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Full text of "Activities of Ku Klux Klan organizations in the United States. Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-ninth Congress, first[-second] session"



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2332 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

is no longer so invisible. There have been defections from this empire. 
The Federal Communications Commision has undertaken a study of 
the misuse of citizens band radios, and I am sure that other agencies 
of the executive branch will want to take action as a result of some of 
the facts developed by the committee. It is our intention, in due time, 
to submit certain parts of our record to the Internal Revenue Service, 
the FCC, and the Veterans Administration, for example, for appro- 
priate action. We are also considering, of course, the recommenda- 
tion of contempt citations. 

Our hearings are far from completed at this point, but I believe 
we have developed many facts of great significance for the record, 
and that by the time the hearings are ended, the Congress will have all 
the facts it needs for purposes of remedial legislation. 

The witnesses subpenaed to appear before the committee today are 
continued under subpena until January 4, 1966. 

The committee stands adjourned until further call of the Chair. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Willis, Pool, and Weltner.) 

(Whereupon, at 1 :25 p.m., Tuesday, November 9, 1965, the subcom- 
mittee adjourned, to reconvene at the call of the Chair.) 

o 



3 u -^ 

ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

PART 3 



L^J-ATES GUVERNMENI 

DEC 21 t96/ 

HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-NINTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JANUARY 4-7, 11-14, 18, AND 28, 1966 
(INDEX IN SEPARATE VOLUME) 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 




CONTENTS 



January 4, 1966: Testimony of— Page 

John Deason Swenson 2334 

Afternoon session: 

John Deason Swenson (resumed) 2359 

Murrv H. Martin 2362 

Lloyci Grady Wilder 2394 

Henrv I. Bayles 2400 

Billy Skipper 2405 

January 5, 1966: Testimony of — 

Ralph Blumberg 2415 

Charles Horton Christmas 2438 

Afternoon session: 

Charles Horton Christmas (resumed) 2444 

Saxon Farmer 2459 

John INIagee 2464 

Dewey Bernard Smith 2470 

January 6, 1966: Testimony of — 

Russell E. Magee.' 2521 

James M. Ellis, Jr 2525 

Randle C. Pounds 2529 

Eric Peterson 2532 

Afternoon session: 

James W. (Pete) Holden 2543 

Willie Houston Burke 2544 

Albert Laf tman Applewhite 2547 

Ewell William Rowley 2550 

Kinch Wilson Miley 2554 

Robert Earl Stallings 2556 

Houston Pierce Morris 2561 

Robert William Fuller 2563 

Houston Pierce Morris (resumed) 2572 

January 7, 1966: Testimony of — 

Robert T. ResterA 2577 

B. J. "Jack" Saucier 2580 

Willis James Kidd 2584 

Jack M. Helm 2585 

Lloyd H. Barnett 2593 

Marvin Curtis Brister 2596 

Tommy Frank Reagan 2604 

January 11, 1966: Testimony of- — 

John Hugh Gipson 2609 

Afternoon session: 

George Gill Harris, Jr 2626 

Bobby Gene Kelley 2635 

James Malcolm Edwards 2639 

January 12, 1966: Testimony of — 

Gordon Mims Lackey 2667 

Afternoon session: 

Thomas Collins Brock 2683 

A. C. Herrington 2691 

Byron de la Beckwith 2698 

Mordaunt Hamilton 2701 

Donald Leo Mathieu 2705 

III 



IV CONTENTS 

January 13, 1966: Testimony of — Page 

Louis Anthony DiSalvo 2710 

Thomas Byron Thrasher, Sr 2720 

Burrel Lindsey White, Jr 2724 

Afternoon session: 

Joseph Walter Holder 2733 

Rex Henry Pierce, Jr 2739 

Thomas A. Gunter 2742 

Harvey Herman Heredeen, . 2760 

Elmore Douglas Greaves 2768 

January 14, 1966: Testimony of — 

James Nolan Fortenberry 2781 

Harold Lloyd Delk 2784 

Afternoon session: 

Edward Willard Fuller 2791 

James Kenneth Greer 2798 

Willie Gerald Whitehead 2802 

Charles Marcus Edwards 2804 

James Ford Seale 2807 

Clyde Wayne Seale 2812 

Julius Hunter Harper 2815 

Billy Douglas Buckles 2823 

January 18, 1966: Testimony of — 

Billy Wilson 2833 

January 28, 1966: Testimony of — 

George Leonard Williams 2867 

Index in separate volume. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

Part 3 



TUESDAY, JANUARY 4, 1966 

United States House of Kepresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington. D.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m. in the Caucus 
Room, Cannon House Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Edwin 
E.Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members : Kepresentatives Edwin E. Willis, of Loui- 
siana, chairman; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; Charles L. Weltner, of Geor- 
gia; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., of 
Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Pool, Welt- 
ner, and Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel ; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel ; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator; and Philip R. Manuel, investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

This morning we resume hearings on the Ku Klux Klan organiza- 
tions of the United States. In that connection I refer to my opening 
statement of October 19, 1965, which is of course already a part of 
the record. 

I assume that each witness to be called today, and thereafter, has 
received and read a copy of that opening statement. I nevertheless 
suggest that the one who will conduct the interrogation will ask each 
witness if that is so. It is my information it is so. 

So we will now resume the interrogation of witnesses, and Mr. 
Appell will please call the first witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. John Deason Swenson. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please have a seat. 

2333 



2334 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN DEASON SWENSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JAMES K. VENABLE 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, will you please state your full name for 
the record. 

Mr. Swenson. Do you want me to stand ? 

Mr. Appell. No. 

Mr. Swenson. My name is John D. Swenson. 

Mr. Appell. Is the "D" for Deason ? 

Mr. Swenson. That is right. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born, Mr. Swenson ? 

Mr. Swenson. I was born on June 15, 1910, in Poplarville, Mis- 
sissippi. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Venable. James R. Venable, attorney at law, Atlanta, Georgia. 

The Chairman. Will you give your address for the record ? 

Mr. Venable. Walter R. Brown Building, Atlanta 3, Georgia. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, will you please set forth your educa- 
tional background ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I have a grade school education. 

Mr. Appell. Will you set forth to the committee a brief chronology 
of your employment background ? 

Mr. Swenson. I am in business for myself. 

Mr. Appell. Let's take from the period 1960 to the present time. 
How have you been employed ? 

Mr. Swenson. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds this 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, are you now, or have you ever been, a 
member of a Ku Klux Klan organization ? 

Mr. Swenson. I respectfully refuse, sir, to answer on the grounds 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, in 1960, Roy E. Davis, now of Dallas, 
Texas, organized the old Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Did you become an officer in that organization ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I refuse to answer on the grounds this answer 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you mean under the provisions of the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution ? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. May I respectfully say, also the fourth 
amendment, sir. 

The Chairman. Pardon ? 

Mr. Appell. He would like to include the fourth amendment. 

Mr. Swenson. I am sorry if I am not talking loud enough. 
The Chairman. That is perfectly all right. 

You are invoking constitutional privileges, and it should be spelled 
out for the record. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, do you know Mr. Royal V. Young. 
Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir ; I have met Mr. Young. 
Pardon me, sir. I would like to withdraw that statement, sir. I 
respectfully refuse to answer this question on the grounds that it may 
tend to incriminate me. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2335 

The Chairman. And again for the record, you base that refusal on 
the basis of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. SwENSON. The fourth and fifth ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the witness, before with- 
drawing the answer that he gave, did acknowledge that he knew Royal 
Y. Young, and I suggest serious consideration ought to be given by the 
committee that he has waived his right to retract the answer and now 
invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Pool. He was advised by his counsel to take the fifth amend- 
ment, and I think we cannot argue with that. If counsel wants to 
advise him that way, we have to respect his wishes. 

The Chairman. I think certainly as a matter of law and in the pro- 
cedures of the court, he has technically waived his rights to invoca- 
tion, but for the time being we will pass it up. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, did you recruit Royal Y. Young into the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Sw^ENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
it may tend to incriminate me, invoking the fourth and fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, on July 28, 1965, the committee heard 
in executive session Mr. Royal Y. Young. This testimony the com- 
mittee voted this morning to release, and I should therefore like to 
refer to that testimony in the interrogation of the witness. 

The Chairman. That is proper. The committee did this morning 
vote to release the executive testimony of Mr. Young. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Young was asked : 

Mr. Appell. Who recruited you into membership into the Klan? 
Mr. Young. I believe it was Brother Swenson. 

Mr. Appell. Would you identify Brother Swenson fully, by his full name? 
Mr. Young. Sir, I don't know his full name. All I know — all I can do is give 
you his initials. 

Mr. Ajppell. By whatever identities you can give then. 
Mr. Young. It is J. D. Swenson. 

Are you the J. D. Swenson that Mr. Young identified as having 
recruited him into the Klan ? 

Mr. Swenson. I respectfully refuse to answer on the ground it 
might incriminate me. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Young testified furtlier with respect to J. D. 
Swenson that, at tlie time he was recruited by J. D. Swenson, J. D. 
Swenson held the position of Grand Dragon for the Original Knights 
of Ku Klux Klan. 

Is the testimony of Mr. Young truthful ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
this question may tend to incriminate me on the fourth and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Young was asked what positions he held within 
tlie Origir.al Knights, and he said that he had held the position of 
Acting Grand Dragon. He was then asked : 

Mr. Appell. AVho appointed you? 
Mr. Young. Swenson. 

I ask yoii if tliat testimony is truthful ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
this question may incriminate me. 



2336 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN-IN THE U.S. 

The Chaikman. And you are invoking that on grounds previously 
stated? 

Mr, SwENSox. Yes, the fourth and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appet,l. Mr. Young testified that subsequently he was promoted 
to the position of Imperial Dragon and that this appointment was 
made by the Keverend Roy E. Davis. Is that testimony truthful? 

Mr. SwExsoN. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
this answer may incriminate me. I am invoking the fourth and fifth 
amendment. 

The Chairman. Mr. Swenson, you testified under oath that you 
were born in 1910. Wliere were you born ? 

Mr. Swenson. I believe I stated that — Poplarville, Mississippi. 

The Chairman. Poplarville, Mississippi ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Yes. 

The Chairman. Where do you reside now ? 

Mr. SwENSON. I reside in Bossier City, Louisiana. 

The Chairman. That is across the Red River from Shreveport? 

Mr. SwENSON. Yes, sir; that is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, Mr. Young was asked this question by 
me after some talk about you : 

Mr. Appell. All right. Now in addition to Grand Dragon, did Swenson hold 
another oflSce as National Kleagle? 
Mr. Young. Yes ; that is right. 

Did you hold the position of National Kleagle ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer this question on 
the grounds that it may incriminate me, invoking the fourth and 
fifth amendent. 

The Chairman. Mr. Swenson, it is the information of this com- 
mittee that you can be called what would be known as the father of 
the modern-day Klan in Louisiana; is that not true? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer your question 
on the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. In both instances, the 
fourth and fifth amendent. 

Mr. Appell. As an officer of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan of Louisiana, I ask you whether this other sworn testimony of 
Mr. Young is factual ; that at the time Mr. Young was appointed the 
Imperial Dragon, that Mr. Murry H. Martin was appointed the Grand 
Giant, or the number two man under the Grand Dragon ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, did you ask that as a question ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes. I ask you if his testimony to that eifect was 
truthful? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
this testimony may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Young testified, and I ask you if his testimony 
was truthful, that at the time Murry H. Martin was appointed as 
Grand Giant, that Mr. Grady Wilder was appointed the Assistant 
Grand Giant . I ask you if that is true ? 

Mr. Swenson. I didn't hear the question. I thought you were read- 
ing a statement there. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you if Mr. Young's testimony is truthful to the 
effect that at the time Murry H. Martin was appointed Grand Giant, 
that Grady Wilder was appointed the Assistant Grand Giant ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2337 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
this answer may tend to incriminate me, invoking the fourth and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you if Mr. Young's testimony is truthful to the 
effect that Mr. Kobert Fuller of Monroe, Louisiana, was appointed to 
the position of chief of the Klan Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. SwENSON. I didn't hear the question. 

Mr. Appell. If Mr. Robert Fuller was appointed to the position of 
chief of the Klan Bureau of Investigation ? 

The Chairman. Known as the klabee? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir. 

The Chairman. What is the technical name ? 

Mr. Appell. KBI, Klan Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Sw'ENSON. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds this 
answer may tend to incriminate me, invoking the fourth and fifth. 

The Chairman. Mr. Swenson, Mr. Young appeared, as you now 
know, before this subcommittee in executive session under oath, under 
the pains and penalty of perjury, and he chose to answer these ques- 
tions posed to you, and apparently saw no involvement under the con- 
stitutional amendments you refer to. 

Can you explain why he felt he could answer these questions freely, 
while you rely on these amendments? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer your question on 
the grounds it may incriminate me, invoking the first, fourth, and 
fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. You now invoke the first also ? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson 

The Chairman. Wliy ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir? 
■ The Chairman. Why ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I believe it might tend to incriminate me. That 
is the reason I don't answer, respectfully. 

The Chairman. That is why I am curious to know why you are 
invoking the first amendment. The amendment speaking of incrimi- 
nation is five. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, I ask you if Mr. Young's testimony is 
truthful to the effect that Mr. Charles Pearson was appointed as Mr. 
Fuller's assistant in the Klan Bureau of Investigation — the assistant 
chief? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
that this answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. What are the duties of the KBI — the Klan Bureau 
of Investigation ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
this answer may tend to incriminate me, standing on the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest, if it is agreeable with 
Mr. Venable's client, if it is agreeable to him, that the witness use the 
response "Same answer,'' if it encompasses the amendments to which 
he has previously referred. 

The Chairman. He may do that. 



2338 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

You may say you refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. AppELii. In the course of the organization of the Ori^nal 
Knights, did you appoint as an assistant to yourself as organizer, 
with the title of grand kleagle, as testified by Mr. Young under oath, 
Houston P. Moms of Monroe, Louisiana ? 

Mr. SwENSON. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds that 
I have heretofore refused to answer. 

Mr. Appell. With respect to the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan of Louisiana, did you have within the organizational structure 
the position of grand kludd, or chaplain ? 

Mr. SwENSON. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds this 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Young testified under oath that the position of 
grand kludd was held by his brother. Jack D. Young. Is that truth- 
Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
this answer may incriminate me. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, as the National Kleagle of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, I will put it to you as a fact that in 
1963 you moved across the river into Mississippi and there recruited 
members for the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. I ask you 
to affirm or deny the fact. 

Mr, Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and I ask you to confirm or 
deny the fact, that you organized within the State of Mississippi some 
five Klaverns. 

Mr, Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Mr. Swenson, we have been unanimously directed 
by the full committee to conduct this investigation, and the House 
of Kepresentatives, by an overwhelming vote, supplied the fimds to 
conduct the investigation. It would be useful, in addition to the in- 
formation we have gathered, and that is voluminous, if one witness 
would stand up and spell out in his own words the objectives of 
klanism. Can you do that ? 

What is the organization all about ? 

What are its functions ? 

Wliat is its program ? 

What does it stand for ? 

Certainly, there are all kinds of literature issued along that line. 
We have that literature. I want to give you that opportunity. 

Will you spell out the objectives of your Klan organization and 
what klanism in general stands for ? 

Mr. Swenson. Have you finished ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, I hand you a copy of a series of oaths 
administered to members of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan, and I ask you if you subscribe to those oaths ? 

Mr. Swenson. Do you want me to read this ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2339 

Mr. Appell. You read it yourself, and I ask you if that is the oath 
you subscribe to. 

The, Chairman. You may read it. You sound as though you are 
anxious to do it. It -would be perfectly satisfactory for you to read it 
out loud and let us question you about what you read, if that is your 
wish. 

The question is, Do you subscribe to these oaths ? 

Mr. SwENSON, Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

(Document marked "John Swenson Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.^) 

Mr. Appell, Mr. Swenson, it is the result of the committee's in- 
vestigation that Roy E. Davis, in reactivating a Klan group in 1960, 
as a member of the 1915 Ku Klux Klan organization, adopted for 
liis organization that which was used by the Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan under William Joseph Simmons. 

Did the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan follow in toto the 
naturalization proceedings of the Klan headed by Mr. Simmons? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Simmons appeared before the House Rules Com- 
mittee on October 12 and 13, 1921, and after setting forth the oaths, 
which are almost verbatim to the oaths that I have shown you, after 
reading the last oath under "Klanishness," Mr. Simmons said that the 
naturalization proceedings continued with this language : 

Sirs, have you assumed without mental reservation your oath of allegiance 
to the invisible empire? 

According to Mr. Simmons, the candidate answers "Yes," and Mr. 
Simmons said this statement followed, and I quote from the trans- 
script of the testimony statement read to the candidate : 

Mortal man cannot assume a more binding oath; character and courage 
alone will enable you to keep it. Always remember that to keep this oath means 
to you honor, happiness, and life ; but to violate it means disgrace, dishonor, 
and death. May honor, happiness, and life be yours. 

Was this language taken from the testimony of Mr. Simmons as part 
of the official proceedings of the 1915 Klan a part of your organization ? 

Mr. Swenson. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Pool. May I ask the witness a question? 

Are you ansM-ering and taking the fifth amendment based on the 
gromids that your oath as a Klansman takes higher precedent than 
your obligation to appear before this committee and answer ques- 
tions? 

Is that the reason for it ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Pool. I just asked you the reason for it. You can't get in trou- 
ble with that. 

Mr. Sw^ENSON. Sir, I have heretofore stated this, that anything I 
might be asked might tend to incriminate me. 



^The^e oaths are similar in form to those used by the United Klans of America, Inc. 
See Robert Shelton Exhibit No. 4, committee report, The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Move- 
ment, pp. 343-346. 



2340 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. You are goino; to look pretty bad back home when you 
wave the flag and say you will fight for America first. You have 
not the guts to testify before the committee on the things we are ask- 
ing. I know you have a right to take the fifth amendment, I know 
that. Back home, you are not going to look very good. You keep 
on talking like that and the Ku Klux Klan will be out of existence 
sure enough, if you are not proud to testify for an organization that 
vou have any connection Avith. 
That is all. 

The Chairman. Mr. Venable. 
Mr. Venable. Yes. 

The Chairman. Mr. Chalmers appeared as counsel for the wit- 
nesses previously before this committee. I asked Mr. Chalmers 
whether, in addition to the invocation of the privileges or whatever 
constitutional amendments were relied on, the witnesses he repre- 
sented were relying on their oath of allegiance to the Klan as a rea- 
son for refusing to answer. He responded that they did not ; they were 
relying on the constitutional privilege. 

I wonder if you would mind giving your views as a lawyer on that. 
Are you relying on the oaths taken by your client, Mr. Swenson, as 
a member of the Klan, and I know you are familiar with them — 
that series of oaths — as a basis for refusal to answer questions before 
this committee ? 

Mr. Venable. Your Honor, we are relying on the first amendment 
on the grounds if a person should be compelled to answer, it might 
indicate that he was a member and, further, it would violate his rights 
to peacefully assemble, freedom to discuss their grievance under the 
first amendment. And under the fourth amendment — he invokes it, 
we invoke it — there are certain matters and things that might com- 
pel him, if it pertains to documents and records and books, that that 
would be a violation of his rights under the freedom to have and 
retain personal effects, and if you were compelled to produce them 
and if they would incriminate you, they would incriminate you. 
The fifth amendment says he shaV not be a witness against himself. 

Last but not least, the 14th amendment, as T understand the Su])reme 
Court has so held and ruled, if any of your riglits are being violated, 
they would be in violation of the 14th amendment. You would not 
have equal protection of law under the first, fourth, and fifth. The 
sixth amendment too. 

The Chairman. My question was whether the basis of your advice to 
your client for refusing to answer is these constitutional amendments? 

Mr. Venable. Yes. 

The Chairman. And you are not relying on liis oath as a Klansman 
as a reason for refusing to answer ? 

Mr. Venable. That's right, your Honor. 

Tlie Chairman. That is my question. 

Mr. Venable. Yes, sir ; tliat's right. 

The Chairman. Mean iug what — that you are or are not ? 

Mr. Venable. If he identified that oath and admitted that he took 
that oath, an oath similar to that oath, then he would admit that he was 
a Klansman, and if he is part of a machinery or grouji then some of 
them would be involved. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2341 

The Chairman. I understand. I think I understand you better 
than you understand me. 

Mr. Venable. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The oath taken by a member of the Klan is, in short, 
a pledge of secrecy, and conceivably, outside of what the decisions may 
say 

Mr. Venable. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. — conceivably a person, a member of the Klan who 
has taken that oath, could appear before the committee and say, "I 
have taken an oath of allegiance and loyalty to my organization. I 
believe in that oath so firmly that I am not going to say anything about 
the activities of my organization. I am not relying on the constitu- 
tional amendments. I am relying on my fealty of allegiance and dedi- 
cation to the oath of a Klansman as the reason for refusing." 

You are not relying on that oath as a matter of law, as I understand 
it. 

Mr. Venable. That is right . 

The Chairman. You are relying on the constitutional amendments? 

Mr. Venable. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That is what I wanted. That was the position- 

Mr. Venable. We are not trying to hide the oath. We are just 
invoking those constitutional amendments. 

The Chairman. If you relied on the oath, we would have some 
questions. You are not relying on it as a basis for refusing? 

Mr. Venable. That is right. 

Mr. Pool, Mr. Venable, since you have explained all that very 
nicely, will you go further and say Congress has no right to investigate 
anything ? 

Mr. Venable. No, I don't state that. I think Congress should have 
the right. 

Mr. Pool. "Wliere do they have a right to investigate? Where do 
you limit it ? 

Mr. Venable. They have a field to investigate many things, if your 
Honor please. Where it involves a person's rights and privileges 
as guaranteed under the Bill of Rights, then this Congress, this com- 
mittee, or any other person has no right to compel a person, to make 
a person produce evidence which might tend to incriminate him in a 
conspiracy or intend to incriminate him in a law violation. 

Mr. Pool. Is the Ku Klux Klan a conspiracy ? 

Mr. Venable. No, it is not a conspiracy. There are 43 separate 
Klans. 

Mr. Pool. You don't know anything about the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Venable. I know a little bit about it, yes, sir, having been in it 
quite a while. I am proud of it. 

Mr. Pool. You may have good ground for what you are saying. 
You know more about it than I do. Maybe you are right, that you 
should plead the fifth amendment. I don't know. 

Mr. Venable. I am not pleading the fifth amendment myself, as 
you know. I never have "pled" it and I never will. 

Mr. Pool. The Klan pleads it. 

Mr. Venable. I never invoked the fifth amendment as far as being a 
lawyer. 



2342 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE "U.S. 

Mr. Pool. I am getting tired of sitting here and all these niceties 
going on. When we get down to basic facts, I will ask questions along 
that line. We will just get right down to it. 

Mr. Venable. I thank you. 1 have a right to advise my client. 

Mr. Pool. You certainly do. 

Mr. Venable. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. And I have a right to talk to you, so we will talk a little 
bit more if you want to. 

Mr. Venable. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, you are appearing before the committee 
today in accordance with a subpena served upon you on October 27, 
1965, and extended by formal telegi\ams from the committee ? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir ; and I turn these in. 

Mr. Appell. You keep them. You are appearing in accordance 
Avith that subpena ? You are appearing here this morning because of 
the subpena served upon you ? 

The Chairman. That is a proper question. 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. It doesn't involve constitutional questions. 

Mr. Swenson. I am sorry, sir, but I am not an attorne3^ 

The Chairman. I understand. 

Mr. Swenson. I am appearing here according to this subpena. 

Mr. Appell. An attachment to that subpena, which was made part 
of the subpena, calls in three paragraphs for you to produce certain 
books and records. Paragraph 1 calls for you to produce : 

AH books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan — Louisiana, in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as present or past oflScer and/or member 
of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan — Louisiana. 

I now demand tliat you produce those documents called for. 

Mr. Swenson. I am respectfully refusing to produce these records, 
sir, that they may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask for a direction of the production 
of documents called for in paragrapli 1. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I am adding to this that this would be in viola- 
tion of my fourth and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

The Chairman. Mr. Swenson, I wanted to ask this question for the 
record, and I assume counsel will understand. The question is this : 
You understand, of course, that the part of the subpena duces tecum 
just read calls for you to produce those documents in the representa- 
tive capacity stated in the subpena; do you not? You understand 
that? In other words, and I wish counsel' would hear this, this part 
of the subpena in paragraph 1 — and I assume it is true in the succeed- 
ing two next paragraphs, so I will not have to i-epeat everything— calls 
on you as an officer, or in a capacity stated here, to produce the docu- 
ments in your possession as stated in that capacity. You understand 
that; do you? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes. 

The Chairman. Because it makes a difference, to be fair with you, 
between calling on you to produce, for example, your own income tax 
return or your own papers, and papers tliat we say you have or had 
in a representative capacity. There is a distinct ion between the two. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2343 

I will repeat this — you understand that under this subpena you are 
being asked and directed to produce documents in the capacity stated 
and not as J. B. Swenson, the man. You understand that; do you? 

Counsel, do you understand that? 

Mr. Venable. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That being the case, I now order and direct you to 
produce those documents in the capacity stated in the subpena, and I 
will try to explain to you as a layman this — I am repeating that this 
is an order directed to you to submit documents, papere, and records 
which we say you have, or had, in that representative capacity, and 
since we do not accept your right to refuse to do so in the capacity 
stated, that is why I am ordering you to produce them. I am referring 
now to documents described in paragraph 1 of the attacliment to this 
subpena. 

Mr. SwENSON. May I consult counsel, please ? 

The Chairman. Surely. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, as far as records of the Klan organization, I do 
not have any of those records. I guess I don't know what you are talk- 
ing about except it is something that you showed me here, but I don't 
have any records whatsoever of the Klan in my possession now at all. 

I did bring my personal income tax return wiiich you asked for. 

The Chairman. We haven't reached that. I didn't realize it had 
been asked for, frankly. I just wanted to explain the call of this par- 
ticular portion of the subpena. 

Mr, Swenson. I have none, sir. 

The Chairman. You are now saying that you cannot pj-oduce those 
documents called for in the capacity stated because you do not have 
them ? 

Mr. Swenson. No, sir. 

The Chairman. That is the reason you do not produce them? 

Mr. Swenson. That is right. 

The Chairman. And you know you are under oath ? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman — did you ever have possession of these 
documents ? 

Mr. Swenson. Mr. Pool, w'hat was the question, sir? 

Mr. Pool. Did you ever have possession of these documents that he 
just asked for under the subpena ? 

Mr. Swenson. I have had no documents since I have been sub- 
penaed, sir. I have had no documents like this. 

Mr. Pool. Did you ever have possession of these documents ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, you are asking me a direct question? Is that 
right, sir ? 

Mr. Pool. Sure I am asking the question. 

Mr. Swenson. I respectfully refuse to answer this question, sir, on 
the grounds heretofore stated. 

Mr. Pool. You just got through testifying the you didn't have pos- 
session of them. The proper question then would be whether you ever 
had possession of these documents. It is a very proper question, and 
you should answer it. 

Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct him to answer. 

The Chairman. We are now cross-examining you on your previous 
answer. You said, in answer to my question, that you were not produc- 
ing those documents for the reason that you didn't have them. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 2 



2344 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Now, Mr. Pool asked whether you ever had them. That is a proper 
question. 

Furthermore, if you persist in refusing to answer that one, I have 
two or three of my own I want to ask. So the pending question is 
this: Did you ever have possession of those documents? I order and 
direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, I will give him warning on the probabil- 
ity of contempt if he doesn't answer this question. 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, may I get a clarification on that? What records 
are you speaking of now on this ? 

The Chairman. Mr. Appell will explain it. 

Mr. SwENSON. That you asked me if I ever had. 

Mr. Appell. [Reading:] 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan — Louisiana, in your possession, custody or control, or main- 
tained by you or available to you as present or past oflBcer and/or member of 
the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan — Louisiana. 

The Chairman. Let me supplement that so it will be completely 
clear, Mr. Swenson. The subpena asks you to produce any kind of 
books, any kind of records, any kind of documents, any kind of corre- 
spondence, any kind of memoranda relating to the organization of, 
and the conduct of, the business and affairs of the Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan, whether those documents were — and as broadened 
by Mr. Pool — are or ever were, in your possession or under your con- 
trol or maintained by you or available to you either as present or as a 
past officer and/or as a member of the Original Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Louisiana. 

That is a broad question. It is a broad order. This subpena fol- 
lows tJie pattern of subpenas of this kind, and that is what Mr. Pool's 
question is. I have ordered you to answer it. Having said that you 
do not now have them, he is asking you — have you ever had any kind 
of book, record, document, or correspondence or memoranda in the 
capacity indicated, whether as a present officer or a past officer or a 
present member or a past member ? 

In answer to me, you said you couldn't produce them because you 
didn't have them. 

Well, now, we have the right to ask you — sure you don't have them 
now, and that is an acceptable answer. I didn't direct you to answer 
that question. You said you didn't have them, and you are under 
oath. But now the question is this — you say you don't now have 
them : What did you do with them ? Did you Just leave them home or 
give them to a friend so you would not be called upon to produce 
them ? That is the question we are now asking you. 

If you don't have them now the question is, Have you ever had them ? 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, I want to ask counsel liow long he wants 
to take. How about the recess ? 

The Chairman. What is your answer ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, T would like to speak to my counsel just a little 
longer if you don't mind, ])lease. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :05 a.m., the subconnnittee recessed and recon- 
vened at 11:11 a.m. Subcommittee members present at time of recess : 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2345 

Representatives AVillis, Pool, Weltner, and Buchanan and when hear- 
ings resumed: Representatives Willis, Pool, and Weltner.) 
The CiiAiRMAx. The committee will come to order. 
Mr. Swenson, you havintj consulted with counsel, and I think an- 
other one came to your table during this recess, I ask for an answer 
to the pending question. 

Mr. Vexable. HaA^e the question repeated first so you will under- 
stand. 

Mr. Swenson. Will you repeat that question again, sir? I think 
I understand it, but I want to be sure, sir. 

The Chairman. In answer to my question you said you could not 
produce books, records, documents, correspondence, and so on, be- 
cause you don't have tliem. I accepted that, because you are under 
oath. I accepted it temporarily, anyway, because that is your posi- 
tion and you are under oath. 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Pool asked you, and that is the pending ques- 
tion — well, you say you don't have them : Have you ever had them 
either in your possession or custody or control, and whether you main- 
tained those records or whether they are or were available to you? 
That is the question. 

Having said you don't liave them, did you ever have possession, 
custody, or control of these records? Did you ever maintain them? 
Were they ever available to you ? 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Pool. That is the pending question. I will direct you to 
answer. 

The Chairman. Yes, and I am directing him to answer. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, the records that you are referring to, I don't 
know how many or what kind that you have in mind, and so on, but 
any books, paraphernalia, correspondence, or anything that I had 
in my possession this past March, a year ago, this all was burned, 
destroyed completely. 

The Chairman. They were burned and destroyed ? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Who burned them ? 

Mr. Swenson. I burned them. 

The Chairman. All the records ? 

Mr, Swenson. All records that I had in my possession. 

The Chairman. All books? 

Mr. Swenson. All books. In other words, everything that I had 
in my possession ; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Why did you do that? 

Mr. Swenson. I did that so it wouldn't get into the hands of the 
enemy. 

The Chairman. Who is the enemy ? 

Mr. Swenson. I am speaking of the Communists and the elements 
of communism. 

The Chairman. What do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Savenson. I just say"l didn't want it to get into the hands of 
Communists. 

The Chairman. What would make you believe that they would? 
Are you friendly with the Communists? 



2346 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. SwENSON. No, sir, definitely not. 

The Chairman. I didn't say you were. I am not being facetious. 

Mr. SwENsoN. May I say something that does not have anything 
to do with this, sir ? 

The Chairman. You are speaking freely. That is what I want 
you to do, and we will have a nice time questioning you. I am not 
saying that as a basis for your not talking. On the contrary, I am 
delighted. 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respect this committee, very, very much. I 
am not against the committee. I respect it. 

The Chair3ian. All right. 

Mr. SwENSON. I am trying to answer your questions, sir, without 
incriminating myself. 

The Chairman. When was it that you destroyed them ? March of 
last year, you say ? 

Mr. Savenson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. March of 1965 or 1964? We are just entering 
1966. 

Mr. Swenson. March of 1964. 

The Chairman. March of 1964. 

Mr. Pool. That is 2 years ago. 

Mr. Swenson. Two years ago approximately. 

The Chairman. That is March of 1964 ? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I understand you had reference to last year be- 
cause we are in only the 3d or 4th of January. You were picturing 
yourself as still being in the year 1965. You destroyed, you burned 
them in March of 1964 ? 

Mr. Swenson. Approximately ; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you consult with j'our fellow officers in doing 
that, or did you take it upon yourself? Or, if that question em- 
barrasses you, I will ask you this — did you consult anyone? 

Mr. Savenson. Sir? 

The Chairman. Did you take it on yourself? 

Mr. Swenson. Did I do what now, sir? 

The Chairman. Did you consult anyone? 

Mr. Swenson. No, sir, I consulted no one. 

The Chairman. You just took it upon yourself to bum those rec- 
ords? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. iVnd you say under oath you did that because you 
didn't want those records to fall into tlie hands of the "enemy." 
That is your sworn testimony ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I didn't want them stolen, so that's the reason. 
I had reason to believe that they might be stolen, so I burned them. 

The Chairman. Was there anything in those records which, if they 
fell into the "hands of the enemy," would be damaging to you as an 
individual or to your organization ? 

Mr. Swenson. You asked me, sir, I believe, why did I 

Mr. Appell. What documents? 

The Chairman. My question was what, if anything, was contained 
in those records, whatever they may be, that you felt would be dam- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2347 

aging to you or to your organization if they did fall in the hands of 
"the enemy" ? This is anotlier way of saying — what was it that you 
felt should be destroyed because if the enemy got hold of them and read 
them that something bad would happen to you, your organization, or 
you can say to your country? I will allow you to say anything that 
you have in mind, 

Mr. SwENsoN. Sir, I don't know^ of anything definite. It is just 
that the materia] that we are speaking of the Communists would like 
to get their hands on it. Of course, I imagine they have it now. 
Actually, it just wasn't supposed to be where it could be stolen by 
any enemy organization of our country. 

The CiiAiRMAX. I have a vei-y few questions. I don't want to haggle 
with you. You are under oath and time will tell what happens. 

Mr. SwENSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman". Was there, in addition to your fear that they might 
be stolen or used by "the enemy," a feeling on your part that they might 
be subpenaed and that you didn't want them subpenaed in the future? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, no, sir. No, sir. 

The Chairman. And that is your testimony under oath? 

Mr. SwENSON. This was March of 1954, sir. 

The Chairman. 1964. 

Mr. Swenson. 1964 ; I am sorry. 

Mr. Pool. May I ask some questions here? Where did you burn 
these papers and records and things? Where were you when you 
burned them ? 

Mr. Savenson. You mean the city ? 

Mr. Pool. Were you in a house, a barn, out in the country ? Where 
were you ? 

Mr. Swenson. No, sir ; it was in my back yard. 

Mr. Pool. Your back yard ? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. "Wlio was there with you ? 

Mr. Swenson. No one. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have a witness there to say you burned them ? 

Mr. Swenson. No one. 

Mr. Pool. In the daytime or night ? 

Mr. S^venson. In the daytime. 

Mr. Pool. Do you remember what day ? 

Mr. Swenson. No, sir, I don't. 

Mr. Pool. Wliat records did you burn ? 

Mr. Sw^ENSON. Sir, I burned the records that we were speaking of 
just now, that he asked me about. 

Mr. Pool. Call them off. Did you burn the minutes of the meeting? 
Did you burn the membership lists? Call off the things. You know 
wliat they are. 

If you were afraid the Communists would get hold of them you cer- 
tainly knew what they were. 

Mr. Sw^ENsoN. Sir, it w\as just literature or documents. It was no 
membership list. I haven's had any membership list. 

The Chairman. Did they include any financial records, records of 
money you received, because it is my understanding that you will be 
questioned about financial transactions. This is a proper question, as 
I am sure your lawyer will agree. 



2348 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

You said that the reason for burning them was that you didn't want 
them to fall into the hands of the enemy, which you described as the 
Communists. 

Then I asked you, in addition to that reason were you fearful that 
they might be subpenaed. You said "No." 

Now I am asking you if any of the documents that you burned had 
to do with financial records, that is, receipts, evidence of money 
received as dues, for robes, or anything else, any financial records 
involved that were burned ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, the question that you asked me, if I answer that 
it may tend to incriminate me in you asking for certain things. 

The Chairman. Well, are you invoking constitutional privilege 
and the fifth amendment at this point? 

Mr, SwENSON". Fourth and fifth ; yes. 

The Chairman. The fourth and fifth. 

Mr. SwENSON. Respectfully, Mr. Willis, I am trying my best to 

The Chairman. I understand that. I am trying my best to be fair 
and yet to develop evidence. If in answer to my question as to whether 
there were any financial records involved you invoke the fourth and 
fifth amendments, I at least accept your invocation of the fifth as far 
as I am concerned, because you are under oath and you can invoke your 
privileges. 

Mr. Pool. How about the membership list, though? You don't 
remember whether they were in there or not ; do you ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, that is something I have never had, this mem- 
bership list. 

Mr. Pool. You have never had custody, control, or possession of 
the membership list of any Ku Klux Klan organization ? Is that what 
you are saying ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, the only thing I am saying is numbers. 

Mr. Pool. I didn't get you. You haven't answered my question. 

Mr. SwENSON. Just a minute, Mr. Pool. I am sorry. 

Mr. Pool. You have never had custody, possession, or control of the 
membership list of any Ku Klux Klan organization, is that right, the 
membership list? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, what do you mean by list, sir ? 

The Chairman. He said, Mr. Pool, the only thing he saw was num- 
bers. Maybe the list was numbers rather than names. 

Mr. Pool. I understand. You are referring to numbers instead of 
the names. Were you ever in control, possession, or custody o1 any 
lists of members whether by numbers or by names? 

Mr. SwENSON. Would you give me just a few minutes, sir? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. SwENSoN. Sir, this answer may tend to incriminate me. I 
invoke the fifth amendment on this one, sir, respectfully, sir. 

The Chairman. Let me say that technically, in the decisions of the 
Supreme Court, you have opened yourself to examination on these 
questions. I do not want to be suj^ertechnical, but I will have to direct 
you to answer that question. I think you opened up the door when 
you said the only thing you saw was numbers, and thereby that makes 
this question proper, so I will direct you to answer that question — 
whether or not you ever had a list of members, whether by names or by 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2349 

numbers. To that you invoked the fifth amendment. I simply do 
not accept that invocation at this time. 

You can consult with counsel. If you want to reinvoke your 
privileges under my order, I am not your lawyer, but you do what 
your lawyer tells you. 

Mr. SwENSON. The question was did I ever have numbers. 

The Chairman. You said that yourself. 

Mr. SwENSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You said you saw numbers. 

Mr. SwENSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The only thing you saw was numbers, not names. 
The pending question is : Did you have possession of a list of members, 
either by names or numbers, and was that list or series of numbers on 
pieces of paper included in the bonfire you had in your office? 

Mr. Sw^ENSON. What numbers I had, sir, yes, was included in the 
bonfire. 

Mr. Pool. Yov, testified a little earlier that it wasn't in there. 

Mr. SwENsoN. No, sir, if it is read back, I am sorry, sir, respectfully. 

Sir, all the records that I had — I don't want to get confused and I 
don't want to cause you any delay here. 

Mr. Pool. All right, did you iDurn the membership list when you 
burned 

Mr. SwENSON. I burned everything I had in my possession, sir. As 
far as membership list is concerned, all I know anything about is 
numbers, and everything that was in my possession was burned. 

The Chairman. Including the numbers ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Papers with Klans by numbers. You burned them ? 

Mr. SwENsoN. Sir, it was numbers. That is all I can 

Mr. Pool. He hasn't answered the question. He is evading the ques- 
tion. That is why I am trying to pin him down. 

Did you, or did you not, burn the membership list, either by numbers 
or names, out there in the backyard the day you burned all the other 
records you claimed here a while ago ? 

(Witness confers with counsel. ) 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, the numbers that you are speaking of were 
burned ; yes, sir. Everything that I had in my possession was burned. 

Mr. Pool. What Klavern or what was the list of ? What Klavern ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, respectfully, I believe we were speaking of docu- 
ments of the organization. 

Mr. Pool. Of the total organization. 

Mr. SwENSON. You asked me what became of them. 

Mr. Pool. What did the numbers pertain to? What membership 
did they pertain to? What organization are we talking about? 

The Chairman. The document calls for matters referring to the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan — Louisiana. That, I take it, 
is what you are referring to. 

Mr. Swenson. Let me talk to my counsel. 
(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully say that I have answered your 
question on what happened to the records which you asked me to 
produce here. They were destroyed. The question which is being 



2350 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

asked me now will tend to incriminate me under the fifth amendment — 
fourth amendment. 

Mr. Pool. After this numbers list was destroyed or misplaced or 
whatever happened to it, how did the organization get along without 
a numbers list ? 

Mr. Savenson. Sir, I refuse to answer on the grounds heretofore 
stated. 

Mr. Pool. Are we talking about tlie numbers list or membership of 
the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? Is that the list you are 
claiming was burned in that fire ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer because I think he opened it up for cross-examination and he 
should be directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. I have already ruled that these questions are per- 
tinent under the decisions and might lead to whatever legal remedy 
is available to us under the law. I have directed him to answer the 
question already, and he has reinvoked his amendment on which he 
relies, despite my admonition. That is where we stand. He stands 
on his position, and I stand on mine. In other words, I have already 
directed him to answer the question. 

Mr. Weltxer. With regard to the documents previously discussed 
as required by the subpena and with regard to the witness' explanation 
that the records were destroyed pursuant to his fear that they would 
fall into the hands of the enemy, I would ask tlie Chair's permission 
to read briefly from transcript of the executive session held on July 
28, 1965, being a transcript of the testimony of Royal V. Young, Route 
1, McDade, Louisiana. With the Chair's permission and with the at- 
tention of the witness, I would request the witness pay close attention 
to Mr. Young's sworn testimony with regard to the ''hands of the 
enemy." 

Mr. Young testified concerning a division in the Original Knights, 
stating that he was assigned to various offices under JNIr. J. D. Swen- 
son, the witness today. Then he was asked about the nature of the 
faction. Mr. Young stated, now quoting : 

There is no explaining to it. Some people wanted to take over the manu- 
facturing of the robes, and one man had it, and that was it. That is the only 
thing I can tell you. Power purge. 

Mr. Appell. Xow, who was the man that had the jurisdiction of the manu- 
facturing of the robes? 

Mr. Young. Everyone in the United States knows that, and also your investiga- 
tors. Mr. Swenson. 

That is on page 257 of the transcript. On page 293 the witness 
Young further states : 

Let me straighten this out. The relationship to the money was not to the 
money of the Klan. It was to the money of the robe money. That was most 
of the argument. 

Further on page 262, Mr. Young in identifying this faction stated 
under oath as follows : 

Mr. Appell. Who were the leaders in this faction against you? 
Mr. Young. Sir, this was the Murry Martin and Mr. Wildei-. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2351 

Mr. Chairman, the executive testimony of Mr. Young, previously 
released, shows there was a struggle over the robe money; that Mr. 
Swenson had the concession and it was given to him by Mr. Davis, 
of the State of Texas; and that it was in the period March 1964 that 
Swenson and Young lost out on the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan. 

M}^ question to Mr. Swenson is this — he said he burned the records 
to keep them from falling into the hands of the enemy : Mr. Swenson, 
you were afraid, were you not, that these records would fall into the 
hands of the enemy, Murry H. Martin and Billy Skipper, who led 
this revolt against your leadership ; is that not true? 

Mr. SwKxsoN. Sir, I would like to say I have already answered who 
1 thought the enemy might be. We were then speaking of the records. 
As I say, I am not an attorney. I will have to consult with my at- 
t orney. The books and records that you asked, that were subpenaed, 
that you asked to bring here, are no longer to be obtained. They are 
not here. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, he has burned the records. Let me 
restate the question to be sure the witness has it in mind. 

You stated, Mr. Swenson, you burned the records in March of 1964 
for fear that they would fall into the hands of the enemy. You fur- 
tlier stated that you meant by the enemy, the Communists. You 
stated also that they are probably in the hands of the Communists 
now, anyway. 

I have directed your attention to the sworn testimony of Koyal V. 
Young concerning this controversy in March of 1964. I am asking 
you whetlier or not the truth of the matter is that the enemy into 
whose hands you feared these records might fall were Murry Martin, 
Grady Wilder, and Billy Skipper, who challenged you and Mr. Young 
for the leadership of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
the State of Louisiana. Isn't that the fact, Mr. Swenson? 

Mr. SwENsox. Sir, I didn't fear that they would fall into Mr. 
Martin's hands, that you are speaking of, or anyone else except the 
Communists, that I w^as speaking of. I believe that is about the only 
way that I know how to answer you on that, sir, respectfully, 

Mr. Weltner. Did you consider Messrs. Martin, Wilder, and Skip- 
per as your enemies ? 

Mr. SwKxsoN. Sir, on your question I refuse to answer on the 
grounds hei'etofore stated. 

The CHAiRjvrAN. You mean by that, the 1st, the 4th, the 5tli, and the 
14th amendments, and particularly the 5th amendment? 

Mr. SwExsox. Yes, sir, respectfully. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to an- 
swer the question. 

The Chatrimax. I will direct you to answer that question because 
this examination is quite proper and perfectly obvious. Mr. Swenson, 
the reason is this: It is just as simple as daylight. A witness cannot 
very well appear before a committee and extol his virtues in a certain 
area and tlien, having done that, start invoking the fourth and fifth 
amendments under cross-examination. That is not permissible. The 
question Mi-. Weltner is asking is perfectly proper, and I think quite 
obvious. I do direct you to answer that question. 



2352 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. SwEXSOX. Sir, you are still talking about the records ? 

The CwAiRMAx. That is right. That is, we are still talking about 
Mr. Weltner's question, and it is that the reason for burning the rec- 
oi'ds was not so much fear of the enemy, meaning the Connnunists, 
but you were afraid that these records might fall into the hands of 
the people that you were having a financial struggle and intraorga- 
nizational fuss going on with. That is what he is asking. 

Mr. SwExsoN. Sir, I didn't know anything about this fuss, except 
what you have read there which Mr. Young has said. 

The Chairmax. Let me say that Mr. Young when he appeared, like 
you, was under oath. He was under the pains and penalties of 
perjury. Xow you are opening up the question some more. We want 
to give you the opportunity to talk about the lack of any intraorganiza- 
tional struggle, including financial transactions concerning robes at 
that time. If that is your testimony under oath, Mr. Swenson, that 
is the end of it with me. 

Mr. Sw^ENSox. Sir, I have forgotten the first question. 

The Chairmax\ Just once more and then it will be over. Will you 
repeat the question ? 

Mr. Weltxer. The question is as follows: You stated in response 
to the subpena that you did not have them since March 1964, that 
you destroyed them in your backyard, and the reason you did so was 
to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy, and you identified 
the enemy as the Communists. I have read to you the excerpt from 
the transcript of July 28, 1965, concerning a struggle between you and 
Mr. Young and Grady Wilder and Billy Skipper concerning the robe 
money and the organization. I am asking you if it is not true that 
the enemy into whose hands you feared these records might fall were 
not the Communists, but Grady Wilder, Billy Skipper, and Murry 
Martin. 

Mr. SwExsox. No, sir, the Communists were the ones I was afraid 
they would fall into the hands of. 

Mr. Weltxer. All right, that is an answer to the question. 

Were there among the records that you destroyed any records per- 
taining to the manufacture, sale, or distribution of robes among mem- 
bers of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Swexsox'. Sir, on this question I refuse to answer on the 
grounds heretofore stated. 

Mr. AVeltxer. Do you have knowledge of the existence or location 
of any other records pertaining to the Original Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan or any other Ku Klux Klan organization, Mr. Swenson? 

Mr. SwEXsox. Sir, will you give me that question once more? 

Mr. Weltx-^er. Do you have knowledge of the existence or location 
of any^other records pertaining to the Original Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan or any other Ku Klux Klan organization ? 

Mr. SwExsox. Sir, I refuse to answer on the gi'ounds heretofore 
stated, on the fourth and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Weltxer. Mr. Swenson, in Mr. Young's testimony of July 28, 
1965, concerning the internal struggle within the Original Knights 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN INT THE U.S. 2353 

organizaion, he stated in response to a question — the question is as 
follows : 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Young, what did the dissenting group feel was the proper 
program? What kind of activities did they want you to lead them into? 

Mr. Young. Sir, I don't know. I will decide, and show you one incident that 
might suffice. They wanted to burn crosses at the polls at the election in 1963, 
and I put out specific orders that was to be ruled out because I did not believe 
in intimidation of the voters. * * * 

Mr. Weltner. Did you consider the act of burning the cross in and of itself 
to be an intimidation? 

Mr. Young. I did. I figures that there was some i)eople might see those 
crosses and fail to go to vote. 

My question is, Were you aware of the controversy identified by 
Royal V. Young concerning burning of crosses at the polls in 1963? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I refuse to answer on the grounds heretofore 
stated — the first, fourth, and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Weltner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, with respect to your reason for destroy- 
ing the records that you have testified to in response to questions asked 
by members of the committee, I put it to you as a fact that, imme- 
diately prior to the destruction of the records, by action of the mem- 
bership you were voted out of any office that you held, together with 
Mr. Royal V. Young. 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact that the reason the member- 
ship took this action, or the leaders took this action, was because of 
charges leveled against you of enriching yourself handsomely over the 
sale of robes. 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you, if these records which you destroyed had 
fallen into the hands of the faction that was opposing you, it would 
have documented the charges they were making against you? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I refuse to answer on the grounds heretofore 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, part 2 of the subpena calls for you to 
produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past member and/or officer of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and 
require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said organization, the 
same being in your posession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce those documents. 

The Chairman. I think we could shorten the examination on item 
2 and probably item 3 of the subpena, certainly item 2, if I made this 
statement, and then if you say that the same situation with reference 
to these documents obtains as that concerning the documents required 
in paragraph 1. In other words, you took the position with reference 
to paragraph 1 that the documents therein listed were not in your 
possession, and then we examined you as to whether they had been in 
your possession. Then you said you had destroyed them by fire. Then 
we examined you on this. Is it the same situation that your answers 



2354 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAISP IN THE U.S. 

with reference to paragraph 2 would be the same as with reference 
to paragraph 1 ? 

If you want to go through it in that way, it is all right with me. So 
I ask you specifically : Do you now have possession of these documents ? 
Do you now have possession of the documents called for in para- 
graph 2 ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, it is the same thing in paragraph 1. 

The Chairman. Your answer is that you do not have them ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is it your answer that they were consumed by fire 
under the same circumstances with reference to paragraph 1 ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Part 3, Mr. Swenson 

The Chairman. Counsel, is it agreed that the pertinent questions 
and answers with reference to paragraph 1 would be the same with 
reference to paragraph 2 ? 

Mr. Venable. Yes. 

The Chairman. In other words. No. 1, your answer is that you do 
not have those documents ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Swenson. No, sir. 

The Chairman. No. 2 is that you destroyed them in a bonfire 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. — under the same circumstances with reference to 
paragraph 1. If we asked you the same questions, your answers would 
be the same; is that correct? I think that is what counsel indicated. 

Mr. Venable. Yes, sir. That is right. 

The Chairman. That is agreed to, Counsel ? 

Mr. Venable. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Could I ask him if he destroyed by fire the records 
that the ''Constitution and Laws'' of said organization authorize and 
require be maintained by him? Were these also destroyed by fire? 

(Witness confers with counsel. ) 

The Chairman. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Swenson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool, In other words, you burned the constitution and bylaws 
along with all the other records ; is that correct ? 

The Chairman. No. I think specifically he burned the records re- 
quired by the constitution and bylaws to be kept. 

Mr. Pool. Which included the constitution and bylaws. 

Let me ask it of you in another way. In other words, you burned 
the very documents that the constitution and bylaws required that 
you keep ; is that correct ? 

Mr. SwExsoN. Sir, anything that I had in my possession, as I stated 
in paragraph 1 there, was destroyed. 

Mr. Pool. Including these documents that the constitution and by- 
laws required that you keep. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, respectfully, all the paraphernalia that you 
asked for in paragraph 1 and paragraph 2 here were destroyed. 

Mr. Pool. Can you answer my question and say "Yes"? Is that 
correct, that you burned the documents that the constitution and by- 
laws required that you keep ? 

The Chairman. Or those are among the documents that you de- 
stroyed, whatever you had. 

Mr. Swenson. What you have stated here, sir 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2355 

The Chairman. What you are answering is yes in a roundabout 
way. 

Mr, SwENSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. In other words, your constitution and byhiws did not 
mean a whole lot to you ; did it ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, if I answer this question, it will tend to incrimi- 
nate me in the language it was asked. I respectfully answer you that 
I have none of these records in my possession. 

Mr. Pool. I understand that. 

The Chairman. But you are refusing to answer the last question 
on the grounds of the privileges afforded to you under the constitu- 
tional amendments which you have previously invoked. That is what 
you are doing. 

Mr. SwENSON. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. That is fine and dandy. I think it is a terrible situation 
when you just ignored the constitution and laws of the organization 
like that and burned the records which you were supposed to keep 
under the constitution and bylaws. That is all I am trying to point 
out. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, paragraph 3 called for you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. Individual Income Tax Return," for the calendar years 1958 through 
1964, filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, 
Internal Revenue Service. 

I ask you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Swenson. May I consult my attorney ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I am respectfully refusing to produce my per- 
sonal income tax records since they may tend to incriminate me, on 
the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. You said you had them with you a while ago, but 
I am not going to insist that you produce the income tax returns if 
you invoke the fifth amendment in that respect. It might ease a lot 
of pain later on, because we will question you about the finances. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny, 
that the cover name used while you were the National Kleagle and 
Grand Dragon of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was the 
Louisiana Rifle Association. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I refuse to answer on the grounds heretofore 
stated, on the first, fourth, and fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. Let me ask the question in a different way. Is it 
not a fact that you used the Louisiana Rifle Association as a coverup 
and as a phony front organization for the Ku Klux Klan organization ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I very respectfully refuse to answer on the 
grounds heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, you said that you have with you retained 
copies from your Income Tax Returns, Form 1040. I put it to you as a 
fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, from your retained copies 
of your income tax returns that for the year 1962 you reported com- 
missions from the Louisiana Rifle Association in the amount of $4,473 ; 
in the year 1963, $10,690 ; and that in 1964 up until the time you were 
removed, $1,781.66. I ask you to affirm or deny the fact that these 
are the figures that you reported on your tax returns. 



2356 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. SwENsoN. May I confer with my counsel ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated, based on the fifth amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States. 

(Income tax returns marked "Jolin Swenson Exhibit No. 2" and 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Then the charges made against you that you were en- 
riching yourself were in fact trutlif ul. Is that so ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I refuse to answer on the grounds heretofore 
stated. 

(At this point Mr. Willis left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Pool (presiding). Mr. Appell, this is in addition to other in- 
come he reported ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Swenson, what part of the income from the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan, which maintained a national account and a 
local account under the name of the Louisiana Rifle Association, did 
Royal V. Young receive ? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I refuse to answer on the grounds heretofore 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should reflect that 
in the interrogation of Mr. Royal V. Young on July 28, 1965, Mr. 
Young also invoked constitutional privileges with respect to the 
finances of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, of which 
he was the Imperial Dragon, as to whether or not he shared in the 
profits made by Mr. Swenson on the exclusive sale of robes which 
Mr. Swenson had received as a commission from Roy E. Davis. 

Mr. Pool, If there is no objection, the record will so show and it is 
so ordered. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, so the record might establish that the 
Louisiana Rifle Association was, in fact, the cover name of the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, I put it to you as a fact, 
and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that one of the Klaverns under 
your jurisdiction was the Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club in 
Monroe, Louisiana. 

(At this point Mr. Willis returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you two envelopes, one containing canceled 
checks drawn against the account of the Monroe Hunting and Fishing 
Club, payable to the Louisiana Rifle Association, endorsed by the 
Louisiana Rifle Association, and another envelope containing checks 
against the account of the Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club, payable 
to cash, and endorsed by J. D. Swenson. I ask you, after you examine 
tlie contents of these envelopes — will you also examine the other 
envelope, Mr. Swenson, and the checks endorsed by J. D. Swenson? 

Mr. Swenson, do the checks made payable to the Louisiana Riflle 
xVssociation by the Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club represent per 
capita dues to the state and national office, together with a portion of 
the membership fees due to the office on the initiation of a new 
member ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



2357 



Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Eegarding- the checks endorsed by J. D. Swenson, do 
these checks represent payments for robes that you had the exclusive 
concession for ? 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I refuse to answer on the grounds heretofore 
stated. 

(Checks marked "John Swenson Exhibits Nos. 3 and 4," respec- 
tively. One check from each exhibit follows; balance retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

John Swenson Exhibit No. 3 



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2358 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



John Swenson Exhibit No. 4 















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The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Willis, Pool, Weltner, and Buchanan.) 

(Wliereupon, at 12 :15 p.m., Tuesday, January 4, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, JANUARY 4, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Weltner, and Buchanan.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE XJ.S. 2359 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 
Mr. Appell, I suppose you want to recall Mr. Swenson. 
Mr. Appell. Will Mr. Swenson take the stand, please? 
The Chairman. Mr. Swenson, you have already been sworn. Have 
a seat, please. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN DEASON SWENSON— Resumed 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, as the National Kleagle, or national or- 
ganizer of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, I put it to you 
as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that you organized 
members into the Klan in the State of Mississippi. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I refuse to answer — respectfully refuse to an- 
swer on the grounds heretofore stated, based on the fourth and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that in Mississippi you created a realm of the Original 
Knights and that you recommended to Royal V. Young for appoint- 
ment to the position of Grand Dragon for the State of Mississippi 
Douglas A. Byrd. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that prior to your removal from office in the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan in December of 1963 you banished from the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Douglas A. Byrd and Ed- 
ward L. McDaniel. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that the Klansmen that you recruited in Mississippi broke 
with your organizations and that they became the cadre of an organ- 
ization now operating in Mississippi known as the White Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know that E. L. McDaniel, whom you banished 
from your organization in December 1963, is now the Grand Dragon 
for Mississippi of the United Klans of America, Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan, Inc. ? 

Mr. Swenson. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you possess any knowledge of violence, bombings, 
or cross-burnings by members of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan during the period of time that you were the Grand Dragon? 

Mr. Swenson. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. In February of 1962 there was a bombing at the home 
of the Negro leader in Shreveport, Louisiana, C. O. Simpkins. Was 
that act carried out by members of the Klan, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Swenson. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 3- 



2360 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. In April 1962 there was a bombing at the Negro 
Masonic Lodge in Shreveport, Louisiana. Do yon possess any knowl- 
edge that this bombing was carried out by members of your Klan 
organization ? 

Mr. SwENSOx. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. In May of 1962 there was a bombing at the Simpkins' 
liome in Shreveport, Ix)uisiana. I ask you if you possess any knowl- 
edge tliat members of your Klan organizations engaged in that act? 

Mr. SwENSox. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. In September 1962 there was an additional bombing 
in Shreveport, Louisiana, the home of a wliite integrationist. Do 
you possess any knowledge that members of your Klan were involved 
in that action? 

Mr. SwEXSox. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. In May of 1963 there was A'iolence on the campus of 
the Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge. "Were members of 
your Klan involved in that violence ? 

Mr. SwExsox. Sir, I refuse to answer, respectfully refuse to an- 
swer on the grounds heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Swenson, Mr. Young was asked in his testimony on 
July 28, 1965, page 294, questions concerning the takeover of the 
Original Knights, the leadership of Mr. Young and yourself. The 
questioning went like this — related to the robe concession. Mr. Young 
says that he was told not to dig into the fact that you had the robe 
concession, and the questioning went on by Mr. Hitz : 

And was that the sole accusation of mishandling of funds that was again 
made against you, Mr. Young? 

Mr. Young. That was the question brought up to me. That I should do some- 
thing about it. 

Mr. Hitz. AVell, was it not quite easy to represent to anyone who accused 
you of that, that it was the act of the Imperial Wizard and that your direction 
from the Imperial Wizard, who gave you your job as Imperial Dragon, was to 
keep out of it? 

^Ir. YoiXG. At that time, it made no difference. There was a power purge 
on ; and if I had to have told them that anybody had told me to stay out of it. 
it would still have been the same thing over and over again. When men set 
their mind to take over something, the fir-st thing they go through is your 
pocketbook. 

The Chaikmax. Is Avhat? 

Mr, Appell. Your pocketbook. 

Is this the desire, to get the other individuals to get their hands 
on the profit that you and Mr. Young were making that caused the 
split in the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in March of 1964? 

Mr. Swexsox. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

The Chaiumax. Mr. Swenson, we have quoted quite extensively 
from the testimony of Mr. Young under oath, and that testimony, 
I think it is fair to say, was not exactly complimentary to you. His 
testimony was under oath. It was part of our investigation. 

Now, would you care to say what you think of Mr. Young? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2361 

Mr. SwENSON. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer this question, 
sir, on the grounds heretofore stated. 

The Chairman. I just wanted to give you that opportunity which 
would be a doublecheck on the credibility of liis sworn testimony. 

Mr. ArPELL. ]Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

I would like to ask as a part of the w^itness' testimony that the 
subpena — that the records obtained of the account in the name of the 
Louisiana Rifle Association from the Louisiana Bank and Trust 
Company, Shreveport, Louisiana, and from the Bossier Bank and 
Trust Company, Bossier City, Louisiana, be made a part of the record 
of Mr. Swenson's testimony. 

The Chairman. Those documents will be inserted in the record 
at the point where ]\Ir. Swenson was questioned about them, so in 
reading the whole transcript the evidence introduced will be at that 
point. 

(Bank records marked "John Swenson Exhibit No. 5" and retained 
in cormnittee nles. ) 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Swenson, you have made a good deal of the 
fact that you have burned the records because you didn't want them 
to fall into the hands of the enemy, which you said w^as commmiism, 
the Communists. Certainly this committee is concerned about Com- 
munist subversion, and continues to do a good deal of work in that 
field. However, I think it is only fair to point out that whatever your 
concern might have been, I personally very much doubt that the 
(Communists would have any reason to do anything to the Ku Klux 
Klan or any of its various organizations, because I can't think of an 
outfit that has more consistently served the purposes of the Com- 
munists than the various Klan organizations, however unwittingly. 

It seems to me one could well contend that the Klan organizations 
have consistently and well served the purposes of the Communists in 
feeding propaganda for their propaganda mill, and there would be 
little reason for them to try to do away wnth your organization, sir, 
because it serves them too well. 

Secondly, I would like to point out that not being a Communist does 
not make a man or organization a sahit, that evil has many faces and 
the evil of communism is just one of those faces. 

I would like to point out for your edification that Judas Iscariot 
was not a Communist, nor was John Dillinger, nor w'as Jesse James, 
nor was Adolf Hitler, and the fact is under the guise of anticommu- 
nism, when an organization under this guise commits acts of violence 
or terrorism, it is without excuse for its extra-legal activities and being 
non-Communist or against communism is hardly justification for any 
act that is illegal or that is wa*ong. 

Consequently, I would say in light of these things, of the service 
that the Klan organizations have rendered to worlcl communism, in 
light of the nature of the organization of which it is said you are the 
father, I wonder if you aren't very much ashamed that it is the case 
that you are at least known to be the father of the Ku Klux Klan in 
Louisiana, Aren't you ashamed of that, sir ? 

I will withdraw the question. No further questions. 

The Chairman. Call your next w^itness. 



2362 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr, SwENSON. Thank you, gentlemen. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Murry H. Martin. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the Avhole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Martin. I do, 

TESTIMONY OF MURRY H. MARTIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JAMES R. VENABLE 

Mr. Appfi.l. Mr. Martin, will you state your full name for the 
record ? 

Mr. Martin. Murry H. Martin. 

Mr. Appei-i.. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Martin. June 1, 1924, in Tioga, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appkli-. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Martin. In Winnsboro, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Venable. James R. Venable, Atlanta, Georgia. 

Mr. Appfll. Mr. Martin, you are appearing here this morning in 
accordance with a subpena served upon you on the 27th day of October 
at 2303 Rowland Street, Winnsboro, Louisiana, and subsequently the 
appearance was postponed by telegram ? 

Mr. Martin . Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, the subpena served upon you demands for 
you to bring with you and produce before the said committee docu- 
ments set forth in an attachment, paragraph 1 of which reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the National Knights 
of the Ku Kln\ Klan, Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliatetl or- 
ganizations, namely, Christian Constitutional Crusaders, in your iwssession, 
custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you as Grand Dragon 
and/or member of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, and/or 
National Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I request you to produce the documents as called for in the subpena. 

Mr. Martin. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully decline to produce these 
books, documents, and records on the constitutional grounds of the 
fourth and fifth amendment, the Constitution "uaranteeinir the free- 
dom of unreasonable search and seizure. 

The Chahofan. And self-incrimination? 

Mr. Martin. And self-incrimination. 

Mr. Appell. I ask that the witness be asked to produce the records 
asked for in tlie subpena. 

The Chairman. Mr. Martin, were you in the hearing room when 
Mr. Swenson testified? 

Mr. Martin. I was ; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I ask that because I think, though I assume you 
are not a lawyer, you understood that, from our point of view, any- 
way, there is a distinction between ordering an individual to produce 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2363 

pereonal records such as an income tax return, and a subpena served 
upon liim in a corporate or representative capacity which he holds, not 
for himself, but for an organization. You understood my explanation 
of that? 

Mr. IVIartin. I did ; yes. 

The Chairman. Well, for that reason we do not accept as valid 
reasons for refusing to produce these documents your reliance on these 
constitutional amendments, and I therefore order and direct you to 
produce them. 

Let me add this : I do so because the court decisions require me to 
do it. It is a cautionary note to a witness w^hen the chairman of this 
committee, despite the invocation of constitutional grounds, never- 
theless orders a witness to produce documents. It means we do not 
accept your position as a matter of law and it means that it could re- 
sult, for further consideration, in a contempt citation. 

I am saying that because I want you to understand it and because 
the court decisions require me to do that; therefore, for the reasons 
that I have stated, I order and direct you to produce the documents. 

Mr. Martin. Mr. Chairman, I still must decline to answer. 

In support of this, I would like to say that the Supreme Court in 
1961 knocked down a Louisiana statute that required all fraternal 
or 

The Chairman. Say that again. 

Mr. Martin. I am not a law^yer. 

The Chairman. I just want to caution you that perhaps, since you 
are not a law^yer, I am not sure you are capable of carrying on this 
discussion. Talk to your lawyer and go on if you want to. 

Mr. Martin. I must still decline to answer on the grounds that it 
may incriminate me under the first, fourth, and fifth amendment to 
the Constitution. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, paragraph 2 of the attachment com- 
manded you to bring with you, and to produce : 

ah books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as member or oflScer of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and/or Chris- 
tian Constitutional Crusaders which the "Constitution and Laws" of said or- 
ganization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer 
of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce the documents requested in paragraph 2. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to produce these documents in 
question on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Mr. Martin, for the reasons previously pointed out 
and explained in detail, I order and direct you to produce the 
documents. 

Mr. Appell. You were directed, Mr. Martin. 

Mr. Martin. I must decline. 

The Chairman. On the ground previously stated ? 

Mr. Martin. Right, on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Did you inform him he is subject to possible citation for 
contempt ? 

The Chairman. Yes. That is the reason for ordering him. 



2364 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, paraofraph 3 of the subpena calls upon 
you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. Individual Income Tax Return," for the calendar years 1958 through 1964, 
filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, 
Internal Revenue Service. 

I ask you to produce those tax returns. 

Mr. Martin. I must decline to produce these records on the con- 
stitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, I hand you a blank form of application 
for citizenship in the Invisible Empire of the Original Ku Klux Klan. 
I ask if you have executed an application identical to or similar to that. 

Mr. Martix. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Murrv Martin Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a copy of a series of oaths and ask you if 
you subscribe to those series of oaths in any organization that you 
might liave belonged to ? 

Mr. Martin, I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked '"John Swenson Exhibit Xo. 1.'*) 

Mr. Appell. I hand you the reproduction of a document, the "Kon- 
stitution of the Original Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Louisiana." I ask 
you if this constitution was adopted by the Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan organization which you at one time headed. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Murry 5lartin Exhibit No. 2." See commit- 
tee report. The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Movemenf. pp. 297-319.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, were you acquainted with Mr. Royal V. 
Young, the Imperial Dragon of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you hold an office under Mr. Young in that organ- 
ization? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Young testified that after he was appointed to 
the position of Imperial Dragon that Murry H. Martin was appointed 
to the office of Grand Giant. Is that testimony truthful ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know that the cover name for the Original 
Knights during that period of time was the Louisiana Rifle Associa- 
tion? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2365 

The Chairman. I prefer to put it this way : Is it not within your 
knowledge that that Khm organization, as part of its efforts to remain 
completely in the background and secret, used the cover name or front 
name of tlie Louisiana Kitle Association '^ 

In other words, we have hoard, wc have read literature, literature of 
all other organizations of the type you headed, about their use of front 
organizations and all the rest of it. ' 

I am trying to say JNIr. Appell has represented to you as a cold fact 
that you were a party to using a front organization. Is that true 
or not ? 

Mr. Martix. I decline to answer that question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you an envelope which contains five checks 
totaling $531.26 made payable to "Murray" H. [Murry H. or M. H.] 
Martin, drawn against the account of the Louisiana Rifle Association, 
Louisiana Bank and Trust Company, Shreveport, Louisiana, and ask 
3'OU whether you affirm or deny the fact that you are the payee desig- 
nated on those checks. 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds j^reviously stated. 

( Checks marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 3." One of said checks 
follows; balance retained in committee files.) 

Murry Martin Exhibit No. 3 





'-*T "HHKVKIN.tfT.fe*. April 29 IB 63 Q„gjj 

'•mi i).. ^*: ' ■ "'f 

April — ^ */^iaiMU!,M>r\.K AMOOMTMM. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny it as a fact, that after Mr. Young and Mr. Swenson 
were removed from the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan that a 
deal was worked out among those responsible for removing them from 
office whereby you would take over the position of Grand Dragon of 
the organization. I ask you to affirm it or deny it. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you took office without being elected and that you were 
supposed to hold this office for some 6 months, at which time there 
was to be an election and someone else other than yourself was sup- 



2366 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

posed to succeed to the office of Grand Dragon. I ask yon to affirm 
or deny it. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that the person avIio under the agreement was supposed to 
take over was Houston P. Morris, who was the grand kleagle of your 
organization. I ask you to affirm or deny it. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that when you had made your position within the organiza- 
tion solid enough so that at the election you won and Mr. Morris did 
not win, that he broke with the organization and created a new Klan 
group in Louisiana known as the Original Ku Klux Klan of America, 
Inc. 

Mr. Martin. I decline to answer on the constitutional grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that he took from your organization certain Klaverns within 
it. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that he later took this group of people into the United Klans 
of America, Realm of Louisiana. 

The Chairman. Of which Mr. Shelton is head ? 

Mr. Appell. Of which Mr. Shelton is the Imperial Wizard. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that when you took over leadership of the Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan that you adopted as a cover name for that organiza- 
tion the Christian Constitutional Crusaders. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. And this is being stated to you as a fact again, that 
you use that fancy Christian name as a purely phony front organiza- 
tion, just as false as a 2-foot yardstick. Is that true? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a signature card filed in the account of the 
name of the Cliristian Constitutional Crusaders opened in the Ouachita 
National Bank in Monroe, Louisiana. In examining this card I ask 
you — put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that 
the card reflects that the president of the Christian Constitutional 
Crusaders is M. H. Martin ; that the secretary is L. G. Wilder; and that 
the treasurer is Henry I. Bayles. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2367 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional o;rounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 4" follows:) 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 4 

r ..... 

LiI:^j^.^l^- C:fc^x1^stlan^i2ans tj.tirtl ', „_; 



f' r; K 'J iD £?!">. 



v(r;r-;.pr;sr;:riE>4^- • 

'^^ sire-? ETA ftJr^ ■ 
vy<R?.A.«Ur-eri5 






,'. ■ " .y 



i!:fj^__iff:>^..^ fi.:..:,.:! 









1 

tS5 oTriv:n tics: 



7?c.^^.''.iit-wai,»<'.i:V'.'.>. --'.^ k' . ..■■.^„-54». 



Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, during the appearance of Mr. Swenson we 
discussed with him the Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club, Avhich 
made checks payable to the Louisiana Rifle Association. 

According to the bank account of the Monroe Hunting and Fishing 
Club maintained at the Central Savings Bank & Trust Co. of 
Monroe, Louisiana, from January 21, 1964, to June 3, 1964, they issued 
five checks which were endorsed by the Christian Constitutional Cru- 
saders. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact, that these checks covered dues, the realm's share of the new mem- 
bers' klectokon or membership fees. I ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact, sir. 

Mr. Martin. Repeat the question, please. I don't quite understand 
all you said there. 

Mr. Appell. The bank records of the Monroe Hunting and Fishing 
Club reflect that from January 21, 1964, to June 3, 1964, there were 
five checks payable to cash and endorsed by the Christian Constitu- 
tional Crusaders. I ask you if it is a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that these cliecks represented dues and klectokon or mem- 
bership fees owed to the grand office on the part of this Klavern. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Checks marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 5" not reproducible; 
retained in committee files. ) 



2368 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Ill May of 1963 this account in the Central Savings 
Bank & Trust Co. was opened. According to the signature card of 
this account, Houston P. Morris was the president, or exalted cyclops. 
Did you know this to be a fact, sir ? 

Mr, Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Bruce Bairnsfather was the secretary, or kligrapp. 
Did you know this to be a fact ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. J. R. Douglas was the klabee, or treasurer. Did you 
know this to be a fact ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 6." See p. 2369.) 

Mr. Appell. This signature card was changed on August 21, 1963, 
with Robert Fuller as the exalted cyclops. Did you know that Robert 
Fuller was the exalted cyclops ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the questions on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know that Russell A. Price was the secretary ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know that the Reverend Louis Warren was the 
treasurer ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 7.*' See p. 2370.) 

Mr. Appell. On January 21, 1964, the signature card was again 
changed to this account with the exalted cyclops being James C. Oliver, 
who was employed by Louisiana State Highway Department. Did 
you know him to be the exalted cyclops? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. That F. T. Odom according to the bank records was the 
vice president. Did you know him to be the vice president? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Appell, That Russell A. Price was the secretary. Did you 
know him to be the secretary ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 8."- See p. 2371. 
Exhibits Nos. 6, 7, and 8 follow:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2369 



MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 6 
CENTRAL SAVINGS BANK & TRUST CO. 

MONROE. LOUISIANA 

Authority of Lodge, Association or Other Similar Organization 

To CENTRAL SAVINGS BANK & TRUST CO. 

At a regular meeting of th,. /^ &-ViyiO-€ /JxA.^Ui^ d^M ^ y^-^oA'-x^ej cJiLp - 



of the- 



held on the ^J "^^V of jttjAiA^ 19w_^, at which a quorum 

was present, the following officers were cJuly elected for the ensuing year and until their successors shall be 



elected and shall have qualified: 

Name Title 




' hvtrvtA .i^^ /(A^.^*C^^ <n^u^ 1-.J'^JL:^cl ^K^ 



Under the rules of the_ 

osiled to its credit with the Central Savings Bank"S Trust Co. may be withdrawn by the_ 




ntral Savings Bank & Trust ' 



qyiA^ 'TA^'iC^'A'cAjey^^ ^ /d ^^^Vi.zjL QaaJj- <^^.c«M.-^iL.!<lC<^X^ 



(U»e blank ipaces for ti?lei of ngn.ng officers ar^d Jt»le whelher ch?eki w.ll b^ar one sigriafor* or will be ligned ancf tounlefi-qned) 

who authorized to endorse and sign Checks, Drafts and Orders for the payment of money. 

The authority herein given is to remain irrevocable so far as the above bank is concerned until it be notifed 
in writing of the revocation of such authority and shall in writing acknowledge receipt thereof 



n 





Approved: W^^"^ 



,^4^^/2^^*^_ 



TRUE COPY 
Cenlfal Savings Bank & Tturt C9« 

MONROE. lOBtSlMl* i. 



2370 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLTJX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 7 
CENTRAL SAVINGS BANK & TRUST CO. 

MONROE. LOUISIANA 

Authority of Lodge, Association or Other Similar Organization 



To CENTRAL SAVINGS BANK & TRUST CO. 



n.,. August 21 



MEMBERS 



At a regular meeting of the 

gf ,h» Monroe Hunting & Fishing Club 



.19- 



63 



held on the. 



_day of_ 



.19. 



at which a quorum 



wai present, the following officers were duly elected for the ensuing year and until their successors shall be 
elected and shall have qualified: 

Name Title Specimen Signature 

President ;// ^i-Ax* 



Robert 


Full 


er 




Warren 


Russe 


11 


A. 


Price 





Treasurer 



Secretary 






Under the rules of lhe_ 



Any funds deposited to its credit with the Central Savings Bank & Trust Co may be withdrawn by the_ 
____^ Any two (2) 



(Use blank ipaect for tiHei of signing officeri and sfate whether chscki wll bear one signaiurc or will be signed and countersigned) 

who ?£f — authorized to endorse and sign Checks, Drafts and Orders for the payment of money 

The authority herein given is to remain irrevocable so far as the above bank is concerned until it be notifed 
in writing of the revocation of such authority and shall in writing acknowledge receipt thereof 



r ' 



n 



iiUjiil U r}l^i 





/- 



L 

Approved: 



J 



TRUE C0P7 

Cmtral Savines Bank S Trust Co^ 



MONROE. lOUISlAMA 



V) - -- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLTJX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2371 



MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 8 
CENTRAL SAVINGS BANK & TRUST CO. 

MONROE, LOUISIANA 
Authority of Lodge, Association or Other Similar Organization 

To CENTRAL SAVINGS BANK & TRUST CO. 



n... January 21, , ,_64^ 



At « regular meeting of the Membership 



of the Monroe Hunting & Fishing Club 



held on the dey of 19 , at which a quorum 

wat present, the following officers were duly elected for the ensuing year and until their successors shall be 
elected and ihall have qualified: 



Name 



Title /I Specimen Signature 

James C. Oliver President yr^<- '----.r 'J- (- C .t.. 

F. T. Odom Vice President /,/ / , (^yf yf ^ 'j p l ^. 

p //rK 



Russell A. Price Secretary Kh)KL( f./ ^'lU'L 



Under the rules of the By-laws 



Any funds deposited to its credit with the Central Savings Bank & Trust Co. may be withdrawn by the_ 
President and Vice President and Secretary (Any Two (2) ) 



(Um bUnk ipactl for tillvl of ligning officeri and Hale whether checki will bear one lignalure or will be ligned and counlertigned) 

who authorized to endorse and sign Checks, Drafts and Orders for the payment of money 

The authority herein given is to remain irrevocable so far as the above bank is concerned until it be notifed 
In writing of the revocation of such authority and shall in writing acknowledge receipt thereof 



r n . KH-rn^ u rn<-(i^ 



. UL)yi// U /vH-a 



.. Af^ 



<f-fx.-£ '-y— 



jT^^M^ 



True copv 

BWiffBl Savines Bank & Trusf Co. 

L J ,i«0««OE. lO»ISIAII/> / 

Approved: f ' ^) - c_ 



2372 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, as the Grand Dragon of this organization, 
can you tell me why Klaverns in Louisiana select as cover names for 
the Klavern rather than the unit designation given to it by the Klan 
organization the names of hunting and fishing clubs or sportsmen's 
clubs? 

Mr. Martin. I must respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, according to the deposit slips contained in 
the bank records of the account to which we have just referred, and 
also in the Winnsboro State Bank and Trust Company in Winnsboro, 
Louisiana, in the name of the Christian Constitutional Crusaders, I 
put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that the 
following Klaverns were ^vithin your jurisdiction: The Ouachita 
Parish Hunting and Fishing Club; the Sterlington Hunting and Fish- 
ing Club; the Concordia Sportsman Club; the Clinton Hunting and 
Fishing Club; the Deere Creek Sportsman's Club; Jena Hunting and 
Fishing Club; Northeast Gun Club; Tensas Sportsman Club; Black 
Eiver Lake Sporting Club; Arcadia Sportsman Club; West Carroll 
Rifleman Club; Watson Hunting Club; Delta Sportsman Club; Baker 
Plunting and Fishing Club; Delhi Sportsman Club; Okaloosa Hunt- 
ing and Fishing Club; Many Hunting and Fishing Club; Catahoola 
Sportsman Club; Deville Hunting and Fishing Club; Folsom Sports- 
man's Club ; Turkey Creek Rod and Gun Club ; Hineston Hunting and 
Fishing Club ; Madison Parish Rifle Club ; Boeuf River Hunting 
Club; Vamado Sportsmans Club; Vidalia Sportsman's Club; New 
River Rifle Club; Homer Hunting and Fishing Club; Roseland Hunt- 
ing Club; Pride Sportsman League, in East Baton Rouge; Swartz 
Hunting and Fishiiig Club ; The Choudrant Rod and Gun Club ; Val- 
ley Hunting Club; Covington Hunting and Fishing Club; Pine Grove 
Hunting and Fishing Club; Big River Sportsman's Club. 

I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to deny or affirm the fact, that 
these were organizations within your organization. 

Mr. Martin. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, during the time that you wei-e Grand 
Dragon of the Original Knights in 1964, did Russell Magee hold a 
position within your organization as related to the Sixth Congres- 
sional District of Louisiana ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I show you two checks, one dated 6/29 and the other 
7/13 [1964] drawn against the account of the Christian Constitutional 
Crusaders, check of 6/29 in the amount of $o77.01 and the clieck of 
7/13 in the amount of $40()^check in the amount of $400 the ])urpose 
for which drawn being the "Sixth District Fund." Will you examine 
these checks and advise the committee for what purpose those checks 
were drawn ? 

These are both made payable to Russell Magee. 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer the question 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Checks marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 9" follow on p. 2373.) 

(At this point Mr. Pool left tlie hearing room.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, I liand you an envelope witli checks dated, 
the first one, Februai-y 13, 1964, and the last one Se])teml)er 12, 1964, 
all but one payable to Muri*y H. Martin, the total of these checks 
amounting to $3,558.09, and I want to ask you after you examine these 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2373 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 9 



Tlie OVACHJTA Nationm. BANpt 

c 



Ihraa hundrcd'^VTcnty-ac 



!»_-., m* t»0»u* tm u WUmMir 



X 



i: k u I'-oo } hn 




TiiE OiAciiiTA Natwnal Bank 



_^'.:r hiriHred k WC/lO C 
10 nwarr«u*jMrwark«MW< 



t — 




Cilll-OOiM 



checks with regard to the purpose for which these checks were made 
payable to you. 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Checks marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 10.") 

Mr. Appell. Did you report that income on your Federal income 
tax returns? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I show you an envelope containing checks payable to 
Houston P. Morris totaling $628.46. After examining them I ask you 
the purpose for which those checks were drawn. 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer the question 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Checks marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 11."") 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, I show you an envelope containing checks, 
all but one payable to Robert Fuller. These checks starting with 
February 11, 1964, total $3,955.47. I ask you what purpose these 
checks were drawn for. 

(At this point Mr. Willis left the hearing room — Mr. Weltner 
presiding.) 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Checks marked "Murry Martin Plxhibit No. 12."") 

Mr. Appell. I show you an envelope containing checks all payable 
to L. G. Wilder totaling $3,060.58. I ask you the purpose for which 
those checks were drawn. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 



2374 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



(Checks marked "Murry^ Martin Exhibit No. 13." One check from 
each of said exhibits Nos. 10-13 follows; balance retained in committee 
files.) 



i 






MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 10 

• ' — ^"^TTrrrr- 

Tai OUACBTTA FlATIQ«JMtiL j 



S. ^ "I 







MuRRY M.\RTiN Exhibit No. 1 1 



TiiE Oi'ACHiTA National Bank 

IN MONROC 



• Ml 



So. 



57 



I t»n< 

On* Hundrtid Thirty 



Tite Houston P. Morrl 

t»n«»«ii or ... . 



I» 



m«<lbr*tfi*Mr 



trrl 




5-" ,.^ 



J I tfH¥ti>n Coiiet. Cru««<l«rt 

:^1 



•: 1 1 1 i«oo i n: 




MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 12 



i^aai. 



The Oi!ACiiiTA National Bank 

IM MOHMMI 

MOKMO*. L*. 

Robert Fuller 


• Ml 

MO. .62 

,3)6.50 


.....#« AA 








Three hundred thlrty-«lx t 50/100- 



'ttouMmm 



m 



n>t n h»i»ui»)Mi w >i»r^ 




Ctorittian Cfwct. Cruasdert 



CIV vn-oo 1 v<: 






Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, these names that I have read to you, I put 
it to you as a fact that they were the leaders, you and the others were 
the leaders, of the Original Knights following the leadership of Mr. 
Young and Mr. Swenson, I ask you to affirm or deny that. 

(At this point Mr. Willis returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Martin. I must respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell, Irrespective of what the constitutional laws of the or- 
ganization set forth as their purpose, as far as you individuals were 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2375 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 13 

The OiAciiiTA National Bank ,« 

IN M4>NM>« Nu. ' 

.MuT?l.., L. ". wilder ^ , 2'/3.53 



Two Hundred Ninty TViTPe ft 53/lCX)— *— — — r>f>txAM« 

I Christian Comat. Crueacrers 









iU i i l-OO 3 W 




concerned, did it have any purpose other than to bring money into 
yourself ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constiutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. I would like to direct a question or two to Mr. Ap- 
pell, the investigator. 

Mr. Appell, you are reminded that you are still under oath. 

As chief investigator, and after having made an examination and 
analysis of the several packets of checks which you just referred to, I 
wonder if you would give to the committee your conclusions as to the 
nature, character, and object of those checks insofar as those con- 
clusions were derived from your examination. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Weltner, an examination of this account shows 
that in addition to the checks that we have exhibited to the witness 
that very few people benefited from the funds that were submitted to 
the grand or state treasuiy, and it appears that with respect to some 
of them that this was their percentage for going out and deceiving- 
people into believing that the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan 
had a purpose other than getting members. 

Mr. Weltner. Are these for robe sales, klectokons, and the like ? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir. The items that you describe are the deposits 
to the account. This is the way the klectokons and initiation fees and 
dues' and other assessments were disbursed by the State organization 
after they received them from the Klavern. They disbursed them to 
themselves. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, under the constitution of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan the organizational structure calls for, 
on the realm level, a Grand Dragon. Under him there is a Grand 
Titan, who is the assistant to the Grand Dragon. I ask you who held 
that office. 

Mr. Martin. I must respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Referring to this document, Mr. Martin, I see that 
there is a provision for several committees: education committee, 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 4 



2376 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

membership committee, benevolence committee, building committee, 
public relations committee, and klokan committee. Would you give 
the committee the identities of tlie chairmen of these respective com- 
mittees ? 

Mr. Martix. I must respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The constitution sets forth many ways in which the 
Klan dedicates itself, but then it sets forth under a title ''The AVay 
Of TheKlavenr': 

The following should be given to each new member immediately after the 
naturalization ceremony. 

The newly made member be conducted to the Klocards' station by the Kladd. 
The Klocard will then instruct the new members as follows : 

1. Destroy application 

»****♦« 

What is the purpose of that, Mr. Martin ? 

Mr. Martin. I must respectfully decline to answer the question 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Is it not a fact that after the application is destroyed 
that that man is known only by a number which is known only to the 
secretary of the Klavern ? 

Mr. Martix. I must respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. On the grand or state level, did you as the Grand 
Dragon ever receive the identity of a member of the Ku Klux Klan 
no matter into which Klavern he was naturalized other than the 
Klavern with which you might he affiliated yourself? 

Mr. Martix. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Can you advise the committee with regard to the 
responsibilities and purposes of the klokan committee? 

Mr. Martix. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was it your responsibility to concern yourself with 
the appointment by the klokan office, the person who held the office 
of klokan in the Klavern, as to an organization which he creates under 
the constitution and bylaws known as the wrecking crew? 

Mr. Martix. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. What was the purpose of the ''wrecking crew*'? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. This morning, Mr. Martin, I quoted from IVIr. Sim- 
mons' testimony about "keep the secrets, enjoy life, and violate them 
and beware of death." The Original Ku Klux Klan Konstitution 
reads as follows : 

Any Klansman who is known to violate our rules, especially those that give 
information to any aliens, shall be expelled immediately, then is to be watched 
and visited by the Wrecking Crew if necessary. 

Can you help the Congress to understand this function that is ex- 
plained in this document ? 

Mr. Martix. I respectfully decline to answer tlie question on tlie 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Is this not for the purpose of intimidating members 
of the Klan if they ever get out and speak against it, that physical 
harm will come to them ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2377 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. This document also says with respect to the wrecking 
crew that: 

Each unit will set up at least one team of six men to be used for wrecking 
trew. These men should be appointed by the Klokan in secrecy. 

Can you advise the committee why it is necessary for a Klavern 
to appoint this wrecking crew and the identity of the wrecking crew 
to be secret from all members of the Klavern except for the members 
who serve in the klokan who appoint them ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional gromids previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Is this not for the purpose of eliminating exposure in 
case the Klan carries out — the wrecking crew carries out acts of vio- 
lence, that people will not know^ even within the Klan those responsi- 
ble for the acts ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answ-er the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. If the Klan organization which you head is as it repre- 
sents itself to be, can you explain to the committee this language con- 
tained in the constitution : 

All Klaverns will have at least five armed guards with flashlights posted dur- 
ing regular meetings. 

(a) No one will be allowed to carry a gun inside the Klavern during regular 
meetings except the Night Hawk. 

(b) No one will carry a gun inside during a state or province meeting except 
those appointed by the Chief KBI or Province KBI. 

Can you explain this to the committee in light of what the Klan 
allegedly stands for ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As a leader of the Klan, Mr. Martin, will you tell this 
committee of the Congress what your organization does stand for ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional ground previously stated. 

The Chairman. Mr. Martin, I regret you take that position. It 
would be helpful to this committee and the Congi'ess to know, and 1 
sliould say that dedicated members who believe and talk inside about 
the nobility of Klan organizations as represented by you and other 
leaders in literature, would feel better if someone of your stature repre- 
senting the Klan would simply come up before this committee and 
just tell us what their objectives are. What does it stand for? What 
are the programs of the Klan, and so on ? 

We wish someone would come, talk, and tell us. Not that we would 
accept all tliey might say, but the truth will remain indestructible 
wherever it is. Here is your opportunity to stand up and tell us what 
you stand for really, in addition to what is distributed to the rank- 
and-file members with regard to anticommunism, national defense, 
and all the rest. Here is your chance. 

I really would like for you to tell us what I know you must have 
said time and time again on the streets in your hometown, at Klavern 
meetings. You appear to be very intelligent. I suppose you make a 
pretty good speech. I know you have spoken about those things before 
and I know you represent yourself as believing what the Klan 
stands for. 



2378 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Our job is to (jive information to Congress, all the information, 
whatever good there is in the Klan organization, and so on. Put it in 
the record. Here is your splendid chance. I want you to talk and tell 
us all about it. AVould you care to avail yourself of the opportunity? 

I say, do you care to avail yourself of the opportunity ? 

Mr. Marti X. No. 

The Chairman, You do not? 

Mr. Martin. No. 

The Chairman. You nodded your head in the negative. Your 
answer is "No" ? 

Mr. Martin. My answer is I most respectfully decline to answer 
the question on the constitutional ground previously stated. 

Mr. Afpei,l. Mr. Martin, is it a fact that Mr. Swenson was removed 
from the offices he held in the Original Knights because of profit that 
he was making on the sale of Klan robes ? 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer the question 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you that, Mr, Martin, because in the constitution 
in effect under your regime there is contained this language : 

Uniforms (robes) will all be made by the same standards by Klansmen in 
Realm. We shall have at least two manufacturers. One for South La. and one 
for North La. Since there is considerable profit envolved [sic] in this project, 
the following has been suggested : Determine amount of profit and pay makers 
accordingly out of realm treasury. Orders to be placed with secretary who will 
collect $10.00 for each. Profit will thereby go to Realm to be used for Klan ex- 
penses. 

Who was appointed as the robe manufacturer for north Louisiana ? 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer the question 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Appell. Who was appointed as the manufacturer for south 
Louisiana ? 

Mr. Martin. I must respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, does your organization, the Original 
Knights, have any relationship or affiliation with any other Klan 
group ? 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Are you affiliated with the National Knights of the 
KuKluxKlan? 

Mr. Martin. I must respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you hold the office of klokan in the [National] 
Knights? 

Mr. Martin, Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Within that organization does the klokan have the 
responsibility for performing wrecking crews? 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. On May 22 and 23, 1965, did you attend a meeting of 
the National Knights held at the Dobie Motel in Montgomery, 
Alabama ? 

Mr. Martin, I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2379 

h 



Mr. Appell. During the course of that meeting did friction develo 
between the leader of the organization, James Venable, and Hug 



Morris, both of Georgia ? 

Mr. Martin. I nmst respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was there discussion as to w^hat you might do, that is 
the Klan groups affiliated in the National Knights, with people who 
could not be controlled and whom the groups wished to be quieted ? 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was there discussed the subject of castration? 

Mr. Martin. I must respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was it reported by any of the leaders there that they 
would not engage in castration, but that if it was necessary to liquidate 
someone to prove that the Klan was not kidding, that this would be 
done ? 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :25 p.m., the subcommittee recessed and recon- 
vened at 3:38 p.m., with Representatives Willis, Weltner, and 
Buchanan, of the subcommittee, present at time of recess and when 
hearings resumed.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will resume the hearings. Please 
resume the stand, Mr. Martin. 

A quorum of the subcommittee met during the recess and voted 
unanimously to make public certain excerpts of executive testimony 
received from James R. Venable on October 6, 1965. The released 
excerpts appear from line 25 on page 1125 through line 11 on page 
1126, also from line 21 on page 1149 to line 5 on page 1150 of the tran- 
script of that day of the executive hearing. 

Mr. Weltner desires to propound a couple of questions to the witness 
in this connection. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Martin, I would like to read the first portion of 
this testimony. Prior to doing that I would like to say to the witness 
and to the committee that the witness James R. Venable appeared in 
Washington on October 6 voluntarily, without having been placed 
under subpena, and he continued through that entire day and answered 
all the questions that were propounded to him without resorting to 
any kind of constitutional claim of privilege. I want to make that 
clear. 

The portion that I would like to read to you appears on page 1125. 
It is a question by Mr. Manuel and answered by Mr. Venable : 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have any chartered Klaverns in the State of Louisiana? 

Mr. Venable. No, the National Knights of the Ku Klux Klan has not got 
any, to my knowledge. I know the other two Klan groups down there. I don't 
know under what names they operate. I know the two gentlemen who are al- 
leged to head them ; I don't know the names. 

The Chairman. Can we have their names? Do their names come to you? 

Mr. Venable. One of them is named Mr. P. L. Morgan from Coushatta and 
the other gentleman's name is M. H. Martin of Winnsboro. 

My question is. Are you the M. H. Martin of Winnsboro referred 
to in the testimony on the part of the Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux 
Klan, James R. Venable? 



2380 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the q\iestion on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. AYeltner. I ask you whether or not that statement given under 
oath by Mr. Venable is true ? 

Mr. Martin. I again respectfully decline to answer the question on 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. The other portion of this testimony concerned a 
matter previously touched upon by Mr. Appell and the inquiry con- 
cerning "wrecking crews." This colloquy which I will read to you 
has to do with the Klan as it was reconstituted in 1915 and existed 
generally through a 30-year period thereafter, referred to as the 
Old Klan. 

Mr. Appell. Recalling back in your young days and your knowledge that 
there did exist such things as wrecking crews, it would be only the members 
of the crew that would know the identity of the crew members; is that right? 

Mr. Venable. That is right. 

Mr. Appell. So, therefore, the average Klansman, while he might understand 
there is a crew, he would know nothing about it? 

Mr. Venable. He would not know who they were or what they do ; they 
would keep it secret among themselves. 

That appears on page 1149 of the transcript of October 6, 1965. 

My question is, in the light of that testimony, whether or not the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, or any successor thereto, in 
which you may have had an office or title employed a wrecking crew 
or any other similar committee or any other function with a similar 
purpose. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, the portions which I have read I 
think constitute the entire portions of the record which have been 
released to the public, and I have no further questions. 

The Chairman, Proceed, Mr. Appell, 

Mr. Appell, Mr, Martin, did the Louisiana Joint Legislative Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities conduct an investigation into the Ku 
Klux Klan in Louisiana ? Did it, sir? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell, I show you a reproduction of certain pages from a 
report issued by that committee. This is a "Q and A" taken by the 
staff director of that committee of one Mr. "Murray" Martin. I show 
you this and put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact, that you are the "Murray" H, Martin whose testimony is re- 
corded in that document. 

Mr. Martin, Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated, 

(Document marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 14." See pp. 2383- 
2393.) 

Mr, Appell, Mr, Martin, was the testimony which you gave to the 
staff director of the joint committee truthful in all respects? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. A review of this testimony shows that in questioning 
as to what the Original Knights stands for, you picked out from the 
oaths taken by Klansmen those which relate to the Constitution of 
the United States, upholding it. I would like to ask you why you 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2381 

did not put into this record those oaths under [K]an]*ishncss, espe- 
cially the oath which says : 

I swear that I will never allow any animosity, friction nor ill will to arise and 
remain between myself and a [Klan.s]*man but will be cons^tant in my efforts to 
promote real [Klan]*ishness among the members of this Order. I swear that 1 
will keep secure to myself a sielcret of a [Klans]*man when same has been com- 
mitted to me in the sacred bond of [Klans]*manship. The crime of violating this 
solemn oath — , treason against the United States of America, rape, and malicious 
murder alone excepted. 

