted — 
Come to them, blest and blessing, Christmas Day ! 
Tell them once more the tale of Bethlehem, 
The kneeling shepherds, and the Babe divine ; 
And keep them men indeed, fair Christmas Day ! " 



HAT prayer by Charles Kingsley touches 
a responsive chord in every earnest heart. 
For men are becoming increasingly conscious 
that they receive the power which enables 
become "men indeed" only as they "kneel at the 
manger-cradle where a little Babe reveals the philanthropy 
of God." There, touched by an unseen Power, the eyes are opened 
to perceive the Divine, and hence true, idea of life. Having caught 
the spirit of the child they go in-to the busy world with a new spiritual 
vision, and with a new, living inspiration. Henceforth they will give 
their lives to patient, loving ministries of blessing and deliverance to 
all the sorrowing and oppressed sons of men, in the name and for 
the sake of the holy child Jesus. 

This renewal of the childhood of the heart-life attunes the ear 
to hear the strains of the angelic anthem — 

" Fear not, for behold I bring you glad tidings of great joy, 
For unto you is born a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord," 

and loosens the tongue to join the swelling chorus — 

" Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, goodwill toward men." 

This, surely, is the true Christmas spirit — this the spirit we covet for 




2^4 Acta Victoria7ia. 

all our readers, that they may indeed have a Merry Christmas and 
a Happy New Year. 

7X^E could scarcely find a better illustration of this spirit than that 
^^ afforded by the late Principal Caven. His greatness — for he 
was a truly great man — was the greatness which coniis from superior 
natural ability sanctified by the religion of Jesus Christ. In remark- 
able humility he lived the strenuous life. Like his Master, " he went 
about doing good." The interests of the kingdom of God were of 
paramount importance to him. To its advancement all other things 
were made subservient. Hence he could not be bound by the narrow 
confines of any church or creed, but was broad enough to sympathize 
intelligently with every labor of love and every effort to establish 
righteousness in the earth. He sought to raise the ideals of the people, 
and that not by precept only, but by a life, simple, unselfish and true 
to all that was highest and best. He was " an IsraeHte indeed in whom 
was no guile." His memory will long serve as an inspiration to many 
to place " first things first," and to seek their self-realization in the 
only possible way — the way pointed out to us by the Great Exemplar 
— the way of the Cross. 

J- 
^^HE poem on "November" published in our last issue should 
Vr have been attributed to Mrs. Ecclestone Mackay, instead of to 
Miss H. Isabel Graham. We regret the oversight and gladly make 
the correction. 

TN presenting our Christmas issue to our friends we d.esire to express 
•I* our deep gratitude to all who have so kindly contributed to our 
columns. Indeed, the response to requests for articles has been so 
hearty that we are forced to leave over for later issues, contributions 
by Dr. A. C Courtice, Principal Hutton, Professor Coleman, Mr. David 
Boyle, Mrs. Jean Blewett, Rev. Wm. Elliott, Rev. R. W. Wright, Miss 
A. A. Will, Miss E. A. MacLean, and Miss A. F. MacCollum. This 
announcement will ensure good things to come. 

For the use of the four plates of Schiller, Goethe and their houses 
used in the article, " Schiller in Weimar," we are indebted to the 
Germania Press, Hamilton, N.Y., publishers of Moore's " History of 
German Literature." 

The efforts of our friends at the Book Room also deserve mention, 
for they have very materially assisted us in making the number 
attractive, and in presenting it at an early date. VV^e thank you 
one and all. 



Acta Vidoriana. 



285 





EXCHANGES 



Jin Academic Jubilee 

VICTORIA is to be congratulated upon the unique fact that the 
class now entering upon its fiftieth year of academic standing 
is still unbroken. Very rarely, we imagine, does it happen in 
the history of academic institutions that half a century goes by and 
leaves all the members of a graduation class hale and vigorous, as are 
those who graduated from Victoria's halls in '55. It would be worth 
while recording such a fact in any case, but the personnel of the class 
is such as to lend it additional interest, for they are, each and all, men 
of more than ordinary ability, and have, in the fifty years that have 
elapsed since their college days, each in his own sphere, made their 
mark upon their times and exerted a real influence upon the affairs 
of the country which they have seen make such Avonderful progress. 
These veterans of '55 are four in number, and include Dr. M. H. 
Aikins, of Burnhamthorpe, for many years connected with the Toronto 
Medical School, and a physician of more than local reputation ; 
Senator William Kerr, eminent alike in legal and political circles ; 
Dr. E. B. Ryckman, one of the most prominent ministers of the 
Methodist Church ; and Dr. Albert Carman, who has, ever since the 
union of the Methodist bodies, held the office of General Superinten- 
dent of the Church. The class of '55 was just twice the size of that of 
the previous year, which consisted of Reuben Hickey, now dead, and 
William Watten Dean, now the honored judge of Victoria County, 
who enjoys the distinction of being Victoria's oldest living graduate. 
These members of the classes of '54 and '55 have always been apostles 
of the strenuous life, and have, by their examples, disproven the theory 
that the college-bred man is not fitted for leadership. Now, though 
they are all in the neighborhood of three-score years and ten, and 
have for fifty years been fighting in the forefront, they show no desire 
to lay down the weapons of their warfare, and are still engaged in 
active work. To all of them Acta tenders its heartiest congratulations 
upon their long, useful and honorable lives, and expresses the hope 



286 



Acta Victoriana. 



that they may each Hve to celebrate many more anniversaries of their 
graduation. May they have, as Oliver Wendell Holmes wished his 
class-mates : 



" All earth can give that earth has best, 

And heaven at four-score years and twenty." 

MOSES HENRY AIKINS, B.A., M.D. 

Moses Henry Aikins was born in 1832, at Burnhamthorp?, in the 
County of Peel, where he has now been practicing medicine for many 
years. After the usual primary and secondary education he entered 

Victoria College and graduated 
in Arts with the class of '55. 
His Arts course finished, he 
entered the Toronto University 
Faculty of Medicine. He 
graduated with the medal and 
the degree of M.B. in '58. It 
was not until 1888 that Dr. 
Aikins wrote for and obtained 
the M.D. degree, a proceeding 
in the nature of a formality 
which he and a large number of 
other physicians went through 
with to please tl.e authorities 
of the Medical Council. In 
1859 Dr. Aikins was elected a 
member of the Royal College 
of Surgeons. For many years 
he was connected with the staff 
of the Medical Faculty. As a 
practicing physician he has attained more than ordinary success, 
the fame of his skill having travelled far over the countryside, so 
that it is no unusual thing for him to be called to consultation many 
miles from Burnhamthorpe. A fellow-physician has described him as 
"the oracle beyond the Humber." His great popularity is not indeed 
to be wondered at, for he unites many of the qualities which go to 
make up the beau ideal of the medical profession. He is a man of 
professional skill, cool and level-headed judgment, of exceeding kind- 
liness of disposition, of the nicest honor, and of great modesty withal — 
a Peel County McClure. More than once Dr. Aikins has had the 
candidature in a political election offered him, and he could undoubt- 




M. H. AIKINS, V,.k., M.D. 



Acta Victoriana. 



287 



edly have swept the riding, but he preferred not to thrust himself out 
into the turmoil of political life. Dr. Aikins has accomplished a 
wonderful amount of work, but is not of the sort to do his work to be 
seen of men, and prefers to spend in his apple orchard whatever 
leisure the exercise of his profession gives him, rather than be in the 
public eye. We trust that he may long live to be the "beloved 
physician " of Burnhamthorpe. 

HON. WILLIAM KERR, M.A., LL.D., K.C. 

William Kerr, the son of the late Francis William Kerr, was born in 
1836 at Ameliasburg, Prince Edward County, being, upon his mother's 
side, of United Empire Loya- 
list descent. He was pre- 
pared for college at Newtcn- 
ville by Rev. Dr. Ormiston, 
a Presbyterian divine who 
conducted a school in which 
were educated some of On- 
tario's foremost public men. 
Dr. Ormiston, by the way, was 
one of Victoria's earliest 
graduates, taking his degree 
in Arts in 1848. His pupil 
was enabled by his tuition to 
en'er the Sophomore class at 
Victoria, and when he gradu 
ated in 1855 was just nine- 
teen yeais of age. On grad- 
uatin^f he entered the law 
office of Smith & Armour, 
the former of whom, after- 
wards Hon. Sidney Smith, 
became Postmaster-General 
of Canada, and the latter 

Chief Justice of Ontario. In 1859 Mr. Kerr was called to the bar, 
having in the previous year, while pursuing his legal studies, won his 
M.A. degree. While in the office of Smith &: Armour Mr. Kerr was 
also employed as a lecturer in Victoria College and, as the staff was 
small and the work was great, some of his lectures were delivered at 
six o'clock in the morning. Those, it seems, were strenuous days. 
On being called to the bar, Mr. Kerr began practicing in Cobourg, and 




HON. WM. KERR, M.A., LL.D., K.C. 



288 Ada Victoriana. 

for many years conducted the largest legal business in Northumber- 
land and Durham. In 1862 he entered the Town Council, and in 
1867 became Mayor of Cobourg, a position which he held until 1873, 
being re-elected by acclamation each succeeding year. For twenty- 
five years he was the most acceptable stump speaker in the Liberal 
cause in the political campaigns of his riding, and represented the con- 
stituency in Parliament from 1874 to 1878, defeating the speaker of 
the House and a minister of the Crown respectively at the general 
elections and the ensuing by-election. He was, however, unable to 
stand against the victorious sweep of the N.P. in 1878, and in that 
year, in 1882, and in 1885, was defeated by narrow majorities, since 
which date he has consistently refused the nomination. In 1876 he 
was created a Q.C., in 1887 was admitted by his Alma Mater to the 
degree of LL.D., and in 1896 became a Bencher of the Law Society 
of Ontario. In 1899 he was appointed Senator by the Laurier Govern- 
mentjin succession to Sir Oliver Mowat, and in the session then ensu- 
ing was selected to move the address in reply to the speech from the 
throne. Since his elevation to the Senate he has taken an active 
part in its deliberations and has served on some of its most important 
committees. Senator Kerr is a member of the Board of Regents and 
the Senate of Victoria University, and lias been Vice-Chancellor since 
the creation of the office in 1885. Three sons and one daughter of 
Senator Kerr have graduated from Victoria with honors, two of them — 
William F. and Frank D. — being medallists. It is a ra" her singular 
coincidence that Senator Kerr and Dr. Ryckman of the class of '55, 
life-long friends, should each have a son in the class of '87, namely, 
E. B. Ryckman and C. ^V. Kerr, who, in turn, are friends and partners 
in the same legal firm. 

REV. ALBERT CARMAN, M.A., D.D. 

Dr. Carman comes of sturdy United Empire Loyalist stock, being 
the son of the late Philip Carman, of Iroquois, Ont., where the subject 
of our sketch was born on June 27th, 1833. He was educated at the 
Dundas County Grammar School and at Victoria University, where 
he obtained his Bachelor's Degree in Arts in 1855. In i860 he was 
admitted to,the degree of M.A. For two years after his graduation 
he was head-master of the Grammar School he had formerly attended 
as a pupil. In 1857 he was elected Professor of Mathematics in 
Belleville Seminary (now Albert College), and in the following year 
became Princi[)al of the Seminary. Thus, at the very beginning of 
his career, he became identified with the cause of education, in which 



Ada Victoriaiia. 



289 



he has ever since taken so deep an interest. It was through his 
instrumentality that the College received a University charter in Arts 
in 1866, and in all faculties in 1868. He was appointed the first 
Chancellor of Albert University, and maintained an active and official 
connection with the institution till 1874. Meanwhile, in 1859, he 
had been ordained as a deacon in the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and an elder in 1863. He was elected Bishop of the Church in Can- 
ada by the General Conference. The foundation of Alma College 
was largely due to Dr. Carman's energy, and he has been a member of 
the Board of Management of that institution from the beginning. 




RKV. ALBERT CARMAN, M.A., D.D. 

After the Union of the various Methodist bodies in 1883, Dr. Carman 
became General Superintendent of the Methodist Church in Canada, 
a position which he has retained until the present time. He was one 
of the representatives of the Canadian Church at the Ecumenical 
Conference of Methodism in Washington in 189 1. In the same year 
his Alma Mater conferred upon him the honorary degree of D.D. 
His work as an educationist has been recognized by his election to 
the Senate both of Victoria University and the University of Toronto. 



290 



A eta Victoriana. 



He has won a high reputation, not only in educational lines, but also 
as a preacher and writer. A specially distinguishing characteristic is 
his pre-eminent ability as a presiding ofificer, a qualification very 
apparent in his direction of the work of the General Conference. He 
has always been a stalwart champion of the prohibition cause, and has 
not been afraid to denounce in scathing language the political corrup- 
tion of the day. Strong convictions on moral questions, and a fearless 
and vigorous outspokenness have made Dr. Carman a positive force, 
not only in ecclesiastical, but in national life. To day, though he has 
passed his seventy-first birthday, neither his intellectual nor his physical 
vigor have abated, and Acta may speak for all when it expresses the 
hope that he may long be spared to his Church and country. 



REV. EDWARD BRADSHAW RYCKMAN, M.A., D.D. 

Edward Bradshaw Ryckman was born on a farm near Hamilton, of 
Dutch-American United Empire Loyalist stock. " This fact of race," 

says a newspaper writer, " may 
to some extent account for his 
exceptionally healthy and vigor- 
ous constitution and patient love 
of work and study." He was 
fortunate in having the tuition, at 
Public School, of Robert Spence, 
who afterwards became Postmas- 
ter-General of United Canada. 
Later he attended a High School 
in Hamilton, where his master 
was David Beach, M.A., a Vic- 
toria Alumnus. It was in 1850 
that Dr. Ryckman entered Vic- 
toria College, intending, at first, 
merely to improve his education 
by a year's work, but finally 
deciding to go through to gradu- 
ation. His course in College 
was an exceedingly creditable one, and each year he succeeded in 
winning the highest honor of the institution, the " red badge " for 
general proficiency, the era of gold medals not having yet set in. At 
graduation, in 1855, D*"- Ryckman was chosen to be the class Vale- 
dictorian. He remained in college for another year as tutor in 




REV 



EDWARD BRADSHAWJRYCKMAN, 
M.A., D.D. 



Ada Victoriana. 291 

English, Classics and Mathematics. He afterwards received the degree 
of M.A. in 1868, and that of D.D. in 1879. During his College 
course he had been converted, and had decided to enter the ministry 
of the Church. Accordingly, in 1856, he presented himself, with forty- 
six others, for ordination into the Wesleyan Methodist Conference, 
the largest class ever received. Of this large number only two still 
remain in the ranks of the effective — Rev. Stephen Bond, of the 
London Conference, and Dr. Ryckman himself. Those were the 
days of large circuits, and the Yonge Street Circuit, to which Dr. 
Ryckman was first appointed, is now divided into six. Since then he 
has ministered to congregations in many of the larger towns and 
cities of Ontario, including Chatham, London, Brantford, Kingston 
and Ottawa, where he was pastor of Dominion Church. He is now 
stationed at Cornwall. He has also received high honors at the hands 
of his brother ministers. For twenty-seven years he was Chairman of 
the district in which he was stationed until, two years ago, he 
declined any further repetition of the honor. Three times he has 
occupied the President's chair at an Annual Conference, being Presi- 
dent of the London Conference in 1878, and again in 1884, and of 
the Montreal Conference in 1894. In 1880 he was Fraternal Dele- 
gate from the General Conference of the Canadian Church to that of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States at Cincinnati. 
He was also a representative of the General Conference at the first 
and second Ecumenical Conferences of Methodism, held in London, 
Eng., in 1881, and in Washington, D.C, in 1891, respectively. He 
is also a member of the Board of Regents of Victoria University. 
Dr. Ryckman is now in the forty-ninth year of his niinistrj', but his 
physical health is as good as ever artd his vigor unfailing, as is indi- 
cated by the fact that he recently walked twelve miles in two hours 
without special fatigue. May he long be able to do so. 

HIS HONOR JUDGE WILLIAM WATTEN DEAN, 

M.A., LL.D. 

William Watten Dean is the son of a Methodist minister, Rev. 
Horace Dean, and is of United Empire Loyalist descent on both sides 
of the family. He was born in London in 1830, and after preliminary 
preparation at Barrie Grammar School, entered Victoria University. 
After graduating in 1854, he entered the law office of Hon. Lewis 
Wallbridge, Q.C., who afterwards became Chief Justice of Manitoba. 
He W^s galled to the bar in 1858, and opened up an office in the 



Ada Victoriana. 




tovsrn of Belleville. Here he took his first step in me line of promo- 
tion, when he was appointed a Master in Chancery. Subsequently he 
was, for a short period, acting Deputy Minister of Justice under Hon. 
Edward Blake, but gave up that position on his appointment, in 1874, 

to be Judge of the County Court of 
Victoria, a position he has now 
adorned for thirty years. In 1883, 
Judge Dean was given the M.A. 
degree, and in 1892 the degree of 
LL.D. was conferred upon him by 
his Alma Mater. He is one of the 
most prominent lay members of 
the Methodist Church, and has 
attended many General Confer- 
ences of that body. He now serves 
his Alma Mater as a member 
of the Board of Regents. Last 
spring, in recognition of the fact 
that Judge Dean was about to cele- 
brate the jubilee of his graduation, 
he was invited by the students of 
Victoria — and did them the honor 
of consenting — to preside at the 
Annual Senior Dinner. Though his years have passed the limit of 
threescore and ten prescribed by the Psalmist, it cannot yet be 
said that his strength is labor and sorrow, for he is still hale and 
strong. No better wish can be formed by those of us about to gradu- 
ate than that, when we have worn our academic honors for half a 
century (if we should live so long), we may look back upon lives as 
useful and as honorable as that of Judge Dean. 

SOME OF OUR CONTRIBUTORS. 

We give below a short sketch of the principal contributors to this 
number of Acta, who are either graduates or members of the teaching 
staff of Victoria University. 

Rev. Nathanael Burvvash, M.A., S.T.D., LL.D., Chancellor of 
the University, was born near St. Andrew's, P.Q., in 1839. He gradu- 
ated from Victoria in 1859, and received his M.A. degree in 1867. 
He was ordained to the ministry in 1864, and in 1867, after a course 
of study at Yale, became Professor of Natural History and Geology in 
his Alma Mater. Later he attended the Garrett Biblical Institute at 



HIS HONOR JUDGE WILLIAM 
WATTEN DEAN, M.A., LL.D. 




C. C. JAMES, M.A. 





PROF. J. C. ROBERTSON, E.A. 



C. GUILLET, B.A., Ph.D. 



Ac^a Victorimia. 293 

Evanston, whence he obtained the degree of B.D. in 187 1, and that 
of S.T.D. in 1876. He became, in 1873, Professor of Theology and 
Dean of the Faculty of Theology, and, on the death of Dr. Nelles, in 
18S7, Chancellor of the University. In 1892 the degree of LL.D. was 
conferred upon him, honoris causa. To Dr. Burwash, more than to any 
other one man, may be attributed the consummation and subsequent 
success of the federation scheme for the University. He is the author 
of several valuable works in theology, and is recognized as one of 
Ontario's leading educationists. His intellectual acumen and his 
deep and rich spirituality have won for him the respect and love of 
hundreds of Victoria's alumni. 

C. C. James, M.A., was born at Napanee, and educated at the 
High School of that town and at Victoria University. When he 
graduated in '83 he captured the Gold Medal in Natural Science. 
In 1S86 he was appointed Professor of Chemistry in the O.A.C., and 
in 1 89 1 was promoted to be Deputy Minister of Agriculture, a 
position in which he has won credit both for himself and for the 
department. He is a member of the Senate of Victoria, and takes a 
deep interest in his Alma Mater. He has written largely for 
technical periodicals, and has also prepared a bibliography of 
Canadian poetry, published by the Victoria University Library. 

Prof. J. C. Robertson, B.A., is a graduate of Toronto Univer- 
sity, and was Gold Medallist of his year ('83) in Classics. After 
graduation he held a classical fellowship in University College for 
three years. In 1887 he entered upon a post-graduate course in 
Johns Hopkins University, and after his return to Canada taught for 
some years in the High Schools of Owen Sound and Toronto 
Junction. In 1894 he was appointed to his present position as 
Professor of Greek Language and Literature in Victoria. Prof. 
Robertson has edited a number of text-books in Latin and Greek. 
In his professional work he has discovered the secret of uniting with a 
painstaking thoroughness the power to interest and inspire his students. 

C. GuiLLET, B.A., Ph.D., was Silver Medallist in Moderns when he 
graduated in 1887. For a number of years he taught at Ottawa, and 
then, after travelling some time abroad to perfect himself in modern 
languages, he spent three years in Clarke University, at Worcester, 
Mass., under Dr. Hall, obtaining a degree in Pedagogy. He is now 
in the Technical School in Toronto, and is one of the best qualified 
men in Ontario on pedagogical lines. 

12 



294 



Ada Vtctoriana. 



Prof. Pelham Edgar, B.A., Ph.D., comes of a literary family, his 
father, the late Sir James D. Edcjar, being not only prominent in the 
House of Commons, but also a poet of exceptional merit, while his 
mother, Lady Edgar, also gained distinction as an authoress. Dr. 
Edgar is a graduate of Toronto University, where he won the highest 
honors, and also of the Johns Hopkins University, where he obtained 
his degree of Ph.D. He was appointed Professor of French in Vic 
toria University in 1897. He is an enthusiastic student of English 
Literature, and has published, in addition to magazine articles along 
the lines of literary criticism, annotated editions of some of the poets 
for school use, and has edited a work consisting of selections from 
Parkman. He has also written a number of poems, which have been 
printed privately. 

Prof. L. E. Horning, M.A., Ph.D., is a native of Norwich, Ont., 

and was educated in the 
Brantford Collegiate Insti- 
tute and in Victoria Uni- 
versity, whence he gradu- 
ated in 1884 with the Prince 
of Wales' Gold Medal for 
General Proficiency, and the 
Silver Medal in Philosophy. 
He has also taken a post- 
graduate course in the Univer- 
sities of Breslau and Gottin- 
gen, taking his Ph.D. from the 
latter in 1891. In 1886, after 
teaching two years in Peter- 
boro' Collegiate Institute, he 
was appointed to the staff of 
Victoiia University, and, after 
two years and a half spent in 
Europe on leave, assumed 
the duties of his present posi- 
tion as Professor of German 
and Old English. As a lecturer 
Dr. Horning is exceedingly 
popular, having the faculty, 
in an eminent degree, of 
clothing dry bones with flesh 

and blood. He has made a special study of Canadian literature, and 

is a recognized authority upon that subject. 




prof. L. E. horning, M.A., Ph.D. 



Acta Victomaiia. 



295 




QCAL 




.errv? Cbristmas an^ a full stocl^tno ! 

W^s We hesitate to recall ante-Bob scenes, but that function 
demanded so much attention in our last i-sue that the account of an 
adventure, of all most amusing, was crowded out. But it reads well 
yet. 

After Cliarter Day exercises the Freshmen, believing that the " Bob " 
Committee were in session, planned a nad. Robert was just on the 
point of seeking much needed rest (though the sequel fails to show it), 
when Coatsworth, '08, arrived and asked breathlessly if any first y, ar 
men had yet come. Robert tumbled, and seeing an opportunity to 
play a joke, sent his assistant upstairs post haste to light up Alumni 
Hall and bang on the piano. Presently they" came, every man with a 
white 'kerchief tied about his left arm for the purpose of identification. 
At first, so he says, Robert fancied it was w^hite crepe, and that they 
had come to bury William. Locking the door, he gave chase to one 
man, who, finding the Czar Street fence too high, cut across the tennis 
courts and nearly broke his neck falling over a net, while Robeit pur- 
sued him with a ponderous club, but laughing so hard that his victim 
escaped. 

Accordingly he returned to the side entrance, and, mingling with 
the crowd, made the buttons fly as he ripped the Freshmen's coats 
open in a manner quite atrocious. But through it all "they acted 
like gentlemen," so he says. But it was time for another coup. So, 
unlocking the door and drawing a horse-p'stol (it's a fact), he dared 
any man to enter. Those on the outskirts vanished in terror ; the rest 
were rooted to the ground. Next Robert lowered his weapon and 
agreed, if they promised to be good, to let them in. After some hesi- 
tation they gave their word and entered, whereupon Robert ran to the 
foot of the stairs and shouted uo to the imaginary Sophomore host 
(still banging lustily on the piano) : 

" Here they are, boys ! Turn on the hose I " 

Hearing this, the Freshmen retreated precipitately to the door, only 
to find this way blocked by two stalwart j^olicemen. For once they 



296 



Ada Victoriana. 



realized the force of that quaint expression, " Between the devil and 
the deep sea." The embodiment of the law asked peremptorily : 
" What are you doing here ? " 
" We're Freshmen," a voice replied, "and — " 

" You look it !" answered the other, cutting him short: "Get out 
of this " ; and they went. Score Robert ! 

Miss Bearman, '08 — " Oh, he's much older than I — he's eij,hteen." 
(Ah!) 

Overheard in the Library — Miss Pearl B. F. has occasion to 
depart. Then spake one C. T. in awed whispers to his fellow, " It 
would gD hard with the serpent's head if she happened to put her heel 
on it." 

During the Woman's Lit. reception, an unknown man, who had 
been celebrating Bacchanalian rites, attempted to enter, Robert 
slipped as he was assisting him down the steps, at which the other 
quaintly asked, " 'Scuse me ; have you (hie I) been 'dul^in' ?" 

The Alma Mater Society wishes to 
acknowledge the receipt of a kitten, duly 
boxed, bedded and labeled. The donor, 
it is strongly suspected, is a fair lady 
whose name almost rhymes with " muf- 
fin," to whom thanks are conveyed — but 
the poor, dear thing escaped. The box 
and the — what shall we call it ? — placed 
therein for the cat's comfort, may be had 
on application. 

Pres. Knight (at Lit.) — "If, in my 
Freshman year, I had heard any man 
speak as I do now, I should have 
thought him a fool and may be he would 
have been." 
Overheard in Annesley. — Miss Philp 
— "Say, Pearl, have you Bots'"ord's Greece?" 
Miss Faint — " No, I have only glycerine." 

Trueman, '06 (to Belt Line conductor, Sunday night)— "Let us off 
at Annesley Hall, please." 

Miss Hvland — ''Yes, they tell me m / name should be^Mary, and 
then I'd be Highland Mary." 

Dr. McClennan — " Miss Rice, are you too shy to put your name on 
your exercise ? Just sign your first name; that's good enough for 
me." 




e. l. luck, '06, 

Our Cartoonist. 



Acta Victoriana. 297 

Messrs. Harley and Kirby participated in the Medico-Science 
scrap and were duly painted. 

At the Glee Club practice. — "Any sweet accustard bliss!" 
(accustomed). 

Connolly No. 2 (on looking over Annesley Hall register) — "Say, 
Bill ! how is it your name isn't here ? " 

Nameless (after the scrap) — " Whether did the somersaults Of 
Freshettes beat?" 

In the study. — Miss Wallace — " You know 1 have that holy hockey 
at 2 o'clock, and field scripture at 3." 

Freshman (the day of first-year affair at Annesley Hall) — " What 
kind of a thing is it anyway ? Can you take a girl with you ?" 

Edward's effusion, — 

He sent it to The Varsity, 

To Acta, and the Lit., 
And then he sent it to his Chloe, 
And she accepted it. 

The conditions governing the Impromptu Oration Contest have 
been varied this year. Subjects are placed in a box on the President's 
table, from which the victim draws and instantly begins his speech* 
At the recent contest, Mr. Cahoon surprised everyone by the facility 
of speech which he displayed. Mr. Conron, in developing his speech, 
remarked that " in Anne's reign they wore shoes which curled up a 
foot or two in front. But now shoes are worn to a greater extent ! " 
Mr. Morrow was manifestly not at home with the subject, " The hand 
that rocks the cradle," etc. Mr. Wilson, after discoursing three 
minutes on " Our President," frankly confessed that he had exhausted 
the subject. 

Corrigendum — " Clifford Douglas " for "Charles D." in the No- 
vember issue. 

It seems Miss OTlynn's given name is Susie. Can you wonder, 
then, at her consternation as a Freshette on first hearing the B.D. yell .? 

From Vox Col/egii, the O.L.C. official organ, we copy the follow- 
ing : "The young ladies who attended the tournament and the recep. 
tion following report that they met several celebrities, among whom 
was a Bishop, the Kaiser or the stuttering poet (Teddy), and the boy 
professor, Jimmie W." 

On Sunday, November 13th, the Victoria Band held special meet- 
ings in the Hamilton churches, with great acceptance. 



298 Ada Victoriana. 

Small boy (in Hamilton parsonage, to Barber) — " How do you 
cut your own hair ?" * 

Aftermath of the election. — Mayor Urquhart failing to "get in," 
Henderson, Connolly and Lane entertained Trueman, Campbell and 
Robertson at the King Edward. 

The Delineator is be-'ng sent to the College as an exchange. Shade 
of Aristotle ! 

Luck (tfter a grand opera) — "After all, Sh a's is lo's of fun." 

At a lecture — Stapleford (stuck) — " Cicero doesn't seem to be very 
clear on that point." 

At the Lit.— Connolly (excitedly)— " But, Mr. Squeaker ! " 

We bear witness that that ornament of the B.D clas> and editor of 
matters religious and missionary for this journal, to wit, W. A. G.ff)rd, 
B.A., received a package by mail marked, " Vlother Seigel's Soothing 
Syrup," which nevertheless proved to be a flask of Seagram's ''^■^ dis- 
tillino;. 

"To Wm. Stu<rt U»\cli£r|and bisters :— 

"Befor-* u.%\^^ ^O""- valuable Kair -gi-oje.-. 
le^T noa (ooK ^r ~v« ! 

Htbdf S. H 

Rathman is said to be a— but let us illustrate, — 

Friend — " Fine girls in your German class ? " 

Rath — " Don't know ; I never saw any of them." 

The Green-eyed Monster. — Lane was undergoing the o. erition of 
having a mote removed from his eye when Dr. Re>nar, who hid 
approached unseen, interrogited, sotco voce, " Do y )u see any green in 
it?" 

Dialogue in an upper room (prolonged ringing of do r-bell) — ist 
Plug— "Who's that?" 2nd P. — " I suppose it's Knight." ist P.— 
Blinkety-blink-blank it anyway. The (k)night cometh when no man 
can work." 

From the Newmarket Era of November i,'Ca^Caput, "Our Toronto 
Letter": "The Freshmen and S ph ,more stut'en s of Victoria Uni- 
versity are having a rather rough time. The nuthorities s oul 1 stamp 




Ada Victoriana. 299 

this relic of a bygone age out of existence. Jailing the guilty culprits is 
the right thing." We leain th it the editor of this provincial journ il is 
the father of W. E. Williams, '08, U.C, who weekly contributes "Our 
Toronto Letter." Now that the attention of "the authoriti- s " has 
been brought to this matter {via Newmarket), we feel ceitain that they 
will recognize their deep obligation to the correspondent for his valu- 
able suggestion so gratuitously proffered. 

It is told that, after the Freshettes' reception at the Hall, Butcher, 
"08, went home and played " Sweet Hour of Prayer " upon the piano 
1 11 a quarter to one. 

We regret that a gambling epidemic has broken out, and it is whis- 
pered that even the gentler sex are not without a tincture of it. 
Couples may be seen matching coppers amid a crowd of abetting 
■onlookers. Hip pockets serve the universal use of recept.cle- for 
ready coin, and every man wears a perpetual challenge in his counten- 
ance. Ora pro nobis ! 

Messrs. Connolly and Bishop are engaged, we are happy to an- 
nounce, in instructing girls' S. S. classes. Mr. G. E. Trueman, who 
hias lately undertaken similar service, reports that at 10.30 Saturday 
night, upon appealing to these veterans for information as to the mor- 
row's lesson, he discovered a condition amounting to total ignorance, in 
"which he himself shared. 

*^Te<i^'s IdcWc Kas ^t-owjn steacl\la ,snA<r« j+s 
close shawe just before fhe BOB , last 
_v)ear. We tire <all v/erjj Viroud of it. 




The open meeting of the Union Literary Society, held on Friday, 
November nth, was largely attended. I'he programme, which centred 
about the theme, " The British Empire," proved to be scarcely as profit- 
able as had b.en hoped ; but honorable mention must be made of Mr. 
J. A. Spencel y's paper on " Colonial Government." However, the busi- 
ness session redet med the situation. Theleadeis of both Government 
and Opposition displayed a delightful facilty in rrpartee. As usual, 
the Kids' Corner rose to the occasion, but a serious mistake was made 
in admitting several Freshmen to this sacred precinct, to one of whom 



300 Acta Vidoriana. 

aquce remedium has since been administered, while several are at large . 
on suspended sentence. 

" Kelly and Baker arc in Heaven " {i.e., in the Ladies' Gallery). 
" But it is somewhat hot for them " (Tune : L. M. Dox.). 

Stan. Mills says he feared to open his tennis prize for fear it might 
be a pair of suspenders. 

There's a night for Open Lit — at Victoria, 
When you bring your girl and sit — at Victoi ia. 
If you have no girl at all, then you sit along the wall, 
Longing even for a doll — at Victoria. 

The inauguration of the new government under the leadership of 
Mr. G. E. Trueman was the occasion of much mirth. From the 
speech from the throne we quote as follows : 

" Even as Lucifer the golden, shining out from Night's abysmal 
gloom, portends the glorious coming of the orb of day ; even so the 
morning star of political purity and righteousness, bursting through 
the rank and nauseating fog of the past administration, points to a 
new era when gentle Peace and fair Prosperity locked in each other's 
arms shall slumber on, unawakened even by the hoarse croakings and 
atrabilious outpourings of the Leader of the Opposition and his army 
of boodle-grafters, self-confessed." 

The following honorary degrees were conferred : Jacob Zurbrigg, 
M.LG. (made in Germany) ; E. G. Saunders, K.O.B. (Knight of the 
Bath); D. W. Ganton, T.N.LT.E.T.C.W. (the next individual to 
experience the cold water); Senator Salter was appointed to a seat in 
the Ladies' Study. 

The following are the important members of the various year 
executives: Bachelor of Divinity — Pres., R. J. McCormick ; Sec- 
Treas., D. R. Clare. Class of '05 — Pres., J. S. Bennett; Sec, A. L. 
Fullerton : Treas., E. W. Stapleford. Class of '06 — Pres., J. B. Lamb ; 
Sec, J. H. Adams ; Treas., J. G. Brown. Class of '07 — Pres., A. D. 
McFarlane ; Sec, H. B. Dwight ; Treas., Miss P. B. Faint. Class of 
'08 — Pre?., E. G. Sanders ; Sec, Miss E. C. Jamieson ; Treas., A. Fore- 
man. 

The official yell of the class of '08 is as follows : 

Tik-a-rik, tik-a-rak, tik-a-rik-a-roo ! 
Zikatee, zakatee, zikatee, zoo ! 
Ay-atee, ay atee, ay-atee, ah ! 
'08 : '08 : Victoriah ! 




rr S- 



C 



• 2 t- 
O o P 







Acta Victoriana. 301 




TICS 







\\ 



Jithletics and Morals 

BY EDWARD WILSON WALLACE, B.A. 

MUCH ink has been spilled and many tempers spoiled over 
the vexing question of the relation of athletics to morals 
in our university life. On the one hand, it has all but 
been contended that morality is based upon sport, while in re- 
joinder it has been declared that our sports are the cause of much 
of the non-morality of the present time. The problem is no easy 
one to settle. Is some middle ground tenable between the grid- 
iron and the ascetic cell, or must we make an irrevocable choice ? 
The presentemphasis on athletics in our universities is undoubt- 
edly a revolt against the cloistered intellectuality of former days, 
when pale faces, weak limbs, and unsocial minds were wont to 
typify the collegian. What a shock would he receive could the 
century-old shade of some disciple of the former order of things 
visit a modern university on the occasion of a hustle or a foot- 
ball match. One can imagine him shrinking back as though fear- 
ful lest even his incorporeal nature should not be proof against 
the dead-weight of the Sophomores' rush, and lest his ghost ears 
be deafened by the unearthly uproar, while he mutters : 
" Non ego hoc ferrem tepidus inventa 
Consitle Planco." 
The padded and petted half-back is the twentieth century's 
protest against over-balanced studiousness. 

So much for the historical significance of the gospel of sport. 
What is its moral significance? In other words, do athletics 
necessarily make us moral. As has been already suggested the 
question has been discussed with more vehemence than candor. 
Each party has claimed all the ground for itself and has 
endeavored to drive its opponent from the field. 

The advocates and exponents of athletics have taken as their 
starting-point the admitted truth that matter does, to a certain 



302 Ada Victoriana. 

extent, affect mind ; that the diseased or weakened body often 
influences the whole intellectual and moral tone of a man ; on 
their banners they inscribe the motto: "Mens sana in corpore 
sano." From this base they have despatched whole armies of ar- 
guments that have truly covered the land. They have adduced the 
benefits of the systematic training so requisite nowadays to success 
in athletics, as also the undoubted (?) moral value of all com- 
petition. Broad generalizations have followed to crown the 
elaborate fabric of statement which they have built up to show 
that the greatest moral force in our colleges is the training we 
receive on the athletic field. The extreme of this line of reason- 
ing was demonstrated in a remarkable article that appeared in 
The Independent not long since, in which a clergyman of repute 
in New England cited a score or so of moral virtues which had 
been produced in his son through his football training. The 
evident lesson of it all was this : " If you wish to be moral, don't 
come to church and listen to my preaching. Just step out on the 
football field and tackle Jim. An ounce of muscle is worth a 
pound of moralizing." 

If this sounds somewhat extreme, what shall we say of those 
who decry all sport, and bitterly deplore our evident preference 
of brawn to brain? In their eyes this tendency is responsible 
for most of the vices of our students : for their rough manners, 
their stridency, and their brutality, on the one hand, and, on the 
other, for the laxness of their moral principles, their selfishness, 
laziness, and dishonesty, if not for worse evils. Men have given 
themselves over to the domination of their lower nature and the 
result has been inevitable and disastrous. The examples they 
adduce are often irrefutable. We may ridicule but we cannot 
deny the fact that it is the fashion in ultra football circles in the 
United States for the defeated captain to leave the field in tears. 
We must admit from experience that brilliant athletes are often 
TDUt dull students, and athletic idols in truth mere " idles." It is 
unfortunately true that occasionally one hears a captain bid his 
men, " Get through their line by fair means or foul — get through 
anyhow, and take your chances of being caught by the referee." 
Yet one refuses to believe that such is the general tone of college 
sport and clings to the conviction that the majority of our men 
are sportsmen rather than sports. 

When facts so utterly opposed to one another, yet claiming to 
he facts, are placed before us, and we are bidden judge, what 



Ac/a Victoriana. 303 

can we say? The mind revolts from athleticism as the be-all 
and end-all of life, while it refuses to attribute all the spots on 
•our college life to our healthy bodies. Can it be, then, that our 
error is fundamental ; that we are wrong in assuming that 
morals — or immorals — are the jruit of athletics? Is it nearer 
the truth to speak of athletics rather as one field for the exer- 
•cise of our moral nature, where every impulse is made manifest, 
whether it be good or evil ? If this be admitted, a flood of light 
is thrown at once upon the discussion, and we recognize that we 
have called that a cause which is but a field for the development 
of qualities already present in a man. We see that the man 
of ingenuity, pluck, and endurance does not pick up these virtues, 
as it w^ere, on the campus, but, like growing muscles, he there 
strengthens them and trains them for future usefulness. In the 
same way, a man with a vile temper, or one that is crooked, and 
mean, and dishonest finds there ample scope for the exercise of 
these characteristics. 

The objection will be raised that athletic training may cure 
a man of many little faults. That this is often true we gladly 
acknowledge. But it is equally true that men, generally consid- 
ered above reproach, stoop to petty dishonesties to win in a con- 
test. We would not pretend to argue that here, any more than 
elsewhere, the degenerates are all-powerful. Neither can we 
"blindly believe that all the influences surrounding athletics tend 
to improve and elevate. One man of strong character can pro- 
foundly influence for good the men with whom he plays, wdiile 
another of vicious tendencies ruins the other men on his team. 

We cannot argue, then, that athletics universally promote 
morality any more than we can assert that they are the cause of 
great immorality. They merely furnish an opportunity for the 
testing and development of a man's good or bad qualities. The 
moral value of athletics is not inherent ; it depends not on the 
athletics themselves, but on the men who take part and the use 
they make of their opportunities. 

Athletics are but one of life's moral battlefields, not to be 
shunned because of possible defeats, but to be approached with 
honest heart and earnest pvirpose, because of the victories over 
self that can there be won. 

This view brings athletics down from the lofty eminence to 
which some devotees of sport would raise them to their proper 



304 Acta Victoriana. 

place as a legitimate, but by no means all-important factor in 
education. On the other hand, those who from fear of evil con- 
sequences would utterly suppress all sport are placed in a peculiar 
position. Their arguments hold with equal force in proof of the 
advisability of suppressing life itself : which idea few of us 
would venture to advocate. 



T 



College Gymnasium 

HE Editor of this column has been requested by the Athletic 
Union Executive to give for the benefit of new students 
and others a short account of work done in the matter of secur- 
ing a college gymnasium. Perhaps there is no institution in the 
Dominion, approaching the size and importance of \'ictoria, in 
which the provision for athletics is so utterly inadequate, and 
it was to meet this need that this movement was inaugurated last 
spring by the A. U. Executive, under the presidency of R. 
Pearson, '04. A strong committee was appointed by the Union, 
and, after consviltation with a sub-committee of the Board of 
Regents, was taking definite steps towards the immediate 
erection of a suitable building. 

At this juncture the agitation for a men's residence was started 
by the Alma Mater Society, and the Gymnasium Committee was 
induced to act in unison with the Residence Committee. After 
several lengthy discussions, the movement was temporarily 
shelved. This happened tow^ards the end of May, and so it was 
impossible for the Gymnasium Committee to take further steps 
last session. 

The A. U. Executive for the year 1904-05, on assuming office, 
at once took up the question and a new committee was appointed, 
which has undertaken and expect to see the completion of their 
task. The Union now has to its credit approximately $1,100, and 
this year's Rink Committee promise another thousand. With 
this $2,100 as a basis, and an additional $5,000, which they hope 
to borrow from the Board of Regents, the committee expects to 
be in a position to finance the scheme next spring. The running 
expenses, estimated at $750 per annum, along with the interest 
on $5,000, can be met by the Union, if necessary, although the 
Executive is justified, we think, in expecting generous treatment 
at the hands of the Board of Regents. 



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Green 

" 5-7, 6-2, 6-3 



Ro' ertson. 
6 4, 6-4 



Green .... 

6-1, 61 

Mahood . . 

6-3, 6 j I Green 

Jackson i ,~ Del. 

6 0, 1-6, 6 3 
Robeitson . . 

3-6, 6-0, 6-4 

Moore | Moore | 

Fullerton f 0-3,1-6,6 3 | Moore. 

Brecken I Brecken "8-6, 6-8, 12 10 j 

Connolly / 6-3, 6 2 

Hineks Bowman . 

Bowman f Def. 

Richard on . . ^ Stapleford 
Stapleford .... ) Def. 

Wallace \ Mills ^ 

Mills / 6-2,3-6,6 2 | Henderson 



Green 

6-1, 6-2 



6-2, 3-6, 6 : 
Henderson .... 1 Henderson . 
Ferguson . . . . I Def. 

Jenkin-i ) Stockton . . . 

Stockton / Def. 

Truenian .... ICmiphell ... 

Campbell / 6-4, 5-7, 6-4 

Connor I Clarke 

Clarke / Def. 

G fford ) GifTord 

Knox f 6-3, 6-3 

Hewitt I Harlev . . . . . 

Harley J 6-3] 12-10 

San'lers I Sanders 

Kellv *' 6-4, 6 4 

D*iirht ' Dvvight 

Bradshaw < 6-3, 7-5 

Br wnlee 
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6-3, 7-5 



In 



6-0, 6-4 



Campbell . . 
i" 6-1, 2-6, 6-3 



Gifford 
' 6-3, 6-4 



Sanders 
■ 7-9, 



J 



enderson . 
6-2, 6-1 



Gifford 
Def. 



Henderson 
7-5, 6-4 



I Tribble | 4-6, 6-1, 6-4 

/ 6-3, 5-7, 6-0 



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ders . . . ."\ 
, 8-6, 6-3 

tOwi 

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^ht . . 

8-6, 6-0 



Dwight . . 
7-5, 6-0 



Henderson 
1-t-, 6-3,6-3,6-1 



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f 



Mahood . . . 
Def. 



Hende'-son 
Def. 



Sanders 1 Sanders 

Harley f 6-4,3-6,6-4 

Mahood \ Mahood 

Kellev / Def. 

Mills t Campbell ... 

Campbell / Def. 

Wallace | Henderson ... j" 

Henderson I . 7-5, 7-5 J 

Stapleford \ Gifford ^ 

Gifford / 7-5,6-0 I Dwight 

D\dght ( Dwight I 9-7, 6-1 

Connor ) Def. J 

Knox ) Knox "j 

Burwash / 6 0,6-2 I Bishop 

Bishop \ Bishop f 6-2, 6-1 

Moore. / 2-6.6-1,6-2 J 

Robertson ) JolliiTe \ 

JolliflFe I 6-4.8-6 I JolifTe 

Fullerton i Connolly I 7-5,6-4 

Connolly f 6-3, 4-6, 7 5 / 

Stockton I Stockton ^ 

Hineks / Def. I Brecken 

Brecken » Brecken j" 3-2, 6-2, 6-3 

Ferguson i" Def. J 

Hewitt \CIarke bye 

Clarke f 6-1, 5-7, 6-0 

Trueman \ Green ^ „ j u ... 

Green | 6-4,6-4 ^ f f U' ' • 

Bradshaw I '^^' ^"^ 



COLLEGE CHAMPIONSHIP. 

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I'ierson 
6-1, 6-0 



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B'shop 

4-6, 6-1, 0-2 



JoUifTe 

0-8, 6-1, 0-4 



Henderson 
6-2, 6-4 



(.Br.ids: 



haw 
Def. 



•loUiffe 

6-4, 6 8, 6-3 



JoUiffe. 

Def. 



JoUiffe 1 Dawson. 

Dawson (holder of championship) j 6 2, 6 4, 6-2 



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TWIN FALLS, NEAR FIELD. B.C. 

AMONG THE CANADIAN ROCKIES 



31 AC ! IIMH/CDCITnc' 

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UNIVERS1TA5,' 



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ACTA VICTORIANA 

Published Monthly during the College Year by the Union Literary 
Society of Victoria University, Toronto. 

Vol. XXVIII. TORONTO, JANUARY, 1905. No. 4. 



Love and Life 

BY ELLA A. MACLEAN, 'o2. 



T 



WIN sisters, Love and Life — 

Love wreathed with flowers and (air 
Doth lightly dance along the way ; 
Life's troubled eyes are dark and dusk her hair. 



" My sister stay with me ; 

'Tis pleasant in the vale." 
" Ah, yes, I know, " doth Life reply, 

" But here's the path the heights above to scale." 

Together up they climb : 

Capricious Love halts oft, 
To scatter flowers or lift a briar, 

To clear the road and make the pathway soft. 

Life's eye is fixed abcve, 

In purpose true but stern ; 
She heeds not flowers, she tramples them, 

And Love's sweet ways doth spurn. 

They journey on and on — 

Love ceases wilful wiles ; 
Life, half regretful of her deeds. 

Caresses Love and on her sweetly smiles. 

They reach the mountain top, 

They find God's plain above. 
Their faces like to like so grown. 

No man can tell which Life is and which Love. 



o8 



Acta Victoriana. 



Our Western Heritage 

BY TROOPER A. J. BRACE. 

OUR last good-byes were said ; Ontario and the College life were 
behind ; before us lay the great golden West and the responsi- 
bilities of our life work. Flying visits to former students of our Alma 
Mater had " dragged with each remove a lengthening chain," but 
beyond Winnipeg we plunged fairly into the West and found in it a 
new absorbing interest. 




A GREAT GLACIER. 



The vast stretches of prairie, undulating and largely devoid of trees, 
stirred again in our breast the old memories and warm feeling of the 
South African veldt. Through force of habit our eyes swept the plain 
and the distant skyline, happily to see nothing worse than a pic- 
turesque "cow-puncher" ride into view. Vast herds of cattle and 
boundless fields of waving wheat testified to the immense wealth of 
Canada's growing Territories. The innumerable small lakes swarmed 
with wild duck, indicating a veritable sportsman's paradise. 



Acta Victoriana. 



309 



Entering the great Bow Valley we felt the charm of the foothills 
made famous in Ralph Connor's stories. For many miles the railway 
closely followed the bank of the Bow River, and we looked down into 
the milky-green, sediment-laden waters of the turbid stream. As we 
pressed onward the skirting foothills grew higher and higher, graduat- 




THE SNOW-CAPPED MOUNTAINS. 



ing into vast terraces and lofty mountains. Herds of bronchos in the 
lower valley gave place to thousands of cattle on the terraces and to 
fiocks of sheep cropping the short, sweet grass on the hill tops. We 
passed transverse valleys — the grooved courses of ancient glaciers — 
and caught a glimpse of the remnant of the Bow River glacier, occu- 



J 



lO 



Ac^a Victoriaiia. 



pying a field of nearly three hundred square miles. Beyond rose suc- 
cessive ranges of rugged heights, hacked by snow-capptd giants that 
mingled with the clouds. 

The Rocky Mountains were entered through a deep pass called The 
Gap. Great masses of rock, ragged, grooved and torn by past gLcier 




MOUNT BURGESS. 



action, rose almost vertically on both sides to a prodigious height. 
One was given the impression that a great eruption had shaken the 
continent and that this conglomerate mass of irregular and jagged 
mountains of colossal dimensions is the result of the upheaval. It is 
the consensus of opinion among tourists that the panoramic view of 



Ac/a Victoriana. 



311 



ranges, torrents, valleys, gorges and glaciers to be seen from the obser- 
vation cars cannot be excelled in the world for continuous, natural 
and inspiring grandeur. 

At Banff the mountain scenery eclipses all seen before. It is truly 
sublime. Here are the well-known Hot Springs, a medicinal watering 
place and pleasure resort, and an immense national park of over five 
thousand square miles, embracing parts of the Bow, Spray and Cas- 
cade rivers. About the picturesque little village tower the highest 
snow-capped peaks of the Rockies. Most curious and interesting to 




THE ANGRY CATARACT. 



the traveller are the isolated and weatherbeaten conglomerate earthen 
pillars called " hoodoos," standing like giant sentinels often sixty feet 
in height, monuments which have successfully withstood the erosion 
that obliterated the surrounding bank. 

As we steamed into Rocky Mountain Park, Castle Mountain lifted 
its sheer perpendicular face five thousand feet high and eight miles 
long, an imposing spectacle, a giant fortress crowned with rugged tur- 
rets, bastions and battlements. And as the thought of the omnipo- 
tence of the Creator came upon us there was mingled with it admira- 



r J 



Acta Victoriana. 



tion for the brilliant engineering skill of the C P. R. that had found a 
roadbed through this chaotic sea of mountains. 

We crossed the great Divide and saw that remarkable phenomenon, 
a sparkling stream separating into two that it might contribute of its 
freshness to both Pacific and Atlantic. Then, with mingled pleasure 
and amazement, we began the descent into the Kicking Horse Canyon, 
reaching the lower levels by curves and unexpected turns, where from 
narrow ledges we looked sheer down hundreds of feet. Following the 
serpentine course of the river canyon, we revelled in the roar of the 
mountain cataract that, deep below, angrily tumbled and foamed 



-ji 




PASTORAL SCENE. 



through its narrow, rock-ribbed channel to the distant sea. As 
we sped along the steep odd-colored clifTs of the Thompson River 
Canyon we refreshed our eyes with the sparkle of its clear, green, 
swift-coursing waters. Before us the mountains seemed suddenly to 
draw together again and oppose an impenetrable barrier to our 
advance, but the train wound and twisted as it closely followed the 
wild and accelerated current to its confluence with the mighty Fraser. 
The blending of these two waters presented a most suggestive and 
striking scene. The little Thompson struggled to retain its identity 
amid the turbid flood of the voluminous Fraser. Tenaciously it held 



Acta Victoj'-iana. 






to the northern bank, but all too soon its prominent pea green color 
faded away and the huge muddy Fraser, proud of its prodigious 
wealth of gold and fish, took full possession of its far famed canyon 
and rolled on majestically to the Pacific. Turning from its dark, 
dizzy depths we gazed up on our left and contemplated the terrific 
altitude of the mountain cliffs that lost themselves in the clouds and 
the eternal blue. Try as we might we could hardly keep the heart 
from beating faster as, between such heights and depths, we crept 
along the narrow rocky ledge or through tunnels of various lengths. 








