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Full text of "Activities of Ku Klux Klan organizations in the United States. Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-ninth Congress, first[-second] session"

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HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS 

IN THE UNITED STATES 

PART 4 



....u i>t THE 
• ATES GOVERNMENi 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-NINTH CONGRESS 



SECOND SESSION 



FEBRUARY 1-fc AND 7-11, 1966 
(INDEX IN SEPARATE VOLUME) 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 




CONTENTS 



February 1, 1966: Testimony of— Page 

Vincent Travis Purser 2901 

Deavours Nix 2904 

Sam H olloway Bowers, Jr 2908 

Afternoon session: 

Ernest S. Gilbert, Jr 2942 

Joseph Carlton Brown 2951 

February 2, 1966: Testimony of— 

John Emmett Thornhill, Sr 2956 

John Dawson 2982 

February 3, 1966: Testimony of— 

Charles Melvin Stewart 2994 

Paul Lafayette Foster 2998 

Ernest Buchanan Parker 3005 

Myron Wayne (Jack) Seale 3009 

Afternoon session: 

Ernest Henry Avants 3016 

Paul Dewey Wilson 3019 

Jimmy Prinston Wilson 3028 

Murphy John Duncan, Jr 3031 

Emery Allen Lee 3037 

L. C. Murray 3042 

Edward Lenox McDaniel 3044 

February 4, 1966: Testimony of — 

Robert Sidney Thomas 3058 

Herbert Thomas 3066 

Ronald Jefferson Tidwell 3068 

Rayford Jackson Martin 3073 

Wilson Hood 3076 

Myrtie Eugene Stephens 3078 

Herbert Eugene Reeves 3084 

February 7, 1966: Testimony of — 

James W. McCroskey 3092 

Robert N. Washington 3 02 

James R. Whitefield 3106 

Afternoon session : 

William P. Whitefield, Jr 3116 

Johnnie Lee Burnette 3J2Z 

Donald Andrew Smitherman ^|^^ 

Curtis O'Neil Doles, Sr 3129 

Eugene Curtis Vann, Jr ^{^^ 

Sylvester Trawick 31^^ 

Charles Jerry Wilkinson ^|*^ 

Lewis Edward Perkins 3l4b 

February 8, 1966: Testimony of— 

William Otto Perkins l^j^? 

Fredrick Gerald Smith '^]^\ 

William Melvin Sexton 3W4 

Ralph Ray Roton 318/ 

Afternoon session : „. 

Ralph Ray Roton (resumed) •^^"'* 

111 



IV CONTENTS 

February 9, 1966: Testimony of — Page 

Ralph Ray Roton (resumed) 3224 

Robert Milton Creel 3240 

Afternoon session: 

Ralph Earl Pryor, Jr 3265 

Robert Milton Creel (resumed) 3267 

Ralph Earl Pryor, Jr. (resumed) 3303 

February 10, 1966: Testimony of— 

Ralph Earl Pryor, Jr. (resumed) 3312 

Roy Everett Frankhouser, Jr 3342 

Donald W. Swartz 3363 

Bobby J. Stephens 3369 

Afternoon session: 

Bobby J. Stephens (resumed) 3370 

February 11, 1966: Testimony of— 

Bobby J. Stephens (resumed) 3410 

Daniel N. Wagner 3424 

Afternoon session: 

VerlinU. Gilliam 3445 

Jim Harris 3455 

Robert W. Annable 3460 

Parkie Scott 3468 

Flynn R. Harvey 3478 

Index in separate volume. 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

Tlie legislation under which the House Ckjmmittee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides : 

Be it'cnaoted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDNG COMMITTEES 
* ****** 

17. Gommittee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

»♦♦**«* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to malie from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in^the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of anj such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTE^ES 

Sec 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent 
reports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive 
branch of the Government. 

v 



VI 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 89TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 8, January 4, 1965 

* if * * * * * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

*«****♦ 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcom- 
mittee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the 
extent, character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the 
United States, (2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and 
un-American propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a do- 
mestic origin and attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed 
by our Constitution, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would 
aid Congress in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in .session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of .such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the sub- 
ject matter of which is within the juri.sdiction of such committee ; and, for that 
purpose, shall .study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

Part 4 



TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, as 
reconstituted for the February 1 hearings, met, pursuant to recess, 
at 10:30 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office Building, 
Washington, D.C, Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Lou- 
isiana, chairman; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., 
of Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel ; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel ; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator; and Philip R, Manuel, investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

As chairman of the full Committee on Un-American Activities, I 
hereby constitute for the purposes of today's hearing a special sub- 
committee of three, composed of the following: myself as chairman, 
Mr. Buchanan, and Mr. Pool. That means that two will constitute a 
quorum. 

Mr. Appell, call your first witness. 

Mr. Appell. Vincent Travis Purser. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Purser. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF VINCENT TRAVIS PURSER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, CHARLES 0. BLACKWELL AND TRAVIS BUCKLEY 

Mr. Appell. Would you state your full name for the record ? 
Mr. Purser. Vincent Tra\ds Purser. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today, Mr. Purser, in accord- 
ance with a subpena 

Mr. Purser. Yes, sir. 

2901 



2902 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. — which was delivered to your residence at 4 p.m., the 
29th day of December 1965 at Route 1, Box 250, Duckworth Road, 
Gulf port. Miss. ? 

Mr. Purser. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Purser. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please indentify themselves for the 
record ? 

Mr. Blackwell. Charles G. Blackwell, attorney at law, Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Buckley. Travis Buckley, attorney at law. Bay Springs, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Purser, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Purser. I was born December 8, 1905, Hazlehurst, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell, Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background ? 

Mr. Purser. I finished high school at Copiah-Lincoln Agricultural 
High School, western Mississippi, in 1923, and I had a business course 
and I took a correspondence course with LaSalle Extension University. 

Mr. Appell. What period of time have you served in the military ? 

Mr. Purser. I served from, I believe it was, October 1942 through 
September 1945. I was discharged and went back in, was out about 
4 months during World War II. 

Mr. Appell. Did you have a period of service 1925 to 1926 ? 

Mr. Purser. Yes, I did. I had forgotten about that. About a year. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee the benefit of your em- 
ployment background from i960 ? 

Mr. Purser. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question and 
invoke as a defense the privileges guaranteed to me by the 5th, 1st, 
and 14th amendment to the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. In 1962 did you retire as an employee of Sears, Roe- 
buck and Company ? 

Mr. Purser. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. From the period 1962 to date, did you receive income 
from an organization known as the White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Purser. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Are you familiar with an attorney in Gulf port, Missis- 
sippi, by the name of Knox Walker ? 

Mr. Purser. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr, Appell. Did you and a group of Klansmen on approximately 
November 8, 1965, call Knox Walker in the early hours of the morning 
around 2 :30 and advise him that his boat had been cut loose and 

Mr. Purser. Sir, for the reasons previously stated 

Mr, Appell. All right; answer that, I will break it down and stop 
there. 

Mr. Purser. For the reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2903 

Mr. Appell. Did you, when Mr. Walker amved at where his boat 
was docked, meet him, together with four or five other men dressed in 
Klan robes and advise him he was a "nigger lawyer" and he ought 
to leave the area ? 

Mr. Purser. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Do you currently handle funds of the White Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Purser. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Within the recent 2 months have two Klaverns of 
the United Klans of America transferred their membership to the 
White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in the Gulf port-Pascagoula area ? 

Mr. Purser. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, 1 respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claimed privilege 
and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the commit- 
tee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Travis 
Purser. Mr, Purser was born on December 8, 1905, at Hazlehurst, 
Mississippi. Military sei*vice in the Army from July 17, 1925, to 
November 10, 1926, from October 17, 1942, to April 23, 1943, and 
from November 4, 1943, to September 5, 1945. He is a retired em- 
ployee from Sears, Roebuck Company, from which employment he 
retired in 1962. Mr. Purser joined the White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan of Mississippi at Gulfport, Mississippi, in 1964. Beginning in 
February 1965, he began attending State meetings of the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan. On May 2, 1965, he attended a State meeting in 
Pearl River County, Mississippi, at which meeting it was noted that 
members of the White Knights would henceforth pay 65 cents per man 
to the State treasury plus his local Klavern dues. In addition, each 
bursar or treasurer was authorized to retain funds for emergency ex- 
penditures. Cash on hand was reported by each district, with Tommy 
Brock reporting $2,100; Vincent Purser $800; Dewitt Sandifer $350; 
Billy Buckles advising that Julius Harper, the Grand Dragon, had 
$400, and the Greenwood, Mississippi, Unit of the Wliite Knights 
$1,000. 

On May 16, 1965, Imperial Wizard Bowers appointed Klansman 
Dillard as "Coordinator" for the Pearl River County area of the White 
Knights at the request of Vincent T. Purser. At meetings of Klaverns 
in the Gulfport. area, Klansmen received instruction in judo, received 
instruction in Molotov cocktails, and the use of syringe bottles filled 
with ammonia. 

On September 29, 1964, Purser and Ernest Gilbert, then the grand 
director of the Klan Bureau of Investigation, White Knights of Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi, requested the State organization of the 
White Knights through Grand Dragon Julius Harper to either burn 
or stinkbomb the Mennonite School for Wayward Girls because it was 
being used by the COFO organization for a headquarters. On ap- 
proximately "November 8, 1965, Knox Walker, a Gulfport attorney 
who had represented NAACP and certain Gulfport Negroes, received 
an anonymous telephone call and was advised that his boat had been 
cut loose. When he arrived at the place where the boat was tied 
he found four or five men in Klan robes, with Vincent T. Purser acting 



2904 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

as the leader. Purser told Walker he was a "nigger lawyer" and he 
had better leave the area. 

Tw^o United Klans of American Klaverns have recently transferred 
to the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in the Gulfport-Pascagoula 
area. 

Mr. Chairman, this information indicates that Mr. Purser possesses 
additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this 
inquiry and would materially aid the CJongress in the enactment of 
remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Purser, you have heard the sworn statement 
of the committee's investigator. You now have the opportunity to 
reply to any portion of that statement, confirm or challenge the 
accuracy of the information, or explain any part of it. In addition, 
you may, if you desire, offer any matters the committee may deem 
relevant to this inquiry. Do you care to avail yourself of this 
opportunity ? 

Mr. Purser. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Then, sir, I must inform you that, in the absence of 
a rebuttal from you or other facts that may come to the attention of 
the committee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy of its 
investigation. Bearing this in mind, do you have anything to stay? 

Mr. Purser. No, sir. 

The Chairman. You don't ? 

Mr. Purser. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Is that all, Mr. Appell ? 

Mr. Appell. The staff has no further questions to ask of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Appell. I would like to call Mr. Deavours Nix. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Nix. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DEAVOURS NIX, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CHARLES G. BLACKWELL AND TRAVIS BUCKLEY 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record. 

Mr. Nix. Deavours Nix. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here in accordance with subpena 
served upon you at 116 Teresa Street, Laurel, Mississippi, on the 29th 
day of November 1965 by John D. Sullivan, investigator of this 
committee ? 

Mr. Nix. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Nix. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify themselves for the record ? 

Mr. Blackwell. Charles G. Blackwell, attorney at law. Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Buckley. Travis Buckley, Bay Springs, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Nix ? 

Mr. Nix. I was bom in Jones County, Mississippi, November 30, 
1925. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2905 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background ? 

Mr. Nix. I finished the eighth grade, Calhoun High School, Jones 
County, Mississippi, then entered the service October 3, 1941. Upon 
being discharged February 5, 1947, 1 attended GI school, the same Cal- 
houn High School, and lacked three units of finishing high school. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Nix, while a member of the service, what branch 
of the service were you in ? 

Mr. Nix. The United States Navy. 

Mr. Appell. During your period of service in the United States 
Navy, were you subject to several courts-martial^ 

Mr. Nix. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question and in- 
voke as a defense the privileges guaranteed me by the 5th, 1st, and 14th 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer that question. He admitted he was in the service and gave the 
periods of enlistment. 

The Chairman. I am not going to direct him to answer that ques- 
tion. I don't think it would add materially to the record. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Nix, will you give the committee a resume of your 
employment background from 1960 ? 

Mr. Buckley. From 1960 forward or back ? 

Mr. Appell. Forward. 

Mr. Nix. Beginning the year 1960, I was working for a drilling 
contractor by the name of Gulf Coast Drilling and Exploration, 
Laurel, Mississippi. The year 1962 I went in business for myself in 
a place by the name of Nub's Steak House, Laurel, Mississippi. I was 
a failure in that business so far as making a living is concerned. From 
there I went to Los Angeles, California, was employed by Southern 
California Heat Treat as salesman and general manager for a period 
of 17 months, returned to Laurel, Mississippi, and now I am self-em- 
ployed, John's Kestaurant. 

The Chairman. What town ? 

Mr. Nix. Laurel, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. In addition to the employment that you have enumer- 
ated, have you had any other sources of income ? 

Mr. Nix. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Wliat are the other sources of income you have had, 
sir? 

Mr. Nix. If you call it income, I received some money from insur- 
ance companies at different times. 

Tlie Chairman. For injury? 

Mr. Nix. Accident. 

Mr. Appell. Recovery of claims ? 

Mr. Nix. Right. 

Mr. Appell. Do you have any other source of income ? 

Mr. Nix. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Do you receive any compensation from an organiza- 
tion known as the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 

Mr.' Nix. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Sam H. Bowers ? 

Mr. Nix. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question and in- 
voke as a defense the privileges guaranteed to me by the 5th, 1st, and 
14th amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America. 



2906 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. On June 27, 1965, were you elected to the position of 
grand director, Klan Bureau of Investigation, White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Nix. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully declinje 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Nix, a review of an arrest record involving yourself 
reflects that on September 2, 1962, May 19, 1964, July 13, 1965, and 
August 14, 1965, you were arrested on charges of assault. The last 
two arrests were after you were elected to the position of grand 
director, Klan Bureau of Investigation, Wliite Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi. Were the acts for which you were arrested 
acts carried out in your position as grand director of the Klan Bureau 
of Investigation ? 

Mr. Nix. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully decline 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I put to you as a fact, and ask you to confirm or deny 
the fact, that at a meeting on June 27, 1965, near Greenwood, Missis- 
sippi you were elected grand director of the Klan Bureau of Investiga- 
tion, Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Nix, Sir, for the reasons previously stated, 1 respectfully decline 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that at that same meeting instructions were issued to the 
34 Klavems represented at that meeting that each Klavern should bum 
two crosses on July 1, 1965 ? 

Mr. Nix, Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully decline 
to answer that question, 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that at a meeting held on Jul^ 18, 1965, south of Jackson, 
Mississippi, Imperial Wizard Bowers claimed that the White Knights 
were responsible for over 16 burnings of buildings in Laurel, 
Mississippi, 

Mr. Nix. For the reasons previously stated, I respectfully decline 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell, As the grand director of the Klan Bureau of Investi- 
gation, what role did you play in any of these burnings? 

Mr, Nix, Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question, 

Mr. Appell, Mr. Nix, have you filed charges against agents of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, claiming they used profanity in 
questioning you ? 

The CHAiRMAisr. What was that question ? 

Mr. Appell. If he has filed charges against agents of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, charging that they used profanity in ques- 
tioning Mr, Nix, 

Mr, Nix, Sir, for reasons previously stated, I respectfully decline to 
answer that question. 

Mr, Appell. Is it your claim that the agents of the FBI have called 
you a yellow-bellied Klansman ? 

Mr. Nix, Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question, 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claimed privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr, Nix, 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2907 

Mr. Nix is the grand director of the Klan Bureau of Investigation. 
White Knights of Ku Khix Klan, Mississippi : is responsible for the 
gathering of intelligence information upon which Klan projects are 
carried out on the State level, or which must have the approval of the 
Imperial Wizard before they may be executed. Deavours Nix, the 
owner of John's Restaurant m Laurel, Mississippi, conducts business 
of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in his restaurant. He 
was elected grand director of the Klan Bureau of Investigation at a 
State meeting held near Greenwood, Mississippi, on June 27, 1965, at 
which representatives of 34 White Knights Klavems were present. 
During this meeting, instructions were given to the representatives of 
these Klavems that each Klavern should burn two crosses on July 1, 
1965. Five hundred dollars was voted for the Klansman in Bogalusa, 
Louisiana, who was arrested for killing one and wounding a second 
Negro deputy sheriff. One July 11, 1965, Nix attended a meeting at 
King Edward's Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. At this meeting Im- 
perial Wizard Bowers instructed that a job or project be carried out 
in each province in order to spread agents of the FBI real thin over 
the State. 

The Chairman. In order to do what ? 

Mr. Appell. To spread the agents of the FBI real thin over the 
State. 

Bowers reported that Billy Birdsong had been beaten because he had 
given Bowers more trouble than any other Klansman. 

On July 18, 1965, at a meeting south of Jackson, Mississippi 

The Chairman. Who reported that Birdsong had been beaten? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, the Imperial Wizard. 

On July 18, 1965, at the meetnig south of Jackson, Mississippi, 
Deavours Nix shook everyone down for "bugs'' or electronic devices. 
Bowers referred to Laurel, Mississippi, as the "smokestack city," 
claiming that the White Knights were responsible for over 16 burn- 
ings of Laurel buildings. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Nix possesses 
additional information which is both pertinent and material to this 
inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Nix, you have heard the sworn statement of 
Mr. Appell, the committee's chief investigator. You now have the 
opportunity to reply to any portion of that statement, to challenge 
or confirm the accuracy of the information, or to explain any part of 
the statement. In addition, you may, if you desire, offer any other 
matter the committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. Do you care 
to avail yourself of this opportunity ? 

Mr. Nix, Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I tell you, then, Mr. Nix, that absent your rebuttal 
or other facts that may come to the attention of the committee, this 
committee will rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. In view 
of this, do you care to say anything? 

Mr. Nix. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. The staff has no further questions of this witness, Mr 
Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. Call your next witness. 



2908 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Sam Holloway Bowers, Jr. ■ 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly I 

swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole I 

truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? I 

Mr. Bowers. I do, sir. i 

TESTIMONY OF SAM HOLLOWAY BOWERS, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, CHARLES G. BLACKWELL AND TRAVIS BUCKLEY 

Mr. Appell. Be seated, Mr. Bowers. Will you state your full name 
for the record ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sam H. Bowers, Jr. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with the 
subpena served upon you at 12 :20 o'clock a.m., the 26th da;;^ of Octo- 
ber 1965 by John D. Sullivan, an investigator for this committee? 

Mr. Bowers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Bowers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify themselves for the record ? 

Mr. Blackwell. Charles G. Blackwell, attorney at law. Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Buckley. Travis Buckley, Bay Springs, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you bom, Mr. Bowers ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question and 
invoke as a defense the privileges guaranteed to me by the 5th, 1st, and 
6th amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America. 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to answer that question. I 
can't imagine any reason to decline answering that question. It is 
preliminary and it is usual, and I order and direct you to answer it. 

Mr. Bowers. Yes, sir, Mr. Chairman. In answer to that question, 
I will say that I was bom on the 6th day of August 1924 in the city of 
New Orleans, Louisiana. 

The Chairman. New Orleans? 

Mr. Bowers. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question and 
invoke as a defense the privileges guaranteed to me by the 5th, 1st and 
6th amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Give the committee a brief resume of your emplo3mient 
background. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Robert H. Larson ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Are you co-owner with Mr. Robert H. Larson of the 
Sambo Amusement Company and the Magnolia Consolidated Realty 
Company ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. We have had evidence to that effect. So put it to 
him as a fact. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2909 

Mr. Appell. I say to you, Mr. Bowers, that Mr. Larson appeared 
before the committee on January 10, 1966, and testified under oath that 
you and he were co-owners of the companies that I mentioned to you. 
Is his testimony before the committee truthful ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer the question. 

The Chairman. What is the name of the company ? 

Mr. Appell. The Sambo Amusement Company. 

The Chairman. They operate, among other things, what ? 

Mr. Appell. Pinball machines and vending machines of various 
types. 

The Chairman. Wliat is your information as to the system of op- 
eration of these machines, as to whether either above or under the 
counter they do or are capable of paying off, or can the players demand 
from the house cash money or coin ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the pinball machines operate whereby 
a player, if he obtains a certain score, is given what is recorded on the 
machine as a free play. However, as these free plays accumulate, 
the proprietor in whose store the machine is located will pay the 
player in cash for the number of games recorded at the rate of 5 cents 
per game. This money is then deducted from the take of the machine, 
and the proprietor and Mr. Larson and Mr. Bowers split that which 
is left over. 

The Chairman. Do you know whether under Federal law some 
kind of stamp tax payment is due, either payable out of general opera- 
tions per machine or in any other fashion ? 

Mr. Appell. Under Federal law, Mr. Chairman — and I am not too 
familiar with the exact requirements of that law— machines which 
are pinball or slot machines which are used for gambling purposes, 
the owners of the machine are required to purchase Federal gambling 
tax stamps. I think the rate is $50 per machine. 

The Chairman. Do you pay any such stamp, Mr. Bowers ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Have your operations ever been checked by Federal 
agents ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. My recollection is that one of the requisites of join- 
ing the Klan within your realm is you must be sober, nongamblers, 
and all the rest of it. Is that right ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, in the operation of the Sambo Amusement 
Company, do you have vending machines and pinball machines in 
establishments owned or operated by Negroes ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. In connection with the operation of the Magnolia 
Consolidated Realty Company, do you own restaurants which are 
leased to Negroes ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 



2910 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Have any attacks ever been made on the establishments 
you own by members of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
Mississippi by either bombings or burnings ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Were you aware of the fact your grand director of 
the Klan Bureau of Investigation had told a certain lawyer that be- 
cause he represented colored people that he should get out of town, or 
words to that effect ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. From the questions that Mr. Appell has asked, 
it would seem that you yourself were not so selective of your cus- 
tomers. I make that as an observation. I suppose the information 
sought to be solicited by Mr. Appell is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, the subpena served upon you contains as 
an attachment which was made a part of the subpena a listing of 
documents which, under the terms of the subpena, you were com- 
manded to bring with you and to produce before the committee. 

One calls for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, and aflBliated organizations, 
namely, The White Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund and the 
Mississippi Constitutional Council, in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as the present or former Imperial Wizard 
of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

I request you to produce in your representative capacity stated 
therein the documents called for in part 1 of your subpena. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, I could not produce such records as were ordered 
by the subpena issued to me, due to the fact that such records are not 
in my possession, custody, or control and I did not and do not have 
access to such records. 

The Chairman. Have you ever had access to any Klan records ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Did you do away with any of the Klan records, 
such as destroying them, hiding them, passing them on to third 
parties, or any other circumstances of doing away with the records, 
getting them out of your possession ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Your own constitution and bylaws require some 
records to be kept. Do you mean to say you never saw any records, 
had possession of any records ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Where are those records ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, prior to January 1, 1965, did you have in 
your possession, custody, or control documents of the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2911 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to ans^Yer that question. 

Mr. Appell. On P"ebruai"y 1, 1965, did you have in your possession, 
custody, or control, in your representative capacity as Imperial 
Wizard, documents of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
Mississippi ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you the same question with respect to March 1. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. And what are those reasons previously stated that 
you have repeated 10 or more times here ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, that reason previously stated, and I quote, is: 
"Sir, I respectiully decline to answer that question and invoke as a 
defense the privileges guaranteed to me by the 5th, 1st, and 6th 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America." 

The Chairman. This subpena has been served upon you in your 
capacity of top leadership and not necessarily or in fact as an indi- 
vidual, Sam H. Bowers, I want to tell you that we don't reco^gnize 
your invocation of refusal to produce those documents. It is in- 
credible, inconceivable, outlandish that you can say you do not now 
have, and never have, don't know of any records mvolving klanism 
within your realm. I suppose the documents will be offered, the 
records which you obviously handled yourself, or directives that you 
personally issued. Is that correct, Mr. Appell, the documents you 
refer to ? 

Mr, Appell. The investigation will produce, Mr. Chairman, docu- 
ments that were either prepared by, or distributed under, the direction 
of Mr. Bowers as the Imperial Wizard. 

I ask you now, Mr. Bowers, whether you had any of the docuraents 
in your possession in vour representative capacity as Imperial Wizard 
on April 1,1965? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I now ask you with respect to May 1, 1965. 

Mr, Bowers, Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Did you have any such records at any time since you 
became Imperial Wizard ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell, Mr. Bowers, I now ask you whether you had any of 
the documents in your representative capacity as Imperial Wizard on 
June 1, 1965 ? 

Mr, Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you the same question now with respect to 
July 1. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr, Appell. I now ask you the same question with respect to 
August 1. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 4 2 



2912 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you the same question with respect to September 
1, 1965. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you the same question with respect to October 1, 
1965. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you the same question with respect to November 
1, 1965. 

Mr. Bowers. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You had no documents in your possession on November 
1,1965? 

Mr. Bowers. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will you tell the committee as to what disposition 
was made of documents in your possession between October 1, 1965, and 
November 1, 1965 ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. You were served with a subpena on October 26, 1965. 
Did you have any documents in your possession on that date ? 

Mr. Bowers. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Between October 1, 1965, and October 26, 1965, did you 
learn that the subpena for this committee was outstanding for your 
appearance ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, part 2 of the subpena calls upon you to 
produce : 

AH books, records, documents, correspondence, memoranda appurtenances 
and equipment in your possession, custody or control, maintained by or available 
to you, in your capacity as Imperial Wizard of the White Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organiza- 
tion authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said 
organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I request you to produce in your representative capacity stated 
therein the documents called for in part 2 of your subpena. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, I could not produce such records as were ordered 
by the subpena issued to me, due to the fact that such records are not 
in my possession, custody, or control and I did not and do not have 
access to such records. 

Mr. Appell. Were the documents in your possession on October 1, 
1965? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question and 
invoke as a defense the privileges guaranteed to me by the 5th, 1st, 
and 6th amendment to the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. Were the documents in your possession on October 26, 
the day that you were served with your subpena ? 

Mr. Bowers. No, sir. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2913 

Mr. Appell. Did you possess knowledge between October 1, 1965, 
und October 26, 1965, that a siibpena was outstanding for you, call- 
ing for your appearance before this committee ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer tliat question. 

Mr. Appell. During this period of October 1 to October 26, did you 
destroy or transfer to the custody of a second party documents called 
for in the subpena ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
declme to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, I hand you a series of documents identi- 
fied in the course of our investigation to be the products of the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi which were either pre- 
pared by yourself or distributed to members of the White Knights 
with your approval. After you review those documents, Mr. Bowers, 
I ask you whether or not these documents were so prepared. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, document No. 1 (Harold Delk Exhibit 
No. 1) is captioned "Secrecy.'"' This document emphasizes that se- 
crecy is the greatest asset which the Wliite Knights possesses to pro- 
tect its militant nature. Thereafter instrudtions in secrecy are set forth 
until its conclusion is set forth — that the highest essence of secrecy is 
deliberate deception. As the Imperial Wizard of the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, does the organization practice 
deliberate deception ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowere, document No. 2 (Burrel White Exhibit 
No. 2) is captioned "Executive Lecture of March 1, 1964." This doc- 
lunent, after setting forth that the purpose and dedication of the White 
Knights is the preservation of a Christian civilization, instinicts the 
membership to have for ready reference and frequent, careful, and 
prayerful reference a copy of the Holy Scriptures. Several paragraphs 
infer that the White Knights look to Christ for its leadership. In the 
introduction, the docmnent refers to the Wliite Knights as the Chris- 
tian militants, disposed to use physical force against its enemies. Tlie 
militant phase of the White Knights is then divided into security, in- 
t.elligence, and propaganda. Under "security," members are instructed 
in eliminating detection of their attendance at meetings, concealing 
their membership, posing as anti-Klan or even anticonsen\ative, the 
use of gloves to avoid fingerprint identification, the creation of an 
infantry squad of eight well-armed Klansmen within each unit, and 
with respect to the armament of the squad the document refere to the 
fact that this squad should be equipped with blue ribbon weapons. 

"Intelligence," according to the document, "consists of gathering 
and transmission of all information concerning the enemy, or weak- 
nesses or leaks" in the White Knights. The membership is then in- 
structed in procedure to be followed by units and individuals pre- 
liminary to undertaking that which the document describes as "mil- 
itant activity." 

In this connection, there is stated that the vote of the local unit con- 
cerning the wishes of the local members regarding any militant activity 



2914 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

must be transmitted through the office of the province investigator to 
the higher headquarters. 

Conditioning against discouragement if action appears to be de- 
layed, the section on intelligence concludes : 

Hasty action will lead to either the bastille or the cemetary [sic]. Remember, 
ALWAYS, we are in this war to WIN it, not just to FIGHT it. 

Propaganda is given great emphasis and the reason is best explained 
in the first three sentences under this subdivision : 

PROPAGANDA is the weapon of modem war which our organization uses to 
convince the public that we are all good, and that those who oppose us, or criti- 
cise us, or attempt to interfere with our activities in any way are all BAD, and 
are dangerous enemies of the Community. We must always keep the public on 
our side. As long as they are on our side, we can just about do anything to our 
enemies with impvmity. 

Implements of propaganda are described as being as valuable as 
bullets. Militant activity may not be accomplished by propaganda in 
which case the document reads : 

If our enemies can be humiliated and driven out of the Community by Propa- 
ganda, well enough. If they continue to resist, they must be physically destroyed 
before they can damage our Christian Civilization further, and destroy us. * * * 

Do you have any comments to make upon the contents of that docu- 
ment, sir? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Document No. 3 (Burrel White Exhibit No. 1) is Im- 
perial Executive Order dated May 3, 1964. Did you issue or cause to 
be issued that document, Mr. Bowers ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. AppEiiL. This document, Mr. Bowers, as you review it forecasts 
situations likely to arise during the summer of 1964. It predicts mas- 
sive demonstrations designed for the purpose of bringing about, as 
stated in the report : 

A decree from the Communist authorities in charge of the National Govern- 
ment * * *. 

What evidence do you possess of the Communist authorities that 
are in charge of the National Government ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. This document devotes considerable space to militant 
activity by Klansmen who are "legally — deputized law enforcement 
officers." Combat plans are outlined and the Klansmen are warned to 
expect conflicts with law enforcement officials. Emphasis of the Klans- 
man's duty is set forth in a sentence which reads : 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2915 

RESPECT FOR CHRISTIAN IDEALS CANNOT YIELD TO RESPECT FOR 
PERSONS NOR STATUTES AND PROCEDURE WHICH HAVE BEEN 
TWISTED BY MAN AWAY FROM ITS ORIGINAL DIVINE ORIGIN. 

Do you have any comment to make upon that document, Mr. Bowers? 

Mr. BowTiRs. bir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Document No. 4 (James Jones Exhibit No. 34) is cap- 
tioned "Harrasment" [sic] . This docmnent was distributed to Klans- 
men attending a State meeting in Jmie 1964. The content of this 
dociunent has been previously discussed in this record. It deals exclu- 
sively with the methods and means for carrying out acts of harassment. 
Do you have any comment to make upon that document, Mr. Bowers ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, I hand you a series of documents now, all 
containing identification as being documents of the White Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi or White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan. 

Document 1 is an unofficial mimeographed copy of the constitution 
of the White Knights together with the recommended reading list 
distributed with the constitution (Julius Harper Exhibit No. 1). 

Document No. 2, the constitution, with amendments, approved April 
19, 1964 (Gordon Lackey Exhibit No. 2) . 

Document No. 3, an application for membership (Gordon Lackey 
Exhibit No. 1). 

Document No. 4, a leaflet, "Twenty Reasons WHY you should, if 
qualified, join, aid and support the White Knights of the KU KLUX 
KLAN of Mississippi (Thomas Gunter Exhibit No. 1, p. 2747). 

Document No. 5, the Executive Lecture, March 1, 1964, issue (Burre: 
Wliite Exhibit No. 2). 

Document No. 6, "The KLAN Ledger," July 4, 1964 (Thomas Gun- 
ter Exhibit No. 3, pp. 2756-2759). 

Document No. 7, "The Klan Ledger," July 1965 issue. 

Document No. 8, "The Klan Ledger," October 21, 1965, Special 
Jones County Edition. 

Were these documents prepared and distributed under your direc- 
tion as Imperial Wizard of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan 
of Mississippi ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

(Documents Nos. 7 and 8 marked "Sam Bowers Exhibits Nos. 1 and 
2," respectively, follow:) 



2916 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 1 

An Official Publication of the IJhitc Kiiiglits of the KU KLIU KLnN of Miss. 
Special HUAC Invostisaticn Issue July, 1965 

In order to fulfill one of our foremost obligations to the American pub- 
lic, which is education, and to prepere a base for i wholesome and pro- 
ductive session by the HIIAO, ar v/ell as to combat the vicious lies and 
distortions of an evil and depraved National Precs, this Special lidition 
has been prepared in the interest of Truth and Justice « It is basca 
upon a recent inteivicw which was granted by the Honorable Grand Dragon 
of tho VflvKKKJI to' the 'widely recognized add" esteemed patriotic correspon- 
dent, Kr. Grahan Page. 'Ihe questions are by wr. Page, the answers are 
by the Grand Dragon of the IVKICKKM. 

Q. Sir, for several nonths nov/, there has been notice of an impending in- 
vestirjation of the KU KLUX KLPJi by the !IUaC. iJhat is the purpose of the 
investig-.tion, and what is the position of tho White Kniglits of Miss, in 
regard to itV 

A. ./ell, since the KU KLUa KL/J>J, as we know it today, is almost a century 
old, and since its program and purpose has been widely published at fro- 
quont intervals all during that titie, especially by we '.Jhite Knights here 
in i'iississippi, it is most difficult to see any need for an investigation 
by this comnittee, which was only establisried to investigate subversive 
propjaganda. V.'e Klansmen feel that the HUAC is being used by the atheis- 
tic enemies of /iraorica as a publicity forxom, in connection with their cap- 
tive National Press, to smear and humiliate our Honorable Knichts in an 
attempt to discredit our work, which is dedicated to the preserv^ition of 
Christian Civilization. 

Q. It has become rather fashionable of late for professional politicians 
to take slaps at the Klan, has it not? Starting vdth the President, and 
I beliovj, continuing more recentl,y, the Lt. Governor and Attorney General 
of Mississippi, and the Attorney General of Alabama? 

A. Yes, of course, Graham. But you must remember that these sr.illow and 
selfish politicians actually have no real purpose in life other chan the 
advancement of their own personal careers. T.icy Soiow or care little or 
nothing about the Ideals of ;.merica, the Klan, or, for that matte:', the 
communist party. They sense thr.t the Power of the Beast is against Lhe 
Klan, so they themselves attack the Klan in order to curry favor with tho 
Beast. They actually have no real feelings in the matter of the Klan, 
and we do not even consider their attacks as r^al opposition. Tne Klan 
existed long before these animals v/cre born, and it will be here long 
after they have passed, when their selfish administrations are but an un- 
pleasant recollection in the memory of Christian Aniericans. 

v. Sir, it ic often said by the critics of the Klan, that your groat 
v;eakness stems fron the fact that yours is purely a resistence organizat- 
ion, and that, therefore, it has no positive program, which it must have 
if it is to be successful. How do you meet this accusation? 

A. W-il, of course, the accusation is false, because its roots are in an 
occess-on for atheistic materialiav., irfiich is the hallmark of the eneities 
01 '0>ri&t, who exercise so much public control today. Tho Klan does 
■■^- '.Jl these atheists and their fiendishly contrived prograjns. The Klan 
co^,: it.;sioT Sr;tnn ?md his agents on all possible fronts; and in so doing, 
v.-i achieve the highest POSITIVE program of which men arc capable: JjlSUS, 
v-:-.iIST. "Resistance to tyranny is obedience to God" is on^ .f .America's 
oldest and most honored bywords. V.'c challenge any profe3sicn:ii politic- 
ir-n, any so-caLLod "liberal", any oo-cfilled "humanitarian", - •' any other 
atheistic, natorialistic agent of Satan to bring b»;forc the i>icricrn 
Iniblic tlW of their hon-spavmid.proriraifls wliich. h-.ivc a higher I'CSiTIVi; 
ra.Tk thfoi ODKI,i;ia,'CB TO GOD. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2917 

Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

C i-n^thcr chr.rr;c iJhich Kl'.n critics arc fell': ;.f hurlinr agninst y^u is 
that y^u aro "bijr^tcd" -;nd nari-.;w in yuur scljcti^n -f t ■.ciders, tecnuso 
y.-u exclude "Jews", Tapists, Orientals and ether non-'.^nel^'-S-'oc-^n ethnic 
fr.ups froi.; r',c::;;x;rship. This 'sold ti.' bu "vr.der.^cratic", and is '.ne cf 
tho nain reasons why rrofessi.nrd r-.liticiv.s are willing to attack you, 
bec-.usc of your snail nur.-lors. ■' uldn't it b.- better t-^ l_wor y-ur rigid 
restricti;;ns s^i.ewhac in orJcr to r-ain a wider public acceptance? 
/.. Je are always r^iHused when we l.oar this arjunjnt , because it sh-ws such 
an absurd i-jr.^ranc of tiie CX sp^l of the U.rd, and the -urp^se .f the K.Ian. 
First v"f ell, let me pcint out th'.t our Ljrd and Savior, Jesus Christ, is 
not a "dcr.iocratic" Leader. Rjr.eubcr, it ;^as a "da.i^cratic" n^'o v;hich ee- 
n.andeu His crucifixion. (See ?ls., the 19th Chapter of Luke), i.'ext, the 
real strongth of the Klan d^es n.t stti.: primarily frcu its nui.ibers, but 
fron its rOoITICM as '-n l-apleri>.nt^d an.i v.f the Will of tho I^rd. It nakos 
little difference, in the final Sv,nse, whether we are 10 or 10 Lullion, so 
long as wo are in th'j Hinds .;f the Lord. 

Q. But when y.u draw such -■> strict line, are y:u not beinj; unfair to the 
individual "Jew", lapist-i.r other outsider? nre there net scn.e t;ood /ir.,eri- 
8ins in these croups "Isr? 

j\. Undoul-tedly, there are saae gcod people to bo f.und in th. se groups. 
I wich to emphasis thr.t i/e Klansncn have n^ quarrel with any individual 
wh conducts hinself as a responsible /o^ierican citizen should, and who 
takes n- part in revolutienary activity rf cny kind. It is with the alien, 
un.if.-.orican t^r^ups such as the Synagogue of Satan, or the rior.ian hierarchy 
that v;e of the Klan quarrel, rather than with the individual, ignorant and 

deeeived "Jew" or Tapist. Cur artiS are always open to these nis.^uided in- 
dividuals, and we stand ready to accept thci.. whenever they are able to 
break away frar.i the atheisi.i of the Synagogue and the idolatry of the ; apacy. 
It is not we wh. are bigoted. It is they who are foolishly and ignorantly 
rejecting the Holy /(ord of God, and the Personal Salvation ..f Jesus Christ. 

Q. /Oiother accusntijn against the Klan by its ener.iios is in rog-ird to 
unlawful violence. iJhat is the Klan position in regard to this point? 
.>. First, let ue say th.~t r.cst ^f what the Klan is blamed for is not the 
work of the Klan. .ve are a c^nvionient whipping boy rather than actual, 
iinalicicus offenders. Occasionally', sono >.f our r.iore spirited good Christ- 
ian Brothers nay bi-cci.;e so onra^-ed over the w^rk of the revolutii.nary 
atheists in our midst, that thoy are goaded into takinj^ rotaliatory action 
against then; but no honest or sorious pors^n bl^jries any^no but the atheists, 
ther.isolves fcr this. It is against hum.an nature end the basic l^.ws of 
self-defense to expect an .-ncricn citizen to renrin unprov kod v;hile the 
civilized society v;hich shelters his fc^nily and loved ones is destr.yod. 
Getrge Jashingtcn cnce said: "The pe.ple knov; that i.-.an cuinot govern with- 
out God and the Bible"; and it is the failure t^ ..bservc this naxir.'. v/hich 
has led the courts and the legislatures to attempt the regulation of man 
by man without the Guidance of the Lord, thereby r.akint our govemi.iental 
adv.inistration a farce and a fraud, with -/no unGodly, unconstitutional 
decree or statute piled one on top of an^thor, in a ridiculous atte:..pt to 
play the role ^f G<.d. The position of the Klan in tlds matter is that 
we do not propose to pen.'.it the Christian, Constitutional Liberty of ijaer- 
ica to be destroyed, either Covertly ^r overtly, either unlawfullj-, or undei 
Cvilor of law, by the athoistic conspiracy of the Synagogue of Satan. 

Q. ;/hat is the position of tho VJKKK1CI-; as regards public m?.rches and pub- 
lic demonstraticns? Di yoU feel tl-.at the .-hito Knights of Mississippi, 
since they arc tho doninant Klan in Mississippi, should countor-r.arch ag- 
ainst the conr.iunists demonstrators in a show of strength? 
i.. Our Klan is opposed to public r.iurchos, demonstrations, and all other 
related activities which upset tho g.neral tranquility of our nonrial, 
daily lives, l.'c strive at all ti.-.os to handle all of .ur pr.blens in a 
quiet and sober manner with a due and careful regard f „r the feelings of 
the goncral public in fiississippi, whose best interests we alv/ayo serve. 
The God-given Ideals of «n-.orica, v/hich wc seek to maintain, cannot be pre- 
served and protected by mass actions in our streets. 

Q. ..-hat is the relationship of the l-Tiite Knights of the KU KLUX KL«N uf 
the S.vereign Rcalij of Mississippi with other Klan groups such as the 
National, United, Old Original, etc.? 

". V;c, of course, aro Spiritually United with all of cur Klan Brethren 
everywhere, thr.ugh Jesus Christ, our mutual Lord and Savior. It is only 
in the structure and cdi.iinistration . f Klan government that wo differ with 
these others. Curs is a C< nstitutional ftcpublic, which contains all -jf 
the Classic <jr.erican Features . f separate dopr.rtnents (Legislative, iSxec, 
Ju.'.icial), bicameral Lei^islature, purse power in lower House, Bill of 
rti.^hts, etc. Mwst of these other Klans are too centralized in thoir 
ad-rdnistration to suit the pristine taste ..if our strict and lo; al 
.norican citizens of iiississippi, and we arc, therefore, c. nsti'tuted as 
a S^vcreir^i Realm of the liivisible ^npire in and for Mississippi.. 



2918 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 
Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 2 










An Official Publication of the White Knights of the KU KLUX KLAN of Mis 

SPECIAL JONES COUNTY EDITION October 21, 1965 

This Special Edition of the Klan-Ledger has been prepared and distrihut 
ed in order to clear up many diubts and misunderstandings which have 
arisen as a result of the fanatical and incoherent TV spectacle last 
Monday evening by Henry Bvicklev. Ve have no desire to create any 
disturbance or add any fuel to the fire, so this issue is not to be 
considered as a rebuttal to the ill-mannered tirade of Bucklew, but 
rather as a Christian effort in the hope that it will have a calMng 
and sobering influence upon the good citizens of Jones County who have 
becrme upset over the notoriety and shame which has been brought upon 
our community by the ill-considered act of Bucklew. Many of our 
best citizens are irritated and in an ugly mood regarding Bucklew- s 
conduct, and we are most anxious that these citizens refrain from _ 
taking any punitive or retaliatory action against him.. All that is 
necessary is that everyone remain calm, inform themselves of the real 
facts in this case, and the damage done to the community by Bucklew 
will be largely dissapated. "He who troubleth his own house 
shall inherit the wind." Let those of us who are the truly- 
responsible citizens of this community see to it that we do not do 
anything to increase the trouble and wind which has been stirred up by 
Bucklew. Even thoug his conduct was admittedly inexcusable, 
vicious and ill-mannered, that does not justify otheres to retaliate 
acainst him and especially in anger. 

As far as the position of the White Knights of the KU KLUX KLANof 
Missisippi is concerned, we have always been against open, public 
violence. We are primarily a Christian Educational body, and always 
seek to solve our problems and conduct our affairs with a minimum of 
inconvienience and disturbance to the general community. Certainly, 
there can be no conflict between ourselves and Bucklew on that score. 
Obviously, whatever conflict there does exist between us must lie in 
another category, as indeed it does. The general public certainly has 
a right to know what this is and to be informed of the facts. 
The conflict which now exists between the White Kniglits of the KU KLUX 
KLAN and Henry Bucklew is the same, dark specter which has dogged his 
entire checkered public career, THE LOVE OE MONEY, 

When Bucklew was first sworn into the White Knights, shortly before 
the recent election, it was with the expectation that he would not 
only receive the political support of the Knights at the polls, but 
that he would also have access to the funds in the Klan treasury of the 
Jones County Klavern, However, these were pnly his ovn personal 
expectations, without foundation, for he had received no official 
promises in this regard. When he later discovered(af ter the election) 
that the Constitutional System under which our government functions 
in the Domain of the Invisible Empire effectively PREVENTS any dipping 
into the till by individual officers or memberB without the consent of 
the majority, his enthusiasm for the Klan began to wane. He reasoned 
that if "Henry Bucklew can't get any money out of the Klan, then the 
Klan Jest ain't any good, nohow," He met several times with various 
officers of the Klan after becoming mayor and offered them protection 
from prosecution and favoritism in exchange for cash. These deals 
were always politely refused by the officers of the Klan, because the 
White Knjghts are innocent of any wrongdoing, and their Knights are 
productive citizens of the connnunity who can earn their own way and do 
not have to buy favoritism from politicians. More recently, Bucklew 
has approached various Knihts and atteinpted to get them to go out and 
juiip on and beat up some of his personal and political enemies, which, 
of course, our honorable Knights refused to do. As a result of these 
refusals, Bucklew then began to look about for ether sources of ready 
cash. He soon discovered the agents of the malignant conspiracy 
whose agents hate Christ, the Klan and Christian Civilisation. These 
agents who want to see the Klan destroyed have connections which lead 
right straight up to LB J and Katzenback and the source of all cash. 
When Bucklew made this new connection, he dropped out of the White 
Knights, violated his oath, and his old friends became his new enemies. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2919 

Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

Uov, ve wish to make it clear at this point that Henry Bucklew is not 
OUT enemy. The devilish communists from the Synagogue of Satan are 
our enejuy, and he has only 'become their ignorant tool. Even after his 
virulent attack upon us,ve do not hate Henry Bucklew. He is more to 
be pitied than he is to be condemned. He is a weak man, and his 
principle failing is his lust for cash, a lust which the Klan was unable 
to satisfy, and which the enemies of Christian Civilisation were able to 
satisfy. 

Actually, we resent Bucklew 's ignorant misrepre-sentatioiti' of Holy 

fcripture and the Fiery Cross, the Symbol of our Ancient and Noble Order 
ar more than we resent his personal attacks upon ourselves, but m 
even these matters, he will nave to answer at the Judgement Seat, 

With malice toward none, and charity for all, we remain the White Knight^ 
of the KU KLUX KLAN of the Sovereign Realm of Mississippi, 

Jones County Klnvern 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, please look at document No. 8, the "Special 
Jones County Edition" of "The Klan Ledger." Are the statements 
made again^ Laurel, Mississippi, Mayor Henry Bucklew true or are 
they false by design, in order to convince the citizens of Laurel that 
the "V^Hiite Knights are good and the mayor bad ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Were the statements designed to keep the community 
on your side so that, as set forth in Executive Lecture of March 1, 1964, 
"we can just about do anything to our enemies with impunity"? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, in the Executive Lecture of March 1, 
1964, in the section on propaganda, instructions are given on the use 
of propaganda in documents not identified with the name of the orga- 
nization, but independent in name. The documents which have been 
handed to you are — according to the committee's investigations — doc- 
uments prepared by the Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
Mississippi, even though the name "White Knights" does not appear 
upon these documents. 

I will read the documents to you so that you can have a chance to 
examine them and then you may answer me whether or not the results 
of the investigation are factual. 

Docimient 1 is captioned "Liberty Is a Boisterous Sea. Timid Men 
Prefer the Calm of Despotism." By "The Mississippi White Caps." 

(Document marked "Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 3." ^) 

Document No. 2, captioned "WASP, Inc., A Christian, Non-Profit 
Organization Dedicated to the Christian American Heritage." 

(Document marked "Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 4." -) 

Document No. 3, a "Black List" unsigned but directed to the atten- 
tion of "White Citizens of Meridian and Lauderdale County." 

(Document marked "Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 5" follows:) 



^ See committee report, The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Movement, pp. 295, 296. 
2 Ibid., pp. 293, 294. 



2920 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 5 

BLAC:: LIST 
ATTEJITICN '^iITE CITIZSi'S 0? ^JERIDIA!' AID LAUDERD.'iE CO'TTZ 



-iiecses "■"'-r 
j?or tar.rt: 



rre "l,rr.: toi-E ".no. 
piece? o" r.i].ver- 



Listed belo-' are ? fe;.^ people r.nd tui 
^jarasites, ^'ho ';oTil(f"scll their r,ovli 
INTERGRATION. 

AL KEY 

HOPPER Tr.CMAS 

0. A. BOOKER 

ROY GUM 

CECIL CURRIE 

WALLACE MILLER 

]^ILL RS.iDY 

BILLY HEVILLE 

LAWRENCE RA3B 

BILLY BIRDS CNG 

E, C. LIDE 

CAROL SliITII-* H?.ii- Fr.shionist 

>mS. I. A. ROSE^AUM 

R. B. RAIIIER 

W. R. RAl-IAGSR 

TOII KINUIECE 

TOM EOL-RDEAUX 

GRAIJVILLE JOMES 

SY ROSEI'IBAUM 

DR. L. 0. TODD 

The Chairman. Wliat is the title, "Black list" ? 
Mr. Appell. "Black List," yes, sir. 
The Chairman. Let me take a look at that. 
(Document handed to chairman.) 

Mr. Appell. Document No. 4, "Questions all White Citizens of 
Lauderdale County and City of Meridian should ask your neighbors." 
(Document marked "Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 6 follows:) 

Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 6 

Questions all White Citizens of Lauderdale County and City of Meridian 
Should Ask Your Neighbors 



BUCi: GRESr^E 
T. C, rJLL 
LOUIE LEE 
LUCI-.LE DCI'ALD 

L. B. ?kj:y. 

Cr^AIIP GIPSCN 

SAii i:iEi-nrz 

MEYER DAVIDSON • 

CTHO SMIT^-I— School For 

30RDEIT MILK CO! ^ ANY 

HOLIDAY IIIIT 

ST. JOSEPH HOSPITAL 

ADS— dollj;?^ store 



1. Why did your " 
in Weidmanns Cafe. 



go out of his way to shake hands with 4 niggers 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2921 

2. Is * * * paying off his debt by installing nigger * * * and nigger * * * 
as directors of the Anti-Poverty program. Why should members of the civil 
rights group be directors. 

3. Did nigger * * * promiee [sic] * * * the nigger vote for other concessions. 

4. Do you want a nigger as your Mayor or City Councilman the next election. 
PLEASE REGISTER TO VOTE 

5. Did * * * join the great society while in Washington for a few federal 
dollars. — Ask Humphrey 

6. Why does * * * praise all of the people working with the great society. 

7. Why does * * * try to advise the City Policemen how to live their private 
lives. Is he taking orders from nigger * * * and nigger * * *. 

8. Why should some of our elected officials want to give all the federal money 
to the niggers who wouldn't work if they had a job. You can't help people 
white or black who won't help themselves. 

9. Why was the Chamber of Commerce members a go between with Nig- 
ger * * * for some of the cafe operators of * * *. 

10. Who is the white nigger lady who is dating the nigger sailor. She works 
at * * *. 

11. Who is the white waitress at * * * who can't keep her hands off the 
white nigger boy who works in the * * *. 

12. Who is the white lady and her daughter who operate a * * * on * * * 
who is so fond of the nigger in the kitchen. 

13. Why did some of the Board of Supervisors and all of the City School 
Board object to the white citizens of Bonita leasing the school building for a 
private school. 

14. Are they planning to teach the young niggers how to be communist 
withe [sic] the Anti-Poverty money in the school building at Bonita. 

15. Who is the * * * owner and operator on * * * who got on his knees at 
the red headed communist at COFO Headquarter. 

16. Why did one of the * * * have his child transfered [sic] from one first 
grade teacher to the other. Was it because he did not want his child in the room 
with a nigger. 

17. Why are the city bus lines still operating. Is it because of the civil rights 
group in Meridian. 

18. What are the questions * * * is asking the people appling [sic] for jobs 
in the new store. 

White Tax Paying Citizens of 
Lauderdale County and City 
OF Meridian. 

Mr. Appell. Document No. 5, "The Christian Sentinel." 

(Document marked "Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 7" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Document No. 6, the "Christian Constitutional Commitee, Jones 
County Chapter." 

(Document marked "Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 8" and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Bowers, I now ask you to affirm or deny the fact that these docu- 
ments were prepared under the direction of the White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 



2922 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, on the "Black List" document, you will 
notice the name Billy Birdson^. Billy Birdsong has advised the stajff 
that he was an investigator of the White Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan, a personal investigator to yourself as the Imperial Wizard. Is 
the statement made to the staff by Billy Birdsong true or false? 
(Witness confers with counsel. ) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. After Birdsong broke with the White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan, did you have him beaten by a gi'oup of Klansmen? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, I ask you to look at the "Black List" 
and indicate to the committee the identity of the other Klansmen who 
appear on that list because they broke with your organization. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Did you order Wallace Miller, whose name appears on 
that list, to be banished from the White Knights because you suspected 
that he was an informant ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, there is now being handed to you a docu- 
ment captioned the "Standard Examination Form." I ask you if this 
document was prepared by the White Knights, distributed to White 
Knight members, for use in attempting to embarrass agents of the 
FBI who might seek interviews with members of the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

(Document marked "Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 9" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2923 

Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 9 

STANDARD EXAMINATION FORM 

To be used by all Christian American Patriots as an aid in properly identifying 
all unknown Persons who may be seeking information. At least one other Christian 
American Patriot should be present when giving this EXAMINATION. Persons who refuse 
to take this EXAMINATION or who fail to answer the questions in a forthright and 
satisfactory manner should be regarded as ENEMIES of the Constitutional Republic of 
the United States of America and should be considered as Emissaries of the anti- 
Christ, Satan. 



Do you believe in Almighty God, the ONE Supreme Creator, Ruler and Judge of the 
Universe? 



2. Do you believe in the Redeeming Spirit of the Christ, Jesus, Son of the Living 
God and the SOLE Intecessor for the Sins of Mankind, by Whom NONE cometh unto 
the Kingdom of the Father, except by HIM? 

3. Do you believe that the Holy Scriptures are the Greatest tangible asset which is 
possessed by man on this earth, and that the WORD contained therein must be the 
Prime Guide by which man must conduct himself here on earth? 

4. Do you acknowledge the King James Version of the Holy Writ as the Prime Writ for 
Americans and recognize the attempts to "revise" and "standardize" and "merge" 
this version with other texts as nothing but a deliberate attempt to degrade and 
profane the "Word" into just another collection of religious writings? 

5. Do you believe that any mortal man here on earth has the power to pardon or to 
redeem the sins of another, or that any mortal man can accumulate the power or 
ability whereby he could become an Advocate in the Court of Almighty God to 
intercede for the remission of the sins of another? 

6. Do you believe that the Mercy and Advocacy of Christ is available to all those 
who humbly and honestly seek Him? 

7. Do you believe that any Human Being has the power to cut another Human Being off 
from, and deny the Salvation of Christ to another? 

8. Do you believe that the most any True Christian can do for a fellow Human Being 
is to help his fellow to see the Path to the Living Christ and try to gently 
lead him Up that Path, but that no one may or can be FORCED to accept Christ, 
and each individual must accept or reject Christ according to his individual 
will? 

9. Do you believe that a powerful, supernatural Force of Evil, called Anti-Christ 
or Satan does exist in the world? 

10. Do you recognize the Fact that all men are continually being torn between the 
Force of Christ and the Anti-Christ Forces of Satan? 

11. Do you recognize the Fact that man is absolutely helpless before Satan until he 
truly and humbly Accepts the Living Christ as his own Personal Savior; and that 
all of man's intelligence, and his material gifts: his education, his prestige, 
his property, his money, his good intentions and his works are worthless against 
Satan, UNLESS there is an Absolute, Primary Foundation of an undying Belief in, 
Acceptance of and Reliance upon The Living Christ at the root-center of each 
man's Being? 

12. Do you accept the Living Christ, Jesus as your Personal Savior and your ONLY 
Hope against Satan? 

13. Do you recognize that all good intentions and works which are not founded in 
Christ are either meaningless or Evil? 

14. Do you believe that Satan impels some men to rule and control the earthly life 
and destiny of other men, and gives them power to do so? 

15. Do you believe that Almighty God so ordained man that he should live free of the 
control of the will of other men, and that no man has the right to initiate 
Trespass acjainst another, or initiate by any means whatsoever anything to bring 
another man under the control of his will? 

16. Do you recognize that a True Christian American Patriot will turn the other 
cheek to those who wrong him, but will destroy those who attrmpt to destroy him, 
and will seek to destroy those who seek to destroy him, because anything less 
would be suicide? 

17. Do you believe that Christianity requires that a True Christian should not 
resist having his earthly life taken by a killer? 



2924 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 9 — Continued 

i8. Do you recognize the fact that the United States of America is the only Govern- 
mental System ever built in the world with the announced intention and recog- 
nized purpose of protecting the Life, Liberty, and the RIGHT to pursue Happiness 
of each and every one of the Law-Abiding, responsible citizens under its juris- 
diction, after FIRST recognizing the FACT that these Rights were God-given in 
the FIRST place and were therefore not within the province of any man, group of 
men, or government either to GRANT or to DENY? 

19. Do you understand that this one point covered in Question #18 is the Basic and 
Fundamental point which makes the United States of America unique in the world 
and therefore absolutely different from, and therefore properly in opposition 
to every other governmental system in the world? 

20. Do you recognize that the fundamental, founding purpose and Spirit of all True 
Law in the USA is to implement the Will of God which obviously decrees: That 
man shall live free from the control of the will of his neighbor, and not 
trespass against his neighbor? 

21. Do you believe that the preceeding principle is the True Spirit of American 
Law, which is of Divine Origin? 

22. Do you recognize the fact that statutes and decisions must conform to this 
Spirit in order to be ranked as True American Law? 

23. Do you recognize the fact that men under the influence of Satan are able to 
twist laws, enact laws and enforce laws under the material power of Governmental 
Authority which are contrary to the Spirit of American Law, and which, therefore, 
do not rank as True American Law? 

24. If the Letter of the Law conflicts with the Spirit of the Law, WHICH will you 
adhere to, obey and enforce? 

25. Do you acknowledge that those persons who cause or permit the Letter of the Law 
to conflict with the Spirit of the Law in America are the Prime Enemies of the 
Republic of the United States of America and of every innocent citizen and per- 
son under its jurisdiction? 

26. Do you believe that yoix personal, physical survival is tied to the maintenance 
of a governmental administration in America which will continuously implement 
the Constitutional Spirit of American Law? 

27. Do you regard an Enemy of the Republic of the United States of America and the 
Spiritual Ideals which are protected by its Constitution as YOUR personal 
enemy? 

28. Do you differentiate between the Government of the United States of America and 
the PERSONS who hold offices and positions under its Constitution? 

29. If the minions of material governmental authority threaten, attempt to, or use 
physical force and violence to enforce compliance with some letter of law which 
is in clear conflict with the Constitution and the Spirit of American Law, do 
you believe that the Private Citizens of America have a right to oppose them 
with physical force, using the Constitution and the Supremacy of the Will of 
Almighty God as their Authority? 

30. Do you believe in Democracy? 

31. Do you believe in Plebescite Cannabilism? 

32. How can demagogues be controlled in a Democracy? 

33. Are man-made laws more useful when they are aimed at doing "good", or when they 
are aimed at shackeling Satan? 

34. What is your definition of "communism"? 

35. What is the motivating force behind "communism"? 

36. Do you believe that the Spirit of American Law will be helped or be injured by '< 
becoming entangled in Foreign Affairs? 

37. Do you believe that the International Bankers have anything worthwhile to offer 
America? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2925 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, with respect to burnings, bombings, and 
other acts of violence o]|^ intimidation, did the White Knights under 
their program of Christian militancy classify these acts into four cate- 
gories, namely. No. 1, Project 1, threatening telephone calls or visits; 
2, burning of crosses, usually on private property; No. 3, beating or 
flogging, burning of property, night shooting into property ; and No. 
4, extermination ^ 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. As Imperial Wizard of the White Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi, did you ever authorize the extermination 
or elimination of a human being ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

The Chairman. You seem shocked by that question. Why don't you 
say "no" under oath ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowsers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Under your personal direction or with knowledge 
gained by you as the Imperial Wizard, did any human being die as a 
result of acts of violence or intimidation by members of the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Was a project of extermination issued on an individ- 
ual who was described wnthin the Klan by the nickname "The Goatee" ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I decline to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know the identity of the person referred to 
as"TheOoatee"? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I resj^ectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Was "The Goatee" Schwemer, one of the three civil 
rights workers who lost their lives in Philadelphia in June 1964? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, at a State meeting of the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan, did you ever announce that the Wliite Knights 
had 97 projects going throughout the State of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. At a meeting of the "V^Hiite Knights on November 15, 
1964, held between Harrisville and Brandon, Mississippi, was a mora- 
torium declared for 90 days on all third- and fourth-degree projects? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 



2926 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. In July 1965, after the moratorium was lifted, did you 
state at a meeting of the Wliite Knights leaders that you wanted one 
act of violence in each province each week ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. On September 27, 1964, at a meeting held on the second 
floor of the Harris box factory ^ in Meridian, Mississippi, did you dur- 
ing a discussion on violence state, if it was necessary to eliminate some- 
one, it should be done without malice and in complete silence and in 
the manner of a Christian act ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, in your position as Imperial Wizard of 
the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, have you made statements 
and prepared leaflets which support the position — your position — that 
the Klan should fight the Zionists or Jews whom you believed to be 
the greater threat to this country ? 
(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know George Lincoln Rockwell of the Amer- 
ican Nazi Party ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever make a statement that you were consider- 
ing joining the American Nazi Party because they had several goals 
that are the same as the Klan ? 
(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, as the Imperial Wizard, do you also hold 
your membership in the Klavern in Laurel, Mississippi, known under 
the cover name of the Bogue Homa Hunting and Rifle Club? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, information gathered during the com- 
mittee's investigation establishes that at almost every meeting of the 
Bogue Homa Hunting and Rifle Club projects were discussed by the 
mernbership. These discussions rarely disclosed to membership the 
projects. An example of this happened at a meeting of June 9, 1964. 
The discussion on this night centered around the arrival in Laurel of 
Negroes and whites. B. F. Hinton, then the exalted cyclops of the Kla- 
vern and now one of the White Knights province giants told the 39 
Klansmen assembled that it was planned to take no action against 
these people during the daytime, but that group leaders within the 
Klavern would take action against them during the night hours. It 
was further discussed that only the Klan leaders would know the iden- 
tity of the Klansmen participating in the project. 

Do you possess knowledge with respect to the factuality of that. 
Mr. Bowers ? 



1 Harris Box Company, Inc. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



2927 



Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, I now hand you three sheets of paper. 
The first column contains the date, the second column sets forth on 
that date whether there was a bombing and assault, a phone threat or 
cross-burning. The third column lists the identity of the individual 
or organization against whom it was carried out, and the fourth col- 
umn shows the location of the place, all within Jones County, 
Mississippi. 

Please review those dates and tell the committee whether you possess 
any knowledge with respect to any of the acts of violence or intimi- 
dation set forth on that dociMnent. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Appell. Have you reviewed the document, Mr. Bowers ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

(Document marked "Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 10" follows :) 



Sam Bowers Exhibit No. 10 
Schedule of Jones County Violence 



5/10/64 
8/11/64 

8/16/64 

8/18/64 


Bombing 

Assault 

Assault 

Assault 


Laurel Leader Call 

Eugene Keys, Negro 

victim, 
on C R workers by Frank 

Upton. 

V. L. Lee, Klansman 

on CR workers — 15 

Klansmen went to 

COFO picnic, 
on C R worker by 

Henry De Boxtel. 
Ottis Matthews 

Norman Lee. 
on white C R worker by 

KKK. 
on white CR by Wm 

Kennedy & Harold 

Stringer, KKK. 
Laurel Leader Call for 

COFO ad. 
Ernest McClarion___^.-. 

COFO Headquarters 

COFO Headquarters 

Brewel Currie (negro) 

Wysess Johnson (negro).. 
Community Grocery 

(negro) . 
Dunigan Grocery (negro). 
Rahaim Baseball Park... 
Community Recreation 

Center. 


Laurel, Miss. 
Kress Store, Laurel 

Laurel, Miss. 

Laurel, Miss. 


8/22/64 

11/ 3/64 
11/17/64 


Assault 

Assault 

Assault 


Currie Farm, 
Jones County. 

Laurel, Miss. 

Laurel, Miss. 


11/30/64 


Assault 


Kress Lunch ct. 


1/15/65 

1/20/65 

1/29/65 

2/ 9/65 
2/17/65 
3/ 4/65 
4/23/65 
5/16/65 

5/16/65 
5/16/65 
5/16/65 

5/17/65 


Assault 

Phone threat 

Attempt house 
burning. 

House shooting 

House burning 

House burning 

House burning 

House burning 

House burning 

House burning 

House burning 

House burning 

House burning 

Shooting 

Shooting 


Laurel. 
Downtown park- 
ing lot — Laurel. 

Laurel, Miss. 

Soso, Miss. 

Laurel, Miss. 
Laurel, Miss. 
EUisville, Miss. 
Ellisville, Miss. 
Mt. Olive, Miss. 

Laurel, Miss. 

Laurel. 

Laurel. 

Laurel, Miss. 


5/17/65 
6/16/65 
6/16/65 


Gaddis Service Station.. . 

Dr. B. E. Murph, State 
NAACP Vicepresident. 

Skylark Club (negro) 

Charles Garrett (negro) _. 


Meridian Ave. 

Laurel. 
Laurel, Miss. 

Laurel, Miss. 


6/19/65 


House burning 


Rt. 5, Jones 
County. 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 4- 



2928 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 



Sam Bowes Exhibit No. 10 — Continued 
Schedule of Jones County Violence — Continued 



7/ 1/65 
7/ 1/65 

7/ 1/65 

7/ 1/65 

7/ 1/65 

7/ 1/65 

7/ 1/65 

7/ 1/65 
7/ 3/65 

7/19/65 

8/10/65 

8/10/65 

9/ 2/65 
9/ 6/65 
9/ 7/65 
9/14/65 
9/16/65 

9/26/65 

9/30/65 

10/11/65 
10/26/65 



House burning.. 
House burnings. 



Store burning. - 
Barn explosion- 
House burning. 



House burning. 
House burning. 



8 Cross burnings. 
Attempt house 

burnings. 
House burning... 



House burning. . . 

Shooting & house 
burning. 

Explosion 

Cross burning 

House burning... 

House burning 

Shooting 



Church burning. 

Attempt house 

burn. 
House burning.. 
Shotgun Shell -- 



COFO house, Laurel.. . 
(13 houses) Newcomer 

Quarters) . 
Shady Grove — Big R. 

Drive In Restaurant. 
W. O. Ball— Sharon 

Comm. 
W. D. Hinton 



J. W. Cooley.. 
Vernon Patton. 



Mrs. Clayton^negro CR 

supporter. 
Lowell Tew (white 

attorney) . 
W. O. Ball, Sharon 

Comm. 
Rev. Sam Page, Sharon 

Comm. 

COFO truck 

Joe Atkins' house (white) . 

Unknown house 

Lula Sanders (negro) 

Dr. B. E. Murph, State 

NAACP Vice-Pres. 
Royal Valley Negro 

Baptist. 
Dinah Hyde Woodland 

(negro) . 

Brewel Currie Farm 

Fired into door of colored 

school. 



Laurel. 
Laurel. 

Jones County. 

Jones County. 

Mt. Olive Com- 
munity. 

Mt. Oliver Com- 
munity. 

Mt. Olive Com- 
munity. 

Jones County. 

Laurel, Miss. 

Laurel. 

Jones County. 

Jones County. 

Laurel. 
Laurel. 

Sandersville, Miss. 
Sandersville, Miss. 
Laurel. 

Jones County. 

Ovett. 

EUisville, Miss. 
Laurel. 



Mr. AppeiuL. Mr. Bowers, the Klavern in Laurel approved a project 
on April 29, 1964, against the Leader-Call, a newspaper in Laurel, 
which was bombed on the night of May 10. I think the documents that 
are in front of you reflect that. It is reported that just a small quan- 
tity, of dynamite was used in that because they did not want to damage 
the wall of the bowling alley. Do you have vending equipment and 
pinball machines in the bowling alley and is that the reason why a 
small charge of dynamite was used ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, the document reflects that there was an 
assault on Ottis Matthews, the business agent of the local of the Inter- 
national Woodworkers of America, AFL-CIO in Laurel, Mississippi. 
Do you possess any knowledge of this assault on Ottis Matthews ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Listed on the document is a burning on February 17, 
1965, of COFO headquarters in Laurel. The committee's investiga- 
tion reflects that officers of the EUisville- Jones County Klavern, stated 
that the COFO headquarters burning was a State project. What 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2929 

knowledge can you give the committee about this being a State 
project? 

Mr, Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, the committee's investigation established 
the following individuals to have held State office in the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan : Sam H. Bowers, Laurel, as the Imperial Wiz- 
ard; Julius Harper, Crystal Springs, as Grand Dragon ; Billy Buckles, 
as the grand giant of Roxie, Mississippi; Paul Foster of Natchez, 
Mississippi, the grand chaplain, he bemg replaced by Petus G. Bilbo, 
Prentiss, Mississippi ; Ernest S. Gilbert, of Brookhaven, the first grand 
director of the Klan Bureau of Investigation. He was replaced by 
Deavours Nix of Laurel. W. R. Mangum, who has acted as MC of the 
State executive meetings; John McGregor, Jackson, Mississippi, a 
Klan tudor or propaganda chief, who was replaced in October 1964 
by Dr. Benny Hennington of Lincoln County. 

Is the result of the committee's investigation factual ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. BowTiRS. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Under the constitution, Mr. Bowers, the jurisdiction of 
the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan is divided into provmces, 
with each province having as province officer, the province giant and 
the province Klan Bureau of Investigation man. The committee's 
investigation established the following individuals to have held the 

gositions of province KBI : H. L. Holmes, Jr., Jackson, Mississippi ; 
idney Davis of Jackson, Mississippi ; A. A. Rhoads, of Bolton, Mis- 
sissippi; Wesley Kersey, Greenwood, Mississippi; Waites McNeil, 
Louin, Mississippi ; Harold Lloyd, nicknamed "Cotton," Delk of Hat- 
tiesburg; George Kellem, Hattiesburg, Mississippi; Emile Piazza, 
Bav Saint Louis, Mississippi ; E. L. McDaniel, Natchez, Mississippi. 

Are the results of the committee's investigation in this respect fac- 
tual? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. E. L. McDaniel, who served as a province officer of 
the White Knights, is currently the Grand Dragon of the United Klans 
of America in Mississippi. Do you know that to be factual ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Province giants were identified by the committee dur- 
ing its investigation to be Gerald Whitehead, Crystal Springs, Missis- 
sippi; W. L. Barrett, Jackson; Clyde Scale, John Winstead, of 
Greenwood, Mississippi ; Travis Ainsworth, Hattiesburg Manufactur- 
ing Company; Benjamin F. Hinton, of Laurel; C. J. Seal, Pearl 
River; and J. K. Greer, Fenwick, Mississippi. 

Are the results of the committee's investigation as to province giants 
factual ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 



2930 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. C. J. Seal, who is currently or who was a province 
giant, do you know him to be currently an official of the United Klans 
of America ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. The committee's investigation established the follow- 
ing individuals to be kleagles or organizers : A. C, Herrington of Ruth, 
Mississippi ; Woody Mathews, Utica, Mississippi ; the Reverend Leak 
Boyte, Attala, Mississippi; Frank Breeland, Columbia, Mississippi; 
Ralph Edwards, Yazoo City; J. N. Fortenberry, of Jackson, Missis- 
sippi ; Gordon Lackey of Greenwood, Mississippi ; William Sullivan, 
Pearl, Mississippi; Douglas A. Byrd, Liberty, Mississippi; Dave Car- 
away, of Liberty, Mississippi; Billy Bird, Mendenhall, Mississippi; 
W. L. Barrett, Jackson, Mississippi; Louis A. DiSalvo, Bay Saint 
Louis and Waveland, Mississippi; G. W. Bubanks, Hattiesburg, Mis- 
sissippi ; P. L. Gray of Jackson, Mississippi ; N. Gregory, Greenville, 
Mississippi ; C. L. Jordan of Pattison, Mississippi ; E. R. Killen, Phila- 
delphia; A. T. Land, Bay Springs; James R. Lathram, Kilmichael, 
Mississippi; D. Moon, Pelahatchie, Mississippi; Q. B. Rutland, Wes- 
son, Mississippi; Pete Russell, Magee, Mississippi; Mark Sandifer, 
Jayess, Mississippi; Clyde Seale, Meadville, Mississippi; N". Satter- 
field, Shaw, Mississippi'; D, Shook, Winona, Mississippi ; L. C. Sharp, 
Hattiesburg, Mississippi; Edward Stagner, Tylertown, Mississippi; 
and R. C. Wall, Hattiesburg, Mississippi. 

Are the results of the committee's investigation factual, Mr. Bowers? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. BoAVERS. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Bursars identified during the meeting : Tommy Brock, 
Utica, Mississippi; Everett D. Wiggs of Woodland, Mississippi; 
Gordon Sykes, of Greenville; Joe Rusteci, Itta Bena, Mississippi; 
Jack Williams, Pelahatchie County, Mississippi; Donald Henshaw, 
who was replaced by Dewitt Mark Sandifer of Jayess ; Vincent Pur- 
ser, Gulf port, Mississippi. 

Are the results of the committee's investigation factual, Mr. Bowers? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. On March 23, 1965, 1 put it to you as a fact, and ask you 
to affirm or deny the fact, that DeWitt Mark Sandifer turned over to 
you approximately $2500. 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. What disposition was made of that money, Mr. 
Bowers ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, I put it to vou as a fact that on May 2, 
1965, a State meeting was held in Pearl River County, Mississippi, at 
which time a constitutional amendment was adopted whereby each 
member would henceforth pay 65 cents per month to the State treasury 
plus his local dues; that all province and district and grand officers 
must attend all State meetings of the organization or to be fined $10; 
that failure to attend must be supported by an excuse which is accept- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2931 

able to the entire assembled State meeting; that all province, district, 
and grand officers shall be paid a maximum of $60 per month at the 
rate of 10 cents per mile for travel in connection with Klan business; 
that any man arrested on any charge that admits he is a member of the 
White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi or admits doing 
the act for which he is charged will receive no help whatsoever from 
the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ; that the dele- 
gates voted to pay obligations as follows : $1795 to pay an old printing 
bill in Jackson, Mississippi ; $300 to pay Imperial Wizard Sam Bowers 
for money he had advanced to the White Christian Protective and 
Legal Defense Fund; $200 to W. R. Mangum for outstanding ex- 
penses ; $42 to the province giant from Province No. 2 ; $50 each to the 
two men who were involved in the assault on a COFO worker in 
Vicksburg, Mississippi ; $300 to a man in Natchez, Mississippi, who was 
arrested during the fall of 1964 by the Mississippi Highway Patrol. 

Mr. Bowers, is that which was read to you growing out of the meet 
ing of May 2, 1965, factual ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Bowers, the committee's investigation established 
the following officers, Klavern officers, of the White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi : 

Ralph Edwards, EC, Yazoo City Klavern ; Price Gray, EC of one 
of the Klavenis in Jackson, Mississippi; A. C. Herrington, EC of the 
Ruth, Mississippi, Klavern; N. Gregory, EC of the Greenville, Mis- 
sissippi, Klavern ; Billie Joe Lee, EC of the Lawrence Comity Klavern 
No. 2 ; F. M. Martin, EC of the Utica, Mississippi, Klavern ; W. R. 
Mangum, EC of Magee, Mississippi, Unit No. 1 ; Felter Polk, EC of 
the Prentiss, Mississippi, Klavern ; Roger Smith, EC of Union, Mis- 
sissippi, Klavern; C. J. Seal, EC of the Crossroads Commimity 
Klavern. Seal was replaced as EC by Houston Dillard in April 1965. 
Robert Thomhill, the EC of the Improved Mississippi Unit at Sandy 
Hook, Mississippi; Clyde Wentworth, EC of the Franklin County 
Unit No. 1 in Meadville, Mississippi; W. R. Westmoreland, EC of 
the Klavern known by the cover name of Copiah Rod and Gmi Club. 
Howard McLemore replaced Westmoreland as the EC of this Klayeni. 
George Jasper Williams, EC of the Klavern in Learned, Mississippi ; 
Frank Hemdon, EC of Lauderdale Coimty Unit at Meridian, Missis- 
sippi ; Denson "Pee We«" Lott, the EC of Covington County Unit No. 
2 at Collins, Mississippi. He was replaced by Ledrun Spell. G. F. 
"Shorty" Roberts, who was EC and resigned when you i-eorganized 
the Hattiesburg Unit. He was replaced by Jimmy Watts; Ray, 
nicknamed "Speed" Lightsey, EC of Jones Comity Unit No. 1 ; Milton 
Howard James, EC of Jones County Unit No. 2, Ellisville; Henry 
Keith Dykes, EC of the Wolf Pack Unit No. 3, Jones County, Big 
Tree Community ; Richard C. "Speck" Steward, EC of Unit No. 4, 
Jones County; Robert E. Rivers, EC, Unit No. 5, Jones County; 
Charles B. Holder, EC, Bay Springs, Mississippi ; Herbert Haughton, 
EC of Covington Comity, No. 1, Mount Olive, Mississippi; Charles 
Francis Bishop, EC of the Old Raleigh Unit; Robert Lee JoneSj EC 
of Taylorville Unit ; Robert. H. Tuniage, EC of Mize, Mississippi, 
Unit; B. F. Hinton was EC of Laurel Unit known as the Bogue Homa 
Hunting and Rifle Club; I^eonard McGee, EC of the East Group in 



2932 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Laurel at one other time; S. T. Shook, EC of the Montgomery County 
Unit in Winona; Bert McDaniel, EC of the Smith County Unit; 
HoAvard Purvis, EC of the Popeville Klavem ; Baxter Robinson, EC 
of the Bums, Mississippi, Unit; Edgar Ray Killen, EC of the Phila- 
delphia Klan Unit. 

Mr. Bowers, do you have any comment on the factuality of the 
committee's investigation as to members of the White Knights holding 
positions of exalted cyclops ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Edgar Ray Killen, who was the EC of the Phila- 
delphia, Mississippi, Unit, do you possess knowledge whether he is 
the same Edgar Ray Killen that was arrested for the murder of the 
three civil rights workers in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. BoAVERS. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Bowers. 

The Chairman. Before coming to that, Mr. Appell, I would like to 
ask two or three questions, just briefly. 

Mr. Bowers, I read from your Imperial Executive Order of May 
3, 1964. It is addressed to all officers and members and under sub- 
ject, and after the colon, it reads: "Forthcoming Enemy attack and 
countermeasures to be used in meeting same." In that executive or- 
der you say that it must be read to and by, and miderstood by, every 
member of your statewide organization. Then you say, "This sum- 
mer"— this is 1964— 

This summer, within a very few days, the enemy will launch his final push for 
victory here in Mississippi. 

You say : 

A decree from the Communist authorities in charge of the National Gov- 
ernment, which will declare the State of Mississippi to be in a Stae [sic] of 
open revolt, with a complete breakdown of Law and Order, and declaring 
Martial Law, followed by a massive occupation of the State by Federal Troops, 
with all known Patriotic Whites placed luider Military Arrest. * * * 

Could you name, let us say, 100 of the Communist authorities in 
charge of the National Government at that time ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Could you name 50? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Could you name 20? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Could you name 10? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Could you name five? 

Mr. Bowters. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2933 

The Chairman. Could you name one? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. In that Imperial Executive Order you say: "A 
great deal of attention should he given toward detecting those" ene- 
mies — "enemy agents who bomb, burn and kill" — as you put it — "their 
own homes, churches and people in order to provide a sympathetic 
base for their National Propaganda Machine. These bombings and 
killings are always blamed on our side, but it is the Insane Commu- 
nist agitators themselves who are doing it. * * *" 

Could you name a few of those Communist agitators ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Could you name two? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfidly 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Could you name one? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Now, it has come to the attention of this committee, 
time and time and time and time agam, that the common practice of 
your outfit is to say that "all of these bombings and disturbances and 
killings are really done by foreigners, people from away from here, in 
order to blame these acts on us." 

Could you name one single, solitary bombing or killing or act of 
violence anywhere in the State of Mississippi which was really per- 
formed by people from away from there and blamed on you and 
pinned on you? Could you give me one single, solitary case of that 
type? I will be frank with you. I have been intrigued by this ques- 
tion, and I honestly do not know of any one, do you? And if you do, 
why don't you tell me ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You wind up in your imperial decree by saying, 
"We must use all of the time which is left" — and you say that would be 
a matter of day& — no, I am sorry, I will quote it exactly. It is better 
than I thought : 

We must use all of the time which is left to us in these next few days preparing 
to meet this attack. Weapons and ammunition must be accumulated and stored ; 
squads must drill ; Propaganda equipment must be set up ready to roll ; counter- 
attack maps, plans and information must be studied and learned ; radios and 
communications must be established ; 

Then you wind up by saying — 

and a Solemn, determined Spirit of Christian Reverence must be stimulated in all 
members. 

Did you accumulate weapons and ammunition ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Did you store weapons and ammunition? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Did you drill squads? 



2934 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE TJ.S. 

Mr. BowEfis. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Did you put your propaganda equipment to 
rolling ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. This was your propaganda equipment, wasn't it? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Appell. First I want to read from 
another document I have here which you put out, Mr. Bowers, what 
you call the Black List. It is headed in bold type : 

ATTENTION WHITE CITIZENS OF MERIDIAN AND LAUDERDALE 
COUNTY 

Listed, below are a few people and businesses who are traitors and parasites, 
who would sell their souls for thirty pieces of silver * * *. 

Then you proceed to list — and I am not going to name them — a page 
of such individuals and businesses. How could you imdertake to judge 
those people and pronomice them to be traitors and parasites ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I said I would not name them. I Avill name one. 
One of them on there is Billy Birdsong. You know Billy Birdsong, 
do you not? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons j)reviously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Wliy, he was your personal investigator for a 
while ; was he not ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Then you broke with him, did you not? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. As I recall, Mr. Appell related that we had investi- 
gative information to the effect that you yourself had stated that you 
had caused Billy Birdsong to be beaten up. Didn't you do that? 
Didn't you brag about that and say that at a meeting ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bowers, we get information under oath and we 
screen it out; we do the best we can. We never, without checking, take 
anything in particular at face value. As far as we are concerned, 
truth must prevail. If two people a]>pear l>efore us and give us 
divergent stories, apparently made for the purj^ose of evasion or plain 
lying, we do not hesitate to act on it and let whoever is subject to the 
pains and penalties of perjury take the consequence. But let me 
ask you this : Isn't it a fact that, as a matter of fact, you did send a 
goon sjquad to call on Billy Birdsong? 

( Witness con f er s with counsel . ) 

The Chairman. Goon squad, terror squad, underground wrecking 
crew, whatever you call it in Mississippi ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2935 

The Chairman. By the way, I won't name it, but I see you have a 
hospital on that list. Wliy, of all things, a hospital among traitors 
and parasites, people who would sell their souls for 30 pieces of silver ? 
^Vliy a hospital ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claimed priv- 
ilege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as it pertains to Mr. Bowers. 

Mr. Bowers was bom on August 6, 1924, at New Orleans, Louisiana. 
He resides at 816 South Fourth Avenue, Laurel, Mississippi. He has 
a partnership, in partnership with Robert Larson in operating the 
Sambo Amusement Company and the Magnolia Consolidated Realty 
Company, Inc., both of which are located at 820 South Fourth Street. 
Laurel, Mississippi. He attended the University of California School 
of Engineering for 2 years. He entered the Navy in December 1941 
and was honorably discharged as Machinist Mate First Class in De- 
cember 1945. Bowers in Febniaiy of 1964 was elected Imperial 
Wizard of the "White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

On February 15, 1964, 200 Klansmen met at Brookhaven, Missis- 
sippi, with those present foraierly being members of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Realm of Mississippi, a Klan group 
headed by Royal V. Young and J. D. Swenson. These men had as- 
sembled because of a disagreement over the misappropriating of fimds 
principally by J. D. Swenson. 

On February 17, 1964, meeting of Natchez Klavem announced that 
the Klectokon, or initiation fee, for the White Knights be $10 ; robe 
$10 ; dues $4.25 or $4.50 plus $1 for a building fund. 

On February 25, 1964, a regular meeting of the Laurel Klavern was 
held. During this meeting it was discussed that a meeting had been 
called for February 21, 1964, at the Klavern hall, at which time the 
proposed cross-burnings on Saturday, February 22, 1964, were called 
off because they thought that the police had information regarding 
the burnings. It was also voted that two crosses would be burned 
February 28, 1964, to prove that they, the Klan, was not bluffing. 

At this meeting, Sam Bowers, Grand Dragon or Imperial Wizard 
of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Mississippi, reported 
that he attended a State meeting at Brookhaven, Mississippi, on Sun- 
day, February 23, 1964. This meeting was for the purpose of creating 
changes in the constitution and bylaws. These changes were necessary 
since the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi had 
pulled away from the Klan in Louisiana. 

On February 26, 1964, Imperial Wizard Bowers reported that the 
State would be divided into five districts, each corresponding with a 
congressional district, and that the Wliite Knights hoped to have 30 
chartered Klaverns by March 15. 

June 7, 1964, the White Knights held a secret State meeting near 
Raleigh, Mississippi, with nearly 300 Klansmen in attendance. At 
this meeting all State officers were present. It was announced that 
money collected by Donald Henshaw would be turned over to Tommy 
Brock, chief bursar of Utica, Mississippi. At the time it was an- 
nounced the White Knights had 62 Klaverns in 82 Mississippi coun- 
ties. Speeches by State officers urged members to obtain firearms. 



2936 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Imperial Wizard Bowers urged the younger members to travel to 
assist law enforcement and emphasized that they should stay out of 
trouble till they catch "them," referring to COFO workers, outside 
of the law and then under Mississippi law "you have the right to kill 
them." Bowers claimed this was the case at Ole Miss where six 
United States marshals were killed because they were illegally at 
Ole Miss. However, Bobby Kennedy had kept this fact secret and 
would not permit it to be made known. Bowers claimed there were 
97 projects working which would be completed in the iimnediate 
future. 

At the meeting on June 7, a printed instruction to Klansmen with 
respect to action to be taken during the summer of 1964 was passed out. 

During June of 1964, efforts were being made by the White Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi to obtain two members from 
each Klavern throughout the State of Mississippi who would be in a 
position to leave their particular areas for 2 or 3 days at a time. 

June 9, 1964. Meeting near Jackson, Mississippi. Billy Buckles, 
the grand giant, told those assembled that the Wliite Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan was sponsoring an ex-convict to do a job in the Jackson 
area. This would cost $1,200— $400 in advance and $800 w;hen the job 
was completed. Buckles claimed that the job was so big it would 
make the death of Medgar Evers "look sick." One hundred dollars 
toward cost was collected from members present. 

June 24, 1964, a meeting of Hinds Comity Klavems was held on 
Greave's Plantation on the banks of the Pearl River at the west end of 
Elton Road near Jackson, Mississippi. Current Klan officers were in- 
troduced, including Imperial Wizard Bowers, Grand Dragon Harper, 
Grand Giant Buckles, Grand Director of KBI Gilbert, Klan Kleagle 
Herrington, with Herrington annomicing that the WTiite Knights had 
70 Klavems in 81 counties in Mississippi. 

Julius Harper, Grand Dragon, told those assembled that in all 
future jobs the county giant would select a unit to pull the job. The 
county coordinator would then select a meeting place, such as a motel 
or restaurant, and the exalted cyclops of the unit selected would then 
select the members to actually pull the job. 

Billy Buckles, the grand giant of the Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan, stated that there were to be no more bombmgs of any type by 
the Klan in Mississippi inasmuch as bombings drew attention to the 
Klan too rapidly. Buckles said that there are other ways to handle 
things and no matter what they tell you, arson is hard to prove. 
Buckles suggested that all members should not pay excessive prices for 
this material as he could obtain rifles for $15 each, which price included 
three clips of ammunition. Buckles commented that the outside agi- 
tators must be stopped, even if it takes a few "busted" heads and if 
necessary the Klan would go further than this to stop these agitators. 
Buckles said that when the Klan members locate meeting places of 
Negroes, such as Negro churches, they should throw carpet tacks on 
the parking lot and disable the assembled cars by cutting their wires. 
Buckles suggested that any gasoline operators who were members 
should keep a good supply of sugar to pour into the gasoline tanks of 
veliicles of persons working for integration. Buckles said he assumed 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2937 

that all of the members present had read about the disappearance of 
the three civil rights workers in Neshoba County and said — "Now, 
they know what we will do. We have shown them what we will do 
and we will do it again if necessary." 

September 1-4, 1964. State executive meeting at the office of Norman 
Jackson, Crystal Springs, Mississippi. Present along with Bowers 
and other top officers was Thomas Edward Fling of Mount Olive, 
Mississippi, identified during investigation as an auditor for the White 
I&iights. 

September 20, 1964. At a State executive meeting of the White 
Knights which was held they discussed violence and the Philadelphia 
murders. A. C. Herrington, klan kleagle, opposed church bomb- 
ings unless COFO workers were present. Ernest Gilbert, Klan 
Bureau of Investigation, favored throwing heathens out, but he op- 
posed burnings or bombings. Harper, Grand Dragon, was against 
burnings. Buckles, grand giant, and Bowers, Imperial Wizard, ex- 
pressed Herrington's view that they opposed church bombings unless 
COFO workers were present. 

Bowers, Imperial Wizard, discussed the Philadelphia affair and 
stated tliat if anyone was indicted each member of the "Wliite Knights 
would be assessed $10 each, and each State officer $100. Bowers also 
stated that if indictments Avere handed down a mass campaign would 
be started against the Federal Government and the Communist 
Party. The theme would be that the Federal Government was aid- 
ing the Communists, who are pushing the integration movement and 
Negro vote campaign. This was forcing ignorant people into acts 
of violence. 

September 27, 1964. A State executive meeting of the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was held on the second floor of the 
Harris box factory in Meridian, Mississippi. Again the subject 
discussed was violence, with Herrington opposing church bombmgs 
unless COFO workers were present, and with Bowers and Buckles 
concurring in these views. 

On October 11, 1964, a meeting of State officers was held at Crystal 
Springs, Mississippi. A resolution was adopted that the White 
Knights would issue no more literature and an order was passed 
down to commit no more felonies. Gilbert, the grand director of the 
Klan Bureau of Investigation, desired that order read "no more vio- 
lence" but this was rejected. There was discussion about the COFO 
house bombing at Vicksburg, Mississippi. Bowers and John Mc- 
Gregor of Jackson stated that "no one would find out anything about 
Vicksburg, Mississippi, COFO house bombing." On another occa- 
sion Bowers said that "they will not find out who did that one as I 
sent someone in from outside." 

On October 29, 1964, Bowers attended a District 8 meeting near 
Petal, Mississippi. He stressed that no more churches should be 
burned or bombed and no bombs should be thrown in anyone's yard. 

On November 12, 1964, the White Knights held a meeting at the 
Le Mar Hotel, Meridian, Mississsippi. Bowers reported that Delmar 
Dennis was to be liis personal representative and B. L. Akin in charge 
of all investigations in the Meridian area. All investigative matters 
should be brought to Akin's attention, with all administrative matters 
to be handled by Delmar Dennis. 



2938 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

On November 15, 1964, a State meeting was held between Harris- 
ville and Brandon, Mississippi. Principal discussion centered 
aromid violence by the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mis- 
sissippi. It was decided to declare a moratorium on all Projects 3 
and 4, for 90 days. However, Imperial Wizard Bowers advised that 
if an approved project had been planned and would be completed by 
December 1, it could be carried out. 

In January 1965, several meetings were called by Imperial Wizard 
Bowers for the purpose of raising funds on behalf of the defendants 
arrested for the murder of the three civil rights workers on June 21, 
1964, in Philadelphia, Mississippi. Created for this purpose was the 
White Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund. This fund was 
subsequently used for other purposes, including providing defense 
funds for members of the White Knights subpenaed by the committee. 

On January 31, 1965, a Klan cabinet meeting was held in an aban- 
doned farmhouse near a lake off Raymond Road, outside Jackson, 
Mississippi. Present were B. L. Akin, Birdsong, and Bowers, together 
with other State and Jackson Klavern ofl&cials. Discussion centered 
around lifting the moratorium against Projects 3 and 4 and the 
establishment of the defense fund known as the White Christian 
Protective and Legal Defense Fund. Bowers appointed Elmore D. 
Greaves as the fund head. 

Bowers told those assembled that he had confidential infonnation 
from high influential sources that African troops were being landed 
in Cuba for extensive military training. This is why he and the 
White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan had long-range plans for the 
buildup and burial of arms. He elaborated that after these troops 
were trained they will lead an invasion of the United States at Biloxi 
and Gulf port, Mississippi. When the invasion commences. Defense 
Secretary McNamara will nationalize the State Guard and turn the 
Southern States over to the Negro. Whites will be relocated and 
moved to the North. The Klan will be the only element to fight the 
invasion. Bowers said the choice would be "to be smart and move or 
to be right and fight." 

On March 23, 1965, at a State meeting at Jackson, Mississippi, 
Dewitt Sandifer turned over to Bowers approximately $2,500, with 
Bowers giving J. K. Greer $700 to $800 for legal expenses. 

On June 27, 1965, at a State meeting near Greenwood, Mississippi, 
100 members were present, including Bowers and other officers. At 
this meeting they voted to send $500 to the man at Bogalusa who was 
charged with killing the Negro deputy sheriff. They also gave out 
instructions that each Klavern was to burn two crosses on July 1, 1965. 

Buckles suggested that the job of KBI be filled temporarily at this 
meeting. Bowers disagreed and said it was a permanent assignment 
and should be filled through an election by the officers. Deavours Nix 
was elected ; 34 units of the Klan were present at this meeting 

The Chairman. Did you say at a certain meeting a certain amount 
was discussed as having been sent, or would be sent, to the Bogalusa 
area ? Read that again. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. The meeting was on June 27, 1965, near 
Greenwood, Mississippi, and it was voted to send $500 to the man in 
Bc^alusa who was charged with the killing of the Negro deputy sheriff. 

The Chairman. As I said before, this committee has no objection, 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2939 

I have no objection, nobody can have any objection, to providing de- 
fense counsel or funds to pay defense counsel for anyone, I don't care 
who he is. I am wondering, though, if that $500 reached its destina- 
tion. And if we don't know that, we had better take a look at it. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in our Louisiana phase of the hearing 
we identified, as the result of the committee investigation, the boy 
arrested in that as being a member of the Klan in Louisiana. 

The CHAIR3IAN. That was not my question. 

Mr. Appell. We do not know whether this money has been received. 

The Chairman. Did you send it ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. We have evidence, Mr, Bowers, to the effect that 
the 'Wliite Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund, as a matter 
of fact, was — ^it was described to us as placing buckets and jugs, 
as I remember the testimony, throughout Mississippi restaurants, 
hotels, motels, places of business, and elsewhere, and that it was pre- 
tended that this was a project of non-Klan members, but that in fact 
it was a Klan operation and that large sums of money were raised 
during that campaign. Do you have anything to say about that? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Information came to us that, despite the allegations, 
protestations, about sobriety and Christianity and everything else, as 
I recall, large sources of revenues were picked up by this defense 
fund, from buckets or jugs placed in drinking places, and that the 
more the people imbibed, the more they put in the buckets and jugs. 
You don't have any knowledge about that 'i 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. All right; proceed. 

Mr. Appell. At the meeting of June 27, a printing bill was sub- 
mitted for $396 for printing costs of posters "I Want You" for the 
White Knights of Mississippi. 

The Chairman. Is that the poster that was exhibited to us some 
time ago? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. ^ 

The Chairman. In my opinion, that is a low blow, Mr. Bowers. 
And I say that as chairman. I am sorry to say that. I don't use 
that kind of language when presiding, but the use of a poster "I Want 
You" imitating the famous poster of Uncle Sam calling soldier boys — 
"I Want You" — in my opinion is a low blow. 