"Why did you not put this into this transcript and give a true picture 
of your Original Knights ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Why did you not bring to the attention of the com- 
mittee the existence of wrecking crews and the functions of wrecking 
crews in giving a picture of the Original lOiights in Louisiana? I 
ask you why ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In light of the oath which I read to you, Mr. Martin, 
I would like you to explain to the committee an answer to a question 
asked of you, and I shall read to you both the question and your 
answer : 

Q. — Mr. Martin, what protection have you got built into your organizational 
structure or procedures to protect your Organization from people who would 
use the cover of the existence of the Klan to commit crime? 

A. — Our Organization actually is based upon, and its primary function is by, 
Committees ; such Committees as an Investigating Committee, and should this 
violence, or lawbreaking, or crime come to our attention, of course, this Com- 
mittee would investigate, and should we be successful, we would turn the person 
over to the Law, or at least tell the Law who he was so that we wouldn't get the 
blame for it. We have gotten the blame for a lot of it in the past and we hope 
we can help to stop it. Our prime purpose, of course, is not to avoid the blame, 
but to assist the law enforcement officers in their duties. As I have already 
stated, that's in our Oath that we should do so, and we do. 

In light of the fact that a Klansman takes an oath not to divulge 
a secret of a Klansman except in the case of treason against the United 
States, rape, and malicious murder, how could your organization turn 
any information over to law enforcement agencies when committed 
by members of your Klan ? 

Mr. IVIartin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In your association with the Klan, have you ever turned 
over to law enforcement agencies any knowledge relating to violence on 
the part of a Klansman ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. You told the Louisiana committee that you distribute 
literature, not only that published by yourself, but that published by 
other people. As an exhibit there is reproduced a document, "The 
Meaning Of Americanism.'' I would like to ask you to tell me, in 
light of the constitution and laws, the existence of the wrecking 
crews, and the violence on the part of members of your organization, 
how you can distribute this as a policy and principle of the Klan: 

Americanism holds that every person has an inherent right to think, to act, 
to express opinions, to seek redress against wrongs, and enlarge his personality 



2382 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

without fear. It gives eacii American, wtiether ricli or poor, white or black, 
Jew or Gentile, the right to challenge wrong and oppression without the threat 
of retaliation. It means that every American be given the right to invest in the 
soil of his country and to reap the benefits from his labors and his thrift. Ameri- 
canism holds that these rights be protected for all, not merely for the privileged. 

Isn't this a direct contradiction of what the Original Knights of 
the Kii Khix Klan stands for ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr Martin, in presenting yourself for interrogation 
by the staff director of the Louisiana joint committee, were you under 
subpena ? 

The Chairman. I think the question should be extended by saying, 
"Were you under subpena or did you voluntarily appear ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I think the transcript indicates, does it not, Mr. 
Appell, that he appeared voluntarily ? 

Mr. Appell. The transcript is silent, Mr. Chairman. It just shows 
he was sworn and gave the following testimony, and does not say 
whether the staff consultation resulted from appearance pursuant 
to a subpena. 

Mr. Martin, I ask if you can explain to this committee why you 
voluntarily testified or why you did answer questions there and not 
invoke constitutional privileges, and you invoke constitutional privi- 
leges before this body ? 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Weltner. We have established clearly that this transcript was 
of a consultation held on April 17, 1965, bearing in mind that that was 
some 6 weeks after this committee of the Congress resolved unani- 
mously to conduct the pending investigation of the Ku Klux Klan 
organization. The transcript, of course, speaks for itself, but it says 
the witness, "Mr. Murray Martin," having been duly sworn to tell 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, testified as fol- 
lows, and the transcript is some 28 pages of testimony, including ex- 
hibits, constituting an answer to each ouestion propounded to the wit- 
ness. April 17, 1965, was the date of the appearance. 

Let me ask one more question. 

Mr. Martin, one question — on page 25 of this transcript the ques- 
tion : 

Does your Organization in any way propose to achieve its goals by violence, 
or any means other than the political action that you are describing? 

The answer to the question notes: 

No, sir, we do not advocate violence. 

I would like to propound that question to you again, sir. Does your 
organization in any way propose to achieve its goals by violence or 
any means other than political action which you have described? 
That is my question. 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. No further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

(Murry Martin Exhibit No. 14 introduced on p. 2380 follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2383 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14 

[Excerpt from June 16, 1965, hearings before The Joint Legislative Committee on Un-American 
Activities ol Louisiana held in Baton Rouge, La. Hon. Jesse M. Knowles, chairman; Jack N 
Rogers, Committee counsel. Report No. 7, July 26, 1965.] 

TRANSCRIPT OF STAFF CONSULTATION HELD ON APRIL 
17. 1965. AT 7:22 P. M:, at COLUMBIA, LOUISIANA. JACK N. 
ROGERS, ESQ.. COMMITTEE COUNSEL FOR THE JOINT LEGIS- 
LATIVE COMMITTEE ON UNAMERICAN ACTIVITIES, PRE- 
SIDING. 

BY MR. ROGERS: 

Under the power vested in me by Senate Resolution #12, 
Kfgular Session, 1964, and the Rules of the Committee, I now swear 
the first witness in this Staff Consultation. 

THE WITNESS. MR. MURRAY MARTIN, AFTER FIRST 
HAVING BEEN DULY SWORN TO TELL THE TRUTH, THE 
WHOLE TRUTH, AND NOTHING BUT THE TRUTH, SO HELP 
HIM GOD, TESTIFIED AS FOLLOWS: 

DIRECT EXAMINATION 
BY MR. ROGERS: 

Q — Please give me your name, sir? 

A — Murray Martin. 

Q — Where do you live, Mr. Martin? 
A — In Winnsboro, Louisiana. 

Q — Where and when were you born? 
A — At Tioga, Louisiana, 1924, June 1. 

Q — What do you do for a living? 
A — I am a building contractor. 

Q--What is the correct name of the Klan Organization you 
represent? 

A— The Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Q — What is the title of your Klan office, and what level of 
K'a'ier.ship does that title mean? 

.v — I am Grand Dragon, artd the level of leadership would be 

17 



2384 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14 — Continued 

the same as the Chairman of the Board of Directors. 

Q — What geographical area does that cover? 
A — The State of Louisiana. 

Q — Isyour Klan Organization connected with any oiher Klan 
Organization? 

A — We are loosely connected with another Klan Organization, 
yes, sir. 

Q — If so, which one is that? 

A- — We are connected with the National Association of Klans 
known as the Associated Klans of America. 

()— Mr. Martin, who i.-< the national head of your Klan Organiza- 
tion? 

A — We have no national head. 

Q — As I understand your testimony, you are the head in the 
State of Louisiana, is that correct? 

A— That's true. 

Q — How and by whom are the objectives of your organization 
determined? 

\ — They are determined by a Board of Officei-s. 

Q — Is it a large Board? 
A — Relatively small. 

Q — .Are the people who determine your policy on this Board 
a!l citizens of the State of Louisiana? 

A — That is right, that is true. 

Q — Is your organization connected in any v/ay with the Com- 
munist Party? 

.A — Definitely not. 

i} — How about any other foreign paity, or agency, or govern- 

inmt? 

18 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2385 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14 — Continued 
A — No, sir. 

Q — Would you care to elaborate on that, sir? 

A — One of our questions asked of all candidates is this: "Do 
yiiu esteem the United States of America and its institutions above 
any government, civil, political, or ecclesiastical in the whole world?" 
And another one is: "Are you absolutely opposed to and free of any 
allegiance of any nature to any cause, government, people, sect, or 
ruler that is foreign to the United States of America?" Both of these 
questions must be answered "yes" before the candidate can proceed. 

Q — Are these questions a.sked your prospective members under 
..ath? 

A — They are. 

Q — Is any Pledge or Oath of Allegiance required of all of your 
members? 

A— Yes. 

Q — Does this in any way infringe upon, or negate, complete 

loyalty to the Constitution of the United States? 

A — No, sir, in fact they must swear allegiance to the United 
States to become a member. 

() — Would you mind telling us what words are required to do 
this? Can you do this? 

A — I can and I will. This is part of the Oath: "I most solemnly 
assert and affirm, that to the Government of the United States of 
America, and any State thereof of which I may become a member, 
1 sacredly vow unqualified allegiance above any other, and every 
kind of government in the whole world. I here and now pledge my 
life, my property, my vote, and my sacred honor to uphold its 
tlag, its Constitution, and Constitutional Laws and will protect, de- 
fend, and enforce same unto death." 

Q — Mr. Martin, what is the policy of your Organization as to 
law violations? 

A— I will again quote from our Oath: "I swear that 1 will 
always, and at any and all times, and in all places, help, aid, and 
assist the duly constituted officers of the Law in the proper perform- 

19 



2386 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14 — Continued 

ance of their legal duties." 

Q — Would you explain what policy your Organization has 
toward a member who might be involved in a crime, caught, and 
convicted? 

A — If and when he is convicted, then he is either expelled or 
banished from the Organization. Does that explain it pretty well? 

A — Yes, sir. 

Q — What are the qualifications for membership in your Organi- 
zation? 

A — Of course, a man must be of good character, first. 

Q — How do you determine that, Mr. Martin? 

A — We have a system of elections whereby a man may enter 
into our Organization, and he is first invited to join after having 
been cleared by all of the members, and his name is published in two 
legular meetings, and any one man in the Organization can, if he so 
desires, stop the admittance of any man. 

Q — By "Organization" you mean on the local level? 
A — On the local level. 

Q — Do you have any special name for the local level group? 

A — Klavern. This also is in our Oath and I would like to give 
that to you. 

Q — Would you, please? 

A — The candidate or the man being initiated has to swear 
that: "I will never recommend any person for membership in this 
Order whose mind is unsound, or whose reputation I know to be bad, 
or whose character is doubtful, or whose loyalty to our Country is 
in any way questionable." 

Q — What other qualifications do you have for membership, Mr. 
Martin? 

A — A man must first believe in the tenets of the Christian 
Religion. Would you like for me to give you all of the qualifying 
questions? 

20 



ACTIVrTIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2387 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14 — Continued 

Q — Would you, please? 

A — All of these questions must be answered "yes" by any person 
>«'<'kin}? admittance into our Orj^^anization : First, "Is the motive 
pfdmpting your ambition to be a Klansman serious and unselfish?" 
So(<.'nd, "Are you a native-born white gentile American citizen?" 
Third, "Are you absolutely opposed to, and free of any allegiance of 
any nature to any cause, government, people, sect, or ruler that is 
foreign to the United States of America?" Fourth, "Do you believe 
in the tenets of the Christian Religion?" Fifth, "do you esteem the 
I'nited States of America and its institutions above any other Govern- 
TTiciit, Civil, Political, or Ecclesiastical in the whole world?" Sixth, 
Will you, without mental reservation, take a solemn oath to defend, 
; reserve, and enforce same?" Seventh, "Do you believe in Klanishness 
ii.'id will you practice same towards Klansmen?" Eighth, "Do you be- 
i.eve in, and will you faithfully strive for the eternal maintenance 
"t white supremacy?" Ninth, "Will you faithfully obey our Con- 
-titution and Laws and conform with them to all of our usages, re- 
(luirements, and regulations?" Tenth, "Can you always be depended 
upon?" 

Q — Mr. Martin, are there any other qualifications for member- 
ship other than the ones you have read to me? 

.A — 1 believe not. I would like to say that we are trying our 
test to eliminate any undesirables from our Organization. I would 
also like to .state that we have no sex-perverts, or homosexuals, or 
hcatiiiks in our Organization, and I defy anyone to find them, 

Q — Approximately how many members do you have in the State 
(»f Louisiana? 

A — This, I must respectfully decline to answer, since to answer 
!• would put me in violation of the Oath that I have taken to the 

Kian. 

Q — What are the objectives of your Organization? 

A — Our objectives are to return our (^lovernment to the Con- 
stitution. We believe in constitutional government. We have a .set of 
Koals. a written one that I would be glad to send you. I am sorry I 
do not have one with me. It lists our goals and our hopes for the 
future. Of course, our prime purpo.se is the preservation of individual 
and national liberty. 

— Do you ascribe, as an organization, to this written state- 

21 



2388 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14 — Continued 

ment of principles that you are going to send me — this written 
statement of objectives? 

A — Yes, I do. 

Q — By what means does your Organization propose to realize 
these objectives? 

A — Through governmental affairs, the education of ourselves 
and the general public as to the trend of Government towards the 
left and continuing headlong flight towards Communism. 

Q — I understand from this that you mean primarily by educa- 
'lon, is this correct? 

A — Well, no, of course, after you educate yourself, then we 
will vote at the polls to remove such scalawags that propose and keep 
proposing legislation to sell us to the "tine world government." 

Q — Does your Organization in any way propose to achieve its 
goals by violence, or any means other than the political action that 
you are describing? 

A — No, sir, we do not advocate violence. 

Q — Mr. Martin, what protection have you got built into your 
organizational structure or procedures to protect your Organization 
from people who would use the cover of the existence of the Klan 
to commit crime? 

A — Our Organization actually is based upon, and its primary 
function is by, Committees; such Committees as an Investigating 
Committee, and should this violence, or lawbreaking, or crime come 
to iiur attention, of course, this Committee would investigate, and 
.-Mould we be successful, we would turn the person over to the Law, 
ur at least tell the Law who he was so that we wouldn't get the 
blame for it. We have gotten the blame for a lot of it in the past 
and we hope we can help to stop it. Our prime purpose, of course, is 
not to avoid the blame, but to assist the law enforcement officers in 
their duties. As I have already stated, that's in our Oath that we 
should do so, and we do. 

Q -Will youi* furnish our Committee with samples of the liter- 
ature and printed materials u.sed by your Organization? You under- 
stand, we don't expect you to give us .something that you have sworn 
to keep secret, but we would like samples to the limit of what you 

25 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2389 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14 — Continued 

FIFTY REASONS WHY YOO SHOULD BE A MEMBER OF THE ORIGINAL KU KLUX KUAN 

l-B*c*uM the Klaii It a grt*t, legal American Inticution o( Americai 

Z-B*cata* It a tW only 0((aiiiutica on lanh when only native-born. White, Ccntilc Anxiicaa cMaaat B«k* Hp Iti niambaalilp. 
3-Becauae It It « mllitaat C^HtUao oigaiuiatloD, oppoaad to all formf of Athaltm. 
4-B*cais« It thrmn la itioai arm of protcctioii around your family u your abaaaca 
S-B*catae It bellevaj la and fighti for White Supremacy 
6-B*c>»e It laved the South twice, and will lave It t%tin and a(aiB. 
7-Becaua« It It compoaed of hS. men and not lilly diliy bumant 
&-Bacaut« It U founded deep In the tenett of the Cfarituan rellgiaB 
9-ftecauae It It an open luppoeter of the Conttltutlon 

10-Bccaua< u It the CtC oiganluiioa fighting for repeal cf the Segregation lullng by the Supram* Couft al the Itelud Statai. 
Il-Bacaisa It baliavat In and flgbtt for itate lovercigiiry 

I2-Becauia It ii aalthar Democratic or Republican, politically, \xa ALWAYS AMERICAN. 
1)-B«caua« It flghn ior the glory of the flag and for the rigbti of tree men. 
M-fiecai«a It bellevct In law and order and good govemmeaL 
15-Bacaiaa It exalts principle above men. 

16-kcauic It ttarxk for legregated ichoolt, NOV and ALWAYS! 
17-Becaute It It oppoaad to Ixaermarriages between ni^ett and White people Several ttstaa have aliea^ lagallMd tuch mantagat, 

and more ai« to foUow. 
18-Bacai»e It b«llcvat that the White race It Cod'i race through which Kie wana to maintain a JiMt chrUliatlaa 
19-Bccaisa It bellcvci the Klhlc doctrine of the leparatioc of the racet. 
20-Becaisc It bellevai that Judlaitm It iKX Che lellgion of the Bible, b>< that It ii • nt of fiiaclplaa lor the popoM of alavatia( tb« 

Chrlttla* >ew beyond the White race*. 
21 -Because It hat an effective program againtt Socialism, Communltm, and uloa left wtjig liberalltaB. 
22-Becau>e It believes the highest type of citiieoship it Chrlttian citlarnahip. 

23-Becai«e It believes all Coistitubocal changes are to be made by Congrcai, and racifled by the StsM lagltlafit 
24-Bccaute It believes In getting the United Statet out of the United Nationt OlganliaClOB. 
2S-Bectuse It believes that every preacher holding t comrcgatlon bttt who teach iMcgratioa tboold ratln from Ut piilptt, etthai 

willingly or be forced out. 
26-Becauae It It oppcsad to fcecing defenselesi children to have nigger playmstal 
27-Because It believes in free speech and free peeas, at oppoted further to a police nmm. 
28-Beca>ae we bcUrve it to be the most effective way to flfht all fbmit of lubveaiaB. 

29-Becttae we oppose niggeit teaching White children in public ichools, which they will do la all iMfntad r^H""'' befora loag. 
30-Bccauae It ic the moat effective way to fight oeganized alinc In a community. 
31-Becai»e It teaches men ihould love theli own wives and let other woman alona. 
32-BecauBe It It opposed to Loan Sharla chafing an unlawful rote of toteicat to the poor people 
33-Bccaiae It believes in trials by jury 
M-Becai»e It doe* not cadoBC cither the Republican or Democratic peitlet politically at tuch, bta doat tupport caadldata* la both 

paitles when tald cawtldttet ttaad for a 100% Amerlcaaitm 
3S-Becai»a It It oppoted to dtaatmames In any form and laulterally la favor of Che rif he of '^«^««— to bear anat. 
36-Becaiae it teaches that every icbool teacher la our public tchoolt ibould be retired who bellcvat la and taachat liCegratlOB of 

the blach aad White meet 
37-Becaute It itaB<k for the dlteafr anrhl t e ment of all foralgnca who have not been la Aatartca tor the lame leafth of time re- 
quired o\M own boys and gixls to reach legal votlag age. 
38-Because it ttaixk for tagregstloa on Imnam In penal aad mental latitutloat, especially the Juvealle* 
39-Becaiae It opposes free Communis Uteraturt being tea thfough (b» Ubited Stacaa mall to Amerlcaat. 
40-Becaiae It It unalterably oppoaed to the Zionist jew program. 
41 -Because It It oppoted to the And-Defamatian league in all respects. 
42-Becau*« It knows the Ublud NaUoat Chaiter hat ututped the ConatltutlOB of tlHse Ualted States, aad we aie tryt^ to get Che 

United St^cs out of the UN 
43-Becsuse It wm here YESTERDAY, aad Is here TODAY, aad wlU be here FORZVER. 
44-Bccautc It ltan«h against UNESCO In lo attempt Co rewrite our American hiatory. 
4S-Becaute It it oppoted to a police state which lob* the Individual of hit rtghn. 
46-Becaiae It does not believe that c<hjcatloBi It THE remedy for our political Ills. 

47-Because It It opposed to say government professing to be firlendy to America, while at Che taaie time traJl^ with aay commu- 
nist -dominated couKry 
4B-Bccstae It Is oppoted to taxation without re pres e n t a t i on. 
49-Becai«e it it oppoted to the income tax laws as prvseotly existing. 

SO-Becsuie It u oppoted lo Che World Health OganiiatioB and the Nsttoaal Mental Health Act anl all forms of pbychlatrtc educa- 
tion of our children and cUixeat. 



Exhibit 4. Policy statement furnished by Mr. Murray Martin. 

26 



2390 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. H^Continued 



THE MEANING OF AMERICANISM 



iBsrlcanliB 1a r llTlnc, (tyoaalc fore* fOTamlnc th* 11«»« uf o«r 
paopla, *o u>s pauuUariy Uiw^ed with ttu oppoi-tuulV of UtIc^ 
iBdar k r«pa»«»Lt«tlT» rent of c^rtmaant, pivtaotad b7 Mm Boat 
»aiiilT^ liuli laaiil o.' hiaan oa>M)uct cvar d«ri.c«d tqr ■«, th* OS- 

tealaBlM ic. • foTB of contruUad LltMity in *lch t^a rlcbta 
of tte ^aJl snd Um lATf* tJ^} prut^xrtod for tha (rjaWrt («ad u/ 
•Jl. IW prsetloal BnitlTktli^ prLnclpiM u-c cljorlj •Bueaiated Id 
««• OBOjUUtnCH of lUUVQIOtaCC jnd li-. U>« PRE^JCU to (<iir 30(311- 
rmm. it* rota^Uun l* th« mrialU dl^aigr and aorUi oT tb* la- 

4iTiaMLi. 

Tha aaaaBea of ^lOrlaaiilM la tpiriiiml. It bolda tiu:t ihvr* U a 

■am GOO la tka isa«»rM, «»1 t^ut (7 vl-toa of thla lact, thara if 
a ■oral pwpu ai in tha offalra of askiad. Onr aorUl aciaaoa la f■<^- 
dlcatad OB tba tnaU of Uia SHBOi oi Usa OSUff end U» TH OCMUHD- 
■aiTB. Tba varr imti of AaarlaaB JorlaprudcBoa la t/x. prot«>otiflD 
of iiMPBal llbarty ani prof>art7 frua tti) nooroactuBt of othora anl 
froB HIIIII1HI Itaalf . It raaognlaac ac lU aMi«r, both tba aUl ot 
tha ^mot e^ Um MvImm of tha Maaaa. 

jMrlOLDlaa holda tkat ararr pjraoo haa as labarvot rl^ht to ttdak, 
to aot, to ojipraaa (Hdalnna, to aaak radrja* a^olACt «x«ca, ead <d- 
laiva bla puraoMlitr altlwvt faar. It |rl«aa aaob ..aancoa, Matter 
rich or poor, itilta or talsok, Jtm or GantiJa, tan rl(0t to ohaUaafa 
■roBi aad iinaaaaliB alttioul tl-a threat 01 ratadlatioa. It bmoj 
ttet »nrr tearlona bn (iric tl • rljl.t U> Invwit I1 tivj 
■all ct kla ec^try, ^ to r-^.^ iho o-sar^ta froa Ma libera (ad 
kla ttolft. iB^rlaaolOB Iralur tfi-t U.r ; 1 i«ht.c Lr -irotastod for ail, 
for tha prini(%ad. 

ola, Oiv ct^rchoa, un clvli or^piunalUia* <x.d aur aagiif- 
laaat IhHoBtferoyiad, - eU baop^^k r »mMt. or acia.'' abllgatlce to 
n^fcira, aad a arlrlt cf brotba^tood tranaoLodlr^ tii.t of othar paofiLa 
U taa <Bll7« •orU. 



Bl^> koWMcr, If not a oao ttv air jat. It li(joaoa rlfbtful 

ff^llf^tiwa 191m ladlvldaala aad frucp* to pluj «fe* gaaa of UtIoc 
■Itfe a aea a a ni far Iba aal/ara of tda nn— ailTj. atata, and oatloo. 



iaaalaa la laaaalt^'a aaat (lorioua ajiparlaiBt la tha aclo 
of U*U(. If thl< axparlaant afe9\a<1 fill, ctviUaatloc Itaalf al«bt 
ba dooBad. Tba auraat (uaTf-utov. f jr coatlaaad auocaaa ia u p«raonil 
alti a«^1p, dadlcatoO Vo tha idjLln cmJ purpor«a u' thia (fact XS- 
UHLIC. iaarloaaii* IP lan^Aixl'a raioinin,; hope ic- c Jaoaat rad 
Jaat aorU! 

iad la thli htiW Ji arlri.t a crisla, «. jn IMa loft^ barito^a ot 
iaorioaaJarf la aarioitair U>ij'Utod of 1. rutlkiasa. Codlaaa Coaauaiat 
omi at rir acy cj aall c- op er axK^iuing 'o]r:.ra Str.ta, iMkloh oouid d»- 
atror tiM laeaotlTa of our cilii «ir to cr jct« rad produca ca »«U aa 
i^alr t^ will to dufaud our htrlU^*, °.jt jTurjr io^eJ .Laoric-m taowa 
aablaaonad on hia ooBaoiaBoa tha l^nrui pl«)«a of tha bTLVa aoa 1M10 
fir»t (aTB artleulatlon to tha lUodc of .aarlcanla in tha DBCLJU- 

TicM of noraoMci. 



•MD POR TEE SDPPOBT Of THIS 

oicuJUTioM, wm A nm n- 

UAHCB on THE PBDTSCTIOIl Of 

DivniE p^viomcE, he wm- 

JUXT PLEXE TO UCH OTKEK 
con LIV':.J OOK POKMIK, /J*0 

OCR sacr.v iCkor; 





Exhibit 5. Policy statement furnished by Mr. Murray Martin. 



27 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2391 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14— Continued 

can furnish us, to see what type of thing you are using in your 
training, and in your educational program? 

A — I will be glad to furnish you with samples, a lot of which 
is not our own. We use other Organizations' literature, and we learn 
by it; but of course, we have literature of our own, and I can and 
will send you some of this. 

Q — Mr. Martin, do you have anything you want to add to your 
testimony? 

A — Nothing that I can think of. 

Q — I would like to thank you for our Committee. This is the 
end of the Staff Consultation. The time is 7:48 P. M. 



28 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 5 



2392 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14 — Continued 
DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

POUTICAL ACTION COMMITTEE 
(a) The duty of the political action committee is to study all politi- 
cal activities in the jurisdiction of the Klavern. 

(b) Keep the E.C. and the members of the Klavern informed on all 
matters of political interest. This Includes State. National and 
International. 

(c) Be wf'M enough informed to recommend what political candidates 
or issues to support or oppose and give recommendations to 
Klavern on such. 

(d) Keep a record of all political activities within the Jurisdiction 
of the Klavern, and be prepared to present it or any part of It 
to the Klavern upon request of K.C. 

(e) Stay out of other Klavern Klanton unless otherwise agreed by 
same. 

(f) From time to time the members of this committee will l>e re- 

quested to effectively contact their State Representatives and 
State Senator, as well as their Democratic State Central Com- 
mitteemen for one or more of the following purposes: 

(1) To determine their position on a specific matter then be- 

fore them. 

(2) To obtain their support and cooperation in either passing, 

amending or defeating that measure, or 

(3) To learn and report the person or persons most able to In- 

fluence them on such matters. 
THE MEMBERS OF THIS COMMITTEE WILL BE CONTACTED. 
FREQUENTLY ON VERY SHORT NOTICE, FROM TIME TO TIME 
TO ASSIST IN LINING UP THEIR REPRESENTATIVES, SENATORS 
AND COMMITTEEMEN IN SUPPORT OF OUR POSITION. 

EDUCATION COMMITTEE 

(a) The Education Committee is responsible for the educating of 
the public In all matters of interest within the jurisdiction of 
the Klavern. 

(b) Collect and distribute any literature that they can obtain that 
will further the cause of our organization. 

(c) Write letters to the public on political or other Issues of In- 
terest within the Jurisdiction of the Klavern. 

(d) Check txwks In the libraries of Schools, Churches, etc, and 
check any books or literature that is exposed to the fxibllc to 
assure that it does not contain communist influence material, 
(or integration material).. 

(e) Write letters of protest to individuals or ijrganizatlons that 

(Mjbltcly advocate Integration, or communism. 

(f) Write letters of appreciation to those who are working to fur- 

ther Americanism, Segregation, and etc. 

MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE: 

(a) The membership committee keeps all records of the members, 

(Not excluding the sect.) prospective members, and rejected 
and/or suspended members. 

(b) See that all material and literature in the possession of an ex- 

pelled or suspended meml>er is returned to the unit. 



Exhibit 6. Statement of functions of committes in Klan organizational atructure, 
furnished by Mr. Murray Martin. 

29 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2393 

MuRRY Martin Exhibit No. 14— Continued 

(c) Incourage regular attendance of members. 

(d) Report on all members unable to attend regularly. 

(e) Attempt to notify all members of special events, called meet- 
ings, summons, etc. 

BENEVOLENCE COMMITTEE: 

(a) The Benevolence Committee is In charge of all charity activity 
within the unit. 

(b) Reports on all sick members, send flowers or cards to them 
and asks for any assistance that the unit might provide for same. 

(c) Reports on and asks for assistance for persons other than mem- 
t>ers where the unit can be of assistance. 

BUILDING COMMITTEE: 

(a) The building committee is in charge of the construction and 

maintenance of the Klavern. 

(b) Asks for or appoints members to work on the building or the 
grounds of same. 

(c) Sees that the building is kept clean, the grass is cut, all neces- 
sary repairs are made, and recommends changes or additions 
to the building. 

PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE: 

(a) The Public Relations Committee is responsible for the relations 
between the organization and the non-member public. 

(b) Their duties are advisory only. 

(c) Inspect all out going literature and determine if it will create a 
good image. 

(d) Advise on all activities of the unit that concern the public to as- 
sure prestige and a good public image for the organization. 

KLOKAN COMMITTEE: 

(a) This committee is appointed by the Klokan of the Klavern and is 
under the direct supervision of the Klokan. 

(b) Takes no action other than that specifically ordered by the Klo- 
kan. 

THE WAY OF THE KLAVERN 

The following should be given to each new member immediately 
after the naturalization ceremony. 

The newly made member be conducted to the Klocards' station by 
the Kladd. The Klocard will then instruct the new members as follows: 

1. Destroy application 

2. Instruct the member in the use of the gavel. 



Exhibit 7. Page 2 of Exhibit No. 6. 

30 



2394 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. Call the next witness, Mr. Appell. 

^Ir. Appell. Mr. Wilder. 

The Chairmax, Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wilder. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LLOYD GRADY WILDER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JAMES R. VENABLE 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, will you state your name ? 

Mr. Wilder. Lloyd Grady Wilder. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Wilder. September 11, 1922, St. Landry, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. L-a-n-d-r-y ? 

Mr. Wilder. That is right. 

The Chairivian. That is the name of a parish. "What town? 

Mr. Wilder. It is also the name entered on the birth certificate. 
Long Pine. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you currently reside ? 

Mr. Wilder. Jena, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, are you appearing here this afternoon in 
accordance with a subpena served upon you on the 27th day of October 
at Third Street, Jena, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Wilder. That is right, gir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, the subpena served upon you commands 
you to bring with you and to produce documents set forth in the attach- 
ment to the subpena which is made a part of the subpena. Paragraph 
1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan and affiliated organizations, namely, Christian Constitu- 
tional Crusaders, in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you 
or available to you as Secretary or other officer of the Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan and/or Christian Constitutional Crusaders. 

I ask you to produce those documents, Mr. Wilder. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to produce those documents 
for the reason that it might intend to violate my constitutional rights 
under the 1st amendment of the Constitution of the United States 
guaranteeing freedom of speech, the right of people to peacefully 
assemble and to associate together for the exchange of ideas in matters 
of public concern, and further on the constitutional grounds of the 
4th and 5th amendments, that producing such documents might intend 
to incriminate me, and also on the 14th amendment, should I be com- 
pelled to answer this question or to produce such documents, then I 
would be denied my constitutional rights as provided under the 14th 
amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2395 

Mr, Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the fact that the bank records 
of the Christian Constitutional Crusaders show that Mr. Wilder held 
the position of secretary, I request that he be directed to produce the 
documents called for. 

The Chairman. Mr. Wilder, were you in the hearing room when 
Mr. Swenson and Mr. Martin were on the stand today ? 

Mr. Wilder. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You heard me explain to both Mr. Swenson and 
Mr. Martin that this subpena requires you to produce these documents 
and papers in your capacity as an official of the Klan organization to 
which you belong. You heard me say that and you understand the 
position of the committee. 

Mr. Wilder. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I will repeat it to you. I am required to do that 
by court decision. 

We do not accept your invocation of the constitutional amendments 
to which you refer because the subpena requires you to produce the 
papers and documents outlined in the subpena in your official capacity 
indicated. Therefore, I order and direct you to produce those docu- 
ments. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to produce those documents 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Did he set forth his grounds ? 

The Chairman. On the grounds previously stated. You mean on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, paragraph 2 of the subpena commands you 
to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you in your capacity as 
Secretary and/or member of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and/or 
Christian Constitutional Crusaders which the "Constitution and Laws" of said 
organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other oflBcer 
of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce those documents called for. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to produce those documents 
for the same constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. For the reasons previously indicated, I order and 
direct you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to produce the documents on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, paragraph 3 calls for you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service Form 1120, 
"U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return," for the fiscal years 1961 through June 30, 
1965, filed by you as Secretary of the Christian Constitutional Crusaders. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to produce those documents 
on the same constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. For the reasons that I stated previously, I now 
order and direct you to produce those documents. 



2396 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLaN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to produce those documents 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, the subpena calls, under paragraph 4, for 

you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. Individual Tax Return," for tlie calendar years 1958 through 1964, filed 
by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, Internal 
Revenue Service. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to produce those documents 
on the constitutional grounds that it might tend to incriminate me, on 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, will you set forth briefly your educational 
background ? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds that it might tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Please talk louder. 

Mr. Appell. Will you briefly set forth your occupational back- 
ground ? 

Mr. Wilder. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Are you principally engaged in the heating and air- 
conditioning business in Jena, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Wilder. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, the committee's investigation establishes 
that through the secretary, whether it be the klavern or the realm, 
paper of the Klan flows. A Klavern making a report to the realm 
makes its report through the realm secretary. I put it to you as a 
fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that you are the secre- 
tary of the organization known as the Original Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan, which organization used as a cover name the Christian 
Constitutional Crusaders. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. During the time that Royal V. Young was the Im- 
perial Dragon of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the 
period ending in early 1964, Mr. Young testified that you held the 
position of secretary-treasurer. Was Mr. Young's testimony factual ? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decine to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. 1 hand you an envelope containing three checks drawn 
by the Louisiana Rifle Association against their account at the Louisi- 
ana Rank and Trust Company, payable to L. G. Wilder, Grady 
Wilder, or Mr. L. G. Wilder. I will ask you the purpose for which 
those checks were drawn. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds i)reviously stated. 

(Checks marked "Lloyd Wilder Exhibit No. 1." One of said checks 
follows; balance retained in committee files.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2397 

Lloyd Wilder Exhibit No. 1 



■i v 
«ia*rKHHnr. I.A. April 29 i»63 j^^^jj 

H ■"■■ 






I 



« 



<i»4t«01i%l.i{ 







Mr. Appell. With Mr. Young being deposed as the Imperial 
Dragon and Mr. Swenson being deposed from his office, did you know 
Mr. Murry H. Martin to be the next Grand Dragon of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana ? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you the signature card for the account in the 
name of the Christian Constitutional Crusaders at the Ouachita Na- 
tional Bank, in Monroe, Louisiana, and put it to you as a fact, and 
ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that this signature card shows the 
president of the organization to be M. H. Martin, the secretary to be 
L. G. Wilder, and the treasurer to be Henry I. Bayles. 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 4." See 
p. 2367.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, how many Klan organizations, to your 
knowledge, are existing in the State of Louisiana? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In the latter part of 1964 and early 1965, did dissension 
grow within the ranks of the organization headed by Mr. Martin so 
that certain Klaverns and leaders defected from your organization and 
started new Klan gt'oups ? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did Houston P. Morris, grand kleagle of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan under Mr. Martin, break away and 
take his following with him and form the Original Ku Klux Klan of 
America, Incorporated ? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 



2398 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Did a group of Klansmen in the Sixth Congressional 
District at the same time break away from the leadership of Mr. Mar- 
tin and go as an independent Klan organization sometimes known as 
the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Louisiana? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did Henry I. Bayles, who was the treasurer of the 
organization at the same time that you were the secretary, break with 
the organization and is he now with the United Klans of America, 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, a review of deposit slips filed or appended 
to deposits to the account of the Christian Constitutional Crusaders 
at the Ouachita National Bank, in Monroe, Louisiana, contains a list 
of the following individuals. I hand you a list and I put it to you 
as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that these people 
were members of your Klan organization. 

The Chairman. The reporter will make note of the fact to insert at 
the points where the previous witnesses and this witness testified with 
reference to documents, that those documents should be included in 
the printed record at those respective points. 

Mr. Wilder. I respectfully refuse to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Lloyd Wilder Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 

Lloyd Wilder Exhibit No. 2 

Subject : Christian Constitutional Crusaders 
Bank Account, 

The Ouachita National Bank 
Monroe, Louisiana 

(Deposit slips from January 31, 1964, to October 19, 1964) 

Following is a list of individuals (only those positively deciphered) listed on 
the deposit slips for Christian Constitutional Crusaders bank account : 

Marvin C. Brister L. D. Starns 

Dale Blaekman H. W. Nickens 

Norman D. McFerran Clarence Boykin 

A. J. Kidd Cecil Cliburn 

Carl J. Teal Melvin Jackson 

Earnest Martin J. D. Baker » 

C. C. Charles Paul Loft 

L. G. Wilder C. Tigner 

Eddie J. Moore R. C. Colvin 

Ed Leggett Tilman C. Rinehart 

W. Jenkins Harold E. Gordon 

Harold Smith Mrs. T. R. King 

W. J. Williams W. R. Watson 

Gary Core Eric Peterson 

Bobby Lang James Manning 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2399 

Lloyd Welder Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

E. B. Smith J. A. McGee 

R. S. Wright Frank Cooper 

Frank Cooper J. H. Droddy 

Gene Halford W. J. Hester 

Edward H. Browning Anthony V. Brown 

Gerald Myers Joseph S. Reeves 

Aubrey Gerald Myers Alex J. Langer, Jr. 

James R. Dunaway John R. Smith 

E. L. Murray Jimmie N. Atkins 

C. R. Watts James L. Collins 

Tommie Thompson C. R. Moore 

Mrs. Hattie J. Atkinson Hardy J. Penton 

L. R. Rinehart Phillip Harrell 

Donald Varnado Bert N. Stafford 

Browning Grocery Milton H. Ballard 

Donald Ray Martin Don Hudson 

James W. Ford Angus Rogers 

Donnie Mann (608 Wat- Ronald Byrd 
son) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, did the Little Kiver Rod and Gun Club 
which maintained a banking account at the Guaranty Bank and Trust 
Company, Alexandria, Louisiana, make checks payable to you as 
secretary for their dues and the realm's share of the initiation fee col- 
lected from members of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilder, would you be willing to explain to the 
committee the purposes and functions of the wrecking crew which 
is provided for by the constitution of the Original Knights of the Ku 
KluxKlan? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you possess knowdedge of any act of violence 
carried out by members of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. To your knowledge, did the Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan ever carry out any of its programs or objectives with- 
out the use of intimidation or violence ? 

Mr. Wilder. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Henry I. Bayles. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Bayles. I do. 



2400 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF HENRY I. BAYLES 

Mr, Appell. Will you state your full name for the record ? 

Mr. Bayles. Henry I. Bayles. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Bayles. Xovember 19, 1932, in West ^Monroe, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Bayles. No. 

Mr. Appell. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Bayles. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Have you had the advice of counsel ? 

Mr. Bayles. Yes, 

Mr. Appell. Is Mr. Chalmers your counsel ? 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to answer that question for I 
feel the answer might incriminate me in violation of my rights as 
guaranteed me by amendments 5, 4, 1, and 14 of the Constitution of 
the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bayles, are you appearing before the committee 
this afternoon in accordance with a subpena served upon you ? 

The Chairman. Before you ask that question, Mr. Bayles, you are 
appearing here without counsel. You were asked whether you wanted 
counsel. You said you did not. I think I should tell you that if 
you want it, you have a right to invoke the fifth amendment in your 
own way and within your own right. I just want to let you know 
that. We respect your invocation in that respect in the same way 
and to the same extent as though you had a lawyer. 

You understand what I am saying? I am not asking you a ques- 
tion. I am just telling you that. 

Mr. Bayles. I understand. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bayles, are you appearing before the committee 
this afternoon in accordance wi<^h a subpena served upon you on the 
26th day of October 1965, at 2006 DeSiard Street, Monroe, Louisiana? 

Mr. Bayles. November 15. 

Mr. Appell. That is the date ? 

Mr. Bayles. That I was to appear. 

Mr. Appell, You were served on October 26 by the United States 
marshal ? 

Mr. Bayles. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. ITnder the terms of that subpena, you were commanded 
to bring with you and produce documents set forth in an attachment 
that was made a part of the subpena : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and affiliatetl organizations, namely, the Christian 
Constitutional Crusaders, in your possession, custody or control, or maintained 
by you or available to you as Treasurer and/or member of Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan and/or the Christian Constitutional Crusaders. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2401 

I ask you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Bayles. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all documents as demanded by the committee in the subpena 
dated November 15, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to 
do so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guar- 
anteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, and 14 of the Constitution of the 
United States of America. 

Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all 
records as requested by this committee under subpena dated Novem- 
ber 15, 1965, for the information is not relevant and germane to the 
subject under investigation and does not aid the Congress in the con- 
sideration of valid or remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within 
the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress by House Resolution 8, adopted Jan- 
uary 4, 1965. 

The Chairman. That is a good one. 

Mr. Appell. I ask that the witness be directed to produce the docu- 
ments called for. 

The Chairman. You were in the hearing room when I instructed 
the previous witnesses concerning the production of records under 
subpenas served on them, and on you, in a representative capacity. 
Were you in the room at that time ? 

Mr. Bayles. Yes. 

The Chairman. I am not 

Mr. Bayles. Yes. 

The Chairman. You appear to be a very bright young man, and I 
suppose you understand, or understood what I said, that is, that since 
this subpena calls for you to produce documents to this committee in 
a representative capacity, I do not accept your invocation. 

Do you understand what I am saying? 

For that reason, and I am sure you follow me, I direct you to produce 
the documents- 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents demanded by the committee in the subpena dated 
November 15, 1965, because I honestly feel it would tend to incriminate 
my rights contained in amendments 5, 4, 1, and 14 of the Constitution 
of the United States. 

I decline to deliver to the committee all records requested by the 
committee under subpena dated November 15, 1965, for that informa- 
tion is not relevant and germane to the said investigation and the 
same would not aid the Congress in the consideration of any valid 
remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within the scope of that 
authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted by the 
89th Congress by House Resolution 8, adopted January 4, 1965. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 



2402 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appeli.. Mr. Bayles, I might advise you, if you have discussed 
with counsel you might know, that in the future, with respect to the 
productio'^ of documents, the committee will accept all of those reasons 
in an answer which would encompass "for the reasons previously 
stated," which would not require you to repeat all the language each 
time. 

The Chairman. Do you understand that ? 

Mr. Bayles. Yes. 

The Chairman. What he is trying to tell you is, if you want to you 
may, from here on, if that is to be your course of action, say, "I decline 
to answer the questions on the grounds previously stated." 

Mr. Appell. Paragraph 2 calls for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you. in your capacity 
as Treasurer, past or present, of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan 
and/or Christian Constitutional Crusaders which the "Constitution and Laws" 
of said organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any 
other oflScer of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody 
or control. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for in paragraph 2. 

Mr. Bayles. I refuse to deliver to the committee any and all docu- 
ments demanded for the reasons previously stated. 

The Chairman. And for the reasons I stated, I order you to pro- 
duce the documents. 

Mr. Bayles. For the constitutional reasons previously stated, I de- 
cline to do so. 

Mr. Appell. Paragraph 3 calls for you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service. Form 1120, 
"U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return," for the fiscal years 1961 through June 
30, 1965, filed by you as Treasurer of Christian Constitutional Crusaders. 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee for the constitution- 
al reasons previously stated. 

The Chairman. And for the reasons I previously stated, I order 
and direct you to produce them. 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents demanded by the committee for the constitutional 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Appell, Paragraph 4 calls for you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. Individual Income Tax Return," for the calendar years 1958 through 1964, 
filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, In- 
ternal Revenue Service. 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee for the constitution- 
al reasons previously stated. 



ACTWITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2403 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bayles, where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might incriminate my rights as 
guaranteed by amendments 5, 4, 1, and 14 of the Constitution. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you reside at 201 Elmwood Drive, Monroe, Louisiana. 

Mr. Bayles. I refuse to answer on the grounds my answer might 
tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me 
by amendments 5, 4, 1, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Appell. Where are you currently employed ? 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to answer that question because 
I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate me as guar- 
anteed to me by amenclments 5, 4, 1, and 14 of the Constitution of the 
United States. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bayles, if you wish to, you may say in answer 
to following questions you refuse to answer the questions on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are employed by the Gregg Implement Company, 
2006 DeSiard Street, Monroe, Louisiana. 

Mr. Bayles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you have held the position of Grand Dragon, great titan, 
and treasurer. 

Mr. Bayles. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bayles, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that during the days when the Original 
Knights were under the leadership of Mr. Young and Mr. Swenson, 
that it used as a cover name the Louisiana Rifle Association. 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason previously given. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that you signed a signature card on account of the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan on February 3, 1964, at the 
Ouachita National Bank of Monroe, Louisiana, in the name of the 
Christian Constitutional Cmsaders? (See Murry Martin Exhibit 
No. 4, p. 2367.) 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
constitutional reasons previously given. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bayles, as the treasurer of the Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan, you were responsible for cosigning checks drawn 
against the account maintained in its banking institutions. Can you 
tell the committee the purpose for which checks were drawn to your- 



2404 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

self, L. G. Wilder, Robert Fuller, Houston P. Morris, and Murry 
Martin ? 

Mr. Bayles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the constitutional reasons given previously. 

Mr. Appell. Under the constitution and laws of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Louisiana, there is provision 
for the creation within Klaverns of a body known as the wrecking 
crew. Can you tell the committee the purpose and function of the 
wrecking crew ? 

Mr. Bayles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the constitutional reasons previously given. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever serve as a member of a wrecking crew? 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reasons previously given. 

Mr. Appell. Have you, as a Klansman, ever engaged in active 
violence ? 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
constitutional reasons previously given. 

Mr. Appei,l. Early in 1965, Mr. Houston P. Morris broke from the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and formed the Original Ku 
Klux Klan of America, Inc. 

Did you join with him in this organization ? 

Mr. Bayles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the constitutional reasons previously given. 

Mr. Appell. In the summer of 1965, the bulk of its membership 
disbanded from the Original Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., and 
became affiliated with the United Klans of America, Inc., under the 
Realm of Ix)uisiana under the Imperial Wizard, Robert Shelton, Tus- 
caloosa, Alabama. Are you one of the membei's that took that coui^se 
of action? 

Mr. Bayles. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
constitutional reasons previously given. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness may be excused. 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 4:35 p.m., the subcommittee recessed and recon- 
vened at 4 :57 p.m. with the following subcommittee membei's : Rep- 
resentatives Willis, Weltner, and Buchanan, present at time of recess 
and when hearing resumed.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel will call the next witness. 

Mr. Appell. I would like, Mr. Chairman, to call Billy Skipper. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Skipper. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2405 

TESTIMONY OF BILLY SKIPPER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JAMES R. VENABLE 

Mr. Appell. Would you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Skipper? 

Mr. Skipper. Billy Skipper. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Skipper. In Baskin, New Orleans, 1933. 

Mr. Appell. What month and day of 1933 ? 

Mr. Skipper. April 22. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing before the committee with counsel ? 

Mr. Skipper. Sir? 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing with coimsel ? 

Mr. Skipper. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please state his name for the record ? 

Mr. Venable. James R. Venable, attorney, Atlanta, Georgia. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, are you appearmg before the committee 
in accordance with a subpena served upon you by United States mar- 
shal on the 30th day of October 1965 ? 

Mr. Skipper. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, the subpena served upon you has an 
attachment which is made part of the subpena, and it directs you to 
produce for the committee those documents described in two para- 
graphs. 

Paragraph 1 : 

AH books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan and affiliated organizations, in your possession, custody 
or control, or maintained by you or available to you as Klan Bureau Investigator 
and/or member of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I ask you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Skipper. Sir, I decline to produce those documents on the con- 
stitutional grounds of the 4th amendment of the Constitution — the 
■4th, 5th, and 14th amendments. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce the documents called for in paragraph 1. 

The Chairman. Mr. Skipper, you were in the audience, were you 
not, when I explained to the previous witnesses what this subpena 
called for, that is, that they called on you to produce documents which 
you hold in a representative capacity? You understand that? 

Mr. Skipper. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. We do not accept your right to invoke the consti- 
tutional amendments you outlined, as I previously stated. Therefore 
I direct you to answer this question. 

Mr. Skipper. I decline to produce these documents and records on 
f he grounds previously stated. 



2406 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, paragraph 2 calls for the production of: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past Klan Bureau Investigator and/or member of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organi- 
zation authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of 
said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I direct that you produce those documents. 

Mr. Skipper. I decline to produce those documents on the grounds 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. And for the reasons you previously stated you 
decline to produce them ? 

Mr. Skipper. For the reasons I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, would you give the committee your edu- 
cational background ? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you have had a seventh-grade grammar school edu- 
cation. 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline, on the constitutional grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Wliat is your employment background from the year 
1960? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are presently self-employed as a plumbing contrac- 
tor. 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, have you had any military service? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional gi-ounds previously stated. 

Mr. AppELii. 1 put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm to deny 
the fact, that you served in the United States Army from May 5, 1953, 
to April 21, 1955, and transferred into the United States Army Re- 
serve to complete your military obligation and were in the Reserve 
from April 1955 to June 1961. 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. While a member on active duty in the United States 
Army were you ever court-martialed ? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2407 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you 

The Chairman. One moment, please. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that in March of' 1965 you attended a meeting 
of four factions of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, meet- 
ing held in Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully 

Mr. Appell. — for the purpose of attempting to reunite these groups 
under one head. 

Mv. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you were the chief of the Klan Bureau of 
Investigation for the Sixth Congressional District of Louisiana of the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

]Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, under the constitution of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana it states that no one will 
carry a gun inside the state or province meeting except those ap- 
pointed by the "Chief KBI or Province KBI." Would you tell us the 
functions of the province KBI ? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. The word "province" in this instance as I recall 
it, Mr, Appell, encompasses a congressional district. Is that right? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir, and in the case of Mr. Skipper it is the Sixth 
Congressional District. 

Mr. Skipper, have you received from the Federal Communications 
Commission authority to operate a Class D citizens band radio? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, I will show you a copy of an application 
sigiied Billy Skipper, dated August 21, 1964, application for a Class D 
citizens band license. I wish to read from that application language 
which appears on the reverse side. It reads: 

On the application I mailed the 15 transmitters I requested was a mistake 
in filling out the application. I only need 10 because I am self-employed in 
Plumbing & Heating. Thank you. Billy Skipper. 

I ask you to look at this and ask you whether this is a true copy of 
the application you executed and filed with the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission. 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Billy Skipper Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 3- 



2408 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



Billy Skipper Exhibit No. 1 



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B^ 



00 YOU NOW HOLD ANY STATION LICENSE OTHER THAN THAT COVtRtO BV ITEM 6, 
Of THE SAME CLASS AS THAT REQUESTED BT THIS APPLICATION? 



D' 



^ 



TOTAL NUMBER Of TRANSMITTERS TO eC AUTHORIZED UNDfR REQUEST EJMTAT ION 




DOES EACH TRANSMITTER TO BE OPERATED APPEAR ON THE COMMIS 
SION S "RADIO EQUIPMENT LIST PART C OR, IF FOR CLASS C OR 
CLASS STATIONS. IS IT CRYSTAL CONTROLLED? (1/ "«. aUoek 
detaiUd dttcription: att nbparl C o/ Part 19) 



A WILL APPLICANT OWN ALL THE RADIO EQUIPMENT? (// HO. aiuwrr 
D and C btlow) 



NAME OF OWNER 



IS THE APPLICANT A PARTT TO A WRITTEN ICASEOR OTHER AGREEMENT UNDER 
WHICH THE CWNERSMIP OR CONTROL MIlL BE E VERCIStD IN THE SAME MAN 
NEB AS IF THE EQUIPMENT WERE OWNED BT THE APPLICANT? 



HAS APPLICANT BEAD AND UNDERSTOOD THE PROVISIONS OF PART 19 
SUBPART D DEALING WITH PERMISSIBLE COMMUNICATIONS FOR WHICH 
THIS CLASS OF STATION MAY BE USED' 



WILL THE USE OF THE STATION CONFORM IN ALL RESPECTS WITH THE 
PERMISSIBLE COMMUNICATIONS AS SET FORTH IN PART 19. SUBPART 0? 



WILL THE STATION BE OPfRATED BY ANY PERSON OTHfR THAN THE 
APPLICANT MEMBERS OF HIS IMMEDIATE FAMILY OR HIS EMPLOYEES' 
{If urn, attach a ifparatr thrft linttng tht namf» and relalionship of all 
aucn p€Tiont and eiee a detaxUd reiuon for tAtir optralion of your 
atation) 



IF APPLICANT IS AN INDIVIDUAL OR A PARTNERSHIP. ARE VOO OH ANY 
OF THE PARTNERS AN ALIEN' 



IS APPLICANT THE REPRESENTATIVE Of ANY ALIEN OR ANY FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT? (// ytB. explain fuUy) 



WITHIN 10 YEARS PREVIOUS TO THE DATE OF THIS APPLICATION HAS 
THE APPLICANT OR ANY PARTY TO THIS APPLICATION BEEN CONVICTED 
IN A FEDERAL STATE OR LOCAL COURT OF ANY CRIME FOR WHICH THE 
PENALTY IMPOSED WAS A FINE OF i500 OR MORE OR AN IMPRISONMENT 
OF 6 MONTHS OR MORE' fSre inntrurlront. If yet.allach a arparalt 
nhetl (riving drtaiU of eath tuch contichon) 



IF APPLICANT IS AN INDIVIDUAL OR A PARTNERSHIP ARE YOU OH ANY 
PARTNER LESS THAN IB YEARS OF AGE (LESS THAN IJ YEARS OF AGE IF 
FOR CLASS C STATION LICENSE)? 



cy' 



7;^ 



L^ 



I 



^A 



Vi 



IF THE PRINCIPAL LOCATION WHERE THE STATION WILL BE 
USED IS DIFFERENT FROM THE MAILING ADDRESS (ITEM 3). 
GIVE THAT LOCATION. (DO NOT GIVE FOST OFFICE BOX OR 
RFD NO^ 



NUMKR AND STREtT 



DO NOT" 
SCREENING 



K^ifra IN 

(Ty d n 



^ASa^^ 



tIGH AND DATE THE APPLICATION ON REVERSE SIDE 



V 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 



2409 



Billy Skipper Exhibit No. I — Continued 



19 IF APPLICANT IS A NONGOVERNMENTAL 

CORPORATION. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS 



IS CORPORVTiON ORGANIZED UNDeR LAWS OF ANY FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT? 



IS ANY OFFICER OR DIRECTOR Of THE CORPORATION AN ALIEN? 



IS MORE THAN ONE FIFTH OF THE CAPiTAL STOCK EITHER OWNED OF 
RECORD OR MAY tr BE VOTED BY ALIENS OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES 
OR BY A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OR REPRESENTATIVE THEREOF OR BY 
ANY CORPORATION ORGANIZED UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN 
COUNTRY? 



IS APPLICANT DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROLLED BY ANY OTHER 
CORPORATION) (// yta, antwtT iirniJ E Ihrou0A K btlow) 



GIVE NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTROLLING CORPORATION 



UNDER THE LAWS OF WHAT STATE OR COUNTRY IS THE CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION ORGANIZtDT 



IS MORE THAN ONE FOURTH OF THE CAPITAL STOCK OF CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION EITHER OWNED OF RECORD OR MAY IT BE VOTED BY 
ALIENS OR THEIR HtPRESENTATIvtS OH Bit A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT 
OR REPRESENTATUE THEREOF OR BY ANY CORPORATION QRGANItED 
UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY! (// yet, gyvt dttaxU) 



IS ANY OFFICER OR MORE THAN ONE FOURTH OF THE DIRECTORS OF 
THE CONTROLLING CORPORATION AN ALIEN? (// ye; anawtr ilfm» 
7 arid J btlow) 



TOTAL NUMBER OF DIRECTORS IN CONTROLLING CORPORATION 




LIST ALL OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS WHO ARE ALIENS IN CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION AND GIVE BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL STATEMENT FOR ^CH 
ALIEN 



IS THE CONTROLLING CORPORATION IN TuRN CONTROLLED 

BY OTHER COMPANIES? {If yet, attack tn/ormatxon fur each I — I ,. 

of Ihete controtlino companies covering the informalxon re- l_J 
qutiled tfi lUmt £' through J, above) 



D' 



iO IF APPLICANT IS AN UNINCORPORATED 

SSOCtATION. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS 



f ANY OFFICER OR DIRECTOR OF THE ASSOCIATION AN ALIEN? 



ARE MORE THAN ONE FIFTH OF THE VOTING MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIA 
TIOH ALIENS OR REPRESENTATIVES OF ALIENS FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS 
OR REPRESENTATIVES THEREOF OR CORPORATIONS ORGANIZED UNDER 
THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY? 



IS THE ASSOCIATION DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROLLED BY ANY 
OTHER ORGANIZATION? (// ytt. give dtlatled explunatton) 



USE THIS SPACE FOR ANr ADOIIJONAL INfORMAIlQN OR REMARKS 






A<~^ 



{^A^ s^-P^.^Jlyl^ 




~m-^^j>ritM<^ 



^iJ^iil^^ 



Signature 



I>ato 



WILLFUL FALSE STATEMENTS MADE ON THIS FORM ARE PUN- 
ISHABLE BY FINE AND IMPRISONMENT. U.S. CODE, TITLE 18, 
SECTION 1001. 



ALL THC STATEMENTS MADE IN THE APPLICATION AND ATTACHED EXHIBITS ARE CONSIDERED MATERIAL REPRESENTATIONS, AND ALL THE EXHIBITS ARE 
A MATERIAL PART HEREOF AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN AS ir SET OUT IN FULL IN THE APPLICATION. 

I CERTIFY THAT: 

The applicant has (or has ordered from the Government Printing Office) a current copy of Part 19 of the Commission's rules governing 
the Citizens Radio Service: 

The applicant waives any claim to the use of any particular frequency or of the ether as against the regulatory power of the United 
States because of the previous use of the same, whether by license or otherwise, 

The applicant accepts full responsibility for the operation of. and will retain control of any citizens radio station licensed to him pursuant 
to this application ; 

The station will be operated in full accordance with the applicable law and the current rules of the Federal Communications Commission , 

The said station will not be used for any purpose contrary to Federal. State or local law; 

The applicant will have unlimited access to the radio equipment and effective measures will be taken to prevent its use by unautlionzed 
persons ; and 



The statements in this application are true, complete, and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief and are made in good faith. 



DO NOT OPERATE UNTIL VOU HAVE 
VOUR OWN LICCNSEi 

USE OF ANY CALL SIGN NOT VOUR 
OWN IS PROHIBITED. 



ilCMATUHE. t<^,y .^.^[^^ 

{Chmck appro^rj^ia bot below/ 

f-j/ INDIVIDUAL I 1 MtMBER OF 

I/) APPLICANT I I APPLICANT 



BATE SIGNED! 




PARTNERSHIP 



□ OFFICER OF APPLICANT I 1 OFFICKL OF 
CORPORATION OR GOVERNMENTAL 



ASSOCIATION 



U.5 GOVERNMENT PRINTING Of net IMJ-O-^M-^OI 
Reprinted by E. F. Johnion Company 



2410 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. I would like to ask you, Mr. Skipper, whether or not 
these 10 transmitters were requested for use in your plumbing and 
heatinfij business or for use of the Ori^nal Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that the transmitters were used on Klan business. 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, on October 6, 1964, Howard M. Lee, who 
possessed an Alcoholic Tax Unit License to sell firearms, was arrested 
by the Treasury Department. He was charged with failing to keep 
adequate records for rifles which he had obtained from several whole- 
salers and which he had distributed throughout the Bogalusa area, 
most of them to members of the Klan. 

Howard Lee, according to the committee's investigation and accord- 
ing to an interview with Howard Lee in the Federal penitentiary in 
Texarkana, Texas, was the exalted cyclops of the Mitch Community 
Unit of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Mitch Com- 
munity being located in Bogalusa. 

Did you know Howard M. Lee to be the exalted cyclops of the unit? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did Howard M. Lee visit with you at your residence 
in connection with Klan business? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I show you a sketch, a hand-drawn sketch, of how a 
person would outline the route which he would travel to get to your 
home. I ask you if this is factual ? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
con'^titutional grounds previouslv stated. 

(Map sketch marked "Billy Skipper Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Howard Lee drew that sketch in order to locate your 
residence. Did Howard Lee meet with you at your residence and dis- 
cuss the business of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appfxi.. Howard Lee had in his possession a list containing 
names of people. I hand you this list in his hand and ask you if you 
knew those persons to be members of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional ground-^ nrpviouslv stated. 

(Document marked "Billy Skipper Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF RU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



2411 



Billy Skipper Exhibit No. 3 



/-^ 






Huston l{kJii>f\A/ J- 

[OWN sne/v/s^ 

Boots Qf /fj^i.]) ^^ 
fi^D Bu /^ o j^ rr '^""'^ 



Muni Pof'e "^ 



A^-; 





sWH*- 







!#, 



L^' 



■^^ 



2412 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



Mr. Appeli,. Did you purchase pistols or rifles from Howard M. 
Lee? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The records obtained by the Treasury Department 
from Howard Lee — and by the way, Mr. Chairman, I think the record 
should reflect that Howard Lee purcliased for sale some 684 rifles and 
his records showed disposition of the rifles by him except in the case 
of 184. It was the failure to keep records of these that he was later 
indicted, tried, and sentenced to 3 years for, which he is now serving 
in the Federal penitentiary in Texarkana, Texas. 

In 1964 he sold Billy Skipper, Denham Springs, Louisiana, one .303 
Jungle carbine number MKF937A239, price $32.50. 

Did you purchase that rifle from Mr, Lee ? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Entry under the same date, sold to Billy Skipper, 
Denham Springs, Louisiana, one 30 calibre U.S. Ml. carbine, E-563, 
amount $57.50. I show you this entry which contains a signature, 
Billy Skipper, and ask you if you purchased the rifle and if that is 
your signature. 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Excerpt from Howard Lee's records marked "Billy Skipper Ex- 
hibit No. 4" follows :) 

Billy Skipper Exhibit No. 4 



>ifi?«j(f 



Qujt/^ 











~>-Z? 



■N 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2413 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, when interviewed by agents of the 
Treasury Department did you admit that you had purchased from 
Mr. Lee one of the carbines that I have described to you ? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. "What weapons do you own other than those that I 
have described to you ? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In April 1965, following an argument, did you pull 
a gun on a Denham Springs police officer? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Skipper, in May of 1964, the Klan in Bogalusa, 
a part of the Sixth Congressional District, held a rally in which the 
Klansmen were masked in public in violation of Louisiana State law. 
Do you possess any knowledge of whether assurances were received by 
the Klan that they would not be prosecuted for violating the State 
law? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As chief of the KBI in 1964 and early 1965, did cross- 
burning, throwing of tacks on people's lawns, threatening telephone 
calls, come under the jurisdiction of the KBI? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you personally engage in any of these acts ? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions to ask of 
this witness. 

The Chairman. Mr. Skipper, is it not a fact that the application 
you filed with the Federal Communications Commission for a citizens 
band radio license was applied for by you for use by you not only as 
a member and official of the Klan group to which you belong, but 
also in your capacity as a member of the Klan Bureau of 
Investigation ? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Is it not a fact that the gun, or guns, you pur- 
chased from Mr. Lee were so purchased by you for use bv you in 
your capacity as a member of the Klan Bureau of Investigation in the 
Sixth Congressional District, which is the area that you represent? 

Mr. Skipper. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. I have no questions. 

Mr. Buchanan. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. The documents we have just examined the witness 
on will be inserted in the record at the points where Mr. Appell 
previously questioned the witness. 

Mr. Appell now has an additional question to ask and an additional 
document to offer in evidence. 



2414 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to show that 
the sketch which I exhibited to the witness, directions to his residence, 
was drawn by Howard M. Lee, the exalted cyclops of the Mitch Com- 
munity Unit of the United Klans of America. 

The Chairman. That drawing will be a part of the record. 

Is that all ? 

Mr. Appell. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock 
tomorrow morning. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Weltner, 
and Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon, at 5:20 p.m., Tuesday, January 4, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, January 5, 1966.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

Part 3 



WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 5, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.G. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommitt'ee met, pursuant to recess, as 10 a.m. in the Caucus 
Room, Cannon House Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Edwin 
E. Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman ; Joe R. Pool, of Texas ; Charles L. Weltner, of 
Georgia ; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio ; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., of 
Alabama. ) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Pool, Welt- 
ner, and Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hite, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator, and Philip R. Manuel, investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Manuel, will you call the first witness. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, the staff would like to call at this time 
Mr. Ralph Blumberg. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand, sir. 

Do your solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Blumberg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RALPH BLTJMBERG 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Blumberg, would you please state your full name 
for the record ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Ralph Blumberg. 

Mr. Manuel. And when and where were you born, Mr. Blumberg ? 

Mr. Blumberg. February 27, 1921, Cotton Plant, Arkansas. 

Mr. Manuel. Would you please give the committee a brief resume 
of your educational background ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I completed 2 years at the University of Missouri. 

2415 



2416 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. And would you please frive the committee a resume 
of your career in the Armed Forces of the United States ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I served a little over 4 years in the United States 
Coast Guard. 

Mr. Manuel. What were the years of your service ? 

Mr. Blumberg. From 1941 to 1945. 

Mr. Manuel. Would you p;ive the committee a brief resume of your 
business and professional background ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I have been in broadcasting since 1945. 

Mr. Manuel. Were you ever a resident of Bogalusa, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

The Chairman. A little louder. 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. I went to Bogalusa in July 1961. 

Mr. Manuel. And what did you do in Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Blumberg. We purchased Radio Station WBOX, and I oper- 
ated it as an owner and operator of the station. 

Mr. Manuel. That was in July 1961 ; is that correct, sir? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. During that period of time, July 1961 and shortly 
thereafter, would you inform the committee as to your opinion as a 
private citizen of the racial situation which existed at that time in 
Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Blumberg. As far as I knew, from 1961, the next 3 or 4 years, 
I knew of no racial tension or any racial problems. Wliether they 
existed or not is another question, but I knew of none of this. 

Mr. Manuel. Prior to approximately May of 1964, were you aware 
as a private citizen of the existence of a Ku Klux Klan organization 
in the area of Bogalusa, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I had heard some rumors to that effect, but they 
were merely rumors. I really couldn't say that I definitely knew 
factually, because I didn't. 

Mr. Manuel. When did you first become aware of such a group ? 

Mr. Blumberg. When they held an open rally in the city of Boga- 
lusa in May of 1964. It was an open rally with all the regalia, hooded 
sheets and 20-foot crosses, this kind of thing. 

The Chairman. Were they masked ? Were any of them masked ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. I didn't attend that rally. This is what was 
told to me. 

The Chairman. From the reports and so on, it was a meeting where 
Klansmen appeared in hooded sheets or regalia ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Regalia. 

Mr. Manuel. During that time. May of 1964, were there any racial 
demonstrations in Bogalusa at that time ? 

Mr. Blumberg. No, not that I know of. 

Mr. Manuel. As a private citizen did you detect any racial tension 
at that time ? 

Mr. Blumberg. No. I have to be honest, as a private citizen I knew 
of no racial tension whatsoever or of any activity at that time. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Blumberg, in October of 1964 did you, with 
others, meet in order to form an organization to better deal with racial 
problems in the Bogalusa area ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. In October of 1964 I was invited to the home 
of an attorney in Bogalusa, Mr. Bascom Talley, who had been ap- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 2417 

pointed a Community Relations ^ official for Bogalusa, and when I ar- 
rived at his home I found a group of other citizens, including two men 
from Community Relations. I think at that time it was headed by 
former Governor LeRoy Collins. We were told they felt there was 
possible trouble coming to Bogalusa with the racial question and they 
wanted a group of citizens to get together and bring a speaker into 
Bogalusa in order to help Bogalusa avoid the racial pitfalls some of 
the other communities in the South had already experienced. 

The Chairman. By "they" you mean former Governor Collins? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

Mr. Manuel. From the period May 1964 until your initial meeting 
with this group which you have just described in October of 1964, did 
you as a private citizen detect Klan activities, recruitings, or rallies or 
anything of that sort in the Bogalusa area ? 

Mr. Blumberg. What period was that ? 

Mr. Manuel. From May 1964, when you told the committee there 
was an open rally in Bogalusa, until October 1964 when you met with 
this group ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I had heard rumors of recruitment. I am not sure 
there were any open Klan activities. There may have been a few 
cross-burnings in this period. As a matter of fact, I think it was the 
editor of the newspaper, Lou Major, who had cross-burnings on his 
lawn at that time. 

Mr. Manuel. Was Mr. Major one of the men who comprised the 
group you met with in October, 1964 ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes, he was. 

Mr. Manuel. Who were the other members of that group ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Reverend Jerry Chance, minister of the Main Street 
Baptist Church ; Reverend Paul Gillespie, minister of the Memorial 
Baptist Church ; Reverend Bruce Shepherd, minister of the St. Mat- 
thew's Episcopal Church; Lou Major, editor of the Bogalusa News; 
and Bascom Talley, an attorney and Community Relations representa- 
tive. 

The Chairman. Mr. Talley was then, or before or since, an official 
of the Louisiana Bar Association ; was he not? 

Mr. Blumberg. He was past president of the Louisiana Bar Asso- 
ciation. I think he was president 2 years ago or perhaps 1 year ago. 
And myself. We were the six. 

Mr. Manuel. Specifically, Mr. Blumberg, what activities did this 
group engage in, in order to improve racial relations in Bogalusa? 
Wliat did you plan to do ? 

Mr. Blumberg. We had decided to bring Brooks Hays to Bogalusa 
to speak to the professional and business community. 

The Chairman. We know who he is, but for the record would you 
describe who he is ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Mr. Hays is an ex-Congressman from the State of 
Arkansas, and I understand he now has been working directly with 
the President, going around and speaking, especially in the Southern 
States. 

The Chairman. He was an active religious leader; was he not? 

Mr. Blumberg. He was. I started to say we wanted him because 
he was a prominent Baptist layman and we were told he was an engag- 

1 Community Relations Service. 



2418 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

ing speaker, somewhat of a humorist. And we felt if he talked to the 
professional and business community of Bogalusa, we possibly could 
avoid some of these racial pitfalls that some of the other communities 
had experienced prior to our problem. This actually was the main 
purpose of our organization. 

Mr. Manuel. Was your purpose at any time to force integration on 
the city of Bogalusa? 

Mr. Blumberg. Absolutely not. 

Mr. Manuel. When was it decided to invite Mr. Hays to speak in 
Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Blumberg. We decided around the first part of December. 

The Chairman. You are now in the year 1964 ? 

Mr. Blumberg. In the year 1964; yes, sir. Mr. Talley had con- 
tacted Mr. Hays and invited him to speak in Bogalusa and Mr. Hays 
had accepted and we set the date around January 7. 

Mr. Manuel. After the decision was made by the six of you gentle- 
men, what action did you take to implement the appearance of Mr. 
Hays in Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Blumberg. The first thing we did, we went to talk to the city 
administrator, because we wanted the mayor and commission council 
to sponsor the speech. We wanted the mayor to introduce Mr. Hays 
and, frankly, we were going to step out of the picture. 

We set up a meeting with Mayor Cutrer and the city council in the 
City Hall. This was the period right before Christmas, perhaps mid.- 
December of 1964. We met with the mayor and the commission coun- 
cil and we told the mayor what we wanted to do. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you act as spokesman for this group at that time? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Manuel. Please proceed. 

Mr. Blumberg. Basically, what we told the commission council was 
that we wanted to bring Mr. Hays in. We explained why. In es- 
sence, what we were really after was to get the entire business and 
professional community behind the mayor and commission council if 
trouble started in Bogalusa. We felt they were out on a limb and 
somebody was getting ready to saw it off. But the mayor felt our tim- 
ing was bad. We also made the statement that he was afraid the 
Klan would violently object to the meeting. 

There is one thing I left out, and it was very important. We were 
told by Community Relations that since Mr. Hays was with the Federal 
Government we had to have an integrated audience. So we decided to 
invite 8 Negroes who had been working with the mayor in the past to 
this meeting. We also felt it should be a private meeting. We felt if 
it was public there would be trouble. We had a list of approximately 
100 names of business and professional people in the community and 
8 Negro leaders. 

Mr. Manuel. So there would have been a total of 108 people? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

Mr. Buchanan. I would like to say for the record, in further refer- 
ence to Mr. Hays, that he served as president of the Southern Baptist 
Convention of more than 10 million members and is a very prominent 
Baptist layman. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2419 

]Mr. Manuel. Mr. Blumberg, in addition to the mayor of Bogalusa 
what other officials were present at your meeting? 

Mr. Blumberg. The city attorney, Robert Rester; also the four 
commissioners, Andy Overton, Arnold Spiers, Jim Talbot, and Mar- 
shall Holloway. 

Mr. Manuel. Did any of them contribute anything to the conversa- 
tion about the appearance of Mr. Hays in Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Blumberg. The only one who spoke was the mayor and the 
chief of police, Arnold Spiers, and they both agreed the Klan w^ould 
violently object to an integrated meeting and they felt it was not the 
time to hold a meeting. However, we asked the administration if they 
would at least attend the meeting, and they agreed to do this. 

Right before we left, which was a little before 3 o'clock, we asked 
that they keep this information quiet. No one else in the community 
knew about it at the time, and we wanted it kept quiet because we 
didn't want the whole story out at that time. We had not issued the 
invitations yet. That was 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 

At 5 o'clock tliat same afternoon, Reverend Shepherd received a 
knock at the door ; and the man at the door was a well-known charac- 
ter in Bogalusa — I can't recall his name — "Buddy" somebody, and he 
told the Reverend Shepherd that the Masons in tow^n had just heard 
about Brooks Hays being invited and they didn't think it was a good 
idea to bring Mr. Hays to Bogalusa. Of course, I am being nice in 
saying it. I was told he was not that nice in relating the message. 

Mr. Manuel. To go back to the meeting with the mayor and city 
council, I understood you to say the mayor said the Klan would 
object to Mr. Hays speaking in Bogalusa. As a private citizen, was 
this your first encounter with the Klan as a powerful force in 
Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Blumberg. This was our baptism. This was the first time we 
had heard the word "Klan" as it dealt with fear and power, yes. 

Mr. Manuel. Subsequent to the meeting, will you tell the commit- 
tee what your group's activities were in trying to obtain a place for 
Mr. Hays to speak ? 

Mr. Blumberg. We first wanted to hold the meeting in the Episco- 
pal Church, Reverend Shepherd's church, but there was so much dif- 
ficulty in obtaining the meeting place that his congregation asked 
him not to have the meeting there. And all six of us tried all over 
town, any place we could think of that was practical, to hold the 
meeting, but we were turned down everywhere. We talked to the 
gentleman in charge of the armory and were turned down there. We 
talked to the mayor to try to get the City Hall, and they refused. 
Finally we just had to give up finding a place to hold the meeting 
because there was no place to be had. 

Mr. Pool. I want to clarify something for the record. I didn't 
get what you said about the man quoting the Masons. 

Mr. Blumberg. He merely used the word that the "Masons" had 
heard Brooks Hays was coming to Bogalusa and they didn't feel 
Mr. Hays should come, but I am sure when he used the word "Masons" 
he was just pulling it out of the air. 

Mr. Pool. In other words, so far as you know, the Masons were not 
involved in this ? 



2420 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Blumberg. No ; not at all. 

The CiiAiRMAx. In fact, yon referred to the so-called Buddy as a 
"well-known character," so you are not subscribing to what he was 
saying? 

Mr. Blumberg. Absolutely not. 

The Chairman. It might be advisable for you to speak a little about 
that. By "character," do you means he was known as a segregationist 
or possible Klansman then or subsequently known? IMiat did you 
mean by that word "character" for the record ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Number one, I understand he was quite a drunkard. 
He used to love to brawl all the time, and I was told he was at one 
time a deputy sheriff who was taken off the force. I don't know if he 
was a policeman or not, but let us put it this way : he was a great 
candidate for the Klan. 

The Chairman. "Wliat do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Blumberg. He was a great candidate for Klan membership. 

The Chairman. I assumed that was what you meant from the way 
you said it. I wanted it for the record. 

Mr. Blumberg. Let us get it for the record. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Blumberg, in your attempts to secure a speaking 
place for Mr. Hays, what were the reasons that your group was turned 
down at the places that you visited, by the persons that you visited? 

The Chairman. I think I have the background for that. I take it 
by this time, includine; the encounter with the minister you referred 
to, I assume by this time in the chronology of your discussion it was 
then quite well known in town that Brooks Hays had been invited or 
might come ? 

Mr. Blumberg. After the minister had been visited? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Blumberg. Actually, no. It wasn't. This is what surprised 
us because nobody in town knew about this except the six of us. 

The Chairman. We have learned, even in Congress, that three is 
a crowd. 

Mr. Blumberg. We learned it back in 1964. But anyway, this was 
the first time we realized there was a leak in the city administration, 
because they were the only ones who knew about this. 

Mr. Manuel. Were any members of the city administration with 
whom you met that day later known to be members that day of the 
KuKluxKlan? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. As a result of a Federal hearing in New 
Orleans a few weeks ago, the city attorney was named as a member 
of the Klan. 

Mr. Manuel. That was Robert Rester ? 

Mr. Bluiviberg. Yes ; and he was at that meeting. 

Mr. Manuel. Did there come a time when your group made an 
announcement in the paper as to the invitation issued to Mr. Brooks 
Hays? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

First, I think, to keep the record straight chronologically, right after 
Reverend Shepherd had received this visit, I had gone to St. Louis 
with my family for the holidays. Christmas and New Year's, and 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2421 

while there I received a phone call from the radio station saying that 
a pamphlet had been distributed in Bogalusa by the Klan. They said 
in this pamphlet that Brooks Hays was coming to Bogalusa and we 
were going to try to integrate them. 

Mr. Maxuel. Do you have a copy of that pamphlet, Mr. Blumberg? 

Mr. Bli :mberg. Yes, I do. 

(Document marked "Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 1." See p. 2454.) 

Mr. Manuel. Would you be good enough to read the pamphlet for 
the committee ^ 

Mr. Bluriberg. Yes. [Reading:] 

"On Sundav, December 27, 1964," 

The CHAIR3I AN. Wliat is the date ? 

Mr. Blumberg. December 27, 1964. [Reading :] 

On Sunday, December 27, 1964, the Bogalusa Daily News announced that a 

"renowned layman" Brooks Hayes, is to speak in Bogalusa, on January 7, 1965. 

His subject will be better community relations. The Bogalusa Daily News stated, 

"a group of civic, religious and business leaders of Bogalusa have invited 

Hayes to speak here at the St. Matthew's Espiscopal Church Parish House. 

Due to limited seating facilities, the meeting will be by invitation." 

The Daily News did not tell you the whole true story concerning this meeting 
and it is the purpose of this leaflet to give you the full story concerning this 
meeting. 

In the first place, this meeting of January 7, 1965, is to be an integrated meet- 
ing. The meeting was arranged by Bascom D. Talley, Jr., the local public or 
community relations commissioner who is holding this job by appointment of 
Lyndon B. Johnson under the infamous civil rights act. Bascom D. Talley 
formed a committee to help shoulder the responsibility of this meeting. This 
committee of integration minded people are the group of "civic, religious and 
business leaders" referred to by the Daily News. Mr. Talley's committee is 
composed of Bruce H. Shepherd, Minister of the St. Matthew's Episcopal 
Church, V^ertrees Young, a member of the Episcopal Church, Reverend Jerry 
Chance, Minister of the Main Street Baptist Church, Reverend Paul G. Gillespie. 
Minister of the Memorial Baptist Church, Reverend James T. Harris, Minister 
of the Methodist Church, Reverend Bob Lambright whose similar escapades have 
made him a Minister without a church, Ralp Blumberg, owner and operator of 
the radio station WBOX, and, of course, Lou Major, Mr. Talley's favorite puppet. 

In the second place, this integrated meeting is for the sole purpose of planning 
the integration of your Church, Schools, Businesses, Restaurants, Hotels, Motels, 
etc., and those who will receive invitations to the January 7th meeting will be 
people who Bascom D. Talley hopes that Brooks Hayes can convince that they 
should change their social and religious lives, and that in turn will try to con- 
vince you that you should help integration by sitting in Church with the black 
man, hiring more of them in your businesses, serving and eating with them in 
your cafes, and allowing your children to sit by filthy, runny-nosed, ragged, ugly 
little niggers in your public schools. 

In the third place, the Bogalusa Daily News did not tell you the whole story 
about Brooks Hayes. He is a traitor to the South. He assisted Sherman 
Adams draw the order to send Federal Troops into his own State of Arkansas 
to put nine little niggers into white schools, the result of which was spending 
.$5,000,000 of the taxpayers money as well as the beating and jailing of hundreds 
of white citizens. As a result of Hayes' integration efforts, he was defeated 
in his efforts for re-election to Congress by a political unknown. Dr. Dale 
Alford. Brooks Hayes is now a member of the Civil Rights Community Relations 
Committee and he is paid a lucrative salary by the Federal Government to 
make talks such as he is scheduled to make in Bogalusa, on January 7th., 1965. 

The Ku Klux Klan is strongly organized in Bogalusa and throughout Wash- 
ington and St. Tammany Parishes. Being a secret organization, we have KLAN 
members in every conceivable business in this area. We will know the names 
of all who are invited to the Brooks Hayes meeting and we will know who did 
and did not attend this meeting. Accordingly, we take this means to urge all 
of you to refrain from attending this meeting. Those who do attend this meet- 



2422 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

ing will be tagged as Integra tionists and will be delt [sic] with accordingly bv 
the Knights of the KU KLUX KLAN. 

There is in Bogalusa a man named Talley, 

who with a hand picked committee has planned an integrated rally; 

This man would love the nigger. 

in order to grow financially bigger ; 

He and his committee have come up with an integration plan, which is 

bitterly opposed by the KU KLUX KLAN ; 
Talley has attended Nigger Churches to sing, 
this was done to please Martin Luther King ; 
While Talley sings with his nigger group, 
the KU KLUX KLAN will more Knights recruit ; 
Soon Talley and his committee will know who is boss, 
as the KU KLUX KLAN lights the fiery cross. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Blumberg, is the source of this leaflet which you 
?iave read identified on the flyer ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes, it is. At the top it says : "Published By The 
Original Ku Klux Klan Of Louisiana." 

The Chairman. Let me ask you two questions : 

Was this to be a meeting by invitation ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes; yes, this was to be a meeting by invitation. 

The Chairman. Was the purpose of the meeting to force integration 
or to accomplish the objectives suggested in that pamphlet ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Absolutely not. Nothing could have been further 
from the truth. 

The Chairman. Why had it been decided to make the meeting by 
invitation ? 

Mr. Blumberg. We decided this because we were told by Commu- 
nity Relations that Mr. Hays had to speak to an integrated audience 
since be worked for the Federal Government. And we felt if we made 
it an open meeting and it was to be integrated, there probably would 
be a great deal of trouble; and we felt if we made it private, we could 
keep the possibility of trouble down. Also, we were very, very anxious 
to see to it that the power structure in the community attended the 
meeting, and that is why we were going to make it private by invita- 
tion. However, we never did have the opportunity to issue the 
invitations. 

The Chairman. As it turned out, based on subsequent events, did 
you come to the conclusion that Mayor Cutrer, in expressing himself 
as he did at the meeting you had with his council, was expressing a 
factual opinion rather than personal involvement in approbation of 
what might have developed ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Mr. Willis, this is a difficult question to answer. 
Perhaps I should say this, in all fairness to Mayor Cutrer. 

The Chairman. I want the record straight on that. 

Mr. Blumberg. I think the mayor has tried to do his very level best 
as mayor of a deep South community. Here is a man who grew up 
in Bogalusa, and many, many members of the Ku Klux Klan were 
friends of his, and I am sure this man felt a moral obligation, as the 
mayor. But I don't think I am qualified, or anyone else is qualified, 
to criticize a man in his position. I don't know all of his problems, 
and whatever his decisions have been, whatever his actions have been, 
I am sure they were made in sincerity and honesty. 

The Chairman. I am glad to hear you say that because subsequent 
events as a factual matter proved trouble did arise. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2423 

Mr. Blijmberg. That is true. 

The Chairman. I liave never met the man and don't want to charge 
hun for making a factual statement at that time. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. You stated Robert Rester was city attorney and in 
attendance at the meeting and subsequently was disclosed as being a 
member of the Klan through Federal court proceedings. Do you know 
if he was elected by the people or appointed by the mayor ? 

Mr. Blumberg. He was elected by the people. 

Mr. Weltner. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. Let me see that pamjihlet. Were there any direct threats 
to anyone attending the meeting ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. Read what it says about that. 

Mr. Blumberg. [Reading:] 

We will know the names of all who are invited to the Brooks Hayes meeting 
and we will know who did and did not attend this meeting. Accordingly, we 
take this means to urge all of you to refrain from attending this meeting. Those 
who do attend this meeting will be tagged as integrationists and will be delt fsic] 
with accordingly by the Knights of the KU KLUX KLAN. 

Mr. Pool. The words "dealt with accordingly" is that a threat? 
Mr. Blumberg. I would say it is a threat; yes, sir. I think it is 
about as definite a threat as you can make. 
The Chairman. I think the word "intimidation'' would certainly 

apply- 

Mr. Pool. Is the word "intimidation' m there? 

The Chairman. No. I think you asked if the words "dealt with 
accordingly" could be construed as a threat. I think if you wanted to 
use a word which, in my opinion, could not be questioned, it would be 
an "intimidation" if not a "threat." 

Mr. Pool. To be fair, you could say they would be dealt with ac- 
cordingly in the next election, which would be all right. 

Mr. Blumberg. That is true. 

Mr. Pool. We are looking for acts of violence and threats. There 
is a question in my mind whether you can call this a direct threat or 
not. 

Mr. Weltner. May I ask a question at this point, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. Would you read that part of the pamphlet tliat says 
being members of a secret organization we have members in every 
conceivable place, or words to that effect ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. [Reading :] 

"Being a secret organization, we have KLAN members in every con- 
ceivable business in this area." 

Mr. Weltner. On the basis of the disclosures that have been made 
subsequent to the distribution of this pamphlet, would you describe 
that as an accurate statement ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I will be honest with you. I think it is a very 
honest statement ; yes. 

Mr. Weltner. That is my opinion too. 

Mr. Blumberg. And I have never changed my opinion. 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 3- 



2424 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr, Weltner. The Klaii in Bopihisa did have Klan members, may- 
be not in every conceivable position, but in many positions of im- 
portance, and I think that point should be developed. 

Mr. Pool, Are you goinjr to tie the Klan into threats later on in 
your testimony ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

Mr. BuciiAXAN. Mr, Chairman, may I say, by way of being: "dealt 
with accordingly,"' as I understand it, there were very few elected 
officers there, weren't there? Weren't most of them church and busi- 
ness and professional people? I don't know how they could deal 
"accordingly" with ministers or editors on election day. And what 
about business and professional men being "dealt with" on election 
day? 

Mr. Pool. I was thinking of the political leaders. 

Mr. Buchanan. These were primarily other than elected officials. 

Mr. Pool. I am not defending it. I am saying, in my opinion, it 
is not a definite threat. 

Mr. Buchanan. I am joining you in clarifying the record. 

Mr. Weltner. That sounds like the man who said he didn't know 
if it was a threat or not but they had authority to do away with him. 

The Chairman. All right. Proceed, 

Mr, Manuel. Following the distribution of the pamphlet you have 
just read and following the fact you could not provide adequate 
speaking facilities to Mr. Hays, did your group cancel the engage- 
ment with Mr. Hays ? 

Mr. Blumberg. We met at the newspaper office the first week in 
January, I don't know the exact date, and we discussed this. In 
saying "we," I am talking about the six in our group and the two 
men from Community Relations. We talked from 8 o'clock in the 
evening until 12 o'clock that night trying to make a decision on what 
to do. We decided to cancel the meeting but to put a statement in 
the paper explaining why we canceled it. We came back at 8 o'clock 
the next morning and we all helped to draft the statement, and that 
afternoon we published the statement in the paper. 

Mr. Manuel. In general terms, what did the statement say? 

Mr. Blumberg. I am a little hazy on the statement. However, as 
I remember it, we told the public we had to cancel the Brooks Hays 
meeting because everybody had feared the Klan in the community 
and we couldn't find a place to hold the meeting, and we felt there 
was no freedom of assembly in Bogalusa and we were ashamed of 
this fact that we couldn't hold a public meeting because of fear. This, 
in essence, was the general theme of the statement. 

Mr. Manuel. Subsequent to the appearance of this statement in the 
Bogalusa Daily News, were you personally or your family the objects 
or victims of any harassment? 

The Chairman. Before coming to that, let me develop a thought or 
two here, 

I have before me a copy of the opinion of the circuit court of 
appeals decided recently iii coiniection with an injunction suit filed 
by the United States of America against the following — and I will 
name them and I want you to make a mental note if one of these de- 
fendants in this suit comes to your mind as being the man called Buddy 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2425 

who appeared at the minister's home. I don't know if it is a fact. I 
see Mr. Appell shaking his head so maybe he knows the answer. Do 
you know the answer, whether this man "Buddy" was one of the 
defendants ? 

Mr. Appell. He was not a defendant. 

The Chairman. I am now advised that this man "Buddy" you re- 
ferred to was not a defendant. But this suit was an injunction suit 
filed by the United States against the Original Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan, an unincorporated association; the Anti-Communist 
Christian Association, which we will talk about later; and then quite 
a long list of individuals.^ 

Referring to your testimony thus far concerning the proposed speech 
to be made by former Congressman Brooks Hays, the court, having 
heard the evidence in the whole in that case, said the following : 

"Specific Findings" — this is a subheading — "Specific Findings of 
Klan Intimidation and Violence" : 

We select the following examples of the defendants' acts of intimidation and 
violence. 

(1) January 7, 1965, former Congressman Brooks Hays of Arkansas, at the 
invitation of religious, business, and civic leaders of Bogalusa, was scheduled to 
speak in Bogalusa at St. Matthews Episcopal Church Parish House on the sub- 
ject of community relations. The meeting was to be open to both Negroes and 
whites and it was planned that seating would be on a racially non-segregated 
basis. After learning of the proposed appearance of Mr. Hays and the arrange- 
ments for an unsegregated meeting, the Klan and its members protested to the 
Mayor and the members of the Commission Council and, by means of threats of 
civil disorder and economic retaliation against local businessmen who supported 
the meeting, caused the withdrawal of the invitation to Mr. Hays to speak. 
December 18, 1964, before the Hays invitation was withdrawn, the Mayor of 
Bogalusa and Police Commissioner Arnold Spiers, in an effort to head off possible 
civil disorder, appeared at a Klan meeting at the Disabled Veterans Hall. The 
show of force at this meeting by over 150 hooded Klansmen — 

and [to Mr. Pool] I quote now for your information — 

unquestionably intimidated public oflScials in Bogalusa and, later, hindered effec- 
tive police action against Klan violence. On the stand. Mayor Cutrer admitted 
that he teas "frightened when he looked into 150 pairs of eyes." [Emphasis in 
original.] 

So at that point in your chronology, I think it is valuable for the 
record to have the findings of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. 

(Document marked "Ealph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2." (See 
pp. 2475-2519.) 

Mr. Pool. It does not have too much importance to the question of 
the pamphlet he was raising. 

The Chairman. I don't know. 

Mr. Pool. The "150 pairs of eyes" were the most important. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Pool. That is what I was pointing out a while ago. 



1 United States of America, by Nicholax deB. Katzenhach, Attorney General of the 
United States v. Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, an unincorporated association ; 
Anti-Communist Christian Association, a corporation ; Saxon Farmer; Charles Christmas ; 
Russell Magee; Dewey Smith; Virgil Corkern ; Albert Applewhite; E. J. (Jack) Dixon; 
Delos Williams; James M. Ellis; Hardie Adrian Goings, Jr.; Esley Freeman; Arthur Ray 
Applewhite; James A. Hollingsworth, Jr.; Randle C. Pounds; Sidney August Warner; 
Billy Alford; Rawlin Williamson; Louis Applewhite ; Willis BlackweU; J. A. Hollings- 
worth, Sr. ; Lattimore McNeese; Ira Dunaway ; Doyle Tynes ; Charles Ray Williams ; Frank- 
lin Harris; Charles McClendon ; Delton Graves; Milton Earl Parker; Mervin Taylor; Van 
Day; Ray Risner ; James D. Terrell; .J. D. Jones; Richard E. Krebs ; Michael R. Holden; 
James Burke; Albert Simmons, Jr.; and Noel Ball, Jr., — • U.S. District Court for the 
Eastern District of Louisiana, New Orleans Division, Civil Action No. 15793 ; 250 F. Supp. 
330, decided Dec. 1, 1965. 



2426 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Blumber^, would you please tell the committee 
what actions of harassment or intimidation were directed against you 
and in what form, sir? 

Mr. Blumberg. After we put the statement in the paper — we signed 
our names, all six of us, to the statement, and then the following day 
we broadcast our first editorial since we had been in Bogalusa about 
the civil rights problem. 

Mr. Manuel. This is over your radio station WBOX ? 

Mr. Blumberg. WBOX ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Proceed. 

Mr. Blumberg. And we merely explained why we participated in 
the Brooks Hays affair, for the reasons I have given you before. And 
also we told the people that the civil rights law was now the law of 
the land and, regardless of how you felt about it, it must be complied 
with or the community was going to be in trouble. And this, in es- 
sence, was exactly what we had stated editorially. 

Of course, this editorial and the statement in the paper was like 
setting off a time bomb. "We received threatening telephone calls at 
the station and at home, and the essence of the calls — not only myself, 
but the other five men involved. And the pattern was pretty much 
the same : 

"When you signed this statement you have signed your death war- 
rant."' And some of the calls stated that "we are going to kill your 
wife and your children" or "we are going to take care of your wife and 
your children.-' This type of thing. 

Mr. Pool. To whom were these calls made ? 

Mr. Blumberg. They were made to myself, my wife answered some, 
some of the announcers at the station answered some, and they were 
also made to the other five members. 

Mr. Pool. Did you recognize any of the voices ? 

Mr. Blumberg. No, sir. They were completely anonymous. 

Mr. Pool. Completely anonymous, and you couldn't pinpoint them ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. Did you report it to the police department? 

Mr. Blumberg. No, sir, I didn't. 

Mr. Pool. Why didn't you ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Frankly, I didn't think about it. As I look back 
on it, I should have as a matter of record, but I didn't and I don't think 
any of the other men did. 

Mr. Pool. AVas it your feeling the police department wouldn't do 
anything about it ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Frankly, I don't see what anybody could do about 
it, being anonymous phone calls. 

Mr. Pool. How about the FBI ? 

Mr. Blumberg. No. 

Mr. Pool. You didn't report it to them either ? 

Mr. Blumberg. No. 

Then around this time, I guess a few days later, a man walked into 
the station that we knew fairly well, and I wasn't there. He talked 
to my wife. He sat down in front of her and he made a statement that 
friends of his were very surprised I signed the statement in the paper 
and they felt that I had been hoodwinked into getting involved, and 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2427 

thev felt I should publicly apologize for signing the statement and 
I should explain that all of this was, in essence, a bunch of lies and 
that I really didn't intend to have anything to do with it. 

And my wife told him that I wasn't going to apologize for any- 
thing ; I knew exactly what I had done. 

And he shrugged his shoulders and he made this statement, he said : 
'•AVell, these friends of mine don't want to harm women and chil- 
dren." He shinigged his shoulders and walked away. 

Mr. IVIanuel. Did he identify the friends of his of whom he was 
speaking ? 

Mr. Blumberg. No. That is merely what it was. And then after 
that I sent my wife and family to St. Louis to stay for a while. 

Mr. Manuel. As far as the phone-call harassment is concerned, did 
it take any particular pattern ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Well, the most annoying thing was the fact we re- 
ceived phone calls perhaps every 2 hours all throughout the evening, 
all night long. Nobody would say anything. Pick up the receiver 
and there would be nothing on the other end. 

Mr. Manuel. How long did this last, Mr. Blumberg ? 

Mr. Blumberg. It is kind of hard to say. I imagine, if I could pin- 
point it, perhaps about 3 weeks. 

Mr. Pool. Did you ever ask the telephone company to give you an 
unlisted number ? Or don't they do that now ? 

Mr. Blumberg. No. Actually, what I did, after a while I just took 
it off the hook and left it off. 

Mr. Manuel. Were there any other acts of intimidation and har- 
assment directed toward you, such as tacks in your tires, and so forth? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. I had the car windows of my automobile 
smashed, my wife's smashed, and we had tacks put in the driveway 
and ruined, you know, a set of tires, and that is about it. 

Mr. Pool. You didn't report this to the police department? 

Mr. Blumberg. We reported this. 

Mr. Pool. You did report it ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Was there any trouble at your transmitting tower in 
Bogalusa? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. After we made our plight jDublic nationally 
and editorialized, we decided to fight the Klan. Eight after our first 
editorial, which was on a Thursday, some time in March, that evening 
we received seven bullet holes in our transmitter house fired by a high- 
powered rifle. 

Mr. Weltner. May I interrupt as a matter of chronology? 

This meeting with Mr. Hays was supposed to have been on January 

r? 

Mr. Blumberg. That is right. 