SALMON FLEET — FR.\SER RIVER. 

Then the old stage road, niched out of the opposing mountain side in 
the early sixties as the highway for carrying Her Majesty's mails, 
caught our eye, and as we watched its course we grew more and more 
ready to believe the hair-raising experiences related of the stage 
drivers during the early days of the rush for gold. Then down in the 
river we saw numbers of Blackfeet and Flathead Indians spearing 
salmon from projecting rocks and timber cribs especially constructed 
for the purpose. From the enormous racks of red-fleshed fish drying 
in the sun we gathered some idea of the wealth of the Fraser fisheries. 
Next we were attracted by numbers of Chinese washing on the sand- 



314 Acta Victoriana. 

bars for the coveted gold which has made this fair province famous, 
and ever as the canyon widened we turned with fresh deh'ght and 
admiration to catch a ghmpse of snow-crowned peaks silhouetted 
against the fleecy clouds. 

But as we neared our destination we saw new charms in British 
Columbia. Prosperous looking farms, well-fenced, and with credit- 
able buildings, bore harvests rich and promising. Fruits and trees in 
great variety attained an extraordinary development, and flowers of 
remarkable variety and prolific growth had a quiet charm most grate- 
ful after the inspiring grandeur of the mountain scenery. 

Presently we swept into New Westminster, appropriately called the 
Royal City. Up the slope we climbed to our little parsonage and from 
the verandah looked down over the town and the Fraser and its 
broad delta away to the Pacific. It is a delightful view at all times, 
whether a hazy atmosphere dims its outlines, or a clarified air 
reveals the majestic glacier-crowned Mount Baker eighty miles away, 
and the extensive serrated snow-capped range on the Olympian pen- 
insula one hundred and fifty miles distant. Here we live and here we 
taste the pleasures and share the burdens of this strenuous Western life. 




VANCOUVER ISLAND SCENE. 



Acta Vidoriana. 3 1 5 

The Six Old Maids 

BY ALICE A. WILL, '03. 

THE street was a long, narrow, noisy one; one of those 
streets which show, perhaps, better than anything else, the 
gradual growth of a great city. On one side were the small 
liy-blown shops, which in an earlier time had saved the 
suburbanites a long, weary trip into the centre of the city ; on 
the other were the quickly grown, tawdry rows of red brick 
houses, the fruits of a sudden boom. One side of the street was 
symbolic of the old suburb, the other of the insidious encroach- 
ment of the modern city. The six old maids belonged to the city 
side, and there, gaunt, straight, prim, they lived their secluded 
lives, undisturbed, apparently, by the sordid, feeble cares of 
one side of the street or the other. In reality, however, a certain 
curiosity — as it is called in spinster ladies — or a spirit of investi- 
gation — as it is called when it exists in the heart of man — burned 
fiercely in the bosoms of these old maids. Their interest in all 
about them was keen and kindly, and often when a fortunate 
wind seemed to blow things in the wav of some unfortunate 
human, the influence might have been traced to the old maids, 
whose only outward and visible sign of their sympathy was a 
certain nervousness under observation, an access of embarrassed 
agitation or a flutter of low whispering. 

Each of the near neighbors had a very marked individuality to 
these six. There was the young Englishman, a man who did his 
nationality no honor, and whose purest content seemed to co- 
exist only with the augmented misery of someone else, misery 
augmented by himself — a bully, braggart, and coward. There 
was the superannuated Yankee, who kept a " shop," and whose 
native keenness was tempered with a beautiful tenderness to 
children. His wife, who was all shrewdness, used to say that 
"Jim would give one of them dirty kids his pipe if she wanted 
it," and everyone knew that Jim's pipe was his first and last love. 
There was a struggling young doctor, unskilled in his practice, 
but with such a noble care of his querulous old mother as marked 
him at once a man, if not a doctor. There was the little, half- 
paralyzed woman who sold papers on the next corner, and whose 
cheery humor from that twisted little body was one of God's 
miracles. There was the big, fat policeman, whose absolute 



o 



1 6 Acta Victoriana. 



vacuity of mind was only exceeded by his slowness of gait ; and 
there were the children ! and, as the grocer's wife remarked, 
"'Heaven knows where they come from in the morning, much 
less where they are packed at night." A poor and dingy com- 
pany these friends of the old maids, but, unlike the prosperous 
and care-free, life was a brimming, strenuous thing to them. 

Living right under the eye of these six misjudged maidens 
was a numerous family of young children. For hours together 
the six old maids would watch over the children's play with the 
most intense personal enthusiasm. They would nod and bend in 
time to the music of " King William was King George's Son," 
and put their heads together in whispered discussion of the 
intricacies of " cross tag," and the children, though still pre- 
serving towards them such a spirit of deference as is proper from 
young to old. felt always their ready understanding and pro- 
tection. A spirit of camaraderie grew up between them until 
at times, even, some of the more daring, in defiance of the 
modern superstition which assigns austerity as a characteristic 
of spinsters, would run to lean lovingly against one or other of 
them, and would stroke their rough garments comprehendingly, 
if wordlessly. 

It was too apparent, however, that the little family the old 
maids were in a sense mothering had fallen on very evil days. 
To the eyes of the old maids things seemed to go from bad to 
worse in the afifairs of this household in which their most 
familiar interest was centred. There was no abatement of the 
irrepressible spirits of the children, but each morning now the 
father started out, pale and weary and discouraged, while the 
wan mother stood at the door trying to smile cheerfully as he 
looked back to wave his hand from the next corner. And one 
morning that which the old maids had feared and discussed in 
subdued murmurings was voiced with the boldness of child- 
hood, "Mother, where's father going?" "Shut up, kid; he's 
looking for work and can't get none," said the older brother. 
So the skeleton stood revealed. This was why the children did 
not run about with the neighbors' families ; this was why there 
w ere no lights in the house at night ; this was the reason of the 
father's weariness and the mother's pallor. And the old maids 
moaned and muttered among themselves. 

Their sympathy, however, was as far as possible of a practical 
turn, and for several days their thoughts never strayed far from 



Acta Vicioriana. 3 i 7 

the unhappy family near them. One day their ahiiost painful 
interest was, if possible, increased by the action of one of the 
children. She was an odd, quiet child with great, mysterious 
eyes, a head too wise for her tiny body, and very charming, sweet 
ways. One day little Grace stretched her arms as far as they 
could go about the somewhat unwieldly form of one of the old 
maids, from whose figure all the supple slenderness of youth had 
long departed, and said, sighing, " Dear old maid, why doesn't 
someone come ; the little mother cries and father looks so tired 
and we have only potatoes for dinner? Why doesn't Uncle 
Ned or somebody give us some money?" And the old maids 
could only return sigh for sigh. 

And winter came, and the old maids made their natural pre- 
paration, put ofif their summer vesture, and donned their winter 
garb, but the family beneath made no such preparation. 

The children were playing hide-and-seek happily one day when 
the climax of all misfortunes came, as it seemed to the little 
mother. Grace, the little favorite, was " it." When she had 
faithfully counted two hundred she cried with the causeless 
exultation of a careless child, " Ready or not, you must be 
caught, all round the goal or not," and then, with eyes still 
blurred with the thoroughness with which she had dug her 
knuckles into them in the intensity of her desire to be honest, she 
gave a blind, excited bound into the street. The car was passing 
at full speed, and Grace ran, head down, into the side of it ; was 
bounced back by the force of the blow and fell into the open, 
newly-dug ditch by the side of the road. The old maids, who 
alone saw the catastrophe, seemed rooted to the spot in horror. 
They had watched the repairing of the street, and could now 
look down into the deep, muddy drain, with a few inches of 
stagnant water at the bottom. The children by-and-by, grown 
weary of hiding, came out from their corners and decided that 
Grace was " real mean to go in and never let them know. They 
might have stayed there till tea-time." Meanwhile, Grace lay at 
the bottom of the ditch, quiet and white and still, and no one 
across the road had seen, because she was hidden by the car, and 
on this side no one seemed to have seen either. Dusk came, and 
tea-time came, and still no one missed Grace. Would they never 
miss her? At last the poor little family sat down to their very 
sparing meal. 

"Where is Grace?" the mother asked, and no one could 



o 



1 8 Ac^a Victoriana. 



answer. The father went to the door and called, but no one 
came. Then he went around to the doctor's and the grocer's, 
and even appealed to the stolid policeman. Finally they began 
a thorough search, and a strange instinct kept the father from 
straying away from the house in search of the child. Gloved by 
a strange impulse he suddenly snatched up one of the red 
lanterns left beside the ditch and jumped down into the 
unpleasant-looking hole. There was Grace, with her head torn 
by a jagged stone against which she had fallen. The grocer and 
the father carried her carefully into the house, while the poor 
mother wrung her hands and the old maids tried to express their 
sympathy. With an unconfessed, desperate and horrible wonder 
in the hearts of mother and father as to how he should be paid, 
the father called in the doctor. 

A long night of watching followed, while the doctor sat 
patiently beside the bed holding the child's hand. Is there any- 
thing more ghastly, more absolutely heart-weakening than the 
night watch beside a sick bed. Perhaps you are stunned by the 
weight of the sudden blow, and only this bare, dark night brings 
the bitter realization to you. You lean forward and look, and 
the dear face seems strange and awful to you and a desperate 
agony that longs for movement, yet cannot move, presses heavily 
down upon you. You bend forward at last, gazing the more 
intently, thinking, perhaps, that the very force of your intensity 
will draw forth an answering look, but there is none ; then you 
touch that quiet form fearfully and your last hope ends in 
horror, for there is no response to your touch. And the 
moments grope on, pallid, dank, cold, and the full misery of 
futureless death is upon you in the grim dawn. 

At the time of crisis near morning the old maids, who still 
watched tirelessly, saw the mother run into her own empty room 
and fling herself across the bed, with her hands clasped high 
above her head in an ecstasy of dumb agony. Would the time 
never pass ! Could the child not even speak or look at them ! 
Just as dawn crept coldly across the floor Grace at last opened 
her eyes and looked at her mother. To the doctor it seemed 
that his tense, tortured nerves gave an audible rebound at this 
flicker of hope. He was at once full of energy, resourceful and 
strong. 

Through the weary nights and days which followed the com- 
mon people who were the neighbors vied with each other in 



A cia Vic to riana . 319 

kind benevolence. The doctor had his chance and showed him- 
self not only a man, but also a physician. He had had his first 
real case, and his success warmed afresh his discouraged heart. 
His devotion was tireless. The grocer, out of the kindness of 
his heart, brought in appropriate daily gifts of succulent bull's- 
eyes, doubtful lozenges, and other childish delights. The old 
news' vendor squandered her too scant earnings on some 
luscious grapes ; the policeman, moved out of his grandiose im- 
becility, donated an apologetic-looking guinea-pig, and the 
doctor's mother sent a pair of brilliant scarlet mittens, knit by 
her own rheumatic hands. Later Grace enjoyed all these things, 
but just now her strength was only sufficient to listen to the low 
song of the old maids, who soothed her to sleep more than once. 
To them she turned constantly and their silent sympathy seemed 
to appeal to her more than words. 

And Christmas drew near ; Christmas, the holy time of the 
year, Avith its peace and charity for all men. And in spite of 
everything the six old maids could do things grew steadily worse 
and the gaunt wolf of hunger clawed restlessly at the frail door. 
The neighbors were themselves taxed to the utmost and could 
give little further help, and the whole household was weakened 
with watching and hunger. 

At last one night a gruff heavy countryman came toiling up 
the street, stopping often irresolutely, and looking hither and 
thither questioningly. The old maids swayed and beckoned 
and whispered together in tense expectancy. Forgetting all 
their maidenly modesty, they boldly did their very best to attract 
the attention of this man, and who knows but that they murmured 
one to the other how shamed they were. The man seemed to 
recognize their insistence, and came uncertainly on till he stood 
in front of their home and looked long into the whirling trees 
above him. Now that he was so near, the excitement of the 
spinsters was almost unbearable, for had they not looked in on 
wnat thev had come to consider their family, and had they not 
seen the children hang up their stockings with the unquenchable 
hope of childhood, while the parents looked on with uncertain, 
quivering mouths and strained, hopeless eyes. At last, in re- 
sponse to their frantic signals the countryman turned in at the 
house, and, as he rang the bell wondered at himself, and with a 
man's unknowingness cursed his pains. Finally the door opened 
slowly, and with an unwilling groan, for the hall was too bare 



320 Ada Victoriana. 

a place for any self-respecting door to expose without protest. 
There was a little cry of " Oh, Ned!" and the woman was in her 
brother's arms. 

" Why, Fan, how did you get here ? I've been searchin' for 
you all over town." 

Then she told him her story, the old, old story of sickness, and 
pain and discouragement, and while Ned wiped his honest eyes 
furtively he muttered, " And me with lots, wdiile poor little Fan 
is half starved." And when Fan had finished her story she 
must learn his. This was a brighter tale, of adventures by sea 
and land, travels in strange countries, and the final buying of the 
old house, where he was to live with Fan and her family. And 
now it was the woman's turn to ask, "But how did you find me?" 
Womanlike the happy fact had been enough for her for a time, 
but now the first flood of happiness was over, she would return 
to reasons. 

" It was them poplars brung me," said Ned. 

" Oh, the six old maids ?" 

" Do you remember, Fan. that row of poplars so straight and 
stiff in front of the old house? You called them the 'old maids,' 
and used to talk to them and make so much of them. You had 
strange fancies. To-night I was strolling up the street wonder- 
ing where you had moved to, and them six old maids kept up 
such a rustling and bowing and beckoning that I looked at them 
even oftener tlTan I do at most poplars. They acted like they 
was crazy, and I don't believe the other trees was carryin' on 
like that. I felt clean silly goin' into a strange house, because 
an old maid poplar seemed to want me to. Fan, I thank the Lord 
for poplars ; them trees have always meant good to me." 

And joy was born that Christmas Eve. The grocer got such 
an order as he had never before received, and the father, mother 
and Ned worked far into the night, filling little stockings and 
preparing for the morrow. Fan noticed that Ned stopped longest 
by Grace's bed, and she remembered a sweet, frail friend of 
hers whom Ned had loved and lost. The doctor and his mother, 
the grocer and his wife, the news' vendor, and even the police- 
man sat down that Christmas day to a dinner such as they had 
never had before, " with all the trimmin's," as Unce Ned said, 
but no gift was fully and appropriately received till it had been 
carried to the window for the six old maids to see. And can we 
doubt they saw? 




Acta Victoriana. 321 



War: Its Substitutes and Cure 

BY REV. A. C. COURTICE, M.A., _.D. 

THE title of this article indicates a method of approach to the 
subject which is both positive and constructive, and this 
method should become increasingly prominent in the advocacy 

of peace. The other method which is 
negative and destructive, also critical and 
belligerent, has played a large part in the 
advocacy of peace up to a recent date. 
The evils of war are so obvious that they 
invite attack and deserve it ; the proper 
substitutes for war have not been so plain 
and well-established as to command pub- 
lic confidence, but this defect is passing 
away. 

REV. A c. couRTicE, This truth may be put in concrete 

M.A., D.D. form. The promotion of peace after the 

manner of '\lr. \\ . T. Stead's " War Against War," is the old 
method in vigorous operation, but the promotion of peace after 
the manner of King Edward's arbitration treaties and through 
the Hague Court and its provisions is the newer method. 

The negative side of the subject should receive some atten- 
tion. Is War a Blessing? Can this view be maintained? 
Very few will attempt it. Most men and women admit that 
war is always to be regretted, and as much as possible to be 
avoided. There are some, how^ever, who claim that occasional 
war is essential to the happiness and prosperity of nations and 
that war preparations are a necessary feature of every growing 
nation's life now and forevermore. Captain Charles Ross, an 
English writer, sets forth this view in cxtenso in a book entitled, 
" Representative Government and War." He takes the 
ground that the human race would quickly degenerate 
without the stimulus of war, and goes the full length of 
approving all the immorality and brutality involved. He says : 
" Nations are potential robbers ; there is no law or police force 
to prevent robbery ; fear of the intended victim or of other nations 
will alone deter." The " preparations for war " involve the 
establishment of " an efficient intelligence in the adversary's ter- 



322 Acta Victor iana\ 

ritory and elsewhere, by means of which not only shall good 
information be forthcoming, but false information circulated, 
sedition and disunion caused in the ranks of the adversary, and 
that adversary brought into disrepute throughout the civilized 
world." Civilized world? Mark the phrase and then reflect 
on the picture. Thanks be unto God it is not the Bible picture 
of civilized society, patriarchal, prophetic, or Christian. If war 
is in any genuine, valuable, and permanent way a blessing, it is 
difficult to understand why the Old Testament Patriarchs and 
the Old Testament Prophets were so markedly men of peace ; 
or why the great prophets of Judah and Israel were inspired to 
picture the ^^lessianic Kingdom as marked by the absence of 
war and the prevalence of industry and peace ; or, above all, why 
Jesus Christ and His apostles and the early Christians took their 
stand so clearly and firmly against carnal weapons and military 
methods. Lesser lights count for little after the authoritative 
teaching and example of Jesus Christ, God's Son and the world's 
Saviour. He commanded His fighting disciple. " Put up thy 
sword," and under the light of His teaching made plain and 
powerful by His example war should disappear from human 
history. 

Is war a blessing? Note in this connection a voice from one 
of the present century's rulers. Theodore Roosevelt, in a 
presidential message, says : " The true end of every great and 
free people should be self-respecting peace. !More and more 
the civilized peoples are realizing the wicked folly of war, and 
are attaining that condition of just and intelligent regard for the 
rights of others which will in the end make world-wide peace 
possible." 

What other view can be held? That war is an evil without a 
remedy ! This view has been stated thus : " War is an evil 
which human effort can never entirely eradicate from this 
world." Or thus : " The most effective preventive of its dire 
consequences is a thorough, constant readiness for its terrible 
prosecution." This is the attitude of the Emperor of Germany. 
He says in effect : " I keep Germany and Europe in peace by 
keeping myself so strong that no one dare attack me." 

On this basis Europe is an armed camp to keep the peace. 
But the competitive development of armies and navies in times 
of peace in order to preserve the peace has proved to be a ruin- 



A eta Victoriana. 323 

ous policy. The Tsar's Rescript and the Hague Conference and 
Court of Arbitration are the outcome of the intolerable burden. 
A very eloquent and effective address at the Hague Conference 
was given by a military general, General Den Beer Portugael 
(Holland). 

He said, concerning armed forces on land and sea and war 
budgets : " You know, gentlemen, that these have now reached 
gigantic, disquieting, and dangerous proportions. Four millions 
of men (since increased to five millions) under arms and the 
total military budgets up to five milliards of francs a year. Is 
it not frightful ? I know that these soldiers are only kept under 
arms for the maintenance of peace. The Sovereigns have only 
in view the safety of their peoples. The States believe sincerely 
that these forces are necessary. But they are mistaken. It is to 
their inevitable loss, to their destruction, slow, but sure, that they 
labor along this path. Please, understand me, gentlemen, I 
am far from being a Utopian. I do not believe in an eternal 
peace. But the more armed forces accumulate, military budgets 
are swollen, populations are crushed under the weight of taxa- 
tion, the more the States are pushed to the edge of the abyss 
into which at last they will fall. They will ruin and destroy 
themselves. Let us stop on the edge of the abyss, otherwise we 
are lost. Let vis stop ! Gentlemen, it is worth while to make 
this supreme effort. Let us stand fast (Tenons ferme!). The 
price of peace, when burdensome armies and navies are the 
price, is serious enough, and the price is ever ascending. The 
civilized nations did say : ' There is a better way and we will 
try.' " 

Neither of these views have satisfied the great and good men 
of the ages. The prophets of the Christian centuries have been 
against war. In the English-speaking and Protestant world this 
is true, as well as in the broader Christian world. Amongst 
those who have written or spoken against war are John Wyclifife, 
George Fox, John Wesley, Dr. Adam Clarke, Dr. Chalmers, 
Lord Brougham, founder of the Howard Association, Lord 
Falkland, John Bright, Charles Haddon Spurgeon, Hugo 
Grotius, Victor Hugo, Wm. Penn, and Elihu Burritt. In the 
United States of America there is a distinguished list of peace 
prophets : George Washington, Russell Lowell, Dr. Ellery Chan- 
ning, Gen. Grant, Charles Sumner, George Dana Boardman, 



324 Ac^a Victoriana. 

Dr. Edward Everett Hale, President ^^lark Hopkins, President 
C. C. Bonney, and Cardinal Gibbons, whose words have been 
often quoted, " God is the God of Peace to the individual, the 
Father of Peace to the family, and the Prince of Peace to 
society." 

War is not a blessing from God to humanity in the judgment 
of these men. By the true prophets the sword is classed with 
famine and pestilence as judgments. War is not an evil to be 
hopelessly endured to the end of time. Some settle the matter 
finally thus : " All war is wicked, having its origin in sinful 
passions, and being always prosecuted by violent, immoral, and 
wicked methods." Others will not go so far, but will take their 
stand thus : " War is a worn-out method ; it is barbaric ; it be- 
longs to the ages of passion and force ; it has no rightful place 
in the ages of reason and conscience ; it must disappear. Still 
others are concluding from the study of history that war is in- 
efifective ; it is futile. A consideration of great importance should 
be made most clear to this efifect; it is the province of history 
to sit in judgment on individual wars and not the duty of peace 
advocates." 

Whatever may be the line of approach, and there is divergence 
of view on the negative side, certainly, on the positive side, there 
should be unanimity and co-operation. On the constructive side 
there are three main factors at work: (i) The Peace Societies, 
(2) the Inter-Parliamentary Union, and (3) the Hague Court. 

Peace Societies have grown in Christian countries in Europe 
and America, and these have joined in a remarkable series of 
International Peace Congresses, the last of which was the thir- 
teenth, recently held at Boston, the largest and most influential 
of the series. The Inter-Parliamentary Union is made up of 
members of the Parliaments of Europe devoted to Peace by 
Arbitration. A large American group has been recently added 
to this Union. As these parliamentarians are all from Sovereign 
States, colonies like Canada and Australia are not represented. 
This is to be regretted. 

The Peace Societies and Congresses constitute the popular 
element in the movement. The Inter-Parliamentary Union con- 
stitutes a body of experienced, expert, and responsible men who 
give practical wisdom and solidity to the movement. The Hague 
Conferences (a second one is being called) deal with Inter- 



Acta Victoriana . 325 

national Covenants and Commissions, International Law and an 
International Court. 

The Peace Societies belong to the nineteenth century, and 
there are hundreds of them now (about 450). The largest and 
most influential of all is the Inter-Parliamentary Union, with two 
thousand and fifty (2,050) members. This Union held its last 
meeting in St. Louis in September, and the International Con- 
gress held its last meeting at Boston in October. Over one 
thousand delegates from the civilized world registered at Bos- 
ton, and two hundred members of European Parliaments were 
entertained by the American Government, Congress having voted 
fifty thousand dollars to provide suitably for the Inter-Parlia- 
mentary Union. The President of the United States delegated 
two distinguished members of his administration to welcome 
these bodies. The Hon. Francis B. Loomis welcomed the Union 
to St. Louis, and Secretary of State, John Hay, welcomed the 
Congress at Boston. 

Notwithstanding the good work that has been done there are 
sincere peace advocates who are impatient and belligerent when 
a special war is under consideration. When the Boer War broke 
out Mr. W\ T. Stead became impatient. Concerning the Inter- 
Parliamentary Union and the ' Peace Societies, he wrote thus : 
"A Conference constituted to secure peace by arbitration that 
cannot even condemn a power which has deliberately appealed 
to war, and rejected arbitration, stands self-confessed as im- 
potent. We must, therefore, look further afield for the head- 
quarters staff of the Peace Army. Where shall we find it ? The 
existing Peace Societies are earnest, but they themselves bitterly 
deplore their impotence. They have neither funds, interna- 
tional organization, nor influence. We have been too nambv- 
pamby in our Peace War. We have not been half military 
enough, we have not been bellicose enough." The organized 
Peace forces bore this undeserved criticism patiently and have 
done some of their best work this very year, in moving Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to call a second Hague Conference, and in stimu- 
lating binding Treaties of Arbitration which are now so 
prevalent. 

What is the practical, accomplished record for Peace by Arbi- 
tration? Not dreams or visions, but facts constitute the answer. 
Within the last one hundred vears there have been more than 



o 



26 Ac^a Vuto7'ia7ta. 



two hundred cases in which international differences have been 
adjusted by arbitration. The Government of the United States 
has been a party to seventy of these. The most notable case of 
the Rind— one that has had the most profound and beneficent 
results — was the Treaty negotiated at Washington in 1871, which 
provided for four Arbitrations. On this treaty Mr. John JMorley 
says : " The Treaty of Washington and the Geneva Arbitration 
stand out as the most notable victory in the nineteenth century 
of the noble art of preventive diplomacy, and the most signal 
exhibition in their history of self-command in two of the three 
chief democratic powers of the Western World !" 

The march of events moved forward to the Hague Confer- 
ence, called by the Czar of Russia. The famous Rescript was a 
plain, carefully-considered indictment of militarism. There is 
no escape from its facts or its practical conclusions. The gist of 
it is in this sentence : " The system of armament a ontrance, and 
the continual danger which lies in this massing of war material 
are transforming the armed peace of our day into a crushing 

BURDEN." 

The Hague Conference was called for two weighty reasons : 
( I ) first, because " it would converge into one powerful focus 
the efforts of all the States which are sincerelv seeking to make 
the great conception of universal peace triumph over the ele- 
ments of trouble and discord"' ; and (2) secondly, because "it 
would cement the agreement by a co-operate consecration of the 
principles of equity and right, on which rest the security of 
States and the welfare of peoples." 

Only the briefest summary of the result is possible. 

The opening clause authorizes the agreements and arrange- 
ments in the name of the Sovereigns or Heads of Independent 
States and their Plenipotentiaries. The names are fully given 
in both cases. In this clause the following ideals are set forth 
as guiding principles : the empire of right ; the sentiment of in- 
ternational justice; permanent institution of arbitral jurisdiction; 
regular organization of arbitral procedure ; consecrating by inter- 
national agreement the principles of equity and law. 

The first article indicates the purpose : 

" In order to prevent as far as possible the recourse to force 
in international relations, the signatory powers agree to employ 
all their efforts to bring about the pacific solution of the differ- 



Ada Victoriana. 327 

ences which may arise." Then follow the three methods: i. 
Good Offices and ^Mediation. 2. International Commissions of 
Enquiry. 3. The Permanent Court of Arbitration. 

The mediation of friendly Powers has proved very helpful in 
the past. This is approved and provided for. 

The second provision is very important : " In cases in which 
differences of opinion should arise between the signatory powers 
with regard to the local circumstances which have given rise to 
a disagreement of an international character and in which 
neither national honor nor vital interests are at stake, the 
interested parties agree to have recourse to the institution of 
International Commissions of Enquiry in order to establish the 
circumstances which have given rise to the dispute and to clear 
up all questions of fact." The report of such a Commission, 
limited to the statement of facts, has in no way the character 
of an arbitral decision. 

International Arbitration has for its object the settlement of 
disputes between States by judges of their own choosing on the 
basis of respect for right. The agreement to arbitrate may be 
for existing or eventual disputes. The arbitral convention im- 
plies an engagement to submit in good faith to the arbitral de- 
cision. Each of the Powers designate four persons of recognized 
competence and of the highest moral standing to be arbitrators. 
The term of appointment is for six years. When a case is 
referred to the Court each disputant chooses and appoints two 
arbitrators from these, and the four choose a chief arbitrator. 
Thus the Arbitral Court is constituted, and then the Arbitral 
Procedure is outlined. 

What has happened since to bring this Court at the Hague 
into recognition? The United States and Mexico referred a 
long-standing diplomatic dispute (the Pious Fund Case) to the 
Court and it was settled. 

The Government of Switzerland had become a recognized 
umpire in international difficulties, but now declines to act and 
refers the nations to the Hague Court. 

President Roosevelt pursued the same course in the Vene- 
zuela case. He was asked by three European Powers, Britain, 
Germany, and Italy, to arbitrate their differences with Vene- 
zuela. It was flattering to his impartiality and ability. He 
courteously declined and referred them to the Hague Court. 



328 



Acta Victoriana. 



It was a memorable event, which testifies to the progress of the 
world in the appeal to reason as against force, when those 
powerful nations stopped their coercive operations against a 
weak foe, recalled their navies and agreed to arbitrate. Volun- 
tary and binding Treaties of Arbitrations have formed the great 
nations of Western Europe into a peaceful brotherhood of States. 
The King of England has taken a leading part in negotiating 
these treaties, and is already referred to as Edward, the Peace- 
maker. Similar Treaties are being announced almost faster 
than one can keep them in mind. 

While these practical provisions are established and opera- 
tive as the rational and Christian substitutes for war, and they 
are just such substitutes as have been found effective in abolish- 
ing private and civil wars, yet the real cure for war lies deeper. 
It lies in the fuller apprehension of God and His Law and His 
Love ; His Law as ultimate Righteousness, and His Love as the 
sufficient motive in fulfilling His Law. The law which is to 
rule the world, the human world, and all worlds, is and must 
be the Law of God. The Divine Law and Condition, as made 
known through Christ, is not war — it is peace. Peace is not 
stagnation— it is not mere negation — it is the wise and benevo- 
lent balance of forces. The fundamental principle and spirit of 
the Christian Religion, whether viewed theologically as Atone- 
ment, or ethically as Righteousness in all human relations, or 
Spiritually as New Life, is Peace based on established Good- 
will. " Blessed are the peace-makers." 




IHK AKMOKIES, TORON'IO. 



Acta Vicloriana. 329 

Grunt the Third 

ONE of ihe few remaining male members of the teaching profes- 
sion (save the mark) in this Province, recently warned his 
pupils, in a county model school, against the use of slang and other 
forms of bad English, which he declared were " almost inewV-ably 
picked up owing to our living in the neighboring vicinity oi the United 
States." He had recently attended a Normal School. 

Another teacher (a lady, this time), told her friend that although 
she was only "gittin' two hundred and fifty this year" she expected 
"a rise next year." 

Almost every teacher, so-called, in Ontario, tells her pupils to 
" reduce down," and that she doesn't think an answer as given isn't 
right. Her pupils imitate her, and the Model School man, and the 
High School man, and, not seldom, the professor, so that eventually 
we hear this sort of thing from the lips of lawyers, doctors, and — and 
— and even from legislators ! The rising generation is becoming 
thoroughly accustomed to this abuse of our English language. It is 
folly to expect figs of thistles or grapes of thorns, and unless some- 
thing is done to stem the tide there will soon be no such thing as 
purity of language in the speech of our people — and to use a political 
stump orator's phraseology, "what are we going to do about it ?" 

Observer. 



Pin^ Pong 

WHEN the shades of eve are falling, and the stars are peeping out, 
And the silver moon is shedding her bright glances all about, 
Comes stealing to my tired ear a most famili?.r song, — 
'Tis the ping of the mosquito and the June bug's merry pong. 

Oh ! the nightingale sings sweetly, and I love the merry lark, 
And I've heard the whip-poor-will proclaim the coming of the dark; 
But one sweet strain the summer through within my ears doth ring, — 
'Tis the June bug's happy ponging, and the skitty's cheerful ping. 

— E. W. W. 



330 



Ada Victoriana. 



Falls of Burleigh 



BY ALMA FRANCES M'COLLUM. 



FALLS of Burleigh, Falls of Burleigh, 
Where the foaming waters bound 
O'er a winding granite stairway 
With deep harmony of sound, 
Like prophetic voices chanting 

Paeans infinitely clear, 
Ever some great truth revealing 
To the comprehending ear. 

Soothing strains steal through the senses 
Gazing on thy ceaseless flow, 

Languor, sorrow, pain unheeded, 

. Vanish in the deep below ; 

Life becomes a dream untroubled, 
Like the fluted, restless lake 

Calmed and stilled to tranquil motion 
In thy current's placid wake. 

Falls of Burleigh, time and distance 

Cannot still thy wondrous song, 
Neither dim the perfect vision 

Of thy waters hurled along ; 
Faintly floating, like an echo 

Wafted from a spirit shore, 
Steals the chant my soul enton.th 

Evermore and evermore. 



Acta Victoriana. 331 

Upper Canada Jicademy, 1856-I84t 

BY C. C. JAMES, M.A. 
II. 

IN the preceding paper I gave a brief summary of the educational 
conditions and the political contentions that existed in the Province 
previous to the year 1837. My purpose now is to follow the working 
out of this movement as it resulted in Upper Canada Academy, 
which, arising primarily in a demand from the Methodist ministers, 
was, at the same time, brought forth through the hearty assistance of 
many men of other denominations, especially those of the Church of 
England, who were struggling for the recognition of the rights of the 
Legislative Assembly as opposed by the Executive stubbornly striving 
to hold on to their exclusive power. 

From 1 79 1 down to 18 10 the Methodist ministers or missionaries 
laboring in Upper Canada were attached to and under the direction of 
the New York Annual Conference. From 1810 to 1824 they were 
members of the Genesee Conference. Owing to the growth' of the 
work and the changed relationship arising out of the war of 18 r 2, a 
separate Canadian Conference was organized in 1824 at Hallowell 
(now Picton). Four years later the connection was permanently 
severed and the Canadian Methodist Conference established as an 
independent organization. 

The Conference at once began the consideration of three questions : 
ist, The maintenance and expansion of missionary work among the 
Indians ; 2nd, the establishment of a journal ; 3rd, the founding of an 
independent college or academy. This was the natural order of their 
undertaking. At the first conference, in 1824, a missionary society was 
organized. The missions on the Credit and Grand Rivers, on the Bay 
of Quinte and Rice Lake, and, later, in far away Hudson's Bay, were 
the beginniniis of work that has spread over the entire Dominion and 
across the Pacific to Japan and China. Accompanying the mission 
work was the establishment of Indian schools. 

In 1829 the Christian Guardian was established, with Egerton 
Ryerson as editor, a young man twenty-six years of age, lately a teacher 
in the mission school on the Credit. 

The older men were beginning to wear out under the vigorous strain 
of circuit work ; the supply of young men from the parent conferences 
in the Unites States was either cut off or undesirable, because of the 
feeling among the people. It was necessary to take volunteers from 
among the Canadian people. These must be trained. There were 
3 



332 Ada Victoriana. 

also promising young Indians, whose services should be utilized as 
preachers and teachers among their own people. For a time some of 
these must be sent to ihe seminaries to the south, but the need of a 
college at home was imperative. Our preliminary sketch has shown, 
I think, that there was no college in Upper Canada that was suitable 
or available for the training of these youn j men for this work. 

Upper Canada College had just begun work at York, with its staff 
of masters from Cambridge and elsewhere. Five members of the staff 
were clergymen of the Church of Englnnd, and it was practically under 
the direction of the Board of King's College, of which it was the minor 
college or preparatory school. This college, of course, would not, in 
many important particulars, do the work then so urgently needed. 
There was only one thing to do— to build up such a college as was 
needed. 

In 1830 a committee was formed and a subscription list started. In 
two years j[^'],ooo had been subscribed and the site at Cobourg 
selected. In 1832 the corner stone of Upper Canada Academy was laid. 

The work of construction was carried on as rapidly as available 
funds or the credit of the energetic ministers would permit. The fact 
that it took four years to complete is suggestive of the struggle to sup- 
ply funds. This six years' effort to build the college was, however, 
quite limited in comparison with the continuous struggle of the next 
ten years to pay debts, meet yearly expenditures and keep the institu- 
tion going. 

The statement has been made and, I think, with reason, that when 
the college building was completed in 1S36 it was the finest bit of 
architecture then standing in the Province. 

Rev. Dr. Green, in his reminiscences, tells us how, on the i8th of 
June, 1836, multitudes of people gathered in Cobourg to witness the 
opening of the Academy. A service was first held at the church, 
where Rev. Joseph Stinson preached the sermon. A procession was 
then formed and the Trustees, Board of Visitors, ministers and others 
walked to the College, where Dr. Green handed the keys to the new 
Principal, Rev. Matthew Richey. Dr. Green says that it was a day of 
anxiety ; there was a debt of $16,000 on the building, and the students 
were asking for furniture for their rooms. The ceremony over, he 
mounted his horse, rode to Kingston, and discounted at the banks the 
notes of himself and other poor ministers. Returning at once, he 
went to Niagara and bought a supply of furniture. Under these cir- 
cumstances classes were organized that for sixty-eight years have been 
carried on without a break. Upper Canada Academy has grown into 



Ada Vtctoriana. 333 

Victoria University, and King's College has become the University of 
Toronto. What would Sir John Colborne or Sir Francis Bond Head 
say as to their federation ? 

What about the charter? It should be remembered that the whole 
financial undertaking was on the personal responsibility of a few 
Methodist ministers, whose faith must be admired. In 1835 the Con- 
ference made formal application to the Government of Upper Canada 
for a charter and for assistance, but without avail. Egerton Ryerson, 
then stationed at Kingston, was their emergency champion. On No- 
vember 20th, 1835, he started for England. Week after week, and 
* month after month, he labored. On October 12th, 1836, the Royal 
Charter was signed, and the day before he sailed for home he received 
a promise from Lord Glenelgthat the grant of ^4,100, that had failed 
to carry in Upper Canada, would be advanced out of the Casual and 
Territorial Revenue, still controlled by the Lieutenant-Governor, and 
that Sir Francis Bond Head would receive instructions to that effect. 
Private subscriptions, amounting to $5,000, were collected in England, 
including £^\o from the Queen's mother. The detailed story of this 
mission to England will be found in Ryerson's "Story of My Life," 
and in Vol. II. of Dr. Hodgins' " Documentary History of Education 
in Upper Canada." 

Egerton Ryerson returned early in 1837 with the Royal Charter for 
the Academy, which, in his inaugural address later on, he referred to 
as "The first institution of the kind established by Royal Charter 
unconnected with the Church of England throughout the British 
Colonies." 

What of the grant ? On Ryerson's return to Upper Canada he 
wrote to Dr. Alder in England, " We have not yet received a farthing 
of the Government grant to our Academy. The Governor's reply still 
is, there is no money in the treasury ; but he has given us his written 
promise, and offered his word to any of the banks that it will be paid 
out of the first money which had not been previously appropriated. 
But, strange to say, there is not a bank or banker in Upper Canada 
that will take the Governor's promise for ^i^ioo. Mr. Receiver-Gen- 
eral Dunn kindly lent out of his own pocket to my brother John about 
^1,200 for the Academy upon my brother's receipt, remarking, at the 
same time, that he did it upon his credit and out of respect to the 
Methodists, but that he could place no dependence upon the word of 
Sir Francis in the matter." ("Story of My Life," p. 166.) 

The obstinacy of the Governor was the cause of a long dispute 
between him and the Legislative Assembly. On February gth, 1837, 



334 Ada Victoriana. 

the mitter was fully considered by a committee of the House, and in 
their report, urging the payment, the committee made this statement : 
"The erection of this Seminary is, your committee beh'eves, the great- 
est undertaking hitherto successfully prosecuted in Upper Canada upon 
the plan of voluntary contributions alone. ' This report was signed 
by W. H. Draper, and was supported by several other prominent 
members of the Church of England. It will thus be seen that the 
struggle for responsib'e self-government and the recognition of the 
powers of the Assembly, played no small pait in the early history of 
the College. One-half of the grant or loan was paid in November, 
1837, and the other half in February, 1838. Had we time a very in- 
teresting chapter might be written on the financial struggles of this 
pioneer college — a chapter that has been repeated in the history of 
other educational institutions of Ontario — how the ministers struggling 
on small salaries paid their liberal subscriptions, and secured assist- 
ance from the none too wealthy laymen ; how they set aside by resolu- 
tion their marriage fees to increase the fund, and how the banks dis- 
counted the notes of poor preachers, whose financial backing consisted 
of faith and enthusiasm. In this day we can hardly do full justice to 
the men who sacrificed so much for the institution that they had 
founded. One incident may be worthy of repetition here. When Dr. 
Ryerson resigned his position as Superintendent of Education, he 
addressed a communication to Hon. M. C. Cameron, Secretary of the 
Piovince. Arnong other things in review of his public career, he says : 
" During the last four years I had accumulated and invested two 
thousand dollars ; but recently the claims of two objects seemed to 
be so strong (the one the purchase of McGill Square, for benevolent 
purposes, the other the endowment of Victoria College) that I divided 
the two thousand dollars between them. With the exception, there- 
fore, of the house I occupy, I have no more material wealth than I 
had twenty-five years ago." 

A few words as to the students of the early days may be of some 
interest. Practically all ofificial records of the first years of the Academy 
and College have disappeared. Down to 1845, that is for the first ten 
years of work, all that we have are three thin pamphlets, the circulars 
for the years 1840, 1841 and 1845. We have to search elsewhere 
therefore, for our accounts of the students of sixty and more years 
ago. After a somewhat extended correspondence and searching of 
papers and reminiscences there have been found living to-day at least 
twenty-two persons who were students at Victoria and Upper Canada 
Academy prior to 1845. There are probably others to be added to 



Acta Victor iana. 335 

this band of octogenarians. In this Hst are the following : Hon. 
Matthew H. Richey, formerly Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, 
Hon. James C Aikins,* formerly Lieut.-Governor of Manitoba ; Col. 
Walker Powell, of Ottawa, formerly Adjutant-General of Canada; Hon. 
William McDougall, of Ottawa; Judge Weller, of Peterboro' ; Dr, 
John George Hodgins, who has completed sixty years of Public Civil 
Service; Dr. James H. Richardson, the venerable surgeon of Toronto 
Gaol; James Adams Matthewson, the well-known wholesale merchant 
of Montreal : Judge Thos. A. Lazier, of Belleville, and Allan McLean 
Howard for fifty years Clerk of the Division Court at Toronto.! 

These names and those of others who have passed away show that 
the students were not all Methodists, but that many young men came 
from Presbyterian and Church of England homes to receive their 
education at an institution that was open to all and that prescribed no 
religious tests. 

Tne co-education of the sexes was provided for in the first four 
years, before the Academy was elevated into ttie degree-conferring 
College. What were the rules ? How did they dififer from such as 
would be enforced to-day ? Strange to say I found a copy of the first 
rules in the Journals of the Legislature. The Committee of the House 
investigated the Institution in its dispute with Sir Francis Bond Head, 
and in a Report to the House, printed the rules, thereby uninten- 
tionally contributing to an historical investigation. 

A condensed statement of the chief regulations may be interesting 
in these days when Victoria has returned to the original system of 
co-education. 

1. Hours of rising : 5 in summer, 6 in winter. Hours of retiring : g in 
summer, 10 in winter. 

2. Due respect and subordination to teachers and officers. 

3. Conduct of students to be in all respects distinguished by moral pro- 
priety. All profane, obscene and indecent language, garr.es of chance and 
fighting or wrestling are among the grosser violations of this law. 

4. All indecencie'=, such as writing upon the walls, loud speaking, whist- 
ling or laughing within doors, playing in the halls or rooms, entering the 
house with dirty shoes, slovenliness of person and dress, lushing to or 
from meals, unbecoming conduct at table and the odious practice of spit- 
ting on the floor are strictly prohibited. 

5. Permission very rarely given to spend the evening out, and that only 
when it is known where and how they will occupy it. Must be back at 9 
o'clock. 



*Senator Aikins died Aug. 6, 1904. See Christmas Acta, pp. 180-183. 
tSee Acta Victoriana, April and May, 1904. 



2,^6 Ada Vic tori ana. 

6. Each student to sweep out his room before breakfast. No gossiping, 
unnecessary visiting, or assembhng in groups in each other's rooms will be 
by any means tolerated. 

7. Front of edifice for females, rear for males. No corresponding or 
conversing, save brothers with sisters. 

8. Privilege of studying in rooms allowed as reward of good conduct. 

9. No students are at liberty to go to the village, to take excursions, to 
contract debts or dispose of anything without permission. It is to be 
treated as an offence peculiarly revolting and ominous in youth their using 
ardent spirits or visiting taverns. 

10. 1st Monday in each month for letter writing. All letters to pass 
through hands of Principal or Preceptress. 

1 1. .All must attend church and be orderly on Sabbath. 

12. Day scholars go home after regular hours. 

13. Students must keep away from steward. 

14. Stoves inspected at night. Any students detected kindling fire after 
inspection will forfeit fires for one week and, on repetition, will forfeit the 
use of stoves altogether. 

15. Daily reading of Bibles and prayers enjoined. 

One word more, the college was started to assist in mission work by 
the training of promising young Indians as teachers and missionaries. 
In the report of the spring closing in 1837 the editor of The Cobourg 
Star stated that the poem by \Vm. Wilson and the oration by Henry 
Steinhauer most impressed him. He says : 

" The speakers were Indians. Yes, two individuals were before us 
holding our thoughts enchained as qualified and accomplished teachers 
in the land — children of a race which, in the pride and prejudice of his 
heart, the white man has for ages held to be irreclaimably degenerate 
and barbarous. It was an event at once to humble and delight us, 
and one which will not readily pass from our memory." 

This opinion has lately been corroborated by Mr. Matthewson, who 
informs us that the two Indians far outranked the rest of them. On 
the same occasion, one of the Latin orations, was delivered by Robert 
Palmer Howard who, for many years, was the distingtiished Dean of 
McGill Medical College. 

This paper is submitted partly with the hope of contributing some 
facts to the study of the most important period of the history of our 
province and partly with the hope of suggesting to others the advisa- 
bility of making careful study of other early educational institutions, 
such as Bath Academy, Grantham Academy, Newburg Academy, the 
Friends' School at Bloomfield and those institutions that have grown 
into the colleges and universities of the present day. The stories of 
these institutions, plainly told, may some day assist a Canadian Green 
in the writing of a worthy h story of the Canadian people. 



A eta Vic to r?a na. 



Z?^1 




Sable Island and Its Inhabitants 

{Concluded.) 

BY W. E. SAUNDERS. 

AS I said at the beginning of this article, I viewed Sable Island from 
the standpoint of an ornithologist, and, consequently, was inter- 
ested not so much in the island itself as in its inhabitants, and parti- 
cularly the Ipswich sparrow. Hence my first thoughts on landing 
were not for the success of the forestry experiment, but for these little 
birds who make this strange island their only home. They proved to 
be very common, and their song could be heard at almost every 
moment of the day. 

They belong to an insular race of the Savanna sparrow of eastern 
North America. In the struggle for existence for thousands of years 
on this bleak little islet, the bird has become considerably larger and 
much paler than the continental species, its increase of Itngth being 
about eight per cent. The breeding-ground of this bird was for many 
years unknown, and not until 1894 was the bird fully studied and 
written upon. Previous to that time it was known as a migrant from 
Georgia to Mair-.e and Nova Scotia, and as a straggler in Newfound- 
land, but it then disappeared from sight. Some shrewd guessers sur- 
mised that it must breed on Sable Island, but Dr. Dwight, of New 
York, was the first to brave the inconveniences of the passage to the 
island to study the habits of this interesting bird. I found that the 
time intervening since his visit had been very auspicious for the 
sparrows, as they were much more abundant than he represented them 
to be. 

I was fortunate in finding many nests, most of them incomplete, but 
seven containing sets of eggs. The variations in the colors and mark- 
ings of the eggs is very great. Some resemble those of the Savanna 
sparrow ; others, with a lighter ground and larger blotches, those of 



30^ 



A eta Vic tor mil a . 



the Vesper sparrow, while one set has very small spots and is ot a 
general slaty hue, like the eggs of the horned lark, and yet another 
closely resembles some sets of the bobolink. 

The nest itself, like that of the Savanna sparrow, is placed in an 
excavation of nearly an inch in length made among long, fallen gtass 
of last year's growth, and built up about an inch above the ground 
level. It is well concealed, and would be difficult to find were it not 
that the bird is very particular as to the proper condition of grass. 

But though there are a great many of these sparrows, by far the most 
numerous of all the birds on the island are two terns — the common tei n 
and the Arctic. These are the sm.ill gull-like birds with the forked tail. 




PREPARING FOR THE PLANTATION. 



whose skins have been used so much in the past few years for the decora- 
tion of hats. Thecommon tern probably outnumbers the Arctic by about 
two or three to one, but their habits are very similar. The nesting 
places of the two terns are scattered all over the island — as a rule in 
communities. We were too early for the height of the breeding 
season, but the birds had begun to lay, and perhaps every third cr 
fourth nest would have from one to three eggs in it. These are used 
very largely for food by the inhabitants. A hungry man can dispone 
of a good many such small eggs, but the birds are in such numbers, 
and are such persistent layers, that it is not long before the inhabitants 
tire of such diet, and the birds are then allowed to raise their yourg 



Acta V2ctoriana. 



v309 



in peace. Although too early for the main crop of eggs, )et three of 
our party one evening gathered over a hundred eggs in about twenty 
minutes. The nests are usually very close together, and the majority 
of them are merely holes scooped out of the sand, but a fair number 
have more or less straw and dry grass as a lining, and a very few have 
quite a compact and thick lining of the same material. 

After the terns and sparrows, the most numerous bird is the scmi- 
palmated plover, which is well known through most parts of the coun- 
try in the migration, but w'hich is absent in the breeding season, except 
in the more remote regions of the north. Sable Island is perhaps the 
most southerly breeding ground. Along the edges of the large inland 





A STARTLED FLOCK. 



lake there is cast up in the spring a fringe of eel grass varying from 
one to four feet in width, in which the plover places its nest. Each 
pair excavates three or more nests as a rule — sometimes lining them 
as well with the same material. But I was too early for the main 
nesting season, and found only two nests with eggs. 

The only other plover breeding upon the island is the belted piping 
plover. This is the western variety of the piping plover, and Dr. 
Dwight noted as one of the surprises of Sable Island that this bird, 
whose main breeding-ground is in the western plains, should be found 
so far to the east, while the eastern part of the continent is almost 
entirely inhabited by the other variety. These birds excavate their 



340 



Acta Victoriana. 



nests in the bare open sand, which makes them exceedingly difficult 
to find, as the bird leaves the nest at the sight of an intruder. Later 
on, I was told, the bird lines its nest very extensively with pieces of 
shell, but the two nests I saw contained only a small piece of shell 
and a small bone respectively, though the nests seemed complete. 
Hence I concluded that the shell was merely for ornamentation. The 
eggs have a beautiful creamy buff ground dotted with small spots of 
black, and harmonize very well with the color of the sand in which 
they are laid. The same, indeed, is true of the color of the bird itself, 
which is almost light enough to persuade one that a running bird is a 
fleck of foam being blown along the beach. 




WILD PONIES. 



Two species of sandpiper (the least and the spotted) and two species 
of duck (the red-breasted merganser and the black duck) complete the 
enumeration of the ten breeding birds of Sable Island. None of these 
birds are found in very large numbers, the ducks being particularly 
scarce, although none are ever killed by the inhabitants. Indeed they 
are protected as much as possible against their greatest enemy, the 
fox. A few were liberated on the island some years ago, rapidly 
multiplied and became the worst pest on the island, making great 
devastation upon the birds. A systematic attempt has been made to 
exterminate them, with the result that their numbers are greatly 



Acta Victoriana. 



341 



reduced. For the sake of the birds it is to be hoped that these efforts 
will not falter until the foxes are utterly destroyed. 

There are no native land mammals on Sable Island. A few wild 
horses are still found — the progeny of some that were placed on the 
island years ago. The walrus was formerly abundant on its coasts, 
but was long ago hunted to extermination. 

Two species of seal are common, the larger one of which, the harp- 
seal, we frequently saw off shore among the dozens of the harbor 
seal, which are very common. The inquis liveness of the latter is 




A TAME SEAL. 



very great. Unless the sea is very rough, one cannot valk any distance 
along the beach without assembling an admiring crowd of these crea- 
tures, which swim along the shore with their heads constantly above 
the water, staring at the intruder. When one captures a pup of the 
harbor seal the mother swims close to the shore with evident anxiety ; 
but when the pup belongs to the other species the anxiety changes 
places and falls on the captor, who must run fairly fast to make good 
his escape. 



XXVIII. cAda ^idoriana. no. 



EDITORIAL STAFF, 1904-1905. 

H. H, Cragg, '05, - - - - Editor-in-Chief. 

Miss E. H. Patters jn, '^sIt-^^^^^ Miss E. M. Keys, '06. W^^^i 

A. E. Elliott, '05 |i.iterary. ^ ^ Hewitt. '06. |ivOcais. 

J. S. Bennett, '05, Personals and Exchanges. 

W. k. GiFFORD, B.A., Missionary and Religious. 
F. C. Bowman. '06. Scientific. :\[. C. Lane. '06. Athletics. 



BOARD OF management: 

E. W. Morgan. '05. ... - Business Manager. 
J. N Tribble, '07. H F. Woodsworth. '07, 

Assistant Business Manager. Secretary. 

Advisory Committee: 

Prof. L. E. Horning. M.A., Ph.D. C. C. James, M.A.. 