Go on. 

Mr. Appell. On July 11, 1965, a meeting of province officers was 
held in Room 337, King Edward's Hotel, Jackson, Mississippi. 
Bowers instructed them to have a "job" in each province throughout 
Mississippi and that this plan was designed to spread thin the agents 
of the FBI located in Mississippi. Bowers reported that Billy Bird- 
song, who had given him more trouble than any other Klansman, had 
been whipped. 

On July 18, 1965, a meeting of kleagles was held south of Jackson, 
Mississippi. Nix, the grand director of the Klan Bureau of Investi- 
gation, shook everyone down for "bugs" or recording devices. Bowers 



2940 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

claimed that the White Knights in the Laurel area were responsible 
for over 16 burnings and bombings in Ihe Laurel area. He referred 
to Laurel as the "Smokestack City." 

On August 8, 1965, a meeting was held at Byram, Mississippi, south 
of Jackson. Bowers offered a resolution forbidding White Knights of 
Ku Klux Klan to associate with members of the United Klans of 
America. 

On Aug^ist 22, at a meeting near Florence, Mississippi, $500 was 
sent to assist three men arrested for arson in Greenwood, Mississippi. 

On November 10, 1965, Bowers discussed reorganizing the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan under a plan described as Rule 5. Under 
the rule, the exalted cy clops picks four unit heads and they in turn each 
selected four trusted Klansmen to meet with each group separately. 
By this reorganization Bowers hoped to frustrate the FBI infiltration. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Bowers is in 
possession of additional information which is both pertinent and rele- 
vant to this inquiry and would materially aid Congress in the enact- 
ment of remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bowers, you have heard the sworn statement 
of the committee's investigator. You now have the opportunity to 
reply to any portion of that statement, to confirm or challenge the 
accuracy of the information, or to explain any part of it. In addition, 
you may, if you desire, offer any other matter the committee may deem 
relevant to this inquiry. Do you care to take advantage of that 
opportunity ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I must inform you, Mr. Bowers, that I indeed agree 
with Mr. Appell's statement to the effect that you possess a great deal 
of information which you could supply this committee as an aid in 
providing remedial legislation. But in any event, you may now, if 
you desire, offer any other matter the committee may deem relevant 
to this inquiry. Do you care to take advantage of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Mr. Witness, I must inform you that, absent your 
rebuttal or other facts that may come to the attention of the subcom- 
mittee, the committee will rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. 
Having that in mind, do you now want to say anything ? And by that 
I mean, and specifically include, relating to the objects, the purposes, 
the objectives, the good that you know about klanism. I invite you to 
do that. You may say anything you want. You may praise it to the 
sky. I have asked so many witnesses that the record is going to look 
very odd when not a single leader — including Imperial Wizards, if you 
don't come forward — has volunteered to say one single, solitary word 
about what is good about klanism. Why don't you say what is good, in 
your opinion? You joined this; you must have believed in it. Let's put 
it in the record right now. Do you care to take advantage of that 
opportunity ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. All right. Anything else ? 

Mr. Appell, The staff has no further questions of this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 



ACTIVITIES OF KIT KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2941 

The Chairman. Mr, Buchanan. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Bowers, you are quoted as having said some- 
thing to the effect that if it is necessary to eliminate someone, it should 
be done in silence, without malice, in the manner of a Christian act. 
Am I to understand if murder is committed in silence and without 
malice it can become a Christian act ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Buchanan. No further questions. 

Mr. Appell. I would like to make a closing statement for the record, 
Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairivian. All right. 

Mr. Appell. The subpena of Mr. Bowers called upon him to pro- 
duce retained copies of corporate tax returns relating to the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. I do not ask Mr. 
Bowers to produce those documents because we have been advised by 
the Treasury Department that no return was filed. 

The Chairman. Have you filed individual income tax returns? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. According to our information, and I believe it is 
right, corporate returns were not filed either. Did you receive any 
money of any kind, from one nickel on up, as a result of your associa- 
tion with the Klan group that you headed ? 

Mr. Bowers. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused and the subcommittee stands 
in recess until 2 :30. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Willis and Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon, at 1 :30 p.m., Tuesday, February 1, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 :30 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 3 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Buchanan.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Call your first witness for the afternoon, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Ernest S. Gilbert, Jr. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. Do you solenmly 
swear, sir, that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Gilbert. I do. 



2942 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF ERNEST S. GILBERT, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, state your full name for the record. 

Mr. Gilbert. Ernest S. Gilbert, Jr. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here in accordance with a subpena 
served upon you on the 30th day of October 1965, at 114 Main Street, 
Natchez, Mississippi, by John D. Sullivan, an investigator of this 
committee ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Room 501, First Federal 
Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, 114 Main Street, Natchez, Mississippi, 
is that the headquarters of the United Klans of America, Realm of 
Mississippi ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reasons that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incrim- 
inate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 
5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, Investigator Sullivan, who sits to my 
right, advises me that the place that you were served was the head- 
quarters of the United Klans of America, Realm of Mississippi, in 
Natchez, Mississippi. Is the information which he supplies factual? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born, Mr. Gilbert ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon groimds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
give for the record his place and date of birth. 

The Chairman. Yes, I will order and direct you to answer that 
question. It is preliminary exploration. It is perfectly usual. It cannot 
possibly incriminate you. It is a fact that ought to be in the record. 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, in 1963, were you a member of the Original 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana, the Realm of Mississippi? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully declme to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. When a group of members of the Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of Louisiana broke from that organization and 
several of its leaders were banished by Royal V. Young, the Imperial 
Dragon, w^as a temporary organization to become known as the White 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi organized? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based on the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2943 

Mr. Appell. Prior to the election of Sam H. Bowers as the Imperial 
Wizard of the new organization known as the White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, were you temporarily placed in charge 
of that organization ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that with the election of Mr. Bowers as the Im- 
perial Wizard you were elected to the position of grand director of 
the Klan Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, as grand director of the Klan Bureau 
Investigation, you possess knowledge of violence carried out by mem- 
bers of the Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. It is the results of 
the committee's investigation that many of these persons who held 
membership in the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan now hold 
membership in the United Klans of America, Realm of Mississippi. 

Is this information factual ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, as grand director of the Klan Bureau 
of Investigation, did you make an investigation to determine whether 
or not members of the Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan were 
involved in the murder of Henry Dee and Charles Moore, whose bodies 
were found in the "Old River" ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. James Ford Seale, one of the two arrested, is he now 
a member of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In a recent release put out by the United Klans of 
America, the Imperial Wizard, Mr. Robert Shelton, acknowledged 
what, in my recollection, was the first time that there are possibly mis- 
fits within the United Klans of America. Are these people who were 
engaged in acts of violence while members of the White Knights and 
who are now members of the United Klans of America some of the 
misfits to whom Imperial Wizard Shelton was referring? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, when Mr. Shelton spoke at a rally of the 
United Klans of America near Hattiesburg, Mississippi, and he 
charged that Mayor Henry Bucklew's charges linking the White 
Knights with violence in Laurel, Mississippi, and described that as 
political expediency, had he discussed with you, as the former grand 
director of the Klan Bureau of Investigation, as to whether or not 
members of the "Wliite Knights had been involved in a series of bomb- 
ings and burnings in Laurel, Mississippi? 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 4- 



2944 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, was Paul Foster the first grand chaplain 
of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that he is presently the Grand Klaliff or vice president of the 
Realm of Mississippi of the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Gilbert, I hand you several newspaper clippings 
relating to the removal of a body from its grave because of com- 
plaints made by the Klan that Black Muslims were concealing arm 
caches in this and other graves. 

The newspaper account that I handed you reveals that the original 
complaint was made to the deputy sheriff of Washington County by 
J. R. Wood of Greenville. Do you know him to be a member of the 
United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The account in the Jackson, Mississippi, Clarion- 
Ledger reads that : 

The Mississippi Kleagle of the United Klans from Brookhaven, Ernest Gilbert, 
accompanied by fellow Klansman, F. L. Malone of Brookhaven, arrived on the 
scene in Malone's specially equipped radio car * * *. 

Please tell the committee the use made of citizens band radios and 
walkie-talkie radios by the United Klans in Mississippi. 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "Ernest Gilbert Exhibit No. 1." The Clarion- 
Ledger article follows :) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2945 

Ernest Gilbert Exhibit No. 1 
[Jackson, Miss., Clarion- Ledger , Novembjcr 16, 1965) 

Report Of Arms Cache False; 
Officials Begin Probe^Of Klaii 

By KENNETH TOLLIVER ! He revealed thaT Sunday! tolSarch up and down the roaJ. 
(See picture on Page 6.) morning J. R. Wood, a suspect-[I put a stop to that." 

GREENVILLE — An appar- ed Klansman, summoned Oep-i Fi.'^her told reporters that as 
ent bid for publicity by the uty Fisher to his home to give darkness fell the KKK became 
United Klans of .\merica in him details about some hidden more anxious to have the grave 
Mississippi may have backfired 'arms. opened and called him con- 

Tuesday as authorities blasted "He told me last week he be- stanlly on the phone asking for 
the organization and began an lieved the Black Muslims were results, 
investigation of KKK activity, sneaking guns into the area, but I finally called the county 

The rumble nf the wrath of, at that time he said he didn't executive Cyclops of the United 
Washington County law enforce- know where they were kept," Klans. Dr. Everett, Mitchell, a 
ment agencies rolled across the Fisher said. Greenville physical therapist, 

state touching the Attorney Fisher said that while at and a.sked him if he was in 
General's office, the Governor's Wood's house he saw 'stacks of (^y^^, ^^,j,y, j^,^ members and 
Mansion and the Highway Pa- Klan literature" and while he ^^^^ ^^ ^.^jj ygj. j y^\^ "(,;„, j 

"■o!^ , . ,. . Y\ '^i''-"^ u*''*" ^'"!!^-, "f"*^" was doing all I could and they 
The wave of indignation was denly these hree rough looking ^^^, ^e patient," Fisher con- 
sparked by charges brought by characters stepped out from be- {jp^jpfj 

members of the United Klans of hind a curtain." ^^^ Missis.sippi Kleagle of the 
America Sunday that weapons He said they told him hey ^,^,(g^ ^j^^ f/^^ Rr^khaven. 
for the Black Muslims were knew where the Black Mus ims g^^^^, f,,^, , ^^^^^^^^,^ by 
buried ,n Negro churches and were h:d,ng guns a n d they Kian^p^an. F. L Malone 
cemeteries across the stale. wanted to make a deal. "They , Rrnothsvpn arrived on the 
In Greenville Klansmen led wanted a reasonable portion of "' m,,„L ,n^iJn! 
Washington County deputies to the guns and ammunition," he L^,f„!I2, " ^^ n2r F..hL „ h 
a recent Negro grave and told explained. "They said they ^"'PI^ '^^<^'" ^'"^' ^'^^^' '"'"*'• 
them it contained — "automa- 1 wanted to use them to protect _, ^'-'pli'T NO CREDI'T 
tic weapons, ammunition and white people." They told reporters they 
maybe a machinegun." Fi.sher left saving he could "'^i <^ *« '"^^l law enforce- 
NO GUNS ' not make .such a deal, but lat- '^^' P^^P'^ '" Bel full credit. 
When the grave was opened er when he returned to talk fur- Jhe lileaj^le tciid newsmen 
Monday morning, it was found ther with the group thev told t^al he ftstimated 'more than 
to contain a simple coffin and him they had "been in "touch ^^ J""' h^" ^'^ smuggled 
no weapons of any kind. with headquarters and it's okay >nt«> tie state and were hidden 
In a special press conference to cooperate with vou." m Negro graves and Churches, 
called by authorities, reporters They then led Deputy Fisher Deputy Fisher .said that Klea- 
were told that "the wraps were to a Negro cemetery near g'p Gilbert offered the .services 
being taken from the Klan op- Greenville and pointed out the '^^ ^^^ ^nen. Fisher said that Gil- 
eration." grave of James Turner, 64, who ^ert told him," One of our mem- 
Referring to the opening of had been buried Nov. 4. ^^^s is in tears out there think- 
the grave Monday morning, WANTED REPORTERS '"? ^bout those guns." 
Wa.shington County Chief Depu- "They said thev had been Greenville Chief of Police 
ty Earl Fisher said," This was watching the cemetery and were ^- ^ Burnley referred In the 
done to disprove once and for pretty sure that guns were in Klansmen as a "bunch n{ nuts 
all that Negroes are not stash- the grave. They wanted ABC, *'th crazy ideas fighting for the 
ing guns. The Black Muslims NBC, CBS and the Jackson survival of their stupid organi- 
and the Deacons for Defen.se newspapers on hand when the zati""" 

are not in here creating an up- grave was opened." Fisher told ^ suspected Klansmen accom- 
rising." reporters. panied the authorities to the 
Working in the dark foggy Fearing a not if the rumors gi'^v^ ""^ reported back to Gil- 
graveyard, heavily armed po- reached the public. Fisher said ^^ ^f'^r the grave was open- 
lice pried the hd from a wood- he requested a riot squad fron> ed^ 

en vault holding the casket and the (Treenville police — He" then Meanwhile Klansmen with 

found nothing to further such telephoned the Attorney Gener- '*" " way radio equipped cars, 

'"^r'T . u , «"" J3ck.son and told him about ^""^^ , *'*^ Tennessee tags, 

"We had reason to believe ,^6 situation. "He said to con- '^''''^^ '^'^ ^^'R^^^^y "*^^ '»^« 

hat a felonv, that of grave (jnue the investigation," Fisher f^^^^^^'"!'. . . , .^ 

tampering, might have been ^^^^ ^ Special investigators from the 

committed and we obtained per- ..^^^ ^^^^ j^,.^,^ ^^ 3^^. Highway Pa t r o 1 arrived in 

mission from the next of k;n j, ^^^ ^^^ ^^ j^^^ anyone Greenville Tue,<;day to begin 

to open the grave." Fisher said.if^^^ ,3^, ^^^ ^^^ ]>,^,j their own inve.stigation into the 

•We did not have a court order ^ they could patrol up and incident. They were apparently 

to open the coffin Itself, but our ,,■>',*', 1^ infere.sted in the Klan claim 

investigation indicated it had J^"'^; J f ^^ the r ad « that "we have been watching the 

""^ RFLA^?,NnDENTS equip^TcaTs, Fisher expTat ^-'^'^, ,f . Negroes i^ three 

ln''tL';Trsrc'o™c?Dep.'^"l-l ^^^ ^-dly turned '^^^a a^e^ '^'"^ "^ ^""^ 

uty Fisher related the chain of around before one of them had 8 . ^ governor's 

incidents with Klan members : ^".^^-^''^ \"d \ "^ m''""?,'' ' ofLindicaT^) that Gov. John- 

which led to the event. • I '»-"«''' "ve-- ^'s shoulder all set °^'*''.j "tested " 



2946 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. The news account then quotes you as saying, "more 
than 5,000 guns had been smuggled into the state and were hidden in 
Negro graves and Churches." If that statement is factual, Mr. Gil- 
bert, please give the committee the benefit of the knowledge the United 
Klans of America possesses in this regard. 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did the United Klans of America have any basis upon 
which to make this charge to the Washington County Sheriff's De- 
partment, which resulted m the removal of a body from the grave and 
a search of his coffin for concealed arms ? 

Mr, Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of pi-ivi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Gilbert. 

Ernest S. Gilbert was born on June 13, 1925, in Smith County, 
Mississippi. His educational background is unknown to the staff. 
During the early part of 1965, he was employed as a driller with the 
Smith Petroleum Company, Brookhaven, Mississippi. Mr. Gilbert 
was a leader of the Realm of Mississippi of the Original Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan which had its headquarters in Louisiana. In late 
1965, because of mismanagement of Original Knight funds 

The Chairman. You say the headquarters in Louisiana. Is that in 
the area of the Bossier-Shreveport area ? 

Mr. Appell. As a result of mismanagement of Original Knight 
funds by J. D. Swenson, dissension grew and resulted in certain Mis- 
sissippi Klansmen being banished. After the banishment of Douglas 
A. Byrd and E. L. McDaniel and others, they and their followers broke 
from the Original Knights and formed the White Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi. Ernest Gilbert was elected or appointed 
temporary head of the Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mis- 
issippi in late 1963. Mr, Gilbert, E. L.— nicknamed Tiny — Lewis, and 
Douglas Byrd were part of a committee which drafted the White 
Knights constitution. With the election of the White Knights offi- 
cers in February 1964, Gilbert was chosen grand director of the Klan 
Bureau of Investigation, a position he held until June 1965, when he 
joined the United Klans of America, becoming its grand kleagle or 
State organizer, a position which he presently holds. Gilbert was the 
exalted cyclops of the original Klavern in Lincoln County, Mississippi. 
As grand director of the Klan Bureau of Investigation, Gilbert was 
responsible for gathering intelligence necessary for the Wliite Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi to carry out acts of intimidation 
or violence by the State or by local Klaverns with State approval. 
Gilbert attended numerous meetings at which violence was planned or 
discussed. 

In May 1964, he attended a meeting in the Salvage House of Algene 
Price located at Key Field, Meridian, Mississippi, at which Preacher 
Edgar Ray Killen presided. Killen was later arrested in connec- 
tion with the slaying of the tliree civil rights workers in Phila- 
delphia, Mississippi. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2947 

On June 7, 1964, he attended a meeting n'ear Raleigh, Mississippi, 
where Klansmen were urged to obtain firearms and members were 
advised that the White Knights had 97 projects working through the 
State. At this meeting a printed instruction captioned "Harras- 
ment" [sic] was given to the some 300 Klansmen present. 

On Jime 24, 1964, Gilbert attended a meeting of Hinds County 
Klavem near Jackson where the grand giant discussed future proj- 
ects, in which he stated that the province giant would select a unit 
to pull a job; the county coordinator would select a meeting place 
for the unit to discuss the details; thereafter the EC of the unit 
selected to pull the job would select the members to carry out its 
completion. 

On September 20, 1964, Gilbert was part of a discussion on vio- 
lence, in which he opposed burning or bombing churches but approved 
other forms of violence against what he described as "heathens" who 
used churches to hold meetings. 

On September 29, 1964, Gilbert and V. T. Purser requested Grand 
Dragon Julius Harper for the State to burn or stinkbomb the Menon- 
ite School for Wayward Girls, which was being used as COFO 
headquarters. 

In January 1965, Gilbert attended the first of several meetings relat- 
ing to the formation of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and 
the Wliite Christian Protective and Legal Defense Fund. 

July 16, 1965, spoke at a public rally held at the Crossroads Com- 
munity, Poplarville, Mississippi. He was introduced as grand kleagle 
for the UKA. He was accompanied on the platform by former mem- 
bers of the White Knights, C. J. Seal, now a titan of the United 
Klans of America; E. L. McDaniel, Grand Dragon for the United 
Klans of America; Louis DiSalvo, also on the platform; and Saxon 
Farmer and Ovied Dunaway. 

The Chairman. Is that Farmer of Louisiana? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. And Ovied Dunaway, exalted cyclops of 
the Original Knights in Bogalusa, together with Jack Helm, a 
Louisiana Realm official from New Orleans, Louisiana. 

On October 28, 1965, Gilbert was on the platform at a public rally 
with Imperial Wizard Shelton near Hattiesburg, Mississippi. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Gilbert pos- 
sesses additional information whicli is both pertinent and relevant 
to this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting 
remedial legislation. 

The Chairman. Mr. Gilbert, you have heard the statement of Mr. 
Appell, who you know is under oath just like you are. You now have 
the opportunity to reply to any portion of that statement, confinn or 
challenge the accuracy of the information, or to explain any part of the 
statement. In addition, you may, if you desire, offer any other matter 
the committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. Do you care to take 
advantage of this opportunity ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. In that case, Mr. Gilbert, absent your rebuttal or 
other facts which may come to the attention of the committee, this 
committee will rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. Bearing 
this in mind, do you have anything to say ? 



2948 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The CHAiRjvrAN. Do you have anything more ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Gilbert, I hand you two photographs taken during the rally 
held at Crossroads Community in Poplai-ville, Mississippi. I ask you 
to advise the committee as to the reason or purpose that persons shown 
in this photograph are dressed in black robes with black hoods, and 
even those in white robes carrying sidearms. 

The Chairman. Doing what ? 

Mr. Appell. Carrying sidearms, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Do you care to say what you were explaining to 
your counsel? And I don't want to pry into consultations at all now. 
But if you have anything to say, sir, now is the time to say it. If you 
don't know anything about it, why don't you say so? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Let me hand you back the one photograph and invite 
your attention to the man who has a camera in his hand whose back is 
in the photograph. I ask you whether or not that is yourself. 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you another photograph and ask you to observe 
the Klansman in a red robe. I then ask you if that is Charles Stewart 
whom you have been seated with this morning and who is on the front 
row on the seats to the left as you look to the rear of the room. 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions. 

The Chairman. I see in this photograph, the one just handed to you, 
where it was indicated that you were the person in the photograph 
with your back turned, that some of the individuals, some of the peo- 
ple in this photograph, have red marks or Indian signs or something 
on their faces. Do you know what that stands for ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Honest to goodness now, Mr. Gilbert, isn't that 
silly ? Take a look at that. 

(Photograph handed to witness.) 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Yet, on the other photograph that I hand you I 
see some people with sidearms, meaning pistols, with gun belts and 
cartridges all around their belts. That doesn't seem to be silly, that 
seems to be deadly serious to me. Wliat does it seem to you ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Photographs marked "Ernest Gilbert Exhibit No. 2" follow:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 
Ernest Gilbert Exhibit No. 2 



2949 




Ernest Gilbert Exhibit No. 2— Continued 




2950 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLTJX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ernest Gilbert Exhibit No. 2— Continued 




^^^^i 



■>w -. 



J 



Photographs taken during rally at Crossroads Community, Poplarville, Miss. 

The Chairman. Do you have any further questions? 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Joseph Carlton Brown. 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, this witness affirms. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly affirm to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr. Brown. I do. 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, before Mr. Appell asks the witness 
any questions, the subpena has written over it "James Carlton Brown" 
and "James" is stricken out and above it is written "Joseph." I would 
like for the subpena that I have to be corrected or the one the commit- 
tee has to be corrected by letting me ask the reverened his true name. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Chalmers. It is Joseph Carlton Brown, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2951 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH CARLTON BROWN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brown, would you state your full name for the 
record ? 

Mr. Brown. Joseph Carlton Brown. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with the 
subpena served upon you on the 29th day of October 1965 by John D. 
Sullivan, an investigator of this committee? 

Mr. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel, Mr. Brown ? 

Mr. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law. Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brown, when and where were you born? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of America. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee the benefit of your 
educational background ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Will you give the committee a resume of your employ- 
ment background from 1960? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I don't think you ought to do that. Reverend. I 
understand you are a minister and I really don't think you ought to 
do that. Why don't you tell us what you do ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brown, are you acquainted with an individual 
who resided in McComb by the name of Billy Earl Wilson ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brown, Billy Earl Wilson testified before this 
committee on January 18, 1966, in public session. In the course of 
his testimony, after he had identified himself as being a onetime 
member of the United Klaus of America in Mississippi and after he 
had testified that he was assigned to a Klavern of the United Klans of 
America, which he did not know the number of but vrhich the com- 
mittee investigation establishes to be No. TOO, he identified as the 
exalted cyclops of that Klavern Ray Smithj who is employed by the 
telephone company in McComb, MississippL He was asked in con- 
nection with the officers of that Klavern as to the identity of the kludd 
or the chaplain, and he identified as the kludd or chaplain the Rev- 
erend J. C. Brown. Was Mr. Wilson's testimony truthful ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the gi'ounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson testified that after he was arrested he was 
visited, together with his other nine codefendants, by the Reverend 
J. C. Brown. Is his testimony truthful? 



2952 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Would you tell the committee why you visited Billy 
Earl Wilson and the other defendants while they were in jail following 
their arrests? 

Mr. Bkown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The other defendant, Paul Dewey Wils.on, at the time 
you were the kludd or chaplain of the Klavem, was he the klaliff or vice 
president of the Klavern ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Murphy John Duncan, another of the defendants, 
was he the klabee or treasurer of the Klavern ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you also know Murphy John Duncan to be the 
grand klabee or grand treasurer of the United Klans of America, 
Realm of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. At the time you visited Billy Earl Wilson in jail, did 
you advise him that the Imperial Wizard Shelton was going to assess 
every member of the United Klans of America to help pay their at- 
torney fees, court costs, and other expenses ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Brown, I will now read you from Billy Earl Wil- 
son's testimony, who was asked about his plea, and he said that he 
pleaded nolo contendere, and continued : 

Yes, sir, nolo contendere, I was sentenced to 6 months in jail and a $500 fine. 
This 6 months was to be suspended, and the $500 fine had to be paid within a 
weeli's time, plus the cost of court, which was $78. So all told, I had to get 
hold of $578, I believe, is the right amount. 

About Wednesday of that week Brother Brown sent word to me for me to 
stop over at his home, which I did. He gave me $2.50, which was half of my fine, 
and also gave me $78, which was all the costs of the court. That, as far as I 
knew then, I was just about in the same shape as I was in before. be<"ause I 
didn't have the money, you know, to match the other, for the half of it. 

So my grandad — I might say he is a real nice guy — let me have the other half 
of the money, which I went down Immediately the next afternoon from work, 
and I paid all my fines and everything. 

Mr. Appell. What about the fee that you had to pay for an attorney to de- 
fend you in this action? 

Mr. Wilson. My aunts and uncles, and what little money I had, they all went 
together and tried for a lawyer, and I think they asked about two, I think, and 
finally wound up with Mr. L. S. McClaren. As a retainer, he said he had to 
have $500, which they all went together and made up the money, and they didn't 
have it, and he was my lawyer. 

Mr. Appell. So that of the $500 that you had to pay your attorney and the 
$500, plus court costs, that you were fined, the United Klans of America, of 
which you Avere a formal member and for which you engaged in these acts as 
a result of action formally taken within a Klavern chamber, paid then $100. I 
guess, toward your attorney fees, one-half of your fine in the amount of $250, 
and the $78 court costs, or a total of $428. 

Mr. Wilson. As far as I know, that money that was raised that we received 
was raised right there, you know, in town, by — it may be some members that 
were in the Klan, but I imagine there was a lot of them that wasn't in the Klan 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2953 

that let us have some money. So far as I know, to actually say that I received 
money, I can't, because I don't know. 

Did Billy Earl Wilson receive from you a total of $428^ 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
ba,sed upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Where was the money obtained which you used to re- 
imburse Billy Earl Wilson and the other nine defendants in that 
action ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appeli.. If Billy Earl Wilson received $428 and there were 
defendants and they each received equal shares, it would be close to 
$4,000 that was collected. Did any of this money come from the United 
Klans of America imperial office in Tuscaloosa, Alabama? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact that none of this money came 
from the United Klans of America imperial office in Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
bama. I ask you to affirm or deny that fact. 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Reverend Brown, can you explain to me how it was 
that Imperial Wizard Shelton would deny to me, in an interview, that 
these McComb people were even members of the United Klans of 
America ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of Mr. Brown. 

The Chairman. Sir, my information is that you are a minister of 
the Gospel, and I am not, believe me, undertaking to delve into your 
religious beliefs or to reproach you or lecture in the least.. It is my 
recollection — and this recollection is in general terms — that Mr. Wil- 
son did not say that you had obtained the money that you gave him 
from Klan members or from Klan headquarters or from Klan lead- 
ers. In fact, I got the general impression — and I may be wrong as to 
the details — that Mr. Wilson was at least implying you might have 
or probably did raise this money locally. I want to tell you, sir, as I 
have said many, many times before, if you did raise money for the 
defense of this young man or anybody in trouble, you would be doing 
absolutely nothing wrong. Could you tell us hoAv you went about 
raising that money ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I Avould even tell you, sir, that, if you did relate 
that, it wouldn't subject you to a continuous line of cross-examination 
on my part. I would be curious to know how you did raise that money 
and do what I assume you thought to be an act of kindness. Why 
can't you tell us tliat ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 



2954 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

The Chairman. It is my recollection also that this young man, Wil- 
son, who got himself in an awful mess of trouble, said that he joined the 
Klan organization because he believed what had been represented to 
him, to the effect that that organization, in addition to standing for 
other things, such as Christianity, which we will overlook for the time 
being, stood for segregation of the races. He said that. I think it is 
true, and that brought no opposition from me, nor did it subject him 
to any cross-examination on my part. 

Anyway, after having said what he was going to stand on and hav- 
ing gotten in trouble, and believing in it originally, he came to the con- 
clusion that klanism was not the answer to racial segregation or inte- 
gration. Would you care to address yourself to that? 

Mr, Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Brown, you have been identified by our in- 
vestigation as the kludd or chaplain of a Klavem, and therefore I as- 
sume you are its spiritual adviser. Do you feel there are circum- 
stances which justify bombings and make them acceptable or 
Christian acts? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Buchanan. You are a man in a position of some influence and 
are in a position to influence young people to join or not to join such 
an organization as the Klan. Do you feel that the activities of the 
Klan are such that this is a good and healthy organization for young 
people who might be under your influence to join ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon, at 3 :50 p.m., Tuesday, February 1, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, February 2, 
1966.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

Part 4 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 2, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
as reconstituted for the February 2 hearings, met, pursuant to recess, 
at 10:30 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office Building, 
Washington, D.C, Hon. Joe R. Pool (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of Texas, 
chairman; Charles L. Weltner, of Georgia; and John M. Ashbrook, 
of Ohio.) 

Subcommittee mem'bers present : Representatives Pool, Weltner, and 
Ashbrook. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel ; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel ; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator ; and Philip R. Manuel, investigator. 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

The Chair wishes to make this announcement: Mr. Edwin Willis, 
the chairman of this subcommittee of the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities, is not able to be here today, and he has redes- 
ignated the subcommittee to hear the witnesses this morning, and here 
is the authority for that : 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities consisting 
of Honorable Joe R. Pool as Chairman, and Honorable Charles L. Weltner and 
Honorable John M. Ashbrook as associate members, to conduct hearings in 
Washington, D.C, on Wednesday, February 2, 1966, as contemplated by the 
resolution adopted by the Committee on the 30th day of March, 1965, authorizing 
hearings concerning the activities of the various Ku Klux Klan organizations in 
the United States. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 2nd day of February, 1966. 

Mr. Appell, are you ready for your next witness ? 
Mr. Appell. Yes, sir ; Mr. Chairman, I would like to call Mr. Emmett 
Thomhill,Sr. 

Mr. Pool. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

2955 



2956 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing by the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. Thornhill. I do. 

Mr. Alford. Mr. Chairman, Louis Alford, attorney. 
Mr. Pool. Just a minute. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN" EMMETT THORNHILL, SR., ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, LOUIS ALFORD 

Mr, Appell. Mr. Thornhill, will you state your full name for the 
record ? 

Mr. Thornhill. John Emmett Thornhill. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with a 
subpena served upon you on the 29th day of October 1965 by John D. 
Sullivan, an investigator of this committee ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thornhill, are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Alford. Louis Alford, attorney at law, McComb, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thornhill, when and where were you born? 

Mr. Thornhill. In 1908, in Walthall County, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. If you will, put that microphone a little bit closer to 
you, as the acoustics in this room are terrible. 

Mr. Thornhill. All right, sir. 

Mr. Appell. We will hear you a little better. 

Now, would you tell us where, the montli, and the day? I didn't 
get that. I heard the year 1908. 

Mr. Thornhill. October the 29, 1908, in Walthall County, State 
of Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr, Thornhill, would you give the committee a brief 
resume of your educational background ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I didn't get any education. 

Mr. Appell. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
employment background since 1960 ? 

Mr. Thornhill. In 1960? 

Mr. Appell. Since 1960, sir. 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, farmer, and in the oil business. Independent 
operator. 

Mr. Appell. In the oil business ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And what was the first thing that you said? I didn't 
hear that. 

Mr. Thornhill. Farming. 

Mr. Appell. Oh, farming. 

Mr. Thornhill. I own my own farm. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Thornhill, under the subpena served upon you, there is an 
attachment which is made a part of the subj^ena, and it commands for 
you to bring with you and to produce : 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2957 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Em- 
pire, United Klaus, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affili- 
ated organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, in your possession, 
custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you as present or past 
member of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan 
of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan. 

I ask you, Mr. Thornhill, whether you have any such documents in 
your possession, and if you will produce them in accordance with the 
subpena ? 

(Witness confers w^ith counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I have none. 

Mr. Alford. Mr. Chainnan, the only thing that may be interpreted 
as falling within that category are three canceled checks, which 

Mr. Pool. Well, now, I would like to have the witness say whatever 
he wants to on that. 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I have no records. 

Mr. Pool. You have no records ? 

Mr. Appell. Would you produce the checks which 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thornhill, the first check which you produced is a 
check drawn on the First National Bank of McComb, Mississippi, pay- 
able to Radio Station WHNY, in the amount of $17, dated June 1, 
1964. 

The other is a check on the same bank in the amount of $25, dated 
June 2, 1964, to Radio Station WAPF; and the third check on the 
same bank, dated June 3, 1964, in the amount of $63, is payable to 
the Enterprise-J aurnal^ all checks signed J. E. Thornhill. 

Mr. Thornhill, can you explain to the committee how these checks 
fall within the purview of the subpena and the purpose for which they 
were drawn? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Pool. Let's see the checks. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir ; I can answer that. 

Those checks were give — they got me to run an ad on each radio, put 
spots on the radios for Mr. Shelton's speech, which he was going to 
make at the fairground in McComb ; also, run an ad in the paper. So 
that's what the checks w^as give for. 

(Checks marked "John Thornhill Exhibit No. 1" follow:) 



2958 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

John Thornhill Exhibit No. 1 



MR. OR MRS. J. E. THORNHILL 

p. O. BOX c 

SmfMiT, ivlississipp: 
TO THE / ^ Z/' J' :7^''-T^ /y. 











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Dollars 



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•:qe>5 3"'00^ii: 52 Eon,*- 



MR. OR MRS. J. F. THORNHILL 

p. O. BOX C 

StrMMTT, Mississippi 



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MR. OR MRS. J. E. THORNHILL 

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For 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2959 

Mr. Appell. Aiid the Mr. Shelton that you are referring to is the 
Imperial Wizard of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Wio approached you for the purpose (ff paying the 
radio stations and the newspaper for this advertisement? 

Mr. Thorxhill. Well, I just don't remember. I can't recall right 
now just who did do that. 

Mr. Appell. At the time that you were approached to make these 
payments, covering advertisement for a speech to be made by Imperial 
Wizard Shelton, were you a member of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And when did you first join the United Klans of 
America ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't remember that. 

Mr. Appell. Can you fix it roughly as to the early part of 1964 or 
late 1963 ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir ; I don't remember. 

Mr. Appell. At the time that you gave the checks in June, can you 
recall approximately how many months you had been, at that time ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Three or four months, something like that. 

Mr. Appell. Three or four months ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Explain to the committee the circumstances under 
which you became a member of the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Thornhill. What do you mean by that, now ? 

Mr. Appell. Well, how did you become? Did you seek membership 
or did someone approach you for the purpose of becoming a member 
or just what were the circumstances? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir; someone approached me to join the 
United Klans. 

Mr. Appell. And who approached you ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, now, I 

(Witness confers with counsel. ) 

Mr. Thornhill. Mr. Chairman, with respect, I decline to answer 
on the grounds that my answer might tend to involve me. I refuse to 
answer it, based on the right give me under the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 14th 
amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thornhill, in refusing to answer that question, 
do you rely upon an oath of secrecy which is administered to 
Klansmen ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. In other words, your refusal to answer that question 
is because as a Klansman, you were administered an oath of secrecy 
which you subscribe to ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir ; and this I just read. 

Mr. Appell. I think that for the purpose of the record, if you will 
say, when you desire to refer to the constitutional privileges which 
you invoked earlier, if you say that it is for the grounds previously 
stated, the record will reflect all of the reasons which you state. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 4 5 



2960 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, on the grounds that previously just was 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Chairman, in view of the fact that Mr. Thornhill, in response 
to a question, stated that among the reasons he refused to answer was 
the oath of secrecy that he took, I ask that he be directed to answer the 
last question. 

Mr. Pool. Well, as I understand him, he took the fifth amendment 
also. 

Mr. Appell. Not with respect to whether or not among his reasons 
was the oath of secrecy which was given to Klansmen. 

Mr. Pool. Wliy don't you restate your question. You are talking 
about his reasons, and that is a little different from trying to get a 
factual answer. 

I don't think I should direct him on that. Restate your question, 
and maybe I can direct him. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thornhill, I asked you if, in refusing to answer 
the question as to the identity of the person that solicited your mem- 
bership in the United Klans of America, you were relying upon an 
oath of secrecy administered to Klansmen. You said "yes." 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I then asked you whether or not you relied upon the 
oajth of secrecy which you took as a Klansman, and you then invoked 
constitutional privileges, the reasons previously stated. 

Have I summarized that properly ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, I understand it better now; yes. Well, that's 
the same answer. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. On the grounds previously stated on the matter. 

Mr. Pool. Well, Mr. Thornhill, you are refusing to answer on the 
fifth amendment and not on your oath of secrecy that you took as a 
Klansman ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir ; on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. It was my opinion, Mr. Chairman, that Mr. Thornhill 
had waived his invocation by his "yes" answer to the first question 
asked. 

Mr. Pool. But you are satisfied with his answer now. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Fine. 

Mr. Appell. In addition to the three checks that you submitted 
in payment for two radio advertisements and a newspaper advertise- 
ment of a rally at which the Imperial Wizard, Mr. Shelton, was going 
to speak, have you made any additional financial contributions to the 
United Klans of America, or for its use ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you pay an initiation fee into the United Klans 
of America ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you purchase a robe within the organization ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you pay dues to the organization ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And what was the rate of dues that you paid ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2961 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Dollar and a half a month. 

Mr. Appell. In summary, the $10.00 — and I might ask, did you 
pay a fee of $10.00 as an initiation fee, or did you pay more ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. $10.00. 

Mr. Appell. In addition to the $10.00 initiation fee and $10.00 for 
the robe and a dollar and a half i^er month dues and the money paid 
to the radio stations and the newspaper, is this all of the financial 
contributions that you ever made for the benefit of the United Klans 
of America or its members ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. How long did you remain a member of the United 
Klans of America? 

Mr. Thornhill. I just don't remember that. I don't remember. 
I can't recall just back, the month that I gotten out. I don't recall that. 

Mr. Weltner. I didn't understand that answer. What was that? 

Mr. Appell. He does not recall the month or the time that he ceased 
being a member. 

Did you cease being a member ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And why did you cease being a member ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornkill. Well, they was doing some things that I didn't ap- 
prove of too much, so I thought maybe I would get out. 

Mr. Appell. Well, can you explain to the committee some of the 
things that were happening that you didn't like too much that caused 
you to get out ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, there was something I didn't know. Tliey 
didn't let me know anything that was going on. I didn't know 
whether the Klan was doing it or not, but everybody knew that I was 
in the Klan and they thought that I w^as the head of it, which I didn't 
know^ a thing about what was going on, and I didn't think the Klan 
was doing it. And so everybody was accusing me of doing it anyway, 
and I said, well, I would just get out of it. 

If I was the only one that w^as open, that didn't care who knew, 
didn't care if people knew that I was a member, which I didn't care. 
I thought at that time that it was a mighty good organization, still 
think it is, but I didn't want everybody thinking that I was doing 
those things, when I was completely innocent of them. 

Mr. Appell. Did vou determine tliat it was members of the United 
Klans? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir; never did determine that it was in the 
United Klans, the Klan was doing this work until they picked them up, 
and I couldn't believe it then. 

Mr. Appell. Well, I mean after they picked them up, did you then 
realize that they were Klansmen ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. After they plead guilty to it; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And did you know them to be members of the United 
Klans of America after they picked them up ? 



2962 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir — well, I don't know they was a member until 
they picked them up, and they admitted that they were a member and 
were the ones that did the work. 

Mr. Appell. And at the time — we are talking now, are we, about 
the 11 people who were indicted in McComb, Mississippi, for engaging 
in a series of bombings and burnings of churches and other property ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. At the time tliese people were in jail, did you visit %vith 
them? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir ; I went to see them onetime. 

Mr. Appell. And what was your purpose for going to see them? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, just went down to see the boys, being neigh- 
bors, as far as I know. 

Mr. Appell. Were you there also for the purpose of satisfying your- 
self that they were members of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I asked them and I also asked them, did they 
do it, and I wanted to satisfy myself on the thing. I couldn't believe 
it. 

Mr. Appell. And did you satisfy yourself ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, when they pleaded guilty to it, I said, well, 
I just can't understand it. I guess they was the ones that done it. 

Mr. Appell. But with respect to the personal interview that you 
had with them, did that convince you that they had 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir ; it did not. 

Mr. Appell. Did they admit to you that they had engaged in it, 
prior to the plea? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir; no, they denied it to me right up to the 
last. 

Mr. Appell. They denied it to you. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. When you went to prison to visit them, were you ac- 
companied by anyone? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir; Brother Brown went with me. 

Mr. Appell. Brother Brown. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir ; had prayer with him ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Now, did you know Brother Brown to be a member 
of the Klan also? 

Mr. Thornhill. Not at that time ; no, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Not at that time. 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir; did not. 

Mr. Appell. But you did learn that he was a member of the Klan. 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, later on ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Now Mr. Thornhill, to what Klavern of the Klan were 
you assigned for membership purposes ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. On the grounds previously stated, I will take that. 

Mr. Appell. Prior to the arrest of the McComb boys, did you 
know any of them personally ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Two of them ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And what two did you know ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I knew the Duncan boy and the little Zeeck boy. 

Mr. Appell. Now did you know Duncan to have been elected in 
September of 1964 to the position of treasurer for the 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2963 

Mr. Thornhill. No. 

Mr. Appell. — Realm of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Thornhill.. Did not. 

Mr. Appell. You didn't. 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know that Dinican had gone to Birmingham, 
Alabama, to attend the United Klans of America klonvokation ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever meet, attend meetings, of the Klavern 
in McComb of which Ray Smith was the exalted cyclops? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I decline to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. Paul Wilson, one of the boys involved in that, at the 
time of his arrest gave a statement to the Mississippi Highway Patrol 
that you sometimes attended meetings there. 

Was his statement factual ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I decline on the grounds previously stated on that. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thornhill, an examination of records of the United 
Klans of America reflects that some payments which appear on an 
analysis to be dues payable to the Imperial Realm were signed by 
H. H. Mathews, payable out of a personal account. 

Do you know Mr. Mathews ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would you have been assigned to a Klavern of which 
Mr. Matthews was the exalted cyclops ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I decline to answer on the grounds stated on that. 

Mr. Appell. The McComb bombers were arrested in October of 1964 
and thereafter pleaded guilty and were given suspended sentences 
and fined ; some fined, some not. How long after they entered their 
plea and you determined that they were United Klansmen did you 
drop out of the United Klans of America because it did not stand for 
what you thought the organization should stand for ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir ; I stated the reason a while ago, the reason 
I got out of the Klan. I got out of the Klan because my name was 
open, and they was accusing the Klan of dropping those sticks of 
dynamite and, of course, everybody, white and colored, thought that 
I was the head of it, and which was unbeknownst to me. I didn't 
know anything about it, and that was my reasons for getting out of 
the Klan at that time. 

Mr. Appell. But you did not ap])rove of bombings. 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, no, I didn't appro\e of going out there and 
stirring up a lot of trouble and getting a lot of ])ublicity for something 
they can't buy. 

Mr. Appell. As a matter of fact, you were so convinced at one time 
that the people engaging in these acts were not Klansmen that you 
offered a thousand dollars reward for the apprehension? 

Mr. Thornhill. Certainly was ; yes, sir. Put up a thousand dollars 
reward, put it in my paper. I just didn't believe our boys would 
have done anything like that. I couldn't believe it. 

Mr. Appell. And when you found out that some of the United 



2964 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Klans of America boys had done it, was this one of the things that 
caused you to drop out of the organization ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, I was done out. I was done out, then, way 
before then, before they found that out. They was kind of putting me 
oil the spot. If they was doing it or if they wasn't doing it, if the 
colored people was doing it themselves, like we figured at one time, 
that they was doing it to get some publicity, I w^as getting out for this 
thinking I was the head of it, anyway. 

Mr. Appell. Well, at the time you visited the boys in jail, by that 
time, were you already out of the Klan ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. Done out. 

Mr. Appell. Now the series of bombings started sometime in July. 

Mr. Thornhill. You remember what day it was? Do you recall 
what day it was ? I can tell you w^hat day I got out. 

Mr. Appell. Well, let's see if we can do it this way. On July 27, 
1964, the newspaper reported your posting of a thousand dollar reward. 

Mr. Thornhill. I was in the Klan when I did that. 

Mr. Appell. So that it was sometime after that. Can you recall 
approximately how^ much later ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Now, however, the bombs hadn't been throwed at 
that time. The church bombs, at that time, burning of the church at 
that time. And there is not a church in my county that I hadn't 
donated money to, one way or another, colored or white. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thornhill, some of the newspaper accounts quote 
you as saying that the bombings w^ere carried out not by members of 
the White Knights, but by — not by members of the United Klans of 
America, but by the other Klan group in Mississippi. 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I think that was all a bare mistake there. I 
don't know anything about the other Klan in Mississippi and I don't 
know anything about what they do, and I might have said I didn't — 
I know wiiat I told the reporters. I told them that I didn't believe 
that the United Klans done the bombing, which I didn't. 

Now that Drew Pearson column you got, well, I think the only 
truth you can find in that thing is the day it was printed. 

Mr. Appell. Well, I don't have a column by Mr. Pearson; I am re- 
ferring to an article in the Christian Science Monitor. But why did 
you leave the Klan, or was tliere any other reason for leaving the Klan 
prior to the apprehension of these people than the fact that everyone 
thought that you were the head of the Klan and that you were respon- 
sible for these acts ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, now, that is going back to that Drew Pearson 
column, you see. He puts in your paper, up here in your paper, that 
I was the head man of the United Klans, but I never was a officer in 
the Klan, and of course people of my county and my State reads his 
papers, and I reckon one or two of them might believe it. I don't 
know. But that's wliat he run in that paper, well, the colored people 
read it, the white people read it, and such as that happened, well, J. E. 
Thornhill is the head of it, he is backing it up, see, which I didn't 
know anything about. 

Mr. AJppELi.. Have you since the time that you left the Klan, some- 
time after July 27 and sometime before October, have you ever been 
approached for the purpose of reorganizing the Klan in that area ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, no. No, sir. I haven't. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2965 

Mr. Appell. You seem a little uncertain, Mr. Thomhill. Is it just 
the way you express yourself, or was there some discussion about the 
reorganization ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, not reorganization ; no. I have never been 
approached to come back and reorganize; no, sir, never have. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of Mr. Tliornhill. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Thomhill, I take it that after the arrest of some 
11 persons who were charged with the various bombings in your area, 
that was the time that you determined to resign from the Klan ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. When was that? 

Mr. Thornhill. I was already out, way before that. 

Mr. Weltner. Before then ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Was it before the bombings ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Was it between the bombings and the arrests that 
you resigned ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No ; now it was when they began to burn down the 
churches, the people in there, everybody was accusing me of being the 
head of it, and it was all done unbeknownst to me. I didn't know any- 
thing about it and I didn't believe that they was the ones doing it, but 
to clear myself, I got out and had it run in the paper that I was out of 
the Klan. 

Mr. Weltner. I see. 

So after the various acts of violence in that area, you resigned and 
got out and made a public notice to that effect, 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir; I had to work those colored boys. They 
work for me, and I don't want any of them having any hard feelings 
at me, thinking that I was doing such things as that. 

Mr. Weltner. You do not approve of burning churches, bombing 
homes, and that sort of thing ; do you ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Absolutely not. The United Klans don't approve 
of anything like that, either. 

Mr. Weltner. Beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Tlie United Klans of America don't believe that, 
either. If a man in our Klavern — will you let me talk just a minute? 

If a man would get up in the Klavern and bring up something like 
that, to go bomb a place of business and burn down a church, he 
wouldn't be a member long. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, did anyone ever do that in any Klavern dis- 
cussion ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir; no, sir; didn't. 

Mr. Weltner. All right, sir, now you say, or I believe your testi- 
mony previously was, that everyone had the idea that you were the 
head of this organization and that you were the only one who didn't 
care whether or not the people knew you. were in the Klan. Is that 
right? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And your testimony is that everybody else in the 
Klan was anxious that their membership in the Klan be not publicly 
known? 



2966 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. That people not know ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, really ; yes. You see, j^ lot of the members 
working for people were probably companies, maybe, railroad com- 
panies; well, if they knew they belonged to the Ku Kliix Klan, they 
would want to maybe take their jobs, see. But they can't take my 
job, I can get a job, so I didn't care who knew it. It w^as a fine organi- 
zation, was set up for a good purpose, and I think it was to do a lot of 
good. 

Mr. Weltner. But you were the only one in there who was willing 
to have your membership known to the public. Is that right? Do I 
understand this correctly, that everybody else in the Klan that you 
knew was anxious that the public had no knowledge of their member- 
ship in the Klan? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, it is supposed to be a secret organization. 

Mr. Weltner. What is the purpose of the secrecy of it, Mr, Thorn- 
hill? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, as I just stated, maybe you are working for, 
myself, for J. E. Thornhill, and J. E. Thornhill don't approve of the 
Klan. Well, if I find out you are a member, well, naturally I would 
fire you, get me somebody that wasn't a member of the Klan. There 
are lots of people like that. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, there is a reason for the secrecy. Is the reason 
for the secrecy to protect the jobs of members of the Klan, to keep 
them from being fired ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Pardon me again, now ? 

Mr. Weltner. Is the reason for the secrecy of the Klan to protect 
the jobs of the members of the Klan ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I am not educated much, but that's what I 
figure it was ; yes. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I didn't make the rules. I didn't make the con- 
stitutions of it, and when I got in there, I taken one of the — I made 
an oath that a man can take. When you join the United Klans, you 
take an oath that you will uphold the law and the Constitution of the 
United States until death, and that's pretty good. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, I will grant you that, sir. It is a very worth- 
wliile oath to take to uphold the Constitution of the United States, and 
I am just wondering why members should be fearful that the public 
knows they take such an oath, to uphold the Constitution of the 
United States. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr, Thornhill. I don't know nothing about why — well, I don't 
know why they didn't let me know they were going to do those jobs. 
I believe I could have done a better job, but when I was 16 years old, 
that was my job, blowing up stumps on the highway. 

Mr. Weltner. Beg pardon ? 

Mr. Thornhill. That was my job, blowing up stumps. That was 
my job when I was a 16-year-old boy. 

Mr. Weltner. A better job than what, Mr. Thornhill ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Throwing those sticks of dynamite. 

Mr. Weltner. I still can't understand you. A better job of what? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2967 

Mr. Thornhill. Throwing those sticks of dynamite. I believe I 
could have placed them a little better. Dynamite blows up, not side- 
ways. 

Mr. Weltner. You mean if you had been in charge of this opera- 
tion, you could have done a better job of blowing up things than 
they did ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I could have done a better job, I believe. I don't 
think they intended to hurt anybody. That's my belief. 

Mr. Weltner. I thought you said you didn't approve of blowing 
things up like that, either. 

Mr. Thornhill. I didn't say then I did, either. 

Mr. Weltner. You just think technically the job was not well done. 
Is that it? 

Mr. Thornhill. No; for what they was trying to do, probably 
might have been all right. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, wait a minute now. What they were trying 
to do was to blow up houses and bum churches, wasn't it, Mr, Thorn- 
hill? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't think they was trying to blow up any 
houses. I think they tried to throw the dynamite out in the yard. 

Mr. Weltner. Wasn't it really just designed to blow up and ex- 
plode in the yard and not hurt anybody or damage any property? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes. Now I don't know whether you have the 
paper, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, did you happen to have an opportunity of 
looking at any of these houses or properties that were blown up in 
that area ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I saw one church. 

Mr. Weltner. Saw one church ? 

Mr. Thornhill. That was blowed up. I saw several churches that 
was burned down, a couple of them. 

Mr. Weltner. Did you see property owned by a person named 
Quinn that was destroyed on September the 20th ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you know where that property is ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. But you know that was one of the houses that was 
blown up around there at the time ; don't you ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I read it in the paper, heard about it, sure did. 

Mr. Weltner. Look at these photographs there. 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

Mr. Thornhill. My boy that worked for me lived about a hundred 
yards from that house, but I never did see it. 

Mr. Weltner. Now you will notice, looking at those photographs, 
that it appears as though one whole side of the house has been blown 
in, and the furniture and contents in a state of disarray, ceilings falling 
down. But you did not see that yourself. 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir. I heard that bomb go off, though. 

(Photographs previously marked "Billy Wilson Exhibit No. 1." 
See pp. 2853, 2854.) 

Mr. Weltner. You heard that Quinn explosion go off ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, I sure did. 

Mr. Weltner. All right. 



2968 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Now did I understand that you think it was that the boys just made 
the mistake, threw this thing too close to the house, so that it blew up 
the house, instead of blowing up out in the yard? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know about that; no. 

Mr, Weltner. But if you had been doing that, you would have 
fixed it so it just blew up out in the yard; is that so? 

Mr. Thornhill. I w^ouldn't have done it at all. 

Mr. Weltner. But if you had done it, you would have done a better 
job. 

Mr. Thornhill, I tell you, four or five sticks of dynamite is too 
heavy for me to pick up, so I am not going to be bothered about doing 
that. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Thornhill, I don't exactly understand some of 
these matters. 

Did you have any reason for — let me back up a minute. You quit 
because you didn't want people thinking you were head of this Klan 
operation that was conducting all these bombings. Is that right? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Church bombings. I was out before the bombings 
started, 

Mr. Weltner. What was that ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I was out of the Klan before the bombings started, 
before they ever done any of the burnings. 

Mr. Weltner. You resigned before the first bombing? 

Let me put the question again. You say you were not a member of 
the Klan when the first bombing took place? 

Mr. Thornhill. No. 

Mr, Weltner, All right, and you resigned before that time. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. But you resigned after the burnings? Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Church burning ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. I see. 

Now how^ many churches had been burned before you resigned? 

Mr. Thornhill. I couldn't answ^er that. 

Mr. Weltner. Sir? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know. 

Mr, Weltner. Well, on July 17, the Zion Hill Free Baptist Church, 
McComb, Mississippi, was burned; on July 18, the Sweet Home 
Church in McComb, Mississippi, was burned. Was that about the 
time that you resigned, sometime after that ? 

Mr. Thornhill. It was about in that. 

Mr. Weltner. Then on July 21, the Mount Vernon Missionary Bap- 
tist Church was burned ; and on the 22d of July, the Rose Bower Mis- 
sionary Baptist Church was burned; then on the 5th of August, the 
Mount Canaan Missionary Baptist Church in Smithtown(?) was 
burned. That was sometime in that area ; wasn't it ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Sometime in that area ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And you resigned about in that time. And you said 
you didn't want people thinking you were responsible for these 
burnings. 

Mr. Thornhill. Right. White and colored. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2969 

Mr. Weltner. I believe you also said that you didn't believe the 
Klan had anything to do with those burnings. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. At that time, I did not. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, do you know they did now ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, I don't know that they did. All I know is 
what they say. 

iMr. Weltner. Well, you know they pleaded guilty; don't you? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, but 1 have never seen one of them do it. 

Mr. Weltner. You resigned because you didn't want people think- 
ing you had anything to do with burning those churches. 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I stated a little while ago, I have to work 
people. I don't do it myself and I hire people to do it. Most of it 
is colored workers, and naturally, it is getting to where it looked like 
it was hard for me to get anybody. When I wanted somebody to do 
anything, it was hard to me to get them ; they thought I was the head 
of the bombings and burning churches, and things, and I just got out 
and made it public that I was out of the Klan. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, when you made that public, was it easier to 
get help after having resigned from the Klan ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I don't have to do my own work; yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. That means, I take it, you could get help now. 
Right? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. So you resigned for economic reasons, because it was 
affecting your ability to hire Negro employees; is that right? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. No, it wasn't that, altogether. I just didn't want 
people thinking that I was doing things and having things done that 
I didn't know anything about and accusing me of things like that. 
Every time a couple of FBI would be sent to my State, to my town, 
they — it didn't matter who he approached, they would say, "Wliy don't 
you go pick up the big man, the head man ? " See ? 

Mr. Weltner. And you were known as the head man of the Klan ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Pardon me ? 

Mr. Weltner. You were known as the head man. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, because of Drew Pearson, Twas. 

Mr. Weltner. Were you the head man ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I have never been an officer in the Klan in my life. 

Mr. Weltner. ^Yho was the head man ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't Imow. Mr. Shelton, as far as I know, the 
Imperial Wizard. 

Mr. Weltner. Who was the head man in your Klavern ? 

Mr. Thornihll. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you have any reason, other than the economic 
reasons, for not wanting people to believe you were a member of the 
Klan ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I just didn't want my friends thinking that I was 
the one doing all that. And you have got to understand, I am in the 
oil business. I made millions of dollars off of the colored people and 
the white people's land, by buying their lease and drilling their oil 
wells. And naturally, if a colored man reads that paper that J. E. 



2970 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Thomhill is the head man of the Ku Khix Klan, you think I can walk 
up to his house and tell him I want to buy his oil lease for $10.00 an 
acre or $25.00 an acre? He wouldn't let me have it. That's how I 
make my money, how I make my living. 

Mr. Weltner. This public notoriety or public knowledge that you 
were a member of the Klan hurt your ability to make profitable oil 
leases from colored landholders. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, did you ever have any discussion in the Klavern 
about any action that the Klan — what was the program of the Klan 
after the time you joined it? From the time you quit? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Weltner. I mean, what was the policy of the Klan, what was 
the purpose of it ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I respectfully decline on the grounds previously 
answered. 

Mr. Weltner. But did you testify a moment ago that no suggestion 
was ever made in the Klavern meeting that any acts of violence be 
conducted against any individual ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Not in my presence, there never was ; no. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, did you go to Klan meetings regularly, the 
Klavern meetings? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, I went to my meetings regularly. 

Mr. Weltner. Was that every week ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, practically every week. 

Mr. Weltner. Wliere did it meet ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, we had a building there, what we call the 
Hinton Building, I believe, and that's where we met at, but we dis- 
cussed, we had a committee of four men. Would you like me to tell 
you about that ? 

Mr. Weltner. Yes, I sure would. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Weltner. I would like very much to accept your offer and to 
have you tell us about it, Mr. Thomhill, and I wish you would pro- 
ceed. And I am sure this committee is anxious to accept your offer. 

You are the first member that has come here that has offered to 
testify anything about the Klan, and we have had a lot of members 
of the Klan here who refused to, and I appreciate your offering to 
tell us about it, so you have all the time you need, and we accept your 
offer, sir. 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I stated a while ago that if a man would get 
in a Klavern and mention about a bombing, he Avould be throwed out 
of the Klan right then, not after while, but right then, if he had 
brought up a subject like that. 

We had a committee of men appointed to go see the sick in the 
hospital, preachers, and deacons of the church. We had another com- 
mittee, appointed to see about the needy in the community. Women 
with children, no groceries in the house, and we carried them groceries, 
white and colored. 

We didn't discuss any bombings of churches, burning churches, and 
bombing houses, nothing like that, wasn't never brought up. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2971 

Mr. Weltner. You mean the only thing you did in tlie Klan was to 
help the needy and the sick, and those were the only discussions you 
ever had in the Klan meetings about which needy and which sick you 
were going to help ? 

Mr, Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Are you testifying that as a fact now, Mr. Thornhill ? 

Mr. Thorxhill. Yes, sir. Yes, sir. We had another committee of 
men to go around to the schools, screen the libraries. 

Mr. AVeltner. Screen the libraries ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. Get the books out of there. 

Mr. Weltner. Now there is another thing you talked about. Wliat 
were the books ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know. I don't have that much education. 
We had a committee of men to do that. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you recall the names of any books ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No. No. 

Mr. Weltner. "VYliich committee did you serve on ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I wasn't on the committee. I haven't got that 
kind of education. 

Mr. Weltner. Who was the head of the book committee ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know that, either. 

Mr. Weltner. Wliat libraries did they go to see ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, the ones in the schools. 



Mr. Weltner. Well, is that the public schools 



Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And how^ many public school libraries were there in- 
volved in that work of the book committee ? 

Mr. Thornhiul. Well, we had two or three in our unit. They were 
supposed to screen and see about it. 

Mr. Weltner. You don't recall the names of any books ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir ; but we found one, we found the books in 
one library, and we also, that company that put those books in there 
will never sell any more books in Mississippi, but I can't call the com- 
pany that put the books in there. 

Mr. Weltner. What was the book about ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Some sex book. 

Mr. Weltner. And it was in the public library ? 

Mr. Thornhill. A little girl 15 years old checked the book out; 
yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. From the public library ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And you don't know the name of the book ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, I sure don't. 

Mr. Weltner. You don't know the name of 

Mr. Thornhill. I wish I did. 

Mr. Weltner. Wliat library was that, Mr. Thornhill ? 

Mr. Thornhill. North Pike School. 

Mr. Weltner. North what? 

Mr. Thornhill. North Pike. 

Mr. Weltner. P-i-k-e ? 

Mr. Thornhill. P-i-k-e ; yes sir. 



2972 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. And that is some members of the Klan library com- 
mittee called upon the school principal? Is that the way it would 
work ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Let's go back again now. 

Mr. Weltner. How did you work that? You decided this book 
needed to come out of the library, and then the members of the com- 
mittee called on the librarian ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know the complete details on it, but I guess 
that's way it was ; yes sir, 

Mr. Weltner. And then they took the book out of the library ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, a little girl checked the book out, and the 
Klan somehow or another got hold of the book. I don't know how, 
but — and then they appointed a committee to go to the libraiy and 
check the books and screen the libraries and get those kind of books 
out. We didn't need them in there, and I still don't believe we need 
them in there. 

Mr. Weltner. What other books, other than the sex books, were 
they? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know the name of the book. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you mean a book about the physical and physio- 
logical aspects of marriage ? Is that the kind of book you are talking 
about, or was this a 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know. They didn't tell the book. All I 
know is of course they said we didn't need this kind of books in there, 
and we got them out, and I can't read a newspaper and I can't read a 
book, so how would I know what kind of a book it was ? 

Mr, Weltner. Yet you think this book ought to come out of there. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. From what they said, it ought to come out ; yes. 

Mr. Weltner. What did they say about it, Mr. Thornhill? 

Mr, Thornhill. I said they didn't liave any business a teenager 
reading the book, and I didn't think they did, either. I am a pretty 
good-sized taxpayer in my county, and the principal didn't think they 
ought to be up there screening the libraiy, and I went to see him and 
talked to him, and he told us that — my committee that did screen- 
ing — the library lady just hadn't had time to separate the books, and 
that book got in there accidentally, some way. 

Mr. Weltner. You say the principal at firet thought the Klan 
didn't have any business screening the library? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Right. 

Mr. Weltner. And then you went to call on the principal. 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And the principal decided that the Klan actually did 
have some business screening the library. Is that right? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, not necessarily the Klan, but the people of 
the community. The taxpayers. I have a little daughter. She is 
17 now. And if my little girl had brought that book home, it would 
have been more sand raised than there was, I expect. 

Mr. Weltner. All right, sir, and tliis book-screening took place in 
every public library in the area. 

(Witness confers with counsel. ) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2973 

Mr. Weltner. In addition to the North Pike School ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, we had our own territoi-y to screen; other 
units had theirs, I guess. 

Mr. Weltner. What was your territory ? 

Mr. Thornhill. North Pike School. 

Mr. Weltxer. Just one school ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. But you weren't on that book committee, were you ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No. 

Mr. Weltner. Your Klavern, though, had jurisdiction ? 

Mr, Thornhill. I am a businessman. I haven't got time to be on 
any kind of committee like that. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Weltner. Your Klaveni had jurisdiction just over screening 
books in the North Pike School ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And as I understand, then, that other Klaverns 
had the other schools in the area, the other public schools? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't really know, but they are supposed to. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, what is your understanding of it? 

Mr. Thornhill. My understanding was that they did ; yes. 

Mr. Weltner. All right, you had a sick committee and a needy 
committe and a book committee. Where did the Klan get its funds to 
take groceries to poor people, if the dues were only a dollar and a 
quarter or a dollar a month ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, it passed the hat around, and they would 
take up collections for donations like that. 

Mr. Weltner. Did you ever contribute to any fund for the needy, 
food for the needy ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, yes, there has never been anybody come to 
me needing funds that I didn't help, in the last 10 years. 

Mr. Weltner. All right. Let's get this straight now. You are 
under oath and you are on the record. A while ago, you testified 
the only contribution you made to any Klan activities — — 

Mr. Thornhill. That wasn't in the Klan. 

Mr. Weltner. —was the klectokon ? 

Mr. Thornhill. That didn't go in the Klan treasury at all. 

Mr. Weltner. Permit me, please, to finish my statement. You will 
have full time to answer. 

— was the klectokon, the initiation fee, the monthly dues, and these 
three checks. Now^ in addition to that, you testified you contributed 
money for the needy ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, we were talking about a while ago what went 
into the Klan treasury. This didn't ever get into the Klan treasury. 
This went for a purpose donation. 

Mr. Weltner. Who collected the money ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I can't even recall who 

Mr. Weltner. Was there 

Mr. Thornhill. Maybe lialf a dozen passed the hat around. 

Mr. Weltner. Was there a chairman of the needy committee? 

(Witness confers with counsel. ) 



2974 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Thornpiill. It varies from time to time. It wouldn't be the 
same one. Maybe I would grab a hat and go around, "Here, $3.00, 
$25.00, $2.00," or something, and maybe if you had been in there, you 
would have grabbed the hat. Well, you can't remember such things as 
that goes on, but that's the way it was worked, and that money didn't 
ever get into the Klan at all, 

Mr. Weltner. Who would deliver the groceries, Mr. Thornhill? 

Mr. Thornhill. The committee would be appointed. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, the committee was secret, though; wasn't it? 
I mean, they wouldn't let anybody know they were in the Klan; 
would they ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, when they delivered those groceries, he didn't 
let anybody know it, either. 

Mr. Weltner. So did you ever go on a grocery- delivering com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir; I didn't ever. No, sir; I didn't. But I 
do deliver a lot of them. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, they wouldn't tell 

Mr. Thornhill. But not in the Klan ; no. 

Mr. Weltner. You- mean they would just go give these groceries 
and not tell anybody it was a gift of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, they would tell them it was a gift. I just 
didn't know it. They had on the robe and hood, when they delivered. 

Mr. Weltner. Did you say they delivered groceries to colored 
families ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Did they wear hoods and robes when they delivered 
those groceries to colored families? 

Mr. Thornhill. They would have on their hood and robe ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Did those colored families appreciate it ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know about that. I guess they did. 

Mr. Weltner. I would just as soon go hungry, if I were under 
circumstances like that. 

Mr. Thornhill. I think they might be proud to get them. 

Mr. Weltner. All right, you had a sick committee and a needy 
committee and a book committee. 

What other committees did you have? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. That's all I can recall right now. All the com- 
mittees. 

Mr. Weltner. Did you have a wrecking crew ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Have a what? 

Mr. Weltner. A wrecking crew? 

Mr. Thornhill. Wrecking crew? 

Mr. Weltner. Wrecking crew? 

Mr. Thornhill. What would they wreck? No, we never had no 
wrecking crew in my unit. Of course I had a wrecking crew, but he 
wasn't in the Ku Klux Klan. 

Mr. Weltner. Who was that? 

Mr. Thornhill. A boy that worked for me, a colored boy that 
worked for me. He tore up three cars that I bought him. I give him a 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2975 

motor bike then, and he wrecked that motor bike the first week. The 
next week I give him another motor bike, and he got killed on it. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, Mr. Thornhill, if you did all these good works 
and kept those dirty books out of the schools and delivered those 
groceries to those poor colored folks down there, why do you have to 
keep the membership secret? 

Mr. TiioRNHiLL. Have to keep what, now? 

Mr. Weltner. Have to keep the membership secret, if this is no 
more than a charity group? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know. I didn't keep mine secret. I could 
tell anybody I was a member, but I taken an oath that I couldn't tell 
anybody that you belonged. 

Mr. Weltner. Is that why you are not telling me who the members 
of this Klan were? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. No. 

Mr. AVeltner. Wliy are you refusing to tell us the name of the 
member of your Klavem? 

Mr. Thornhill. On the fifth amendment. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Ashbrook. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Thornhill, I am interested very much in one 
particular facet of your testimony. You impressed me with your 
business background, and so forth, as being a man of considerable 
intelligence, notwithstanding education. 

I happen to be one who believes that a person can succeed, regard- 
less of education. You obviously have, and yet with your intelligence, 
which you obviously have, you still don't seem to want to believe 
that the Klan has participated in bombings or acts of violence in 
your area. 

It seems to me all the questions that have been propounded, you 
pretty well insist that the Klan has not perpetrated acts of violence. 
,Is that a meaningful position that you take? Do you honestly believe 
the Klan has not? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't believe the Klan has ever, the United Klans 
of America has ever participated in agitating any kind of work like 
that, no. 

Mr. Ashbrook. What about the pleas of guilty of the Klan 
members ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, that's the same thing in your church. A 
preacher will get up there and preach to you all day long, but you 
ain't going to do what he tells you to do. That's tlie boys in that 
United Klan, some of them won't do what you tell them to do. 

Mr. Ashbrook. I think you mentioned at one point that you had 
never seen any acts of violence. Is that the basis for your refusing 
to believe that the Klan had participated in any acts of violence? 

Mr. Thornhill. Tliey claimed that. They never admitted it. 
Sometimes you think, "Well, I guess they did do it," and then again, 
you think, "they done that just to get out of court," so I just don't 
« know. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Then in asking you a straight question, do you 
believe the Klan lias participated in violence in your area, what would 
be your answer ? 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 4 6 



2976 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir; no, sir. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. How do you possibly square that with testimony 
you made a few moments ago, and I recall because I wrote down 
almost specifically what you said, and you said, and I quote roughly 
what you said, at one point, you believed the Negroes were doing 
these bombings to get publicity. 

Is that not correct? You stated that just a few moments ago. 

Mr. Thornhill. That was the rumor around, yes, in town. That 
they was doing it. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. That was the purport of what you said. You said, 
"At one point we believed," and obviously, you were a part of that. 

Mr. Thornhill. I did, I believed they were doing it, some of it; 
yes. They were throwing it out in the yard, not in the house, and 
it looked to me like that; yes. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. You weren't present when any Negroes bombed, 
were you ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, I wasn't. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Then how could you possibly want to believe that 
Negroes were doing this, when you had no evidence, but you can't 
possibly bring yourself to believe that the white Klanners were 
doing this, when there is considerable evidence? 

Mr. Thornhill. It just looked to me like if I was going to bomb 
my house, wouldn't I throw it out there in the yard with a stick of 
dynamite at my house ? Would it to you ? 

Mr. Ashbrook. The question I am raising is you have already ex- 
pressed an indication that you believed and thought that the Negroes 
were doing this to gain publicity, when there was no real evidence, 
or at least you haven't cited any. 

Mr. Thornhill. I have reasons to believe. 

Mr, Ashbrook. When there is a record full of evidence that Klan 
members were doing this, you do not want to believe in their cage that 
they had done tliese acts of violence. It just does not seem to me that 
that is consistent and can't possibly be a position that you, as an intelli- 
gent, successful man, can take. 

(Witness confers with counsel. ) 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I am quoting the rumors. It was going 
around in town, see. 

Mr. Ashbrook. What about the rumors of the Klan ? 

Mr. Thornhill. And my own belief, too, now. If I was going to 
bomb my house, and make somebody think that somebody else done it, 
naturally, I would throw it where it wouldn't do any damage, and 
that's where tlie sticks of dynamite was hitting there to start with. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Okay, admitting that there were rumors going 
around your town that the Negroes were doing it to gain publicity, a 
rumor which by your own statement you admitted that you tended 
to believe, what were the rumors that were going around town regard- 
ing the Klan involvement in these bombings ? 

Did you choose not to believe these? 

{Witness confers with coimsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I guess so. I never had heard anything in the 
organization on tliat line at all. And 

Mr. Ashbrook. Well, not in the organization. I am talking about 
rumors around town. You are talking about rumors regarding the 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2977 

Negroes. There certainly must have been rumors regarding the Klan. 
I find it a very interesting inconsistency and one which, I might say, 
is a pattern of the Klan, to want to believe the worst about the Negro, 
but not to recognize, even when evidence is demonstrated, that any of 
your own members, any of your own people, could possibly be partici- 
pants in these matters. And I merely want to point out for the record 
what I think is a verj' glaring inconsistency and a very unfair in- 
consistency as far as your statement is concerned, your willingness 
to believe the Negroes were doing this to get publicity, but your 
unwillingness in the face of a mountain of evidence to think that 
any Klamiers could be participants in these bombings. 

And that, Mr. Chairman, is all I have to say. 

Mr. Pool. I want to ask you: I think during the testimony you 
said that the reason that, I think something to this effect, that they 
would take their jobs. You remember that a while ago? Why 
would they t ake their j obs ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, as I stated a while ago, maybe a man was 
working for you, and you didn't believe in the Klan and you didn't 
like the Ku Klux Klan. Maybe you had read a whole lot about Klans 
accused of them that they didn't do, and they laid off, but anyway, you 
didn't believe in the Ku Klux Klan, but I was working, see, and that's 
the only way I had of making a living, working for you, and you find 
out I was in the Klan. Naturally you would fire me, wouldn't you ? 
You didn't like the Klan, didn't believe in the Klan, you would get rid 
of me and get somebody that didn't belong to the Klan. 

Mr. Pool. Well, then, is it prevalent in your area that the Klan is 
unpopular ? 

Mr. Thornhill. With some people they are; yes, sir. Yes, sir. 
Certainly are. 

Mr. Pool. Would you say a majority of the people in your area? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, I wouldn't say that much ; no. I wouldn't say 
that. 

Mr. Pool. Would you say a majority of the people approve of the 
Klan in your area ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I wouldn't say that either. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Pool. What is your opinion ? 

Mr. Thornhill. There are a few that disapproves of it. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. The large majority, I don't know which way they 
go, but there are a few of them that don't approve of the Klan, I think, 
but of course, I think, the large majority understands what the orga- 
nization was for and what it means, and I think the large majority 
approves of the Klan. 

Mr. Pool. Well, is the Klan losing membership in your area ? 
(Witness confers with counsel. ) 

Mr. Thornhill. I wouldn't know about that. I haven't been m 
it in a long time. 

Mr. Pool. What is the talk around town? What do they say 
around town ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I never discuss it any more. 
Mr. Pool. You never discuss it ? 



2978 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir; I don't talk about that. I talk about my 
business. I have got enough business of my own to talk about, with- 
out talking about somebody else's. 

Mr. Pool. What is your feeling about your activities as a Klansman ? 
Are you proud of the fact that you were a former Klansman ? 

(Witness confers with counsel. ) 

Mr. Pool. Or are you ashamed ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Pardon me, now ? 

Mr. Pool. Are you proud of the fact that you are an ex-Klansman ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I would rather not answer that. I think it 
is a good organization, put it that way. 

Mr. Pool. You think it is a good organization ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I certainly do. 

Mr. Pool. You think it still is ? 

Mr. Thornhill. One of the finest, help a lot of people. 

Mr. Pool. Why did you resign? What was your reason for 
resigning ? 

Mr. Thornhill. What was my reason for resigning ? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, because of all the publicity I was getting. 
I didn't approve of that. I don't like that publicity. The only place 
a man ever sees my name, if it is left up to me, is in a telephone book, 
and I was getting too much publicity, bad publicity and some good 
publicity, and I just didn't approve of that, so I thought maybe if I 
would get out, I would stop some of it. 

Mr, Pool. You still obey your Klan oath ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Pardon me, now ? 

Mr. Pool. Do you still obey your Klan oath that you took ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I fully decline on the ground that 

Mr. Pool. Well, I would consider that you do, because you have 
refused to name other people, even though you are using the fifth 
amendment, but I would assume that the Klan oath also has quite an 
effect on your answers. 

These boys that you testified lived 100 yards from the Quinn house, 
were they boys that worked for you ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir; one boy. That was the boy that managed 
my ranch, my farm. 

Mr. Pool. That was a colored boy ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. Lived within a hundred yards ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I say a hundred yards. It might have been 
200 yards. Somewhere near. But the Quinn house was up on this 
block. I would come in, whenever I wanted him, and maybe he 
wouldn't show up this morning, I would want him in, and I would come 
in thisaway, and I never had any reason to go down Sumter Street 
at all. 

Mr. Pool. Did you know the Quinn people ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Pardon me, now ? 

Mr. Pool. Did you know the Quinns ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, I know her now. Yes, I know her now, but 
I didn't know her until after this house was bombed and all, and all 
the publicity got out on her, I didn't ever know her. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2979 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Appell, I think you have some questions. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thornhill, you talked about the oath that you 
took as a KlansmaJi, about how it is sworn to uphold the Constitution. 

Will you explain to the committee that part of the oath that you 
took in which you swore, and I quote it; "I swear that I will keep 
secure to myself a secret of a [Klan] *sman" 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. [Continues reading :] 

— when same is committed to me in the sacred bond of [Klan]*smanship, the 
crime of violating THIS solemn oath — treason against the United States of 
America, rape, and malicious murder alone excepted. 

Why did you^ — ^what is the purpose of that oath ? 

Mr. Thornhill. That's not in the United Klans. 

Mr. Appell. I beg to differ with you, Mr. Thornhill. I show the 
series 

Mr. Thornhill. That's not the oath that I taken. 

Mr. Appell. Let me show you. This is not in the form that the 
United Klan prints it. It is in the reprinted form, because we needed 
so many of them, but let me show you this. 

Mr. Thornhill. Read that off to me again. Let me hear that again. 
I want to hear that. 

Mr. Appell. Well, I want you to see the entire series of oaths, a 
section on obedience, a section on secrecy, a section on fidelity, and a 
section on Klanishness. 

Now I give you this. 

Mr. Thornhill. I can't read that thing. You just read it off. 

|Mr. Appell. [Reading:] "I swear that I will keep secure to myself 
a secret of a [Klan] *sman." 

Now you are shaking your head. 

Mr. Thornhill. In the United Klan, you can tell anybody that you 
are a member, but you can't tell the other members. 

Mr. Appell. Well, that is one of — that which you are talking about 
is also here, but then it says, it goes on, the secret — 

when same is committed to me in the sacred bond of [Klan]*smanship, the 
crime of violating THIS solemn oath — treason against the United States of 
America, rape, and malicious murder alone excepted. 

Now why would you be required to keep a secret of a fellow Klans- 
man, except in the case of treason, raj^e, and malicious murder, if the 
Klan did not engage in acts other than that ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I don't know. 

(Document previously marked "Robert Shelton Exhibit No. 4." See 
committee report. The Presenf-Day Ku Klux Klan Moveiivent^ pp. 
343-346.) 

Mr. Appell. Now you testified that you attended Klan meetings in 
the Hinton Building. On what nights Vlid you attend Klan meetings? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Thursday night. 

Mr. Appell. Thursday night. Now did you have knowledge that 
there was another Klavern that also met there on Tuesday nights? 

Mr. Thornhill. Yes, sir. Yes. I reckon on Tuesday night. I 
knew that there was some more Klansmen meeting there. I didn't 
know what night. I don't recall what night. 

Mr. Appell. And did you know that the exalted cyclops of that Kla- 
vern was Ray Smith ? 



2980 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I decline to answer that, on the grounds. 

Mr. Appeal. And did you also know that the members of that 
Klavern were the members who engaged in acts of violence that they 
later admitted and confessed to ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir. I did not know those boys. I didn't even 
know the}^ was in the Klan. 

Mr. Appell. Didn't know- any of them in the Klan ? 

Mr. Thornhill. I knew one of the boys. I knew Duncan, is the 
only boy that I knew that they picked up. 

Mr. Appell. You knew him to be a member of the Klan ? 

Mr, Thornhill. No, sir; I didn't know^ he was a member of the 
Klan. He wasn't in my Klavern. I didn't know^ he was a member. 
But I knowed him. I knowed that boy all my life. The only one of 
the 10 or 9 or 11 that they arrested that I knew. I knew the faces; 
by name, I didn't know them. I knew the Zeeck boy, I knew him. 

Mr. Appell. Well, now, can you explain to me how this happens, 
that one of the Klansmen who were involved in an act of violence, 
attempted burning of a church, becomes a delegate to a supreme con- 
vention of this organization, which you say is a good organization, and 
doesn't engage in these things ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Don't know^ about that. I don't know that. 

Mr. Appell. Did you make an investigation to determine whether 
or not this organization met your ideals or whether or not its members 
did engage in such things ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No. No, I didn't. I thought it all just like ours. 
I thought that all the units was like my unit, and I know things like 
that were never brought up and discussed in our unit. 

Mr. Appell. Now can you explain to the committee if this sort of 
thing is not condoned by the United Klans of America, why the Grand 
Dragon of Georgia solicited funds for the boys that were arrested and 
wdiy the Eealm of Louisiana submitted money to the Grand Dragon of 
Mississippi for a defense fund ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, now, that's something I wouldn't know. I 
couldn't answer that, 

Mr. Appell. Well, if you knew that they were financing attorneys" 
fees and helping to pay costs of expenses of people who were involved 
in bombing, what would your reaction be with respect to the worth- 
whileness of the organization ? 

(Witness confers with counsel. ) 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I don't think I would have liked that too 
much. 

Mr, Pool, I did not get your answer to that. 

Mr. Appell. He said he did not think that he would like that too 
much. 

Well, Mr. Thornhill, I suggest that you make an investigation, be- 
cause there are many acts of violence. 

Mr. Thornhill, I am not going to make no investigation now. If 
I am out, I intend to stay out. 

Mr. Appell. There are many acts of violence which are still un- 
solved, whidh this committee's investigation establishes to have been 
committed by Klansmen and members of the United Klans of America, 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2981 

and your investigation could satisfy to yourself whether the organiza- 
tion that you say is a worthwhile organization is in fact worthwhile. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I am out of it now, and I intend to stay 
out of it, and I hope the boys will do as we intended to do to start 
with, if they are going to stay in. But — it is not up to me to investi- 
gate, if I am out of it now. And I don't think it would be my duty 
to go around investigating. 

Mr, Appell. Would you encourage someone to join a Klavern of 
the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Thornhill. No, sir ; no, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Weltner. 

Mr. Weltner. Why could you not encourage someone to join? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. I am out of it, and I don't reckon it would be 
my duty to encourage anyone to get into it now, for I am out of it per- 
sonally, myself, and that's up to him. If he wants to join, that's his 
opportunity, not mine. 

Mr. Weltner. But you would not encourage anyone to join that? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. No. 

Mr. Weltner. If someone asked you your opinion as a former Klan 
member as to whether or not to join the Klavern to which you were 
assigned what would you advise him ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Well, I think I would tell him that I got out of it 
for my own personal reasons. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Thornhill. And he would have to decide that his own self. 

Mr. Weltner. Let me ask you just one or two questions about 
these business reasons here. How many employees do you have? 

Mr. Thornhill. How many what ? 

Mr. Weltner. How many people working for you ? 

Mr. Thornhill. You mean — oh, well, I couldn't answer that exactly. 
Maybe one day I will have maybe six or eight, and another day I 
will have two, but I have two maids regular and one man to oversee. 

Mr. Weltner. How many oil leases do you have now ? 

Mr. Thornhill. How many what? 

Mr. Weltner. How many current oil leases? 

Mr. Thornhill. What are you talking about? Oh, I don't know. 
I have interests in over 200 wells, producing now. I bought about 
43,000 acres up here in Ohio, drilled 23 wells up there, and haven't 
raised a bit yet. 

Mr. Pool. I did not get the last statement. 

Mr. Thornhill. Drilled 23 wells and haven't raised a bit yet. 

Mr. Weltner. Does that mean you have not struck any oil? 

Mr. Thornhill. Haven't struck any oil yet in Ohio; right. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. The Klan has been about that successful, too. 

Mr. Pool. I want to ask you about these leases that you took from 
these colored people. 

AVTiat did you pay them for their leases? Do you remember? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 



2982 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Thornhill. Oh, man, that price runs up. I paid as high as 
$3,000 an acre for some of them, $75.00 an acre, two and a half, $3.00 
an acre for others. It depends on what's going on, your activities. 

Mr. Pool. Were they satisfied wnth the leases that you took ? 

Mr. Thornhill. Pardon me ? 

Mr. Pool. Were they satisfied in the leases that you took from 
them? 

Mr. Thornhill. I have never had a lawsuit. I have never had one 
to sue me yet for fraud, getting something, taking with a gun. I 
always buy it with money and I have never had a lawsuit, one of them 
to sue me yet, and that is something that I am very, very proud of. 

Mr. Pool. Further questions ? 

Mr.WELTNER. No. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Appell? 

Mr. Appell, No further questions. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Appell. John Dawson. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Dawson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN DAWSON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Dawson, state your full name for the record. 

Mr. Dawson. John Dawson. 

Mr. Appell. You will have to speak up a little louder. 

Mr. Dawson. John Dawson. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance wdth a 
subpena served upon you on October 30, 1965, by John D. Sullivan, 
a member of the investigative staff of this committee ? 

Mr. Dawson. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Dawson. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Pool. Let me ask the witness : Are you familiar with the chair- 
man's opening statement of this hearing ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir ; all of my clients have been advised of the 
chairman's opening statement, Mr. Pool. So stipulated. 

Mr. Pool. You have read it and are familiar with the contents of 
it? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Dawson, the subpena served upon you had an at- 
tachment to it, which was a part- of the subpena, and commanded you 
to bring with you and to produce items set forth in the subpena. 

Part 1 of the subpena reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated or- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2983 

ganizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, in your possession, custody 
or control, or maintained by you or available to you as present or past Grand 
Klabee of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan 
of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan. 

In a representative capacity, set forth in the subpena, I ask you to 
produce the documents called for in paragraph 1. 

(At this point Mr. Weltner left the hearing room.) 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in the subpena dated 
October the 6th, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do 
so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guar- 
anteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the 
United States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all rec- 
ords as requested by the committee under the subpena dated October 
the 6th, 1965, for that information is not relevant and germane to the 
subject under investigation and the same would not aid the Con- 
gress in consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such 
inquiry within the scope of that authorized to be investigated by the 
Rule XI of the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolu- 
tion 8, adopted January the 4th, 1965. 

Mr. Pool. The reasons you have given for your refusal to produce 
the documents called for by the subpena did not really justify your 
refusal. These reasons are rejected. I order and direct you to produce 
these documents. 

And, Mr. Witness, is it understood by you that the request of the 
interrogator, pursuant to the terms of subpena, is to produce the docu- 
ments called for therein, in the representative capacities stated in the 
subpena ? 

Mr. Chalmers. So stipulated, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Dawson. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. That is not acceptable. 

Go ahead to the next one. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, before proceeding to part 2 of the 
subpena, I desire to show the witness a readable copy of a bank signa- 
ture card filed in connection with a bank account of the United Klans 
of America, Realm of Mississippi, account maintained at the Britton 
& Koontz, B-r4-t-t-o-n, and K-o-o-n-t-z, National Bank, Natchez, 
Mississippi, and put it to Mr. Dawson as a fact, and ask him to affirm 
or deny thQ fact, that the "John Dawson," which appears on the 
signature card that will be handed to liim, is his signature. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Dawson. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reasons I honestly feel that my answer miglit tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights that are guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 
1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

(Document marked "John Dawson Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 



2984 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

John Dawson Exhibit No. 1 



i THf. BRUTON.ft KOONTX NATION'.'. SAUK !fj NATCHK? MtOSIgeiPffl 
U bRr^i* anthMltf i Ut *oco(puM tSe »lKTUiW/»a swriW Kck ■ in psyrien* of fon-is on dep:>il, or ic «b« trenjictiiw of other 
muMioM »>ith tl«> liudmri^ied. All foo.-iitiorj n, jrrted t' •; fc/crte »'<fe of thw c; ;xi hsve ^'tn reryi ^^(j are htreby >nlyd t^^. 






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Mr. Appell. Mr. Dawson, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that in May of 1965 you were elected to the 
office of grand klabee or treasurer — — 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Appell, just a second. 

Are you going into the second part of the subpena ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Appell. That in May of 1965 you were elected to the office of 
grand klabee or treasurer of the United Klans of America, Realm of 
Mississippi, and I ask you to affirm or deny that fact. 

Mr. Dawson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Ajid these are the grounds whicli include the fifth 
amendment, not the ground relating to production of documents ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Dawson, part 2 of the subpena calls upon you to 
produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past Grand Klabee of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization 
authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said 
organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

In a representative capacity set forth in part 2, 1 ask you to produce 
the documents called for. 

Mr. Dawson. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena 
dated October the 6th, 1965, for the reasons that I honestly feel that 
to do so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as 
guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1,4, and 14 of the Constitution of 
the Unite/d States of America. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2985 

And I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all 
records as requested by the committee under subpena dated October 
the 6th, 1965, for that information is not relevant and germane to 
the subject under investigation and the same would not aid Congress 
in the consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such in- 
quiry within the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule 
XI of the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, 
adopted January the 4th, 1965. 

Mr. Pool. The reasons you have given for your refusal to produce 
the documents called for by this subpena do not legally justify your 
refusal and these reasons are rejected. I order and direct you to 
produce those documents. 

Mr. Witness, it is understood by you that the request of the inter- 
rogator pursuant to the terms of the subpena is to produce the docu- 
ments called for therein, in the representative capacities stated in the 
subpena ? 

Mr. Chalmers. So stipulated, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Dawson. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the committee, based on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Your answer is not acceptable. Go ahead, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chainnan, paragraph 3 called upon Mr. Dawson 
in his position as treasurer to produce the corporate tax returns of the 
Realm of Mississippi, the United Klans of America, also under cover 
name of the Mississippi Rescue Service. 

We have been advised by the Internal Revenue Service that no re- 
turns were filed, so I shall not make demand for production of those 
documents. 

Mr. Dawson, I hand you two documents. One is a request for a 
reserv^ation at the Dinkier- Tutwiler Hotel in Birmingham, Alabama, 
from John Dawson, 3809 Ridgewood Road, Natchez, Mississippi, ad- 
vising the Dinkler-Tutwiler Hotel that you intend to, or that John 
Dawson plans to, attend the convention of the Alabama Rescue Serv- 
ice; and the second docmnent is a copy of the original hotel registra- 
tion card which shows that John Dawson of the same address regis- 
tered on September 4 in the year 1964. 

Did you, Mr. Dawson, file the request for a reservation and did 
you, in fact, sign the registration card, a copy of which was referred 
to? 

Mr. Dawson. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reasons that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 
4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

(Documents marked "John Dawson Exhibits Nos. 2-A and 2-B," 
respectively, follow:) 



2986 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

John Dawson Exhibit No. 2-A 



MAKE YOUR HQTEL RESERVAHONS NOW! 



I v.'ill !>? aftendinq the convention of the . . . 

Aiti cue St'K y LCl 

e cf group c association) 
I will arrive (dciyl-A/47/ . . idateiy.'^ -<?f_ (hour)^'y4. m. 

: ■ ', ' - f . (hour) .. m. 




U Single 
l_] tv/m bedroom 



^ double bedroom 
□ suite 



YOUR I-IMAE ^jU^J/J/ U^i 

ADDRESS Zc^_5jL SJ Q.Gc [^^'OoJ^ £il 

CITY /\6iHdAL^L^^ZAU.5__ 



John Dawson Exhibit No. 2-B 



99S DAWSOW JOHN 5/03 656«t 
NAT MtSa 
9*^ W 



H 65B60 



^^ ^^ 



OTHCRWISK THK HOTEL COMPANY WILL 



Dinkl^r^'tutwiler 

0^ DmBcnoN 



DINKLER HOTEL CORPORATION 
'DiBPaNSCm OF Thuk •outhenn Hosmtauty- 



-^^fi^f /ffDCcu»>op City /^y4^/2r//^7 S*''*^ A^/^S 

m City y ^ ■^ State 



Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that in addition to delegates from Mississippi to that klon- 
vokation or convention was Murphy John Duncan, who was later ar- 
rested and pleaded guilty to a charge involving conspiracy to violate 
Mississippi law for illegal use of explosives ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2987 

Mr. Dawson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of Mr. Dawson's refusal to 
answer questions on the claim of privilege, I present to the committee 
the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Dawson. 

Mr. Pool. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Appell. First, I will ask you, Mr. Dawson, when and where 
were you bom ? 

Mr. Dawson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. John Dawson was bom on July 11, 1924, at Gloster, 
G-1-o-s-t-e-r, Mississippi. In April 1943 he entered the United States 
Navy, while a senior at the Oxford Consolidated School of Amite 
County, Mississippi. He was discharged in May of 1944. 

In 1949 he began employment with the International Paper Com- 
pany, where he is presently a field inspector. 

Dawson joined the United Klans of America, Realm of Mississippi, 
in 1964. He was a delegate to the Imperial Klonvokation held at the 
Dinkler-Tutwiler Hotel, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5-6, 
1964. 

Dawson replaced Murphy John Duncan following his conviction 
along with other UKIA Klansmen, for his role in the series of bombings 
and burnings in the McComb, Mississippi, area. 

At a state convention on May 15-16, 1965, Mr. Dawson was elected 
the grand klabee or State treasurer for the Realm of Mississippi. 

Through subpena duces tecum, Mr. Chairman, the committee sub- 
penaed certain bank accounts, one in the name of the Mississippi 
Rescue Service, the other in the name of the United Klans of America, 
Realm of Mississippi. This first bank account of the United Klans of 
America, Realm of Mississippi, was opened in September 1964 under 
the name of the Mississippi Rescue Service. 

The authorized signature to this account was Murphy J. Duncan, one 
of the 10 McComb Klansmen arrested in connection with burning and 
bombing in McComb area. Duncan used the alias of John K. Duncan. 
The account was closed in October 1964, after Duncan's arrest. Docu- 
ments seized from Duncan established these facts. 

The next account located by the committee was at the Britton & 
Koontz National Bank, Natchez, Mississippi. This account was opened 
on July 26, 1965, with Edward L. McDaniel signing as Grand Dragon 
as the authorized signature. 

(Signature card marked "John Dawson Exhibit No. 3." Not re- 
producible; retained in committee files.) 

This designation was changed on September 21, 1965, when any two 
signatures of the following names were required on all checks : Edward 
L. McDaniel, Grand Dragon; John Dawson; L. C. Murrayj field sec- 
retary. (See Dawson Exhibit No. 1, p. 2984.) 

From July 26, 1965, to October 12, 1965, the date covered by the 
committee's subpena, $9,948.39 was deposited to the account. Checks 
written against tlie account during the same period total $9,337.65. 



2988 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



Checks of interest in this account to the committee's investigation 
are as follows : Checks dated 9/24/1965 and 10/8/1965 paid to L. C. 
Murray, $75 each, and comakers of the checks were Jolm Dawson and 
Edward L. McDaniel. The puri:)ose for which drawn was "salary." 

Check of 10/2/1965, made payable to cash, in the amomit of $2,766, 
the comakers : L. C. Murray and Jolin Dawson. The endorsers on the 
check : L. C. Murray and Jolm Dawson. 

9/26/65 check to E. L. McDaniel in the amount of $177.40, the 
makers: L. C. Murray and John Dawson; the endorser: E. L. Mc- 
Daniel. Purpose for which drawn : Expenses. 

A check of October 15, 1965, payable to cash, in the amount of $2,000. 
The makers: L. C. Murray and Edward L. McDaniel; the endorser: 
Edward L. McDaniel. 

Mr. Dawson, I show you this check payable to cash in the amount of 
$2,766, with the endorsers of the check being the same as the makers, 
L. C. Murray and Jolm Dawson, and ask you to advise the committee 
the purpose for which that check was drawn and the money used ? 

( Check handed to witness. ) 

Mr. Dawson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Checks marked "John Dawson Exhibit No. 4" follow:) 

John Dawson Exhibit No. 4 






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ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2989 

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2990 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

John Dawson Exhibit No. 4 — Continued 




ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2991 

John Dawson Exhibit No. 4— Continued 




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2992 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of this witness. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused permanently. 