Mr. Weltner. And at the time there was a statement in the paper 
which bore your name and the editorial, and the general acts of har- 
assment continued all through the month of March ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. There were no other statements and editorials, 
but 

Mr. Blumberg. We skipped. I haven't told the rest of it yet. 



2428 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Eight after the January 7 editorial, the most effective weapon the 
Klan, of course, used against me was the boycott. They would call our 
sponsors by telephone and tell them if they didn't stop advertising on 
the station that they would boycott their place of business. And they 
received numerous phone calls and finally the advertisers had to go 
off the station and they pretty well reduced our income. 

And then — and I think this should be told for the record because I 
made a big mistake — right after we lost most of our sponsors, around 
the middle of January, I didn't say another word — no editorializing, 
no nothing. I simply tried to get our sponsors back on the radio sta- 
tion. To be honest about it, I think I was actually appeasing the Klan. 
And then around March, the 1st of March, we had most of the spon- 
sors back on, and they started the phone call routine again. It was 
very organized this time, and they reduced us down from approxi- 
mately 75 sponsors a month to around 6. This is when I knew I had 
made a mistake, because you just can't compromise with the devil, and 
that is what I was trying to do. And I think this is important that 
this be told for the record, because there is no compromise with this 
sort of evil. 

And they had reduced our sponsorship to about 6. We had to 
make up our mind at this time what to do. I am sure the Klan felt 
we would close our doors and walk away quietly and do nothing, but 
we decided to make a fight, for two reasons : 

One, if we could keep our doors open long enough with outside help, 
perhaps the merchants would come back and advertise again. 

And, number two, which is real important, the longer we could keep 
our doors open, we felt the better it was going to be for small radio 
stations and small communication media in small markets, especially 
in the South. Because, if the Klan could close our doors easily, this 
would be a tremendous display of strength. And the longer we could 
keep our doors open, I felt the more frustrated and more confused we 
would get these people and perhaps they would think twice before 
hitting a communications media again. 

This actually has been our purpose in this fight, and our fight 
basically has been for freedom of speech. It's that simple. It has 
nothing to do with integration or segregation, regardless of what the 
Klan wants to make out. It is strictly a matter of freedom of speech. 
And this, gentlemen, has been exactly what the fight has been about, 
as far as I am concerned, with the Klan. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Blumberg, what reason do you have to believe 
that this boycott of which you speak was initiated and carried through 
bytheKuKluxKlan? 

Mr, Blumberg. I didn't know at the beginning, and even in our 
editorials we never mentioned the name of the Klan until they came 
out with one of their own publications and publicly stated that they 
were behind the boycott. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a copy of that particular publication? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

Mr. Manuel. Was it likewise, as the other publications which you 
read, distributed by the Original Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Would you please read that, Mr, Blumberg, for the 
committee ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2429 

Mr. Blumberg. The entire article ? 
Mr. Manuel. Would 3'ou, please? Yes, sir. 
The Chairman. What is the date of it, so we will know ? 
Mr. Bltjmberg. I don't have a date. 
Mr. Appell. It is not dated. 

The Chairman. It is not dated. Could you fix about the day so 
that we could put in the record a chronological understanding? 
]Mr. Blumberg. It must have been around March or April, I guess. 
The Chairman. 1965? 

Mr. Manuel. The early part of 1965, Mr. Chairman. 
Mr. Bluimberg. [Reading:] 

As a result of the statement issued in the Bogalusa Daily News, signed by 
Bascom D. Talley, Jr., Bruce Shepherd, Paul Gillespie, Jerry Chance, Ralph 
Blumberg and Lou Major announcing the cancellation of the invitational, inte- 
grated, speaking engagement in this city by Brooks Hays, our City, as well as 
the Klan, received unfair, biased, national publicity from television and news- 
papers throughout the country. The national news media quoted Bascom Talley 
as saying that Bogalusa has a "leadership vacuum". They quoted Bruce 
Shepherd as saying "Bogalusa has a high rate of alcoholism and mental illness". 
The national press even misquoted Brooks Hays who was supposed to have said 
"Bogalusa is a city in the grips of the Ku Klux Klan." Even one magazine 
contained an article entitled "Klan Town U.S.A." which accused Bogalusa of 
being dominated by the Ku Klux Klan. This article was written by a free lance, 
alcoholic reporter — Paul Good, who spent over $100.00 on alcoholic beverages, 
who wrecked his car, and who was charged with reckless driving during his 
short visit to Bogalusa. 

Bruce Shepherd was quoted as saying that he had received calls threaten- 
ing to bomb his church if Brooks Hays were allowed to speak there. We accuse 
Bruce Shepherd of lying. There was no such threat or threats made and we 
challenge Bruce Shepherd to prove that he made such a report to the police. 

Mr. Manuel. At that point let me interrupt you for a moment and 
ask, did you know whether as a matter of fact Reverend Shepherd had 
received threats to bomb his church ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I don't know. I really don't know. 

Mr. Manuel. All right. 

Mr. Blumberg. [Reading:] 

Bruce Shepherd must have had his family in mind rather than our city when 
he stated we had a high rate of alcoholism and mental illness because Bruce 
Shepherd himself can be observed frequently emerging from the Cuban Liquor 
Company with an arm load of liquor. We further would have you know that 
Bruce Shepherd's son recently faced a charge in court for morals violation and 
was committed to a mental institution. 

The Ku Klux Klan is now in the process of checking on Reverend Shepherd's 
moral standards. If he is cleared you will be so informed. If he is not cleared, 
you will be informed of any and all misdeeds or moral violations of his in the 
past. 

Much has been printed about the Ku Klux Klan being a violent organization. 
This is not true. There was no violence when public accommodations were 
tested in this city and there has been no violence since then. We, however, 
have formed a large block white vote which will more than offset any other 
block vote in this entire parish. We also are boycotting businesses which cater 
to integration such as Mobile Gas Stations, Radio Station W.B.O.X., Rosenblum's, 
Zesto and the Barbecue Inn. 

Mr. Manuel. At that point Mr. Blumberg, let me ask you if you 
know why the Klan would boycott the Mobile gas stations in Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I am a little hazy on this one. I feel it is probably 
because, if I am not mistaken, I think this was operated by some Negro 



2430 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

attendants and they catered greatly to Negro trade, and I was told that 
Mr. Talley owned the land on which this station was located. 

Mr. Maxuel. Do you know whether the boycott was successful as 
far as the Mobile gas stations were concerned? 

Mr. Blumberg. They have almost ruined the people financially. 

Mr. Manuel. What about the other business establishments men- 
tioned — Rosenblum's, Zesto, and the Barbecue Inn ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I don't know anything about their boycotts, nor 
the reasons. 

Mr. Manuel. Please proceed, sir. 

Mr. Blumberg. Where did I leave off ? 

Mr. Manuel. Right after "Barbecue Inn." 

Mr. Blumberg. [Reading:] 

The Bogalusa Daily News is also being boycotted by the Klan because while 
the National press was tearing Bogalusa into shreds, it did not print one single 
word in the defense of Bogalusa. The theory behind boycotting the Daily News 
and these other businesses is that to financially aid such business institutions is 
comparable to buying bullets for a man as John Dillenger who would take the 
bullets and then kill you and rob your city. 

Congressman Charles Weltner of Atlanta, Georgia, a member of the House 
Committee of Unamerican Activities has proposed that committee investigate 
the Klan. We wonder why he doesn't also propose to investigate the Black 
Muslems who advocate black supremacy, who commit murder and who commit 
arson all over the country in a period of one week and who defied and refused 
to allow Chicago Police to enter their meeting place while they were beating 
almost to the point of death one of Malcolm X's friends. We urge each of you 
to write this Congressman and demand that he investigate the Black Muslems. 

The original Ku Klux Klan invites any investigation that Congressman Weltner 
should like to make. The citizens of Bogalusa know that this city has always 
been a Klanish City from the days of the Great Southern Lumber Company until 
now. We have never appreciated outsiders telling us how to run our city. 
Outsiders have often caused trouble in our City. A good example of this was 
when labor unions were forming in Bogalusa. A gang of union busters or hired 
gunmen were brought into this city to kill those who stood up for the common 
man. As a result of such incidents, it is only natural that Bogalusa would be 
Klanish. 

The Chairman. Have you finished ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes, sir. 

(Document marked "Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 3." See p. 2455.) 

Tlie Chairman. I would like to point this out, in view of the refer- 
ence to the committee : 

This committee, on March 30, 1965, voted unanimously to conduct 
the investigation we are now conducting. It voted also to request the 
House to furnish funds to do so, and the House by an overwhelming 
vote did it. Now the last "resolve" of that resolution wliich authorizes 
this particular investigation reads as follows : 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the Chairman is directed— 

meaning myself — 

to continue the preliminary inquiry into the activities of the Black Muslims, 
the Minutemen and the American Nazi Party previously authorized by the Com- 
mittee, for the purpose of determining whether an investigation of the.se groups 
is called for. 

With reference to that "resolve," I have said many times that we 
cannot be in two places at one time or do two things at one time. And 
I added, always, that sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2431 

This preliminary inquiry is still goincr on with reference to these 
other organizations, and that is the way it stands at this time. 

I think the record should also reflect my personal views anyway, and 
that is all I have to say. 

Here ^^e are hearing evidence of threats, intimidation, and boycotts. 
That at least during the period of our history thus far has not been 
a pretty word— ''boycotts.'' We want the evidence that you are pre- 
senting. It is important. But I must, in all honesty to myself, say 
that a boycott, wherever it comes from, is no good. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Blumberg, during the period of this boycott 
which you have described against your radio station, did you subse- 
quently regain any sponsors ? 

Mr. Blumberg. We did. We had a few, and then would lose them 
again, until it got to the point where, frankly, I think we had one local 
sponsor left and perhaps two or three national sponsors. People were 
too frightened. I can't blame the merchants. The only way they 
could have broken the back of the boycott was to stand up together. 
Of course, this has been the problem from the beginning in Bogalusa : 
For some reason good people 

The Chairman. I meant to add that perhaps another mistake your 
group made was not to pursue that meeting, and perhaps the engaging 
in boycotts would have been prevented. I wanted to complete my 
statement. You may comment. 

Mr. Blumberg. Right. 

The Chairman. In other words, I agree with you when you said 
you should have kept on. 

Mr. Blumberg. Right. 

The Chairman. And perhaps better results would have been 
achieved if the committee had not yielded in the first place. 

Mr. Blumberg. This is quite true, but for some reason 

The Chairman. I am not reproachful. 

Mr. Blumberg. No. I was just continuing. 

For some reason we have never been able to get the power struc- 
ture in the community, Bogalusa, to stand up together and do away 
with all of this nonsense. I think it is the answer to peacefully re- 
solving the civil rights problem not only in Bogalusa, but in any com- 
munity, because the people of Bogalusa are no different than the peo- 
ple in any small community in the country. North, South, East, or 
West. I would say 90 to 95 percent of the people are good people, 
but, if the people would only quit underrating themselves and stand 
up, they would be amazed how much power they have if they stand 
together. I think it is the key to this kind of a problem and some- 
how, somewhere along the line, the answer to getting people to be- 
come involved is going to be found. But until it is, there is going 
to be a great deal of difficulty not only in Bogalusa, but anywhere 
else, because Bogalusa is not unique, it is like any community any- 
where in this country. And this goes for the State of Louisiana, too. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Mr. Pool. 

Mr. Pool. How do you account for the fact that Bogalusa didn't 
stand up, where most communities in the South have handled their 
racial situation in a whole lot better manner than they did in Boga- 
lusa ? 



2432 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Blumberg. I think possibly it was because, for some reason, 
the Klan was allowed to infiltrate the community in the powerful 
places too quickly and before it was discovered it was too late. I 
think this is the basic reason. Why this happened, of course, is any- 
one's guess. 

Mr. Weltner. Who was running the affairs of that town, Mr. 
Blumberg, in the first part of the year 1965? Was it the civic and 
religious leaders or the Ku Klux Klan? 

Mr Blumberg. The first part of 1965 ? 

Mr. Weltner. From the time you invited Brooks Hays until March 
or June, who was running the town at that time? Who was exer- 
cising the decision power? Whose decisions were being carried out? 

Mr. Blumberg. I am sure it was supposed to be Mayor Cutrer and 
the commission council. I really don't know how much they were 
influenced. Let's put it that way. 

Mr. Pool. Were the decisions being made at Ku Klux Klan head- 
quarters for the city ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I really — I mean, all I can offer you is a personal 
opinion. 

Mr. Pool. That is what I asked. 

Mr. Blumberg. If you want my pei-sonal opinion, I don't think any 
decision was made unless 9i great deal of thought was put into how 
this would affect the Klan leadership, what they Avould think about it. 

Mr. Pool. They AVeren't actually calling the shots, but they were 
more or less in a veto position ; they could veto ? 

Mr. Blumberg. They were an influencing factor then, and I think 
they are an influencing factor right now when I am sitting here talk- 
ing to you. I have never changed my mind about that. 

The Chairman. I think it would be appropriate at this point — I 
want in the record at some point — for me to refer to the findings arid 
holdings of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in the case I read 
from a while ago, particularly with reference to one of the defendants, 
the Anti-Communist Christian Association. The court, with refer- 
ence to that outfit and the Klan, said this : 

We find that to attain its ends, the klan exploits the forces of hate, prejudice, 
and ignorance. We find that the klan relies on systematic economic coercion, 
varieties of intimidation, and physical violence in attempting to frustrate the 
national policy expressed in civil rights legislation. We find that the klansmen, 
whether cloaked and hooded as members of the Original Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan, or skulking in anonymity as members of a sham organization, "The 
Anti-Communist Christian Association", or brazenly resorting to violence on the 
open streets of Bogalusa, are [and quoting] a "fearful conspiracy against 
society * * ♦." 

* * * * ^ i^ * 

The evidence clearly establishes that the Anti-Communist Christian Associa- 
tion is not a bona fide, independent organization but is the defendant klan 
thinly disguised under a respectable title. At an earlier time, the klan's dummy 
organization was called the Bogalusa Gun and Riflo Club. The defendants' 
efforts to appear respectable by association may also be reflected in the location 
of the klan's principal oflSce in the Disabled American Veterans Hall. 

That is the end of the quotation. 

That is why I stated yesterday that in all of the long history of the 
phony front groups that the Klan has used to appear respectable, they 
are just as false as a 2-foot yardstick, and I am glad to have a court, 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2433 

the circuit court of appeals, a^ree with the views of this committee 
and with the evidence we have been presenting along the same lines. 
Proceed. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Blumberg, the fact is that you decided to leave 
Bogalusa and sell your WBOX, Bogalusa. Will you please tell the 
committee when you made this decision and why '( 

Mr. Blumberg. Well, we decided to sell the station around No- 
vember. We made the decision because, number one, we had been 
receiving outside help from individuals and some broadcasting stations 
from around the country, and we were running out of money, and 
we realized the merchants weren't going to come back with the station 
for a long time, if ever. We also felt we were making the decision 
to sell ; the Klan was not making it for us. We could possibly have 
kept going, but we decided that we had proved our point as much 
as we possibly could. My family was in St. Louis, my wife and two 
children living there, and myself in Bogalusa for 4 or 5 months, which 
is no way to live. I don't think we could have ever lived in Bogalusa 
in peace again. So we had no choice, really, we had to sell. But 
we didn't close our doors ; they didn't drive us out of business like they 
wanted to do. So its kind of a pathetic thing to say, really, but in 
a way we had our share of victory. But, unfortunately, the Klan has 
won their battle in Bogalusa. They control, they influence greatly 
now all of the press, the news media. But I am hoping that perhaps 
they will think a little harder before they ever hit a communications 
media again. If they control the press, half of their battle has been 
won. 

Mr. Manuel. At the time you decided to sell, did you know that 
the Klan w^ould never let up its boycott and pressure on your former 
sponsors ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. As a matter of fact, we had a sponsor, the 
first one in 9 months, that came back with us a few months ago. 
He was an automobile dealer Avho changed his location to a new place 
and he w-anted to try the station once again. He felt everything was 
all right. He was on the station for 3 days. The morning of the 
fourth day he called me and said that he had received a flood of 
phone calls all day long at his business and even at nighttime at his 
home, and he felt he just had to go back off, and I agreed. So 
nothing has changed. 

Mr. Manuel. Can you fix the approximate date of that incident ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I think that was probably late Octolier, early No- 
vember. 

Mr. Manuel. And that was almost a year after the invitation to 
Brooks Hays which you have described to the committee? 

Mr. Blumberg. That is correct. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 

this witness. 

The Chairman. We appreciate your appearance. I think you have 
made a contribution to the hearings. I don't know whether you would 
be prepared to answer a question which I would like to propound. 
Maybe you would like to think about it and reappear. It is this: 

This committee will be called upon to make a report to the House 
and to recommend remedial legislation as a result of the hearings and 



2434 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

based upon the hearing record after it is completed. I can conceive 
of a number of possibilities, of a number of possible approaches. I 
do not know what they will be specifically, any more than a judge 
knows what he will decide until he has heard the wliole evidence. 

Certainly, a possible approach to remedial legislation would be an 
amendment to the Internal Security Act of 1950, of which I was not 
the author, but wrote the report and helped manage it on the floor of 
the House. That law requires the Connnunist Party and, under cer- 
tain circumstances, its officers and members to register — in simple 
terms — under sanctions or punishments or penalties for not doing so. 

After many years of litigation — I think 11 years to be specific — the 
Supreme Court, in 1961 I think it was, upheld that law as a consti- 
tutional piece of legislation. But then, subsequently, when it came to 
implement it according to its terms, that is, the forced registration, we 
have met frustration. I am not in the least reproaching an3^one in that 
connection. It's not my business to point the finger at anyone or to 
criticize another branch of the Government, but it is a fact we have 
had trouble in implementing it. 

Now, a possible approach would be to amend that act and to include 
Klan organizations and members, possibly, to register. 

Another approach would be based upon our experience over the 
years. When the Klans were at their peak specifically within my 
generation, in 1915 and the early twenties, all the Southern States, in- 
cluding my own, with the legislatures as then composed, saw fit to 
enact laws curbing certain activities of the Klans that then operated, 
including, for instance, in some States, making it unlawful for Klans 
to appear in hooded robes — and you mentioned that a while ago — 
on public property and prohibiting appearance in hooded robes on 
private property without the consent of the owner. And so on. Per- 
haps that could be a beginning. Perhaps a Federal law could be 
fashioned and the law^ modified to fit the Nation. 

Thirdly, another approach — and these are possibilities only — would 
be a Federal statute to make it unlawful, to use short terms, for 
groups of people to engage in types of activities described in that cir- 
cuit court of appeals decision and thereby deprive other people of the 
enjoyment of their rights under the Constitution. 

So those w^ould be three possibilities that now occur to me and that 
I have been thinking about. 

Based upon your experience, I was going to ask you now, or later 
if you prefer, while you are on the stand whether you have any sug- 
gestions as possible remedial legislation that we might recommend. 
It is a tough one, it is not an easy one. We will wrestle with it and 
we will come out with something. I am wondering if you are pre- 
pared to make any suggestions. 

Mr. BlumberCt. Actually, Congressman Willis, I really don't have 
any suggestions for legislation as such. As I have stated before, you 
know when you go through something like this, like one of the FBI 
agents told me down there, all of a sudden you become a great soci- 
ology expert. But the one thing that keeps coming back to my mind 
time and time again is the same answer, and this goes beyond the 
Klan and civil rights movement: We are talking about human be- 
ings, about people. For some reason today good people, people who 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2435 

know better, educated people, don't want to become involved in any- 
thinfr that lias to do with trouble. And I think it is irettin^ to the point 
where this type of person is goin^ to have to become involved, be- 
cause I think that our basic principles are at stake now in a lot of 
ways. This Klan thine; and the civil ri<^hts movement are just one 
part of it. And I don't care how much legislation we enact, you still 
come back to the human beings. People have got to realize that they 
must become involved in these things, regardless of how much trouble 
is involved, if it affects their freedoms. We are either going to prove 
to the world that we are a democratic country or we are not, that we 
are a freedom-loving people or we are not, and there is no in between. 
You can't compromise with this thing, you can't rationalize; you 
either stand for it or you don't, you are going to fight for it or you 
are not. 

This applies not only to the battlefront in Vietnam, for example, 
this applies on the home front, too. As I said before, this is only one 
little part of it we are talking about today, but to me this is the answer, 
and legislation, of course, is the way to open the door to make it easier, 
but it still is coming right back to the same old answer all over again — 
people themselves, nidividuals. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Of course, I agree with you. But if we believe in 
another precept of our governmental structure, to the effect that we are 
a government of law and not of men, then we must think about rules, 
with sanctions attached to them. 

Anyway, I am glad to have your views, and I completely agree with 
you that this involves personal involvement of people. People have 
to speak out. It becomes a little tough now and then. 

I made a lot of speeches in my district and all over the State of 
Louisiana in the last few weeks, and I said about what you have said. 
But I did add this, and I think it was well received and I think it is 
true: A person has to be proud of country and heritage, where he 
comes from and what he stands for. I said that I am an American 
citizen who comes from the South and I am proud of it. But I, for the 
life of me, cannot convince myself that believing in or joining a hate 
group, whether on the right or the left, would make me either a bet- 
ter American or a better Southerner. So I am willing to involve my- 
self and I do hope that, as a result of the hearings, you and I will 
have more company. 

I have a note from my general counsel that the Fifth Circuit Court 
of Appeals case to which I referred — let me say in my own words, this 
is a landmark decision with reference to these specific hearings, and 
it was written by Judge Wisdom of New Orleans, and I think it ought 
to be made a part of the record. At the conclusion of today's hear- 
ing record, I would like for it to be made a part of this record. 
(See pp. 2475-2519.) It is United States of America against the Orig- 
inal Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and it came out of the Eastern Dis- 
trict of Louisiana, a three- judge court composed of Judge John Wis- 
dom of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals and District Judges Herbert 
Christenberry of Xew Orleans and District Judge Robert Ainsworth 
of New Orleans. 

The decision was written by Judge Wisdom who is a Fifth Circuit 
Court of Appeals Judge. 



2436 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX EXAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. I have no questions. I thank the witness for appearing 
and giving us the benefit of his appearance. I think it was very helpful 
to the committee, esjpecially in view of the fact that you have been in 
the radio and television news media which makes you a more qualified 
witness than some others and I appreciate it. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, I have some questions. 

Mr. Blumberg, I think you sent your wife and children to St. Louis 
shortly after the series of harassing telephone calls and they remained 
there until the sale of the station ? 

Mr. Blumberg. They had come back after about 30 days. They 
stayed in Bogalusa with me until we had received a report from some 
friends of ours in Bogalusa which we have never been able to prove. 

To make a long story short, the word "kidnaping" was used in rela- 
tion to getting even with me, and I discussed this with the FBI. They 
said, "Get the family back to St. Louis," and we did. 

Mr. Weltner. Did you do that because you feared for their life 
and safety ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. You feared for their safety in the hands of the Ku 
KluxKlan? 

Mr. Bluimberg. I don't know who it would be, but it probably would 
have been the Klan. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, you know who it was ; let's put it that way. 

Mr. Blumberg. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. I have been very much impressed with your con- 
viction, very forcibly and eloquently stated, that it is time for people 
to become involved and, in effect, stand up for what they profess to 
believe. 

I wonder what public officials stood up during this time of crisis in 
the city of Bogalusa ? You gave editorials on the radio station. Mr. 
Major stood up through his newspaper. Several ministers stood up 
in their action. Wliat did public officials do in that city in an effort 
to protect law and order? 

Mr. Blumberg. Actually the mayor came out with a statement say- 
ing there would be law and order. 

^ Mr. Weltner, it is difficult to say exactly what they did under the 
circumstances. All I can do is boil it down to one statement : I think 
these men did as well as they could possibly do. Wliether they were 
right or whether they were wrong, I think is immaterial. 

The fact that these were men who grew up in this community, had 
to face this problem unexpectedly — I just don't have the right to, you 
know, to personally criticize these men. I honestly believe that they 
did the best they could do. It is that simple. 

Mr. Weltner. The problem they had to face unexpectedly was the 
wholesale infiltration of the Klan into the fabric of the community. 

Mr. Blumberg. In the civil rights problem ; yes. 

Mr. Weltner. What effect, Mr. Blumberg, would you say that the 
anonymity or the secrecy or hidden identity of members of the Klan 
had in the apparent ability of the Klan to work its will upon this com- 
munity? 

Mr. Blumberg. Like spreading a blanket of fear over the entire 
community, and this is the great effective weapon of the Klan. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2437 

Mr. Weltxer. Secrecy^ 

Mr. Blt"\ibekg. Secrecy. 

Mr. Weltxer. "Well, now, that is interesting. I would like to read 
to you from a document that has previously been placed into the rec- 
ord of these hearings, ''The Seven Symbols of The Klan" (Allen Bayne 
Exhibit No, 3) ; ^ all of this is under the aegis of the United Klans of 
America. The statement, I think, holds true that says, "The secret 
of our power lies in the secrecy of our membership." 

That is a statement emanating from a Klan publication. Do you 
agree with that statement, that the secrecy of the Klan's power is the 
secrecy of its membership ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Right. 

Mr. WEf/rxER. In view of your experience, I would also like to read 
to you certain portions of another document published by the United 
Klans of America called The Principle of the United Klans of Amer- 
ica, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (Allen Bayne Exhibit No. 1),- I 
am taking certain excerpts from this. I will ask your opinion on this. 

This says : 

We believe in just laws and liberty. 

By just laws is meant laws that apply equally to all, rich and poor, educated, 
men and women. * * * 

What is your experience with the Ku Klux Klan as to whether that 
proclamation is believed and transposed to action and continued. 

Mr. Blumberg. I don't believe they believe this at all. 

Mr, Weltxer, [R«admg:] "We believe in the upholding of the 
Constitution of these United States." 

Bearing in mind that the first amendment of the Constitution of the 
United States includes the right peaceably to assemble, I wonder 
whether or not you believe this statement. 

Mr. Blumberg. I think they believe in this statement as it is inter- 
preted by them. 

Mr. Weltner. Wliat about this : 

We believe in freedom of speech : By this is meant the right of any citizen to 
express an opinion on any subject, either publicly or privately, so long as no 
other person's private character is assailed. * * * 

Now, you have expressed some opinions publicly and I wonder 
whether or not your experience bears out a jfirm belief in this proclama- 
tion. 

Mr. Bli'mberg. Let me answer that by saying this: There is no 
freedom of speech or freedom of assembly or a businessman's right 
to run his business in Bogalusa today. 

Mr, Weltner. Wliat about this : 

We believe in a free press, uncontrolled by political or religious sects. 
The press should be free to spread news without coloring it to suit any person 
or sects : * * * 

What has been your experience with that as a member of the press 
and as an associate of Mr. Lou Major, publisher of the newspaper 
there, 

Mr. Blumberg, At this time the newspaper, which was formerly a 
liberal paper, is a completely conservative newspaper. It is not the 
real policy of the editor down there. It isn't what he really believes, 

^ See committee report, The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Movement, pp. 347-352. 
-Ibid. pp. 366-371. 



2438 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. Let me interrupt right there now. You said, "conser- 
vative newspaper." Are you saying that conservatives are followers 
oftheKuKluxKlan? 

Mr. Blumberg. Xo, I am not saying that. 

Mr. Pool. I wanted to distinguish that. I kind of like to be con- 
sidered a conservative in my district. People down there like con- 
servatives, and I want to get that in the record straight. 

Mr. Buchanan. May I say amen ? 

Mr. Blumberg. That is not what I meant. The paper publishes 
news slanted the way the Klan w^ants it slanted. There is no doubt 
about it. 

Mr. Weltner. So you wouldn't particularly believe the practice of 
the Klan as taught by this belief in a free press ? 

Mr. Blumberg. Absolutely not. 

Mr. Weltner. You previously testified that a friend of yours came 
to you and said that — or someone well known to you came and said 
that his friends wanted you to retract everything you have said and 
followed it by saying, "We don't want to harm women and children," 
and following that your wife and child were sent to St. Louis and once 
again were sent to St. Louis. 

What about this : "We believe in the protection of our pure woman- 
hood, the home * * *.'" 

Mr. Blumberg. I don't know who wrote that. 

Mr. Weltner. This is written by the United Klans of America, 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Lie, in Alabama. 

Mr. Blumberg. I don't believe any of that ; none of it that you have 
read so far. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions. 

Mr. Buchanan. I would just like to thank the witness for his testi- 
mony, Mr. Chairman. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness will be excused. Thank you ever so 
much. We certainly appreciate the contribution you have made. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. I would like to call to the stand Mr. Charles Christmas. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. The next wit- 
ness will come forward. 

Will you call your next witness ? 

Mr. Appell. I have, Mr. Chairman. Mr. Charles Christmas. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but tlie truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Christmas. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES HORTON CHRISTMAS, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record, please? 

Mr. Christmas. Charles Horton Christmas. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Christmas. June 18, 1917, Meridian, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Christmas. I am. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2439 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Ingram. Yes, sir. My name is Michael S. Ingram, engaged in 
private practice of law from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Chairman, if I might clarify the record, for your record, the 
decision that you referred to during the testimony of the last witness 
from the case of the United States of America against the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was not a Fifth Circuit Court of 
Appeals decision. 

The Chairman. I am sorry, it was a three- judge court decision. 

Mr. Ingram. It came out of the Eastern District of Louisiana. 

The Chairman. I am sorry. I knew that. In my reference to that 
decision, I meant to say that that decision was rendered by a three- 
judge court, as it is technically called, composed of Judge John M. 
Wisdom of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals and District Judges 
Herbert Christenberry of New Orleans and District Judge Robert 
Ainsworth of New Orleans in the Eastern District of Louisiana. The 
decision was written by Judge Wisdom as a Fifth Circuit Court of 
Appeals Judge. 

Mr. Appell, Mr. Christmas, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Christmas. June 18, 1917, Meridian, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Christmas. Amite, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Do you have a street ? 

Mr. Christmas. 414 North Duncan Avenue. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, are you appearing before the commit- 
tee today in accordance with a subpena served upon you on Octo- 
ber 26, 1965, at the Brumfield Motor Company in Amite, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Christmas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you employed by the Brumfield Motor Company ? 

Mr. Christmas. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, under the conditions of the subpena 
you were directed to produce certain documents called for in an 
attachment w^hich was made a part of the subpena. Paragraph 1 
calls for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and affiliated organizations, namely, Louisiana 
Rescue Servic-e and the Anti-Communist Christian Association in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you as Grand 
Dragon of the 6th Congressional District of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans 
of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Ingram. Just a moment. 

Mr. Chairman, it is my understanding that yesterday after meeting 
with Mr. Appell on this matter, and by telephone conversations with 
Mr. McNamara, the staff director of this committee, back in November, 
when these men were originally scheduled to appear, and quite 
recently, that I advised Mr. McNa,mara and yesterday Mr. Appell, that 
all the records asked for in paragraph 1 of the subpena duces tecum 
issued to Mr. Christmas and the other defendants who were also named 
as individual defendants in the injunction sought under the Civil 
Rights Act in New Orleans, which was tried early in September, that 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 8 



2440 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

all of this literature was in the court record as evidence and in the 
possession of the clerk of courts in New Orleans and also in the 
hands of the Justice Department, to whom it was turned over person- 
ally by me at the commencement of that trial in Xew Orleans. 

I called the staff director back in November specifically for this 
purpose, because at that time I was advised all of it had been turned 
over and I wanted to know from the staff director if he wanted me to 
obtain a court order authorizing the release of this information so 
that it could be brought here to the committee today, and he said that 
he would obtain a ruling from the chairman. 

I was later advised it would suffice, not to obtain this court order if 
this information had been in the record. 

I might also point out that these gentlemen were served with a 
subpena duces tecum in that case which, although I do not have a copy 
of it here today, I am well familiar with it since myself and my two 
law partners represented most of these men in that case in New 
Orleans; that that subpena issued by the Justice Department was 
more encompassing and broader than the subpena is here today, and I 
would like a clarification before we proceed. 

The Chairman. Here is Mr. McNamara of the committee. Would 
you relate your understanding? I don't think it is necessary to be 
sworn unless contradictions develop. 

Mr. McNamara. I would like to qualify one statement made by Mr. 
Ingram. I think it is no more than a misunderstanding. You did, as 
you say, call me on several occasions in regard to the subpenas and 
documents called for by the committee. You did not state to me, ho^^ - 
ever, that all of the documents called for by the subpena had been 
placed in the court — had been turned over to the court. 

You did tell me that same of them had been. I informed you that 
any documents which had been given to the court the committee 
could obtain from the court and that your witness and client would 
not be required to produce those, but if he had any materials that had 
not been turned over to the court, we would expect that they be 
produced. 

'The Chairman. Mr. Ingram, I understood you to say that the 
court's subpena was broader than the committee subpena. 

Mr. Ingram. Yes. 

The Chairman. That would be your answer unless there are further 
points of disagreement ? 

Mr. McNamara. Mr. Ingram perhaps forgot to mention to me that 
everything was turned over. You did not say that. You just told 
me some of these documents had been turned over, but you did not 
say all. 

The Chairman. And you say, Mr. McNamara, that whatever docu- 
ments were turned over in response to the court's subpena would not 
have to be produced here. 

Mr. McNamara. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Now, what is your position on that? Is it your 
position that of necessity everything called for was produced because 
the Federal subpena was broader than our subpena? 

Mr. Ingram. Yes, Mr. Chairman, and in addition to that, after the 
trial was commenced, if a transcript of that trial is present here, I am 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2441 

sure that will bear this out : The defendants were required to produce 
additional material during the course of the trial. From specific 
memory, I do know that certain membership lists were turned over, the 
Various charters and articles of incorporation of the Anti-Communist 
Christian Association, a copy of the constitution of the Ku Klux Klan 
was admited; various pamphlets and brochures allegedly, purportedly 
put out by the Klan were introduced. Many of them were like what 
Mr. Blumberg testified to today, handbills — not only were these asked 
for in the Federal subpena of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan and any other Klan organization, but the Anti-Communist 
Christian Association, the Bogalusa Rifle Club, the United Conserva- 
tives, the Minutemen, and I think there were two or three other 
organizations which I can't remember now, l>ecause I don't have a 
copy of that subpena. 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Appell, will you relate — as I see it, there 
is practically no serious disagreement. AVliat do you have to say, 
Mr. Appell? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ingram advised me all the documents in the hands 
of his clients had been turned over not to the court, but to the U.S. 
attorney handling the case. He assumed that all of those documents 
were put in evidence, and we reviewed the exhibits filed in the case, 
and I advised him we had obtained from the court records those ex- 
hibits which were of interest to us in our inquiry; that we did not 
know that the Government attorney had in his possession documents 
turned over by his clients which were not made a part of the record; 
and, however, if his clients had no records they would not be required 
to produce something that they did not have, but that his clients would 
be asked this morning to produce documents called for in the record 
so that this record would show, as the court records showed, that these 
documents were destroyed and that they were not in the possession of 
any of his clients. This is the reason the questions are being pro- 
pounded. 

Mr. Pool. Are you now asking him that question ? 

Mr. Appell. I am asking for the production of documents. 

The Chairman. Be specific about what you want produced at this 
time so that we can proceed and see where we are. 

I don't have a general picture of any points of disagreement, if 
any exist. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

The Chairman. I think the best thing to do is for Mr. Appell to 
pose such questions as he has in mind, and then Mr. Christmas has his 
attorney here and he was, as I understand it, the attorney in that suit 
and as we proceed we can see wliat position we go on. 

Mr. Appell. I would like to say, Mr. Christmas, to you, first, that 
through your counsel it was expressed that the subpena of the court 
was broader than the committee's subpena. I would like to ask you, 
through your counsel : Does the duces tecum part of paragraph 1 en- 
compass all documents, records, correspondence, and memorandum 
covered by the subpena of the court ? 

Mr. Ingram. Mr. Appell, you are talking about paragraph 1 ? 

Mr. Appell. Paragraph 1. 

Mr. Ingram. All the records asked for were turned over to the Fed- 
eral court. 



2442 ACTIVITIES OF KIT KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Did the Federal court records call for the production 
of correspondence, memorandums, and other documents relating to the 
I"''nited Klans of America ? 

Mr. Christmas. To the best of my knowledge, yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness produce the docu- 
ments called for in paragraph 1. 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to produce the records asked 
for in paragraph 1 on the grounds it rtiight incriminate me and on the 
further grounds it would violate my rights as guaranteed under the 
1st, 4th, 5th, and 14th amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States. 

The Chairman. Mr. Ingram, you made a statement a while ago to 
the effect — as I understood it — your client didn't have these docu- 
ments because they, and more of them in view of the breadth of the 
Federal subpena referred to, had been submitted to, and filed with, 
either the court or clerk or someone in that litigation. 

Now, there appears to be quite a problem here, and I must tell you 
that we have asked these questions of your client and you advised 
him what to do. 

What is the pending question ? 

In other words, we want this record complete within itself and we 
want answers to these questions under oath. It is not a question of 
not taking anybody's word, but we have to proceed in the usual way 
and have you under the rules of the committee — which are in print — 
take the part of an attorney for your client in these hearings. 

Specifically, our printed rules provide : 

At every hearing, public or executive, every witness shall be accorded the 
privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. 

The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and while the 
witness is testifying shall be limited to advising said witness as to his legal 
rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in oral argument with the 
Committee, but shall confine his activity to the area of legal advice to his client. 

Let me say, Mr. Ingram, this is absolutely no questioning of your 
integrity or your word or your motives, but in view of conversations 
I have had with the staff, I think the only thing we can do, and must 
do, is to proceed in our way to have your client under oath answer 
these questions, because we have reasons to believe that that would 
be the best way. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Ingram's explanation previously was not sworn to. 

The Chairman. That is true. I am trying to act as one laAvyer to 
another here, and not question his motives, but I think the thing to 
do is to follow the rules of the committee, because matters discussed 
with me not within the hearing of the witness or his attorney force 
me to take the position I am now taking. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, are the representations of your counsel 
with respect to the production of all documents in the court factual? 

Mr. Christmas. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. In answer to that then, I must ask you : Is it true then 
that you have no records in your possession relating to the organiza- 
tions called for in the subpena ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer your question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2443 

The Chairman. I missed them. What constitutional amendments 
did you rely on ? 

Mr. Christmas. 1st, 4th, 5th, and 14th. 

The Chairman. All ri^ht. 

Mr. Christmas, this subpena duces tecum calling for the production 
of those documents was served upon you in the representative capacity 
stated in that subpena. In other words, if you were in the hearing 
room yesterday, you heard me say it before; there is a distinction 
between calling on an individual as an individual to produce his 
records in an income tax return, and a subpena on someone in a repre- 
sentative capacity, whether it is a corporation or organization of any 
kind. 

We do not accept your invocation of the constitutional privileges you 
rely on, and we take that position from the point of view of our con- 
struction of court decisions. Therefore, I order and direct you to 
produce those documents. 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline and refuse to produce these 
documents under the constitutional privileges previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was your testimony given before the three-judge 
court in New Orleans that records of the organizations mentioned 
had been destroyed after the initiation of the actual injunction pro- 
ceeding truthful ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

The Chairjnian. In view of counsel's statement that all documents 
in his possession had been submitted, and more, under the Federal 
subpena, and this development — which I didn't know — from the ques- 
tions of Mr. Appell that you said and swore and admitt-ed before that 
court that certain documents called for had been destroyed, I order 
and direct you to produce those documents — I mean to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, may I interject-^something as a pos- 
sible clarification ? As I recall counsel's statement, he stated that his 
client was under compulsion of a subpena duces tecum to produce docu- 
ments which was broader than our subpena, and he stated he w^ould 
undertake to obtain those documents w^hich had been submitted to the 
Federal court in Louisiana, either to the clerk or the U.S. attorney's 
office. 

I don't recall whether counsel stated, as a representation on behalf 
of his client, that all documents in this witness' possession had been 
submitted according to that subpena, and I think there may be a 
hiatus in here. 

The Chairman. I am glad that you made that statement. 

Counsel said at one point in the discussion that he had offered to 
get a court order to produce for us whatever had been admitted in 
the court record. 

Now, as I see it, at this time, it would seem what counsel had in 
mind was to make available to us the documents that had been offered 
and to forget about — deprive us of the right to develop that, in the 
course of this trial, there was evidence to the effect that some of them 
had been destroyed, and we are interested in that destruction. So I 
direct you to answer that question. 



2444 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, paragraph 2 of the subpena called for 
you to produce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity as 
present or past member and/or oflBcer of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and re- 
quire to be maintained by you and any other oflBcer of said organization, the same 
being in your possession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully refuse to produce the documents 
under the constitutional amendments previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman, I ask that he be directed to produce the 
documents. 

The Chairman. Yes, for the reasons I previously explained, I order 
and direct you to produce the documents. 

I might say that if — and I stress that word — you have turned 
over to the court in New Orleans all records and documents called 
for in the first paragraph and the second paragraph of our subpena, 
all you have to do is to state that and you will not be expected to turn 
them over to us here now, so that you do not really have a right to 
invoke the fifth amendment or any other amendments. 

Again for the reasons previously stated — and those I just stated — 
I order and direct you to produce the documents. 

Mr. Christmas. May we have a short recess ? 

The Chairman. Surely. 

We will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

The Chairman. We will reconvene at 2 p.m. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Willis, Pool, Weltner, and Buchanan.) 

("WTiereupon, at 12 :30 p.m., Wednesday, January 5, 1966, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 5, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Weltner, and Buchanan.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order and we will 
resume the testimony of Mr. Christmas. 

You have already been sworn, sir, so have a seat and Mr. Appell 
will proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES HORTON CHRISTMAS— Resumed 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, the reporter does not have the exact 
point we left off prior to the luncheon recess so I will ask you, when 
were documents, records, and memoranda in your possession de- 
stroyed as you testified in the Federal court, the three- judge court in 
New Orleans? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2445 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Did you testify in the Federal court? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitu- 
tional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Did you or anyone testify before the Federal court, 
or was any reference made before those Federal judges, that at any 
time documents had been destroyed ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, is it factual that the documents were 
destroyed following the release of the leaflet published by the Original 
Ku Klux Klan which welcomed the investigation of the Klan? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitu- 
tional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Mr. Christmas, it is my general information — and 
you can correct it if it is not so — that the documents we are talking 
about that were destroyed were, in fact, destroyed after the injunc- 
tion suit had beeii filed and after this committee announced on March 
30, 1965, that it would hold hearings on the Ku Klux Klan organiza- 
tions in the United States. Is that not true ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitu- 
tional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. A witness testified yesterday, in connection with 
the destruction by fire of documents, that the reason for their destruc- 
tion was fear of the enemy, which he nebulously referred to as the 
Communists. Was that the reason why these documents were de- 
stroyed ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitu- 
tional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Is it not a fact that the documents which were 
destroyed — which, as I have said, took place after the filing of 
the injmiction suit and after the announcement of our hearings and 
after the amiouncement in the press that we were subpenaing numer- 
ous witnesses — based on that I ask you this question : 

Is it not a fact that one of the reasons for their destruction was 
fear that they would be subpenaed and would have to be produced 
both, or either, in the Federal court or before this committee ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitu- 
tional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr, Christmas, does the refusal on your part to produce 
documents called for in paragraph 1 and paragraph 2 — is the reason 
for the refusal based upon the fact that since your appearance on 
September 8, 1965, before the three-judge court in Louisiana and the 
date that you were served with a subpena by the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, that books, documents, records, correspondence, 
and other memoranda did come into your possession ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitu- 
tional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, I hand you a copy of a document, the 
front cover of which shows a cross and the title, the "Knights of the 



2446 ACTWITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ku Kliix Klan Since 1866," and page 2 showinof the "Konstitntion of 
the Original Ku Khix Khm Reahn of Louisiana,"' and I ask if this 
is a copy of the document you presented to the court ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitu- 
tional grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 2.") 

The Chairman. Let the reporter note that documents that Avere 
commented on and questioned on by either this witness or other wit- 
nesses previously appearing should be inserted in the transcript of 
the proceedings at the respective points where the several witnesses 
were questioned. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, I would like to quote to you from the 
opinion of the three-judge court (Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2) : 

The Grand Dragon of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan anrl Presi- 
dent of the Anti-Communist Christian Association is Charles Christmas of Amite 
in Tangipahoa Parish. * * * 

Is that factual, sir ? 

Mr. CiiRiSTiviAS. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I think we have a right to take judicial notice of 
the accuracy of the statement in the Federal court, unless you testify 
to the contrary. 

Mr, Appell. Mr. Christmas, when did you become a member of the 
Original Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated . 

Mr. Appell. Li November 1964 were you a coordinator or organizer 
in the Sixth Congressional District or Sixth Province of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In early 1965 did the bulk of the Klan members of 
the Sixth Congressional District sever their relationship with the par- 
ent organization and become an independent group ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, it was testified to in the three- judge 
court injunction proceeding that, in order for a person to become a 
member of the Anti-Communist Christian Association, that the mem- 
ber would give to the Klavern secretary the number by which he was 
known as a member of the Klavern and the secretary would then issue 
him a card in the Anti-Communist Christian Association. Is that 
testimony that was given in that case actual ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Let me say again that, just as in the previous in- 
stance and in other instances that might come up, unless and until 
there is evidence to the contrary this committee is going to assume the 
accuracy of statements given in court and sworn testimony given in 
court. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, after the organization of the Sixth Con- 
gressional District of the Klan became independent, were you elected 
to the position of Grand Dragon ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2447 

Mr. CHRTST:\rAS. I respoctfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Under the constitution the number two man to the 
Grand Dragon is the Grand Titan. Did Saxon Farmer hold the posi- 
tion of Grand Titan of the Klan ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Who held the position of grand klokard ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In February 1965 did you attend a meeting near Amite, 
Louisiana, in which there was discussed the possibility of uniting the 
four factions again under one head ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer on the consti- 
tutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, are you familiar with the organiza- 
tional procedure in the Original Knights whereby the exalted cyclops 
of Klaverns was to see to it that each Klavern would have a body 
of men known as the wrecking crew ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did your Klan group in the Bogalusa area create as 
an instrumentality within the Klan a boycott committee? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, I will read to you from the opinion of 
the court a description of the boycott committee and its responsibili- 
ties : 

"The Boycott Committee (one member from each local unit appointed by 
the Exalted Cyclops) shall have exclusive investigative authority and it shall 
not act at any time with less than three members present. . . . 

(1) No person or subject upon whom a boycott shall have been placed shall 
be patronized by any member. . . . Boycotts shall be imposed upon subjects 
who are found to be violating the Southern traditions. . . . 

Boycotts shall be placed upon all members of the Committee who publicly 
served with Bascom Talley in his efforts to promote the Brooks Hays meeting. 

Boycotts shall be placed upon any merchant using Negro employees to serv^e 
or wait ui)on persons of the white race. (Service Stations using Negroes to 
pump gas are excluded. ) 

Boycotts shall be placed against a subject who serves Negroes and whites 
on an integrated basis. 

Boycotts shall be placed upon a subject who allows Negroes to use White 
rest rooms. . . . 

No member shall be punished for violation of the rules by a member of his 
family under twelve (12) years of age. 

Any member who shall after a hearing have been found guilty of personally 
patronizing a subject listed on the boycott list shall be wrecked lyy the ivreek- 
ing crew who shall be appointed by the Committee. (Emphasis added.) . . . 

Second offense — If a member is found guilty of personally violating the boycott 
list he shall be wrecked and banished from the Klan." 

Mr. Christmas, would you explain to the committee the reasons and 
necessity for the appointment of a boycott committee? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was Marvin Foster'the chairman of the boycott com- 
mittee? 



2448 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional g:rounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, as Grand Dragon of the Klan and 
as president of the Anti-Communist Christian Association, can you 
tell us under what arrangements and how it came about that Marvin 
Foster was appointed a personal liaison man between the Klan and 
the city administration ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previousl}^ stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mayor Cutrer testified at the trial in Louisiana that 
it was Marvin Foster who suggested that he attend the meeting of the 
Klan held at the Disabled American Veterans' Hall. Was his testi- 
mony truthful? 

Mr. Christmas I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. xVppell. Mr. Christmas, I show you five leaflets, four of which 
proclaim that they were published by the Original Ku Klux Klan of 
Louisiana and one signed merely "The K.K.K." and I ask you who 
was the author of these leaflets ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Two of said documents previously marked "Ralph Blumberg Ex- 
hibits Nos. 1 and 3," respectively. See pp. 2454, 2455. Three marked 
"Charles Christmas Exhibits Nos. 1-A through 1-C." See pp. 2456- 
2458.) 

Mr. Appell. Was Dewey Smith the author ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Do you intend to give this committee anv information 
at all? 

Mr. Christmas. I decline to answer that question on the constitu- 
tional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, as the leader of the Klan in Bogalusa 
did you know Albert Applewhite to be the exalted cyclops of Unit 4 
in Bogalusa? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. He was an auxiliary policeman. Was he and some 17 
other Klansmen sworn out of the Klan so they could deny Klan 
membership in order to remain in the auxiliary police force? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, as a leader of the Klan, did you know 
William Houston (popularly known as Jack) Burke to be the EC of 
a Klan unit ? 

The Chairman. By "EC" you mean exalted cyclops? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, in January 1965 did he head a com- 
mittee comprised of the exalted cyclops of the Klaverns in the Sixth 
Congressional District area? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2449 

Mr. Appell. Prior to your takinjcj over leadership of the Klan, was 
Saxon Farmer the head of the Khm in the Sixth Congressional 
District? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. At a meeting of the Klan, was it agreed that if Saxon 
Farmer should be arrested you would take over ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As a leader of the Klan did you know James M. Ellis, 
Jr., to be the exalted cyclops of Unit No. 2? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional groui,ids previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know Howard M. Lee, the gun dealer, to be 
the exalted cyclops of the Mitch Community Klavem unit? 

Mr. Christivias. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Is that the man who was charged and convicted of 
having violated the Federal law dealing with the sale of guns and 
firearms ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Did you know D. D. McElveen to be a member of the Klan in the 
Bogalusa area? 

Mr. ChristjVias. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know him to be a member of the wrecking 
crew ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As a leader of the Klan did you know Eussell E. 
Magee to be in August 1964 kleagle for the Franklinton unit of the 
Klan? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In September 1964 did you know him to be a leader of 
the Klan in the Sixth Congressional District? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know Kinch Miley to be a member of the 
Klan? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As a leader of the Klan did you know Eric Peterson 
of Sun, Louisiana, to be at one time the exalted cyclops of the Klan 
unit in Bush, Louisiana? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As a leader of the Klan did you know Dewey Bernard 
Smith to have been at one time the exalted cyclops of Unit 1 and at 
another time the exalted cyclops of LTnit No. 2 ? 

Mr. CHnisT:MAs. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 



2450 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appeil. Mr. Christmas, I shall now read to you specific find- 
ings of Klan intimidation and violence as found by the three-judge 
court in New Orleans, in which the court, found and in substance which 
you and the other defendants agreed to as having taken place: 

(2) Since at least January 28, 1965, the defendants, including Saxon Farmer, 
Russell Magee, Dewey Smith, Randle C. Pounds, BiUy Alford, Charles McClen- 
don, James Burke, and other members of the defendant Klan, have made a 
practice of going to places where they anticipated that Negroes would attempt 
to exercise civil rights, in order to harass, threaten, and intimidate the Negroes 
iind other persons. For this purpose, members of the defendant Klan have gone 
to Franklinton, Louisiana, when Negro citizens of Washington Parish were ex- 
pected to apply to register as voters, have gone to restaurants in Bogalusa when 
Negroes were seeking or were expected to seek service, and have gone to loca- 
tions in downtown Bogalusa and near the Bogalusa Labor Temple when Negroes 
were attempting or were expected to demonstrate publicly in support of equal 
rights for Negroes. 

(3) William Yates and Stephen Miller, two CORE workers, came to Bogalusa 
in January 1965. The Grand Dragon and Grand Titan of the Klan. defendants 
Charles ciiristmas and Saxon Farmer, appeared at the Mayor's office to ask the 
Mayor to send William Yates and Stephen Miller out of Boglusa. Mayor Cutrer 
indicated that he could do nothing. The next day, February 3, 1965, three Klans- 
men, James Hollingsworth, Jr., James Hollingsworth, Sr., and Delos Williams, 
with two other persons, Doyle Tynes and Ira Dunaway, attempted to insure 
Yates' and Miller's departure. This group followed Yates and Miller and as- 
saulted Yates. 

(4) February 15, 1965, defendant Virgil Corkern, Klansman, and approxi- 
mately 30 other white persons attacked five Negro citizens and damaged the 
car in which they w^ere riding. This occurred because the Negroes had sought 
sen'ice at a gasoline station in Bogalusa. On that same day. Corkern and other 
persons gathered at Landry's Fine Foods, a restaurant in Bogalusa, to observe 
Negroes seeking service at the restaurant. Corkern and one other entered the 
restaurant brandishing clubs, ordered the Negroes to leave and threatened to 
kill Sam Barnes, a member of the Bogalusa Voters League, who had come to the 
restaurant with six Negro women. 

(5) March 29. 1965, defendants Hardie Adrian Goings, Jr., Klansman, and 
PYanklin Harris, Klansman, shortly after meetings had been held at the Bogalusa 
Labor Temple, threw an ignited tear gas canister at a group of Negroes stand- 
ing near the Labor Temple. Goings, Jr. then tried to disguise his car by repaint- 
ing it and removing the air scoop from the top to prevent detection of this crime. 
Goings or other Klansmen used this same car in May of 1964 to burn a cross 
at the home of Lou Major, editor of the Bogalusa newspaper. 

(6) April 7, 1965, defendants Lattimore McNeese and E. J. (Jack) Dixon, 
Klansman, threatened Negro citizens during the ■course of a meeting at the 
Labor Temple bj brandishing and exhibiting a gun at Negroes standing outside 
the Labor Temple. 

(7) April 9, 1965, defendants Billy Alford, Klansman. Randle C. Pounds. 
Klansman, Lattimore McNeese, Charles McClendon, and James Burke, Klans- 
man, with other i>ersons, went to the downtown area of Bogalusa where Negro 
citizens were participating in a march to the Bogalusa City Hall to protest 
denial of equal rights. Pounds, McClendon, and Burke, in a group, moved out to 
attack the marchers. Pounds assaulted the leader of the march, James Farmer, 
with a blackjack; McClendon and Burke were temporarily deterred from the 
threat^'ued assault, but immediately thereafter assaulted a newsman and an FBI 
agent. Alford assaulted one of the Negroes participating in the march. 

(8) May 19, 1965, Virgil Corkern, Klansman, two sons of Virgil Corkern, and 
other white persons went to Cassidy Park, a public recreation area maintained 
by the City of Bogalusa, for the purpose of interfering with the enjoyment of 
the park by Negroes and white CORE workers who were present at the park 
and using the facilities for the first time on a non-segregated basis. The Corkern 
group entered the park and dispersed the Negro citizens with clubs, belts, and 
other weapons. 

.(9) Negro members of the Bogalusa Voters League, unable to exercise their 
civil rights and also unable to obtain from police oflicials adequate protection 
from the Klan. filed suit June 25, 1965, in the case of Hk-ks v. Knight, Civ. Ac. 
No. 15, 727 in this Ck)urt. The complaint asks for an injunction requiring of- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2451 

ficers of the City of Bogalusa to open the public parlis and to operate such parks 
without racial discrimination, and also i-equiring law enforcement officers of 
the City, Parish, and State to protect the Negro plaintiffs and oth(>r Negroes from 
physical assaults, beatings, harassment, and intimidation at the hands of white 
citizens. July 10. 19(35, this Court issued an injunction in Hickfi v. Knight en- 
joining certain city and parish law enforcement officers from failing to use all 
reasonable means to protect the Negro plaintiffs and others similarly situated 
from physical assaults and beatings and from harassment and intimidation pre- 
venting or discouraging the exercise of their i-ights to picket, assemble i^eace- 
ably. and advocate equal civil rights for Negroes. The preliminary injunction 
is still in full force and effect. Plven after this Court issued its order July 10, 
1965, the defendant Klansmen continued to interfere with Negro citizens exercis- 
ing civil rights and interfered with i)erformance of the duties of law enforcement 
otficials under the injunction in Hicks v. Knight. 

(10) July 11, 1965, during a Negro march in downtown Bogalusa, defendants 
Randle Pounds, Klansmau. H. A. Goings, Jr., Klansman, Franklin Harris, Klans- 
man, and Milton E. Parker were present. Harris and Goings passed out 25-30 
2x2 clubs to youths and Pounds stationed the youths along the march route. 
Parker was arrested by a City policeman along the route of march for disburbing 
[sic] the peace. 

(11) Included in the exhibits are a number of handbills bearing the caption, 
"Published by the Original Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana". These are crude, 
scurrilous attacks on certain Bogalusa citizens who advocated a moderate ap- 
proach to desegregation. For example, in one handbill an Episcopal minister is 
accused of lying for having said that he had received calls threatening to bomb 
his church ; the minister's son is said to be an alcoholic, to have faced a morals 
charge in court, and to have been committed to a mental institution. The hand- 
bill adds : 

"The Ku Klux Klan is now in the process of checking on Reverend 

's [naming him] moral standards. If he is cleared you 

will be so informed. If he is not cleared, you will be informed of any 
and all misdeeds or moral violation of his in the past." 

In the same handbill the Klan announced that it was "boycotting businesses 
which cater to integration such as Mobile Gas Stations, etc." Mobile Gas Sta- 
tion is a business competitor of the defendant. Grand Titan Saxon Farmer. 

All of the handbills attempt to intimidate public officials, the Governor of 
Louisiana, the Congressman from the Sixth District, the Mayor of Bogalusa, 
and federal judges (by name). Sometimes the attempted intimidation is by 
threat of violence, sometimes by character assassination. We quote, for ex- 
ample : 

The Court then quotes from one of the liandbills which I shall not 
read in full but after talking about the conduct of public officials there 
is contained this language : 

"All these should be tarred and feathered : 

MAYOR JESSIE CUTRER, REPRESENTATIVE SHERIDAN, SENATOR 
SIXTY RAYBORN, SHERIFF DORMAN CROWE, CONGRESSMAN JIMMY 
MORRISON, GOVERNOR JOHN McKEITHEN, SENATOR RUSSELL LONG" 

Mr. Christmas are there any expressions of this finding of the court 
which I have read to you to which you would like to take exception or 
comment upon ? 

Mr, Christmas. I respectfully refuse to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Then let me have this word to say, I think, to com- 
plete the record, and the whole o])inion will be printed as part of the 
record. (Previously marked "Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2." See 
pp. '2475-2519.) 

Mr. Christmas, you were one of the defendants in that case. I state 
that as a matter of fact. The court in that statement^ — and this is 
general language — said: "An unusual feature of this litigation is the 
defendants' damning admissions. * * *'' 

The court proceeded : 



2452 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

In deciding to grant the injunction prayed for, we rest our conclusions on the 
finding of fact that, within the meaning of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and 1964, 
the defendants have adopted a pattern and practice of intimidating, threatening, 
and coercing Negro citizens in Washington Parish * * *. 

Proceeding further : 

We find that to attain its ends the klan exploits the forces of hate, prejudice, 
and ignorance. We find that the klan relies on systematic economic coercion, 
varieties of intimidation, and physical violence in attempting to frustrate the 
national policy expressed in civil rights legislation. * * * 

Further on, the court says, based on admissions in the pleadings and 
sworn testimony — and you were one of the people they were talking 
about : 

Wrapped in myths and misbeliefs which they think relieve them of the obliga- 
tions of ordinary citizens, Klansmen pledge their first allegiance to their Kon- 
stitution and give their first loyalty to a cross in flames. 

Further findings of fact include — and I will give you an opportu- 
nity to explain : 

None of the defendant Klansmen is a leader in his community. As a group, 
they do not appear to be representative of a cross-section of the community. 
Instead they appear to be ignorant bullies, callous of the harm they know they 
are doing and lacking in sufficient understanding to comprehend the chasm be- 
tween their own twisted Konstitution and the noble charter of liberties under 
law that is the American Constitution. 

And finally, the court in its holding says : 

Legal tolerance of secret societies must cease at the point where their mem- 
bers assume supra-governmental powers and take the law in their own hands. 
We shall not allow the misguided defendants to interfere with the rights of 
Negro citizens deprived from or protected by the Constitution of the United 
States and now expressly recognized by Congress in various Civil Rights 
statutes. 

And then, finally : 

We enjoin the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, its dummy front, the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association, and the individual defendants from inter- 
fering with orders of this Court * * *. 

and so on. 

Now, I ask you, and I mean it sincerely, do you wish an opportunity 
to affirm, deny, explain, or exculpate yourself as a defendant in these 
proceedings before the three-judge court of any of the findings of fact 
based upon damning admissions in the pleadings before the court and 
sworn testimony. Would you care to take advantage of that offer 1 
now make ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I must say to you that, unless and until you or 
someone else party to these proceedings appear and give credible 
evidence and testimony to the contrary, tins committee, as it must, 
will assume to be true the statement by the court under the circum- 
stances I have indicated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Christmas, I have one last question to ask of you, 
sir, and this goes directly to the sincerity of the Klan. 

The leaflet which was quoted this morning, a leaflet, according to 
the masthead, published by the Original Ku Klux Klan of I^uisiana, 
the one in which the reference is made to the Reverend Shepherd's 
moral standards, in which there are these two sentences : 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2453 

"Much has been printed about the Kn Klnx Khm beinc; a violent 
organization. This is not true." (Ralph Bluniberg Exhibit No. 3) 

Now I put it to you as a fact, Mr. Christmas, and ask you to affirm 
or deny the fact, that during your testimony or the testimony of Mr. 
Farmer it was testified that the reason you adopted the organization, 
the Anti-Communist Christian Association, was that the members of 
the Klan felt that the Klan was too violent, that they felt there Avas 
no need for the KBI, and that they felt that there w^as no need for 
wrecking crews. I ask you, is it not a fact that your testimony in 
the trial or testimony of Mr. Farmer is a direct contradiction of the 
two sentences I read to you from this leaflet which you distributed 
in Bogalusa in hopes that the people there would believe it ? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. One other thing, Mr. Christmas : With respect to Mr. 
Shepherd, the Reverend Shepherd, you say — this leaflet says : 

The Ku Klux Klan is now in the process of checking on Reverend Shepherd's 
moral standards. If he is cleared you will be so informed. If he is not cleared, 
you will be informed of any and all misdeeds or moral violations of his in the 
past. 

The inference is that the Reverend Bruce Shepherd has been en- 
gaged in moral indiscretions. You leave this impression with the peo- 
ple. Have you ever determined whether he has been involved so that 
you can erase the harm that you did to the man, or have you docu- 
mented that there was anything to support the malicious inferences 
contained in this leaflet? 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. No further questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Weltner. 

Mr. Weltner. I have just one reflection on the same leaflet that Mr. 
Appell referred to, showing at the top "Published by the Original 
Ku Klux Klan of T^uisiana." It contains two sentences as follows : 

Congressman Charles Weltner of Atlanta, Georgia, a member of the House 
Committee of Unamerican Activities has proposed that committee investigate 
the Klan. 

Later on its says : 

The Original Ku Klux Klan invites any investigation that Congressman 
Weltner should like to make. 

I would inform the Al|tness that the investigation now^ pending is an 
investigation that had been proposed by myself and other members 
of this committee and adopted by this committee unanimously. I 
would like to ask what has transpired since the publication of this 
document welcoming this investigation and the present day that has 
caused you and your colleagues to refuse to respond to any inquiries 
of the committee. 

Mr. Christmas. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional gi'ounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. No further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

(Ralph Blumberg Exhibits Nos. 1 and 3, introduced on pp. 2421 and 
2430, respectively, and Charles Christmas Exhibits Nos. 1-A through 
1-C, introduced on p. 2448, follow :) 



2454 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 1 



P-/^(^ 



PUBLISHED BY THE ORIGINAL KU KLUX KLAN 
OF LOUISIANA 




On Sunday, December 27, 1964, the Bogalusa Daily News announced that a "renowned 
layman" Brooks Hayes, is to speak in Bogalusa, on January 7, 1965. His subject will be better 
community relations. The Bogalusa Daily News stated, 

" a group of civic, religious and business leaders of Bogalusa have invited Hayes to 
speak her^at the St. Matthew's Episcopal Church Parish House. Due to limited seat- 
ing facilities, the meeting will be by invitation." 

The Daily News did not tell you the whole true story concering this meeting and it is 
the purpose of this leaflet to give you the full story concerning this meeting. 

In the first place, this meeting of January 7, 1965, is to be an intergraled meeting. The 
meeting was arranged by Bascom D. Talley, Jr. , the local public or community relations comm- 
issioner who is holding this job by appointment of Lyndon B. Johnson under the infamous civil rights 
act. Bascom D. Talley formed a committee to help shoulder the responsibility of this meeting. This 
committee of intergration minded people are the group of "civic, religious and business leaders" 
referred to by the Daily News. Mr. Talley's committee is composed of Bruce H. Shepherd, Minister 
of the St. Matthew's Episcopal Church, Vertrees Young, a member of the Episcopal Church, Reverend 
Jerry Chance, Minister of the Main Street Baptist Church, Reverend Paul G. Gillespie, Minister of 
the Memorial Baptist Church, Reverend James T. Harris, Minister of the Methodist Church, Reverend 
Bob Lambright whose similar escapades have made him a Minister without a church, Ralph Blumberg, 
owner and operator of the radio station WBOX, and, of course, Lou Major, Mr. Talley's favorite puppet. 

In the second place, this intergrated meeting is for the sole purpose of planning the inter- 
gration of your Church, Schools, Businesses, Restaurants, Hotels, Motels, etc, and those who will re- 
ceive invitations to the January 7th. meeting will be people whoBascom D. Talley hopes that Brooks 
Hayes can convince that they should change their social and religious lives, and that in turn will try to 
convince you that vou should help intergration by sitting in Church with the black man, hiring more of 
them in your businesses, serving and eating with them in your cafes, and allowing your children to 
sit by filty, runny-nosed, ragged, ugly little niggers in your public schools. 

In the third place, the Bogalusa Daily News did not tell you the whole story about Brooks 
Hayes. He is a traitor to the South. He assisted Sherman Adams draw the order to send Federal Troops 
into his own State of .Arkansas to put nine little niggers into white schools, the result of which was spen- 
ding $5, 000, 000 of the taxpayers money as well as the beating and jailing of hundreds of white citizens. 
As a result of Hayes' intergration efforts, he was defeated in his efforts for re-election to Congress 
by a political unknown, Dr. Dale Alford. Brooks Hayes is now a member of the Civil Rights Community 
Relations Committee and he is paid a lucrative salary by the Federal Government to make talks such 
as he is scheduled to make in Bogalusa, on January 7th., 1965. 

^ The Ku Kjux Klan is strongly organized in Bogalusa and throughout Washington and Si. Tam- 
many Parishes. Being a secret organization, we have KLAN members in every conceivable business 
in this area. We will k;iow the names of all who are invited to the Brooks Hayes meeting and we will 
know who did and did not attend this meeting. Accordingly, we take this means to urge all of you to re- . 
frain from attending this meeting. Those who do attend this meeting will be tagged as intergrationists 
and will be delt with accordingly by the Knights of the KU KLUX KLAN. L 

There is in Bogalusa a man named Talley, 

who with a hand picked commiltoe has planned an intergrated rally; 

This man would love the nigger, 

in order to grow financially bigger; 

Me and his committee ha,ve come up with an intergration plan, 

wiiich ..s bitterly opposed by the KU KLUX KLAN; 

Talk;.- h.is attended Nigger Churches to hing, 

this was done to please Martin Luther King; 

WT.ile Talley sings with his nigger group, 

the KU KLUX KLAN will more Knights recruit; 

Soon Talley and his committee will loiow who is boss, 

as the KU KLUX KLAN lights the fiery cross. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2455 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 3 

*»***«**•*•*****• PUBLISHED BY THE ORIGINAL KU KLUX KLAN OF LOUISUNA •*♦»♦»•»♦»••*♦•»* 



Ab a result of the statement issued In the Bogalusa Daily News, signed by Bascom D. Talley, 
Jr. , Bruce Shepherd, Paul Gillespie, Jerry Chance, Ralph Blumberg and Lou Major announcing 
the cancellation of the invitational, integrated, speaking engagement in this city by Brooks Hays, 
our City, as well as the Klan, received unfair, biased, national publicity from television and news- 
pai»ers throughout the country. The national news media quoted Bascom Talley as saying thai 
Bogalusa has a "leadership vacuum". They quoted Bruce Shepherd as saying "Bogalusa has a high 
rate of alcoholism and mental illness". The national press even misquoted Brooks Hays who was 
supposed to have said "Bogalusa is a city in the grips of the Ku Klux Klan. " Even one magazine 
contained an article entitled "Klan Town U.S.A. " which accused Bogalusa of l)t>ing dominated by 

ih. Ku Klux Klan. This article was written by a free lance, alcoholic reporter Paul Good, who 

S|).Mit over $110.00 on alcoholic beverages, who wrecked his car, and who was charged with reck- 
less driving during his short visit to Bogalusa. 

Bruce Shepherd was quoted as saying that he had receivedcalls threatening to Ijomb his church 
if Brooks Hays were allowed to speak there. We accuse Bruce Shepherd of lying. There was no 
such threat or threats made and we challenge Bruce Shepherd to prove tiiat he made such a report 
to tlie police. 

Bruc'' Shepherd must have had his family in mind rather than our cil> when he stated we had 
a high rate of alcoholism and mental illness because Bruce Shepherd himself caji be observed fre- 
quently emerging from the Cuban Liquor Company with an arm load of liquor. We further would 
have you know that Bruce Shepherd's son recently faced a charge in court fur morals violation and 
was committed lo a mental institution. 

The Kb Kij.. Khin is now in the process of checking on Reverend ShephiTd's moral standards. 
If he is cleared you will be so informed. If he is noi cleared, you will be mformtd of any and all 
misdeeds oi moral violations of his in the past. 

Much has been printed about the Ku KJu.\ Klan being a violent organization. This is not true. 
There was no violence when public accommodations were tested in this city and there has been no 
violertce since then. We, however, have formed a large block white vote which will more than 
offset any other block vote in this entire parish. We also are boycotting businesses which cater 
to integration such as Mobile Gas Stations, Radio Station W. B. O. X. , Roscnblum's, Zesto and the 
Barlxjcue Inn. The Bogalusa Daily News is also being t)oycotted by the Klan because while the 
National press was tearing Bogalusa into shreds, it did not print one single word in the defense of 
Bogalusa. The theory behind boycotting the Daily News and these other businesses is that to finan- 
cially aid such business institutions is comparable to buying bullets for a man as .John DiUeiiger 
who would take the bullets and then kill you and rob your city. 

Congressman Charles Weltner of Atlanta, Georgia, a member of the House Comniittec of 
Unamericai] .\i.ii\ities has proposed that committee investigate the Klan. We wonder vhy he 
doesii't al.-o propose to investigate the Black Muslems who advocate black supremacy, who commit 
murder and who commit arson all ovei the country in a period of one week and who defied and 
refused to allow Chicago Police to enter their meeting place while they were beating almost to the 
point of death one of Malcolm X's friends. We urge each of you to write this Congressman and 
demand that he investigate the Black Muslems. 

Tile original Ku Klux Klan invites any investigation that Congressman Weltner should like to 
make. The citizens of Bogalusa know that this city has always been a Klanish City from the days of 
the Great Southern Lumber Company until now. We have never appreciated outsiders telling us 
how to run our city. Outsiders have often caused trouble In our City. A good axample of tlus was 
vhcn labor unions were forming in Bogalusa. A gang of union busters or hired gunmen were brought 
into this citv to kill those who stood up for the common man. As a result of such incidents, It is 
i^ilv natur.il tin: Bogalusa would be Klanish. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 9 



2456 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Charles Christmas Exhibit No. 1-A 
published by the original louisiana ku klux klan 



THE QUESTION 
WHO BOUGHT JESSE CUTRER? 

Was It CORE 7 Was it LBJ ? 

In the beginning of the Racial troubles In Bogalusa, the Mayor asRured the people that he COULD L 
WOULD handle this Invasion of trouble makers. When the problem began the Mayor said that he would 
not give a Parade Permit. Cutrer did give the Parade Permit. The people of Bogalusa respected the 
Mayor's Judgement. The tax-paying people gave up their streets and humbled themselves. The people 
were ORDERED off THEIR own streets, by a Police Force, whom the people pay. This was done by 
direct order of the Bogalusa Mayor, the man that was trusted. NO VIOLENCE "ERUPTED. The people 
did EVERYTHING in their power to see that the Mayor and his Council were not Interfered with In their 
efforts to save the city from this DEGRADATION. As the people tried to preserve our Southern way of 
Life, the Mayor and Council were slowly selling the people out at every turn. The Mayor has repeatly 
GIVEN In. James Farmer did not have the support of the local Negroes. Mayor Cutrer is not giving the 
city of Bogalusa to the negro citizens of Bogalusa. No. He is giving the city to James Farmer and a 
handful of Negro Teenagers. NO PRESSURE was put on James Farmer and Dick Gregory to keep them 
out of Bogalusa. Not by the Mayor, the State Representative, the State Senator, or Congressman 
Morrison. This was not so when the WHITE CONSERVATIVES wanted to stage a Rally. Pressure waa 
exerted from all levels, even the invited guest speaJ^ers were "leaned on". 

TheGovemor, the Congressman, Jimmy Morrison, or his com-rats, Suksty Rayborn, and Buster 
Sheridan. John McKeithen asked for our vote and promised to serve the PEOPLE. We now ask. Big 
John, isn't this TRUE ? What is happening under your administration? 

Here is the list of elected officals who COULD & AND SHOULD have helped the People of Bogalusa. 
All these should be tarred and feathered. 

NLAYOR JESSIE CUTRER 
REPiiESENTAlIVE SHERIDAN 
S.KNATOR SIXTY RAYBORN 
SHERIFF DORMAN CROWE 
CONGRESSMAN JIMMY MORRISON 
GOVERNOR JOHN MCKEITHEN 
SENATOR RUSSELL LONG 

Now the QUESTION. Why have these men, elected by the WHITE people turned their back on ub In 
OBT time of need ? ' 

Is Communism so close? Who bought them? Who bought their HONOR and FOR HOW MUCH? 

MAYBE SOME OF THESE PEOPLE: 

1. Rowan Burris-Homoeexual; he Is free on bond at the present time, charged with 
contributing to the delinquency of a minor. 

2. Robert Hlcks-Offlclal of the Neg^ro Voters League. 

3. A. Z. Young-Official of the Negro Voters League. 

4. Michael Jones-Local Program Director for CORE. 

5. Robert Taylor-Official of the Negro Voters League, 

6. Victor Bussie-State President of ALF-CIO, Chalrmanforthe committee of OUTSIDERS 
imported into Bogalusa by Mayor Jesse H. Cutrer, Jr., to solve our LOCAL problami. 

7. Camel Gravel-Member of this IMPORTED MEDIATION BOARD. 

S.Bascom D. Talley, Jr., -Local representative for LBJ's federalcompllance agency, 

"The Community Relations Service." 
9. Ronnie Moore-State Field Representative for CORE. 

10. Dick Gregory-Negro Comedian. 

11. James Farraer-NatlonAl Director for CORE. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2457 

Charles Christmas Exhibit No. 1-B 

PUBLISHED BY THE ORIGINAL KU KLOX KLAN OF LOUISIANA 

It i« the intention of this liteniture to Inform the public of (be p««ltloiu taken by the original 
Ku Klux Kl&n In the past six months of racial strlfte In our otty. 

On numerous occasions we have been asked by local officials to refrain from any acts of 
violence upon this outside scum that has Invaded our city. Being a christian organization, we have 
honored these requests each time. How much longer can we continue??? Contrary to what the 
liberal element would have you think, this memorandum is not the work of racist and hate mongers 
or trouble makers, as Governor "Big John" McKelthen calls us. We are God fearing white, 
southerners who believe in constitutional government and the preservation of our American heritage. 

If your governor would have done the right thing to start with, he would have refused to protect 
these local and outside agitators and did just what one great southern governor did. He refused to 
protect this outside element, (CORE, NA.\CP, SNICK, ETC.), at the expense of his stote. He 
chose, instead, to let LBJ and Katzenbach protect them. Only after the city of Bogalusa had spent 
$96, 000, did he, (Big John McKeithen), make any effort to ease the situation in this city. 

"Big John" is now organizing a 40 man biracial committee to prevent other "Bogalusas" . He 
does not need this committee, because he and our mayor have and still are giving these niggers, 
(Deacons for Defense of Justice), their every whim. 

It has come to the point that these agitators can sit and block the entrance to our restaurants. 
In New York, Washington D. C. and on Pennsylvania Avenue, this low class scum was arrested and 
taken to jail, but not in our city. 

On Thursday July 22, one of our local police captains gave the order to arrest the "sit ins" in 
front of one of our local restaurants, but his superior Intervened, and ordered his men to 'let 
these little darlings alone". 

"Skinnum" Jim Morrlsion was called on for his assistance also. Mr. Morrision informed 
some of our local citizens that they supported the Republican candidate in the last election and 
they should call upon him for his assistance. If Mr. Morrlsion had the welfare of his district, 
(and not his pocketbook), and heart, he would use the powers of his office to restore our city to 
normalcy and remove such characters as James Farmer, Ronnie Moore, Louis Lomax, Dick 
Gregory, and LBJ'S troublemaker, John Doar 

FACT ABOUT OUR FEDERAL JUDGES: 

Can a white man win Justice in a federal court??'' These federal judges are not elected by 
the people, but arc appointed to office by the same people that are now after the nigger block vote. 

DID YOU KNOW 

1. Judge "Crystal Ball" Christenberry Is a brother-in-law of James H. Morrlsion, and has 
been in a mental hospital for alcoholism? 

2. Judge Gordon West was a law-partner of Russell B. Long - he taught one class at LSU, 
but was paid full pay. 

3. Judge Frank Ellis was the attorney in 1947 for the Dairy Fanners of the Florida Parishes. 
He took their money and sent 52 out of 54 men to federal Jail for a year or more. (Many 
of these men were just home from World War 11). 

Hai any of these judges ever served in the armed forces and fought or been wounded for their 
country 7 ? ? 

Recently there was a hearing before judge "Crystal Ball", in which he Inferred that the 
testimony of most of the white witnesses was false, but on the other hand, when a nigger was 
confused by cross e.xamtnation, he put words in his mouth. There was no need for this hearing, 
becfiuse, just llkt= Doar, his liberal, brain washed mind was already In favor of the niggers. 

The only wi> lo defeat this enemy is by organized opposition and resistance. There are 
more than enough people who oppose this unconstitutional behavior to defeat it. Simply join hands 
with us. Vote for a Jeffersonian type of government, not for personal gain. Vote for honorable. 
Christian candidates. If all our elected officials were statesmen instead of politicians, we would 
not be faced with the problems before us at this time. We can defeat this Issue with the ballot, 
boycott and economic pressure. 

Won't you please join with us in this fight for freedom and leave a christian America to your 
children as your parents left to you. 

We can't raise our standards by mixing with the black man, but we will lower the standards 
of this great nation that the white man has built. Are we to save the Political careers of 
James Morrlsion, John McKeithen, Sixty Raybom, et al. Or are we to save our religions, houses, 
and country? 

Let us leave thin one thought with you: 

"Purchase where the nigger pickets" 



2458 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Charles Christmas Exhibit No. 1-C 

JULY 13 1965 

f;,cts Facts facts 
to: the colored people of this community, and othek'imis-led persons. 

UNTIL THE NAaCP AND CORE BECAME ACTIVE IN LOUISIANA ANY COLORED 
PERSON COULD GET HELP FROM ANY WHITE PERSON (MALE OR FEMALE), UNTIL 
THE NAACP AND CORE BEGAN TO THREATEN THE GOOD COLORED PEOPLE AND 
FORCE THEM TO JOIN THEIR SO CALLED CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. 

THE JEWISH LED CORE AND N.ulCP GAVr. YOU.,. 

MONTHLY DUES TO PAY (DID YOU EVER KNOW A JEW TO DO ANYTHING HE WASN'T 
WELL PAID FOR?) THIS IS TAKING THE COLORED PEOPLES MONEY TO MAKE THE 
NORTHEN JEW RICHER. 

HAVE THEY EVER HELPED YOU GET A JOB? 
HAVE THEY EVER HELPED YOU FINANCE A CROP? 
HAVE THEY EVER LOANED YOU MONEY AT LOW INTEREST? 
HAVE THEY EVER- FED OR CLOTHED YOUR CHILDERN? 

HAVE THEY LOWERED YOUR SOCIAL POSITION BY FORCING YOU TO ASSOCIATE 
WITH THE LOWEST WHITE TRASH FROM THE NORTH? 

THE GOOD COLORED PEOPLE HAVE ALWAf-S LOOKED DOWN ON THIS TYPE OF 
POOR WHITE TRASH. THIS POOR WHITE TRASH IS SO LOW THEY ARE NOT ACCE- 
PTED IN THE WHITE SOCIETY. 

WHY DO YOU ALLOW THE JEWISH LED NAACP AND CORE MAKE THEM YOUR LEADERS? 
TRUE, THEY HAVE MADE SOME LOCAL COLORED PEOpr.? RICH. THOSE WHO HAVE 
SOLD THEIR BROTHERS SOUL FOR (BLOOD MONEY) ''■', PEICES OF SILVER, THE 
PRICE JUDAS WAS PAID FOR BETRAYAL OF JE3US CnRIST. 
THEY HAVE NOTHING TO GIVE YOU BUT PROMISES AND MUST LIVE OFF YOU. 
HOW MANY. OF YOUR COLORED BROTHERS CAN YOU NAME THAT ARE SELLING YOU 
FOR THEIR OWN PERSONAL GAIN? AS JUDAS DID JESUS CHRIST. 
HOW MANY OF THESE COLORED BROTHERS THAT TOOK THIS WHITE TRASH INTO 
THEIR HOMES DO YOU KNOW? LOOK AROUND AND SEE IF IT HELPED THEM TO 
MIX WITH THE WHITE SOCIETY, NO, FOR NOW THESE SAME COLORED BROTHERS 
ARE LIVING IN A CLOSED SOCIETY, FOR NONE OF THIER WHITE FRIENDS WI^L 
RESPECT THEM NOW. THEY LOWERED THEMSELVES BY TAKING THIS WHITE TRASH 
IN TO THIER HOMES. 

LOOK AT THOSE WHO ARF. GETTING PAYC'-UCKS FPOM OPERATION HEAD START, 
THE SAME ONES THAT ALREADY DRAW A rAYCHECK FROM THE TAXPAYERS. 
SHOULD THAT NOT PROVE TO YOU COLOP^D PEOPLE, THAT THESE SO CALLED 
LEADERS ARE SELFISH. COLORED PEOPLE WAKE UP AND STOP THESE SELFISH 
(SO-CALLED) LEADERS, FROM USING YOU AS A TOOL FOR THIER OWN L-A-Z-Y 
POCKET BOOKS. 
THINK COLORED PEOPLE THINK. 

REMEMBER 
IF THE TRUTH SEEMS STRANGE 
IT'S BECAUSE TRUTH 
HAS BECOME A STRANGER IN THIS LAND 

THE K.K.K. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2459 

The Chairiman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. I would like to call Mr. Saxon Farmer. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Farmer. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAXON FARMER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Will you please state your full name for the record, 
please, sir? 

Mr. Farmer. Saxon Farmer. 

Mr. Appell. "Wlien and where were you born ? 

Mr. Farmer. February 13, 190Y, at Huttig, Arkansas. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Farmer. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. IxGRAM. Michael S. Ingram from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, are you appearing here this morning and 
this afternoon in accordance with subpena served upon you by Deputy 
United States Marshall on October 26, 1965 at 315 East 5th Street 
in Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Farmer. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, under the terms of the subpena you are 
directed to bring with you and to produce documents set forth in the 
attachment, which is made a part of this subpena. 

Paragraph 1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original 
Knights of Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and affiliated organizations, namely. 
Anti-Communist Christian Association in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as member or officer of the Invisible Em- 
pire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan or the Origi- 
nal Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana or the Anti-Communist Christian 
Association. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline and refuse to produce on the 
grounds that it might tend to incriminate me; on the further grounds 
that it would violate my rights under the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 14th amend- 
ments as guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask the witness be directed to produce. 

The Chairmax. You were in the hearing room when I explained 
the position of the committee to other witnesses preceding you w^ith 
reference to this subpena being served upon you, not in your individ- 
ual capacity but in the capacity indicated in the subpena. You were 
present ; were you not ? 

Mr. Farmer. Yes. 

The Chairman. I take it, as your counsel and others previously 
have indicated, you understand the position. I now order and direct 
you to produce them. 

Mr. Farmer, I respectfully refuse to produce this information on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, a copy of the opening statement the chair- 
man delivered when these hearings first started in October was sent 



2460 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

to your attorney. Were you advised of the contents of that document ? 

Mr. Farmer. Yes. 

The Chairmax. Mr. Ingram, you would make the same admission 
as with reference to the previous clients, that is, you received a copy 
and are generally familiar with what I said at the beginning of the 
hearings indicating the purpose, objective, and hopes of the hearings? 

Mr. Ingram. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Paragraph 2 calls for the production of : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past member or officer of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights 
of the Ku Kiux Klan, or any other Klan organization, which the "Constitution 
and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be maintained by you 
and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your possession, 
custody or control. 

I direct you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline and refuse to produce the docu- 
ments on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask for direction of the witness for 
production of items called for in paragraph 2. 

The Chairmax. For the reasons previously indicated and under 
the circumstances of our colloquy, I order and direct you to produce 
these documents. 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline and refuse to produce the docu- 
ments on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, are there any grounds for refusal to 
produce the documents called for in paragraphs 1 and 2 other than the 
reasons which vou have set forth ? 

Mr. Farmer. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Were any of the books, records, and documents called 
for in paragraph 1 and paragraph 2 destroyed after you had knowl- 
edge of the committee's investigation and out of fear that those docu- 
ments would be subpenaed by this committee? 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline and refuse to answer on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, were you a witness before the three-judge 
court sitting in September 1965 in New Orleans, Louisiana? 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I will put it to you as a fact that you testified you were 
the Grand Titan of the Klan and at the same time vice president of the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association and ask you to affirm or deny 
that fact. 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In supporting the Constitution of the Ignited States, 
do you as the vice president of the Anti-Communist Christian Associa- 
tion support the Constitution of the United States as it now exists, 
or do you have reservations as to the Constitution which you support? 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appeix. I hand you a copy of Articles of Incorporation of 
the Anti-Communist Christian Association. 

According to this document, the Articles of Incorporation were 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2461 

filed with the recorder of AVashington Parish, Louisiana, on January 
21, 1965. They show the registered agents are Robert T. Rester, Saxon 
Farmer, and that the tirst directors are W. J. [William J.] Williams 
of Varnado, Louisiana; Saxon Farmer; and Lloyd Joiner, Route 2, 
Box 270, Ponchatoula, Louisiana. 

Li handing this document to you, Mr. Farmer, I ask you to explain 
the provision Article II, the purpose of that part of it which reads: 

To provide for the preservation of the Constitution of the State of Louisiana, 
the Constitution of the United States of America, as originally written * * *. 

Would you explain that to the committee, please 't 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer your question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Saxon Farmer Exhibit No. 1. See committee 
report. The Present-Day Kit KIux Klan, Movement, pp. 362-365.) 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Cliairman, I might point out that the Constitu- 
tion as originally written contains neither the 1st, 4th, 5th, nor the 14th 
amendment. 

The Chairman. That is historically true. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, as the number two man in both the Klan 
and the Anti-Communist Christian Association, did you approve and 
endorse the action taken against Bascom D. Talley, Jr., Bruce Shep- 
herd, Paul Gillespie, Jerry Chance, Ralph Blumberg, and Lou Major 
following knowledge of an invitation extended to Brooks Hays? 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I would ask you if you can reconcile the position that 
you took in light of reason 27 as it appears in the "Fifty Reasons Why 
You Should Be a Member of the Original Ku Klux Klan,*' w^hich is 
because the Klan "believes in free speech and free press, as opposed 
further to a police state." (Murry Martin Exhibit No. 14, p. 2389.) 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, on Saturday, May 30th of 1964, the Klan 
had a rally in Bogalusa on public property, in which members of the 
Klan were masked in violation of Louisiana law. Did the Klan have 
assurances from anyone, law authority, in Bogalusa that you would 
not be arrested for violating the Louisiana State law that prohibits 
the wearing of a mask on public property ? 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, you were in the room when I read to Mr. 
Christmas the findings of the court with respect to violence and intimi- 
dation carried out by the members of the Original Knights and the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association. I give you an opportunity to 
express any comments you care to express on the findings of the court 
in that action. 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Mr. Farmer I would like you to answer the question 
if you can safely answer it. You were in the hearing room when Mr. 
Christmas was on the stand and when I read excerpts from that deci- 
sion in which case you, as a matter of fact, were also a defendant; were 
you not ? I am asking you, were you in the room ? 

Mr. Farmer. Yes. 



2462 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. Without repetition or consumption of more time, 
I, too, offer you an opportunity to confirm, deny, explain, or other- 
wise comment on the findino^s of the court based upon admissions made 
in the pleadings and based upon admissions in the courtroom and based 
upon sworn testimony before the court. Do you care to avail yourself 
of that offer? 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer on the constitutional grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

The Chairman. Until you or someone else of the defendants in that 
suit appears before this committee and gives credible testimony which 
would show otherwise, this committee will assume, under the circum- 
stances indicated, that the excerpts I quoted from are true. 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question of the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appei^l. Mr. Farmer, do you know John Magee ? 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee testified at the three-man court in Louisiana, 
identified himself as being treasurer of the Anti-Communist Christian 
Association, and testified that while he was the treasurer you^ Saxon 
Farmer, controlled the fimds. "VVliat are the sources of funds of the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association? 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the grounds, consti- 
tutional grounds, previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. You testified that there were seven Klan units in Wash- 
ington Parish. I ask you to identify the exalted cyclops of those 
seven units. 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. You testified that you opposed the appearance of 
former Congressman Brooks Havs because he appeared to you to be a 
liberal, leftwing Communist. Yet you testified in court you had no 
evidence. Is a tactic like this one of the typical tactics of the Klan of 
which you were an officer? 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

IVfr. Appell. Isn't it a fact that you testified that vou were one of 
the incoq^orators of an organization known as the United Conserva- 
tives ? 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, among the incorporators listed were your- 
self ; your son ; Ned Touchstone of Shreveport, Louisiana ; and Court- 
ney Smith of Shreveport, Louisiana. Did you know the other three 
other than yourselves to be members of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Farmer. T decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Farmer, do you have a formal connection today, 
witli, not the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klnn, not the Anti- 
Communist Christian Association, but the United Klans of America, 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which is headed bv the Imperial Wiz- 
ard Kobert Shelton? 

Mr. Far:mer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds pre^^ously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2463 

Mr. Appeli^. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you spoke at a United Klan rally held at Poplarville, 
Crossroads Community, Mississippi, on 17 July 1965. I ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact. 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that the master of ceremonies for that rally in which you 
spoke was C. J. Seal of ^Vliite Sands Community, Poplarville, Missis- 
sippi. 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that another speaker along with yourself was Mr. Ovied Dun- 
away of Bogalusa, Louisiana, who at one time was an exalted cyclops 
of an Original Knights Klavem in Bogalusa. 

Mr. FarjVier. I decline to answer the questions on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was Mr. Dunaway, whom I have identified as a speaker 
at that rally, also in charge of a raffle in Bogalusa which was staged to 
raise funds for the A.C.C.A. ? 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Mr. Dunaway to hold a supervisor posi- 
tion with the telephone company in Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did Mr. Dunaway assist the Klan in any manner in 
illegally obtaining any knowledge against citizens of Bogalusa? 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that Mr. John O. Guinn from Taylor, Louisiana was another 
speaker at that rally 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that Ernest Gilbert, the grand kleagle of the United Klans 
of America for the Realm of Mississippi, was a speaker at that rally. 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that E. L. McDaniel, the Grand Dragon for the State of 
Mississippi, was also a speaker at that rally, 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that Mr. Jack Helm, an officer of the L^iiited Klans of Amer- 
ica, Eealm of Louisiana, was a speaker at that rally. 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you meet on the platform at that rally a Klans- 
man from Waveland, Mississippi, by the name of DiSalvo ? 

Mr. Farmer. I decline to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 



2464 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. On July 21, 1965, the United Klans of America held 

another rally at Poplan-ille, Crossroads, Mississippi. The principal 

speaker at the July 21 rally was Imperial Wizard Mr. Shelton. I 

would like to ask you to comment on a report made to the committee 

with respect to the speakers at that rally, and I am quoting from a 

report : 

The last speaker was a 16 year old boy from Bogalusa, La., named Mike Copran. 
He gave a short talk on the Bible and its stand on integration. He also made a 
plea for boys in the Bogalusa area to join a youth group headed by Mr. Saxon 
Farmer. He stated that any boy belonging to the group would have his bond 
made, and or, his fine paid if he got in trouble with the law for hitting a negro 
demonstrator. 

Do you have any comment to make upon that, Mr. Farmer ? 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Were you on July 21, 1965, organizing a youth group 
under your leadership as Mike Copran is reported to have said at that 
rally? 

Mr. Farmer. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. John Magee. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear the 
testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Magee. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN MAGEE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Will you state you full name for the record, please, sir? 

Mr. Magee. John Magee. 

Mr. Appell. I think you will have to speak up a little louder and 
get closer to the mike. I could not hear you. 

Mr. Magee. John Magee. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Magee. January 3, 1932, at Tylertown, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Wliere do you presently reside, Mr. Magee. 

Mr. Magee. Bogalusa. 

Mr. Appell. Your street and address ? 

Mr. Magee. 531 Union Avenue. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, are you appearing here today in accordance 
with the subpena served upon you on the 28th day of December 1965 ? 

Mr. Magee. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, have you been apprised through your at- 
torney of the contents of the opening statement the chairman delivered 
on October 19, 1965, as to the purpose of this hearing ? 

Mr. Magee. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, the subpena served upon you called for 
you to bring with you and to produce documents called for in attach- 
ment which reads as follows: 

All books, records, correspondence and memoranda relating to the organiza- 
tion of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan, the Original Knights of the Ku KIux Klan of Louisiana, the 
Louisiana Rifle Association, the Christian Constitutional Crusaders, and the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association in your possession, custody or control. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2465 

or maintained by yon or available to you as present or past officer or member of 
the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan of Louisiana, the Louisiana Rifle Association, the Christian Constitutional 
Crusaders, and the Anti-Communist Christian Association. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for in that section. 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully refuse to decline, to answer the question — 
I respectfully refuse to produce the records on the grounds it might 
tend to incriminate me under the Constitution, and on the further 
grounds to answer the same would violate my rights inherent under 
the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 14th amendments to the Constitution of the 
United States. 

The Chairman. Mr. Magee, you were in the hearing room, were you 
not, when I explained the position of the committee with reference 
to the command of this subpena served upon you to produce docu- 
ments in the capacity indicated in the subpena ? 

Mr. Magee. Yes. 

The Chairman. For the reasons I stated previously, which you say 
you understand, I order and direct you to produce these documents. 

Mr. Magee. I refuse to produce the documents on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, are there any reasons other than the 
reasons you have set forth that you did not produce the documents 
called for? 

Mr. Magee. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, during the proceedings in the three-judge 
court in Louisiana, the court ordered Mr. Charles Christmas and Mr. 
Saxon Farmer to try to recall from memory, or from any records 
available to them, the identity of people w-ho were members of either 
the Klan or the Anti-Communist Christian Association. These two 
lists or three lists were submitted by Mr. Farmer and Mr. Christmas. 
One is a list headed "Former Officers of the Original Knights of the 
K.K.K."; the other, "Officers" of the "Anti-Communist Christian 
Assn." Both of these documents under the heading of "Officers" 
list "Johnny Magee." 

Is the information supplied by the court as it applies to yourself 
in that proceeding, as it applies, factual ? 

Mr. Magee. I refuse to answer on tlie grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "John Magee Exhibits Nos. 1-A and 1-B," 
respectively. See pp. 2467-2469.) 

Mr. Appell. Are you presently a member of any Klan organiza- 
tion ? 

Mr. Magee. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a reproduction of a signature card filed 
with the First State Bank & Trust Co., Bogalusa, Louisiana, on account 
in the name of the Parish A.C.C.A. The card shows that the authority 
to the bank to authorize payment of checks containing any two signa- 
tures was given by Robert E. Stall ings and contains the names of J. E. 
Magee, B. R. Crain, Sidney Brock, for an account opened on May 22, 
1965. I ask you if that signature card is factual? 

Mr. Magee. I refuse to answer on the groimds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

(Document marked "John Magee Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 



2466 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 

John Magee Exhibit No. 2 



CORPORATION 

^; 



rjO First S^a^e Bank 8; Trust Co. _ Bog3lusa,Louisiana 



You a 



itafe Uan!< & l rusr <^0. DOg3iU5a,L.oui5iana ; 

re au:hori7.cd to rccornizc any (• /O ) °^ ^^^ sifrn.inires subscribed below In the : 
:-nt of funds or the transaction of nnv business for l:ijs account. It is arreed that all ; 



payment ol lunos or me iransaciion or a:iv ouhiiH-ss lo. i.;ijs .n-uwunt. n. is ui itcu mov on 
tra'n.sactions between you and the undersigned shall i»a govern^ b^ the con_^ract printed 
on the reverse side of this cavd. /C/y/ / 



(• Indicate Number of Signatures Required) 1. BY 






A.B.A. Anproved Contract 



II.- \,^^ 



^,-; -^K 






.rrutSlUtNT 






^t-yr:.;;- s s cnCTAWV 






■ II 'fTl - ± ' - - - - t. - ,..-■-. -. . - ■■ ' ■ ' - J 

-f-Bz 'S^ /A.r.j- ^ 



'r DATE OPENED SIGNATURE AUTHORITY DATED INITIAL DEPOSIT / ACCOUNTyJPENED BY 



'^% ^^ - h^^^ ^^——-^^^^^ 



^;-. 