Deputy INIinisterof Agriculture. 



TE^.VIS: $1.03 A YcAR; SINGLE COPIES, 15 CENTS. 

Contributions and exchanges should be sent to H. H. Cragg. Editor" 
in-Chief, ^cta Victoriana ; business communications to E. W. Morgan, 
Business Manager Acta Victoriana. Victoria University, Toronto. 



lEbitonaL 



Rev. \Vm. Dawson, of London, England, while in 

THE COURAGE Brooklyn recently, delivered a sermon on the sub- 

TO FORGET, ject, " The Courage to Forget," based on Paul's 

famous words, " Forgetting the things which are 

behind." He showed the necessity of forgetting the failures and sins 

of the past if one were ever to succeed in life, and asserted that it 

required a great deal of courage thus to forget. There is another side 

to this great problem of forgetting which often requires as great 

courage as does the former, viz , forgetting the successes ot life ; and, 

perhaps, College men require to exercise courage in that way as much 

as in the other. There is too often a tendency to be content with 

our past achievements and rest on our oars. We need constantly to 

remember that the world demands our best at all limes, and that that 

best ought to become steadily better. 

" Ah, but a man's reach should exceed his grasp. 
Or what is heaven for ?" 

Paul's words may well serve us as a good New Year's resolution : 
" Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward unto 
the things which are before, I press on toward the mark." 



Acta Victoriana. 343 

Our greatest annual function is now merely a mem- 
THE CON- ory, but one which many of us will long recall with 
VERSAZiONE. pleasure. The Committee in charge had certainly 
exerted themselves to have every detail attended to 
in order to make the evening thoroughly enjoyable, and it is much to 
be regretted that other events transpired which greaily detracted from 
the attendance. Yet that very fact probably tended in no small 
degree to a fuller measure of enjoyment for those who were present. 
There is one feature, however, in nearly all such events which is 
greatly to be deplored, and was not absent in this. We refer to the 
utter disregard on the part of the audience of the feelings of those 
who are taking part in the concert. For most of the numbers excel- 
lent attention was given, but when our Mandolin and Guitar Club 
were giving their share of the programme many considered it a most 
opportune time to engage in conversation. Such discourtesy is not 
only annoying to those who do desire to listen, but must be very dis- 
couraging to the performers. Even though there were no great merit 
in their playing, common courtesy demanded that they should have a 
patient hearing to show what they were capable of doing. Asa matter 
of fact the members had worked long and arduously at their practices 
and really merited attention. At the Conversat. last year the treat- 
ment accorded to our Club was even worse than this year. What is 
the cause of this? Is it not worthy of a hearing ? If so, future com- 
mittees, in all fairness to the friends who support us, ought not to 
engage it again. But few of us would be willing to admit the charge. 
We have reason to be proud of our Mandolin and Guitar Club. The 
lack of attention is due entirely to thoughtlessness, particularly on the 
part of the students. We see the same lack of courtesy shown at 
almost every public function in our College where instrumental music 
is being rendered. Indeed it is now almost an insult to ask a pianist 
to entertain us at an open meeting, for the announcement of that part 
of the programme is almost invariably taken as a signal to engage in 
tete-a-tetes. It surely is " time for a change." 

Rev. Dr. Newell Dwight Hillis, in a recent article 
MORAL entitled, "A Lord Shaftesbury for Brooklyn," seek- 
EDUCATiON. ing an explanation of the lack of great leaders 
and prominent men, declared that the decline of 
leadership is largely traceable to the home. " Nothing is more start- 
ling than the absolute decay of moral and religious instruction in 
the family. The Christian life is a trade and occupation that has 
to be learned. A child must be drilled, and drilled , and stil 



344 Ada Victoriana. 

drilled, in the Christian life if he is to become a leader in morals 
and philosophy and reform. Even Huxley, in his plea for the 
study of the Bible, finds the explanation of the lessening number of 
great men in the lessened interest in these great religious themes that 
feed greatness and heroism in the human heart. The time has come 
when the moral instruction of the children is confined to a brief half- 
hour upon one day in seven. Men who would not think for a moment 
of allowing a neighbor to shape their boys' ideas of commerce have 
no hesitancy in giving the training of conscience and the moral senti- 
ments to any stranger in whose class the child may chance to be 
placed." 

The truth of these words is apparent to any intelligent observer. 
The carelessness of parents in instructing their children is becoming 
almost appalling. And if, as we believe, the greatness and stability of 
a nation depend upon the character of its people and that, in turn, 
upon the moral and religious teaching imparted, it becomes impera- 
tive that the lack in the home should be, as far as possible, counter- 
acted by the increased diligence of those "in whose classes the child 
may chance to be placed." And yet how often we see the Sabbath- 
school teachers treating their responsibility very lightly, putting no 
preparation on their lessons, and depending so entirely upon their 
helps for needed inspiration in imparting the truth that they almost 
fear to raise their eyes from the printed questions lest they should 
lose their place. Under such circumstances we can expect very little 
moral strength to emanate from the Sabbath-schools. 

It may seem to some out of place to discuss such a theme in a 
college journal, yet college men are expected, and rightly so, to be 
leaders wherever they are. And as leaders, if we stand for truth and 
righteousness as we ought to, we must face this great problem some 
day. Every intelligent man recognizes that " righteousness exalteth a 
nation," but there can be very little righteousness in a nation where 
the principles of righteousness are not the very foundation of the 
education of the people. How are we going to ensure such education ? 
It will take long years to get the parents to recognize their responsi- 
bility, though we believe that must eventually be done. Meanwhile 
we must have Sunday School teachers with sufficient interest in the 
truths they are supposed to present to the growing minds to be willing 
to devote enough time to its study to make it part of themselves. 
Only thus can they instruct and influence others. It is a healthy sign 
to see that the Sunday School teachers of Toronto Methodism have 
realized the need of greater preparation and have engaged Rev. Dr. 
Courtice to conduct normal classes for them, in which they take the 



Ada Victoriana. 345 

liveliest interest. Such teachers must inspire the coming generation 
with a love of truth and righteousness. It is to be hoped that many 
of these normal classes will be started throughout our c untry that 
teachers may learn to assume the proper attitude toward the great 
responsibilities laid upon them. And who should be more capable of 
encouraging and conducting these normal classes than those who have 
had the opp'jrtunities we enjoy ? 

This youngest of our college societies is showing 

THE ALMA beyond doubt that there is a place for it in our almost 

MATER SOCIETY, overcrowdcd life. Already it has grappled with many 

much discussed problems, and has shown a power to 

meet many needs which have long been felt to be urgent, but which 

no existent society was ready to cope with. 

One of these was the securing, furnishing and maintaining of gen- 
eral reading and reception rooms for the men students. It was mani- 
festly wrong that a man should have no place to receive friends or to 
sit down himselt, except in the Library, where conversation is forbid- 
den, or in a class room from which he might be ousted at any minute. 
Especially was the need for such rooms felt in justice to our science 
students, who seldom or never in their course take a lecture in the 
college building, and register with us only because of our denomina- 
tional character, and the unquestioned value of our social life. To 
keep these men as a broadening factor in our student life, and to meet 
the charges of some of our ignorant detractors, who claim that we are 
merely a theological institution, or a ladies' college ; the Alma 
Mater Society has seriously faced the problem, and before the end of 
the month will have two large rooms in the basement ready for use. 

In spite of the fact that the Society has to undertake the whole 
expense of installing the heating system, and renovating, decorating 
and furnishing the rooms, it has been decided to do the whole work 
in a substantial and artistic manner, to inspire the respect of the men 
and insure against rough usage. The looms will be heated by hot 
water ; the decorations will be in Oriental style, and the furniture 
chiefly in weathered oak with upholsterings in pantasote and velours. 
The total cost will exceed $1,000, of which about $600 is expected 
from friends in the city, while the society is looking to graduates and 
the friends of its present members to meet the remainder. It is hoped 
that Mr. J. F. Knight, the chairman of the committee having the 
matter in charge, may, through the kindness of our many friends, be 
able to report at the formal opening of the rooms that the whole 
expense of our undertaking has been met. a. e. e. 



;46 



Acta Victoriana. 








EXCHANGES 



C\V. WEFJB, '03, who was in attendance at Queen's last year, is 
. finishing his theological studies at Knox. 
W. H. Wood, '01, is taking a course in the Yale Divinity School. 
E. FoRSTER, '03, Junior Assistant last year in the Chemical Labora- 
tory, has succeeded Mr. C M. Carson as Assistant. 

J. H. Faull, '98, University Lecturer in Botany, is now entitled to 
write the letters Ph.D. after his name, having taken his degree at 
Harvard, ^^'ith a view to the requirements of the Botanical Department 
of the University, Dr. Faull spent some weeks before the year's work 
began at the Universities oi Harvard and Pennsylvania, the Botanical 
Gardens of New York, and the Marine Biological Station at Malpeque, 
P.E.L The classification and labelling of the trees in the University 
grounds was done under his direction. 

Rev. a C. Courtice, M.A., D.D., was born at Prince Albert, 
Ont., and educated at Toronto University, where, on graduating 
in 1880, he took the Gold Medal in Philosophy. On taking his 
B.D. degree from \'ictoria in 1885 he carried off the Sanford Gold 
Medal, and in the same year was ordained to the ministry. He 
was unusually successful as a pastor and preacher, and occupied 
important pulpits until he became editor of the Christian Guardian 
in 1894, a position he retained until 1902. He is well known for 
his literary contributions to various periodicals, and for his interest 
in social questions. 

E. Benson, M.D., who graduated from Vic's old Medical School 
in '66, died in the month of September at Winnipeg. 

Miss L. E. V. Llovd is taking her post-graduate work at the Leland 
Stanford Junior University, instead of at the University of California, 
as we stated in our account of the class of '04. 

Horace Davison, who was with the class of '01, is now Superin- 
tendent for the Manufacturers' Life Assurance Company at Port of 
Spain, Trinidad. 



Acta Victoriana. 347 

Douglas Thom, '00, is practising law at Regina. 

George Morris, who entered with '06 and will be remembered as 
one of the mighty men of valor in that class when, as freshmen, they 
battled with the Sophomores, is now ranching and keeping store at 
Gladys, Alta. 

G. B. Henwood, '96, is practising law, and is a K.C. at Wetaskiwin, 
Alta. 

George Watson, late of the freshman year, is now a commercial 
traveller in the West, with headquarters at Calgary. 

Miss Sadie Bristol, '03, has been appointed to the Moderns De- 
partment of Columbian College, New Westminster, B.C. 

We are in receipt of a copy of the Saskatoon Pha-nix, the managing 
editor of which is J. H. Holmes, '04. We congratulate Joe upon his 
journalistic enterprise and success. 

Rev Newton Bowles, '03, of Blanch River, paid a brief visit to 
college halls just before the Christmas holidays. 

On December 27th, Mrs. Simon Fennel), celebrated her looth 
birthday at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Geo. O. Stanton, Mont- 
real. She was born in Ireland in 1804, came to Canada in 1819 with 
her father, Thomas McCamus, who settled in Cavan, Durham County. 
In 1824 she was married at Cobourg. Her two sons were students at 
Victoria in 1857 and 1859, and both are still living, one, Mr. James 
Fennel], being a hardware merchant at Berlin, and the other, Rev. 
Joseph Fennell, an Anglican clergyman at Hamifton. 

Mr. John Richardson, who has for several years represented 
East York in the Legislature, has retired, and been appointed Clerk 
of the County of York. He was a student at Victoria in the sixties. 

Mr. John Bell, K.C, of Belleville, after long years of honored 
service as Chief Solicitor for the Grand Trunk Railway System, has 
retired. He was a student at Victoria in the early days of '47 and '48. 
His successor is Mr. W. H. Biggar, who, though not a graduate of 
Victoria, has "good connections." His father was the late James 
L. Biggar, one of the earliest students at Victoria, and his mother, 
Miss Hodgins, a student of the Academy days, and sister of the 
veteran Dr. J. G. Hodgins. 

Rev. Dr. Davidson Macdonald, who died on January 3rd, and 
who was for forty-one years connected with medical missions in Japan, 
was a student at Victoria in the early sixties. 



34^ Acta Victor iana. 

Several Victoria graduates are candidates for the Ontario Legisla- 
tive Assembly in the elections now pending, viz., J. W. St. John, B.A., 
'8i ; M.A., '84, LL.B. (Con.), in West York; W. A. Dowler, '80 
(Lib.), in South Oxford; VV. L. Brewster, '82 (Con.), in South Brant; 
" and F. M. Field, '84 (Con.), in West Northumberland. 

In our sketch of Senator Kerr in the last issue, we gave the date of 
his birth as 1836. The correct date is 1829. 

Rev. Robert Hughes, C.T., '04, writes us that the Victoria 
graduates of British Columbia are about to organize a "Victoria Club," 
so as to keep in touch with one another and with their Alma Mater — 
a good idea, which other graduates elsewhere might adopt. Mr. 
Hughes was lately awarded second place in a lecture competition 
arranged by the Victoria League of England, through the London 
Times, for his MSS. lecture on British Columbia. As the competition 
was open to Britishers throughout the world, Robert deserves con- 
gratulation. 

The sympathy of the student body will go out to Miss E. L. Chubb, 
'06, whose mother died recently in Toronto Junction, of diphtheria, 
after a very short illness. 

Miss Annie M, Smith, 02, is teaching Moderns in Port Perry High 
School. 



Weddings 

In Stratford, on November 9th, Rev. W. H. Spence, of Lake Mills, 
Iowa, who was for three years a member of Acta staff, took to wife 
one of the most popular and gifted young ladies of the Classic City, 
in the person of Miss Hope Morris. The ceremony was performed 
by Rev. Dr. Langford, in whose church the bride was an energetic and 
earnest worker. We are pleased to know that the abilities that brought 
Will to the fore in college life have secured him a good charge in 
Iowa, the land of his adoption. Acta joins Mr. and Mrs Spence's 
many friends in best wishes for their success and happiness in their 
new home. 

A pretty and elaborate wedding took place in Lima, N.Y., on De- 
cember 27th, when Miss Alma Clark, of that city, became the wife of 
Cephis Guillet, B.A., '87, Ph.D., teacher of Modern Languages in the 
Toronto Technical School. Dr. Guillet, after graduating from Vic- 
toria, took post-graduate work at Harvard and Clark Universities, and 



Ada Victo7'ia7ia. 349 

is specially qualified on pedagogical lines. Dr. and Mrs. Guillet have 
taken up their residence in Toronto, and have the good wishes of 
many friends with whom Acta begs leave to join. 

In Grace Church, Brampton, on December 28th, Miss Violet 
Isabel, daughter of Mr. J. W. Main, and Rev. Robert Wallace 
Dalgleish, B.A., B.D., of Carstairs, Alberta, were united in marriage 
by Rev. R. N. Burns, B.A. The groom is a graduate in Arts of 
McGill University, but took his theological work at Victoria in '01 
and '02, and proved himself a good college man. His bride was one 
of the most energetic workers in Grace Church and a valued member 
of the choir. Mr. and Mrs. Dalgleish are followed to their home in 
Alberta by the sincerest good wishes of all who know them. 

We are pleased to make good some omissions from the list of sum- 
mer weddings that appeared in our October number, which lack of 
space prevented us from doing in our last number. 

At Hamilton, on October 19th, Miss Sarah Mills, of that city, 
was married to Rev. Thomas Poole, '97, pastor of the Methodist 
Church, in Shefifield, Ont. 

In London, on June 22nd, Miss Jennie Smith-Taylor and Rev. 
Amos Thomas, '03, were married by Rev. R. D. Hamilton, of the 
Wellington Street Church. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas are residing at the 
Methodist parsonage at Kinglake. 

On August 1 6th, in the Princess Street Methodist Church, Van- 
couver, B.C., Rev. R. N. Powell, united in marriage Miss L. E. Teresa 
Ryerson, formerly of Sunshine, Ont., and Lieut. Victor W. Odium, city 
editor of the Vancouver World. Mr. Odium spent some three years 
at Victoria with the Class of '03, and was one of the under-graduates 
who represented Victoria in South Africa. After a honeymoon spent 
in St. Louis and Toronto, the young couple returned to Vancouver, 
where they now reside. 



Exchanges 

One of the brightest and most ably edited of the exchanges that 
reaches us is The O. A. C. Review. Its neat and tasteful exterior is 
always an index of good things to be found between the covers. Nor 
is the subject matter of its articles confined to technical questions only; 
we find in the last number to hand, among other articles of general in- 
terest, a very clear resume of the causes of the Russo-Japanese war. 



350 Acta Victoriana. 

written by Mr. Nog-Tany, a native Japanese, in attendance at O. A. C. 
The Christmas number of the J^eviezu is particularly deserving of praise 
for its well-written articles and beautful cuts. An editorial suggestion is 
that a Canadian College Journalists' Association be formed, after the 
manner of that recently formed by the editors of American college 
magazines, assembled in convention at St. Louis. The suggestion is 
one worthy of consideration though there seem to be practical dififi- 
culties in the way of its realization. The college paper is now a recog- 
nized institution in every college of any note and its importance cannot 
be denied. Nor is it to be doubted that college journalism would be 
improved if editors and business managers could compare ideas and 
ideals. On the other hand, college journals are not, as a rule, run with 
any profit and could rarely afford to pay the expenses of delegates to 
such a convention. Then, too, the personnel of the editorial boards 
changes every year, so that the convention would be composed either 
of inexperienced men or men about to lay aside the editorial quill. 
These difficulties, however, are perhaps not insuperable, and we should 
like to see a further discussion of the idea by our contemporaries. 

Two articles that appeared in The Varsity a few weeks ago, one of 
them entitled "Charon Redivivus," and one, "Co-education," ex- 
cited a good deal of comment among the undergraduates of the 
University. The former was a clever satire on some members both of 
the staff and of the student body, written over the modest pen name of 
"Oudeis, '05." The publication in The Varsity of the reflections on 
the powers that be contained in this article, is sufficient indication 
that the dissatisfaction with the situation of affairs in the University, 
shown in the appearance of a number of letters in the public press, 
has its counterpart within the walls of the University. The other article, 
that on "Co-education," is a plaintive plea on behalf of the women 
students, by "One of them." The writer believes in co-education 
with the CO in large capitals. We do not believe that the majority of 
women students in Toronto would subscribe to her sentiments, that 
they chafe in "the humiliating position of co-eds," or that they feel 
that they are " barely tolerated " because they are not admitted to 
the men's literary societies and glee clubs. We know that it is not the 
case in the federated colleges at least. Our distressed Co-ed, disap- 
pointed that she cannot debate and sing with the men, perhaps fence 
and play hockey with them, concludes her article very naively by 
giving three cogent reasons why a Varsity man should marry a Varsity 
woman ; it would be uncharitable, however, to suggest that this is One 
of Them's idea of the end of co-education. 



Ada Victoriana. 



Zl^ 



We also wish to congratulate The Varsity on the issue of a very 
interesting Christmas number. An article by Armstrong Black on ''The 
Indebtedness of Tennyson," a story by Jean Blewett,a poem by Goldwin 
Smith, and a translation into Greek verse of Tennyson's "Crossing the 
Bar," by Principal Hutton, are among its most readable features. 

The Presbyteria7i College /ournal is published by the students of 
the Presbyterian College at Montreal, a fact which, perhaps, justifies 
the exclusively theological character of its contents. The November 
number contains an appreciation of the late Prof. Campbell, by Dr. 
Ross, a former colleague. The Argument for Religion, by Dr. Fraser, 
is logical and will commend itself to those who care for apologetic 
reasoning. We cannot approve the false economy of the Journal in 
disfiguring with an advertisement a front cover that would otherwise 
be neat and unostentatious. 

We are pleased to note that Vox Wesleyana continues to improve 
both in size and quality. A commendable feature about Vox is the 
fact that its different departments give an adequate reflection of every 
phase of college activity, for, in our opinion, the college paper ought 
to give expressions to all sides of college life. Students who are look- 
ing forward to journalism will find, in the December number of Vox, 
some interesting interviews with Winnipeg newspaper men on the 
value of a university training for that kind of work. 

We gladly welcome as a new exchange the Acadia Athenceum. 
Our Blue nose contemporary is bright and readable. 




ALONG THE G. T. R. SYSTEM. 



352 



Acta Victoyiana. 



1 RELIGIOUS 



V 



The Personal Consecration of the Individual 

BY C. B. KEENLEVSIDE, '92. 

" Find your place in the world and then burn to the socket." — Principal Hastings, to his 

Graduating Class. 

THE campaign shall yet be won and Jesus crowned as King from 
the rivers to the ends Of the earth. But victory lingers. The 
King tarries. The Eastern skies are not yet aglow with the dawn. 
Nay, midnight is still upon us. Heavy are the burdens and dim grow 
the eyes of the watchers. And why ? As the Lord liveth before 
whom we stand ours is the blame. We have forsaken the command- 
ments of Jehovah. 

His orders are : — " Seek ye first His Kingdom." And we disobey. 
We seek our own kingdom first. If we have any spare strength or 
time or loose change left, that goes to His Kingdom. And this is 
God's truth. 

It ought not to be, but every soul redeemed by the blood of Jesus, 
saved by His sacrifice, born by the second birth into His army, ought 
to be out and out, body, soul and baggage, in the campaign for the 
coming of the Kingdom. 

The idle and selfish camp-followers do more harm to an army than 
the enemy's quick-firing or long range guns. Only the soldier who 
holds himself ready to go down to the firing line, garrison the forts or 
guard the supplies, as the leader may command, is of value to the 
flag. All others bring ruin to the army and shame to its banners. 

And in the army of Jehovah the conditions in no wise differ. 
Every soldier ought to be willing to go or to stay, to be or to do, as 
He commands. When that time comes, then lift up your eyes to 
the East, for lo ! the skies will be lurid with the coming dawn. 

Thus, and thus alone, can the world be evangelized in our genera- 
tion. Let every Christian, yes, or every second Christian, hearken to 
God's command given through His servant Paul (Phil. 2. 5) : " Have 
this mind in you that was also in Christ Jesus, who, existing in the 



Ac fa Victoriana. 353 

form of God, counted the being on an equality with God not a thing 
to be grasped, but emptied himself." 

Let us do this. It is Jehovah's will, for we were foreordained to be 
conformed to the image of His Son. Let us do it, and oh, what a 
tale the twentieth century will tell of victory for the Cross. 

The first and greatest of Christ's missionaries, who had much of the 
mind of the Master, said (Phil. 3. 7) — "What things were gain to 
me these have I counted loss for Christ ; yea, I count all things to be 
loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord ; 
for whom I suffer the loss of all things and do count them but refuse 
that I may gain Christ. 

Before God, my brother, you and I bear as great a responsibility to 
spread the gospel as did St. Paul. 

If we but had the spirit and zeal of that immortal man, the record of 
shame and unfaithfulness now being written by the Christian Church 
would end in one grand burst of victory and one eternal hallelujah. 

Jesus said (Luke 14. 33): " Whosoever he be of you that renounceth 
not all that he hath he cannot be my disciple." 

" Whosoever " of a certainty includes you and me. 

We cannot too strongly emphasize this, for our failure during 
nineteen hundred years may be traced to the fact that the individual 
Christian has not felt his personal responsibility to be out and out, 
body, spirit, soul and baggage, in the campaign. Too many of us, I 
fear, are like one or the other of two children well known to the writer. 

There is a little maiden, barely five, to whom the writer was talking 
about missions. He told her how Jesus commanded His followers, 
just before He went to heaven, to go all over the world and tell all the 
men and women everywhere, and the little boys and girls about Him, 
and about the heaven Hs was preparing, so that they might love Him 
and go with Him to heaven. " And do you know," said he, " ihey 
haven't done it, and so there are millions of little boys and girls who 
have never heard of Jesus." 

And then, to interest her still further, he said : " And we are trying 
to get a number of good men and women to go and tell these little 
boys and girls and their fathers and mothers about Jesus, so that 
when you and your little brother and sister, and father and mother 
get to heaven, all these little boys and girls and their fathers and 
mothers will be there, too. Won't that be splendid ? " 

And she raised herself on her elbow, with eyes fairly dancing with 
joy at the prospect, and said, " Oh, yes \ but father, don't you send 
them all a ticket through the post ? " 



354 Acta Victoriana. 

How like that is to the plan we adopt. We do not send them a 
ticket through the post, but we Christians who have received eternal 
life at the pierced hand of Jesus, we give the price of one concert 
ticket each to save a billion heathen. And the dismal part of it is we 
are content so to do ; nay, rather we are proud of our givings, and 
seem really to think that we are generous. 

There is a little boy who came into possession of a few coppers not 
long ago and at once set off with a business-like air down the street. 
To his mother's question as to where he was going, he replied, "To 
the grocery store for candy." 

" But George," said his mother, " hadn't you better save the money 
for the missionaries ? " 

Now, he had been well taught, and therefore sympathized with the 
missionaries, and did not want them to suffer, but he was only a boy, 
and so wanted the candy and wanted it badly. 

He was puzzled. His face showed it. But a bright idea struck 
him and he looked up with a smile and said : " Oh, that will be all 
right, mother ; I'll tell Mr. Van Luven, the grocery man, to give the 
money to the missionaries." 

And so we wish the heathen well and would like to see them saved, 
and we are in favor of foreign missions and want more missionaries 
sent out and all that, yet we do so want the sugar sticks that are so 
dear to maturer years. 

I do not mind confessing that my hope lies, not in the well-to do 
and the rich, in the middle-aged and the elderly, bur, under God, in 
the children and the youth of the country. 

By middle life a man's mode of thought is fixed, his habits formed, 
and in many cases avarice has fastened its deadly fangs upon his soul. 
But the young, like the plastic sea beach of ages past, are open lo 
impressions which time will harden into the solid rock of holy living 
and unshaken conviction. 

Therefore, I write unto you, young men, because you are strong and 
free from the demon of avarice. Your life, with all its infinite 
capacities and boundless possibilities, lies before you. 

Ah, my brother, this is your day of visitation. This is your 
opportunity. Not since the days of Peter and John have young men 
and women faced such a glorious call. No other generation since 
Christ has stood under such pricele.^s burdens, or had opening before 
it such visions of wondrous glory. 

You have only one life. Make the most of it. Make it tell for the 
Kingdom. 



Acta Victoriana. 355 

Notes from Anneslry Hall. 

Two well-known Christian workers visited the Hall last term — 
Mrs. Thurston and Miss Rouse. 

The former, a graduate of Mt. Holyoke, spent some years missioning 
in Persia and China, and is now a travelling secretary for the Student 
Volunteer Movement. The story of her own work and her plea for 
mission work will not be forgotten. 

Miss Rouse, a graduate of Girton, and at present a secretary of the 
World's Student Christian Federation, brought a story of Christian 
student life and work in many lands. She addressed the women 
students of University College, Victoria College and several of the 
ladies' colleges. The residents of Annesley Hall were especially 
favored, as she made her home with them and was always ready to 
talk with the girls individually, or in groups. a. e. d. 



John R. Mott was with us again — strong, logical, searching 
Pauline. He came at the close of the week of prayer. It had been 
a good week, and we were looking for results to appear. Mott held 
men's meetings in Wycliffe Convocation Hall on Saturday, Sunday 
and Monday evenings, preached the University sermon on Sunday, 
and addressed the women students on Monday afternoon. Many 
men will always remember the Sunday evening meeting. It was 
grand. More than ninety men entered upon a new life. 

Every Vic. man and woman ought to attend the College Missionary 
Conference, January 20th to 22nd. A wider outlook, a larger 
opportunity, and a truer life purpose are large returns from the invest- 
ment of two days. Besides, the missionary work has an undeniable 
claim upon us. Consult the programme. 

The Y. M. C. A. has organized a department for evangelistic work 
outside the college. On one Sunday evening recently the services in 
three of the city churches were conducted by bands of Victoria men. 
When possible the men are visiting churches outside the city also, 
and during the first two weeks of January a successful campaign was 
conducted in First Methodist Church, London. Mr. E. S. Bishop 
has the work in charge, and with him are associated as leaders, 
E. W. Wallace, B.A., and W. A. GifTord, B.A. 



356 



Ada Victoriana. 




QCAL 




T' 



'HE frost is here, the fuel is dear ; 

The woods are sere, and the fires burn clear ; 
The frost is here, and has bitten the heel of the going year. 

— Tennyson. 

" The Tempest." — Resolved, That I will never again absent 
myself from prayers. — ist yr. C. T. 

"Measure for Measure." — Resolved, That I will not go to Shea's 
any more — after leaving College. — 2nd yr. C. T. 

"Comedy ot Errors." — Resolved : i. That I will give up milk diet. 
2. That I will skip one lecture a week. 3. That I will have my 
revenge on '09. — Freshman. 

"Much Ado About Nothing." — Resolved : i. That I will not work 
between meals. 2. That I will begin to use calling cards. — Sophomore. 

"As You Like It." — Resolved: i. That resolutions are a bore. 
2. That I will not make any. 3. That I will be popular. — Junior. 

"All's Well That End's Well."— Resolved : i. That I will be 
good. 2. That I will wake up. 3. That I will be dignified. 4. That 
I cannot get married just yet. 5. That I will decide what I am going 
to be. 6. That I will take first-class honors ; — and ninety-four others 
for which we haven't room. — Senior. 

" A Mid-Winter Night's Dream." — Resolved, That I shall ad- 
vance by degrees. — B.D. 

When Robby and Boots again partake of walnuts, lemon sour, 
raspberry tarts, and " nice big, green bulls'-eyes," all within an hour, 
the institution hopes to be able to offer better facilities as an emer- 
gency hospital. 

Someone reports seeing Booth on his way to dinner with a list of 
Arabic roots in one hand and a dyspepsia tablet in the other. 

C. D. H. (packing up) — "There'll be something doing in the 
wash tub when I get home." 



Acta Victoriana. 357 

Dr. Potts having prayed for rain at the evening service, December 
1 8th, escaped from the city Monday morning before the Rink 
Committee could register a protest. And it rained. 

Mr. Geo. G. Stephenson, now on circuit, and Rev. Bert Dal- 
gleish, B.A., from Alberta, made us a visit lately. 

If the Conversat is rightly called the social function of Victoria, 
everyone will agree that we are justly proud of this year's event. The 
whole affair was conducted with a harmony and charm which 
reflected credit on the Committee. Especially delightful were the 
concert numbers. The Glee and Mandolin-Guitar Clubs achieved a 
brilliant success ; the other talent was of a high order and equally 
appreciated. 

An amusing story is told of a young lady who apparently came 
unaccompanied. Having purchased a ticket, when the caterer offered 
to relieve her of it, she cordially grasped his extended hand and was 
" pleased to meet him." 

Junior co-ed (as the bugle announces a new promenade) — "There's 
the call to arms." 

Madame President (after the Conversat) — " I tried so hard to be 
dignified and to behave myself, but once I went and sat behind a 
door." 

Miss P-tter-n, '06 (speaking of the Scotch representative) — "Yes, 
Ned brought him over from Athens." Her Senior Sister — " Oh ! is 
he one of the Egyptian curios ? " 

The room where limelight views were exhibited proved to be a 
popular rendezvous. It was dark there. 

Someone to Jenkins — " I hear you're in love, Jenks." Jenkins — 

" Oh ! I know where you've been. Over to the Hall to see Miss ." 

"No, I haven't." " But you must have been ; she's the only one that 
knew it." 

Kelly — " There's a thought which hasn't struck you yet.'' 
The following bulletin lately appeared : " Notice — A good dog to 
be given away, suitable to a country home." (Signed) Robert. 

On the night of Wednesday, December 7th, the Woman's Literary 
Society held its open meeting. The business was good and expediti- 
ously despatched. In the literary session interesting papers were read 
on " Foreign and British Universities," which received merited appre- 
ciation. The event was unprecedentedly successful. The Kid's Corner, 
as ever, filled in the gaps with happy hits at the Ladies' Gallery. 



358 Ada Vicioriana. 

" Red as a rose is, Stapleford's nose is." 

The Chancellor came back from the front pew to sit in the Corner. 
They were so orderly. 

Prof. Robertson to Dr. Horning (on seeing their engravings facing 

each other in Xmas Acta, with the text re Dr. H. ) — " ' He has the 

power in an eminent degree of clothing dry bones with flesh and 
blood.' How do you do it, Horning? Give me the recipe." 

On the evening of Dtcember 5th the Glee Club and Symphony 
Orchestra gave a successful concert in the Town Hall, Acton, before 
a large and enthusiastic audience. It is fair to say that a large share 
of the success is due to Mr. E. J. Moore, whose home is in Acton. 

Several amusing incidents occurred at the concert. The first 
number was scarcely concluded when a bouquet of carnations was 
brought up to the platform inscribed, " F. J. Price, B.A., from two 
ladies of short acquaintance.^'' These are talented and vivacious mem- 
bers of the teaching profession, who reside at the home where Mr. 
Price was entertained. Later, while the club was singing, "By the 
Light of the Moon," the audience (and Teddy Moore) were surprised 
by a stanza ending " When we haven't Teddy any more, Oh my, my, 
how we'll weep. By the Light," etc. Needless to say it made a hit. 
A little child in the audience sent up a vigorous protest while " Doan 
Ye Cry, Ma Honey '' was being rendered. 

Our estimable Juniors seem to merit beyond all equivocation their 
distinctive characteristic, originality, self-arrogated as it is. Instead of 
the stereotyped promenade concert, their annual reception this year 
took the form of a masquerade. The afifair was exclusive, and held at 
the home of Miss Ashall, who extended her hospitality to the class. 
Some amusing incidents have come to our ears. Adams, who was 
masked complete as witch, rode in one of the carriages furnished for 
the ladies, but gave it away by his chuckling. Gus Shaver, who also 
was attired a lafemme, was escorted thither by Mark, whom he utterly 
scandalized by his unladylike conduct. Boarding a crowded street 
car, a man (deluded mortal !) politely offered the personation his seat. 

The last meeting' of the Union Lit. for the fall term, with a good 
literary programme, spicy business, election of ofificers, and "bun 
feed," could not but be enjoyable. There was added interest in the 
fact that several recent graduates were present, Messrs. Aikins, Rees, 
Gray and Ogden, who, by recounting reminiscences, made bearable 
the otherwise tedious delay of the election returns. There having 
arisen a suspicion amounting almost to certainty that the scrutineers, 



Acta Victoriana. 359 

and others whom we may term bucaneers, were devastating the pro- 
visions deposited in the annex, it was moved that Messrs. Trueman 
and Bennett be a committee to investigate the alleged piracy. An 
additional clause was proposed that they be muzzled before being 
turned loose. The Speaker objected to this for the (spurious) scrip- 
tural reason, " Thou shalt not muzzle the ox nor the ass," etc. One 
of the committee named instantly claimed to be the ox, on the ground 
that Balaam had only one ass ; to which it was replied that he, in the 
nature of the case, must be the ass, because he was the one that kicked. 

Pursuant of the order-in-council of the Alma Mater Society, several 
consignments of books, bags, etc., were removed from the window at 
the side entrance. Colliss, "08, (meeting A. D. Miller in hall) — 
"Who took my books?" Miller (in explanation) — "The notice 

says " C. (carried away with indignation) — "If you've got those 

books, Miller, produce them at once ! " 

FuLLERTON whiles away the time in Dr. Reynar's lectures by writing 
couplets, e.g. (taken directly from his note-book) — " All people that on 
earth do dwell. Come join in our delicious throng." 

Trench, '08 (at lecture in Greek)—" Epi — ep— ,eh~ Dad ! I don't 
know what it is." 

Jerry was a trifle uncertain regarding the identity of one of the 
girls who entered the rink with a bunch of freshettes ; so looking into 
the ladies' apartment he caught her eye, and the following dialogue 
took place : He — " Victoria ? " She—" No, Marguerite ! " 

Mjss Van A — ne, '05 — " I wish someone would solve the problem 
of cold hands " (To a Junior, but she wouldn't let him.) 

Miller, '08 {re essay) — " The Prof, said my matter was good, but 
my form poor." 

Bennett (after the Med. Coll. At Home) — "I enjoyed it better 
after I got into the swing of it." How are the mighty fallen ! 

Nancekeville (after trip to the Hall) — "Yes, I know the dog, but 
he didn't remember tne." 

Among the ladies Friday, December i6th, saw the closing frivolity 
of the Michaelmas Term, the '05 luncheon. As the guests entered 
the reception-room, softly brilliant with myriad lights, dimly shining 
beneath elaborate decorations of holly, they were received by the 
President of the class. Miss Walker, and the remaining members, with 
the exception of Miss Spence, who, in stentorian tones, announced 
through an improved and artistic megaphone the arrivals. After it 



360 Acta Victoriana. 

was over, and the last toast drunk (the nectar of the gods wasn't in it 
with that Hquor), as we peeped into the recesses of our snowballs we 
appreciated the fitness of Miss Thompson's words concerning our 
hostesses, 

" To those who kn^w them not, no words can paint ; 
Those who know them know all words are faint." 

Armstrong, '07 (to a couple of Sophettes) — " Which one of you 
wants to skate with me ? " (Strange lack of avidity to seize the oppor- 
tunity. It takes more than an Ar7fiy to capture two Sophettes.) 

What might have been. Hurrah for the Rink Committee ! How- 
ever, one plan did not pan out. It emanated from the fertile brain of 
the secretary, whence many of the other more successful schemes have 
issued. There was to have been a special hockey rink for ladies' col- 
leges, with a ten-foot board fence. Here in nun-like seclusion the 
dear girls might gambol while their jealous governesses did picket duty 
at the knot-holes. Still it is possible that a few secret orifices might 
have been bored where, for a small consideration, the curious could 
have enjoyed the peep show. But, after the most fetching letters had 
been despatched, the replies did not, alas ! warrant the prosecution of 
the scheme. 

Overheard on the rink, — "What a luscious armful ! " " He skates 
like a pair of stilts." " She takes the curves like an automobile." 
" Did you see the ice rise up and smite me." " I could feel her heart 
beating through my coat-sleeve." 

We copy the following from a post-card : " Kindly send me a pro- 
spectus of the Scotch Widow's Fund, and particulars of the Societies 
Life Assurance." (Signed) M. E. Conron. 

This year's oration contest was by no means a misnomer. The 
standard of oratory educed v/as very high, and the whole affair inter- 
esting and profitable. The speakers were : A. R. Maunders, who 
chose as his subject, "Citizenship"; J. McCormick, B. A., who spoke 
on "The Power of an Idea"; G. E. Trueman, on " The Rise of 
Japan"; F. J. Johnston, B.A., on "The White Slaves"; G. J. A. 
Reaney, on '^ Our Country"; and E. W. Stapleford, on "One of the 
Underlying Principles of Missions." The judges, Rev. Drs. Smith and 
Badgley, and Hon. Mr. Justice Maclaren, awarded the prize to Mr. 
Reaney. 

Mr. G. A. Archibald gave a reception to the members of his 
class, '06, at his home on the evening of December 15th. 



Acta Victoriana. 361 

The prospect of going home, with the world of meaning which 
attaches to this event at Xmas-tide, set loose the too long fettered 
spirits of the men on Tuesday, December 20th, when all comers, 
including the B.D.'s, were initiated into a new order of mysteries by a 
ride on a broomstick. 

It seems that in a moment of apple-pie weakness, Jane made a pro- 
fession to one of the waitresses at the Elm. Not sitting regularly at 
her table, when those who do were preparing to give her a Xmas pre- 
sent, Jane's speech cost him 50c. Other men have said less and paid 
$5,000. 

We hope the recording secretary of the Woman's Lit. will find her 
breath before the end of the year. It would avoid a certain amount 
of bald repetition in the critics report. 

Here's a tale of the hermit Cohoon, 
Who plugs by the light of the moon ; 
Said he, " It's a bore, all this classical lore. 
But a boon to a coon about June." 

The following representatives were lately sent to outside functions : 
G. A. Cruise, to the Lady Meds At Home ; W. J. Salter, to the Den- 
tal School ; J. S. Bennett, to the Medical School ; W. G. Connolly, to 
Queen's ; T. P. Campbell, to the Arts Dinner ; J. A. Spenceley, to 
McMaster Dinner. 

They were sitting in an ice-cream parlor. 

Dave — " What will you have. Miss ?" 

Miss — "I will take a David Harum, please." 

Dave — " How about a David Hewitt ?" — and they had met only 
three days before. Business Manager. 




ALONG the G. T. R. SYSTEM. 



Acta Victoriana. 




m-A-^-'4r- 



DAME FORTUNE has favored the members of the Rink Com- 
mittee with a smile which, though chilly, is so truly beneficent 
that their hearts are beating high with hopes of an unprecedented 
success. The skating season opened unusually early this year, and 
the prompt and efficient action of the management in taking immedi- 
ate advantage of the opportunity is a sufficient guarantee of a satis- 
factory treasurer's report in the spring. Aside from the present 
advantages derived from the business-like operations of a capable 
committee, there is another and more important one — that outsiders, 
individuals and clubs, interested, will have perfect confidence in the 
stability and permanence of this annual enterprise, and have assurance 
of thoroughly satisfactory treatment. The committee has received as 
many applications for "ice" as they can well handle, and the finan- 
cial basis thus afforded is a perfectly adequate one. 

Victoria's Athletic Union is the wealthiest, or rather the least poor, 
of her many organizations, and^the rink is practically her sole source 
of supplies, as, unfortunately, her foot-ball teams, unlike those of 
other universities, are never blessed with the patronage they so un- 
doubtedly merit, and rarely clear more than sixty cents in gate 
receipts. For this reason let everyone take an active interest in the 
rink, and talk about it when they are out. 

The old reliable Jerry is again on duty, and his care of things in 
general is most paternal. Incidentally, the necessity of a very care- 
ful selection in the appointment of the rink committee is quite obvious ; 
the men behind the wicket, the receiving tellers, are marvellous draw- 
ing cards, for their ability to smile seems infinite. Surely some of 
these men have missed their vocation — had a mistaken call. 

Note. — Robert is plying a brisk trade in sharpening skates. (This 
is not an advertisement.) 

It may be well to say here that the proceeds from the rink will be 
of material import in the erection of a gymnasium should one ever be 
built. In this regard it is hard to express doubt, and yet what else 
can be done when it seems that various members of the student body 



Acta Victoriana. 363 

and of the faculty believe that the installation of Whitely exercisers in 
the rooms of the various students, and of a large wash-tub in the 
dressing room, would meet all requirements. We might at least add 
a lung-tester and a sponge. 

It is to be devoutly hoped that Varsity's recent victories over Yale 
presage for her a dignified hockey campaign this year, just to relieve a 
little the humiliation suffered last winter. Of course, we cannot tell 
whether she has undergone a change of form or simply met a second- 
rate antagonist in the American College, but let us hope for the former. 

Surely the editor of this column will be pardoned if he refrains from 
all prophesying in connection with the hockey team. Owing to some 
misunderstanding, a slight mistake was made last fall with regard to 
a Rugby championship, by which he was proved a false prophet, and 
the feeling of chagrin has not entirely passed away. However, it is 
safe to say that prospects were never better, for pucks and sticks are 
even lower in price than they have been in the past, and so there is no 
pecuniary reason why the boys should not win out. 

A vast amount of interest is centred upon the Ladies' Hockey 
Team this season. From varied and interesting conversations we 
learn that the Misses McLaren, Hunter, and Bearman are attaching 
new glory unto themselves every day, and that these, together with our 
other tried and proved players, should constitute an absolutely invin- 
cible seven. For some occult reason there is evidently some misunder- 
standing among three of the boys as to who is the real coach of the 
team. We understood that W. G. Connolly had resigned the position 
— an almost impossible action — and yet he seems to be taking much 
more than a passive interest in it. Reggie Davidson is the legal 
trainer, yet it appears that his rights have been usurped by S. G. Mills ; 
Stan, admitted that he had on several occasions been handing out 
gratis hints on scientific checking to the fair stick-handlers. We would 
suggest that these three gentlemen come to some definite understand- 
ing by mutual self-sacrifice. 

Mr. Douglas Henderson has just had installed a plant for heating 
his locker. It is not of ordinary construction and yet we cannot 
believe that it is altogether new, for we have memories of a remote past 
in which similar contrivances were used. We welcome the innova- 
tion joyously, as it forms the one bright spot in the dressing room, 
and Mr. Henderson is generous enough to allow us to watch it. 
Besides the dressing room is very cold, and this machine looks so 
really and truly warm that, with a strong imagination, one can almost 
believe himself comfortable. Talk about progress. 



IX 



Acta Victoriana. 



-STABLISHEO 1870 



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A/ICT0PiAEi__";LljL'i<IVERSlTA5/ 




ACTA VICTORIANA 

Published Monthly during the College Year by the Union Literary 
Society of Victoria University, Toronto. 

Vol. XXVIII. TORONTO, FEBRUARY, 1905. No. 5. 



J\[eighbors 

All day within the mine's deep grave, 
Amidst the heat and gloom he bore 

Right valiantly, a willing slave, 
And won a little heap of ore. 

His neighbor on the hill-top stood 
And let the winds blow on his face. 

Or roamed within the silent wood, 
Lost in the beauty of the place. 

Of nature's handicraft a few 

Frail blossoms gathered by the way. 

Some grasses and a shell or two 
Were all he had at close of day. 

Adjudge, ye wise, which of the twain 
On that sweet summer day won most. 

How shall we measure loss or gain ? 
On what achievement make our boast ? 

Oh, is there not a place for each ? 

One wins his soul by sweat of brow, 
Another by the inner reach, 

And God hath need of both, I trow . 

c. 



366 



Ai'fa I ^icforiana. 



The War As Seen from Hiroshima 

BY \VM. ELLIOTT. 

HIROSHniA (he-ro-she-ma), a city of 130,000 people, is 
situated on the south-western coast of the main island of 
Japan, about half-way between the well-known " treaty port " of 
Kobe (ko-o-bay) and the famous Shimonoseki (she-mo-no- 
sav-ke) Straits. It is built on the delta of a seven-mouthed 
river, which empties, more than a mile beyond, into a bay of 
the beautiful Inland Sea. The deepest part of this bay consti- 





IN FULL KIT. 
(Drawn by Japanese boy of fifteen years.) 

tutes the harbor of Ujina (00-je-na), where large steamers can 
come close up to the coast to a village of the same name. 

Both the city and the port assumed unusual importance with 
the outbreak of hostilities last February. And, in fact, before 
that ; for, as everybody now knows, the clash of arms was by no 
means unexpected on this side of the Japan Sea. Almost simul- 
taneously with the first war news — of the exciting fate of the 
Koreetz, Varyag, and other Russian vessels — we learned that 
our harbor was already full of transports, and its village 



'Ida i^ictoriana. 



67 



enlarged and enlivened by the erection of six large storehouses 
and the filling of them Avith tons of rice and other provisions ; 
that enormous quantities of horse-fodder had also been accumu- 
lated and placed under cover; that whole regiments of soldiers 
had been sent through under our very noses, but so secretly and 
quietly that the fact broke upon us like a revelation. 

\\^ith the first report of naval success, however, and the formal 
declaration of war, military activity became open, and, though 
never noisy or spectacular, very stirring and impressive in both 
city and port ; for this is the chief point for the muster, training 
and despatch of troops. The Fifth Division — the local garrison 




ARMY AND HOSPITAL SURGEONS AND NURSES. 
(The nurses are both American and Japanese.) 

— welcomed in rapid succession the Imperial Body Guard and 
three other divisions, so that at one time there were nearly 
100.000 soldiers here, quartered on the citizens and in barracks, 
hotels, temples, everywhere, until every available space was 
full to overflowing; while thousands of horses pawed and 
whinnied in temporary stables or tied to posts in the open ; and 
parade grounds, school grounds, and many other places specially 
utilized, were covered with field guns, pontoon boats and their 
waggons, and other waggons bearing electrical fittings, ammuni- 
tion, and all the varied apparatus of modern warfare. 



o 



68 Ac/a Victoriana. 



In a few weeks Hiroshima and Ujina were joined by a mile 
of new shops and other buildings erected on either side of the 
main road. At the latter extensive docks and freight sheds, also 
recently built, are alive with men and women almost day and 
night, transferring goods from trains to junks, from which they 
are passed on to the transports. To us one of the most interest- 
ing sights is the hoisting of horses by cranes from the junks 
up over the sides of the transports, and the lowering of them 
down within. Their feet are covered with woven straw, so that 
they may inflict less injury on each other. 

The good order and respectful bearing of our swarthy knights 
of the gun is marvellous, surely unexcelled, if equalled, the world 
over. The social evil, no doubt, prevails to a considerable 
extent — at least, did prevail early in the campaign, before strict 
regulations were put in force to stop it. But drunkenness is 
quite rare ; and even when drunk the men are wonderfully 
harmless. Foreign women walk freely along past thousands of 
them on the streets, and almost never, even when off drill, are 
they guilty of any objectionable utterance or suggestion. How 
far this is due to a suppostion that all these foreigners are Eng- 
lish-spoken, I know not. Certain it is that just now the Anglo- 
Saxon peoples ^re in their eyes " all right." This sometimes 
comes out in unexpected ways. On a recent Sunday, while on 
my way from church, a stranger soldier overtook me, and sud- 
denly shot me with — 

"igirisu ?" (English?) 

" Hai " (yes), I said, thinking it unnecessary to be more 
explicit as to my native land. Immediately he gently pressed 
my little girl's hand out of mine, and heartily shook it — my 
left hand — as it hung by my side, before I fairly realized what 
he was doing. It was onl}- a few days later that my wife was 
suddenly accosted, in a railway station, by a tipsy marine : 

"Are you Englishman ?" 

" No (tentatively) ; I'm not a man at all. I'm a woman." 
This, however, proved too deep a plunge into English for the 
daring fellow, and he simply rejoined, " I am very like English- 
man " (fond of Englishmen), and went on his happy way. 

It is simple justice to say that Japan never forgets her alliance 
with England, and her duty to try to live up to it. Even the boys 
think of it constantly, with pride and high purpose. 



Acta Victoriana. 



369 



Japan's care of her sick and wounded is a first study by many 
at home, as well as by an unusual number of globe-trotters here. 
Happily it is a first study also with the local government : and, 
happily for Christianity, the chief organization is the Red Cross 
Society. Not. indeed, ostensibly chosen as a Christian organiza- 
tion, but practically Christian neyertheless, and a mighty John 
the Baptist to the larger coming of Jesus Christ to these islands. 
Not strange, then, that its Hiroshima head is a Christian, and 
that all its chief nurses sent to the front are Christians. In 
fact, it ' may be parenthetically added, all the official inter- 
preters belong to the same class, deliberately selected by the 




DR. M'GEE, WOUNDED OFFICERS AND NURSES. 



military authorities, because in the campaign ten years ago many 
interpreters proved too susceptible to alcoholic persuasion and 
gave away too many army secrets. 

The Red Cross Society here is an imperial institution, sup- 
ported partly from the national treasury and partly by private 
subscription. There are many life members, who pay a single 
fee of $12.50, or ten annual fees cvf $1.50. The president and 
all the chief officers are of high rank, and the society is rich, 
strong, and finely equipped and managed. It has two excellent 
hospital ships of its own, which were ample at first to bring 



370 Ada Victoriana. 

home all who had been rendered unfit for service ; though, later, 
more than twice as many more were chartered, and, still more 
recently, in addition to what all these can accommodate, each 
transport, on its return journey, has brought hundreds of pitiable 
heroes from the field — enough to more than crowd all the mili- 
tary hospitals in the. land. The delectable glories of war! 

The Hiroshima hospital consists of eight divisions, in various 
parts of the city, each of which has from ten to fifty wards. 
These are single, separate buildings, with cots for between forty- 
five and fifty patients, ^^"hat impressed me most — next to the 
pitiable glory aforesaid, and I have not been into even the ante- 
chamber of the "hell" of war — is the roominess and cleanliness, 
the thoroughness and efficiency, manifest ever3^where, whether 
on hospital ship or in city ward. The directors have been sadly 
puzzled to find room for the newer buildings ; yet, resolute 
against anything like half measures, they keep right up to date, 
and challenge the admiration of everybody ; including, among 
others. Dr. ^McGee — daughter of the well-known astron- 
omer, Newcomb — and the nine American nurses associated with 
her. And they have had the best opportunities for judging. 
They have all been as far as Manchuria by hospital ship, and 
have just completed their six months' engagement — most of it 
in practical everyday work — seven days a week — in the wards 
of this city. Each woman is quite proficient in her own line, and 
they are thoroughly competent judges of what is being done. 
Their praise of it is unstinted. 

It has been a rare privilege to be in close touch w-ith these 
ladies socially ; while to see them dressing the head of this grate- 
ful Japanese, the knee of that, or the poor riddled body of an- 
other, has been a beautiful object lesson in what is at once the 
best in humanity, and the final test of acknowledged fellowship 
with divinity. " Inasmuch as unto these least, unto Me." Their 
doing has evidentlv been Verv largelv unto Him. 