Mr. Chalmers. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. The committee will stand in recess until three o'clock. 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool and Ash- 
brook.) 

( Wliereupon, at 12 :05 p.m., Wecbiesday, February 2, 1966, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at, 3 p.m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 2, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 3 :20 p.m.) 

Mr. Appell. I have been asked by the chairman of the committee to 
announce that because of business on the floor of the House that the 
committee will not be able to resume its hearings this afternoon and 
that witnesses under subpena are excused until 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning, and they are to report in Room 313-A. 

The committee's hearings tomorrow^ will be in that room. 

(Wliereupon, at 3 :21 p.m., Wednesday, February 2, 1966, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Thursday, February 3, 
1966.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

Part 4 



THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, as 
reconstituted for the February 3 hearings, met, pursuant to recess, at 
10:25 a.m. in Room 313-A, Cannon House Office Building, Washing- 
ton, D.C, Hon. Joe R. Pool (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of Texas, 
chairman; Charles L. Weltner, of Georgia; and John H. Buchanan, 
Jr., of Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Weltner and 
Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator; and Philip R. Manuel, investigator. 

Mr. Weltner (presiding). The subcommittee will come to order. 

I wish to file and make a part of the record a designation of a sub- 
committee consisting of Mr. Pool and myself and Mr. Buchanan as 
members. 

(The order of appointment of the subcommittee follows :) 

February 2, 196<3. 
To: Mr. Francis J. McNamara, 
Direct ar, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities consisting 
of Honorable .Joe R. Pool as Chairman, and Honorable Charles L. Weltner and 
Honorable John Buchanan as assocaite members, to conduct hearings in Washing- 
ton. D.C. on Thursday, February t^, 1966, as contemplated by the resolution 
adopted by the Committee on the ;iOth day of March, 196.5. authorizing hearings 
concerning the activities of the various Ku Klux Klan organizations in the United 
States. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 2nd day of February, 1966. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis 
Edwin E. Willis 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

2993 



2994 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. Tlie committee now sitting, being a quorum of that 
subcommittee, will proceed. 

Mr. Appell, will you call the first witness? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Charles Stewart. 

Mr. Weltner. Stand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you shall give in this 
hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Stewart. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES MELVIN STEWART, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stewart, state your full name for the record. 

Mr. Stewart. Charles Melvin Stew^art. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with a 
subpena served upon you at the offices of the United Klans of America, 
Realm of Mississippi, in Natchez, Mississippi, on October 30, 1965 ? 

Mr. Stewart. I am, 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Stewart. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Will comisel identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law. Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Stewart? 

Mr. Stewart. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
the violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stewart, the subpena served upon you contained an 
attachment, which was made a part of the subpena and commanded you 
to bring and produce documents listed in the attachment. 

Paragraph 1 reads: 

AH books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, in your possession, custody 
or control, or maintained by you or available to you as Kligrapp (Secretary) of 
the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, 
Inc., also known as United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In a representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, I ask you to 
produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Stewart. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena 
dated October 6, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to 
do so might tend to incriminate me in violation of mv rights as 
guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution 
of the United States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committe any and all records 
as requested by his committee under subpena dated October 6, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant or germane to the subject mider 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the con- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2995 

sideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry with- 
in the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the 
rules adopted by the 89 th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted 
January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask for a direction of the witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; the same stipulation that has heretofore 
been entered into by all the clients that I have represented is hereby 
stipulated with respect to the service of the subpena in the capacity 
as stated. 

Also, with respect to the fact that the witness has been apprised of 
the chairman's opening statement. 

Mr. Weltner. All right, thank you, Mr. Chalmers. 

I advise the witness that this committee does not accept his rea- 
sons for refusing to produce the documents and, accordingly, this 
committee orders you to produce the documents required in that 
subpena. 

Mr. Stewart. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stewart, paragraph 2 of the subpena calls for 
you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or past member or Kligrapp of the United Klans of America, Inc.. 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said orga- 
nization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of 
said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

Mr. Stewart. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents ordered by the chairman, based upon the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Witness, the committee does not accept your 
claim of privilege in this matter, and I take it we have the same 
.stipulation with regard to this paragraph ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Consequently, the committee directs you to produce 
the documents called for in the subpena. 

Mr. Stewart. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, paragraph 3 called for the production 
of corporate tax returns covering the United Klans of America, Realm 
of Mississippi. We have been advised by the Internal Revenue Service 
that no returns have been filed, and I shall not ask for production of 
those returns. 

Mr. Stewart, I hand you a series of photographs, taken at a United 
Klans of America rally, in the Crossroads community of Poplarville, 
Mississippi. 

The first photograph shows a Klansman in a red robe. I put it to 
you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that that is 
yourself. 

Mr. Stewart. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my rights might tend to incriminate me 



2996 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

(sic) in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 
1, 4, and 14 to the Constitution of tlie United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Photographs two and, three show Klansmen, some with 
black robes and black hoods, others merely in black hoods, and at least 
one Klansman in a white robe, each with sidearms, giinbelt, holster, 
which shows outside of the uniform. 

Can you explain to the committee the necessity of Klansmen in this 
type of outfit at public rallies of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Stewart. I respectfully decline to answer. I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

(Photographs previously marked "Ernest Gilbert Exhibit No. 2." 
See pp. 2949, 2950.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stewart, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that in May of 1965 at a State meeting of the 
United Klans of America, Realm of Mississippi, you were elected to 
the position of kligrapp or secretary ? 

Mr. Stewart. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Under the "Constitution and Laws" of the United 
Klans of America, reports from subordinate units known as Klaverns 
are to be forw^arded to the secretary. The conunittee has obtained 
financial records relating to Klaverns within the State of Mississippi. 

I shall read these to you, and ask you at the conclusion to identify 
the position that each holds in the Klavern in the location represented 
by financial records : 

E. C. Nutty III, Ackerman, Mississippi ; ^ [William C. Long] ; Rob- 
ert Hudspeth, H-u-d-s-p-e-t-h, Ashland, Mississippi; John Wayne 
Hudson and Alton L. Stubs, Beulah, Mississippi; George Ballard, 
B-a-1-l-a-r-d, Brookliaven, Mississippi; E. B. Scott and Hoyt Phillips, 
P-h-i-1-l-i-p-s, Carthage, Mississippi; James Atkins, A-t-k-i-n-s, 415 
Wilbright, Cokmibus, Mississippi ; Morris H. Aust, A-u-s-t, DeKalb, 
Mississippi; Perry Taylor, T-a-y-1-o-r, Box 281, the city is Desaute, 
Mississippi; Jolin W. Brewer, Greenville Unit 736, Greenville, Mis- 
sissippi ; R. D. Himt, H-u-n-t, 508 Erie Street, Jackson, Mississippi ; 
Jimmie King, Louise, Mississippi ; Bruce Williamson, Louisville, Mis- 
sissippi; Archie Pinnix, P-i-n-n-i-x, Maben, Mississippi; Gene C. 
Deer, D-e-e-r, McComb, Mississippi ; C. C. Warner, W-a-r-n-e-r, Mc- 
Comb, Mississippi ; F. J. Jones, McNeill, Mississippi ; Woodrow Spiers, 
S-p-i-6-r-s, McNeill, Mississippi; W. J. Means, M-e-a-n-s, Route 4, 
Morton, Mississippi; Adams County No. 719, Natchez, Mississippi; 
S. Davidson, 1202 Magnolia, Natchez, Mississippi; J. H.^ — L-y-e-r is 
the spelling of the last name — Natchez, Mississippi; Cecil Bemiett, 
B-e-n-n-e-t-t, Picayune, Mississippi; T. V. Carlisle, Kon Klave 
Klub, K-o-n K-1-a-v-e K-l-u-b, Quitman, Mississippi ; W. L. Overby, 
0-v-6-r-b-3^, Raleigh, Mississippi; J. P. (Billy) Ambrose, Ripley, 
Mississippi; Earl G. Cardw^ell, C-a-r-d-w-e-1-1, Ripley, Mississippi; 
Wallace Turner, Ripley, Mississippi ; Eva M. Perkms, at Starkville, 
Mississippi;^ [Vernon Holloway] ; Charles Speed, Stonewall, Mis- 
sissippi; J. D. Pusock, P-u-s-o-c-k, Sturgis, Mississippi; Dale O. Wal- 



1 Bank official issuing money order. The committee has no knowledge of, nor does It imply, 
any Klan affiliation. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2997 

ton, Tupelo, Mississippi ; D. A. Hendry, H-e-n-d-r-y, Route 5, Waynes- 
boro, Mississippi. 

The names that I have read to you all are makers of checks paying 
money to the United Klans of America, Alabama Eescue Service. 

I ask you what position each of them holds within the organization ? 

Mr. Weltner. Well, put the first name to him, Mr. Appell, and ask 
him that. 

Mr. Appell. E. C. Nutty III.^ 

Mr. Stewart. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The second name I read to you from Ashland was Mr. 
Robert Hudspeth, H-u-d-s-p-e-t-h. 

Mr. Stewart. Sir, I respectfully 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact — — 

Mr. Weltner. Wait. Let him respond to the question. 

Mr. Chalmers. I don't believe there was a question asked, Mr. Chair- 
man. No question posed, 

Mr. Appell. I just said, "The second name was," and I was going 
to continue, Mr. Chairman. 

I put it to you as a fact that he is the secretary-treasurer of a 
Klaveni which operates a bank account at the Bank of Blue Momitain, 
Blue Mountain, Mississippi, under the name of the Wliite People's 
March for Freedom. 

Mr. Stewart. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that, question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that in the Pearl River area or county of Mississippi there is 
a Klavern which is known by the name of the United Conservatives 
of Miss., Inc., #1, and I might say, Mr. Chairman, that according to 
the records of the secretary of state, this organization has never filed 
incorporation papers. 

According to the records subpenaed from the Washington Bank and 
Trust Company of Bogalusa, Louisiana, the officers of that Klavern, 
as of October 11, 1965, were Charles J. Seal, president; Pat Moak, 
M-o-a-k, vice president; J. L. Simmons, treasurer; B. L. Sellers, 
secretaiy; T. P. Wheat, assistant treasurer; Cecil Bemiett, assistant 
secretary. 

I ask you to affirm or deny the fact that as of the date of October 
11, 1965, they were the officers of that Klavern, and they were making 
financial reports to the secretary of the Realm of Mississippi in their 
capacity. 

Mr. Stewart, Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the groimds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "George Harris Exhibit No. 3." See 
p. 2632.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr, Stewart, can you explain to the committee the 
workings of a klokann committee ? 

Mr. Stewart. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that a klokann committee, on a Klavern level, on a province 
level, or on a State level, is comprised of people whose sole responsi- 

1 See footnote 1, p. 2996. 



2998 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

bility is to make investigations and to carry out acts of violence on 
behalf of a Klan organization ? 

Mr. Stewart. I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Have you ever served on a klokann committee ? 

Mr. Stewart. I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of this witness. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness will be excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Paul L. Foster. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you shall give 
in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Foster. I do. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL LAFAYETTE FOSTER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Foster, will you state your full name for the 
record ? 

Mr. Foster. Paul Lafayette Foster. 

Mr. Weltner. Just a moment. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with a 
subpena served upon you on the 30th day of October 1965 at 114 Main 
Street, Natchez, Mississippi ? 

Mr. Foster. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Foster, I put it to you as a fact- 

Mr. Weltner. One moment. The witness is represented by coun- 
sel? 

Mr. Foster. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Will counsel state his name? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, 501 First 
Federal Building, Ealeigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Foster, I put it to you as a fact that 114 Main 
Street, Natchez, Mississippi, the place where you were served by In- 
vestigator Sullivan, is the office headquarters of the United Klans of 
America, Realm of Mississippi. 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reasons that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incrim- 
inate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 
5, 14, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Foster, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you were the first grand chaplain of the 
White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Foster, do you know James K. Greer, G-r-e-e-r ? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 2999 

(At this point Representative Pool entered the hearing room.) 
Mr. Appell. In October 1964, Mr. Foster, Mr. Greer was arrested 
for an act of violence by the Mississippi Highway [Safety] Patrol 
and in the course of interrogation of Mr. Greer, he made the following 
statement to the Mississippi Highway Patrol, referring to people that 
he knew in the Klan. 
The report of interview^ states : 

Greer states that these individuals advocate violence and are extremely strong 
segregationists : Ernest Finley, Frank L. Gaston, Charles L. James, Jeff Luke, 
Cecil Roberts, Paul L. Foster, Nelson Haney, Tommy L. Jones, Ed McDaniel, 
Myron Wayne Seale. 

Is the statement made by Mr. Greer to agents of the Mississippi 
Highway Patrol factual ? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Foster, did you join wdth the folloAving individ- 
uals whose names I just read to you — Charles James, Frank L. Gaston, 
E. L. McDaniel — and Thomas Young in forming a cover name for a 
Klavern under the name of the Adams County Civic & Betterment 
Association ? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you two documents, one, the minutes of orga- 
nization; two, the copy of filing of incorporation with the secretary 
of state of Mississippi, both of which reflect that Paul L. Foster is 
an officer of the organization ; and I ask you if these documents are 
factual? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer tliat question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "Paul Foster Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2," respec- 
tively. Exhibit No. 1 retained in committee files. Exhibit No. 2 appears 
in committee report. The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Movement, pp. 
859-361.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Foster, did there appear in the issue of the Natchez 
Democrat^ a newspaper published in Natchez, Mississipjoi, on Novem- 
ber 1, 1964, an article which states that the "Adams County Civic 
and Betterment Association" protests action by the Highw^ay Patrol ? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Paul Foster Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 

Paul Foster Exhibit No. 3 

[Natchez (Miss.) Democrat, Nov. 1,. 1964] 

In This Area — Protest Action Highway Patrol 

The Adams County Civic and Betterment Association, which was formally or- 
ganized here a short time ago and which is chartered in Mississippi, has adopted 
a Resolution deploring the unlawful arrest and search by the State Highway 
Patrol in Natchez and Adams County and launching a campaign to raise funds 
to employ necessary legal counsel for their defense. 

The Resolution also requests the representatives from Natchez and Adams 
County in the Legislature take the necessary aaad appropriate action "guarantee 
our constitutional rights of freedom from unlawful searches and seizures." 

The Adams County Civic and Betterment Association is rejwrted by its oficials 
[sic] as a civic organization which does not condone any type of violence of 
any nature. The general purpose of the club, they said, is to advance the 



3000 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

educational, civic and social interests of Adams County. Mississippi; to pro- 
mote integrety [sic] and good faith among the citizens of Adams County; to 
acquire, preserve and distribute educational, civic and social statistics and in- 
formation of value to the people of Adams County ; to develop an interest on 
the part of its members and citizens in Adams County in registering to vote 
and voting in state, local and national elections ; and to encourage and foster 
the active interest of members in civic, social and moral welfare of this com- 
munity. 

We are taking this means of presenting this petition to the people with the 
hope that there are others who feel as we do about the activities that are 
taking place among us today. If you are concerned and want to help, "you 
may send your donation to P. O. Box 1111, Natchez, Miss., aiid be sure that all 
of your contribution will be used for the sole purpose of helping those who 
need financial help," Paul L. Foster, President, said. 

The Resolution which was adopted by the organization was as follows: 

RESOLUTION AND PETITION 

WHEREAS, during the past several months, many citizens of Adams County 
have been arrested in connection with recent bombings and have been illegally 
harassed and searched by the Mississippi Highway Patrol (acting under recently 
passed legislation), and a "Police State" now exists in this section of the State 
of Mississippi, in direct violation of our fundamental constitutional rights ; and 

WHEREAS, such action causes tension, turmoil and strife to the i)eople of 
our state and community and, if continued, will necessarily result in forceful 
resisitance to such unlawful action by the state officials ; and 

WHEREAS, the undersigned believe in constitutional government, in obey- 
ing the laws of our land, and, specifically, that a citizen is innocent until 
proven guilty in a court of law, regardless of his color, creed or nationality ; 
and 

WHEREAS, the unlawful state activities, above, have been brought about 
through actions and pressures of NAACP, CORE, COFO, SNCC and the National 
Council of Churches and other oommimist-front organizations not only pressur- 
ing our government, but in spending millions of dollars to create strife within 
the State of Mississippi ; and 

WHEREAS, NAACP, COFO and the other above named organizations are 
spending millions of dollars to create hatred between the Negro and white races 
in Mississippi and it is necessary that white Americans defend our traditions 
and race; 

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED by the undersigned that in sup- 
port of our traditional way of life and in support of maintining [sic] law, and 
order and peaceful relations between the white and Negro races, we do pledge our- 
selves to raise funds for the support of those persons who have been unlaA\^illy 
arrested by the State Highway Patrol, and urge other citizens to contribute to- 
ward their defense, 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the undersigned do hereby request our 
local representatives in the State Legislature to take appropriate action to guar- 
antee our constitutional rights of freedom from unlawful searches and seizures, 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that we do seek from the public funds foi 
the defense of our white citizens and for the protection of our traditional way 
of life, requesting that any such funds be sent to the undersigned organization. 

This money will be used solely for LEGAL FUNDS ONLY 
ADAMS COUNTY CIVIC 
AND BETERMENT [sic] 
ASSOCIATION 
PRESIDENT : 
Paul L. Foster 
TREASURER 
C. E. James 
John D. Druetta 
Mail any donations to 
Adams County Civic and 
Betterment Club 
P. O. Box 111 
Natchez, Miss. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3001 

Mr. Appell. Ill this statement or according to the article which 
was adopted by the Adams County Civic & Betterment Association, 
tlie article shows that it was issued by Paul L. Foster as president. 

The Highway Patrol and other agencies, law enforcement agencies, 
were accused of illegal arrest and illegal search and seizure. 

Was this resolution adopted by the Adams County Civic & Better- 
ment Association, a cover of a Klan, in order to protect. Klansmen 
who were being arrested for acts of violence in wdiich they were 
engaged ? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a registration, copy of the original regis- 
tration of the Dinkler-Tutwdler Hotel, in Birmingham, Alabama, 
September 4, and the year is 1964, and ask you after you revicAv that 
signature, whether or not you attended the Imperial Klonvokation 
held in Birmingham in September 1964? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Paul Foster Exhibit No. 4-- follows:) 



Paul Foster Exhibit No. 4 

953 FOSTER PAUL L 7-54 6565f 

NAT MISS 
f*4 RS 



H 65659 



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Mr. Appell. Wlien and where were you bom, Mr. Foster? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view^ of the wntness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer my questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Foster. 

Paul Lafayette Foster was born on July 28, 1923, at Newhebron, 
Mississippi. He was educated at and I don't know the proper pronun- 
ciation, so I will spell it, H-e-u-c-k's Eetreat, located in Lincoln Coun- 



3002 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

ty, Mississippi ; for 1 year at the Copiah-Lincoln Junior College, Wes- 
son, Mississippi; 3 years at Mississippi College, Clinton, Mississippi. 

He served in the Army from December 7, 1942, to September 21, 
1945, with the rank of Pfc, and was honorably discharged. 

Since 1952, he has been employed as a schoolteacher, a salesman of 
stationery supplies; and since 1956, with the International Paper Com- 
pany. He presently holds the position of payroll control clerk. 

Foster, a member of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mis- 
sissippi became the organization's first grand chaplain in February of 
1964. In June 1964, he was the exalted cyclops of the combined Mor- 
gantown and Adams County Klavern of the Wliite Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

In July 1964, Paul Foster and other members discussed the dis- 
affiliation with the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi 
and joining the United Klans of America. 

On August 8, 1964, Charles E. James, Frank L. Gaston, E. L. Mc- 
Daniel, Paul Foster, and Thomas Young, all former members of the 
"\^niite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, met for the purpose of charter- 
ing a UKA Klavern under the cover name of the Adams County Civic 
& Betterment Association. 

E. L. McDaniel is the present Grand Dragon of the United Klans 
of America for the Realm of Mississippi. Corporation papers were 
filed with the secretary of state by Charles E. James, Frank L. Gaston, 
and Paul L. Foster, on Augiist 16, 1964. 

Paul Foster thereafter became president of the association, and 
exalted cyclops of the Klavern. Charles E. James became the kli- 
grapp or secretary of both organizations. 

On November 1, 1964, there appeared in the Natchez Democrat a 
resolution passed by the Adams County Civic & Betterment Associa- 
tion. This petition was intended to give support to fellow members 
of the United Klans of America who had been arrested by the Missis- 
sippi Highway Patrol. The resolution accused the Mississippi High- 
way Patrol of having made illegal search and arrest, and declared a 
" 'Police State' now exists in this section" — referring to Adams Coun- 
ty — "of the State of Mississippi." 

This Klavern of the United Klans of America resolved in its resolu- 
tion, among one of its resolves, that— 

in support of our traditional way of life and in support of maintining [sic] 
law. and order and peaceful relations between the white and Negro races, we do 
pledge ourselves to raise funds for the supiiort of those persons who have been 
unlawfully arrested by the State Highway Patrol, and urge other citizens to 
contribute towards their defense. 

The resolution was signed by Paul L. Foster, president, C. E. James, 
and John D. Druetta. ( See Paul Foster Exhibit No. 3. ) 

James Kenneth Greer, in a statement to the Mississippi Highway 
Patrol on October 25, 1964, identified as Klansmen who advocated 
violence and are extremely strong segregationists: Paul L. Foster, 
Ernest Finley, Frank L. Gaston, Charles E. James, Jeff Luke, Cecil 
Roberts, Nelson Haney, Thomas L. Jones, Ed McDaniel, and Myron 
Wayne (Jack) Seale. 

Mr. Weltner. Is that Ed McDaniel, E. L. McDaniel? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

In May of 1965, Paul L. Foster was elected the Grand Klaliff or 
vice president of the Realm of Mississippi. This information, Mr. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



3003 



Chairman, indicates that Mr. Foster possesses additional information 
which is both pertinent and relevant to this inquiry and would ma- 
terially aid the Congress in enacting remedial legislation. 

Mr. Pool (presiding). Does that finish your statement? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Witness, you have heard the sworn statement of the 
committee's investigator. 

You now have the opportunity to reply to any portion of that state- 
ment, to affirm, deny, or admit the truth of any allegation, and to 
explain or modify any part of that statement. In addition, you may, 
if you desire, offer any other matters which the committee may deem 
relevant to this inquiry. 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Foster, I must inform you that, absent your rebuttal 
or other facts that may come to the attention of this committee, this 
committee will reply upon the accuracy of its investigation, and bear- 
ing this in mind, have you anything to say ? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead, Mr. counsel. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Foster, I hand you a sheet of paper upon which 
there is typed the names of nearly 50 employees of the International 
Paper Company, Natchez, Mississippi. 

I ask you to review this list and to advise the committee as to which 
individuals appearing on that list you knew to be members of eit^her 
the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi or the United 
Klans of America. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Paul Foster Exhibit No. 5.*' The list follows :) 
Paul Foster Exhibit No. 5 



Aldridge, J. C. 
Aldridge, Virgil G. 
AUen, William T. 
Anderson, Robert M. 
Ashley, Buford W. 
Avants, James A. 
Avants, Ernest H. 
Bruitt, Harvey, .Jr. 
Buckles, Billy D. 
Burchfield, Jasper W. 
Burgess, Lavon 
Chisholm, Vernon E. 
Clanton, Oscar R. 
Cloy, Ware Thomas 
Cothern, Alfred M. 
Covvart, Walter R. 
Davidson, Charles O. 
Dawson, John 
Dillon, William M. 
Druetta, John D. 
Duncan, Ben G., Jr. 
Dungan, Frank P. 
Edwards, Charles E. 



Edwards, Charlesi M. 
Elledge, Clinton H. 
Elveston, James 
Elveston, James F. 
Felter, William TTiomas 
Foster, Paul L. 
Freeman, Frankie Gene 
Freeman, Joel Ray 
Fuller, Claude W. 
Gardner, A. J. 
Germany, Otis K.. Jr. 
Greer, James K., Jr. 
Griffin, Claude A. 
Griffin, David C. 
Hardy, Joe Lee 
Hinson, Leslie AV. 
House, Marion L. 
Howington, Charles A. 
Howington, iYed W. 
Jones, Tommy L. 
Kepper, Dudley E. 
Klar, F. C. 
McManus, L. E. 



Nail, Louis C. 
Nash, David C. 
Pickering, R. A. 
Roberts, Alton I. 
Scarborough, J. L. 
Spring, Claude D. 
Spring, James W. 
Spring, Warren E. 
Story, E. R. 
Sturgis, James W. 
Sutton, C. L. 
Thurmon, F. H. 
Torgersen. Thore L. 
Trevillion, S. R. 
Tynes, Charles R. 
Tyson, Oliver L., Jr. 
AVheeler, Earl 
Wheeler, Herman R. 
White, Charles, Jr. 
Wilkinson, Donald H. 
Wright, Raymond S. 
Young, Joseph Lloyd 
Young, Lloyd C. 



3004 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the reason the list was submitted to Mr. 
Foster was in hopes that he could confirm the results of tlie commit- 
tee's investigation that the persons listed thereon have held member- 
ship in either the Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi 
or the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Pool. That is the results of your investigation ? 

Mr. Appell. That is the results of the staff's investigation; yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Do you want to include this list in the record ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask that that list and 
the other documents referred to of this witness be introduced at the 
place referred to. 

Mr. Pool. No objection ? 

So ordered. 

Mr. Weltner. Let me ask the witness if any of the persons whose 
names appear on that list is a member of either the White Knights or 
the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Are any of the employees on this list not members, to 
your knowledge, of the Klan organization ? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Thfe reason I ask you that, in all fairness, if you know 
for a fact they are not members, you should speak up now. 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, leased 
upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Foster, I understand you were the first grand 
chaplain of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in Mississippi, 
or at least our investigation so indicates. 

Now according to Article II, Section 18 of the constitution of the 
White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (Gordon Lackey Exhibit No. 
2) , the grand chaplain, and I quote : 

The Grand Chaplain shall serve in the capacity of Christian advisor on all 
questions of morals and idealistic Klavern conduct. 

A. In eases of extreme penalties the advise [sic] of the Grand Chaplain shall 
be sought and considered. 

As grand chaplain, was your advice sought and considered in ex- 
treme penalties? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Buchanan. What are those extreme penalties ? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Buchanan. Our investigation has revealed there are four kinds 
of projects carried out by the Wliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
and Project No. 4 is extermination. Is this an extreme penalty? 

Mr, Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Buchanan. You have been a high-ranking officer of first, 
Wliite Knights, and then the United Klans in Mississippi, from our 
evidence. I note that you are a graduate of a Christian college, a 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3005 

former school teacher. What good things can you tell us about 
either of these Klan organizations that would make them worthwhile 
for people to join and support? 

Mr. Foster. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Buchanan. Well, I wish you would tell us something good. 
We haven't heard anything in all our weeks of investigation to date. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, we heard about that "needy committee" yes- 
terday, which was a faint light on an otherwise dark horizon. 

Mr. Buchanan. Well, w^e also heard that the White Knights Avere 
instructed by their Imperial Wizard not to associate with the United 
Klans people. I suppose one might consider that a stroke for one 
organization or the other ; I am not sure. 

Mr. Weltner. No questions. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused permanently. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ernest Parker. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear the testimon}^ you are about to 
give will be the truth, the w^hole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Parker. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ERNEST BUCHANAN PARKER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Parker, will you state your full name for the 
record ? 

Mr. Parker. Ernest Buchanan Parker. 

Mr. Appell. We have no microphone in this room, Mr. Parker, 
so that you will have to speak up so that the committee and others 
can hear you. 

Are you appearing here today in accordance with a subpena served 
upon you on October 30, 1965, at the United Klans headquarters in 
Natchez, Mississippi, 114 Main Street ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, may I state, sir, that the witness 
here that I represent, Ernest Buchanan Parker, is here as a result of 
a subpena served upon him, dated the 6th day of October 1965. 

Mr. Pool. Have you identified yourself, counsel ? 

Mr. Chalmers. No, sir; I will. T am Lester V. Chalmers, Jr.. 
attorney at law. Room 501, First Federal Building, Raleigh, North 
Carolina. 

Mr. Pool. And you are representing the witness? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; I do. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer as to whether or not he was served by Investigator Sullivan 
of this office, as the return reflects at 114 Main Street, Natchez, Mis- 
sissippi. 

Mr. Pool. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Parker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. What was the answer? 

Mr. Parker. Yes, sir. 



3006 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. Now the Chair wislies to make this statement, and the 
Chair wishes to state to the witness and ask the witness, have you 
been furnished a copy of the chairman's" opening statement of Oc- 
tober 19, 1965, and are you familiar with its contents? 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, so stipulated. 

Mr. Pool. In other words, the stipulation in the directions of the 
subpena to produce the documents called for made 

Mr. Chalmers. I don't think that has been asked yet. 

Mr. Pool. That has not been asked ? 

Mr. Chalmers. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool, All right, that is not stipulated up to this point. 

All right, go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Parker, when and where were you bom ? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me under the amend- 
ments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Parker, do you know Myron Wayne 

Mr. Pool. Just a moment, please. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Parker, do you know Myron Wayne — who is 
popularly known as "Jack" — Seale ? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Parker, Mr. Seale was arrested by the Mississippi 
Highway Patrol in connection with an assault upon a white male, 
Bruce Lloyd Payne. In the course of an interrogation by the Mis- 
sissippi Highway Patrol, I will read from a report of statements made 
by Mr. Seale : 

Seale stated that his closest associate in Natchez is Ernest Parker. He stated 
that he considered Ernest Parker to be his best friend and that they hunt and 
fish together frequently. He further stated that he often soes with Parker in 
Parker's airplane. He stated Parker has a four-seater plane which is white 
with red stripes. He stated Parker is a very cautious pilot. Parker and Seale 
usually fly from Natchez up to "Palmyra" [P-a-1-m-y-r-a], which Seale de- 
scribed as an island on the Mississippi River. He stated that this is a 35,000- 
acre island and that Parker owns 25,000 acres of the island. Parker has at least 
500 head of cattle on this island and Seale and Parker often fly up to the island 
to take care of these cattle. He stated that sometimes they drive up to the 
island or to Tallulah, Mississippi, where they visit friends. He stated that 
Ernest Parker and his brother Lee Parker own a large barge which they can 
take out to the island. He stated that last summer while bringing a truck 
with 26 head of cattle from the island to the mainland, the barge tilted, causing 
the cattle and truck to go overboard. * * * 

Do you own 25,000 acres on an island called Palmyra Island ? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Parker, according to the McComb, Mississippi, 
Enterprise- J ournal^ two bodies were found in what is known as the 
Old River, Charles Moore and Henry Dee. 

Do you possess any knowledge of how those bodies got into the 
Old River? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3007 

Mr. Appell. In puttino; the case together, Mr. Parker, it was re- 
constructed that, in order to get two bodies tied by chains and tied to 
an engine block of a jeep, there was only a certain type of boat that 
could be possibly used, and the only type of boat on the river which 
could be used for this was a barge similar to the one that you own. 

Was your barge used for this, with or without your knowledge ? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Investigation found several old Willys jeep chassis on 
your property, and the bodies were weighted down with a motor block 
from a jeep. Was the motor block from any jeep chassis that was on 
your property ? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Parker, according to your Federal income tax 
returns, in April of 1964, as reflected by your 1964 tax return, you 
purchased mobile radios costing $783.97. Were those radios used to 
carry out projects of Klan organizations, either the White Knights 
or presently the United Klans of America? 

Mi\ Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon gi'ounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Ernest Parker Exhibit No. 1" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Appell, is that two-way radios? Citizens band? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, we have not located an application for 
a citizens band radio at this time, which does not infer that there is 
not one. However, the only knowledge that we at this moment possess 
is the deduction on $783.97 on Mr. Parker's tax returns for the pur- 
chase of mobile radios. 

Mr. Pool. It is possible to use these radios without having a license. 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Appell. I don't think that they can be used witliout a license, 
sir. 

Mr. Pool. Well, as a practical matter, though, they could use them. 

Mr. Appell. Illegally. 

Mr. Pool. Illegally, but they could be used. 

Mr. Appell. Oh, yes, sir. One of the problems that tlie Federal 
Communications Commission has is attempting to monitor the citizens 
band radios for any illegal use. There are too many in existence. 

Mr, Pool. They are supposed to call out the call letters, l>efore and 
after a conversation, I believe. Is that correct ? 

Mr, Appell. I am not that familiar with the requirements, sir, 

Mr. Pool. I think it is. 

Just a minute. 

Under the rules of the House, this hearing shall not l3e recorded 
on a tape machine. I understand that one of the people in the audi- 
ence has a recording machine and has the microphone out. 

Will you officers check that to see if that is true? 

Mr. Scoggin? Under the rules of the House, you are violating the 
rules by having the machine in operation while these hearings are 
going on, and the Chair will not give you another warning on it. 
Don't do it any more. 

Will you come here to the Chair? Mr. Scoggin? Come up here 
to the Chair and bring your machine up here. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 4 8 



3008 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Chalmers, will you come up with him ? 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Pool. Will the reporter show on the record that Mr. Scoggin 
says that he has not been playing the tape recorder and that there is 
nothing on the tape at this time? 

All right, go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Parker, in March of 1964, were you the exalted 
Cyclops of a Klavern of the ^^^lite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in 
Mississippi known as the Morgantown Klavern ? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Have you used your airplane for the purpose, either 
you as the pilot or authorized the use for the purpose of dropping 
Klan literature in various sections of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claims of priv- 
ilege and his refusal to answer questions, I present to the committee 
the results of its investigation on Mr. Parker. 

Ernest Buchanan Parker was born on May 4, 1930, at Natchez, 
Mississippi. 

He served in the U.S. Navy Reserve from 1947 to 1952, when he was 
honorably discharged. 

He is a self-employed farmer and cattleman, with financial interests 
in oil and timber. He owns a four-seater airplane, make unknown. 

In March 1964, he was the exalted cyclops of the Morgantow^n 
Klavern of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi. 

In April 1964, he purchased mobile radios costing $783.97. 

In August 1964, he withdrew from the "Wliite Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of Mississippi and affiliated with the United Klans of 
America, Realm of Mississippi. He is a member of the Klavern known 
as the Adams County Civic & Betterment Association. 

With regard to the Adams County Civic & Betterment Association, 
Parker is known to have stated that at public UKA rallies, nothing is 
discussed, but at meetings of the new "civic" club, the Klan is able 
to make plans and carry on any "real business." 

Parker's plane was flown by himself or with a pilot having permis- 
sion from Mr. Parker, and was used to drop Klan leaflets over Brook- 
haven, Mississippi, over Philadelphia, Mississippi, in August 1964, 
and in the Neshoba County Fair in 1965. 

Parker is presently holding a position in the Realm of Mississippi, 
United Klans of America. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Parker possesses 
additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this 
inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

Mr. Pool. Does that complete your statement? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Witness, you have heard the sworn statement of the 
committee's investigator. 

You now have an opportunity to reply to any portion of that state- 
ment to confirm, admit, or deny the truth of any allegation, and to 
explain or modify any part of that statement. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3009 

In addition, you may, if you desire, offer any other matter that the 
committee may deem relevant to tliis inquiry. 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon (grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. I must inform "you that, absent your rebuttal or other 
facts that may come to the attention of the committee, this committee 
will rely uf)on the accuracy of its investigation. 

Bearing this in mind, have you anything to say ? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Parker, what is the "real business'' that can be dis- 
cussed within the Klavern which is known as the Adams County Civic 
& Betterment Association which can't be discussed at public Klan 
rallies? 

Mr. Parker. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The staff has'no further questions to ask of this wit- 
ness, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Mr.Weltner? 

Mr. Buchanan ? 

The witness is excused permanently. 

Mr. Appell. Myron Wayne Seale. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
lielp you God ? 

Mr. Seale. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF MYRON WAYNE (JACK) SEALE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Seale, will you state your full name for the record? 

Mr. Seale. Myron Wayne Seale. 

Mr. Appell. Are you popularly known by the nickname of Jack? 

Mr. Seale. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with a 
subpena served upon you at 114 Main Street, Natchez, Mississippi, on 
October 30, 1965, by John D. Sullivan, an investigator of this com- 
mittee? 

Mr. Seale. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Seale. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would counsel identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., Room 501, First Federal 
Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chalmers, is it so stipulated the witness has been 
furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement of October 19, 
19G5, and that he is familiar with its contents ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; he is. 

Mr. Appell. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Seale ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, for 
the reasons that I honestly feel that my answ^ers might tend to incrnni- 
nate me in violations of my rights, and guaranteed by me by amend- 



3010 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



merits 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Seale, the name Seale in Mississippi is a name 
used by many families. Some spell it S-e-a-1-e, some S-e-a-1, some 
S-e-a-1-s. It is the correct spelling of your last name S-e-a-1-e? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; Mr. Chairman, It is stipulated that his 
last name is S-e-a-1-e, as stated in the subpena. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Seale, do you hold a position within the Klan of 
Mississippi, the United Klans of America, within their security guard 
and the rank of major ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know John D. Sullivan, who sits across from 
me, the investigator of the committee ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Appell, I hand you a photograph taken on October 30, 1965, 
in Natchez, Mississippi, show^ing yourself, dressed in a military-type 
uniform, major's rank, holding a walkie-talkie radio, and I ask you 
if the person photographed next to you is John D. Sullivan, investiga- 
tor of this committee ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Photograph marked "Myron Seale Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 

Myron Seale Exhibit No. 1 




Photograph taken October 30, 1965, in Natchez, Miss. Person at left in military-typt 
uniform with walkie-talkie radio is Myron Wayne (Jack) Seale; the other is John D 
Sullivan, HCUA investigator. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



3011 



Mr. Pool. How could that incriminate you, to make a statement like 
that? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. ^Nlr. Seale, clo you laiow L. C. Murray, who is the field 
secretary to Mr. McDaniel of the United Klans of America, Realm 
of Mississippi? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a reproduction of a photograph that ap- 
peared in the Clarion-Ledger of Jackson, Mississippi, Monday, July 
19, 1965, which contains two individuals in Klan robes, and according 
to the caption these two Klansmen were in Bogalusa, Louisiana, drum- 
ming up business or interest for a United Klans rally to be held in 
Crossroads, Mississippi, July 19 or 21 of 1965. 

In handing^ you this photograph, I put it to you as a fact, and ask 
you to affirm or deny the fact, that the two Klansmen shown are your- 
self, Jack Seale, and L. C. Murray ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Photograph marked "Myron Seale Exhibit No. 2" follow^s:) 

Myron Seale Exhibit No. 2 
Jackson, Miss., C larion- Ledger, ]u\y 19, 1965] 




KLAN PARADES IN BOGALUSA— Two hooded white men 
who identified themselves as members of the Knights of 
the Ku Klan of Natchez, Miss, pass Louisiana state 
troopers, one of which gives a big grin to the Klansmen. 
The Klansmen walked the streets of Bogalusa recently to re- 
mind Bogalusa residents of a KKK rally at Crossroads, 
Miss.— AP Wirephoto. 

[No. 1 Myron Wayne (Jack) Seale; No. 2 is L. C. Murray.] 



3012 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



Mr. Appell. I hand you another photograph which appeared in 
many newspapers throughout the United States, this one from the 
Emporia, Kansas, Gazette^ which has a caption to the photograph 
which reads "Klan Guard Eyes Marchers*' : 

Jack Seale, who identified liimself as a major in the security guard of the 
Mississippi chapter of the Ku Klux Klan at Natchez, watches as nearly 1,000 
civil rights marchers pass in downtown Natchez. Seale said that he and 14 othei 
KKK security guards were on hand "to keep the peace" during the demonstration. 

I hand you that photograph and ask you : Why is it necessary for 
the security guard of the Ku Klux Klan organization to be around in 
order to keep the peace ? 

Mr, Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
basis previously stated. 

(Photograph marked "Myron Seale Exhibit No. 3" follow^s:) 

Myron Seale Exhibit No. 3 

[Emporia, Kansas, Ga~elte, November 1, 1965] 




KLAN GUARD EYES MARCHERS — Jnck 1,000 civil rights marchers pass in downtown 

Seale, who identified himself as a major in the Natchez. Seale said that he and 14 other KKK 

security guard of the Mississippi chapter of the security guards were on hand 'to keep the 

Ku Jilux Klan at Natchez, watches as nearly peace" during the demonstration. (AP) 



Mr. Appell. Mr. Seale, were you arrested in connection with an 
assault on a boy by the name of Payne and another by the name of 
Green ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a reproduction of a photograph which 
appeared in the Natchez (Mississippi) Democrat, of October 24, 1964, 
and the caption to the photograph reads : 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3013 

Collection of weapons — Federal Bureau of Investigation and State Highway 
Patrol officials stationed in Natchez yesterday uncovered this collection of 
weapons and ammunition in connection with their investigations here. All the 
weapons and ammnnition with the exception of the two pistols, came from 
the home of M. W. "Jack" Scale, arrested here early yesterday morning and 
charged with assault and battery with intent to kill in connection with an assault 
on two civil rights workers near Port Gibson on Oct. 31. Scale was the fifth 
Natchez man charged in the assault. 

In looking at that photograph, explain to the committee why any- 
one needs such an arsenal ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Photograph marked "Myron Seale Exhibit No. 4." See committee 
report. The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Movement^ p. 109.) 

Mr. Appell. Were any of the w^eapons shown in the photograph, 
which includes a carbine, used for any illegal purpose by you ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Seale, you were in the room when I read to Mr. 
Parker the portion of a statement which according to the Mississippi 
Highway Patrol you made to them on October 26, 1964. Is that which 
I read to Mr. Parker factual ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Now" Mr. Seale, it is the committee's understanding and 
knowledge that James Seale, arrested in the connection with the dis- 
appearance of Charles Edward Moore and Henry Ezekiel Dee, is your 
brother 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully 

Mr. Appell. — and that Charles Marcus Edwards, also arrested, is 
your cousin. 

Do you possess any knowledge of the picking up of Moore and Dee 
and of any subsequent actions taken by the 12 to 15 Klansmen who 
Charles Marcus Edwards said participated in the beating, which re- 
sulted in their bodies winding up in the Old River near Palmyra 
Island? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you participate in the acts against Henry Dee and 
Charles Moore ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you possess any kno^vled^e as to the type of trans- 
portation used to take these bodies to the river or the location from 
where the jeep motor block was obtained ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Seale, Bruce Lloyd Payne and George Green were 
beaten in October 1963, and a car driven by them was shot at in No- 
vember of 1963. 

Did you participate in either the beating or the firing into their 
vehicle ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 



3014 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Seale. 

Myron Wayne "Jack" Seale was bom September 4, 1926, at Brook- 
haven, Mississippi. 

He completed 11 years of formal education. He served in the United 
States Navy from October 1944 to December of 1947. 

He operates a garbage collection business in Natchez, Mississippi. 
He is the son of Clyde and the brother of James Ford Seale, both of 
whom have been witnesses during the current investigation. 

He joined the TVliite Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in 1964 and 
transferred to the United Klans of America. He is a member of the 
Adams County Klavern, known as the Adams County Civic & Better- 
ment Association. 

In May of 1965, he was elected to the office of grand night-hawk 
for the Realm of Mississippi. 

The Natchez Democrat^ issue of October 24, 1964, reported that 
Myron Wayne "Jack" Seale was arrested in comiection witli an alleged 
attack on two civil rights workers in Clarion County, Mississippi, on 
October 31, 1963. 

At the time of his arrest, rifles, ammunition, and knives were seized. 
Arrested along with Mr. Seale on the same charge were Ernest Henry 
Avants, Frank Hyman Thunnan, John William Barber, and James 
Kenneth Greer. Charges were dropped when the civil rights workers 
refused to return to Mississippi for the trial. 

At the time of arrest, Seale denied membership in the Klan. He 
acknowledged knowing the following all identifiable Klansmen: 
Ernest Parker, Charles Edwards, Douglas Byrd, James L. McKinney, 
Ernest Avants, and Alton Roberts. 

James Kenneth Greer, arrested for the same offense, identified Myron 
Wayne Seale as a Klansman who advocated violence. 

On October 18, 1964, he purchased a greenish-blue Chevrolet, which 
was observ^ed on November 2, 1963, pursuing a car bearing the same 
two civil rights workers assaulted in October 1963. Three shots were 
fired into the rear of the civil rights workers' car after they sped away 
from their pursuers. Seale's car is equipped with a radio receiver 
capable of monitoring police calls. Seale is a major in the United 
Klans of America security guard. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Seale possesses 
additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this 
inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Seale, you have heard the sworn statement of the 
committee's investigator. 

You now have the opportunity to reply to any portion of that state- 
ment, to confirm, admit, or deny the truth of any allegation, and to 
explain or modify any part of the statement. 

In addition, you may, if you desire, offer any other matter the com- 
mittee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3015 

Mr, Pool. I must inform you that, absent your rebuttal or other 
facts that may come to the attention of the committee, this committee 
will rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. 

Bearing this in mind, have you anything to say ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer this question, based 
upon the grounds j)reviously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Seale, w^iat use do you make of the radio which 
is located in your car ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the gi'ounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. "Wliat use is made of the walkie-talkie radios which 
are very popular among Klansmen ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I refuse — I respectfully refuse to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Investigation establishes, Mr. Seale, that under the 
night-hawk, there is appointed a klokann committee ; that this klokann 
committee is responsible for investigations on, in your case, the State 
level, and for the selecting of men who might carry out acts of violence 
or acts of intimidation. 

Can you explain to the committee how the klokann committee works 
in the State of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As grand night-hawk, have you ever commissioned a 
fellow Klansman to engage in an act of intimidation or violence? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was it under your orders as grand night-hawk or under 
the orders of the Grand Dragon for the State of Mississippi, Mr. 
McDaniel, that according to the State Highway Patrol, some 70 crosses 
were burned throughout Mississippi in protest of the renewal of hear- 
ings of this committee ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, I have a question. 

Mr. Seale, on this photograph that was exhibited to you a few mo- 
ments ago, I note you have what appears to be a five-cell flashlight 
in a holster, strapped to a webb belt. 

Now the photograph clearly shows this was a daytime rally. I 
wonder if you will tell me why you had a flashlight such as this for 
a daytime rally ? 

( Photograph handed to witness. ) 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. AVeltner. Well, is that flashlight ever used as a w^eapon, as a 
club? 

Will you answer that ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 



3016 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. I have been advised that, on occasion, those long 
flashlights, which are about 20 inches long, do not have batteries in 
them, but that the cartridge is filled with a lead pipe. Is that tnie? 
Have you ever carried a flashlight filled with a lead pipe ? 

Mr. Seale. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. No further questions. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is permanently excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until 1 :15. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :45 a.m., Thursday, February 3, 1966, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 1:15 p.m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1 :45 p.m., Hon. Joe R. Pool, chair- 
man, presiding. ) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool, Weltner, 
and Buchanan.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Ernest Henry Avants. 

Mr. Pool. Hold up your right hand. 

Do you solemnely swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Avants. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ERNEST HENRY AVANTS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, TRAVIS BUCKLEY AND CHARLES J. MAY III 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record ? 

Mr. Avants. Ernest Henry Avants. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with the 
subpena served upon you on the 3d day of November 1965 at the 
International Paper Comany, Natchez, Mississippi ? 

Mr. Avants. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Avants. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify themselves for the record, please? 

Mr. Buckley. Travis Buckley, attorney at law. Bay Springs, Mis- 
sissippi. 

Mr. Pool. Will you stipulate that the witness has been furnished 
a copy of the chairman's opening statement of October 19, 1965, and 
is familiar with its contents? 

Mr. Buckley. Yes, sir, we do so stipulate. 

Mr. May. My name is Charles J. May III, attorney at law, Laurel, 
Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Avants, when and where Avere you born ? 

Mr. Avants. It has changed its name from the time I was born. 
It has changed names. Now it is — it was Pine Grove. Now, you say 
Bogue Chitto, Mississippi. 

Mr. Appell. The month, day, and year. 

Mr. Avants. The 23d of January 1931. 

Mr. Appell. What is your educational background ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3017 

Mr. AvANTs. High school. 

Mr. Appell. a graduate ? 

Mr. AvANTs. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Since 1960, Mr. Avants, will you give the committee 
the benefit of your occupational background ? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question and 
invoke as a defense the privilege guaranteed to me by the 5th, 4th, 1st, 
and 14th amendments of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. Are you presently an employee of the International 
Paper Company in Natchez, Mississippi ? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Pool. The fact that you are employed at the paper company 
would incriminate you ? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Pool. I wonder what that paper company is going to think 
about that. 

Mr. Avants. For the reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. Pool. You are saying that your answering that question would 
incriminate you ? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to show that 
Mr. Avants has been employed by the International Paper Company 
since 1950 except for a period of military service and that he present- 
ly holds the position of a bleach washman. 

Mr. Pool. Bleach washer? 

Mr. Appell. Washman. 

Are you acquainted with James K. Greer? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. James K. Greer and yourself were arrested for assault 
upon Lloyd — Bruce Lloyd Payne and George Green in October 1964? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. On October 22, 1964, did you make a statement to 
agents of the Mississippi Highway Patrol following an arrest? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reason previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Avants, I have in front of me a copy of a state- 
ment obtained from the Mississippi Highway Patrol which statement 
contains the substance of an interview given by you on October 22, 
1964. In the course of the interview the report states that you ad- 
vised that you did not desire to furnish the names of any individuals 
who were involved in any of the various bombings. You stated that 
this group of individuals involved was a small militant group of the 
United Klan in this area : 

He said that he knows the identities of these individuals but refused to fur- 
nish their identities. He stated that he feels it would be difficult to obtain ex- 
plosives or dynamite in Adams County ; however, he stated that there is avail- 



3018 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

able in Pike County all types of explosives which would be readily available to 
anybody known in the area. He stated that he has no personal knowledge of 
anyone in Adams County in possession of dynamite or other explosives other 
than himself. 

Who are the individuals about whom -you possess knowledge as to 
their involvement in various bombings in the Adams County area of 
Mississippi ? 

Mr. AvANTS. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. The report continues : "During the course of this inter- 
view he," referring to Avants — 

voluntarily expressed an opinion that a small militant group of members of the 
Klan were responsible for the bombings of the residence of Mayor John Nosser 
and the Willie Washington residence at Natchez, Mississippi. 

Who were involved in these bombings, Mr. Avants ? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Were you one of those involved ? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Weltner. Will counsel identify the incidents a little more 
closely ? 

Mr. Appell, Yes, the residence of the mayor of Natchez, Mayor 
Nosser. 

Mr. Weltner. The date of that ? 

Mr. Appell. I do not have the date in this record. 

And the residence of a resident of Natchez by the name of Willie 
Washington. 

Continuing the quote from the interview : 

He said he has never resorted to the use of any type of explosives for any pur- 
pose and possessed no knowledge of the existence of dynamite in this area. 
However, he added a large quantity of explosives had been entrusted into his 
custody and care. He pointed out that he was not a member of the organization 
who furnished these explosives to him and refuse to identify this particular 
organization. He stated that no weapons were included in this armament and 
consisted entirely of ammunition, hand grenades and a quantity of C-3 explosives. 

What are C-3 explosives, Mr. Avants? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 
Mr. Pool. Mr. Appell, what are C-3 explosives? 
Mr. Appell. I have no knowledge. 
Mr. Pool. All right. 
Mr. Appell. [Continues reading:] 

According to Avants, this quantity of ammunition and armaments would be 
utilized only upon the instructions and command of the Governor of the State of 
Mississippi or the Sheriff of Adams County. At that time he indicated he would 
also receive instructions as to the ultimate disposition of these explosives. He 
described these explosives as being contained in metal containers of unknown 
sizes and power of detonation. Upon receipt of this ammunition and explosives 
he stated he personally concealed it in numerous locations in this area. He 
claimed he acquired knowledge of the use of explosives through his military 
service and National Guard association. He identified his wife as the only other 
person who is in the possession of information as to the specific location of the 
explosives and ammunition originally concealed by him. He said he was unaware 
of the fact that this ammunition consisted of stolen U.S. Government propert.v 
but indicated that the mark "U.S." appeared on a large quantity of this ammuni- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3019 

tion. He said that he believed that there are other caches throughout the 
country which contain the weapons to fire the amnuxnition in his possession, and 
that in case of an emergency these caches would be joined together for use. 

Will you give to the committee the benefit of the knowledge as 
expressed in the paragraph which I read to you, Mr. Avants? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Weltner. Let me ask a question : Is there such a cache of am- 
munition or explosives? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Pool. In other words, you are going to let this statement stand 
that there evidently is such a cache of explosives. 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfull}' 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Avants, James K. Greer, who was arrested at the 
same time, identified you as a member of a Klavem of the Wliite 
Knights which you shot up after getting drunk because you were dis- 
turbed over the fact that members were not paying their dues. Is 
the statement of James K. Greer given to the Mississippi Highway 
Patrol factual ? 

Mr. Avants. Sir, for the reasons previously stated, I respectfully 
decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask the witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Appell, does the committee investigation indi- 
cate that to date there is presently in existence in this area a supply 
of hidden ammunition or explosives ? 

Mr. Appell. I would assume that if knowledge were available as to 
the contents of any caches that they would be seized by the Mississippi 
enforcement authorities. 

Mr. Weltner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Buchanan. 

Mr. Buchanan. No questions. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have any other questions, Mr. Appell? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused permanently. 

Call your next vdtness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Paul Wilson. 

Mr. Pool. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give is the 
whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wilson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL DEWEY WILSON 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record ? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Paul Dewey Wilson. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, 'I note you are not accompanied by coun- 
sel. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Have you been advised as to the fact that you have 
the right before this committee in answering any questions that might 



3020 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

be incriminating to yon to invoke the constitutional privilege of the 
fifth amendment? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Have you received a copy and acquainted yourself 
with the contents of the opening statement of the chairman on October 
19,1965? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. I have, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Do you desire counsel at this time? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, so that there be no question about 
it, I suggest that the Chair advise the witness that at any time he 
feels he might desire counsel he will have an opportunity to obtain it? 

Mr. Pool. You are so advised. If you cannot afford counsel, the 
committee will recommend to the bar association and people like that 
to furnish counsel. 

Mr. Appell. I ask you, Mr. Wilson, have you sought legal advise 
prior to coming to Washington ? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment, 
sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing today in accordance with the 
subpena served upon you on the 29th day of October 1965 by John D. 
Sullivan, investigator for this committee ? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you bom, Mr. Wilson ? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, I hand you a photograph of two different 
exposures containing four Russian surplus rifles and other para- 
phernalia. I ask you if these weapons and other items displayed in 
the photographs were seized from you at the time of arrest by officers 
of the Mississippi State Highway Patrol. 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

(Photographs marked "Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 1." One retained 
in committee files; for other see committee rej)ort. The Present-Bay 
Ku Klux Klan Movement^ p. 106.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of Mr. Wilson's refusal to 
answer committee questions, invoking his constitutional privileges, I 
would like to present a resume of the committee's investigation as it 
relates to Mr. Wilson. 

Paul Dewey Wilson was bom on December 14, 1938, at Jayess, 
Mississippi, His educational background is unknown. Prior to his 
arrest in October 1964, he was employed as a carman apprentice with 
the Illinois Central Railroad, McComb, Mississippi. Wilson, follow- 
ing his arrest in October 1964, was interviewed by agents of the Adams 
County Sheriff's Depa,rtment, Mississippi Highway Patrol, and Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation. 

During the interview, Wilson advised that he joined the United 
Klans of America in McComb, Mississippi, after being approached by 
Ray Smith, an officer of the Klavern, to join. He attended his first 
meeting at the Legion Hut in McComb, where 50 men were present, 
all wearing white robes. He was sworn into the United Klans of 
America by Eddie McDaniel, whom he described as an individual 
whom he knew in McComb but who he stated was some kind of officer 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3021 

in Natchez, Mississippi. He was issued a membership card, which he 
tore up. 

In the course of his first meeting he paid $10 initiation fee, $10 for 
a robe, and was told that his dues would be $1 per month. Paul 
Wilson stated he attended meetings on Tuesday nights, with discussion 
generally relating to the movement and operations of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, communism, and integration. 

In declining to elaborate on his statement about the FBI, he stated 
that there were occasions when there were discussions about the neces- 
sity for obtaining more members who could be trusted. After a month 
the meeting place of the Klavern was changed to the second floor of 
the Hinton Building. 

He identified from personal knowledge the folloAving individuals as 
members who belonged or attended meetings of his Klavern : 

Ray Smith, employed by the Southern Bell Telephone Company, 
who was the EC of the Klavern. 

M. J. Duncan, an employee of the Firestone Store, who held the 
position at one time as outer guard. 

J. E. Thornhill, a wealthy oil man in McComb and Summit. 

With respect to his participation in acts of violence, he told the 
agents the following : 

Wilson advised that about three weeks to a month ago he received a telephone 
call from an individual who stated only that "I am a member of the K[lan]. 
You know me well." The voice, which was a man's, continued by stating he 
believed that if someone put a bomb in front of the house of a Negro preacher — 
name Wilson could not at this time recall — it would scare COFO and the other 
integrationists off and into leaving other people's business alone. Wilson 
advised that from conversation with this person he was able to Identify the 
Negro preacher referred to as a preacher whom he knows as an employee at 
Denny's Readi-Mix, a concrete mixing concern at McComb, Mississippi. The 
caller told him to go out past Quinn's Bridge, past the Booker T. Washington 
Negro School, and turn to the right on the second hill past the school. The 
caller stated that dynamite would be hidden on this road in some bushes about 
60 or 70 yards down the road on the left-hand side of the road. 

Wilson advised that he went alone that night, about midnight, in his 1961 
black Ford to the location described, where he found three sticks of dynamite 
hidden in the bushes, already fused and capped. Wilson stated he thereafter 
drove to the Negro preacher's house and sped away after throwing lighted dyna- 
mite package into the preacher's front yard. As he drove towards McComb. he 
heard the explosion. Wilson was questioned closely concerning this bombing 
and he insisted that it took place under the circum.stances described and that as 
far as he knew no other member of the Klan knew who did it. He insisted he 
was unable to identify the mysterious caller and would not answer when asked 
whether he was thus agreeable to bombing something just on an unidentified 
party advising him he was a Klan member. 

Wilson initially stated emphatically this was the only bombing concerning 
which he had any knowledge whatsoever. On further interrogation he admitted 
that on the night of September 20, 1964, he was with Ernest Frederick Zeeck 
and .Jimmy Wilson (the latter no relation) when the three of them in Paul 
Wilson's 1961 Ford bombed the Alyene Quinn's residence in McComb. Missis- 
sippi. He stated this bomb was composed of dynamite and it was actually 
lighted and thrown onto the porch by Ernest Zeeck. He recalled that an un- 
identified Negro man was observed by them on the street in the vicinity of the 
Quinn residence but claimed this man was about a block away and could not have 
identified them. 



3022 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Wilson, did you make the statement read to you to agents of 
the sheriff's department and the agents of the Mississippi Highway 
Patrol ? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, I hand you a listing by dates of the types 
of violence, bombing, flogging, arson, the place, location of where 
these things took place, happening in the McComb, Mississippi, area 
during the year 1964, and I ask you which of these acts you participated 
in as a memlDer of the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Weltner. Will you rephrase the question? Ask whether he 
participated in any of these acts. 

Mr. Appell. Did you participate in any of those acts? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 
Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 2 



3023 



Violence - lyiMt 
McComb, '!iss. 



2A/6U - Killing 



I.ouis Allen, ^ ibf>rty, Miss, ('lien was a witness tothe shooting of 
•lerhert Lee, 9/2'y/Hx, by State Repre. 
E.H. ihirst) 



ii/li/'Mi - Bombing Restaurant, I'ude, Miss. 

li/f-'/Hi - Bombing Pestaurant, Mc^i ir. Miss. 

U/28/6U - Bombing "Curtis Bryant, "JAArr" leafier, Hirb»rsh p, Haertowri, tliss. 



6/19/^J. 
6/22/^M. 

7/8/6i . 

7/17/^^ 
7/1 M/^ 
7/21/^Ii 
7/22/^Ji 



• Bombing 'legro 'lotel, Jackson, I'iss. 

- Flogging '.•Jilbert Lewis, f'Vonb, Miss. 

- Hombings 1. ^rwlfiie Bates none 

2. forrine Andrews hnme 

3. i^rtis Bryant hone 



. Utte'n'^toii 

Roibinr 

- iirson 

- Arson 

- Burning 

- Arson 



r.egro do 1 iceman, 
'^.y Tot t on 



-'".T;-iTunr"^ers '^or 



Zion '11II Free '.'■•■'ist '^:r--, v-'^o'^.b, iiss. 
Swpft Hone Church, -"o i; , ^s-i. 

:'t. Vernon tiisslonary tiaj^tist ^hurch, i'c'onb, iss. 
rose Bower Missiongry Br.Mtint nhnrcb, ''c'^c.-r^ 'Iss. 



: lib in?: 



..'at I'l.L.) KcGehee, ? 1- 
Charle.s 3rya."it, Morga^. * 



:ro ■O'i 



7/30/^ - Shooting J.?. Leggett ho-ne, ''c'"onb, "is*^. 

f/5/^L - Arson ft. Canaan Missionary t'is* 'biro'.-., S-'dth^ 

^f\S/'% - Killinc Charles Fuscl'.ens, I onti.-el ) 0, i'dss. 

f/\S/(ii - ''ombing -urt limd Super ?'arket, Fureka ''.ar.onir Lodj^e, 

H/lP/'ii - Arson attempt Vema Brown hone, 'ur^.'iund, "iss. 



\'/V}l(-h - Cross burnings O) 
^tink bombing 



V2V^i 



.Hie J. "^illon, br- 



9/3/-!i - 

9/7/«4 - 



'\ssault 
"ombings 



3 Cjiril Pif;ht?i •. i-kers. 



■;onb 



1. Pogue chit'.o, Miss - ■■..-ml hall 

2. Auburn, f'.ias. - "frrp cbu-ch 

3. Sumnit, "iss. - Hugh '..a?:' 1 
\x. " " - Booker T. 
'^. ".agnolia, --133. - Allen "■ , 



3h/^ - "onbing ^ev. .'a:-^;, r r br.^e. 

9''20/6t! - Bombings 1. "ociety 'lill ilissionary Chirch, 
2. .Myene ..luin home, llcConb, Kis.-^. 



horl, home. 



3024 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE TJ.S. 

Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 2— Continued 



y/23/^ - ''ombinpa • 1. "atthew .Tackson ho?ie, ".c'Zo'rU, fHss, 
2. .\rtis Tamor iionr-, fio^n :i , ;;is3. 



ll/l"/^J< - ^catinp; Otis Matthews, a ur.ion n'"'"ioial, !'»iten by "laskwl "■en. 



n+hor acts of vlolf--n-;n 



1955 - Killing La-nar ■>. 'J-nif- wA 

■ rnokha^'f". , ' 1 



- Killir.g "mrtift Til' 



195!> 



1-5 r.u 



«i«^ 



li/62 - Ki.i]ipi- ^; ' . '•'nran "urio.ior*' r' 

}/fii - '.L liriK "n.ft i.n VMl<''-r, 'i '■■:.", . las. 

2/61i ' oy J. ''"eson 

(At this point Mr. Pool left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, Billy Earl Wilson testified before this 
committee on January 18, 1966. In the course of his testimony, he 
identified you as the person who indoctrinated him in Klan principles. 
He testified that he was a member of the Klavern of which Ray Smith 
was the exalted cyclops, that you are his first cousin, that you read 
off a list of names of members of the Klavern which was to leave that 
Klavern and form a new Klavern and when the new temporary 
Klavern was formed that you were elected the exalted cyclops. Did 
Billy Earl Wilson testify truthfully ? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Billy Earl Wilson testified that on July 27, 1964, he 
participated in the bombing of the residence of Charles Bryan. He 
stated that Paul Wilson phoned him re the job, that you picked him up 
at his home about midnight and then picked up Hilton Dunaway, and 
that the three of you drove to a wooded area where you transferred 
into a '49 Plymouth and that you rode in the rear seat of the car, that 
Hilton Dunaway threw the bomb, and that while in the act of throwing 
the bomb someone fired upon you and that you returned the fire with 
a 16-gauge over and under shotgim. Is this testimony true? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Billy Earl Wilson testified that, at a meeting of the 
Klavern of wliich you were the EC, on two occasions, one on Septem- 
ber 1 and the second time on September 15, that you put a hat on 
the table and instructed the members to come and draw their jobs. 
Did you do such a thing ? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. He testified that at the first drawing of slips on Sep- 
tember 1 he drew a slip containing the name of Alyene Quinn, however 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3025 

lie could not go through with the job because his grandfather was 
visiting and he said that at a Klavern meeting on September 9 that 
you told him that you still had a bomb and wanted to unload it, so 
that you and he drove to the home of the Reverend James Baker at 
your suggestion, that you lit the fuse, and that he hurled it. 

Is this testimony true? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fiftli amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, I hand you a photograph of Louis An- 
thony DiSalvo and I ask you if you ever had any business relations 
with him. 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

(Photograph marked "Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, can you explain to the committee why 
you had in your possession at the time of your arrest a cardboard 
carton which was mailed by Hunters Lodge in Alexandria, Virginia, 
which contained the name of Louis DiSalvo, and, of the rifles that 
I showed you, that four of those rifles' serial numbers appeared on 
the invoice of shipment of arms by Hunters Lodge to Louis Anthony 
DiSalvo. 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Weltner (presiding). One moment. Is the substance of that 
question that Hunters Lodge in Virginia filled an order of rifles for 
Louis Anthony DiSalvo and these rifles subsequently were found in 
this witness' possession? 

Mr. Appell. That is right. 

Mr. Weltner. And Mr. DiSalvo appeared here as a witness 2 or 
3 weeks ago and, I believe, was the party who was involved in a dis- 
cussion concerning the bombing of the Lady Bird Special; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Appell. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to have entered into the 
record at this point the listing of some 43 items, including the rifles, 
which were obtained in a search of Paul Wilson's residence and his 
automobile at the time of his arrest, these in addition to the rifles, 
pistols, billy clubs, unfinished table legs, ammunition, hypodermic 
syringe, and numerous items. 

I might point out, Mr. Chairman, for the record, that one item 
recovered was one deputy sheriff badge. The committee investigation 
has established that, time and time again, in the arrest of Klansmen 
and the seizing of either that which is on their possession or that 
which is in their home as a result of search warrant there is invariably 
recovered one toy tin deputy sheriff badge. 

Mr. Weltner. Will you show that list to the witness. 

Mr. Witness, will you examine that, please, and tell the committee 
whether or not that is an exact list of articles found in your possession ? 

Mr. PAUii Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 



3026 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. Without objection the list will be entered into the 
record at this point. 

(Document marked "Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 4." The list 
follows:) 

Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 4 

1. 1 rifle, make unknown, serial number Inverted "U"B7866, with clip, 
part number XT356.1 

2. 1 rifle, make unknown, serial number KT841, with clip, part num- 
ber CB89.1 

3. 1 rifle, make unknown, serial number 907 Inverted "N"C25 with 
initials SA imprinted over serial nvunber, with clip, part number 
BH260.2 

4. 1 rifle, make unknown, serial number 799EK.5533, with clip, part 
number YE331.1 

5. 1 black leatherette hood or cap 

6. 1 black leatherette apron with green neck and belt straps 

7. 4 identification cards of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan, bearing the Confederate flag, the flag of the 
United States, outline of State of Mississippi enclosing "Miss. 700" 
with serial numbers 002, 025, 065, and 067. 

8. 2 pieces of black leatherette material 

9. 1 gavel 

10. 1 pistol, automatic, Fabrique Nationale de Guerre Herstal Belgique, 
Browning's Patent Depose, serial number 193452 and also number 
79002, .32 caliber with loaded clip number 193452 and loaded clip, 
no serial number 

11. 2 boxes .32 caliber automatic .71 grain cartridges, 50 to a box Win- 
chester, noting there were 12 .32 calibers in one box and a .38 caliber 
unspent shell therein, with the second box full 

12. 1 pair of goggles 

13. 2 unfinished table legs 

14. 1 Ideal Luerlock Syringe, 5 C.C., manufactured by Ideal Instrument 
and Manufacturing Company, Chicago 

15. 1 Hypodermic Syringe, PerfeKium, manufactured by Pepper & Sons, 
Inc., New York 10 

16. 1 black leather pistol holster 

17. 1 brown leatherette holster fleece-lined, manufactured by Graver 
Brothers Manufacturing Co.,, St. Louis 

18. 1 deputy sheriff tin badge 

19. 1 pair cotton solid white gloves with partial black polka dots on 
in.side of hands 

20. 1 pair brown cotton gloves 

21. 1 pair used black gloves, lined with rabbit fur 

22. 1 pair large black leather gloves, cloth lined 

23. 1 Customer's Copy of check, McComb, Miss., dated June 2, 1964 on 
Mechanics State Bank No. 22660, pay to the order of Gov. George 
Wallace, $66.25 signed Paul D. Wilson, 811 New York Ave., McComb, 
Miss. 

24. 2 blank Appeals Bonds, State of Mississippi, Pike County 

■:= * * * * 

Mr. Appeijl. Mr. Wilson, Paul Wilson advised that, after he was 
given a suspended sentence and fined, he obtained money from the 
Reverend J. C. Brown. 

Mr. Weltner, One moment, please. Which Wilson advised that? 

Mr. ArrELL. Billy Earl Wilson. 

Did you, Paul Wilson, receive any funds from the Reverend J, C. 
Brown ? 

Mr. Wilson. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Is it a fact that you pleaded guilty for the role that 
you played in the illegal use of explosives and received a suspended 
sentence ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3027 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Did Mr. Eobert Shelton know you to be a member 
of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Paul Wilsox. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Shelton gave an interview to Playboy magazine. 
He was asked by the reporter, after an explanation : 

Then how do you explain the case of Paul Dewey Wilson, who was arrested 
last year in McComb, Mississippi, while wearing a deputy sheriff's badge and 
hauling four rifles, a pistol, eight wooden clubs, a blackjack, brass knuckles 
and a hypodermic syringe in his car — and carrying a membership card in the 
United Klan signed by you? 

Shelton : We don't have membership cards. The card he had was the card 
I described — just a business card. 

Was the statement that you made that you were issued a member- 
ship card which you destroyed factual or was Mr. Shelton's statement 
truthful that no membership cards are issued to members of the United 
Klans of America? 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

(Document marked "Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 5'' and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, staff has no further questions to ask 
this witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Wilson, you have an opportunity at this point 
to make any statement you desire that is relevant. There has been 
substantial narration of the prior testimony of other persons con- 
necting you with serious incidents and events. 

You have the opportunity to qualify that or deny that as you see 
fit. I might point out that this circumstance is somewhat different 
than some of the prior testimony. On two occasions it appears from 
our investigation to date that you as the exalted cyclops of a Klavem 
of the United Klans of America distributed by the draw from a hat 
assignments for acts of violence. In all fairness to you, we wish to 
give you the opportunity to deny that or to explain that, as you see 
fit. You have that opportunity at this point if you desire to offer 
anything which the committee should consider. 

Mr. Paul Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Weltner. Failing that, or failing other evidence to come before 
the committee, the committee will of necessity rely upon the accuracy 
of the investigation. 

Do you have any questions? 

Mr. Buchanan. No questions. 

Mr. Weltner. Are there any further questions by the staff'? If not, 
you are excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Jimmy Prinston Wilson. 

Mr. Weltner. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Will you solemnly swear the testimony you give in this liearing will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so lielp 
you God? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. I do. 



3028 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF JIMMY PRINSTON WILSON 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, will you state your full name for the 
record ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Jimmy Prinston Wilson. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here in accordance with the sub- 
pena served upon you on October 29, 1965, by John D. Sullivan, an 
investigator of this committee? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Wilson, I note you don't have counsel. Are you 
aware of your right to have counsel during this hearing? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you desire to have counsel? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Are you aware of your rights under the Constitu- 
tion to refuse to answer any questions which you feel might incrimi- 
nate you under any State or Federal statute? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Are you aware that if you so desire at any time 
during the course of this proceeding you may request counsel and this 
committee will undertake to make arrangements to furnish counsel 
to you? Do you wish to proceed without counsel at this point? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. You may proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, the Washington Post and Times Herald 
in an article dated October 6, 1964, story captioned, "7 More Held In 
McComb Terrorism," identified that there have been arrested in a 
series of arsons and bombings in the McComb area. Sterling L. Gillis, 
who is popularly known as Bubba, Hilton Dunaway, "John" Paul 
Westbrook, Charles Avery Womack, W-o-m-a-c-k, Gerald Lawrence, 
Murphy J. Duncan, Paul Wilson, Billy Earl Wilson, Jimmy Wilson, 
Ernest Zeeck, all of McComb, Mississippi. 

Are you the Jimmy Wilson referred to in the article ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

(Document marked "Jimmy Wilson Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, on October 3, 1964, while in custody did 
you make two statements to the sheriff of Pike County and to agents 
of the Mississippi Highway Patrol and the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Appell. I read to you from the first statement which quotes 
Jimmy Prinston Wilson as stating : 

I joined the United Klans of America some time after the first of 1964 and 
sometime in August 1964 several of us split off from Ray Smith's Klan and 
organized a Klan of our own with Paul Wilson being appointed as E.C. and 
Allen Lee as being appointed Treasurer. 

Is that information correct? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. The statement continues that you were contacted on 
Sunday, September 20, 1964, by Paul Wilson, and this is an exact 
quote — "he told me he had a mission that he wanted me to go on." 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3029 

I continue in the exact quote : 

We were supposed to go fishing about 6:00 P.M. which we had planned. I 
was at home that evening, and I decided to go on to the river myself earlier. 
and I went on out to the river fishing, and Paul Wilson, Billy Wilson and 
Ernest Zeeck came out roughly about 6:00 or 6:30 P.M. and we went out and 
set out hooks and fished about 10:00 and all four of us drove into town in 
Paul Wilson's car. I drove, Billy Wilson was in front with me and Paul 
Wilson and Ernest Zeeck was in the back. The bomb was in the back seat be- 
tween Paul Wilson and Ernest Zeeck. 

We drove around the block where Alyene Quinn lives several times, which is 
on the old Summit Road, and the lights were on, and we could see that there 
wasn't anybody in the house aromid and on about the fourth round, I stopped the 
car in front of Alyene Quinn's house. Paul Wilson lit the fuses and handed 
it to Ernest Zeeck who opened the car door, got out and threw the bomb towards 
the house. He got back in the ear, and we drove back to the river. We drove 
north to Summit and back to the Bogue Chitto River Hoover Bridge. We fi.shed 
awhile and took up the hooks and Billy Wilson and me came back in my station 
wagon which is a 19.j5 Mercury, black and white, to my home. Paul Wilson and 
Ernest Zeeck were behind us and Billy Wilson got out of my car and help me 
unload some fishing gear, and I went in the house. He got in the car with them 
and went on with them. It was midnight or after when I got home. I went 
home, got undressed for bed, got in bed and went to sleep. 

Is that a factual recitation of the statement that you made to the 
agents that I have described to you ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a list of acts of violence conducted in the 
McComb, Mississippi, area in 1964 and in addition to Alyene Quinn, 
which is shown on liere on September 20, 1964, I ask you if you en- 
gaged in any acts listed on the sheet being handed you. 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

(Document previously marked "Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 2." See 
pp. 3023, 3024.) 

Mr. Weltner. Specifically, Mr, Wilson, did you have any connec- 
tion with the incident of September 20, 1964, in regard to the bombing 
of the home of Alyene Quinn, McComb, Mississippi, previously testi- 
fied to by Ernest Zeeck and by Billy Wilson ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Weltner. Proceed. 

Mr. Appell. On the list that I showed you, Mr. Wilson, is listed the 
date of July 18, 1964, attempted arson, "Sweet Home Church," Mc- 
Comb, Mississippi. Were you involved in attempted arson on that 
church ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights. 

Mr, Appell, I read to you a second statement signed Jimmy P, Wil- 
son, notarized by a sheriff, a representative of the Mississippi Highway 
Safety Patrol, and agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr, Weltner, One moment. Is this purporting to be the statement 
of this witness, Mr, Appell ? 

Mr, Appell. It is, sir, signed by him and Avitncssed. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Wilson, is that your signature or facsimile there- 
of, and did you sign the original of that statement? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Tlie pertinent portion of this statement reads as fol- 
lows, Mr. AVilson, and the date is October 3, 1964 : 



3030 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

About three or four months ago I was picked up at my home by Paul Wilson 
and later we met a man named Duncan, first name unknown to me, who is 
Manager of the Firestone Store at McComb, Mississippi. It had been planned 
previously that we were to burn the Sweethome Missionary Baptist Church, 
located on the Old Homesville Road in the Whitestown area near McComb, 
Mississippi. The three of us traveled to this church by car late that night. I 
believe we went in Paul Wilson's car but I cannot recall the description of this 
car. Uiwn arriving to the Church we entered this church, which is a brick 
building, through a side door, which w^as unlocked, and as I recall, all three of 
us went into the church. We carried a tin, one gallon can filled with gasoline, 
several feet of fuse, and a small metal jar lid containing black powder into the 
church with us. We poured this gasoline onto the floor of the church at the 
rear of the pulpit and placed the jar lid containing black powder in the gasoline. 
We placed one end of the fuse in the powder and the other end of the fuse 
through a doorway. I had previously heard that a fuse soaked in gasoline would 
not burn so I intentionally soaked this fuse in such a way that it would go out 
after it was lit and before it burned to the iwwder. Wilson and Duncan did not 
know that I had soaked this fuse so that the powder would not ignite. Paul 
Wilson then lit this fuse and the three of us then left the church by the same 
door and got into the car and immediately drove away from that area. We did 
not return to this church and Wilson and Duncan did not learn until the follow- 
ing day that the church had not been burned. * * * 

Is that statement given over your signature on October 8, 1964, 
factual ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Did you deliberately soak the fuse in gasoline so that it 
would not burn because to burn a church was revolting to you 
personally ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr, Weltner. Mr. Wilson, here is an opportunity for you to testify 
that you prevented the destruction of property of someone else. At this 
point I would advise you that you are given the opportunity to offer to 
this committee any matter that the committee determines to be relevant 
to deny or confirm or to qualify any statement that is presented to you. 

Here is an opportimity. Absent your testimony or other informa- 
tion which properly comes before the committee, we will, of necessity, 
have to rely on the accuracy of the investigation. Here's a statement 
that appears to be a copy of a notarized statement by yourself showing 
how you prevented the burning of a church. I would like to know 
whether or not that is true. 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilson, isn't it a fact that you, like the others, 
were convicted for these acts, received a suspended sentence, and did 
you receive a fine in addition to the suspended sentence ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Billy Earl Wilson testified that money was received 
on two different occasions from the Reverend J. C. Brown, whom he 
identified to be the kludd of the Klavern of which Ray Smith was 
the exalted cyclops. Did you receive any funds from the Reverend 
J. C. Brown ? 

Mr. Jimmy WiLsojf. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I think that the record should note that 
the planning of the arson of the Sweethome Church, McComb, Missis- 
sippi, which was planned prior to July 18, 1964, was on a date prior 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3031 

to the time that the group broke away from the original Klavern and 
formed the new Klavern. 

Mr. Weltner. That is when Ray Smith was exalted cyclops of all 
flie members ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wilson, within the organizational structure of the United 
Klans of America there is a klokann. As established by committee 
investigation, it is the responsibility of the klokann committee to carry 
out acts such as carried out in this instance. Were you and Paul Wil- 
son and Murphy J. Duncan at the time of the attempted arson of the 
Sweethome Church, members of a klokann committee '? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. Following your plea of guilty and conviction, was 
your membership in the United Klans of America suspended ? Were 
you sworn out or were you banished ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Weltner. Has any action of a disciplinary nature been taken 
against you as a member of the Klan by the Klan for your involve- 
ment in any acts of violence ? 

Mr. Jimmy Wilson. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. Are there any questions? 

Mr. Buchanan. No. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness will be excused. 

Call the next witness, please. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Murphy John Duncan. 

Mr. Weltner. Stand and raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give in this hearing 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the tiTitli, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Duncan. I do. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated, please. 

TESTIMONY OF MURPHY JOHN DUNCAN, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record? 

Mr. Duncan. Murphy J. Duncan. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Duncan, you are appearing here without coun- 
sel. The committee would advise you that you have a right to coun- 
sel at any time during the course of your testimony ; that if you are 
unable to obtain counsel, we will undertake to make arrangements 
for you to have counsel. You have the further right under the Con- 
stitution not to answer any question if you feel that your answer to 
that question might tend to incriminate you imder any law of the 
United States or the State. 

I ask you whether or not you desire counsel for this hearing ? 

Mr. Duncan. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you understand your rights under the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

Mr. Duncan. Yes, sir. 



3032 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Duncan, yon are appearing here today in accord- 
ance with a subpena served upon you on October 29, 1965, at McComb, 
Mississippi, by John D. Sullivan, an investigator of this committee? 

Mr. Duncan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appeijl,. Mr. Duncan, ^yhen and where were you born ? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Duncan, did you hold the position of grand kla- 
bee, or treasurer, of the Realm of Mississippi, United Klans of 
America ? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, Murphj^ John Duncan was born on 
April 8, 1920, in McComb, Mississippi. He served in the United 
States Army Air Force from February 1939 to February 1945. He 
resides at Route 2, McComb, Mississippi. 

Following a series of arsons and bombings in the McComb, Mis- 
sissippi, area. Murphy John Duncan was arrested and on October 5, 
1964, he gave permission to Inspector G-w-i-n Cole of the Mississippi 
Highway Patrol to search his residence, which search produced the 
following documents. It will be noticed that these documents estab- 
lished him to be tlie grand klabee, or treasurer, of the United Klans 
of America, Realm of Mississippi, as well as the official delegate to the 
Imperial Klonvokation held in Alabama on September 5, 1964. 

The documents recovered in this search are the following : A book 
containing on the inside cover the name "E. L, McDaniel (Eddie)," 
Grand Dragon, 2156 Second Street, P. O. Box 14, Natchez, Mississippi, 
business phone 442-0267, home phone 445-5340 ; the name Harry A. 
Sibley, 305 Jackson Street, McComb, Mississippi ; United Klans, 'Post 
Office Box 303; Mississippi Rescue Service 706, which number, Mr. 
Chairman, is believed might refer to a Klavern. 

First page contains notation : "Mississippi Rescue Service dues, 
#700 September $22.75." 

The pages are there numbered and show income, September 19, 1964, 
public speaking, Natchez, $21.32, which appears to be a pro rata share 
of expense by Klaverns 713, 710, 715, 714 at $5.33. 

Dues 700,704, 710, 713, 715, 7l7, 719, $69.25. 

September 22, 711 dues $7.50, public speaking Natchez 711, $5.33. 

The pages continue to enumerate the receipt and expenditures of 
funds and the rough notes include that there was paid on Septem- 
ber 22, 1964, the amount of $17.46, E. L. McDaniel, Grand Dragon 
expense. 

There was included application for membership. United Klans of 
America, application for reinstatement [U.S. Klans, KKKK]. The 
official delegate card for September 5 and 6; position stated, grand 
klabee. State, Mississippi, national klonvokation, United Klans of 
America, UKA. 

Were these documents which were obtained in the search of your 
residence in accordance with the authority given by you to Inspector 
Gwin Cole, your documents ? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. On October'lO, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Duncan made the 
following admissions to agents of the sheriff's department, the 
Mississippi Highway Patrol, and Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
"Duncan advised he has been a member of the [UKA] Klavern 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3033 

700 for about eight (8) months." He held the position in this Klavern 
as klabee or treasurer. He, like other members, was known in the 
Klavern by number rather than name and his number was 6, Because 
Klavern 700 was becoming too large, he stated, around August 1, 1964, 
Paul Wilson read a list of names during a meeting of Klavern No, 700 
and announced that he and those names were forming a new Klavern. 

According to Duncan, Wilson read the names of Jon Paul West- 
brook, Wilson, whom he described merely as a very yomig boy — 

public testimony, Mr. Chairman, establishes him to be Billy Earl 
Wilson — Bubba Gillis, whose real name is Sterling Gillis, Hilton 
Dmiaway, Charles Womack, [Emery] Allen Lee, and himself. Murphy 
Dmican. He stated that this Klavern was formed and was known as a 
rifle club. He identified Paul Wilson as the exalted cyclops. 

He further stated that at about the time the new Klavern was formed 
he was elected State treasurer and maintained an account in the name 
of the Mississippi Rescue Service at the Mechanics State Bank, Mc- 
Comb, Mississippi. Through subpena duces tecum, Mr, Chairman, we 
have subpenaed the records maintained and this has been verified. 

With respect to jobs of violence carried out by members of the 
Klavern, Duncan stated that he attended a Klavern meeting at which 
names were drawn from a hat with Paul Wilson stating, "Come, boys, 
draw your job." 

With respect to his attendance at the Imperial Klonvokation, com- 
mittee investigation establishes that Duncan and Ernest Zeeck flew 
to Birmingham in a chartered aircraft, paid for by Ed Wilkins in 
the amount of $96. Billy Earl Wilson identified Wilkins as a person 
Duncan recruited into the Klavern which met at Bubba Gillis' up- 
holstery shop in McComb, Mississippi, 

Mr, Duncan, do you care to make any statements w^ith respect to the 
results of the committee's investigation as read to you? 

Mr, Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Duncan, the Chair wishes to advise you that 
you have the right at this point to offer any matter that the committee 
w411 deem relevant, to explain or deny any part of this information; 
that absent that or other facts which may come to the attention of this 
committee, the committee will rely upon the accuracy of its inves- 
tigation. 

Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity? 

Mr, Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment, 

(At this point Mr. Pool returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Duncan, is it a fact that you received a suspended 
sentence, as did the others; that, because you miscalculated as to the 
date when your period of probation expired, you called up and threat- 
ened agents of the FBI; and that your probation was revoked and 
you were sentenced to serve 6 months? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Weltner, Let us go through that again, will you, please, Mr. 
Appell? State the findings of the investigation with regard to any 
such matter, and then we will pose that to the witness, 

Mr, Appell, Prior to the expiration of the probation, that Murphy 
J. Duncan by use of the telephone threatened an agent and an agent's 
wife in the McComb area, as a result of which the probation wa'^i 
revoked and he was sentenced to 6 months in the local jail. 



3034 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Duncan, is that factual, that your probation 
was revoked and that you were thereupon sentenced to serve 6 months 
in the penitentiai-y ? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Duncan, with respect to the documents recovered 
from your home, one Post Office Box 14, Natchez, Mississippi, the 
other Post Office Box 706, McComb, Mississippi, I hand you the one 
covering Post Office Box 14, Natchez, which shows the applicant to be 
Ernest Finley. I ask you if you knew him to be a member of the 
United Klans of America. 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Post Office Box 706, McComb, in the name of the 
Mississippi Rescue Service, which states under "kind of business,-' 
that it is "civil defense radio service.'' 

Will you explain to the committee what type of civil defense radio 
service the Mississippi Rescue Service was involved in ? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment, sir. 

(Documents marked "Murphy Duncan Exhibit No. 1" follow:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3035 

Murphy Duncan Exhibit No. 1 



i DATE eC'H OPtNfD 

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FOR 

POST Of FICf 

US£ ONLY 



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NAMt Of APPLICAN: (^'rin 


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NAMt Of MRM OR CC«PORATION (// box 


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"Box 706, ffegonil), Mssiasippi 




or FMM oil OOOfCMATIIjM Cn^Hn <■ Tft*^for tmf^^tbt) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Duncan, did you advise Billy Earl Wilson with 
respect to Ed Wilkins, who he identified you recruited into the 
Klavern that met at Bubba Gillis' upholstery shop, that Wilkins 
worked for an oil company and used explosives and knew where to 
get them? 




3036 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did Ed Wilkins ever obtain for your group any of the 
explosives or dynamite which was used for any of the bombings in the 
McComb, Mississippi, area ? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Would you know Howard M. Lee, a Klansman in 
Bogalusa, Louisiana ? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Pool (presiding). I can't hear you, speak up a little louder. 
Do you invoke the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Duncan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Howard M. Lee was arrested by agents of the Alco- 
holic Tax Unit of the Treasury Department, which agency has the 
responsibility of enforcing the regulations relating to the sale of guns 
and ammunition. The records maintained by Howard Lee reflect on 
September 20, 1964, he sold a rifle to Murphy Duncan, although the 
address here is listed as Denham Springs. I ask you to examine this 
document and to advise the committee whether you purchased a rifle 
from Howard M. Lee. 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

(Excerpt from Howard Lee's records marked "Murphy Duncan 
Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 



Murphy Duncan Exhibit No. 2 



^^J-. >c>-L^ 



Mr. Pool. You said what ? 

Mr. Appell. He invokes his rights under the fifth amendment. 

Billy Earl Wilson testified that he received sums of money from 
the Reverend J. C. Brown following his conviction. Did you likewise 
receive money from the Reverend J. C. Brown and, if so, wiiat 
amounts ? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. The account in the name of the Mississippi Rescue 
Service, Mechanics State Bank, McComb, Mississippi, contains as the 
authorized signature, John K. Duncan. I put it to you as a fact, and 
ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that in opening tliis account you 
used the name John K. Duncan. 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Murphy Duncan Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3037 

Murphy Duncan Exhibit No. 3 

NAME Missiasippi Rescue Servic* 

•^O^K^.ftWW^«-*?faiW5^^McCOMB MISS 

P, 0^ Bqi 7Q6_ — __ NoiviDUAL 

MCCHANta^M^krm.^aAmKai|^OMB miss ii hcrcbv selected a« a ocpos-.-^- and auth. 
oaizcD TO wW«nnWt>y<^^ <lw l^BWE» executed ■■low im payment of fjnd* on dekosit or 

IN THE TXANIACTION Of OTHER BUOlNitS WITH THE UNOERllONED SUBJECT TO THE TCMMB AND 
CONDITIONS OF THE CONTRACT ON THE REVERSE SIDE MERI -)F 





QMn/T-^--:- 



>^gt> 



Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
this witness. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Weltner. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Duncan, have you discussed your appearance 
here today with Mr. Robert M. Shelton, the Imperial Wizard of the 
United Klans? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you know Mr. Shelton ? 

Mr. Duncan. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Weltner. No further questions. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have anything else, Mr. Appell ? 

Mr. Appell. No further questions. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused permanently. 

Mr. Appell. Emery Allen Lee. 

Mr. Pool. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lee. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EMERY ALLEN LEE 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record, Mr. Lee? 

Mr. Lee. Emery Allen Lee. 

Mr. Appell. You are appearing here today in accordance with a 
subpena served upon you at 1110 Avenue L, McComb, Mississippi, on 
October 29, 1965, by John D. Sullivan, investigator of this committee ? 

Mr. Lee. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I note that you are not represented by counsel. Do you 
desire counsel? 

Mr. Lee. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Have you received legal advice as to the rights which 
you have to invoke constitutional privileges, the fifth amendment, in 
respect to all questions which might tend to incriminate you ? 



3038 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Lee. I invoke my rights on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you miderstand your right under the Constitution 
to refuse to answer any questions on the ground that it may tend to 
incriminate you ? 

Mr. Lee. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you desire coimsel to represent you ? 

Mr. Lee. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. You do not desire counsel ? 

Mr. Lee. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you understand that you might have comisel at 
any time during the course of this hearing if you make that desire 
known to the committee ? 

Mr. Lee. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. I am not trying to trip you up with a question, but 
this committee wishes to advise you that you have the right at any time 
in response to any questions to refuse to answer on the gromids that the 
answer may tend to incriminate you under any State or Federal statute. 
I am simply asking you whether or not you understand you have that 
right. 

Mr. Lee. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. You do understand that? 

Mr. Lee. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Lee? 

Mr, Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the investigation reflects that Emery 
Allen Lee was born on October 6, 1928, at Hammond, Louisiana. He 
completed 7 years of grammar school. He enlisted in the regular army 
on August 2, 1946, and was discharged for reasons of dependency on 
February 25, 1947. 

He is self-employed as a painter. He resides at 1110 Avenue L, Mc- 
Comb, Mississippi. 

Mr. Lee, Billy Earl Wilson in testifying before this committee under 
oath on January 18, 1966, identified you as a person whom he knew to 
be a member of the United Klans of America. Was Mr. Billy Earl 
Wilson telling the truth when he so testified under oath ? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under tlie fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Jimmy Prinston Wilson, Murphy J. Duncan, in state- 
ments given to the agents of the Mississippi State Highway Patrol, 
sheriff's department, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, iden- 
tified you to be a person they knew to be a member of the United Klans 
of America. Were the statements tliat they gave truthful ? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a list of acts of violence which took place 
in McComb, Mississippi, area in 1964. I ask you if you committed 
any of the acts individually or in partnership with others and I invite 
your attention specificallv to the date of September 20, 1964, and the 
bombing of the Society Hill Missionary Church, McComb, Mississippi. 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

(Document previously marked "Paul Wilson Exhibit No. 2." See 
pp. 3023, 3024.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3039 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lee, I hand you a series of photographs. These 
photographs were made by the Mississippi Highway Patrol on the 3cl 
day of October 1964. I ask you to hokl them as I read them to you. 

Report of the Mississippi Highway Safety Patrol reflects that there 
was found in two sacks at the rear of the residence of Emery Allen 
Lee contents described as homemade bombs and a can of black powder 
with 65 feet of fuse. These items are described as lengths of gal- 
vanized pipe capped at both ends with a quarter inch hole drilled in 
them, filled with black powder, fused with the fuse bonded. 

Mr. Lee, did you manufacture those homemade bombs? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

(Photographs marked "Emery Lee Exhibit No. 1." For one of said 
photographs, see committee report. The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan 
Movement, p. 108; balance retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lee, Billy Earl Wilson stated that when they were 
preparing to bomb the residence of Alyene Quinn that they stopped 
by your house and from a sort of corner cabinet there was obtained 
by you from a false bottom in that cabinet the dynamite which they 
used. Was Billy Earl Wilson's testimony truthful ? 

Mr. Lee, Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. While stationed at Aberdeen Proving Ground as a 
member of the United States Army did you receive instruction in 
detonation ? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lee, did you and Bubba Gillis bomb the Society 
Hill Missionary Church, McComb, Mississippi, on the night of Sep- 
tember 20, 1964? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. At a meeting of the Klavern which met at Bubba 
Gillis' upholstery shop, wdiere a hat was placed on the table, did you 
draw a slip of paper which contained the name of the Society Hill 
Missionary Church ? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Are you acquainted with Curtis O'Neil Doles, a Klans- 
man with the Bessemer, Alabama, Klavern ? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Lee, can you advise the committee as to the purpose 
w^iich you and other members of the United Klans in the State of 
Mississippi hope to accomplish through the acts of arson and bombings 
which you men carried out in that State ? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Where did you obtain the powder that was in that 
can? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask this witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you know Robert M. Shelton ? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Weltner. Have you discussed your appearance here today with 
Robert M. Shelton? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Weltner. Have you discussed your appearance wnth any per- 
son known to you to be a member of the Taiited Klans of America ? 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 4 10 



3040 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. No further questions. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I have one that I overlooked which is 
veiy important. 

Mr. Lee, on November 12, 1964, did you write the following letter 
to a Miss or Mrs. Joyce L-a-d-n-e-r, and I Avill quote the contents of 
the letter to you: 

I read your article in the Jackson Daily News about the McCoiub Bombers. 
It makes a man feel good to know that someone in these United States outside 
of good old Mississippi will go to bat for them. My name is Emery Allen Lee. 
I am the one who is the Demolision [sic] Expert who made all the bombs and 
told the others where to go with them. I am proud of my part. They have 
accused me of and am sorry that one man had to spill his guts and tell every- 
thing he knew about me and my property but he has to live with it the rest of 
hi.q life. I would have trusted him with my life. It just goes to show that a 
man doesn't know who he can trust any more. I am branded an exbomber of 
Pike Co. but I will hold my head up even higher than ever and spit in the eye 
of any one who tries to ever integrate me and will fight it one way or another 
till I die and will lay down my life tomorrow for what I believe. I am a Rebel 
and I am proud to be one and from your article in the paper in my book you 
rate first class. And I would be prowd [sic] to call you a true friend because it 
took lots of guts to put that in the paper nowadays. Speaking of faith it is going 
to take a lot of Faith and men and women like yourself to stand together and 
fight for the things we hold so dear. We have a police State here now and a 
white man gets treated like an animal if he doesn't go along with COFO and 
NAACP so just call me an animal. I was handcuffed so long and so tight with 
my hands behind my back that when they finally took them off I could lay my 
thumb and finger in the groove of my wrist and all but hide them. It took almost 
three weeks for the feeling to come back to my right hand. Well, I didn't intend 
to talk so much. I really wanted to thank you for your lift in the paper. It 
meant a lot to me and any of the others who might have read it. 