/O Q. ~S~V 






Mr. ArPELL. According to canceled checks submitted by the banks 
in accordance with the subpena duces tecum, the makers are John 
Magee, J. E. Magee, Eobert E. Stall ings, J. E. Magee, Sidney Brock, 
J. E. Magee, Robert E. Stallings, J. E. Magee, Robert E. Stallings. 
These checks are drawn against the account of ih& Parish A.C.C.A. 

One shows that the purpose for which drawn is for district funds. 
Can you explain to the committee the division of the Parish A.C.C.A. 
into its district breakdown ? 

Mr. Magee. I decline to r on the grounds it might tend to 

incriminate me. 

(Checks marked "Jolm Magee Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Will you tell the committee the purpose for which 
these checks were drawn ? 

Mr. jVLvgee. I decline to answer on the constitutional gi'ounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appeul. It is your testimony in the Federal court that Saxon 
Farmer actually handled the funds, therefore, the inference that your 
position of treasurer is that of a figurehead position? 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully decline to answer under the constitu- 
tional grounds it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Appeli.. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask that the records re- 
lating to the Parish A.C.C.A. and the list of former officers of the 
Original Knights, and the current members of the Anti-Communist 
Christian Association be entered as an exhibit to Magee's testimony. 

The Chairman. These documents will be admitted in the record at 
this point. 

Mr. Appeli.. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

(John Magee Exliilnf-^ N^os. 1-A and 1-B introduced on p. 2465 
follow:) 



z^- 



:^. 



/ 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2467 

John Magee Exhibit No. 1-A 



i/JKyy-T^ 



f -'i-'*? ^-ci/t/o*-^ 



t 



)k- 





















4r M^/jx^ '^kli 



f\a^jol^ 'i^J.ljl 



'^.jy.^.'.^-'~^ 



H 



/^ r^uM^ S^'^'^^-i^ 



2468 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

John Magee Exhibit No. 1 -A— Continued 



John Magee Exhibit No. 1-B 



an .d /]/ 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2469 

John Magee Exhibit No. 1-B— Continued 

J. 












-^ A^.j^ 









2470 ACTWITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. iVpELL. Dewey Bernard Smith. 

The Chairmax. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Smith. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DEWEY BERNARD SMITH, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Smith? 

Mr. Smith. Dewey B. Smith. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you bom ? 

Mr. Smith. Washington Parish, Louisiana, March 8, 1920. 

Mr. Appell. Is the city of your birth Franklinton ? 

Mr. Smith. I don't really know. 

Mr. Appell. Wliere do you reside? 

Mr. Smith. At present I reside in Granada Hills, California. 

The Chairman. How long have you been residing there? 

Mr. Smith. The latter part of September 1965. 

The Chairman. And your residence previous to that was? 

Mr. Smith. Bogalusa, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smith, are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes I am. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Ingram. Michael S. Ingram, Baton Kouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smith, have you been advised by your counsel as 
to the contents of the opening statement of the chairman setting forth 
the purposes of this hearing? 

Mr. Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smith, are you appearing here today in accord- 
ance with a subpena served upon you by the United States marshal on 
10-28-65, October 28, 1965? 

Mr. Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Under the conditions of the subpena served upon you 
and the date of your appearance which was extended by telegrams, 
you were directed to produce for the committee items contained in an 
attachment tliereto, which was made a part of the subpena. 

Under paragraph 1 : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and affiliated organizations, namely, the Anti- 
Communist Christian Association in yoiir ix>ssession. custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as Exalted Cyclops of Washington Parish 
Unit of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline and refuse to produce said docu- 
ments on the grounds that it might incriminate me and on the further 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2471 

grounds that it would be a violation of my rights under the 1st, 4th, 
5th, and 14th amendments to the United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Mr. Smith, you were in the hearing room when I 
exj^lained the position of this committee with reference to the pro- 
visions of tliis subpena directing you to produce documents in the 
capacity indicated therein ; were you not ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes. 

The Chairman. Then I call upon you and direct you to produce 
those documents. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to produce them on constitutional 
grounds as previously indicated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you have any reasons, other tlian the constitutional 
reasons that you stated, for failing to produce the documents called 
for? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Is one of the reasons for your failure to produce, 
the fact that some of those documents were documents which were 
destroyed in a fear that they might be subpenaed by the Federal 
Government in the Bogalusa case, as well as by this committee? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I will say to you as a fact that you were a defendant 
in that suit. 

Were you in the hearing room — I think you were — when I read ex- 
cerpts from that decision which, by reason of the fact that you were 
a defendant, apply to you ? I am just asking, were you in the hearing 
room ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes. 

The Chairman. Do you ca,re to avail yourself of an opportunity to 
explain, contradict, deny, or otherwise comment on the facts and hold- 
ings of the court based on the statements in the record in that sworn 
testimony ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully refuse to answer on the constitutional 
grounds as previously stated. 

The Chairman. If people in that case do not decide to appear and 
give credible contradictory testimony under oath, the committee may 
presume to be true the factual findings made in that decision. 

Mr. Appell. Paragraph 2 of the subpena calls for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity as 
a present or past member or officer of the United Klans of America. Inc., Kniglits 
of the Ku Klux Klan. which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization 
authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said 
organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to produce on the constitutional 
grounds as previously stated. 



2472 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. And for the reasons I have previously indicated, 
set forth, I order and direct you to produce these documents. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully refuse to produce the documents on the 
constitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smith, I hand you a series of leaflets distributed 
in the Bogalusa area published, according to the leaflets, by the Orig- 
inal Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana, and I ask you if you are the author 
of any of these leaflets ? 

Mr. Smith. I refuse to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds as previously stated. 

(Documents previously marked "Ralph Blumberg Exhibits Nos. 
1 and 3" and "Charles Christmas Exhibits Nos. 1-A through 1-C," 
respectively. See pp. 2454-2458.) 

The Chairman. Mr. Smith, I understand you have a college educa- 
tion and that you are a fluent talker — in general terms I am talking 
about. Would you care to describe to the committee the purpose and 
objectives and programs that the Klan organization stands for? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully refuse to answer on the constitutional 
grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smith, what is your educational background? 

The Chairman. Well, I just indicated that it was my information 
that he had gone through college. I obtained that from you so I sup- 
pose that is accurate. I hope it is. 

Mr. Appell. I would like him to state the full extent. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer on the constitutional 
grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you attended Southwestern Louisiana Institute prior to 
enrolling in San Jose State College. You attended in 1944 and 1945, 
enrolled in chemistry and botany courses. 

September 1945 you were admitted to the University of California 
at Los Angeles and completed 35 units, majoring in horticulture. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the con- 
stitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. What is your military background, Mr. Smith ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you entered the United States Army in June 1940 ; were 
lionorably discharged as technical sergeant in May 1943; accepted a 
commission in the Army of the United States, the Army Air Force; 
were relieved of active duty in April 1944 as a second lieutenant due 
to a duodenal ulcer and neuritis. 

Mr. Smith. I refuse to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Are you drawing disability or retirement benefits from 
the United States Army ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2473 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the con- 
stitutional (grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smith, in February 1964, did you attend a meetintr 
of Klan units at Alexandria, Louisiana, in which Royal V. Young, the 
former Imperial Dragon of the Original Knights of tlie Ku Klux 
Klan, appeared before the representatives of tlie units and to ask that 
the organization be held together under his leadership ? 

The Chairman. And asked what ? 

Mr. Appell. That the organization be held together under his lead- 
ership. Under Young's leadership. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully refuse to answer on the constitutional 
grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In March 1964 were you a write-in candidate for sheriiT 
of "Washington Parish, Louisiana? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully refuse to answer on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Wlien you plead the fifth amendment on a political ques- 
tion, you might get in trouble on that. 

Mr. Appell. Did you advise the electorate at the time you were a 
candidate that you were at the same time a member of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the con- 
stitutional grounds as previously stated. 

The Chairman. Well, w^ere you ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smith, having taken a Klan oath in which you 
promised to keep secret to yourself the secret of a Klansman, except 
treason against the United States, rape, and malicious murder, how 
could you in good conscience, having taken that oath, appear on a bal- 
lot as a candidate for the office of sheriff? 

Mr. Smith. I refuse to answer the question on the constitutional 
grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. If you had been elected to sheriff, under your oath, 
wouldn't you have had to give protection to your fellow Klansmen? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the con- 
stitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In July 1964, were you a member, or the exalted cyclops 
of Unit No. 2 in Bogalusa, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the con- 
stitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Woulcl you identify to the committee the klokan and 
the members of the wrecking crew of that Klan unit ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answ^er the question on the con- 
stitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In December of 1964 were you exalted cyclops of Unit 
No. 1 of the Klan in Bogalusa, Louisiana ? 



2474 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In February 1965, while the exalted cyclops of Unit 
No. 1, did you advise fellow Klansmen that you would put up your 
business and property to go bail bond for any Klansman arrested ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the con- 
stitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In April of 1965 did you attempt, along with other 
Klansmen, to enter Central High School in Bogalusa to disrupt an 
integration meeting? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question upon the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smith, have you made a statement to your fellow 
Klansmen that you owe no loyalty to the United States because the late 
President Kennedy and President Johnson are traitors? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the statement — the 
question — on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I wish you would correct me if I am wrong, but it is 
my understanding you are receiving compensation from the Federal 
Government. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the con- 
stitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. While residing m Bogalusa in January 1965, were you 
a member of the Minutemen ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the con- 
stitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. At a meeting of the Minutemen in January 1965, did 
you make the statement the only way to keep communism from taking 
over was to get rid of some politicians and that the only way to do this 
was to kill them ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the con- 
stitutional grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow. 

(Wliereupon, at 4 p.m., Wednesday, January 5, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Thursday, January 6, 1966.) 

[On the following pages appears the opinion of court in the case 
of United States v. Original Knights of the Kit KJux Klan^ et al. 
marked "Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2-' and introduced into tlie 
record on p. 2425.] 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



2475 



(O.yjGDJAl,) 



Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2 

IIJ THS TOUTED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE 



EASTl^n DISORICT OF LOUISIAi^IA 
KS^ ORLEANS DIVISION 



U. S. DISTRICT CO ..if. 
EASTERN DlSTRiCT Of LOUliiA^i;. 



KIITHD STATES OF AI^SRICA, by 
ITicholas deB. Katzenbach, 
Attorney GeneraJ. of the 
united States, 

Plaintiff, 



ORic-niAL k::^hts of tee ku klux 

iCLy'T, an unicorporated Associa- 
tion; .'^j'ii-coi-i:.iTOn:sT cibistian 

ASSOCLWION, a corporation; 
SAXON FABI'SR; Ca^LES CHRISIM.'iS; 
RUSSELL MAG2E; DET/JEY ST-HTH; VIRGIL 
CORKERN; ALBERT .APPLSVraiTE; E. J. 
(JACK) DIXON; DELOS WILLIi^i'S; 
J.'J-SS M. ELLIS; EiRDIE ADRIAN 
C-OINGS, JR.; ESLEY FREEMW; 
ARTHUR R.iy APPLS-TdlTE; JAIffiS' A. 
KOLLINGSWORTH, JR.; RANDLE C. 
PCU-A-DS; SIDNEY AUGUST W.ARNER; 
BILLY ALFQRD; RAVTLIN V/ILLIANISON; 
LOUIS .^PLff.'JHITE; VJILLIS 
BL/i.CiC.'ELL; J. A. HOLLINGSiv'ORTH, 
SR.; LATT'~.;ORE McNEESS; IRA 
DTOIAWAY; DOYLE TYKES; CHARLES 
RA.Y WILLI.ai-IS; FRAIKLIN a^RRIS; 
CHARLES McCLEI-n)ON; DSLTON" 
GR.AVES; IttLTON E.«L P;^i«<2R; 
I4ERVIN TAYLOR; VA?! DAY; RAY 
RISIIER; JAMES D. TERRELL; 
J. D. JOIES; RICHARD E. KREBS; 
MICHAEL R. KOLDEN; J.\I-SS BUKCS; 
.iJ^BERT SE-KCI'S, JR., and 
NOEL BALL, JR. 

Defendants 



DEO 






•A. DALLAM O'SRIEN: JR,. 



.CIVIL ACTIO^r KG. 15793 



^^C2 -in 



1365 



fxJ'K 






■HD£F^ 






2476 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

Before WISDOX, Circuit Judge, and CHRISTES,32RRY and AINSWORTH, District 
Judges. 

WISDOM, Circuit Judge: 

This is a.-, action by the Nation against a :^lan.* 

The United States of America asks for an injunction to protect 

Negro citizens in Washington Parish, Louisiana, seeking to assert their 

civil rights. The defendants are the "Original Knights of the Ku Klux 

Klan", an unincorporated association, the "Anti-Communist Christian 

Association)' a Louisiana corporation, and certain individual klansmen, 

1 
most of whom come from in and around Bogalusa, Louisiana. 

The defendants admit most of the allegations of the complaint. 
Their legal position is that a private organization and private persons 
are beyond the reach of the civil rights acts authorizing the Attorney 
General to sue for an injunction. There is no me;:it to this contention. 

Seeking refuge in silence and secreicy, the defendants object to 
the admission of any evidence as to klan activities. We hold, however, 
that what the klan is and what the klan dc>t:s bear significantly on the 
material issues and on the appropriate relief. 

In deciding to grant the injunction prayed for, we rest our con- 
clusions on the finding of fact that, within the n.eaning of the Civil 
Rights Acts of 1957 and 1954, the defendants have adopted a pattern and 
practice of intimidating, threatening, and coercing Negro citizens in 
Washington Parish for the purpose of interfering with the civil rights 
of the Negro citizens. The compulsion within the klan to engage in this 
unlawful conduct is inherent in the nature of the klan. This is its 
ineradicable evil. ' 

We find that to attain its ends, the klan exploits the 
forces of hate, prejudice, and ignorance. We find that the klan 
relies on systematic economic coercion, varieties of intimidation, 
and physi,. _ violence in attempting to frustrate the. national 
policy expressed in civil rights legislation. We find that 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2477 

, J Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

the klansmen, whether cloaked and hooded as members of the Original 

Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, or skulking in anonymity as members of 

a sham organization, "The Anti-Communist christian Association", or 

brazenly resorting to violence on the open streets of Bogalusa, are- 

a "fearful conspiracy against society , , . [holding] men silent by 
;he terror of [their acts] and- 2 
/[their] power for evil". 

As early as 1868 General Nathan Bedford Forrest, the first 

and only Grand Wizard of the original Invisible Empire, dismayed by 

mounting, uncontrollable violence laid to the klan, ordered the klan 

3 
to disband and directed klansmen to burn their robes and hoods. 

General ?orrest was a Confederate cavalry hero, a man without fear 

and, certainly to most Southerners, a man beyond reproach. He 

announced that he would dissociate himself from all klansmen and 

cooperate with public officials and the courts in enforcing law and 

order. But the founders of the Invisible Empire had sown dragon's 

teeth. 

The evil that led General Forrest to disband the original Ku 

Klux Klan was its perversion of purposes by undisciplined klans led 

4 
by irresponsible leaders. The evil we find in the Original Knights 

of the Ku Klux Klan is an absolute evil inherent in any 'secret order 

holding itself above the law: "the natural tendency of all such 

5 
organizations ... to violence and crime. " As history teaches, 

and as the defendants' admissions and the proof demonstrate in this 

case, violence and crime follow as the night the day. when masked men 

conspire against society itself. Wrapped in myths and misbeliefs 

Which they think relieve them of the obligations of ordinary citizens, 

klansmen pledge their first allegiance to their Konstitution and 

give their fir3t loyalty to a cross :::^;tiii;^:5~5r in flames. 

None of the defendant klansmen is a leader in his community. As 

a group, they do not appear to be representative of a cross-section of 

the community. Instead they appear to be ignorant bullies, callous of 



2478 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

z.he harm they know they are doing and lacking in sufficient understand- 
ing to co.Tiprehend the chasm between their own twisted Konstitution and 
the noble charter of liberties under law that is tie American 
Constitution. 

Legal tolerance of secret societies .iiust cease at the point where 
their merrbers assume supra-governmental powers and take the law in their 
own hands. We shall not allow the misguided defendants to interfere with 
the rights of Negro citizens derived from or protected by the Consti- 
tution of the United States and now expressly recognized by Congress in 
various civil rights statutes. V7e enjoin the Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klanj its dummy front, the Anti -communist Christian Association, 
and the individual defendants from interfering with orders of this Court 
and from interfering with the civil rights of Negro citizens in Washing- 
ton Parish. Specifically, these rights include: 

(1) the right to the equal use and enjoyment of public 
facilities, guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment; 

(2) the right to the >squal use and enjoyment of public 
accommodations, guaranteed by the Civil Rights Act, 
42 use 2000a; 

(3) the right to register to vote and to vote in all 
elections guaranteed by the Fifteenth Junendment, 
by 42 use 1971, and by the Voting Rights Act of 
1965; and 

(4) the right to equal employment opportunities, guaran- 
teed by the Civil Rights Act, 42 USC 2000e. 

I. 

The United States sues under authora.ty of 42 USC 1971; 

42 USC 2000a-5 and e-6. Under those sections and under 28 USC 1345, 

this Court has jurisdiction of the action. We re.solve any doubt as 

to the reach of these sections in favor of the Government's standing 

to sue in a case of this kind. In its sovereign capacity the Nation 

has a proper interest in preserving the integrity of its judicial 

system, in preventing klan interference wich cour: Carders, and in 

making meaningful both nationally created and nationally guaranteed 

6 
civil rights. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2479 

; Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

II. 

We turn now to ss.- detailed findings of fact. 

A. Background . The invisible realm of the Original Knights 
coincides with 
of the Ku Klux Klan/indiudes-thc-eigiTt-p'urishes— in the Sixth Con- 

This district is composed of 
gressional District of Louisiana. These-a^a/the "Florida" p^irishes, 
the area 
/eas^ of the Mississippi River and north of Lake Pontchartrain claimed 

7 
by Spain unti.1 ISIO. The events giving rise to this action took 

place in Washington Parish and centered in Bogalusa, the largest 

municipality in the Parish. Bogalusa is on the Pearl River at a 

point where the river forms the boundary between Louisiana andj 

Mississippi. It has a population of about 14,000 white persons and 

1 , 500 Negroes. 

The Grand Dragon of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan 

and President. of the Anti -Communist christian Association is Charles 

Christmas of Amite in Tangipahoa Parish. Saxon Farmer,, who seems to 

have an uncanny capacity for being present whenever there is racial 

trouble in ^^galusa, is the second in cor.unand o.- both organizations. 

Grand Titan of the Klan and Vice-Presidijnt of f.ie Anti -Communist ^ , ■ 

Christian Association. In February 1955 he was elected to both 

offices simultaneously. He is also the Exalted Cyclops of one of the 

Bogalusa Klaverns (local units). In 1950 this Court entered an order 

in the case of United States v. KcElveen et als. (C^A.No. 9146) 

against Saxon Farmer and others aijgiriing them from interfering with the 

8 
rights of Negro citizens to vote. That order restored to voter 

registration rolls of Washington Parish the names of 1,377 Negro 

citizens Farmer and others, then active in the Citizens Council, had 

unlawfully purged from the rolls. ' 

The evidence clearly establishes that the Anti-Communist 

Christian Association is not a bona fide, independent organization 



2480 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

' Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

but is the defendant klan thinly disguised under a respectable title. 

At an earlier time, the klan ' s duiru-ny organization was called the 
Bogalusa Gun ar:d-Rif-l<5 Club. The defends.r.ts ' .ef:orts to appear 
respectable by association may also be reflected in the location of ■ 
the klan's pri.-.cipal office in the Disabled American Veterans Hall. 

Ths officers, me-iibers, internal structure, method of paying 
dues oi the ACC.A. and the klan are identical. The corporate structure 
of ^ha .-.CC.\ includes nothing but a charter. The governing rules and 
by-laws cf the ACCA are the Klan Kcnstitution. The secret oath for 
admission and resignation in both organizations is the klan oath. 
Nothing is required of klan members to become members of the ACCA, 
except identifying to the secretary of the klan unit their assigned 
secret klan number. Klan members are then furnished a small green 
card with the name Anti -Communist Christian Association printed thereon. 
This Court finds that the defendant klan has appeared in this cause. 
"he pretiar.se that the klan does not exist, has ceased to exist, or has 
made no appearance in this cause is a sham. 

Until recently Washington Parish was segregated from cradle to 
coffin. .^.fter Congress adopted the 1964 Civil Rights Act, however, 
the Negroes in Bogalusa began a broad scrJ.e camp;,ign to gain recogni- 
tion of their rights. Working through the; 3ogal\.sa Voters League, 
they conducted voter registration clinics, held nass meetings to call 
attention to their grievances, picketed places o;; public accommo- 
dations to protest racially discriminatory' policz.es -and petitioned 
the Mayor of Bogalusa to accord equal rights in voting, public 
facilities, employment, and education. 

The klan has been the center of a— -'a^s^r-ii^- a-nd— preot-ios"-o-5 
unlawful activity in Washington Parish de^.igned '.o interfere with the 
efforts cf Negro citizens to gain equal rights ui.der the law. Its 
objective hac been to preserve total racial segregation in Bogalusa 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2481 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

B. ' Defendants' Admissions . An u-iusual feature of this 

litigation is the defendants' damning admissions. The defendants 
admit that the klan's objective is to prevent Washington Parish 
Negroes from exercising the civil rights Congress recognized by 
statute. In their pleadings, the defendants concede that they 
furthered ■^heir objective by — 

(a) assaulting, threatening, and harassing Negroes 
who seek to exercise any of their civil rights, 
and assaulting, threatening and harassing per- 
sons who urge that Negroes should exercise or 
be accorded those rights; 

(b) comm.itting, threatening to com"ait, and urging 
others to commit acts of economic retaliation 
against Negroes who seek to exercise these 
rights, and against any persons who urge that 
Negroes should exercise or be accorded these 
rights, or who permit open, free and public 
discussion on the issue; 

(c) threatening and intimideitinc public officials 
and businessm.en who accord or seek to accord 
Negi^es their rights wi.thout regard to race or 
color. 

The reason for the admissions v/as evident at the trial and is 
evident in the defendants' brief. The United States subpoenaed over a 
hundred witnesses and, no doubt, was prt;pared to prove every allega- 
tion in th^ complaint. Because of the c.efenda:.ts' admissions, the dis- . 
puted issues were fev; and only a few wi'.nesses were called. As a 
result, the klan avoided an airing of i t.s acti\'ities that necessarily ■ 
would have occurred had a large nur.ber of witn<:sses testified. Not 
content v;ith the success of this maneuver, the defendants objected to 
the introduction of "any evidence pertaining tCi the activities of the 
Ku Klux Klan" on the grounds that (a) the klan had ceased to exist and 
(b) "Qelv[ing] into these unrelated matters" was solely "to expose" the 
Ku Klux Klan, an invasion of the "privacy and individual freedoms of 
all thisa defendants". 



2482 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

1 Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

As indicated earlier, however, the nature of the klan's activities 

bears directly on the existence of a pattern and practice of un- 
lawful conduct and also on the sort of decree that should be issued. 

The Government subpoenaed membership lists and records of the 
klan. The defendants failed to produce these records and at the 
hearing explained that all of the records of the klan had been 
des-royed as a matter of klan policy after suit was filed. The Court 
ordered Chrisu-nas, Farmer, and John Magee, the treasurer, to compile 
from memory lists of officers and members. Counsel for the 
defendants objected to the admissibility of the lists for the reasons 
that': (1) there were no lists and records in the custody of the 
defendants; (2) the requirement was an invasion of the rights of 
privacy and association. The defendants did net rely on the Fifth 
Amend-ment privilege against self-incrimination; tjr.ey relied o.i 
NAAC? V. Alabama, 1958, 357 U.S. v. 449, 78 S. Ct. 1163 2 L. 2d 
2d 1488. The Court overruled the cbjeccions. 

NAACP V. Alabama does not support the defendants' position. 
In z.'n.a.t case Justice Karlan, speaking for a unar.im.ous Court, held 
that the rights of the meiriiers of the N.\.^CP to pursue their lawful 
interests privately and to associate fraaly with others were pro- 
tected by the 14th Amendment. Accordingly, the N.AACP was relieved of 
the necessity of turning over its membership list to the State of 
Alabama. In reaching that decision the Court distinguished New York 

ex rel. Bryant v. Zim.merman, 1928,^278 U.S. 63, 49 S. Ct. 61, 

a case 
73 L. Ed. 184, /involving a New York Chapter of ;he Ku Klux Klan. A 

New York statute required any unincorporated association which 

demanded an oath as a condition to membership to file with state 

officials copi'es of its "constitution, by-laws ... a roster of its 

In Zim:T!erman 
me-i>ership and a list of officers", /the Court found that the statutory 

classification was reasonable, because of the "manifest tendency on 
t'r.e part of one class to make the secrecy surrounding its purposes 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2483 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 
ar.d niarabership a cloak for acts and co.-iduc; inir.iic il to persorral. rights 

and public welfare. . . . ' It is a rattier of co.iiino i knowledge that this 

organization [che klan] functions larg-sly a; night, its members disguised 

by hoods and gowns and doing things calculiced to strike terror into the 

minds of people'". The Supreme Court reaffirmed t^iis distinction in 

XAACP V. Alabama . Justice Harlan pointed oat: 

" [In Zimmerman ] the Court took care to emphasize 
the nature of the organization which New York 
sought to regulate. The decision was based on the 
particular character of the klan's activities, in- 
volving acts of unlawful intimidation and violence 
. . ■ . of which the Court itself took judicial notice. " 

Here the defendants admit that the klan's methods are lawless. Albertson 

Nov. 15, 
V. Subversives Activities Board, /1965 U S. pretermits 

the question at issue in Zimmerman and NAAC? v. Alabama . 

C. Out of Their Own Mouths . (1) The Konstitution of the Original 
Ku Klux Klan emBodies "the Supreme Law of the Realm". Article I states that 
one of the objects of the organization is to "pro'cect and defend the Consti- 
tution of the United States"; but another object ;.s to "maintain forever 
Segregation of the races and the Divinely directed and historically proven 
supremacy of the White Race". The preamble reaffirms "the principles for 
which our forefathers mutually pledged and freely sacrificed their lives, 
their fortunes, and their sacred honor two centuries ago" ; but Article II 
limits the membership to "mature, Native-born, White, Gentile Men . . . who 
profess and practice the Christian Faith bat who are not members of the 
Rom.an Catholic Church". 

(2) Printed with the Konstritution is a Proclamation stating that 
it must be "STRICTLY ADHERED TO. " The Proclamation states that "ALL REALM 
work is carried on by a chain of command", establishes the organization 
along military lines, defines the duties of the various officers and com- 
mittees, and describes "The Way of the Klavern". 

"All Klaverns will have at least five armed- guards with flash- 
lights posted during regular meetings. " However, "No one will be allowed 
to carry a gur. inside the Klavern during regular meetings except the 
Knight Hawk (Keeper of the Klavern ) . " 



2484 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued | 
.^ Klokar.'s (Klavern Investigator's) duty is "wO investigate all 

questionable matters pertaining to the: Klaverr '. "Any Klansman 

who is known to violate our rules, especially those that give 

information to any aliens [non-iaeTJsers ] shall be expelled iircnediately, 

then is to be watched and visi-.ted by the V/recking Crew if necessary ". 

(Erriohasis added. ) Moreover, each klan unit "vill set up at least 

one taarr. of six men to be used for wrecking c::ev/ . These men 

should be appointed by the Klokan in secrecy". As judges charged 

with the duty of drawing inferences from the demeanor of witnesses, 

for 
we observed that a former klansman exhibited uneasiness/ i-f— ao-t 

fear of klan reprisals, whan questioned as to the function of 

the klan "wrecking crew" . The defendants ' testimony relating to 

the purpose .and functions of the wrecking crew was evasive. There 

however 
is no doubt/that the wrec^cing crew performed disciplinary functions 

and that the discipline could be severe. 

(3) The Oath of Allegience requires faithful obedience to the 

"iClan's Konstitution and Laws", regulations, "rulings and 

instructions of the Grand Dragon". "PROVIDE^^CS ALONE PREVENTING". 

. Klansmen must swear "forever" to "keep sacredly secret . . . all ... 

matters and knowledge of the * * * * [one asterisk is Klanese for 

'Klan'; four asterisks mean "Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan] 

, . . [and] never divulge same nor even cause same to be divulged 

to any person in the whole world"/. As if this were not enough, 

the Oath also requires klansmen to swear that they "solemnly vow 

and most positively swear" never "to yield to bribe, threats, 

passion, punisiunent, persecution, persuasion, nor any intice.ments 

(sic) whatever . . . for the purpose of obtaining ... a secret 

or secret information of the XXXX. " Section IV on "XXXX ISHNESS" 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2485 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

(^oes a little further. In this section of the oath the klansmen 

r.v>ist sv.-^-r cc "'keep secret to [himself] a secret of a man committed 

to I'.in; :-n the sacred bond of * manship. The crime of violating 

•chis oath, treason against the United States of America, rape, and 

malicious murder alone excepted . " (Emphasis added. ) In pure 

klanese^ the kjansraain pledges his "life, property, vote, and sacred 

honor" to uphold "unto death" the Constitution and " constitutional 

laws". (Emphasis added.) But he ends by swearing that he will 

"zealously shield and preserve . . . free segregated public schools, 

white SUPREMACY. •• 

(4) The "Boycott Rules" give a good idea of the Klan's 

coercive tactics. For examgle: 

"The Boycott Committee (one member from each local 

unit appointed by the Exalted Cyclops) shall have 

exclusive investigative authority and it shall not 

act at° any time with less than three meirbers present. . . . 

T? (1) No person or subject upon whom a boycott shall 

have been placed shall be patronized by any member. . . . 
Boycotts shall be imposed upon subjects who are 
found to be violating the Southern traditions. . . . 

q^ Boycotts shall be placed upon all members of the 
Commiittee who publicly served with Basccm Talley in 
his efforts to promote the Brooks Hays neeting. 

'7' Boycotts shall be placed upon any merchant using 
i^egro employees to serve or wait upon persons of the 
white race. (Service Stations using Nee roes to pump 
gas are excluded. ) 

-^f Boycotts shall be placed against a subject who serves 
Negroes and whites on an integrated basis. 

-■-■ Boycotts shall be placed upon a subject who allows 
Negroes to use White rest rooms. . . . 

'<- No member shall be punished for violation of the 
rules by a member of his family under tuelve (12) 
years of age. 
". Any member who shall after a hearing have been found 
guilty of personally patronizing a subject listed on 
the boycott list shall be wrecked by the wrecking crew 
who shall be appointed by the Committee. (Emphasis 
added. ) . . . 
JI-''. Second offense - If a member is found guilty of per- 
sonally violating the boycott list he shall be wrecked 
and banished from the Klan. " 

It is not surprising that the attorneys for the United States 

9 
had difficulty extracting from klansmen answers %p 'questions. 



2486 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

(5) In keeping with its false fron'c and as bait for the devout, 

the Klc;n purports to perform its dirty wo::k in the name of Jesus 
Christ. The first object stated in the "Objects and Purposes" 
clause of the Kor.stitution of this a.nti-Roman Ca-holic, anti- 
Ser.itic, hate-breeding organization is to "foster and promote the 
tenets of Christianity". The Proclamation requi::es the Kludd 
(Klavern Chaplain) to "open and close each meeting of the Klavern 
with prayer". Setting some kind of a record for sanctimonious cant, 
the Proclamation directs the Kludd to "study and be prepared to 
explain the 12th chapter of ROiXiAKS at any time, as this is the 
religious foundation of the Invisible Empire ". ^Emphasis added) 

Saint Paul, Apostle to the Gen'ciles, w;:ote his Epistle to 
the Romans in Co^^inth, midway between Rome and Jerusalem. Address- 
ing himself to Jews and Gentiles, he preached thu brotherhood of 
man: "Glory, honour, and peace, to every man th;.t worketh good, 

to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile;: For --here is no respect 

10 
of persons with God. " In the Twelfth Ch£.i>ter of Romans, Paul makes 

a beautiful and moving plea for tolerance, for b:-otherly love, for 

returning good for evil: 

9 Let love be without dissimuls.tion. Abhor' 
that which is evil; cleave to tr.c.t which is good. 

10 3e kindly af fectioned one to anothe:' with 
brotherly love; in honour preferring one: another; . . . 

14 Bless them which persecute you: bless, and 
curse not. . . . 

17 Recompense to no man evil for 'evil. Provide 
things honest in the sight ^of all men. 

18 If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, 
live peaceably with all men. 

19 Dearly beloved, avenge not ycurselve.s, but 
rather give place unto wrath: for it is. written. 
Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord. 

20 Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; 

if he thirst, give him drink; for in so doing thou 
Shalt heap coals of fire on his head. 

21 3e not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with 
good. " , 

These words must fall on stony ground in the Klaverns of .a Klan. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2487 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

D. Socrific Finding s of K lan Int imidation and Viol ence. 

We sel._c'- the following exainples of the def enda its ' acts of intimi- 
dac_cn ind violence. , 

(1) January 1, 1965, former Congressman Brooks Hays of 
.-.--k^nsas, at the invitation of religious, business, and civic 
leaders ■■f-sa:-; Bogalusa, was scheduled to speak in Bogalusa at 
St. Matthews Episcopal Church Parish House on the subject of 
coiTjaunity relations. The meeting was to be open to both Negroes 
ind whites and it was planned that seating would be on a racially 
non-segregated basis. After learning of the proposed appearance 
of Mr. Hays and the arrangements for an unsegregated meeting, 
the Klan and its members protested to the Mayor and the members 
of the Commission Council and, by m>eans of threats of civil dis- 
order and economic retaliation against local businessmen who 
suppor-ed the meeting, caused the withdrawal of the invitation 
to Mr. Kays to speak. December 18, 1964, before the Hays invita- 
tion was withdrawn, the Mayor of Bogalusa and Police Comiuissioner 
Arnold Spiers, in an effort to head off possible civil disorder, 
appeared at a Klan meeting at the Disabled Veterans Hall. The 
show of force at this meeting by over 150 hoodod Klansmen 
unquestionably intimidated public cffici.als in Bogalusa and, later, 
hindered e_fective police action ac-ainat Kl^n ^'iolence. On the 
stand. Mayor Cutrer admitted that he v.';;;; "frigiitened when he 
looked into 150 pairs of eves". ' 

(2) Since at least January 23, 1965, tr.e defendants, 
including Saxon Farmer, Russell Magee, Dewey S;\ith, Randle C. Pounds, 
Billy Alford, Charles McClendon, James I5urke, and other members of 
the defendant Klan, have made a practice of go.Lng to places where 

59-222 O — 67 — pt. 3 11 



2888 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 
they anticipated that Negroes would atteir.pt to exercise civil rights, 

in order to harass, i;hreaten, and intimidate the Negroes and other 

persons. For chis purpose, nembers of the defendant Klan have gone 

to PranklinTion, Louisiana, when Negro citizens of Washington Parish 

Were expected to apply to register as voters, 1". ave gone to restau-' 

rants in Bogalusa when Negroes were seeking or were expected to seek 

service, and have gone to locations in downtowr Bogalusa and near 

the Bogalusa Labor Temple when Negroes were attempting or were 

expected to demonstrate publicly in support of equal rights for 

Negroes. 

• (3) William Yatea and Stephen Miller, two CORE workers, 

came to Bogalusa in January 1965. The Grand Dragon and Grand Titan 

of the Klan, defendants Charles Chrisfcx.as and Saxon Farmer, appeared 

at the Mayor's office t:o ask the Mayor to send William Yates and 

Stephen Miller out of Bogalusa. Mayor Cutrer indicated that he 

could do nothing. The next day, February 3, lSo5, three Klansmen, 

James Kollingsworth, Jr. , James Hollingsworth, Sr. , and Delos 

Williams, with two other persons, Doyle Tynes and Ira Dunaway, 

attempted to insure Yates' and Miller's departure. This group 

followed Yates and Miller and assaulted Yates. 

(4) February 15, 1965, defendant Virgil Corkern, Klansman, 

and approximately 30 other white persons attacked five Negro citizens 

and damaged the car in which they were riding. This occurred because 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2489 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

th^ Xagroas had sought service at a gasoline station in Bogalusa. 

On that sair.e day, Corkern and other persons gathered at Landry's 
Fine Foods, a restaurant in Bogalusa, to observe Negroes seeking 
service at the restaurant. Corker;; and one ot". ler entered the 
restaurant brandishing clubs, orderijd thi Negroes to leave and 
threatened co kill Sam Barnes, a member of the 3ogalusa Voters 
League, who had cone to the restaurant with six Negro women. 

(5) March 29, 1965, defendants Hardie Adrian Goings, Jr., 
Xlansman, and Franklin Harris, Klansman, shortly after meetings had 
been held at the Bogalusa Labor Temple, threw an ignited tear gas 
canister at a group of Negroes standing near the Labor ■Temple. 
Goings, Jr. then tried to disguise his car by repainting it and 
removing the air scoop from the top to prevent detection of this 
crime. Goings or other Klansmen used this same car in May of 1964 to 
burn a cross at the home of Lou Major, editor of the Bogalusa news- 
paper. 

(6) April 7, 1965, defendants Lattimore McNeese and 

E. J. (Jack) Dixon, Klansman, threatened Negro citizens during the 
course of a meeting at the Labor Temple by brandishing and exhibiting 
a gun at Negroes standing outside the Labor Temple. 

(7) April 9, 1965, defendants Billy Alford, Klansman, 
Randle C. Pounds, Klansman, Lattimore McNeese, Charles McClendon, and 
James Burke, Klansman, with other parsons, went to the downtown area 
of Bogalusa . yhere Negro citizens v/ere participat-ing in a march to 
the Bogalusa City Hall to protest. denial of equal rights. Pounds, 
McClendon, and Burke, in a group, moved cut to attack the marchers. 
Pounds assaulted the leader of the n-.arch, James Farmer, with a 
blackjac'.-:; McClendon and Burke were temporarily deterred from the 
threatened assault,' but immediately thereafter assaulted a newsman 



2490 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

ar.d an ?3I age.nc. Alford assaultod one of the Kagroes participating 



.n z.nc 



...<:.— ^i^. 



(S) May 19j lS65j Virgil Corkern, Kiansman^ two sons of 
Virgil Corkern^ and other white persons went to Cassidy Park, a public 
■recreation area maintained by the City of Bogalusa, for the purpose of 
interfering with the enjoyiaenf of the park by Negroes and white CORE 
workers who were present at the park and using the facilities for the 
first time on a non-segregated basis. The Corkern group entered the 
park and dispersed the Negro citizens v;ith clubs, belts, and other 
weapons. 

(S) Negro members -of the Bogaiusa Voters League, unable 
to exercise their civil rights and also unable to obtain from police 

officials adeqjiate protection from the Klan, filad suit June 25, 

Civ. Ac. No. IS,: 27 
1S65, in the case of Hicks v. Knight /in this Court. The complaint 

asks for an injunction requiring officers of the City of Bogaiusa 
to open the public parks and to operate sach par -cs witJ^out racial 
discrimination, and also requiring law eaforceme.it officers of the 
City, Parish, and State to protect the Kajro plaintiffs and other 
Negroes from physical assaults, beatings, harass r.ent, and intimi- 
dation at the hands of white citizens. July 10, 1965, this Court issued 
an injunction in Hicks v. Knicht enjoini.ig certain city and parish law 
enforcement 'officers from failing to use all reasonable means to pro- 
tect the Negro plaintiffs and others similarly situated from physical 
assaults and beatings and from haras smient and intimidation preventing 
or discouraging the exercise of their rights to picket, assemble 
peaceably, and advocate equal civil rights for Negroes. The prelimi- 
nary injunction is still in full force and effect. Even after this 
Ccurt issued its order July 10, 1955, the defendant Klansmen con- 
tinued to interfere with Negro citizens exercising civil rights and 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2491 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2 — Continued , 

interfered with perforr:.ance of the duties of law enforcement 

officials under the injunction in Hicks v. Knight . 

(10) July 11, 1S65, during a Negro march in downtown 
Bogalusa, defendants Handle Pounds, Klansma.n, H. A. Goings, Jr. , 
Xlansr.an, Franklin Harris, Klansn^^an, and Kilton S. Parker were 
prese.nt. Harris and Goings passed out 25-30 2x2 clubs to youths and 
Pounds scauioned the youths along the inarch route. Parker was 
arrested by a City policeman along the route of march for disburbing 
the peace. 

(11) Included in the exhibits are a nvjtiber of handbills 

bearing the caption, "Published by the Oricinal Ki Klux Klan of 

Louisiana". These are crude, scrrxlous c.ttacks c.n certain Bogalusa 

citizens who advocatea a moderate approach to desegregation. For 

exam.ple, in one handbill an Episcopal minister- is accused of lying 

for having said that he had received calls threatening to bomb his 

church; the miinister's son is said to be e.n alcoholic, to have 

faced a morals charge in court, and to have been comjnitted to a 

mental institution. The handbill adds: 

"The Ku Klux Klan is now in the process of checking 

on Reverend 's [naming him] moral standards. 

If he is cleared you will be so infonried. If he is not 
cleared, you will be informed of any and all m.isdeeds or 
moral violation of his in the past. " 

In the same handbill the Klan announced that it was "boycotting 

businesses which cater to integration such as Mobile Gas Stations, 

etc. " MobilcJ Gas Station is a business comipetitor of the defendant. 

Grand Titan Saxon Farmer. 

All of. the handbills attem.pt to intimidate public officials, 

the Governor of Louisiana, the Congressman from, the Sixth District, 

the Xayor of Bogalusa, and federal judges (by name'i,. 'Sometimes the 

attempted intimidation is by threat of violence, sometimes by 



2492 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

V7e quote, 
liractcr assassination. / Jor example: 

(a) "On numerous occasions we have:, been a.;'!<ed by local 
officials to refrain from, any acts of violence upon 
^his outside scum that has invaded cur city. Being a 
christian organization, we have honored thcise requests 
each time. Kov7 nuch longer can We continue??? Con- 
trary to what the liberal elerr.enu v/ould have you think, 
■chis memorandum is not the work of racist iind hate 
mongers or trouble makers, as Governor 'Big John' 
McKeithen calls us. We are God fearing wh:.te, southern- 
ers who believe in constitutional government and the 
preservation of our American heritage. 

"If your governor would have done the right thing 
uo suart. with, he would have refused to protect these 
local and outside agitators and did jus.t what one great 
southern governor did. He refused to protect this 
outside element, (CORE, NAACP, S^CICK, ETC."), at the 
expense of his state. He chose, instead, to let LBJ and 
Katzenbach protect ther^. Only after the city of Bogalusa 
had spent $96,000, did he (Big John KcKeithen) , make any 
effort to ease the situation in this city. '■ 

'(b)"As the people tried to preserve ovir Southe:rn way of 
life, the Mayor and Council were slowly selling the 
people out at every turn. The Mayor has r€:peatedly 
GIV2X in. JaiTies Farmer did not ha-Vi: the si.pport of the 
local l^fegroes. Mayor Cutrer is not civ:-ng the city of 
Bogalusa to the negro citizens of Lcgalusa. No. He is 
giving the city to James Farr.ier and a handi ul of Negro 
Teenagers.- NO PRESSURE was put on James Fc.rmer and Dick 
Gregory to keep them out of Bogalusa.. Not by the Mayor, 
the State Representative, the State: Senatoi', or Congress- 
man Morrison. This w^s not so when the Uli: TE CONS ERV.^T IVES 
wanted to stage a Rally. Pressure \Aas exerted from all 
levels, even the invited guest speakers were 'leaned on'. 

"The Governor, the Congressman, Jimmy Morrison, or 
his com-rats, Suksty Rayborn, and Eusuer Sheridan. John 
McXeithen asked for our vote and premised vo serve the 
PEOPLE. We now ask. Big John, isn't this TRUE? What is 
happening under your administration? 

"Here is the list of elected officials who COULD & 
AND SHOULD have helped the People of Bogalusa. '''All these 
should be tarred and feathered; 

MAYOR JESSIE CUTRER 
REPRESENTATIVE SHERIDAN 
SENATOR SIXTY RAYBORN 
•.. .■ SHERIFF DORMAN CRCWE 

CONGRESSMAN JIMMY MORRISON 
GOVERNOR JOHN MCKEITHEN 
SENATOR RUSSELL LONG " v ■ 

"Now the QUESTION. Why have these men, elected by 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2493 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

tho UTilTE people turned their l)ack on us in our time of 
need? 

"Is Commur.isra so close? Wio bought them? Who 
bought their HONOR and FOR HOW XUCH?" 

(c) "The :<u Klux Xlan is strongly organized in Bogalusa 
and throughout Washington and St. Tamr.iany Parishes. 
Being a secret organization, we have ICLAN members in 
every conceivable business in this area. V^e will know 
the names of all who are invited to the Brooks Hayes 
meeting and we will know who did and did not attend this 
meeting. Accordingly, we take this mieans to urge all of 
you to refrain from attending this meeting. Those who 
do attend this meeting will be tagged as intergrationists 
a.id will be dealt with accordingly by the Knights of the 
KU KLUX KLAN. " 

E. Summary of the Facts . We find that the defendants have 
admitted and the proof has shown that they intimidated, harassed, 
and otherwise interfered with (1) Negroes exercising their civil 
rights, (2) persons encouraging Negroes to assert their rights, 
and (3) puj5lic officials, police officers, and other persons seeking 
to accord Negroes their rights. These aces are part of a pattern 
and practice of the defendants to maintain total segregation of the 
races in Washington Parish. The pattern crec-tes an effect extending 
beyond the effect of any particular c.ct or practice. A Negro who 
is clubbed in a public park may feai- t.o order coffee in a segregated 
sandwich shop or he may decide that it is th;i better part of valor 
not to exercise voting rights. The ov;nar of the sandwich shop 
who receives threatening calls for hc.\'ing se;-ved Negro patrons 
m.ay co.iclude that taking care of his iiamily comes ahead of 
hiring Negro employees. The intimidation or violence may be effec- 
tive not only as to the particular individua„ against whom it is 
directed but also as to others who may be le:;s courageous than the 
Negroes brave enough to parade in Bogalusa or register to vote in 
Franklinton.' The acts of terror and intimidation admitted or proved 
in ehis case, acts characteristic of a masked, secret conspiracy, 
can be halted only by a broad order enjoining the defendants 



2494 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

frcr.; unlawfully interfering with che exorcise of civil rights 

by Nogro citizens. 

III. 

Che defendants contend that, the cor.-.plain- fails to state 

a claiiu upon which relief can be g;:antc;C.. They start with the 

doctrine that the 14th and 15th Ant;nd.--.£:r.t3 appl.y only to state 

action or action under color of state lz.\-i. A. This moves them 

= 3 a matter of statutory construc^tion, 
to concludej/that Congress did not purport to enforce civil 

riches against private persons. Moreover, so t.hey argue, the 

interference with interf erenc:e with 
1957 Act applies to/"voting" not to/" registering" . B. And, 

they say, if civil rights acts do authorize enforcement against 
private persons {not owners 'or managers of a place of public 
accorrjT.odation) the statutes are unconsti-cutionalo 

A. 
(1) The Civil Rights Act of 1957 . In the field of civil 
rights che problem of enforcerr.ent is more difficult than the 
problem of legislative definition. The choice of remedy 
detenr.ines whether an act of Congress simply declares a right 
or carries machinery for meaningful performance of the statu- 
tory promise. In the past, an obvious hiatus has been the 
lack of effective sanctions against private persons inter- 
fering with a citizen's exercise of a civil ric.it. This lack 
may be explained by a number of reasons. ( s) Con- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2495 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued , 

gross has b^er. reluctant to assert aff irir.atively by legislation 

its rosiior.sibility to protect the priviloc/ss and iixnunities of 

citizens^ of chs United States, for fear «;: inper..ling the balanced 

11 
relationship between the states and the Nation, .b) Courts have 

narrowly construed criminal sanctions available ;.n Section 241 and 

12 
242 of Ci-cle IS. (c) Congress and the courts have been severely 

limited by the doctrine of state action, in spite of the trend 

.13 
toward an expansive view of what is state action. (d) Congress has 

been wary of using an equitable remedy in civil rights legislation. 

The Constitution guarantees an accused in a criminal case the right 

;:o indictment by a grand jury and trial by a jury of the vicinage. 

Enforce-ment of civil rights through the use of an injunction and 

14 
the contempt power of the courts would by-pass the jury system. 

Hov/ever, in ccrfmunities hostile to civil rights and resentful 

against "outside", that is, federal interference, injunctive relief 

may be the most effective method of enforcing civil rights. 

the pros and cons of these and many other issues when' ' 

Congress r-nnd r!o-ra.-^^/-!--,^s-3 -,-Tiri--v-.-' - .- ^r^— -»^^-.-.---"- --^-y-^-n— .-r^- - - n 

15 
the Administration submitted an omnibus civil richts bill in 1956. 

The focal issues — the contempt power, the jury system, and the 

relationship of the States with the Nation — produced one of the great 

debates in Am.erican parliamentary history'. By the time the bill was 

cut dov/n to a voting rights law, as the Civil Richts Act of 1957, 71 Stat. 

/Congress and the country thoroughly understood the significance of 
15 
the legislation. Congress had opened the door, then nearly shut, 

to national responsibility for protecting civil rights — created or 

guaranteed by the Nation — by injunction proceedings against private 

persons. 

Part III of the Administration's bill, as originally proposed, 

v;ouid have authorized the Attorney General to file,^uit against any 



2496 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

: Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No, 2— Continued ' 

poi-son \vv.o doprivad or was about to dsprive any citizen of aay civil right. 

Tho cor.-.pror.^ise that became the Civil Heights Act of 1957 limits civil actions 

to proteccion of voting rights in special, general, or primary elections 

where federal officers are elected. 

Before i::s.e 1957 Act, Section 1971 (now 1971(a)) was enforced either 

by an accior. for damages under 42 U. S.C.§19o3 and §2.985(3) or by a criminal 

acwion under 13 U.S.C. §241, 242. The 1957 ..ct add^ four subsections to 

17 
Section 1971, including: 

"b. yp parson, v/hether acting under color of law or other- 
v.-jse , shall intimidate, threaten, or coerce any other person 
for the purpose of interfering with ->.e righ; of such other 
person to vote or to vote as he nay o>.oose, or of causing 
such ofr.ar person to vot:a for, or no- no vota for, any candi'- 
da-e for rhe office of President. V-ce President, presidential 
elecucr, ICamber of the Senate, or Meiaser of ;he House of 
Representatives, Delegated or Commis 3 Loners from the Terri- 
wories or possessions, at any 'general, speciil, or primary 
election held solely or in part for cne purpose of selecting 
or electing any such candidate. 

* 

"c. T^rhenever any person has engaged or there are reasonable 
grounds to believe that - any person is about co engage in any 
act or practice which v;ould deprive ?. .iv othe- person of any 
richt or privilece secured b-'^ subsen - lcn ' e.) or (b) , the 
Attorney General may insui^ute for tne Uniwei States, or in 
the name of the United States, a civil action or other proper 
proceeding for preventive relief, including an application 
for a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, 
or other order.; In any proceeding hereunder the United States 
shall be liable for costs the same as a private person. " 
(Emphasis added. ) • 

"rae House Report on the Act — there was no Senate Report — clearly 

states the purpose of the amendments to 1971: 

'"-his section adds new matter. The provision is a further 
declaration of the right to vote for federal offices. It 
states clearly that it is unlav;ful for -a private indivi- 
dual as well as one acting undet color of la// to interfere 
or atteir.pt to interfere with the right to vote at any 
general, special, or prim.ary election concerning Federal 
offices. This amendir^ent, however, does not provide for 
a'rem.edy. However, the succeeding subsection of the 
am.endment, which is designated subsection (c) , 



I 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 2497 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No, 2— Continued 

decs provide a rer.'.edy in f.-.o fci.v. of a dvii action 
iilSwitutvsd ct. the pai't of iha A'l-tcrn^y caiieral. " 
tlousa Roporw No. 2S1, to aGcoir.pc.r.y K.R. 6127, U.S. 
^odo Co.-ig. and Ad.-n. ICsws 1966, ;.v77 (19o7) (2.-npha3is 

.^.Ithough Congress narrowad tha cub j act r.atter of the statute 

to voting rights, there is nothing narrov; about the scope of the Act 

as to intarfarence with voting rights. l^he statute is not limited . 

to physical acts or to direct interference with the act of voting 

but applies to — 

"any act or practice which \.-ould cepriv.i any other 
parson of any right or privilege secured by subsec- 
tion (a) or (b) . . . " 

The statute applies to "any person" who shall — 

"intimidate, threaten, coerce or attempt to intimi- 
date, threaten or coerce for the purpose of inter- 
fering with the right of such person to vote. " 

There is no doubt that this language applies to private indi- 

viduals. And there is very little doiibc. uhat the Act protects the 

right to register and to engage in activities encouraging citizens to 

register. As discussed more fully elsawhere, registration is an 

O 

integral, indispensable part of tha voting process. It is also a 
stage that is vulnerable to abuse by the registrar or to unlawful con- 
duct by private persons. 2ver sinca tha Supreme Court outlawed the 

"white" Tirimarv, it has bean apparent that tha main battleground in 

19 
the war over Negro suffrage would be tha registration office. See, 

for example, tha description of the activities of the Citizens 

Councils and parish registrars in United States v. Louisiana, E.D.La. 

1963, 225 F. Supp. 353, 378-80. Congress was wall aware that a 

major mischief to be corabatted in the 1557 A.ct was economic coercion 

and threats of intimidation by private parscns that would deny or 

20 
interfere v/^th the Negro's access to registration. 

:':ore often than not, the .economic coercion and intimidation 

bv ~_"iva'ce persons are triggered by an aiucaticnal campaign to 

encourage registration. United Staces v. Beatty^ 6 Cir. 1961, 

283 P. 2d 653 is a case in point. The case arose in Haywood 



2498 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

County, 'Tanr.asseej a county in which nc Negroes were registered to 

votv2. In the spring of 1959, a newly fcnriGd Civic and Welfare League, 
. appcL.-cntly sir.ilar to the Bogalusa Voters Le;.gue, initiated a cam- 
paign in Haywood and in Payette Counti.as to uncourage Negroes to regis- 
ter. This led to the institution of £i "whito" primary in Fayette; 
later prohibited by a consent decree ir. Apri.. 1960. In the face of a 
renewed registration drive, white businessmen in both counties re- 
taliated by circulating a "blacklist" contai;iing the names of the 
Negroes who registered and white cit:.::ens who assisted them. The 
businessmen induced local merchants to boyco'it anyone whose name ap- 
peared on the list, by denying credit and tha right to buy necessities 
through the usual business relations. White landowners evicted share- 
croppers and tenant farmers who had registerad or whose names appeared 

on the blacklist. The Attorney General sued the businessmen and land- 

21 
owners, under Section 1971, for i.T^.ediate injunctive relief. The 

district judge granted a restrai.ning order enjoining the businessmen 

fro.T. "interfering through intimidation and/or coercion", but refused 

to enjoin the landowners on the ground that the Civil Rights Act did 

not vast the court with authority "to adjudge contracts and property 

rights". 6 Race Rel. L. Rep. 200. The Sixth Circuit affirmed the 

judgment as to the businessmen and extended che injunction to the 

22 
landlords. 

In East Carroll Parish, Louisiana, cotton growers refused to 

gin cotton for Negro farmers who had attempted to register to vote. The 

Attorney General again sued under the 1957 A^t. Judge Dawkins granted a 

restraining order, as preventive relief, against owners, operators, 

and managers of cotton gin businesses and certain other businesses. 

The Court -restrained the defendants from "refusing to gin ..... 

refusing -co sell goods or services, and x.o conduct ordinary business 

transac-ions with, any person for the purpose of discouraging or 

dissuading such person from attempting to vcta and .. . . engaging 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IX THE U.S. 2499 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

ir. any atton-.ptea threats, ir.ti:. idaticns, c; coercio.n of any 

nature, whether econon^.ic or otV. er\-.'i£e" . Ur ited S-ates v. 

Deal, K. D.La. 1S31, S 5;aca :<el. L. Seis. •C7<. 

The parallel between the dsrandants' intimidation by 

and 
ecor.or.ie eoercion in Baattv / in Deal, and the defendants' 

boycotc and other activities in this case is too patent 
■^io be spelled out. Beattv and Da?.l also illustra'ce a 
principle of enorrr.ous i-.portance in the enforcement of civil 
rights: acts otherwise lav/ful .nay become unlawful and be 
enjoined under Section 1971, if uhe purpose and effect of 
the acts is to interfere with the right to vote. 

In United "States v. Board of Education of Greene 
Counuy, l-tssissippi, 1S64, 332 F. 2d -.0, the Pifth Circuit 
affirmed the holding below that the governm.ent failed to 
prove that uhe alleged intir.idaticn v;as for the purpose 
of interfering with the right uo vote. But, as Judge 
Tuttle explained in United States v. Bruce (not yet re- 
ported, decided ICov. 16, 1SS5, ao. 22C23},the Court in 
■ the Greene Cou~-cv case assumed; 

"vrnereas a school board -.night, inder the 
circumstances prese.it ...i that c ise, have 
legally failed to r;;new i teach :r's con- 
tract for any reason or for no reason at 
all, if it in fact decl.^/.ed to renew the 
[teacher's] certificate .is a me -ns of 
coercing or intimi£.itin.j the te -cher as 
to her right to vote, suoh cond :ct would 
be prohibited under the .-.ct. " 

In United States v. Bruce tv/e.ity-aig.t white persons 

in V.'ilcox County, Alaba.ma, notified Dannie Drown, a Negro in- 

surar.ce collector^ to stay off lar.d c^ned o.: controlled by then. 



2500 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 
As a result Brown could not reach many of his policy-holders. 

Brown had been active in urging his Negro neighbors and friends 

to register to vote in Wilcox County, a county where no Negroes 

were registered. The Court held that the trial court erred in 

dismissing the complaint: 

"The background allegations make a strong 
case upon which the trial court could 
infer the correctness of the conclusionary 
allegations that these defendants did in 
fact 'intimidate and coerce' the Negro 
citizens of Wilcox County, through the 
person of Lonnie Brown, for the purpose 
of interfering with their right to vote. " 

We hold that the Civil Rights Act of 1957 applies to 
private persons, including the defendants impleaded in this 
case. We hold that the Act applies to interfering with the 
right to register as well as interfering with the right to 
vote; that the Act protects Negro citizens against the 
coercion, intimidation, and violence the defendants admitted 
or were proved to have committed in this case. 

(2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 . The '64 Act creates 
new categories of civil rights and extends the authority of 
the Attorney General to protect such rights by a civil suit 
for injunctive relief against any person, public or private. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2501 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 
For purposes of this proceeding, the most pertinent provisions 
are those relating to (a) places of public accommodation, (b) equal 
employroent opportunities, and (c) public facilities. As clearly 
as words can say, these provisions reach any person and any action 
that interferes with the enjoyment of civil rights secured by the ' 
Act. Thus, 42 U.S.C. §2000a-2 of Title II, is not limited to pro- 
hibiting discrimination or segregation by the owner or manager of 
a place of public accommodation. The section provides: 

"No person shall (a) withhold, deny, or attempt 
to withhold or deny, or deprive or attempt to 
deprive, any person of any right or privilege 
secured by section 2000a or 2000a-l of this 
title, or (b) intimidate, threaten, or coerce, 
or attempt to intimidate, threaten, or coerce 
any person with the purpose of interfering with 
any right or privilege secured by section 
2000a or 2000a-l of this title, or (c) punish 
or attempt to punish any person for exercising 
or attempting to exercise any right or privi- 
lege secured by section 2000a or 2000a-l of 
this title. " 

And to enforce the law. Section 2000a-5 (a) allows the Attorney 

General to sue "any person or group of persons": 

"Whenever the Attorney General has reasonable 
cause to believe that any person or group of 
persons is engaged in a pattern or practice 
of resistance to the. full enjoyment of any of 
the rights secured by this subchapter, and that 
the pattern or practice is of such a nature 
and is intended to deny the full exercise of 
the rights herein described, the Attorney 
General may bring a civil action requesting 
such preventive relief, including an applica- 
tion for a permanent or temporary injunction, 
restraining order or other order against the 
person or persons responsible for such pattern 
or practice, as he deems necessary to insure 
the full enjoyment of the rights herein de- . 
scribed. " [Emphasis supplied. ] 

Section 2000e-6 of Title VII, relating to equal employment oppor- 
tunities, tracks the language of Section 2000a-5(a) . 

This suit is not one to desegregate public facilities under 
Title VII of the Act. However, Section 2000-b is relevant, since 
it demonstrates again the broad Congressional objective of authorizing 
the Attorney General to sue as defendants "such parties as are or 



2502 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 
become necessary to the grant of effective relief". The defendants' 

interference with the right of Negroes to use public facilities in 

Bogalusa is relevant to the cause of action, for that interference 

was part of a pattern and practice of total resistance to the Negroes' 

exercise of civil rights. 

(3) In sum, in the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964, Congress 

recongnized that when a Negro is clubbed or coerced for having 

attempted to register or for having entered a "white" restaurant, 

the action most likely to produce effective relief is not necessarily 

for the Negro to complain to the local police or to sue for damages 

or to make charges under 18 USC 241, 242. The most effective relief 

for him and for all others affected by the intimidation may be an 

injunction by the Nation against the private persons responsible for 

interfering with his civil rights. 

Effectiveness of remedy is not the only reason for the 

Congressional grant of authority to the Attorney General of the 

United States. The Nation has a responsibility to supply a meaningful 

remedy for a right it creates or guarantees. As Justice Story wrote, 

in sustaining the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793: 

"If, indeed, the constitution guarantees the right, and 
if it requires the delivery [of the fugitive slave] upon 
the claim of the owner . . . , the natural inference cer- 
tainly is, that the national government is clothed with 
the appropriate authority and functions to enforce it. 
The fundamental principle, applicable to all cases of this 
sort, would seem to be, that when the end is required, the 
means are given. . . " Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 1842, 41 U. S. 
(17 Pet.) 539, 614. 

It is one thing when acts are mere invasions of private rights; "it is 
quite a different matter when Congress undertakes to protect the citi- 
zen in the exercise of rights conferred by the Constitution of the 
United States essential to the healthy organization of the government 
itself". Ex parte Yarbrough, 1884, 110 U.S. 651, 665, 4 S.Ct. 152, 
28 L.Ed. 274. We turn now to the defendants' constitutional arguments. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2503 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

B. 

The defendants' constitutional arguments rest on a mis- 
understanding of the constitutional sources for the Civil Rights 

24 
Acts of 1957 and 1964. 

(1) The Civil Rights Act of 1957; Protection of Right 
to Vote From Unlawful Interference. ( aj In upholding the consti- 
tutionality of the voting provisions of the 1957 Act^ we need not 

25 
consider the Civil War Amendments. Section 1971 (b), here en- 
forced under 1971 (c) , is limited to prohibiting interference 
with the right to vote in elections for federal office. Article I^ 
Section 4 of the Constitution is an express grant of authority to 
Congress to regulate federal elections: 

"The times, places and manner of holding elec- 
tions for senators and representatives, shall 
be prescribed in each State by the legislature 
thereof; but the Congress may at any time by 
' Law make or alter such regulations, except as 
to the places of choosing Senators. " 

As the House Committee pointed out in its report on the 
law. United States v. Classic, 1941, 313 U.S. 299, 61 S. Ct. 1031, 
85 L.Ed. 1368, "establishes the authority in Congress to legis- 
late concerning any and all elections affecting federal officers, 
whether general, special, or primary, as long as they are ' an 
integral part of the procedure of choice or where in fact the 
primary effectively controls their choice.'" U.S. Code Cong, and 
Adm. News, 85 Cong. 1957, p. 1977. The Supreme Court said, in 
Classic : 

"While, in a loose sense, the right to vote for 
representatives in Congress is sometimes spoken 
of as a right derived from the states, [cita- 
tions omitted] this statement is true only in the 
sense that the states are authorized by the Con- 
stitution, to legislate on the subject as pro- 
vided by §2 of Art. I, to the extent that 
Congress has not restricted state action by 
the exercise of its powers to regulate elections 
under §4 and its more general power under Article 
I, §8, clause 18 of the Constitution "to make all 
laws which shall be necessary and proper for 
carrying into execution the foregoing powers.'" 



2504 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

(b) Under the "sweeping clause". Article I, Section 8, Clause 

18, Congress may enact all laws "necessary and proper" to carry 
out any of its powers, including, of course, its power to regu- 
late federal elections. This provision leaves to Congress the 
choice of the means to execute its powers. "Let the end be 
legitimate, let it be within the scope of the Constitution, and 
all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that 
end, which are not prohibited, but consist with the letter and 
spirit of the Constitution are constitutional". McCulloch v. 
Maryland, 1819, 4 Wheat. 316, 421. 

"There is little regarding an election that is not in- 
cluded in the terms 'time, place and manner of holding it'". 
United States v. Munford, 1833, C. C. , E.D.Va., 16 F. 223. The 
Supreme Court has said: 

"It cannot be doubted that these comprehensive 
words embrace authority to provide a complete 
code .for congressional elections, not only as 
to times and places, but in relation to notices, 
registration, supervision of voting, protection 
of voters, prevention of fraud and corrupt prac- 
tices, counting of votes, duties of inspectors 
and canvassers, and making and publication of 
election returns; in short, to enact the 
numerous requirements as to procedure and 
safeguards which experience shows are necessary 
in order to enforce the fundamental right in- 
volved. " Smiley v. Holm, 1932, 285 U.S. 355, 
366, 76 L.Ed. 795. 

Two facts make it appropriate for Congress to reach registra- 
as part of the "manner of holding elections". 

tion/ First, registering is a prerequisite to voting. Second, 

registration is a process for certifying a citizen as a qualified 

voter in both federal and state elections. A law protecting the 

rig'nt to vote could hardly be appropriate unless it protected the 

26 
right to register. In Classic language, registering is a "neces- 
sary step" and "integral" in voting in "elections". In Classic. 
"interference with the effective choice of the voters" in a 
Louisiana Democratic primary was interference "at the only stage 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2505 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

of the election procedure when their choice is of significance". 

Kere, in terns of a meaningful right to vote, interference with 

Negro citizens' registering is interference at the most critical 

It is true of course that 
stage of the election procedure./ tne framers of the Constitution 

neither they 
did not know about the registration process; but/^hey didAo^ have 

in mind the selection of senators and representatives by the 

direct primary. In United States v. Louisianaj E.D.La. 1963, 

on other grounds, 
225 F. Supp. 353, 359, aff'd./19S5, 380 U.S. 145 this Court 

said: 

"Congressional authority [under Article I, §4] ex- 
tends to registration, a phase of the electoral 
process unknown to the Pounding Fathers but today 
a critical, inseparable part of the electoral 
process which must necessarily concern the United 
States, since registration to vote covers voting 
in federal as well as in state elections. 

In United States v. Manning, W. D.La. 1963, 215 F. Supp. 272, one 

of the constitutional attacks on the Civil Rights Act of 1960 was 

directed at the provision for federal registrars. In the opinion 

upholding the set, the Court co.isidered it important that — 

"For purposes of accomplishing the constitutional 
objective the electoral process is indivisible. 
The act of casting a ballot in a voting booth 
cannot be cut away from the rest of the process. 
It is the last step in a process that starts with 
registration. Similarly, registration is an in- 
divisible part of elections. . . . There is no 
separate registration for federal elections. Any 
interference with the qualified voter's right to 
register is therefore interference with a federal 
election." 215 P. Supp. at 283. 

''•^> Classic relied on three important cases that construe the 

nature and extent of the power of Congress to regulate federal 

elections: Ex parte Siebold, 1880, 100 U.S. 371, 25 L.Ed. 717; 

Ex parte Yarbrough, The Ku Xlux Klan cases, 1884, 110 U. S. 651, 

4 S.Ct. 152, 23 L.Ed. 274; and Burroughs v. United States, 1934, 

290 U.S. 534, 54 S.Ct. 287 , 78 L.Ed. 485. I:i..c;u_i, Tnese cases 



2506 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

point Z.O the principle that a congressional statute protecting 

against private interference before the voting stage is necessary 

and proper legislation under Article I, Section 4, whenever it is 

reasonably related to "protection of the integrity" of the federal 

electoral process. Classic, 313 U. S. at 316. 

5x parte Siebold involved a conviction of state election 

officers for ballot-stuffing in a federal election. The Court had 

before it the Snforcerr.ent Act from which Section 1971 was derived. 

The statute contained a number of extensive voting and registration 

regulations^ including a provision for the appointment of federal 

election supervisors. These supervisors were authorized "to 

cause such names to be registered as they may think proper to be 

so marked". In sustaining the validity of the legislation under 

Article 1, Section 4, the Court corrjr.ented: 

"it is the duty of the States to elect representa- 
tives to Congress. The due and fair election of 
these reoresenta.tives is of vital importance to 
the United States . The governrient of the United 
States is no less concerned in the transaction 
than the State government is. It certainly is not 



bound to stand bv as a passive spectator. 


when 


duties are violated and outraceous frauds 


are 



ccrrrnitted . It is directly interested in the 
faithful performance, by the officers of election, 
of their respective duties. Those duties are 
owed as well to the United States as to the State. " 
100 U. S. 338 

In Yarbrouqh the Court had before it the question whether 

Congress could protect civil rights agains;i private interference, 

specifically klan aggression in the form of intimidation of voters. 

Yarbrough and eight other members of a Georgia klan were indicted 

for conspiring to intimidate a Negro in the exercise of his right 

to voce for a congressional representative. It was shown that 

they used physical violence and that they went in disguise upon 

the public highways. They were convicted under the section of the 

that was 
Enforce.T.ent Act of 1870, Revised Statutes Section 5508, /the pre- 

also under 
decessor of 18 U. S.C. §241; a.nd/section 5520. These are the 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2507 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 
criminal law counterpart to 42 U.S.C, 1971. The Act forbade two 

or more persons "to conspire to injure, oppress, threaten or 
intimidate any citizen in the free exercise or enjoyment of any 
right or privilege secured to by the Constitution or laws of the 
United States" or to "go in disguise on the highway, or on the 
premises of another, with intent to prevent or hinder [such 
citizen in] his free exercise or enjoyment" of any such right; or 
to "conspire to prevent by force, intimidation, or threat, any 
citizen who is lawfully entitled to vote" from voting for presi- 
dential electors or members of Congress. Justice Miller, in a 
powerful opinion for the Court, sustained the conviction and held 
the statute valid. The opinion made it clear that the right to 
vote in federal elections is a privilege of national citizenship 
derived from the Constitution. Congress therefore "can by law 
protect the act of voting, the place where it is done and the 
man who votes, from personal violence or intimidation, and the 
election itself from corruption or fraud. " Nor does it matter 
that state and federal offices are elected in the same election. 
The congressional powers are not "annulled because an election 
for state officers is held at the same time and place". 110 
U.S. at 660. 

The heart of the Yarbrough decision is the Court's emphasis 
on the transcendent interest of the federal government. The 

violence and intimidation to which the Negro was subjected were 

they 
important because/ite alloyed the purity of the federal political 

process. The federal government "must have the power to protect 

the elections on which its existence depends from violence and 

corruption". 110 U.S. at 658. This implied power arises out of 

governmental necessity. The Court said: 



2508 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

"The power in either case arises out of the cir- 
cumstance that the function in which the party is 
engaged or the right which he is about to exer- 
cise is dependent on the laws of the United States. 

"In both cases it is the duty of that government 
to see that he may exercise this right freely and 
to protect him from violence while so doing or 
on account of so doing. This duty does not arise 
solely from the interest of the party concerned, 
but from the necessity of the government itself, 
that its service shall be free from the adverse 
influence or force and fraud practiced on its 
agentSj and that the votes by which its members 
of Congress and its President are elected shall 
be the free votes of the electors, and the officers 
thus chosen the free and uncorrupted choice of 
those who have the right to take part in that 
choice. " 

Since it is the purity of the federal political process that must 
be protected, the protection may be extended against interference 
with any activity having a ratiaialrelationship with the federal 
political process. Thus, the "rationale of Yarbrough indicates 
congressional power over voting, though limited to federal elec- 
tions, extends to voter registration activities", including 

registration rallies, voter education classes, and other activities 

28 
intended to encourage registration. 

Burroughs is one of a number of cases dealing with corrupt 

election practices which go far beyond the act of voting in an 

election. Thearfi^tfM operate on the campaigning stage rather than 

the voting stage and apply to private persons having no part in the 

election machinery. In Burroughs the contention was made that 

under Article II, Section 1 the states control the manner of 

appointing presidential electors; Congress is limited to prescribing 

the time of choosing electors and the day on which they cast their 

votes. In upholding the validity of the Federal Corrupt Practices 

Act of 1925, the Court, relying on Yarbrough. said: 

"While presidential electors are not officers or 
agents of the federal government . . . , they 
exercise federal functions under, and discharge 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2509 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

duties in virtue of authority conferred by, the 
Constitution of the United States. The presi- 
dent is vested with the executive power of the 
nation. The importance of his election and the 
vital character of its relationship to and ef- 
fect upon the welfare and safety of the whole 
people cannot be too strongly stated. To say 
that Congress is without power to pass ap- 
propriate legislation to safeguard such an 
election from the improper use of money to 
influence the result is to deny to the nation 
in a vital particular the power of self-protec- 
tion. Congress undoubtedly, possesses that 
power, as it possesses every other power es- 
sential to preserve the departments and institu- 
tions of the general government from impairment 
or destruction, whether threatened by force or 
by corruption." 110 U.S. at 545 

The states ' power over the manner of appointing presidential 
electors is similar to the states reserved power to establish 
voting qualifications. Notwithstanding this unquestioned power 
in the states, " Burroughs holds that 'Congress' has the implied 
power to protect the integrity of the processes of popular election 
of presidential electors once that mode of selection has been 
chosen by the state. " There is an obvious parallel between cor- 
ruption of the federal electoral process by the use of money and 
corruption of the same process by acts of violence and intimidation 
that prevent voters from getting on the registration rolls or, 
indeed, from ever reaching the registration office. 

Classic involved federal indictments against state election 
commissioners for falsely counting ballots in a Democratic party 
primary. The Court held that under Article I, Section 4 and the 
necessary and proper clause, Congress had the implied power to 
regulate party primaries. The "interference [was] with the effec- 
tive choice of voters at the only stage when their choice is of 
significance. . . . The primary in Louisiana is an integral part 
of the procedure for the popular choice of Congressmen". The right 
to choose is a right "secured by the Constitution". 313 U.S. at 314. 



2510 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE TJ.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 
Moreover, "since the constitutional command is without restriction or 

limitation, the right, unlike those guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fif- 
teenth Amendments, is secured against the action of individuals as well as 
of states . " lb, at 315 Mr. Justice Stone, for the Court, spelled out the 
rationale: 

"The right to participate in the choice of representatives 
for Congress ... is protected just as the right to vote 
at the election, where the primary is by law made an in- 
tegral part of the election machinery. . . . Unless the 
.constitutional protection of the integrity of 'elections' 
extends to primary elections. Congress is left powerless 
to effect the constitutional purpose. . ." 313 U.S. at 318, 319. 

The innumerable cases in this Circuit involving civil rights 
speak eloquently against the use of economic coercion, intimidation, and 
violence to inhibit Negroes from applying for registration. This inter- 
ference with nationally guaranteed rights, whether by public officials 
or private persons corrupts the purity of the political process on which 
the existence and health of the National Government depend. No one has 

expressed this better than Judge Rives in United States v. Wood, 5 Cir. 

29 
1961, 295 F.2d 772; cert, denied 369 U.S. 850(1962). In Wood the inter- 
organizer 
ference was in the form of groundless prosecution of a Negro/who had set 

up a registration school in Walthall County, Mississippi, where no Negroes 

had ever registered. He was not even qualified to vote in the county 

where the intimidatory acts occurred; he was a resident of another county. 

In reversing the district judge's refusal to stay the state prosecution, 

the Fifth Circuit noted that the alleged coercion was of the kind the 

1957 Act was intended to reach. Judge Rives, for the Court, said: 

"The foundation of our form of government is the consent 
of the governed. Whenever any person interferes with the 
right of any other person to vote or to vote as he may 
choose, he acts like a political termite to destroy a part 
of that foundation. A single termite or many termites may 
pass unnoticed, but each damages the foundation, and if 
that process is allowed to continue the whole structure 
may crumble and fall even before the occupants become 
aware of their peril. Eradication of political termites, 
or at least checking their activities, is necessary to 
prevent irreparable damage to our Government. " 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 2511 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

We hold that the defendants' acts of economic coercion, intimi- 
dation, and violence directed at Negro citizens in Washington Parish 
for the purpose of deterring their registering to vote strike at the 
integrity of the federal political process. The right to vote in 
federal elections, a privilege of national citizenship secured by the 
United States Constitution, includes the right to register to vote . 
The right to register to vote includes the right to be free from 
public or private interference with activities rationally related to 
registering and to encouraging others to register . 

(2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964; Public Accommodation. 
The Supreme Court has upheld the constitutionality of Title II as it 
applies to motels and restaurants. Atlanta Motel v. United States, 
1964, 379 U.S. 241, 85 S. Ct. 348, 13 L.Ed. 2d 258; Katzenbach v. 
McClung, 1964, 379 U.S. 294, 85 S. Ct. 377, 13 L.Ed. 2d 290. 

The defendants are left, therefore, only with the contention 
that the Act, for reasons not articulated, should not reach private 
persons. 

The defendants are really arguing against the judgment of 
Congress in selecting injunctive relief against private persons as 
one method of enforcing congressional policy. Once it is conceded 
that Congress has the power, under the commerce clause, to forbid 
discrimination in public places, there is little doubt that injunctive 
relief against any person seeking to frustrate the statutory objective 
is appropriate. 

In this Circuit, relying on In re Debs , 1895, 158 U.S. 564, 
15 S. Ct. 900, 39 L. Ed. 1092, the courts have held that when 
private persons burden commerce to the detriment of the national 
interest, the Nation may enjoin such persons even without enabling 
legislation. On two occasions courts have issued 



2512 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX' THE U.S. 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 
injunctions against klans and klansraen engaged in intimidation and 

violence burdening commerce. United States v. U.S. Klans, M.D.Ala. 

1961, 194 F. Supp. 897; Plummer v. Brock, M.D.Fla. 1964, 9 R. Rel.L. 

Rep. 1399. See also United States v. City of Jackson, 5 Cir. 1963, 

318 F.2d. 1. 

(3) The Civil Rights Act of 1964; Equal Employment Oppor- 
tunities . Title VII, like Title II, is based upon the comrr^erce 

clause . The term "industry affecting commerce" used in Title VII 
parallels the definition of "industry affecting commerce" in the 
LMRDA (29 U. S.C. 402 (c)). This in turn incorporates the definition 
of "affecting commerce" in the NLRA (29 U.S.C. 152 (7)). The 
National Labor Relations Act represents an exercise of congressional 
regulatory power to "the fullest jurisdictional breadth constitu- 
tionally permissible under the Commerce Clause, " NLRB v. Reliance 
Fuel Corp., 1963, 371 U.S. 224, 226; Polish National Alliance v. 
NLRB, 1944, 322 U.S. 643, 647, a conclusion equally applicable to 
Title VII, 

The sweeping regulations in the NLRA and LMRDA covering the 
terms, conditions, and policies of hiring and bargaining do not 
differ in any essential respect from this legislation prohibiting 
discrimination in hiring practices and on the job assignments. The 
employer- employee relationship has, of course, direct effect upon 
the production of industries which are in commerce and upon the 
practical utilization of the labor force and the power of Congress 
to regulate these activities cannot be doubted. NLRB v. Jones & 
Laughlin Steel Corp., 1936, 301 U.S. 1; NLRB v. Fainblatt, 1939, 
306 U.S. 601, 606; Mabee v. White Plains Publishing Co., 1946, 327 
U.S. 178. 

Defendants admit that they beat and threatened Negro pickets 
to prevent them from enjoying the righ^^equal employment opportunity. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 2513 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 
The effect of course is to prevent Negroes from gaining free access 

to potential employers. Such acts not only deter Negroes but 

intimidate employers who might otherwise wish to comply with the 

law but fear retaliation and economic loss. This is precisely what 

the klan's Boycott Rules are designed to do. 

* * * 

The United States has alleged, the defendants have admitted, 
and the proof has shown that the defendants have intimidated, 
harassed, and in other ways interfered with the civil rights of 
Negroes secured by the Constitution. The admission and proof 
show a pattern and practice of interference. 

Protection against the acts of terror and intimidation 
committed by the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and the 
individual defendants can be halted only by a broad injunctive 
decree along the lines of the order suggested by the United States. 
The Court will promptly issue an appropriate order. 



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2514 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 



Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

United States of America v. Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan, et als. 

Civil Action No. 15793 

FOOTNOTES 

* Although this order is cast in the form of an opinion, it re- 
presents the Court's findings of fact and conclusions of law. 

1. Counsel for the individual defendants take the position that the 
defendant klan does not exist. The proof shows that the klan con- 
tinues to exist and to function as a klan in the benign name of the 
"Anti -Communist Christian Association". See Section II, A of this 
opinion. 

2. Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condi- 
tion of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States (Wash. 1872) , 

p. 28. (Majority Report.) 

3. Testimony of General Forrest before the Joint Select Committee. 
Note 2, p. 6-14, 449-51. 

4. In January 1869 General Forrest issued an order to disband which 
began "Whereas, the order of the Ku Klux Klan is in some localities 
being perverted from its original honorable and patriotic purposes. . . ' 
Davis, Authentic History: Ku Klux Klan, 125-28, (N." Y. 1928); 
Carter, The Angry Scar, 216 (N. Y. 1959). 

5. "There is no doubt about the fact that great outrages were 
committed by bands of disguised men during those years of lawlessness 
and oppression. The natural tendency of all such organizations is 

to violence and crime; hence it was that General Forrest and other 
men of influence in the state, by the influence of their moral power, 
induced them to disband. " Report of the Joint Select Committee, 
Note 2, p. 463. (Minority Report.) 

6. In United States v. Raines, 1959, 362 U.S. 17, 27, 80 S. Ct. 519, 
4 L.Ed. 524 upholding the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Act 
of 1957 in a suit on behalf of private persons against public offi- 
cials, the Court said: "It is urged that it is beyond the power of 
Congress to authorize the United States to bring this action in sup- 
port of private constitutional rights. But there is the highest 
public interest in the due observance of all the constitutional 
guarantees, including those that bear the most directly on private 
rights, and we think it perfectly competent for Congress to authorize 
the United States to be guardian of that public interest in a suit 
for injunctive relief. " 

7. The parishes of Washington, Tangipahoa, St. Tammany, St. Helena, 
Livingston, Ascension, East Feliciana, West Feliciana, East Baton 
Rouge, West Baton Rouge, Pointe Coupee, and Iberville. 

8. Aff d. sub. nom. United States v. Thomas 1962, 362 U.S. 58 
S.Ct. L.Ed. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2515 



Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

9. On two occasions, the Court found it necessary to warn the 
witnesses of the penalty for perjury. The Court recessed the hearing 
to allow time for the witnesses to refresh their recollection, and to 
find, if possible, any membership lists. On one occasion, a witness 
pleaded the 5th Amendment when, in a colloquy with the Court, it was 
apparent that he was afraid of klan reprisal for testifying as to 
klan records; he withdrew his plea of privilege and testified. 

10. Romans, Chap. II, v. 10-11. 

11. See United States v. Cruikshank, 1875, 92 U.S. 542, 23 L.Ed. 588; 
Slaughter-House Cases, 1873, 16 Wall 36, 21 L.Ed. 394. 

12. In 1894 Congress repealed most of the provisions dealing with 
federal supervision of elections. Two general provisions for 
criminal sanctions were left standing: 42 U.S.C. §241 (originally 
Section 6 of the Civil Rights Act of 1870, later Section 5508 of 

the Revised Statutes) providing criminal sanctions against conspiracies 
to deprive any citizen of any right secured by the Constitution and 
laws of the United States; and 42 U.S.C. §242 (originally Section 2 
of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, later Section 5510 of the Revised 
Statutes (1873), as amended in 1909, 35 Stat. 1092 by adding the 
word "wilfully") providing criminal sanctions against the deprivation 
of constitutional rights, privileges, and immunities under color of 
state law. See United States v. Williams, 1951, 341 U. S. 70, 
71 S.Ct. 581, 95 L.Ed. 758 restricting Section 241 to those cases 
in which the right allegedly violated is an incident to national 
citizenship. See also Screws v. United States, 1945, 325 U.S. 91, 
65 S.Ct. 1031, 89 L.Ed. 1495 construing Section 242 as requiring 
specific intent to deprive a person of the right made specific by 
the Constitution or laws of the United States. , Sections 241 and 242 
are now before the Supreme Court again. United States v. Price, 
Nos. 59, 60, October Term, 1965; United States v. Quest, No. 65, 
October Term, 1965. 

13. See Civil Rights Cases, 1883, 109 U.S. 3, 3 S.Ct. 18, 27 L.Ed. 
835; United States v. Reese, 1876, 92 U.S. 214, 23 L.Ed. 478. 

14. Hence the compromise affecting jury trials in the 1957 Act: 
criminal contempt cases arising under the act may be tried by 
district courts without juries, except where a person convicted is 
fined more than $300 or imprisoned for more than 6 months. 71 Stai. 
638 (1957), 42 U.S.C. 1995. 

15. President Truman's Committee on Civil Rights submitted equally 
broad recommendations. See Report, To Secure These Rights, 151-161 

(1947) . 

16. In a hearing before the House Judiciary Committee on the Civil 
Rights Bill, Attorney General Herbert Brownell explicitly explained 
the purposes and scope of the proposed amendments to Section 1971 
of Title 42: 

"The most obvious one of these defects in the law is 
that it does not protect the voters in Federal elec- 
tions from unlawful interference with their voting 
rights by private persons — in other words, 1971 ap- 
plies only to those who act 'under color of law' 



2516 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 



Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

which means public officials, and the activities 
of private persons and organizations designed to 
disenfranchise voters in Federal or State elec- 
tions on account of race or color are not covered 
by the present provisions of 1971. And so we 
say that the statute fails to afford the voters 
full protection from discrimination which was 
contemplated by the Constitution, especially the 
14th and 15th amendments. 

"Also this section 1971 is defective in another re- 
spect, because it fails to lodge in the Department 
of Justice and the Attorney General any authority 
to invoke civil remedies for the enforcement of 
voting rights. And it is particularly lacking in 
any provision which would authorize the Attorney 
General to apply to the courts for preventive 
relief against the violation of these voting rights. 

"And we think that this is also a major defect. The 
ultimate goal of the Constitution and the Congress is 
the safeguarding of the free exercise of the voting 
right, acknowledging of course, the legitim.ate power 
of the State to prescribe necessary and fair voting 
qualifications. And we believe that civil proceed- 
ings by the Attorney General to stop any illegal 
interference and denial of the right to vote would 
be far more effective in achieving this goal than 
the private suits for damages which are presently 
authorized by the statute, and far more effective 
than the criminal- proceedings which are authorized 
under other laws which, of course, can never be used 
until after the harm has been actually done. 

"No preventive measures can be brought under the 
criminal statutes. So I think — and I believe you 
will agree with me — that Congress should now 
recognize that in order to properly execute the 
Constitution and its amendments, and in order to per- 
fect the intended application of the statute, section 
1971 of title 42, United States Code, should be 
amended in three respects: 

"First, by the addition of a section which will pre- 
vent anyone, whether acting under color of law or 
not, from threatening, intimidating or coercing an 
individual in his right to vote in any election, 
general, special, or primary, concerning candidates 
for Federal office . 

"And second, to authorize the Attorney General to 
bring civil proceedings on behalf of the United 
States or any aggrieved person for preventive or 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 2517 



Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

other civil relief in any case covered by the 
statute. 

"And third, an express provision that all State 
administrative and judicial remedies need not be 
first exhausted before resort to the Federal 
courts. " [Hearings before Subcommittee No. 5 of 
the Committee on the Judiciary, 85th Cong. 1st 
Sess., p. 570 (1957)] 

17. Section 1971(a) derived from the Civil Rights Act of 1870, de- 
fined voting rights as follows: 

"(a) All citizens of the United States who are other- 
wise qualified by law to vote at any election by 
the people in any State, Territory, district, county, 
city, perish, township, school district, municipality, 
or other territorial subdivision, shall be entitled and 
allowed to vote at all such elections, without dis- 
tinction of race, color, or previous condition of 
servitude; any constitution, law, custom, usage, or 
regulation of any State or Territory, or by or under 
its authority, to the contrary notwithstanding". 

18. See Section III, B, (l),(b) of opinion. 

19. See Key, Southern Politics 555(1949) ; Civil Rights Commission 
Report 133-38(1961) . 

20. In a note, Beatty. Private Economic Coercion and the Civil Rights 
Act of 1957, 71 Yale L. Jour. 536, 543(1962), the author points out: 

"The Circuit Court's construction of the 1957 act to 
apply to economic coercion in general and to economic 
coercion involving contract and property rights in 
particular seem.s correct. In requesting legislation 
to protect voting rights. President Eisenhov/er noted: 
'It is disturbing that in som.e localities allegations 
persist that Negro citizens are being deprived of 
their right to vote and are likewise being subjected 
to unwarranted economic pressures . ' Senator Douglas, 
a sponsor of the bill, asserted that the legislation 
was directed at denials of voting rights ' by economic 
pressure' as well as by other m.eans . And Representa- 
tive Celler, a House sponsor, indicated that if 'the 
milk dealer, the coal dealer, the butcher, the baker 
and the candlestick maker . . .agree . . . to boycott' 
persons who try to vote, the agreement would violate 
the proposed law. " 

21. The Attorney General brought a similar suit to enjoin "intimi- 
dation, threat, and coercion" in Fayette County. United States v. 
Atkinson, et als, Civ.Ac. 4121, 6 R. Rel. L. Rep. 200(1962). See 
Mendelson, Discrimination (Pren.Hall 1962) 21. And see United States 
V. Ellis, W.D.S.C. 1942, 43 F. .Supp. 321, 324. 



2518 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 



Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 



22. The Sixth Circuit said: 

"If sharecropper- tenants in possession of real estate 
under contract are threatened, intimidated or coerced 
by the landlords for the purpose of interfering with 
their rights of franchise, certainly the fact that 
the coercion relates to land or contracts would furnish 
no excuse or defense to the landlord for violating the 
law. " 288 F. 2d 653, 656. 

23. Judge Tuttle added: 

"Thus, although the defendants here may have had an 
almost restricted right to invoke the Alabama tres- 
pass law to keep all persons from entering upon their 
property after warning, in the exercise of a desire 
to exercise exclusive ownership and proprietary 
interest in their property, they could not legally 
invoke the right of excluding Lonnie Brown, who 
had previously been given free access to the 
property, as a threat or means of coercion for the 
purpose of interferincr with his right or the right 
of others whom he represented in exercising their 
right to register and vote. " 



24. The Supreme Court has affirmed the constitutionality of various 
provisions of the 1957 Act on other grounds than those at issue here. 
United States v. Thomas, 1960, 362 U.S. 58, 80 S.Ct. 512, 4 L.Ed. 

2d 535; United States v. Raines, 1960, 362 U.S. 17, 80 S.Ct. 519, 

4 L.Ed. 2d 524; Hannah v. Larche, 1960, 363 U.S. 420, 80 S.Ct. 1502, 

4 L.Ed. 2d 1307. 

25. Although a statute that is "necessary and proper" legislation 
to carry out the power of Congress to regulate elections for federal 
office may also be "appropriate legislation" to "enforce" the pro- 
visions of the 15th, 14th, and 13th amendments. The predecessor of 
Section 1971(a) withstood attack on constitutional grounds. In re 
Engle, 8 Fed. Cas. C. C.D.Kd. 1877, 716, No. 4,438. It was held to be 
a valid exercise of congressional power under the 15th Amendment. 
Chapman v. King, 5 Cir. 1946, 154 F. 2d 460, cert. denied, 327 U.S. SCO; 
Xellogg v. Warmouth, C.C.D.La. 1872, 14 Fed. Cas. 257, >To. 7,657. 

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 rests, in part, on Section 2 of 
the 15th Amendment. 

26. "An abundance of judicial dicta and holdings in analogous situa- 
tions make clear that the federal power to regulate elections extends 
equally to the registration process. Any matter affecting the 
character or choice of the federal electorate is so integrally related 
to the election ultimately held as to come within the 'holding' of 
the election under article I, section 4. " Van Alstyne, Anti-literacy 
Test Legislation, 51 Kich. L. Rev. 805, 815(1963). 



1 



ACTIVITIES OF KV KLUX KLAX IX THE U.S. 2519 

Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

28. Corrjnent, Federal Civil Action Against Private Individuals 

for Crimes Involving Civil Rights. 74 Yale L.Jour. 1462. 1470(1965). 
And see Maggs and '■Jallace, Congress and Literacy Tests, 27 Dv.rce L. & 
Cont.Prob. 510, 517-521(1962). 

29. In that case Hardy.^JSTegro resident of Tennessee, a nerfoer of the 
"Student Non-Violent Coordinating Coir^ittee", was in Walthall Cou.nty, 
Mississippi for the purpose of organizing Negroes of that county to 
register and vote. Flardy engaged in an arg'oiiTent wit?n the registrar. 
The registrar ordered him to leave the office. As he got to the 
door, the registrar struck hir. on the back of the head, v.'ith a re- 
volver. Hardy wa? arrested and charged with a breach of the peace. 
The Court hurdled (1) the fact that Kardy was not eligible to register 
and therefore his right to vote was not interfered with; (2) the 
appeal was from a denial of a request for a tem.porary restraining 
order, generally an unappealebile order under 28 U.S.C. 1291, 1292; 

(3) the prosecution was a state criminal court proceeding, protected 
by the doctrine of comity and Section 2283 severely restrictinc 
federal injunctions of state proceedings. 

30. The Court finds that on the admissions and. on the evidence 
adduced at the hearing, a preliminary injunction should not issue 
against Charles Ray Williams, Louis Applewhite, and Willis Blackwell. 
The Court does not enter a judgment of dismissal as to these defendants, 
because the United States expressly reserved the right to introduce 
additional evidence at the hearing for permanent relief, as to these 
and other defendants. At the time of the hearing, Blackv/ell had not 
been correctly served. We find that Jair.es Ellis, Sidney August 
Warner, and Albert Applewhite are members of the klan — ACCA o,r,were. . 
members until recently, and the.refore should be enjoined. The^;request 
for dismissal of the action as to these named defendants and their 
request for attorneys fees are denied. 



59-222 O - 67 - pt. 3 - 13 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS 

IN THE UNITED STATES 

Part 3 



THURSDAY, JANUARY 6, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.G. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10:31 a.m. in the 
Caucus Eoom, Cannon House Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. 
Edwin E. Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Lou- 
isiana, chairman; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; Charles L. Weltner, of 
Georgia; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., 
of Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Pool, Welt- 
ner, and Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator; and Philip R. Manuel, investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. The Chair 
wants to acknowledge the presence in the hearing room of the Hon. 
Belgrano Rosson; Mr. Belgrano Rosson is president of the Committee 
on Constitutional Affairs of the Chamber of Deputies of Argentina. 

With him in the audience is his charming wife, Mrs. Belgrano 
Rosson, and Mr. Caulus F. Soto, an interpreter for the Department 
of State. 

We acknowledge your presence and appreciate your attendance. 

We hope you can follow some of the proceedings, anyway. I under- 
stand you have an interpreter with you. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to call Russell E. Magee. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand, sir. 

Do you solmenly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing^ but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Magee. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RUSSELL E. MAGEE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, will you state your full name for the record 'I 
Mr. Magee. Russell E. Magee. 

2521 



2522 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE "U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Mao;ee, I suegjest that you pull the microphone a 
little closer. It is difRciilt to hear you. 

Mr. Magee. Russell E. Magee. 

Mr. Appell. "When and where were you lx)rn ? 

Mr. Magee. "Washington Parish, April 19, 1924. 

The Chairman. What town ? 

Mr. Magee. Franklinton. It is in a rural area. 

The Chairman. I know the town and the surrounding area. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Magee. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Would counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Ingram. Michael S. Ingram, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, are you appearing here this morning in ac- 
cordance with a subpena served upon you ? 

Mr. Magee. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Would you set forth for the record your educational 
background ? 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that it might incriminate me; on the further grounds that it 
would violate my rights under the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 14th amendments 
of the Constitution of the ITnited States of America. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, Mr. Magee, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you are the recipient of a master's degree 
from the University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi. 

Mr. Magee. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Will you set forth for the record your employment 
background ? 

Mr. Magee, Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you are formerly the vice principal and 
basketball coach of Thomas, Louisiana, School and that you now 
hold a supervisory position with tlie local school board. 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, is there any information there on what the Fed- 
eral participation is there at this school ? 

Mr. Appell. That is information wliich we do not possess in full. 

The Chairman. Mr. Magee, you have a master's degree, and there- 
fore you are fully capable of understanding the purposes, objectives, 
and programs of any organization to which you might belong. 