A very happy thought, indeed, the sending of these nurses, and 
one that has worked out very smoothly and successfully! En- 
thusiastically welcomed and feasted when they came, they are 
now", in the middle of October, being most warmly feasted and 
farewelled. . It is by no means simply a question of help ren- 
dered the local Red Cross, though that, too, will bear close 
inquiry. It is the fact that America and Japan are further 



Ac^a Victoriana. 



371 



bound together by one of the strongest bonds, the noblest phil- 
anthropic principles given an outstanding illustration, the world- 
spirit broadened and bettered. 

Earnest, systematic effort is being made to utilize a unique 
opportunity for Christian work in the hospitals. Books, Scrip- 
ture portions, tracts, flowers, etc., are given, and special services 
are held. Now, a baby organ is taken from ward to ward, and 
a little playing and singing is done ; then the paiients who are 
able are gathered into the " social room " to hear short, crisp 
addresses and prayer, in addition to the music ; and, again, per- 
sonal heart-to-heart conversation is held with the men in their 




MINERAL BATH HOUSE, MATSUYAMA. 

(For Kussiaii sick and wounded.) 

cots. Most of the patients are very grateful. A few days ago, 
as one of our ladies approached a poor, emaciated fellow, he 
strained eagerly towards her, tears ran down his cheeks, and 
after an effort, she caught the words, " Sambika — ga — arimasu 
— ko?" (Have you a hymn-book?) — it is close to the Bible in the 
estimation of the Japanese. Not that he was a Christian, but 
he knew a little about " the way," and was hungry to know more. 

A few days earlier I had something like the following conver- 
sation with an officer : 

" Can you speak English ?" 



372 Acta Victoriana. 

" Yes, a little." 

My wife then handed him a Christian paper from Canada. 
" Thank you," he said, heartily. " We are very glad to get 
reading matter to pass away the time. I am a graduate i)f a 
mission school in Tokio. Later, I graduated from the Sapporo 
Agricultural College ; and I am now, when off duty, a teacher in 
the Yamaguchi Agricultural School. My name is Koma. I 
am a nephew of Count Hirosawa. I've been here about three 
months. I've lost a leg," and he showed us a very short stump. 
" But I am nearly well now, and will soon be out." 

" What mission school did you graduate from in Tokio?" 

" The Azabu Toyo Eiwa Gakko, connected with the Canadian 
Methodist Mission." 

"Oh. indeed! We are Canadians and Methodists, and know 
that school very well. Did you know Dr. Cochrane?" 

" Yes ; and Wx. Large, and i\Ir. Whittington. and i\Ir. Saun- 
by." And we found that he was a faithful Christian — good fruit 
cultivated by noble men who were wont to sow beside all waters. 

Most of the Russian prisoners are not far away — at IMatsu- 
yama, in Shikoku. They are well cared for, and are given much 
freedom. I have not seen them. But I saw here, through car 
windows, over five hundred men, of those gallantly rescued by 
Admiral Kamimura after the sinking of the Riirik , and I have 
also seen over a hundred army prisoners. The former were 
fair, average-looking men, but the latter appeared unexpectedly 
coarse and ignorant. Hundreds of Japanese keenly eyed them, 
too, but there was not the slightest sign of hate or even reproach ; 
only a rather expressionless look, or one of pity. 

Some of us had hoped that Port Arthur would have fallen 
some. time ago, or that we might even have seen the last of the 
war b}- this time. But the mighty fortress is still holding out 
most stubbornly, and both countries are making elaborate 
preparations as if the . terrible struggle were to be indefinitely 
prolonged. But " God's in His place," and we look to Him, that 
a genuine peace, with justice to all concerned, may soon and long 
prevail. 



Acta Victoriana. 'i^']'^ 

Ji; Backwoodsman' s Graduation. 

BY AUGUSTUS BRIDLE. 

A COLLEGE course is largely a glorified sort of farming. Readers 
of the " Georgics " will remember that Virgil said a lot of 
velvety things about farm life. Some of these "grateful" passages 
have made us sweat under the landlady's reluctant gas jet many a 
midnight when the miseratus agrestes down on the old homestead 
were already in the third hour of sleep. Many a time have we 
sighed for the plough-handles and pitchfork again. We got insomnia, 
likewise neurasthenia ; our vest lost its comfortable snugness ; water- 
lilies bloomed in our cheeks that once wore July roses in the hay- 
mow ; and at bed-time there was, alas ! no pantry. 

Failing to carry the spirit of farming into our studies, and aspiring 
to a share in the foibles and fashions of city life, we became the 
victims of our own caprice, often destroying one day the pleasures of 
the next. Let us, therefore, discover a few analogies between the 
farm and the college, and, in the contemplation of these, driving out 
the forensic shouts of Cicero, listen in fancy to the limpid cadence of 
the hooting owl on the old oak in the lane. 

We shall begin with a logging. Back agam to the old five-acre 
" slashing " which our strenuous dad had chopped into "jam-piles." 
Here many an evening we rambled, when we were but " knee-high," 
hunting the cows. And one spring, just when our voice was turning, 
we drove the horses to log that slashing. Dad and the hire4 man 
wielded the handspikes. We ourselves lifted on our print shirt- 
bosoms. When the bottom logs were soggy, "Pick 'er right up, 
Johnnie !" said dad, and we did. Then with a clammy shirt we went 
back and forth, carrying chunks to the log-heap, while the men 
chopped the log-lengths for the next. 

That done, we turned to the resting team again, wishing that we, 
too, were a horse. The double-tree caught in a stump, and the 
clumsy nigh horse backed up on to it. What a satisfaction it would 
have been could we have sworn at him. But we did not, for dad was 
a class-leader. We merely jammed the " big hook " under the log, 
and tore our fingers in the act. " Whoa, back ! " we yelled in a 
young rooster baritone ; but it was of no avail. The horses were on 
the other side of a cradle-knoll with a pond beneath it, and there was 
nothing else to do but let out the chain. We did so, and, before we 
2 



374 Acta I ^icto via net . 

had the lines well in hand, the brutes started with a jerk. One line 
fell in the pond, and we grabbed it just in time to get our leg-boots 
full of water and make a high jump over a black ash top. Our straw 
hat falling off, we snatched at it, butj losing our footing, fell down in 
the brush and let go the lines. The horses dashed on with the log, 
which nearly went over our " dry goods," till dad yelled " Whoa-oa-oa ! •' 
We scrambled up and longed for the dinner hour, but in vain ; the 
sun showed it only eleven o'clock. 

Is there a Freshman in Victoria this year who already, standing 
before the " jam-piles " of his own profound ignorance, has not wished 
that his cognomen had been Hercules ? If there be, let him not go 
to bed until he has started to log up. If he does not, he may find 
that procrastination does not make the work lighter, and be found 
burning log heaps in the smoke in '08 when he ought to be hauling 
in corn. 

Ploughing among the stumps was our next circus specialty. This 
was not easy. Dad required ''a land" fourteen feet wide. We paced 
it off, and stuck up a pole with a paper semaphore at the north end. 
Then keeping our left eye on the white spot we started the horses and 
stuck in the plough. But there were at least seventeen full-grown 
stumps in that virgin furrow. The plough-point dug under the roots 
and the horses " straddled " a stump. Being rather " big feeling," we 
yelled, with a flip of the reins, " Get down to it. Bill ! What in the 
Sam Hill ? " Then there was a crash as the white ash double-tree 
went all to pieces and we, with the lines about our back, were hauled 
hastily over the plough-beams. Then we walked to the barn to get 
the waggon double-tree, thinking out on the way the version of the 
affair which we should rehearse to dad at dinner. 

When we were ready to go on again there was a root on the plough- 
point and the off-horse had his off-hind foot over the trace. Four 
rods farther on the horses jumped a little pond and we let go the 
plough to go round. With seventeen stumps, three cradle knolls, 
four "subterranean" soggy logs, and a cow-trail all in our wake, we 
headed into the semaphore. That inaugural furrow in his corn-field 
made dad (class-leader though he was) say " darn," and really the 
proverbial dog's hind legs were not to be compared with it for 
crookedness. 

Are there any young men of the Second Year who put their hand 
to the plough and do not figure on the snags and the water-holes ? 
Do they deem it a " cinch " to jerk out green habits by the roots ? Do 
they pack whole chunks of crude knowledge into their craniums, and 



Ada Victoriana. 375 

think they have obtained wisdom ? In the Third Year they will look 
back on this year's furrow, and lo ! they become dismayed, cross eyed 
at the prospect. Wherefore, " Doth not wisdom cry ?" 

Planting and cultivating, a one-horse job, came next. Usually we 
were allowed the slow, old, flatfooted roan mare for this purpose. 
Gazing at the old, wooden cultivator in the hot sun made us sleepy, 
so we left the ragweeds and foxtail close to the corn-hills untouched. 
" Dad would never notice them," we thought. But in hoeing-time we 
were obliged to bow our backs and pull up the ragweeds by sheer 
strength, for were they not too big for the hoe? This was slow work. 
The corn grew knee-high long before we were through and the haying 
was upon us before we were half done. In harvest-time we found 
those ragweeds half as high as the corn, and the pigweeds large and 
tough as young trees. 

Many a young man in his Third Year, failing in his cultivation, finds 
some hard scrabble hand-hoeing in his work. Let him guard well the 
seeds of truth, of knowledge, of industry and research, let him tear out 
the sprouting weeds of falsehood and presumption, of radicalism and 
of indolence, and his will be a happy and successful harvesting. 

Husking was the final test. Dad took one side of a shock and we 
the other. We were amused as the old dog snapped up the mice, 
and pleased by the blackbirds that lisped their ABC's over in the 
snake fence. The days had the balmy charm of Indian summer. 
The partridge drummed in the woods and the shot-guns cracked 
dreamily after the distant quail. In a neighbor's lane a wagon rattled 
peacefully along as he hauled in the yellow pumpkins to save them 
from the October frosts. But when the shock was husked and the 
fodder bundles were tied father's words were clear and chilling. 
" Only half a bushel an' most 'v 'm nubbins," he said, " 'D orta been a 
bushel an' a haf. Young man, such work as you've made of this 
cornfield 'ud not be long a-starvin' you." 

Are there any Seniors and graduates of Victoria who are finding 
their husking a disappointment ? We hope not. Yet it is whispered 
that there are some graduates running ranches and insurance offices 
out West — some, too, in more menial employments — who at the 
Fourth Year examinations were able to husk out only thirty-three 
per cent. And most of that was " nubbins." 



^yt Acta Victoriana. 

Running the Gauntlet. 

BY AL. MARR. 

THE sun sank low in the western sky. Great masses of cloud 
hung all about it, their deep purples and grays just tinged with 
yellow light, and all betokening the coming of a dark and stormy 
night. Yet the stillness of evening in the vast, primeval forest per- 
meated the soul. The perfect serenity of the lake's surface, unbroken 
by laughing ripples, or leaping fish, or swimming bird, inspired a deep 
sense of solitude. The long line of richly timbered hills along the 
west, unreheved by clearing, house, trail or any other sign of human 
habitation, increased the same impression. Beneath their darkening 
shade stalked ghostly night, silent and wrapped in a misty coat of gray 
gloom. The sun disappeared, the shadows deepened and with a 
gathering rush night came on apace. 

Suddenly out of the silence came the shrill uncanny laugh of a loon. 
I started involuntarily and in the act I became, in turn, a subject of 
alarm. I caught a passing glimpse of a fox's brush as he vanished over 
an uprooted pine; beneath me there was a single summoning bleat 
of a startled doe before she was lost with her tiny, spotted fawn among 
the cedar scrub ; then came quiet — complete, all-embracing, dark. 

With a shudder I turned and peered at the imperfect path, and 
thought of the five miles of unbroken forest that lay between me and 
the little clearing where was my temporary home. What a fool I had 
been to loiter here while the sun was up I A stranger, a green youth, 
fresh from the city and ignorant of the bush and its denizens and 
their ways, — why did I tarry for nothing more than a mere quiet 
evening scene? Why did I not realize then as now the grim dangers 
of that dark, lonely way. I was startled anew at the unfamiliar sound 
of the whistling flight of an invisible flock of wild waterfowl ; then 
laughing at my fears, rallied my fainting heart, struck up a religious 
tune, and decided to brave the darkness. 

One hundred yards from the entrance I was in pitchy blackness. 
Trees, dense and towering, shut out every glimpse of the sky, every 
ray of starlight. Even a white handkerchief held aloft was quite 
invisible. Yet I trudged on rapidly, almost breathlessly. Then a 
queer sniffling and a rustling of decayed leafage fell upon my ear. 
Some animal was directly in my path and I stopped abruptly. What 
could it be ? Not deer, for the gait was too shufifiing ; it was more like 
bear, but at this distance he would be moving more rapidly than that, 
one way or other. Presently the noise changed to a scrambling one, 



Acta Victoriana. t^jj 

and began to mount rapidly upwards, and concluding that it was only 
a porcupine, I pressed on, singing in a loud but quavering voice the 
courage-quickening, martial strains of "Onward, Christian Soldiers." 
Somehow the weird and ghostly calls and the great gleaming eyes of 
those old owls and the shrill piercing cry of a distant wild-cat, while 
they startled, did not prey upon the imagination so much now. The 
song died away, but the silence was not long continued. Only a few 
yards from me there was a sudden stirring of brush followed by much 
beating of wings upon a dry old log. Some reynard had chosen a 
partridge for his evening meal. 

Weary and excited I found it impossible to shake off the depressing 
effect of this incident. Perhaps the darkness had a similar fate in 
store for me. There was that hillside just ahead, of which Don, my 
host, had warned me. Two months ago it had been the scene of a 
tragedy. Was there to be another to-night ? That runway was the 
general highway of the wild animals of the district. Should I brave 
it, or sit down here and await the light ? Suddenly I came upon a 
bit of slippery, springing bog. The special danger zone was just 
ahead. I faltered ; then, with a wild nervous whoop, started up " The 
Campbells are coming " in a pitch to frighten every grizzly within two 
miles, pressed on across the morass and gained the opposing slope. 

At its crest a blood-curdling snarl bursts upon the ear, there is a 
sharp gnashing of teeth, and a hot breath on my cheek, and in the 
darkness bruin and I are face to face. Yet I am not now unnerved. 
Every fibre is under command. Mindful of Indian custom I leap to 
get my back against a tree and avoid the fatal hug. In an instant my 
great knife is out and open. " You may exult in victory, but not without 
a struggle," I think with lightning despatch. A snapping twig betrays 
his advance. My knife is raised for his reception. There is the crackle 
of a parlor match, a little blaze of light, and Don's eyes meet mine. 

But what a transformation did that momentary glare reveal. A 
merry, mischievous face grew foolish, then pallid with emotion. We 
were both glad when it went out, and silent, side by side, trudged 
home. "That might have cost my life and your fair name," he said 
passionately after a long pause, and I could only reply with my hand 
upon his shoulder, as we broke into the clearing five minutes later, 
" Well, forget it, Don, my good fellow." But Don never forgot it, 
and has often declared that next time he goes to meet a belated city 
youth in the wild woods' depths, he will take along the Highland 
pipes and make hill and valley scream afar with the martial strains of 
"The Campbells are coming." 

Victoria College. 



7^ 



Ada Victoriana. 



Some Oxford Types 



BV PROFESSOR MAURICE HUTTON. 



I PREFACE these few words I have to say of some Oxford types, 
as I have knois-n them, by the warning that I am not pretending, 
or intending, to describe the Oxford of to-day, or any other Oxford, 
except the Oxford of some twenty-seven years ago. There were, I 
think', roughly speaking, three main currents of thought in those days 
converging to form the river of University Hfe. 

There was first and fore- 
most, the school which had 
resisted and reacted from the 
so-called famous Oxford move- 
ment, and the teaching of 
Newman ; the school which 
had outlived the Oxford move- 
ment, and more than any other 
single school, dominated Ox- 
ford : the Rationalist School, 
of which the best known 
names were Jowett, the Master 
of Balliol, and Pattison, 
Rector of Lincoln : often the 
name of Mr. T. H. Green is 
added, though he was perhaps 
too many-sided, too actively 
beneficent, too practically 
devout, to be in entire sym- 
pathy with its negative dialec- 
tic and sterile criticism. Not, 
of course, that the ordinary undergraduate saw much, if anything, of 
these great names. Jowett and Pattison were elderly men, and the latter 
in particular had withdrawn in a great measure from the work of teach- 
ing ; but it was their influence which had moulded most of the men 
he did see. Besides, if he did not see much of them, he heard a great 
deal ; he knew all that there was to know about them, and a great 
deal more ; more even than the angels knew ; that is, not only more 
than the bald historic facts, but more also than the unrecorded facts 
or even than that illuminating fiction, which is often spiritually and 




PRIN'CIPAL HUTTON. 



Acta Victoriana. 379 

ideally truer than fact ; for there had gathered a vast accretion of 
legends round the name of each, many of them neither literally nor 
spiritually true. Than the rapid growth of such myths nothing is 
more curious or interesting, unless it be the antiquity of some of them, 
which yet purport to be historical accounts of quite recent events and 
persons. Jowett himself on one occasion asked a friend for the 
anecdotes told of him, and after listening quietly to a long list, " All 
of those," he remarked, " were told by me and my contemporaries of 
my predecessor except one, and that is not true of me." However — 
as Herodotus would say — I am not bound to believe all the legends I 
heard in Oxford, I am bound to record them. 

Of Pattison, then, it was told that he never spoke to undergraduates 
unless they showed marked ability, but he made one exception, in 
favor of anglers. With an undergraduate of either of these types he 
would walk and talk of philosophy or of fish, but even with them he 
was austere. One of them, more ambitious than the rest and deter 
mined not to sink below the level of the occasion and the Rector, 
began the conversation one day the moment they issued through the 
college gateway with the sufficiently abstruse remark : " The irony 
of Sophocles, Dr. Pattison, is finer than the irony of Euripides." 
" Quote," was the dry retort, but quotation came there none, only in 
its place a silent walk. A weaker mind when engaged in the hazard 
ous joy of a walk with Jowett — says another legend — lost its self- 
possession in presence of his silence, and exchanged silence for vacuous 
speech : " It is a fine day, Master," stammered ingenuous youth. For 
answer came a reproachful look, but no further speech on either side 
to enliven or belie the peaceful prospect of nature till, as they reached 
the College gate again, after the student's constitutional was finished, 
came a parting echo of the unhappy overture : " That was a foolish 
remark you made." Nor did the voluble and self-possessed orator 
always fare better. One such there was who talked, and talked, and 
talked, only to reap at the walk's conclusion the chequered verdict, 
" That will do, but too much conceit." Yet another had the bad taste 
and the bad judgment to suppose that the Master would welcome 
cheap second-hand agnosticism, and he finished a lively discourse in 
the style of Col. Ingersoll to find his companion gently humming, 
" Rock of Ages, cleft for me." This was indeed one of the most 
interesting and charming features of Jowett's character, that he never 
paraded religious difficulties, or talked of them except in sincerity to 
persons who could appreciate and understand. He never gratified the 
sensation-loving superficial public by oratorical fireworks of this kind. 



380 Acta Victortaiia. 

The fashionable world flocked from London and the provinces on a 
summer Sunday into Oxford and packed the University Church, all 
agog to hear or to tell some new heresy. Then would the Master 
in his piping voice pronounce a mild eulogy upon friendship, or read 
an essay on the lost art of conversation. His contempt for affected 
and precocious infidelity showed itself again on another occasion when 
some flippant youth reported that he could not satisfy himself of the 
existence of Deity. " You will satisfy yourself by ten o'clock 
to morrow morning, sir, or leave College," was the unsympathetic 
answer. A deeper answer was granted to well-meaning irreverence 
of a deeper type. " Master," said a converted pupil, " I have found 
the Saviour." " Then don't tell anybody," was the quiet rebuke. 
Another anecdote, not less characteristic of this side of his mind — the 
theological side — was told of an occasion during my own term in 
Oxford : A student of the College went to ask him for the use of the 
College Hall for a meeting to promote missions to the Hindoos. 
"Certainly," said the Master, and added to his visitor's alarm, " I will 
take the chair myself," which he did with an opening address delight- 
fully frank and typical. " A missionary's career," he said, "appears to 
me a singularly attractive one ; it gives to a man so admirable an 
opportunity of studying the picturesque religions of the East." It 
was this open-mindedness to religious systems other than Christian 
which formed the basis for another anecdote by no means so authentic, 
according to which a distinguished Hindoo — a convert of the mission- 
aries — after hearing the Master preach, announced himself reconverted 
to Buddhism. 

Jowett was much more of a man of the world than Pattison, and 
aimed far more at completeness of life and interest. He was not so 
intolerent of small things. "I must apologize, Master," said a youthful 
philosopher, who had been deputed, very much against his will, to 
approach, or reproach, the Master concerning the quality of the potatoes 
served by the college cook, " I must apologize for distracting your 
attention to such trifles." " Don't apologize," was the unexpected answer 
of the philosopher more mature, "life is made up of trifles " ; and so, on 
another occasion, he astonished a particularly laborious aud hard read- 
ing student, who sat with straining ears expecting some aphorism 
on Plato, with the eminently practical and worldly advice, " Be 
young, my young friend, be young." Again the sceptic's apprehensive- 
ness, which has played so large a part in the lives of scholars, and 
sometimes — in reference to marriage and its perturbing risks — a part 
so tragic, was, if another anecdote be true, unnecessarily keen in even 



Acta Victoriana. 



381 



Jowett's mind on one occasion. " Dr. Jowett," said a young lady to 
whom he had shown great kindness, and who was encouraged thereby 
to hope that he would grace her approaching marriage, " Dr. Jowett 
I have a great favor to ask of you ; will you marry me ? " " Perhaps 
we should not be happy," was his hasty and irrelevant ejaculation. 

He was a great friend of George Eliot, and she, too, in a pessimistic 
spirit was accustomed whenever she heard of an approaching marriage 




BENJ. JOWETT. 



in her circle to say soltly, " Yes, he is very good, and she is very good, 
but will they suit? " 

I have left myself little time for notice of other schools of 
thought, but other schools of thought there were. One second in 
influence to this Rationalist and Classical School was a Theological 
School : the school of Oxford High Churchmen, the school of which 
Dean Church, and Canon Liddon, and Canon King were the leaders, 
the two latter living largely in Oxford. The school included Church- 
men of every degree of Anglicanism and Ritualism ; it covered also — 



382 A eta Victoriana. 

therein lay its strength — not merely the moral fervor and apostolic 
devotion which has gathered hundreds of men and women in the 
squalid slums of great English cities into Anglican or Ritualist 
churches, but also almost invariably a breadth of view and a 
liberality of thought which had once been associated only with 
the names of Dean Stanley and the Broad Church. Nor was this 
the only point of contact between the High and Broad Churches. 
There was a second : they both loved moderation and sweet reason- 
ableness, and they both disliked ostentation and the slightest approach 
to advertisement or publicity. This is where even Cardinal Newman 
fell short of the ideal of these Anglicans ; he was too fanatic and 
extravagant (especially in his " Loss and Gain "), I had almost said 
ribald. They believed emphatically in the trivial round and the common 
task : they disliked intensely all sensational and dramatic changes ; 
their real type was Isaac ^Villiams, the unknown, self-obliterating 
country rector, or John Keble, rather than Newman, still more 
than Ward, the most extravagant and whimsical and self-opinion- 
ated of men. In short, all the arbitrary and high-handed action 
which attracts the world offended these men of the student type, 
just as oiher worldly considerations offended other students. The 
spirit which moved Keble, in fact, was the same spirit at bottom 
as that which — in another department of thought — maiked Henry 
Smith, the Oxford mathematician, a most singularly accomplished 
man of Jowett's generation. In addition to his extraordinary breadth 
of interest, he made some discoveries not inconsiderable, I believe, in 
mathematics, bi4 his especial satisfaction in them was this — -that there 
was not a farthing to be made out of them by hook or by crook ; they 
belonged just where they professed to belong, to pure mathematics ; 
they were L,olden, but not with the gold of this world ; rust and 
exposure could not tarnish them, thieves would never care to break 
through nor steal. 

But to return to the High Churchmen, the men whose names are 
now well known in the Church, Holland, and Gore, and Jayne, and 
many others belonged to this school. Its influence has spread not 
over England only, but to this continent, perhaps especially the 
influence of the highest of its High Churchmen, Canon (now Bishop) 
King, who exercised in Oxford then, as he has exercised since over a 
wider field, a marvellous personal charm, whom but to see was a 
religious education. If the Dean of St. Paul's was at that time the 
brain of the School, and Canon Liddon its eloquent tongue, Canon 
King was already becoming its heart and soul. 



Acta Victoriana. 383 

And last, and perhaps in point of number least, there was in Oxford 
a remnant of the old Evangelicals, fallen on evil days and with a 
scanty following, with their principal stronghold of old, the most 
beautiful college in Oxford — Wadham College — wrested from them 
by an upstart handful of Positivists, who, of course, ran the college 
down to the ground, whence it is only now painfully uprising. There 
were never, by the way, more than thirty Positivists, I suppose, in 
England, all told, and they have had three disruptions T am informed, 
and are now divided into four churches — three, that is, besides the 
original church (the church of the Marrow, let u? call it). At their 
worship it is understood they solemnly commemorate " Space," a 
euphemism, I conjecture, for the solitude which they wrought in the 
quadrangles of Wadham, and in those gardens where for long years 
after the cedars of Lebanon wasted their sweetness on the desert air. 

And yet the old Evangelical School — as I, at least, am especially 
bound to remember— still had their saints in Oxford. In Dean 
Burgon's book, " The Lives of Ten Good Men," one of the first lives 
is the life of Richard Lynch Cotton, Provost of Worcester College. If 
the other nine men were, all taken together, as good as Dr. Cotton 
the world was not worthy of them. For the Provost of Worcester 
was an adorable old man ; he used to tell us how Dean Burgon once 
stooped down and kissed him on the top of his head. I do not think 
we were merely amused to hear it; he was a very little man and 
Dean Burgon was very tall, but in fact the feat was easy for moral as 
well as physical reasons. Apropos, however, of his smallness of 
stature, by the way, Mr. Goldwin Smith has told me that his keenest 
recollection of the Provost was on the occasion of the Prince of Wales 
taking his degree. There was a great function and the Provost — as 
it so happened — was Vice-Chancellcr that year. Mr. Smith beheld 
him in his scarlet robes standing in the Natural History Museum 
between the front legs of the giraffe. 

He was a man of the most unaffected and simple piety it has ever 
been my good fortune to meet ; so pleasant is the memory of it that I 
should be sorry now to see his pre-eminence challenged by younger 
men. It may be there is no fear of that. With the newly-elected 
scholar, fresh, perhaps, from a small country grammar school and 
country rectory, green, and young and hopeful, launched upon the world 
like a lamb among wolves, he would begin the acadenuc life with a 
few words of private prayer between them two only — or, at least, I mean 
between them two and One Other, whom, as Herodotus would say, it 
is not lawful for me to mention — such prayer rose naturally to his lips 



84 



Acta Victoriana. 



and therefore fell naturally upon his hearer's ears. From this first 
introduction to him to the end of one's course he left the same impres- 
sion on one's mind, that of one who never neglected his college duties as 
he conceived them, but was as faithful a Provost as any in Oxford. 
Foremost among these duties in his opinion was to send for any one 
whose attendance at chapel left something to be desired. If on these 
occasions one chose to po to him in the morning hours one would 
find him studying the Bible, generally, I think, the Old Testament. 




DR. COTTON. 



Elaborate but futile endeavors were made to calculate the number 
of verses which he covered in a morning's reading. In the afternoon, 
on the other hand, he seemed usually to relax his mind with Davison 
on Prophecy ; he gave me a copy of the book, and thereby hangs 
another tale. He had once printed a volume of sermons in his younger 
days; they had not been financially a success; in point of fact the edition 
was left on his hands. Ultimately he disposed of them by presenting 
one copy as a gift to each freshman as he entered the college. When 



Acta Victorimia. 385 

the edition was exhausted he did not like to withdraw from the pre- 
cedent established and he was too modest to print a new edition and 
Davison succeeded to the vacant place. I wish I had been before the 
days of Davison; I would rather have had his own sermons; they would 
have recalled more vividly the once familiar scene of the college chapel, 
with the white-haired old man sitting in the corner, holding a lighted 
candlestick askew upon his knee, to follow better the reading of the 
lessons for the day, and dropping wax over his white surplice ; or 
again, on a warm summer Sunday afternoon preaching to a recum- 
bent and somnolent audience discourses of which the toothless utterance 
prevented a large part thereof from reaching our ears, though ever and 
again one would catch the name of Aristotle sandwiched between 
those of the Apostles. 

Nor was he less careful of lighter and less solemn duties. He 
asked us all to breakfast every year, ten or twelve at a time. At these 
same breakfasts he retailed personal anecdotes manfully, often under 
great difKiculties, often across the coflfee pot and the whole length of 
the table to the senior man at the other end, when the freshmen near 
him, as happened not unfrequently, kept silence even from good words. 
His anecdotes were entertaining, but he was not a man of varied 
accomplishments ; his ideas of music in particular were elementary 
and his own. One of us died in my time, and we had a funeral ser- 
vice in the college chapel and the Dead March in Saul was played ; 
as we emerged said the Provost to the Vice-Provost, " What an 
inspiriting air." He had the most pathetic and the most sincere belief 
in the efficacy of these chapel exercises. "Stupendous," he once 
said to me (it was one of his favorite epithets), " stupendous, is it not, 
the influence of chapel ? I always know what a man's character is 
when I look at his chapel list. Most remarkable ! (another favorite 
epithet) ; do you know I received yesterday a request for a 
testimonial from a man I had not seen for thirty years. I could not 
remember his face or anything about him, but I turned to his chapel 
list and found he had been a regular attendant, so I sent him, with 
full confidence, a hearty testimonial ; most excellent young man." 
On another occasion I recollect he sent for an athlete, a very worthy 
fellow, fonder of running the secular races set before him than the 
apostolic race to chapel, as the Provost conceived it. " I don't see, 
Mr. Provost," grumbled this young gentleman, " the use of all these 
chapels." " Oh, Mr. Holt, Mr. Holt ! " said the Provost, grieved 
beyond expression, " How can you say so, Mr. Holt ? What will you 
do in heaven, Mr. Holt ? It is one endless chapel there." 



386 Ada Victoriana. 

Naturally his belief in the goal at the other end was not less 
uncompromisingly literal. It is reported that on one occasion, having 
an offender before him, he solemnly lighted a candle and held the 
offender's finger for an instant in the flame, with the laconic appeal, 
" It will be worse than that." The younger Dons loved to draw him 
out about Dean Stanley. He was perfectly polite to them, but very 
non-committal. " Yes," he said on one occasion, "there was much I 
liked about his sermon ; he quoted very many beautiful texts." 

So, then — in conclusion, to revert for a moment to the two types of 
men of whom I have said most, in the one case because they were most 
influential, in the other because I happened to see most of them — there 
were in the Oxford of those days, so far as my college was concerned, 
the three men and the two types (if we may regard the Master and 
Rector as varieties of the same type), the Master, the Rector, and the 
Provost ; the Humanist, the Sceptic, and the Pietist ; the Man of the 
World, the Cynic, and the Saint ; Wisdom, Learning, and Religion ; 
and the most eminent of these was the first, the Master of Balliol ; the 
most characteristic of his times was the second, the Rector of Lincoln ; 
while the third, obscure and without special gifts, toiled patiently 
after the Christianity which his system of thought set before him as 
his goal. 

Each filled his place and realized — as far as a man does — his type. 
The first two were names throughout the land, echoing — shall we say 1 
■ — as a sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal. But the third enjoyed at 
least this compensation, that he was enabled both by his temperament 
and by his school of thought to retain through all the depressing dis- 
illusionments of life a larger measure of those very elementary and 
yet invincible graces which seemed to ebb away or flicker out of the 
lives of his more gifted colleagues, the three graces of the Christian 
dispensation ; and, therefore, because the weak things of the world, as 
we know, are apt to confound the mighty, and revelations have been 
made to babes which are denied to the wise and prudent, I doubt 
whether, after all, the Provost was not the best beloved and the most 
missed in his college, and whether, after all, it is not his acquaintance 
which his college looks forward with the liveliest interest to renewing 
in another world ; if ever, that is to say, they are tempted to hope that 
even for the least of his disciples, and those who are not worthy even 
to be called his disciples, his prayers and his piety may furnish a 
passport to that " endless chapel " of the Heavenly Jerusalem upon 
which his imagination loved to dwell. 




Ac la Vic to riana. ■i,'^'] 

Things we Want to Know about Early Man^ 

BY DAVID BOYLE. 

[,NE of Toronto's professors is down for a lecture 
this winter on "Palceolithic Man." This being 
a subject about which most students know 
little, and care less, it is earnestly hoped that 
as many of them as possible will go to hear 
Dr. A. B. Macallum. To the ladies, man of 
somewhat recent date might prove a more 
alluring topic, but even they cannot fail to 
profit by giving a little consideration to their ex- 
tremely remote ancestors, for the subject can 
scarcely be more than alluded to in a single lecture, while a thousand 
two-hour-long discourses would fail to cover all the ground. 

It is mainly in view^of the latter condition that one is driven to 
wonder how /le would tackle " Palceolithic Man " in a single lecture if 
he had the temerity to think himself capable of doing so at all. 

What should be the starting point ? When is it safe for us to say 
that man became man ? Was it when he assumed the erect position? 
or when he acquired the power to articulate ? Or, was it at a still 
earlier period when instinct became fairly well-advanced reason, or 
even before that, just where reason begun and when, in all probability, 
he walked quite as much all-fours as upright ? Queries of this kind 
may be brushed aside as trivialities, but it must be admitted that until 
we have not only settled when man became man, but .whether there 
was at first only one kind of man, or were more than one, and, if the 
latter, whether one kind had precedence, or all appeared about the 
same time, we cannot, in a truly scientific sense, discuss " Primitive 
Man." The fact is that the expression " Primitive Man " has never 
been defined either directly or inferentially, and we are, meanwhile, 
satisfied to accept the lowest known conditions of human society as 
those which characterized man primevally. 

Physically — and this, too, inwardly as well as outwardly — there is 
much that distinguishes the savage from ourselves, and mentally there 
is still more. It has been pointed out that considerable modification 
in the proportion of arms and legs, in the vertebral column, and in 
the organs of respiration and digestion must have resulted from the 
moment that our far down ancestors began to walk on two, rather 
than on four limbs, and it is allowable to assume that some corres- 



•By request of the Editor. 



388 Acta Vidoriana. 

ponding changes affected the intellect. But the physical differences 
between uncivilized and civilized man, are, as a rule, in favor of the 
savage, because his mode of life tends to maintain a higher, general 
standard of muscularity. Mentally, the conditions are reversed, and 
it is altogether with these that the study of paloeolithic man, or even 
the more recent savage, is concerned. 

How did he think ? This is all we are trying to find out. 

We are toleraby sure that he has always been a social being — more 
or less gregarious — but we are unable to say whether he was a mono- 
gamist or a polygamist, and we are profoundly interested respecting 
the origin and development of his religious or supernatural notions. 
In accordance with the theory of evolution it is utterly impossible that 
he could have come even by his fetishistic ideas as a result of inheri- 
tance ; and how did he reach the higher planes of religious thought ? 
How came he to conceive of the existence of good and bad spirits — 
preferably of bad ones — and what could have suggested to him that it 
was possible to invoke the favor of the former by the performance of 
certain acts and to avoid the influence of the others by means of 
charms ? 

Perhaps disease, accidents and natural phenomena had something 
to do with it. If there was no visible agency there must be an invisible 
one, or if the symptoms were visible but inexplicable, then, too, the 
"trouble" must have been brought about by something that could 
not be seen. Success or non-success in procuring food might have 
sug2;ested occult interference, but we know not. 

Primitive treatment of disease has probably always been conducted 
on the supposition that evil spirits, or other malignantly disposed 
beings, were at the bottom of the mischief, and power has been exerted 
either to frighten the spirit away, or to remove the object it has placed 
in the body of the patient. " Absent treatment," too, is sometimes 
employed, and specimens of the talismans used for this purpose in 
Africa may be seen in the Provincial Museum, as part of a shaman's 
complete " outfit." Only a few weeks ago the newspapers contained 
an account of a peasant woman in Ireland, who was conducting a 
make-believe wake over a straw man, whose form she had filled with 
pins and splinters of bone. She said the straw man represented a 
thief who had taken some of her belongings, and that, whoever he was, 
he would suffer on account of her treatment, for she was going to bury 
the effigy, and as it decayed, the thief would become ill and speedily 
die. Surely this was an inheritance from paganism, although part of 
her performance consisted in reading one of the psalms backwards. 



Ada Vicloriana. 389 

Again, what of tabuisin and totemism? Notwitlistanding all that 
has been written regarding these institutions (they are really worthy 
of being so dignified) no thoroughly satisfactory explanations have 
been ofifeied. Governed by a belief in the former, it was highly 
reprehensible to eat particular foods, or to perform certain acts ; so 
much so that at times the death penalty followed ; and according to 
totemic rules (a comparatively moderate form of tabuism) family 
relationships were rigidly prescribed. 

Ceremonialism and symbolism are of vast importance in primitive 
society. In the very lowest stages of savagery they exert a powerful 
effect on every-day life, and we desire to know the why and the 
wherefore. They are usually associated with dancing and feasting, 
and all cf them seem to possess some so-called religicjus significance, 
although the connection is not often very clear. 

It might be difficult to find a people so low, socially and otherwise, 
among whom gambling in one form or another did not, or does not 
exist, and, strange as it may appear, the latest authoritative opinions 
ascribe its origin to divination. It is needless to say that practices of 
this Icind are not now confined 10 primitive peoples, and it is equally 
su[)erflaous to remark that gambling 13 no longer conducted with any 
religious motive. 

Volumes have been written, and there is room for many more, on 
tiie birth, minhood, marriage, and mortuary customs of primitive man 
as we know him, but of these, and of many others as carried out by 
departed peoples, we shall remain forever ignorant. 

One would quite naturally suppose that the language of primitive 
peoples would be little better than jargon, but the student soon dis- 
covers that the forms of speech emplo)ed by even the lowest nre rich, 
often too rich, in niceties of declination and inflection ; and an ex- 
amination of the methods of counting may be regarded as a diversion 
fully as much as a study. It is o'ten in the matter of numeration that 
man's lower or higher estate may be estimated, lor when we find people 
who cannot count beyond two, and some not higher than ten, we may 
rest assured that they are not philosophers, in the Newtonian sense. 

Tnese are a few, amon^ many subjects, that await conclusive discus- 
sion relative to early man, and perhaps the lecturer will refer to some 
of them, if only cursorily. In any event, it is satisfactory to know 
that so scholarly a gentleman will do all that can possibly be done in 
the short time at his disposal to arouse academic attention along lines 
which ought to prove fully as attractive and instructive as is the 
anatomy of a crawfish or the annulation of a worm. 
3 



390 



Ada Victoriana. 



Grunt the Fourth 

PERHAPS the medical profession provides more room, and there- 
fore offers greater temptation than any other, to practice popular 
humbug. Not long since a gentleman fearing sciatica consulted a 
well known physician, who, after a long and apparently careful exam- 
ination of his patient's left hip, said, " well, of course you know, sciatica 
is possible, but in the meantime, I can find nothing but an acute affec- 
tion of the seventh nerve." At another time a lady from a distance 
called on his sapiency for advice respecting a pain in her shoulder, 
neck and the side of her head, when she, too, was informed that she 
had "just caught a little cold, and the seventh nerve was somewhat 
affected." During the last month other two cases have occurred, in 
which the trouble came from the seventh nerve, one being in the right 
sole, and one in the right forearm. 

Akin to those who believe in palmistry, psychiatry, astrology, osteo- 
pathy, absent treatment and the like, are those who feel a certain 
amount of satisfaction, not only in being able to inform their friends 
that the doctor says, " all the trouble is with the nerves," but to add, 
" and it's mostly in the seventh nerve." Seven has always been re- 
garded as a sacred number, and in some inexplicable manner people 
who think themselves affected in this way, seem to regard the trouble 
as one that connects them with the book of Revelations ! 

Observer. 




ALONG THE G. T. R. SYSTEM. 



A eta Victoria na. 



)9i 



iBiC^ 





Temlscamlng District 

BY H. L. KERR; B.A. 

ONE of the most interesting and important parts of New Ontario 
is that region popularly known as Temiscaming District. A 
great deal has been written of recent years, chiefly in Government 
reports, setting forth the various valuable resources of this part of 
Nipissing. The following article does not attempt to deal with any 
of the subjects treated excepting in the most cursory manner. For 
those desiring fuller information I would recommend the report of 
Dr. A. E. Barlow, published in Vol. X., Part i, of "The Geological 
Survey of Canada," as well as reports which will be out in the spring, 
by the Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines. Most of the infor- 
mation given below w?s obtained while doing geological work during 
the summer. 

That part of Nipissing about which I speak more particularly may 
be roughly defined as embracing most of the country adjacent to 
Lake Temiscaming, north of the Montreal River and taking in the 
watershed of the White River. 

At the present time there is in building a railroad from North Bay 
to meet the Grand Trunk Pacific in the neighborhood of Abitibi 
This road has been completed within the past few months as far 
north as New Liskeard, the largest town of the region and the centre 
of the chief agricultural district. The old route by C.P.R. by way of 
Mattawa to South Temiscaming and thence up the lake by steamer, 
was, [particularly during the warmer weather, a more enjoyable, though 
longer journey. From Mattawa to the foot of the lake the road 
follows'the Ottawa on the Quebec side, and here, as well as on the 
lake itself, the scenery, though perhaps monotonous, is most 
picturesque. 

After leaving South Temiscaming, the first stop of importance was 
made at Haileybury. Here is a good Government dock, which, 
unfortunately, owing to the unprecedented high water of last spring, 
was covered by three feet of water when we arrived. This made 



39-2 ^cla Vicforiana. 

landing in a rough sea rather exciting work. Since then the dock 
has been raised beyond the possibility of inundation. New IJskeard, 
six miles further north, is as far as the larger steamers go. However, 
there are three or four small boats that do a big business carrying 
passengers and (reighc from here to Tom's Town on the White River. 
This small village, the head of navigation, is between twenty-five and 
thirty miles north of New Liskeard, and about three hundred miles 
from Toronto. If one wishes to go farther by water, he must take to 
the canoe. Two miles above the village the first rapid is met, and 
from here un, on all the branches of the river, the rapids are frequent, 
and some of the portages long. Until the completion of the railroad 
farther north, all supplies for surveyors and contractors must be taken 
in by canoe, (lood portages are cut through the forest at all the 
rapids. Some of them have probably been used by the Indians for 
thousands of years. 

Recent discoveries of valuable mineral deposits within five miles of 
Haileybury have brought this place prominently before the public. 
It is a village of two or three hundred people, and, besides the 
Government dock, boasts of an excellent school, good churches, fair 
hotel accommodation and a weekly paper. Here, too, is si'.uated the 
most southerly Hudson Bay post in that part of Ontario. 

The mines are about five miles south-west of the village, in the 
township of Coleman. All the dcpos'ts, so far reported, are within a 
radius of a mile-and-a-half to two miles of Cobalt Lake. All those 
being worked are close to the lake, and within a few hundred yards 
of the new railroad, over which shipments of ore have already been 
made. The first discovery was made by a blacksmith, working on 
railway construction, near a rock cut on the right of-way. This prop 
party, which is probably the most valuable of all, is known as the 
La Rose mine, being named after the discoverer. The ore here is 
chiefly niccolite (NiAs) and native silver. Besides, several other 
minerals occur in lesser quantities, smaltite (CoAs^) being the chiel. 

Silver nuggets may be pi:ked up quite frequently in the talus at the 
base of the cliff. One nugget found during the summer weighed 
nearly five hundred pounds. Of course this one was altogether unique. 
The niccolite and smaltite, both very valuable ores in themselves, are 
here literally full of small stringers and leaves of native silver. A 
shaft has been sunk over bixty feet, and the vein seems to be improv- 
ing with depth, so that this promises to be one of the most valuable 
properties in the country. It is, as the owners term it, a poor man's 
mine, as it costs so little to realize from it. The first shipment of ore 



Ada Victoi'iana. 



393 



to New York averaged $1,900 per ton, the twenty tons bringing 
$38,000 to the owneis. 

Besides this there are four other locations near the lake, from which 
ore has been shipped. Two properties, in one of which the ore is 
smaltite, in the other silver, hav<- recently been sold, I have been 
informed, for $250,000. The latter is known as the Little Silver 
Mine. An average sample of the sand and mud on the lake from 




THE LITTLE SILVER MINE, COBALT. 



another of the mines assa)ed 750 ounces per ton in silver alone. From 
another properly, for the expenditure of the first $io,oco, made up 
largely in putting in equipment and buildings, $100,000 was realized. 
These figures speak for themselves. If the deposits prove at all 
extensive Cobalt will be oie of the most valuable mining districts of 
the world. Other discoveries have been made in the neighborhood of 



394 Acta Victoriana. 

Giroux and Cross Lakes. None of these are being worked, but some 
of them bid fair to be quite valuable. 

Undoubtedly, many more discoveries will be made during the 
coming summer. Last summer the prospector, with his hammer 
and "specimens," was ubiquitous. All through the forest they could 
be seen, hammering away at every rock in sight and eagerly looking 
for traces of nickel and cobalt stain. These stains, by the way^ 
are very noticeable, the former being a vivid green —annabergite, 
Ni3As20s + 8H._.0 — while the latter is a bright pink — erythrite or 
cobalt bloom, Co.,As.jOs + 8H._,0. iVIany spent weeks prospecting and 
found nothing ; a few, more fortunate, spent only a few days and 
found a fortune. 

Rumors of similar ores being discovered near Round Lake have 
reached us. Iron occurs near this lake in Boston Township, which is 
about seventy miles north of Cobalt. We do not know as yet how 
valuable these deposits are. There is also a copper mine upon which 
work has been done on the north branch of the White River. It is 
apparent, then, that from the mining standpoint, the country 
possesses great possibilities. 

As stated above. New Liskeard is the centre of the chief farming 
district. This is a wide-awake town of probably from 800 to i,coo 
inhabitants. Everything- in the place is modern and up to-date. 
Although a larger town than Haileybury, the shipping facilities are 
not so good. The Wabi River, which flows through the town, fills 
the bay so quickly with sediment that constant dredging must be 
carried on to keep a channel open for the larger steamers. The 
country is settled, more or less, from twenty to thirty miles back from 
the town. Radiating through this settlement areanumber of splendid 
government roads to which more are being constantly added. The 
soil is principally clay, which in places is overlain by clayey or sandy 
loam. There are here and there in the heart of the farming land areas 
of rocky or gravelly country unsuifed for agriculture. On the trip 
from Haileybury to Tom's Town, settlements are seen on both sides 
of the river. Beyond Tom's Town, after the first two miles settlers 
are more scattered, although they occur as far north as Round Lake 
When properly opened up this promises to be one of the important 
farming communities of Ontario. The latitude is about the same as 
that of Southern Manitoba or Northern Minnesota, so that with the 
clearing of the land and proper cultivation all the ordinary crops of 
the rest of the province may be grown. Good crops of hay and oats 
were seen during the summer. No wheat is grown as yet. Some of 



Acta Vicloriana. 



395 



the best land seen during the summer was between Round Lake and 
Kenogami ; so that there is still plenty of room for more settlers. 

In addition to the arable land there are large areas unsuited for 
agriculture. On this land, however, some of the best timber in the 
world grows, and by proper conservation of the forest, it must always 
remain a large asset in the wealth of the province. The folly of de- 
nuding such lands of forest is proven by the abandoned farms in 
many parts of the Eastern States. It is the duty of the Government 
to see that such mistakes are not repeated. 

Until recent years the only industry of any importance in this dis- 
trict was lumbering. This is still extensively carried on. Large tracts 
of practically virgin forest still exist. On the other hand large areas 




TOMS TOWN — HEAD OF STEAMER NAVIGATION ON WHITE RIVER. 

have been burnt over during the past few years, and on the far north- 
ern branches of the White Rivet a great forest fire did much damage 
thirty or forty years ago. 

The most important trees from a commercial standpoint are the 
white and red pine {Pinus strobiis and P. resinosa). During last win- 
ter much of this kind of timber was cut in Coleman township, in the 
neighborhood of the mines. The abundance of waterways all through 
this district furnishes extremely cheap transportation. In the spring 
months during high water all the rivers and tributary streams are 
carrying logs down to the mills by the thousands. Lumbering em- 
ploys hundreds of men all through the winter and spring. 



396 Acta Victoria7ta. 

Another tree frequently encountered on the more rocky and barren 
soil is the Jack pine. It is of little importance commercially. Other 
common trees are white and black spruce, cedar and the balsam. A 
few scattered elms were seen as far north as the township of Catharine, 
while the soft maple {Acer nihrum) is present in considerable numbers 
as far north as the head of the lake. One of the most important 
trees, from the Indian's standpoint, the white or canoe birch, is of 
very com-non occurrence. Three varieties of poplar {Popjilas haJsami- 
fera, P. tremuloides zxi^ P. _i:;ra/ididentata) are found throughout the re- 
gion. Occasionally they gain considerable size and form stately for- 
ests, as, for instance, on the north of Round Lake. 

Of the larger trees those mentioned are the chief. Others occur 
but are unimportant. Many smaller trees and shrubs of interest are 
found, but those we must pass by. Of the wild fruits the blueberry 
is perhaps the most abundant, but the red raspberry, wild strawbeny 
and high bush cranberry are frequently met. 

Game is abundant throughout the forest and large numbers of 
sportsmen from other parts of Canada and the United States visit the 
district annually. The moose is the most plentiful of the larger ani- 
mals, and is the chief attraction for outside sportsmen. These animals 
were commonly seen in the lakes and rivers. In places their tracks 
along the shores of the rivers were as thick as those of cattle in a barn- 
yard. The red deer, although not encountered very often, are never 
theless numerous, but they are more timorous than the moose and thus 
harder to see. Several splendid specimens of the black bear were 
seen. Although no wolves were encountered during the summer, 
they are quite plentiful throughout the forest, as is also the Canada 
lynx or wild cat. Of the more valuable fur-bearing animals, the otter 
and beaver might be mentioned. The close season for the last few 
years has led to the large increase of the beaver. Their work was 
seen everywhere along the rivers and streams. Of the birds, various 
species of wild ducks and partridges are common. Most of the lakes 
and rivers abound in fish. The lake and brook trout, perch, pickerel, 
pike and black bass are ail exceedingly plentiful. 

Many other interesting features of the district might be dealt with, 
but space will not permit. Its beautiful clear water lakes, teeming 
with fish, and surrounded by forests full of game, made it an ideal 
place to spend a summer's holiday. With its splendid resources of 
mine, forest and farm, its future is assured and we shall soon be able 
to point to Temiscaming district as one of the most prosperous por- 
tions of our province. 



Acfa Victoriana. 397 

Jottings 

A FRENCH watchmaking firm has just completed for Count 
Monteiro, of Lisbon, and Rio de Janeiro, the most complicated 
watch ever devised. It gives the time in hours, minutes and seconds, 
shows the phases and ages of the moon, the day of the month and 
week for the next four hundred years, the year for the next one hun- 
dred years, the seasons, the solstices and the equinoxes. It has a 
chronograph that records fractions of a second : on pressing a spring 
one may hear a bell announce the hour and minute ; touching another 
spring informs us at what time the watch was last wound. The watch 
also gives the mean solar time, the equation of time, the hours of sun- 
rise and sunset at Lisbon, and the time of day in one hundred and 
twenty-eight different cities of the world. One might think these 
accomplishments sufficient for any watch, but this marvel shows also 
the nightly position of five hundred and sixty stars visible at Paris, of 
six hundred and eleven visible at Rio de Janeiro, and of a similarly 
large number at Lisbon. In the same watch-case are a mariner's com- 
pass, a hygrometer, to show the moisture of the air, a thermometer 
and a barometer, and an altimeter to show the height above sea-level. 
The case of the watch is as elaborately beautiful as the best jeweller 
of Paris could make it. In view of the fact that seven years were 
required to make this watch, the price — four thousand dollars — seems 
moderate. The happy possessor of such a time-piece would scarcely 
need a copy of Mother Siegel's Almanac. 

Another French firm has introduced a novelty in bicycles, a two- 
speed wheel. For one speed the rider pedals forward, and for the 
other one, backward, which is said to be the more effective direction. 

It is an old saying that Nature abhorreth a vacuum, but few know 
how strong her abhorrence is. Only quite recently Prof. Gates, of 
Washington, succeeded in making what is claimed to be the first per- 
fect vacuum. He poured a hot, hard glass tube, closed at one end, 
full of melted soft glass, heated it for thirty hours, and sucked out the 
softer glass with a pump. As it retreated from the closed end of the 
tube, it left an absolute vacuum behind it. 