Sincerely 

Signed "Al Lee." 

Mr. Lee. Sir, I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Emery Lee Exhibit No. 2-A" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Appell, do you have a date on that ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. That was dated November 12, 1964. 

Mr, Pool. Did he sign the letter? 

Mr. Appell. The letter was handwritten. It was signed "Al Lee" 
and it has been — I might preface what I am going to answer you 
with, Mr. Lee misinterpreted what the letter of Miss Ladner was 
intended to convey when he wrote her this letter. Upon receipt of 
it she forwarded it to the Attorney General of the United States, 
who had a handwriting analysis made which confirmed it to be writ- 
ten by the witness Emery Allen Lee. 

Mr. Pool. And signed by the witness? 

Mr. Appell. And signed by the witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Just a minute. What was the letter that Miss Ladner 
wrote ? I find it incredible to believe that this letter was signed and 
dispatched under those circumstances. Will you give us some more 
background? Wliat was the nature of Miss Ladner's letter? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, we made a search, but because of the 
amount of time we would have to consume to research the paper we 
did not obtain it. 

Mr. Pool. You don't have Miss Ladner's letter? 

Mr. Appell. No,' sir, we are still in search of it. It will be made 
part of the record. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3041 

(Miss Ladner's letter marked "Emei*y Lee Exhibit No. 2-B" 
follows:) 

Emery Lee Exhibit No. 2-B 

[Jackson (Miss.) Daily News, October 30, 1964] 

Courage And Hats off to the fine Southern 

Infa^riK/ ^U«w«? gentlemanly judge who gave 

,V'l!®9'^'O^J>nO^"- them all suspended sentences 



Editor, Daily News -- I re- 
,c«itly learned that my Mc- 
Comb, Mississippi, brethren | 
pleaded guilty to the bombings 
ttf the colored folks homes and 
churches. I must say that this 
^ust have taken a great 
amount of courage and in- 
tegrity. 



because of the faith he had in 
their upbringing, as evidenced 
by the Christian deed they did. 
This is but another fine ex- 
ample ol the courageous acts 
that can only be carried out 
by a true Southern gentleman. 

Joyce Ladner 

8793 Kingsbury Place 

St. Louis 12, Mo. 



Mr. Weltner. This was a letter published in a newspaper? 

Mr. Appell. In the editor's column. 

Mr. Weltner. Is it your statement that the witness misinterpreted 
the letter as sympathetic to the bombing? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And in response to what he interpreted to be an ex- 
pression of sympathy he sent to the author of the newspaper letter, 
this letter? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. You have also stated now that that was forwarded 
to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and that a handwriting 
analysis was made of it ; that the result of that analysis is that it was 
written by this witness. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Appell, I wish to ask this: Did he answer the 
question? 

Mr. Appell. He invoked the constitutional privilege before I even 
asked him whether or not he was the author. 

Mr. Pool. In view of this letter and the fact that the handwriting 
has been identified, I will say that I think it needs explanation on his 
part or the committee will have to accept it in the tone in which 
it was sent and the philosophy behind it in this man's mind, which 
is not a very admirable philosophy and the general public resents that 
type of attitude by those people. 

I can't think of anything incriminating in this letter. I would 
straighten it out if I were on the witness stand. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. I would like to ask the witness as to whether or not 
the statement about the condition of his wrist after being handcuifed. 
or put it to him as a fact that that statement is false? 

Mr. Lee. I invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions to ask the witness. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Senner, as a member of the full committee, would 
you care to ask any questions ? 



3042 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Sentster. I have no (questions, thank you. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman, I have an observation which I should 
like to make a part of the record. 

A witness before this committee has a right to counsel and he has 
a right not to have counsel, too. Now the witnesses who have been 
subpenaed here who are implicated in the McComb bombings each 
appeared without counsel. And each, after bein^ queried as to 
whether they desired counsel, stated they did not wish comisel. 

Now that occurred to me to be a rather unusual circumstance inas- 
much as just about every otlier witness who has appeared and has taken 
the fifth amendment consistently has appeared with counsel. 

It occurs to me that there is a logical explanation for that. The 
interview that was printed in Playhoy magazine with Mr. Kobert 
Shelton disclosed Mr. Shelton's statements to the effect that the United 
Klans did not permit violence and was opposed to violence and it also 
contained the question, "Then how do you explain the case of Paul 
Dewey Wilson, who was arrested last year in McComb, Mississippi, 
while wearing a deputy sheriff's badge" et cetera? 

The answer to that by Mr. Shelton was : "We don't have member- 
ship cards. The card he had was the card I described — just a busi- 
ness card." 

Now if these witnesses appeared with counsel furnished them by 
the United Klans of America, there would be a serious doubt cast on 
the statement made by the Imperial Wizard that anyone convicted 
of an act of violence would be summarily discharged from the United 
Klans of America. Hence their appearance without counsel is under- 
standable in that light. 

Now as I say, Mr. Chairman, a man has a right to counsel and a 
man has a right to appear without counsel and from the appearance 
of these five or six witnesses I will have to say that their rights were 
protected by their own refusals in the claim of the fifth amendment. 
Possibly this Playboy interview and the statements by the Imperial 
Wizard are the explanation for the rather unusual nature of these 
appearances. 

Mr. Pool. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to call L. C. Murray. 

Mr. Pool. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Murray. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OP L. C. MURRAY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr Appell. State your full name for the record. 

Mr. Murray. L. C. Murray. 

Mr. Appell. Wliat do the initials "L." and "C." stand for? 

Mr. Murray. Initials only. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with sub- 
pena served upon you on November 22, 1965, at 114 Main Street, 
Natchez, Mississippi ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3043 

Mr. Murray. I am. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born, Mr. Murray ? 

Mr. Murray. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as granted to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 
14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Murray. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record? 

iMr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, attorney at law, 501 First 
Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chalmers, is it your understanding that the wit- 
ness has been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement 
of October 19, 1965, and that he is familiar with the contents? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; it is so stipulated, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Murray, I hand you a rather poor reproduction of 
a signature card on the Britton & Koontz [National] Bank, Natchez, 
Mississippi, which shows the signature of Edward McDaniel, Grand 
Dragon ; John Dawson ; and L. C. Murray, field — abbreviation for sec- 
retary. I ask you if you are the L. C. Murray — I put it to you as a fact, 
and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that you are the L. C. Mur- 
ray listed as field secretary. 

Mr. Murray. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 
1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

(Document previously marked "Jolin Dawson Exhibit No. 1." See 
p. 2984.) 

Mr. Appell. I hand you two checks, one dated September 24, 1965, 
the other October 8, 1965, and put it to you as a fact that they estab- 
lish you as a paid employee of the United Klans of America, Realm 
of Mississippi. 

Mr. Murray. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you two checks, one dated October 2, 1965, 
payee cash, amount $2,766, endorsers John Dawson and L. C. Murray, 
and check dated October 15, 1965, payable to cash, in the amount of 
$2,000, endorser Edward L. McDaniel. 

After you examine them I will ask you for what purpose did you 
endorse the check for $2,766. The second check I ask you for what 
purpose did you make a check for Edward L. McDaniel in the amount 
of $2,000? 

Mr. Murray. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Checks previously marked "John Dawson Exhibit No. 4." See 
pp. 2988-2991.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Murray, I put it to you as a fact that your formal 
title within the United Klans of America, Realm of Mississippi, is 
that of field secretary to the Grand Dragon and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact. 

Mr. Murray. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 



3044 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, as to whether or not the following individuals are the exalted 
Cyclops of the follow^ing Klaverns : 

,700, Ray Smith, McComb; 701, J. M. Foster, Brookhaven ; 702, C. J. 
Seal, Pearl River County ; 704, John Brumfield, McComb, Mississippi ; 
711, H. H. Mathews, McComb, Mississippi, 

Incidentally, Mr. Chairman, this is the Klavem in which Mr. 
Emmett Thornhill held membership. 

712, Hewitt Wilkinson, Pricedale, Mississippi; 713, George Wm- 
borne, Bogue Chitto; 715, J. R. Morgan, Brookhaven; 716, Harold 
Casey, Goodman, Mississippi ; 718, J. W. Reeves, Bogue Chitto, Mis- 
sissippi; 719, Paul Foster, Natchez, Mississippi; 726, Bill Sullivan, 
Jackson, Mississippi; 727, T. M. Jackson, Yazoo City, Mississippi; 
728, M. E. Bell, Mathiston, Mississippi; 729, W. H. Aswalt, Louis- 
ville, Mississippi; 730, James R. Simpson, Starkville; 732, Jerry M. 
Graham, Oxford; 735, L. C. Bracken, luka; 736, Houston Evans, 
kleagle for Greenville; 737, Glen Owen, the temporary EC, Columbus, 
Mississippi ; Harry Oippens, the EC in the Wayne County unit. 

I put it to you as a fact that they are, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact. 

Mr. Murray. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Appell. Mr. Murray, as the field secretary of the United Klans, 
Mississippi, have you conducted any investigation which has resulted 
in the suspension or banishment from the United Klans of America of 
any member who has engaged in an act of intimidation or violence 
against a citizen of Mississippi ? 

Mr. Murray. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated, 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions to ask this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr, Pool. Mr. Weltner. 

Mr. Weltner. I have no questions. 

Mr, Pool. The witness is excused permanently. 

Mr. Appell. Edward Lenox McDaniel. 

Mr. Pool. Will you raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. McDaniel. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWARD LENOX McDANIEL, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr, Appell, State your full name for the record, Mr. McDaniel. 

Mr. McDaniel. Edward L, McDaniel, 

Mr, Appell, Middle name Lenox ? 

Mr, McDaniel, Right. 

Mr. Appell. You are appearing here today in accordance with sub- 
pena served upon you on October 30, 1965, at 114 Main Street, Natchez, 
Mississippi, by John D. Sullivan, an investigator of this committee? 

Mr. McDaniel. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. McDaniel. lam. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3045 

Mr, Appell. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

(Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, attorney at law, 501 First Fed- 
eral Buildino:, Kalei^^h. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chalmers, is it so stipulated that the witness has 
been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement on Oc- 
tober 19, 1965, and is familiar with its contents? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McDaniel, under the terms of the subpena served 
upon you and attachment thereto which is made a part of the sub- 
pena, you are commanded to bring with you and to produce before the 
committee documents set forth in paragraph 1 : 

All books, i-ecords, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Em- 
pire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and aflSliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, the White Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, The Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in 
your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you 
as Grand Dragon of the Mississippi Realm of the Invisible Empire, United 
Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United 
Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, also as a member of the 
White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi and as a member of the 
Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I ask you to produce the documents called for in paragraph 1. 

Mr. McDaxiel. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena 
dated October 6, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so 
might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 6, 1965, 
since that information is not relevant or germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the considera- 
tion of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within the 
scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted January 
4, 1965. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McDaniel, paragraph 2 called for you to produce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as Grand Dragon of the Mississippi Realm of the United Klans of America, Inc., 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. which the "Constitution and Laws" of said orga- 
nization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other oflScer 
of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

Mr. McDaniel. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore requested upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce those documents called for in part 2. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. McDaniel, the committee does not accept your 
reasons for refusing to produce these documents. 

Accordingly, the chairman of the subcommittee directs you to do so. 

(At this point Mr. Buchanan returned to the hearing room.) 



3046 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE tJ.S. 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the com- 
mittee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, may we have a stipulation that these 
documents called for are in the custody of this witness? 

Mr. Chalmers. As stated in the subpena, Mr. Chairman ; yes. 

Mr. Weltner. Thank you. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McDaniel, when and where were you bom? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
for the reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 
1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McDaniel, were you banished by Imperial Dragon 
Roy V. Young from the Original Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
Realm of Mississippi ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated, 

Mr. Appell. And former Imperial Dragon Young testified under 
oath that you were banished because you were guilty of slandering 
and threatening the head or leaders of his Klan and also committing 
treason by exciting and recommending of revolt against the principles 
of the old original rules and regulations. Is his testimony truthful ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege, consisting of refusal to answer my questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
McDaniel. 

Edward Lenox McDaniel was born on December 12, 1934, at 
Natchez, Mississippi. He has a 10th grade education. He has been 
employed by Jolins-Manville, Natchez, Mississippi, 1953 to 1955; by 
General Motors in California from September 1955 to January 1957; 
by Los Angeles Transit Lines from Februaiy 1957 to July 1957; by 
Jolins-Manville again from July 30, 1957, to October 12, 1959; by 
Acme Steel Company in California in 1960 to 1962 ; by the Red Ball 
Motor Freight Company, Natchez, Mississippi, 1962 until he began 
devoting full time to the United Klans of America, Realm of Missis- 
sippi. 

McDaniel, while in California, filed a petition of bankruptcy on 
October 28, 1961, at Lynwood, California, listing debts of $4,522.36 
and assets of $200. On March 7, 1962, he was discharged as bankrupt. 

McDaniel's employment with Johns-Manville was terminated in 
1959 under the technical charge of abuse of plant rules and regulations. 
Investigation established that his dismissal resulted from his illegally 
opening a milk vending machine and removing therefrom the coin 
content. 

E. L. McDaniel was banished from the Original Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan in December 1963 by Roy V. Youn^, Imperial Dragon. 
He was thereafter the leader of the Original Knights which formed 
the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi and was elected 
to the position of province KBI. 

While holding an office within the White Knights, he joined the 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



3047 



United Klans of America, where after he received the appointment of 
Grand Dragon, to wliich office lie was hxter elected. 

In September 1964, a series of bombings was carried out in Adams 
County, Mississippi. These bombings resulted from actions taken 
within a UKA Klavern in McComb, Mississippi. One of the Klans- 
men involved was a State officer of the United Klans of America, Mur- 
phy J. Duncan, who held the position of grand klabee, or treasurer. 
In spite of this, the September 28, 196-4, issue of the Natchez Democrat 
carried a statement over the signature of Grand Dragon McDaniel 
addressed to the citizens of Adams County and read in part as follows : 

I would like to take this opportunity to inform the citizens of Adams County 
and all parties concerned that the United Klan of America does not condone 
nor advocate the bombings which took place last night, nor any of the previous 
acts which have created strife and turmoil in our city although the Klan has 
been accused of them. The Klan has nothing to gain by such acts. 

(Document marked "Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 

Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 1 

{Natchez (Miss.) Democrat, September 28, 1964] 



Klan Denies 
Any Part In 
Bombings 



E. L. McDaniel. Grand Drag- 
on me uimeu ivian of America, 
Realm oi Mississippi., yester- 
day issued a signed statement 
in which he denied that the 
Klan ill Aciams County atid Nat- 
chez; have had any part in 
bombings or other acts which 
have created slriie and turmoil 
in Natchez. 

He stated further that "The 
United Kl.iii of AineriC) dr)rs iirit 
condone nor arivocatr <he bomb- 
iiig.s which took })' '^ 

daj- night, nor aii% 

JfiU:^ ;.i t? 'Ahit il 



strife and turmoil in Oiir city." 
The complete statement of Mr. 
McDaniel is as follows; 

September 26, 1964 
To the Citizens of .\dams 
County: 

I would like to take this op- 
portunity to inform tlie citizens 
of Adams County and all part- 
ies conccrnied that the United 
Klan of America does not con- 
done nor advocate the bombings 
which took place la.st night' nor 
any of the previous acts which 
have created strife and turmoil 
in our city, although the Klan 
has been accused of them. Ttie 
Klan hri< nnthmg lo gain by 



l)rag(jn, 



Mr. Appell. Following arrest by the Mississippi Highway Safety 
Patrol of the UKA Klansmen, the Natchez Klavem, which had be^n 
incorporated under the Adams County Civic & Betterment Associa- 
tion, passed a resolution deploring what the resolution described as 
"unlawful arrest and search by the State Highway Patrol," and an- 
nounced the launching of a campaign to raise funds. ( See Paul Foster 
Exhibit No. 3, pp. 2999, 3000.) 

The president of the Klavern front organization was Paul Foster, 
the first chaplain of the White Knights, then the exalted cyclops of 
the Klavern, and now Grand Klaliff of the United Klans of America, 
Realm office. 



3048 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

McDaniel in January 1965 criticized other State units of the United 
Klans of America for not sending financial support to defend Klans- 
men arrested in Mississippi. He said only $300 had been sent to 
Mississippi from other States and $162 from the imperial office. 
McDaniel stated that about $3,000 had been collected for the defense 
of some 40 Klansmen arrested in Mississippi. In spite of this, he 
issued a statement which appeared in the CJarlon-Ledger, Jackson, 
Mississippi, April 1, 1965, in which after welcoming the investigation 
by the Committee on Un-American Activities he was quoted as saying, 
"I have always advocated nonviolence and will continue to do so." 

(Document marked "Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 2" follows:) 

Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 2 

Jackson, Miss., Clarion-Ledger , April 1, 1965] 

Grand Draeon "" '"^^ v\\xsid% existed, i 

c5 would know about them." 

To Welcome \.^^''^%\ "^^ ^^"'? '^'l^ 

I that the Klan was not in the 

Investigation l^^t tradition of Americanisin. 

c9 "I would hope that Mr. Willu 

NATCHEZ (fl — The Grand [ has not formed an opinion be- 
Dragon of the Mis.sissip^i ' fore investigation of the truth. 
Realm of the United Klans of i "I hope that at the conclu- 
America said here he "wel- j sion of the investigation, the 
corned an investigation of the I Klan can continue to hold his 
KKK." i committee in high esteem as a 

E. L. McDaniel of Natchez ' great committee for Ameri- 
made the conmient after Rep. I canism." 
Edwon Willis, D - La., chair- McDaniel said he urged all 
man of the house UnAmerican \ Mississippians to ignore the ag- 
Activities committee announc- ! itatorg who are plaguing the 
ed his group would look intc state. He called for calm, 
activities of the Klan. the : "I have always advocated 



Black Muslims and others. 
I McDaniel said he had no 
knowledge of tfie so - eaiiea 
f'squads" that WiUia talked 
about In announcing Hm probe. 



nonviolence and will continue 
to do so." 

McDaniel heads an organiza- 
tion which has an estimated 
membership of 400. 



In May 1965, an election of State officers was held at the Eola 
Hotel, Natchez, Mississippi, under the cover name of Mississippi 
Kescue Service. A caucus of imperial officers and Grand Dragons 
from many realms was also held. 

Mississippi officers elected were E. L. McDaniel, Grand Dragon; 
P. L. Foster, Grand KlalifF; Charles Dickson, klokard ; W. W. Gwinn, 
G-w-i-n-n, grand kludd; Charles Stewart, grand kligrapp; John 
Dawson, grand klabee; F. B. Brown, grand kladd; B. W. Waldrup, 
outer guard; Henry Neese, inner guard, and Myron Wayne "Jack" 
Seale, grand night-hawk. 

Henry Neese was replaced by Doyle Murray and L. C. Murray was 
appointed to the position of field secretary to the Grand Dragon. 
Appointed to the offices of great titan were Dexter Lamar Torrance, 
of Meridian, and Charles James Seal of Crossroads, Mississippi. 

On July 10, 1965, a public rally was held at S-u-q-u-o-l-e-n-a Race 
Track near Meridian. McDaniel introduced the Neshoba County 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3049 

Sheriff Lawrence Rainey, who had been arrested following the murder 
of the three civil rights workers in Philadelphia. 

On July 22, 1965, Sheriff Rainey w\as again introduced by McDaniel, 
this time at a public rally near Greenville, Mississippi. Imperial 
Wizard Shelton shared the platform w^ith Sheriff Rainey on this 
meeting and the one on July 10. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. McDaniel pos- 
sesses additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to 
this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting reme- 
dial legislation. 

Mr. Wfxtner. Mr. McDaniel, you have heard the statement of the 
committee's investigator. I give you an opportunity to reply to that 
statement, to confirm or challenge the accuracy of the information,_or 
explain part of it. You may offer, if you desire, any additional in- 
formation you deem relevant. 

Do you have any matter you wish to present to the committee at 
this time ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. I am advising, Mr. McDaniel, absent your rebuttal or 
absent any information which may come to this committee we will have 
to rely on the accuracy of this investigation. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McDaniel, I hold in my hand a bulletin to units 
of the United Klans of America, Inc., Post Office Box 10753, Atlanta, 
Georgia, dated October 13, 1964, addressed "Esteemed Klanspeople." 
In part, it reads : 

Due to the arrest of several white Mississippians who have been charged in 
connection with the recent bombings in McComb, Miss. The Grand Dragon of 
Miss, advises me that it is necessary to go to the assistance of these men who 
have been implicated by the press that they are Klansmen. However, the only 
thing they had concerning the Klan was a complimentary card of some sort. 
As you know we do not condone nor advocate such acts of violence, but we 
believe these men are victims of circumstances. Miss, needs your help send 
your donations to 

E. L. McDaniel G.D. Miss. 
P.O. BOX 1341, NATCHEZ, MISS. 

This was sent out by the Grand Dragon, Calvin F. Craig, of Georgia. 

Mr. McDaniel, did you advise the Grand Dragon that these men, 
who by their own statements and by sworn testimony are members of 
the United Klans of America, that they were not members of the 
United Klans of America ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 



3050 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 3 

Bulletin to Units of United Klans of Americ a. Inc. asking for funds. 

UNITED KLANS 
OF A^ERICA INC . 
P.O.BOX l'^753 
ATLiNU.GA. 
CCT.13,196U 

Esteemed KLanspeople; 

Less than one mcnth new remains belpore the general election 
Novenber 3. The American people by the millions will- go to the polls and cast th 
elr vote for the onb they think will be be best f cr ^ur beloved country. It is a 
must that you a merrfber of the KLan and as a Patrcric American enc:;urge voters to 
exeeodsa their right and go to the polls and V^TE. I ask each and every member 
to work and support their choice for president-be it JOHNSCN or GTUJ'J'ATER,.... .. 

■'■- ■ -"-- CtllT'tlf^' campaign office of your cairiditate and ^,ffer your 

^ needed help or either you 'ftaii set bfeck and oomplain for the next four years,,,,. 

1965 CEORGIA STATE KI/NVOKATION WLL BE HEID AT SAtfANNAH.GETRGIA IN THE fTNTH OF 
JUir, DATE WILL BE RELEASED AT A L«TER TIME, Savanhah Kl^n ^ k\ will be the H^ei 
«o nor WB hare 8.months to plan the savannah trip I feel sure many will take thi 
eir vacation at this time. We will have another State KLonvokation this year 
196*1 which will bring us t^ to date. Time and place will be put in the next news 
letter. Their will be « nuifcer rf positions up for relection on the State Board, 

BOVHCtS 21 Saturday* TURRET SHCGT at Sam Pooles Place on Hway# 81, 6 miles 
north of Corington.Ofl, Benefit Covington #38 Klavern. 

COT, 29, PPM Old 66 N'side Dr.and Marietta St.Atlanta will have a naturllzn- 
tlon all units are invited to bring their canditates and members (^EN OIILY) 
E.C, Cleaper says Donuts and Q-ffee will be served also he says tL bring y^ur 
robes. 

The F.B.I, cnntinuee to haresa the man in Athens, Ga, they are in still need ..f 
finiaiioaful help. 

I would like for any unit that haves any problems that they cannot handle them 
selves to write and let the State Beard try t.. advise or cffer suggestions, But 
let us all understand that .all of our tr.ubles sxq to be handled in the chain 

of coniwind as th^ organization is set up. That is why we elect officers 

In a recent conversation with the Imperial Wizard the pins ad- pted in 3 'ham 
should be in the hands of each state. The G.D.s office will let y. u know when 
they are ready for distribution here in Georgia. 

In the C'.-mirg months let us renew our faith in the .rganizati'n 
and atriva for UNITY in the UNITED KLaKS OF hMERICA INC. 

I>ue to the arrest of several white Mls.'sissippians who, have been charged in confi 
nnaotion with the recent bindings in MoComb.Miss, The Grand Dragon -f Miss. 
advises me thatit is nessesary to go t ■ the assistance of these men whe^ have 
been imjillcated by the press that thay are Klansaen. However the only thing 
they had cncering the KLan was a ccmplimentary card of some s^rt. As ycu kno^w 
we do n- 1 condrne nor advocate such acts of vioaenGe,but we beleive these man 
are victims of cireusmstanoeB .Iftss, needs y.ur help send yo.ur ^o.nations t 

E.LiKdaniel G.D. Mis.n. 

P.r.Bf'X 1341 

NATCHE.Z.IIISS. 

Klanspe'-ple the work that y^u d^ In the noxt 3 weeks may be the turning factcr 
in the future of this great and glorius country. A ME R I C h 

THE KLAN DID IT BEFORE LET THE UNITED 
DO IT NfW 

Y.-urs f'^r GOD and Gauntry 
Calvin F.C raig 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3051 

Mr. Appell. Is the deceit of the United Klans of America about 
its nonviolent position which it gives to the general public also com- 
parable to the deceit which it gives to its own members with respect to 
violence of its membership ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McDaniel, did you attend — I put it to you as a 
fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that you attended a public 
rally of the United Klans of America, Kealm of Louisiana, held at the 
West Monroe Fairgrounds, West Monroe, Louisiana, on December 6, 
1964 ? I ask you to affirm or deny that fact. 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you advise Klansmen there that you had, you and 
your lieutenants that accompanied you, had to return to Natchez, 
Mississippi, because Imperial Wizard Shelton was in Mississippi con- 
tacting United Klans units in that State about raising money to defend 
the individuals arrested by the FBI on the murder of the civil rights 
workers the previous summer. 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. McDaniel, according to our investigation, you 
had placed in the public press in September 1964 a statement to the 
ejffect that you wished to inform all parties concerned that the United 
Klan does not condone or advocate bombing. I want to ask you today, 
Mr. McDaniel, does the United Klan condone or advocate bombing? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. How many members are there of the Mississippi 
Kealm of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. In April of this year, according to our investigation, 
you issued a statment welcoming this inquiry by the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities. 

Now in connection with that, you stated, I believe, "I have always 
advocated nonviolence and will continue to do so." 

I would like to know, Mr. McDaniel, today whether or not you as 
the chief executive officer of the Mississippi Realm of the United Klans 
of America do advocate nonviolence ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, I do not intend to correct the Chair, 
but I believe the Chair said in April of this year. I believe it was 
April of last year. 

Mr. Weltner. April 1965. Thank you, Mr. Chalmers. 

With that correction, I would ask the witness whether or not he 
does advocate nonviolence. 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. How much money was collected for the defense of 
Klansmen involved in several legal proceedings in Mississippi pur- 
suant to this bulletin issued by Grand Dragon of Georgia and other 
efforts among the other Klans? 



3052 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. MgDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based upon the ground previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you know Lawrence Rainey, the sheriff of 
Neshoba County, Mississippi ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. McDaniel, was there not broadcast widely in 
this country a CBS television documentary on September 17, 1965, 
wherein you introduced Sheriff Rainey on the platform of the public 
gathering of the Mississippi Realm of the United Klans of America ? 
Isn't that a fact ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Is Sheriff Rainey a member of the United Klans 
of America? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Did you invite Sheriff Rainey to make an investi- 
gation of the United Klans of America as indicated on that television 
program ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. McDaniel, did you discuss with any of the 
following parties their appearance before this committee today : Paul 
Dewey Wilson, Murphy Duncan, Emery Lee? Did you have any 
discussion with any of these parties as to their appearance before this 
committee ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you have some further questions, Mr. Appell ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes. 

Mr. McDaniel, someone mailed to the committee a clipping from 
a newspaper which I believe to be a Jackson, Mississippi, paper, 
which carries a caption, "Over 100 Crosses Burned In State." 

The article sets forth that this, according to the Mississippi High- 
way Patrol, was strictly a planned operation by the United Klans 
of America and I quote: 

"Klansmen were advised a week or so in advance to take part in this protest 
burning, which was in protest of the House Un-American activities committee 
hearings which resumed Tuesday." 

I ask you if you as the Grand Dragon ordered these series of cross- 
burnings and what did you hope to accomplish by them ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
based upon the groands previously stated. 

(Document marked "Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 4" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



3053 



Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 4 
I Unidentified Mississippi newspaper of January 5, 



1966) 



Over 100 Crosses 
Burned In State 



By JOHN HALL 
Associated Press Writer 



la pickup truck opened fire off- 
FBI agents sockin;: ,i.e Iscense 
'tag numbpf o- their pickup 



Officials said Tuesday prob-; truck after tiie .Tiea drrvpped a 
ably over 100 crosses were set j burning coss 'efore tiie Ben- 
aflame from one end of Misiis-jton Countv Cit.vens Ciuh huild- 
sippi to the other Monday night mg a CiviJ Rights headquarter?'. 
in a nearly .vunultaneous Kui Bobby Byrd, 22, and Allen 
Klux Klan operation protesting j Byrd, both' of Benton county, 
resumption of Congressional in- ; were arrested and charged with 
vestigation of the KKK. j assault. 

Gunfire between officer andj FBI, Highway Patrol and 
clandestine cross - burners was t county officers chased the pick- 
reported in at least two places, ' up to Allen Byrd's farm and 
and at least eight men were ar- captured Bobby in nearb} 



rested in three places 

Tne Hicln^ - " •' 
was posr.i'. 
were buriKu 
that got underway arm 
Monday night 

Another report came from anj 



ix)d.s. Allen turned himself in 
I'Mesday. 

The patrol said crosses and 
expended .W caliber and shot- 
gun ammunition were found in 
the pickup truck. 

In another Meridian incident. 



official who diriinod to be (police arrested five men on 
quoted by name said nearly 100 ' 
crosses had bee;i reported and 
more were expected and "prob- 
ably a very few were never ob- 
served. The^p )'•'" minimum 
figuri ^ ■ : 



ha\ 
He 

a p: 



week 
part 
which 
House 



re- 



A<tij in proU:s 
Un-American 
committee hearings ' 
sumed Tuesday." 

group of men met gunfire 
when thev tossed a flaming 



charges of con.-^iracy to com 
mit a crime after a kerosene- 
soaked cross was discovered in 
their pickup truck. 

OUT O.N BOND 
The men. wiio were re- 
leased on 5i5O0 bond, were iden- 
afied as Mack Holdiness, 41. 
Thomas L. Cockrell, 32. Charles 
' May 25, Charles Kenr.eth Har- 
ri.son 31, and Robert Broad- 
V - ,>i" Meridian 

.'lso reported at 
' ■ .,: : -.n was arrested at 
tiie I Pontotoc ;n connection with 
vilies' crosses. Several persons were 



surprised just inside Monti- 
cello burning a cross, but Uiere 
were no arrests. 
_ Cro^.ses burntxl by county In 

cross m the yard of the home! a partial list, officials reported. 

of Meridian Attorney William ! showed Pt-arl River with 15, 



M-- 
stake 

Ready ; ...:...:. _ -' j 

twice'wi'n a ■ihotgun, but ;: was 
not knov-n if they hit any cross- 
bun»OTS. 



Washington 11. Winston 10, Lau- 

k'fdale liuhr, Hinds seven. Pike 

von, Mar->ha]l six. Choctaw 

:.e, Clarke five, Pontotoc four, 

Sharkey four, Adams four. 

Wa\Tie four, Benton three. 

''lay three, Lincoln Uiree, Jones 



In Nor th Mississippi, men in.l three and Lowndes two. 



Official? 
one cros= 

i.e:ikn. !" 

Tippah ,,- 

;)nd seve'\. ... 

iN.n. The> iaw .lyuit;^ w.-rt- ^ 

•nmimum. 

The crosses generally ap- 
()eared in front of desegregated 
school or at other public places, 
such as courth<wses and on- 
highways and streets, particu- 
larly at intersections. 

GOT INSTRUCTIONS 
The official wlio reported the 
j figure of 100 said Klansmen 
i were instructed to put the cross- 
!es in public places and "if they 
! decided to go down and put it 
I in front of the house of one of 
.'his enemies that was that." 
; The FBI said federal charges 
: of assaultir^ an officer had 
I not been placed against the 
men arrested in Benton county. 
The offense carries a penalty of 
10 years in prison and $10,000 
fine as a maximum if a deadly 
; weapon s used. 
■j In Jackson, crosses appeared 
! aflame in front of six desegre- 
i gated schools and the city's Ne- 
I gro .Municipal Aoditorom at 
I College Park. 

i The &.hools were Murrah, 
jProvme and Central High 
! schools and Robert E. l«e. 
I Bar^ and George Elementary 
j schov>ls. 

i In WashingUm county, a^tho^ 
\ itJes attributed the cross43um- 
ings to the United Klans of 
; America and said tticy probably 
; know identities of the Klansmen 
involved. 

Witnesses, they said, saw two 
carloads of men stop and burn 
a cross after donning KKK 
robes and hoods. 

Other crosses in Meridian 
were set aflartie at the home 
of Mayor Al Key, Meridian City- 
Junior College and Marion Park 
; Elementary School. Tlie tun 
i schools have Negro students 
i along with whites. 



Mr, Appell. Mr. McDaniel, the Philadelphia Bulletin of December 
24, 1965, states that the Grand Dragon of the Mississippi Ku Klux 
Klan last night had Natchez Police Chief J. T. Robinson arrested on 
a charge of failing to enforce the law. 



3054 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



And the article stated that lie was so arrested, and I ask you, Mr. 
McDaniel, as Grand Dragon, whether this charge of failing to perform 
a duty, which any citizen can perform under Mississippi law, was 
designed by you to remove from the leadership of the police depart- 
ment a police chief who was anti-Klan in order to have promoted 
members of the United Klans of America who were members of that 
police force ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 5" follows:) 

Edward McDaniel Exhibit No. 5 
[Philadelphia, Pa., Bulletin, December 24, 1965] 



Klan Charge 
Brings Arrest 
Of Police Chief 

Grand Dragon Says 
Natchez Official 
Failed in Duty 

Natchez, Miss., Dec. 24 — 
(UPI)— The grand dragon of the 
Vlississippi Ku Klux Klan last 
flight had Natchez Police Chief 
r. T. Robinson arrested on a 
:harge of failing to enforce the 
aw. 

In Mississippi, anyone can 
sign an affidavit and have a man 
arrested, and does not have to' 
substantiate his charge until .a 
•ater hearing. 

Robinson was arrested by 



Sheriff Odell Anders and re- 
leased on a $100 bond. 

There was no official explan- 
ation of the charges, but Robin- 
son said grand dragon E. L. Mc- 
Daniel, a Natchez resident, had 
becii urging him to arrest civil 
rights leaders under a state anti- 
boycott law. 

Negros have renewed a boy- 
cott of Natchez merchants .be- 
cause, they claim, two police- 
men unnecessarily beat Negroes 
in a racial flareup on Wednes- 
day. The'boycott had been called 
off Dec. 3 when 22 merchants 
agreed to hire Negro clerks. 

Reprieve for Negroes 

Baton Rouge, La., Dec. 24 — 
(AP) — U. S. District Judge E. 
Gordon West late yesterday is- 
sued a restraining order to keep 
Negro sharecroppers in West 
Feliciana Parish from being 
evicted by their white landlords 
until the court can decide wheth- 
er they are being harassed for 
registering to vote. 



(At this point Mr. Senner entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Appell. James K. Greer in a statement given to the Mississippi 
Highway Patrol, identified as a man he knew to be a Klansman Cap- 
tain Wisner of that police department. Was your action against 
Chief Robinson designed to promote Captain Wisner ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Weltner. One further matter. 

Mr. McDaniel, you were directed by the committee to produce the 
documents referred to in paragraph 2 of the subpena served upon you. 
I extend to you at this point the opportunity to make known to this 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3055 

committee any reason why yon might be unable to produce those 
documents. You do have that opportunity at this point to state, if 
that be the case, under oath that you are unable to comply with the 
subpena by virtue of the fact that, if that is the case, that you do not 
have possession or you do not have any such records in your custody 
or control or that they are not available to you. 

You now have that opportunity if you so desire. 

Mr. Chalmers. I am not certain whether that is a question or not, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. It is not a question, it is an opportunity I am giving 
tlie witness at this point, if he so desires, to state that or to bring that 
matter to the committee's attention. I make that offer in view of the 
action that the House of Representatives took on yesterday with re- 
gard to similar requirements of this committee. 

Hearing no response by the witness or his counsel, I will assume 
that he does not desire to make any statement at this point. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. McDaniel, do you have in your possession or control the docu- 
ments or records called for by this subpena in paragraph 2 as ordered 
by the chairman of this committee to he produced at this point ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Senner. Do you have any knowledge of where those records 
might be so that you can easily obtain them and furnish them to this 
committee to comply with the subpena and the order of the chairman 
of this committee ? 

Mr. McDaniel. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based on the grounds previously stated. 

]V[r. Weltner. There being no further questions, the vsdtness will 
be excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until 10 a.m. tomorrow, and the 
place of meeting of the subcommittee will be in the House Caucus 
Room in the Cannon Office Building. 

I might announce that the area to be inquired into tomorrow will 
be with regard to the State of Alabama. 

(Wliereupon, at 4:20 p.m., Thursday, February 3, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Friday, February 4, 1966.) 



59-222 O — 67— pt. 4- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

Part 4 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1966 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.O. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, as 
reconstituted for the February 4 hearings, met, pursuant to recess, 
at 10:20 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office Building, 
Washington, D.C., Hon. Charles L. Weltner (chairman of the sub- 
committee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Charles L. Weltner, of 
Georgia, chairman; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and John H. 
Buchanan, Jr., of Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Weltner and 
Buchanan, 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel ; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel ; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator ; and Phillip R. Manuel, investigator. 

Mr. Weltner. The subcommittee will come to order. 

I file for the record at this point a designation of a subcommittee 
consisting of myself as chairman, Messrs. Ashbrook and Buchanan as 
associate members, for the purpose of conducting hearings on Friday, 
February 4. A quorum of that subcommittee is present, and Mr. Ap- 
pell, you will call your first witness. 

(The order of appointment of the subcommittee follows:) 

February 2, 1966. 
To Mr. Francis J. McNamara, 
Director, Committee on Un-American Activities: 

Pursuant to the provisions of tlie law and the Rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities con- 
sisting of Honorable Charles L. Weltner as Chairman, and Honorable John M. 
Ashbrook and Honorable John Buchanan as associate members, to conduct hear- 
ings in Washington, D.C. on Friday, February 4, 1966, as contemplated by the 
resolution adopted by the Committee on the 30th day of March, 1965, authoriz- 
ing hearings concerning the activities of the various Ku KIux Klan organiza- 
tions in the United States. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 2nd day of February, 1966. 

/s/ Edv?in B. Willis, 
Edwin E. Willis, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

3057 



3058 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Charles J. Seal? Would his attorney come 
forward ? 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, you are appearing here on behalf of 
the witness, Charles J. Seal? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir, I am, Mr. Chairman. Yesterday I re- 
ceived a telegram from Dr. W. F. Stringer of Poplarville, Mississippi, 
who has been appointed by the Veterans' Administration to look after 
this ex-veteran witli respect to a heart condition that he has. 

Now the telegram that I received yesterday afternoon after the 
hearing was recessed, I did not feel was satisfactory, so 1 bnd Mv. 
Seal contact Dr. Stringer again, and this telegram was received this 
morning : 

Charles J. Seals 

Room 522 Congress Motel, Wash., D.C. 

Mr. Seals, in addition to the information sent you this morning I believe 
that it would be against your health to be required to testify in any stressful 
.situation. , ' 

W. P. Stringer, M.D. 

Mr. Weltner. You are asking the committee to excuse the witness 
on the basis of that message? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; I am, and may I say this for the record 
and for the chairman's information? 

This young man has had about six heart attacks, as I understand, 
and he is under constant supervision of the Veterans' Administration, 
through the Dr. Stringer that they have asked for. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, without objection, the telegram of the physi- 
cian will be made a part of the record and this witness w^ll be excused. 

You are excused, Mr. Seal. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Robert Sidney Thomas. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you swear the testimony you will give in this 
hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated. 

Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT SIDNEY THOMAS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Would you state your full name for the record? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Robert Sidney Thomas. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with a 
subpena served upon you at 2802 Second Place, Northwest, Center 
Point, Birmingham, Alabama, on the 3d day of November 1965 by 
a deputy United States marshal ? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmp^rs. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3059 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, the subpeiia served upon you contained 
an attachment Avhich was made a part of the subpena, and according 
to the terms of the subpena, you were directed to bring with you and 
to produce documents set forth in paragraph 1 of the subpena which 
reads as follows: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, Province #.5, Realm of 
Alabama and Eastview Klavern #13, in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you o,r available to you as Titan, Province #.5, Realm of Alabama, 
and former Exalted Cyclops, Eastview Klavern #13 of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Robert Thomas. I respectfully decline to deliver to the com- 
mittee any and all documents as demanded by the committee under 
subpena dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel 
that to do so might tend to incriminate me in the violation of my 
rights as guaranteed me by amendment 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Consti- 
tution of the United States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all rec- 
ords as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 
1965, for that information is not relevant, germane to the subject 
under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in a 
consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry 
within the scope of that authorized by Rule XI of the rules adopted 
by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, it is stipulated that the witness has 
been apprised of the chairman's opening statement with respect to the 
matter and that lie is familiar with the contents thereof. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Thomas, the committee does not accept your 
reasons for refusing to produce these documents. Accordingly, I 
order and direct you to produce the documents required in the para- 
graph just read by the investigator. You are directed to produce 
those documents at this time. 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectively decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, wnll you stipulate also that the direc- 
tions in the subpena to produce the documents are those documents 
maintained in an official representative capacity of this witness? 

Mr. Chalmers. As stated in the subpena. 

Mr. Weltner. As stated in the subpena. 

All right, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, paragraph 2 directs you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as Titan, Province #5, Realm of Alabama, and former Exalted Cyclops, East- 
view Klavern #13 of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and 
require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said organization, the 
same being in your possession, custody or control. 



3060 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 2, Mr. Thomas, 
I ask you to produce the documents called for, 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectively decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents requested, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Thomas, I order and direct you to produce these 
documents, and I inquire of Mr. Chalmers whether the same stipu- 
lation as to the representative capacity stated in the subpena applies 
in this connection. 

Mr. Chalmers. It does, sir, and also the familiarity with the chair- 
man's opening statement. 

Mr. Weltner. You are directed to produce the documents, Mr. 
Thomas. 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectively decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, when and where were you born? 

Mr. Weltner. Prior to going into that, Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, 
you have at this point an opportunity under oath to present any rea- 
son to this committee why you are unable to produce documents called 
for in this subpena. You have that opportunity at this point : Either 
that they are not in your possession or that you have no custody or 
control over them or you have no access to them, and you have the 
opportunity to make any statement to that effect at this point. 

Hearing no response, the investigator will proceed. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born, Mr. Thomas? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. I respectively decline to answer that question 
for the reason that I honestly feel any answer might tend to incrimi- 
nate me in my rights as guaranteed to me by amendment 5, 1, 4, and 
14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, in May of 1961, as a member of the Ala- 
bama Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, were you involved in the Freedom 
Bus trouble that was in Anniston and Birmingham ? And in connec- 
tion with that, did you have conversations with Imperial Wizard 
Robert M. Shelton? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, in a legal action brought by Robert M. 
Shelton against the Tuscaloosa Newspapers, Incorporated, and Buf ord 
Boone, et al., during a pretrial deposition Mr. Shelton was asked: 

In May, 1961, this was about the time of the so-called Freedom Bus trouble 
in Anniston and Birmingham, a long distance telephone call to your number in 
Tuscaloosa was charged to a Birmingham telephone listed to a Ro'ber't Thomas. 
Was Robert Thomas at that time a member of the Klan? 

And Mr. Shelton was instructed not to answer. 

Did you, as reported in the question, make a long-distance telephone 
call to Robert Shelton? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Excerpt from Shelton deposition marked "Robert Thomas Ex- 
hibit No. 1" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3061 

Robert Thomas Exhibit No. 1 
ROBXRT N. SHBLTOH, 
PIAZMTZrr, 



VS. 

TUSCALOOSA HKWttAPimS, 

IMC., A COKPCllATZOV, 
BUrORD BOOKS, XT AL. , 

OBPBHDAJfTB. 



ZM TUS CZRCUZT COURT OP 
TD8CAL008A COUVTY, ALABAMA 
AT LAW 



Cas« Mo. 19462 



APPBARAMCKS 
OH BBHALP OP PLAZVTZPPt CROWVOVKR ft BURROUOBS 
ON BEHALP OP DIPXlfDAXTS i J0MX8. NoKACHZV. ORMOVD 4 PULTOV 

Byt Mr. Bruca MaB«chin 



DBPOSZTZOW OP ROBBRT M. SHBLTOM 
T«X«n by 0«f«ndanta b«for« JIbbI* R. Black aa 
CowBlaalonar on Ootobar 14, 1964 in Rooai 223 of tha 
County Courthouaa, Tuaoaiooaa, Alabama, in accordanoa 
with tha proviaions of Act Mo. 375 of tha 19)5 L,agia- 
latura of Alabaaa, and purauant to tha following atipu- 
lationt 

***** if * 

Q Zn May, 1961, thia waa about tha tia« of tha ao-calla^ 
Praadoa Bua troubla in Anniaton and Birninghaa, a long 
diatanca talaphona oall to your nuabar in Tuacalooaa 
waa chargad to a Birainghaa talaphona liatad to a 

Robart Tho»aa. Waa Robart Thomaa at that tima a nanbar 

of tha Klan? 

MR. BURROUORSi Inatruct bin not to 

anawar. 



3062 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, do you know (xary Rowe? 

Mr. Egbert Thomas. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the <>:rounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. According to newspaper accounts, Gary Rowe testified 
in a Title 18, section 241, trial recently in Montgomery, Alabama, that 
on your instruction that he. Collie Leroy Wilkins, Eugene Thomas, 
and W. O. Eaton were sent on a night-riding mission in Selma, Ala- 
bama. Was his testimony truthful ? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness" claim of privilege 
and his consistent refusal to answer my questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Robert 
Sidney Thomas. 

Mr. Thomas was born on January 25, 1929, at Birmingham, Ala- 
bama. He has received a 21^ year high school education. He served 
in the United States Marine Corps from August 21, 1946, to July 9, 
1948, and received an honorable discharge. He resides at 2519 18th 
Avenue, Birmingham, Alabama, and is employed by Southern Railroad 
Company, B i rm ingham. 

In 1963, Mr. Thomas w^as the exalted cyclops of Eastview Klavern 
No. 13, and since 1964 has been great titan of Province No. 5, Realm of 
Alabama, which position he currently holds. 

According to the committee's investigation, he is one of the most 
influential Klansmen in the United Klans of America in Alabama, and 
has the power to dictate the appointment of Klavern, realm, and even 
imperial officers. 

Robert Thomas was a member of the Klan of Alabama at the time 
it was affiliated with the U.S. Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
under Eldon Edwards. When the Alabama Realm of the U.S. Klans 
was expelled because of the refusal of Robert M. Shelton to make 
accounting of funds and also because Imperial Wizard Edwards was 
imable to control the violence of the Alabama Klansmen, Thomas, 
Shelton, Hubert Page, and Fredrick Smith were the leaders in the 
creation of an independent Klan group known as the Alabama 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Many meetings in which the primary discussion is that of violence 
have been held at the residence of Robert Thomas. 

Early in 1965, Robert Thomas discussed from the floor of a meeting 
of Eastview Klavern No. 13 that, in the future, members of the orga- 
nization would adopt a new tactic in dealing with racial demonstra- 
tors. Thomas stated that in the future, no large number of Klansmen 
would show up at a demonstration — just one or two men, who would 
appear on the scene, and if able, would drop grenades out of a second- 
story window, or from a rooftop, into the midst of demonstrators, 
and then calmly leave the area. Thomas stated that, in using this 
tactic, they would considerably lessen the danger of having known 
Klansmen identified at the scene of racial demonstrations. 

Thomas ordered Gary Rowe, Collie Leroy Wilkins, Eugene Thomas, 
and William Eaton to go to Selma, Alabama, on the night that Mrs. 
Viola Liuzzo was murdered. 

Robert Thomas attended a regular meeting of the Eastview Klavern 
on the night of March 25, 1964. During the meeting, he discussed a 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3063 

forthcoming religious service to be conducted by Billy Graham. 
Thomas announced he expected trouble after the Graham rally. He 
pointed out that the last two times Billy Graham had held rallies, he 
had left the Negroes so depressed that they demonstrated after the 
rallies. Thomas expected that the city or county police would ask 
Klan support. He therefore advised the then exalted cyclops, Ronald 
Tidwell, to have all Klan leaders "in pocket." 

September 27, 1964, a meeting was held at the home of Robert 
Thomas, during which a plan was formulated to dynamite and other- 
wise assault with hand grenades and automatic weapons a Negro night 
club known as the Flame Club. 

On November 8, 1964, Robert Thomas attended a meeting of the 
Fort Payne, Alabama, Klavern. On April 30, 1964, Robert Thomas 
appointed Herbert Eugene Reeves as the exalted cyclops of Eastview 
Klavern No. 13, replacing Ronald Tidwell in that position. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Thomas pos- 
sesses additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to 
this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting re- 
medial legislation. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Thomas, you have heard the sworn statement of 
the committee's investigator. You now have the opportunity to reply 
to any portion of that statement, to confirm, challenge the accuracy of 
the information, to explain any part of the statement. In addition, 
you may, if you desire, offer any other matter which the committee 
deems relevant. I give you that opportunity now and point out that 
the record of this hearing today, unless it is rebutted by other evidence 
or by yourself, will show that you are the party responsiJDle for the 
presence in Selma of four men, who have since been convicted of in- 
volvement in one of the most notorious and brutal murders in the last 
decade. So you have that opportunity at this point, to make any 
statement that you wish to make. 

The witness remains silent, and upon that choice by the Avitness, I 
must advise him that unless other evidence comes to the attention of the 
committee, then we will rely upon the accuracy of this investigation. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, to your certain knowledge, have members 
of the United Klans of America been deputized in either the State 
highway patrol and the sheriff's departments or police departments 
throughout Province No. 5 ? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. I respectfully decline to answer that question 
for the reasons that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to 
incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
amendment 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. With respect to the Klavern at Fort Payne, Alabama, 
Mr. Thomas, do you know the officers of that Klavern to now be 
George D. Killian, K-i-1-l-i-a-n, of Route 1, Portersville, Alabama; 
Guton, G-u-t-o-n, H. Tutor, T-u-t-o-r, of 600 South Alabama Avenue, 
Fort Payne; and Cecil King of 706 Turner Avenue, Fort Payne? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, do you know of the existence within the 
State of Alabama of an Imperial Klokann Committee ? 



3064 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact that it is the responsibility of 
the klokann committee to carry out acts of violence deemed necessary 
by Klaveni leaders or by Klaverns themselves, or realm or imperial 
officers. 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated, 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Ralph Roton to be a member — Let me 
name them all. Do you know Ralph Roton, Herbert Eugene Reeves, 
Cecil Henson, Eugene Thomas, Madison Hill, and Ronald Tidwell 
to be members of the Imperial Klokami Committee ? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you possess knowledge of the bombing of the 16th 
Street Baptist Church in 1963, at which four young girls were killed ? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know J. B. St oner '^ 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever confer with J. B. Stoner with respect to 
an act of violence which would be carried out by members of the 
United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Cliairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask Mr. Thomas. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Thomas, did you in fact direct Gary Rowe, 
Collie Leroy Wilkins, and others to Selma, Alabama, on the night 
that Mrs. Viola Liuzzo was killed ? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, 1 respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Did you have any telephone conversations with 
those four men, subsequent to the shooting of Mrs. Liuzzo ? 

Mr. Robert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Buchanan ? 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman, since this witness is from the 
Realm of Alabama, as are other witnesses about to be called, I would 
like to reiterate today what I said on the first day of these hearings, 
that is, that I approach this investigation from the point of view of 
one who loves the South and who believes in its people and who 
knows about them, that an overwhelming majority there deplore 
acts of violence and terrorism. 

I stated further that he Avho lias nothing to hide has nothing to 
fear from this investigation. And it was my hope then, which I 
expressed, that the members of the Ku Klux Klan would come for- 
ward, would answer questions, would tell us whatever there might 
be that they could tell us that was good about their organization, and 
would demonstrate that the things that had been believed about them 
through the long years by a great many people, that they were, in 
fact, guilty of acts of violence and terrorism, were groundless. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3065 

Now this investigcation has gone on for many weeks, running into 
months. We have heard testimony concerning bombings, burnings, 
beatings, and worse, concerning various Klan members and groups. 
We have yet to liear any testimony from any leader of any Klan 
group concerning that wliich is good and worthwhile about this 
organization that claims to be a Christian organization. 

Now as far as I am concerned, whoever is guilty of committing acts 
of violence and terrorism, this criminal minority constitutes the worst 
enemy to the people of the South. This group, whoever they may be, 
plays into the hands of the Communist conspiracy in this country 
and around tlie world by forwarding the aims and goals of com- 
munism, in stirring racial dissension in the South and elsewhere, by 
feeding grist for the Communist propaganda mill into that mill, 
that it might be dispensed all over the world. 

These people are responsible for the whole world thinking the 
falsehood about the South, that acts of violence and terrorism are 
representative of the fine people of the South, and this is not the 
case. 

Such groups are responsible, in my considered judgment, for the 
passage, for building the motivation all over this country resulting in 
the passage, of legislation that some of us have not considered either 
wise or just, such as the 1965 Voting Rights Act, which in my judg- 
ment was neither wise nor just nor necessary. Those who committed 
acts of violence and terrorism set the stage for the passage of this act. 

Now, Mr. Thomas, I want to give you one more opportunity to 
answer the charges presented in this hearing this day against you 
and, further, to tell us any good thing you know about the Ku Klux 
Klan organization, because I will say to you, sir, that whoever is 
guilty of such acts of violence and terrorism as have been indicated 
in this hearing, whoever these people are, they constitute the worst 
enemies to the people of the South. They are playing into the hands 
of the Communist conspiracy, and I think if you know any answers, 
you ought to give them. If you know any good thing about the Ku 
Klux Klan, you ought to say it, here and now, and I invite all the 
subsequent Alabama witnesses to do the same. 

Mr. Weltner. Failing any response from the witness, the record 
will so indicate. 

Any further questions by the staff ? 

Mr. Appell. None, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Buchanan ? 

Mr. Buchanan. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. This witness may be excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Herbert Thomas. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you shall 
give in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. I do. 



3066 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF HERBERT THOMAS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr. Thomas. 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Herbert Thomas. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with a 
subpena served upon you at 106 Low Street, Warrior, Alabama, W-a-r- 
r-i-o-r, on the 25th clay of October 1965 by a deputy United States 
marshal ? 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, 501 First 
Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, the subpena served upon you contained 
an attachment, which was made a part of the subpena. Under the 
terms of the subpena, you were commanded to bring with you and to 
produce those documents set forth in paragraph 1, reading as follows: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, and Warrior Klavern, 
Realm of Alabama, United Klans of America, in your possession., custody or 
control, or maintained by you or available to you as present or former Exalted 
Cyclops of Warrior Klavern, Realm of Alabama of the Invisible Empire, United 
Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United 
Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, I ask you 
to produce the documents. 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a 
subpena dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel 
that to do so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as 
guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of 
the United States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant, germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the con- 
sideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within 
the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Eesolution 8, adopted Janu- 
ary 4, 1965. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, do we have the stipulation that the 
Avitness has been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening state- 
ment and is familiar with its contents and that the directions in the 
subpena to produce documents are made to the witness in his official 
representative capacity as described ? 

Mr. Chalmers. As stated in the subpena; yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Thomas, your reasons for failing to comply with 
the subpena are not accepted by the committee, and as chairman of 
the subcommittee, I order and direct you to produce those documents. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3067 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, paragraph 2 of the attachment to the 
subpena directs you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or former Exalted Cyclops of Warrior Klavern, Realm of Alabama of 
the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the 
"Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be main- 
tained by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your 
possession, custody or control. 

Under the representative capacity s(;t forth in paragraph 2, I ask 
you to produce the documents called for. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Do we have the same tAvo stipulations with regard to 
this paragraph'^ 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

]Mr. Weltner. ]Mr. Thomas, I order you to produce those records. 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, as an exalted cyclops of the United Klans 
of America, Realm of Alabama, did you participate in a konv^okation 
or kloncilium which authorized Mrs. Robert Shelton to comake checks 
drawn against the Alabama Rescue Service, using the name James J. 
Hendrix ? 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question for the reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend 
to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Appell. Did you vote to authorize Carol Long to comake checks 
with Robert M. Shelton, using the name "T. M. Montgomery"? 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, the committee's investigation established 
that as of April 1965 that you were the exalted cyclops of Warrior 
Klavern, Warrior, Alabama, of the United Klans of America, Realm 
of Alabama. Is the investigative result of the committee factual? 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, under the procedures, the operational 
procedures of the United Klans of America, each Klavern appoints 
a klokann committee, whose members are appointed by the exalted 
cyclops. Did you as exalted cyclops appoint a klokann committee? 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to ansAver that 
question, ba.sed upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In addition to yourself as the exalted cyclops who are 
tlie officers of the Warrior Klavern? 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 



3068 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX- KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Thomas, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to 
affirm or deny the fact, that you were born on August 19, 1914, at 
Beltona, B-e-1-t-o-n-a, Alabama. 

Mr. Herbert Thomas. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff lias no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman, 

Mr. Thomas, I would like to give you the same opportunity I gave 
to the other Mr. Thomas. Now we have found in some States, and 
we have had some testimony indicating there were men who came into 
the Ku Klux Klan with no idea of wrongdoing, out of strong convic- 
tions, that have not been guilty of any wrongdoing, and some of those 
have, since the beginning of this hearing, disassociated themselves 
from the United Klans and other like groups. I want to give you 
opportunity today to testify to this committee as to anything good 
you know as to the denial of any charges that have been made, or I 
want to invite you to follow the example of other like men who have 
themselves entered an organization with no intent of wrongdoing and 
have, therefore, disassociated themselves from that organization in 
light of the things that we have uncovered in these hearings. 

I didn't ask a question. I want to give you an opportunity to speak, 
if you will. 

Mr. Weltner. The record will indicate the witness remains silent. 
The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Konald Jefferson Tidwell, 

Mr, Weltner, Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are to give in this hearing 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Tidwell. I do. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF RONALD JEFFERSON TIDWELL, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr, Tidwell, 

Mr, Tidwell. Ronald Jefferson Tidwell. 

Mr. Appfjll, Are you appearing here today in accordance with a 
subpena served upon you on the 26th day of October 1965 at 1309-16th 
Avenue North, Birmingham, Alabama, by a deputy United States 
marshal ? 

Mr. Chalmers. May I inquire, please, sir, what is the date of the 
subpena, the date of its issuance by the chairman ? I believe it is the 
14th. 

Mr. Appell. 14 October ; yes, sir. It was served the 26th. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Tidwell. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is represented by counsel. Will he iden- 
tify himself at this point? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law. Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3069 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Tidwell, the subpena served upon you contained 
an attaclmient, which was made a part of the subpena. And under 
the terms of subpena, you were directed to bring w^th you and to 
produce documents set forth in two paragraphs. Paragraph 1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and. affairs of the Invisible Em- 
pire, United Klaus, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, and Eastview Klavern #13. 
in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you as 
former Exalted Cyclops of Eastview Klavern #13 of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. TiDWELL. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the commit- 
tee any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena 
dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do 
so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendments 5, 1, 14, and 4 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same w^ould not aid the Congress in the consid- 
eration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquii-y within the 
scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted 
January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, do we have a stipulation about the 
opening statement of the chairman, to the effect that this witness has 
received a copy of it and understands the contents? 

Mr. Chalmers. He is familiar with it ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And do w^e have a stipulation to the effect that the 
documents called for in the subpena are called for in the representa- 
tive capacity of this witness as designated in the subpena ? 

Mr. Chalmers. As stated in the subpena. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Tidwell, this committee does not accept your re- 
fusal to deliver these documents, and I order and direct you to produce 
them at this time. 

Mr. Tidwell. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. And I give you an opportunity, if you so desire, to 
set forth for this committee any reason why you are unable, by virtue 
of nonpossession or want of custody or lack of access to these records, 
to comply with the mandate of this subpena. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Weltner. There being no response, we will proceed to the next 
paragraph. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Tidwell, under paragraph 2 you were ordered to 
produce : 



3070 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as former Exalted Cyclops of Eastview Klavern #13 of the United Klans of 
America, Inc., Knijjhts of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" 
of said organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any 
other officer of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or 
control. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 2, 1 ask yon to 
produce the documents called for. 

Mr. TiDWELL. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to tlie committee 
the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Weltxer. Mr. Chalmers, do we have tlte same two stipulations 
with regard to this paragraph ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Tidwell, I order you to produce the documents 
called for. 

Mr. Tidwell. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Tidwell, when and where were you born? 

Mr. Tidwell. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answers might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as quaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Tidwell, I put it to you as a fact that you possess 
knowledge of the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in 
Birmingham, Alabama, on September 15, 1963, and I ask you to give 
the committee the benefit of that knowledge. 

Mr. Tidwell. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Appell, is that date and place the incident where 
on a Sunday morning in the city of Birmingham, Alabama, a Negro 
church was bombed, with the loss of the lives of four Sunday school 
students ? 

Mr. Appell. That is our understanding also, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tidw^ell, have you served on the Imperial Klokann Committee '( 

Mr. Tidw^ell. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Appell. As a member of the Imperial Klokann Committee, have 
you ever been instructed, and did you carry out those instructions, 
with respect to acts of intimidation or violence ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Tidwell. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Tidwell, have you ever served time in a jail or 
penitentiary. 

Mr. Tidwell. I respectfully decline to answ^er that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness" claim of priv- 
ilege and his consistent refusal to answer my questions, I jn-esent to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Ronald 
Jefferson Tidwell. 

He was born in Jefferson County, Alabama, on January 23, 1935. 
He received education at the Phillips High School from January of 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3071 

1956 to March of 1956, when he quit. He has been employed since 
in various posirious as an electrician. 

Tidwell was arrested and charged with burglary and grand larceny 
on March 13, 1950. On July 26, 1956, he was sentenced to 6 months in 
jail, and placed on probation for 2 years. He was arrested on June 17, 
1962, on a charge of violating the State Fireanns Act. On June 27, 
1962, the charge was changed to carrying a concealed weapon. He was 
fined $55 on this charge. 

At an election of officers of the Eastview Klavern No. 13 of the 
United Klaus of America on December 29, 1963, Ronald Tidwell was 
elected exalted cyclops of the Klavern. On April 22, 1964, the Klan 
had expressed an interest in the possible demonstrations at Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama, and Ronald Tidwell had announced that action groups 
should be on standby notice. 

On January the 20th, 1964, Tidwell at a meeting of Eastview 
Klavern No. 13, made the comment that "If w^e're going to be Ku 
Kluxers, let's Klux." And in this comiection, Mr. Chairman, "Klux- 
ing" is a term referred to within the Klan as a militant action on the 
part of the membership. 

On January 23, 1964, Tidwell presided over a meeting of the East- 
view Klavern No. 13. At that time, Tidwell commented that he had 
heard from the Tutwiler Hotel that the FBI had found out about the 
approaching klonvokation and that he had the impression that the 
Tutwiler management was "shook." 

Tidwell added that the leak of information appeared to come from 
Eastview Klavern or the Warrior Klavern in Warrior, Alabama. He 
stated, "We will have to be extremely careful with such information in 
the future." 

Tidwell said that Shelton, the Imperial Wizard, was sought for an 
interview by the news media, and that his comment was that he did 
not know anything about a klonvokation. 

Tidwell also said that after an applicant to the Klan had been 
checked out, that "we have a contact w4iere we can check city, county, 
and Federal arrest records." Tidwell discussed a push similar in 
Montgomery to the bus incident at Birmingham. Tidwell further 
said that "around June of this year [1964], the demonstrations will 
probably be going strong." He said the "Klansmen will go down- 
town and get something started, and once it catches on, the Klansmen 
will drop out and get the leaders, once this is over." 

Tidwell added "a tap on the head won't be enough." Tidwell said 
once the Klansmen got a conflict between whites and Negroes started, 
"they can drop out, get the leaders, and quit all Klan activities for 
6 months." 

Tidwell added that memibers would receive summonses in the Fiery 
Gross and that they should respond immediately. 

A Klansman, Ross Keith, made a comment that all Klansmen 
would have to bring their guns with them to the klonvokation at the 
Tutwiler, since the public now knows about the Tutwiler meeting. 

At this point, Tidwell exhibited a pistol he had under his coat and 
showed a pistol he had inside a briefcase with him at that time. 

At a regular meeting of the Eastview Klavern held on the night of 
January 30, Tidwell said he had information from the Mississippi 
State Legislature about a 70-year-old man who was arrested along 

57-222 O— 67— pt. 4 12 



3072 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLTJX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

with some yoiiiio-er men, and tliey made him sit against the wall with 
his knees drawn up and his hands locked around them for over 3 
hours, and that when he relaxed his knees, that someone hit him with 
a night stick and broke his kneecap. 

On March 26, 1964, Tidwell attended a meeting at the Eastview 
Klavern hall, in wliich it was announced that all seven squads of the 
Eastview Klavern would be on standby for the Billy Graham rally 
being held at the Legion Field on March 29, 1964. Robert Sidney 
Thomas, the great titan, announced he expected trouble after the 
Graham rally. Thomas said that the city police expected trouble 
at the rally and that he thought the city or county would ask for 
Klan support and, therefore, he wanted Exalted Cyclops Tidwell to 
have all this leaders "in pocket" on Sunday. 

Ronald Tidwell as exalted cyclops of Eastview^ Klavern No. 13 
expressed interest in the opening of the American National Bank, 
which w^as to be a Negro institution in Birmingham, Alabama. Tid- 
well suggested pulling the string on a tear gas container, causing 
confusion and beating a few Negroes in the subsequent panic. 

Tidwell was heard to remark that "something ought to be deposited 
in the bank, but I do not have any money." 

On April 14, 1964, the day before the American National Bank was 
to open, Robert Thomas instructed that there would be no Klan action 
and that he had informed Ronald Tidwell of his desire in this matter. 

Thomas indicated that Tidwell claimed the people of Birmingham 
w^ere tired of the Klan's inaction. How^ever, Thomas stated that 
Ronald Tidwell had not presented any factual reasons for bombing 
the bank; therefore, he did not care to jeopardize the Klan when he 
knew the area would be saturated w^ith police officers. 

On April 30, 1964, Robert Thomas, province titan, appointed Herb- 
ert Eugene Reeves as the new exalted cyclops of Eastview Klavern 
No. 13, replacing Ronald Tidwell. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Tidwell 
possesses additional information which is both pertinent and relevant 
to this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in the enact- 
ment of remedial legislation. 

Mr. Weltner. The reporter wnll strike from the record any refer- 
ence to any offenses charged against this witness which were subse- 
quently dismissed. 

Mr. Tidwell, you have heard the result of this investigation, and 
you have an opportunity at this point to reply to any portion of that 
statement. You may, if you desire, challenge or confirm the accuracy 
of any of that information or of any other matter, if you see fit. And 
I must observe that, as the matter now stands, this record will show a 
substantial involvement by yourself over a period of some several 
years with some acts of violence, leading to the loss of human life, 
so you have an opportunity to say whatever you desire at this point. 

The witness, not undertaking to respond to that opportunity, is 
advised that absent his rebuttal or any other facts which come before 
this committee, the committee will rely upon the accuracy of its 
investigation. 

Any questions? 

Mr. Buchanan. Just of Mr. Appell, Mr. Chairman, 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3073 

Mr. Appell, you stated — and I am referring to charges which were 
not dismissed — that this witness had an arrest record dating back in 
1956, during whicli year, I believe, there were charges of burglary 
and grand larceny, and then, later, a charge of carrying a concealed 
weapon. Is that correct? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Buchanan. Now, you then stated that on December 29, 1963, 
some time thereafter, he was elected exalted cyclops of the Eastview 
Klavern No. 13 of the United Klans. Is that correct? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Buchanan. Now, this Eastview Klavern is located in the city 
of Birmingham, I believe, and therefore within my congressional 
district. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Buchanan. And so following this record, he was elected as 
leader of that Klan group. That is correct? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Buchanan. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Rayford Martin. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give in 
this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF RAYFORD JACKSON MARTIN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record. 

Mr. ISIartin. Rayford Jackson Martin. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Martin, are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Will your counsel identify himself ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, are you appearing here today in accordance 
with a subpena served upon you at 1711 Buena Vista Circle, Decatur, 
Alabama, on October 25, 1965, by a deputy United States marshal? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr Appell. Mr. Martin, the subpena served upon you contained an 
attachment, which was made a part of the subpena, and under the 
terms of the subpena you were commanded to bring with you and to 
produce documents described in two paragraphs. Paragraph 1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible 
p:;nii)ire. United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also 
known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
and affiliated organization.s, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service and the Decatur 
Klavern, Realm of Alabama, in your pos.se.'^sion, custody or control, or maintained 
by you or available to you as present or former Exalted Cyclops of Decatur 
Klavern, Realm of Alabama of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of 
America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 



3074 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Martin. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honsetly feel that to do so might 
tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guanrateed to me 
by amendment 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constituion of the United States 
of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as required by this committee under subpena — as requested by this 
committee under subpena dated October the 14th, 1965, for that in- 
formation is not relevant and germane to the subject under investi- 
gation and the same would not aid the Congress in the consideration 
of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiiy within the scope 
of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted 
by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted January the 4th, 
1965. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, do we have the stipulation that this 
witness has been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement 
and understands the content thereof ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And also that the documents sought to be reached 
by this subpena are documents alleged to be maintained or in the 
possession of this witness in the representative capacity stated in the 
subpena. 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, can't we stipulate that he — the serv- 
ice of the subpena was served upon him and that the subpena speaks 
for itself, which we have heretofore done ? 

Mr. Weltner. I am not consciously trying to vary the format. 

Mr. Chalmers. I certainly realize that ; I fully realize it, but I tell 
you what's the truth ; I hate to go up one street and come back, seeing 
myself the other way. 

Mr. Weltner. We have stipulated that the directions of the subpena 
to produce the documents called for are made to the witness in the 
official representative capacity described in the subpena. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Thank you, Mr. Chalmers. 

Mr. Martin, the committee does not accept your reasons for refusing 
to produce these documents, and, consequently, I order and direct you 
to produce them at this time. 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. And as in other cases, you are offered the opportunity 
at this point to present to the committee any reason why you are unable 
to produce these documents, either for lack of possession or custody or 
for want of access thereto. 

You remain silent. We will proceed to the next paragraph. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, paragraph 2 called for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity as 
present or former Exalted Cyclops of Decatur Klavern, Realm of Alabama of the 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3075 

United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of tlie Ku Kliix Klan, wliich the "Con- 
stitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be maintained 
by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your posses- 
sion, custody or control. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 2, 1 ask you to 
produce tlie documents called for. 

Mr. Maktix. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered. 

Mr. Weltner. For what reason, Mr. Martin ? 

Mr. Martin. Based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, may we have the same two stipulations 
with regard to this paragraph ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Martin, I direct and order you to produce those 
documents at this time. 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, the committee's investigation established 
you to be the exalted cyclops of Decatur Klavern, United Klans of 
America, Incorporated, Realm of Alabama. Is the result of the com- 
mittee's investigation factual? 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to answ^er that question for 
the reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendment 5, 1, 4, and 
14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. As an exalted cyclops, Mr. Martin, can you explain to 
the committee why it is necessary in an organization that publicly 
designates itself as being nonviolent to require a member to swear that 
he will keep secret the secret of a Klansman, except for crimes such as 
treason against the United States, rape, and malicious murder? 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previousl}^ stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, I put it to you as a fact that you were born 
on July 15, 1936, at Rogersville, Alabama. I ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact. 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As an exalted cyclops, I put it to you as a fact, and ask 
you to affirm or deny the fact, that you never attended a klonvokation 
or kloncilium which authorized Mrs. Robert Shelton to comake checks 
with her husband, using the name "James J. Hendrix," or Carol Long 
to comake checks with Robert M. Shelton. 

I ask you to affirm or deny the fact. 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Martin, under the United Klans of America, an 
exalted cyclops appoints a klokann committee. Will you identify the 
committee, the members of the klokami committee, which you ap- 
pointed as exalted cyclops? 

Mr. Martin. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of this witness. 



3076 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. No further questions of this witness ? 

He is excused. 

The subconnnittee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Weltner. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Appell. Wilson Hood. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give in 
this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hood. I do. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF WILSON HOOD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr. Hood. 

Mr. Hood. Wilson Hood. 

Mr. Weltner. Are you represented by counsel, Mr. Hood ? 

Mr. Hood. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Counsel will identify himself. 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, 501 First 
Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hood, are you appearing here today in accordance 
with a subpena served by a deputy United States marshal on October 
25, -- -- - - - - ~ 

Alabama ? 

Mr. Hood. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you say "yes" ? 

Mr. Hood. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hood, the subpena served upon you contained an 
attacliment, which was made a part of the subpena, and the subpena 
directed you to bring with you and to produce documents called for in 
two paragraphs in the attachment. Paragraph 1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also know as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klu Klan, and affiliated organi- 
zations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service and Moulton Klavern, Realm of 
Alabama, in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or avail- 
able to you as present or former Exalted Cyclops, Moulton Klavern, Realm of 
Alabama of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of 
America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, Inc.. Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan. 

I ask that, in the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 
1, you produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Hood. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena 
dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel to do so 
might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendment 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
for this information is not relevant and germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the considera- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3077 

tioii of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within the 
scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted Janu- 
ary 4, 1965. 

Mr. Weltxer. ]\Ir. Chalmers, we can stipulate that the witness has 
been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement and that 
he is familiar with the content thereof ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Can we further stipulate that the directions of the 
subpena to produce the documents called for are made to the witness 
in the official representative capacity described in the subpena ? 

Mr, Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Hood, the committee does not accept your rea- 
sons for refusal to produce these documents, and, accordingly, as chair- 
man of this subcommittee, I order and direct you to produce those 
documents at this time. 

Mr. Hood. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. And I offer to you, if you so desire, the opportunity 
to present to this committee any reason why you might be unable to 
comply with the mandate of that subpena. 

The record will note that the witness offers nothing in response. 

Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hood, paragraph 2 calls for you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or former Exalted Cyclops, Moulton Klavern, Realm of Alabama of 
the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the 
"Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be main- 
tained by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your 
possession, custody or control. 

Mr. HooD. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Weltner. May we have the same stipulations, Mr. Chalmers? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Hood, the committee directs you to produce those 
documents at this time. 

Mr. Hood. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents heretofore ordered by the chainnan, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hood, the committee investigations establish you 
to be the exalted cyclops of Moulton Klavern in Moulton, Alabama. 
Are the results of the committee's investigation factual ? 

Mr. Hood. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me 
in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendment 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hood, under the operational procedures of the 
United Klans of America, the exalted cyclops appoints a klokann com- 
mittee. This klokann committee is required to make investigations and 
carry out acts of intimidation, violence, upon order and instructions 
of the exalted cyclops or of the Klavern itself. 



3078 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Hood. Sir, I 

Mr. Appell. Identify to the committee, please, the members of tht 
Mokaiin committee which you appointed as exalted cyclops. 

Mr. Hood. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of this witness. 

Mr. Weltner. One or two questions. 

Are you presently the exalted cyclops of the Moulton Klavern of 
the United Klans of America, Mr. Hood ? 

Mr. Hood. Sir, I resj^ectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness will be excused. 
, Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I call Myrtie Eugene Stephens. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will 
give in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Stephens. I do. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF MYRTIE EUGENE STEPHENS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record. 

Mr. Stephens. Myrtie Eugene Stephens. 

Mr. Appell. Kepresented by counsel ? 

Mr. Stephens. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, 501 First 
Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stephens, are you appearing before the committee 
today in accordance with a subpena served upon you on October 25, 
1965, at 226 12th South, Bessemer, Alabama ? 

Mr. Stephens. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I think that is South 12th Street, Bes- 
semer, Alabama. I ask that the record be corrected. 

Mr. Weltner. The record will be corrected accordingly. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stephens, under the terms of the subpena served 
upon you and an attachment thereto, which was made a part of the 
subpena, you were ordered to produce, bring with you and to produce, 
documents described in two paragraphs. Paragraph 1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire. 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as 
the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service and Bessemer Klavern #20. 
Realm of Alabama, in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you 
or available to you as present or former Kligrapp, Bessemer Klavern #20, Realm 
of Alabama of the Invisible Empire, United Klans. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan 
of America, Inc.. also known as the United Klans of America, Inc.. Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3079 

Mr. Stephens. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so might 
tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me 
by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this conmiittee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the considera- 
tion of any valid remedial legislation, or is such inquiry within the 
scope of that authority to be investigated by House Rule XI of the 
rules adopted by the 89th Congress of the House Resolution 8, adopted 
January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, can we stipulate that this witness has 
been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement and is 
familiar with the contents thereof? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Can we also stipulate that the directions of the sub- 
pena to produce documents called for are made to the witness in the 
official representative capacity described in the subpena ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Stephens, the committee does not accept your 
grounds for refusing to produce these documents, and, as chairman of 
this subcommittee, I order and direct you to produce them at this time. 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the com- 
mittee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. All right. At this time, the committee will extend 
to you an opportunity to bring before the committee any reason that 
you might have for any inability to comply with the requirements of 
this subpena. 

The record will show the Avitness remains silent. 

Proceed to the next paragraph. 

Mr. Appell. Paragraph 2, Mr. Stephens, orders you to produce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity as 
present or former Kligrapp, Bessemer Klavern #20, Realm of Alabama of the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Con- 
stitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be maintained 
by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your 
possession, custody or control. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 2, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the com- 
mittee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Can we have tlie same two stipulations with regard 
to this paragraph? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Stephens, you are hereby directed to produce 
the documents described in paragraph 2. 



3080 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the commit- 
tee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. And the Chair would like to direct that the reporter 
at this point in the record set out a portion of the Constitution and 
Laws of the United Klans of America previously entered into the 
record as Shelton Exhibit No. 3, specifically that portion identified 
at Section 5 on page 39 thereof, which sets forth the duties of the 
kligrapp of a Klavern. 

(Section 5 follows:) 

Section 5. KLIGRAPP : The Kligrapp is the secretary and recording oflBcer 
of the Klan. He shall keep an accurate and complete record of all the proceed- 
ings of his Klan assembled, and a correct and systematic record of its member- 
ship, and of the date each member was naturalized, etc., as required by the record 
book for that purpose. He shall make a report through the proix^r channles [sic] 
to the proper officers not later than the 10th of the month for the calendar month 
last past on the regular blanks therefor ; and with his reports he shall remit to 
said oflScer or officers, all monies belonging to this Order, such as Imperial Tax, 
Realm or Provincial Tax, Klectokons monies due for supplies and any and all 
other monies due and payable to said officers. He shall witness all requisitions 
made for any article or paraphernalia, regalia, jewelry, or other property of this 
Order, to be used by the Klan or a member thereof, and see that the required 
sum of money is sent therewith. He shall notify all members who are in arrears 
three months, and shall notify the Imperial office of the arrears of a member for 
three months. He shall be the custodian of the seal of the Klan and shall impress 
it on all papers and documents requiring same and perform such other duties 
as may be required of him by the Exalted Cyclops, the Kloran and the By-Laws 
of his Klan. 

Mr. Weltner. Proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stephens, is the Klavern to which you belong, 
Bessemer Klavern No. 20, the Klavern which had among its member- 
ship W. O. Eaton and Eugene Thomas ? 

Mr. Stephens. I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 
5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Stephens, I put it to you as a fact, and ask you 
to affirm or deny the fact, that the cover name of Bessemer Klavern 
No. 20, and a name under which it operates a bank account at the First 
National Bank of Birmingham, Bessemer branch, is the Young Men's 
Social Club, Box 3093, Hueytown, Alabama. 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As an officer of that Klavern, were you ever a comaker 
of checks made payable to "Gene Thomas" and "W. O. Eaton"? 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact that you were the comaker, 
and I hand you Recordak copies of four checks to establish that fact. 

Mr. Chairman, the record should be corrected. There are five. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is handed five checks for his perusal. 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Appell, the two names among others shown on 
those checks, "W. O. Eaton" and "Gene Thomas," are those the names 
of the individuals who along with Gary Rowe and Collie Leroy 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



3081 



Wilkins were involved in the Viola Liuzzo incident in March of 1965? 

Mr. Appell. They are, sir. 

I would like to put to Mr. Stephens as a fact, and ask him to affirm 
or deny the fact, that Collie Leroy Wilkins was also a member of his 
Klavern. 

Mr. Stp:phens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Checks marked "Myrtie Stephens Exhibit No. 1." Two of said 
checks follow; others not reproducible.) 

Myrtie Stephens Exhibit No. 1 



KHhorB 




. w 



1/y ^ , 



-^^FmsfiitiiiiiMii*^ 



Mr. Appell. Mr. Stephens, I put it to you as a fact that this Klavern 
has been known as the Young Men's Social Club since 1956, when it 
was affiliated with the TT.S. Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
under the leadership of Eldon Edwards. 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answ^er that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. 1 shall hand you for your verification, Mr. Stephens, 
signature cards filed with the First National Bank of Birmingham, 
Bessemer branch, which signature cards establish that July 28, 1956, 
that the authorized signatures to that account were L. J. Praytor, 



3082 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



p-r-a-y-t-o-r, K. R. Fields, F-i-e-1-d-s, George Houston, H-o-ii-s-t-o-n; 
that this authorization was changed on November 9, 1960, to the 
names of Henry G. McDaniel, M. Eugene [Myrtie E.] Stephens, 
Oscar T. Syx; and that on March the 17, 1965, the signature card 
authorized signatures of James R. Whitefield, Cecil E. Davenport, and 
Oscar T. Syx. 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
basod upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "Myrtie Stephens Exhibits Nos. 2-A through 
2-0," respectively, follow:) 

Myrtie Stephens Exhibit No. 2-A 



FORM 60-a-IM— 10-: 

THIii='lRST 



F3ESSEMER BRANCH "''^^!'^^^^^' 

\j IK OF Birmingham, Birmingham. ALA 



TIic signature—.. .;. 
will recognize in the pa> 

drafts, acceptances .ind n 

The handling by tVii-; 
shown on- the icvtip*? .=• 
conditior.3' :•.'!•' r-.i-,.;,.. •>; 



:tliorizcd signature- 
i insaction of other 



-ai of this partnershiD,' 
^usincss for our accotln 



which you 
t. Checks 

^of tlus'within signatures. / \ 

■her itenis will be subject to the conditions 
reby ac'snowledgcs receipt of notice of said 



Title ^ 


P;n-tncrrhii1 






D;..- 





Myrtie Stephens Exhibit No. 2-B 



p|;4^B-i-M-3.59-97-c BESSEMER BRANCH 

lE^iRST National Bank of Birminghaivi.birmingham, ala. 



^^ Tho li.indling by thU ottice o( ihecks, drafo and oiticr items will be aubject lo iho conditioot shown on 
4QW rovrrao cU!o hereof, and tho depositor hereby BcknovvIcdi;c] receipt of notico of said coudilions and contcau 
wad ftgret;9 lo tM bound thereby. 



Title X-.//; 


■ ,';, ■ 


Home Office Address 


Local Address /_ 


'—■' 


Sff 


;nia'; 



■/^ 



Incorporate 



Phone 



-// 



Date // 



^ 



COUNTERSIGNATURES 



The t-i 
this Corpo. 
business for o 
Checks, drafts, 



///f/ic 



(I, aro tho duly authorizcj 
it of funds and the tranff:c 



.of the 'Within .inentioned signatures. 



I^J 



ff 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3083 

Myrtie Stephens Exhibit No. 2-C 




BRANCH J^(eSJ<^^gr^\ 
tlONAt B ANK OF Bi RMiNgHAM.BmMmSHiCM, aua. 



i^J^o^ .ii^Pfil 



i^ 



Phone 




Mr. Weltner. The record will show that the signature cards have 
been handed to the witness for his examination. 

Mr. Stephens, after examining those, will you tell this committee 
whether or not that is your signature ? 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. James K. Whitefield, whose name was added to the 
signature card of March 17, 1965, is he the exalted cyclops of the 
Klavern ? 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In October 1964, did you know Eugene Thomas to be 
the Klaliff or vice president of the Realm of Alabama, and James R. 
"Whitefield to be the kligrapp or secretary ? 

Mr. Weltner. Is that the Grand Klaliff ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir ; Grand Klaliff and the grand kligrapp. 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. And the office of Grand Klaliff would be equivalent 
to State vice president. Is that correct, Mr. Appell ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Stephens, do you know Robert Creel to be the Grand Dragon of 
the State of Alabama at present ? 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of Mr. Stephens. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Stephens, what is the Young Men's Social Club 
of Huey town, Alabama ? 



3084 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. ■ 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. For what purposes were the checks which have 
previously been exhibited to you issued to Eugene Thomas and W. O. 
Eaton? 

Mr. Stephens. Sir, I respectfnlly decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. The documents previously submitted to the witness 
for examination will be entered in the record at this point. 

If there are no further questions, this witness will be excused. 

Mr. Appell. Herbert Eugene Reeves. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you w'ill give 
in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Reeves. I do. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF HERBERT EUGENE REEVES, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record. 

Mr. Reeves. Herbert Eugene Reeves. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by comisel ? 

Mr. Reeves. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, 501 First 
Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reeves, are you appearing here today in accord- 
ance with a subpena served upon you on October 26, 1965, at 1805 
Second Ave. S., Birmingham, Alabama ? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Reeves. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reeves, the subpena served upon you contained 
an attachment, wdiich was made a part of the subpena, and under the 
terms of the subpena, you were commanded to bring with you and to 
produce documents set forth in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the attachment. 
Paragraph 1 reads: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible 
Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also 
known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
and affiliated organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service and Eastview 
Klavern #13, in your ijossession, custody or control, or maintained by you or 
available to you as present or former Exalted Cyclops, Eastview Klavern #13 
of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America. 
Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux 
Klan. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1 of the 
subpena, I ask you to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all documents demanded by the committee upon subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so might 
tend to incriminate and violate my rights as granted to me by — guar- 
anteed to me by amendments 5, 1,4, and 14 of the Constitution of the 
United States of America. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3085 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all rec- 
ords as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 
1965, for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject 
under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the 
consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry 
within the scope authorized to be investigated by the Rules XI of 
the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, by the House Resolution 8, 
adopted January the 4th, 1965. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, can we stipulate that this witness 
has been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement and is 
familiar with the content? 

Mr. Chaliniers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And that the directions in the subpena to produce 
documents called for are made to the witness in the official representa- 
tive capacity as described in the subpena? 

Mr. Chauviers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Reeves, the committee does not accept your rea- 
sons for failure to comply with this subpena, and accordingly, as 
chairman of this subcommittee, I order and direct you to produce those 
documents at this time. 

Mr. Ree\t:s. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents therefore ordered — heretofore ordered by the chairman, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. I further give you the opportunity to present any 
reason to this committee why you may be unable to produce the docu- 
ments identified and described in that subpena. 

Absent a response, proceed to the next paragraph. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reeves, paragraph 2 calls upon you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your i>os- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or former Exalted Cyclops, Eastview Klavern #13 of the United 
Klans of America, Inc., Kniglits of tlie Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution 
and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be maintained by you 
and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your possession, 
custody or control. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 2, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the chairman 
that — to the committee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. AVeltner. Do we have the same two stipulations, Mr. Chalmers? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Reeves, I order and direct you to produce the 
documents. 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reeves, committee investigation establishes you 
to be the exalted cyclops of Eastview Klaveni No. 13. Is the result 
of the committee's investigation factual ? 



3086 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Eeeves. I respectively decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel my answer might tend to incriminate me in 
violation of my rights as guaranteed to me in amendments 5, 1, 4. 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reeves, within the membership of Eastview 
Klavem No. 13, is there William Holt, who is the grand kligrapp of 
the Realm of Alabama at the present time; Albert Peake, the grand 
night-hawk; Leroy Rutherford, holding the rank of major in the 
State security guard; Glenn Wheeler, secretary of Province No. 5? 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claimed privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer my questions, I present to 
the committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Reeves. 

Mr. Reeves was bom on September 11, 1929, in Huntsville, Alabama. 
He has a 9th grade education and has been employed generally as a 
printer since he left school, his most recent employment being a bind- 
mg foreman with the Commercial Printing Company of South Bir- 
mingham, Alabama. 

According to a news account of June 9, 1963, in an article over the 
byline of Tom Lankford, captioned "JeflPerson men arrested with 
weapons near U of A," there is contained the following information : 

Six men from Jefferson County were arrested just outside tlie University— 

and this is bylined from Tuscaloosa — 

just outside the Universiity campus Saturday night with an assortment of pistols, 
nifeiiLoLi^u-o, uiiu i^ayuucts in tiieir autos. 

******* 

Arrested were William Ross Keith, 34, 201 11th St., Robinwood ; Herman F. 
Cash, 44, 804 Tuscaloosa Ave., Birmingham; Herbert Reeves, 33, 5728 33rd St. 
North, Birmingham ; Gary Rowe, Jr., 23, of Ninth Court West, Birmingham ; 
Charles Cagle, 22, Birmingham Rt. 9, and Ellis R. Denesmore [D-e-n-e-s-m-o-r-e] , 
61, 1864 16th St. North, Birmingham. 

C. W. Russell, assistant public safety director, quoted the men as saying they 
were KKK officials * * *. 

(Document marked "Herbert Reeves Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



3087 



Herbert Reeves Exhibit Nc. 1 
[Birmingham, Ala., News. }une 9, 1963] 



Jefferson inen arrested 
with weapons near U of A 



BV TOM LANKFORD 

Nfw. nUd •riU-r 
TUSCALOOSA. .Iiiiif »-Six men 
(mm .IcUcrsnn Cnunly were ar- 
rrslcd ju^l oulsiric Ihc I'nivcrMly 
rompun Saliirday nighl wilh an 
• vMirtmcnl of pi>^lols mchlMiclu 
and hH)oncU in Iht-ir aulos 

Slnlc Public Safety Director Al 
Linen .laid the men were en route 
lo a Klan rally He said they were 
charged with violating the State 
Firearms Act. 



KfHh, 



(etf were William Ko^i 
M. Ml nth "St.. Robin- 
nSo3-. Herman F. Cash. U. M* 
Tuiic«l<H>«r^ve.riftlrnilni(tiBm: 
UetlKrl Rfe%r». OJ, JTM Urd 
.Si. .^orm. itirmlnKham; Gary 
Rowp Jr.. 23. o( NInUi ^ourl 
T^fir. RirmlnKham: Charles 
C aclr. tt . nirmingham"T[T. I, 
tnJ (jllii Vnyiesmajf. *l. iet4 
16lh sl.~N'orlh, Btrminfham. 

C W. RUSSELL. assisUnt pub- 




tafety director, quoted th« 
men a« saying t hey wcie ^KKK 
offirials and were Koing lo 

police" the rally held on the U. S. 
HiRhw.iy II bypann 50uthwe«l irf 
Tuscaloosa 

Russell s.tid state trooperi> had 
prior information that the armed 
men were on their way hfre and 
rwidblock.s were set up Two of the 
were wearing pistols and two 
(her pistoU wert found in the 



STATE TROOPERS SEIZE WEAPONS FROM BIRMINGHAM MEN 
MaJ. Bankhead Bates, left, and C. W. Russell, assistant director of public 

»atet>, survey arsenal ^aiso found were four bayonfts. 
niphtslick5. and a cotton hook 



■^\ 



^r 






it 



Clie arrested men were traveling 
a two cars, hearing .Jefferson 
couiily license plates. 
< Two M the oeeupania In one 
jl the can sere wearinK while 
^nilormt l>e«riiig^JQaa. " .l«ii > «t« 
>ilh epaulettes wi 



JjCrofx burned 

!{ ABOUT 3,000 persons attended 
lie Klan rally held on private 
property just off the bypass. 
Many of the spectators were 
^men and small children. 
-iA gigantic cross, about 60 feet 
tall with 40 foot arms, enwrapped 

2 burlap baps, was Ignited lo 
ckotf the rally 
.•About fiO newsmen, some of 
t{iem with elaborate sound gear 
wid cameras, were wnrmly wel- 
turned by RofaeU Shallan. grand 
(kagon of Ate KKK In Alabanw 



KKAN Bl'RNS HUGE CROSS NftAR TUSCALOOSA 
. . . Robrd Klansmcn circle flaming 60-fuot cross 



behiad • fUl bed semi traclor- 
tnller truck and gave them 
•ogiesltoDS on possible pbo«*- 
graiihs ahd other Instnictioiis. 
He\sked Ihem not lo take pic 
lures of faces, only backs. 

About 200 robed Klansmen, 
many of Ihem wearing hoods over 
their faces, were present. 

Calvin Craig, head of _ Ihe At- 
lanla TCta n. w<is opening speaker. 
CfflHTTxtended thanks to the 
"greatest man in Alabama"— 
Ckiv George C Wallace— for his 
r aland. 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 4- 



3088 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. ArPELL. On April 30, 1964, Robert Thonicas, the province titan, 
appointed Gene Eeeves as the new exalted cyclops of Eastview Klavern 
No. 13, replacing Ronald Tidwell in that position. 

Mr. Weltner. One minute. 

Is the Gene Reeves referred to Herbert E. Reeves, the witness? 

Mr. Appell. Herbert E. Reeves, witness, and Gene Reeves are the 
same individual. 

On May 14, 1964, it was known that Gene Reeves, together with four 
or five members of the Bessemer Klavern, went to Rickwood Field in 
Birmingham, Alabama, in order to do some "missionary work" with 
Negroes who were attending a baseball game at the integrated pai4^. A 
Birmingham policeman had his gini taken away from him by Klans- 
men during this activity, but the gun was later returned to him at his 
home. 

At a weekly meeting of the Eastview Klavern held July 9, 1964, Bob 
Morgan and Gene Reeves brought 22 pounds of mackerel and placed 
tw^o mackerel each in a jar and left all the jars in a field behind Reeves's 
residence to sit in the sun. 

The ingredient to be developed w^as to be used as a stink bomb ingre- 
dient with the Alabama theater the only specified location mentioned 
where the ingredient might be used. 

At the weekly meeting of the Eastview Klavern held on June 11, 
1964, it was announced that the city of Birmingham would be broken 
into four sections, with a squad assigned to each section. 

Lowell Rogers would handle the western section; Gene Reeves 
would handle the eastern section; Harry Walker would handle the 
northern section; and Ronald Tidwell, the southern section. Each 
squad leader would have three men assigned to him. Gene Reeves 
would continue to handle the "action group." 

At a meeting in August of .1964, Gene Reeves and Ronald Tidwell 
announced that they were instructing students at Phillips, Ramsey, 
and Woodland high schools in the art of jujitsu on Tuesdays and 
Wednesday nights at the Klavern hall. 

On December 14, 1964, new officers of the Eastview Klavern were 
elected, and Gene Reeves was reelected as exalted cyclops. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Reeves possesses 
additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this 
inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Reeves, you now have the opportunity, having 
heard the sworn statement of "the investigator as to the result of this 
committee's investigation, to reply to any portion of that statement. 
You may confirm or challenge the accuracy of the information or 
explain any part of it or any other matters that this committee deems 
relevant. You have that opportunity now. 

Absent any rebuttal on your part or further evidence coming to 
this committee, we will rely upon the accuracy of that investigation. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Reeves, the counnittee's investigation establishes 
that you were a part of the Imperial Klokann Committee, along with 
Ralph Roton, Cecil Henson, Eugene Thomas, Madison Hill, and Ron- 
ald Tidwell. Is that information factual? 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3089 

Mr. Appell. As a member of the Imperical Klokann, were you ever 
ordered, and did you in fact carry out an order, wliicli related to acts 
of intimidation or violence on the part of any citizen or property of a 
citizen of tlie State of Alabama i 

Mr. Beeves. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell. In the language of the Klan, is "missionary work" used 
to designate acts of intimidation or violence ? 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell. Is the cover name of the Eastview Klavern No. 13 the 
Benevolent Brotherhood ? 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Any further questions by the staff ? 