In light of that I shall ask you for enlightenment later on, after 
certain identifications will be made. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, I hand you copy of a constitution of the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klau of Louisiana. I ask you if, as 
a member of that organization, you operated under those constitu- 
tional laws? 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds hereto- 
fore stated. 

(Document previously marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 2.") 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2523 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Majfjee, this constitution provides that in eacli 
Klavern there shall be appointed a klokan, and under the klokan 
there shall be appointed in secret a wrecking; cre-sv. What knowledge 
do you possess of the existence and the purpose of a wrecking: creAV ? 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answ^er questions, I now present to 
this committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Magee : 

Member of the Franklinton, Louisiana, unit of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan in 1963, when the organization was known as the 
Louisiana Rifle Association and was under the leadership of J. D. 
Swenson and Royal V. Young. 

In April of 1964 he arranged bond for two Klansmen who were ar- 
rested for assaulting an officer and resisting arrest in Franklinton, 
Louisiana. 

In June and July, 1964 he received the sum of $777.01 by checks 
from the Christian Constitutional Crusaders, the front or cover name 
of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan as headed by Murry H. 
Martin. 

These funds were advanced to Magee as an organizer for the Sixth 
Congressional District as well as to operate the Sixth District Klan 
organization. 

(Checks previously marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 9." See 
p. 2373.) 

In September of 1964 he was coordinator of all Klan activities for 
the Sixth Congressional District of the Original Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan. 

He was a leader of the faction w^hich broke from the Martin lead- 
ership of the Original Knights in or around December of 1964. This 
faction continued to operate in Washington Parish, Louisiana, inde- 
pendent of other Klan groups and issued leaflets under the name of the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana. 

In March of 1965, Magee and other Klansmen attended a meeting at 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, called for the purpose of attempting to re- 
unite factions under the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
America, Inc., a newly incorporated independent Klan organization. 

When the Bogalusa Klan group created as its front, or cover, the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association, Magee held membership in 
that organization. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, which we believe the witness can 
confirm, also leads us to believe that he possesses additional informa- 
tion which is both pertinent and relevant to this inquiry and would 
materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Magee, you have heard the statement, of Mr. 
Appell. You now have the opportunity to reply to any portion of tliat 
statement, to admit or deny the truth of any allegation, and to explain 
or modify any part of that statement. 

In addition you may, if you desire, offer any other matter which the 
committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 

Do you wish to take advantage of the offer I have just made? 



2524 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Magee. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

The Chairman. Well then, Mr. Magee, I must inform you that m 
the absence of your rebuttal, or other facts that may come to the atten- 
tion of the committee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy of 
its investigation. Bearing this in mind, have you anything to say ? 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully refuse' to answer on the grounds hereto- 
fore stated. 

The Chairman. As I indicated a moment ago, you possess a master's 
degree and you are connected with the school system in your area. I 
would like very much to take advantage of your education and ability 
to express yourself and have you give us the purposes, objectives, and 
the programs of the Ku Klux Klan organization to which you belong. 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds hereto- 
fore stated. 

The Chairman. Did you at any time make speeches or participate 
in the issuance of pamphlets, literature, and documents purporting to 
define the objectives and programs of the Ku Klux Klan organization 
to which you belong ? 

Mr. Magee. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

The Chairman. Did you as part of your participation in the school 
system of your area discuss these objectives, purposes, and programs 
of the Klan organization to which you belong ? 

Mr. Magee. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, visiting the schools of your parish as a 
member of the school board, I assume that you discuss with the students 
the Constitution of the United States. The bylaws of the Anti-Com- 
munist Christian Association supports the Constitution of the United 
States as originally written. Is this the constitution that you discuss 
with your students ? 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee, were you a defendant in the three- judge 
court seated in Louisiana which returned an order and finding of facts 
against yourself and other named defendants ? ^ 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully refuse to answer on the groimds hereto- 
fore stated. 

Mr. Appell. This statement appears in the court records and it is 
my understanding that the defendants, through counsel, admitted to 
your knowledge-— during the period from January 28, 1965, to the 
present time the individual defendants — 

including Saxon Farmer, Russell Magee, Dewey Smith, Handle C. Pounds, Billy 
Alford, Charles McClendon. .Tames l'>urke, and other members of the defendant 
Klan, have gone to locations where they anticipated that Negroes would attempt 
to exercise their rights and where they anticipated that persons would publicly 
demonstrate in favor of equal rights for Negroes, in order that the defendants 
might identify, harass, threaten and intiniidate such Negroes and other per- 
sons. •'■ * * 



1 See Ralph Blumberg Exhibit No. 2, pp. 2475-2519. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2525 

Is that statement that I read to you factual, as it applies to yourself ? 

Mr. ]VL\GEE. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ;isk 
of tliis witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr, Chairman, I would like to ask the witness 
whether an employee of the public schools of the State of Ix)uisiana 
takes an oath of office, or whether he must subscribe to any stated 
principle prior to embarking on employment with the public school 
system of the State of I^uisiana. 

Mr. Magee. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds here- 
tofore stated. 

Mr. Weltner. No further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Before calling the next witness, I Avould like to ask that 
the checks made payable to Mr. Magee be entered as exhibits to his 
testimony at the conclusion of his testimony. 

The Chairman. The checks will be admitted at the point where they 
were referred to. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. James M. Ellis, Jr. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Ellis. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES M. ELLIS, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record. 

Mr. Ellis. James M. Ellis, Jr. 

Mr. Appell. Are you popularly known in Bogalusa by the nickname 
of "Buster"? 

Mr. Ellis. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that it might incriminate me and, further, that it might 
violate my rights guaranteed me under the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 14th 
amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly feel — and that is the basis upon 
which you have the right to invoke the constitutional privilege you 
have outlined — that to answer that question would tend to incriminate 
you or subject you to criminal prosecution under those very consti- 
tutional provisions that you cited ? 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question pro- 
pounded to me on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you bom, Mr. Ellis ? 

Mr. Ellis. July 5, 1932, Bogalusa, Louisiana. 

Mr, Appell. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Ellis. 520 Superior Avenue, Bogalusa. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee the benefit of your 
educational background ? 

Mr. Ellis. I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the question 
propounded to me on the grounds previously stated. 



2526 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. "Would you give the committee the benefit of your em- 
ployment background ? 

Mr. Ellis. I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the question 
on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are the owner of the Ellis Auto Repairs, 814 Sabine 
Street, Bogalusa, Louisiana. 

Mr. Ellis. I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the question 
on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ellis, did you receive an honorable discharge from 
the United States Air Force in April of 1953 ? 

Mr. Ellis. I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the question 
on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ellis, I hand you a constitution of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and ask you if, as a 
former exalted cyclops of a Klavern in Bogalusa, you operated in 
accordance with this constitution ? 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 2.") 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ellis, are you appearing before the committee in 
accordance to a subpena served upon you on October 26, 1965, at 
Wesley Car Sales at Bogalusa, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Ellis. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ellis, under the conditions of the subpena, and 
the attachment which was made a part of the subpena, you were com- 
manded to bring with you and to produce before the committee : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and affiliated organizations, namely, Anti- 
Communist Christian Association in your possession, custody or control, or main- 
tained by you or available to you as Exalted Cyclops of the Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana or Anti-Communist Christian Association. 

I ask you to produce those documents called for in your subpena. 

Mr, Ellis, Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to produce those 
documents on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce the documents called for. 

The Chairman. Were you in the hearing room when I explained 
to previous witnesses the fact this subpena was served on you, and 
ordered you to produce documents just read by Mr. Appell in the 
representative capacity indicated? 

Mr, Ellis. Yes. 

The Chairman. For the reasons stated previously, which you say 
you are aware of, I therefore order and direct you to produce those 
documents. 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to produce those 
documents on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ellis, paragraph 2 of the subpena called upon you 
to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity as 
present or past member or officer of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2527 

the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization au- 
thorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said organi- 
zation, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for in paragraph 2. 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to produce the 
documents on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I ask that the witness be directed to produce the docu- 
ments and other records called for in paragraph 2. 

The Chairman. For the reasons previously stated, I order and direct 
you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to produce those 
documents on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chainnan, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I now present to 
this committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Ellis. ^ 

Member and exalted cyclops of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan under the leadership of Murry H. Martin. In July 1964, Ellis 
was the second endorser on a check drawn against the Christian Consti- 
tutional Crusaders, the cover name of the Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan. The payee of the check was Russell Magee, and the 
check was advanced for the purpose of financing Sixth Congressional 
District Klan activities. (See Murry Martin Exhibit No. 9, p. 237o.) 

From Klansman HoAvard M. Lee, a licensed gun dealer, Ellis re- 
ceived 6.5 Italian surplus rifles by the case and either he, or his em- 
ployee at that time, Klansman Eddie Dubison, sold same out of Ellis's 
place of business, Ellis Auto Repair. Following questioning by agents 
of the Alcohol Tax Unit, Ellis for his own security left the Klan. 

With the creation of the Klan front or cover, the Anti-Communist 
Christian Association, he joined the association. 

On February 15, 1964, Ellis and other Klansmen followed Negroes 
into the Negro section of Bogalusa after having threatened tliem be- 
cause they sought service at a restaurant in Bogalusa. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, which we believe the witness can 
confirm, also leads us to believe that he possesses additional informa- 
tion which is both pertinent and relevant to this inquiry and would 
materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Ellis, you have heard the sworn statement of the 
committee's chief investigator, Mr. Appell. I now give you the oppor- 
tunity to reply to any portion of that statement, to admit or deny 
the truth of any allegation, and to explain or modify any part of that 
statement. 

Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Ellis. I respectfully decline to and refuse to answer the question 
on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I must say to you, Mr. Ellis, in the absence of your 
rebuttal, or any other facts that may come to the attention of tliis com- 
mittee, this committee will rely on the accuracy of its investigation as 
related by Mr. Appell. Bearing this in mind, do you have anything 
else to say ? 

Mr. Ellis. I respectfully decline to and refuse to answer the question 
on the grounds previously stated. 



2528 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. Are you aware of the fact, which is established in 
the injunction proceedings filed in Louisiana, that some of the records 
of the Klan were destroyed ? 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairmax. Did you as a fact, as related by Mr. Appell, retire 
from the Klan out of self-protection in order not to be involved in 
the distribution of guns, pursuant to a license issued to Howard M. 
Lee, who was charged and convicted of violating Federal law in that 
respect ? 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read from a report of 
Wallace J. 

The Chairman. Pardon me. 

I say to you as a fact that you were one of the defendants in that 
injunction proceeding, so you would have knowledge, I assume, of the 
destruction of the records. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read from a report of 
Wallace J. Moll, Jr., an agent of the Alcohol Tax Unit stationed in 
New Orleans, Louisiana. 

The Chairman. And that unit has jurisdiction over gun licenses, 
strange enough. I do not know how strange it is, but it has jurisdic- 
tion over licensing people distributing certain types of guns; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Appell. [Reading :] 

James M. Ellis, .Jr., .520 Superior Avenue, Bogalnsa, Louisiana, was interviewed 
at his place of business on January 14. ItXv) and advised that he had known 
Howard I^^e about one year and that Lee had approached him on the pos- 
sibility of purchasing high-powered rifles at a cheap price provided they could 
secure volume sales. 

He advised that he had delivered about 4 cases of the rifles for Lee, securing 
the money for him and receiving the rifles in shipment. He stated that he 
eventually quit this as it as interfering with his business operation. 

I ask you, Mr. Ellis, if the paragraph that I have quoted from Agent 
Moll's report is factual ? 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. To whom did you distribute the rifles contained in 
the four cases which you acknowledged to the A.T.U. that you had 
delivered for Howard M. Lee? 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that by "delivering" you meant that yoii sold these rifles out 
of your place of business, either you or Eddie Dubison, your employee. 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2529 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ellis, when I interviewed Mr. Howard M. Lee in 
the Federal jienitentiary at Texarkana, Texas, Mr. Lee told me how, 
when he was confronted with the facts, that many of the persons whom 
his records disclosed had received weapons, that he had gone and 
called upon these people or made investigation for the purpose of 
determining the accuracy of the Government's charges. He deter- 
mined to his own satisfaction that his records were in fact false. 

I ask you whether or not in the distribution of these rifles that you 
supplied Howard Lee for his records false information as to the 
identity of people who purchased same from your garage or auto 
repair shop ? 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, the majority of the rifles sold out of the Ellis Auto Repair 
Shop were sold to people known to you and to Eddie Dubison to be 
Klansmen. 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ellis, as the exalted cyclops of a unit, you had the 
responsibility under the constitution of seeing to it that the klokan 
of your Klavern appointed in secret a wrecking crew. 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I 

Mr. Appell. I haven't asked the question yet. 

Was a wrecking crew appointed within your Klavern ? 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As an exalted cyclops, will you explain to the commit- 
tee the purpose of a wrecking crew ? 

Mr. Ellis. Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Randle C. Pounds. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Pounds. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EANDLE C. POUNDS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, will you state your full name for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Pounds. Randle Cozell Pounds. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Pounds. Picayune, Mississippi, September, 30th day of Septem- 
ber, 1925. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you presently reside, Mr. Pounds ? 

Mr, Pounds. Bogalusa, Louisiana, Route 58-C. 



2530 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, are you appearing here this morning in 
accordance with a subpena served upon you on October 30, 1965, at the 
Chevrolet Motors in Bogahisa, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Pounds. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, the subpena served upon you contained 
an attachment which was made part of the subpena and calls for you to 
produce certain documents. 

Paragraph 1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and aflSliated organizations, namely, Anti- 
Communist Christian Association, in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as member or officer of the Invisible 
Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I ask you to produce the documents. 

Mr. Pounds. I respectfully refuse to produce the records on the 
grounds they might incriminate me, and on the further grounds that 
it might violate my rights guaranteed me under the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 
14th amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Pounds. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please give his name for the record? 

Mr. Ingilvm. Michael S. Ingram, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, paragraph 2 calls for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
.sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past member and/or officer of the United Klans of America, Inc.. 
Knights of the Ku Klux EHan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said orga- 
nization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer 
of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for in this paragraph 2. 

Mr. Pounds. I refuse to produce the documents on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Mr. Pounds, were you in the hearing room when 
I explained to previous witnesses the fact that this subpena was served 
upon you and requires you to produce documents in the capacity in- 
dicated in the subpena ? 

Mr. Pounds. Yes. 

The Chairman. I therefore now order and direct you to produce 
those documents. 

Mr. Ingram, I assume what we have covered before has been true 
all along, namely, you were supplied witli a copy of my opening state- 
ment and you are familiar with its contents? 

Mr. Pounds. I refuse to answer tlie question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, would you give the committee your edu- 
cational background? 

Mr. Pounds. I respectfully refuse to answer on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, is your i)rincipal source of income that 
from the business of a private contract painter? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2531 

Mr. Pounds. I refuse to answer on the constitntional grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you served in the United States Navy 
from December 1950 to October 1954, in the TTnited States Naval Re- 
serve from September 1958 to October 1960, that you served in the 
regular United States Navy from October 19()0 to December 1962, 
when you were transferred to the temporaiy disability retired list by 
reason of a physical disability. 

I put that to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny it. 

Mr. Pounds. I respectfully refuse to answer on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, do you presently receive compensation 
from the United States Government as a result of being placed on a 
temporary disability retired list? 

Mr. Pounds. I refuse to answer on the constitutional grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you have held membership in the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Mr. Pounds. I refuse to answer on the constitutional grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness's claimed privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I now present to 
this committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Pounds. 

In 1964, an active member of the Original Kniffhts of the Ku Klux 
KlaiL 

In 1965, believed to be a member of the wrecking crew. 

On April 6, 1965, the Klan rented a vacant house near the Bogalusa 
Labor Temple to observe the activities of civil rights groups and to 
plan acts of violence against its members. Pounds was one of the many 
Klansmen in the watching and planning of violence. 

April 7, 1965, Randall C. Pounds and Klansman [Glenn] Breland 
accosted CORE worker William Yates. Pounds struck Yates* car 
with a heavy object at a time when Yates was leaving the house of 
Robert Hicks, vice president of the Bogalusa Voter's League. 

April 9, 1965, arrested for the assault upon Negroes in a march to 
the Bogalusa City Hall, including James Farmer, whom he attacked 
with a blackjack. 

April 8, 1965, Pounds, together with other Klansmen, smashed the 
rear window of an automobile belonging to a CORE worker while 
it was parked across the street from the house of Robert Hicks. 

May 31, 1965, Klansmen Billy Alford and Pounds threatened, 
harassed, and attempted to intimidate Negro pickets in the downtown 
area of Bogalusa. 

Pounds is a member of the Klan front, or cover organization, the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, which we believe the witnesses can 
confirm also, leads us to believe that he possesses additional informa- 



2532 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

tion which is both pertinent and relevant to this inquiry and would 
materially aid the Confess in enacting remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr, Pounds, you have heard the sworn statement 
of Mr. Appell, the chief investigator of this committee. 

I now give you the opportunity to reply to any portion of that state- 
ment, admit or deny the truth of any of it, and to explain, or modify, 
any part of the statement. 

In addition, you may, if you desire, offer any other matter the 
committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 

Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Pounds. I refuse to answer the question on the constitutional 
gromids previously stated. 

The Chairman. In that case, Mr. Pounds, I must inform you that 
in the absence of your rebuttal, or other facts that may come to the 
attention of the committee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy 
of its investigation. 

Bearing this in mind, do you have anything to say ? 

Mr. Pounds. I refuse to answer on the constitutional grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pounds, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, you were one of the defendants before the 
three-]* udge court sitting in Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Pounds. I refuse to answer on the constitutional grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Eric Peterson. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Peterson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ERIC PETERSON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Peterson, will you state your full name for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Peterson. My name is Captain Eric Peterson. 

Mr. Appell. Would you explain the title of "captain" that you give 
to yourself? 

Mr, Peterson, Sir, I respectfully decline and refuse to answer the 
question propounded to me on the grounds it will discriminate me, on 
the further grounds it will violate my rights under the 1st, 4th, 5th, 
and 14th amendments of the Constitution of the United States of 
America, 

Mr, Appell. Mr, Peterson, you are represented by counsel? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2533 

Mr. Peterson. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Ingram. Michael S. Ingram, attorney at law, Baton Rouge, 
Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Peterson was asked to set fortli his 
full name for the record. He identified himself on the record as 
•'Captain Eric Peterson." He was then asked to explain to the com- 
mittee the designation which he gave to himself as captain and he 
refused to do so, invoking constitutional grounds. I request that the 
witness be directed to answer the question. Where does he get the title 
of captain? 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to answ^er that question. 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Peterson, when and w^here were you born? 

Mr. Peterson. I was bom in a rural area near Sunny Hill, Lou- 
isiana, on July 6, 1924. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Peterson. I reside in a rural area near Sun, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give us a description of where you live? 

Mr. Peterson. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee a description of the area 
in which you live? 

Mr. Peterson. I repeat my answer. I reside in a rural area about 
11/^ miles from Sun, Louisiana. 

The Chairman. Mr. Ingram, I believe our colloquy is broad enough 
with reference to my opening statement to include this witness and 
others whom you might represent. So we may have it in the record 
now ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Ingram. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Peterson, you are appearing before the committee 
this morning in accordance with a subpena which was served upon you 
by a United States Marshal on November 4, 1965, at your residence in 
Sun, Louisiana. 

Mr. Peterson. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Peterson, under the conditions of the subpena 
served upon you and an attachment thereto which was made a part of 
the subpena, you were ordered to produce the following items listed in 
paragraph 1 : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and affiliated organizations, namely, the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association, in your possession, custody or control, 
or maintained by you or available to you as member and/or officer of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and the Anti-Communist Christian 
Association. 

I ask you to produce those records, sir. 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to produce the documents on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 



2534 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce tlie documents called for in paragraph 1 of the attachment 
to his subpena. 

The Chairman. Were you in the hearing room when I commented 
on this subpena served upon you, which orders you to produce docu- 
ments in the capacity indicated in the subpena ? 

Mr. Peterson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I therefore order and direct you to produce those 
documents. 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully refuse to produce the documents on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Peterson, paragraph 2 calls upon you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capac- 
ity as present or past member or oflBcer of the United Klans of America, Inc., 
Knishts of the Ku Klux Klan, and the Anti-Communist Christian Association 
which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require 
to be maintained by you or any other officer of said organization, the same being 
in your possession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce those docimients. 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to do so on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. And for the reasons I previously stated, I order 
and direct you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to do so on the constitutional 
gromids previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Paragraph 3, Mr. Peterson, calls upon you 

Mr. Ingram. May I speak to you a minute ? 

(Counsel conferring.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr, Peterson, paragraph 3 of your subpena calls upon 
you to produce : 

Copies of T\S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service. Form 1040. 
"U.S. Individual Income Tax Returns," for the calendar years 1958 through 1964 
filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, 
Internal Ilevenue Service. 

I ask you to produce those documents called for in paragraph 3. 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully refuse to produce the documents on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Peterson, will you advise the committee of your 
educational background ? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to do so on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you had 1 year of college at Southwestern Louisiana 
State College. 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2535 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are the owner of the Pearl River Towing Company, 
Sun, Louisiana. 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Peterson, did you ever hold membership in the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of the Realm of Louisiana? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a copy of the constitution of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Louisiana, and I ask you if, 
as an exalted cyclops of that unit, of that organization, you conducted 
a Klavern under the rules and regulations prescribed therein? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Docmnent previously marked "MuiTy Martin Exhibit No. 2.") 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I now present to 
this committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Peterson : 

October 1963, a member of the Bush, Louisiana, Unit, Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which was then under the leadership 
of J. D. Swenson and Royal V. Young. 

February 1964, attended a meeting at Alexandria, Louisiana, at 
which meeting Royal V. Young made plea with Klan leaders to hold 
organization together under his leadership. 

July 1964, exalted cyclops of Bush Unit, Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan, then under the leadership of Murry H. Martin. Klav- 
ern funds were maintained in his personal bank account. 

While the exalted cyclops he purchased 700 rounds of ammunition 
and 25 rifles from Howard M. Lee, which rifles were sold or dis- 
tributed by Peterson to Klansmen in the Covington, Louisiana, area. 

Mr. Peterson paid Howard Lee $125 for the 25 rifles. 

In September 1964, Peterson was a member of the Avrecking crew 
in the Saint Tammany Parish. The "wrecking crew,'' in Klan termi- 
nology, refers to a group of Klansmen who are prone to violence or 
who have been selected to carry out violence. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, which we believe the witness can 
confirm, also leads us to believe that he possesses additional informa- 
tion which is both pertinent and relevant to this inquiry and would 
materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial legislation. 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan left the hearing room.) 

The Chairman. Mr. Peterson, you have heard the sworn statement 
of Mr. Appell, our chief investigator. You now have the opportunity 
to reply to any part or portion of that statement, to admit or deny 
the truth of any allegation, and to explain or modify any part of that 



59-222 O — 67 — pt. 3 14 



2536 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

statement. In addition, you may, if you desire, offer any other matter 
the committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. Do you care to 
avail yourself of that opportunity? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to do so on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairiman. While Mr. Appell was outlining his sworn state- 
ment, I noticed you made notes of something when he described a 
meeting in Alexandria, when he described that you put Kllan funds 
in your personal account, when he referred to rifles coming from 
Howard Lee, and when he referred to you as a member of the wrecking 
crew. 

I have no objection at all, of course, and have none to your making 
notes. I simply wanted to give you the opportunity to say whether 
you were making those notes because you were doubtful of these 
things or because perhaps you wanted to keep a memorandum of 
what you had been questioned about and what had been disclosed. 
Do you care to comment? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to do so on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to have entered into the 
record four documents which I shall now exhibit to Mr. Peterson. 

One is a notice of the Ouachita National Bank, Monroe, Louisiana, 
to the Christian Constitutional Crusaders, the cover name of the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan when under the leadership 
of Murry H. Martin, which reflects that a check drawn against the 
account of Eric Peterson in the amount of $47 was returned because 
of a missing endorsement. 

Document Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are excerpts from the records of Howard 
M. Lee relating to his sales of gims and ammunition. The first paper 
contains the writing "700 rounds for Sun, La., Eric Peterson." The 
second document, in addition to other entries, contains the entry, "Eric 
Peterson, 25 rifles, pd. $125." The third document contains the serial 
numl>ers of the 25 rifles and is dated July 28, 1964. 

After you have examined those documents, Mr. Peterson, I give you 
an opportunity to comment on either or all. 

The Chairman. Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to do so on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I order that these documents be inserted in the 
record at this point and instruct the reporter to insert in the printed 
record all documents as they are commented on and exhibited. 

(Documents marked "Eric Peterson Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2-A, 2-B, 
and 2-C, respectively, follow :) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2537 

Eric Peterson Exhibit No. 1 



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2538 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

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ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2539 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Peterson, are there any other reasons, other than 
the constitutional reasons which you have set forth, for your refusal 
to answer or your refusal to produce clocimients called for by the 
subpena ? 

Mr. Peterson. Would you repeat that question ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. Are there any other reasons, other than the 
constitutional reasons which you have set forth, why you did not 
answer questions propounded to you or produce documents called for 
by your subpena ? 

Mr. Petersox. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Prior to November 6, 1965 — and your subpena was 
served upon you on November 4 — were you telling residents of Sun, 
Louisiana, that you did not intend to cooperate with the committee and 
that you intended to be completely nonresponsive ? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Is that statement a matter of fact. Counsel ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Wliere did that statement appear ? 

Mr. Appell. In the area of Sun, Louisiana, where Mr. Peterson 
resides. 

Mr. Peterson, it is the committee's infomiation that from the Pearl 
River Towing Company, which you own, you have a gross income, 
prior to deductions, of in excess of $300,000. l^-liat percentage of your 
income is derived from the United States Government? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As a matter of fact, do you not live on Government 
property and tie up your barges on Government property, for wjiich 
you pay compensation of only $35 per month ? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read into the record at 
this point a letter from the Office of the Chief of Engineers, which 
reads as follows : 

The District Engineer, U.S. Army Engineer District, at Mobile. Alabama, in- 
forms me that a lease was entered into between the Government and Mr. Peter- 
.son on 1 January 1962 for the use of approximately two acres of land and a 
concrete block dwelling at Ivock No. 3, Pearl River Project, Jjonisiana. The 
term of the lease was for five years and ends 31 December 19G6. This grant was 
the result of a bid submitted by Mr. Peter.son in response to an invitation to 
bid for leasing this property. The compensation is .$3.5.00 per month. Mr. Peter- 
son in the operation of his towing bu.siness is one of the principal users of the 
Pearl River Project. 

Is the information supplied to the committee by the Corps of Engi- 
neers factual ? 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Eric Peterson Exhibit No. 3" follows :) 



2540 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Eric Peterson Exhibit No. 3 




DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 2031S 



IN REPLY REFER TO 

ENGRE-MI 27 December I965 



Mr. Donald T. Appell 

Chief Investigator 

Conmittee on Un-American Activities 

House of Representatives 

Washln^on^ D.C. 



Dear Mr. Appell: 

This is in further reply to yo\ir recent letter concerning the con- 
tracttjal relationship between the Corps of Engineers and Mr. Eric 
Peterson, operator of the Pearl River Towing Company, Sun, Louisiana. 

Utie District Engineer, U.S. Army Engineer District, at Mobile, 
Alabama, informs me that a lease was entered into between the Govern- 
ment and Mr. Peterson on 1 Jantiary I962 for the use of approxLaately 
two acres of land and a concrete block dwelling at Lock No. 3> Pearl 
River Project, Lovilsiana. The term of the lease was for five years 
and ends 3I December I966. This grant was the result of a bid sub- 
mitted by Mr. Peterson in response to an invitation for bids for 
leasing this property. The canpensation is $35 '00 per month. Mr. 
Peterson, in the operation of his towing business, is one of the 
principal, users of the Pearl River Project. 

I trust the foregoing information is svifficient for your purposes. 

Sincerely yours. 






WOODROW BERGE 

Acting Director of Real Estate 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Peterson, will you advise the committee as to the 
Klansmen to whom you distributed or sold the 25 rifles which you 
obtained from Howard M. Lee, according to his record ? 

The Chairman. He did not get the question. 

Mr. Appell. Would you identify to the committee the Klansmen 
to whom you either sold or distributed the 25 rifles which you received, 
according to the records of Howard M. Lee ? 

Mr. Peterson. I decline to do so on the constitutional grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. To your certain knowledge, were any of these rifles 
used as a part of any wrecking crew activity of the Klan unit in Bush, 
Louisiana ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2541 

Mr. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on tlie 
constitutional grounds perviously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the stall' has no further questions to ask 
of Mr. Peterson. 

Mr. Weltner. I have a question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Peterson, I note at page 11 of the court opinion (Ralph Blum- 
berg Exhibit No. 2) there is set forth the boycott rules of the Anti- 
Communist Christian Association. A portion of those rules reads as 
follows : 

"Any member who shall after a hearing have been found guilty of personally 
patronizing a subject listed on the boycott list shall be wrecked by the wrecking 
creiv who shall be appointed by the Committee. [Emphasis added.] . . . 

Second offense — If a member is found guilty of personally violating the boycott 
list he shall be wrecked and banished from the Klan." 

I would like to know what is meant by the term "wrecked." What 
happens to a Klansman when he is "wrecked" by the "wrecking crew" ? 

M. Peterson. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, may I have anotlun- moment. 

I would like to inquire of Mr. Appell concerning the letter he pre- 
sented from the Department of the Army. Ts the Pearl River Project 
one constructed by the United States Corps of Engineers? 

Mr. Appell. It is, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Is that what is known generally as a rivers and 
harbors project ? 

Mr. Appell. It is, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Is that project financed by any Federal funds? 

Mr. Appell. It is my understanding that the river is maintained by 
the Corps of Engineers and all dredging, widening, and things of 
that nature are financed by Federal funds. 

Mr. Weltner. As a matter of fact, that is financed 100 percent by 
Federal funds ; is it not ? 

Mr. Appell. That is my understanding, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. I understand the company of this witness, Mr. Peter- 
son, is engaged in using the river, the harbor, docks, and such other 
facilities there in the course of Mr. Peterson's business. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. I do not have a question but a sort of query as to 
whether this is the kind of outside agitation and Federal interference 
that seems to serve to make one a member of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I have no further comment, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

The Chairman. It is now noon. The committee will stand in recess 
until 2 o'clock. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, and 
Weltner. ) 

(Whereupon, at 11 :55 a.m., Thursday, January 6, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, JANUARY 6, 1%6 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 :10 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 



2542 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Weltner, and Buchanan.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

I have a brief announcement to make. 

The subcommittee which is conductin<r these hearinpfs met at the 
conclusion of this morning's session. At that meeting the four mem- 
bers jDresent voted unanimously to recommend to the full committee 
that certain persons subpenaed to testify in the earlier phase of these 
hearings be cited for contempt of Congress. 

The following seven officials of the United Klans of America, Inc., 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, were the subjects of the subcommittee 
action : 

Robert M. Shelton, Imperial Wizard of the United Klans of Amer- 
ica, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

James R. Jones, Grand Dragon, Realm of North Carolina. 

Robert E. Scoggin, Grand Dragon of the Realm of South Carolina. 

Calvin F. Craig, Grand Dragon of Georgia. 

Marshall R. Kornegay, Grand Dragon of Virginia. 

George F. Dorsett, Imperial Kludd, who is also a paid organizer and 
a province titan of the Realm of North Carolina. 

Robert Hudgins, Imperial Kladd and also the exalted cyclops of 
the North Carolina Klavern using the name of the Capital City Res- 
toration Association. 

That concludes my announcement, but in that connection I would 
like to say this: On the basis of the committee's study and analysis of 
the hearing record as it pertains to these men, it is my belief that the 
full committee will act favorably and promptly on the recommenda- 
tion of the subcommittee. 

I also announce that the subcommittee decided, also, to cancel the 
outstanding subpenas on Mr. Shelton and Mr. Craig. It is my im- 
pression that those are the two who have outstanding subpenas. We 
voted to cancel the subpenas in light of the recommendation to be made 
by the subcommittee that action be taken by the full committee to rec- 
ommend contempt citation of Congress. 

I would like, also, to make this statement : This morning I was 
handed two documents which I have before me and which I can prob- 
ably describe by use of the term "flyers." These documents state that 
they are put out by the United Klans of America, Inc. One of them 
is a bulletin from the Ku Klux Klan, and it seeks to exhort, the read- 
er to fight back against the colored people, whom it calls "niggers." 

The other document is an invitation to join the United Klans of 
America, Inc., saying that any native-born, loyal United States citi- 
zen, 21 years old, white, gentile, temperate habits, Christian faith, 
and believing in white supremacy in America can join the Klan. 

There is actually a membership blank, with places to be filled in. 

The point I make it this : These flyers, I am told, have been and are 
being inserted in mail boxes in and around Baton Rouge. 

I call attention to the fact that the insertion of these documents in 
United States mail boxes without payment of postage in regular mail- 
ing constitutes a violation of section 1725 of title 18 of the United 
States Code. We plan to report, the incident to the postal authorities. 
In fact, we have already talked to the legal department about taking 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2543 

whatever action and measures which might be appropriate in the cir- 
cumstances. 

Mr. Appell, call the next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Pete Holclen. 

The Chairiman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. HoLDEN. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES W. (PETE) HOLDEN, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record ? 

Mr. HoLDEisr. James W. Hoi den. 

Mr. Appell, Are you represented by counsel, Mr. Holden ? 

Mr. Holden. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please idonlify himself for the record? 

Mr. Ingram. My name is Michael S. Ingram, Baton Rouge, Louisi- 
ana. 

Mr. Appell. "Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Holden ? 

Mr. Holden. I was born in Bogalusa, Louisiana, May 18, 1926. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background ? 

Mr. Holden. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that it might incriminate me and on the furtlier grounds that 
it would violate my rights under the Constitution — 1, 5, 4, and 14th 
amendments of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you operate a Texaco station in Covington, Louisiana. 

Mr. Holden. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Holden, do you now or have you ever held office 
in a Ku Klux Klan organization ? 

Mr. Holden. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
same constitutional grounds ):)reviously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Holden. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you held the position of exalted cyclops 
of a unit of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Covington, 
Louisiana. 

Mr. Holden. I refuse to answer on the ground previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Holden, were you acquainted with Howard M. 
Lee, the gun dealer in Bogalusa. Louisiana? 

Mr. Holden. I refuse to answer on the ground previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Holden, the committee's investigation established 
that Eric Peterson, of Sun, Louisiana, obtained 25 rifles from Howard 
M. Lee and either sold or distributed them to Klansmen in the Cov- 
ington, Louisiana, area. Do you possess knowledge of this? 

Mr. Holden. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appeij.. Mr. Holden, the committee's investigation established 
that Mr. Lee's records failed to reflect the sale of some 154 rifles. The 



2544 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

committee's investigation disclosed that many of these rifles were 
sold and not reflected in Mr. Lee's records and were purchased by 
members of the Covington, Louisiana, Klavern. 

As the exalted cyclops of that Klavern, can you tell us whether or 
not any of your members obtained these rifles from Howard M. Lee ? 

Mr. HoLDEN. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Holden, I hand you a copy of the "Konstitution 
of the Original Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Louisiana," and ask you if 
you ever operated under that constitution. 

Mr. HoLDEN. I respectfully refuse to answer on (he grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 2.") 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Holden, under the constitution of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan tliere was provision made within 
Klaverns, within provinces, and within the realm for divisions known 
as the Klan Bureau of Investigation. Who headed the Klan Bureau 
of Investigation for your Klavern? 

Mr. HoLDEN. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Provision was made for the appointment by the klokan 
of the Klavern of six men to be appointed in secret, being known by 
the title of the "wrecking crew." Who was the klokan of your 
Klavern ? 

Mr. Holden. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

Mr. Pool. I have no questions. 

Mr. Weltner. I have no questions. 

Mr. Buchanan. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Willie Houston Burke. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand, sir. 

Do you solemnly swear that tlie testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Burke. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIE HOUSTON BURKE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell, Would you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Burke? 

Mr. Burke. Willie Houston Burke. 

Mr. Appell. Wlien and where were you born ? 

Mr. Burke. February 2, 1917, in the suburbs of Bogalusa, Loui- 
siana. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Burke. Yes, sir. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2545 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Ingram. My name is Michael S. Ingram, Baton Rouge, Loui- 
siana. 

Mr. Appell, "\^^lere do you reside, Mr. Burke ? 

Mr. Burke. 903 Pine Ridge Road, I^ogalusa, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing before the committee today, Mr. 
Burke, in accordance with a subpena served upon you on October 26, 
1965, at 903 Pine Ridge Drive, Bogalusa, Louisiana '{ 

Mr. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Burke, the subpena served yuii contained an at- 
tachment which called upon you to produce books and records set 
forth on the attachment which was made part of the subpena. I'ara- 
graph 2 calls for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your ik)s- 
session custody or control, or maintained by or available to yon. in your capacity 
as a present or past Exalted Cyclops and/or member of the Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization au- 
thorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said orga- 
nization the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for in paragraph 2. 

Mr. Burke. Sir, I refuse to produce the records mentioned in the 
question on the grounds that it might incriminate me and on the 
further grounds that it would violate my rights under the 1st, 4th, 
5th, and 14th amendments to the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan left the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce those documents. 

The Chairman. Were you in the hearing room when I explained 
the fact that this subpena was being served on others and on you in 
the capacity designated in the subpena ? 

Mr. Burke. Yes. 

The Chairman. Accordingly, I order and direct you to produce 
those documents. 

Mr. Burke. Sir, I respectfully refuse to produce the records on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Burke, were you a member of the Ku Klux Klan 
in 1963 when the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was under 
the direction of Royal V. Young as the Imperial Dragon ? 

Mr. Burke. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I now present to 
this committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Burke : 

In 1963, exalted cy clops of the Bogalusa Unit of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan under the leadership of J. D. Swenson 
and Royal V. Young. 

In 1963-64 exalted cyclops of the Bogalusa Unit of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan under the leadership of Murry H. 
Martin. This Klavem held its meetings at the Disabled American 
Veterans Hall w^hich was operated by Klansman Arvis Warner. 



2546 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Head of the committee of exalted cyclops under the Washington 
Parish KLan which distributed leaflets under the title of the Orginal 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana, under the leadei-ship of 
Charles Christmas and Saxon Farmer. 

Member of the Klan front or cover organization, the Anti-Commu- 
nist Christian Association. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, leads us to believe that the wit- 
ness, Mr. Burke, possesses additional information which is both per- 
tinent and relevant to this inquiry and would materially aid the 
Congress in the enactment of remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Burke, you have heard the sworn statement of 
Mr. Appell, the chief investigator of this committee. 

Now I give you the opportmiity to reply to any portion of that 
statement, to admit or deny the truth of any allegation, and to explain 
or modify any part of that statement. 

In addition you may, if you desire, offer any other matter the 
committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 

Do you care to avail youreelf of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Burke. Sir, I respectfuly refuse to answer on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. In that case I must inform you that, absent your 
rebuttal or other facts which may come to the attention of the com- 
mittee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. 

Bearing tliat in mind, have you anything to say ? 

Mr. Burke. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Burke, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
aiRrm or deny the fact, that you are an employee of the city of 
Bogalusa. 

Mr. Burke. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you have acted on behalf of the Klan in matters affecting 
the city of Bogalusa. 

Mr. Burke. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As chairman of the committee of exalted cyclops, did 
you know- Albert Applewhite 

The Chairman. And that committee operates statewide in Louis- 
iana — or did it ? 

Mr. Appell. No ; this was Washington Parish, Mr. Chairman, 

The Chairman. I thought you said he was head of the committee 
of exalted cyclops. 

Mr. Appell. Of Washington Parish. 

As chairman of the committee of exalted cyclops of Washington 
Parish did you know Albert Applewhite to be exalted cyclops of Unit 
No. 4? 

Mr. Burke. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know these following individuals to have 
held the position of exalted cvclops at one time or another of Unit 
No. 2? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2547 

Dewey B. Smith, Ovied B. Duiiaway; James M. (Buster) Ellis, Jr.; 
Robert Rester: and Billie Clyde Simmons? 
• Mr. Burke. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Dewey B. Smith to also have been the 
exalted cyclops of Unit No. 1 ? 

Mr. Burke. I refuse to answer on the gromids previously stated. 

(At this point Mr. Pool left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Burke, the mayor of Bogalusa, Mayor Cutrer, testi- 
fied that he was approached by a man identified as Marvin Foster, 
whom he described as the liaison of tlie Klan, liaison man of the Klan, 
to the City Hall, and was told to attend a meeting of the Klan at the 
Disabled American Veterans Hall operated by Mr. Arvis Warner. 

The mayor testified that he attended this meeting along with the 
police commissioner, Arnold Spiers, and there the demands of the 
Klan were made to him by 150 Klansmen robed and masked. 

Did you participate in that meeting 

Mr. Burke. I refuse to answer under the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell — responsible for extending the demands to Mayor 
Cutrer, and wliat demands were made upon him with respect to the 
impending visit to Bogalusa, as a speaker, of former Congressman 
Brooks Hays ? 

Mr. Burke. I refuse to answer under the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Burke, literature distributed to the citizenry of 
Bogalusa, as well as the citizenry throughout the United States, by the 
Klan, advocates that it supports free speech. Enforcing the cancella- 
tion of speaking enngagement of fomier Congressmen Brooks Hays, 
how did the Klan carry out one of its purposes and objectives? 

Mr. Burke. I refuse to ansAver under the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Burke, it was at a speech at Crossroads, Mississippi, 
on January 21, 1965, a 16-year old boy from Bogalusa announced that 
there was a youth group of tlie Klan being organized under the direc- 
tion of Saxon Farmer in Bogalusa, Louisiana, and this 16-year-old boy 
asked you to join up. Do you know of the existence of such a youth 
group in Bogalusa? 

Mr. Burke. I refuse to answer under the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of this witness. 

Mr. Buchanan. I have no questions. 

Mr. Weltner. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Albert Applewhite. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Applewhite. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ALBERT lAFTMAN APPLEWHITE, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Would you state your full name for the record ? 
Mr. Applewhite. Albert Laf tman Applewhite. 



2548 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing before the committee this after- 
noon represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Applewhite. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Ingram. Michael Ingram from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you bom ? 

Mr. Applewhite. Bogalusa, December 24, 1924. 

Mr. Appell. "Wliere do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Applewhite. 1813 Washington Street, Bogalusa, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing in accordance to a subpena served 
upon you by U.S. Marshal on October 26, 1965, at 1813 Washington 
Street, Bogalusa, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Applewhite. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Appell. Mr. Applewhite, under the conditions of the subpena 
there was an attachment thereto made a part of the subpena and 
you were commanded to bring with you and to produce documents 
set forth in the attachment, paragraph 1 : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of the business and affairs of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana, and aflBliated organizations, namely, 
the Anti-Communist Christian Association in your possession, custody or con- 
trol, or maintained by you or available to you as Exalted Cyclops of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and the Anti-Communist Christian 
Association. 

I ask you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Applewhite. Sir, I respectfully decline to produce these docu- 
ments because to me on the grounds it might incriminate me, and on 
the further ground it would violate my rights guaranteed under the 
1st, 4th, 5th, and 14th amendments of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce the documents. 

The Chairman. Were you in the hearing room when I commented 
on the fact these subpenas, including the one served upon you, called 
upon you to produce these documents in the representative capacity 
indicated in the subpena ? 

Mr. Applewhite. Yes. 

The Chairman. Therefore, I order and direct you to produce the 
documents for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Applewhite. Sir, I refuse to present these documents on the 
groimds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Applewhite, under paragraph 2 of the subpena 
you were asked to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past officer or member of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
or the Anti-Communist Christian Association which the "Constitution and Laws" 
of said organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any 
other officer of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or 
control. 

I ask you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Applewhite. Sir, I refuse to present these documents on the 
grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2549 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce the documents. 

The CHAimiAX. For the reasons I previously indicated, I order you 
to produce those documents. 

Mr. Applewhite. I refuse to present the documents on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Applewhite, would you give the committee your 
educational background? 

Mr. Applewhite. Sir, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Applewhite, did you see service in the United 
States Navy from August 1943 to March 1946, at which time you were 
honorably discharged ? 

Mr. Applewhite. Sir, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you have a high school education and are employed by 
Crown-Zellerbach Corporation, Bogalusa, Louisiana? 

Mr. Applewhite. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I propose to pre- 
sent to this committee the results of our investigation as they pertain 
to Mr, Applewhite. 

In 1964, Mr. Applewhite was a member of Bogalusa Klavern of the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, then under the leadership of 
Murry H. Martin. 

In March of 1965, he held the position of exalted cyclops of Unit 
No. 4 of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana. 

The Chairman. He was exalted cyclops of Unit No. 4 ? 

Mr. Appel. On February 15, 1965, Applewhite, with other known 
Klansmen, gathered at Landry's Fine Foods,'^a Bogalusa restaurant, 
for the purpose of threatening Negroes seeking service. 

On April 6, 1965, the Bogalusa Klan rented a vacant house near the 
Bogalusa Labor Temple for the purpose of observing civil rights 
groups and planning violence against them. Applewhite was one 
of the Klansmen watching and planning. 

Applewhite was one of 18 members of the Bogalusa Auxiliary Police 
force who was sworn out of the Original Knights for security reasons 
in April of 1965. Applewhite is a member of the Klan cover organiza- 
tion, the Anti-Communist Christian Crusaders. Applewhite is also 
a leader of the Minutemen in the Bogalusa, Louisiana, area. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, leads us to believe that Mr. Apple- 
white possesses additional information which is both pertinent and 
relevant to this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in the 
en.actment of remedial legislation. 

Tlie Chairman. Mr. Applewhite, you have heard the sworn state- 
ment of the committee's chief investigator, Mr. Appell. I give you 
the opportmiity to reply to any portion of that statement, to admit 
or deny the truth of any allegation, and to explain or modify any 
part of it. 

In addition, you may, if you desire, offer any other matter the com- 
mittee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 



2550 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Do you wish to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Applewhite. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer the question 
on the ofrounds that I previously stated. 

The Chairman. In that case, I must inform you in absence of your 
rebuttal, or other facts that may come to the attention of the commit- 
tee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. 

Now, bearing that in mind, do you have anything more to say? 

Mr. Applewhite, Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer the question 
on the grounds that I have previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Applewhite, will you identify for the committee 
the additional 17 members of the Bogalusa Auxiliary Police Depart- 
ment who were members of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Applewhite. I respectfully refuse to answer the questions on 
the grounds pre\nously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Applewhite, will you identify for the committee 
the klokan and the members of the wrecking crew of the Klavern 
which you headed .as the exalted cyclops ? 

Mr. Applewhite. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on 
the grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The Klan in Bogalusa provided for the creation of a 
boycott committee to be comprised of one member from each unit in 
the Bogalusa area. Tliis committee was to apix>int a wrecking crew 
who would wreck persons violating the boycott restrictions. Were 
you a member of this wrecking crew ? 

Mr. Applewhite. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on 
the grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The staff has no further questions to ask of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ewell Kowley. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Rowley. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EWELL WILLIAM ROWLEY, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Would you state your full name for the record, please ? 

Mr. Rowley. Ewell William Rowley. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here this afternoon in accordance 
with a subpena served upon you on October 26, 1965, at the Pearl 
River Junior High School in Pearl River, Louisiana? 

Mr. Rowley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Rowley. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Ingram. Michael S. Ingram, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born, Mr. Rowley ? 

Mr. Rowley. Marion County, Mississippi, April 25, 1921, 

Mr. Appell. What city in Marion County were you born ? 

Mr. Rowley. It was in a rural area known as Kokomo. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you presently reside? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2551 

Mr. Rowley. Sixth Ward Community, Louisiana. 

Mr. ArPELL. Sixth Ward of what parish? 

Mr. Rowley. St. Tammany. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rowley, under the condition of the subpena served 
upon you and attachement that Avas made a part of the subpena, you 
were called to produce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and afliliated organizations, namely. Pearl 
River Hunting and Fishing Lodge #1028 and the Anti-Communist Christian 
Association in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or avail- 
able to you as a member and/or officer of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan of Louisiana and/or Anti-Communist Christian Association. 

I ask you to produce those documents, sir. 

Mr. RoAVLEY. Are you speaking of paragraph 1 of the subpena i 

Mr. Appell. Yes, I read paragrapli 1. 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I respectfully refuse to produce the records asked 
for in paragraph 1 of the subpena on grounds tliat it might incriminate 
me and, further, it would viohite my rights under the 1st, -Ith, 5th, and 
14th amendments of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. I ask that the witness be directed to produce the docu- 
ments. 

The Chairman. Were you in the hearing room when I commented 
on the fact that these subpenas, including the one served upon you, 
called upon you to produce these documents in the representative 
capacity indicated in the subpena ? 

Mr. Rowley. No, sir; I was not. 

The Chairman. I will expalain it to you. 

This subpena, which is technically called a subpena duces tecum, 
calls upon you to produce certain books, records, documents, coi- 
respondence, and memoranda relating to Ku Klux Klan affairs and 
organization, which documents, it is stated in tlie subpena, are in 
your possession, custody, or control or maintained by you or are avail- 
able to you as a member and/or an officer of the Original Kniglits of 
the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana and/or Anti-Communist Christian 
Association. 

In other words, the subpena does not call upon you to produce 
personal papers of yours, but papers, as indicated, in your possession, 
custody, or control in the capacity stated. Do you understand that ^ 

Mr. Rowley. Yes. 

The Chairman. That means that this committee takes the position 
that the constitutional ground upon which you rely is not applicable, 
because you have been asked to produce something not Ijelonging to 
you personally, not your own papers or documents, but in that capac- 
ity, and it is our position you have no right to invoke those constitu- 
tional provisions. 

Under these circumstances, I order and direct you to produce them. 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I respectfully refuse to produce the records on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rowley, paragraph 2 calls for the production of: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as member and/or officer of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan or the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association which the "Constitution and Laws" of 
said organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other 

59-322 O — 67 — pt. 3 15 



2552 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE TJ.S. 

officer of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or 
control. 

I ask you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I respectfully refuse to produce those records on 
the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. And for the reasons and the grounds I previously 
stated, I again order you to produce those documents mentioned in 
paragraph 2. 

Mr. Rowley. I respectfully refuse to produce these records on the 
grounds heretofore stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rowley, will you set forth your educational 
background ? 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I refuse to answer that question on the constitu- 
tional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, you are the principal of the Sixth "Ward Jmiior High School, 
Pearl River, Louisiana. 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I propose to present 
to this committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Rowley. 

In 1964, Mr. Rowley was a member of the Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan under the leadership of Murry H. Martin, which orga- 
nization was known by a cover name of the Christian Constitutional 
Crusaders. He held membership and official position in the Pearl 
River Unit known by the front, or cover, name of the Pearl River 
Hunting and Fishing Lodge. Meetings of the Klan group were held 
in the Junior High School of which Mr. Rowley was its principal. 

Officers of the unit in addition to Mr. Rowley were Ed Yates, D. B. 
Dean and L. J. Moran, all of Pearl River. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, leads us to believe that he is in 
possession of additional information which is both pertinent and 
relevant to this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in the 
enactment of remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Rowley, you have heard the sworn statement 
of the committee's chief investigator. 

Now, I give you the opportunity to reply to any portion of that 
statement, to admit or deny the truth of any allegation, and to explain 
or modify any part of that statement. 

In addition, I give you the privilege, if you desire, to offer any other 
matter the committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 

Do you care to avail yourself of this opportunity? 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
heretofore stated. 

The Chairman. In that case, sir, I inform you that in the absence 
of any rebuttal from you, or anyone else for that matter, or other facts 
that may come to the attention of the committee, this committee will 
rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. 

In view of that, do you have anything to say ? 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2553 

Mr. Weltner. I would like to inquire of Mr. Appell whether he has 
the name of the junior high school in Pearl Ri\er. 

Mr. Ari'ELL. 1 think it is the Sixth Ward Pearl River Junior High 
School. 

Mr. Weltner. Is that a part of the public school system of that 
parish ? 

Mr. Appell. It is my understanding it is. 

The Chairman. In the State of Louisiana, the parish is divided 
into wards, and in each ward there are elected, depending upon the 
population, members of the governing authority of that parish, which 
you would call a county in other States. And from each ward there 
are elected, again depending upon the population, members of the 
school board system. The name "ward" in this instance is a political 
subdivision of the parish from which the ward officers are drawn or 
elected. So I affirm the fact it is a part of the school system of each 
parish. 

Mr. Weltner. So it is a publicly financed and publicly owned 
facility in which this Klavern known as the Pearl River Hunting and 
Fishing Lodge was located '^ 

Mr. Appell. Those are the results of our investigation. 

Mr. Weltner. Thank you. 

Mr. Buchanan. I am intrigued about the use of the school 

Do you feel, sir, this is a proper use of public property, to use a 
school building as a place for a Klan meeting ? 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer the question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I would give as my opinion, coming from Loui- 
siana and being familiar with the school system there and the opera- 
tion of the public buildings, that if a Klan organization — or rather an 
organization dedicated to peace, order, and law enforcement asked for 
the building, the school authorities would make the building available. 

Mr. Buchanan. May I inquire ? 

You are the second schoolman we have had here today, and I think 
it is fair to state heretofore, in looking into the Klan, we found a 
number of people of rather limited education in positions of leader- 
ship. You are a man of some education, of responsibility in the field 
of education, and working with young people. I am intrjgued. there- 
fore, to leani what it is that drew you toward the Ku Klux Klan oi' 
makes you feel, as a school official and one with your influence on 
young people, that this is the sort of an organization of which you 
ought to be a part. 

Would you tell us what it is about the Klan that makes you feel 
it is the kind of organization you ought to support and a man in 
your position of responsibility ought to support ? 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. I would like to ask Mr. Rowley whether or not ap- 
proval was given for the Klan to meet in his school by the ward school 
board ? 

Mr. Rowley. Sir, I respectfully refuse to answer the question on 
the grounds previously mentioned. 

Mr. Appell. The staff has no further questions to ask this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused, and the committee will 
stand in recess for 5 minutes. 



2554 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

CVVliereiipon the subcommittee recessed and reconvened at 3 :30 p.m. 
witli tlie following subcommittee members present at time of recess 
and when hearings resumed: Representatives Willis, Weltner, and 
Buchanan.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Proceed, Mr, Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Kinch Miley. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Miley. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF KINCH WILSON MILEY, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MICHAEL S. INGEAM 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr. Miley. 

Mr. Miley. Kinch Wilson Miley. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Miley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Ingr.\m. Michael S. Ingram, from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Miley, you are appearing before the committee 
today in accordance with a subpena served upon you at Route 1, 
Varnado, Louisiana, on October 26, 1965 ? 

Mr. Miley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Is Route 1, Varnardo, Louisiana, your residence, Mr. 
Miley? 

Mr. Mjley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Miley, would you state for the record your educa- 
tional background ? 

Mr. Miley. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds that it 
might intend to incriminate me, and on the further groimds that it 
might violate my rights under the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 14th amendments 
to the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Miley, are you currently employed as a schoolbus 
driver? 

Mr. Miley. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Miley, are you currently a member of a Klan 
organization ? 

Mr. Miley. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Are you currently a member of the Anti-Communist 
Christian Association ? 

Mr. Miley. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privilege 
and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I propose to present to 
this committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Miley. 

Mr. Miley, as a member of the Bogalusa Unit of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, was the purchaser of ammunition and 
weapons from Howard M. Lee, the Bogalusa former exalted cyclops, 
who was arrested and convicted of violation of ATU regulation 
governing licensed gun dealers. 

Records in Lee's possession reflect entries as f ollo\vs : 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



255/ 



.) 



Kinch Miley, 5U0 rounds of aniniunit ion. 

The second entry: Two pistols, .32 caliber, Savage automatics. No. 
127258, No. 160634. 

Four weapons not described, with Serial Nos. RxV4844, ()K689<), 
BN6o37, UI6718. 

Another entry : Three weapons, not described. 

Mr. Miley, what disposition did you make of the weapons and am- 
munition obtained by you according to the records of gun dealer How- 
ard M. Lee? 

Mr. Miley. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 
(Excerpts from Howard M. Lee's records marked "Kincli Milev 
Exhibit No. 1" follow:) 

Kinch Miley Exhibit No. 1 






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2556 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Did you dispose of any of the ammunition, pistols, or 
other "weapons to individuals known to you to be members of the 
KuKluxKlan? 

Mr. MiLEY. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever serve on an official organization of the 
Klan known as the wrecking crew ? 

Mr. Miley. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. To your knowledge, was any of the ammunition or 
weapons obtained by you from Howard Lee used for the purpose of 
carrying out a wrecking crew assignment ? 

Mr. Miley. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of Mr. Miley. 

The Chairman. Mr. Miley, I assume that Varnado is in Washing- 
ton Parish. 

Mr. Miley. Yes. 

The Chairman. What ward of Washington Parish is that town 
in? 

Mr. Miley. Wliat is that question again ? 

The Chairman. What ward of the parish is that town in? What 
ward number of Washington Parish? 

Mr. Miley. Ward 5. 

The Chairman. Now I ask you a question on which you may want 
to consult your counsel. I assume that you are a bus driver represent- 
ing the public school system in Ward 5 of Washington Parish? 

Mr. Miley. Repeat the question, please. 

The Chairman. I say I assume that you are a bus driver represent- 
ing the public school system of Ward 5 of Washington Parish? 

Mr. Miley. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Have you made public statements or have you 
appeared at public meetings to discuss activities of the Klan of which 
you are a, member ? 

Mr. Miley. I refuse to answer on the gromids previously stated. 

The Chairman. Have you ever, in the course of your daily trans- 
portation of school children, which would be bringing them to school 
in the morning and driving them back home after school houre, dis- 
cussed with these school children Klan activities or made suggestions 
to them that they consult with their parents to join up? 

Mr. Miley. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions? 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Robert Stallings. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Stallings. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT EARL STALLINGS, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Would you state your full name for the record ? 

Mr. Stallings. Robert Earl Stallings. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born, Mr. Stallings ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2557 

Mr. Stallings. July 28, 1937, in Bogalusa, Louisiana. 

Mr. 'Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. STALLiNGiS. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Ingram. Yes. My name is Michael S. Ingram, Baton Rouge, 
Louisiana,. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stallings, are you appearing here this afternoon 
in accordance with a subpena served upon you at 344 Columbia Road, 
Bogalusa, on the 28th day of December 1965 ? 

Mr. Stallings. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stallings, under the terms of this subpena you are 
called up to produce : 

All books, records, correspondence and memoranda relating to the organization 
of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan, the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana, the Louisiana 
Rifle Association, the Christian Constitutional Crusaders, and the Anti-Commu- 
nist Christian Association in your possession, custody or control, or maintained 
by you or available to you as present or past officer or member of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
Louisiana, the Louisiana Rifle Association, the Christian Constitutional Crusad- 
ers, and the Anti-Communist Christian Association. 

I ask you if you have those documents and if you will produce them, 
sir. 

(Documents produced.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to show that, 
in accordance with the attachment to the subpena and the demand 
made on Mr. Stallings, Mr. Stallings has produced certain records. 
These records, Mr. Chairman, consist of monthly ledger cards of an 
account maintained by the Parish A.C.C.A. at the First State Bank & 
Trust Company, Bogalusa, Louisiana, copies of deposit slips, account 
signature card,^ and eight checks drawn against the account.- 

These are identical, Mr. Chairman, to the records which the com- 
mittee received from the bank in accordance with a subpena duces 
tecum. 

(Ledger cards and deposit slips marked "Robert Stallings Exhibit 
No. 1" and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stallings, would you give the committee a brief 
outline of your educational background ? 

Mr. Stallings. I refuse and decline to answer the question pro- 
pounded to me on the grounds that it might incriminate me and on 
the further grounds that the answers would tend to violate my rights 
as guaranteed under the 1st, 4th, 5th, and the 14th amendments to the 
Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Appell. Would you please give to the committee your employ- 
ment background, including current employment ? 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are employed by tlie bank in which this account was 
maintained. 



1 Previously marked "John Magee Exhibit No. 2.' 
3 Previously marked "John Magee Exhibit No. 3." 



2558 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE TT.S. 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stallings, according to one of the items supplied 
by you, the copy of the signature card maintained by the bank (John 
Magee Exhibit No. 2), the card reflects that Robert E. Stallings, who 
is yourself, was the signature of the authority to the bank to honor 
checks drawn against the account in the name of the Parish A.C.C.A., 
including the names of J. E. Magee, B. R. Grain, and Sidney Brock. 
In light of the fact that these records which you supplied show that 
you are the responsible officer of the Parish A.C.C.A. granting to the 
bank the authority to honor checks, I now ask you if these documents 
are all of the documents in your possession called for in the attach- 
ment to the subpena under which you delivered these documents? 

Mr. Stallings. The manner in which the question is phrased, I re- 
spectfully refuse to answer the question on the grounds I previously 
stated. 

The Chairman. Would you care to explain it in your own language? 
Would you care to ? 

Frankly, I am going to ask the examiner to rephrase his question. 
We want the facts here. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stallings, are there any documents in your posses- 
sion called for in the attacliment to the subpena which you have not 
produced before this committee in accordance with the attachment? 

Mr. Stallings. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. Appell. Are there any documents in your possession called for 
to be produced in the attachment to your subpena which you have not 
produced in response to the subpena ? 

Mr. Stallings. No, sir; this is all the dociunents I have. 

The Chairman. I do not know that you followed the question. I 
do not want to confuse you in the least. Tliat would have been my 
subsequent question. The question lie asked you was. Are the docu- 
ments that you have produced the only documents called for? Now 
let me explain. It may be — I do not know myself — that the subpena 
called for other documents. Perhaps you do not liave them. If that is 
the case, I would suggest that you say, subject to your counsel; "No, 
the subpena called for other documents, but I don't have them and I 
have never liad them," if that is the case. I tliink counsel understands 
that and I am ti-ying to clarify the record. That is all I want. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

The Chairman. Do you understand what I am driving at, Mr. 
Ingram ? 

Mr. Ingram. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I might tell you, Mr. Ingram, in all frankness, my 
next question would be, since we are talking about possession, tliat the 
subpena called for documents either in his possession or under his 
custody or control, or available to him or maintained by him. I just 
want to make it plain ; that is all. 

To be perfectly frank wnth you, I would like to see one witness who 
has responded to the call of the subpena. 

Mr. Stallings. The documents which I have produced are all of 
the documents, books and records, correspondence, and memoranda 
which I have in my possession, custody 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 2559 

The Chairman-. Which I "have" or "had"? 

Mr. Stallings. "VVliich I have. Shall I start, over ? 

The Chairman. Yes, please. 

Mr. Stallings. The documents which 

The Chairman. Talk a little louder. 

Mr. Stallings. The documents which I have produced are all the 
documents, records, books, correspondence, and memoranda Avhich I 
have or have had in my possession, custody, or control or which I have 
or have had access to. 

The Chairman. Mr. Stallings, as to this portion of your testi- 
mony — I do not know what comes next — I tell you that I appreciate 
for once somebody properly responding to a subpena issued by this 
committee. I accept your tender as satisfying the subpena. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stallings, do you know John Magee, who appeared 
before the three-judge court in Louisiana and identified himself as 
treasurer of the Anti-Communist Christian Association, whose account 
carried the name of the Parish A.C.C.A. ? 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee testified that the other members of the 
finance committee were Sidney Brock, Billy Crain, and Robert 
Stallings. Will you explain to the committee the formation, purpose. 
and organization of the finance committee of the Anti-Communist 
Christian Association? 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on tlie 
grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Magee testified that while lie was treasurer, the 
funds were handled by Mr. Saxon Farmer. Was his testimonv 
truthful? 

Mr. Stallings. I 

The Chairman. You mean he testified in the Federal court injunc- 
tion proceedings? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr, Stallings, the deposit slip of March 22, 1965, of 
the First State Bank, which deposit slip shows a deposit of currency 
of $100 and silver of 68 cents 

The Chairman. Complete your question and the answer to it, and 
then defer. 

Mr. Appell. — which reflects that this is a new account, contains 
as the person who received the funds for the bank a signature which 
I interpret as "Robert E." or "R. E. Stallings." Will you tell the 
committee from what source you received this money, either as a baiik 
employee or as a member of the finance committee of the Parish 
A.C.C.A.? 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

The Chairman. As chairman of the full House Committee on Un- 
American Activities, I hereby reconstitute the subcommittee to conduct 
the hearings for the balance of the afternoon as the following : Myself 



2560 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

as chairman, Mr. Weltner and Mr. Buchanan as the other two mem- 
bers, so for the balance of the afternoon two members shall constitute 
a quorum of the subcommittee of three. 

(At this point Mr. Weltner left the hearing; room.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stallings, as a member of the A.C.C.A. did you 
at any time execute an application for membership which application 
had on its face "Application for Citizenship in the Invisible Em- 
pire, The Original Ku Klux Klan"? I exhibit to you a copy of 
an application. 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 1.") 

Mr. Appell. As a member of the A.C.C.A., did you ever swear to a 
series of oaths, copies of which I am now handing you ? 

Mr. Stallings, I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

(Documents previously marked "John Swenson Exhibit No. 1."') 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stallings, in the month of November were you 
called to jury duty at the courthouse in Franklinton, Louisiana? 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you whether or not, 
when examined as a prospective juror in a case, you were asked whether 
or not you were the Stallings identified as a member of the A.C.C.A. 
before the three- judge court in Louisiana, and that you denied that you 
were, with the explanation that the name in that record was R. L. 
Stallings and that you are R. E. Stallings? 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stallings, in the canceled checks which ^'•ou sub- 
mitted under the subpena duces tecum, there are checks on December 
22, 1965, in the amount of $135, payable to cash, cosigned J. E. Magee, 
Robert E. Stallings; August 2, 1965, to cash, in the amount of $77^40, 
signed J. E. Magee, Robert E. Stallings; July 2, 1965, to cash, in the 
amount of $106.48, cosigned J. E. Magee, Robert E. Stallings; July 2, 
1 965, a check to cash for $93, cosigned J. E. Magee, Robert E. Stallings ; 
a check of March 28, 1965, to the District A.C.C.A., in the amount of 
$39 — strike that one because it is not cosigned by Mr. Stallings — a 
check dat€d April 15, 1965, to cash, in the amount of $69, cosigned 
J. E. Magee, Robert E. Stallings; a check dated May 24, 1965, to 
cash, in the amount of $170.90, cosigned J. E. Magee, Robert E. 
Stallings; a check dated May 29, 1965, to cash— strike that one. 

Mr. Stallings, I would like to ask you the purpose for which the 
money was used from checks made payable to cash, cosigned by your- 
self. 

Mr. Stallings. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

(Checks previously marked "John Magee Exhibit No. 3.") 

The Chairman. You wrote the checks. 

Mr. Appell, Was the income that went into tliis account income 
received from units of the A.CCA, which were identical to the Klan 
Klavern? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2561 

Mr. Stalljngs. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Houston Pierce Morris. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly 
swear the testimonv you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Morris. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HOUSTON PIERCE MORRIS 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. Houston Pierce Morris. 

Mr. Appell. Before proceeding further, Mr. Morris, I note that you 
are not accompanied by counsel. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Morris. No. 

The Chairman. Do you understand, Mr. Morris, that you have a 
right — if you do not, I am now telling you — to in your own way invoke 
the fifth amendment if you desire ? Do you understand you have that 
right? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

The Chairman. I say that because you do not have a lawyer. You 
liave that right. It will be given to you and accorded to you just as if 
you had a lawyer with you. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Morris, when and where were you born? 

Mr. Morris. October 4, 1935, Rayville, Richland Parish, Route 4, 
Box 616, Xow I reside at 112 Texas Avenue, Monroe, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Morris, will you give the committee your educa- 
tional background ? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel it miglit tend to incriminate me in violation 
of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1,4, and 14 of the 
Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Morris, you are appearing before the committer 
in accordance witli a subpena served upon you the 26tli day of October, 
1965, at 112 Texas Avenue, Monroe, Louisiana? 

The Chairman. The question is, you are appearing here because 
you were subpenaed to come here. That is the question. 

Mr. Morris. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell, Mr. Morris, the subpena served upon you calls for you 
to produce certain books and records described in an attacliment to the 
subpena which is made a part of the subpena. Paragraph 1 reads: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan— Louisiana, Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
America, Inc. — Louisiana, and United Klans of America— Louisiana, in your 
possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you as 
officer and/or member of the above-mentioned organizations. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in the subpena dated 



2562 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Octoter 14, 1965, for the reason that I lionestly feel to do so might tend 
to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. I respfctfully decline to deliver to the committee any and 
all records requested by this committee under subpena dated October 
14, 1965, because that information is not relevant and gennane to any 
subject under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress 
in the consideration of any legislation, nor is such inquiry within the 
scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89tli Congress by House Resolution 8, adopted January 
4, 1965. 

The Chairman. Mr. Morris, I am not going to ask you a question, 
but I am just telling you that that response has been used many times, 
but yours is in very good form. 

Were you here in the hearing room when I explained to the wit- 
nesses that this subpena called on you to produce papers, books, 
documents, and so forth ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

The Chairman. Not that they belonged to you, but in your capacity 
as an officer. You understand that ? 

Mr. Morris. Yts, sir. 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to furnish those. 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to produce the documents asked 
for by the committee in the subpena dated October 14, 1965 for the 
reason I honestly feel that to do so might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the T'nited States of America. I respect- 
fully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records as re- 
quested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965. That 
information is not relevant and germane to the subject under investiga- 
tion and the same would not aid the Congress in its consideration of 
legislation, nor is such inquiry within the scope of that authorized to 
be investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, 
by House Resolution 8, adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Morris, I would advise you that in the future in 
answer to a demand to produce documents all of your rights will be 
protected if you will resi:)ond by the language you "refuse to produce 
for tlie reasons previously stated." That would include all of the 
reasons which you have stated. 

I would like to ask you, however, Mr. Morris, before asking for the 
production of documents contained in part '2, whether or not in con- 
nection with the legal advice that you received with respect to your 
appearance here if you were advised by counsel of the opening state- 
ment of the chairman in October 1965, which set forth the purposes of 
the hearing and the designation of the subcommittee, and whether or 
not you understand them. 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 
4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

The Chairman. Mr. Morris, on the first dav of the hearings, I 
made what is called an opening statement which indicates the reasons. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2563 

purposes, objectives, the scope, and the purpose of holding the hear- 
ings. All witnesses who appeared here with a lawyer agreed that either 
the lawyer had explained my statement or he was familiar with it. 
You said you were not. 

Therefore, I now hand you a copy of my opening statement of 
October 19, 1965, and I shall excuse you for a few" minutes so you will 
have a chance to read it. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Robert Fuller. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, sir ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Fuller. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT WILLIAM FULLER 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Fuller? 

Mr. Fuller. Robert William Fuller. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Fuller, you are not represented by counsel. Do 
you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Fuller. No, sir. I have consulted one and I will go from that, 
if you don't miiid. 

Mr. Appell. I had a conversation \vith your counsel, Mr. Venable. 
He explained to me that he had advised you of the purposes of the 
hearing as contamed in the opening statement. You are familiar with 
the purpose for which this hearing is being conducted? 

Mr. Fuller. Yes, sir, I am. 

The Chairman. One more question of Mr. Fuller. 

Mr. Fuller, I want you to know because you are entitled to it — it is 
your choice to invoke constitutional privileges if you wish to. I want 
you to know that. 

If you do, that right is a sacred one and it will be respected as if you 
had a lawyer. 

Mr. Fuller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Fuller, when and where were you bom ? 

Mr. Fuller. Monroe, Louisiana, November 11, 1920. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing before the committee this afternoon 
in accordance with a subpena served upon you on the 26th day of Octo- 
ber, 1965 at 608 Winnsboro Road, Monroe, Louisiana? 

Mr. Fuller. Yes, sir ; that is right. 

Mr. xVppell. Mr. Fuller, the subpena served upon you calls for you 
to produce : 

All books, records, documents correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of America — Louisiana, also Original Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan and affiliated organizations in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as member and/or officer of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America — Louisiana, also the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan — Louisiana. 

I ask you to produce those documents, sir. 



2564 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN TIJE U.S. 

Mr, Fuller. I respectfully refuse to do so. I honestly believe that 
it might tend to incriminate me and is in violation of my constitutional 
rights provided in article — 1, 4, 5, and 14t]i amendments of the Consti- 
tution of the United States. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask for a direction to the witness. 

The Chairman. You were in the hearing room when I explained 
to the previous witnesses that this subpena served on you calls upon 
you to produce documents, not of your own, but in your capacity as 
stated in that subpena. 

You miderstand that, do you ? 

Mr. Fuller. Any what, now, sir? 

The Chairman. That the subpena calls upon you to produce docu- 
ments which might have been in your possession- — not belonging to you 
but held, controlled, or possessed by you as an officer of the Klan. In 
other words, it is not a call for personal papers. There is a distinction, 

I say, you understand that ? 

Mr. Fuller. Yes, sir. I still stick to this. I understand it; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. Then under the circumstances I order 
you to produce them. Since you have no lawyer, you may. if you wish, 
repeat your refusal to produce them. 

Mr. Fuller. Yes, sir. I respectfully refuse to produce records, and 
I honestly believe that it might tend to incriminate me in violation of 
the constitutional rights as provided in amendments 1, 4, 5, and 14th of 
the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr, Appell. Mr. Fuller, I hand you a series of oaths given to mem- 
bers of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and ask you to 
examine these series of oaths and ask you whether you ever subscribed 
to them? 

(Documents previously marked "John Swenson Exhibit No. 1.") 

Mr. Fuller. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. You're almost a lawyer yourself. 

Mr. Fuller. Thank you, Mr. Willis. I don't have much education. 
I have to try to look out for myself. 

^Mr^ Appell. Mr. Fuller, are you familiar with the Klavern of the 
Ku Klux Klan in Louisiana known by the designation of the Monroe 
Hunting and Fishing Club ? 

Mr. Fuller. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know tlie gentleman who was just excused 
from the witness chair ? 

Mr. Fuller. I respectfully decline to answer that question, sir, on 
the same ground previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Is it a fact that you succeeded him as the exalted 
Cyclops of the Klavern known as the Monroe Iluntino; and Fishing 
Club? 

Mr. Fuller. That question again, please, sir ? 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact that you succeeded him as the 
exalted cyclops. 

Mr. Fuller. You said it was a fact, though, sir. I didn't. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2565 

Mr, Appei.l. I ask yon to aflivni or deny the fact. 

Mr. Fuller. I decline to answer that question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I propose to pre- 
sent to this committee the results of our investigation as they pertain 
to Mr. Fuller. 

Mr. Fuller has been in a leadership capacity in the Klan in Louisiana 
since shortly after its activation in the beginning of the 1960's. 

In 1963 he became the exalted cyclops of the Klavern known as the 
Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club. 

He later became chief of the Klan Bureau of Investigation under 
J. D. Swenson and Royal V. Young and received compensation from its 
account operated under the front or cover name Louisiana Rifle 
Association. 

He led the revolt against the leadership of Swenson and Young, 
using the charge that they were only interested in the money they were 
getting from Klan income. 

Fuller became a leader under the reorganized Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan, and from this organization he received compensa- 
tion in the amount of $3,955.47 during the period of February 11, 1964, 
through September 29, 1964, from that organization's account known 
as the Christian Constitutional Crusaders. 

Fuller and other leaders under Murry H. Martin broke with Martin 
at the end of 1964 and incorporated an organization known by the 
name of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., 
in March 1965 for the purpose of attempting to bring all Louisiana 
Klansmen under its banner. 

In June 1964, the bulk of the officers and members of the Knights 
of the Original Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., joined the United 
Klans of America, Inc. The Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club, of 
which Mr. Fuller was an exalted cyclops, had gone into the United 
Klans of America, Inc., which operates in Louisiana under the front 
or cover name of the Louisiana Rescue Service in the fall of 1964. 

According to the records of the Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club 
maintained at the Central Savings Bank & Trust Company, Monroe, 
Louisiana, Mr. Fuller was described in the account, on authority of 
the signature, as president, and he remained as president from August 
21, 1963, to January 21, 1964. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, leads us to believe that he possesses 
additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this 
inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in the enactment of 
remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Fuller, the name of the man w^ho made this 
statement is Don Appell. He is the chief investigator of this com- 
mittee. He is under oath, just as you are. 

Now I will give you the opportunity to reply to any portion of that 
statement, to admit or deny the truth of any allegation, or to explain 
or modify any part of that statement. 



2566 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

In addition I shall g-ive you the opportunity, if you like, to offer 
any other matter which this committee may deem relevant to this 
inquiry. 

Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity? 

Mr. Fuller. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the constitutional (grounds previously stated. 

The CiiAiRMAx. In that case, Mr. Fuller, I must inform you that 
since you did not take advantage of that opportunity, or if we do not 
come in possession of other facts, this committee will rely upon the 
accuracy of what Mr. Appell had to say. We have been very careful 
in our investigation and it has come from many sources. 

In view of Avhat I have said, Avould you care to say anything? 

Mr. Fuller, In view of what, sir? 

The Chairman. In view of the fact that unless you choose to ex- 
plain or deny or affirm or comment on what Mr, Appell had to say, 
the committee w^ill assume that what he said is true. We assume that 
in view of that. 

If you want to, I will now give you another opportunity to say any- 
thing you want. 

Mr. Fuller. I state the same, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. In other words, you refuse on the grounds previ- 
ously stated? 

Mr. Fuller. Yes, sir ; I respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr, Appell. 

Mr, Appell. Mr. Fuller, on June 26, 1965, 1 interviewed Houston P. 
Morris at Travel Lodge Motel in Monroe, Louisiana. Mr. Fuller ex- 
plained that 3 weeks or so prior to the interview 

Mr. Fuller. Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Appell. — Mr. Morris stated that the bulk of his organization 
had gone over to the United Klans of America, but he said that you 
hadn't gone because you didn't want to give up your title. 

Mr, Fuller. Didn't want to give up what, sir ? 

Mr, Appell. Your title. 

Mr. Fuller. I have no comment. 

Mr. Appeli/. I am asking you whether Mr. Morris' testimony was 
truthful? 

Mr. Fuller, I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Fuller, I liand you two separate documents, fonns 
issued by the Federal Commimications Conmiission, both forms being 
applications for Class B, C, or D station license in the Citizens Kadio 
Service. The first is Robert W. Fuller, dated 8-22-1964, and seeks au- 
thority to operate four transmitters. 

The second, signed Robert W. Fuller, dated 8-14-64, is in the name 
of Fuller's Sanitation Service, and seeks authority to operate 10 trans- 
mitters. 

I hand you these and ask you if these are factual copies of applica- 
tions which you made. 

Mr. FuLi^R. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2567 

(Documents marked ''Robert Fuller Exhibits Nos, 1-A and 1-B," 
respectively. See pp. 2568-2571.) 

The Chairman. What does that sanitation business do? You don't 
have to answer, but I am curious to know. 

Mr. Fuller. Mr. Willis, I wouldn't mind answering that at the start. 
That's my business. But you have me way down in the middle of it, 
and I think that should have come up, sir, at the start of my program. 

The Chairman. I won't press it. 

Mr, Fuller. I will be glad to write you a letter and tell you con- 
cerning what it is. It's legitimate. 

The Chairman. What I wanted to know was, really, that is an 
awful lot of transmitters to use in a cleaning or sanitation business. 

Mr. Fuller. I have 18 pieces of equipment, no Klan equipment. 

The Chairman. Why didn't you say in answer to previous questions 
that you had no Klan connections? I won't ])ress the question because 
you don't have a lawyer. You are now saying you have no Klan con- 
nections. I don't Iviiow what you mean by that. 

Mr. Fuller. I believe you asked me the question, sir 

The Chairman. I now ask you the question — Are you now, or have 
you ever been, a member of the Klan ? 

Mr. Fuller. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
gi'ounds of my constitutional rights. 

The Chairman. Are you now, or have you ever been, an officer of tlie 
Klan? 

Mr. Fuller. I state the same. I respectfully decline to answer. 

The Chairman. I thought you would. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Fuller, have any of the transmitters authorized for 
you ever been used to carry out any activity on the part of the Klan? 

Mr. Fuller. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Fuller, if Mr. Morris's statement to me was truth- 
ful, that you did not go into the Klan, United Klan, what Klan orga- 
nization, if any, are you now affiliated with? 

Mr. Fuller. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Fuller, do you continue membership in the Monroe 
Hunting and Fishing Club which in October of 1964 was a Klavern 
of the Louisiana Rescue Service ? 

Mr. Fuller. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions to ask of this witness. 

The Chairman. You are excused. 

Mr. Fuller. May I ask a question, if it is permissible ? 

The Chairman. It is perfectly all right with me. 

I must warn you, if you do he will ask some of you. 

Mr. Fuller. Maybe I will ask him later. It is important, but not 
in this investigation. 

The Chairman. I will be glad to talk to you. 

Mr. Fuller. Thank you, sir. 

(Robert Fuller Exhibits Nos. 1-A and 1-B introduced above 
follow:) 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 16 



2568 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Robert Fuller Exhibit No. 1-A 



Ftt, FORM SOS 
REVISTO MAT m5 



UNITED STATFS OF AMERICA 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON. O.C. lOSM 



R«M jvraovcD 

BUDGET 9UREMJ NO. U-RIZLIO 



APPLICATION FOR CLASS B. C, OR D STATION LICENSE IN THE 

CITIZENS RADIO SERVICE 



DO NOT WRITE IN THIS BLOCK 



?.^^ 



'I'l/': 



1. Application for C\&-o» A station liconsf muot be filrrt or FCC FOIIM 400. 

2. Complptp on typowriter or print clcsrly. /.L'G C I 'J • 

3. Bp sure application i«« nignrd and dated. Mnil application to Fcdrral Com- 
munirations Com mi Mi on, Gettysburg, Pa.. 1782.S. 



ipjmMirlnte f.-e with applicnVivn.- i/ rcqii.r.d. J)l) "NOT SUMMIT 
CASH, \lakr chrck or morry o rdff bay altl*" to I'-'ir"""! ('"niinuhirationB 



4. Knrlnsc apji 

nry ordff'ba'.- 
CommiMion. (Seo Part 19, Volume Vr-ol i>X'<:,nih(i io dttprrtifnp whether 



a (re is required with this application ) 



NAME OF APPLICANT 



BU^>^t^S NAME lOR LA^T NAME, IF AN INDIVIDUAL) 

/^ (^ LI- /r/r 

FIRST N/[tlE ItF AN INOIVIDUAU 



/y^ z3 y^yTT- 



MIDDLE INITIAL 



oO 



IF AN INDIVIDUAL OPERATING UNDER A TRADE NAME GIVE INDIVIDUAL 
NAME. OR IF PARTNERSHIP. LIST NAMES OF PARTNERS (Do nnl ttptal 
any name MMd tn iUm i) 



MAILING ADDRESS 



l,"6ER .»D STREET / ^fi ^ SOf^^S^J^ 



/>6 ey<y /yc e- 



STATE 

L 3. 



COUNT r OR EQUIVALENT SUBDIVISION 



• t7 (//^ C/>> /T'A 



CLASSIFICATION OF APPLICANT {Sii inttruelimt) 



[u]^NDIVIOU*L I [ ASSOCIATION Q 

I I PARTNERSHIP [^ CORPORATION [^ OTHER (Sp<ci/»). 



CLASS OF STATION (Check only mt) 



D' 



D' 



&«• 



IS THIS APPLICATION TO MODIFY OH RENEW AN EXISTING STATION LICENSE' 



00 YOU NOW HOLD ANY STATION LICENSE, OTHER THAN THAT COVERED BY ITEM 6, 
OF THE SAME CLASS AS THAT REQUESTED BY THIS APPLICATION? 



□ y« 



Q^ 



TOTAL NUMBER OF TRANSMITTERS TO BE AUTHORIZED UNDER REQUESTED STATION 
LICENSE 



(NiMbtr) 



I 

? 



DOES EACH TRANSMITTER TO BE OPERATED APPEAR ON THE COMMIS- 
SION S ■ RADIO EQUIPMENT LIST, PART C, OR IF FOR CLASS C OH 
CLASS STATIONS. IS IT CRYSTALCONTROLLEDI (// «0, aUdcA 
dtlaiUd deMcription: tee subpart C of Part t9) 



A WILL APPLICANT OWN ALL THE RADIO EQUIPMENT? (// no, OMlPCf 
B and C below) 



NAME OF OWNER 



IS THE APPLICANT A PARTY TO A WRITTEN LEASE OR OTHER AGREEMENT UNDER 
WHICH IME CWNERSMtP OR CONTROL WILL BE EXERCISED IN THE SAME MAN- 
NER AS IF THE EQUIPMENT WERE OWNED BY THE APPLICANT' 



HftS APPLICANT READ AND UNOfRSTOODtHE PROVISIONS OF PART 19, 
SUBPART D DEALING WITH PERMISSIBLE COMMUNICATIONS FOR WHICH 
THIS CLASS OF STATION MAY BE USED' 



WILL THE USE OF THE STATION CONFORM IN ALL RESPECTS WITH THE 
PERMISSIBLE COMMUNICATIONS AS SET FORTH IN PART 19, SUBPART DJ 



WILL THE STATION BE OPERATED BY ANY PERSON OTHER THAN THE 
APPLICANT MEMBERSOF HIS IMMEDIATE FAMILY OR HIS EMPLOYEES' 
{If j/rs. altarh a aeparaU nhrft tilting (he names and rtlalionshxp of all 
etich prrionB and give a detailed reason for their operation of your 
Btation) 



IF APPLICANT IS AN INDIVIDUAL OR A PARTNERSHIP. ARE YOU OR ANY 

OF THE PARTNERS AN ALIEN* 



IS APPLICANT THE REPRESENTATIVE OF ANY ALIEN OR ANY FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT' (// ^f.i. explain fully) 



WITHIN 10 YEARS PREVIOUS TO THE DATE OF THIS APPLICATION HAS 
THE APPLICANT OR ANY PARTY TO THIS APPLICATION BEEN CONVICTED 
IN A FEDERAL STATE OR LOCAL COURT OF ANY CRIME FOR WHICH THE 
PENALTY IMPOSED WAS A FINEOFJSOOOR MORE OR AN IMPRISONMENT 
OF 6 MONTHS OR MORE' (Sre instruclinnn. }f yet. attach a tfparate 
nhfct giving details of each such conviction) 



IF APPLICANT IS AN INDIVIDUAL OR A PARTNERSHIP, ARE YOU OR ANY 
PARTNER LESS THAN 18 YEARS OF AGE ;LESS THAN 12 YEARS OF AGE IF 
FOR CLASS C STATION LICENSE*? 



\^ 



IF THE PRINCIPAL LOCATION WHERE THE STATION WILL BE 
USED IS DIFFERENT FROM THE MAILING ADDRESS (ITEM 3>. 
GIVE THAT LOCATION. (DO NOT GIVE POST OFFICE BOX OR 
RFD NO.) — ^— ^— ^— ^— — — ^— 



NUMBER AND STREET 



DO 
SCREENING 



NOT yn 

:ninc %Jj4 



ITS IS THIS no V 

D N 



UCN AND DATE THE APPLICATION ON REVERSE SIDE 



/" 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2569 

Robert Fuller Exhibit No. I -A — Continued 



19 IF APPLiCA\r ^SJ^ nosgovehnmental 

CORPORATION. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: 



IS CORF»ORXTfON ORGANIZED UNDtR LA*S OF ANY FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT! 



IS ANY OFFICER OR DrflECTOR OF THE CORPORATION AN ALIEN? 



IS MORE THAN ONE FIFTH OF THE CAPITAL STOCK EITHER OWNED OF 
RECORD OR MAY IT BE VOTED BY ALIENS OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES. 
OR BY A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OH REPRESENTATIVE THEREOF OR BY 
ANY CORPORATION ORGftNiZED UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN 
COUNTRYJ 



IS APPLICANT DIRECTLY OR iNDIRtCTLY CONTROLLED BY ANY OTHER 
CORPORATION? (If yt-», anaucr lUmt E through K btlow) 



GIVE NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTROLLING CORPORATION 



IS MORE THAN ONE FOURTH OF THE CAPITAL STOCK OF CONTROLLING 

cDBPORftTioN Either owned of rlcord or may it be .jted by 

ALIENS Oft THEIR representatives. OR BY A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT 
OR REPRESENTATIVE THEREOF, OR BY ANY CORPORATION ORGANIZED 
UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY? (1/ ye*. ptK dttaxU) 



(5 ANY OFFICER OR MORE THAN ONEFOURTH OF THE DIRECTORS OF 
THE CONTROLLING CORPORATION AN ALIEN? {// V«. anawtT Hem* 
I aiid J btlow) 



TOTAL NUMBER OF DIRECTORS IN CONTROLLING CORPORATION 



LIST ALL OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS WHO ARE ALIENS IN CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION AND GIVE BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL STATEMENT FOR EACH 

ALIEN 



IS THE CONTROLLING CORPORATION IN TURN CONTROLLED 

BY OTHER COMPANIES? (// yet, ailaeh information for each I — ] 

of thtte conlroilino eompanite cottring th« information re- I 1 

quttUd in ilema E through J, above) 



D' 



30 IF APPLICANT IS AN UNINCORPORATED 

ASSOCIATION. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: 



I OFFICER OR DIRECTOR OF THE ASSOCIATION AN ALIEN? 



ARE MORE THAN ONE FIFTH OF THE VOTING MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIA 
TION ALIENS OR REPRESENTATIVES OF ALIENS FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS 
OR REPRESENTATIVES THEREOF OR CORPORAIIONS ORGANIZED UNDER 

THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY' 



IS THE ASSOCIATION DiRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROLLED BY ANY 
OTHER ORGANIZATION? ;// V't. give detatUd explonatton) 



USE THIS SPACE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL INFORMATION OR REMARKS 



^dd m^ S^ / ^ /S-oo Su/v3ef 




gnatxir© 






WILLFUL FALSE STATEMENTS MADE ON THIS FORM ARE PUN- 
ISHABLE BY FINE AND IMPRISONMCNT. U.S. CODE, TITLE 18. 
SECTION 1001. 



ALL THE STATEMENTS M*OE IN THE APPLICATION AND ATTACHED EXHIBITS ARE CONSIDERED MATERIAL REPRESENTATIONS. AND ALL THE EXHIBITS ARE 
A MATERIAL PART HEREOF AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN AS IF SET OUT IN FULL IN THE APPLICATION. 

I CERTIFY THAT: 

The applicant has (or has ordered from the Government Printing Office) a current copy of Part 19 of the Commission's rules governing 
the Citizens Radio Service; 

The applicant waives any claim to the use of any particular frequency or of the ether as against the regulatory power of the United 
States because of the previous use of the same, whether by license or otherwise . 

The applicant accepts full responsibility for the operation of. and will retain control of any citizens radio station licensed to him pursuant 
to this application ; 

The station will be operated m full accordance with the applicable law and the current rules of the Federal Communications Commission , 

The said station will not be used for any purpose contrary to Federal, State or local law ; 

The applicant will have unlimited access to the radio equipment and effective measures will be taken to prevent its use by unauthorized 
persons ; and 

The statements in this application are true, complete, and correct to the best ofy^y knowledge and belief and a^^made in good faith. 

Z. ^I .^ / - OATe SI^EDt 



DO NOT OPERATE UNTIL VOU HAVE 
YOUR OWN LICENSE. 

USE OF ANY CALL SIGN NOT VOUR 
OWN IS PROHIBITED. 



SIGNATUREi 



KCheck apprdp^'fate>T>ox below): 

l^TKT^DtVIDUAL | 1 MEMBER OF i 1 OFFICER OF APPLICANT i 1 OFFICIAL OF 

I ) APPLICANT I APPLICANT J CORPORATION OB GOVERNMENTAL 



PARTNERSHIP 



ASSOCIATION 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINIImG OFFICE IH]-O-e94-fl0l 



2570 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



Robert Fuller Exhibit No. 1-B 



FCC FORM 5« 

n£vis£0 lur iiu 



C£ A 



^ 
^ 



^— ' / ' LiNJTED STUItS OF AMERICA 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 
WASMIN&ION. D.C. Jo^y 

APPLICATION FOR CLASS B, C. OR O STATION LICENSE IN THE 

CITIZENS RADIO SERVICE 



FORM APPPOVED 

auCX^CT BUREAU NO. U-HIU.IO 



DO 


NOT 


WRITE 


IN 


THIS 


BLO(^K 


i ' 


'i. 




^ 


CrO 














3':8 




.» 


nrir;.''-' 














L 




■■■: 


T- 


;-,. •:•«•<.. 



1. Appliralinn for Class A station licrnsr muni be filprf on FCC FORM 400. 

2. Complete on typewriter or print clcarly. 

3. Br sure appliration in nignM and dan^d. Mail application to Frderal Com- 
munirations Commission. Gettysburg, Pa., 1732S. 

4. Fnclo-"*- anprnpriale f.-o w.lh application, if rrquirrd. DO NOT SUBMIT 
("ASH. Makr rhiok of monry ord« r payahlc to F«-drraI Communiratinna 
Ci.mmission. (Soc Tart ID. Volume VI of FCC rules to drtprminc whether 
B frc IS required with this application } 



NAME OF APPLICANT 



BUSINESS NAi*E |0(t LAST liAME. IF AM INDIVIDUAL) 



/'/y.L / c- /f C >y^ yy / rA /T.. .;/ 5 ':r.y , 



FIRST NAME (IF AN INCMVIOUAU 



MIDDL£ INITIAL 



IF AN INDIVIDUAL OPERATING UNDER A TRADE NAME GIVE INDIVIDUAL 
NAME. OR IF PARTNERSHIP. LIST NAMES OF PARTNERS \Uo nol rrprtU 
any name uacd in tUm t) 



LAST NAMES 



^l/lUR 



/^Ul l e/^ 



/?o/e/? 



r 



/^/?//-/v pes 



14/ 



M. 



MAILING ADDRESS 



NUMBCfl AND STREET 



PO P,o^ t?/? 



/l^ u/V A «-•' C 



COUNTT OR EQUIVALENT SUBDIVISION 



Aj^ 



CLASSIFICATION OF APPLICANT (Ste xn»lTuction») 



I I INDIVIDUAL j~| ASSOCIATION Q] ] 

[^ PARTNERSHIP F"] CORPORATION [~] OTHER {Sptci/y): 



CLASS OF STATION {Cheek only oiu) 



D' 



D' 



0' 



IS THIS APPLICATION TO MODIFY OR RENEW AN EXISTING STATION LICENSE) 
[ I VEt (CiM eaU ■ign); [^ NO 



OO YOU NOW MOLD ANY STATION LICENSE. OTHER THAN THAT COVERED BY ITEM 6. 
OF THE SAME CLASS AS THAT REQUESTED BY THIS APPLICATION? 



D' 



0' 



DOES EACH TRANSMITTER TO BE OPERATED APPEAR ON THE COMMIS- 
SION S RADIO EQUIPMENT LIST. PART C OR IF FOR CLASS C OR 
CLASS D STATIONS. IS IT CRYSTAL CONTROLLED' (// n«. aUach 
dtlaiUd dtBcripUojL aet tubparl C of Pari ] 9) 



A WILL APPLICANT OWN ALL THE KADiO EQUIPMENT? (//no, aiuvier 
U and C Itcliiw) 



NAME OF OWNER 



IS THE APPLICANT * PARTY TO A WRITTEMEASE OROTHER AGREEMENT UNDER 
WHICH THE OWNERSHIP OR CONTROL WILL b£ E HERCISECl IN THE SAME MAN. 
NEH AS IF THE EQUIPMENT WERE OWNED BY THE APPLICANT? 



HAS APPLICANT HEAD AND UNDERSTOOD THE PROVISIONS OF PART 19, 
SUBPART D DEALING WITH PERMISSIBLE COMMUNICATIONS FOR WHICH 
THIS CLASS OF STATION MAY BE USEDJ 



WILL THE USE OF THE STATION CONFORM IN ALL RESPECTS WITH THE 
PERMISSIBLE COMMUNICATIONS AS SET FORTH IN PART 19. SUBPART DT 



WILL THE STATION BE OPcRATED BY ANY PERSON OTHER THAN THE 
APPLICANT MEMBERS OF HIS IMMEDIATE FAMILY. OR HIS EMPLOYEES? 
{tf yr*. oUach a sf parole fhrrl It^-ting llie nameti and retationihip of all 
auch pertona and give a detailed recmon for Uuir operaiion of your 
itoiion) 



IF APPLICANT IS AN INDIVIDUAL OR A PARTNERSHIP. ARE YOU OR ANY 
OF THE PARTNERS AN ALIEN? 



IS APPLICANT THE REPRESENTATIVE OF ANY ALIEN OR ANY FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT? Uf ve», explain fully} 



WITHIN 10 YEARS PREVIOUS TO THE DATE OF THIS APPLICATION. HAS 
THE APPLICANT OH ANY PARTY TO THIS APPLICATION BEEN CONVICTED 
IN A FEDERAL STATE OR LOCAL COURT OF ANY CRIME FOR WHICH THE 
PENALTY IMPOSED WAS A FINE OF 1500 OR MORE. OR AN IMPRISONMENT 
OF 6 MONTHS OH MORE' {Sre instructiona. If yet, aUaeh a »cparaU 
ahccl gtvtng drlaiU of taeh nuch convirtion) 



IF APPLICANT iS AN INDIVIDUAL OR A PARTNERSHIP, ARE YOU OR ANY 
PARTNER LESS THAN 1S YEARS OF AGE <LESS THAN 12 YEARS OF AGE IF 
FOR CLASS C STATION LICENSE)* 



YES , NO 



L^ 



y 



y 



IF THE PRINCIPAL LOCATION WHERE THE STATION WILL BC 
USED IS DIFFERENT FROM THE MAILING ADDRESS (ITEM 3), 
GIVE THAT LOCATION. (DO NOT GIVE POST OFFICE BOX OR 

RFD /VO ) 



NUMBER AND STREH 



jAX^^^S^sL^iL^^^r. 