As so many of our departments include lectures on light, many of 
our readers will be familiar with the luminiferous ether by name. 
Mendelejeflf, the eminent Russian scientist, states his belief that the 
ether is really an element, a million times lighter than hydrogen. It 
would thus be so light that the force of gravitation would scarcely 
affect it, and it would spread through all space. 



XXVIII. cAda ^idoriana. no. 5. 



EDITORIAL STAFF, 1 904- 1 905. 

H. H. Cragg.'OS. - - - - Editor-in-Chief. 

Miss E. H. Patterson, '05) x ■._„__ Miss E. INI. Keys, '06. It_„„i„ 

A. E. Elliott, '05 |l.iterary. D. A. Hewitt. '06. f locals. 

J. S. Bennett, '05, Personals and Exchanges. 

W. A. GiFFORD, B.A., Missionary and Religious. 

F. C. Bowman, '06, Scientific. :M. C. Lane, '06, Athletics. 



BOARD OF MANAGEMENT: 

E. W. Morgan, '05, . . . . Business Manager. 
J. N. Tribble.'O", H. F. Woodsworth, '07, 

Assistant Business Manager. Secretary. 

Advisory Committee ; 

Prof. L. E. Horning, M.A., Ph.D. C. C. James, M.A., 

Deputy Minister of Agriculture. 



Ebitonal 



Within a few weeks we shall again have selected 
COLLEGE those into whose hands we desire to commit the 

ELECTIONS. management of our local affairs for another year. 
The matter is one which does not, we think, always 
receive from the student body the attention it deserves. We cast our 
ballots very often with little consideration for the adaptability of the 
men to the ofifices concerned. Let a man be a "jolly good fellow," a 
personal friend, a member of our year, or perchance one of those 
unfortunates who go down to defeat many times, and our sympathies 
are aroused, and though he be pitted against one who is eminently 
fitted for the office, we give him our vote, and thus often cripple the 
machinery for the whole year. That system may be'permissible where 
there is no great responsibility attached to the office ; but many of the 
positions now in control of the students are growing in importance 
every year, and the holders of them should be selected with the great- 
est care. Efficiency and willingness to perform the duties involved 
should be our criterion in deciding between candidates. Let men 
stand or fall upon their merits. 

Yet here again caution is necessary. Very often a student comes 
to college a perfect stranger to all, and, through natural timidity, fails 
to give his fellows a chance of testing his metal. The consequence is 
that, though of sterling ability, he passes through his course without 
more that a very few discovering his true worth. Thus the college 
loses a useful man because of the lack of a little " prospecting " on the 
part of some who ought to have done it. On the other hand, a man 



Ada Victoriana. 399 

may come well known by a few, who at once begin to " work " him, 
and his course is a triumphal march through college, even though he 
may have less ability than the other, for even college students are 
deceived at times by appearances. The consequence usually is that 
twelve or fifteen men do the greater share of the work and get all the 
practical training, but at the same time are not able to devote them- 
selves to their intellectual development. The unfortunate result is 
revealed in June. Surely where there are two hundred men there is 
no need to heap three or four duties upon the shoulders of one man, 
as has been done in the past. By all means let us have efficiency, but 
may we not with that secure also a more equal distribution of honors ? 

Once more our Missionary Conference has brought 
THE MISSION- before us the great need of workers in the various 
ARv APPEAL, fields our Church has entered. Those who were suf- 
ficiently interested in these things to attend the meet- 
ings must have felt to some extent that this was a personal matter. 
Many, doubtless, who had previously mapped out a course in life which 
was most in harmony with their inclinations have had their ideals 
shattered as there came to them that old but still powerfully persua- 
sive appeal, " Follow me." And now, in the secret chambers of their 
lives, they are facing once more the great and serious question of their 
relation to the great problems of life. For many there will be a mighty 
struggle before there comes the calm of an unshakable resolution. 
Meantime it seems to us that it is the duty of our Church to remove 
every obstacle in the way of a right decision. But is it doing so when 
it sends men out to our home mission fields and then does not provide 
them with sufficient means to live honestly before all men ? A lay- 
man of our Church not long ago cited an instance which came under 
his own observation, where a young man was sent to a mining region 
in British Columbia, and when he had paid his moving expenses, he 
had $245 to live on for a year, in a place where men were obliged to 
pay one dollar a day for board alone. Is this fair? Few men in Vic- 
toria who have offered their services to the Church are asking for large 
salaries and lives of ease and luxury. Most of them have forsaken 
walks of life which held out large inducements, because they realize 
that "a man's life doth not consist in the abundance of the things 
which he possesseth " and that there is something to them more worth 
while than the laying up of treasure on earth. Nevertheless, in this 
matter-of-fact world the problem of finance will insist on intruding 
itself, sometimes rather rudely, and always in a way to enforce attention. 



400 Acta Victoriana. 

And a question which many are asking themselves is, why is it that 
our Missionary Society can pay $800 a year and nrovide a house for a 
man in China while the men on home fields are forced to struggle 
along on a starvation salary ? The cost of living cannot make the 
difference, nor is the work more arduous. That is generally admitted. 
If the Society really cannot pay these men better salaries, why does it 
continually open up more fields and so make the difficulty greater? 
These are live questions among young men to-d.iy. There is no spirit 
of carping criticism. We recognize that the leaders realize the 
difficulty and sympathize with the men, and we would do nothing to 
make their task more irksome. But surely until some new system is 
adopted which will adequately meet the actual needs of the home mis- 
sionaries, the Church can hardly be surprised if there is a constant need 
of men. Let our Church demonstrate that it does take an intelligent 
interest in the young men and that it is prepared to deal justly with 
them, and there will not, we think, be the same difficulty as of yore in 
securing the very brightest and best of them to enter the very hardest 
fields. Surely it is still true, "The laborer is worthy of his hire." 

^«? 

Considerable discussion has been raised lately by 
THE DECLiNt: articles appearing in the Christian Guardian under 
OF THE the caption, "The Dangers and Needs of Today." 
CHURCH. Inasmuch as in its later developments it has afTected 
our own College, we, as students, are peculiarly inter- 
ested. For some years the friends of Victoria have been trying to 
convince our Methodist people that there is here no hotbed of 
unbelief, nor any disposition to undermine the foundations of Metho 
dism. Young men and women are here surrounded with influences 
which tend only to the upbuilding of the strongest Christian character. 
Consequently anything which will prejudice the minds of the people 
against our institution will be justly resented by the majority of the 
students. And there have been impressions conveyed through pulpit 
and press, whether intentionally or not, which are certainly mislead- 
ing. Rev. Mr. Hincks, in his recent letter to the Guardian, 
inferred — and in his sermons, we are told, more explicitly stated 
— that our colleges were losing the evangelistic spirit, and that 
the young men sent out were unable to lead men to Jesus 
Christ. It was rather strange, to say the least, that, while he 
was giving utterance to these sentiments, a band of young men 
from Victoria were conducting in one of our largest churches 
an evangelistic service in which a large number, kneeling peni- 



Acta Victoriana. 401 

tently at the altar, were directed into the way of salvation. Moreover, 
anyone cognizant of the life here, knows well that there is a strong 
spiritual atmosphere which is not confining itself to our own narrow 
circle, but is expanding and infusing itself into the life of many of 
Toronto's churches. Many a young man and woman have the 
students helped into that life which means so much to us. This is 
said in no boastful spirit, but merely to vindicate our college in the 
minds of our friends. There is here no heresy nor idle controversy, 
hut only a holy zeal to extend the kingdom of Christ. 

And is not this the secret which the Church needs to-day? Did 
such a spirit animate the members of our Church, would men now be 
crying out that Methodism is on the decline? Nay, rather, she would 
be going with flying banners from conquest to conquest. And if we 
have read aright that very excellent paper by the Rev. Mr. McMullen, 
it is just such an end he has in view when he sounds the clarion note 
for deeper consecration, and the placing of first ihings first. The 
average minister's time and energy are so expended in attending to 
the great multiplicity of duties devolving upon him that he enters his 
pulpit with a great many minor details of policy, but with no great 
message for the intelligent men and women whom the preacher of 
to-day must face. So instead of wheat he gives them chaff. Under 
such conditions, how can a man stir men ? Let men be filled with 
the Spirit, let them be swayed with a mighty enthusiasm to preach 
Cnrist, and lead men ualo Him, let them be free to employ every 
faculty in that great work, let them be willing to go anywhere only 
that they may bring to this degenerate age the old message, "Repent 
ye, for the kingdom of Heaven is at hand," and everywhere men and 
women will be crying out, " What must we do to be saved ?'' 

This seems to us to be the stand Mr. McMullen has taken, and a 
most reasonable one it must appear to most thinking men and women. 
But Rev. Mr. Hincks does not seem to be satisfied with that conclu- 
sion ; or else he has mistaken Mr. McMuUen's idea. It may 
be, indeed, that we have misinterpreted his letter ; for it scarcely 
gives the reader a clear grasp of his position. The latter part 
would almost appear to contradict the first statements. He begins by 
regretting the decline of the old type of evangelism and ends 
with apparent rejoicing that it has been replaced by a more eflfec 
tive one. Moreover, his statements with regard to God in creation 
do not, we think, represent correctly the views our fathers held, and 
are surely not an indication of those of the writer. We are, we 
confess, at a disadvantage in not having heard the two sermons of 



402 Acta Victoriana. 

which the letter is a synopsis. But we are in the position of the vast 
majority of the readers of the Christian Giiardiafi, and, Hke them, 
we must draw our conclusions not from what ought to have been 
in the letter, but from what was. 

Now, in this letter it is certain that to a great extent Mr. Hincks 
charges home upon the Higher Criticism the blame for the decline of 
the evangelistic spirit. After asserting that the colleges adopting that 
method owe it to the Church to show how to evangelize under the 
changed conditions (a challenge which displays a lamentable lack of 
interest in our college life), he goes on to give in three short paragraphs 
" sufficient of the results of Higher Criticism to reveal what a different 
book this school of interpretation proposes to give us as our weapon 
in evangelism ; and to compare it with the book with which our 
fathers wrought the glorious evangelism of their day." Later on 
he refers to " the extreme wing of Higher Criticism " with no word of 
qualification to cause the reader to infer that our colleges do not ad- 
vocate any such views, but only those of "the moderate wing." 

Now, one cannot but be surprised that any fair-minded man should 
offer as the basis of a discussion a few disjointed facts as "sufficient 
of the results " of an opposing system. It is easy to appeal to the 
prejudice of people by entirely destroying the spirit of an opponent's 
work ; but only calm, persuasive argument, which presents fairly 
all the pros and cons, will appeal to the Judgment of reasoning men. 
We have passed by the age when men will unhesitatingly accept every 
word the preacher says. Mere declamation can no longer supersede 
argument. Thus to state that our fathers believed a thing to be true 
is not a sufficient guarantee that it is true. Surely Mr. Hincks does 
not believe, as he says our fathers did, that all the Psalms were written 
by David, nor all the Pentateuch by Moses. 

The age is past when men are going to believe every statement in 
the Bible merely because it is there. If it does violence to their 
reason, it will undoubtedly be rejected. Hence many intelligent men, 
who knew no method of interpretation save the old one, have cast 
aside a great part of the Old Testament as unworthy of credence. 
Even some of our own ministers apologize for it, and congratulate 
their congregations that they never take a text from its records. But 
there is no need for that. Could Mr. Hincks and others who are so 
alarmed about our college training sit for a while at the feet of some 
of our teachers in Victoria, they would find new cause for enthusiasm 
for the old Book, and believe more truly than ever that it is indeed 
the inspired Word of God. Every day it would become more pre- 



Acta Victoriaiia. 403 

cious, as it revealed more fully the true character and will of God. 
These very books of the Old Testament which Mr. Hincks declares 
have, under the new treatment, lost all their efificacy, would be seen 
to be throbbing with life and to be vitalized by the same living Spirit 
of Truth that gives potency to the New Testament writings. So the 
Bible becomes one book, fused into one harmonious whole, revealing 
with growing clearness, as men were able to receive it, the Divine 
attitude toward His creature — man. Here, then, is something which 
we can present to men as worthy of their best thought — worthy of 
being incorporated into their highest life. Acting under its inspira- 
tion, students to-day as never before — not only in Victoria, but the 
the wide world over — are facing life and its responsibilities with a com- 
plete consecration of all their powers to the intelligent service of God 
and man. 

"To grow old holding fast whatever has proved itself to be good, 
and at the same time to give the new a fair chance to prove itself also 
good, is the truth-seeker's ideal" (Bos worth). Then let us have the 
Truth whatever it may cost. "The Truth shall make you free ;" and 
if Higher Criticism has anything to give us to reveal more truth, let us 
have it by all means. And if in simplicity ot heart we follow after 
the Truth, we " shall know of the doctrine whether it be of God." At 
any rate let us not be too hasty in discarding the spirit of wise old 
Gamaliel : " If this counsel be of men, it will be overthrown, but if 
it is of God, ye will not be able to overthrow it, lest haply ye be found 
even to be fighting against God." 

In his eagerness to criticize those who are earnestly, reverently 
searching after truth by means of every aid that the thought of the 
centuries has revealed, Mr. Hincks apparently has failed to catch a 
vision of the need of the Church. It is not a reversion to old methods 
of interpretation and work that we need, but, as Mr. McMuUen well 
and sanely points out, a return to the old spirit which animated the 
workers, and sent them forth with irresistible power. Ministers and 
people need again and again, in the humility of the penitent Psalmist, 
and out of " a broken and a contrite heart," to pray his prayer : 

" Create in me a dean heart, O God ; 
.\nd renew a right spirit within me. 
Restore unto me the joy of Thy salvation ; 
.-\nd uphold me with a free spirit. 
Then will I teach transgressors Thy ways ; 
And sinners shall be converted unto Thee.'' 



4^4 



Acta Victoriana. 




ERSONALS 
EXCHANGES 



REV. E. A. WICHER, '95, late of Kobe, Japan, has accepted a 
call to St. Stephen's Presbyterian Church, St. John, N.B. 

Miss M. L. Bollert, B.A, '00, M.A., '02, lady principal of Alma 
College, St. Thomas, is resigning her position there to accept a fellow- 
ship in Columbia University, New York. 

W. H. Wood, '01, was successful in capturing a prize scholarship of 
the value of fifty dollars at the Christmas examination of Vale Divin- 
ity School. 

AxGlenwood, on November i6th, Ri;v. A. E. M. Thomson, B.A., '00, 
M.A., '02, B.D., was married by Rev. H. F. Uren, of Tilbury, to Miss 
Hattie Estabiook, daughter of William Carey Estabrook. AcT.v 
offers its congratulations. 

Ox October 26th, at the residence of the bride's father, Miss Kalh- 
erine Van Arnam, of Havelock, Ont , and Rev. K. E. Hagar, of Port- 
age du Fort, Que., were married by Rev. J M. Hagar, father of the 
groom. Though an Arts graduate of Queen's, Mr. Hagar took his 
Theological training at Victoria, and is followed by our good wishes. 

Following the practice instituted by preceding editors of this de- 
partment, and beginning at the point where they left off, we propose 
to give, as we have room, the names and addresses of the graduates of 
successive years. In some cases our information is incomplete, and 
anyone who can supply the missing items or correct any inaccuracies 
there may be, will do a favor not only to the editor but also to the 
College authorities, who are desirous of keeping a full and accurate 
catalogue of our graduates. 



The Class of '95. 

Miss H. S. Albarus. 

J. W. Baird is preaching at Sarnia. 

Jos. Barnes is Methodist minister at Ameliasburg. 



Acta Victoriana. 405 

R. H. Bell has charge of the Hickson Circuit. 

J. F. Boyes is at Red Deer, Alta. 

W. A. Chant is living in the city, at 34 Howard Ave. 

M. R. Chapman is looking after the interests of Methodism at Gra- 
ham, Ont. 

W. G. Clarke is at Honeoye Falls, N.Y. 

W. J. Conoly is preaching at Leduc, Alta. 

A. W. Crawford, M.A., '98, Ph.D. (Cornell), '02, is Professor of Phil- 
osophy and English and Dean of the College Department in Beaver 
College, Beaver, Pa. 

H. E. Ford, M.A., '00, is Professor of Romance Languages in Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College, VVashington, Pa. 

P. D. Harris is in Winnipeg, his address being 714 Croydon Ave. 

G. R. Hazen has charge of North Street Methodist Church, in 
G:)derich. 

C. E. Hollinrake is practising law at Woodstock. 

Mrs. G. M. Jones (71'ee Miss C. Horning) lives in Hagersville. 
Mrs. I.. E. Homing's home address is Cobourg. 

T. J. Ivey is Science Master m Jarvis Street Collegiate Institute, 
this city. 

J. McNiece is a high school teacher at Welland. 

L. W. Patmore. 

C. W. Service, M.D., is a missionary of the Canadian Methodist 
Church at Kiating, China. 

S. Shannon is in Atwood, Ont. 

R. A. A. Shore, M.D., is a practising physician on corner of Robert 
and Bloor Streets, this city. 

W. J. Sipprell, B.D., '97, is Principal of Columbian College, New 
Westminster, B.C. 

H. S. Spence, B.D., '98, is the Methodist minister stationed at 
Bath. 

Miss M. H. Sutherland is at 132 East Ave. S., Hamilton. 

A. J. Terrill, B.D., '03, is preaching at Cambray. 

A. J. Toye, B. D., '99, is stationed at Ravenna. 

F. W. Varley, M.A., '96, is the Methodist minister at Sutton West. 

H. E. Warren, M.A., '96, B. D., '98, is preaching at Lennoxville,Que. 

E. A. Wicher occupies the pulpit of St. Stephen's Presbyterian 
Church, St. John, N.B. 

F. W. White preaches in the Methodist Church at Grafton. 



4o6 Acta Victoriana. 

The Class of '94. 

Mrs. Hogg {nee Miss J. M. Barber) lives at Preston, Ont. 
J. Bowering has charge of the Methodist cause at Kelowna, B.C. 
F. H. Clarke is teaching in the Jarvis Street Collegiate Institute, 
this city. 

A. C. Eddy, B.D., '99, is minister at Springford. 

W. K. Foucar, M.A., '02, is head master of the Bradford High 
School. 

B. J. Hales. 

Miss M. E. Henwood is at Welcome, Ont. 

F. W. Hollinrake, B.D., '99, preaches in Dundas Street Church, 
Woodstock. 

H. T. Lewis ministers to the Methodists of Cobourg. 

E. E. Marshall occupies the Methodist pulpit in Ingersoll. 

R. G. Martin, M.A., '99, B.D., 98, has charge of the church at Ems. 

T. J. Parr, M. A., '98, preaches to the people of Dublin Street Meth- 
odist Church, in Guelph. 

A. J. Paul, B.D., '96, is stationed at Elmvale. 

A. A. Shepard, M.B., is a practising physician at Sault Ste. Marie. 



The Class of '95. 

J. G. Bowles, B.D., '96, is stationed at Huttonville. 

C. M. Burwash, M.A., '97, B. D., '03, is private secretary to the 
Chancellor of Victoria University. 

E. W. Hayden, M.D., is a physican at Roseneath, Ont. 

E. B. Hutcherson, M.A., '02, is at Regina, Assa. 

J. F. Kay is Methodist minister at Glenallen. 

Mrs. J. L. McDougall, Jr. {nee Miss F. Gertrude Kenny), has her 
home in Ottawa. 

W. T. Keough, M.A., '97, is pastor of the Methodist Church at 
Hartley. Que. 

R. S. E. Large, B. D., '99, is one of the associate pastors of Elm 
and Agnes Street churches, Toronto. 

M. L. Leigh is preaching to the people of Glenora. 

W. R. Liddy is head master of the Port Dover High School. 

G. H. Locke, M.A., '96, B. Paed., is on the staff of the University 
of Chicago. 

A. Y. Massey, M.D., CM., is a medicaljnissionary at Benguela, 
West Africa, though at present on furlough, visiting in Great Britain. 



Ada Victorimia. 407 

J. H. McBain has charge of the Methodist cause at Stoney Creek. 

G. A. Mcintosh, B.D., '95, is preaching at Marbleton, Que. 

W. F- Oibjrne, M.A., '01, is a professor in Wesley College, 
Winnipeg. 

M. C Peart is the Methodist minister at Arkwright, Ont. 

T. E. E. Shore, M.A., '96, B.D., '96, is pastor of the Toronto June 
tion Methodist Church. 

A. B. Wallace is at Enderby, B.C. 

A. G. Wilson, M.A., Ph.D., F.G.L.A., is on the staff of McGill 
University in the Department of Geology. 



Obituary. 

The wife of Rev. J. P. Wilson, '72, of Bridge Street Church, Belle- 
ville, and President of the Bay of Quinte Conference, died at her 
home on January igih. 

Victoria has special reason to mourn the departure of Mrs. Geo. A. 
Cox, who died of pneumonia at her home, 439 Sherbourne Street, 
this city, on January 22nd. Mrs. Cox has always been noted for her 
earnest devotion and for her active interest in all forms of charitable 
and philanthropic work. To the erec ion and equipment of Annesley 
Hall as a ladies' residence for Victoria, she gave lavishly, not only of 
her means, but also of her time and energy. We offer to Senator Cox 
and the bereaved family our sincerest sympathy. 

Rev. J, F. German, B.A., '64, M.A., '67, D.D., has been called 
upon to mourn the loss of his father. Rev. Peter German, who died 
on January 29th, at the ripe old age of eighty-eight years. He was 
one of the pioneers of Canadian Methodism, into whose labors we of 
today have entered. 

Rev. Davidson Macdonald, M. D., whose death on January 3rd, we 
noted in our last issue, had the honor of being one of the first pair of 
Canadian missionaries to set foot in Japan, which was the first foreign 
field the Canadian Church invaded. He was born about sixty-eight 
years ago, was converted in 1857, and entered the work of probation 
in i860. He subsequently took a medical course at old Vic's 
medical school, and graduated in 1873. Japan had just been opened 
to Western civilization and the situation required great tact and judg- 
ment on the part of the foreigners. The choice of the Church was 
justified by Dr. Macdonald's success in the new field. His integrity of 
purpose, purity of motive and professional skill won the confidence of 



4o8 Acta Victoriana. 

the Japanese, and at Shidzuoka he built up what is still the strongest 
church in Japan. As Superintendent of the Mission at Tokyo he 
showed great executive ability, and he also acquired a large practice 
in the capital city, whose poor he treated freely. Generous, modest 
and capable, he was a fine type of Christian gentleman. Both his 
pioneer work in a new and foreign field and his high personal character 
entitle him to be remembered by the Church with gratitude and honor. 



Exchanges 

The Queen'' s University Jou/nal T^xQS&nts its readers with a special 
Endowment Number for January, with cuts and letter press giving a 
comprehensive picture of the Queen's of to-day. While we may not 
be of one mind with our Queen's friends as to the wisdom of their 
refusal to enter with us into the federated University of Toronto, we 
may admit that the semi-independent position has not been without 
its advantages and we can heartily congratulate them on the story of 
growth and progress which the Journal's Endowment Number tells. 
A very interesting series of cuts shows the different buildings occupied 
by the University, from the modest frame house of 1842 to the present 
group of beautiful stone buildings. Naturally the name of the late 
Principal Grant figures prominently in this story of Queen's, its present 
position being due in no small part to his energy and ability. Queen's 
men, who are noted for their attachment to their Alma Mater, may well 
be proud of her progress and her position in the educational world of 
to-day. 

On reading 77/1? Studenf, the journal published by the students of 
Edinburgh University, one concludes that student life and feeling is 
much the same in the land o cakes as it is on this side of the 
herring-pond. There are the same student organizations, the same 
spicy local happenings to be recorded, and it would appear that there 
are also "plugs" in a Scottish university. The Student is a good re- 
flector of Edinburgh life and contains a number of readable skits. 

We are always glad to welcome the weekly visit of our exchange 
from the University of Xotrc Dame, Indiana, namely. The Notre 
Dame Scholastic. The Scholastic is a bright and readable paper and 
is to be the more commended in that its articles are almost entirely 
contributed by undergraduate students. Verse, short stories and 
literary criticisms, all of no mean order, testify to the valuable work a 
college journal, when properly conducted, can do in the literary educa- 



Ada Victoriaita. 409 

tion of its contributors. In the last number to hand we note especi- 
ally the appreciation of the poet Bryant. 

The journals published by the students of the large American 
universities make fiction a much more prominent feature than do 
those of Canadian colleges. The January number of The Cohivihia 
Mo>ithIy contains a number of short stories of a good grade, presum- 
ably contributed by student writers. An article on " The Habit of 
Responsibility " is one that most college men might read with profit. 
College is a proper place for the formation of habits, says the writer 
and the readiness with which some men accept new positions in 
college life without definitely thinking whether they have the time for 
the work entailed or are willing to make the time for it, does not 
contribute to the growth of this habit of responsibility which is so 
essential in and out of college. 

The January number of the Manitoba College Journal is a class 
number, in which the novel plan is adopted of devoting a separate 
part of \\\Q. Journal to the contributions of each class. The result of 
the emulation of the classes is an abundance of racy material. The 
Journal is growing in size and improving in quality, and appears in a 
tasteful exterior. There appears in the current number an apprecia- 
tion of the late Principal Caven, of Knox College. 

Wise Junior — " I guess I know a few things." 

Proud Freshman (not to be outdone) — "Well, I guess I know as 
few things as anybody." — Ex. 

At the Reception. Charming Freshette (emerging from crush in 
rendezvous room) — " Oh, my, I was nearly squeezed to death." 

Second Freshette — "So was I ; let's go in again." — Queen's Uni- 
versiiy Journal. 

Scene — A country church. 

Minister — " Deacon Jones, will you lead us in prayer?" (Deacon 
still snores peacefully). 

Minister — "Deacon Jones, will you lead?" 

Deacon (waking suddenly) — " 'Taint my lead, I dealt." — E.\. 

" You say your washerwoman reminds you of a good preacher." 
" Yes ; she is always bringing things home to me that I never saw 
before." — Yale Reconl. 



4IO 



A eta Vic to nana. 





RELIGIOUS 



The Great Learning 

A Testament of the Throne/ess King. 
Bv J. L. stp:\vart, b.a. 

IN these days when we are striking away the superstructure of 
superstition which admirers of ages have builded about past 
moulders of history, and are asking solely for the man and his mes- 
sage, it should be of no small interest to us to inquire into the testi- 
mony as to the meaning of life's mysteries by the so-termed Throne- 
less King of China, Confucius. The treatise termed "The Great 
Learning " may well serve this purpose, at least as a primer, since the 
Chinese commentators themselves put it first, glorifying it as " Virtue's 
Gate." 

To understand in a measure the message of this work, we must 
first review tersely the man and his times. In a paragraph, then, the 
formative facts seem these. Like many a youth of meditative mood, 
Confucius was fond of poetry, and this, as in others, led readily over to 
a love of ceremonial movement and music. But poetry for him had 
more than harmony. It held up to hero worship or warning the his 
tory-makers of his country's past. It told, as in many another nation's 
dreams, of a Golden Age, and in it of how men fell and rose by follow- 
ing or being rebellious to the great rules of righteousness. 

Now the life lot of the Teacher fell in days of faction and friction. 
They were the old feudal days of China, the times when the then tiny 
Empire was divided into at least thirteen smaller squabbling states, in 
each of which in turn the great families fought for preference and 
power. Confucius could not but contrast his own evil times with the 
brave days of old, nor help but feel that he held in the history of the 
past healing for his country's ills. His preponderating purpose, then, 
seems to have been the peace and perfecting of his people, teaching 
them to revolve in rhythm and harmony in their various spheres of 



Ac^a J^zctoriana. 411 

life like the poetry of the sages and music of the songs he so loved. 
This he deemed could be done, as of old, through the careful culture 
of the persons of the rulers and the alchemy of their influence. 

Feeling, then, that his mission was primarily to the rulers, his message 
is also principally to them, but in practice it was to permeate all 
ranks in the realm. Let us turn to the treatise. The key paragraph 
reads : 

" The ancients —i.e., rulers — who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue 
throughout the Kingdom first ordered well their own states. Wishing 
to order well their own states, they first regulated their families. 
Wishing to regulate iheir families, they first cultivated their persons, 
they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they 
first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in 
their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. 
Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things." 

We have, then, but to reverse the reading to trace the teaching from 
the stage of a youth aspiring to be a ruler seeking truth, to the climax 
in a realm where all ranks have grown great in virtue, and peace and 
happiness reign. The process thus viewed may be readily divided 
into two parts, namely, steps in character culture and investment of 
influence. 

STEPS IN SELF-CULTURE. 

To each of these a short chapter is given explaining and exhorting. 
We turn to the first step. 

1. To extend knowledge to the utmost. Chu Shi, the authority since 
the twelfth century, thus construes it : " We must investigate the prin- 
ciples of all things with which we come in contact, for the intelligent 
mind of man is pre-eminently formed for knowing and there is not a 
single thing in which its principles do not inhere." He, however, 
presses this to an extreme when he says that, after long investigations! 
"the qualification of all things, whether external or internal, the subtle 
or the coarse, will all be apprehended and the mind, in its entire sub- 
stance and its relations to things, will be perfectly intelligent." It 
seems reasonable rather to interpret it as urging that as a first step the 
student ruler investigate things in general, possessing himself as far as 
possible of a knowledge of their principles. In doing this he will 
secure correct criterion and a proper point of vision to see as in 
perspective while cultivating the second prerequisite urged, viz.: 

2. Make his thoughts sincere. That is, he must allow no self-decep- 
tion, but have his thoughts cleave clearly between right and wrong. 
To attain to this, " the superior man is most watchful over himself 



412 Acta Victoriana. 

when alone," living constantly as though "ten eyes beheld or ten 
hands pointed him out." He knows that '" what truly is within will 
be manifested without '"' : that true men will see through him as though 
they saw his heart and veins ; while for his encouragement he realizes 
that " as riches adorn a house, virtue adorns the person, that by it the 
mind is expanded and the body becomes at ease." This accomplished, 

3. He must rectify his heart. That is, he masters his emotions; other- 
wise they will master him, and bias all his judgment. We know well 
" when the mind is absent we look, but do not see ; hear, but do not 
comprehend : eat, but do not know the taste of what we eat." Some- 
what similar is the man sidetracked through emotion. Sorrow, dis- 
tress, fond regard, terror or passion ovei power him, and his conduct 
is accordingly incorrect. He must master his emotions. 

These, therefore, seem the three simple yet all-essential principles 

in the so-styled " upbuilding of the body," or, as we have termed it, the 

three steps in self culture. This completed, there opens out to the 

ruler-reformer three successive stages for the second great secret of 

- successful government, viz. : 

THE INVESTMENT OF INFLUENCE. 

The key to all influence in upbuilding the state is, as already 
developed, first, last, always, to be. Other things all follow naturally 
from example. The first stage for this example is that great institu- 
tion the wide world over, the home. 

I. The Ho;ne. H^ regulates his family — that is, the Oriental 
family. We would possibly say, the clan. Here, then, he must avoid 
self-deception. He must master his emotions, for in few places as in 
the home will he be impelled to partiality, by conflicting passions. 
Avoiding all such proneness to partiality, let him with vigilance culti 
vate the home virtues. Each holds in embryo later essentials. 
"There is filial piety — therewith later the sovereign is served. There 
is fraternal submission — therewith elders and superiors should be 
served. There is kindness — therewith the multitude should be 
treated." 

2. The State (that is the small feudal province). He orders well 
his own state. This is, of course, if he has already shown his capacity 
for such by properly regulating his family, for " it is impossible for 
one to teach others while he cannot teach his own family." If he has 
done this well, he is not really entering a radically new sphere. Heie 
one has simply to apply family discipline on a wider scale. Moreover, 
most emphatically in assuming the control of the province he does 



Ada Victoriana. 4 1 3 

not step out of his own family. He brings it and its all-powerful 
influence with him. Therefore, his previous investment here will 
bring compound interest. " From the loving example of one family 
a whole state becomes loving, and from its courtesies the whole state 
becomes courteous, while from the ambition and perverseness of the 
man the whole state may be led to rebellious disorder. Such is the 
nature of influence." 

3. The Kingdom. The whole kingdom becomes peaceful and 
happy. Here again he enters by no means alone. He comes with 
home and state trailing clouds of accumulated influence. As before, 
personal example is the supreme sceptre. For his guidance in this 
he has a great principle, a negative Golden Rule, " What a man dis- 
liked in his superiors, let him not display in the treatment of his 
inferiors — what he disliked in his inferiors let him not display in the 
service of his superiors ; what he hates in those who are before him 
let him not therewith precede those who are behind him ; what he 
hates in those that are behind him let him not therewith follow those 
who are before him ; what he hates to receive on the right let him not 
bestow on the left ; what he hates to receive on the left let him not 
bestow on the right ; this is what is called the principle with which, 
as with a measuring square, to regulate one's conduct. Here, then, is 
the ancient and ageless invitation for the " Man Wanted." Let me 
have but one minister, plain and sincere, not pretending to other 
abilities, but with a simple, upright mind ; possessed of geneiosity, 
regarding the talents of others as though he himself possessed 
them, and where he finds accomplished and perspicacious men, loving 
them in his heait more than his mouth expresses, and really showing 
himself able to bear them and employ them ; such a minister will be 
able to preserve my sons and grandsons and black-haired people, and 
benefits likewise to the Kingdom may well be looked for from him. 
" Only such a truly good man can without fear raise men of worth to 
office, or banish bad men far off among the barbarous tribes deter- 
mined not to dwell with him in the Middle Kingdom." 

In all things, therefore, virtue is the root. Many a ruler, mistaking 
the fruit for the root, seeks wealth, later to find that " if he make the 
root his secondary object, and the result his primary, he will only 
wrangle with his people and teach them rapine. Accumulation of 
wealth is truly the way to scatter the people." In short, to lose virtue 
is to lose the people, and to lose the people is to lose wealth. 

But more disastrous far than losing the people is to lose the decree 
of heaven by which he holds right to rule. Let him who thinks he 



414 Acta Victorian'!. 

holds it by other right listen. '' The decree, indeed, may not always 
rest on us. Goodness obtains it. Want of goodness loses it." The 
pulse of heaven is the people's heart. " Before the sovereigns of the 
Yin dynasty had lost the hearts of the people they could appeal before 
God. Take warning from the house of Yin. The great decree is not 
easily preserved." From all which the conclusion is plain. " In a 
state prosperity will be found in righteousness." 

One cannot but feel as he reads this and other writings attributed to 
Confucius that the sage never intended they should be a national phil- 
osophy of religion. His fault was rather that by them he thought re- 
ligion would be unnecessary. His mission and message were mainly 
to the rulers and would-be rulers of his time. From that point of 
view it is open to wholly different criticism, namely, that of inadequacy. 
Example is truly a good government. So far as the treatise touches 
upon ethics we may accord freely our admiration. That man has in 
him possibilities for virtue, that virtue can be cultivated, that the in- 
fluence of the individual is the root factor in society, that public opinion 
will uphold the righteous ruler, that the right to rule is conditioned on 
the will of the people, that good government and the peace and hap- 
piness of its citizens is a great goal — all these we appreciate and ap- 
plaud. It is when we probe these sayings for a philosophy of life, a 
source of life power, that it seems weighed in the balance and found 
wanting. 

Should we pause to ask what might be the real aim of this strongly 
urged process we are told " To illustrate illustrious virtue both in 
ruler and people till all rested in the highest good." By this he means 
our aim must be to bring out the best that is in us till all attain "peace 
and happiness." Should we seek a step further back and ask when 
this capability for virtue comes, how it is man has good in him to be 
illustrated, he is vagije or silent. He takes it for granted that all agree 
it is there. It seems to be from heaven, but whether such a term is 
personal or an impersonal, impassive essence is indefinite, and purposely 
so. He has no firm religious foundation of a Father all-wise, all- 
powerful, all-compassionate, whence we are and nfter whose likeness 
and image we are formed. Should we further press him as to the 
climax of this social perfectioning which he preaches, he again is dumb. 
He has no whither bound. The system seems almost solely one of 
political ethics. Again, he has no vision of a Father in whom we live 
and move and have our being, and to whom, through life's polishing 
and perfectioning, we are growing. Lacking these his system, though 
clear and beautifully practical, lacks the very vision which alone could 



Acta Victormna. 4 1 5 

give it power to push from behind and allure from before. There is no 
strain sublinae instrengthencouragingthe strugglerafter self-culture to — 

'■ Speak to Him, then, for He hears, 
And spirit with spirit can meet ; 
Closer is He than breathing 
And nearer than hands and feet," 

nor thoughts to throw a vast horizon before the ruler-reformer seeking 
his people's happiness, 

" When that which came from out the boundless deep 
Turns again home." 

China herself has written the true commentary on all this in seeking 
religious foundation in Buddhism and Taoism. These, too, have failed 
to provide the power sought, until too often to-day the sayings of the 
sage are but mere phrases and platitudes which no one thinks to per- 
sonify. For Confucianism, then, as Christians, we come in the main 
not to destroy, but to fulfil. We seek to show what is before and be- 
yond illustrious virtue and good government, the Father whose is " the 
Kingdom, the Power and the Glory." 



Notes. 

The College Missionary Conference, January 20-22, was the best 
within our memory. Among the speakers whom we have not had in 
other years were Rev. R. B. Ewan, M.D.,on furlough from Sz-Chuan, 
C. B. Keenleyside, B.A., '92, and Harlan P. Beach, M.A., F.R.G.S., 
Educational Secretary of the Student Volunteer Movement. 

Dr. Ewan's reminiscences of hospital work in Chentu were illumi- 
nating and touching. Mr. Keenleyside, who is a hindered volunteer 
for the foreign field, speaks as a college man to college men and 
women, and his words were searching and moving. 

And who will forget Harlan P. Beach, missionary statesman, educator 
and author ? We have had no more graphic, comprehensive and stirring 
descriptions than his of Chinese condition, of missionary work and 
method, and of the compensations of the missionary's life. Dr. Beach 
dwelt much on the compensations, and to him they are many and great. 
He pleaded particularly for an immediate effort to provide teachers for 
the Chinese. Such appeals must bring results in any body of Christian 
students. 



41 6 Acta Victoriana. 

The happenings around Chentu, the centre of our mission in 
SzChuan, are startlingly rapid. The Mission Room recently received 
a cop^ of the first issue of the Chentu Daily — probably the first daily 
paper in China west of Shanghai. 

An accompanying translation by J. L. Stewart, 'oi, is significant of 
the awakened interest in foreign topics, and the strategic importance 
of educational work. Two things are immediately before our Church 
— she must equip a school for the training of a native pastorate, and 
she may, if she will, provide teachers for those who in the next 
generation will be the officials of the province. What relation this 
would establish between Christianity and the governing body of 
Sz-Chuan must be apparent. Already Mr. Stewart has abcmt him the 
brightest youths of Chentu. Teachers are wanted for mathematics, 
physics and chemistry, natural science, and practical science. The 
failure to find men, women and funds to seize such an opportunity 
could only be adequately explained by some such word as decadence. 
And we think our Church is not decadent. 

o o o 

The work carried on by the students under the direction of the 
Evangelistic Band Committee of the Y. M. C. A. is being conducted 
with vigor and success. Several churches of the city and suburbs 
have been visited, and the visits have been a great source of inspira- 
tion to the churches visited. As mentioned in January Act.\ a Band 
of eight men conducted a campaign covering three Sundays in the First 
Methodist Church, London, and the stamp of the divine approval was 
unmistakably put upon this work. The students are lending to this 
work a very hearty support and it is they who are receiving the greatest 
amount of good from it. During February, services will be held in 
some of the larger city churches. E. s. i;. 




ALONG THE G. T. R. SYSTEM. 



Ada ]'^ictoriana. 



417 




QCAL 




GIVE me a home 'n the Northern Zone, 
Where the zephyrs breathe through the forests lone, 
And the sunbeams dance in the grassy glades. 
And the brook's sweet murmur swells and fades, 
And the song-birds carol the livelong day. 
And the twilight lingers to hear their lay. 

Give me a home in the Northern Zone, 
Where the wild winds roar and the forests moan, 
And the sunlight gleams on the snowdrifts deep. 
And the lakes are locked in the ice king's keep, 
And the sleigh bells chime on the winter air, 
And the skates ring sharp on the frozen glare. 

D.A.H. 

The delicious languor of the summer, with " the ping of the mos- 
quito and the June bug's merry pong," seems very far away from us 
at this strenuous winter season, but it's coming. Who said " New 
Year's resolutions ? " 

Speaking of skating, what glorious sport it is ! especially with the 
inspiration of good music. Why do all rink orchestras, good, bad, 
and indifferent, persist in playing in such impossible time ? 

Someone (at the mail box after Christmas vacation) — " It would be 
a great boon to the H's if Hunter would come back. Here are two 
love letters overdue, and a danner, and several ads." Another — " Pos- 
sibly the dunner is overdue also." 

Some wag placed the sporting section of the Milwaukee Sunday- 
Sentinel on the same file with the Christian Guardian in the reading 
room, bearing the inscription, " Compliments of the Sec. Bible Study 
Com." 

The first meeting of the Union Lit, with the prospect of a jollifica- 
tion, induced a large attendance. The following honorary degrees 
were conferred : E. L. Luck, Ph. A. (Phenomenal Artist) ; J. F. Knight, 
W.W.N.S.T.L. (We will now sing " 'Tis Love ") ; R. J. Davison, D.D. 
(Dolly, Dear !). 



41 8 Acta Victoriana. 

We subjoin a partial list of officers for the Spring Term : Pres., W. J. 
Salter, '05 ; ist Vice., G. E. Trueman, '06 ; 2nd Vice., F. W. H. Arm- 
strong, '07 ; Critic, J. S. Bennett, '05 ; Ass't Critic, E. W. Morgan, '05 ; 
Cor.-Sec, Homer Brown, '06 ; Treas., W. G. Bull, '06 ; Rec. Sec, 
W. L. Hiles, '07 ; Leader of Gov., A. M. Harley, '06 ; Leader of Op., 
J. G. Hunter, CT. 

Jane, while at home at vacation, attempted to sell tickets for the 
Glee Club concert at Oshawa to an old lady. Said she, " A glee club ! 
eh ? Are they colored ? " Salter (promptly) — " All colors, madame I" 

Third Year Classics (to Secretary Rink Committee) — "How much 
would it cost for me to skate some afternoon this month ?" Puzzle — 
" Who was it ? " 

The library is daily crowded by students ostensibly keeping New 
Year's resolutions. The ostentation becomes apparent about four 
o'clock — if the ice is good. 

The report of the '05 class meeting which comes to us is about like 
this, " It was wild." Some of the officers are : Ass't Marshall, W. F. 
Green ; Chaplain, J. A. Spenceley ; Chaperone, Miss E. H. Patterson : 
Prophet, J. A. M. Dawson ; Hockey Capt. {n.b.), A. D. Miller ; Cura- 
tor, A. E. Elliott ; Ass't Curator, VV. E. James. 

Luck (trying to make rhymes) — " Curse the elusive muse ! " 

Not often brothers contemporaneously hold the highest offices in 
two academic year associations. J. G. Brown is President of '06 and 
his brother, W. T. Brown, President of '07. Someone has suggested 
that these years are engaged in a " brown " study. 

Miss H — M — LL, '07 (Jan. 19th) — "The College is like the deserted 
village since the Glee Club went away." 

The annual tour of the Victoria Glee Club and Mandolin-Guitar 
Club this year, under the energetic management of Messrs. Robertson 
and Campbell, may be described as a progression of artistic triumphs. 
Mr. McNally and Mr. Chase were engaged as conductors, and gave 
their best interest to the work. President Connolly spared no pains 
in the development of a creditable repertoire. The places visited 
were Oshawa, Peterborough, Lindsay and Stouffville. 

Out of the many incidents of the trip worthy of mention we select 
the following : At Oshawa about thirty young ladies from the O.L.C., 
Whitby, with Miss Rose Cullen, '03, as chaperone, occupied the front 
seats, much to the conductor's annoyance, because of wandering eyes 
in the chorus numbers. After the affair one hostess remarked quite 



Acta Victoriana. 419 

in earnest, " I never knew Dr. Hare played a mandolin " — re Ned 
Burwash. One called Bishop " Mr. Organ." remembering that his 
name had some ecclesiastical connection. Another designated Moore 
as " the grinny man," and little Johnstone " the choir boy." 

At Peterborough Mr. Whitney spoke to an audience of men the 
same night, with the result that the concert audience, though large, 
showed a plurality of the other sex. This gave rise to a remark from 
Lane, that as at Oshawa the audience was " mostly men," and at 
Peterborough " mostly women," he expected "mostly children" at 
Lindsay, inasmuch as there the entertainment was under Collegiate 
Institute auspices. It was at Peterborough, where Ernie JoUiffe lives, 
that he was victimized by a bogus newspaper reporter (Connolly), to 
whom Ernie gave a detailed account of the concert by telephone. At 
Lindsay the concert evoked immense enthusiasm. 

Throughout the tour that old favorite, " By the Light of the 
Moon," was hard worked to supply local hits on members of the Club 
whose home happened to be at any of the places visited, and on 
matters in general, e.g. : 

"The Whitby girls are here, my boys, 
We'll see them home to-night, 
By the light," etc. 

" Oh my ! what sweet delicious joys. 
When we get out of sight ! 
By the light," etc. 

Returning to Toronto on Saturday the boys fell in with the editor 
of the Globe and gave him three cheers prefixed by a " What's the 
matter with Macdonald ? He's all right ! " etc. Later, acceding to 
their request to make a speech in the private car he assured them that 
it was indeed comforting to learn " that he was all right ; he had be- 
gun to have grave doubts about it." This was prior to the election. 

" Only a woman's hair ! " was the remark of one of our venerable 
seniors, as he drew it tenderly out of a book he had taken home before 
Xmas. 

Ford (at the '07 reception) — " Sorry we have no more ice cream 
ladies, but to-morrow you will be cream on the ice." 

Victoria was pitted against Trinity this year in the debating series. 
Mr. G. A. King and Mr. G. J. A. Reaney, both of '07, defended the 
affirmative of the proposition : Resolved, that Canada would have a 
greater development by being an independent nation than by continu- 



420 Acta Victoriana. 

ing her colonial relationship. Trinity was supported by Messrs. Allen 
and McMillan. Mr. Fraser, in giving the judges' decision in favor of 
the negative, offered the criticism that the affirmative indulged in too 
much assertion and too little argument. 

Wren (reporting for the '07 refreshment committee) — " At our first 
meeting we did little business as we were in the dark." (Instant ob- 
jection on the part of the lady members.) 

Sophomore. — " Did the Chancellor forbid your reception ? " 

Coliss, '08 (politely) — " Excuse me, but you're a Soph and we are 
net telling our business to the Sophomores.'" 

It is truly marvellous how many cogs the machine found for its wheel 
from the student body in Victoria. Messrs. Harley, Archibald 
and Hewitt acted as deputy returning officers ; Messrs. VV. G. 
Connolly, C F. Connolly, Woodsworth, Smith, and Wtlls as poll 
clerks ; Messrs. Lamb and Shaver as constables ; Messrs. Rutherford 
and Luck as scrutineers ; and over all as grand canvassers and or- 
ganizers were Messrs. W. G. Connolly for Blain and J. R. Davison 
for Nesbitt. 

The night of the election the Glee Club were engaged to give a con- 
cert at Stouffville. A private wire brought the returns of the voting 
to the music hall, with the result that partisan enthusiasm quite eclipsed 
musical appreciation. After the finest numbers a frequent response 
would be, Hurrah for Whitney 1 or something similar. 

The Women's Oration Contest for the prize awarded annually by 
Dr. Bell, took place in the College chapel before a large and ap- 
preciative audience, on the evening of January the 19th. The con- 
testants were Miss E. H. Patterson, '05 ; Miss K. R. Thompson, '06 ; 
Miss E, M. Keys, '06 ; Miss N. M. Dafoe, '07. The judges, Profs. 
McLay, Young and Keys, decided in favor of Miss Patterson, who 
spoke on the subject : " The Value of Ideals." 

The Sophomores held their annual reception on Friday evening, 
January 2 7Lh. The programme consisted of several musical numbers, 
and bright addresses from the various representatives present. The 
host and hostesses were untiring in their efforts to entertain, and the 
event passed off most felicitously. 

Stranger (from across the park, to Freshette) — "May I go home 
with you?" She — "Certainly. I'm staying at Annesley Hall." He 
— " Well, I guess you can go that far alone." And she went. 

Apropos of the above, we have it on the best authority that after 
every reception this year there were ladies of academic distinction and 



Ada Victoriana. 421 

personal charm who were compelled to go home alone. And they 
didn't live at Annesley Hall either. Gentlemen ! 

Miss L — d — n, '07 — "I plugged mathematics all holidays, and I 
think if there had been three weeks more I might have had some idea 
of what a straight line was." 

Prof. Lang (meeting a couple of Seniors distributing Y.W.C.A. 
literature) — " Is this a Xmas box ? " Seniors — "Yes, Dominion Ties." 
Prof. L. — -" Oh, a new kind of neck wear." 

Knox, '08 (referring to the prospective Freshman's reception) 
— "Now, we must not act like children in this.'" 

In the Study (Miss M — s — n, '08) — " Does the president take the 
vice-president to the Senior Dinner?" Junior — "Are you vice- 
president, P. ?" Miss M-s-n — " No, that's the point ; I wish I were." 

Shaver (in Church History) — " Dr. Reynar, before you leave pur- 
gatory, will you tell us some more about it? " Later — " It isn't such 
a bad place, after all." Beware, A. W. 

Miss W-l-ce, '08 — "Oh, all those fellows are engaged when they 
come up here from the country, but — they don't remain so long." 

Mr. a. E. Elliott (to Miss H-lt-n, '05, at Peterboro' depot) — " A 
very merry Xmas, Miss P-tt-s-n ! " 

Miss Grange (to Miss H rr-n) — " No, I wouldn't want you for a 
sister-in-law." Miss H. (turning in defence to Miss Woodsworth) — 
'^ Now, wouldn't you like me in that capacity ?" and she wondered 
why they laughed. 

At the Hall (Freshette No. i) — " Have you paid your fees this 
term?" Freshette No. 2 — "No, my last cheque vanished into thin 
air, since a laugh is bid up to ten cents." 

The girls of '05 gave an informal skating party to the men of their 
year, on Saturday night, January 28th, serving light refreshments at 
the Hall afterwards. 

At the Hall. — " I shouldn't like to wear an engagement ring about 
college. Think of the jollying one would get." Miss M-kl-d, '07 
— " I wouldn't mind the jollying. Think of the sweet inner conscious- 
ness ! " 

The Senior Dinner Committee has been constituted, as follows : 
Pres. J. G. Brown. From '06— Heber Mahood, W. E. Galloway, Miss 
Proctor. From '07 — G. B. King, M. D. Madden, Miss Cunningham. 
From '08 — C. F. Connolly, A. Foreman, Miss Parlowe. From B.D. 
class— R. W. Hibbert, B.A. 



42 2 -. Acta Victoria7ia. 

The date of the Senior Dinner has been fixed for Friday, February 
24th. The attention of graduates is called to the preparation of a 
table for their special use. Those desiring to attend would confer a 
favor on the Committee by notifying the Secretary, Mr. W. E. 
Galloway, at their earliest convenience. 

The B.D. class, at their meeting to elect officers, gave themselves 
eight days in which to contemplate the advisability (or perhaps, we 
should say, the feasibility) of holding a reception. We fear the 
matter will end in contemplation, although several who have been 
" baching it " on circuit volunteered to make sandwiches. 

G. E. T., '06 (singing while attiring himself)—" ' Sweet hour of 
prayer, ... And shout while passing through the air' — bhnkely 
blank it ; there, I've broken a collar-button." 

The following representatives to attend outside functions were 
recently appointed by the Alma Mater Society : E. V. Ruddell, to the 
O.A.C. At Home ; Clyo Jackson, to the Trinity College Dance ; F. J. 
Rutherford, to the McMaster Dinner ; Homer Brown, to the Vic. 
'07 Reception. 

Dr. R£VNar (viewing the new Alma Mater Society Club Rooms) 
— "This furniture is gorgeous, Mr. Knight. I fancy I see Dr. Potts 
and Dr. Carman enjoying a smoke in these easy chairs." 

The burglary at Annesley Hall appears to have been a very daring 
piece of business. The thief entered ostensibly as a plumber with a 
bag of tools on his shoulder, walked upstairs, and proceeded in a 
most deliberate fashion to investigate the contents of the ladies' rooms. 
Discarding jewelry, as open to suspicion, he appropriated only such 
treasure as bore the image and superscription of the powers that be. 
In all about $25 in cash was stolen, the heaviest loser being one 
of the maids. It was not long after his entrance, however, before the 
culprit realized the awful hazard of his attempt. Alone and defense- 
less in a woman's residence ! Overpowered with visions of himself 
hairless, and strangled in a sheet, with his mouth full of castor oil, he 
struck for life and liberty, and escaped. 