Mr. Reeves, are you a member of any organization known as the 
Benevolent Brotherhood ? 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Weltner. What is tlie action group referred to in the investi- 
gator's statement, of which you were a member ? 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Weltner. One or two questions to the investigators. 

The klokann committee under the United Klaus of America is a 
group within the Klan organization whose function it is to carry out 
directives. Is that correct, Mr. Appell ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir, it is. It compares with what we established 
to be the "wrecking crews"' in the State of Louisiana. Their functions 
are identical. 

Mr. Weltner. And the Imperial Klokann Committee for the State 
of Alabama is that group of members, Klansmen, who are charged to 
carry out the directions of the imperial office, headed by the Imperial 
Wizard, Robert M. Shelton ? 

Mr. Appell. It is our information, Mr. Chairman, that this Im- 
perial Klokann Committee was available for assignments any place 
that they might be needed. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, let me ask the witness: The sworn testimony 
indicates, Mr. Reeves, that you have served as a member of the Im- 
perial Klokann Committee. Did you ever carry out any directives or 
instructions from Robert M. Shelton, the Imperial Wizard of the 
United Klans of America? 

Mr. Reeves. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Buchanan. No questions. 

Mr. Weltner. Any further questions by the staff ? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. This witness will be excused. And the subcommittee 
will stand in recess until 10 a.m. on Monday, next week, to meet in this 
same place. 

(Whereupon, at 12:30 p.m., Friday, February 4, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Monday, February 7. 1966.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

Part 4 



MONDAY, FEBRUARY 7, 196$ 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
as reconstituted for the February Y hearings, met, pursuant to recess, 
at 10:15 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office Building, 
Washington, D.C, Hon. Charles L. Weltner (chairman of the sub- 
committee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Charles L. Weltner, 
of Georgia, chairman; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio; and John H. 
Buchanan, Jr., of Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Weltner and 
Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, coimsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator; and Philip R. Manual, investigator. 

Mr. Weltner. The subcommittee will be in order. 

The Chair would like to make a part of the record of today's pro- 
ceedings the direction of the chairman of this committee, the Honor- 
able Edwin E. Willis, designating as a subcommittee to sit for today 
myself as chairman, Messrs. Ashbrook and Buchanan. 

(The order of appointment of the subcommittee follows:) 

Febeuary 2, 1966. 
To Me. Francis J. McNamara, 
Director. Coiumittcc on Vn-Amcrican Activities: 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities con- 
sisting of Honorable Charles L. Weltner as Chairman, and Honorable John M. 
Ashbrook and Honorable John Buchanan as associate members, to conduct hear- 
ings in Washington, D.C. on Monday, February 7, 196G, as contemplated by the 
resolution adopted by the Committee on the 30th day of March, 1965, authorizing 
hearings concerning the activities of the various Ku Klux Klan organizations 
in the United States. 

Plea.se make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 2nd day of February, 1966. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis 
Edwin E. Willis 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities 

3091 



3092 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE TJ.S. 

Mr. Weltner. The first witness today is Mr, James McCroskey. 

Mr. McC^roskey, will you come forward, please? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you shall give in this hearing 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. McCroskey. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES W. McCROSKEY 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McCroskey, will you state your full name for the 
record ? 

Mr. McCroskey. James W. McCroskey. 

Mr. Appell. Are you appearing here today in accordance with a 
subpena served upon you on the 3d day of January 1966 by John D. 
Sullivan, an investigator of this committee? 

Mr. McCroskey. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McCroskey, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. McCroskey. March 27, 1909, in Birmingham, Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McCroskey, what is your present employment? 

Mr. McCroskey. I am the plant manager for the W. S. Dickey 
Clay Manufacturing Company. 

Mr. Appell. How long have you been associated with the W. S. 
Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company? 

Mr. McCroskey. Twenty-eight years. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McCroskey, during the committee's investigation 
it was determined that, starting in February of 1965 up to September 
or August of 1965, a series of acts of violence against individuals and 
property of the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company was carried 
out. 

Do you possess knowledge of these acts? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Can you tell the committee in a brief word what led 
up to these acts, and also if you have a chronology of the acts by dates 
and type of acts which have been carried out against the Dickey Clay 
Manufacturing Company ? 

Mr. McCroskey. I do have the listing, and it was a labor dispute 
with some of our employees that led up to this strike situation. 

Mr. Appell. How many local — trade union locals represent em- 
ployees of the W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Prior to that time, only one. Currently, there 
are two. 

Mr. Appell. And what are the two locals now represented there? 

Mr. McCroskey. United Steelworkers and the United Brick and 
Clay Workers. 

Mr. Appell. The labor dispute to which you referred— was this 
between the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company and the Steelwork- 
ers or the United Brick and Clay Workers ? 

Mr. McCroskey. The Ignited Brick and C'lay Workers. 

Mr. Appell. Without going into great detail, can you briefly ex- 
plain to tlie committee tlint wliich led up to the strike to which you 
referred ? 

Mr. McCroskey. A small group of our employees identified as in- 
spectors petitioned the NLRB for an election, for representation by 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3093 

the United Brick and Clay Workers. An election was held, and the 
group certified by NLRB, and a union local was established. After 
this local was established, the Dickey Company met with representa- 
tives of this local and their international representatives in an effort to 
draw up a contract for working conditions and hourly rates. 

We had several meetings during the latter part of November, during 
December, and in January, being unable to come to an agreement on the 
terms of the contract. 

On February 8, 1965, the Brick and Clay Workers established a 
picket line in front of our plant. 

Mr. Appell. The inspectors that petitioned for a bargaining elec- 
tion, prior to their petitioning for an election, were they considered as 
supervisory personnel and therefore not within the contract entered 
into between the W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company and the 
United Steelw^orkers local ? 

Mr. McCroskp:y. That is correct. They had been excluded in our 
contract with the Steelworkers, 

Mr. Appell. What was the date that the strike vote was taken and 
the actual date when a picket line was thrown across Dickey Clay 
property 'I 

Mr. McCroskey. I don't know the date that the vote was taken, 
but it was probably prior, a few days prior to February 8. The picket 
line was established at 6 a.m. on February 8. 

Mr. Appell. Starting with February 8, can you give to the com- 
mittee a listing of acts taken against the Dickey Clay Pipe Company ? ^ 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes. Would you like me to furnish a copy, or 
shall I read it? 

Mr. Appell. Well, I would prefer that you read the items into the 
record and, if you have with you any photographic evidence of the 
extent of damage against either Dickey Clay property or property 
of employees of Dickey Clay, that you produce them in evidence as 
a part of your testimony. 

Mr. McCroskey. I do have such evidence. 

This listing does not cover all of the incidents, but it covers most of 
those major incidents that involved j^roperty damage. 

Thursday, February 18 — I will just read these as I have them here — 
damage to -SG-inch pipe couplings, switch pulled on a stack fan, one 
automobile shot at 4 :oO p.m., and 

Mr. Appkll. Now this automobile that was shot — this was an auto- 
mobile of an enemy of Dickey Clay, Avhich employee was not on 
strike? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes. 

Mr. AVeltxer. All right, that was a car that belonged to a non- 
striking employee? 

Mr. ^McCroskey. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltxer. All right, proceed, Mr. McCroskey. 

Mr. ]\IcCroskey. I do not have a photograph of this particular 
incident. I have a sheriff's report as to what did occur. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I think that if Mr. McCroskey can 
supply the sheriff's reports, which go into some detail, that we ac- 

^ Correct name W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Co. 



3094 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

cept them and make tliem a part of t'lie record of Mr. McCroskey's 
appearance. 

Mr. Weltnkr. The report of tlie slieriff will be entered into the 
record at this point. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-A" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. McCitosKEY. On Friday, February 19, there was an automo- 
bile shot at 12:15 a.m. This automobile belonged to a nonstriking 
employee. His name was Tom Cotton. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-B" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. McCroskky. On "Wednesday, February 24, we discovered sugar 
in the gasoline tank of one of our dump trucks. 

On Sunday, February 28, there was an explosion occurred at 11 
p.m. adjacent to our main building and just outside the wall of the 
electrical power control room. 

Mr. Appell. May I ask you there that if this exj^losion of dynamite 
had been placed closer to your electric power control, what damage 
would the plant have encountered ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Well, the plant would probably have been out of 
operation. This was the main control system adjacent to the substa- 
tion, and all of the switch gear was just inside this wall. 

Mr. Appell. What was the extent of damage ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Relatively small. There was a drain pipe lead- 
ing from the roof that was completely destroyed, two or three sheets 
of the transite (?) siding of the building was broken and damaged, 
there was a small hole blown in the ground against the side of the 
building, and an area about 2 feet square of the brick wall at the base 
of the building was damaged. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-C" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. At the time that explosion took place, was any part 
of the Dickey Clay property immediately accessible to anyone who 
would enter its grounds? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes, even though the plant was remote from the 
nearest roadways, there was no fencing around the property at any 
area. 

Mr. Appell. So that anyone could have come up to the property it- 
self and lobbed a charge of dynamite that could have detonated at al- 
most any place that person cared to destroy. 

Mr. McCroskey. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Getting a little bit ahead of ourselves, because of this 
and subsequent acts of vandalism or bombings against the property, 
did Dickey Clay surround its property with fencing? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes, we diet. 

Mr. Appell. And when did you approximately do that ? 

Mr. McCroskey. This was completed the latter part of July. 

Mr. Appell. Now picking up with February the 28th, would you 
continue with the acts of vandalism or other acts against your prop- 
erty or the property of employees ? 

Mr. McCroskey. On that same date of the 2Sth, in addition to the 
explosion, there were two tires cut on one of the trucks or truck 
trailers that was parked at our loading dock. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3095 

On March the 2d, one of our employees, as he left the property, 
reported that someone hit his car with rocks — and followed him down 
the highway, and what he thought was shots were fired, but they did 
not hit his car. 

On Wednesday, March 3, there w^ere two power shovels apparently 
shot at with a shotgun and the fuel lines cut on the engines. This 
equipment belonged to a contractor who stored his equipment on our 
property. 

Saturday, March 6, one of our employee's cars was shot at as he 
left our property, and he found one hole in the trunk of his car. This 
occurred around"^ midnight. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-D" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. McCroskey. On Monday, March 8, another employee's car was 
shot as he left the plant property. This particular occasion was 
rather severe; inasmuch as the shot was apparently buckshot, it punc- 
tured seven holes in this automobile, in the left front fender, as well 
as puncturing the tire on the left front of his car. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-E." See 
p. 3126.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McCroskey, I would like to interrupt you at this 
point. You have talked about Robert Smith's car being shot, Tom 
Cotton's car being shot, J. Macon's car being shot. 

Are these employees Negro or white employees ? 

Mr. McCroskey. These particular ones are colored. Thus far. 

Mr. Appeli.. Would you please continue and when you deal with 
an employee, would you advise the committee as to whether or not he 
was a white or Negro employee ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes. Wednesday, March 10, one of our em- 
ployees, who was colored, was using the company's station wagon to 
run an errand, w^as stopped on the road, the glass was broken in the 
door, the road was blocked, but this employee was able to get around the 
vehicle and reenter the plant. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-F." See 
p. 3120.) 

Mr. Weltner What road was blocked? 

Mr. McCroskey. The highway in front of our property. 

Mr. Weltner. The entrance to the plant was blocked? 

Mr. McCroskey. Not with reference to this incident. It was away 
from the plant entrance, maybe 500 yards. 

Mr. Weltner. All right. 

Mr. McCroskey. On this same date, March 10, some of A. F. James 
Truck Lines trucks as they entered the plant had windshields and side 
glasses broken with rocks or bottles being thrown from the picket line. 

This is not listed on my schedule but this is the sheriff's report of 
an incident that occurred involving two of A. F. James Truck Lines 
and a house trailer or automobile trailer that was parked in our plant 
entrance. 

Mr. Appell. Does this refer to an incident whereby the trucks were 
attempting to leave and they w^ere attacked with rocks, and in an at- 
tempt to return to the property that they struck a trailer which was 
being used as the strike headquarters? 

Mr. McCroskey. That is right. 



3096 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. ArPELL. Is this the incident which resulted in a complaint being 
made against the truck drivers, accusing them of an attack upon the 
individuals in the trailer with an intent to kill ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. And was one of the people in the trailer at that time 
Collie Leroy Wilkins? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes. 

Mr. Appell, Was Collie Leroy Wilkins ever an employee of the 
Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company? 

Mr. McCroskey. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Was this the first time, to your knowledge, of partici- 
pation in the activity by Collie Leroy Wilkins? 

Mr. McCroskey. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would you continue, Mr. McCroskey? 

Mr. McCroskey. Pursuing this same subject, I will go following 
the list. 

Mr. Appell. Well, you pursue this, if I have not carried it further. 

Mr. McCroskey. Well, in answer to your last question, there were 
several occasions in which Wilkins was present on our picket line. 

Mr. Weltner. Prior to this incident? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, we will put that copy of the sheriff's report 
concerning the trailer incident in the record at this point. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-G" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Weltner. Would you move on to your next list, please, sir? 

Mr. McCroskey, On Thursday, March 11, around 2:40 a.m., the 
main gas valve was turned off that supplies our plant, and this gas 
meter is located near the road and was also near the plant entrance in 
which the picket line was established. This necessitated contacting the 
utility company and having them to send someone out to turn the meter 
back on. 

Mr, Appell, Was any damage sustained to kilns or other Dickey 
property while this gas was turned off ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Inasmuch as there was only about a 4-hour delay, 
there was not any severe damage. It could have been, if it were not 
handled properly. That was the reason for the necessity of having the 
gas company to turn it back on, 

Mr, Appell, All right, sir. 

Mr, McCroskey, This is a high-pressure system, and a hundred 
pounds of pressure on this line at that meter, and it is rather dangerous 
for someone that don't know what they are doing to handle it. 

On Friday, March 12, our company was able to obtain an injunction 
against these proceedings, these things that had happened, acts of 
violence, blocking of driveways, and multiple pickets. 

Mr. Appell, Did the injunction result in a termination of these acts 
of violence and other acts ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Unfortunately, no. 

Mr. Appell. Would you continue Avith your list ? 

Mr. McCroskey. On Wednesday, March 17, I was advised of an 
explosion in the area of our plant, and upon my arrival at the plant 
area, I investigated and found that an explosive charge had been 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3097 

dropped in gas line, some half a mile from our property. This gas 
valve led to a plant in our area, the Zimmer plant, and it stopped their 
operations temporarily, but did not affect ours. 

We assumed that the effort was toward our gas supply. 

On Friday, March 19, about 4 p.m., three cars, the property of our 
employees, left the plant, and all three of them were shot with shotgun 
blasts.^ The owner of one car was Joe Jones, who was a Negro ; another 
car was Oscar Hinton, who was a Negro ; the third car was Bob New, 
N-e-w, who was a white man. 

All of these cars were shot with apparent shotgun blasts that pitted 
and damaged the paint and, in some instances, broke glasses. 

(Docunients marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-H" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. McCroskey. On Saturday, March 20, there was an explosion 
on the east side of our kiln building which occurred about 10 :30 p.m. 
1 have a report and photograph of the damage. 

Mr. Weltxer. That will be entered in the record at this point. 

(Documents marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. l-I" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. McCroskey. That is true on most of these instances, I have 
the sheriff's report on them. 

On Monday, March 22, there were two explosions. One occurred 
on our property, one occurred on the power company's right-of-w^ay 
property, a short distance from our plant area. 

There is a report and one photograph of this incident. 

(Documents marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-J." See 
p. 3121.) 

Mr. Appell. Was the explosion on the power company right-of- 
way — was this an attempt to destroy the poles which were carrying 
power into your plant ancl to other plants in that area ? 

Mr. McCroskey. We have to assume that it was. It did occur, 
and we do get our source of power from that line. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. McCroskey. On Friday, April the 2d, it w^as reported that ap- 
parent rifle shot was shot from the road toward our building, making 
a small hole through the transite siding of the wall. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-K" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. McCroskey. On Friday, April 9, there was two explosions that 
occurred on our property, just a few seconds apart. One was thrown 
through a window and landed on top of our large continuous kiln, 
doing some damage to the kiln, and some slight damage to the building. 
The other charge was placed in a hack of 8-inch pipe and destroyed 
and damaged quite a number of pieces of the same. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-L" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. McC^RosKEY. On Wednesday, May 26, there was an explosion 
that occurred inside of this large continuous kiln. We assumed that 
this charge was placed on one of the cars that traveled through the 
kiln and did not explode until such time it reached the hotter area, 
wliich was around 300 degrees, before it exploded. 



3098 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



It- did considerable damage to the cars and to the kihi structure it- 
self, as well as the product on the cars. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-M'" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr, McCroskey. On Thursday, June 13, our most severe explosion 
occurred, and we think that this charge was also thrown through a 
window of the building. It went under the kiln, did extensive dam- 
age to the kiln and to the kiln building. 

(Document marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-N" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

(Several photographs attached to various of the sheriff's reports. 
Exhibits 1-A through 1-N, showing damage done at various times 
follow :) 



Photos From James McCroskey Exhibits Nos. 1-A— 1-N 





Photographs showing damage to cars of four Dickey Clay employees as result of shot- 
gun blasts on dates indicated on photos. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3099 

Photos From James McCroskev Exhibits Nos. 1-A—l-N— Continued 




y/Q^ 6S 




S/2,e/^^ 



Photographs showing some of damage done at Dickey Clay plant as result of explosions 
on dates indicated on photos. 

Mr. McCroskey. As a result of this continued violence that had 
been goin^ on for several months, the Dickey Company employed some 
special off-duty deputy sheriffs from our area and used them con- 
tinuously at night for the purpose of security, until they were recently 
released. 

As we mentioned earlier, because of this violence also, we felt it nec- 
essary to enclose our plant property wdth a fence, and we did, com- 
pleting it during the later part of July. 

Mr. Appell. AVhat did it cost Dickey Clay Manufacturing Com- 
pany to erect this fence around its property ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Approximately $10,000. 

Mr. Appell. Did that erection of the fence eliminate the damage to 
Dickey property ? 

Mr. McCroskey. I don't know if it was the comj^letion of the fence 
or whether it was the employment of the deputies, but except for one 
other incident, the violence did stop. 

And that other incident occurred on August 9. And as mentioned 
earlier, this gas meter that supplies our plant is located near the road- 
way that runs in front of our plant, which is a county road, and an 



3100 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

explosive charge was thrown from a ))assing automobile toward the 
meter and apparently struck the fence and dropped to the ground. 
There was some explosion that knocked a hole about 2 feet in diameter 
in the ground. 

The deputies that investigated found three sticks of dynamite that 
had not been exploded and pieces of what they determined were four 
more sticks that were not exploded. How^ many were actually ex- 
ploded, we don't know. 

Mr. ArPELL. Did it appear from the investigation conducted by the 
sheriff's department that a package of sticks of dynamite, when thrown 
apparently for the purpose of clearing the fence, struck the fence, and 
the package broke apart, which resulted in not. all of the sticks 
exploding? 

Mr. McCroskey. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Does tliat com])lete the listing of acts against the 
property or employees of the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company ? 

Mr. McCroskeiy. Yes, it does. 

Mr. Appell. In addition to this, were you advised from time to time 
of threats, telephone threats, against employees or management dur- 
ing this period of labor dispute? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes, as this matter progressed, some of the em- 
ployees that were involved with the Brick and Clay Workers took the 
position that tliey were willing to resign from the local union, and 
requested reinstatement. They did this on two or more occasions. 

On one occasion, I decided that we would reinstate several of these 
employees and advised them to report for work at such-and-such a 
time. Some of this contact was by telephone. These employees had 
phoned me and stated that they would return and, later in the night, 
phoned me and said that they had received numerous telephone calls 
from women, stating to them that if they did return to work that their 
homes would be bombed. 

And as a result of that, none of these employees that had requested 
reemployment or reinstatement returned to work. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. McCroskey, tJie committee's investigation estab- 
lished that, during the time that this Avas going on, James AVliitefield, 
an employee of the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company, was the 
exalted cyclops of the Klavern known as Bessemer Klavern IS^o. 20 and 
known further by a cover name of the Young Men's Social Club. 

Was James Whitefield covered by either the United Steel contract 
or by the contract of the Brick and Clay Workers? 

Mr. McCroskey. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Was James Whitetield employed during this period of 
time ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Did he remain continually employed from the start of 
tlie strike until its termination ? 

Mr. McCroskey. No. 

Mr. Appell. Did he go out or leave his employment in sympathy 
with the strike, even though he was not a member of either of the 
locals ? 

Mr. McCroskey. He told me that he would prefer not to cross the 
picket line. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3101 

Mr. Appell. Is his brother, William Whitefield, also employed by 
the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Was he covered by either the Steelworker contract or 
the Brick and Clay Worker contract? 

Mr. McCroskey. Pie was covered by the Brick and Clay Workers. 

Mr. Appell. What part did William Whitefield play in the activi- 
ties against either employees, nonstriking employees of the plant, or 
the plant of the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company? 

Mr. McCroskey. He was present quite often on the picket line. It 
had been reported on several occasions that he had thrown rocks at 
employees, that he had followed trucks and employees' automobiles 
down the roadways. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever have discussion with those who were lead- 
ing the strike with respect to the acts of violence against nonstriking 
workers or the company plant? 

Mr. McCroskey. I did during the early stages of this work stop- 
page, discussing with both International Brick and Clay Worker rep- 
resentatives, stating — I stating to them that even though they denied 
any connection with these acts of violence that it was my opinion that 
they were still responsible. 

Mr. Appell. Did they take the position that they were responsible, 
or did they deny responsibility of these acts that were taking place? 

Mr. McCroskey. They denied responsibility. 

Mr. Appell. Did they discuss with you who they thought might 
be responsible for these acts ? 

Mr. McCroskey. No. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever have a conversation with any of these 
people as to the role that members of the Ku Klux Klan were playing 
in this act of violence ? 

Mr. McCroskey. No. 

Mr. Appell. Has the W. S. Dickey Company come to terms with 
tlie United Brick and Clay Workers local over its dispute? 

ISIr. McCroskey. Yes. This contract Avas signed on Friday, Febru- 
ary 5, 1966. 

Mr. Appell. What were the terms of settlement as compared to the 
terms available for settlement at the start of the contract? 

Mr. McCroskey. The contract was finally settled on the basis of 
our offer that was made on, possibly in Febiiiary or March of 1965. 
Also that we reinstate 1 of these 16 employees. 

Mr. Appell. l^Hiat four will be reinstated ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Larry Mason, Dale Mason, Norman Davis, and 
Elder White. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of the witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. McCroskey, how many employees were included 
in the designation of the bargaining unit represented by the Brick and 
Clay Workers? 

Mr. McCroskey. Sixteen. 

Mr. Weltner. And how many in the unit represented by the United 
Steelworkers ? 

Mr. McCroskey. Approximately 150. 



3102 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. And how many employees did you have during this 
period of time, all together ? 

Mr. McCroskey. About 190. That's counting the supervisor group, 
office employees, and so on. 

Mr. Weltner. I see. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman, I would like to thank this witness 
for his testimony. You have been very helpful. 

Mr. McCroskey. Thank you. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. McCroskey, the committee does appreciate your 
coming here today and assisting us. And at this point, I Mould like 
to direct into the record those official reports from the sheriff's de- 
partments and other documents which are relative to the incidences 
and acts previously testified to by this witness. 

(All documents available included in James McCroskey Exhibit 
Nos. 1-A through 1-N. ) 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. McCroskey, you are excused. Thank you very 
much. 

Mr. McCroskey. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I woud like to call Mr. Robert N. 
Washington. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you shall 
give in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Washington. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT N. 'WASHINGTON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MICHAEL H. GOTTESMAN 

Mr. Appell. Would you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Washington ? 

Mr. Washington. Robert N. Washington. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Washington. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Would counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Gottesman. Yes, Michael H. Gottesman, G-o-t-t-e-s-m-a-n. 

Mr. Appell. Where do you have offices, Mr. Gottesman ? 

Mr. Gottesman. In Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Washington, are you a]>pearing here today in 
accordance with a subpena served on you on January -3, 1066, by John 
T). Sullivan, an investigator of this committee ? 

Mr. Washington. I am. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Washington, when and wliere were you born ? 

Mr. Washington. Augusts, 1911. 

Mr. Appell. Where, sir ? 

Mr. Washington. Where? 

Mr. Appell. Yes. 

Mr. Washington. Selma, Alabama. That is in Dallas County. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Washington, are you currently president of a local of the United 
Steelworkers of America at the W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing 
Company in TTopewell, Alabama? 

Mr. Washington. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. And how long have you held the office of president? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3103 

Mr. Washington. About 16 years. 

Mr. Appell. Up to November 1964, was the United Steelworkers 
local, of Avhich you are the president, the only local representative of 
employees at the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company? 

Mr. Washington. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Was the United Steelworkers membership available to 
the 16 employees that petitioned the XLRB for a bargaining election 
in behalf of the United Brick and Clay Workers ? 

Mr. Washington. We gave them cards, I gave one Charles Gram- 
mar 16 cards to sign, and he promised to sign those cards and give 
them back to me, that we would get these fellows in our union, but he 
didn't do it. 

Mr. Appell. Did the United Steelworkers participate in the bar- 
gaining election, or was the issue United Brick and Clay or no union? 

Mr. Washington. The Ignited Steelworkers did not participate in 
the election of this group. 

Mr. Appell. Under the terms of the contract between Dickey Clay 
Manufacturing Company and the United Steelworkers, the United 
Steelworkers could not support the strike of the United Brick and 
Clay Workers. Is that t rue, sir ? 

Mr. Washington. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Was this, in fact, known by the people who had called 
a strike against the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company ? 

Mr. Washington. It was known by them. 

Mr, Appell. Therefore, if your employees would have struck, then 
they would not have been available — would not have had available to 
them either strike benefits funds of the United Steelworkers nor would 
they have been eligible for unemployment compensation under State 
1 aw. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Washington. That is correct. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Appell. Therefore, your employees that continued to work con- 
tinued to work, in effect, without choice on their part. 

Mr. Washington. That is correct. 

Mr. Appell. Did employees w^ho were members of your local have 
acts pulled against them by members on the picket line of the Brick 
and Clay Workers ? 

Mr. Washington. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Were you ever involved or were you ever in an auto- 
mobile upon which an act was taken against? 

Mr. Washington. Yes. On Friday, March the 19th, I was riding 
with Oscar Hinton, and the car tliat he was driving was shot at, shot 
upon with apparently a shotgun, at Sparks Gap Road, and of course 
we stopped and we didn't see anyone after the shot was made, but we 
did go to the sheriff's office in Bessemer and report it. 

Mr. Appell. How far from the plant site was this automobile when 
it was fired upon ? 

Mr. Washington. Approximately three blocks. 

Mr. Appell. Did you have discussion with any of the leaders of the 
strike of the Brick and Clay Workers about these acts against your 
employees ? 

Mr. Washington. No. 

Mr. Appell. As president of the local, was there justification for 
these acts against your employees ? 



3104 ACTIVITIES OF KU KL.UX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Washington. We don't think so, 

Mr. Appell. In addition to — in your opinion, were these acts against 
your employees designed to keep tliem from working ? 

Mr. Washington. I think it was. 

Mr. Appell. Did these acts against these employees result in other 
employees giving up their employment with the Dickey Company, out 
of fear or any other reason ? 

Mr. Washington. We had no one in our union to give up employ- 
ment. There was one man, Tom Cotton, he asked for a transfer to an- 
other department that was in the north Birmingham area, but no one 
gave up employment because of the acts. 

Mr. Appell. Did you possess any knowledge that among the strikers 
were individuals who held membership in the Unitwi Klans of 
America, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Washington. I do not know of anyone that was in the United 
Klans, that were a Klansman. Personally, I don't know of any of 
them being Klansmen as such. 

Mr. Appell. As president of the local, did you believe that any of 
these acts grew out of activities on the part of members of the Ku 
Klux Klan? 

Mr. Washington. Speaking personally, some of our members of 
our union said they saw some of them at midnight around the picket 
line, but I did not see any of them. 

Mr. Appell, And who were some of those that were observed around 
the picket that your members reported to you ? 

Mr. Washington. They didn't say that anyone individually by 
name, because they were all dressed in their regalias. 

Mr. Weltner. You mean to say that Klansmen in robes and masks 
were on the picket line, according to what was told you ? 

Mr. Washington. That was reported to me. I did not see them, 

Mr. Weltner. And during what period of time would that be? 

Mr. Washington. That was the fellows that worked the midnight 
shift said they saw them up there on the picket line, near the trailer 
that they had on the picket line. 

Mr. Weltner. And this strike lasted for about a year. And refer- 
ring to the acts of violence, they started on February the 8th and con- 
tinued through August the 9th of last year, and during that 6-month 
period, what portion of time was it that, as reported to you, Klansmen 
in regalia were attending the strike headquarters in the trailer? 

Mr. Washington. Oh, that was in about April, I believe it was, 

Mr. Weltner. And how many times Avas it reported to you that 
some of your members liad observed Klansmen in their regalia ? 

Mr. Washington. Only twice. 

Mr. Weltner. Two times. 

Mr. Washington. Tliat is right. 

Mr. Weltner. Were those two times close together, or were they 
spread apart? 

Mr. Washington. I think it was around about a week or two apart 
that the reports came to me. I don't know the date specifically. 

Mr. Weltner. All right. 

Mr. Appell. In addition to the shotgun blasts fired into automo- 
biles, did your members report to you receipt of anonymous telephone 
calls, threatening them with respect to continued employment? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3105 

Mr. Washington. None of our members reported to me anonymous 
telephone calls with respect to their going back to work. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever receive any telephone calls ? 

Mr. "Washington. I received only one. I didn't attach too much 
importance to it, because I had received several before that. 

Mr. Appell. What was the content of this call that you received ? 

Mr. Washington. The only thing the man said was, and I assume 
he handed the telephone to another person, because he said, "Here he 
is." He said, '*You had better not cross the picket line," and that was 
all. 

Mr. Appell. Do you possess any knowledge of other acts, other 
than those that were described by Mr. McCroskey, involving members 
of your union ? 

Mr. Washington. No. I have the list of acts here. The ones that 
he stated are the same ones that I know of. As far as I am concerned, 
I have only seen the results of the dynamite or explosive. But as far 
as seeing anyone doing it, I didn't see them. 

Mr. Appell. Has any of your members made any positive identifica- 
tion against anyone who did carry out an act against them ? 

Mr. Washington. Only on directly on the picket line, there were 
rock-throwing. That was directly on the picket line. 

Mr. Appell. And to your knowledge, to the information you received 
from your employees, were any of these rocks and things thrown by 
people not striking employees of the Dickey Clay Manufacturing 
Company ? 

Mr. Washington. No. 

Mr. Appell. Were you familiar with the presence on the picket line 
of Collie Leroy Wilkins? 

Mr. Washington. No. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
of Mr. Washington. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Washington, what percentage of your member- 
ship in the local union of the SWU is Negro ? 

Mr. Washington. Oh, it is about, close to about 90 percent. 

Mr. Weltner. Are there any Negro members of the United Brick 
and Clay Workers Union ? 

Mr. Washington. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Washington, we wish to thank you for assist- 
ing us today. You may be excused. 

Mr. Washington. All right. 

Mr. Weltner. We Avill take about a 3-minute recess. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken. Present at time of recess 
and when hearing resumed : Representatives Weltner and Buchanan.) 

Mr. Weltner. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. James R. AVliitefield. 

James R.Whitefield? 

Mr. Chamlers. Mr. Whitefield, come up, please. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will 
give in this hearing will be tlie truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. James Whitefield. I do. 



3106 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES R. WHITEFIELD, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. AVill you state you full name for the record ? 

Mr. James Whitefield. James R. AVhitefield. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. James Whitefield. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Would counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr, Chamlers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, Room 
501, First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, are you appearing here today in ac- 
cordance with a subpena served upon you on October 26, 1965, 2 
miles south of the McCalla Post Office on old Tuscaloosa Highway, 
McCalla, Alabama? 

Mr. James Whitefield. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born, Mr. Whitefield ? 

Mr. James Whitefield. I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to 
incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by the 
amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, the subpena served upon you contained 
an attachment, which was made a part of the subpena. Under the 
conditions of the subpena, you were ordered to bring with you and to 
produce documents called for in two paragraphs. Paragraph 1 reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as 
the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated 
organizations, namley, the Alabama Rescue Service and Bessemer Klavern #20, 
Realm of Alabama, in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you 
or available to you as present or former Exalted Cyclops, Bessemer Klavern #20, 
Realm of Alabama of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1. Mr. White- 
field, I ask you to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to this 
committee any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a 
subpena dated on October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel 
that to do so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as 
guaranteed to me by the amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution 
of the United States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965. 
for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the considera- 
tion of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within the 
scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted 
January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, may we stipulate that the witness has 
been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement and that 
he is familiar with the contents ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3107 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. All right, cand that the directions of the subpena to 
produce the documents' called for are made to the witness in the official 
representative capacity described in the subpena ? 

Mr. Chalmers. I stipulate. 

Mr. "Weltxer. Mr. Whitefield, the committee does not accept your 
reasons for refusing to produce these docmnents, and accordingly, as 
chairman of the subcommittee, I order and direct you to produce those 
documents at tliis time. 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectively decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltxer. Mr. Whitefield, I offer you an opportunity, if you 
so desire at this point, to present to the committee any reason whereby 
you might be unable to comply with the mandate of this subpena. 

Hearing no response, Mr. Appell, proceed to the next paragraph. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wliitefield, paragraph 2 called upon you to pro- 
duce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in yonr pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or former Exalted Cyclops. Bessemer Klavern # 20, Realm of Alabama 
of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the 
"Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be main- 
tained by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your 
possession, custody or control. 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir 

Mr. Appell. In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 
2, I ask you to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Weltxer. Do we have the same stipulations on this paragraph ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltxer. Mr. Whitefield, I order and direct that you produce 
the documents. 

Mr. Ja:mes Whitefield. Sir. I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairaian, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, on March 17, 1965, were you the exalted 
Cyclops of Bessemer Klavern No. 20? 

Mr. Ja3ies Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question for the reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend 
to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
the amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, I hand you a copy of a signature card 
filed witli tlie Bessemer l)ranch of the First National Bank of Birming- 
ham, Birmingham, Alabama, whicli is a signature card filed in connec- 
tion Avith the ''Young Mens Social Club," P.O. Box 3093, Hueytown, 
.Vlabama. 

In putting it to you as a fact that this is an account of Bessemer 
Klavern No. 20, I hand you this document, and ask you if it is your 
signature shown on the card as president? 



3108 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Myrtie Stephens Exhibit No. 
2-C." See p. 3083.) 

Mr. Appell. I ask you if you knew Eobert M. Creel to be Grand 
Dragon; Eugene Thomas to be the Klaliff or vice president; Melvin 
Sexton to be treasurer; and James R. Whitefield, yourself, to be the 
kligrapp or secretary of the Realm of Alabama, United Klans of 
America ? 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a document entitled "Resolution of Lodge, 
Association, or Other Like Organization Designating Depository,'' 
executed on the 11th day of March 1965, signed "James R. Whitefield, 
Secretary,'' which designates the bank [Birmingham Trust National 
Bank] as the depository and designates Robert M. Creel, Grand 
Dragon, Melvin Sexton, klabee, to be the new signers to that account. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Appell. In handing you the document, I ask you if that is 
your signature on that document? 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "James Whitefield Exhibit No, 1" follows:) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3109 

James VVhitefiei.d Exhibit No. 1 
RESOLUTION OF LODGE, ASSOCIATION, or OTHER LIKE ORGANIZATION DESIGNATING DEPOSITORY 

r«..nty Z- ff^/C.SclJ State A' t^'.T' 

/! //_JA^^.Ji^ , the Secretary nf ■»4«>-«< ^ <^ ^^ -» i ■ j /J S ' • r " <M . 
, do hereby certify that at a meeting 







of of the 

duly held on the . day of IT^^A/ ^/ . ^9^, at ' ? ^^7 

whereat was present a quorum, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted, all as appear on 
the minutes of that meeting: 

"RESOLVED: That Birmingham Trust Naf.ional Bank, located at Birmingham, Alabama, is here- 
by designated as a depository of this ^^^W^^^>1 '^^^^^y^ *"** that a^checking or deposit 

account be opened and maintained in the name of this "^^^K^^^C^ Z^--*^^-*^-^ — with said 

depository and that, as and when, in the opinion of its Secretary the needs of this i'f^jf^i^y.c i^-H^-^Y-^ 
require it, a safe deposit box be rented from said depository; 

"FURTHER RESOLVED: That all checks, drafts or other orders for the payment of money from 

said account shall be signed by the ■y2i'^^*^-<:-^^^:W /cS-^-,^<g*-'^''-<— 

_^ , and all notes of this 

shall be signed by thp ^^/CtK-^^^/ /''^^^-<!-tg«^---^V ^nd the right to enter the safe deposit box shall be 
i n y-^'./l-fi x^<^ ^(LC^%,A.-t^ ^ g„j gny ong of such officers is authorised to endorse aU notes, 

drafts, checks, bills, certificates of deposit or other instrument, owned or held by this-^^i^iiSciL 

for deposit in said account; /^^-*-<»~^~<^ 

"FURTHER RESOLVED: That the depository is hereby directed to accept* and pay, without 
further inquiry, any draft, or check against said account, bearing the signature or signatures of such 
officers as so required, even though drawn or endorsed to the order of any officer signing the same or 
tendered by such officer for cashing, or in payment of the individual obligation of such officer, or for 
deposit to his personal account, and said Bank shall not be required, or be under any obligation to 
inquire as to the circumstances of the issuance, or use of any instrument signed in accordance with the 
foregoing resolution, or the application, or disposition of such instrument, or the proceeds thereof; 

"FURTHER RESOLVED: That the Secretary shall certify to said Bank the names of the 

presently duly elected and qualified officers of this i^^xt-^^^j^c^ ^^^^^'^~'~'^-^' — and shall from 

time to time hereafter, as changes in the personnel of said officers are made, immediately certify such 
changes to the Bank, and said Bank shall be fully protected in relying on such certifications of the 
Secretary and shall be indemnified and saved harmless from any claims, demands, expenses, loss or 
damage resulting from, or growing out of, honoring the signature of any officer so certified, or re- 
fusing to honor any signature not so certified; 

"FURTHER RESOLVED: That the foregoing resoultions shall remain in full force and effect 
until written notice of their amendment or recission shall have been received by said Bank, and that 
receipt of such notice shall not affect any action taken by the Bank prior thereto; and 

"FURTHER RESOLVED: That the Secretary be, and he hereby is, authorized and directed to 
certify to said Birmingham Trust National Bank the foregoing resolutions and that the provisions 
thereof are in conformity with ^ ^ ■•" 

I further certify that the ^ff C^^^^^^^ ^*-^ — ^ ' is the body of the_ 

■ ■' ■ " ' "ionsand pjjwMs therein gr 



authorized to adopt such resolutions and that the resolutionsand pjjwMs therein granted conform to 

the rules, by-laws, constitution and articles of this '^^•^*'^"*-^*r ^'^^^^'<^*-'^ now in force and 

effect. 

I further certify that /he following are the names and official signatures of the present officers 

of this ^<> < >^^7^C >r . f^^^^-'^-'*-^ . 

Name Title 

^^^^, ^u.^ ^..^'jA^ — 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the seal of this 
.this .^ <^ day of - ^fA^^e-f^-JlC^ , x^AX^ 



^^^..v..^ >ff ^>€^^4^^^-^ 



^BeewUr y 



Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny (he fact, that tlie Eugene Tliomas listed on this account as the 
vice president is the man who was involved, along wath Collie Leroy 
Wilkins and W. O. Eaton, in the Viola Liuzzo murder? 

Mr. James Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 



3110 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you iis a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that Collie Leroy ^^'ilkins, p]ut!:ene Thomas, and "\V. O. 
Eaton were members of Bessemer Klavern No. 20, known as the 
Young Men's Social Club, of which you were the exalted cyclops? 

Mr. James Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, do you know Mr. James INIcCroskey, 
who has testified this morning? 

Mr. James Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know Mr. Robert N. Washington, who testified 
immediately prior to yourself? 

Mr. James Wiiitefield, Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, as the exalted cyclops of Bessemer 
Klavern No. 20, did you order members of that Klavern to participate 
in acts of violence against Dickey Clay Pipe Company or its striking 
employees ? 

Mr. James Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the groimds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As the exalted cyclops, did you order Donald Smither- 
man, Collie Leroy Wilkins, W. O. Eaton, Eugene Thomas, to partici- 
pate in acts of violence against the Dickey Clay Pipe Company or its 
striking employees ? 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the gromids previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. What purpose was there in petitioning the NLRB for 
a bargaining election on behalf of the United Brick and Clay 
Workers ? 

Mr. James Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was the strike which was called designed to economi- 
cally affect the employees of Dickey Clay Pipe Company who were 
predominantly Negro? 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer my questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertam to James 
R. Whitefield. 

James R. Whitefield was born on November 27, 1936, at Texarkana, 
Arkansas. 

Committee investigation establishes him to be the exalted cyclops of 
Bessemer Klavern No. 20, which is known as the Young Men's Social 
Club, Box 3093, Huey town, Alabama. 

This Klavern has been in existence since 1956 and has been affili- 
ated with the U.S. Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Incorporated ; 
the Alabama Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Incorporated ; and, since 
1962, with the United Klans of America. 

Authorized signatures on the bank account maintained at the Bes- 
semer branch of the First National Bank of Birmingham have been : 
On July 28, 1956, L. J. Praytor, R. R. Fields, and George Houston 
(Myrtie Stephens Exhibit No. 2-A, p. 3082). 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



3111 



November 9, 1960, Henry G. McDaniel, Myrtie E[ii^ene] Stephens, 
Oscar T. Syx (Myrtie Stephens Exhibit No. 2-B, p. 3082). 

The subsequent card, although undated, Henry G. McDaniel, 
M[yrtie] Eugene Stephens, E. A. Harrell, H-a-r-r-e-1-1; the follow- 
ing imdated card, Leonard L. Goff, C. O. McCullough or McCullaugh, 
and Bob Harrell. 

(Documents marked ''James Whitefield Exhibits Nos. 2-A and 
2-B," respectively, follow :) 

James Whitefield Exhibit No. 2-A 



FORM 45.B-1.M-3.59-97.C BESSEMER BRANCH 

THE First National bank of Birmingham, Birmingham, ala. 



The haodling by ihi. office of check-., ilrafi. 
the revcr»e »ido hwcof. and the depositor hercbv «ck 
»nd agrcM to bo bound thereby. 


and other 
.owleti^c. 


iii-in^will be subject to the toriditionj shown on 
rcceipV of notice of said conditions and conaents 


Title ^Acr^y,..-^,! ^' - ' ^^ 


. . "^ • 


f r \ '^<-.- ,(_y Incorporated 


Home Office AddrLs 




' i^r. /"-;■/ J'^/.'-j'^^"^ 


Local Address . .^ // 




\ ■ <^Date 



SIGNATURES/ 



COUNTERSIGNATURES 



21. 



1/ 



12 



_1_^' 
\__/. 



ikiJ 



-fy/. -"Pox.^-^ 



SJ}.:^ 



Trelis. \ 



' ■ The sienatui lo^this side of, this card, are the duly authorized sit^natures of 
this Corporation H lecosuaize in Dayraent of funds and the transaction of other 
business for our ulluuhu % \ ^ .• , . 

(^liecks. drafts, acccDtunces and not^s must bear ^^'^-^ ^of the within'mentioned signatures. 



/ 



Pres.-Secty. 



James Whitefield Exhibit No. 2-B 



FORM 4S-Q-I-M-3.37-53.A BESSEMER BRANCH ' 

THE FIRST National bank of birmingham.birmingham. ala. 



The haudliiig by this office of checks, dr.-ift« and other 
the reverse side hereof, and tljo depositor hereby ocknowlcdi^cs 
and agrees to ba bound thereby./ ^^ , j 



IS will ho subject to the 
ipt of notice of said cot 



anditions shown 



Title M ■■ .- 
Home QJl 
Local Address 



■-{!rCx<t„X' 



^lEi^jSZTfejfel 



m 






Date 



SIGNATURES 



'^^lArK ^^-^ ■•< 



Pres. 



V. Pres. 



COUNTERSIGNATURES 



(L(L 



-^-^ 



Secty. 



-^/£ 



Trcas. 



The sinnaturcs appearing on this side of this cnril. are the duly authorized siiniaturcs^ of 



this Corporation which yoiTwril recoKiiricln Vayiricnt'of funds and tlie transaction of other 
uces and notes must lignr ^\ J ^ ff the within mentioned signatures. 



business for our account 
Checks, drafts, acccu 



3112 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. And the current signature card at the time of the com- 
mittee subpena duces tecum, James K. Whitefield, Cecil E. Davenport, 
Oscar T. Syx (Myrtie Stephens Exhibit No. 2-C, p. 3083). 

The Grand Dragon, Robert M. Creel, as well as his predecessor, Hu- 
bert A. Page, both held membership in this Klavern. The member- 
ship also included W. O. Eaton, Collie Leroy Wilkins, and Eugene 
Thomas, who were involved in the Liuzzo murder, 

Eugene Thomas was Grand Klaliff or vice president of the Realm 
of Alabama, and an authorized signatory on an account maintained by 
the realm in the name of the United Klans of America, which account 
was maintained at the Birmingham Trust National Bank. 

The realm account w^as opened on October 28, 1964, with the author- 
ized signatures of Robert M. Creel and Cecil E. Davenport, These 
signatures were changed in 1965 to Robert M. Creel, president; Eugene 
Thomas, vice president; Melvin Sexton, treasurer; and James R. 
Whitefield, secretary. 

(Documents marked "James Wliitefield Exhibits Nos. 3-A and 3-B," 
respectively, appear on p. 3113.") 

Mr, Appell. On March 11, 1965, James R, Whitefield, as secretary, 
filed with the bank a certificate designating the Birmingham Trust 
National Bank as a depository for the United Klans. 

In this document, Whitefield certified that at a meeting held on 
January 4, 1965, that Robert M. Creel, Grand Dragon, and Melvin 
Sexton, klabee, Avere designated signatories to the account. 

In 1965, James R. Whitefield, together with his brother, William 
Whitefield, was among the leaders in the forming within the W, S. 
Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company, Local 827 of the United Brick 
and Clay Workers. 

This group voted to call a strike against the Dickey Company in 
February 1965. During the strike, beginning on February 18, 1965, 
close to 25 acts of violence have been carried out against the buildings 
and property of the Dickey Company or against nonstriking employees 
who are members of the United Steel workers, Local No. 1631. 

James R. Whitefield, the exalted cyclops of the Klavern, has utilized 
members of his Klavern to carry out these acts of violence and has 
used them for picket activities, even though they are not employees 
in the Dickey Company, 

Committee investigation established that in addition to James R. 
Whitefield and liis brother, William Whitefield, both striking em- 
ployees who are Klansmen, the following nonstriking Klansmen have 
engaged in strike activities: Collie Iveroy Wilkins, W, O, Eaton, 
Eugene Thomas, Calvin Green, Jolmnie Lee Burnette, Donald 
Smitherman. Other unknown members of the Bessemer Klavern have 
been likewise used in this activity. 

Bessemer Klavern has a membership of about 65 violence-prone mem- 
bers. Members are heavily armed when attending Klavem meetings, 
and this resulted in Grand Dragon Creel announcing at a meeting in 
April 1964 that, thereafter, Klansmen would not be allowed to bring 
firearms into the meetings. He told the majority of the members 
who objected that the reason beliind his announcement related to a 
possible raid by the FBI. He stated that it would not appear too 
well if the FBI collected sa wed-oft' shotguns, pistols, and chains. How- 
ever, in spite of the announcement, members continued to come to the 
Klavern meetings heavily armed. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3113 

James Whitefield Exhibit No. 3-A 



TRADE NAME- 



:OMMERCtAL ACCOUNT OF 



-^^//ec/ /r/f^Ars ^/^/Afc', 



/(^'^ 



BESSEMER OFFICE 



BIRMINGHAM TRUST NATIONAL BANK 

WILL RECOr.MlZE ONLY THE AUTHORHEO SIGNATURES BELOW. IN THE PAYMENT OF FUNDS OR THE 
TRANSACTION OF ANY OTHER BUSINESS RELATING TO THE ACCOUNT OF THE UNDERSIGNED DEPOSITOR. 
WHO HEREBY AGREES WITH SAID BANK THAT THE CONDITIONS PRINTED ON THE BACK OF THIS CARD 
SHALL APPLY TO TRANSACTIONS RELATING TO THE ACCOUNT. 

YOU ARE HEREBY AUTHORIZED TO MAIL STATEMENT OF THIS ACCOUNT AS RENDERED TO THE ADDRESS 
AS SHOWN. 



• paynitjjt of turx 



. of the within siRnatureH. 



^,46^ 



S^. ^..u^^ 



3. ^g<t/ ,^ f^ f - / <-<,? ^^^^ 



^ 



Address P* 0> Box3093, Hueytown ,y^ Pho„, l|91-3636 



Signature of Owner 
authorliinn the above 



PATE OPENED lQ-28 '-614 FIBIT DFPnmT ■ 126»fl0 DEPOaiT RKCEIVtP lY aklng 



James Whitefield Exhibit No. 3-B 



ICORPOKATION 



BESSEMER OFFICE 



UNITED CLANS 01? AMERICA 



XA 



BIRMINGHAM TRUST NATIONAL BANK 

WILL RECOGNIZE ONLY THE AUTHORIZED SIGNATURES BELOW. IN THE PAYMENT OF FUNDS OR THE 

TRANSACTION OF ANY OTHER BUSINESS RELATING TO THE ACCOUNT OF THE UNDERSIGNED DEPOSITOR. 

WHO HEREBY AGREES WITH SAID BANK THAT THE CONDITIONS PRINTED ON THE BACK OF THIS CARD 

SHALL APPLY TO TRANSACTIONS RELATING TO THE ACCOUNT. 

SEE REVERSE SIDE FOR TERMS OF COLLECTION AGREEMENV UNDER WHICH THIS BANK ACCEPTS ITEMS 

FROM YOU FOR DEPOSIT. 

YOU ARE HERE>r>U^ORIZED TO MAIL STATEMENT OF THIS ACCOUNT AS RENDERED TO THE ADDRESS 

AS SHOWN. 




q^/'3C3^ 



INSTRUCTIONS AS TO SIGNATURE O K'D BY 



DATE OPENED 



Q^k- t:?^ PI RST DEPOSIT $ '^fc S^ DEPOSIT RECEIVED BY c\h^' 



FORM B-7 



James R. Whitefield and his brother William traveled to Jackson- 
ville, Florida, for the purpose of protecting UKA officers and leaders 
who planned a rally in Jacksonville, Florida, in November 1964 and 
who expected trouble from the United Florida Ku Klux Klan 
organization. 



3114 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



The Alabama Klansmen, included members of the Imperial Klo- 
kann Committee — Robert Thomas, Ralph Roton — as well as Wilkins, 
Thomas, and Eaton. While in Florida, they discussed the elimination 
of William Rosecrans, the United Florida Ku Klux Klan member 
who bombed the Godfrey residence in Jacksonville and who confessed, 
implicating other members of the United Florida Klan in this action. 

This infonnation, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. AVhitefield 
possesses additional information which is both pertinent and relevant 
to this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting 
remecli.al legislation. 

Mr. Weltner, Mr. Whitefield, you have the opportunity at this 
point to reply to any portion of the statement of the investigator. 
You may, if you desire, confirm or challenge the accuracy of any part 
of it or offer any additional matter that the committee deems relevant. 
The Chair gives you that opportunity at this point. 

Hearing no response, you .are advised that, absent your rebuttal or 
any other facts which come to the committee, we will rely upon the 
accuracy of this investigation. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, I hand you a copy of a registration 
card at the Capri Motel, Jacksonville, Florida, dated November 21, 
1964, indicating that Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Whitefield were assigned 
Room 335. I hand you this document, .and put it to you as a fact, 
and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that you did register at the 
Capri Motel in Jacksonville, Florida, as indicated on that registration 
form. 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "James Whitefield Exhibit No. 4" follows:) 



James Whitefield Exhibit No. 4 



N9 12600 



We/come 

CapriMotel 



mutt Im <kpe«ll«d 
in riw offic* 
soft — otfMrwiM 
w* or* not 
One Of The South's Largest and Finest Moteb r»$pen»ibl« for 






^^<j^ 






^^UL^7^<^^^^ 



M'chkk < 



/9/^^ 



X r/<^ ' ^oii.'K^ OJa 



CHKK OUT TIME— 12:00 NOON 



for flf B*$t In food 

CAPRI MOTEL RESTAURANT 



/(J^»< 


yf / arJAJ 


DAYli/cCUPlEO 


SUN. 






MON. 






Tun. 






WD. 






THUN. 






FRI. 






SAT. 







ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



3115 



Mr. Appell. ]Mr. Whitefield, Avere members of the United Klans of 
America that traveled to Jacksonville, Florida, along with yourself, 
lieavily armed with rifles, pistols, and even hand grenades ? 

Mr. James Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, a report of the Jefferson Comity 
sheriff's department dated March 26, 1965, states that Randle Strozier, 
S-t-r-o-z-i-e-r, an employee of the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Com- 
pany, filed a complaint against Harry Findley, F-i-n-d-1-e-y, and Jo- 
seph Higginbotham, because they had surveilled him from the plant 
to his home. 

The report states that upon arrival of law enforcement officers 
the vehicle was searched and that charges were placed against Harry 
Findley for violating the Uniform Firearms Act. 

Do you possess knowledge of this event? 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "James Whitefield Exhibit No. 5" follows:) 



James Whitefield Exhibit No. 5 



^if-c^o3-^C<^^ 



MISCELLANEOUS mClOENl REPORT 
















-JLA-^M 






^<J X1^ a^^Sc'a. ^<LiA^ a/ Jlfi^^t^ 



ToG^ .:J } £l^ 



Mr. Appell. Were Harry Findley and Joseph Higginbotham mem- 
bers of Bessemer Klavern No. 20 ? 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I i-espectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of this witness. 



3116 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Whitefield, wliat interest did the Bessemer 
Klavern No. 20 of the United Klans of America liave in the labor 
dispute between the Dickey Clay Pipe Manufacturing Company and 
Local 827 of the United Brick and Clay Workers? 

Mr. James Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, were any members of the Bessemer Klavern 
No. 20 involved in the picketing activities or any other activities con- 
ducted by the striking workers at the Dickey Clay Pipe Company? 

Mr. James AVhitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated, 

Mr. Weltner. Did you use your position as exalted cyclops of the 
Klavern to recruit members of the Klavern to participate in strike 
activities? 

Mr. James Wiiiit.field. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Buchanan ? 

Mr. Buchanan. I don't think so. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness will be excused. 

The subcommittee will now stand in recess until 2 p.uL this 
afternoon. 

The meeting is adjourned. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Weltner and Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon, at 11 :45 a.m., Monday, February 7, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— MONDAY, FEBRUARY 7, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2:35 p.m., Hon. Charles L. Welt- 
ner, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Weltner and 
Buchanan . ) 

Mr. Weltner. The committee will come to order. 

The Chair will note that the meeting is beginning shortly after 2 :30 
rather than 2 o'clock, because of the intervention of a rollcall vote 
requiring attendance of the members on the floor. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Appell. 

Mr.AppELL. William P. Whitefield. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will 
give in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. William Whitefield. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM P. WHITEFIELD, JE., ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr. Whitefield. 
Mr. William Whitefield. William P. Whitefield, Jr. 
Mr. Appell. You are represented by counsel ? 
Mr. William Whitefield. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would counsel identify himself for the record? 
Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; Lester V. Chalmers, Jr.j attorney at law, 
Room 501, First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3117 

Mr. Appell, might I find out the date of this subpena? Not the 
date of service, but the date of issuance? 

Mr. Appell. 27 October. 

Mr. Whitefield, are you appearing before the committee today in 
accordance with a subpena served upon you on November 1, 1965, at 
618 North 15th Street, Bessemer, Alabama, by a deputy United States 
marshal ? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Yes, sir, I am. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefipld, when and where were you born ? 

Mr. AViLLiAM Whitefield. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question for the reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend 
to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
amendment 5, 1, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America — 5, 1, 4, and 14. of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, are you acquainted with Mr. James 
McCroskey , who was the first witness this morning ? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer 
that question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Are you acquainted with Robert "N. Washington, pres- 
ident of the Local 1631 of the United Steelworkers ? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. On March 10, 1965, in the course of a strike against 
the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company, were you in a trailer 
being used for strike headquarters with James W. Bullock, Leroy 
Wilkins, and Larry Mason ? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. A\niitefield, as a result of the trailer being struck, 
did you and others bring a complaint against the driver of the trailer 
truck, charging him with assault with the intent to kill? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, Collie Leroy Wilkins testified in the 
preliminary hearing in that matter and, in the course of direct exam- 
ination, he testified that, and I will quote from his testimony: 

Q. Were you inside the trailer, or where were you? 

A. Yes, sir, I was inside the trailer. 

Q. What were you doing inside tlie trailer? 

A. Sitting down playing a game of cards. 

Q. Who all was inside the trailer? 

A. Bill Whitefield and J. W. Bullock. 

Is Collie Leroy Wilkins' testimony, as given in that pretrial exam- 
ination, truthful? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, 1 respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Docmnent marked "William Whitefield Exhibit No. 1'" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, I i)ut it to you as a fact, and ask you 
to affirm or deny the fact, that at the time of the strike action you 
were a member of Bessemer Klavern Number 20 of the United Klans 
of America. 



3118 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, did you know an employee of the 
Dickey Company, Hughie Maxwell Bloodsworth? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In connection with an injunction brought against the 
union and its members with respect to the picketing and the violence 
at the plant, Hughie Maxwell Bloodsworth gave a statement to the 
effect that he left the company plant on March 8, was followed by a 
white 1960 Ford, accompanied by three men and a woman, and that 
he was told that he should not return to work, and in. the course of 
stopping his car and talking to him, one of the men in the 1960 white 
Ford noticed that he had some shotgun shells lying on the floor. 

They remarked to him that, "I see you've got a shotgun. That 
don't worry me. I've got a gun, too." 

Then Mr. Bloodsworth said he pulled back the left side of his 
jacket — 

and I could see a revolver in a shoulder holster. I could see the handle and 
the cylinder. The handle appeared to be brown wood. There was a ring at the 
butt of the handle, like those on some policemen's and MP's pistols, to tie a 
string or a lanyard to. * * * 

Wlio were the occupants of the 1960 white Ford that followed Mr. 
Bloodsworth, Mr. Whitefield? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer 
that question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, do you know Wallace A. Swanson, an 
employee of the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company? 

Mr. William Whitefield. I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you possess knowledge of whether or not persons 
supporting the strike action of the United Brick and Clay Workers 
did, in fact, fire shotguns into the vehicles of nonstriking workers? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer 
that question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In a sworn statement, signed statement, Mr. Swanson 
related a story that he heard a shotgun go off and looked in the direc- 
tion of where the shotgun blast came from and stated in his signed 
statement as follows : 

I saw a man in this direction whom I recognized as Jackie C. Gamble 
[G-a-m-b-1-e] an inspector who is on strike against W. S. Dickey. When 
I first saw him, he was lowering a firearm from the firing position. As he was 
lowering it, it was pointed in a northwesterly direction, over across the Road 
and in the vicinity of the employees' cars which were still passing. Gamble 
was slightly crouched over and was hidden from direct view from the portion 
of Sparks Gap Road that the employees' cars were passing by on, by some fallen 
trees and underbrush. From the point I was, however, it so hapi>ened that I 
could see him clearly. I observed Gamble there for approximately 10 to 20 
seconds. He then cut back into the woods, retracing part of his route, and 
then circled around further east to get back to Sparks Gap Road. He appeared 
to be still carrying the firearm. I never did lose sight of Gamble as he circled 
through the woods. The point he came out of the woods was about 100 feet 
further east than the picket trailer. At that time, Smitherman and "Whitefield 
got into Whitefield's car, a 1960 white Ford, and drove down the road to the 
point where Gamble was just coming out of the woods and picked him up. 
They then drove east down Sparks Gap-Hopewell Road. 

Is this story factual ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3119 

Mr. William Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer 
that question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know an employee, William Palmer of the 
W. S. Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company ? 

Mr. William Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Palmer in a signed statement said that on March 9, 
1965, he was working at the plant, and three pickets named W. P. 
Wiiitefield, Jr., Charles Grammer, and Jimmy Wiiitefield, threw rocks 
at him. 

Is his statement truthful ? 

Mr. William Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "William Wiiitefield Exhibit No. 2" and re- 
tained in committee files. ) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, Mr. McCroskey testified that one of 
his employees went out on an errand in a 1959 station wagon, and was 
stopped by a roadblock. Was a car owned by you and driven by 
you involved in the roadblock against the company station wagon? 

Mr. William Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The sheriif 's report says : 

59 Chev. station wagon belonging to Dickey Clay driven by Elmer Lee Skin- 
ner * * * left plant to pick up parts. On way back near plant — 60 white Ford, 
IB308.34, driven by Wm. P. Whitefield WM & 2 other men blocked road & broke 
window in station wagon — 58 Chev. IB10432 driven by James Howell WM stopped 
behind station wagon — Negro driver was scared & trying to get away backed into 
James Howell's car & bent grill & bumper. 

Who were the other occupants of the car which you were driving? 

Mr. William Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 
1-F" appears on p. 3120.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, on March 22, 1965, two bombings oc- 
curred at the Dickey plant. A report of the sheriff's department 
reads that : 

After the two bombings, [P. L.] Misso [M-i-s-s-o] & I [H. M. Johnson, Besse- 
mer sheriff's office] stopped a '62 Chevrolet in the area of Dickey Clay with two 
WM's [white males] in it. (1) Raymond C. Myers, the driver & (2) Collie L. 
Wilkins, 4005 10th Way, Fairfield * - *. 

Did these two participate in any way with those bombings, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. William Wiiitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 
l-J" appears on p. 3121.) 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 4- 



3120 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-F 



CONTINUATION SHEET (FIELD) JiffERSOK COUHn SHERIFF'S OEPARTHEKT 



.i^-OL 



1^ ^.^^. p„.„,..,..,..„„„.. x^^'ii^g.ui: 















^-C few^ ^ V ^ ^^ -^ ; ^ r'Xc. . / A" /.-■ ^.. ? -i- /^. v>~. A 



,Qt^^^^.// ^^-^^^ /^, /^^^^^^/ AV^ . / frC/^^-,. -y"'^' ^ / - 



-./r/-/A^^^- 



Mr. iVppELL. The report further states that at 11 : 45 p.m. they 
stopped and checked a green '58 Chevrolet, I.B.-37863, with two 
passengers in it, one W. P. Whitefield, Jr., and the other Charles 
Grammer. 

Did you participate in either of the bombings at the Dickey Clay 
plant that night ? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Whitefield, was your brother the exalted cyclops 
of the Kla veni at the time of the Dickey Clay strike ? 

Mr. William WnirEFiELD. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know the composition of the klokann commit- 
tee appointed by Bessemer Klavern No. 20 '\ 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, 1 respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based \\\)0\\ the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Were any of the acts of violence taken against the 
Dickey Clay Pipe Company or personnel employed by the Dickey 
Clay Pipe "Company, or Clay Manufacturing Company, rather, by 
members of tlie Bessemer Klavern No. 20 klokann committee? 

Mr. WiLLiA3i Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you on November 21, 1964, accompany your broth- 
er and other Klansmen from the Alabama area to Jacksonville, 
Florida? 

Mr. William Whitefield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you a registration, copy of a registration card, 
Capri Motel, Jacksonville, Florida, signed Bill Whitefield, dated No- 
vember 21, 1904, whicli reflects that Bill Whitefield was assigned Room 
No. 166. 



OC W T IK UOW WI » I CW (FIELD1 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3121 

James McCroskev Exhibit No. 1-J 






a^j!.. ^-^^ A///- — o-^^-<^j 



:^. 2^ £y -71^ e£i/^yy 




CONTINUATIOH WEET (FIELOt 



/Ylna 2 2- ^S- J/: 2^-/^. 



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h'L . m^ ^^ . ^ //m J^^^ 1^^ ^.^/i '. gr 



I ask you if the signature that appears on that card is your 
signatured 

Mr. William AViiitofield. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "William Whitefield Exhibit No. 3" follows:) 



r3122 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

William Whitefield Exhibit No. 3 



We/come 



All valuoblM 
mu«t b« cl«pe*itMl 



Iherwis* 
we are not 



'^ """ Capri Motel S 

— are i 
ponti 
1 loii 

'A4. 



IIOV 2 1 1954^^ 0/ Tke South's Largest and Finest Motels r«,p«n«b!e for 
— — — — — -^^^^ 7X /.^/ 



s^J^^HX 



u^^lQtf^/lo 



-^M-U^u^c/^ 



^_Z^^ 



DAVS Occupied 



CmCK OUT TIJME— Y2.-00 NOON 

for #fc« B*sf in Food 

CAPRI HOTEL RESTAllRAri' 



Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of Mr. Whitefield. 

Mr. Buchanan. No questions. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness will be excused. 

Call your next witness, please. 

Mr. Appell. Johnnie Lee Burnette. 

Mr. Weltnpzr. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will 
give in the hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. BiTRNETTE. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHNNIE LEE BURNETTE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTEE V. CHALMERS, JR. 



Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 



Burnette? 



Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr. 
Burnette. Jolmnie Lee Burnette. 
Appell. 

BuRNET^n:. They spell it both ways. 
Appell. Well, how do you spell it? 
Burnette. J-o-h-n-n-i-e. 
Appell. Thank you. 
Are you represented by counsel ? 
Mr. Burnette. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record' 
Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, 
501, First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Burnette, are you appearing here today in accord- 
ance with a sub])ena served upon you on November 3, 1965, at 2529 
22d Street, Hueytown, Alabama ? 
Mr. Burnette. Yes, sir. 



Room 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3123 

Mr. Appell. When and where were you born, Mr. Burnette ? 

Mr. Burnette. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question 
for the reasons that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to 
incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
amendment 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Burnette, as a member of Bessemer Klavern No. 
20, did you render any aid and assistance to the strikers at the Dickey 
Clay Manufacturing Company plant in Hopewell, Alabama? 

Mr. Burnette. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds that are previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Let's ask the witness first if he is a member of Bess- 
emer Klavern No. 20, United Klans of America. 

Mr. Burnette. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Burnette, do you possess knowledge of the bomb- 
ing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, in 
1963? 

Mr. Burnette. Sir 

Mr. Weltner. Is that the date of September 15, 1963 ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Burnette. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. At a klonvokation of the United Klans of America 
held at the Dinkler-Tutwiler Hotel in Birmingham, Alabama, on 
September 5-6, 1964, did you receive four electric blasting caps from 
the exalted cyclops of the Marietta, Georgia, Klavern of the United 
Klans of America ? 

Mr. Burnette. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. As you left that Klavern, or that klonvokation, were 
you accompanied by Eugene Thomas ? 

Mr. Burnette. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Were you for a short period of time surveilled by 
agents of the FBI? 

Mr. Burnette. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Thinking tliat those agents were going to continue to 
surveille you to a parking lot where 3'our veliicle was parked, did you 
and Thomas pull pistols in preparing to fire on the FBI agents that 
were surveilling you? 

Mr. Burxp:tte. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim or priv- 
ilege and his consistent refusal to answer questions, I present to the 
committee the resuUs of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Burnette. 

Mr. Burnette was born on August 10, 1925, at Piper, P-i-p-e-r, 
Alnl)aniu. He resides at 2529-22d Street, Hueytown, Alabama. 

Committee investigation establishes Mr. Burnette to be a member 
of Bessemer Klavern No. 20, known as the Young Men's Social Club, 
and a delegate to the 1964 Klonvokation held at the Dinkler-Tutwiler 
Hotel on September 5-6, 1964. 



3124 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

During tliis kknivokation, Burnotte was furnished four electric 
blasting caps by the EC of the Marietta, Georgia, Klavern. As 
Burnette, accompanied by Eugene Thomas and another Klansman, 
left the hotel, they vrere followed by agents of the FBI. The Klansmen 
drew pistols and were preparing to fire on the agents after the 
Klansmen had reached a dark section of a lot where they had parked 
their car. However, the agents discontinued their surveillance prior 
to this, unbeknownst to the Klansmen. 

Burnette is known to possess knoAvledge of acts of violence carried 
out by members of the United Klans of America, including the 16th 
Street Bajjtist Church bombing in September 1963 and the bombings 
at the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Burnette pos- 
sesses additional information which is both ])ertinent and relevant to 
this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting re- 
medial legislation. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Burnette, you have heard the sworn statement 
of the investigator. You now have an opportunity to confirm or 
qualify or explain any portion of that testimony or offer any further 
information that the committee deems relevant. 

Do you wish to offer any further matter for this committee's 
consideration ? 

Hearing no response, I must advise you that, absent other evidence 
which will come to the committee, we will rely upon the accurary of 
this investigation. 

I would like to inquire of the witness as to whether or not, Mr. 
Burnette, do you have knowledge of the bombing of the church in 
Birmingham on September 15, 1963? 

Mr. Burnette. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Appell, the record does not indicate that this 
witness is or has been employed by the clay pipe company. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Appell. To the best of the committee's investigation, the witness 
has never been employed by Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company. 

Mr. Weltner. There being no further questions, the witness will 
be excused. 

Call your next w^itness, please. 

Mr. Appell. Donald A. Smitherman. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear that the answers you will 
give in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Smitherman. I do. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3125 

TESTIMONY OF DONALD ANDREW SMITHERMAN, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr. Smitherman, 

Mr. Smitiiermax. Donald A. Smitherman. 

Mr. Appell. Does the "A" stand for Andrew ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Counsel, will you identify yourself for the record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law. Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smitherman, are you appearing before the com- 
mittee today in accordance with a subpena served upon you on October 
25, 1965, at the Pullman-Standard Company, in Bessemer, Alabama? 

Mr. Smitherman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smitherman, are you a member of Bessemer Kla- 
vern No. 20 of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the ques- 
tion for the reason that I honestly believe that my answer might tend 
to incriminate me in my violation of rights as guaranteed to me by the 
amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smitherman, have you ever been employed by the 
Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company in Hopewell, Alabama ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the ques- 
tion for the reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend 
to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by the 
amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the' Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smitherman, on March 8, 1965, Alfonza Ragland, 
Jr., an employee of the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company, at 
3:20 p.m. was leaving the plant. And according to a report of the 
sherilT's department, wlien he reached the picket line, rocks and bottles 
were throAvn by pickets and a shot was fired which struck the left front 
fender, just above the wheel, part of the charge striking the tire. 

What knowledge do you possess of that incident, Mr. Smitherman? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell. The supplementary report from the sheriff's depart- 
ment wliich I read to you stated that after this incident happened a 
check was made of the picket line, and a report says that : 

One man present was not an employee of Dickey Clay but stated that he belonged 
to the same Union. This man was employeed [sic] at the Pullman Plant, Bes- 
semer. His name and address are: Donald A. Smitherman, lOi Park Ave. or 
306 Terrace Court. * * * Ala. Driver's License No. 1875725. 

Is the report of the sheriff's department factual, Mr. Smitherman? 

Mr, Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

(Document previously marked "James McCroskey Exhibit No. 
1-E" follows:) 



3126 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

James McCroskey Exhibit No. 1-E 



I 



Shooting Into Auto - Labor tr-juble 
Sparks Cap Road-Dicky Clay Plant 
Alfonza RACLAND Jr 



3-?-65 3:20 PM 

#6 Shades Street 



3-8-65 
i.25 1278 



RAOLAND reported by phone to this office that l.ls autonobile had been shot as he was leaving 
the W. 3. Dickey Clay Mfr Plant where he is employed. RAGLAND had worked the day shift and Juat 

as h» reached the picket line rocke and bottles were thrown by PlcVets and a shot w=s fire which 
struck the left front fender lust above the wheel, part of the charge striking the tire. Shot 
labedded In the tire were buck shot apnarfntly 00. RAGLAND was driving a 1956 Pontiac, i-door, 
white over blue, license # IB 27599. RAGLAND did not know who fired the shot but thought that 
it was fired from the trailer used by the pickets. Photo,^ranhs taken by Sheriff J. >.Thoranson 



J. W, Thoapson Ae 



the Sheriff 



March 8 1965 



SIIPPI EHENTARY OFFENSE REPORT 



JEFFERSOW COUNTY SHERIFF'S [i,EPARTNENT 



Shooting Into Auto 



44-OO3-B65 



Labor Disturbance 



Alfonza RAGLAND Jr #6 Shades Street Bessemer 425 127^ 



After checking auto of Victim a check was made of the picket line and the 

nanies obtained of all present. List is attached. One man nresent was not 

an emcloyee of Dickey Clay but stated t^iat he belonged to the same Union. 

This man was emoloyeed at the Pullman Plant, Bessemer. His name and address 
are : 

Donald A Snitherman 

1C4 Park Ave or 

306 Terrace Court * 

HA!» 49A7 

Ala Driver's License Nol 1875725 

Even tho Mr S'-'.ITH£.Ri>.AN is not an employee of Dickey Clay he ar.pearred to be 
taking a very active -lart in the picket line. He was advised that it would 

be to the best interest of the men on strike for him to leave. 

Sec. Eng. Guard B. R. WRIGHT, 111 Pine Ave, Hueytown, P,.one 491 3127, 

wa on duty at the tL-ne of the shooting of RAGLAND'S auto and stated that 

the shot came from the wooded area across the road from the picket line. 

Mr. WRIGHT further stated that he saw and identified a white male as being 

across the road at the tirr-e the shot, in fact, this white male wss the only 

per on to rejoin the picket line from across tlie road. Tiiis man was 

Jackie Clyde GA.VBLE, Rt 2 Box 619, Rt 3 Box o7G, Alabama Driver's License 

No. 1647012. 



□ no 



J« B. Sexton Jr 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3127 

Mr. Appell. As a matter of fact, as an employee of Pullman- Stand- 
ard, you could not be a member of the United Brick and Clay Workers, 
because they have no baro-aining rights at Pullman-Standard, do they ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir,' I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell. Was your participation in the acts there as a result of 
orders which you had received as a member of the Bessemer Klavern 
No. 20 of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answ^er that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smitherman, can you advise the committee as to 
what that pin is in your left lapel ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds j^revious stated. 

Mr. Appell. That is the lapel pin of a member of the United Klans 
of America ; is it not ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previous Stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smitherman, as a member of the Bessemer Klavern 
participating in the strike at the Dickey Clay Pipe Company, have you 
ever fired a shotgini into the car of a nonstriking worker, or have you 
ever engaged in placing of any of the explosives which have exploded 
at the plant property ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell, Mr. Smitherman, have members of Bessemer Klavern 
No. 20 been active in a campaign against the integration of schools, 
the Bessemer High School in Bessemer, Alabama ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you participate in any Klan activity against that, 
in the accompaniment of Eugene Thomas ? 

Mr. Smitherjvian. Sir, I respectfully — — 

Mr. Weltner. Wait just a minute." Kepeat that question, please? 

Mr. Appell. Did he participate in any Klan activity in the Bessemer 
area, accompanying Eugene Thomas ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Smitherman, the Birmingham Post-Herald, Fri- 
day, September 3, 1965, contains a story with respect to enrollment at 
the Bessemer High School. On page 2 of the continuation of the story, 
I read this : 

Another Klansman, Eugene Thomas, one of the three men charged in the death 
of a Detroit woman in Lowndes County last Spring, removed his son from Besse- 
mer High School yesterday, second day of school. 

A white man accompanying Thomas at the time, Donald Smitherman, 28, of 
1004 Park Av., Raimund, was arrested by Bessemer Police Chief George Barron 
and charged with disorderly conduct and driving without a license. He was 
released under $1.50 bond. 

Is tliat account as I read to you factual, Mr. Smitherman? 
Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

(Document marked "Donald Smitherman Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 



3128 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



Donald Smitherman Exhibit No. 1 

{Bnmini>ham (Ala.) Posl-HemU. September 3, 196.")] 



in Birmingham — 

, Enrollment 
In Schools 
At 65,373 

BY LILLIAN FOSCUE VANN 

New books and homework as- 
signment.s were the order 'of 
business la.sl nisht for studcnls 
in five school systems in Jef- 
ferson County after the first 
complete day of classes yester- 
day. 

Birmingham schools, opening 
a day later than other systems, 
scheduled first day of complete 
classes today. Enrollment at 
the end of the day yesterday ^j 
was 65,373 in Birmingham . 
schools, a drop of 1060 from the , 
first day's enrollment in 1964. j 

Enrollment by the end of the. 
first month last year in Bir- . 
mingham city schools topped , 
71,000, however, and authorities 
predict the end of the next 
month wilt see enrollment near- ; 
ly at this mark. I 



William P. Whitfield Jr.. 23. 
Rt. 1, Box 284. McCalla, was ar- 
rested Monday near Bessemer 
High School for refusing to obey 
students ^f,g lawful command of a police 



said several applicalioiis for 
transfer to while firs! grades 
were made by parents of Negro 
children yesterday. 

At Fairfield. 3834 
were enioUed overall, a drop; officer 

from 3980 students enrolled the j^ Jefferson Count v schools a 
first day of .school m 1964 the total of 23 Negroes were approv- 
supeiintendent s office said ^ . j^^ ,,.3,^^^^,. j,^ ^^ ^^.p^.^^,, 

Negro students approved for enrollment of 61.911, an increase 
transfer included eight in the , ^^ ^2.04.5 over first dav enroll- 
seventh grade, 13 in the eighth j^^^^ j^^^ y^y,. 
grade, four in the 10th grade ; j^^^ Jefferson ' Count v Board 
and three m the senior cla,ss I of Education met in" special 
, Bessemer schools reported' ^^^^^^^ yesterday to consider 
about 90 per cent complete en- applications for transfer by first 
rollment on the first day of the graders and four were approv- 
expected 8100 students. Some ^^ 

4700 of the expected 5200 Negro school authorities said it was 
students were registei-ed in Bes- up ,0 parents whether first 
semer the first day, include 13 1 graders whose transfers were 
at the white junior and senior, approved would start at deseg- 



high schools, four in the seventh 
grade, six in the 10th and three 
in the 12th grades. 
State-provided textbooks, for 



the most part, were adequate, 
but some additional books would 
have to be purchased with local 
funds, authorities said. 

Bessemer school lunch pro- 
gram, once thought to be in- 
eligible this year for Federal 
assistance, does qualify and will 
operate as it did last year. 
• The system is. in compliance 



Birmingham E 1 e m e n t a ry ,\^i^^ Health, Education and Wei 



school enrollment totaled 47,302 
students and high schools re- 
ported 18,071. Included in the 
totals were 49 Negro students 
attending predominately white 
schools. First grade transfers 
by Negro students were not 
compiled last night. 

Fairfield reported 28 Negro . 
students enrolled in previously ^ 
all-white schools and Bessemer 
13. Jefferson County schools 
reported 24, making a total to 
date in all county systems of 114 
Negro students in 19 desegregat- 
ed schools. 

Desegregated Birm i n g h a m 
city schools and number of 
Negro students attending each 
include: Giaymont Elementary, 
1; Ensley High, 12; Jones Val- 
ley High, 5; Phillips High. 9; 
•Ramsay High, 13; West End 
High, 2'; and Woodlawn High, 6. 
One Negro special student was 
admitted to Charlanne part of 
Elyton Elementary School. 

Applications for transfer are 
still being processed for Negro 
fi r s t - g r a d ers. Birmingham 
schools attorney Reid Barnes 



fare Dept. and Department of 
Agriculture requirements, the 
superintendent. Dr. James 0. 
Knuckles, said, while the Civil 
Rights Act is tested in Federal 
Court in a suit filed by the 
Sfemer board. 
•Another Klansman 
Thomas, one of three men 
charged in the death of a 
Detroit woman in Lowndes 
County last Spring, removed his 
son from Bessemer High School 
yesterday, second day of school. 
A white man accompanying 
Thomas at the time, D onald 
Smitherman. 28, of 1004 PaiK-av, 
Raimiind, was arrested by 
Bessemer Police Chief George 
Barron and charged with disor- 
iderly conduct and driving with- 
out a license. He was released 
i under $150 bond. 
; Wednesday William J).. laUm, 
another of the KKK members 
accused in the fatal shooting of 
Mrs. Viola Liuzzo, removed his 
son from desegregated Huey- 
towh High School, 
week in connection with viola- 
tions at the opening of school. 



regated schools today or wait 
until after Monday's Labor Day 
holiday and start classes Tues- 
day. 

Fourteen seventh graders and 
four first graders were ap- 
proved for transfer yesterday, 

: which added to the eight stu- 
dents previously approved for 
transfer in higher grades 

1 brought the total in county 

i schools to 26, but two were not 

I in school. 

Desegregated county schools 
and number of Negro students 
attending included McDonald's 
Chapel— 3 first graders; McNeil. 
1 first grader and 1 seventh 
grader; Gra.vsviUe. 2 seventh, 
graders and 1 ninth grader; 
-- ' Dixie, 11 seventh graders and 3 
Eugene i ninth graders. Hueytown, two 



senior high students. 

Mountain Brook schools re- 
ported an increase in enrollment 
at three of the city's four 
Only Crestline School showed a 
drop, registering 682 students as 
compared to 735 last year the 
first day of school. 

Other Mountain Brook schools 
and registration the first day in- 
I eluded Junior High, 1019 stu- 
Idents, compared to 981 last year; 
Elementary, 533 as compared to 
.408:.iiasL_5;eai'. iand BrooJcwaod 
I Forest, 673 compared to 381 last 
i year. 

Tarrant school authorities said 
school enrollment the first day 
Jived up to the expected figure 
of 2000, 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3129 

Mr. Appell, Mr. Smitherman, that arrest — was that the only arrest 
that you have ever had during your lifetime ? 

Mr. Smithermax. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell. In 1957, were you arrested by the Jefferson County 
sheriff's office as a Naval deserter ? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Ghainnan, the staff has no further questions of this 
witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Smitherman, we are endeavoring to determine 
what function Bessemer Klavem No. 20 of the United Klans of Amer- 
ica had in the strike of Dickey Clay Pipe Company. And of course 
this committee is not concernecl with the implementation of the Labor- 
Management Relations Act or of the terms of the strike or the griev- 
ances that might have led to it or the union that might ultimately repre- 
sent any of the employees of that company, nor are we concerned with 
the details of the negotiations or the basis for any contract settlement 
of that labor dispute. 

We are concerned with discerning whether or not there is any con- 
nection between the long train of violent acts that took place during 
last year and the United Khms of America. That is our only concern, 
and I would ask you to tell this committee, if you will, just what 
function or what position tlie Bessemer Klavem No. 20 took in that 
labor dispute last year. 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based upon the grounds previous stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Questions? 

Mr. Buchanan. Only one, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Smitherman, do you feel that when a group carries out acts of 
bombings, firing shotguns in automobiles, and rocking and threaten- 
ing people, they are doing something to help organized labor? 

Mr. Smitherman. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Buchanan. No further questions. 

Mr. Weltner. All right, this witness Avill be excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Curtis O'Neil Doles. 

Mr. AVeltner. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give 
in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Doles. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF CURTIS O'NEIL DOLES, SR., ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for tlie record, Mr. Doles. 
Mr. Doles. Curtis O'Neil Doles, Sr. 
Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 
Mr. Doles. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would counsel identify' himself for the record? 
Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law. Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 



3130 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Doles, are you appearing before the committee to- 
day in accordance with a subpena served upon you on October 25, 1965, 
at 1820 Alemeda Avenue, Birmingham,' Alabama? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Doles. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. "Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Doles? 

Mr. Doles. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendment 5, 1, 4, 
and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Doles, are you a member of the United Klaus of 
America, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Doles, I put it to you as a fact that you are a mem- 
ber of Bessemer Klavern No. 20, United Klans of America, and ask 
you to affirm or deny the fact. 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Doles, last week, the committee had as a w^itness a 
one-time member of the United Klans of America, McComb, Missis- 
sippi, Emery Allen Lee. 

Are you acquainted with Emery Allen Lee ? 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Within the United Klans of America, in McComb, 
Mississippi, Emery Allen Lee was the Klan's demolition man. Are 
you the Klan's demolition man for the State of Alabama ? 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Appell, so the record might be clear, in your 
q^uestion, would you kindly state what is meant by the term "demoli- 
tion man" ? 

Mr. Appell. A man wdio is an expert in the preparation of imple- 
ments of demolition — bombs and other implements. 

Mr. Weltner. I must ask the witness, Mr. Doles, are you familiar 
with the construction of explosive devices and means of setting them 
off? 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In October 1964, Mr. Doles, were you in charge of the 
United Klans of America booth at the Alabam State Fair at Birming- 
ham, Alabama ? 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Doles, do you have an arrest record in the States 
of Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas ? 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. In October 1964, did Imperial Wizard Robert Shelton 
praise you for being a dedicated Klansman ? 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3131 

Mr. Appell. Was your arrest record known to Imperial Wizard 
Shelton at the time he praised you as a dedicated Klansman? 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Did you prepare any of the explosive devices used 
against the Dickey Clay Manufacturing Company? 

Mr. Doles. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask 
of this witness. 

Mr. Weltner. Does the investigation indicate this witness to be an 
employee of the Dickey Clay Pipe Company ? 

Mr. Appell. The record, Mr. Chairman, reflects that Mr. Doles is 
employed with the Doles Home Improvement Company, Midfield, 
Alabama. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Doles, you have an opportunity at this time to 
offer any matter that you feel might be of assistance to this committee 
and to respond in any way you see fit to some of the questions or the 
statements that were put to you. 

Do you wisli to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

The witness remaining silent, the record will so reflect. 

The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Eugene Curtis Vann, Jr. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give 
in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Vann. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE CURTIS VANN, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, please, sir. 

Mr. Vann. My name is Eugene Curtis Vann, Jr. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Vann. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Vann, are you appearing here today in accordance 
with a subpena served upon you on October 25, 1965, at Vann & John- 
son Electric Service, 323 Molton Street, Montgomery, Alabama ? 

Mr. Vann. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Vann, the subpena served upon you had an attach- 
ment, which was made a part of the subpena, and under the terms of 
the subpena, you were commanded to bring with you and to produce 
documents set forth in the attachment which reads as follows : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, and Lawrence Lodge #610. 
Klavern, Realm of Alabama, in your possession, custody or control, or main- 
tained by you or available to you as present or former Exalted Cyclops, 



3132 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Lawrence Lodge #610, Realm of Alabama of the Invisible Empire, United 
Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United 
Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Vann. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena 
dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that if I 
do so, might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as 
guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution 
of the United States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all rec- 
ords as requested by the committee under subpena dated October the 
14th, 1965, for the information is not relevant and germane to the 
subject under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress 
in the consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such 
inquiry within the scope of the authorized to be investigated by Eule 
XI of the rules adopted by the 89th Congress of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, No. 8, adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, do we have the stipulation that this 
witness has been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement 
and is familiar with the contents thereof ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And that the directions of the subpena to produce 
documents are made to the witness in the official representative ca- 
pacity described in the subpena ? 

Mr. Chalmers. As stated in the subpena ; yes. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Vann, the committee does not accept your 
reasons for refusal to comply with the subpena, and as chainnan of 
the subcommittee, I order and direct you to furnish the documents 
called for therein. 

Mr. Vann. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents therefore ordered by the chairman — heretofore ordered 
heretofore by the committee — ordered by the chairman, based upon 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. You have at this point, Mr. Vann, an opportunity 
to place into this record any reason why you are unable to comply 
with the terms of that subpena. 

There being no response, proceed with paragraph 2, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Vann, paragraph 2 called upon you to produce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or former Exalted Cyclops, Lawrence Lod.ce #610, Realm of Alabama, 
of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the 
"Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be main- 
tained by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being in your 
possession, custody or control. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 2, 1 ask you to 
produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Vann. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3133 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, we have the same two stipulations 
with refjard to this paragraph? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltxer. Mr. Vann, I order and direct you to produce the doc- 
uments called for by the subpena. 

Mr. Vaxx. Sir, I'respectf ully decline to deliver to the committee the 
documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Vann, are you the exalted cyclops of a Klavern of 
the United Klans of America whicli is known by the name Lawrence 
Lodge No. 610 ? 

Mr. Vann. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in the violation of any rights as guaranteed to me by the amend- 
ments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Vann, does this Klavern of the United Klans of 
America maintain a bank account at The Union Bank & Trust Com- 
pany, Montgomery, Alabama, under the name, "White Patriots, P.O. 
Box 7094, Montgomery, Alabama"? 

Mr. Vann. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Vann, the committee obtained the records of this 
account through subpena duces tecum, and the signature cards filed 
with this account reflect that an account was opened November 29, 
1963, with the authorized signatures of this account being Gene Mims 
and Eaymond C. Howard ; that these signatures were changed on 
February 10, 1965, to the authorized signatures or signers Gene Vann 
and Gene Mims. 

I hand you the signature cards for your examination, and put it to 
you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that the Gene 
Vann whose signature appears on the signature card is yourself. 

Mr. Vann. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "Eugene Vann Exhibits Nos. 1-A and 1-B," 
respectively, appear on p. 3134.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Vann, do you act as a liaison officer for the United 
Klans of America with the State Government in Montgomery, 
Alabama? 

Mr. Vann. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer my questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Vann. 

Eugene Curtis Vann, Jr., is known as Gene Vann. He is con- 
nected with Vann & Johnson Electric Service, Montgomery, Ala- 
bama. He is the exalted cyclops of Lawrence Lodge No. 610, which 
has maintained a bank account at The Union Bank & Trust Company 
since 1963 in the name of the White Patriots. The officers authorized 
to sign checks against the account, effective November 29, 1963, were 
Gene Mims and Raymond C. Howard, and on February 10, 1965, Gene 
Vann and Gene Mims. 



3134 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Eugene Vann Exhibit No. 1-A 

CAPITOL HEIGHTS BRANCH 

Xccoun. Number SIGNATURE CARD Clubs, Associations, Etc, 

THE UNION BANK & TRUST CO., Montgomery, Alabama 

T)ie handling by this Bank of checks, drafts and other Items will be subject to the conditions shown 

1 the reverse side hereof, and the depositor • " "^ ' ' * ■ " 

and consents and agrees to be l^owpd hereby. 



Title 



lenta and agrees to be l^ownd hereby. 



Home Office Address 



T- O. :&p^ 7^^ ?</ Date |\|QV p Q ^qf^'^ 



Local Address 



__f__. SIGNATURES __J COUNTERSIGNATURES ^_ 



QAjj?.. 



Nature of Business .Wr.~.._v^-'^ _ Introduced by 



Eugene Vann Exhibit No. 1-B 

CArr; ^v j:;.;^;t- branch 

Account Number 



^ - _ 

SIGNATURE CARD Clubs, Associations, Etc. 



THE UNION BANK & TRUST CO., Montgomery, Alabama 

The handling by this Bank of checks, drafts and other Items will be subject to the coneUlons shown 
on the reverse side hereof, and the depositor hereby acknowledges receipt of noUce of said conditions 
and consents and agrees to be bound he 



msents and agrees to be bound hereby. 



Title C/^-^w 



iHome Office Address J-^Q . A ^y^ '7^9^/' PhoniP^.:^^^ 7^/ 

\ Local Address }?f c^nr^X^'->rUiyl<. -■ /<? ^C^^>^u^-^ Date.^^PtT^^ /^ / 9C > 
^ SIGNATURES J COUNTERSIGNATURES 



Nature of Business Introduced by 

See reverse side which is part of this contract 



Officers of the Klavern, in addition to Gene Vann, are the khiliff, 
Paul Dennis, Jr.; tlie kli^rapp or secretary, Sylvester Trawick, 
T-r-a-w-i-c-k; the klabee or treasurer. Gene jAIelvin Minis; the khuld 
or chaplain, the Reverend John Mitchell ; the kladd or conductor, 
Alfred E. Edwards; the klexter, Grady E. Harris; the night-hawk, 
Douglas Cannon ; and the chief of the klokann committee, Raymond 
C. Howard. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3135 

Vami was the speaker, together with Grand Dragon Creel and Im- 
perial Wizard Shelton, on July 8, 1965, at a rally across the road from 
Maxwell Air Force Base. Vann berated President Johnson and Ala- 
bama Attorney General Flowers for their condemnation of the Klan. 
Vann referred to a Klan committee which was attempting to promote 
an investigation of the FBI. There was distributed a leaflet claiming 
that the FBI was harassing an 81-year-old Klansman who is known 
by the name of Pop Blanton. Committee investigation reflects that 
the Klan had stationed Blanton in front of FBI headquarters in Bir- 
mingham for the purpose of embarrassing that agency. 

Vann has frequent contact with Imperial Wizard Shelton and is 
believed to be a liaison officer for Shelton around the State capital. 

Mr. Vann, are the officers of the Klavern that were just read to you 
in the statement, in fact, the officers of the Klavern as designated? 

Mr. Vanx. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. This infonnation, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. 
Vann possesses additional information which is both pertinent and 
relevant to this inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in en- 
acting remedial legislation. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Vann, you have heard the statement of the in- 
vestigator. You have now an opportunity to offer any matter which 
you may desire to appear in this record concerning that statement or 
anything in addition thereto. 

Do you wish to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

There being no response, you understand tJiat this committee, unless 
there is further evidence or in rebuttal, will rely upon the accuracy of 
this investigation. 

What is the White Patriots, Mr. Vann ? 

Mr. Vann. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Any further questions ? 

Mr. Appell. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness will be excused. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Sylvester Trawick. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will 
give in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Trawick. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SYLVESTER TRAWICK, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr. Trawick. 

Mr. Traw^ick. Sylvester Trawick. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Trawick. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law. Room 
501, First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Trawick, are you appearing here today in ac- 
cordance with a subpena served upon you on October 26, 1965, at the 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 4 16 



3136 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Capital Advertising Company, 115 East Jefferson Street, Mont- 
gomery, Alabama? 

Mr. Trawick. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appeli.. Mr. Trawick, the siibpena served upon you contained 
an attachment, which was made a part of the subpena, and under 
the conditions of the subpena, you were commanded to bring with 
you, and to produce, documents described in the attachment, para- 
graph 1 reading: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible 
Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also 
known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
and affiliated organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service and Lawrence 
Lodge #610, Klavern, Realm of Alabama, in your possession, custody or control, 
or maintained by you or available to you as present or former Kligrapp, 
Lawrence Lodge #610, Realm of Alabama of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans 
of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Trawick. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all different documents as commanded by the committee in 
its subpena dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly 
feel that to do so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my 
rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1,4, and 14 of the Con- 
stitution of the United States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October the 14th, 
1965, for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject 
under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the 
consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry 
within the scojje of that authorized to be investigated by Kule XI 
of the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, 
adopted January 4, 1965. 

Mr. Weltner. J\Ir. Chalmers, can we have the stipulation that 
this witness has been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening 
statement? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And he is familiar with the contents thereof? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And the directions in the subpena are directed to 
the witness to produce the documents in a representative capacity 
as described in the subpena? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Trawick, the committee does not accept your 
reasons for refusing to comply witli the subpena, and I hereby order 
and direct you to produce the documents identified in the subpena. 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by (lie chairman, based upon the 
grounds- previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner, You have at this point, Mr. Trawick, if you desire, 
the opportunity to present to the coiinnittee any reason you may have 
for being unable to comply with the terms of the subpena. 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3137 

Mr. Weltner. There being no response, we will proceed to the next 
paragraph. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Trawick, paragraph 2 calls upon you to produce : 

AU books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your 
possession, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your 
capacity as present or former Kligrapp, Lawrence Lodge #610, Realm of Alabama 
of the United Klaus of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the 
"Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require to be main- 
tained by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being in 
your possession, custody or control. 

In representative capacity set forth in paragraph 2, I ask you to 
produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the commit- 
tee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. May we have the same stipulation, Mr. Chalmers ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Trawick, I order and direct you to produce the 
documents described in paragraph 2 of the subpena. 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the commit- 
tee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Trawick, the Constitution and Laws of the United 
Klans of America sets forth the responsibilities of the kligrapp or 
secretary. 

What disposition do you as .secretary of this Klavern make of appli- 
cations for membership in the Unitecl Klans of America ? 