'^ C . ^ l<o <. 



L4 



DO NOT IV 
SCREENING 



(TE IN THIS BOX 






SIGN AND DATE THE APPLICATION ON REVERSE SIDE 



•ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



2571 



Robert Fuller Exhibit No. 1-B— Continued 



19 IF APPLICANT 13 A NONGOVEKNMEyTAL : ^^ 

CORPORATION. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS "^^ ' 



IS COfiPORMiON ORGANIZED UNDER LAWS OF ANY FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT! 



rS ANY OFFICER OR DIRECTOR OF THE CORPORATION AN ALIEN' 



IS MORE THAN ONE FIFTH QP THE CAPITAL STOCK EITHER OWNED OF 
RECORD OR MAY IT BE VOTED BY ALIENS OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES 
OR BY A FORtIGN GOVERNMENT OR REPRESENTATIVE THEREOF. OR BY 
ANY CORPORATION ORGANIZED UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN 
COUNTRY? 



IS APPLICANT DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROLLED BY ANY OTHER 
CORPORATION? (// yta. ausuer iUma £ Ihruu^h K' bd^ju'i 



GIVt NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTROLLING CORPORATION 



UNDER THE LAWS OF WHAT STATE OR COUNTRY IS THE CONTROLLING 

CORPORATION ORGANIZED' 



IS MORE THAN ONE FOURTH OF THE CAPITAL STOCK OF CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION EITHER OWNED OF RECORD OR MAY IT BE VOTED BY 
*' \i ss -jR TMfin nrP"r<^<-NTATivf'^. np nr a roRf ign GovcRnmEmt 
OR REPRESENTATIVE THEREOF, OR BY AN^ CORPORATION ORGANIZED 
UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY? (// yc3, ffiff dttailt) 



IS ANY OFFICER OR MORE THAN ONE FOURTH OF THE DIRECTORS OF 
THE CONTROLLING. CORPORATION AN ALIEN? (If yes. antwer tUma 
I and J btlow) 



TOTAL NUMBER OF DIRECTORS IN CONTROLLING CORPORATION 



LIST ALL OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS WHO ARE ALIENS IN CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION AND GItfE BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL STATEMENT FOR EACH 
ALIEN 



NATIONALITY 



IS THE CONTROLLING CORPORATION IN TURN CONTROLLED 
BY OTHER COMPANIES? (// v'"- aUath informulton fur cacA 
of thetf euntrolttno companies covering the xnfarmaUon te 
quelled \n xUrm £." thfough J, abope) 



n 



IF APPLICANT /S AN UNINCORPORATED 
ASSOCIATIO/V. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS 



IS ANY OFFICER OR DIRECTOR OF THE ASSOCIATION AN ALIEN? 



ARE MORE THAN ONE FIFTH OF THE VOTING MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIA 
HON ALIENS OR RLPRESLNTATIVESOF ALIENS FORI IGN GOVERNMENTS 
OR REPRESENTATIVES THEREOF. OR CORPORATIONS ORGANIZE D UNDER 
THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY? 



IS THE ASSOCIATION DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROLLED BY ANY 
OTHER ORGANIZATION? (// yta. give dituiUd rxplunudoni 



HIS SPACE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL INFORMATION OR REMARKS 



WILLFUL FALSE STATEMENTS MADE ON THIS FORM ARE PUN- 
ISHABLE BY FINE AND IMPRISONMENT. U.S. CODE, TITLE 18. 
SECTION 1001. 



ALL TMt STATEMENTS MADE IN THE APPLICATION AND ATTACHED EXHIBITS ARE CONSIDERED MATERIAL REPRESENTATIONS. AND ALL THE EXHIBITS ARE 
A MATERIAL PART HEREOF AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN AS IF SET OUT IN FULL IN THE APPLICATION. 

I CERTIFY THAT: 

The applicant has (or has ordered from the Government Printing Office) a current copy of Part 19 of the Commission's rules governing 

the Citizens Radio Service, 
The applicant waives any claim to the use of any particular frequency or of the ether as against the regulatory power of the United 

States because of the previous use of the same, whether by license or otherwise . 
The applicant accepts full responsibility for the operation of. and will retain control of any citizens radio station licensed to him pursuant 

to this application ; 
The station will be operated in full accordance with the applicable law and the current rules of the Federal Communications Commission ; 

The ftdid btatiun wiM nof h^ um>H for any pijFpn»o contrary to FpHoral, State ur luLd' low . 

The applicant will have unlimited access to the radio equipment and effective measures will be taken to prevent tls use by unauthorized 
persons . and 

The statements m this application are true, complete, and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief and are made m good faith. 

c.r.>.>T..i,r. / //■' 4 ^ ( / ^^^ '^ -j/i/yLf-L^^ DATE SIGNED. ^ ^ />/ - h ¥l 
{Check appfopriato hot. b9lo<f/): / ( 

□ INDIVIDUAL ff-n MtMBER OF 1 1 OFFICER OF APPLICANT I 1 OFFICIAL OF 
APPLICANT r APPLICANT CORPORATION OR GOVERNMENTAL 

^'-^ PARTNERSHIP ASSOCIATION ENTITY 



DO 


NOT 


OPERATE 


UNTIL VOU 


HAVE 






YOUR 


OWN 


LICENSE. 




USE 


OF 


ANY 


CALL 


SIGN NOT 


YOUR 






OWN 


IS PROHIBITED. 





U.S GOvEhNMENI PHINllnC OFUCt 1963-O-«fl4-«01 
Repfifiled by E F, Johnson Company 



2572 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. I will recall Mr. Houston P. Morris. 

TESTIMONY OP HOUSTON PIERCE MORRIS— Resumed 

The Chairman. Mr. Morris, during this interval when you were 
excused from the stand, I take it you have had oportunity to famil- 
iarize yourself with my stated reasons for the purposes of this hearing. 

Mr. Morris. Right. 

The Chairman. He says he is familiar with the opening statement. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Morris, will you give the committee a brief resume 
of your educational background? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfiilly decline to answer that question for the 
reason I lionestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in viola- 
tion of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 
of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chainnan, in view of the fact Mr. Morris did not 
know the content of your opening statement, the purpose of the hear- 
ings, I shall again ask him to produce the documents called for under 
the subpena. 

You were ordered and directed under the subpena to produce under 
paragraph 1 : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan — Louisiana, Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
America, Inc. — Louisiana and United Klans of America — Louisiana, in your 
possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you as an 
officer and/or member of the above-mentioned organizations. 

I ask you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as commanded by the committee in the subpena 
dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel to do so 
might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, be- 
cause that information is not relevant and germane to any subject 
under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the 
consideration of any legislation, nor is such inquiry within the scope of 
that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted by 
the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. I ask for a direction for the production of documents 
called for in paragraph 1. 

The Chairman. Were you in the hearing room when I explained, 
Mr. Morris, that this subpena asked you to produce documents as an 
officer of the Klan and documents and papers of your own. Do you 
understand that? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Tlie Chairman. I therefore order and direct you to produce those 
documents. 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as commanded by the committee in the subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel to do so might 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2573 

tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me 
by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of xVmerica. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
because that information is not relevant and germane to any subject 
under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the 
consideration of any legislation, nor is such inquiry within the scope 
of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted 
by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. lender part 2 of the subpena, paragraph 2, you are 
directed to produce : 

AH books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or i>ast member and/or officer of the United Klans of America, Inc. — 
Louisiana, Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan — Louisiana and the Original 
Knights of the Klu Klux Klan of America, Inc. — Louisiana, which the "Constitu- 
tion and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be maintained by 
you and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your possession, 
custody or control. 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as commanded by the committee in the subpena 
dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel to do so 
might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendm.ents 5, 1,4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
because that information is not relevant and germane to any subject 
under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the 
consideration of any legislation, nor is such inquiry within the scope 
of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted 
by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. I ask for a direction for the production of documents 
called for in paragraph 2. 

The Chairman. For the reasons indicated, I order and direct the 
witness to produce the documents. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Morris, are you currently a member of the United 
Klans of America, Realm of Louisiana, which operates under the cover 
name of the Louisiana Rescue Service ? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a document, authority to the Central 
Savings Bank & Trust Company, Monroe, Louisiana, issued by the 
president and secretary of the Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club, 
which designates Houston Morris as president and contains the signa- 
ture of Houston P. Morris, signed by Bruce Bairnsfather, secretary, 
and Houston P. Morris, president, and I ask you if you are the Houston 
P. Morris who signed that document. 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 



2574 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

violation of my rights as gruaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

(Document previously marked "Murry Martin Exhibit No. 6." See 
pp. 2369.) 

The Chairman. Mr. Morris, a minute or two ago I ordered you to 
produce documents called for in paraofraph 2. Somehow you did not 
respond. Mr. Appell then went to another question. 

I now again order you to produce the documents called for in 
paragraph 2 of the subpena. 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as commanded by the committee in the subpena 
dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel to do so 
might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
because that infoiTnation is not relevant and germane to any subject 
under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the 
consideration of any legislation, nor is such inquiry within the scope 
of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted 
by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. In view of the witness' claim of privilege and his 
consistent refusal to answer questions, I propose to present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Morris. 

Mr. Morris was the first president and exalted cyclops of the Orig- 
inal Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Klavem in Monroe, Louisiana, 
known by the cover name of the Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club. 
He was the grand kleagle or State organizer of the Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan under the leadership of J. D. Swenson and Royal 
V. Young. He was the grand kleagle — or state organizer, realm or- 
ganizer — of the Original Knights under the leadership of Murry H. 
Martin. He was the leader of a faction which resulted in the removal 
of leadership of Royal V. Young and the succession of Muriy H. 
Martin. 

At the time of the ele<>tion of Murry H. IMartin, a deal was consum- 
mated between Mr. Martin and Mr. Morris whereby Mr. IMorris ^^X)uld 
retain leadership of the organization, and Mr. Martin would retain 
leadership of the organization for 6 months until elections were to be 
held, at which time it was scheduled for Mr. Morris to take over 
the top office. 

Wlien Mr. Martin defeated Mr. Morris in elections in November 
1964, Mr. Morris led dissension within tliat orffanizntioii, and in 1965 
incorporated the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, 
Inc., along with Jack Saucier, 809 Sou^h Eighth Street, Monroe, and 
George Bonner, 1511 Alabama Street, Monroe.^ 

After incorporation, Morris became the Imperial Wizard of the 
organization. 

April 28, 1965, Mr. INIorris addressed a letter to the secretary of state 
informing the secretary of state that he had resigned from the board 

^ See B. J. Sander Exhibit No. 1, committee report, The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan 
Movement, pp. 320-324. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2575 

of directors of the Original Kii Kkix Klan of America, Inc., and 
advised the secretary of state that his letter of resignation had been 
accepted by the board of directors.' 

In May or June of 1965, Mr. Moiris, together with other former 
members of the Original Knights of the Ku Khix Klan of America, 
Inc., met with Imperial Wizard Robert Shelton of the United Klans 
of America and took the bulk of his organization into the United Klans 
of America. 

As the Imperial Wizard, Mr. Morris organized some Klansmen in 
the State of Arkansas. These Arkansas members are now under Mr. 
Shelton's organizational structure in that State. 

Tliis information, Mr. Chairman, leads us to believe that Mr. Mor- 
ris possesses additional information which is both pertinent and rele- 
vant to this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting 
remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Morris, the name of the gentleman w^io just 
made that statement is Mr. Appell. He is under oath just like you, 
and I now give you the opportunity to reply to any portion of that 
statement, to admit or deny the truth of any allegation, and explain 
or modify any part of the statement. 

In addition, I give you the opportunity, if you wish, to offer any 
other matter the committee may deem pertinent to this inquiry. 

Do you wish to avail yourself of this opportunity? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

The Chairman. In that case, Mr. Morris, I inform you that in the 
absence of your rebuttal, or other facts that may come to the atten- 
tion of the committee, the committee will rely upon the accuracy of 
its investigation. 

Do you wish to say anything to that ? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, and 
14 of the Constitution of the TTnited States of America. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

INIr. Appell. Mr. Morris, were you interviewed by me at the Travel 
Lodge Motel in Monroe, Louisiana, on June 16, 1965? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, and 
14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Morris, did vou admit to me during that interview 
that you were a member of the Klan, and that you had recently taken 
your Klan organization, yourself and others, into the TTnited Klans 
of America ? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 



1 See B. J. Saucier Exhibit No. 2, p. 2583. 



2576 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Morris, when I discussed with you income which 
you had received as an organizer for the Khm and asked you whether 
you had reported same on your income tax returns, you advised me you 
had reported it and for me to find it. 

Is that factual, sir ? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. In 1963, did you report $925 of that as public good will 
donations ? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments .5, 4, 1, and 
14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. In 1964, did you report $2,353.65 as donations from 
speeches at political meetings ? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. In discussing the organizational structure of the Klan, 
Mr. Morris, did you advise me that the Klan was a nonviolent organiza- 
tion ? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Did you admit to me that investigating procedures of 
new members was such that people prone to \aolence would not be 
kept out of membership in the Klan ? 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Morris, this next statement I will put to you as a 
fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact. 

When asked what action you would take against a member who was 
guilty of killing a Negro, that you responded, you "don't give a damn 
if they went out and killed 100." 

Mr. Morris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 4, 1, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman, to ask of 
this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

The committee stands in recess. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon, at 5 :10 p.m., Thursday, January 6, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Friday, January 7, 1966.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 

THE UNITED STATES 

Part 3 



FRIDAY, JANUARY 7, 1966 

United States House of Representatives 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 

Washington, D.G. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, as 
reconstituted for the January 7 hearings, met, pursuant to recess, at 
10:20 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office Building, 
Washington, D.C., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; Charles L. Weltner, of Georgia; and John H. 
Buchanan, Jr., of Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and Bu- 
chanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator; and Philip R. Manuel, investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

As chairman of the full Committee on Un-American Activities, I 
hereby constitute a committee of three to conduct the hearings today, 
of the following: myself, as chairman of the subcommittee; Mr. Welt- 
ner, of Georgia ; and Mr. Buchanan, of Alabama. And, of course, two 
members constitute a quorum of this subcommittee, and I announce 
the presence of a quorum. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I call to the witness stand Robert T. 
Rester. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear, sir, the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Rester. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT T. RESTER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL S. INGRAM 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, will you state your full name for the record, 
please. 
Mr. Rester. Robert T. Rester. 

2577 



2578 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr, Rester. Yes, sir, I am. 

Mr. Appell. Would counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Ingram. Michael S. Ingram, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, are you appearing today in accordance 
with the subpena served upon 'you on December 28, 1965, which calls 
for your appearance on January 10, and you are appearing this morn- 
ing because of an arrangement between your coimsel and the com- 
mittee? 

Mr. Rester. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Rester. Bogalusa, Louisiana, May 3, 1930. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Rester. Bogalusa, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Do you reside at a street and number? ' 

Mr, Rester, 1353 Edward Lane. 

Mr. Appell. Do you have a business address in Bogalusa? 

Mr. Rester, 311 First Avenue, 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, would you give the committee your educa- 
tional background ? 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to incriminate me and cite as the basis of this refusal the 
1st, the 4th, the 5th, and the 14th amendments of the United States 
Consitution. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee your employment back- 
ground ? 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, are you a member of the bar of the State of 
Louisiana as well as the city attorney of Bogalusa? 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer the question on the grounds prev- 
iously stated, sir. ' 

Mr. Appell, Mr, Rester, I hand you a copy of the articles of incor- 
poration of the Anti-Communist Christian Association. I invite your 
attention to page 2 of tlie articles of incorporation, specifically Article 
V. Registered Agents, wliicli reads, "The full names and post office 
addresses of the corporation's registered agents are : Robert T. Rester, 
311 First Avenue, P.O. Box 1160, Bogalusa, Louisiana ; Saxon Fanner, 
315 East Fifth Street, Bogalusa, Louisiana." And I ask you if you 
are the Robert T, Rester indicated as one of tlie two agents. 

Mr. Rester. Sir, I decline to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Saxon Farmer Exhibit No. 1.") 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, the three-judge court 

The Chairman. Please speak up a little bit, both of you. It is hard 
for us to follow. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, the three-judge court in New Orleans 
which considered an injunction against certain residents of Bogalusa, 
including the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and the iA.nti- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2579 

Communist Christian Association, found that the Anti-Communist 
Christian Association was a front or|i;anized to operate as a Klan-type 
organization. As one of the agents of tliat corporation, is the finding 
of the tliree-judge court factual ? 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer the question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, at the time these incorporation papers were 
drawn — and according to the corporation papers, they were drawn 
"the 1st day of the month of December, in the year of Our Lord, One 
Thousand Nine Hundred and Sixty Four," — were you a member of 
the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you were the exalted cyclops of a unit in Bogalusa. 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, as the exalted cyclops of a unit and under 
the constitution by which the organization was supposed to govern 
itself, there was in each Klavem a klokan chief. I ask you who was 
the klokan chief of your Klavern. 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. The klokan chief was supposed to appoint six members 
to an organization known within the Klavem and Klan as the wreck- 
ing crew. Who were the members of the wrecking crew of your 
Klavem ? 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, in light of the admissions of Saxon Farmer 
and Charles Christmas and the admission of counsel representing the 
Klan, Anti-Communist Christian Association, as well as the defend- 
ants in that action — I might point out you were not a defendant — 
members did in fact engage in violent acts. I would like to ask you 
whether or not you are quoted correctly in a syndicated article by 
Murray Kempton which quotes you as saying that the town of Boga- 
lusa owes the Klan a vote of thanks. I show you the article to which 
I am referring. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Rester. Sir, I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

(Document marked "Robert, Rester Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, do you know Clayton Hines of T^ees Creek 
near Bogalusa ? 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer that, sir, on the gi'ounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. According to Mr. Hines' testimony before the three- 
judge court, he was the secretary of the Klavem of which you were 
the exalted cyclops, and through him the Government introduced in 



2580 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

evidence a list of, I believe, 151 members of the Klan in the Bog'alusa 
area, and Mr. Hines testified that the list was made up in your office 
with your assistance. I ask you if his testimony was true. 

Mr. Rester. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions to ask of 
this witness. I ask that the documents referred to be entered in the 
record at the place where they were mentioned. 

The Chairman". The documents will be inserted in the record at the 
respective points indicated. 

(The chairman, Mr. Appell, and Mr. Ingram confer.) 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rester, are you now a member of any Klan-type 
organization ? 

Mr. Rester. No, sir. 

The Chairman. And that is your statement under oath ? 

Mr. Rester. Yes, sir ; that is my statement. 

The Chairman. And you are an attorney and you know the mean- 
ing of an oath ? 

Mr. Rester. Correct. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions to ask of 
this witness. 

The Chairman, The witness is excused. 

Mr. Rester. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. B. J. Saucier. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimonv you are about to give will he 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Saucier. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF B. J. "JACK" SATJCIER 

Mr. Appell. Would you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Saucier? 

Mr. Saucier. I have initials only. B. J. Saucier. Jack is a nick- 
name. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in response to a sub- 
pena served upon you on the 26th day of October 1965 at 608 Winns- 
boro Road, Monroe, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Saucier. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Saucier, you are not accompanied by counsel. Do 
you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Saucier. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Saucier, T want to tell you that if von wish 
you may invoke the fifth amendment at any point you think you 
ought to. T say that because you won't have the benefit of advice 
from counsel. If you exercise that ricfht, I will accept it in the same 
manner and treat it in the same wav as if you had counsel. 

Mr. Saucier. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Saucier, Attorney James Venable advised me that 
he was your attorney or is your attorney, that he had given you legal 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2581 

advice, and that it was agreeable with him that yon testify without 
him. Is that right, sir? 

Mr. Saucier. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did ^fr. Venable exphiin to you the purposes for which 
the committee is sitting and holding these hearings as outlined in the 
opening statement of Chairman AVillis in October of last year? 

Mr. Saucier. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. ]Mr. Saucier, paragraph 1 of the subpena served upon 
you called for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans. of America, Inc., and Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and 
affiliated organizations, namely, Choshota Parish Unit of the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by 
you or available to you as member and/or officer of the Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana, or the United Klans of America, Louisiana. 

I ask you to produce those documents, Mr. Saucier. 

Mr. Saucier. Sir, I respectfully refuse to do so. I earnestly believe 
that it might tend to incriminate me and violate my constitutional 
rights as provided under article I, article IV, article V, and the 14th 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. Mr. Saucier, I think you were in the hearing room 
and heard me explain that this subpena was served on you as an 
officer of the Klan group and to produce those records in that capacity. 
You are aware of that? 

Mr. Saucier. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. In view of that, I order and direct you to produce 
those documents. 

Mr. Saucier. I respectfully refuse to do so on the previously stated 
grounds. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Saucier, paragraph 2 called for you to produce: 

ah books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past member and/or officer of the United Klans of America, 
Louisiana and Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Louisiana which the 
"Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be main- 
tained by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your 
possession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce those documets. 

Mr. Saucier. I respectfully decline to on the previously stated 
groimds. 

The Chairman. For the reasons I stated, I order and direct you 
to produce those documents. 

Mr. Saucier. I respectfully decline to do so on the previously stated 
grounds. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Saucier, when and where were you bom ? 

Mr. Saucier. I was born July 2, 1927, in the rural area of Winns- 
boro, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you presently reside? 

Mr. Saucier. 809 South Eightli Street, Monroe, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Saucier, would you give the committee the benefit 
of your educational background? 



2582 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Saucier. I respectfully refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds that I earnestly believe it might tend to incriminate me and 
further violate my constitutional rights under article I, article IV, 
article V, and the 14th amendment of the Constitution of the United 
States. 

Mr. Appell. Will you give the committee the benefit of your em- 
ployment backgromid? 

Mr. Saucier. I respectfully de(iline to answer on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. * 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Saucier, were you a member of the Original 
Knights of the Ku I^ux Klan at the time said organization was 
under the leadership of Koyal V. Young? 

Mr. Saucier. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Under the leadership of Murry H. Martin, were you 
the exalted cyclops of the Ouachita Parish Unit? 

Mr. Saucier. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know Willis J. Kidd to be the exalted cyclops 
of the Swartz Unit? 

Mr. Saucier. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In November 1964 at an election of jthe Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, HoustoA P. Morris sought the position 
of Imperial Wizard and was defeated. 

Did you, Mr. Kidd, and others subsequently break with that organi- 
zation as a result of the dissension that grew out of his defeat ? 

Mr. Saucier. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Saucier, I hand you a copy of an incorporation — 
articles of incorporation of an organization designated as the Original 
Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc. 

I invite your attention to the fact that the incorporators are listed 
in this document as being Houston P. Morris, 112 Texas Avenue, Mon- 
roe, Louisiana ; Jack Saucier, 809 South 8th Street, Monroe, Louisiana; 
and George Bonner, 1511 Alabama Street, Monroe, Louisiana. 

I hand you this document for you to review and put it to you as 
a fact, and ask you to affirm or cteny the fact, that you are the Jack 
Saucier named in this document. 

Mr. Saucier. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "B. J. Saucier Exhibit No. 1.") 

Mr. Appell. According to a letter obtained from tlie Office of Sec- 
retary of State, the State of Louisiana, Houston P. INIorris resigned 
from this organization, according to the letter dated April 28, 1965. 

Will you tell the committee what caused Houston P. Morris to break 
with the organization? 

Mr. Saucier. I respectfully decline to do so on tlie same grounds 
previously stated. 

(Document marked "B. J. Saucier Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2583 

B. J. Saucier Exhibit No. 2 

/'bnywe^ LouLdLana 
ApAll 28, l<^S 



y 




SecA£yLaAy of. State. 

State, oji LoLuM-ana /^ "^ 

(jopLLaJ. LiuLixii/tg. 

HcUon. f^uQj^, LouL^iafWL 

DeaA Siyt: 

JihLd La to in(x>/vn uuu that I kave leAJj^ea. fjwm the 
boa/id of. Diji£ctoA/i of. ihA^OriiqinxjJ. Ku KJjxk ULcfi of AneAJ-Ca, 
lac \ \ letieA. of njeyiignation. ka^ been ^uhmLtted and acce.pied 
'~5i( ihe. ixtoAd of OLnecton^ of the O/vigUnaJ. Ku Kiux Kian of 
/hiejvic, lac 

■ 'lea/;e njsmove. mu none fjwm the chaAteA on file tuLih ^u/i 
office. 



l< ^ 










f"-^ 



Mr. Appell. Wasn't it again because of dissension within a Klan 
group in which Mr. Morris wanted to take the bulk of the organization 
into the United Klans of America? 

Mr. Saucier. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
previously stated grounds. 

Mr, Appell. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Appell. I call Mr. Willis J. Kidd. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand, sir. 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 17 



2584 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. KiDD. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIS JAMES KIDD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. AVill you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Kidd? 

Mr. Kidd. Willis James Kidd. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here this morning in accordance 
with a subpena served upon you on the 26tli day of October 1965 at 
Music Road in Swartz, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Kidd. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Kidd, Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. I am Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law^, 501 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born, Mr. Kidd ? 

Mr. Kidd. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the rea- 
son that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights guaranteed to me in the amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Kidd, you have been a member of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan under Mr. Young, the Original Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan under Mr. Martin, the Original Ku Klux Klan 
of America, Inc., as well as the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Kidd. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 
4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr, Appell. Mr, Chairman, in view of the witness" claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Kidd. 

Mr. Kidd was born on June 11, 1932, in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana. 
He is employed as assistant office manager at the Columbia Carbon 
Company, Swartz, Louisiana. He served in the United States Navy 
from 1952 to 1956. He has been a member of Ku Klux Klan organi- 
zations since 1968, He recently held membership, in the office of 
exalted cyclops, of the Swartz Taiit, Original Ku Klux Klan of Amer- 
ica, Lie, and the United Klans of America, Inc. 

In April 1965, he was the Imperial Dragon of the Original Ku Klux 
Klan of America, Inc., which organization was incorporated by 
Houston P. Morris and Jack Saucier, the previous witness. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that he possesses addi- 
tional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this in- 
quiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

The Chairman, You have heard the sworn statement of the com- 
mittee's investigator. You now have an opportunity to reply to any 
portion of that statement, to affirm or challenge the accuracy of the 
information, or to explain any part of tlie statement. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2585 

In addition, yon may, if you desire, offer any other matters the com- 
mittee might deem relevant to tliis inquiry. 

Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Mr. KiDD. I respectfully decline to answer that question based on 
the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. In that case, Mr. Kidd, I must inform you that, 
absent your rebuttal, or other factors that may come to the attention of 
the committee, we will continue to rely upon the accuracy of the 
investigation. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Kidd, were you formally affiliated in the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan with Jack Saucier, the witness that 
preceded you ? 

Mr. Kidd. I respectfully decline to answer that question based on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Thomas Frank Reagan ? 

Mr. Kidd. I respectfully decline to answer that question upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that he is the great titan for the Northern Province of 
Louisiana, United Klans of America, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 

Mr. Kidd. I respectfully decline to answer that question based upon 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Kidd, it is information coming to myself that 
you and Houston Morris have gone over to the United Klans of 
America under the leadership of Robert Shelton. Is that true? 

Mr. Kidd. I respectfully decline to answer that question based upon 
the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I think I have confirmatoi-y evidence along that 
line. 

Thank you. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Jack Helm. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear, sir, the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Helm. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF JACK M. HELM, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your name for the record, Mr. Helm? 
Mr. Helm. Jack M'. Helm. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing this morning, Mr. Helm, in ac- 
cordance w^ith a subpena served upon you ? 
Mr. Helm. Yes, I am. 
Mr. Appell. On October 26, 1965 ? 
Mr. Helm. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. At 3141, DeSaix Street, New Orleans, Louisiana? 
Mr. Helm. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You are represented by counsel ? 
Mr. Helm. Yes, I am, sir. 



2586 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, Koom 
501, First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Helm, under the conditions of the subpena and 
an attachment thereto which was made a part of the subpena, you 
were commanded to bring with you and to produce before the com- 
mittee documents called for in paragraph 1 as follows : 

All books, records, documents, corresiwndence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Em- 
pire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and aflBliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, Louisiana Rescue Service 
in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available to 
you as Grand Klaliff, State of Louisiana, and/or E.G. New Orleans Unit of the 
Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., 
also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I ask you to produce those documents, Mr. Helm. 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in its subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so might 
tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me 
by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by the committee under the subpena dated October 14, 
1965, for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject 
under investigation; that the same would not aid the Congress in the 
consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry 
within the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of 
the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted 
January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
deliver the documents called for in paragraph 1. 

The Chairman. Mr. Chalmers, I assume that previous stipulations 
which we previously made to the effect that you acknowledge that the 
subpena was served upon him in the capacity stated in the subpena 
and that he is being asked to produce the documents in that capacity; 
is that correct? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. In that case, Mr. Helm, I order and direct you to 
produce those documents. 

Mr. ITeiju. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Helm, pargraph 2 of the subpena calls upon you to 
produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you. in your capacity 
as present or past member or officer of the United Klans of America, Inc., 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Gon.stitution and Laws" of said orga- 
nization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of 
said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I ask y-ou to produce those documents. 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated, sir. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2587 

The Chair3ian. Is the same stipiihition agreed to, Mr. Chahners? 

Mr. Chalmers. It is, Mr. Cliairinaii. 

The Chairmax. I order and direct you to produce those documents. 

Mr, Helm. I respectfully decline to deliver to the connnittee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
orounds previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Paragraph 3 of the subpena, Mr. Helm, calls upon 
you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. Individual Income Tax Return," for the calendar years 1958 through 1964, 
filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, In- 
ternal Revenue Service. 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Helm, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Helm. Houston, Texas. 

Mr. Appell. What date, sir? 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by the amendments 5, 
1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view" of the fact that the witness 
has stated that he was born in Houston, Texas, I ask that he be directed 
to give to the committee the date of his birth. 

The Chairman. Pardon ? 

Mr. Appell. In view of the fact, in response to my question as to 
Vv'hen and where he was born, he responded "Houston, Texas," and 
then invoked constitutional i^rivileges with respect to the date of his 
birth, I ask that he be directed to give to the record the date of his 
birth. 

The Chairman. Of course, I could do that. It is introductory and 
preliminary, and I can visualize absolutely no basis for the invocation 
of any constitutional privileges, unless he wants to enumerate the rea- 
son. I will order and direct him to answ^er. 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the w^itness' claim of pri- 
vilege and his consistent refusal to answer questions or to produce 
documents demanded of him, I present to the committee the results 
of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Helm. 

Mr. Helm was born February 7, 1910, at Houston, Texas. He is 
the operations manager for the'L. P. Smith Construction Company, 
New Orleans, Louisiana. He is a member of the United Klans of 
America, Eealm of Louisiana, which is known by the cover name of 
Louisiana Rescue Service. He is the exalted cyclops of the New 
Orleans, Louisiana, Unit of the United Klans of America. 

In March of 1965 he attended a convention of the Realm of Loui- 
siana, which at that time operated under the cover name of the Ber- 
nice Sportsman Club. At this meeting lie was elected Grand Klaliff 
or State vice president of the Realm of Louisiana. 



2588 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

On May 15 and 16, 1965, Mr. Helm, along with Charles T. Miller 
of New Orleans, and Lloyd Barnett, who gave an address of New 
Orleans, D. B. Jackson of Baton Rouge — correction — of Bernice — 
and Gill Harris, Jr., of Bernice; he attended a meeting of Grand 
Dragons, Imperial officers, and other UKA — United Klans of Amer- 
ica — leaders from many States at the Eola Hotel in Natchez, Mis- 
sissippi. 

This meeting was sponsored by the Mississippi Realm of the United 
Klans of America known as the Mississippi Rescue Service. 

l^Tiile a Klan official, ISIr. Helm, who speaks at numerous Klan 
rallies, is always introduced as a leader of the Citizens Comicil of 
Greater New Orleans. With such an introduction, he spoke at the 
following rallies. 

The Chairman. Do you mean Klan rallies ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. Rallies of the United Klans of America in 
most instances. 

May 22, 1965, at a public rally near Tioga, Louisiana. 

July 17, 1965, at Crossroads Community, Poplarville, Mississippi. 

On October 24, 1965, at Philadelphia, Mississippi, where he shared 
the platform with Sheriff Lawrence Rainey, Deputy Sheriff Cecil 
Price, and Wayne Alton Roberts, all three of whom were arrested for 
the slaying in Philadelphia, Mississippi, of the three civil rights 
workers. 

At that rally Helm stated, and I quote, "No congressional inves- 
tigation will ever deteriorate this organization. We'll still be here 
when they are dead and buried — and I hope it will be soon." 

On October 27, 1965, at Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi, Mr. Helm 
spoke, where he stated that the Federal Government was corrupt with 
homosexuals and that many Communists had high jobs. 

On October 30, 1965, at Natchez, Mississippi, where he warned of a 
Communist takeover in the L'nited States and urged his listeners to 
not register their guns because — and I quote— "You've got to have 
something in your house to keep those savages" — referring to Com- 
munists — "from your door." 

On June 5, 1965, Helm attended a meeting of the Americans for 
the Preservation of the White Race at Natchez, Mississippi. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Helm pos- 
sesses information which is both pertinent and relevant to this in- 
quiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Helm, you have heard the sworn statement of 
the committee's investigator, Mr. Appell, who is under oath just like 
you are. 

You now have the opportunity to reply to any portion of that state- 
ment, confirm or challenge the accuracy of the information, or to ex- 
plain any part of it. In addition, you may, if you desire, offer any 
other matter the committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 

Do you care to avail yourself of this opportunity ? 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question based upon 
the grounds previously stated, sir. 

The Chairman. I must inform you in that case that, absent your 
rebuttal, or other facts that may come to the attention of the com- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



2589 



mittee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. 

Now, bearing that in mind, have you anything to say? 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question based upon 
the grounds previously stated, sir. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Helm, you do quite a bit of traveling for the L. P. 
Smith Construction Company and represent to the Government sizable 
deductions for traveling expenses for use of automobile and other 
items necessary to travel. Do you include as legitimate business 
deductions those expenses wdiich you incur in travel as an official of 
the United Klans of America ? 

]Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answ^er that question based upon 
the grounds previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Helm, we spoke of the meeting at Natchez, Mis- 
sissippi. I hand you a copy of the registration card of the Eola Hotel. 

I ask you if the card, which is one of the cards reproduced on this 
sheet that I am handing you, miderscored, containing the name "Jack 
M. Helm," is your signature there ? 

]Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question based upon 
the grounds previously stated, sir. 

(Document marked "Jack Helm Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 



Jack Helm Exhibit No. 1 

EOLA HOTEL natcmkz. Mississippi 

Registration Cam» 



V*. 



ItoUat 



NAMUI 



^^^^JtOL. ^t HzJ' 






STftCKT 



CITY AND STAT 






RKPWCSENTING 



T77 



REMARK* 



Ao>erteMi Hotel ll.r»..t« C«_ 3M-23J W, O»*»rio »l.. Chiogo 10 HL 



'^^ 



#» 



M«. IN ^AMTV 



/ 



ccnB 



2590 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. In addition to the persons from Louisiana whom I set 
forth in my statement with respect to you, were the following indi- 
viduals also present for that meeting : 

Kuby Lee Brown; Nick Caulda; Robert E. Scoggin; W. S. Cox of 
Spartanburg, South Carolina; and Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Bedford 
of eJacksonviUe, Florida; Morris P. Perkins and Dajmy Hawkins of 
Jackson, Mississippi; Robert M. Creel of Bessemer, Alabama — the 
Grand Dragon of Alabama; Don Cothran, the Grand Dragon of 
Florida; B. W. Waldrup of Jackson, Mississippi; Calvin F. Craig, 
the Grand Dragon of Atlanta, Georgia ; Raymond R. Anderson, the 
Grand Dragon of Tennessee ; Robert M. Shelton, the Imperial Wizard 
of the United Klans of America; Clint Low of Jasper, Georgia. 

Were those persons whose names I have read to you present at that 
meeting ? 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question based upon 
the grounds previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you the reproduction of an article which ap- 
])eared in the Alexandria, Louisiana, Toion Talk of May 24, 19G5, a 
story relating to a Klan rally. 

It contains a picture of two men. In handing you this document. I 
ask you if you know the other man at the microphone to be Dr. J. M. 
Edwards of Jonesboro, Louisiana, a chiropractor who is the Grand 
Dragon of the United Klans of America for the State of Ix)uisiana. 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question based upon 
the grounds previously stated, sir. 

(Document marked "Jack Helm Exhibit No. 2" appears on p. 2591.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Helm, in March of 1963 were you president of an 
organization known as Parents and Friends of Catholic Children, 
Inc. ? 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to have introduced into the 
record of Mr. Helm's testimony the registration card of the Eola 
Hotel, the newspaper clipping from the Alexandria, Louisiana, Town 
Talk^ and an article which appeared in the Times-Picayune of March 
25, 1963, relating to Mr. Helm and the Parents and Friends of Catholic 
Children, Inc. 

The Chairman. Tliey will be introduced in the record at the points 
indicated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Helm, the Times-Picayune story relating to the 
Parents and Friends of Catholic Children, Inc., states that Archbishop 
Cody, dealing with the organization I have mentioned, said that that 
organization was "not a recoiruized Catholic organization." and in 
response to an inquiry from the press in which you were asked about 
Arclibishop Cody's statement, you are quoted in this paper as saying, 
" 'Well, we have news for him. AVe don't recognize Archbishop 
Cody.' " 

Were you quoted correctly ? 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



2591 



Jack Helm Exhibit No. 2 
[Alexandria, La., lowtt Talk, May 24. 1965) 




(Town Talk Staff Photo) 

Dr. J. M. Edwards of Jonesboro, right, grand dragon of 
Louisiana of the United Klans of America Inc., introduces 
Jack Helm of New Orleans, approaching the microphone, 
who is a leader of the Citizens Council of Greater New 

I Orleans and was the principal speaker during a klan rally 

I near Tioga Saturday night. 

I 'Invocation' at Klan Rally Is Not 
According to Grand Dragon's Hoyle 

, A Klu Klux Klan rally went 
I off as scheduled Saturday night 
' near Tioga with one unexpected 
performance. 

Dr. J. M. Edwards, grand 
dragon of the United Klans of 
America Inc., realm of Louisi- 
ana, called for a minister from 
the audience to open the rally. 

An unidentified man ap- 
proached the microphone as the 
members of the crowd began 
to bow their heads. 

"I don't see how you in the 
name of Jesus Christ can con- 
duct hatred for any man" he 
said and walked from the plat- 
form. 

Dr. Edwards, a Jonesboro vet- 
erinarian, gave the invocation 
and said of the man "we pray 
our richest blessing upon him; 
may the hatred in him be re- 
moved." 

Jack Helm, leader of the Cit- 
izens Council of Greater New 



Orleans and principal speaker, 
said "I'm excited after I saw^ 
this performance here tonight." 

Helm spoke for an hour and 
covered almost every subject 
from the United Nations to 
birth control to Selma and Bog- , 
alusa. 

The crowd was estimated at 
some 600 people; Helm said 
5,000. 

He promised 125,000 people at 
a Baton Rouge rally June 4 
when "Big John, that's McKeith- 
en, had better go to Europe."' 

After the Baton Rouge rally 
the council is sponsoring a train 
trip to Washington to protest 
civil rights activities by the gov- 
ernment. Helm said $60 would 
buy a round trip ticket. 

The program was concluded 
with Dr. Edwards explaining 
the meaning of a cross lighting 
ceremony held with 15 robed 
klansmen behind the platform. 

Dr. Edwards, the grand drag- 
on, is not the Dr. James M. Ed- 
wards of Pineville. 



2592 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



{Tirms-Pieayune article of March 25, 1963, marked "Jack Helm 
Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 

Jack Helm Exhibit No. 3 
[New Orleans, La., Times-Picayune, March 25, 1963] 



RMIAIffi 



sxvx 



PARBfTSGROUP 

Snyt Catlkolic Church U 
Tlaying Politior 



SUte Itep^ John F. "Jack" 
]Uu o( J«aBT«m PuMk Sunday 
aceuaad ttia CathoUe Church ol 
"pUying politics" in workiat 
lor tntegratkn o( Nafroat Into 
aU-«rhltc schools and aU^whit* 
aalghhorhnods 

"The Negro bkic vote controls 
the eiectlqn of the PreiUent o( 
tha United SUtaa," Rau dt- 
elarad. "The Church, by co> 
oparatlnf. can play politics to 
g«t todaral aid-roayba." ha 



)Uu addrasaed a 

by tha Parants 
ol Catholie 
Bkm In ftud's rkmar Room. 
Vm St Oauda av«.. 



•NOT AITACXDf Q* OnJBCH 

"It hurts evaryooa o( us here 
to dtsagre* wlttt our Catholic 
clarty-" f^*! stated 



not atUckin^ Holy, Mother 
Church. We are attorkin* ttw 
hierarchy of the Catholk Church 
tn tha Archd k xaa e of New Or- 
leaiw," ha said. 

He said An^^tishop John P 
Oody was "one jnan who came 
down here and did nothinc but 
talk nnanr«s." 

Referring to the archdioceset 
new central fund. Helm said the 
archbishop "has tsken the tan 
out ci raising money by church 
festivals. Utile penny parties 
and thlnes Uke that." 

ASKS Accomwo 

Helm sa d the Catholic Church 
h Violet. La.. haA^sed some 
$30,000 through these means 
but It all had to be turned over 
to the archdlocesan fund. "No* 
satisfied with that $30,000, the 
srchblshop went kito the Altar 
Society and took the few hundred 
dollars they had." 

The Parents and Friends of 
Catholic Children Inc.. asked 
the archbishop to account foe 
the dispotitlon of funds turned 
over to him by the churches of 
the srphrtiocMe. According to 
Helm the answer was: 'C^iery 
is rejected." 

••Cod>"8 letter of reply said: 
This Is not a recognixed Cath 



Jaelc M. Helm. preskScnt oflolic organization.-" Helm de- 



Puanta and Frienda cf OathoHc 
Children Inc.. stresaad that "Wa 
•ra devout and practicing 
Roman Catholics and we are 



clared 

"Well, we have news for 
him." Helm added. "We dont 
recognize Aichbishop Oody 



Mr. Appell. Were you affiliated with any Klau organization at the 
time you made that statement? 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question based upon 
(lie grounds previously stated, sir. 

Mr ArPELL. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Helm, did you become iiii officer or president 
of that Parents and Friends of Catholic Children, Inc., organization 
by direction of anyone liigher than you in the Khui hierarchy . 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question biised upon 
the grounds previously stated, sir. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2593 

The Chairman. You seem to have smiled when I asked that ques- 
tion. Is there any reason for it ? Do you care to talk about it? I will 
be fflad to hear Avhatever you have to say. 

Mr. Helm. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Helm, if I understand your program cor- 
rectly, I believe Mr. Appell said you stated in a rally that this com- 
mittee was iiot going to be able to destroy your organization, that 
your organization would continue to exist when we were dead and 
buried and you hoped it would be soon. I further understand you 
said in regard to the archbisliop that you intend to fire the arch- 
bishop and bury the committee. 

I don't ask for an answer to that, but I will say this: If this is your 
attitude, there are forces in this counti-y that have for a long time 
tried to destroy this committee and the vital function it fulfills for 
the Congress and the American people, and I would predict if the 
Ku Klux Klan joins hands with the Communist Party to destroy this 
committee that you will be unsuccessful in that endeavor. 

I note from what I am hearing and reading that such a joining of 
hands in the vilification and attempted destruction of the functions of 
this committee would seem to be the purpose of statements such as the 
one quoted from this rally. I just want you to know that I suspect 
this shall be unsuccessful. 

This is not a question and there is no need to answer. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. I call Mr. Lloyd H. Barnett. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear, sir, tliat the testimony 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Barnett. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF LLOYD H. BARNETT, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Barnett, would you state your full name for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Barnett. Lloyd H. Barnett. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Barnett. I am, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., Room 501, First Federal 
Building, Raleigh, iSTorth Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Barnett, you are appearing here in connection 
with the subpena served upon you on October 26, 1965, at 423 River 
Oaks Drive, New Orleans, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Barnett. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Barnett, under the conditions of the subpena and 
an attachment thereto, which is made a part of the subpena, you are 
called upon in paragra))h 1 to produce the following documents : 

AU books, recorcl.s, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible 
Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also 
known as the United Klans of America. Inc.. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. and 
affiliated organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, Louisiana Rescue 



2594 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Service in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available 
to you as Grant Titan of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, 
Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I ask you to produce those documents, sir. 

Mr. Barnett. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in the subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so mi<;ht 
tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me 
by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all rec- 
ords as requested by this committee under the subpena dated October 
14, 1965, for that information is not relevant and germane to the in- 
vestigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the considera- 
tion of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within the 
scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted January 
1, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. I ask for a direction, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Chairman. Is our previous stipulation agreed to as to the sig- 
nificance of this subpena as it applies to this witness? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to produce the documents. 

Mr. Barnett. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Barnett, under paragraph 2 you are ordered to 
produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you. in your capacity 
as present or past Grand Titan and/or member of the United Klans of America, 
Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said 
organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer 
of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I ask you to produce those documents, sir, 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the commit- 
tee the documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based 
upon the grounds ])reviously stated. 

Tlie Cn.MR:\tAN. On the basis of the stipulation previously made, I 
order and direct you to produce them. 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfullv decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon 
tlie irrounds previously stated. 

]\f r. Appell. Mr. Barnett, paragraph 8 of your subpena calls for you 
to produce : 

Copies of TT.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. Individual Income Tax Return." for the calendar years lO.'S through 1064, 
filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, Inter- 
nal Revenue Service. 

I ask for the production of those tax returns. 

Mr. B.vrnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents demanded and ordered by tlie conunittee based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2595 

Mr. ArpELL. Mr. Barnett, I hand you a reproduction of an applica- 
tion for citizenship in the Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan, and ask you if you have executed a similar application? 

]\Ir. Barnett. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in vio- 
lation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 
of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

(Document previouslv marked "Richard Constantineau Exhibit 
No. 3.'') 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Barnett, I hand you a series of oaths of allegiance, 
obedience, secrecy, and fidelity of the Ku Klux Klan and ask you to 
review them and state whether or not you have ever subscribed to the 
oaths set forth in that document? 

Mr. Barxett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Robert Shelton Exhibit No. 4.") 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Barnett, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny, that as a titan in the Realm of Louisiana that you have 
jurisdiction of Klan organizational activities in Klaverns within 
southern Louisiana ? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Will you advise the committee of the number of Klav- 
erns organized within your jurisdiction ? 

Mr. Barnett\ Sir, 1 respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Will you advise the committee of the membership 
of the Klaverns within your jurisdiction ? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As the officer of the United Klans of America in charge 
of south Louisiana, do you know Jim Roundtree ? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Jimmy Mumphrey ? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Ralph Houston ? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Robert Jose])h Fuxan, F-u-x-a-n ? 

Mr. Barnet7\ Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Jimmy Simon Mumphrey ? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Barnett, do you know Saxon Farmer ? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Following the meeting of the Klan officials at the Eola 
Hotel in Natchez, Mississii)pi, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you played a role in a rally held at Cross- 



2596 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

roads Community in Mississippi across the line from Bogalusa, Louisi- 
ana? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Barnett, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you deliberately, with knowledge, lied to 
the press when you advised them that there were 4,000 Klansmen in 
the Bogalusa area ? 

Mr. Barneitt. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. As a matter of fact, isn't it the practice of Klan 
organizations in certain areas, for whatever influence they conceive 
it might have, to balloon or exaggerate the number of their members ? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answ^er that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Barnett, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny, that you do not have 4,000 Klansmen in the entire State 
of Louisiana ? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the gromids previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny, 
that as a matter of organizational procedure you balloon your strength 
in order to intimidate people into thinking you are a larger and more 
powerful organization than you are in fact? 

Mr. Barnett. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the gi'ounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. I call Marvin Curtis Brister. 

The Chairman. You solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give wnll be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr, Brister. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARVIN CURTIS BRISTER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brister, will you state your full name for the 
record ? 

Mr. Brister. Marvin Curtis Brister. 

Mr, Appell. Are you appearing today in accordance with a sub- 
pena served upon you on the 29th day of October 1965 at the Tioga 
High School in Tioga, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Brister. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Appell, Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr, Brister. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. "Will counsel please identify himself ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney. Room 501, First 
Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brister, under the conditions of a subpena served 
on you, you were ordered by an attachment, which was made a part 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2597 

of the subpena, to bring with you and to produce articles called for in 
paragraph 1 as follows : 

All book, records, documents, corresx>ondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business 'and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klant, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klirx Klan, and affiliated or- 
ganizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, Louisiana Rescue Service in 
your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you as 
Grand Titan of Southern Louisiana of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, 
Knights of the Ku Klax Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans 
of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I request you to produce, in your representative capacity stated 
therein, the documents called for by part 1 of the subpena. 

The Chairman. It is stipulated that the significance of the call is 
for the witness to produce the documents in the capacities stated in 
this subpena? 

Mr. Chalmers. May I inquire of Mr. Appell what was the date of 
that subpena ? 

Mr. Appell. The date of service was the 29th of October. 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in the subpena dated 
October 29, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so 
might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights guaranteed 
to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 29, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject under 
investigation and that same would not aid the Congress in the con- 
sideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry with- 
in the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the 
miles adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted 
January 4, 1965. 

The Chairman. Pursuant to the stipulation made, I order and di- 
rect you to produce those documents in the capacities stated in the 
suljpena. 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Part 2 of the subpena calls for you to produce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as past or present Grand Titan and/or member of the United Klans of America, 
Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of 
said organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other 
officer of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or con- 
trol. 

I request you to produce, in your representative capacity stated 
therein, the documents called for by this part 2 of your subpena. 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

The CiLMRMAN. And pursuant to the stipulation, I order and direct 
you to produce the documents in those capacities. 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 



2598 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Part 3 of your subpena calls upon you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. rndividual Income Tax Return." for the calendar years 1958 through 1964, 
filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, In- 
ternal Revenue Service. 

I request you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brister, would you state for the record your edu- 
cational background? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer miglit tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 
14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brister, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny, that you have an M.A. degree from Colorado State Col- 
lege, Fort Collins, Colorado. Will you confirm or deny that fact ? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brister, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny, that you hold the position of assistant principal of the 
Tioga High School, Tioga, Louisiana. 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brister, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny, that you are receiving disability compensation from the 
United States Government occasioned by retirement from the Army 
at tlie rank of major because you suffered from diabetes and that your 
compensation is $237.19 a month ? I ask you to affirm or deny that fact. 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brister, I hand you a copy of an application for 
Class B, C, or D license, a form issued by the Federal Communications 
Commission, dated March 15, 1965, for a Class D license with 10 trans- 
mitters. I would like to read in the record before handing it to you 
and then would like you to verify the accuracy of what I am quoting. 

The Chairman. ^^Hiat are you reading from? 

Mr. Appell. This is a letter which is a part of the application. It is 
signed by Marvin C. Brister. It reads : 

Dear Sirs : 

I was certainly unaware that there was to be a detail report as to where each 
of the transceivers were to be placed. 

I expect to place transceivers in the following places : 

1. My home — my use, my wife and 2 daughters. 

2. My i/o ton pick-up — 

3. My Family Car— 

4. 2 cars owned by me but driven by my daughters. 

5. My sports car — 

6. My boat, run about-outboard 

All of these will be used by my family and my mother or father or some of 
my close friends. 

The above is in the near future or when I receive my permits. My future 
plans ia for a small house boat, trailer that is use [sic] for hunting trips. A 
portable would come in handed [sic] on certain types of outings. 

I am sorry I have delayed this, by not giving exact placements. 

It is signed "Marvin C. Brister." 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2599 

In lianding you this application I ask you if this is the application 
you filed and if the letter which I read is signed by you and whether 
or not any of these citizens band transmitters were used by members of 
the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "Marvin Brister Exhibit No. 1." See pp. 260Q- 
2603.) 

Mr. iLppELL. Mr. Brister, did Mr. Lloyd Barnett replace you as the 
titan in charge of the United Klans of America organization in Kla- 
vern activities in southern Louisiana? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Are you still a member of the United Klans of 
America ? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brister, prior to joining the United Klans of Amer- 
ica were you a member of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
which was known by the cover name of Christian Constitutional 
Crusaders ? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answ^er that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny, 
that you wrote checks payable to the Christian Constitutional Cru- 
saders and were a member of that organization ? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions of this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chair:man. Mr. Brister, it appears from what has been stated 
that you have an unusually high education. I ask you what I have 
asked of many others, if you would care to state in your own way and 
with language portraying it in your own fashion, the objectives, pur- 
poses, and programs of the Ku Klux Klan that impelled you to join 
the Klan and to become a high official thereof ? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. It has been proven in the record that another 
teacher in a high school, in that case a principal — and I see you are 
assistant principal in a high school in Louisiana — that in the other 
case Klan activities and meetings were held in that school. Were any 
Klan activities and meetings held in your school ? 

Mr. Brister. I res]>ectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Have you made talks at Klan rallies or before Klan 
groups ? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to ansAver that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Did you in any way try to indoctrinate in the ways 
of the Klan any of the pupils in your school ? 

Mr. Brister. I respectfully decline to answer tliat question based 
upon the gi'ounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

(Marvin Brister Exhibit No. 1, introduced above follows:) 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 18 



2600 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



Marvin Brister Exhibit No. 1 



rCC FORM SOS 
flCVSEO KAT MU 






UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

TEOERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 

WASHiriGION. D.C lOU* 



_ FDSit AFPPOVtD 
I i .BUO&CT BURCAU NO. U-fiUXlO 



tr 



'.'^ 



DO SOT WRITE IN THIS BUfCh' 



APPLICATION FOR CLASS B. C. OR O STATION LICENSE IN THE \\??\ 

CITIZENS RADIO SERVICE .. ,. 

- 3.' Application (or Clua A sUtion licensix mutt b«-(il«l 9n FCC X^RM 400. 

Compl<*te on typewriter or print clyrly-l - „ 

Ure application ia signed *hd dated. Moit application to Federal Com- 
icationa Commission. Gettysburg. Pa., 17326. 



FEE: $3.00 



Ap 



: " 440S30 nAiUB(=5 

, , ,i.\:iJt.v,u 



; Ci B., 



, Enclase appropriate tee with application. 
Make i ' ' 



.if required. DO NOT SUBMIT 
. CASH. Make chi'clt or monry nrder payable to Federal Communirationa 
., . . ;Coinmosi<Ti>iO <S4-e Part 19, Volume VI ol FCC rulea to determine whether 
'•'J .-'a'fi.'c i^r^i^i^d with this application ) 



NAME OF APPLICANT 



BUSINESS MAKE tOR UST NAME. IF AN INOIVtOuAL) 

BRISTER 



FIRST NAME (IF AN INCHVIOUAU 

MARVIN 



MIDDLE INITIAL 

c 



IF AN INDIVIDUAL OPERATING UNDER A TRADE NAME, GIVE INDIVIDUAL 
NAME. OR IF PARTNERSHIP. LIST NAMES OF PARTNERS {Do not t«p*at 
any name uaed in iUm J ) 



LAST NAMES 



FIRST NAMES 



MAILING ADDRESS 



NUMOCR AND STREET 



3002 Monroe Hwy. 



Pineville 



*Ea. 



71360 



COUNTY QREOUIVALEMT SUBDIVISION 

Rap teles 



CLASSIFICATION OF APPLICANT (St* iMlruclioni) 



[~| INDIVIDUAL rn ASSOCIATION F"! ] 

[ I PARTNERSHIP V~\ CORPORATION PH OTHER (Spcci/y): 



CLASS OF STATION (Chuk only <nu) 



D' 



D" 



Q' 



IS THIS APPLICATION TO MODIFY OR RENEW AN EXISTING STATION LICENSE? 
( I Vt» {Citt eaU ngn): [^ NO 



D' 



fi' 



■ ■ K REQUESTED STATION 

10 






DOES EACH TRANSMITTER TO BE OPERATED APPEAR ON THE COMMIS- 
SION S -RADIO EQUIPMENT LIST, PART C OR. IF FOR CLASS C OR 
CLASS STATIONS. IS IT CRYSTAL-CONTROLLED? (// no, aWuk 
detailed deaetiplion: ace wubpart C a/ Part 19) 



A WILL APPLICANT OWN ALL THE BADIO EQUIPMENT? (1/ no. OntwtT 
B and C bttov) 



NAME OF OWNER 



IS THE APPLICANT A PARTY TO A WRIITEN LEASE OR OTHER AGREEMENT UNDER 
WHICH THE OWNERSHIP OR CONTROL WILL bE EXERCISED IN THE SAME MAN- 
NER AS IF THE EQUIPMENT WERE OWNED BY THE APPUCANTl 



HAS APPLICANT READ AND UNDERSTOOD THE PROVISIONS OF PART T9 
SUBPART D DEALING WITH PERMISSIBLE COMMUNICATIONS FOR WHICH 
THIS CLASS OF STATK>N MAY BE USED? 



WILL THE STATION BE OPERATED BY ANY PERSON OTHER THAN THE 
APPLICANT MEMBERS OF HIS IMMEDIATE f AMIL* OR HIS EMPLOYEES' 
(// J/C9. (Ulaeh a tcparaU iheet tislmg tht namei and rtlaltantkip ojall 
etuh pertone and git a detailed reaeon for t\eir operation of your 
elaiton) 



IS APPLICANT THE REPRESENTATIVE OF ANY ALIEN OR ANY FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENT? (// ye*, explain fuliy) 



WITHIN 10 YEARS PREVIOUS TO THE DATE OF THIS APPLICATION HAS 
THE APPLICANT OR ANY PARTY TO THIS APPLICATION BEEN CONVICTED 
'N A FEDERAL, STATE OR LOCAL COURT OF ANY CRIME FOR WHICH THE 
PENALTY IMPOSED WAS A FINE OF JiOO OR MORE. OR AN IMPRISONMENT 
OF G MONTHS OR MORE? iStt imlrvclion: 1/ yt*. aUaeh a aeparaU 
sheet giving detaiU of tack tuck eonwielion) 



tF APPLICANT IS AN INDIVIDUAL OR A PARTNERSHIP. ARE YOU OR ANY 
PARTNER LESS THAN II YEARS OF AGE (LESS THAN 1J YEARS OF AGE IF 
FOR CLASS C STATION LICENSE}? 



X 



IF THE PRINCIPAL LOCATION WHERE THE STATION WILL BE 
USED IS DIFFERENT FROM THE MAILING ADDRESS (ITEM 3>, 
GIVE THAT LOCATION. {DO NOT GIVE FOST OFFICE BOX OR 
RFD NO.) 



NUMBER AND STREET 



Same 



DO NOT 
SCREENING 



WUfTS IN ■ 

aV/ a N 
a^ D N 



SIGN AND DATE THE APPLICATION ON REVERSE SIDE 



ON I 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



2601 



Marvin Brister Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 



19 IF APPLICANT IS A NONGOVERNMENTAL 

CORPORATION. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS 



m 



15 CORPORATION ORGANIZED UNOtR LAWS OF ANY FOREIGN 

GOVERNMENTt 



IS ANY OFFICER OR OIRtCTOR OF THE CORPORATION AN ALIEN* 



IS MORE THAN ONE-FIFTH OF THE CAPITAL STOCK EITHER OWNED OF 
RECORD OR MAY IT BE VOTED BY ALIENS OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES, 
OR BY* FOREIGN GOVERNMENTOfl REPRESENTATIVE THEREOF OR BY 
ANY CORPORATION ORGANIZED UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN 
COUNTRYT 



IS APPLICANT DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROLLED BY ANY OTHER 
CORPORATION? (// yet, answer iUma E through K brlow) 



GIVE NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTROLLING CORPORATION 



IS MORE THAN ONE FOURTH OF THE CAPITAL STOC K OF CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION EITHER OWNED OF RECORD OR MAY IT BE VOTED BY 
ALIENS OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES, OR Sy A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT 
OR REfPESENTATUE THEREOF, OR DY ANY CORPORATION ORGANIIED 
UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY? {]/ i/et. gite detatU) 



IS ANY OFFICER OR MORE THAN ONE-FOURTH OF THE DIRECTORS OF 
THE CONTROLLING CORPORATION AN ALIEN? (7/ yet, antwer xlemt 
I and J below) 



TOTAL NUMBER OF DIRECTORS IN CONTROLLING CORPORATION 



LIST ALLOFFICERS AND DIRECTORS WHO ARE ALIENS IN CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION AND GIVE BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL STATEMENT FOR EACH 
ALIEN 



-/- 



NATIONALITY 



"'n^T^-L'- 



OFFICE HELD 



IS THE CONTROLLING CORPORATION IN TuRN CONTROLLED 
BY OTHER COMPiNiEST [If yrt, atiaeh irtformation for taeh 
of Ihetr controllino eompaniea eoMrinff Iht in/ormalion re- 
qvdtUd in if^nu B through J, abote) 



a- 



30 IF APPLICANT IS AN UNINCORPORATED 

ASSOCIATION. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS 



IS ANY OFFICER OR DIRECTOR OF THE ASSOCIATION AN ALIEN? 



ARE MORE THAN ONE FIFTH OF THE VOTING MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIA- 
TION ALIENS OR REPRESENTATIVES OF ALIENS, FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS 
OR REPRESENTATIVES THEREOF, OR CORPORATIONS ORGANIZED UNDER 
THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY' 



IS THE ASSOCIATION DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROLLED BY ANY 
OTHER ORGANIZATION? (If yet. g\9t detailed eiplanattoni 




(rw^ 



USE THIS SPACE FOR ANY AOOITtONAL INFORMATION OR REMARKS . . 



[CkUi^^^-s^ 





WILLFUL FALSE STATEMENTS MADE ON THIS FORM ARE PUN- 
ISHABLE BY FINE AND IMPRISONMENT. U.S. CODE, TITLE 18. 
SECTION 1001. 



ALL THE STATEMENTS MADE IN THE APPLICATION AND ATTACHED EXHIBITS ARC CONSIDCRED MATERIAL RCPRCSENTATIONS. AND ALL THE EXHIBITS ARE 
A MATERIAL PART HEREOF AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN AS IF SET OUT IN FULL IN THE APPLICATION. 

I CERTIFY THAT: 

The applicant has (or has ordered from the Government Printing Office) a current copy of Part 19 of the Commission's rules governing 
the Citizens Radio Service, 

The applicant waives any claim to the use of any particular frequency or of the ether as agamst the regulatory powef of the United 
States because of the previous use of the same, whether by license or otherwise ; 

The applicant accepts full responsibility for the operation of. and will retain control of any citizens radio station licensed to him pursuant 
to this application , 

The station will be operated in full accordance with the applicable law and the current rules of the Federal CorTimunications Commission ; 

The said station will not be used for any purpose contrary to Federal. State or local law , 

The applicant wilt have unlimited access to the radio equipment and effective measures will be taken to prevent its use by unauthorized 
persons ; and 

The statements in this application are true, complete, and correct to the best of my 



DO 


NOT 


OPERATE 


UNTIL 


vou 


HAVE 






VOUH 


OWN 


LICENSE. 




use 


OF 


ANY 


CALL 


SIGN 


NOT 


VOUR 






OWN 


S PROHIBITED. 





ue. complete, and correct to the best of my kAojQfledgepfid belief and are made m good faith. 

{Check appropriate box bvlow): \ 



E INDIVIDUAL j 1 MEMBER OF [ 1 OFFICER Or APPLICANT | 1 

APPLICANT APPLICANT CORPORATION OR 



PARTNERSHIP 



ASSOCIATION 



I OFFICIAL OF 
GOVERNMENTAL 
INTITV 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE l9e)-O-«94-fl0l 
Repnnled by E. F. Johnson Company 



2602 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE TJ.S. 



Marvin Brister Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 



iHiiHii'i ■■■ ; 



-, •. 7.',:io 






Supplement CO Application Return Form 



?age 3-B 



In addition to providing the information requested 
on the attached sheet, please answer the following questions 
In the Remarks space on Che reverse side o£ the application 
Form 505. 

1, Will station be operated In connection with bvalnass 
activities? \-v€> • 

If "Yes", state: 

Owner of business 

Nature of business activity 

Where do you propose Co Install the transmitters 
shown in Item 8, and for what purposes and by whom 
will they be used? 



2. Will station be operated In connection with personal 

activlces? '^jJt^-t — j 

If "Yes", state; 

Nature ot personal activity C^O^/^^-^'^-^V '''^''^'^j. V 

Where do you propose to Install tne transAitters / ' 

shown in Itea 8 , and for what purposes a nd by whom 
will they be used? ^ ~- 




ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2603 



Marvin Brister Exhibit No. 1 —Continued 

-flu! Mh^'^-'^ ^ fp& (U^ I 
X Ml Wi^ 7^ (p^'/-^ " 



Jj ^^^x.:j^ >i f--f^ v^i h^^^ pfcu^ -^ 7^^ 






[^ ^-^ c^>c^^ . ^^^^ f^^ 



2604 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Tommy Frank Reagan. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly STvear the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Reagan. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF TOMMY FRANK REAGAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Would you state your full name for the record ? 

Mr. Reagan. Tommy Frank Reagan. 

Mr. Appell. R-e-a-g-a-n? 

Mr. Reagan. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. You are appearing before the committee today in re- 
sponse to a subpena served upon you on the 26th day of October 1965 
at 319 Hickory Street, West Monroe, Louisiana? 

Mr, Reagan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Reagan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will comisel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law. Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reagan, the subpena served upon you and the at- 
tachment thereto, which was made a part of that subpena, called upon 
you to produce certain documents set forth in paragraph 1 as follows : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible 
Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also 
known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and 
affiliated organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, Louisiana Rescue 
Service in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or avail- 
able to you as Great Titan of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc.. also known as the United Klans of America, 
Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I request you to produce, in your representative capacity stated 
therein, the documents called for by part 1 of your subpena. 

Mr. Re^vgan. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena 
dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do 
so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
(o me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee in a subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the consider- 
ation of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within the 
scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted 
January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask for a direction for the production 
of the documents called for in paragraph 1 of the subpena. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2605 

The Chairman. I assume our previous stipulation stands as to the 
significance of this subpena as it applies to this witness? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes. 

The Chah^man. Pursuant to the stipulation made, I order and di- 
rect you to produce those documents in the capacities stated in the 
subpena. 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reagan, paragraph 2 of the subpena calls for 
you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity as 
present or past member or Great Titan of the United Klans of America, Inc., 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said orga- 
nization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of 
said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

Mr. Reagan. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Mr. Reagan, when were you bom ? 

Mr. Reagan, I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 
14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

The Chairman. According to the memorandum before me, it ap- 
pears you ran for the highest office of your organization in the State 
of Louisiana and for that reason, since you appear to be quite young, 
I think the question is completely pertinent and I order and direct you 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Raegan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reagan, are you a member at the present time of 
any Klan organization in the United States ? 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I notice in your lapel, Mr. Reagan, you have the Klan 
pm. I ask you if that is worn by a person who is not a member of the 
Ku Klux Klan? 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. You are proud to wear it, but not to state it. 

Mr. Reagan. Sir 

Mr. Chalmers. Wait a minute. That was just an observation. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claimed privilege 
and his refusal to answer questions, I present to the committee the re- 
sults of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Reagan. 

Mr. Reagan was born on July 18, 1939, at West Monroe, T^uisiana. 
He served in the Air Force from 9-13-56 to 10-1-58, and in the Reserve 
to 12 September 1962. His militaiy specialty was that of a supply 



2606 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

helper, and he was honorably discharged, a medical discharge because 
of a bad back. 

Mr. Reagan has a high school education and is currently employed 
by the Horton Sewing Machine Company on 1200 Cypress Street, West 
Monroe. 

Mr. Reagan has been a member of the United Klans of America, and 
in August of 1964 he was great titan covering the jurisdiction of north- 
ern Louisiana. In September 1964, he was a delegate to the Imperial 
Klonvokation held at the Dinkler-Tutwiler Hotel in Birmingham, 
Alabama. 

On November 7, 1964, his name appears on the signature card of an 
account opened in the name of the Committee of United Clans of 
America — and this is spelled with a "C" and not a "K" — at the Cen- 
tral Savings Bank & Trust Company in Monroe, Louisiana, and the 
cosigner of the account, in addition to Mr. Reagan, is Leon Smudrick, 
the former exalted cyclops of a Klavern of the United Klans of 
America known as the Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club. 

(Document marked "Tommy Reagan Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 

Tommy Reagan Exhibit No. 1 



RMJ 



AUTHORIZED SIGNATURE OF 

Lecii Sitmdi-ick AND Tonmy Reagan 



N) 



FOR THE TRANSACTION OF BUSINESS WITH 

Central Savings bank a Trust Co. monroe, Louisiana 

Ittm» received for depom or collection are accepted on the following tcrmi and condnioni. This hank acti only 
•■ depositor'! collecting agent and aiaumei no responsibility beyond its eierciae of due care. All items are credited 
<uh)ect to final payment and to receipt of proceeds of final payment m cash or solvent credits by this hank at its own 
nffice. This bank may forward items to correspondents and shall not be liable fptjJe'**1^^0rf^ig<nce of correspondent* 

Te WWlTreTt for its c 



•elected with due care nor for losses m transit, and each cor respondent *yBt%ARic Vjl^^rTi ifii for its own negligence. 

Items and their proceeds may he handled by any Federal Reserve bank in aclon 

by this bank of any correspondent, in accordance with ■"y^o"ii'^Ql''^lt\t,,-— -, wt— — ^ y i 

Federal Reserve b:>nk may use or permit another bank to |jCX\ll Bvtivlnv vnNr iTwTu] jnVm I'^'^P bink miv charge 



eral Reserve bank in acloTvAnce with apQiicaUe f^^fffjl^ 
with *"ygfo'"ff'^fl|^»i|\*fW-S"'WSn(f |bctW*'mVt 
rruerai rvcicrve D:>nK may use or permit anoiner bank to lj(X\ll Bvt vlh<|* vnKr IIwTuI jIVm /^'V< \>^t\% miv criargc 
hack, at iny time prior to midnight on its business day neit lollowing g|a||hAgif ^n^RtvA^i/ern' dravin on tnii hank 
which \% ascertiined to be drawn againat Insufficient fundi or other wiM^nWgood -m£ ^^J^^^ \^ jki^v^ received after 
this bank's regular afternoon closing hour shall be deemed rece*«gL8}i»%rfiv4>usincs« .t 
Thia bank reserves ihc right to post all deposits, InclufUul .JC|Mrrta/jff c%9k^x\^ "y 
midnight of Its neit businesa day after tTicir receipt at this ^ tf i « d u rTf 

icntcJ item rcsulfi^yfl 



for damages fnr nonpaymcrtt nf any^'fTrrtcntcJ item rcsubJ^PMlV^PVRrcise nl this right 

sinMAT.i.,> .^_x^;.^^y y^y^^^^.^-..^ Tonaiy Reagan 

■)t it Ht « -K- if -.-- -ii- -u- ■);• '> r<- ■«• -;:■ ■> -;t ■«■»<:«■» 4t- *■»■»* ^^ •«■ 



^ SIGNATURE. 

< 
Z 
O 



p n Pr^v 0'^^ MnnT'fv- Ta Co.oraittee of United Clans of 
ADHRFss V*^' "O^ ^P-l-j monroe^ i.a. business irf-r^c-TK 

DATE Noveaber 7« 1964 introduced by Leon Smudrick 

£] CHECKING ACCOUNT | | SAVINGS ACCOUNT 

25 019 8 



Mr. Appell. I might point out, Mr. Chairman, in that connection, 
that the Monroe Hunting and Fishing Club has been a Klavern of the 
Original Knights under Mr. Young, of the Original Knights under 
Mr. Martin, and now under the United Klans of America. 

On December 6, 1964, following a public rally at the West Monroe 
fairgrounds, Mr. Reagan, in response to an inquiry about tlie absence 
of Imperial Wizard Robert Shelton, reported that Shelton was in 
Mississippi contacting United Klans of America Klaverns about rais- 
ing money to defend the individuals arrested by the FBI in the murder 
of the civil rights workers. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2607 

In Jaiuiaiy of 1065, Mr. Eeagan attended meetings of imperial and 
other officers of the United Khms of America at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

In March of 1965, Mr. Reagan was a defeated candidate 

The Chairman. '65 or '64 ? 

]Mr. Appell. '65, sir — for the office of Grand Dragon of the Realm 
of Louisiana, which is operated under the cover name of the Louisiana 
Rescue Service. 

In March and April 1965, Reagan took judo lessons with other Klans- 
men in the We^t Monroe, Louisiana, area. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Reagan posses- 
ses additional information \vhich is pertinent and relevant to this in- 
quiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

The Chairman. I might say that I completely agree. If he cares 
to, he could shed a lot of light, provide a lot of additional facts within 
his knowledge. 

In any case, Mr. Reagan, you have heard the sworn statement of the 
committee's investigator, Mr. Appell, who is under oath just like you 
are. We want the truth and nothing but the truth. I now give you 
the opportunity to reply to any portions of that statement, to con- 
firm or challenge the accuracy of the information, or to explain any 
part of it. In addition, you may — and I urge you to — offer any other 
matter which the committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. Do 
you care to avail yourself of this opportunity ? 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. In that case, I must tell you, Mr. Reagan, absent 
your rebuttal, or facts that may come to the attention of the commit- 
tee, the committee will rely upon the accuracy of the investigation. 

Bearing this in mind, do you have anything to say ? 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The CHAiR:MA]sr. Having attended a school which apparently 
teaches everything but what appears in the literature of the Klan or- 
ganization, do you know anything about the actions of the wrecking 
crews which are part of the activities of the Klan ? 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. That is all. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reagan, prior, to the holding of the Imperial 
Klonvokation at the Dinkler-Tutwiler Hotel, that hotel distributed 
to the United Klans of America, who represented itself to the hotel 
as the Alabama Rescue Service, a printed card by which delegates to 
the convention, klonvokation, coulcl request reservations. I show you 
a reproduction of a card stating, "I will be attending the convention of 
the Alal)ama Rescue Service,'' when the party will arrive, when the 
party plans to depart, and requesting a reservation for four double 
bedrooms. It is signed "Tommy F. Reagan & Party, 600 No. Tth St., 
^V. Monroe, La." I ask you if you mailed the original of that card 
to the hotel. 

( Document handed to witness. ) 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Tommy Reagan Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 



2608 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Tommy Reagan Exhibit No. 2 




MAKE YOUR HOTEL RESERVATIONS NOW! 



I will be attending the convention of the . . . 
(name of group or association) 



I will arrive (riny) . 'i t^'y. [iAn\p\ ^j^/^^^ (h<-itir )-3 y^ m 

I will depart (day)- ^ v ^ (date) ^^y^'T'C (hour) "y^^. m. 

Reserve for me the following accommodotions . . . 

V Q^double bedroorrvy 
n suite <^'^f S^o 



(check one) □ single 

Q twin bedroom 



YOUR MAMF -^^^^y y^. /^e=>. .^ /Tl ^ »• w-^^-^^Tv 

ADDRESS t^ fi> T^a. ^ '^ -^ ?~- . 

CITY 6t^ y^gyyyP^fi^ ^ ^ 



Mr. Appell. Will you identify to the committee the other members 
of your party ? 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that as a delegate to that convention or klonvokation you 
participated in the election of the Imperial Wizard, Robert Shelton ; 
the Imperial Klokard, Robert Collins; the Imperial Kludd, the 
Reverend Dorsett; the Imperial Kladd, Robert Hudgins; the Imperial 
Klarogo, Walter Brown; and the Imperial Klexter, Robert Konnaji. 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, may I have 1 minute ? 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for a minute? 

(Brief recess.) 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reagan, does the Monroe, Louisiana, area of the 
United Klans of America have a woman's auxiliary which covers its 
true function by going under the name of the Green Thumb Club? 

Mr. Reagan. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I have no further question to ask the 
witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excussed. 

The committee will stand in recess until next Tuesday at 10 a.m. 

(AVliereupon, at 12:30 p.m., Friday, January 7, 196(5, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Tuesday, January 11, 1966.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLIX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 

THE UNITED STATES 

Part 3 



TUESDAY, JANUARY 11, 1966 

UxiTED States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee ox Un-American Activities, 

Washington. D.C. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10:10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon 
House Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Edwin E. Willis 
(chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; Charles L. Weltner, of 
Georgia ; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio ; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., of 
Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Weltner, and Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. AIcNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general comisel ; and Donald T. Appell, chief investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Appell, call your first witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to call Mr. John H. 
(ripson. 

Mr. Gipson, would you come up here and take the stand, please? 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you shall give in this session 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. GiPSON. I do. 

The Cil\irman. Have a seat. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN HUGH GIPSON 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gipson, if you will talk into the microphone I 
think that the committee will be able to hear you. The acoustics 
here are rather bad. 

Would you state your full name for the record? 

Mr. Gipson. John Hugh Gipson. 

Mr. Appell. And that is spelled G-i-p-s-o-n? 



Mr. Gipson. Right. 



2609 



2610 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Where do yon presently reside, sir? 

Mr. GiPSON. Slidell, Louisiana. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. GiPSON. St. Tammany Parish. 

Mr. Appell. And the month ? 

Mr. GiPSON. March 24, 1936. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gipson, you are not appearing before the com- 
mittee this morning witli counsel. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You desire an attorney to accompany you 

The Chairman. Do you desire to have a lawyer? 

Mr. Appell. — here this morning ? 

Mr. Gipson. Sir? 

Mr. Appell. I say, you do not have an attorney with you ? 

Mr. GiPSON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Do you want an attorney ? 

Mr. Gipson. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Gipson, you do not have a lawyer. You said 
you don't want one. 

I want you to know tliat, if you want to, you may invoke the fifth 
amendment. You don't have to, but if you want to I want you to 
know that we respect your rights. 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Appell. Mr, Gipson, how far did you go in school ? 

Mr. Gipson. I quit school in the seventh grade. 

Mr. Appell. 0^'er the recent years what has been your principal 
occupation ? 

Mr. Gipson. Most of my life I logged, working in the woods. 

The Chairman. Logging? 

Mr. Gipson. Logging, 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gipson, have you ever been a member of any 
Ku Klux Klan organization ? 

Mr, Gipson, Yes, sir, 

Mr, Appell. Wlien did you join a Ku Klux Klan organization ? 

Mr, Gipson, It was in 1963. 

Mr, Appell, And was this the Orig-inal Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan? 

Mr, Gipson, Yes, sir. 

Mr, Appell. And was tliis the organization that was headed state- 
Mnde by J. D, Swenson and Royal V. Young? 

Mr, Gipson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Were you acquainted with dissension which grew up 
within the Original Knights over finances involving Mr. Swenson 
and/or Mr. Young? 

Mr. Gipson. I know they had some kind of money squabble, but I 
don't know too much about it. I was just becoming a member then 
and I did know they had some squabble over the money. 

Mr, Appell. And you do know that after this money squabble Mr, 
Young and Mr, Swenson were no longer the leaders of the 
organization ? 

Mr. Gipson. Right, 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2611 

Mr. Appell. In 1963 wlien you joined the Original Knights of the 
Ku Khix Klan, ^vho recruited you into the organization? 

Mr. Gipsox. Herbert (jornor. 

Mr. Appell. G-o-r-n-o-r? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. And to what Klavern of the Original Knights were 
you assigned after you became a member? 

Mr. GiPSOx. To the Pearl River. 

Mr. Appell. Was this Klavern also known as the Pearl River 
Hunting and Fishing Club ? 

Mr. GiPSON. It was. 

Mr. Appell.. The first meeting that you attended was held where? 

Mr. GiPSOx. By Gary Crawford's house; in the house, in fact. 

Mr. Appell. In the house of Cary Crawford? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And he was a member of the Pearl River unit? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Why did you join the Klan? What interested you in 
the Klan's program wdiich caused you to join ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Well, at the time I thought it was a pretty good thing 
the way they explained it to me. It did sound good, but the longer I 
stayed in and the further I went, I seen that they didn't live up to the 
oath that they took, because when I went in it was supposed to be no 
violence. Their fighting was going to be with boycotts and ballots 
and with economic pressure. 

Mr. Appell. At the time you joined, what was the klectokon, or 
recruitment fee, which you had to pay to get into the Klan ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Ten dollars initiation fee; ten dollars for uniform. 

Mr. Appell. This is the robe ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And what were the dues paid by the members within 
their respective Klaverns? 

Mr. GiPSON. Four and a half a quarter. A quarter was 3 months, 

Mr. Appell. At the time you joined the unit, who was the exalted 
Cyclops, or the leader of the Klavern ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Mr. Rowley. 

Mr. Appell. Is this Mr. Ewell R-o-w-l-e-y ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Right. 

Mr. Appell. What did you know his occupation or profession to be? 

Mr. GiPSON. He w^as principal at the school. 

Mr. Appell. This is the Sixth Ward Junior High School, also 
known as the Pearl River ? 

Mr. GiPSON. At the time I went in. he was principal at Pearl River 
School, but then he got a transfer to Sixth Ward High School. 

Mr. Appell. How- long did Mr. Rowley continue to be the exalted 
Cyclops? 

Mr. GiPSON. As well as I remember somewhere around 7 to 8 months. 

Mr. Appell. Who replaced Mr. Rowley as the exalted cyclops of 
the unit? 

Mr. GiPSON. Beg pardon ? 

Mr. Appell. Who was the next exalted cyclops after Mr. Rowley ? 

Mr. GrpsoN. Nelson Ainsworth. 



2612 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. What business is Mr. Ainsworth in in the Pearl Kiver 
area? 

Mr. GiPSON. He owns the dump trucks, hauling sand and gravel. 

Mr. Appell. Who was the secretary of the Klavem, the man to 
whom dues were paid and the man who kept notes and records of 
the meeting? 

Mr. GiPSON. Howard Swenson. 

Mr, Appell. And is Howard Swenson employed by a tobacco 
company as a route salesman working out of Bogalusa? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Wlio succeeded Nelson Ainsworth as the exalted Cy- 
clops of your unit ? 

Mr. GiPSON. James L. Leslie. 

The Chairman. Will you spell that ? 

Mr. Appell. L-e-s-1-i-e. 

Is he known in the community by the nickname of Preacher Leslie ? 

Mr. GrpsoN. Yes, sir, he is. 

Mr. Appell. Is he currently engaged in the profession of a min- 
ister, or does he have some other occupation ? 

Mr. GiPSON. He is a mechanic. 

Mr. Appell. He is a mechanic now ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know from what origin he gets the nickname 
of Preacher? 

Mr. GiPSON. He was supposed to have been an ordained preacher 
at one time. 

Mr. Appell. Who was the secretary of the Klavern under James 
Leslie? 

Mr. GiPSON. Clayton Hickey, 

Mr. Appell. C-1-a-y-t-o-n H-i-c-k-e-y? 

Mr. GiPSON. Right. 

Mr. Appell. And what does Mr, Hickey do? 

Mr. GiPSON. He is an iron worker. 

Mr. Appell, Is he presently under some kind of suspension from 
the Times-Picayune^ where he had been employed as a typesetter ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, he is. 

Mr, Appell, Mr, Gipson, where did this Klavern at the time Mr. 
Leslie was the exalted cyclops hold some of its meetings? 

Mr, GiPSON, Al Bardin's Pine View, 

Mr. Appell. And he owns and operates Pine View Salvage Com- 
pany? 

Mr. GiPSON. Right. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gipson, within the organizational structure of the 
Original Knights there is provision made within the Klavern and 
within the realm level of a body of men known as the wrecking crew? 

Mr, GiPSON, Yes, sir, 

Mr, Appell. Are you familiar with the activities of the wrecking 
crew? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Were you ever a member of a wrecking crew ? 

Mr. GiPSON, Yes, sir, 

Mr. Appell. Prior to becoming a meml^er of the wrecking crew 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2613 

did you ever, in consultation with other Klansmen, cany out an act 
against anyone? 

Mr. Gipsox. Yes, sir; one time. 

Mr. Appell. Would you tell the committee in your own words w^hat 
this act was and what led up to it ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Well, they had a boy in our community and he was, 
according to Oscar Anderson, chief KBI. 

Mr. Appell. Oscar Anderson was the chief of the KBI? 

Mr. Gipsox. Yes, sir. He said the boy drinks and didn't take care 
of his family, late out at night, and he needed to be straightened out 
with a belt. 

Mr. Appell. Did it come about that the opinion of Mr. Anderson, 
who was the KBI — Klan Bureau of Investigation — man, and a group 
of Klansmen carried out Mr. Anderson's belief that this man should 
be handled and taken care of with a belt ? 

Mr. GiPSOx. Yes, sir, they did. 

Mr. Appeli.. "\Y1io was this man that was going to be whipped with 
with a belt? 

Mr. GiPSOx. Clarence O'Berry. 

Mr. Appell. O-'-B-e-r-r-y? 

Mr. GiPSOx. Right. 

The Chairmax. Is that a wdiite boy or a Negro boy ? 

Mr. GiPSOx. He was a. white boy. 

Mr. Appell. With respect to the planning and the participants in- 
volved in this act, would you, in your own words, tell the committee 
just what transpired? I first would like to ask you approximately 
when this planning and the actual beating were carried out. 

Mr. GiPSOX. The night that he got whipped we had a regular Klan 
meeting. Oscar Anderson told us that after the meeting he wanted to 
talk to us. After the meeting he come out, and everybody there were 
the ones who went. 

The Chairmax. AVlio were they? 

Mr. GiPSOx. Myself, John Gipson, L. M. Raynor, Harold Brake- 
field, Herbert Gomor. 

The Chatrmax. Could you remember about w^hen that was, what 
month and what year approximately ? 

Mr. Appell. Is that approximately July of 1964? 

Mr. GiPsox'. It is in July sometime. 

TheCnAiRMAX. 1964? 

Mr. Gipsox. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Continue. 

Mr. GiPS0x\ He said he thought that night would be a good night 
to get him, but he thought he was laying out in one of them barrooms 
down there that night. He told us to follow him down to this bar- 
room. We went down and we parked on the side road. He made a 
loop in front of the barroom and said he seen the boy sitting at the 
bar, and he was watching the boy. In some kind of way the boy 
come out and caught a ride. 

He said "He must be on his way home.*' He told us to follow him. 

We went up Highway 11, turned off 11 up 41, and he went up the 
road and passed the boy's road Avhich goes to his house and he was 
going to watch for the sheriff. 



2614 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

We turned arouiid then, and he come back. Sure enough the boy 
was about a quarter of a mile from his house. "We caught him, drug 
him off in the woods, Harold Brakefield, Gornor, Oscar Anderson, and 
L. M. Raynor. They pulled his pants down, and I hit him two or three 
licks, and Eliot Rand took the belt and he really whipped him. He 
was whipping him so hard I reached and grabbed his wrist one time 
and shoved him back. 

When we got through we just left him there. 

The Chairman. On the ground ? 

Mr. GiPSON. On the ground. 

Mr. Appell. Was O'Berry pretty well welted ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, he was in a pretty bad way. 

Mr. Appell. Was there any discussion among the }>eople of getting 
him medical attention ? 

Mr. GiPSON. No, sir, there wasn't. 

Mr. Appell. He was left there without anyone caring how he was 
going to get home or whether he was going to get any kind of medical 
attention ? 

Mr. GiPSON. That's right. 

Mr. Appell. Was he told by the Klansman why he was being 
whipped ? 

Mr. GiPSON. I understood that he had had some warning before 
that, but I didn't know nothing about that. 

Mr. Appell. But on the night that lie was whipped he wasn't 
told why ? 

Mr. GiPSON. No, sir ; nobody talked. 

Mr. Appell. Following this act against Clarence O'Berry, were you 
formally inducted into a wrecking crew ? 

Mr. GiPSON. I wasn't at the time O'Berry got whipped, but after 
that they got them a wrecking crew up and I was sworn in. 

Mr. Appell. Would you describe to the committee the procedures 
that you went through in order to be inducted into the wrecking crew ? 

Mr. GiPSON. This guy, Oscar Anderson, told me to come down by 
his station. He was running a station at that time. He had some 
men he wanted me to talk with. Whenever I got down there they 
had two fellows that I didn't know, and never did know. They were 
supposed to be from northeast Louisiana. They told that tliere had 
to be something set up to stop all tliese smart niggers and things, and 
that laws was made for something, but sometimes they had tO' be 
broken and there had to be some good men to do it. Then they swore 
in a few of us that night, and we took a different oath than they have 
in the regular Klavern. 

Mr. Appell. Let me interrupt you there. In the discussion of tak- 
ing care of people, people that you describe, to what extremes was this 
group willing to go, or were they told they might have to go, in order 
to take care of smart Negroes ? 

Mr. GiPSON. They said it might even come necessary to have to 
murder somebody. 

Mr. Appell. You testified that you took an oath which was differ- 
ent from the oath administered in a Klavern. Do you remember the 
context of this oath, or do you remember any part of it wliich made 
an impression upon you at the time ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2615 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. One part of it I well remember, the part 
wliere "if you reveal any secrecy, ever talk, that yon would get your 
head blown from your shoulders." I well remember that. 

Mr. Appell. Your testimony is that, as part of this oath, it was set 
forth that a violation of the secrecy of the wrecking crew would result 
in your head being- blown otf from your shoulders? 

Mr. GiPSON. Right. 

Mr. Appell. Was there discussion 

The Chairman. May I first ask a question about the meeting? 
Were any of you in robes or were you in plain clothes when you admin- 
istered that oath? 

Mr. GiPSON. We had plain clothes, but we had black masks. 

The Chairman. And that was in July of 1964? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Appell. I was going to ask about subsequent events, Mr. Chair- 
man — but this black mask that you wore, did it cover your head so 
that no one could identify you, so that only the eye slits showed 
through ? 

Mr. GiPSON. That's right. 

Mr. Appell. Was there any discussion after the oath as to retalia- 
tion against a member of the wrecking crew who might violate any 
of the secrets of the members of the wrecking crew? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. They said if a fellow ever talked that they 
would get him, that they might not get him then, it mig'lit be 5 or 10 
years later, but: he would be gotten. 

Mr. Pool. Wim said this? 

Mr. GiPSON. These two fellas that were supposed to have been from 
northeast Louisiana. 

Mr. Pool. You don't know the names ? 

Mr. GiPSON. No, sir. I never did find their names out. They said 
that tliey could get men from somewliere else to do these jobs, 

Mr. Pool. Where did they tell you this? 

Mr. GiPSON. At Al Bardin's. 

Mr. Pool. Anybody else here ? 

Mr. GiPSON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You are the only one wlio talked? 

Mr. GiPSON. I misunderstood. I thought you asked did anybody 
else here hear it. I heard it, Oscar Anderson, Harold Brakefield, L. M. 
Ray nor. Nelson Ainsworth. 

Mr. Pool. Did you ever ask who these fellows were ? 

Mr. GiPSON. No, sir; I never did. 

Mr. Weltner. What w^as your understanding as to what was meant 
by "they will get you'' ? 

Mr. GiPsON. My understanding was that if anybody ever revealed 
any of their secrets that they w^ould kill you. 

Mr. Weltner. Was there any question about what they meant by 
"get you" in your mind? 

Mr. Gipsox. Well, I knew what they meant. 

Mr. Weltner. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. T want to ask you, and this will be a complete answer. 



59-222 O — 67— pt. 3 19 



2616 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

I think, to Mr. Pool's question- — in addition to yourself who on this 
night took the wrecking crew oath? 

Mr. GiPSON. Oscar Anderson, he took it hisself ; Harold Rrakefield; 
L. M. Raynor : Louis Singletaiy. 

Mr. Appell. S-i-n-g-1-e-t-a-r-y? 

Mr. GiPSON. Right; Harold Brakefield, Heniy Gaines 

The Chairman. Could you tell us about the ages of those people? 
Were they about your age? Were some older or some younger than 
you? 

Mr. GiPSON. There was two boys — three boys- — pretty close to about 
my age, and the rest of them was older than me. 

The Chairman. How old would you say? 

Mr. GiPSON. I am 29. 

The Chairman. You were then 27 ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appei.l. In addition to those that you have already named, 
L. M. Raynor, Harold Brakefield, Nelson xlinsworth, and Louis Single- 
tary and Henry Gaines, was a man by the name of Talley, whose first 
name is Vernon Edgar Talley, another who took the wrecking crew 
oath at that time ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, he was. 

Mr. Appell. And Henry Clayton Hickey. H-i-c-k-e-y ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Right ; he took the oath, too. 

Mr. Appell. Did the wrecking crew meet and discuss its business as 
part of the regular Klaveni meeting, or did the members of the 
wrecking crew hold separate, independent meetings ? 

Mr. GiPSON. They held separate meetings. 

Mr. Appell. Where would these meetings be held — at the residence 
of different members ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, in the residences. 

Mr. Appell. At whose residences did some of the meetings of this 
particular group take place ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Most of the time at Oscar Anderson's house. 

Mr. Pool. Was Oscar Anderson the leader of this group ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. He presided at the meetings ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. He gave you instructions ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. He administered the oath? Who administered the oath? 

Mr. GiPSON. Them boys that come down from northeast I^uisiana, 
they swore him in as the leader and then he was supposed to lead 
from there on. 

Mr. Pool. They designated him as the leader ? 

Mr. GiPSON. In other words, they was just starting him out, just 
like they were supposed to already have been. 

Mr. Appell. After they swore in Oscar Anderson, then Oscar 
Anderson in turn administered the oath to the local members of the 
wrecking crew ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. How often did this wrecking crew normally meet? 

Mr. GiPSON. They met about once a week. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2617 

Mr. Appell. Did you or other members of the wrecking crew ever 
travel to places outside of the Pearl River area for the purpose of dis- 
cussing o^x^rations and projects or jobs which the wrecking crew should 
involve itself in? 

Mr. GiPSON. I never did get out of the area of Slidell and Pearl 
River. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever attend any meetings in Covington ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, I did attend a meeting out there but it was a 
kind of a State meeting like. State officers mostly. 

Mr. Appell. And not restricted to wrecking crew pereonnel ? 

Mr. GiPSON. No, sir. But there was a little discussion there I heard 
on one part of it. 

Mr. Appell. Would you describe this meeting for us and tell us 
where it was held and approximately when it was held ? 

Mr. GiPSON. One Sunday morning Oscar Anderson come by my 
house and told me he had a call to meet with some fellows in Coving- 
ton. He didn't know who or what was going on. 

Mr. Appell. I interrupt you there, Mr. Gipson. In an interview 
which you had w^th me did we establish that the approximate date of 
tliis meeting was Sunday, the 25th of July 1965 ? 

Mr, Gipson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. For the record, about how far is Covington from 
Slidell? 

Mr. Gipson. Must be around about 25 miles. 

The Chairman. About how far is Slidell from Bogalusa, approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr. Gipson. 36 miles roughly. 

The Chairman. And how far is Covington from Bogalusa, approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr. Gipson. About 50 or 60 miles. 

The Chairman. All right. Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. You had told, up to the point of my interruption, that 
Oscar Anderson had advised you that he had to go to Covington to 
meet with some fellows. Did you accompany Oscar Anderson to 
Covington to meet with these fellows ? 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. On the way he picked up Al Bardin. 

Mr. Appell. He picked up Al Bardin, whom we discussed previ- 
ously as the owner of the Pine View Salvage Company ? 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And the three of you then traveled to Covington ? 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you have a meeting in Covington ? 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. It was a little meeting. 

Mr. Appell. Where was this meeting held ? 

Mr. Gipson. At Pete Holden's home. 

Mr. Appell. That is James Holden, Mr. Chairman, who was a 
witness before the committee last week and refused to testify and 
invoked his constitutional privileges. 

Would you proceed in your own words to describe who was there 
and what the general discussion of those assembled was ? 

Mr. Gipson. S. J. Parker was there ; Saxon Farmer. 

Mr. Appell. Is Mr. Parker from Bush ? 



2618 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, from up around Bush. 

Mr. Appell, And Saxon Farmer is from Bogalusa. 

Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show that he was a witness 
before the committee last week and refused to testifj' on constitutional 
privileges. 

You have mentioned Parker and Farmer. 

Mr. GiPSON. And Pete Holden. 

Mr. Appell. In whose house the meeting was held ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes. Oscar Anderson, Al Bardin and myself, Johnnie 
Gipson. 

Mr. Appell. Was Albert M. Bancks, B-a-n-c-k-s, also there? 

Mr. GiPSON. That is right ; he was there, too. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show that at 
the time of that meeting Mr. Albert M. Bancks resided at Folsom, 
Louisiana, but is currently residing at Foxboro, Mississippi. 

Will you proceed with the discussions that might have taken place 
at this meeting that you can recall ? 

Mr. GiPSON. I heard Oscar Anderson ask Saxon Farmer were they 
still going through with the plans to burn the churches, and Saxon 
Farmer told him "yes," that it was going to be done statewide, that 
they would follow the plans through. 

Mr. Appell. Following that meeting, was there subsequently a 
meeting of members of the wrecking crew in your area? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Which meeting related itself to the actual burning of 
churches ? 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I think in the interview we established that this meet- 
ing was held on July 31, the Saturday following the meeting at Pete 
Holden 's house, that it was held at the house of Oscar Anderson; is 
that true? 