Someone had evidently been taking notes from a missionary 
address on the back of a hymn book. After cataloguing the various 
religions of the world, the equation was set down : Christianity = Sun- 
light. This opened up new possibilities to some wit, who proceeded 
to equate the other religions, as follows : Buddhism, Brahmanism, 
Mahommedanism = Gaslight. Shintoism, Fire- worshippers = Candle- 
light. All others = Matchlight. Where is electric light ? 



Acta Victoriana. 



423 




TICS 




APROPOS of Victoria's undignified position in athletics in general, 
and more particularly of her poor record last fall, we have for 
some time been in receipt of a letter from one of the college's most 
esteemed graduates, a man greater in wisdom than in years, and one 
whose interest is unimpeachable, namely, "Jimmy" Wallace, the 
" Boy Professor." Jimmy's grasp of local conditions is comprehensive, 
to say the least, and any suggestion on his part is worthy of our most 
serious consideration. The idea he has so recently formed has pro- 
bably been developing in Brother Wallace's gray matter during these 
last three or four years — great ideas are not the products of a momen- 
tary convulsion, as the famous inventor of "Chalk Talk" would say — 
but the immediate cause of its publication was the disastrous result of 
the Mulock Cup series. Every year we have regularly sought for the 
reason 7i.'ky, but now Mr. Wallace offers a remedy, which, though pro- 
bably not feasible at the present time — we have not yet made an ex- 
haustive enquiry into the matter — still seems reasonable and quite 
possible. Would not a Methodist preparatory school solve most of 
our difificulty ? The question is almost too broad for this column ; in 
fact, the prominence given it here is for the purpose of gaining for it a 
more worthy position. Victoria has but one preparatory school, 
Albert College, and we are quite safe in making the unqualified state- 
ment that the influence of that institution does not tend toward the 
building up of all-round university men. Had Methodism in Canada 
an up-to date academy for the training of her youth, corresponding to 
Ridley or Upper Canada, there could ba no doubt but that Victoria 
would be more representative of the church, and as such rank much 
higher in every department of work, not excluding athletics. Our 
material comes to us absolutely raw, and so our teams are always two 
or three years behind in experience. 

Mr. Wallace assures us in most poetic language, that on receiving 
news of our contest with Senior Arts last November, his breast 
heaved with great waves of sorrow. The editor of this column admits 



424 Acta Victoriana. 

that he was almost flooded himself upon that occasion, and, lest any 
drowning accidents should really occur in the future, he prays that all 
concerned will spend some time in contemplation of the proposal. 

000 

We most penitently, abjectly and profusely apologize to Mr. Doug- 
las Henderson for an article published in our last issue to the effect 
that that worthy gentleman was responsible for the innovation in the 
dressing room. We learn on most positive authority that the Junior 
in question, like Dr. Nesbitt in that other regard, merely countenanced 
the proceeding, having neither dictated it nor subscribed to it. Acta 
is always anxious that justice be done, even though the Rev. Macdon- 
ald is not at the head of the Board. 

000 

A few days ago, at a meeting of the class of '08, their annual recep- 
tion was voted down and out. We understand that since that time 
there has been a reconsideration, recount, or something whereby the 
issue has changed front, and there is general rejoicing. One may 
wonder why mention is made of this on this page ; exactly, it is a 
wonder. Has it occurred to any one that the attempted burial of this 
time honored custom was largely due to the influence of a certain very 
independent and important member of the class who last fall attempted 
all by himself to exhume Association football from its newly-made 
grave, and then failed to capture a place on the intermediate team, 
the result of his efforts? Can any one affirm that the age of miracles 
is past while one Freshman can accomplish the burial of one college 
custom and the resuscitation of another, all in a scant five months ? 

000 

The hockey boys made good in their first match, having the pleas- 
ure of administering chastisement to our old enemy. Senior Arts. The 
game, though rather scraggy and under form, still meant a victory for 
a newly-formed team, and we extend to the players the heartiest con- 
gratulations. The seven lined up as follows: Goal, Sa'ter; point, 
Robertson ; cover-point, McFarland ; rover, Hamilton ; centre, Old- 
ham ; right, Campbell ; left, Davidson. Mr. Joe Gain ofticiated as 
referee, and proved himself efficient and fair, as the final score, five 
to two in favor of Victoria, plainly shows. As shown in the line-up, 
two new players are wearing the crimson and gold this year—Davidson 
and Oldham. Both men are on the forward line, and are ambitious 
and capable ; they form a much-needed addition to the team. Of the 
old men it is hardly necessary to speak ; " Jane " Salter still wears 
his impregnable smile between the posts, and Bobbie is as heavy as ever. 



Ada Victoriana. 425 

Is it not rather significant of retrogression when we reflect upon the 
fact that, of the seven men on the team, five are '05 men ? This 
means that the last three years have brought only two men to the 
front, and that we must depend on the incoming year, for at least five 
good hockey men. 

The hockey season has had a very auspicious opening this year ; not 
only have the boys excelled themselves, but the team from Annesley 
Hall has drawn upon itself unlimited praise for the brilliant way in 
which it contested a tie game with the Havergal seven. Although the 
result was a draw, and although the visitors seemed to have a wee bit 
the best of it, still we look upon it as a win, for the Victoria girls evi- 
denced more ability and less practice than their opponents. The two 
teams were as nearly matched as possible and the play was fast and 
interesting. For Havergal, Miss Ross the captain, was the bright and 
particular star, and we rarely have an opportunity of witnessing such 
skillful stick-handling. The Misses Carman, Harrison, Griffin, Bur- 
wash, Proctor, McLaren and Norsworthy held up Vic's side of the 
argument, and in the face of such an array of talent 'tis hard to 
particularize. The play of the home team was brilliant but a trifle 
spasmodic; a little experience is the requisite. Congratulations, Reggy. 



Have you decided 2 




Students wishing Vacation Emploj^ment 
will do well to call at our office, or write 
us immediately. We offer a good salary 
proposition to suitable men, and added 
commissions for special work. 

The late election campaign occupied our 
attention through January, but we have a 
good class of men now under contract and 
a superior proposition for any man not afraid 
of hard work. Would you be willing to ' ' hire 
out " for the vacation at a salary of $250 ? 
EXCLUSIVE TERRITORY GUARANTEED. 



Call or write to-day 



A. C. PRATT, 



La^e Manager 603 Temple Building, TORONTO 

The King-Richardson Co. 



IX 



Acta Victoriana. 



Can You Study One Hour 

Without your eyes feeling tired or causing a severe headache ? 
This condition is due to some refractive error, and can be reheved by 
wearing Glasses properly fitted. Our optician is an expert in such 
cases ; our prices are very reasonable ; call or 'phone for appointments. 



WATCH REPAIRS RECEIVE CAREFUL ATTENTION, 



College Pins 

in great variety. 

Special designs made 

to order. 



'PHONE N. 1152. 



W. W. MUNN 

lewder and Optician 

800 VONGE ST. 



We carry a full line of 

the Ideal 

Waterman Fountain Pen. 

Call and try the points. 



ist door North of Bloor Street. 



\Jrkder^vear Umbrellas 

Ha^tters and FtimisKers Fi**e NecK-^vear 

J AMElrvS CRANG, 788 Yonge Street, 

3 Doors Belcw Bloor. 



StoUery's 

For - - - 

Students 



THE- MEN'S AVEAR 
STORE 



750 Yonge Street 




READERS, 



When buying, don't 
forget our adver- 
tisers. 



Correctly designed, carefully finished, with 
strict attention paid to the smallest details. 
Our Haikcltti.vg is guaranteed to give 



SATISKAfTIOX. 



E. M. KENNEDY & CO. 

Barbers 

464 Spadina Ave. 



(j doors south of 
College St. 



The College Shaving Parlor 

664 YONGE ST 

SrUBENTS 



South of 
St. Mary's St. 



For a Rugby Hair Trim in up-to-date 
style. Shaving, Shampooing, Mas- 
saging, etc., come to 

JOS. B. SCARLETT 

ec/i v*_~« c* We use only purest lotions and 
66A Yonge^ t. instruments. Strictly hygienic 




ACTA VICTORIANA 

Published Monthly during the College Year by the Union Literary 
Society of Victoria University, Toronto. 

Vol. XXVIII. TORONTO, MARCH, 1905. No. 6. 



7 he Call of the Wild: 

The Lament of a Methodist Minister's Son 



w 



BY ARTHUR FORD, 03. 

HEN the first mild wind from the sunny south 
Blows over the meadows sere ; 
\Vhen the first gay chirp of the robin is heard, 

And I know that spring is here, 
My Methodist blood is roused once more, 
And I crave to move as in days of yore. 

When the streams break loose from their icy bonds^ 

And the sap stirs in the trees ; 
When the world is roused from its troubled sleep 

By the touch of a gentle breeze, 
My Methodist blood is roused once more, 
And I crave to move as in days of yore. 

Yes, I am a Methodist minister's son, 

And reared in the orthodox way ; 
Each spring we moved to pastures green. 

And still in the month of May 
My Methodist blood is roused once more, 
And I fain would move as in days of yore. 

The Norse of old, when south winds blew. 

Set forth across the sea ; 
So a restless spirit, a wandering mood 

The itinerant system has bred in me, 
And now my blood is roused once more, 
And I fain would move as in days of yore. 

JVew York, February 2, igo_$. 



428 Acta Victoriana. 

Ji Month In Scotland 



BY F. LOUIS BARBER, 03. 

HOW can one describe the feelings of mingled admiratfon and 
curiosity with which one approaches the land of Bruce and 
Wallace or unravels the warp of history and the woof of romance that 
form the fabric of one's imagination concerning the land and the 
people that Burns and Scott have touched with their magic wands ? 
And as we cross the border at Berwick-on-Twecd on the east, and pass 
into the kingdom of the Tartans, it is like waking from a dream to 
find that the people of dreamland, the wonders of their lives and the 
beauty of their surroundings, have a foundation in real fact. Then, 
when we cross the Esk and pass into Carlisle on the west, we go back 
to dreaming of the beauties of sleepy lochs and angry cairns, rugged 
Bens and ivied castles. 

To begin our tour. We step into a compartment at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, and settling down into the cushions are soon rolled 
smoothly into the other land — the land of our earliest admiration. 
The train skirts the coast, so that from the small window we have a 
fine view of the sea and the rugged shore. Before reaching Berwick 
we pass that part of the coast off which lies Fame Isle — home of 
the brave Grace Darling. 

Between Berwick-on-Tweed and North Berwick we passed the 
Roxburn, where Cromwell defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar 
(1650). Battle-fields are numerous in Scotland, so we do not stop 
here, but, changing at Drem, go north to the coast where, three miles 
east of North Berwick, is Tantallon Castle, the Douglas stronghold 
Scott describes so minutely in " Marmion." Just off the shore here 
is Bass Island, upon whose rugged top stand the ruins of the castle 
prison of early English prisoners and Covenanters, now visited only by 
solan geese — and tourists. Back to Drem and on to Edinburgh we 
go, the rolling hills of the " Bride of Lammermuir " to the left and 
the broad Forth to the right. Just before we reach Prestonpans our 
attention is attracted by a monument, quite near the railroad, erected 
to Col. Gardiner, who fell at the battle of 1745, the main part of 
which was fought on the other side of the track. 

In a few minutes we hurry by the castellated prison at the foot of 
Calton Hill, and pass under the roof of the great Waverley Station. 
The hurrying crowds and the rushing porters tell us that we are 

\ Note. — The cuts in this article are used by permission from '" A U. E. Loyalist in Great Britain." 



Acta Vicioriana. 



429 



somewhere. We hurry up the steps to the right and, as we look west 
down the long, wide main street, we get our first view of Edinburgh. 
After the first strangeness has passed we stroll into the gardens 
adjoining the North British hotel and feast our eyes upon this most 
beautiful of cities. Here is Princes Street. The Scott monument in 
the foreground reminds us, loo, that it was and is the home of men of 
letters. Beyond, in the valley, lies the park and farther the "Mound," 




SIR WALTER SCOTT S MONUMENT. 



with its Grecian-styled National Gallery and Royal Institution. 
Behind us stands Calton Hill, from whose heights we can get a fine 
view of the city, which Nature and art have combined to make 
beautiful. One cannot see everything in a week, nor can one describe 
in a paragraph what one sees in a week. Simply to mention the 
names of Adam Smith, Robert Burns, Dugald Stewart, Chalmers and 
David Hume fills us with the desire to know more of the scenes of 



430 



Acta Victoria7ia. 



their labors. Personally, we had always a peculiar desire to see the 
tomb of the philosopher in whose consistent mind Locke received 
such a sifting. So on our way to the brow of Calton Hill, where, 
amid the monuments to Burns and Nelson, stands the expensive and 
unfinished imitation of the Parthenon at Athens, popularly known as 
" Scotland's disgrace," we steal into the quiet old Calton burial- 
ground, off Waterloo Place. Within its quiet walls stands the monu- 
ment to the Scots who fell in the American Civil War, and near by 



••a. 




EDINBURGH, FROM CALTON HILL. 

the tomb of Hume, a two-storey hollow circle of grey stone. But 
nowhere upon it would one expect to find the sarcasm : 

" Within this circular enclosure, 
Commonly called a tomb, 
The Ideas and Impressions lie 
That constituted Hume." 

Out from the "silent city " we pass into the busy street, and, climb- 
ing the stone steps of the Scottish Acropjlis, stand wondering at the 



Acta J ^ictoriana. 



431 



beauty of the scene. As we turn our back upon the broad Firth and 
the sea-coast lined with the smoke, the houses and the docks of 
Granton, Leith, Portobello and Musselburgh, we see the city beneath 
us and the grey Pentland Hills in the distance. If we follow the 
course of the Forth for a few miles to the right, we see the angular 
outlines of one of the greatest modern feats of mechanical skill, the 
Forth Bridge, whose three great spans cover a mile and a half of 




HOLYROOD PALACE. 



water. M. Eiffel pronounced it the " greatest construction of the 
world." From our present position, too, we get a fine view of the 
gloomy old castle on the cliff to the left. A little lower down on the 
hill St. Giles Cathedral, the scene of some epoch-making gatherings, 
raises its lantern tower above the surrounding buildings. Here John 
Knox often preached, and just outside on the pavement is a rude 
stone inscribed, "J. K., 1572,' marking his grave. Here the Solemn 



432 



Acta Vicioriana. 



League and Covenant was signed in 1643. Here it was that Charles 
I. tried to reestablish the Scottish Episcopal Church, and it was here 
that, during the service, Jenny Geddes threw her stool at Dean 
Hanna. From where we stand we cannot see much of the old town ; 
it is just down the hill from St. Giles. 

In this section are some houses of great interest. For instance, a 
projecting building in a narrow street is pointed out as John Knox's 




EAST WINDOW, MELROSE ABBEY. 



house. Beyond is the University, with its St. Paul-like dome. In the 
valley at our extreme left stands the battlemented Palace of Holyrood 
and the ivy-clad ruins of the Gothic Abbey. Beyond this and forming 
a background of charmmg beauty, Salisbury Crag rises abruptly, and 
farther away is the bold top of Arthur's Seat. 

A few miles south of Edinburgh is one of the most fascinating parts 
of the country, the Waverley District. As the train pulls in at 



Acta Victoriana, 433 

Melrose how strange it seems to hear the guard call out the place that 
even in our childhood we associated with the buried heart of K.ing 
Robert the Bruce. Walking from the station we catch a glimpse of 
an ivied ruin. We hurry to the door of the sacred precincts, where a 
sixpence admits us within the walls — those walls that David I. built, 
that Edward II., of England, destroyed ; that Bruce, in the Fourteenth 
Century, restored, and that to-day, even in their crumbling condition, 
are the finest ruin in all Scotland. The variety of design is remarkable, 
even the columns and arches varying in position and width, yet 
in all this there is a fine sense of appropriateness and unity. Passing 
down the nave toward the famous east window, we enter the tran- 
sept, the roof of wh'ch is richly groined. Sculptured corbels 
support the ribs, at whose intersections are beautifully-carved groups 
of flowers. 

To-day some of the corbels and fallen keystones lie heaped together 
near the centre of the chancel. One stone is worn smooth ; upon it 
Sir Walter Scott used to sit and think as he gazed out into the blue 
sky through the slender carvings of the chancel-window, or at night 
watched the shadows fall upon the floor, as the pale moon filledthe dark 
corners of the Abbey with romance and strange stories. Upon this 
seat thousands of visitors have sat since, and, of course, we, too, sat 
there, looking at the same sky through the same ruined window, but 
you will not be surprised to hear there is yet but one Sir Walter Scott. 

This is not the only memento of the Scotts in this strange old pile. 
Just at hand is a weird stone figure against the wall, with the inscrip- 
tion : "Michael Scott's Tomb," and as from here I can seethe split 
Eildon peaks, rent by that wizard's power, I recollect the lines : 

" I buried him on St. Michael's night, 

When the bells tolled one, and the moon was bright ; 
And dug his chamber among the dead. 
When the floor of the chancel was stained red, 

" That his patron's cross might o'er him wave 
And scare the fiends from the wizard's grave." 



o' 



With a glance at the cloister door, whose posts are so delicately 
chiselled that we can stick a grass-blade between the leaves, and with 
one more look at the stone over Bruce's heart, we leave Melrose as 
we found it. But we have changed. We are better for its memories. 

From the stones upon which Scott sat and thought we go to the 
home in which he wrote. It is a beautiful walk of two miles to 
Abbotsford, where the palatial home of the baronet is open to his 



434 



Ada Victoriana. 



admirers — that means everybody, for who does not admire him ? Our 
photographs are but poor substitutes for a beautiful day spent in these 
delightful surroundings. Leaving the kind hearted old Irishman, 
who showed us around, we stroll through the wooded country lane to 
the ferry, so that we^may get a view of Abbotsford from the west bank, 
as its turrets nestle among the trees and its lawns sweep down to the 
water's edge. 

Our next side trip from the capital is to Stirling. Space will not 




ABBOTSFORD, FROM THE G.^RDEN. 

permit an account of all places of interest passed through, for every 
spot seems hallowed by brave deeds of love or war. At Falkirk, 
Wallace was defeated by Edward I. in 1298, and here Bonnie Prince 
Charlie was victorious over the English the >t-ar succeeding Preston- 
pans Nearing Stirling the level plain and the blue outline of the 
Highlands make a charming setting for the bold bluff and castle of 
that historic city, while the tall lantern-topped Gothic Wallace menu- 



Ada Vtctoriana. 435 

ment is a constant reminder that near by, in 1297, the Scottish hero 
turned back the enemy. We visit the Douglas room of the castle, 
where James II. stabbed the rebellious Earl Douglas. The panes of 
of the window out of which the body was thrown were replaced 
with stained glass by our late Queen Victoria. The history of the 
siege of Stirling by Edward T., and of its recapture by Bruce, and of 
the battle near the burn of Bannock are too familiar to be rehearsed, 
but to sit on the "Bore Stone" where King Robert planted his 
standard, fires the imagination to re-people the plain with contending 
armies. And how different this from the peaceful memories of Allan 
Waters a little to the north. We leave Stirling to spend a quiet 
Sunday in the hills at Kippen The charm and the peace of the 
scene and the people on this Scotch Sabbath leave a memory to be 
revived with pleasure. 

The mountains that could be seen from the churchyard at Stirling 
are now more distinct. Not only Ben Lomond and Ben Venue, but 
the cloudy peaks of Ben Vorlich and Ben Ledi make us anticipate 
with delight our Monday trip to Balloch, to begin our tour of the 
lochs. 

On our way up Loch Lomond we alight on the east shore at 
Rowardennan for an ascent of Ben Lomond. Rowardennan is one 
of those places that consist of a name and a hotel. The landlady 
tells us it is a bad day for the ascent, for we may get lost in the fog 
which now hovers thick about Ben's head. But we start. Through 
long winding paths in the bracken wet with the mist, from place to 
place we climb until the roar of a distant waterfall attracts our atten- 
tion to where its white spray leaps out from amidst the foliage in the 
ravine. The music of the cairn and its veil-like folds as it falls from 
crag to crag for two thousand feet and silently loses itself in the over- 
grown vale below, takes us back to the times when such were the 
haunts of the nymphs. In the meantime we realize that we are getting 
wet, and that in climbing we have ruined our umbrella. So, after 
taking a survey of the country which, three thousand feet below, 
stretches for miles like a great raised map, we descend, and we bury 
one end of our umbrella with this inscription on the other : 

" I throw my umbrella 

Out upon Ben Lomond rocks 
For I've spoiled my disposition, 
And have wet my feet and socks," 

to show to the next climber that if he supposes we could not dry our 
clothes by a true poetic fire, he is mistaken. 



436 



Acta Vidoriana. 



The next morning we take the boat to Inversnaid, near Rob Roy's 
Cave. Here there is another beautiful cairn, of which Wordsworth 

writes : 

" And these giey rocks, 
This household lawn, 
These trees, a veil just half withdrawn, 
This fall of water that doth make 
A murmur near the silent lake." 




ELLEN S ISLE, LOCH KATRINE. 

Following the road and the Arklet Water we pass Helen Macgregor's 
cottage, and come at last to Stronachlachar, from which we go aboard 
the Rob Roy, to cross Loch Katrine, the paradise of Scotland. The 
lake is surrounded by mountains, and on its bosom rests the little 

island — 

" Where Ellen's hand had taught to twine 
The ivy and Idacian vine, 
The clematis, the favored flower 
Which boasts the name of virgin-bower." 



Acta Vicioriana. 



437 



As the boat winds in and out we can picture the Lady of the Lake as 
she rows the Knight of Snowdown to the Isle. The silver strand 
cannot be better described than in Scott's own language : 

" From underneath an aged oak 
That slanted from the islet rock, 
A. damsel guider of its way, 
A little skiff shot to the bay, 
That round the promontory steep 
Led its steep line in graceful sweep. 
Eddying in almost viewless wave, 
The weeping-willow tree to lave, 
And kiss with whispering sound and slow 
The beach of pebbles bright as snow." 

A drive through the Trossachs, along I^ochs Achray and Ven- 
nachar, brings us beyond Rhoderick Dhu's safe conduct, to Callandar. 
Then from the city of the " Fair Maid of Perth " to Glamis, the home 
of Macbeth, to Kinermuir or Barrie's " Thrums," and on to Montrose, 
gives us a fine trip through the north. The coast scenery is fine on 
the return via Arbroath, opposite Bell Rock Island, the scene of the 
" Inchcape Bell," and across the long Tay bridge at Dundee. Con- 
cerning the good time spent in going to Glasgow and visiting xA.yr, it 
is unnecessary to speak, as these places are made familiar to the 
reader by frequent visitors. 




MARBLE CANYON, VANCOUVER ISLAND. 



438 Acta Victoriajia. 

The Price of Honor 

BY EDWARD WILSON WALLACE, J^A., '04. 

THE chief glory of the Happy Lark village was Grandfather Lark. 
In a land where old age is always honorable, his four-score years 
and fifteen would have been anywhere a source of pride. But he was 
noi only a very old man — he was the oldest man in his neighbor- 
hood, and his long, white beard was the proudest boast of his fellow- 
villagers. In the neighboring city on a market day one could distin- 
guish a Happy Lark by his jaunty air and his patronage of farmers 
from less favored villages ; and, sooner or later, into every conversation 
he interjected a remark about "the most honorable old man, Grand- 
father Lark." 

The old man had long ceased to engage in any kind of labor, and 
he spent his days sitting at his doorway, placidly receiving the homage 
of the passers-by. At his side often rolled a smiling, sprawling great- 
grandchild, clothed in nature's modest garb. To this child would some- 
times appear, in the doorway, a shrill-voiced woman, who would scold it 
in the heartiest manner ; but when one of his daughters-in-law or grand- 
daughters-in-law addressed Grandfather Lark, her voice softened, in so 
far as that term is applicable to a Chinese voice. Unlike the prophets 
of olden-time, Grandfather Lark was honored, not only in his own 
village, but most especially in his own household. 

Now, it happened that a few // off was another village, called The 
Village Where They Wear Pug Noses. Whenever a Happy Lark met 
a Pug Nose, he add^d to his usual greeting these words: "And the 
Grandfather is increasing in years." Should the Pug Nose be the bet- 
ter man, he repudiated the statement by chastising the Lark ; other- 
wise he contented himself with shrill vituperation of all the Larks, 
beginning with the present representative, and extending as far into the 
past and the future as his breath and imagination could carry him. 

Needless to say, these taunts cut. Many vows of retaliation were 
registered before the family tablets of the Pug Noses ; but it remained 
for one clever member of the village to discover a way of relief, a solu- 
tion that promised to deal a crushing blow to the unbearable preten- 
sions of the despicable Larks. 

One warm summer evening the usual noisy crowd was gathered in 
the narrow street of the Village of the Happy Larks. On the gossip- 
ing, laughing gathering suddenly fell a thunderbolt in the shape of a 



Acta Victoriana. 439 

breathless young man, who burst excitedly into their midst and gasped 
out : 

" The Pug Noses have a new grandfather, who is older than Grand- 
father Lark." 

Imagine a child — a very small child, if you please — informed on 
good authority that there existed a greater man than his father. His 
mingled incredulity and rage and despair could not exceed the feelings 
of the astounded Larks. A greater than their patriarch ! Treason ! 
Assassination! Foreign devils ! The good name of their village was 
gone forever if such a vile slander were allowed to live. The story 
must be denied at once. But, alas ! denial does not necessarily dis- 
prove, even when backed by all the emphasis of the Chinese vocabu- 
lary and volubility. The story spread that a Pug Nose had returned 
home from a far off city, bringing with him an ancestor who was so 
old that the hitherto oldest man in the village declared that as a boy 
he remembered this man, even then an old man, with a white beard, 
leaving the Village Where They Wear Pug Noses. No one dared 
compute his age. He could not be less than a century old. It is 
true he looked much younger ; but the evidence was conclusive 
enough for those who wished to accept it. The unpopularity of the 
Larks was shown by the readiness with which the neighbonng villages 
did accept the story. They dubbed one village. The Village of the 
Little Old Man, and the other, The Village of the Very Old Man. 

It was not long before Grandfather Lark heard what had taken 
place. All his family looked to him for help. Surely he, with his 
years and wisdom, could discover some means of dispelling the fearful 
cloud that darkened the fame of the once proud village. He, if any- 
one, could vindicate the surprising magnificence of the Happy Larks. 

If nothing else could be done, he could at least . He was old, 

anyway, and . So they whispered to one another. 

For several days the patriarch did nothing but sit in the sun and 
nod. You would have said the old man was in his dotage and cared 
not a cash for the honor of his family ; but you are not Chinese. His 
anxious family knew better, and they whispered as they watched him : 
" The Grandfather is consulting with the spirits of his ancestors. He 
will devise utter discomfiture to our enemies and increased glory to 
our family." 

One evening, at his usual hour, he rose and entered the house. He 
spent some time before the tablets of his ancestors. Then he climbed 
upon the big brick bed and soon, to all appearance?, was asleep. But 
later, when the rest of the family had joined him and all were peace- 



440 Acta Victoriana. 

fully slumbering, he cautiously rose, made his way over the sleeping 
forms stretched upon the family bed, clambered to the floor, and stole, 
with cat-like tread, to the door. He paused a moment, silhouetted 
against the midnight sky, then he slipped out, and was gone. 

He had roused all the family but not one stirred, until the old man 
had left the house. Then they sat up and whispered together, and 
hugged themselves for joy. The Honorable Grandfather had devised 
a scheme, and had gone to vindicate his family. No sorrow at the 
probability that they would never see him again intruded itself to mar 
their happiness. Through the long hours of the night they slept a 
peaceful sleep, enjoying in anticipation the coming triumph over their 
enemies. 

Grandfather Lark passed noiselessly down the long crooked street, 
slowly picking his way amid the refuse and filth that often well nigh 
blocked his path. Not a dog barked, not a soul stirred. The gods 
favored the old man's enterprise, and helped him on his way. 

At last he was clear of the village, alone in the stillness of the night. 
A cold wind swept over the paddy fields. The old man shivered and 
drew his coat closer to him. Now and then he stumbled into a puddle 
of chilly water, and his felt shoes became cold and heavy. The road 
was uneven and treacherous, and more than once he fell headlong, 
soiling and wetting his garments. The pitiless stars seemed to sting 
him with their chilly points ; the icy moon smiled scornfully on his 
miserable plight. A more wretched figure could not well be imagined. 
You would have pitied him could you have seen Grandfather Lark 
then. Yet he felt the need of no pity. He scarcely realized the dis 
comforts of his journey. Like a great cat drowsily basking in the 
sunshine, the old man's mind basked in the glow of the supreme pur- 
pose he had formed. No need now for thought, or care, or anxiety. 
The die was cast. His family would be avenged. . 

Of a sudden he heard confused noises before him. He had barely 
time to crawl into the water by the roadside before a noisy party came 
along. They were disputing, and when they came opposite where the 
old man crouched, one of their number stopped and refused to go 
farther. It was the old grandfather of the Pug Noses. 

" I will go no farther," he declared. " I promised to come and live 
for you ; not to die for you." 

" But we hired you to avenge our family honor. In order to do 
that it is necessary that you die. Do you think they will be able to 
hold up their heads before us if you are found dead in their village ? 
We did not pick you up off the street — a man with no name or family 



Acta Victoriana. 44 1 

— and pay you money that you should merely eat the roof off our 
house. We bought you ; now, do your part. Son of a pig go on. 
They still declare that their old man is older than ours. You must 
prove our superior greatness by drowning yourself in their well." 

The old man protested again ; then he broke out into pitiful whin- 
ings and pleadings for mercy. Two of the men seized him. They 
stuffed part of his old blue cotton coat into his mouth. Then they 
grasped his arms and began dragging him forward. The others 
followed to the outskirts of the village, calling him a "pig going to the 
butcher." The wretched man was dragged toward the village well at 
the other end of the long street. 

They had nearly reached their destination when a dog barked. 
Almost instantly the whole village was awake. Dogs, men, babies, 
children, women, pigs rushed from every house, and the unfortunate 
Pug Noses were set upon by a crowd of excited Larks. In the rough 
handling that followed, the gag was torn from the old man's mouth. 
He gasped out his story, and begged to be saved from his impending 
death. 

" Ha ! " cried the headman of the village, pushing his way to the 
centre of the crowd, " these snout-nosed swine would force you to 
commit suicide in our village, and make men believe a lie ! We shall 
satisfy you." 

He gave a few directions. The three were carried outside the vil- 
lage where the two Pug Noses were forced themselves to put a noose 
round their "grandfather's " neck and hang him to a tree. When the 
deed was done they fastened a placard to his queue, " The Sixty-Year- 
Old Pig of an Impostor." The two Pug Noses shorn of their queues 
and cruelly beaten and maltreated, were finally turned out to seek 
their companions. 

Bitter was the outcry when they joined the waiting group. For 
some time they consulted whether they should, few as they were, fall 
on the village of the Happy Larks and annihilate its inhabitants, or 
return and rouse their own villagers. The latter counsel, though 
violently opposed by the two queueless disgraced ones, finally pre- 
vailed, and some hours after they had left their own village they began 
to retrace their steps. 

Where, in the meantime, was Grandfather Lark ? When the noisy 
band had passed him he climbed upon the road and continued his 
journey. He had not comprehended what the men had said, but 
some instinct made him press forward more rapidly, as though his 
time were short. He stumbled on, a feeble, tottering old man, nerved 



442 Acta Victoriana. 

by the one dominant feeling that in his hands lay the family honor, 
which he must vindicate. Before him lay a shining goal. He dimly 
felt rather than foresaw his body honored by his family, his tablet 
worshipped most reverently of all in their home, his name living on 
for centuries among the great ones of his line. He could not foresee 
the bitter feud that this night's deeds were to originate, nor the pitched 
battle of the following day, when his fellow-villagers attempted to bear 
him in triumph to his home, nor the many sad events of the years to 
come. Even could he have foreseen these he would have held to his 
purpose. All the instincts of his race urged him forward, and no 
power could turn him. He was about to do the noblest deed of 
which his creed knew. 

He entered the village of the Pug Noses, and crept down the 
street until he reached the house where the headman lived. He put 
his hand to the door. It yielded. The men were away, though he 
did not know it, and the women were sleeping. The old man 
entered noiselessly and closed the door. Then slowly, carefully he 
crept, inch by inch, across the earthen floor, until he reached the 
brick bed. He crouched down beside it with a sensation of comfort 
in its warmth. He fumbled for a few moments in his clothes. When 
he had found what he sought he held it aloft in his trembling hand. 
There was no light to shine upon that sharp blade. There was no 
light to sparkle in the old man's eye. But he uttered a sigh of 
complete contentment as his hand drew down across his face and 
throat, and he fell into a huddled mass at his enemies' bedside. 



See? 

" If A is B, then B is C" 

Prove it ! " Well, A is, you'll agree. 

Then if A is, and A is B, 

You must conclude that B is, see ? " 

— X. V. z. 



Toronto, A.D. 1905. 

Jingle, jangle, trolley car. 
How I wonder where you are, 
In my house or in my shop, 
Will you never, never stop ? 

— X. Y. z. 



Ada Victoriana. 443 

The Jimerlcan College of the West 

BY RUBY M. JOLLIFFE, '03. 

IN this article I will try briefly to express a few of my impressions of 
the American College of the West as typified by Whitman College, 
and contrast or compare some of the salient features of its life and 
government with those of Victoria, or the University College of the 
East. 

One of the essential differences is in the course of study oflFered. 
The election system in vogue at Yale and Harvard Universities has 
been adopted very largely by the smaller American colleges. A 
student upon entering college chooses his major department. In 
addition, he is required to pursue throughout his course a number of 
minor or pass subjects, which broadens his course and lessens the 
tendency to over-specialization. For his major work he elects what- 
ever courses he may wish out of a number outlined in the catalogue. 
This gives the student greater freedom in mapping out his course, and 
has been found to be of greater advantage to him than the method of 
prescribed work, where the electing and selecting is solely in the 
hands of the professor, whose choice must govern all alike. In a small 
college every course outlined is not given each year, but only such as 
are most generally elected. The aim of the college is to provide a 
broad, liberal education as a foundation, not only for the special, 
technical education of the University, but for the fuller experience 
and education which life everywhere affords. 

Three courses are offered, leading to the degrees of Bachelor of 
Arts, Bachelor of Literature and Bachelor of Science. The first two 
stand for almost equal scholarship, the A. B. degree requiring more 
of the classics. The question is much discussed as to whether the 
standard A. B. degree, with its world-wide recognition, should not be 
adopted for all three courses, but at the present time most of the 
colleges of the United S:ates grant the three distinct ensigns. 

Yet, though the freedom in the choice of work be greater, the 
student is in some ways more restricted than in a University college, 
where he is under University regime. Attendance upon lectures is 
compulsory and a satisfactory excuse required for each absence. The 
writer wonders if " ping-pong tournaments," " hockey practices," etc., 
would have been judged " satisfactory " in the days of '03. Yet a la 
High School as this may seem, the stringency of the requirement is 



444 Acta Victoriana. 

somewhat mitigated by the fact that the lecturer loses no time in 
covering as thoroughly and concisely as possible all the work promised 
in his calendar, so that the student does not find toward the close of 
the term that two-thirds ot the work remains for him to master alone. 

Also the plan of daily recitaion, which most of the colleges pursue, 
tends to limit the student within a certain routine of daily study and 
to prevent individuality in the mastery of his course; but it obviates 
the necessity, in the student's mind at least, for the final cram. Plug 
season is unknown ! The disintegration of mental and physical powers 
in May a phenomenon ! Aegrotats unheard of ! Yet, who of us would 
not endure the strain for the inner joy and satisfaction of "skipping " 
and procrastinating ? 

Yet, in spite of such precautions against neglect of study, every 
institution recognizes the danger of athletics becoming the " be-all 
and the end-all here " ; of athletics neglecting the " higher branches " 
in cultivating the " lower limbs." Here the student is encouraged to 
keep his growth symmetrical by Intercollegiate laws, which forbid 
participation in a game until his scholarship has reached a required 
grade. 

The spirit of the college is essentially Christian, and, though 
denominational in its foundation, its development has necessitated a 
broadening out from and beyond sectarianism. The spirit which is 
inscribed upon the banner of Victoria, "The Truth shall make you 
free/' is one with that which has made the ideal of Whitman College, 
" Culture and Character." The Faculty are men and women who 
have sought and found "the best things," and are endeavoring to 
show their students where they may find them. 

Residence or dormitory life, you will admit, plays a great part in 
the development of the student. It is within these walls, the home of 
the student body, that their solidarity and college spirit is fostered. 
It is here, and not in the lecture-room, that students learn to know 
one another ; it is here a student learns that man cannot live for 
himself alone and truly live ; it is here he finds opportunity to learn 
lessons which the class-room or library does not teach. For here he 
can put theory into practice and study life itself. In the dormitory 
he develops a breadth of character nowhere else attainable. It is 
only with the help of the dormitory that the ideal of the American 
college — that of a liberal education — can be realized, and so the 
dormitory is an integral part of these institutions. Every college in 
the United States has its dormitories for boys and for girls, and every 
student not living at home is required to live within them. 



Acta Victoriana. 445 

The American college also fosters a closer bond of friendliness 
between faculty and student. This is particularly marked in the 
West, where the spirit of the college, as of the West itself, seems 
broader, freer, more independent and more natural than that of the 
more conservative East. Co-education is more in advance. The 
faculty do not stand aloof from the students, bending only upon 
solicitation, but each member shows himself interested in each 
individual student. He knows each student personally, and the 
progress he is making. He is ready to reprimand neglect of work, or 
to encourage and aid those who are in difficulty. He makes the 
enthusiasm of his own personality contagious, and is in every way 
a help and guide to those entrusted to his care. So that not only 
does a student bear away with him the indelible impressions of 
friendships with fellow-students, but of strong and helpful friendships 
with those who have gone over the road before. 

The college of the West, too, is less exclusive and more 
democratic in spirit. There are less class distinctions and more 
independence and freedom from conventionalities among the students. 
The majority of those who are attending college are supporting them- 
selves. The sons and daughters of wealthy landowners vie with their 
less fortunate classmates in proving their independence of cheques 
from home. The college, to encourage such a spirit, offers clerical 
work, work on the campus and in the dining hall to those who wish 
to earn their tuition or board. And there are few who do not avail 
themselves of the opportunity. 

The students as a body are loyal, enthusiastic and strong. They 
have come to college, not because their parents did, not because 
ambitious parents send them, not because it is the fashion or the 
passport to society. But they come, many of them struggling against 
hostile winds, to test the value of an education such as their pioneer 
grandfathers did not have, to make use of the opportunities, now 
being so freely offered, of an education which will make them better 
and nobler citizens of the nation of which they are so proud. 

Whitman College, 
Walla Walla, Wash., U.S.A. 



44^ Acta Victoriana. 

Idle Letters of an Idle Student 

I. 

Victoria College Library, Februarys 1905. 

CHERIE, — You are not to have a newsy letter this week, for you 
will see Eleanor very soon, and she will tell you all there is to 
tell. Instead, I am going to have a chat with you about a very 
idle half-hour I have just spent in the library. 

Away down in the hazy depths of my memory is a quotation about 
eyes being the windows of the soul. This last half hour I have been 
gratifying my old-time childish desire to peek into other people's 
windows. Come with me and I'll tell you what I saw. 

At the end of my table sits a little Freshette. You would say that 
her eyes were blue — delicious blue — " violets transformed to eyes," 
but I assure you they are of a distinctly roseate hue. What a glorious 
delightful world Miss Freshette sees through her windows, but how 
unreal I The rosy-colored panes catch and reflect the light in a way 
distinctly dazzling and bewildering to herself and to us. Blessed 
little Freshette, with all her troubles to come I May it be long, long, 
before cruel storms or rude hands shatter the pretty rose windows ! 

Opposite me you will see a pair of stained-glass windows. They 
belong to Miss Sophomore, and she has really had a very trying time. 
She began with rose-tinted panes, but after a year's time the storms 
came, and the pretty fragile things couldn't withstand the blasts. 
Here a little crack crept in, and there another, until one day they fell 
with a crash I Poor Miss Sophomore, in her sorrow she decided to 
retire from the world, and so she put in blue glass windows. That 
could notjast, however, for her natural curiosity in the life around 
her revived, and so she tried to remedy matters by putting in little 
pieces of colored glass^red and yellow, and purple and white. She 
told me that it was a decided improvement on blue glass, and she is 
very hopeful of the final result, but at present the whole effect is 
rather bewildering. She cannot see clearly herself, and "the white 
radiance of eternity " is all stained and discolored before it reaches her. 

The Master Workman came and offered to take out the colored 
and give her clear glass, but she thought she would enjoy her windows 
very much better if she made them herself. Perhaps it is better so, 
but think'of all the glorious sunshine she is missing ! 



Ada Vicioriana 447 

I feel still sorrier for a pair of windows farther down the table. 
Their owner hadn't patience to work with the stained glass, but after 
her rose windows broke, she just put in frosted panes at once. It is 
really dreadful, for she can't see into God's great beautiful world at 
all, and only a pale shadowy sunshine can force an entrance. Per- 
haps she won't be obdurate much longer. To-morrow I am going to 
coax her out for a long walk, and I shall grow quite eloquent regarding 
the cheer and healthfulness of clear glass and plenty of sunshine. 

Wasn't it Jo in "Little Women " who used to leave the blinds of 
their cheery little sitting-room undrawn so that the passers-by might 
have a glimpse of the inward comfort and l:ght ? I always did love 
Jo for that. There are some little housekeepers like Jo at this very 
table, and on some of the " days that must be dark and dreary " it is 
comforting to look in and see the cosy warmth and the bright clear 
fire on the hearth wilhin. 

But do you know there are some who insist upon drawing the blinds 
tight and fast. Perhaps they are afraid of the best parlor carpet or 
something equally precious, or perhaps — and I shall only whisper it — 
perhaps some of the little home-makers have spent so much time and 
money on the hangings and curtains, that if we could see in, we should 
find an empty House Beautiful. What a pity ! 

I have saved my best till the last. Dear Lady Senioretta ! Nature 
gave her beautiful silken curtains and hangings, and for four years she 
has toiled and hoped, until now she has clear, pure, transparent 
windows. 

"True eyes 
Too pure and too honest in aught to disguise 
The sweet soul shining through them." 

And how we love her for it ! How we love to look in and catch a 
glimpse of the light shining deep and strong, and feel assured that 
some day ive may possess just such a House Beautiful. 

Cherie, I have been almost guilty of a sermon, haven't I ? But 
unlike most of those who are compiling sermons near me, it has been 
written for myself. I am going to have a spring house-cleaning right 
away. I shall take off my double windows of Prejudice and Indo- 
lence, and clear away all the smudges of Conceit and Grumbling, so 
that the Blessed Sunshine may come in. 

I am, carissima mia, ever thy 

Betty. 



44^ Acta Victoriana. 

Book J^e V ie ivs 

The Earthly Purgatory. By Miss Lily Dougall. Toronto : Lang- 
ton & Hall, 1905 ; pp. 345. 

THIS novel, called also "The Summit House Mystery," is the work 
of the author of " Beggars All," " What Necessity Knows," "The 
Mormon Prophet," etc., who is, as I have said elsewhere, the best of 
our Canadian women novelists ; indeed, her work is on a par with that 
of any of our novelists. This last work is the story of a mysterious 
crime which centres around two young ladies named "Smith," who have 
left New York and taken refuge in the mountains of Northern Georgia 
to escape from scenes that were hateful. Neil Durgan, a Southern 
gentleman who is forced to work, is mining near the "Summit," and 
gets acquainted with them. His wife had left him and taken up with 
a Spiritualist medium or charlatan by name of Charlton Beardsley, and 
he it was that was mysteriously connected with the events, or supposed 
to be, in the "Smith" family. Even the lawyer, Mr. Alden, who was 
an old lover of Miss Hermie, had never been able to fathom the mys- 
tery surrounding the Claxton (alias Smith) case, and the author clev- 
erly conceals it from the reader up to almost the last page. Then we 
understand what an "Earthly Purgatory " Hermie Claxton has for 
years endured, and yet we must also feel that it was hardly worth the 
while. Miss Dougall excels in characterization, searching out the 
motives of action. In this she is easily our best writer. The descrip- 
tions of natural scenery are also in places of the finest quality, and 
everywhere good. As a tale of mystery the book ought to be popular 
and successful, and that on its merits. 



Monarch, The Big Bear of Tallac. By Ernest Thompson Seton. 
Toronto: Morang & Co., 1904; pp. 213. 

This work is a sort of historical novel of the grizzly of Golden Gate 
Park, or rather, as the author sa)s, "a composite picture," of which 
the central figure is aw abnormally clever grizzly. Needless to say, 
the story is very interesting, as interesting as it could be were a clever 
"human" put in the bear's (lace. Indeed, I don't see any difficulty 
in doing so, and that is the objection I have to Seton's animal stories. 
The illustrations are in much the same old Seton style we are all 
acquainted with. How would a book of his look without them ? I 
fancy we should enjoy a change. 



Acta Victoriana. 449 

The Nibelungenlied : Translated in Rhymed English Verse in the 
metre of the Original. By George Henry Needler, Associate 
Professor of German in University College, Toronto. New York : 
Henry Holt & Co., 1904 ; pp. XXXV.-349. 
Dr. Needler's translation is a most excellent piece of work, easily 
first among English translations and a great credit to Canadian scho- 
larship. There is an introduction of some thirty pages, of which the first 
part deals succinctly but clearly with the origin of the Nibelungensaga, 
its northern form, its preservation in the Nibelungenlied itself and the 
mythical and historical elements. The second part discusses manu- 
scripts, evolution of the poem, the character of the poem, later forms 
of the saga, the poem and saga in modern literature, modern German 
and English translations and editions of the Nibelungenlied. This 
introduction is distinguished by its sanity, the only possible objection 
being that in the attempt to be brief some parts are so cur- 
tailed that they really are of little value. This could be urged against 
the section on manuscripts and on German translations. Objection 
might also be taken to the statement, under "The Northern Form of the 
Saga," that it had early become part of the national saga stock in Eng- 
land because it is mentioned in "Beowulf" and the "Wanderer." Its 
mention there is rather due to the fact that both of these poems go a 
long way back in the history of the English, to the home on the con- 
tinent, where even then the love of travel, so characteristic of English" 
men, made them the natural news-medium between the northern and 
southern Germanic tribes. 

It is, of course, necessary and allowable to a verse translator to make 
use of archaic words such as hight, holpen., eke, ween (the past tense 
weened strikes one a bit more strange), mickle (dialectic), and possibly 
most unknown of all, wood {—xx\2l^). Sometimes the archaic quality 
of the vocabulary, combined with the forced, unnatural order of the 
words, makes one stop and think before understanding, as for instance 
in the line — 

" The thing, behold, I eke full fain." 

These remarks, howiver, are not to be considered as wishing to 
decry Dr. Needler's work. They rather prove that the author had a 
great many difficulties to overcome in giving us a fairly literal verse 
translation in the oiiginal metre. He has succeeded admirably, and, 
as I have already said, the work is a great credit to him. The pub- 
lishers have done their part, the net result being a very tasty book. 

L. E. Horning. 



450 



Acta Victoriana 




Ji Biological Study in Orchids 



M 



BY J. HORACE FAULL, PH.D. 

R. DARWIN tells us in his " Origin of Species," that on a piece 
of cleared ground, three feet by two feet, 357 weeds sprang 
up, and out of these 295 were destroyed in the struggle for existence 
— mainly by slugs and insects. In another place he observed that 
out of twenty species growing on twelve square feet of lawn, nine were 
killed in competition with the remaining fourteen when the lawn was 
left uncut. He selected in a third experiment forty heads of red 
clover {Trifo/ium pra(ense), of which twenty were protected from the 
visits of humble bees. From the twenty unprotected heads he reaped 
2,750 seeds, from the protected ones not one. Now, it is quite 
evident that the majority of the sixty-two survivors in the first experiment 
and the fourteen successful species in the second po'-sessed superior 
qualifications over their fellows, which enabled them to maintain the 
occupancy of the common station where they happened to begin life 
together, and that red clover cannot reproduce without the aid of 
humble bees. The oecologist seeks to find out why-these things are so. 
In other words, he is a student of the social problems of plants and 
animals or their life relations, and the adaptations that are favorable, 
or otherwise, in the life struggle. 

Orchids provide many opportunities and much material for such re- 
search. And once having made their acquaintance, who is there that is 
not fascinated by them, and once having studied their adaptive struc- 
tures has not been allured still further, as under a magic speil, to delve 
more deeply into the mysteries of their existence. The mere species- 
hunter simply finds an Elysium here, and is ready to go in search of 
that fabled orchid, whose deadly perfume poisons the breath of its 
ill-fated discoverer. 

From one point of view, orchids have not been successful in the 
struggle for existence. In structure they exhibit the acme of speciali- 
zation, but, withal, are found in small numbers. Perhaps their very 



Ada Victoriana. 



451 



specialization should prepare us for this, as being an indication of the 
severity of the conditions to which they are subjected. Their flowers 
are shaped, and painted, and scented and endowed with nectar 
sufficiently, one would think, to attract their favored insect friends. 
Morever, if visited, they make sure that their visitors carry off a packet 
or two of pollen grains. Yet they seldom reproduce by seed, in fruit- 
fulness not to be compared with a thousand humbler plants that have 




W 



NEW AND OLD TUBERS OF AN ORCHID. 

no apparent special attractions. The facts are that pollination is 
exceptionally successful, and that if fertilization is effected, their seeds 
are provided with little or no food for the microscopic embryos. 
Gardeners and horticulturists rarely sow orchid seeds. 

Nevertheless, though individuals are scarce, and the naturalists has 
to search far and long for specimens, the number of species is very 
great, and from this point of view their struggle has been eminently 
3 



452 



Acta Victoriana. 



successful. Altogether there is the astounding number of 6,000 
distinct species, and some reckon 10,000. An overwhelming majority 
of these are inhabitants of the tropics, few having been able to eke out 
an existence in colder regions. In Canada and the North Eastern 
States there are but sixty species. It is, indeed, a prolific family ; 
in fact, there is but one other family that contains a larger number of 
species. 

Two reasons may be assigned for this abundance of species : First, 
by vegetative methods of reproduction, nearly every individual is 
certain of at least one offspring, so that a species once established is 




SECTION OF ORCHID ROOT. 

(The infected cells are dark.) 

perpetuated, if not greatly increased, and second, they show a remark- 
able plasticity, adapting themselves to fit into all sorts of places and 
conditions. 

Figure i illustrates one type of vegetative reproduction {Hnbenarta 
viridis). Each year a sort of bulb is produced, which replaces its 
exhausted parent in the following year, and so preserves the race 
from extinction in case the seeds are useless. 

Every plant, and almost every organ, is an illustration of the 
plasticity of the family. Many observations have been made, 



Ac fa Victoriaiia. 



453 



especially upon the flowers in this connection, but, though less 
frequently studied, the roots are likewise of great interest, and we shall 
speak further of thtm alone. 

An acquaintance with orchid roots appreciably broadens our con- 
ceptions of those organs, for not only do they fill unusal roles, but 
many of them have practically ceased to act as absorbing organs. 
Thus, the epiphytes possess certain elongated roots that dangle in the 
air, and that may even contain chloroph)!), thereby serving as organs 
of assimilation (the work of leaves), Further, the outer layers of cells, 
the so-called velamen, are so modified as to be able to take up and 
condense moisture and gases from the surrounding atmosphere. 




FUNGUS GROWING IN ORCHID ROOT. 



But t!ie roots of our native orchids are equally wonderful, though 
they are hypogenous. Noticeably they are all greatly reduced, consist- 
ing of only a few coarse strands, which are devoid of rootlets — a few 
inches, or, at most, feet of roots if they were placed end to end, instead 
of scores or hundreds of yards as in most o.her plants of equal size. 
Indeed, reduction is carried to such an extreme that the coral root pos- 
sesses no roots at all, underground stems functioning as such. How, 
then, does the plant secure the necessary nouiishment from the soil ? 
The answer to that question forms a chapter by itself. 



454 Ada Victoriana. 

It is with faint surprise that we discover that in some way certain 
fungi have been induced to make their home in earth-dwelling orchid 
roots or stems, and that they secure to their host a supply of food. Of 
course they get a return, and are not unpaid servants. They receive 
protection, and certainly such carbo-hydrate food as starch. There is, 
indeed, a true symbiosis between orchid and root fungus or mycorhiza. 

The fungus makes its first entrance when the roots are young, and 
takes up its abode in the cortical tissue, filling up the cells as can be 
seen in illustration 3, and passing from cell to cell as may be detected 
in one or two places in the same photograph. Illustration 2 shows the 
infected area. At the same time the fungus maintains external con- 
nections, for a considerable portion of the mycelium is quite outside 
the plant. Frequently the connection is by way of the root hairs, 
sometimes their cavities being crowded with hyphse. 