Mr. Trawick. I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incrim- 
inate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me my amend- 
ments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Trawick, in preparing the necessai-y documenta- 
tion to forward per capita dues to the State of Alabama or to the 
imperial office in Tuscaloosa, do you report the identity of the mem- 
bers of Klavern ? 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you make no report of the identity of members to the 
imperial headquarters and, further, that the members within your 
Klavern are known only by a number designation. 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I re"spectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Trawick, in September, on September 3, 1964, 
your Klavern, on a check drawn against an account in the name of 
the White Patriots, The Union Bank & Trust Company, Montgomery, 
Alabama, wrote a check for $32, payable to Tom Whitehead. 

Tom Whitehead, Mr. Trawick, is the exalted cyclops of a Klavern 
in Athens, Georgia ; and as these investigations have disclosed, funds 
forwarded for the defense of the Klansmen involved in the Penn 
murder have been forwarded to Tom Whitehead. 

Can you tell the committee what knowledge your Klavern possessed 
of the Klan affiliation of these men at the time this check was drawn 
and forwarded to Tom Whitehead ? 



3138 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

( Check marked "Sylvester TraAvick Exhibit No. 1.") 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Trawick, on June 24, 1965, a check was drawn 
against the account of the White Patriots, made in the amount of 
$56, and payable to the White Mans Defense Fund. 

I put it to you as a fact that the White Mans Defense Fund was, in 
fact, an account whose full designation was "White Mans Defense 
Fund for the relief of Collie Leroy Wilkins, W. O. Eaton, and Eugene 
Thomas." 

What knowledge did the members of your Klavern possess at the 
time this check was written to the White Mans Defense Fund in the 
amount of $56? 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "Sylvester Trawick Exhibit No. 2." Exhibits Nos. 
land 2 follow:) 

Sylvester Trawick Exhibit No. 1 



/^"^ «»r.. .,. f'J- ^f- 



" M IT 1 r ^ I KIOT' 



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Monti. «>MKK> Ai.a 






Sylvester Trawick Exhibit No. 2 



i P.O. i«% in*, 

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ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3139 

Mr. AppELL. Mr. Trawick, are funds now payable to the Realm of 
Alabama payable to Melvin Sexton of the Tuscaloosa, Alabama, area ? 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Can you explain to the committee why a check pay- 
able to Mr. Sexton is deposited by him in an account not a Klan ac- 
count, but the account of the Reid Sexton Corporation ? 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfull}^ decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "Sylvester Trawick Exhibit No. 3.") 

Mr. Appell. Is there a second Klavern of the United Klans of 
America in Montgomery, Alabama? 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Trawick, on March 5th of 1964, a check was drawn 
against the White Patriot account, payable to Frank Conway, in the 
amount of $26 and the notation on tlie check appears "For Transfer." 

This was deposited by Frank Conway into an accomit, "Confederate 
Den # 11." Does the notation "For Transfer" mean a transfer of 
members of your Klavern to membership in Confederate Den No. 
11? 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "Sylvester Trawick Exhibit No. 4.") 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Trawick, on September 25, 1965, a check was 
drawn against the White Patriots' account, in the amount of $319.50. 
This check was made payable to Confederate Lodge #11, which main- 
tains a bank account in Birmingham, Alabama, and in which the 
signer of this account is Grand Dragon Robert Creel. The endorse- 
ment on the reverse of this check reads "Confederate Lodge #11, For 
Deposit only U.K.i^. Defense Fund.*' 

To what UKA Defense Fund was this $319.50 contributed ? 

Mr. Trawick. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "Sylvester Trawick Exhibit No. 5." Exhibits Nos. 
3, 4, and 5 follow:) 



3140 ACTrVITIES OF KU KLUX KhAN IN THE U.S. 

Sylvestkr Trawick Exhibit No. 3 




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ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 
Sylvester Trawick Exhibit No. 4 



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3142 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Sylvestir Tr.\\vk:k Exhibit No. 5 



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Mr. Weltner. Was this check deposited in an account under the 
name of Confederate Lod^e #11 ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. Well, Mr. Chairman, there is an account in 
the name of the Confederate Lodge #11, maintained at the bank in 
Birmingham; and in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, tliere is also an account 
known as the UKA Defense Fund account, and before giving you a 
definite answer, I would like to check tliat against botli accounts. 

Mr. Weltner. But there is an account under the name of the Con- 
federate Lodge #11 ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir; there is. 

Mr. Weltner. So there is no cover name for the account of that 
Klavern, other than Confederate Lodge #11. 

Mr. Appell. Well, we are talking about two separate organizations. 
Confederate Den No. 11, whicli is a Klavern in Montgomery, and Con- 
federate Lodge #11, which is the name of a bank account upon which 
Robert Creel is one of the signers, in Birmingham, Alabama. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3143 

Confederate Den and Confederate Lodge are only similar in that 
both are instrumentalities of the United Klans of America, Realm of 
Alabama. 

Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to ask of Mr. 
Trawick. 

Mr. WeLiTner. The witness will be excused. 

Call the next witness. 

The documents used during the examination of the preceding wit- 
ness will be introduced into evidence. 

Mr. xVppell. Mr. Chairman, I would like to call Mr. Charles Wil- 
kinson. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give 
in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. I do. 

Mr. Weltner. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES JERRY WILKINSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Wilkinson? 

Mr. Wilkinson. Charles Jerry Wilkinson. 

Mr. Appell. Is that Jerry ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. J-e-r-r-y ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester Y. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law. Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilkinson, are you appearing liere today in ac- 
cordance with a subpena served upon you on the 26th day of October 
1965 in front of 2509 North Ripley Street, Montgomery, Alabama, 
by a deputy United States marshal ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilkinson, the subpena contained an attachment 
thereto, wliich was made a part of tlie subpena, and under the con- 
ditions of the subpena, you were commanded to bring with you and 
to produce documents described in the subpena, paragraph 1 reading: 

All books, records, documents, corresix>ndence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Em- 
pire. United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the T'nited Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and 
affiliated organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service and Confederate 
Den, Klavern #11, Realm of Alabama, in your possession, custody or control, 
or maintained by you or available to you as present or former Exalted Cyclops, 
Confederate Den Klavern #11. Realm of Alabama of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as 
the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity set fortli in paragrapli 1, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 



3144 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Wilkinson. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
any and all documents as demanded by tlie committee in a subpena 
dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so 
might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendment 5, 1,4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in consideration 
of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry within the scope 
of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted 
by the 89th Congress, by the House Resolution 8, adopted January the 
4th, 1965. 

Mr. Weltnek, Mr. Chalmers. 

Mr. Chalmers. Our same two stipulations. 

Mr. Weltner. Same two stipulations with regard to this witJiess. 

Mr. Chalmer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Wilkinson, the committee does not accept your 
reasons for refusing to produce the documents. Accordingly, as chair- 
man of the subcommittee, I order and direct you to produce the docu- 
ments described in paragraph 1 at this time. 

Mr. Wilkinson. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the commit- 
tee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon 
the gromids previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. And I now^ offer you an opportunity to present any 
reason why you are miable to comply with the requirement of the 
subpena, if you so desire. 

There being no response, proceed with the next paragraph. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilkinson, paragraph 2 called upon you to pro- 
duce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or former Exalted Cyclops, Confederate Den Klavern #11, Realm of 
Alabama of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require 
to be maintained by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being 
in your possession, custody or control. 

In representative capacity set forth in paragraph 2, I ask you to 
produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Wilkinson. Sir, I respectively decline to deliver to the com- 
mittee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. Same two stipulations, Mr. Chalmers? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Wilkinson, I direct you to produce the documents 
called for in paragraph 2 of the subpena. 

Mr. Wilkinson. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the commit- 
tee the documents heretofore ordered by the chainnan, based upon 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilkinson, are you presently the exalted cyclops 
of Confederate Den No. 11, United Klans of America, Knights of the 
KuKluxKlan? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3145 

Mr. Wilkinson. I respectfully decline to answer that question, for 
the reasons that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incrim- 
inate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendment 
5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Appell. I hand you copies of two checks, one dated March 5, 
1964, made payable to Frank Conway, and another dated September 
24, 1964, made JDayable to "Confederate Den #11." 

I ask you the purpose for which these checks were drawn. 

Mr. Wilkinson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. The check of March the 5th shows "For Transfer." 

Does this relate to a transfer of Klansmen from the LaAvrence Lodge 
610 to Confederate Den No. 11 in Montgomery, Alabama, area? 

Mr. Wilkinson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer this question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated, 

(Check previously marked "Sylvester Trawick Exhibit No. 4.'' See 
p. 3141.) 

Mr. Appell. The check of September 24, 1964, shows that it was 
reimbursement for a conference. Explain to the committee what con- 
ference was held in which this check is a payment of expenses. 

Mr. Wilkinson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "Charles Wilkinson Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 

Charles Wilkinson Exhibit No. 1 



NO (^ ^— MONTOOMEPY AlA /' 2. ^' **'*/ '^ 

»Nlf r PATli^TS ei 38 



Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilkinson, it is the duty of the exalted cyclops to 
form within a Klavern a klokann committee. 

Could you give the committee the identify of the klokann committee 
of Confederate Den No. 11 ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. To your knowledge, as exalted cyclops, has the klokann 
committee engaged in any act of intimidation or violence against any 
citizen in the State of Alabama ? 

Mr. AVilkinson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
l)ased upon the grounds previously stated. 



3146 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Wilkinson, were you born on February 11, 1930, 
at Georo^iana, Alabama? 

Mr. Wilkinson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the g-rounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Do you reside at Apartment 208, Hilltop Arms Apart- 
ments, 600 Montgomery Street, Monto-omery, Alabama ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer the question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of this witness. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness, please. 

Mr. Appell. Lewis Edward Perkins. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give 
in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF LEWIS EDWARD PERKINS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Appell. State your full name for the record, Mr. Perkins, 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Lewis Edward Perkins. 

Mr. Appell. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chx\lmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, Room 501^ 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, are you appearing before the committee 
today in accordance with subpena served upon you on October 26, 
1965, at 4004 Fifth Street, East Tuscaloosa, Alabama? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, the subpena served upon you contained 
an attacliment, which was made a part of the subpena, and under the 
terms of the subpena, you were commanded to bring with you, and to 
produce, documents called for in the attachment. 

Paragraph 1 reads as follows: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated organi- 
zations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, and Klavern #5, Realm of Ala- 
bama, in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available 
to you as present or former Exalted Cyclops, Klavern #5, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 
Realm of Alabama, of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. I respectfully decline to deliver to the com- 
mittee any and all documents as demanded by the committee under 
subpena dated October 14, 1965, for the reason I honestly feel that to 
do so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guar- 
anteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, 14 of the Constitution of the 
United States of America. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3147 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October the 14th, 
1965, for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject 
mider investigation and the same will not aid the Congress in the con- 
sideration of any valid remedial legislation, or is such inquiry within 
the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Kule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Kesolution adopted January 
the 4th, 1965. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chalmers, do we have the same two stipulations? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Perkins, the committee does not accept your 
reason for refusing to produce documents. Accordingly, I direct and 
order you to produce documents at this time. 

Mr. Lewis Perkixs. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based 
upon the gromids previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins 

Mr. Weltxer. One minute, please. 

Mr. Perkins, you have at this point an opportunity to give to this 
committee any reason why you are unable to produce the documents 
called for in paragraph 1 of the subpena, if you so desire. 

There being no response, we will proceed to the second paragraph. 

Mr. x\.ppell. Mr. Perkins, paragraph 2 calls for you to produce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity as 
present or former Exalted Cyclops. Klavern #5, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Realm 
of Alabama of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, 
which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and require 
to be maintained by you and any other officer of said organization, the same being 
in your possession, custody or control. 

In a representative capacity set forth in paragraph 2, I ask you to 
produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the gromids 
previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. The same two stipulations? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Weltner. Mr. Perkins, you are directed and ordered to pro- 
duce the documents called for in paragraph 2. 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, are you acquainted with the fact that the 
cover name used by the United Klans of America is the Alabama Res- 
cue Service? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. I respectfully decline to answer that question 
for the reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to in- 
criminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amend- 
ments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, I hand you Robert M. Shelton Exhibit 
No. 25, bills of the telephone com])any, which are addressed to the Ala- 
bama Rescue Service, care of Lewis E. Perkins, Alston Building, 
Room 401, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 



3148 ACTrvrriES of ku klux klan in the u.s. 

I ask you if that Lewis E. Perkins is yourself? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, the first day of the committee's inquiry 
into the United Klans of America, it was established that the comakers 
on checks drawn against the account of the Alabama Rescue Service 
were Robert M. Shelton and T. M. Montgomery, and then later, Robert 
M. Shelton and James J. Hendrix. 

Did you know that "T. M. Montgomery" was signed by Carol Long, 
and did you know that the name "James J. Hendrix" was signed by 
Mrs. Robert Shelton? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, is Klavern No. 5, of which you are the 
exalted cyclops, the home Klavern of the Imperial Wizard, Mr. Robert 
Shelton? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, the committee has a copy of a letter ad- 
dressed on the letterhead of the United States Commission on Civil 
Rights, signed by William L. Taylor, General Counsel. 

This letter states in part : 

It has come to our attention from various sources that radio-equipped auto- 
mobiles are being used by terrorist groups in various parts of the South for the 
purpose of coordinating attaclis on Negroes and civil rights workers. 

In particular, we have reports that in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, a group has been 
using radio-equipped automobiles to inform one another of places of public 
accommodations at which Negroes attempt tO' ohtain service. * * * 

Listed thereafter are the call letters of certain citizens band radio 
stations. One of the numbers listed is KDD 6965. 

(Document marked "Lewis Perkins Exhibit No. 1" appears on 
p. 3149.) 

Mr. Appell. I hand you an application for a citizens band radio, 
dated May 27, 1963, signed Lewis E. Perkins, and ask you if you are 
the signer of that application ? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
rion, based upon the ground previously stated. 

(Document marked "Lewis Perkins Exhibit No. 2" appears on 
p. 3150.) 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, is the report of the United States Com- 
mission on Civil Rights to the effect that citizens band radios are 
used as I read to you ? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Weltner. The question was wliether or not that report is cor- 
rect, Mr. Perkins. Is this report contained in tlie letter from the 
Civil Rights Commission correct? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3149 

Lewis Perkins Exhibit No. 1 

UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20425 

Mr. Henry Geller ^^^^3^ 3^ ^9^4 

Genoral Counsel 

Federal Conununicatlons Conuniasion 

New Post Office Building 

12th & Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20260 

Dear Mr. Geller: 

It has come to our attention from various sources that 
radio-equipped automobiles are being used by terrorist 
groups in various parts of the South for the purpose of 
coordinating attacks on Negroes and civil rights workers. 

In particular, we have reports that in Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama, a group has been using radio-equipped automobiles 
to inform one another of places of public accommodations 
at which Negroes attempt to obtain service. Apparently, 
when a person in one of the cars observes Negroes going 
into a restaurant a call is sent out to other cars which 
converge on the scene. We understand that these gather- 
ings have resulted in acts of intimidation and violence. 

The following call letters are reportedly being used by 
these cars: 

Ij] 6Q 4311 (headquarters call number) 

L^l KDE 1133 jjcj' KKM 3135 

/.aj KDD 1753 ^/jj KDB 3776 

iv:i KDE 0356 /y;Q-KlQi\ 1017 

isl KDB 4724 /^r^J KDB 0071 
ILJ KDE 1975 £,<yJKDB 0050 

0] 6Q 3434 l_/s] KDD 2533 
[^ KDD 6965 [^y Q KDH 2456 ^ 

i.?jKDH 2451 IJ-^KDD 4272^ 

We have also received information that radio-equipped cars 
are or have been used by teri'orist groups in St, Augustine, 
Florida, Hinds County, Mississippi and in Southwest 
Mississippi. 

We understand that the use of tv/o-way radios for the purposes 
indicated would constitute a violation of FCC regulations. 
If so, wo would appreciate being advised of any action your 
agency may take in these matters. 

Sincerely yours, 



William L. Taylor 
General Counsel 

' Committee footnote— Applications for above citizens band radios executed by the following: 
[1] Robert M. Shelton, Tuscaloosa, Ala.; [2] Sammy Houston Sexton, Holt, Ala.; [3] Silas Seaton, 
GreeneviUe, Tenn.; [4] Davis Welding & Machine Co. (J. R. Davis). Northport, Ala.; [5] Alice 
E. Perkins, Tuscaloosa, Ala.; [6] Charles F. Crawford, Greenville, S.C; [7] Charles Larry Oswalt, 
Northport, Ala.; [8] Lewis E. Perkins, Tuscaloosa, Ala.; [9] Isadore Pizitz, Orlando, Fla.; [10] .„.. 

...... ; [11] Page Aircraft Maintenance, Inc., Fort Rucker, Ala.; [12] .,.. ,„. _.„., ; 

[13] David P, Perkins, Tuscaloosa, Ala.; [14] James G. Moore, Northport, Ala.; [15] Perkins Cab- 
inet Shop (William O. Perkins), Northport, Ala.; [16] Samuel G. Lande, Jacksonville, Fla.; [17] 
Linny N. Fulmer, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 



3150 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Lewis Perkins Exhibit No. 2 



CmZENS RADK) LICENSE 

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Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, under orders of the Klan, have you used 
your citizens band radio for the purpose of participating in acts of 
harassment or violence upon any citizens in the Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
bama, area ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3151 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, you are employed by Gulf States Paper 
Corporation. How does a citizens band radio affect that employ- 
ment? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the groimds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' consistent re- 
fusal to answer questions, invoking constitutional privileges, I shall 
now read the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Per- 
kins. 

Lewis Edward Perkins was born on July 30, 1924, at Bessemer, 
Alabama. He has an eighth-grade education. He served in the 
Army from April 28, 1943, to November 27, 1945, with a military 
specialty of a cannoneer and truck driver. He received an honorable 
discharge. 

He is employed by the Gulf States Paper Corporation, Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama, and resides at 4004 Fifth Street, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

Mr. Perkins is the exalted cyclops of Unit No. 5, Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
bama, the home Klavern of Imperial Wizard Shelton, Melvin Sexton, 
and Imperial Klaliff W. O. Perkins. Lewis Perkins is one of many 
Klansmen belonging to Unit 5 that hold licenses to operate citizens 
band radios who use them in connection with Klan activities in the 
Tuscaloosa area. Others holding citizens band licenses are Robert 
M. Shelton, W. O. Perkins, and Sammy Houston Sexton. 

On January the 20th, 1965, Melvin Sexton ordered a number of 
Klavern No. 5 members to report to the office of Imperial Wizard 
Shelton in the Alston Building. In addition to Lewis Perkins, Sex- 
ton ordered Sammy Sexton, Ollie Hayes, Ray Street, Thomas Estes, 
Melvin Morris, G. L. Gaddey, Curtis Gambel, Joe Hughes, and James 
Mosley. 

Shelton gave those assembled the telephone number of the Reverend 
P. Y. Rogers, executive secretary of the Tuscaloosa Citizens for Ac- 
tion Committee. He instructed them to call the Rogers telephone 
number all night long and further instructed them not to say anything 
when the telephone was answered. 

Shelton also ordered them to be at Garner's Steak House, starting 
at 6 a.m. on January the 21st in order to keep the place full so that 
there would be no place for Negroes to sit. 

Telephone bills of the imperial office in the Alston Building are 
addressed to Lewis in care of Lewis Perkins. Perkins possesses knowl- 
edge of Klan finances. 

Mr. Chairman, this information indicates that Mr. Perkins has 
knowledge which would aid the committee in a consideration of leg- 
islation. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Perkins, you have an opportunity now to re- 
spond to this statement or any portion thereof, to confirm it, or to 
offer any other matter which might be relevant. 

Do you wish to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Absent any response, we will, unless other evidence comes before 
the committee, rely upon the accuracy of this investigation. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, are there any depository funds of the 
United Klans of America, to your knowledge, other than those main- 

59-222 O— 67 — pt. 4 17 



3152 ACTIVITIES OF KU KDUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

tained in the name of the Alabama Rescue Service, at The First Na- 
tional Bank of Tuskaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Alabama ? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Perkins, on November 15, 1965, a check cosigned 
by Imperial Wizard Shelton and James J. Hendrix was drawn in the 
amount of $2,600. The notation of this check shows that it was pay- 
ment in full for a 1963 Chrysler Imperial. 

Was there a meeting which authorized the Imperial Wizard to ap- 
propriate from the Alabama Rescue Service account the sum of $2,600? 

Mr. Lewis Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "Lewis Perkins Exhibit No. 3'' follows:) 

Lewis Perkins Exhibit No. 3 



.ri 



\. I 



JUK FlHST NAi.«>!»A» BAftH 



1 



Date: November 15, 1965 

Pay to the order of: Claud W. Dent Motors, Inc., $2,600.00 

Payment: In full for 1963 Chrysler Imperial 

Signed: Robert M. Shelton and James J. Hendrix 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

Mr. Weltner. The documents used in the course of the inquiry will 
be inserted in the record at this point. 

Mr. Buchanan ? 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman, at the risk of sounding like a broken 
record, I would like to reiterate to this witness what I said on the 
opening day of these hearings and again on last Friday, the first day 
in which we had the Alabama Avitnesses testifying again. 

I approach this investigation from the point of view, Mr. Perkins, of 
one who loves the South and its people and who understands about 
them that an overwhelming majority there deplore acts of violence 
and terrorism. 

Indeed, such acts, those who commit such acts have demonstrated 
themselves to be the worst enemies to the people of the South, creating 
a false impression of the people and what they are all over the world, 
bringing down the wrath of the Nation upon our heads, in legislation 
and otherwise, and playing into the hands of Communist conspiracy 
and thereby serving the cause of world communism, both in fomenting 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3153 

racial strife and disorder and in providing grist for the Communist 
propaganda mill. 

In light of that fact, and in light of the fact that, as I have said 
several times previously, also, as the chairman has said, he that has 
nothing to hide, has nothing to fear, I want to give you one more op- 
portunity to tell us something in refutation of all the testimony we 
have heard concerning acts of violence and terrorism, concerning 
bombings and burnings and beatings and worse, allegedly committed 
by individuals and groups connected with Klan organizations, in 
various places. 

We have had no leader, to my memory, of the Ku Klux Klan at any 
level, to tell us anything good about that organization or to refute any 
of the charges that have been made, any of the evidence that has been 
presented in these hearings. 

Now you are the exalted cyclops of the home Klavern of the Imperial 
Wizard of the United Klans of America and you ought to be in a posi- 
tion to refute or to tell us something good, if you will. 

I would like to give you that opportunity, sir. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Weltner. The record will show that there is no response from 
the witness. 

Any further questions by the staff ? 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman, one more then, please. 

I would just like to say that in light of the fact that Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama, has been often referred to in these hearings as the central, 
the home office of the United Klans of America, as the location thereof, 
I would like to point out it is also the city in which there is located the 
main campus of the University of Alabama and that the young men 
of coach Paul "Bear" Bryant's first-ranking Alabama football team 
are much more representative of the fine people of Alabama than any 
members of the United Klans of America that I have met. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Weltner. Any further questions from the staff ? 

Mr. Appell. No further questions. 

Mr. Weltner. The witness is excused, and the committee will stand 
in recess until 10 a.m. tomorrow morning. 

( Subcommittee members present at time of recess : Representatives 
Weltner and Buchanan.) 

(Wliereupon, at 4:20 p.m., Monday, February 7, 1966, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Tuesday, February 8, 1966.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

Part 4 



TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1%6 

United States House of Kepresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee 

ON Un-American Activities, 

Washington, B.C. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, as 
reconstituted for the Februaiy 8 hearings, met, pursuant to recess, at 
10 :15 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office Building, Wash- 
ington, D.C., Hon. Joe R. Pool (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of Texas, 
chairman ; John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio ; and John H. Buchanan, Jr., 
of Alabama.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool, Ashbrook, 
and Buchanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator; and Philip R. Manuel, investigator. 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

Chairman Willis has designated a subcommittee to interrogate the 
witnesses this morning, a subcommittee composed of myself, Joe Pool, 
as chairman ; Representative Buchanan ; and Representative Ashbrook. 

(The order of appointment of the subcommittee follows :) 

February 7, 1966 
To : Mr. Francis J. McNamara 
Director, Committee on Un-American Activities 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities consisting 
of Honorable Joe R. Pool as Chairman, and Honorable John M. Ashbrook and 
Honorable John Buchanan as associate members, to conduct hearings in Wash- 
ington, D.C. on Tuesday, February 8, 1966, as contemplated by the resolution 
adopted by the Committee on the 30th day of March, 1965, authorizing hearings 
concerning the activities of the various Ku Klux Klan organizations in the 
United States. 
Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 
If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 7th day of February, 1966. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis 
Edwin E. Willis 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities 

3155 



3156 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Manuel, will you call the first witness ? 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, the staff would like to call at this 
time Mr. William Perkins. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear the testbnony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. William Perkins. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM OTTO PERKINS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, would you state your full name for the 
record, sir? 

Mr. William Perkins. William Otto Perkins. 

Mr. Manuel. And Mr. Perkins, are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. William Perkins. I am. 

Mr. Manuel. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, Room 501, 
First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chalmers, is it stipulated that the opening statement 
of the chairman has been read by the witness and he understands the 
contents thereof ? 

Mr. Chalmers. It has been explained to him by me, and I so stipu- 
late ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right, thank you. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, when and where were you born, sir? 

Mr. William Perkins. I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to 
incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
amendments 5, 1,4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Manuel. Where do you currently reside, Mr. Perkins? 

Mr. William Perkins. I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to 
incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
amendments 5, 1,4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, are you appearing before the committee 
this morning in response to a subpena served upon you at 7 :10 p.m. on 
the 2d day of November 1965 at 3601 16th Street, Northeast, Holt, 
Alabama, by a deputy U.S. marshal ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Yes. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, under the subpena served to you, you 
were commanded to bring and produce certain articles and documents 
in your possession, custody, or control. 

Paragraph 1 of that subpena reads : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America. Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated or- 
ganizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service and the Whiteman's Defense 
Fund and Heritage Enterprises, Inc., in your possession, custody or control, or 
maintained by you or available to you as present or former Imperial Kligrapp 
(Secretary) and pre.sent or former Klabee (Treasurer) of the Invisible Em- 
pire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3157 

I request you to produce in your representative capacity stated in 
paragraph 1 the documents called for by part 1 of your subpena. 
(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mr. Chalmers. May I ask, Mr. Manuel, was that subpena dated 
October the 14th, 1965 ? 

Mr. Manuel. Yes, it was, Mr. Chalmers. 

Mr. William Perkins. I respectfully decline to deliver to the com- 
mittee any and all documents as demanded by the committee in a sub- 
pena dated October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that 
to do so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as 
guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of 
the United States of America. 

Mr. Pool. Hold it just a minute. 

Mr. Chalmers. He is not through with his answer yet. 

Mr. Pool. He isn't? Oh, all right, go ahead. 

Mr. William Perkins. I respectfully decline to deliver to the com- 
mittee any and all records that are requested by this committee under 
subpena dated October 14, 1965, for that information is not relevant 
and germane to the subject under investigation and the same would 
not aid the Congress in the consideration of any valid remedial leg- 
islation, nor is such inquiry within the scope of that advised (sic) to be 
investigated by Rule XI of the rules adopted by the 89th Congress, 
by House Resolution 8, adopted January the 4th, 1965. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, I ask for a direction that the witness 
be asked to produce the documents. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chalmers, what do you have to present ? 

Mr. Chalmers. I think at this point, we enter into stipulations that 
we have entered into before with respect to an order by you, before 
you order direction, 

Mr. Pool. Restate it. I don't know w^hat you are talking about. 

Mr. Chalmers. Well, sir, as I understand it, we have heretofore 
stipulated that the witness is familiar with the opening statement of 
the committee chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Yes, we have got that in. 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir ; secondly, that the witness is here and with 
respect to the capacity named in the subpena, representative capacity. 

Mr. Pool. That is what we stipulated. 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; aren't those the two stipulations that we 
have entered into before with, all witnesses? And it is so stipulated 
now with respect to this witness, if that satisfies the chairman, 

Mr. Pool. That doesn't satisfy the answer to the question though. 

Mr. Chalmers. No, sir; no, sir. 

Mr. Pool. We are just advised. 

All right, it is so stipulated as you said, 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right, now. Then I direct the witness to answer the 
question. The committee rejects your answer and orders you to pro- 
duce the material asked for under paragraph 1 of the subpena. 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chaimian, based 
upon tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. All right, go ahead. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, paragraph 2 of your subpena commands 
you to bring forth and produce : 



3158 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or former Imperial Klisrapp (Secretary) and present or former 
Klabee (Treasurer) of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan, which tlie "Constitution and Laws" of said organization authorize and 
require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said organization, the 
same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I request you to produce in your respresentative capacity stated in 
paragraph 2 of the subpena the documents called for in that paragraph. 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
connnittee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce the documents. 

Mr. Pool. The chairman rejects your reasons and orders you to 
produce the material asked for under paragraph 2. 

Mr. Chalmers. And with respect to paragraph 2, the stipulations 
that were entered into with respect to paragraph 1 are so stipulated, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. You should have said that before I directed him. 

Mr. Chalmers. All right, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right, w4th the stipulations there, I will direct you 
again, then. We accept the stipulations. We reject your reasons 
given for not answering, and I direct you and order you to produce the 
materials and records ordered under paragraph 2 of the subpena. 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. All right, go ahead, Mr. Manuel. 

Mr. Manuel. Paragraph 3 of your subpena, Mr. Perkins, orders 
you to produce: 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1120, 
"U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return," for the fiscal years 1961 through June 30, 
1965, filed by you as Imperial Kligrapp (Secretary), present or fonner, and 
present or former Klabee (Treasurer) of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans 
of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity stated therein, Mr. Perkins, I ask you 
to produce the documents called for in paragraph 3 of the subpena. 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chalmers, do we have the same stipulations? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right, accepted, and I reject your reasons for not pro- 
ducing the records asked for in paragraph 3. 

I order and direct you to produce them at this time. 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered by the chainnan, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, paragraph 4 of your subpena commands 
you to produce: 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. Individual Income Tax Return," for the calendar years 1958 through 1964, 
filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, 
Internal Revenue Service. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3159 

I ask you noAv, sir, to produce the documents called for in paragraph 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to deliver to the 
committee the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. That includes the fifth amendment? 

Mr. William Perkins. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, are you currently a member of the 
Realm of Alabama, United Klans of America? 

Mr. William Perkins. I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the reason that I honestly feel that my rights might tend to 
incriminate — my answer might tend to incriminate me in violation of 
my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the 
Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Manuel. Have you ever held any office on the imperial level of 
the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Have you ever been elected to the position of Imperial 
Kligrapp ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Manuel, on the results of your investigation, do you 
liave any facts on that ? 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer any of my questions, I present 
to the committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to 
Mr. Perkins. 

Mr. Perkins was born on April 23, 1930, at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. He 
currently operates the Perkins Cabinet Shop at 3601 16th Street, 
Holt, Alabama. He currently resides on Route 1. Northport, Ala- 
bama, and Mr. Perkins is known to have held membership in the United 
Klans of America, Incorporated, and has attended United Klan meet- 
ings in the past at the Tuscaloosa Klavern No. 5 in Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
bama. 

William Otto Perkins is listed as a director of Heritage Enterprises, 
Incorporated, along with Robert Shelton, Donald Luna, Calvin Fred 
Craig, and others. Heritage Enterprises is known to have been estab- 
lished by certain leaders of the United Klans of America as a corpo- 
rate device to raise money through the sale of insurance, mostly to 
Klan members, and other legitimate business ventures. In addition to 
being a director of the corporation, Perkins was listed as an assistant 
secretary of that company ( Robert Shelton Exhibit No. 12) . 

When the United Klans of America applied as a foreign corpora- 
tion to do business in the State of North Carolina in July 1965, William 
Otto Perkins of 17 Lake Sherwood, Northport, Alabama, was listed 
as the treasurer of said corporation. 

Raymond Mills, w^ho was the exalted cyclops of a United Klans of 
America Klavern in New Bern, North Carolina, turned over to the 
committee the charter which was granted to that Klavern by the 
imperial office of the United Klans of America. 

Signatures on this document are identified as follows: Robert M. 
Shelton, Imperial Wizard; James R. Jones, Grand Dragon of the 



3160 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Kealm of North Carolina ; and W. O. Perkins, Imperial Kligrapp or 
secretary. 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. 

Mr. Manuel. Further, Mr. Chairman, investigation by this com- 
mittee has established that William O. Perkins was elected to the 
office of Imperial Kligrapp, or secretary, of the United Klans of 
America on February 9, 1964, at a convention of that organization at 
the Tutwiler Hotel in Birmingham, Alabama. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that he possesses addi- 
tional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this inquiry 
and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial legisla- 
tion. 

Mr. Pool. Is that all of the statement ? 

Mr. Manuel. That is all of the statement right now, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Perkins, you have heard the sworn statement of the 
committee's investigator. 

You now have the opportunity to reply to any portion of that 
statement, to confirm, admit, or deny or challenge the veracity of the 
information. And also, you can use this time to explain or modify 
any part of that statement. In addition, you may, if you desire, 
offer any other matter the committee may deem pertinent to this 
inquiry. 

What is your pleasure? Would you like to do any of that? 

You don't care to make any further statement along this line. 

Mr. Chalmers. Let the record so show, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Let the record so show what ? 

Mr. Chalmers. That he does not desire to make any statement. 

Mr. Pool. He can't say "no," even ? 

You are not going to allow him to say "no", he doesn't care to? 

How about taking the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Chalmers. I don't think he needs to take the fiffh. I have 
no objections, but there was no question asked. 

Mr. Pool. All right, do you have a statement to make ? 

Mr. Chalmers. He does not. 

Mr. Pool. Are you going to answer me ? 

Mr. William Perkins. I respectively decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the reason that I honestly feel in my answer might tend to 
incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by 
amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Pool. All right, Mr. Perkins, I must inform you that, absent 
your rebuttal and other facts that may come to the attention of the 
subcommittee, this committee will rely upon the accuracy of this 
investigation. 

Bearing this in mind, do you have anything further to say ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. All right, from now on, I ask a question, you either 
answer it or take the fifth amendment, and don't rely on your lawyer 
to do your answering. He is a nice fellow, but I am asking you the 
questions. 

Go ahead, Mr. Manuel. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3161 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, I would like to show you a photostatic 
copy of an application for certificate of authority of the foreign cor- 
poration, in this case, the "Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights 
Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc.," which as the document says, was 
incorporated under the laws of the State of Georgia for a period of 
85 years on the 20th of February 1961, listing the headquarters of the 
organization as Suite 401, Alston Building, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and 
this particular document is a photostatic copy of the request to do 
business as a corporation in the State of North Carolina. 

On page two of this document are listed the following individuals: 
Mr. Robert M. Shelton, Suite 401, Alston Building, Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
bama, president; Mr. Melvin Sexton, Suite 401, Alston Building, 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama, secretary ; Mr. Robert Thompson, vice president, 
of "Marbleton," Georgia ; and "Mr. W. O. Perkin," treasurer, 17 Lake 
Sherwood, Northport, Alabama. 

Mr. Perkins. I show you this document, and ask if you are the 
"W.O. Perkin" so listed? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Robert Shelton Exhibit No. 21." 
See pp. 1662-1664.) 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know Robert M. Shelton listed herein to be 
the president of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of America, Incorporated? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know Mr. Melvin Sexton to be the secretary of 
that corporation ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. To your knowledge, has Mr. Melvin Sexton ever been 
elected to the position of secretary of the United Klans of America? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Have you ever been elected to the position of treasurer 
of that corporation ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact that on Februai^y 9, 1964, at a convention of the general 
membership of the United Klans of America, you were elected to the 
position of Imperial Kligrapp or secretary? 

Would you explain to the committee, in light of that, how Mr. Melvin 
Sexton applies or signs as secretary of the corporation ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Manuel. Under what authority do you, Mr. Perkins, sign as 
treasurer of that corporation ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, I would like to show you a photostatic 
copy of a charter granted by the Imperial Palace of the Invisible 



3162 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Empire of the United Klans, Knights of the Ku Khix Klan of Amer- 
ica, Incorporated, to a Klavern located at New Bern, North Carolina. 

On this copy of this charter, you will see the signatures of Robert 
M. Shelton, signing as Imperial Wizard of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans; James R. Jones, signing as Grand Dragon of the 
realm; and a signature bearing the name "William O. Perkins, Im- 
perial Kligrapp," or secretary. 

I show you this document, Mr. Perkins, and ask you if that is your 
signature on that photostatic copy ? 

( Document handed to witness. ) 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Document previously marked "James Jones Exhibit No. 26." See 
p. 1765.) 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, I should like to show you a portion of 
that photostatic copy, considerably blown up by photographic means, 
listing the name William O. Perkins, the signature William O. Per- 
kins, and under that signature, there is printed the initals "C L." 

I would like to show you this, Mr. Perkins, and ask you if you can 
identify for the committee the initials "C L." 

( Document handed to witness. ) 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, I would like to ask you at this time 
whether the initials "C L." stand for the name "Carol Long" ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know Carol Long ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, investigation conducted by this com- 
mittee has established that one Carol Long has in the past signed the 
name "T. M. Montgomery" to checks of the Alabama Rescue Service, 
of an account maintained at the First National Bank of Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama. 

Do you have any knowledge of this, sir ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, at this time, I would like to read into 
the record from the Constitution and Laws of the United Klans of 
America, Incorporated, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (Robert Shel- 
ton Exhibit No. 3), Section 4 of Article X which lists the duties of 
the imperial officers and duties of the Imperial Kilgrapp : 

IMPERIAL KLIGRAPP: Is the Supreme Secretary and recording officer of 
this Order. He shall be the secretary of the Imperial Klonvokation and shall 
act as secretary of the Imperial Kloncilium and shall have general supervision 
of all the clerical work and workings. He shall keep an accurate account of 
the receipts and disbursments. He shall sign all papers, vouchers and other 
documents requiring his signature of attestation. He shall prepare and submit 
a report of the workings of his office to each session of the Imperial Klonvoka- 
tion. He shall furnish the Imperial Kloncilium, when requested, with such in- 
formation as they desire with reference to his office. In the event additional 
clerical help is needed in the Imperial office it may be secured upon recommen- 
dation of the Imperial Wizard and approval of the Imperial Board. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3163 

Mr. Perkins, having been elected to the position of Imperial 
Kligrapp, have yon performed the duties for the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans of America, as outlined in the Constitution and Laws 
of that organization? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel, Mr. Perkms, investigation has shown that you were 
elected to the position of Imperial Kligrapp on February 9, 1964, and 
that subsequent to that election — and incidentally, Mr. Chairman, 
according to the constitution, the Imperial Kligrapp holds the position 
for 2 years, which would mean that technically, according to the con- 
stitution, Mr. Perkins' term of office ends tomorrow. 

Investigation of the committee has shown that an additional klon- 
cilium or klonvokation of the United Klans w^as held in September, at 
Birmingham, Alabama. 

Did you, Mr. Perkins, as secretary, keep the records of that 
klonvokation ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Where are those records now, sir ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectably decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Are you a candidate for reelection ? 

Mr. William IPerkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to show that, 
subsequent to the klonvokation held in September of 1964 in Birming- 
ham, the rules of the United Klans have been changed and amended 
to include the term of office for the Imperial Kligrapp, which now lasts 
for 3 years, so that Mr. Perkins has an additional year in his term of 
office. 

Mr. Perkins, would you please inform the committee of your knowl- 
edge of a corporate institution known as Heritage Enterprises, 
Incorporated ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Were you ever a director of that corporation? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you ever buy stock or contribute financially to 
that corporation? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
(Question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. In your duty as assistant secretary of that corpora- 
tion, did you maintain any of its records? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you know Mr. Robert M. Shelton, Mr. Donald 
E. Luna, and Mr. Calvin Fred Craig to be also directors of that 
corporation? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 



3164 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN EST THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, did you ever purchase an insurance pol- 
icy from Heritage Enterprises, Incorporated ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you, as a matter of fact, default on your payment 
on one of the policies written by Heritage Enterprises, Incorporated? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Buchanan ? 

Mr. Buchanan. No, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Manuel. Just a moment. 

Mr. Perkins, do you maintain a citizens radio license? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I i-espectfully decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Have you been granted a license by the Federal 
Communications Commission to include 10 transmitters? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Is your call sign KDD 2533 ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr, Perkins, I would like to show you a copy of the 
Federal Communications Commission citizens radio license listing 
your own name, care of Perkins Cabinet Shop, giving the call letters 
that I have just mentioned, stating that you have been authorized to 
maintain citizens band radios for the period from March 22, 1963, to 
March 22, 1968, and listing that you are authorized 10 transmitters. 

I hand you this document, and ask you if the information con- 
tained thereon is correct ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "William Perkins Exhibit No. 1" appears on 
pp. 3165, 3166.) 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, have you ever used citizens band radios 
in connection with any Klan activity ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Perkins, the subcommittee has m its possession 
a letter from the United States Commission on Civil Rights, to the 
Federal Communications Commission, and I will quote a passage of 
that particular letter: 

It has come to our attention from various sources tihat radio-equipped auto- 
mobiles are being u'^ed by terrorist groups in various parts of the South for the 
purpose of coordinating attacks on Negroes and civil rights workers. 

In particular, we have reports that in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, a group has been 
using radio-equipped automobiles to inform one another of places of public 
accommodations at which Negroes attempt to obtain service. Apparently, when 
a person in one of the cars observes Negroes going into a restaurant a call is 
sent out to other cars which converge on the scene. We understand that these 
gatherings have resulted in acts of intimidation and violence. 

The following call letters are reportedly being used by these cars ; * * * 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3165 

William Perkins Exhibit No. 1 



CITIZENS RADIO LICENSE 






"WHn-jai-d. PKBKIN8 
DBA PEaKIil^ GABlMkT aauP 



ROUTS OMK 
MORHiFORT, ALitfiAMA 



.0 — n 






Tusoal*«s« 



(■■OMMISSION FILE OOPV 



KD6k2533 






iic^^KnTi^^^ir 



f Xtr: 



....,., '4lAfi^2 J94J 
MkR 22 19.68 „.„..k,.., 



■^2t.»c^7f ^^^ 






,n -oE 



t-^ 



A 



All Km ». n I. ■. -od. I. *. .»,l.ci>o.tf£<i.cl.d ..k.k 

lODmrrTiuT •x'l!. 

Tk. «J.c~. ,. J*. .» rf fCtt-. ., .., 1. 

TV. •«,« .,1! b..»...X77,ii „,,A^<AtK .h. ,pp 



,1 Co-~...«t,o,. C» 



APPUCATWN MUST BE SKNED AND DATED 



a— — — 
n-— - -— 

u— 0'- ™ 



3-15^63 
OViier 



3166 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

William Perkins Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 
WARNING 



(SMaMllOH ■•.IHCI 



I. Whn m cka^a «BW I 






( CommlBSUHi's Rules. 



isi-rjps:: 




^■7.r.r=:-' 




■► H jr ^rgr^^gjjsL 'B tf**' ^'* 



ril5'i.yL.u i« jUX - sca^-^ifr w w T »»« — " "^ 



1. Yes 

owner - William 0. Perkina 
Nature of business activity 
Cdbinet making &. Millwork 

Location &. Purposes: 

aas© #1 Home 

Base #2 Business -^ 

1 in Business AutoJs,obile 

1 in Business Truok 

3 in Employee's Automobiles 

Units to be used for business. 

Base #1 home 

1 in Business ABtonkblle 

lo be used for personal pleasure. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3167 

And in the series of call letters listed, Mr. Perkins, is KDD 2533, 
which is, according to the record of the Federal Communications 
Commission, the call letters assigned to you. 

I ask you, Mr. Perkins, if the information that I just read to you 
from this letter is correct ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Lewis Perkins Exhibit No. 1." 
See p. 3149.) 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have knowledge of any other Klansmen or 
any other person known to you to be a member of the United Klans 
using citizens band radios to promote acts of intimidation or 
violence ? 

Mr. William Perkins. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that 
question, based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manl^el. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Manuel, I would like to put in the record here that 
this committee, I believe, will go on record as asking the Federal 
Communications Commission to investigate this further, and in view 
of the fact that this gentleman has taken the fifth amendment in 
answer to your questions on this use of the citizens band radio, they 
certainly should look into it and see whether or not any illegal use 
has been made of his license. 

Let the record so show. 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, at this time, the staif would like to 
call Mr. Fredrick Smith. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Smith. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FREDRICK GERALD SMITH, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, would you please state your full name, 
sir? 

Mr. Smith. Fredrick Gerald Smith. 

Mr. Manuel. And are you represented by counsel, Mr. Smith ? 

Mr. Smith. I am. 

Mr. Manuel. Would counsel please identify himself for the 
record ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, Room 
501, First Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. 

Do we have the same stipulations, Mr. Chalmers, that the witness 
has been furnished a copy of the chairman's opening statement when 
this hearing started ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. And he is familiar with the contents therein and under- 
stands them. 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 4- 



3168 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. That is the stipiihitioii. All right. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, when and wliere were you born? 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendment 5, 1, 
4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Pool. Do you seriously think that that would incriminate you, 
telling where and when you were bom ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated, 

Mr. Pool. And you don't care to cooperate with the Congress of the 
United States in this investigation ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Well, your answers definitely show that you are not go- 
ing to cooperate, but go ahead, Mr. Manuel, and ask further questions. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr, Smith, where do you currently reside? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectively decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, have you ever been a member of the United 
Klans of America, Realm of Alabama ? 

Mr. Smith. I respectively decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 
4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, are you appearing before the committee 
this morning in response to a subpena served upon you at 12 :10 p.m. 
on the 27th day of October 1965 at Route 1, Fayette, Alabama, by a 
deputy U.S. marshal ? 

Mr. Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, paragraph 1 of your subpena commands 
you to. produce: 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated orga- 
nizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service and Whiteman's Defense Fund, 
in your possession, cu.stody or control, or maintained by you or available to you 
as present or former Imperial Klabee (Treasurer) and present or former Im- 
perial Kligrapp (Secretary) of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of 
the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, 
Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Mr. Smith, in the representative capacity stated in paragraph 1 of 
that subpena, I ask you now to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chalmers, are you going to make your stipulation 
at this time? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; the same stipulation with this witness as 
with respect to all other witnesses that the chairman and myself have 
heretofore entered into are certainly stipulated with respect to this 
witness. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

I direct the witness to answer the question or to furnish the material 
as called for in the subpena, paragraph 1. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE XJ.S. 3169 

Mr. Chalmers. No, sir; I believe he has not given an answer. 

He has not answered yet. I think we are a little premature. 

Mr. Pool. All right, go ahead and answer. 

Mr. Smith. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents as demanded by the committee in a subpena dated 
October 14, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do so 
might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
requested by this committee under subpena dated October 14, 1965, 
for that information is not relevant and germane to the subject under 
investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the con- 
sideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry withm 
the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Rule XI of the rules 
adopted by the 89th Congress, by House Resolution 8, adopted Janu- 
ary 4, 1965. 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, the same stipulations that I have 
heretofore entered into with respect to the other Avitnesses I have 
represented before this committee are also entered into and stipulated 
with the chairman with respect to this witness, with respect to para- 
graph 1 of the subpena duces tecum. 

Mr. Pool. All right, now the committee rejects the reasons given 
and directs and orders you to produce the material and the other infor- 
mation that was called for under paragraph 1 of the subpena. 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. I wish to point out at this time that the House of Rep- 
resentatives, by an overwhelming vote, a few days ago — I think there 
were only 28 dissenting votes — supported the committee's reasons for 
rejecting your answer and voted to send the citation to the Federal 
attorney to present to a grand jury to see whether or not seven mem- 
bers of the Ku Klux Klan are in contempt of Congress. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, paragraph 2 of your subpena calls for you 
to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your posses- 
sion, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or former Imperial Klabee (Treasurer) and present or former Im- 
perial Kligrapp (Secretary) of the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said organization 
authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer of said or- 
ganization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

In the representative capacity stated in paragraph 2, Mr. Smith, 
I ask you now to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
produce. 

Mr. Chalmers. Mr. Chairman, the stipulations with respect to this 
witness as entered into and stipulated by me as his attorney with 



3170 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

respect to paragraph 1 are also stipulated and entered into with 
respect to paragraph 2. 

Mr. Pool. All right, so stipulated. 

I direct the — have you answered? Have you given your answer to 
the interrogator? 

I direct you to furnish the committee the material and papers that 
were called for under paragraph 2 of the subpena. 

I direct and order you to present them at this time. 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, paragraph 3 of your subpena calls for you 
to produce : 

Copies of the U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service. Form 1120, 
"U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return," for the fiscal years 1961 through June 30, 
1965, filed by you as present or former Imperial Klabee (Treasurer) and present 
or former Imperial Kligrapp (Secretary) of the Invisible Empire, United Klans. 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans 
of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Mr. Smith, in the representative capacity listed in paragraph 3, I 
ask you now to produce those documents, sir. 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered, upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have a stipulation on that ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; with respect to paragraph 3, the same 
stipulation. 

Mr. Pool. So stipulated. 

I direct you to present to the committee at this time the materials 
and information that are called for in paragraph 3 of the subpena. 

I direct and order you to present them at this time. 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, paragraph 4 of your subpena calls upon 
you to produce: 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. Individual Income Tax Return," for the calendar years 1958 through 1964, 
filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, Inter- 
nal Revenue Service. 

I ask you now to produce those documents. 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Pool. Including the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Smith. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, have you ever held an office on the imperial 
level of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incrimi- 
nate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 
5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3171 

Mr. ALA.NUEL. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer my questions, I present to the 
committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. Smith. 

Mr. Smith was born on July 16, 1936, at Dearborn, Michigan. He 
currently resides on Route 1, Fayette, Alabama, and is employed as a 
night inspections and control foreman at Arvin Industries in Fayette, 
Alabama. 

Smith is an active member of the Tuscaloosa Klavern No. 5 of the 
United Klans of America. 

Committee investigation has established that Fredrick Smith was 
elected Imperial Klabee or treasurer of the United Klans of America 
at a klonvokation held on February the 9th, 1964, at the Tutwiler 
Hotel in Birmingham, Alabama, and Smith has served as Imperial 
Klabee of United Klans of America since the founding of that organ- 
ization in July 1961. 

Investigation of this committee reflected that in the December 13, 
1962, edition of the weekly newspaper Gra'phic of Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
bama, an article appeared identifying Fred Smith as a special con- 
stable of Justice of the Peace W. E. Johnston. 

Smith's job was described as a variety of duties, and he was com- 
niissioned to carry a pistol. It is known that Fredrick Smith owns a 
pistol and has a permit to carry same. 

Smith is known to have attended meetings of Tuscaloosa Klavern 
No. 5 at the Klan hall near Cottondale, Alabama, on May 22, 1963, and 
January 30, 1963, as well as other meetings during the years of 1964 
and 1965. 

Investigation has revealed that on June 24, 1964, Fred Smith was 
in attendance at a closed meeting of the Tuscaloosa Klavern No. 5, 
and Smith indicated that Imperial Wizard Robert Shelton wanted 
the antimask law read carefully by the Klan lawyer, as Shelton wanted 
some cases brought into court to test the law. 

It was also discussed at these meetings that those members who had 
gun permits were to wear their guns at the forthcoming Klan rally 
to be held at J.C. Park in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, on June 27, 1964, 
which was to be an open-air rally, and the public was to be invited. 

As of April 17, 1964, it was known that Smith had been traveling 
around the State of Alabama at that time endeavoring to solicit new 
Klansmen and set up new Klaverns and reactivate old Klaverns and 
had been in the area of Dothan, Alabama, recently in that regard. 
Also, Smith was known to have visited the vicinity of Greensboro, 
North Carolina, in an effort to secure new Klan members in that area. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that Mr. Smith possesses 
additional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this 
inquiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Smith, you have heard the sworn statement of the 
committee's investigator. 

Now you have the opportunity to reply to any portion of that state- 
ment. You have the opportunity to confirm or deny or challenge the 
accuracy of the information or to explain it, or any part of the 
statement. 

In addition, you may, if you desire, offer any other matter the sub- 
committee may deem relevant to this inquiry. 



3172 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Do you have a further statement ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Smith, I must inform you that, absent your rebuttal 
or other facts that may come to the attention of the committee, this 
commitee will rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. 

Bearing this in mind, do you have any further thing to say? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. All right, go ahead, Mr. Manuel. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, at this point, I should like to read 
into the record from the Constitution and Laws of the United Klans 
of America, Incorporated. (Kobert Shelton Exhibit No. 8), the duties 
of the Imperial Klabee as stated in the Constitution : 

IMPERIAL KLABEE : Is the Supreme Treasurer of this Order and is, there- 
fore, the custodian of its funds, and he shall countersign all checks with the 
Imperial Wizard, and he shall make a full and complete report of his oflBce to 
the regular Klonvokation each and every year. 

Mr. Smith, I ask you as the elected Imperial Klabee of the United 
Klans of America, have you performed the duties outlined in the 
Constitution and Laws of that organization? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Where are the records which you, under the Consti- 
tution and Laws, are supposed to keep as Imperial Klabee? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, the commite has obtained by subpena 
duces tecum the account of the Alabama Rescue Service from The 
First National Bank of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and an examination of 
checks issued by the United Klans of America fails to reflect the 
name of Fredrick Smith. 

Could you explain to the committee why this is ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, do you know an individual named Carol 
Long? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have knowledge that Carol Long has signed 
the name "T. M. Montgomery" to disbursements made by the United 
Klans of America? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know James J. Hendrix ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know that Mrs. Robert Shelton has signed 
the name "James J. Hendrix" to checks of the account of the Ala- 
bama Rescue Service, that is, the account of the United Klans of 
America ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3173 

Mr. Manuel. To your knowledge, Mr. Smith, by what authority are 
the names "T, M. Montgomery" and "James J. Hendrix" affixed to 
checks of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Maxuel. To your knowledge, do the membership and officers 
of the United Klans of America know that Carol Long and Mrs. 
Robert Shelton sign the names "T. M. Montgomery" and "James J. 
Hendrix" to checks of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, I would like to hand you a copy of a sig- 
nature card filed with The First National Bank of Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
bama, dated September 24, 1961, on which appears the names "Fred- 
rick G. Smith" and "Alvin B. Sisk," giving the address 401 Alston 
Building, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and the account opened is that of the 
Alabama Rescue Service. 

I show you this, Mr. Smith, and ask if that is your signature on the 
document ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Robert Shelton Exhibit No. 6." 
See p. 1619.) 

Mr. Manuel. Has that signature card ever been changed, Mr. 
Smith, to reflect other names, even though, according to the commit- 
tee's investigation, you have kept the office of Imperial Klabee or 
treasurer ? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. When was the last time you ever signed a cheek of the 
United Klans of America as Imperial Klabee? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Smith, have you any knowledge of the bombings 
^^•hich occurred in the Birmingham, Alabama, area in September of 
1963? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you participate in the bombing of the 16th Street 
Baptist Church on September 15, 1963? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Have you any knowledge of where the Klan obtains 
dynamite? 

Mr. Smith. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have questions ? 

Mr. Buchanan. This witness was born in Michigan, did you say ? 

Mr. Manuel. Dearborn, Michigan. 

Mr. Buchanan. Do you have information indicating when he came 
to Alabama? 



3174 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Maniiel. Our records do not reflect that. 

Mr. Buchanan. Thank you. 

Mr. Pool. I might make this comment. I wish we had kept a rec- 
ord of how many fifth amendments have been taken since the hearings 
started in October. I think maybe we have set a new record here. 

The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, we would like to call Mr. William 
Sexton. William Melvin Sexton. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Sexton. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM MELVIN SEXTON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LESTER V. CHALMERS, JR. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, would you please state your full name 
for the record ? 

Mr. Sexton. William Melvin Sexton. 

Mr. Manuel. Are you known mostly by the name Melvin Sexton ? 

Mr. Sexton. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Are you represented by counsel, Mr. Sexton? 

Mr. Sexton. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Would counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chalmers. Lester V. Chalmers, Jr., attorney at law, 501 First 
Federal Building, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. 

Mr. Chalmers, is it so stipulated that the witness has been fur- 
nished a copy of the chairman's opening statement and he understands 
the contents therein ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, when and where were you born, sir? 

Mr. Sexton. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 
1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States* of America. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, where do you currently reside? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, are you appearing before the committee 
this morning in response to a subpena served upon you at 11 :50 a.m. 
on the 26th day of October 1965 by a deputy U.S. marshal at the 
Dent Motor Company, Tuscaloosa, Alabama? 

Mr. Sexton. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. An attachment of the subpena, Mr. Sexton, calls upon 
you to produce, and I will read to you paragraph 1 : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as 
the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3175 

organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service and Whiteman's Defense 
Fund, in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available 
to you as present or former Imperial Kligrapp (Secretary) of the Invisible 
Empire, United Klans. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also 
known as the United Klans of America, Inc.. Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Mr. Sexton, in the representative capacity stated in paragraph 1, 
I ask you now to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. Let me see that subpena. 

Now where were you ? 

Mr. Manuel. I just asked Mr. Sexton, I believe, to produce the 
documents in the paragraph 1. 

Mr. Pool. Do you wish to enter into a stipulation at this time? 

Mr. Chalmers. I will do it either way, at the end of his answer, 
or either way the chairman suggests. 

Mr. Pool. All right, let's do it at the end of his answer. 

Mr. Chalmers. All right, sir. 

Mr. Sexton. I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any 
and all documents demanded by the committee in a subpena dated 
October the 14th, 1965, for the reason that I honestly feel that to do 
so might tend to incriminate me in violation of my rights as guaranteed 
to me by amendments 5, 1, 4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee any and all records 
as requested by this committee under subpena dated October the 14th, 
1965, for the information is not relevant and gennane to the subject 
under investigation and the same would not aid the Congress in the 
consideration of any valid remedial legislation, nor is such inquiry 
within the scope of that authorized to be investigated by Kule XI of 
the rules adopted by the 89th Congress by House Eesolution 8, adopted 
January the 4th, 1965. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chalmers, state your stipulation again; will you? 

Mr. Chalmers. Yes, sir; it is stipulated, if the chairman pleases, 
that the witness has been furnished a copy of the opening statement of 
the chairman ; it is also stipulated that with respect to the representa- 
tive capacity listed in the subpena, that he is here in accordance with 
what is stated in a representative capacity as to paragraph 1 of the 
subpena. 

Mr. Pool. All right. So stipulated. 

That is the same stipulation you have entered into previously on 
other witnesses. 

Mr. Chalmers. With respect to every witness that I have appeared 
with here in the hearings, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Thank you. Thank you, sir. Let the record so show. 

The committee rejects your reasons and orders you to produce the 
material and records called for in paragraph 1 of the subpena. 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. ]VL\nuel. Mr. Sexton, paragraph 2 of your subpena calls upon 
you to produce : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as present or former Imperial Kligrapp (Secretary) of the United Klans of 



3176 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" 
of said organization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other 
oflScer of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or 
control. 

In the representative capacity outlined in paragraph 2, I request 
you now to produce tliose documents. 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Chalmers. With respect to paragraph 2 

Mr. Pool. Same stipulation ? 

Mr. Chalmers. Same stipulation as to paragraph 1, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. All right, the committee rejects your reasons and orders 
and directs you to produce the material and records called for in para- 
graph 2 of the subpena. 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead, Mr. Manuel. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, paragraph 3 of your subpena calls upon 
you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1120, 
"U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return," for the fiscal years 11»61 through June 30, 
1965, filed by you as present or former Imperial Kligrapp (Secretary) of the 
Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., 
also known as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity stated in paragraph 3, 1 ask you now 
to produce those documents. 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Chalmers. Same stipulation with respect to paragraph 3 as with 
respect to paragraphs 2 and 1. 

Mr. Pool. All right, so stipulated. 

The Chair now rejects the reasons given and orders and directs you 
to produce the material and records called for in paragraph 3. 

Mr. Sexton, Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered by the chairman, based upon the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, paragraph 4 of your subpena calls upon 
you to produce : 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1040, 
"U.S. Individual Income Tax Returns," for the calendar years 1958 through 1964, 
filed by you as an individual taxpayer with the U.S. Treasury Department, In- 
ternal Revenue Service. 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to deliver to the committee 
the documents heretofore ordered, based upon the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, have you ever been elected by the mem- 
bership of the United Klans of America to any position in that order? 

Mr. Sexton. I respectfully decline to answer that question for the 
reason that I honestly feel that my answer might tend to incriminate 
me in violation of my rights as guaranteed to me by amendments 5, 1, 
4, and 14 of the Constitution of the United States of America. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3177 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, have you ever signed in an official capacity 
as tlie secretary of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' claim of privi- 
lege and his consistent refusal to answer any of my questions, I present 
to the committee the results of our investigation as they pertain to Mr. 
Sexton. 

Mr. Sexton is known to be a member of the United Klans of America 
and he attends meetings at the Klavern No. 5 at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

Mr. Sexton is not known by this committee to have been elected to 
any position on the imperial level by the membership. Mr. Sexton's 
name appears on several bank accounts of the United Klans of America, 
namely, the United Klans of America Defense Fund, held at The First 
National Bank of Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

Mr. Sexton is also known to have signed as secretary on the in- 
come tax returns filed by the United Klans of America in the year 
1964. 

This information, Mr. Chairman, indicates that he possesses addi- 
tional information which is both pertinent and relevant to this in- 
quiry and would materially aid the Congress in enacting remedial 
legislation. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Sexton, you heard the sworn statement of the com- 
mittee's investigator. 

You now have an opportunity to reply to any portion of that state- 
ment and confirm or cliallenge the accuracy of this information, or to 
explain any part of that statement. In addition, you may, if you de- 
sire, offer any otlier matter that the committee may deem pertinent 
to the inquiry. Do you have a statement? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Sexton, I must inform you that, absent your rebuttal 
or other facts which may come to the attention of the committee, this 
committee will rely upon the accuracy of its investigation. 

Bearing this in mind, do you have anything further to say? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead, Mr. Manuel. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, I would like to show you a copy of an 
application for certificate of authority of a foreign corporation, 
namely, the "Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights Ku Klux Klan 
of America, Inc.," which was incorporated under the laws of the State 
of Georgia on the 20tli day of February 1961, the headquarters listed 
at Suite 401, Alston Building, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

This photostatic copy of an application is for the United Klans of 
America to do business in the State of North Carolina. 

On the second page of this document, Mr. Sexton, I point your atten- 
tion to the signature of Melvin Sexton, using the title of secretary of 
the corporation. I show you this, Mr. Sexton, and ask if you did, m 
fact, sign this particular document? 
(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Manuel. The original of that document. 



3178 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document previously marked "Robert Sheltoii Exhibit No. 21." 
See pp. 1662-1664.) 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, by what authority within the United 
Klans of America do you sign your name as secretary of the corpora- 
tion? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that on February 9, 1964, Mr. W. O. Perkins was elected to 
the position of Imperial Secretary by the general membership of the 
United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Pool. Counsel, what did he sign? What was the document? 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, he signed an application for certificate 
of authority of a foreign corporation to do business in the State of 
North Carolina. 

This document was filed in the State of North Carolina in July 1965 
and bears the signatures of the principal officers, namely, Robert M. 
Shelton as president and Melvin Sexton as secretary. 

The committee 

Mr. Pool. You have no information, though, that he actually was 
secretary ; do you ? 

Mr. Manuel. We have no information, Mr. Chairman, that Mr. 
Sexton was ever elected secretary by the general membei*ship of the 
United Klans of America, and my question to Mr. Sexton was by what 
authority does he sign his name as secretary of the corporation, when 
committee investigation has revealed that in the year 1964 Mr. W. O. 
Perkins, a previous witness before the committee, was elected to that 
position for a period of 2 years, which was amended to include an 
additional year. 

Mr. Pool. Was that signed under oath ? 

Mr. Manuel. It is certified by a notary public in the State of 
Alabama. 

Mr, Pool. Let's see the certification. 

Let the record show that this notarization certificate of the notary 
public says : 

Robert M. SheHton and Melvin Sexton, eadi being duly sworn, deposes and says 
that he signed the foregoing "Application for Certificate of Authority" in the 
capacity indicated, and that the statements therein contained are true and 
correct. 

So with this document in the record, I think that we certainly should 
notify the State of North Carolina of a discrepancy there in the fact 
that we have evidence that one man is supposed to be the secretary, and 
yet he signed this as secretary on this application. 

I think, certainly, that should be brought to their attention. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, on the same document, "Mr. W. O. Per- 
kin" ^ of 17 Lake Sherwood, Northport, Alabama, is listed as the 
treasurer of the Invisible Empire. 

1 Correct name "W. O. Perkins." 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3179 

Is that certification of Mr. Perkins as treasurer, to your knowledge, 
truthful? 

Mr. Sexton, Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, to your knowledge, is Mr. Fredrick 
Smith the treasurer or Imperial Klabee of the United Klans of 
America ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Pool. You have had evidence to that effect, that he is treasurer? 

Mr. Manuel. Committee investigation, Mr. Chairman, has show^n 
that Mr. Smith was elected to the position of treasurer on the same 
date and at the same convention or klonvokation that Mr. W. O. 
Perkins was elected secretary. 

The committee has no information that these men have not been — 
have not. held that office continuously from that time on. 

Mr. Sexton, the committee has obtained by subpena duces tecum 
from The First National Bank of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, an account 
of the "U.K.A. Defence Fund," and on this signature card is listed 
the signature of Melvin Sexton, care of 17 Lake Sherwood, Northport, 
Alabama. 

I show you this, Mr. Sexton, .and ask if you are the Melvin Sexton 
listed on that account? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "William Sexton Exhibit No. 1" follows:) 

William Sexton Exhibit No. 1 



FIRST NATIONAL BANK, TUSKALOOSA, ALABAMA 

Thf hank li hereby tuthorlzed lo rffcinlie the iljnature ticruifd hfrewlth In payment of fundi or trtnmnion of «ny oi 

• !iumei no rejpnngllilllly beyond the eierrlio of due cire. All Itemi arc rredllrd nuhjec t lo final payment In rnjh or i 
yenl rrcdll. This bank will not he liable for defaull or nenllgenre of In duly lelr. led rnrreapondenn nor for Inmei In tra 
It. and each rorreipondent in aelected ihttl not be liable except for Its own ne«ll(ienre. This bank or Us rorrr«ponflentB n 
send Items, directly or Indirectly, to any binlt Including the payor, and accept Its draft or credit ai conditional payment In 
lieu of cash: It may charge back any liem ai any time before final payment, whether returned or not. also anv Hem drawn 
on this bank not jood at close of buslneni on day deposited Serrice charjei will be made In accordance with rulei and 
regulatloni. effectlTe ai of data of thli deposit 



OR autiNtit IT/T 



OCCUrATION OR autiNtit 



^^.-^ ^-^;>A....'^.A ^.C:-7/y.V.Z?'°^-Y<^ 



RItlOINCI ADORItS 



jtoy/6 



10 CONNICTION ACCOUNT ACCIPTtO BY ^ ^ - 



U-K A Defence Fund 



3180 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, what is the address 17 Lake Sherwood, 
Northport, Alabama ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Can you explain to the committee how you are listed 
at 17 Lake Sherwood, Northport, Alabama, and at the same time, in 
the document which we just went over, the application for a foreign 
corporation, Mr. W. O. Perkins was listed at that same address, 17 
Lake Sherwood, Northport, Alabama ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the groimds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Is that particular address in the proximity of Mr. 
Kobert Shelton's address? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Would you please explain to the committee, Mr. 
Sexton, what the U.K. A. Defense Fund is? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Were moneys used by the U.K.A. Defense Fund in 
any way for the defense of Collie Leroy Wilkins, W. O. Eaton, and 
Eugene Thomas, persons indicted in the murder of Mrs. Viola Liuzzo ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, investigation conducted by the commit- 
tee in this regard has revealed that, in this particular account, the 
total deposits from the 30th day of August 1965 until the 10th day 
of December 1965, totaled $5,164.06. Could you please explain to the 
committee where that money came from ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Ledger sheets marked "William Sexton Exhibit No. 2" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Manuel. What has become of that money, that $5,000, since 
December of 1965 ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, I would like to show you a series of de- 
posit items which were made out either to the name of Melvin Sexton 
or to the name of the U.K.A. Defense Fund, and ask if these items were 
deposited by you or any other person known by you to be a member 
of the United Klans of America in the account of the U.K.A. Defense 
Fund? 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Documents marked "William Sexton Exhibit No. 3." The checks 
and money orders included in this exhibit follow; balance of docu- 
ments retained in committee files.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3181 

William Sexton Exhibit No. 3 









UNITEO KLANS OF AMERICA 



' \^ Jl J ^ n "NITEO KLANS OF ■ 



|V1 n U UT D N . A I 









JOLOLtAKS; 



J, Casftier'g C!;etk 



i:)qoE.i'"0 3 2 7i: 



Ripley, Miss. . M< /^T O-J ^ x^/eA. 

The Peoples Bank 

0/7 Je rt/ice ynsiilution ^ 



8S-i<5 



ORDER of / .-(^ X-C-x %h 



a -- 



:/y' ^y i^-p ^-j; 



g-f-/;^^ -r^- ^PiilJjij)^. /..-... 



For 

i:oai,E'>fosi,5i 



3182 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

William Sexton Exhibit No. 3 — Continued 



Pay TO TiiL- /-'' .-'^ ,, / 

OHDEK OF ^ ^-■^-■^"/-^/'^^ 



Ripley, M \^%..^.-y^.<...^^jLSL^ \^i i 6 

The Peoples Bank 

^/ Service JnsiUuiion .^ 

siLS:!^ 



For '' 



'"ixz"^" 



^^p(f:.jc^.a-..^-..-. 



.-V 



i:oauE"'0 5usi: 



III The Sweet'" yter State Bank 



SwKFT Water. Al.a. 0^ '^^ 



PAYTOTHE 7'/" 7 T- .,: !,-<' , /y^ ^' 

ORDER or rV/^-. U^-' .- yyx/ ^/V.'-^ <^r7 U^^i ^ ^ ■> ^ .^ 






9'^ 






Q^()_,^>j>^o-> /i^-^ /:t-c^<L^ 




Demopous. Ala.. // -^^ 1 9 6_5" NO. 1^ 

ROBERTSON BANKING COMPANY -^ 



^ ORDER OP 7/7^/{/ryuJ _j,^Zi^/Oi^ 



^CC 



For // gV^.^^ M<.^...JL^ 



-Dollars 



i:oE, 2 1"'0 lUi: 




ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE TJ..S. 3183 

William Sexton Exhibit N'o. 3 — Continued 



o 

U. S. Postal Money Order |S 




MAXIMUM V/j 



f- NflT VALID _ -, ^ ,,^. 
g?:' fd.M.OR. THAN i^li^L 



DOLLARS 



DOLLARS 



PURCHASER-FILL IN INFORMATION BELOW 



if: 



PAY TO 



Fi^OM 






7^ -/(■:(? 



i*: 8 6130 

DOLL A «3 J CENTS 



5,925,202,580 

.5-..9 WARNING 

ooo " 

DO NOT 

CASH IF 

~~" ALTERED ^ 



^ ^<'^^^^'^'-^ 



COiX 

INTil 



fL4if;^<L^(^/!!^^ / y^ 



^^An„sri^1^3^^/v 



:ssi^iAj^^^ y^^ 






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I DO NOT fOlD, STAPH* SPINDLE OR MUTILATE **tJl^oi\r'*°l- 



O; ., ] /, / 5,926,112,029 

TL S. Postal Money Order rKofel j^j^: warning! 
ILARSv 



b ^XJMUII VALUE ONE HUNDRED DOU-ARS 

NOT V A L t, 

ro.t MOR- r.^_ 

"PU«CHASCR-FIUL IVl tUfCM MATIONJBELO W 




PAVtoF^^£^ 






DO NOT 
CASH IF 
ALTERED 



I- 




-^•*APl9J^I/9i?;.^T^JIii&'^fr!,5^^^ 



59-222 O — 67 — pt. 4 19 



3184 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that these deposits represent donations or contributions 
from Klaverns of the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Further, that these deposits were made for the de- 
fense of Collie Leroy Wilkins, W. O. Eaton, and Eugene Thomas in 
their trial recently in Alabama. 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, were proceeds from this account used to 
pay the bail or to post bond of the defendants in the case, that is, Wil- 
kins, Eaton, and Thomas ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. I should like to show you a copy of a canceled check 
made payable to James Esdale, in the amount of $1,000 and checks, 
numbering five, payable to James Esdale and Art Hanes, in the total 
amount of— one for $1,000, one for $2,000, one for $500, $250, and $500, 
and the notation on the back of the check indicates that Mr. Esdale 
has a bail bonding company, and ask you if these checks w^ere written 
for the bail of Wilkins, Eaton, and Thomas? 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Checks marked "William Sexton Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Manuel. I should like to state for the record also, Mr. Chair- 
man, that the name signed on the checks is that of Melvin Sexton, 

Mr. Sexton, are you one of two current authorized signatures on an 
account, another account of the United Klans of America, which is 
maintained at the Birmingham Tnist National Bank in Birmingham, 
Alabama, the two signatures being that of yourself and that of Robert 
M. Creel ? (See James Whitefield Exhibit No. 3-B, p. 3113.) 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Is that particular account which is maintained at the 
Birmingliam Trust National Bank the account of the Alabama Realm 
of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Sexton, I would like to show you a series of four 
checks, made payable to Robert M. or Bob Creel, totaling $655, and 
each one signed w-ith the name "Melvin Sexton." 

I ask you to examine these checks, and I ask you for what purpose 
were they drawn and paid to Mr. Creel ? 
(Documents handed to witness.) 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, based 
upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Checks marked "William Sexton Exhibit No. 5" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, I would like to note that these checks 
w^ere drawn from the period of the 23d of January 1965 to the 10th 
day of November 1965. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 



3185 



I show you another check, Mr. Sexton, made payable to "Leroy Col- 
lie Wilkins,'- in the amount of $158.50, signed by Melvin Sexton, and 
ask you for what purpose this check to "Leroy Collie Wilkins" was 
made ? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "William Sexton Exhibit No. 6" follows:) 

William Sexton Exhibit No. 6 







^ .f' 







-^ 



3186 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. For the record, Mr. Chairman, this check was dated 
April the 12th, 1965, and is endoi-sed on the reverse side by the name 
"Leroy Collie Wilkins," also endorsed by the name "Collie Leroy 
Wilkins." 

Mr. Sexton, on the 8th day of March 1965, you issued a check from 
this account to Mr. E. L. McDaniel, whom the committee has iden- 
tified as the Grand Dragon of the State of Mississippi. This check 
was drawn in the amount of $125. 

Would you please examine the check and advise the committee for 
what purpose that check was drawn ? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

(Check marked "William Sexton Exhibit No. 7" follows:) 

William Sexton Exhibit No. 7 



V 

A 




BlRJ« 


•fll.XGtlAM ThrST NaTIOSIAL RANPf Ko 




^k. 


- n<>i.tju,i. 


AKS •» AMCKICA 


i:o&20-nnr)Ai: &>i i^iasa** /aaDoo&2&oo/ 



Mr. Manuel. Was this check to Mr. McDaniel, Mr. Sexton, in the 
amount of $125, a contribution from the Realm of Alabama or any 
Klansmen in Alabama for the defense of Mississippi Klansmen accused 
of any violation of law? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know Robert M. Creel, whose signature ap- 
pears with yours on the account of the UKA maintained at the Birm- 
ingham Trust National Bank, to be Grand Dragon of the State of 
Alabama? For the United Klans of America? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Have you as an individual ever received any pay- 
ment or remuneration for your services from the United Klans of 
America ? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you sign your name as secretary to the income 
tax return filed by the United Klans of America for the fiscal year 
1964? 

Mr. Sexton. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3187 

Mr. Manitel. To your knowledge, Mr. Sexton, did the income tax 
return filed by the United Klans for the fiscal year 1964 reflect truly 
and accurately the amount of money taken in and disbursed by that 
organization? 

Mr. Sextox. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that question, 
based upon the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, the stafi' has no further questions of 
this witness. 

Mr. Pool. Any questions? 

Mr. Buchanan. No questions. 

Mr. Pool. The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess for 3 minutes. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken. Subcommittee members 
present at the time of recess and when hearings resumed : Representa- 
tives Pool and Buchanan.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Appell. Ralph Roton. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF RALPH RAY ROTON 

Mr. Appell. Will you state your full name for the record, Mr. 
Roton? 

Mr. RoTON. Ralph Ray Roton. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, are you appearing here today in accordance 
with a subpena served upon you on November 3, 1965, at 1424 Carol 
Circle, Fairfield, Alabama ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, I note that you are not represented by 
counsel. 

Mr. RoTON. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not at this time, sir, but we may have to stop and get 
one. 

Mr. Appell. Do you desire to have counsel ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not at this time, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Have you been advised of your constitutional rights 
and that under the Constitution you may at any time invoke constitu- 
tional privileges, the right against self-incrimination, the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. Roton. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Have you received a copy of the opening statement of 
the chairman and are you familiar with the contents of it? 

Mr. Roton. Is this the opening statement, sir, dated March 30, 1965 ? 

Mr. Appell. No, it was October. 

Mr. Pool. No, let me see that. 

This is the one he wants to see. Ask him if he has seen that. 

Mr. Appell. This statement here. 



3188 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; this is the first time I have seen this. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I suggest tliat we stand in recess for 5 
minutes to permit Mr. Roton an opportunity to review that statement 
and become familiar with its contents. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes to allow the wit- 
ness to examine the opening statement. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken. Subcommittee members 
present time of recess and when hearings resumed : Representatives 
Pool and Buchanan.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Appell. Are you now, Mr. Roton, familiar with the chairman's 
opening statement of October 1965 ? 

Mr, RoTON. I have read it briefly. I haven't studied it, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Do you care for more time ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not at this time, sir. 

Mr. Pool, Do you understand what it says ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Pool. And you don't care for additional time to study it? 

Mr. Roton. Not at this time. 

Mr, Pool. I am asking now, do you care for additional time? 

Mr. Roton. No, sir; not at this time. 

Mr, Pool. All right. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, when and where were you born? 

Mr. Roton. November 10, 1930, Montgomery, Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. Give the committee a brief resume of your educational 
background. 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I don't think the educational background has any 
pertinency, but I will be more than happy to. 

Mr. Appell. Well, it is identifying information and is perfectly 
proper, so if you will please give it to us, we will appreciate it. 

Mr. RoTON. I have a lOth-grade education, sir, and I passed the 
high school equivalent test, giving me a high school equivalency. 

Mr, Appell. When did you complete your formal education anu 
when did you obtain your high school equivalent? 

Mr. Roton. I dont' remember the date, sir. 

Mr. Appell, Well, the year, 

Mr, Roton. In 1958, to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr, Appell, And when did you get your high school equivalent ? 

Mr. RoTON. That was in the same year, sir. That was the high 
school equivalent. 

Mr, Appell. When did you stop your formal education? When 
did you complete your lOth-grade formal education? 

Mr. Roton. In 1946, if I am not mistaken, sir. 

Mr, Appell, 1946 ? 

Mr, Roton, If I am not mistaken, sir, 

Mr, Appell, Did you perform service in any of the military estab- 
lishments of the United States ? 

Mr, Roton. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And what was your branch of service and what was 
your period of service ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3189 

Mr. RoTON. December 1945, until — I have the discharges here some- 
where. 

January '47 to November '47, in the United States Navy, April the 
8th of '48 to February the 8th of '50. 

Mr. Appell. That latter period of service, also the U.S. Navy? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir; that was United States Army. And from April 
the 8th of '50, 1 believe, until March tlie 8th of 1952, the United States 
Air Force. 

Mr. Appell. Since 1960, would you give the committee a brief resume 
of your employment background ? 

Mr.RoTON. Since 1960? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. RoTON. I was employed by the International Brotherhood of 
Electrical Workers in 1960. In early 1961, 1 went to work with a large 
corporation, sir. If it is pertinent, I will bring it out, but my associa- 
tion with the United Klans of America may have some bearing on their 
future 

Mr. Appell. Well, you are no longer associated with that company ; 
are you ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Well, let's let that pass for the time being as to identifying 
the company. We might ask it at a later time. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Now as an employee of the IBEW, you held a card in 
that local and you were employed by various contractors ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. So that your employment was not by the IBEW, but 
by independent contractors, hiring union labor members of the IBEW? 

Mr. RoTON. I was referred to different contractors by the IBEW; 
that is correct, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And you maintained your membership in the IBEW 
until 1961 and received assignments from them w^hen you work for an- 
other, a large corporation ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. How long did you remain employed by this corpora- 
tion? 

Mr. RoTON. Approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Appell. And what was the period of time when your employ- 
ment with them terminated ? 

Mr.RoTON. August of 1963. 

Mr. Appell. And what was the purpose for which the employment 
was terminated, to seek other employment ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir ; to go to work for someone else. 

Mr. Appell. And who was your next employer? 

Mr. RoTON. I might call that self-employed, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Could you explain to the committee what you mean by 
self-employed ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir ; T resigned from the corporation to come to the 
Washington march to take pictures, make tape recordings, and iden- 
tifying as many known Communists as I could for a committee such 



3190 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE IJ.S. 

as this in the State of Alabama, known as the Commission To Preserve 
The Peace.^ 

Mr. Appell. This was a State legislative committee? 

Mr. RoTON, Yes, sir. 

May I say this and clarify this? The State of Alabama had no 
recollection or had no knowledge that I was a member of the United 
Klans of America. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Appell, may I interject at that point? I can 
confirm from this commission that Avhat he lias just said is true. They 
had no knowledge of any connection of Mr. Roton with the Klan 
organization at this time, during the entire period of his employment. 

Mr. Appei.l. With respect to the coverage that you made of the 
march on Washington, did you do this under instruction, or did you 
do this on your own? 

Mr. RoTON. Under instruction. 

Mr. Appell. Can you tell the committee who specifically instructed 
you to do this? 

Mr. RoTON. Representative John H. Hawkins, Jr., of Birmingham, 
Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. In an interview with Mr. Hawkins. Mr. Hawkins ad- 
vised me that he did not know of your coverage of that march until 
after your return and your submitting the bill for expenses incurred. 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Hawkins did send me to Washington, sir. And it 
was by his request that I did go to Washington. 

Mr. Appell. How did you become employed by this committee? 

Mr. RoTON. By doing investigation of the racial trouble in Bir- 
mingham and talking with Mr. Hawkins in the past and, also, pre- 
senting him with evidence of what was going on, for prior to this 
time, the commission had no fund in which to pay anyone with, and 
which he told me specifically to go ahead and let's gather this informa- 
tion, and we will present it and form a committee such as this com- 
mittee, the House TJn-American Activities Committee in Washington. 

Also, to curb the Communist activities in the State of Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. Now you say that you were hired by them because of 
the investigative experience that you had had in making these 
investigations? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Were these investigations conducted by you as a mem- 
ber of the United Klans of America? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. As an undercover member; yes. 

Mr. Appell. As an undercover member? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And for what organization were you operating as an 
undercover? 

Mr. RoTON. Different — not an organization, sir. I carried a press 
card. 

Mr. Appell. Wliat do — you said that you joined the United Klans 
of America and did this as an undercover operative. 

Now I ask you for wliom you were working as an undercover 
operative ? 

Mr. RoTON. Now what do you mean, sir ? 

Mr. Appell. Well 



Full name "Alabama Legislative Commission To Preserve The Peace." 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3191 

Mr. RoTON. Do you think that I was trying to subvert the State of 
Alabama, or 

Mr. ArPELL. No, sir; I am only asking for clarification of a state- 
ment that you made. 

Mr. EoTON. Well, sir, I was in the United Klans of America prior 
to my employment with the Commission To Preserve The Peace. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir; I understood that, and you said that the in- 
vestigation that you had conducted, the investigations that you had 
conducted which' qualified you for employment with the legislative 
committee, had been investigations which you had conducted as a 
member of the United Klans of America. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And then you said that you had been conducting these 
investigations in an operative capacity. 

Mr. RoTON. Well, I will say this : I was a member of the United 
Klans of America. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. Now what I want to know is 

Mr. RoTON. And under the direct supervision of Mr. Robert M. 
Shelton, I infiltrated different groups . 

Mr. Appell. So that you wei-e an operative of the United Klans of 
America within organizations which the United Klans of America had 
an interest in. You were not operating within the United Klans of 
America for any individual. 

IVIr. RoTON. I attended meetings very seldom in the United Klans 
of America. All of my work was done on the outside, investigating 
different groups. 

Mr. Appell. Now when did you join the United Klans of America? 

Mr. RoTON. Approximately 7 years, 61/2, 7 years ago, sir. I don't 
remember the name — I mean the date. 

Mr. Appell. iVnd to what Klan were you affiliated at the time you 
joined? 

Mr. RoTON. To the best of my knowledge, it was the Alabama Klan, 
sir. 

Mr. Appell. The Alabama Klan was formed in 1960, was it not? 
Wasn't it prior thereto 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I don't remember on the exact date. 

Mr. Appell. But your best recollection is that it was during the 
period of time of the incorporation of the Alabama Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan with Mr. Robert M. Shelton as the Imperial Wizard? 

Mr. RoTON. I am now a member of the United Klans of America. 
Mr. Shelton was previous Grand Dragon of the State of Alabama. 
To the best of my knowledge, whatever Klan it was, I was a member 
then of the U.S. Klan or of the Alabama Klan, and I feel sure that it 
was the Alabama Klan at that time. 

Mr. Appell. To what Klavern were you affiliated as a member of 
tlie United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Roton. Confederate Lodge #11 in Montgomery. 

Mr. Appell. Is that Confederate Lodge # 11 or Confederate Den 
No. 11 ? 

Mr. RoTON. Confederate Den, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And at the time you became a member of the United 
Klans of America, did you subscribe to a series of oaths which are 



3192 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

similar to a series of oaths that I hand you reproduced in this docu- 
ment ? 

Mr. RoTON. I could not swear to it, sir ? To the best of my knowl- 
edge, it is similar. 

(Document previously marked "Robert Shelton Exhibit No. 4.") 

Mr. Appell. Can you explain to the committee that portion of the 
oath which is under the series on Klanishness, which requires a mem- 
ber of a Klan to swear that he will keep secret to himself a secret of a 
Klansman, when same is committed to him in the sacred bond of 
Klansmanship, the only exception being treason against the United 
States of America, rape, and malicious murder alone excepted? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir; I couldn't explain it to you. I don't know the 
answer. 

Mr. Appell. Was an explanation given to you as a member of the 
Klan as to what this meant ? 

Mr. RoTON. If that was in the oath, sir, 7 years ago, I don't know. 

I couldn't give you an honest answer. 

Mr. Appell. Now who were the officers of the Confederate Den No. 

II at the time you joined ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Who recruited you into the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. RoTON. That, I do not remember, either, sir. 

Mr. Appell. How long did you maintain a membership in the Con- 
federate Den No. 11 ? 

Mr. RoTON. Oh, I guess approximately 6 years, 5 years, something 
like that. 

Mr. Appell. Approximately when did you cease being a member of 
Confederate Den No. 11 ? 

Mr. RoTON. To the best of my knowledge, sir, Confederate Den No. 
11 is not in operation at this time. 

Mr. Appell. When did you cease being a member of Confederate 
Den No. 11 ? 

Mr. RoTON. I guess when it closed, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Well, w^hen did it close ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember, sir. I have been in and out of Mont- 
gomery and I do not know. 

Mr. Appell. Well, who were the officers of the Confederate Den No. 
11, the most recent date that you can remember as to the operation of 
thoDen? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You don't remember. 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Do you remember any members of the Den, Confederate 
Den? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to give an honest answer, sir, I could not swear. 

Mr. Pool. You don't recall anybody that belonged to this Confed- 
erate Den ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my knowledge, sir ; no, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Can you explain how you held membership in it for 
so many years and not know the identity of a single member of that 
Den? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3193 

Mr. RoTON. I just don't remember, sir, and to identify a person or to 
call a name as being a member may not do justice to him. There is no 
certain way you can identify a member, and my work was done on the 
outside of the Dens and the Klaverns, and I told this committee that 
I have, seldom have attended meetings. 

Mr. Pool. Well, that may be right, and you may be correct in saying 
what you did. I just want to caution you, though, that if you say you 
don't remember and other testimony proves that you do remember or 
that you do have an acquaintanceship, then you would be in serious 
trouble. 

Mr. RoTON. Well, Mr. Chairman, may I say this, in all respect 

Mr. Pool. I am telling you that for your own benefit. You prob- 
ably are telling me the truth, or tilling the committee the truth, but I 
am trying to explain to you that just saying you don't remember is 
not an excuse for somebody that proves that you do have acquaintance- 
ships there, and you should remember. 

That's all I am trying to tell you. 

Mr. RoTON. Well, sir, I know many different people by name, but 
to say that they are members of the United Klans of America, it would 
be an impossibility for me to tell this committee the truth. 

Mr. Pool. Well, can you name some members or can you name some 
people who attended meetings with you, then ? 

Mr. RoTON. And to identify them as Klansmen ? 

Mr. Pool. No, I said to identify people who attended meetings with 
you. 

I am not asking you to state that they were Klansmen, because, in 
fact, you may not know for sure that they are, but can you name the 
names of people who attended meetings with you of the Klan? 

Mr. RoTON. I can name Robert. Creel, Robert Shelton, Robert 
Thomas, and to go beyond that, to be beyond a reasonable doubt and 
a moral certainty, sir, I could not. 

Mr. Pool. All right, go ahead, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. May I ask you, Mr. Roton, you said that you had on 
instructions of Imperial Wizard Shelton infiltrated certain organiza- 
tions for the purpose of identifying Communists. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Were you ever a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. RoTON. I have been associated with the Communists, many 
known Communists ; yes, sir. But I have never been a member of a 
Commimist Party. Very detrimental (sic) to the Communist Party, 
because it is atheistic and against this form of government. 

Mr. Appell. How do you identify Communists, not being a member, 
and not being able to identify Klansmen when you were a member? 

Mr. RoTON. That could be answered in many diflferent ways, sir. 
Communists don't carry cards, neither do Klansmen, that I know of. 

Mr. Appell. How do you identify them ? 

Mr. RoTON. By their actions, I guess, by their self-admissions of it. 

Mr. Appell. But you attended meetings with Klasmen, in closed 
meetings of Klansmen, and known Klansmen were present. 

Now I want to know the identity of these Klansmen that you at- 
tended meetings with, closed meetings, only people that are Klansmen. 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, it would be an impossibility for me to tell you the 
truth as to identify a man as being a Klansman. 



3194 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appeul. For what reason ? 

Mr. RoTON. For no reason. I do not know beyond a reasonable 
doubt and a moral certainty, and to tell you that a man was a Klans- 
man wouldn't be doing justice to him, myself, or this committee. 

Mr. Appell. Well, we don't want testimony other than what you 
know, but you attended closed Klavern meetings; did you not? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. At which the only people present were Klansmen. 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Appell. Well, now, let's take the organization of a Klavern. 
Who is eligible for admission into a Klavern under the rules and pro- 
cedures of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. RoTON. Being familiar with Klankraft, veiy vaguely, and what 
the Klans stand for, I can tell you that. That's what I know about it, 
sir. 

Mr. Appell. I am asking you about the operation of a Klavern, sir. 
People coming into a Klavern meeting. I want to know whether or 
not people who are non-Klansmen are permitted into a Klavern 
meeting. 

Mr. RoTON. There is a possibility that they could be. 

Mr. Appell. Well, will you explain to the committee the possibil- 
ities under which this might happen ? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, it has been stated many times by the press over 
here that the FBI has the Klan so infiltrated you couldn't — I mean 
you can go in and out at your own discretion. 

Mr. Appell. Are you talking about ideological Klansmen? 

I am talking about people who hold a membership card in the United 
Klans of America. 

Mr. RoTON. Well, to identify a person as being a card-carrying 
member of the United Klans of America, sir, I couldn't do it. I have 
associated with people all over the State of Alabama and all over the 
United States, but I can't tell you beyond a reasonable doubt, imless 
a Klansman identifies himself to me personally, sir, I can't. 

Mr. Appell. How were you known within Den No. 11 as a member? 

Mr. RoTON. By Ralph Roton, I assume. 

Mr. Appell. Was membership within your Klavern kept by name, 
or was it kept by number ? 

Mr. Roton. It was kept by number, to the best of my knowledge, 
sir. 

Mr, Appell. What was your nmnber within the Klavern ? 

Mr. Roton, 1638, 1 believe, 

Mr, Appell, 1638. 

Mr. Roton. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. In the operation of the Klan, was the fact that you 
were a Klansman and assigned to Confederate Den No. 11, or the fact 
that any other member was a member of a Klan, reported to a higher 
authority as far as identification of a member is concerned ? 

Mr. Roton. To my knowledge, no, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Could anyone get into a Klavern meeting without pass- 
ing the security personnel of that Klavern in order to attend the 
meeting ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I have done it. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3195 

Mr. Appell. You have done what, sir ? 

Mr. RoTON. I have come into a meeting without passing the security. 

Mr. Appell. How? Will you explain that? You were a member, 
and are a member. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. How do you violate security ? 

Mr. RoTON. Just being known, I guess, by other people. 

Mr. Pool. Here referring to your Klavem, or just any Klavem? 
Have you been to other Klaverns and got in without identifying 
yourself ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my knowledge ; no, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Your own Klavern is the only one that you have been to 
without identifying yourself? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. They all knew who you were and you didn't have to 
identify yourself. Is that right ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes; it was a small group. 

Mr. Appell. Now, Mr. Roton, when did you receive a commission 
or appointment from the Imperial AYizard so that you conducted 
assignments under his direction ? 

Mr. RoTON. In early 1961, I talked to Mr. Shelton and I told him 
in the capacity that I was serving with, in a separate capacity, that 
I had the opportunity to possibly go in and infiltrate other groups, 
and it might be interesting to find out what some things are going 
on in these other groups, and bring back the knowledge to the United 
Klans of America. I was told by Mr. Shelton to keep him posted. 
I have been operating in that capacity ever since, since 1961. 

Mr. Appell. Now you mean to tell the committee that your em- 
ployment with the Jim Walter Corporation was such that you had 
time to be on their payroll and carry out investigative activities in 
behalf of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. RoTON. I didn't work for Jim Walter Corporation 24 hours a 
day, sir. I did this on my own time, and since that is out, I guess it 
is all right to refer to them as such. 

Mr. Appell. Where was your employment with the Jim Walter 
Corporation? 

Mr. RoTON. Troy, Alabama ; Florence, Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. Well, let's stick in the year 1961. 

Mr. RoTON. In Troy, Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. And what was the nature of assignments which you 
received from Mr. Robert Shelton in 1961 and when did this start in 
1961? 

Mr. RoTON. It was in the latter part of 1961, sir. Let me correct 
myself. I transferred twice. When I moved from Montgomery to 
Troy, and I was transferred by the Jim Walter Corporation to 
Florence, Aalabama, for a period of 3 months, and then I was trans- 
ferred back into Binningham office, in the regional office, and it was 
in the latter part of 1961, I believe, that I had that conversation with 
Mr. Shelton. 

Mr. Appell. Now will you tell the committee the details of this 
conversation that you had with Mr. Shelton? You have told us what 
you have said to him. Now I would like to know what his part of the 
conversation was. 



3196 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. RoTON. His answer was, "Go ahead and keep me informed." 

Mr. Appell. Was there a discussion as to the type of organizations 
that you were going to infiltrate and the type of knowledge you hoped 
to learn for the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir ; the Southern Conference on Human Welfare — 
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, CORE, and a few other 
organizations I do not remember the names of. 

Mr. Appell. Now which of these organizations did you, in fact, 
infiltrate ? 

Mr. RoTON. Both and all. 

Mr. Appell. Well, please name them. A, B, C, D. 

Mr. RoTON. Southern Christian Leadership Conference, I have been 
associated with them, in and out of their meetings, for the past — since 
1961. 

Mr. Appell. Will you explain the association with them in and out 
of their meetings ? Were you a member of the organization ? 

Mr. RoTON. Making tape recordings and taking pictures of indi- 
viduals and known people that come in and try to cause racial and 
civil disturbance. 

Mr. Appell. Were you a member of the organization ? 

Mr. RoTON. I paid dues, donations on different occasions. 