Mr. GiPSON. Right. 

Mr. Appell. Would you tell the committee the discussion that went 
on at that meeting ? 

Mr. Gipsox. We met there, and they decided they would wet the 
buildings down with gas. 

Mr. Appell. What buildings are Ave talking about ? 

Mr. Gipson. The Hartsell Methodist Church, I believe. 

Mr. Appell. Methodist Youth Center, I believe is the technical 
name. 

Mr. Gipson. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. What town ? 

Mr. Gipson. In Slidell. 

Mr. Appell. The other was the Providence Baptist Church? 

Mr. Gipson. On Thompson Road. 

The Chairman. Were those churches with white congregations or 
Negro congregations? Were they colored or white churches? 

Mr. Gipson. They were colored churches. They said they were 
using them for civil rights meetings. They decided they would wet 
them down with gas, take four matches, two on each side of a cigarette 
and wrap a rubber band around them to ignite the gas. That was 
the trigger. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2619 

Mr. Appell. During the iiiter\iew, Mr. Gipsoii, under your guid- 
ance and instruction, did we sort of simulate the type of instrument 
that was used to ignite the gas ? I show this to you. 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is that the kind of torch that they had planned 
to use ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Describe that torch. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, tlie torch that we manufactured at the 
guidance of Mr. Gipson is an ordinary cigarette which has four 
matches attached to it. These are wood matches, not paper matches. 
They are held in place around the cigarette with a rubber band. The 
cigarette is ignited and as it burns down it then ignites the matches. 
The time that the people have to get away depends upon how close 
or far removed tliey put the matches to the ignited end of the cigarette. 

Mr. Pool. Is that description the way it was? 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Was a time set at which the burning of these two 
churches would take place? 

Mr. Gipson. Yes. It was set on a Monday night. 

Mr. Appell. Is this the Monday which followed the meeting at 
Oscar Anderson's house on Saturday ? 

Mr. Gipson. On Saturday, that is right. 

Mr. Appell, This would then make it on August 2 ? 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. They figured the best time would be in the 
morning, which would be Tuesday morning at about 1 o'clock. 

The Chairman. In the afternoon ? 

Mr. Appell. A.M. 

The Chairman. In other words, Tuesday at 1 o'clock a.m. 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Just past Monday midnight. 

Mr. Gipson. That is right. They said there wouldn't be too many 
people stirring at that hour of the night. 

Mr. Appell. On the following Monday night, were these acts car- 
ried out ? 

Mr. Gipson'. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would you describe in your own words how the 
rendezvous was established and how the teams were set up to carry 
out the actual purpose ? 

Mr. Gipson. That ISIonday night we had a regular Klan meeting at 
James L. Leslie's house. 

Mr. Appell. He was the exalted cyclops of the unit at that time ? 

Mr. Gipson. Right. 

Mr. Appell. You mentioned tlie meeting Avas held on a Monday 
night. Was this the normal night for a meeting of the Klavern? 

Mr. Gipson. No, sir. They had been meeting on Friday nights, but 
they decided they would change nights. 

Mr. Appell. In order to keep the sheriff's department and the FBI 
from observing their meetings, they then switched the meeting nights? 

Mr. Gipson. Right. 

Mr. Appell. Proceed with the meeting and what happened. 

Mr. Gipson. We had a regular meeting 



2620 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. By "we," do you mean the wrecking crew? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. By the regular meetmg, you mean of the Klavem 
membership ? 

Mr. GiPSON. The Klavern meeting and the wrecking crew men were 
there, too. After tlie reguhir meeting, Oscar Anderson said just wait 
until everybod}^ left, and when everybody left he come around and he 
asked if everything was ready, and was told j^es. He said, "Well, I 
am going home so I will have an ironclad alibi" 

Mr. Appell. Let me interrupt you there. Oscar Anderson is the 
KBIman? 

Mr. GipsoN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. He is the man who planned the action ? 

Mr. Gipsoisr. Right. 

Mr. Appell. But instead of going with you to carry out these acts, 
he is going home so he can have a perfect alibi ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What is that ? 

Mr. Appell. He is going home after planning it and getting the 
people to do it, so he will have a perfect alibi. 

Mr. GiPSON. He doesn't worry about the rest of the guys. So we 
left and went on about 8 miles and we stopped again. We were going 
to split up there. So two took the one on Thompson Road. 

The Chairman. I do not want to break into your thoughts, but 
when you say "we," who are they ? You and who else? 

Mr. GiPsoN. L. M. Raynor and Louis Singletary were going to take 
the one on Thompson Road, and myself and Clayton Hickey and Ed 
Talley were going to get the the other one on Shortcut Highway. 

Mr. Appell. That would be the Hartsell Methodist Youth Center ( 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Continue. 

Mr. GiPSON. I had my truck. The other two boys had a car. They 
were going to let me take my truck home, and I was going to leave it. 
They were going to pick me up. I had two of these little hand walkie- 
talkie radios that they use on guard duty around the Klavern. I had 
me a little story made up. When I went in and put the radios up, I 
come back out and told them, the two boys I was with, Hickey and 
Talley, that my wife was crying and begging me not to go, which was 
the story I just made up, and that I couldn't go. They said, "We 
understand, but we will take care of it." 

Mr. Appell. To your knowledge and to the public knowledge of 
people in the community, were the Providence Ba[)tist Church and the 
Hart-sell Methodist Youth Cenler set fire that night? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. The next morning I went to work and I heard 
it on the radio that they were both burned down. 

Mr. Appell. After this burning, did you continue active member- 
ship in the Klan ? 

Mr. Gipsox. After that hai)pened, I knew I couldn't go on with 
them kind of things, and I slacked oti'. I got on the side with the 
law officials, and they advised and asked me would I get back in the 
groove and go back to the regular meetings so I could help stop that 
kind of things, and I did. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2621 

(At this point Kepresentative Seniier entered the liearing I'oom.) 

The Chairman. What hiw officials ? 

Mr. Gipsox. Mr. Broom. 

The Chairman. Wlio is he i 

Mr. GiPSON. Slieriff Broom of St. Tammany Parish. 

The Chairman. It was by arrangement of your sheriff that you 
appear here today ? Is that right, as far as you know ? I am telling 
you it is. 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You said you were engaged in logging operations. 
I think even yesterday you were logging ; were you not ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Through your sheriff' you asked two things of the 
committee. One, that your expenses be paid and, second, that you 
be afforded police protection while you were in Washington; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I have afforded you that, and I direct the police to 
continue that watch. 

By the way, there was discussion about your protection when you 
went back home. The sheriff said he would take care of that. I con- 
gratulate him. 

Mr. GiPSON. He is a fine fellow. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gipson, on January 5, 1966, did you then leave 
the Klan and become a witness for the State in a prosecution of 
fellow Klansmen who carried out the whipping of Clarence O'Berry ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, I did. 

Mr. Pool. I did not get the last question, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. I asked whether or not the witness on January 5, 1966, 
became a witness in a trial growing out of the whipping of Clarence 
O'Berry. 

It was with your taking the witness stand in that case that you 
severed your Klan connections, which immediately prior thereto you 
were carrying out at the request of Sheriff Broom of St. Tammany 
Parish ? 

Mr. GiPsoN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I do not know whether you possess knowledge but I 
shall ask: In October 1965 there was a fire in the Sixth Ward near 
Hickory occasioned by threats brought against the builder of the 
property because he was using Negro help in finishing cement or con- 
crete. The first threat of burning of the lumber that Avas being used 
in construction was the hanging of a doll by its neck to simulate .a 
hanging. Do you possess laiowledge of that? 

Mr. GiPsoN. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You talked about w^alkie-talkies that you had taken 
from the Klavern meeting on the night of August 2 and left at your 
home. AYliat use does the Klan make of walkie-talkie radios? 

Mr, GiPSON. In case anybody starts in, they can be notified inside 
to disband and stop their business. 

Mr. Appixl. Therefore, a man outside has a walkie-talkie and 
someone inside 

Mr. Gipson. They have one inside. Sometimes they might have 
two or three more outside. Like if the building is back off the road, 



2622 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

there will be one away out by the road and maybe one about the 
middle ways, and then one pretty close by the house. 

Mr. Appkll. Is it your knowledge that Avithin the operation of the 
Klan, members use very extensively citizens band radios in their auto- 
mobiles for the purpose of carrying out Klan activities ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, they do. They use ever;yi:hing they can .ar- 
range and scrape to do it. They get every chamiel they can. 

Mr. Appell. Even though their authority might be for a certain 
channel, they do not remain within the regulations of the Federal 
Communications Commission ? 

Mr. Gipsox. I don't think they do. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gipson, were you defended by the same counsel 
that defended the defendants m that case ? 

Mr. Gipson. No, sir. I had my own separate lawyer. 

Mr. Appell. Wliat was the quotation of expense to the Klan for 
the defense of the Klan defendants in that trial ? 

Mr. GiPSON. I understood the amount would be aromid $9,000. I 
got to figuring I might be getting took and that I wasn't going to take 
that law^yer because it is kinda hard for me, raising a family and the 
kind of work I am doing, to get up that kind of money. I was afraid 
I might wind up with a suit for that $9,000. I decided I would just 
have me another lawyer. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know how the Klan raised the necessary legal 
fees that they had to pay to defend the Klansmen in that trial? 

Mr. GiPSON. They raffled off a bull and they gave turkey shoots. 
Whenever they had a rally they would take up a collection. Stuff 
like that. 

Mr. Appell. Prior to going to trial, was there discussion among 
the people as to what they felt their chances might be during the trial, 
whether they were going to be acquitted or whether they were going 
to be found guilty ? 

Mr. GiPSON". They said unless somebody pimped, there wouldn't be 
a conviction. 

Mr. Appell. They were convicted, were they not ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, they were. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gipson, I have one more question to ask of you. 
I would like you in your own words to say why you joined the Klan 
and why you agreed to render assistance to Sheriff Broom of St. 
Tammany Parish, and therefore technically leave the Klan. 

Mr. GiPSON. At the time I joined, I figured it was a pretty good 
thing tliat they had going, and I figured sometliing might be accom- 
plished by it, but as I stayed in and seen these things happen and they 
kept getting worse and worse, I knew it could not go on for me. You 
can't do them kind of things and get by the hiw like that. T just had 
to go the right way. 

The Chairman. Mr. Gipson, I suppose it w\as because of people like 
Preacher Leslie and High School Principal Rowley — it was because 
of people of that prominence in the community who talked to you, 
people of that type who led you to believe this was a good organization. 

Mr. Gipson. Yes. When I first went in, there was a lot of fellows 
in it, and they were what I call upstanding men. And then they 
started dropping out. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2623 

The Chairman, They are dropping out some more now ? 

Mr. GiPSON. They are dropping out. It is boiling down to just a 
bunch of 

The Chairman. Say it. 

Mr, GiPSON, The way I Avould describe it would be renegades. 
Eight now I feel my life ain't worth two cents to me. I figure my 
family — they might even go through them to get me. 

The Chairman. Are you afraid? You are doing a courageous 
thing. 

Mr. GiPSON. I am trying to right a wrong and help the cause of the 
country. I feel I am supposed to do it. I am not scared of them. 
I am scared of the law. I am not scared of them. 

The Chairman. Do you find there are other people who are learning 
the truth and that they do not have that fear any more and are 
willing to come out and stand up for law and order ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That is what is going on in your area ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, that is right. 

The Chairman. I hope this will be an example for others to do 
what you are doing today. I hope and express confidence that that 
will come about. 

Mr. Appell. With respect to the wrecking crew, are you acquainted 
with the constitution which provided that there should be a formal 
organization within the Klan known as the wrecking crew ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. The wrecking crew of which you were a member was 
an official Klan group ; is that right ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. The members of the Klavern all knew there was such a 
thing as a wrecking crew which was authorized by the Klavern? 

Mr. GiPSON. They pretty well knew there was a wrecking crew, but 
they couldn't pinpoint them out. 

Mr. Pool. They knew there was such an organization within the 
Klavern itself ? 

Mr. GiPSON. I think they did. 

The Chairman. But the whole idea of the Klan is that the wreck- 
ing crew itself be kept secret ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Be kept secret, right. 

The Chairman. One more thing in addition to my reference to 
possible influence on you of Preacher Leslie and the high school prin- 
cipal. I have before me literature on this general subject, literature 
of the Klan, which reads: "To be read and reread until thoroughly 
understood by all officers and members." Also, it should be used as 
background material for discussions and lectures at local and unit 
meetings. I will read only one example : "The purpose and function 
of this organization is to preserve Christian Civilization." 

That is the kind of thing they preach — Christianity, patriotism, 
love of country, anticommunism, and all the rest, in addition, of coui^se, 
to hatred in matters involving racial relations. That is the kind of 
stuff they preach. 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes, sir, that is right. 

The Chairman. Do they practice what they preach ? 



2624 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. GiPSON. No, sir, they don't. 

The Chairman. Of course, burning churches and things of that 
nature are, to say the least, im-Cliristian ; isn't that correct? 

Mr. GiPSON. Right. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gipson, returning to E^Ye^ Rowley, the high school 
principal, do you possess knowledge as to why he gave up the position 
of exalted cy clops and what rank within the Klan he assumed? 

Mr. GiPSON. One of his reasons was that it was going to interfere 
with his job being principal of the school, and then the next reason 
was when this O'Berry boy got whipped, I don't believe it was brought 
before him and cleared before him. He realized he couldn't have no 
control over the men, and I think he thought it was best for him to 
drop out. 

Mr. Appell. Drop the position of exalted cyclops ? 

Mr. Gipson. Right. 

Mr. Appell. Did he continue a membership of some kind ? 

Mr. GiPSON, Then he became an honorary member. Actually, he 
is not attendmg no meetings. 

Mr. Appell. Some constitutions of the Klan, if not your Klan, 
provide for secret members. Would you put him in this category ? 

Mr. Gipson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. "When you said difficulty with respect to his position 
of principal, were you inferring that he might lose his position ? Is 
that the type of difficulty you referred to ? 

Mr. GiPSON. Yes. He felt it would cause him to lose his job. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chainnan, the staff has not further questions of 
this witness. 

Mr. Pool. I just want to complmient the witness for being a very 
brave man to come here and testify in view of the fact that there 
is a chance that somebody might try to harm you or your family. 
I want to point out to you that this committee has had similar things 
in the investigation of commimism. We have had witnesses come 
and point out people who are Communists and trying to infiltrate 
industry and things like that. You have the same thing going on in 
other areas, where you have extreme groups trying to preach violence. 
I assure you, after these people have been named here this morning, I 
do not think anyone is going to tiy to harm you, but if they do, this 
committee should be notified, the chainnan should be notified, and we 
will take action immediately. 

The Chairman. There is a very severe law to the effect if anyone 
who takes the stand either before a court or before a committee is 
subjected to attempts at intimidation or recrimination or violence or 
threats, that is a severe thing under the law, and the law is there 
to punish those people. If any such thing happens, let me know. 
I will bet 10 to 1 no such thing is going to happen. This threat 
and this preachment that a wrecking crew member's talking would re- 
sult in his neck being severed from his body and that members of his 
family will be hurt — that is just so much talk to intimidate and put 
the members themselves in fear. The more like you who are brave 
like you and talk, the less and less such a thing will happen. I would 
bet nothing is going to happen to you. You are protected here, and 
I am sure your good sheriff will protect you back home. 

Mr. Pool. The Federal Government itself will become a pretty good 
wrecking crew if those people do try anything like that. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2625 

Mr. GiPSON. The judge I think understands that, too. I glory in his 
spunk. He flat laid the cards on the table. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chainnan, I should like to join in the state- 
ment of the Chair and of the members of the committee in commend- 
ing this witness for his courage. I know courage in New York City, 
Buffalo, and Atlanta is one thing. Courage in Slidell, Louisiana, is 
another thing. I have developed an intense admiration for you since 
you have been here. I simply want to add this one point, Mr. 
Gipson. The literature which we have in the record of these hearings 
is quite clear that the Klan realizes that its power is in the secrecy of 
its membership. What power the Klan has, I think it is becoming 
clear, depends upon the secrecy of that membership. Tn recent weeks, 
substantial changes have come about in the maintenance of that secrecy. 
The action of the Federal court which resulted in the submission to 
that court of the membership list of the Klan of Bogalusa and of the 
Anti-Communist Christian Association is one thing. The very fine 
investigation conducted by the staff of this committee is another. The 
fact of the matter is, Mr. Gipson, there is no secrecy of membership 
within the area concerning which you testified. The Federal court 
knows who the Klansmen are ; this committee knows who the Klans- 
men are ; the Federal Bureau of Investigation knows who the Klans- 
men are. So far as your concern about the danger Avhich exists by 
virtue of your testimony here today to you and your family, take 
some heart in the fact that the agencies of the Government, both the 
legislative branch through this committee and the executive branch 
through the FBI and the judicial branch through the court in New 
Orleans, know exactly who it might be on the other end of that tele- 
phone when you receive a threatening call. They know exactly what 
group it might be that sets out some kind of intimidation or harass- 
ment of you or your family. We know, and we are determined, so far 
as it is within our power, speaking for the Federal Government, all 
branches, to protect you and your family. 

The power of the Klan is the secrecy of its membership and that 
power has been vastly diluted and abated in recent weeks, and it w^ill 
continue to dwindle because the facts are coming in and the facts will 
be available through people such as yourself. 

Mr. Pool. I think we will have more people come forth with state- 
ments like Mr. Gipson's and further expose the Klan. Don't you 
agree ? 

Mr. Weltner. I am certainly hopeful that the example which Mr. 
Gipson has set here will stimulate others to consider what is their duty 
as Americans as well as their duty as Christians. 

Mr. Gipson. I hope so myself. I can see it is beginning to weaken 
now. I know in our area it is weakened now. 

Mr. Weltner. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Gipson, I want to read from the Federal law 
I just mentioned a while ago. Among other acts which this law makes 
unlawful — it states : 

Whoever injures any party or witness in his person or property on account 
of his attending or having attendetl such proceeding, inquiry, or investigation, 
or on account of his testifying or having testified to any matter pending therein ; 
or 



2626 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, 
or both. 

The record will show that you have appeared, have been sworn, and 
have testified, and you have the protection of this law. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Gipson, I cannot tell you how much I admire 
your courage. In the last analysis, a nation is only as strong as the 
people who make it up, and I think you are demonstrating yourself 
today before this committee to be a part of the hope of our Republic, 
and I appreciate it. 

One of the ideas which was perpetrated by the Klan organization 
was that they are fighters against communism. May I say, sir, that 
people like you, who are determined to uphold the law and attempt to 
do what is right, are this Nation's strength in the struggle against 
world communism, and those who perpetrate acts of violence and ter- 
rorism, who take the law into their own hands, serve well the Commu- 
nist cause. As far as I am concerned, you here today are taking your 
stand as a patriot doing what is right, and people like you are the 
people wlio are really going to win the battle against communism. 

I want to thank you for your testimony. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 2 :30 this 
afternoon. 

(Members present at time of recess: Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Weltner, and Buchanan, of the subcommittee, and also Representative 
Senner.) 

Cl^Hiereupon, at 11:25 a.m., Tuesday, January 11, 1966, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 2:30 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, JANUARY 11, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2:30 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 

(Members present: Representatives Willis, Pool, Weltner, Ash- 
brook, and Buchanan, of the subcommittee, and also Representative 
Senner. ) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Call the first witness. 

Mr. Appell. George Gill Harris, Jr. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
Avhole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Harris. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE GILL HARRIS, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, will you identify yourself for the record, 
please? 

Mr. Harris. George Gill Harris, Jr. 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, may I state at this time his subpena 
only reads "George Gil Harris." I would consent to any amendment 
to this subpena by the cliainnan since he has identified himself as 
George Gill Harris, Jr. He informs me that it is G-i-1-1, rather than 
one "1." 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2627 

The Chairman. In view of the self-identification by the witness as 
the person served and the statement of counsel, the subpena will be 
technically corrected to conform to his true name. 

Mr. ArrELL. Mr. Harris, are you appearing liere in accordance with 
the subpena, which has now been technically amended, served upon 
you at Fourth Street, Bernice, Louisiana, on the 27th day of October 
1965? 

Mr. Harris. Yes. 

Mr. Chalmers. Speak up for the record. 

Mr. Harris. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Harris. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law^, Raleigh, 
North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, the subpena served upon you contained 
in the attachment thereto, which was made a part of the subpena, 
under the conditions of the subpena you were called upon to produce, 
to bring with you and to produce documents described in the attach- 
ment, paragraph 1 of which reads as follows : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible 
Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc.. also 
known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
and affiliated organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, Louisiana 
Rescue Service, Bernice Sportsman Club in your possession, custody and control, 
or maintained by you or available to you as Kligrapp or Secretary of the Invis- 
ible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., 
also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Mr. Harris, I request you to produce in your representative capacity 
stated therein the documents called for by part 1 of the subpena. 

The Chairman. Is it stipulated that the subpena served upon him 
orders him to produce the documents therein refen^ed to in the capacity 
stated therein ? 

Mr. Chalmers. As stated in the subpena ; yes, sir, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee subpena dated Octo- 
ber 14, 1965, for the reason that I lionestly feel to do so might tend to 
incriminate me in violation of my rights guaranteed to me by amend- 
ments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the T"'^nited States of 
America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant and germane to the subcommittee's 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in consideration 
of any valid remedial legislation, nor is any such inquiiy within the 
scope of that authorized to be investigated ])y the rules adopted by 
the Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, before asking a direction of the Chair, I 
Avould like to ask you, have you been apprised of the statement the 
chairman issued in October at the start of these hearings which set 
forth the purpose of the hearings and the other pertinent facts with 
respect thereto? 



2628 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Chalmers. I will stipulate that he has, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I now ask tliat the witness be directed 
to produce those documents called for in paragraph 1. I ask for di- 
rection of paragraph 1. 

The Chairman. The reasons you have given for your refusal to 
produce the documents called for by this part of the subpena do not 
legally justify your refusal. Therefore, those reasons are rejected. 
Accordingly, I order and direct you to produce the documents in the 
representative capacity as stated by Mr. Appell and in this subpena. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
records— grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, paragraph 2 of the attachment to the sub- 
pena calls for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody and control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past Kligrapp and/or member of the United Klans of America, 
Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said 
organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other 
officer of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

The Chairman. Is the same stipulation with reference to his rep- 
resentative capacity entered into ? 

Mr. Chalmers. As stated in the subpena ; yes, sir, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, I request you to produce in your represent- 
ative capacity stated therein the documents called for in paragaph 2 
of the subpena. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
groimds previously stated. 

The Chairman. For the reasons previously indicated, I direct you 
to produce the documents called for in the representative capacity 
stated in the subpena. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the connnittee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, paragraph 3 calls upon you to produce: 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1120, 
"U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return," for the fiscal years 1961 through June 
30, 1965, filed by you as Kligrapp. 

I request you to produce in the representative capacity set forth in 
paragraph 3 the documents called for. 

The Chairman. The same stipulation? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by tlie committee on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Tlie Chairman. For the reasons previously stated, I order and 
direct you to produce those documents in the capacity stated. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that as secretary of the Bemice Sportsman 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2629 

Club, Box 57, Bernice, Louisiana, aaid as secretai-y of the Louisiana 
Rescue Service, Box 57, Beniice, Louisiana, you filed in the case of 
Bernice [Sportsman Club] on August 17, 1965, and on August 18 in 
the case of the Louisiana Rescue Service, Forms 1120, U.S. corporate 
income tax return for the two organizations that I have mentioned to 
you. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights guaranteed to me by amenchiients 5, 1, 4, and 
14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. In support of the tax returns which you filed, do you 
have in your possession financial books and records upon which these 
returns were based ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by the amendments 5, 
1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Have any records upon which the two returns were 
based been destroyed since the filing of the corporate returns men- 
tioned on August 17 and 18, 1965 ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to reflect that 
the "Constitution and Laws" of the United Klans of America, Incor- 
porated, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, adopted in Imperial Klon- 
cilium at Birmingham, Alabama, in September 1964, set forth certain 
documents to be received by the grand kligrapp of a realm and pre- 
scribes the kligrapp of the realm as an officer of the organization. 

Mr. Harris, when and where were you bom ? 

Mr, Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Have you been an officer of the Bernice Sportsman 
Club since January of 1964 ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claimed priv- 
ilege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as tliey pertain to Mr. 
Harris. 

George Gill, spelled with two "Ps," Harris, Jr., was born Jan- 
uary 16, 1922, at Haynesville, Louisiana. He resides at Bernice. 
Louisiana, Avhere he operates Harris' 5 and 10, a variety store. He 
served in the Army from September 24, 1942, to April 24, 1946, and 
in the Enlisted Reserve Corps until April 23, 1949. His military 
specialty was telephone lineman, repainnan, and repeatemian. At 
the time of entry into the Army he claimed 1 year of college. 

Harris has been a member of the Klan since at least January 1964. 
He has been an official of the Klavern Itnown under the cover name 
Bernice Sportsman Club since January of 1964. This Klavern was 
affiliated with the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan under J. D. 
Swenson and Royal V. Young. It became affiliated with the United 
Klans of America around April 1964 and became part of Louisiana 



2630 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Kealm of that organization, which uses as its cover name the Lou- 
isiana Rescue Service. 

Harris is currently reahn kligrapp or secretary. In this position 
he receives monthly reports from each Klavem within the realm. 
He receives all funds due to the realm which he turns over to the 
realm treasurer. As secretary he possesses the identities of all Kla- 
vern kligrapps or secretaries as well as exalted cyclops. 

On May 15-16, 1965, Harris attended a meeting of imperial officers 
and other Klan officials at Natchez, Mississippi. 

Mr. Harris, the records of the Bank of Bemice, Bemice, Louisiana, 
covering the name of the Bernice Sportsman Club, handled both the 
fimds of the realm and the funds of the Klavem. I put it to you as 
a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that prior to the 
committee's inquiry or announcement of inquiry into the Klan, the 
Bemice Sportsman Club paid imperial tax on 97 membei-s and by 
July of 1965 it was paying imperial tax on 25 members. 

The Chairman. Before answering this question, Mr. Harris, I 
wish to say this to you: You have heard the sworn statement just 
made by the comjnittee's investigator, Mr. Don Appell. You now 
have the opportunity to reply to any portion of that statement out- 
lining your activities, to confirm or challenge the accuracy of the 
information, or to explain any part of that statement. 

In addition you have the right, if you desire, to offer any other 
matters that the committee may deem relevant to this inquiiy. Do 
you care to avail yourself of that opportmiity ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. In that case, Mr. Harris, I must inform you that 
in the absence of your rebuttal, or other facts that may come to the 
attention of the committee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy 
of its investigation. With that in mind, do you have anything else 
to say, or anything to say? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, I think for the record there is still 
one question that Mr. Appell asked that the witness has not replied 
to yet. If we 

The Chairman. You may now respond to the pending question. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, as the grand kligrapp of the Realm of 
Louisiana, which operates a little differently than most UKA realms 
operate, in that imperial per capita tax, until some new Klaverns 
came under your jurisdiction recently, you collected the imperial tax 
and transmitted it on to the imperial office in Tuscaloosa. Therefore, 
you possess knowledge of the identity of ITKA Klaverns within the 
State of Louisiana. 

An examination of deposit slips reflects that prior to August 6, 
1965, when the account in the name of the I^ernice Sportsman Club 
was closed out and a new account was opened in the name of the 
Louisiana Rescue Sei*\'ice, there were these Klaverns in existence. 

After I read you the names of the Klaverns, I would like to ask 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2631 

you whether or not ail of tlie Klaverns that I mentioned to you are 
still in operation. 

The Bernice Sportsman Club, Calhoun Businessmen's Association, 
C. B. Riding CIud, Chatham Hunting and Fishing Club, Dnbach, as 
we interpret the deposit slip — Mr. Chairman, D-u-b-a-c-h — Hunting 
and Fishing Club, the Dugdemonice Hunting Club, the Farmville 
Hunting and Fishing Club, the Jackson Parish Cun and Rod Club, 
the Marion Hunting and Fishing Club, the MOG— M-O-G, I don't 
know whether that is an abbreviation — Junction City Sportsman Club, 
the Okeloosa Hunting Club, the Ouachita Parish Hunting and Fishing 
Club, the Sterlington Hunting and Fishing Club #8, the Taylortown 
Hunting Club, Union Hunting and Fishing Club, Ward 10 Hunting 
Club. 

Are they still in existence? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "George Harris Exhibit No. 1" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, does the Realm of Louisiana have a Klav- 
ern in Kemier, Louisiana ? 

Mr. HLvRRis. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, on August 27, 1965, Charles L. Miller of 
2512 Airline Highway ^vrote a check or obtained a money order from 
the Merchants Trust and Savings Bank in Kenner, Louisiana, payable 
to the United Klans of America in the amount of $30. Purpose for 
which drawn, copies of the Klan publication, the Fiery Gross. 

This is according to deposits made to the accoimt of the Alabama 
Rescue Service as obtained through a subpena duces tecum from The 
First National Bank of Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Do you know Charles 
L.Miller? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the gromids previously stated. 

(Check marked "George Harris Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, you can help the committee imderstand 
something that confuses it. There is maintained in Bogalusa, Louisi- 
ana, an account in the name of the LTnited Conservatives of Mississippi, 
No. 1. The signature to this account is B. L. Sellers. Is this a Klavern 
within the Realm of Louisiana, or the Louisiana Rescue Service or a 
Klavern in Mississippi affiliated with the Realm of Mississippi known 
as the Mississippi Rescue Service ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "George Harris Exhibit No. 3'" appear on p. 
2632.) 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Appell, let me talk to you a minute. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should reflect that 
the checks drawn against the account of the United Conservatives of 
Mississippi, No. 1, are deposited to the official account of the United 
Klans of America, which is maintained under the name of the Alabama 
Rescue Service. 

(At this point Mr. Weltner left the hearing room.) 

59-222 O — 67 — pt. 3 20 



2632 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

George Harris Exhibit No. 3 



NOV 19 1965 



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Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that on 11-22-1965 you were the cosigner of 
a check drawn against the Louisiana Rescue Service in the amount of 
$185 payable to the Alabama Rescue Service and that this check repre- 
sents the imperial tax on only 370 members, which is the bulk of your 
membership in the State of Louisiana. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "George Harris Exhibit No. 4" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2633 

George Harris Exhibit No. 4 



y/:^'y Bernicei.La..- IL/jkH \^LA. no. ^^ 



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Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, do you have a women's auxiliary in Mon- 
roe, Louisiana, which makes payments to the imperial account from 
an account known as the Green Thumb Club ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Harris, mucli is s;iid by Dr. Edwards, the Grand 
Dragon of the Realm of Louisiana, about the United Klans of America 
and the Louisiana Realm not endorsing violence. On September 4, 
1964, a check was written to Tom Wliitehead, an exalted cyclops of a 
Klavern in Georgia, who was collecting money from Klaverns 
throughout the United States, the total simi of which was to go for 
the defense of the United Klansmen arrested in the murder of Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Lemuel Penn. Can you explain this check to Tom 
AVliitehead in the light of your announced nonviolent position ? 

Mr. Harris. I resiDectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the gromids previously stated. 

(Check marked "George Harris Exhibit No. 5," See report, p. 121.) 

Mr. Appell. On March 20, 1965, a check was drawn payable to 
"E. L. McDaniels," the Grand Dragon of MivSsissippi, in the amount 
of $20 for a defense fund. Can you tell the committee what defense 
this was ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "George Harris Exhibit No. 6" appears on p. 2634.) 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan left the hearing room and Mr. Weltuer 
returned.) 

Mr. Appell. Do you know whether or not it related to the defense 
of any United Klansman involved in violence ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Coulcl it have been funds collected by the United Klans 
of America to help defray expenses for those people who were arrested 
following the murder of the three civil rights workers? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based on 
ihe grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of Mr. Harris. 



2634 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

George Harris Exhibit No. 6 



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The Chairman. Questions? 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Harris, were you in the audience when the previous 
witness testified, Mr. Gipson ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Gipson came before this committee to testify very 
bravely. One of the things he said was that he wanted to right the 
wrong that he had done. 

You don't care to absolve your conscience in any way before this 
committee ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Pool. I want to point out one other thing in the testimony which 
has come to us here during the testimony. The word "conservative" is 
used to hide the front of the Ku Klux Klan. It is a fraud and a dis- 
grace to the philosophy for which the word "conservative" stands. 
The fact that the Communists have come before this committee and 
used the name of labor is a disgrace and a fraud on respectful, decent. 
God-fearing, patriotic Americans who belong to organized labor. 

Let him answer if he Avants to, with your advice. 

Mr. Chalmers. There is no question. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have any comments, then ? 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. The way this thing is going, maybe within 6 months 
or a year, you may wish you had answered differently. You may wish 
that you had been brave enough to come before this committee and 
absolve your conscience. I am talking about back home, back in 
Louisiana. The people in the South will not put up with this kind of 
philosophy of hate and violence and the things that are coming out 
now, and they will come out faster as this thing progresses. 

We are giving you a chance right now to do this. 

Mr. Harris. I respectfully decline to answer that question based on 
the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2635 

Mr. Pool. That is all. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Bobby Gene Kelley. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Kelley. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BOBBY GENE KELLEY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Kelley, state your full name for the record, please. 

Mr. Kelley. Bobby Gene Kelley. 

Mr. Appell. B-o-b-b-y G-e-n-e K-e-1-l-e-y? 

Mr. Kelley. That is right. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Kelley, are you appearing before the committee 
today in accordance with a subpena served upon you on the 27th day 
of October 1965 at Route 1, Box 227, Bernice, Louisiana? 

Mr. Kelley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Kelley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself ^ 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., 501 First Federal Build- 
ing, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Kelley, under the conditions of the subpena served 
upon you, and attachment which was made part of that subpena, you 
were commanded to bring with you and to produce documents de- 
scribed in four parts of the subpena. 

Part 1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correpsondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Em- 
pire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and af- 
filiated organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, Louisiana Rescue 
Service and/or Bernice Sportsman Club in your ix)ssession, custody or con- 
trol, or maintained by you or available to you as State Treasurer of the In- 
visible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., 
also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I request you to produce in your representative capacity stated there- 
i n the documents called for in part 1 of your subpena. 

Mr. Kelley. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in the subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so might 
tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me 
by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the con- 
sideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within 



2636 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted Jan- 
uary 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appbll. Mr. Chairman, before we ask for the stipulation, and 
I ask for an order of direction, I desire to ask the witness whether or 
not he was advised of the opening statement of the Chair made in 
October 1965, which set forth the purposes for which these series of 
hearings were being held. 

Mr. Chalmers. It is stipulated, Mr. Chairman, that he has been so 
advised. 

The Chairman. Is it stipulated that the subpena directs him to 
produce documents in the capacities recited in the subpena ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Witness, the reasons you have given for re- 
fusal to produce the documents called for by this part of the subpena 
do not legally justify your refusal or rejection. I therefore order 
and direct you to produce those documents in the representative 
capacity stated. 

Mr. Kelley. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell, Mr. Kelley, part 2 of the subpena calls upon you to 
produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past State Treasurer of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knighta 
of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization 
authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said orga- 
nization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I request you to produce in the representative capacity stated therein 
the documents called for in part 2 of the subpena. 

Mr. Kelley. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask the witness be directed to produce 
those documents. 

The Chairman. Because of the reasons stated and pursuant to the 
stipulation made I order and direct you to produce those documents. 

Mr. Kelley. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Kelley, I hand you a copy, a reproduced copy of 
a canceled check dated September 27, 1965, payable to G. G. Harris, 
Jr., in the sum of $25. This is drawn against the Bank of Bemice, 
Bernice, Louisiana. The maker of the check is the Louisiana Rescue 
Service, and the cosigners to the account are G. G. Harris, Jr., secre- 
tary, and Bobby G. Kelley, treasurer. 

I hand you this and put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm 
or deny the fact, tliat you are the Bobby G. Kelley shown on this 
canceled check as treasurer of the Louisiana Rescue Service. 

Mr. Kelley. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2637 

reason tliat I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the ITnited States of America. 
(Document marked "Bobby Kelley Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 

Bobby Kelley Exhibit No. 1 



1 BtPNict La. '/V 19^^ 

1 Hank <»f lli:iexi« i: 


No 7 "-' 

■ J \ 




004.(_A«S 



Mr. Appell. Mr. Kelley, when and where w-ere you born ? 

Mr. Kelley. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of 
privilege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to 
the committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Kelley. 

Bobby Gene Kelley was born on October 3, 1932, at Bemice, 
Louisiana. He has a high school education. He served in the 
United States Navy from December 1951 to December 1955 and 
received an honorable discharge. 

He resides at Route 2, Bemice, Louisiana, and is employed by the 
Lion Oil Company, El Dorado, Arkansas, Avhere he is a foreman in 
the print shop. 

Bobby Gene Kelley became a Klan official in 1965 when he re- 
])laced Mr. Roberson on the signature card in the account of the 
Klavem maintained at the Bank of Bernice. This Klavern uses the 
cover name of the Bernice Sportsman Club. 

At the time, the Bernice Sportsman Club was affiliated with the 
Realm of Louisiana of the United Klans of America, Inc., which 
realm is known by the cover name of the Louisiana Rescue Service. 

In March 1965 Kelley was elected realm klabee, or treasurer. 

As klabee, Kelley is responsible for payment of bills and other 
obligations. Many Klaverns in Louisiana make payments to the 
realm, of both realm and imperial per capita tax. Thus Kelley paid 
the United Klans of America through its cover name, the Alabama 
Rescue Service, $185 in November, w^hich under present requirements 



2638 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

of 50 cents per member means the realm's per capita tax was upon 370 
members. 

At the time of the committee's announcements of the Klan probe, 
the Klan was paying imperial tax on 872 members. 

In addition to payments of its officials, the klavem or realm, both 
of whom process their funds through the Bemice Sportsman Club, 
made a payment on September 4, 1964, to Tom Whitehead, a 
United Klans of America exalted cyclops in Georgia. At the time 
Tom IVliitehead was handling defense funds for the Klansmen in- 
volved in the murder of Lieutenant Colonel Lemuel Penn. On March 
20, 1965, a check in the amount of $20 was paid to the Grand Dragon 
for Mississippi of the United Klans of America, E. L. McDaniel. This 
check drawn against the Bernice Sportsman Club shows the purpose 
for which drawn as "Defense Fund." (George Harris Exhibits Nos. 
5 and 6.) 

On June 12, 1965, Kelley was one of the participants in a caravan 
of the United Klans of America through the streets of Natchez, 
Mississippi. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Kelley pos- 
sesses additional information wliich is both pertinent and relevant 
to this inquiry, and would materially aid the Congress in enacting 
remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Kelley, you have heard the statement of Mr. 
Appell, our chief investigator, who is under oath just as you are. 

You now have the opportunity to reply to any portion of that 
statement, to confirm or challenge the accuracy of any information, 
or to explam any part of it. 

In addition you may, if you desire, offer any other matter the 
committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 

Do you care to avail yourself of this opportunity? 

Mr. Kelley. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. In view of which, Mr. Kelley, I must inform you 
that absent your rebuttal, or other facts that may come to the attention 
of the committee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy of its 
investigation. 

In light of that do you have anything to say ? 

Mr. Kelley. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the gi^ounds preWously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Kelley, are you willing and prepared to give to 
the committee knowledge which you possess as an officer and the grand 
klabee of the Realm of Louisiana as it relates to tlie operations of the 
Ku Klux Klan, United Klans of America, within the State of 
Louisiana? 

Mr. Kelley. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staif has no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

The Chairman. Questions? 

Mr. Weltner. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. James Malcolm Edwards. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2639 

Do you solenmly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Edwards. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES MALCOLM EDWARDS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

The Chairman. Sir, I represent to you as facts the following: 
During the Christmas recess you phoned me at my home in St. Mar- 
tinville, Louisiana. You were in a rather belligerent mood. The fol- 
lowing conversation ensued: 

You said: "What the hell is your stalf doing smnmoning me to ap- 
})ear on a certain date and then postponing the date of appearance?" 

I said : "Doctor," because you represented yourself as a doctor, "I 
don't attend to these details, but I think you will find out that the 
staff knows what it is doing." 

"Furthermore," I said, "you will have an opportunity to say all 
you want to say when you do appear." 

Then I added "By the way, do you intend to testify and sjDeak on 
the witness stand?" 

I ask you to affirm or deny these facts. 

Mr. Chalmers. May I approach the bench ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Before you respond to my question as to whether you would appear 
to testify, you did not respond, and that ended the conversation. 

Mr. Edwards. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 
1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

The Chairman, Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, we called you to the stand mider your 
name. Would you now place your name in the record, please? 

Mr. Edwards. James Malcolm Edwards. 

Mr. Appell. M-a-1-c-o-I-m, and there is an "s" on the name 
E-d-w-a-r-d-s? 

Mr. Edwards. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Are you popularly known as doctor ? 

Mr. Chalmers. It is stipulated that he is called doctor. 

The Chairman. Did you ask him his name and date of birth? 

Mr. Appell. We have his name at this stage, sir. 

Mr. Edwards, are you appearing before the committee today in ac- 
cordance with a subpena served upon you on the 27th day of October 
1965 at 426 Sixth Street, Jonesboro, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Edwards. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Edwards. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will comisel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law. Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, under the conditions of the subpena and 
attachment thereto which is made part of the subpena, you were com- 



2640 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

manded to bring with you and produce documents outlined in para- 
graph 1 as follows : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as 
the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. and afiiliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, Louisiana Rescue Service 
or any other Ku Klux organization in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as Grand Dragon of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc.. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I request you in the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1 
to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Chalmers. The same stipulation, Mr. Chairman, that we have 
heretofore entered into with respect to other witnesses — the contents 
of the chairman's opening statement have been made available to 
him. 

Mr. Appell. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the question, 
Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. He has not responded. 

Mr. Edwards. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in the subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so might 
tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me 
by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed 

Mr. Chalmers. There is one other one. 

Mr. Edwards. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all records as requested by this committee in the subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for that information is not relevant and germane to 
the subject under investigation and the same would not aid the Con- 
gress in its consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such 
inquiry within the scope of tliat authorized to be investigated by Rule 
XI of the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, House Resolution 8, 
adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask the witness be directed to produce 
those documents called for in paragraph 1. 

The Chairman. Sir, the reasons you have given for refusal to pro- 
duce the documents called for by this part of the subpena do not legally 
justify your refusal and they are rejected. I therefore order and 
direct you to produce those documents, in your capacity stated in the 
subpena. 

Mr. Edwards. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, paragraph 2 of the subpena calls for you 
to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you. in your capacity 
as present or i>ast Grand Dragon and/or member of the United Klans of America, 
Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said 
organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other oflBcer 
of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 2641 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents demanded and ordered by the committee, based upon 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask the witness be directed to produce 
those documents called for in paragraph 2. 

The Chairman. For the reasons stated, and the stipulations made, 
3'ou are ordered and directed to produce those documents. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents commanded and ordered by the committee, based upon 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you are currently the Grand Dragon for 
the Kealm of Louisiana, which operates under cover name of the 
Louisiana Rescue Service. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
for the reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in the violation of my rights as guaranteed by amendments 5, 1, 
4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, Section 6 [Article XVI] of the "Con- 
stitution and Laws" of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan, adopted in Imperial Kloncilium at Birmingham, 
Alabama, in September 1964 (Robert Shelton Exhibit No. 3^) pro- 
vides that each realm shall have officers. 

I read you the officers of the realm as set forth in the constitution 
and at the conclusion I shall ask you to identify the holder of each 
office as set forth in the constitution : 

The officers of A Realm ^hall be a Grand Dragon, who shall be President of 
the Klorero ; he shall be elected by the Realm for a term of three years, and 
shall govern his Realm in a manner not inconsistent with this Constitution, or 
the instructions and directions of his Imperial Klaliff; Grand Klaliff. second 
highest officer of a Realm, who shall be vice-'president of tJie Klorero ; Grand 
Klokard, lecturer; Grand Kludd, chaplain; Grand Kligrapp, secretary; Grand 
Klabee, treasurer ; Grand Kladd, conductor ; Grand Klarogo, inner guard ; Grand 
Klexter, outer guard ; and a Grand Nigtht-Hawk. These shall be known as the 
Grand Dragon and his nine Hydras. They are to be elected by proper delegation 
of their respective Realm. 

Please name the people holding the offices provided for by the 
constitution. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privilege 
and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the com- 
mittee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Edwards. 

James Malcolm Edwards was born on July 20, 1918, at Marion, 
Louisiana. His education includes Louisiana State University and 
Kilgore Junior College, Kilgore, Texas, and graduation from the 
Palmer College of Chiropractic on August 26, 1951. 

He served in the enlisted ranks of the United States Army Air Force 
from 1942 to 1946, on active duty, and from March 3, 1949, to October 1, 
1952, in the Reserves. 

He is self-employed as a chiropractor at 424 West Sixth Street, 
Jonesboro, Louisiana. 

In September 1963, Mr. Edwards received funds from Royal V. 



1 See committee report, The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Movement, pp. 181-252. 



2642 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Young, Imperial Dragon of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan. 

(Checks marked "James Edwards Exhibit No. 1" follow:) 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 1 





> 




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US 


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ommmmmmi'^iimm' 



4. 

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Mr. Appell. In 1964 he became a member and Grand Dragon of the 
United Klans of America, Realm of Louisiana, which operates under 
the cover name of the Louisiana Rescue Service. 

On February 4, 1964, he attended a klonvokation of the Alabama 
Rescue Service at Dinkler-Tutwiler Hotel in Birmingham, Alabama. 

In addition to electing the Imperial Klaliff, Robert Thompson, of 
Georgia, there was elected the Imperial Kligrapp, W. O. Perkins of 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and the Imperial Klabee, Fredrick Smith, of 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

In addition to electing these three officers, the klonvokation pushed 
the sale of insurance under the name of the Heritage Insurance Agency, 
Inc. by Robert M. Shelton, the Imperial Wizard^ and others. 

On September 5 and 6, 1964, Mr. Edwards again attended a klonvo- 
kation at the Dinkler-Tutwiler Hotel where there was elected the Im- 
perial Wizard, Robert M. Shelton, Robert Collins as the Imperial 
Klokard, Rev. George Dorsett as Imperial Kludd, the Reverend 
Robert Hudgins as the Imperial Kladd, Walter Brown as the Imperial 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2643 

Klarogo, Robert Korman as tlie Imperial Klexter, and Amos Pedigo 
as the Imperial Night-Hawk. 

(Hotel registration marked "James Edwards Exhibit No. 2" fol- 
lows:) 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 2 

^_ 65696 I H 65606 

JONESBORO LA 
9-4 R8 



-EASE CHECK YOUR BAGGAGE OH SEND SAME TO YOUR ROOM :OTHERWISE THE HOTEL COMPANY WIl 

NOT BE RESPOP4&lS(.E FOR LOSS 



DjnMeV-Tutwiler 

^^ OtRECTION 

DINKLER HOTEL CORPORATION 

"DISPCNCCR* OF True aoUTHERN HOSPITALITY" 



iUESTS ARE HEREBY NOTIFIED THAT THE COMPANY WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR VALUABLES MONEY 
JEWELRY. CLOTHING ETC, UNLESS THE SAME ARE DEPOSITED IN SAFE 



State ^Ck. 



Pltm / ^^ CityC/ jr/ State 

Room No. /q \ •S rIi^ }^' (fi^ Cleric 

^ T"''^M 1' W T F S 



Mr. Appell. On December 20, 1964, Mr. Edwards applied for Post 
Office Box, Drawer K, Hodge, Louisiana. In the application Mr. 
Edwards designated the United Klans of America, Inc., to be a fra- 
ternal organization. 

(Document marked "James Edwards Exhibit No. 3" appears on p. 
2644.) 

Mr. Appell. On April 17, 1965, Mr. Edwards attended a meeting of 
imperial officers and other officials of the United Klans of America 
and spoke at a rally held in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

On May 24, 1965, along with the Grand Klaliff of the Realm of 
Louisiana, he spoke at a rally at Tioga, Louisiana. The Grand Klaliff 
at that time. Jack Helm, of New Orleans, was introduced not as a 
Klansman but as an official of the Citizens Council of Greater New 
Orleans. 

(Document previously marked "Jack Helm Exhibit No. 2.'' See 
p. 2591.) 

Mr. Appell. On June 5, 1965, Mr. Edwards spoke at a United Klans 
of America rally and street walk at Atlanta, Georgia. 

On July 21, 1965, he spoke at a United Klans of America rally at 
Crossroads, Mississippi. 

On August 21 and 22, he attended the meeting of the Realm of 
North Carolina, where there was also held a meeting of imperial and 
other officers of the United Klans of Amei:ica, and during these two 
days spoke at a United Klans rally at Landis, North Carolina. 



2644 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 3 



FOR 

fOST OFFICE 

USE ON' " 



^ 



POSTMASTUl 



IMTC aOX OPtNEO DATC BOX OjOSCD 



A^FLICfM^T ^LBASB^NOTE: C&mplclton ot this mpplicmtion aiUntfitta rour willininemt to ootnpty w/th mil pottmi 
rulea rolstive to th« ranting mnd u*« of romt Office oof«* 

NAME OF APPLICANT (Flint or lypv) 



^ r A/ ^Oi^///\c ^^ 



NAME OF Firm oh corporation (li hot la renfd lor ua« ol eilhtr) 



KINO OF BUSINESS 



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BUSINESS ADDRESS (JVo , ftresr, mnd tone) 

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ADDRESS (No , H 



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SiaHATUHE Of APPllfANT 

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For Pomt Office Use Only 
ENTERED IN DIRECTORY 



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INITIALTOFQLElUt, 



INITIALS OF CARRIER BOX NO. 



THE FOLLOWING MUST BS COMFLBTBD AND StONBD BEFORE F.O. BOX IS ASSIGNED 


OaiVER MAIL IN ACCORDANCE WITH INSTRUCTK3WS CHECKED BELOW 








□ 


ALL EXCEPT SPECIAL rTl ALL INCLUDING SPECIAL 
DELIVERY IN BOX M DELIVERY IN BOX 




D 


ONLY MAIL ADOOrsSED TO BOX IS TO BE PLACED IN FT 
ALL OTHER MAIL TO BE DELIVERED AS ADDRESSED. 


D 


OTHER INSTRUCTIONS 
(Biplmin) 








»«CiAL DELIVERY MAIL ONLY (Dmlirmr mm ohmckmd bmlow) 








D 


DELIVER TO LOCAL RESIDENCE AT 


D 


DQ.IVER TO LOCAL BUSINESS ADDRESS AT 




(No., mirmmt, mnd aonm) 






(No . mtrmml, mnd ton*) 



NAMES OF PERSONS ENTITLED TO RECEIVE MAIL THROUGH BOX {If bot ia rmntmd to * Arm. ino!ud» t ha full nsmmof mmohoftta 
a\minb*ra whoam axmil (• to b* placed in boM.) 



fyP^L icAMT 



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HAVE READ ITEMS 1 THROUGH 6. ABOVE AND 
WILL COMPLY WITH THEM. 




(Signmturm ol mppllomnt) 



POD FORM 1 nno 
JULY I960 I yJito 



APPLICATION FOR POST OFFICE BOX 



v.t tavaMmmtm Mivria* wrici 19 — 474M-7 



Drawer "K", Hodge, Louisiana 

(Document marked "James Edwards Exhibit No. 4" appears on p. 
2645.) 

Mr. Appell. On August 23, 1965, he attended the funeral of the late 
Imperial Klonsel, Matt Murphy. 

September 15, 16, and 17, Mr. Edwards attended meetings and 
rallies in Crockett and Houston, Texas, along with Imperial Wizard 
Shelton and Tlieodore Crane, of Virginia, Younger Newton, the 
Grand Klaliff of South Carolina. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



2645 



James Edwards Exhibit No. 4 
[ Boise, Idaho, Stateman, Aug. 23, 1965 ] 



Dragon Hails 
Klan Power 
In Elections 

LANDIS, N.C. (UPD- South 
Carolina Grand Dragon Bob 
Scoggin told one of the largest 
Ku Klux Klan rallies in recent 
jears Saturday night the Klan 
^'can elect the next president of 
the United States." 

Scoggin, one of 11 state grand 
1 dragons addressing a crowd es- 
ifmated by sheriff's deputies at 
3,500 to 4,000 said "President 
Johnson is afraid of the Klan" 
'and that the Klan cpuld play a 
I big role in the 1968 election 
;"if we will." 



In addition to S'coggin an* 
mperial Wizard Robert Shel- 
ton of Alabama, others address- 
ing the rally included Grand 
Dragons E. L. McDaniel of 
Mississippi, Bob Jones of North 
Carolina, Calvin Craig' of Geor- 
gia, Don Cofhran of Florida, 
Roy Frankhouser of Pennsyl- 
.vania, Ralph Pryor of Dela- 
Iware, Flynn Harvey of Ohio, 
J George Otto of Texas, Dr. J. M. 
lEdwards of Louisiana and Ray- 
mond Anderson of Tennessee. 
1 Anderson said the reason he 
is a Klansman was to prevent 
the Communists from taking 
over the country. He charged 
that if that happened, all the 
churches would be burned and 
that United Nations troops 
^ould be patrolling the streets. 



*r" 



While in Texas, Mr. Edwards met and conferred with William H. 
Drennan and George A. Otto, Texas Klan coleaders. 

Mr. Edwards, during the period of May , 1964, to 10-12-65, received 
$1,517.64 in checks drawn against the account of the Bernice Sports- 
man Club and/or Louisiana Rescue Service. 

(Documents marked "James Edwards Exhibit No. 5." A listing of 
checks and one check from each accoimt appears on pp. 2646, 2647.) 

Mr. Appell. February 19, 1965, Mr. Edwards requested the Louisi- 
ana State Joint Legislative Committee on Un-American Activities to 
investigate the Klan and make findings public. He answered ques- 
tions propounded by the committee counsel on April 23, 1965. 

On February 18 and March 29 of 1965, Mr. Edwards addressed 
letters to Chairman Willis of the Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities urging an investigation of the United Klans of America and 
requestmg the report of its findings to be made public. 

Mr. Edwards was in contact with Imperial Wizard Shelton during 
the committee's hearings in November of 1965. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Edwards pos- 
sesses additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to 
this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting 
remedial legislation. 

The CiiAiR^iAN. Sir, you have heard the sworn statement of the 
committee's investigator. 

You now liave the opportunity to reply to any portion of that state- 
ment, to confirm or challenge the accuracy of the information, or to 
explain any part of that statement. 



2646 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 5 



Bank of Bernlce, Bernlce, La. 

Bernlce Sportsman Club and Louisiana Rescue Service Accounts 

J. M. Edwards Checks 



Date of 
Check 


Payee 


Amount 


Endorsers 


Remarks 


5/3/64 


J. M. Edwards 


$27.55 


Credit account of J. M. Edwards 




6/4/64 


1. .. ,, 


19.52 


II ,1 „ II II n 


-a>i^ 


7/1/64 


II II 11 


43.00 


J. M. Edwards 


i.*!?:^—. 


7/16/64 


II II II 


115.75 


II II II 




8/21/64 


n 1. 


50.69 


1, 1. 




8/21/64 


II II II 


67.44 


J. M. Edwards; Dub Morton's Dixie Dandy 
#1, G. W. Horton, Jonesboro, La. 




9/18/64 


II II II 


63.83 


J. M. Edwards 


Travel 


11/11/64 


II I" II 


63.96 


J. M. Edwards; Skolly Service, 
Jonesboro, La. 




12/2/64 


II M 1. 


37.07 


J. M. Edwards 


Part pay 


12/6/64 


II 1. II 


23.00 


II II 1. 


P P 


12/14/64 


II II 


8.73 


II 1, 


Bal. 


12/22/64 


II II II 


38.91 


J. M. Edwards; Illegible 


Travel 


1/20/65 


II II II 


41.49 


Illegible; Tuloma, Inc., General Gas 
Corporation, General Gas Division. 




2/22/65 





62.23 


Dr. James M. Edwards, Jonesboro 
Chiropractic Clinic 


Travel 


3/12/65 




109.67 


J. M. Edwards 




4/19/65 




47.00 


,1 ., 




5/1/65 




86.30 


J. M. Edwards; Tuloma, Inc., General 
Gas Corporation, General Gas Division 


Travel 


5/18/65 




50.00 


J. M. Edwards 




6/10/65 




75.00 


II II 






7/3/65 




50.00 


II II 






7/8/65 




55.00 


II II 




Travel 


7/26/65 




70.00 


II II 






8/13/65 




91.50 


II II 






8/27/65 




70.00 


•1 II 






9/27/65 




75.00 


,1 1, 






10/12/65 


Total $1 


75.00 


Dr. James M. Edwards, Jonesboro 
Chiropractic Clinic 






,517.64 





In addition you may, if you desire, offer any other matter the com- 
mittee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 

Do you care to avail yourself of this opportunity ? 

Mr. Edwards. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I will say to you, therefore, in the absence of re- 
buttal on your part, or other facts wliich may come to the attention 
of the committee, that the committee will rely upon the accuracy of 
its investigation. 

Bearing this in mind have you anything to say ? 

Mr. Edwari>s. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Senner. Is it possible to get in the record at this point the 
letter written to you by Mr. Edwards ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, I have several photographs in front of 
me which picture you at a rally of the ITnited Klans of America held 
April 17, 1965. I ask you whether or not this rally was a rally of 
convenience, and that the main reason for you and other Klan officials 
assembling in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, around April 17, 1965, was because 
I had just a few days prior thereto interviewed Imperial Wizard 
Shelton, and that the real purpose for your being there was to discuss 
strategy that you should follow in the event of being subpenaed before 
the committee. 






ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2647 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 5 — Continued 

Bco»itct La -^ /3 .19hJ^no 

-♦•♦H Hank iw IIkiixihi': h-^-imi 




2 7 




Mr. Edwards. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Photographs marked "James Edwards Exhibit No. 6." Two of 
said photographs appear on pp. 2648, 2649 ; balance retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, I will hand to you two letters addressed 
to Honorable Edwni E. Willis, Ohairman, HUAC, Washington, D.C., 
the first dated February 18, 1965, return address 426 Sixth Street, 
Jonesboro, Louisiana, signed J. M. Edwards, Grand Dragon, United 
Klans of America, Inc. 

Mr. Chairman, I ask that these and all other documents referred 
to be made part of this record, and for that reason I shall only read 
the portions relative to an inquiry by this committee. 

The letter of February 18 reads : 

Mr. Willis. I will welcome an investigation of the United Klans of America, 
Inc. in Louisiana and will cooperate in any way possible. If I may make one 
request it would be this : Please name the si>ecific Klan organization, United 
Klans of America, Inc. along with the others. I would also like included in 
the reports your findings relative to the NAACP, CORE, COFO, and SCEF. 

Thanks for the tine service you are performing, Mr. Willis, and if I can be 
of any assistance please call upon me. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 21 



2648 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 6 




Photo taken at United Klans of America rally, April 17, 1965, Tuscaloosa, Ala. From 
left to right are: Robert Shelton, Raymond Anderson, Dr. J. M. Edwards, Matthew 
Murphy, and Edward L. McDaniel. 

The letter of March 29, 1965 : 

Since the president's recent indictment of men said to be members of this 
organization, and that without due process of law, I urge you, Mr. Willis, to 
investigate United Klans and make your findings public as soon as possible. 

It would seem, that by virtue of the February resolution to investigate the 
Klan, that another decision to do so would not be necessary. 

Thanks for your kind consideration, and may God bless you in every honorable 
endeavor. 

Please insert this letter in the Congressional Record. 

Signed "J. M. Edwards — Grand Dragon." 

I hand you these two letters, Mr. Edwards, and ask you if you in 
fact mailed these or signed those letters. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "James Edwards Exhibit No. 7"' appear on 
pp. 2650, 2651.) 

Mr. Appell. a Joint Legislative Committee on Un-Ajuerican Ac- 
tivities of the State of Ix>uisiana, according to an official report, 
conducted a staff interview with J. M. Edwards commencing at 11 :42 
p.m. on April 23, 1965. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you are the J. M. Edwards with whom 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2649 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 6 — Continued 







^ 








Ai^ 


■ifc 


/ 


4 


^ftj '^ 






1 

\ 


t V 


^-X&^\i> 




v^k ^^^ SIfll 




df. 


^^mh 


m ^\i 


\^^z^.. 




Mm^-'W- 


1 » 


^^^^ ■*** 






^r\- f, 




«;» ■-»*). 





Photo taken at United Klans of America rally, April 17, 1965, Tuscaloosa, Ala. From 
left to right are: Raymond Anderson, Robert Shelton, Robert Scoggin, Robert Creel, 
Don Cothran, J. M. Edwards, and Calvin Craig. 

this consultation was held and that the Q and A reproduced in the 
committee's findings are the answers or your statements. 

The Chairinian. You mean the questions and answers? 

Mr. AppEiLL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In response to a question you were asked, "Do you 
do any screening of people to keep out undesirable elements or people 
who might have criminal records, or anything like that?" the answer 
is : "The very best that is possible to do." 

Isn't it a fact. Dr. Edwards, as Grand Dragon, that while you 
provide for certain regulations in order to guarantee that undesir- 
ables not get in your organization, in fact you do no screening and 
that you take in anyone ? 

Mr. Edwards. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The next question: "What do you do after you have 
gotten members in if you hnd out that they are involved in violations 
of law ?" The record reflects no answer. 

Tlien the question : "How do you take care of that, how do you 
handle tliat within your organization?" 

"^Any member or any person, for that matter, Avhose unlawful acts 
come to the attention of our people are reported to the proper authori- 



2650 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 7 



''"241965 



Hon. ^dwin S. Willis 
Ctairi^ian, HUAC 
Washirititon, D.C. 



425 Sixth Street 
Jonesboro, Lcuisian? 
February 18, 1965 



D;3ar CcngreGS-Tian '.Villis; 

Undar datslina V/ashington and AP wira, Shrafroport Times Saturday, 
February 13, 1965 was an article -.vhich stated ^thfet t)-'9 faoamittea 
last week adopted unaniLiously a resolution authorizing chairnan 
Jldwin 2, V.'illis, D-La. to *continua preliminary inquiries' into 
matters that had bjen brcuglit to the attention of the committee. 

The four organizations are specifically includid, alt^oug^ thejr 

are not na:aed in the resolution." (This last statement -^uzzles •-. .^ 

OS . ) 

Uo\:, the four organizations named in the aP articla are "The Ku 
Kluz Elan, the -Minut e.-nen, G^crgj Linc&ln RockA'ell's A;nerican Nazi 
Party., arc" tiij Black L(Iuslims."_ 

I'k . V.'illis, I urn one of the "Southern whites" having "such titles 
as Grand Dragon" and the order .vhich I represent is the United 
Klans of rjnerica, Inc., ILnights of the l>u Klux Klan. I have great 
adr.iration for your cc:nittee, and I thank you for your untiring 
efforts to Leap ijnerica safe. I regret that your burden is being 
increased by now having to investigate the Ku Llux Klcn. 

ivlr . iVillis, I .';ill welcome an investigation of the United Klans of 
Aneric?, Inc. in Louisi'^na and .vlll cooperate in any way possible. 
If I may loake one request it would be this: Plsase name the speci- 
fic Klan orginization, United I-lans of America, Inc. along v.'ith the 
others. I would also like included in the report jyrur findings 
relative to the l^IAACP, CCKj], COFC , and SC^F. 

Thanks for the fine servic3 you ^re performing, Mir. '."/illis, end if 
I caaibe of any assistance please call upon me. 

Yours for God and Country, 



Sm/vh 




J.. I. jd\^"rds- -Grand Dr agon , 
United Klans of ikmeric3',Ian<«. 



ties. Our organization does not harbor those who commit unlawful 
acts." 

Dr. Edwards, I give you an opportmiity at this time to name one 
member of the United Klans of America tliat you ha\e ever turned 
over to lawful autliority because of their violation of the law. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "James Edwards Exhibit No. 8." See pp. 2655- 
2663.) ^ 

The Chairmax. Dr. Edwards, do the various Klaverns over which 
you preside in your Realm of Louisiana have Avrecking crews that 
perf omi the functions described this morning by Mr. Gipson ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2651 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 7 — Continued 

Hon. Edwin E. Wiliia 426 Sixth Street 

Chairman, hUAC Joneaboro, Louisiana 

Washington, D.C. March 29, 1965 

Dear Sir; 

On February 16, 1965 I wrote you concerning a resolution passed u 
unanimously by your comraltLed to invistigate the flan. I invited 
an investigation of United Klans of America, Inc. and shortly ' 
therefifter received an affirmative reply. 

Meanwhile, President Johnson has publicly assailed tha hlan end 
made serious charges against men said to be affiliates, and that 
before any trial and conviction. 

Now, HUT. -Villis, that should frighten you and 3V3ry member of 
Congress who has taken an oath to uphold the Constitution of the 
United States of America. 

Under UPl dateline Sunday, i^iarch 26, 1965 I not a that "Hap. ;idwin 
£. Willis, D-La . , has promisecl that Lis House Committee on Un- 
Amarlcan Activtles will meet early next week to decide whether to 
begin a full scale investigation of the Klan." 

Sinco the president's recent indictment of men said to be members 
of this organization, and that withoujb due process of law, I urge 
you, Mr. Willis, to investigate United Klans and make your findings 
public as soon as possible. 

It would seeM, that by virtue of the February resolution to investi- 
gate the Klan, that another decision to do so would not toe necessary^ 

Thanks for your kind consideration, end may God ble?? you in every 
honorable endeavor. 

Please insert this letter in the Congressional Record. 

Sincerely, 




J.M. ^ S d war d8-_-Gj :-andpr agon 
United "Pci an s of AmerTca , Inc. 
SU£iyh Realm of Louisiana 



(continued) 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, it is already in the record that the Realm 
of Louisiana helped finance the defense of Klansmen involved in the 
murder of Dr. Penn in Georgia. Can you reconcile this testimony 
with the financial contribution that you made toward their defense? 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As a matter of fact, Dr. Edwards, under the oath 
which members of your organization take, it would be a violation 



2652 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

of your oath to turn them over to authorities except if they liad com- 
mitted the crimes of treason, rape, or murder. Isn't that factual? 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appbll. In the record [of the Joint Legislative Committee on 
Un-American Activities] you were asked, "Have you ever had oc- 
casion, as yet, to turn over any law violators to the local police author- 
ities in any area? Do you know of any specific incident where this has 
been done?" 

Answer: "I cannot speak for any area outside of Louisiana, but I 
am very happy to report that it has not come to my attention." 

I give you an opportunity as Grand Dragon of the Realm of 
Louisiana to state that no Klansman to your knowledge has engaged 
in the violation of law. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. It was brought out by the chairman, Mr. Edwards, on 
last Friday, I believe, that members of the United Klans of America 
in the Baton Eouge, Louisiana, area, are placing applications for 
membership in the United Klans of America and other United Klan 
literature in post office boxes in that city. I ask you as the Grand 
Dragon if you are going to make an investigation of this violation 
of law and report those Klansmen to the postal authorities. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, in the Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Advo- 
cate^ an article which appeared May 25, 1965, relates to an incident 
that happened at a United Klans of America rally held at Tioga, 
Louisiana. I shall read this short clipping into the record before 
asking you a question : 

The invocation was brief and jolting at the Ku Klux Klan rally here over the 
weekend. 

Dr. J. M. Edwards of Jonesboro, a chiropractor who heads the Klan in Louisi- 
ana, called for a minister from the audience to step forth and lead the invocation. 

An unidentified man stepped to the microphone and, as the Klansmen and 
spectators bowed their heads, he said : 

"I don't see how you, in the name of Jesus Christ, can conduct hatred for all 
man." 

Did that happen, sir? 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "James Edwards Exhibit No. 9" and retained in 
committee files. See also Jack Helm Exhibit No. 2, p. 2591.) 

The Chairman. Sir, in your sworn testimony before tlie Ix)uisiiina 
body referred to by Mr. Apj^ell a while ago, did you tell the truth. 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth because it appears that you 
did speak on that occasion. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Edwards, during the recitation of the results of 
the committee's investigation it was set forth as a matter of fact that 
you attended the klonvokation held in Februaiy 1964 at the Dinkler- 
Tutwiler Hotel in Birmingham, and that discussed at the klonvoka- 
tion was the creation of an insurance program. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2653 

I hand you a letter addressed to Mr. Robert Shelton from David F. 
Stinson, return address Jonesboro, Louisiana, addressed, "Dear Bob," 
in which Mr. Stinson asks if he might head up the insurance program 
in Louisiana. This letter was sent to the insurance company which 
was going to handle the life and health and accident part of the pro- 
gram, and there is contained in handwriting at the bottom of this 
letter the following language: "Write this man a [sic] make Arrange- 
ments for meeting with Dr. Edwards to set up Insurance Program for 
La. Bob." 

I hand you this and ask you if you conferred with this man and 
whether or not there was set up within Louisiana an insurance 
program. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Robert Shelton Exhibit No. 14." 
See p. 1649.) 

Mr. Appell. At the State rally held in North Carolina and the 
meeting of imperial and other officers, together with the meeting 
which elected officers for the State of North Carolina, I put it to you 
as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that there was present 
at that meeting Dan Burros of New York and Roy Frankhouser of 
Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you possess knowledge of their and other United 
Klans of America members' and leaders' affiliation with the American 
Nazi Party ? 

Mr. Edwards. I respectfully decline to answer that question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

The Chairmax. Sir, in the format of your oath of allegiance, I 
find the following, which oath is taken by all members, including your- 
self, I assume : "I swear that I will keep secure to myself a secret of a 
[Klan]*sman when same is committed to me in the sacred bond of 
[Klan]*smanship— the crime of violating THIS solemn oath"— that 
is all in caps — "treason against the United States of America— rape^— 
and malicious murder — alone excepted." 

Since you use in that oath the words "malicious murder," is there 
any kind of murder to which this oath does not apply ? 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. I want to read to the witness title 18, United States 
Code, section 1505, which provides as follows : 

Whoever corruptly, or by threats or force, or by any threatening letter or 
communication, endeavors to influence, intimidate, or impede any witness in any 
proceeding pending before any department or agency of the United States, or 



2654 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

in connection with any inquiry or investigation being had by either House, or 
any committee of either House, or any joint committee of the Congress ; or 

Whoever injures any party or witness in his person or property on account of 
his attending or having attended such proceeding, inquiry, or investigation, or 
on account of his testifying or having testified to any matter pending therein ; or 
******* 

Whoever corruptly, or by threats or force, or by any threatening letter or com- 
munication influences, obstructs, or impedes or endeavors to influence, obstruct, 
or impede the due and proper administration of the law under which such pro- 
ceeding is being had before such department or agency of the United States, or 
the due and proper exercise of the power of inquiry under which such inquiry or 
investigation is being had by either House, or any committee of either House or 
any joint committee of the Congi-ess — 

Shall be find not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or 
both. 

The reason I read that to you is because of two things. If you are 
up here testifying before this committee in fear of your life or in fear 
of bodily injury or any fear that you might have, you may be assured 
that this law applies to you and you will be protected if you care to 
answer any questions or add anything to this inquiry or give any infor- 
mation to this committee that you can. If that, is not the case, then I 
read it to you for the second purpose : In your job, if you go back to 
Louisiana as the Grand Dragon of the United Klans of America, 
Realm of Louisiana, you can take that message back to your member- 
ship and tell them that is what the law^ is and that this committee in- 
tends to see that the witnesses appearing before this committee will not 
be harmed and that we will enforce this law\ 

Have you any further statement to make ? 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds prevously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, I do not have any questions, but in 
view of this witness' eagerness to see the investigation by this com- 
mittee of this organization, the United Klans of America, I am some- 
Avhat baffled at his reluctance at the present time. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Edwards, do you really believe you have cooper- 
ated with this committee pursuant to the letters you sent to the 
chairman ? 

Mr, Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Senner. Did you intend to mislead the chairman when you 
wrote those letters? 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Senner. Did you do it for just public consumption and public 
opinion ? 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Senner. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Sir, since you mentioned in those letters other orga- 
nizations, do you care to say anything about them ? 

Mr. Edwards. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Appell, call your next witness. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2655 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Douglas Byrd. 

Mr. Blackwell. Mr. Chairman, I am Charles Blackwell, attorney 
for Mr. Byrd, from Laurel, Mississippi. Mr. Chairman, I have a letter 
from Mr. Byrd's doctor that he is in the hospital and he will be there 
for about a week or 10 days. Would you like me to read the letter, Mr. 
Chairman ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the committee consider 
the contents of this letter and that we advise Mr. Blackwell tomorrow 
morning as to the disposition of the committee with respect to it. 

The Chairman. All right. 

The committee w411 stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow morn- 
ing. 

(Members present at time of recess: Representatives Willis, Pool, 
Weltner, and Ashbrook, of the subcommittee, and also Representative 
Senner.) 

(Whereupon, at 4:25 p.m., Tuesday, January 11, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, January 12, 1966.) 

[James Edw^ards Exhibit No. 8, introduced on p. 2650, follows :] 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 8 
[Excerpt from June 16, 1965, hearings before The Joint Legislative Committee on Un-American 
Activities of Louisiana held in Baton Rouge, La. Hon. Jesse M. Knowles, chairman; Jack N. 
Rogers, Committee counsel. Report No. 7, July 26, 1965.] 

* -X- Mr * Mr * * 

TRANSCRIPT OF A STAFF CONSULTATION HELD ON 
APRIL 28. 1065, AT 11 :42 P.M., AT BATON ROUGE. LOUISIANA. 
JACK N. R0(;ERS, ESQ., COMMITTEE COUNSEL FOR THE 
JOINT LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIV- 
ITIFS, STATE OF LOUISIANA, PRESIDING. 

LY MR. ROGERS: 

Pursuant to the power granted me under Senate Concurrent 
Rc.«ilution irl2. Regular Session of the Louisiana Legislatui-e of 1964, 
and the rules of this Committee under the Law, I now swear the first 
witness. 

THE WITNESS, MR. J. M. EDWARDS. AFTER FIRST 
HAVING BEEN DULY SWORN TO TELL THE TRUTH, THE 
WHOLE TRUTH, AND NOTHING BUT THE TRUTH. SO HELP 
HLM t;OD. TESTIFIED AS FOLLOWS: 

DIRECT EXAMINATION 

V.Y MR. ROGERS: 

(} — What is your name, sir? 



2656 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 8 — Continued 

A — J. M. Edwards. 

Q — Where do you live, Mr. Edwards? 
A — Jonesboro, Louisiana. 

Q — When and where were you born? 

A — July 20, 1918, in Union Parish, Louisiana. 

Q — What do you do for a living? \^ 

A — I practice Chiropractic. 

Q — Mr. Edwards, what is the name of the Klan Organization 
you represent? 

A — It's the United Klans of America, Inc. 

Q — What is the title of your Klan office, and what level of 
leadership does that title mean? 

A — The office that I have in the United Klans is that of Grand 
Dragon of the realm of Louisiana, and it designates the highest office 
in the State in which that Klan operates. 

Q — Is your Klan Organization connected with any other Klan 
Organizations, and if so, which one and how is it connected? 

A — It is not connected with any other Klan Organization. 

Q — Who is the national head of your Klan Organization? 
A — Robert M. Shelton, Jr. 

Q — Where does he live ? 
A — Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

Q— As I understand your testimony, you are the head of the 
organization in the State of Louisiana? 

A — Yes, sir. 

Q — How and by whom are the objectives of your organization 
determined? 

A — By the membership itself. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 
James Edwards Exhibit No. 8— Continued 



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Exhibit 9. Letter from Mr. J. M. Edward*, Grand Dragon, United Klan» of 
America, Inc. in Louisiana. 



2658 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE V.9>. 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 8 — Continued 

Q — What process is used to determine policy or oljjectives? 
A — A democratic assembly, Mr. Rogers. 

Q — Is your organization connected in any way with the Com- 
munist Party, or any other foreign party, agency or government? 

A — No, sir, it is not. 

Q — Is any pledge or oath of allegiance required of all of your 
members? 

A — Yes, indeed. 

Q — Does this oath in any way infringe upon, or negate, complete 
loyalty to the Constitution .of the United States? 

A — No. Mr. Rogers, did you say "infringe or negate?" 

Q — Does the oath which your members take infringe upon their 
loyalty to the United States, or negate in any way their loyalty to 
the United States? 

A — No, sir, that oath does not. 

Q — Would you explain that, please? 
A — (No answer.) 

Q — Can you give me the oath? 

A — I will explain that, Mr. Rogers. The oath swears unqualified 
allegiance to the government of the United States of America, its 
Constitution and laws. May I just quote the section which has to do 
with allegiance? 

Q — Go right ahead. 

A — "I most solemnly assert and affirm that to the government 
of the United States of America, and any State thereof of which I 
may become a resident, I sacredly swear an unqualified allegiance 
above any and every kind of government in the whole world. I here 
and now pledge life, property, vote and sacred honor to uphold its 
flag, its Constitution, and Constitutional Laws, and will protect, 
defend and enforce same unto death." 

Q — Mr. Edwards, what is the policy of your organization as to 
law violations? Is there anything in your oath concerning this? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2659 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 8— Continued 

A — The attitude of the Order concerning law violations is the 
same as it would be on the part of any good American citizen. 
I repeat that for you: "I most solemnly promise and swear that I 
will always, at all times» and in all places, help, aid, and assist the 
duly constituted officers of the law, in the proper performance of 
their legal duties." 

Q — What are the qualifications for membership in your organi- 
zation? 

A — He must be a white man, a Protestant person who believes 
In the tenets of the Christian Religion, and of sane mind, of course. 

Q — Do you do any screening of people to keep out undesirable 
elements or people who might have criminal records, or anything like 
that? 

A — The very best that it is possible to do. 

Q — What do you do after you have gotten members in if you 
find out that they are involved in violations of law? 

A — (No answer.) 

Q — How do you take care of that, how do you handle that within 
your organization? 

A— Any member or any person, for that mattei', whose unlawful 
acts come to the attention of our people are reported to th^ proper 
authorities. Our organization does not harbor those who ( < niinit 
unlawful acts. 

Q — Are they allowed to remain in the organization? 

A — No, sir, this Order does not provide for a person who con- 
ducts himself contrary to the tenets of the law he has sworn to 
uphold, rather than to violate. As soon as any act of unlawfulness 
is discovered on the part of a member of this Order, he is immediately 
expelled. 

Q — Approximately how many members do you have in the State 
of Louisiana, Mr. Edwards? 

A — I am not at liberty to answer that question, Mr. Rogers. 

Q — Can you tell us how many local Klaverns you have in Lou- 
isiana? 



2660 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 8 — Continued 

A — No, sir, I am not at liberty to reveal that. 

Q — Why is that, are you sworn under some oath not to reveal 
that? 

A — Yes, sir. 

Q — What are the objectives of your organization? 

A — The objectives of this Order shall be to unite all white male 
per.sons, native-born gentiles of the United States who owe no al- 
legiance of any nature to any other government, nation, institution, 
ruler, sect or people; to unite people whose morals are good, whose 
reputations and vocations are respectable, whose habits are exemplary, 
who are of .^ound mind, and 21 years of age or more, to a common 
oath of brotherhood of strict regulations, and also to cultivate 
and promote patriotism toward our civil government. 

Q — After you unite them, is the function of the organization di- 
rected solely at improving yourselves, the members, or do you have 
some outward manifestation of your objectives? 

A — Certainly it has as its objective to improve the individual, and 
I think this is best done by virtue of the fact that we hold Christ 
hini.self as our criterion of character, and never in a Klavern meeting 
will a person stay without hearing the name of Christ proclaimed, 
and His principles sounded. Then in the community, I think that you 
will find it hard to determine any difference in the works of the 
people in this Order and in any other civic service, or social organiza- 
tion, because I think the efforts overlap in every one of these areas. 

• Q — Do your members aim, and are the objectives of your organi- 
zation in any way directed, toward political action? 

A — No, sir, I couldn't say that they are directed toward political 
action, but certainly men with these objectives would participate in 
governmental affairs; that's a responsibility of any citizen. 

Q — How do you propose to realize the objectives that you have 
set forth here, by any means other than education? 

A — What other means are there? 

Q — What is the attitude of your organization toward violence? 
. A — A member of this Order is not going to engage in violence. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2661 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 8 — Continued 

Q — Ey that you mean a member who sincerely ascribes to the 
basic tenets of the Order, or do you mean a person who mi^ht have 
associated himself with you cynically? 

A — A person miy^ht have associated himself with this Order for 
the sole purpose of brin^niiK iisrespect, or brinK'in^' it into disre|»ute, 
but if he ascribed to these tenets, the violence he might enter into 
automatically would suspend him from membership in the Order. 

Q — Have you any built-in system of protection by investigation, 
or surveillance, or anything of this nature, to protect yourselves from 
people who might commit acts of violence using the existence of your 
organization as a "cover" for their criminal acts? 

A — Would you repeat that question? 

Q — Yes. what protection have you got built into your procedure, 
or your ritual, or your functioning of your organization, to protect 
your organization from acts-of-violence committed by outsiders using 
the existence of your Organization as a "cover" for what they do? 

A — There is no way a person could be connected with the Order 
while engaging iii acts-of-violence. 

Q_Why is this? 

A — Because the regalia that identifies a member is not worn out- 
side of the rituals, except, I must say this, in the organized public 
meetings where ceremonial ritual teams enact certain rituals 
w here the significance of this ritual is narrated from a platform. It is 
dune in public, .md there are other instances, of course, such as street 
walkings, etc., l)ut tliey are done in regalia in the light of day before 
tlie public, and certainly no acts-of-violence are permitted by those 
people. W'c are non-violent people. Does that answer your question, 
sir? 

Q — Yes, it does. 

A — Mr. Rogers, may I add further in connection with attaining 
our objectives, that whai we do is done entirely within the framework 
of the law, utilizing every legitimate method available to us, and 
tolerating absolutely no person conducting him.self in any manner that 
might be construed to be beyond the framework of our duly con- 
stituted laws. 

Q — Have you ever had occasion, as yet, to turn over any law- 



2662 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 8 — Continued 

violators to the local police authorities in any area? Do you know of 
any specific incident where this has been done? 

A — I cannot speak for any area outside of Louisiana, but I am 
very happy to report that it has not come to my attention. 

Q — Mr. Edwards, how are your officers of the Klan elected at the 
different levels? 

A — Through a democratic process, by the membership. 

Q — How do you get elected to the office which you hold? 

A — By the same process, it is not a dictatorial organization, Mr. 
Rogers. 

Q — Are you elected by popular vote of all the members in the 
Slate, or are you elected by a Board which is elected by the members 
throughout the State? 

A — No, sir, perhaps like people are elected on the national level, 
by delegates representing a certain number of people. 

Q — Have you any control as Grand Dragon of the State of Lou- 
isiana over the local Klaverns? 

A — Only through the people who are elected to maintain the 
order in those Klaverns. 

Q — Do you have any veto power over the chosen officers of the 
local Klavern? 

A — In case their conduct is contrary to the oath and the Con- 
stitution. 

Q— You do? 

A — Yes, sir, in that case. 

Q — Have you any disciplinary powers available to you over the 
members in the local Klavern, if you had learned that something had 
gone on which was contrary to your basic rules? Could you do any- 
thing about it if the local Klavern officers did not? 

A — Yes, sir. 

Q — Do you actively maintain responsibility over the local Kla- 
verns to the best of your ability? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2663 

James Edwards Exhibit No. 8— Continued 
A — Yes, sir, I do. 

Q — Will you furnish the Committee with samp)les of the literature 
and printed materials used by your organization in this educational 
program which you have described to me? 

A — Yes, sir. 1 would be happy to, I have some copies available. 

Q — Is there anything, Mr. Edwards, that you would like to add 
to your testimony? 

A — Mr. Rogers, I don't believe there is. I would like to add one 
thing, however, that in the United Klans of America, Inc., we operate 
according to a Committee System wherein we attempt to utilize the 
potential of every person in our Order, regardless of whatever his 
gift might be. 

Q — What different committees do you have in a local Klavern? 

A — Well, of course, as I said a while ago, we don't engage in 
politics as such, but we do concern ourselves with governmental af- 
fairs, and I believe that that is one of the most basic committees that 
we have. We have a religious activities committee, education com- 
mittee, woniens' organizations, we have a civic committee, sick and 
welfare, publicity, grievance, to mention a few. 

Q — Is there anything other than this that you would like to add 
to your testimony, Mr. Edwards? 

A — I believe that's just about all I have to say, Mr. I'.oger.s, unless 
there are some other questions. 

Q — I have no other questions for you at this time, and 1 would 
appreciate your giving us the printed materials to which >()U have 
referred already. Thank you, Mr. Edwards for giving ns this time. 
This i.s- the end of the Staff Consultation, the time is 12:18 A.M. 



****** :f.->!< 



WITNESS EXCUSED 



******** 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 22 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 

THE UNITED STATES 

Part 3 



WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 12, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.G. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 :45 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) 
presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E, Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; Charles L. Weltner, of 
Georgia; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., of 
Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Weltner, 
and Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel ; and Donald T. Appell, chief investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order, 

Mr. Appell, call your first witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, before calling the first witness the 
staff desires to make a statement for the record based upon its investi- 
gation, and in view of the fact that with the start of today's hearings 
the committee's inquiry will deal with Klan organizations in the State 
of Mississippi. 

Klans in Mississippi have as their origin in the modern day the 
action on the part of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
Louisiana when J. D. Swenson, the National Kleagle of that organiza- 
tion, went across the river into Mississippi and recruited into the 
Original Knights, the Realm of Mississippi, citizens of the State of 
Mississippi. 

Soon after this happened a split occurred over what Klansmen felt 
to be the unnecesary enrichment of Mr. Swenson through initiation fees 
and t\\Q profits made on the sale of robes, and they split away from this 
organization with many of them being banished from the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

The cadre of tlie Original Knights of Mississippi were basically the 
ones that founded what was in the early part of 1964 the largest Klan 
organization in Mississippi, which is known as the Wliite Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

2665 



2666 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

This organization grew, and certain leaders of the White Knights 
defected from that organization and became the leadersliip of the 
United KLans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Khix KLan, headed 
by Imperial Wizard Robert Shelton and known witliin Mississippi as 
the Mississippi Rescue Service. 

The investigation from its very start, Mr. Chairman, has been very 
confused because Klansmen, while remaining Klansmen, have shifted 
from the A^^lite Knights to the UKA, and in most recent days we 
have learned of two Klaverns of the United Klans of America switch- 
ing back to the White Knights. 

The White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan is unique as an autono- 
mous Klan organization in that its constitution and the oath wliich 
it administers to its members do not follow the standard pattern of 
the Klan of 1915, from which most of the modern day Klans adopt 
their constitutions, their rituals, and their oaths. 

The constitution of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan divides 
this organization into two branches of a legislature — the senate, which 
they call their Klonvocation, and their lower house which they call 
the Klanburgesses. 

The executive department of the White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan is headed by an Imperial Wizard, whom the investigation es- 
tablished to be Safn Holloway Bowers, Jr., of Laurel, Mississippi; 
a Grand Dragon, Julius Harper; a grand giant, Billy Buckles; a 
grand chaplain, who in the early days was Paul Foster, and who later 
was replaced by Petus G. Bilbo; the grand director of the Klan 
Bureau of Investigation, who in the early days was Mr. Ernest S. 
Gilbert and who is now a king kleagle for the United Klans of 
America. 

The organizational structure of the White Knights is divided into 
five districts, which compare to the congressional districts of Members 
of Congress from the State of Mississippi, and this division is divided 
into nine provinces. 

Each of these provinces has in its leadership a province giant and 
a province KBI. These province giants and province KBI's are mem- 
bers of the cabinet of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

The constitution under Article II sets forth the authority of the 
Imperial Wizard, and in Section 17 of Article II it sets forth the 
duties of the province giant and the KBI. 

In this connection, Mr. Chairman, I Avould like the record to dis- 
close that under the constitution it is reported that all projects which 
arise in a Klavern or in the Klan which are of — 

a Great Magnitude or Complex in Nature shall be forwarded through the Chain 
of Command to the Imperial Wizard, who shall seek the advice and counsel of all 
Grand OflBcers. 

Investigation and sworn executive testimony, Mr. Chairman, show 
that projects of great magnitude and of complex nature refer to 
official projects adopted by the Klan, known as Projects 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

Project 1 is a threatening telephone call, or visits. 

Project 2 is the burning of a cross, usually on private property. 

Project 3 is beatings or floggings, burning of property, wild shoot- 
ing into property, and bombings. 

Project 4 is extermination. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2667 

The constitution provides for a judicial department headed by a 
chief klanjustice and four other klanjustices, a finance department, 
which is^ headed by a chief khibursar, and four additional klabursars. 

The Klaverns and the officers within the Klavern follow the normal 
oro^anizational structure of a Klan Klavern except that in the White 
Knights the Klavern officers include a klepeer, who is the Klavern 
representatives to the Klanburgesses. 

The constitution of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan is 
unique to other constitutions because, while it requires of its members 
an oath which pledges absolute obedience to the White Knights con- 
stitution and its laws, the member swears allegiance to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States only as originally written. 

The oaths of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan do not pro- 
vide, as do the other Klan oaths which the committee has dealt with, 
in that the other oaths provide that a Klansman shall keep secret 
to himself the secret of a fellow Klansman except in the case of treason 
against the United States, rape, and malicious murder. 

In the case of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, their consti- 
tution provides that a man guilty of those three offenses is not eligible 
for membership, but their constitution provides that a secret of a 
Klansman shall be kept secret, period. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to call the staff's first -witness, Gordon 
Lackey. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly sw^ear that the testimony you are about to give in 
this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so helf) you God ? 

Mr. Lackey. I do. 

The Chairman. Mr. Blackwell, at the conclusion of the hearings 
yesterday, in response to a call for Douglas Byrd, Route 1, Liberty, 
Mississippi, to take the stand, you presented in his behalf a medical 
statement. 

This statement, on the letterhead of The Field Clinic, Centreyille, 
Mississippi, and signed by Dr. John Y. Gibson advised the committee 
that Byrd was confined at the Field Memorial Community Hospital 
because of a back condition. It was the doctor's position that Mr. 
Byrd Avould require 1 week to 10 days of hospital care. 

In light of the medical statement, I request that you advise your 
client, Mr. Bvrd, to appear before the committee at 10 a.m., Januaiy 
19, 1966. 

NoW', Mr. Blackwell, if consultation with Dr. Gibson indicates that 
Mr. Byrd, for reasons of his physicial disability, is unable to appear 
at that time, I hope you will notify the connnittee of that. 

Mr. Blackw'ell. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF GORDON MIMS LACKEY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUN- 
SEL, TRAVIS BUCKLEY AND CHARLES G. BLACKWELL 

Mr. Appell. State your full name, please. 
Mr. Lackey. My full name is Gordon Mims Lackey. 
Mr. Appell. Your last name is spelled L-a-c-k-e-y ? 
Mr. Lackey. That is correct, sir. 



2668 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, are you appearing here in accordance 
with a subpena served upon you by John D. Sullivan on November 5, 
1965, at 412 W. Park Avenue, Greenwood, Mississippi? 

Mr. Lackey. Yes, sir ; that is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Lackey. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify themselves for the record ? 

Mr. Buckley. I am Travis Buckley, attorney at law, Bay Springs, 
Mississippi, Post Office Box 411. 

Mr. Appell. And the additional counsel? 

Mr. Blackwell. Charles G. Blackwell, attorney at law, 790 North- 
wood Drive, Laurel, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, under the conditions of the subpena served 
upon you and attachment thereto, which was made part of the subpena, 
you were commanded to bring with you and to produce to the com- 
mittee documents called for in the subpena, paragraph 1, which reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi and aflBliated organizations, namely the 
Mississippi Constitutional Council in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as the past or present Kleagle at Large, 
and/or Special Investigator to the Imperial Wizard of the White Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

Mr. Lackey, I ask that you produce those documents in the repre- 
sentative capacity set forth in the subpena. 

The Chairman. Before that, Mr, Lackey, I ask your counsel if it 
is a fact and whether they will stipulate that you are familiar with 
the opening statement I made October 19, last year, outlining the gen- 
eral purposes, objectives, and the reasons for this hearing. 

Mr. Buckley. Mr. Chairman, I do so stipulate. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

I did not want to direct the question to your client, but you are 
speaking for your client in this instance? 

Mr. Buckley. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. "Will you produce the documents, Mr. Lackey? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I am sorry but I cannot produce such records as 
ordered by the subpena issued me. due to the fact that such records were 
and are not in my possession, custody, or control and I do not have 
access to such documents. 

Mr. Appell. Mr, Lackey, in the representative capacity set forth in 



y 



the subpena, did you possess such documents 

Mr. Lackey. Would you repeat the question, sir ? 

Mr. Appell. In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 
1 of your subpena, did you possess such records ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, Avith all sincerity, I respectfully decline to answer 
that question and invoke as a defense the privileges guaranteed me by 
the 5th, the 1st, and the 14th amendments of the Constitution of the 
United States of America, sir. 

The Chairman. 1 am afraid I do not follow the position of the 
witness. He is represented by able counsel, of course. 

Mr. Appell, try to be very attentive, because the witness took one 
|)osition and then another under his asserted constitutional rights. 

Will you repeat your first question ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 2669 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, I ask you to produce those documents 
wliicli are enumerated in paragraph 1 of the attachment to your 
sub])ena. 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I am extremely sorry, but I could not produce 
such records as were ordered by the subpena issued to me, due to the 
fact that such records were and are not in my possession, custody, or 
control and I did not have access to any such documents. 

The Chairman. Are you now saying, sir, that as an individual you 
did not have possession, custody, or control or access to these docu- 
ments ? 

I ask that in view of what you said in response to the second question. 
If your counsel wants to explain your position, your exact legal 
position, I will accept that instead of its coming from you, but I 
cannot quite distinguish between your first answer and your second 
answer because, I call attention to you and your counsel, the subpena 
on the face of it calls for you to produce those documents in your 
representative capacities, and Mr. Appell made the request of you in 
your representative capacities. 

Are you distinguishing between the two ? 

Mr. Buckley. Mr. Chairman, would you like me to explain it ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Buckley. I think I can say simply this: His position, his re- 
sponse to the original question, is simply that it was not within his 
power, and it has not been within his power, to comply with the 
subpena. He could not comply with it. It was not within his power 
to so do. In other words, he does not have any contempt. It is not 
that he is purposely evading or avoiding the subpena or this com- 
mittee, but it was simply not within his power to so do. 

The Chairman. Are you saying that you do not now have and have 
never had — I am directing the question to the witness — possession, cus- 
tody, or control or access to the documents called for by the subpena, 
either as an individual or in a representative capacity ? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Chairman, I must respectfully decline to answer 
that question 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Lackey. — and as a defense invoke the privileges guaranteed 
to me by the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United 
States of America, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, directing myself to the apparent con- 
flicting positions, I would like to call attention to Article V of the 
constitution of the White Knights which states the duties of kleagles. 
It is my understanding that this witness is the grand kleagle of the 
TVhite Knights. 

His duties under Article V, Section 4 in the recruiting of members 
consists of preparing in quadruplicate form the application blanks. 
One copy is given to the kligraph, or secretary, and then within 15 
days he is under duty to present the remaining copies to the district 
klabursar. 

Assuming that this witness is the kleagle and assuming he has com- 
plied with his constitutional obligations, he would have had the docu- 
ments, but would not have any documents within 15 days following 
the recruiting of a new member. 



2670 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

For that reason I can see why he would say he has no documents 
now and would refuse to answer whether he had ever had them. 

The Chairmax. Of course, the questions are in the record, irrespec- 
tive of the explanation. 

Mr. Lackey, your counsel, as I understood him, said what you were 
trying to say was that you did not- have the power to produce these 
documents. Did I understand counsel correctly ? 

Mr. Buckley. That is right. 

The Chairman. Wliat the subpena calls for is documents or docu- 
ments in your possession or control or custody or available to you. 
Are you also saying that you do not now have, and never have had, 
possession, custody, or control, or custody or accessibility to the docu- 
ments, irrespective of whether you didn't have the technical power to 
produce them ? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Cliainuan. are you asking me or my attorney? 

The Chairman. I directed the question to the witness. 

Mr. Lackey. Sorry, sir; I didn't understand it. I thought you. had 
asked my attorney. 

The Chairman. You can advise with him. 

Mr. Lackey. I thought you directed the question directly to him. 
I am sorry, sir. 

Sir, I think it would be clearer purely by my stating that it was not 
physically within my power to bring any such records, documents, cor- 
respondence, memoranda, et cetera, purely because I did not possess 
these documents at the time, they were not within my custody or con- 
trol, and I could not physically bring something that I did not have, 
sir. 

The Chairman. Did you have possession, custody, or control, or 
were there available to you these documents called for on the date that 
you were served with the subpena, November 5, 1965, until today? 

Mr. Lackey. No, sir, I did not. 

The Chairman. You are saying, and you are under oath, that at no 
time did you have possession, custody, or control or availability of these 
documents ? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Chairman, with all possible respect for this com- 
mittee and its staff, I must in all sincerity decline to answer that ques- 
tion on the grounds as previously stated in invoking the fifth amend- 
ment. 

The Chairman, I think I follow you. What you are trying to say is 
that you stick by your first statement that from tlie time that the sub- 
pena was served on you, November 5, 1965, until today, during that 
period of time you did not have possession, custody, or control and that 
these documents were not available to you during that period of time. 
That is the time where you are saying you had no power, as you put it, 
to produce the documents. Is that the testimou}' you are giving? 

Mr. Lackey. Yes, sir ; that is absolutely correct. 