This is an interesting feature, for root hairs are usually only absorbing 
organs, increasing the absorbing area of roots many times over ; but 
here their formation has been shown in some cases to be connected 
with the development of the fungus, and their function to serve as a 
path outward. 

With a greatly diminished and modified root system, the plant is 
very dependent upon its symbiotic guest. Just how it derives its food 
from this source, however, is a difficult question to solve, but almost 
certainly in two ways. The external portion of the fungus extracts 
nutritive salts from the soil and transmits them to the internal portion, 
where they are traded off to the host. Then the parts of the fungus living 
in cells, depleted of substances essential to its existence, die, and the 
remains constitute an available mass of highly-organized plastic food. 
Its debt is thereby fully paid. 

A further differentiation in the system can be seen in illustration i. 
The main part of the tuber consists of greatly thickened roots of 
unique internal structure, that contain quantities of reserve matter, to 
be used in the following spring by the new plant until connections with 
its symbiont can be established. The working roots are developed 
later, and are arranged in a circle just above the tuber. It is interest- 
ing to note that the latter house the fungus. Indeed, it may be that 
the store roots were never intended for its domicile, though it sorne- 
times intruded upon them. It is obvious that if the tuberous organs 
are storehouses, it would not do to permit entrance to a hungry visitor. 
How the fungus is so generally kept out is a subject for further inquiry. 



A eta Vic to ria na. 455 

Jottings 

ONE day Tyndall noticed that the air above a red-hot poker is 
free from dust. This interested him, and he tried to form a 
theory to explain his observation, and concluded that the currents of 
hjt air dropped the dust as they rose. 

Some years later Sir Oliver Lodge and Lord Rayleigh repeated the 
experiment, and had all but arrived at the same conclusion when a 
happy accident suddenly showed them that their theory was wrong ; 
they electrified their poker strongly, and found that it cleared the dust 
from the air much better. Lodge followed this new clue until he was 
stopped by lack of a dynamo that would furnish the current that he 
required. Then he waited, perforce, for some years until one was 
invented. 

Lately he has put his idea into usable form. At Liverpool a high 
wire, carefully insulated, was charged with electricity at a million volts 
on a foggy day, and it cleared the fog for a distance of one hundred 
and eighty feet. Lodge said that such an instalment at each side of 
a harbor mouth would keep the channel clear of fog and countless 
accidents could be averted. 

Other and equally striking uses have been suggested for Lodge's 
invention. Workmen in paint and arsenic factories suffer from lead 
and arsenic poisoning, and many of them die of it. Lodge's 
invention would lay the poisonous dust and make the air quite whole- 
some. So the dust of flour mills could be abolished, and if the inven- 
tion were applied to a factory chimney, it would collect and save all 
the smoke. 



In the last few weeks automobile races have been held in Florida, 
and many records have again been broken. Mr. Bowden now holds 
the mile record, for he covered that distance in 32!^ seconds, which is 
equal to a rate of almost a hundred and ten miles an hour. The car 
that he used was an imported one, of course, for no American auto 
has yet covered a mile in less than forty seconds. Brother Jonathan 
is still far behind his trans-Atlantic rivals in the making of autos. 

The auto races were followed by motor boat races at Palm Beach. 
This form of amusement is newer and more expensive than motoring 
on land, and is growing fast in popularity. The fastest time yet made 
by a motor boat was over a stretch of eight miles at the Palm Beach 
races ; the Challenger covered this distance at a speed of twenty-nine 
miles an hour. 



cAda ^idoriana. 



Vol. 
XXVIII. C/ILLd. LJlLLUritirid.* No. 6. 



EDITORIAL STAFF, I904-J905. 

H. H, Cragg, '05. - - - - Editor-in-Chief. 

Miss E. H. Patterson, '^5 1 -r •^__„_, Miss E. M. Keys. '06. It„-_i, 

A. E. Elliott, '05 |iwuerary. D. A. Hewitt, '06. | i-ocais. 

J. S. Bennett, '05, Personals and Exchanges. 

W. A.. GiFFORD, B.A., Missionary and Religious. 
F. C. Bowman, '06, Scientific. il. C Lane. '06, Athletics. 



BOARD OF management: 

E. W. Morgan. '05, - - . - Business Manager. 

J. N. Tribble. '07. H. F. Woodsworth, '07, 

Assistant Business Manager. Secretary. 

.\dvisory Committee: 

Prof. L. E. Horning, M.A., Ph.D. C. C. Jamf.s, M.A., 

Deputy Minister of Agriculture. 

TERMS: SI. 03 A YEAR; SINGLE COPIES, 15 CENTS. 

Contributions and exchanges should be sent to H. H Cragg, Editor- 
in-Chief, .\cta Victoriana ; business communications to E. W. Morgan, 
Business Manager Acta Victoriana, Victoria University. Toronto. 



lEMtoriaL 

The Separate School Question 

" It is this double aggression by Roman Catholic bishops and their supporters, 
in assailing, on the one hand, our Public Schools and school system and invading 
what has been acknowledged as sacred constitutional rights of individuals and 
municipalities, and, on the other hand, in demanding the erection and support, at 
the public expense, of a Roman Catholic hierarchical system, which has aroused to 
so great an extent the people of Upper Canada against permitting the continuance 
any longer of the provisions of tlie law for Separate Schools.'' — Dr. Ryerson. 

HISTORY repeats itself; and to-day we can take the words of the 
revered founder and defender of our National Schools, uttered 
nearly fifty years ago, and apply them to our own time. For another 
crisis in the history of our Dominion has been reached. Another of 
those circumstances has arisen which have in the past so roused the 
passions and prejudices of men, and have thus been largely respon- 
sible for the cleavage which exists between different sections of our 
Canadian population. Of such circumstances few have engaged the 
minds of men as much as has the question of Separate Schools. 



Acta Victoriana. 457 

Indeed, we cm safely say that since this question became a vital issue 
in our political life it has been as fruitful a source of fear, suspicion 
and jealous intrigue as any which our country has had to face. This 
statement is fully borne out in a short review of the history of 
Separate Schools in Ontario, a history almost co-extensive with that of 
National Schools. 

Prior to 1841 there were no well-defined enactments for the regula- 
tion and conduct of primary schools. To be sure temporary measures 
were passed and grants were made now and then, but they were 
spasmodic and had little influence on the educational life of the 
people. Consequently the state of education at the time of the 
Union of 1840 was deplorable, and in the first session of the United 
Parliament it was determined " to make provision for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of Common Schools throughout the Province." 

Opposition at once sprang up to the proposed bill, both from the 
Catholics and Protestants, and petitions were sent to the Houses, 
presenting the claims of each party to introduce religious teaching 
into the schools. As the two parts of the new province had equal 
representation, a deadlock ensued and the bill was referred to a 
special committee of the House, on which Lower Canada had fifteen 
members and Upper Canada only eight. The result was to be 
expected. Acting hastily and under undue external pressure"^from 
the advocates of dogmatic religious teaching, the committee amended 
the bill in many important particulars. Among other things it pro- 
vided for the establishment and support of Separate Schools " when 
any number of persons merely dissented from the regulations, arrange- 
ments and proceedings of the Common School Commissioners." 
Thus arose under most peculiar circumstances that principle of 
Separate Schools which has since given rise to so much prolonged 
and bitter controversy and discord. 

It was soon found that the bill was not acceptable to either 
province, as it was felt that the grounds for dissent from the Public 
Schools were too general, and were provoking rivalry and division in 
many neighborhoods. Consequently a new bill was passed, granting 
Separate Schools upon a different and much more limited basis. 
Not until 1852 was any demand made for the extension of the 
principle of Separate Schools. In that year Bishop Charbonnel, of 
Toronto, made certain representations on the school question to the 
Rev. Dr. Ryerson, the Superintendent of Education in Upper Canada, 
to which the latter replied, in part as follows : " It is here claimed 
that the Pope and bishops of the Roman Catholic Church are the 



45^ Acta Victor lana. 

only persons authorized by God himself to direct the education of 
youth, and therefore that all others undertaking that work are 
invading the prerogative of God ; that all legislation on the subject 
must have the sanction of the bishops with the Pope ; and that they 
have done and will do all in their power to overthrow or modify 
every system of public instruction from the school to the university 
which is not under their control. . . . The claims set up by your 
Lordship are not merely for ' religious liberty and equal rights,' but 
for the absolute supremacy and control on the part of your bishops, 
with the Pope, in our system of public instruction." This statement, 
which was not denied, accurately describes the whole attitude of the 
Roman Catholic hierarchy from that day down to the present issue, 
when the Papal ablegate is exerting such sway in our national 
councils. 

Such being the avowed position of the Roman Catholics, one can 
readily understand how difficult was the task imposed on Dr. Ryerson 
in doing all in his power " to resist — come from what quarter it may — 
every invasion of ' the blessed principles of religious liberty and 
equal rights ' among all classes of Upper Canada." Subsequent 
events fully showed that had there been a less determined and able 
exponent and defender of our National System of Education, the 
hierarchy would have made vast inroads into it. Would that we now 
had a Dr. Ryerson to meet and offset their insidious advances ! 

By keeping up an active struggle for the extension of the Separate 
School system Bishop Charbonnel succeeded, in 1853, in securing a 
revision of the law whereby all supporters of such schools were 
exempted from local or municipal school rates, and each Separate 
School was to share in the legislative grant, though not in the 
municipal assessment. But even yet he was not satisfied, and with 
unabated vigor continued his agitation for still more generous facilities 
for the support and organization of schools in order to secure absolute 
authority over the education of Catholic children. In 1854 the 
bishops presented to the Government a draft of a bill they wished 
carried on the subject, which received a careful analysis by Dr. 
Ryerson, the conclusion of which is worthy of consideration at the 
present juncture : " The features I have exhibited sufficiently prove 
that it contemplates the complete destruction of our Public School 
system, and the subjection of the school funds, municipalities and 
property, and the whole population of Upper Canada, to a religious 
domination such as is without a parallel in any age, and is incom- 
patible with the free government or liberties of any country. I doubt 



Acta Victor iana. 459 

whether the ingenuity of man could devise under meeker pretensions 
and in fewer words the destruction of the educational institutions 
and the constitutional liberties of a whole people and their prostrate 
subjection under the feet of a religious denomination." 

Shortly afterwards a private member introduced a bill in favor 
of Separate Schools, which, owing to Dr. Ryerson's influence, was 
defeated, "for doing which the Roman Catholic members of the 
Government and others were denounced and excommunicated by 
Bishop Charbonnel, who thus employed the highest power of the 
priesthood to control Upper Canada school legislation and Govern- 
ment." 

In this same year Bishop Charbonnel, in a pastoral letter to the 
clergy and laity of his diocese, said : "Catholic electors in this country 
who do not use their electoral power in behalf of Separate Schools are 
guilty of mortal sin. Likewise, parents who do not make the sacrifices 
necessary to secure such schools, or send their children to mixed 
schools. Moreover, the confessor who would give absolution to such 
parents, electors or legislators as support mixed schools to the 
prejudice of Separate Schools would be guilty of mortal sin." 

In 1863 Mr. R. W. Scott, now Senator Scott, succeeded in passing 
a Separate School Act through Parliament, after it had been greatly 
modified, but it was done only by members from Lower Canada 
voting down the majority of the Upper Canada members. Dr. 
Ryerson gave his consent to the bill, but only on a thorough under- 
standing from the heads of the Catholic Church that the bill would 
be considered by them to be a final settlement of the question. In 
two years they were again complaining and agitating. 

In explanation of his support of the bill Dr. Ryerson, in 1865, 
published a narrative of the events leading up to it, concluding as 
follows : " I affirm, therefore, that the passage of the Separate School 
Act of 1863 was an honorable compact between all parties concerned 
for the final settlement of that question ; and that the renewed 
agitation of it, in less than two years, is not only a violation of that 
compact, but a warning to the people of Upper Canada that if they 
are compelled again to legislate on the subject, their peace and the 
safety of their institutions will require them to sweep the last vestiges 
of the Separate School law from their statute book, and place all 
religious persuasions in the same relation of equality to their schools 
as exists in the New England States." 

In 1866 another attempt was made to extend the privileges of the 
Separate Schools, but it proved abortive and Ontario entered into the 



460 Ada Victoriana. 

Confederation in the condition in which she was placed by the Act 
of 1863. The education clauses of the B.N. A. Act of 1867 are well- 
known to all and need not be repeated here. Since that time until 
lately matters continued much as they were then. During the last 
few years the exponents of the Separate Schools have again become 
aggressive in their agitations for larger liberties for the system, as 
witness the recent Downeyville school case. 

We have entered thus fully into these aspects of the history of the 
Separate School question in Ontario to show beyond doubt what is 
the attitude of the hierarchy on this great matter of education. A 
similar study in the case of other provinces would reveal the same 
spirit at work unceasingly. We have not space here to consider 
them, but everyone remembers the stand taken by the Roman 
Catholic clergy on the Manitoba School question, and that there also 
they did not hesitate to use their spiritual powers to intimidate their 
people and compel them to fight not for any national ideal, but for 
the interests of the Roman Catholic Church. 

The question with which Senator Power prefaced his pamphlet on 
the Manitoba Remedial Bill is a fair index of the attitude of the 
Roman Catholic Church : " Would the passing of the Remedial Bill 
be a benefit to the interests of our religion in Canada ? " It was not 
a question as to whether it would be a benefit to Manitoba. The 
same spirit is manifested in a recent article appearing in The North- 
west Review, where we read concerning the present issue : '• Let no 
true Catholic allow his political bias to overshadow his religious con- 
victions. Conservatives who are Catholics first of all will understand 
what we mean." 

After seeing so many proofs of the presence of such a spirit among 
the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church, it is not surprising^that 
Protestants should be shocked and mortified to find the Prime Minister 
of our great free land submitting to the dictation not merely of the 
Canadian prelates — that in itself would be humiliation enough — but 
of the Papal ablegate — a foreigner — and that in matters concerning 
the whole people, and not the Catholics only. Here is the acme of 
ecclesiastical domination, a domination peculiarly galling in that it is 
exerted by aliens utterly ignorant of those great principles of liberty 
so dear to every true Canadian. This principle of outside interference 
Dr. Ryerson rejected with characteristic strenuousness : " I deprecate 
the interference of bishops and priests in Lower Canada or their 
representatives with the school system of Upper Canada, the wishes 
of whose inhabitants and their representatives are entitled to no less 



Acta Victoriana. 461 

consideration than those of Lower Canada, especially when the fun- 
damental principle of our school system is equal and impartial pro- 
tection to all religious persuasions and equal educational advantages 
for all." On this principle, at least, we think all Canadians should 
be united, the principle of true autonomy. 

When we ask ourselves the question as to whether the law should 
abolish Separate Schools altogether, we face a serious problem. To 
do so would be to crush out freedom, the freedom that a man has to 
have his children educated wherever he wishes. As private institu- 
tions Separate Schools undoubtedly have a right to exist in any free 
land. Perhaps even their supporters ought to be allowed exemption 
from Public School rates, though many refuse to admit that. In the 
United States such a privilege, we understand, is not granted. At 
any rate it does not seem consistent with the public welfare to go 
farther and make a grant out of the public revenues as an endowment 
for the exclusive teaching of the Roman Catholic Church. It was 
here Dr. Ryerson took his stand, describing such action as " never 
heard of in any free country, and subversive of the right of individual 
liberty and choice among the Roman Catholics, and inconsistent with 
the rights of municipalities and of individual property among the 
Protestants." 

Most strongly do we feel that when a country has laid the founda- 
tions of a splendid National School system, and raised the super- 
structure, it would be suicidal to give any encouragement to reaction- 
aries whose whole aim appears to be to place creed first and a strong, 
united, well educated and loyal nation second. It is, we know, 
objected that unless some religious instruction be given in Public 
Schools the morals of the nation will deteriorate. But one cannot 
well understand how the morals of any people could degenerate to a 
lower state than those of the European countries where national 
education had not until recently been introduced. And we feel 
quite safe in risking a comparison of the moral natures of the 
children in our Public Schools with those in the Separate Schools 
of either Ontario or Quebec. Protestants, we venture to say, are 
quite as anxious about the moral status of the community as are 
Catholics, and yet they do not hesitate to send their children to the 
Public Schools. And the advantages accruing from them are enor- 
mous. Provided with a mental and social preparation equal to that 
of his companions, the youth goes out from the Public School into the 
great struggle of life acquainted with " the habits, views and associa- 
tions of those with whom his pursuits and fortunes are linked," and 



462 Acta Victoriana. 

prepared to meet them on their own ground. But, if the children of our 
land are to be cooped up in separate communities, each representing 
some ecclesiastical or racial prejudices, it can hardly be expected that 
they will become amalgamated and learn to respect one another's 
liberties and views. " We will grow Protestants and grow Catholics 
and degrade seminaries for the universal mind of the country into 
rival garrisons of faction." Childhood is the impressionable age, and 
if the growing population are kept separate until they have reached 
the age of maturity they will never be able to shake off prejudice and 
suspicion and unite to advance the interests of Canada and civiliza- 
tion. What, then, could we do with such a conglomerate mass as 
Canada is yearly receiving into her borders. Almost our only hope 
of assimilating these into good Canadian citizens lies in the great 
National School system, wherein " the common lessons of a free 
citizenship are received, sympathetic relations established between the 
various elements of the population and a common spirit of patriotism 
engendered." 

Along this line Dr. Ryerson says : " I think that no one will main- 
tain that Separate Schools are expedient for the interests of the State. 
Nay, those interests are more or less injured by every act of class 
legislation ; and its strength is weakened by every sectional division 
which its citizens have created by law. ... It was a source of 
individual pride and of strength to the State in ancient days for a man 
to say ^ Romanus sum.' So would it be to us now under a legislation 
of ' equal rights and privileges,' without distinction in regard to sect 
or party, for a man to say ' Canadensis st/m,' standing in all respects 
upon the equal ground of right and privilege with every other man in 
Canada in relation to the State and to the law. The tendency of the 
public mind and of the institutions of Upper Canada is to Confedera- 
tion and not to isolation, to united effort and not to divisions and 
hostile effort, in the things in which all have a common interest. The 
efforts to establish and extend Separate Schools are a struggle against 
the instincts of Canadian society, against the necessities of a sparsely 
populated country, against the social and political present and future 
interest of the parents and youth thus separated from their fellow- 
citizens." 

Archbishop Ireland (R.C.), of St. Paul, some years ago said : " It 

is idle for me to praise the work of the State School of America in 

. imparting secular instruction. It is our pride and glory. The Republic 

of the United States has solemnly afifirmed its resolve that within its 

borders no clouds of ignorance shall settle upon the minds of the 



Acta Victoriana. . 463 

children of its people. The Free School of America ! Withered be 
the hand raised in sign of its destruction ! " And, adjusting his 
words to our own excellent Public School system, we cry " Amen." 

Note. — We are largely indebted for material for this article to the work of Dr. 
J. G. Hodgins on Separate Schools in Upper Canada. We have quoted Dr. Kyerson 
to such an extent because he is generally recognized as the greatest authority of his 
day on school matters in Canada, and because his utterances are matured and 
thoughtful, displaying a comprehensive grasp worthy of so great a statesman. 
And in the matter of Separate Schools, as in many other things, " he 1 eing dead 
yet speaketh," and that in no uncertain or compromising tones. 



The judges who have examined the essays and 
ESSAY AND stories Submitted in the competitions conducted by 
STORV CONTEST. AcTA have awarded the prize in the Essay Contest 
to Mr. J. L. Rutledge for his essay on " The Prince 
of Ballad Makers " ; and at the same time commended very highly 
Miss Switzer's essay on " The Gospel of Work." In the story con- 
test, for which a prize of ten dollars was offered by Acta Board, 
first place was given to "The Price of Honor," by Mr. E. W. Wal- 
lace, B.A., with commendation of "The Transformation of Mary 
Baldwin," by Mr. A. E. Elliott. 

Acta Board desires publicly to express its gratitude to the Com- 
mittee of Judges who have kindly consented to act for us in that 
capacity despite the fact of their time being so fully occupied. 

It is a matter of regret that more of our students are not willing to 
enter these contests. The prizes are offered to stimulate effort, but 
fur some reason they seem to have little effect. Other College journals 
can secure an abundance of essays and stories from the students, 
while Acta has tJ struggle hard to persuade three or four to enter a 
contest, even though a fairly substantial reward is offered. On behalf 
of our successors we trust that the students will see in these contests 
an oopprtunity worthy of being seized, to develop their own literary 
style and at the same time encourage those who are struggling to 
keep the columns of Acta filled with bright, readable material. 



464 



Ada Victoriana. 





EXCHANGES 



M 



ISS CLARA M. WOODSWORTH, '01, has been appointed 
lady Piincipal of Alma College in place of Miss Bollert, M.A., 
who goes to Columbia University, X.Y., to enter upon the work of 
the fellowship lately awarded her. Miss Woodsworth has been on 
the teaching staff of Alma for a year, and her rapid promotion is the 
reward of her excellent work. 

The resignation of Miss Bollert also left vacant the position of 
instructor in modern languages. This has been filled by the appoint 
ment of Miss Alice F. Henwood, '99, an honor graduate in that 
department, with successful experience in teaching. 

The address of D. A. Walker, '04, is 324 East 12th Street, Flatbush, 
Brooklyn, New York. Mr. Walker is engaged in actuary work. 

Rev. T. Wilbur Price, '01, has taken to himself a wife in the 
person of Miss Frances Sherwood, of Medicine Hat. Mr. Price is 
stationed at Elm Creek, in the Manitoba Conference. 

P. D. Harris, '95, has charge of the History Department in the 
College Institute, Winnipeg. 



Victoria Graduates in Legislative Halls 

IN all walks of life the graduates of Victoria are to be found in the 
forefront. It is, therefore, no matter of surprise to find that when 
they enter politics they rapidly rise into the very highest prominence. 
Victoria is now represented by two members in the Ontario Legisla- 
ture, Hon. J. W. St. John and Hon. W. A. Willoughby, and has also 
two of her graduates in the House of Commons at Ottawa, Hon. 
Clififord Sifton and Dr. A. A. Stockton, K.C We present below a 
brief sketch of each of them. 

Hon. Joseph Wesley St. John, M.A., was born in the Township 
of Brock in 1854. His education was received in local schools and in 
Victoria University at Cobourg, from which he graduated in 1881, 
being granted his M.A. degree in 1884. After practising as an 
attorney for some years, Mr. St. John was called to the bar in 1894, 
and has practised ever since in the City of Toronto. He was elected 



Ada Victoriana. 465 

a member of the Legislative Assembly in 1894, but was defeated in 
the elections of 1898. He re-entered the House in 1902, and was 
again successful at the recent elections. He has shown marked 
ability in the debates of the House, and was one of the foremost 
fighters of the Conservative party while in Opposition. The Premier 
has now designated him as Speaker of the Assembly, the duties of 
which office h^ will undoubtedly discharge with dignity and honor to 
himself. Mr. St. John is a well-known Church worker, with a special 
interest in the Sunday-school. He is also a member of the Senate of 
Victoria University. 

Hon. William Armson Willoughby, M.D., is, like so many other 
good men, of Irish extraction, and was born in the Township of West 
Gwilhmbury, in 1844. After the usual Grammar School training he 
enrolled in the Medical Faculty of Victoria College and graduated in 
1867. He entered municipal politics in the village of Colborne, and 
after serving that municipality in various capacities became warden of 
Northumberland and Durham. In 1886 he was returned as member 
of the Legislative Assembly for East Northumberland, and has been 
successful at every general election since that time with the exception 
of that of 1898. He soon became known as one of the most aggres- 
sive and effective debaters on the Opposition side of the House 
during the Liberal tenure of power. When Hon. Mr. Whitney was 
entrusted with the task of forming a new ministry. Dr. Willoughby 
was chosen by him to enter the Cabinet as Minister without portfolio 
He holds the post of surgeon in the 40th Battalion of Volunteer 
Militia. 

Hon. Clifford Sifton, B. A., K.C, is also of Irish descent, his birth- 
place being London Township^ Middlesex County. After preliminary 
training in the London High School and the Dundas Boys' School, 
he entered Victoria University, from which he graduated in 1880 with 
the Prince of Wales gold medal. It was while Mr. Sifton was in 
College that the first number of Acta Victoriana was published, 
and the name of C Sifton appears therein as first Business Manager. 
In 1882 he was called to the Manitoba bar and began the practise of 
his profession in Brandon. He was created a Q.C. in 1895. In 1888 
he entered the Manitoba Assembly as Liberal member for North 
Brandon, and in 1891 entered the cabinet of Mr. Green way as 
Attorney General. It was during the conflict between the Govern- 
ments of Manitoba and the Dominion over the question of provincial 
control of education that Mr. Sifton came especially into prominence 
as a staunch opponent of the coercion policy of the Tupper adminis- 



466 Ada Victoriana. 

tration. It was Mr. Sifton who introduced into the Manitoba Legis- 
lature the resolutions refusing to carry out the Dominion Govern- 
ment's Order-in-Council for the restoration of Separate Schools and 
protesting against the passing of the Remedial Bill. In 1896, when 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier came into power as the champion of provincial 
rights, he invited Mr. Sifton to enter his Cabinet, which he did, 
resigning his post in the Manitoba Government to become Minister 
of the Interior under Mr. Laurier. The development of the west is 
the work nearest to Mr. Sifton's heart, and he has shown conspicuous 
ability in that field, bein; recognized, in fact, as one of the strongest 
men in the Liberal ranks in Dominion politics. That he is a man 
whose devotion to principle comes before his loyalty to a party leader 
is seen in his manly stand on the Provincial Autonomy Bill and his 
resignation from the Cabinet of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. Mr. Sifton has 
the congratulations of his Alma Mater on his championship of the 
principle of provincial control of education and his opposition to 
forcing Separate Schools on the West. 

Alfred Augustus Stockton, M.A., LL.D., Ph.D., K.C., comes of 
United Empire Loyalist stock, and was born in New Brunswick in 1842. 
His education was received at the Academy and the University of 
Mount Allison, where his course was an extremely creditable one. 
He graduated in 1864 at head of his class, and was granted his M.A. 
in 1867, and was also given the degree of D.C.L. by his Alma Mater 
in 1884. After graduating in Arts he took a course in the Faculty of 
Law, Victoria University, taking in 1867 the degree of LL.B., which 
was made LL.D. in 1887. In 1868 he was called to the bar of his 
native province and began the practise of his profession at St. John, 
where his forensic ability and legal knowledge soon won him an 
eminent position in the courts. He became a lecturer in Constitu- 
tional and Admiralty Law in the law school of New Brunswick, and 
besides having edited several volumes of law reports, is the author of 
a number of works on legal subjects. He was created a K.C. in 
1891. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of New Bruns- 
wick in 1883 and continued to serve the city of St. John as its repre- 
sentative for some sixteen years. Though he had entered the 
Assembly as a Liberal member he presently found himself out of 
harmony with the views of his party and was elected as the Leader 
of the Conservative Opposition in 1892. During his term in the 
Assembly he was named as one of a commission to examine into and 
report on the law, practise and constitution of the courts of the 
province. Entering the field of Dominion politics in the recent 



Ada Victoriana. 467 

elections, he carried the city and county of St. John in the Con- 
servative interest. Dr. Stockton is a prominent member of the 
Methodist Church and has sat in the General Conference of that 
body. In 1883 he was granted the degree of Ph.D. by Illinois 
Wesleyan University. His wife is the daughter of Dr. Pickard, late 
principal of Mount Allison University. Ronald Stockton, '08, is a 
son. 



Years Gone By 

WE continue below the list of the names, addresses, and profes- 
sions of our graduates by years begun in our last number. 
As we stated then, we shall be grateful for any information that will 
correct inaccuracies or supply the gaps in the list below. In this con- 
nection it may be stated that a card catalogue of the graduates, prepared 
at the cost of no little labor by Professor Lang, has been placed in the 
Library Annex in the College building, where it may be consulted by 
those desiring information as to the whereabouts of Victoria's alumni. 
From our '94 list in the last number the name of Rev. J. A. Ayearst 
was inadvertently omitted. Mr. Ayearst is pastor of the Methodist 
Church at Lucan : 

The Class of '92. 

Gilbert Agar is pastor of Westmoreland Avenue Methodist Church, 
this city, and resides at 270 Westmoreland Ave. 

W. F. Allan is a Presbyterian divine at Innisfail, Alta., N.W.T. 

W. H. Barraclough has charge of the Methodist interests at Daw- 
son City, Yukon. 

J. Nelson Brown is at Franklin, Man. 

H. S. Dougall, M.A., '99, B.D. (Yale), is the Methodist minister at 
Walkerton, Ont. 

Egerton R. Doxsee is classical instructor in Albert College, Belle- 
ville. 

E, S. Howard is teaching in the Collegiate Institute at Owen Sound, 
Ont. 

A. G. Hudson is pastor of the Methodist Church at Gravenhurst, 
Ont. 

Clifford B. Keenleyside, B.D. (Yale), is in business in London, Ont. 
G. E. Kennedy is head master of the High School at Stirling, Ont. 

F. D. Kerr is practising law at Peterboro, Ont. 

F. J. Livingstone, M.D., is a medical missionary in South Africa, 
residing at Durban, Natal. 
4 



468 Ac^a Victoi'iana. 

S. E. Marshall, B.D. (Yale), is pastor of the Norfolk Street Method- 
ist Church, Guelph, Ont. 

J. J. Morgan is on the staff of the Simcoe High School. 

John Robson is Methodist minister at Fernie, B.C. 

G. F. Rogers is head master of the Seaforth Collegiate Institute. 

W. L. Rutledge has charge of Central Methodist Church, in Wood- 
stock. 

C. T. Scott is pastor of Dundas Street Centre Church London. 
vAddress, 484 Dundas Street, London). 

B. R. Strangways, B.D., is pastor of the Methodist Church at Parry 
Sound. 

L B. Wallwin has charge of Empress Avenue Methodist Church. 
London, Ont. (Address, i St. Andrew Sr., London). 

R. Whiting is pastor of St. Paul's Methodist Church, this city, and 
resides at 1 1 Avenue Place. 

Norman Williams is practising law at Los Angeles, Cal. 

The following members of the class of '92 have died since graduat- 
ing : Arthur Allin, Ph.D.; Rev. P. H. Allin, W. M. Doxsee, Rev. F. E. 
Fletcher. 

The Class of 'P/. 

Robert B. Beynon is the Methodist minister at Innisfil, Ont. 

F. L. Brown has charge of the Methodist Church at Tottenham, Ont 
Miss Nettie Burkholder is lady principal of the O.L.C at Whitby. 

R. A. Daly is connected with the Geological Survey, Ottawa. 
Miss Clara De Lany is at Cobourg, Ont. 

D. Earl is Methodist minister at Upper Bedford, Que. 
T. J. Edmison, B.D., is stationed at Brighton, Ont. 

Wm. Gamble, B.C.L. (McGill), is practising law in Ottawa. (Ad- 
dress, 574 Somerset St., Ottawa). 

R. G. Graham is head master of the Gananoque High School. 

W. K. Hagar is Methodist pastor at Bolton, Ont. 

Miss Minnie Highet, M.A., '92, Ph.D., is at Elmira, N.Y. 

Miss E. M. Kerr is residing at Cobourg, Ont. 

Miss M. F. Libby is teaching in Morrisburg Collegiate Institute. 

W. McMullen is Methodist pastor at Florence, Ont. 

W. P. Olds resides at 1721 Davenport Street, Omaha, Nebraska. 

T. E. Perrett is school inspector at Edmonton, Alta. 

W. E. Pescott is a Methodist preacher in Vancouver, B C 

G. W. Robinson is stationed at Creemore, Ont. 

T. K. Sidey is Associate Professor of Latm in the State University 
of Washington, Seattle. 



Acta Victoriana. 469 

C. T. Sleman is on the staff of the Oshawa High School. 
W. F. Smith is in charge of Colhorne Street Methodist Church, 
Brantford, Ont. (Address, 148 Park Ave., Erantford.) 
R. J. Stallwood. 

W. J. Sykes is teaching in the Collegiate Institute at Ottawa. 
A. W. Taylor is in insurance business at IngersoU, Ont. 
Thos. Voaden is in Zion City, 111. 
William J. Waite is in Denver, Col. 
G. W. Westwood. 
J. S. I. Wilson, B.D., '97, is Methodist pastor at Flesherton, Ont. 

The Class of '90. 

Henry Bayley, B.D. 

J. Wesley Bellamy is head master of the Colborne High School. 

C. V. Campbell is teaching at Windsor, Ont. 

A. B. Carscallen is a lawyer at Wallaceburg, Ont. 

W. G. Clark is the Methodist minister stationed at Little Britain, Ont. 

Richard Corrigan, B.D., '93, occupies the Methodist pulpit at Iro- 
quois, Ont. 

W. B. Creighton, B.D., '94, is on the staff of the Christian Guar- 
d'xn, at Wesley Buildings, Toronto. 

G. Drewry is practising law at Brighton, Ont. 

H. T. Ferguson, B.D., '93, is pastor of the Methodist church at 
Mono Road, Ont. 

Adolphus Fowler is a Presbyterian minister at Kansas City. 

A. H. Going has charge of the Centennial Church, London, Ont. 
(Address, 850 Dundas Street). 

A. J. Gordon, M.D., is a practising physician and druggist at Win- 
nipeg, Man. 

W. E. Hassard B.D., '03, is pastor of Gerrard Street Church, To- 
ronto. (Address, 358 Sackville Street). 

A. J. Irwin, B.D., '93, is pastor of Norwich Methodist Church. 

Juzo Kono resides in Tokyo, Japan. 

J. G. Lewis is pastor of Mark Street Church, Peterboro, Ont. 

Melancthon Libby is engaged in professional work at Boulder, Col. 

A. W. C. Massey is on the staff of the Morrisburg Collegiate Institute. 

J. E. Minns is head master of Tillsonburg High School. 

H, S. Osborne, B.D., '93, is in charge of the Methodist interests at 
Shawville, Que. 

J. Pritchard, M.D. (McGill), is a physician at North Wakefield, Que. 

E. E. Snider is head master of the High School at Arthur, Ont. 



470 Ada Victoi-iana. 

H. H. Schuyler, is agent for the MetropoHtan Life Assurance Co. 
at Simcoe, Ont. 

J. H. Riddell, B.D., '92, is principal of Alberta College, Edmonton, 
Alta. 

W. B. Tucker, B.D., '93, is pastor of the Methodist Church at 
Orono, Ont. 

C. P. Wells, B.D. (Yale), is in charge of the Methodist cause at 
Ethel, Ont. 

Miss E. O. Woods (now Mrs. J. W. Hannon) resides in Prince 
Albert, Sask. 

W. R. Young, D.D., is in charge of the First Methodist Church at 
St. Thomas. 

E. J. Sanford, of this class, died since graduation. 



Obituary 

The death occurred suddenly on February 2nd of the wife of Mr. 
Justice B. M. Britton, B.A. '56, M.A. '68. While walking in the 
University grounds Mrs. Britton was seized with faintness and expired 
within half an hour. She was widely known and greatly beloved, 
being active in philanthropic and Christian work. Acta extends its 
sympathy to the stricken husband and family. 

Mr. William Wilkinson, B.A. '68, M.A. '71, Inspector of Public 
Schools for the City of Brantford, died very suddenly on February 
2nd of heart failure, resulting from acute indigestion. Mr. Wilkinson 
assumed the principalship of the Central Public School at Brantford 
immediately after graduating from Victoria and has rendered splendid 
service to the cause of education since that time ; in fact, there is no 
doubt that his zeal and devotion to his work hastened his death. He 
had just received the appointment as Inspector of Brantford's Public 
Schools, the recognition of his long term of faithful services as a 
teacher. A good educationist, from the very nature of his work, must 
be a good man, and the best qualities of manhood combined to make 
Principal Wilkinson a teacher capable of working not only upon the 
minds but also upon the characters of the many generations of pupils 
who came under his influence. Upright, kindly, cheerful, patient, he 
will be remembered gratefully by them all. His death leaves a vacancy 
in Wellington Street Methodist Church, of which he was an active 
and zealous member. Acta joins in the general regret at the loss of 
so good a man and so able a leader in the educational work of the 
province. 



Acta Victoriana. 471 

Exchanges 

Acta blushingly acknowledges the very complimentary remarks so 
kindly passed upon us by many of our exchanges. Some of them 
have not hesitated to say about us what, of course, our modesty would 
prevent us from saying of ourselves, namely, that in the field of college 
journalism we stand in the very front rank. Our Christmas number, 
especially, has txcited our contemporaries' admiration, and we may 
confess that we were secretly a little proud of it ourselves. It is 
encouraging to find that our humble efforts are being noted and 
applauded. We are grateful /or these expressions of appreciation and 
shall continue to try to deserve all of them and more of them. 

The current number of McMasier University Monthly \s a specially 
interesting one, containing two of the prize stories written for the 
competition instituted by the Monthly. One of these is a vivid 
college story and the other one of those animal stories now so popular. 
The latter is particularly good. All the material of the Monthly 
shows literary ability and the greater part of it is contributed by 
undergraduates. 

We are pleased to note the marked improvement m the quality 
and outward appearance of the Brandon College Monthly since it first 
came under our notice. It is significant of the enterprise of the 
students of Western colleges that they are undertaking, with their 
comparatively small contributions, the publication of college maga- 
zines that emulate the more pretentious ones issued by their fellow- 
students of Eastern institutions. 

The Trinity University Review is an exchange for which we have 
only words of commendation. The editorials of the February number 
we found particularly interesting. One of those deals with the ques- 
tion of Church Union and very pertinently remarks on the dispropor- 
tionate importance attached by the various denominations to those 
doctrines which differentiate them from others. The Review suggests 
an experiment with Church Union on a small scale in some one 
town. We fear, however, such an experiment would be neither practic- 
able nor indicative of the results of a large union. The remarks on 
" College Publications " are also to the point, and we should be very 
much pleased to see some definite steps taken to carry out the pro- 
posals for a convention of college editors, a suggestion which was 
first noticed, we believe, by the O. A. C. Review. 



472 



Acta Victoriana. 



RELIGIOUS 




The Indians on the Pacific Coast 

P.Y NEATA MARKLAND, '07. 

IN British Columbia there are six distinct races of Indians, and each 
race has its own language and peculiar customs. The Kwaquilth 
nation, on the north coast of British Columbia, moie nearly resembles 
the Mongol races of Eastern Asia than they do the typical North 
American Indians. They are, without doubt, an alien race, but where 
they came from still remains a mystery. Recent investigation into their 
habits and customs seem to make it quite certain that they did not 
originally belong to the Pacific slope. 

These Coast tribes dwell in isolated villages, from twenty to a hun- 
dred miles apart. The long stretches of uninhabited shores interven- 
ing, the home of the grizzly and cinnamon bear, are their vast hunting 
grounds. The villages are built along the shores of some sheltered 
cove, usually at the head of an inlet, and protected from the cold sweep 
of the north winds by a rampart of mountains. 

The houses or lodges of a typical Indian village are peculiarly quaint 
in structure. They are built of huge planks of cedar, split with wedges 
and trimmed with the primitive stone adze. There is but one door, 
and there are no windows. Light is admitted through a narrow opening 
in the roof, out of which the smoke escapes from the log fire constantly 
kept burning in the centre of the one-roomed building. It is always 
twilight within, except perhaps when a stray sunbeam steals in through 
the chinks here and there, somewhat brightening the dismal interior. 
The old people are usually found crouching beside the smouldering 
fire, weaving mats and baskets. It is their duty, also, to attend to the 
drying of the fish, which are cut and hung on racks beneath the smoke 
escape. They suffer much from the heavy smoke ; many are blind, 
but they work faithfully on. No one loves or cares for the old. They 
are compelled to work as long as they have strength, then their coffins 
are made ready for them, and they are pushed aside to die. 

The Coast Indians are masters in the art of canoe-building. Their 
only means of travel is by canoe, which they manage with great skill, 



Acta Victoriana. 473 

even in the roughest sea. The canoes are hewn from cedar trees, and 
vary in size from the child's cralt, about eight feet in length to the 
long, gracefully-curved ones, fifty or sixty (eet long and five feet wide. 
They are exceedingly light and buoyant, with flaring sides, high stern 
and long, projecting bow, on which is either carved or stained the 
crest of the owner. 

The Coast tribes hunt and fish for a living. They know nothing 
about agriculture ; few of them have even seen domestic animals. 

Their food consists largely of gleanings from the sea. Clams, mus- 
sels, cockles, crabs, sea-urchins and devil fish are easily secured, as well 
as the salmon, halibut and herring, for which the coast of British 
Columbia is so famous The edible sea-weed is another staple of 
food. The best growth is in February. It is gathered from the rocks 
between low and high tide, pressed into flat cakes and dried in the sun, 
after which it is packed away into large wooden food-boxes. The men 
bring back from the hunt abundance of venison, bear-meat, mountain 
goat and porcupine. CounlJess varieties of luscious berries grow on 
the mountain-sides, and great quantities are gathered and dried or pre- 
served in fish oil for winter use. One of their chief delicacies is the 
oil obtained from a tiny fish, the oolachan, which, m April, run in from 
the sea in great schools and fill the rivers from bank to bank. The 
Indians gather them by the canoe-load and extract the oil from them, 
which they use very plentifully. Nearly all their foods are prepared 
for meals by boiling and mixing with oolachan oil to the consistency 
of soup, which is eaten with large horn ladles. 

The system of totemism belonging to these coast tribes is certainly 
unique. It is symbolical of a vaguely religious and very definite 
social custom that plays a most important part in the history of the 
race. The tribes are divided into crests or totems named from the 
animals, birds and fishes from which the various crests are believed 
to have descended. The totems common to most of the tribes are 
the Bear, Beaver, Wolf, Eagle, Raven, Whale and Salmon. The 
aborigines regarded their totems with superstitious respect, believing 
implicitly that they were descended from them and therefore akin to 
them. The relation existing between members of the same totem is 
that of mutual help and protection. 

In the early days the Tlinkets, of Southern Alaska, dressed in the 
skins of their totemic animals. The Haidas, of Queen Charlotte 
Islands, tatooed their totems on their bodies. Other tribes carved 
their totems on the four corner-posts of the chiefs' houses or erected 
huge totem-poles in front of their villages. The houses are always 



474 Acta Victoriana. 

built facing the sea, in one long row, just beyond the reach of high tide. 

A totem-pole is made from a red cedar tree, and is curiously carved 
and fashioned with grotesque totemic figures throughout its entire 
length. Some totem-poles are one hundred feet high and three or 
four feet in diameter. The totemic hieroglyphics roughly represent 
victories and defeats in tribal and inter-tribal wars, as well as various 
events pertaining to the heathen feast and dance. As they have not 
a written language these totems bear the sole record of the genealogy, 
history and weird mythology of the race. However, since totemism 
is a relic of their barbarism the Indian is loath to interpret the story 
©f his totem to the white man. And especially is the proud native 
anxious to conceal the references to the dog-eating and cannibal 
societies which existed even less than twenty years ago among some 
of the tribes. Many of the old people have their arms hideously 
scarred where chiefs have bitten them at a heathen dance. It is a 
mark of distinction which they cherish with no small degree of pride. 

The native women have a curious mark of social rank called the 
" labret " or lip-button. In early youth an oval-shaped button of 
bone or metal is inserted in the lower lip. The size of the labret 
varies according to the rank, the average length being from one to 
two inches. Some women of very high caste have labrets fully three 
inches long. However, through the influence of Christianity few of 
the younger women have their faces disfigured in this cruel way. 

Superstition has long held its sway among Indian tribes, but, per- 
haps, nowhere has it a stronger hold than in these isolated villages 
along the coast of British Columbia and Alaska. The Indian lives in 
constant dread of approaching evil. In the mist and the twilight they 
see dim shapes of supernatural beings which cast upon people the evil 
eye and bewitch them. Owls are believed to be the heads of those 
killed in warfare, and their dismal hooting in the darkness of night is 
believed to be the voice of the dead. 

In the old days, when a canoe capsized the Indians would rather 
drown than go ashore on a strange beach, for it was believed that 
fearful beings called " Buhwus " inhabited the densely wooded 
shores, and if they captured people they would keep them and trans- 
form them into like beings. 

They have strange beliefs concerning the queerly-shaped precipices 
along their shores. Their odd shapes are accounted for in the myths 
and traditions handed down from generation to generation, told and 
retold by the chiefs at tribal feasts. They believe these peculiar rock 
formations to have been human beings or wild animals that were 



Acta Victoriaiia. 475 

transformed through the strange power of mystic beings that dwell in 
the sea or on the mountains. When passing in their canoes they in- 
variably throw a portion of their best food overboard to appease the 
hunger of the monster and thereby win its good-will and secure for 
themselves a safe sea voyage with favorable winds and tides. 

In fact, they imagine the mountains and sea teeming with malicious 
spirits which seek to do them harm. The only way of protecting 
thernselves, they believe, is by incantations and rites performed by 
the shaman or medicine-man. 

The shaman is supposed to be versed in all the mysteries of the 
universe. They also ascribe to him unlimited power, on account of 
which he is feared by the other members of the tribe. There once 
existed a strange belief in his magical powers of bringing back life to 
the dead. For this purpose he used a quaint little wand, from which 
was suspended a hollow socket, carved to resemble the animal of his 
crest. When called to administer to a dying person, he would imme- 
diately cast a spell over him by some mysterious method, known only 
to witch-doctors, meanwhile chanting some weird strain as he pro- 
ceeded with his strange ceremony. At first the chant would be very 
low, but it would gradually increase until it became a wail, rising to 
an unearthly shriek, then falling again to a whisper scarcely audible. 
The excitement produced thereby, together with the bewitching in- 
fluence of the wand kept in motion above the head of the patient, 
would cause him to sink into unconsciousness. Then the witch- 
doctor would pronounce him dead, and the fearful piercing death-cry 
would ring through the village. It is caught up by every member of 
the tribe and they rush out of their houses beating their breasts and 
tearing thcT hair. This wild death-cry is kept up for hours, gradually 
sinking into the weird wail of woe, " Anah-nah-nah " (meaning 
" bring back the dead to us "). In the midst of such confusion the 
witchdoctor rushes frantically out in search of the wandering spirit of 
his patient, and after a frenzied chase through forests and over moun- 
tams, returns exhausted but triumphant with the lost spirit of the 
unconscious man imprisoned in his " soul-trap." The patient returns 
to consciousness and the witch-doctor has renewed and strengthened 
the confidence of his fellow-tribesmen in his miraculous powers. 

Every shaman possesses a " dead-box," concealed usually in some 
dark canyon or forest cave. In it he places from time to time, skulls of 
human beings and of wild animals. It is believed by the Indians 
that an order of witch-doctors can, by means of this " dead-box," bring 
about the death of whomsoever they wish. If a lock of hair or a 
piece of worn garment stolen from the person whose death they wish 



4/6 Ada Victoriana. 

to accomplish, is placed in close proximity to one of these skulls in 
the "dead-box " that person is doomed to die. It may be very well 
for people, who have not been brought face to face with the horrible 
effect of witchcraft, to laugh at superstition. For, although it is 
obvious that "there is nothing in it," yet the effect on these people 
who do believe in it is simply wonderful. When they become aware 
that some enemy has sought the aid of the witch-doctor to kill them, 
the nervous system receives a shock from which it seldom recovers. 
Even strong men are victims of this horrible witchciaft or "Indian 
poison," as it is sometimes called. 

Indian graveyards have a weird and uncanny appearance, surrounded, 
as they are, usually by the dense, dark forests and the hideous 
totems stiring wildly in every direction. Totems are always gruesome ; 
but here, bleached by the sun and storms for ages, they seem to reach 
the climax of ugliness. Not even the brave wolves or the mountain 
lions venture over the graves of the dead guarded thus by these most 
fearful totems. In little wigwams, erected here and there, all the best- 
loved possessions of the dead : such as silk handkerchiefs, shawls, 
horn-spoons and canoe-pnddles, are placed at the burial. They 
believe the " adjeak *' will haunt those who neglect this most sacred 
duty. Some tribes kindle little fires on the graves immediately after 
the burial, and burn all the garments of the deceased, believing that, 
in some mysterious way, they are thus sent on for their use in " the 
happy hunting-grounds." Slaves also were burned, or buried alive 
with their chief to accompany and serve him in his after life. 

There are paid criers in every tribe, who are rewarded by the friends 
of the deceased according to their perseverance in keeping up the 
funeral dirge throughout the days of mourning. The women mourners 
cut their hair at the neck and wear it over the face as a veil during 
the period of bereavement Feasts are always given for the dead, at 
which the chiefs, in order of rank, address the mourners, eloquently 
rehearsing all the good deeds and brave feats performed by their 
deceased tribesman. Heathen songs are chanted and the heathen 
dance sometimes indulged in. 

However, these pagan customs are becoming things of the past in 
many of the coast tribes. In the villages, where missionaries have 
been sent, a marvellous change is taking place, the " old way " is 
giving place to the " new." The transition is slow, yet we cannot but 
look forward with hopeful anticipation to the time when these Indians 
will no longer cling to the customs of their pagan ancestors, but yield 
themselves wholly to the moulding influence of the " Great Spirit of 
the Above." 



Ada Victoriana. 477 

The Bible Study Class 

TF all the students, who have within the past few years spent any 
*■ considerable time in Victoria's halls, were each to be asked what 
single influence of college days had most profoundly affected their 
lives, a large proportion of them would undoubtedly reply, " Professor 
McLaughlin's Sunday afternoon Bible Class." It would, indeed, be 
hard to estimate the far-reaching results of Professor McLaughlin's work 
in connection with Bible Study. Students yet in college can testify 
what a revolution in their spiritual experiences has been effected by 
the formation, under his guidance, of habits of regular daily study of 
God's word, and how they have felt their careless selfishness rebuked, 
and their ideals of right and duty quickened by his quiet, earnest, 
practical talks on Sunday afternoons. A faculty for clear and helpful 
exposition, and the vitalizing touch of his consecrated spirit com- 
bine to make him a teacher, to whom many of us owe not only relief 
from intellectual difficulties, but also a spiritual impetus, and a more 
intense loyalty to the Master, whom he has helped us understand. 



Notes. 



Mr. J. L. McPherson, M.A., the General Secretary of the University 
Y. M. C. A., left Toronto early in February, for Hong Kong, where he 
has been appointed Secretary of the European Y. M. C. A. Before leav- 
ing the men of the university presented him with a handsome wallet 
and $75 in gold, as a token of the high regard in which he was held by 
all who knew him. To him is largely due the formation of the 
University Association and its success in its first year. His work in 
connection with Mr. Mott's meetings will not soon be forgotten by 
many Victoria men. He carries with him the best wishes of the men 
for equally successful work in the difficult field to which he has gone. 

000 

On February 8th the following officers of the University Association 
were elected: Piesident, H. D. Robertson (Vic); Vice-PiCsident, 
W. C. Smith (Dent.); Recording-Secretary, H. A. Stewart (Med.) ; 
Treasurer, D. G. Mcllwraith (S. P. S.) ; Assistant Treasurer, Mr. 
Lindsay (Dent.); Councillor, G. 'J. Manson (S. P. S.) ; General 
Secretary, A. C. Cameron (U. C). The Chairmen of Committees 
are : Bible Study, J. W. Gordon (U. C.) ; Membership, F. S. Dowling 
(U. C.) ; Missionary, E. W. Wallace (Vic.) ; City Missions, E. 
Jeffrey (Med.). 



478 



Acta Victoriana. 




OX the 14th of February the Alma Mater Society's new rooms 
were opened, and an informal reception given to subscribers and 
the ladies of the college. The inclement weather prevented the former 
from attending in large numbers, but the fair under-graduates came 
en masse, and there was no end of trying the various cosy corners and 
easy chairs. The universal topic of conversation was, of course, 
"the rooms." "How do you like our lovely rooms ? " " We think 
they're just lovely," etc. With gay conversation, stimulated by 
delicious cocoa, the time passed merrily away. Since the opening the 
Society has decided, in imitation of the usage at Oxford, to call these 
delightful habitations, "The Men's Common Rooms." 

Dr. Badglev tells about observing a ladies' college one morning 
promenading on the street-car tracks although the side walks were 
passable. The reason, according to the Doctor, was this : A large 
furniture van was drawn up on the roadside, and in it was a sideboard 
with an immense mirror, and as the ladies passed each one turned 
her head, and so did he. 

1ST Year C T. — " If you were a dog, what kind would you prefer 
to be ? '■' 2nd year C T.— "A sky terrier." 

Somh: visitors lately entered the building and wandered about 
looking vainly for the Crown Lands Department. As Luck would 
have it they were on their way to the coal cellar, when someone 
rescued them. 