Mr, Appell. Were you a member of the organization ? 

Mr. RoTON. To say I am a member, I don't know whether I could 
say or not, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you file an application for membership? Did 
you pay yearly dues? Did you meet the requirements of a member? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. I didn't, I filled out an application at one 
time, in August of 1965, the Birmingham convention of the Southern 
Conference, Southern Christian Leadership, 

Mr. Appell. This was the convention that they had there, where 
you entered with press credentials and took photographs ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell, Whose press credentials did you use ? 

Mr, RoTON, Sir, do I have to bring this out ? 

Mr, Appell, Yes, sir. You certainly do, sir. 

Mr. RoTON. Is it pertinent to this investigation ? 

Mr. Appell. It sure is, sir. You were operating for the United 
Klans of America. It is pertinent. 

I am waiting for an answer, sir, 

Mr, RoTON, I mean could any legislation be pending on that one par- 
ticular answer, Mr, Chairman ? 

Mr, Appell. It might well be. 

Mr, RoTON, Well, sir, it is — there is a lot of people, innocent peo- 
ple, and I will say this: The United Klans of America is not all what 
it has been portrayed to be. I have been associated with many, many 
people, and to bring innocent names in front of the press, and being 
recorded here, and will be in a printed form for people to read, I just 
don't think it is to the best interest, 

Mr. Appell. We wnsh to determine w^hether or not these organiza- 
tions that you infiltrated or the press media that you obtained press 
credentials from and whose name was used, not as a member of the 
press, but as an agent of the United Klans of America, to infiltrate 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3197 

other organizations — these people who are innocent might well also 
not possess knowledge that you, at the time, were working for the 
United Klans of America. 

Mr. RoTON. And it could be, sir, but to clarify that statement, to 
the best of my knowledge Birmingham Independent, in Birmingham, 
had no knowledge that I was a member of the United Klans of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. How did you obtain 

Mr. RoTON. To the best 

Mr. Appell. How did you obtain the press credentials ? 

Mr. RoTON. Through the editor, 

Mr. Appell. Through the editor? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Were you volunteering services for him ? 

Mr. RoTON. I did, I do some free-lance photography work, sir, and 
I have sold pictures to many different people. 

Mr. Appell. Now 

Mr. Pool. If he had known that you were working as a member 
of the United Klans of America, would he have given you this press 
pass ? 

Mr. RoTON. I couldn't answer that question, sir. I do not Imow. 

Mr. Pool. But you didn't tell him that you were working for the 
United Klans or were a member of the United Klans of America? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Why did you withhold this information from him? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, being associated with the United Klans of Amer- 
ica, I have always worked under cover, and to be exposed and sitting 
in with the groups of Southern Christian Leadership Conference 
and CORE and the different people like that, it would jeopardize 
me to a certain extent, and which I have been called and threatened, 
and by people that I do not know who they are, but they call me and 
have called me regularly. 

Mr. Appell. Let's return to your employment with the legislative 
committee. 

Mr. Pool. Just a moment. He said the editor, didn't he, of the 
Birmingham paper? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Give the committee the full details and knowledge of how you be- 
came employed by them. 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Chairman, that again is guilt by association, and 
the members of this press here are sitting here, and I have worked 
with them; I see a couple I have worked with down there in Selma. 
They know the situation and what is going on here between the United 
Klans of America, the names listed in your report, and the Southern 
Christian leadership Conference of Black Muslims, in which I have 
been associated with them and all, and so have they, and guilt by 
association will injure some people. 

1 have been associated with some very influential people in this 
country and I just do not think it is pertinent and I will ask your 
permission to give me permission not to answer that. Because if I 

start calling names, there is a lot of people going 

Mr. Pool. Repeat the question. 



3198 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. I asked the witness to give us the details of how he 
became associated wnth the commission. 

Mr. RoTON. You are speaking about my association with the United 
Klans of America? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir; I am talking about the legislative committee 
for which you were an emplovee. 

Mr. RoTON. I worked with the United Klans of America as an 
undercover investigator, appointed by, directed by Mr. Robert M. 
Shelton. 

Mr. Appell. Well, were you directed to infiltrate the legislative com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir, I was not. 

Mr. Appell. Well, then, explain to the committee how you became 
affiliated with it. 

Mr, RoTON. The times and the experiences that I have used, of 
using camera and recorder, and 

Mr. Appell. I want to know the details of how you became em- 
ployed. 

Mr. Pool. Whom did you approach about a job with the legislative 
committee? 

Mr. RoTON. I had talked on several different occasions with Mr. 
John Hawkins, and 

Mr. Pool. What is his position in the committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. He is chairman of the committee, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Chairman of the committee. 

Mr. RoTON. And I have information that I passed on to Mr. 
Hawkins and which was very pertinent to some of his reports, I 
undertand. 

Mr. Pool. Now when and where and why did he have you investi- 
gating for the committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. In early, if I am not mistaken, and to the best of 
my knowledge, sir, in early August we discussed employment with the 
committee, as they needed an investigator, according to the terms 
and conditions of the legislation that was passed by the State of 
Alabama, allowed them to hire outside investigators. 

Mr. Appell. Who sent you to Mr. Hawkins for employment? 
Who recommended you to him for employment ? 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Chairman, do I have to answer that question ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Pool. State the question again. 

Mr. Appell. I asked him who recommended him for employment 
with the commission. 

Mr. Pool. I think I will restate it. Did anyone recommend you, 
recommend to you to go to Mr. Hawkins and ask for a job with 
the commission ? Yes or no. 

That is a fair question, isn't it, as restated, to make it easy for 
you? 

Mr. RoTON. But back to the same thing I said, Mr. Cliairman, would 
it be fair to implicate people that might hold a high position ? Would 
it be fair? 

Mr. Pool. I think this committee has a right to know the circum- 
stances surrounding your activities, so I 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3199 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman, I would request that the chairman 
of this committee, Mr, Hawkins — and may I tighten up my previous 
statement, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the testimony of the 
witness is correct in saying that the legislative committee in hiring 
liim had no knowledge of his affiliation, past or present, with any 
Klan organization. And this is my belief, based upon the testi- 
mony of Representative John Hawkins which I have on this ques- 
tion. 

Now I would request of the Chair that Mr. Hawkins be permitted to 
answer it in writing, or some way, since a committee of the State of 
Alabama Legislature is being questioned. May I say there were two 
Republicans in that legislature. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question as to who recommended him for employment with 
the committee. 

Mr. Pool. I want to tell the witness this, that I don't know whether 
this is going to hurt anybody or not, but it is pertinent to the inquiry, 
and there is no other way to do it except for you to go ahead and make 
answer to his question. It is very pertinent to this inquiry, so I direct 
you and order you to answer the question. 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, could we call a 5-minute recess and let me make a 
telephone call ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, I request that the witness be directed 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Pool. Just a minute. I think that, in view of the fact that he 
does not have a lawyer here, I am going to grant you the 5-minute 
recess to make a telephone call. Talk to your lawyer, or whoever you 
want to. That is the reason we are giving you the 5-minute recess, if 
you would prefer legal counsel. 

Mr. Roton. All right, sir, 

Mr. Pool. There will be a 5-minute recess. 

("Whereupon a brief recess was taken. Subcommittee members pres- 
ent at time of recess and when hearings resumed : Representatives Pool 
and Buchanan.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, what position did you hold within the 
United Klans at the time you were recommended for employment by 
the legislative committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. None that I remember, sir. I have held the position as 
public relations director, and that's an appointed position. That's of 
the State of Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. What position were you holding at the time you were 
receiving assignments from Mr. Shelton ? 

Mr. RoTON. There was no official title to it. The 

Mr. Appell. Were you part of the KBI? 

Mr. Roton. I guess you might say I was an investigator ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You were an investigator for the KBI? Were you 
part of the klokann committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; I never have been. 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 4- 



3200 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Now at the time that you were recommended for ap- 
pointment to the legislative committee, had you at that time received 
the appomtment of public relations director ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; I hadn't. 

Mr. Appell. You hadn't. All right, now, sir, who recommended 
you to the legislative committee for employment? 

Mr. RoTON. Gentlemen, if I go in and keep this in context, I cer- 
tainly would appreciate it. I talked with Governor Wallace — he had 
no idea that I was ever associated with the United Klans of America, 
to my knowledge — and told him that I did investigative work; for 
whom, I did not say, and I understood that there would be a position 
open with this committee and I would appreciate anything he could 
, do to help me. Now, whether Governor Wallace did or not, I do not 
know. I only worked for the committee, as you know, a short time. 

Mr. Appell. How were you thereafter notified that you received 
an employment by the committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. Would you restate that question, sir ? 

Mr. Appell. I say, How were you notified that you were to be ap- 
pointed as an employee of the committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. As under the direction of ]Mr. Hawkins, I went ahead. 
The funds were not approved for the committee as yet, and they 
wouldn't have been until, I think, November 15th of 1963, if I am not 
mistaken. I went ahead at my own expense and did this work for 
Mr. Hawkins and the committee and turned the evidence over to him, 
and I received two checks from the State of Alabama. One in De- 
cember, if I am not mistaken, and one in January of 1964, I believe. 

Mr. Appell. Who suggested that you make contact with Governor 
Wallace and seek employment with this commission ? 

Mr. RoTON. No one, to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Appell. No one ? 

Mr. RoTON. It was my own idea. 

Mr. Pool. Did Governor Wallace know that you were working for 
the committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. That, I don't know. I didn't talk to Governor Wal- 
lace any more. 

Mr. Pool. That is the only time you talked to him ? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, I have talked to my Governor, yes, and there is 
many people that talk to him. 

Mr. Pool. About what ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, that has no legislative purpose. 

Mr. Pool. What is that ? 

Mr. RoTON. About what I talked to Governor Wallace about. On 
that specific occasion, I talked to him and, as I have stated here before, 
that he had no knowledge of my being associated with the 

Mr. Pool. Did Governor Wallace talk to you about your investiga- 
tive work ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir ; we talked that one time. 

Mr. Pool. Would you care to relate the circumstances of the things 
he told you, or the things you told him, and tell the committee what 
happened ? 

Mr. RoTON. It was just a brief conversation, and I stated that ear- 
lier, sir, that 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3201 

Mr. Pool. After you went to work for the committee, you talked 
to Governor Wallace? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir; I have talked to him. 

Mr. Pool. Wliat did you talk about ? 

Mr. RoTON. To the best of my knowledge, I don't think I saw the 
Governor for 4 or 5 or 6 months. 

Mr. Pool. Did you tell him about the results of your investigation ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. I had knowledge of that. 

Mr. Pool. Did he have any suggestions? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Well, what did the Governor say to you ? 

Mr. RoTON. On what time? At what time, sir? 

Mr. Pool. Well, you said that you talked to the Governor several 
times. What was the conversation about? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, sir, I don't think you could — a constituent 

Mr. Pool. Well, I asked you a while ago if he talked to you about 
the investigation, and you said he did. Now I am asking what did 
he say in regard to the investigation. 

Mr. RoTON. Well, it was just a brief convei^ation. To the best of 
my knowledge, I didn't give him any lengthy reports or anything like 
that. 

Mr. Pool. Did he tell you how to go about investigating or what to 
look into, or an}i:hing like that? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir; made no suggestions at all. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Buchanan. Perhaps you can tell the committee the kind of 
investigation you conducted for the State committee as disassociated 
with whatever you were doing unknown to them for the Klan. Sim- 
ply what was this investigation you did for them ? 

Mr. RoTON. For the committee? 

Mr. Buchanan. Yes. 

Mr. RoTON. For the committee was checking on the different civil 
rights groups in the Birmingham area during the 1963 demonstrations, 
make tape recordings and photographs of it, and turning them over to 
the committee. 

Mr. Appell. What year did you say, 1964 ? 

Mr. RoTON. 1963, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Did Robert Shelton ever talk to Governor Wallace about 
you working for this committee? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Did any other of the officials of the Ku Klux Klan talk 
to Governor Wallace in regard to your working for this committee? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Did you ask any of the Klan officials to talk to Governor 
Wallace? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir, not to the best of my recollection, I never have. 

Mr. Pool. Did you ask any of the officials of the Ku Klux Klan 
to talk to any of the committee members about hiring you? 

Mr. RoTON. To the best of my knowledge, I don't remember. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Now what specifically did you do in 1963 for the 
committee ? 



3202 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. EoTON. Made tape recordings and took pictures of the demon- 
strations. 

Mr. Appell. Well, let's be a little specific. As to pictures that you 
took: where, what affair was going on, and what did you do? Not 
just generalities. Tell me specifically. 

Mr. RoTON. I attended the demonstrations and made pictures of 
the marchers, individuals in the marches, and I identified them when 
we could, and 

Mr. Appell. What type of identification ? 

Mr. EoTON. By naming the person and finding out what he is 
from. 

Mr. Appell. What else did you do for the committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. What do you mean, sir ? 

Mr. Appell. What other investigative work did you do for the 
committee? What other functions did you perform for them? 

Mr. RoTON. That's just about it, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. The committee will stand in recess until two o'clock. 

( Subcommittee members present at time of recess : Representatives 
Pool and Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon, at 1 p.m., Tuesday, February 8, 1966, the subcommittee 
recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day. ) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 :15 p.m., Hon. Joe R. Pool, chair- 
man of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

( Subcommittee members present : Representatives Pool and Buchan- 
an.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

The Chair recognizes Mr. Buchanan. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman, during the luncheon recess I talked 
to State Representative John Hawkins from Birmingham, and he is 
chairman of the Alabama Legislative Commission To Preserve The 
Peace. 

I myself was confused on this point. This is a commission of the 
legislature and this is the outfit by which this witness was briefly 
employed when the commission was formed, and it is the only one 
there is. I thought there was a legislative committee and a commis- 
sion which was separate, but it is all the Alabama Legislative Com- 
mission To Preserve The Peace, which is a legislative conmiission 
chaired by Representative John Hawkins of Birmingham. 

When the commission was formed, they needed a good photographer. 
Mr. Roton was recommended to Mr. Hawkins by friends in Mont- 
gomery who knew of his work with Jim Walter, and Mr. Hawkins 
thought this was his only employment or connection, had no knowl- 
edge of any Klan affiliation, and had he known it, Mr. Hawkins states, 
they never would have hired Mr. Roton. He was hired temporarily. 
He worked on a particular assignment for some 6 months or so for the 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3203 

Alabama Legislative Commission To Preserve The Peace. At no 
time did they have any know]edg:e of his Klan affiliation. Mr. Haw- 
kins has requested, Mr. Chairman, and I would like to request, that 
he write us to this effect and that that be included in the record of 
the proceedings. 

Mr. Pool. If there is no objection, it will be printed in the record 
at this point. 

(Mr. Hawkins' letter dated February 9, 1966, marked "Ralph 
Roton Exhibit No. 1." The letter follows :) 

Ralph Roton Exhibit No. 1 



Alabama Legislative Commission To Preserve The Peace 

ROOM 332 STATE CAPITOL 
MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA 



rrtr-rrEiotiM iMi ivt jui-irN 1-1. i-i«yYiMiN3 ^ i ^^ ^ EDWI N STRICKLAND 

CHAIRMAN February 9> 1966 staff director 

SENATOR JAMES S. CLARK MRS. MAVIS HICKS 

SENATOR E. O. EDDINS 
REPRESENTATIVE ALTON TURNER 
REPRESENTATIVE HUGH A. LOCKE 

Hon. John Buchanan > R-.41a. 
U . S. House of hepres?ntatives 
House Office Building 
Washington! D. C. 

Dear Congressman "^uch-^nan: 

In accordance v;ith our convars&tion, I w nt to clarify th-i 
matter of tastirnony of ivilph "-oton, v.'ho h £ bj^n a vltness before 
your co.iTiiittes. 

i'lr. AOton, a free-lsnce photographer, was e.Tiplo: ed by the 'com- 
mission in fiay, 1963 > and his employment was terminated in October, 
1963o i'lnal payment for his services and for equipment he had pur- 
chased, was made in January, I964. 

During his services, i-lr. Roton did not do any investigative work 
other than making some tape recordings and photographs. He at no 
time has had any access to confidential files of the Coramiscion. 
vv e did not know at any time during his rervice that he had any con- 
nection vd.th the KKK. Had we Known of such connection, his services 
would not have been used. 

Sincerely 



John K. Hawkins, Jr; 
Chairman 



3204 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. All right, Mr. Appell, proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF RALPH RAY ROTON— Resumed 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, how long, in fact, were you employed by 
the Commission To Preserve The Peace ? 

Mr. RoTON. It was approximately 6 months' total. I would say, sir, 
there was quite a few times that it was 2 or 3 days at a time gathering 
information. 

Mr. Appell. Well, will you explain to us the conditions of your 
employment? You say 2 or 3 days at a time gathering information. 
Were you on a free-lance assignment to gather information as you 
came upon it and then turn it over to the commission, or were you 
employed — what were the conditions of your employment? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I guess you could say it was more or less a con- 
tractual agreement. There was nothing ever in writing and I did 
specific work for Mr. Hawkins under his direct supervision. Of course, 
being in the business yourself, things come up from time to time that 
you will get an assignment, short coverage, and go perform the assign- 
ment and bring the information back. 

Mr. Appell. Wliat was your rate of compensation as an employee of 
the commission ? 

Mr. RoTON. That never did come to pass, sir, as to where I was ever 
paid any salary. I furnished expenses and came to an agreement at 
the end that I never did quite receive all my expenses that I paid while 
doing this work from the State of Alabama. You couldn't classify 
as salary. 

Mr. Appell. Well, did you have a contract that you were going to 
be reimbursed at a certain rate of pay per day, upon a per diem basis, 
or under any kind of agreement ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you have any source of income other than what in- 
come you received from the commission at that time? 

Mr. RoTON. Some of this w^ork w^as done while I was still employed 
with this company, sir, and for approximately 21/2 months there I 
didn't have any other, just money from this commission here. How- 
ever, it was held up until the funds were appropriated. 

Mr. Appell. Can you explain to the committee how you could be 
employed by Jim Walter Corporation and carry on investigative func- 
tions for the legislative commission both at the same time ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, when I went full time with them was in August 
'63, after I resigned from the corporation which we specified before 
and, as I told you before, I was only required to work a number of 
hours a day with this company. 

Mr. Pool. Talk a little louder. 

Mr. RoTON. And after the normal duty hours, I did perform these 
extra duties for Mr. Hawkins. 

Mr. Appell. You resigned from Jim Walter Corporation in August 
of 1963? f & 

Mr. Roton. Correct, sir? 

Mr. Appell. Did you have any source of income between August of 
1963 and January 1, 1964, other than income you received from the 
commission ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3205 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. None whatsoever ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You testified this morning that you incurred expenses 
out of your own pocket for which you waited for reimbursement. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would you enumerate to the committee some of the 
out-of-pocket expense that you incurred and the amount of this out- 
of-pocket expense that you incurred ? 

Mr. RoTON. Do you mean the trips ? 

Mr. Appell. Well, trips, purchase of equipment, film, cameras, or 
anything else. 

Mr. RoTON. Well, sir, I did buy some equipment for the commission 
and equipment that would be needed to perform those duties. 

Mr. Appell. Did you make this determination of the equipment 
needed, or did someone on the commission make the determination? 

Mr. RoTON. They furnished a part of the equipment, and I pur- 
chased more and it was between 

Mr. Appell. What did they furnish and what did you purchase? 

Mr. RoTON. I think I purchased two or three cameras. 

Mr. Appell. This is what you purchased ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. All right, sir. 

Mr. RoTON. Two tape recorders. 

Mr. Appell. Two of them ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir ; an FM radio. This was of the low frequency 
band for police and radio calls. 

Mr. Appell. Why did you need that ? 

Mr. RoTON. To monitor calls, sir. 

Mr. Appell. To monitor police calls ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. How did that assist you in your investigative function 
in behalf of the commission ? 

Mr. RoTON. To answer certain calls. It might be a civil disturbance, 
as well as to take pictures of it and turn them over to the commission. 

Mr. Appell. You were on a 24-hour assignment for the commission ? 
I thought you just worked a couple days here and a couple days there. 

Mr. RoTON. Well, 

Mr. Appell. When did you go full time \ 

Mr. RoTON. In August. 

Mr. Appell. And in August of 1963 you went full time with them, 
but you had no agreement with respect to salary? 

Mr. RoTON. That was to be worked out as soon as the first commit- 
tee meeting was to be held. It was a new committee, sir, and the funds 
were not appropriated. However, as you remember 

Mr. Appell. Wliat was eventually worked out? 

Mr. RoTON. That I just received the expenses that I had incurred 
so far. 

Mr. Appell. Were you directed to purchase a low frequency FM 
transmitter or radio for the purpose of monitoring police calls? 

Mr. RoTON. I was not required to, sir, but Mr. Hawkins had one in 
his car and he told me that it would be good if I had one, and I pur- 
chased one to answer the calls. 



3206 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. What else did you purchase ? 

Mr. RoTON, Sir, I don't remember. I would have to refer to the 
list, and which I do not have it with me. 

Mr. Appell. Did you also purchase a radio transmitter? 

Mr. EoTON. Wliat type, sir? 

Mr. Appell. I don't know. It costs $75.92. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. What was that one for? 

Mr. RoTON. That was a citizens band radio to monitor calls. 

Mr. Appell. Do you have a license from the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission to operate a citizens band radio? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir; I do not because you are not required to have 
one just to monitor calls. 

Mr. Appell. You are not required ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; and I did not transmit. 

Mr. Appell. What was the other radio equipment that cost you 
$209.09 ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember offhand, sir. 

Mr. Appell, Did you report in your 1963 tax returns that your com- 
pensation from the Commission To Preserve The Peace was $2,289.99 
and that your expenses were $2,970.47, making you sustain a loss during 
the year of 1963 of $680.48? 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Chairman, we can go on and on into this. This is 
personal income and expenses received therefor, and I think in my 
own judgment it is privileged information as this is not — a return 
was filed with the proper agency of the Federal Government and the 
return w^as given back. If they have any discrepancy, I think that 
I would be called before them to rectify my situation. 

Mr. Pool. Restate your question. 

Mr. Appell. I asked him if he reported that his income from the 
commission in the year 1963 was $2,289.99. That his expenses were 
$2,970.47, or a net loss of $680.48. I request that the witness be 
directed to answer. 

Mr. Pool. I rule that the question is pertinent and the witness will 
answer the question. 

Mr. RoTON. Are you referring to the 1963 return ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir, I am. 

Mr. Pool. You don't have to furnish the whole return. You just 
answer the question. 

Mr. RoTON. To the best of my knowledge it was. 

(Income Tax Return for the Year 1963 marked "Ralph Roton 
Exhibit No. 2" and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Appell. And were the expenses listed by you on the schedule: 
recorder, film, tapes, and supplies $901.36; away from home expenses 
$147; telephone $19.80; police monitor $104; film developing ^3.80; 
cameras $272; aircraft mileage and tickets $570; cab fares $27.50; 
radio transmitter $75.92; radio $209.09; auto expenses 7,000 miles at 
10 cents a mile, $700 ? Is that factual ? 

Mr. RoTON. That is to the best of my knowledge and belief, sir. 

Mr. Appell. When did you file a tax return covering your 1963 
income ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I had to file that twice and I filed the first return 
that was apparently lost and I contacted the Internal Revenue Serv- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3207 

ice in regard to it, and they stated they could not find it. I filed a 
duplicate return in, and I don't remember when; at a later date. 

Mr. Appell. Did you file a return prior to the due date, April 
15, 1964, for your 1963 income? 

Mr. RoTON. Did I file it prior to the due date ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, April 15, 1964. Did you file a personal income 
tax return covering your income for the year 1963 ? 

Mr. RoTON. I am confused here now. Both returns were filed at 
the same time as I explained to the Internal Revenue Service. Mr. 
Waldrop in Birmingham 

Mr, Appell. I am asking you if you filed a tax return covering 
the year 1963 prior to the due date of April 15, 1964, I am not ask- 
ing you about the second one you filed. I am asking you about a 
first one. 

Mr. RoTON. For '63, yes, sir. That return was lost, and I filed a 
duplicate return. 

Mr, Pool. He asked you if you filed it. He didn't ask you whether 
it was lost or not. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Pool. Before the due date ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Pool. All right. 

Mr, Appell, Can you explain to the committee why, when for 
the year 1963 you had claimed a refund of $482,50, that you never 
filed a claim for that money until some time in 1965, when you were 
contacted by the Internal Revenue Service ? 

Mr, RoTON, Sir, we have on record at home where we contacted 
the Internal Revenue Service and, sir, this doesn't serve — I don't 
hope you can pass any legislation against me filing my income tax 
and 

Mr, Pool, What is the question ? 

Mr. Appell. The question is can he explain to the committee why, 
when he had a $482.50 tax refund due him on his 1963 return, he did 
not contact the Internal Revenue Service for this refund until they 
contacted him about his 1963 tax return. 

Mr, RoTON. We did, sir, and w^e have a copy of a letter in my income 
tax file at home to the Internal Revenue Service, stating such, we 
asked them. 

Mr. Appell. What was the date of that letter? Do you remember, 
sir? 

Mr. RoTON. I do not remember, sir. 

Mr, Appell, In your 1964 personal income tax return, did you re- 
port income from the Commission To Preserve The Peace of $1,016 ? 

Mr. RoTON. To the best of my knowledge, yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. That your total compensation that you receive from 
this period of 6 months' employment was the difference between $1,016, 
which you reported in 1964 and $680 which you lost in 1963, or less 
than $500 for 6 months' employment ? Is that your testimony ? 

Mr. RoTON. That is to the best of my knowledge and ability and 
according to the records that we have, sir. 

(Income Tax Return for the Year 1964 marked "Ralph Roton Ex- 
hibit No. 3" and retained in committee files.) 



3208 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. You testified that one of the functions that you per- 
formed for the commission was to cover some racial demonstrations 
in Birmingham, Alabama, in the year 1963. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. What other investigative function did you perform for 
the commission ? 

Mr. RoTON. Different meetings and demonstrations there in 
Birmingham ? 

Mr. Appell. Can you tell us a few of them ? 

Mr, RoTON. I can't offhand. I will have to refer back to my personal 
records at home, sir. 

Mr. Pool. The question that occurs to me is this : Was the State of 
Alabama paying you for investigating for the United Klans? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; definitely not. 

Mr. Pool. That is really what the question is. You claim the State 
of Alabama, but you are a member of the United Klans and you are an 
undercover agent for them. You had two masters, so to speak. Wliich 
one were you really working for? I know who paid you, but whom 
were you working for ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I am working to preserve the Constitution of the 
United States of America, and that is my dedicated belief and that is 
my stand and I will not compromise. 

Mr. Pool. That is a very admirable stand, and I appreciate your 
being that way about the Constitution, but we are trying to find out 
now just what the situation is. Is the State of Alabama supporting the 
Ku Klux Klan by helping their investigators investigate? 

Mr. RoTON. Very definitely not, sir. The State of Alabama to my 
knowledge and my belief had no knowledge of my membership in 
the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Pool. You know, I was an investigator in World War PI and, 
boy, they investigated me. They went to all my neighbors up and 
down the street asking if I got drunk, asking if I beat my wife. They 
asked them a lot of pertinent questions about me before they let me 
be an investigator for the United States Army, and I was very proud 
to have been passed on the security. 

I can't imderstand why they don't have an investigation of the in- 
vestigators. That is what I am getting at right now. 

Mr. RoTON. Maybe, sir, it came to pass 

Mr. Pool. What? 

Mr. RoTON. Maybe it came to pass, sir, that I was available at that 
time. 

Mr. Pool. They were in a big huri-y and they didn't have time to 
investigate ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't know what position the commission was in, but 
I had the information 

Mr. Pool. That is what I want you to explain if you can. I think 
it might be better to lay it out here in the open. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Roton, how many people would say knew you 
to be an undercover agent of the Ku Klux Klan or in any way affiliated 
with the Ku Klux Klan at that time? 

Mr. RoTON. To my knowledge, not very many. 

Mr. Pool. Robert Shelton knew you were, didn't he? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3209 

Mr. KoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. And all the Grand Dragons did ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not all of them ; no, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Several, if not all of them ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Several of them? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. One? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. One Grand Dragon ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Two? 

Mr. RoTON. Possibly. 

Mr. Pool. Do you care to name any more ? 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Creel knew I was. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Buchanan. Was there any reason for any of your employers 
to possess this information or anybody who may have recommended 
you for employment to possess this information unless Mr. Shelton 
happened to recommend you or somebody which we don't have any 
testimony about. 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Buchanan, to my knowledge not over five or six 
people in the State of Alabama knew that I was affiliated with the 
United Klans of America, five or six, and it could be possibly seven 
or eight, but no more than that, and that is to my knowledge. 

Mr. Appell. Did the United Klans of America share knowledge 
that you gained as an employee of the commission ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir; for certain specific information. 

Mr. Appell. You mean you were gathering information under the 
cloak of the Commission To Preserve The Peace and you were turning 
tlie results of this over to the United Klans of America? 

Mr. RoTON. Not tlie results. After they were published and pub- 
licly identified, I was. I had this in my possession and actually it is 
my personal information. They paid me for copies thereof, not the 
originals. 

Mr. Appell. Who paid you ? 

Mr. RoTON. The commission. 

Mr. Appell. Wlien did you supply this information to the United 
Klans of America ? 

Mr. RoTON. At periodic times, sir. 

Mr. Appell. During your employment? 

Mr. RoTON. Not that I can recall during my employment. It may 
have been. 

Mr. Appell. Did you discuss with Robert Shelton the results of the 
work that you were doing for this commission and what you were dis- 
covering as its investigator? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, the bounds of that could overlap one another be- 
cause I was engaged in the investigation prior to my employment with 
the commission and thereafter. 

Mr. Appell. Weren't you an agent of Mr. Shelton's while you were 
employed? 

Mr.'RoTON. Sir? 



3210 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Weren't you an agent of Mr. Shelton's while you were 
employed by the commission ? 

Mr. KoTON. I don't think you could term that as an agent, Mr. 
Appell. I believe in the presentation of the Constitution of the United 
States of America. And anything that I could do to preserve that, 
it is my duty to do it, not as an agent, but as an American. 

Mr. Pool. Did you investigate any bombings or threats of violence 
and other things that were going on down there in Alabama? Did 
you do any investigating like that for the commission ? 

Mr. RoTox. I was present the day that the 16th Street Baptist 
Church was bombed, approximately 30 or 40 minutes thereafter to 
make pictures of it ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. What did you find out ? 

Mr. RoTON. Nothing that day, sir. I have heard statements in the 
past that could have some bearing on the bombing of the 16th Street 
Baptist Church. 

Mr, Pool. You have any idea the Ku Klux Klan might have been 
engaged in that ? 

Mr. RoTON. Do you want my opinion, sir? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. That is what we are up here for. 

Mr. RoTON". I don^t think they did, in my judgment, because I was 
down there-— — 

Mr. Pool. Whom do you think did it? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Do you think the Communists did it ? 

Mr. RoTON. There is a possibility. I can read you some state- 
ments that I have available. 

Mr. Pool. What ground do you have for saying that ? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, I can read you some statements that have been 
documented and turned over to the commission and the FBI when 
they asked me what information I had about the bombing of the 16th 
Street Baptist Church, if you would like to hear them, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Surely. Go right ahead. 

Mr. RoTON. James Bevel, field secretary for Southern Christian 
Leadership Council, made a statement at the Unitarian Church in the 
latter part of 1963 stating, "The bombings in Birmingham will stop 
when we get what we want." 

Mr. Appell. Let me interrupt you there. Where was this state- 
ment made ? 

Mr. RoTON. In the Unitarian Church in Birmingham, Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. Were you present ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And what knowledge do you have? I mean how do 
you document this statement? 

Mr. RoTON. By myself. 

Mr. Appell. And when was this ? 

Mr. KoTON. This was in '63. I don't liave the date with me, sir, 
but this information was turned over to the Commission To Preserve 
The Peace. 

Mr. Pool. Did you have a tape recorder ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not a tape recorder on this one, sir. On the next one 
I did. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3211 

Mr. Appell. What I want to know is, when was this statement 
made and where was the meeting held and who were present. 

Mr. RoTON. It was held on a Smiday night, the later part of 1963. 
I don't remember the date. If I recall right it was in July or August 
in 1963. 

Mr. Appell. Who turned that statement in to the commission ? 

Mr. RoTON. I did, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You did. Well, now, the 16th Street bombing was 
September. This was in advance of that. How does this document 
when the 16th Street Baptist Church was bombed ? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, there were several bombings in Birmingham, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Let me ask you, as a member of the Ivlan Bureau of 
Investigation, as an investigator employed by them, what investiga- 
tion did you make and as an employee of the commission to determine 
rhe people who were involved in the actual bombings ? 

Mr. RoTON. I wasn't assigned to make an investigation, sir, but I 
furnished all of the pictures of the people present on the day that the 
church was bombed, and they are in the hands of the Commission To 
Preserve The Peace at this time. 

Mr. Appell. But this is after the fact. You took pictures of dam- 
age that was caused? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I am asking you what investigation you did do to de- 
termine who was responsible. 

Mr. RoTON. That wasn't my assignment, sir, but I 

Mr. Appell. You told us before that you didn't have any assign- 
ments; that whenever situations arose, ^ou on your own initiative on 
behalf of the commission made investigations. 

Mr. RoTON. This particular morning, on September 16, 1963, 1 was 
called and directed to go there by Mr. Hawkins. 

Mr. Appell. And he just wanted you to take the pictures and then 
forget about it? 

Mr. RoTON. Take the j^ictures and furnish them with the pictures. 
The FBI, I am sure, has seen the same pictures. In fact, I have of- 
fered those pictures to the FBI if they care to go over them and look 
at them. 

Mr. Appell. How many members, to your knowledge, of the United 
Klans of America were interrogated with respect to the bombing of 
the 16th Street Baptist Church? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't know how many, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Well, which ones to your knowledge were? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Appell.. You don't know any? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my Imowledge. I know there were many people 
interrogated. 

Mr. Appell. I am asking you about members of the United Klans 
of America. You are a member of the United Klans of America. 
You were representmg a commission. You were an investigator of 
the United Klans of America. You mean you had no concern with 
who was being interrogated in this matter of this bombing? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, I certainly did, sir, but I didn't have any infor- 
mation to offer. If I had, I w^ould have given it to the proper authori- 
ties. 



3212 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell,. Then you possess no knowledge as to the identity of 
the United Klansmen who were interrogated in connection with that 
bombing ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, the word or the definition of "Klans" has been at- 
tached to too many things that it doesn't belong to. 

Mr. Appell. I am only speaking about the United Klans of Amer- 
ica, an organization of which you were a member, an organization of 
which you w^ere an investigator. I am not speaking about any other 
Klan. I am speaking about that one and members of it whom you 
knew to be Klansmen because you yourself were a Klansman. 

Mr. RoTON. I don't know , sir. 

Mr. Pool. Were any of the other investigators hired by this legis- 
lative commission? 

Mr. RoTON. I understand there was. I do not know that to be a 
certainty. 

Mr. Pool. Who were they ? 

Mr. RoTON. The staff director now is — I can't think of his name, 
but he has been employed shortly after I left in 

Mr. Buchanan. Ed Strickland. 

Mr. RoTON. Ed Strickland ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool, Let me ask you this : Were any other Klansmen made 
investigators for this commission ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. I was the only outside man. 

Mr. Pool. Know^ingly or unknowingly, I am talking about. 

Mr. RoTON. To my knowledge, no, sir. 

Mr. Pool. No other Klansmen ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. At the time of this bombing Mr. Creel was not the 
Grand Dragon of the United Klans of America, Realm of Alabama, 
was he, sir ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir, he wasn't. 

Mr. Appell. Wlio was the Grand Dragon at that time ? 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Hubert Page. 

Mr. Appell. To your knowledge, was Mr. Hubert Page one of 
those questioned w^ith respect to the 16th Street bombing? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You have no knowledge of it ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't know whether you speak 

Mr. Appell. You have no knowledge of it, sir? 

Mr. RoTON. Are you speaking of whether he was questioned? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir, I am speaking about whether he was ques- 
tioned and asking you, do you possess knowledge of it. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, I imagine he was. 

Mr. Appell, I am asking you do you have knowledge, not whether 
he was. 

Mr. RoTON, Let me recall just a minute. Your direct question w.as, 
Was Mr. Hubert Page questioned in connection with the bombing of 
the 16th Street Baptist Church ? Is that correct ? 

Mr, Appell. No, sir; my question was. Do you have knowledge that 
he was questioned ? 

Mr. RoTON. I vaguely recall he was. 

Mr. Appell. As an Imperial Investigator of the United Klans of 
America and as an employee of the commission, did you attempt to 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3213 

interrogate Mr. Page as to whether or not he had any responsibility 
in connection with that ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir; I didn't. 

Mr. Appell. I thought you were interested in preserving the Con- 
stitution of the United States. 

Mr. RoTON. I am sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you have any interest as an employee of the com- 
mission in any acts of intimidation or harassment or threats carried out 
by members of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. RoTOK. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. What was the legislative purpose of this legislative 
commission ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember the law verbatim, sir, but it was to 
investigate and to determine the subversive activities Avithin the State 
of Alabama and to bring such, evidence forth to the commission, and 
they had subpena power to call hearings at any time, to pass legislation. 

Mr. Pool. What kind of subversive activity? Can you spell it 
out? 

Mr. RoTON, Any subversive activity. Subversive means 

Mr. Pool. Whether it was the Ku Klux Klan or CORE or whoever 
it was ? 

Mr. RoTON. It would cover all of it. 

Mr. Pool. Right. 

Mr. Appell. In 1963 at the time of the 16th Street Baptist Church 
bombing, who were the other officers of the Realm of Alabama of the 
United Klans of America in addition to Mr. Hubert A. Page ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember, sir. I didn't attend meetings vei-y 
much. I don't know. Most of my work was outside. 

Mr. Appell. What was your relationship with Robert Thomas ? 

Mr. RoTON. I know Mr. Thomas. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever carry out a function in the interest of 
the United Klans of America as a result of direction of Mr. Thomas ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not at the direction ; no, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Well, will you explain "not at the direction; no, sir"? 

Mr. RoTON. I know Mr. Thomas and know him to be a Klansman 
because he has told me so. 

Mr. Appell. You know him to be titan, Province No. 3, don't you ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir; I know that, I also know him to be a fairly 
reputable gentleman that has never indicated to me that he would 
break the law. 

Mr. Pool. I don't know if you have asked this question or not, but 
I am going to ask it now for the record : Did you at any time partici- 
pate in any act of violence, threats, intimidation, while you were a 
member of the Klan ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Hubert Page was replaced as Grand Dragon by 
Mr. Robert Creel. You testified earlier that Mr. Creel knew you to 
be a Klansman. Did you know him to be the Grand Dragon? 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Creel? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And what other officers of the Realm of Alabama of 
the United Klans of America did you know in addition to Mr. Creel ? 



3214 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I couldn't say to be specific. I could not say a 
man is a Klansman. It would be an impossibility. I know many 
people and to say that they were Klansmeri I could not say beyond a 
reasonable doubt with all certainty. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever attend a State convention of the Realm 
of Alabama at which officers were elected ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Well, now, who were elected at the meeting that you 
attended ? 

Mr. RoTON. Now, I remember this last one where Mr. Brassell ^ was 
elected Grand Dragon of the State of Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. And this was a meeting held in January ? 

Mr. RoTON. I believe it was early January ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. What other officers were elected at that meeting ? 

Mr. RoTON. That I don't remember, because I didn't pay any atten- 
tion and I was in and out. 

Mr. Appell. You don't know the identity of another officer elected 
in January? 

Mr. RoTON. I couldn't say beyond a reasonable doubt with all cer- 
tainty ; no, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I don't understand what you mean that you can't say 
it without a question of certainty. You were there, weren't you? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. You were there when the elections were held ? 

Mr. RoTON. In and out ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. All right. You mean the only time that you were in 
the room was when Mr. Brassell was elected to replace Mr. Creel ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. That's the only time you were present, just that one 
office? 

Mr. RoTON. That was the only office I was interested in at that 
time. 

Mr. Appell. Tliat wasn't answering my question. 

Mr. RoTON. I was only at that meeting just a very short time. 

Mr. Appell. Were you present when any other man was elected to 
an office in the Realm of Alabama ? 

Mr. RoTON. I was not in the immediate room ; no, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Were you a delegate to that convention ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr, Appell. Did you have a vote? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. How do you have a vote and not be a delegate ? 

Mr. RoTON. As I stated before, I was past publications director, an 
appointed position by the previous Grand Dragon. All officers have 
a vote. 

Mr. Appell. As an appointed officer, were you a member of the 
Kloncilium ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't know what you are talking about, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Well, the constitution and bylaws claimed the klon- 
cilium to be a meeting of the imperial officers and others of the Klan. 
Did you ever attend any meetings of the imperial officers ? 

1 William P. Brassell. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3215 

Mr, RoTON. I am not an imperial officer, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever attend any meeting of imperial officers? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my knowledge ; no, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Is Mr. Melvin Sexton the klabee, or secretary, of the 
Realm of Alabama ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Or kligrapp — I am sorry — or secretaiy. You don't 
know? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Have you ever had a discussion with Melvin Sexton 
about a position that he might hold ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Are you acquainted with UKA Confederate Lodge 
#11? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Will you tell the committee what the UKA Confederate 
Lodge #11 is? 

Mr. RoTON. That was a Montgomery lodge. 

Mr. Appell. No, I am talking about Post Office Box 113, Bessemer, 
Alabama. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. All right, sir. 

Mr. RoTON. That it was a Montgomery lodge at that time and a post 
office box was set up in Bessemer, Alabama, for the State office use in 
regards to collecting, or having a banquet, rather, in Birmingham. 

Mr. Appell. Having a what, sir ? 

Mr. RoTON. Having a banquet. 

Mr. Appell. A banquet? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. When was this banquet planned ? 

Mr. RoTON. If I am not mistaken, in August of last year, sir; 
August. 

Mr. Appell. And this post office box was set up for that purpose? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Why was it necessary to set up this box for the pur- 
pose of holding a banquet ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, there were tickets sold to the banquet, and the 
money was delivered back through that post office box ? 

Mr. Appell. And you are the one that was, in fact, the applicant for 
the post office box ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

(Application for P.O. box marked "Ralph Roton Exhibit No. 4" 
appears on p. 3216.) 

Mr. Appell. Did this Confederate Lodge office operate a bank 
account ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And were you a cosigner to that bank account ? 

Mr. RoTON. I was a cosigner, sir, but I never signed any checks. 

Mr. Appeli.. And I show you a copy of a signature card filed with 
the City National Bank of Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, and 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 4- 



3216 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Ralph Roton Exhibit No. 4 



FOR 

POST OFFICE 

USE ONLY 



POSTMASTEM 

BMteaar , Jaabsaa 



CMTl I 

7-20-65 



113 



rulat r»imHw0 to th» rmnting mnd ■<•• ot i 



TYPC Of fOOmflCATlOM 



// boM it nnfd lot uw ol •Hh»ry 

United Klana of Aaerlca 



KINO or B«JSINESS 

United Klano of Aaeriea 






• 




BUSINESS AODKESS (No. »lmt, mnd ZIf eodtl) 

UU Brighton Rd. Midfield, 


AlabaMi 35228 


TtLEPMOWW. 

ia$.^739 
788-6729 


HOME ADDRESS (Wo , ttr—t. and ZIf eodo) 

eaae 


TELEPHONE NO. 


SIGNATURE Of AffttCAMT 

X(SiKned) Raliii Itoton 


UATI or AmjCATION 

7-20-65 






TELEPHONE NUMKRS VERiriEO iV 



For Poit OfRc* Vw» Only 
ENTERED IN DIRECTORY 



INITIALS OF CURK 

J6G 



JBG 



113 



THE FOLLOWING MUST BE COMPLETED AND SIGNED BEFORE P O BOX IS ASSIGNED 
SHOW NAME IN WHKH aOX 1$ RENTED WHCN OTHER THAN NAME OF APfLKAMT 