The Chairman. Now, as a matter of law I will ask you this question : 
Did you have possession, custody, or control, or were these documents 
available to you the day before or at any time before you were served, 
but that you deliberately lost possession, custody, or control and saw to 
it that they were not available to you prior to that time because you 
feared, or had reason to believe, that a subpena would be served upon 
you to produce them ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2671 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Chairman, I must for clarity at this time decline 
to answer the question on the grounds as previously stated invoking the 
fifth amendment, but I would like to state that I am 

The Chairman. Wait a minute. You cannot invoke the fifth 
amendment and then say something to just applaud yourself unless you 
realize you will be subject to cross-examination on that. 

I am making myself plain. 

Mr. Lackey. Yes, sir; I was trying to do this in the interest of clar- 
ity. I am stating that I have never destroyed any document or corre- 
spondence, et cetera, in contempt of this body. 

The Chairman. All right. Then my next question is this : Accept- 
ing as true that you have never destroyed any documents in contempt 
of this body at any time, even before you were subpenaed to produce 
them, did you at any time, let us say from March 30, 1965, w-hen the 
committee announced that it would conduct these hearings, just trans- 
fer them to another person or somehow, without destroying them, lose 
custody, possession, control, and availability of the documents? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Chairman, I have never taken any deliberate 
steps 

The Chairman. You are not answering my question, and I insist 
that you do. 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, would you restate the question? Perhaps I mis- 
understood it. 

The Chairman. You testified that at no time, even prior to the 
service of the subpena on November 5, did you destroy these docu- 
ments. I base my question on the assumption that you did not de- 
stroy them. Not having destroyed them, did you have possession, 
custody, or control, or were those documents available to you from 
March 30, 1965, wdien we announced the hearings, and did you then 
transfer them to somebody else, pass them on to somebody else, or 
deliberately lose or do away with custody, possession, or control, or 
did you see to it that they were no longer available, they were no 
longer available to you? 

You are under oath, and that is it. 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Willis, I believe you gave me this date — from 
March 30 of 1965. That is the date when this hearing was announced. 
Is it from that date up until the present? Is that the date in your 
question ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, during those dates these documents requested 
by the subpena were not within my custody, possession, or control so 
that I could have destroyed them, done away with them, or anything 
else. 

The Chairman. Then I will go back to my first question which was 
broader: Did you at any time have possession, control, or custody of 
those documents, and were they at any time available to you, and did 
you see to it that you lost possession, control, or custody, and did you 
see to it that they were no longer available because of a fear or because 
of a realization or because you had reasons to believe that at some 
time you would be ordered by subpena to produce them? 

Mr. Lackey. No, sir, Mr. Willis. 

The Chairman. Mr. Lackey, you have responded to my questions 
under oath, so I direct Mr. Appell to proceed. 



2672 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Paragraph 2 of the subpena calls upon you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control or maintained by or available to you. in your capacity as 
Special Investigator to the Imperial Wizard or Kleagle at Large of the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, of Mississippi which the Constitution and Laws 
of said organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any 
other oflBcer of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or 
control. 

I request you to produce in your representative capacity stated in 
the attachment, parag:raph 2, the documents called for in paragraph 2. 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Appell, with all possible respect for tliis body, I 
could not produce such records as were ordered by the subpena issued 
to me, due to the fact that such records were and are not in my posses- 
sion, custody, or control and I did not have access to such records, sir. 

The Chairman. Have you ever had in your possession, custody, or 
control any documents relating to the White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan, and this refers to these last documents called for and the ones 
now called for? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question and 
invoke as a defense for so doing the privileges guaranteed to me by 
the 5th, the 1st, and the 14th amendments of the Constitution of the 
United States of America. 

The Chairman. Mr. Lackey, it has been made abundantly clear to 
you and your counsel that these documents just called for, and the 
ones called for in paragraph 1, that you were being called upon to 
produce them in the representative capacities stated in the subpena. 

The reason you have given for refusal to produce the documents 
called for by both paragraphs 1 and 2 of the subpena do not, in my 
opinion, legally justify your refusal, and those reasons are rejected. 

I now order and direct you to produce them. 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Chairman, with all possible respect I could not 
produce such records as were ordered by the subpena issued to me, due 
to the fact that such records were and are not in my possession, custody, 
or control and I did not have access to such records and could there- 
fore — it was a physical impossibility for me to bring such records. 

The Chairman. I understand that, but yet you invoke the privileges 
of the constitutional amendments you related. The two do not make 
sense. That is why I directed you to produce them. 

Unless you want to explain your position, there is something wrong 
somewhere. Maybe I am wrong and dumb, but you do not need the 
invocation if what you say is true, so I have ordered you, and you have 
refused. That is the way the record stands. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey 

The Chairman. Do you know who has them? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, with all possible repect, I must refuse to answer 
that question for the reasons previously stated, invoking the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution of the Ignited States of America. 

The Chairman. Mr. Lackey, you testified under oath that you do 
not now have, and never have had. possession, custody, or control of 
these documents called for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the subpena and 
that at no time were they available to you during the i^eriod from 
March 30, 1965, until the present time. You also testified under oath 
that you did not destroy them and that you did nothing to divest your- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2673 

self of custody, possession, or control. I have the right not to accept 
tliat position and to cross-examine you on that, and I am now doing 
it, especially because I take the iX)sition that you have waived your 
fifth amendment rights, and so I now ask you, What became of those 
documents ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, with all respect, all possible respect to this com- 
mittee and its staff, I must decline to answer that question for the 
reasons previously stated, invoking my rights guaranteed me by the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America. 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to answer that question and 
to produce the documents. 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. First, I order and direct you to answer the question 
I have just asked. 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Do you know who has possession of those docu- 
ments at this time or at any time since you were served with the sub- 
pena on November 5, 1965? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Willis, with all due dignity and respect, sir, I 
must decline to answer that question for the reasons previously stated, 
invoking my rights guaranteed me by the fifth amendment to the Con- 
stitution of the United States of America. 

The Chairman. Did those documents ever exist ? It is obvious 
some documents relating to the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan 
did exist. 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I must respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Tlie Chairman. I order and direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I must respectfully decline 

The Chairman. You don't have to do anything. You may choose 
to do what you want. You do decline? 

Mr. Lackey. Yes, sir ; that is correct, sir. 

The Chairman. To answer questions on the grounds previously 
stated ? 

Mr. Lackey. Yes, sir; that is absolutely correct. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I was born in Greenwood, Leflore County, Mis- 
sissippi, September 12, 1936. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, my present resiclence is 1414 Camelia Street, 
Greenwood, Leflore County, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I entered the public school systems in Greenwood, 
Leflore County, Mississippi, where I graduated from Greenwood 
High School. 

Mr. Appell. In what year, sir? 

Mr. Lackey. In the year 1954, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you serve in the military of the United States or 
the State of Mississippi ? 



2674 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I did not finish on the educational question you 
asked before. Would you like me to finish that before I go to the 
next question ? 

Mr, Appell.. Yes ; please continue. 

Mr. Lackey. I graduated from Greenwood High School in I^efiore 
County, Mississippi. I atteiided Mississippi State University, at 
that time Mississippi State College, for an intermittent period of 
about 5 years, dropping out occasionally to work and then returning 
the next year to the imiversity . 

Mr. Appell. How many credits did you earn ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I don't have my university transcript w4th me 
and the length of time and the exact hours escape me. 

Mr. Appell. You did not receive a degree ? 

Mr. Lackey. That is correct, sir ; I did not receive a degree. 

Mr. Appell. Now, returning to the question about military service, 
have you had any militai-y service ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I served 8 years in the United States Amiy En- 
listed Kesei-ve. I served 2 to 3 years in the Mississippi National 
Guard. I liad no active duty other than the short periods of active 
duty required for training by these reserve components. 

Mr. Appell. As a member of the militaiy establishments you have 
set forth, were you trained in counterinsurgency and did you qualify 
with an M-1 rifle? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, in these reserve components there is at least 2 
hours per week of counterinsurgency training which is required in 
all reserve training. And in the normal course of events, I attended 
those classes on counterinsurgency, but I would not say I achieved 
any degree of proficiency as such in counterinsurgency. 

Sir, during the 8 years that I spent in the ITnited States Army 
Reserve, I did not have occasion to qualify with the LTnited States 
rifle caliber 30 M-1. Li the Mississippi National Guard's annual 
spring firing range training, I did qualify wuth the United States 
rifle caliber 30 M-1. 

Mr. Appell. In addition to the military service which you have 
stated, would you give the committee your principal e" ployment 
background since 1960? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, my principal employment since the year of 1960 
was a small motorcycle sales and service shop, which I operated myself 
in my backyard. 

Mr. Appell. From 1963 to the present time, would you give the 
committee sources of income which you had, other than the motorcycle 
repair and sales service and with the Mississip])i National Guard? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I most respectfully decline to answer that question 
for the reasons as previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, I hand you a form of "Application for 
Citizenship in the Invisible Empire in the White Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi" and ask if you have ever used such a docu- 
ment to recruit Mississippians into "the organization stated in the 
application ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2675 

(Document marked "Gordon Lackey Exhibit No. 1" and retained 
in committee liles.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, were you a kleagle at large or organizer 
of the White Knights of the Ku KKix Klan of Mississippi? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, the committee's investigation established 
that you did hold such a position, in addition to other positions. 
Therefore, I want to ask you the purport of the last sentence in the 
application, which reads as follows : 

If I prove untrue as a Klansman I will willingly accept as my portion whatever 
penalty your authority may impose. 

What does that mean, sir? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I believe I missed a little of the wording. Would 
you please repeat it to me, sir ? 
Mr. Appell. [Eeading :] 

If I prove untrue as a Klansman I will willingly accept as my portion whatever 
penalty your authority may impose. 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the reasons previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, I show you a document, the cover page 
of which is missing, which describes itself to be "The Constitution of 
the White Kniglits of the Ku Klux Klan of the Sovereign Realm of 
Mississippi.'" This copy that I am showing you was printed after 
April 1964 because, according to the document, it contains three 
amendments passed on April 19, 1964. I am showing you this docu- 
ment and asking you if you are familiar with its contents? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I most respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

(Document marked "Gordon Lackey Exhibit No. 2." See committee 
report. The Present-Day Ku Klunc Klan Movement^ pp. 253-292.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, the committee's investigation establishes 
that when the White Knights was in its formation stage in late 1963 
and early 1964 that you were appointed to a committee for the purpose 
of drafting a constitution for the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 
I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact. 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Appell, for the reasons previously stated I, in all 
respectfulness, decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know Douglas A. Byrd to be the Grand 
Dragon of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Realm of 
Louisiana, and did Mr. Byrd assist you in the drafting of this 
constitution ? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Appell, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the reasons previouslv stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, I shall read to you from Article V of this 
constitution, which relates to recruiting, and after reading it to you I 
shall ask some questions based upon the provisions of this constitution : 

Section 1. All Kleagles and Organizers shall be selected on the basis of their 
depth of Christian Dedication, Ability to Organize and Instruct, their Domestic 
Situation, and their Moral Integrity. 

Section 2. The Klan Kleagle and his selected Kleagles shall be primarily re- 
sponsible to the Klan for the further expansion and organization of the Klan. 



2676 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Section 3. All Kleagles must possess the clerical ability to perform the work 
which the oflBce requires. 

Section 4. All Kleagles shall, as a part of each Initiation Ceremony, prepare 
a receipt in quadruplicate form, and shall number same, and shall obtain thereon 
the number of the Klavern Kligraph, or the temporary officer in charge of the 
Klavern, if UnKhartered. The Kleagle shall then leave one copy with the Kli- 
graph or temporary officer. The Kleagle shall then, within fifteen days, present 
the remaining three copies of the quadruplicate receipt form to the proper Dis- 
trict Klabursar thereon, and leave one copy with the Klabursar. The Kleagle 
shall then forward both remaining copies of the receipt to the Grand Giant 
who shall number both copies, retain one and return the other to the Kleagle. 
The four copies shall be retained by their respective holders and surrendered 
upon call of a bona-fide Klan Auditor. The Klabees of Khartered Klaverns shall 
perform the clerical duties outlined in this section. 

Section 5. All Kleagles may be compensated by law. 

Section 6. No Kleagle, Officer or Klansman in any capacity shall ever attempt 
to recruit an alien for membership into the Klan who is a negro, jew or papist, 
not [sic] shall any alien who is cohabiting with or married to, by common law 
or pagan ways, a negro, jew or papist ever be allowed membership in the Klan. 

Section 7. No i^erson who professes atheism, or who refuses to acknowledge 
Almighty God as his Creator, Savior and Inspiration shall ever be allowed 
membership in the Klan. 

Section 8. No person who espouses any allegiance in any form to any govern- 
ment or governmental system, social, ecclesiastical or political, which is in any 
way incompatible with the Lawful, Constitutional, Governmental System of the 
United States of America shall ever be allowed membership in the Klan. No per- 
son who advocates the overthrow or erosion of the Lawful, Constitutional Gov- 
ernment of the United States of America shall ever be allowed membership in 
the Klan. No person shall ever be recruited who is not a White, Gentile, Ameri- 
can-bom Citizen. 

Section 9. Kleagles shall scout into new areas and contact prospective Chris- 
tian militant aliens for membership in a careful and Judicious manner using 
maximum possible secrecy, after being commissioned for this work by the 
Imperial Wizard. 

Section 10. The membership of the Klan shall be composed of Christian men 
who meet the requirements heretofore stated and who are Twenty-One Years of 
Age, or older, sound of mind, sober in habits, of good moral character and not 
guilty of rape, murder, or treason. 

Section 11. After the Initial men have begun a new Klavern, or a Klavern has 
been established, the Exalted Cyclops or temporaty [.sic] officer in Charge shall 
call for names of men to be submitted as prospective candidates for member- 
ship. All members of the particular Klavern who are Klansmen in good stand- 
ing shall be allowed to submit names of persons whom they have known for at 
least five years personally, and for tivo years intimately, at least. A submittea 
name must be accompanied by the vouch of an additional Klavern member in 
good standing. All submitte<l names shall be immediately recordetl on the 
Prospective Candidate Roll within the Klavern. 

The Exalted Cyclops or Temporary OflScer in Charge of the Klavern shall 
require that all names of Prospective Candidates shall be called and read aloud 
at two consecutive meetings of the Klavern without a dis.senting vote being cast 
against any particular prospective candidate, before the siwn.sor of that par- 
ticular candidate shall be granted permission to approach that particular candi- 
date for membership. If no dissent is heard on a particular candidate for two 
consecutive Klavern Readings of his name, the sponsor shall have permission to 
contact the candidate for membership. 

Mr. Chairman, I ask tliat the remaining paragraphs — — 

The Chairman. Let the document be inserted in the record in full. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, in Section 4 that I read to you, it states 
that one copy of the receipt is returned to the kleagle. What dispo- 
sition did you make of the copy which, according to Section 4, was to 
be retained by you so that it might be surrendered upon call of a 
bona fide Klan auditor? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Appell, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the reasons as previously stated, sir. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2677 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, you continually invoke the 1st, 5th, and 
14th amendments to the Constitution of the United States, but the 
constitution of the White Knights only holds to the Constitution as 
originally written and those amendments were not in it. Can you ex- 
plam that to me ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I most respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Mr. Lackey, it it obvious that some documentb 
I^assed through your hands at some time, particularly, as I understood 
the reading of Section •1 of your constitution, in connection with re- 
cruitment operations. Did you recruit anyone to membership since 
the service of this subpena, or since March 30, 1965 ? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Chairman, for the reasons as previously stated, I 
most respectfully decline to answer that question, sir. 

The Chairman. And 1 now again order and direct you to produce 
the documents called for by the subpena. 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Willis, sir, I could not produce such records as 
were ordered by the subpena issued to me, due to the fact that such 
records were and are not in my possession, custody, or control and I 
did not and do not have access to such records, sir. 

The Chairman. I now order and direct you to answer the last ques- 
tion I propounded. I don't know if I asked that of you before ; did I ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right, then I do not accept the reasons given 
by you and the constitutional provisions relied upon as a basis for not 
producing those documents and I order and direct you to do so. 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Willis, I am sorry, sir, there seems to be a little 
confusion between my attorney and I. What is the last question ? 

The Chairman. It is a direction to produce the documents. 

Mr. Lackey. Thank you, sir. 

Sir, I could not produce such records as were ordered by the sub- 
pena issued to me, due to the fact that such records were and are 
not in my possession, custody, or control and I did not and do not 
have access to such records. 

The Chairman. Go on. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, the constitution of the White Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan provides that a kleagle who performs ceremonies 
of initiation in Klavenis other than his home Klavem shall be entitled 
to deduct from the initiation fee $4 for his personal fee and shall remit 
the remaining $6 to the proper district klabursar. To whom did you 
transmit the $6 as provided for in the constitution ? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Appell. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question for the reasons previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claimed priv- 
ilege and his consistent refusal to answer questions with respect to 
the activities of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, I present 
to the committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to 
Mr. Lackey. 

He was appointed, along with Douglas A. Byrd and others, to write 
a constitution for the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Missis- 
sippi. Douglas Byrd at that time was the former Grand Dragon of the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Mississippi, which 



2678 ACTIVITIES OF KU EXUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

has been known by the cover name of the Louisiana Rifle Association 
and was banished in 1963 from office and membership by the Imperial 
Dragon of the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Royal V. 
Yomig. 

In early 1964, at one of the first meetings of the White Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan in Brookhaven, Mississippi, Mr. Lackey was made 
an Imperial Investigator and placed under the control of Emest S. 
Gilbert, then grand director of the Klan Bureau of Investigation and 
a man who is now the kleagle of the LTnited Klans of America. 

In October 1964, he became a kleagle or organizer at large. 

In October 1964, he became one of two province officere holding the 
position of province KBI in Province 2 to replace Wesley Kersey. 
Both were members of the Leflore Unit No. 1 of the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In March 1965 he became province giant for the Leflore Province 2. 

In August 1964, Lackey discussed blowing up the SNCC head- 
quarters around Greenwood, Mississippi. However, since cars parked 
in the vicinity w^ere believed to be occupied by FBI agents, the project 
was forgotten. 

On August 30, 1964, the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan held 
a statewide meeting at Crystal Springs, Mississippi. Among other 
things, it was agreed to issue temporary charters with 25 men and 
permanent charters with 40. Lackey objected to this procedure. 

On September 14, 1964, at an executive meeting of the White Knights 
held in Crystal Springs, Mississippi, Gordon Lackey was in attend- 
ance. 

On January 1, 1965, a meeting was held at the Heidelburg Hotel in 
Jackson, Mississippi, for the purpose of establishing a defense fund 
to be known as the White Christian Protective and Legal Defense 
Fund. This fund had as its primaiy function the raising of funds 
for the defense of Philadelphia, Mississippi, defendants accused of 
the murder of three civil rights workers. A board of directors was 
appointed and consisted of Glen Swetman of Biloxi. Mississippi, a 
province giant of the Wliite Knights; Pete Shumaker, of Kosciusko, 
Mississippi; Reverend Delmar Dennis, Meridian, Mississippi; and 
James M. Hooper of Sidon, Mississippi. The state chairman of the 
fund was Elmore D. Greaves of Jackson, Mississippi. Present at the 
meeting in addition to Mr. Lackey were the Grand Giant B. D. 
Buckles, Imperial Wizard Bowers, Province Giant J. K. Greer, Grand 
Dragon Julius Harper, Elmore Greaves, Johnny Bostick of Natchez. 
Mississippi, and E. L. "Tiny" I^wis of Natchez, Mississippi. 

On January 30, 1965, a meeting was held in Room 3-E of the Robert 
E. Lee Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. Gordon Lackey was present 
at this meeting along with other Klan officials, who used this occasion 
for the purpose of attending a Klan cabinet meeting held on Janu- 
ai-y31. 

On January 20, 1964, Gordon M. Lackey applied for a citizens band 
radio license covering four transmitters. 

In May of 1965, M. F. White of Greenwood, Mississippi, hired a 
Negro, Walter Fisher, to paint a house he owned in Greenwood, Mis- 
sissippi. Fisher, unloiown to Mr. White, hired Dewey Green, a relative 
of the Negro student at Ole Miss. Klansmen painted a black band 
around the newly painted house with a type of paint sold to Gordon 
Lackey for use in his motorcycle repair shop. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2679 

Lackey recruited into membership in the White Knights Byron de 
la Beckwith, Avho was arrested and tried for the murder of iMedgar 
Evei's. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates Mr. Lackey possesses 
additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this 
committee and would materially aid this committee and the Congress 
in proposing remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Lackey, you heard the statement read by Mr. 
Appell. You now have the opportunity to confirm or challenge the 
accuracy of the statement or to explain any part of it. In addition 
you may, if you desire, offer any other matter you deem relevant to 
this inquiry. Do you care to avail yourself of this opportunity? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I respectfully decline to do so for the reasons 
previously stated. ■ 

The ChairMx\n. In that case, Mr. Lackey, I inform you that in the 
absence of your rebuttal or other facts that might come to the atten- 
tion of this committee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy of 
its investigation. Bearing that in mind, do you wish to say any- 
thing ? 

Mr. Lackey. No, sir, I do not care to make any statement. 

The Chairjniax. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, with respect to the painting of a black 
band around a rental house in Green w^ood, Mississippi, owned by M. F. 
White, did you have a conversation with Mr. TVHiite with respect to 
the Negroes that he hired ? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Appell, for the reasons as previously stated, I most 
respectfully decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you told Mr. White he had hired 'the "wrong Nigger" 
to paint his house and that a neighbor had told Green, the Negro, to 
get out of the neighborhood ? 

The Chairman. You shook your head indicating in effect it was 
not so or you did not know about it. You are at liberty to state the 
facts or test the accuracy of our investigation. Do you care to answer 
that question ? 

Mr. Lackey. No, sir, for the reasons as previously stated I most 
respectfully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, I ask you whether or not the black band 
was painted around this house by you, John Winstead, and Byron 
de la Beckwith ? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, with all possible respect, I must decline to answer 
that question for the reasons as previously stated, sir. 

The Chair^ian. Mr. Appelf, for clarification, you mentioned that 
Mr. Lackey had recruited Byron de la Beckwith into the Klan, but 
you did not state a time. Was that before or after the hung jury 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Appell. I think Mr. Byron de la Beckwith has been tried twice, 
both of which trials resulted "in a hung jury, and it is the committee's 
information that it was after both of those trials. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you an application for a citizens band radio 
license containing the signature of Gordon M. Lackey. The date set 
forth here as the date the application was signed is January 20, 1964. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 23 



2680 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



However, I think the proper year should be 1965 because the stamped 
receipt of the Federal Communications Commission shows the fee was 
received on January 22, 1965. 

I hand you this application and ask you if this is a copy of the 
application that you submitted for a citizens band radio license? 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, for the reasons as previously stated I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

(Document marked "Gordon Lackey Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 

Gordon Lackey Exhibit No. 3 



■mSEOHAY IM] 






UNTTCD sraiEs or tiKinoi 

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 
■ASHINSTON. 0.C aSM 



FORM tfMOVCD 



DO NOT WRITE IN 



APPLICATION rOR CLASS •, C, OR D STATION LICENSE IN THK 

CITIZENS RADIO SERVICE 

1. Application for C\am A lUtion Ijnnae must be AM on PCC FORM 400. 

2. Complete on typewriter or print ele«rly. 

t. Be Bure •pplintlon ta Bicned snd dst«d. Moil •ppliation to Feder&l Com- 
municntiona CommiMlon. Cettysburf. '*■•• 17326. 



THIS BLOCK Q ^-. 



, Enclose appropriate fee with application. If required. 
Ulu chf ■ .. - - 

in. fSee 
a fee la requires with thii application.) 



>Ppr . - , ,- - --- 

Malu check or monav order payable to Pvderal Communleatlona 
Se« Part 19. Volume VI of PCC rules to determine 



DO NOT SUBMIT 
»tlona 
hcther 



NAME OF APPLICANT 



•USIKCSS NAKC (OR LAST NAME. IT AN INCHViPoALr 



Lackey 



FIKST NAME (IF AN INUVIDUAU 

Gordon 



MIOOU INfTUU. 



M. 



IF AN INDIVIDUAL OPERATING UNDER A TRADE NAME GIVE INDIVIDUAL 
NAME. OR ir PARTNERSHIP. LIST NAMES OF PARTNERS (Pa no* repMi 
any nonw aaed ta item |) 



LAST NAMES 



FIRST NAMES 



MAILING ADDRESS 



NUMSCR AND SI Ren 



I4.I2 W. Park Ave, 



Greenwood 



Miss. 



IIP CODC 

3a93l 



COUNT V OA EQmVAUMT SUMMVISION 

Leflore 



CLASSIFICATION OF APPLICANT (S« iulrulurai) 






INDIVIDUAL 



D 
D 



AStOCIATION 






CLASS OF STATION (C*«et tmlt ox) 



[ ] CLAftt ■ Q CUItt c 



IS THIS APPLICATION TO MODIFY OR RCNCW AN EXISTING STATION UCCNSCT 
□ VM (CiM MB •!»•).■ ^ MO 



□ to 



5?' 



DOES EACH TRANSMITTER TO BE OPERATED APPEAR ON THE COMMIS- 
SION S ■ RADW EQUIPMENT LIST. PART C ' OR, IF FOR CLASS C OR 
CLASS STATIONS. IS IT CRVSTAL.O0NTII0LLE0T (// ««, ailacA 
datoiled dneriflioik: am «»*]Mrf C 0/ Part t$) 



A WILL APPLICANT OWN ALL THE RAOK} COUIPMENH (//a 
B aad C btlott) 



NAME OF oamoi 



IS The appucant apartv to a written lease or other acreiment uwocr 

WHICH THE CWNERSHIP OR CONTROL Will U. EXERCISED IN TtC SAME HAN- 
ICR AS IF THE EQUIPMENT WERE OWNED IT THE APPUCANTT 



MAS APPLICANT READ AMD UNDERSTOOD THE PROVISIONS Of PART U 
SUBPART D DEALING WITH PERMISSIBLE COMMUNICATIONS FOR WHICH 
THIS CLASS OF STATION MAY BE USEOT 



WILL THE USE OF THE STATION CONFORM IN ALL RESPECTS WITH THE 
PERMISSIBLE COMMUNICATIONS AS SET FORTH IN PART l», SUBPART OT 



WILL THE STATION BE OPERATED BY ANY PERSON OTHER THAN THE 
APPLICANT MEMBERS OF HIS IMMEDIATE FAMILY OR HIS EMPLOYEES? 
H/ ye*, attath a BtparaU thtet txaltnt l)u %anu» and rtlat\on»kip 0/ ail 
tu£H pereoiu and piM a d ft atUd rta»on for Uuif eperolwn e/ foar 
•loliOH) 



IS APPLICANT THE REPRESENTATIVE OF ANY ALIEN OR ANY FOREIGN 
GOVERNMENTT (// ytt, ezploiN /aUy) 



WITHIN 10 YEARS PREVIOUS TO THE DATE OF THIS APPLICATION HAS 
THE APPLICANT OR ANY PARTY TO THIS APPLICATION BEEN CONVICTED 
IN A FEDERAL STATE OR LOCAL COURT OF ANY CRiME FOR WHICH THE 
PENALTY IMPOSED WAS A FINEOf iSJOOR MORE OH AN IMPRISONMENT 
OF 6 MONTHS OR MORE1 (Sft iiutriurtionj. If y«i, aiiatk a •eportU* 
Bkdft pinatf d<ta(lt 0/ (ocJt mck coavicftoa) 



IF APPLICANT IS AN INDIVIDUAL OR A PARTNERSHIP. ARE YOU OR ANY 
PARTNER LESS THAN II YEARS Of AGE (LESS THAN 12 YEARS Of AGE IF 
FOR CLASS C STATION LICENSE)? 



ir THE PRINCIPAL LOCATION WHERE THE STATION WILL BC 
USED IS DIFFERENT FROM THE MAILING ADDRESS (ITEM S), 
GIVE THAT LOCATION. (DO NOT GIVE POST OFFICE BOX OR 



NUMMJI AND STMIT 



II cAHMOT ■ ifcaraD BT sTMrr. arr. and fTAii. mm OTHa 



DO NOT wXiTE IN THIS BOX 

O N 



SION AND OATK THC APPLICATION' 9^ HCVCmC tIDC 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2681 

Gordon Lackey Exhibit No. 3~Continucd 



/* IF APPLICANT IS A NONGOVERNMENTAL 

CORPORATION. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS 



IS ANY OFFICER OH DIRECTOR OF THE CORPORATION AN ALIENT 



IS MORE THAN ONE FIFTH OF THE CAPITAL STOCK EITHER OWNED OF 
RECORD OH MAY IT BE VOTED BY ALIENS OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES. 
OR BY A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OH REPRESENTATIVE THEREOF OR BY 
ANY CORP0RATK3N ORGANIZED UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN 
COUNTRY? 



IS APPLICANT DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROLLED BY ANY OTHER 
CORPORATION? <// ytt, antwer itcmj E Ihrovgh K ixUnti) 



GIVE NAME AND ADDRESS OF CONTROLLING CORPORATION 



IS MORE THAN ONE FOURTH OF THE CAPITAL STOCK OF CONTROLLING 
CORPORATION EITHER OWNED OF RECORD OH MAY IT BE VOTED BY 
ALIENS OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES, OR BY A FOREIGN GOVERNMENT 
OR REPRESENTATUE THEREOF. OR BY ANY CORPORATION ORGANIZED 
UNDER THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY? (// ^«, gxtt dtlaiU) 



IS ANY OFFICER OR MORE THAN ONE FOURTH OF THE DIRECTORS OF 
THE CONTROLLING CORPORATION AN ALIEN? (7/ yta, anrwtT iUm» 
I a-nd J ittlov) 



TOTAL NUMBER OF DIRECTORS IN CONTROLLING CORPORATION 



LIST ALL OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS WHO ARE ALIENS IN CONTROLLING 
COHFORATIOH AND GIVE BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL STATEMENT FOR EACH 
ALIEN 



NATIONAUTY 



OFFICE HEi.0 






IS THE CONTROLLING COHPORATK)N IN TURN CONTROLLED 
BY OTHER COMPANIES? (// ^tt, oUaeh infarmaUtm for tach 
of Iheat eonlrolltnQ companiet eottring Ihe infonruUxon re- 
ipi^tUd tn \Uma E Ihrmtgh J, abc*«) 



□ no 



IF APPLICANT IS AN UNINCORPORATED 
ASSOCIATION. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ITEMS 



IS ANY OFFICER OR DIRCCTOR OF THE ASSOCIATION AN ALIEN? 



AHE MORE THAN ONE FIFTH OF THE VOTING MEMBER50F ThE ASSOClA 
TION ALIENS OR HEPRtSENTA TIVES OF ALIENS FOpEIGN GOVERNMENTS 
OR REPRESENTATIVES THEREOF OR CORPORATIONS ORGANIZED UNDER 
THE LAWS OF A FOREIGN COUNTRY? 



IS THE ASSOCIATK)N OiRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROLLED BY AN^ 
OTHER ORGANIZATION! (// „«, g,„ dttaiUd nplanalion) 



USE THIS SPACE FOB ANT ADWTIONAL INFORMATION OR REMARKS 



WILLFUL FALSE STATEMENTS MADE ON THIS FORM ARE PUN- 
ISHABLE BY FINE AND IMPRISONMENT. U.S. CODE, TITLE 18, 
SECTION 1001. 



ALL THE <TATCMENTft MADE IN THE APPLICATION AND ATTACHED EXHIBITS ARE CONSIDERED MATERIAL REPRESENT ATlONft, AND ALL THE EXHIBITS ARE 
A MATERIAL PART HEREOF AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN AS IF SET OUT IN FULL IN THE APPLICATION. 

I CERTIFY THAT: 

The applicant has (of has ordered from the Government Printing Office) a current copy of Part 19 of the Commission's rules governing 
the Citizens Radio Service; 

The applicant waives any claim to the use of any particular frequency or of the ether as against the regulatory power of the United 
States because of the previous use of the same, whether by license or otherwise . 

The applicant accepts full responsibility for the operation of. and will retain control of any citizens radio station licensed to him pursuant 
to this application . 

The station will be operated in full accordance with the applicable law and the current rules of the Federal Communications Commission ; 

The said station will not be used for any purpose contrary to Federal. State or local law; 

The applicant will have unlimited access to the radio equipment and effective measures will be taken to prevent its use by unauthorized 
persons . and 

The statements in this application are true, complete, and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief and are made m good faith. 



DO 


NOT OPERATE 
VOUR OWN 


UNTIL VOU 
LICENSE. 


HAVE 


USE 


OF ANV 
OWN 


CALL SIGN NOT 
S PROHIBITED. 


V0U1I 



rue. complete, and correct to the best ot my knowledge and belief and are made m good faith. 



(Ch9ck sfififTOprimf boM below) 

MEMBER or 

APPLICANT 
' PARTNERSHIP 



'J^f , 



Jf<t)IVI0UAL I 1 MEMBER OF I 1 OFFICER OF APPLICANT | 1 OFFICIAL OF 

APPLICANT APPLICANT CORPORATION OR GOVERNMENTAL 



U^. COVCRNMENTPRINIlNCarna IH)~O-«»4-«0l 

Bepf'nted by E. F. Johnton Company 



The Chairmax. Mr. Lackey, you lia\e a perfect right to say, if it is 
right, that this application for a citizens band license was for the pur- 
pose of conducting your business. Is that true ? 

Mr. Lackey. I am sorry, sir, but I must stand on my position and 
respectfully decline to answer that question for the reasons as previ- 
ously stated. 



2682 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Tlie Chairman. Then I must ask another question : "Was the pur- 
pose of the application for the citizens band license because you in- 
tended to use it for Klan activities? 

Mr. Lackey. Again, Mr. Chairman, with all possible respect, I de- 
cline to answer that question for the reasons as previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, did you know Mr. A. C. Herrington to be 
the grand kleagle or tlie head organizer for the White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question for the reasons as previously stated, in\okingthe fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that he holds or has held that i)Osition. 

Mr. Lackey. Sir, I must, with all respect, decline to answer thai 
question for the reasons as previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lackey, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, tliat among the kleagles at large of the "^^Hiite 
Knights of Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi you knew the following 
kleagles : 

Woody Mathews from Utica, Mississippi; the Reverend Rank 
Boyte of Attala, Mississippi; Frank Rreeland of Columbia, Missis- 
sippi; Ralph Edwards of Yazoo City, Mississippi; J. X. Fortenberry 
of Jackson, Mississippi; and Bill Sullivan of Pearl, Mississippi. 

Mr. Lackey. I most respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reasons as previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staf?' has no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

Mr. AVeltner. Mr. Chairman, I have some questions. 

I notice this witness, according to this investigative report, was one 
of the drafters of the constitution of the White Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan, and he has a high school education and for 5 years was in- 
termittently enrolled in a college. For that reason, I would like to 
ask if you can explain one or two provisions of this constitution: 

On page 12 of tlie constitution. Section 18, it sets forth the duties of 
the grand cliaplain. It says : 

The Grand Chaplain shall serve in the capacity of Christian advisor on all 
■luestions of morals and idealistic Klavern conduct. 

Then it states this, which I hope you can explain to me : 

In cases of extreme penalties the advise [sic] of the Grand Chaplain shall be 
sought and considered. 

As one of the drafters of this constitution, what would be an example 
of a case of extreme penalties ? 

Mr. Lackey. Mr. Weltner, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question for the reasons as previously stated, sir. 

Mr. Weltxer. On ]:)age 30, Mr. Lackey, of this constitution — and I 
would like the chief investigator to provide Mr. Lackey with a co])y of 
that constitution if there is any question of it — Section 5 reads as 
follows: 

All Klan functions, regardless of time, place and manner, shall begin with 
prayer, and end with prayer to Almighty God. 

I want to know if that was applied to the case of carrying out ex- 
treme penalties as provided in the preceding section ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2683 

Mr. Lackey. My. AVeUner, with all possible respect, I must decline 
to answer that question for the reasons as ])rcviously stated, invoking 
the hfth amendment to tlie Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Weltner. Now if you will examine page 39, Amendment 2 of 
the original constitution. These amendments were passed on April 
19, 1964, to become effective 30 days thereafter. It states: 

No disciplinary cross shall be burned on private property without prior ap- 
proval and investigation by the Province Investigators and Province Titan. 

I would like you to tell the committee what is a disciplinary cross? 

]\Ir. Lackey. Sir, for the reasons as previously stated I must most 
respectfully decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Weltxer. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. BucHANAX. Mr. Chairman, I want to ask Mr. Appell, in de- 
scribing Project 4, did you say extermination ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. BucHANAX. Thank you. 

The Chairmax^. The witness is excused. 

The committee stands at recess until 2 :15. 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 12, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 :15 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Weltner.) 

The CiiAiRMAX. As chairman of the full Committee on L^n-Amer- 
ican Activities, I hereby constitute for the purpose of this afternoon's 
hearings the following subcommittee — myself as chairman, Mr. Welt- 
ner, and Mr. Buchanan. This means two constitute a quorum. 

Let it be noted in the record that a quorum is present. 

Call your first witness. 

Mr. Appell. Thomas Brock. 

TheCiLMRMAx. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Brock. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS COLLINS BROCK, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, CHAKLES G. BLACKWELL AND TRAVIS BUCKLEY 

^Ir. Appj:ll. Will you state your full name for the record ? 

Mr. Brock. Thomas Collins Brock. 

Mr. Appell. C-o-l-l-i-n-s? 

Mr. Brock. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Last name, B-r-o-c-k i 

Mr. Brock. Right. 

Mr. Appell. ]Mr. Brock, are yon api^earing ])efore the committee 
this afternoon in accordance with a subpena served npon you by 
Investigator Sullivan of this connnittee on November 1, 1965? 

Mr. Brock. I am. 



2684 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. It is understood, attorneys for this witness, that 
this witness, Mr. Brock — and let us say all others you migrht repre- 
sent, heard the opening statement I made outlinino- the purposes and 
objectives of these hearings ? 

Mr. Blackwell. I so stipulate. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brock, are you represented by counsel i 

Mr. Brock. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify themselves for the record? 

Mr. Buckley. Travis Buckley, attorney at law, Post Office Box 411. 
Bay Springs, Mississippi. 

Mr. Blackwell. Charles Blackwell, attorney at law, Laurel, Mis- 
sissippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brook, under the conditions of the subpena served 
upon you, there was an attachment thereto made a part of the sub- 
pena, and under the terms of it, it commanded you to bring with you 
and produce documents set forth in certain paragraphs. 

Paragraph 1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi and affiliated oi-ganizations, namely the Mississippi 
Constitutional Council in your possession, custody or control or maintained by 
.vou or available to you as the present or past Chief Klabursar of the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

Mr. Brock, in the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 
1 of your subpena, I ask that you produce those documents. 

Mr. Brock. I am sorry I cannot produce such records as were 
ordered by the subpena issued to me, due to the fact that such records 
were, and are, not in my possession, custody, or control and I did not 
and do not have access to any such records. 

The Chairman. Do you understand that the subpena is for you to 
bring the documents in your representative capacity and not as an in- 
dividual, as though those documents i:)ertain to your own affairs? 

Mr. Brock. Yes. 

The Chairman. Are you now saying that in the capacity stated in 
the subpena you do not now have, and have never had, possession, cus- 
tody, or control of those documents and they never were available to 
you ? 

Mr. Brock. No, sir; I didn't say that. 

The Chairman. That is where we do not seem to understand each 
other. 

"^AHiat did you say ? 

Mr. Brock. I stated that I could not produce such records as were 
ordered by this subpena issued to me, due to the fact that such records 
were, and are, not in my possession, custody, or control and I did not 
and do have access to any such records. 

The Chairman. I wish counsel could in a sliort way explain his 
client's position. If we could understand each other, I think we could 
move faster. 

Mr. Buckley. I think so too. 

What he is saying is simply this, he cannot produce the records 
because it was not physicall^^ in his power to do so at the time the sub- 
pena was issued to him requiring him to. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2685 

The Chairman. Were the documents in your possession at any time 
before the subpena was issued upon you ? 

Mr. Brock. Mr. Willis, sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question and I invoke as a defense the privileges guaranteed me by 
the 5th, 1st, and 14th amendments of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

The Chairman. Did you divest yourself of possession, custody, or 
control, or in any way make it impossible for you to produce those 
documents because you apprehended that you might be called upon 
to produce them by subpena? 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Do you know who has possession of those 
documents ? 

Mr. Brock. Mr. Willis, for the reasons previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Did you occupy a position before this subpena was 
served upon you which required you to have possession of the docu- 
ments, and either resigned or assumed another position whereby some- 
one else would have to assume possession and custody or control and 
whereby you could transfer those documents to that individual? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answ^er that question. 

The Chairman. Did those documents ever exist? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the previous reasons already stated, 1 respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Brock, have you ever had in your custody, 
possession, or control the documents listed in the subpena ? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for tlie reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. That is in article 1 and 2 as stated 
on the subpena. 

The Chairman. Is it not true that, having heard about the hearings 
to come, some steps were taken to divest you of possession, custody, or 
control so you can now say what you are saying? 

Mr. Brock. Mr. Willis, sir, for the reason previously stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I tell you, sir, since those documents were ordered to 
be produced by you in your representative capacity, I do not accept as 
valid the reasons you have given and, more properly, the reasons you 
fail to give as justifying your invocation of the constitutional provi- 
sions relied upon. 

I now therefore order and direct you to produce them in the capacity 
indicated in the subpena. 

Mr. Brock. Sir, I cannot produce such records by subpena issued 
to me, due to the fact that such records were, and are, not in my 
possession, custody, or control and I did not and do not have access to 
such recx)rds. 

The Chairman. Did you, or to your knowledge did anyone else, 
destroy the documents? 

Mr.'BROCK. Sir, for the ])revious reasons stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 



2686 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairmax. I further tell yon, in my opinion, having taken the 
way out in the self-serving manner you have indicated, I have a right to 
cross-examine you on that subject and therefore I ask you again: Did 
those documents exist at any time ? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I think by opening the door in the self-serving 
manner you did in failing to enlighten the committee, it is obviously 
proper — I must, and now do, order you to answer that question. 

Mr. Brock. Sir, I respectfully decline for the reasons previously 
stated, and respectfully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

It is understood he is under order both to answer questions and 
produce. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brock, on June 7, 1964, did you personally, using 
the hood of an automobile, give a receipt to a Klansman for the pay- 
ment of funds which they owed to the "White Knights of the Ku Kliix 
Klan? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question and 
invoke the privileges guaranteed to me by the 5th, 1st, and 14th amend- 
ments to the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Brock. Learned, Mississippi, January 19, 1917. 

Mr. Appell. January, Mr. Brock? 

Mr. Brock. June — I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Appell. Would you recite for the committee your educational 
background ? 

Mr. Brock. I attended grade school at Lebanon. Three years at 
Raymond High School finishing my high school education, and just 
a month or two at junior college. I finished my high school work at 
Hines Junior, which at that time had high school work, and then 
continued about 2 months, I suppose, in college — Hines Junior Col- 
lege, Greenwood, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Since I960, wliat has been your employment baclc- 
ground ? 

Mr. Brock. Principally farming has always been my background. 

Mr. Appell. From what other sources have you received compen- 
sation? 

Mr. Brock. I served as justice of tlie peace a little over 2 years, I 
l)elieve, and one full 4-year term. 

The Chairman. Was tliat an elected position? Were you elected? 

Mr. Brock. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Are you currently a justice of the peace ? 

Mr. Brock. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Wliat other sources of revenue have you had since 
1960? 

Afr. Brock. I belie^•e it was March 1, 1964, I started working for 
the Hines County Cooperative. 

Mr. Appell. Are you still employed by them ? 

Mr. Brock. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. What other sources of revenue have you had since 
1960? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2687 

Mr. Brock. Other than maybe an oil lease — you know sometimes 
they come around and lease for oil — something"^ of that nature, that 
about covers it. 

Mr. Appell. And that is all of the revenue that you have received 
from 1960? 

Mr. Brock. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever receive any revenue provided for by the 
AVhite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan for any position that you held 
within that organization? 

The Chairman. Let's make it plain, as I understand the question, he 
is asking you for revenues that you might have received as an officer, 
and I suppose that will be the next question. I do not know. Let it be 
understood right now that Mr. Appell is asking you, did you receive 
revenues provided for and which you were entitled to receive person- 
ally as a member of the Klan. 

Mr. Brock. Mr. Appell, would you mind repeating your question. 

Mr. Appell. Did you receive any revenue or income from the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan? 

The Chairman. Personally, and not in a representative capacity for 
the time being. 

Mr. Brock. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. The constitution of the White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan provides for reimbursement of travel and meals of officials of that 
organization. Have you ever received such compensation ? 

The Ch.\irman. Or reimbursement. 

Mr. Appell. Or reimbursement ? 

Mr. Brock. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you receive revenues — and I certainly do not 
know the answer to this question — as a member or as an official of the 
Ku Klux Klan which you, in turn, transmitted to someone else? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brock, I hand you a mimeographed form cap- 
tioned at the top "Mississippi Constitutional Council."' It provides 
that certain information be supplied : the unit number, county, district, 
subdistrict, and recruiter's number, and I ask you if that is a cover de- 
signation of the Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Mississippi 
Constitutional Council? 

Mr. Brock. Wliat does this represent? State your question again. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you after reviewing that form whether you know 
if the Mississippi Constitutional Council shown on the top of that 
dociunent is the cover designation for the White Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi? 

The Chairman. Let me explain that so it will be perfectly clear to 
you. 

We have evidence imder oath in the record, in innumerable instances, 
to the effect that Klan organizations or Klavems, in order to keep 
secret the fact they are Klan organizations, operate under assumed or 
cover names or under front names, and this is what this question is 
about. 

Do you know whether or not the name indicated on that docurnent 
is a cover name or an assumed name to indicate greater respectability 
for what is really a Klan organization ? 



2688 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



That is what the question is about. You either know or you do not. 
Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

(Document marked "Thomas Brock Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 



Thomas Brock Exhibit No. 1 



MISSISSIPPI CONSTITUTIONAL COUNCIL 



District 



Unit No. County Sub-District 

Hobo Unit Recruiter? Yes or No ( ) State RocruitorT Yea or No ( 
Previous Unit memborahip strength prior to this ^ate ( ). 



(Form # R - 1 ) 
Recruiter* No, 



Last Meeting Date of this Units 
NEV 
Hcmbor' s 
Number 

( ) 

( ) 



1 196 . This Meeting Date 



) 



,196_ 



Si.:ALL*l.IEDIUl-I*LARGE* LID •ENTRY FEE* BOOK FEE • 



( 



( 



( ) 
( ) 



\ ] 



Total Members Recruited this Meeting ( 
Previous Total Membership of Unit ( 
Total l-iombership at Close of Meeting ( 

Total Entry Foe Collected at this Meeting 
Previous Total Entry Fees this Unit 
Total Unit Entry Fees To Date 

Total Book Fee Collected This Meeting 
Previous Total Book Fee this Unit 
Total Book Fee This Unit to Date 



Unit President's (or in C'3)Number 
District Bursar's Number 
State Secretary'. s Number 



^recom;sjded 

BY 
NUMBER 
( ) 

i ] 



Notes and Remarks 



INSTRUCTIONSj a Copy of this '^sport together with the proper total of All Entry Fees 
Listed horin must be in the Hands of the District Bursar within Fifte n days followir. 
the Date of this report. The Local Unit Treasurer or Secretary will collect '»nd holu 
all jook foes until the Stato Liorarian Delivers the books to the Unit. It a STATE 
Recruiter does the recruiting, ho must make FOUR (4) copies of this Rocipt Form, and 
leave ONE copy with the local unit for their records, and turn over ONE copy to the 
Bursar together with the proper amount of the total fees colloctedj and forward ore 
copj to the State Secretary thru the proper Sub-District Secretary. All copies must 
be initialed with the number of each Officer who receives a copy. The Stato Secretary 
v/ill then compile all pertinent information contained herin and forward copies to 
the President, the Viwo-President, and the House Detective. 

Mr. Appfxl. Let the record show that the instructions contained at 
the bottom of this document as to how it should be executed and dis- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2689 

tributioii inade of it are instructions which are identical with those 
contained in the constitution as in response to the recruiting of neAv 
members. 

Mr. Brock, commencing in February of 1964, did you become a 
klabursar of the White Knights of the Ku Kkix Klan? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brock, the constitution provides that there will be 
a board of five klabursars and with one elected by the five to be its 
chief. 

Do you knoAV Everett D. Wiggs of Woodland, Mississippi ; Gordon 
Sykes of Greenville, Mississippi ; Jack Williams of Pelahatchie, Miss- 
issippi; and Donald Elmer Henshaw of Laurel, Mississippi, to have 
been fellow klabursars with you ? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Did you attend a meeting of the White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan on June 7, 1964, near Raleigh, Mississippi, a rather 
large meeting at which some 300 Klansmen were presents 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, it was announced at that meeting that money collected by 
Donald Henshaw was to be turned over to you as the chief klabursar ^ 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brock, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that at that meeting held near Raleigh on June 
7, 1964, a speech was made by the Imperial Wizard, Sam Bowers, and 
that in the course of this speech he urged members to obtain firearms, 
that he urged younger members to travel to assist law enforcement 
and emphasized that these members were to stay out of trouble until 
you catch them, referring to COFO [Council of Federated Organiza- 
tions] workers, outside the law, and, he said, "then under Mississippi 
law you have the right to kill them." 

Did you hear that speech made by Imperial Wizard Sam Bowers ? 

The Chairman. I am sorry, I did not hear the question. 

Mr. Appell. I asked the witness whether or not he was present at 
the meeting on June 7, 1964, and whether or not he heard a speech by 
the Imperial Wizard, Sam Bowers, in which the Imperial Wizard 
urged all members to obtain firearms and urged younger members to 
travel to assist law enforcement, and emphasized that they should stay 
out of trouble until you catch them, referring to COFO workers, out- 
side the law and then under Mississippi law, according to the Imperial 
Wizard, "you have the right to kill them." 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Did Mr. Bowers claim at that meeting that such a thing 
had happened at Old Miss and, as a result of it, some six United States 
marshals had been killed there, but the then Attorney General Kennedy 
was keeping it quiet ? 

Mr. Brock. For the reason previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 



2690 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appbll. Mr. Brock, liave you heard within the White Knights 
of the Kii Klux Klan Projects 1, 2, 3, 4 stemmino; from threatening 
telephone calls up to elimination or extermination of people ? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that Bowers at that speech made a report to the Klansmen 
that there were than 97 projects working which would be completed 
in the near future ? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Can you enlighten the committee as to the nature of 
any one of the 97 projects ? 

Mr. Brock. For the reasons previously stated, sir, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. xVppell. Mr, Brock,'did you attend the meeting on November 15, 
1964, near Brandon, Mississippi, at wliich there was discussed a 
moratorium on the third and fourth degree projects ? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brock, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that at that meeting Imperial Wizard Bowers 
reported that the "Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan had incurred 
some $19,000 in* legal fees, including cash bail, and that the treasury 
had only $18,500 and that, in addition, the State Treasury owed 
$4,500 throughout the State, including $500 to the Lauderdale 
Klavern. 

Were you present — I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm 
or deny those facts. 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brock, did you attend a State meeting of the 
White Knights in Pearl River County on May 2, 1965? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that the various bursars were called upon to make a 
report at that meeting and it was reported that Judge Tommv Brock 
had $2,100 on hand; that Vincent Purser from Gulf port had $800; 
that Dewitt Sandifer, of Jayess, Mississippi, had $350; and that Billy 
Buckles advised that Julius Harper had $400; and that Billy Buckles 
also advised that the Greenwood T^nit had $1,000. 

I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny the fact. 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I res])ectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brock, under the constitution certain financial 
records are maintained by the klabursars in order to assure the orga- 
nization that money is not mishandled or that there is no malfeasance 
in office and other things. Therefore as the chief klabursar you 
maintained records. When did you dispose of thovSe records? 

Mr. Brock. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2691 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of this Avitness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call 3'our next witness. 

Mr, Appell. I call Mr. A. C. Herrin^ton. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you shall give in this hearing 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Herrington. I do. sir. 

TESTIMONY OF A. C. HERRINGTON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
TRAVIS BUCKLEY AND CHARLES G. BLACKWELL 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record, please? 

Mr. Herrington. A, C. Herrington. That is spelled H-e-r-r. 

Mr. Appell. You pronounce it Herrington ? 

Mr. Herrington. Well, it is pronounced both ways now, H-a and 
H-e both down there. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, are you appearing before the com- 
mittee this afternoon in accordance with a subpena served upon you 
by Investigator John D. Sullivan on November 4, 1965 ? 

Mr, Herrington. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. PIerrington. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify themselves for the record? 

Mr. BuKLEY. I am Travis Buckley, attorney at law, Bay Springs, 
Mississippi, 

Mr. Blackwell, Charles G. Blackwell, attorney at law. Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, under the terms of the subpena served 
upon you and attachment thereto which is made part of the subpena, 
you were called upon in part 1 to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi and affiliated organizations, namely the 
Mississippi Constitutional Council in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as present or past Exalted Cyclops, King 
Kleagle or State Organizer of the White Knights, Ku Klux Klan of Missis- 
sippi. 

Mv. Herrington, I request you to produce the documents in the repre- 
sentative capacity set forth in part 1 of the subpena. 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, I cannot produce such records as were or- 
dered by the subpena issued to me, due to the fact that such records 
were, and are, not in my possession, custody, or control and I did 
not and do not have access to such records. 

The Chairman. Did you have iX)Ssession, custody, or control or 
were they available to you in the representative capacity described 
in the subpena, the documents called for in the subpena at any time 
after March 30, 1965, when the committee announced that it would 
conduct these hearings? 

Mr. Herrington. No, sir. 



2692 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. Were those records to your knowledge destroyed, 
done away with in any way ? 

Mr. Herrixgton. Sir, I respectfully decliiie to antswer that question 
and invoke as a defense the privilege guaranteed to rue by the iith, 1st, 
and 14th amendments to the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

The Chairman. Did you take any steps to divest yourself, or do you 
know whether anyone else took any steps to divest himself, of these 
documents so that you could take the position you are now taking 
today ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You have refused to produce these documents on 
the grounds that you are unable to produce them because you have 
not had possession, custody, or control of them and they nave not 
been available to you since you were served witli tliis subpena and 
since March 30, 1965. 

Did you have possession, custody, or control of these records or were 
they available to you at any time ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Do these document called for in this part of the 
subpena exist? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Did they ever exist? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respecl- 
fuUy decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Where are they now ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Who has these documents nov,-? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Have you taken the position you have because, 
as you stated, while you have not had possession, custody, or control 
in the capacity of the position you held or now hold with tlie White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, you nevertheless had 
them as an official of that outfit under a cover or front name? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, will you repeat the question, please? 

The Chairman. I want to be sure about tlie situation. You said 
you did not have possession, custody, or control of these records; that 
they were not available to you ; that you did not destroy them, and then 
proceeded to invoke the fifth amendment. I am now asking you 
whether you had custody, possession, or control of these documents 
not, for example, as kiuir kleagle or State organizer for the Wliite 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, but whether you held them as an official 
of a cover name or a front name for the Wiiite Kniglits of the Ku Khix 
Klan of Mississippi. 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for tlie reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Herrington, you stated that you ha\e not had 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2693 

possession of the documents mentioned in the subpena since March 
30, 1965. Is that correct? 

Mr. Herrington. Yes, sir; that is right. 

Mr. Weltner. Have you had possession of the documents, or any 
of the documents, mentioned in that subpena subsequent to February 
1, 1965, that date being the first date where there was public discus- 
sion of the possibility of investigating the Ku Klux Klan by this 
committee — February 1, 1965? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, I have those mentioned in number 4 here, the 
1045 mentioned. 

Mr. Weltner. I refer to the documents mentioned in paragraph 
1 — books, records, and documents pertaining to the Wliite Knights of 
the Ku Klux Ivlan, the Mississippi Constitutional Council, particu- 
larly in a representative capacity. 

My question was whether or not you had those documents in your 
possession at any time subsequent to February 1, 1965. You stated you 
have not had such documents subsequent to March 30, 1965. 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Weltner. I will ask one more question. On March 17, this 
committee conducted an executive session in which the proposed in- 
vestigation of the Ku Klux Klan was discussed. That meeting was 
duly reported in the press and given some degree of coverage. 

I will ask you whether or not you have had in your possession 
between the dates March 17 and March 30 any of the documents men- 
tioned in paragraphs 1 or 2 of that subpena. 

Mr. Herrington. Would you repeat the dates, sir ? 

Mr. Weltner. Bear in mind that you have testified imder oath you 
have not had any of these documents since March 30, 1965. That was 
the date that this committee decided to conduct this investigation. 

I asked you, first, whether or not you had any documents subse- 
quent to February 1, 1965, which was the first time there was any 
widespread public discussion of an investigation of the Klan by this 
committee. You declined to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment and others. 

I stated to you then that on March 17 this committee met, and the 
indications apparently were in the press reports that there was going 
to be an investigation. 

I want to know whether or not you had in your possession any 
documents identified in paragraphs 1 or 2 of the Mississippi Wiite 
Knights or the Mississippi Constitutional Council subsequent to the 
date March 17. 

Mr. Herrington. 1955? 

Mr. Weltner. 1966. 

Mr. HJERRiNGTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. You had not ? 

Mr. Herrington. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, in connection with your response to 
the production of records and your statement that j^ou are powerless 
to do so, is any of your answer encompassed within an oath taken 
by members of the Ku Klux Klan, White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan of Mississippi, which states that : 



2694 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

I swear that I will never be the cause of a breach of secrecy or any other act 
which may be detrimental to the integrity of the White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan of Mississippi. 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, to the best of my knowledge I have told the 
truth and nothing but the truth on this stand. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, the committee's investigation estab- 
lished that you held the position of Klan kleagle for the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan in Mississippi. Is the committee's information 
factual ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, at the meeting near Raleigh, Missis- 
sippi, on June 7, 1964, it was announced that the AVliite Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan had organized 62 Klaverns in 82 Mississippi counties. 
Is that information factual ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated I respect- 
fully decline to answ^er that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, the committee's investigation estab- 
lished that, at that meeting of Jmie 7 there was handed out to some 
oOO Klansmen present a document headed "Harrasment." I hand you 
a reproduction of a leaflet and ask you if you have ever seen this 
document, sir. 

In looking at that, Mr. Herrington, I would like to explain to you 
that this is a mimeographed reproduction on both sides of one sheet. 
In our making a copy it was impossible to reproduce it all on one sheet 
of paper, so it is on two sheets of paper. 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask permission to put this document 
in the record. 

The Chairman. It has been put in, and all documents which might 
have been commented on, handed to, or exhibited to the witness will, 
as usual, bo inserted in the record at the respective points. 

(Document previously marked '"James Jones Exhibit No. 34." See 
committee report. The Present-Day Ku Khix Klan Movement, pp. 
172-173.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, while the entire document is in the 
record I would like to call the attention of the committee to one para- 
graph of this document whicli relates to some equipment which may 
be found useful in harassment: 

(1) Roofing nails; (2) sugar and molasses: (3) firecrackers, (4) 
snakes and lizards; (5) mad dogs; (6) itching powder; (7) stink 
bombs; (8) tear gas; (9) paint; (10) lacquer thinner ; (11) slingshots, 
marbles, BB guns, air rifles, bow and arrow, cross bows; (12) blank 
cartridges and pistols; (13) Roman candles; (14) sky rockets; (15) 
salt and pepper ; (16) noisemakers. 

The Chairman. Mr. Appell, those were recommended acts of harass- 
ment? 

Mr. Appell. Instruments Avhich may be used in carrying out acts of 
harassment described in thisdm-ument. 

The Chairman. Going beyond that, what does the other document 
say about the four steps and the procedure of this organization ? 

Mr. Appell. We had testimony under oath, Mr. Chairman, that 
within the White Knights of the'Ku Klux Klan they operated with 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2695 

four projects: Project No. 1, threatening telephone calls or visits; 2, 
burning of a cross, usually on property of an individual, private 
property; 3, beating or flogging, burning of property, wild shooting 
into property, and bombing; 4, extermination. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Herrington, did you participate in any of these acts of harass- 
ment outlined in the list which Mr. Appell read ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Did you participate in any of the four steps out- 
lined by Mr. Appell as having been disclosed to this committee under 
oath? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, T respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

^Ir. Weltner. I would like to ask a question from this document. 
A portion of this document, Mr. Herrington, states, that: 

As far as our immediate work is concerned, Iiarassment fulfils two important 
goals : 1. It provides a healthy, not-too-dangerous outlet for the Spirited En- 
thusiasm of the Membership and trains them to work together. If successful, it 
boosts morale. 

I want to ask you, Mr. Herrington, whether you think the use of 
mad dogs and tear gas is a healthy, enthusiastic outlet? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, could you be more specific? 

Mr. "Weltner. Yes, sir. I will ask the investigator to hand to the 
witness a copy of this document so that he might have it in his hand 
and follow the portion from which I read. 

Mr. Herrington, if you will look at the third paragraph it states : 

As far as our immediate work is concerned, harassment fulfils two imx)ortant 
goals: 1. It provides a healthy, not-too-dangerous outlet for the Spirited En- 
thusiasm of the Membership and trains them to work together. If successful, 
it boosts morale. 

Then at the bottom of the first page of the document, some equip- 
ment which may be found useful in harassment is listed. Then there 
are 16 different' it ems. Two of those are mad dogs and tear gas. 

My question to you is this : Do you feel that the use of mad dogs and 
tear gas in harassing other persons is a healthy, not-too-dangerous 
outlet for spirited enthusiasm? 

Mr. Herrington. No, sir, I don't think it is. 

Mr. Weltner. Look at that list there and tell me whether you feel 
that any of these 16 items constitute a healthy, not-too-dangerous 
outlet for spirited enthusiasm. 

Mr. Herrington. No, sir ; I do not. 

Mr. Weltner. You are stating under oatli now that not a single 
one of these recommended items of equipment is really a healthy 
outlet for enthusiasm ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, within a rule I state that I see no use in 

them. 

Mr. Weltner. Look on the second page, there. It states: 

In addition to the regular equipment herin [sic] listed, the proper use of the 
Telephone must be given tremendous weight as an effective means of harass- 
ment. * * * 

I would like to ask you whether or not you feel that the telephone 
is a proi:^r instrument for harassing others. 

59-222 O — 67 — pt. 3 24 



2696 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Herrington. No, sir, I cannot see how it would be. 

Mr. Weltner. Have you ever seen this document before ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Herrington, on page 2, the fourth paragraph of 
the document begins as follows — I refer to the fourth full paragraph : 

It must always be remembered that ours is a Nocturnal Organization. 
We work best at night and our greatest victories will be achieved at night. 

Then it says : 

Cameras do not work so well at night. We must harass the enemy at night, 
and, in general have little or nothing to do with him in the daytime. * * * 

AVliat victories are referred to in that statement? What is the 
meaning of "our greatest victories"' where it states, "We work best 
at night"? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Weltner. I have just one more question. I would like you to 
take just a few seconds to glance through this document because I 
would like to ask you this : 

On page 1, the second paragraph, it states : 

In general, harassing should always have a humorous twist to it and should 
be in the nature of Halloween Pranks. * * * 

That is the first line of the second full paragraph. Then you will see 
the type of harassment recommended. 

Do you feel that harassment such as indicated in here constitutes 
a proper course of conduct for any organization in the United States? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, in my opinion, no, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you see anything humorous about a series of acts 
of harassment such as indicated in this document? 

Mr. Herrington. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Have you ever engaged in any acts of harassment 
such as indicated in this document ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Herrington, in response to my question of 
whether you ever engaged in any acts of harassment, I want to ask 
you this : Have you ever engaged in any acts of harassment as indicated 
in this document subsequent to March 30, 1965 ? That is the date this 
cormnittee resolved to conduct this investigation. 

Mr. Herrington. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. May I ask whether or not you have engaged in uny 
such acts of harassment subsequent to February 1, 1965? 

Mr. Herrington. Would you repeat that, sir ? 

Mr. Weltner. Yes, sir. This is the same series of questions in an 
effort to fix the base involved here. AVe asked you about March 30 
because that is the date this committee undertook to conduct this 
investigation. February 1 was the first date there was any widespread 
discussion of the j)ossibility of an investigation by this committee. 

I am merely trying to get some idea here about activity with relation 
to these two things. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2697 

You stated that subsequent to March 30 you have not engaged in 
any acts indicated in this document. You haVe stated that under oath. 

I will ask you the same question — have you engaged in any such 
acts of harassment as indicated in this document subsequent to 
February 1, 1965? 

Mr. Herringtox. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Herrington, I have just one more question for 
you. On this date, January 12, 1966, are you now a member of any 
Klan organization? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused unless Mr. Appell has fur- 
ther questions. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I think the record reads that the wit- 
ness declined to answer the question. I think that the witness in- 
tended to state the grounds previously stated. I don't want the record 
to be confused if this is what the witness intended. 

Mr. Buckley. Would you like him to answer the question again? 

Mr. Weltner. I will repeat the question. 

Mr. Herrington, are you now on this date, January 12, 1966, a 
member of any Ku Klux Klan organization ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, on September 20, 1964, did you at- 
tend a State executive meeting of the "VVliite Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan at which bombings and burnings were discussed ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that in the course of this discussion the position taken by 
yourself was that you opposed church bombings unless COFO work- 
ers were present, and Ernest Gilbert favored throwing heathens out, 
but he opposed burnings or bombings ; that the Grand Dragon, Harper, 
was against burnings; that the Grant Giant, Buckles, and the Im- 
perial Wizard, Bowers, expressed the same views that you expressed ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reason previously stated I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, on September 28, 1964, did you meet 
with representatives of the Pike County group of the United Klans 
of America Avho were discussing with you their desire to get a case of 
dynamite, some nitroglycerin, and hand grenades? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, have you ever made a statement to 
law enforcement agencies in Mississippi that you have never been a 
member of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to ansAver that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Herrington, in June of 1964 did you assist Thomas 
B. Thrasher in establishing a Klavern of the White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan at Pascagoula, Mississippi, which was comprised mostly 
of employees of the Ingalls Shipyard ? 



2698 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Herrington. Sir, for the reasons ]^reviously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
this witness. 

The Chairjian. The witness is excused. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Byron de la Beckwith. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand? You solemnly 
swear that the testimony you w^ill give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF BYRON DE LA BECKWITH, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, TRAVIS BUCKLEY AND CHARLES G. BLACKWELL 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record. 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Byron de la Beckwith, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You are appearing in accordance with a subpena served 
on you on November 19, 1965, by John D. Sullivan, an investigator 
of this committee ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you bom, Mr. de la Beckwith ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckw'ith. I was born in Sacramento, California, Novem- 
ber 9, 1920, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. I am, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify themselves for the record ? 

Mr. Buckley. I am Travis Buckley, attorney at law. Bay Springs, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Blackwell. And I am Charles G. Blackwell, attorney at law. 
Laurel, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. de la Beckwith, under the conditions of the sub- 
pena served upon you and the attachments thereto, you were ordered 
and directed to bring with you, under part 1 : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Knights of the Kn 
Klux Klan and affiliated organizations, namely the Mississippi Constitutional 
Council in your possession, custody or control or maintained by you or avail- 
able to you as a present or past member of the White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klans of Mississippi, also Icnown as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In your representative capacity as a member of that organization, I 
ask you to produce any documents in your possession. 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, in answer to your question, I could not 
produce such records as those ordered by the subpena issued to me, due 
to the fact that such records were, and are, not in my possession, cus- 
tody, or control and I did not and do not have access to such records. 

The Chairman. Did you have possession, custody, or control or were 
they available to you in the representative capacity described in the 
subpena, the documents called for in the subpena at any time after 
March 30, 1965 ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you have such possession, custody, or control 
or were such records at any time available to you since February 1, 
1965? ^ 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2699 

Mr. DE Lu\ Beck WITH. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you take any steps, alone or witli others, to 
divest yourself of such possession, custody, or control or to see to it that 
they were no lon<T:er available to you so that you could take the stand 
and testify as you have testified thus far? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwitii. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Do these documents called for in this part of the 
subpena referred to exist? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Is that all, sir ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion and invoke as a defense the privilege granted to me by the 5th, 1st, 
and 14th amendments to the Constitution of the United States of 
America, sir. 

The Chairman. Did they ever exist ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to answer that question, sir. 

The Chairman. Where are they now ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to answer tliat question, sir. 

The Chairman. Who has these documents now? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to answer that question, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you do anything to permit yourself to be di- 
vested of tliese records? For example, did you by arrangement of 
any kind place them anywhere so that a third party could assume pos- 
session, custody, and control of them ? 

Mr. DE Lu\ Beckwith. No, sir. 

The Chairjsian. Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. de la Beckwith, Avould you give us your educa- 
tional background? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Yes, sir. I attended grade school in Green- 
wood; prep school in Tennessee; graduated from Greenwood High 
School and attended one semester at Mississippi State, sir. 

Mr. Appell. When did you complete your semester at Mississippi 
State? 

Mr. DE LA Bekwith. In 1941, I believe; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you have military service, sir? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. What was your military record ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. I was a member of the United States Marine 
Corps 4 years at Guadalcanal and Tarawa. I was wounded at Tarawa 
and received an honorable discharge and returned to civilian life in 
1946. 

Mr. Appell. What has been your employment background since 
1960? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for many years I was a salesman with a 
wholesale tobacco firm in Greenwood, Mississippi, and in the past 3 
years I have been a salesman for a dealer in liquid-mixed fertilizers, 
chemical fertilizers. 

Mr. Appell. Is that the Delta Liquid Plant Food Company in 
Greenwood ? 



2700 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. DE LA Beckwitit. The Delta Liquid Plant Food Company, Inc., 
of Greenville, Mississippi. 
Mr. xVppell. Is that whom you are employed by now? 

Mr. DE LA Beck WITH. Yes, sir. 

Mr. AiTELL. Mr. de la Beckwith, do you know the witness who pre- 
ceded you to the stand this mornino-, Gordon Lackey? 

Mr. DE LA BECKwrni. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
(juestion and invoke as a defense the privilege guaranteed to me by the 
5th, 1st, and 14th amendments to the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Appell. Did Mr. Lackey recruit you into membership in the 
White Knig-hts of the Ku Klux Klan in August 1965 ? 

Mr. DE la Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. de la Beckwith, were you in the room this morning 
when I described to Mr. Lackey the incident whereby the rental prop- 
erty of Mr. M. F. White which had been recently painted had been 
defaced by the spraying of a black line around that property? 

The Chairman. I understand the simple question is, Was he in the 
hearing room ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Yes, sir ; I was here, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you assist in the act of defacing that proj^erty? 

Mr, DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previosuly stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr, de la BeckAvith, in the early morning hours of 
March 5, 1965, 11 quart b^er bottles filled with gasoline, with rags 
held into them by 2-inch machine bolts, were thrown at the property 
of Laura McGee of Greenwood, Mississippi. Do you possess any 
knowledge of that, sir? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
sj^ectf ully decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Appfxl. Mr. de la Beckwith, on August 8, 1965, did you .attend 
a State klonvocation of the "Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan held 
off Elden Road in Jackson, Mississippi ? 

Mr. DE LA l^ECKW^Tii. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
si)ectfully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appet>l. At that time were you appointed a kleagle or organizer 
for the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
si>ectfitlly decline to .answer that question, sir, 

Mr. Appell. If you did not violate the constitution of the "Wliite 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, why is it you have not had in your 
possession since March 30, 1965, the documents called for in the 
subpena ? 

Mr, DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to .answer that question, sir, 

Mr, Appell. Have you recently attended several rallies of the 
United Klans of America? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to .answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you currently a meml>er of any Ku Klux Klan 
organization? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2701 

Mr. DB LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previous'ly stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

The Chairman. Mr. de la Beckwith, you appear to be a man of 
intelligence and you attended for at least one semester a university. 
Would you care to describe the objectives, purposes, and programs of 
the Ku Klux Klan organization ? 

Mr. DE LA Beckwith. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I re- 
spectfully decline to answer that question, sir. 

The Chairman. The Chair announces that it is the committee's 
view that it would not be proper to go into matters in which this wit- 
ness might have been involved as a principal but which have not been 
finally resolved. 

Mr. de la Beckwith. I certainly appreciate that courtesy; thank 
you, sir. 

The Chairman. The Chair was referring to criminal matters and I 
must say to the witness that we appreciate his expression, but we have 
taken that attitude because of our own determination of the propriety 
of our inquiry. 

The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Mordaunt Hamilton. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. You solemnly swear, 
sir, the testimony you will give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MORDAUNT HAMILTON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUN- 
SEL, TRAVIS BUCKLEY AND CHARLES G. BLACKWELL 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, will you state your full name for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Hamilton. Mordaunt Hamilton. 

The Chairman. And that is spelled M-o-r-d-a-u-n-t ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Correct, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, you are appearing today in accordance 
with a subpena served upon 3^ou on October 27, 1965, by Investigator 
John D. Sullivan at the Polk Hardware Company in Hattiesburg, 
Mississippi ? 

Mr. Hamilton. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify themselves for the record, please ? 

Mr. Buckley. I am Travis Buckley, attorney at law, Bay Springs, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Blackwell. I am Charles G. Blackwell, attorney at law. Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, under the conditions of the subpena 
served upon you and the attachment thereto which was made a part 
of the subpena, it calls for in paragraph 1 your production of : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 



2702 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

United Klans, Knights of the Ku KIux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
I'nited Klans of America, Inc., Kuiglats of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated org- 
anizations, nanaely, the Alabama Rescue Service, also the White Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi and the Mississippi Constitutional Council in your 
possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you as pres- 
ent or past member of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
Mississippi. 

Ill your representative capacity as a member of that organization, 
I ask you to produce any documents in your possession. 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, I could not produce such records as wei-e 
ordered by the subpena issued to me, due to the fact that such records 
were, and are, not in my possession, custody, or control and I did not 
and do not liave access to such records. 

The Chairman. Did you have possession, custody, or control, or 
were they available to you in the representative capacity described in 
the subpena, the documents called for in the subpena, at any time after 
March 30, 1965 'I 

Mr. Hamilton. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Did ygu have any such possession, custody, or con- 
trol or were those records available to you at any time since Febru- 
ary 1,1965? 

Mr. Hamilton. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Do tliese documents called for in the subpena exist I 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
and invoke as a defense the privileges granted to me by the 5th, 1st, 
and 14th amendments to the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

The Chairman. Did they ever exist ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Where are they now ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Who has those documents I 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Did you take any steps, alone or with others, to 
divest yourself of those records so that you could assume the position 
and tevStify in the way you are now testifying { 

Mr. Hamilton. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you permit that to occur in any way I For 
example, did you by arrangement, or otherwise, with other parties 
l)lace them anywhere so that you would know that you had been 
divested of them? 

Mr. Hamh/ion. No, sir. 

The Chairman. ?Tave you ever had those documents in yoiu' pos- 
session, custody, or cont rol ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Cii AIRMAN. When was the last time you had them ? 

Mr. Hamh.ton. Sir, foi- the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2703 

TheCiiAiRMAx. I don't catch, but we will see. Proceed. 

Mr. Hamii/it)x. Sir^ 

The C^i I AIRMAN. I don't catch, but we will see. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. "When and where were yon born, Mr. Hamilton ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I was born in Forrest County, Mississippi. 

Mr. xVppell. When ( 

Mr. Hamilton. February 6, 1908. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Hamilton. 711 Soutli Main Street, Petal, Mississippi, an un- 
incorporated coinmunity in Forrest County, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. That is P-e-t-a-1 'I 

Mr. Hamilton. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would you briefly give the committee your educational 
background 'i 

Mr. Hamilton. I linished high school at East Forrest Consolidated 
School, Forrest Courity, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. What year was that, sir 't 

Mr. Hamilton. 1928, 1 believe, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Since 1960 would you give the committee a brief resume 
of your employment background '? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. What was that question? AVas it about his edu- 
cational background ? 

Mr. Appell. His employment background since 1960. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Appell. I give it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you do business in the name of the Polk Hardware Com- 
pany, 116 Market Street, Hattiesburg, Mississippi. 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, do you know Sam Holloway Bowers, Jr., 
the Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, toward the end of 1964 or early 1965, 
did the Forrest County Klavern hold a meeting in a barn owned by 
you in Petal, Mississippi ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respect- 
fully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that both Imperial Wizard Bowers and Travis Ainsworth 
of the White Knights attended that meeting and you pulled a gun 
on them, relieved them of their guns, and told them they could not 
leave the meeting until they had repaid some money which had been 
turned over to Ainsworth in connection with the purchase of Klan 
robes. 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that on January 25, 1965, Bowers, accompanied by some of his 
Klansmen, came to your area to get revenge and left after he was 



2704 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

advised by one of your Klansmen that if Bowers wanted to get you 
he would have to come after yojLi ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that doing business as the Polk Hardware Com- 
pany you possess a Federal firearms control gun license? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you if you have sold weapons, pistols, rifles, and 
ammunition to individuals you know to be members of Klan organi- 
zations ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, do you know the Reverend Robert L. 
Beech of Hattiesbur^, Mississippi ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. On 10-3-64 did you assault the Reverend Beech when 
he came into your hardware store for the purpose of purchasing a 
stepladder ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, would you repeat that question for me ? 

Mr. Appell. On October 3, 1964, did you assault the Reverend 
Robert L. Beech when he came into the Polk Hardware Store for the 
purpose of purchasing a stepladder ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, was the assault upon Reverend Beech in 
any way related to your membership in the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, on January 23, 1965, were you charged 
with assault and battery and fined $25? On January 25, 1965, were 
you charged with assault and battery? On February 4, 1965, were 
you charged with assault and battery? And on August 10, 1965, 
did you assault and strike David Nesmith ? Were all these assaults 
1 have referred to, Mr. Hamilton, due to your affiliation with Klan 
organizations ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. After the assault upon Imperial Wizard Bowers, did 
you take the Forrest County Klavern out of the White Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan and affiliate with the United Klans of America? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. AppEiiL. Are you currently a member of the ITnited Klans of 
America? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, the committee's investigation indicates 
you served as exalted cyclops of the Forrest County Klavern. Is that 
information correct ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2705 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hamilton, were you aware of the fact that orders 
were issued by Imperial Wizard Bowers that the purchase of guns 
from Hamilton had been canceled ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hamilton, it has come to my attention that 
the assaults mentioned by Mr. Appell were, in fact, connected with 
Klan activities. Is that true or not ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Appell. Donald Leo Mathieu. 

Mr. Buckley. When the witness is excused, he is finally excused ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Mathteti. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF DONALD LEO MATHIEU, ACCOMPANIED BY COUN- 
SEL, CHARLES G. BLACKWELL AND TRAVIS BUCKLEY 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr. Mathieu. 

Mr. Mathieu. Donald Leo Mathieu. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here in accordance with a sub- 
pena served upon you on October 28, 1965 ? 

Mr. Mathieu. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Mathieu. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify themselves for the record ? 

Mr. Buckley. Travis Buckley, attorney at law, Bay Springs, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Blackwell. Charles Blackwell, Laurel, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Mathieu, when and where were you bom ? 

Mr. Mathieu. In Pascagoula, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. When ? 

Mr. Mathieu. In Jackson County, February 10, 1931. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background ? 

Mr. Mathieu. I have a seventh grade education. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee the benefit of your em- 
ployment background since 1960? 

Mr. Mathieu. Yes, sir. 

I worked at the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corporation for approxi- 
mately 2 years. I then worked for John I. Walker Shipbuilding Cor- 
poration with Western Geophysical. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Mathieu, you are appearing here in accordance 
to a subpena served upon you on October 28, 1965, at 2438 Ken Avenue, 
Pascagoula, Mississippi ? 



2706 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Mathieu. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. At the time you were served with the subpena, did you 
admit to Investijjator Sullivan sitting: to my rijrht that you had been 
a member of the ^V^lite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Mathieu. I res^jectfully decline to answer that question and 
invoke as a defense the privileges guaranteed to me by the 5th, 1st, and 
14tli amendments of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know Burrel Lindsey Wliite to be the exalted 
Cyclops of your Klavern ? 

Mr. Mathieu. For reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you attended only two meetings of the AVhite Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan. At the second meeting you paid your $10 initia- 
tion fee and you attended no further meetings because you were ad- 
vised that as a Klansman, if you were ordered to kill someone by a 
Klan official, that you would have to do so as a good Klansman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Mathieu, the question is. Did you say that? 

There is no trick in this question. 1 might tell you, as I undei"stand 
the further part of that statement, you probably had left the Klan. 
You know you can say that if that is true. 

I will be perfectly frank with you, it was the hope of this committee 
that you would say "yes" to these questions, that you quit the Klan be- 
cause you said if you were ordered to kill someone by a Klan official, 
you would have to do that and you did not care to do such an act. 

Do not be afraid to answer that if that is true. 

Mr. Weltner. Before he answers the question, I would like to state 
;vlso that I am advised that this conunittee has no information con- 
cerning any acts of violence or any breaches of order on the part of 
this witness; that there is nothing in the investigative files to date 
concerning him that indicates any more than attendance at one or 
two meetings. 

I make this statement simply in connection with what the chairman 
stated. Apparently this witness almost got in, and got out in a Imrry. 
Possibly the chairman will want the investigator to rephrase the 
question at this point. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Mathieu, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you 
to affirm or deny the fact, that you attended only two meetings of the 
AVhite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan held at Lightseys Cabins in the 
summer of 1964; that at the second meeting you paid a $10 initiation 
fee; and that you attended no further meetings because you were in- 
formed by Klansmen that if you were ordered to kill someone by Klan 
officials, you would have to do it as a good Klansman. 

Mr. Mathieu. For the reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. .Vppell. What I ha\'e now asked you under oath has been asked 
you by law enforcement officials not under oath, and I ask you if, when 
you gave them tlie information that I now just stated to you, you were 
telling the truth. 

Mr. MvTiHEu. For reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to ansAver that question. 

Mr. Appell. In light of the position taken by the witness, I have 
Jio further questions to ask. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2707 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Mathieii, has any member of the Klan intimi- 
dated you or made any indications to you abovit any results that might 
occur if you came here and testified voluntarily ? 

Mr. Matiiiei'. No, sir ; no one has tried to intimidate me. 

Mr. AVeltner. Mr. Mathieu, following that along, do you have any 
fears that if you were to testify fully in response to the questions put 
to you, there might be some unpleasant result from members of the 
Klan? 

Mr. Mathieu. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltnek. And the only reason you refuse to answer the ques- 
tion is on the constitutional grounds stated ? 

Mr. Mathieu. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. "Weltner. The only reason you have for refusing to answer the 
questions is on the constitutional grounds that you have previously 
stated ? 

Mr. Mathieu. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

The committee stands in recess until 10 : 45. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Willis and Weltner.) 

("\Miereupon, at 4: 45 p.m., Wednesday, January 12, 1966, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 10:45 a.m., Thursday, January 13, 
1966. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 

THE UNITED STATES 

Part 3 



THURSDAY, JANUARY 13, 1966 

United States House of Representattves, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, as 
reconstituted for the January 13 hearings, met, pursuant to recess, at 
11 :15 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office Building, Wash- 
ington, D.C, Hon, Edwin E, Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, chairman ; Charles L. Weltner, of Georgia ; and Del Claw- 
son, of California.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Weltner, 
and Clawson. 

Committee member also present : Representative George F. Senner, 
Jr., of Arizona. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel ; and Donald T. Appell, chief investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

The Chair wishes to make this brief announcement : At a meeting 
of the full committee this morning, the members present unanimously 
approved the recommendations of two subcommittees that certain per- 
sons be cited for contempt of Congress. The recommendations by the 
subcommittees, unanimously approved by the full committee, con- 
cerned the following : 

That Dr. Jeremiah Stamler, Yolanda Hall, and Milton Cohen, who 
were witnesses subpenaed in hearings held in Chicago last May and 
who refused to testify, walking out of the hearing room without being 
excused from the subpena and in the defiance of directions to the con- 
trary, be cited for contempt of Congress. 

A second action of the full committee unanimously approved the 
recommendation of this subcommittee, made last week, that Robert M. 
Shelton, James R. Jones, Robert E. Scoggin, Calvin F. Craig, 
Marshall R. Kornegay, George F. Dorsett, and Robert Hudgins, who, 
as previously outlined, all hold high offices in klanism, likewise be cited 
for contempt. 

Incidentally, I, as chairman, was directed to take the usual course 
of action to bring this matter to the floor of the House and that will 
be done as expeditiously as possible. 

2709 



2710 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell, call your first witness. 

Mr. Appell. Louis Anthony DiSalvo. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I do. 

The Chairman. I, as chairman of the full committee, hereby con- 
stitute as a subcommittee for the purpose of the hearings today three 
members as follows: Myself as chairman, Mr. Weltner, and Mr. Claw- 
son, as members. 

Let the record show that the full subcommittee is present now and 
that two will constitute a quorum for the purpose of today's hearings. 

Now, please be sworn. 

Mr. DiSalvo, do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS ANTHONY DISALVO 

Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, will you state your full name for the 
record ? 

Mr. DiSalvo. Louis Anthony DiSalvo. 

Mr. Appell. How do you spell your last name ? 

Mr. DiSalvo. D-i-S-a-1-v (as in victory) -o. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, are you appearing before the committee 
this morning in accordance with a subpena served upon you in your 
barber shop in Waveland, Mississippi, by Investigator Sullivan of 
this committee on October 28, 1965? 

Mr. DiSalvo. Yes, sir, I am. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. DiSalvo. No, sir, I am not. 

Mr. Appell. Do you desire counsel? 

Mr. DiSalvo. No, sir. 

The CHAiR:\rAx. Mr. DiSalvo, I want to inform you that, although 
you are not represented by an attorney, you have the right, whicli 
will be respected as though you had a lawyer, to invoke the fifth 
amendment and we will recognize your invocation, if you decide upon 
that course. 

I am quite sure you were in the hearing room when previous wit- 
nesses were asked whether they were familiar with the opening state- 
ment 1 made last October 19, which outlined the reasons for the 
purposes of these hearings. You are generally familiar with that; 
are you not? 

Mr. DiSalvo. Yes, sir. 

Tlie Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. As a matter of fact, Mr. DiSalvo, a mimeographed 
copy of the pertinent portions of the chairman's opening statement 
was given you when you arrived in Washington in accordance with 
this subpena '. 

The CiiAiitMAN. That is correct, is it? 

Mr. DiSalvo. That is right, sir. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2711 

Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, under the terms of the subpeiia and an 
attoclinient thereto Avhich was made a part of the subpena, you were 
ordered under paragraph 1 to bring with you and to produce: 

AH books, records, documents, correspondence and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the organization of 
and the conduct of busiiness and affairs of the White Knights of the Ku Khix 
Klaii of Mississippi and affiliated organizations, also the complete records of 
your buying and selling of firearms and the Mississippi Constitutional Council 
in your possession, custody or control or maintained by you or available to 
you as member or officer of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Missis- 
sippi. 

In the representative capacity set forth in your subpena, Mr. Di- 
Salvo, I ask you to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena dated 
October 6, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to clo so might 
tend to incriminate me in violation of niy rights as guaranteed to 
me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States, and I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all records as requested by this committee under subpena dated 
October 6, 1965, for that information is not relevant and germane to 
the subject under investigation and the same would not aid the Con- 
gress in the consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor in 
such inquiry within the scope of that authorized to be investigated by 
Rule XI of the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolu- 
tion 8 adopted January 4, 1965. 

The Chairman. Mr. DiSalvo, just as a matter of comment, I recog- 
nize the wording of your refusal to produce these documents as being 
a form which has been recommended to his clients by Mr. Chalmers 
and I notice that you do not rely on the fact that these documents are 
not, and never have been, in your possession and control as some others 
have said. 

Now, you do not have a lawyer, but let me explain this to you. This 
subpena calls upon you to produce documents in your representative 
capacity and not in your individual capacity. In other words, it does 
not call upon you to produce, for example, items such as your own per- 
sonal income tax and your own personal papers. It calls upon you 
to produce documents that came into your possession and custody as an 
official or whatever representative capacity you had with Ku Klux 
Klan activities. 

You understand the difference, do you? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

The Chairman. Well, you could have safely said that you under- 
stood tlie difference because that is the course of action Mr. Chalmers 
represented to his clients. But since you invoke the constitutional 
privileges, I again tell you that you are being asked to produce docu- 
ments ni your representative capacity and, since the subpena calls 
upon you to produce documents in your representative capacity, we 
do not accept as valid the grounds which you have relied on for failure 
to produce them. That being the case, I order and direct you to 
produce them. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 3 25 



2712 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

I say to you, though I see you are intelligent and probably know it 
already, if you wish, you have the right, again, to not carry out my 
order and direction. I order and direct you to produce the documents. 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in its subpena dated 
October 6, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so might 
tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to 
me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America, and I respectfully decline to deliver to the com- 
mittee any and all records as requested by this committee under sub- 
pena dated October 6, 1965, for that information is not relevant or 
germane to the subject under investigation and the same would not 
aid the Congress in the consideration of any valid remedial legisla- 
tion, nor in such way inquiry within the scope of that authorized 
to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted by the 89th Con- 
gress, by House Resolution 8 adopted January' 4, 1965. 

The CiiAiRMAX, Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, I suggest to you — and I do not ask you 
to do, but just suggest to you — that with respect to additional docu- 
ments which you are called upon to produce, if you desire to use 
those reasons, this committee will accept all of those reasons by a reply 
on your part that you refuse to produce for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Paragraph 2 calls upon you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence and memoranda in your pos- 
.session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capac- 
ity as member or officer of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the 
"Constitution and Laws" of the said organization authorize and require to be 
maintained by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being 
in your possession, custody or control. 

In the representative capacity set fortli in paragraph 2, Mr. 
DiSalvo, I ask you to produce the documents called for in paragraph 
2. 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask for a direction. 

The Chairmax. Mr. DiSalvo, for the reasons I gave a while ago, 
I order and direct you to produce. 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. You mean, you respectfully decline to produce the 
documents on the grounds previously stated. That is what you 
mean ? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in the subpena dated 
October 6, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel to do so might tend 
to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America, and I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all records as requested by this committee under subpena 
dated October 6, 1965, for that information is not relevant and 
germane to the subject under investigation and the same will not aid 
the Congress in consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2713 

with such inquiry within the scope of that authorized to be investi- 
gated by Kule XI of the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, by House 
Resohition 8 adopted June 4, 1965. 
Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, paragraph 4 calls upon you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control or maintained by you, which in any way refer to 
the purchase or sale of firearms. 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer and deliver on the 
grounds previously stated. 

INIr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce those documents called for in paragraph 4. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, when and where were you born? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights — in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, prior to July of 1965, did you hold mem- 
bership in the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Since July of 1965, have you been a member of the 
United Klans of America, Realm of Mississippi, which is known under 
the cover name of the Mississippi Rescue Service? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, do you hold a license under the Federal 
Firearms Act as a gun dealer? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As a member of a Klan organization, have you ever 
discussed acts of violence, including the creation of firing squads and 
the dynamiting of a train carrying any specific passengers? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claimed privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
DiSalvo. 

Louis Anthony DiSalvo was born on January 31, 1927, at New 
Orleans, Louisiana. He is self-employed as an operator of a Shell 
gasoline station and as the operator of Louis Barbershop. In addi- 
tion thereto, as a part of his gasoline station he applied for and 
received a license under the Federal Firearms Act. He completed 
a 10th grade education and received a high school equivalent diploma 
through an Armed Forces Equivalency Test. He served in the United 
States Maritime Service from May 1945 to November 1945 and in 
the United States Army from November 1945 to May of 1947, receiving 
an honoraljle discharge. On June 16, 1964, Mr. DiSalvo applied for a 
retail dealers license under the Federal Firearms Act. However, 
prior to applying for the license he purchased between 50 and 70 



2714 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE "U.S. 

7.62 Finciib Sporter rifles and 30.06 Springfield rifles from J. C. New- 
berry Department Store, Edgewater Plaza Shopping Center, Missis- 
sippi City, Mississippi. After receipt of license he purchased, on 
August 28, 1964, from Hunters Lodge, Incorporated, Alexandria, Vir- 
ginia, eighteen 7.62 Russian M40 Tokarev rifles, six 30.06 Springfield 
rifles, and 10,000 rounds of 7.62 Russian "M.C." ammunition. 

An examination of the serial numbers of the Russian 7.62 rifles 
shipped by Hunters Lodge to DiSalvo establishes that four of the 
rifles were identical with rifles found in the possession of the act- 
ing EC of the UKA Klaverns who was arrested and who pleaded 
guilty of charges lodged against him for certain bombings in the 
McComb, Mississippi, area. 

DiSalvo's records, according to the ATU inspection 

The Chairman. Wliat do vou mean by that? 

Mr. Appell. Under the law a gun dealer must keep records of sales 
of arms and ammunition, and periodically the ATU makes inspections. 

The Chairman. What is the ATU ? 

Mr. Appell. The Alcoholic Tax Unit. 

The Chairman. Administering the gun license law ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. I am sorry. 

The Chairman. Under the Treasury Department? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

The inspection reflects the sale of 12 rifles to Kelly Dunaway of 
Jayess, Mississippi, and one each to Dillard Houston, Poplarville, 
Mississippi, and E. Gilbert of Brookhaven, Mississippi, all members 
of the Klan, Avith Gilbert at that time being the grand director of the 
Klan Bureau of Investigation of the White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan of Mississippi. 

At the time DiSalvo was buying and selling rifles and ammo, he 
was a member of the White Knights and the exalted cyclops of a 
Klavern in Hancock County. At one time DiSalvo indicated to mem- 
bers of a AVhite Knights Klavern at Poplarville, Mississippi, that he 
was attempting to recruit a firing squad for the Klan under the 
direction of Sam Bowers, the Imperial Wizard, and himself. As a 
result, members of the Klavern discussed dropping out of the White 
Knights and reaffiliating with the United Klans of America. The 
membership felt that not only would such a squad be used against 
informants of Klan activities, but against Klansmen who were not 
informants but who might be suspected. 

In September of 1964, DiSalvo suggested to other Klansmen that 
they could dynamite the train carrying Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson when 
she came through Mississippi. He discussed places where dynamite 
may be obtained and the use of boats for possibly dynamiting a bridge 
over which the train carrying Mrs. Johnson was to travel. 

On July 17, 19,65, DiSalvo sat on the speakers platform at the 
United Klans of America rally held at Crossroads Community, Pop- 
larville, Mississippi. On October 27, 1965, DiSalvo acted as master 
of ceremonies at the United Klans of America rally held at Bay 
Saint I^uis, Mississippi. He claimed at this rally to have been a 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2715 

member of the UKA for about 3 or 4 moiitlis. Jack Helm, Grand 
Klalilf of the Eeahn of Louisiana, wlio was introduced as representing 
the Greater New Orleans Citizens Council, was the principal speaker. 
DiSalvo claims to hold membership in both the UKx\ and the Wliite 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. DiSalvo pos- 
sesses additional information which is both pertinent and relevant 
to this inquiry and would materially aid Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. DiSalvo, the gentleman who made that state- 
ment is Mr. Don Appell. He is the chief investigator of this com- 
mittee. He is under oath, just like you are, subject to the fines and 
penalties of perjury. You have heard the sworn statement of Mr. 
Appell. I now give you the opportunity to reply to any portion of 
that statement, to admit or deny the truth of it, to modify it in any 
way. In addition, I give you tlie right and privilege, if you so desire, 
to offer any other matter the committee may deem relevant to this 
inquiry. And, incidentally, I agree with the statement of Mr. Appell 
that you possess additional information to supply. Do you care to 
avail yourself of that opportunity? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answ^er the question for the 
reasons previously stated. 

The Chairman. In that case, Mr. DiSalvo, I will inform you, since 
you offer no rebuttal, that unless other facts may come to the atten- 
tion of the committee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy of 
this investigation. With that in mind, have you anything to say ? 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer the question for the 
reasons previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, I hand you a copy of an application for 
retail dealer's license under the Federal Firearms Act, which the 
Treasury Department certifies to be a copy of the original. This ap- 
plication is made in the name of Ix)uis A. DiSalvo, trade name DiSalvo 
Service, 264 "VVaveland Avenue, Waveland, Mississippi, dated June 
16, 1964, signed Louis A. DiSalvo, independent owner. I ask you if 
the signature on that application is your signature. 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Louis DiSalvo Exhibit No. 1" appears on pp. 
2716, 2717.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. DiSalvo, I hand you a series of documents ob- 
tained by the committee from Hunters Lodge, Incorporated, 200 
South Union Street, Alexandria, Virginia, and ask you if the letters 
contained therein signed Louis A. DiSalvo and tlie record of ship- 
ment of the rifles described in tlie statement are autlientic. 

Mr. DiSalvo. I respectfully decline to answer tlie question for the 
reasons previously stated. 

(Documents marked "Louis DiSalvo Exhibits Nos. 2A, 2B, and 2C" 
appear on pp. 2717-2719.) 



2716 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Louis DiSalvo Exhibit No. 1 



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Ji-S^i-£j±__J^^ 



Gn 



2. 



I . Ch eck wKic% 
EHRenewal L2lniUal 



FORM 7 (Fifco""*) 

IRLV MAV IBO- 



U. S. Tt*eASURV DEPARTMENT - INTERNAL nevENUE SERVICE 

APPLICATION FOR LICENSE (Federal Firearms Act) 

(See H ^ffucf.ons on re\-erst) 



TO; Oi strict Director of Internal Revenue, 



2. Name of applicant (Print) (If partnarxhip, furniih name of each pgrtnar) 



2a. Employer Identlilcation No.