The Glee Club and Symphony Orchestra gave the last and what 
may be justly called their best concert on the evening of March 
the 9th, in the College Chapel, to an audience, not as large as their 
effort merited, but compensatmgly enthusiastic. The men were in 
good form, and everything went off without a hitch. 

You've heard about the Ladies' Aid 

With cocoa on the rink. By the light, etc. 

At last they have the dishes paid 

By driving us to drink. By the light, etc. 



Acta Victoriana. 479 

Nancekeville, '08 — " Say, should a fellow buy a bouquet for the 
girl you take to the Senior dinner? What colors would you get? 
How much would you go ? " 

The difference. At hockey (when the men play) — "Blank it! 
pass that puck and quit playing hog ! " (When the ladies play) — 
" Please pass that puck and don't be so greedy ! " 

Three '06 girls (night of the Glee Club concert — to the usher) — 
"Take us up to that seat where Mr. Manning is." 

We are pleased to announce to the under graduate body that 
Miss Gr — f — n, '07, is having her heart enlarged for the accommoda- 
tion particularly of freshmen, and apartments are going fast. Get 
busy. 

Modiste to Miss P — tt — n (on finishing her graduation gown) — 
" Now, Miss P., if you should change your mind, all you will need 
is the veil." 

In the shanty (ist speaker) — "There is Miss skating with Mr. 

Morgan." 2nd speaker— " Then she's in paradise." ist speaker — 
" Yes, you know he is the cherub." 

Miss S — tz — r, '05 (as Mr. Bennett lets crash upon the floor a 
ponderous tome) — " That shows that classics is a heavy course." 

Professional jollying : Prof. M " Yes, Mr. R , you 

should be in Orientals." (To the Class) — " Mr. R always has 

his Hebrew well prepared." Can you wonder they go into Orientals. 

As an experiment of an afternoon reception the Freshmen's At- 
Home turned out very happily. The decorations, which consisted 
chiefly of strings of blood-red paper hearts, big and little, hung in 
festoons about the chandeliers and cosy corners, are doubtless respon- 
sible for the sentimental^but stop ! where will this lead us to ? As 
hosts, the Freshmen won golden opinions. Some wag, possibly a 
Sophomore, had the temerity to turn off the gas, with the entire 
approbation of the occupants of the cushioned angles. 

Alex — " The ladies are just as much students as we, probably 
more so." 

Homer Brown — " I'm trying to find the nicest way to ask a girl 
to skate ; that's my Holy Grail." 

Miss Ch — D — K, '07 (in the study before Greek lecture, 3 p.m.) — 
"Get thee behind me skatin' ! " 

Rev. E. G. Sanders is in receipt of a very rosy business proposition 
which, however, we feel with him, might appeal more to some others, 
" How to set up a home with $2,000." 



480 Acta Victoriatia. 

His notice. " Please return my hat to its accustomed place of 
abode, and greatly favor the Freshman, generally called Raymer." 

Prof. Langford {re '08 class pin) — " What does the broom at the 
top stand for ? " 

The Senior's farewell reception, given on the evening of February 
17th, seems to be characterized generally as the most brilliant and 
enjoyable affair of the season. Certainly the programme, given in the 
tastefully decorated chapel, will not soon be forgotten by any of the 
large and delighted audience. It will not be amiss to give the various 
items. Address — Hon. President Chancellor Burwash ; Piano Solo — 
Miss E. H. Patterson: Addresses — Representatives; Duet — Messrs. 
Connolly and VValden ; Retrospection — Miss M. A. Hamilton and 
Mr. J. S. Bennett ; Songs of the Muses — Miss Patterson and J. A. M. 
Dawson; Anticipation — Miss S. A. Van Alstyne and Mr. A. D. 
Miller. 

Miss Hamilton, in her Retrospection, recalled the visit of their 
Highnesses of York the year that '05 arrived, and how the freshettes 
rode up from the reception in a carriage provided for the Seniors. 
Among other interesting historical sketches, she gave an amusing 
account of the evolution of the Modern Language Club. 

Mr. Bennett recounted how a smile of stern satisfaction appeared 
on the face of Dr. Ryerson's bust, in the chape), when '05 entered 
Victoria, and even the mummy of the Egyptian Princess grinned a 
trifle. Indeed, the Sophomores in their sympathetic but undemon- 
strative way were glad. Touching on the Bob, Mr. Bennett indulged 
in the following poetical sentiment : 

" Of all the vividest pictures that hang on Memory's wall 
Is one of the anti-Bob practices held in Richmond Hall." 

His peroration consisted in a highly-eulogistic resume of Victoria 
society life under the management of '05. 

In the Anticipation, the other feature of greatest interest, it was 
told how Dawson and Hinks, having attracted the moon to the earth, 
were, by means of an improved airship, realizing vast fortunes from the 
importation of green cheese. Knight appears in the pulpit with a 
black eye and much court plaster, to preach from the text : " Dearly 
beloved, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men." Miss 
Jickling uncovers classical treasures of Latin roots in the ruins of 
Ancient Rome. Clyo Jackson immortalizes himself by removing the 
two greatest evils of the Methodist Church, viz., " the footnote " and 
the Superannuation Fund ; and so on, in a very interesting vein. 



Acta l^icto7'iana. 



481 



At a meeting of the class of 1906, the Senior Stick was first 
awarded to Miss Cullen as the most popular lady, and afterwards to 
Mr. G. A. Archibald, who will carry it next year. 

Zephvr from a cosy corner. Freshman — "Are you ready for the 

question?" Freshette (softly)— " Question." 

Photographer (to our bunch of sweet freshettes) — " Is this the 
graduating class ? " 

Dr. Badgley (in Ethics lecture)— " You ought to read Kant's 
' Critique of the Pure Reason. It's the greatest thing out of jail.' 

1ST Sophette — " How do you get down to the new rooms?" 2nd 
Sophette — "The best way I know is the coal chute." 

Mr. Homer G. Brown has been elected to the honor of carrying 
the Athletic Stick during coming year, 'o5-'o6. 



/Af^orMEi^ c^eT-T^icH-quictT ■PftoPosiTiojT. 

DAVB IS OtMur TOO WlULll/d, 




Ctlwf< Ob 



Macfarlane, '06 (re Vic.-McM. game, which Henderson refereed) 
— " He put me off because another fellow hit me." 

(Discussing the new Provincial Cabinet). F. A. E. Hamilton — 
" This is quite a horsey organization, with Hendrie and Bcck both 
holding places. Whois this Willoughby ? Is he a sport, too?" Robby 
(without intent; — "No, he's the whip." 

Junior to Reddick — "Say, are you an inspired poet?" R. 
(spontaneously) : 

" No, I'm not inspired, 
But you make me tired. 

My poems are simply innate ; 
If a man can make rhymes. 
He's up to the times, 
E'en though he is not Laureate." 



482 Acta Victoriana. 

Cruise — " Getting up a speech for Lit, Jack?" Knight — "No, 
I'm preparing Hebrew for heaven, Geordie." Geordie — " You must 
have time to burn,'" 

At Burlington, with the Band. Hostess (at tea-table, noting one 
of Willie Walden's engaging smiles radiating on his countenance) — 
" What are you smiling at, Mr. Walden ? " Willie (gazing sweetly at 
his fair vis-a-vis) — " Oh ! I'm just reciprocating." 

From Vox Collegii (O. L. C.) — "You can Harley wonder that — 
looks so Arch since the Conversat." 

The Victoria line up for the Hamilton hockey game, a la Mail and 
Empire, was as follows : Goal, Miss Robertson ; Point, Miss Hender- 
son ; Cover, Miss Lane ; Forwards, Misses Gain, Davison, Campbell 
and Mills. The game which they afterward played single-handed with 
the regular ladies' team on the Vic rink was one of the most interest- 
ing and amusing sporting events of the season. The score was 7-4 
favor of the usurpers. 

The inter-year debating series aroused considerable interest. In 
the semi-finals the battle raged between '06 and '08 on the proposi- 
tion : Resolved, That the social life of Victoria College is detrimental 
to the student. The Freshmen, supporting the affirmative, were repre- 
sented by Mr. J. E. Brownlee and Mr. A. F. Foreman, the Juniors 
upheld the negative in the persons of Mr. G. E. Trueman and Mr. 
D. A. Hewitt, and won the debate. In the final contest '06 lost the 
series supporting the proposition : Resolved, That the time has come 
when Great Britain should commence and continue disarmament as 
an incentive to universal peace. Mr. G. J. Harris and Mr. C. E. Mark 
stood for '06. The victorious '05 debaters were Mr. G. A. Cruise and 
J. F. Knight. 

ARMSTRONG(to a Sophettc) — "There is a great power in music. Last 
summer I sang before 2,000 people. They were riveted to their seats." 

Omitted. The night the Harley Government went into power, our 
old friend Davie Rees, '03, hearing of a Sophomore with three initials 
(Mr. G. J. A. Reaney), perpetrated a characteristic pun, " Wouldn't 
that G. JAR you!" 

Gus Shaver (at '06 class-meeting) — " I beg leave to withdraw my 
name from the nominations for the Senior Stick." 

Miss Th assured us she was very popular at kindergarten. 

Harris, '06 (waxing eloquent in debate) — "A pretty picture they 
draw of the British lion and the American eagle pacing up and down 
the Atlantic ! " 



Acta Victoriana. 483 

Jane (seriously, re a 'Varsity hockey player) — " A big, husky lad — 
about my size." 

Fennell, '06 (at the same meeting)— " This is something like 
electing the Pope." 

The Senior Dinner, following one week after the Senior Reception, 
like the latter, may be fairly described as a highly successful function. 
The committee in charge, with Mr. J. G. Brown as chairman, made 
energetic and lavish expenditure of time and thought in preparation 
for the great event, with very gratifying results. The dinner proper 
was exceedingly eatable, and enlivened by the usual poetic furor be- 
tween Sophomore and Freshmen. The programme, as ever, was long, 
but the tedium was relieved by an occasional witticism, a song, or the 
chiming of the new clock from time to time. 

The toasts of the evening were : " King and Country," proposed by 
Hon. Senator Kerr, chairman ; " University," proposed by Rev. Dr. 
Carman, and responded to by Professor Baker, in the absence of 
President Loudon; "Alma Mater," E. W. Morgan, '05, Chancellor 
Burwash ;" Class of '55," Rev. Dr. Reynar, Rev. Dr. Ryckman ; 
"Graduating Class," D. A. Hewitt, '06, T. P. Campbell, '05 ; "Lady 
Undergraduates," W. J. Salter, '05, Miss A. D. Switzer, ' 05 ; " College 
Societies," J. S. Bennett, '05, Miss A. G. W. Spence, '05, H. D. Rob- 
ertson, '05, A. E. Elliott, '05 ; " Senior Stick," W. A. VValden, '05, 
G. A. Archibald, '06 ; " Athletic Stick," S. W. Eakins, B.A., '04, 
H. G. Brown, '06; "College Press," J. A. Spencley, '05, H. H. 
Cragg, '05. 

Three of the four members of the class of '55 were present as guests, 
of whom Rev. Dr. Ryckman, in responding to a toast to the class, 
gave perhaps the most interesting address of the graduate speakers. 
Among the efforts of the graduating class we may single out Mr. 
Salter's for wit, Miss Switzer's for brevity, Mr. Bennett's for wisdom, 
Mr. Salter, in proposing the toast to " The Ladies," accepted the 
occasion as the crisis of his life. The issue, in case of a failure, filled 
him with gloomy forebodings, and suggested "one on Herodotus." 
It seems the Father of History (or lies, Mr. Salter could not tell 
which, even from Thucydides), while touring Arabia, came upon the 
petrified remains of a man. After taking great pains, in his usual way, 
to discover the causes thereof (though he might have inferred that he 
died of stony grief), Herodotus remarked, with characteristic evasive- 
ness, " Whether it be true I cannot say, or whether it be false, but to 
one considering the matter, it would appear that this man had a hard 
finish." 
5 



484 Acta J ictoriana. 

The songs were up to the mark ; the Freshmen especially are to 
be congratulated. "Wild ones, tame ones, just from the Zoo."- — 
'07's parody of the '08 yell. "Cheer up, ye little Sophies."— '08 
"You can't have any of our Susies When your Susies are gone." — '08. 
" We will fill the air with dirges, While the salt wave slowly surges.'" 
— '06. " When you walk out with a big B.A., And a hide from off a 
sheep." — '06. " I hardly need a megaphone." — Levi. 

Nothing marks the evolution of the Freshman, in Victoria at 
least, like pre-Sophomoric anxiety about the " Bob." Already '08, 
after the usual discussion, have decided, by a majority of 47 over 11, 
to perpetuate this ancient orgy. With unfailing reversion to type 
certain innovations are mooted, e.g.^ to adhere to the Faculty rules ; 
that ladies "bob'" the ladies (shade of Decorum, where art thou!), 
that personalities be tabooed, etc. While we do not doubt that 'o8's 
" Bob " will be an epoch-making event, from experience and observa- 
tion we feel sadly convinced that many of their noble aims will 
effervesce before Nov. ist, 1905. 

While buying some "Pop" tickets. He — ber 
A certain fair maiden did see ; 

" Her cheeks are so pink. 

They will drive me to drink," 
Said Heber, not knowing 'twas '■'' sheT 

The following are the officers elected by the College societies for 
the academic year, 1905-06 : 

The Modern Language Club — Hon. Pres., Dr. Horning; Pres., E. 
E. Ball, '06 ; ist Vice-Pres., Miss B. L. Scott, '06 ; 2nd Vice-Pres., 
Miss M. Bunting, '07; Sec.-Treas., K. H. Smith, '08; Councillors, 
Miss K. E. Cullen, '06, Miss V. M. Hamill, '07, Miss H. Pinel, '08. 

The Y.M.C.A.— Hon. Pres., Rev. J. F. McLaughlin, B.A., B.D.; 
Pres., W. G. Bull, '06 ; Vice-Pres., J. N. Tribble, '07 ; Sec, A. Fore- 
man, '08 ; Treas., H. W. Baker, '07. Conveners of committees to 
appear later. 

The Athletic Union — Hon. Pres., Professor Edgar; Pres., C. D. 
Henderson, '06; ist Vice-Pres., H. B. Dwight, '07 . 2nd Vice-Pres., 
W. W. Davison, 'oS \ Sec, C. B. Kelly, '07 ; Treas., P. B. Macfarlane, 
'06; B. D. Rep., W. R. Hibbert, B.A.; 4th year Rep., J. H. Adams,; 
3rd year Rep., C J. Ford; 2nd year Rep., W. Oldham ; ist year Rep., 
to be elected. 

The Alma .Mater Society — Hon. Pres., Professor I>angford : Pres., 
G. E. Trueman, '06 : Vice-Pres., E. Roland ; Sec, J. M. Copeland, '07 ; 
Treas., W. B. Albertson, '07. 



Ada Victoriaiia. 



485 








ALL honor to our representatives in the Jennings Cup series ! 
They have broken the record of the last few years, and have 
drawn an absolute line between past failures and future victories, for 
surely, having tasted of the latter, we can never revert to the old diet. 
They have inspired a new enthusiasm, which means honest effort on 
the part of our athletes and hearty support on the part of the whole 
student body. A lack of confidence and an overgrown respect for 
precedent has characterized us in the past, but now that we have 
demonstrated our superiority, not in luck but in ability, we are safe 
in looking forward to a better life — quite terrestrial — and in predicting 
prosperity for years to come. If a prospective student is gifted in 
any particular line he craves an opportunity to display his aUlity. 
From the point of view of hockey we are now in a position to afford 
this opportunity to the aspirants for fame from the various high 
schools and preparatory academies. A position on the best team 
among the afifiliated colleges is not wholly to be despised. 

Although we had prepared nearly half the basement for the recep- 
tion of the cup, and had gone to unlimited expense in procuring 
Oriental draperies and modish furniture as the only fitting setting for 
such a trophy, still we were, through a technicality, slightly disap- 
pointed, and instead of the material evidence of glory we have but 
the glory itself. After successfully encountering all the teams in the 
series to our own satisfaction and to the conviction of our opponents, 
the "Cup Executive" suddenly awoke to their responsibility, stimu- 
lated either by a feeling of surprise or by the clamorings of some 
disappointed contestants, and it was discovered that Davidson, one 
of our crack players, had figured in junior O. H. A. circles and was 
consequently ineligible to play on the college team. The discovery 
of this fact was rather ill-timed as far as Vic. was concerned, and the 
existence of such a rule affecting the Jennings Cup games came 
somewhat as a surprise. However we are perfectly satisfied with the 
regulation and the interpretation of it, even though the application 



486 Ac^a Victoriana. 

smarted a bit. The one peculiar feature of the whole affair is that 
Davidson was not disqualified a little earlier in the season, as it 
would have done away with unnecessary practice and considerable 
loss of time on all sides. The disqualification seemed to be condi- 
tioned upon the ultimate success of the team. That Victoria was 
perfectly innocent in the matter is evidenced by the fact that David- 
son himself made no secret of his outside connection. We will know 
better next year, and for the present be satisfied with the thought 
that we have easily the best team, and that it is composed of bona fide 
undergraduates. 

000 

A week after the defeat of Senior Arts, Vic. gave the Dental aggre- 
gation the "frozen glare" (with apologies to the local editor) and 
they retired praying for greater success in the painless extraction of 
teeth than fate had accorded them on the hockey rink. The boys 
did not set the pace at the beginning, and at half-time the score was 
against them, but in the second half they pulled out and won con- 
veniently with a score of four to two. The line up was : Goal, Salter ; 
point, Robertson ; cover, Stockton ; cover, Macfarlane ; forwards, 
Davidson, Campbell, Oldham. As will be seen some changes were 
made in the personnel of the team. Stockton, of the Freshman 
Class, replaced Macfarlane at cover, a position which he held with 
distinction throughout the rest of the series. He proved to be a cool 
man in any emergency and very effective, especially in his substantial 
checking. Macfarlane moved up to the position of rover and luckily 
found himself quite at home there. Salter and Davidson showed up 
particularly well, the little man in goal making some beautiful stops. 

000 

There is a veritable wealth of athletic news this month and we are 
straining under the unusual but pleasant burden. The achievements 
of the Ladies' Hockey Team have forced a division of interest, and 
the success of their graceful efforts has elicited so much praise that 
their cheeks are even yet bearing the after image of a modest blush of 
satisfaction. Their playing has from the first been characterized by a 
skill and vim that astonished their opponents, and in the several 
games with Havergal and St. Hilda's they suffered but one defeat, 
and this probably being due to a too strenuous participation in the 
gaieties of the previous evening and the consequent lack of "beauty 
sleep." Incidentally it may be said that though " beauty sleep " is 
not, as a general rule, necessary with the members of the team, still it 



Acta Victor iaiia. 487 

does count when a match is scheduled for the next morning. Mr. 
Davison, the coach, is to be severely censured for failing to instruct 
the players in this regard. 

000 

On February 7th V'^ictoria and Junior Arts met in the semi finals, 
and the University College team was defeated in the second half by 
a score of five to four. Why is it that we almost invariably play an 
up-hill game by sleeping at the start and thus allowing our opponents 
to pile up a few. It is a very dangerous thing to do, as men can 
nearly always play a better game when in the lead ; it is comparatively 
easy to fight for a victory, but to fight first of all for equality requires 
a mighty dogged disposition. The line up : 

Victoria. Junior Arts. 

Salter Goal . .Keith 

Robertson Point Boyd 

Stockton Cover Lampert 

Macfarlane Rover Fraser 

Campbell Forwards Laidlaw 

Davidson " Davidson 

Oldham " Stewart 

Victoria and Senior S.P.S. qualified for the final, and the game 
would have delighted the eyes of our graduates, not because it was 
actually the most closely contested match of the series, but rather 
because our boys played the swiftest hockey of the season and won 
out by a most satisfactory score. After the first ten minutes' play the 
result was past doubt. The Schools were outplayed in every particu- 
lar and at the last were literally played off their feet. Close checking 
and following were the tactics adopted by the Vic. team, and they 
were eminently successful. Macfarlane showed wonderful form and 
•invariably won out in the scrimmages. Davidson was brilliant as 
usual and was ably seconded by Campbell and Oldham, both of 
whom played the steady part of veterans. The defence was irre- 
proachable. Robertson, Salter and Stockton form a trio hard to 
beat. Salter had little opportunity to shine, but the few shots he did 
receive were put in with a vengeance and were stopped with all Jane's 
inimitable grace and ease. The two teams were about equal in 
weight. The play was fast but free from any roughness, the few pen 
alties inflicted being for minor offences. The final score was five to 
one in Vic's favor. 



488 Ada Victoriana. 

The exhibition match with McMaster ended as expected with a 
win for the visiting team. The only one seriously affected or dis- 
satisfied with the result was Jerry. 

COO 

The crowning event of the winter was the trip to Hamilton and the 
subsequent match with the Thistle Ladies' Hockey Team of that re- 
nowned burg. Under the gracious and delightful chaperonage of Mrs. 
Sweetnam, and accompanied by sundry camp-followers and hangers- 
on, the team left the Union Depot at one o'clock p.m., and on 
arriving at Hamilton was entertained by Mrs. Miles, a very hospitable 
lady having a charming interest in Annesley Hall. After a short rest 
a start was made for the rink^ and the game started about five o'clock. 
Although eventually beaten by a slight margin, the co-eds put up the 
fastest hockey ever provided for the Hamilton ladies, who offered 
some little balm in the shape of a five o'clock tea after the match 
was concluded. The trip home was a record breaker. The G.T.R., 
hearing that the Victoria girls were suffering from an acute attack of 
home-sickness, decided to rush the time table, and thus gam their 
everlasting gratitude. The result was that the entire forty miles were 
covered in something less than five hours, four hours and fifty minutes 
to be exact. 

000 
An Incident of Interest to Few. 

While the ladies were being entertained by Mrs. Miles, the gentle- 
men, taking advantage of th;s brief respite, betook themselves to ye 
Christopher's restaurant, where a ravishing meal of syrup and pancakes 
was indulged in. In the midst of a sedate and extremely edifying 
harangue delivered by Mr. Campbell our privacy was broken in upon 
by the entrance of a decidedly interesting though unassuming lady in 
mouse-colored raiment, who sat leisurely down at a near- by table. 
Moderating our voices and demeanor to harmonize with the air of 
introspection which she assumed, we continued for a little our com- 
munion with one another, when, shade of decorum ! she addressed 
herself to us in language more voluble than coherent. 'Twas then we 
perceived that she wore a veil ; not an ordinary brown veil with white 
dots, one of which always coincides with the point of the nose ; not 
one of those material veils, but one rather of an inner nature, which 
sheltered her mind from the penetrating gaze of insolent curiosity and 
prevented the disarrangement of the tiny tendrils of mentality by the 



Ada Victoriana. 



489 



boisterous winds of universal thought. Through the fine meshes we 
could occasionally get a glimpse of a meaning almost intelligible to 
our benighted souls, but the main current of thought seemed not in 
harmony with our existence. Indeed, the lady did not appear to see 
us through rose-colored glasses, for from her words we judged ourselves 
to be perceived as horribly misshapen, even unto the Hkeness of crea- 
tures that were once possessed and ran down into the sea. It was 
then we realized the mistake of allowing Mr. Robertson and Mr. Hen- 
derson to accompany us. The obliging waitress proffered us an intro- 
duction, but owing to the fact that this interesting personage had 
obviously travelled in higher circles than we were acquainted with — 
her conversation was mostly of queens, countesses and castles — and 
also to the fact that the recorder of this tale was overcome with his 
customary shyness, the offer was declined. The conclusion was sud- 
den and lacked interest. Curtain. 




L'^MtSK^ 



SCENE ON VANCOUVER ISLAND 



IX 



Acta Victoriana. 



Can You Study One Hour 

Without your eyes feeling tired or causing a severe headache ? 
This condition is due to some refractive error, and can be reheved by 
wearing Glasses properly fitted. Our optician is an expert in such 
cases ; our prices are very reasonable ; call or 'phone for appointments. 



WATCH REPAIRS RECEIVE CAREFUL ATTENTION 



College Pins 

in great variety. 

Special designs made 

to order. 



PHONE N. 1152. 



W. W. MUNN 

Jeweler and Optician 

800 VONGE ST. 



We carry a full line of 

the Ideal 

Waterman Fountain Pen. 

Call and try the points. 



ist do jr North of Bloor Street. 



\Jnderwear \Jmbrellas 

Hatters and F\xmishers Fine NecK^vear 

J AME.v$ CRANG, 788 Yonge Street, 



3 Doors Below Blo< 



Stollery's 

For - - - 

Students 



THE MEN'S AVEAR 
STORE 



750 Yong'e Street 




READERS, 



When buying, don't 
forget our adver- 
tisers. 



Correctly designed, carefully finished, with 
strict attention paid to the smallest details. 
Our Haikcl'tting is guaranteed to give 
.Satiskaction. 

E. M. KENNEDY & CO. 



Barbers 



484 Spadina Ave. 



G doors south of 
College St. 



The College Shaving Parlor 
664 YONGE ST. 

STUBENTS 



South of 
St. Mary's St. 



For a Rugby Hair Trim in up-to-date 
style, Shaving, Shampooing, Mas- 
saging, etc., come to 
JOS. B. SCARLETT 

acijt\t c* We use onh purest lotions and 

bfcA TOnge a t. instruments. Strictly hyprienic 




RELV. JOHN POTTS. D.D. 

GENERAL SECRETARY OF EDUCATION. 




ACTA VICTORIANA 

Published Monthly during the College Year by the Union Literary 
Society of Victoria University, Toronto. 



Vol. XXVIII. 



TORONTO, MAY, 1905. 



No. 7. 



M 



Mount JUlison University, Sackville 

BY REV. \V. \V. ANDREWS, M. A., LL.D. 

OUXT ALLISON University is the only independent Methodist 
University in the British Empire. It is unique also in the 
form into which it has developed, for under the control of the one 

Board of Regents there 
is a preparatory Acad- 
emy, a Commercial 
Department, a Ladies' 
College, a Conservatory 
of Music, a department 
of Fine Art, a Normal 
School of Domestic 
Science, an Arts College, 
a department of The- 
ology and a department 
of Engineering. Space 
will allow that mention 
be made of the salient 
features only of this 
group of Colleges, 
which attract yearly 
about half a thousand 
students to its many 
halls. The campus is 
a park of forty acres in 
extent with many attrac- 
tive features. The buildings are valued at $250,000, and the endow- 
ment stands at $170,000. The professors and teachers number in 




TR. D. ALLISON, PRESIDENT. 



49- 



Acta Vidonaiui. 



"^V'^V, 




Id 

a 



c 
u 



Acfa J^ictoj'iana. 493 

all thirty four. The geographical position of the University and the his- 
torical associations of the place are also noteworthy. Mount Allison 
stands at the head of the Bay of Fundy on the narrow isthmus 
which joins Nova Scotia to the mainland. The famous tides of the bay 
sweep past the College in the tidal river Tantramar and seven 
miles beyond. The students from their residential rooms look out 
over the quiet bay marshes, of which Roberts has sung, the poet 
whose early home is within sight of this hill. The Cobequid Moun- 
tains of Nova Scotia are seen across the tides ; just behind the hill 
lurks the blue peak of Shepody and on a headland fronting "the bay, a 
site chosen with that wonderful instinct which guided the early French 
explorers in the locating of their trading posts, stands the dismantled 
ramparts of the old Fort Beausejour, now called Fort Cumberland. 
The fall of this fort passed the supremacy of this section of Canada 
from La France to Britain. Then followed Quebec. Here, too, is 
the oldest Methodist ground of the Dominion, for the two locations 
which contest the honor of being the site of the first Methodist church 
in Canada are in this neighborhood. These institutions of learning 
are well placed here to commemorate the deeds of our fathers and 
keep alive their spirit. It would seem to be a fitting thing that some 
memorial contributed by the whole Church should yet be founded 
here. All the transcontinental trains on their way to their eastern 
seaports must pass over this isthmus, and at almost equal travelling 
distances from Sackville stand St. John, Chatham, Halifax and Char- 
lottetown, and in a still wider circle Fredericton, Yarmouth and 
Sydney are found. Newfoundland and Labrador, Bermuda, New 
England, Eastern Ontario along an outermost circle, send their sons 
and daughters to Mount Allison. For an educational plant the posi- 
tion is eminently strategic. It is " the hub " of the Maritime 
Provinces. 

This educational enterprise was founded in 1S40 by Mr. Chas F. 
Allison, a wealthy merchant of Sackville. This early Academy filled 
a very important place in the early educational history of these 
provinces by the sea. In 1862 the Mount Allison Wesleyan College 
was opened under charter from the Legislature. Then followed the 
Ladies' Academy, now the Ladies' College. In comparatively recent 
years the Conservatory of Music, the Museum of Fine Art, Memorial 
Hall, the University Residence and the Hall of Science have been 
added to the educational equipment. 

In Memorial Hall all the work of the courses of Arts and Theology, 
•except Science, is carried on. The University library, which is 



494 



Ada Victoriana. 




>2, 

z 



■A 
en 

O 



Ada Victoriana. 



495 



emphatically a working library, consists of over 8,000 well-selected 
volumes. It is open to the students at all hours. It occupies 
crowded quarters at one end of the hall, while at the other is found 
the College chapel, whose rich memorial windows commemorate our 
founder and Rev. Wm. Black, " the apostle of Methodism " in the 
Maritime Provinces. On the walls is placed a tablet in memory of 
Colonel Harold Borden, a son of the Minister of Militia, who fell in 
South Africa. 

The Arts College is affiliated with Oxford and Cambridge, and its 
students of two years' standing can enter Oxford without writing on 
the responsions. This year Mount Allison sends two of her men to 
the Isis, one representing New Brunswick and the other Bermuda. 







ACADEMY AND COMMERCIAL BUILDING. 



The work in Science and Engineering will enable a student to enter 
the third year of Engineering in McGill University. Similar affiliation 
provides for like privileges in Dalhousie post-graduate Schools of Law 
and Medicine. 

The Hall of Science contains lecture-rooms and laboratories for 
work in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. The equipment of lathes, 
work-benches, forges for the shop work and rooms for drawing of the 
Engineering course is complete. $10,000 has lately been spent in this 
department. Prof. W. J. Sweetser, of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, presides over the work in Engineering. This work is 
rapidly growing, and important additions to the equipment and 
staff have become necessary. 



496 Aifa Victoriana. 

The University Residence is up to the present the finest College 
residence in the Dominion. It is heated by hot water and lighted 
throughout by electricity. The fact that Mount Allison has three 
large residences and dining halls, has led to some serious discussion 
of the proposition to invite the General Conference to hold a session 
here. The members could be suitably entertained, while the large 
assembly halls, lecture rooms, reading rooms and libraries, and the 
close association of the members, would lead to the expediting of 
Conference business. The only objections are the dislocation of the 
terms of the Ladies' College and the Academy, which generally open 
early in September, and the heavy burden it would entail upon the 
administrative heads of the Colleges. It is well, however, for the 
Church to know that there is here a University group ample enough 
in its appointments for such a task. 

The President of the University is David Allison, LL.D., and with 
him are associated nine professors and two lecturers. Notable in the 
group is our grand old man. Dr. Chas. Stewart, late Dean of Theology 
and now Professor Emeritus. Ontario is represented on ihe staff in 
Profs. Hunton, Watson and Andrews. 

The Ladies' College is under the Principalship of Rev. B. C. 
Borden, D.D. A year ago last January an addition to the main 
building, costing $40,000, was opened. The greatly increased accom- 
modation has already been filled. The Vice-Principal is Miss E. S. 
Baker, I*h.D., -Toronto, and the other Ontarians on the staff are 
Miss Margaret Graham, Miss Ethel Edie and Miss McAlly. The 
other members of the staff hail from the Provinces, England and the 
United States. In connection with the Ladies' College is the depart, 
ment of Elocution and Oratory, affiliated with the Emerson School of 
Oratory and the Normal School of Domestic Science, which is installed 
in a separate building and has been completely equipped in the finest 
style by Mrs. Massey-Treble, of Toronto. Those who graduate in 
this department are required to take the science of the three years of 
the University course. 

The Conservatory of Music is a fine building closely adjoining the 
Ladies' College. The equipment of this department consists of a 
three-manual pipe organ, a Steinway grand piano, and fifty-two pianos 
for practice. The fine old organ in Lingley Hall, our Convocation 
Hall, is also at the service of this department. Prof. George Wilson 
is the musical director, and Dr. Raymond Archibald, Ph.D., has 
charge of the Violin Department. Beethoven Hall is the concert 
hall of this building. This hall and the Eurhetorian, in the University 



Ada Victoriana. 497 

residence, are the favorite halls for the .many lectures and concerts, 
which occur during the College terms. 

The Museum of Fine Art is the architectural gem of all the build- 
ings. The style is Byzantine. The Owen's Art collection is valued 
at various sums over $50,000. The names of Landseer, Reynolds, 
West and Constable are found in the catalogue. The building is 
divided into three halls, in which the statues and paintings are dis- 
posed. The larger statues and oil paintings occupy the central hall, 
and the water color paintings are found in the halls at each end. The 
large studios at the back are plentifully supplied with casts, models, 
etc. Prof. John Hammond, R.A., whose paintings of Rocky Mountain 
scenery are so well known, is the director of the work in the studios. 
No other College in Canada is so equipped. 

The B;ys' Academy is presided over by Principal J. M. Palmer. 
This flourishing Academy provides a boarding school for boys, and 
fits them for matriculation into the courses of Art and Engineering 
of the University, or leads them through a business course to a 
Commercial- College diploma. The Principal is assisted by five 
teachers. 

Mount Allison has the distinction of being the first College in 
Canada to open its full courses to women, and in 1882, from her halls 
graduated Miss Hattie Stewart, the first woman Bachelor of Arts in 
Canada. In the first graduating class were Senator Josiah Wood and 
the Rev. Howard Sprague, " the Wendell Phillips of Canada." Among 
the notable men who have graduated here may be named the late 
Judge King, of the Supreme Court ; Judge Burbidge, of the Court of 
Exchequer ; Dr. R. Weldon, Dean of the Dalhousie Law School ; 
Dr. Frank Nicholson, of Middleton University, and Dr. Clarence 
Webster, of Chicago University. Dr. Inch, the Superintendent of 
Education of New Brunswick, was for many years her President. The 
great progress of the last few years has awakened great enthusiasm 
among the graduates and undergraduates, and now all are looking 
toward the greater Mount Allison to be. What that shall be only the 
future can reveal. It will, at least, be worthy of the past. 







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Acta Victortana. 



499 



Stanstead College, Quebec 

AMONG the many beauty spots of our beloved Dominion none is 
fairer — none could be fairer — than the little town of Stanstead, 
in that Protestant part of French Quebec lying east of the Richelieu 
and known since 1790 as The Eastern Townships. 

True, the majority who read Acta's pages have never heard of 
Stanstead, and have but vague ideas of the Eastern Townships, so 
aptly christened " The Switzerland of Canada \ " But the happy 
minority — those whom a kind fortune has led on various pretexts to 
summer by our lakes, scale our mountains, taste the rare hospitality 

of our homes, and gaze in 
speechless wonder on our 
gorgeous sunsets — these will 
tell you that you do not know 
your Canada until you know 
these Eastern Townships. 
" The summit " Stanstead is 
an ideal College town, with 
its long, quiet, maple-lined 
street ; its substantial homes, 
with their lawns and fiower 
gardens ; its picturesque ceme- 
tery on the southern shore of 
Crystal Lake ; its western 
panorama ot mountain peaks, 
extending from Jay's sharp 
point in the Vermont Moun- 

FLANDERS, PRINCIPAL. . , i , l , •, 

tains to the venerable bald 
head of old Orford to the north ; and last, but to this paper not least, 
its group of College buildings in their setting of ample grounds, shade 
trees and flower beds. Some of the features of the extensive grounds 
of the College are two tennis courts, the golf links, a basket ball court, 
large campus on which many a football game has been fought and won, 
driveways and shady paths, and a woody hillside, which, in its natural 
beauty, slopes downward to the busy, rushing Tomafobia River, and 
down which a well-worn path leads to the boys' swimming hole. 

These all speak of the good times enjoyed by the students when 

the afternoon lessons are over, or on the long bright Saturdays of 

spring and fall. In the winter time a skating rink provides exercise 

and amusement for the College circle, and had we only space how 

2 




DR. 



500 Acta Victoi'iana. 

proudly would we tell you of our different hockey teams, from the 
girls' club, so picturesque upon the ice, to our stalwart, athletic 
seniors, who for three succeeding years have captured the cup from 
the Eastern Townships Hockey League. 

Five miles from the College lies the gem of lakes, Memphramagog, 
with Bear Mountain and Owl's Head rising abruptly on its western 
shore. On these waters and shores how many student-picnickers have 
spent charmed liours, and it is over the shoulder of those mountains 
that the College watches the gorgeous dying of the day, while the 
whole heavens are bathed in crimson glory. 

As to the College buildings, the accompanying cut shows most of 
them. The large central one, which was built in 1874, was for many 
years the only one. and in it were found not only residence for all 
teachers, but class-rooms for all departments. 

About twelve yf ars ago the Commercial School grew too large for 
its accommodation, when Dr. Bugbee presented the trustees with the 
white buildii^g to the right of the College proper, with sufficient funds 
to prepare it for its new purpose. 

Slowly but surely the College continued to grow, until in 1901 
it was found that the Music Department could no longer be accom- 
modated. Then the heirs of the late Charles Pierce came forward 
and built the beautiful Music Building, presenting it to the College. 
This is now headquarters for the Eastern Townships College of 
Music, which is doing splendid work in this department of the fine 
Arts. Two years ago we were enabled to expand once more by the 
generosity of the tried and true friends of this institution. The heirs 
of the late Horace Holmes erected a much-needed Model School, 
into which our junior grades were at once housed, and other friends 
built a model little hospital for the use of the sick. Thus, our buildings 
now number five, and yet so rapidly are we growing and so popular is 
this College becoming that this year we have been obliged to turn 
several eager applicants from our doors. 

During its thirty-two years of existence Stanstead College has had 
its ups and downs, but of late years it seems to have found a secure 
footing, and is becoming larger and more prosperous year by year. 
Of the men who have given this institution their earnest effoit, two 
have presided over its destiny for a term of twelve years each, viz., 
Rev. A. Lee Holmes, ALA., and the present President, Dr. Flanders. 

The College is still fulfilling the purpose for which it was built, that 
of providing a Christian home in which the Protestant youth of this 
part of our country may be educated. c. R. f. 



Ac^a Victoriana. 50 1 

WesLeyan Theological College, Montreal 

BY REV. WM. JACKSON, D.D. 

THIS institution was founded in 1873. It is, however, the out- 
come of a sentiment which existed decades before that date. 
Methodism in Montreal, at least after 1815, was of a'decidedly British 
Wesleyan type. The educational peculiarity of this is the founding of 
Theological institutes rather than engaging in general education, as is 
so largely done by American Methodism. The result was that, after 

planning for years, 
the rich, conservative 
and honored members 
of the older Methodism 
resolved to establish in 
Montreal a Theological 
College, which should 
be affiliated with McGill 
University, which was 
ihen rapidly growing 
under the able adminis- 
tration of the very 
eminent Christian 
scientist, Sir William 
Dawson, who always 
proved himself a true 
friend of this and the 
other three Theological 
Colleges affiliated to 
the University. The 
Wesleyan Conference meeting in 1873 in Montreal, after a vigorous 
discussion, approved of the scheme. 

The College began its operations with eight students in the class- 
rooms of the Dominion Square Church. At the inaugural exercises, 
addresses were delivered by Rev. Dr. Rigg and Rev. Dr. E. Jenkins, 
of London, England. In this church for ten years, Dr. Douglas and 
Dr. Shaw did a large amount of difficult and valuable work. It was 
about the same time that the Presb)terian College began i:s work in 
the old Erskine Church, and the Diocesan in the Synod Hall. 

A dark and terrible period of financial reverses came in 1877-78, 
wrecking many of the strongest commercial establishments of the 
city. The small remnant of the original endowment, for which 
$50,000 was subscribed, was disappearing. The College was without 




REV. \V. I. SHAW, M.A., D.D , PRINCIPAL. 



502 



Acta Victormna. 




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Ada Victoriana. 503 

a habitation. A strong feeling was growing throughout the country 
for the closing of the institution and merging it into the Theological 
Faculty of Victoria at Cobourg, which Faculty was organized about 
that time. The decision to build in Montreal was the turning point 
which gave permanence to the institution. Dr. Shaw rallied and 
canvassed its friends for this purpose. Hon. Senator Ferrier secured 
a very fine property for the College on University Street, where the 
new building was opened in September, 1883. At once a large 
majority of cities surrendered their opposition and recognized the 
great possibilities of usefulness which opened up before the institution, 
an anticipation which has been fully verified in its general usefulness 
to the church and in the influential place it now has in the University, 
in Montreal Protestantism and in public education in the city and 
ptovince. 

Principal Douglas brought to it the great power of his eloquence 
and wide personal influence. This was one of the most potential 
factors in the history of the institution. 

Mr. S. Finley, who was treasurer from 1883 to his death in 1903, 
rendered most valuable service in collecting for the College ; first, in 
wiping off a debt of $15,000 on the building, and further, in adding 
to the endowment about $15,000. The largest benefactor of the 
College was the late Hart A. Massey, of Toronto, whose bequest of 
$50,000 has helped to make fair provision for present current needs. 

Dr. Douglas died in 1894, and was succeeded by Dr. Shaw as 
Principal up to 1900, when, owing to failing health, he resigned this 
office, though continuing full professional duties. Dr. Maggs was then 
appointed Principal, and on his resigning in 1903, Dr. Shaw was again 
called to the office. Dr. Jackson was appointed successor to Dr. 
Antliff" in 1901, and Dr. Elliott to Prof. Harris in 1902. Every 
department in Divinity is now fully provided for. 

The total enrolment of students from 1873 to 1905 is 431. The 
highest record was in 1892 of sixty-one resident students and nine 
extra mural. For several years past the attendance has seriously 
declined, but this year there has been a marked return to former 
figures, there being forty-one in residence and twenty-four extr maural 
students. 

The advantages afforded by the institution are the variety of 
courses it offers and the convenience it gives the students by boarding 
in the College and close to the University. It has gained favor in 
many quarters by its financial administration. It has no debt, a fact 
which implies severe economy and self-denial in the earlier years of its 
history, without which, most acknowledge, it could not have survived. 



504 



Ada Vic/oriana. 



Jilberta College, Edmonton 

PRIOR to 1903 Canadian Methodism had only two seats of higher 
learning west of Ontario — Wesley College, Winnipeg, and 
Columbian College, New Westminster, B.C.; and between them lay a 
stretch of territory sufficiently large to contain several of the kingdoms 
of Europe, and fertile enough to feed millions. Its fertility was 
attracting thousands of settlers who, with their families, scattered 
over its vast stretches of prairie. Soon there were hundreds of young 

men and women who were 
desirous of securing the cul- 
ture which a higher education 
affords, and yet were unable 
to travel east to Winnipeg or 
west to New Westminster. 
How were their needs to be 
met ? Some of the progres- 
sive leaders of Methodism 
in the West saw the neces- 
sity of providing for these 
needs if the Church was to 
exert the sway in the West 
which she coveted. Alberta 
College was the outgrowth 
of the foresight of these men, 
and to-day, less than eighteen 
months after its inauguration, 
Edmonton, Alta., is the seat 
of a progressive institution 
which is giving instruction 
to students in commercial, 
music and Arts courses. Be- 
ginning with limited quarters, it soon outgrew the day of small things 
and rented rooms, and demanded a building of its own. This need 
western enterprise met almost as soon as it was felt, and in October 
last Rev. J. H. Riddell, B.A., B.D., the happy Principal, was able to 
make a new start in commodious quarters, which afforded room for 
the conduct of the various branches of education taught, and also 
apartments for the accommodation of at least forty resident students. 

That the need for such an institution was not a mere surmise is 
seen from the fact that in the first year it had enrolled seventy-three 




REV. 



H. riudp:ll, r.a., b.d., 

PRINCIP.AL. 



Acfa Victoriana. 505 

students in spite of its cramped condition and scanty equipment, and 
that this year it has 160 in attendance. Now that the people of the 
West realize that the College has come to stay, and that its energetic 
Principal and his able assistants are competent to direct the energies 
of the growing young minds, there can be no doubt that this new 
daughter of our Educational Society will play an important part in the 
development in the West of a strong, enlightened manhood and woman- 
hood, rooted and grounded in those vital principles on which must be 
based true culture and noble citizenship. Long live Alberta College ! 

H. H. c. 



Methodist College, St. John's, Nfid 

THE Methodist Church of Canada has certainly done what it 
could to bring to a consummation the long talked-of admission 
into our Great Dominion of the important colony lying at our very doors. 
Yet few of our people, we suspect, would ever think of including in a 
list of our Church's educational institutions the one in St. John's, New 
foundland. Yet without it our number would be incomplete, for at 
the union of the Methodist Churches of Canada provision was 
made for the formation of a Newfoundland Conference, under the 
control of the General Conference. Thus their interest became our 
interest, and their College part of our great educational work. 

Tne system of public education in Newfoundland is denomina- 
tional and sustained by Legislative grants, school fees and the 
voluntary contributions of the people. It embraces the work of public 
schools and academies or colleges. The Methodist College in St- 
John's was founded in 1859, as the St. John's Wesleyan Academy, 
its first Principal being Mr. A. S. Reid, of Sackville Academy, N. B. 
The present Principal, Mr. R. E. Holloway, M.A., of London, Eng., 
was appointed in 1874, and has proven himself a man of rare ability 
and a born teacher. Under his management the Academy made 
rapid progress, necessitating new buildings and an enlarged staff of 
teachers. A new training and model school was soon followed by a 
handsome and commodious College building, which was opened m 
1887 under its present name. 

On July 8th, 1892, all these buildings were destroyed in the 
terrible fire which destroyed two-thirds of the city. On July 13th the 
Executive Board met and decided to rebuild at once, though the homes 
and business places of most of the members were also in ashes. Thus, 
the Methodists of Newfoundland, though by no means wealthy, have 



5o6 Acta Victoriana. 

shown their loyalty to the traditions of their Church and recognize the 
importance of maintaining institutions of learning. The new building 
is a fine brick structure, located on a hillside, and well adapted to the 
purpose for which it was built, having a number of large airy and well- 
lighted class-rooms, and on the top floor a large hall, provided with a 
splendid pipe organ, and affording comfortable seating accommodation 
for over six hundred people. The cost of the building was over 
$75,000. 

The work done in this College is exceedingly varied, and ranges 
from the kindergarten and primary departments to preparation for the 
University. Thorough work is done in the grades, but in the higher 
branches it has achieved its greatest success, easily outdistancing all 
competitors. 

The report of the Principal to the Educational Society for the year 
1903-04, will give a good idea of the work accomplished. 

" The work of the past year has been conducted, as formerly, in two 
departments — the Primary and the College proper. The attendance 
in the former was 205, and in the latter 300, or a total of 505 ; being 
an advance of 38 upon any previous year. 

" The main work of the College is tested by five examinations, which 
are held annually — the London Matriculation, and four under the 
guidance of the Council of Higher Education, known as the Associate 
in Arts, Intermediate, Preliminary and Primary. In every case 
questions are prepared and papers examined and valued by English 
examiners. One hundred and thirteen passes were obtained by the 
College pupils from those examiners. Three passed in the First 
Division of the London Matriculation Examination, out of four in the 
colony, one of whom won the Jubilee Collegiate Scholarship of $200 
a year for three years. The highest of the Council of Higher Educa- 
tion examinations is the Associate in Arts, in which twelve passes 
were obtained by College students — as many as the students of all 
the other institutions combined — and several prizes, including the 
highest, were awarded them. 

" Forty-two passed in the intermediate, being more than any other 
four institutions together. This class secured eighty-eight Honors, and 
four out of a total of seven Scholarships, besides a number of special 
prizes. Twenty-eight obtained passes in Preliminary, and twenty-eight 
in Primary examinations." 

Thus it is seen that the Methodists are nobly doing their duty in 
disseminating education and its accompanying culture throughout our 
sister colony. H. h. c. 



Acta Victoriana. 
Wesley College, Winnipeg 



507 



ALTHOUGH the youngest of the educational institutions in 
Winnipeg, Wesley College is one of the most progressive of 
the Colleges constituting the University of Manitoba. It was founded 




REV. J. W. SPARLING, M.A., D.D., PRINCIPAL. 

by the Church in 1873, but after a struggling existence as a High 
School was discontinued on the establishment of the Winnipeg Col- 
legiate Institute. Immediately after the General Conference of 1886 
preparations were made for the re-establishment of the College as a 



^oS 



Ac hi Victoriana. 




WESLEY COLLLGE, WINNIPLG. 



Acta Victoriaiia. 509 

part of the newly-founded University, with which it was affiliated in 
October, 1888. The Manitoba Conference placed itself in hearty 
cooperation with the Board of Trustees to establish the College in 
an active and honorable position. The work of teaching was resumed, 
and it has been in active operation ever since. 

The Rev. J. W. Sparling, M.A., D. D., was called upon to assume 
the Principalship of an institution which had no endowment, no 
building, no professors, and no students. With determined spirit Dr. 
Sparling called Prof Cochrane to his aid, gathered three students 
around him and began the work of higher education in the parlors of 
Grace Church, Winnipeg. Undaunted by such a humble and unpre- 
tentious beginning, the Principal entered into his task of organizing 
and developing his young protege with indefatigable energy and 
tireless perseverance. The roll of professors and students rapidly 
increased, one building after another became too small, until it was 
found necessary, in 1895, to construct the present magnificent block 
on Portage Avenue. The building, one of the most handsome in 
the city, occupies a commanding site, is built entirely of Calgary 
sandstone, lighted by electricity and heated by steam. It not only 
provides full accommodation for all teaching purpose?, but also con- 
tains a splendid convocation hall capable of seating about five hun- 
dred people, dormitories for about sixty students, and in the basement 
a large and well-equipped gymnasium. To provide out of-donr phys- 
ical exercise, a campus, five acres in extent, has been secured. The 
cost of building and grounds has exceeded $100,000. 

The energy expended in securing suitable and permanent accom- 
modation for the educational work has been but an index of the 
ability and enthusiasm displayed in the prosecution of the work 
itself. Indeed, so efficient has been the work done that, in 1898, ten 
years after the inception of the College, her students took one-half of 
the money offered by the University to the four competing Colleges 
of the city and the Institutes of the city and province. In one year 
her students captured eight out of fourteen medals presented oy the 
University. 

The College in 1902 made a new departure in establishing a Chair 
in Icelandic Language and Literature, for the purpose of keeping 
Icelandic young people in touch with the history and institutions of 
the country from which they came. Wesley is, so far as we know, 
the first institution of learning in Canada to make regular and syste- 
matic provision for the education of a foreign people in their own 
native tongue ; and the effort has met with great success. 



5IO 



Ada Vzctoriana, 




Acta Victoriana. 5 1 1 

The Methodist people of Manitoba and the Territories have loyally 
upheld the hands of the Principal and his staff in their arduous but 
encouraging task. As a result the work, both in Arts and Theology, 
has been carried on until recently with no endowment, yet without 
contracting debts, so far as current expenses are concerned. 

Such a brilliant past is surely an earnest of a still more brilliant 
future, and one might safely venture the prophecy that Wesley Col- 
lege will yet be the largest of the educational institutions of Canadian 
Methodism. She has the energy and the enthusiasm. Her sons are 
zealous in advocating her interests. She is set in the midst of a 
country which will yet be the home of millions. She has the room 
for development, and behind her is a loyal people ready to make 
sacrifice for her welfare. Surely, under such conditions, her future 
success is assured. h. h. c. 



Jilbert College, Belleville 

ALBERT COLLEGE was founded by the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in 1857, under the name of "Belleville Seminary," 
and loyally supported through difficult and trying circumstances. At 
its head was placed Rev. Albert Carman, M.A., D.D., now General 
Superintendent of the Methodist Church. For nine years after its 
foundation the work of the institution was entirely of an academic 
character, in which its success was so marked as to lead to the beliet 
that the interests of the Church, as also of higher education, would be 
better served if it were in possession of University powers. An Act of 
Parliament to that effect was obtained in 1866, and "Albert College " 
exercised University functions until 1884, when, after the union of the 
Methodist churches in Canada, it was affiliated with Victoria Univer- 
sity, relinquishing its degree-conferring powers and assuming the 
position of a preparatory school. As now constituted, Albert has an 
ample teaching staff, composed of honor graduates from Victoria or 
Toronto Universities, for imparting instruction both to young men 
and young women. It pursues all the work of Collegiate Institutes, 
together with courses in business, music, fine arts and elocution. In 
all these branches its students have stood high in their final examina- 
tions, giving ample proof of the efficiency of the work done. The 
Rev. W. P. Dyer, M.A., U.D., may well be proud of the progress 
the College has made since he w