I ACCORDANCE WITH INSTRUCTIONS CHECKED BELOW 



D 



DELIVERY IN BOX 



D 



SPECIAL DELIVERY MAIL ONLY (D»/iV«r jM chmektd bulow) 
I I DELIVER TO LOCAL RESIDENCE AT 

~~~ ~ (No-, »tr»mt, mnd ZIP codm) 



D 



DELIVER TO LOCAL BUSINESS ADDRESS AT 



(No., ttroH, mnd ZIP coda) 



ILL COMPLY WITH THEM. 



X (aignwd) ftilTTh Roton 

(Signatitrm Ol applicant) 



POD FORM inQO 
Oct 1964 ' ^^<J 



APPLICATION FOR POST OFFICE BOX 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3217 

ask you if the name Rotoii appears there as your signature? 
Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 
(Document marked "Ralph Roton Exhibit No. 5" follows:) 

Ralph Roton Exhibit No. 5 

United Klans of America Confederate -^^ o .' . ^ 

-LodPo # 11 g? J^^'O^/'P 

P. 0.' Box 113 D,t. cf - ^ -<^^^ 

Bessemer, Alaba-ria ' „,„,„,„, ^ <?^. j'Z) 



.°^ 



30 NOT WRITE ^OVC/ 



2 ^^^-^.J^t.':^...^^^ 



L. _of the .above signatures ; 

jned by No's. 

of the opening of th 
IS sti3 coaditionsTxi reverse side hereof. 

Phones .J^j'-^.<r^::7.3_%.. 



Checks to be signed by No's. and countersigned by No's . 

In consideration of the opening of this Account in and its maintenpnce by City National Banl< of Bii 
agree to all ttrms s^ c<}»ditions"Dp reversje side iiereqf. 

f/ailing Address 

Business Address 



Former Bank Account With _ . 

FORM SO s Corporation or Other Organization Card 

Mr. AppELii. And what was the purpose for which that account was 
opened ? 

Mr. RoTON. To deposit the money that was derived from the tickets. 

Mr. Appell. And what disbursement was made of the money de- 
posited in that account? 

Mr. Roton. I do not know, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Where was the banquet held ? 

Mr. RoTON. Tutwiler Hotel. 

Mr. Appell. Can you explain to the committee why there is no pay- 
ment against this account to the Tutwiler Hotel and that the only two 
checks that have any relationship to hotels is one of October 7, 1965, to 
the Hotel Admiral Semmes in the amount of $25.00 and one of Octo- 
ber 9, 1965, to the Hotel Admiral Semmes in the amount of $45.00, 
which was bounced for not sufficient funds ? 

Mr. RoTON-. I don't know, sir. The banquet was paid by the Grand 
Dragon, I understood. 

(Checks marked "Ralph Roton Exhibit No. 6" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Here is a check of September 2, 1965, payable to cash 
and endorsed "Robert M. Creel." The notation on the check states, 
"for attorney fees." 

Mr. RoToisr. That could possibly be, sir. 

(Check marked "Ralph Roton Exhibit No. 7" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Appell. Be for what, sir I 

Mr. RoTON. Attorney fees. 

Mr. Appell. Attorney fees for what ? 



3218 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. RoTON. It could be for the attorney that was hired in the Wil- 
kins case. 

Mr. Appell. Did you know Collie Leroy Wilkins and Eugene 
Thomas and W. O. Eaton to be Klansmen ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; I could not say beyond a reasonable doubt and 
moral certainty whether they are or they are not. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever have a discussion with Robert Shelton 
with respect to their defense, with respect to the three individuals? 

Mr. RoTON. In Mr. Murphy's office, the past counsel for United 
Klans of America, who is now deceased, I was present the day that the 
three men were brought back into the office. I heard what they said 
there and I also heard what the President of the United States said, 
that he was going to break the back of the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Appell. What did the three men say there ? 

Mr. RoTON. I testified in court what Mr. Rowe directed his question 
to me. I looked up and what he told me, I testified in Federal court 
about that. 

Mr. Appell. I asked you what did the other three men say ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember. It was just general conversation. 

Mr. Appell. How can you remember what Mr. Rowe said and not 
remember what the others said ? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, my name was called, as I testified in court, sir, and 
I looked at Mr. Rowe and Mr. Rowe told me, directed that question at 
me, looking at me as I am looking at you. He told me that, and I 
testified to what he told me in court. 

Mr. Appell. We are talking about now at this meeting that you 
brought up that was held in the office of Matt Murphy when three 
Klansmen came in. Now, I assume that Mr. Rowe was not present at 
that meeting. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir, Mr. Rowe was present. 

Mr. Appell. All right. Who else was present at that meeting in 
Mr. Murphy's office? 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Murphy, myself, Robert Shelton, Robert Creel, 
Robert Thomas, Thomas Rowe, Mr. Thomas' son. Miss Dorothy Krock. 

Mr. Appell. And what was the subject of the conversation there? 

Mr. RoTON. The three men had just been released from jail. They 
had been accused by the President of the United States of being at the 
scene when Viola Liuzzo was killed between Selma and Montgomery. 

Mr. Appell. Continue, sir. 

Mr. RoTON. You asked why the meeting 

Mr. Appell. No; I said what transpired at the meeting. I want 
to know what was said at the meeting. 

Mr. RoTON. In generalities I spoke to Mr. Shelton, Mr. Creel, and I 
wasn't there but a very short time and I left. Mr. Murphy — oh, let's 
see. I don't remember offhand, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever make an investigation of any individual 
which resulted in an act of intimidation or violence against the in- 
dividual that you made an investigation of? I am not asking you if 
you were involved in it. 

Mr. RoTON. Restate your question, please. 

Mr. Appell. Did you ever make an investigation of an individual 
that an act of intimidation or violence was carried out against after 
you made the investigation ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3219 

Mr. KoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Talk a little louder. 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. You mean did I ever as the attorney general 
of the State of Alabama — I think I know what you are referring to^ — 
listed me as being head of the KBI, which is detinitely incorrect, and 
implicated me in the civil rights murders, bombings, and other things. 
It IS very, very untrue, a vicious insinuation, and he knows it to be 
such. 

Mr. Appell. AVell, who Avas head of the Klan Bureau of Investiga- 
tion? 

Mr. RoTox. That is just a name that was derived, I think, from a 
speech that ISIr. Shelton made at a public rally some time back. 

Mr. Appell. In which he gave you that honor ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. He has never given me any honor about that. 
I have been associated as an investigator of the United Klans of 
America. 

Mr. Appell. What have you investigated for the United Klans of 
America specifically upon the directions of Robert Shelton? 

Mr. RoTON. Different things. 

Mr. Appell. Well, let's not say different things; let's enumerate 
some of the things that you have investigated. 

Mr. RoTON. Washington march. 

Mr. Appell. You testified before that you did that upon 

Mr. Pool. Wait just a minute. What were the results of your Wash- 
ington march investigation ? What did you turn in ? 

Mr. RoTON. Tape recordings, pictures, and identified as many as pos- 
sible to the Commission To Preserve The Peace. 

Mr. Pool. Tape recordings and pictures of whom ? 

Mr. RoTON. One Bayard Rustin, Martin Luther King, John Lewis, 
Aaron Henry, group shots. 

Mr. Pool. Why did you do that? Couldn't you have gotten that 
from the news reels or newspapers? 

Mr. RoTON. The commission had other information that they could 
cross-reference and determine if any of the individuals in the group 
shots were identified with any subversive groups. 

Mr. Pool. Were they ? 

Mr. RoTON. I couldn't say, sir. You would have to — I know of a 
few offhand. 

Mr. Pool. Well, earlier you said in your statement that you infil- 
trated these groups and that you met old Communists, and things like 
that. I wondered what kind of an in\'estigation you turned in to them 
down there in Alabama. 

Mr. RoTON. Since that time, sir, I have met one Myles Horton at 
the convention in Birmingham, the SCL convention, betw^een August 
9 and August 13, 1965. And he had his students at Highlander Folk 
School stand up and salute the Russian flag and said, "This is the flag 
we w^ill live under. We will overcome the American Government and 
establish a Soviet Government in its place." 

Mr. Pool. During your investigations, have you ever run into 
anybody that had a card and said, "I am a Communist" ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 



3220 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. Explain to the committee here what you have done in 
that regard. What have been the results of your investigations of 
these groups that you have infiltrated ? 

Mr. EoTON. Sir, to determine whether a person is a Communist or 
not, you have to follow him around and take his statements and see if 
they are radical 

Mr. Pool. Did you do this ? 

Mr. EoTON. Yes, sir. And are of the nature of Karl Marx and if 
he is not satisfied with this government and wants to overthrow and 
make statements 

Mr. Pool. State whom you furnished this information to. Did you 
turn it over to the commission down in Alabama ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Did you have any hearings on it ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Did you turn it in to the FBI ? 

Mr. RoTON. If they want it, they are welcome to it. 

Mr. Pool. Did you turn it in to this committee here ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Did you turn it in to the committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. A member of the staff has copies of all the tapes that 
I made. 

Mr. Pool. This committee here ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. The committee wants to be sure that you did. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. You testified this morning that you covered the Wash- 
ington march upon the specific instructions of the chairman of the com- 
mission. I asked you just a little bit ago what you do for Mr. Shelton, 
under Mr. Shelton's instructions, and you said you covered the march 
in Washington. Which are the facts? Were you serving two 
masters ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir, I serve no mr.ster. I serve the Constitution as 
an American citizen, to the best of my ability. 

Now, I was directed by Mr. Hawkins to go to Washington and attend 
the Washington march to take photographs and pictures thereof and 
return them to him, and which I did. This information, we give it to 
a lot of people, anybody who 

Mr. Appell. You testified that you did this at the request of Mr. 
Shelton. 

Mr. RoTON. Well, let me rephrase that. I did not see Mr. Shelton 
prior to the time that I left for Washington, sir. 

Mr. Appell. I asked you what assignment did you carry out for 
Mr. Shelton. You testified that you covered the march in Washington. 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Shelton asked me in 1961 after I told him what I 
could possibly do. He said, "Go ahead, and keep me informed." 

Mr. Appell. So that what yoi^^ have done from 1961 to the present 
day in behalf of the United Klans of America, you have done under 
this broad authority of making your own decisions as to Avhether you 
should cover it for them or not, make an investigation. 

Mr. RoTON. What I have done in the capacity, making tape record- 
ings and pictures and doing anything I can to bring it to the atten- 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3221 

tion of the American people, the Communist threat to this country, 
sir, I have done as an American. 

Mr. Appell. Name one person that you have identified as a Com- 
mimist, that you have established to be a Communist. 

Mr. RoTON. You can take past investigations that I made in cross- 
reference 

Mr. Appell. Your investigations ? 

Mr. RoTON. It is very difficult. I have done mine at my own ex- 
pense. 

Mr. Pool. The witness will be temporarily excused until 10 o'clock 
tomorrow morning. We are going to have to give up this room at 3 
o'clock and we are going a little over, so the committee Avill recess 
until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning, and you will still be on the stand. 

Mr. RoTON. All right, sir. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :10 p.m., Tuesday, February 8, 1966, the subcom- 
mitee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, February 9, 1966.) 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN ORGANIZATIONS IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

Part 4 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 9, 1966 

United States House of Eepresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ B.C. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
as reconstituted for the February 9 hearings, met, pursuant to recess, 
at 10:15 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office Building, 
Washington, D.C., Hon. Joe R. Pool (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of Texas, 
chairman; Charles L. Weltner, of Georgia; and John H. Buchanan, 
Jr., of Alabama. ) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Pool and Bu- 
chanan. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director: William 
Hitz, general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. Appell, 
chief investigator ; and Philip R. Manuel, investigator. 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

The Chair wishes to announce : "Pursuant to the provisions of law 
and the Rules of this Committee," that the chairman, Edwin Willis, 
has hereby appointed — 

a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities consisting of Honor- 
able Joe R. Pool as Chairman, and Honomble Charles L. Weltner and Honorable 
John Buchanan as associate members, to conduct hearings in Washington, D.C., on 
Wednesday, February 9, 1966, as contemplated by the resolution adopted by the 
Committee on the 30th day of March, 1965, authorizing hearings concerning the 
activities of the various Ku Klux Klan organizations in the United States. 
Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 
If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 8th day of February, 1966. 

/s/ Edwin E. WilUs 
Edwin E. Willis, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Actvoities. 

So that is the subcommittee that will hear the witnesses this morning. 
I believe we had Mr. Roton on the stand yesterday so, if he will come 
forward, we will hear his testimony again. 

3223 



3224 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

TESTIMONY OP RALPH RAY ROTON— Resumed 

Mr. Pool. You have been sworn and you are testifying under oath. 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, you testified yesterday that one of the duties 
and positions that you held within the United Klans of America was 
that of director of public relations or director of publicity ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. What was your title within the organization ? 

Mr. Roton. Title? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Roton. Sir, that was an appointed position under the Grand 
Dragon, and I worked with him. when he called a press conference. 

Mr. Appell. And you were the director of public relations? Is 
that what your appointment was ? 

Mr. RoTON. That was the title that was given to me; yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. By the Grand Dragon or Imperial Wizard ? 

Mr. Roton. The Grand Dragon, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And were you the director of public relations for the 
realm or for the imperial office ? 

Mr. Roton. For the Realm of Alabama. 

Mr. Appell. Just for the realm ? 

Mr. Roton. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Now what were your duties and responsibilities in the 
position that you held? 

Mr. Roton. Sir, to call press conferences, to be in touch with the 
news media, and to call them at Mr. Creel's, when he decided to call a 
press conference, on when he had some information to release. 

Mr. Appell. Then with respect to the press media, you were a pub- 
licly known member of the United Klans of America ? 

Mr. Roton. For a period of time ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And what period of time did that encompass ? 

Mr. Roton. Sir, I don't remember telling the news media that I was 
a member of the organization, but I may possibly have at one time or 
another. 

I would call the news media and say that "Mr. Creel is going to have 
a press conference," and they would respond accordingly. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, the subpena served upon you contained an 
attachment thereto, which was made a part of the subpena and directed 
you to produce books, commanded you to bring with you and to pro- 
duce before the committee, books, records, and other documents set 
forth in the subpena. 

Paragraph 1 called for : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible 
Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and affiliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, in your possession, custody 
or control, or maintained by you or available to you as present or former Public 
Relations Director, Head of the Klan Bureau of Investigation (KBI). and 
member. Imperial Board of the Invisible Empire, United Klans, Knights of the 
Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the United Klans of America, 
Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3225 

In the representative capacity set forth in paragraph 1, 1 ask you to 
produce the documents called for. 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, could we clarify one thing? It calls for a member 
of the imperial board. I am not a member, nor have I ever been a 
member, of the imperial board. 

Number two, it calls for records under the Klan Bureau of Investi- 
gation and head thereof. To my knowledge, I have never been ap- 
pointed the head of any such organization. As I stated yesterday, 
that I did serve in a capacity as investigator for the organization, but 
never a head of any such group. 

As far as the records, sir, to the best of my knowledge and ability, I 
have no records belonging to the United Klans of America, the United 
Ku Klux Klan, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I have records, as I testified to yesterday, of investigations that I 
did make and which have been turned over to the Commission To 
Preserve The Peace, and records, copies thereof are available, but they 
are my personal records to this committee and they have no bearing on 
the United Klans of America. 

Now, there may be in those records statements and things of that 
nature that were made publicly through a newspaper and consist of a 
newspaper clipping, but to tie that down, sir, to as records belonging 
to the United Klans of America, to the best of my knowledge and 
ability, I have none. 

Mr. Appell. Well, the subpena is a little broader than that. It 
relates to records which are in your possession, custody, or control or 
maintained by you or available to you. Within those three cate- 
gories, your testimony is that you have no records ? 

Mr. RoTON. I have no records belonging to the United Klans of 
America. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have any records that you would like to make 
available to the committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, as I stated before, the records of the investigation 
that I made, the pictures and photographs, the documents of the prior 
investigations I made, of course, they are available to this committee 
and any law enforcement agency that would be of benefit to. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have them in your possession now ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; they are back in Alabama. 

Mr. Pool. Would you make them available to the committee ? 

Mr. RoTON. At any time, sir. In fact, this committee does have 
some of my records now. 

Mr. Pool. How about the narrative records of investigations? 

Mr. RoTON. I have notes of reports. 

Mr, Pool. Do you volunteer those to the committee? 

Mr. RoTON. I would be more than happy to, and most of them are 
on tape recordings. 

Mr. Pool. You liave tape recordings, also ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You want to furnish those to the committee, also? 

Mr. RoTON. I will be glad to furnish a copy. I don't have the money 
to pay for it, but if you pay for duplication, you are wecome to it. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Rot on, after you left the employment of the Com- 
mission To Preserve The Peace, what was your next employment? 



3226 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. EoTON. I was self-employed in Montgomery, in a small con- 
struction business, small home repair. 

Mr. Appell. And how long did you engage in that business? 

Mr. RoTON. Oh, approximately 9 months, I think. 

Mr. Appell. And that took you up to the fall of 1964 ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. And how have you been employed since the fall of 
1964? 

Mr. RoTON. Since that time, sir, I was employed with an insurance 
adjusting firm in Birmingham and I was employed with — sir, do we 
have to go into this? We did go into this yesterday, and to the best 
of my judgment, it is privileged information. And my testifying and 
trying to cooperate with this committee, and it will bring people in 
that have no connection with any organizations whatsoever. Dedi- 
cated Americans, trying to do a job. 

Mr. Appell. Well, are these 

Mr. RoTON. I can't see where it would be relevant and germane to 
any organization, any such legislation. 

Mr. Appell. Well, the thing that makes it germane, Mr. Roton, is 
the fact that you testified yesterday that you have operated within 
organizations in an undercover capacity on behalf of the United 
Klans. 

Mr. RoTON. Not continuously, sir. As I also testified to yesterday, 
that I try to do my part as an American citizen, and we can go into 
politics and bipartisan politics and people I know, and I just can't 
see where it would be relevant and germane to drag innocent people 
through this committee. 

Mr. Appell. Well, let me ask you whether or not any of the em- 
ployers that you have been employed by since the fall of 1964, you have 
engaged in investigative activity at their direction ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir; I have. When I was associated and working 
for an insurance adjusting firm in Birmingham, that was part of my 
work, investigating accidents and claims that would be pertinent to 
the insurance company, but they had no relation to the United Klans 
of America. 

Mr. Appell. Well, I think, Mr. Roton, when you state that these 
employers have no knowledge that you were a concealed member of 
the United Klans of America, that your employment by them adversely 
affects them. 

And for the sake of the record, I think that you ought to be full and 
frank with the committee, because this is needed by the record. This 
is what we ask of witnesses, and I don't think it is a reflection upon 
your employers. 

Mr. RoTON. Certainly not, but it would be, as if you read the Wash- 
ington Post this morning, to my interpretation, it was somewhat mis- 
quoted as to w^hat I testified before this committee yesterday and as to 
my conversation with another individual. And people who are try- 
ing to do right, sir, and no matter whether we disagree with them 

Mr. Pool. Let me ask you this, then : What were your duties with 
these companies since the fall of 1964? What were your duties? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, with Bridewell Brothers Insurance Adjusters in 
Birmingham, Alabama, I performed the duties of an insurance ad- 
juster. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3227 

Mr. Pool. All right, what were the duties of an insurance adjuster, 
what type cases? 

Mr. RoTON. I called upon peoj)le who were involved in automobile 
accidents and tried to settle their claim according to the rules and 
stipulations. 

Mr. Pool. Strictly commercial business. It had nothing to do with 
the Ku Klux Klaii or the investigating commission. 

Mr. RoTON. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, were any of the by-products of this inves- 
tigative effort of yours shared with the United Klans of America? 

Mr. RoTON. No^ sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you, on behalf of the United Klans of America, 
make any investigation as to the circumstances relating to the death 
of Mrs. Viola Liuzzo ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir;T did, under the direction of attorney Matt 
Murphy. 

Mr. Appell. And what did you do, sir ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't have that complete file with me, sir. It is 

Mr. Pool. Well, to the best of your recollection, what did you do ? 

Mr. RoTON. I made some photographs and I also took one state- 
ment from a former landlord of a jDerson, and made some photographs 
and turned those over to Mr. Murphy; made some verbal investiga- 
tions, in asking around as to what happened and if there was any im- 
plication of these people. I talked to State investigators, talked to the 
FBI, was at the trial, and all information was turned over to the 
attorney. 

Mr. Pool. Did you keep copies of any of this ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir ; I have a file on the investigation. 

Mr. Pool. Will you make the file available to the committee? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, I would be more than happy to. 

Mr. Appell. Did you obtain copies of any documents obtained by 
law enforcement agencies which had been received from other law 
enforcement agencies or which had been taken from the automobile of 
Mrs. Liuzzo ? 

Mr. RoTON. Would you restate that question, sir ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Did you receive from any law enforcement agencies any evidence, 
either received from other law enforcement agencies or obtained from 
the automobile of Mrs. Viola Liuzzo ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I made some photographs and movies of the auto- 
mobile in question, and some information, when Mr. Murphy, prior 
to his death, it is also in this complete file, part of the information 
that — his personal notes and things of that nature, and since tw^o trials 
are now pending on it, I don't kiiow, you might have to check with 
the attorney that is now in charge of the case. 

Mr. Appell. That is not an answer to my question, sir. 

I asked you, did you receive from any law enforcement authority 
any of the documents which were in the Liuzzo car at the time she 
was murdered, or did you receive from any law enforcement authority 
any documents of evidence which they had received in the case ? 

Mr. Roton. I received, I think I still have — I am not sure whether 
I do or not 



3228 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. Can you talk a little louder ? 

Mr. RoTON. I am not sure whether I do or not, information relating 
to that case. I could not say specifically, but I will say this: That 
the complete file of Mr. Murphy was given, entrusted to me, after 
the first trial. 

Mr. Appell. Who entrusted it to you ? 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Murphy. 

Mr. Pool. His question was this, as I understand it : Did you re- 
ceive any information or official documents, or did you copy any of 
them from law enforcement agencies ? 

I suppose Mr. Appell meant as an investigator for the Alabama 
Legislative Commission. Is that what you are getting at? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir ; he was not employed by the Alabama Commis- 
sion To Preserve The Peace at that time. 

Mr. Pool. That was before he was employed by that ? 

Mr. Appell. This is afterwards, sir. 

There was a document made available to the press by Imperial 
Wizard Shelton, which consisted of a report which originated with 
the Detroit Police Department. 

Do you possess knowledge of how that document came into Mr. 
Shelton's possession ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, there were many copies of that made in the State 
of Alabama. I have seen just numerous copies. 

Mr. Appell. That does not answer my question, Mr. Roton. 

I asked you. Do you know how that came into Mr. Shelton's posses- 
sion? 

Mr. RoTON. I couldn't say that to a certainty. I think I liave a 
copy of the same document. 

Mr. Appell. I asked you if you possess knowledge of how that 
came into Mr. Shelton's possession. 

Mr. RoTON. Not that I remember, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Well, before you said not with certain knowledge, 
now not as you remember. 

Mr. RoTON. Do you mean — you are asking me tlie question, did I 
give that to Mr. Shelton ? 

Mr. Appell. No, sir; I am asking you whether or not you possess 
knowledge of how it came into Mr. Shelton's possession. 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; I don't think I do. I may have — well, there 
was plenty of copies of it in the State of Alabama and all over the 
South and all over the country. 

Mr. Appell. Yes, but at one stage, there was only one, and that 
was the one sent to Sheriff Clark by a chief of police in a commimity 
outside of Detroit. At one stage, there was only one. I will agree 
with you that, thereafter, there were many. 

I am asking you if you know how the one that Mr. Shelton made 
available to the press came into his possession. 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir; I couldn't — I don't. 

Mr. Appell. Did you photograph any of, make photographic copies 
of any of the documents that were in Mrs. Liuzzo's car? 

Mr, RoTON. Yes, sir. I did. 

Mr. Appell. Where ? Who made the documents available to you for 
photographic reproduction ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3229 

Mr, RoTON. I was working under the direct supervision of Mr. 
Murphy, sir, at that time, and the documents in her car were subpenaed 
duces tecum to that first trial, and I was asked by Mr. Murphy to re- 
produce some of those. 

Mr. Appell, These documents were made an official part of the 
record of the first trial ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember, sir. I would have to check the 
transcript. 

Mr. Appell. But 

Mr. RoTON. There was some evidence introduced from her car ; yes, 
sir. And there was more that was tried, that the attorney tried to 
introduce. 

Mr. Appell. But the reproduction that you made of the documents 
that were in her car, you did upon instruction of Mr. Murphy, and 
the reason that they were turned over to you was because they had 
been subpenaed through a subpena duces tecum issued by the court 
on the request of Mr. Murphy ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Did you receive compensation for this work that you 
did? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. None whatsoever? 

Mr. RoTON. I received some expense money from Mr. Murphy ; 
yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Can you recall how much expense money you received. 

Mr. RoTON. I received one check for $40.00, I believe. 

Mr. Appell. Did you also receive one for a hundred dollars? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir; but that was not related to that case. 

Mr. Appell. What was that related to? 

Mr. RoTON. Some other work that 1 did for Mr. Murphy. 

Mr. Appell. Now were copies of any of the documents which you 
reproduced in the Liuzzo case, were prints of that made available by 
you to any member of the United Klans of America? 

Mr. RoTON. I can't say to be certain, sir. Mr. Murphy was a mem- 
ber of the United Klans of America, and he was the attorney in the 
case. 

Mr. Appell. Well, let's say, did you personally — not that someone 
else might have — did you personally turn over prints to anyone who 
was a member of the United Klans of America, excluding the attorney, 
the Imperial Klonsel, the late Matt Murphy ? 

Mr. RoTON. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr, Pool. How about negatives? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir? 

Mr. Pool. How about negatives ? Did you turn any negatives over 
to anybody that was a member? 

Mr, RoTON, Not to my knowledge, sir, 

Mr, Pool, Mr. Rot on, I can't understand the repeated response that 
you make, not to your knowledge. 

If you were the man that took the photographs and you were the 
man that made the prints, if you did it, wouldn't you have knowledge? 
I mean 

Mr. RoTON. Well, sir, I could say that maybe possibly. There were 
many photographs made of that. 



3230 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. I am only asking what you personally turned over. 
I am not saying if you made seven copies and gave them to Mr. Mur- 
phy, that they later got into the hands of somebody. I am just saying 
did you personally turn them over to anyone who was a member of 
the United Klans of America, other than Mr. Murphy? 

Mr. RoTON. I could not answer that question beyond a reasonable 
doubt and moral certainty. I reported directly to Mr. Murphy on 
this case, and no one else. 

Mr. Pool. You do not remember whether you did or not. Is that it ? 

Mr. EoTON. Well, not to my knowledge, I did not, because I re- 
ported directly to Mr. Murphy on the case. 

Mr. Pool. Did you sell any of these prints ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. To anybody, I am talking about. 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, Mr. Shelton has made public statements to 
the effect that recordings and film and the results of investigations 
relating to several of the civil rights disturbances and the Liuzzo case 
and the Selma-Birmingham march are in the possession of the United 
Klans of America. 

Did these come from you ? 

Mr. RoTON. It is very possible, sir, because there were many copies 
made of — that those accounts, and I do not think I have the original 
copies that were made in Selma. This committee has copies. Several 
law enforcement agencies have copies. Anything that they would be 
pertinent to an investigation, they were given to them. 

Mr. Appell. Well, did you ever receive any compensation, directly 
or indirectly, from Mr. Shelton to reimburse you for the cost of prints 
of photographs, tapes, or recordings that he has in his possession ? 

Mr. RoTON, I gave Mr. Shelton a complete copy of those tapes, and 
he was to reimburse me. Well, let me make this point clear : The tapes 
were made for another person. I loaned this copy to Mr. Shelton and 
said if he would pay for the reproduction of it, he could keep them. 
Otherwise, I would have to take it and give it to the person who had 
already paid for the reproduction. 

Mr. Shelton kept them approximately 5 or 6 weeks, I think, and 
whether he made reproductions of them or not, I do not know, but I 
have those tapes back in my possession now. 

Mr. Appell. And what tapes are they ? 

Mr. RoTON. They were the Selma tapes, and there may have been 
more. I made many tapes. I couldn't say. 

Mr. Appell. And who did you make the tapes for, originally ? 

Mr. RoTON. You mean the tapes in Selma ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, the ones that you turned over to Mr. Shelton to 
make copies of. 

Mr. RoTON. Well, I have testified to the action of why I did this, and 
I, as an American, and some of the things going on in some of these 
meetings need to be exposed. 

Mr. Appell. That does not answer my question, Mr. Roton. 

I asked for whom did you do it? You said you did it for someone 
else. 

Mr. RoTON. I was not directed by any one pei-son, sir, to go to Selma 
and make any tapes or pictures there. 1 did this on my own. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3231 

Mr. Appell. Well, I am just trying to reconcile what you state in 
that you did not do it for Mr. Shelton, you did it for someone else, who 
paid for it, and that you then loaned the tapes to Mr. Shelton to make 
copies of. 

Mr. KoTON. Well, I was speaking of the copies of the tapes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Yes. 

Mr. RoTON. There were many copies of these particular tapes made, 
and I loaned those to Mr. Shelton, but I now have those back in my 
possession and I received no compensation from him for these partic- 
ular tapes. 

Mr. Appell. Well, have you received compensation from him for 
copies of prints, photographic prints, photographs taken ? 

Mr. RoTON. Directly from Mr. Shelton ; no sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton 

Mr. Pool. Now wait just a minute. 

How about from any individual in the United Klans^ Did you 
receive compensation from any official of the United Klans? 

Mr. RoTON. I do not remember. I have received some from Mr. 
Murphy, yes, sir ; on different occasions. 

Mr. Pool. Wliat was his title? Did he have a title in the United 
mans? 

Mr. RoTON. Mr. Murphy? Yes, sir; he was Imperial Klonsel. 

Mr. Pool. Imperial Klonsel ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Go ahead. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, as an investigator for the United Klans of 
America, to what extent had the United Klans of America infiltrated 
law enforcement agencies in Alabama, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. RoTON. That, sir, I couldn't answer. I don't know. 

Mr. Appell. You know of no member of the United Klans of 
America who was a member of law enforcement? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr, Roton, are you a member of the United Klans 
today ? 

Mr. RoTON. That's a good question. 

Mr. AppEiiL. What is the answer ? 

Mr, RoTON. That I don't know. 

Mr. Appell, Are you still an investigator for Mr. Shelton today ? 

Mr. RoTON. I would assume not, sir. And not to get into any 
hassle with anyone, any particular 

Mr. Pool. I can't quite hear you. 

Mr. RoTON. Not to cause a disturbance between any people, sir, my 
activities for the organization and which you have copies, I think Mr. 
Weltner had a book up there of what the Klans believes in, and as an 
individual American, I have done this work and tried to bring it to 
the attention of the public, and not to get in any conflict with any 
people. 

Mr. Pool, Do you intend to keep up your membership in the United 
Klans of America ? 

Mr, Appell. There is a question pending, Mr. Roton. 

Mr. Roton. lamthinking, Mr. Appell. 

Sir, the Klan as it is originally intended, carry on and do work 
in a 

59-222 O— 67^pt. 4—22 



3232 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. Talk into that microphone there. We can't hear you. 

Mr. RoTON. To do work in the best interests of Americanism and 
to do its part to try to preserve the Constitution of the United States, 
the way it was originally intended, and to work for better government 
and for the prosperity of both races, in which it has been written as 
such, to carry on in this manner, yes. But if this organization should 
be branded and proven to be branded beyond a reasonable doubt in a 
moral certainty, anti-American, subversive, I could not be a member 
of it. 

Mr. Pool. Are you in doubt about that, as to what you think 
about it? 

Mr. RoTON. The — what this investigation proves, we are still taking 
testimony. We don't know it beyond a reasonable doubt and a moral 
certainty at this time. But to answer your question, to remain in an 
organization that is branded subversive, anti-American, I could not 
do it, sir. 

I intend to continue my work as an individual, to try to protect and 
preserve this country, as it was originally intended. 

Did you all get that straight, over there ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, the reason I asked you the question as to 
whether or not you still were, is that yesterday, w^hile you were giving 
a television interview, you said that you were, and Mr. Melvin Sexton 
asked Mr. Manuel for us to ask you under oath today whether you still 
were, and that is why I asked you the question. 

You know Mr. Melvin Sexton to be an official of the United Klans 
of America, do you not ? 

Mr. RoTON. I can't say that beyond a reasonable doubt and a moral 
certainty, to the best of my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Well, let me say to you that Mr, Melvin Sexton signed 
the corporate tax return of the United Klans of America covering the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1965, as the secretary of the organization, 
so I would assume that would make him then an official. 

Would you also make the same assumption ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, if he signed it, it is beyond a reasonable doubt and 
a moral certainty, and that is his signature beyond a reasonable doubt, 
who am I to question it ? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, other than the Viola Liuzzo case, were you 
ever requested by the Imperial Wizard to investigate acts of violence 
in Alabama in which there was great rumor and suspicion that the 
people involved might be Klansmen ? 

Mr. RoTON. I can't say beyond a reasonable doubt and a moral 
certainty, sir, but I have, as I testified yesterday, made inquiries into 
different acts of violence and tried to find out the truth behind it. 

Mr. Appell. On instructions from Mr. Sheldon, or on your own ? 

Mr. RoTON. I do not remember. 

Mr. Appell. On September 29, 1963, Robert E. Chambliss, Charles 
A. Cagle, and John Wesley Hall were arrested for possessing dynamite. 

At the trial they were later dismissed on tlie grounds that the dyna- 
mite in their possession was not within the geographical limits of the 
city of Birmingham and, therefore, could not be prosecuted under 
Birmingham jurisidction. 

Did you make an investigation to determine whether or not these 
three Klansmen had in fact obtained this dynamite and the use for 
which the dynamite was going to be used ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3233 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; I didn't. The only time I had anything to do 
with that particular issue is I attended the trial while it was going on 
and made some photographs. 

Mr. Appell. "Well, did you learn that one of the defendants advised 
that he was ordered to get this dynamite by Robert Thomas ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir ; I don't — wait, restate that question. 

Mr. Appell, I said did you learn that one of the defendants stated 
that he was ordered to get the dynamite by Robert Thomas ? 

Mr. RoTON. I vaguel}^ remember such a statement, sir. 

Mr. Appell, And allegedly that this dynamite was to be used to 
clear some ground for a new Klavern headquarters ? 

Mr. RoTON. I think that was in the Bhmiimglimn News or my local 
newspaper, one of the two of them. 

Mr. Appell. Now as a member of both at that time, both the Com- 
mission To Preserve The Peace and as an Imperial Investigator or an 
investigator appointed by the Imperial Wizard, shouldn't you have 
made an investigation to determine whether these were the facts of the 
procurement of dynamite ? 

Mr. RoTON". Sir, as an investigator for the Commission To Preserve 
The Peace, I specified that what civil disturbances in Birmingham was 
which I was assigned to. And if I had any knowledge of the bombings 
in Birmingham, as I stated to you before, I would be more than happy 
to give them to you. 

Mr, Appell, I realize that, sir, but you testified yesterday that you 
knew as a Klansman Robert Thomas. 

Mr, RoTON, Yes, sir, 

Mr. Appell. Now did you know Bob Chambliss to be a Klansman ? 

Mr, RoTON, Not beyond a reasonable doubt and moral certainty, 

Mr. Pool, How would you determine whether he was a Klansman or 
not? 

Mr, RoTON, Sir? 

Mr. Pool. How would you determine whether he was a Klansman 
or not ? Didn't your curiosity get the best of you sometimes and you 
would wonder whether a fellow was a Klansman or not? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, of course, the new\s media brands people things 
that sometimes they are not, and with all due respect to the news 
media, it is good sometimes and sometimes it is bad, 

Mr, Pool. We are not trying the newspaper, w^e are just trying to 
find out the facts here before this committee. 

Mr. RoTON. You have to ask a person, and there is certain 

Mr. Pool. Did you ever tiy to find out whether a fellow was a 
Klansman or not? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember, sir. 

Mr. Appell, Did you ever attend a closed Klavern meeting at which 
Robert E, Chambliss was present? 

Mr, RoTON, Not to my knowledge, sir, I don't know, 

Mr, Appell, Well, you must know. Not to your knowledge? You 
don't know. You did or you did not ? Chambliss is not a person who 
is so usual that you could attend a meeting with him and not know it. 

Mr. RoTON, As I stated before, sir, I very seldom attended meetings. 

Mr. Appell, Did you attend any meetings of Eastview Klavern 13 ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 



3234 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Where did they hold their meetings? 

Mr. RoTON. On First Avenue in Birmingham — maybe it was First 
Avenue, if I am not mistaken. 

Mr. Appell. At any meetings of Eastview Klavern, was Robert E. 
Chambliss present? 

Mr. RoTON. I couldn't say beyond a reasonable doubt and a moral 
certainty, sir. I do not know. 

Mr. Appell. Was Robert Thomas present? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir; I have seen Mr. Thomas present there. 

Mr. Appell. Was Ronald Tidwell present ? 

Mr. RoTON. I could not say beyond a resonable doubt and a moral 
certainty, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Was Gary Rowe present? 

Mr. RoTON. I remember Mr. Rowe, not at Eastview, I don't think. 
I think I have seen him at different places. 

Mr. Appell. At closed Klavern meeting? 

Mr. RoTON. Let's see, the last time I remember seeing Mr. Rowe was 
at the convention at the Tutwiler Hotel, I believe, in 1964. 

Mr. Pool. Has anyone threatened you about your testimony here 
before this committee? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Have you talked to any Klansmen since yesterday? 

Mr. RoTON. Talked to Mr. Creel. And I saw Mr. Shelton yester- 
day, but there was no conversation. 

Mr. Pool. Did you talk to Shelton ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir; there was no conversation. I have not been 
threatened ; no, sir. I don't think I will be, either. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Roton, did you accompany a group of Alabama 
Klansmen to a meeting and public rally in Jacksonville, Florida, in 
November 1964 ? 

Mr. RoTON. I attended that rally, yes, sir, with Mr. Creel and Mr. 
Murphy, 

Mr. Appell. Was Mr. Eugene Thomas there ? 

Mr. RoTON. I don't remember, sir, to be honest and certain. 

Mr. Appell. Was Collie Leroy Wilkins there ? 

Mr. RoTON. I couldn't say to be sure, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Was W. O. Eaton there? 

Mr. RoTON. It is all possible. I don't know it beyond a reasonable 
doubt and a moral certainty, sir. 

Mr. Appell. What was the purpose of the Alabama Klansmen ac- 
companying the Grand Dragon and Imperial Wizard and the Imperial 
Klonsel to Jacksonville? 

Mr. RoTON. Myself? I went down with Mr. Creel. Mr. Murphy 
was already there, and he met us when we were there. 

Mr. Appell. Was there, to your know^ledge, anticipation of any 
trouble from the members of the United Florida Klan because you 
were staging a public rally in Jacksonville, Florida ? 

Mr. RoTON. I never heard of any such, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Were you involved in any conversation which centered 
around William Rosecrans, the United Florida Klan member who had 
admitted to dynamiting the residence of lona Godfrey and had given 
tt; ,timony against other members of the ITnited Florida Klan? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3235 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, there was a lot of people present there. I don't 
remember, and that has been 2 years ago. 

Mr. Appell. Was J. B. Stoner there? 

Mr. EoTON. I believe he was. 

Mr. AppEiLL. He at that time, he and Mr. Murphy were cocounsel for 
the defendants in that case ; were they not ? 

Mr. RoTON. To the best of my knowledge, Mr. Murphy did par- 
ticipate in part of that. I wasn't there, sir, and I don't know. 

Mr. Appell. Did you possess any knowledge of J. B. Stoner ever 
being a member of a Klan organization ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir; I don't. 

Mr. Appell. Were you familiar with the existence of the Christian 
Knights of the Ku Kl'ux Klan ? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Never heard of them ? 

Mr. RoTON. Well, there is so many different Klan organizations 
that has been brought out during the past, it may have come to my 
attention, but, sir, I don't remember now. 

Mr. Appell. I mean, prior to what this investigation brought to 
your attention, did you possess knowledge of the Christian Knights of 
the KuKlux Klan? 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Before I break off, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Roton, what 
compensation have you received from the United Klans of America 
for expenses or salary in carrying out investigative assignments given 
to you by the Imperial Wizard, Mr. Robert Shelton ? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, to clarify that statement, direct assignments from 
Mr. Shelton were not — were few and far between. I can't place them 
and I can't pin them down at this time, but I did this, as I have been 
an admitted member of the United Klans of America, and on my own, 
and the results of a portion of my investigations were made public 
and available to the United Klans of America, for release, and things 
of this nature. 

Mr. Appell. Prior to the time that you received an assignment from 
Mr. Shelton to act as an investigator for him, had you made any 
investigation of communism or any other "ism's" ? 

Mr. RoTON. I have read several of this staff's books and this com- 
mittee's books. 

Mr. Appell. I asked you, prior to receiving assignment from Mr. 
Shelton. 

Mr. RoTON. Oh; yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Had you ever made investigations ? 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir ; on my own, just periodic inquiries about certain 
things that were in my knowledge, could be detrimental to this coun- 
try if they progressed. 

Yes, sir; I made inquiries like that. 

(At this point Representative Weltner entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Appell. Can you tell us one that you made prior to being given 
an assignment by Mr. Shelton ? 

Mr. RoTON. I can't remember offhand, sir. That was in late 1961, 
but I have been very interested in this, the encroachment of the cen- 
tralized government in communism, for approximately 8 years. 



3236 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions to 
ask of Mr. Roton. 

Mr. Pool. Just a moment. 

Mr. RoTON. Am I released? 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Buchanan. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Roton, you have been very successful as an 
agent for the Klan in deceiving a number of people, various organiza- 
tions which you infiltrated, and various employers, and keeping from 
them your identity as a Klansman and as an investigator for the Klan. 

I appreciate your coming here and testifying before this commit- 
tee — I think this is highly commendable, I wish we had had more 
people who were willing to do so. 

While I won't challenge either your testimony or your reasons as 
stated by you for your activities, that is, you spoke of working, out 
of patriotism, to presei*ve the Constitution, for better government, 
against communism, and so forth, but may I respectfully say that if 
in good conscience, you had been working all this time for the Ku Klux 
Klan, believing you were working for patriotism, for better govern- 
ment, to preserve the Constitution, for the prosperity of both races, 
and against communism, in my considered judgment, you have de- 
ceived yourself more than all the others put together. 

Do you believe, sir, that the Ku Klux Klan has been guilty of no 
acts of terrorism or violence during this period in which you were 
working for it? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I can't say beyond a reasonable doubt and a moral 
certainty. No more than 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. RoTON. But could I restate what I stated awhile ago, Mr. 
Buchanan? That the basic belief of the Klan is certainly not bad. 
It is in God and country. Be patriotic — worship God and be patriotic 
toward your country. 

Now there's — you can take any organization in the world, and take 
its bad members and crucify it. Just as I say, and I hope this com- 
mittee, and I hope my testimony has helped this committee, because 
I would do nothing to destroy the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties. I will help it in any way I can. All I want it to do is more, 
continued investigations, the Black Muslims, Southern Christian 
Leadership Conference, the Southern Conference for Human Welfare,^ 
and other cover names of the Communist Party. And if I can ever be 
of any assistance in my records or anything that I can investigate, I 
would certainly be willing to do so at my own expense. 

Mr. Buchanan. Well, I will say again I don't challenge your moti- 
vation and I appreciate your willingness to testify here ; I wish others 
had done so. 

I will only say that if we could all believe the preachments of the 
Klan as in "The Principle of the United Klans of xVmerica, Knights 
of the Ku Klux Klan,'' which has already been entered in this record 
(Allen Bayne Exhibit No. 1 ; report pp. — ) and which says, "We be- 
lieve in God and the tenets of the Christian religion," and so forth, if 
we can accept the picture of the Klan as indicated in this "Seven Sym- 

1 This organization went out of existence in 1949 and was succeeded by the Southern 
Conference Educational Fund. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3237 

bols of The Klan" that has ah'eady been introduced into the record 
(Allen Bayne Exhibit No. 3), in which the robe is described as a 
robe of righteousness and compared to one to be worn by the Hosts of 
Heaven, and so forth, if this were an honest, accurate picture of the 
Klan, we might all do well to join it. 

But may I say, sir — I imagine you are a church member, as I am 

Mr. RoTON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Buchanan. If the church of which I am a part became so 
widely associated with acts of terrorism and violence that the average 
citizen would consider it common knowledge that that church was 
carrying out acts of violence and terrorism, if as much evidence and 
testimony had been micovered about the church of which I am a part 
as has been through these hearings about the Klan — indeed, in which 
we have had evidence and testimony uncovered about all sorts of ac- 
tivities, bombings, beatings, burnings, and worse — I rather believe 
that sooner or later I would begin to doubt that this was an organiza- 
tion that was, in fact, serving the purposes of Christianity and mo- 
rality and, in time, would come to a decision that I must disassociate 
myself from that organization, if I were myself going to stand for 
the principles of Christianity, morality, Americanism, or anything else 
good. So, therefore, sir, I would strongly advise you to take a good 
hard look at this record and I believe that if you take an honest look 
at the record uncovered here, together with that which is common — 
at least believed by many citizens to be common knowledge concern- 
ing activities of Klan members, the convictions, the indictments on 
which there have not been convictions, the constant association with 
violence and terrorism, that you will be forced, in time, to the con- 
clusion that this is not a proper way to express your desire to serve 
your country or to work for God and country. 

I strongly recommend you take a good, hard look. 

Mr. RoTON. I will do just that, Mr. Buchanan, and I hope this 
committee takes a good, strong look in other things. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Weltner? 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Roton, I appreciate your willingness to testify, but I would 
like to ask, along the same lines as Mr. Buchanan, with regard to the 
documents put out by the United Klans of America, what is the reason 
for the secrecy of membership of the Ku Klux Klan? 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, in many organizations there is secrecy — the 
Masonic Order and the Knights of Columbus and the Shrine — and to 
bring such a fine organization as a Masonic Order to Washington to 
the House Un-American Activities Committee would be one of the 
worst things that has ever happened in this country. 

It is freedom of association and freedom of speech and tearing down 
the basic fundamentals of the Constitution of this United States. 

Now the secrecy, the complete oath, as I understand it, and to the 
best of my ability, and to the best of my recollection, has been in- 
troduced before this committee, as it was introduced, given to me 
yesterday to read, and in its entirety, it is not un-American. 

But as I have said before, certain individuals there have, if it is 
proved beyond a reasonable doubt and a moral certainty, and without 
the swaying of the public opinion 



3238 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, Mr. Roton, I appreciate that, within the 
Masonic Orders and within the Knights of Columbus, there is some 
secrecy as to ritual and as to obligations taken by members, and that is 
certainly true. 

But I read every day in the paper where someone has been elected 
as Imperial Potentate of a Shrine or as a Grand Pilot of the Knights 
of Columbus or as the Worshipful Master of the Masonic Lodge, 
and under that is a complete list of all the officers, and these men 
take pride in their membership. They don't hide their membership. 
They don't deny that they are members of a secret fraternal brother- 
hood. 

Now the question is not as to the secrecy of ritual, but the secrecy 
of membership. Wliy is it necessary for Klansmen to keep their 
membership in the Klan a secret from the general public and indeed, 
in some circumstances, a secret from each other? 

Why is that necessary? Why does that foster the aims of country 
and patriotism in the Constitution? 

Mr. Roton. Sir, I can't answer your question, because I do not 
know. I was not one who was a framer of that oath there. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, you took an oath not to disclose the identity 
of your fellow Klansmen; did you not? 

Mr. RoTON. That has been 7 years ago, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, why did you take it then? Wliy were you 
willing to? 

Mr. Roton. If that was in there, I possibly did. I do not remember 
it. But to testify, and as this organization is under fire now, if I 
knew, I have told this committee what I know, and to try to tell it to 
the best of my knowledge and ability, but to ask me to say beyond 
a reasonable doubt and a moral certainty, when I have not asked 
whether a man is associated with this organization, I could not say. 

I would be perjuring myself before this committee. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, I am not directing myself to any specific iden- 
tification of any members. I am more interested in what are the ideals 
of the Klansmen and what are the principles of the Klan. The 
thing that sets the Klan off from all of these other organizations 
which maintain certain portions of their functions in secret, is the 
secrecy of the membership itself. 

I know of no other organization in this country where a member 
is instructed to deceive others as to whether or not he is a member 
of such an organization, with the possible exception of the John Birch 
Society, which I understand had some, at one time, secrecy-of- 
membership policy. 

But now^ I would like to know^ w^hat it is about the Klan that re- 
quires its members to maintain their identities as secrets and all of 
the activities and functions of the Klan as secrets. And if you can 
answ^er that, fine. If you can't answer it, we do not expect you to 
testify to anything of which you have no knowledge. 

Mr. Roton. I can't honestly say, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, now, let me ask you one other question : With- 
in this document, "The Seven Symbols of The Klan," there is con- 
tained this statement: "The secret of our power lies in the secrecy of 
our membership." 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3239 

Now, what is your understanding of that statement ? 

First, do you agree that the secret of the power of the Klan lies 
in the secrecy of its membership ? 

Mr. KoTON. I don't know, sir. I would have to study it. It could 
mean anything. It could mean a political power. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you agree that that is the secret of the power of 
the Klan ? The secrecy of its membership ? 

Mr. RoTON. I couldn't say whether it is or not. The Klan does 
some good work. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, I am not asking that. I am asking one ques- 
tion only, about secrecy, and that is a matter that we have had no one 
to come here and tell us about. No one has been willing to answer 
these questions, and I am hoping you can help this committee. 

You stated it is your desire to help this committee to make a sound 
and proper evaluation of the subject matter of this investigation. And 
it seems to me like the central issue is the reason for maintaining 
secrecy of identity and secrecy of activities and secrecy of functions. 
So I am asking you whether or not you agree, as a Klansman and as 
one who has held high office in the Klan, that the secret of the power 
of the Klan is the secrecy of its membership. 

Mr. RoTON. Sir, I could not say. 

Mr. Weltner. All right. 

Mr. Pool. I will ask you one further question, then. 

Do you think that the membership of the Klan should be made 
public ? 

Mr. RoTON. In the capacity that I served, sir, I identified myself as 
a member. 

Mr. Pool. I know you did, and that is why I am asking you that 
question. 

Mr. RoTON. But there has been releases in several different neAvs- 
paper articles and magazine articles come out, and they are trying to 
pit one individual against another, by saying that, as soon as a mem- 
bership or a name is obtained, a certain agency of the Federal Gov- 
ernment would call on them, and I quote from last month's Readev^s 
Digest^ where the outer den of a Klavern was filled with snakes, 
poisonous snakes, to be put in cars of the Federal Bureau of Inves- 
tigation. And that was the greatest, undoubtedly the masterpiece of 
a submarine report of an organization. 

I know of no such activities. And to subject the American people 
to such knowledge as that, or such hypothetical cloings and questions, 
is not true newspaper reporting and article- writing, and it is very 
difficult to understand why the organization is under fire now. And, 
as I stated before this committee, should it be put on subversive ac- 
tivities list, I would immediately resign. But the basic principles of 
God and country, you can't deny that, gentlemen. 

Mr. Pool. The point is that the membership and the officials are 
kept secret, and as Mr. Weltner pointed out to you, the "Symbols" 
states that the secrecy is their greatest weapon. 

Mr. RoTON. That could mean, sir, a political weapon or something 
of that nature. I have no idea. 

Mr. Pool. Why did you come forth and say that you were a member 
of the Ku Klux Klan ? You weren't afraid to say that. 

Mr. RoTON. No, sir. 



3240 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Pool. Why should the other members of the Ku Klux Klan 
be afraid to say that ? 

Mr. KoTON. I do not know, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Do you disagree with the the other members, because you 
have come forth and said you were a member of the Ku Klux Klan? 

Mr. Roton. Well, it is a man's own prerogative on what he wants to 
do. 

Mr. Pool. But you can't see any reason not to say that, can you? 

Mr. EoTON. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You will be temporarily excused. 

Mr. Buchanan. I just want to say once again, Mr. Chairman, that 
because this has been so rare, for a member of this organization, ad- 
mitting himself to be a member, to testify before this committe, I 
again want to express my appreciation of his having done so. 

We obviously rather violently disagree on the nature of this or- 
ganization, but may I say that I appreciate Mr. Roton's presence and 
his testimony. I know it was not without courage. He may be in 
trouble with the Klan, as well as not being too popular in this area, 
perhaps, but I appreciate your coming, sir. 

Mr. RoTON. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Roton, you wall temporarily step aside and will come 
back before the committee after the next witness. 

In all probablity, there will be some other questions to be asked you. 
You wnll still be under oath when you come back and you will tem- 
porarily step aside and do not leave until you are excused, one way 
or the other. 

Mr. RoTON. All right, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, at this time, the staff would like to 
call Mr. Robert Milton Creel. 

Mr. Pool. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Creel. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT MILTON CREEL 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, would you state your full name for the 
record, please? 

Mr. QiEEL. Robert Milton Creel. 

Mr. Manuel. And are you accompanied by counsel today? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Are you aware of your rights granted to you under 
the Constitution of the United States to invoke the fifth amendment 
on any question which you believe might incriminate you ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't fully understand all the rights, but I wish to 
testify before this committee, and if I violate any of my rights, I will 
be doing it on my own. 

Mr. Pool. If any question is asked you that you think might tend 
to incriminate you in any way, then you have the perfect right to take 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3241 

the guarantees of the fifth amendment and you can so notify the 
committee. 

Also, if you later on find that you do desire counsel, we will recess 
long enough for you to obtain counsel. 

Mr. Creel. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. And you do not care for counsel at this time ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Now have you read the opening statement of the chairman on Octo- 
ber the 19th, 1965? 

Mr. Creel. October 19th; yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You have read the statement. A copy of it was fur- 
nished to you? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Are you familiar with the contents and understand them 1 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, when and where were you born? 

Mr. Creel. The 5th of October, 1930, at Lisman, Alabama. 

Mr. Manuel. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I attended grammar school at Pratt City, gradu- 
ated from there, attended briefly at Ensley, then Aye moved to Hope- 
well, Virginia, -svhere I finished 2 years of high school there, which 
would be the 10th, and that is the extent of that, besides self-study. 

Mr. Manuel. What is your current address, Mr. Creel ? 

Mr. Creel. 1100 South Shiloh, Linden, Alabama. 

Mr. Manuel. And what is your current occupation ? 

Mr. Creel. Unemployed at this time. 

Mr. Manuel. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
occupational background since 1960 ? 

Mr. Creel. Since 1960, I believe I was working for U.S. Pipe and 
Foundry Company at the Bessemer plant as a machinist. 

Mr. Manuel. And how long did you continue employment with that 
company ? 

Mr. Creel. Up until, I think, of March of last year, 

Mr. Manuel. And at March of 1965 ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. And where were you employed subsequent to your em- 
ployment with the U.S. Pipe ? 

Mr. Creel. I resigned from U.S. Pipe and Foundaiy Company and 
went full time as Grand Dragon of the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Manuel. Were you paid a salaiy by the United Klans of 
America ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, we always talked about it, but we never got around 
to it. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, did you receive any 

Mr. Creel. I received expenses and household expenses, things of 
that nature. 

Mr. Manuel. Was that a consistent figure, each month or each week ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, it varied. It was according to how much traveling 
I done, but my household expenses was consistent. 



3242 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. And how much was that, sir ? 

Mr. Creel. Oh, to put it right to the dollar, I couldn't say. 

Mr. Manuel. Approximately? How much did you receive each 
month ? 

Mr. Creel. Anywhere from $400 to $500, or $450 or something along 
that nature. 

Mr. Manuel. And how were you paid ? 

Mr. Creel. By check. 

Mr. Manuel. Who issued the check ? 

Mr. Creel. I believe Mr. Sexton issued the cliecks. 

Mr. Manuel. Now, would you further identify Mr. Sexton ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I believe that was identified by the checks, as 
being on the account as the — let me think of the proper title — 
treasurer. 

Mr. Manuel. Now of what organization was he the treasurer ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I hope it is under United Klans of America. 
That's what the banTc account was established as. 

Mr. Manuel. Is that the Kealm of Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Where was that bank account maintained, Mr. Creel ? 

Mr. Creel. Birmingham Trust National Bank in Bessemer. 

Mr. Manuel. And who were allowed to sign checks for that ? 

Mr. Creel. Myself and Mr. Sexton. 

Mr. Manuel. Now, Mr. Creel, when did you first become a member 
of a Klan organization, and will you please identify the organization 
by name? 

Mr, Creel. I believe the — it was in 1955. The exact month, I don't 
remember, but it seems like it was in March. It might have been 
earlier. 1955, at that time, in Alabama, every one in Alabama oper- 
ated under the what we called the old U.S. Klans, which was under — 
I think, the Imperial Wizard at that time was Mr. E. L. Edwards, 
who has passed. He is deceased. 

Mr. Manuel. And would you please describe for the committee 
the circumstances surrounding your being affiliated with this orga- 
nization ? How did you become a member ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, at that time, practically everyone was a member. 
It was really something else just to be able to get in the Klan. I 
don't remember if I joined at a rally, or I did attend a rally. I think 
they had one in Midfield at that time. I don't remember. 

Mr. Manuel. And did you pay an initiation fee at that time? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir; but it was quite small. I don't remember what 
the initiation fee was. 

Mr. Manuel. Who administered the oath to you in order for you 
to become a Klansman ? 

Mr. Creel. That's a good question because, as you know, we have 
an antimask law in the State of Alabama, but you can wear a mask 
down — inside or on private property, and at that time, during nat- 
uralization ceremonies, everyone was robed. 

I couldn't honestly say who gave me my naturalization. 

Mr. Manuel. And what Klavern were you a member of in the U.S. 
Klans? 

Mr. Creel. I think it was Bessemer 20. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3243 

Mr, Manuel. How long did you remain a member of the U.S. 
Klans? 

Mr. Creel. Until it went to Alabama Klans. 

Mr. Manuel. And what year was that ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't remember what year it was. I think it remained 
Alabama Klans for about a year, and then that's when we all got 
together, over at Indian Springs, and formed what is now the United 
Klans. 

Mr. Manuel. All right, we will get to that in just a minute. 

Could you please first tell the committee why the organization 
changed from the U.S. Klans to the Alabama Klans ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, that's quite simple. At that time, the power 
structure of the Klan was more or less — I hate to say this — kind of 
like a dictatorship, and the people of Alabama didn't like to see any- 
one set themselves up as "I am the Almighty." It wasn't democratic. 

Mr. Manuel. Who was the Grand Dragon of the U.S. Klans at 
the time immediately preceding the time that it switched into the 
Alabama Knights ? 

Mr. Creel. I believe prior to that time, under U.S. Klans, I think 
Mr. Alvin Horn was Grand Dragon at that time. 

Mr. Manuel. And whom did he replace in that job ? 

Mr. Creel. Whom did who replace? 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Horn. 

Mr. Creel. He was Grand Dragon when I came in. I don't know 
who he replaced. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you ever know Kobert Shelton to be the Grand 
Dragon of the U.S. Klans in the State of Alabama? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. How long did he hold that position ? 

Mr. Creel. I couldn't honestly say. I don't really know. I niean, 
I didn't keep track of the time. Maybe a year. I don't have any idea. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know whether or not he was replaced as 
Grand Dragon by Imperial Wizard Eldon Edwards of the U.S. Klan? 

Mr. Creel. I think it was rumored at one time he was going to be 
replaced. I don't know. I don't have knowledge of that. I mean, I 
don't testify on rumors, or if I had direct knowledge, then I could 
honestly say, but I have no direct knowledge. 

Mr. Manuel. All right. At the time that Mr. Shelton was the 
Grand Dragon of the U.S. Klans, did you hold any office? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. Not to my Imowledge. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Manuel, when was Shelton the Grand Dragon of 
the U.S. Klan? 

Mr. Manuel. He was Grand Dragon two different periods, Mr. 
Chairman. Both, I believe, in 1959 and the early part of 1960. 
Mr. Pool. When did the witness say that he became a member? 
Mr. Manuel. The witness says he became a member in 1955. 
Mr. Creel, did you hold a position in the Alabama Knights, an 
official position in the Alabama Knights of the Ku Klux Klan? 

Mr. Creel. Not to my knowledge. I was trying to think when I 
was first elected to an official position. I don't believe I did. 

Mr. Manuel. When was the first time you held an official position 
in a Klan organization ? 



3244 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Creel. I think the first time I ever held an elective position, 
I believe it was as EC of the Bessemer Unit. 

Mr. Manuel. And what was the approximate date of that? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I held about — I am trying to remember if it was 
tw^o or three terms of office. I believe it was two terms of office and 
maybe part of another one. I don't remember. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, can you give an approximate date as to when 
you were first elected ? 

Mr. Creel. Oh, let's see. I would say maybe in '62. I am guessing 
now. I could be wrong, 

Mr. Manuel. Now you stated just a little while ago that in 1961 
there was a meeting at Indian Springs, where the United Klans of 
America was formed. 

Would you please tell the committee the circumstances surrounding 
that meeting and what was accomplished at that meeting? 

Mr. Creel. Well, at that time, I think probably this committee al- 
ready knows that were numerous Klan groups that was operating 
throughout the South. And it seems like that every time anyone 
would come along, they wanted to form a Klan organization of their 
own, and we seen that we were getting a lot of bad publicity, acts that 
were of violence that was contributed, maybe, to the Klan, and there 
was no coordination, and to have a further control, to be able to 
positively say that maybe this act of violence was not committed by 
this group, so most of the leadership, I don't remember at that time, 
of the various Klan groups, that got together at Indian Springs, 
Virginia, indicated their offices came up with a new constitution and 
formed what is now United Klans, to do away with the splinter 
groups — that's what we used to refer to them — and to build a good, 
solid South. 

I mean, of where that would, if there was any act of violence, and 
it seemed like every time anything was ever done, they say the Klan 
done it, and that's why I am testifying before this committe, is because 
I know there is good people in the State of Alabama, and they have 
been accused of acts that I know they didn't commit, and that was one 
reason, that was some of the things that was taken into consideration. 

Mr. Manuel. Now other than the position of exalted cyclops of 
Bessemer Unit No. 20, have you held any other office in the United 
Klans of America ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. I held the office as great titan, which is over 
a province, and a province consists now of a congressional district. 

Mr. Manuel. And during what period of time did you hold that 
office, Mr. Creel, to the best of your memory? 

Mr. Creel. I would say from maybe 1961, 1962. It might have been 
longer, it might have been less. 

Mr. Manuel. Have you held any other office ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, that office is Grand Dragon. I think you know 
about that. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, how did you obtain that office? 

Mr. Creel. By an election. 

Mr. Manuel. And where was the election held ? 

Mr. Creel. If I am not mistaken, I believe it was held at the Tut- 
wiler Hotel. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3245 

Mr. Manuel. And what was the date of that election, Mr. Creel ? 

Mr. Creel. I am afraid you will have to give me that. I don't 
remember. 

Mr. Manuel. Can you give me an approximate date ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I can't. It seems like it was in — I would just 
rather not answer, because I would give you maybe the wrong date, 
but I am not too much on dates and things of that nature. If you will 
refresh my memory, then maybe I can answer as to that was the date or 
not. 

Mr. Manuel. All right, we will get to that a bit later. First, tell 
the committee how long you served as Grand Dragon for the United 
Klans of America, Realm of Alabama. 

Mr. Creel. I just resigned. 

Mr. Manuel. You say you just resigned? 

Mr. Creel. Well, when I say I resigned, I didn't run for reelection. 
I will put it that way. 

Mr. Manuel. When was the last election held in Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. I believe it was held the first Sunday in January. I 
believe. 

Mr. Manuel. And who is the current Grand Dragon of Alabama? 

Mr. Creel. I think he has identified hisself as Mr. Brassell, from 
Montgomery. 

Mr. Manuel. What is his first name, Mr. Creel ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know his first name. I suppose it is William. 
They call him Bill. I think that's the 

Mr. Manuel. Were you a Grand Dragon of the State of Alabama 
at the time you were served a subpena by this committee ? 

Mr. Creel. On the first one; yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You say you did not run for reelection. Did you also 
resign from the Klan ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, the committee hearings had nothing to do, Mr. 
Chairman, by me resigning from the Klan. 

Mr. Pool. Well, I understand that, but 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. I had always made it a policy — I don't mind 
telling this committee — it was broadcasted from California to Maine, 
of the incident in Pascagoula, Mississippi, and I had always made it 
a policy of the organization that if anyone got into any trouble, as 
far as I was concerned, they was on their own, and I am no better 
than any of the rest of them. And so, therefore, I resigned until I 
can either prove my innocence or they find me guilty. 

Mr. Pool. You did resign from the Klan. 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You are not a member of the Klan. 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. And Mr. Creel, are you appearing here this morning 
in response to the subpena which I just referred to? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. And was that subpena served upon you on Novem- 
ber 12,1 1955? 

Mr. Creel. I would say somewhere around that time. 

1 Actual date of service Novembei" 11, 1965. 



3246 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel,. At your residence, 1100 Shiloh, Linden, Alabama? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir ; by a U.S. marshal. 

Mr. Manuel. At that time, you were the Grand Dragon of the 
State of Alabama. Is that correct? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, an attachment made part of this subpena 
orders and directs you to produce, and I shall read paragraph 1 of 
that subpena : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to 
the organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Em- 
pire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as 
the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and aflSliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, Whiteman's Defense Fund. 
Heritage Enterprises, Inc., in your possession, custody or control, or maintained 
by you or available to you as Grand Dragon, Realm of Alabama of the Invisible 
Empire, United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known 
as the United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

In the representative capacity listed in the first paragraph of that 
subpena, I now ask you, sir, to produce the documents called for. 

Mr. Creel. Well, if you will just tell me what you want, and then I 
will tell you what I have, and what I have is mostly me. I can bring 
you my robe up here. I think that's all I have, and it wasn't my job, 
I would like to explain to the investigator, Mr. Chairman, to maintain 
records, which there is no doubt in my mind there is records kept. 

I would be glad to cooperate with this committee. If I had any 
records, I would be glad to produce the records. I am just about like 
Mr. Roton. About all I have is a newspaper clippings and things of 
that nature, and if you would like to have them, I will be more than 
glad to present them to the committee. 

Mr. Manuel. In other words, your testimony, as I understand it, 
is that a Grand Dragon of a State does not keep records. 

Mr. Creel. I believe if you will — which I have seen Mr. Appell 
referring to the constitution, he was reading out the duties of the vari- 
ous officers, that's their jobs, to keep the records. 

Mr. Manuel. Does anyone in the realm, any realm officer, keep 
records ? 

Mr. Creel. I believe that they would abide by the constitution. 

Mr. Manuel. And in that regard, would you tell the committee what 
the constitution says ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, if you will give me a copy of it. I can't tell you 
what it says, but I think it reads out the duties of the officers. I haven't 
got that good of a memory. 

Incidentally, it doesn't even relate as to the Grand Dragon's duties 
in here, I don't think I have ever read it, but usually, he acts as the— 
along with the EC : 

The Kligrapp is the secretary and recording officer of the Klan. He shall 
keep an accurate and complete record of all the proceedings of his Klan assembled, 
and a correct and systemmatic record of its membership, and of the date each 
member was naturalized, etc., as required by the record book for that purpose. 
He shall make a report through the proper channles [sic] to the proper officers 
not later than the 10th of the month for the calendar month * * *. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, as Grand Dragon of the State of Alabama, were 
you not, as I understand the constitution, the proper officer to whom 
these Klavern officials would report ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3247 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. I don't see any need of them sending them to 
me. I wasn't the proper officer. 

Mr. Pool. What were your duties as Grand Dragon ? 

Mr. Creel. I mostly organized, had rallies, attended rallies, and 
things of that nature. Naturally, during a State meeting, we would 
call for reports of things from the various sections of the State, but 
this is mostly oral. 

Mr. Pool. Did you hire investigators? 

Mr. Creel. Sir? 

Mr. Pool. Did you hire investigators? 

Mr. Creel. I don't think we had to hire any investigators, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Did you assign anybody to investigate ? 

Mr. Creel. I think under the constitution, I believe the klokann 
committee acts as an investigator of a unit. 

Mr. Pool. What are some of your duties as Grand Dragon ? What 
did you do ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, we held State meetings. I more or less was acting 
as a presiding chairman of the meetings, such as you are acting today, 
and called for reports and things of that nature. 

Mr. Pool. Did you keep a record of anything? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I didn't keep records. The recording secretary, 
or the kligrapp. 

Mr. Pool. Did you sign checks? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Did you keep an account of your checks you signed ? 

Mr. Creel. That came along with the treasurer. 

Mr. Pool. The treasurer kept all the canceled checks ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir; and he takes care of reading out the financial 
statements and things of that nature. 

Mr. Pool. Did you check to see if he kept all those records? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. That was part of your duties? 

Mr. Creel. Well, it wasn't part of my duties. I think it is a dutj 
of every Klansman to not only check to see if he is doing his job, 
but to see if I am doing my job. 

Mr. Pool. If he was not keeping accurate records, what would you 
have done? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I think it is provided for charges to be made, 
in the constitution, against any individual if things of that nature 
should occur. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, as Grand Dragon of the State of Alabama, 
were you a member of the Imperial Klonvokation at any time? 

Mr. Creel. I think I had a vote, but as being a member of the 
Imperial, what you might refer to as the Imperial Board, I really 
don't even know if I was a member of the board or not. I know I had 
a vote as such, as being an officer of the realm. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you as Grand Dragon ever receive any reports 
of the Imperial Klonvokation? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir; we always — I didn't receive them, I don't re- 
member if I have ever received any on paper. It seems like we did 
one time, but I don't remember when it was, but we always set up a 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 4 23 



3248 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

committee, and they go over the books and give a report to the 
klonvokation. 

Mr. Pool. Wlio kept the charter? 

Mr. Creel. Beg your pardon, sir? 

Mr. Pool. Did you have a charter? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Wlio kept that? 

Mr. Creiel. I ordered charters out of the imperial offices as they 
were needed. 

Mr. Pool. Was that your duty to keep that? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; it is not my duty to keep the charters. It is 
my duty to order the charters as I charter new units. 

Mr. Pool. Did you keep a copy of the letter where you ordered 
charters ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I didn't make copies of the letters, just write 
and say, "Send me five charters," and tell them what county it is going 
in, or something of that nature. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, to your direct and certain knowledge, who 
keeps the Klan records on the imperial level? 

Mr. Creel. I suppose Mr. Shelton has a staff at the imperial office 
that takes care of the records. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, how do you know that? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know it. I said, I suppose. 

Mr. Manuel. Any other officer keep any records? 

Mr. Creel. I certainly hope they do. 

Mr. Pool. Your testimony is that you had no correspondence at all, 
as far as copies were concerned. 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I didn't make copies. 

Mr. Pool. But you did write letters. 

Mr. Creel. I didn't have a — excuse me, Mr. Chairman. I didn't 
have a secretary, and what typing I do, it is a hunt-and-peck system, 
and I can't hardly 

Mr. Pool. You kept no memorandum of what went out. You kept 
no memorandum of what went on as far as your duties and usual 
activities are concerned. 

Mr. Creel. Oh, naturally, I think I kept most of it in my head. 
I mean, we had State meetings, in which I reported the activities of 
the things that had happened during the month. 

Mr. Pool. Wliat type of business are you in? 

Mr. Creel. I am not in a business now, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You do not have a business? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. I hope when I get through with these hear- 
ings, I will have a business, doing something. It might be digging 
a ditch, but 

Mr. Manuel. Then it is further testimony, Mr. Creel, as I under- 
stand it, that the Constitution and Laws, as you interpret them, did not 
require you to maintain any records as Grand Dragon or chief officer 
of the realm. 

Mr. Creel. I think it was — it is designated in the constitution as 
to the duties of each officer. I mean, if they are not going to have 
any duties, why have an officer ? 

Mr. Manuel. Well, did you ever have any correspondence with the 
Imperial Wizard ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3249 

Mr. Creel. I mostly talked to the Imperial Wizard either by 
phone or I would make a trip to the office in Tuscaloosa. Of course, 
I didn't have too many needs to be with Mr. Shelton, as far as that 
went. 

Mr. Manuel. How did the realm report to the imperial level ? 

Mr. Creel. Imperial office ? They sent reports. 

Mr. Manuel. Who sent them ? 

Mr. Creel. The kligrapps. 

Mr. Manuel. And in order to send them, he must have kept some 
records. 

Mr. Creel. I suppose Mr. Shelton has records. 

Mr. Manuel. No, I am talking about you. 

Mr. Pool. Do you sign the reports ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I didn't sign — I didn't send Mr. Shelton? 
Were you referring to me as if they send the reports to me, and I send 
them to Mr. Shelton ? 

Mr. Manuel. No, all I am trying to determine is, to your certain 
knowledge, who on the realm level is responsible for making reports? 

Mr. Creel. Each exalted cyclops. 

Mr. Manuel. Do they report directly to the imperial office? 

Mr. Creel. To the imperial office; that's right. 

Mr. Manuel. And what do they report ? 

Mr. Creel. Membership, how many dropped out, how many new 
members, just a general report, like any fraternal organization would 
carry. 

Mr. Manuel. Do they list the identity of membei-s on those 
records ? 

Mr. Creel. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Manuel. And how are membership records kept ? 

Mr. Creel. That is up to the individual Klavern. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, it seems that if 

Mr. Creel. I mean, some puts the name down in dues books and 
some puts numbers down. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, then, your testimony is that each individual 
Klavern reports directly to the imperial office, as I understand it. 

Mr. Creel. That is correct. 

Mr. Pool. Is that merely for Alabama, or is that the system all 
over? 

Mr. Creel. That's for Alabama. I don't know how^ it is all over, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Is that because Shelton was formerly the Grand Dragon 
of Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Sir? 

Mr. Pool. Is that because Shelton was formerly the Grand Dragon 
of Alabama at one time? 

Mr. Creel. I really can't answer that question. I don't know by 
him being Grand Dragon had anything to do mth this or not. 

Mr. Pool. Well, I am just asking the question. You don't know, 
is that right? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right, just answer the question. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, Mr. Creel, in light of your statement that the 
Klavems report all records, as I understand your testimony, directly 



3250 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

to the imperial level, how do you, or how did you, as Grand Drago»» 
of your realm, know what was going on in the Klaverns? 

Mr. Creel. From State meetings. 

Mr. Manuel. And were records kept of those State meetings ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir; they were kept of State meetings. 

Mr. Manuel. Didn't any State officer retain a copy of those 
minutes ? 

Mr. Creel. Certainly, that's his responsibilities to read the minutes. 
You always read the minutes of the preceding klonvokation. 

Mr. Manuel. All right. Now, who, as a realm officer, kept those 
records ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, we have had three or four. I am trying to think 
who was what. I am trying to think who the man's name 

Mr. Pool. Who sent out notices of the State meetings ? 

Mr. Creel. I sent out the notices. 

Mr. Pool. You did not keep copies of the notices you sent out? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I just made out enough copies for each one. 
Make out 

Mr. Pool. You make a memorandum of who attended the State 
meetings ? 

Mr. Creel. I can tell you who is supposed to attend. Anyone 
can attend, any individual member, but we usually required the 
exalted cyclops and the secretary and treasurer to attend. 

Mr. Pool. Did you keep a memorandum of who attended the 
State meetings, when you had one ? 

Mr. Creel. Not to any names. 

Mr. Pool. Didn't have a rollcall, or anything like that. 

Mr. Creel. Oh, we would have a rollcall of officers. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Who kept the record on that? 

Mr. Creel. The recording secretary. 

Mr. Pool. Who was that? 

Mr. Creel. I am trying to think of his name, Mr. Chairman. I 
don't w^ant to name the wrong man, and then this man say, "I am 
not the recording secretary." 

Mr. Pool. While you are trying to think of his name, we will come 
back to that. 

Mr. Manuel. We will come back to it. 

Mr. Creel. All right, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Now I want to ask you this: When you resigned as 
Grand Dragon and resigned from the Ku Klux Klan, did you turn 
any records over to the next man, or to anybody ? 

Mr. Creel. What I turned over to the Grand Dragon, the present 
Grand Dragon, was mostly what you have a copy of, paraphernalia 
and literature, P.A. system, things of that nature. 

Mr. Pool. The charter? 

Mr. Creel. What charters? 

Mr. Pool. The charter ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You were directly resi:)onsible for having the charter? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I wasn't directly responsible. I had a couple 
of blank charters 

Mr. Pool. But you turned over tlie charter to the next Grand 
Dragon. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3251 

Mr. Creel. Yes. 

Mr. Pool. All right. You have in your possession, now, you have 
no records or memoranda as called for in this subpena. 

Is that correct ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I think I have a memorandum on 

Mr. Pool. Well, let us see the subpena. 

Mr. Creel. All right, sir, I have a memorandum on some finances, 
in which I had a copy of. 

Mr. Pool. Do you want to turn that in to the committee now? 

Mr. Creel. I don't have it with me. I will be glad to get it for you. 

Mr. Pool. Will you turn it in to the committee ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Do you have any books ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir ; I have no books. 

Mr. Pool. Any records? 

Mr. Creel. No records. 

Mr. Pool. Documents? 

Mr. Creel. No documents. 

Mr. Pool. No copies of correspondence? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. I might have some old letters at home, maybe 
some people that wrote me. I will be glad to turn them over. 

Mr. Pool. All right. Memoranda related to the organization and 
the conduct of the business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, United 
Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America. 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool, That is your statement then. All right. Go ahead. 

When you turned this charter over to the Grand Dragon, you had 
already been served a subpena. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir; but I believe Mr. Appell probably could fur- 
nish you a copy of a charter. It is just like any other charter. 

Mr. Pool. Wliat were the two things you turned over to the Grand 
Dragon ? 

Mr. Creel. That was just a blank charter. Oh, it was just regular 
Klan literature, envelopes, things of that nature. 

Mr. Pool. You did not feel like they would come under this sub- 
pena? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; it wouldn't have helped the committee. I 
mean 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

(At this point Mr. Weltner left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Manuel. Now, Mr. Creel, for the record, I want to read para- 
graph 2 of your subpena, which states : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda in your pos- 
session, custody or control, or maintained by or available to you, in your capacity 
as Grand Dragon, Realm of Alabama of the United Klans of America, Inc., 
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which the "Constitution and Laws" of said or- 
ganization authorize and require to be maintained by you and any other officer 
of said organization, the same being in your possession, custody or control. 

I would ask you at this time, in the representative capacity named 
in paragraph 2, to turn over those documents to the committee. 

Mr. Creel. I wish I could clarify that, please, because I don't un- 
derstand everything involved there. I hope I made it clear to this 
committee as that it actually wasn't my job to maintain these things 



3252 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

and so, therefore, I didn't have knowledge — I mean, they are not in 
my possession, and I can't go to a man and say, "Give me those rec- 
ords. I am going to take them and give them to the committee." 

Mr. Pool. You didn't get rid of the records to keep this committee 
from getting them ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

Mr. Manuel. As Grand Dragon of the Realm of Alabama, you did 
not have control over the realm records. Is that your testimony? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; that officer was elected for that responsibility, 
just as I was elected for a responsibility. That's why I am here testi- 
fying before this committee. I feel like that the majority of the 
Klansmen in the State of Alabama wanted someone to testify before 
this committee. 

Mr. Manuel. All right. 

At the time that you received this subpena calling for the produc- 
tion of books, records, documents, and correspondence, and so forth, 
did you talk to the proper official in the Realm of Alabama for the 
purpose of turning over such records ? 

Mr. Creel. I think it was discussed, in which, as a matter of fact, 
that's why I made up my mind that I was going to testify, that ■ 

Mr. Manuel. All right. Now with whom was this 

Mr. Creel. I will let you ask your question. 

Mr. Manuel. Now with w^hom w^as this discussed ? 

Mr. Creel, It was discussed in a State meeting, as to the action. 
And as a matter of fact, I asked the — which I called the controlling 
factor of the organization is the membership, and I will always feel 
like that maybe as Mr. Chairman feels up there, he is just serving his 
constituents, and I felt like that's what I was doing, and I asked the 
State at that time what would be the proper action, and in which they 
could have been the only one that could have authorized me to seize 
any records from any officer. I didn't have the power to seize rec- 
ords. I don't even have the power to banish anyone as far as that 
goes. 

Mr. Pool. How long were you Grand Dragon ? 

Mr. Creel. Actively? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. Creel. I would say from March up until this year. 

Mr. Pool. During that time, is it your testimony that you never 
had any of these records ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir ; not in my possession. 

Mr. Pool. You never had any in your possession. 

Mr. Creel. I think you are speaking of like 

Mr. Pool. The things called for in the subpena. 

Mr. Creel. Like records of the meetings and things of that nature? 
No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. The very things that are called for in the subpena. 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You never had them in your possession ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Could you have had them in your possession? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I never thought about having them in my pos- 
session because, as I just stated, that was his specific duty, as it might 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3253 

be in any organization. If that individual is elected for that posi- 
tion, then he serves that position. 

Mr. Pool. You never did ask to look at them ? 

Mr. Creel. Oh, naturally, I have heard the records read over. I 
mean, from klonvokation to klonvokation. What I am speaking, Mr. 
Chairman 

Mr. Pool. It is your testimony, then, that you never did have them 
in your possession at all. 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Now Mr. Creel, you stated that you took this ques- 
tion up with the general membership at a State meeting. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Creel. That is right. 

Mr. Manuel. What was the decision of the membership? 

]Mr. Creel. Well, at that time, I think that was when the hearings 
was first getting underway, I think the membership voted that people 
woidd take the fifth amendment, but I think after the hearings has 
continued, I think there has been a change of heart in the membership. 

Mr. Manuel. You say the people voted to take the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

Mr. Creel. In other words, I asked the body what would they like 
for me to do, and they said, well, and this is a time prior to me being 
here — they voted that maybe I should take the fifth amendment. Of 
course, maybe they didn't' know all the facts at that time, but I think 
since then,*^ I think after talking to most of the people, I think they 
really wanted someone to come up here and defend them, because, 
basically, the people in the Klan — and I listened to Mr. Buchanan's 
statement — they are good people, and I just can''t — it is hard for 
me to believe. I think I talked to Mr. Appell out in the hall yester- 
day. It is hard for me to believe of the accusations that has been 
cast against the people of the great State of Alabama, and they are 
good people. 

Mr. Pool. Why didn't you bring the records up here today, then, 
to substantiate what you have just said? 

Mr. Creel. If I had some records, Mr. Chairman, I would have 
brought them. 

Mr. Pool. Why didn't you you have them vote to give you the 
records to bring them up here? 

Now if you really want to make a statement and bring the records 
up here and lay it out on the table, that is what you should have done. 

Mr. Creel. Well, I said I didn't 

Mr. Pool. You said you never had any records and you said you 
turned over the charter to the next Grand Dragon. 

Mr. Creel. That's not a record, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. That is a document, and it is in the subpena right here. 
We asked you to bring it up here. Now if you want to cooperate 
with the committee, we are giving you a chance to cooperate. 

Mr. Creel. If I violated any part of that subpena, then I done it 
through ignorance. 

Mr. Pool. You told us what you did with the documents. You got 
the subpena, and then you turned it over to the Grand Dragon that 
succeeded you. 



3254 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Creel. I have told you I have turned over the paraphernalia 
and things of that nature. You asked me was a charter involved. I 
believe it was one blank charter. 

Mr. Pool. We appreciate your cooperation, but the way of think- 
ing here, you liave got to cooperate a hundred percent. You are not 
cooperating a hundred percent, because you are not bringing these 
records up here. That is what we asked you up here for, that is 
why we gave you that subpena. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, with further regard to the State meeting 
that you just mentioned, would you please advise the committee when 
and where this meeting was held? 

Mr. Creel. I believe it was held in Linden. It was on a Sunday, 
I believe. I don't remember exactly the date. 

Mr. Manuel. Was it shortly after you had received this subpena? 

Mr. Creel. I am trying to remember if I had received the subpena, 
I believe we had the meeting before I received, the Sunday — did you 
say I got that on the 12th? 

Mr, Manuel. The date on this subpena is November the 12th. 

Mr. Creel. I believe we had that meeting prior to me receiving 
the subpena, because I hadn't received it yet. I believe it was still 
in Birmingham. 

Mr. Manuel. And how many people were present at this meeting? 

Mr. Creel. That's a good question. It was a houseful. 

Mr. Manuel. Was it held at a private house ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. It was held at a Klavern. 

Mr. Manuel. And what is the location of the Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I think it is right there in Linden. They have a 
big sign up, says "Klavern, United Klans of America." It is right 
out of town, 

Mr, Manuel. And were there other people there, Mr. Creel, who 
had either received subpenas from the committee or who would, as 
the facts turn out, have received a subpena? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know if they had actually received any or not, 
I know there was a discussion about subpenas and things of that 
nature, 

Mr, Manuel. And were all the State officers of the Realm of Ala- 
bama present at that meeting ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't believe they were; they usually aren't. You 
usually wind up appointing someone to sit in the chair. 

Mr. Manuel. All right. In addition to yourself as Grand Dragon, 
what other officers were present ? 

Mr. Creel. I was there, Mr. Shelton was there, I know Mr. Thomas 
was there 

Mr. Manuel. Is that Robert Thomas ? 

Mr, Creel. I believe he was there. I am — now I hope he was 
there. 

Mr, Manuel. Well, testify to exactly what you know, 

Mr. Creel. Did I name Mr. Shelton ? 

Mr. Manuel. So far, you have named yourself, Mr. Shelton, and 
Robert Thomas, 

Mr, Creel, I think Mr. Mandiville was there. He is from Dothan, 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3255 

Mr. Manuel. What is his first name ? 

Mr. Creel. George, I believe. It was quite a number of people 
there. I couldn't commence to name all of them. It was — the reason 
I remember it so well is it was a new lodge and it was dedicated to 
Mr. Murphy, who — as a matter of fact, was dedicated in his honor. 

ISIr. Maxltel. Well, while we are on this subject, Mr. Creel, would 
you please identify for the committee, for the period when you were 
the Grand Dragon, specifically, at the date that this meeting was 
held, who were the other officers of the Kealm of Alabama? In 
other words, w^io was the Grand Klaliff who served as your deputy, 
so to speak ? 

Mr. Creel. I think Mr. Perkins was, at one time. 

Mr. Manuel. Now which Mr. Perkins are you talking about? Is 
that Lewis, William, which one? 

Mr. Creel. Lewis, I believe. 

Mr. Manuel. Was he Grand Klaliff at the time of this meeting? 

Mr. Creel. I don't remember if he was there or not. I might 
have appointed someone. 

Mr. Manuej.. That is not my question. 

My question was. Was he the Grand Klaliff at the time of this 
meeting for the Realm of Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I was trying to think. If you miss so many 
meetings, you appoint someone. I have appointed so many officers, I 
couldn't about to name them, because it is one thing we stressed, 
was attending State meetings. 

I wouldn't want to say for the record if he was Klaliff at that 
time, because 

Mr. Manuel. All right. But he did hold that position at one 
time during your tenure 

Mr. Creel. At one time. 

Mr. Manuel. — as Grand Dragon. 

Now, who was the grand kligrapp, or secretary ? 

Mr. Creel. I have had about three or four. 

Mr. Manuel. Wlio is the last one that you can remember ? 

Mr. Creel. I believe it is Mr. Davenport. 

Mr. Manuel. Is that Cecil Davenport ? 

Mr. Creel. I think so ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. To your knowledge, did Mr. William Holt ever serve 
in that capacity ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't believe he did, not while I was Grand Dragon. 

Mr. Manuel. Did Mr. James Whitefield serve in that capacity? 

Mr. Creel. It seems like at one time. I w^on't say for sure. There 
is a possibility. I believe he did. 

Mr. Manuel. Now to the best of your recollection, who was the 
grand klabee or treasurer of the Realm of Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Mr. Sexton. 

Mr. Manuel. Did Mr. Davenport, the kligrapp, and Mr. Sexton, 
the treasurer, to the best of your knowledge, maintain records of the 
Realm of Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. To the best of my recollection, they did. 

Mr. Manuel. Did Eugene Thomas ever serve as the Grand Klaliff 
of the State of Alabama ? 



3256 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Creel. I believe that he did, but he was supposed to be 
suspended. 

Mr. Manuel. Now during what period of time did he serve? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know if it was when I first taken office, or — I 
think that's when it was. 

Mr. Manuel. Now you mentioned that he was supposed to be 
suspended. Would you explain to the committee what you mean 
by that? 

Mr. Creel. Well, as I stated before, my policy was that if anyone, 
that is including myself, should become, in other words, violate the 
law or be accused of violating the law, that they are automatically 
suspended. 

Mr. Manuel. And to your knowledge, was Eugene Thomas the 
one who was accused of the murder, or implicated in the murder of 
Mrs. Liuzzo from Detroit ? 

Mr. Creel. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Manuel. I say, was Eugene Thomas, of whom we are speaking 
now, was he the one who was accused or implicated in the murder of 
Mrs. Viola Liuzzo, outside of Selma, Alabama, in March of 1965 ? 

Mr. Creel. Was he suspended ? 

Mr. Manuel. I say, is he the same one we are talking about now ? 

Mr. Creel. I think we are talking about the same one. 

Mr. Manuel. All right. Now, is that the reason that lie was 
suspended ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I don't know that he was actually suspended. 
I mean, with the accusations in the paper bein^ as they were, 1 mean, 
it wasn't up to me to make the decision of him being suspended or 
not suspended. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, under the constitution of the Klan as you 
understood them at that time, as Grand Dragon, was he supposed to 
have been suspended from the Klan ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, that was more or less, I don't believe you can find 
it in the constitution. That was more or less something that was 
adopted. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, did you hold that as a policy in Alabama, as 
Grand Dragon? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. I suspended myself, three people. 

Mr. Manuel. And who were those three people? 

Mr. Creel. I don't even know their names. As a matter of fact, I 
wouldn't even let the man tell me. 

Mr. Manuel. For what reason were they suspended ? 

Mr. Creel. He told me that the police had arrested them for being 
involved in, it seemed like it was shooting a house trailer, and I said, 
"Well I don't even want to know their names. Just suspend them." 
But arter that, I have found out that they were not guilty of the accusa- 
tions. I mean, it was 

Mr. Manuel. And what investigation did you make as Grand 
Dragon to determine whether a person was guilty or innocent? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I didn't determine if they was guilty or innocent. 
I think it is a matter of record that we spoke out against violence. 

Mr. Manuel. Let me ask you this question, then : As Grand Dragon 
of the Kealm of Alabama, did you attempt to suspend Eugene Thomas 
after the murder of Mrs. Liuzzo ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3257 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I didn't. It would look pretty funny, me sus- 
pending them, and then attending rallies and things of that nature. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, likewise, did you make an attempt to suspend 
Collie Leroy Wilkins or W. O. Eaton? 

Mr. Creel. I didn't make any attempt to suspend any three of 
them. I am still debating that issue in my own mind. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you as Grand Dragon of the State of Alabama 
make any investigation into the circumstances surrounding the murder 
of Mrs. Liuzzo to determine whether or not persons who were members 
of your realm, Wilkins, Eaton, and Thomas, were guilty or not guilty ? 
Mr. Creel. Well, I don't mind putting it in the record that I actually 
approached the three defendants and I asked them. I said, "I am not 
^oing to ask you if you done it, but for the sake of the organization, 
if you did, at least do it on your own. You know what I mean? 
Defend your own case." And they assured me that they were not 
guilty. I was very much concerned about anything of that nature. 

Mr. Pool. At a later date, do you intend to go back into the Ku Klux 
Klan? 
Mr. Creel. Sir? 

Mr. Pool. Do you intend to rejoin the Ku Klux Klan at a later date ? 
Mr. Creel. I don't know if they will have me or not. 
Mr. Pool. You did not answer my question. 

Do you wish to go back into the Ku Klux Klan if they will take 
you ? Let us put it that way. 

Mr. Creel. Well, I really haven't thought too much about it, Mr. 
Chairman. 
Mr. Pool. You might. Is that it? 

Mr. Creel. That's — you are asking me to make a pretty quick 
decision. 

Mr. Pool. Well 

Mr. Creel. I will put it this way : As long as it is not considered 
un-American or being a Communist- front organization, then I would 
serve in the Klan, because, basically, I really believe that the member- 
ship, the down-to-earth membership, I know they are good people. 
Mr. Pool. You think the Ku Klux Klan is a good organization, then. 
Mr. Creel. Well, I never did refer to the Klan as the Ku Klux Klan, 

because that was on the subversive list, and 

Mr. Pool. Well, all right, the United Klans of America. 
Mr. Creel. I believe that any organization with the proper leader- 
ship can be a good organization. 

Mr. Pool. So you resigned from the Ku Klux Klan and came up 
here to testify. And you reserve the right to go back into the Ku 
Klux Klan at a later date. 

Mr. Creel. No, sir ; I don't reserve that right. 

Mr. Pool. Well, you have a reservation about it being a bad orga- 
nization. You think they are a ])retty good organization. 

Mr. Creel. I don't think it is a bad organization. I am speaking, 
Mr. Chairman, of the people in the organization. Now maybe there 
are some people that will come in the organization that's got things on 
their minds that I can't answer that question. 

Mr. Pool. Well, do you believe in an organization taking the law 
into its own hands? 



3258 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Creel. No, sir ; I don't believe in any organization 

Mr. Pool. You did not think the Ku Klux Klan ever took the law 
into its own hands ? 

Mr. Creel. I hope they haven't. I sincerely hope they haven't. I 
don't believe any organization has the right to take the law into its 
own hands. 

Mr. Pool. Well, have you paid any attention to these hearings? 

Mr. Creel. I have been reading them ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. You do not believe what you read ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir; I believe what I read, and what I see. Mr. 
Appell was telling me in the hall, he says, things of that nature. I 
says, "Well, Mr. Appell, it is pretty hard for me to believe that," and 
he says, "Well, you ought to see the record." 

Well, I haven't seen the records, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. That is the whole purpose of the hearing, is to make a 
record on the things and to see what the Ku Klux Klan has been doing. 
And if I were a member of the Ku Klux Klan, I would certainly want 
to know what the organization was doing and that is what this hear- 
ing has been about. 

Mr. Creel. Well, I don't mind 

Mr. Pool. And you say you resigned. I thought maybe you had 
become disillusioned with them, but now you say it is a good organiza- 
tion and you won't say that you won't go back in it. You might. 

Mr. Creel. Well, I am not — naturally, I guess 

Mr. Pool. I just want to find out what your position is, that is all. 

Mr. Creel. I suppose there is a certain amount of disillusionment. 
From the fact, from the hearings and from the news media, that you 
might read, of where that you read constantly that where questions 
would be asked, I am just using this, for instance, because this came 
out in the paper, and I suppose they were asked — I wasn't here, but 
I think they asked one — I don't even know if he belonged to this 
organization or not, but one so-called Klansman said isn't it a fact 
that you taken two Negroes and tied them to a motor and throwed 
them in the Mississippi River or some river, and the man took the 
fifth amendment. 

To me, that created, and to others, doubts in the minds of the people, 
if they really stop and think. Maybe some people thought, "Well, 
maybe that man did do that." 

Mr. Pool. Well, if he did do it, he ought to take the fifth amend- 
ment, I would say. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Creel. And then again, I think, if that man did that, he 
should be in jail. 

Mr. Pool. That is right. 

Mr. Creel. It is pretty confusing, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Well, what you could do, you could perform a great 
service to America if you would come before this committee and co- 
operate with us in getting to the basic facts and giving us the names, 
the figures, anything else that the investigators are asking you, to 
try to get to the bottom of the whole thing. 

Mr. Creel. Well, Mr. Chairman, I don't mind. I don't know what 
I have at home, but I do have the filing cabinet. And if it is any- 
thing in there that would be of a service to this committee to propose 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3259 

good legislation, I am more than happy to turn it over to this com- 
mittee. I wasn't trying to make a monkey out of this committee, or 
to 

Mr. Pool. Well, we w^ill certainly be glad to look at it, and if it is 
helpful to the committee, I will be one of the first ones to compliment 
you and tell the American people that you have cooperated, so we 
will see what you present us. 

Mr. Creel. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, one more question on the subject which we 
touched on briefly. 

Were you under any orders from any imperial officer of the United 
Klans of America not to suspend Collie Leroy Wilkins or W. O. Eaton 
or Eugene Thomas? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir ; I was not under any orders not to, and I can't 
say that I was under any orders to suspend. In other words, I felt 
like that the Imperial Wizard was there when the men were got out 
on bond, and if he had wanted to suspend them, he could have taken 
that in his own judgment. I didn't question him one way or the other 
if they should be suspended or not suspended. 

Mr. Manuel. Did the United Klans of America pay the bond for 
Wilkins, Thomas, and Eaton ? 

Mr. Creel. I think it is a matter of record that we paid the attor- 
ney's fees and bonding fees. 

Mr. Manuel. Now, to get back to the State meeting in which you 
testified that Mr. Shelton, Robert Thomas, yourself, were present, 
among others, what was Mr. Shelton's own position on his appearance 
before this committee ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I had always understood that Mr. Shelton would 
cooperate with this committee, and but for some reason, I think after 
he had talked to the attorney, I just don't know his reason for not testi- 
fying before this committee. 

Mr. Pool. Did you discuss your appearance before this committee 
with Mr. Shelton ? 

Mr. Creel. You mean since I have been here ? 

Mr. Pool. Well, after you got your subpena? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I have told Mr. Shelton, I believe, one time in his 
office. Of course, I hadn't been subpenaed. Naturally, we discussed 
it, and I assumed that Mr. Shelton would cooperate with this commit- 
tee. I know that he thinks highly of this committee ; at least, he has 
spoken in the past highly of this committee, in saying it is a good 
committee, and that we can't 

Mr. Pool. That is not lately, though. 

Mr. Creel. Well, I am speaking of the conversation, Mr. Chairman, 
that he spoke quite highly of this committee, and he even made a state- 
ment saying that we can't attack this committee, because we would 
be falling into the hands of the other people that would like to see this 
committee done away with, and of course, it's one thing about this 
Nation, this is a free country, and no one has to do — take the fifth. 

Mr. Pool. Did Mr. Shelton ask you if you were going to take the 
fifth amendment? 

Mr. Creel. I don't remember him asking me. 

Mr. Pool. Did he ask you to take the fifth amendment? 



3260 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Creel. I didn't hear him. He didn't tell me I had to and he 
didn't tell me I couldn't. 

Mr. Pool. You all did not discuss it ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir ; I haven't discussed it with Mr. Shelton. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Buchanan ? 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Creel, I would like to inform you at this point 
that it has come to my attention in the first place, Mr. Shelton allegedly 
stated a number of places that he would freely testify before this 
committee. For example, I have been informed that, in a very sparsely 
attended meeting that was held in Tarrant City in my district, Mr. 
Shelton said that anyone who took the fifth before this committee was 
a Communist or acting like a Communist. 

I do not agree witli that, necessarily. A man has a right to take 
the fifth amendment if he feels anything would tend to incriminate 
him. He has a constitutional right to do so, but, nevertheless, he made 
this statement and then took the fifth numerous times himself. 

As to his attitude toward this committee, Mr. Chairman, I think you 
know and I expect the world knows Mr. Shelton's attitude toward 
this committee, which has been, his attacks have been more vitriolic 
and vehement than any we have received even from the Communists, 
and they did a pretty good job of attacking this committee. For 
example, he has in a radio interview, Mr. Chairman, described my con- 
duct as unchristian, unethical, and, I quote, "unresponsible." 

He said most of our dicisions are made in the bars and saloons of 
Washington, and so forth. 

I think that you ought to be apprised of that attitude on the part 
of the Imperial Wizard, and any pious words he may have said about 
this committee or his attitude toward this committee have not proven 
out in his conduct and in his language, for many weeks now. 

Mr. Creel. Well, Mr. Chairman, if I might be permitted, I would 
like to say that, basically, the people of Alabama that is in the Klan, 
they approve of this committee and they approve of the job of this 
committee. So 

Mr. Pool. Of the investigation of the Ku Klux Klan ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Pool. Well, I am glad to hear that. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, getting back to this State meeting which 
you previously testified to, was Robert Shelton the presiding officer 
at that meeting ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Who was ? 

Mr. Creel. I was. 

Mr. Manuel. And Robert Shelton was just in attendance? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. And you state that the membership of the Realm of 
Alabama decided then by vote, as I understand your testimony, that 
anyone subpenaed before the committee would take the fifth amend- 
ment. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Creel. At that time; yes, sir. As I have said, there has been a 
change of heart. 

Mr. Manuel. And how was that change manifested ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, all I can go by is people I talk to, and 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3261 

Mr. Manuel. In other words, was- 



Mr. Creel. In other words, I was encouraged to cooperate w^ith this 
committee. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, was there, in like fashion, a meeting of the mem- 
bership of the Realm of Alabama and did they vote and then vote that 
you were not to take the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Creel. "Well, I don't know. I don't have any knowledge of any 
meeting after that, if I should take the fifth or not take the fifth. 

Mr. Manuel. In other words, then, officially, the vote of the mem- 
bership of the realm stands that you, even before you got a subpena, 
you should take the fifth amendment before the committee. 

Mr. Creel. That's something to that effect. I can — I don't mind 
telling this committee it was a hard decision to make and I made that 
decision. Of course, I didn't make it simply because I said I think 
this is what's right ; I made the decision after I talked to the people. 

Mr. Manuel. Now, Mr. Creel, I wonder if you could tell the com- 
mittee if there was any discussion at that State meeting as to what 
basis Klansmen would use in taking the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't remember the outcome of the conversation. It 
was quite lengthy, and when you have got 50 or 60 people — it might 
have been more, it might have been less — and everybody discussing 
this pro and con, it would be impossible to remember everything that 
was said. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, okay 

Mr. Creel. But I think the basic issue was that this committee 
would more or less try to railroad everyone. I think that w^as the gen- 
eral feeling and I think it was statements made to the effect, "Well, 
once you testify, that then you are going to have to take" — you can't 
take the fifth and you can take the fifth and you can't. 

I mean, things of that nature were discussed back and forth and, 
actually, I think a lot of people was just plain scared. Being coming 
way up here to Washington, and basically, I think they wanted to do 
what was right, and they was just plain scared, just to be honest wdth 
you. I know" myself I was quite nervous yesterday myself, going in 
the hearings, and the committee itself has a tendency to maybe scare 
an individual. 

Mr. Pool. Well, could I ask you this question, then : Can you tell us 
anything wrong with the Ku Klux Klan? There is bound to be some- 
thing wrong with it. 

Mr. Creel. Well, I suppose I could find a lot of things wrong with 
a lot of organizations. I can honestly say this; that the majority of 
the people in the Klan, they are just everyday citizens. 

Mr. Pool. All right. How about your leadership ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I guess you could — I think the leadership, nat- 
urally can always look for better leadership. There is a hundred 
thousand people in Alabama could have done a better job than I done, 
probably. 

Mr. Pool. All right, how about Robert, Shelton? 

Mr. Creel. Well, he has been vo<^ed a voice of confidence, so I sup- 
pose the people are happy with it. In other words, he has been elected 
at every Idonvokation. t think, basically, Mr. Shelton, I haven't kept 
up with him here lately, but I think he has touched some issues that 



3262 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

everyone should be concerned about. Of course, I can find fault in 
everyone. I find fault in myself, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Pool. Did anybody find fault with him not trying to cooperate 
with the committee ? 

Mr. Creel. I haven't talked to that many people. I definitely feel 
like that it has hurt the organization by them not cooperating with the 
committee. I mean, that's a personal opinion. 

Mr. Pool. How bad has it hurt that organization ? 

Mr. Creel. It is not that bad, but people don't like to be -accused of 
things, Mr. Chairman, if they aren't true. It put doubt in their mind. 
I don't know how effectively or how bad or anything of that nature, 
but, naturally, I am not thinking so much of the present membership, I 
am thinking of the future membership, the people would say, "Well, I 
don't want to join that thing. I \xi\\ have to go out here and kill 
somebody." 

And I never tried to project an image of that nature. I think, as I 
have said, my opinions of this committee might not be much, but as my 
own personal opinion, I am not fooling myself. Naturally, it has hurt, 
in some areas, the membership. 

Mr. Pool. Did the membership get upset a little bit about the fact 
that the financial manipulations were not too straight? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know^ so much about that, but I suppose that the 
next national klonvokation there wall be some good going-over the 
books. 

Mr. Pool. Do you suppose they wnll pass a rule against driving 
Cadillacs? 

Mr. Creel. I can't answer that, Mr. Chairman. That is his personal 
affairs. 

Mr. Buchanan. Mr. Chairman. 

Did you have any personal knowledge of the fact that Miss Carol 
Long was signing, countersigning some of the checks, and Mrs. Shel- 
ton, under the names "T. M. Montgomery" and "James J. Hendrix" ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir ; I did not. I have never served on a committee 
to audit the books. I didn't know how that was carried on. 

Mr. Buchanan. Was this generally known in the organization, so 
far as your know^ledge? 

Mr. Creel. I couldn't honestly answer that, because if I should tell 
you, "Well, say, it was," then I would be telling this committee a 
fib, and 

Mr. Buchanan. This information was not imparted at any meet- 
ings which you attended or discussed in any way that would be 
known by you. Is that correct? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I just hadn't ever inquired about, Mr. Buchanan, 
to be honest with you. 

Mr. Pool. Well, are you telling this committee, then, that the United 
Klans is a very highly ethical, God-fearing, peace-loving type 
organization ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, Mr. Chairman, that's all I have ever projected. 
You can take any organization, any fraternal organization, and there 
is no doubt in my mind that a lot of churches and a lot of other 
organization members do things, of course, that is not blasted out 
to the news media that this man Avas a member. I am a member of 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3263 

the Baptist Church. They won't say this man was a member of the 
Baptist Church, or a member of the Masonic Order. They will say, 
"He was a Klansman." 

As long as there is any acts of violence committed and contributed 
to the Klan then I am afraid the Klan will kill itself, as long as there 
is acts of violence. 

Mr. Pool. Do you think the secrecy of the Klan — don't you think 
that will hurt it in the long run? 

Mr. Creel. Secrecy? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. Creel. Well, Mr. Cliairman, I have heard a lot of talk, listen- 
ing, about the secrecy. No one has told that they didn't identify 
themselves. They can identify themselves if they so desire. 

Mr. Pool. But they do not do it, they do not have membership 
lists. 

Mr. Creel. Well, a lot of people I know has. They say, "Well, 
I belong to the Klan. I don't mind telling you." Now I think one 
reason that the members have a tendency to keep it a secret is that, 
on some occasions, they have been fired from their job, things like 
that. I guess it has happened to maybe members of the NAACP in 
Alabama. A lot of people, a lot of those didn't want to let their 
membership be known, because they would be fired. Things of that 
nature. I think that had a lot to do with it. 

Mr. Pool. Don't you suppose there is a reason for that? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I have never actually said that I was ashamed 
that I belonged. I didn't hold my identity secret. Of course, now 
this is a personal opinion. I would like to see every man, if he is 
ashamed to belong, then he shouldn't be in there. Let him make 
himself known. 

Mr. Pool. That is exactly the point. 

Mr. Creel. Well, I have the same feeling. 

Mr. Pool. You think that the Klan should have a secret member- 
ship list ? They should go ahead and let people see their membership 
list or see who the officers are? 

Mr. Creel. I think in the past year, I think the Klan has operated 
more in the open than it ever has. 

Mr. Pool. Have you abolished the system of numbers ? 

Mr. Creel. Sir? 

Mr. Pool. Have they abolished the system of numbers in their 
Klaverns ? 

Mr. Creel. As I have stated before in testimony, that's up to the 
individual unit, how, if they want to use a number, I don't see any 
use to using numbers myself. Again, of course, that's a personal 
opinion. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, were you exalted cyclops of Bessemer 
Klavern No. 20 during the month of September 1963? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know if I was exalted cyclops or if I was great 
titan. I don't remember. 

Mr. Manuel. AYell, you were one of the officers that had jurisdiction 
over that Klavern. Is'that correct ? Whether it was titan or exalted 
cyclops? 

Mr. Creel. Well, the titan would have — what you don't basically 
understand, each unit operates more or less independently. 

59-222 O— 67— pt. 4 24 



3264 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

I mean, a man is elected as chairman or president or exalted cyclops 
or anything that you want to call him. He carries out just the duties 
as Mr. Pool is carrying out there, acting out as chairman. You have a 
set of rules to go by. A business meeting is no more of a business 
meeting being conducted than it would be if he was in the Kiwanis 
or Lions or anything else. 

Mr. Manuei.. Well, were you an active member, then, of the Besse- 
mer Klavern No. 20 in September 1963? 

Mr. Creel. I suppose I was. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have any knowledge of any other member ot 
that Klavern who was suspected or questioned about the bombings 
of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham? 

Mr. Creel. Did we have any members that were suspected? 

Mr. Manuel. And questioned. To your knowledge. 

Mr. Creel. I think those 16th Street bombings, I believe everybody 
in Alabama was questioned, to give you an honest answer. I know 
I was. I guess everybody that ever belonged to the Klan or even 
thought about joining was questioned as to those bombings. 

I think Mr. Buchanan can vouch for that, that they had a pretty 
thorough investigation. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, now, do you possess any knowledge concerning 
that bombing? 

Mr. Creel. I have no knowledge whatsoever and, if I am not mis- 
taken, I believe we put up a thousand dollars reward with that. If 
I am not mistaken. I don't know if that was the bombing, or — it was 
so many there, I don't know. 1 have no knowledge. 

Mr. Manuel. Have you ever been present as a member of the United 
Klans of America at a meeting or at a gathering where there was 
dynamite present? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Were you registered at the Capri Motel in Jackson- 
ville, Florida, in November of 1964 ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Would you please tell the committee in your own 
words what went on on that occasion ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I can tell you what went on where I was at. As 
a matter of fact, that was on a Saturday; was it not? I flew from 
Birmingham to Jacksonville, myself and Mr. Roton, and Mr. Matt 
Murphy met us at the airport, and we went back to the motel, we 
had a rally that night which was a public rally, which people attended, 
we stayed in the room mostly. 

I know, at the rally, Mr. Shelton was there. I was there, and Mr. — 
well, the other Grand Dragons. I forget who they were at that time. 
It seemed like it was — I believe it was Mr. Bob Jones, Mr. Bob 
Scoggins. As a matter of fact, they was from everywhere. 

Mr. Manuel. Was Collie Leroy Wilkins also present? 

Mr. Creel. I believe he was. 

Mr. Manuel. Was Eugene Thomas also present? 

Mr. Creel. I think so. 

Mr. Manuel. To your knowledge, did any 

Mr. Creel. And if I might add, I believe Mr. Rowe was there. 

Mr. Manuel. You are speaking of Gary Rowe ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. S265 

Mr. Creel. That is right. 

Mr. Manuel. To your knowledge, did any person whom we have 
just discussed have a meeting with Mr. J. 13. Stoner? 

Mr. Creel. Now, I saw Mr. Stoner briefly. Now, what the conver- 
sation was carried out, I have no knowledge, because I believe he 
came there to confer with Mr. Murphy, and what the conversation 
was about, I have no knowledge of that, but I do know that they 
did have conversation. I will put it this way : I don't know Mr. Stoner 
personally, but there was a man that was said, "Well, that's J. B. 
Stoner." 

Mr. Manuel. Did you have any knowledge of any conversation 
whatsoever concerning William Kosecrans on that occasion ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't even know him. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you, as a participant in any meeting, observe 
any arms or dynamite in the area of the Capri Motel ? 

Mr. Creel. If there was any there, I didn't see it. 

Mr. Pool. The committee M'ill stand in recess until a quarter of two. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Pool and Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon, at 12 :1:5 p.m., Wednesday, February 9, 1966, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 1 :45 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 9, 1966 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2:15 pjn., Hon. Charles L. 
Weltner, presiding.) 

( Subcommittee members present : Representatives Weltner and 
Buchanan.) 

Mr. Weltner. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Mr. Appell? 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, before we continue with the testimony 
of Mr. Creel, I would like to call to the witness stand Mr. Ralph 
Pryor. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Pryor, please come forward. 

Mr. Creel will remain for further testimony. 

Mr. Pryor, do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give in 
this hearing will be the (rutli, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Pryor. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF KALPH EARL PRYOR, JR. 

Mr. Weltner. Would you state your name? 

Mr. Pryor. My name is Ralph Earl Pryor, Jr. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Pryor, are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Pryor. No, sir, I am not. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you desire to have counsel represent you? 

Mr. Pryor. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Pryor, as acting chairman of this subcommittee, 
I advise you that, under the Constitution of the United States, you 
have the riglit to refuse to answer any question propounded to you 
which may, in your judgment, possibly incriminate you under any 
Federal or State statute, that being your right under the fifth 
amendment. 



3266 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Do you understand your constitutional rights? 

Mr. Pryor. I do, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And it is your desire to proceed without counsel at 
this point? 

Mr. Pryor. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Weltner. I further advise you that if at any time during the 
course of this proceeding you desire counsel, if you \Yill make that 
fact known, this hearing will be suspended, and you will be atforded 
an opportunity to obtain counsel. 

All right, proceed, Mr. Appell. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Chairman, the reason we have called Mr. Pryor 
is that, during the recess, Mr. Pryor advised me that in accordance 
with the subpena served upon him, which calls for him to bring with 
him and to produce certain books and records called for in the sub- 
pena, he has such documents. We are calling him only for the purpose, 
at this time, that the staff might have an opportunity to review these 
documents in the course of further interrogation of Mr. Creel. 

Mr. Pryor, you are appearing here today in accordance with a sub- 
pena served upon you on the 25th day of October 1965? 

Mr. Pryor. I am, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pryor, under the terms of that subpena in an 
attachment thereto, which was made a part of the subpena, you were 
asked to bring : 

All books, records, documents, correspondence, and memoranda relating to the 
organization of and the conduct of business and affairs of the Invisible Empire, 
United Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and afBliated 
organizations, namely, the Alabama Rescue Service, or Delaware Rescue Service, 
in your possession, custody or control, or maintained by you or available to you 
as Grand Dragon, Realm (State) of Delaware of the Invisible Empire, United 
Klans, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America, Inc., also known as the 
United Klans of America, Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

Now, Mr. Pryor, I ask you, in the representative capacity set forth 
in paragraph 1 of the subpena, if you will produce the records and 
other documents called for ? 

Mr. Pryor. May I be excused for a few seconds ? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, sir. 

Are the documents contained in that briefcase, sir ? 

Mr. Prior. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Appell. Would you present the documents, please ? 

Mr. Pryor. I would like to add, sir, that everything in here pertains 
to the United Klans of America, nothing about — I know nothing about 
the Alabama Rescue Service, or whatever it is. I have two other 
articles in my wallet. 

(Documents handed to staff.) 

Mr. Manuel. Thank you. 

Mr. Appell. Mr. Pryor, the committee thanks you, and we ask you 
to stand aside, and you will be recalled at the conclusion of the 
testimony of Mr. Creel. 

Mr. Weltner. Just one moment, please. 

Mr. Pryor, you are testifying now that these are all of the documents 
that are within the description contained within your subpena that are 
in your possession, or w^ere in your possession at the time of the service 
of the subpena ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3267 

Mr. Pryor. No, sir ; not all of them. Not all of them. 

Mr. Weltner. Are there any other documents ? 

Mr. Pryor. I did everything in my power to get everything else. 
I think that the committee will find that I have brought things suffi- 
cient. There were some things impossible for me to bring. 

Mr. Weltner. Very well. You are not expected to produce any- 
thing that is not subject to your physical possession, sir. If you will 
stand aside, we will proceed with another witness, and then call you in 
order, sir. 

Thank you. 

Mr. Manuel. Will Mr. Robert Creel please resume the stand? 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT MILTON CREEL— Resumed 

Mr. Weltner. Mr. Creel, I remind you of your right to have counsel 
represent you and of your rights under the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution and that you are still under oath. 

Mr. Creel. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Ma-nuel. Mr. Chairman, at this time I would like to continue 
with the reading of the documents called for under Mr. Creel's sub- 
pena. In his previous testimony, we only got through the first two 
paragraphs and didn't finisli because of questions propounded to Mr. 
Creel during the course of his answers, so I would like to continue with 
the reading of paragraph 8 of Mr. Creel's subpena. 

Mr. Weltner. All right, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Which calls for him to produce: 

Copies of U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, Form 1120, 
"U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return," for the years 1961 through June 30, 1965, 
filed by you as Grand Dragon, Realm of Alabama of the United Klans of America, 
Inc., Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. 

I ask you at this time, Mr. Creel, to produce those documents. 

Mr. Creel. I have never filed, since I only actually was what you 
might say full-time, actually, it hasn't come time to file taxes for this 
year. I think prior to that, I am quite sure, or I am not quite sure Mr. 
Shelton should have signed those, because he was acting Grand 
Dragon, prior to my position. And- — 

Mr. Manuel. Who was the Grand Dragon who immediately pre- 
ceded you in Alabama, Mr. Creel ? 

Mr. Creel. You mean the one before me ? I think Mr. Shelton was 
acting Grand Dragon until I was elected. In other words, I believe 
that when Mr. Page resigned, Mr. Shelton taken over the duties as 
Grand Dragon and Imperial Wizard. 

Mr. Manuel. Wlien did Mr. Page leave the position of Grand 
Dragon for Alabama? 

Mr. Creel. I am trying to think. I think it was about 6 months 
prior of me taking over as Grand Dragon. I am not sure on that, 
now. I am merely guessing. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, our records indicate that you were nomi- 
nated for the position of Grand Dragon of the Realm of Alabama 
at a meeting held on February 23, 1964. Is that correct, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't believe it is. It could have been, the nomina- 
tions, in '64. 



3268 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Mantjel. And that you assumed the title of Grand Dragon 
after being elected to that position in Marcli of 1964. Is that correct, 
sir? 

Mr. Creel. Well, no, sir. I think it was in January. Now I went 
full-time in March. In other words, it was a full-time job. It was 
in March of '65. 

Mr. Manuel. March of '65 ? 

Mr. Creel. I believe. If I am not wrong. Let's see. 

Mr. Manuel. In other words, you did not hold the position of 
Grand Dragon at any time during the year 1964 ? 

Mr. Creel. I am not sure. I would have to check back. I don't 
want to say yes or no. I don't know if I was nominated in November 
of '63 or November of '65. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, our records indicate that you served as Grand 
Dragon for the Realm of Alabama, Knights — United Klans of 
America, since March of 1964. 

Mr. Creel. I don't believe so. I think during that period — I am 
not sure, but I believe Mr. Shelton was acting as Grand Dragon. I 
won't make a positive statement. I am trying to be honest with the 
committee. 

Mr. Weltner. Are you saying that there was no person officially 
in the office of Grand Dragon of Alabama, but that the Imperial 
Wizard conducted the functions of the Office of Grand Dragon of the 
Realm of Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir, for a period of time, and what I was trying to 
straighten out in my mind, exactly what that period of time was. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, about how long, altogether, did you serve as 
Grand Dragon ? About a year ? 

Mr. Creel. I would say 6 months or longer. 

Mr. Weltner. And you resigned as Grand Dragon when ? 

Mr. Creel. This January. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, I would like to show you a copy of a 
signature card filed with the Birmingham Trust National Bank for 
the account of the United Klans of America, and the names on this 
signature card are Robert M. Creel, Eugene Thomas, Melvin Sexton, 
and James R. Whitfield. 

Mr. Weltner. Is that Whitfield? 

Mr. Manuel. Wliitefield. I am sorry. Wliitefield. 

Mr. Creel. And what is the date on that ? 

Mr. Manuel. And the date on this document — actually, there are 
two signature cards filed here, one dated January 4, 1966, which super- 
seded the old signature card, which I read, which indicates that you 
were president or Grand Dragon of the United Klans of America, 
Realm of Alabama, prior to the date of January 4, 1966. 

I hand you this document, and ask you to make any explanation 
of that, that you can remember to the committee. 

Mr. Creel. Well, what I was trying to do was to fill in the gap. 
There is a gap there that Mr. Shelton acted as Grand Dragon, and 
then a short time I served — I don't know. I don't even remember 
how many months it was, and then we held an election, and I was 
elected. That is certainly my signature. 

(Signature card previously marked "James Wliitefield Exhibit No. 
3-B. Seep. 3113.)" 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3269 

Mr. "Weltner. Well, take your time and examine that document 
and see if that refreshes your recollection, Mr. Creel. There is no 
need to rush you. We are just trying to tie these dates down as ac- 
curately as possible. 

Mr. Creel. I believe this says date opened was October 28, 1964. 
So I served, I am trying- to remember if it was from August or some 
time thereafter till the end of the year, wdiich elections are held usu- 
ally at the end of the year, and for a term of office, which would run 
out this past election. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, did you serve as Grand Dragon for any part of 
the year 1964? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. And to the best of your recollection, how long did 
you serve as Grand Dragon in that year ? 

Mr. Creel. I am just guessing. I will say from August till the 
end of the year. It could have been later. I don't believe it was any 
earlier. 

Mr. Manuel. All right. 

Now to your knowledge, did the Realm of Alabama, United Klans 
of America, file an income tax return, listing income and expenses to 
the Federal Government — to the Internal Revenue Service? 

Mr, Creel. No, sir; I didn't. I presume Mr. Shelton filed those 
papers. 

Mr. Manuel. Did he file it for the Realm of Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I presume he did. I have no knowledge that he 
did. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, did you report as Grand Dragon the statement 
of income and expense to Mr. Shelton so that he could report to the 
Internal Revenue Service ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I believe, if I remember correctly, when I taken, 
when I taken on the job as Grand Dragon, there was no funds at that 
time, when I taken over — when I took over from Mr. Shelton. If there 
was, I never received any, so 

Mr. Manuel. Well, what was the total income of the Realm of 
Alabama for the year 1964 ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't remember, but it wasn't much, because there 
wasn't any there, as I stated, there w as none there when I taken over. 
It seems like it was about $90. Noav I could be wrong, but that figure 
sticks in my mind, some place, so I will use that figure. 

Mr. Manuel. In other w^ords, the entire Realm of Alabama of the 
United Klans of America, to the best of your knowledge, had an income 
of only $90 for the year 1964 ? 

Mr. Weltner. Now that is not what he said. 

Mr. Creel. No. 

Mr. Weltner. He said when he took over, there was only $90 in 
the treasury. 

We want to know how much money was received by the realm during 
the year. 

Mr. Creel. From the time I taken over till the end of the year, I 
really don't know. It wasn't very much though. I do know that it 
wasn't no big figure. Because at that time, there really wasn't too 
many active miits in the State. So I really don't know and anyway 
I didn't keep the financial part. 



3270 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, from what sources did the Klan derive its in- 
come, whatever it was ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, from dues. 

Mr. Manuel. Any other sources ? 

Mr. Creel. Not that I know of. - 

Mr. Manuel. Did you receive any portion of any initiation fee of 
a new member ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, that was voted in, after I went full time, but I 
actually never received personally that portion, because I think I 
stated before that most of the money, I think — you have the checks 
there — went into attorneys' fees and things of that nature. 

Mr. Manuel. Did the Realm of Alabama derive any income from 
collections taken up at rallies? 

Mr. Creel. That was left up to the discretion of each unit. Now 
some of the units, they donated to the realm, some of them kept it. 
That was up to the discretion of ever who was sponsoring a rally. 

Mr. Weltner. Did any portion of the klectokon or initiation fee 
go to the realm office ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. How much ? 

Mr. Creel. $5. 

Mr. Weltner. Out of $10? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir, out of $15. 

Mr. Weltner. The klectokon was $15 ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And $5 of that went to the realm and stayed in the 
realm ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. And was any portion of the klectokon then for- 
warded to the imperial office ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. So the other $10 stayed with the Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. With the unit ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Now you said when you took over that there were 
not very many active units in Alabama. How many active units were 
there at the time you took over ? 

Mr. Creel. I would say not over seven or eight. 

Mr. Weltner. Just a moment, please. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, what portion of the dues paid by members 
of the Alabama Realm were paid to the State office in the year 1964? 

Mr. Creel. 25 cents per man per month. In 1964? 

Mr. Manuel. Yes. 

Mr. Creel. 25 cents per man per month, and at that time the ini- 
tiation fee was only $10. 

Mr. Manuel. And when did it change from $10 to $15 ? 

Mr. Creel. I believe right after I went into office as Grand Dragon. 

Mr. Manuel. And what other dues payable by each member in 
the year 1965? 

Mr. Creel. To the State? 

Mr. Manuel. To the State. 

Mr. Creel. 25 cents a man per month, plus $5 of the klectokon 
fee would go to the State office. 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3271 

Mr. jVLvnuel. And how much goes to the imperial office? 

Mr. Creel. Out of the klectokon fee ? 

Mr. Manuel. Out of the klectokon and out of the dues, also. 

Mr. Creel. Nothing out of the klectokon. 

Mr. Manuel. And dues ? 

Mr. Creel. 50 cents per man per month. 

Mr. Manuel. Now, Mr. Creel, at the time that you 

Mr. Weltner. Hold it just a moment. Fifty cents per man per 
month goes to the imperial office? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. 25 cents goes to the realm office ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. What is the total monthly dues ? 

Mr. Creel. That is left up to the discretion of each Klavern. We 
didn't dictate to the people of what tlieir dues should be. In other 
words, maybe some Klaverns could operate on less expense, where 

Mr. Weltner. But it had to be at least 75 cents a month to cover 
these assessments ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir; it had to be at least 75. Some places, they 
could get by for a dollar a month dues. Some places could get by, 
Ave will say, for a dollar and a half. It is according to the size of the 
city and the rent and the lights and water, and things of that nature. 

Mr. Manuel. Now did each Klavern report periodically its income 
to the State office ? 

Mr. Creel. They didn't report to me. What do you mean of their 
income? Did they make reports of how many members they had? 

Mr. Manuel. Of how much money they took in, each month. 

Mr. Creel. No, sir ; they made no report to me. 

Mr. Manuel. Did they make a report as to the amount of dues 
collected each month ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, the way you run your report is how many mem- 
bers that you have in good standing, just like any other fraternal 
organization. If you have got 20 men in good standing, you sent 
your klectokon for 20 men in good standing. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, please tell the committee exactly what a Klav- 
ern would report each month to the State office. 

Mr. Creel. Exactly the membership of what they was paying the 
klectokon for. 

Mr. Manuel. Was there included in the report any financial state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. As the balance of what they had in the treas- 
ury ? 

Mr. Manuel. Yes. 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. And who kept the records that were so reported by 
the Klaverns in the State office? 

Mr. Creel. Ever who was elected. The kligrapp and the klabee. 

Mr. ]V£\NUEL. And how were these reports made by the Klaverns 
to the State office ? In what form ? Were they mailed ? 

Mr. Creel. They were mailed. 

Mr. Manuel. And to whom were they addressed ? 

Mr. Creel. To the treasurer. 



3272 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. Was the name of the person on the correspondence? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I think it was 17 Lake Sherwood. 

Naturally, you had to have an address. 

Mr. Manuel. And what address is 17 Lake Sherwood ? 

Mr. Creel. I presume that is Mr. Sexton's home. 

Mr. Manuel. Is that Mr. Sexton's home address ? 

Mr. Creel. I couldn't swear to it, but I would say that is where he 
lives. 

Mr. Manuel. Were any reports of Klaverns made directly to you 
while you were Grand Dragon of the Realm of Alabama? 

Mr. Creel. Some were, but I sent them to Mr. Sexton. 

Mr. Manuel. And w^ere any checks made payable directly to you 
by Klaverns or by members of Klaverns of the Realm of Alabama? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. And what became of the records of those checks? 

Mr. Creel. Some I endorsed to give to Mr. Sexton, some I endorsed 
and used for expense, and to get receipts for. 

Mr. Manuel. And who kept the records of the bank account which 
was established by the realm office? 

Mr. Creel. Mr. Sexton. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, at the time that you w^ere Grand Dragon — 
and from your testimony, you have been Grand Dragon of the State 
of Alabama until the last election in January of this year — so that 
you were the Grand Dragon for the entire year of 1965 ; is that cor- 
rect? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Would you please tell the committee what the income 
of the Realm of Alabama was for the year 1965 ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I W'Ould have to — I couldn't give you the exact 
figures, because I would have to find out w^hat it was myself. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, Mr. Creel, you understand if you don't have 
documents in front of you, we are not expecting you to give us a figure 
exact to the penny. 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. But we would expect you in the ordinary course of 
aft'airs to give us a j^retty solid estimate of how much those fig- 
ures were. 

Mr. Creel. Well, I can give you an estimate of my expense and 
I don't know the total amount of attorneys' fees that we have paid 
out and bonding fees and things of that nature. And when you get 
all that and add them up, you have got a pretty good estimate of 
the income. 

Mr. Weltner. Give us your best estimate, and break it down in the 
way that you can best do, based upon your recollection. 

Mr. Creel. Well, I would say that my expense, which the household 
expense, would run anywhere for a month — would be anywhere from — ■ 
that is counting rent, groceries, lights, water, gas, telephone, and then 
obligations which had been incurred before I went on full time, was 
running about anywhere from $450 to $500 a month. I would say it 
would average out about $600 a month, overall, and that is counting 
traveling expense and things of that nature. That's a rough estimate. 

Mr. Weltner. What was the amount of attorneys' fees that w^ould 
have been handled through your office? 

Mr. Creel. Well, let's see. Attorney Art Hanes, I couldn't give 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3273 

you an up-to-date estimate on how much he has received. But I know 
he has received somewhere in the neighborhood, I know of at least 
$3,500 or more, and then I think, Mr. Jim Esdale has received — I know 
he has received I believe it was $3,000, that I know of, and maybe more. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, it is the committee's information that the 
money that was used to pay attorneys' fees came out of special funds 
created by the United Klans of America which did not affect the 
realm account. 

Mr. Creel. Well, that is true. 

Mr. Manuel. In other words, it is our information that in the man- 
agement of the cases, these funds were set up with special contributions 
or the Klavems. 

Mr. Creel. That's true. Now — — 

Mr. Manuel. Would you explain this to the committee? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. I think we raised about a thousand dollars 
at the banquet, over and beyond, it seemed like, it would maybe have 
been a thousand, maybe 69 or 70, I don't remember the exact amount, 
but I know that we have used $750 of realm funds, and I don't know 
exactly how much thereafter, but I know we have used that much. 

Mr. Manuel. And how many special accounts were created for 
legal defense, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I know Mr. Murphy created one and 

Mr. Manuel. What was the name of that account, Mr. Creel ? 

Mr. Creel, I believe he had that in the Wliite Mans Defense Fund. 

Mr. Weltner. That is the late Matt Murphy ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir, but let me say to this hearing with no reflection 
on Mr. Murphy that the entire membership had agreed that any 
part in which I could even tell you exactly to the figure how much 
money Mr. Murphy received, that it would be used in his expense, 
and I actually coulchi't even give you the rundown on it, and Mr. 
Shelton, I think he established a defense fund. Of course, I don't 
know. I think he can produce records what was paid out of that, 
things of that nature. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know where he maintained this account? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir, I don't know where he maintained it. 

Mr. Weltner. Did you say you believed Mr. Shelton can produce 
records to substantiate the payment of funds ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, when I said that, Mr. Weltner, I was referring 
to certainly he is going to have to show them to the income tax man. 

Mr. Weltner. He hasn't shown them to this committee, Mr. Creel. 

Mr. Creel. To show them where the money went. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, as of December 31, 1965, how many Klav- 
erns of the United Klans of America existed in the Realm of Ala- 
bama? 

Mr. Creel. I would say between 35 or 40. I would have to count 
them on my fingers. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a record of those Klaverns? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I have a record here [indicating]. I can just 
about 

Mr. Weltner. Show the witness the listing that was prepared by 
the staff on the initial day of these hearings and possibly we can 
expedite the matter that way. 

(A listing of Alabama Klans marked "Robert Creel Exhibit No. 1" 
follows:) 



3274 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Robert Creel Exhibit No. 1 

KLAVERNS AND KLAVERN OFFICERS 

Henry County 49 Club, Abbeville, Alabama : Hersehel Pelham. 

The Blanca Club, Akron, Alabama : Julian C. McCray, Ernest Cockran. 

Eastview Klavern No. 13, Birmingham, Alabama : Eugene Reeves. 

White Patriots, Brantley, Alabama : James P. Catrett, C. D. McLeod. 

The 51 Club, Columbia, Alabama : Charles Ellison, EC ; James O. Morey. 

Club 50, Cuba, Alabama : D. S. Brock, C. C. Pearson, Sr. 

Cullman, Alabama : John W. Rowe. 

United Klans of America No. 46, Demopolis, Alabama : William E. 
Randall. 

United Klans of America No. 47, EJutaw, Alabama : Jimmy K. Farmer, 
Pres. ; G. C. Mattison, Jr., Treas. ; James G. Wilson, Secy. 

Fayette S. A. Club, Fayette, Alabama : M. P. Mitchell. 

Fort Payne, Alabama: George D. Killian, Guton H. Tutor, Cecil King. 

Confederate Lodge, Gadsden, Alabama : Hubert E. White, Harold Mor- 
gan, Max Cannon. 

Hanceville, Alabama : Marshall Kugler. 

Bessemer Klavern No. 20, Young Men's Social Club, Hueytown, Ala- 
bama : James R. Whitefield, Cecil B. Davenport, Oscar T. Syx. 

Clarke- Washington Hunting & Fishing Club, Jackson, Alabama : Cecil 
M. Hoven, John P. Williamson. 

Jasjier, Alabama, No. 52 : Ray Fields, EC ; Joe Sanders, Klaliff. 

Linden, Alabama : 

(May 11, 1965) George S. Braswell. 
(May 11, 1965) John Duncan. 
(May 11, 1965) Jimmie G. Cannon. 
(September 13, 1965) Jimmie G. Cannon. 
(September 13, 1965) Milton Cherry. 
(September 13, 1965) J. K. Marlowe. 

Montgomery, Alabama, White Patriots: Gene Vann, Gene Minis. Ray- 
mond C. Howard. 

Bassett Creek Hunting Club, Wagarville, Alabama : John W. Harris, 
Joe Sullivan. 

Mr. Manuel. Well, Mr. Chairman, at the start of the hearings, 
we had a certain number of Klavems listed in the State of Alabama. 
As of today, as of this time, the staff has identified 19 separate 
Klaverns in the State of Alabama. Mr. Creel just says that he has, 
to his knowledge— between 35 and 40, 1 believe you said? 

Mr. Creel. I was just giving you a rough estimate. 

Mr, Manuel. Well, with your permission, Mr. Chairman, I will 
rmi down the list of the Klaverns that we have and have Mr. Creel 
identify same. And any others that come to his mind at this time, 
he can put into the record. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, read him the name of the Klavern and ask 
him whether or not there was a Klavern of UKA in existence during 
the time of his office as Grand Dragon. 

Mr. Manuel. Was there a Klavern in Abbeville, Alabama, known 
as Henry County No. 49 Club ? 

Mr. Creel. There was a Klaveni there in Abbeville. I don't know 
what it is known as. 

Mr. Manuel. Was the exalted cyclops of that Klavern Hersehel 
Pelham, P-e-1-h-a-m? 

Mr, Creel. I couldn't answer it. There is a unit in there at Abbe- 
ville, though. 

Mr. Manuel. Is there one in Akron, Alabama, known as the 
Blanca Club, B-1-a-n-c-a ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3275 

Mr. Creel. Akron ? I don't recognize that. 

Mr. Manuel. Is there one in Birmingham, Alabama, known as 
Eastview Klavern No. 13 ? 

Mr. Creel. That's one of the okl originals. 

Mr. Manuel. Is Eugene Reeves the exalted cyclops of that 
Klavern? 

Mr. Creel. Maybe at one time, but I wouldn't think so now; I 
wouldn't think so now. 

Mr. Manuel. Has there been an election at Eastview Klavern No. 
13, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Creel. There are supposed to have been elections at the end 
of the year. This past year, everyone has had a new election. 

Mr. Manuel. To your knowledge, who is the current exalted 
Cyclops of the Eastview Klavern No. 13? 

Mr. Creel. I wouldn't have any idea. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a Klavern in Brantley, Alabama, known 
as the White Patriots ? 

Mr. Creel. I know there is one in Brantley. I don't know about 
the White Patriots. They could be listed as that. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know James P. Catrett, C-a-t-r-e-t-t, to be 
exalted cyclops of that ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know him to be the exalted cyclops. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a Klavern in Columbiana,^ Alabama, 
known as The 51 Club? 

Mr. Creel. I know there is a Klavern there ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Is Charles Ellison the exalted cyclops of that 
Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I have no knowledge of that. He could be. It is a 
possibility. I am not saying that he is and I am not saying that he is 
not. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a Klavem at Cuba, Alabama, known as 
Club 50? 

Mr. Creel. There is a Klavern there. 

Mr. Manuel. Is D. S. Brock and C. C. Pearson, Jr.^— are those two 
individuals officers of that Klavern? 

Mr. Creel. I couldn't say if they were officers or not. 

Mr. Weltner. Are they members of it ? 

Mr. Creel. Sir? 

Mr. Weltner. Are they members of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I couldn't — I don't know, Mr. Weltner. The names 
are not familiar to me. It is a possibility they could be, it is a pos- 
sibility they are not ; but there is a unit there. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a unit at Cullen,^ Alabama, C-u-1-l-e-n ? 

Mr. Creel. Where ? 

Mr. Manuel. Cullen, Alabama. C-u-1-l-e-n. 

Mr. Creel. That doesn't ring a bell. 

Mr. Manuel. The EC of that Klavern was listed as John W. 
Rowe, R-o-w-e. Do you know John W. Rowe ? 

Mr. Creel. I know a Rowe, but — Cullen. If I had a map — where 
is that close to ? 



This should be "Columbia." 

' The reference to "C. C. Pearson, Jr." is incorrect. It should read "C. C. Pearson, Sr. 
Correct name "Cullman." 



3276 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. It must be close to ( 

Mr. Creel. Oh, I know. You are referring to Cullman. I was 
wondering where that might be. There is a unit in Cullman, but I 
don't know about Mr. Rowe being the exalted cyclops. 

Mr. Manltel. Do you have a Klavern in Demopolis, Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Known as United Klans of Alabama No. 46? 

Mr. Creel. I think the charter number was that on 46. I suppose 
that they put their money in the bank as such. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know W. E. Eandall to be an officer of that 
Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. The name is not familiar, and I live in Linden. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a Klavern in Eutaw, E-u-t-a-w ? 

Mr. Creel. There is a unit there. 

Mr. Manuel. Known as United Klans of America No. 47 ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know what it is known as, but it is a unit there. 

Mr. Manuel. Is Jimmy K. Farmer the exalted cyclops of that unit? 

Mr. Creel. I really don't know. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a Klavern in Fayette, Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Is M. P. Mitchell an officer of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. Tlie name is not familiar to me. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you have a cover name for that Klavern? 

Mr. Manuel. The bank account reflects, Mr. Chairman, it is known 
as the Fayette S. A. Club. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you know what S. A. means, Mr. Creel ? 

Mr Creel. I have no knowledge. I surely don't. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a Klavern at Fort Payne, Alabama? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Who is the exalted cyclops of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I have no knowledge who might be exalted cyclops. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you ever know a George D. Killian, K-i-1-l-i-a-n, 
as the exalted cyclops of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. He might have been at one time, but I don't know if he 
is now. 

Mr. Weltner. Do you know him ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir; I know him. I know a lot of people, but that 
don't make 

Mr. Weltner. We are just asking you at one time, Mr. Creel. 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir ; I know him. 

Mr. Weltner. You know that at one time he was associated with 
this Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir ; at one time, he was. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a Klavern at Gadsden, Alabama? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Known as the Confederate Lodge? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know what it is knoAvn as, but there is a unit 
there. 

Mr. Manuel. Who is the EC of that unit, Mr. Creel, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Creel. I really don't know. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you ever know Hubert E. Wliite to be an officer 
of that Klavern ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3277 

Mr. Creel. The name don't ring a bell to me. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have Klavem at Hanceville, Alabama, 
H-a-n-c-e-v-i-1-l-e ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Who is the exalted cy clops of that unit? 

Mr. Creel. I don't have any knowledge, because that is — most of 
these are new units. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know Marshall Kugler, K-u-g-1-e-r, to be an 
officer of that unit ? 

Mr. Creel. I wouldn't know him if I was to meet him on the street. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a unit in Hueytown, Alabama, known 
as Bessemer Klavem No. 20? 

Mr. Creel. No, I know a Bessemer No. 20 that is located in 
Bessemer. 

Mr. Manuel. Who is the current exalted cyclops of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I really don't know. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know James R. Whitefield? 

Mr. Weltner. Wliitefield. 

Mr. Manuel. Whitefield, Cecil Davenport, and Oscar Syx, to be 
officers of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know if they are officers or not, but it is a possi- 
bility they could be. I have known Mr. Syx for years. 

Mr. Manuel. As a member of the United Klans of America? 

Mr. Creel. I suppose he is. He used to be a member. I don't 
know if he is currently a member, but I couldn't say if any of them 
is a member at this time or not. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you have a unit at Jackson 

Mr. Weltner. Wait a minute. Back to that Bessemer one. Is 
that the one that Collie Leroy Wilkins is a member of ? 

Mr. Manuel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, ask the witness if he knows Collie Leroy 
AVilkins to be a member of that. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know Collie Leroy Wilkins to be a member 
of Bessemer No. 20 ? 

Mr. Creel. I know at one time probably he was a member of it. 
I couldn't tell you when he joined or when he come in or 

Mr. Manuel. Was he a member of Bessemer No. 20 as of Decem- 
ber 31, 1965? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know. I wasn't there at that time. 

Mr. Weltner. How about as of March 17, 1965 ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, Mr. Weltner, what I consider a member is a 
member in good standing. I don't know if he was in good standing. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, you knew he was associated with this Bessemer 
Klavem No. 20, didn't you, and you assumed him to be a Klansman ? 

Mr. Creel. Well, I guess you could assume it, but I like to be 
positive when I make a positive statement before a committee. 

Mr. Weltner. We are not trying to get you to say something you 
don't know, but simply because you may not have been present at 
the time an individual subscribed to the oath of a Klansman would 
not preclude you from stating what your knowledge and understand- 
ing as to membership is, particularly inasmuch as you have served as 
a chief executive officer for the whole Realm of Alabama. Now, is 



3278 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE V.S. 

it your understanding that Collie Leroy Wilkins was a member of tht. 
Bessemer Klavern No. 20 ? 

Mr. Creel. I think since they have a book coming out, they are 
saymg they are Klansmen, I think I can safely say that they called 
themselves Klansmen. 

Mr. Weltner. Well, let's get one thing clear. I appreciate your 
testimony and I am grateful for your willingness to come here to 
testify, but your willingness to do that can't be diminished by your 
understanding of the Klansman oath of secrecy. You do not have 
the privilege of refusing to answer questions on the basis of the Klan 
oath. 

Mr. Creel. No, sir. I wasn't thinking. I take every oath seriously. 
I raised my hand here to tell the whole truth and nothing but the 
truth, so help me God, and I respect the oath that I have taken here 
today. And for me to honestly say, to sit here and say, "Well, I know 
that he was definitely a card-carrying Klansman of Bessemer No. 
20," I just couldn't honestly make that positive a statement. 

Mr. Weltner. The committee will have to stand in recess in order 
to permit the members to respond to a rollcall. We will suspend 
until 3 :30. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representatives 
Weltner and Buchanan.) 

(Whereupon, at 3 p.m., the subcommittee recessed until 3:30 p.m. 
the same day.) 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 3 :25 p.m., Hon. Joe R. Pool, 
chairman, presiding. Subcommittee members present: Representa- 
tives Pool and Buchanan.) 

Mr. Pool. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Creel, would you come back to the stand. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Creel, you are still under oath and we will continue 
with the interrogation. 

Mr. Manuel. Mr. Chairman, at the start of this last recess, we 
were going through Klavern by Klavern with Mr. Creel of the Klav- 
erns in the Realm of Alabama which the committee investigation 
has shown to have existed at the time he was Grand Dragon the last 
part of 1965. 

We have a total of 19 and we had gone through 14 of those Klav- 
ems, so I will proceed with the remainder. 

Mr. Creel, does the Realm of Alabama have a Klavern at Jackson, 
Alabama, Imown as the Clarke- Washington Hunting & Fishing Club? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. I don't know what it is known as. 

Mr. Manuel. It is the Clarke-Washington Hunting & Fishing 
Club. 

Mr. Creel. It is in Clarke County. 

Mr. Manuel. Who are the officers of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know Cecil M. Hoven and John P. William- 
son to be officers of that Klavem ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir; I could not possibly say that they were officers 
of that Klavern. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know them to he members of the Jackson, 
Alabama, Klavern ? 



ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 3279 

Mr. Creel. It is possible they could be, but I don't know them to 
be members. 

Mr. Manuel. Does the Realm of Alabama have a Klavem in 
Jasper, Alabama, known as Jasper No. 52 ? 

Mr. Creel. There is a unit in Jasper; yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Who is tlie exalted cyclops of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I really don't know. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know Ray Fields to be the exalted cyclops of 
that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I know Mr. Fields, but I don't know him to be the 
exalted cyclops. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know him to be a member of the Jasper, 
Alabama, Klavern No. 52? 

Mr. Creel. I presume he is a member. He spoke at the same rally 
I did. 

Mr. Manuel. Have you ever seen an application of his? Do you 
know that he pays dues to the Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. No, sir, I don't know that he pays dues. I presume 
that he does. 

Mr. Manuel. Did Mr. Fields ever attend a State meeting as an 
exalted cyclops of a Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I think he attended a State meeting, but I don't know 
in what capacity. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know Joe Sanders to be an official of the 
Jasper, Alabama, No. 52 Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I don't know him to be an official ; there is a possibility 
that he is an official. 

Mr. Manuel. Do you know him, to your certain knowledge, to be a 
member of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. I think Mr. Sanders was present when we had our first 
rally in Jasper. I feel quite sure that in all probability he is. 

Mr. Manuel. That he is a member ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. I said, in my own opinion. 

Mr. Manuel. I am asking you, as the Grand Dragon of Alabama, 
to testify that a man is a member, or is not a member, of the United 
Klans of America. 

Mr. Creel. I do not give him his obligation. I assume he has had 
his obligation or he would not be organizing in that area. I think it 
is pretty well known that he has organized in that area. 

Mr. Manuel. He has organized for the United Klans of America. 

Mr. Creel. I mean set up a rally in that area. 

Mr. Manuel. Was he appointed as an organizer? 

Mr. Creel. Not to my knowledge. I don't know that he was ap- 
pointed to one, I don't ever remember ever giving him any kleagle 
credentials, but he was more or less responsible for the first rally then. 

Mr. Manuel. Did you, as Grand Dragon, ever appoint a kleagle in 
the State of Alabama? 

Mr. Creel. At one time I did, but I think I suspended all of my 
kleagle credentials. 

Mr. Manuel. I am sorry, I didn't get that. 

Mr. Creel,. I said, at one time we had kleagles, but they were made 
null and void. 



59-222 O— 67— pt. 



3280 ACTIVITIES OF KU KLUX KLAN IN THE U.S. 

Mr. Manuel. Who are some of the persons that you appointed as 
kleagles or org^anizers for the United Klans in Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Mr. Robert Thomas is one that I can remember. He has 
helped organize. Mr. Falkner has helped organize. 

Mr. Manuel. Is that Ernest Falkner? 

Mr. Creel. I think that is correct. 

Mr. Manuel. Is there anyone else ? 

Mr. Creel. There are possibilities that there are others, but those are 
the ones that come to me at this time. 

Actually, anybody can be an organizer. You don't have to be ap- 
pointed a kleagle or anything of that nature. 

Mr. Manuel. But it is the practice of the United Klans of America 
to appoint them? 

Mr. Creel. It is just a title just like any other title, such as Grand 
Dragon. 

Mr. Manuel. Along with that title does not a kleagle share or reap 
financial benefits for the amount of members he gets into the Klan ? 

Mr. Creel. According to the constitution, he is entitled to it, but I 
don't know of any that has more or less accepted it. They have more 
or less done it on their own. They might get a tank of gas, or some- 
thing, out of it. 

Mr. Manuel. According to the constitution, how much does a 
kleagle get for each member that he brings into the Klan ? 

Mr. Creoel. I believe it is $3. I am pretty sure that is right. 

Mr. Manuel. To continue with the Klaverns, does the United Klans 
Realm of Alabama have a Klan at Linden, Alabama ? 

Mr. Creel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Manuel. Who are the officers of that Klavern ? 

Mr. Creel. At this time I don't know. T